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ERDA WATI BAKAR ¹ Abstract Over the past decade, there has been a rapid development of multimedia in education. Multimedia is the term used to describe a hypertext system that incorporates a variety of media besides text, including graphics, animation, video, sound and hypertext links. Multimedia has enormous potential in the classroom, especially at elementary level, with a number of advantages for experiencing literary texts, as it calls on all the language skills as well as viewing skills. The use of multimedia creates an opportunity for teacher to recast their own understanding of the role of text in the teaching and learning of literature. Apart from that, it also provides enormous advantages in classroom. One of its advantages is that it provides an approach that is new and attractive in comparison to a conventional method. This will encourage students to be more actively involved in their learning as they experience, comprehend, interpret and evaluate the different texts through the multimedia application. This is parallel to the notion that students need to be more autonomous in their learning and a multimedia application is able to encourage independent learning as student construct meaning and collectively build knowledge structure. Due to the various benefits as briefly described above, this paper is aimed to demonstrate how a multimedia application is used to teach a short story taken from ‘Short stories for Form One’, Of Bunga Telur and Bally Shoes by Che Husna Azhari. A detailed lesson plan is accompanied to show the lesson objectives and outcomes and how both can be achieved by using a multimedia application. Apart from that, this paper will also discussees on the challenges faced in preparing a multimedia application as well as a further discussion on the its values and how such application can contribute to a much meaningful learning experience. Keyword: Teaching literature, Multimedia application, Creative teaching methodology, Autonomous learning.
__________________________________ ¹ Centre for Liberal and Language Studies, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi
57000 Kuala Lumpur, email@example.com
Learning literature is no longer restricted to mere book learning. for follow-up activities or as a form of reward in the classrooms. b) they connect learners to a large source of reading materials available in electronic form. reading. (pp. It also can be a tool to motivate students to learn better in a much supportive learning environment. The teaching of literature can be revolutionized through the usage of multimedia applications and its benefits will be illustrated in the following sections. 178-179). which seem to be a form of prison to reluctant learners and open up a borderless world. (Blazic. and writing) as well as viewing skills. video. as it calls on all the language skills (listening.1. which has often been associated with things of the past. (Sivapalan and Wan Fatimah.0 INTRODUCTION Over the years there has been a rapid development of multimedia in education as it gains its popularity as an instructional medium in the education sector. speaking. especially at elementary level. Due to its unlimited supportive roles in the literature classroom. In addition. including graphics. h) teachers become facilitators in the learning process and i) learners become more independent and are actively involved in the learning process. f) they allow for authentic communication between readers of literary texts. the usage of computers in classroom is able to promote creative thinking abilities during the process of teaching and learning. sound and hypertext links. the use of multimedia reflects changes in literature teaching methodology as it accelerates significant changes and development in language education. a) they allow learners to use modern technology to study a course. d) they connect learners to other learners of similar interests e) they facilitate an interactive mode of learning unlike many earlier forms of technologies like the audiotape and television that were non-interactive in nature. Due to this. with a number of advantages for experiencing literary texts. Multimedia has enormous potential in the classroom. 2 . g) they remove the four walls of the classrooms. 2000). the technology can be seen as complementing and enhancing the effectiveness of students’ learning as they take up a much active role whilst studying any literary texts. c) they enable learners to determine their own course and direction in learning about a text or a writer. This view is earlier reflected by Vethamani (2004) as he further asserts the following benefits of introducing computer-mediated communication for the teaching of literature. Multimedia is a term used to describe a hypertext system that incorporates a variety of media besides text. 2010). animation. Various application and software programmes have been made available in the market and the use of multimedia materials for teaching literature in schools have become feasible as it is now widely used as supplementary resources.
2000. (Spoehr. 2001. Students can be assigned with different tasks that involve any multimedia applications as a group or in pairs. 1983. According to Mulheim (1998) multimedia helps to support independent learning through students’ control of information and events. They would communicate and discuss ideas together even though they are not physically together.0 IMPLICATION OF USING MULTIMEDIA IN THE TEACHING OF LITERATURE The usage of multimedia application offers enormous opportunities for both teachers and learners to be engaged in a “non-linear” environment where both can have a much more meaningful interaction.3). and other computer-mediated communication tools provides a rich environment in which communication can still be continued outside the classroom. this enables teachers to focus more on student-centred learning rather than learning in conventional text based classrooms. 1986). 1990). The theory affirms the view that students learn more effectively when they are actively involved with the tasks and collectively build knowledge structures. (Porter 2000.2. The usage of email. As students become more autonomous. learning spaces. and other resources. 318). The multimedia application used in the lessons would help them to access information. contributing to high levels of motivation and involvement. sounds and texts that can stimulate and facilitate the sharing of responses. Teachers can design activities that need them to be less didactic and allow students to explore the borderless world of technology. 317). In this context. students and teachers will be able to benefit the sources of images. this will become part of external motivational factor for the students and encourage them to learn and experiment. Collectively. As students have better access to information. It is believed the reason why students are more active in their learning is due to the visual and aural elements of multimedia which are able to support the diverse learning styles among the students. Multimedia has been regarded to support “constructivist” views of learning. 1993). The technology provides the crucial support for students as it helps them to develop and share their interpretations from multiple perspectives. 2000.). Furthermore. p. the technology is playing a crucial role as a springboard in which roles and discourse can be molded effectively. Application of multimedia or technology in classrooms also helps by providing students with an access for better research methods and “analytic approach”. This would further enhance socially mediated learning processes among the students. 1992). hence. expand. Johnson and Johnson. 3 . they are able to “explore. (Webb. Meskill and Swan 2001. (Chomsky. conferencing systems. the students will feel more empowered of their own learning and this experience would help them to shape their own learning “by encouraging the perception that a culture’s varied media are a collection of resources they can be guided through and that they have choices about the routes they take” (Porter. clarify and modify” their understandings and interpretations of the literary texts. multimedia can be considered as a “powerful catalyst” for cooperative learning in stimulating interaction and providing an ambiance conducive for collaboration and sharing of experiences. it also serves to shape the social context in which literary works can be explored together. (Papert. (Meskill and Swan. The students would have a greater degree of control over the delivery of their learning. p. p. This is made possible as students are assisted by the visual and aural elements. Due to this. (Porter. These elements make multimedia a rich and engaging learning. Apart from that. Multimedia application further helps students by providing research tools and “interface” that helps the teacher to guide the students through implementation of new techniques.
the multimedia-based activities in the lessons are complex and in need for a higher level of proficiency. the wedding preparation will take only three months and it will cost a lot of money.1 Lesson objectives The following lesson plans are designed to achieve the following objectives. Jamal has to sell his Bally shoes. b) To find evidence from the story in order to support the questions imposed in the application. 3. 5th April 2010). Amongst the Malays. the ‘bunga telur’ is a must. usually the women. 2000) 3. the dowry and presents for the bride and the bunga telur among other thing. Jamal tries on his wedding costume but somehow it does not look complete without his Bally shoes.With the added advantage of multimedia application gives opportunities for teachers to establish new teaching methods and this often provide students with added interest in the course. He is quite pleased with his mother’s selection. Jamal sells some of his possessions and borrows some money from his sister. c) To develop students’ creativity in thinking for other alternatives that the characters may adopt. This is often followed by the elders taking a full charge of the wedding preparations. The ‘bunga telur’ is a hard-boiled egg that is presented in a special case to guests who come for the wedding. which is located on the coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Jamal tries to reduce the cost to RM8100. Although the story takes place in contemporary times. take the responsibility of choosing a bride or bridegroom for their children. Fokus PMR. 4 . The older folks. He is impatient to get married but to his dismay. characters. Jamal leaves the choice of a bride to his mother. matchmaking is still practiced.2 Learning objectives and learning outcomes The following sample lesson plans are designed to cater for intermediate and upper intermediate levels. His mother agreed to lend him RM1500.1 Overview and plot of “Of Bunga Telur and Bally Shoes” The story is set in a traditional Malay village in the state of Kelantan. values and messages to their own lives. d) To enable students to emphathise and relate the events. He considers cheaper food and presents by borrowing some of the required items.2. Even though the story is simple and taken from collection of short stories catered for Form One students. hence.0 PRESENTATION OF “OF BUNGA TELUR AND BALLY SHOES” USING MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS 3. He will have to spend money on food for the guests. weddings are usually celebrated on an elaborate scale. The total cost is RM18900. Before the wedding. however. But he is still in short of RM1930. stimulate them to develop their own learning. (Berita Harian. a) to enable students to think critically and be able to solve problems as dictated in the literary text. 3. the wedding preparations proceed smoothly. With the money raised. Among the Malays. (Porter.
each group will put together a PowerPoint presentation of their note cards. setting. The subsequent activity involves students to come up with an alternative ending to the story. This activity also will help students who are passive learners to be more involved and be more confident to share their ideas while they are working within their groups.2 Lesson outcomes By the end of the lessons. setting. the students are presented with the presentation slides (Refer to Appendix 1. All groups are required to prepare a brief power point slides show and present their ideas of alternative endings to the story. and themes of the story. This activity provides students with the 5 . To gain a working knowledge of these literary elements. With such activity.2.3. point of view. imagery and symbolism. a) b) c) d) e) Describe the characteristics of each characters Identify the themes that are portrayed in the story Write a short paragraph of reflective write-up Provide an alternative ending to the story Produce a digital scrap book using a multimedia application 3.2 Elements of literature and Digital Scrap Book Each group is given note cards at the beginning of the lesson.0) and the students are required to solve Jamal’s problem. event. The story ends as Jamal realizes that his appearance isn’t what he is hoping to be as he doesn’t have his Balley shoes to be worn with his wedding costume. As a group they need to come up with the solution to help Jamal to come up with the rest of the money needed for his wedding reception. enhance. After each quote. theme. Each of these note cards will have a different heading: characterization. Throughout reading the story. students will find three quotes for each note card which demonstrates that particular topic. 3. theme.3.1 Problem-solving and Alternate ending For this task. the students are free to explore their critical thinking skills and work collaboratively with their group members. When the class has finished reading the story. It is important for students to read the story and be aware and comprehend the various literary elements such as plot development. the students should be able to. students should be engaged in an activity that is inter-connected throughout the story. The students also will learn to relate the story to their background knowledge of the issues presented in it. language and style. Each group will be able to learn from each other and all these presentations will be compiled to enhance the overall understanding of the characters. or explain the text. Students will continue to fill these note cards until they have finished covering the story. as well as. Each group is required to present their opinion to class and all groups will vote for the best decision to be suggested to Jamal. students will write a brief statement explaining how that quotes refers or relates to the topic on their particular note card. images and symbols.3.3 Samples of lesson plans of “Of Bunga Telur and Bally Shoes” 3. recognizing how these elements help to forward.
This activity will promote active interaction among students as they internalized Jamal’s dilemma and expressed it through their write-ups. but one needs to be aware that not all educational institutional are equipped with the multimedia facilities. a teacher still needs to be wary of the direction of the lessons and do not allow students to go off track. In the blog. and teaching content. The teacher functions as a facilitator and observer. If such access is not available. certain crucial issues are in need for fine-tuning.3.3 Reflective writing – Jamal’s Personal Blog Students are required to set up a blog for Jamal. it seems that the lessons above are guaranteed success to be applied in classroom lessons. A teacher needs to figure out ways to engage the learners and multimedia software is the answer. 3. However. a teacher has much more passive role to play as students are expected to be more autonomous in their learning. Despite the fact. Secondly. Each pair will have to visit the others blog and leave appropriate comments for Jamal. The blog entry has to be within 200 words only. In a conventional classroom lesson.opportunities to observe how these literary elements readily apply to the text and enriching students’ understanding and appreciation towards any literary works.(Villand. they tend to be out of control and have more tendencies to commit more errors. it is monopolized by much proficient students leaving the passive ones to be marginalized. a teacher must learn to adapt to the limited resources available and figure out other alternative ways to engage the learners despite the absence of technology. once a teacher decides to bring in the influence of technology into the classroom. the question of easy access to multimedia softwares has always become an issue. revision of teachers’ roles. therefore. Firstly. It is insufficient to merely make resources available to the students and a teacher needs to realise one’s crucial role in ensuring 6 . the students and their partners are required to imagine themselves as Jamal and dictate his personal dilemma into the blog. In a technological-assisted lesson. a subject as dense and intense as studying a literary works. The issues that need to be taught over are the issue of access for multimedia softwares. Even if there is any evidence of interaction. that any literature lessons can be done through mere book learning. Teachers must ensure that students have enough access to tools with which to build individually or group constructed representations of understandings developed around a piece of literature. however. one needs to realize that one’s roles during the process of teaching and learning are compromised. (Meskill and Swan. For this activity. the students are engaged personally with the main characters as they have to imagine being in Jamal’s shoes. The benefits of using technology in a literature lesson have been discussed earlier. The students are allowed to add in extra details to make their blog entry interesting without altering the originality of the story. This would lessen the burden of the teaching from the teachers. This is because once the students realize that they are in charge of their own learning. 2001). a teacher functions as the sole provider of information and most communication is based on teacher-centred and very little discussion is established between the students and the teacher. 4. The students need to transform their persona into Jamal and writing the blog as how Jamal would respond to the problem. however.0 EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT OF MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION At first glance. students need to be inspired and attracted to the text. 2004).
Content is crucial to the successful uptake and use of digital resources. The lessons are more interactive and students take full responsibilities of their own learning as they learn to reflect on their own interpretations and thought processes. there are more opportunities for students to express themselves either as individuals. so that. Thirdly. 5. pairs or small groups. a teacher also needs to invest their time and energy in the development of new IT resources. By the incorporating information technology into teaching. Despite the few obstacles that might deter teachers’ effort to integrate technology into the lessons. the application of technology into the lesson. This will control the pathway of the lesson. 2000). however. A teacher still needs to determine the lesson objectives and outcomes of each lesson and to prepare lesson plans. (Potter. 2000). teaching contents and teaching pedagogy. Innovations in educational technology have inspired reformations in teaching concept. prompts and instructions as needed. students will not be on the wrong tracks due to the overwhelming information. Furthermore. despite the usage of technology in the classroom.0 CONCLUSION The application of multimedia in a literature lesson can be challenging if the necessary basic resources are not available for the students. this would lead to promoting both teachers and students’ learning initiatives as they become more conscious and autonomous of their own learning as they develop their ability to learn independently. a teacher needs to control the flow of information. The students are in liberty to gather as much information by manipulating the abundance of resources available on the Internet. The interaction can be both productive and challenging because it requires teachers to fully understand students’ thinking and modify the instructions accordingly. so that students will be able to enjoy a literature lesson without having the pre-conceived notion that a literature lesson is dull and monotonous.that real learning happens when students interrogate web resources. a teacher is still in need to provide appropriate lesson content to the students. With the usage of multimedia application in literature lessons. teachers’ intervention is most needed to resolve students’ problems and frustrations when dealing with technological enhanced lessons. Students could not be given immediate responsibilities to explore the text by themselves without proper guidelines. the problems should be perceived as a challenge by figuring out the best solutions to the problems. just as with traditional resources such as journals and other publications. 2000). According to Tippons and Kittleson (2007). The researcher nevertheless hope that the teaching ideas as imposed in this paper will provide literature and language educators a foretaste of the enormous potential of infusing multimedia technology in the literature lessons as we are barely discovered the surface of its massive benefits. this should not hinder any teachers’ attempt to incorporate the usage of technology into the lessons. however. in this type of classroom. This is made possible as students become active learners. Apart from that. a teacher needs to be more pro-active as one has to scaffold students’ learning with cues. (Potter. would further enhance students’ potential in constructing knowledge. teaching modes. In addition. or to invest in adapting existing resources to fit with the needs of the students. (Potter. 7 .
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