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Network and switching subsystem
• NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM – switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control • Components – Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC – Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) • Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) • Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR
management. and maintenance of all GSM subsystems Components – Authentication Center (AUC) • generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR • authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system – Equipment Identity Register (EIR) • registers GSM mobile stations and user rights • stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized – Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) • different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem .Operation subsystem • • The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation.
Current Location . Provides access to the GSM n/w Consists of Mobile equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .Temporary Subscriber Identity .Mobile Handset TEMPORARY DATA .Ciphering Data PERMANENT DATA Permanent Subscriber Identity Key/Algorithm for Authentication.
The GSM Radio Interface AIR INTERFACE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION MOBILE DO 35 K 9 LIN WN MH 960 z L UP K IN 0 89 15 -9 Hz M .
890 to 915mhz mobile to base .UPLINK 935 to 960mhz base to mobile .The GSM Network Architecture • • • • • Time division multiple access-TDMA 124 radio carriers.DOWNLINK 8 channels/carrier . inter carrier spacing 200khz.
GSM uses paired radio channels NK PLI U W DO 890MHz K LIN N 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz 0 124 0 124 .
CDMA . TDMA.Access Mechanism – FDMA.
Frequency multiplex • • Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time k1 k2 k3 k4 • Advantages: c – no dynamic coordination necessary – works also for analog signals • Disadvantages: – waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly t – inflexible – guard spaces k5 k6 f .
• A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time • Advantages: – only one carrier in the medium at any time – throughput high even for many users Time multiplex k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • Disadvantages: – precise synchronization necessary f t .
Time and Frequency Multiplex • Combination of both methods • A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time k k k k 1 2 3 4 k5 k6 c f t .
• Example: GSM • Advantages: Time and Frequency Multiplex – Better protection against tapping – Protection against frequency selective interference – Higher data rates compared to code multiplex k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • But: precise coordination required t f .
• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz. assigning slots for transmission on demand. . shared by up to eight stations.
GSM uses paired radio channels NK PLI U W DO 890MHz K LIN N 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz 0 124 0 124 .
Code Multiplex k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • • • • • Each channel has a unique code All channels use the same spectrum at the same time Advantages: – Bandwidth efficient – No coordination and synchronization necessary – Good protection against interference and tapping Disadvantages: – Lower user data rates – More complex signal regeneration Implemented using spread spectrum technology t c f .
Various Access Method .
The need: • Optimum spectrum usage • More capacity • High quality of service • Low cost Capacity & Spectrum Utilization Solution Network capacity at required QoS with conventional frequency plan Out of Capacity!!! Subscriber growth Time I wish I could increase capacity without adding NEW BTS! What can I do? .
Representation of Cells Ideal cells Fictitious cells .
Cell size and capacity • Cell size determines number of cells available to cover geographic area and (with frequency reuse) the total capacity available to all users • Capacity within cell limited by available bandwidth and operational requirements • Each network operator has to size cells to handle expected traffic demand .
35 km on the country side (GSM) even less for higher frequencies .g. locally • Problems: – fixed network needed for the base stations – handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary – interference with other cells • Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to. e. decentralized – base station deals with interference.. higher number of users – less transmission power needed – more robust.Cell structure • Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) • Mobile stations communicate only via the base station • Advantages of cell structures: – higher capacity. transmission area etc.
Capacity of a Cellular System • Frequency Re-Use Distance • The K factor or the cluster size • Cellular coverage or Signal to interference ratio • Sectoring .
The K factor and Frequency Re-Use Distance 7 1 5 7 6 5 4 D = √ 3K*R Frequency re-use distance is based on the cluster size K D=4 8 .5 R 6 K = i + ij + j 2 2 2 3 R i K = 22 + 2*1 + 12 K=4+2+1 K=7 j 2 1 3 D The cluster size is specified in terms of the offset of the center of a cluster from the center of the adjacent cluster .
The Frequency Re-Use for K = 4 K = i2 + ij + j2 K = 22 + 2*0 + 02 D D = √ 3K*R D=3 6 .4 R K=4+0+0 K=4 R i .
The Cell Structure for K = 7 7 6 1 5 7 6 1 5 4 7 6 1 5 4 3 5 4 2 6 1 3 7 2 5 4 3 2 4 2 6 1 3 3 1 7 2 2 .
Cell Structure for K = 4 1 4 1 4 3 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 1 2 .
Cell Structure for K = 12 9 8 2 7 1 6 9 8 2 7 1 6 5 4 3 12 6 5 10 11 7 1 5 8 2 3 4 9 10 3 12 6 10 11 7 8 9 10 2 3 1 4 5 11 12 4 12 11 .
Increasing cellular system capacity • Cell sectoring – Directional antennas subdivide cell into 3 or 6 sectors – Might also increase cell capacity by factor of 3 or 6 .
Increasing cellular system capacity • Cell splitting – Decrease transmission power in base and mobile – Results in more and smaller cells – Reuse frequencies in non-contiguous cell groups – Example: ½ cell radius leads 4 fold capacity increase .
Tri-Sector antenna for a cell .
Cell Distribution in a Network
Rural Highway Suburb Town
Optimum use of frequency spectrum
• Operator bandwidth of 7.2MHz (36 freq of 200 kHz) • TDMA 8 traffic channels per carrier • K factor = 12 • What are the number of traffic channels available within its area for these three cases
– Without cell splitting – With 72 cells – With 246 cells
Re-use of the frequency
One Cell = 288 traffic channels 8 X 36 = 288
72 Cell = 1728 traffic channels 8 X (72/12 X 36) = 1728 246 Cell = 5904 traffic channels
Concept of TDMA Frames and Channels
• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand.
GSM uses paired radio channels
NK PLI U
K LIN N
GSM delays uplink TDMA frames The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time slots Downlink TDMA F1MHz TDMA frame (4.615 ms) R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Uplink TDMA Frame F1 + 45MHz R T R T Fixed transmit Delay of three time-slots .
GSM .615 ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space tail user data S Training S user data guard tail space 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 546.TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink qu en c y 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink fre higher GSM frame structures time GSM TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.5 µs 577 µs .
STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -.FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH FCCH -.SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -.ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -.PAGING CHANNEL RACH -.RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -.BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -.LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -.FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL SDCCH SACCH FACCH DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS .8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.
the cell in which the mobile is currently located and the adjacent cells • Frequency correction channel (FCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides information for carrier synchronization • Synchronization channel (SCH) is a base to mobile channel which carries information for frame synchronization and identification of the base station transceiver .Broadcast Channel BCH is a base to • Broadcast control channel (BCCH) mobile channel which provides general information about the network.
CCH • Paging channel (PCH) is a base to mobile channel used to alert a mobile to a call originating from the network • Random access channel (RACH) is a mobile to base channel used to request for dedicated resources • Access grant channel (AGCH) is a base to mobile which is used to assign dedicated resources (SDCCH or TCH) .Common Control Channel .
DCCH • Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is a bi-directional channel allocated to a specific mobile for exchange of location update information and call set up information .Dedicated Control Channel .
The SACCH is associated with a particular traffic channel or stand alone dedicated control channel • Fast associated control channel (FACCH) is a bi-directional channel which is used for exchange of time critical information between mobile and base station during the progress of a call.DCCH • Slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a bi-directional channel used for exchanging control information between base and a mobile during the progress of a call set up procedure. The FACCH transmits control information by stealing capacity from the associated TCH .Dedicated Control Channel .
25 SYNCHRONISATION BURST .SB 3 39 64 39 3 8.NB 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 ACCESS BURST .FB 3 142 3 8.156.25 SYNCHRONISATION BITS TAIL BIT ENCRYPTION BIT TRAINING BITS FLAG BITS MIXED BITS .DEFINITION OF TIME SLOT .577ms NORMAL BURST .AB 6 41 GUARD PERIOD 36 FIXED BITS 3 68.25 FREQUENCY CORRECTION BURST .25 BITS 15/26ms = 0.
9 micro sec (4.HIERARCHY OF FRAMES 1 HYPER FRAME = 2048 SUPERFRAMES = 2 715 648 TDMA FRAMES ( 3 H 28 MIN 53 S 760 MS ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 1 SUPER FRAME = 1326 TDMA FRAMES ( 6.577 ms) 1 2 3 4 155 156 1 bit =36.615 ms) 1 .12 S ) LEFT (OR) RIGHT 1 SUPER FRAME = 51 MULTI FRAMES TRAFFIC CHANNELS 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 SIGNALLING CHANNELS 1 SUPER FRAME = 26 MULTI FRAMES 0 1 MULTIFRAME = 26 TDMA FRAMES ( 120 ms ) 0 1 2 3 24 25 1 MULTI FRAME = 51 TDMA FRAMES (235 . 1 0 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 TIME SLOT = 156.25 BITS ( 0.4 ms ) 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 7 2 0 3 4 48 49 50 1 2 24 25 (4.615ms) 0 TDMA FRAME NO.
GSM Frame 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms 12 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frame duration = 60/13ms 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 Frame duration = 15/26ms .
• 114 bits are available for data transmission. • The training sequence of 26 bits in the middle of the burst is used by the receiver to synchronize and compensate for time dispersion produced by multipath propagation. • 1 stealing bit for each information block (used for FACCH) .
FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -.8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -.RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -.LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -.SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH FCCH -.STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -.PAGING CHANNEL RACH -.ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -.FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL SDCCH SACCH FACCH DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS .
Location update from the mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH request for location updating SDCCH authenticate SDCCH authenticate response SDCCH switch to cipher mode SDCCH cipher mode acknowledge SDCCH allocate TMSI SDCCH acknowledge new TMSI SDCCH switch idle update mode .
Call establishment from a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH send call establishment request SDCCH do the authentication and TMSI allocation SDCCH send the setup message and desired number SDCCH require traffic channel assignment FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) FACCH receive alert signal ringing sound FACCH receive connect message FACCH acknowledge connect message and use TCH TCH conversation continues .
Call establishment to a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on Mobile receives paging message on PCH Generate Channel Request on RACH Receive signaling channel SDCCH on AGCH Answer paging message on SDCCH Receive authentication request on SDCCH Authenticate on SDCCH Receive setup message on SDCCH Receive traffic channel assignment on SDCCH FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) Receive alert signal and generate ringing on FACCH Receive connect message on FACCH FACCH acknowledge connect message and switch to TCH .
GSM speech coding AIR INTERFACE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION MOBILE DO 35 K 9 LIN WN MH 960 z L UP K IN 0 89 15 -9 Hz M .
8K Encoding .13 bit Encoding (104 Kbps) RPE/LTP .Regular Pulse Excitation/Long Term Prediction RPE/LTP converts the 104 Kbps stream to 13 Kbps .Transmit Path BS Side 8 bit A-Law to 13 bit Uniform 8 K sps RPE/LTP speech Encoder To Channel Coder 13Kbps MS Side 8 K sps. RPE/LTP speech Encoder LPF A/D To Channel Coder 13Kbps Sampling Rate .
too high a rate to be feasible over a radio link. . has to be digitized.GSM Speech Coding • GSM is a digital system. • The method employed by current telephone systems for multiplexing voice lines over high speed trunks and is pulse coded modulation (PCM). so speech which is inherently analog. The output stream from PCM is 64 kbps.
25 Frame duration = 15/26ms .GSM Frame 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms 12 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frame duration = 60/13ms 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.
.linear predictive coder (RPE--LPC) with a long term predictor loop is the speech coding algorithm. giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps.GSM Speech Coding • Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples. • Regular pulse excited -. each of which is encoded as 260 bits.
based on a combination of the previous 4 input bits.most sensitive to bit errors. Class Ia + class Ib = 53+136=189. – Class II 78 bits . – Class Ib 132 bits .• The 260 bits are divided into three classes: – Class Ia 50 bits . giving a bit rate of 22. • • • • . 132 class Ib bits with 4 bit tail sequence = 132 + 4 = 136. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits. The convolution encoder thus outputs 378 bits.8 kbps.least sensitive to bit errors. to which are added the 78 remaining class II bits. Thus every 20 ms speech sample is encoded as 456 bits.moderately sensitive to bit errors. input into a 1/2 rate convolution encoder of constraint length 4. Class Ia bits have a 3 bit cyclic redundancy code added for error detection = 50+3 bits.
• To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 57 bits 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57 bits 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits . each sample is interleaved. Since each time-slot burst can carry two 57 bit blocks. and these blocks are transmitted in eight consecutive time-slot bursts. The 456 bits output by the convolution encoder are divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits. each burst carries traffic from two different speech samples.
GSM Protocol Suite .
SS HLR MM + CM MSC VLR RR BSC BTS Radio interface .
Link Layer • LAPDm is used between MS and BTS • LAPD is used between BTS-BSC • MTP2 is used between BSCMSC/VLR/HLR .
• Messages pertaining to different transaction are distinguished by a transaction identifier (TI). – MM mobility management(location management.Network Layer • To distinguish between CC. MM and RR protocol discriminator (PD) is used as network address. . – SS supplementary services management MS-MSC/HLR. SS. security management) MS-MSC/VLR. – RR radio resource management MS-BSC. – CC call control management MS-MSC.
• MAP protocol is the one between neighbor MSCs. . indicating whether the message is a BSSMAP or a DTAP. • DTAP messages carry DLCI(information on type of link on the radio interface) to distinguish what is related to CC or SMS. • All messages on the A interface bear a discrimination flag.Application Layer protocols • BSSMAP between BSC and MSC • DTAP messages between MS and MSC. MAP is also used between MSC and HLR.
921 Radio Interface Q.931 Q.GSM Functional Architecture and Principal Interfaces Mobile Application Part MAP TCAP CCS7 SCCP CCS7 MTP A Interface Q931 BSSAP SCCP CCS7 MTP Um Base Station System Q.921 A-Bis Interface .
GSM protocol layers for signaling Um Abis A MS CM MM RR LAPDm radio RR’ LAPDm radio BTSM LAPD PCM BSSAP BTS BSC MSC CM MM BSSAP SS7 PCM RR’ BTSM LAPD PCM SS7 PCM 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s .
Short Message Services(SMS). • . power control.Protocols involved in the radio interface • • Level 1-Physical – TDMA frame – Logical channels multiplexing Level 2-LAPDm(modified from LAPD) – No flag – No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints Level 3-Radio Interface Layer (RIL3) involves three sub layers – RR: paging. location IMSI attach/detach – CM: Call Control(CC). Supplementary Services(SS). ciphering execution. handover – MM: security.
• LAPDm maximum length is 21 octets of information. It makes use of “more” bit to distinguish last frame of a message. • No frame check sequence for LAPDm.LAPDm on radio interface • In LAPDm the use of flags is avoided. it uses the error detecting performance of the transmission coding scheme offered by the physical layer .
LAPDm Message structure ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0-21 OCTETS SAPI N(S) N(R) .
because there is no need to distinguish the different mobile stations. • On radio interface two independent flows(one for signaling. • LAPDm SAPI=0 for signaling and SAPI=3 for SMS. • SAP1=0 for radio signaling. • There is no need of a TEI. SAPI=62 for OAM and SAPI=63 for layer 2 management on the Abis interface. . and one for SMS) can exist simultaneously. which is done by distinguishing the different radio channels. • These two flows are distinguished by a link identifier called the SAPI(service access point identifier).LAPDm on radio interface • The acknowledgement for the next expected frame in the indicator N(R ).
• Level 3-Application Protocol – Radio Subsystem Management (RSM) – Operation and Maintenance procedure (OAM) . – Data which rate is adapted and synchronized. standard HDLC – Radio Signaling Link (RSL) – Operation and Maintenance Link (OML).Protocols involved in the A-bis interface • Level 1-PCM transmission (E1 or T1) – Speech encoded at 16kbit/s and sub multiplexed in 64kbit/s time slots. • Level 2-LAPD protocol.
• Speech: – Conveyed in timeslots at 4X16 kbit/s • Data: – Conveyed in timeslots of 4X16 kbit/s. … is adjusted to 16 kbit/s . The initial user rate. – Traffic exchanges – Signaling exchanges • Physical access between BTS and BSC is PCM digital links of E1(32) or T1(24) TS at 64kbit/s. which may be 300. 1200.Presentation of A-bis Interface • Messages exchanges between the BTS and BSC.
LAPD message structure FLAG ADRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0 – 260 OCT FCS FLAG SAPI TEI N(S) N(R) .
SAPI=62 for OAM. since this is a point to multipoint interface. • LAPD has the address of the destination terminal. • Each TRX in a BTS corresponds to one or several signaling links. • SAPI=0. to identify the TRX. These links are distinguished by TEI (Terminal Equipment Identities). .LAPD • The length is limited to 260 octets of information. SAPI=3.
Presentation of the A-ter interface .
25 TS2 OMC PCM LINK PCM LINK .TRAU BSC LAPD TS1 OAM Speech TS Transcoding CCS7 TS Speech TS CCS7 TS MSC X.25 TS2 X.
Presentation on the A-ter interface • Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS) – LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU – SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC. The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation are performed at the TCU. • • • . Speech and data channels (16kbit/s) Ater interface links carry up to: – 120 communications(E1). dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation. 4*30 – 92 communications(T1). – X25 TS2 is reserved for OAM.
Presentation of the A interface .
Signaling Protocol Model .
it simply repackages it and sends it to the MS over the Um Interface. Ciphering. examples: Location Update. User Supplementary Service registration. Short Message Service. Voice/Data Trunk Assignment DTAP . The BSS does not interpret the DTAP information.deals with procedures that take place logically between the MS and MSC. activation.Presentation on the A-Interface BSSMAP . deactivation and erasure . MS originated and terminated Calls. Handover. examples: Trunk Maintenance.deals with procedures that take place logically between the BSS and MSC.
Inter MSC presentation .
MS CM MM R R BTS O A M L A P D O A M L A P D BSC BSSAP R R D T A P B S S M A P NSS CM MM BSSAP DTAP/ BSSMAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 M A P T C A P SCCP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 Um Interface A bis Interface A Interface .
MS BSC MSC PD=RR PD=MM TI=a TI=b Link: SAPI=0 PD=CC DLCI: SAPI=0 TI=A DLCI: SAPI=3 DTAP SCCP Ref=R1 PD: protocol discriminator TI: Transaction Identifier for RIL3-CC protocol DLCI: Data Link connection Identifier SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier on the radio Interface TEI: Terminal Equipment Identifier on the Abis I/F Link: SAPI=3 Channel=C1 Channel ID = N1 Channel=C2 Channel ID = N1 TRX:TEI=T1 SCCP Ref=R2 A Interface Radio Interface Abis Interface .
8 or 9.Bearer Services • Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points • Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) • Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) – Data service • Synchronous: 2.4.1200 bit/s . 4.6 kbit/s • Asynchronous: 300 .
All these basic services have to obey cellular functions.Tele Services • • • Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones. Free of charge.1 kHz. – Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112). Mandatory for all service providers. – Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible. . – Mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3. security measurements etc. Offered services. Connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible).
more customers per cell • High transmission quality – high audio quality and reliability for wireless.. support for voice and data services • Total mobility – international access. trains) • Security functions – access control. uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e. chip-card enables use of access points of different providers • Worldwide connectivity – one number.g. the network handles localization • High capacity – better frequency efficiency. authentication via chip-card and PIN . smaller cells. wireless communication. from cars.Performance characteristics of GSM • Communication – mobile.
Disadvantages of GSM • • • • • • No full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user Reduced concentration while driving Electromagnetic radiation Abuse of private data possible High complexity of the system Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards .
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