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An Introduction to Kabbalistic Concepts and Doctrines
JACOB IMMANUEL SCHOCHET
V~WPNS vmnt p n m
KEHOT PUBLICATION SOCIETY
BROOKLYN, N E W YORK
1979 B J. IMMANUEL SCHOCHET Y
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the copyright-holder, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. THIRD-REVISED-EDITION SECOND PRINTING 1988
Published and Copyrighted
1979 b y
KEHOT PUBLICATION SOCIETY
770 Eastern Parkway 1 Brooklyn, N.Y. 11213
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Schochet, Jacob Immanuel. Mystical Concepts in Chassidism.
Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Hasidism. 2. Cabala. 3. Habad. I. Title. BM 198.S367 1986 296.8'33 86-2997 ISBN 0-8266-0412-9 Printed in the United States of America
Table of Contents
On the Propagation of Chsidism: Foreword to Third Edition ............................................................ 7 Foreword to First Edition .................................................................... 25 Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition .............................................. 27 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Introduction ..........................................................................................31 CHAPTER ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND METAPHORS ............ 35 I: 1 Anthropomorphism 35 / 2 Man-Metaphor 39 / . 3 Light-Metaphor 41 CHAPTER TZIMTZUM .................................................................... 47 11: CHAPTER SEFIROT ......................................................................59 111: 1. Meaning of Sefirot 59 / 2 . Order of the Sefirot 66 / 3. Keter 68 / 4 Chochmah-Binah-Da'at 71 / 5 . Chessed-Gevurah-Tiferet 80 / 6. Netzach-Hod-Yessod 87 7. Malchut 92 / 8 lggulim and Yosher 96 / 9 . The Sefirot as Compounds 101 CHAPTER IV: WORLDS .................................................................... 105 1 The Concept of 'Worlds' 105 / 2 The Division of the Worlds 108 CHAPTER OROT AND KELIM .................................................... V: 117 1. The Concepts of Orot and Kelim 117 / 2. Or PnimGOr Makif 122 CHAPTER PNIMIYUT AND CHITZONIYUT ............................127 VI: CHAPTER VII: SHEVIRAT HAKELIM ............................................ 129 CHAPTER VIII: PARTZUFIM ............................................................139 CHAPTER TOHU AND TIKUN ....................................................143 IX: CHAPTER KELIPOT; CHITZONIM; SITRA ACHRA ................ 147 X: CHAPTER BIRUR AND TIKUN .................................................... XI: 151
Bibliography .......................................................................................... 161 Index ...................................................................................................... 164
Dov Ber of Lubavitch (the Mitteler Rebbe-55345588. he would reply: "The neshamah (soul) understands!" This reply was not a cavalier retort. Dov Ber to visit numerous towns and villages where he would collect funds to redeem coreligionists who had been incarcerated and for other charitable purposes. he would recall an interesting incident. often referred to Kabbalistic concepts in his ethical discourses. and often difficult to understand. 17731827). It harbours a profound thought discussed in Chassidism and articulated a century earlier by R. His first master.Foreword to Third Edition On the Propagation of Chassidut On several occasions when discussing mystical concepts of the Kabbrljh and Chassidism with my father and teacher ir"il'77t. Rabbi Joseph Leib Bloch-rabbi and rosh yeshivah of my father's native Telz. as seen in the following episode. At the same time . The famed Chassidic sage Rabbi Hillel of Poritz was delegated by R. When the rabbi was challenged that these are ideas foreign to his listeners.
Dov Ber whether to continue reviewing Chassidic discourses for those unable to understand them. 373. Likutei Tmah IV:7ld and V:5d.e. See R. Cf. . and he reviewed for them Chassidic discourses he had learned in Lubavitch. R. ~ When the neshamuh hears.. Pardes Rimonim XII: 18. R. Scripture states 'And flowing streams from Leuanon (Lebanon)':' Leuanon stands for Lamed-Bet [and] Nun. 1I:p. each forming a symbolic number: the first two letters (Lamed-Bet) form the number 32. Zohur I:4a and f 261b). 2. R. that the gimatriya-numerical equivalent-of the word baLeoanon is the same as that of Chochmah-Binah) 4. The Rebbe answered in the affirmative and said: "The teachings of Chassidism are heard by the wshamah (soul). The people he met on his travels ranged from the scholarly and perceptive to the quite simple. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. the remaining three letters spell Nun. 3.). Moshe Cordovero. vol. Cf. He asked R. and this results in a strengthening of the asey tou (do good)' relating to the 248 com1.2 i. vol. 183. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. and this fact raised some doubts in Rabbi Hillel's mind. Song IV: 15. cf. 1:p. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Psalms XXXIV: 15: sur mera ue'osey tou (turn away from evil and .8 Foreword to Third Edition Rabbi Hillel was to encourage and strengthen the religious life of the communities he visited. the letter equivalent to the number 50 and alluding to the '50 Gates o Binah' (Rosh Hmhanah 21b. the Chochmah (wisdom) and Binah (understanding) in the n e s h ~ m a h . The word Leuanon is divisible into two components. incidentally. on Zohur III:16a (also noting. there is a b w and stream in the illumination of the soul which vivifies the body. alluding to the '32 Wondrous Paths of Chochmah' (Sefer Yetzirah I: 1. Likutei Leui Yitzchuk-Zohur. Or haTorah-Neui'irn.
ch. Eliyahu Zutta.. et passim. sect. Tikunei Zohur XXI:49a. vol.. Schneerson. and of the sur mera (turn away from evil)' relating to the 365 prohibitions [of the Torah] The difficult and complex concepts and doctines of Jewish Mysticism are all-pervasive in Chassidism. VI (on Menachot V:8). that Chassidism emphasizes that after an initial cognizance to avoid wrong-doing (see Tanya. end of ch. There is a unique merit. Menachem M. vol. just as the kindling of light dispels darkness. Tzauacrt Hariuash. ch. end of ch. ch. Kidurhin 30b. do good). Hayom Yom. and notes ad loc. XVIII (on Lamentations II:19). R. in Degel Machane Ephrayim. 7. though. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Mahurash) quoted in Sefer Hasichot 5700. the comment by R. Moshe Cordovero. 1:p. p. Likutei Sichot. and R. Cf. R. Menachem M. See Likutei Torah V:48b-c. also the Baal Shem Tov's comment that the light of Torah (goodness) causes darkness (evil) to disappear. and ch. IX. in the very perusal of these sacred texts..6 even if they are difficult to understand and sometimes not comprehended.Foreword to Third Edition 9 mandments [which the Torah enjoins man] to do.. See R. Nitzauim (see my The Great Maggid. 31) man's essential and foremost concentration and involvement should be with the positive aspect of asey tou. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Chaim David . vol. Note. 5. 1I:p 473f.. ibid. and also ibid. Or Ne'erau V:2. p. 124f. Cf. V:p. this will then of itself effect the negative sur mera. XII). XXI (on Numbers XXIV:5). as with Torah in general. 138. edifying and invigorating effect. ch. 41. 460f. Eliyahu Rabba. an objectively purifying. but this fact must not deter either the teaching or the learning of it. 6.Cf. 29 and 51. 31.
ibid. Chaim Vital.. in view of the fact that the precept of Talmud Torah (Torah-study) is allcomprehensive. 108b. 102b.10 Foreword to Third Edition This objective and independent potency makes it possible for all to become involved with Pnimiyut haTorah (the "inner" aspects of the Torah). Menachern M. Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat h a C h s i d u t [presently available in English translation: O n the Essence of C h s i d u s ] ch. For an example of the application of these four levels of interpretation. D e m h ( hermeneutics). Avodat Hakodesh.. Moreh beEtzba II:44. ad loc." The possibility of involvement with Pnimiyut haTorah. p. s. Tikunim 107c. Avoduh Zara 19a. Remez (or Re'iyah). Orchard) "-Chagigah 14b-the Zohar reads the word Pardes as an acronym for Peshat. 9-17. cit. . Baal Shem Tov's comment quoted in Likutim Yekarim. R. which are the four levels of meaning and interpretation of the Torah. Zohar I:185a and III:85b. and Tosaphot. Cf.1° Azulay (Chidu). and Sod. and Mekor Chessed ad loc. sect. In the context of the Talmudic passage of the "Four who entered the Pardes (Garden. Isaac Luria. therefore. 3. and also II:2.. See Shulchan Aruch of R. and their relationship to Chassidism. Chaim Vital. note 29. notes 6 and 8). 10. ed. see Zohar Chadash. R. Sha'ar haGilgulim XVI-XVII. The significance thereof is far-reaching. and infra. 1:4 and 11:10. Tel Aviv 5723. Tanya. See Hilchot Talmud Torah. 22b. Cf. 9. XXVI. see R. Hilchot Talmud Torah II:13.v. (supra.v. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Hilchot Talmud Torah. Keriah bechochmat haKabbalah. and Zohar I:26b. i&m. mysticism) . 1164. lgeret Hakodesh. sect. Sefer Chassidim sect. and Sod ( esoterics. 111:llOa and 202a. also ibid. 8. Remez (allu:~ sion). Schneerson of Lubavitch. Sha'ar Ruuch Hakodesh. Introduction. implies of itself obligation of involvement. demanding that each and everyone study Torah to the best of his abilities and the utmost of his capacities-on all four levels of the T ~ r a h Peshut ( simple meaning). s. and R. Derush. Sha'ar haMitzvot.
R. Moses and David. . what I saw and learned when I ascended there. Abraham Gershon of K ~ t o v . I asked the Messiah: 'When will the master come [to redeem Israel]? And he answered: "By this you shall know it: when your teachings will be- ll. This letter was published first by R. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy (to whom it had been entrusted by the Baal Shem Tov for delivery to R. . I saw wondrous things in a vision as I had not seen heretofore since the day I reached maturity. who revealed and disseminated Pnimiyut haTorah in the form and modes of Darkey haChmsidut (the ways and practices of Chassidism) and Torat haChmsidut ( the teachings of Chassidism ) . lent special impetus to the aforementioned. Adam. in whole or in part. in Keter Shem TOUand other works. Jacob. 115. 12. Seth. The Great Maggid. . p. . Abraham. I ascended level after level until I reached the palace of the Messiah. see . . In the famous epistle addressed to his brotherin-law. where the Messiah studies Torah with all the Tannaim (teachers of the Mishnah) and the Tzadikim (righteous people). ~ ' Baal Shem Tov recalls the a wondrous experience: "On Rosh Hashanah 5507 (1746) I performed the evocation of aliyat haneshamah (ascent of the soul to celestial spheres) . Subsequently it has been reprinted. ". Cf. It is impossible to relate and tell. Abraham Gershon) as an appendix to his Ben Porat Yosseph.Foreword t o Third Edition 11 The advent of R. Methuselah. Israel Bml Shem Tov. even face to face. and also the Seven Shepherds12. .
476 ff. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 15."I4 R. . Bereish is an acronym for R. ch. . . the Baal Shem Tov's grandson and disciple. refers to this letter in his writings and adds: "This [reply of the Messiah] seems alluded in the verse 'And the children of Israel went out [of Egypt] beyad ramah (with uplifted hand. 1 (p. See Likutei Sichot. 2a-b) . Exodus XIV:8). Cf. Beshulach. f voi. see Mystical Concepts in Chassidism. sect. 14. vol. Likutei Diburim. 11. Israel Baal Shem. sect. the gloss by T z m h Tzedek in Likutei Torah III:33b. 1:p. XVI-XVIII (esp. 872f.' . Degel Machune Ephrayim. Kelipot (shells) is the Kabbalistic term for the aspects of evil. For a Chassidic interpretation o this encounter.Foreword to Third Edition come renowned and will be revealed throughout the world. . Keter Shem Tou. and 'your springs will be dispersed chutzah (abroad. that is when [Israel] shall come out of exile. .j. 10. and the word gaky alludes to the time when his teachings shall be revealed and his springs will be dispersed. [ Targum Onkebs renders the translation of beyad r a m h as] bereish gaby (openly). then the kelipot13 will perish and it will be a time of propitiousness and deliverance. and Shfr Hashirim Rabba VII1:end of 9."16 The Baal Shem Tov's vision in essence reflects an ancient premise of the mystics. pp. externally)' . and his Or haTorah-Neui'im. 1II:p. 13. vol. 572 and 6186f. Moshe Chaim Ephraim of Sudylkov. see R. as stated in the Zohar: Sukah 52b.
Shimon bar Yochai]. ch.e. and the 'Tree of Life' symbolizes the esoteric aspects of the Torah.Foreword to Third Edition 13 '"And they that are wise shall shine as the splendor of the firmament' ( Daniel XI1 :3) with this work of [R.. See the sequel of our passage in the Zohar (and its exposition in Igeret Hakodesh. XXVI. . and what is forbidden. in other words. 19. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch. i. sect. And . . . the clarification or 'knowledge' of 'good' and 'evil'). . cf. XXVI). fit and pure. and R. a chosen few whose saintliness matched their scholarship and who had mastered the strict prerequisites1@to 16. And because in the future Israel will taste from the Tree of Life. Appendix 1 1 17. Kuntres Etz hachayim.. sect. also Zohar III:153a. in mercy. In Kabbalistic terminology. Zohar III:153b). and 1."17 so many people here below (on earth) shall be sustained (yitpamssun) by this work of [R. Shimon bar Yochai] when it will be revealed in the last generation. See Zohar Chadash. and in the merit thereof 'You shall proclaim liberty throughout the land.16 the Sefer haZohar. Tikunim 106c-d. and Zohar Chadnsh. explained at length in Zgeret Hakodesh.. and Zohar Chadash. 18. 5 and 11-13. See also ibid.' (Leviticus XXV:lO)"ls The teachings of the Kabbalah originally were restricted to yechidei segulah. 3. 6d: 'One must not reveal the mys- ". at the end of days. Tikunei Zohar VI:23b-24a. Tikunim 96c. the Kabbalah. unfit and impure. Bereishit. cf. XXI:53b (and the commentary Kisse Melech ad loc. Zohar III:124b. they will leave the exile with it. the Book of the Zohar (Book of Splendor) . the 'Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil' (Genesis II:9) symbolizes the exoteric Talmud and Halachah (which deal with the clarification of what is permitted.
part I: ch. Cf. Moreh Neuuchim. To study the mysteries of the Torah before Scripture. the laws relevant to the daily life c/f the Jew. . Mishnah and Talmud is at best 'like a soul without a body. 33-34.14 Foreword to Third Edition entering the orchard of mysticism. Or Ne'erau. as mentioned in the G e r n a r ~. Maimonides. pp.. 21. but first his body must be purified. Kidushin 71a. too. ad loc. and R. Tehillim. lacking efficacy and accountability . sect. Or Torah. Introduction to Etz Chayim.).radiate in this body like a lamp placed in a glass reflector: shining and invigorating him to understand the mysteries of the Torah and revealing its depths . whose studies endure and he is G-d-fearing and erudite in everything. I: ch. Genesis Rabba XLIV:I] and are essential. otherwise he would be like one who 'gazes at the stars. II:149a and III:79a. 114-116. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. . See also R. and Zohar III:105b and 244a (with Nitzutzei Orot and Nitzutzei Zohar. See Pessachim 119a. Man must study the wisdom of the Kabbalah. Hilchot Yessodei Hatorah IV: 13. Chairn Vital. and note 20.The soul of man is a lamp of the Eternal (Proverbs XX:27) . publicly. and thus failing to see holes right under his feet: ultimately he will fall into a deep pit'. Chagigah l l b and 13a. beginning of Introduction. 77a). also ibid. and also ibid. .' Cf. Chagigah l l b and 13a. Moses Nachmanides' Introduction to his Commentary on the Torah. . R. also The Great Maggid. p. Kehot. Maimonides. Cf.'. Moshe Cordovero notes that he who wishes to pursue the esoteric teachings of the Torah must first possess some basic knowledge of nigbh (the exoteric Torah). R.. "The whole science of the Kabbalah had been concealed from all the scholars except for a select few-and even that was in a mode of 'walking secretly' and not ~ R. 6. . Only thereafter can the neshamah (soul) . stated in the sacred Zohar21 that permission to reveal was teries of the Torah except to a person that is wise and studied Scripture and Talmud. only observing the things above him. . . and Tikunei Zohar. 31-32. ~ Shimon bar Yochai. ch. 20. This is effected by practising the mitzuot which serve this purpose [ c f . See Zohar III:159a. infra. 258 ( e d .
vol."22 T i concealment and hs restriction. namely up until the end of the year 5250 (1490). sect.. I1:p."23 Indeed. it is improper to be slothful [with this study] . lgeret Hakodesh. was to last only to 'the end of days. the Kabbalah) was but for a set period of time. Likutei Sichot. . in his lgeret T e y m n (see also his Moreh Neuuchim 1I:end of ch. Zohar 1:118a. in his Introduction to Or haChumuh. to the period immediately preceding the Messianic era.Foreword to Third Edition 15 given to him and his associates only. that the King Messiah will come in the future.' and the decree was nullified and it is permissible to occupy oneself with the Zohar. "The decree against open involvement with Chochmath haEmeth (the Wisdom of the Truth. As it is by virtue of this merit. From then onwards it is called the 'last generation. 36). and not another. however. R. and Maimonides' reference to the restoration of prophecy prior to the Messianic redemption. Rashi's commentary on Song I:2. Shimon bar Yochai foresaw an ever-increasing revelation of mysticism in the period preceding the Messianic redemption to the point that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom. Abraham Azulay.. XXVI. 24. i."24 22. for both the great and the small. quoting earlier sages. Cf.e.e. Cf. 23. 588f.' i. in this context R. Since the year 5300 it is a most meritorious precept to be occupied therewith in public.
See R. and p. sect. Chaim Vital. Joseph Ergas. Immediately after him followed R. Isaac Luria see R. special tracts propagating the principles and premises of the Kabbalah and introducing the novice to them. commentaries on the Zohar. Moses Zacuto's glosses on Etz Chayim and Meuo She'arim. Jerusalem 1967. the esoteric part of T ~ r a h . VI (ed. R. Chaim Vital. p. Moshe Cordovero. Moshe Cordovero and R.16 Foreword to Third Edition The century following the year 5250-referred to above-witnessed a phenomenal flourishing and revolutionary expansion in the study of. whose all-encompassing teachings soon were recognized universally as final and authoritative and had an impact on the totality of Jewish life.26 It was an age that ushered in an altogether new era: R. Isaac Luria. 100 note 1. lgeret Hakodesh. Isaac Luria. R. 335a). sect. Isaac Luria declared that as of then it is not only permissible but a duty to reveal Pnimiyut haTorah. [See also Sefer Toldot haAri. It was the age of R. All these works. and of their disciples. Sefer haChizyonoth II:17. mostly written by scholars whose authoritative 25. the Ari ( "Lion"). Moshe Cordovero and R. ed.. XXVI. end of Introduction to Peloch haRimon. ~ ~ Ever since then there has been a continuous flow of mystic works appearing in print: the writings and teachings of the aforementioned R. See R. For the basic difference between the systems of R. Sefer HagiG . Tel Aviv 5721. p. 178f. mystical expositions of the Bible and Rabbinic texts. whose expository works-of remarkably lucid style-have become primary sources. note 2 (Mevo She'arim. 158f. the Kabbalah.)] 28. and cf. Menachem Azarya de Fano. also ibid. Shomes Emunim I:17. and preoccupation with. p.
I. Kuntres Znyanah she1 Torat haChassidut. Shmuel of Lubavitch quoted in Sefer Hatoldot-MaHarash. Abraham Amlay's Introduction to Or haChamah. quoted in The Great Moggid. 156b). 169%.Foreword to Third Edition 17 expertise in the Talmudic-Halachic branches of the Torah equalled their mastery of the Kabbalah... Kuntres Etz haChayim. p. vol. 81. ch. no one would be able to pursue this study unless he had an instructor as great as R. p. sect. ch. pp. also Introduction to Sha'ar haHakdamot. etc. R. 206ff. 10. Zohur II:26). 91f. and the analogy offered in Likutei Sichot. an intensive study of Pnintiyut h ~ T r n a h ~ ~ very gulim. 32: "In this our present era. 25%. R. On the Essence o Chassidus. On the obligatory aspect in the study of Pnimyut haTorah see also Tanya. R.the need for. by stating: "If we were to apply the prerequisites as strictly as they appear to be. Kuntres Limud h C h s i d u t . See especially R. 19ff. Chain Vital's resolution of the seeming contradiction between this claim and the restrictive prerequisites referred to above (notes 19-21). 13 and 21. Shimon bar Yochai to resolve all prob- . and his letter published in Hatamim 1:p. R.). Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. and . Kuntres Acharon. R. and Appendix 111. Shneur Zalman of Liadi." Cf. Likutei f Sichot. and precisely because of the spiritual decline of our own times (see the incisive parable by R. Or Ne'erau (parts I-V). IV (p. p. in spite. Shomer Emunim. . comment by R. They and many others went to great lengths to refute in detail the various objections raised to an extensive study of mysticism. ch. which is the last era. Isaac de Lattes' Approbation to the first printing of the Zohar (prefacing most editions since). it is necessary to reveal Chochmat haEmet (the mystical teachings of the Torah) in order that the Messiah will come. stressed the signilicance of. 150f. Note also R. p. Appendix (p. (also in Or haChassidut. Moshe Cordovero. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar huHakdamot.cf. Joseph Ergas. vol. 117-119. V1I:p. They state emphatically the admissibility and necessity thereof nowadays. ) 27. as stated in Tikunei [Zohar] that by merit of the Zohar the King Messiah will be revealed.
the frequent discussion of this theme in Likutei Sichot (see index. comparing them to silver and gold Tespectively. Heaven forbid. 29. .2@ However.v. 21ff. which began gradually in mediaeval times and expanded drastically from lems encountered.18 Foreword to Third Edition ou12%f the Torah which animates and illuminates the body of the exoteric tradition. 28. Maimonides. parts IV-V. Introduction (in comment on Proverbs XXV: 1 ) . Tel Aviv. a d . Thus it seems to me that the mitzvah to pursue this wisdom remains in effect. exoteric) and nistar (concealed. ) . See further the sources cited in the preceding note. Hafotzat haMayanot. On the illuminating aspect of Pnimiyut haTorah in relation to the other parts of Torah see Or Ne'erau. . 31-34. Kuntres Etz haChayim. Introduction. that is. Kuntres Torat Mhassidut. I don't understand it because of the deficiency of my intellect. Pe'ah 1:1 on Deuteronomy XXXII:47]. The study [of mysticism] is prohibited only to him who is unable to stand in the Palace of the King and may come to heresy. one must think 'If this matter appears to be vain-it is on my account [see Yerushalmi. Introductions. and the anthology Or ha- C hassidut. Maimonides' distinction between the nigleh (revealed. because he thinks himself very wise and without deficiency on his part". Cf. Sha'ar haHakdamot. Moreh Neuuchim. Kuntres Etz haChayim. and not. ch. The exoteric and esoteric layers of the Torah are usually compared and referred to as the body and the soul of the Torah. Moreh Neuuchim. Pnimiyut haTorah). see Zohar III:152a. I: ch. ch. 15. Kol Ramah on Zohur III:14la (quoted in Nitzutzei Zohar. Chassidut. this open dissemination of the Kabbalah. 23b f . because the subject matter is questionable . p. Kuntres Limud huchassidut.. ed. Cf. Kuntres Inyanuh she1 Torat haChassidut ( O n the Essence of Chassidus) . passkn. and also Etz Chayim. esoteric) parts of the Torah. s. Heaven forbid. 26 and 50. and 111: ch. . provided one has adopted the following approach: When seeing bewildering passages which may arouse doubts. passim.
and contained and alluded to. Two centuries passed since R. Chassidism made it possible that not only the discerning scholar but every one may 'taste from the Tree of Life' and be inspired by it. Likutei Sichot. vol. A new era began with the rise of R. See Degel Machane Ephrayim. and beg. sect. by each relative to his own level. could and would probe these teachings and meditate on them to extricate their inexhaustible lessons relating to themselves at their own level of scholarship and understandingS3O 30. of section Tstzaceh (Likutim). remained restricted basically to the scholarly world. His words. invariably were based on. 1II:pp.Foreword to Third Edition 19 the sixteenth century onward. Israel Baal Shem Tov who revealed and propagated the teachings of Chassidism. His pithy words were easily understood by simple folks at whom they were often directed and set their souls on fire to worship the Omnipresent with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. During his numerous travels he would address differing audiences with short and seemingly simple comments or parables relating to Torah and the Divine service. 874 and 875. The Baal Shem Tov propagated and disseminated ideas and ideals of Pnimiyut haTorah in such ways and manners as could be absorbed by all. however. Vayeshev. . His scholarly disciples thus. profound premises and insights of the mystical depths of Torah. too. Isaac Luria before there was a further development bringing the Zohar's vision of the 'end of days' a major step closer to realization. In this new stage mysticism was popularized on a much wider scale.
but of an immanent and all-pervasive understanding and comprehension. Hafotzat huMayanot. as quoted above. Dov Ber of M e ~ h i r e c h . VII. continued in one form or another through the second generation of Chassidism. Quoted by R. passim (s.20 Foreword to Third Edition This new approach. i.a3 he follows clearly in the footsteps of the classic commentators preceding him: "'And became in the future Israel lemit'am (will taste) 31. was to change in the course of time. even in such places and to such people which at first glance might seem far removed from any relationship with the subjectmatters of C h a ~ s i d i s m .. When R. See The Great Maggid. too. or in a transcendent mode of 'the neshmah hears and understands. Every attempt was made to realize fully the 'dissemination of the fountains of Chassidism chutxclh'-outside. Pnimiyut haTorah). ch.u. 33. and comprehenrive deliberation on Pnimyut haTomh. C b s i d u t .and ~~ those following thereafter. The Zohar's vision of the overall study of Pnimiyut haTorah is not one of merely a formal acceptance in principle or of a transcendental acquaintance. Schneur Zalman of Liadi interprets the Zohar's precondition to the Messiainic redemption. of an extensive study of Pnimiyuth haTorah. 32. led by R. to mean limud be'iyun gad01 dauka-an intensive study of.' this. . Dov Ber of Lubavitch in his Introduction to Biurei huZohar. See Likutei Sichot.If ~at first this dissemination had been ~ indirectly.e.
Foreword to Third Edition
from the Tree of Life-': Note the expression kmit'am. It implies that the meanings of the Zohar's teachings ultimately will become manifest in a mode of tuu ta'am (goodness of taste; good discernment; Psalms CXIX:66); to the point that
every palate tasting it will desire it, as opposed to he who studies [the Zohar] superficially only. The latter will not sense its sweetness, while Scripture states 'Taste and see that the Eternal is good' ( Psalmr XXX1V:Q).
'"-they will leave the exile with [the Zohar]': This is meant to be when they will taste (i.e.,discern; comprehend)
the meanings of its delightful teachings, as in these our own times which are the 'end of days' and the era of the redemption, as we wrote in section Vayera (Zohar I: folio) 117, see there."a'
R. Sholom Buzaglo writes in his commentary on Tikunei Zohar:
"Note the expression 'when it will become manifest below.' This clearly indicates that . . . here below it will not be manifest until the 'last generation,' i.e., the 'end of days,' meaning quite specifically close to the era of the Messiah who will come on this account.35 "Verily, it is now hundreds of years already since the [Zohur] was revealed below, yet the descendant of David still has not come. But pay close attentioin to the text: it
34. R. Sholom Buzaglo, Hadrat Melech on Zohar 111:124b. 35. See also R. Sholom Buzaglo's introductions prefacing Tikunei
Foreword to Third Edition
states ' y i t p m s s u n (they will be sustained; provided for) by this work.' The implication is that the profound teachings [of the Zohar] will be explicated-according to the premises ~ revealed by R. Isaac L ~ r i a .. . .~ This is what is meant by [the term] parnassah (sustenance; provision), i.e., that they will understand and benefit from its light which is 'sweet to the soul and health to the bones' ( Prooerbs XVI:24). He who studies [the Zohar and Pnimiyut haTorah] superficially (girsa be'alma) will reap a good reward for his effort and sanctifies his soul in purity, but the special remedy by virtue of which 'you shall proclaim liberty' is when yitparnessun (they will be sustained by) and study the meanings of the teachings [of the Z ~ h a r ] . " ~ ~ VII The progressive evolution in the manifestation and exposition of Pnimiyut haTorah reached a new milestone in our own age. For now, some two hundred years after the advent of the Baal Shem Tov and the Chassidic Movement, these teachings have been, and continue to be made available not only in systematized form and and in intelligible terminology and simplified exposition, but also translated into modern languages. This new development was ini36. Cf. R. Chaim Vital, Etz Chayim 1:s; Sha'ar haHakdamot, 11; Shomer Emunm I : 17. 37. Kisse Melech on the passage from Tikunei Zohar VI:23b quoted above.
Foreword to Third Edition
tiated by R. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn of L u b a ~ i t c h and inten,~~ sified in every conceivable way by HnR'137 his successor, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch N''D''1W. This latest expansion has in effect removed the last barriers to the fullest and widest possible dissemination of Pnimiyut huTorah-"the fountains of Chassidus which were unlocked by R. Israel Baal Shem Tov, who envisaged Chassidus as a stream of 'living waters,' growing deeper and wider, until it should reach every segment of the Jewish People and bring new inspiration and vitality into their daily lives."3v In our own days, thus, the path has been cleared and paved for the realization of R. Shimon bar Yochai's vision that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom,"-culminating in the era of "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of G-d as the waters cover the sea" (Isaiah XI :9) "And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour and every man his brother saying 'Know the Eternal,' for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of theml" (Jeremiah XXX1:33I4O
This book was written in the context and for the purpose of the aforesaid. Its justification is measured by the extent of achieving that end.
38. See Likutei Sichot, vol. 1II:pp. 874-6, and vol. X1II:p. 180; Kovetz Yud Shuat, pp. 69-71. 39. Foreword by Lubavitcher Rebbe to the English translation of Tanya. See also Likutei Sichot, vol. X1II:p. 177ff. (in conjunction with the publication of the bi-lingual edition of Tanya, London 1975). 40. See Zohar III:23a and Mairnonides, Hilchot Melachim XII:5.
and supplementary references to works published since then. there is hardly a more gratifying reward for the author. J. 28 Menuchem Au 5739 . IMMANUEL SCLIOCHET Toronto. The present edition differs from the previous one by minor revisions and additions in both the text and the notes.24 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM If the need for a new printing indicates some success.
The Explanatory Notes deal with profoundly intricate subjects. as in other branches of knowledge. It is an introduction sewing two purposes: to acquaint the reader with the general nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh.Foreword to First Edition This volume is a companion to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. forming the bulk of this volume. though numerous references have been made to them in the footnotes of the translation. but the subject-matter is not as simple as may appear here. appear here on their own. This separate publication was necessitated by technical difficulties but also serves to emphasize the following point. The paragraphs dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh appear also alongside the translation. and acquaint him with. Schneur Zalman of Liadi's celebrated Likutei Amarim-Tanya. An attempt has been made to offer simplified outlines and explanations to the English-reading novice in this field. involving very delicate premises and principles of the teachings of the Kabbalah and Chassidism. In Jewish Mysticism. . and to introduce the reader to. some basic concepts and doctrines which appear throughout that work. by way of a brief and general Introduction. there are different schools of learning and interpretation. The explanatory notes. the fourth part of R.
Isaac Luria which. with abundant references to the original writings of the Zohar and of R. Nonetheless. ' The same applies to the explanations given in the footnotes of the translation. As the footnotes show.26 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM These schools differ not only one from another. in the school of R. since shortly after its inception (sixteenth century). the basic sources of the Explanatory Notes are the writings of R. the reader is reminded that ambition is not necessarily identical with achievement. For example. . and there remains but to paraphrase the Psalmist with the apology and prayer: "Who can understand (and prevent) errors? Clear Thou me from hidden faultsl" (Psalms 19:13) Toronto. we find. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. differing interpretations of even so basic a doctrine of that great master as tzimtzum.I.S. The obvious purpose is to present them in a way that will help clarify the contents of Zgeret Hakodesh. dominates the world of Jewish Mysticism. but sometimes subdivide into further branches within themselves. The involved terminology and subtle phraseology in all the works mentioned often threaten to entrap anyone who cannot claim to belong to the exclusive circle of t"n 'y?l' (adepts in the esoteric science). But it should be noted that the explanations offered in this volume" represent their author's understanding of the subjects. Isaac Luria. it is hoped that this Introduction will prove successful in its aims. Though he strove to grasp and offer the views and interpretations of R. in +e very first generation after the passing of its founder. 1 Nissan 5728 1 J. Schneur Zalman of Liadi.
and to the footnotes of its translation. are retained. . the numerous references to Igeret Hakodesh. On the other hand.' (ii) The first three chapters have been entirely rewritten. But as it has come to be used for general reference.Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition The first edition of this introductory tract has been out of print for a long time. " Where the numbering of these footnotes differs between the original editions of the translation (New York 1968 and 1972) and the bi-lingual edition (London 1973). growing out of the original intent and purpose. appear in the abbreviated Introductiurl prefacing the translation. For this reason I have omitted from the revised edition the technical parts dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh (pp. This has led to some major changes: ( i ) This volume was written and intended as an Introduction to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh.with the numbers in the bi-lingual edition noted in parentheses. in any case. 11-17 in the first edition of this work) which. reference is made to both . The need for a second edition is not only gratifying but also provides an auspicious opportunity to revise and to take into consideration comments and suggestions received since the first printing. I have followed the suggestion to give it a separate title whilst retaining the original one as a sub-title.
26 Nissan 5731 . Technical difficulties prevent me. to give due acknowledgment to my wife H"D"7nw for compiling the helpful indices of both this work and the translation of Zgeret Hakodesh. from adding a few additional chapters on related concepts and doctrines. at this time. namely. and otherwise underwent only minor revisions. Toronto.28 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The other chapters were expanded. But this new edition does afford an opportunity to rectify an omission in the first one.
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM .
Elimu Rabba:y. etc.Introduction This book deals with fundamental concepts and doctrines which appear throughout the writings of Chassidism and are essential for a proper understanding of them. They assume their accepted authoritative fonns only in the comprehensive expositions of R. Likutei Torah. Known by the acrostic REMAK. Leader of a prominent Kabbalistic school in Safed. 2. author of ParAs Rimonim. which forms the theoretical basis of Chassidic thought. But in these works they appear mostly seminal and rudimentary. Mevoh She'arlm. 1534-1572. Known by the acrostic ARI. Or Ne'erav. REMAK is regarded as one o the most important and lucid expositors and systematists f of Jewish Mysticism. and exerted a profound influence on the whole Jewish world. is authoritatively recorded in the multi-voluminous writings o ARl's principal disciple R. They are concepts and doctrines that have their origins in the basic works of the Kabbalah such as Sefer Yetzirah and the Zohar-writings. Moses Cordoverol and R. and many other works. Peri Etz Chayim. 1522-1570. Founder and leader of a Kabbalistic school in Safed that soon became the dominant school in Jewish Mysticism. Shu'ar hatlakdamot. Chayim Vital f (1543-1620). Isaac L ~ r i a Thus any attempt to .~ explain these concepts and doctrines as they appear in the writ- 1. . The intricate system of the Lurianic Kabbalah. such as Etz Chuyim. Shiur Komuh.
as an attempt at simplified outlines and explanations. author of Likutei Amarim (Tanya). complete in. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. themselves. These outlines and explanations neither are. There are many philosophical questions and problems that are related to. these various concepts and doctrines which are beyond the scope of this book to deal with. etc.32 Introduction ings of R. Likutei Torah. 1745-1813. and nothing more. and by.) . But even the chapters following should be regarded as merely explanatory notes.3 can be done only in the context of the works of his predecessors. often involving difficult and delicate premises and principles which touch upon many basic theological problems. an authoritative revision of Shulchun Aruch. nor claim to be. and cross-references enlightening to the serious student seeking to delve further into the subject-matter. are cited in the footnotes. such an objective would require a much larger volume if not several volumes. Founder and leader of Chubad. Verily. Where other works prove helpful. It is to be remembered that the concepts and doctrines discussed deal with profoundly intricate subjects. and can be raised about. too. ( A detailed biography in English is presently available. For this reason the reader will find many references to them throughout this book.Chassidism. published by Kehot: New York 1969. Torah Or. these. Known as the Rau (Rabbij. Those interested in pursuing the subjects further are referred to readily available works devoted to that 3. They are discussed here because the marginal notes accompanying the translation of Igeret Hakodesh (where these concepts and doctrines appear) could not do justice to them. and amongst Chassidim as the Alter Rebbe (Elder Rabbi).
Derech Emunah. Shomer Emunim is written in the form of a dialogue between a mystic (adherent and defender of the Kabbalah) and his rationalist critic. that Ibn Gabbai's works are preLurianic (Auodut Hakohsh was completed in 1531. etc. Joseph E r g a ~ . It should be noted. One of the first and foremost systematists of the Kabbalah. dealing with its most important problems and containing profound critical discussions of various philosophical expositions. Avodat Hakodesh is an elaborate introduction to the Kabbalah. Shomer Emunim.Introduction 33 purpose.Author of Minchat Yosef. Author of Avodut Hakodesh. . residing in Livorno and Pisa. Teshuvot Divrei Yosef. originally from Spain and later in Egypt. though. 1685-1730. ~ 4. often cited in the footnotes. such as the writings of R. and is a relatively easy philosophical introduction to the main issues and principles of Jewish Mysticism. 5. Renowned Talmudist and Kabbalist of the Lurianic school. and ToEa'at Yabkov. and Derech Emunuh in 1539). Meir ibn Gabbai4 and R.
The forms of spatial-temporal concepts are imposed upon the mind of man who lives in a spatial-temporarl. Sifm on Levit. and Tanchuma.CHAPTER ONE Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 1. It is for this very reason that the Torah. Berachot 31b. is highly anthropomorphic. The reason is because these are the only type of words that man can use in any meaningful way.world. on Exodus 15:7 and 19:18. . as it is stated "The Torah speaks in the language of man. Mechilta. The terms are borrowed from human concepts and the empirical world. Anthropomorphism The terminology of Kabbalah and Chassidism."' For "Had they limited themselves to abstract terns and con1. and our Sages use anthropomorphic language. 20:2. and thus in the expositions following. the Prophets.
Berachot. Sha'ar Hayichud: ch. and that the reality is too subtle. we would have understood neither the terms nor the concepts. Kuzay IV:5. 271 (1I:p. R. Otzar Hageonim. To who will you liken Me that I should be equal. and 46. R. Bachya ibn Pakuda. 33. 10. . and will raise his conception step by step until he will at last attain to as much knowledge of the truth as his intellect is capable of apprehending. 35f." (Isaiah 40:18. are non-ascribable to the Divinity. no. Judah Halevi. Responsa no. Cf. Tanya 1I:lO. All and any anthropomorphic notions and concepts. their materialistic meaning) from the kernel. 357 (1:p. and Comment. Maimonides. Then we can proceed to an understanding that the presentation is only approximate and metaphorical. Hikhot Yesodei Hatorah I:7-12. . This cardinal premise was adopted by Maimonides as the 2. 9 2 ) . spatial and coporeal connotations. strictly speaking. says the Holy One. "The wise thinker will endeavor to strip the husk of the terms (i.e. . The words and ideas used have accordingly to be such as are adapted to the hearer's mental capacity so that the subject would first sink into his mind in the corporeal sense in which the concrete terms are understood.. as Scripture states explicitly: "To whom then will you liken G-d? Or what likeness will you compare to Him? .36 MYSTICAL CON(=EPTSIN CHASSIDISM cepts appropriate to G-d. 25). Chouot Haleuouot."" Thus it is to be kept in mind at all times that the terms and concepts need to be stripped of all and any temporal. too exalted and remote for us to comprehend its subtlety. 131). and Moreh Neuuchim I:28.
et passim. all these spatial-temporal activities and concepts do 3. by the mystics and by others. ibid. See also Chouot Habuouot.a At the same time.' All the categories to be found in the world below and in man are homonymous representations of.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 37 third in his compilation of the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles of Faith". Sanhedrin. ears. these terms are carefully chosen and possess a profound meaning.. it should also be noted that the anthropomorphic terminology used in Scripture. there is no likeness whatever between G-d and the creation. and 11: ch. 3-4. Cf. (Most of these sources are quoted in the discussion of the "correspondence-theory" in J. Zohar I:38a. The Rabbinic-Midrashic and mystical writings abound with references to the idea that the world below in general. 140a. nor such activities and affections as hearing. XI f (New York 1970). Midrash Tanchuma. Pekudei: 3." parts I and 11. "The Psychological System of R. is not arbitrary just because it is under the protection of the above qualification. Schneur ZaEman o Liadi. and so on. 117a. Commentary on Mishnah. seeing. 10. and allusions to. talking and so on. 3 and 5. certain supernal concepts and notions to which the9 correspond. Rabba I:4. II:20a. to ch. III:65b. walking. Di Yiddishe Heim. Intr. However. hands. vol. 48b. supra. 10. Aud de R. 31. are created in the "image" of the "world above". Schochet. Hilchot Teshuvah III:7.I.) . ch. 2. however. Moreh Nevuchim I:36 (and the references to Maimonides. and man in particular. To be sure. and on the supernal levels of the strictly spiritual realm there are no such things as eyes. ibid. 75bf. note 2). nos. 1:ch. Nathan. Rather. 4. 205b. Eccles.
esp. Moses Cordovero. and denoting. ch. In addition. esp. and. Isaiah Horowitz (ad loc. Joseph Ergas. Even so. 268. strictly and purely spiritual.in accordance with the aforesaid .exactly the other . indeed. Isaiah Horowitz. that writing is a symbol or sign relating to.. calling to mind and denoting the full concrete entity of that person. In a widely-quoted passage. XXII (Shu'ar Hakinuyim). categories. Pardes Rimonim. on Baua Batra 74b (Jerusalem 1966. there is surely no likeness. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. Sha'arei Orah. (all of which quote R. 90). p. When writing the name of a person on a piece of paper. non-spatial and non-temporal5 5. the whole of R. 2b). notions and concepts that are of a strictly spiritual nature. R. p. Cf. R. R. Warsaw 1883. p. 65.38 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM symbolise. Thus it is with the anthropomorphic and anthropopathic concepts and terms: There is no concrete or direct link or likeness between them and the meanings they seek to express. Joseph Gikatilla). 10d) makes the interesting point that strictly speaking it is not that "the Torah speaks in the language of man. Joseph Cikatilla aptly explains this correspondence-relationship by means of the following analogy. cit. Meir ibn Cabbai. part 111. For a fuller discussion of the mystics' view of anthropomorphisms see R. for that reason come into being in correspondence to the original supernal. Shenei Luchot Habrit." but . Avodat Hakodesh. specific categories. SoIomon ibn Aderet. sect. Toldot Adam: Bayit Neeman. they are corresponding signs and symbols relating to. R. but nonetheless. Moses Cordovero's Shi'ur Komah is devoted to this topic. See also R. and ch. Shomer Emunim I:24f. link or relationship between the written letters or words on paper and the physio-mental entity of the person whose name has been recorded. 2. R. ch. Sha'ar I (ed.
6. . receiving qualities and categories. Likutei Sichot. emanating (influencing) category and the passive. the favourite metaphor of the mystics (as of many philosophers) is the analogy to man. . . influencer or . is unique in the body . sect. 11. . Berayta de R. S. Yishmael. are often explained in terms of the soul-body relationship. then. . and in particular in terms of the various soul-powers. vol. . abides in the innermost precincts. note 9). Judgment ( D i n ) and compassion (Rachamim). Theological concepts and the G-d-world relationship. like the frequent occurrence of terms as "masculine" and "feminine".Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 39 This. ch. . Chayim Vital. Sha'ar Hakorbanot. is the way the anthropomorphic terminology is to be u n d e r s t o ~ d . 363f. upper and lower. .U. no man knows where its place is . . . 6. This should be remembered with particular regard to the so-called "erotic" concepts and symbolisms. ~ 2. so the Holy One. . XV. "The whole universe functions according to the principium of masculine and feminine" (R. Peri Etz Chayim. and "conjunctio" and so on. p. In general these denote the aspects of the active. Blessed is way around. does not eat and does not drink . because all terrestrial concepts are allusions to supernal ones! Cf. functions and manifestations. . . . "There are four principles: masculine and feminine (1"lr). The "proof-texts" for this usage are the verse "From my flesh I envisage G-d" (Job 19:26) and the Rabbinic analogy "Just as the soul permeates the whole body . The Man-M etaphor In discussing Divinity relative to the Universe. their faculties. Etz Chayim 11:6). is pure . sustains the whole body . . sees but is not seen . . the mode or form of emanation-reception and so forth (see lgeret Hakodesh.
of sect. created in His world. p. ed." idem. See references supra. see the commentaries ad loc. 18. . Midrash Tehilltm (ed. elaborate on the usage of these particular concepts. Moreh Nevuchim. 5 (see notes ad loc. Shenei Luchot Habrit. Shi'ur Komah.). Tel Aviv 1963. 7. Tikuwi Zohar 13:28a. Berachot 10a. and Biurei Hamhar."~ But even while an understanding of the soul is helpful in understanding matters relating to the Divinity. 6 and 17.[Baua Batra 74b: "All that the Holy One. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. ad loc. Igeret Hakodesh. and 111: ch. It may be found in the Talmudic writings . . pp. I: ch. and is completely inadequate: emanator (Mashpia') and influenced ( Mushpa'. XV. that in some respects the analogy breaks down. note 4. As a rule. and the feminine corresponds to judgment. Jacob ibn Chabib in his Hakoteu on Ayin Yabkouf as well as in the philosophical literature [e. and esp. this is but an anthropomorphic approximation which cannot be carried too far and needs to be qualified. and 'Olat Tamid. He created male and female". cit.g. Introduction. Actually. ch. (p. and sect. also called Mekabel recipient). the masculine corresponds to compassion. The earlier mystics. upper and emanator. lower and recipient. follows on the above-mentioned principle of a "terrestrial-supernal c~rrespondence. op. in a sense. see Likutei Torah V:9a. 8. and ibid. Tel Aviv 1966. as R. .40 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM He. beg. Peri Etz Chayim. . 8 and 121.. see Pardess Rimonim XX1I:l. quoted at length by R.. Schneur Zalman points out. of Sha'ar Hatefillah (ed. XXV and XXIX. Buber) 103:4.. It must be remembered. Hakdamah 1I:end of Derush 2 (ed."' This. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (New York 1955). 6aff. Noach: pp. too.. beg. R. 2a). too. See Shomer Emunim II:9. cit.. Shomer Emunim I:26f. R. 91ff. p.. Schneur Zalman explains at length why the mystics purposely chose such delicate and seemingly peculiar terminology. blessed is He. 13a).). 8df. such terminology is not uniquely Kabbalistic.
"The soul and the body are actually distinct."lo Thus while the body may be fully subordinate to the soul. . Sefer Hachakirah 1:8 (New York 1955. II:6. note 18. . This metaphor. too.. for the source of the body and its essence does not come into being from the soul . For the human soul . In truth. ch. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. . In contrast. abounds in the Talmudic-Midrashic and mediaeval-philosophic writings. . See at length R. 10. . one from the other.. . . 2. infra. they are nevertheless two distinct entities. like the previous one. Cf.g. 3. Berachot . they do not effect any change in Him. I. affected by the accidents of the world and its changes. R. 11. is affected by the accidents of the body and its pain . is not. in their very sources.ch. 42. Tanya. nor by the word itself. end of section 4. Joseph Albo sees in it the following advantages that may analogously be related to E d : 9.ll 3. The Light-Metaphor Just as the soul provides a favourite metaphor. 7b-8b and 26a-b). see. . and ch. pp. "in relation to The Holy One. 12.s " Also. the analogy has no similarity whatever to the object of comparison. blessed is He. however. Heaven forbid. blessed is He. while the Holy One.12 This term is carefully chosen for a number of reasons. who brings everything into existence ex nihilo. everything is absolutely nullified.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 41 "This parallel is only to appease the ear. . just as the light of the sun is nullified in the sun itself". Zbid. e. so we find that the term "light" is favoured by the mystics to describe the various emanations and manifestations of the Divinity. Zbid.
Kuzuy II:7-8 and III:17. See further R. and so on. ends of ch. (vi) And even he who has seen luminous objects cannot endure to gaze upon an intense light. . p. Emunot Vede'ot 1II:lO. R. Sa'adiah Gaon..42 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM ( i ) The existence of light cannot be denied. 64a and so forth (the concept of Ziu Hashechinah. emanation) rather than or. 3. Moreh Nevuchim I . Lecit. Sifre. Concealment). 6). ch. and Midrashim. Numbers Rabba 15:5. (iii) Light causes the faculty of sight and the visible colours to pass from potentiality to actuality. and especially IV:3. and ibid. Rabba ch. 1:3)-i. see more on that in R. Commentary on Moreh Nevuchim I:35. etc. par. 5. and if he insists upon gazing beyond his power of endurance his eyes become dim so that he cannot see thereafter even that which is normally visible. ch. the radiation of the Shechinah). also. Moses Narboni. The mystics have a special affinity for the term Or because its numerical value (gimatriya) is equivalent to that of raz (mystery): " 'Let there be light' (Gen. 76. ( v ) One who has never seen a luminous body in his life cannot conceive colours nor the agreeableness and delightfulness of light. By possessing all these qualities. Pirkei de R. though. ) .. the philosophical works use mostly the term shefa' (effluence. In general. 31 (esp. Derech Mitzuotecha. 19 and 25. 50b f . Eliezer. (ii) Light is not a corporeal thing. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. on Numbers 6:25. Haumunat Elokut: ch. light bears a greater sirnilarity to the things which are free from matter than anything else 17a.e. 5 (New York 1956. let there be Raz (Mystery. (iv) Light delights the soul.
This is a unique quality of light which is not shared with any other substance.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 43 to which such things may be compared. 13." . ( v ) Light per se never changes.. (iii) Light irradiates all physical objects and is able to penetrate unhindered all transparent objects. for Raz and Or are one thing". Cf. 14. B e reishit:8d. The perception of more or less intense light. and cf. R. 15. 1701). Moses Cordovero. Shomer Emunim 11:11. R. K u z q IV:3: "The noblest and finest of all material things. or of differently coloured lights. see Tikunei Zohur 21:53b. thus no longer emitting perceptible light. is not due to any change in the light per se but is due to external factors. 111: ch.15 ( b ) Light has numerous qualities characteristic of the Divine emanations. for example : (i) Light is emitted from the luminary without ever becoming separated from it. 4. Joseph Ergas lists the following advantages:" ( a ) Light is the most subtle and tenuous of all sense-perceptions. Zohur I:140a and Zohur Chadash. Or Ne'erau (Fuerth.. the previous rays do not remain entities separate from the luminary but are withdrawn with it.13 Likewise. (ii) Light spreads itself instantaneously. as. zkkarim II:29. (iv) Light does not mix and mingle with another substance. Even when its source is concealed or removed.. and hence they are compared to light so as to make the matter intelligible.
Tanya I . 1:i:9 (p. R. too. (vii) Light is received and absorbed relative to the capacities of the recipient. Cf. Vayakhel: 87a-b. see there at length.44 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS EN CHASSIDISM (vi) Light is essential to life in general. and so on. 4b). Elima Rabbaty. R. Moses Cordovero.. the ernittance of perceptible light from its source is automatic and intrinsically necessary: the luminary cannot 16. and l a c ff. and ibid. See also Emunot Vedebt I:3 and II:2 with regard to light being an accident (as opposed to substance) and having a limit and boundary. they are the empirical perceptions that make the use of this analogy so attractive and helpful in our context. evidently breaks down and is inadequate. this analogy. Schnew Zalman. used by way of metaphor and analogy. 18. 48a ff.. cit. For example. It is not to be taken in its full. ."'~ Indeed. Joseph Albo already cautions that "No error should be made to the effect that intellectual light is something emanating from a corporeal object like sensible light. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch shows how. and Siddur 'im Perush Hamilot. pp.16 But here again. this term is only an homonymous approximation."" R. R. 52. Torah Or. See also R. ad bc. 17. 11:10. in some respects. while an exact "scientific analysis" is not really relevant to our purposes. Obviously this "descriptive analysis" of light is based on the general human perception-the sense-perception4 it. Apart from the fact that this metaphor is qualified in any case (as we shall see). Ikkarim. Moses Cordovero is still more emphatic in warning that this metaphor must not be carried too far "For there is no image whatever that can be imagined that is not ~orporeal. literal sense. ch.
ad loc. it cannot be mentioned too often or stressed too much that all terms and concepts related to the Divinity must be stripped of all and any temporal. then. Needless to say that this restrictive quality cannot be ascribed to the emanations of the Omnipotent. . 19. Derech Mitzootecha. ch. cit. spatial and corporeal connotations and must be understood in a strictly spiritual sense.ls In conclusion.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 45 withhold the light. See also ShXur Komuh. (supra. 3-4. note 12). as the mystics never tire to say.
For regardless of how long this chain of causal evolutions may be. qualitative as well as quantitative. and matter evolved from spirit. Creation is often explained in terms of a theory of emanationism: by means of a chain of successive emanations from "higher" to "lower" the finite evolved from the Infinite. of whom Scripture affirms "I the Eternal. I have not changed (Malachi 3:6)? In essence. the concepts and doctrines discussed here. between the effect . from pure Intelligence to matter.CHAPTER TWO Tzimtzum One of the basic theological problems is concerned with the seeming enigma of reconciling G-d with the universe: How can there be a transition from the Infinite to the finite. all relate to these issues. there always remains some relationship. from absolute Unity or Oneness to multifariousness? Moreover. how do we reconcile the Divine creation or bringing about of the universe and its multifarious parts with the eternal and inviolable absolute perfection of G-d. and in the chapters following. But this suggestion as it stands is insufficient. To speak of a casual evolutionary process of successive emanations merely begs the question and does not answer it.
Zgeret Hukodesh. . Thus. for that matter.retaining a basic relationship between the first link and the last one . connected and interrelated . (See there note 33 in my EngLsh translation on the concept of the "angelic matter". Rather.so. .out of an evohtion from spirit. have ever been created in its present form -in a finite and limited order . . it is the power of the blessed En Sof (Infinite). . or the souls themselves. the Infinite. nor even (that most subtle and diaphanous type of "matter") of the angel^.48 MYSTICAL ~ ~ V C E P T IN C H A S ~ I S M S and its cause. too. this world would not. since the beginning of the chain of emanations is G-d. XX.not even the matter of the firmament5 .' In a gradual evolution and causal process "The effect is encompassed by the cause.nor. the supernal Garden of Eden.) . 1 Tanya I: ch. even the (spiritual) Ohm Haba ( World-to-Come). 2. Thus. would it be in a gradual process of causal evolution. sect. even numerous contractions will not avail to there being matter as dense as earth by way of an evolution from the spirituality of the abstract intelligences. in such a case. the aspect of infinity is never really cast off: Had the world descended from the light of the Infinite according to a gradual descent from grade to grade by means of cause and effect. Just as in a material chain the links are interlocked."^ Again: T h e creation of the worlds is not by way of a development from cause to effect . in relation to which it is essentially non-existent . . 48. for even myriads upon myriads of occulations and evolutions from grade to grade in a causal process will not avail the development and coming into being of physical matter .
Nathan ben Yechiel. more than the first. and (2) concealment. The word tzimtzum has two meanings: (1) contraction. OYr)Y (and the additional references in Aruch HashcJsm. condensation.. Its roots.g."^ Hence. Aruch. though. ad bc. See R. Isaac L ~ r i a The basic works of his system all begin with an exposition . are to be found in the Zohar. to create . 4.. the second one does so.~ 3. Likutei Torah IV:&. And this principle is at the root of the doctrines of tzimtzum and the Sefirot introduced by the Kabbalah (and elaborated upon in Chassidism) to solve the problem of creation. kefitzah) which breaks the gradualism and establishes a radical distinction between cause and effect: a radical act of creation. .u.~ Though both these meanings apply in our context. in a number of stages and in a progressive development of degrees. ex nihilo. Likutei Torah V:40b f.the Omnipotent. and Zohar Chadash. See Torah Or.). . also ibid. perhaps. IV:20d. s. Vaetchanan:Sla. This intricate theory is &st treated in detail by R. oc~ultation. and this is not by way of a developmental order but by way of a lea^'. Esther:SOa and 11f3c. I:15a. a "leap" or "jump" (dilug. . that something non-divine and finite should come about.* Only after that has occurred can we speak of an evolutionary process culminating in finite and material entities. 41d and 42b f. necessitates there being in the process of emanation a "radical step". e. until finite and physical substances become possible. 6. 5. For the doctrine of tzimtzum refers to a refraction and concealment of the radiating emanation from the Gdhead..
pp. XX (New York 1970. Menachem Azaryah de Fano for the choice in terminology of En Sof (That Is Without End) rather than the seemingly more compre- .. etc. part 11. . Or Hatorah-Vayikra. note 38. vol. 6-7 and 9-10. i. in turn. Isaac Luria takes a mediating view. ch. See also Likutei Torah I:7b. Schneur Zalman quotes the works of R. Menachem Azaryah de Fano. 698fl. Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. In fact there is a dispute among the Kabbalists whether the term En Sof applies to (a) the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. E.l 11.g. appears also-with variants and additions-in R. and infra. Pelach Harimon. 11. Etz Chayim. esp.. but to a level of Divinity which exceedingly excels this latter plane.R. 8. that the term En Sof does not apply to the very Essence and Being of G d as He is in Himself. a major exposition of tzimtzum.. 3-4. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch.). 10. ~ ~ more extensively in Sha'ar Hayichud Vehaemunah. See at length R. there is no term applicable to the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself (according to the second opinion) . Sholom Dov-Ber Schneersohn. G-d as He is in Himself js called En Sof: the Infinite. . nor to the Divine Will.50 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of t z i r n t ~ u m . You have no known Name 7. chapter 111. 166 ff. Shu'ar Hahakdamot. or (b) to the Divine Will.. Likutei Torah II:5lb fi. [The discourse in Likutei Torah 1I:Slb 8. Vayera: 13c 8. 9. Especially ch. where R.lo Prior to creation there is but G-d alone. see Pardess Rimonim 1II:l seq. and V:40b ff. and R. Mevoh She'arim.e. He that Is Without Limit (End). sect. 21-22 and 48-49. no thought can grasp You a t all . R. ad Eoc.. Tanya. to G-d qua First Cause of all beings-while.9 and above all in Torah Or and Likutei Torah.ll Of G-d as En Sof nothing can be postulated except that He is En Sof: "High above all heights and hidden beyond all concealments. Schneur Zalman partly deals with it in T ~ n y a . p. Especially Torah Or..
for You fill all Names and You are the perfection of them a11."12 In a mystical way, rather difficult to explain, there is a manifestation or Self-revelation of G-d qua En Sof even before the act of creation.l3 This manifestation is called Or En Sof (the Light of the En Sof), and we speak of this Light as equally omnipresent and infinite. This distinction between En Sof and Or En Sof is extremely important and must be kept in mind. For when speaking of tzimtzum and the Sefrot we relate these to the Or En Sof, the Light and Radiation, rather than to the Luminary and Radiator ( Ma-or ), the En Sof. hensive term En Lo Techihh (That Is Without Beginning). Cf. Yom Tou . . . 5666, p. 165. 12. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.:17a-b (cf. Tanya I, ch. 48 and 51; Zgeret Hakodesh sect. XI1 and XX). The term En Sof "indicates that there is no grasping Him, neither by apprehension nor by any thought whatever; He is abstracted and separate from all thoughts. He is prior to all those that were emanated, created, formed and fashioned, and no time of start and beginning applies to Him, for He is continually present and exists for everlasting without any beginning or end whatsoever"; Etz Chayim I: 1; see also R. Chayim Vital, Sha'ar Hahakdunwt, end of Hakdamah 111. En Sof therefore, is an indication of absolute perfection: "En Sof means perfection without any deficiency"; Likutei Torah IV:16a (quoting Aoodat Hakohsh I:8, who in turn is quoting R. Azriel of Ceronah, Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsum 3). 13. The difficulty in this concept is that revelation or manifestation generally presupposes another existent in, or to whom, this manifestation is directed, while the En Sof is the sole omnipresent existent. R. Schneur Zalman offers what he calls a "possible answer" by drawing an analogy to a person speaking to himself: speech is a medium of communicationthus self-revelation - to another outside the self. For man to communicate with himself he need not speak but thinks to himself, uses his faculty
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSJDLSM
Now, "when it arose in the Divine Will"14 to bring about the world and the creatures, the first act in the creative process was to bring about space in which the Divine emanations and ultimately the evolving, finite world could have a place to exist. This "primordial space" was brought about by a contraction or "withdrawal" and concentration of Divinity into Itself: the omnipresent, infinite Light of the En Sof was "withdrawn" into Himself; that is, it was screened, dimmed, hidden and concealed, and where it was dimmed - where this occultation and concealment of the Light occurred - an "empty" place, a "void (makorn panuy; chalal) evolved into primordial space. This is the act of the first tzimtwm, the radical act of d3ug and kefitzah, as it were: an act of Divine Self-limitation, so to speak, as opposed to revelation. However, this does not mean that the chakl is literally empty and void of all Divine radiation, that the Divine Presence is literally of thought; in fact, thought is more comprehensive than speech, for some thoughts are difficult to articulate altogether, or would involve a lengthy process before they can be uttered and so on. Speech is merely a form of self-expression and self-revelation, and the lowest form of it at that. Nevertheless, one may still, at times, vest one's thoughts and intellections in distinct and limited letters and words to express them to oneself. In some metaphorical sense, analogous thereto, there is a mode of selfrevelation of the En Sof even prior to creation. See Likutet TOY& II:52d f.; cf. Torah Or, Vayakhel: 87a-b, and Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, pp. 48a ff. 164a ff. and 14. This phrase is not to be taken in a temporal sense implying a change in the C-dhead, a supposition incompatible with the very idea and concept of the G-dhead and the explicit statement of Scripture that "I, the Eternal, I have not changed" (Malachi3:6).Change depends on time; it is a relative, temporal-spatial concept. But time and space are
and totally withdrawn therefrom. Such interpretationl"ould suggest an illegitimate ascription of spatiality, and hence corporeality, to the Infinite, and violate the principle of omnipresence affirmed in the most literal sense by Scripture1" and traditional7 The chalol is metaphorically spoken of as a void in relation to that which is "beyond or "outside" the chalal: "outside" the chulal there is a full manifestation of the Or En Sof while inside the chulul the Light is concealed. The En Sof, the Luminary (Ma-or)
themselves creations. From our present, temporal-spatial perspective there is a "before" and "after", but not from the eternal, supra-temporal and supra-spatial perspective. See more on this concept of time (and its relation to creation) in Etz Chuyim I: 1; Sha'ar Hahakdamot, Hakd. 111; Shenei Luchot Habrit, Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (Glossary Note, p. 4b); Shomer Emunim 1 :14 f.; 1 Tanya II:7; Torah Or, Miketz: 37a; etc. Cf. Moreh Neouchim II:13 and 30 (and also ibid., I:52), and Responsa of R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Bitaon Chubad (Kfar Chabad 1971), no. 33:p. 51 f.; Likutei Sichot, vol. X, p. 176 f. [For a detailed comprehensive discussion of the problem of time in historio-philosophical context, see Sefer Hachakirah, part 1 1 (p. 1 28a seg.) and Addenda (p. 108a seq.) .] Cf. also Keter Shem Too, ed. Kehot, beg. of sect. 348; and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech, Or Torah, ed. Kehot, Addenda, sect. 23a and 52. 15. There have been some interpretations of this kind. Their inherent difficulties are dealt with critically in Shomer Emunim II:34ff., and Tanya II:7. 16. "The whole earth is full of His glory" (Isaiah 6:3); "Do I not fill the heavens and the earth, says the Eternal" (Jeremiah 23:24)-"1, indeed, i.e., His very Being and Essence, as it were, and not His glory only!" (Zgeret Hakodesh, sect. XX and XXV). Cf. Chouot Haleuouot I: 10. 17. "There is no place on earth void of the Divine Indwelling Presence (Shechinah)"; Mechilta de Rashby (ed. D. Hoffman, p. 2) and
in relation to the void there is not an absolute and total withdrawal: some residue or vestige (reshimu) of the Light remains in the ~halal. The infinite radiation of the Divine Light having been dimmed and concealed. ad Zoc. as it were. 119. no. sect. pp. Cf. 56 (Jerusalem 1952... 45). see also the other Midrashim on this verse. Moreover. pp. will now no longer consume and nullify the contents of Midrash Hagadol-Shemot (ed.~8 Despite all these qualifications and the metaphorical interpretation of the withdrawal of the Light. and is the most stringent in the preservation of the . Jerusalem 1956. 9 5 8 ) . Tzimtzum relates only to the Light of the En Sof. vol. lgeret Hakodesh. Kehot: New York 1974. ch. Igarot Ba'al Hatanya. Itself is totally unaffected by tzimtzttm. without .54 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM whence the Light issues. and the references cited there. even in the Light per se there is no real change whatever: it is neither reduced nor removed but merely concealed. I and XX).strictly speaking affecting the Light itself in any way. p. 248-251. 33-34. this first act of tzimtzum is a radical "leap" (dilug)that creates the possibility for a gradual process and evolution of emanations to take place and to culminate in the creation of finite and corporeal entities.. VIII. See my The Great Maggid. cit. Schneur Zalman. Even this concealment and occulation is strictly relative: relative to the void and its subsequent contents. p. To be sure. "There is no place devoid of Him". on Exodus 3:2. 70f. note 39. See also the references cited in Midrash Hagadol. op. p. 18. cit. The principal purpose of tzimtzum is to create a chulal in which the Divine creatures would be able to exist and subsist as opposed to becoming dissolved in the Divine Omneity. Moreover. and ibid. and in Torah Shelemh. this outline o tzimtzum follows the interpretation of f R. Shi'ur Komah. Tikunez Zohar 5739113 ar~d 70:122b (cf.
Beassarah Maamurot: ch. et passim. 1. no. Cf. lgeret Hakodesh. for example. p. there have been other interpretations of tzimtzum that take a more. as already mentioned. the Mahural of Prague (Derashot Maharal. VI. You are after the creation of the world in the sense that G-d was.the chulal in the way. Menachem M. or the way the light of a candle would be totally absorbed and nullified in the very intense light of the sun. in interpreting Deuteronomy 4:39 "the Eternal is G d . p. He constantly quotes. quoted infra. and that even in the Or En Sof it is but relative to the creation rather than to the Divine Light per se. 34 f . or altogether literal view of this doctrine (see supra. Targum Onkebs on Exodus 15:ll. Schneerson of Lubavitch. and not to the En Sof. is and remains the sole true reality. ed. 111. 31. ) . For the four types of interpretations that have been suggested at various times. that a spark is totally consumed and nullified in the flame itself. there is no other" in the sense that strictly speaking there is no other existent outside G d . 43.) But. Judah Loewe. (See Tanya II:6. ch. 1I:p. Its key-concepts are that tzimtzum relates to the Or En Sof. and R. This follows on the general "acosmic" view of R. . note 15). the liturgical phrase "You were prior to the creation of the world. throughout all his works. In the second phase of the creative process an overt ray or radiation of the Divine Light is made to beam into the primeval space of the c h k l . This thin ray or "line" (kau) irradiates the chulal and is the source of the subsequent emanations: it is both the creative and the vivifying force of the creation. and creation does not affect Him in any way implying whatever change. end of section 1. Bitaon Chabad (Kfar Chabad 1970). Jerusalem 1968. sect. Isaiah Horowitz (Shenei Luchot Habdt. Schneur Zalman and his predecessors that oh-d-uis G-d there is no change whatever. . Derushirn Naim: Shabbat Hagadol 5349.) And thus he follows his ancestor R. . it is the immaunaffectedness of G d . 30a). see Responsa of R. (See Tanya I: 20.
*9 To sumn. It is by way of this kau that the process of successive emanations and causal development takes place. 20. and infra. Specifically speaking we still make some radical distinctions in the process of tzimtzum even after the dilug. ultimately culminating in the lowest stage and creation represented by this finite.this development and evolution can be spoken of as gradual and causal. In general. 48. however. IV.which was by way of dilug ("leap") . That is. the kav itself also undergoes a series of numerous. in a very general sense. successive contractions and concealments. there are three levels of powerful and comprehensive contractions and condensations which give rise to the lower three Worlds in which there is the appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. to be vested in them and influence and animate them so that they may receive existence ex nihilo and be in a state of finitude and l i m i t a t i ~ n . Unlike the first tzimtzum . material and pluralistic world. ch.56 MYSTICAL (X)NCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM nence of G-d in creation while the concealed Light is the allencompassing transcendence of G-d taking in all creation. as it were. the particular aspects of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and are of many diverse kinds. ch. no change whatever in His blessed Self but 19. thus. though. . tzimtzurn is "Something in the nature of an occultation and concealment of the flow of the light and life-force so that only an extremely minute portion of the light and lifeforce should irradite and flow forth to the lower beings in a manifest way. ize. Each of these contractions and concealments makes it possible for a suecessively lower stage or creation to take place. " ~ ~ "There is. see Tanya I:49. Tanya I . More specifically. However.
In general. II:6. so that it shall not manifest itself in a greater radiance than the lower worIds are capable of receiving. blessed is He. Yet in regard to the Holy One. Heaven forbid. . there is no tzimtzum. . ch. through a process of gradual descent from cause to effect and a downward gradation by means of numerous and various contractions (tzimtzumim) so that the created entities can receive their life and existence from it without losing their entity. garments are entities separate and distinct from their bearer. 21. Tanya I. . . incidentally." (ibid. . . . concealment and occulation that would conceal and hide before Him and "the darkness is even as the light" (Psalms 139:12) as it is written "Even the darkness does not obscure from You . .. blessed is He . .). . is much-quoted in mystical works). to obscure and conceal the light and life-force . These tzimtzumim are all in the nature of a "veiling of the Countenance" (Hester Panim)."22 21. Hence it seems to them as if the light and life-force of the Omnipresent. 22. but in our context they are not. see commentaries on this Midrmh (which. see also ibid. For the tzimtzumim and "garments" are not things distinct from His blessed Self. .only for the created entities which receive their life-force . were something apart from His blessed Self . but "like the snail whose garment is part of its very self'21 (Genesis Rabba 21:s).
except that He is En S0f.CHAPTER THREE Sefirot 1. (3) the finite world. notes 11-12. These intermediary stages are generally divided into five classes or grades. The varying radiations of the Divine Light in these Worlds. referred to as the Five Worlds or Realms. Meaning of Sefirot Tzimtzum on its various levels brings about a series of numerous intermediary stages between the infinite Light of the En Sof and the finite universe. Of the En Sof. as mentioned before. nothing can be postulated. . making possible the creation of the finite and pluralistic world. See supra.l Names or attributes apply only to mani1. are referred to as the Sejirot. becoming ever more intensely screened and obscured from one level to the next. There are four principal aspects: ( 1) En Sof. chapter 11. and (4) the intermediary levels in the successive development of the creative process brought about by means of tzimtzumim. (2)Or En Softhe Self-manifestation of G-d.
57-58. Truly so. siper (to tell: relate). Bo:BOa. . Surely. . 33b. His WilI and His Wisdom. Sometimes I am called . separ (boundary). and cf. see Exodus 24:10. the Or En Sof with the The ultimately evolving world. and to His c r e a t i ~ n . are designated and called by (their) terms relative only to the upper and lower beings alone". Ezekiel 1:26). Torah Shebmuh. See also the discussion of attributes in Torah Or.. ~ Sefirot bridge.: 12b. sapir (sapphire. Parsless Rimonim 4:lO. See Zohur II:136bf. In a sense.. blessed be He. Shomer Emunim II:54 8.. . commentaries of R. and aid. Moreh Nevuchim I:61. The doctrine of the Sefirot is first mentioned in Sefer Yetzirah. in order for finite creations to 2. Sefirot-plural form. The word Sefirah is variably interpreted as derived from. Shtur Komah.. and is briefly referred to in the Midrash. V:7d. R. VIII. and see also Kumy 112. . whoever would hear such a statement will laugh.These Divine manifestations or attributes are ~ dimmed radiations from the Light of the En Sof and they are called S e f i r ~ t .".". mispar (number) or sapar (to number). because that would be like saying "of a lofty and profound wisdom that it cannot be touched with the hands because of the profundity of the concept. or related to. 3. 151. ch. Tanya 1I:lO. as it were. is considered as an actual physical action . to those aspects of Divinity which are revealed in. Exodus Rabba 3:6: "You wish to know My Name? I am called according to My workings. Cf. That is. Schneur Zalrnan goes even beyond Maimonides' definition of the attributes as negations (Moreh Nevuchim 158-80) : It is even inappropriate to say that "it is impossible to apprehend Gd". sefer (book). vol. the aspect of intellect and apprehension in relation to the Holy One. and Likutei Torah I:&. Tanya II:9. Moses Hagoleh and R. brilliance or luminary. Yitro. blessed be He. p. "All the attributes of the Holy One. . Numbers Rabba 14:12. and safra (scribe). with respect to the En Sof. f. Zohur ChudaPh. Cf Zohar 111: 2571. Tikunei Zohar. note 179. Sefirah-singular form. because the sense of touch relates and applies only to a physical object that can be grasped with the hand. Intr.60 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM festations.
4. Israel Baal Shem Tov's caveat quoted in Keter Shem Too. cf. . 34. 3-12.. For the Sefirot (as will be explained infra. the Light of the En Sof vested Itself in the S e j i r ~ t . Thus the Sefrot are to be conceived as "vessels" in which the Divine Light is vested and effects Its workings through them. sect. As varying manifestations and principles the Sefrot are also referred to (in Zohar and other works) by other terms suited to the context (e. Auot de R. 26. cf. ch. and cf. see in detail Likutei Torah II:5lc. ad loc. and the notes ad loc. but relate to the various aspects of the Sefirot on different levels. they are "seven that are ten" as some may appear in different forms.Addenda sect. E l i m Rabbaty VI:2 (p. Etz Chuyim 5:5. pillars.5 Moses Botaril on Sefer Yetzirah I:2. Maimonides.-The doctrine of the Sefirot is .come about. Shomer Emunim II:67. ibid.lights. The Sefirot and the Names are not fully identical in the plain sense. wreaths. These interpretations do not conflict with one another. 3-12. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. ~ Only by Its prior investment in the Sefirot in all the intermediary stages brought about by tzinztzurn could I t be vested in a finite and physical world.) 5 . and Shi'ur Komah. 2. Shomer Emunim II:64ff. The ten sacred Divine Names that one is prohibited to destroy or erase -[see Sheuuot 35a. garments. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah VI: 1 f. the aspect of the Light of the En Sof vested in the Kelim of the Sefirot. crowns. cit. and so on). sect. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p.). ch. See also R. Pardess Aimunim. ch. However.1-are usually identified with the ten Sejirot: "the Sejirot are the Names. XX. 111. firmaments. see Elima Rabbaty. there are two aspects to the Sefirot: Orot and Kelim. The Divine Names are to be identified only with the Orot. levels. See Igeret Hakodesh. Sht"ur Komah. and III:288a. thus not with the Kelim or with the Sefrot as compounds of Orot and Kelim. V) are "divisible" into two aspects: Orot (Lights) and Kelim (Vessels). Shenei Luchot Habrit. see Zohar 1II:lla f . colours. and the Names are the Sefirot". 3d). ch. 50d f. Shenei Luchot Habrit. See Igeret Hakodesh. Sha'ar X X . Natan. (As mentioned in the preceding note. Though there are basically only seven such Names. faces. kings. see Zohur II:42b.g. this identification must be qualified.. ch.
Pardess Rimonim 1:8 f. and at times lengthy. taken from lob 26:7.e Their end is wedged in their beginning. various phases in the manifestation of Divinity. . In numerous. beginning of sect. see the commentaries a. (See also further on. Shomer Emunim I:41 f. arguments the mystics prove from both traditional and philosophical points of view that the doctrine of Sefirot is essential to explain the possibility of the creation of the universe as well as the possibility of a subsequent Divine Providence. Pardess Rimonirn 1:1. This absolute and intrinsic unity has already been stressed in the ancient Sefer Yetxirah: "The ten Sefirot are without anything ( beli-mah). denotes that they are not anything substantial and apprehensible. Azriel of Geronah. ) 7. Auodut Hakodesh I:8.l. On the contrary. Sefer Yetzirah I:7.. emits ten crowns. there is a basic and intrinsic unity between the En Sof and the Sejirot. As we speak of them in terms of numerous gradations. their beginning is wedged in their end ..g. Tzimtzum and the Sefirot explain how it is possible for finite and multifarious creations to come about from an Infinite. and notes 18-20 of this chapter.) 6.like a flame bound up in the coal. extreme care must be taken to avoid any fatal misconception of dualism or a plurality in the G-dhead. Shomer Emunim 1:61. and prior to One what can you ~ o u n t l " ~ This simile is re-stated in the Zohar with even greater emphasis: "The Holy One. cf. and 11: 13 ff.62 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The Sefirot are thus Divine emanations. Simple (as opposed to compound) One. blessed is He. and 2: 6. Perush Eser Sefirot. or that the transcendent G-dhead also be a "personal" G d . see. R. especially the one attributed to Nachmanides. XX. e. and there is no second to Him. See Zgeret Hakodesh. supernal thus essential to an understanding of the principle of creation. Responsa 3-5. There is no suggestion whatever that the Sefirot are to be taken as entities distinct and separate from the En Sof. For the Eternal is One.. (The word beli-muh..
holy crowns. With these He crowns Himself and in these He vests Himself. He is they and they are He, just as the flame is bound up in the coal, and there is no division there."Vll differentiation is but from our perspective and relative to our knowledge, while above all is One; all is set in one balance, unvarying and eternal, as it is written "I, the Eternal, I have not changed." (Malachi 3:6).@ Maimonides' statement that with G-d His Essence, His Being and His Knowledge are absolutely one,1° a simple unity and not a compound one,ll applies equally to all the Divine attributes and to all the holy Names ascribed to Him.l"t is all an absolute, simple unity which is His very Essence and Being. However, as Mai-
8. Zohar III:70a; see also ibid., I:50b f . 9. Zohar II:176a; cf. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.: 17a. See also Avodat Hakodesh 1:ll-12; Pardess Rimonim 5:4; Shomer Emunim I:56 8. and 67, and ibid., II:11 and 57. The Sefirot are not some kind of actual intermediaries of intermediating powers. They are beli-mh, abstract concepts of Divine manifestations and nothing more. Hence the mystics emphasize and caution to bear this in mind, in particular at the time of prayer. Man addresses the very G-dhead and not any Sefirot or Attributes. Thus it is written "whensoever we call upon Him" (Deut. 4:7)-upon Him, i.e., to exclude His attributes! See R. Bachya ben R. Asher, Commentary on Deut. 4:7 and on Deut. 11:13; Pardess Rimonim 32:2 (where this exclusion is attributed to the Midrash Sifre). Cf. R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Teshuoot Haribash, responsum 157; and Likutei Torah II:51c and 111: 30d. See also R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Hayom Yom, p. 95 (quoted in Keter Shem Tou, Addenda, p. 22 note 24). 10. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1I:lO; Shemonuh Perakim, end of ch. VIII. 11. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah I:7; cf. Moreh Nevuchim I:57. 12. See Moreh Nevuchim I:57.
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM
monides stated,13 "This matter is beyond the power of speech to express and beyond the power of the ear to hear and the human heart to understand clearly."14 It is beyond apprehension to apprehend how He unites with them. That is why the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, which are the Sefirot, are referred to in the sacred Zoharl%s the "Mystery of the Faith-which is faith that transcends the intellect.la The Torah uses human phraseology only to enable the ear to hear what it can understand, and therefore permission was granted to the mystics to speak allegorically of Sefirot. It is, by way of illustration, like the unity of the light of the sun in its orb with the solar globe - (the solar globe being the luminary, while the radiation and beam that spreads forth and shines from it is called light). When the light is in its source, in the orb of the sun, it is united with it in absolute unity; for there is but one entity: the body of the luminary which emits light. All the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, His Will, and His Wisdom, are designated by these names only in relation to the creatures.li This concept of the Sefirot or attributes also explains the very reason for creation. For even while the Sefirot or attributes are in absolute unity with the G-dhead, they have actual application
13. Hilchot Yesodei Hatomh 11:10. 14. Tanya II:8. 15. See Zohar I:38a, 39a, 152b, 230b, 231a; ibid., II:253a, and 111:143a. 16. Tanya 11: end of ch. 9; see Likutei Torah III:68d. 17. Tanya II:10. Cf. ibid., ch. 3, and Igeret Hakodesh, sect. XX.
in relation to creation only. Thus to actualise, as it were, these Divine potencies, powers or attributes (e.g., wisdom, kindness, compassion, sovereignty and so on) G-d created the universe in which to manifest them (to have subjects upon whom to express or manifest His kindness and compassion, with whom to manifest His majesty, and so on).18 In a similar vein, creation also is a means through which G-d is able to manifest His power or potency in finite enicies no less than in the infinite - thereby preserving the principle of absolute omnipotence.lg This does not mean that creation implies a change in the G-dhead, that creation lends the G-dhead a perfection It did not possess before. For all the attributes are eternally of the very Essence and Being of G-d, absolutely one with Him; it is only that they are manifested through creation.20 For the En Sof, as stated earlier, is "absolute perfection without any deficiency", and " 'You were before the world was created, You are since the world was
18. Z o h r 111:69b; ibid., 257b f .; Pardess Rimonim 2 :6; Shi'ur Komuh, Torah, sect. XIII: Introd. and ch. 3; Etz C h y i m 1:1, and Shdar Hakelalim, ch. 1; Shomer Emutrim II:12 ST. See, though, note 21 infra. 19. Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsa 3 and 7; Par&ss Rimonim 2:6. Cf. supra note 5 and the sources cited there, and Likutei Torah III:68d. 20. See Shomer Emunim 11:12 ff., where the author also deals with a number of problems related to this concept. See also R. Meir ibn Gabbai, Derech Emunuh (an exposition and elaboration of R. Azriel's P e m h Eser Sefirot, dealing with most aspects relating to the doctrine of the Sefirot), passim. 21. Tanya I: ch. 20; see supra, ch. 2, note 18. In effect, thus, we
. Shir Hashirim. see commentaries a. transcending altogether reason and delight. I n some schemes Keter is omitted from the order of the ten S e f i ~ o t ~ ~ . Kingship). p.66 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM created'-exactly the same without any change. Hod ( Splendour. ten and not eleven". Netzach (Endurance. The total order of the Sefirot is generally divided into two must conclude that in final analysis the 'reasons' suggested for the Divine creation must ultimately break down. these schemes take Chochmah as the first of the ten and insert Da'at (Knowledge) as a Sefirah after Binah. O r d e ~ the Sefirot of The Sefirot are ten spheres or c l a s s e s 2 ~ n following order: Keter the ( Crown) . Strictly speaking no reason whatsoever is required . . Victory) . . and the references cited supra. 23. Prevalence) .f o r reasons to be explained further on. Chochmah (Wisdom). .. . note 3. Power. as it is written 'For I. the Eternal. 22. Ceuurah ( Might." etc. Pelach Harimon. The root for the source of the creation is the aspect of an essential and simple Will ( Ratzon) . Hillel of Paritz. Sefer Yetzimh I:4.. Binah ( Understanding). 37). Addenda. Chesed ( Kindness. Malchut ( Sovereignty. Above there is absolute perfection and there is no deficiency whatsoever . Benevolence ) . "Ten and not nine. Dov Ber of Mezhirech stated incisively: "The reasons offered by the rnekubbalim (mystics) for the [Divine] intent in the creation are unsatisfactory in terms of the true intent of creation . I have not ~hanged'. . Grace. Yesod ( Foundation) .. sect. Tiferet ( Beauty ) ."~] 2.38b (also quoted in the Maggid's Or Torah.l. See note 38 infru. see in detail R. . Majesty) . and as R.
Sometimes also called the "three fathers. 24. though. 26."^^ That is. 3. See. 3. and the other seven are called the "seven Tachtonot" (seven Lower Ones). the above are the principal or most common ones. or at times the three Upper Ones). . e. VIII.~~ other such groupings and distinctions that abound in the mystical writings20 (and some of these we shall meet up with in the chapters following). Tanya I: ch. all the Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes). par.~? Another distinction is made by calling the first three the "three Rishomt" (the three First Ones. 36 f.. When beginning with Chochmah. the first three are the principal Sefirot. The "seven Lower Ones" are subdivided into the two triads of Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet and Netzach-Hod-Yesod (all these six together are called the "six Ketzaootn-the "six Extremeties"). 25. sections 4-7. this chapter. and ch. The faculties of the intellect. In an extended sense. Derech Emunuh. 27. Sefer Yetzirah I:10. ch. Emotive Facultie~). See Tanya I: ch. 29. the immot (mothers)25from and through which the other seven Sefirot issue forth. see infra." in the same sense. note 149.Sefirot 67 groups referred to as the "three mothers and the seven multiple^. at times referred to as the three Mochin (Brains). the triad of the first three Sejirot is also called Sechel ( I n t e l l e ~ t ) ~ ~ the other seven while Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes. and the singular last one of M a l c h ~ t While there are a number of . 9 (p.). 28. Pardess Rimonim I: 1-2 and VIII:25. See infra.g.
i. Chagigah 14a). to the very core and essence of this Sefirah. XX. 32. The tenn itself denotes its significance: As a crown is on top of the head and encompasses it. and XXIX. also called Atika dechol Atikin-the Most Ancient of all Ancients. 36). so Keter is on top of all the Sefirot and encompasses them all. see. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4 and Zgeret Hako&sl~. Zgeret Hakodesh. and as such the "lowest level".e. 9 (p. In the same sense it is also called Atik or Atika Kadisha (the Ancient One. e..). or the Most Ancient Being. ch. The origin of this term i Daniel 7:9. Etz Chayim 25:5 and 42:l. ch. but distinct therefrom.1. so Keter is essentially distinct from the other Sefir~t.3~ Keter is so sublime and concealed that nothing 30. see Zgeret Hakodesh. particularly in the context of s the Partzufim (see infra. XVII. 34. ~ ~ That is why Keter is called Temira dechol Temirin (the most hidden of all hidden) . XIII.32 and is referred to as Ayin (naught) .it is sometimes applied to the highest aspect of Keter. sect. Keter Keter is the highest level or sphere of the Sefirot. and see infra. 33. of the E m a n a t ~ r . XVII and note 31 (37) a. 31. or Atik Yominthe Ancient of Days. as it were. The analogy is carried further: just as the crown is not a part of the head nor of the body.33The~e terms signify the total concealment of the rank of Keter due to its supreme ~ublimity. Zohar 1:147a.-For another interpretation of the term Keter see Derech Emunah.68 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM 3. sect. Though At& is essentially a term applied to the En Sof (in the sense of being the First Cause.~O is the first emanIt ation. or the Holy Ancient One).g. note 38. Zbid. and it abounds in Sifra Detzeniyuta and the Zdrot. Zohar III:288a ff. 13 and 22 (cf. sect. Zohar III:256b.. because it is the most "ancient" or original emanation from the .. VIII).
5). followed by Chassidism. That is why Keter is sometimes excluded from the scheme of the Sefirot. it is called the "intermediary" between En Sof. I t is too sublime to be included. Da'at is usually counted as one of the Sefirot while Keter is excluded (see Etz Chayim 23:1. on Zohur I:31a. See Auodat Hakodesh I:3. and R. 36. Moses Cordovero always counts Keter as part of the ten Sefirot and excludes Da'at as a separate Sefirah (see Pardess Rimonim 3:l ff. 2. et passim. 38. though R. (the latter) Hei-Malchut.. some say that Keter is identical with . and R. sect. 35. Igeret Hakodesh. In fact this has long been a matter of dispute among the earliest Kabbalists. applies to it Ben Sira's dictum:35 "Seek not the things that are beyond you and search not out things that are hidden from While the other Sefirot are sometimes represented by various letters of the alphabet. (the first) Hei-Binuh. Zohar III:17a. Chaim David Azulay. see also Zohar 111: end of 269a and 289b) where the peshat appears to support the opinion of R. 37. See also Torah Or. Nitzutzei Orot.l... 2:3 fl. In the system of R. Zohar II:42b and 158a. I t is a category and class all in itself.c. Esther. This controversy evolves around the interpretation of Zohur I: beginning of 31b (see Derech Emet and other comment.38 In fact. ibid. While all are agreed that Keter exceedingly excels the Sefiot (Chochmah to Malchut). a. Isaac Luria. 5 and 8. and Or Ne'erau 6:1.. 98c. R. See Chugigah 13a. Moses Cordovero (a. The four letters of the Tetragrammaton represent the ten Sefirot: Yud-Chochmh.) interprets otherwise.. therefore.Sefirot 69 can be said or postulated of it. 2 5 6 and 42:l). and ibid.l. Isaac Luria. The Zohar. see Tanya III:4. and see also ibid. Chaim Vital. V . Keter is represented by the "thorn" of the Yud (thus not by any letter but a mere dot).. par. Meuoh She'arim 111:1:1. or the unit of the six Midot from Chesed to Yesod..37 no letter can describe or represent Keter. on the meaning of At&. 258a. Vau-Tiferet.
Vayechi: 105a. . XX. or how can one relate the actual essence of the En Sof to Keter. ch.g. part of both. 39. ) The view of R.. Thus on the one hand it is an aspect of the Or En Sof and excluded. bridging the gap. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 11. hence. (See the discussion of these issues in Parcless Rimonim 3: 1ff. too. e. what appears to be a similar view is that expounded by R... sect. and also ibid. In the context of the aforesaid. state that Keter. Likutei Torah V:8a f .1. XVII. and Likutei Torah III:49c. however. Others. Cf. is an emanation and effect having a cause just like the other Sefirot and. R.c. Sefer Haemunot IV: end of ch. and Etz Chayim 42: 1 .l. 10-discussed in Pardess Rimonim 3:3. 166ff. or to C d qua First Cause (see supra. See lgeret Hakodesh. as i t were: it is the "lowest level" of the Light of the En Sof and from it. see Etz Chayim 23:5 and 8. and bridging or linking them: the "lowest" level of the En Sof as well as the very root or source of the Sefirot following. how can one speak of "higher" and "lower" in relation to the En Sof. and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. sect. Avodat Hakodesh I:2-3). though with the mistaken reference to IV:l-and by R. note 11). and Likutei Torah II:46c and V:8a. II:53b. note 76 infra. and through it. Isaac Luria adds that when speaking of the essential Sefirot-Keter is included. for a wider discussion of all this see Torah Or. pp. Torah Or.c. Meir ibn Gabbai. This issue (and the related problems as. issue forth the successive Divine emanations (thus being the very root or soul of the S e f i r ~ t ) Keter represents the "lever" . is to be counted among them. a. XX and XXIX. but when speaking of their general aspects (Chitzoniyut of the Sefirot) Keter is omitted and Da'at is inserted instead. and on the other.70 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM the En Sof and the Sefirot. Isaac Luria is a third opinion to the effect that Keter is somewhere in between Or En Sof and the Sefirot. and so on) relates to the disputed issue whether the term En Sof itself has reference to the actual Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. it is part of the ten Sefirot (see Etz Chayim a.. cf. .~~ of Divine manifestations and as such is called Ratzon Ha'elyon the En Sof (rather with the Or En Sof) and therefore to be excluded from the scheme of Sefirot.
This is the meaning of the frequent phrase (e. sect. sect.g. et p s i . See lgeret Hakodesh. I.Sefirot 71 (the Supreme or Abysmal Will) of G-d: not a particular will focused on some specific goal but the original Divine Willingness (Ratzon) underlying the creative will. note 22 (24))." as it were. in abbreviation called ChuBaD. That is why it is called Reishit (Beginning). 42. Igeret Hakodesh.) "the Torah derives from Chochmuh but its source and root surpasses exceedingly the rank of Chochmah and is called the Supreme Will. and notes 37-8 a. which precedes all powers or attributes (i. ~ ~ 4. wisdom. V and the asm references cited in note 76 (82) a. it is the "Will of a U the "essence-will" or the "will to will. Chochmah is the root of the succeeding attributes. of the Torah as the blueprint for the world (Gene& Rabba I: 1. sect. 41... sect." That is. Chochmah-Binah-Da'at These three Sefirot form a triad. Chochmah is called Reishit regard- .the S e f i ~ o t ) .e. Zohar 111:129a and 288b. i. Thus when we speak.1. Analogous to them are the three faculties in man's intellect of the same names. XXIX.e.g.42 Chochmah 40. Torah is an expression of Reason or the Divine Wisdom (Chochmah). But the very purpose of achieving that goal transcends the rational faculty and underlies it. Keter would be the Supreme Will underlying this blueprint.1. Zohar 1:5a). XXIX. Reason is focused towards achieving a certain goal. See Igeret Hakodesh. Zohar I:3b. understanding and knowledge. the very source of origin of the Torah.. e. When reason achieves its goal it fulfils a higher aim: the realisation of some deepseated. innermost desire or will.. This innermost desire or will is the Abyssmal or Supreme Will (see Igeret Hakodesh.
sect. ch. 82a.in potency. IV. see Zohur I:31b. Proverbs 3: 19. and his Or Torah. sect. Tanya I.72 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM represents the first creative activity of Gd. 35. for "Keter is like unto the prime matter that is called hyle which contains within it . and cf.e. sect. See Nachmanides on Genesis I:l. Moreh Nevuchim II:30.the root of all four elements". Chochmah is called Yesh (a substance). thus Chochmah is the instrument and hyle of rea at ion.43 it is the initial Divine instrument of actual creation. though not in actu . through the mediation of Keter. V . -The term hyk is applied here to Chochmah in the extended sense of Chochmuh being the basic "substance" of creation that can be referred to as yesh (cf. notes 22 and 76 (82) f . both of which are significant in our context. see Igeret Hakodesh. Arba Meot Shekel Kessef (ed. See also R.. 47.44 Thus it is written:45 "You have made them all be-Chochmah". and thence begins creation. Chaim Vital. as said). Chochmah is immanent in everything (albeit in ever-increasing concealment) and animates everything. Psalms 10424. Igeret Hakodesh. Maggid Deuarau Leyahkou. 43. 94a-b. ed. note 20" (25). Kedoshim. The En Sof. and "the Eternal has founded the earth be-Chochmah". B e . Chochmuh. 2 and II:9. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 46. Strictly speaking the term hyle relates to Keter. Kehot. 45. . When Keter is included we speak of two spheres that are called Reishit: Keter and Chochmah (as alluded in the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit.C h o c h W 6 may be translated in two interrelated ways. Two (categories of) Reishit) . as it is less of whether Keter is counted or not. is "vested in C h o c h n d . see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. i. or by. Thus in relation to Keter which is Ayin.^' Everything derives from Chochmah. The first sense is with. The same applies to the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit (Reishit referring to Chochmuh. 176. 44. see also R. p. Etz Chayim 42:l. Tel Aviv 1964). note 43 supra). p. See Tanya I: ch.
. However. see also ibid. is referred 48. See also Tikunei Zohar. Chochmah is represented by the first letter. 18. .: 12a.I"D n"3. sect. 51. 3. Zohar Chadash. and notes 16 ff. 49. Tanya I: ch. Zbid. the beginning and first revelation of creation. This means that in Chochmah is founded the creation. In itself Chochmah is a state of obscurity (mocha setima-the concealed brain). Zohar III:235b.^^ Thus the word Chochmah is interpreted to mean n"D R"3. and Tanya I: ch. Tikunei Zohar. Tanya I: ch. sect. 34b-c and lOOa 8. Cf. and the possibilities of all further beings exist there in pot en ti^. 50. the Yud51-a small. Igeret Hakodesh. note 22. Chochmah is so concentrated and compact that it is not apprehensible in itself.54 Thus there is little that can be said of Chochmah. . for which reason C h o c h d .: 4a and 69:112b.1. Zgeret Hakodesh. and it is referred to as Edens2 of which it is saids3 "no eye has seen it". Intr. See note 37. V . XI. (note 48 supra). 19. lgeret Hakodesh.. Zohar III:290a. simple. See infra. 54. sect. supra.a. The letters of the word na3R make up . non-descriptive point.Sefirot 73 written "Chochmah gives life to them that have it" (Ecclesiastes 7:12) The second sense is in Chochmah. Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton which symbolise all the Sefirot. XIV and XVII.50 Chochmah is the seed of creation. Intr. sect. See Tanya 1:ch. too. II:9Oa. Igeret Hakodesh. "All the lower ones are rooted and compounded in Chochmah. 53. which is the mystical principle of 'you have made them all in Chochmah' " Etz Chayim 25: 1. 55. note 63. V. See Bemchot 34b. the "potentiality" of "what is". 52. 19.
74 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM The potentia of Chochmah is brought out from total obscurity This and externalised in Binah. the idea will be understood. 3. Tikunei Zohar 22:63b. the details of which are not yet differentiated and externalised. though in relation to Keter it is yesh (note 43 supra). its details and implications will become revealed. Tanya. the next Sefir~h. It is the seminal idea. Tanya I: ch. Cf. 59. essentially. See supra. they are not yet processed but intensely concentrated in the intuitive flash. 1:13. I: ch. The hidden intellect is apprehended by the intellectually cognising subject. XV and note 70 (87) a. and "becomes known solely through Binah. the That is. in itself. This is the faculty and state of Binah ( understanding) Binoh is really the expansion and elucidation of Chochmah."59 Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton Binuh is represented by the Hei. 3. 58. Chochmah is still called ayin. Chagigah 14a. . 57. sect.~" will be understood by drawing on the analogy to the faculties of the human intellect: Chochmuh corresponds to an intuitive flash of intellectual illumination: the original idea per se. cf. sect. V . the "inner thought". The individuations concealed in the original flash are then externalised and become manifest in the mind. note 37. Sifre on Deut. 56. lgeret Hakodesh. lgeret Hakodesh. When cogitating on the idea.60 Unlike the simple non-dimensional point of Yud."58 The standard definition of the faculty of Binah is "To understand or derive one matter out of another matter. Zohar Chadash 4a. 60. Zohar 1:lSb. Chochmuh is informed in Binah.1. The process of induction-deduction.
when in the mind. V. V. p. Igeret Hakodesh. Thus all three. will not produce motion without the existence of a desire (emotive disposition) for the object of which an idea has been formed.~' Therefore the Zohar refers to the Sefirot of Chochmah and Binah as "The dot (Chochmah) in the palace (Binah). But it is only in the mind. as essence of the Midot. note 11. Vayera (ed. originates in the appetitive faculty of the soul. The concept is there and it is clear in the mind."~ On its own. sect.""* symbolising the meaning of these categories and their relationship. are a potential power that needs to be. N-Binah. notes 43 and 55 supra. XI. are on a plane of AYiN: A-Keter. Kehot. 63. and see my notes on the Maggid's Or Torah. 62. 2. thus in the emotive dispositions (Midot) of man. Cf. Intr. that is the volitive power . Igeret Hakodesh. a c t ~ a l i s e d . Tikuwi Zohar 42:81b. but has not yet been. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. See Moreh Nevuchim II:4 to the effect that wisdom or reason does not produce motion. Chochmh and Binah ~~ are two separate faculties: the intuitive flash of intellectual cog61. sect. Hakd. See also Zohar I:lb.: 17a. Cf. Zohur II:158a. see Tikunei Zohur. That is why Deut. 177). Cf. Zohur I:6a. ch. it is not fully realised. 29:30 ("the hidden things are unto the Eternal") is applied to the Sefirot Chochmah and Binah. Hence it is Da'at. to the effect that every action or acting upon. understanding and manife~tation. and the ability to move to act upon this idea.Sefirot 75 Hei is a more concrete letter: it has dimensions of length and width signifying the dimensions of explanation. internally. I. Chochmah and Binah by themselves are abstract. Addenda. 64. while externally it is inaudible and in~isible. note 15. wisdom and understanding. strictly speaking. The concept. Igeret Hakodesh. also Shemom Perakim. Tanya III:4. Y-Chochmah. The intellect which forms and develops an idea. Keter-Chochmah-Binah. it does not lead to any conclusion.Moreover. However. sect.
66 Thus Da'at is the unifying principle that brings together and joins the faculties of Chochmah and Binah. Cf. and become externalised and informed in. Etz Chayim. See lgeret Hakodesh. Genesis 4:1. et passim.are effected by the faculty of Da'at. This unifying principle is called Da'at Elyon. 17. or acting upon that which is proposed by Chochmah and Binah.. Tikunei Zohar 69:99a. 65. ~ ~ moving to action. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p.O5 The etymological meaning of Da'at is attachment or union. Etz Chayirn 48:2. 67. Sha'ar 24 f .).(Binah). However. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. and the practical implementation of the informed concept . . 25.that is. See Zohar III:291a. Likutei Torah III:87c f . (besides the sources mentioned in the notes following. the power of understanding this flash. 68. See the detailed discussion of Da'at in P a r h s Rimonim 3:8 and 9:5-6. and so is the power of inductiondeduction . notes 70 and 73 infra. 273bff. 66. and the references in note 79 (97) a. effects or "activities" at two different levels.1.and hence is able to effect . especially note 72)." the Supernal Will that wishes and seeks . Shenei Luchot Habrit. Daht on two planes: Da'at Elyon (Upper or Superior Da'at ) and Daht Tachton (Lower or Infgrior Da'at ) . end of sect. so we must speak of two categories of Da'at . But how are they joined? How does the "dot" come to.the union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . it is a direct derivative or aspect of Keter.the union of Chuchmh with Binuh. 5a fl). just as we are speaking of two states. the "palace"? These two states . Derush Be'inyan Hada'at (pp. Cf. XV.76 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM nition (Chochmah) may be there.. for it transcends Chochmah and Binah.
But to bring about this union is itself but a means towards a further end:"O to implement or apply and bring to fruition the concept of Chochmah that has been informed in Binah. It is the full preoccupation in the apprehended and understood concept until an intense union is effected between the intellect and the emotions (Sechel and Midot) 71 and the idea is brought to its logical conclusion in practical especially the glossary notes a. but he does not cany this knowledge and understanding to its logical conclusion to apply it consistently with its inherent implications. the Chochmah informed in Binuh. and note 73 infra. Znyan Hada'at and Veaz Meuuar. 71. is the faculty of Da'at Tachton.70 The principle of wisdom need not only be understood but also felt and sensed.U. It must be channelled to the emotive attributes so that they will act upon it in terms of appropriate dispositions: to seek or pursue that which wisdom dictates should be sought. and to avoid that which wisdom dictates should be avoided. For example. he has the knowledge of G-d's existence and believes in the Divine ability to help him. us.l. The profound inner concentration on. and devotion to. "Study is greater because it leads to action" (Kiddwhin 40b) -"for there is no action without Chochmah" (Zohar 1:266a). S. 2 See note 64 supra. of the Midot. that is. of Ayin Ya'akou). a thief may be found to pray for Divine assistance in the very midst of his nefarious activities (Berachot 63a. this personal sensing (Hargashuh). 69. To possess wisdom or even understanding does not yet mean that it will actually be implemented and applied in practise. Thus this faculty of Da'at Tachton is the very root and essence. Haamanot Elokut: ch. or soul and controlling guide. 70. .. Derech Mitzootecha. Cf. See Berachot 17a: "The goal of Chochmah is repentance and good deeds".
3 and 42. Mishpatim:74cff. expanded. Likutei Torah 111:2d and 87cf. Zohar III:290a ff. chs.-Cf.78 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CI~ASSDDISM application. and infra. 76.~ 72.c.Zohar II:123a and III:289b f . See Etz Chayim 22:l: "Chochmah and Binah (alone) are to no avail. et pmsim. See references in note 74 supra. Thus the Midot are called the children of Chochmah and Binah. Therefore Da'at is the all-inclusive essence of the Midot." Cf.74Metaphorically speaking. Da'at is called Ben (Son). Torah Or. ~ ~ In the metaphorical terminology of the Kabbalah and Chassidism C h o c h m h is called Abba (Father) and Biracrh is called I m m (Mother). note 9. ~ " n Da'at the original idea and concept has matured into corresponding dispositions. sect. for Chochmah and Binuh are concealed and become manifest only by means of Da'at.'2 It is this faculty of Da'at that is usually referred to when the term Da'at appears ~ n q u a l i f i e d . Pardess Rimonim 8 :17. or. the seed of Abba is implanted in the womb of lmma and there the rudimentary plant of the seed is developed. the offspring of this union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . 74. of the emotive powers or attributes of the lower S e f i ~ o tFor~the Midot express and reveal .. See note 65 supra. and of it is said "If there is no Binalt there can be no Da'at" j Auot 3 :17). externalised and informed. . Zgeret Hakodesh. Meuoh She'arim V:1:12 and 14 ("the principal f illumination and manifestation of the brains in man is by means o Da'at") .. ix. This faculty of Da'd Tachton is below. Chochnmh and Binah. See also Derech Mitzvotecha. and follows upon. 8.l. a. ch. alternatively. and Tanya I . 75. Tiferet (or the first six Midot in unison) is called the "son" and Malchut is called the "daughter".. Ibid. 73.. XV.
Tiferet. XV. we did so by analogical reference to the soul-faculties of man: Keter (the allencompassing will) leading to Chochmnh (the intuitive or seminal intellectual flash) which is joined by Da'at Elyon to Bimh (the faculty of understanding and elucidation) thence to be realised in Da'at Tachton and to become enacted in the dispositions of the Midot. sense. Gvurah. See Tanya I: ch. 3. a gradual. Hod. Yesod and Malch~t. with G-d there is no temporal sequence. from his will and It is in this context as "soul (essence) of the Midot" that Da'at is not counted as a separate Sefirah to replace Keter (see supra note 38). 38.. the analogy is inadequate and breaks down for two basic reasons : Firstly. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn. with man the execution of his will and wisdom is a category distinct. dependent yet separate.these dispositions originating in Sechel in terms of Chesed. qualitatiue. Etz Chayim 23:s and 8. In explaining these Sefirot and their interrelationship as we have done so far (and shall be doing in the chapters following). Obviously this cannot be said of the Divine process. For as a mere soul without its own independent vessel or body it cannot be included as one of the ten principles of the Sefi7ot. developing process in temporally distinct stages. . See also R. sect. a temporal sequence. As R. In man there is. see also ibid. p.~' One final comment in relation to the aforesaid. Isaiah Horowitz has stressed. N e t m h . and lgeret Hakodesh. therefore. Secondly. Sefer Hamaamrim 5700 (New York 1955). 40:6. 77. All these "stages" are simultaneous to the extent that as soon as "it arises in G-d's Will" His Will is performed instantaneously and there is no "before" and "after" except in some extremely subtle.
2.ex nihilo . infra. while with G-d they are one absolute and inseparable unity. 81. sect. et passim. sect.80 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wisdom. see Moreh Nevuchim III:53. G-d brought into being . and Zgeret Hakodesh.7s Chesed means kindness in a sense of absolute. 80. sect. I. cf." and it is from .84 78. Cf. Pardess Rimonim 23:8. ch. is an act of Chesed.l. Etz Chayim 18:5 (see infra. animating all creation. and thus it is written "The world was built by Chesed. XI11 and XV. Igeret Hakodesh. ~ ~ Chesed is the attribute or disposition that underlies the creation.~~ this attribute that the Divine life-force. 84. this chapter."8l That is. Etz Chayim I:l. to bring about recipients for the Divine benevolence. cf.the world and a 1 the creat u r e ~ Creation. see Tanya II:4. and Igeret Hakodesh. S. The implication of Chesed (creation and its continuous sustenance) is a manifestation of the infinite benevolence (Chesed) that is of the essence of G-d.-Though . a.1. Zohar III:69b and 257b f . 7Dn. Shenei Luchot Habrit. See supra. section 1 and note 18 ad loc. 82. Zgeret Hakodesh.~@ the very crystallisation of the disposiIt is tion to bestow good and kindness for the very sake of kindness. gratuitous and unlimited benev~lence. regardless of the merits of the r e ~ i p i e n t . note 103. Cf. sect. Pardess Rimonim 2:6. therefore. sect.c. s. See Zohar I1:168b. 79. and Pardess Rimonim 11:3. and notes 77-82 (83-88) a. supra. see also Avodat Hakodesh I:3. Cf.0. issues forth. note 86).. and Pardess Rimonim 8:l. See Tanya II:4. Psalm 89:3. V and X. XI. as it is intrinsic to the nature of the benevolent to be benevolent in actu. 83. V. Inyan Hada'at.U.
Sefirot 81 However. limited. note 6. It is the attribute of Din (Law and J ~ d g m e n t ) . Chesed this principle and implication is mostly related to Chesed and Malchut. chapter V. Cf. gratuitous fashion. See infra. In themselves. Gevurah. assume actualised manifestation through the process and presence of creation. withdrawing. the effulgence of the Divine Chesed is as boundless as its Source while the creatures to which it emanates are limited and finite. Meooh She'arim I:l:l. and the references cited there in note 18) : all the Sefirot. con~~ cealing and limiting the Divine emanations. does not allow the Supernal Light to extend. and not in boundless. note 100. and its full force screened. Cevurah means Might or Power in a sense of severity. 87.contracting. limit and restrain. This is effected through Geourah. see supra end of section 1. note 89. ~ ~ demands that Din Chesed be distributed justly. concealed.. See Pardess Rimonim 8:2. in fact it is relevant to all the Sefirot (as mentioned earlier. See Meooh Shehrim I: 1 : 1: "Every limitation of emanation is from . and infra. Thus it is the principle that seeks to control. restrained. 85. as Divine attributes. but sets to it a limitation and measure to the point of (actual) need-for the light to extend that far but no further". and infra. Chesed needs to be controlled.e. For Chesed indicates an extension in all matters beyond the limit. in proportion to the prospective recipient's merit. If exposed to it they would become nullified in it and cease to exist. however. The finite creatures cannot possibly absorb and endure so abundant and powerful an effulgence as the Divine Chesed.-Etz Chayim 18:5: "All fixed measures and limitations are but from the side of Gevurah. 86. i.86 Geourah implies t ~ i m t z u r n .
88. for positive aspects of Geuurah. the positive effects of Gevurah emerge only by prior stimulus or effort. Yc.~' Particularly in the context of the act of creation. Every tzi~ntzum [an aspect of] Din. this is not the case if Gevurah were to be singularly dominant. however. . in effect. XV. 92." See also is Tanya II:4 and 6. chapter 11. VIII. . See Tanya II:6. that Gevurah is a strictly negative concept.verily. an . As a general rule.@" This is not to say. XII. being one of the Divine attributes it must be seen as positive and contributory.82 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDDISM and Gevurah pose an antimony as principles diametrically opposed to one another. infra. preceding note. XII.is. and cf.~Vor we have seeqB3tzimtzum makes it possible for G-d's creatures to exist and subsist. and Igeret Hakodesh. But as both Chesed and Gevurah are Divine attributes [Gevurah and Din] . 89. . cf. note 8 6 ) . though. Just as Chesed by itself would make it impossible for creation to subsist so Gevural~ itself would preclude the existence by of creation." for Geuurah seeks to prevent. See Etz Chayim 18:5 (supra. However. On the contrary. XV. the Divine benevolence as channelled through Gevurah may have an exclusively distinct ad~antage. in whole or in part. 90. note 9. XIII. See Torah Or. sect. Noach: p. See infra. Cf. sect. ~ ' Thus from the severity of Gevurah derive also the stern Divine Judgments. See supra. lgeret Hakodesh. 93. note 100. as expression of the Divine Love and Benev~lence. Igeret Hakodesh. Gevurah . 91. and XV. chapter XI. also Igeret Hakodesh. sect. In fact. sect. as expressed by tzimtzum . the outflow of C h e ~ e d . and cf.
together. XI1 and XV. and the harmonious colourfulness of this attribute makes it beautiful ( Tiferet ) . 132.06 The relationship between these three Sefirot is clearly seen. Tiferet. Igeret Hakodesh. . and 9:3.in absolute unity with the Divine essence they are neither separate principles nor do they counter one another. they form a triad referred to by the acrostic ChaGaT. That is why. See Tanya II:4-6. and infra. sect. note 103. For all the Midot are either an aspect of Chesed (of outpouring and effluence) or of Gevurah (of withdrawal and restraint) or an aspect of Tiferet (of harmonious blending of the 94.05 This quality accounts for this Sefirah being called Tiferet.g4 They are able to "operate" successfully by a mediating faculty. Also. p. XII. the Divine attribute of Tiferet. though limited by Gevurah so as to make the Chesed endurable.. Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar (New York 1971). Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. Tiferet harmonises and blends the free outpouring from Chesed with the severe tzimtzum of Geuurah. that the creatures may continue to exist even while benefitting from Chesed. beauty: it blends the differing colours of Chesed and Geuurah. therefore. See R. on Zohar I:168a. 95. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. 96. sect. i. is not an equal mixture but tends towards Chesed. It blends them in such a way so that Chesed will still issue forth. Igeret Hakodesh.e. these three are the basic or essential Midot in relation to which the others are but derivatives as will be seen in the following section. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson.
ch. Yitro. Sh'muel Schneersohn. VI and note 6 a.Q8 There are a number of terms that often appear as synonyms for these three Midot.lo0 and Tiferet with Rachamim (Compassion. In the Scriptural reference to the Midot in I Chronicles 29:11. in comment on Reut. and sect. Tikunei Zohar. For an extensive discussion of these two terms and their relationship. sect. is the harmonising princi97. Moreover. and R. Zohar II:175b. 99. note 95).l. 134. and not Chesed. 3:24). there is a distinct difference between these two terms with Gedulah denoting a superior level of Divine Benevolence than Chesed. 101. strictly speaking. . Likutei Torah-Torat Sh'muel (New York 1946). Mercy).lol Rachamim. 111. Magnificence) because it expresses the infinite Greatness (Benwolence) of G-d. Intr.. just like Ra'at is the "soul" of the Midot (supra. Zgeret Hakodesh. quite frequently Tiferet alone@? is spoken of as the principle of the Midot because it compounds within itself the basic dispositions of the Midot. Obviously it is called Rachamim because of the predominance of Chesed (see supra. Thus Chesed is called Gedulah (Greatness. see Zohar I:31a and passim. or "Rachamim within Rachamirn" ( Z o h 111:145b).84 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS M CHASSIDLSM former two aspects). lgeret Hakodesh. so Tiferet is the "body" of the Midot. the term Gedulah appears. sect. 98. Tikunei Zohnr 22:67b. Tanya II:4. see infra. Likutei Torah IV:17c%. I. the Divine Compassion. Vayera: p..: 17b. Zohar Chodash. chapter VIII. Or HatorahBereishit (New York 1966). Mostly in the context of the Partzufim. see R. 100. XI1 and XIII. Sifre on Numbers 27:12 (sect. vol. vol. and also ibid. 46 ff. In this context. Chesed per se would thus be the very core of Rachamim. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Zohar III:302a. note 61).. et passim. However.9BCkuurO is synonymous with Din ( Judgment). 31b. 51b. XI1 and XV. 179 ff. cf.
XX and note 32 (35) a. from the aspect of Gewrah. sect. and Zgeret Hakodesh.ple that restrains excessive Chesed and mitigates severe Ceuurah. the quality of Geuurah to withhold and restrict the Divine effusion is again truthful for the very reason that truth and justice demand distribution in justness and equity. sect. note 22 (26). Thus. and therefore "in the light of the King's Countenance there is life" (Proverbs 16:15). 28c. Thus. Yiho.. nothing is truly fit to receive the Divine benevolence except that from the Divine perspective it is all one ("even the darkness does not darken from You and the night shines as the day-the darkness is even as the light". gratuitous and infinite benevolence without regard to the merits of the recipient. See Etz Chuyim 35:3. as Divine attributes. truth demands the withholding of the Divine Grace. strictly speaking.On the other hand.. In this context Tiferet is also called Emet (Truth). Igeret Hakodesh. ibid. inasmuch as even "the heavens are not pure in His eyes" (Job 15:15) and "His angels He charges with deficiency" (ibid.l. 4: 18. Tiferet.). because the motive is strictly . Zohar Chodarh. Psalms 139: 12).lo3 Similarly. Toldot. on the other hand. and cf. is absolute truth in the sense that it reconciles and harmonises Chesed and Geuurah. 11. i. sect. in proportion to the recipient's merits. out of absolute.lo2 and thus the Divine plan of creation is made possible and the "disposition of the benevolent to be benevolent" is actualised.e. For Tiferet recognises the validity of Gevurah-that strictly speaking the recipient is undeserving-but out of a sense of Rachamim (Compassion) permits a restrained flow of C k s e d . is an aspect of truth. But these aspects of truth are relatiue to these conffitcing perspectives: the perspective of Chesed on its own and the perspective of Geuurah on its own. 31b. there is frequent reference to various other factors 102. see Moreh Nevuchirn III:13. are E m d (truth). sect. It need be understood that all the Midot. 103. For. Igeret Hakodesh. that it is not contradicted or opposed by either Chesed or Geuurah or any other attribute. VI. ibid. The quality of C k s e d to dispense benevolence in unlimited fashion. of law and justice. XV.. but they are so only when they stand on their own.
Zohar I:41a. 376-7 (variant version). corresponds to one of the Midot. 104. Supra. is made to the three Patriarchs as they correspond to the first three Midot. See Etx Chayim. even Gevurah will agree to this flow. p. Moses. vol. also Zohar II:276b.. disposition and mode of service and worship. As the Sefirot are the Divine instruments through which everything comes into being. et passim. and note 27 (28) a.. The most frequent reference. sect. 434 f. Zohar Chadash.. everything relates directly to one or more of the Sefirot in its own individual way. Isaac. without any opposition: Emet Le-amito. 105. XIII. Jamb. sect. 52. 11. and the only one that concerns us in Igeret Hakodesh. note 105.c. Zbid. or by way of metaphor and analogy. (note 95 supra). . therefore. 11. p . a. and ibid. sect. See also Zohar I:74a and 146a..lo8 one of compassion. Maamarei Admur Hazaken-5565. note 22 (26). and. absolute truth.l . sect. a . XIII. 107. 108. 106. note 105. references cited in Igeret Hakodesh.im. Igeret Hakodesh. Sefer Habahir 48 (131).Io4 Thus the seven Midot have corresponding entities in the seven dominating figures of Scripture that are referred to as the "fathers of the universe": Abraham. by his individual position.and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanuh 5666.lo7 Jacob represents Tiferet because he compounded the Chesed of his grandfather and the Geuzlrah of his father. and Igeret Hakodesh. et pasJ. note 7 (Q). Tiferet is a truth rccognised from every aspect. sect. Likutei Leui Yitzchak. see Igeret Hakodesh.c. sect. VI. a. Joseph. Thus Abraham represents Chesed because his inclinations and activities expressed kindness and benevolence to the highest degree. and ibid. I .86 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN (SHASSIDISM which correspond to these Midot as well as to the other Sefirot.2.1.loWach of these.lo6 Isaac symbolises Gevurah as this attribute was most dominant in him. Aaron and David.c.l. Supra. (note 103). III:302a.
and cf. XV and note 41 (48) a. Hod and Yesod are the receptacles for the three Patriarchs. See Tanya II:5.c. Hod and Yesod. supra-rational dispositions which seek to carry the attributes of ChuGaT to their logical conclusion. as it were.llS Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. Their basic significance.l. 22:68b. I. lgeret Hakodesh. a. sect. Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d. XIX See Tikunei Zohar 19:45a. notes 105-108. sect. 111.l12 - Chesed-Gevurah-Tiferet are the very essence of the attributes they signify and are directly influenced and directed by Chochmah. These dispositions are Netzach. which act. Once the attributes of ChaGaT are established by ChaBaD. Hod of Gevurah and Yesod of Tiferet.6. these three "lower" Midot serve as tools. vessels. as well as the characteristic of their relationship.'09 i. Likutei Torah. 8:17 and 24. See further." rather than on the stimulus of reason (Sechel) the way ChaGaT do. or "mechanically.. they form dispositions to actualise themselves.1. works being the principal sources for the explanation following).llo In other words.lll This does not mean that NeHY are identical with ChaGaT: Netzach is merely a branch and channel of Chesed. See supra. . for Chesed. and 30:74a. on simple faith. Zgeret Hakodesh. (the latter two 109.e. 110. Netxach-Hod-Yesod These three Sefirot. Binah and Da'at. too. sect. form a triad known by the acrostic NeHY. 112. or channels through which the aforementioned "upper" Midot effect their purpose and factual application. Gevurah and Tiferet. Zohar III:236a. Pardess Rimonim 7:2. These dispositions are no longer directly influenced or controlled by ChaBaD but are the simple.. and Zgeret Hakodesh. 113. is that Netzach.
"two kidneys" (Zohar III:296a) . Intr. through Tiferet.l17 In this context. for the above-mentioned reason it differs from Tiferet not only in intensity. Netzach is not even proportionally identical with Chesed. 116.: 17a) .88 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Also. though it mediates between Netzach and Hod as Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Geuurah. and so forth.as we have seen . 114 On the other hand. the "two hips" (Tikunei Zohar 13:29a). and 11:276b.. See Pardess Rimonim 7. 117. For since they evolve through the comprehensive attribute of Tiferet. "two thighs" (Zohur I:26b. Netzach and Hod usually go paired together.2 and 8:24. and 114. nor Gevurah with Hod.. Netzach does not possess the simple intensity of Chesed nor Hod that of Geuurah. l ~ ~ Another substantive distinction is the following. I:4. Just as ChaGaT are the three Patriarchs. Ibid.tends towards Chesed. like unto twins.g. Zohr III:236a. E. Tikunei Zohar. . so Netzach and Hod are the two brothers Moses and Aaron (Zohar I:256b.thus mitigating its aspect of the severity of G e ~ u r a h . nor Yesod with Tiferet. Likewise with Yesod. Netzach is also able to receive and apply the positive aspects of Gevurah while Hod is able to receive the flow of Chesed . Unlike the other Midot. 115. but more significantly because it tends towards Hod (the side of Gevurcfh) while Tiferet . despite their identification as branches or derivatives of their predecessors."l16 And similarly the terms relating to these two attributes are usually such as are intimately related to one another. The Zohm refers to them as "two halves of one body. which includes within it both Chesed and Geuurah.
. If the information is to be conveyed effectively. note 105). I. The father has already contemplated the facts. directly concerned with the ultimate issuance of Chesed and Geuurah. at the time of the actual emanations from the upper Midot it is necessary to deliberate how they are to issue forth in such a way that would be most just and beneficial.Sefirot 89 in light of the aforesaid. cited supra." That is. on the level of activity. outside the body of ChuBaD and ChuGaT. Netzach and Hod are called the "supports of the upper Sefirot" analogous to the loins.1.c. See Zgeret Hakodesh. i. sect. sect. Zgeret Hakodesh. and ibid. when a father seeks to convey some intellectual information to his son. thighs or legs in the body of man which support and uphold the whole body (including the head). he understands them fully. Zohar Chadosh.leading it to its destination in general and channeling Chesed and Cevurah in particular. 119. the father and ref. the facts as they are in themselves and in their totality) without bringing the reasoning down to the child's level.ll9 Thus they are. see Pardess Rimonim a. Vayera. But when he now confronts his son with that information (i. 118.ll8 Hence they are seen to be outside the body itself.. For example. Also.. they are clear in his own mind.e. I. sect. and Likutei Torah III:9Oc-d. he cannot teach him the simple facts by themselves as they are in his own mind. the latter will be unable to understand and absorb the information. In the metaphor of the man-analogy.e. Netzach and Hod are the "kidneys that advise.. though they support the body . the Divine Names and other terms relating to these two attributes are usually a plural form of one concept. 26d.1. V and note 100 (109) a. as said.
then the son cannot be an efficacious recipient for the father's knowledge. notes 64 ( 7 9 ) and 68 (83).' 2 2 Now.I2" Net. one requires not only an 120. lgeret Hakodesh. These considerations.I2*Hod seeks to restrain (Geuurah) the excess of absorbability.e. of prevailing and standing up against. see Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d. the deliberation of the father and the arrangement of the facts and reasoning in such a way that the child will be able to grasp them effectively. the aspects of Geuurah) with the flow of the Divine Benevolence (Chesed). and conquering all that would withhold or interfere (i. unable to absorb (notion of Geuurah). XV. . and the ref. Ibid. as yet..zaclz thus represents the attribute of Endurance. 121. to carry the above metaphor further: If the father's mind is not set on teaching his son. There are two considerations: on the one hand to teach the child as much as possible ( notion of Chesed). sect. to preserve the Divine Majesty and Splendour from being dissipated in the abundant Benevolence ( Chesed ) . note 41 (48) and the references cited there. 122.!30 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM needs to consider the limited faculties of his son's mind and teach him accordingly. If the conveyance of the information is to be fully effective. and on the other to withhold that which the child is.. While Hod is the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the concept o f majesty. cited there. are the functions of Netzach and Hod. Geuurah would be the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the confrontation or presence of majesty. See ibid.. thus much more intense and severe than Hod.
an inner bond between the teacher and the student-recipient. and Etz Chayim 46:3. But this type ~f newly acquired knowledge is by no means comparable to the more pmfound knowledge he would have acquired had the father taught him directly. 124. as it were (the deliberation of N e t m h and Hod). notes 112 and 114. so Yesod mediates. He must unite himself with the son. If the son were to hear his father pronouncing the facts to himself. and the greater and more intense is the efficacy of the father's efforts. create a bond between them. supra. he would surely grasp some points of information . but also. Now this bond uniting Emanator and recipient is the attribute of Yesod. the harmonising principle. And the greater the father's desire and willingness to teach . . See Pardess Rimonim 8:24 and 9:4. In fact.especially when he hears his father utte-ing them clearly and in detail. the very degree of illuminating clarification depends on that bond. It is not sufficient for the father to place himself momentarily on the son's level. The father's mind needs to be set on teaching his son. XV. Zgeret Hakodesh. He must want to teach him.Sefirot 01 illuminating clarification and presentation of the facts proportionate to the student's capacities. sect.l23 As Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Gevurah.stemming from the father's love for his child . with love and willingness. but he must create a channel of communication. as the third. and of no lesser importance. blends and compounds Netzach and Hodiz4 Moreover.the more intense is the bond uniting the two. Cf. of these active Sefirot which 123.
Malchut Malchut is unique among the Sefirot. X X . "The Tzaddik (Righteous.lZ6making it possible for the emanations of the Sefirot to issue forth effectively unto the creatures. 6:145b. 3 . 127. and cf. 331H 7DN.. the all-comprehensive Sefrah of Yesod) joins the heaven and the earth". sect. i. and note 44 (47) a. the principle of Yesod is expressed by the words Y7N11 C9DV3 73 9 3 which the Zohar (based on a Targum) interprets "for all (kol.1. Tanya II:7.1. symbol of the Sefirah Yesod) is the Foundation (Yesod) of the world". 128. ibid. Zohar I:31a. III:257a (and Nitzutzei Orot. Berachot 40b.lZ5and Yesod serves as the all-inclusive principle joining heaven to earth. Hence the lowest level in spiritual categories is usually referred . ch. Tikunei Zohr 21:55b.. l ~ ~ 7. His appellation then was that of King". sect. note 99). S. Zohar III:271b. cf. In I Chronicles 29:11. et passim. Thus Yesod is the Foundatioin of the ~ r e a t i 0 n . 126. Zohar.'" Thus Malchut. ~does not exert any influence of its 125. Proverbs 1025. II:116a.V. 129. Addenda. which alludes to the seven Midot (see supra. note 44 (51). See also next note. See also Tossafot.) et passim. Adon Olam. Kingship or Sovereignty is a state of being rather than an activity: when there are subjects subservient to the king one can speak of Kingship and Sovereignty. a. See Tikunei Zohar 21:55b. the last and '~ "lowest level" of the S e f i ~ o t . (note 126).e. Eliezer. Yesod is the blending channel of all the preceding Sefirot: all the Sefirot "pour" their light into Yesod.92 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM compound within them the preceding essential Sefirot.2. "When by His Will was fashioned every thing. Pirkei de R. See lgeret Hakodesh. Liturgy.c. and fgeret Hakodesh. a. XV. not so when there are no subjects.
Zohar 1:249b. See also ibid." (like unto "the moon that has no light of its own save that which i s given unto it by the sun". The potentia of the world '~~ ( t h e seed of Chochmuh) is externalised and individuated in the womb of Binuh but remains concealed like a foetus. VIII.. and sect. Joseph Albo suggest (in the context of identifying the Intelligences with the Sefirot) that Makhut is identical with the sphere of the Active Intellect (see Zkkarim II:11). XX. sect. 8:5. and cf. see. See further Zgeret Hakodesh. note 9. Igeret Hakodesh. II:145b. Makhut is called "a dim speculum because it has no (light) of its own. Tikunei Zohar 19:40b.. see also Tanya II:7. 133. note 21 (24). 1la. III:290a fl. II:22a. 134. and 251b. Igeret Hakodesh. Therefore to as the Makhut (or more emphatically yet.. iiild ibid.1. 132.g. I t is the very instrument. 131. sect. as it were. sect. See Zohar I:50a. Avodat Hakodesh I:7. Etz Chayim 6:5. Cf. XXI.131 Thus Malchut is referred to as the "Architect wherewith the whole creation was made"132 and "Nothing occurs among the lower beings unless it be through M a 1 ~ h u t ."130 93 On the other hand. as Malchut of Makhut) of that category. XV.-Probably for this reason did R. e.Sefirot own except that "which the other Sefirot pour into it.. 36:l. Tikunei Zohar 44:82b. l ~ ~ As Binuh is the Supernal Mother (Immu Ilaah) so Malchut is the Nether Mother (Imma T ~ t a u h ) . but this has been severely criticised by the Kabbalists. through which the original creative plan is actualised. . 130. It is through Malchut that the latent and potential creation emerges into manifest reality and substantiaIity. et passim. Shabhat 156a). Malchut plays an important role. XX (and note 59 (62) a.) . and Zohar Chadash. sect. et passim. Nidah 31b. Pardess Rimonim 11:2. note 25 (26).
1. 142.'38 As Chuchmah is n"t) n"2. Addenda. 140. the potentiality of what is. beg. X X . a. see Zgeret Hakodesh.142 The attribute of Malchut actually explains its own term. Also Alma llaah (the Upper World) . 141. [Also Alma Tataah (Lower World). -Tanya I: ch. Zohur Chadash.'~~way By and means of the succeeding Sefirot (the Midot). and ibid... and notes 23-24 (25-26) a. sect. and sect.. Zgeret Hakodesh. X X X . Malchut is.: 17a.V. as it were. 139. 1:lb). 52. Psalms 33:6. See Zohar II:127a (cf. Zohar 1:lb and 11: 127a. Tanya 11:11-12). 136.. ibid.94 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDZSM Binah is called the concealed world (Alma de-ztka~sya). lnw nt3. sect.1. . V . manifest being. Avot V: 1.1.l. By analogy to human speech. See supra. Tikunei Zohar 70: 121a. Yitro 34c.139 so Malchut is called ?"n. that what is. Cf. See Zohar 11:127a. XX. cf. note 50. of Tikunirn. sect. S. Binah-the "concealed world-is implanted in the womb of Malchut and thence egresses into manifest being. f which is but the expression and manifestation or revelation o the speaker's inner thoughts and dispositions. and notes 43-45 (45-47) and 64 (67). and notes 46-50 (49-53) a. 138.. the Divine speech (the ten fiats of Genesis I by which the world was created and came into being.141 Through Malchut everything comes into manifest being. For 135.. and notes 50 (53) and 59 (62) a. 93a.140 In Malchut the potentiality is finally actualised. ibid. Tikunei Zohar. XXV. Intr. Thus Malchut is called the "manifest world (Alma &-ZtgaEya) Malchut is the "Mouth of G d : 1 3 7the Word of the Eternal and the Breath of His Mouth by which the world came into actual. Zohar Chadash. sect. 3: 140a. 137. Zohar 1:l b and II:127a]. Pardess Rimonim 23: 13.
'~~ 143. thus. the world and creatures in a "revealed manner. Igeret Hakodesh. Tanya II:7.it is through MaIchut that the disposition of the Benevolent to be benevolent can be actualised: a world and creatures come into being. sect.l. Sovereignty. For a further discussion of Malchut see Pardess Rimonim 7:3-4 and 8. However. Cf. Binah and Malchut) so we speak of Shechitmh on two levels ("higher" and "lower".. and illuminates. note 128. and supra. XX and XXV. 145. cf. 24 and ch. VIII.. They make it possible to speak of a Divine Kingdom as "There cannot be a King without a nation" and people distinct from Himself over which to rule. 52. Zgeret Hakodesh. note 22 (23). 26. is the origin of the revelation of the light of the En Sof which extends to. 144. The world and the creatures provide prospective recipients for G-d's benevolence.Id3When finite creatures come into being through the Sefirah of Malchut the Divine attribute of Kingship. I: ch. From this source there extends to each individual entity the particular light and vitality suitable for it: informing. sect. XXV. becomes meaningful and In Malchut. sect. VIII. any unqualified mention of Shechinah usually refers to the lower level of Malchut. Just as we speak of Imma on two levels ("higher" and "lower".notes 18 and 22 supra. 8: end of ch. and esp. lgeret Hakodesh. Tanya. and ibid. That is why Malchut is identical with Shechinah. note 25 (26) a. sect. the Divine Indwelling Presence or Immanen~e.-Zmma and Shechinah thus are identical terms. and ibid. . animating and sustaining it. Bimh and Malchut). See Tanya II:7..
round about the inside of the chalal. and so forth: the periphery of the chalal being the highest level. note 29 ( 3 2 ) . sect. "higher" and "lower". l ~ ~ kav did not extend from the circumference to the central point in one immediate and complete manifestation. and (iii) the void (below said concentric sphere) of the remainder of the chalal. This first concentric sphere is as close to the all-encompassing Or En Sof as possible. the "line" or ray of light that descended from the Or En Sof encompassing the chalal to the very core or midst of This the ~ h a l a 1 . For if the Luminary (Or En Sof) and the sphere inside the chalal would be truly attached to each other. Pardess Rimonim 6:7.l48 This concentric sphere of dimmed Or En Sof is called Keter. that part of the chalal (the sphere) and its aspect of tzimtzum would have been nullified: the inner . IV and V. (ii) the concentric sphere in the upper realm (right adjacent to. At this stage we thus have (i) the all-encompassing sphere of the Or En Sof (manifest outside the chalal and concealed within the chalal).'~" As mentioned above. thus establishing a concentric sphere within it. in the chapter on Tzimtzum. Likutei Torah III:37c f . and the centre of the chalal being the lowest level. but not really attached to it except by means of the kau from which it evolved. the Divine Light was manifested in the sphere of the primordial space (chalal) by means of the kao.96 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM 8.. Hakd. and 2:1. 2:7. The "Body of the Sefirot" There are two basic schemes in the emanation of the Sejirot or Divine Lights after the concealment of t~irntzum. 148. 146. but gradually. X X . lggulim and Yosher. and also ibid. That is. This is how we obtain the relative terms of "above" and "below". immediately upon "entering" the chalal it revolved parallel to the perimeter of the chalal. 147. See also Zgeret Hakodesh. and infra. note 159. The principal sources for this section are Etz Chayim 1:2-5. but below or inside the perimeter) of the chalal. Sha'ar Hahakdamot.
again only partly. ten and not eleven").1. (1. 150. see Zohur III:257b. expanding and revolving.149 This is the scheme of Iggulim ( circles. Hakd. to repeat the same process: a new revolution around the c h h l to form another concentric sphere immediately below that of Keter. with a successive dimming of the light so that each one is distinct from all others. Hence also the term Midot for the Sefirot. namely that of Malchut. (and Nitzutzei Orot. Sefer Yetzirah I:4-5. or concentric spheres). they are fully distinct one from another. in the very centre of the chulal. And in this way the kau was extended ever further. gradually descending to the very centre of the chaIal. in an extended sense. See Zohar I: 19b f .Thereupon the kao was extended somewhat further. Etz Chuyim 1:2. Thus each of these ten spheres follows out of and succeeds the preceding one. .) and III:9b f . Midot means fixed measures and dimensions (and. 149. and the Sefirot as a whole are also determined in number ("ten and not nine. chapter V ) . Sha'ar Hahakdamot.one within the other . For every Sefirah has a determined measure and dimension (in a qualitative sense).150 The significant point of this scheme is that essentially all the Sefirot are related to one sphere would have been absorbed by the outer one to revert to the state of one simple light of the En Sof. In fact. garments). IV.or like a brain encompassed by many membranes one over the other. It is by their individually determined measures that the Sefirot are distinguished and differentiated one from another (as we shall see infra. however. This new sphere is Chochmh. In this initial scheme of Iggulim the Sefirot are like the skins of an onion . circles within circles. until the tenth concentric sphere was formed.
see Etz Chayim. Etz Chayim 1:2.c. Zohar 1:134b. f .-In general. IV. sect. most references to the Sefirot in the Zohar relate to the scheme o Yosher."15* that is. but they form an essentially unified body. XV) . rather than to f that o Iggulim. Hakd. see Etz Chayim 8:l. subsequent scheme of emanating Sefirot is that of "Yosher-like unto the appearance of a man standing upright. even while underscoring and retaining the unique characteristics of each one. The analogy is carried further to the point 151.98 MYSTICAL CONCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM another only in terms of a successive process: the one emanating after the other but each one really a separate. Shdar Hahakdamot. self-contained sphere or point. 152. 7:29). Straightness) is derived from the verse "Gd made man yashar (upright)" (Eccles. Etz Chayim 1:l. The second. Thus in the scheme of Yoshr the Sefirot are not simple faculties or principles independent of each other. In relation to this scheme of the Sefirot it is said "and G d created man in His image" (Gen. The term Yosher (Uprightness. yet all of them (together) form one body."'" This analogy serves to point out the full inter-relationship between the Sefirot of Yoslaer (just as man's organs are interrelated to one another to form a single body). "Analogous to man who divides into organs all of whieh exist level upon level and perfect one another.2. See Pardess Rimonim 6:3. and Sha'ar Hahakdamot. 1:27)-Etz Chayim l:2-for the inherent faculties and powers of man's soul and their interactions are analogous (albeit in a strictly homonymous sense) to the Sefrot (see Igeret Hakodesh. a.
N e t m h is the right leg or thigh while Hod is the left leg or thigh. and compounding.: 17a. see supra. Tikunei Zohar. . and cf.. supra.. Chesed is the right arm while Gevurah is the left arm. As Malchut is the manifesting aspect. it is said to correspond to the mouth.16' together supporting the whole body and leading it to its ~~ destination.c. Binah corresponds to the heart. in an extended sense. thus related to.l.See Etz Chayim. Intr. yet inde- 153. the sides of Chesed and Gevurah. 154. Chochmah corresponds to the brain in general i. masculine and feminine). with regards to the two aspects of Yesod relative to the two types of Partzufim (i. in the explanatory notes for the individual Sejirot. Yesod is the organ of p r o ~ r e a t i o n lthrough which the emanations of the higher Sefirot issue forth to Malchut to bring about a manifest creation.of relating the particular Sefirot to particular limbs or organs in the Body or Form (Partzuf) of Man: 1 5 ~ Chochmah.e." referring to circumcision (the sign or seal of the covenant or bond between G d and Israel) . to the source of thought and intellect. are the three brains in man's head. and Shahr Hahukdamot. Tiferet is the body.. More specifically. Binah and Da'at. "The sign of the Holy Covenant. intervening and mediating between. a.. the organ of speech by means of which the speaker's inner thoughts and emotive dispositions are expressed and revealed. 155. Also called the "kidneys that counsel". the seat of understanding. note 117. Keter is the crown encompassing.e.
IV. the Sefirot of Yosher are often illustrated by way of three lines-right.on the right side. more specifically. Keter is frequently referred to as "skull". In Sifra Detzeniyuta. symbolic of the central. in line with but above Gevurah and Hod. the scheme of Yosher underscores not only the functions of the Sefirot but also their inter-relationship as a unit or Body. the body. 157. the "side of Chesed. Hakd. and by placing Binah on the left side. Etz Chayim 1:2.100 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CELASSIDLSM pendent of. in the context of the manmetaphor. the "side of Gewrah." because there is an innate relationship between these three (Gevurah is a branch of Binah. Thus we have three new triads: (1)Chochmah-Chesed-Netzach. and centre. . Therefore in spite of the locations of the "physical counterparts" in the body of man. in line with but above Chesed and Netzach. This faculty. left." because there is an innate relationship between these three ( C b s e d is a branch of Chochmah and Netzach is a branch of Chesed).lS7 It is also in this scheme of Yosher that we speak of the faculty of Da'at Elyon.and (3) Keter-Tiferet-Yesod-Makhut in the middle. and in the Zdrot. the Supernal Da'at. Shdar Hahakdarnot. This is done by placing Chuchmah on the right side. it is often referred to as the skull encompassing (thus transcending) the brain. mediating or all-inclusive harmonising principles they are. lb6 As mentioned. ( 2 ) Binah-Gewrah-Hod on the left side.-See Etz Chayim 32:l and 25:5 on the superiority of the "skull" [Keter] over the "brains" [Chochmah-Binah-Da'at]. a branch or 156. See Zohar 111: 153b ( d passim). and Hod is a branch of Gevurah).
Pmtzufim. and between Netzach and Hod)? For even when the Sefirot do not contradict each other. Infra. in fact.-Dabt Tachton. See Sefer Hamaamarim 5700. see supra.g. and Tohu and T i k ~ n .derivative of Keter. .V. would thus be placed in the middle line as the apex of the triangle Chochmah-Bin~h-Da'at. can the Sefirot interrelate and interact when they appear to be separate. as specific principles and potencies. every 158. 38. The Sefirot as Compounds So far we have discussed the Sejirot mainly in terms of particular attributes.. the unifying principle of Chochmah and Binah.~~~ The full significance of these two schemes of Zggulim and Yosher will emerge later on in the context of Shedrat Hakelim. and in some cases seemingly contradictory principles (e. At the same time we have also seen the inter-relationship and interaction of the Sefirot in a developmental sequence from Keter to MaIchut. as essence of the Midot. sect. S. or some are spoken of as mediating principles. Da'at. and notes by R. in effect. l ~ ~ 9. Schneerson a. would require some "common denominator. p. obviously does not have a separate organ in this scheme. Menachem M. 159. chapters VII-IX. 4.1." The mystics solve this problem by stating that. they still are essentially unique powers which. But this raises a question: How. the antinomy between Chesed and Geuurah. in order to interact.
and 69:lleb. ( b ) It allows the necessary interaction of all Sefirot in everything even though their distinguishing aspects or determinative characteristics may appear to be opposed to each other (e. See Tanya 1I:lO. the Sefirot. . lgeret Hakodesh.. and 89d 8. for example. and so on. as explained in the sources mentioned. the word "general" is an intentional qualification... references cited infra. 161.g. chapter IX.'^' This mutual inclusiveness has an important. also Zohar II:l85b. Chesed and Geuurah). so that every Sefirah can still be referred to by a specific name and differs radically from all other^. the Sefirot (as opposed to regarding each Sefimh as Independent and non-related. as the attribute of Chesed 160. these ten levels subdivide each into ten sub-levels.102 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Sefirah is a compound of ten general levels: every Sefirah contains within itself aspects of all the ten Sefirot. for. cf. Thus. XI1 and XIII. and so forth. B i d of Chesed. and Tikunei Zohar 70:125b and 135a. The differentiation between the Sefirot is retained in full so that in every Sefirah its own aspect is predominant and determinative: Chochmah of Chochmah in Chochmah.-In referring to every Sefirah as a compound of "ten general levels". two-fold sigrdcance: ( a ) It indicates the integral bond between. thereby leading to a wrong conception of division in the Sefirotic scheme) even while retaining the specific identity of. and differentiation among. Likutei Torah ZII:87a fl. sect. the S4rah of Chesed is divisible into Chochmh of Chesed. See Tikunei Zohar 47:84a. Binuh of Chochmah and so on. in effect.lBOThus the Sefirah of Chochmah divides into Chochmh of Chchmah. Binah of Binah in Binah. and so forth. and essential unity of.
1. Sha'ar 5. as with the latter. Moses Cordovero in Pardess Rimonim. it will involve all other Sefirot. The issues mentioned here are dealt with in detail by R. (quoted at length by Cordovero. 2. 11 ) .lB2 This concept of the Sefirot as Compounds is intimately related to the concept of the scheme of Yosher and. 5. by way of the aspect of Chesed included in every other Sefirah. Partzufim. see also the glossary note in Zohar II:24a (and Nitzutzei Z o h r a. ch.). See also R. and Sha'ar 8. . ibid. especially ch. Cf. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 1. 10 and 11. 153b and 189a-b. ibid. pp. Hilchot Yesohi Hatorah 1V:l-2 (quoted by Cordovero. 8:2) which reflects strikingly the argument in Z o h II:23b f. its full significance will emerge in the later chapters on Shevirat Hakelim. including Geuurah. 162. ch. also Maimonides. esp.Sefirot 103 will express and manifest itself.. Or Torah. and Tohu and Tikun..
i. . Tanya I: ch. each of which is a microcosm on its own. i. relative 1. brought about numerous levels. the process of a progressive dimming. from the creature's perspective (looking "from below upwards") but are non-real in essence. These numerous levels are divided into five comprehensive categories. one lower than the other. occultation and condensation of the light of the En Sof. referred to as the Five Realms or Worlds.~ just as tzimtzum and the S 4 r o t are allegorical concepts that assume substantive reality only in relation to man and creation. The Concept of " W w W Tzimtzum.e.e. thereby animating and lendBut ing them e~istence. The numerous other levels are the myriads of gradations into which these five worlds subdivide.. Essentially these Worlds are Divine "Garments" in which the Or En Sof conceals and clothes Itself.CHAPTER FOUR Worlds 1.. 43.
and secondly. Cf. Zgeret Hakodesh.l.3 To be sure. "Even in completely inanimate matter."~ they. ch. Tanya I: ch. 1 .4 The core and essence of the blessed En Sof is identical in the higher and lower worlds. because the "higher" worlds are those which receive a radiance infinitely greater than the "lower" ones. Ibid. section 1. The difference between them is with regard to the stream of vitality from the En Sof in terms of "revelation out of concealment.. 111. and note 18 a. do not receive the light in such a revealed form but only by means of numerous concealing "garments" which hide and screen the Divine Light so that ultimately . XXV. Yet 2. chapter 11. and as He is to be found in the higher worlds so He is to be found in the very lowest. sect. in the physical world . When we speak of different Worlds or Realms. 5."No light or vitality whatever i s visibly revealed. in that the "higher" ones receive this radiance without as many garments and screens as the lower ones.^ so it is with these Worlds. See supra. and ch. supra.106 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to G-d (looking "from above downward^").on the lowest level. and that in two respects: firstly. too. 1 3. The lower worlds." For the higher worlds receive in a more revealed form than do the lower ones. 40. such as stones or earth . 4. notes 1817. the light of the En Sof fills all worlds alike and there is no pIace void of Him. Cf. even the spiritual ones. any difference is due to the recipients. but only corporeal and physical things that appear lifeles~. and all creatures therein receive each according to its capacity and nature.
each of the body's organs receives the power and vitality appropriate to itself according to its own capacity and character -the eye for seeing. Intr.contain light and vitality from the En Sof which lends them existence ex nihib. sect. The entire soul is a single and simple (as opposed to compound) spiritual entity. the ear for hearing. so that they will not revert to their state of naught and nothingness as they were prior to their creation. Tanya II:l. Tanya I: chs. 40 and 51. without any dimensions of space or size. Zgeret Hakodesh. in the feet no less than in the brain. for example. Tikunei Zohar.d (Isaiah 45:12).: 17a. Thus as the different bodily organs express and manifest different powers this is not due to a different soul. based on Etz Chayim 39:3. corporeal shape or physical limitation. which give life and existence to inanimate matter that it might arise out of the naught and nothingness that preceded the Six Days of Creation". . being inherent in them. XXV. blessed is He. or part of the soul. there is a "soul" and spiritual life-force . 6. and its core and essence is. from head to foot. Thus one cannot say that it divides into a number of parts corresponding to the number of organs in the body. but it is due to their own unique or water. . 38. Rather. See also Tanya I: ch. the mouth for speaking and so on. .' This is analogous to the presence of the soul in the body. and Etz Chayim 50: passim. the whole soul pervades the entire body equally. But from the different kinds of potencies or powers and vitalities contained in the soul's intrinsic essence. 7. is the "Most Hidden of All Hidden"B and is called the "hidden G . In that sense the Holy One.
see also Siddur im P e m h Hamilot. and Midrash Rabba. ch.@ Thus when we speak of "higher" and "lower. and itself spelled sometimes as. but only in the condition or capacity of the place to be illuminated. (sources cited in preceding note). See Tikunei Zohar 42:82a. and Rashi. 11.8 A similar analogy is to the light of the sun which penetrates the rooms of a house.. Cf. The Division of the Wor2ds The five comprehensive worlds are : ( 1) Adam Kadmn. 10. pp. see. p. these terms do not refer to any spatial dimensions but to qualitative differences in degree and level.. person is able to give birth to a physically normal child. Ibid. Exodus 3: 15. Maimonides.. 51. a. hidden) .1° 2. This anthropomorphic term means Prim- 8. There is thus no change in the light itself. 48a ff.1. and the comment in Pesachh 50b. Ibid.g. In fact this concept of relative concealments and occultations may be read in the very term of world in Hebrew. and Sefer Habahir 8 (10). the En Sof and so on. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1153. and Rashi. For the word D'1lY is etymologically related to. Etz Chayim 1:2.108 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM composition and capacity.. DSy (to be concealed. All powers of the soul are intrinsic to the whole soul and independent of the body. 164c-d. a. 3:11. The general sources for the following paragraphs are R. The term Ohmot (Worlds) thus denotes the concealment and dimming of the Divine Light. 9 . e. Chaim . and even into rooms within rooms. or distant from. or otherwise defective. as is evident from the fact that a blind. also Eccles." in proximity to. The light does so in accordance with the presence or absence of obstructions.1. as well as ibfd.
Bachya ben R.. XXIX. Torah Or."12 This World is also called the Realm of Keter Elyon (the Supreme Keter). Hai Gaon and R. See the responsa by R.. and 70: 120a. and 12:5. It is the first and highest stage after tzimtzum took place and yet so sublime that in a sense it may be spoken of as completely attached to. See also R. Pardess Rimonim 5:4. 12. the En Sof. The term is derived from the root YYN. the "lucid and luminous light" ( R Y n l Y D l RY T I N ) and frequently referred to as Tzachtzachot13-implying the "pure. thus further removed from the En Sof. These latter three names are derived from the creative terms in Isaiah 43:7. Adam Kadmon is the most pristine emanation. lucid Sefirot which are concealed and hidden. 14. supra. the World of Emanation. . chapter 11. 98b.ordial Man. Kadmon denotes "being primary of all primaries. Asher.the World of Action or Making. See Tikunei Zohar 69:115b. (3) Berinh-the World of Creation. Commntay on Exodus 34:6. chapter 11. as in Numbers 11:17 and Ecclesiastes 2:10. Etz Chayim 1:4. Etz Chayim 1:4. and (5) Asiyah. supra. 15. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. Esther. 13. lgeret Hakodesh.. Shomer Emunim I:46 f . See Pardess Rimonim 11:2 ff. Zohar III:193b.15 Atzilut is the stage following Adam Kadmon. Tikunei Zohar 19:42a. note 38. note 34. See also Shomer Ernunim I:62 f. and 70: 135b.. This World reVital. cf. ( 4 ) Yetzirah-the World of Formation."14 ( 2 ) Atzilut. Chamai Gaon in Pardess Rimonim 11:l and 3. and united with. sect. and 43: Intr. Cf. Shu'arei Kedushah 1II:l f. and cf.
Yetzirah is still further removed. and Iess intense. chapter VIII.1° But AtxiEdit is still in such close proximity to the En Sof that it. Supra.18 thus in smaIler measure. also. for the emanation of Adam Kadmon extends f from the highest level to the very central point of the chalal (the world of Asiyah). 18. note 17. or from Adam Kadmon. infra.l7 B* e is further removed. Adam Kadmon) is G-dliness itelf. 13 f. chapter VII. the full intensity and effect of tzimtzum is first noticeable in this Realm. of Klalut ABYA-I). and draws its vivification through Atzilut. Although the particular aspects and rungs of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and generally are of many diverse kinds. XX. ibid. In that sense Adam Kadmon is the "soul" o Atzilut. Zgeret Hakodesh.. and draws its vivification 16. note 2. it is also the "soul" or spiritual substratum and life-force o all worlds. The World of Atzilut (and a fortiori. infra. or Prussa ( curtain. there are. of sect. though.. which give rise to the three lower Worlds. albeit in ever-increasing concealment. 19. however. 44: 1. DiVinity. beg. See Tanya I : chs. In an exf tended sense. Igeret Hakodesh. XX. . thus in smaller measure and less intense than Adam Kcrdmon. 17. 20. sect. too. sect. note 20.20 This denotes the immense separation and distinction between these levels.110 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSLDISM ceives its vivification (the Divine Emanation and Life-force) uia. three levels of powerful and comprehensive contraction and condensation. In that sense Atzilut is the "soul" of Beriah. than that of Atzilut.la Thus we speak of a Massach. X X . 39 and 49. ch. in effect. See Etz Chuyim 42:4 (ibid. covering) separating between Atziht and Beriah (and between the subsequent worlds) ." being. cf. and Zgeret Hakodesh. In fact. see Etz Chayim 1:4. is "One with It.
through Beriah. just as the Sefirot are compounds dividing into themsel. free of base metals. and the fourth contains more base metals than silver. R. There always are some drosses that cannot be removed. Moses Cordovero explains this division by means of an analogy to a silversmith who grades his silver according to the purity of the metal: The first grade is the most pure silver. even the first grade silver cannot be wholly and totally pure. the third is about half pure and half impure. Yetzirah to the Vau. note 37.23 In fact. only four Worlds are spoken of and referred to. Thus even this &st grade can be subdivided 21. Adam Kadmon. and Asiyah is the furthest removed having its vivification from Yetzirah. Sha'arei Kedushah 111: 1-2. Yetzirah of Atzilut. and so on until Adyah of Asiyah.21 Like the ten S e f i r ~ these Five Worlds correspond to the t~~ letters of the Tetragrammaton: Atzilut corresponds to the Yud. chapter 111. Beriah of Bedah. Every Realm always being the "soul" of the succeeding one. . Though all ten Sefirot emanate and "function" in every World in particular (Keter of Atzilut. Be* to the first Hei. 23. cannot be represented by any specific letter but by the "thorn" of the Yud. the Worlds also divide into the general classes o the Sefirot as f represented by the concept of the Worlds: thus we speak of Atzilut of Atzilut. Atzilut of Beriah. generally. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. for its state of immense sublimity. Binah of Atzilut and so specific Sefirot predominate in each of the Worlds. Moreover. See supra. Asiyah of Atzilut.ves. the Worlds correspond to the Sefirot themselves. Chochmah of Atzilut. Beriah of Atzilut. and Asyah to the latter Hei. That is why. the second one is less pure than the first. 24. so Adam Kadmon is elevated above all worlds. As Keter is elevated above all Sefirot. However. 22.
because Chochmah is the predominant Sefirah in Atzilut. it is the Realm of Chochmah. into more and less 'wholly pure. and Beriah.' indeed. Atzilut as the Body containing this soul. therefore. or soul). Atzilut corresponds to Chochmah. and asiyah (an enactment ) : A reshinacah is non-substantial. . and Asiyah to Malchut. it is a mere sign marked down. chdziuah ( a carving). the World of Adam Kadmon is referred to as the Atzmut (the Essence.112 MYSTICAL OONCEPTS IN CHASSlDlSM Thus Adan Kadmon corresponds to Keter. V. Etz Chayim 3:3. into the four general categories of silver as such. note 51 (53). See supra. note 23.25 In terms of the "Man-Image" of the Sefirot (the Partzuf of Adurn Kadmm. (Pardess Rimonim 24:10) 25. Cf. and is. the original emanation of the Divine Light). with each sub-division differing from the others in the degree of purity. Ye. chakikah (an engraving). because these are respectively the predominant Sefirot in these particular Realms. 26.tzirah and Asyah as the outer Garments in which this Body is The difference hetween these worlds is one of degree in concealment of the Atzmut. also Tanya I: chs. often compared to four modes of perception referred to as reshimah ( a mark). Yetzirah to the Midot (Chesed-GeuurahTiferet-Hod-Yesod). barely denoting a distinction between non-marked and marked. sect. it is the realm of Keter. because Keter is the predominant Sefirah in Adam Kadmon. Igeret Hakodesh. 39 and 52. Beriah corresponds to Bimh. The same would apply also to the other three grades.
Yetzirah he relates rm to the verse "1YT-and the Eternal. 28. A chatziuah is more perceptible yet. thus denoting the close proximity -to the point of unity -of theSej4rot to their Source. between absolute naught and reality (or. and corresponding to it is the World which is called by this na~ne-Asiyah.Shomer Emunim I:51. ex nihib. E d . formed man of the dust of the ground. with the connotation of the coming into being of something new. Betiah he relates to the verse "But if the Eternal H339 ? I N 9 1 3 (creates a creation)" (Numbers 16:30). A chakikah. on the other hand. Atzilut is the first egression towards substantiality: between absolute naught and infinity and the category of substantiality and finitude. Full perception. .~~ R. Its type of reality is so close to naught that there is practically no difference between them. note 21 (23). correspondingly. note 24 supra. See commentary of Nachmanides on Numbers 16:30. Moses Cordovero reads these differences between the Worlds in their very names. is the finished product of an asiyah.thus. XX. though still very subtle.Cf. just as an object hewn and carved is sensed in much greater degree than some engraving. (Genesis 2:17) Yetzimh then is related to the "dust 27. Zohar Chadrrsh. the beginning of reality).28 Therefore Beriah is radically different and removed f o Atdlut. Beriah is the stage of a more perceptible and finite being than Atzilut. Bereishit 17b. Parhss Rimonirn 16:9. Comparable to that is Yetzirah. completely in the realm of distinct substantiality and corporeality. rather. is already sensed and perceived in greater measure than the reshimah. He suggests that the term Atzilut is also related to the preposition SYH (near-by). sect. Precisely so. and Zgeret Hakodesh.
note 20.~l While the Sefirot of Beriah are the actual Sefirot of AtziEzrt.114 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM of the ground. in Yetzirah. . as has been said. all the Sefirot emanate throughout all the Worlds. much less spiritual. they are in Beriuh in a state of great concealment and condensation. and in Asiyah. in general and in particular. as well as in Beriah. the highest level of Beri~h. note 17. in Beriah. XX. section 3) serves as intermediary between a higher stage and the subsequent lower one. Pardqss Rimonirn 16:1. the World of 29. All the Sefirot manifest themselves in Atzilut. and this is also suggested by its appearance as the third and last term in the above-mentioned verse of Isaiah 43:7.~OThrough "function" of Makhut) the Sefirot of Atzilut (latently immanent in Makhut of Atzilut) are projected further to manifest themselves in Beriah. As the Sefirot are in Atzilut they are still in explicit unity Makhut of Atzilut (as is the with their Emanat~r. In that capacity Malchut of Atzilut assumes a characteristic of Keter which (as stated earlier in chapter 111.1.32 Therefore.and notes 27* (30) and 43 (46) a. For the "downward transition" from Atzilut to Beriah involves "passage" through the immense tzimtzum of the prassa that separates these worlds.29 Now. See supra. Asiyah is self-explicit as the most material and perceptible of these terms." a lower. Malchut of Atzilut thus serves as the mediary between Atzilut and Beriah. the lowest level of Atzilut. Therefore Malchut of Atzilut. 31. 30. See supra. level than Beriah. 32. sect. re-emerges as Keter of Beriah. See lgeret Hakodesh.
On the one hand it allows for the possibility of a finite. For it is no less than the actual light of the En Sof that issues forth from Malchut of Atzilut.86 33.Creation. the Sefirot are not to be regarded as "creative agents" separate and distinct from Divinity. note 9. sect. XX. Tanya I: ch. On the other hand it implies the Divine Immanence or Indwelling Presence (Shechinah) even in the finite and physical. it culminates in the physical creatures and entities of our physical world. 38. supra. and cf. and Zgeret Hakodesh. 35. Through Malchut of Betiah the Sefirot (all latently present in Malchut) are projected further downwards to manifest themselves in Yetzirah. Igeret Hakodesh. . chapter 111. and sublime angels. physical creatures to the point that . See Tanya I: chs. As this process continues. in the lowest level of A ~ i y a h . sect. there is the first appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. and 51 (quoted at the beginning of this chapter).because of the immense tzimtzum involved . VI and XXV. This allows for the appearance of creatures less sublime and more numerous than those of Beriah.they appear distinct and separate from Divinity. emerging there in still greater concealment and condensation. 39. ~ ~ The implications of this creative process are two-fold. though still strictly spiritual: the souls of the righteous ( Tzadikim). 40. See Shdarei Kedushah III:2.94 For the En Sof alone is able to create and sustain all beings ex nihib. 34. albeit so strongly obscured and condensed that it is not manifest per se. The same process repeats itself in the next stage of the creative development. physical world with finite.
Pardess Rimonim. strictly speakI.. united with their Emanator. Thus. The numerous grades of condensation presented five comprehensive classes of obscured and concealed Sefirot.Essence). Moses Cordovero and R. The Concepts of OROT KELIM' AND It has already been explained how the emanations from the En Sof are condensed and obscured by means of tzimtzum. and 47:l. in addition to the sources cited in the subsequent notes. Isaac Luria. 40:8. the paragraphs following. Etz Chayim 1:3. the subject is discussed as it appears In in Chassidism.1. see Zohar II:42b f . and commentaries a. Sha'ar IV. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. are absolutely bound up with their Source. The subject of Orot and Kelim is another controversial topic much discussed since the times of the early mystics.CHAPTER FIVE Orot and Kelim 1. Now the actual emanations from the En Sof are called Orot (Lights. the actual emanations. sometimes Atzmut . see Pardess Rimonim 4:l-4. an interpretation generally following the views of R. . the En Sof. called the Five Worlds. But by definition these Orot. For further perusal of this involved theme. Derush Keitzad Na'asim Hakelim .
Only then. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. Vessels. ch. . thus there does not apply to it any name or term. 93 (p. we cannot really refer to Orot (Lights in the plural).2 For all practical purposes the Orot themselves remain unchanged from their origin and Divine S o ~ r c eA~ . Sha'ar Haykhud (Kuntres Hahitbonenut). the Light of the En Sof (singular). .E.). 3. 50b ff. Meuoh Shebrim 1:l: l (see aIso the sequel a. but only to Or En Sof.). 27 ff. Cf. This conception is at the core of the controversy mentioned supra. These general types of concealment are called Kelim.118 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM ing. applies to it . letter or point. . sect. 390. sect. A distinction between Orot ( a scheme of Sefirot that differ from one another) can be made only after tzimtzum takes place relative to tzimtzum. by way of analogy (pp. 376 ff. also Keter Shem See Tov.". . of different attributes. no name. to recognize a distinction between one Sefimh and another. of ranks and levels. 19c). 2. They are the Vessels which contain the Lights. term.and Derushei ABYA:l (pp. But as everything was a simple light. R. note 1. nor any image or form whatever. "Prior to tzimtzum all the light was equal in absolute unity and likeness . of the ten Sefirot. just as. we can speak of Orot. depending on the variations in the degrees of manifestation of the Or En Sof. as different kinds of emanations or different kinds of Sejirot.). . Pardess Rimonin 6:6. Maggid Devarao Leya'akov. For a name indicates something specific and limited. distinction between them is made possible by the Kelim (Vessels) : Tzimtzum screened the light of the En Sof to such an extent that it produced ten different classes of concealment through each of which the Or En Sof manifests itself in a different way.
For by means of the condensation and dimming of the light it is possible for the Kelim to come into being and to be manifest". Moses Cordovero introduces a famous simile to explain the differentiation 4. Mevoh She'arim VI:2:1. among the Orot". . the Light) vests Itself". And this is the principal meaning of the term Kelim.-The Kelim are themselves mixtures of the lowest levels of lights "brought about by a condensation (hithbut) of the light" (Etz Chuyim 47: 11.. just like a vessel restricts the waters so that they will not flow out. Just as trimtzum is synonymous with Gevurah and Din (supra. Hadrat MeZech on Zohar I:15a.6 It is in this context of Orot and Kelim that R.c.6 In fact. . see at length R. Etz Chayfm 4:3. . thus have for their purpose to limit and restrain the Divine effulgence from excessive radiation. to fashion the aspect of the Kelim. 6. and He separated" (Gen. 111. IV. Gevurah. this separation refers to the formation of the Kelim which "set and fashion a separation. tzimtzum may be taken as synonymous with Kelim. Hakd. supra. and ibfd. and they originate in the reshimu (the faint residue) of the original light that had remained in the chaM after the initial tzimtzum. See Tanya II:4. Din and Kelim. note 87). Shalom Buzaglo. in the verse "and G-d saw the light that it was good. Derush 11-Be'olam Hanekudirn (p. ch. 5 . In interpretation of the Creation-account. and measure. Tanya II:4. Thus the Lights and the Kelim together make up the Sefirot.so Kelim becomes synonymous with Geuurah and Din: "The attribute of Din always restricts Chesed so that it will not exceed. within them the Atzmut (the Divine Essence. a.1. note 1. 1:4). and just as there are various grades of tzimtzum so there are various types of ZbZim. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. bodies contain souls.Orot and Kelim 119 and metaphor. Tzimtzum. 59). See also Shu'ar H a h a k h t .' The purpose of tzimtzum is for the production of Kelim. 'The purpose of trimtzum is . Etz Chayim 1:3. limitation.
120 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wrought by the Kelim: When pouring water into a number of differently coloured glasses.) . too. The Kelim are the Divine tools that bear different colours corresponding to their individual character or activity (white for Chesed. intensified or dimmed and so forth. Sefe~. and Zgeret Hakodesh. 8. Pardess Rimonim 4:4. and XIX:39b. and the gloss which appears also in Zohar Chadash. Shdar Habechinah. the Kelim is the "colourless" essence like the colourless w a ~ e r that appears coloured only when. Cf. and as. vested in the Kelim. and acts through. Habahir 49 (137). A third simile is that of the soul in the body of man. Pardess Rimonim. it is the same soul acting throughout the body. Tikunei Zohar. sect. and Zohar I:18b. See also Zohar Chadash 34a-b. Tikunim 117c). the Essence (the Orot) is analogous to a ray of light radiating through several crystals and thus assuming different colours.will appear coloured according to the hue of the vessels which contain them. Introduction l a (text. The soul acts through the limbs and organs of the body and manifests itself differently through various activities. red for Gevurah and so on). (This simile appears already in Chovot Haleuouot.: The Divine Light (the Orot) that is contained in. through the intervening crystals. XII. ch.though in themselves colourless . Yet the soul is simple and unitary. So.8 Similarly. 1. it is with the Sefrot. Light in itself is simple and colourless but can be divided and coloured. and 7. these waters . Sha'ar X. On the concept of various rolours symbolizing and representing the different Sefirot see Zohar III:248b.
When we refer [there] to Kelim it is only relative to the Light and Atzmut in them. successively the Kelim become ever more obstructive until the Orot are practically hidden completely in Asiyah.where these similes are cited in the context of distinguishing between the Worlds). .. less so than in Adam Kadmon but still totally spiritual. May'an 1II:VI: ch. hearing. "Do not err..l. . Cf. the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut and so on. in thinking that in Adam Kadmon there are Kelim in the literal sense. 9. speaking and so on) are due to the differences in the organ^. but more so from one World to another: there are the Orot and Kelim of Adam Kadmon. On the level of Adam Kadmon the Kelim (like the state of tzimtzum in that Realm) are extremely subtle and diaphanous. Zbid. But the Kelim themselves are a very pure light. 12. cf. Pardcss Rimonim a. the Orot ) themselves! These Kelim differ not only from one plane to another (relative to the Sefirot). Beware and do not err in this matter!" Etz Chayim 1:4.Orot and Kelim 121 all differences in manifestations (seeing. supra. this relates only to the measure and limitation in the activity geared towards the recipients in a set and limited fashion. section 1. Cf. 99c fl. see also E l i m Rabbaty. supra. And so.). chapter IV (notes 8 and 9 . Heaven forbid . Heaven forbid.1° and not to the Kelim (and. Etz Chyim 6:3: "The Kelim are to garb the light for the sake of the recipients. or of limitations or fixed measures with regard to the Kelim of the Sefirot." 11. hardly distinguishable from the Orot. a fortiori.^ At the same time it must be kept in mind that when speaking of changes in the manifestations.12 On the level of Atzilut the Kelim are still very subtle. chapter 111. 55 (pp. to the very extremity of purity and tenuity. 10. .
successive grades of Kelim. The basic difference between these two aspects is as follows:14 Just as the soul of man is vested in all the limbs of the body. so the 070t Pnimiyim are vested within the Kelim of the Sefirot. . of more or less intense radiations from the Sefi+ot (as the Worlds proceed from. usually referred to in singular form as Or Pnimi and Or Makif.122 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Thus when we speak of the different classes of Sefirot. unqualified. i.13 2. this difference is not due to any change in the original Orot but because of the increasing intensity. 14. however. and succeed each other). two aspects: Orot Pnimiyirn (Inner Lights) and Orot Makifim (Encompassing . Generally speaking. for the Atzrnut to be ve5.Or Makif nm The Atzmut (Orot) as vested in the Kelim is also referred to as Orot Pnimiyim (Inner . It is the Or Pnimi. the term Orot. See Etz Chayim 2:3. 13. Or P i i . concealment and condensation effected by the numerous.ed in the Kelim it must be condensed and its intensity must be diminished Only a minute "part" of the light is thus condensed and confined within the Kelim. There are.radiating and illuminating within the Kelim analogous to the soul vested and radiating within the body of man.Lights) . See sources mentioned supra.e. note 1.or Immanent . mostly refers to this "inner soul"-aspect..or Transcending .Lights). However. irradiates and vitalizes them from within.
cannot be absorbed by the body or Kelim. The light per se. of the Divine Light sustaining all being. Outside the chalal the light is in its pristine manifestation. a "part". while the Or Makif is analogous to the Transcendence of G-d (Soueu Kol Almin Encompassing or Encircling all Worlds). in its full intensity. The Or Pnimi is analogous to the Immanence of E d ( Memale Kol Almin . and the Or Makif compares to the light beyond or outside the chalal. 111. sect. We can compare this to the concept of tzimtzum discussed in Chapter Two: The light manifest within the chalal is contracted. . in a state of occultation (tzimtzum) commensurate to the body's capacity. See Tanya. Thus there remains a more intense aspect of the Divine Light which cannot be vested in the Kelim and remains beyond them . its original intensity is concealed.Filling or Pervading all Worlds). albeit pervasive. It is only a ray. however. chapter 48.16 15. Thus the "Light of the Eternal which is the soul of man" (Prouerbs 20. of the ultimate life-force. It would be impossible for the finite body to contain and absorb the original light. form. The Or Pnimi compares to the light within.27) must be a strongly concealed and contracted illumination.encompassing them from without. and note 11 (12) ad loc.Orot and Kelim 123 To take the analogy further: The soul of man is neither a selfsufficient nor original power of life. Zgeret Hakodesh. This is the Or Makif which irradiates the Kelim in a transcending.
which is not apprehended by the worlds. . or body) is referred to in terms of investiture. Cf. the Or Pnimi compares to the various soul-powers which manifest themselves in specific limbs and organs according to their innate capacities. but remains in occultation and concealment relative to the worlds (Kelim or body). being clothed within the worlds (or Kelim. from head to foot. chapter IV. is not described as being "invested but as "encircling and encompassing" ( Makif. Thus even while the Or Makif is altogether concealed within the worlds or Kelim.lo The Or Makif (or Or Sovev) is the principal light from which only an extremely minute and contracted reflection clothes and reveals itself in the worlds (or Kelim. below-above. The influence which is not manifest. and the examples given there to illustrate and elucidate these concepts. just sufficient to animate them in a limited state. Though the soul pervades the whole body. it manifests its vitality and powers in each limb or organ according to its composition and character: the brain for 16. we must beware of any spatial connotations in the literal sense ( inside-outside. See Tanya. Sovev ) . 'filling7-'encompassing'). chapter 48. In the analogy from the soul. being diffused throughout all the organs. or body).124 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM But just as in the case of Menude Kol Almin and Soueu Kol Almin. These concepts relate strictly to the degree of revealed influence or emanation: The influence which is in a state of revelation or manifestation in the worlds (or Kelim. or body). supra. its influence is nonetheless pervasive and active there in a hidden manner. end of section 1 and note 10 ad loc.
p. Achdut Hashem. the ear for hearing. It extends vitality and illumination equally throughout the body. and Kelim 125 reasoning. though it remains concealed and the individual capacities are not manifested by it in the limbs and organs.0701. the mouth for speaking. cf. This is the aspect of Or Pnimi which manifests itself in different ways and gradations. chapter 111. The Or Makif is analoguos to the essence of the soul. S . 120 f..V. remaining equally concealed throughout.the essence-will which both pervades and transcends (see supra. chapter 51. the eye for seeing. V . section 3). p. . In this context the Or Makif is the aspect of Keter. analogous to the concept of ratzon . Thus the Or Makif constitutes the principal light and radiates in both pervasive and transcendent form without being manifest. 169 f . the feet for walking and so on.17 17. Binyan Mikdash. Tanya. . without distinction between various parts. and S. See Derech Mitzootecha.
sect. 3. Panim is an expression of Pnimiyut.). Chitzoniyut is the furthest point from the Pnimiyut. Face. and Achor (pl. sect. Externality. the lowest level. IV and XU(. of the subject to which it is applied.CHAPTER SIX Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut are terms which occur frequently in Kabbalistic and Chassidic literature. Ibid. Outwardness. VII (see note 27 a.l.l Opposed to Pnimyut is Chitzoniyut.~ 1. XXIIa (see notes . the core. sect. Pnimiyut means Inwardness. and Back. Achorayim).. X I X .* Synonymous terms are Panim. Achor is both literally and conceptually the antonym of Panim. IV. and synonymous with the concept of Chit~oniyut. It is the most external. the essence or essential-being of the subject to which it is applied. XIX. respectively. The terms themselves suggest their meanings. It refers to the innermost point. See lgeret Hakodesh. 2.. Ibid.
E. i. the Divine Light.l. Tanya I:22. and cf. For example. refers to the very lowest and most external rank and level of that Sefirah.128 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM When we speak of the Pnimiyut of a Sefirah. the critique by R. and HiZchot Yesodei Hatorah I:10 (cf." this refers then to the lowest level of the Kelim of the Sefirah "Makhut of Aztilut." 29(31) and 36(38) a. or Chitzoniyut of a Sefirah. The Achorayim. . See Maimonides. 4. we refer to the very essence of that Sefirah. S h e m nah Perakim. cited in Kessef Mishneh a.. Igeret Hakodesh. Abraham ibn Daud.. when we come across a term4 such as the "aspect of the Chitzoniyut of the Kelim of Makhut of Atzilut. VII. ch. elaborated in Moreh Nevuchim I:21 and 37.).g.l.e. V.). sect.
and in the teachings of R. AspakZuya Hameirah on Zohr 111: 135a %. and Yitro. Moses Cordovero's interpretation on these passages see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. 142a-b. [For R. Shi'ur Komah. ch. 60. Cf. 53c 8. 6 fl. also R. though see especially Etz Chuyim.. ibid. Zohar II:176b. Hechul . The concept of Sheuirat Hakelim appears throughout the various works of the Lurianic system. 110d. III:128a. Tzvi Hirsh Horowitz. Elima Rabbaty. Idra Rabba. ~ Shevirat Hakelim (the Breaking of the Vessels) is the keyconcept in the explanation of the basic problem of multifariousness 1. Derush B e ' o h Hanekudim (pp.. Likutei Torah. Isaac Luria in particular. 2. 81-109). 56d f. In the writings of R.' Their source is in the Zoharic books Sifra Detzeniyuta. Va'eira.). Hanekudim (Sha'ar 8 f.CHAPTER SEVEN Shevirat Hakelim Sheoird Hakelim. Shdar Hahakdamot. 27c f. are central doctrines in the Kabbalah in general.] . II:37c ff. and III:82c. (p. and Zdra Z ~ t t a . and the adjunct concepts to be explained in the chapters following. Vayesheu. ibid. Schneur Zalrnan this concept is explained in Torah Or.. 135a-b.) Meuoh She'arim II:2: 1-11.. Eyn Habedo1ach:I:ch.
It contained within it the successive radiations of Chochmah to Makhut. Thus the Vessel of Chochmah is smaller than the Vessel of Keter. Genesis Rabba 3:7. Binah to Makhut.^ and the mystical account of the eight kings who "reigned in the land of Edom. it must be remembered that the first issue is that of a Keli (Vessel) into which an Or (Light) can then emanate and be contained. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. From the most sublime aspect of Keter issued forth the Sefirah of Chochmah. 4. It is based on the Midrashic account of the building and destruction of the primordial world^. compounded of ten gradations. see also I Chronicles 1:43 ff. and so forth. and from the latter issued forth Malchut. Genesis 36:31 f. When the light of the En Sof radiated to the Vessel of Keter (including the lights destined for the suc- 3. The most sublime aspect of the original point became Keter. From Chochmah emanated the Sefirah Binah. before there reigned any king over the children of I~rael. Now each Keli is commensurate with its respective Sejrah."~ The original emission of the Sefirot was that of the scheme of Zggulim. the Vessel of Binah is smaller than the Vessel of Chochmah. When we speak of successive issuances. As the Sejirot axe on successively lower levels. from which the ten Sejrot proceeded in gradual order.. At first there issued forth a highly concentrated. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot.130 MYSTICAL CONCEF'TS IN CHASSIDXSM and the origin of evil. and 9:2. and from Binah issued forth the Midot in unison. seminal point of light. . their Kelim are also successively smaller.
Malchut. The total light was then projected to the Vessel of the next Sefirah.e. . for this term. thus all the Vessels broke. too. But then. i. the relatively minor excess of light encompassed this Vessel by way of an Or Makif ( Encompassing. the Vessel of Chochmuh was able to absorb practically all of it. from Binuh to Da'at. when the total light emanated from the upper Sefirot to 5. ) The same occurred with the flow from Chochmah to Binah. the Vessel of Da'at could not contain the light and was shattered by the intensity of the radiation. when the light from Keter flowed to Chochmh. including the lights destined for the lower Sefirot. which were more than it could endure. but also the lights meant for the lower Sefirot were projected into that Vessel. being both "large" and "strong" enough.cessive Sejirot). and it. chapter V. This was so because not only the light meant for Da'at. Likewise. This process continued and repeated itself with the next Sefirot. Chesed. See supra. though this emanation was already much less intense. to which was projected at first only the light destined for the remaining stage. as with the other Sefirot. The only change occurred on the level of Yesod. The unequal proportion of extremely intense Orot and extremely subtle Kelim precipitated this eventful occurrence. or Transcending Light. broke for the same reason. section 2. The Vessel of Yesod was able to contain this light and project it further. The Kelirn of Chochmh and Binah could contain these lights because of their close proximity to Keter. But as the Divine Light proceeded further. the point of Keter was able to contain and endure it..
111. ch. On all the aforementioned see sources mentioned supra. Hence in Malchut the breakage was only partial6 The above account of the disproportion between the Orot and Kelim is a "descriptive account" of the "mechanical event" of Sheoirat Hakelim. and Etz Chayim. 8. the principal "flaw" which precipitated the "breaking of the vessels" and the dissolution of the original scheme of the Sejirot. That is why their Kelirn were unable to endure the Orot and they "died. Ephraim's unity saved him despite his sinfulness. let him alone" (Hosea 4:17). when the total light of the Midot was projected to Malchut. however. In opposition to this pluralism "it is written: "Ephraim is united in idolatry. I X . p. and cf. Limudei Atzilut (Lemberg 1850).These Sefirot of Iggulim were a Reshut Harabim ( a domain of pluralism) because there was no unison. they were rather like individuals. infra.. ch. see Genesis Rabba 38:6. note 1. I.e. only the higher and more subtle aspects broke.132 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Yesod . thereby strengthening the lower and less subtle aspects of that Vessel.its Vessel also broke. is the fact that these Sefirot were ~ separate. ch. Id f. See supra. section 8. 7. Therefore. However.8 for unity effects preservation and maintenance. bond or unity. was already absorbed in the Vessel of Malchut. Sha'ar Hakelalim. I. while the lower ones remained relatively intact. by then the light of Malchut. A common saying has it that when 6. . At its root. independent points (the scheme of I g g ~ l i r n ) . each going his own way without any love or affection between them.
but not the eighth. These Kings who died allude to the Vessels which broke." f 12. they will break. whereas for the body it is a lowering and degradation to be reduced from its erstwhile level of being part of man to the present level of a lifeless corpse. they are the primordial worlds which were destroyed. is not affected by death. (supra note 2). but if you take just three together they will endure and will not break. in the second account. 9:2 and 19:l."@For this very reason the first three Sefirot were preserved.12 Death means the separation of soul from body: the soul ascends to return to its source. Etz Chclyim 11:s.l0 Now. made of the dust of the earth. In the first account of the Kings. only seven broke completely. in Chronicles. this refers to the breaking of the Vessels. while the body.c. Analogous to this is that which occurred to the Kings: the "soul" [the Orot of the Sefirot] ascended to be re-absorbed in its source.. Zohar a. it is only of the first seven Kings that Scripture states that they died... is returned to earth. Ibid.ll that is. while the remains 9. Of these Kings it is stated that they reigned and then died. the sources speak mostly o the "seven Kings of Edom. However. and see Likutei Torah II:37c g.see also ibid. 11. it is stated of all eight Kings that they died.1. the eight Kings who reigned in the Land of Edom are the Eight Sefirot issuing from B i d : Da'at to Malchut. Because the breakage was complete in the first seven. therefore. The soul per se. in Genesis. for they were not separate points but inter-re1ated. . and III:87a 8. 10.you take ten reeds separately. but not of the eighth.
e. thereby causing the "death of the Kings. 27d." (ibid. these 288 sparks were subdivided 13.134 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of the "body". the word n B R l D divides into two parts: n'b and R"DY ("died." as it were. Death is used here in the figurative sense of applying to any degradation:13 as the broken Kelim fell. from a sublime level to lower levels. a real and final separation in totality of the Orot from the Kelim. Vayeshev. . Hence. this refers to the unformed Sefirot of the Zggulirn. Likutei Tomh III:82c. i. but separate principles. 15." and the number 288). . to Beriah and so on. the residue of the Divine Light attached to them was also "fragmented. fell to their "grave". Cf. This is adduced in Genesis 1:2: "And the earth was tohu and vohu (unformed and unordered)". the analogy does not hold true altogether. Zohar 111:13%. . as the parts fell to the realm of Atzilut. However. referring to the death o the Kings and the division of the residue of the Divine Light f into 288 sparks (the sparks encumbered in the midst of the word n n .15but as they fell further. within the "dead or broken vessels). they are regarded as having died. l4 As the parts of the vessels were projected downwards they broke further into an ever increasing number of fragments. Etz Chayim 11:4." "And the spirit of G-d n 3 R l D (hovered) . A residue of the Orot remained attached to the fragments. 14.). Genesis Rabba 96:3. Therefore. For in the case of the "Kings" there was not a real and final death. and 18:l. Torah Or. as they were not yet ordered and inter-related. Etz ChayZm 18:l.. the fragmented Kelim of the Sefirot. we speak of 288 general sparks (Nitzotzin).
Pardess Rimonim 25:1. illustrates this process with an analogy to food:17 Man may select the best of foods in which. they are the substance of evil. are called their 16. Moses Cordovero. as they are projected down the various levels and assimilated among them. even the purest food will show some refuse that is expelled from the body for being unassimilable. The most subtle aspects of the broken K l m are totally absorbed and assirniei lated in Atzilut. and the lowest grades are in Asiyah. not so much because the original fragments became cruder themselves. when he consumes this food and it is digested and assimilated in his body. each one attached to a fragment. Chaim Vital. it is totally and absolutely pure. they have some unassimilable parts which. The lowest grades which could not be assimilated in the realm of holiness become the realm of impurity.16 R. Even so. R. the great expositor of the Kabbalah. they became not only more numerous but also less tenuous. but because the more subtle aspects were gradually assimilated and absorbed among the successive grades and levels. though essentially pure mixtures of light. chemically speaking. ch. Also. there is no waste or useless matter whatever. as these fragments fell continuously deeper. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Yetzirah.into an ever greater number of smaller sparks. . the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Beriah. metaphorically speaking. the broken Vessels. Meuoh She'arim II:3:8. 17. Sefer Hagilgulim (Vilna 1886). 1. metaphorically speaking. Precisely so.
sect. and Edom in its source is the aspect of the original Kelim (cf.1.136 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM waste and refuse. son of Isaac. Din. just as the waste of Abraham's Chesed extended to Ishmael. the substance of evil is always referred to as the "waste" and "refuse" of the aspects of Geuurala (see Zohar I:74b. X X . as such. note 30 (33) 1. ch. This waste and refuse is the essence of evil and impurity. 19. just as Ishmael is the aspect of impure Chesed (see Igeret Hakodesh.. material and cruder the elements become until they assume the characteristics of matter as we know it. sect. that tzimtzum. the root-elements of all creations. ibid.'* As they fell to Beriah. Hence. end of chapter IX. The substance of evil thus consists of the waste and remains of the Kings of Edom. they form the four elements. 11.. Edom is the realm of Esau. The unassimilable waste of Yetzirah was projected to Asiyah. is essentially a place to which Gevurah and Din are bound to and derive from (see sources cited supra. The unassimilable waste of Beriah was projected to Yetzirah. where some of it was assimilable and became the creatures of Yetziwh. ibid. That is. just sufficient to sustain their existence. note 13 (16). XXV. and sect. and K l m may be taken as synei onymous). also infra. 111. 148a). note 12). see Igeret Hakodesh. supra. Hence. They become more distinct entities and are. thus. those aspects that could be assimilated in that World became the creatures of Beriah. note 107). because the fragments are deprived of the Orot and retain but a spark of holiness. ' Now. chapter V. Gewrah.) so Esau is the aspect of impure Gevurah (cf. The "waste" of Isaac's Gevurah extended to Esau. note 57 (63) ). . where some of it was assimilable 18. Edom. and note 14(17) a. and the lower they fall the more tangible. Cf. they lead ever more "independent" existences. The attribute of Isaac is that of Gevumh (see supra. On the higher levels they are the tenuous root-elements of the elements [which are practically spiritual. the fragments are the origin and substance of matter.
Vayeshev.22 20.. while Atzilut is called the Realm of Yichud (Unity) because the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut are fully absorbed in Divinity and not separated from It. the lower Worlds of Beriuh. Note.l. and III:159a f. chapter 111. while the unassimilable waste of Asiyah remained on the lower levels of this Realm as the elements of evil. even on the lowest. See infra. and notes 143-144 a. Because of the multiplicity in them. there remain sparks of holiness attached to the fragments which sustain their existence. Igeret Hakodesh. beginning of sect. Cf. and for the existence of evil. . 22. Yetzirah and Asiyah are called the Realm of Pimd (Division).1. indeed.. Cf. infm. chapters X and XI. 19:3. See supra. 2. Etz Chayim 43: Introduction. see Zohar II:234a f.Sheuirat Hakelim 137 and became the creatures of Asiyah. XX. and note 3 a. See Torah Or. ch.. see Etz Chuyim. Sha'ar Hakelalim. Rachamim and so on. and ibid. Din. thus acting as their "animating principles" or "souls".20 The fragments thus are responsible for the multifariousness in G-d's creation. And this. 21.21 and provides then1 with a choice between good and evil so that the King may manifest His attributes of Chesed. is the very intent and purpose of Shevirat Hakelim: it brought about the subjects over which the King can rule in a meaningful way. section 7. chapter XI. 27d. however. that on all levels.
therefore. Mevoh She'arim II:3:4. 179b. thus allowing the 1. Likutei Tomh II:37d. sect. Cf. XIX. p. and V:19d. ch. and therefore could not absorb any additional light meant for others. were re-established in a new order in which the Kelim would be able to absorb and contain the Orot and the emanations could proceed in a gradual manner. Igeret Hakodesh. as seen in the preceding chapter. and Shu'ar Hakelalim. 2. Stddur h Perush Hamilot.CHAPTER EIGHT Partzufim The original scheme of the Sefirot was unable to exist. Hakd. This chapter is based essentially on Etz Chayim 11:7. 1-11. The Kelim of the Midot were for their own Orot only. Shahr Hahakdamot. In the new order the Sefirot had to be repaired in such a way that a breakage would not ensue. The Sefirot. The reason for the breakage was that the original Sefirot were independent principles and had not been brought into harmony with each other. .
Visages. supra. sect. This is effected by extending..e. each compounding all ten Sefirot. This Partzuf is called Arich Anpin (the long.2 Subsequently. In this Configuration we speak of Keter of Arich Anpin. The principle of Chochrnah is converted to the Partzuf of Abba (Father). X X . though Keter is the dominant aspect. Arich Anpin. as it were. according to the scheme of Yosher. is the substratum of everything. 2. Keter is no longer a simple point in which the other Sefirot are included as latent points. and the principle of Binah is converted to the Partzuf of Immu (Mother. Thus the Kelim would be larger and stronger. Macroprosopus). cf.. the other two Sefirot that remained intact were also transmuted. section 8) in which every Sefirah functions. or Supernal Mother). or Extended Face.1. . and note 86(95) a. chapter 111. causing them to function within one another.140 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDISM Divine emanations to proceed in such a way as would make it possible for a world to come into being. and able to absorb the Orot. Both Abba and Imma are complete Partzufirn. Configurations). chapter IV. Binah of Arich Anpin. also called the Yosher of Adam Kadmon (i. but it is converted into a configuration analogous to the Man-Image (referred to above. the basic Sefirot-scheme of Yosher as it is in the Realm of Adam Kadmon). and so forth. In this new order the Sefirot appear as Partzufirn (Forms. note 16. Chochmuh of Arich Anpin. See lgeret Hakodesh. by harmonising the Sefirot. the Sefirot. from Keter of Adam Kadmon to Malchut of Asiyah (though in an ever more concealed mode). Thus it extends from the highest to the lowest level.
Chochmah of Abba. or simply Malchut. and so on. Zohar III:4a. as the Partzuf of Bat (the Daughter). Nevertheless the relationship remains. so to speak. a dual Configuration and are referred to as the "firm friends who never ~eparate". issue forth from lmma as a unit. on its own.4 To effect this union is the task of man. See Zohar I:30b f. . or unit. or Lesser Countenance. again compounding the ten aspects of the Sefirot. These two Partzujim are related by Keter (the faculty of Da'at Elyon) : their Configurations issue both from Arich Anpin and. as it were. This is the concept of the 3. whose Kelim had been shattered completely. known as Z'eyr Anpin (the Small. Thus they are. Chesed to Yesod. and III:4a. Malchut is essentially related to the Midot. Chochmah of lmma. and Keter of lmma. to become one with it. 4. Through Z'eyr Anpin issues forth Malchut. Microprosopus). by means of his worship and service to G-d. one on the right and the other on the left). known as Nukuah (the Female). again compounding all ten aspects of the Sefirot. and it is called Nukvah in terms of the Z'egr Anpin: the Midot are the masculine aspect of the Z'eyr Anpin. as the Partzuf of Ben (the Son).Thus we speak of Keter of Abba. and so forth.~ The six Midot.. but because its Vessel did not break altogether it is a Partzuf. are parallel to each other (as Chochmah and Binah are in the scheme of Yosher. Hence Malchut yearns to be reunited with Z'eyr Anpin. Binah of Abba.
In that day shall the Eternal be One and His Name One. . 9. ch. ~ to At this point we must remind ourselves once more that all these terms. sect."O 5. 7. There is no division in Him. Said Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: "Whatever I said of the Holy Ancient-One. Should you ask.~ re-establish total unity in the u n i ~ e r s e .142 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM "Unification (Yichud) of the Holy One. See Keter Shem Tou. Zohur III:290a f. all was." (Zechariah 14:Q). Shalom Buzaglo. Zohar III:14la f . Tanya 1:ch. See Zohar III:83a. W . s. and all shall be. note 34). everything is absolutely One."~ "The sum of all this is: the Ancient of the Ancient and the Z'eyr Anpin are absolutely One. and the concept of the Partzufim. various aspects under which G-d manifests Himself. is all One. . 19. the essence of Arich Anpin. blessed be He and blessed be His Name foreverla~ting. 41. Keter Shem Tov. 8. He will not change. 111. but from [above] His paths divide.7 and whatever I said of the Z'eyr Anpin. Manifestations of the G-dhead. Cf.e. See infra. chapter XI. and He has not changed . 85. and His She~hinah". . do not imply any pluralism in the G-dhead. Kissei Melech on Tikunei Zohar. and from [below] judgment is found. Atika Kadirha (see supra. Zgeret Hakodesh. It is from our perspective that they differ one from another. 111.: 3a. Intr. sect. Of this final goal it is said: "And the Eternal shall be King over all the earth. sect. The Partzufim are Faces. what then is the difference between the one and the other? It is all One. i. 6. blessed is He. All is.o. R.. He is unchanging.
The Midot of Tohu are one below the other without any mutual inclusion whatever . Tohu refers to the state of the original Sefirot. mended and reformed as Pa. and the subsequent scheme of Yosher in which the Sefirot were rearranged and the fragments had been assimilated as much as possible.rtz~fim. as unformed and unordered points.CHAPTER NINE Tohu and Tikun We now have two schemes of Sefirot: the original scheme of Zggulim which precipitated Sheoirat Hakelirn. Isaac Luria reads Genesis 1:2 as referring to the World of Tohu.each on its own. note 15. In this context R. These two orders are called the worlds of Tohu and Tikun. The term Tohu is taken from Genesis 1:2. and there was light") as referring to the World of Tikun. chapter VII. and Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light. Reformation) refers to the state of the Sefirot rearranged. .~ Thus among the Sefirot of Tohu there is no interrelationship. Restitution.' Tikun (Correction. Etz Chayim 8: 1. without relating 1. 2. see supra.
" The realm of Tikun refers to the new worlds of which it is said: "And G-d saw everything that H e had made. and. Likutei Torah II:37e fl. chapter 111. are rooted in Tohu: they express their natural emotive powers in a simple and extreme manner.. and so on). on the other hand. supra. and these are in the full inter-relationship of the Sefirot as compounds. note 151).g. compound one another. See Likutci Torah II:37c ff. without permitting the guidance of Sechel ( Chochmah.f Sefirot. The Midot of Tikun permit the mitigating influence of Sechel and. thus. Genesis Rabha 3:7. Tikun has an advantage and superiority over Tohu: the perfection of the mutual inclusiveness and unity of Tikun is the condition drawing forth a manifest indwelling of the Or En Sof that is not to be found in Tohu..* 3. is said to be rooted higher than Tikun. The Sefirot of Tikun. as simple and absolute Midot. Binah.-This is not to be understood in a sense of there being some accidental flaw in the original World of T o ~ u . Animals. and 9:2. of which G-d said "These do not please Me. 4 . That is why the Midot assert themselves as Midot per se. Da'at ) .. they are fully separated and nonrelated. Though Tohu. and behold it was very g o o d (Genesis 1:31) and G-d said "These please Me". and precipitate Sllcvirat Hakelim. Hence man is able to control or mitigate his soul-powers of Chesed and Geuurah (e. for being the original emission c. chapter VII (notes 7-10). unable to control or mitigate them. on the other hand. love and anger. they oppose one another.144 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to its opposite. ." The realm of Toltu refers to the primordial worlds that were destroyed. and Geuurah is simple and absolute Gevurah. In this context man is said to be rooted in the realm of Tikun as his soul compounds all ten aspects of the Sefirot (see supra. Chesed is simple and absolute Chesed. therefore. and III:87a 8. are able to interrelate.
Avot a. Chairn Vital. and chapter VII. in chapter XI on Birur and Tikun. supra. Thus R. 228 f. which will b e explained further on. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby Ve-Razal. Gevurah. Toldot. the Creator mitigated the severity of Din by blending it with the attributes of Chesed and Rachamim. 73a fl. Cf.). and the discourse on this Mishnah in Sha'ar Hahakdamot (p. the term Tikun has another. note 3. in turn. Mevoh She'arim I1:3:8. Tolzu is the original world created by the and attribute of Din ( G e u ~ r a h ) . chapter V. . providing man with an opportunity to choose between good and evil which. note 18. and so forth (the principles of reward and punishment spoken of in the Mishnah). see also R. ~ as this world could not subsist. See Etz Chayim l l : 6 . Zohar 111: 38a. Zohar Chadash. infra. Genesis Rabba 12:15. (I1:pp.Tohu and Tikun 145 I n the same context. 5. See Zohar I:180b and 280b. The actual order of creations through the stages of Tohu and Tikun allows for the possibility of evil. the flaw and defect of Tohu were intentionally and purposely formed to allow for the possibility of the effects of Shevimt Hakelim. bringing into being the world of Tikun. Cf. 6. Isaac Luria interprets the Mishnah of Aoot V:l ("By ten sayings the world was created. and to give good reward to the righteous") to the effect that the 'Ten Sayings' in the opening statement allude to the ten separate Sefirot of Tohu. and the 'single saying' in the question refers to the unified compound of the Sefirot of Tikun. . Cf. chapter XI. And why does Scripture teach this? Could it not have been created by a single saying? But this was in order to exact penalty from the wicked . Tiferet. a n active sense.). makes it possible for G-d to manifest His attributes of Chesed. 27a.O Beside this descriptive connotation. . On the contrary.1.
Kelipot means shells. They are the names for evil and impurity. and infra.. the outer shells that contain the edible fruit but are themselves inedible. note 20." i. Chitzonim. thus their waste and refuse. See supra. This holy spark. or barks. Each of these subsists by virtue of a spark of holiness attached to them. their vital force without which they would cease to exist.' is encumbered and enclosed by the shells just as the edible fruit is encumbered and 1. the most exterior forces. or the Kelipot. consists of the unassimilable parts of the broken Vessels. as already mentioned earlier. the side distinguished from and opposed to holiness and purity. Sitra Achra The terms in this chapter-heading are synonymous." i. Sitra Achra means the "other side. the "waste" of holiness that constitutes evil.e.e. chapter XI.CHAPTER TEN Kel ipot.. The substance of evil. chapter VII. Chitzonim means the ''external ones. .
3. are adduced in Ezekiel I: 14:4 "Stormy wind. it is unable to make itself felt and to dominate over the shell.. It is an intermediary between holy and profane.. Zohar III:227a. There are four basic Kelipot. Maimonides. 5 . Mishnat R. On all this see Etz Chayim 49:2 8. 6 f." and "a fire taking hold of itself. the revealed Word of G-d. is the criterion of absolute good and absolute evi1. XXV and XXVI. and not altogether evil. Eliezer. . Igeret Hakodesh. 37. between absolute good and absolute evil. and "a Brightness (Nogah) round about it" denotes the fourth Kelipah. and Kelipat Nogah. Cf. The significance of these two classes will be understood by the following: The Torah. and the term Nogall.. See Zohar II:203a-b. Kelipat Nogah (the Nogalz being a radiation from holiness). therefore. Thus it is in direct contact with holiness. sect. 6 . Their nurture and vitality from holiness comes to them through the medium of Kelipat Nogak3 The four Kelipot. ch. On its own. Tanya I: ch.j Whatever man is enjoined to do 2. chs. Tanya I: ch. The other three Kelipot are further removed." these denote the three totally impure Kelipot.Shemonah Perakim. 4 and 6. Kelipat Nogah is the "skin" immediately covering the spark of holiness.148 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM enclosed by its shell. Cf. Hilchot Melachim VII1:ll. divided into two classes:' the three altogether impure and evil Kelipot. 4. Hence we arrive at the analogous term of Kelipot. one over the other. idem." "great cloud. they are not in direct contact with the spark but cover the Kelipat Nogah.
has some relationship to both.essentially flow and derive from Kelipat Nogah. and Shemonah Perakim. and be absorbed in. .Kelipot.. the eating and drinking were for purely sensual pleasure. 2 8 2 ) . its vitality can 5' See Maimonides. All matters pertaining to the realm of what is essentially permissible (according to the Torah) . 5. and to the exclusion of what is prohibited . whatever man is prohibited from doing is absolute evil. Cf. This means that all derivations of Kelipat Nogah can fall to. Kelipat Nogah. 3-4. on the other hand. the realm of holiness. being an intermediary category. temporarily. for example. Tzavaat Harioash. When the permitted action (as. simple eating and drinking) is intentionally performed for a higher purpose. Bachya ben R. the three evil Kelipot. utterances. commentaries by Nachmanides and R. 94-95 (and my notes ad loc. sect. Chitzonim. then the vitality of this action (and the permitted objects it involves) is distilled and absorbed in the realm of holine~s. or.e. they can be elevated to. actions. because whereas the food is essentially fit and permitted for consumption (thus not forbidden). and on Keter Shem Tov. between pure holiness and absolute impurity. without any more sublime intention. Sitm Achra 149 is absolute good. for the sake of Heaven (i. Hilchot De'ot ch. Therefore all matters pertaining to the prohibitions of the Torah (the forbidden objects.~' If. and be absorbed in. ch. Asher on Leviticus ' 9:2.in distinction from what is commanded. alternatively. thoughts. and so on) flow and derive from the three altogether impure Kelipot. then this vitality is degraded and temporarily absorbed in the three unclean Kelipot. to have the strength and energy to serve G-d). sect.
8. or until the sinner who intentionally partook of the forbidden repents to such an extent that his premeditated sins become transmuted into veritable meritsY7 which is achieved through "repentance (Teshuuah) out of love. Muttar and Aswr respectively. sect. Rosh Hashanah 29a.. the permitted matter is not tied and bound by the power of the Chitzonim so that it would be prevented from returning and ascending to holiness. XXVI.e. The Chitzonim prevent it from ever ascending and becoming absorbed in holiness. ch. ." For the forbidden matter is bound and held captive in the power of the Chitzonim. that is." "bound. a Teshuuah coming from the depths of the heart. as it is written (Zechariah 13:2):"And I will cause the unclean spirit to pass from the earth". with great love and fervour. Muttar literally means "released. Tanya I: ch.1 s MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM revert and ascend to holiness along with the consumer when he returns (Teshuuah) to the service of C-da8 The etymology of the Hebrew terms for permitted and forbidden." "free". necessitating the purgatory of the grave. and Igeret Hakodesh.. 7. 6. see also ibid. until the day when death (another synonym for evil) will be devoured forever. 7.s The meaning and intent of the Kelipot will be discussed in the next chapter. Tanya I: ch. 8 . and from a soul passionately desiring to cleave to the blessed G d and thirsting for G-d like a parched desert soil. Assur literally rneans "chained. Though even then a trace of the evil remains in the body. elucidates this point. 8." i.
36. 2. See Tikunei Zohar.CHAPTER ELEVEN Birur and Tikun Man created last but first in intent.". in comment on the Midrashic statement that the purpose of the creation is the Divine wish to have an abode in the nether realms just as in the supernal ones (Tanchuma. . apd Nasso: 18). For it is man's task and mission to subdue the Kelipot and prevail over them by means of Torah and the M i t z w t in order to realise the Divine Will .' has his abode in this physical world which is also the abode of the Kelipot. but the ultimate purpose [of creation] is the lowest world. . Cf. Tanya I: ch. . Intr. throughout the world . note 2. "Clearly the purpose of the evolution of the worlds and their gradual descent is not for the sake of the higher worlds . . note 14. blessed be He. sect. 'The purpose of all the contractions (tzimtzumim) is the creation of .: 6a. VII.the making of this world an abode for Divinitya2 1. And for this purpose the Holy One. . For such was Hs blessed i Will that He delights in the sitra achra being subdued and in darkness being turned to light so that the Divine Light of the blessed En Sof shall shine forth in the place of darkness and sitra achra. infra. gave to Israel the Torah . Bechukotai: 3. and Zgeret Hakodesh. .
* The Kabbalah and Chassidism are very emphatic on this. . Berachot IX:5. And only where man uses this free choice to perform his tasks and duties can he be rewarded accordingly. with all your heart" (Deuteronomy 6:s). and equity..3 Evil therefore serves a Divine purpose. the evil inclination as well as the good inclination. In fact. chapter IX. . ch. and see Emunot Vede'ot IV: Introd. to bring about the preeminence o light supplanting darkness . and Sha'ar Hakelalim. and state that there can be no greater service done to G-d than to bring the evil inclination into subjection by the power of love for G-d. as has been f explained earlier [Tanya I. 1. sect. For only where there is an alternative between good and evil can man have freedom of choice. 37:2. ch. the evil inclination in man is an instrument for the love of G-d. This significant occurrence was not a catastrophic accident due to some flaw in the cosmogonic process. 2. your G d . ibid. note 4. Pardess Rimonim 253. . ch. . VII. Etz Chayim 11:6. righteousness. 39: 1. 35-37] at length.152 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM It has already been explained that the Kelipot are derived from the "Breaking of the Vessels". it was a lawful and purposive development in order to bring about evil. and this is the essence of man's devotion in his Divine service: to elicit the Light of the blessed En Sof down below". Zgeret Hakodesh. 3. for this is the purpose for the descent of the world . Accordingly it is written: "And you shall love the "with Eternal. Cf. supra. Maimonides. all your heart" means with both your inclinations. and ch. cf. On the contrary. Introduction to Commentary on the Mishnah. . and receive his requirements from a perspective of law. 49. For when man thus subdues evil the material human body and the subjugation of the sitra achra. Mishnah. 4.
so that man may be rewarded with benefits. and illustrates this by the famous "parable of the harlot": A king instructed and cautioned his son to lead an exemplary moral life and not to fall prey to temptation. secretly. because he has learnt how to make the very evil inclination serve G-d. is for the purpose of manifesting His glory and for His service. the Baal Shem Tov and the Maggid's comments on Avot IV:1. repulsing him from the good way and causing him to disobey the will of the Lord?' To solve this apparent paradox the Zohar states that in fact the intended purpose of evil is merely to execute the Will of G-d. blessed is He." "All that the Holy One. At this the royal father 4. Obediently the woman used every blandishment to seduce the prince. . in Keter Shem Tou. the king brought before him a beautiful and clever woman and commanded her to seduce his son in order to test his obedience and devotion to his father. blessed is He. in fidelity to his father's instructions. p. how. but he. blessed is He. Then.Birur and Tikun 153 and harnesses its power. continually. above and below. 91. sect. then. rejected her allurements and thrust her from himself. that men should worship Him and walk in the way of truth. Now who has seen a servant working against his master and laying plans to counteract everything that is of his master's will? It is the will of the Holy One. can an evil servant come and counteract the will of his master and tempt man to walk in an evil way. 171 and Addenda sect. he becomes a true lover of G-d. has made. 203. and Or Torah.' Cf. As this is the will of the Holy One.
To be sure. albeit in limited measure. just sufficient for their intended purpose. note 9. See the commentaries on this passage. they do not s d c e with the seduction of man but seek "to conquer and prevail with full force.154 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM rejoiced exceedingly. is exalted above6 and is aggrandized in His glory. 26 and 253). blessed is He. 267).. lends additional vitality and strength to the Kelipot. and no good except when it proceeds from evil. 5." thus necessitating a severe battle against them. But as man. Shabr Hamitzuot on Exodus 22:6 (p. as well as on Keter Shem Tov. 9. 6. ch. Now. she fulfilled the king's command. Evil. for. Cf. That is. its source in the supernal Gevurot is subdued above. see Etz Chayim 31:2. Chaim Vital. and Likutei Torah III:37c 8. In fact. Zohar II:163a. the Holy One. and idem. . Etz Chayim 48:2. 130 (and my notes ad loc. See also the discussion of "evil" in Tzavaat Hariuash. and end of ch.. 36) . cf. In our sense it can be quite real.. the Kelipot exist only by virtue of the Divine Will and receive their vitality from the sources of holiness (the "sparks of holiness"). as the sitra achra is subdued below. sect. who caused all that glory to the prince? None other but the temptress! And the Zohar concludes: "Surely she is to be praised on all counts. Sha'ar Hapessukirn on Proverbs 9 :17 (p. thus causing a sublime unification (Yichud) and an immense manifestation which then radiates downwards. firstly. infra. 29.. 24. and secondly. she caused the son to receive all that good and led to that intense love of the king for his Thus it is man's purpose to subdue the Sitra Achra and to harness its power for good. Tanya I: ch. . also ibid. there is no worship of G-d except when it issues forth from darkness. thus. and he bestowed upon his son the greatest gifts and highest honours. through his sinful actions. sect. foraWhen that Sitra is subdued. is not a mere negation. see R.
87b and 128b." the mitigation of Gevurah. Selichot). Tik. When this spark is extricated from the Kelipot and restored to the realm of Holiness to be absorbed there." Cf. Cf. chapter VII. for there is no good except if it issues out of evil. chapter I. the Kelipot are deprived of their vitality and cease to exist. The faculty in man's soul which corresponds to the Sefilah Gevurah."~ As man arouses his own attribute of geuurah8 to subdue the waste of the Supernal Cevurah below9 and to prevail over it. sect. This is essentially also the concept of "the righteous turn the attrib- . that repel the decrees [judgments]' (Liturgy. 247a f. see supra. 9a f . and sources cited there.Birur and Tikun 155 The perfection of all things is attained when the intermingled good and evil become totally good. section 2 (p. that precisely this "sweetening of the judgments. There is a spark (Nitzotz) of Divinity attached to them which allows them to subsist as a servant to serve the Master's purpose. p. By that good His glory rises. Tanya I: ch. note 18. see supra. originate in the supernal Gevurah. elicits the most abundant good. 94b: "From the side of Geuurah they are called 'The valiant ones (Giborim) that stand in the breach. Zohur Chadash. See further Siddur im Perush Hamibt... and Igeret Hakodesh. 8.. XV. supra. The KeEipot deriving from the original Kelim which. and that is the perfect wor~hip. 9. ) . he causes a reciprocal effect that the Divine attribute of Gevumh will subdue and prevail over the Supernal Judgments (Hmntakat Hadinim: the "mitigation of the Judgments") and the Divine Chesed and Rachamim will manifest themselves below unhindered. Zohar II:184a. And this is the task of man: to extricate that spark 7. in turn. See Derech Emunah. 27. See also ibid.1° The Kelipot thus serve a distinct purpose. 10. also note 8.
e. man. and practically identical with. . and the proper cosmic order is restored. sect. Chesed is free to emanate as the concealment and restraint of Gevurah and Din are removed. he extricates the spark of Divinity (Birur) and restores it to its source. cf. Pardess Rimonim 25:3. see Etz Chayim. Tanya I : chs. actively or passively. Genesis Rabba 33:3. For as Kelipat Nogah ute of Din and Gevurah into the attribute of Rachamim.V. end of sect. 11. and relative to. sect. Disencumbrance. Panim). 11. and supra. That is.. and this is the concept of Tikun. and supra. Igeret Hakodesh. the potentially holy objects (Kelipat Nogah) are sublimated and absorbed in the realm of holiness by the properly performed actions and by safeguarding them from the Chitzonim. in their Divinely intended context. 10 and 53. i. Cf. while the wicked turn the attribute of Rachamim into the attribute of Gevurah and Din". ch. This is called Birur. S. Most intimately related to. lgeret Hakodesh. Igeret Hakodesh. this concept of Birur is the theme of l"t) nH7yil (the "elevation of Mayin Nukvin (feminine waters)"). by withstanding the temptations of evil. also Zohar II:63a. thus causing the Restitution and Reintegration (Tikun) of the whole Being. the "fruit" is extracted. end of ch. 9. When man relates consciously to the derivatives of the Kelipot. XI1 and XIII. the Shining Illumination or Manifestation of the Divine Countenance. and the sources cited there. See Etz Chayim 39:l. IV and note 34(46) a. 31:17. sect. 39:l. as in Numbers 6:25. mentioned in Deut. as opposed to Heorat Panim.1. See Zohar III:137b. the Concealment or "Hiding" of the Divine Countenance. The "shell" is broken.156 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of holiness. The implication is that there is no change in G-d but only in. XXVII and XXVIII. while the limitations of Gevurah and the severity of Din emerge as the concealment implied by Gevurah is increased and strengthened by sin (the notion of Hesster Panim. 6.ll Bimr means Extrication. also Igeret Hakodesh.
12 On the other hand. every improper act (sin) causes just the opposite. sect. XXV. ibid.) for a detailed discussion of the sin of Adam and its implication. This is known as the concept of the Shechinah-inexile: l 4 the Shechinah. thus strengthening them and increasing their power. 13.. Igeret Hakodesh. . cf.. 37. by his sin. See Shahr Hapessukim. See Zohar II:184a. 15.lO The many sparks that fell because of his cata- 12. also ibid. Tanya I : ch.13 Kelipat Nogah is absorbed among the impure Kelipot. also lgeret Hakodesh. quoted supra. Tanya I: ch. on Gen. Bereishit. is exiled among the Kelipot to remain there bound up and without escape until the sinner repents intensely. the impure Kelipot (who receive their vitality through the medium of Kelipat Nogah) are deprived of their vitality and are annihilated.Tohu and Tikun 157 is fully absorbed in the realm of holiness. For Adam. and XXVI. and III:79a. 2:17 (pp.. X. 4a. II:189a. and cf. Chayim 39:l. the Divine Indwelling Presence. and causing the spark of holiness to be further and increasingly imprisoned and encumbered among the Kelipot. 17. or until the day when G-d will cause the spirit of impurity to pass from the earth. 14. 1II:B. Etz. IV.6r. C f . Cf.lE Every one has his share of sparks that he has to extricate and disencumber. end of ch. 16. 7. strengthened and increased the power of evil. note 10 supra. See Tanya I: chs. and 45. sect. XXIII and XXXI. Zohar III:74a ff. Sinful acts retain and sustain the Sitra Achra. 37. See Etz Chayim 47:6. the spark of Holiness.
and see also Etz Chayim 36:2. l l l b fl. 18. 20. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar H a h a k h o t and Etz Chayim. sect. sect. ..158 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASS~ISM strophic a d x 7 remain for his descendantsla to extricate. sect. Zbid.). et passim. p.'@ This is the cause and purpose of the Galut (Exile. 109 and my notes ad loc. 39: 1. The souls of all the descendants of Adam are "sparks" of the original soul of Adam. see the sources cited in notes 16-20. and lgeret Hakohsh. see Exodus Rabba 40:2 f. and Torah Or. et passim. Etz Chayim 50:3: "When man is born his soul needs to extricate those sparks that are of his share which had fallen unto Kelipat Nogah because of the sin of Adam. Cf. Sha'ar Hapessukim and Likutei Torah of R. and Tanchuma. 9b f .. 26:l. sect.c. 111. 27d. (sect.Relative rectifications in the course of time were reversed and vacated by subsequent national sins of Israel (as in the Desert after the Exodus. le5b f. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby on Zohar II:254b (p.~~ when all the sparks shall have been released. 19:3. Isaac Luria. sources cited in the preceding notes of this chapter (especially note 14).). Cf. then the Shechinah is altogether freed from Its exile and Israel is redeemed: the Messianic Era is ushered in. 21. for a detailed discussion of the concept of G l u t and its various forms. Tzavaat Harivash. See Zgeret Hakoaksh. See Sha'ar Hamitzuot.. See Zgeret Hakodesh. and D i a s p ~ r a ) And . thereby prolonging the process of Birur. Vayeshev. and in the periods of the First and Second Temples). Re'ey (pp. Ekev. 49. XXVI.21 17. . XI1 and XXVI. ) . and in R. also Tanya I : ch. Ki Tissa: 12. 19. as interpreted in Sha'ar Hapessukim a. See Etz Chuyim 3:3." See also ibid. 26: 1. also M ~ o h She'azim II:3:8.1. VII.
Bibliography and Index .
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R. R. Brooklyn 1971 Kuntres Limud Hachussidut. Bachya ibn Pakuda. R. Jerusalem 1960 Ikkatim. Brooklyn 1956 Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat Hachassidut. New York 1954 Biurei Hazohur. Nathan ben Yechiel. Brooklyn 1961 Hilchot Talmud Torah. Judah Loewe of Prague. R. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R. Jerusalem 1968 Derech Emunuh. Moses Cordovero. R. R. Brooklyn 1965' Igeret Hakodesh. R. Keter Shem Too. Moshe Chaim Ephrayim of Sudylkov. [R. Saadiah Gaon. Solomon ibn Ade~et. Diessen 1946 Degel Machuneh Ephrayim. Vilna n. Brooklyn 1974 Kuntres Etz Hachuyim. ed. see Tanya lgeret Teyman. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Aruch. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. Jerusalem 1966 Chovot Hakvovot. Josefow 1885 Etz Chuyim. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. Menachem M . R. R. R. Kohut. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Menachem M . Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Brooklyn 1945 Avodat Hakodesh. Jerusalem 1963 Derashot Maharal. R. Brooklyn 1955 Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. R. R. Brooklyn 1953 Elina Rabbaty. Moses Maimonides.d. R. Jerusalem 1966 Emunot Vede'ot. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Israel Baal Shem Tov].Bibliography Arba Meot Shekel Kessej. R. Joseph Albo. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. New York 1955 Avodat Hakodesh. Jerusalem 1967 Derech Mitzvotechu. Tcl Aviv 1960 Hayom Y o n . R. Chaim David Azulay. Meir ibn Gabbai. Meir ibn Gabbai. R. R. Brooklyn 1956 . R. Chaim Vital. ed. Chaim Vital. Joseph I. Jerusalem 1954 Ben Porat Yoseph. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R.
to A. Brooklyn 1969 Or Ne'erav. Menachem Azaryah d e Fano. Tel Aviv 1964 Or Hachamah. Brooklyn 1969 Or Hatorah-Vayikra:II. Joseph I . R. Joseph I. R. R. R. Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Hachizyonot. Chaim Vital. R. Chaim Vital. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Jerusalem 1954 . R. Moses Cordovero. R. R. Lemberg 1850 Maggid Devarav Leya'akou. R. attr. [R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1966 Or Hatorah-Neviim Uketuvim:I.1. Przemysl 1896 Or Hatorah-Bereishit:& R. Jerusalem 1962 Pen' Etz Chayim. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1957 Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar. R. R. Chaim Vital. Tel Aviv 1966 and [Jerusalem] 1970 Perush Eser Sefirot. R. Chaim Vital. R. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Brooklyn. Brooklyn 1945 Kuzay.a. R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech e. Vienna 1828 and Jerusalem 1960 Olat Tamid. see Tanya Likutei Diburim. Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Moses Maimonides. Moses Maimonides. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Judah Hachassid. Moses Maimonides New York 1956 Moreh Neuuchim. Tel Aviv 1963 Likutei Torah-Torat Shmuel. Jerusalem 1962 Pelach Harimon. Chaim Vital. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. Jerusalem (Margolius) 19511 Sefer Hachakirah. ed. Brooklyn 1970-1971 Likutei Sichot. Jerusalem 1963-1969 Sefer Chassidim. Brooklyn 1974 Otzar Hageonfm-Chagigah. Brooklyn 1946 Likutim Yekarim. Jerusalem 1957 [Sefer Habahir. Moses Cordovero. R. R. Judah Halevi. Menachem M. Jerusalem 1967 Perush Hamishnah. R. Tel Aviv 1961 Mishneh Torah. Fuerth 1701 Or Torah. Haifa 1928 Pardess Rimonim. Brooklyn 1974 Mevoh She'arim. R. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch.162 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Kuntres Torat Hachussidut. R. Vilna 1883 and ed. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1965 Likutei Torah-Arizal. Abraham Azulay. 1962-1978 Likutei Torah. R. R. Jerusalem 1974 Limudei Atzilut. R. Chaim Vital. Tel Aviv 1959 Likutei Amurim. R. R. R. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R. Azriel of Geronah.
Sefer Ha'emunot, R. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov, Jerusalem 1969 Sefer Hagilgdim, R. Chaim Vital, Vilna 1886 Sefer Hamaamarim 5700, R.Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Ha-sichot 5700, R. Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1956 Sefer Hatoldot-Maharash, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1947 Sha'ar Hagilgulim, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Shahr Hahakdamot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Shahs Hamitzvot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hapessukim, R.Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hayichud [Ner Mitzvah Vetorah Or], R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1974 Shabr Maamarei Rashby Verazal, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Sha'ar Ruach Hakodesh, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Sha'arei Kedushah, R. Chaim Vital, Horodna 1794 Sha'arei Orah, R. Joseph Gikatilla, Jerusalem 1960 Shenei Luchot Haberit, R. Isaiah Horowitz, Jerusalem 1963 Shemomah Perakim, see Perush Hamishnah Shi'ur Komah, R. Moses Cordovero, Jerusalem 1966 Shomer Emunim, R. Joseph Ergas, Jerusalem 1965 Shdchan Aruch-Arizal, Jerusalem 1961 Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 Tanya, R. Shneur Zahnan of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 [English translation, London 19731 Teshuvot Haribash, R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Jerusalem 1968 'Teshuvot Ubiurkn' (Responsa by R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch) , Bitaon Chabad, Kfar Chabad 1970-1971 Torah Or, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1954 Tzauaat Harivash, [R. Israel Baal Shem Tov and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech], ed. J. I. Schochet, Brooklyn 1975 Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666, R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of I ubavitch, Brooklyn 1971
Aaron, 86, 88 Abba, 78, 140 Binuh of -, 141 Chochmah of -, 141 Keter of -, 141 Abraham, 11, 86, 136 Abraham ibn Daud, R. (Rabad), 128 Abraham Gershon of Kotov, R., 1 1 Achor, 127 Achorayim, 127-128 Adam, 11, 157, 158 Adam Kadmon, 108-112, 121, 140 Kelim of -, 121 Keter of -, 140 Orot of -, 121 Yosher of -, 140 Albo, R. Joseph, 41, 44, 93 Aliyat Haneshamah, 11 Alma deItgalya, 94 Alma deltkassya, 94 Alma Ilaah, 94 Alma Tataah, 94 Anthropomorphism, 35-39 Arich Anpin, 140, 141, 142 Binah of -, 140 Chochmuh of -, 140 Keter of -, 140 Asey too, 8f. Asiyah, World of, 109-115, 121, 135, 136, 137
Asiyah of -, 111 Makhut of -, 140 Asiyah, 112f. Assur, 150 Atik, 68,69 - &chl Atikin, 68 - Yomin, 68 Atika Kadisha, 68, 142 Atzdut, World of, 109-115, 121, 134, 135, 137 Asiyah of -, 111 Atzilut of -, 111 Beriah of -, 111 Binuh of -, 111 Chochmah of -, 111 Kelim of -, 121, 137 Keter of -, 111 Malchut of -, 114, 115, 128 Orot of -, 121, 137 Yetzirah of -, 111 Atzmut, 112, 117, 119, 121, 122 Ayin, 68, 72, 73 AYiN, 75 Azriel of Geronah, R., 51, 62, 65 Azulay, R. Abraham, 15, 17 AzuIay, R. Chaim David (Chida), 9, 69 Baal Shem Tov, see Israel Baal Shem Tov, R. Bachya ben Asher, R., 63, 109, 149 Bachya ibn Pakuda, R., 36
Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet, 67,80. Bat, 141 See Chugat Bechochmuh, see Chochmuh Chitzonim, 147-150, 156 Beli-mah, 62,63 Chitzoniyut, 70,127-128 Ben, 78,141 Chochmah, 8,66,67,69,71-79, Ben Sira, 69 87,93,94,97,99, 100, 101, Bereish galey, 12 112,130,140,141.See Chabad Bereishit, 72 Bechochmah, 72 see also Reishit Binah of -, 102 Beriah, World of -, 109-115, 134, Chochmuh of -, 102 135,136,137 Kelim of -, 130f. Atzilut of -, 111 '32Wondrous Paths of -,' 8 Beriah of -, 111 Chochmuh-Binuh-Da'at, 71, 100, Keter of -, 114 101,144.See also Chabad Malchut of -, 115 Chochmuh-Chesed-Netzach, 100 Binah, 8,66,69,71,74-79, 87, 92ff., 100,101,112,130, 99, Chochmat Haemet, 15%. 131,133,140,141.See Chabad Chutzah, 12,20 Binuh of -, 102 Colours, 120 Kelim of -, 130f. Cordovero, R. Moses, 8,9,14, 16, '50Gates of -,' 8 17,31,38,43,44,69, 111, 103, Binah-Geuurah-Hod, 100 113,117,119,129,135 Birur, 145,151,156 Creation, 47f.,52,54ff., 5w., Bloch, R.Joseph Leib, 7 64ff., 93,115,151f. 72, Botarel, R. Moses, 61 Da'at, 66,69-70, 75, 71, 76-79, 84, Brains, see Mochin 87,99,131. See Chubad Buzaglo, R. Sholom, 21,119,142 - Elyon, 76,79,100, 141 Chabad, 71, 89. 87, - Tachton, 76,77,78,79, 101 See Chochmuh-Binah-Da'at. Kelim of -, 131 Chagat, 83,87,88,89 David, 11,86 Chakikah, 112f. Death, 133f., 150 Chalal, 52-55, 96f., 119,123 D e m h , 10 110, De Fano, R. Menachem Azaryah, Chamai Gaon, R., 109 16,50 Chassidut, 7%. De Lattes, R. Isaac, 1 7 Chatziuah, 112f. Chesed, 66,79,80-86, 87ff., 99ff., Dilug, 49,52,54, 56 119,120,131, 136,137, 144, Din, 39,81,82,84,119,136,137,
Binah of -, 102 Chochmuh of -, 102
Dov Ber of Lubavitch, R., 7,8,
38 Gimatriya. 20. 136 Kings of -. 79. 11. 88. 60f. See Or En Sof E~hraim. R. 145. 63 Ishmael. 7 3 Edom. 103. 66. R. 16. 156 Hillel Halevi of Paritz. 136. 133. R. 155f. 154 Giborim. 136 Israel Baal Shem Tov. R. 10. 137. 56. 158 Geduhh. 81-86. 119 Hod. 133. 93 Chochm~h -. 75.. 57. 141 . 12. 70.. 80f. 19. 53 Sovereignty of -. 79 Horowitz. 132. 48. 99. 838. 157 Freedom of Choice. 95. 17. 144f. 148. Active. 69. 136 Emet. Tzvi Hirsh. 59ff. 101. 84 Geuurah. 55f.. 135f. 153 Eden. Unity of -. 129 Hyle. 86 En Lo Techilah. 40 . 156 Hamtakat Hadinim. 67 Intellect. 134. R. 100. loot. 140. R. See Midot Benevolence of -. 8. 9. 87-92. 62fl. 130. 68. 85. 22.Ilaah. ('Maggid'). 156 Hester Panim.. 109 HaUat Mayin Nukuin... 123f. 78. 97. 105-110. Isaiah (Shelah).. 152-155. 95. 117. R.. 132 k Joseph. See Nehy Horowitz. 115. 139 Hei. 95. 14. 66. 55.166 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Dov Ber of Mezhirech.Tatwh. R. 100 Hai Gaon. 69. 83.. Omnipresence of -. 95. 94 See also En Sof Gulgalta.LeAmito. 8. 74-75 First -.. 115. 142 Word of -. 85. 150. 155 Hargasha. 93 Isaac. 59-62. 111 Heorat Panim. 137 Transcendence of -. 99. 95. 153 Jacob. 66. See Chagat Geuurot. . 61. 72 Imma. 130. 123f. 155 Gikatilla. 111 Latter -.38. Judgments of -. 42 G-d. 86 Jacob ibn Chabib. 38. 141 Immot. 48. 82 Names of -. 85 . 43 Esau. 66 Hit'abut. 86. 77 Harmony. 53. 130. 23. 50-55. 91. (Ribarh). 149..65. 71.. 136 Evil. 87f. See Chesed Immanence of -. as. 141 of Keter of -. 7 . 51 En Sof. R. 93 . 79. 119f. 33. l o l f . 47. 136 Isaac ben Sheshet. 92.. 145. Joseph. Attributes of -. 11. 152 Galut.. 82.
60. 62. 74. 17. 8. 62. R. 73 Mochin. 148-149. R.. 129137. 11. 148. Kelim. 140. see H&at Mayin Nukoin Meir ibn Gabbai. R. Moses.. 65. 141 Malchut of -. 73.. 81. 48. 55-56. Isaac (An'ml). 144 Mispar. 93 Kadmon. 47.Elyon. 18. 75. 60 Mitzvot.. 151 Mocha Setitnu. 55 Kabbalah.. 134 Messiah. 143. R. 11. 150 Mystery of the Faith.. 108. 12. 149 Narboni. 77ff. R. R.. R. 152 Makif. 68-71. Moses. 37. See Or Luria. 63f. 38 Judah Loewe of Prague.94 Kol. 69. 50. 16. 103.. 147-150. 141. 72. 94. 113. Mah. 40 Muttar. 38. 19f. Kabbalists. 40 Memale kol Almin. 7f7. R. 131. 75 Keter-Tqeret-Yesod-Makhut. 83f. 112. 114. 97. 23.. 44. 139. 125. 132. 14. 92 Leuanon. 143. 36. 149. 69. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. 94. R. 132. 136 Mayin Nukvin. 101. llff. 97. 61. 93 Ma'or. 128. 67.Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. 92. 67 Koach-Mah. 84 Merachefet. 109 Kelim of -. 112. 117-125. 156. 50. 130.97. 14. 79. 145. 19.. 155 Kelipah.69. 154. 151152. 40 Masscrch. 70 Mekabel. see Dov Ber of Mezhirech. See Koach-Muh Maimonides. 51. 110 Matter. 76. 100 Ketmvot. 67. 130f. R. 61. 86 Judah Halevi.157 Kelipat Nogah. 112. 96-97 Kefitzah. 158 Maggid. 41. Messianic Age. 9. Kelipot. 99ff.67. 117.. 156. 15. 99. 15. 11 Midot. 124 Makom Panuy. 60 Moshe Chaim Ephrairn of Sudylkov. 111. 100 Moses. 140f. 128. 50.11 Joseph. 130-131 Keter-Chochmah-Binoh. 69. . 52 Malchut. 141. 8 Light.. 72. (Tzemach Tzedek). 137 Mushpa. 12 Multifariousness. 31. 139.78. 53 Mashpb. (Maharal). Moses. 66. 49. 155. 158 Methuselah. R. 157 158 Keter. 86. 42. 64 Nachmanides. 70. 10. 33. 129. 66. R. 41-45. 109 Kav. 9295. 114. 42 .99. 129. 52 Keli. 88 Moses Hagoleh. 49. 79. 123f. 96. 22.
142. 15. R. 147.Habah. 130. (Aruch). R. 139. 154. 59-62. 108. 13. Reshimu. 61. 54..43 Reishit. 49 Nehy. 105-110. 18 Nitzotz. 60 . 9. 105f. 140 . Partzufim. See Soul Netzach. 40. 101 Netzach-Hod-Yesod. 8. 87. 17. 79. 60 Schneersohn.. R. 72 Relativity..Ha'elyon. 8. 55. R. 20. 56f. 112f. 84 Schneersohn. 88 Peshat. 158 Nogah. 10 Partzuf. 132 Rishonot. 153-154 Pardes.Pnimi. 152 Orot. 39. 83 Schneerson. 87. 79. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch ~ " ~ ~ S t 9. 84. See Kelipat Nogah Nukuah. 99. 70 Raz.Makifin. R. 122 . 66. 54. Nitzotzin.Tzach Umetzuchtulch. 79 Schneersohn. 63. 157. 71. 60 Sapir. 139-142. 148.. 119 Reshut HarabZm. 20. 8. 51. 42. 137 Pnimiyut. 63ff. 125. R. 67 Saadiah Caon.Soveu. 84. See Nehy Nigleh. 87-92. 103. 48 Olamot.80. 55. 145. 137. 50. 17. 100. 67.. 43. 108. 84 Rashi. See Worlds Or. 155. 127-128 Pnimiyut Hatorah. 50 Schneerson.. Dov Yehudah. 122-125. 131ff. 70. 66. 23. 55. 12. 124 . Prassa. 53. 8 Olam. 141 Nun. 87. 42 Safra. 60 Sefirah.Pnimiyim. 10 Pirud. 143 Patriarchs. 127 Parable of the harlot. lOf. R. 97. 117-125. 144 Sefer. R. 155.Makif. 131 . Realm of. 129 Schochet. 7 Sechel. 115. 7 . Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 114 Rachamim.168 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Nathan ben Yechiel. 108 Ratzon. 122-125 . 32.in Rachamim. t . Shmuel of Lubavitch (Maharash). 67. 101. 86. 16ff. 156 Remez. 101 Schneur Zalman of Liadi. Levi Yitzchak. 23. 118. 42. 60 Sapar. R. 17. see Zachar Neshamah. 108 . 10 Reshimah. 156 . See Light . 112. 122 Panim. 18 Nistar. 121f. 44. 71. 51-55. 87 Nekeuah. 96. 134-137. 10. 124f.. 99. See Will .. 110. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch (Reshab).r 10.. 136. 68. 109 Or En Sof. 77.
155 115. 130.151 13. 39 88. Sod. 22. 67 136. 145 Tikun. 151. 31. 143 Tetragrammaton. 142. 91-92. 66. Yetzirah. 68 154 Tannaim. 1 1 Shechinah. 13-15 Time. 117. 122-125 Worlds. 121. 107-108. 109. 1 . 73. Atzilut. 62.. 142. Chairn. 74. 87. 141. 79 Sefirot. 115. 144 Ziu Hashechinah. see RQshi Solomon ibn Aderet. Moses. 129Tzimtzum. 83. 109 Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 143. 156 Zacuto. 144 Sovev. 71. 140. 38 Beriah. 158 Skull. Sitra Achara. 91. 52-53.. 101. 59. 145 134. 144. 69. 136. 17. 8f. 74. Yesh. 105. 115 1 Shepherds. 42 Tzachtzachot. 105-115. 82. 52. 135. Worlds. 1 1 1 Sin. 69. 101. 109-115. 137 Yosher. 10. 42 Sefirot of -. Vital. 114. 122. 47-57. 15. 143 Tohu and Vohu. 99. 16. 103. 23. 79. 87. 10. 99. 79. 103. 141.Tohu. 14. 74 Yesod. 59. 70f. Zohur.in Exile. 96. (Rashby). 51. 157 145. 151 Seth. 95. 137 Talmud Torah. 141. Solomon ben Isaac. 123. 66. 10 Yichud (Unity. 158 Tree of Knowledge. See Asiyah. 79f. R. 121.. Primordial. 137. 143-145. 154. 69. Yud. 139. 69. 134 Separ. 151. 78. Yetzirah Soul. 76. 39. 118. (Rashba). 17. 135. 83-86. 140. 72. 144f. R. 148. 16 Z'eyr Anpin. 13 . 157f. . 130-133. Midot of -. 117-122. 1 1 Teshuuah. Supreme. 156. 10 See Ratzon. see Nitzotz 132 Sur mera [ve'asey tow]. R. 73. 108. R. 103. 143 Sefirot of -. 1. Tachtonot. 109. 154. 14. 61. 49. 143-145 1 1 114. 110. 103. 1 1 Shevirat Hakelim. Sparks. 92 Tzadikim. 81. 157. 13 Tree of Life. 147-150. 56. 120. 51. Seven. 1 1 1 Zachur-Nekeuah. 150 Yichud. 60 Torah. 70 Tzadik. 9. Realm of. R. 142 Vav. R. 157 Shefa. 143. World of. 142 Midot of -. Shimon bar Yochai. 152. 145. 101. 96-101. 59-103. Unification). 69. Temira dechol Temirin. 149. 119. see Gulgdta Will. 1 1 1 Tiferet. 105. 123f. 72. 39-41. 124 Soueu kol Almin. 117. 131. 151.
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