MI'RiAM CQRONEl

CIVIL SOCIETY MAKING CIVIL SOCIETY
FEAR ER,
,EDlioR

A Pl!~LICATIO·t.I OF

THE

THIRD

WORLD

STUDIES CENTER

iJN D~R TH E 10iNT

AUS·,lrc ES Q F

n!E SOCiAL
1\,Mo

$aENC~S AND

P!-IILOSOPI-IY RE~EARCH r-OUNDA"nON

THE li'NJTW STATES AG ENC'f FOr.: !t<JTERNAJIO'NAL [) i~V£LOPMENT

DEM:::JCAACY AC~NDJ'i VOL 3 CIVil $OClElY MAKINC CIVil SOCIETY
PHll.il'F'IINlE

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by the THIRD WORLD STUD'IES CENTE.R

e

1997

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Related Interests

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    CQ,NTENTS

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    CI \lIIL 5oUET'i' MAJ(i N(j, OVll MIRIAM CO'lO.j~l. 6~W

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    KARl NA CONSTM>lfINO·DlI1tHl 51 ISAN(i MiAtAW/l,KAHC; PI!,N'AI AW!i;A T~Oiltl(A AT 'AGPAMTUPAD
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    A CASf STUDY OF THE.IIIG05

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    '271

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    ]NTER-ETItINIC RUATIONS IN f!!,

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    RELATIONS' AND

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    DIRf;:cfORY

    IINDEX

    -

    -

    MIRIAM

    II:OR'ONEl
    --

    fERRIER

    -

    The Ph II i pptnes Is ll5l..dally d,esocribed as a :suong c lvll SOCilHY Wpe, In COII'triHH ro otl,er countrles wh re i'110n s,tall! moblliza,tio,m and orqanlzarlo r1 S j e underdeveleped and/or' co rnro~~erJby nu stare, Thou~olfld5 of vel unrar y org'~I1~z~HJCJ ns adcJ ressi fig Vii rleu 5 co ncer ns dOl th C,olul'lrry's, oclo,poluical lands, tile. Ar;CQf ilil11.J to the Department of Inter~oj and L'CI(ad Gov~rnmenl, Phlllpplne r10n'90v rnment organ lzattc ns (NCOs) ~nd p'F!oplle's or,gal1lz,iuiOlU, 'flOs) nu rr~ber 114,398. I

    Much of the credit for thil5 posl1'ive characteriz a no n 0 f Ph i 1,1 pprne 50C:i~[y ~Ioas 'to '[he polUJcal, ilnd soctal movement's that have been burlt and nurtured by the polltkiz.ed sectors of sccietv til rouqhout [he decades. Tnese "left-o f-cerHe r'; sectors have bsen .I nstrumental U'I, bundlng NGOs and !'lOs• .115 we.11as .;tt~emllt iVill polltlcal and social develepmem aqencies which.; re acnve Interlocutors of the stare <Inc! ge nerarors of social welfare. rrl additto n, nan-state
    gio\Js tnstttuttcns

    tnstttuttons s uch OIS [he media. IhE academe JrIU relthave rnanifested a capacity tQI rnalnrarn autonomy from the state.
    with nine clal rn as.w~II" A mas48.1 I 2 school's, schools: 2. ~%, 10 percent wer~

    Thera areal most 30 neWSp.lpl!f:S published 11'11 Metro M,iUlfla alone. Ti'1I9 a.tional circulatiun. Major C:oiI::iES have ~evetalloca.1 newspapers n sive srhool sY~'l'~mspre.ads our to allreqrons, ln 1996, there wera Of 'these t{)taL 73 percent were elernentarv schccls: T2%. secondary technlcal/voeattenal Instltutlons: and 2%. tertiary schocls. About prlvatelv owned, willie appmxlma.[e;iyS,4% were run by gavemmer~t

    The majority reliqicn in the PhlUppine.5 is Ca;tMolic;sm (83%). The CaUlO lit Ch urcb has 8.2 diocese'S nationwIde, a.nd ;iii total of 11~ institutes of cons ec rated Ii're, picu s unions and lay associanorrs for men and !,·mmen_·PrOlestaol'S and members of other Christian denominations, indud]ng two rHipill'l!o indigenous churc hes, make IUp about 11%. TwerBty'pen::~llt of I(il~ populatton tn Mindanao, on tlfte other hand, are MU5] lims. Muslims make up 4.6% of he population nationwrde:

    Although at tl rnes enru mhered by vested ernncrnk Interests and/or comervauve outlooks. lime and aQ'aiil; these non-state lnstitutiuns have demonstrated their potentlal as independent power centers and ag'ems 'of change.
    Fi'Iipmos are scattered In I. ~40 mu mcipallues, 65 CItand., l.9S0 b<l'r'ii.l!'1gdY~': M05,~ 0" th,e:;e bar .... ngays .1f1!! fish 1,119 and farmh1g villages, the. latter found tl1 both Ilowiand and higtlliLl1d. Wi'th t heir ow n Meanwhile; 70 milhon

    ies 77 provlnces
    I

    local hmguages.

    customs, iradtuons.

    dvje g(OU,PS,sactoral ofg<lfliuhoru,

    religlOIJS

    PHllIPP'IINE 'DEMOCII;A'CY ACE.NDA C vU So tc!i!1,Y "'"ik ifI'l Ci itoIl·1 )0(: I'et,v

    :z
    i nstltutlons,

    !II

    MliRI.A.M CORONEL

    FERRIER

    respectjve

    spheres of b.elO"nginglles-s

    bust ness firms, and neignborhood assoctauons, and lnteractlon.

    they gellerat-@

    the lr

    The changed legal framework and deCeritefed political power of the post-Marcos period have provldsd the enhanced context for the strengthening of the d rfferent actors that make up civil soc iely. To their cred it, many of th~s.e actors respo nded N the challenqe serlousjv and have taken go'od advantage of the opened spaces, even creatlnq so me where there were none. Witness··the post-Marcos growth of social move me nt san d alternatt 'I/. e ce nte rs, til e. press, a rid ~he basi c 'fre~ (1'0 rns (1.0 ive I y ass.erfed by com rnu nlues, SdIOOJS, arid reliqicus i nstltutions.
    In this sense, ..one CiJ,1l savthat Phinppiine cfvllsccletv forward the democratlzation project.
    Dernocrattzatlon, however; has: notalways has cumulanvetv

    Pl!shed

    been smooth salllnq, Insidious at-

    tempts by sections of the state tnstl utions who prefer to contain ths enlargement. of other power bases have time and ag~;ill u pset the project;
    ill its own ranks.

    The obstacies to" this forward movement are not only external. Fractic us ness arid fan ure to respond to eva Iving need 5 are Unfo rtu nate realltles
    effarts with i n, and
    in many

    tlh-.alhave. weaketlecl.;Qr derarled civl I societv's democrattzatton vts-a-vis, the state. .

    ways, as 'to:

    To b,eg) n, the 9 rou ps that maka up civl I soctetvdnfer

    fro-rr~ eachother

    Nature of Organiztlti.on - function or role: may be :;ervice·-.ori~nted, for advocacy, re-}Glar<;.hor tra' ning: mav be Ideological or' .politicall, org.anh: (community~! or pl'ldtgeJ1ou S or tradlticnal (clan.. tFibe)~ or b~ based 011 nature of
    CO~lP.QSi~tJion1 (e.{I., sectors. clas s es ,

    ethnic;

    gn:>tJp. gC!ldGlr)_

    '. ,

    "

    Orga'l1iZatfol1:a1 leve! -:o~rga.llizati,ol1al rnembershfp may be. as ~l1Iclivlduais Qr groups; and scope of operatlon arid/or mcmbershlp may be at 'lh,e most baslc terrttorial l.Ini~ (e.g., neighborhood) or national and international.
    Orgal'lizaHonal orig'rn - mav be: ini.tiated bV {lovernment, lntere.st groups, particular imtIWtidns"(lll.:lsib'i~SS, church .... cademe) or by lrrdtvldusls.

    "

    or

    Perspectives/ldeologv - Cip~ratiof1al frarrH~\. orks may .r 0'1 gy,. phi,lo~oflhy, rl1!ligion, Of culture, 0

    ~C:

    defined

    by some. ide-

    slons:

    Diffe.rences, .suc h as. these do not c reate tens ions. or confl lets pe r se but thsv defi ne the frames mwh lch various civil ~ucie'ry 'a,CtQH operate ..IIn so dol ng, compternentat ion an din (ang ruenca, and irue rsecn ng., pa ral Ie lor op po site movernen ts o.CC!)~! lead i ng ~n kevln stances to sharp conflicts or breed j,ng low-level; but un settledten-

    U neven developme ety ,agents.

    tlI~

    ani'lJi'19 at:l-d w~thqn sectors, d iff@:fing type's and slzes 'of

    resou rces at rhel r dlsposal, competltlc nfor the·1ame. resources. and varvl ~g orqamzatlonal natures and capabilWes have ..llkewlse delimited the impact of civir! sociFor i nstance, NCO!; far outnumber PO's:.and miQSXNGOs areconcentratsd in urban centers. A.. survey of l02 peace orgal1iz.a:tiorls found that a huge chunk is based in MetrlO ManUa, and POs· number 300 percent than f.fGOs."Thiis trend shows 'that there is a dearth of ccnsolldated grass. roots orqanlzatto 11Sm} the whole, and both change-agents and .servlce-provlders ill the rural areas remain scant.

    less

    These types or unevenness are also m.wif@stedin tile tmernancnal NGO 'terrain. IfHl'1j i ring on perceptions of NCOs; the 199S, Benchrnark 5 urvev of NGOs feu nd respondents felt restricted by factors [Ike. the. presence of la.rger NGOs. the LlS@ of tih@ ,EnQ'ffsh lar)guage, Northern NGOs., accredited NGOs, wh ita-run NCOs, and maleFurl

    NCOs. ~

    Th@ explcrationof flew terrain and modes has also caused QrganJzationa.1' crises not pres@nt before when the old terms and ways were IIi place and unqnesHoned, The new situation has necessttated a review of 0 utlook, te:rm~ of 8.1t'lgage· ment vis-a-vis each other and the state, and even a remvenuon of goais and program:; as new Riches fg r active i nrerventlon are created and el1l·~rged. In s uch undertakmqs, old ldaas contend withthe new, Confuslon and uncarra] nty have made new undenakirlg.s seem to b€ more risky, and commitments have wavered. This, volume ~:HICivil Soclerv Maki'ng Civil Socie'W explores 'he Qvn0mkS withl n ssctjons of civi I 50de.~y. It examines the different areas that have caused re h 5 ions. or confttcrs: factors or developments, that have helpe,d resolve these tenslo ns: and mechams rns that are be.ing put ~ri plare or may be necessary to cOl1s,trw::t'ivety reo solve co nfltcts or free up areas of.tenslon among clvl I socletv 9 rou fJ5. It identifies the major tasks. ahead that requ~re consciou s actlon on the part of c lvtl society to ensure the dynamism, solidarity and integrity of its parts. by philippine civill society aJ'e well recognized. But hi process, it must constantlv examine nself, find ereatlve ways and means of handl ing differences, .andaddr@ss its weaknesses and strengths, By do.ing 50, it is bel leved that dyij socletv can realliy become-the foundatlon of and a'potenr force for demcc ratlzatlon, The big strides analned pursuing the democrattaatlon

    TemiiQn Are,ost in Intra ..Civii Sodety Relutions
    Cornmlssloned synoptic papers for the co nference on Civil SOCiety Making Civil Society definedthe elements of ciVil soctetv (l:n'i''1NA)'~ examlnsa the NCO sector, its range of acto rsand dvnarnlcs With other sectors (OAVID); and reviewed the Phil i Ppine experience 'in cornrnunitvorgarrial n-g and cu rrent rethlnkl ng (rRANGSCO), Two case, studies were also ccmmisstoned fore:.l:ch of the ~jglht wmh:;hops.o.rr PO:;, NGOs, rnedia, r~Hg lous 1nstltutlons and the academe, women/gender, eth nic cornmUinit~es,. p61tttcal parties, and busl ness. The 'cases loo~e'd at '~h@: dynamics withi tu the sector atlid tri relanon 'to othersvas manifestedl ns peetflc events orl ssues, Invlted partkjpants discussed these papers and contributed instqlrts based on thei r own experiences arid perspectives, The varying subcontexts
    sity of identified

    ever, stmllarlnes of conftkts and
    ~

    and nature of panicipants would explain the diverareas of tensions and conflicts manifested in each sector Howthat cut across each sector allow us to id~ntify the general sources tenslo ns that arise in lntra-clvil society tnteractlon.
    into the [o Ilowing;

    Tension areas have been organized

    Uflev.e/1 power relatiol1$ ~ malnstream 5. peri phery: eccncrn ell ltu!'al In e q uJ Hes ,: organ ita;tQonal hie rare hi e s:

    lc, ge:Jilcle:r ,an.d

    4

    I

    M!RIA'"

    CQRONEl ,FERRER

    II

    Differences in perspectives, ~tla.ly$is and ,approaches - polltkal and ideological de;wag.ec~;f;onfllding ,9Qnder and class per~pec;lives; d~S(fplihal alflJ cultural : divergences: diff~fing oirgal1iz~,t~on 5U'ategiQs: and Conflkave org<1niitjjt.iorl prEH;tict;!s - sectarian h~:ndem;les;lack of fin;;:mclal trans' pare [iCY, acces s·an d HIst~'lllabi II t y; lack, of :!:alpabWty an d driffi ell !ty ln balant; i I' g concerns: and per50nalltv conflicts. .

    Uneven Power R~illtions,
    .arlsl n9 from di'ffererlt advantages in resources .. ·te<;;'ht'licalj¢now-ho

    Related Interests

      II, in fluence, etc. These. uneven power relations can be fo unci wi1;h i n 01" l'.etween·gro ups 1n civil sectWithin civil ~oClety,'thete are 'hiera;JetiJiiisand uneven

      0 i strtbutlon

      of

      PO'WEH

      I'!W·

      Mainstream

      vs,

      Periphery

      FnrInstance, business, rei lqlcus lnstltutlons, the media: and academe have hug,e rescurces behind them. compared to NGOs1 POs and small cornrnunities. They have lie,giti mate" well-deflned roles in our 5oci@.ty- economic, spiritual. provide r of infQrmation,j3,nQ r;eprod ucer of k.l'kowh~dge.They have. influence and have wielded it actordii'lgllY. In contrast, N(;Os, POs.an.d local communities are still in {he process of establishiltg thetr teqltlrnacv and bu Iiding .thei r respectlve 'stren.91ns as power
      centers. ill their own right. Constitutionatlv, there are no ob'uacl~> their growth - in fact, the constitution and laws like the Local Cevernment Code:' provide fo [' their empowerment, 13uttney are latecomers in the development of P:I, iIlpplne socletv, They are the counter-elite, 'So to speak, and remain at.the edqes pf the polttical and economlc rnarnstrearn. Bi~lSt!_~ and mutua' suspicion exist between the lWO ;gwup~. Thus, there are less interactions between (he .two than Within (Hie camp. For example. businessfunded foundations are eornfortable working with rei ig lous orgiln~zations but have yet to fe,el comfortable belnq partners with NGOs, especlallythe more radical ones', NGOs, 0011 th,~ other hand, complain how business lou ndatlons an~ dlveTttng support from ftHld i'ng ag,enc~es to lhei(coffers when th,ey alre~dy have the advantage of corporate barklnn, (D~ CASTRO) NGOs .and media also feel alienated from each ether; the. former tend'S to IJetceive media as pMt of the establls hment: and the latter se.@s the otiler as mouthpieces of ideological forces. ·(ClJiAI.,j,

      to

      Between NCOs, and POSt' the relationship. lsalso generaJly uneven, since: the NCOs, as lhe servke-providers to the paS. hold the resources. This beholden relatlcnshrp between the two hRSh1 mal1Y instancescreated a pO dependency on the NCO, andan NCQ tendency to dkrare II~s prog rams and models 0 n POs.
      "Center-perlpberv" relarlons are also sources of confllcrs, usually marl ifes.ted between M~troQManila·hased partners or head offices and '{heir reg,i(lfi,al counterparts. Regional partners. or branches feel that their autonomy ils. unde rmlned by narlonal policies. set at the capital regia n, or thel r efforts overshadowsd by those the national pol lttcal center,

      in

      Reg,ions, prcvtnces-and

      local communities

      far from the Nalional

      Capital Re-

      gion have deep-seated, resentment

      of the

      I.J neven

      eccnornlc deve loprnent that has

      been perpetuated through·Qui the decad·e.s of natIon·bullding. It ts not ~urpd5.in9 tint thls perceived "Manila co·h).II1Ii!.II~~m·· engle.nd'ered regfonal lstk, eth no-nahas

      nonahsuc or lccahsr responses.

      Econ,om!~c,Gend'2.r
      EHmic minority

      IClll'ld

      CY'U;,uf,af /n,e'C/f:litie.5

      Economic advantaqes of O.rM: gmup over another is alsoa so urce 0 f c.orQfjk~, groups., fO'f instance. feel they cannot extricate themselves from eroncmlc dependency on malorlty Q,mup.s. ~'nthe same way, W~.d~ UnIQII,s < re nV(,r· nowered by tile more comolid.<li1ed find I'll hly iflflue.l1tial employers' federa'I'jons

      and business clubs, are also Ulrle",en rel.ii,~~ons betw@, U1 50 xes, II, H~ I;! Ilgio U5 and specia:11 privileges ,enjoyed by male priests, pastors. and other re~jglou.!i I O'irdersare d ep~y' irlgraln,ed Iinstf utlcrral nracuces, So too in 1110stsectors, lnr l !.IcJr'l'9 I ndlglef10us CO'mrT'iI.H1UifS. Males .have tendedto dorm r'I,ue le.adllrship posi~~orl$and decision· aking. for I[nstane", r spe ted mal @I'ders omprise ~he tribal councils. In the CDrdill~fia. ,~) fII'lus. g.~nder cOl'1f1iiCts have ~mNg ed, esrecL lIy with more women ilHel1li'lg then IIIghu.
      lIHHt;! i!'l51[W'liO,I'lS, 'I h! dominance

      With tl'l sectors,

      Oppression hit!' also ben felt in che matter of I. Inguage used, POs. for instance, have felt allel1i1u,edby dUto urse rn a f,oreign: language fE.r'lglish 0 r even 1:111· pine). The impos ltlen err ideologies, pGhde5. Ilaws. and practices alten to Indigenous group~ ba.ve also been cit@d as sourCe', of conlf1k:L The leM visibi!i'IY of ind~genous gr,oups. won~ell'1•.!ill1d (tie poor ill multi-sectoral fora also reflects '[he uneven powe,if' rela:Uons. When a slo~ is given to this sector ill rnanaqement or leadership DoSitk'lliIs. 111'[ uS!li.dl'y eonstrued as tekerusm, due to is the gross unevenness of lheu,r actual partie) pattc n In deculen-rnakmq,

      Organ.izationGd Hie,m~l;hies
      found and may eve ry he me organizaltional SUIJUUIFe. as jn the cases of the. relig,ioCJsand corporate. sectors, and the academe as weJl. Medi!Qj.o 'mer'S. eve n those who do not Irile rfere ill the d.,w·to~dayeditorial operations, bavethe final say in the end as to What ·goes. 'to

      Wit,hln a sector. hle~<life ica:! re~a~won!iare aha h

      norm tn rhe

      prim or on air. Most NCOs and PUs rrvtc combine. their dernccratlr vislcn wlth more equ ltable practtces within 'the orgali1iu(io F1 but thrs has not alwavs been ~cl1ieved, 111 all cases, tensions naveartsen between leadershl p!rri<1nage rnent arid members,

      Poliric(JIJ 0 nd i de ol:ogiced D.f~ergerlce$
      Conflicts abound when there ils dlsagl,neement
      over how to vtew ce rtam events.

      or rhe s,'ual1d rake on OJ. cerr a rn policy question. But more [han j u st dis] L~I'1ICtLI res 011 to an lssua-to-lssue billsis.n the c:1~atvag,esalollg lideoilc>gk;al or political' lines. Th@ so' caUed lJolilie.a! blocs - the natiof1al democrats (Spill .. lso UUo seve ra~ 9 rou pings}, popular democrats, democfi:u:h: scctaluts, and sectallsts In the Phlllpplne setting have tfu'!ir respectlve ideolog~cil.j mOQlring!s.. pr,ogrOl.ms. prtenues, traditiorlS • .slll;cul

      6 .~ M.IRIAM ..

      COROIN.El. fERRER

      UJ res, and orqantzauonal the Phillppine Left"

      rretworks

      eV121n

      though colle<:tivelv .th@y form the ranks of

      Two of the major q uestlons that have dtvided the Left are on the' terms o·f el1gagemel111 with the state: and the espousal of armed strug9 te as <llegitim.Jleand valid option under the present circumstances.
      On

      to a dornestlcatron of the power relations between tJH~ state and civil 50dety. It is feared that the culture pf reslstance and confrontation that characterized the relations with 'the marnal law r~gime has wa.ned. Critical collaboration with thestate has 'its advantaqes but some believe it has also PUI. NGQs, POs and other non-stale groups. on the brin k of Woo p.tatiO'll. Some. have also fel!l that they are wasting. the i F time in this type of effort. For example, the vario us national summits orga.nized by the. state were wid~;+1"attended by NG.Os and buslness gTou ps but concrete resu Its rernaln wanting . . On the ether hand the vi ntage 19 70s confrontational mode is no long,er felr effectlvs by others. "Expose atld oppose" mass actrons 'are. f~.!t too stereotypical and no 10rlgell able to ge nerare mass su ppcrt and lnterest,
      I

      the. one hand there ~s; ariness that the less co nfrontatlonal w
      I

      mode

      has led

      have drawn lmes :tmong the members of the PhHippil'1e le.ft. as rnanifestedin the. segregated ftlll Ies thar have-characterized post-Marcos mass rnoblllzatic ns. U nderneath the physical se<gr~gati(m are UtE!bigger d.iffererli:;es- in kl~ology laboratlon

      These tnals ;;tnd errors

      to

      find '\. good balance between opposltlo n and co 1-

      and swn·eg les,

      .

      The merits of pohncal neqotlatlons between rtie state and ~rmed in5(Jrg~nt gmups like the Communist Party of the Phlllnpines-New Peeples I~rmy, the ~Aoro.
      Natinlial Ub~ratjOr'l From and other Ml.IsUm rebel 9 F'O!) PS.,and the military rebels

      have a.150 divided the. ranks ofths left. Su ppo rt for or against thL! peace process and its mechanics have ralsedto the fore: the issue of espousal of non-violence OJ
      armed strug9l1:e among NGOs and PO>;.The divlslveness
      g~,e~Hredfrom U~e early break CO D E- NCO. (s~ e. DAVID)

      'Of Some

      of th i 5 matter (an also be NGOs· from the broad NCO .network, the

      WhetfH~r clvl] s'ixiety groups should dlrectiY~i19.age in electoral politics by' fielding candidates is: abo a source of unresolved tension. The curremde-ernphasts on the state and 9 mater i rnporrance put 0.11 i riiHatives of non-state no F1-POhticad party movements seem to b~ a (0 urrter-th rust 'to the realrzancn, on the other nand,
      I

      of the partlamentarv
      rnobtuzattcn-tvpe

      arena as eq uallv crucial as theextra-parllamentarv,

      street

      of polltJc..;dinvolve rnenr i n the 1 9 70~.and fatly 1980s when elections. were boycoued or considered a minor arena of interventton.

      the: years,

      varlou s mcoes of coal itions and joi or projects over a min i mal basis of 'IJ nit.)" - for Instance o' anti-Marcos, agaJns:r [OUPS and ris"ing all prkas, etc. Swot d~ffererilCe5 in frameworks and plio rttles ~.tJIIgd
      i.J

      The L~ft has establtshed

      sualtv

      Ott

      ih the' w~y everv nOW .and then, as Shewn by the recent experle nee in or-ganlzi ng the parall~1 NCO (orulm em the. 1996 Asia Ptlicific Ecnnom lc Cou neil (APEC) Summ it held in Mani~a, and the dfffitult.ie$el!cfH ..ntered i til forming.;J. Left pol ltlcal partv, i

      Genderqnd Clan Perspectives
      Fe:minists €!:s.pou.s! a stand 0 n reproducUve.nig hts unacceptable to the values held clear by the pro Iife groups bac ked by the offfci·aJ chu rches, Other issues on 5exu·aHty have aiso divided civi I '~CH;:iew, with d lvislons founded 0 n al I p~anesr@~lgio!Js moral r
      i

      po Ilttcal.xultural

      ,

      Sex.~.smf,s prevalent en all fronts so much $0 thatfemit1i~n, and gays have to "always, be on guar() , w;!dch il19 civerthe press, to'rporate establ i-somems and .servlce 'institu'Uons as w'ld~!for such lra,c~s. . ' FiQsitioll ing based on class or sectoral Interestsalso draw corllernious q i"vi:ding Iiit1J~s.BuSil1less groups .Me uf..tlally 'opposed to wafk.:~r:s' demand sfo r wage in-

      creases. Wi~hir! the ac·a:deme; teachers' tnteeests mav run counter to,a:clrl~in lstrarcrs,
      d/I(jd

      so orr.

      Di;:iciplina.1 and Cultural
      Diverg~nt politlsal erlentations are
      not

      D;vergence.1i

      steeped hi service .ortentanonandsocj al consctousness o,rlen firld the profit· ertentedness of business ~~;rec~,)'nCi lable with theirs. Media's rf~'ws Qri~r-Ir<ltioli ~5 axasperatUigw grot.! Q& wa rkihg CHI! :Ia,ng"term processes. of seclal ,dn'i.nge arrdwhe, 'thus l1ard~yg'et'"to se.e their" work or id,eas: in the.popu I<;IF pres_\, The stress Q n tlre gi@lit;iflc methodor logical 'thinki ng .ef ;tcaq'eme can be' at 9'dds.·w~~ili ml igram: tile grQup~'tMoklg.k.;t1 C1rbublka~vi~w. Cultures and wbcult:ure:s whicJl affer.t hovy people act drld trILl nlk <ire another set of sources Oft~fLS.iOTI tn pers p~ctiV'~'5 and world vlews. Majority c ulrures haveImpcsedtherrtselves ~h,minorrtles tlh rouqh laws and (01'1cepts-al len to the 1.;l;U.er~ orld views, Hlstorlcal prej'l:Jdice amoog groupsi5 difficult w toerase -for lirn,sttlr:'ice, the biase's. held by M us I i ms and CI1rij;.Hans against each ether, Arne n9 trihcts and ethnic grou ps; there arealso biases. and nmfficting val ue svstems. Antl-Intellectualisrn tan <1~s·(J found, lnc luaingan'iDnlJ1 some of-the more b@ ra2Hcai aecrlons of civil £Ocitty." The academeis vue~veri<lS1pO ld~tadled from the rest of society.Q:n t~le other harrd, ,ivil $ocfety' grQU ps resentbei ng made objeC:B .of 'study by academe, and yie\v the acadern icapproach asl nappro prtate to' their mnre practical ~ctn~er(J~., ' Busirie.ss, NCOs, medla, etc" have the! r ownsubcu ltures wf iell rhe omers may not U nderstand, ~eZlding to mlsurrderstand ing ·and hostll ity. Mp.di.,,~pprQacl).e5 to news ccveraqe. for In stance. re main trad itlonal, They' focus 0.1'1 p~golila.lith1!'5 -and events, rather.than processes and pers pecnves of the more mar9~r;liaIJ?:edSen01'3. Others fee-I that th ios ~.pproa:ch is no 10 r1ger adequate W deal with the more com plex issues oif the ti mas, and the. mere qradual processes:ta:king shace U nder a: normalized pollit~cai s~Wat·ior'il.,· . .

      the' 0. nIy sources of terrsion,

      S'enOirs"

      Organ ("otio-no!

      Strategies

      A review of Commu rrity orga;f'liz.ing (CO) fo r the I~S[ four decades hasnlso raAs-ed new issues ~n the' I iight of dOr'rles.ht and tnternatto na,l chan:g:e5. M'aJor q U_tStlons cot'ifrQlHingC;Os are: IlQW to ach ieve al)aJ-tlnc~d har'lCUil'lg of local <.!Ild natio r)<l~ iss-ues, arrd secto red and <;:.olll,n'l!u,n~ty·w~deissues: how to link, local. naticnal and globzlA movements; how to combine d iiferent CO approaches: the soundness of usrng economic projects as CO@:r:1try points; hewto sustain CO programs; ~10W
      commu t'Iity organ lzers are-to phase out or pull our from the con~mJ:JI'1'ity: and ~he:

      8

      ii

      MIR,I~MCO'RONEl FERRER

      mosr viab'le scale of development, (FR1l..NCISf.O) Among cooperaitve workers, fJiver· gem strateqles being raised include forming cooperatives out of exi~ting POs, or form i rig cocperauvesasa consotldated, comprehensrve type of PO themselves, (VILlJINllEVA) Others have: i::u~.gl;J'hpi.&cil1g a. big weight an ensuring profitability and vlability of cooperatives as an econo mic li rlit,.al1d not merely 0 n the service aspect. These issues belnq raised nave created debates, Deh,lenrding 0 n how they are resolved or tested i n the Held·, they can cut at dH'!. id:eologi(<l1 premises and strategies that gUhded past CO and cooperative work.

      Since' perspectives

      these. typ~s of d:ifferenc~$ have been q uiteac rtmonious and persistent, revf'.aHng <I fragile unity amo n.gciVi I soc lerv actors on how tl{g~ abo ut the democratlzatio n precess, .or! the other hand" pi ural i$ rn 'i n pers pecttves
      ·and approaches :is.also.a hallmark ef a vibrant il.~d dynamic process,

      perspectives

      and methods,

      and approaches defi

      tu'~

      structure's and structu res relnforce

      Org em iZQ ti Dn a I Prdd ice's

      Sectarian Tendencies
      groups, not so much over programmatic (iiff@'reIKe's but over cornpetiuon for 'the same resources and promotion sectarian interests, has.damaged working relatlonshtps. Member5hip-ra"idihg; leadershtp squabbles, usurpation of projects and grants; and other underhanded actions have marred otherwise friendly relations. Pmtectionlstlt behavlor; underm~h'l.ir1g of other 9~'O'lJps, tU'rfi"ng, and bj~ling QlHi~S.tDO ns are other' irritants" lll-feellnqamonq

      of

      Branding of g.rol.1ps as p-art of an iaeolog,ical. bloc and stereotyping accordingly, has led to mis.understarldlngs and counterproductlve tmtlllV;'or.A problem also an So es w hen a g; ro up is. ide nt i.fi,!'! w irh r;Jon e bI 0 cev en 't Ivj.iLI hits rncm b en hi p Is d 9 l1on,-rdebiog teal. . Financial Transparency; Access CJnd Susfaifiabflity

      tack (if transparency in fi nanLial matters and the abse nee gf establ ished financla] rnanaqement systems have c;reilh~d distrust within and betwee n 0 rgan lzatlo 11.5. Some POs, for instance, have relttney are bal ng used by NCO"> to. access funds. Cooperatives break apart because of all~ged ftnanttal misdemeanors of managems nt or plain mtsmanaqement, Corporate funds are r~lativeiv tmmu ne fro m ·the scrutrnv of rank-and-file, But if a wag~ issue orthe corporate futu re is (It stake, tack of'nnanciaJ trans paren cy becomes a co ntsrttiousissue. In sections of c!vilsod· etv that are ardentadvocates of democracy and aqC(iUnlability.! there i~ gre~ter
      ej;:pect~tiQn from membership and partners for th~ leadershlp to practice what

      they preach.
      M@<lr!while:, the so-called Demow.I.Cy~Iustlceand
      0r

      Advocacy NCO's (.DJA,NGOs)
      ,,"'hJlaJ1t

      are angered by the rise of fly-by-nig;hit.

      pollticlan-backed

      NCOs (MUNGO'S')

      which they feel destroy the. name. o'f NCO!). (DAVIB) MUNCOs opesate 011 the basts of patronage re~eiiied from political vested lnterests, and are rnors money-making enterprises than servlcs-orlented acuvlsts .. III the. same way, fly-by·nig h~ scnools. rackets .ln the guise 0,' reliqlo LIS or charnable ventu res, h igh~V sensational tabloids and broadcast proqrarns .. "enveloprnental" jou mal ism, and corru P'~business prac-

      tices destroy the iutegr.ity oftfu;:ir weli-meanil1g_:col'llEagues and create irritants within

      and across secto rs.
      I f1, another l~gMt; DJANC;Os resenrthe rreaito n of business-funded fo undations who turn 0 ut to be..com pHJtors in a(;CeSS i ng fundsfrornfu nding_ 'agenc ies ~ve n though thev are <[Iready w.eil-hmde-d· by thelrmother corpcrannn. (DAvrn, [lE (AS [Rd)

      Asone rasestudv showed, agrarian reform b@neficf.arie~n~:k,irig av.era cornc rath:i n found they could get 110 5lJ pport from tile fermer owners and th.:aqh ev had to.led!frt the trade by themselves to retai n the b·~jsJne5fs vi21bfrily, {Rulz} Finally, new debates a.r~ bi;irlg engendered
      susralnabtlitv

      bvrhe

      eratives, dabble in the stock III arket, se n sditiQ'r1alize the i r reports In order 1.0 increase sales, etc.r At 's'~ake in tM i S cie:b{lt,@ is their avowed non-profit reaso n 'for being 'and the. more prag rna tic concerns of s ustaf.ning 0 perarionsend il1cre<a.'}ing; the lncorne level 0 f their own members.

      of nnn-prcfft sectors and lessen dependency on grants. Sho.uld they eng,~g~ in proflt-maki 1'19activities, ch(\rg.e rnarkertmerest rat!;':s·i n their ned it coop-

      need to.

      plot the 10ng"term

      L6,ek of Capab.ility and Balancing Concerns
      Other than fl rranclal manaqernent and sus'wJrrabi utv measures, tack of capab.iHtyin other aspects have also been sources of tensions withIn and between gml.lps. Among the prog ress lve NGOs, rhe need to be "red and exoert" has increasing Iy rJeen felt under the present situation of relative political stahl Iity. It is no 10 rltger enouahto know tile. structura' roots of-poverty and environmental degradation and to rage' agaili!j.l these: It ts now equally important to b~ equipped wrth engineefifl9 s,ki.ll~In bu~~din9 irrigation systems, f\Hifitial n~els,a~d othertechntcal and sctentirie knrow-how,. ft(ilqwirlg the ineptitude of tfl~ bureaucracy and local govern ment [·s one thiti9, bur one must also know th~ laws" the IntriCdte workings of the bureaucr'<leyand the civil service, a-nd the maze oHo1"mal and '[nformal practtce.s deterrntnin:g the qual ity off lora] gov~rnad1('.e'ifone: will ~LJ'r;ce.edn rrli~Y devolvi rig PQwe is. to i

      local ee liters.

      and evaluatlnq personnel, sktlls and-even academtc degrees have becpme asirnpcrnUH. tf not more i rnportant, 'than cornmltrne nt. Mecilani,g ms [ike 8; OO-IO-~:lW v..ork· · ing hours, SoUdy clocks, and ~ala,ry schemes based 0 n leng th .of se rvice and merit n
      are becing irli-sHttned, aJong.side mandated benefits that used (0 be beyond the toncerns of cause-ortented groups wcrkl n.g surrepttttouslv ag<lin5t the di'qatof,

      Crltlcal collaboratlon with the state req utres new skills and investment l rJ ti me and resources.tn new tvpes or activities, (e.g.1Iocalgo ..... ernment councils. tripartlte. sumrnlts, elections) that $0 me 9 rcups may hot yet have. rncreasingly, the non-proflr sector ls seeIng and wanti ng the advariracg@ of tile @fficiency and professionalis rn of the proflr sector: This realiz.atio n h as set new crlte rfa for staff refCfl1itnlP.llil .. In hirtng.

      Wbile pr()fes.s.ional izatibn of development work'comribures to better irn pact, it has also run into the more ffee-flowing Ilfestvle o(~O(lalactlvi s In. Orh@f<; have
      thus equated professiorrausrn with bureaucrattzstrcn .output was a.150 viewed as negatihg the importance 1iryir'lgw

      ancl rareerlsm, The stresson of process,

      '0

      professionallsm and ssrvke nattonal and Ioca I focus - maygiv'\!! rlse to tens 10111;;': When these were not sorted out prop.erly \,ovithirl balance varied concerns between

      rlentarton: between advocacy and basic organLzilTg; between

      10

      Iii

      MUtlAM C01RONEL FERRER

      the organization, problems arose" llsuaJly between gro;ups, 'these types of tensions have exacerbated
      sectors for instance; relief and rehabilitation

      sectartan tendencies.

      staff and management,

      Among

      I,nadd ltlon .xurrent issues. tha;t I1t'!Ce.Ss it ate. actrve ,-e~poti5e

      quake, volcaniceruption and lahar flow; typhoons and floods, as well, as economic issues 11 e peso de'Y'aluatlon and oil price Increase- tend to pull resou rces 0 ur of k the slow; 9 radlJal basic p-rganizing activities.

      'Of

      frorn ctvll .society d isaster areas fOllol;'IIingan earth-

      The problem of balaru:;;in-g concerns is also present in the ranks of buslness (profit vs. servicel, media {event vs. process: p,ersonalJty vs. gro up), religiQusinsti· 'tutions (rnaurial vs. splrltua) concerns), academe Hnstitutiorial vs. societaJ j nterests),<lnd gender (distinctive women's gn)u p ~is. maln stre,an'ling of women in mixed groups).. For those ln the electoral fi@!ld, haW to balance the. alternative with the need t6 win within, the framework of the operative rules is, also a tension point. Personality COrflfti,Cts
      In coal ition or joint undertaklnqs, other irritants due to dMfer~l'l,es in. styles of work arise and pe:rt~ived lack of ·qi mmitment 'Of the other 9 rou os. A patronlzt ng attitude, arreqance, s.exis,t remarks, lack of cred~bmtv, fOI'.ge·tfulness, or rneffidenc;y Gl.!1 ,s,eve-rely da'Fuage worki 1"1£1 relattons. Problems like these us ua.lly evolve into differences., say between readers and members Q r' amo rig leaders {!Ind members across 9 rol,1ps, Thev might not" be resolved even as-the: organ lzatlon tries, to address org ..!ulIiizatio!1<1.1handicaps, because they lnvo lve tll~ appreciation of one person by another,
      personality

      Fact,alrs Mitigot'ing Tendons within Civil Soe:ie'ty
      New developments 21.'1$0 provide b~tter ccndlucnstor resolvfng these conmcts or avoid i 119 the lr occurrence. Be.low we dtscuss the facto rs that have helped mitiga.t.e tensions within civil soctetv and promote better workinq relations, points;

      To the,il"credit. ,ivi l-soctetv.actors

      have taken steps to add ress these tension

      Changing Perspectives, More Openness
      Across sectors, there irS today

      as possible th rouQlh jo it1t ventures,
      MQre indivlduals

      .a greater 0 penness to wo rk with as m;MW gm ups or toat leJ,st cross pa'ths i t'I dlJ;l,og ues.

      pnuanthropv and becoming

      and 9 rou ps in business dr~le5 are moving away from me.f~ rnore seriously concerned with social and 'ecological croblems. Likewis,e;d'l@ less ;deo]o:gically purist and collaborative mode: 0 peratl rtg <l,!rllOl'ftg NGOs has madethem more open to working wlth buslness-supocrted NGOs 01' to Wi I'1g UD cooperative in itlatlves with business .groUiPS to enhance 1:he.irown capabilltv and market viabi Iity. Among media. pe-ople, thereis inc re'asil1g fami I iarity with 'the wo rki 095 and roles of NGOs and more ccnscic us attern pts to develo p.the

      laner as SOI.H'c,e~ news .and info rmatlon, of
      and of decentrallzatlon

      The affirm'-'ltiotl a.fthe impoITanc.e of autcnornwrntemal

      democratic

      processes
      poiitica.H;p·

      Mavl'! h,elped.grQUps h~ndle naeional-reqicnal,

      E~II'iliotil!ty Making

      Civil Sode.ty

      Ii

      111

      elal mass movement, and

      fl'W

      ltlsectoral-sectoral

      virtues were aJI rec.ogrlti'ze,d previouslv

      b~t not alw.;JiYspractlced .. aut pr@:cisely be·-

      dynamics more effectivelv. These

      cause of the IJitfalls experienced in the past as a resu It, NGOs and ideological forces, :SJe now mOirerorrsclous of ohservfrrq these values. It is. now widely recoqn ized that

      the emphasis on big, s i nqle command centers among the res pecrive ideo logical!
      pollttcal groups in the past discouraged i ndependent, alUto no mous acttonsand vented rhe flowering of independent centers of social and polltrcal activ.ity_ pre-

      In thts manner; the devolunen process taking pla-.ce i n the state Is well co mplernented by the devotutio n taking place: in c;ivil society, and tile chang I ng pe rs peetives that s€@thts decenterl'r1g as a pref~m~d option rather than a dlsadvantaqe, Th is openness on many aspects may have been 'broug ht about by-a rethiil king pracE.ss and it natural outcome of past positive occasions of having worked togethe'r on sharedissues, espeejaJry i nvolvl n·g a cnsts situatto n. for instance! die mmllio,n 'front put up by i'l'ldlig~na"u~ qroups and the do mlrrant srsavan migrailt s.~t~lfl.r ommlJnftV. with the support ofthe tocal ch urch, aga:i nst d logging co rnpanv ( allowed them to transcend their lnter-ethn lc biases. (AC6AXA.-,oII) .

      On the natlonai SC~r1e, tile dernocratized context has certainly e nge ndered a revf,ew Q'f perspectives .away from 'the trad~t1cmal statist, cQnfronratiol'lil,.1 strat~gy. Withfn sectors, there were: particular tnfluences that also hel peed bring about new perspectives. The changes introduced ill Vatica.n ,II, as affirmed bvthe Plenary Council of the PhHippi nes II, particularlvthe sh ift toward a be'tter appreclanon of other faith traditions amra pre-ferential option fo,r tile poe r; nave ~l@lp~ed rlnq about rno re b InteTrerig~crus dia.lo09 ues and ie.g lttmlzed the more radical i nvolvemeillt of religiiou$ people ill empow@filu9 the poor, Rea;dersh Ip feedback is also deemed an important lilirfl uence In open i ng Ulp r1ew~pap~rs to new approaches to news and broadercoveraqe 011 top of the.tradltlonal approaches and SO'U(c'€s of Flews, (COrtONa) Part of the open ness ro working tog.etl1er rs the reallzaaon that d lfferences will' remain and need trot be totallv erased before wo rki ng retationsh lps can be built, The recognltio n .of the reality of differe'nces has thu 5 m.:uj~ tr pos.slble to l'agree'W dlsagrse" and continue worl';,ing to,getner professtonallv.
      At the same time, shared values are el'rlerg'ihg,'and pointing 'to high potential

      areas Of cooperation. Environmental protection ~s one suctr eme rgin9 sheared value .amonq g_mu cs, It transcends class .and cultural dtvtstons slrrce it pertains to a co mmon ~err,itory; the planet earth. whose destruction affects ail, Re5 pect for pluralism 'shared values that enable peaceful coexistence
      and tolerance (religiou$.., cultural, po Iltlcal, ideolop leal, sexual} are also eme-rgil1g

      and cooperatrveendeavor,

      These

      shared values al'low areas for confluence even as disag reemenrs pe rsist and d lverge.lice.occurs I n other arenas. I El contrast, class-basad antaqon isms that defilleri social activism tn the pas"! are dr,mtL~~to reconcue by nature, .and l1av~ allcwed t fewer avenues for cocperatlon,

      the actual crisscroSSing of rail ks of practitiorrers - fnjn"l NCO to bustness, NCO 'to academe, media to PO. academe to rnedla, and vice-versa - have allowed for qreater

      Awareness ofthe significance

      etthe othertn 'the democratization

      prQC,eS5

      and

      rotes.

      interfaces amcnq sectors, P·.ers,onaland hlst~tutiont'lli ll nlca'ges., trust and frjr,endshilP have also been built over tl me. among key individual s who could play raei litative

      I 2:

      Ii

      M IRIA'M CORO'N ELF FR R ER

      am rmed

      MoreDver, actn at IIgains and SI,Jil.:LeS5,eS have c~a.ted fClnN3rd movementsand the we rlh; F1'I!SS of rile new endeavors. The :5'l1CC@SS of women 11"1 Kalinga in

      puttlnq up Oil,Vcare CL!nters and addressing communltv Issues - even as they con'fin L.led'to fulfill the! r rrad ir ion ,I gleild~1'"role - was the best arg urnent to '[heir male partners thai women 'lndell!d c~n be effective movers 10 fhe communlry s@Uing. (iJ"MIO) Also, the successfallv coon:lini;lited campaign for laws on rape and sexual harassment prove ti1(l1l despife the absence of oil: romprehenslve political center anti lh~ presence of u:leoIQyh:al·'Poli'ti(al co:nfliic 5 a:mo,r~gwomenls groups. there I!) rne fit I rI Ii1U Ilhple and decsntered spheres Q·f en_gilge:ment. (Rt.nuI2A)

      Re5ponsIveness to publlc op niOll'i!r 0 sern g:'lJv£:l'nment leadersand IIIstitrLJrlens IHIS kept rhe cri,ucal-(cllabar.uio·o trac open; even as llIegatlve outcomes In other tnstances confi,nue ro make non-state groups willry.

      Fi 11 ally. comtnucus dIalogue' and re'illlcUtln wnhin and with other secto rs have atlowed 'the {' gn;ll,-IpS '10 s e 'things 'mote' ObJI'H::uveiy. MtlturJtio 11bro u.g~lt abo lJ,~ by the n~s!ling of nme ,and lien s, ,:;, (h~ church and acadern - workshop put It. h:il~ also helped bring aeout t 1 '1 IN .re,alizaUon!; ,.1I'id@Jflgemlered new ways of reading. Interpretl ng and n~5rpondingl '0 soci@1 p~oblems.
      ij:,IlJ,iJdi/i19'
      0111

      Accumulated

      Gains

      Years of engagmg HII~:srere and bulld:lng civil society have allowed present actors 10 lHilJze and build nn ear~aelrracI-HeV@mf!lrU$.The existe nee of networks among NGOs <lnd POs buill throug h II series of communnv-based co nsultati,oJFl 5 f)IFOVfclres a venue fo dan 3(11011 and i111e racn a 0, and connnue to birnci 9 (OUPS fonl1 e long hau] despue differences Ii"!the 'lW1st$ .. nd turns of scctat and political work. TQ a certain extent, the intErloc:kin,g' lead@rshi'p-s amongi NGOs, u:l,ealogir::a~ forces and other sectors as well have been rrac:iliUltive in mElkingi roerdinannn possible' and smoother,
      (DAvrID)

      Also, the niches tnat differe~nt actors ha,ve c<lr1J€d out for themselves orthe i r groups have earned them respect and JUowed them to concede turfs and territories to each oths rand thus avoid confltrts ..Among

      Related Interests

        IIOme_fiI'~, gfioll ps, for i nstance, ttl is appears to be a workable modus vlvendl. Rescurces an: ponied whenevershared issues beckon, (RA'Ql11ZAJ
        On

        the

        whole

        r

        NCO:) are

        now

        rrrore ,CDiF1,SC:lous of (he

        compternentarttv

        of ro ies

        olmong themselves

        and in n~Ii!..'ion other sectors. to

        Specific, cone rete projects also help mitigate the emeorg12nce of politlcal Of personal dlfferences. as the expenence ~n buHdmgi the NGOs for 1ntegrated Protected Areas Inc, (N IPA~ mall1;tg;em~rn board shows. (MW;;M) Co ncern forthe suecess of such pioneering WOrrk and common umty a,r'IIhe importance ofthe environt ment and Its primary stakeholders has kep[ [he wmk going despite dlfferlnq erganizariona.i trajecWries ofthlllse inv{llved

        becomes-

        New arenas forr imervenrtcn ~1'50 keep opel1ing UIJ. as 'society advances and Fl'1Or~ cornptex. The legial frarneworrk of the post-Marco~ Philippine state, to b~9in witl" censtderablv pr,o".flces. mOn! ,openings for civil societv parricipaliorL eMI soLiety ltself has 'noutished In ~he form of mer im! 'p@ndent NCOs, ctvtc un-

        denaklngs, media and ecenormc inlUanves The current globaHlOlllon arid regiO f1aHu\ 10'1'1 processes have brtH.ight about new issu~s that call For new <111'9[1merus. Envlronmenr, pe;tC!~, fCfil'tlnll'sm and other gend~r CQrH:erns nave excltel.l new

        ·s~tHlrs that o.efore· were not Involved

        i nactrvtst-tvpe

        9 rou ps, Fu nd i"ilg oppo rtun i·

        t.ies for these "f.ttddish" concerns have: also created unplan ned 0 pportunitles. All th'~$~ rnear'l"s·that f()r eM! society gro. ups, there ..~re arenas, opportunities and issues that will ~@.@P them busvand 'force them to put aside dtffenm·ces in order to keep
        ;Upwith demands nnposed on

        thern by the exte mal: and mternal envi ronments

        r ntell'vl.u'Itio

        i1s

        of Me d iCl to r s/ Fa c iIirt nto rs
        I

        ln key instances, certain lnstitutions played s.igniflcarkt roles of bridg-ing gaps. ~@twe,ef1u,nfrlellldly grou ps creatJllng vsn LIes for dialog ue: enco U!ra.g~h1g netwo rkl ng .a,ln~fl9' ~r(lUps.;.arid h@lpirig weak 9 rou.ps to 5tH! ngth~fl their capabtl ity; Usually. groups with considerable resources are able to play rhls role, For mstance, rel igious Ins,mi.u~on;Y wen i rnportant acto rsin bri nging together different ·[!thndf. :groups to figh(a common danger and bring gr,eater harrno nv to a OlIW rtiaetnrtic cornmu nity (AIiiB.;"Y,o!;.NI). NGOs have also played important facl I ltative rol@5 in co mmiJrlitv processes, Aside from tr.;rinillg and Qrgtlili.zil19 cornmunltv gll(~tJPs.'they (,.;1,11 brfng the. latt:ertolge:ther as the need arises. The academe, too. can be an active f",dlitgtor in ::::Qmmu niw and national amflkt5,a:!! can be gltianed from the Bblinao Cement Plant .c~s'es,t_y_oy. (F~Rltif. AND LUNA) Fi na.lly, respected i ivid uals tram all sectors forrn (J: f?,_o;ol pctentlal interrnediarles. of

        no

        M~'u!iurr,esand Mechonism~
        Redrstribution of Power

        being InstitUhad

        The. unevenness in newer relations ening the weaker sectors,

        ls bel rig· addressed

        by;, first of all, ernpow-

        aled

        In the ca~e of ind Ig,e·nous co mmunlties, eco nomlc .dependence is being alleviand overcome by mtrocucl rlg liv.elihood projects that ran lnc rease their in" comes" enhance thel r confidence, and enable them to act n'_oreautonomouslv
        To address PO-NGO dependency some NGO netwo rks have taken concrete

        pla.ce.

        steps such as forrnu latrng a clearer del i naatlc n of NCO-PO roles" more co nscfous balancing of power and patronage, and ~ more concrete definition of partnersh lp, Ry prov,iding such gw:idelilie~, lt Is hoped thattrueempowerment of P"Os,...... i11take

        .

        ..

        Some NGOnetwqrks h·ave also been pmv:idfng assistance to PO;;.and 5n~il,ller NGOs 1n .accesstng fiJ nds thmugh NGO-managed fu nels or by helpl rig them write p'rpJect proposals orca nnecjl tlg them 'to fuml ing co nracts, Th is way, the latter are a;blleto Implement projects on the i r QVI>'ll and develop thel r capability to raiseand rifal'h3;ge~th,eir own funds. Tb add ress tile do rni nance of po Ilttcal and business 9 roups i (I media; alrernaHve media olgencies have been formed and cooperative or pi urah stir ownership of media fllci litias are being ex piored, ala ng with pus hing fo r SlJpPO rtive pol'ides like tax breaks for ccoperatlvelv-owned media and antl-trust legi slanon res.tr~illiflg businesses from rnvestl ngi n rned ra for polrU~ai g(l.1 ns--

        14

        II

        MIlHAM CORONEL

        FERRER

        Network.~ ars i,ncreaslngly being tocalized In order tc.democrattze and decen1(?,.lize.Ieadership and lessen the domlnarlon of Me.tro Manila-based centers Mon~. ' log i,.stic..al oporr is also being provided for .eg ronal. raprese matives to allow th~:fl1 su to jO"r!l actlvltles in 'the natlorral capital. To strenqthen I'agion.a! or local partners, there are alscccasclcus efforts that (he national pers pective must not erode: reo gio rial views or perceptions.
        I n the case of the Philippi ne Leffs alternative electoral party, it was ·a.greed that the national center will not interfere in regional, patty org~nilingl but reg.iol1al reo Uti its will joifl and SI,I pport the. national parry's efforts ." (A.BAq~ The qlve-and-take assures f"e~gio partners: that they (ail kee p their Qrga,nizati9n\s, auronornv l1"a'l at '~he same time be part of narlonaleffort. Ilri turn, the national center 15 as-

        ~he

        sured of reg.iol'lal afflliatee, the. orga!llizing for which it cart not undertake by it·self. "rb ensure women's decis.lon-makirl9 role i,n the electoral undertakrnq, It was also agreed rhar-the party wWI impose: CHI nself a 30% quota for women in all detisio nmaking bodies.
        Bring i'ngi nforrnaticn and lnformatlan tec.hnology to the grass roots 1.$ also one way to equalize copcrturnries, Business; it ~sfelt; should thu s extend ·their reso u r<:(;!s to the poorersectlcns of civil soci,e.\y. Locatlzauon of news agend~s and cross' country rep,orUng carl ensure wider vi sibi.ti.ty of aU civil societv groups;

        w@

        om

        Ca.pCJbili'~-Buil,d'in9
        Tightly linked to redtstrlbution of power is the capability-build ifig ofse£tors to enhJnte the process of -setf-empcwerme nt. Indigenous peoples, for instance, have bee to strengthe.ned by ~s.slstance given to or:ganizihg themselves. provld ing them with training O,tl their rights and leadershtp. kccal medla's (,~pabili~~es have :lho been enhanced thro Li.ghworkshops on reporting dnd other ~s:pe-h~ of publicanon and broa.dcasting wo rk in.itiat,ed by Metro Manila-based jo urnansts vV-rl{) have more fo rmat tra] ning and experience. compared to their co unterparts,

        o'n

        Ca.pa.bH~ty"buHdlng through training and actual experience ha$ been institl.it~d 'to maximtza newarenas open~d up-in the post-Marcos situ.ltiorl-Iocal development (0 unells, for example, as well as' new -and varied fa rms of eeoperativtsm as alternative economk un its. 10 address the problem

        f'lg schemes "Ire.bdng i nstituted such as cred it programs, consultancv lnvesrrnents, bust nes.s ventures 'encouragement of e ndowrnaru funds and local DIlHanthro.py. S.kHh 'for m~tlagihg or servicil1gtlH~:s'e endeavors are being.
        ssctor, lncome-qenerati
        r

        of lack of fmarrcral -sustalnablllty

        of the non-profit

        honed, Jiang with skills for fund-raising,

        parUcu.iarly tapping business 'and '9,ove"rrl-

        rnent resources. O~le other area of current capablhtv-bu i.J.dingamong NCOsis ln the. electoral arena .. Eh~.ctlon-watch capabllltv i s n~lati\ie:ly deve'loped, but not all-around capabl 1ltv for dlract parnclpanor, ~n electoral

        Cre:a:tiv'~. forms .ar'~ espectaliv
        tor vls-a-vts the. financlal and

        contests in the form of fiekUng candidates. l'1,ee(le.d co ns ideri 11.9the relative weakness of this secp,O\IV@f bases of

        traditional polltlcs.
        as wellas

        the dlfferent sectors, have helped 'i,vi'l socletv redal mas hare ill and helped media ltself to perform such .;Ii, broader function in civllsocletv,

        Conti rili'i I1gedul~atloll of journallsts on both skills a,nd perspectives developlnq new sources of news, for example, throuqn media liaison

        officers for rned iii. exposure

        ·~ivil S·o.dety "'.lIking Civil Society.

        1.5.

        Trllst ond Cenfldence-Bu ilding Pe.opl:e build trust On th~ bas is of fate"to-'fci,ce encounters. D,ialog lies have 'thus ~·e,enan rmponam mechanism for bi-idg i rl·g gaps. Mus IIm-Chrl stlan 'and other ~... -. .. ty.pes of lrtter-fatth d iatogue.'5 0 n spl ritual, pol ltlcal and sec iJJ as pacts , d i<llog lies
        ':"

        b.·~,\,;,fi'en leaders and mass me rnbersh i p, between civl l-societv groups and gOVtrnmel1~;officiaJls, and amonq ideologlcal forces have created venues fj:) rtrust and
        ~ndeav!) rto be SUM",i ned.
        dialogues

        ,~onfid·en,e-building that an~ bask for anv cooperatlve

        Lilralogu·es have-not always been formal. Informal. on-the-spot also b~eln fruitful. . Ahothe(confidMte·bu
        rnV(lh/e~ lonqer-rerm interaction's. ThiS has been done throuqh

        have

        lldl ng measure used IS the cross-cu ltu ral exchanqe 'which
        ,imrnersioll of Mw;-

        lifri$ and Ch rtstlans in each ctners ccm munltles (ABIJIYIMR) Jl1Idth roug.h conferences ~naspe.cts like.sustainable agriclJ ltura' practices among lndiqeno us comrn un ltles.
        Al'ldtne( mechanism that provides more oppcrtuntttesfor workinq

        toqether is

        the forrnatlon of a ~J LJ ralist board of dlrectors whose members are drawn from diffef'enl.s@ctors and poHtical backgrounds. In th is manner, the success of tl,e instl~uHon becomes the responsibility of more 9 ro !.I ps who learn to share reso urces , nd e~e_iiise, and overcome sectarian practices and COl.) nterprcductlve co rnpetttlbn, Cemmunltv orga.llluzinig and -ellvironm@l"Ital projects have experimented on ~his for·
        mat.
        joint pilot communrtv projects are also venues wih~re trust and p;3rtne rs h rp littve b-e.en developed, The development of 'infQrmation/rn(!oii' components In all eN:!.1~·(i~ty gfO'-iPS has. ~.rlhanced .their respeerlve interaction with media, s ,

        Revaluation and Reorientation
        In rethinking

        essarilv 'reordered or redsflned.

        groupS;~.. e the e

        paradtgrns and strat~g[e~, values and orlentatlons are: also neeFptii1lstail1ce;. many 9 roups working with eth nlc need fo-r holtsnc strategies thatare faithful to the' i ndig@flQus.. peo pie's

        '!:~Itu ral be.lliers ami value. svste rns ..
        ·Gen.der.S ens it ivit y is one: other v~lue reorientatlon thati s be~l1g Infused i t1 all .sacrors throuqhrhe initiative of women's 9 roups, Th mug h semi nars and informal

        (i!xthanges, males get to understand the women's perspective
        0Vlin

        and ()ve rcome thek

        w,ays

        biases. With better understandtnp ofthe routs '",rld nature. of mens biases, wQ'me.n.,Onthe.other hand, learn to deal with the opposite sex in It:!s5 contentious '
        w.hll~ s.tJII getting their polmacrcss.

        Cultu ral and ge nder sensitivity do not ne:g,ate. the. bringi I1g ill of new ldeas. such as women's equal participation in decislon-makinq, but are made to evolve aflQ hrandled i'n waY:,5·tnat M@ not too conHktive. o@:veloPfnent prcq rarris also 1ly to fuse the positive elements. lin both western and indfgE:! Ii.DI,.J5tee h no logle5;

        Iolerancs arid relpett for differenc:e$ are values b~ing more widely Infused, NCO'snrav.elearned thata more e.ffe·ct'ive·way of deal i'ng with each erhe r and other se.cto·rs is to emrJh~size ccnsensus-bu iIdilng rather than to draw dividing' Hnes. Thl'O\J,gh consensual declstcrt-maklnq processes, NGOs and ideo log.ical forces hope to .;t:,voirl'the mistakes of past coalltlon efta rrs tharftopped due to what others felt was th~ tyranny of numbers.

        fl.e"Co~:j!I1i'tiDn the cornplememarttv of of roles within and acrnas sectors is also an lrnpo muir perspective that ge.I'1~Gttes tolerance, respect, and a willingfles,s to wo rk togethe r 'fa r mutual gains. In tile seme way that the merits of enterprise and profltab: I ity are being, developed in the non-profu secto fl so isthe bu si i1~S~ sector bel ng lnfused witllSe.fVi'c'i!: orientati-on arid corporate responsrbi' it###BOT_TEXT###quot;. M~eting of milid:'.i. is [11 LfS made posslble,

        involving thelack of democracy, unprofesstcnallsrn and, financial misHlilna.ge:mel1l that eastlvdestrov organizational unity and i,ntegrity. Taus, retnvention
        I

        The cu lw re of efflclencv, acco untabillhY'dnd democracy Is another set of values that are being i nfu sed 'in i nte mal organizational processes to add ress i ssues

        is today

        2lctivisrn, Jo!.Jrnahsrn business. relig ious i nstituncns.
        well.

        a: clarlon call that is eJrerg~zing sociai and pljlitka~ th~ acade me, andme state. as

        Checks and Balances

        TP gllard agai nst u nSUIJ!p-uIOlfS, practlcesthat (h~$troy the name of thelrsector or Insntuttons, civH·s(:)~iety groups Ili1Ve. orqanlzed ~~lf-regI,JJ<ltin9 mechanlsms. EN instance" codes of ethics 'have been developed by NCUs, media oracnttoners. the acade me, and buSiness .$ancti:olf1S have. also been put in pLace for violators. tt:\
        medla, press watchdogs hav~ been tnsntutsd
        to

        sanction erri'b"ig journalists.

        and

        shame.lnf

        ue nee-pede lers.

        To address PO-NCO dependency, CQDE-NGO has devised S'chemes where the pnas.lng out of the NCO 1$ prog rammed so as not to lese Sig~H of lhe goal of 'empoweri
        119

        the PO 0 r community.

        The Treaty of Coope ratio n is;anothe ~mechanism to

        estahlish cemmlrmentand observance of professional ethtrs and procedures, and more ~ffe(tively synchrol1 lze andconscltdate projects and prog rams across grou ps,
        Rota:ting ~e<l,de-rshl nosttionsamcnq p arrv sil1g.l~ group in a cooperanve project. member 9 ro!)!ps avo ids {domtnaticn .

        by

        Networking,
        Networking works wonders in bringing together gr.o_ups to act concertedly. Task forces I for lnstance, have bee.n 0 ne such mechanlsrn especlallv effsctive fa r co mrnun ity- and issue-based campaigns that need the .support of a '...,.ld~ran.g~ of in stituttons, Netw'prkirrg may be wltnin or <lOOSS sectors, areas and region!;.. as well as inte matio nal, Usually, mobil i,arion is do ne thro,ug h partnerships with exi~iring NCOs

        and PO:;., Division of tabor hasalsc helped 1.0 get more work done,
        Mohlllzatlort an1d networki ng are. often undertaken on a per-I ssue or per-project basis. No netheless, there have: beenefforts at b.uIld~ng permane nt networks - for instance, NCO netwc rks like the (ODE-NCO, and the lea'g,ue of Co rporate Fou ndat~OI1S,

        Networks also provide venues- for sharing experiences and deve:lopill9 I~<!r.der· For sectoral groups: networks allow them to oartlct pate In' broad movements with whom-they $l1are·,[he same polky objettiiVtH'f while at the same. time tndilruain
        5 hip.

        their local dscanrered 9 rc wid reve I.

        bases'

        which are more 'effective forms

        of intervention

        at the

        Mediation

        and Facilit-atliorl

        in transfo rmi tUgconflict sltuattons,

        The active asslsrance of mediators arrd/orfaclntators has al so beerreffecttve POlititi4.r1S, church leade rs, membe rs of the aca-

        deme or acadernici nstttutions urernselves have plaved PQSltlve rne"d'i<1tlon roles. Effec,tive i nterventtoncan also be. done. by respected rnernbe rs with i n the prgar~ lzation.

        Action Agenda
        In cur Mrj~~r dlscussjon r W~ we-re able to ~d~ntify the te rrsion points that qe:~ stablllze Of harm ralations with I'ncivfr· s-ociety and weaken thei r pOV! ntia] as key <lg~nts of the democratization process. At the same time we were ~~ble. deftne the tG factors that 50 rnehow allow actors to deal constructtvetv with th eSI1:! SOIJF(:e.s- of confltct. The r·arlg~ of msas uras and rnec hall isms thatthev have a.ctuaJly instituted to bridge gaps and advance capabilities was also d tscussed, The pape rs .that have bee.n written, other ,Ilterature, workshop and plenary disc]J~S.~{Hl and the pro.iect S, !Haff's own research and knowledge served as th_e' mal f1I sources for th ts svnthesls.
        In finalily defining the actton agenda: for civil socierv ill so faras lnrerrral rela-

        ttonsh i P.S are conce rned, we are gll'id~d by the: reallzatlo tl that these areas need i rig actton are al r'eady beinq add ressed, albeit unevenly, A ~Qod number of actors have
        beenapproach i i'l9 the iss IH:lS' mo re com pre hens.ve Iy. o~M ers less co nsciou sIV and on a plecameal OF" reactive basts.
        Here,

        the partofcjvll socletyto ensure the dYIlJimisrcn., sOlrd~rity and lnteqrtrv of lts parts. ,. Evolve n~w sttat@gie~ !.\nd contInuously developapp,r-opriat@ Plt!chanisQls in (I·rder to @ffl!.cdveiY add.rQs$ emerging contexts and link various concerm •• Emti'!r'grngco ntsxts that requlre further scruttnv as to impact, limits .md pate 1'1tia~ regard i i'l9 democrarlzation i ncl ude the Nit 9 rowth model r econo rmc irH'egratio n and global rzatio 11 in all other aspects, co nstrictlng natural resources .and ~nvl ronmental de:g radatlon, and polltlcal mach i nations at the stare Je:ve.1to. .derJ.t'11t he democratization process. Civil socletv must studv rl1e::;~developme ntS which' may limit adverselv affect, or provide opportu nlties to fu rther advance the process,
        Civil sccletv actors must also cladfy arne n:g themselves hew they wo u I'd be able '[0 balance more effective:ly the VJ.r'i@~COIl'f~m5 that demand '(heir response and interventio n: reg tonal, .glob'll arid national movemerm and issues; the. u rbanru ral nexus.; sectoral-rnultlsectoral stakes; and soc 10,1,econo rnlc and pol itical CN1"

        we define

        tJ1(! major tasks. that we

        beii@ve. requl re consclo

        U'S action '~H1

        cerns and dynarnic,.

        ,ments.

        The challenge is 'for ·eivi I society actors to' be able to re-cog nlze one's location in these mu I'tiph~ spectru rns of 1nvolvernent, d@fine one's niche. and bu i lei 0 n it, and tit the same time be able to inteqrateor combine wtth other as pacts i rr key rno-

        18

        Ii

        MIRIAMI

        CORONEL.

        fERR.ER

        Also, civi,l SQ(j@ty must be able. to develop more creative mechanisms

        for con-

        'tin u,~rag dlscou rse and co ncerted actton, apprepriate to. theesituatlono 2.Addr@s.s trai"l t1 g.,
        Clvll

        n hand.

        weak areas

        ,and under'take

        capability-buildin.g

        measures 'througlh

        they could provide better service and alternative. pl'Ogram~, and be more effective ;3.geng. of change arid development. The' h ulman n;~iOI:Jce poo~ for the r trow
        :';0

        soctetv groups must build their techni-cal, sclenuftc and professional know-

        short- and lo n,g-t~rm tl1!,.J5t co ntiwuously b.e developed.

        Areas that have been rd~ntified fOr .capapilitY-buildin9 Include self-orqanlzation, [eadersh i p, techn leal skllls and ·know-how, effective lntervsntio n str;;l.teg les, management skills, and flnanclai sustainability, These capabilities are deemed neeessarv to respond to the c;:han'9 rig times, Tr'(l.·ililing prag rams must be appropriate i

        and re 'Ievant to cu rre n t needs.
        3. Strengthen checks and balanc@5 to' mai.litai-n till;! uniryand integrity

        .' within and belween organi.zation.s in order of the t'Elspe,cUve s,@cIQr:s/in~tiilution5lnet·

        works_ Exist! n9 measu res t'hat nef:d to be bu illt on and dew IQP~d further areselfregtl~.aflng mechanisms such as the prornotlonand e nforcernent of a code of ethics, treaties ,gu idillg cooperative conduct, and co ncrete chec ks that will guard ag ains;
        abusive, undemocrauc
        'at

        or nicnopoltstlc

        behavior.

        .

        G reups and members mustquard against the pro motion of, .seCtarl.ll1 ~nteren the expense of group qoals or the interest of societv as a whole. Patrcnape and corrupt practices must riot be tolerated.

        and loss of i ntegmy, if notthe break-up of groups.

        High standards for flnanclal transparencv.and acco untabtlttv J1i1l1 st be itlgrai n-ed ill .all gr<:rups. ifi nanctal manaqement systems must be in stltuted to prevent distrust .

        4. COfiilinge to build on ;pains rhrough net.worlil)ing, c.onfiden(;·!il·bui.hUng and apprqpri.a;te conflid'f!1!solution Il'lechanisms, and lUaintaih op'enne:ssOJitld res p@d fo r ,Uffl!!l'@nces. Civi I society has alre·a.dy built <I. deep reserve i r of 0 rqari lzed gmup$ <l.r1dnetworks, friendship. leadersand technicians but this. strenqth 'has 'to beenhancsd thro~Jg h mo re ccoperatlve endeavors. Ins lmportant thatrelauons are keptharmcrtious even as differences remain, if this reservorr of strength is to be turned to adv';1f1tage.. Mecn-anlsms fo r forgi'ng llnks .and add ~s.si r'I~ dtffe rences, p,os-s~b·ly thro ugh 'the bel p of mediators 0 rfacilitato rs t must rna re consclouslv be developed ..

        Openness. to wprk with as many group.s as pass ible thro !.I,gil joim ventures or dlaloques 1i'Il'U st be enhanced. Areas where there is alreadya co rwergence of values sue h as environmental protection provide a. good starting potnt. BU!l this convergenre must bebruadened
        to- Include other

        val ues such as social justice and res I)on-

        sibility.

        Clvi ~Society Maki n g Ci viI S odety

        III

        ~

        9

        Resp~ctfor pluralism] tolerance of eac h other's differences, anL1 respectfor autonomv <Hildinternal dernocratlc processes must be internaltzed among gra'upi and i nd lvid uals, .

        S. Un d il! ttilke ani rlllilad\!'41!";!u;:.tiQ1. .~a!ep .toaddll'e.s s "the uneVen d.s nib II ti 0 n of 11' s resources and pow-err within c:ivil s.odety.

        Hierarchres and uneven 'dTstrioutron 6f power ·arisirlg fro 111 d:iffere 11,t advantages in tenus of resc urces, tech nlcal knew-how, influence. ,gender, location, etc are the given realitiesthat have constrained the fu II flowerlnpof many civil society sroup~.

        Decentralization and other measu res that make econom ie 0 pportu nities: reo S"OUf'Ces, train i rlg,~xpertise and technology available to those who have the le;:tst <lCCIltSS must be consciously undertaken. Participation of women, rntnoritv groups, the poor and other dlsadvantaqed sectors in poJ!i.cy-m<lkh19and other opportun iti"es must b-e m.ad€!more meaning ful, rather than be mere toke nis rn. Assistance sho u rd not reinforce dependencvbut ellmm a it. H@
        Moreover;

        beyond

        tlve civil society 9 rou ps S hou Id expand their

        "C~vilsocie~y and ~ts, role' rn the' dernocratjzano n process, and lln kup these nltles ttl the lar:ge-r projectof de moe racy-build i t19,
        6, Continue the R@@vaJu.:ltion
        p.rOC@S5

        the urban centers and i'l'l isolated ru ral areas, transfo rmapr~-S@llce, popularize the notlon of
        (OIl1I11U'

        eh,taUon for ·the unending

        of reflection, Ir@mi;\walof the human spirit, and reorltask of bu Hding d~nU:lcraty witi'!jn and w.ithout. of work must

        and reo rlentarlon

        tlvelv respond to ne.w conditio n s and to learn fro m thH~·ne.garive and max'ini12e th e posWve fea:wre-s of past expe ri.ences, These r~q ulre constant dialog ue, reflection ami a deep source of the hurnar, 'wirit to k~:ep Oil wit" the work. pontic-al and
        Jdeo logical d iv~ rge·ilc.es, ~:aFifHcthi91 gender and ..cllass perspectlves, and differences in d lsc lpilnal orlentatlo n andc ultures t1lU~t be grappJr:d Withe, hot put Up as perrna-

        be dane

        period icall~' to eff,l!!.c-

        nent cbstactes.
        Ir'I1~gni"ng the kind of civl I society that we want fa r the next mWe nniu m wa LJld i gufdecivi I soc Ie.W 9w ups today in C0l1S0 lldati ng their 9ai ns and sattlnq their dlrec-

        rio,h. In dolnq so, tne analvtlcal

        tools to be u sed must be s,ensitive to tfl-e cuuu rat, qender; class, re I ig io IJ·S, ecological and ;;III other pi ural dl menstons of society 'I:hat oftentl rnes are glivcn secondary trnpo rrancs to poJ itical!~d(tolo9tC@,1 or co mm,ercial aims, FIit"!allv, concrete Steps that wiLli inc ulcate pi uraltst valuesand democratic crtentation rnstiWhonali'y, and among members as a. collective and as individuals rnuSl be taken,

        ENDNOTES
        l;~da~Pu Y<'lm<lmu~a lad.], t"mflfging C,,-,U Sodf1y In rh{! Asi~ P,,'ltWr: ComtrJLmlrli (Slng<t.p~r~ &. TokYQ; 1!'I~UtUHi!HI" SOIJ~hL!~~! .6,siill1 SUHII!!s and J~pa" (nnH.'f rUt ImematiQI1<i,1 hchang\ll:, " 995"), pp. '5~6, Z M",ill')da Qtlll1to5·de [esus; "The 'Media High at! WiVe, LQW' oI"lSub~r;Jnt~'· 111 lOfTI" Ka~aw'Tlrol (~dj ! 9!JG, I.ooking 8,,11:11, [o(lkJl'l-g f:;rJftv;Jrd'IMill1l1" rOLlndaliofi fur WQr~dwide !"l:lOtll\! Power, Il'Ic. 1995}, p .

        •Wo.
        :l (DON PilfIfpplnlJs fiJ::Jtionai pror.le r 996. ~ t 51% C;jfhcllr Olr'l'Tti'lr)l ClI Ifl!:! Phl'jp~mH'$

        5 I jl!J4 Pi II ilppll1 I> Ye<lrbook (N.ltlol1al Slalism~ Omcnl. G D~p~r~frlP.nl nf m'(':riar iant.1 lor~l GtlVl!tll1mi'nts Lllr.1I GlWernm~nI Ct!nlN. i Mlrl;!111 ( OWFi!!1 hrt'",r. f'!!:,cf' Molli"l '. , PJI,lrpp;,..' ".,...(p ({lmprmdJlItIfl (OU.~Z()II Oi y; i 'fllvur~lfY (lj 11li' r'I'iIlI"I~lnei~ Cl>llU!1 '1m If\t(lqr;J,H\I~ .Irld 0(1'11' :lllprmmt SUltlil!S ;In~ ~ni!Ur~I"'lJ'r~lt'l'f'ri'~), I "I'll}. II. 2~ .8 A~kr>tl If Uwy w~'ril Fo!'SH1Wtd by 1),0511 fa<lors., tb~

        Related Interests

          1:\ fe~r;lQn~,~ r..n~,mJ from 'Hl~ tu 7;~'I':,.is (ullu .... ,: l~u~,i:'I NC.O<;. ?fio\V,; Erll:jllih lilOlJlMfJ(', 75,.: artll I'll NGO~. ;i'JJoI, .I((rl!diu 'w Ncn11. 'i0'x,; whlw rim fooll J'., ~O~; • ntJ. mfl'~'rur'l NCO~. 'lrnl.. (Riv.l Krul. G/obJ/Jl'o10ml ,I ,JmJ CJ...O "'I;lI:-l~r~~ NrJC! /Ilfliwnr" III ior('rlHUluJMf D~[I.~t!M,tU.1hI1l1_Q tGel1!l·v·,l: lIn~u~d r-. .llIans, RI:'}lldrcl1 IJI'Hllutl! rot "'H~I~I Dev"lopllH'i,i,

          Arrll 1f 971 ) ~ ~"lmMCYi:l of 11mb abw~. wah rofl~fmu~ Iho (,i1 01 5otl"u~m AFrt'~' rUlrcd th.i~ 1'1''Iolny N~'U~ I','mlp!.l to 11) be anti l'I'IIt'II~ct!J~1p;lrdy bm::aui'~ Qllh 1J~t((·lv~t1.lbSU"(1 ,'llmm (l" IlIt~"~~('iw.ll~ ,wd partY (.Ii.!!' Iu 1hulr OWl] IMk ~H"ill e~lc 1)llInnll'ltl and lmJllamHltf! Wi'li'! 'lh1."t'lM~('al .~Pr)fO~~tm~. MOH N( !I.J~, hu !'1~~~l'd, smgl~'I~~i.!.11! .lJ~ Ilt:lUJ~"iJ, ,Impltlment r,lItmnh;ll'l :lIih,IO(;ltll. W.I" [I;lW NCO'! d~~1wnh rtl' iOCl)I\tlmi[ policy :md mul, I ~('([{jl 0.11 u~roilUoni'll rel.... QIU H... ~l! .\ 111 need In bmlylnq tl1l~ tjup til m ' 'I1QIIr.y ~1f1~IY5H iind rDf (;t:ll'lto:rll'd POUlY ddll(lCacy b"'lwe~fI Ul@ NGOs i1,,~1 IrH~lI~ctllah. (ln l~olll'l·t ! l, WII~(}Il1 ;lI'ld Jl.~ld H. (" rilm~J ll!dllar~J. Inll!'fflillilOJl..11 ~rksllup on GO'll ·[rj.Jl"t', 7 hirc/ M!rlll.ll .rh~I"!'W }nq~ /Ttl!xiI.!i: rile IID.:!ra J;lj 1\eg'~nl~. '1JllhliHllly 01 1'11~<!\, 1997/.J

          or

          "fI~

          I""~

          _

          K A 11._ I N A C 0 ~ S TAN

          'Y I NO· D ". V I D

          Intra-Civil Society Relations .An Overview

          MQ:Stpeopleexperlence s,O-c.ie:iy me<ll1lingflil and sensible, .assumIng that, as. beyond their personal dornai ns.,~here are Instltutlo n S' that take (harg e of ve ry d rstinct fu ncucns - the stare TO r po Iltks, buts i ness for e ..onotnlcs, ~he, .cburc h for spiritual' salvation, schools for education and l'nedia for information. B'utthrQuqhout our history, a wide variety of other Qrganization's, within <H1d outside .hese lrrstiturlons, have arisen to expose societal ill's, to oppose poucies and t1rognrns, <I.l1dto propose sotutleas to issues. These Qr.ganiz.. tions have been varrouslv branded a as revolutionary or subversive ·movements. civic or prnfes,Sio n~~1rqanizatl 0 ns. prlo vate 'I/Olu I1t~ry associatlon ~~cause-one nted moveme nts, people's organ lzatlons or

          nun-qeve rument o rqanizauon s.

          if

          Poverty and tlppr.e5:;.ia rl. ~~ggra.vated bV natural d,1ld' man- made dlsa .. rs, have ste way of exposing the madequactes of the state whlle at the s.. arne time encourag· ing a level of voluntartsrn from thecltize n ry, Varlo LIS In rtial:ives have: been launcned

          that have

          soupnt to. confront

          state power by rars~.ng alternative parad i9ms and

          cou rses of action to the I@vel of publ lc debate. ,As sue h ,.altho ugh the rna i n acto 1'5 nave be'en tUditi.onally limited to the nate and Its 'inStrumentalities, bustness. the church, academe and media - all of whicJ,haye some level of rn~e(locldl19' interes.. -ldeoj!ogkal ts forces, people's orgat1izatJQn.~ and, rrm.tll later; dE1.velopmen1 in· stitution 5 and dog enc res have also bee n constant and c riti('~1 'tom po n ents 1n shaping the public d isco vrse on me CO~ 11 s d ir~qj""O , try ns
          I

          the pOW~1fo-f the state and inS.lst 0 n a culture of i nvolvemertt, is ccmmon Iy referred to as c,vil soc~et y, But cjvil soc.i~ty ls a res urrected or "born ·agai rr' co nee pr that must be defined based on the present cOring uration of sccietv .. Civl I $OCi6ty i5 a conceptthat cannot b:@ .s~Pl:Hated from the issue of" power, Standard nerspertlves on power ass u me 'that it Is I'odged in particu Ia,f pus itiorls that are feu n d 'L"i ith i'n lnstitutlens, Viewed ln this manner. power becomes a funrtinn of individuals or 'gWLlP$ that possess per-so na.1 attrtbutes - c harlsrna b r we:;:)Jlh - wh rCh ale tram> I~t@dinto ncsitlons of pmltl€ r. But powe r Can a.llsu be viewed as a relatto nal ccnce pt. one that sttuares power not ,in ns~1f but as a result of the bct that those ... vho are presumed to have powe r exerc lse U 0 nlv because others aHmotJthem to do so. herefore, powe r I s u ln rnatelv lodged Ii.I1 the hand 5 of th Oj~ who give it rattle r than In the hands of those who wie ld Jr. His th rs view of PC)W~ r that co ntatns theessence elf
          P ... I LIP PIN E D EM 0 C R. At C. Y AC END Civil .Society Mak,ing CI\lii Sodety
          ,'\

          wow. mgall izatlo n~. that <I,reacco u r\labl e 'to a deHned constltue ncv, th at contest

          Today, with che. gro.wil'l9 cO"rnpl~xjty of society, the totalttvof

          these

          !;plf.-,[( . .Hl"

          21

          22 • KARINA CONSTANTINO-DAVID

          dernccracv,
          around,

          where the state is acco untable to its cihzen ry rathe-r 'than the- other way then the: withdrawal ot.co nsent

          If power is. ba:$ed on conse notof the governed,

          is the pri marv weapon to d i mtn ish the power of those who govern. In thearena of the state.electo red exercises should be the primol.IY Q;[:(~5,i0l15 'for the expresslc n ot people's power, But within the. context of a pol ltlcal svstsm where. po Iitic~j parties have u nd iffere.ntiated ptatfo rrns, access to candidacy 'is limited by wealth. and voters are un i Manned and faced with few-choices if any! the electoral arena ceases to funcno n as the venue fer the exercise of power by the pee ple. It is because or th 15 'that varlou s .orga.n i:t,1ttO ns, today I umpsd 'together as civil society, er:nerg~ to partlclpate in 'the arena of the-state. And vet a word of caution must be ral sed, While· civil so, lety may be 'a conventem labe I forall nen-state ennues, it does not pos.~ess a 5 ulffldent paradigm to explain relations of power. NGOs have uncrnkaltv accepted th e clvl l-scctetv label and are in fact amo ng the. main vehlcles forthe popu larlzatton €If the t€m:l1, ferred to as

          i ntersectlons among com pcnent parts ofdvH socletv and the ro les they pilay In the democratlzatlon process, high lig hdng both the strat ns ln relado ns and the advances ·di1~t have been made, dna pOi,r~ting outcrttkal is,sues that nreed to be resolved for it more vibrant clvl I soc iety, The paper will be approached targ-eil\! from ehe· vantage p'oilit of development NCO!!. .

          The pape r is an attempt to desc rl be. the present ccnflquratlon of what is r~· civil society - tracing its roots" rnapptnq the terrain, ide.ntifving the

          Mopping

          th~ Terraiin()f

          CivU Sod.ety

          Be.caus~ civil socletv emerge'S from people's voluntansm and not from ally mandated 0 rder, the co rl1figu ration is IH!u:ss.arily complex and somewhat confus[ng, Witna ut assuming that the components O'f civl I soctetvcan be 'Categorized into neat boxes, tile paper will ·attem ptto he urlstlcallv ctassify the ma~nacto rs for the 5 imple purpose ofard i tlg ill analysts. Fig U re ~ is. an attempt fa delineate the mai n 'cornponents part In

          what Is referred to

          if 5

          civil

          society todav,

          All the orga;rlizatiofif!l~at intersect witb the. domain cfthe nate but are not o'f the state apparatusare dvil soc i~tv €:rrtities,. WhUe they operate with~t1 ths existl 119C'U ltu ral and ,I~CO no rnl c structures, their b.\asicth rust can, be fou nd ill the fact thatthey contest state power, individually or in concert, by attempting to transform uneq ual power re:latio)ls iii six inta rn~llate(j spheres: cou ntry and class, secto r and species, gen<!ration and g!ende r, Whd~e busines.:s gene ral Iy i nrt(':!r,sects with the .stata 0 n lssues that d~rectly concern th elr economic i nt~ rests, academe, the ch u rch and media, dUle to thel r d~s:treH~ and disparate conce rns, gener.::dly cover the whole range of lssues. NGOs. POs arid ideo I(lg~cal forces (I Fs), en the other 'hand, te nd to center thai r majc r thrusts on selected conce rns. The latter; being orgar~izatio n 5 'that are bou nd touether by.co rnrnon frameworks. and alternative societal vtsicns, ·CQncentrate largel1y en lssuesof power batweerr coumries andclasses: in the pun u it of their visions, rnuchernohasl s is also placed on 0 rgan lz il'ig rnarql nal ized sectors. POs, on 'the other hand, are mostly otgani?:rE'd around sectoral. and CQ rnrn U rlity j~sues althnugll a, str,el1gthening of women's org.aniz.ations has also resulted lrr rhe erl1ergence Q f concerns for genderi ssues. Finallv, NCOs are mostly cenre red (1 n sE'~doral! envl ron mental, gerrer,a'tforlalafld qerrder concerns',

          Figure 1 CULTlIIIf cnllL SOCIETY N'GI
          MGO "'!:'ildilm~ Chli,r~h :species

          BerOTec i v ill sod etv was reintroduced as-a CJ'tdUIIl phrase to refer to a wfd.e variety of nonstare en tit i es, a Gad eme. the
          as lnstltutio ns that: plaved very speciftc roles that Intersected with the state, The 5 lqn rfkp;nt ,P9~ tical rn eve me 1"1 t s i re also fal rfy well-del i neared even as rhev were geFlftrall'y'

          dearlv seen

          ch urch, media and busi ness. wt'.re

          1'05 Idli!Olo.gic,~1 FlIu::es

          we

          vlewed, compared to the former, as being outs ide the bounds of trad it lo na,~Iy acce pred ,ins titunons, In a l,I@ry real sense, academe, the church, media and business were hle9itimate' rn publ k perceptlcn wh iI~ the polltlca] movements were "suovers lve" of the status quo. Sectoralorqarrizations like vade unions wtregeneral,ly assoclated witt, political movements and a.11 the rest d td not req utre any' labels because they ·were largely insigrl i'ficarllt .arlyw,ay.
          ECONoDMY gentler
          Th~ growthi 11 th~ number

          of sectoral 6 rgan i zatto ns.a r1(j the m ush roornl rig 0 f

          and age n ctes that provide servrces to po.o I' sectors and (0 rnrn LI n iw~s tOIJ pled 'Ni'th various types of tn()bi Iizati 0-115 an d ether interve ntro 11StU S vally 1 n [0 nsonance with ideo1lc'gical gro LI ps.• brouq ht these gTO U P$ i_nto t he (on~[ lo lj:5tf'lE:!'~5 of the state and the lar9~r publ lc. Takinq Or! the accepted i nternauonal Iabels, these w(m~ lumped together as rIO n-govp. rrunsntal org~~rlizattons.,{NGO$l The te rrn "nongov~ rn mertt" indica.ted ~I',H these I n PQWf! r needed 'to ac kllowledge t~{eexisten CE', ~ven if they could not 'It! ite d iscern tbe. .essence, oJ sue 11,gm ups .. S(fO~I enough. there 'was g.reater [0 nfustcn with every other 9Iro.~1p being ~Olb.eJe'd N.COe·sp~as claltv 51 n ce the. other [ivil sot! ety acto rs 'Sl~ ned to. develop their ow n <l,ge es that. nci
          operated in aforrn y~rV similar

          institutions

          to that

          of service ~.gerl(:i~$.

          F~{;URE 2 further oelrn'@"Oltesthe components of t.ivil socletv that are found on the left side of Fig Lire I. CQrnparedto those 0 fl; the rlqht side, these actors are. in: t.he publlcmtnd, the-less tradltlcnallv accepted en1!fti·d that "fnt,eNel1,e Ii11·st~te func'lions H6W@w~r. is also these o[g<lniza;tiotls tbat acttvelv bring to the fore rssues it for public debars with both atte rnatlve visions as well as concrete experien L@'S atld expertmentatlons that challenge the standard ways of dol ng "things. Cornparsd to the more tradltlcnal [nstltutio rts on the fig ht side of flmR.E 1 , non-govern rnent ind i-' vlduals {NCb;), NGOs, pOs and .1 in tile shaded portion of Flc,ukE Z rna'y', for rack of Fs

          a betterterm,

          and Tra n sthat a distl ncuon b~ made between SATAOSand the rest cftheqroups tnar are ccnsidered to be part at" t iV9~ soc itty beq!Jse of the very nature of their f6 rms of im:erventiol'l, without denying the i mP9I1MC.e of the reat, Tf1i5, is, also the verv same reason that makes clvl I.. S'Dc1ety zm
          formative Ac~Jon Organi,zat~ons),. It is i rnportant

          be Co Ilecdvely labe led as SATAO {Strl~~tur:alAlternanves

          unwieldvconcept because; iI~a very real se 11 se. an undlfferentlated concept of [Ivi I socie:ty' allows the-state to appear respo nslva even as tt plays one agaJnst the oth er

          in the pu rs u it of its own ends.
          FI(iugl:- is an attempt to categorize. the' r<ln1geof 9 roups 'that are, for jack OJ.l 2 better term; comrnonsensicallv lumped under the NCO headi 1119. The Securities and E~ch<:tngeCcrnmlssion €!stimatBs that there are about 58.,0.00 nonstcck, non-prof

          2; 4 .. KA liUNA CO NSTANTI

          N O'DA)l1D

          O(9arll:zati,ons, even as rnarrv ether ~~mi'lar organizations remain wr1regi~t,ered. Internal, however; to this. Com rnun itv of organ lzattons. d i sthn:::.tiori s are obvious and four major cateqories can be dlstinguished as follows: INDI,VIDUALS. Acadamics, r-eligiou$ leaders. and various profes sionals. whose. work ime rsecrs with civi I socletv Issues but who partlcl pate 0 urslde an 0 rgOlnlzatlonal structure, are gNI\~ral,ly considered by govemmer'!t and media as, NCO ~pckespersons, Tod isti ngu i sh them I th,ey are U s'u1aUy referred to. by the NGO.commu nity, as NeG Is, S.lrictly ·.~p-e:akin9" since they are not organ lzatlons. they are nor

          oart of civil societv, Howeve t~ they plilY an i rnportant ro~e because the state accords them much I,egitin'lacy and whe.n they link up with SATADs, they strengthen the hand of those whose interventions are generally marginaHzed by tlh€' state.

          MEMBERSHIP-BAS ED o.RG.AN IZATIONS. Th,e majoritY of or9aniz~ltio M Ii sted in the Sec urltles and Exchange Co mrnlsstcn are volu ruarv mernbershlp 0 rg.ani zatlens wh kh can he fu nher subd lvided lnto PAtO (p'rofessi,ol'1a:l, ~cad~mit ~nd civic arg.:tntzattons) and PO (g rass roots people's organ izattons), POs can be further subdlvided into CRlPOs (gov@:rrunent-run!-init.laled POs) and GUAPOs-_(geriUit!i~. autono-

          F.gure

          2,
          iJ;I

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          i

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          q),

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          !ll:
          cc::: :;'il
          L.i.I

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          t.:!;

          ==

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          o::r

          § 1.1.1 c:: :2: ,,_ ~ .Vi w ::: ~ .:(
          V)

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          uJ

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          -' u' c::J

          ...

          .0 U'l W·

          E!.

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          U!..

          a:

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          Nl,il PAHI

          i

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          TANGO

          I

          i

          i

          RJNJ1,ANGO Mil ~JGO

          BASIC UNIT

          E
          .

          'N'f'Q,

          IIlGO

          WME '4' G'tl

          'MIM'T~Jm
          IPll5:P .... """"

          ~,EC(l'NDAIl.f I LEva.

          lERTl,ARY LEVEl

          J S'S'u~t S~ifOR-, ~RE.A., ",.AS_ED eQ.IlIUTIIlNS

          nDQUS people's organ lzatlo ns), Th.e CUAPQs: have organized themse lites beyo nd the . commuil ity and/or workplace th(oug h .secwl;"al: and geog raph lc all lances.

          I NSTITUTIONSj At; ENCI ES. These are tormallv constituted grass roots SI!.4 ppo rt crqanlzailens that operate with full-time staff and provide a range of services from dlrect services in co mmunttles to 5 upport 3ervk~s m;::e legal. rnedlcal. and research work, It' is im portant to d.istir)9llis1'i betwee n different vpes of I nstltutio.n5/ageru::its, because 'tiL'rEd natu r:e determtnes the dife~'~Ions and tvpes of serr vices they offer.
          DJANGOs (dE;ivelopmeli.t justlce and advocacv NGOs)_ MO'r[! commonly develbPtllell~ r'ljGb~, they pm-f9rm <l, mixture of .diren and support servtce

          lions with and rOd' CUAPOs._ Whi la thetr prlmarv form of intervention nltv and se ctora] organiz,ing - gelleralily (:atC!9!o(i ;;:.~d as ellre ct sarvlces

          cal!ed funcis comrn u-

          dl!velolJmet'lrs. I11 racant years have spawned organ!:i:atiom that provide '5 upport services (legal, medical. research, etc) .. L"'r~jely dependant on granrs, both
          foreiQlI'i and local, they'i nslst 011 {lmon~):myand m~ke no pre~!!nH) to po!:iUc<i1 neutralltv In response to the generailly micro ::md localist nature o'f th,elir work in cornrn ulllt:ie5, D,JANGOs have b~ncled lnto consortia, coalnlons and nctw~'rb that reflect a 'specific focus of work and/or 'a common development framework. From ~990, til€! C~_ums of DC~ielopme-nt NCO N~tworks ,(CODE.-NGO} has

          sslon of a higher .I~vel of unity count: ilg over :3 ,000 lndividual jh~titutiom/agenLib III .its 'membership ~'III oyer the. country. Irlitjal~y formed by" 10 national networks, CQDt·NGOrs. 1f1the process (}ft;:rf!.ltin~ r·eglQm:lI structuees, the most signfftc:arrt of wilrdl are M'U-1COOE. in Mfndan2l.o and VISNET In the Vi£ayas, ~ide by side with CODE-NGO are ~(?,C:toraland Issue-based coalitions that cUlt acros s fretworks and focus Oi;J baste issue.s·likc. women's rights, environment. peace, and the "foreigl1 daht, In NQvembf!rof J 995, CODE·NGQ,
          been thil expre Green Forum, the vVcnneili '5. Action Ne"t,War'r< for Develop~nem ('WM11)), and rhe National Peace C.ollfmenc·e (NPC), sLgrt~d Tre:aty of Cooper. ti;OIl aimed at furtiler .s.Yll!ch'fclrliz;lng and conso~idatlng Nco rlaHidp'~Hollin c.ivil so.ii~ty. Out-

          a

          mambershlps

          side of CODE·NGoa:re other networks ,50m e of whlch have ove dappI ng' whh C:ODE-NC(;:r,IJke Convergence fQr COrl1 rnurilty-Centered AnM
          (CONVERG EN'CEJ, Philippln.e

          Developmem

          $ ustalnable

          A9Iri

          cultural

          L.oali tion
          (PHIUNk),

          (Pt-IILSAC), Pihillpp] ne I)~ve.~oprneilt
          Agrarlat:1 f:l::eform ~d •

          NCOs for 11l~E!rFIatl Qq~I.cf'}"nr£'rf'l~
          S,tudie.s {PARR[)S).

          NCO Co IJn0;;; fbr Coop.~!I'atilJe De.i/el,op'm~m iI Rur~1 D~'velo.rrnent

          (NGO.~CCO}, and Partllen,hip

          for

          TANGOS {traditlcnal NGOs)_ CharHfilhle.

          wdfa;r~. and reH~f orcanizatlorrs. they perform val uablft services for the poor, Whrl~ th~y Inten·ett with POs and DJANGOs ,~h~iI' primary focus remains 011 pro'lidln~ as ststartce to l1iarg'inalized lndlvlduals and ra.mi lues,

          FUNDANGOs
          galilizatiol1s

          (fLlllding a~eiicy

          NCO~)_ These fcundatlens

          are IInked to' gra$5ro'O~!i or~arii ~<lth>l1~pl'iinar.llY

          'fin<llld<llal1d other forms of S·U'PP.Q.rt.Over t.he last sevell .initi'afiVi=s of CODE-NCO" networrks and ccalitlons, <l number Fi..mdirlg me"ch;;lnf~ms h.9:ve bi;!~ri set up.

          ,;J;nd 'gr,ant-givlng pro thro:llgh pro\;idir,g years, thrOll19h the
          of NGO·rnlanag(!d

          MUNCQs (mutant NCO:». The! growlln.g recognition 01 ;he role of NCOs, the Ollval!lltltil e of f... ds 'from 'fore igild on Cine s.peciall y af~ (! r th e fa II of the M.;irc.Os m dictat'or~ hip,alld the g:overnrnl!mt's dec! Solon to engagE! NCO services in the impl'eml!ntoaIlon of progro1lms resulted tn the pmIJre.rahot'1. of N9<iIli'zatit)n~ wtl~~e

          essence w~s reallva mU't:aUOrJ of thg;(}r;igl.ha~ spirit ef NGn~._The larg~~ numbQf' are GRINGOs (government nmllt;:i'tia~ed NCO) that are es~~ntially ·exten· s~(m5 of the ~t~te or p·en.ona,i Iinler,esh <

          Related Interests

            ? theyan= lUtu,ally set up by politicians and 9<wernment Tuncti 0 11a,ri es , Because of their nature, these tirga"i zarlcns perform $'~~if-s'ervlt'llJ ltm!;ti9ns and comer Bi::JveHilm-ent~Qntractsand pQrk batrei 'funds. AJ,tl'WlJ,gh there are ~USil1eH corporations that are, 1nvolved in gellUirle" s oclal deveioplfHHlIt a,ctivitleSi,BONGOs (b~i£in~sYQrg.anJzed NG,Q) mf~r to those that m:e created prlrnarl Iy .]I-S tax dodges" vehlcles for quellinq labor unrest, or means to project a. benevolent cornpany hnage, FQI1.<:!lly, COME N'G.Os the {NGO entrepreneurs) relate to fly·by-night ,organizations that package proposalsand pr(lmpt~y di,.s<l'ppeOir with the funds ~"_rld/or work the fl,lrtdillig g.ame.. by hi,ing themselves out 'to large donor orqanlzations. tlecause of the relatlvs e<l~~inseUing up ~nd r~~;;Mteril1.g I'wll~;(Q(k, nen-proftt ot,ganiz<l.li,ons and since there is no svsternatic m.onitorinfj by the Sec;mities all1dExchanqa Commlsslnn. ~h.er~ is .a grnwl.ng number of such organi7.a:tiollts, . ~.r '. IDEOlO,CleAt fORCES. Throl,.lgnput Philippine hlsto.ry, state tNW0F has' always bee ncha iIen g,ed bv argailll;:;ar tons th ara rtl cu I~te. .aherrl<H iw i d ~ol o'9.ical paradigm s - communism, national demm:;r:acy, pUflU'I:¥ (l.ernoa-ac~',SJDciali,sm', demo-

            crane sociallsrn, scclal d'em~cracy, I slamk flationatlsrn and ~ib{ilr,,,~r:!er'rlocr<tey. Thf!ir id{\ologkal and or,g;mlzafional frameworks defihe not only thefr <lltem;;],rlve vlston but abo the.irnIsponse5 to is ~WH. A !>i,gcn~'fh~<lnt number of PO.s and DJANCOs are directly orlndire:etly infliuenced b}, the:;e'id~o'logic,a1 forces. The CUAPQ:s, the i(jeolog leal :forc:es and the DJIANGOs intersect [see the shaded arearn FIGURE1. not cnlv atthe I,evell of'are·a/sector/issl)e·tp5~d 2 ecalmons but aliso
            in dav-to-dav
            0 peratio

            t1s..

            Tracing the Roots of Civil Society
            HaVing mapped out tlletHraln that is civil soctetv todav, there .:; a need to retrace the past in 0 rder tn understand the prase nt conflquratlon S'" Although lrrstltutlons and ll'ge!1cie~. those who have consistently referred to themselves as NGGs. are the latest actors in what is, cal,lled civil societv today, th is paper will fccu s on th~eir evclutlcn 'd,nd the dynamics that characterize. 'their reiarions witI-! the other

            cornpo ne nrs 'of civl I society Md 'the 5cil.te~

            The B.eg;innings
            Althoug h today's develo pment NCO co rnmu nity to the decade of the 1960s., proto-NGOs existed Spanh; h cotontzarton.
            Mi:lC~S

            US direct' hlstorv

            0 nlv

            tnrouqnccoperanves. local reactions toxolcn lalism, and the trade u nion muvernent - du ring the period of
            In the early 1900s the Amariran colo I1ta'govert.ul1~mintroIRdigiol,JlS and (ivli;: activities.

            d uced a 'few welfare agencies.lhE'! devastation brcuqht about by World War ~Iintensified the rie~d for Felh~f,welfare and reconstruction Qrgani;,;:iil.ti(m~ pioneered tn these affo rts.

            The main to ntender for state poW~r, however, was trre. cornmu ili.st movement led by the Partido KDmu n tsta ng PiI i plnas {PK~}. Rural and trade u nlo " organ I:;(irig

            rnunlsr movement

            before World War II, the. HU KBALAH.APan'ti-JOlpanese stru·ggle. and-the postwar co rnposed <I. forrnldabla challenge to the fJ'edgling Phillippine state, Apart from Americall·supp'ort~d govern me nt prQgrams that focused on rural developmenr in anefrort to u nee rmi rH~ tne 9 rowing po pulanrv of the PKP and its mass-based orqanlzano n 5, the pnvate sector and the Roman Catho Iic Ch urch were the most active in antl-Cnrnrnunist in itiatives. The jesuit-based Insti1;ute of 50cial ,Qrder{fSO), formed in ] 947, trued to counter rhe cornm Unist-l ns plrsd peasanr and labor movements thro ugh the Federatloa of Free Farmers (fFF) and the Feder,Hld n 0'( Free Workers (FFW). 10 1 9S 2; the PhUippine R.lJr'lJ ReCOnSLn.KtionMo v.eme nt (PRRM) lmplernsnted all i n.t€!gratedi packaqe of services that wa$ designed to fu rther undercut peasant support for the communist movement. By the' early 1950$, the PKP leadership had been arrested and the movement had almost tottliHy' dnsirHegr'ated, WhHe we lfare workcontlnued and th'e Roman Catholic Church expanded its .parish-based actlvntes, '~h.egovernment passed new laws and ·set up ~'t1!!!: Presldential Arm on Co rnrnu nlty Deve loprnent (P.4CD). The: rCl.llllyrng (ry was commu.n.ity deyelo:prriefltsanitation. livelihood, backyard gardens, beautlfkation - even as the structural roots that. anciro red popu lar sUPPO rt for the comrn LJ n lst rnoverne nt remal ned unaltered.

            Questioning

            DominQnt Paradigms

            Fo,rabouta decade, the countrv was. "pactfled." But the i 9(;)05 brought on tind Va't·icanII rock~d the Roman Cathcllc.Church.
            dependency

            '4PSlJrg'e of.activitylfi al most Pill q uarters of the 9 lobe, As the theorogy 'Of ~~berJtion '~iv.esof another development challenaed trad ltlonal modemizanon p<1.fClldig ms, M anti-colon i·~1wars were waged and won; student acnvls m, cMI rig hts, and women's liberation movements fLlrt.her eroded traditio.hal paradigms.
            had a dvnamls m of its own t'ha~ could rIO fonge r be contai ned witMn a rigid fra,meWQfk of the old partv, The ne:w Communist Party of the PhilLpclues (CPP)emerqed, cna:llenging theolder generation and ado-pting Maoism and .nartonal damocracv as a response to the more traditional Soviet mode. On another frtnit. '~he'FFF and FFW mentors also tried to strengthen a student wing. But like thetr more radical counterparts. a mew generaHor] had be-en born. Soctal demQ(r,,,~y was the j r fa lI,y~n9 cry. studentactlvlsm

            an

            theory and perspec-

            The Ph il i pplnes was no exceptio rio Re mnants of ~h'f!. KP revived th~ pat1y, but P

            Un IJ.ke rhe prevlous pe dod when the lines were' drawn Qu.ite. neatly betwee n tl1i~ state and the dornlnant ch urch on 0 ne hand" and the. commu nist movement on th'@ other; the altlances and the en mitieS were not as dear-cut. TI1~ .rulhig elile was tn d iSiinray. Allgro ups cllal..lenged state power and at the same trm~. bitterly fOl)9 ht each other. This rivalry man ifested itself, not ·only ill the student movement hut also in dwn:11 instjtunons. labor federations and the peasant movement. In the Muslim south" fv1mo natiorfalism, efl9.endered by vearsof negrect <lind dlscrimtnatlon, was also on the rise, Structu roll determl nartts of pove-rty we're no IOllger igllo:red, they we re the centerof th,@ debars. Afrelnzy of co mrnu nity. orga.nizlng (CO) ci1raIJeng@d the old COI1tCept of com munity rrevelepme nt. Sign ificant during th is perl-od was the o,rgJraizatlon of thf Philippin~ ECIJ,menical Councll for Community Organi;;riti,g (PECCO~,the establlshment of rhe.Zo ne One "rondo Organ tzatlon (ZqTO), and th erne rgenc€' of 'the urban poor as a vtnd sector.

            e

            ----------------------------------------

            28

            • KARIN~

            CONSTANTINO-O'IWIC

            Academe, from whkh rhe student movemertt sprung, also responded with extensio 11. na,miJ1g and research lnstiturtons. A, revlval 0 f 1nteresr In (00 pe ratlves was also taking place. 'l1!sp~(iil.lly tn he VfsO'l.y~). <I,nd Mll'ldanao T"eSl'iol'ls. Within the rellqleus orgatHlauons. ;deol'ogwcill perspectlves were: a.15,0gaining 9 feu nd, ThE NOiI

            Related Interests

              nonal Secre1.arlal for S'o'c~al Action (NASS.A)" the soc lalactlon centers. and the basic Chrtstian comm.Llnny (BCO approach were manlfestarlonsof this Fel me nt, The buslne ss sector abo n~J,'ponded th rOLJgln the tcrrnatlon of the PfliUppine. BU5 ness to. SOCial P.rogre:U (PBS) and I;ner, together with the n;OrJIall Catha~ic CI1urrh, the Bl~hor.s·B.uSi,if1es5.men's CCHif~~e ncE' nmC) fa r Total Hu man Deve:lopm nt was formed.

              Th Marcos

              Sepua rnber 197 i..
              Punll,ing struggle

              state bes leg d by all these deve loprnems, declareo maruauawin
              I'

              'CI1,ange Urn,d,er R.e,p:rossliDn

              Martial law fo'reed many sectcral leaders and student actlvtsts ro pLI rsue th~ und(!rgro und, Other!) CiJI~'uioliJlsh' es 1.1 riled' open actlvlues under rhe au s· r plces of the church, academe. 011' cocperatlves. SUI! erhe rs attewed themselves to he
              coopted

              by the Marcos dictator~lhip.

              The ideolog Gcaldlvi510ns and s,us.picions Q,r the pre-l 972 period wer~ del~ply ilmht!dded. PECCD expanded Iits r raj and urba» organi:z [1'19efforts, eMI hlflg its in ltia~ Saul A~~nskv fro1lm~work w~th snare hes of Pa~lo 'FrE!~re; theology of liberatlon, Marxrs m, an d structural OIl1alysls .. AlthO" gh id~olog leal diffe'rfl.rlCeS - recru ltrnent of people's org,arlizations, into ideologicat g'rOIJIPS, whetherto have II nks wft~l rhe undergroluod mevernent 0:1" ot, dlfferences in ~Ira.'£egie~ and tactlcs -soon n led ttl ~h~ spl it of PECCD if"! 1917, vaneus ,gmE.IP:> conrtn LIed to develo p Xh,!'! ccrrtrnunltv of9~"nrzJI"I9 concept Into wha it is toda . As rural and urban orgalll'liziiilllgco ntlnued, coope:rarivh expanded, and welfare
              Institutions grew, he manlal Ia period binned new issues and concerns. MoSt slqniflcant amo ng these we~ the 01i"Q-flniz atto 111 that focused on h uman rigtns vlo5, lations like tile Task. Force Detail1leles ot: he Philippines (TFDP). In a drarnatlc rever'sal of the antl-Comrnunist [role of the chu:rlCi'H'!'$ in the 1950'S, rnariv of the. i r'Ii'ti~dive~. most sspecta Ily cornmumrv Ofgiiltnlzhlg. tha pushed the dictatorship to its Iiimit5 w~re i fi1i'fiall~d crsupported by [he Ro man Ca.droh,c 3111d ProteStant ch urches.

              But the generation of the 1 96Us and' 970s that opted [0 rernal n 011 the Ilegal fro III did not stop at the relanvecemfcrt of church support. By th is tl me, the ge· nerlc label NCO was a:lready being IJs'ed ~n imern,aUonall clrcles. New NGOs: were se-t up by th~ i11 i d·' ~HOs. de:a1ing tth $o(i'a!1 deve lo pment iss ues on a largely community-based lavei, AUhol.lgh hil1: student mevsrnent was ln hibernatiort irnmeai<lrtt:lly after ] 972, lts Fev!,Y<lil was spurred by :)eve re tYphoolls and floods a Few vears later. lef work, as it did To the past, the de moli[io n of S'qU21Ue.r sharntes and g rowl ng labor unrest, paved 'h,~ way for exposure prog rams w hlch became tile hu mall resou ret! base for 1 he: g[,f(lW og NGO (OmmL.H1Hy,

              Ft~'

              Wh lie 'lheconditlOllS IJ n er martial law prodded NC:;Osto create new strat ~gl{!;~ Olrld to develo p a culture ,MrenHl'[ from Hun of i'LCUivist rganil';,atio ns, the ideologj· o cal dlvlstons ecnunued. lDe~pite thts, ~ (;Os opened UID new an::I1U~ of struggle. Apart fro rn h umatl rig,lhu, 'the Cordl,Uera peopte·s S'trug.gl~ ag3in Sf rlleCM i I) d am project,

              MusHm~Chri5t

              tan dialog ues, indlge eus P'I!Opi I!! '5, r1gllt5.

              f

              nvi ron mental ac-

              tiviS.m;the women's movement, cons umer protectton, cultural WQ rk, children's- concsrns, and even oarnctpauon in the 1978 Batasan Elections made for a vibrant NGO "Community despite disunity, Compared to the present, the NCO cornmu r)ily WOI.5 f@llatively smalland althouqh there were pol ltlcallv Independent NCO.5 much of the actlon during this period was In ccn] unction witt, ideoloqlcal fa rces. As such, NCOs WE;fe huge~y labelad as, beionging to one force or an'oth~r! furlrdier creathig disu tliW·,
              B~t ~he lad: of unltv and the relative isolation of cornmun rty-bJ5ed approaches 1\:1 Ied to t h~ need ftir n etwo rkl 11g ..Th e wei fa r~ 0 rgan tzat to n s a Ire adry had a rlet~ st) ~;;oVk froin the 'I9 50s. The cou neil of WeIfive FOUfldati.onsof the Philippines ,Inc, (~WAFPI)was the foreru nner of the N.1Honal! Council of Social [)evel,opment Fa undatlon (N'C5D). PBSiPi fa unded i·n the early 19705, was also a netwo rk of bus i ness corporations as well ascfthose NGOs it supported ..The Assoclatlo 11of ~Ol~ ndatlo ns

              (A,11 was also establlshsd durl ng the.early 'I970S. These three

              I'~NWo rks

              represe'nted

              tared some restrtctlons.

              less ,pol!itrcaJNCOs. NA$SA, the Protestant National Council of Churches lin the: Phillppines (NCCP) and rhe EClJmen leal Center for Development (.EeD), which was .orgarliLed rn 197·8. were more. political (lrthough'therr insmu't~Or'Ial church base necesslTtl@

              Natlorral Asscctatlon

              tives (NATCCQ)_,he' prec urscr of the present NatrlCinal Ccnfederattcn of Coo perat tivM" was a;response to the atte.mpts of th@ Mar-cos dtctatorshlp to requlate cooperatlvss. While ·NATCCO was not overtly pollttcal, many oJ irs leaders w~re crucial partklpants i,nthe. setting Up the Pilipi no Democratic Pany (PDP}.bther sectoral. regional and naHorial networks were also. ·in tile Pil'OC~Ssof formation d L~r'i g rhts n pe:rtod. One of tne·se WaS the Phrltpptne Partnershlpfc rthe Devel:opme:rl[ of Hu man ReS01Hce.s in Rural Areas (PHILOlhIRRA) whicn was formally launched in 1983.

              of raln. 11:9ce ntsrs of Coopera-

              of

              As the Marcos regime got and clvl I sccletv started to flex into- the country, Tile dlcrarorsh 'thr~a.t!i,raids, .arrests, salvaging Iqnger be abo rted,

              more and mo re tsolared (jonthe i nternational frOnt lts muscles, greater lnrernattcnal sup-port flowed i pres ponded with various forms of represstorr - but the growth mthe NCO co mrnun ity could IlO

              Openly ChaUenging the Didato~ship
              The ~983 assassl nation M Ben"igno Aquino galvarti;;::<e_d nation wide prorest a. movement that was posslble ollly because of the painstaking work tfmt ideological forces, PO~ and NCO's had already undertaken. The pa·rticipaHo.rJ of the middle da.!):s,,out.rdi,ged by the assasstnarlo n and reeling fmm'the ecc nomic crists, fu rther enhanced the antt-dictatorsh tp stwg:gle., The "parJ lament of the streets" fa reed erstwh'ile e.irH~;m~ie.!S coalesce. There was a frenzy of a_ctivity., arid coal ltlon-bu i Iding to was the name of the. ga,me. Even NGOs and POs that had tried 'to shun cutrlqht pcllttcal lnvolveme nt were drawn into ttl@ mass mO,Vem!HH and llteraltv forced to mak¢ painful dects ions on whit h ideolog real force they would identify with. Duri ng tills period" the. ideological forces cou Id be broad Iy cateqo rlzed into the national democrats. soctal.demcc rats, I lberal de rnocrats, and the i ndependenr demot rats. In the midst of alrnost-dal Iy rallies and demonstrations,
              .. rg<lnlzi ng work: ex0

              At the same tl me, all ann-Marcos forces - ideo logical fo rces, NGOs., POs.. tradltlonal poli!tc<lll parries, bu.sJiles$ groups, churches, profssstonal orqarnaatlons -

              parlded and more. NGOs and 1'05 were: fo rmed, The tern per of the: tlrrres provided fertjh~9 round for mobilization but tt also. she rt-ctrcutted the process of organizing_

              needed to band toqerher
              tions.

              hlf'lW

              what w'en' later called "cause-oriented"

              organiza-

              The Iusuce fo r Aq ulnc, JUi-S ice for AU UAJAl movement was the broadest a,ggrup( ticn, Including ~II dieo,11 ic.aIIforces as well as he tradittonal politi-cal parog tlas: But Jdeologl,cal differe:m:~s. SlcJS,pu:u:) ns 0 f Ihrdden agelul~., and a bas is of tmitY that defined what to nghta.gil.ins~ but nora concrete dlrectlcnto fighr for, all con-

              tributed 'to' COI1S'liln1 mtrarnurals, JAJA spl:vt and all he succeedlnq attempts at anrl-drcratc rs hip coal luons - :KOMP~l1 COiR.D. SAYAN - were shon -I iv@d <lnd 'ht'ld,

              Th' tradi~ionlll politici ns were the first '(0 drop 0 LI'l. A~though ecordmanon stall took Dltu:e. 't~lE~Y were no lo ng€:F OF9dn Iz~tltmally withbif11he fom:(~e:d.ng (oa.li' lons. ,By the tl me BAVAN spllt In 1985, Only the national d~ll'Iocrats and a rle\t! ind,vl~du lis remained. The IIbe.r I democrats wen Hi~ fl rst 'to W~'llu.lraw, a day before the GAVAN congress I' the 50( ~a~ democr7Lts bolted out dklli]rlig ehe COlilgre!.i, arHJ a w,eek or so ait, r. the Independent democrats ;)1$0

              as members ... narrower range of OI"gOllnl:li'llians.

              decided to leave.
              Developm m NCOs nd new orks Glictlv,I'll particlpatee in the mass rnovem nt, 1<li'9e::ly ttl roug il mass aC:11,ons. 'Ti'u:ut' who were alr@ady ldentlfled witll spectftr ldeelog leal forces, and whose ~eoadrer5h~~ overla:pped, generally fo llowedthe sI',lhs and turns of the allti-dicla:tonfdp str'luggl@o. As (his struggle rock center tJge. a Spil'l! of voluruansrn filled theair; lin: :!inap elecuons called in late 1985 mobWzed ~II seefa rs, Except forthe naucnal d mocrats IN, 0 called for a bovcct the rest partietpared through vartous m'eans rangln,g from von~ r educatlcn, 'to a camp,aigll 'for
              !

              clean elections.

              to cutrlqnt

              support

              f'or~IH~(;

              Related Interests