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Slip Ring Induction Motors Basics
Introduction We have seen the construction, operation, starting, speed control & classes of squirrel cage induction motors. In this article, we will discuss on slip ring induction motors. As discussed earlier, a slip ring induction motor is an asynchronous motor, as the rotor never runs in synchronous speed with the stator poles. Lets understand the construction and operation of slip ring induction motor. Construction Stator:
The stator construction is same for both squirrel cage & slip ring induction motor. The main difference in slip ring induction motor is on the rotor construction and usage. Some changes in the stator may be encountered when a slip ring motor is used in a cascaded system, as the supply for the slave motor is controlled by the supply from rotor of other slip ring motor with external resistance mounted on its rotor. Rotor:
The rotor core is made up of steel laminations which has slots to accommodate formed 3-single phase windings. Hence. These three carbon brushes are further connected externally to a 3-phase start connected rheostat. which is pushed along the shaft. wear and tear. the wound rotor is acting as same as the squirrel cage rotor. . thus enabling them to have a higher resistance during starting and thus higher starting torque. even though the stator is wound for 2-phase. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the number of poles in the stator and is always 3-phase. the slip rings are automatically shortcircuited by means of a metal collar. This type of rotor is provided with a 3-phase. Also. The three terminal ends touch these three slip rings with the help of carbon brushes which are held against the rings with the help of spring assembly. These windings are placed 120 degrees electrically apart. distributed winding consisting of coils used in alternators. double-layer. thus making the three rings touching each other.The slip ring induction motors usually have “Phase-Wound” rotor. the brushes are automatically lifted from the slip-rings to avoid frictional losses. under normal running conditions. These three windings are “starred” internally and other end of these three windings are brought out and connected to three insulated slip-rings mounted on the rotor shaft itself. When running during normal condition. Thus these slip ring and external rheostat makes the slip ring induction motors possible to add external resistance to the rotor circuit.
which requires a pull-out torque at almost zero speed and accelerate to full speed with minimum current drawn in a very short time period.What happens when external resistance is added? In case of squirrel cage induction motor. which makes its starting torque poor. Approximately 200 . makes the rotor resistance high during starting. Since the rotor resistance is high. But adding external resistance in case of a slip ring induction motor.m High starting torque when compared to squirrel cage induction motor.250% of its full-load torque. the slip is more. thus the rotor current is low. As the motor reaches its base speed (full rated speed). so that the current in the rotor is so high. the rotor resistance is very low. In slip ring motors. Also the slip necessary to generate maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance. Thus these motors are best suited for very high inertia loads. Advantages of slip ring induction motors • • • The main advantage of slip ring induction motor is that its speed can be controlled easily. under normal running conditions. . thus the slip is increased. thus possible to achieve “pullout” torque even at low speeds. it behaves in the same way as squirrel cage induction motor. after the removal of external resistance.p. "Pull-out torque" can be achieved even from zero r. thus the starting torque is maximum. the rotor resistance is increased by adding external resistance.
lets discuss on various starting methods & speed control of a slip ring induction motors.brighthub. But a slip ring induction motor takes a very low starting current approximately 250% to 350% of the full load current. Read more: http://www. In my next article.• A squirrel cage induction motor takes 600% to 700% of the full load current.aspx#ixzz0sOW Ie8nJ . like a normal induction motor. then it suffers extremely high locked rotor current.com/engineering/electrical/articles/43725. it is not advised to start a slip ring induction motor with its rotor terminals shorted. ranging up to 1400%. What happens if the motor is started as a normal induction motor? If the slip motor is started with all the slip rings or the rotor terminals shorted. accompanied with very low locked rotor torque as low as 60%. So.
with better starting characteristics and better current drawing characteristics. This external resistance can be assumed to be a form of rheostat. In this article. Starting Of Slip Ring Induction Motors These motors are usually started with full line voltage applied across its terminals.How Does A Slip Ring Motor Start? Introduction In my last article. It may be either hand operated or sometimes automatic. slip ring induction motors have been developed.!!. we have discussed everything on squirrel cage induction motors including its dis-advantages. by increasing the resistance of the rotor circuit. but the stator current too. The controlling rheostat may be of either stud or contactor type. Thus because of this.” that increasing the rotor resistance. To overcome these disadvantages. The 3-phase supply to the stator has a switching contactor along with over-load and no or low-voltage protective . the value of starting current is adjusted or kept minimum. the starting torque is increased due to the improvement in power factor. It has been already discussed in my last article on “Slip Ring Induction Motors. not only reduces the rotor current. we will discuss on the starting method and characteristics of slip ring induction motors with its applications. As these motors have external resistance connected to its rotor circuit. This implies that the starting current of the motor is reduced when an external resistance is added in the rotor circuit.. connected in star. thus kept at maximum when the motor starts and gradually cut-out as the motor gathers speed.
thus enabling a motor of lower rating to be employed. The external resistance is used only for the starting purpose. For load sharing to take place automatically. There might be also an interlock provided to ensure the proper sequential operation of the control gear and starting devices. say for example 10%. As these motors have considerably high starting torque with low starting current. A heavy flywheel is fitted in the drive. The carbon brushes are lifted and the rings are short circuited thus making them very similar to squirrel cage motors. the motor speed should drop considerably as the load increases and this is ensured by using a motor having a high full-load slip. Applications of Slip Ring Induction Motors These motors are used where the load is intermittent and comes on very sharply for brief periods. such as a punching machine. These rings are isolated after the motor reaches its rated speed. .devices. The flywheel shares the load with the motor. the resistance gradually cut-off. these motors can be started on load. after which the motor gradually picks up the speed. preferably between the work and any speed-reduction gears.
brighthub. Qualities Of Slip-Ring Motors: 1. with the slip rings shorted and the full load applied to the motor shaft.aspx#ixzz0sOY 1tIgY .com/engineering/electrical/articles/43726. but the rotor is rated in frame voltage or short circuit current. Read more: http://www. we will discuss on the speed control of slip ring induction motors. Low starting current when compared to squirrel cage induction motors.Characteristics Of Slip Ring Induction Motor The slip ring induction motor has two distinctly separate parts. Higher brush and slip ring maintenance required. Speed is varied with the help of external resistance. and thus heavy sparking. The frame voltage is the open circuit voltage when the rotor is not rotating and gives the measure of turns ratio between the stator and rotor. 3. 2. suited for high inertia loads as it caters with excellent starting torque. 5. The short circuit current is the current flowing when the motor is operating at full speed. it may lead to intermittent contact. As the brush wears out. The stator circuit is rated as same in the squirrel cage motor. one is the stator and other is the rotor. from 50% to 100% of the full speed. In my next article. Thus we have seen in detail the starting arrangement of slip ring induction motors. 4.
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