PHILIPPINE CIVIL SOClETY

~~n THE GLOBALIZATION DISCOURSE

I'obllsbcd b.'

TH.IRD W0R,l.,.D STUDrES CENTER.

College of S'i)~: iii I SGi CI1~CS aud Ph il GSOp Ill" l'alma.l-laH ~~a~eJnen~ U [J ivers ity' 6 f the Phi li pp lnes, IJ i Il~iHIH. QHel.L"m C i1). Ph r I i pp i nes

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Co ..... ~r p{W~~ C~Ji~~: H~n["Jckt· >:an Eldik Thieme of l L I L 'II 311d Stop dlle'l\'~,,~ R,JlIrI\l (SNR) Coaii.ti(}n.-Phi[ippil~es.1he p~Q.~o wa~.:wkeJ) during [he put~ljc launching ofSNR-":a campaign coalhlon focused OJ) making the Pt.iiippiru; government break the con .. ensus iii [he ~(h WTO MiniSH:rial ~1ccling in CallClIIT. Mexierr.

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'CONTENTS

List oj tabies

Ust of a~;Ti(mymt Ackm~nvIedgments A.b.otJt the author~

Prejaee by Mirimn Coronet Feuer

1 l~TRODUCTION

~ THii: MANY FACETS OF GLOBALIZATION

~J" CO~'VERGENCES IN ISSUES ill'll) KEY A.REA..s OFCONCEI&

4 RESPONDING ToO TIm CIIAl.LENCRS OF GLOBALIZATION

5 CHALLENGES _4.ND REFLECTIONS ON THE GtOB!UIZATION DISC01.JRSE

A pp e nii'ice s lJibliogrqphy lndc;r

VI VH ;")(

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53

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N \FrA NCH, Nfl!. Nt;o OIM IJErn

UF\I\' OWINFS PAJolD PMW'i • .\MA

PO

prl

f'RRlIl PUr..'l.\ l~'\G

1 n tl' r 111 a t l0111io l Fi 0 a nel ill 1 [J sri tu tin [J lnternatiunal Labor Organiz.atiol1 1.1) tr-rnarional !donetan.-. Fund Iridigenuus Peoples' Ri~hts Act

Killl.sr.:rl1g RfJllbHd~ (Rollback ~io"''CJlH~niJ Kilw;an:g MU(jCleJbukid ng Pilipinas

r. Peas a 1) t M ovemen to" ttl€" Phi] i ppines I Kilnsnng MU.!Jo [.'rm (M~)' Firs MOV1'!m~ulJ Kilu ... c.m pal"(! .~j] PambajJ~aJtg D'emo~ro~:!Ia r~[O\ ~m('1'1 for ~ Li('1n,11ism and [)~moc.n:ti:rl Llrncnma M ultlpurpose C(lopuatl"~ MoJtilalerill A5,ee"m('nl nn Invesrrncm MI!t"codo ('amun d'i SlU'

(~7of'l'lmol'l rd.a rket of t he "mall I

MO:f"1 f,.Horril i'iJliun

:'iulul l.oglsln:~ Snppotl "o\.~re' rnem MIll in .. i'lnlll ('o.-paT tion

Mlnd,Ul,u 1-11" .. 1 Cun [t':'>"

1~dj\lm 'f ~ rl:1l Phi iiprir.t· I)c', eloprn 'Ill Pla!'! \I,ni(ln\nti!! ClIll]iUnn nf F!slu·,f(j~k,.. for

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Overseas I' lhpu'!l;.1 Work~~r

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PWldaYfl'll pam !i(J SQs.!'Ill{isttmg PiUpmas

(Forging a Sodall5t Ph lli-ppillC.<; I

Philrppine l"Jevel.opmem NCO ~~'l\~otl,; frrr Jm.ernanonal COni:Ern~

People's Organi:2.:Jliuj]

Philippine Peasan I nsriture

Pllihpprne Rural Recunatruetjon ~'to\'tmelilt J1a.mbat!sang trY.Hlilan r1q flt9G Muftlomaya.n £abaft -a Liln!rulisa_;'Yfin 11~ .4!]ri.hl~nH·a (N aticnal People'S! .'-t! 1 ,.,~(}r\: Agai n.::l Agrkull ural Libera llzatinn)

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,~t'rat'a MJ IktJl1l1J'llo.a flg Kcrh~tuw.mg ilgll{lm or Tf!kno(uhh)i:J (Center EoI' the Dt', elopment !'ll Indigenous Science and Technclcgy I

Stop-lite· N'ew-Rmmd Coalitiou ..

sonthern Philip.pif!l!~ Federation (;If 1 ,,10m ~\.")$y~.{fsl('Hlg PQl'rf~:i(j ng P(!~!i(rl~'G

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Tn! nsnation .. 1 C~J rpcration

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PREfACE

; 'Glo bal ~.zatio:n." can eertai nly 'be eonsidered "the mother of all issues.' I It has profound economic, political, cultural, environrneutal and scienfiflc causes and effects, Its forces are spread out from the higgest to the smallest ba . rangays, and its impact penetrates aU spheres: of gut planetary anti human lives, A feminist perspective U'U'Ij' que$tion the use of tl· biological and social rcle assigned to women to de!jc'I'ibc '<i phenomenon thathas been both lauded and maligned. But then, similar to Wumeo.'s-presIC.ribBdroles,.globalizoatioil has been the subject of much contention. It has, like the female .agent, given 'bi rth to numerous- sibling phenomena.

This.·s-wdy cond ucred by the UP Third World Studtes Center frcrn 2001~2Q03 attempts to capture the: many facets of globalization as seen by selected civil society organizations in the Philippines, mostly located 01) the 1e-f1-hand side of the political spectrum. In d~ll:!il; it maps out how these groups' perceptions and analysis diverged ~rid converged frurn one aspect to another, SJJ:ch a spreadsheet of analytical pcsiticrring among the selected organizations- could presumably be tracedtovariations ill ~deQl.ogic.al orientation, Ieadershtp, ccnstitueney, and organizational concerns and prl.orUies_ B1Jt gil the. end, they point to areas of potential collaboration, soimpertant in generating -5cignificant and .sustained resistance or reform, where needed,

Amo!1g other findings, the :Study saw that somehow, ideological differences that have drawn lines of distinction if not separation among center-to-lett Philippine ciyjl society groups are also visible in their respective globalization discourses. Among the more po1i tical gro ups, their respectl ve app reciati on of the nature 'and role of the state and of global capitalism, and alternative visions pred isposed them tl} a particular stand and type of activities, Sectoral groups hav€lllnderSl;;mdably been tuned in on the specific impact of c*)utemporary,glnllali7,ation on their sector. Some may haveactuslly been. too focused on staring-in-the-face issues suchas demolitions, and hOllsinf)'nee;Qs. thatthelinks to global structural frames have not been made explicit.

The study's relevance is Qf course anchored on the need to grHpple with contemporary globallzatlon-the beU€!r to see, hear, taste, touch, smell it; and correspondingly embraceJ~epil(1i'·ate,

To conclude, the study plV,"i~tff a kind of a freeze frame of the current discourse Oil globalizatien in the' counti}'. "-c realize that what we were tracking down is a rncving picture. AHgornents and perspectivas change over time. Structures are difficult to transforml dismantle but not impossible. C\TrJ if ont~' gradually. In capturing a moment in the evolutlnn of Philippine civil slf'loCi~t~- and in relation to an overarehing phenomenon in the eontempcrarv \o\'Qdd, w'e hope \ .. 'f' were able to mcaningfullj contribute to efforts to ~,t'neratc greater understand ing among ehl:ln?;e-agt'nl ~ on basically shared concerns and g.oa 1<.:

;\liri a m COl'lollel Ferrer Former TW&" Dir~('tlll- 1'.1 arch .2004

X)'l

Chapter 11

INTRODUCTION

The globiiliz;atiol1 IJro~:C'Ss hag greMly reIJ1'gul'lize"cl th economic, political and aoeiu-culturn! structur s of many soelerles Clud eountries (Shnrl, t(97). Thu (~h~11ges WWtl~~h'f by glohali7iatiol'l have ur m u lated OJ. til 11 ge of resp onses. ELates h ave re-f~ I igned thei t pr 10ritl es :tnd t(jrei~n policles in the name of gl.obed competitiveness and eccnomic Integruticn. New economic tnstitutions have been formed to oJirbitrrl:k the r.apidly ooU~~plling tradf:1. hat'ri~l"g ~nd managea new world economle order brought about by globalization. A('..aderni(~' ill various di!ldjJline8 have. tried to grapple with the notion or gl.obalization by expluring arH.l snalyalng itl5 interrelated dimensions and irnpltcations. Civil scelety actors are redefining their own missions and lUrategie..s to be able to expose, euunteract, or work with lhe lrrrpaet of a globalizing world order 011 various a ispects of sO~'ii.l.l life. The discourse on the globaljzatton phenornenon has certaJllly been rieh but contentious.

_ . The nature and trajectory Qfglob£lli%aLioil has been hotly debated in loca], regional, and international arerras over the past years. Today. there. is broad recognition 0'£ the need for further studies, more dialogues, and diverse venues that would enable pcllcy:nakers. civil society players and the .academic community to gain tresh perspectives in analyzing the. reality in whichcurrent tasks are frm:neJ.. Before events within the globaliziug envtronment eompletely

overrun the relevance of this inquiry, the need il) J::.)stE'IDatize new concepts and ideas into a more coherent pattern is seen as an important aspect of this 0\·cI1111 effort,

TIlls study compares and eentrasts perspectives of selected organized civil society grt}UPS in the Philippines vis-a-vis the globalization discourse. As elsewhere, civil society groups lit the Philippines defme ana address the impact M giobalizatlon from different perspectives. Their analyses, pnsltions and responses toward globalization vary according to their understanding of the issues, their expe rtise, 0 r-g a !'I izati onal TOCIJ sand p olitica 1 o Mentation. The study thus a tempts to consolidate and plot views and responses of selected Philippine' ~~lyi] society groups nn contemporary gluha1h:atioll DiYCrgellc·es and convergences III .. nalyses and responses IIfC identlfied tn arrive at a more mfcrmed and nuanced understanding of gklbl'llh" .... rion and its impact especially on the l;tOm and on '~he (OUTItry"~ development trajecttt!lry

This ~t1Jl~" ~\arted .... ilh 11 'l.tmp"lc airn to increase the baseli ne data of the glnbalizatiort d1~~OUr!H~ trem the perspective nf d;. U society 'U"lOTS in the Philippines, From this straightforwarrl goal.Jhe studv developed i'lnd provided il more ~'::;t~ml:ltie means of und(;r~tl1nding tbe p rspectives nl selected civil society actors on f1.1obilE~'lljoi1. t, offered its own analytical rnrnew ork r;tlntaimug \,""riublt1,~ and factors that were deemed slgnlficant to the aualysrs 0 the g_lobaliw1 ion discourse ill the Philippines. 1 n the end It seeks 0 answer the enr research qUi.:!ilion.Wfwl arc th« (J reasof ccuuer9cncc tlnd (lil'er!Jcw;.~ w,jff! J"(~qn1"d ro the dcfiHitiml/ a.md,e-r·stancrin9. key poUe!; urea.s of caUC,frn (md acticms ",ul re ... ~pi;l115e-.S' on 91(}~aJizalicm of Sclec:lcd Phila'ppinf'cll1it .,:iO~ltlry m.'~u":.<1i from the left to Olff reruer 4 rhe politiCld :'lpt!t" I rum ?

SIGNIFICANCE: OF THE STUDY

Globalization while largely econorrac in nature, has many facets and cuts acr-oss ecenonric, political, soelal and cultural domains. As a result, .! wide \'a.riet) of PhlHppine civil society groups+Irom issuebased or sectoral advccaev organizations to national political organi:tati.ons-h<ln:~ expressed various enneerns and responded in d iverse ways to the challenges and opportu nl li~s. pOi5{~1] by contemporary glchalizatiou. In light of this. there is, a wide range of understanding as to the nature ana trajectory ofglobalization in the philippi nes and elsewhere. Some groups reject globalization outright, The more discerning OI1t!,s weigh its nega ive and positive dimensions and selectively eriticizc the threats posed by it as they uphold its potentlal for advancing other causes such :1S democracy and

I r'ltrudu clio n

J

development. Still others focus only on singular aspeets of globalization (e -, ?, its impact QU agriculture, women. culture) significant to their sectoral concerns.

Differences in. civil society's understanding, analysis and strategies pertaining 'to g]oha1i:il,ation spring frum discrepancies in long-held frameworks, group interests and preferred strategies, among other factcrs .. While understandable given the diversity of d\'ii 5o-ciety groups in the Philippines, such differences heve led to minhnal initiatlves fur collaboration between groups, as wen as I:':QDtentiom~ relations ln policy-setting forums, Consequently, they hRYflWeSkened the potential of civil society as a whole to provide meaningful interventiun ill local, national and global arenas where matters of direct importance are decided,

This is not the first analysis (If Philippi ne respc ItSeS to 1I;1oblllizEltion. A study of the lnstltute for Labor Studies (l999) is notllbh: for its cxarnlnatlon of till'! globalization diseou rse from the perspectives of trade unions. ruanagement and government. n documents the prot!Cl"rtirlgs of the roundtnble discussious and workshops conclueted in the three major regions of 'th~ country; Luzon, Visf.lyas and Mindanan. This published material includes ;l mapping oj' resp lUlli'S of spcc,Jic trade unicns and their understanding nf globalizalicJn; the rnacru and micro issues thlIt they highlight urul 011'11' pnlicy ,etorml1~nd.alir.m:,;:.

Blll ,hi..' !fisk of this hook dU[!;:r$ rrom previous studies. It aspires not T'nerety to report ~ntpiric111 nndiu&!i but to analyse critically the glcballzutlun discourse from the perspecnves of other selected civ-il sm:.ic'ty l1rgilJriizatiollt> <1nd not just trsdc LInlWlS, By id~ntifying ~OflVf'rgeo~~c3, whilu acknowledging differences in these groups' analyses <I.Dd concerns, potential areas for rnore collaborative and more ccnsolidated lnitiatives=sueh as issue-based actlnn+can he Identified, It is Easler f01" groups to cOO'llCl'gC around specific issues nnd.Ia.I~r o~. benefit f .. om strength in combined action. Levellng-off On their varied ullderstandtngs of and positions tmva:rd glebalizatkm e~I.l,[d al:s_o lead tn CIt'W perspectives and a more inclusive synthesis. (l\'J.I sO(;lel)' players have expressed a noticeable gap between what they a~e already confronting in the field and Ole explanatory powers of their lO,lh~-held paradigms, There is recognition of the need for l~o:re~tudTCS, dialogues, and venues that would enable them. to. gain flesh persp~cti"es d ..' 'J'L." , faeti h h . . . ~ an new stra leJ?;H'~s. .' c tS p ieee 0 "H ... 'h aD tesearc .

opes. to con t ribure to that effort.

The di-scussion here Is. not a reinvention of the globalizaticn

wheel h df"'Q . 1 . '. '1 . .

diff· . " .... '" not negm wtt 1. a new canvass but it reveals the

erect shades (If globalization as portrayed by its SReptjc~ and

detractors. This research initiative presents the perspectives and positions. of a particular segment of p~ilippin~ 'cj:-~iJ society '~l addresses and confronts the challenges or globalization. It ex:amu)'es the phenomenou as viewed by selected mu] 0 r elvi k society organizations thathave so far been critical or at least .vary about ,globalization. In doing so. the findings serve I:Q provide basellae daita fursmdies ()In '~he role played by d,11 society in the. glolJba]jMti OD disceurse, It goes ,11 step further by examining slmllartrles and. differences among dosely held views and ccnvietiens professed Dj'T these selected organizations in 00 rdes to better u ndersta nd the glohaHz.atiol'l phenomenon as wen as eentemperary Philippine eml socie:ty dynemies,

O&JECTIVES OF THE S11JDY

The 5tud)! has five specific aims: (J] to identUy the definitions. positions. and r,espouses to glohalization of major civil society groups hl thePlrilippine.,s; 1(2) to define areas of convergence and divergence useful for poUC)'. research and ad .. ·ocacy~ (3) to extract and interpret new perspeetives and um;emilllding of globatiza.tiol:J tlu'Ougb comparative aoalyses ef responses and pa,FH~ip8tOty diseusslnn; (4) to facilitate nelVo'orki.~g among gl"Qups/individua]s, in areas of convergence; and (5) to develop an fiction a,genO<l Of! glob!lliutticn useful '[0 Idvll socie't}' ,groups and poHgnnake.rs.

GLOBALIZATION. THE STATE AND 'C1!.Vll. SOCIEl"Y: AN OVERVIEW

The .key concepts us:eC! in thi:s study-gloooli:m non and cit~a sodely-: are beavUy co'ntested in. terms of their meanings, forms and j mpliea tioOs. For the sa~e of cl sri ty and oons.istcD.")" in the discussion, 1iIn. over."iew of theoontepts is providt!ld andfrDm this ~ wcdrln.til, definitioD is adopted based on Lh-e stud.y's, goals andubjectives, No attempt is made to resolve contentious vie\"11'5 and issues at this point.

Gl0 ba.U.~atiQ n

The globalization disceurse has largely come into its own after the demise of 'OJ, bt-polar p<llitical system oJ the Cold Wa:r period. Thl'! collapse of th eEas,tem bloc signaled the onset of the se-ealled "Df':W world order- n Politically. the balance lias tilted to\'IIl!.rrl BI. widespread preference for Iiberal democracy, Economically. new markets have been created in theglobal exchange of gouds and services, capita] and technology. In theacademe, as "!&e]] as in other brood sections of society, the diseourse on globalization. eivil society and the state

I rnrodu cnon

s

has grown and. tak,cn.t'OClt as a d.istin.Cli\re field .t;l~ inquiry The di .. , iccba:radenzed by competmg no. rnl.Sti"C fram .. e works

lSfourse .. . . ' d •. d - it

and political 'contestation, its sucb.,globahz;at10~lSUn ersroo tn r S

• ....d_ d isti ... ctive resp ects; denendina 1 arge ly 0 n the

varrous <1..:. • UJ"_ •. 1:" ,:> ..

disc.iplinary persp~clive~ tl~at are. emplo),'eel.. . '", .. ' .

1'n the ecouorruc field, fur example, the ~adloo transfermatten

offuc eeonomic environment"at the lecal, :reglOnal ?ud ~l('iballe'''e]:5_

h. h the promotion ot an open mternutl onal economy

t mug. . ,. '. d' t· t ch.ara{:leriz,ed b}1 au ov~rwhelmu_1g m{'re~se 1" !r3 e, clnV\:,S men

d '9.nmi,~ta:l 11111 .... ·8, i~ etten hlghlighted. Economists reter to Ad;;'l[Jn

an id (. '. ·1, • • . ~t. u.r .- t ~

Smith':). The Weoftlt q{ Naiians whenexpJa~lmg me }n,o;pm7 ion

hehind the new economic order, In this classic statement of liberal pomical -eaul1nmy. Smith p?s~ted harmony be'tw,ee,n pr-j~B'te. ~nlfit and pubHcint~re5t: and elaimed that the fm:~.lUt. ~f md]\'ld"unl interest benefits. SOC1Cty as a whole lh_rough the invisible hand. of the market. Smith's d.assic.al llheralism has become the major -j ntHUe(!'tuH 11m. teceden l Wo I' today':s econom ic orthodol\"y, Otten! Lboi!' terms -globeJizIl1inr1" and"n~o1ibe1"alism" an: U8C~ interchangeably. Iii its simplest Souse, "rrenliberalism" is seen es the intensification .of market forctls and the revival of libernl ,rl'lrgo rnants of market "freedom' frcrn sl(ll~ regulation. Jn an economy that has he.l;;;nn'H! in~ro. singly gl hal, ncollberals bulieve that there ~houhl be 3 large:;lCi11~ retreat of uffidal rcgullltton througb the Ilbohhrm of most state-imposed t'1I!!;il rietieus 'UI'l movements of money. g();od:!l;, services and capital between coun trles (SchOol tc,lWQOH). By and large. pol icym i.l kers n n "11 cade ill ic:s in l h e phiU PP:I nes .';(1 ppor l th is nrthodo~ understanding of glnl)jlli1,f!tiql~. Noted Filipino economists, led by Pad~r;~ngi.! (J997), have examined the economic ramifications of glob .. Iizatinn as the opening up of naUoJHd markets to cross-border flows or ~OOd5 and capital. The rnelliilil:}' of goods and capital has led to the globulizatiou 0 f e.cnnom.icacU.vities: and increasing interdependence among diverse economies, Basic .. ~lly, such mobility s market-drtven, Central to the argument that globalizaticn hal' I ran 51 fo rm ed the nature of eeonemie acrivitv Is the techneleglcal revolu tion l hat has been L,a Laly;,o.e.d- by - transformatiun S in ~mrrmunicJlti(Jm, information and transport, which progressively cl:i.a.nglx! the nature ~nd precesses uf production. In this view. the g.~obal economy has often been ch 11 mete rized as being post-industria] Ill" knowlod~e-bi':$ed [Castells, 1990; Tofflcr, 1980).

While most analysts regard globalization as a. new phenomenon. l1otld] agree. For example, de Dio>l:: (1998) claims that g16balironunwhich is predominantly understood as an economic developmcni:is far- from being a new trend, Global trade has grown much fa::;\~t

6 Philippine' (i\ il SOLie''. and he Gloh;:tli7rition Diecouree

than global production over the last three decades, which cleady shows that economic integration bas taken plaee since that time. However, the novelty of economic liIobaH13tion is usuallv attrilmted to four developments. One is the ~es~lUffling of ownership brought about by foreign direct investment (mn.l;.., second reason has been the steady reduction af'barriets to trade and investment, such as the lowering of tariffs and more liberal ta. x reg,hines. Third. there has been the "late industrialization" ofsignificant parts of the developing world notably Southeast ASHl and Latin America, which geMraU)" implies lhatUthcpool ofporennal suppliers h:ls increased, permitting the reo 1 ecatton of pa rts 0 f production to t h esc con n t rl es." And llrlilHy. the: end of 'he enid War has made possible the producnan releea don an tl ma rketing of ,1;10 ba 1 fi rms to fo nne r St)C i:1I Ist COUD tries which :Ire attractive to il'i\'t"~t men! due to their !o,w labor costs and minimum indusl rial base.

B)' c ontrast. 'the literature' oil HH:! p\llihcs or globati7.o1liun fOl'LJ5e!i1 I~H'~(;:!Y on the fortunes I.,r the naticn-state ns it.::. ~I nil of [Jfl81~'Ii'is. examining the t;han~fn); relations of state 1111'.1 capital, the emergence 01' new international actors and mstituticns, and the implications uf flew forms or n;:gu:mll! and global governance. From il liberal internat~Onl'li1islp~rSJ)~CLi\re. Ohrnae (It.;lt.;lS) contends that that tt1e nation-state has been fatally undermined as the key locus of polity 2iHhorH}' by the global svstern, unable sig,nificantiv to influenee ceonomle IlrLivUv. Furthermore, thl! ,rom::ept of wmutonal in'tCf~.s:t" ha::; b~ '11 more or less used as defense ~f ,,{' .. -dal interests. net of t')c(lple's interest, anti therefoe tbi! demise u the state is nul something: to he mOlll.t11(!'tL But such bypcrglobollil>l pcsitions have not gone unchallenged, Hoogvelt's t t997) analysis of the I'if:lHtkal cconumy of globalization offers 3 u~eruJ summary Qr more skeptical analyses or the rH)lid~ s of glohaU,:atton and tt .. significanec for the state. She notes three models which can be used to frame the globalization quesnon. One is the realis: model. focusing un the autnnorny of the nation-state in the conduct ufinteruatlonal ~-elatio~:=;. with or<~t"r, stebility undinternatinnal bal'Hwe !af p~iw.er as us J113l.ll ecnceru, The ~eroml i~ the ins! il!11iuuaU_"r perspective, based on liberal nil ues of economic i nterdependence and coepcrarien ,rmd strong supporr ror a system of global g~wo;;im~nte. And Ii nally, tl,e- str"j~{.·tllro{,i5t approach wnich ~l.IMes.~s; a dominant core and subordinate peripherj in the structuresof global economic and t)t~l~tical rel ations. tn 1>11 three: f:a.5CS, there is no a priori Sl1 ppostttun that I he state bas or is likely "Eo disappear.

h"l the field of cultural studies" there is a tenuenc\" to associate globaHz:llion with the destruction of di5;tinct1ve eulrural identities

lntroductlon

7

and the creation of a homogenous "global ~ culture, In the same manner as weak nations become "casualties" of unbridled economic g]obali~ati()n. a common argu rnent is th~t th.eir cultures an: vuJnc:rable to theencr'Q3chment of Weste-rl:Uze.d fdeas, values and life-styles (Tomlinson, l'991J. The driving forces hehi nd this homogenization-or to be more specific, "Westernization" or "eultu ral lmperta lisrn" - are the mass m edi [I, Prom orin g mainly We5rern culture which market philosophies of consumption or i.ndividmdism, the developed mass media have become the weapon of neo-ooloni8]i~t.<;: powers to further advance gIub~l, cap]talism. By contra st. nth er schol ars ha ve doubted the "h omogeniaation ~ U[ "cultural imperialism" theses to explain the cultural dimensions uf globalb;ation. Th~y <IIrgue that global eemmnnieations and markets are often adapted tQ Fit dive rse local contexts, such t hatcu I rural diversity is strengthened, rather than undermi ned ('Appoadmal, 1996). Robertson (.1.995), for example, suggests that global media nnd products breed hetcrogeniznfion, and cans: thi~ precess of adaptaticn "glocalization, M where the perceived means of creating a: uniform culture take different forms and make different impacts depending on Iocal part iuular+l ies. B~twelen these alternative re a diogs soma !lldu}'luts speak not of l'l cultural urrifotlnlly or lnereasad eultural diversity, but the emergence .l[ "hybrid" cultural identities (Nederveen fiiet rrse, 1995). lntcrcultlu a l relations an! further intellsified wnh glnhHti1.rativu, sueh that new patterns of: rocllnings, and identities. through (J'()mhiillltjon.~ WI' obscuritles, are generaleil.

As We CAll see, dlf:~en~nt disciplh'larycxplaO<lt}ooS ofglobaHzatioh d~mw c::ompeti.n,g cunclusirms tlbout specific features of change. But &lVen th .. l glohati?;ation is best thought of as ~ multi-faceted precess, ~hell a constructive approach to .framil').g the globalization discourse Involves th~orelkal perspectives that attempt to aggregat,ec its various dimensions. One useful "mapping" exercise has been put fOl'''wa[~ ~Y Held eJ. (1/, (1999), who recompose the VarlLJUS issues co rnprrsrng tbe debe te into three schools of thought-> hypcrg/()baU.5fS, skeptic. s emd tr'msja1'nwtifmalists.

. ~e hypergrC)/)rliist. thesis .arg~es [bat "economic globalization 15 brl~1g1,ng about .8 'denationalization' of economies 'through the ~stabll.shnumt of tt .. 'allS fl abo. n.· al networks ,of production trade and nnan "(II ld .

• r::e e. er a l., 1.99:9: 3,). However. the emergence of an

l~!:at~d g~o_b.al economy not only recognizes th~ principle of ;klo ac. ~.t'Jm~dID[)n as, the ~ort'run~f.r of human ~ev~lopn:'-e~t. but and 1 k IlO"~ ~edge.s the surfacing and m creased polarizatio n elwin n ers

. .05:e.rs, In the global economv, Amon" tbosesupporting this

PO$l~iOt . F" J, .• "" . ,t

. . l , ts rienman (1999), who argues that globalization is not just

a. passing trend, but the emerging new international order, and that the i 1t1 pad of globaliza non ish ru ta1 in rome countries a I] d benign in others. He etnphasizcs the power of technology, capital and information access across national borders to effect pol itical, ecenomic and social change .... itbiD nations, \i\1rile the tension is wreaking havoc between traditional forces and the rapidly g10halizing WQI'1d, Friedman perceives it n u i ~l global environm ent i 1'1 search of a balance.

S" comparison, skeptics like Hirst, and Thompson (1996) counter 'the h]ank,et 'as-sumption of the hen,efi c131 eftershoeks of glnbalizatioa and tht: end of the nation-state in a more open world order. While globalisation enhances morepluralistie, diversified and multi-polar international economic and politieal relation'>, the authors posh that the state remains a };:I:V source of rules and deeisicn-rnaking ill regllt:Jting the resulting uh~~rlainliei!o of ~lobal17.ation. TIl!;!)' see the naHan-stale as persisting despite' the changing CQIH,:epl o~ te rri t r;;l ri al ity res u a i n1; Irom t hejn ere aS1 hf; i lil terd epend en ce of nations. Hirst find Thompson contend that the rule ei'r TJ,\,\' becomes more importent ruther than l'es.~ if we' an movil1~ into iii mfU'iC comp1e."i lind ph.uaUsdc sot-ta1 and pont lea I ~1'stC"m, such th~lt the st3le which is the purveyor of ~consti utlcnal ordering" \\'ill baeeme more central and not ! ess, Likewise. even if the world r.'oonomy and polity beeeme increa~ingly internmtionaUr.ed in th· eurrent eru, international ~'\;lg.imcs <lind agencies will still be geverned by binding rules a nd laws emanating from the member-states. Thus, in slmpler terms, skeptles believe thai ill.'le.rnaliomLi,izatiotl ru.:; not weakl!Iled the stale, but somehnw, has strengthened it in the precess Further, ultra-skeptics claim that Uginh.lli7,.(ltion~ LS highly c!{.aggemted and doubt the very existence of a "global economy, "global" governance, "glebal" culture and even a "global" civllsociety (NithulsQD, 1(99) .

Between the globalists and skeptics the transfi~rm(Jbunalists view suggests that while contemporary glebalizatinn processes involve the spatial rc-organisaeion oJ economic, politieal, milil.ary :nH.1 cultural power, the Interconueetedness that is taking place rra nsforms ]'alb e r th an reduces stu te caps dty and control. I t i 111 plies a world in which developments in one region can rome to shape (he life ehanee of eommunities in distant parts of the g,lobe. In the process, globalization becomes hignly uneven in ltS embmc'e and impac:t<ls it divhies at the same mrumcl!' i.hat it integ;ratt-s, Ao;; Na,yyar (:.1,lJ 02: 5) suggesL>;. "wb]le g lohal izatiml maj h <l"'-e created ODPOITunitfes fur the developing world. i'l Is a3sociateJ 'I\'""ith an C':.'{.dws.ion of s~gI1ifita!]t number of peop]e :mu. counuie," from economic opport1Jnities. ~ Un1ikE.' the two other C3mp~>

lruroduction S

f. t'loTl"'ll-stF; are oprtmistic about the capacity. of

"rans orma'"" ."" . 1 bali - .

L , , 1 . -'1 societv" to i[Jnuence and shape g.o· ization In

"t ra 1l5n:atmna Cl v L .. , '~. , " .. ,

.1_ t. ~.' ·~f· 0,,,,..,.,; .. '1 progress (Kothari .. r.1 [Jl_,2oo2~_

we III eres ... ' ,,'-' ... «,~ i':'.

Civil Society

t r civil society has evolved through time- from the 1'111;; cnm::ep (J . '.. .; ···d r-' T (!]11i hte-omenl period of t:l~ dg~teenth century tome em po l~lea

- gk. . 'h'" ·nolion of eMI society transformed from ODe unified

hin en" • .. . . I IT ' - B h 1 I I d

with the political .scciety to ?ne st'pa ra tee om It. ot .. eg.l": 1111

Mar" suggesl I'd the separatnm between the rCfalmh· ~f t]~~d5talte ~

liti I" .-.int.· and civil society as the ilf.cna Q t e mc ivi U:1. and

pH 1 iea <lO,-",.~) • ,. • ., '

murket rdOltirms. Dt' Tncqueville .. ~n 111~ ~,ple1?ti!.!e(J ~I LId!,' of ,j • crurv inA m cri en, ern phs :'>Iz['d til t:' tmpnrta nee fir aetn» •• s , -' 'l'b f' '1

-~""lj"l'I"n"'lism and :;;t"lf~nrgalllznhnn ns '''''It<L_ attn utes 0 1:'1".'

a:.:>" ~ > " .. . , 1 h .,. ~ t

sod,~ty" or an active "voluntary" secrer, to provic e =~ t' ecx 1';)11 sta e

powtlr_-The dc:ve~Clpmcnt of lh~ fHtlion-slate,. the d~btd ~ between th\~ publrc nn~l private spher '_, and the asseruon nt. soclal autflno~:~ Wcr~' lh~ precursors for the need tn prnhlemalize fhl" state-civil sHciel}' Ikhntotll,y, T n additlon to these d3s."~tal ,trends. tbe CUlTI'l1 discourse on civil society ha '" hccn hf!nVlly , nflucnced hv lilt' nnFnsJ.:!irm notinn nf (']vil society ~IS fL complex arena of slrugglc thtlt mUSH be trnnsformed in ('Ill' pn:')(':l\"S of sceiul 1'111t1n(.'ip .... tien, Ttlj" cl)t~k~l aecnrds ~~qUill Vel] ll" ll! Uw 1W:ih, or !':ud:'il lHul civic f't'~1 or. in {'hHn~i ng ptJI.ilic. 1, ::ttrl.tcUII·CS and inclu I s ~tal\·-~.ri ~1'1 Cod IlruJ~'b, nf dt"glll1i1.~:(l rOI'\'~t; ~I':" pun (.11' Ult! prc)c(!~'i, of ~:man~tpa~lon (Serrano. 199t~ ).

tn enn t. m purn ry \1!S~!~e, !'ht:r,~ tift: d lfferent versions of lhL" conr.:~'r~' dviJ 50cr'ei.y_ The trL;1I(l it' l)tll'auitJ,m t,)f the state, market and civil society has t'mcrgcd $1~ Ih(~ dominan! model, J.'!,ivloR birth tu the "llco·liberal" vcr,qion of eivll f.iOdL"IV (KJl lrlor, :wu:n A.,fl,ain~1 t lit" 5t;rtc-ci~iJ society construct, the tri;dk modal "suggests a further dh'l_ .. inn of cil,~l soeiaty liltu Mu-thcilldividua] as economic actor or pan u:t' the eorporutu sector und the individual as plain citizen" (Serrano. lQ94). Th LS d.efinilion, illisol,:i"Ht;~l witb the l.:unCl'(ll of ,I Ht]anprof'i\" or "third' sector, l'ef:1ecUng "ocql.levil]eAn !H)~jfln!i! or voli:.Il1tCf':ri:SJTI, implies the pos;stbUity of II "priucipled partnership' (Pe.rlas, [999) wnh both lhe state-and the market. Such organizations lire ~ nelthe r enntrolled hv the. state: nor the market. but which pl ay an essennal Tole in rac.ilitaUng the role of both" (Kaldut, 2002: 8). TlH~y c.m ::;ubstitute for the stnte' a~ alternative delivery system'S, ~h~~k l}OWCI'J) and call cmporalions Lv ilC(:;(HLl1t (Sohmon, el M., ]999: Powell Bl1d Gm~rin. lQ97-: Perlas,1999). Activities considered l1art of civil _ljot:icty a:ccol'dlng' tiJ Scholtr" (:2.0Clob~ 175) "involve ,I

to Phi Ilprine Ci\.'il Societyatrd the Giobailll:dtit:m l_)i~Ourse

deliberate attempt+from outside the state and marker, and in some other organized fashion=tn shape p~Ud~, norms - and/or deeper social structures." ci\iJ. society ecnstttueneles tnclude "acadenrie i nstitums, busi ness essociati Olls,.eOinml1lrrit)"~bruic-d organizations, censnmer protection bodies. erinrinal syndicates, development cooperation groups. envimnmental campaigzss, ethnie bodies. fi:J1Jndati ens, farmers' gmnp:s.buman right"S advoea tes, la her un'lOllS, relief organ izations, p eace acti .. -i sts, professiona 1 bodies, religiou S institutions, women's networks, youth campaigns aadtnore, ~

This notion (I f civil soclety .5 broad1r adopted br in terna tional organizations .. such as the Ul]ited Nanons and tbe ~\todd Bank- For the UN, the term dvU society encompasses the "entitles of the third seetor" distinct no m the state and from th ~ privet e fie etor, lOll" ich are el1g<lgedin nGn~JI:rom activities:

.8. chi! soeiety is the fesWl of diff{'rl!I"H components of populauons and ~'<1mml1])jti.i!;;;. OInd refers lo lnll' sphere in which citizens and soda' inU iatives or&3niz~ them~c'lvc:j; .IHound (lbiElcliv~5. conlititllcncjll.~ and tbl.'llNlllc interests, Th~)' i1et coUi!cti"'~h' UmJ\1 g;ll tlleir l.)rSl! nill:Hlionsknown .8 ~ 'eivil 'Sod (~h m-g3nil.tltinns which mclud!! 1l10~'cru.cms, emjtiC1;.in$thu~lons rltttorU)ffiOUS (rom '~he' 5tat~ \,dHch 111 pnnciple, are non-profitIUl1ki!:1.!';l. ~c;.t· 1~~~<llIy. rlifiUOnaU,. and mle.nll:tion~n~·. in d~fl!n=l"~ and pfOll1~th-m ofsocillt ecgllomic and Cl.dtUf,.1 illt!!r~:. end fur mutual benef t. They ~ntllfl1ll;ld iUt" betwt:1;:l'1 ~btliT C'Q1'lIstilui!.i1cies;/members. wilh tbli! stll:tl!' as ..,.~~.1 as ".,:1rl1 L;nhed N'1!!11oos hodie:;. Ttll~Y de thie Ihrougb !oblWtllg all(Uor p1'O'I'lslon M servi ees. 'fboug,h b elo !'lSi!lg to the non s t~ w~c tor !':'He,g,Ur), t I't(;:}" (! r~ d lifl'!re Ult from thepm ... te s eclor II rtd NGO ns d'l!!j m::!, not be r'C;gL~tercd. ma~' repl:!Cc the pl.lb~i.c sector, are eot <lh~'a~~ st:mrlur.Ma1'ld often their members are not officiOllly ;ecllgmud (UN WS1S).

The Worl.d BB nk (\--\fB). as well, differentiates ei .. -il society orgal1i~atiom, ~CSOs} from business of.~al'lizalions. CS!OS are re{ene;d tnas "nan-governmental and uot-fn:r-pmfit nrgani1-{1;tlon!> that have ::I. pres en ce in pu hlie I if~, expressing the inrerestsand \"l3I1 ues nf the]J" members 0.1" others, based 0]'1 ethical, cultural, politieal, sciQlntif!,~ .. religious or philanthropic eensideratines" and ex-chides a rganizations eng1lged in business. The Bank ideo rifles CSOs as those Ujnc.lud]n.~ nQ:i:. just NGOs but nlsQ trade unions, ccrrununity-based organ tzations, social movements, faith -bassd Insd tu tin!') s, eh a rita ble organizatiens, research centers. foundations, stuocm orgamz.:ttions. pwmssiomd associations aildrnany others ~ (World Bank).

Relating to the Philippine CO 1"1 tellt, CHino (2002) opts. ~o d iffotlre n tlate thE' .1 mp orian.cc of organ i z:atirm s b Ell cmgin g t () the

nonprofit saeror, '!;:"hich incbudE~ '~he .,p~lH;Elnthropi'c :-ector <ton? highhghts the quaMy of "vniuntarism" in the "dYll~mlC.5 ofel'l,'l! :;ociety at present. Sh~ argues that: the .. term nCH1profa sector .d qnate lv ~r::on..-:'etsthe essence of th.' .. e .s. ·JllI.ce. b'ePNe.e.n th .. e Sl<l. te and

a e':l. . • d L.lI 1._ ,'j t': •.•

the market" which is reflective ofthe LTJ;>J aJil· Wmui Bank ,""euiut'10n~

of the term civil sodety. Noting tbat:de~njn~ Phi~ipptne ei"i~ :soci~~' as wholly "nQn~gover.I1ment org;L'n11~attons POUlts to the crucial e I e men t of the state in descri bt rrg its elf. Thus, Carina uses the .. curnbe [some term," as she puts it, 'the non pfOf~t sector amI ci vil society to describe and define the civilsociety sector,

Second. there art: sch o la rs who regard civil so ciety a sa" realm Ilul5lde pclitk:a1 pnrttes where illN:1ivh:hlals and groups aimed to demm.~mtiJ,e the state, to, r~(l.istT'ibute power, rather than to capture pm ... er in atradrtional sense" OCaldor,2oC!2: 7)-an understanding of civil ll~ch~t}T wldcJ, I{aldor terms es the "aetlvist" version, This charactedlf.illi;,n of dvi150detyis heavily lnflueneed by Gr3m.'i~t, and i I lustrates the mil ure of h cit h ()ld liberation moverne nts and th~ new sod 111 movett'len~!i . David (1997) terrnsth j 5 the "e'ic Iusive ~ view of civil eociety, limiting lhcmmnb~rship t(J those gr1;ilup~ thilt speclftcally contest' the ~lttte rmwer and its policIes. opposite to what Cercnel Ferrer (~997') descrlbes as an "inclusive" stance where civil sod II ty in elud es ttl! i 11 d i V idu a Is andinsti tutions; short of the Sla.t€ and ~t!i various [lpp~:lr(JtI!S_ D.wid tl991: :ill) deflneseivll ~odcty a!li Nth" totaHty of these sdf-cLlm,doWli (Jr·g~l.!lljl;1:1tions dud are tlOCoUnltllb]e to a definerl (:~ul.'J:l i l u e n cy, thnt con test the power of t11~ state und In ~!~ l un .n cutturecf] nvc l'l,lcmiiln l. ".

A Lhil'd veralon of dvH sodety-t~"'Ic "pest-modern't=nrgues Lhnl bm b He'L) -11 beral lind. aeti vlst clefi ni ho nll are part of a Wutern disenurse, and prefel'l'ii ~I .fI):CIr'C "ct]tturally sensitive" concept, whieh [ne] udcs various national and regional groupings and a "contestation or narratlves'' tKaldnr, :2002: 9).

For this study, the researchers adopted the "aetivist" VlZrSlQ[] or David's exclusionarv defiuiriou or civil societv in the selection or

l"t':;poI!lQents. • -

Gto ba 1 CftJi{ Societ;J.)

[n reL,e.n t years. tb e te [111 "glo ba 1 eivi I soddy" has gaimed papular Il!:;age, C':xp<ll1ding the definitien of civil society as it assumes a more, lra~~nationBJ eharaeter and as it goe~ beyond its relations to the fH.nl0n~st,ate. J\lthough the cDnce-pl remaln$ unfamWll.tlO m.ost ib~;ple. ;~~u:t Ino.,<;eiy d~fiJned and used. by civil sodety a~tors

:rllseh ~~, tn the extel' t ~hlli the tcnn has most often been <LSlSOClated

, 4 Ph i I ipp ine C i vH So (1 ely .3;11 dthe Gl obs liz <!tin f"I 0 iscourse

with the "anti-globalizatlon" movement, many scholars have attempted to analyze the underpinnings of a global civil society, This set::t1011 elaborates on the concept of a -global'" civil sociefy. focusing rm the factors that fadlilated its emergence.

Offering a general definition of the term, Viotti and Kauppi (20m) percetve glo hal CIvil society as cu m posed of 1 ndividuals and organlza lions that aggregate llJdhidual interests usually below 'the level of the state hut operate beyond the: border of any single state; Similarly, Anhcier, pi cd. (2001: 17) provide a purely descriptive defl nirion- global civil SOd~L}' is the sphere of ideas, value -. institutions, orgnaizatlens, networks, and individuals located between the- family, llol'lt(!, and the: market and operating beyond he confines of national socletle. s, polities and ecnnmies,

Although the expression -global civil $ociely- may seem novel, the concept ofci\'il soeiety eOij3gmg in international action is hardly D(!W. There have historically existed organtzanons that operate beyorul the national level ~1 [lC'!.' 'l h e IH net Hell til cen ttl ry, S uch a s the International CQmrniUl't~ of the Rad Cross (ICRC) OIml thee ,-\colll j... Slillvcry Socicly. Past national lihcraticn movements engaged In issues such as civil rights. peaee, rmtl environment rec(lgnizpd the !1 ·.cd 'for i n te mat i u na I voopera ii on a nd .:; ougl,u to eha ngc he 1" ·Iulinn:;..hi p:;. of pnwar from the "dominator model f srnplre to he partnership mod I of communitv." reflecun I1n iIow.u.kt!ning or cnuscinusness of the po:;.sibility of creating delnm;rntit- soeleries whk_h r-ct:lJ!;nizc the worth and contribution of each person (Kortei'll ("/ (1/ .. ~OU2J. Over Ute last decade, [he magnitude and scope of imtlm<lt.dunaI and supranational irlsttmnons and ()rg3n~~tions have increased and their Ilct,on_co (!.nn cperatlens havn g;1in~d public v i ~ i hil i l y. s uch t h iiI I he te rrn ~ g] o hal ci ... Il society" entered the cummon language. In addition, there has been wider seale and more types of fields. 0 eperutiun for civil society cempared to the time NUO::; were ju st start ing to take on <In internatumal orientation.

1'11" re is wide. pread assumprlrm that uglohal chi I :o::nciet}' both feeds ,,HId reacts HI glabalizaticu" (Anneier, et el., 2001: 7: Schechter, 1999). This implies that the gluhalizatinn process provides the fou nd atio n for glo bal ei vii society organization an d action, on the one hand. and that global civil society is also a.rcsp-O-Hse to gl oballzaticn, on th e other.

In support M the tim lmpllcatlon, Anheier ~r, <Ji. clte e:mpir-kal e, .. irlence that global civil sOciety ts hcaxUy ("Dncentrnted. :iIi North· W5tern E\Jrope, owing to the ""globalized'" cha.racter of the area 111 ip-rmiS [If inten.sltj' of globa1 eapilllHsm, 111lerCOlll1eclOOl1eS$. th rough inforn13tilln-eommuuicatioDs tcehno[og)' .a.nd tOllrism, and

I ntrfl_d LIe I ion

n

_. ,:lonment of global con::;cicm:sne&:l.s. as most concretely shov,;']]. by ue ... .-el t' ..;J ,. ], " ..... , .c 1 1 al

i 'jficatinn of treaties. The increases .. l size ann capac] ry {h g t.'.l f Ie' r<h . .' . . 1 _--,-1- ' - 6,'-;1 soddy fJrg-<tnlzatlons loS due large y tr,J grO">'I.JI 1n .re.'l{)ur{'e~

avai1:1blc too them, mainly money all? tt'.dn~ology (Afll:clcr, ~ra~_, .... ) Bv ·ponling resources obtatnad through philnnthrupic

20U1. - • . '1 " h

. ' • .'t- - • ....f founds tion s: and L~Ol"p-Ora t Ions, elVl·1 scciety . U-'lo

adlVI le~~" .. ... - .

strengthened its presence m intemational ddiberrtll().ns on aI. runge

of ~lr)b(ll issues, Tht" promises or techn~Iop;y fOI: C]~vi1 SUCIE'~ to or!tJmit.e globn By halve b.ee~ most 8J~pa~-ent Lll the cl"e<:hO'Il of an NGO co;lilioll for an Intematmmll. Crimina] Court (I( C), the global t:a-IDpai~n tn ban landmines, and 111e ~GO autlon to ?'Ppo~-e Ille }lu1tilat~ral A:gl'lC'crnent en I nvestm en L, (l\'~l)_nmwlh in Inte~nel ,,'1(' arnl the i>.XP,IIlSIOll [If tdcc:ornmmll auons hHVC made PQ:<>slhle the funnalTon rll netwnrks and have tLlluwed greater aeeess for f,roup~ outside the main centers of international power (NB11gilton, :!On1-),

Conv!;!r:srb,', the uneven nature and process of g!obaliztUinn. wh ere on Iy a 111m rllu I have r-(!npe(1 its benefits, h as re suit ed j rI ,; 1 hf' demand rill 1 1 tlf civil ... nd~lY" (AI~ hcier, 1;'1 al.. 20(U)- Snutlrern mcvent-:n t~-I hn~t· who n1"(~ dC!uicd access 10 lIn; benefits of 1l.1obalit..:1Ii,1..H1 BfP 11Ul'\o\ iii1king up wIth thdr Nor11wrI1 cotll1~e-rpf1rt!oi to form ~I new kiiu] !If s('lid~rity rnovem nt, WlIil' III - old soliJaril, movement r.:hilll1l,ionea f\ul.l~hcrn I/juu[s ~(U· I1tlli(1U31 libcratlon, Ih~' new solklarity lfIovcmcnl S~ 'k!;: to 1" vive tht.: Suuth '01 and North rn cnnnnollal~'ty aiul .';itnlg,~d~' 'I inked '~o notluns nf glohnl justk'1.: (Knlciot, 20(2),

eha nges ~l ssociated with til e: g·1 obllH~ed elwin-mm en I. parrieulurly to state auton omy ::lnd Capf,u::L~ Y. have led lu the assumption I hi'll the _~lIrrac.in?-. 01' global elvil soeicty groups ~s new polh icul actors In Ute international arena is lndeed u product and n response l'lJ. globalization, The :shift In pnwer away frUl1!1. the stale ro multilateral 1 nstitutions bas prompted chril SlJclf!i) io modify its: cnurse of acrinn and tll recognize the need Ior gl1'lhal eonperutlon [Richards, 2QO,) J. Globalizulion has been pen.:eived to weaken lh~ g/Iw!!'n inx. abilities Dr both the state an d i ntergovern f'lH'ntaJ ll~arrL7.u.ti0l1li1 and at the same time has strengthened civil societies w:wlJwidt:: that paved' the ",my for a global civil society to en"lerg.: (Sehet.l-ncl-. t999), The 'emergence of "new centers of authority," (O'Brien, et at., znoo: 17} such .as regional regulatory bodies has lll:!ce-.s.s !lared. d I i Zen acti Virt:y to tl'ansceud tel:ritorial ge()~wa p hy. In thl2 plese-TIt worhl ur-de!', sta~cs do. nOI hsve mOllopuly of governance, T~ll". it seems most 1 Lkely lha\ civi1 &Ocicty will 'lake. advantage (Ii !hi:> dispersal of aUlhority b}T replk-ating it,

"'4 Philippine Civil Society O}rui T~ G!oba 1~2al~(]n Discou rse

U is also the case that the growth of civil soeietv has been manifested not just by new ties between _-GOs., but also b,' the expansion of opportnnities a rid creatioa of ne w openings fo~ eivil society participation m reglonal and global forms of ~o\'ernance (Anheier. d Qt.. 2001: Richards. :WOCl: O'Brien, er aL. 200Q)_ This is. evident .. for example, in the consultative rights of NGO.s in the UnUE>d Nations, NGO participation at meetings of the \\rmld lilank, In ternational Mcnetar, Fund (l.:'Io'lF) and the World Trade Organtxation (V;,r'fO), and the creatlon ofan NGO "\o~odcing Group i.n l he Asian [)~\'elf)']1menl Bank (AbHl Ail the Same time that international NGOs have become much more Interconnected ,,,lith each other, they too have become integra I:"d 10 international Institutions of geveruance.

Indeed, th.: faetors which have led to the birth of ~lobvJ 0\<"1] snciery are linked Lo the nature and prO(.' ~" or ~r(Jbi.lli".atinlf\_ But it remains an open question whether !II global civil sociatv wilt hJ:l\'e snhstuntiul impact or not '''''lulc the foundation of its emergence Is e n t id ng, sue h i hili i I J s rntl'lI:t t em pti n g re mil ke a S\ ... cepingennel u!':iOl1 over its cnpll.('ity and p.ntt'flliab, It rernulns .. fuu:,-' concept that b cpcnto d bote and furlhcl" analvsis

(GlobaO Chii.1 Sucie 'y and Gt,Dballl7' .... 'In n

Civil SO!'lNy hAS I ~ ken center stn 'I! in the C:l1tn'nI d ·!"Iuies on ~lubl!1ii:ulion_ Pcrhap~ thts "~m Ilt' attribu ed l he 1n"f'!' hll"lon ur ~nli-gl!lh;11b:alion stru~I('~ III lilt, dl'\'I'luping world wbleh \~,.,m .. i;lf!l:dy lllitl~tf'd h~ nun-state acrors, patlil"ultlrh' thu~l.' which traee Iheir. roots 'to older I'nllilGlIl and soclal trlOVt"mrnt~ . .r\l the ~lob~J level, the- \'\.r:-to fiasc'o in 199q that hils rww come tn he known as the ,. HllUJ t: in Seattle" set off a la rm bel ls ilIDong glnha I In anagers 0 nth e h!:\'el'a~e and capacities of civil society in challengmg the cenduct or multilaterallsm. ]0 the Phi!i?pmel;', people's participation during the Gene-rei Agreement 011 Tariffs and Trnae-t)nlj!;u<1Y Round (GA ITUR) ratification and the Manila People's Forum on"lhe .isia.-Paci.fic Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum ill 1996 were just .. orne or th concrete iHustratiol1,s of the potentials and llrnitm ions of eivil snciel}, in the glc ba I lza don debate,

-~ke the conoo_pt:;; ~('·i\·'il5{)c:ielY~ and "glcbalization, H civil soclctYs 1'JAc' m the glo bah zatlon~~n u ndru m has been c()rn:t'nt ious, Studies taeJkljll~ the jnt~larcdne:'>:."nfglobruiz:ation and civil society almost always port r.ay I he former as a factnr thai affects the tarter in various ways, Often, civil sudety is regarded a a counterweieht to globali'lcation,as it has been a eountervailiug newer on authoritarian states and !llritrket power, There is &.1."0 tl p~,e,,;a!rnt assertion that

when civil society organi~es .it81!:l~. g~obaHY; it emerges ~ El._ ~o:ial force to rcsi$t all assault by tnstrtuuons 01. ~orpo~ate ?loh.ah~a.tlon (l{orten, ei ul., 20(2)- On l11C other har,lIdjmvil :SOI!Wty: 1,ll neellberal thcOI¥ and practice, may .be. "an es~'ential condition for ~h.e

e :wduction of liberal capitalism" (Richards, 200'0: 114.). Cl'll'il ~Cl~ety tabs 1J P diverse positio rrs of the issue' which dete rID j nes ~hGir ~C)h~8in eesponse to gtohal.iz~ti(ln: In an~,ogous wa!,s to the typDiogy offered h~ Held, et.ol.~. C.1V·ll . soeiety C~;U1 rna cat'e'~C)rm:ld !:G.m those who maintain globalization, m whatever formvis beneficial (:Hjpp{iwt~r5) to t?as~ w~w oppose an~ form of int,rush;m to ?~ti()nal soverei~nty (r~lectwnl:;:i's)- There is also a middle pcsitinn of raJormist~ "in which a large pari of global cIvi,1 .socie'ty re.<;ides:' h\ nil ei er, e t (.II., 20m; 9) and whu a.crept tit I? rea h ties of rna spread of ~lobal eupitaltsm nnd intereormeetedness but understand the necessIty to i:~ mel lorate it, whether til rough incremental or lriHlsformativt> changes, so 'that the (Ii::lldbution 'of ns benefits will b!!' rrn ~rc equal. Quhici.e Uli~ speetrum of s! rung suppurt and cppositlen are l~rollps who w·jsh to get out of the ghiblIH,,:st i mi. rrroc~~s and to pursue their own stralf;:g,y of develcprnent, thro\'l~h .:;J.tllf-governing tllfi!.ch;in1~111s-tho (1ll€"I'naOue"~ (Anbeier, el' ol., soor: 7-] 1 L

Tn ;u1dit1Ul'l Ln responding to partkulu policies associated with glubali7'.aliclII. civil ·.ndcty is seen .0:0; l~cin~ able to eoutrlbute to basic principles of dt,:mocl'llcy .. nd guvcnuu11L,;e. tl'allfiposed to Il g,lobal level. ['ierhap!> the most COU1I1'1.[lll argument (or civll $Qcll!'ly' apperen; niche in the glol;Kll'i"UHioD p'L't)C'~.5 is thill ('.mllcmpurury d ... tl £t;lt:1.ety responds to th~ democrntle dcfidL1tO in the prf'~e"nt blueprint ,~f globaliUllinu (Schulte, 2002~ adtu :,!(JC:u). AhlUg_qid,to this claim emerge other promises [and possibly challenges) of civil society in the! conduct of global governance=increasing public transparency and 1LC~Olinl:1hmty of key actors. Btlildhlg on the premise that gloh·.l civil FlocJelLy can ~ll~ posed as a counterweight to globa!i%Oltlon. Anheter, et at {2:0Ql: 16)argue~hal "if democracy reumius eunfined to the level of the state, \II/hire various economic, pvlitkm ::IIu1 cultural activities are indeed going global. ~he.n only a :~;lQbaJ civil $udety can call them irrto <l(:COlIDt." 13eUu (~OO1: :2.2.8) ~ rth er pein ts out l h<1l civil society or_ganizaLi(Jtls. as majer JOler.ll,rriCl!.'lU actors, underpin an effective intetnaholl<llism that. ca 11 ~cht'J~k the powell of political, hegemonic farces like the US gQvt'rllment and transnational eorporutlens." The principle of lcgitim3cy, ofteu heralded as the most pivotal foundation of civil SOciety pl3.rtieipation on the issue of globalization, is a eonfluence of the democracy and governance functions. Civ .. il society serves not

only as a means of empowerment, but also as a dernoerntie legitimation of the gOYI:'IDlInce of globalization when~ stnkeholders are involved in the arena of ~llJbill politics. Scholte (2000,a; 279) reasons that "a global trade regime rhat is 1exilimated through cl,'i] society would have better chances of achieving its aims than a regime that I!'; prOlim.:::t!~ -::;vlely by teebuoerats, - Furthermore, the cultural power and identilv of civil socie t. serves as a "moral ascendancy" bestowing "societal ]~ltimac'y~ rm a rl~ eurpurate or governmen t acti on (Perlas, ] 99Y~ ] 48)_

Amidst the richness of thE' exist in~ literature nn eivll so 'i~l.v and p,ln,hld11.alkm. this studj hopes lu I'm P~it Ijla major gap nj )"I\"!)\;iding baseli ne em p irica 1 dalll un civil Hld!!t)! ne rs pectiv es un lh~ globalization discour ... e within Ute Plnlippine context. Though the literature OJ] globalizarien 15 not lacking, no hing can prevent ik ronunued .~rowth 111 the scholarly arm of uu:rC'<Ising the understanding of 11.

The Stale

The c11s~om'~1!! rm I t11' :lt4\h.', II::' can he glc.ml"'d fl'Otri th~ respnnses uf the selected civi I ~ndl!'t~· g_frJUps. forms ~ :'i;h:;l1ffir-;] nt part of lhe ShlLly, It r!oO "01 the aim oi this s('l'liun tu tackle the broad dcbat son IIw ].;t"nt'ral c:hilri1C cr or the- modern sl~ll' but o explain why il Is relevant tn the lssue of ,ttIQbahl.attOn In lhi! midst of contestations on the Aloblllil'llllOn process, debutes 0111 the ,mil" ur the ... tuh! "is-£!'~ ... is !_;~ubaH7.atioll have HJ.:e""is.t COnI!:" to the fore, room the \'if'WI}uinl ~ h~.1 pereelves glvb.ll.Hzauon a" tnc dl)ma nann- I~f U:U~ nlar-l\~t in th' ~ neal a nd in l'~rlliI t i:un al pull tical 't!oCIO n L'J'lny. 1 ~h" ' ... lu te i 0; purt rayed 11..'> StH'!"CJldt"l'it'l its roleas jjf-Calizer and rugulamr nf the market, By cnn trust, others view the "I li'lt· :J~ instrumental in pulling the glnbaliwlioD process in place, dur' notleast to the I11rljor mit' played by states in lht' creation of j nternational Institution", o] global guvernance 111 thi~ study, the state remains. 3 si:gl1Ii'kanli.lctor because it 15> seen hy some of the nr~anizations as instrumentnl in I he realization ot a market-driven ecanomv und politics. In analogous ',\'3YS; the stare remains an important condult through which the prcvatllng i=!,lubnl processes are able [0 manifest tlH~iTls",I;"Vf:'.s, ThF.' state is also sometimes perceived 3;'; the link between Philippine civil .:;l~det)' groups lmd the world e utsi de. Thus the state T~mains ill ~liUtial actor in gn\,li't"nanCE, i:'ither from th~ m;] in;::t ~am t.!"ladic appro;wh (state, market and d\11 spciC'I)') or fr(!m t.h~ morf;' inclusive dyadiC' appro.u:h (state and ~hll society) In gO'li-cmamee_

Traditionally. :alld cen:airuy in the t:'i'mle.'it of the risc of the n.ati0l1-st.aLI:: in WesterIl Eurupe. the 5tat~ was Vle\I,'ed a...;; an instrument

I rrr rnrll J oi nn

17

tllrouoh which tv achieve social, political and economic goals TG this :nd, the state embodied key organizing principles such as sovereignty and terri tonality, ~lI1d pursued mercantilist. policies that ~qualed national power with the acquisition of wealth. Towards the r:nd of the ei~htcenth century, however, this role was ehallengt::!d bv dasl;;ic..ai libeealism which Clrf!,u~d that the market is ~snclldly u~e:fu 1 iT1 liberating society from tile tyrannies of government' (Chikiatnk(), 1998: ti). This laid the four'ld:ll ions for a more liberal ~:on cepth.m oft he state asgunra n tor of i nd ivid ual rights and freedoms thtcugb the rule of 1.,,·'1-\', hut as having iii more minimal role in ecoflomic management. Mercantilism d~mE' I'fj he ehallenged 1\ the IDgic of free trade,

'B1'OmHy speaking, tin: eontnurs of couternporary political history hnve been shaped hy Ib~, .. e two competing llo'tiu!1~ uf the ~tate btl~ 111 the new context of the twentieth renlury, 'Ihe statist \~e\\ ."I.I~~st . the lfllP('l"'l~HlC't:: of a "strong state" in providing the conditions rar mOln'1.~~ng ~odal cleavages 1)J1(1 providing the overa]] din~ction of 1.;!'0I10t:L1lc puHcym~kin~ ,md rep,u1:Jtimt, rt should be remembered t11J1t this h~I~, in f,lcl" belt'H the. dominant mode of gn,vctnaucc fOI' most Ilr lhe twentieth C!;!l1tl1l"Y and p,articllhtrly ill tht' period uf11.!f' the end uf I ht" ~~I'Llnd \o"l~jrltl Wr.r. Of COl i rse, 11H'r' InlVI! bc~n variunts ull I h idea ' r a .. ~tl·Ull)!;'· or "i nl'='l"vt'"1H lunis!' ~t:l tt', 1\1 leflltl fou r models 'C' n I,. id'l1lilh·d. £'i lht~ CO'!"jlUl'alilll mnd I. pursued by GCl"mnri)' or ,}urmn, rhe :;LI'I le 'l('h.·(~ [t~ ~l hroker bt:l we -n dlfIcrl.·nt inll;~~l groU[ lhrau!!,h .'iLrrmg nmtro.1 by (.Jllblh· uuthuritll!!; uver key eeoncmie dit:d!:iiotHnr~kju]!, I'm ~l:et;se~. 10 thu d{riqiSI.(l model of Frnnc,~ or the N ol"the<l s1 t\Qj';;)'ll rlc vdup me n ta ~ :s lat~~, i he st ute b;l! ~ bee n ::a t Lh every center ot macrcecon mn it J'e~ul n (ion, with strrmg pu bllc interven t Ions m 0 I1.n~5lig Ell! aspects e r macrocconom LC poH~'. In the 8IJctJli~ democratic 111odd, typical of Scnndlnaviun countries, I he rules governing most 01 tile elements or society ancluf I1H~ el~tl110111y h:we been negonated between ~o 'iill pari nerll, with the state bOlI1il1cing the interests of full enlplovrniC!!U, social welfare and L:CUl1omit:: l·O!nl)tltith~tlt:iS:S. Finally, most developing states pursued sn'l)lcgJ~s of stmng natiunuhst dcvclopmcntalism as a strategy not only of Itldu$trial Ci~lch-up but also to. create the basis: for what were often very tr~t.Milc ]mM-cfJlonjal pclitics. The key point here is tlHU in al] th~~l.::' eases, tht~ state has been a crucial (and scrnetlmes

determin'i "g 1 ·t)· _.1' I . '.

, .' . . I. t' CHlen· m ~.napl ng am m:111UF;ir!~ n>lfli~ Inns ben.'o'cen

p.tlh~ual cmlL2r and economic devolopment.

_ Brl~On~1'<i8t.. the liIlefal ;,,·Lt\W of the s,tute hri.s had its moS!: pHwe.rlul .~rop{.mcn~!,n the ~ nitc:d Stata;<;. Thert~ Ih~ m~rkH logic ha.s long been l:. orgam;;;m~ pnnc.ipte of ;11 mDst aU institutional formS'. The 1 iberaI

American :stare-in both the !O.1mlaJ co,nstlrutiClns] sense and In informal practices-i:s-di::lfu.sedAiind fmgmented into <I series ef agencieg and superv i sory authorities- ln short, the state has been limired by competlticn ou the political market. Broadly speaking, this kind of "competition state"renects; market-led forms m regulation .. under the control of sephistieated Iegal mechanisms rather thotIil.fue regulatory intervention of 'Public ~uthorities. A.,,, we shal] see, this cleavage between an inlel"VeJ'1th,)l1i~ and a liberal conception of the state has become one of the major fault liaes in the debate over how best ttl, managea nd respond to globa lizatiou.

Al1nougb the feregoing discussion mv€:fS the dcminam state forms of the twen t1.et h cent U!1' I and suggests the diffe rent pri:tu;tp]eS thatunderpin tal;': relations ~m(mg state, market and s(ld~ty, if does ll[JIt ,~'th"ust an theoretical approaches to understanding t.he modern slate. One of the most !mportant strands r)f l'hlnklng aboutthe st:at'll derives from Mani:st statetheery an d this finds some resena nee in th~ responses offered by Philippme civil s.oddy orgtl oi:til.tioDS. M 11 rxism recognizes the lrn portance bot h of the s late as an obiec'~ of political COon trel U 111 cl the I'I~tion-stale as a fu ndamen tal o:rg:a Tliting p]'indple in tbe internaricnal 5)'SlE!TI'I. Ma-rxi="l state theory pnses tha fon OWl ng kay question ~ hov>' does the state. ccnsidered ,ilIiS ~~)Vctlmleln or ~uthoriL'Y i<Ys'H:rn. relare to the eeonemy under capitr.tHsm? A care 't1~-".o.nse ~!; rna t the state prPVi des theeondi rlens for socia] order ~Utd. for r.ol!ltinui"~ aecu rn nhnhl!:! in canditiom; where social groups fi.l1d themselves Ll1 fundameutal opPQsitio'(I. From t:I Marxist perspective, this understllnding or how ·lh~ Sl:a~e operates ean be SUnliT! A rized in t he foUo,'I'I'lng, terms • .J rreconcitsble conflict exists b ~twee;ll the ecenemle lMer,e stsef secia ~ cl asses lI.l1!d this eenfllct threatens secial ordet. SOCI;1l] order implies a means of !'l~dfll Ot~fJ. n i eat [on de.,'l~gn ed lO wor'&!. t I) gat isfy the ecoaorn Ie hlte[e8t$ M Olfllil:l daIl$ and not, the ather_Given lrteeonctlsbleccnfticr and the appressivi'l eharaeter of the soda] order. pre.sef'Vl!.tilmof order ~ maintained against th [" int~fest of one class. The state-a:~ the org:u that maiotains erder=-is thus ultimatelyan Instrument of iE:~ass oppressjcn.

A ... is Implied bylhis.·kind of anaLysis. then, [he state acts in fa.irly straightfeeward instrumental ways to premote rhe interests of capitalists as a elassand uses a variery of coercive <lind disciplinary metnntls to do SQ. But in Mar;xi.st theory, this is not tb~ only undet~lan(~ililg ~r the stale .. A mOre stmttun] [~ding of the .state .suggests th-at while the st.ate work.<> In the i meres I of p<'l rl of the ~(lciety, i t do~s not do so dtrec:dy but rn ther in dtrf!'ctly. Tn. dDi 11g seJ, th,e St4loe .acqul.res. a degree of reJam'e autonomy. Inst~ad of the 5'tllt-e

I nt tel dur.ri on

being the simpleillst::uIDEmt of the c.apitalis_~ class, it w0r.ks. to

in ta hI a defi ned social arder that fave rs capital over labor m the

rna f l' - iki ...1... tl it J'

10M run. TJ:,e fft1lS011 . or. t.~H; is. sin, ng: It I~ necause .ne caps .al:":~

~l~dri'l-;eB by compstt tion . <In d n\i'al~- can not a.ct. as a l.I.ll!ficn al;l,cnt on its O~o\1D- ln.a famous formulation, the state must act lor a ~i~.5g that cannot act for itself In o~ne~ words, the: t:.ap.jt~is~ state is rebtiy.ely nutonomcus from. the eapitalist class. and provides for the long-term pultticsl lntercst of l.hat clll.ss.Vll]rile the Marxist state form has never historieally existed (especially not in the Soviel Urnon 0 r ttl> a Hies). M urx ist st at e tbbol'Y dees offer some insigbts into the underlying relal ~011:,~hip between pclitical power and capitalism that m av not be .~ p pa rom J T1 wore S ta Lis t I) rli bera 1 1;0 fI cephun~ of the stare. Fl~rther, it is all. .mprOH,~h tn undet!it'lnd.ing the state th.ll h~l~ been rcmnrbbly prom] n ent is some Philippine civil soci ety diseenrse, a poinl hi:;;,hhp;btc)r1 below,

Ha .... i[l~ cHH I t ned sume b reud couceptual approaches to \JndcntIHtJing, the t:h,H'atleI'L~lks 01 Ih~ 'l:ofltcmpatary state,we can Ilnw rdktl un wnyz;: that thsse days have been \JJ tdl'tMtH:nl in 'th~ fhiliPPllU..' r;u!1le.,,=t, Takingn hlajl1.~tre~m 1 ihL'l ral virw [If llw Philippi.n~" P(~ Ii l tea I economy. C~ !':d~~:;> (199?: so), for exn mp le, h(;!i i eves 'lIUI t lhL" stab' :;;h01 !Id IU ~I i n1 e1;'VItt1t' ; n the market, Rct1ccHng I':ll'i 'the rt'Hlt~uli'lIi~ 'I'r)[·i,!of lim state in lheJl,,~r..lb"'lbin~ envlrunment, ("a1'llM n'fJt~;: that "tl':w lIc.1(1plio~ of market-oriented polkyreforl'11s n~lllll'jiLny raises ~ Ill' ~1t1 c::: l i on n f hUl.~' d(:)vc'luprueut pl.:m nin ~ ~y II!,f~VN'1l 111 ent shuuld be cnn ducted ," Canlas »sserts th~t though changes in development pl.umil1f~ woo!cJ be necessary, the view that the Slilte' lnust intervene Pl"(l;llcHvely lu the market at times of market incfflciencies "should nm he permitted to t<l.ke hold again." Canlas upholds the c1!1_~si~':1'l1 ecrmmuk view of .,1 "mluimalis;" state. 8.,' «rjlllraSl, in the! present CQnjmH;nH'el'e~ U] ri n,.:. ~lobu lization, Chikirlmko brings hack the discourse to the ,··IfII€lwm"ce- of I he state in g~ner;}L H.C;)S~t-'[rts th.:.u 'I he state ecntinues to bt! importam and r~l~,\lml! CW'n withi 1'1 the (~(lnl ~1(t ur g.lobalizatiun. Chikiarnko (lggB:

L:'}-16) :;'11 utcs l hac . .

the [ruth i-~ Hohmty has yet mverrted a replacr-ment roT' govrrnJ~1t'nt and the tlilollfJlTl-state_ GJnoali1 ... ntinn ,of markets and adY''lll~~d f:"Qlhmunic.1tion teeJmolo'gjt"):s, may be wMk('-u.1ng, ItB PO\~'C r. but th 11' r!~ tim! -~tare is still til c p'F~neip'al j n~lnHl:leti l. for :-':'oUIlI harm OWl" !lnd fj_)f 0ld'dcli.1117S!4!cial. goal:;.

~n the.P.hilippine~, tlue~ sig.llificflot oContnbuti!On~ in the-discourse ~~~ e, Ph~hp~ine s.t~tb', ~rovide(;lr~ M.tI.ytic1.l] btt~drop 11: relation to ~st.' Ite ,m a l ket d Lchotomy and ma] O~· <is,sertwms raISed by th t' pan[elprrhn.g c1vll sod~1ty ~:C'tors uf this study. Migdaf's ~Sf).eieIv-

centered.approach" views the state as WE£lk\1s--a-",is a strong society. He classifies a weak state as oaethat falls shor! ef capabilities ;tu complete the tasks to ~ penet rate society, regulate sccia] relatianships, extractreseurees, a nd upp repriate 00]:' US£! reseurees in determined Wil)"E" (1988; 4). On the other hatH;l. ~ligda1 descrlb~ s:tr(,lng_ states as those that h<J:,"'"C mh.igh eapa hjlities 10 com plete th.es~ tasks," For this approach, the. develcpmental role or capacity Girth state i (i: weakened by societal in stimti 0 nsl ike the fami ly and. kin,shtp tie's in the cage or 'the Philippfnes as they continue to exert ·more. power and influe'J'le.e over the state, Migd.:ll'$ apprnach becomes useful e.."1·)!l'Clally 111 the light of the ciyTJ society .andgio·baliza.tG[lD discourse, as some of the ir'!'ten;el~.'ed eivil SGdely~don;~f niJ~~ study believe tba t til e state h as notheen ! i',ing up to f ts de .. -el Q p,m,eD~Bi role because it has; been captured by pnwerful societal interests,

Hurchercft's (199B) and McCoy's (t~'914) tneslS that "rentseeking" practices in uhe Phmpphu:.s centinue to undermine s.tate powe r bn lste r:sMigdlal's argument 01' 'I he weak S:~<L to-strong state divide. They discuss the relationship betwe~., $tllte power and family weul.th in the PhiHppin:!e,$ and a:r:gued t.bat maJjor elite famiHe.s C'~1!1.tinn~ to devise Wilys by whlch it can eernpel the srate gi!'!c artifleial advIlnt~ge to a privileged [ItW eetrepreneurs br re~l1iiclin8 the ~ntl1' of other would-be competitor:;" Th~ Sifu;!iUon results: in con 11 ict amon~, I,.H Il~renl stakehol dets in PhUi pp i n e54:Jdcty and rentscokil:lg behavior 1iJmoHgmQnopo]i~ nr oiigopolies.

In relaticn to [he V'llryinr; 'cl::m.(':cption,S of the f'hilipptne $taJ~e, A:birwJf.J!l. {.~ooo),t~lk ... about the biuning of the p\.lblh: and priv'iltJt spheres, which is mo~ akin to the pest-modern view of the S'~~1i~e-[ha[ :r~-c:.gg~lize." the multiplicity of power centers. At t.h~ lO,cIl.t pnlitiCl'i level, Sid~l (l999) intrcd need the ~on«,pl ur "wurlodisrn" ar "bessisra" that views 11 -pred.tUur" slate hlghHghliJlf, the weakness of central power vis-a-vis I01C:aJ l·i.(!\'1If':r, R.ucamora. (lyq5~ x iii) lexpJamf! it \J\leH when he says that.

the government, in va:rl1t'uL1tr the central governmem, Is tbe di~p'(-I'SCt of economle pow~r-~"'purl quotas, contracts at.ldi lleeuses, suhsidiaed loans, But the ~1E[JtJ':1il gm'rmmelll has IIi besi weak ro:ntro] over those {,nl.mh: nf tl1l' eeonomv tlOnlmUBcl b.~' foreigne rs (H· thoseb usiness people l.I.-h~ succeSs: depends on fure~gn tics. ·1111$ plus 1.h~ central govemnu'llt's tl~pend:.:m:e! on lo.e~leliTe$ Tor its authority, hll;;: made H ditficult to capture larger :UUl larger pnrtrcns of the econormc surplue through laxation :I nd other means \'I'":ithnllt such resources, the centra! Jo:,ovem!Il-e'Tlt can (In],)' d!Bp~I"ISe ~:J!r;gesiie: itCG.!l.not fif!::J![Jcte L'~Ofl[J mk g ;(n .. 't h- The t:o:m;;t:; n t ;;:cra !IItb1 C" for ~o ... e rIlmeIl t l~se m(l!,(,:()V{lr CO mpromi5~ the 1!."I1i$ of planning to promote

'Inlroul..ldiOE I .21

eco i:iJm:nJc. growth} because .€'\':en the 'best economic plans cannot be im.plell':lent~l,

This re;ntml-ltmal politic-a] dynamic accounts for the majority of _, dies made about lhe .Philippine state, Vihat should be dear IT.om ~~~ ~;" that rnainstreameon~ptua1i:z,atitl~ of ~.h~5~a;te-jh:lh:l,eif?et "sta ti51 ~ fi]"' lib eral perspeetive+da not ~l}t eaS] ly with the Philtppine

:x e~ie::l]ce. The Phildppines h8;S never possessed the levels of state

. ~on.."tnv or capaeity that an~ seen as requiaites for proactive :~~no~i~ poHcyrm:lking.EquaUy, even 'tb~~gb.it deesh a vefhe forru~.l tra ppi ng~ of] ib.e r\\l: ~ . d,m~ocracy th~!h~hppme ~ a t~ has neo:'e.r been able to eircu rnscn b (] rts di ffi]sed po1ltlca I ~yi5tern by the effecttl'e <lpplica:tion of the l'lIle,of la.w as i lberal theory wou,ld h a~e i ,t •• 1 t has. historically, all too easlly been captured by competingelite interests promoting II predatory V(jl~t:iC!i; of patronage,

()ONCEYnJAL '!E<~EWORK

A.t the outset it was noted that this studyi 'iii all on 1. civil society and its eeneeptual izatinn of the g!obaUZBlio]1 plrenemerren. The eivil sOclety groups r,d erred min 1:11 it!; .\ltudy chcC! m pass orgHnb.:ati{m 5 "",.jthin ·the "center-tn-left" of the polilitl'Jl.llpeetnlill., En the spectrum, the center comprises the $eif~det'intld llbersl democrats and then mnves along L\I continuum including thl.1l soci a 1 democrats. demonallc scclehsts, independent seciallsts, lind national democrats. The formations in thi-s spe~;::tl;'Um areeharactertsed ~.\1 Clrgantzltions with a defined .. refo I'm agendu. vis- ~"'v'is fh (l roleand pclieies of the state in Adv~ncing 1I market-led economre paI'Ol.rdigni'· in the country.

Now that the eonce p to:feivil s,od~ty has bee n op ~ rationalized, rn.e next step Is ttl d.etennIne how th i'~ l;1'tudy concep tualizes the ~glob.e]i,.aLi().n dlseourse." Thl~ study uses Suuon'~ eeneeptualeanon of a dlscollrSle" According toSutton (1999: .1.3), di5t::01.U·~ m.a.y refer to "an ensemble of kl,eas,cc!I]cepts <mel (!:lItegori~.s thmugh whicb mea:ningiO'l given to phen Orne nil." ''the g],ob<1J.l lZ<I tion discourse is cnn'lpC]seci cf ide<1i8, concepts and categories that, when taken togetherl provide meaning to the globalizatien phenomenon, For thts study, an operatio:nJal definition of globaliz(ltion is not provided bey()n d the very genera I dlscussioe of i ts eenstituent fea tures made ~a.t'Her for the reason thatthe responden lS"' understa n ding or analyses 0: t he term a re the bases f-.or. dl2:fl n-1 ng aha estabHshi ng a eM i sodety

dISCourse on the c-oncept. ' ..

_ }\S ca u be seen I:I"0m Figure J. below, ibis studyassumes til at the ,je1ected civil ~oclet:y glWU'pS proceed 'toward a. "ratienal" made of aDalyzi n.g the glohaJi,:?;a~ion disco~;s.e in the l"hBippi:nes. This '1int!~~r~

or structu ral framewcrk [)f anaJ.,,"Zi.l]'g the discourse indicates tbe interrela tedness of the eiements inside the boxes of'the diagram. TbE' profile of the o.rgaD~.tioElg. which includes the fonmloin,g elemeats-, UHlir mandate. ideological or polit i cal o rientat ion , Ieadersmp. crnrstituency and other orga1'ltza:ticmru factors-may have a he..ario.(!; on their definition or understanding of glohaJiz.1lltl.ou. The -vmim discourse (i.e, definition, positions and analysis) of these civil &lcie~ groups on the globalization process may affect their h.lenlifiat1og and anal)--sis Df their key sreas of CJDm.'.crru;. }.jj so (1]"1 as their key a f'e2l.S of concern are re,eogniz.ed and examined, eorresponding ac:tiQru; and responses are shaped,

hfil;l.I<!> 1. l:;[1n~ e-F'nJ.~1 Fr a rn er.~ "01"1:. of ~ft"hrlPr'l~ 0 tl $,- c I~l\ and Ihe Oi:sc()u~!ic on G-bDa!t~<llion

•. 'I,'::·l~riii 'n~ ~'<f""n~

Orj!I;n(;nil~IPTlil.l Pi'I:!~'ih:

!I! ~iU,!d!iI~~ 'l:hru1l1

• I d rcl~i",.1 (1otl~1I111K1OI

• L.~R~r,"hl~

~ {"ol~J1~1\!i;IIrj; ~

lP.r"I"!!"!I"1Q::;

~."", '-"tf>.l ~

(,I~I " .. n.fllll

"-""r A.r;J;'~~ r,~

(~1f;:1

At the ~;m5ct Qf'lh.is study. one lmportam ;;ISSl.!fnptiOtL I~ thatttle organh:atkm is the lndep·f!odellt unit of ~mtllysilS in 'lile researeh framewerk that. In 'hun. determines the dependent fador::," The data ga t11!'m~d will be the Qfficisl posit ions: 311 dperspecti ves of t he se-~.eC'~f!d eivi I sod ely groups through key i n formam l merviews, 0 ffi.c1ill pre'S:S statemenrs (l]1 d OrKaJli.ztl~ion.al documents (L~. broea ures. pu bl ical ions).

This study identifies four elements in the urganization t.hal \)ri.ndpalJy shape the erganlzstion's discourse un the concept rdi g_lcnaH\Ultlon. These ar~ mandate/thTI.L .. t, ide 0 io-gi.ca I. orientill.tiQn~ leadenbip and constituency, The nu:mdote/dU'.u~! (lithe org;nju.Hon. is the el ementthat defines-the vision and mission af the organ ization and setsthe parameters fer delmtiling its issues of concern (whether political, economic or social), organizational coverage (whethEt{ national, sectaral) ano orgaaizsticnal identity (l<I.Thether It 1:5.il political party. trade u VI kill, 0.. d evelcprnen t NGOJ. The organizational mandate establishes the parameters of programs and services th e 0 rganiza non may undertake.

The idrologiool or'if!:!1:tl1.i-[(m of a n {l rgan iza tion heavily infl uenees its mandate /thrust while, ar the sametime, shapes [he (lrg<Hli~liG!l'~

.' ... itions on 1581,1,e5.111£ political orientatio-n. of a particular pOlS ,'"."tion .p' Joy-ides the framework of anO'l]ysis of its envi ronmen t

orgamL"'- .. . . . , . . '. .... h th . .. ... .

,- tuation <1;n,d this particular 'NO rldview anenots .. e orgamzatren s

at ~.1 n d'el" r'e and organizational man date, For pu rposes of this n:HSQ . . ". f· 1· . .~. .J

. . dv, the ideological urtenta nons (I. t 1 e Ol'gaHu:a,mll.S are assumen

:Uk ~xpI'e$sed inhertmtly in their analysis and understanding of the .1ooa:Uz,atian phenomenon.

g Th.e lead.er.shlp fa~tCJor is 11 ·I}igni ficant element in the eoneeptua i f mework In ·tbe iii m of gather] ng thB,offidill erganiaeticnalpositiens r~d analy;:;i.s: 'On g~Qbalh:,aHon, this research ccnsciously limits its,

~'e$pOndent8 to offidal sp~klegperso.l1s> o:ffic~tg ami ]'lrog"f3.~ coordinators who are ~Qc..3ted HI the tQP level to mtd-le:vd Ieadership p~.!!Iitlon;s 1 n the. organization. Theassumption here is fb~t the or~Bnb:aliom'Lr (lfficer;s, and spoke8.perso~s .have . the auth~nt~ to s tate the off d al post hems andperspeetives oJ thl1' o rgantzane n .. Upon ~e.dd]ng on this main objective and assumption, the research hes certain limltaticns in examlnlng lhe leadership fat:fof more deeply. The il!ihldy dues uot inelude the fulloVliing assumpttens on ~t1adl::I'ship 1"11 the framework which l'tmy iilffec:l the diseourse: (J) tha: pereeptlons and views ,~tl lh~ ~~ader.ship and ~rQssrootf> leve1 1'11<1) vary: (:.!) that nffict:r~ or offid.tll leaders of [he orsanizf!tinl1j who rtf!; assumed to be more Ol·rtie~I!<l.U!' tmel educated, mny influence the pcsirions unci ;;Imliysh; of the organlzatlonrand (3) 1ht~1 in the PbHlppines, leader-oriented Ql'gani:t,~jtiQn-s exist, Thcsoe assumptions ore too broad and .">1.] bj cetive for the stlldy to cover. The exa mimldan em the leedership factor Is limlted ,~md 6pcrafionaltzecl only on lhe assumption that ~l is the o ffid",l po.~itirm or fH18l)'~i$ uf the

organlzarlon. .

Omsritu~u1.;y i'ssu·.()~gly p.erc:eJvetJ 11::' related b) the? rnandatej th nl!;;( of the. orgn n i7,ilttoIl as it sh 3 pes and in:B.I.1t"!'nct::s its 3.veas of COI'ICr!lm5 and issues, The espoused eonstitueney of the organization (!omprises the beneficiaries and end users .ofthe organizatlon's N°grams, advoeaciss and services, The o:rganjt.-tttiorn':s identified eonstin, eney determineslts grassroots base an d its- potential mass: base of support, The type of constitneney is deftned pa[p:ab'ly for orgerrt..o..atinns based on sectors-and. issues (i.e, labor, womerr, urban poor, ete.). Polttical ot'gani2;atiDnsl .: sswell, arecompesed of sectora) o~a.nn;ad.on~ for its base of SUppOI."t Comltt"uem::y forms part of the dire~t benefidaries f01" development and poHe}' -NGOs_ .

_ ,The: second box which contains the element of definitiDn lind 1md'ID'"standing refers to the ideas, words, eoncepts, images, examples CI~hJeJ(per1eflr::tlS that may b·e USE;Q 'to 'pr(l\~de meaning to globalization, \'-i . .]19 k~y llreo.s oj C'OIN;':'em (third box) refer [0 the aspects nf

~1ob.djl.ation that these selccred ci .. il society organizatlons are most critical of, that cause them wariness, or that mar have ail impact 08 the "people" from their perspective. The fourth box wnieh shuNs the nctlons and responses simply refers to the strategies. ad\'ocaeies and alternatives that nave been or will he employed by the organizatlons BS far as the globalization phenomenon is conc:e,[IJ,etil

The' discussion of thj" SHLciy will be guided by this ·conCtlj:Jma.!. model <IS a possible approach ln understanding how these setecood civil society gI10UpS contribute to the discourse un gllJb<tl.izatinn~

METHODOLOGV

Altl1ou~i1 this study hopes to set out a ~·ynthcsh;. g~nerate new Insights and frameworks, and. posslbly, de., .. elop ilfl action agenda, it does not pretend to be comprehensive In scope. The choice 0 target respondents presents the range ali well as Ihe lirnitat ions 'of this study. It. purposively identifiesgroups that were depmed erltieal nr wary (,r the gllll"l;,'lii7~~ti!J!1 phenornenen, it dnes not inelude the wlm1 t': spectru rn of ci ~'il w('ll:ty groups j n the t:QU ntry. It 0111y bngetl;. specific dvH society grnnps that lail within th\;l tdt-fiJ-n~n[ct segment (;tf the potiticnl spectrura. The choice of thi panll.:lJlar segment ..... ar undertoken (vllo ..... iJ1& the more exclusive defin ilion I) civil society used hy David (H)!)8: ar), which Is: U he totaTity of th ese selfconscicus O'l'?,lll1tut.ions that art:' accountahl rn il defined constituency, t]1lll corucsr tbe PO'''' r of the statu and insist on a culture of involvement." TI1is dcfin1tirm ill t'ffcellielimits the eovcrsgc of this study to U1JJ)Sl! non-state actors and institutions that promot reformist, lransfurmative or alternative development or poliLi~~~ age ndas I or t h ase Lh a t q uestion d ominant 0 r mains We.lt.l1 econ om le ur political policie.."l arid contest I he stute in the process. 111 ln~ cunternpcrary era r [hi~ challenge is un doubtedly most closely associatedwith the center-to-left in Phlhppine politics.

Furthermore, the "center-te-left" grouJ)$ included in this study fall into three major types of formations whteh characterize this exclusive definition or civil soeietv.

Left pnliricul blucs au organizations that have a definled ide-o] cgieal and pfllL t ica 1 program and self-acknowl edged as, helongi n:g to the Philippine Left. '!~h61 categerizat tun mil)' befurther subdivided aceerdi Ilg; to their nrajor idealogical ulld~,tlJill n i figs: national democrats, lndependent socialists, democrartc socialists, s(l(:~l d emocran .. and the libe ra] democrats,

Nutiotu: , policy research a rid nt~lu.'tH·l: _~~GO!5 have an ergantzarionally defined economtc/developmental fucus and contribute to the d iscourse through policy srudtes Oli general

Dlitk_alj economic and s~d.fl,l hsues. or the forging of networks ~ • oug .organizations working on vanous concerns. "

;1Ii1 I!;sue-based (wd/ol'·se<.:l.Or(J.l advocac!I. €l!ad poll('Y l'f:!s:Ci.l'ch nizations are mgan.i?',:ltions whose work involves orgamzmg,

org(l ' .. ' . . " 1 ff

.h a' ... ,1, n"tworkmg, and focuses Oil certain issues tna: a ect resear·c. .a.·· '"

spElc1fil:: sectors. .. _. . '. .

Thi:s. study analyzes the responses of seven left political blocs. 10

ImOnDil1 pal; cy fo!!.')ea rch and !l etwer 1;, NGOs an d ~3iS5ue- based and ( or sectoral ad'l'ocacr and pulley re~'e~lrcih org<lIm;a~Omi (see Annex 1). tnterviev .... ed c~.pondenLo;; and focused gr~up, (hSCUSS10il (FGD) part][:ipanls range trorn p:ogr3ll"l ~o execuu v ~ level officers, Key informants me mostly presidents/directors, tl.ill!}naJ spokespersons and program officers.

The qualitative aspects ofthe studyconslsted of two phases: data eolleetion and validatlon.

/\'L th (~ L nl, lal phase; sern l-srructurcd interviews "" Ith the respondenl:S based in Metro Manila were cundueted. Th» interview g.uid~ (:8C~ Annex 2J W~l~ fonwuiled to tlle respondents prier h') tnt"' interview In givl' 'Ilwm an id,e •• of the kl")/ tClpi~ lh a ~l would In' dt&cl.m,{.'d.ln mTkr to gel fee{,lbt,(.:'t~ on the prel irni miry findings .. nd to udd to tIL I iliIWUUi'SC, an FGD with repres mtatives from org<ll1 iZ!.Ili(m:> within wd outside of j\'i,·t.ru Ivhtnila-mi'l.lll1y '[rom NvrrhNll LU7.nn, SuuL.lWfn T~};illo~ and Mirll.lmwll-'W?lS also held. The ~et of quest Inns used in the interview guide was also I he lnstrument usud ill t be FGD, Tel further SUppOI'l and validate info rrna ti n n o n the po i n t s provided hJ' th e respunden ts, a con te El1 '1,.lJflIYS1$ of m:ganL'latic:mal brochures, statements and tither I'eh!vanl dnturncllts W<L!:i mttde, Scc.ontl~H'Y documents, such as; articles written :lb~lIlt the respondent organizatlnns in books, jOll_1!'l1DI.s, ma:e,:a"l.inC'!' aud newspapers Wl.:l'{' also collated and llnL\lYZI..~t:L

The validation stage was c; .. uricd out f6r the purpose of cl~.rif:rin~ the l't'SPlH:LqeS based on the initial analysis and interpretation made by lhe researchers, as well as gaining addirinnal Insights and persp~t'ti v es of tlw concepts tinder study, An in-house validation work-;:])up .among ~ bi:' researchers was held wf1e.s.11 0111 overlapping ·(:01] t:c pts gen g: rut cdr rom the .'),'I! a] yze-d du ta, Th is a I so p r~)l!iJ ed a \I~nll~ for the researchers to address methodolegieal gaps, owi rtg lu the t:~pl o rnto 1"Y nature IJf the study. in addi l ion, independent res~ar~ht'r~ were nuusnlted to get an objective npi n 101] on the IU'_Ehmniil-IT findings of the" study. Mor~(I\'e.r, a validation wnrl .. ~hIJP :~b the il:t~.:.-rie':\red, resp(~,mlents was initiated to provide 3' venue

ere the initial findings ot the !.>tIJUV could be! eonnrln.~. connected and CQIl1mljntcd upon, Convening ttlt~ respondents and giving them

an oceasinn to re pond oollecthrely to the k.e} 'concepts enrich~d and shn rpened jrarticipaars' convergences and divergence Qn issues.

SCOPE Ai"lffi LINUTJ!\TIONS OF THE STUDY

This study situates itse 1 f ,~~ thin the' literature rm civil society au(l globalizatinn in the Philippines, It is all attempt simply to document view'S and responses of selected civil society groups [hat. when take:.o together. can provide ~flnle meaning to the pheuornennn C',aI[~ globaiizntion, I n doing 50, it ccntribntes to the richness of the growing literature 011 the ongoing debates concerning globalization. The study is mainlr descriptive and explanatory with its attempt lo offel tncorl."li('aJ1y-infrJrmeO elucidation of [ore concepts. 11u' stud)' provides both worthv .. hile insights and mw!) ~~ but the study is jUl!it Oil b~~1 nning U contains empirical d.~tOj. th'll may he worthy of further scrutiny, analysis and I:!IUlmTllHUon.

E very em p irieol st u dy h{ls lts Iirn i tatinn s, Th 1 S one Hi I] 0 c-xccptlQ]l.

This stt.iluy \Wi::; mair,1y constrained by the scarcity of manpo,\\'Q!\ time .:ncl resources. As much 9.5 H would like to CO'I"l_'1' civil sodety groups or e\'\'ry segment uf Ow pnlitical spectrum. in order lo provide a eomprehensive assessment of the pul II leal I f'lTI1 II it eould nnt, ..1\5 much as j would want hi b· all-eneorrrpass .. ing, thi study W::I$ only abl ' to g&Jther response frnrn a tightlr identified :lind rnunageuble numb r of seteeied chil !';odc~' sroup::o. In. t ·rm.s CDf geographlc !;o\'€'!rag(' of individually interviewed respondents and :ron pSlrtlcipa.nb, the majority is based in the N'i.dion."ll Clpiu~1 R~gIOD (Ken). Although the resea H'hl"ro; :~, tt'rn p"l~~d to 1,ui!lu'(ie crganlzarinns outside Me<lro M~njl3 inthc studv, thrnugh the c·ollducl or F'GI1.;;; In Northern Luzon, Vlsayas ami Mind!1!1r!fl, time eenstralnts prevented the team to undertake such activitj . The inclusion 0 hlln danae-bas ed organizations in the FGDs held in Maniln as part ui the validation phase depended primarily on the presence of grou rs in Ih~ area at that time. Neverthde-s·, it i~ Impllfl.1.nl to nnte mar whtle the m.1jorlty uf the f~~pnndi;:'nb are NCR-bas~d most of thei!: organi7'.t:!.Hnu~~ ha\'~ :i nationwide srnpe in both operations i311d membership through local chapters .

. .!\nother limitation of the study was the fact that it relied he-a,lly 0.11 in-depth interviews with designated spokespersons, a1..lthnrUies who belong to the top to the middle-level management r~nd If.arien;;lIip nf these selected civil sod ely orga n lzat ions. The \-1.IEWS ;;Iii! perceptions of these selected respondents wert: assumed to be the' closelv-held viewpoints of the organizations that hey belong to, n has to be admiued, though, that it would be diffieu1t to guarnntee

I nt rod 1)( 11 11f)

t t:hfu" assumption holds true all the time. Ne\'ll'rtlu-:less. a series

th:a hat the vi .. ind d

" tiu.a.tions were made to ensure that e viewpcmts were 1 tt ee

of'!,o>:a • •. 0

.L..eo:tic posil.ions of the orgamzatrcns, • aUu'

Chapter 2

T~HE MANlY FA.eETS OIF IGILOIBALIIZATIOIN

WllA.T rs GLOBAUZAni()N?

Theraar« several VI'{!!ys of answermg thCQuestion, ~wb3tt is !l,lcsbaliza ri(u~?" In the previous cnl'lp rer, ~.chob:fly concept uO! H:i''!1iti~!lj;; of glob!lH~t ion were offered _ In this c.hapt-et; ~~ob~Uzation is presented lUll. sn much Irern an ncaelemie and ted.filml persp ~t i ve but rathe r Fro m the def ni HOM artie ulahid by c:lvU ,B,1){:j~ly actors themselves, The purpose 1::. to scrulin17Je me ~rnl)i rica.!. ~;denc~ and pereeptious used byt hose who are opp~~ to globalizatio D i:lod tb osc \.,·11 (l art wa.[')1 of It, however u nrdlntld their arguments may be. These civil sooietyperceptions go beyorol the Issue of simp!y being skeptical alxmt g.l,o b<'lHza1. ion. For ~n am on·g those groups who could he broadtr classified as; skeptics there a rs some sha rp H n~" of di verne nee, VJ'l1 at this cha pter Il. tite.p'W) then, is to delineate the various gradations of opinion In reifl1tion tQ glo baH7_ati(mili~~rebYl"F1apping .respnnses to complex issues.

Ukt' oilier con treversial concepts, glo bal i za nOD has gene:rn:-ood areputation, it set of associati (Jus an dideol ugk:al b3,gg<:ig~ Ine ..... 1iablj. i mage:s t hal the term ~ g! o ba 1l7_ad.an ~ evokes ca n a is 0 tend to ub.S&~ itsmeaning •. For many eritiesin developing eountries, for e..X<liP1pi'e. globali".:;ation means. environmental degradation, t'xpluitation of developlngccuntrles by multiuaticnal eorporations and toSiS I'!L dornesf C sovereignty. For its advocates, it means progre5i•

.. _ lopment, faster groVrt1h, all eviati on of poverty and 010re de'ffl . . th di ,~1 ,- 1" ''_:" L _._ d icilncth'e lives, U ,e iscourse oJ;t 6t?lJa,lte(h_,onls to. g'Cl ut:yGlll

~hese rather stereotyp:dcollc_eptuah7~tl0,Th5 theD;. there. ~.as to be.a ~-1able way of gystem~tJcaHy appl'~.a~ll],g,thesubJed. It 15 t~e:n2fon? futite tQ fQr~e·the notion o~ gl.obahza,tlOu into <I box, Instead It needs HI br:: 11l1padted. And this js pro~'ls{l]y what the breadth of the

lomJization discours.e m<'lnagcs, to do: . '.

g Glob<llization conjures 'Up diverse images and imderstandiugs

for different elvil society groups, eV'IBn though SOU'lIEl of these depllrt\Jf\C'~ art' quite ~uh~le(md nuanced . For in.s:ance,wrn]c .50m:c groll p~ lo ok i1 t glo balizarlo 11 as a precess O~~CtlVl~, others :'lCW ,It as an 1JJstnHl~cnt. Wn~l do these selected civil ooc~et)' grouprII,g15 IJ] the Ph Bip pi nes say about gio balizaticn? Orne ~f the 'mo-sl sfrikl fig fdtllr'~S is that they evoke IlJwges ef the dynamic qu;alihu of globaH7.ation, as movement ~HHl process.For others, by contrast, it dl1not'~.'5 a roo I or i nsf rum 12TH: th at can be used in. am offensive manner bv "ethers".

. i\ .. " H C~1"(!lWry, rrmucm~ml includes descriptlcas and definitions of glo'~~'lH~l:lhon thn t -\iu.",gt'S1. metlon, pa:::Sl\J5!(fl, r.hal1~e or dlreetion. Th is ~(m!1~ ~)f dyn!In'l ism ea n further b~ b roken down in to five specific di m en~o ns: i) CO nsnli [] a.ling m(iv~ment i ~ em e tl rat 'cvnk(!,~ ant mage of ~'t'l1U'Hli:~~ng action andaf paople camin~, ~!'J~clher. 2) centrifugal mO'VI~mcn l prese n bill' i m.i\.gc (Jf d (!~;C n tra 1i7<f;l.tio!! 'U'ld hw(~kes feelings tlf Ji~llllUi and clb;f.lgretlnl~nt; 3) lU1i.idlr.e~tionl.'!,l movement propo5~ 1I "push" tOWiHJ UI· nu",· in cue ~ErC,lclifJn; ~) movement ] III st\lge$ indlclllt·.\j an evnlut i on toward ~. more devel oped though net l'!e~t'~Sil.ri.ly positive ~bll~; while 5) a shift iil a mavement that l'nimifest.'5 a change t n OI:i~ ntatl on. The following su mrnarizes the de~~~dptl(_Hl:s and dennitiorts given by the inten.·iewrd respondents as they fit under I he ~Uegof'yof movement.

,., l'O!l$-V/ idc.lt{ng-i.n tegrat ion of cHB ure, u system, ~L1.tNna LionaHzatilln tl'f prWJ uetiun and labcrvecanomie mten!~penclence, ~0]idIlXily ofcivil 8!(lde~1' groups, stronger In ter un tiona] lin ks, gleba l ] ntegratl on (l f econ r.l III ies, lb e ~Y~temk intertelationshlps of international trade and 111(:11 1St ry. i nterch a n ge between. nations, the shrinking world • Ce:ntriji1gnljOun('(i' r(.h:rmrginalb,atio n, polities between ~h[! p(J~~'e.rfu land the marginahzed countries, sysh~matk:

1I.1ract1on of raW materials fromthe third world, abolition of union, curtailment of worker's rights and welfare

• ['nidinr;::crional-aC'ee:lerat~d push of global capitalism. a lm.f'~W.ay thing, the dlreetlcn of theworld

". ""~?tw~es-li1test twist of imperialism, stage of monopoly ca l~na 11'''l1Tl, re-colonieatton

3(1 Philippine Civil 50r.:jEh and thE' Gfoh,;li~~lion Discourse

• Shift-a, policy shift

Same definition or descriptions of globalization also indi~tw the notion of pro~ss. As to the kind of precess, globtilization bas been perceived as ll'C£lrlOmic" historioo,/, political, rwtuf\at, e-t!oh.ri'li§I. cycHcal~ a.nd global intf'g rariorj ,

There are some deseriptkms and understanding of g,\obaliza:tion: that can be el til ssified under the category of tao'. This el aSS1'ncaijon includes definitmos of globalization evoking an image of a.n "instrument" or "apparatus" As such, it can be a mouthpiece of in.dustriali2.ed CClunrdes. instrumr'tH nJ jmpen'r.rUsm. ,0 satinporitiool and le('(lrlornk plan, an m.~rriirRimf oj imperialism ,Mid Q GA IT- MJTO pIH?1Wmenon.

Other wa~s by which these dcfininons nlliY be classified suggm images of an offensive action or.;l reaction. Fi na]ly. I.'Indmar-e: descriptively, there are simple descriptions of glohalizl'ltion ll:&,;t "concept" er a "fad":

'. Q[frmsit'!!-econom it: uffensive, pel itic<:I1 offensive and globnlizing nffensive

• Rl'!uction-iJ reaction that eamc in 'Ihre paradigms, a l1i!tlctiol'l to Reaganomics, III response ~lf imperialist countn.es ~ Ofhers-D fad. a tren c l, tI re-packaged concept, 0'111 ecological footprlnt

111t~ ways by whieh definitions of globnliunton can be dalissifie~ and di~$iected n re (l bviou!i:ly fI uraemus, Th€ fo re~ni n:s, categoM~~tOIl is. jUfIl iii stralgh'lroFWl.~rd demonstration of bow diverse anrl complex the images that globa1i.zation e\'OkFi;."I1'w discussion in the 11e.x1 s~ction outlines a more Jl'taUt:d conceptualization of glnbaliUltion of various civil society orgalli2JUions in the Philippines.

Dll::FERENr DThIENSIO. 5 OF GLOBALlZI\"nON

ilJl the organizations that participated in. [his study higMight spooitic aspects of globalizenjon, thereby demonstrating that globalimtion lends Itself to rmsltlfaeeted inrerpretatlnns (Perlas, 1998: 16-~7) The key dlmensions nUI~' be grouped under the (OUOUriIlg categorif§' !::'tvrlomic; political, social, lec/lntJiogieu.l and. C:~lltuf"al. 'fable l summarizes .. the range of understandings and approeches of civil so ci ety Q rgan i Ultio ns to gto bali zation. Acknm~!ledgmEn t of [be richness and d.i\Te~ity of (he perceptions of these organizations is vital to developing a better appreciation of tht!lr major' c-on~~·

The results of the interviews are summarized in detail i iii mlatm:(l to five distinct categuries, nrgamzed accord] hg to [he ]Jl[Ist emphasized to the least emphasized dimension of globalizatfon- It should be noted that mere are overl aps in the cat eg 0 riza tion. of 1M'

OJmen:~lon

-----

Table 1

Different Dimens,ions of Glob~Hzatlon

,S!il~tQIl!I ilnd!lor

'National Po~l,ey IS':;'~Ifl'~a"5ed

L~f'I Pol~~lc.a I 8,1 c C~ R,gs'earch l!Il'IIdfor F«I&!!a.rchi and

___ J __ Ni!JMmk 111_'(;_0_, 9_, __ , AdVQ-~l;:y riGO!!

~ fleo·llberalism " n:!3'D~6F<1Jism

~'(lpgnlll" ss • ijlobBl

.lrrter>Li'ependen!:;e' MUvit~lproe!!$!;,

• opeJ11l:elSS

• 1:0000petItk:m among d~eJOlllr1g and d~l"o'IiIOlW<i:i t:Qun;nBs ~ InllilEJrnhcn cf e!:ar1Qrnies

" Il'Iterdewndenc.!l 'I un~qL.l31 groMMmoo

'i financIal jmperl!ilillsm '. ~mparlallsl's ~dl[lm4lfplilo1dnstruti1 en1

• commottl~l~ J

• f1I(:lo·ootontal srn

• ~ne mou1hpl~e of jnd u,!.1.riaIi:!eEi COU.fltri6!51

• c.o!9~lstenoe or rnUW4altiiHl' Iflsmu!ioM and ttra: state

.. reign of Ihe ThlCs.

• Cliisengia(:lillmem from the s;tate·~ IradilionaJ role

• ne.(·Hiberalisnl

• r'!eo-rib-erOlI 9 lob.<il c.a:rn'OII1~m,'m cnll ~Iy ~<l.pl'a ILsI'TI

• !OIlot,." c~ptL""s rn or r..:JpI1,ali61l1

~ inlegJ:3tiOrt of economlos

• Inl~rl<Jllsm

• rnd~I'S~Ji.rlIt.l:<Jtlon for rli;;Mmpi:lnallat

eeun ntes and I;bsi r TNC:s <HlI:! fl01 f1.)[ ThlHj WoHIJ L:~IJnl,i!:t1>

• Irlt!!lfr11l'IiWlfllrl31mFl o'r ~h(l preoucho n p~oce5585 or me l'NCg

• p~ervauol' of 'I he stntu'!; qUf)

~ l~res"Na~Ilm ani:!, cQOsOlldalion of it1e 51nmgth t1! ltI'\Pe""1151 S.!<!HlSand

~~l\Ordlll EI~IGn of nee~(]J(]I'IJaI5tu tea

• marglf!all;:atIQ'1 of Slluthem cOlllHnes

.' lha dictatE: of TNC$, !;lowe rf ul states

• reSlJf.gs !'lee or nonstate pla,~'ers. tlJ'id a-FOsionfreIfS<lt of 5b\1"erl$'lgln natiOf1-S;taU;!s

• ;abdica!I'()n 0 t .state r.:: spens ibiIL!!

! 3n D~,~ rt$i';~

I ~ prod Lie! of EI~r.ljltonJp[)I'ICi n;alt;.m;; .. lti~hJaI IIWPQsJtlon 01

Ilrl.!a~Ir;lS" COlllo;fl1'l1101ll! aniJI iflslrumel1!s by member r'la1Jons 01 1nlemalJDr'lOiI bo~I'I('36,

'. MNC-{jl"lv;!lh

,0 (fimifluliOrl of Ine role or lJ1e :Statjl'

~ pal<llJ~sis a~ lile slate i< ertClO0lchm9f1t on Ow roie of the'l).tal€! 0;' global. structures of govemance1grDbal flnan~i<l.1 ii15!ilutiP!1S

;0 C'llfe,nsilJE;l

So(;lal

Table 1 (wn1jn,ueejl) D'lff~'rent Dimens[ons of IGllobalizalio'l1

----------------

H,!, a'ti,o, lIIa.1 PO~i,C, Y Sed.IQ?aI aIlIdl" ,0,1', , ','

Res.earrdl and/or RmuiI'lIIrdJ and ,A.Chl~

Nletwo:rk NGOs t,U3'Os,

I " Stllrdalt~ ~ mal1l~!'IO'!rl2lO!lr.oll1

'. ~l1lBma~1QI'ia1'L!.Bl:!CI.f1 ~ In rsat til pea,san~. 'fuJ,

I Qf ~Ulridilri1y ~ It! f8.rt 11:1 'MlriI~

.' lhrea~ te P1!!~'n'l::5 • i3gncul\U~ IM'demlza

1ij,m'lE'1"S I' Im:~-w social and

'. fnmal to v.otI'\9fS @fIV1olUllmenlel des'tn.K;.t$n

,. Core,,' ttl the p:JQr • ulJ~'[k!n Il!f Ina rnlill ,-

o l!'iJ.i~L!IJ;l!'S of te~l:les 01

urn[1let'l'd8'd OJ ooun1ry' by OIII'!OIiher D:I_

CPi"1~!!'qtJences • IIttE'allO jllrtlmloat ~

.' 'stIll n~ 0: .d!i!E!1i 00 • th~Et81 to jn([iIi~ Cilttu""

reE! v. am CJJo[)CJIl'rn5 ~ 3b~eooe of saclaI 9tiUWlh

a.g.e~J;I

'. ~¢I dilTit')i 01' eMl SOd!!~

• culitl ral 1tY~re:5SJ()fI b>' the West/the US ~ Ir1limlliaoon o!" neocolooJe5

C'ullu r al ~ hamogEf11~atiot1

~ oomrnot!l1ieatiOll 01 lieQCOIDl:mll wul1lI1es· c1.J!lural

___ hI!!Titag,e"' _

~ manll1f1allia"O{l

• inlW'1iltlonall!z;atioo or 'abor

" thiieal to most V!illterab!e 5edors

• IilTe:;ll fo pe.as.ants_

fBrmeJ'$

'. Ilmla.1iD ~1/;p~ke1S .' llir~al 10 the poor ~ des'lru~11)Il 01

~Y!i11W'1 a

en ... lriOnmen~ ai'I'CI c"fl:sis or n<:l,ura1

~J __

,0 loofII1OIOog)'-<lI1'o'el'1 ,. !'ree !.'fltry of

I ~1\1KIIOgV

• Bdvanceme.nt LI\ t ec h n O'IOI!'IY

• inll!ffla'llmlallU!lion

I . Ill!!;tIno!QQY -dnven '. leT InflO',r8lJO/'1$

• r;J:S.!at CQmlnl,rl'1llOal1G11

~ WOrlCi~ sl](e"ad 01 rJUWlOOge. leees and kn!OOllalion

• IfilfI,~tOlIDallGn of 1:tm 'NOI1d il'l!n a sma II '~II'g.ge

.' 111~p<lble. Iljl!'Vl ' .!'IIl

nStlJr41

• 'ec:"~.(Iepend!!rlI

• 'rlID 'aliittY ai rectin '., CI'I.l!!lgOS in I CT nd

Iranspctmuon

~ raal2}l acr,css 'to ISdI ~,r.CI lI1l'tltma'iiklli'i ·'I'o'O~'!P~t:d kflO'Wled:'9i • ~Ilas tmd In1DJI'I\3tlOt1

., ll~n~ooil

• transfOOlia!.ion or 'till

jlim a Sfi'iall

l ,. ccllllral i!Jtf'rdlil~$

.' mf!ux gf\IIJ~~IHI1Ide3!> ., CCf!S!Jm.e:n~

.'~n~l:Iflll

0, ~nl£ii-rl'vel'5ll1f

_j------~

I'CSponses. For exaTple, the ri?~~p-o~se"gtob(llization ~s a .Ihre-at. to il'IdigenoiJ's cultures 'ca~ be d~;sdi~d ho~h under-the s.Oct~ dimens~oD

s well as the cui tu ral dimension. Likewise, an orgamzatton may g1:ve : [Ieg,rove ch~racteI~~tion of g~ohaa~tioD. in o~e dimension but may higbHgbt rts positive.aspect in another dlmensiou. For example. the ease of loon Fouudation, Inc. (mON) shows that under the p,,1iti~i11 dimell~io~ ~a.tegory" it~e:w~, g:obali~tion as a "poUtic~] ofieRsivt'n. But It h1ghll~hts g1.obahzatlO,l1 s pos]t:ive aspect under the ;sodaJ diln:elwion by saymg that itfacllltates "the internationalization tif people's solidarity",

Economic Dimension

The most prominent facet of globalization is its economic dimension . This aspect dI'3l'".1S n>.SpCJlUi£S from the civil society organizations thai referred to material econom le practices, their ideological uncit'r:ptnnings and outcomes. From Table 2, globalizetion fiHl)' be seen varioualy 35: l) .t gJQba-1 economic l1etivily or process; 2) unequal sro\''i'th; 3) mmHberlll.Ul'imi and: 4·) impertahsm.

As <1 1l.~ohal l.W:Q nomic activity or process, global i;;';!llir.lIlis, fn.'<luently c:h[lnlderh';ed hy r,;tp'f:nness, '11'1$ entatled the opening IIp of naticnnl econcmles tn the !51Qbul 'IH world market as the Philippine Development NGO~ fur International Conccrus (PHIUNK) and PumbuTi!sang KiI~/sa,n. !lg rtI'fJa S(llnCJhcmg Mu!}sos(lkn (PAJ(lS.A.MA) assert or when "producers snd buy rs look at the world as their market" r1S I he 'FOldudHtiOfl ft)r Ec.onomic Freedom (FEF) put it. However. Action for Economic Refofi'lHl (Al~R) stresses rh i.l t glabali1;!l.ti(Jn, though "associated with QP(!'U"lCS!;'~, is: not "equaJ or S)fll0tlymou~ l n t:.'1 pi ttlili sm",

Another eharactertstlc of thls global ecenom ic ;;!divil)' is il!tel"d~peTIdencj(l. AER refers to glllbali'-;Eltion as the "ecenomie interdependence of natirms". 'I'his view 'N~~S shared by the CQmmunity Or~nl"ting of the Philippine Enterprise Fcundaticn, Inc. (COPIE) when it describes globaliaaticn I1,S "the: current systemic I~b~nelatlonsllips of'interuational trade and.industry which interlock Wlili" the ecunomic, pol itieal ana soclo-enltural life of a country", The tntf'f\C'htmge and exchanges between nations" and the "free flow ~: ~ove~~ie_nt of ideas, gom:h>,; people, cal'l~t~l and services" are :dsn

~nlgul.::.hLOg ft'~~llLre8 of -thIS g~oba~ :).,etlVJity 1I:S expressed hy the ~han ce ~f Progress ive Labor (APL), the Der:r?'k~(Itikoll.9 R. agm!Dukui ng Sl1lton K~ldaMt (DEtvu\"sKU), the Plnhppmc RU§Q~ o~~;HlS1.~c.tio~Movt!m12nt (PRRM), and the "I:~,de .Union C:Ol'lgte.% n fie ~mltpplncs (TUCP). Among the~e orgamzations DEM~'\sKlJ &!o~s. ._U)~ unid irecfional (tee flow of goods .. DE~1}h'lKU links

a ahll~tlon to "gloealizatlorr" which it defi1'l'e.~ as a phenomenon

f
._ !:lL, E
~ .~
t ~ .D~ iii
.!l e ::::l
E "" "'!o !~
'II I'! ~~; : .!!
'"
.. ~ ~'5
J ,Ir.j~~ ~,-~
,;;j ~~l
~ ~.~
z 11 ~ ~I ~. ~
I
s ~
a:
.. 'ij
'.,
'" .. E
:{ " ..
'" iii
~ ~
11: ! i
II g,
"'" ii .Ii ,-------,--

The Many facE'ts of G!oh<llizalilln }7'

, . ~lTtlatli]fested by the influx of Forei;gn goods in local markets and

tl:HI.t1S , nd "

, t the utheI way MOun .

,flO \side [rQU1 looldn,g at globalizationas a global activity, these

t 'lZ'ltiOiD.S equate globaliz..aHon with neoliberallsm. Faulks (1999:

org,m ., . " ",.. h: b" ",

l} define-s neohbera"h::.ml as th,e ideology t at, eJleves:, m th_B

1, .. otion of a free market economy, Over the last. two decades. rt ~ro~nvol''Y'ed the resca] il1,_g of economic polteymaking from the

d<lSmeS'tir to world levels .. Global neoiiheralism, according to George

JJ ).. '1' 'I' e • I! 1, bal I'

DE' Mrrrt[oo (loon: 125, entaus t~e tormatnm OJ[ a gil) . po ley

regi.m~ that C(Hnprises free trade and the. free flaw of resources via rlHlrket mcchanisrus .... It extends all the Virtues of the market to the il'lternatio:naJ arena." All tlw left po1iUc~l blocs describe globalization as neoWH"'['H1 in character, Apart from this characterization they spec ifica 1Iy desc r ibc _ ghjbtl lization as, cit?cr ~n eoliberal rn~tlopoly CIlpi tali sm' u W W ncoll beral glob alcupi talism, S Orne organ J 103 tto ns Ukli! l1ay(l1t .'1rtmHI. General M:;;eU'lhly Rinding Women for Reforms, integrity, EqWtBt)'. L~Elder.::ihil!, and Action (GABRIELA), .Kiiusal'l Paru :i~' Pumflansong [J~rtwkr(1~ya (KPD), 8t'to;ljanslrmg Partid» rig Pagguwa (~'P,P). thut $f:1:' glnbalizillion as H forln of neoliheral capitalism, ,,1H) portray globalization ~8 ssctl'li.d!y the same old eeenornlc game on a global seale where 't])cn:: are cleur winners ilnd losers, Other OI·gfL!li;.:.\titm~ 'that lend to equate globalization with neoltbemllsm ineludc: Kosnrrn/(In-Knlayrnm (SARtLAYA). Wom n's ActiC)J1 NNw()rk for Devcinpnumt(WAND).S(!'ntroparosQ lkammlad ItO KOIulllVOUg Ag/rtlill m 'f'ekno!oM!Jfl (SIKAT), Grec>npeaort:' S(ll.llheas.t A.<;iH, Limeomn ,M ulti-purpose Cecperatlve (LlMCOM A), Suuthern Phil,iV!lilW~ F('del':!UUil uf L..;"lllQf (SPFL) and the Mindanao Rura 1 COil gtes~ (M ftc).

, TIl!' next ~el uf responses vie v_os glohalization as "imperialist" in ~lutr,;II.'Lt!r or im perialist-led. As can. be seen in the latter part of tht= matd~J thi.i ubservatiun is s.hj,u'ecl. by a large number of organizatiens:

BayCJ ~I l\o/u rI!J, [{PD; SosyaUstang Partido ng PaggawlJ (SPP), Sandl~JlUl ng Lukas ar Uemukntsyo 'fly Bf1mb{J;~W(l'C1n (SANLAKl\.S)' G.:B RH·:LA , Ktilu;(mg Mayo Uno (KMU), Pamoaus-a!tg taka.o;;: .ng f:!l,lIsung Ma.m(lh~kaY'LI,'H] ~Wpinas-Nfltionwide Coalition of F~shl:!rf~]ks 10r Aquatic Reform (PAMALI\KAYA-NACFAR),

.:mdatiOll for the! Development of the Urban Poor (FDUP), and A!>w.n Labor Ncrwork on lnternational Financial Institutluns (ALN I)

PoHtica] Uimension

~heU lTLajo ri t y of the responses reveal that -gl ebalfzatlon poses a m aj or ·;a f'.t\g~ 10 _the state. Tablc3 summarizes the range of perceptions ~~~;;am7.:atlOns o,n t1:e po~itl(::!lI dimension of gloh3HzaLion~~ost

stand globtthz:ltlOn within the context of :1] neo-eolcnialisrn:

with no other optionbut to join the bandwagon for globalization however detrimental 'this process may be to the polltical dispositicn of a country.

Social Dimensioil

The sonia] dimension Inehides perceptions of g1c balizatinn as it affects the lives of particular ~edors of :S'CJC:iety. Rt',S(J onees rsveal that civil oodet:'l ,orgruriUltions identify the positive as ''''ei1. as the negative aspects ofgloba lim tion depending (In the d i mens1:Dnbeing described. Organizations mentioning the positive <:.oclal impact: of globaliz.ation "include UJON. Foundation fo'r the Philippine En",iro!'unent (FP'E), ppr and Ugnoyong Pmlg-Agham 171;1'0 (liGAn, Posith<e .outomes include the ~ndarity r cl\ril society groups, the internationalization of people's soHd~,rtty and the globalizatien of leamlng and academic knowledge.

However; respen sees high1i:c;hhng the negative soda lim p 1 i'canons of g]cb!;lU:zatio1ti far outnumber the positive. The organizations ~denUfi.ed 'fcur social sectors that they feU to be adversely affeeted by glob[ltitaUon: 1) workers; 2) peasants find farmers: 3) poor people; 4) other vulnerable sectors (i.e., women. children And indigenous peoples). In plU"tir.:\.1<iu. ne 3 ive consequences for workers inelude unstable ,,,'orking condition i a 101 alized (onlel(ll; as ma;nifesu~d in "ecntractueliznnon", Rintcrnationilli~aHDn" or "flexihiUmtion" of labor which can lead to, job ins'Ccurlty, unjust wages and other m ul tipif'. adverse effects. Asid,e Ftom tht: p'l'!E'!pOndefa:nc~ of anti-labor po~i,des, orgcm~2.a,tkms ~bo tend to higbligb'l the deepening ofm!!l.rg:inali1.ll't.ion. as wen as the externaljties [hili t ,affecteulturcs and t.he envirenrnent, These ex te mal i ties refer to prnhlems tba tare global in na ture and thus tend to he shared and experienced by all, such as climate chAnges and pollution, P'P'I claims that globa1i:zatioD hil.I> no secial grow h agenda. COPE highlights bow globalization contributes In 'the rural-ro-urban migration phenomenon as farmers ami 'peasants art' forced to leave the lands they till to give M,Tay to the establishment of [lew housing sch em es.

Technological Dime IilS 1.C'UIi

Table is includes 'the fmdings that n'!o'eaJ the "ineseapability" t)'f "inevit<'libmt~l.of globa1i.zaticm because of technological innovntions, I nIi ne M ththls, the responden ts broadly vie!'!" globalization and. technology as inseparable .• .!\s such, technological change mat goes with globalization clearly has: signifi~nT: implications for Philippine society and the world in general

The '~any Facets (Jf Cilob-aiizOitlon ~3,

-,- --~---..., -----=; ..

40 Philrppir!l~ Civil Society and the Globalizauen Discourse

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I - - 2) the state vis-a-vis gloha] gcvemancc/fnmncial institutions; arid. ;J} the dnmiuanc.c ofu'<l.n::;nalinnal eorporatlons rrNCs). [he wru .~na other g1oh8i.l governance structures.

Inrelation ti(J neo -colo n l alism ,. glo balization is un derstood by Bayan.J\ilrfno as the "preservation and consolidation" of the "strength of hnp.er~aUst states" and. ilie 1SU bordinaticn of II neo-colonial states .. ~ This: perception emphasizes tb.~ raarginalized [tile of the neo-eoioaial or &oui1:11cru states vis-a-vis cclonial and NQrtnern states in the :<:.lgba:~ system, It reveals the McaTxlst.(l,n1l!lysiSOf thestate !liS. b~jng ins trumenta I 1 n the preservation of tile political status qu 0 and. th IE enntinued dcmmatiua of .the stronger capitalist classes. Similarly, O\L..NI views globalisaticn as a form of "modern OOlor'Ll.lJisrrL-

GIQha 1f·" .. atlon ts also understoodIn Hghl ofwhat happens to the .,l~ te as it eonfrcn ts strouget gl~haJ gevcrnaucc/financial intltitutiom; .. The issues of national ~vyeI'el~f1ty and the reduced l;apaeity uf gorvernment in eeonomlc pnH.;:ymaking ::Ire prerntnent in .... urious ~n.3:iyse~ or 'the political aspect of g]oba1i:C:<l'tlon. The state n;:(,oufigures i'tsclf as it confronts m~'~'11 globnl ;1l~rrtlci&lhQvenHuIl,"1: structures. To oJi\lmlizflttOU:"; like f~)I~;ij;:;fJn the Gloht!] S'Julh (FOCUS} ;md PHJL.lNK. this reoonng1:rrat1on ~G tantarnount to ~. Yc:rippHngH (If or an "impingement' on the: Uu,'tul);omy or the ~tf,l.te W:i stmeturnl :.IJ.jmitments p:r'QSl':lIfnS (SAJ;!~) ~u~d other economic pollcies render l b e S l[ltt! .rehu i \/',e:ly powe rless ln Ute a reas of develcpme ut 0 r. S oci (1.1 service deIiv~l'Y. In a similar vern, BCttlrtU Mtm:Q no~'(~_;;; the ~tbdlcaHDI1 of the 1"0]'[1 (If the ~t~ lei n th!l ~t~"of b~s~t social serviees (}~li\rel"Y. wovitiinn 'of Sl.UpPGlrt~ and dlJvelopm~.i1l. Mo:re genera!ly, it is ~Jhm helpful ~o look al how the conduct of gove:rnl'l.[Ice h~$Cchl1ngd liMUll t he <ld.verrl. ttf gl~b:~lv~a.ti(ln an d howt h iBIS i n ter preted by cIvil ~LH'ldy orgHni~'$ll.iong .. Sc.ho:tt~ (:;H)OO~ ~3:6) 1'I!ote.1' '~h~l with the ~u:lvl:nl of gJob~11i1,ation.t . stares C'l.n no. longer h~ ~ovc.rei.g]lj 1:1 'the t raditiQual sense of the went" KenDi og this, PanduYQ UP4ta sa S(JSynHstnng Pilfpina:s OClANT)AY AN)al1d SANLA.KAS SIT&<;S the erosion oftlie sovereignty of nation-states,

WhH~ left political ~]oc.s mention l'h e increasi ngty do In in~ n t rnl e p I s y ed byirnperialist an J hegemonic ~q.t$[es"FOCUS • PH [UNK B nd Philippine Peasant Institute (PPIJ ernphasize the intrusion oJ global fi nanelal I nstitutions [e.g., Intern ational MonetMyF~ I n.j (I M F), World Bank [¥lIl.}] and new gavemance bodies (e,g" VilorId Trade Organization) that pose as a threa;l or challenge to the state in a glob.s;lb'.~ ogeovironm-euL

In snm, Ba:!;lian Mtma, K:PD, 'and iBON view gloool.hm,th'lp ali a Doli tkal offensive, Wh ile thee twoJ eft p:oHticaJ blces eharacterize globalization as a "pnlttico-milftery" offensive, rBON simp!)' describes it as apolitical offensive. As an ·offensive, statesareleft

44 Ph m ppine C;vi I Sodety a nd the G lob..di zsuon D lscousse

------

---,---

The M<:l n y Facets Of G I obali .!atl on 47

An analysis of responses indicates that the technological dimension generated more pnsitivc perceptions about globalization, with i,U'1 appreda1ton ofte,dmO~og}"s abilitytu advance new ideational frameworks. Technological innovations brought about the fullewing: 1) acceleration of production, comrmmlcatlon and spread of ideas, knowledge and tnformation: 2) making theworld smaller, and; 3) to ul tu ral exchanges. Though generally critical of g~obaU:z:atian? left po i 111 (:<'1] blocs like Ba3Jo n Mw:w. KP D, P A..."'\lDAYAN aad Sfi,ll.llJl.KAS note the lmportarn cOl'ltfib!;llj;OI~ of technologleal lmprevements,

While the technology-mediated openness and exchanges mar theoretically imply heterogeneity and richness of cultures, UGAT .. ees II otherwise, Th is orga niz8l ion notes that g1obaiiz:atioD, ,itcilitated lw technology, causes t.he ]lOmoge'llizatim~ nf the wQliIll lt8 it globalizes knowledge and information, It views globalization 3S u phenomenon thatcauses Iurth r suberdination marglnnlization nnd dlscrimjnatlcn of "weaker" cultures Ilke 'tha.t of the PWiUppines.

Cnlhu'Bt Dirucn.'iOion

The cultural aspect is the least I;'rnph~sirecl dimension ~)fg]ob~llir..a ion ,I~ can b seen ill Tallie 6, Ye:1 among Ih r t~ti ... ·1y few r~pons ~. rhre organizations {aJ!ross cati!giJrics) define glob~llizalion 31'i "rultural I!!.ggr.essi,on by the Wesl," 1'1 "WesLern lmpesttion," or 8$ an "influx on'!ls;s(.em ideas." As a ~et (j'rUUU!OT~S., cultural gl,obnliw~Jon 111 ~y lead to "i n tl rn idat ion ~" "homoaen tt..at ion I" "co n sumeri SOl, W (lOr "eornmodiflc .. tion. "

Adding debli] toth s" vi ow,!; , Bayc:m Mlma, KP ',Citizens.' Alliance lor Consumers' Prctection (CACP), and MRCll'eco!1,ni"l,~ the cultural aspect of globnHz.ati.tUl M the presence of ~'~ dominant culture or ;j "eultural uggrMsnr ~'. partieularly ,Veslem culture. 'This pereeption of globalization impliesa "one-world culture," also, understood as. the hamogenlzation ef eulturee. The Phflippine Ass,or-intion Ior lntereultural DeveiQrn'l1ent ('(IA-PID), UGA,T. and SP'FL are especiallr W<I,['), of th,is "homogenizing" aspeet, Hemogcnlzutien may be best explained with reference to COPE'.\l d.011m that globalization om ingrll i n "'4,;Ul1JSu merjst 'i;I;) lues." The "hu it'iO!l;eI1 i:r;ing ~ aspect of globalization h.a. s to do with the universalization of lift!styles or the way globalization tends to promote uniformity. On the other hand, eo nsumerisrn describes the 'WHy people tend to behave when c(m(r(lnred wl rh divet'se goods and products, and the tendency far consumertsm to "hollow out" local cultures, According to Cronk (1996). consumerism is:

.'- t be myt h rh.al the in divi d 11,011 \IIi]] he grati fled ;J nd in tegrated by consumi ng. The pu hi i ~ feti:;;hlstkaUy substitutes rOil S mner

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Ideals fur tile lost, aecultueatmg experiences Of art,religiofll and family, The consumer sublimates the desire rOi: cultural fulfillm.(lntw the rewards of bu)ing and owning commodit:ip..s. and snbstirutes medLa-manipu.lated undulations ill the public persona for spirillJ,aI :r~bil;'th. til the mytb of clJllslHneris:m, there Is no :rebirth or renewal. And theTe~n;~ 110 leoni,e symbol!'; to evoke !r111'1 seeadent truths.

Another notable perce'ption Is tbe,so~caJJted Qcol:llmodification nfcllituralberitage." .Bayan Muna criticize. s the oommodifica.tio.n of cultural heritage of ne;ocQ,lonial states which "reduces the counrries' c:u!tmaI beritag,e into commodities" that are to be preserved only on the basis of their "commercial value."

CONCLUSION

This chapter has desl.:rib~d the pbenom~non of 1511,lbaUz.atian aion ~jv(' dim nsions thro1-1ghthe eyes of sdected civil sOciety groups in the PhHilJpines,. From this basic dl'lta&e't We can identify a number of .,ytlys in whiC:bglobaHzation is both described and explained. The five f:1n;!'ts-ec(JfiOh1j.C~ pol iti.c;:a I , seclal, techllological and cultumlprovide the impression that the ,t;lobaHzation m8CO"Uts~ vades In extensity and intenshy, J!\ien among those i1rymmtions of the same tMegolji, none of c,heir V:le~H; and Ui1del"Standing, of gJohaJir.atioi"l1.lJre' l!:o:ac:tPy aUk,!!. The findIng:; in this chapt,er suggest Uuu g]obaliutioh is indeed a "bundl e" of phenol1'ic~ljI. N onetlsel ess, SOIJI ~ broad til eses can be' drn"m O'U'( of the diver,s,e 'respo'n$>e..~ in the 'foUowi.ng terms,

OlQboJi:l,,nlioR is main1y Q.Il economic

pbenomenon-the ueolibe!l;",1ll kind

I'hllll the responses of !.I. majo:t'J.ty of the g:r~nJ:p$~KPO! PAh'iDAYAN. AkbayoJt. Bo.ycin Muua:, Ptuiayo'ri, SANlA.KA.S. Altf;lrna'te Forum for Resean:b in Mindanao (AFR.I.M)~ ALNl, Freedom (rum Debt Coalition WDe), POCUS, lBON"DEtiASKU, GABRIELA. PPI. SARll.AYA. SIK.AT, Tebtebba, \"t.I\ND. Gmenpe!!~e] LlMCOMA, SPFL and ~mcg] obalhation is m.Ost often understood as a.neeonom..ic phenom enon chanu:terl2led, above fin, by neoliberwism. NeoUbel'alisn1, per se • »hould not he underst.ood. as something p!.i1relypngitlve Of negative. ~"v'hi1e SOme organizations presented. the neolioeral "forms" or the !:tohomic manifest.ati.ons of globali:zati.ol1 (~.g. openness, free trade" ~nd the orthrodox policies of liberalization, dereguJation and

l)rivatizabon), others h.ighUghted what they saw as the "substance" or the IDOl'e ideological lll1derpinnings of g1obaUzaUo.n including 1'le(>iiberaHsm as a set 01 dom.l.oatll ideas. In addition, the e:COllomTC dimension of globaHt.Uion highUght;;;. the dominant role played by

50 Philippine Gvll Sccretv and the Glonalizatio!'1 Dl;.;;.cQI.)['!l-(>

strong and developed sta~.s th~1i ~1l~U~ to weaken neo-~louia1 economies or ·by global IUisnCla1 JID"1:JtutIODS that undennine the role of national poIicymakers.

Globalization Isthe stl"engthenin; Otf 'the liO~ong~ and the weak.ening of the ~!I'!' domestic

po1itiea:l actors

The political dimension shifts attention ~m. co~pl~x economic theories and analyses 0 a focus on global Ul.st.tutions t.hat ~el' undermine. dimini.sh or :subDrdinate the role ofsoveretgJll. naUQTIslates or ueo-eolonlal states. Globalization roay present Itself to these civil society organizations as a temporary pbenomenon,. an obstacle Dr a challenge that bas been accepted, debated or c~utested, yet most of them observed b~w it discriminates ~gal?st the politicAlly-challenged or ~we.ak st~t£s. Tb.us.~, globahz,ah~n. bas

t· gt. h ened '''S'troutJ- states and weakened or suberdinated

s ren e . f! bal' - . - t

further "weak" ones, ~rheiJ" u.nda,fSt.ll..nding 0 go tzatJon venes no

only because of th~ir oo-ntrastingYiews 00. lh~ role ofthe.:)la~ or became. of their differi ng ideological !,ltl~rpl ~n~n~ or ~lV: m~a.llDnai composition but also because they Il~CO~ d.lSSl~ml.nr sigmfkan~~ ,to various global act 0['5. Some orgaruzahons. (m~~lyl~ft P01~HCili blocs) noted Lhat it is the powerfuJ states.tha.t eennnue to dominate the globed stage, white others tended to blgh!l ht tbelioles_ played by gJobal financial institutions Jike tbe IMP a:lld \B (lhe Vlew.ofU:e majority of national policyresearcll and nen-:ork ~GO ). while .snU ethers tended ~o ,emphasize the power of mult.Hlatl.OnaI cerpcranous (MNCs) or TNCs (the position Cl( left poHtica.~ blocs and seeteral organizatious).

Globalization. has its, up:!fide "m,d .Qownsid,e

The social dimension or globalization describes the percdv.ed opportunities and threats that. the orga~i.zations ~date ~th globalisatlon as it shapes societal relations. Theil" ?erceptto~s converge on bmlio< gIobsJi7..ation s.ignmcantly affects identifiable soci.a1 sectors. notably poor people, workers, pe~~ants and rarm~rSt women and children and indigenous eernmuntties, Repr~Il.ta~~'es of PHILINK, PRRM r FPE, PPI and UCAT mentioned eertam po:~ti\/e aspects such as "tlle sharing 01. Ideas on relevant (~De~ms, ~~ creation of a "more {)QnDE'.ctM civil. s~iety" or .the "s~l:dan~'of elvil society groups." as wen as the introductren o.f agncu~tu~al modernization, industrlalizatiun and other de\~lopments .. ~ut findings reveal that negative soeial impact ontweigh the ~oSl~lve. Globalization not only adversely affects vulnerable Of" margmaiIzed

The Manv r;:KtHS of Clob.ali.::aulln 51

sectors ofsoeietybut it also poses as a Ulreat to the environment, the ecosystem and the natural. resources,

Globalization. means lCT innovations

'i\rJJiJe ,the, social. din:nmsjon exposes mostly the negative 1l!Spects of glob.~h~tl.on, the technologicaJ dimension suggests more benign POS51bllltles; These orga..nizattons pereelva &10 baJization and ~echnol.o~ as . insep?ra~le. All of them \7e:;ved technological and mform~uona1 globalization through more positive lenses, with tbe t'xeeptlOn of UGATwhose representative sounded wary of the effects, that technology might ilave on culture and individuak The ~echnological dimension reveals the "inevitable ~ the' "natur-aJ" and

h .j'. b'''· " ....

t e mescapa' u1! aspect of globtdization. For instance. some of

~hese. ~rganiz8,dons noted how the worldwide spread of knowledge 1& fnclhtated through innov!:I.ti,on in infol-maUon and communication ~ech~Ology. That lh,e3e OJrganiza.tions did not empha.sire this aspect LS lliS'o notable. This may be a.ttribut,ed to the fae that for some l)r'll~izati~ns, globaB:uUion should be anal)'7,cd beyond i~ outw.ilfd ~a~lf~~taltofl~ ~T 5l~pl)' because ;-here e~iss a S{N.:an~d "digitai U1V1dr.: that dUifmgulahe~ tn." relatlValy afflurmt organil.ations that .1t~ ~ore" aWare of Lill".sl! technologic.fll innovlltions fl"Om the less f'lrn"~leged ones tha" may fiJl be .... rithitl the confines of then "back'wliltrd" reality.

GlobaJlzatigl] i~ 'Dueness 0,1' diver",':lity

Among the dImensions of glob~lIizatiOll, it is the euhurnl aSllcc:t Lhilt IS. !:he Jea~t etll~hasi<1.edby the dllil &ociety groups. HO''''cver, the C',ulhmd di~en:sron complemen'tts tthe other dimensions in that it is (he ecnduit for the means by whith gjobaliz.:l.lirm affects $Oci.cties thmu.gh ~inl!midatio~" .or through the behnvi,ur of ~hyperc~ruu~er:l$m. The maJlol"Jty of f'espondenl:s b.ighlighted the unidIrectIOns,! flow of cultul'a) influence from Lbe We.st to Southern countries like the Philippines. This influx of ide.as comribute,c; to the per-ception that globalization means ~hmnogcnizatiof! n (8 one-werh] C.~lHllr~). '"eo.mmo-difi.ca.tion of cultural heritage" or "c()unter~1\T{lrsitY',n .A~most f311 the respondent.::> acknowledged the

homog~luZing effect on culture.

Finally. it is riot the case that unoerslandings of globalization can be plotted Simply according to general ideo1ogicaI orientation of organizational function. It is true to sa), that on the whole. left rmlincaJ blocs offered more theoreticanV-iu(o~ed and e~on~mi('~ oriented eX1?la~,ati"oDs of gl.obalizaliou. B;, contrast, sectornJ. groups fO-Cl"lSed their VIews of g}oo.di?-.uion from its social impact on their

52 Phi lip P kl€ Clvi I Sod ety and th e G loba I i 7 .1UO n O[St:OtJ (se

~om;:U tuen ts, white national policy resea reh and[ network NGOs prflvided roosUy neutral respoasea ~ut, the Iett.pot]ti.calbloc;s :i:bal profess similar prefereuees 0 n the charac ter of all ~ltemll:til!e ecenemic system have mfrereo ees when it cemes to~he role ofthe state VJ!s-a-vis glQbalization. Usually> theserespcnsesvary beeacse gronpsha've diffaren t underntmtdltJ:.&s of the CJJIl(e~ 0]- the state and what is happenllng tv it ·as a result of the exigencies ofglobaUzati.on. In tbjs regard,idea logy does seem to m31~ei.

As this chOlJptel' hasshewn, Philippine 'ch~i society T\e!SI!0U:8e5 to globaUzatiolJV3.tytrenumdously. The., overlap and treverse ttLe borders and cCI'nfinesaf ~.rgarJiutions" ~n spite of their spedtlc dine:rn:Dces~ there is IH) doubt thatglohaHlZatim:l is ani ssue that has: reached their COllstltuencie,s and has ecoeernte, teehnologieal, p[)litical j socia'! and eultural implfwmns thatn.eed. to beaddFe55ed. The next 'l'WO ehapJt~~ \.\I']U focus en these groups' key poli~ areas of coneerns and tbdv chosen aetions, n~;!j:pQiIlses and ad"'~!lJr:y.O

Chapter 3

CQINVE'RGENCES IINI ISSUES AIND K.EY A,REAS Of CO'N'CERN

H a.ving outlined the d.iffe:.rent understllllding of globaHzstio n 0 t.his chapter turns its atl:entkm to key areas i.lnd issues or concern for the civil :'.lociet:y o.rga.n~zatipns in this :5tudy, Th0!J:f:: issues of concern emanate from the felt hnpact of gio:billli:l~li(l'I1 on their eOI').s't]tucnb; and impli:catiorH$ for theiv ~avo(:a,cy" lJ.o~it'ions and framed a.gend:a on poB tical~ e~onomic and se do-tu]tu ral dimensi 0 u s oll.f thei r work The specific issues h.i.ghHghted hare can be ~:rrl'lnged in four

C fl tegorles: .

PoUtieal and GoQvem~mc:e.lss ues (Worl d Trade OFIlial1 lz,ati on; Liberalization Pol:i.cie~, L~git;!a ti em, cSta te !1 II d .Politi ~JMiHta:ry)

Econom ie Concerns (Agrieul ture, Trade Liberallzation, Asset Re{dI'Dlll, fiscal and Monetary Pulieies and Pnreign ;In vestm e n ts)

• Soda,1 Issues ('Wom:ellj lndigenous Peoples and Enwom:mmtal Concerns and. .L;3,b~H')

~ Cw.turc and TechnoloID'

PQLITICALANDt GOVERNANCE ISSUES PolitkaJand.gpvernancei:':!sue;S comprise One of the cere area'S of concern for all civil society groups, The issues focus em the inatitutional, pclicy, processual and leglslattvenspeets ef

---=--.-

-- ---- -- --------

r - Tabl,e7

P'olitJ,cal and Gov811ina,nce Issues tdell1tif11,ed by

I CivU 5 eel aty Or,g an izat I DIAS cmGlQbanzar~reQ,n~

)• Cnmpatmon polio./, 9.o.lfemment procurement and IJ<3Oe

ia-cJlilatlon

• Deci$lol'l-maklnij process at e WlO

wro I., Inte-lIectu 8.1 Pmperty R~ghts

I • Sanitary am:! Ph~nl'lary measures

_j _, Trade <l;gre:emen .. l$' in APEC arid W10

[_ __ __ '. WTO D':; Lite Setll~mel'lt Mechanism

.' Deri'gu~tk)npr ssr;;lO'ts (mdu!01ry fill~noe, etc 1

I • EO 254 or thB Early Volunlary Sector LiberaUzat10n

.' MOLrket IIpBra'liz03Iticn .and competrt.on

• Pnve'ti7J3lioll of public uti1iHes (water, eledllctty. ek;-J and

GOCes

• Ro!e of f!nanCjali In.sh~'UtiOn:s (i.e. ~ 1F. WBlirt pushing Ilbernllzaimirl pol!QeS afll;l S ruetural Adjustment Programs (SAPs)

• Glcilal ~!;tCUnty rssues (~'5t 91'1 I

• Globall wa r on tanohsm

_ • _ • Mulua! Lo.g:fSUI!S Support Agreement (MLSAl

'lfloHlica~·MlIHilry " Phlllpptne military

J.. US troops pre.sence In !he PhilippInes

__ __ __ ~~ltIflg FClfces, AgreelTlBnt (VF~ _

glob,d iulion. Ta hle 7 summarizes the _ major. :ls:sues, an~ ~·~mce_r~s that emerged from the interviews and discussions with civil '«'l~lety

groups in this stu dy,

The Hand of the \:'\11'0 Dud GlobaJ Economic instituoons

Th.E emergent'e of lnrernanonal insttrurions for global ~co~omic governance~ especia By the so-called Bretton Woods inst1'm.tL.onswas highlig'hted 3S a prominent featuf: of the. new politics of globalization. Th~ World Trade Org,ani1_atmn {VIffO)~ th~ sut"ess~r to the GAIT in regulating international t~de."<:, ~~eL~ed as th~ key acteri n the gloool izaticn of t=coIlomlC relations l n die world

economy, The \VTO pO~8e,SSE".s crucial rule-framing and decisionm ~ king [0 les in the rna nagem emf of multilateral trade rela HODS, an d - 11;'.$ become the symbol of the globalization process.

In addition to the \oVTO, the role of multil ateral bodies .. such as thcWm·id Bank (ViB) andthe Iatemational Monetary Fund [IMP), in macroenonornic porieymnking, ls deemed. a major concern in the process of polttloal-eecnornic globalization, These institutions are perceived as fnfluential bodie::: defining the developmental and 31"Owth framework of developing countries. As a result, the orgarrizatluns perceive tha'l. states arc weakened and redueed tu mere facilitative functions wh~H,1.'! the role f these bodies in globai governance is strengthened,

Given tht: influential role played by the ''\IT00 in globaleconomic governance, and tha reputation U has acquired ever the 1'3s1 decade, CLyB :oodety erganizations are wary ~lbolJ't its decision-making mecharrisms and procedures, The me~hJ;m]sm!l for trade negoUations find dil1PUtC settlement am just examples of areas of concern about the erganlzu tiu nal I';tl"1a.::ILU'C of l he VVTO. L n particular, rh{! oq'!,nniz;:lliutls poinled ttl the "UI1 lemocrati ,.' n!gulatory and I ~('cision-m~kiu~ prncesses, The lack of lr<.tliSpu f~'11 C), ill Luuk negotiations and how d scisions are madr were underscored.

:But more si~nincuntly. it i,s the impiL~:t uJ these decisions a 1'1.(1 .lgreemeh£S 0011 developing countries (t:vr example, Lil Agri:~m@1J1 on A~,.icultul"~) and On the nl'fcctcd. sectors ... uch i;lt:; iubur, women, IUd !ntHgcn(ju~ peoples and 011 lht> envlrnnmcnt that was really hlJl,hUgl1tL!tl by the respondents. The pen1cption lhal the wro i~ "nut rellIJy about coop "l'ation but about competition untl regulation of trade" is tDJi(':ttiv,~ crr the n(:gl~d or lack ef coucern over the soelal Impacts or trade rlcgoti~ltiuns U11 l'ril1ll;l,ry stak holders. Act!urding to Action 'jar .r;',oonomk Reform_" (A'ERj, "ihe exclusionary skit Llf globa1izat"iort is excluding I he most marginallzec and the: least mnhi 11' actors" i11 the drive luw."I1'Q!; trade <inti ltberslizetion a.t ill I I. .. nsts OrganizlItions such as San dig (lI"l "'!1 Lakas at Demokrasv« fig 8ambaynn'wJ (~ANLAKAS), Ak.6ayan! Ci.t:izens' Action Par' ~ . Alhance of Progressive Laber (APL) and Bukluran 119 _Hn-n~J!Jog£lwang Ptlfprrw (BMP) contend that the agreements reached at the \\'-1'0 ami in regional trade fora such as Asia-Pacific E('t)llom!c Coeperatiou (.WEC) are all about business aud do not include protection fnrworkers against their effects on employment, j (1 b security all d H v:l.ng standards.

The rules within the \\'TO em tradcnegotiations arc also perceived "to favor a few," Although proponents. of the "lTO ller1illd it as a mechanism to }ev~l the plaY1:ng field in trade and development, _"l.ER

contends that its rules ~ still favor the a d.vanred ,t;Quntr'ic5." Freedom frOm. Debt Coalition (FDC) asserts that ag;c;eements on inmile.ctual property rights and agrimil.ture. exclude developing c0D;?mes who will ~neverbe'CQme players m the global market. Further. Greenpeace Southeast Asia criticized the bias of ,"'TO rules. i).fi multilateral agreements, citio,g the United Stares' refusal to ratify the K.yoto Protocol te the UN Convention 'em Climate Change' ~ul.d ye! t'it was not brou,ghtto the wro Disp'IJ'le Settkn:ent Mec_~ai}1~m. Kasarian-KafaypaH (SARI LAYA) , a women S organlZatlOn. concludes that the ~'WTO regime is oppre..'<.Sivc and there is a need for

a tad ieal change infue rules of the game. ~ . .

Foeus on the Global South (FOCUS) i.dentified ne'"'issue:stlmt are up for dlscussionatthe WIO and must be thoroughly mon.it~,t;d. Theseissne:." tn.clud'e the 1iberaHmtiolt on inve.stment,compettt:ioJllll paUcy, government procurement and tiad~e fadHtatio_n. FOCUS: believEs tha't these new issues win eompnse the next round of neg;otiatlons atthe \I'fliO after theagrcemei1lLsorL trade in a~('_ultllre, indu5trtai tariffs. endees and i[lteUectual property ngbts ate

concluded.

The S~ate

The 'WI, of the state Is seen ~!5 problemalh:: in the global econemic order'. Wbile liberalization and deregul;'J.Oon or the rnarke' m,ay imply less intervention on the part oflhe state, the S~t~'i5 nonet~el~ still viewed lUi ins:h1.lmental in putting the lIbemhzatlOI'l poUClC:S U} place, The glob a] eco1mmic institutions e.'listing at present. such lUi the Wl'O. WB aud lMF and regional tl'adlng blurs such M the APEC ftnd I:he North Amerlean free Trade ARre~m.~t (N,AFI'A). were Il.tt:er

an formed by states. . ...

The deregulation policies and privahz.atii1u of public urilities

sud ~O'vernrnf'!nt-owned and controlled corp,On.~Ofl:S (GOCCs) <li_re manifestartons of the way the state has relinquished some of ~ts regulatory roles in the market. The left ?oli~caJ blocs see the state retreating to its tradltional role of ensurtng peace and order, colleeting 'U'L..:esJ building infrastmcture. and so on, Ho~·eve~. Foundation for Etonomic Fr-oodom (FEF) contends that the state 1£ very much "part of the market and by Its nature can cb.ange.~oB~, penalize and prosecute rent-seeking activities. ~ But 'the Phibp;pme state is unable to- fulfill this mandate as it is 'neither able teeradicate rent-seeking activltles nor prevent mOlliopo}jCS orcartels,

'lA1'Jlile s.omeorg;::m.izations suggest that the state has. surrendered to the market "dominated by monopolies and big c,apitaH.sts." FEF' assailed the government for fuiling to eradicate i~regularitie.s in t"he

market and being swayed by "Ill oney politics n as welt FEF 'believes hat the state should ptovide a competitive economic environment because "competition is supposed to result in better economies and rescl ve ,economic crises" .and a ecmpetitlve enviruument call -prevent cartels that make markets collusive and monopolistic:' B," cuntrast, .4kbmj0I1, FOCUS and ABR propose state activism .wcl regulatjon to "prevent the irrationalities 9f 'the market that trigger c-.is.es" and address 'Issues of inequity and marglnalization that cammt be solved by the market.

In relation to the ""TOo, rnust of the organizations underscored rhalack of 11 cohesive economic agenda of the state to guide iL5 commitments in trade negotiations. The state has aecepted em toto the liberaliaatiou agreements forged at the Wl'O by reducing quantitative restrictions in agrieultureand industri a l tariffs at the expense of ~he coumrv's ecoDOI'nYJ as ment,loncY by Pam/Jemsnng Kilu:w,TI lig mga Sami;rllong Magsa..'iakrJ WA KTSAMA), II coiilHtian of farmers' otg1tniziil.tion~ in the' country, The P'am/),mscUlg lAlkas ug Ji;'rr!J~im1g Mwn,mrmlaKC-Iya fly PUipinas-Nutnofl'wirl Coalition of f· i'1hll"rfotk!ll for A:q ua lie Reform (pAJVtALAKA YA-NACF AR) express ... s ulnrrn rega,rcUn!i EX:c(':utive Order 2S~:! arid the ~81dy Voluntary .'·k('torLib~w.'1lDz;:lti,(l.l1. which tire the bases for the e~r.J,y Uberali1.3tion

(If thl.! flshcri€s sectcr in the country. '

Lcgi~d,a ti on

l'he llberallzatlou :pnUdes of the shih: are qllelll inned in tilt" facl! 'Of "Ie~ishuive gups" or it~ shortcomings in amending e:~Is.ling laws for I he Leflefit of the sectors negatively affected by these pclicies. Labor ~roups sueh API.. UMJ\ Kih~scul.g .Mayo UrlO (KMU) and 'Irade Uniml of Congress oT the Philippines (TUCP) highlighllhe lack of provisions kw workers' protection and safety nets ill the Labor Code against- the onslaught of trade liberalization. PAlYWAKA YA-NACFJ:U'{ stresses the implications of provislnns In the Fisheries Code ;allmving the ex pa 11 slon of commercial fishing. The Sou tb em, Ph ilippines F e~,tcratiOll nf Labor (SPFL) ette lhe changes in the L[~bu r Code to reflect tile deregulation and HbemH7.a;lioIl policies of the government t! compliance with the globalizatlonsgenda.r SPFL contends that lyllt:li?ctualiz2!ticmof labor has been legalized despite opposition trern laborgroups through Department Orders 9 and IO.~

Poliiu1c.al-Military A5ped uf G]obaliz~tion

FOCUS draws upon. the notion 'th;1,t l{)d~ty's globalization is linked with seenrity issues especinlly after the September 11 attack on the \\'utld. Trade Center and Pentagon in the US. A polltieal-milltary

aspect of the .globalization process has ~met'ged, ~i~ce then exempl}tled by the US~led globe 1 war on terronsm. ~OC(iS 5 conoe~[l with securrtv and c.onllict issues emanates from Its m~re generte analvsls th;,\l conflicts have. increased instead of abated with the ~d Of t.he Cold War. FOCUS states that "in fact, in many t,:.a5C.S, eonfiu:t!s and terrsions hn"''e Increased, "vito the flaring of antagomsms, "ahmg elea vages that were 'frozen" during the Col (J ~,Var" such as eth~.lc ~:nd cultural difference-a" snd that ~d.OITI1nant pattems of g,lobal17,atinn have <111:;0 cant ribnted ttl t be emcrgetllce and re-e rn ergertce of bath new and traditioual forms of .. ioleuoe.~~ The org.amz.alion !St"r.e·~:;;es the need to counter ~Imnaternli~m." referring te CS llnilateralisi'!1, ill resvlvi.ng security and conflict issues at the int~r:natlona1. regiun:al, and national levels, In BII official paper, Tin! CrisiS: oJ th~ Globahst P'mjecf, written by its director \"~~ald~n BeHo, F> cus ~I"gue~ th~t "~~e, inter' oddng crises of J!;lobl)lln'1LlOH. m~iJllherahsm. ~ap~tahst 1 t:~,iiti,macy, and rrvl"rpr~d\i.e~~o.n provide the t:01n~~xl.". for ~"Uld.er::;'l<lnding the- cc:onomlC' pObeH!S of t'be Bu~1n admWII:l;)trall,on,

notably its uT'Lihl:lemHsl thrust."

It, 'pllrticnlnr. the Kr"lul;i(J1i para sa Pumbtmsany "D:-moKff.lsya

(]{JiD) and KMU "xpn'S$ eencern aver the pre.l5tm~c of UStrooP:i< on Ilhilil1pil'1e soil and th implicalio<w nf the Visiting ~or"C5 A~recm, ot (VFA) on the Philippine constitutiun. 1(1'1) claims l~ direct hnk h('twe~~n the rm~Qing Jl;lobaHzlltiol'i process a.nd \~l(~ h~lAhl~ned ~!'l' presence in the r ginn parilcularly in lht' PhmpPIfH .. 'S. In un offic,l ~ d iscussion p<l P er '~IH btl e-d 'fhe Pohl j(;O-.'U iHw r.!J t\:iIH'r'l of O/nba.ri~a!{nrr rmd Olr! us Wur agafnM l:~rrtlrisUl, RPD asserts.

Tu e Hllpr1'a ti ... ~"~ of I he US fnrl!i~.jp.uncy rem:!}'!] ~tl spiro ~f \11 e end nf the Cold W~r. Thesil:' nre 11rOJ'~liofl 01 lIS ~lli.litt:l.l)· ml~bl. c'l'~!lHon of m.fLl'ketS lfr~e trade), and promoth1o uf rle:mm'r.J.e~'

The organ i1.aLinn draws H.s ana lyses on the ldeolngk.a l unde.rpinn.ing:s of loday's ~loba1i.Zi'ltinn and that lt IS not only about free trade but also gaining (l'oliiticalaml ntilitai)' cuntrol.

The rdeologieal I LllillficalioT1 serves the p.l11i1lC1l1 i\mI fil,Htary forms or wntrol- Today, the structures of )otmlizarion <Ire far tnere rl'e"lle10p-fD man .I.1~ earlier poerjods or historv, The f€11:U rnmry bod; es of glohaUzarion are ill pia,ce f'::>lerr.i si·!lA .u.np,['c_:ed.ente d level of control I:J\"(~T the- \'\'nrld eeouorny. The Il:l1htary_ wr~ (1f the US are evco more spread tint than m [he yca1"S or The ,,-old

W~!".

Po.dayull-. which be1ong'il to the left I'.olitiea! hlocs. emp~Mizcs its concern with the f,Q\rernm~!Ir<;:, deci:>ion~ to suppt.!IT the 1: S '~'ar (Hi terrorism (lnd allowing US soidier'S J n the COt~ Il~" " The OT}'J3. H1Z<l t Ion

perceives the present globalization trend as 11 neo-liheral project pushed by the interests of powerful states (0-7) and transnetlcnal corporations. Central tt') the project is the powerful role of the US ;n crafting a new world order. "Our gains in governance might he ineffective 1(1 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's (GMA) alliance with the US to c reate .a. I~ ew W(J rl d order,". P(:!dtlyon states. TIH~ (I rga i1 fzation flLr"t~"[er .mcllbcms the growing signs of "military ascendancy" in th~ Ph I lippinegovernmcnt and desert hes t n e Arroyo admini strati on iii ~

"pro-lfS, pro-neoliberal and pro-elite." .

MmeO'ver, the f).C'ltwkr'ntikcmg Magbllbukid ng Srrftrrrl Kudaro! (PE.i'<1ASKU) notes tha'L the danger of terrorism is eX3C'erhaleil bv ~ll1balization. Just as economic/financial borders become permeable 'to global capital, national 'borders have also relaxed In ~rd~r to l~f:!r~l]i7.e t]IG easy entry of goods and people. As explamed In the validation conference, gDods. can be in IIw F(1rm of consumer prodlHo:-l'l tike r?~cI, ~U1' fhey can as well be arms OT drug~. The I Tl C' rcas i n g mobil tty n f penp le ;l!,{~1'ot>:-i borders h as lik<t!wi 5e hrende f'Il.t! thl' terrorist links across nationsand n.:siuns.

ECONOMIC CONCE:'RNS

~Vhil~ the civil sociI;! Y ot'gl'lnizl'Itions diseu '~~d ImJlu:] econnmic l:MH:~rns. with s[~balit.ati(.m, T!Jhl- ~l, ocm!alns the [l1u:;l impurtant iPe~t1c Issues al"f<~c~i.ng. ~ht..' (ll'g;nl.i%a'tiul1l:l. whidl rnerg d from their responses a rid dlscusslons,

AgricuJlu.· .. J Ub~rraJiza(ioti

,]"h~ ITlnj-ority. if Ill:lit all, of the {)l:'g.tni.'~ation.!:i interviewed coneentrnte un the econumie aspeets of glnba\iZo.iltion pElrU':iculal'ly the impact of tne A.,p;re:emenl on Agriculture (AoA) OI',l the country's agricultural sector. As a sigr-Ul'tory to the agreement, the Philippines has opened up the agrtcultutal sector to the "vagaries or the international market and lowa.:·ds the attacks of commereial agriculture" al:curtiing to 1,~D~Found.a:tlOn, Inc" Other groupslike Ba.yan Muna., PAKISAMA, Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and SARlJ..A Y,4, express ,concern over the cntryr of c.heal' and subsidized agricultural goods from abroad that disenfranehise the peasants of their I lvelihocds.

_ The ,~e~u~tion of, qU,ant ita tlve restrictions on impor:ed pr();du~u; ~~d subsidies on ageiculmral developmem has resulted mamassrve dislceation nf domesticagricultural livellhoods in the countrv. Phrlippine Peasant Institute (prI] and PAKISAlvL\pf~rticulafly foc~. on the further tariff reduction of rice in 2Q04 warning of (llcre consequences when this happens, TIlE~ reduction of tariffs; on other

I T,a'ble 8

Economic, Issues IdenUf\l,ed by

. __ ----'C:_!'i-vH,soc,]ety O'rganlziitlo'IFI'S on Gh)ba!'i~tl~oni~ Ch:em~1 f;;rming

• f'(Ii[:il~'

• Tariffs. am1 Q1.l3fltJm1.we ~ 00 ~JlI:Ull\!J'al

prOOlJetll

Trade oompebtion In aync.ultlJre attd CQI11I1l:P;rti.allishi~

WTO A.1lreert1et'1t Of! AQIicultuf@ II

.' Ag[ll:;uN1.l ra_! 8'Ubsidy

., iEcrmomic 1lrQ'Mt1 I/ig~ IlwaltzalKlil

• Em~IQym~l

• Opel'l 6(.'OI10ffil1'

• 5edOrlllllbmafnallJOO

TaTrlfit:atloo, )'1~tatrvB ~estricllicfls .and ~,.Il:Sid~

Trado UbDra.lf.wUon

• AcGess 10 l.mod Il'Iui1Kln areas

Lafld c:omrelSJtiII1 10 eeo--tovnsm WC'lM

,. L3.roc1 feimm

" Urban land tal'onTI

., Empic)'IJHlflt I~ aFM,j flna.ncfal 't;;e1l16r.~. in fOffllg il1ve91mOOli50

FISCal ~Ic,y

• Fort!'lgo ol(c:ha~ r;;Uoij Partralkl i1'WllStmenlS 'Rl!'!o'e1l'1t.1e, fi!.fOl'l1l!l·

F I ~"aIlMo" rJ11<l1l ~g.Hcio~ ;)I'Id tOFolgl'I

iIW(}5'lm E1in,l!l

sensitive agrieultu rnl products is resulting til il huge ~fu(Jd Setl)r1ty prohiernanl] difficulty in .!fu~t~inin' agriculturt'! in the rountry."

PQdtly(m. PR.RJ.Il, FDC, Sentrv su lkmllmln.d ng Korurubong Agtwm tAr TeJmcln11ijlt:l (SlKATl and P~\1I1AL\KAYA-N'ACFARi a moug others, menUoD the un fair. trade ce rnpet itlnn in ag,ri C:l]]tum and ~ommetda]fish:ing underthi: GA1T-\I\rro trade regime. Subsidies ill advanced and d~veloll'ed ceuntries have increased despite the negligible subsidies given by govemn1ents in developing countries such as the PbiHppines. ~ Tromsnarional corporatiens engaged in agricultural inputs (e.g. feeds fertilizers) oominaH:: global agricultural trade. PRlUI is partleularly eoneerned with bow ordinary farmers are disari\'antageil at the farm gate hr using imported :ngFLcultu.ral inputs and selling their prooLlC'ts at a depressed price due to, intense competition in the market.

The 1 iberaliza ti~[J of agricul turc has; len to spe,~ific policies that are d errimcn tal to farm~'mrk("rs int h e long run. D El!,f!\SKU el te the "Mobile Farm Worker" policy of the govemmenrv .. .hich is a deterrent in the eonsolidatlcn of their organization. _\5 f<lnners move tofind

Cotl"v~rgel1ces III lssues and Key An?<~s of Crmcem 6il

WOI'k. and [o~.d L~ ea~, their members have difficwtyattendiing meetHJ~s. This situauon gives mor~ power to the lan.dlOlcds in oantrolling thei~ lands as 1_nobil~ farm workers b~c:ome, in a wa:y• excluded as stakeholders In agrieulturel production. The cl),ntraID and management of land_ by investor~ are evidence of agrow-iog transfer toward commercial .1l)l'ld use trom agricultural produ~tion leaving the farmers without livelihood to sustain their basic needs.

Other group~ also criticized the gcverument's lack (Jf~l.1'pport for ~he agrieultural ~~tOt and its endorsement ef chemical farming to inerease productivity and promote' cash crop::. fur export. A.kbay(;m and other groups bewail the lack of appropriate suppurt and budget 11"0"1 the gQvernmcntin developing u self-reliant, pruducth'c and rnodernized agrkuJturaJ industry. !BON posits that the AuA docs not h ~ I p de v elop i ng cou n tri es to indus rri alize the lr a grle ul tural sector, adding that the "agreement ha~ ~lIWllYS been arui-agrieultural develnpment and anti-industrialization (jf Third \'\'orld coumries."

The AoA further liberalized the entry (If imported agricultural products intn the COUl1ll'',Y. Th~ Limcorna M'lH:ipurpQ~e Coeperative (l.tMCONLA), which is enga~~d hi feed milling. draws mt '[Ilion to I he impact ·of Imported products on Lhe llv '~rnt:k and poultry industries. i\:.;idc from the 1 nflux (.11" hl'1':m,j"h3d rneu: pruduets into the l~c~~1 markets, LIMCOMA pnrtleulnrly identifies tbl! incidence 01 1T1'~ilt t>lnt1gglil!!: tl!' one significant ['idol' contributing 1'0 'the loss ofin nme and productivity of the livestock and poultry Industrlcs. TIll> ol"ganh~tl tlen poi n ts t)trt that the N.1 !'i oual M ea t ~ nspectlon Commission, Bureau !'if Aniirl_al Industry rind the nuJ:'~;UI of tutClm~ are unable to stem the flow of smuggled meat intn tilt" euuntry,

·~'n.dc libel'a:U:l,A lion and fi~~l.d pUUciC5

!\.5 a member of the \'V'I'O, the Philippines has rapidly ("l'l'PhOO up the economy to comply with market access which encourages the mobility of goods, servlees and c-apital in nrder to <Ichin'>'e grc"I\lr'lh , nd development. The market aceess eompuaent in the "\'TO agreements has resulted in tariff reduction of imported products, red uctioa ofsubsidies, pr i vatization and. de reg u lation of the fimmcia ~ sector .. ThE pcreeptiens nf the civil society m-galli;r.alions interviewed on this aspect can. be ranged in three broad positions: (1) industrial and fiscal policies are dominated by monopoly capita1 [:Htlyun MmHl,lCMU, Gene ra) Assembly Hi ading Women for Rforrns, I ntegrity, Equality, Leadership and Action (GABRIEL.A..). KPD]; (2) lack of coherent industrial and fiscal pol icies resu lts I n the a bsence uf protection fOl" key sectors [AER" Akhoijcm, P.andaym~ para sn St1$ytdista.nfJ Pilipinas (PANDAYAN)]; 3.11d (3) lack o'f Free

Di! Phillppin.e Civil Sm:iet')i and ih(": Globatiz..iiio .... Oi5£our"e

competition in industrial and fiscal sectors results in ir-regn.1arili,es (FEF). ",

There are orgom1zatioILS that caution stmDgl~ against the fu.U

liberaU".s:tion due to it!> negah'l.Te_ comeque:noe5 en the domestic el!ouomy, For cxampl~. B[lytw ,:l.funa. describe the.indu51;ci~1 polieies of the gDvem!Tle'nt as ~Ohf>CSbecl with lmport-mteDslVP- :u(;1ave pf{)duction for exports" and detemlil'led b~ ~'monopo1y ca~lt31 ~nd domestic elite. ~ BaY'inl Millio rd~l""', here to the entry of foreign eapitalists since the wlonlru period. a situation that bas not changed until today. The ul'ganiwtion states:

1 n the Philippines, li1teunationa' etonomy relaticns ba"'e invuriab1"y i tlvoh"ed 'policy iUlpO:sidoll~' W enable lorcign monopoly capital to ,explt.1lt the' ("ountT~. Thls has l."OnsLslcntly b~enlh~ C<l~e lhmu[ll, vuri01l5 mC;Jn!>-~helhcr thrl)ugl:i the bi1.11h'lHli ~connmk ng,re.cmrimW> ""ilh th~ US in the pest-war era, t!u'oug,n th' stabill1;atiQIl and stn.lcliIr.J1 adJus'mcnl progr.IIH!:' espedllHy !:l,i,f1t'~ Inc lirOS or 1hmlllgh thl! WTO ~gf sernents

since thl" lQ90~.

F'llrther ICJl]llaining lhpprc5ence of monopoly c:;~pital ill [he

country, GABRIElA adds lh(ll,

Il:!l overpl'odurced ~oods of mOllopoly c~p~t"li~lS i10nJ our til'l:il"kets v,.ithontrcstrH;.tion;t; ~t:ld ilL mey continu¢ to n.a:il ~ur C'ConomlCS

to ... hp posili()p 'of :suppli.(:r!. of cheap raw malerials and la~r 8[113U ~lil~ S!,fuggling ~Ddu!'1.rie.s are ~al en up by blg c:omll~I.Il!CS

or cdp,ed' rml of ~th(' ccmlpl:titiol'l process resl.lhing in dtJ$.iu~ 1)£ mdtlstt1t~ .lmd ~lIhSi!.'qulln 1)' in ";1st retfwt:hmenl flf wor~t!r$..

Boyan J'L.1uno and il.saffiliLlt!eorgani:zatiolls (i.e, ~lU, GABR[E.~:\)

f~vOI' economic protecl:ionisflil, but qu~dlfiy lh~ term protccuon which~dole$ not intend 'to pretert d,anu~5tic elites or intend to protect II'u:mopolies and cronie!:., but rather protection (of loeal imlustriesl towards their development.~ On the finanCL<11 sector, Bayun Muna pereeives that the foreign inve~~me~nls oomil1~ in. ha_vc not tra nslated into -~mp\oyn\ent. tech:nn~ogu:al and nnane.lal henefits. ~ A.P L alsc points out the phenomenon of~jphlless grc\~ih" ~Irguing that while \ibcrn.lizstion \s "'creating more wealth for t~e Ienr. it is nor gener.ating DeW jobs thatwill absorh s'!.rp~:us labor. . .

F ol'..'!kb-aY(i/1, the lack ofa lODg-t~nn rna tegy tor indu smah;:atHlu and coherent fiscal. policy in the economy has .resuited m the govetDJ:J'Ient reHnqujshing the initiative tu prolect .<ital imh.!s.tne_,s for developtn,e:l1t based OD perfonnance targets. Based _on this analysis, Akbay(H1 also em,ph~£12es the l±l~k of protection of t:h~ fiscal :sector trom transient Mpital brought In by fiscal dereg:ruatJor!- In

(h·e same v~in; AER e~pmsse.s concern particularly with regard to t~e c?untry s fiscal policy on theforeign exchange rate, The "bias for ~ngh interest rate for a strong peso contributed to me financial cri i m 1997:' AER states. The organization also points out t~1: government's laek ef fo.ells and coherence regarding 'its fiscal thrust to mcrease tax eelleetion,

By Clontrastt_ FEP believes that the Philippine market is not f1.dhr free and eorapetitive be?au~e lti~ ~ed dO'\I'I'U by protectionist pelieies. ~h e ~r~up 5 t:e,~ses t hat ~m hher:a II Zll1g ~l e~mtrket, responsive policies OJ] the transition 'C.OSt.'3, from a protectiontst economyto 3.]ibe:rtl]ized o~e should be provided. FEF beli eves in sound financial managemenl \.\I1tl1 a fgcu~ 'On "revenue reforms and civil service retorms,"

lnterestingly, A~bayt[n, AER (loti FEF' seam to I::lJnv~e on spe~l'ficl.!islJes relating to liberalization BInd protection. Akba~ em and AER opt for the liberalization of selected industries err S~CrOi'S t? we~-en~~ m~nopu'ly and colluston, Akbayan Pl'Q'lTIob;!..o;$e1ective liberalizaticn b3Sl;!tl en long 1t1i:11l1 strategy and perYonTltl.ru:~ targCbl."' J\ER also suggests thtll certain industries have bCOl1 pr()b'l.ctedfol.' tou l~I1S ~bus, prE~renli!1~, them . from bec,oming OOlllpeUtjvc.. ,Hnl r~e:illtH~~lg ~h collusion and cartelization, A..., for FEF, it fll\rol'lil the: libetalizaticn uf the economy to promote ecmpetitioa and ,e-ffic:icrlt::\' amongthe different occnomie sectors of the country. AER and FEF are SUl:u]m" In ~lO'(:m:e:1y proPQs]m~"l t.5c[:!1 polity rflform!l nod ll\x reforms.

Th_l' reduction of tndustriul li1.ritf~ iL1 compliunee with Pllillippine COnHnl'L~L.lnls to ~Ile WTO hns resulted in tbe elesuee of m,a,n)' I.:mtl?~mc.5 acco~'dmgi() SPFL.. 'J1li~ influx of industrlal pJ10dUds .:!lpeclhealJy stcd.lmport:;frQm M<l],~~Bia~ Tajw~ln LlIld Chin,l, d1::;I,O'Cat~ l~U~ steel i~du~l~ b<1,~Cd i~nigllU. ~1'his has "toughened cnmpel1t1on'" ~or loc~~ n:dtl~me8,_ leading to pl~Ilt closures and m1.emplOyP~e.Q:t l'he privatization 01' 'GOCe"" $PFL adds, ecntribntes to increasinK 1.1 nemployment ..

. Wl.th regard to the trade Hberalization policies tlUit were' formallzed In 1994lhroQugh the GATT (i.e, Agreernenton Agrteulture), the. A.~te-m~te Forum .for ~c:eal'Ch ill Mindanao tAFRTM) question then' Imp:hcatlon~ enthe Mindanao Development Agenda of 199:1. AiFRIM 1$ pattleulnrly concerned about the implications of .libcr~zat:iorl a~d deregulation policies of the' government on the provision of basic sccial services to grassroots communities such as the peasants and workers. \\'hn~ most of theseissues art withintbe scope of.the GKn, a re-examination o'r policies related to regional cooperation, such as the' relationship of the Philippines with APBC,

the ASEAN Free Trade Area (A.FTA) and lhe Cairns Group of ll.gricilltlll~aJ Fair Traders, ]s also of special interest .

. The organizations interviewed ar-e also keen in questioning GAIT policies In relation to trade li:heralization. ' pecifie:?lUy the Most Favored Natlnn Treatment" find. National Treatment Obligations". the Regulations on Sanitary and .Pbytosani'tary M~aSlli'e;, s ~. the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement1!). TradeRelated Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement" and the Dispute Settlement MethSnll:ms,lJ; The,- argue that these ~reen:u::rJbi, advance the role of developed eountries ill the global econlOlD1:h~ order and. at the same time, limit the eiilpacitie5 ot developing countries to take advantage of the reduction of tariffs and trade in the globul market,

As''''Ct reforms

The accession of the PhHipP1HCS to the\'\"TO brought ahcut Infrastructure developrnents \0 facHitatl.:' enl:Q' of im'estments nnd trade, These developments affect communities and basi.c sectors dcpendt'lH on the country's land assets. Foundation ftll' l he D:r,velopm.ent of the Orbnn Poor (PDUP); an urban poor advoeney g,roup and GABRIELA, a women's orgal1i7MtioH, mlsc the issue of di~plawnum1 of the urban poor and local communities ift the conversicn of lilI.nd~ for develnpmeut. On the same nota, [~AMAL.AKA YA-N.\CPAR elairns the convcr ion or lsnd into ecolO1.IMsm zones has re.~t:.ric'tcrl fiJl;htng eornmunlrles to st.ay anti earn t'I l.h~lng in coastal areas-·pinugkali rlittJ rllIg kalcl.ym,m sa prmgingfsda Qt pagriro ~'U bO'IJOOy.ing Gaga!" r his deprived us o,f our right to fish andlive 011'1 the shore]. \\'hil(' the issues cited I1bove bj!' these organizattens predate their cancems under [he mAntle or r"tobaHz:1ti.on, the resulting impact elf dislocation nn C'o~munilil!S and people are he~ghtened with the advent of intense g,lcbal.i:ul.'riou 1:I.s the direction of developrncm becomes increasingly M8.rkeH!!d and detrimental to, muginaJi.zed sectors.

Cemmunitv Ol!galllzing, of l he .Pb H ippiIles Ell terprise Found ation, Inc. (COPf.) un~den;eD'res the problem of access to trmd, COPE believes that access to Iand is a basic huraan right but that in big cities like Merro Manila, the price, of land ton w_" the movement ef market forces." In this respect, Akbayan eeks re-distributive mechanisms and policy review 011 the impact of policies on agrarian, urban land and tax reforms. Admittedly, Akbayal1\. position Oil asset reform was formed independently as an econumtcplarform . But the organlzatien gave this response as till; required context in securing economic equity for themarginaUzed sectors in the 'ccuntry to better respond to the impacts of the globalization process.

...... I I·, .. ~ 0-' I .... "'! ~. I • U .. ,U ,.,.., ~.!. _ I." ~ I "........ _ La! I ••

Tablt! 91

_ . Sociall Concerns .dentifiJ:ed by

______ ___:::C:_:lv_:_·::_II_::S:,:::,oci,et <0 r ,;,3in izatlcms on G lobaUz:atiic n'"

• Homeba;sl:id I'IOr'kers

• Lahot rnigralk'm end Imffl.iJllirlg of W!:Jrnel1

• PfoarlMlcn

• Women in urban and rural communities

~ Women workers in 'Ihe inform~lsec'fQr

Woman

• Ailem1ltiva Tr.!Iditiorml Medic[FI~s Act (ATMAlQ'F 1991

• EnYilronmeri,tal slEilldardsl1'l trade rules,

~ Impll3'~el1~tic" oHh:D IndlgonoLJs Peoplils Rf!ihlll ~l ~lF'RA)

'. Imjus;tnal Tree Parnrfll, and Forest COl'rldors

.' Ifllslleclual flropeliy Rlgl1~ (bfQplzlIcy)

.' Mlnlll'1~ Act of 199,s

• Nlllronal lJ'"Itegfelled ProtlltlBd:Aroo Systems

• jPjeml Variety Al:.1

.. Str'llteglc En\lrrCJnm~r'I~1 Pltll'Il r~H pfilnwan Alli

·SuslBill1:able dWl!!!r<lpr'Jli,i111 pl'Oi1fSm 01'1 envlmt1men,

_____ ___::_ Trade Qlr haz.3r(1\:!l,Is t'9Chnoleg

Irll:ligoIlOiJ.j& poopBolI 'Inti ~ii'lvlronlll'!~nl~1

cOllloernll

L;ll:Ior

f:hll'cllabor

COrfl'Or8t~ ~o.c!~1 traspone.lb 1111 y ECQn0.iTI fO IIb~rl].lIztiliOn

Export prg~j[!~s'rlg zonas laoor f1e~lbl"t:f 6cMm!!s

Pol~c.la(j. Qr'I O",e~~em; FI!I~ino Work&r8 (OFI,:lls) Polli<)' on 'Iracleand Irw~tmertt~

Safta1:y f1121Jll

Sub·oonlt~lmg and job CCifitrl;lClhl{l Trndl! !,Inion nglil!i. and labo r (l;tandardll

J · 'Wage ir'o<Uc!;'

_____ W~'~om~e~~~·~~~. ~h~b~a~n~d~be~~~'a~fif~6 _J

'.

.'

.,

SOCIAL CON-CE.RNS

Table 9 comprises the major social issuesaml concerns highlighted by the civil society tJrgrm~l.i"tion'$, The table basically shows the sod a l t rn pacts of glob ali zatien on the g rcu p~.s;' rOllstitiu~ odes,

Impaet on.la.hol'

The Laom groups 11'1 the study jointly express the concern that the goal of transnational and multinational corporations to spur production in the name of global competition has led to Tabor flexibility schemes, which undermine laboJ' rights and weaken tbe

bG fl!1ilippine Ci"'cl SOci(:IY and the- Glo J<'lliL(1JOI1 Discourse

clauses, and verification of labor standar-d" as mechanisms to cushion the negatl v e impacts of economic liberalization On labor,

On another front, SPFL and Mindanao Rural COl'lglCSS (IYIRC) raise the issue af the government's policy on overseas Filipino workers. MRC assertsthat while the government's pollcies on globalizatir.m of trade exports are dear, the same cannot be said all the export of I abor, The organizati on believes t ha t in the lang term 'this wl,n negatively affect future generations. n

Women and 'Women ..... OI·]k,el'l'!!

Fhe exclusionary nature of g]'Ob,I]1Z",tio11 is mentioned repeatedly 10 jdt'ut:Llj..iIlg the dvil !lociel"y Qrgannza'tiom;' eonccrns and i.SSUC:ii. The preference for economic growthregardless of the ecsts has prevented the marginalized and the "least ITIobi1e"sedQni to participate and to be nefit from. Un~ opportun iti es of globa lizatien. Al] the women's lJti'!!;anizations interviewed in the study cite th ~ filet that the roles fa .. :oring a few Cas drawn up by lnstitutlcns advli!.ru;~ing the ceuse of ,glob1l.1i'l.fltiun) have exacerbated pOYlel'ty and damaged the social r:lbric of comnHl'nHies thCf(:by worsening [hoe 'condi'liODlii or women fU.'I"<ISS seeters. GABRrEl.A, m:::;;el'ts that the vtidcning pO\icn:)' in lhe country has pusb 'n more women and elrildren into Ul' Rash trade or prostitution. GAS.RrELA 'Furth r relates this to the prohlern of I;ibr,r migration and trufti,cking.'rhc export of lrJh(ll' policy of the government 1UlS provided wider opening fur the 11 tivutes of It!gul and illegal recruiters p):tlyin~ on FHipinu:sready to act:('rt wb~tever Jobs that will ease tbe poverty of their families. According 1<. COPE and rile interviewed women's groups, the drive towards pro.fit snd material gOllt:i!l has led. 'to the eonl11,lnrUfication of women tI'!lo welt

As workers, more and more "~·('jme.n <I.r'C workinJ!; ~bl't}ll.rl [0 earn fi living. SARIUYA poil1t,~, out thnt with the expanding informal sector, women started the phenomenon of home-based workers and sub-eontractuals. Poverty also iticreased the iueidence of chUd labor with no protection whatsoeve r. ] 11 the Industrial sector according to KPD and "" \ND, women workers are rearHl}' availahle ::IS casuals or centraetuals leading to. the feminizatlen of preeariuus labor.

[ssl!'le~ on envirenmeet and indjg;efl.m.L'iI peopllt~ Envlrenmental issues are also being addressed, .I10t. JUSl by envi ro muental grou ps hut maj or pol irica 1 'DIm:.,> and ind igenou:l; peoples' groups. Greenpeaec Hub the current trade Iiberalization to environmental degradation and social inequity that undermine- the democratic rights of peoples and cornm un ities, The group Cxpt~jD s

fiB Philippine OvU Society .. rid the Globalizatlon Disccursc

that Uttade rules are clashing ,,~th envlmnrnental standards" such that national measures en euvironmental protection are slowly being remcved, One example is the Jack of restriction 00 the trade of hazardous teclmolngy at the WTO level. Likawise, Ugnayong Pang-Aghwn Tao (UGATt an, NGO for indigen.ous peoples, single out the Vv'TO agreement on in~e1Ieetuai property rights as a form of "blo-piraey rhat undermines the rights of indigeoousp:eoples to their environment and culture," l'GAT cUITendyfucuses its attention On monitoring the implementation of the Indigenous Peoples Right'S A,t;t (IPRA). From the same perspective as COAT Teblebba F,oundation is concerned withtrade-releted intellectual property lights such as the patenting of bioJag'icaJ resourees which prevents IPs: benefiting from natural resources,

Tebtebbo cites the homogenizing culture 0 Weste.rn economic systems ailec'ring, Philippine soeic-eultural systems particularly ~t the expense of the indigencuapeoples in the counlzy. The free market para.digm of gJobalization-lTI.lnshu.ed by We-stem countries to "aeeumulate more resources"-disadvantO'lges the indigenous peoples because "their philo-sophy is 5'0 rnueh different from western thought," 'J"ebrebba says that lPs; "jew nature as "be)ng integrated ~1th them and with glooo1izati!Jl1. they are being harmed,"

Most environmental groups, Gi'flenpem::e in partieular, are vel)' ea 1.1 ti(IUS of mil rters SUdl as gen eric eng; ncering and t Tilde of b a~a rdous tecl1nology. O'lherN'GOs who ~.presstheit reservations as fat SiS. 'the effects of globt1lization on the enrironment And indigenous peoples art'! eoncerned are 'the Philippine Association for Intercultural Development (PAFln) snd the Foundation fQf" the Philippine E:nvtrotl:tnel1t (FPE) .. PAFID puts its efforts in monito,ring legis~ation relating lO, intcreultural and ,~nyil"onnli~:,Dta} issues such as the Strategic Environment Plantfor Palawan AC(,[ndustr'ia] Tree "Farms nnd Forest Corridors. National Integrated Protected Area Systems, to name a few, Meanwhile. FPE concerns itself with the issue of biodiversity eonservation as the key means to achieve sustalnahle human development.

CODSumer Issues

Far censurners, globaUzation can be viewed as positive or negative depending on its impact on their. interests. The Citizen's All.iance (or Consumer Protection (,cACP) raises the irnportam:,c of contra] 'and access .. CACP believes in the importanee of people having control in the decision-making process which would lead to issues of representation for consumers jll:) the. globallzatiouprocess. The organization is particularly concerned about the alleged easier

Conv~'rgences in lssues and Kev Are<1~ of Ccm:ern 99

access to prod nets as prom ised by. global izalicm. However, if products such as medicines become expensive because their prices m~e contrelled byhig eorporattons, then these become inaccesslbla to the majority of consumers,

CUL'f[JR;o\.L AND TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES

Tf~ble' 10 presents the emerging issues and concerns QI'I culture and technology relating to the globaliaation process,

Technology

Most of the respondents note the positive irnplicationg of teclIDo~o~ic.11 advances in terms of exchange of information and L"OmmlHIic::atlons. ~l1rough ccmmunleatten, and techaelugieal advance, exchangcsm culture and infmrnaUon M~ facmt;;tted ,:icrv:s5 t'QI,I!'trie$. This, bHS provided opportunitje!!l fnr the enrichment of knowledge and experiences of c.Otl'ununll"ht.!i at the Ineal and international levels. However, the ne_g,titilv'e implieations of~ew developments in te('.llnoIO~y~j"e also sources of concern. Alithuugh t~chnulogy. may have rcvclutionlsed the mode 01' comm~lnkationi transpcrtation and media, u large proportion of global society does not benefit rrorn this deve~upmet1t COTH.'(>rt"I$ ~r~ thus foeused Ott the lrl'.lcCE$,'>ibHhy of tec}lrmk~gy in least de'Vdop~t1 areas in the l\lOr]d and amO!lg countries in the south, Or th~ \{;r.h t'lologicaJ divi.d~ between llle dl·i\'c~ of tcduwlo~kal duvclnpl1lCnl and thooe HU'l of tIll" teach (If these dt· ... dol'm~mL';.

Akba!),(w, I:\WnA.YAN, WA.ND, SAIULNIJ\ aad cP'vi;ronn"ont.ai greu PUA ns!! conc,.e rns :1 bou t the com rcversial innO'!lJtiotllii in g,eueti e

Table 10

Cultvra.1 and Technoi!ogh::al, COl1cema,

Idof'inned by_:_t;ivi'l Socie,t ... Or 'anlzatlons on Globalht1ilUon~

I Cullur~1 aggressioll and re·WIt:l11izatlol'l 01 rnJttu~9

: Global ill ed~, If'lflt,J~noo an cullure

~ HaITIogeil lz.atiol1 o'f ctJlru"o:

'. Ufijl:ilt~r,a:1 (;I_jll u re

'Dtgl'LOlJI !;I ivide

Genetic Bl"Igmeer,ing, ckming. !lIC

• ',Genetically Mooil'red Orgar,isms (GMOsj

,. Impact or !l!3chnalogy on .agri~-IJllural pt'lXlu~tlen and. trade

PDllc~' 011 tachI'lOIO!i]lC.a I d$ie:!!opIil!;!ll'~ pfOgiOlrr.J and support of' Philippine gOl,olgrnml!flt

Trade' or haza'rdo1l5 tectlllolCSy

Culture

Tecnnology

•• ~ I: 'l.nnt?~ 1 A lor d I:"ta if ed matrlx

engineering and bio-technologr, parti c 1l1arly_ the: case of ~eti~ly Modified o rgani sms (GMOs) which l.rreperct']ved to have Inrc'\oel'Slble 'r:'ffects oil the ell\-lronmenl and biodivers]ty_Emi.rOtlmental groups Hkcwisecite the trade of h~l,ardous technolr;,g), for \[5 negative

im pact on devel oping !201J1l tries. '. .

Mo.re'Ov,t!r. other organizations unde rscore the tack (Jf a

c0l1Tprehensiv,c techno 10 gl cal develtlpmcn t prog.ren1 ~n the. CQ~n:tr)' unlike in other advanced countries and. the absence of n1J..JJUn~bgna-1 eorporations devoting support fur technological research. W.'\ND and PAKISAM1\note that the lack ot tecbnologtcal development :ii~d sup] ort from the go\'emment .... limits our cllp.u,:·it~· to l~m~ete. HI producing les s expensive agriru1tura! prQ~uct· and mcreasl~g produetlcn in fisheries." For sure, tredmologl~al de\'e1oproel'lt ''':11 affect the vital sectors of the econcmy accordmg to Padayofl 5LU:h thut con i.'e rns n re raised n h 'l he rij;hl.s uf workers i n serviees provid i II G infonnation 'iechnolngy. PANUAYJ\';':"IJ. on the other hand. s~e~ ~o ensureth(l'tinfurmatiun technology is aceessible bet ....... een ,ilrld 'W'Ithln1 countries in the "Nurlh end StHlth and POl,t'-fUSS gender. urban-rural stratum, ethnic. ~)ri~;im;. etc."

Culture

'the 11 'g. tive lmplicatians 0' glooaJhmtion 011 culture ar~ p tcci,,~d tn have led tu the homogeniz.ation of culture Il!l.rucular1y Hi Jevelop'ing countries because of the gllLi~,t ,!,C(1i~:. -Kung s,in,o ,!lug mrly hawnk rrg media. si!}(J !1Jl!1 mas ru]krJkaunpllt1.U!~nsl!la sa paru.lUt'nh' at~a~~iisip ug !L10R l WhO-e'vI!HOnr"fols l~e me~hEl:nnUcn('e!; the perecptrcn and views nf peeple], PAN D1\\ A~ asserts. PANDAYAN eautiens that ~lld\'a.nced teehnolog,)' quickens the m.ll'lption of culture of other countries." - foll'lldi lc.u19 West~r? klJl'l.Ji Asian influences wiad ng pop cull Ute SlJ pt:lJJwmugl/llfl. ng' pagpnpakuJay ny buhnk • anime, etc." [not ol~ly. Wes;t~?J hut ~t~ . .\sian influences suchas pop culture through hair cnlormg. amme, etc.]. SAlULi\YA liken. the homog_eni'zation of culture to that of promoting "the McDonalds mentality breught h~' MNCs .. ~ ,

J n the case of 'the Philippines, 5.t~"'\l U\l{j\S claims that It IS a ~aSI! or "f'e"oolQrliz.1,:'tiou" bv ""estern culture, In the same vein, KPD et..!uate:~ the g,lobaliz!l'tioD or culture to cu1t~nal aggr.es-s~o:n~ w.?!ere WC!:ltern/Ho!l}"v,'uod influences breed escapism and mdll\"Iduahsm. Th t': predumin unee of p-op culture h a. s wt'ilKeneAi i lCI_ilige nous nn~s,. traditions and practices, The MRC, duringm.{'stuciy's FGD. Pfll"CCIV';"<; that (me impact of glo~HzaltioIl is the "influx and imposition of \o\Testem thoughts on our economic and socie-cnltural ~·5tems." tberebj~rc:slllti!lg in the assimilsrion QfWe tern ideas \\-hile "we fall to patro ni zc ou I' own- ~

Left politicalgroups mention the link 'between technology and culture in the context of understanding the effects of the advance of information technology on the cultures of developing countries wbo are the recipients of information fed br Western media. According to AER, the danger liea in the advance 'of unilateralist culture seeking homogeneity and "hindi ,:r.o rlugigingSteTIsitiw sa mgu specifies ng societies and nations" [it is not being sensitive 'lo the specifies of societies and nations]. However.as discussed earlier, the crgarrizations in general perceive that the faster exchange of t nform a tion across countries because of tech nological innovatioa is. one positive impact of globalization .

CONCLusrON

r n SUint the issues and areas of concern are identified bv the respondents because of their perceived negative inl'~"nct ~~ped,ally on their eonstitucnctes. The responses provide 'lhe rationale for thei r 'policy udV'Q(:<lC)' w hen they I;'ll'lga,;e Un!) Htate ti!ji we:~ I Iilis other civil society grou'~):;1 Wit~1 regard ~o ~l(ltbQH2;iiltion issues. The k\-'1' areas of concern identified by the or-gnuittltl.ons in this. study rl;;l'i1ec\. the assumptions }f their unalysls (If g~ob(lll;.r .. ation and the priority 1:.iisues 'thu'l derive from this. These areas of cone rn 11 ]p them arriv . at decisions on what issues Lo tackle first that reflect their Of gam loa i nal positions. Such eholees may b. based on the impact on their claimed constituents founded upon their organizational mandates mid thrusts; their ldeeloglcal oricntatlons: and their I f!f!ders:h tIl 's nfH dl'll de c:1S to !'IS,

T'b~ more politi,c{llly-i.ndined Ql.·g'mi:r..'tlinn.~ (i.e, poHtical hloes) h:m.d to pro'vidt' strung views on p()Utka-l~e~onnn'1ic issues 'i.elating to global i zat ; on sueb ail l II 12 rnl r!! of th C! W'1"O an d in ternat i ana I r1nancla! instltutious vis-a-vis the atate, neoliberalisrn, ltberalizattou, asset r cfnrms, ... md so on. 01'1 th ' choke of i s sues, these organizations put a premium on their ideological orientations in viewing the gloh<'llization process. It is the ideological woeklview of these political organizations that Influences their mandate and thrust rather than the interest of a specific sector- since they claim a broader cnnstltuency made up of the grassroots communities, basic s~e·~or.q and the public in general,

Centrast this to sectoral org.ani~tinn$ that possess a more fnensed and defined constituency (LE! .. women's nrganizations, labor group's}, The. Iabor groups, for example, view and ehoose their issues based on the impact of globalization 0 fl th ej r partieu Iar eonsti tllency. In terms of a. hierarchy of issue-areas, labor organizations tend to

i2 Philippine Civil 50de.ly and thE' Globaliaatlon Discou[S'~

highlight casualizaticn, labor flexlbility, unemployment '!; .. ·hicn are, of course, fundamerrtally labor concerns, No'te thai: the labor groups, converge em eertainissues, yet org,aniz"ltionally they are at pains in distinguishing themselves from each other. FQr example, major labor organizations included in this study diverge on the issue of the "social clause" as a concern to be Ineluded in iaternatioaal trade agreements, For same. it is an .effort to offset the neg a ti ve implications' of trade Iiberalization while for others it is considered counterproductive to incorporate labor rights in [fade negotiations. The divergence in pri()riti~ing issue-areas among labor organizations carl be explai n cd by" thei r differi rig ldeologica 1 or political ussocmtions with like-minded orgarrieations,

The same can be observed in the case of women's organizations that raise the issues of increased trafficking and commodiflcatlon O't 'women asbordsrs become porous in III glc)nalizing world, Qne an wonder, however, how these issues be contestualixed in their CUTir<cot dlsecusse nn 81~lbalization. when issues suc.h as prostitution or t.raffiddng have already been present before the term "globalization" became eommortplaee. This draw attention to the debate ever whether gl.otuilization should be SI.'M as It process tba.t has; nJwa.Y5 beer present ur just lJ eateh-all phrase to. embody tht:" same nnllly:res, on the current political-economic rind social probl ems, Despite views that glohali:wrtion is :I novel ph mmnenun, some of (he issues 'were already the eoncerns of chil $ ciet reups CVt:D before the term "gleballzatiun' became popular.

AI:; for the research and develcpmem NGO$., their Olll,ndate::o and thruf;;ts hu Id sw,Q.y in s hapi ns 'l heir issues and concerns relatln.g to globalization. To illustrate, groups such as AE.R or fEF Me more Ideutlfled l,,-itb their main tbrust which is tn provide potlcy positions enmacrc-eeouomic issues. ·n,1S defined mandate nod organi2:l.tional thrust sbape''s their priority issues, rather than beiblg shaped b~· their constituency (which may be' a particular economic sector or eornmu n ity).

One key convergence issue among the responses Is, the ccneern for: the lack of a oeherent economic dcvelepment progmol en a, national scale addressing the lmpliear ions of glohalizatiun, spEcifically 'the lack of a coherent eeonomic strategy to deal with the lntluence ofmtcrn .. tlonal eeonomie institutions (i.e. ''ITO. 1FTs). However, tim civil society groups themselves have diverging advocacies ana alternatives 001 bow [0 deal ... ,\~th this matter. (This will be discussed fully in the next ehapter.)

It has alreadr been noted that some political and social issues of the groups have been present even befoI'€, the globalization trend is highlighted {i.e, prosrltntion, asset reforms, lowwage]. This could

~)e att:ihu:ted t? the speciffcity and focus of the S€{ioral o'!~~lnil;atiaru; LTtriudcd in this study, Most of the sectural groups included in the study hav~ a sp'cci~c (:;~n:5tih:telley and advocacy issues emanating tro ITI . tb~lr organtzatinnal rnan i;l ate. On th ese aspect "', the flrg/lD1zaUons are rl!'1]~k to. point r;ut th'.ll these. old problems have \~Tlr~C'ned as the globalization process has tntensified. This bas also broadened the range. of Issues and concerns addressed b.· the selected CSOs. For example" women's groups working on is50~es of prostitution focused their efforts only in the Philippines before, Tuc kImg the globalize ti on p hencmenonhna broadened thei rconeern s ttr trafficking c.r woman in Mio and 'to the global phenomenon of wnmetlll"Olffickmg, The same goes for labor orgMliza(ions ti1al5'tarled with i he . cqnc~I'ns ,of Fi~ipino workers but 1!l17't'! heginzriug to g~l lnvolved HI regional and U1'temaUofHlJ labor l!OIlCcDU;, on the pHghl r.~r WOI'kcl"S. One tmdt: [m1.1)11 hrHl even can1pa;i~n~t' for th~ I!onditium nf workers in Btll'!na. TI1 a way, their jssues and ('Oncerm. have l'W<Hlded • md s() has the extent of their extrn-territorial invol"t'!mem arul networking. This aspect willbe d~vi;'lup!.:tl in the next 'l;hllptor \\ hteh will tackle, nrnong ,uther 't,hinf!.~, tl1f' CSOs (h~U1iT1g with the

I ntematiol'l:J.!,rwt!<)Il of the'll' issues and. concerns. However, .; .... hi1!t .• nme nq;llnl1:,ICI<H!S have expanded lh'ir C'on(,CI'ns and lSSU~ incorporating the impacts t~r globalization on their constltucnts, uthcl1' have remained (fJC1Hl<!d Oli thc:-ir Iong~l;!ndi~,.!'l 1.'<!';1I~-"'.

~)1'1 ~ .h~ rna Her n f con vcrt\~ nces on lssues, this chu pter ld te m pte£!

In tngbhghl 'the m<ljor Illle,~ting pnlnts oC issues I.!nJ voncenis ;IS T.HI"Tl! ioned hy the l"espondCfltil. Divt'rg!::m'l~ ill iS51H- (l!UllY:1;1t1;o ean be ifl~lld h~ ~he ctc~~j,i~!l iI~d ~flceiJk~. For example, <llll\(lugh AkiIUyOll, \..ER, mJ' arc Similar in Hdv(K:nt~Hg fj,nnutial ~t'ld eC:UuolUb(' reform (0 weed aut rent~~eekin~ and collusion in thi:! market, thej: di.ffC'.t markedly In the alternatives and specific measures to address these L~slles .• JkbaYlw and AI?R would prefer institutional measures to !!lake (j nancla) transactions transparent while FE.F favors a vie ... ' lhiii refcd'm~ are transitional measures tuwards th~ self-regulation (If the

market. .

Divergences also abuunel in analy.7.ing the rise of Internatjunal €:~~unomic institutinns .or governance. such as the \'\I"rO. While S01.U~ t' ~\'II societyorganizat] rm.s remain focused on the dominanee of the LS Influence (l'l~ the VITO which affeets the.Phl1 ippine eceuomv, I)t hers recognize the trend. of multilateral rel ations in the mternational political economy and. the influence of other industria! countries in the institution. However, there is a clear overlap \!lith regard to seeing the objectives of the 'VITO as promoting market llbera!izatir.rn. instead of levelling oul development among ~fld bt::tween developed and developing countries. The issues that

emerged in the responses highligbted here clearly provide the rationale [or organiza inns' adopted actions Ulna ,3(l\'Oca:CY with regard to the globalizatlon process. This is the subject of the next chapter .•

NOTES

1" The' KYlltu Pretocnl is the lI~r~(!J:li~!ll inked in U(t~etilbc.r 1997. bimUiJi!l ot!\'el oped eoumri es ltl Uml! their greenhou ~c ga~ em issions to I ~9 0 I·~ v e ls pursuant to 11'1.:= Framework CCllvelllion (111 Chm~l~ Change of 1992, The Uoill!l:l States only iigrl1'el.l 10 limit Its i7E!~I1tmllse &3-5 emisslons dllrlng the parigd of 2QoR·:1:012..

2 r::W;l!l!I1liv~ Order NQ 2;)4 .... as nleas-ed in June 2001J. elltiUl'!d -Mullifying the rates of nutlr' tin. eertain imported articles • .s pro~id~d for under thl! Turiff ilnd CU;!;lQlm Ctuie or 1978: ."'6 amended, 111 order to Implement tli~ ::!.IHHl· iitlJtI~ rhihpfi~n~ acln:dtll~ of hl,tiff reducnon IlndH the btllll eeoncrnie III (!otlS u re ln it i n lh~~ 1.).1 l h~ aecele r ill~ d Cum rnon Ef{et"lr\le' Pre f~ r~ tH! ~ I nrW (CF.PTJ 5ch~mo {or 1 ill! ASEAN Free Tmde Af'~~ (.:o.IT,\) ,

3 S~e dcctlm{!llt.Ltlul'l an the fO~~~E:tl-·af{)Ur diseussicn 'Ind "I! 1;,bLI,1}1l WC,irksnnp, I.,. Oi:cemb .. r :otnr.u~. 1 fll'IfJle ell , OitimQn. QU~1:I)" City Th~ FCD Wft~ lilliln.df!'d Ill)! UUl following OfXlltl~z.tI~ioll'l~:hern ll' rtlrllm rv~ Rt' ·DlIr<lh 11ft M mdjlnlW \11 YIUl>1). CitLl.cm'" AIli'HJ.~iI: for C~fi!lUIillU f'wu~.:tlan (CII.CP)' /)'mokirat'iknnn Maglnlbui<id "I" SultClIl KuLlarlll (DEMA!HWJ. Llrneoma Muhipurpose CQopt!r<!l.i\·~ (UMCOl'r!A), Mindillll!r;J Rut! C{lngre,'i~ tMk '). SC)lllliern l'bilippilli".Ji F(1dcrllti91:J of 'l..;!,bur (!'PFL). and Tdlicbba F'Qtltlthtllrm.

4, l)e:l~JIf(mcmL 'Ord'llf~ 'IP lIlD.d !O wi:rll: l~lIerl III lQQ7 Illfl~ndlng ~hc Impl~ml::il'~ing rules Df Bouk V, I U alld VI, re~pctlh Iy of rh~ Whbr CoJ~, !]ep!Lrh'llel'll Ord(!t No, q ~ml!nd~d Il:oo~ V of tht Lnbor Co!l~ pNiBinlY111 h) ~x~~n'i'l~fc)'rl of ~Q v erage or wtl1:k1:u' ~(-or.!lMII2.jItion nol (lnl) 111 lrad~ utlion) l:nJ'l ~ Itm I n l<I/lI,rill!r-s' 1U~"H~lI!JUon~, trll:h.J &U)f LLnlo rUI :tr.ld I ~ boo ~l r~~ fll.j!.I! t !i:uu:. D.ep~rlm~l:U Ordor Nt,. 9 Is about .l!lioW'lng wrllrllcung ;).nd suben a trac I iflg I n the. Labor Co-de. '~'b rou~h ,nl~ DS4; llPptls luon and I obhl'.n& ~,f Illb"r gnllllpS, Department Order NO.lIJ \'!I~t; reveked b}' n~(I.1i1ml!nl Ordt:t NO.3 l",s\J!erl ill :l00l. to ~ontinue prnni'hJlirl~ tb.e Isber-cnly cOl1lr.iCli.fl1l !j,~I!!m

s. See FrAmcwark of Acden of jt!lCU~ on Ih~ Glubal S()I.lI:Q, tJ!l.p'ubHsbed, ;! 003_

e The ll1fmdllU~ on u!bsidies :Ii~ ,e.."!lllainoo in Ihc IIgr emf'nt on Suh&tdie:s aad CIJU n len~iJing M~;3m.res, or uUed. t.h" SC~f. Agtt:emE.nl in. the \'tru, Tho.! S·CM .Azreement Jilff1~'ldes ((If the multiT<lttlr~i reg.ulatiOl1s OIl suhsldies and H~~ [\!)Unle.r"iiLi.nii\ mea.~m res ttl ~ offset inJlI.r_o·· o·f he",;l~' ~.uh~idil;ed Imporh ..

7, Most-favourecl-nation (MFN) tma!i:llc.rtl ... _.!I..ltd.. I of Llu: GATr 1.9'HJ req Ili!illg countries 11.0 t I u di!.:'rinrlnll"tei:Hlh,'l:.e 1:1 g,o}"d:s 0 n t.h.e hll~h u f ~h<:ir origin nr destination.

8. Naocmal nelltmcllt ObHga ion I!Ind~.- Arti£l~ III oin;;: c.,.!(.'IT li,j9<l which requires mat import~ be treated no less j'a\\"'Jurabl)' [bran rlomes~icall)". ptot1UCI!{1 gu<n:is once they have passed enstorns.

q Sf'S rl!gur ... tl(lns or Sanitary and Phyto~.anHary regul~'linn~-g(lvc,t1iTl<mt ,lands rds to protect human. animal .IHld plan. me ami heahh, lo help ~-JlS1[r<= lb:af (O(lel is sate for CtillSIJIUpfi[lrlo_

10. "l'hc A!jnl{'!ment Oil Ted:i!lkal I1atTiF.r~ to Trade (TBT) ll[{}bib\l~ thre trade ~~~f1~rs tha . are [e~:It.c-rl ill lbp. process 01 jlhJthrdng the I)rmluet such as l'~::;u latlens HI qua IH,v Il'vds, i115peCUOil, pacl\.a~lng, l'k.

J l . In L ull ~d t1 B J p,rQpe rtf . ownersh 1 P {If ldea s, i I"I~ hrdi n g li ler:!uy !i[lrl IIrtiSt~ ~ l·ill~a;:S. t~rQt'e'C'tl;'d nycol,vrlghi-}; ,In\l.enlj6n~' [protected hy patents], sigl1' fur df\t ,ngulshlng.~~H)~I.~ of <HI eute~lln~1;' {prote~t~J l>r trademarks) and other ,'I ~ men t;; (l f indus rrl ~ I I~ ru p~·rty.

l2 I:~;r! HI.HWll~sp~te Seul.~~ll!td HIJi:ly Wa~ lormed in April II)Q'l during lb~ l ruguay Round Llllll gaw birth to the l"\!'TU. The mm i~ where iliL: WTO I ,,".leTa] COIwdl 11H'.·t~ t,_) settle !riH5¥- df':;l>mtes,

'Chapter 4

'RES'PONDINIG TO THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALlIZATION

The diseourse on g~obali2.a:tiol1 among civil society groups, go~ beyond the identificatiun and anal)'SiitS or poUcy issues in the new world order, Probably 'lh~ nlostinu"restins and. roost crucial cb.allenge is how civil society maps (Jut strategies and explores aven,lJles for fiction and, change. The. diverse nature and dynamics ,of civil society's relations with the state. as weU as eell beratjen with 'Q-ther non,govern ltI,ent/nonprofit actors, suggest 'the breadth of strategi:es and options taken by civil society Ofg311.iz.ati,ons (CSOs). likI~~~Tise. the role of civil society in the debate is not limited tc the mere recognition of the ills and critique of the present system of gl6balizaUcn. BtU more signHicandy, as e transfcrmarive unit in illrn::iety 'With broa d eonstitoencles a no as an actor in governance and democratizatlon~ civil i50tlety plays a central function in <J.,dvanci.ng a people-centered agenda onglebalization, It should be zecalled that during the deliberations on the G-eneraJ Agreement en Tariffs and Trade-Uruguay Round (GAIT-OR) Agreement for the Philippines' membership in the "'orld Trade Organizatfon (mOl in 1994. local civil society groups already figured s~g'Oificailtly in pressing for 'the Agreement's rum-ratification 'h) safeguard the 'interests of the m ajority, ' Civil society organizations utilized differen ( mechanisms of engagemen.t in ~he debate, which cstalyzed and furth er enhanced their parttcipation in policymakiug.

This rhapter examines the responses of selected Philippine civil society groups to globalization. Shared and divergent perspectives on globalization have le<1 h) the employment of a varietv of concrete. act ions] reflecting cedain dynamics and processes or' engagement wi th ins til utions of governan ce, i t1 c.l uding the Ph ilippine govemmenr. \1\ nat kind of interveuticn was adopted by CSOs to advance their campaigns, and issues'? what particular Iorms of advceacy prove to be contentious even among eSOs? Is there ;3 common alternative or response to globalization? To answer these questions. the chapter is divided 'into two parts. The first Illustrates the modes of uction ami, org.mL'!.ati~ul of civil society mol H challenge:s tr1e various instruments (If Kl nba lization, while the second pruvldes a survey of P()1icv responses tu the new world order.

A.N ACllON AGE'OA ON GLOBALIZATION

Tln, "Battle in SeatUe" ln1999-w1Hm the W1'O's Thinl Mlnis-teri .. 1 Meeting in Seattle cullapssd in .~.rec:t.acuhn' f~shir.m in the face of un preeeden l!l'!d pru't~:;'~-hc'lmme an h i.s't rtie lnndmark for eivil <;m'iely uctinu in confron I i i1~ institutions of econnmie • lnhaJ 1l.')V 'rmu,,~(!, Various UIC'tl($ Wei' C1Jlployed il.nd new concepts of proti!$l and strategies !o\' ~re adopteu, The event also s;~n3I1cd Ui challen,ge over <lnQ nbov . an I)'l'po)'lunity for CSOs to rethink medes of protest, U WM t1lstl m1 opportune mnrnent to develop a~l humane, de nioe ra t ica II y a cc nun 'l a b h~ !l n d s u s l n ill ·fl b 11.l :lIl e null i ve ! 0 p,l 0 b aliaa t i OH.

Global civil SOcl'C;)'ty grO\ip~ an: Hkew'ise ~lru~~!ing u· addruss globallzauon lSSUe!; and processes through altcrn,ulvr world forUl:!] , The must notable 01' these is til annual gnthering nf!'>ocial mO\'l!ml'rHs at the World Sor.ial Porum (lJNSF}t which has taken ))Ii'lCC in Porto Alegre, B:l'il7:U find MUlll.bai] India. Ironlcally (but dcliherate1y, as well), WS:p eelneides with the World Economic FOM.Hi1 (VfEF). "'bile pow{:lrful economic leaders of the world affirm their confidence in economic globali'ir.ation in Daves, Switzerland, trade unians, NGOs und ulh ercivil society g ro t.lP~g disi,'.uss the alarrnfn g repercussions of liberalization of the global economy and what to do about them. These endeavors have escalated .into coordinated vigilante and acrlons of civil. sudety groups during the annual meetings of the World Bank-Interrretional Monetary Fund (WB-IM.F), the Asian Development Bank (l'\DB).WTOministerials, and the like.

Although there have been sustained anti-globalization struggles in developing' countries spearheaded by civil society that predate the events in Seat tle or the amrual congregation 0f social movements in Porm }\legrt" and Mumhai. only recently have cil,<i1 societv actions

demenstrated such an inteenatiertal face end garner signttleanl merna eeverage in theprecess. A~ the sametime, CSOs eOJiJltiQuel&ia:Il their local actions and apply pressure OIl ,g(n~er.n Inellb tlJ complement and sustain the interuattonal strug.glea&aJus,l gl 0 ballsatl on.

Table 11 presen ts tb evariou saetions taken bY'" selected FhilLP'!!JIin~ civil $(jciety erganizathms. Empbasis on certain 'I}rpes of act:ions:hy serne groups do €s not au toma tieally denote disreg,srd of othe;ll taetie s, Rather. each organization finds its nicheIn the Who]'ei range of strategies and coordiuate:sMtiJ other groups to oomple.tne.l:tft'Df supplement other modes of action, It Is interestin,g {fl' 1Il0tie: th~t tiil strategies are some how ill terreiated. FQrexampl,e:, SQJ;;:i;ll movemerns, by their very 'rIlI'ture,!)re mO\ffi tv employ skatJegje5 of resistance and pressure, and education is undert .. kcDlu lsy Ilhe has is for these tactics,

Str:en gtbe aing Sochd I'Illo'vemcnbi!

Nob~i Peace Prize winner ~nd rOlm.ed ant~-aprIl1h:eid spokeshila.1!J. Archbi:;;hnp Desmond Tutu enee said, ~Th.e only way ba ea,t :iU1 eicphant is a>i~ce. by piece." P~rhapi- the elephant can !:ilniy be con~umedby an orga.~i:lledanny of (I,IUS, which devours tb:.e 1imM nrsll:lnd graciu{!JUy worb its way te tb.e head. HCrL(',e, to (onfroM the. ~!"1,$'l !'U men ttl of nae-l ibernl gle balb.ation oCr \oll 5,Oc.i ely must firnLbe organi;(;(.ld through 'the sne!lgtheuing of seelal moVemmtfs. BMlc elements Q,r civil soc]e~y indude 'p(l]jti4~1 find social moven:uults, n pa,t from all other ~YP('s 'of grOllll:;; outside the sh!lten ongovern men l urg.!ln.in l lens (NGOsl. peopl e's organizations C,PI()s), rel iglous instltutie DB, Ilicademe, media, bualn ess and ba!3ic ccn~r.n:lJn di,es (Cof«lnei Ferrer, 1997). O'Brien ~f al. de'llne 5~jlll movements as a "subset of actor:s operating ill the' rML~ (If ti'ril society" whieh pursue ext~fl.si\le social. eMn.ge and trd!.P:sfQ~ (:;':000: 12). Seotr (in O'Brien e.rijl .• 20QO) furtber cl.a.rifies thilii characteristic as he stresses the eernmunal nature of Siotiw. movements having commonintlE!,oests and, "for at least sonte' signlfkanl part of thek secialcxistenee, a ~mmon ide",Wty.~'

The formation and ecnselidatton of secial movem.en.ts ;;a;irnt: deemed fundamental to wmpleteJy utilize modes of rntc.nrentiolil like. pressure ~ olitk:s. Their >coUecU\'e nature necessitates som,i degree of organization and structure, inclined towards tlite: improvement o:f the quality of life. None<the1es.s, thcorg<lnizOO!D.:I!I and structure should net consteain flexibility and crcati~illmL. adapting to. the chalJging political andeennemie environmeet. Til:! stren.glhen 'social movements, the respondent CSOs eneouro;g\e tiMrt'

-'1' M
e 'R
tI II)
.lii;. Do
~ ii:.
.... .~
'!! ~
C ~
..Q b
1j s
0:::1:. - --

.

--

parallel type,. or interventions: (1) en1icmcfn,g grassroots initietiues, (2) eXlwrHling national uHinncc-5, and C:3,) e-roormg a global Cil'if society,

En ~I (m ci n9 GraSSro.1[ s Initiatiues

Basic sectors of society are the first to be hit by the onslaug.ht of g] obnlizati on. Inc reused impo rt at i on of tradition a 1 ag ricul rural crops such as rice and. corn has threatened the livelihoods al1~l further cxaeerbated the poverty of small farmers, As transnational corporations g ruw in power under the orthodery of free trade ,ia bur f1e::dbZlity schemes and fe.rnimzatlQn of labor are being, lrnplernented in H1e name of cornpetition. Trade unions are shrinking precipitously with the decrease. in ll'Ie number of regular workers and gTO"1:.h of casual and eontractual labar. MCreGH!r, an economic policy with a bias fg:r urbe.n developrnent has contributed to the swelling population of itinenHll urban dwellers in the metropolis.

Civil society organizeticns, particularly those ,"'ith III tnass base, en~IlLp,t'in community o:rganb.ing at the toci,ll [barallgay (,,·mage), d'LY/lt1kJ1njcipilJj~·, etc.] level, DcmO'Crati1..a1lon remains, the: 'broad lrameworkto which LJ'II.S effort to addressthe Issue is directed. In the !':-onlcxl of Klobalizat ion basic grassroen o!g@izing is deemed critical on two accounts. Dn the one hand, community org,3l11i4':,i.n is still considered important. ror the tnlditionalpur.poses of empewerrnent and part.idp~tiofi. Community Organhin of the Philippines EnL~rpMsc F~\I.ndl1tjon (COPE) orgtlnitJ!S slum dwellers not just to oppose dcmoHtioru and p(}Or housing ptognnns~ but also to reflect on w'ha.l the community can achieve 'together. The need to organize ~h~ urban poor ls rnnreo .. <el' seen as a eornplement to other g'ecwllIl struggles, 011 tb other hand. local efforts can harmonize [I3.1tionoal nlld global. actions. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Mcwemeut. (P:RRM) eruphasizestbe si~i"Iificance O!I'DcaJ actions th!!.t ere rooted in communities trying to produce deslralrle outcome. Eftio.rts grou nded in Ieeal actions h ~'V,e th e potential to generate respcnses which may, in ODe way or another, eneourage the foundation and spiraling of both national and international. chit .:iQ~i:ety actions.

ReaJizin1!, that luea] mnvements may be eonstrained by the lack of resources, financial and otherwise, NGOs and POs raise and provide fund. s for organizing ,ano sustaining actions at the local level, The Foundation for the Philippine Envirenment (FPE) establishes eomm \.l n i t:y trust funds as an inn ovativc way of financing S ustalna bl e developme m initiatives by I neal eornmuni ties and providesfor the participation of POs in national sustainable dev lopment efforts. \Vb~lt is interesting ill thi~ endeavor ls that the first prE fund came

f~om a debt-for-nature ~"i'ap negotiated and arranged 1) the Philippineand, United States govemmants in 1989. 1'.be initiatiVe then was structured in the context [,If easingthe debt burden in liH?a)' that also served sustainable development purpose •. This: would ensure the sustainability 'of the NGO and 'PO conuHunity engaged in ern,rircmme[)t.ll protection, while at the same time reducing Philippine official debt. Since-its establishment in 199~, lhe organization has been able to support eommuntty-based approaches tu biodiversity conservation front grants provided by other donors such as the (-nHeu Nations Develeprnent PI'(ig,i~mmt' and the FtClrd Foundation !'PPE, 2000). \\1111£1 theeornmon rationale fur this irritiative is that 11w govemmrnt, ridden by cnrruption and ineffeieiency, is lncapuble flf irnplernen ting official development assistance (ODA)' on its own, this also supports the neoliberal orthodox)' that the market or private institutlons [Ire better equiped to. undertake development efforta,

Gr .. assroots undsrtakln zs may be constricted, however, by f.u!'tors nssoeiated with the globa~i~utiun pV('JceRS. Tn' disintegratien and :;hril"lking of constituenei s+due in part I I lh' 1iU1JtlCL of the g]ohali2:Hhon trend such a:s Icotl~rll.ctualir.fJ'tint1 uf Inhof, rural-tourban migratjon (denrcssiug th numb r of form werkers in th cuuntryside), development ;;);ggrt!lssio,tl (db.rupting and displacing t:liIlllil1:l] cflnnnun'iH(!~)-h~~v~ made it dif~cUlh fer C;SOs !o undertake • nd carry QU' these initiativ ss. In th • same vein, economic difl1c:ulties ~.i!iod,lilted wilh globallzatien rn,!tjl encourage werkers, m,l'T1I1:cr.~. and fisher folks 'to seek lndividunl coping :Stl".leF.;~$ rather than rely (In cullective and organized solutions.

/·:.Jtpcmdiug Nrll rflTla' Alli(mce:;

During th e deli b erat ions O~1 the GA.1T ~:w~ro i ssue in 19941, a h:lf'gC!' number of srrri-GK£T national coalitions were rOl'med.~ThCEe were mainly either initiated. or headed by major polttical hlncs or NGOs/ POs. Although some or the allianees folded after the eounlry's ratlfiea ion. of the Ilrnguay Roulld~('vt'r<d esos eontj nued tu svnchronize their efforts 'tu oppose \¥To. policies through the expansion of existing national formations-and creation of new ones. \'{['lile the objective of major nuti-GATT formations in 1994 was 10 resist and deter ratificatiun of the agreement, national alliances at present attempt to monitor and contest, if necessary. the implementatteu Of policies and programs of the ,;~)\'ernmcflt that are promcted by the WTO, VVB and IMF and. other institutions of glahn,l ization.

In September 2001. the Kilw>fI.ug Nfagbrlb1lkid ng Pilirn·nd.'" I K)'lP) and Pambansauq LQh~$ nq Kilusntl9 t..,[omdahlya ng

Pilip.inas-Nati.(l;n""ojde Coalition of Fisherfelks for Aquatic Reform (PAJI<IALAKA.YA-NACFAR) resuscitated the Pambansa1l.{J Ugnaynn 71g mga Ma.mamaY(1·n Laban sa 1.i &em lisasYi on ng A.g riku/tum. (PUM1\LA.G). PUMALAG I was the multt-secteral alliance against GAIT of uational democratic: erganlzstions formed in 1994. The resurrected PUIYlALAG U is nnw composed mainiy of peasant and fisher falk.organ lzaticns and. employees' associations of the National food Authority (NFA) and the Department of Agricul urn (DA);:! all werking to take agriculture out of the \'In'iO and to protect tbe' interests (If smell fisher folks, in bilB'l:etaJ trade agreements, Carrying the slogan. "Fair Trade, not Free Trade." a comIng together 'of repJ.'le:iilt':nWtiVd from various industries s, businessmen, labor unions and non-government o:r-gani7..a:tiens laid the fOllndatioM for ~he FaIr Trade Amante eFTA). 4 With th~ vi ston of ensU'ring i!L "stren g, vibrant. and susrnitHlble economy capable: O,f p-mvidlng decent jobs to !!iii FilipinDs/ ITA's foremost task is to review andre\-erse the oountry's trade polities and oom.mibn.ents in order to provtde better proh:~eticm for Iccal industrie-s (Fr. 200,1). Meanwhile, a campaign group' called Stoll 'hn,e N(!W Round! (SNR) CoilHtiQn Philippines" whieh feeusss on making the Philippi ne Govern ment brei k the COlli sees us in the VllTO Fifth Minisl,erlal Meetin that took place in Caneun, Mexico. was 'io.rmally launched early in 2003. h aims to pu~ ~OfWllrd o stl".a:tegy for Cancrun and beyond whi,cn highlights, three: key points: opposition to a new mUDd of WT'O D,e otiations, oppositio[!l, to further \!!ITO' tmd.e and trade-related ]ibc.raU:z.aticm.!!.nd opposition to the inoorporntion of the "new issues- Go( !:nvest.nlent, competition poUty~ so .... ernment proc:urem.e~n. an.d trade fad]itatl0n into 'the \'\iTO ag:Ci1dtl (Focus, 2(;10'3).

This coa]itio,rI-buiMi n~ approach [s not entirely newand exeluslve t-ogkibl6Jli:mtion poUci~s. 3$ C{lruition5 have become the norm in e,·e.t}' issue taken by civil Sl)Ciely. Nevertheless, one of the initiativesthat can be considered as potentiaUy rsdleal is the tacticsl tdlian[:e between business and labor to, chflUenge the oounoy's trade policies. In the past,partnership 'between capital and labor was rnainlyto address very specific measures adopted by government A case in point l",~as the time an Ikt,P-ins.pired increase lEI. oil levy \VaS implemented despite widespread public perception hat it was unjustified. This gave birth to the Kiiu$Ilng Roll Back (KRII). where NGOs IikeFreedonrfrem Debt Coalition (PUC), labor unions such as theBuk1nran ng Manggagawong Piripino (BM?) and businessmen represented by Raul Concepcion. became linchpins in campaigning for the rollback 'of 01] prices. Because of KRB's campaign, then

Pr~~ident Fidel V. Ramos was forced to reduce the price of oil products. The establishment. of ITA somehow replicates the KRB experienee by reviving business-labor 'coQperation,rur.mg with ~GOs and POs. The dine-renee this time, however, is that this kind of alliance aims to address directly. and in a more comprehenslve way broader questions of indusnia1 poli.cyover the long term. nis proba bly stems from the fact th~t unbridled Iibcraldzation is Jeopardizing the existence of local :industries which means both businessmen and workers are'. put at riss,

Witl~ the .iml,nct of globf.l,U'l,(:,lion beoommg Increasingly felt by the, public, alliances h<!~re' STO'I';'I1 more inchlsive tJ:!ill'lS~Emdi;ng factn . which used to constrain such strategy-type, nature and focus of NGOs and PO ... ~ political orienrauon, etc. 1'0 iIlLlsttate, SNR indudes hl?~ and org~~iza:tiom; \,ith disparate poJiti~s Fragmented ~y the crtsis of the Philippina Left Ilkbaya:n. Kihssan para S(1 Pambansang nrnn ok1:@ya (~PD) and Sand(ga.u ng Lakas c t Dl1'moknosya "9 Sam baya ":(In (SAN L.t-\KAS) h [IV • co rn I;) lO~cl~hcr ina campaign against ~hc. h1.Uilchmg of a nnw round nf Iwd1J negotitn1.cm$ 11'1 Ihe w1'o. In uddi li en, th e u rgeney of the issu eo has d ra W Dl l ~ I e a Uen t i.Ol1 of other organiza inns wh ich used ('0 fo~~u!> fJ n l'i tlgle issues such I!S \>VamafiHenHh and Agrtni~Hl H 'fm'm Nuw~. Wl1(~r"<ls civil Siocict) t.·~wb~islH;i{l eoalitlons :tlnnf1, J;101iUeo:i! lines in 1994. CSO~ hi! 'lhi l'1:1l qeem En 1"et'ogni1. 111, J ftmd{llfl ·IILt!! nl;il,{d to work ln~c\ IR'T desp!'t!. Ideological differenc 5. Fnr example, Kilus(mg Mayo UIlO Uo.'W) llctworl.:$ with NGO~ in 'One t1.'ipod of IJ.dVt)cIitCj', but fiud.", itself dissenting with the sam" NCJOs em other IS,\iUr::;S. A£;tion far- Economic I{dorms (AER) engages other organiz<ltiun.'l in ~u&l(~lned dialogue 3:.<; wel'l a.s healthy debate on various issues despite difrerence~ in the analyses and positions. Trade Union Cm1gr~ss of the Philippines (TUCP) also supports the engagement and cooperation of trade unlnns with etvil ,~Mjel)' group_~ bi'i~~(] on issues. Arhlili~lIHl,U\'. left pelitical blues trym fm'g~ sll'Ong soltdarity 11.11k ... with other non<tate .acti~:mi •. including the Church and progressive nunprofi orgamzaticns, to further advance the national anti-gluhalizatiun rnove me n t,

. However, groups such tIS PRRlV1 and Allhmce of Progressive Lahor V\PL) stili ca u lID 11 against the loose definitlo» or budl "cl v il '>ociety coeperatinu." The present dynamics of civil sod,ety are still, they assert, ideological. In. the cud, collaboration may be constramed ?~V i rreccncileble divergences in analyses.strategies ;m!l approaches, The key organlzationnl node is merely lhe opposition to the negative an pact .en globalization" This reflects that the nature of ceoperarieu Dn!y springs frpm the re.~liz~tit)Tl rhat a broad-based, multi-sectoral

~ltpprQa.ch carried out In a coucerted fashtonjs indispensable to support wide-ranging reforms in Philippine trade, agriculture and general developmentpullcies, Eventually, problems plag;uing C:SO£. $1.1 eh as fragmenta tion {as the 'case 'Of gtOUpS wniehtraee the i r 'reefs; to the Philippine Left] and to some estenteo-optation, may contribute to the collapse of alliances or coalitions. thereby weakening CSOs· position vis-a-vis glcballzation,

Creating tl Glohal (:'l{!il Socie,ty

As Ch a pters 1 and :2 su rg.ge.~t ed, tech nologr, \"Obi ch fu el s Ute engines of globa'lizalion, has alsc made transbcrder riti7.en activity possible, This 19 one of the positive facets 01 the glebalizanon 'trend. Indeed. nut only has the advance in inforrnatlon technology laid the lnfrastructure ffir capital mohility andintevmrfion:!.1i7.ed the operations of transnational cerporatinns, hut il nus. a]S(I created a means hy which ,;ruups. onee isolated and onfinod to their own naticnal causes, eemmunieate nnd sharp lnfnrrnation nn C'\~mn"lfm concerns. ,.\Side from ~ C'Chnojoro', the d~ffusitm of uuthnritj frnm the slates to rc~ionRl. inter-gm'emnHmtal and mul ilatf'rnl DO-flies h~IS ereated an eppurtunity for eitrzen ;:\r.til,·hy t(1 transcend lerritnriill Reogt~phy.

']'he failure of the Multilatcra1 Agreement on Inve strnent (M .. \.Ii) is an illustrative case, The trade und Investment rninisters or the Orgil.filiz..llhm r(lr ]kOtlOlnic Coop~raliol'1 and D~,elo'Pm~f]t (DECO) enurnries were secretly nllgotiatjng the MAl when global nivil ~oci~l}' activlsts "attaeked." 1"hrou!!.11 I'u, ernet activism, and tile meetings uf pal.'.Ii:un~nli:l n~:::;p!JmJi n,Ll, In the activism, civil ';.noddy \!;'a5 Dole hi dnfC<1t the MAl and discipline tht:' dull uf the wmld's riehesl nations (PerJM. 2000). Another example is the way national ptlli'Y f~"earm NGOs promote close coorrrination and cNLhangt! uf'l"e"senreh, 3.nuly5i~ 3l,d formulation or altemati\'C economic in~ti:~Jh!e." with rcgiona'~ Slid internatkmal alliances through the [nteruet to further strengthen the influence of po hey research OtI¥lmz.anuHS In trade negutiatinns, With h::t~hflologand multi-layered governanee offerin~ an opening for eh:.il seeioty to enordinate its actions- iuternatlonally, Philippine civil society has constantly enroll rIlged internatlnnal solidarity on globalissues, The- common contention is that civil ~.m::ifty c-an argue better i tl th e WTO as a ~WClU I). A critical rna ss at the gluhall~ ... ei eanno l he easily dis counted.

There' are some caveats to rhi. recommendanon though For instance. civil society groups. especially ~cft political blocS.' stress buildlng a global movement thai Is multi-cultural, inter-racial, 'and culturally sensitive. The emphasis comes from the-it sentiments and.

Resl·mndtng to the Cha1lE':h1ges of Clnhaliz_.:ltiolll liS

experiences on the lack of cultural understanding of some oH proposals advocated by prominent irrternational esO!>. U i$lP 6 cy

. , dth t th .. ._;. 1 b' I' - " . 0 •. ,en

argue . a ... e ~u-gjO a; izanma movement 15 hecmni:n,g largely

eompo~ed or middle class, urban N crthern group'S, whose convtctions do not necessarily concur with those in the Southern movements, .Some .esos ~.re more dominant than others, such that the weaker (mdudmg 'theu' concerns and advocacy) are ;sometimes "eo-opted' orcomprom lsed by the more influential ones. Scholars like Bello (zoot) explain these issues by sayin,g that Northern NGOs are focused on si ngl e issues, while thea r Sou them OOUD terparts are more eomprehensive iII their conearns, In add ltien to h avi ng greater resources foD" International action and policy engagements, the prmninenee ofNorthern NGOs may cloud and weaken the prospeets of Southern NGO!l influencjng global institutions (O'Brien er nl .• aeon).

Yet some NGO:; OltulP05 still believe that it i5 to their II.dvanta~e to build working relations with lnternatlenal civil society networks-« wh¢thet led hy or eornpnsed of S~)'IJ.\!~'h~rl:l er Northern NCOs. In flld, Philippine CSOs are members In nurnercus Intemutloual groups uf NGOs and POs dealing with varioua issues. POCllS 01'1 th G1Qba] South (FOCUS} o.ad mON Foundation. lae. are both members of Our World, Is Not For Sa~,e (OWI'Nf.'S), a loose grouping of nrgn,niza.tlrms. activists rI!ld socblJ1 movements fighting the current model of corporate ~lobnHZf.llion embedled in tho global l rarHng fiYSh:rtl, The Reality of Aid Projcd, in ~.;,!hit::hfDC ~s an seuvc Ilfflllatc. is the only n~ajot North/SolJth intel"llatl,ona] NGO initiative f~lCt1Sing on analysis and tubbyin,p; for poverty eradication pclieles and prac:tke~ in the international ah:l re!l:ime. Killj$aug Magbubt~kid rlyPllipi71us (KMP), the bitgge~t farmers' nrgauization in the country, prides itself ~f being II n~,embef of the weU-knOl'fl1 and innuential Vin Campesin(J Hntcrnational Peasant Movement),

esos call for a global cltiscrrs' organizattnn whh a eommon id~tltity and a unified position in every issue tha; goes beyond territorial boundaries, A~ Seattle or the MltI experienees have demonstrated • strength in numbers and 1!~ unity can challenge powerful Institutions like the WTO. Philippine ~ivil Srl,ciety, ho,\veyeli, warm; groups agai.nst adopting a North.ern agenda and allowing their advocacy to he framed by Northern NGOs in the name of solidarity,

PressU!l!'eP'oUtics,

The burden of civil .society as sel"\;j.ce/we!fare provider, guaJ:'dian and change-agent. in a polifical and economic environment increasingly transcending state. borders J1M posed greater challenges

for CSOs· to utnize strategic m"OPIe~ of preasure, Inclusion and lnfluenca By being "outside" state and market.eotttroletvllsuciety has been .ab1e tn tapereative and popular FOFm8 oIparti.cipatioD •. Ats sueh.jrrespective of whether the g:08J is to chang:e or defend seciety ora sod a lord er. social move me n ts depend on protests. and partieipatton to PUTSUB their geals, The~r rehanee on populn mobilizations to OOlJ:t~ political and econamic power is largely dlle to th ci r lack of directaccess to the holders of foraral power, such as the state. multilateral instlturiens or transnaticnal curpcraticns. Concerted actions are also a; way of conrpalling lhew·jnstit:utions to conforrn to the rules oftranspareney and accountability in decisi OHmaking and polic;r implementation,

However. for ei vll society to perfc rm its gu ard ian and ;!iJdl"ocat.j'" role it. must learn 'to permeate, access and en.gage the state {1f1,rui and LOpeZ~H)97J. TIle constrtutional and legal/policy envirenrnent h3S mandated the creation of venues and meeh anisms for eonsu I ta.t:ion and active im10l vement of civil 50dety in govcmB'I1~ a nd po licymaking .. With giobrui;w.tioo. tilnl.lgil, dvH society i!:; not limited bJ full! state, mohaHwtion haJs opened up different arenas for Ct\11 society ~ngag~m~n.t,. :sueh as the three BMl'lol1 Woodsin$tjwt tons (VIITO, WB Dmi~MF) aad the United Nations '(UN).

Civi1 illl)dr.:ty ·CI.fiP.(.VYS un lcgibmatc tools and tacties, which nUl,ge from dialogue and c:~n.litiiJn-bu.ild.ing 0.111 $ped~c prejects and policies, through nen-vlclent eonfromatlcns and prntests, ..... .hen i ndispensa b]e. Thesmdy fOIJ nd lh me ways c..s 05 Shhp~ and iote rvene in nffidlll] ded~i(Ih·n'laking processes nationally and globally, Orm: ls 1.he use of diroct aencn and :st.t.C~l enmpiOIign$ 8!' wh i de.~ for sCK;i a'il cllllllge, As:~cond W through roa'!.im.iiri.ng the use of form~l venues suehas (lngaging ;nstiluUons of po]iticaJ and E:CQ.nDm.i~ p.ovrClr. Finally. CS,Os exploit .info.rm.aJ m~ci'!anisms to gN the] r messages i;1(!rcISS .•

All of the gro ups inel uded In l he study still adhere to the enrrventienal ronns of protests, Mass aetions are he td in the streets. CSOs hold. rallies, dernonst rations .and lo.cal an d general strikes to shew strength and .apply pressure. Th.e usual ~pailiarnent in the streets" is still observed as the real site where power CQu1d be dis:sol ved. The "Battle in Seattle," however, proved the viability or new cnneepts of eamp.aigl'l protest strategies .. A1mo:st ~]1 of the org<l.nizaI.i~:ms in the study partjcipated in Seattle, l'rl1be:re th;ey used direct aetion and eivil d isob edienoe to disrupt the proceedings and mfluenee the agenda of

theW"T"O" Direct action as a tool of a campa~gTll is strongly .advoca~d "Oy Greenpe.a.ce which protests under the eredo of active I1o]]-vio[~nce

All j de. from an ti- W1'Op ro tes ts, social .movem e nts hav~ eh allenged 1iJJe gl~ bajageElda~sett]llg wn.ferences by- orga,.n.m.Dl; parallelor ru:t"".erElati¥e:c®nferene~s aJlongside: the official e:ven t, This is seen, ferlnstance, in. the annual g::rtllerhl.g of sQ-Ci~llD.ovemmts ruld anU~g1oba]ization activists in theWSF, which tallies place at the SBime time as fbe mooting ()if leading adherents and thinkers of corpoeate g1obwha_ti"on,. ApiElrt from representing a space. for moveme'l1I.tsw meet, oeMQrk., djs'Cu:sa and fJe.8h out alternatives to the dominant model, WSFis a! so a n occasion tol auneh protest demonstraHo.ns orn pressing issues.

~~owev.er, pa:raHd. ~I,l~nnti'ts are stm laFg~ly attended by JliE1r1:lclplilnts {yom industrialised countries (Ptanta, 20(1). One of the reasons forthe domiuanee of developed enuntrles ~:5 ~bBlt roaJCii.rity of the: au mmlt1il are held in Europe and that the partlcipa 1i'! ts are mostly people whoeen afford to trsveland who ,can ob'tainvisa~ (Phmta; K.uldof, 2002.). ThME;! €adOrSConstralEi those who are truly itffi~ded by globaliz.atkm f~bn1 partkipl!tin:[l!;.u.nd lending thelli' '!,Iokes. In addition, as pn,l.ntcd out cOTI!,rUer j p~u'a Uel summits are pepul a r because of mecUa hype end the presence of PQ1U:.ici1l peT'~onaUti~.s. out prote"sts and {l:g{lnda~iSe't:I;ing conferenees or shnihtf net~n-e are j ust es huge 1lif1.d even more pet~istent in the South .. nut this i snot to discount the pctentlal Clf~p,;U'a]]el summits . .AI!.. Pil1l1tl!. (2000: 189) has argued, ;'global civil society wan't:!1l ~0 'bd QS back into the POll bUt:' arena tbe· supta.natifma~pOWel' lIppropriatei!. by unl\ecouri'~ab~e jnter-govfH·ml1·efi~ar (fl'g,uli.~a.lIt}r!i s and 1.:mwed'Ul states ,lTuutin.a:tion.a1 ~r:ms and banks, teehnecrata and oftid:<lillii, which ~s visihly eserelsed

In places. UlI;e intern-atjonal snmmitr s ." .

.''''(jrm.o1 Vent1.es of InternctiOH

UUl[~ng the fouwud means of llnbbyin.g, civil snciety part.i:cip.ates in aU dNlloglles, summits and consultattcns with g:overnment and inte~ nation al erga n~zaJ l 10 ns on.\'V'TOa.g reerne 11~. ct vil sod~ty I partJ.cW<lrlytEa.de umons, peasants and fishe.r fqlks and indigenous peoples, engages all branches of governmen t, in critical ecopera tioa, jill its Dld~o ensure [bat the ba$! C sectors' perspectives and concerns are .ah"".Il.Ys integrated. in jhe administration's deeision-makfng precesses, Moreover. the decentraliaatton of power and. authority has given broader oppertualties for esos to ell.,ga:ge gOiVarnment. Far example, Philippine Assod~t]on for Intercultural Development (p AFID) and. 1l1breb.oo Pcundatlon, Inc. d]SCllSS with the National Commission on ][nrngenous. PJeoples. 8i!~d local gcverument units

devel 0 pmen l projects .i n ancestral 18 nd~. Philippine Peasa nt Institute (PPI) and Pamtlan.:':uTlg Kfhlsrrn fly mga SrJman.un.g ~\Jagsasaka (P.i\KIS:..o\i"\lA) sit on tbeTask Foree on \\.0 Agreement 011 .-\gricultm-e Renegotiations (TF-\,\~A:i\RJ of the Department of A.griculture .. The task force comprises representatives from government and vanens agricultural stakeholders' g,roU1JS. including the agro-lrrdustry .. and is mandated to formulate and recommend the Philippines' posltion ill the agricult L.I rul ngreemerrt renegetiatio n sin the GATT ·l!tVTO. At the global level. Greeupeace International has observer 'I]]" ccnsultative statu!' 1 n approximately 100 jnt~rgo v e II:l mental forums, It h as had Cnn t'illU at ive Calegory II with til ~ Eeon Om ic and Social Council of the Urdt~d N(Jtion~ since L988. Ti~breblw is also NOO in Special Consultative :;:tatu~ \~it" the same council in the UN.

ln thesarne IIU1nUCT, nationai policy research and/or network NOOs: influence the p[Jlky~ma.kill1g processes through research and analysis conveyed ill books and nther published works. Tht:~~ sponsor and participate in meetings, ennferences and dialogues at the national. re!!:ionn1 and international levels lfl \\ hkhthcy shape th~ processes and pulieles through research, 3:n3i}""!;i~ and formulation pf alternative eeonomie p,m.uHgm~. 1130N. or in« anee. has had cxperience wi t 11 lohh~'f n~ rh ru ~bgh research. -~).cUjJI! ors ~ nd ~'ol'igrC!'SmUIl come tfl U!'i .. md ask for jU~lificatiol1 nf certain hills," Skl:)'~ Hi:! dlreeter RO~ilrhJ Bella GU1.'m:'III\ (: . ..1)02), "RC'ct!nrly, we ari;! being asked to present uurrationale for our proposal t.u reverse the tnmd of liberalizatiem (If rice ~mportOition. ~

TIle parly-list svstern has also offered a gatewny rnr CSOs to take part in th .. legislatlve process, Two of the left pO]!1iCllI bln~ in ~hc study, .4:k baycman d .Btl yan M'UlICl, h a ve seals In the Ph I.U pprne Congr~s!l. tloth parties are members of the I louse S,petial Cummitt,~ on Glohallzatlo». JiLc; represeatatives of marginali7ell sectors, they ensure that the interests of the people whom t:lu~y uphold penetrate the leglslnture, They bold regular talks and join effort~ .. u'iln NGOs and POs in their attempt to guarantee Ih.lU the Congress supports the

people's agenda un globalization.. . ,

Nrmetheless, the processes of consultation anO represcntaneu should not be remantlciaed. AlLhough NGOs. sit hI GO-NGO consultative bodies, their voices nUi~ remain subordinate or marginal, I r:lI addition, in cases where CSOs 0<1.\'(: substanrlve partieipatien in. these bodies, lhl!ir recommendetions are not often F\iven much credence when it eornes lu policy formulation and lmplementatiouwhieh, in some instance , are shaped more dccisivelyhy p:lr-liculadst ie interests. The 1.994 G.-\.TI debates exemplify this point. Government consultations with affected sectors

Responding to the Challerrges of Globali2:;uinr, M

took place only when 'the GAIT- UR agreement was a] ready U. fimll form. This not only shows that. the govemment does not ~\I'e much regard to civil society concerns or recommendations, hut also indicates government's lack of tral'lsparenc'y in its conduct of trade negotiations. Moreovel;", the eommittee tasked to conducthea_rib~ on GAIT before the final vote provided <I report which concluded. that GAIT would b€! beneficial to the economy and. that the fe:a:rs of the interest groups were baseless CCajiual and Regalade, 1997). This assertion-after 26 publichearings with NGOs, POs, business groups and academics to present their positions {whid'l were mostly critical of the GATI')-dellirly suggests 'thatcitheli the C:Qnrmit1ee had alt:Bady decided on TIiS position even before the consultations or tlil.tt the business seeter or nee-liberal experts bad more muscle over the com rni tree than 'U,~ other groups,

[rifarrnali\Jlec/ln71i8ms

lllformal means of intervention are also a possih1e option for CSOs a t the n ational 'I evel, A!iide from rhe gOllJ us ohtai rLl;ld from ferrnal lobbyln • the use of "back-door" t:~'l:tics{' . can be an entry point for PO~ and NGOs to raise concerns and Influence policies, espedaU" when mnsultat.i:on and representations art' hu;kfllg. Most CSOIS. for i rlstancc. estubllsh r;QOd w(Hkin relsttcns wi t 11 pa rty-Iist representatlves ltke Akbay(Hl ~lI1.d Elayan MWUl. ~~tthermOTll. P .;\MAL.A.KAYA-NACFAn nlSif.l encourages forming t1IUanceswith individual members or Congress and S~tlate who show interest and raise eoneerns rm the difft!re.nl policies o:f the go\tt'rmnenl on ~lobalizal:iun.' In addincn, the media are eonsidered as ~I, point of leverage among CSQ;~. The v:gend,,}~setLing fu.n~tlnfl of ma·instooa:rn ruedia is a powerful too] notjustfor Info rma HUll but also for p' rs U ~ !lion and indoetrinatien. Us all-pervasive and overwhelming reach shapes a nd creatcs 'the type of public discourse en issuea such as gl.o·balization. As such, media. attention has Iargely determined the strategy employed by CSOs. Paid advertisements, public deelaratinns and press ecnferen ees are the usual approaeh es used by CS Os to popularize their issues and campaigns. Hewever, although the influence of the media agenda can be very significant. it alon does not decide the public agenda.

We sec that civil sudety's relations with the institutions of DoHtical and economic pm",.w:· take place at differentlevels, a clear indicator th.d. governance in the new or(]er has become multilevered. CSOs .'1110 are gl'<w-sroots 01' community-based in their approach may find it more practfceland effective to engage 1oC'~1

goV'erlmlent units, while: organizations with theresources .. capacity and poli l ieal eleut to tntervene with the pnhcy-mak.ing and implementing bodies may take advantage of opportunities, sueh as representation, debate and active advocacy work. Alternatively" CSOs. especially national policyresearch and/or network NC-.D5 and. issue-based/sectoral groups, may have more. room for engagement a nd infl uen ee in inst ilutions be)'crnd the state. Some uf these. s.re the regional regulation bodies such as Asra-Paciflc Eeonumie C@p·a:1·atioD.(APEC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (AS~1 or the rnultiletetal organizaticns themselves.

Tnt' political landscape for each level may vary, hut the dem ecratie space for partl eipetion :l nd i nvclve ment i n the globtllization prece .. '.ses: is expanding in relati v e terms. The quality of participation however needs further improvement. AllhougJ1 NGOs and POs do notr:ome up with unified political lIdion on r,lobahzaliofll the employment cfvarious tactics. from mass aetiems to lobbying and representatian, make them .1 critieal mass tel reckon with .. Mobilizations S}IOW organizetlon, strenath and cunerete rnanifust IljoOn of oppC'Sililm, wh~h~ formal eng{i~-ement of the stl;t,e. regionil] groupings and m'U~tH~'£er.lllIlstilutiuns dcmonstmres en,tical CO,nQ borat ion ant! wilfin • ness to make use of the processes uf consu 1 ta t 1011 an d represen l ati on. B IJ ~ gi 1,.'C n r h e fact rha I fo rrna t V('!'lIJ(!S ire more often than not slow andbureaucratie, aside rrom tnnrgj~lJIMzi.llg CSO pa rttcipation, CSO~ I.!.xpcd.i le l h ei r pa rt lc ip arlen in th issue through informal meehanisms. In practice, all three option.:; are usually pursued,

Bn ndi"g Knowtedge and f.Je:l;,'U tint;

Pcolde's Con dousness

Civll suciely is known to Iaiprove and increase understanding of different issues, ueh as globallzation, by being 3Jl. instrument for civic education, Nurnerous studies hy iedepearlent think-tank organlzaticns have influenced publie opinion and have shaped government policies and programs, Campaigns cannot be effedi\rdy ~ealized without proper research while adwl'llcy!:,> half-baked. ~f no't empty, without a finn grasp of the issues by affected sectors, ill th B case of globalize tlon, the object ives and methods of building knowledge and social consciousness vary among the types of organisancas in the study.

L~ft political hloes utjlize educetlon to expose the destruetfve sehcmes ~ n d negat h'e impa ct of programs and pel icies of globaliza.tion in the Philippines and .. vor+dwide, Th2Y atm to mainstream the ]SS1J e of globalization throng h "alternative

das!:>r?orn~M a~d "teach-Ins" during mass actions in the' streets and organized m1.dti-sectoral assemblies,

.Nation.al poHcy research and/or network U[17anil.atiollS in co~tta;st attempt to broaden po:Jicycnoices of NGO: and other ~j\'iI ~ocle~ grouP? by presenting a different dtr~c.tjoD in ]Qok~ng at the. Issue::;,. By d?m~ research on key aspects of globalization, such as trade hb,erallZatWD and its .. irn pact on ttl ePhilippine eecaomy, new perspeetrves are made available not just for civic education but as B 1 egi.Um~i1~on of certain positkHIs.aIld ana lyses taken by the critics of globahzatl'~Il. Als~, impact studies serve 8S a "wake-up eaU" and help substanttate claims made by cer'taingroups" whether advocates or deE[~u::t~r!i of globalization. As such, reseafcb/neh'Vork NGO~ dra~~heavl_Iy OIl tbea~deme as a venue to spread their re.sea:rch.ill additicn, thhtllHank organizatiQWl cany out massive lnfnrmanon campi,ugns on globalization through the usc of popular and interactive medul: ll~ ,expl~i~ng, th,e 'temmilogiCil.i advances made availabla by ~lob81,~zat~on,Cl\l]] ~o~,I'Bl}~. acto~fI can coordinate and popuJ8,T~7.e local studies on globaliaation with their counterparts all ewer the ~lo~e.~OCus, for tnstanea, promctcs altert1Hliveid.e;as, paradigms, msut~t~Qns,an.d global and:rillgionaJ arl"Ji\l1g' 'I11l;l:I\tS based on expanded ~q\~ahty,~ SUSUl.II1i'JJblhL}' and de~'1()~rOJ\c)' !U the l1:iltlnni.ll, regions] and m~t:rntlhO,~8] leve.[s. ~IS Phihppme p'rogrllm undertakes regular ru.~arch and mCtI'utorm.g of trade I3lgreements entered into by the gu~~mr.neol. ,poverty reduetiun stl·'Il.~l!"gie.s of the WB-!MF in the .~tllhppm€!s and .i-u1vJitizution of basic services and eritleal industries. 1 Q rtllJ,(:.h ~ hlrge nUfflbel" 0·£ csos and indhridufJ.ls, FOCUS d'ctro,hlcaHy puhlishe~ e-newsletters, Focus 011 the PMlfppiJl'es. Fac-us 011 Trade ~nd F'ocus on Se.curity. Network NCOa like PhHip:pine Deve.lopm~nt NG~!l fo]' lnternational Conl.:.erru: (PHTUNK) also f'l(c.hang.e lnfermaeion among their members and other networks l",'b,er,e. 'th~y areinvG~ved (~uch ;;t:!i Asi.<1 Caucus) to help membe!i ()rg<llllzat~on~ determine ~r. refine their own positions and allaJj'Ses of ~l,ohaliza:ti.on from which they will base their own agenda for uetlon.

like J!e~ poEt~C'a.l bloes • sectoral nrganll!lations attempt to educate t~e~r~onsytueficles and major stakeholders on the real meaning of globahzatlOn as obSe.rved through toe eyes of peasants fisher folks .... 'orkers, women, ind.ige.nous peo~'les and other groups affetted b~ the present system of globalization, Their approach is nat t~ contributs to 't~e theoretlcal discourse on globalization, On the ~n.trary,their fo~~~ is Ico~fiued. to th~ .i~:t.pact of globallzation on ~ elf own sectors. ~lth the mtention of ralsing greaterc.omscmusness, seeton .. J;] groups build .awarcness 011 the trade eceord=its decision-

g2 Phi.lippine Civil Soc~et v and the Glob.a~ll<lnon Dis(.:ourse

makil:lg processes Bud implementation-ilirough in-depth 1!'es!e:aN>CThru a n d poliC;' analyses, ed ueational dis.clk"'q81om, use of p-OpUlOil r media, andfact-ftndieg missions and ease studies. Adm,lionaily, they make usc of dlev,ehJpme!~t cd.ucationtlrrG1!tgh hosting·of :stlJl.dy/'e'".lCpow.re vi si ts, internat i on al exeha n gesand sponsoring lectares, or fihn~ shows on urgent issues ijf globelisation,

NGOs andPOs underthis type have ralsedeoacerns on the Iaek of understa ndiuga nd gnn .. ing perpl.i:t-x.i.l'Y of affe.cted seetors on 'tb.6 issue. Withinlliis s,ector" wb.il('! NGDs and. POE eentinue to argue OD. ViI h.al position andactiens to' ta ke,fue:i rrtm.stituentsremai n tndiffi:rjili'Ot because af uncertainty ov eve n sh e'er ig:rw ranee Qlf the cff-=:ct5 'of gknbBlb:;ation on their lives. According to Sonia SotQ {2(02) of KilO! '71·n.gin fl:amin ITwbaoa 1(;11:19 awareness ng mamr:HRuy~!I1 S~ glob(Jrist:l6yoR. Htndf nUt! maidugW!1g ang k,'rhi'nj[~ni1 nUll .S,1l glO'br:d~·5'a.:5!1,(m:. Sryempte parn ;S-R ml;.dal () progrestbo. wall'lrtg p'rubl,~uw ri'ahH rnuy prri,Glg-urn{ul'l ot nGlintindiha.n. iin:g ,pmb,remla (l y p~m;n q mll!lU m.:nvcra rI ng ardi n.cryol'1:g In amam[l ya rl nou-n, karlyaug kagurum(Jr~ at ktlhiropan «11 sauhf n9 m9a pr09.ronu:lUg pal1g-ejlumafniyo n9 gob.ve:rml rU:il UlIOy kinoiomuR sa 91(Jtw~l$a.~yon." [We' tlrl.nk that the awareness of ordiu.ll.i)' p!;l{lpl(! ~n s,lobah"t.atlon lS low, T'hey cannot relah~ their ])ove'rty ~o'globan'UlhOfiIL Of eourse, fot those who ~re "'lor,@, :awar~!lnd p:ro,gr-essive, they know bccau~~~he, {lr~ ed ucated. 'TIle probl'e'm is h@w we CI1 nmeke an ottci inary p.Cr:io.n und!Jtstflll1d th3il lib. or her :pav.erty ls due in lil'~e te lilij!ll!cotlon\l1.: programs and polieies or the gO'I£l'TI1T!enl. which are anc:h:~fed 'to iJol:ial.i:za lion]. PAf'[D' also sha res this view. "A nO' (,Iilg hnk ftO glabaUsosJjon "mbnil,(1R9 k~:bulta!lan? N~fif!tfmlih~u ba nita. n~ ktrya silc! uagMhirap (;1.1) dahil nUl!! \1\""0 no ~!agJlupti/ur-ap 10(.1 .lea,~ 1.lll [VVhal b the link of globalh.a'lion [(I their Ih .. e:Uhood'? Do the)' understandth at the reason fort.hciv povert}' b \\!'J10?) ... ,'1Iey VI' ou1d' rather point to b'H~ I'I'ltm,agement and ~t the worst, they say that it is

their fate to be poor] (D~ V~r<l. ·2002)- . .

Hence~ esos have taken initiatives to widen the debOlte .O~. glQba.1izati.on and make itasi nelusrve as posslble by tl:reseutt~ pragmatir iss ues .m a popular form at to reac~ the .g.rnS:.:~roots, The common medium. used by sectoral groups is stil] prtnt, where debates nn g!.CIb.a1i~.t!tion l-ssue,s are presented in t."omi:cs and primers using the Filipino .Iangllage or local v ernacular. S,EeIol<ll group's also; conductregular edw::.alion<ll dl scuss km.~ and .sem ina FS on thematic

issues. .

Bunding k!!J.owledg;~"'T'ld cou:sdou£cnes5 ont he .~siSue of

global ixation is corn plcmeiltary to the first two aerions ~8tl!~~ed. VlJhethcr the intention is 110 fuel debate {<I$l.n the case of tell pobtica]

blocs J, to exploreand give, ·birth to new paradigrna (".vhich national jJolley research and/or network NGOs e:miJ,'3!.rk on) or to educate constituents (as advocated by sectoralgroups), .edueation remains a crucial strategy of chi] s;ociely to dea tt,rith the different Issues posed by the global enviromnent,

.'\.L 'fE'RNATIVES TO G.LOBlUIZATION

mvil society Ol"garn~ations,esp~ci<tny social movements around the globe, have an echoing call that «another world is pesslble" amtds:t t;I n order that is threatening to propagate the ldeals ofneo-l lberel g! 0 balisatiou, The plea, or global social movements has resonated from the streets of Porto AJ'egl'e to Doha, FlQrence~ Johanneshurg, llyderabad ~ nd Wash ingtQJ."1 DC., The resistauea of eriti cal segraeats (1 f dvn society to eorporate globu.l.ization is not merd}, tt'lani~est,ed i n theemancipetiun Q:f rnarginaUz;ed sectors fremthe local to glohaL N,cderveen Pleterse (2.000) emphasiees the n eed fo r civil soeietyto £.0 b e~'ond the politic:;; of resistaace and protestaud mave frcrn crHlq:Qe to ccmsbuc:tklll, from:j;tt\l;Mle to tnm5fom1n:t!on, find from oppo,si.tion to proposition. He: fllrlh~r stt'~SSe-i the need for civil society to take a PtD~ct]v'e stance and make global reform prop~ls part: of i L.5agen da,

The collapse of the S~mtn~WTO Mini'lt~ri811lnd thill armua) gathedngof soelal and ~poll:th::~.~ movements in Porto AJcgre and MumhlJi.i have 'been e~)lrele:ill:]ly em\struedas ill. show of tcrme nru:l clamor, ('..ritiCJ3 h~ve' been maligning the actions: of civil society e rS~llij'.a t:ions, sJ}'ln:g that their view~spti n g. fl'on'1 ignonuH;:e and ever-interpretation of holfitedcCl~es where the nec-Hberal paradigm has faih~d.St<'Lw[Jc:h p~rO'PQnen~s (if glo bll.lizuion h6ve been ch.a,llengi.ng civil s.ooiety to go. beyond. protest acticns and oJiel' a.u a.liemative bl the prell:ent ~.sterll. But th~ old ilaying tkml '!{m~pty cans produce ~ lot of noise" does not bold true fer chil society, as it has shown both anew form of 01'plO:5 i.tional pelitics a ad debu nked some 'Of the' cherished myths of neo-Hheralisn1,. But what is the alternative offered hy civil sllJciety i.D. its pursuit of a more humane g,tobal order?

in addition to til sagreeing a bou t .defiuitioua, poHc;y areas and actions, CSOs have al .. m taken different courses to a more equitable fu ture, The thecretleal and eonceptual foundaticns of g]o[IOlJiza:tio.n poi [It to several p.olicy proposals wh iell .<1.[1 tj-'giClbaIizatl onaetlvtsts have long been prcmoting . Scholte (2002) e."pl:dns, r,;,ro ry-p&.<; of preposition; rftf()rmi$~ which p~;l"c~dt;;; that capitalism does bring fortheconom[,(l prosperity but Ee:qU.1.n::s properly crafted and implemented pu blie policies; and, radicalism, which. seeks tor) address deeper structural ca uses of the ills of gl ob:a Iizarion.

The recemsnendations of Philippine civfl :spci.ety.iliough, cannot be reduced and categork.(dlj' labeled accordiug to the abovementio ned policy courses, Also, the advocaeres of civil society do not necessarily make a Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) style 01 econcmic and political agenda. The basis of them prapoga1~. We r a Il, st ems from their understending of g:lobaHzati()n and what U'l:ey pe];l~ei'l'e Ill> problem areas tbat need .to be-addressed. This part of the chapter surveys the different advocac:ie:s, altematises and visions of civil society to the Pbilippine.':L Whether the respcndents are s~mingly reforrnist or radical ill their approaches 'their proposals cannot be simply isolated and branded as sllcl1. RatnB'r their framework of ana1ysi5 of ke;r ptJH~ Me<J,'), an:un.Ung to their own cemprehe nsien (ide6h)gi.caJ or pragm at l cJ, ..:ISO iseussed in the previous chapters. has more to do 'Ilo-lth the advocacy th!lll follows"

lI\I'hUe the responses 'l'i'~re multi-faceted, the 5tlJdy \1,'IDii <lb]cm t1a~siJy then. in re.lalion '10 thelevel of poligr reforms and to Ellli! functiarrs ofgoverning lnstitutiens, One ls on ~dvfJCa~~ to modifJ the present national pclieies of tht;: govern mt'fll in relation to gl 0 bu1i1.~1 tiou. This tJPu 1Qg_\" 1S fu rther ea t ego rll'.1!d into' fiscal, and monetary, industry. trade, food production, laber, culture aDd environment policies. Io eonaeetien with these the role of tb.o PhiHppinl(! government is beh~s fUlld~menwHy questioned. Thus there have been eilorts to :Jiher the govem:JnC1: funcrlon of ~he. state, urgi.ng reforms not just or lts policies but also of Its!iesponsibUit)· ·~o its eiti zen S . Moving, u p to 'HIQt her tie r, lh~ re is an O"I..rcran:hi:l1& demand to examtne Ihe role of regi-c:msl blQC5 and assoniatiens. Do t hey .. I: till matter in :;;I1\10r1cl polilt~ now 00i ng red ~fin nd and ]U'a~li.o~ by tb£!~Y1'O or the IMF - WB?' .& R "'~J1Ut' fe r eeonumic c(1.t.lpmatio~, h.ow ean tb~"" be further exploited? i"'U rther, C$O~ have also made recom m endations to add ress polide"" of 'the U-1 ulrilateral eeoncmle iB stitu nons. speei neil Uy 10 contest: thepower of thethree instruments of globaJ:hanoD. in shaping policies of nation-states.

~c'Vi.C'i.ri:n:g and/or l'ransfor ~ling .r,~ anuual P.o1lides The Philippines has norbeen .,b]e to, reap the benefits-of globaHZ<l!'l:io~ duete its structural dependence a nd I.aek (If domest lcpol icy capacity; Compouaded by awe .. u.. socia! Infrastracture and gross eeon OMtC rrrismanagemenr. it was in a "leak pcsition 10 take on the challenges M g! 0 hal iza non to begin lI'iIi:th. It is.therefore not surprisi n.g that esos have put the transformatien ·(jf national policies On top uf their ii.st (:If reforms. Ta hle 12 su mmarizes the policy choices promoted by CSOs.

Table 12

PiI'O'PQsais Q!f ,e Ivil SO(liety 01'1 NiationElI Poll!cle'S

.'5C1t~llI~ !,f_l;o:ry

Lt.tI·.pgli~I!;!Ii1 Eiiloea~ "Ad;,.Ot:i~., ~r Lj;I; fOlfcrm

.I<~ ii".!e~.t I~~ dlJW~

• ~l'i$litu~ ""ll1L?! oorrtro!'8

.' Pt<1;XJ~e ~~II.,., IlI:i!l~aan wlll'1 jjrQI~~ !~USlrl"B

. a. Rop·!ill~~~·!i!r!j·UH8 m~j:'1In~lIl1~ ilIII m~gi'! 0= p,,~~tJo:ir,I~t oonlt~B

'!!! P;!1~wri' lQifir-I~f!i'j' tnnLl ro~ll! '.' T~""_"~!'iCIjllliHl t!lJI1)! ~JI{I WlO ,,~~~ nul ~,~rIltiiLll~'" Ult(l1lii,'J1e phi"

1'1 nlidroon i'(III!!l ""Clif'li~

II·-~~~~Iln!rovthM ill~ Doi"e ~ ~!f'l'I.GlINl !LO ·Ri;<VI~I!"1dI~ ch!t.iil"'" h. 1I'!i~!.l!I1Df Ca;io .Rt,,~..,._

~~iM=!II ..i(l<!$.o

• F"<It In J'fa~ pll!Ig'_ ~ ~p~

.!.~ ibt e hWlll' ""'.

I" Upijoi~ me UN ~fIM M~u;sj~_ CIt:B!!~~

.~~ .. ~"~~

________________ ~.~lg~9~~ ___

1·I"d~ ~b;o;oJ-==

_~11i>!!I'It _ rullAr.i

~w,iinu.., ~~~t~Fad!om .1~_1i1e ~~._ .• " _,N~~Ml~·~

I- Btt)ni.ln~ .por(ln~i!!l ~r!ld9 IT'bDU!I'It:~ II,,~ La d"~h<l<ln~~ <71 ""IJ'I'W~!n:WI!!I·!'I'1~ Ir ...... ":IIi .... ~d~!ij~ ~~!>I;I~.,

• R.~'Ii!i,rlB~' iJl.e ~~roiJO! tl1. ~~In!~[...., .f~~o<I.Ol~

• W .. k o;>~1 rnvI"~II~ ~n~ltl 'r,1Id1li Mil ~a~~~ I~r ~<o;Il~..J~¥ ~NI ;nrortrl.[l~on - 1'1\IlI~I'!o]d1r ~ jJ<i){lr~!11 P\;;il ".,~~. ~J~liRl ~glf(j~!IU\i1lml'.~ Ilf nlgl'

.~I~""~dlld flIlE'(IWf,1.t.

I. O(aJXli:li!l iJnt.lrQl!9il.fi~ milli!~~~¥1J!

______________ ~~~~~~Og~~ ~~---------

;"J;i{I'(!)!tIi~_'I!1I"W!llmjl!!r,11I',I .F~jj~!il~

"_'b~IDlo;lf$.1' I~'{;il ",I' 1'!01 .. ",,\oIII> IfYI iltI(mYII

'. li'I~1I1lil., ~.,rj)!'f ,i1.~11I. I~~

"p~.J::Io,j~,"'" ~iJ,q_a<._f4oII r"r~

'.~~'~"fIi' IIj!l~ n",. <of rl!!'IfIi)I, Inonlil!ll~ ~ =~f~io,j"", .

.' ({II ... bIid, Iti rJ'iiI <>=III_"""" Iho ~ruI oI1eiOO '~~~J!!Ij

nU]!.

.lmtl!l~~Il\lIIh~~ (}!IT!8SL~cli. .v.:j 1~~Blli:'1~QlJ;OCoI',.,._ Ln~Ii~~

"~;ll.bIIGh ~ "'-.a.M 1_~1:i~·1~ .Q_~'"~Or1:!,c 2~ (00 Yoo. f:.~). '.'\::II,.... .. , ~~J!1l'!'I~,

I

J

The recommendations ef'Philippine ~~vil :Slociety,1thoug;ll,. eannot be reduced and categorically labeled ;'I!£'c'Ordi ng to 'the alm~remenfiened policyeoursea, "o\1so. the advceaeies of civil society do not n.'El>CBsslllr:lly make 1l1ltledil.l.m Term Philippine Development .P'ia:n (M'I'PDP) style M economic and P oHtical :ageIHJ8_ The basis of tlleir pm posal S, 11 tle r 091111 stems from their understan ding; of glo balillltiQ~ all d what they pe:rceh'e as preblem ,~1> that need tn be add.re._~ed. This part. of the chapter surveys the diliel:"eo t ad.v,lJea.des"aitemattil.·es and visions of dvll society in the Phfll ppines. "Vheth~T th~ respondents are seemingly reformist Of radical in their approaches their proposals cannot b-e simp1:y isolated and branded as suell. Rather their framework of analysis of key pollcy areas aecording kI their own comprehension (ideologieaJ or pragm.atit;J, as discussed In Ilfl e preeions ~h apte rs, has more. to dr.l ... i th th~ advucaq' 'that fellows.

\'VhH~Ull:!res]KIn.'ie4> were multi-faceted, the study V>-:;Jfi ableto das...'lify tharn in relation to the level of polky r.:foi11tls and to the flmctim:H" of~,ovl:mjng in::;titu.ti on s, 'One is on ,ad V(ic.uq to modify the pre::sent nallon~1 policies of th~ gov'e'rnml;1nt in relation to globallzation-. This typolog}' is fl,1rthN tatcgori~,intofisrol and monetary, industry, trade. food production, L~lbor" eulture and environment pgncie::;.In connection 'I'I'-ith theae fhe roll: of the PhiUIJpinc government is being fundamentalh' qnestloned, Thus there have been efferts to <liter the .'it{)Vlllrn:lrlC€:' f1J action of the S'El1Ite,. urgIng reforms not just of i ts polictes bu t. a.1<:;o of ~ ts responsibility til:! tts c~li aen s. MCNi ng up h1 a n nth er l ler, th ere ill ~ n ove nlfehin.,s: dcm~fld to esamine the role of ,r~o'n.lll bloe.s and DU20datlol'lS. 0'0 th~y sun matter ina '\!,'odd polltles DOW heingred~5n~idandprncUcitld by [ll(!- 'V!rrO or tbe 1M F - \,\ • .B? .'\::' a venue [or eeenornle cO(lpen:ltign, how can 'they be rmlher e,.l(plmted? FUrther. CSOs have also mad~ reeommendariona 'to address po]kie.s of the multilateral eccnemle institutions, specificallyto contest the-power of the threeinstrumems of globalization in shaping policies of natiea-states.

Re",,~e\.m,g an.d/or T]":ansfonnhl~ N~t:io,IiIal Polides The Philippine;"; has nat been able to. reap the benefi ts of glob;iliz.l [ion due to its srruetural dependence and la ek (If dow estic pu1 icycapad~. Compounded b~' a weak sociai infrastrueture and gross econOJnfc mismanagement, it was in a: weak position to take em the ehfl.~,enges of gl 0 bsliaation to begin with, n is thereforenor snrprisiugthat CSOs have put thetransformat io n of natienal po lid es en top IJ f l hei rl lst of reforms. Table 12: summarizes the polieycnoiees promoted by (,SOg,

lliblllt2

PIN) p08:!ls '\t' 'Civil SO(liety 01'1 NationElI PllJI!cl~:

j

".~.~ J -::_j-

I- 1lt~~1.11i~ .porrm~i;jl ~r..;l9 ,f'ti~noo Il,,~ l>!i ~"f)t'lfltIOJn~~ ii'1 ~~ !niI'JlII ~~'irlJ\' y:j'!, .... ~d~ljj~ O~(II;Irl.,

.ll)lIli!~IB~U Ihtr ~~r>il<! 'D'!' ~~~;:;U...., ,~ ..... ffli>'I~l~

• ·w",~ >;,~I rno;J~~II\1 ~nl!I~Bj ~r,1!d1li M{I I>.d!a"li~ f~j ~ocl1l'1..J'OIl¥ ANi

",1o!in!)i!Qn •

• !rn(;f~(1IJo]d1t 0 1l"){lfn!'ll.~1 ",,~~. wJ~liR1 ~glf(jQ'!IU\riJnOi1~ ,;of nlgf'

~jliufl'.~h.d ,_jwf.l't.

I. Op~~~ ~,'f,,"'I!M .• !Iid gwr~fI.iji~~

__________ ~ ~, !lb~J~a ~ __

i·!:).u'(i)l!:\i"_'()jII1~IiJjUfOj'!!Qno;! ,,~~ jj~ !il~~

•• iI:.~iDl!iiro;~lj,'Wil il!',!!!1 .. ""...w.._ ~t1~

'. li'I~1Iwl", ~~I'{II'f 1l~la 1~1!VIt

"F'~:I!,j~,~ i!9'LQyiiyfGo _ ~~rJOli

r"'flfi11!:J

.,.~~'~ ffif """"'i' nto\. <'.iI r.!!'IfIijI,.ln ~nLltl~ ~ =~f""'fl1Il .

I"~:~~~~

"~"'"'"~~ _I niJl]l~

1.~~Io!ip_-

I 'linlfIQ::I16n ilill 'D«e Li!io!II' ~!to'I!.dlNo fLO .~~f!oIld Il'I1mdi.o >fhlt.iilMIlI 'iI>~ '-"!Dr Cai!Io .R6'~_ ~~ill~5f!iJI!II o;I~:wI

• p."t IJII !'f.3~ ~1!10;;1'- ~ IiI:Ip~~

.!,i.cIbb)! j,aJ a 1I",1'I'lI, ""'.

I 'U.·~~:~ .. ' U .. N.~ .. ~ M~fCIIj~~

Cli\m'i!;~ .R~~.~~1lr I"hIl>WlM 1191'l1119'~ lio'

______________ ~~l~~9~~ __

J .. :..~."gge~ ~.in ~.if>" ~ .... .s:J\ .. ru:;~

~e,-abp'T"""t ~f'" .1~·!IDa~~ i'~""'%'1l!.Mm.~

·,p~~n~KII.,., 1I1:I!!_~an Wlll'i lil'Q1QebJd 1~~~ir1"'9

. a. R!;.!i1iro;rom ~P.o;j·YU8·f~~j:';ln~!IlI~ ~ ru.1~c ~ pMIJI:1>i:;<,i~t $;>;Jitglg

"!! !fllln!!wfi (!1j]~~M' M.nni:l rotorl!! '.' 'F~~-"~!>CI)IIIi'tl f!lJll)1 ~11(1 WIG

• ~II~ ~lJi ~ 'oi/OlrrlUul.\l'J, ijIt(l1l\'1l~ [JI~'i jQ ~,j~r""L fi.)II!!j t.(IC~irl!y .

----~I----------------

.lrr~l!!gll!J~ Iim.~ ~m8i!IL"~.....:I lFr_g 11!rl~:Qf pouj'''Y...-.::I Lr,!j~li~

,,~~fl~ EU1 IiI:.y"aM IEAllnii!lo'!Q O}~"" ~Qp~ 1~l!nt I:)-'d~ ~ ",u .. ·'tIl~~Vcl,"'."", ~~hl1l1Y.>'

1

J

96 Phi I! ppi n e Civi I Sa6 ely;;! 00 the G low ~l zadol'l D iscou 'W

Fiscrdan.d monetary PQli:cy

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 has situated the re-examination and amendment of fiscal and. monetary policies on the main agenda of CSOs, The main argument is that the govemment is 'too fixated on speculative investment. Rather than encouraging long-term investment to generate revenue and emp]oyment. the gcvernment is, providing too many ineenttves to soorHe-nIl "~JOrt:llilJli[l capita]. such as tax br-eaks and repatri ati an m capital, which are Dot beneficial to the eountry's economy. As a result. the eeuntry has become. vulnerable to the vCllati11:ty of inbel1'lationalfin.<mcial markets and has alrncst no instrurnents '(0 restrain fue herd-like bffiavior oHickle investors. In response, CSOs propose to Institute capital controls and encoure,ge investment ininfrastrucnrre and prnduetive capncity instead mthe kind of:s.pe£"u_l ado D ~ssoc-iated: with a '"bubble" economy. !BON alsorecnmmends the establishment of 131. nationalized banking system whc .. e tbe banksare more in control of capital eoming in and out ofthe economy. In such B. walT, v,ahmblc resourees ere invcs'ted in the n atic n Il!i economy,

Furthermore, CSOs' cemprehensbe proposals on 'tax reform refl~c.t their eXJlSperntion !With tile gevernrnene's perpetual dilemma on budgl!t deficits and its lack of wherewi thai to suppert a nd prioritize programs and pollcles Ke~red tou'ards economic development and social services, Akbciyal1 and AER support tax reform not just as a 'I'edistributiv,e measure but. also 1.0 pro\'ide more revenue for tbe gcve'rnment to carry out Imports m development goals, AER spcdfi.caUlf notes t,a:.: adnllni$:lrntIon measures such as efforts to combat tax evasion I1Dd to Introduce other tases, and ensure lhat Lh est are prog,ressfw~ asi mpertant reforms thl!. t: shoul d be undertaken instentaneeusly, FDC's 'G,cnernl Ecltnomic' Development .Agenda 'or Platform lncl udes the estabUshmellt ,of a progressi ve taxation system wbicl'l lays but cone rete a reas or progriiiITlS nf Im p I em en tat'ion. Th ese tnel ude tax incentives and dislneee tlve.... tu prcmote Kociali and development goals, improvement of goverument's non-tax l"eVen ueperfnrmanee particularly to tap other possible SOLWces of government's non-tax revenues. and restructuring of tax and ~tlJli6 systems to support food security goals (FDC. 2000).

Industria I pDlicy

Industrial policy remains dependent on foreign trade, according to most esos, As a result theeeenemie downturn of major trading partners such as the Unired Statesand Japan has severe 'implica.tioiIlS on tha Philippine industries' capacity to achieve 11 tong-term strategy for growth. Stkking to a policy whiehties the economy to exports

and foreign investments, when neither i'-,:; forthcoming, is net helping the already sluggish economy. 11'1 this context, CSOs have been pushing, for industrial development that is sustainahle and appropriate to the Pl':dUppineH' needs, Akbaycm proposes a strategy fcr-Industrialiaation based on the use of resonrcesthst the country has in relative abundance as well as its perceivedcomparative advantage. lt also highlights the rural focus of industrial polk")' to reduce poverty in the countryside, Moreover, .Akbayan believes that Qtbe core of what is known as industrial policy is the protection of infant industries Wltil they are able to compete in a competitive domestlc market <Iud art! ahle to establish fu-m loctholdsiu foreign markets."! In order to .spur production at thl;l Icca] level and tap alternative markets, Kasaria"I-K,alnYClrw (SAR]LAYA) also favors the p'rovision of investme n l opti 0 nsto small and rnedi urn enterprises, such as miem-finance and rnicrc-baeed market systems, For their part" Boyan M'lmo and !BON advocate "national industrializatlen" lhaL builds a modern and di\'ers,itled. economy 'With at! independeet and eco,lcgkaUy frl~ndl:v teclmoh1gical b~U:H!. To break the sYcstcm (]If industrialization that Is dependent on fQl'dgn trade, lhey also recommend lin end tOI privatizmg industries needed for nalional ~ndustrl.alb,ntif.iin such as steel and eernent,

At the firm level, <ilthuugh uot eXII,dly il "peliey" that merits government menltoring or implernent<ltl<.m but more of i.'t husinesa tnitiative, Foundation for ECm'IQmic Freedom (FEf) recoramends eerpcrate S;Ocialrespon.'iihility (CSR) for companies with I'egard to market failures and externalities such as pcllution, safety lind health standards, work condi~iDnSlI as well as the eonditions and prospects of dlf~ eoremunities 'tb~yaffett 'f11.C fH'tlcl ice of CS R sh ould he pu r~ly voluntary. No mechanism is in place ~o actually compel businesses .. to adopt such system, ·$~)me nonprofit crganieations, like the Syner,gos lnsti.tute, h<l\:'e im:titutf;d programs to form any recognize and honor companies ror outstanding aud Innovative products, services, projects. and progl"aIllS which demonstrate the company's leadership, s,~nterUy arid on-going commitment in meorporating ethical. values. eompllanee with legal requirements, and respect for indlviduals, eomrnunities and the environment lnto the way they do business. The UN, through the Global Compact. has also initiated ways for crrrpomtiolls to cam ply with the CompHet's socia l standards in. human rights, labor and environment through reward and recognition of their efforts."

Trl!1rie pt;)licy

csos have kmgveeogIllz-ed. that the outwerd-looki .. g trade po.li,{',} M the g~)'\!1Hmm:ent :rnayreap benefitsi n the sunrt run but Dilly e~~<!!l1:r w~aken 'II~-;thout file proper econmmc and ~Htjc31 ililfrnstrudJl:mm. As a result, CSOshave long been eL!oom'agl ng the gove<rnment te revileW tills policy even before the c(mD;t:r)r'sa~if.n~~? th:.eVftO. From import-subsUmtion to expo~-O~Ie:l1ted ,,1llIdustnillj~.atumr Ute. PhUippiD e eeonomyhas lagged. behind Illl trad 1 ~g competi.~rs, VIIWlIh the present t:rao]og systemlllnd a reg,111atory_ ~oo,Y that 'I'!.'ild~·t~ much power in the ghJhal trad e regime. the PlinLippl nes sland~ to IO~i!

more th an it ba.[ga:in ad fur. _

Groupslif<ie Bayan MU.HC and m(>N a~,,~ate the i'em:~d:u~ilJn an d respon.s~b]e use of ill. ra nse of protection 1St CfJ n~rois ~ wii'Il:, i. rupert regula ti 0 n a nd credit .:!>u pport for 11:;11:: a 1 m cl us tries, lite: unbridled ,;i:n.d agre:ssh1l! lfberalisaticn of the past SEvt:R )~i'5 h~s u nd erm ined rna IJV ind '\:1st ri cst h at were st'rusgi ing to ho.ru;t til eC~~Dm'!l. In their'vj<ew, prcteetionisrn is tht! only gt~~mntc!Eld way to develop domestlc ~ nd~lS~TY. Sy CrH]~r'!,st, ~kb(1yr:n1 ]mlpO~~ seleetivc liber~Ii1.a'lim:'l wIth proteet:ed industries chosen On tbe baais of II, !ons,~lel1Tl :stmtegy lor industn[]li7..shon. Pmt~eliOh sbpuh1. he t 11111. 1 ted to a speci fi(: n UfrI boer ,of ye~ U;$ II nd will be nn~ated on ~bf basis of strict pe riorman ee tm·g~lts.. p'De also prcrlmoles the ;a.(lopM I! of 11 demccrutir trade po] i,cy aimed at d~\·~t1)ring dom~~tlt productivity, ensuring food. sc~udty, providing fnr ~~llwrul em:p\.o.ym~nt for Ftliptnos. mrr:dmizUl,g the ~lrength of ~hc PhdlIlJI~m:. econotl'ly in glQbalLrade, :iucl dte~relo,pmlil muhL.My beneficial

(tc,:onomic l'e!.ations.htps (Poe. .2000 l.

'The advoC;.i:'Jcy of sectoral groups, on the oilier band, j~ HMile-d

lO their own areas of oo:n~m, For example, Limcom a M uU.iP'lKP~ Ccmperath'e (UMCD.MA) pressures the geverrrment to (;tea~:e -a UIiS.~ force. th<l1t w.i:H investigate t be 5mugg1i n:g of mea~ plrQf,;1u~t:s TotO llb~ country, illpartftonl its ealt to increase the tiltnff on. poultr)' a~

1 ivestnck I.lS an 3!!ti~d:U[[1ping measure. DeuliOkra r.ikong l~dag,b.r.d,utld ~lg StJltm1 Kuda.rat (ORt'\!I.ASKtn recern mends the esl<!.bl i;5hm~~ of an alternative' local trading sy:rt.em oorn:~(lserl of Iecal ~Ornmtl~l'tn.:. which wonld. ensure the proruunnn (If 10c&1 prod111:!I;I,

p A1yLoI\L.A UY A - N ACF AR has alsotaken actions to opp age E._~~ti!;'(; Order 254'!l or lh.e Early Voh.!n{ary S[!!~or Llheralizatlen. o~e~ n~cmnmendah(ms (l1'l. trade are the regulation of the e.1If{lort Of ell::il:sct.i ve raw rna terials, the- developme [11 t of co m f)eUtiVoEl1ffS$ (l h1gh value-added praduC:13 and the favorable exchange of ~liI.ay nnd infont'latkm """1 th other countries,

FOod j(Nuduction una agra'don policy

,'heratiQnale fur agriculture and fisheries ln U1~ ~15.e of globalization h~S moved from loeal preduction for the domestic market to a prernium OD gl.Clbalm.aik~t I'Icee.ss_Eve1)before the AoA there e1cisted a trend towards agricultural liberalization. 81 nee til e 19805. there has been a cancerted tendency to slQ",'ly decrease support for domestic agriculture and reduce ta..riffs- of imported agrieultm ... a.I nrodu'Ots. CSO:s~ especially peasant organization'S. have been verv ~dtieal of and doubtfuk ubeut the premises of agricultural libenilization .. Above all, for the. farmers of de\'elCl~ping countries .agr1C111m.re is netjustan economic aetivity, It]S also ~ way of life. By s ubrn itting agr[c:u1ture' to the 'cQnrr-oi of m ul tina tional compan i es II m1 theY\70, small fa rm ers lose nat only the i r scurces of income but l he ba SiH 'furtlJeir 1!1!;x:istence,

Tltieproposab of CS01S em the agrieu] tural pollev of the g(l;\I~rnroellt derive from 'the qtltllms m.i::lool tht!. very tou:n&'ltlOI1S of ~Iobal foe d production. There ~~ n oommon ern I in Philippi ne civi I soeiety to take "agriculture 01,.lt of the mO~or ~wro out of ap1culture. ~PRRl11believe1l thall global agrlculturel trsde functions as an agent ofleadinilj 'ITH]Itimlti<:ma] CMp0l'a;lio,ns like C~tgin~Ptlrj'na IJ.nd Mons~nt'O .. PP'I terms the qua.ntit<Ltivie rsstrietiens on rice til'! porta lion as lrs "last frontier" ngnhHlt npid agrteulturat Iiberalizatiou (Bernabe, 2.(02), By ~urrCnd~I'ifig bilSic: agncul:lural c mp.~ to l he ro:tc:s O! the AoA, sue h as l'eductJ.on of l~t rictilll1 s, not only 1::; ~ke livelihood of small farmers ~:rru:!:m~ered but '~ood ::;(lcUrity is Jcopardi7'led as well, CiH::-:fl'l,S AUi~D ce for Consumer Prctecricn (CAtP) also adve cates g~U ing ~~grlL:ultur~ ~lut of the ~nde regi me, arguing that consumers' access to more affordableagricu.ltul""BI1 l':r}m mod ities s:hould. net bethe foundation of its inelu sien in the wro ~g re C meats,

In additIon, peasant groups {PP[,PAKISA1'lo'tA and Mindanao Rura~ Congr~sJ and PRRM ~obby far safety nets for fanners-to give them hudget ano~BtiQ.n in a:p.tici.]lation of erepfailures (h,u result from seasonal changes and inseet attacks. 'fh(lre is also ,11 propnsa] to abrlllH.lon relianee on farming techniques that are damaging to the peop I e and the en v] ronmentand to p romet e susta til able, ecological agrir::t!.lture that emphasizes farrnmg according to 'the Cttt;ladty of lJat U re and the use of less, external inputs" To stren.gtheu capacities Of fa:rmers.and. d.evetop naUve fanning methods, DEM}\SKU supports the estabEshment of alternative peasant 'agricultural institution.s 0[" farm field schools, In the fisheries sector, Sen.tr.a 5lCl 1kmn.fnlad ng Ka.rutubQI1~ Aghtlm ot 1"'ekn6iohf!M {SI.KA11 asks the goy€rnment

to strengthen municipal fiShing threugh the Fisheries and Aquatic. Resource Managem,ent Couneil. It supports the devel'opment 'of' fisheries at the subsistence level.

es:os also express exasperation over the lcng-drawn-nut ~ reform program of the go,yernment which has contributed to the low volume of production ill a,gncult.ure. Akoo!,Wl im:ludes land reform In. its economic p~.atfonn 'c.Olltendiingiliat it is n-ece.ssmy not, jWitfc.r scclsl justice but a.I:oo as a prerequisite to the modernizatio:q i!l"f Philippine agrienltuse, Modernization, after ali, cannot take p!;ace v.itb tenancy, SuppOrting this need for land redistribution, ~yan Munl.1 maintains that genuine a,&Tarianreiorm y,in unleasa fue potential ofthe peasantl:!{ who constitute: the. majority of the Filipino people. Therefore, the mOllupoiy of]anded elites over rural etlOflQllilh: and political power needs to be dismantled,

I,abu!'" po.Jic.y

l..a.bor u~ ions struglt:~o eushinn the impact of trade Uibem!~ti0fi by pushing fur reforms in national lahQr policies. How,evel'.m SG"mt': ('...t.Ue5, trade uaiens I.obby globalimt:itutions d.irOOtl)' and de:mand for the inoorporation ofthe Core Laboy Standards ohile lnternationllil Labor Or~a.nization (lLO) in the rnultilsaeral Lrad • 3gP!etnen'm. APt urges the goverament 'tprtMew and int:oouo eba~gesin the. ~f Code, with the end ill. view of S'lIengiliemng workers and lLn.de u~ n rights. includln the removal of all obsta des to trade 1ilP10D fDnllatlon. granting or multiple forms of workers' oryn~tiOll, and develepment (If \lliIr:~OU;S modes of bal'GtlIininf;,. This rnti,an . .aJe_f0r amending ~e Laoor Cod~ is in stark enntrast to the stntoo objedliYeS of the state .and bLUihu.'58,. \l\Ihllc 'i:bq;; governme.n'l and c_p ]oyetS''$e"e the eha ~ge in the Code as II necessity, 'they see it front a d15l2retra vnnw,ge point .Essentially, it is fum:' the insli.tutionaliuttioi[t ?"f. labor flexibility in the country. KMU sees national labor pohClIfS' liS prohibitive and restrictive SO 'lh~t government can oon:tto~ ~~ 10. the workp,lace. Tae unwritten "an strike. no ~QCk01rt po~C) s,ignaUs a further diminution of trade union :dgbts in. favor of ClPltti.t EMP' encourages labor unions to hl!Jllly meir positieus in or_der to lobby for a living wage. A rni~imum: .... 'age policy isn.0tt S~Cli!'IIil ~: alleviate thep~Vt'!l1y of exploited workers. Worse. vinlations Q~ I mhu.mum 'wage ar'e wid.espread, as multmational co.rpotattie:Ci eoutinue to exercise escluslve prerogative en .. vages. _

To ease the adverse effe~tl; ofcapital flight and business~; wrougbt by globalization., sueh as retrenchmeat, TUGP ~~ . putting in place pr~m~ to b.~P workers, su~ ~s s~ mIll~~ The issue, TUCP e..xpls.ms, liS notjust the vulnerability (II workers" J

Re-spomling to the Challenges or GlobaJil<ttkm 101

. uritJ' because of closures and shutdowns buL also the obsolaseenee ~f t1u~ naturlE! and type of work~ It is therefore tmportan~ 1.1) pre~:ue the workers. to new f?~m:sof work" ap~rt from thea teehnical co[Jlpetenc:.e m, the tradi bona: pro au etlon. line, TUCP i3.1~o advocates the incorporatwn of the social clause and safety nets ill the trade

llcli:ord.

Erwir-onmeTital po'lfr.y

Grcenpeace; PAFID and Tebtebba are at one in pressuring the government to uphold the UN Convention o.n 8io]ogi~ Diversity and Climate 'Change. At the loeal level, there IS a collective demand to ocmtroll:he construction of development proj,er.ts, sueh as wines and dams, not only for ecological purposes but 311150 to preserve the right of indigenous peoples to their own ancestral dcmains, 10 cmi.lier-lloll with this. a. review and possible amendment of lhe Ph11Jppill~ Mlf1ing Act' of 1995 is considered necessary.

C1J/tuml policy

As hornngeu i:.r"ll ion. We:9i,erni-z!lt'iQn uno III ,I q:; bu:d i..,lll i on 0 f trnditiIJnal cultures !It'll! a'IS(.1 key areas of ceneern (01' eivll society. on~ ndv(l{71(1' dernain foclJ~l:s on resistance to cultural ~ggre.ssioll. Despite the absence of:!! sp~eHi(l cultural policy On which NGO!:i and POs I~Ollh1 t~np;age II he govcrmn(}Ul i'lnd exert V'J''t)SSurC fo,t reforms, CSOs like UGAT and PAFlD strongly oppose the current. g1obalhtatio.n paradigm and advocate B new development hlLlcprint a]to~.etbe:;one found cd on resp act fm' the d lversi ty uf eul tures lind suS'tain.able resourr ... muuagcment. With [·egal'd to cultm'a.l rninorit.1es:, there is a strong call Io defend 'lhei!' right.il to lheiv enY~romnent and culture by stri{'[lyi rnplcruentjng the Indigenous Pe'Jpleg Rights Act (TPRA) ",'hich Was created through the lobbying efforts of civil society.

·'Rc-ius[iu.JtingH and S'&;-renglh,ening (h.e

Role of Govcrnm,ent

In the PII'e:.'H~nt system of global governance, CSO!> have expressed 'r~s~~'atiun~ 011 the willingnessand cap3idty of the state to uphold tb~ lnterestl'. of the people, Its functions. the CSOs believe, have alh:!'ldy be~1l diminished, Hence.vthc state is seen retreating to a 1TIl~imi11 role-maintena:m:e of peace <lnd order, collection of taxes, hwlll"i!lg of infrastructure=while fully submitting to market forces.

. Ci\·i.! society thus supports the reinvigoration of the state. As f~tJ.ted out in th~ discussi~~n on the tnle [)'f the staae i.n .Chapter I, ion PT"~sem. conjuncture the relevance of the state m general IS S".f!\"erely being questioned. How ill the state relevant in Ute context

1(1.2. Philippi ne Clvl I Sor.ietv and th.c (,1oh::J!iz:lLion r.'lISCOU,.5E

otglo balization? T oadopt the. argument ofCbikium ko, the go\>-emmeUl and the nation-state remain the principal instruments for achieving social d'eveJopm~nt goals (Cbiki.amko, 199:8), Given the PhilipPHtIl' state's current performance. its relation to the market evidently needs strengthening. Certainly. there ars limits to what g()'I,!ermnent can do. Bote Ilowing market forces to supp ress the functions of Utt: slate ]s mi mi cal to pubUc ;'~'ie'lfa re. Akooya n believes that the coun'~ economic future can only be secured by putting in pla.ce ' ... n. accounta ble, strong, acti'!,ristgovemmeot that fas.hions a:n appropriate regulatory framework, 1Jegotiates with fOli'eirtn governments and 1',.1NCs, and provides a longterm oconm:nic.plilitMt the majority and not for the selected few. III order to achieve lliis:the state needs lO build the appropriate capacities and b\ll'eaucmnc c,lpabiHties, B!l wen as instltetionatlze checks and ballaR~ "0 government Pariuyoll also ur,~es the &ovemmerH not to yield tc, but rather regulate. 'the market to make: it address de:velo'pmJewl ch~nepgeg like inequality and po".erty.Like"rise. Prmdayo:RI paJ~' $g So.o;yali",tCll1g pmpinus (PANDAY A.~) sees the pri\ ali1;Ation ofbVit utilities and :!i'Od'11 services as a move to f-urtlwli agg""a.'~ ~c destitunon (If the majority of the 'People. As till' tate rids itself of respcnsibilhiesand leaves the market to deliver public eods nd services people are s;ubjectl.ld to the: rules or profi[. "The gO\flnnmlotlll should ertsuru that the e.c.onomy 1S eqnitable. ("'nvironmclltall sound, and sustamebl« lind uph'olds basic human rights. Sosyalist,ang ,ParridC) 119 PaggllWG (S'PP) adds.

By cont.r<liSl,F£fo' bclieve. ... tl1nt gu\'emmcnt should rake: aoy;amm,e of gl'ohali7Alitiot'l, b~, maldng, n.allonU!l policies more 1"csponsW-e to ~'h~ opportu nities it offers. These opport untttes=cempeti (i'D'D in lnternatinnal mllrketa, foreign icvestmems and 3\'ailahmry or cheaper and high-value commodities+are supposed to f~~lt in better eeoncmies and the dtsmantling of conn lve and rcnt-~king behavior in the market. The organizanun, however, tails to elabomt,e on how this could acw311y be operationali~d.

Whether the goal is to protect the interests of the rnajorityohb people against th~ offensive M market forces, or- to exp~oj:t the prospects of lhe free. market eeunomy, ci"iI society gene,rall: supports the strengthening of H1I2: rule uf go\,'ernmenl. aud~e deepening and' hroa derringof de moeratie precesses i 111 the Pbi~ippme polity,

Assessing the R-ol.c of Regilona1 Groupmgs

Prom bolstering the role of the state in a ;ysten1 of m IIJti- ]a~ governance, civil society also deems necessary the ~'trengtherun,g I'll

regional blocs or asscciatiens. SANLAK.~S, for example, IeC'ormnends the establishment of fill international body composed of .states, not individual elites, based on genuine cooperation. 011 the oilier hand. POCUS propose;') then;lvitaHzation of the MEAN in southeast Asia, ulang wilh other evolving regions] associatlons, such as M iJ'r-rada Co mun dd Sur (M ER COS U R) in Latin America, the South ti,sia Assoeiatlon for Re.g,ionaJ Cooperation (SMRe) in South .~ia, and the Sou them ltfr:ican Developmeu t Community (SADe) • Bellu ('2002) explains that.a key to "strengthening" is making sure rhese forma1iom. are people-oriented, and not re~gional elite projects Ill; fhey dearly are atpresent,

PP[ and SlUT. along with other agricultural organi1.:at:ions. also elamor for the abandonment of the Cairns Group," largely because of the group's deliberate disfeoga:I'Q of the i\dvocacies of peasant &.nmps frnrn developing countries. III a staternem Issued by :PPI (,2002) urging the government to witbdraw membership fJ10m the Cairns Gnn.l]), it propos~d the developrnent or alternative Unkages nnd gro-ltpfngs compcsed or countries 'that closely echn the nation's concerns and positions as a developill~ country.

Philippine CSOsl low regard or regional blocs" especiaUy ASEAN, p()ssfbly ~emon!ltmles lhtllt lack of ecnfidenceinthe copncily of !hese bodi~S tOo. somehow "manuge" f,lobalization and uphold rhe IOb:resl.'i ul their member states, In fuc'l, ASEJ\N and hs; various P!'lJvysi{)n!>, such as ASEAN Rrec Trade Agreement (AF'TA). arc viewed as ~Lnotbcr: means ofadvllm::ing the ~umiuJ:ltlt model of eecnornie ~lubalizmit:m. Likewise, CSOs ~ofi.$tderregionat 'formations

"crl PIJI L"d" Wh~H it 'comes to ruultilateral ~g:re eruen ts, . .

De~COI!1Ceil.tt:a.ting tJ1C; Power' or M1I11t.Uatcr,al I.IlSit.~lutioOna Pcrh<lp.~ ~he must debated 8.r~1! of advoeaey among civil .society Otgamlii.lIons concerns the polici!!!] find roles of the' mo. IMF' and WE. The '·~ject-Reformjl debate has not o,nly invigorated the quest ~Ol' B sustainahle and equitable economtc paradigm, but also lnt~t1sitled 'the polatizntionof civil society at tll,e national 'and global spheres.

. At the glnba! level. there is the North-South d~l .. ide. At the n<tU{] ns t leve 1, n part from .sehi sms amona arou es based. 011 ici'eojo',;ri cal

a nd I". 1 - <') 1:) .1:" t;o.

th~ ~othca line.iS •. there is also::l. t~nd;euc:y for csos to Emit

poJ:Elves t¢s~)f!clfi,car.e.asum]r~m,am mdlfflilrentto other advoeacy

., StrategleaUy, this may "love La be advantageous 11$ grmrps

sPecl.ahze ' mbe f lie fi d ,"

a' 10 a nu er 0 por cy ,el 8 and collectively author an

~:nda that goes, beyond sector-based concerns. But in questicning

t::' role and policies of multi) ate ral institutions, some eso.';, especially

104 Phihppine Clvll Societv and the Globalization Discuurs('

sectoral groups, remain polky-orie:rrted in their approach aad h-'ilve Dot OO1Ile up with an enoom.pa:ssiag agenda 01111. theittSiliitntiOll£l\o:f global iza lion.

However, threepopular alternatives: have been adopted by civil society. Oitl.~' istn:roughthe reform or- tbe Vfi:'D. aaother is to d!il.-"bk fr(lirl:il the ~~tem. In between am prepeuents of what:is ku~ as d.€g {,ooai:iza t:iQ1:1. ThIJiU,gh itt is pro.bab~y a bit premature to eQ~lu;d~ whh;:h orgao.imtiom; are sup.por~ers af ~hese tbree al!~mati\'es oonsiderilligthe limi,ted reach ef th e stu diy, <I spectrum of ad,v~cles, and aillteroathres is. presented-at the eOG (lIthe d::mpblr in om,et to map the -, reform-re] ect" debate am Gug the respendeuts, Far tie moment. the study Wi1l l':resent the main argumen.ts of the rllft'j~ alternatives 10 the present roles of raultilateral cconcomw..:: institutions. TheVVTO 'is the focus of m uch of the prupo~Js. Des,i;t~ the fact that n"w and WB pol i ties have had ill ~massivefmpa~ On hamingthe '~e:~ of "de'l.e-Iopme'n t' 'ref much I ongctWiII ~'E!' YIf'lll. the latter has wl;'Inanted much attention from !CiVIl soci,e'ty imlI ~t y~'lrs. I ntCf'llllJ'Ll0nal trade ~6SUes are: n 1:1 longer viewed as t~ llrrangements but, understood as d~epfy poHti.ci2ll!d. ft\s an inst1Jt:ul1Gn thll't exercises too much power, apan from being unaCi!ouDtab~el undemo.cratic and wanti~ In t"ranspruccl'i:cy • the '~\rro i~ seee ;as' th:e embedi ment of the ms of g~ obaliz3thl)lll" Compared te the 8.Ntton Woods twi.ru:, the vrro is also p~roeiv~d '~C1 t~ hesrile to NOOs.

Re/'Qrm a/the wro

There is 8 resounding emll. among, some civil soc]d~' gr()~J!$. iIo support of rule changes ill. Uhe\\rtO. The \'IITO, tlley sa:y, ~!!1 .suU bt! a venue for reforms. And reforms ean eomm ence witbthe ~tiOIili of reles tni\u 1I.re mutually benefieial to developing and. ~b1iy cleveloped eoun tries alike. These are:

.' The WTO s;hould lI]stlhltemechanisms of compl'ffi:ij]¢e amollg First World eountrieson the aglicw:turnlagroonlleNUI and support for litgriclll lure in least. developed countries. hi relation t,n tMs, "l1!/TQ should strictly impose the removal 0'( SubiSidies in agriculture given by developed Cl'!IU!ntTiJe5 W ereate an even playing field,

• The ~VTO should apply Special and Diff~rcDti.all'reat.m.e:nt at speciel consideration for critical industries in developing and. \ea:st developed countries,

• Trade rules shQuki al~,t] ,;3 ettve ly promote and. .reward prod uetion and eousuraption patterns mat are sus1;ain<l!t~e and envfronmerrt-friendly, In this cOllnedlon.WTO

r.neul1'JE:rg should internallae the eosts to nature and the environment into the. priCM ill goods andservices,

• mO ill list recognize HH,~ Precautionary Priucipl.e'~ in ft." decislol,-maldng as <L seientifically rigorous appsoaeh, consistent with the principles recognized in the RJu D~darari on on En VIl'O urnent and Development and other i ntern stional Instrumen ts ;,'l n'rJ d~CJ a ra.tJ 011 s, Th.fs recognition must include <'I. shift of the. burden of proof in dis-putt' "settlem ent proceedings as an integral part of l he pnwwtioM.ry principle {Gre~j]pE::ate, 2(00).

• The \,\>'TOsnViJld imp I emen t and.strengthe'il theCore Labor -St<,!r\(brdJ) of the Intemetioual Labor Organization in its trade flRl'C!:cments.

• The "'ITO ul"'genUy needs to jn't~I'O\fe its 1:nul5parcnCr, [)p!!'nn~s:..<; and censultatiou, find cooperate with the Uni~ed N.,t!OIlS, national goy~tl1lnm'lb;j regionaJ blocs and NGOJ;,\,

, n add i Hun l e ru ~ c eh anges, fn rt h~r eeonom ie 11 b enl J. li3.1 i 011 ;;:h ou tt:l be pu t on hold t() [i rn jtt]1JEl e~,pansi on of lhc vrro. NGn~ have r;.~!ied enncerns ,nv'Cr the c1i:pflllf;:iv(!li~cL·a!17.alio!i! requlrements 0·( :s~n.1~·(,·b and the pf,~'l.Si'bh, inchlrinn of fisheries: in lh~ agreerrrents, Until i~S~!,l&"mCIlLS and refcrms have been ~u::cot.l1plisbccl. further nc-golju t i u 11::> ~hould be ])U'l on hold.

Vee!) r [:; (f'ucf! REef) JJ S l rue t

Here, the .Elrgutnenl is tha'l .rnu~tn~leruJ inst1tutim1S pOS1ie.~1' tno much puwer ever goverlJment8,. Rdorming lh~se l)oriies ,dn'ec~ not quesUuu nr addressthe ~uucHl[all:h~.w5 <w.d.idt:t)logy that saYe! birth to llH~s!", Institutleas, WOI'Sej the reform proposals outlined abovegtving lhetn pl'~·conditions or clsuses ~!lid compelling them t.o abide by OHi.H international ,agreoments-may even fl,ive lht!sr u~a~l'ounlable instituticns additional control OVN" non-trade Issues Of are •• s,

FOCUS advocates a strategy oj' deeonstructlon, alongside ~et:~n£t,rlJctiou t.hl'01Jgb "".~Irioml measu~re"" of. these mllllril~ter~1 . n. s 'tItUtions. For mstanea, In the c."JIS.e Of Uw' 1M F, One suggestion 1:5. t\l to n vert i l .i n to a research agenc}T "lith no policy powers but on e tasked with the job of monitoring. gl(ihaJ capital and e'..l(eha:nge rate Inov<:rnent$, Similarly, the WB should end its lean-making capacity allQ d e\i'o lve its, grant ;3:c1!:ivitif!s .lO appfop']'i~ te re.~donal instituticns

~~db .. .. ..~

tne' . e ~,' Y partiei patory proCC5S:0:5," AsTIU as th~ 'VVTO. i [" ermcerned,

S1:r'~iegl'c ~aa~ shoulrl b~ halting or reversmg WTO~man(lated

liberalization in trade and trade-related areas. esos should. pel"Selr~ with the ta.CHC of derailing ministerial meetings and prevent fhe beginnmg of a new round of negotiations since \1\,-0 relies hea\ily an such procedures to uphold its authority <lind influence in the global trade regime, Taken t'ogeiliei, then, these global institt.ttiom; can: he turned Into actors coexis t j ng witb a nd beirrg checked by oth:e[ internetional organizations, agreemEnts and rlfgionru gr,Ollipm· (HeUo.r2002), Thi s onmplements what \'0"35 initinnJ' discussed, as. ltlI'dJposal to reinvigorate eeonomicbloes and reginnal you;piu&$.

Dt-Linkfrom thfii' System

With tbe understanding that the \'V"1"n is notbiD,; more thad. 3 new brand of I'c-!';olo11lizati-t)TI, some members of Idvil society beUe':\Ie ilna't ill is to the COUntlJ,'Siildvmtilge to de-link from the present ~ find create a .sclf~sl1ffidcnt economy, Membership in the WTO \vas ! he wrong answer to tbe ~ght qllestiOtl5. The cests of 'l"clatibg to dEnrclOJHId countries 11sve fal' outweighed the promised beoefits. Rather than working to restructure the mlll'tilaternl tr-J.de MgVBU!, PhiHppin(l civil society should strnggle 'to establish a s;iJ.cil:!~, econemic, political andcultural order that ... ,11 ensure free.do. rr<;lm foreign domination. ln 1i~t uf this, withdrawal lrom the \I\:'TI)is a fk step. 'foUo/wed by total rejectiem of unfair and unjust bilate:rnltrodl;! t1greem'fchts. The selution is still national indtl&lrialh;Ation as conscious state-led (;'ffol1 to d~\'el()p industrie .• 1\1$0 • .B(fyun Muna supports the idea of :;lrHi:l ownership ni key industries, :l>ueh 5 cement, steel and banking, needl~ fnr indu trial.i.7.all0n. HoWC\\et, it qual i fies this by argu l ng [h at the issue 15 not ""'ht:thC'!i' t he Ph iUpplll1<!5 will relate with ether countries or not but r-ather the~~mi:n,g !U1d terms on whicilthe eountrv engages in foreign trade nnd lfl!V~"lnlt 'These -should be darermmed bv whet IS needed to de",e]ap dOm!le:5'tlt imhutry and agriculture to the benefit ur the majority of Filipin$:,

'rhe Quest for ill Nle\f Para.di:lm

Calls for a new development paradigm from Iliffef'\ent quarters have grcr\\'D. rapidly in recent years. The delegitimiz.ation of the pr~nt glnbaliaaticn project has prernpred CSOs,ecademkFi and ~ business grm.J!ps to question the relevarrce not lust of [he inst:d~~ and processes of globalization but also theideologkal fuu.nd.a:ta:D1iIt.(I~ their existence. ".!\ll:bougb most of the esos h n the st udy ~' ntO~ focused on issues rather than on the b rnader ITa mework, SOUle:· ~ made significan contributions in shaping <l new parndigm for tile. world order.

Anti-globalization activist and scholar Walden Bello corned the teJ1ll cIeglaboUzatiQTl as an ~lh:rnativc system of glab~ ~oo]]o~il: o'ov-eTllartCe- A.Wwugh the title W~5 loosely used by C1Vll society ~f[)re, dcgl,obaliz_(ltfOI1 .as an alte:~atiye presented ?y Bello is m~re thRn rnetonc, as It outlines a polrucal and ccononnc agenda which .~ [€'k"ant to bnth Northern and Southern societies. The term deg[obo/izaNvl1 needs to be ~lwlilled: '~'n be abl~ to disr;u~s what it is theftl i:;. fI need ~ rst to cla'nfy wha~ It 1S not. it lS not fI; ~thdrawElI fronl the intcrlll'ltu:mal ecouomy, It 1:5 nut itlilarky or culling off the (OU[ltry frrrm the rest of the world, II if' not total rejection of the market t!oonomy- Nor is it "m-tribalization. ~ In his new book with the 5aIfle I ide, Meno defines de-globalization as theempowerment of the. local and the natienal. It is about:

Drawi ng most of our financial resources for development from within ruther than becoming dependent on foreigu rrrvestraeul and foreign finandul rnarkets;

Carrying out the long-postpuned measures or inco'm...: n-drstrtbution and land redistributien to CTCtltC iii vibnml interne] market that would b~the anchor urtbt!' economy:

Ilt'-f'rflrl')4,sizlng ~I'nwth and m:udmlzhl[J, equily 111 nrdcr til r<~diGilly L' due environrn "11t31 di!'l. qutlibrlurn:

NIH 1t!'IVi[lg slr.ulcgie economic deeislens to the m:.u'k,et but tnaking them subject to dcmucratie choice:

Subjecting the: V'rtvat~ sector and the Sltl'Le to constant monitoring by civil society;

Creating a 11CW production and exchange complex ihal includes community r.ooperativcs, private enterprises, and state enterprises:; and excludes TNC.'>;

EElshtining lhe principle of subsidiarity in economic life by encou raging prodl:l~1ion of goods t (I take place. at the cornmunlty and national level if it can be done M' at rea.'lUlJuble cost in order to preserve dJrnlTIunHy (Be-Ho, 200:2: 113~J 14).

~hnihhl'ly, emphasis on the production POI' the local is also expressed In What PRR:\1 t-erms LiS "intemational solidarity of locals' (Serrano,

20m1:) .. l\n alternatl:e ~ath to ,eo~rare-led_ gl~b.ali~tion is ~ back to the commumty the control or eeenonne life, \lfhere a v.arl:ation of self-governing and self-sufficient communities is created <lIl_d linked internationally and gl(}~]]y.

AUerna.tive to ,3 New lVQrld Oxd.ti)lI'?

Some members of civil society, nonetheless, east daubt On. the feasibility and sustalnahillty of the poliC)T proposal sand Ulstitutift)laJ reforms outlined here. In the end, they suggest, these kinds Of advocacy will merely ameliorate problem areas wMle d~epe't struetural flaws eenunue to persist and breed Ilie~ ills. l'llis is "because the incorrigible evU of capitalism 'tviH continue to nourish.~ Reforms Me fleeting. Eventually. eapitalist gll)haliMt1QIIiii as an exploitati~ system will tnke Or! different forms.

A number of groups like OMr, SP'P, SAN1.J\KAS and KPD claim tbllt the struggle {or national liberation and social revchrtien is the only route to development that benefits the mlijo:rity_ Henee, tile solution ~s not to ,art1cl31t!.b: reforms but to work for a soc1.alirt worM. or "socielist" globaUzation that is demucratie and p~urnlist wit'n strong s(.l1id~rity among workers, peasant. the poor and the oppressed. By t.aldng HI ' radieal diroC'tiort •• 1 rocit'ty where li:hcl"': i~ no Third 'World can b~ ~nvisiof1ed and eventual! ' r~Hl~d.

However, unlike the conerete and dl!'taHed recommendations of the other CSOs. advocates of a "socialist" g]oba1i:z.utlou f",~l to c.'\,:pl~ifl some parameters uf 'this etlvi.sh;lfled alternarive, This 1!e4We5. til< iUWfessl0n that their ass{"rUom are s~i1d.Llrd id¢olngit'1l1 pO!ilitlonin,g consistent with the preferenee for a plannedeccnomy 'Nhc-til 'he state plays a big rol e lin d the own ership of Ute m C8 ns of production is n.~tiOfl (!lH;r.ed n nd !:'io·dnH:wd. 'The absence Gf via ble 3ppm::J.ch~ [n attalning thIs goal ln rhe context ofwhal may he the di.sliua det!!lands (If tbe new political and eennornic environment dues not aUow others to understand and appreclete this alterrrative, but m her have reservations bout. the feasibility. not just of the propoSitioll.,. but of 1t5. ideological foundations,

CONC1.l1S10N

The responses of Phit:ippinl! civil society organizations In tbe different issues posed b)' globalizanou are d lverse a.u·d comprehensive .. The concrete actions discussed add to the groWlOS modes of resistance and protestwhich have sustained and gal~zed the role of social movements in society. It appears. hm,~. tlWr.

I Jul'llo; ,II\·PEC.OO ~""'Il!;i~lg"...sB""ti' l _j

,,1'1: 1\, '''l'di!l1.l)i!(i· nri4ji II'IDH!I IIJI·~ Uip'

iIIl6 nilii)~~ iorll1llMno .. r~

h~Mklll1~li'!.i!~ -"_"'I'f!1I!II _j

",~"rniil1-

l~rl.!l

~~UQII

~_.. .

RICiQgi'i.JIit'lhn !llli!~ftJ!lj!ll1' Jrrt.~l\hHWinc Ijf <;#jlll.lil 1(lh:rlilllll1~. 'oI11i1 ~N ~1~lill'iJ!r~ .o!~r~1"'Il pollr.lll<lo In _~~II~('II.I W 'i~iJ

!ihliiJj,!i\jOl<lh

I:::c-~--- __ -I.~ ~L_ --'

~Flda!lon~ of ~!~II ~OOIDI!I' a1£l CD1!>~OrJiWI!I ID)OOr(lII'l" 10 1"11 ar::1iOi;!, to ..... ,l1reh Ihe P(OIl'Dt:IIIL~. '!lre .r:ldIMs!ld. tllpiiIi'Ii ~ Ille gs il!:ral COncept ~h~1 (ja'tinu~ th .. ~1e:n~1!!I 1:11 thQ Cli'9l1nl:41tlo-n'. At 'Ui~ ~il~rxI 13m! U1U dI CiOlurnn. rrom tl;i1I~ 1m. a!liI~nll;!illlln~ Ulilil' r:on~ld.Elr 1bl') Q\'-e!1nrow iJf capJtBI'Em 11'\1001111 1he re.JaellOO Or 115 Impaflsllsl in:s.IrumIJnl, ~all~bo'" aa I, ~ mlly IIltlllDi!liw_ On 1l'iE!' o!hf.ir hDna, :DrcU,P:S. \IdIlch fall-or Ou; jnv'lIlttli9' l'IaMi or tho 1TIB~&,t. MwI ::;;, B ~".u.j Ie ..,tIIl~'" mechanisms lhal shpil guarEirllee 1M roturM_ <11 a: Irb!(..mari:DlecGlnomy, I n I;roe~" ere CSo.

l"Ppa., ms!11utlOnal fsformil .n ereer to cfilai.e a syslem In.al is 'B'<Iprl'l~1l 10' Dolhi CI'rwlllo;pec aoo d9~

~In!l!li -

I~

REJECT'

A.~ IhEr maJ'l:91 IU Wilrl ~I ., ·r;aB~ \JI' m!iF!.eL r~nln'a" IN'UlI.rllorus ~ be slrl;!l1!;lli? Bllrotce ~1!od,,1 "IIjulru1dr;.

Td:m~~CiI 1I>e~1l ... .... gl:;ltr~

De-Enk Il'lIm ~ "~=Qf ~iZIIUO~, ~r~D'~ ~vel'Oe()\~ ;I!'I"I;l"'i!ThorJ;l WCl'ldeolifl~~, .. nd·~ll"''''''9 fl81i01\IiI "u:l~"'riailmUg~

GO!iLCli.ilal1~ 'liTO "'~lillh IQ QIl I~ili in~I01.I!'1QtI1i1g "'lItIliit .Llb;.Ig.t.J RFiIl~D<'I'1I10 t.ilIlN'lilOIulI!Q nniI p00p4M1 ar Ii~ I'i'i;)i"ll

DIl.pi:lb<JJio:>l. ~ !<I ... i,lhdr~ .... 'fl1irnrM ii'l1ia"'ilUonool ilwl>:ml)',blJllriJMorl.Bl"Ill[]ooro~t: fmlil11M 81Jl1l'IJ8C-ll cl1~r:ton'ror e~lX'rt 10 pip".I<i;:6qn rcr ~h~ !Q "1I;jri;~

J_~

[l~"''''I'!lllml iJeQcrit.rSll~~ ]""tih.!!!wuJil PQWI'If IIlrorJI!I'1 UJa 1I"Q¢iID09B Il1f ~~(:(:i!IW!J~(lJIllm WB.-IMf'.W'I'Ol ~rnI 'hI).~Q_~

~b'f!I""

WTO *~iroClln~b ~~l)iQrfllle e!1i11i"oJl ... ~n;j;." IImjl~",.-

T '*"',rorm U\IO ~nmI!ffl U) ill!QIii!l.~e;! ~by ~~ poIIQ!lIl~_~ .... Itllb;

~1OI'IilJft

~ In r,tj!r,1I !lp,./!ilQWMiilll;; lind •• :ranl1 .cu~ ~11_r,. "upi. ~iiI1rli\iQ I~ f~I.J!~~ 1F~_fh, !l,Ii(imlU;1H Wiil'i tgrQlI;!~ OO"llrllrr.~ ~I>o1 'INIlr-,,_ oorlXirill:lQn~ (MNCa\, f!'~ ~o~ ~ 1OI'1IJ. I:fir!i<i ~i'!_¢ p!~n 1m Inil ~M~ ~f1il f11i1l IO!' !til ~(!Ig~rd f11W

th~ actions taken by civil society on glcbaliz3Uof.iJ are not distinct to the issue. Organi7.ing communities and building alliances have been em ployed in other issees Uke agrarian refa rm, de bt and peace and developnumt The' principle of "expose, oppose. and propose"has become the norm to further advance rbe causes of interest groups and to influence 'the formal and informal processes laid out by key <L(;tprs.

There. are" however. new forms. of protei s t and orgsnizatlon fhat merit further assessment, SUd1 as civi] society participation in

no Philippine civil 5ociet~ ami the Globalb ation Oi"'cQur.;;e

perallel and alternative events alongside global-agenda ~'ttin conferences, In relation: to this point, he tentative em:ergenee of f: gl oba 1 civil society has facilh.ate{l the coordina tion of actiQns lln~ advocacy in the -global arena, The strengthening of these g_loba:l movements has increasedJnternational solidarity and has tnade possible the direct engagement of actors beyond the state'. On these Gccasio~:s o~ gl c bal mov.emeDt and. action .. th~ . role . O~b:dmIDtOir cannot be discoun ted a s It has enntrihuted s ign~ ficantly m pm:iridiog a "virtual" space fur civil society to eonnect, coordinate and orWlW:z.e l h ei r efforts,

Another tnteresting facet that emerges frfJ[l1 tbe sUldy is the dynamics of stat,e-clvri !Society and intra-civil wcietyreJations in push i ng for BI broad and ell nee ned action in. '!omrODliDg glab().!.hs.tion. Critical engagement with the state is stiU dee:DJet"\ fundamental as apolitical strut~-- NGOs and POs have u'lilil'td 'Ute formal means of iutervention 8S mandated by thele&ul/poHcy €11'Ilil'1Oilltlent to make the government ltseen in draft~ng paUci~ CE trade-related issues and in lmplernenting development projQel~ sponsnred by multilateral in li utions, But when ttu:!re i Dot enull~ d ernoeratie space for debate, pontic •• l leverage and public PN;SftUn,: us a WRy to fncr~a$e cac s influertee vb~c-.-vi~ the state can be used rcspon1libly b)t non-stare ~I't.urs, This can be aocompU:;:h~d 'lhnn.lgb the media, public forums, dialogues and symposia, and ~wod pub lc relations with governmen; f]ffldll!s,

The recognition of actor beyond the state has also defined the actlons and advocacy of 'PhUiPPIl'Ie ch":il seciety. Civil society has taken advantage of this dUfusiol'l of 'luthl'Jl!'lty and ~u]ti~k~'V~ governance 'to guarantee that their ceueerns are au:ended! topd dealt with. Since st:uta." now do Dot possess sole authorl:ly in th~ governance lit global. relatinns and, as C~Os have e: pf\essed a', multilatera lin 1i:1i l utiens lIB ve und errn i n~d thclrrunttiQI'I.s •. itnray seem inadequate to engage the state alone and not supplement such a strategy with direct klhbying of glob .. J iustinnions,

BUL creating sustained uni ty remains a prnhlenr. lIVith~n Phllippme ch~! svciety. cooperation is ~tin based on issues, rn~~_j and strategies, Ideological and political demarcations, as v.rt!U ifS sector-based concerns, have consistently cnnsrrained civil s~~ in generating a unified position or alternative to giobaliz.atiMil'TL. Furthermore, the positions and advocacy of civil society gronp$ concentrate on their IUec~S uf concern to which they have,1IDCR coumritted lung before """'TO, iMF and ,,'\olEl; re-aligned govemmeD{ policies. DESpite this, some level of unity among CSOs wWM~ crucia] llolkv issues has been achieved. For instance, reg;ud1ess of

. olitical erlentauon and type of.organizaticn, Philippine civil society

r ' .. 1 •. , h .. ,. .

ha:s a ("ommon :st~li1ce 01i1 agnc~tU1·I1.' m arguing ve emenuy a~!:llnst

the n n.fOi1r rules ot the V'lTO T'E::f!;lme:- A degree nf(:OIl~re[gencel:s,.a1S1J

e<Ilize~ ir'l the dlseourse on the strengthened role CIt the state along :,,'lth reforms on existing national policies, although thew art> still ~iJme lmpQrtilllt differ-enter:; Lo these propositions,

. Above aU, what has polarized CSOs to a large extent is the fundamental character of the deveiopment paradigm that should be p\dr~ucd and its underlying ideological basjs.Positions in the debate range from uceliberallsm and post-Washington Consensus reform, lhrf.lugh ncopopulism and haste needs partleipatorv approaches, to rauii."H[ farms of snciaiism. Each of these positions, in I urn. [rames In~ questinn nf how to go about the proCC05.~ of change, in other words it deli ne~ the very polWC$ of development. Ccneomttantly, civil !illd~lJ Drgal1i~~\tirJ)lS which are receptive to modest institutionel nnd pr)licy reforms have more Ol)IH)'rlUI11t les fur influence and Pi1Pllltll" support. Yel this has earned the ire of some group~ whn 'lrgue IhiAt !1,liJh;llti' .• ttli:m 1~ irreversible without altering the basic structural imperatives that stlrnulnte ib logic_ CQP ronting ~l(lh;!h1,iltion should thus be u 8lnlggleto overthrow capitalism, 1'1~S WOLJ ltl I ~'1 turn, mean a fuadamental=perhaps rcyolutionuylmn::-tormntio:nill 'the social order at Mliona] and global le\',els.

In tlw [innl analysis, iii. so [ar M 'Ihcn~ hi some prospect or ~C'nL:r;l' lllp.j a unified positiun or alternatlvc to, lh~ current paradigm, Ih~~ dL<tlll!rlg~ is to nitlllnnand flwlhcr explain alternativu discourses o.lt vClriu\lS lt1vtll~ (ttl state, regio'Mlllfi.,,\() 'inUufl~ and n1ultiluternl Instiiution-r) and key aruas ofcr)ltIcern (~)(l,lide~ p'Ie'rlainlng t~} fiSC.11 and rnuuctary concf'l'l'l~i ll'ade and inciush:y. dr.] in ",,'hien fl. robe.Clive ~H"'lll(Jn and prucl ica] polil1c:; could he advanced. But q ~lJlHprdl~n.sivt' ultcrnativc tog,lobi3liza1iun around which CSO~ could mite may btl, unreallstic ;;11 this point, given. their dh,:'erSf! dl il :·:.U~tl· eistics I h b;t()d,~:a J h<l~k~rolHI d and orientation. Humu)i!;c.nelty may not even. be a desirable option given the fact that pi urnllsrn is cunsidcred asa ~OlU'CC of strength among esos. WhUe Ihi::; rna v be the case. pluralism should not be snowed weaken the P01ClltHlls of eso!:! and their actions. Political differences and ')f.L;;1 uizatlunal hiekering U1(l.y 11~ ttl per the efficaey of civil sode~

:3{1 LfJ 11 !L (I .

NOTES

1, S!!-~ Ca.iiua't and Regalado, "D;rnamlc.s D'ii Chit ~dety and Gtu"'ernml!!flt ill the GATI-Ull: Debate: ill the Philil'lpims:LeSl>IJM for PQliC"}" AdvlX<lC)"· ~11 Sf ate -CivjJ Soe!l.:'ty Re li1:ti DIIS ill P l:lli ~y·!l1 alit ng. Philip il i n~ Dem~ra,~,. Agenda {Volume :d W'ui and 1..oP<'Z eds, rur '.1 d.l'lailt'G t.ii~W$5~On,

2. Major S'l1ti-GATI f{lT'Tt!aliQHS during the r.utfieaHoll on tbe G)'TI-UR. Agreemanr were- PamI'Ja[u;{l'ng F9t1uyan rly . .'lfCimdmaYj:lrr LiJb{Il1 m G;"TT [li'UMAL.>\G) bead~d lYy Kf!lJ.SffIT~ MI19l:rubukid fig f'ilipinCJ..c (KMP). Pabi-GAlT, SANW\KAS headed by Rl!rmto Co~ntill~, J:r., i[7lM-~fr;1rma Agad $a GATT (~·G..t\;rr), Fhmppine CllulI.~il rar oSmol.llnable [J,noelopmE'tlt (,PCSD, NGOPO- CQUnteTJl~l'l, and Farmers G[[lUP CQaiiti"IJ_ See CaJiIlll.t and Regal1lf:h1 for <L d>!!5,cripti.tHl 011 ml!mbeT5bip <I lui p.lrti~jpatil)n

,3, rUMAlAG II is ~gmpo5~!1 [If I\~r. FA.:o,lAL-\K/,YA. A I'liilwn. KmiamfliJ. ¥.AMP, National Federation ci SU'rJ,<rrwQrh:!r:!i (~FSW). NlltIQj1j1l !roo'" Authl:iTi'ly EmplQyeeS" AUQdarlo[l (NF -EA}, aud rhe Nal I ('111 iii fClhralion of EmploYt'l!:s In rh~ DepBr'lmcrLl of A.~rieuttml:', RqJ. S;!tm Ot"iLmp[I and Rep.Crispill Bt!'itr<ln Qf jl<lrty hf;i BfI!o'DII Muml' 'OltE indi"lduill "'O:I'Ili:rer$ or PUMALAU IT.

,1 1'h(l ITA I oComlm~el'l!lf tht' PedN'olhQf1 at rbi1ippIJiH! Tlldu~ 'fl~ ... (Fr.). l)hiHI"pinc C'l'irlcnt COI1lt)rnUon fPlHI.CF.MCOR}, CI"rOlmil:' Tile M(!m~flt(ltur~n' 1\5~lJdinl!;iIJ (CTMA) Phihpilbu' SIU!m"'k~n' M-~.(ICI~I'i,ol1, 1''hIIIPliinl! Sugii:H !lot IlIc'rll Association (PS:'>M}. N,nional Frdrulllon tli uoor (N'P1.1, Ph IIIp pI ,111: i£clIll'tIl!!llie=J! Af'hcO for ("uml:nunlt, F.mpCJweormol.lIl't (V EACE) , Nati'I:I1H11 FedC'Tl)tlo,1:I of l..!hor tlf1iml~ r~'l.\r1.L1 L N;!'[ion'il til1xJ'v UnIon fN'LU), K.u!on:ll Mines and AHI~ Wor1o(c't~ Umon ~NAMAWU). Ullm~d Flllplno S.c rv lC€ WOi'xt'!u (UFSW), A~~otii!1io'f'I 01 U~mOtr!!otl' LAbor Orglll'li~tio,TI (ADLO). l':tlpmu',an 119 Kli~.rcIIIU .lJIlttl9!;ltl9tl!JJj'1 (KKM), SilmahaP'! II!I MQgSQ.5111ldIOS. sa Pi/ipillQ4. I"ARAOClS- D~mllknu~tfJjJg KiltJ$r!JR9 Mtlyhubuhili nil .PiHpltllI~ lDK~dP). I'HtLNET·Rurnl [t~ v dClflm~I'L' 11li:li,l1ti"'~!'t A~t;(lll 'fm: !Eroilomit: RdOJDl'i~ (Ai:.Rl. K.J,,'!Lo\M.A-KA. u. .Uga: CITiU'I'i's Movl!ffiem ill! Reform ~n.d Rf'flo!lk'3.L Niu!',l.on. Philip~nnc fhHII,ilJl ,Rigbr II'lJorm~tjon C~nt~~ O'hllrigb.tsl. and CUiz.ell~· A1:t!I,H1 for COllsumer 'Pr(ll€!:~l'lun (CAep). Th'~ I:LI~il] ron\'~[Ior or tllll' ~m3n((' i~ jormc' sanator :m,(I Philippine R.un..! R.e~lOIlul:ruuian Movemenl [PRltM) pn:sld~l1t Wigl:J.erto ;·'Bt:lbb}'· Tan,nd,~,

5. Membership ill 'lhe Stop-the-Ncv. -Round' Co 1i[ton-r"lIiplllne~ iDelulles 211 org,ani22tiom; (AcriOl~ for ~1lDomit Reiorm& (A.1'!.R). AJcoogt:lllr ('iliZleD" AcHon ,Part), Amal'l~" OfPfQgr5.~t".~ Labor (AP].J.,o\ltern:!i{e F(wum far .Rc~,:mili in Mimianao (_-\.fRJM) B!2yanihuil I l:IU:'rn ni 0 1'1 ill 1 Sohdari.'Y Sec:r'!itniat, Center for Ag;r:ari.i!fi !tdorm, Empll'l'iiennellt .lInd Transformation (CARE'f), ('onfedrratJon of ~ndep,entl~lu UniOl:!i H'I ~ Public Sedor. PIllC\l~ on th~ G1llbal Soult:! CPbmppin,e Program}, GI,tlbal N erwork - Ph iJlppi nes, I nt'l!!g:ra'[oa!l Jl..11 ral D~\'el (Jpm€ n l Full n cia t.i nn (I Rnf). K{1laYQ(lll, R'utapOl. Kfll.lj[jllg _~.lang:i.rl~!sdll" (KM). Ki!~ panl sa Ramoons.tJlllg, D~iJl!}h-asyl.1 lKPD). Killlson~ .... lakaoollsaJ1.q Ekonomiy(! (K..\U~), Labor Education and Re • earch N.et\'I1()rk(U:.~.R:h'1. PG"m~;:IfI';QlIg Kacipwl11n 11!! mQo S<:rrtl[]Jmll ~(1 Kant:lJ,lUJHill (PKS1Q. rartn[:!~l:tip for A.!jr~d~o R':(mm and R \!r:aJ D€'v'elnllmen t S e r,d c.~~ (r ."'iI. RDSJ, P'E!'() ~!E'S !J.I [IDa 1 E:ore hangc (POX). i'hitipfli.ne l'(ia>.B:nt Insdw;i! (PPO. Pinlip.pine !Rural Reeonstmc'liOIl }.o1(>v~rn~!9t (f'RKM), Ka;>arlml-}.'rudj,laun rS_\Rll_.\\'A)_ S(!l1di~ar; T19 Ll1ko.s at

De_mQ~r'a5ya rt!l Sambal!ri:mm (SA,N.UKAS). So ufheasl, _,.\Sia Regionat Ifll,ti.atl1fe:s for Cornmulmy Empowerrnetrt (SHARICE). Ti;lmbtl1'JC1!1 [}e;,te}opmetit Center 11110 WDmanHeaUh .Philipplnll.sland 6 individilils:

6.. - BlIck-dg,Q r t~ctk>li.~ l'ooenr <\1 so tis ad du ri ilg t he deliheratinns ~" lh~ ratlfieatien of the (}ATI. UR. Ci .. il sot!C~y groups used U'n\)i r social e.apital rG! influence! the policy precess, from "wining and dining" to e~ti!biigh,il1r[ !'lood publle rdathHi$ with members of the Setmte and Crmgrc£s. '"

7' -r:h~e iH,Q Rep, Augusto Syj Il co, Senators i.~Jfelil ll!:&i1l'dil and ,fUllln F1M·j('!l'. and former SClII:1Wr Ralll 1\Ut:tL

fi S(!I! ~ Akb ay;;rn' ~ f,co till} m k "I'latfol'm" ~Iw ..... w .akba van .. 0 rg for a rno re

dd~I'~ed' dL~cLnIl10il, - '

I) Se~ U~nJte~{ N'ati())1os -C,ql:ntl C(!mpaNPl'iml1'l': Putting thl! Priactples l!'Ito Frn'llC~. at www-U!t~I{j'ljrucomp<letgrg fur (l.1flher infrmfla!iofl !iliout the UN ltJ!halive on eClrpQ,t:lh~ soeial l'CSpo.il.slbilHy

10_ 'Executive ?~deL' 25'1 modifies til!!!' rates, of dtlt:r' (HI l!:er~:~ln impg~h!'t! llrtJCle~ -a~, JjfOovJded, hH lll'lO_H th~ Tarin ;lTIcl CLf:§~mlill C[ld(!' ~d t'976 to ImfJl1.!m~1][ 'tbe !l:O(lO"Z\1[;1a Ji'hiliPl'lil'lC sdll'~dt1l~ of lllrif( reduction 'Ii nder rhe l;lc~l(!rlil ~(!d COI"J~ ItItll1 I!ffcc tlve Pr·efl'H(!Illt i ~ I Tnriff (C.:I': Y'f) ~dl ~m ~ for rhe .J"S&'l!.N Z:fil¢ Tfr~(l~ Ar~ii (Ali·TA). Thb "v,m~ lS~ll~tI during til 'l' rrn IIr ronl'lt'T PrMident .1o~epi:r ~.ql'mdji,

~ I I'll e. C.'llr il" i:JI'IJU II 1~1 d 'lO'rn III itm ""of lIj?;dc u 11111" J e;t~(ntJ f1.a1 COI.i nlri e!it 'llunderJ Iii H}86. Mum.bor, tJof lhg GWUll iltU, Allllmlln!l, A~trJ!liil., KI,ih1il, tltndl, CilLl"lb, ChilI'. Colmnbb, C(l~ln IU'CH, CUj.ti:ni:llu, IlldQn'L!~i~. M.d(l.y~I.41, NilW Zl;:al'lIld, l'Wnr..L1I1Y, th,t! I'hmppl'fl"'~, SOiHh Af,Fi en , T1illn .. nd "I'll.! LTnl~u",}', The nnntl:il milll!~u:ri!ll rnOi't'lilgr. nrrJ ~h!llr~d by 'ch~

'\LJ~~rllliB'1'I M:lnl~t'er of Tt"IHlc "

i~. "h~ pr~~~u~.liJn~lT) PI.·tudple I~ IIJ1])IIr.cl wh1!L'1 .HI IL"IIV'II)'i~ pereelv •• d 1(1 lflr>~~hm thl: t!!'I\I!f.Qnllll,'n! Ur hUmM! h~!lH1J. wJlidl require 11rt'["HI'IIOI:UIt)' l1L<!a~t~,re£ to be L~,lum even ii _cert~i." cause ,und rffe-cl rt·l;ui.PIIship lin' lin, !':Sfl'lbll~l'l\~d wltb I'IbsoliHc ';Clfllttfil! t:erU,lm),

__ A_~ __

m, eanings, forms and implicatipns of O'~Ob-I!,,,.;' ,

'd. "If.," kev areas of 101~'" .w~au~ befor'- :;",

I enttty ltsev areas Vl COTH::et'" S'om'''' ;,~.'.l1i',,' ',' rt; JiIl,-. ~

'.. .... ','... '",.V JlI OOClot\r ,~ •

have been addressing issues aSsodated with lli ,-, org~oZatiQ.ns

befo, re "glubalieation" bec<l1:nc (mnmo" 1~' e.wmld order ltmg

d di n.,.J-ilce as a wa f

un &,stan' In,g new economic and poUtieal q ti - Y 1Q

, " . " . l"Bit<t ]IOns. S'~c.O'ral

Ofgam1<a,tu:msare a, case m pomt, Environmental thr -~ I . d' ~:

b -'- tt - . m'- k' e.J,..". an 'rt!fonn

,Dr an,', mlg.ra,' l,on,' sex tra C, mg.a od, wag'e;s, ,pre:(lateth, .. 1 b .. 1:--"-, "

d "L This i ll! h ~ lh e 6'0 a~Gn

e lL)ate., 113 1 m pnes t '.h i i es e groups, were prlrnariliy ~Us.bed '

the pu rpo, se of deall ltg, with these issu, , es, and .. lobali7-~ . fu1 E' , -'0 ~~_;j dlmensi . !Y ....... uOD. q,lmp y mtro uceo new II mensi on S 0]" reoriented the sawe -anaiJSit$ afth

problems. Thus. sectoral groups ~h~t b;~ye rem;rlned.l~yaI to lh: mandates and thrusts are eonsistent m making tbeill! advacac rel~va~lt to? the ecnteruporary ccntours of,globali"mUon. WOkln!}! globabzatlonas another factor lhat may present new chatJ.e.nr,es aad limitatiens to their organiz-ations can be considered a pOlii8i1lte startillg point for this discourse since ghlba1i6atian del!rr~y exacerbates pre-e:dsting problems ef their foci! C!onS:litll'ents.

In light of this, the perceived impac! ,of gloDwhiatian on the organizaticu's constituency isa factor that mny shape its tliM:eurs including lrs key issues of concern. Fr~lmjng th{i! orgffiiliution'~ undersrandl ng of globa lizaUon may occur in th e precess ,ufeNami.nm these effects. Til,is is evident ln rhe d'enni,ticms ()ffered by the Ol'g,an.i:t..a'lions. whieh focus un glo,baiization's l'lffeets Oil eertain .sectors (glob81"'~1!I;tiofl M "curtailment of workers' righ1..~" A '~destrudon Ol ecosysrem and environment and c,risis of nat ural resources," "displaeernent 101" r~nne["$," d(,~,), "the key ceneerns also nddr-.ess :>pedfie governm 'ut policies (e.g. '''''!TO Agreement OIl AgrlcuJtnrc. asset reforms I privatizn lion uf GOCCs. de regulation t}f i ndustrit's, cte.]. It is lrikely, then, that the jssues taken up by d\'il society are more of.!l. product of govern men t deelsions and <lCUtH1Ji I rather than a spontaneous response to globalization. Civil society organizations deal with these po,liey questions. mainly beeauseof their urgency and impact. as they coneern their constituents and the. populaee in geneml. f'sped.al1y in so fa.r ,'IS ~hey impinge en the principles of democracy, n ati on al securi t y 01' sove.reign ty.

Allbough key issues define areas for advocacy, the mandate/ thrust. Ideological orientation, constituency, leadership, and general stan ce on globaUzE'i tinu shap e the 5U bstanee of the aetual strategies, its shown here, most advocacy strategies pertatn to govemmcnt policies in re 1ation to gl 0 ba ~izat[(m~ specifically those on fiscal an d monetary" trade and Industry, food production and labor or those euncerning the economic: infrastructure of the country. This th€ ref ore dovetail S with the fi no 1 ngs .of the researc h that glo balization is primarily understood by civil society through its economlc

CHAllEN'GES .A,NO RIEFLECT~'ONS ON TH,E GlOB,A.LIZA,TIO'N DISCOURSE

nlis study has presentee..' the per:G.p 'dives and positions of selected dvH $oC'ie·1Y groups in the PhUippines on the glabl1.h1~tion discourse. Thl! research demonstrates 'thal there are differences In the groups' analyses, eoncerns and aetions u\ .. 1I11g to their div~rse l~eaiogic-..'I.L rnmll~works. organ izational mandates and cons tuu enc I es. Both glaring MId subtle differences Ul their pnsitions and analyses are highlig,hte,d in order to demonstrate the shades of, divergence and 1Lonvc:rgen~e, spaces for c.oape{-Iltlol'l and possible windows for eollaborative aetion, as well as Ob\·jOh1S areas of disagreement.

nEFINING 'rHE DISCOURSE

F(w any org<miz.ation to identit)' ito;; key lsSU~5;_ or areas of concern and its conse-quent responses and. adn}cacystralegy,lt must first esrablish a working definition or understanding of glubalizalion., Following the conceptual Irsmewnrk pre..<;cnted'in Chapter r il iii clear mat an nrganlzatlon's analysis of the ccncept C~lD be influenced b::. its mandate/thmst . .ideo1ogical orientation -r constiruency ami, po.ss.lbly, leadership style. This unidirectional flow seems to be a logical app roach in esrab 1 i sh:ing a globs lizat i on ~ d lscourse" "it'll i n Ph H i ppine civil societv. Howeverva more engaged reading of each chapter suggests that the fermulatton Q1 an oraanlzannn's understanding of gl~baUzati(Jl) Il1<W nat strictly follow thi-. process of deiine<~ring the

----------~---------------------------

dl m ensions, Thus the-key issues taken up by ·d~i1. society are a res P(Hl se to gaveznmen t deci SiOBS associ ,81 ted with eeonomie globalization, In addition, there is a w:idcl,';.s.h<!tl"ed perception th at the market and multilateral institutions have undermined state autonomy, as reflected in the policies of dereguliil1.ti.c)l] and pli.vati:mtion espoused by tbegovemment.. TIl is h as been a com m on conesrn ofcivil :society organiaations and has resulted in. '1ncre.asOO, action and pressure OIl:. the part. of civil society for a more ]Jl.'Ioae-tive state or a revitaliaatlon ni' po]i.ey capacity,

In addition, af ne-gra ined lnterp:retanon on the definition, key areas of concern. and alternatives advanced by civil society dernonstrates jhat one ortwo vanabl es within the pro:fi:leo r the organ~zation can affect their analyses and positicns. Of speelal s~gnjficanc'e are the nrganii':~tlon's ideolegical erlentetien and cons litu en cy. Still, I be exte r'! l of i Ilnuenee 'G f th ese p rincipa I factors diffe:r5- depending en lhe typ~ of the gr:gsnizatioI'l ,left pohtic:d, blocs and mfieaTrn i£il!'itit1J.tiOIl:ii, for instance, have a more th.eo-retically grounded lI.pprcc:iation of the glob1"llizatlun trend. while sertoral ~toUp~ understand &;~Obil1iZS'Lio n hHg:eI}· as it affects their constliuents. To ilh.l:5tIlil.h: W5 point, ideological cricntation-mBiniy socialism, seeial d.emocraey and national dCrrlil~ICl'acy-is the oV'€:rdding alement that frames ~he i'lnalyses of po! Ttica! Qrganb.a.Lions (Akbayun, Bay.crn MtmrJj KP'D" Pa.daycm., PANDAY.'\N, S.J\Nl...!\j(j\,S ~nd Sf'P) ~ nd seeteral &roup.~ !I!l!ffili:ill ed to ~h~'ie poliriea I blots (i .e., ArL, BMP, GAJlIUE.LA" iUtlu). N" !!:tlGnai po·1 i er Elndl o~ ra,ct\!,'(lrk NGO~. while irodi.ned to refer c{)mjsten.tly '10 their organb'.:.llHoo:liJ mandate! th rust as tbe ba s~~ of ao.<t\yii.ngLh~·globaLi.zatiOL'l pbenl!ll.!ll ~non. still bold on to C£!rtru'l'l prlhd.pl es and beliefs (i.e .• J\.E R, FE.F ,roC. :foe us, mON~ PR.Rl\1.). 011 the other hand, sector-based organizanons (i.e, labor, women, indigenous people.g, envieonmeat, ete.] are more predisposed to take positions on g.!l)b~H1:.31iGn based oaperceived :i mpaets Ol'll. thdl· eenstirueneies in the real III erecone mie, poll l ieal, soc ial, cultural and enviranmental rights,

Thf:: civil soeietv discourse. on gl obalizati en has direr ted the wuious:eou'rses of action employ-ed by civil society. Per example, SOT'l1~ gTOUf'l'S, such as &MP, S.\NL~KJ!LS. SPP and ]{J)D who believc tbat giobalizatien hag undermteed the M.padty of the state (which for them. is H ui nstrumen t of ca.pIta I) have doubted theeffectiveness of state engagement as a st::n3:ie.gy for change, Also. organizations whoaclrn.owledgewhat .Ri.cham Falk calls wglohaJ.i7.atio.n from below" have attempted to. reinvigorate the irrternarionalisatien (Df people's connectivity a n d so It da rl (yo _ Pa rtici pan ts i 1:1 the mov emen t for globalization from below havevarted agendas. but the movement's unifyi.ng m ission i~ to gai n eontrol over l he st ru ctures and. i nstitutions

CONVERGING AND DIVERGING PERSPECl1VES,

r IJ mappi ug the con VEll".gences and eli i vergence:s 'Within t11 e cjv n s0dety discourse on &10 ba Iization it is h e-lp ful to r-evbit the di'ffefllllit schools of _lhought OIl globalization put funvard by Held (llyper-g t<jb~Usru; Sk.fipti esand tn:ms!(m~lat[ OlJalfsts).thc :!J'l'lol,ogy of gl'obalcivil s!),dcty proposed by Anilei,erel al, (S{~pPOFM!·.~. refo·rrrM".~ts, l'Ci{u:N()~If.:~t.~ and "jlt~rn(,[li.rJes) discussed in Chapter 1, ilnd Schults's types nf propositi'on I1ihom globalization (rej()nnilS'flI and r('ldic~ll~'sm) and ~~h.em~ of advecacy of Philippine civil society (rfl/urm ~(J r~i~dJ ill Chaptev 4, AlthQugh It Il1ll)' not be (Ippropcia:ua to put C80s in ~J box1 these matrices ."Irt" hrdpful in explaining what <LCCOUllts fur the slmihnx and couflkUng P~H~P(;Cl]VM on~tQb!!HUltirm" The truthls that even if I:hege or~nh-atl~'H)~ belong W the ~e~clLl:siveil definition or ~''-'lcti:visf' idea 'of civil ~t)d~ry thllY are nol lremegeneus, Because ,of t.hei.rn-'lhu"C; ideolo.g.~cs ~nd history, I hey arc probably ~vcn mere polarized ~han other types of dvil society groups in relatlan to Lh~ 'i.'isue of globali'"utk~Il. WiUlj!l each element that rtCinslit!:1tc:5 tIle "diseeurse" -defi1:'t~ ~i1t.ml understanding of eivll society. k~y areas of .eoncem, and nctiens and respcasea=are convergences a 1:1 d cl i vergenees tha t could ei ther faeiHta'le 0 r hi nde r cooperation. In r~C'l. eacb factor may even be eonstdered ;380 a separate set of "discourses" altogether.

Thus in pl"tl:viding a cartography of how eivil soeiety clef'h'U~,- s t.he "glo bal ization" COli eep rL Ll tan be seen that these selaeted ci.ril society groups do not really provide any innovative eonceptualisation of the. term. Thesf' org,ttlij!;<itiorl!; mainly look at it M <ttl established eoncept, a ccntinuing theme or an evolvedp-ac.kage of [n eo )nber,al (or i TTl pt:Tia,li~t} ideas, Though the fn aj 0 rHy (Jf rhese civil sodety ,groups _.vie\'-. globl1lizatiDn as, an ccon omic;: phenomenon associated above allwtthueoliberallsm, a deeper analysis of thelr explanations indicates that similar perspectives may aC'u,l.ally lead to varying reaetions, As CHapter ~ shows, the pol ttica I aspect of

118 Phi hppmo Civil :,.o~'INy and th .. ~ Cloballl,';linn Di~collrs.e'

g]obalhalion ermtains U1(, fine lines of di\rergeilce sinee these organlzations have cit, agreements over the state and role (lfdiifE'f'cnt .actots in defining new roles for the state within the: context of glohalizattcn. Groups that expressed qualifired "Support look at globalization as a potential process or set o· mechanismsrc attain develcpment, Others, by contrast, maintain th.d globulizstiou is nothing hut a new form of impenalism, Yet other groups recQglllze the realities (If free market capitalism and interconnectedness; but support the need to modify its present tendency SO that the distribution of its supposed benefi .' is: fulfilled. Discrepancies rn meanings. forms and implications uf ~loballi..1.tian would naturally lead to divergent advocacy strategies- and rlI~rnatirn: po,Yicy agendas to the erlsUngp.u'adigm. How~' .. er, it is interesting to highlight the fact 'that ~ithougll some groups share similar .. iew1: or perceptions on an alternative to globaliz.ation (fur example, rn The C3S'e or Baytu'l Mtmu, KPD. RAN1AKA.<; and SPP. who all equate globaltzaticn with "trnpertalism"), tnc~' fail to collaborate, and maintain discrete st rutegies, 'nh'~ reason fotthis lies outside the globalizatlon lssue.Tn light of this, fl ml'ly be worth (lxplonng Ihe Impllcations of their ncrimcnious relations for chil soclC't)·re,o;:;pon~l.$ in future studies.

Within very spedtk Issues and poliC}1 advocacy there is, Tiule divergence in terms of II !').nIysc); and pesitions, Fni instance, 3 degrt@ of unity is attained on the issue of agTicuhuI'1'I1Hbern1i:r.ation. Massi\re revenue kisses from agriculture. even from eash erep production l'ikl' vegetables, due to l1 riff reduction of imported products have led rivi} society ((I lobby fo,r agrieul: ure to De taken our of '[hI! ""ITO regime. nl£ majority of the l')fJJi~y·reseatth oljtanil.\Ition.o;; and other civil SOciety group in the studj h.a,,·e also converged around the call fur finance and tax reform a.~ a renec1ion ofthe palpable "l.dne-raoiHty of the P'hUippihe financial m~rket in an iDcrell:-tingly globalized eeorin my. The sea rch for a comp re nensl"'ealld sustainable development strntcgy at the: macrc-econornie level is like .... ise ttboed by most of the if:! spend ents, Jb for the ] aber orga nizatio us, protect Ion of workers against further unemployment and ca.sual.ization brought by trade Ilberalizatlori is frequently mentioned, This "minimal" di sercpancy in analyses -a nd posi rlons has Jed W issue-based cooperation old,,!! society groups as shown in the ease of Fair Trade Alliance 'and Stofl-the-New-~ound Coalition, where membership cuts across political or ideological lines. These coalitioes <let as pressure •. md lobby groups to influence government policies pertaining to trade Iiheralization sanctioeed b~T the ,~\~o or other i merna t lonal economic i nsritu t ions.

'Ihrs study has been able to identify possible areas of COopcf21tkm though their usefulness "."Till depend on the npenness of these civil society ~rouys to ~ol"~ willingly ... ~ith one another. Theoretically, cooperation IS possible 1f these organizations can ream to rise abeve their ideokiglc.a1 or non-ldeclcgical differences and explore new polities 1 opportunltles. But impediments to substantive cooperation remain. These rnay be the result of thelr need to maintain their umqu~ne..'G~ p:rtiserve. their idt'llfltily. or other frictions 'from the past, ~nsu.nngth~'~ these differences do not becomethe cause ofpermanent ofts Hi 11. majorehelleuge posed to these selected civil soeietygronps,

On the whole. understanding the globalizstton discourse at the level of civil society it> important H i.~ the starting point fur assesslng hO.\'" readily ideas and issues can be trunslated Into arneulated interests th u t can, in bun, he advanced through policy networks and movement:\']. of change, Sifting thmugh the thought-processes and ld~a-formahon of civil. .q'odcly grout's I'lS thc~' grapple with the often b~wnde1i'i,ng rhanges thug provtdes impcrtanl reflections on the possibilitios of ~ new politics ('If ,c:,onL':cllVe He! ion and of the vel)' rea] challenges posed by c(lflh~mf'lotnry globalizlI'tion. Naturally, Itlvergences in perspcclives and strategies art' alwllYs likely b present given the diverse experiences and nllt II re of these civil s()cicty gr,oup5. Al lh~ seme time, lho(~ spac~s fur convergene ~ should also be acli:Mwleuged nnd tlU.l·!tu'c:d by these 'org.ln,Zil.tfons not only in the rca.lm uf dif;CrlU!'SC bUI aJ~o in uctlon, h is up to civil SOC.I~t.y groups themselves whether they would rflther be heaul as lit ma,guificcilt symphony cr a unc[m~Wlliul cacophony. Continued investigatien of civil SOc:i'Clty perspeetives on the globalization discourse should be encouraged. The IlJlalj'si:'l 011 bow selected eenter-Ieft groups frame tbeir uaderstanding», sctlons andresponses to globalization is also relevant: to further tlxplOraUe'll of other (:h;1 society organizations outside this political spectrum aml lither civil !w<::iely formarleus with different coustituencies, such .:lJ' wligiom. Instimtions and business groups. Sucb future research would provide a more comprehensive picture of tthe ,civil societv discourse on globallestton, Above all, these processes need to be ilnalyzed in terms of the shift .. in the struetural politicsl conditions in which thev t!flle:rge,as a eenstltntlve element of Philippine society, G -

ANNEX i H1

AIN'NEX 1

.t!]9QlrrlSt tfl.e ,economic (;,ISFS, end fer tne provis:ion of ample basic ~arviee5, genuine land reform ond food.security. KPD also ioins. <brood coolirion.s wlil-! lobor federations, entrepren-eurs end religious 9,roups en rel(]r~d -ssvss. rKe'l Inf-ormanl': Sordo Sote, Chcirperson]

Poadcyon.1 is a mO$5 mO'llEtmel1lfodion of the ThIrd force moe IlQ1 ~pli' from the Communis! Porty 0+ the I?hllip'pifl9S rep!,,) il'l' 1992,/93_ II claims to b~ "Q~o6a~h;I, p1t1fOlfSI Clndd,amQCrafie PQ~i'i(;(]1 ofgonizutior'!,n p{lld~yon farmlJ1Uy he-I d qh c.ong ress In 1999, 01'1110 ug h il wo.s oonve ned rn Elorly 1997, Saven ry percent of iI:s members ar,B pB(l~onls., 15% belong fo Ihe urban, pOor end 15% are Ircrn fhe' lobor .s.!!c.l'or, youth, eh::. PC'dqyon ls on cnti:-CClpilclisl pll"ojed IhCl~ nOve nces ru re I d@mocr'OH~'Q,tiQ Ii Hl'lru mass meverneets 't:it"ld engagemenl.~ ~Iobbying, advQC(lc.y, direct porliclpalion in 9,o'letnant::ej, (Key InformQIlI:

Iilic.ordo R!!'I'EiS, Chalrperson]

PR'Ofl1 LE Of I NTERVI EWE D RESPONDENTSl

Akbaycnt Cmzeml' Action ~orty defines; ilself os os,o.:::lolisl. dem-oaa ic ond p'Uf(]t~s1 po,lIl:col party thol run and won two- 59Oj5 IJnQer Ihe pCIIify,li~ !lloctio("ls, in 2001, J I 'Won a '5 in Shl ~l1a1 in Ihe R ~t porty-I i ~l '!!!!KIrons It'! T 9 98. II was founded on JEF!"Iumy 17,1 (;)9,B ond has a mu~li-sedO/01 oonStrruell!kV' II Is. corilPQsed IOfgely of peOS<l111s, wor1ulr:o ..... omen. youl" gnd 5Nden1'5, £JOYS cmd lesbians, middle doss, migror'1! wOlken, ond prof~icnlJr1i Ald;myon k5 '!lMI~10r'led to be"c mCitor "'!lhide for ,he ptoloolon and pUr$uil or a progrS'J!.siv.e rcrorm (J{l"'ll1da whl~h has, Ihy'li fer, ~en bypa5:5oo cod l'1ogtlKleci by nil Ph.lipping gov',lrnm8f"!L· (Key Inf~rmcn'l~ Reynoldo "Enlgn:g· G\le~o, Member. Ak boyan S!:!c.rQtDfi oi}

P,maoYlIli'l pora !!!o SosyglisforlgP~1 ipinel's (Foroil'l'g iJ Sc:n;itlni~ Philippinnll 'Qr PANIDAYAN, describes ilseH GS HI] democratic 'soclailr;t Flol1fiool Q'{lClni:l::@I'km wllh 0 muUi-:seeJorol, gr(J:s~rOQts b(]~g CimOi"!g work~rs, per;l~(lf1tl ond H~~elrfolks., urbClIl POOf, youlh I:lnd women," Irl'vol"';t)d boolh il"l po!itic;;CJI NlInd comml;lrri1y ,or-goni1.inij, i, w05 founded ~'n M(lrrn 1987. tl<ie), Informaf1i1: Arturo 'Soy" Nu ro, memf;)fIr)

Bayon Muna (IPeople FifS't) .. loundctl til I 999, f~D notiengl prog(iS;S.si ... polilicol pCHly wilh 13 u!QIQnol office~ and 57 dl(lpl,[!fS In mQlIOJ prOl.nf1e,os, ci11f,l~, olld Fnuniclptllilis$ i"ICilionwide Qluli works clo~f!1y ""dh o,her naljol't~1 d mocrorlc oq;;o.,izo~lorl~ like Bagonu Alyarlsong Mo c'oO:Ylln [New F'glrioljc. All i one: ) or SAY AN" Soya I'l Mu n-c wan I h rl!e ~l'lts In lhe House o! Repm.sel'llal ivmo lJf1der 'the p!Jrty,I;~f etet:1IDn~ In 2001. I1s purp019 fS .~Q unswervmgly pu~h Ihe pee pi ~.~ ag B ("Id ~ I'Or bosle rafciri'n Clru:i f!!Df I essly exp!OOO- end opp~ g.cwem rrumf policie~ wMi(.h di~adwm1aSll; th~ j)eo-p'ii,· Among il~ program!' ond ptrnc.'ipI9$' Is. Ie promote 1'J s!?lr find ~~lJ.sICi·inobte sotio·ecol'1omil: ae1l'EIClpment Ihn::l!J9n Ihe !nlegt(]lj;ld prosrcms 0:1 Qanuins' lond reform J\Dtl<l'fml U.,du~lr'alJ;QI'IOn enG elflv[ronmI;H,I' prol~ctioJ'. fKe1In!Q.m'lr.mt~ Sano,!, Af'f~(c, Lag~¢'li~e ~i~~Cil'l'llo COrlgrfl.s.!'>mon Salur Occmptlj

50 ndi'O'CJ:nl n G L(:Ilkc~ c I D6m,olk"o~!I'V1J 1'19 So mbo.),,(DI'lt'l.1l j'U p holder of Pocp!lol!i 1P;.O:WQr 0 nd Oomocrccy). SJ\NI.AKAS, is 0 sod(l rrs~ 1'1 (:lIliOnwid6i muIH.saC'lQt(i11 orgOl"1h:otion eslabllshod 10 work 'tow!lfds Ih "Gliligtl'llenmlili'1I, dQ>lo'~~~lprTl~fll '(Jnd empow!1Irm@.l'1i Qt Ihe p~~ple 10 dofu.nd jh~il ngh'l Clnd W(llfCir\tl ,cma t(;! pursue, 0 bailor ~Y!l;t€lm 01 gOVEl rn.onc(J Ihot lS, I nAy res Flomil"'l.'l .0 rn!!l "eed~ of Ihe mor9TnoJi~ecl section of 50du+y through all forFTl$ !:'~ 5lru99re',~ II WCI!. founded in 199<1, SANLAKAS Wfl~ Ihe former B,I\YAN NotiDnal Copilal R:egio.n. ehc JPu~r !'n.o1 ~ep{m:I'I'A(l fliOrr'i Infl moi Ii orgtlft i:zc1'i en, liS l'!~tJ i II baSt; i~ ((lmpos(!-d o,F IClbor ~r'OlJr~ tInO Ihe ur'bcm po,or iFi Ine copitel region, p8cr~Md~, m Ni!1g'O!l end Pc:moy, c,omml.ll"1ity youth, ''Sludenls, one women, II~ probl'rD'r'i"ls In .... olve moinly' polilil;ol mobili~QlrQn, campaign ond ad'vocccy, (K~y Info I monl:

V-/1b,odl Forlt:ii leze, Noti encl Chg i Fp.er:5.(.m)

ttl I u S,O r) po'ro sa Pc m b.a n S 0 I"Ig D erne knnyCiI (Move m e nt fe'r NQ'lh;:Hla~i$m ,and DElmor..j,~~ or !(PO }s a 1Xl1Jhcoi orguni;ml ion fulrmed (I'fier ,[I brenk-up with naliorml e!e:moc;:rnhc. gmi,lp.! Ilk", BA'i',o\ KPD w!llS founded on June 10, 1998_ It!; me.mhetsl-1ip bCi~ includes worK€:rs, ~-omnl5. fisher folk, profes~i,cnols. re.ligioos,> nalionaltsl bU:51n~u people mdigel1CW$ people, 'louin o.nd Sll.fden!~. end IJ'.I'Om~n, Amor;:g 1tS wogrom::;; ort! COrripOi9n~

Soll'ClI.is.tOI'1IJ Partido ng Paggowo' (5odolhl Pony D" labor). SP,P. defines ilselt as "0 'SQi[iclis! pcliticol orgoni2ctien, N SPP is, .he re-~IJU t!f tI n..s.jgn oJ jW<J, or9'OI"Iizotlon~ in T 998 I the Ugo 5.osvo.lis1 ~I (Socloli S'I ~Cl9ue) gnd the Reb.o lus:fOnoryong Po:rli do rig ProIataryo ~ j;!!Wo I WHOM ry Potty 0 ~ I he Pro!elc riot) or RPP, Liga Sosyolista is a splinter group of Ihe brookc""Or)' CPP-Monila-Rizol 9 rou P I ad by Filemon "Popoy" LClgman, RPP 0 n th 8 01 h at f.tCII~d, is <C! breakowQy group of 1he 193,Os Partido Komunista ng Pilipll'l(]~ (F'hilippjne Commwn~$t PorI'll Of PKP, SPP me,-geci with Portido ng Mang-gagowol"1.g Filliping IFiliplflo Wor.ke1"S Pony), PMP, in Ao.gust 20m, S?P is primarily compcsed or workers bul

1 Or9"n1~'(ll'joncl bt?~h\JRls. offic[ct wc~i1es (llne1 p.lblic,~tial1;= ~~ rho;; m{Jin 5C'IJfCi9~ for !he pr OifllG of the rS5;PO<!'I<dem:>_ In jf;£. flb~ c<= 0+ ; uch dCXlJm~.n;';, ke~ onJo;mQl'liS .. supplied ·ltlE·ir o!lm cBS4;riptio."I Qf Iheir or-gGruzotIQoi"i:lo, 'nd;C'::l"i!d in ma ';rlEi:j= quc!atiOlFl marks_

----------_.--------~---

ils comh!uerm::y 01$6 il"duces peoscnts, stutle-tlls. urban eoor, end womerj"s: groups; (Key In-hormonl: Sonny Me lo:!l<r:;iQ , Chtmpersonl

Nationa.1 poncyResearch and Network N.GOs

Acncm lor E~rlemic R.etorms. (AE.Rl is [J nClncgov~nr"r;!'l~ :!:lfganizatiaT' doi[lg poli(.yonaly:sis end gdyo~tlqr Of'! ~onom;l: issues fO<;l.oolng on m{]O""O" economy Md its Ii n ~ to po Y/:irrtr gn d I!!quity Cj1.:.f s~iC'ns A IT'O:n.g its goo ts e nd i rrterve I'Jt~o r'I ~ ints me pu"H"i ng irl plcc~ Q maaoeco.n:C)rlU( e 'W I ron m~fl! tho! oddre'5!>e5 equl1y, d!:lmocrofizof 0[1 ond $usto;(lO'btlil'y, end building cop.ot:lfy ot people's Qrg(;lnr..o!If.}f'~ and hlGOslo ;nt5!rv~~ U"I !KoFiomic poli~ i5SV~. lrwcs founded in 1996 end ilr. formel office wc;:;, e"<.-tobiishea In T997 AER;s en active member 01 ihs. SlOP ihll N~I"" P.ol.md CW!"I!:lIl-~hHipplfl@:S. l:cmpolgnln~ o~oinsllhe "New Issues" 10 irc.da ne-g.'Ohrrtmn'!>. I ey Info monl- Filomene S1e, Ana III, Fxecunve Dir~ctt;nl

For:UBi On Ihe Global So~lh (fO.cUS1 i~ CI resenrch ond o;d..-omcy or'gtH'I~~oIIDn founded in 1994 di!'d:«I'IOO 19 leJ;lioJ1'il' (lFlcl gr'Obal Ol'lcr I}';!; is. rniere- rnecre is''liu LU !; n k I FlB, n n d g d ... ,o.mcy work. U i5 one or I Ii e leodil'llil compoigl'l <I:{l1i"I1CJr~ 'ogcinr;1 rQrporo1e-drl~'!u,. globolfl'Ctloll. II 1:5 bo:s.ed in. Bangkok. ~vrlh cHle:!l~ il' MonilD. lJ'CImtr.cy Clnd Gen!!';'o lIs Phirtpprne p"qgrum uodertoke-$ re:gula[ mS€lcrc:h Orld momlorlog 01 Ito-de ~roomD".~ entered mtf,l by the governmil1'l'I, povorly raducncn ~TJD'I~gll~S 01 In!! IMF 'r,'I{8 Iii the Philippines I;llnd pllVO l«o~ion 0 ba5l1: 5ill'¥lc:e:~ end (;(111'01 I dJ.lS~I~_ iKey Inf'Qrmol1t J nintl Joy ChQVill Me I I:l'fuan, Samor Res.eorch ~~otICli!!! and Pn~ippine ProgrlJr'li CoordinOl0r)

flOLJndotiQ!1 for bwrtomic FnmcQJ[I (FIEF) i~ Of'! in~li1ul,on I)stobli!he(l ln1 99'~ wl,i~h seeks '6 pi! d~fuF\.e.i proledion.[sl ~dfrOtog~il$ ogOln.$1 rn~~ mtIrke:t idees. The found-alion for E~·onomi{ Fnll!Cofl'l was e1to.b.ilihed by j)'Ol'loml~!s. ~olic.y.mo!um;. b""$1fl(l$!l leod~tS, 'Ol1d I:Id~l;Xr::rre'li ;;Ij chongo Ir'l rhe PhrllPPlne E(:,OrlOm\l', conca rne:d ~ the lo ..... I E'V1l1 t;l~ pub lie app reoe 11011 lor Ihe: d ~rlorrlJ£!11 Qf(l frB>EI rnorket economy, IK,t:)" InformCltw Ed 'Kori CoFtlnf"!, f~Otc,-,h"'e Dir~~)

friiar:lcm from Dabl Coalition (FDCI .... cs fo.rmall., eshJbllsked in.

Mmch 1988. I, do I rns 10 ho.·e 0 mt:!mhEr:sn,p o' around 200 o rgnnizoliQn!; wi!" .... tI!)'in.g pollticcl and ideologi(:ol ~fS.pff1 .... es. The- fDe hos. (l broed-besed memhersnip c·noompassing a brood ronglli. of ~rol orld p.oll!i-({l[ torces end a high'degree ~j professienol and echnlClll cmnpajencs_ I en"'J~ions (I free end dernccrcric Phi.llpplrl~& ...... here debt IS nm t!I b~,d(ln bul on In$=rl:.!m~fIT of growth end equ.Lly FD.c'~ o~vococ~ ore{lS ere ils.co.l tina mone!of)' pQllci~-s- dOfb.r; m .... Jti!aterol finOindal ir'L~!HutiQfl'5; rnonopojj~ One. lneor regvlohon; a":{!8~s., deli\l'''Slr~, ~'nd regulcr1'iorl of publit: LlHI~ii'l'S Q.~d sOoQ. *f"'"ce:;, developrner'll tIIod regul.i;rtian of ·Iwooe end :'jnance; and pubk pO '~.o!'!-:~ or looor ond ""ork_ lK~y InFQrmont: Fr~nO:;E!5 Lc, Progfow OHi-cert

mON foundation In'c:. (IBONj .~ !J rS~~r -ec<.:ti:,,!on-mtormorior: clevelop,men. Jnsrllut'ofl. IBON 'Lnd£no.;i';~ Ih~ ~llJ[:,') y.:. '5OC!O-e::Of1l;1rn't j~s.ues

r;;onfronti['lg Pnillppine 50c;e~y ~fld th'~wGrld teldoy, 11 exclores nllero;oti"l;!s nnd promoles a neW underslonding of :!;Qc!o-e.t:;Qnomit: Issues that b€lS! servli!' t~e nrerests ond ospiroricns of tna Fflipin:) pscpla. ~aON commit, to bring Inis kno.wledge end informofion 1'0 tn~ gmo:te:~,." .... mbsr $0 lho1 the people may effectively pcrficipute in buildinq 0 .~elf~I""i!lionl cmcl progressive Ph.~~ipp'nes. 0 nC1ioF'l thct i~ sovereign (Ina dElmm:n::rlic. II W05 founded [n1978_ ~K@')' Informon1: ROliIJriO l3ellCi Gunl'mn, 1:;(l'lcullve Diredorl

Ph'i ~ippi lit! D€I'I,I'B~opmen'l NG05fur Il1h:!fno1ioflol Cc.ncerns (PHlILlNI<:) is CI (1 cons~lilIn"Il of Phi1ippino development NGOs, NGO networks, orrd pl!tcpls's orgorrizertrQr[s workirl9 fm aquitcble, p.O'rti-:;;ipotory and ~iJ5tm"gbI6 dll'V{l~opmerl'- 11' is (I coming ro'~elh(~r of orgoniz.l;rl'QJl~ w[lh oommon gools and pBrSp!K:lives_ If envi~I.QI15 0 globed w·rnml.l'ndy of I;ili~em and cornrnunllles-cdiverse, mulli-cerll!'~1:-en90ged in !lolidofl'ly I!:,,:olil)'. regiClnol'ly, end glob(lll'l' 'Qword~ forging C1 jusl. eqIJi1cb1e, ond pDr1ic::ipoi'ory O!"d~f_ Am'J1l9 hs progmmrTlel1it ihrus's is: knowledge networking in dlllJll[opmon1 IS$\IeS Oli'nOl'1lJ Philippine and '1~1efr'L(]IliQnlJ!1 rN()rlh und 50LJlh) CSO.s ~Ke)' rl1forl'i'iGn!: Liazl FormiHtM:.a, COO~I,di"l!("j.o.rl

Phi I i ppirra R:"Hol Rl!lcol1strlJ~fkm MQ"'~HtU'li'l1 tfiRRM) 15. CI

rlQr'gClV6rnmElrifal orgof'li%oiJ.on ei'l9Cl[}ed m Ihe desifi.ln end irnp!cmenlollon of rnmTf1unity (ill'1d nl;lb[11[lI' dliVoaloprnei11 prQgrl'lms IJIr::TCl~~ 'rhe orel-i'p'~1'1:i9Cl, 11 ~um5 Ie nhenca ~hc cCipaeily of rUl'\ol comn'wnrti{ls in th ·plonrrillg. ~d"'Q~my elnd Implei'iwnlolion. of s1J5.·I'Qifl(lbl(: developmli'l1i, IhrolJah r;Jn 1"1~9flll'!ld program of @duccdiol"l, livelihood. hooll'Ih., l1obifClI, tlnvironm nt, and ~nH.goverflc!l!'Ie~. Pf.lRM a·n ... i:;;ion!l o war!,,1 (l,r g'CIiI,.rily end ~u!llclinoblilly- "ihr fu!ure is: OI'HJ whorl! ~Qciel'Y is fre!1l of ignoroJ'Iccl rH;lv~·r1y. di".~{l!'l, end pow6rhWj[~es.s, Clnd dlitvE!~(:lpmenl I'oke~ plc.co wlfhln thtl envlrenmanl's corryint;l capElcil): Ii wO~ k!unded In 1952. (Key Inlorm(lnt; J~t;l9<lnl SaHclI1o, Senior Vi(;,I£l.Pre1'[d~nl)

Issue-based and/o.r Sectoral Advo,cacy and PaUey Research Otganiziilillions

Allicn'Ol! -of IProgf.i;-5Sh .. ,e Labor (APL} founded In November 1996, I.S e "ru::niol'lo1 lobof caMer." Consislenl with Irs bi!lie·f in sccicl rno ... ernent un[onis.l"!'l. APL bcs bviH jlsei'f ns a "rm/hi.form canter", drowil1fli rn'Q ,15 ford various rClrms 0.£ lobor QrgQnil.cliom. and not IUSI irode WfIlOn(; In 1he lulI.!I!?, APt sees i1selr os c singul,or unien structure consolidered olol~9 indu~lr)' end geogmphictl1 lir'les_ APl was forrncllv o.rgoni1ed on .Nov~mbl!ll 1996 !hrol.lgh (l. N(l~iotlol Founding Congre~s.of more than 100 trcda Ul1lons r'lolionw1de end dllfl<S-poyi r'l9 rnembe r5 of 30 ,000 ~ !It if; mm mit! e d fo • h e Cl d-mn cE;: me nl' of "',sOldo' Movemel1'l Unie>ni sm" - CI. strotegy dlf.!;lded 'Cr! r~cogfl i1;lng, 0 rga n ill r'l9 ond mo.bi li;;:j ng all fypes pf woortel"S and un i MS ro r engog emel'1!lS In d rffer·e·nl ~r"eno.s of struggle. Thi5 slrategy tlf !"Iol li.mil!ld to "Irod'e union» orgQnl'ling. t'lr'ld hos ~een develop.ed precisely ~O' re,spond 10. ni;!w '11'10" crrcmg,""mef'!1'5 where t:lmploye-a-emplayer rel'r.tiorl:Sh'ips db no! exi!>1 or are 1)01 d~Dr. I~y tflformanl! .JOSlJO MOTO, SecretQI)'-Ge:neml)

B.u k~u ra n i'I g Mc:mg g'C!!Q'ow>an g pai p il'lCl"--POlFti,do fig MOI'IQ gcS,c'IoIlc ~Sol~dadty of Fmpino Work)el!'"~~WMkt!ns' P~Myl en BMP-F'nM define~ itsell 0.5 ~a pOliti,eo I cel"llrer od,>,,or"long 0 '$"O;~~c:!lj~t o(i€!rilatiOcf'l fOl' W(::.r!.::.e~'Scm:d uniont>." I~ was forr'rl1sd in 1993, righfoiterlh~ ~eg!onoJ cho~=e~ of ins, KiIUS(lt'l'g Mc7'o U no ~MU) in ~'ro ~ ni 10 ond ~~ol, doiming 10 f~prew nt mo~e them 70'% Q,f ~U'5Io1:a1 membership, bofr~olJ= from ~tU_ The fo~me,r K!¥!.U-NCR decided to form the SMP espousing CI dernc'l:rc:lic one! s'OCr:tiJIi:s~ orierrlalion. BMP dlJims membership of T1flO're tho!l 200 lo~a[ uniDns fIIC!f~o,.,wicle ..... ilh 0 mC!5.~ membership orover 1 OO.,OOO.lIolso dtlim5infiu~~ lo ~rn'E! 800 im:leperu:lerd union~ through I{PUP ~Kopcr11 Fe n "9 mg IJ~ PooguJo og UnYQI f'I 5Q Pi I i pi n05~, c frat·ernaJ orgC:Ii1llzah@flI of lO-C"!!I1 unien prE!!SidS'rJls in the Philippines. It5 bess 'lJl'1d oUiad un kir'l-S ora'o,rgo n ~4gdin rot! n LJOOdUftng end S9fflJ[e in dUslrie::>, cl1emroa~s ond mi nes, 'o'9fi~eu !jure, c'Orisl ruCifon (lind 1m rt5porl I Key I nrormol11: L:!IDCIly de GiJZffit:m, Socre'lory. Gerrem!}

Cc,mmunity Orgoniz'ina ,of Ihe rhil~pphul$; E~t."rJll~f5'~ rQundo'liQ!!"I (CQlPE) is (l non-govllr1l1menl tUQtmilCli(m b-ose:d in lirbon poor ccmmuml'i~ foundiJd in 1 917 CO F'E b:nki:llly h cs OtgDnrzfng. educ'I)lic n ond ,c;dvOCQg' h,J'n~~iQrl<~ ror urban poor t:;gl"u;ems t:!nd i·5'$lJ!!S- It '''''otks ..... ilh 1he vtbon poor irl Me1'r-o Mon'iio and !he Sical r>e.gion, tlnd wHh the' rutol poor of Que~on P'ro.",ifICe_ [Koy~nformonl ; Frond 0 Cltl ... ec.iU(l;~, ,E):ec!.!l',¥e Dlf'~Q rl

l'o!l,md~Nonfor tho DOlIfiQ~Of;lm!)nt @f U~!I Ufb~m PooT, In(;, (FDU"'~'. fu;!J,nd~d on S.e:pi~ttmb!l~f!I. 19a5"i~ on od",-ocoQ', 1M.~·,~wd, ck:."'l!lopr'i:'Hll11 cllnd C:Om.mlJr1 ity. b0500 orgcH"I ~ZOI i on fat 'Ih~ udxu'! poor c:ommu n lili~!, Tne c.f.lgi'nniI'lQs of rDUP Df'II ·lfi"a'Mo~~f! wi~n 1M:! CCOCE!.ph.u::Ilimticn 'S'1l;la;e ond a~.a;ntU'ol i mple menlerk~1l of iho C9mmuflily MQ~y09 9 PI'9g r'l:Jrn ICMP), Q t.~cirnij!)8d hOli~i!"l9 pm.9tGm kif 11'10 lIJFOOfl poor undat 111'8 NI;li!i(J'i'!ol HGm!l' Mo.i1g:ollle Fi r11:1f1CIl' C;orFl'of!'.llliol'!l [N f-IMFq. ~t i~ c.lQmp.os.ed Qf l.I,oon poor Q{)r'I~munHi0i5 In M~'m Monna, R.iw.~. COvilie, Mfipo,lo, &uloc'Q:r'I. Nuevil El:ijo end 9'~her 10:111'1 (;i~ i as in lU'!:(jJf'!I, tt::ey ~ I1'lf'O rrnlllli' NalK/l1i NUI'ie'l, rfetl rCim Offk:efl

Foundation {Of 11'1" PhiHppi 1'11i' E n.vi ronmI!H'i" j FIPE I i~ iii'!!:! fir5i ,~rom· ffllJ kin Q, il1i1i~ u tic n Ie r Eln.",.ifOl'lm~nllCl (If"Qar'liwlio[1 s i 1'1 1'h IE Phifi ppiflffi. II Q rm s ~¢I m\lat~e ~ he ro p~d deWudi on ef Ihe Philippi rJ'as' nfI.mel re~lJfCe5 by ~oiH,o.ti n.9 ptoQJc rns and m:ti"jti·e;s lhot sl'ren glhE!!"l Ihe role of NCOIi. POs cnd. h,')Ctil co mmYn~,tie5 in tne respor.sibl e m~ncg€mefl~ of ~h~ ec.ooyste:n1 ,. (Key Informant: Jull,o GOIt",e2. T,o:n, Ex.ec~!wa Direc!orj

Gan.,.Ullt Assembly Binding WOffi>e<11i fOr Rerorm~, II n1f1'g,.fiIy, Equality, Leadanhip, (]If'la Ad"io'r'i (IGABR:ltELAI. founded in 1984, i~ a n~ti O{1[J I c:III(JJI1cE of wo man' ~ Ofllll'!JIlil:£!fio~~, "5ee'king ·to ~"'I] g;e I} 5:jruggle for I h e: Ii berofim~ of ell oppres,sed Fi,rlpmo w~ri. !;In d ~he rest or au r P BODie." Among its prlFu:iples j ... l'El work fOf ·'ge-nvine f!-!JT~nQl ro"'erelgf'ltyin Philippi~e wG:io.cuhumll eronomk end polit'ii;ll;!l ~fe o!"ld freedom frcm oil 'foreign intervention e5pecj(ln~ ihrn uf the Uniled SI>ote'S,_· It cio;ms m~mbe,shio OF ::200 grQMJOots"bosed o:rQanl"ilotrom, I rlSli~vt1orlS< desks cndprogm ms; in Dovtro. Bwrvcm. PCllnoy. , I (;) 110 i Co:!6u BohoJ. N !;!gro~, SOITlIJ r. Leyfe~ ~rg,en"

ANNEX lJ25

W~s'e(n MindorlO0;, Bic-Qli' Cqr'di~~e(o end Cantrel ILLI:lo,J"I. Gf\BRIElA works 090i I1sj g!ohCllizati 01'1 issues !Jd1y.e~5e'Y OIffudtflg wame<n I S,U ches iheforEig n 0901' crisis end lhe IMf·WS IFnpp.silions, OA1IT-:vvTO., onel rnlg~!:IlieJn and 'ImfftEkrng :DJ women, ~ Key Ilifotr']1Q nt: Rt!'1 h M!;J rigJolo n I Drredo'r ~~r Publ ic 0 nd

I r.fonnotkm) .

CJJ1!!snpe008 Sbu'neOSl: Asic, based Tn Philipp~ne~ ond lhailoF'n:i, ~ formolly e,sjClbtished on March l, '2000, CIS pCII1 0-1 Green p!l'!J m lfl"lem:cftion<lII's g!obol com'P'o~gn to pfQled biodiversity Cll"ldlheenvlronment. Their work il"llhe re>giQn ho~. lneludsd s~oppiF1g hczardous Wai5'~e irnporj5, opposing fCld~o(lolive ~hiprrrerll~, ,,(ImJpClignin'H {]9tlin~f forest destrucnon, lobhying; gov,Brnmlilnts 'In s .... $1C1inobl,~ enf;!J'9Y Is,SiJ!!s;(:Ind drawing t:rHenllon ~D the dongllf5' of wo~le' incinerci.roI'lS. OPI~n working wHh (l>thrJF l>Dcol 'groups, it hos run ~iJ~c{!..ssf·ul mmpgilJr'l$ in 1he Phiiippine$,. To iW1:l.n , Iflldlo, end kll::lOf1e~[o. (ireenpe<t:'It:B ~ n femall enol Wo.s founded 1 n 1971 , ~ K-et II nft'lrml:l n t ~ Von Hl!'mo n de:;:. Comptl r gn DJrE!.dor)

KOll.Cillfiol"l.KIil~a)"a(ln ,(GflIFldtlf.Fn'!edQm) ~H SARILAYA i~ an orgCl n 1101~o n.pofwome n ,d0V9lopm!illrl1ca!a~yMs mmmi Jledlo prom l:r~il'j9 women's "lhlp~rm~r1t end gMdl:lfC'iquolity. II ..... os fQ~n~ed in 1994c;nd elms 10 fT'j.!';i·i n ~itel;i m gend~r 1;1 r1 d dll~ID'@P flIUI n I i n.>ElVf.lry m l31"ubflr' s work pIC~il, !!om rrn.mi1y ~.nd Ihe brood!3r nto~lSrntlnl for ~Q~.l{;j I ,1'Wft9G1, (Koy Info rrn OI~! Po~ GOllZala~, Cmlverlgt)

KU u~ang Mayo Uno. (Mcry F~n' Mll ..... mQn1j, Qf KM U. founded on.

Mo.,! 1, 19&0, dClII'llS. 10 be 11;0 ~~Mtf.j,rfor mililani ~ni()!"Iir;m rn in!! PhiliflPln~~ corryi I'Igforwo·rd I h~ ~~I'uggIQ QfFilipi nQ work"l;s-10f frne dem, d6rrHl(;;rc~y C F1 d ~Q'C ii;lH~m III I he ~pil!!' of In It;lf!l'lClHorLCli world n§·dCi.~S~O Iklm'i I)" " Ii' ~~ Ci lebo r cen tl:!r .r:Q r]]lJo~Etd or, I t1bOF rl;}di:jTGI11o~ (J f1 Ellocol tm do UrliGm in 1 he I:lg ricull~ n;II.! I i"!d~k~1 ry Qnd ~.I,j r ... i ~'il~~ec:l(lll'~, H~ m.Elmb~!,shj pi ~<lrs I·obo'f I"Ini{)l"!~ 1'101 only in \J rbo 1"1 tI reos b~i I ol:Q fL,) ral Q reo;~.. KMlI ~dl,ioFlt:B.~ w01'ker~ righ'ts a flel ~s~ue~ SU ~ n CI~ W1lg~s, ,r:.oUile1ive I:m.l'l;1 (j~niri~ end rna I'L9111 10 ~l r1 ka. ('Key I nfm me 1"1 t Cri !!orin B!311 f~n. Cl'm1 rperson)

f'amhol'lSC!flg KilmiOlfn ng mg.orlomohong MOtlI5:C~~Dk(l1 tNonanal fe d Elrlilt i on of Pease! ~t a rg'Ol n 1;1! ~HonsL PAKJ .SAMA, I ~ 0, nOli OM! fed eml'ion of plZ:<lsanf 0 rgcmi j!otionIDl.I nde·d in 1 9806. Its IT'! i ssk)171 i.$ ".0 ~nlpq<W'ar Ihe Filipino pElCl'sQnlry by building 'Ci' tilrong [Ifld Gl1edible n01'iO('Jal p-eOSOi"!t fade·roHcf'! thCll !il">o:ds I fl Ihe E1dvo(!(lc.y for Dod im p~emEr:1iCltiOJ1 or genuine Mel sus1cinohle ogmrion QF'lt;! oquCllk f'llform I:l.nd rural d@'o'elopmE:Fltl [mel equ alily Qt m.ai'll 0 n d wom-E)!~ ,.~ II l'S, bosed fn Ml:lni!CI. and her'S ~ffioo'.l ] n Qu~z.on., Siiml. Ce~'u. COgD:tOr'll de Om City 1';lnd Dovoo City_ ~'Key lnfofrrlClf'lt:

Vicanf,e fClbe! Noliol'lol Choirpatstm) .

P(lmocns,ang, Lo ~os "9 Kil.uscmgl MOrlUll~~o'yC!l ng PiHpl:nos (Nettc nCl11 Fede rotior! ,of Fish srrfo~ k 0 r'QICll1i%,otio,n$ of 'Ih~ Ph mpPlnes) - Nationwide Coalition at fisherfo~hfor Aquu:rt1c. Reform, PAMALAKA YA-NAC.FAR. W0!5 fOld IIde'o on Decem b~ r 4, 19B7. If j,s I:!I

nati-onwicle 'f,ed~atjlJn of fisher fo or.gonizaHons wah 0 iatal tndr..lduol membership of 80,000 bc,s~ in dioolM1 pens o· Ih~ Philipprne!l_ T~, oFgcmimtion wm'ks,for th@ jmp~,ovemen~ or fhe C:Qndii~Dlls or tks· ,small, c~O$101 and il1land ris"'er folk who~!lliv.eljnood is thrlltl' ened by pollulion!i:lf e wolers, over- i~hlng by fOF~ign Trawlers, c:lestrvdion ofthecoral ref!fs. ontI djs[)lm:!!menl af whole vi flog es to g IVa wo"! t() !ndtlstr1@S or :OJJ risrn, TM moil1 ~~f'~1@';9Y is to support Ih~ Qrg~;mizalion. con;;ohda1ioft cmt:!' tWucaliol'l. of $rnoJi nwl' fo.lk; 10 mobilize end cdvorcta Iheir righf5 n(!!y In:fo rnonts: Ce~t Arellano, Dire<:tor end Monolifo 5cernono Spokesp~rsanJ

Phtiippine Asse,eio1iol'l for Inifm:ulfuraf DB''O'I!,iQpment [?AFIDl. founded 0l"I Al.Jgus1 ~, 1967, is an Ins'lilUflon wlth D~er 140 members end [J sluff oi 32 ~ngQ'ged in the, devetoprnen of mciigl!!flous '5GClol orgcnizal OF1~, cncestrcl domain rnencgernent, ~omrnunrl'Y&bas'ed naturul fe~oUrce~ maF1ogeF1i!;!nt plonnjn'Q, oommunif~ mapping, a g,o-forestry , lochniCtll :>erooi[!!:S, poliey !:!'dvococy (Ind ethers. FQ!I'I' percen of PAflD st{] ore Ihems.el"es 4'Yle rn be( s oi ind i99 n D~ 5 cernrn I.J M[~~, en d 3 Bo/~ Of1j' WOmB" [J( ey I F1 forma nt:

Do~e de Vera, &'l}cIJ'live Diff.KIQr)

W1hilippil1t1 PI!'no~1 In,tih.rIOJ (PP1). ro~mded in 198,3. is C nongO'l,!0r.f'lrne-nl orgof'li:lQlion tho1 arms ro prcmOle ond od"llnce Ihe Phfl[pplne p['lOs(Jn1ry'~ InlareMS lOr ogroricn reform endruenl dO'll'oJopmenl in porlner,;nrp .... iih loccl peaso'!"!'1 organiz01ions_ II is a fottfller.oos'9d NGO !UlgCged In polity resacrch Ol'ld' oovccac.,. wQrk Tar 'Ii rTla ll form (5, Pt'['s ¥IS'lQn'i fhll' ClIIt;lil'lm!!I'II e stl~f.dEllllfmimng rurel COlllrT1Unlli()$ wno$e devotopmenl i~ ioU'ndttO on Ilqui!)i', e-i:~'!ilgj'CClJ~lIS!'lJinClbility, 8end~f frU,Ftes.5, rfispec.1 "ocr Doople's riQhl!; and cu I tu re ~mpowEFm C 111 of mil'll i ng litL-G tlj ral sedor:lo Qna p-60plQ'S _ [Key I nfOffl'lCl(l1 ROn'lrlo ROY"I1,dr)ycn, E:tCLJliV,!l Dir~oJI

S.entfo sCI IkaolJ!'Ifad no Ka 'utubong Agi'iam 01 hlmolohi)"o (Movemlinf fer 'Ihe Advaru:em'enl of ! !'Iditl8nO~1 S'(d~mf:O and T!idln-oiogy}. OF S1KAT, ~TQbl~$h-ed in Mluch 19, 1991 is aF1 NGO wotldng ie IiIsilJbli:;,h C'prnmuni y·bo$'ed cocsrel resource tl'l(incgemel'!l. promo e ClIp propri ale fJs h i 1'l9 rechnologie.5" o[]'nd 0 d"'oc.(lfc fer r g.e n u i ria fi shery pel] c::y reform, Amcng the i~>.LJ<l$ Illken by SIKAT In raJolion [0 glob 0 li:z.olion 0((1 flsheries tmee liberolizQhon, rood s@curity. and oJ;jnc:uhurol modernuerien, ~Ke'y Inf.or,mCln.'~ Ce5Dr Aiton YEm, M~mb.er, Boord ell T[u~leesl

Truda Union COl'lllre,$Si of the' Philippin,.,n rrUCp)" foundOld en Decemha~ 14. 1975, i'5 Q labor EiEl:nl'llif composed of leber fe-der.otion~, Iradr:; unions Qnd other wor~eu' org~mzGtion5" or Cl~Q,ricru_ 11$ memrn.~ tome fro m tr II sedo~ Q I"Id md ustries (from c;g:rlrulJure lo rnCH'IU r'Q ~lI r:i rtf! se r'll'ice] inc l!,lel rr"l 9 g o\l&r n men em p!oyees I Qi ms, 1'0 p romere ,aqua r rl,g h ts and op.po;rluniiiesor 011 workef~, II is dedicrne-rl li:l unpro',t,1"lQ conailloM af work Mg Iff,., of workers Qnr:l Iheir {tlr:mJles cnd commiTTee! ,0 dffio€!loPLl'l9 uilicaj cooperation wi~h govarnme.r11, m::lvam.ring lor an e<onomlr: polky wrnd'l promotf1'S r'lCI!i,o;:m;al in'lere:.n 01'111 imemot;l;mtll mmpe iliven8'$S, ond further shengtr.i.€!ning Interflol ortd inlerrrat[on,ol S¥ild'onty c d CClhl!!!!~,.ne.$S Clmong

the, 1 red B u nio rt S o-f : he wotld. (Key InfO'l'l"i'ro n I: Dom i n odo r T uve Fa, R~emc Officer)

UgneyonS Pang:.Agihom Too (AnthropolD,gical AsscdO'lion of h Q Ph iii pprn es) e r UGAT cl i-0W'5 most 0' i 1. rll>= m l;Jer ~ fm m {l'fIlong Ol1lhropO~OI;l'r stu(hl'fli~, res$l:I~cl1ers"fel]che.rs and olhers interested In 1M disdpline. 'Founded in 1977, PAflD i~ a regv[oI member cf ih~ Phil,ippine Socinl Science COlJfldl (PSsq afld is, offWa1edwirh the lntemaflencl Union of Anfnropologicol one! Ethnological Scienoos~iUAES~, fKey II1IDrrnaJ'1l~: leomm:lo "Jun" EcStado. P're-Sldenl end Arnold Azvrll'.1)

Women'5 Adio'n Nelwork for Clav,eiopmel1l rwANDl'~ On umbl"8Ha crgclf1i'ZCltiQn el worrten and pO'opIQ'~ orgoniw1ions, founded in 1990, WAND is olse c de- .... elopm ra nf cndse [i'Oro I orgcrrl izcti 011 wi' h corn rrrVl1lty devefojp menl ns ih major progmm for its mtilmber~, WAND flSSr~~!O mem~5 It) dO v 8\lop ,c()pccil i es of worna n to part~Ei po1i;,J in the d ~VB 10 pmefl~ pro-ceil; IIIl d j rnp I r;J men n prQjects in I hili coml'i1uMHy_ WAND Ciiso auppoets 10i:!llle~e'llnltictivMfor ","omen such '1Ji1i in~ilutiflg ordinonces, (K'eylnforrnonl: Dina Al1il(J". lNoiiontll C<?Qrd II"lQtar)

FGIO Parti cipanes

AIIe1l"n't:ite forum 'for fto!l~~,m:t1 in Mindon~,o ,(AFR:IMl I~ Ci soerel rese.crdl Cind adw'lr:oc:y lnstirlJIIQr"I iounded in Ihe 101' 1970's Ie;, provleJo- dolo on'll ql1tllYJJ~s nocel>~Of~ 10WoI d~ for9iF1Gi (II ~o'ul"ld .. hwe,lopmllnr rrcmowQrk for MindtlMO. Af~~M I'Q, mYW ';:Pn'lr.l r" I3I'1';lQga in moit'lttr,uClm pa-lit')" dr.iboh;t. InilUr:(lcing madio Clnd p6Iicy.n'1Qkor'~ in and Qui of l3'o"'(:lfomi?l~'1 rO'INQrd pfQlT'lollnl3 rho gonlj,nl"lQ de"'l!j!opmen~ of Mindtlfltio (RiljJro~enrCl1i~,t.!.Alvln Rt'!ye~~

Asion Lelbe" N9tworkoii'l ,lnhlf!'1Q'li onnl Fnnoncrol Ilndit~Hons (ALNI) i~ [J l'1e1wotk !:If 1rl;lde Uf110l'\S, NGOs and cccdermcs frQm lndcnesm, MClio,Y!lio. Philippine~ ilf1d Theilend fJ'l>IQblisnild in 1998_ 11 seeks, 10 Dring flbouj~h Ci n.g~5 In the- POr.,:;I(i ~ of j n te~nQ1 ion 01 fI !1~I'I~ e] i nstillJ'l iorts like rl-rfl IMF, In~ Wotld Bank and Ibe A~il:ln o e"o'e I oprne ['11 B-onk tis these po I leies di~t1cil)' end inclil"eclly impact upon w(ll-k$rs and 50cie1-~ In geMr'gl. ALNI seeks to engage IF 15 111 cOl1sfwd iva dialogu>(H f'egCl rd i ng' I h!!se poll ci es mod pus h for pol i ci;o:'5 and programs Inat pro1ecl' workers and lhel~ o.rgClniz,aliol"l's, Qncouroge the porticipotion of klboor I;l"d tj"e civil wc;i~1y in .he de ..... elopmenl process and CI d'Y'{l;n ClEl ih t!! d iii rnc c ro! i eoti on Q9'BflOO, (Re p re-S8nj'otjve: Rog-er El'i r05e1J

Citizenls AI1i.Qlilte for Consumer ProtadiQr'11 ftACPj, I~ {I rOSQufCe Clnd campaign ~enfer converted in Ihe 19?O:s on .... arious C:Or1sum~r i,~sves, lndl,_lding pUblic uliliti~~, hou$tng, prices end Foir rade. (Rep1'!!senCol'i"e: Roul S~gcvlo)

Oem okro'Hkon Q1 Mag bu ow ki d ng (D.emQcratic PSOSOl1ts of) Sul:fcn KudClrct or D~KLJ I~, 0 porov,flIciol-wlda orgoniza1ion of paCl~.cnl~. Tcr!"i"l wotke.rs, sr.-;oll l,ondownm~ ,brgan'ized In Novemh'<!r ";20, '1993. It is

enggged in oommunify,oo'5e:d resecrch, educetien end trl:lLi"Iiftij. Qll~mc:five rurollrodil"lg and cooperative i:!,"""-eilQ;I'!IIfient ~owmd!51ha reelizeflen or g~t"IuiF\~ j'u~o:1 developmen:l. [I~eprese nfC!li",e~ HernCU'Iie Abell[],

Llmooma MuHipurpo.se Coope~¥,e. LtMOO,MJ\., Of Liptl Ci1y MulliPUrpose COOpertl'ti¥G! Mo:rkefing .As:s.ocicrtron" j n.c.,O!£ rl wasil rst cO!lIed. corne into e;.;~s:renoe in Moreh 25.1970, es (jI selufien 10 U'ae< 9fQWTI'I-ij problem CI,f I)nc~ntrQlllOlble feed [prices of the infegmlms At pfg~n1. ,i ls engClged in the !i::!dvooot:;y of prolection or lIvestock cod pClulfry c.Qoinst th~ ImpcrtCiition cf smuggled rneot. rRepresen1cfiYe: Orivio Gom~)

Mindianao, !turol COI:lElI'8Sll. MKC, 01"1 o,ss;embry of Mu.'Stirns, Chri5'licHl settlers, end i ndigermus paQploQ$: in :Mi nGorJ;O(!I, ES C! 9~l'he;nJll9 of former [enders I ho:! serves !:IS 0 f~'rum for fhe$u rfuci rig Qf issues poe rlm!lI'lT to fermer Il"Iler~1s gnd ,~!'O'pif'lgilppropr i Clre l:Iavooot:y Clg,~ndc;s;. fRep~nh::l'~iv~: Had] ~ Ukm1Q Nilan!;!}

So,",lhern Phm ppin@iI Ff!di:lml'iOrl @f llobor. StPFl, is 0 lobor rederglion of un i ons OCl.!iIl'd' 1 n II i gOIl Ci~y_. fn ihe ec rly 1 98010, Sf'FL wo~ UF'\der KMU. 1t1 199'5 r ~:PFl diS{}ffiliGj~d w'ilh Kl¥lLII nnd joi nee ,he ruSOCiCl ti on 0 f Pwogres51'1'B I.~bor [AfL] In 2001, SPA. se:poraled hom API., SPH. i:mlil!ve:~ Inut ~I ~e Im;~b I Elms cOlulontly fo~d ~ workers cou'd nol llB ilO'~l!don I he: r>QC'I'Ot'l' level. Tila irl'reFO!lls tlf tobQrond ',Opilu! gre Dlw~ l!l (;Qf'lfIld, hence, Q brQcd IJllicnc'6 of workllr~ in boln n~liOFioi end' i(i1'emllll~QIlgll!l~1~ is "O'er)' Impor~tl.n' ~ Flll'pf1!l~tml'l;lli".e: Ahnf!f Cojoyofl)

l@bi'abpg fou.ndolion, 1t1li;;;., or th~ Ifldrgerlo~s Pllaple~r Inllf1lmCJlignoJ Ct;l n tr,e for Poli c:y ~e:soo rc:" and Ed ul:crl!on, wO"S; !:'lrch 1 i ~heclln t 99'6. T rab I ebb-a, n;tilg!'!~ng~d~coursa~ in lhe fhiljp..pil'l~ u'Idig!lr'lou'S KOflkanO\l)' dialec.1, ls firml,;, ~Om m i t1'!l:d to 1 hg, reeo gn I'r.o.n, PI'QHtcilon ond p~o 11100li ~n or i rid i gO! no L1$. ptilopl~' f'lQht~ w.o~1 dV1i de. n~ m Oln II; ru~j rs 10 II e1p ~ .. ,u lei IhEl CCllPCc,i!y or ir\digi#1Ous peop.le5 ?Q cssert theu rlghf~ (H'id Ql'1ctulcla !h~r ,O"wn a.noIYSi!'$ OInd persp{!C:li;,o~~ on I~I}O'~ direc'!'ly olfffiin.r;I ~M~ttI (R,eJ:lF~Ii1!f11Qh".e; Jeek M.edf(!f1.a]

ANNEX 2

A. O.rganiz:gtiol':! a I Profile·;

I" HJ:lW WQI,lIIdYQu clQ~rfy Y00rorgall'llz~ltiollf (AnD, '~g' uri F1!J il'lYQ'lg

gflltllll~C!5)'oni I'

lEi .AdivbCOcy

tI PQI'illcQ i

C l£Oue~boisEid

C De~Blopmtlni fl $edor~I'

C Comm'!J 1'I11y- bl;!ls:E!cI

EI OIhoar5

2. W'hefll w@=~he r,;>r:g'-.Cj-, ·'n--;i-~_O--;,I:-io-.n-:f;-au-.:-'i.oI-'-_ ~-d;O::j~~:;';K-o;;'ilo~Pi-;:;jli:-n-O:-Ia-g-(j-·r>g-· -,-n-yo-' n-g-~~-

argllil'ili,cDS"/'D1'I ~l

J, Wn01' i§ yo~r' mOQ,nil!'Oti.,F1QiI cO'mpo~i!'!uri or m!!mb8r£hI~? lAne i:l'rlJil kemP'O~~Y'Cli"1' n~1 i n~Qnom~rnbr'Q g. ba~~l

4. Wn!:l~ o~t! ~6ir Qr'!il~ni~r;!1iclI'I's prlJ:'tI'r.(lm/I:Kli'Or1~; (AnlH:ml>l 0119 TTl'll!:l prO:ufOIYiD rl)I in)'ongo rg(lfli~(;!~'i{)n':t)

a On GloooltizaltiQn;

[ , W'htrj i~ :(Qu~ crg~'hil~tiQI1"~ d(j~r!'!i1~on/ufld!DJ~r!lrtd:itlij Q'f Ii:lf~bnli~rl,~.,~ V'Cl,POOr'lQ ninYQ ognlblg,'f{lng h'lh1Jl\JlIQf) {li:"lg~!ob.JlisQ!")"VI'l'~ Mi:;l Qhiil pag:k!liu:dtl'mf'!.drnin~1J"~t'I 810001 i~()~~n ~l

::l'_ \l!lhi:\il tiro Ihu p(;I$:J.iI:tJIl U!J6t;!~/1'!Tipl~~<'Jlton~ c.,f tJleb:L'!I.I~!Iliija~ Q<Fi, ~'Qu r cOr1~~ill,.len,yf '(Arlo i'l!1(1 ,md}li~(i9YOn !'1:iJ 'Q~ob(fiI;!IllS;(Qn ;[] iF'lyQl~fl rnQ~ mi~!"!'I~f'Oi~

;3, 'Wih,,1 oro I~(l Io:fI)' PQlk.~ Q I"il!"'~ e] e(ln'--Ilm ~n (lllobclhll~li o.n in whi'll ~(HJI' ~g~nii,qtl!)n b In''''''l~od~' [Ai1U.Clnj:)flg,Oi~perO rig globalisc'~yQ.h a~9 pj!'U'Jg~u~Uiun'm fig pi;iin~iln' ng i "j'QrIS 0rQg nl~tJ~n.~ Ali Fie D9iP~1!:1 I'lg Illobal~~.G~YOf'!nn9 K'i(Jiio:.;ti.!iiOf! n9 in~Qn:l Ofgt!lr'li~JJYQ.:fI'l

11, If/hal i~ ~Qur PO~1~!Ot\ !ind{m 'Cirll;j Iy:r,e$ Ofl 'i'fc'e£eruead ~Mtl-!J!'1o 0 [I III ,n~!lI pa~i"$ror1 'C! F!a:gw5\il~i ~(J. 'f1'II~tI (j~Pl!ror'lSl Ilo~)

5', \o'\I1,o~ e ~ ~ou r ~c1iol"l~ C,riO rE~pEi(l$E}'!; 1", tn~e k~~ P<lli~¥ (lreo~ Of! gli;.b",Hwlf(:l""; (AllY. OfiO ClI19 ilwong l'rIg!! p.ti,!;lkillJ'!l L1p[JIl~ Il;!Iool'!I(lfl 0 !l1.I pC'rtonlll~ an~ mSiIl o~pe!a:n'El if9 11 E! 9 le<bolbscr5'tQi"I ~')

6, H~ does ye.uror,!}an i~(l1;O!"l i'n1m~cl ...... i1li tne Soia:! 9 I:iIlld all:,e;r ~IVlI s.~~i e1'y group~ in. DIPPO$iIflS/p romotilFli;l globd,ii!iOliol'l~ fP'(;lMo,kaY<' Mkiki~g ~1IJ,lJnlJy 5CJ ~Ir;!do al ipiJI :PQng ,'xgal'!~S?Q~y6.ll .~ pllgkilos UP[]I"Ig> 1'llbo:f'lon/supartlJhtll1 ClRoQ mga a~p~~Q"g ilc, rili;! '!Jlobali5i1lsy!!m ~ t

7, tf yOli oj ra opp~~edto Ilhese kJel"l!ifie.m (;fspecMoi g.lobCJ~i.tari on, wf'lDiI (] Fe yOy~ .CI~[e.rrucrli",es f ~Kung kaj'Q oy hll"ld~ ~l1Jg-(]ytJ f\ m f!'!:t:lo []~pet,ong nabCln~9rb. on!;) o!'lg imoflg mgc cl t.ernotibo~~

129

AN:NEX 3

PoIII:lCO"mllltat)' n~!:Ir 1iIIgbi!l!gt!~n

wro IHIHdflt ,8m:! ~tft ~ii~-"bi

Ilftte~n ~'Wn:l, fMfilnd WBln m;!i~l!iQmlc ptlllde5/PQIil:ymallid ng

• Pdq IlTIpooloi :I:WII~ '0 _ ~ ~~n ~ co,ptlO lei' ,,,.~JQ<f ]h" oou"'!1'f

I~b hI f-a4 K<)nafl'l"t. 0; ""'~ Nt, 100 liS '" rho; ~r ..."" e.g.

.!ilMumo.l;on g.ng' '~rl:ll od~ ;""'Iii'CIN"M"IU'~' t'ill00 I!nd It ... 'l,r(fo 1!l,g'~_1\U ~ I"'" I~ I!1Il.V}!,N ,o,tliNA,

.,Tb~~!~r ~c ,~ ~hc ~M.f eM Wili j" e'*"'"dng mvm.rQI oor.."'!!fn',.;,n! pfO!lmrm.. ~~'I'N-I)

.T~~;j~ w:on IrQ", G;t,J11O WTQ.I"" Et:i.'I';;NJ

• ~ pgl'!)daj;m ~ fJ_ Imrie Ike.! i '" 1I,r""tg iroo,e 01';90 !ZIlla,(! .. ,;4!:"~~,,,

irnpo!ii"S OM 1nl; g!<:i'bolrr,c,ji='illor-" . ;;". II1l!In d"""TL! _ 0 re th!o

l'1!L..-"aSlJI1el. ttl diw;""",,~,=, J.~ 'i>f'I <1.1 11...)_ n .1'1G"-srry !;.eN,,:;?!, OM ~'; .... 1ru'e· .~bc:1 me WTO it P'"'lhing I"~J

• WlO in'af'i'F..J)p:!. In me rl~~:p<1'ZfTI ~ K&!>O<reo:. po'/.lo"'l ~ tn~· 8~rfV"l!"'" 'Ih!: i'I>iIwine ~ ~1Ti'7 " b;(b~'d" <i "XJi.Hldi:! ~ >er,,, ~he inl-cfm ffi rerporme 8k>'""~ I~i

.VJht~ i!>~r c:>l"frUr1= Qo'C 1X0"E<l:~ m.", "",~e. PtiJ:wnes i3 0ld~'=<I umm 10 feH.,.., ahe pr~~O;""" co: .,;'.~ ~ WTD It> ~~ u;p H::rm

1]1

Annex3.1.b

Po.nica./Govel'in~fllce_ ~~ues: 'Civil Soo1ety Organizations-" Analyses a nd Positions on Key Areas of COii'l_Qi!J1i1J

Roll'! Oil' the, rtalib IIlI the 'fIoHllmlcm. ~,

,'.Slron~ 1lIn.ci ~l'~.i~i .~o~nmem rhal ~.hibir.!, .'ro-n8'·~~~'~ 1ioo~ I n~gQ~CrI'cI' ..... llh mrsl.gn Q-Dln>f,i'irrl'lluil; and MNu end .. llh a "'- __ , _. r

'R.HI~!!I".~,i!iIC::UQIl;ii~

I pion {Qr 11;. rTIGjorily and nOI'''''' :h8 saiKI !II,"" 1~'i'~1

.• 5r.;.~ thovld pro~de- JociQI w.i~ lhooh, wU(.'(Ir-il;>rtj nol~!iI~ 'oJ-;q, pro'il ond I"fQ18~I~mo' Ii~y !i!Q>/Ii(!in~ of rhe eeOi1om)!' like -!!lil'lh- ... .i ord ~rnr-<IQi

ind[,l!iri~ .• ~IIAYiIN MIJN,II,) L

.,rn~ role' Q,'I ~h~' nlJ!a iBtp pRivild~'.'h~ baslc need&""r,b p .. ~JII!I !CI~d' 1'I!l)1!l1Jk,w ~

Iil""'~mm~nl f;;lr ~n, ,del1. IS,II\H~I .

• Dirn'ni:lh~ '~'ii oj 'I~ 'i'I(J~e' in bu~tnjj~ '-;ClUWl oJ d~!iIII(l~ eM!! Jil'fl<GttwTIDf'I Ilurrmhk 30 lradi~ru"oj "0 'pr;rp~r -ang ~Qbyem!! ~ 'j780'" ~fld erdjw.\Q((M. ii'lffMltvt1Vl'iI. Elk. (P,l,NO .... VAN, SANl..AiKAS)

• 'Tb.m ~1g1jc ,. pl;rri Qf ,1'1. lnCIrll:u1br ~I mtlvrl_ II ~ n .,hg• pdiQ'. p~l~ aN p[(>:I«!JI~ r~i't'I"i<~n" a~i~ili!tl. U",r'On!Jng1~1~. >I'III!CI ~dl(U!lna'i'l~ ~R! el

tn0n~1 p~ill~, ~F~fl .

I.. 5!~'Q M'lWs~~~~ITr~ i~'l1' 1h.~ a:oollMlM'l~ .. ~~~",tabl~; '~nlilire=~I'!!!iI1ly ~CIvflcl Dmd

l.ul~g'nO'bl«l ln o'~"1 ... 'fJ'f. dWi1I1Il;It;ri;Jlle, 'l!'IiilmoI11 '~rcmlll, ,.~!"<M hlrn'lon ,dQ~·ok)fllIIIIt.n'l and uph~d. bu.J.t INn;g", rign, •• IfOC]

• S~le ci!!;JlI'II~," (tL "'~I'!ll' in jllllyon~11'I1J '"" it 1'0. Qng!i;iOl r;d Inll I'n<I 91 _h~ ll'ii!lIDf CI'II."5 gOO in gdtl~i)Ulnl) i"Ui!:! whid'1 ro~1'I1iI4 boa ."I\Il>d ~ di~ mar" I. udI a! mC'l!in'11lw1ioi'i gnd I n~9uDJ1t]!, jl'iK~ll

Annex 3.1.a

PoIi.Uad/Gove.rnance Issues: CiIViI Society Organj~'tion5" Ani:dyse5

and P'D5Jition\S em Key Areas of Go 1'1 I!:'em ~

[S$U~ j :IIi'llOll'lpM ~MI ~tiQn~

• sP!m..d .Ioy khll ...... r ~n' Ii!1H1<r>lm (J'r'IJ IiJo;! ~! of us t~ 1'1 '''''I' i'hilrDll'iMi!.lKPOI

.Tlo~ A.rrayo PJC""'rnm""" ~ ng ~Ui" pcg-n!3O.&l:eocl~. "." !!lIlt! a!'1d 0110 ...... "'9 m 11::0.., m~e,....:ia~--=<,; ~"""'lirl rPADA'fON:

• ~'r ;".-..m av.dlllob::.!i.",~ WOCI;1Sl

• Mlrol;;irr.iW~gn oro;] ~p-<WI~OO 04 ~ il!! ~. e~ose af ~lT ru n'9~ "ih;! ",r!I>Jo "'o,........"....~r."s pgI'OQi;,!". ~,,~ ~, .. ' !Well ~'fXi ,ocI;~~l

~~--"'I ~ ~~" rnd:'nli.:.1 P'=""?I'''' ~ ~~ 1)\MlJ] ~ __.

• AIlI'tli!l ~r ... m.-fu .,. ~,""TO ~'( ~'e< II 1 ~ I:Io;.jI 001. ~ c~ll "'" 1iI"O"~ig!f1 fi:,. T"'OfIl.~f11 >l<Il i r rob _ .... ~. ~ ~ .... "ll ~~ i"lH (W-.lW'JISj

'. D"",";"'.n"1l1!g '"II in W'iO liH1d ~U ,,001; ~ft'~<m ".-.;I ~ ", no! den>~1(. ~~1j

• i];.o "=l ..... ,I;'OC'1'~~ <:oililkobgt'Glliotlrtl u ~,"'iI ~M 1I'lO:t! rnd"~r1iOln:~d ~OO ,h~ Ito:Ill rT»b-hl ~ Qm:I th. n;.;l~ thg, ~. II , " l~~G"G 'I h.a pl""''' ii.1It tli" ·"'.on ,lot. C!d""'l>e0!lti _;To~ 10\1: .

I .il>!! Ln~h iIC" ~I ~I'"M.. ~h +0_ r:l"It< "'~ .. (lNnm-M. llo!€.l'! M t.. 10000jjll!iChJo.! P.~i'Ii' "IiI~. SoiIIIIIC'y _d F'It,tc.iOt'<!o'1 !r~ •• 1'>0""", I~ d~opi"i (Oyf"iP,," ~n _ toK_ pier "'.~ IN; Ol~r m() ii'

tFOCl

~ N(IiW i:I~Qr!>,I~ ~. ~ ',l(fO·1Q .btro~:c; liI"'C1I!tlT" (:M'<o! 0\>_ In~!!.lo~I. ~e""pu1"'1jor;. 'poIit,' 1;lfQ .... _l ~O:Wl'"_,.,I. c"CI t,od,; Ig~klrd1.11n I~f

., Win, f"C'OCIfd i!CI lie W'TO, ~. Lhouid i)o; ~ =c Ite," fIte fl""r WO!rl,:j ~fllt_ nn i· ~1~ QIi' iTII&t'rtI ttM "."~OOI'I' Of ~1""11 .n I_I d~~II!i1J-l~f

"Q-J..n~t, tni:! ~;;,I Wl'O aoci S.., .. 9;:.. ... mcnc .. ..." r~.'I:I1e

Ulobc:ll • .l;f!-tia.n 'I'M wro ,togi . " ~~W4 DM 1'" It O! nud f.:.. "

1~~pJ ~np ,n 1'h HA~, 011 Qtl=< l~'I''''

I'rbliltmltlOIll, Iibtiqlbatkl!! InHl dM't!!JIlIRklq p!llh:letI of ttI.11 11tI~

I'

• Al1'i"~rl'l'llN~I;!IIi.(Jn <if (liJI"fIIH'il'T'llifii ()wrj!ld and CCilH1r"II~~ t11<"po:)fill.o1l1 IGOCQ ~8A YAN MUN'AlJ

.'~"·ond~r r~ i:h~ ~o..~fllr1!~ rr~~ l1'I~rkiil 'i1r()l.10~ !ibelfl'lI~-I:IIIClfI. r;<tl""~HI ~ IIJKi d~f&Oull!ibO;n b",1 I ha mlnk·~1 I~ d'on'Mgl~g by m<l~op(i!'i~, Cllid t!i1J C I'IJJIGIi(i:I (6A'I' ... .N MUNA, I!'ANJ")AYA.NI

• ,t..dopl li~um) .. hic;h ar~ p-ol~t~tl!11 u1;PQPIJIClI Iud, Di .oi1 rloi1 "iip.IOI'O'n, WI~l'lli'lQt'Qi"I .01 .I'{,I·~· ~"'i~.p"u., 'f>jlkfftD d,,'k11, ~r~. ~ rl.-.:l ~J:I tllt'l I'fIvt'o:iil IFEl'I

• Compijl,liflfl I~ ~~~p~ed III rll~uN In bljite,. ~~I.~ i);nd' f8K1i1otl OQCHII~ (_;-il~~. Pr~WI'n' OIlfl~I~. f~Qrii h(Jp ~ei'!l,ng 1J1iIl1 mo.l .. n1'lIrh;~ r.oIl""F"," II~ mO~O~QH1~k, ~f~l')

• A. mor.~1 'lIofflJl0Mrr i'i!:~ 1pcicicJI UJ9\tmlioi:1' and ll1'Il;'IJ~I!)1'lJ !~ rI'II!!IkD I'i'll)i'l.,~ o.:l<l<OU dc'-oli:l-pmiln1nl ehullan(J~ Ilk!! i""l!Illtl'lI,Iy, ;,qult)o .. n:d P'!)'o'bril' rMLJcien. fAJ;;1l1

~MQ"i1O!~QllhJl pri ... i1Il!41t.Q" Q' ..,¢a' (Joo a1h9r~_b.l,e !I!rl!'''''IPOC. FOCUS]

• ~ C;hllr1~r COO~s • f·a.i 1~(li~lalio'!u ;ncM~lfIlt!;~r ""'in. ~I"I' o!l~OI'IQ'I pall'ilTlC I"!l!';

onida ~Ll~I; a, Ih~ \IF A t~ch all<'il'l~ u.5. !r"'~,~1 ij11h~ ~nli"l' jKF'[l~

., LtlI60r lit'''''' ~'OIrrtinued "to b.r.. ~irt~I'o-.~ ~ ;prol,-boirive roo o:~:rtir¢1 UJ"WI, r~

• In 19'15. rher-e wm I!I rMoiuliD<'lln Cpn~rMt .0 alloe!:jt~ "",r~ "0=1 lund~ for ihl! prol'eel,a", of , •• orkers. But Iha i=1l'OGIrtllm~ Q'~n~ 00 ,ned ~ei!n OOU; ond TfSDA. (TUCPI

• Sll1!f'lglh~" irt;Jdic. ~Dlon rig hl;l rhroiJGh f~ft"fm~ of the Laoor C<'ld£! !o 'P'.o",~ ",grk<t,r~ fmln IDlbar lie.1 bilif!t', ~~mQliliJ1i'DFI. (Indi CI!)"i I"cdl,!QllJwJ;a.n IUirt:fTtTl me C~~ tQ f1ImQW (~~trrc.iloM ·0,." "ntar> of'1jQ nl~no, lAl'q

.Oppooe Early VoI"nli!Jr)' ~orgl IJ b~'mi~(nje~ . rt\MEI~ na OOQbcoo ng in~lpG 5[; b:;~ "'II EO .254 000 Fish.e",~~ [od~ • P~~fX'PQkrW()k Rg !=am""erc.,a~ F..1ii na (pAtMlAKAYAi

Ann;ex 3.2,a

Economic !SsII:le5: emj ~ SDtiety Organ ratiiO:ns" Anam~ and PositiWlil5 on Key Areas; D,i 'Con eem

15$1lJ~ I AIlI.:aIy~, 20M. ~tlM~

• Aqri~~Hi.J.'e i"! o~ M1' re..~ng l1>e 1liPPKipOOoe ~, oA me il~alI.

Need fN O:PP~/.8 ~ in. ~~ o:nd T~"'Il '"'l<~,tll ~~iiy, ~~B;!. "'"","11

'. f~ cl rl:Je9~ 000 i<!'~dio.;:9d good~ 9"ol;tt ~borlX'.gJ d08IlJ 00'11:1_ lhe ~:nIJ, Fhe m=nii ,~m:I_""-_~ b ~~w ",,",-t ~'"""I!u"" ,-",,;I "";11 ~.~.cr_rlio_!!;·S!l!'1.!~~d[(.,~. ~1I'Ig ~~I ~~ ,g-mj ~nQl 0IY".h ~lg\r ~m ~cJ ~ ~YIV~ .... IJ~ 1W-J1, p~~ $AiJiJ\l'lil

"ulIbi. ~'[om~ In ~~ ~rO c.:J.,.,,~,,1 ~~io-"9 undO' .tt.~ a",n-\'i'TOrilf,;I.".. ~1t..J'~ ~<Ml boo: D ..,1~<r~O:l'" ;4>1rJo ~M 'r~ II:If.!.:n lo.h! Pf~'~_l~..o,D,oI,.'(CN. FlOC. SI~fi .t;booh:J:li:illlg m;.d~ ~~·~~_Io '1= ~";M 01 ~ inL~rrlQ'oo~1 I'I'ICII Ll,~ ""Ild th.e ~ bl! ~>;1Q' ~~r.' 11 i!1~rIi rlMl, "oo··~~l ~~"1'II'"! wW:i~'I'"\Ii"" Ci;ri'i(vl:J:J~. Th~ ~ .. ~~ I-.:d c:i~ ~ ~r.!;q"~Iut'!lI"~I~ ~"'fI ~!i.

l",u1nIllIZ~lro<'Ilmn.ifd ..... Qfig C!n~'fl~ ~Ioo..l

'. Tho· ~'",~i~ pI '* '~. ~II"I' AQ;rI!!>.i~ 0-1,11 ttl ' ....... 0 .:..'id ~. WlO <:!!,,!l 0;01 _"cIriOoJIj",,,,, Oliol! ~ t>eO~.i<.Q, '''''pc!Id !In !'I~ O!iIf'DIl.""",~. ~ D!:I"'vlf;f'~ !.oo:l ~ .J wBi'foJl!'d bt I.INC~ ,~.~ .;, ~ D"~ ~, '~rm!"Il (~, w'ILA'YoIi"i

• MWlI'rn1.:c~iO~ o! ~hu.", 10 'IX~ ~ r.j" Il'"~ tt<> dC1!lO)'l. prg,1i11d~ ~r~llInd d~[lI;!l ~(>p ~"",-I11'"UNo;r~ r Ih.'"iiI 1S'IMl, i',~~'t""

UboIl'DUz.<!tl!::m 1111 fli5hOri!!;!l:!liid IIlIIrlcultunl

• Ub,,~ILI'd~ o! '!!,!)O'"""",,, r .... '-'*! 'i" fo.c,d ~~~, Pl'~~ d:n<! d""rff><:u "" 11:!1I.i1~n Clg~i1u.~ i~!h~ ~~q .... liKf'O. WI. s;!IV,y, ~lA't""l .''''-li~Ir"d1 'Il00 ,,", __ leF Ia;t,~ a .. ~ q.n~hl!oi_ '~"..;l:<em '11 "f!Il'>rulIY"~ pr~LKtI" FIO~.J!:U!~I'I; n-:;.~ ~ IofflI r~oUQi~ It~.hl wo.~ o;t"JII aw, Ic:;'lfl On _10 .... ~ i(-u"u",,1 r.rD(!l\,Ol;h; ,P.u'J~ PAl

• '11m '~I~I ~n ,~ ~o dCQl..or;h o~ I~(~ I!:I~!'!I ~. !1'*J~"'Klt I~I. 1'!!J"if;, or ,~~I~ii1 ~ ~ .. If> ~(;I<Jf1 aDd ~,,~I'!.o!.1'IoI)Od 1~'.1 Ul,Jd"o*I 'P~l

__ ~ ~ .!i.JMid,iO( t!Jf ~ ~tIlnet ... ""'" I'I(II~. jSr;.c-"'tl

.Pl~"aJ.O.rl ,~ ~~ onrl.u!Jl'_ b.;,~ Ol''' ~. '1:'"' Ih'l:l~, ~ .. ..,J Plil'farmol'lCJ!' ~'vetL w..d !M iii ~~.!B1'n 'l~'~ ,tiQ< ;r.:I~I<i'.ICll~t>lX' ,1!J(8.J<\p',oI,f<oi1

.' 1!II!d!.tdn,g1 ~l~ """_M ~1-l!d ..tIh .m~'-!I'IJ~iI! ~Jao1!!o pllNlO)!!Mn jor,~ E~ ~'"' ~_Id II!C'I 0., d~ef'l'l'lil!il!d ~ prrnll:! !!rl ~~«IPO:~ 1Ui"~. ~ ~9A't''''il'"! lr\l,!tUo.l

• Tl;~'i! ,~ 1'~",,1Oon ii'lo1' Indu,:i,,~ ~ th~ na!iml. '" ihcl. "'IlJ\."G-1 .. 011 !ook~w 5u~ Di' pr~ mBeT "'Il r~. Q'!'!J15r-,. ~n&cr.d uti' It.;. m~~D, lfff1

.loD~~'1l:to""'n. • ...hi['!! flre6n!\jl motE· ,.'i!'cu'd; h. ih",. I""" I ... """I lI~q n~i~ 1MI .... 111l1hwfll 'so.rp1us, IIlm,_ ~

.'r.c ~5~1' I'I!l i'ilipi(1)1!;5 SCi mo. MJg}..ol.o,.,..,., 'Oil J4j~;<>Ol'~"", d~mBrl~. 0& req.,lnlmll'l'II so ~~ ~ ~~,.,,;.,.o r>g h.tIrt~_ U:r:ben Fi"',;U '"-FI«'b1cm,,; in r~~ ~ 000 d<5'lIi.:i'-~ mem f1J. ~ynit'=- WDt)F b~:HJ;,l

FOOOCI ~fI1.¥ 1KL:ii!, T<I!r!!'iI'I~ QIU,. !Sull:5'1"r PFet~!TMttD! l!U!'JIi~nt me.

-'

~ ~~-dO$tlnM\oi:' ~n~ ~ ~ !:Io!I"aF1ol!l~ re~ ut=" 1(!:1'Ifl reliMm

000 tID1 re:l"ocm_ ~.w.q

.' COO'~f~ 0' d~M i r;lo ,~tJ..K!u.. ........ _ .. P' 1"JlJ'!l~~;jj .'lim o:rog ~Ig-)'O'IF1 .~ ~ ... ~~ 1l!!l j)O@i"3 '!;Q 1;Io:,~ ~!!'~o:l 1i'~·Y~

.,~ 1" Ian<!! " <J b=J~ h~~~ .-.g k-o Ye;.~ ~.fi: Cill.e~ l«.e Mf:Jfllo. me pike of bOO ful"cr,.cs ~ !II<;);c~'-r"",r:' d "..,.,..r ..... t~ rC::>"i:l

I

I

Anlil!';!tx 3.2.b

ioo:no:mlc l~l!Ie9: CjvilSodety Ortilii!lll'lli"gtjon;' .Ana'l,s~ arui! Po.SUliOl!l5 On K~'I At~5 of C.oncem

I lUll&! I L IIrntrft9! "'i'I'Il! Pe.t~!mJ

~, ----.-....:::=='---- -----' ~i~dlM of MonC>~f kolll':l 11<:1 ~fl~n.' ~pl~L ~""':BA.Yo'.Nf

~ Tho~~tiaJ'j GI1i (jHK'!(1I\!1i~ l~rDiQ"n I ~ lmcl!Tli o;JIt OIq:r .,;n.1 .,._m _hot

1M{i-)' 1iQ;.;~ biOoo (]olll1i~ ii'! '0'" '~rm~ ~~ I,n!~ Ompl"':f'1'M', '!~d<Jno!~~icc:ll;1f i.no;inci~1 b~ ... ~Rr I~r t~~ ~yt>1\). iBA'fIlN MLlNAl

~ ~i~~1 ~~.i~ ~ p~~oI11 [n ificr'1K!6rf!~. iQ~ cff~i1, I"'E~~

~ FI~~I Mo;jng~ .. nlfon~ 1oIoi1h g~Q.i. ~n f"~~n~ .t'~.m~ -Q ~d ~I~II !I-C!""~ .af!!lM>I. iHtJ

J

F1~liI!mM~'Y ~~OI~IJf'j;t,J1t!Gn Utl"_~

.' ~iJIU!lrna~I~, fi,",,~I\opfi1ign' I"'~I "Fi((Jmp~",~ ~rD~.rg,I". ~ l~i"(lWlh CifJd I~_I iWif:~~. ~ndMlt!g. ~1;~y,Ql1iil1 r~r"'. ,lll><:l •• 1~11~' libor~'i:i,gtrQ'1'I, [..';f.'J!;JI \(AN!~

.' [hmOOl1n;fq' in !;~.QlI~m:~ cl(jod~"'t'I, ffiQkif>~OIrl(j '",!!flt)o ~I;c>~!cl b.. 1""', ~!!~r~~i~ ~(;obI'IojjJjl~ OfFQr'I$~ITIC<1iII .... !ill pOlltl~1 d~Fr!Mro!lq ~OO: ~;.;pfIJrj~l>iJn ()f'~1)I_I!!~1 f~~h\ ih~ P'rI i1"~ Q'~ub.id!~". hQl~ rno-t wnll~o" ~;m~ b~ p<tcdui;Od' wilh m.a1'jQQ<~flbl~ CoO~l:i !lit ij~ lootd ,1-.1 ~hg",ldI il~ ,~rKlo:!~1i1k~J'I, !~D~II1~ ,I iIIll\f>~d!l i.:..WPp.lyt"~~1I:Jnd

~"IYr~~~ In ",~.id'il ("m~u .. l!,~, [J-J1O noi a~H'I>!IfI;~iCofOi', ,FOCUS} I·Mg~ko1ll ~~gn~ITI\1' ..... nc~ !h~ !'I'IQr~iOl' I~ gl~~""ilid,'~ n~r~~. ~nd I)G'j rl~ 10' F!1'~I!!I~j>Q"ist p~iiei~~, F'8S !n" rfI",k<r1 I~rr'!f><or~ ....iIi!. .~~~L !1l"I'p~n~w~ 'l"'I~~Mi~oo Cf\"~II, (F~rl

• Th~ ,e~on'ol'l'l!o' ~hould ~ propellH!! ~iMOfilt by .nai!in'>tll t~!J!>1J'~~ :ond I (;g~!;I! itt' ~;~m .r '11Tl;1~", ~n!i!ml~ ~~v",:IQP,m.~ ~t ~bQ,.;!d n~ir~lr =

I e;.;lBm. Olfo!!if.lfI.J'!I 1~'IlI~l.QI. ~ lih." IdflilP."C1n. "i !1).f~19n 'n'_j~r~ IiIIldI, r.oa:n~. erc.] &'01 owhicll.!fm coonlF't' el ~e~pI8 Mv~ il~ I",u IMJWi:JI,

ami con 00 wi1hodmwn • .,...ltJ,;hllkl (IF reduced ony '111~, lmq

• $uI?JlOIt ~!'!Iidi~(fnal OQ riculiuro], e.Il!lloglocl f",,,:i'lIrIE!' !" r~rni ____________ -'_--=G;;:;_·co"'."-rd"'i""l'itL~ !h~ coP'9city Qf na1w6..Pfi~~ a"'~fn~i .nput!_ i~

I

________ =IJI~u~e5~: ~, ___

A~Ii1ie:x 3 .• 3 .a

SOcia,1 :~U1e.o;~ c~w~ Soci~ '0 liltaJ~mz:atiGn,s:' .Am.ii! Iy~, and P'ositi UriS O~ Key :An!aS 100f Coliil,OOm

ImpHClltiollli Qr ~1iIt!i!l9V

5i.1f:.ty H~b, ~!III ~I!IIgR! llurid Il!I'ther I~ni;:l~ for !!!Ib!:i<r g~oo

J:~palilt 'liil! W;1:I1I1eJ'II, Indl!l!Il:IlOW! p.i'It(I,la

~m~Bd QIl! ~~I!i4i";!Ind IIlib!;lrpCllldM .

• ~nliEiqJIiio<> grid lobo!of.l'I@, ·or ~",~I1~ ~f'~ ~",m".= tC'-MQi); Go£!;i',~b~ ·",ngl~.m~ ~ ;,~ ~ I!!'tedi. on ~ SW;f'g"'rTlQ\C+ <;>no::i bOM:_ni~r.I"'Ke:A'I'AN... G<~~, ·PN-IDAfAI'fJ

,.~n.nd l1~gn bo d~~ bvllh~ "'II~ ~J m;.g<llnt 11;11;0< . .Muted b-:;.

d.,r-.:l1!d. jii'A!D''''Y~1

.n" ;~·of ~1QiIJIl1 d..,~ ~~~~il"l' ~~ ITOm Hl~l!: !l;~l1>Jjr(!1l)8S i~ ~.n;;ori'lil"'lu"l' ~.~ ~~/.eg~ I~ "",~Sc..!1'I:I~ aNI e\'~~ ,.,jlhrn :;11;>1"". -0 [f0:5.~ 1i!ln;£~r. "'.~-rvilJ I ~"" e'ln..<c. wJg-ln., ~r.;. rpAoN[)!l'fM;lJ

.r<:l).mrnp~r..;, poI'C'J lo d~DjJ i~~~ U"~ bg rDmpaW"~ i" • ~'"- ~·ur~ri~ Il-t:Jr EifT1p1-.g~~" '!<:!'>nQ!IJjl~l ,_otoil E,&,NOJ

"~~ ~UH, ~ti!y neh.., gro;l' Itrbtrr ~mrodcJ;rd.'i ~ b. i",'~ !Q ~d "'9r1!~d. ~'"1

~W»l'_~~id ~. tl'bi& It;> ~1'EITI ff6Qllt,.~ ¥ ~I)' br·'~"'Clng ..,.ot~ hgun !~~ W<i-.g fh~ ,,~m~i""l p;abI<om l~. 81o'"Pf .I"h.ing "'~g. j~ r WQ<k"... "nod ~fI" ,t,. I~" ~. -n.-_ - ~~ Of!) trr!"'n~ (Q:Wg~ In MIioM ,~ ~r I;'!;!tli'j • .." klbcN fT1I'l~ng r9dCl~ _~~n r'8dv~dtml. ~1l!Mi'. J\P1.1

~s!'!lt<" ... b, j~ I~~~' o"i;ITIy, gnil...-.. 'CIC~ On ~1(),fl11ol'1III d!!!""'I~. ~I' tU!IC~ ~ 1i ~id _, ~ '«h.-'oot 'Dvr c:.nl!l' 1.1.iR'&

~'O-lnl'l1!g, jW,llNCJ .

• s.of~ IHld •• Thoa· ~Ft'lI'!'Il ~ ~I ''''''', WTO loch 'I!:itN'l'!lWl Qn Iho [,o:rl .. o~ IoQmm,;M l!Khfll;>!C<!il' [~='I~'I

1'.W!l!!O'"n 1':'~.Q'I1I j;M7O'."Iy. ~l'd\i'JQn eM ~~f afld :~mIt bii:u,liI', w_ ~i'M~~I. cl'ld .e_11 [K!I'Ci, Wi'!NIil~

.• GIoI;.gl PJbu,,,,,~ ~l~ ~ .. lrnport_~ I.::! ~I ~1 ~ ~'" .....oftiln. ~I~~ oI_m«<....noCl"'" ~..:I. !COPE)

• '.~_(jil 0' ;FI'~ j,-s.'lM, ~",j)(_"~ '" lnod'l"i~~ ·l_' a~~ng

t'iilioClljj;i~"r !I't!i._ -':C"'J '_!iII~'!:.I har'r'lO!btiu;:! ·_'Ilil-i:

I gnd ct.iI,d j,:I~"";ih 'roo~, 'W;I ..... y"'l

I ~ The. ~QO\1I~f1IJen G'I ""'1'I'i~ ~c1 i~r1d-1 .~P!:l _El1ti Of<M:I. '" dl-.lpIo"fl'ij1 .... ~M. !~i'OII'I oil !Jilbo1'lollCi ",,~J ~.MloIi'J M:.. p.I'I!.""" moM !lind 1 mw~1 ~ end m.ldr1itl in~ ,"'" o.,u; 1;Jad'~ ~G.,t.,UfE'1.Al

• ~ IrTt~ iOtld imfI~, rJiI _'1l"C'\.<fIu:t'tfI!,;,u ~=I ~. b.e.i:fIoIiM 'O'idt:.m eI ~tOff1do:i-1lig ~i'wI< fl)f !H~u~~n Oif kit I~. ~QJcB!ilelAl l~bn~I~1 ~ R,gM!.- ~1!lQ' ,~Pldc;'~ tM 6og~ ef ,nd~~~ ~1:1'1~ b ~I\cir IMoir!:ll'lilM,,;t fI rid Ig ~il ~~, ~Ot>lMIflll'ffiQCI

• ~!1'ril1'lQ €If mlW'jilQrW~ MI!l ~1of!'50 of ~n Il:Idm1ri~ jfflQmt:Rld\JnnBI, f!.1";fi, I~~ ~I ~.ft~ .o(H>"ig' ~~ EI -~iDa u~~"" tlll'D. ruce, '~\Pl

i •. E~1'!1>I; r,~ofr.lml~ ~In!~~~ i~i<:I. ~~ """"'~'!>de! r"" &.e ~1T(g, dm<!. btli~~~~1JQ _..~~ 1J1iI~..,..d !J.!,~~FIf! '''~

.• The ~ f~e.p;olity ~n.;!i >rrtpl~I'I'I'3il"~U~"="9.

~aoUDIi~'!1ie .. <lim! «It!.iI!!Il'i!~'_' ~r'" ~!""'~ 10 cit~pc',n hl..., <!O!or olIf I~boor in ·th~ . ....OrItI mori<!!,1 {S1'P~ IEltllP. c~

..l1.a:pid.~ d .~~~ 00<d ~~~....ro. ~,~ w,*" IX!I J'ah.."!i <Il IcbQof; It.I~r n.e:oo.'bJ90 ~"'mB!. ~~Ml)l,,'r'ON. :~t;,K;;S. PAN!)A"~, .BJ>.!!'l

• ~@~"';e g~o1r;1lI1 re=-~ ~~ me "'wqg;D' "",.., ·~oo~ .~ boHorl". l"'I~~i!};.I1lIl lJ"I;I1'~,~~ 1!l0ru" ft~Mlly e~.d ~,e.:.;;;eM~~ .Ih¢ '!lg,~ bat.\laanlh. n<11. C'"d: .tHl ~ r"ii.,Pl

• The :n~ 0.-' ·~iifyk .. 1rnG~ <:In.;Il ... _~=1:l ~~ cs &., ~b~t~1 d ~. ·pf«~~ __ Ii>=: "'<I ~ clo<~ c~ ~rno+Il b.r.;;"".!>e!r D~'d r~!rei-.::nmsrn~~. jG~W1

!

AN"-l["!{ 3

l

Annex3.3.b

Socia I Issuu: 'C:~vn Society OrrgaliliiiaUoru;' Ana lysB ·alnd PosiitlQns: on Key Areas of ConQ!:Jr:n .

~ I ~ I ..

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[N~. 'I'llll wall Srullll'.5 (1999) !'Jrrden~'Q;Rdi.l:tg GlobQJiMnicti'l and Trude !:,iTm'nn .RI1"~iPO~~~$; .Ptot,j?itd'.i1J!1J of rhe RI!)·t,"lIdra!i/~ 1). :;:c~~rr.I(M fl:rl d m:u-hh tip::; HI l,UZOIJ. Vi~.oya' ond M indntlo. MMLiI.~ [lluitule for labar Sl'Lltli ~ ~,

lV..LOOil., Mill)' ('2:002) Citlif So-:{ely C!1l:J ... ccou.'l1lJ.bilir.!J. B.ad:~roll.md Pllper for ]hrMi~1 Develnpment Rrpor:! ~Q02. A"idl~bi(l fflUIl' <.htl.p:/I hd ,j'.1.1 n,d p. tI r s! does I pill hl!c:.Ilt i Qui b1l e grou rid_I'll P U 1/ 20" ~ I Kdd.ol' _:t()O"2.pdif>.

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Av,aHable ,r'!'om:,.:::http://' ... • .... ,w.p.OOf.orp

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1I1.itiul'l'e~. .

PmUi'WI~ JI'~;UoI'"r bI~'T~ (11.(}92) ~LQIP"C Ci\lfl1S N()wr~ r"r,f'~~ St~tc:mer~l. 2 May.

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Hampshire: ,'\8,hs~t!!:.

RO!lERT.!IQ'N1, Rohnld (1995) "Gh:iclil izalio[l' 'I'!rllll-~p:lec E1'l\d Uomogell.ii"ityHetel'l}Il~IH!it)·." In .F'l!.\,TH£Rsm.N'I!. et tu., eds. Gluool Modffrllities. pp. ";'1-44" Loaden: Sa.ge.

R!)t:AMQIA, Jod 0'99.:5) "Classes, Bosses, GO'()!lS and (;UI1~: R.e- rJn<!gining Politieal Culture: [91 l....e~~ ... , tlI,".Lno..~: l"i!J1! caSt! Srudi£'s O!L£irul Poli.rir:s ill tfli! Phmppmes, pp. vi~-:o::~xi. l>asj.g Ci ty: Ph! I ip pi ~ e:. Cente:r fQ!'" In \'eJ [igath'f JGlUrnEl1i6fil i'lII.d. t.ilI~ rMtilutc' f(n Popular D·emoc'rac:y.

&.u.I.!ot.;, ..Lester and SttKO!tl\I(,'.n:'l, WojC'i~th (1999) Glllhal Ciu.il Saci.ery: Dime'!lsWFll.~ oj th.e No.npl'tljit S~C~,07'" Ba:him!()r~: J oh n5 Hop'l!:i n~ C~nl P. r fM Civil Soc:iei)' Stucne~.

SCIiI>t!RT.E.~ ~[iclJllel (1999) ~Gl(Jh~lj·~attm'l and Ch"il SoCie.y." It'! SCtf~CJ'ITI~, ~d..

The .R~~it"(ll of C!uil Society: Global unci CQmpc:lrotiT.!'e Pf.rsF~civilS pp, 01' 99'. London: Macmillan,

ScHotTlll, Jail .o!j,art (200o.a,) GloDuli<lal-ron: A Critical lnlroducri;:m New York:

St. Matlin's ,Prl;ls"s.

]40 BIBl,IDGRAf-'rir

INDEX

SC][011:E. Jjjilii .~art (:zooob) "Qllllhal CiVil 5ociety_·lfi WOOl), "rl me Prltiticnl Economy of Gl(JbaliwI'icm, PP'- li'3-2,(JL wut"h:m: _,/Iac:milhm.

SC;'IOLf'£f Jan Aart (.200'2) ·elyi] S[)dd} and D.,mocra~:y in Gl!;lbai

Gove~l1;!1nee. ~ Glol}tj,[ Got~ernallCE! 8 (3}r 281·3Q4·

S~ru~&'m. Is-agani (1994)' Re-im,agfning Ciuil Socre~y- 15 August. Unpubiislud. S~.i<f!AN·O, lsa'g,'fUID t200:a). Il'It~nii",w. ':Ill F~hl'ua.ry.

SiI;'ilt. h:ak (Uil~9) ~G1Qba!i:;;;niom :aml Hllm·aD D~~JoplDlent: Paper pt2seJited lit the I':~b1h: Sym:ilosium OIl "Oev,!!1C1pmeot. Culll.ln: and Em~llci!la:tijljlii-' OI:GIEj·f.j,! zed b)i' Intern at L(lllal till-liSe I)f J ~ jUII:I. Ja pan Fe ~ 11 d d.!:!on As ia Center, To'lly'o; .)Jap!lJiI. 30 octobu 1991". Unp\Jbiishe:a.

SmE'l.; Jotln (1999) Cl!lpitoi. Co£Iroon, lliITd' CMme_ B.osmm jn Ihe PMHppHl€s.

StanfDrd: 5tiH1f,i::m:l Univeuity p~~-

Srl.i.JMo'oJi, G, Sidney and NQILI, i.t!la. lliIm~T (1,'f98) Dl'plll'lizin!jl fur DemOCl'lley:

NGOs, Cillil Society, aPld the i'lrilippillt!. Store. QuewTl Cil!, Mer.~ de Manila lJ·nh~J'$i1. yPr,es:s.

501'Q" Stmhi (2002) llUenriew. n Febru.ilry.

SUTrn",.~boeeei'll {l999} :rile PoliCJii ~: An OWnrii!IU_ \Vor1nng Pape:r ag_ t.cn,d·Q1': Qv4'r5el!.~ DIO'.,,'elopmenL JnsUt~HI! illl London. ~vilUlJble rrgmt ,dJJ'lp: Ilwww.odLors-uklpubl1~a{ilJlil~/.iI>~p·L 19. pdh,

~1·ell'f<L.EIl, Alvin (lij8o) :r1il' 1'iIIird WOll'~. to'lldo:n: Colllf1$.

1"oI<H':It<!WN" .Joh·1iI (j.9\1~) ICbJrural Impn1Q('4m: A CMtn;gr Jlltrtodll!:rton, LondlHI~ fi n.'le r.

U"'-L'rl.'ll N ~'I16:iS WoW:! Sq:M1r.11T 0Ii 1111; lMtJ,liW!fll:v! Sorn;n' • t,;IIlidcllni!:s far 0...,1 Soci!rty

P~rtidp{lth:I1l.· A;o,r!lntlbtt fnlln: .:!iltp:II_·ydlu..in1fwlli:s/ilildu_lHml".

V!l;fm', rim 11 iliid K,..,UI'Pi. M.uk (~.OOl) If!t~lItt(m.lll R'f'1.aliQ'llS alld W!7rld Gla1.itiC!i.· '-:l'r.el1rUy,. Econi!l<m!l Dna irll!nfiry. :l1ul ed. NI/!w J~t~ty: PrcmlC't.i ~IIIU, WOltU> BilH;;;. MOverview of the World Bank CollilbiilrilUon withCI\-,j1 SoclIHY:

Dl!finhiof! ,ntl Ch"rJlct~1islj!!!. or Ch·il SOdd; S 'etor_~ A;"4ihlble rtom~ <hup:/lw\I,/'W .wl'uhlha nl!:.org:o.

Will, Mllrlori. ~i'ld l.Q~~. Mil. Gil:iRJ", U~'9:11 ~StlltH:,YII Soclct)· M.~I.lil)[J..""1'I f'(Jtiq.M:tkln,g.· 1!1 WlIl IIrlit .l.Drt!Z. c-ds .'[f.al ... ·C'iViJ ~I'ly RdLlllom: il'! PtJlil:t.1' .Muki1iq, pp. J.2,O. 'Vol II: of Phmppin~ i.)~mOCTGtg,t Agellria :l ~111.~ QLi~~O!l Ci'ty: Tliir4 Wo:dd Stt!l.llr~ C~Ju~r

glm~k-'t1~~r" lJj.c;.tijc~" iI9

Ba>'U.!l Afu~1l J4. 36-"1, 4J·alS. 4'1'-49. 5fl;

614i:t 8!l'~6f). ')7-9-9, 1M, 11lI1, I I (i, I III BMP·PnM ·n, S~·S7, 65, sz, WO, lOS, II (;.

CA.ep, ·H-'US. GS. 9j)

C!lifDSOroUP, M. 1.03

ca:rnp~!gn. 11.. 79. lZ·S • 11(;, ~\Pi"l ~~pllllhsm: S. 10. ! 2. ~ ~,D-.14. 9;1, I (I~,

Hl9. 11 i q"lob~L :5, i. I ~ .29.) I. )4.l'r~ i't'illi!.~:pQIli'.2'i1. j t, H.16·n, clLsl.I~li~lLtion, 6c~, 71

~1'I11 ~cJ.ct.)r~ "Q~~i';"i~r' ~'~1101.on. ll·12!

117: ~OD~tilIil:ll'l, 3, 1] &; defillilil)ik~. if, lJ!: ~trnilJitl pull of, 13; Illrrcrcn.t fl'(H'I1 IiruSiIl~Si! o l'I!~nizMl(ln., L O~ exeluslve d.l!fllillioll of" 11. 24, ~17; ~~ab~ I. ~. I: I· ~ (I. 17. SQ. !IA-8~'. g 7, I O?~ "lleo!iboml" . Wlrsi'oli. 9; nonprofil, UeCIAlI. '.I: ~pOslmodl1m'! YC:rlI!on, 11; third sector, 9; nan.n!!flOlltll, 9; [ypg!a~. 15 issueb~ed ~d!onee!oml ild~ ocary, 2.25, .31- ll, H--l@. 384C1,. 43-46. 50-57, ji'iJllit:~ n=U-=.Jn NO'Os, 79. 9ll·93 ,'95.9'8, l (1,,( ldi. politit;1ll bloc-s, '24, ~ 1·32, 3~ -40.4 L- 46. 5il·~2. 56; ss, 7!i1. U·U, ~8, 9~93, 9S. ~ 1.6, lla'tiOTl'd 1NI lila), r~~.aTll!1-a ~m:l network NGO~ 24. 3l-32, 3'4--3~" 3~-JIO. 43·46. J:(); NOOs, 12,79.:84,88.90-91, ~J, 9,:]. 1 ! 6; UN c!!:'1iJlitiol!l, 10; World, B~]]k dc:finl ti on, I 0

eoalinoa; 57" 71!l, 8l-!!4~ buildill~. 32,136 ColdWilr 11 6 58

ro!l:iHrodibc~riOifl: ll-31, :5.41-49,51; of .... ·omen.61.72.

A.DI;!,IJ, rt

A E R, 3;1, 36. 3it. 44-+1'~, 5$. S7. ,tjHiJ, 71-

n, 83. 9ti" I iQ AFruM, 34, .~9. 63 A tT A. M. 90, 1011

IIw~iim: eultural, 32, 'P-IS. 6'1" 10 .. 10 I. developrnent.S I

,.c!VIiI}'iHf 14, '0,019. 5S.S7. 61-ti4, 69', iJ.

83. Slli,S9, 96-98. 100, 101, 1 III Illhan(;1l" 79·&4, &8, i 09

Al.Nt 34-3'5. ,.'·38. II!. 44,. ,,19 '''IIJlerr'lBtllfC&''',15,ll?

(;lA, ~5. 59. GoIJ, 1S1, 63, ~1I. 1 I ~ APE('. 14. ~4·JG., 63. 90. U)9

,"1' L.ll. J'S. 4~4S. 4IUS, ~ 7, (12. r,;..!, r)'t" iiiJ. IOl), IHI

I\SfAN. 1'.J', '00, l03

c>onununiIY-<::llgel!l izing, !IiO

c;D1'T1peti~iOJlr 19, 3~. ~6. 5-'1-j7, ~jl"~. (i~

66,80. SZoI Q2 .

LDTI.S.U ltntion, 8~"~1). ](1.,5 cnnsurneri sm, .3 2, 47·49 r:Ol1lrncilu!li:mUOn, ~3. 51, G6. s J

COPE. ]6.40, n-44. 4r>-411. 64: 6&"~7 .. 1S(l corporate social rC5cjl[)hsibillty, !'»·IjjG" 9~,

97

l!(JUlililcr.oi"enil'l. 32., 48 S l

eulture: J, 7-8, 11. 3l·3~. '12-44,48,5), ~e- 71,95, I 01 ~ Iloml)genW!tH)~, 1. 48.69- 71), I G!, I mp~n~!i'Sm. 7; ~hrb;rid·'. /

dl;;:on&tmdl on, llf.i, I [1\;1

11~SIQb~11M.tl~.In., 104. I Ut')· I 07 l)i~MIISKII, ~l--~~. ]~, 41,j. ~'.I40(I. ~1J.-(j~ ;;.I(\ITlOCf~lhJ1ti tin. 76, 8 b

J~r~~lJl~~INn. ]01" ·~9, ~~4, ~6·57. fll-63. I]{' cI~vruD'pnlC'rTI: 2. J, s, 6,. s, ~ s, 19. ::t'il. l&,.c I,

~,~. ~,6, .S(I. S4-~!i, 59, ti 1·';2. (.I.. tJ.S..(i'J. 70,n. 31)·8'1. 8'1, II!. !:I2. 9S.·!l'Q, I GQ..lOS. ! I 0·1 II 118. II~'W ~"!jl11. S I, il'ICClfl.U1'iile s, u. n.9c:.;~'LHmi'!lllble. N.:\!{),~I

dilllM'1 (hVLde. 3 I. b'l

diSC.ol1,1tSt. 1,5. i, 9. ll. I (I, 19. ~ l-2". 2~.11. 7(1. IIWI II, 114-.1 11;1

~1 i~PII!C *NdcnlCnt. ~'H (" ()~, !OJ

'~lkI}IIIIC. d~~d{'ljlm~nl. S. ~ I. n. ~~i

i n 1·,ord~p~n{l~f1ce., 2;'). 1J~ II ber~rw ~iJOfl 6~-(~7, WSi IICW Q~d:~r, ~.~

'ilwm;.acioll , 7~·7~" ~[j.9_~

~mpl()ymem. 17.5;;. 60. f~2, 6(., 77, 90.96, !,IS

oiwlf()nm~,,!, I.~. a, L2,,n, 4~, ';4, SO, ~3, 5~. ~7, 67-M'i, 10. 1&, xu, ~:'-)\f>, q;l.-I'l:S. 97, ~)(,l, im, lfJ2-HI4'. 107-1(#1, I ro, nslt6

FDe. J4. 38, 43-4-4 49.56. @.J2, 85. flfi.

9.8. 116 FDUi

FDUI', J5, 3], fill

P E F, n, 3(,_ J'iI, ~(j. 5(" r:.l. 6), r..(" 'J2 -u, ·1iI,. llG

t1~ an" nlQII~[~ry f1('jIi~i:e~, 5-~, 6(HiJ, 'J!4- %,111,115

lishin;!;F 6l\; cnmmerci nl, S7. o(): rnu!!ltclp~l. 95_ 99

t1!lxibi1iz.a:li:On, ~2-4J

F.OtlJS, H. 38," I '19.56-58, R$. 91,103 •

L!}:;, l!6 .

141

[1:>0(1 j?:mduJC!Qmt ami ~gmri".il pooh w). 'H. 99·

1 (){J, 115

F Pt, 36; 'U-44. 48, ~-Q, C;S ,SO FrA ,~,N;3, 11~

GABRJELi\.14--3), 3.7, 43. ~9. 61 -{r~. {.:l. 66"6')' • .116

GA TI,14" 54, eo, 5~-6·t" 7ti. g 1. sz, E3-S'1 g1{Jflill~~~[l~u~~. fiG, ~~,pltD.l. i _ 1 ~)5; ~~~itg.H~m;S, 7. ~ S, -:19,3 L 3-Ll1: m;jj 5'~d~.~:)'.s.. 1I-l2, llli-15_ i;. ~I}_ IN·-lH.

'8 7, ~ O!i<; eC"DD<mldrLnilIa:l::~ml II'tl,UlUlio",s. J I, 3,!.]'I!. ~l, :S()~. e~no1fl:l". '~'m(ll'nle

B ~"l.II' I ty. 5 .• 7.8. JJ. 36, 77~glj)l"~m ~ D~~" 6. s. J s, 1.8,41 • ss, ?7. I ~ L in1ifgJIl!oticn. }I), 36; mruke!, i.M. 6~. 9'Q;TTli:dia, ','ra; IlI:(lhber~liSIin, It !;lIl1l;'i-IIJ~ movernems, 9] ~ .HJ.~i~. 54, 5$; war on 'tamf>!;rn, ~4, 5'6

,~~~bllliZilti.DTI: ml~lITI1~h\ce ~!j, 9}· ~ {I.E. ~ 1 I : llt"tmf;1, .gCildJI an, ;1"9'.l;·(1lrpD:rilJl~l~ dfi ... ~n. 5.14. 107. I n~ (lmwu!"!'G{]lj.·4--9; 1l;:5~jlll;u~f)' lW~p(,(:th'e1-. ~- i. Hcl":~ seboe lS.Qr thc~ght (111. 7-9: type-;[}f ~lfQ!"tlmliDn~ ~b-o""l. 9~,nroii~L.:5. 551. j6, WP'; "$Q!l;'f~ljn~. I QS; umI~to.ildi~ Or tl\l'il !>II~~~tj': I::ulrunl dim~hi'ltlh. JQ. ~~-j3. "1--4~', ~ I, ~'ofmmic diff'!~~~i~n, JU·.l 1, jJ-J e, ~:fi.-"W. I ill, pglU I~n I ChhKil~ion, ~(I·JI, n, J7.~8-~(); K1ej~l d;lm~:,:iClII\, 3(1, ll·ll ,~2, ~'i·S I , hldlIlO~~8.kM d!!lI~nliio". ~(I. n. 42. ~7- ~~ •• ~ 1

lIl~L'lIli~~EM,7, 33. J!I GMOll.~,9· }(I

~O~Jc:rnIIlQ~: e, l.t· 17. ~ 1, n. S9. 71.16·71. ffi~, .~9,~, ! OJ; g;1!)b~l, G, S. ~ LSS, 17,

I 01'; ",pHi·I~y~r~d. !3. 841. I (:It t 1 0, egI'pEt['!(~~. d'

O~t.~,!liP~~'~' 3~ •. n, 4:~,. 4!:), 61, ~jl

~,(lmCl&e!l~!'.fI.bM, '1, J2,~t'>~!I, ~" 1 n I hypCf!!1 il'b~1inB. I, ! I t

I !lON, 3 3 .J~. 40-4J. ~9, 59. s L ~:S. 8B.9?-

9S, I. ~6 .

u.s.s

L.\1F. ~ 4. 18. 4 I. 51), 54·;5"6. ~1. 8 r ·$:l, Bfl. 91. ~~, ros.ios, 100·110

I tl1p(m~ll~m!"mJKl;;l1 i~t~ 7, ~9· ~ 1, J.l, l:i- 11.11041, 10.9

l~dlg(!R[I1J!§ ~pl~,~:!. ~3, :;5. t,~. (,:- -ftS, B'7.Wl,ll~

m~ustrial pa~iey. sr-sa, 95·97 1'15 mdustri ~Itzatton, 1),. l ~. ~ 5, 4J •. se, b r-ez,

95, '91, 9:8-, W6, 1 [}') ~'n.5th1!lti Dilali.~l.6 m!el,'Tlltitl'n. 29. J l. 16

m!,:Hiecru.ar ~t>:ijl<my tights... )~, 56. M. G$ iiil!~ rd(e~nclem:~. 5, l:l

m!ei<l'Zolitmil] Idl!()'f:m 8..~.]] ·-3~ J 5 ... ~:!H_ ~~

m\'~m-~ITi ,~~ 2.i3(} .f'tlll ~...fi. ~3. ~tl. OO. 62. M_ ~5.·~'!. ~+. 95-9". 1l.'1 1 M- Hi~

Keyn~<l3J1, ~4 !( ~~ P, S~_ g~

KMlU5-. r ~--j~. H·tI.:. 65:. S]. 100. l HI'

K.PD. }o1 • .3g..~1t.4~ I. ':J~j, ~S. f)~. ~~. -6-;', TO, 85. 9:!, 10K, I I 6. 1 Ill!

KRB, g;HjJ·

;:;: ;;';!G PTol9oi:nL ~ b

r~OOT. 6. I <I. 29. J2. ~.~. ~] SS. S ~. 6~. 65 ·6"\ ~1·1t se-sz 94 \?7. IOO·If.lI, 11:':'·116, cwe-llbor ~~r.d'l.ro;> Qf tM: ItQ, (]~.

I (lCI.1 0 ~ ~n~ ia II FJ'.ji~·i(]n -, il~ ~l hlll~} ~l1cmE!.,..s~, M-M, '1.;W, 100. Labor~ '4;'I~~. 5; ,515, ~ 00. ml~IKm. 65.!P. IDIJ.r=IV1 ... itl:ntiiJilt~. 606. ~11~1' ~2, ~..6' 9::. II~·IO l

'lbaaliDl\, 4·· 5

lib:t.hl!llhc~ ~J,. ~og,_ ~J-~' 60, 6~·6l. -I. 'll, 1", S};. U, '.5, \)~ HIS 1Q;!i; .J;;lt.UUII;I'lII, S9·6~. 'W ll~, 1"Il11':}.%· S~. !r1lcl~. 6(1.6".6-7, i~, n 100, II~

I..JM'COMA, ~11. 31,4(l. ,,1,(1, !;o1.9~ lollt>yn,gl:\by 1'11Ig. IV. 6~. ~'~9. ItO, Q]'l H11. tlO, JU

tf!.1IrI!lJn&lrl~li'IJ1. ~'l. J I·n. J:!l, 4;l..J.J, ~·l. ~-. 1 III

nw~!i!"L 4.~, 9,. J(), 11. H. lb. I ~.II:I, », J7- 19. ~;;I. Sft-S 7.59, 61-t.t ~ ! . S(!I. 9[i..9 ;'. 9'.1. 10 I" j 02. 1 (I? I ttIl. 111 ~'l~lbl~ 11.1.1Id.

~. 109

[ootllhz~tl~M, 116_ o)u fI'IOPClpolr t¥i~I, f)1.~ MRe ~, ~1"-'l7"":;"l ~. 'W '19

nro._"1]loni~h!5Jtl. 11 J':!'-J B 41

DOl] L~bo~r~l. 5. 1:5, J U4 H <!~ 5·9. $. j 1lt'ilI~rilll~m, 3.] 1 )')·J!l,.n 49. ss. 71.

III

1lC'W tC'(jr!ol!n~~c 1:1.1.:1(:1, ~ .~. '~6 "['[I'!I'~tiT -I.te[.tlT, '-1·11

ll)'lmlic~.5, ~.!, J1_36, ~·9 !O~

Ilf1!)HlllEl!Dll. ru ll:!.Iilm:nc~, ~ j_ .:iO, 71 ! 1-1- "i 16; ul~!~l!!Ic".i!.! DI1~.~im[}]]. ~2-2:~.50. 71. 1 I';"! Hi: k~m:hl:j:l, ~l. 1 L. 1 L+-I E. m:!IIH!:a le:.!h:rus:i!. 21. "I i - - J. ll·~-J L~

i'"dtl'}-~r:.~~. 3S,.-ttl.4:i . .lg. 5-8·60 M. cO,

l(]:!., n6 .

;P,,\FI[1. J,4. r~~, [!o.~, &-, "E, H~I

F' ",KES"!" ',;, .... , J J, =,0" 45, .~ - .~9. ;0. ~~, 9'1l P.l,.~~__"_.LAK.A VA·o,,:,.li.CFAJl J5. J~ ~7.

~54, ~1.S9'_ 51E

~NDEX 14lJ

PAND-AY A"t-;:, 34. 3"f/, ~ ~; d ~ .. , 41-4-i, '61, '609,

70, l[}~, 116 p$ln~11 ~mmit5, ;_.;:! party-l i$ to 79

P'i'UU ~ K, 33. as, ~ S. 4"1 ,43, 4,i; 5Q, 9"1 politieal.lt\iht3ry'. 53 ·54, n-5'(l

PI'I, 34,39',41-43, 49. ~O, 59;, 8K 9.9. IOJ pn::t.2lll1li~Jl~11' prinelpk, T (I~ pi'h·m.izatl~n,·14, J8, . .:19.9:1, 10.2, I L.6 pwtecli':mi~m, 62. 9S

jlMe!t.. 77, 8CS·S7,.94. IQS·lQ9', r'17 ,PRRM., JJ. 40.43·-<14. 4>6, ~a, ~9.~~. B0. 83,

99, Hl7 PUM,-uJ\:O. 82

rp;dk~li£m, 9 J" Il 7 iii: ~~~~Ilomi~ s"JO. J"l rcaH:>l,~

recon 5~TU~ t I on .lO:5"

f1::foim: 84, M,f>~" no 9J .i~4. 9(;, ~"01, ! !14- 10'S. I Qg.~~" 11t.1 ~1J:: ,lSs~1 5], fill. 71· n, Il s, tillldi'UlVlI-nnn., M), M. 95, .I·nl'l. 11:19~ m~ 00, Crlc·M. Q1cO~

T'<:forrn i,5ID. 93> I 11 .

·'f1:formi~,". I s, 114, ! 17

reil~OMI blollq:/f:IJ"Q~!pmll's. Sit. 9{I, g,~. t 0-:l-

!OJ, W5·1Q6, 10'

., rCJ~o hon~~l~", 1 S ,.1 I 7 "~~t·rd~rm!" WJ·J 11<i, I [Ill" 117 LI1I1I-~~'kj "2, ~Q. Sfi, 7~, 102 ~~p~MrmU~:rl. ~:II·9!l

Mf~t.y 1tC13, ~4, 5,7, 6"i-fr!'1. cs, 9l1. 11)1 S,A Nt" KAS. ~4"J!I, "! , s S. 7(), 81, 108, I HJ, ~!8

!'lJ\itlLA.YA, l4. 37. :il'jl. 'f;L.ol5. 4~ .. ~,~, W. ~j', 69, 7Q, 97. IlIl

t5t~'l[I~. 9~I~te in/WTO fili 1l1~~cJi~J,14 •. 77,

'II)

SIKAT. ~4.:D, 'IS. 49,M), W. I [I~ d:~ptd~5. HI. 28, L I 7

Sm~llI. A.ibfi'~ S

~ ... R, B2·:B. l J 8

<~oel~l CI~IIS¢:, ~{j-6 7, n, ?5, I o 1 so~l~l d.ernoc:r~li~., J.!'

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