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An Introduction to Kabbalistic Concepts and Doctrines
JACOB IMMANUEL SCHOCHET
V~WPNS vmnt p n m
KEHOT PUBLICATION SOCIETY
BROOKLYN, N E W YORK
1979 B J. IMMANUEL SCHOCHET Y
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the copyright-holder, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. THIRD-REVISED-EDITION SECOND PRINTING 1988
Published and Copyrighted
1979 b y
KEHOT PUBLICATION SOCIETY
770 Eastern Parkway 1 Brooklyn, N.Y. 11213
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Schochet, Jacob Immanuel. Mystical Concepts in Chassidism.
Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Hasidism. 2. Cabala. 3. Habad. I. Title. BM 198.S367 1986 296.8'33 86-2997 ISBN 0-8266-0412-9 Printed in the United States of America
Table of Contents
On the Propagation of Chsidism: Foreword to Third Edition ............................................................ 7 Foreword to First Edition .................................................................... 25 Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition .............................................. 27 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Introduction ..........................................................................................31 CHAPTER ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND METAPHORS ............ 35 I: 1 Anthropomorphism 35 / 2 Man-Metaphor 39 / . 3 Light-Metaphor 41 CHAPTER TZIMTZUM .................................................................... 47 11: CHAPTER SEFIROT ......................................................................59 111: 1. Meaning of Sefirot 59 / 2 . Order of the Sefirot 66 / 3. Keter 68 / 4 Chochmah-Binah-Da'at 71 / 5 . Chessed-Gevurah-Tiferet 80 / 6. Netzach-Hod-Yessod 87 7. Malchut 92 / 8 lggulim and Yosher 96 / 9 . The Sefirot as Compounds 101 CHAPTER IV: WORLDS .................................................................... 105 1 The Concept of 'Worlds' 105 / 2 The Division of the Worlds 108 CHAPTER OROT AND KELIM .................................................... V: 117 1. The Concepts of Orot and Kelim 117 / 2. Or PnimGOr Makif 122 CHAPTER PNIMIYUT AND CHITZONIYUT ............................127 VI: CHAPTER VII: SHEVIRAT HAKELIM ............................................ 129 CHAPTER VIII: PARTZUFIM ............................................................139 CHAPTER TOHU AND TIKUN ....................................................143 IX: CHAPTER KELIPOT; CHITZONIM; SITRA ACHRA ................ 147 X: CHAPTER BIRUR AND TIKUN .................................................... XI: 151
Bibliography .......................................................................................... 161 Index ...................................................................................................... 164
Dov Ber to visit numerous towns and villages where he would collect funds to redeem coreligionists who had been incarcerated and for other charitable purposes. 17731827).Foreword to Third Edition On the Propagation of Chassidut On several occasions when discussing mystical concepts of the Kabbrljh and Chassidism with my father and teacher ir"il'77t. he would recall an interesting incident. His first master. and often difficult to understand. Rabbi Joseph Leib Bloch-rabbi and rosh yeshivah of my father's native Telz. The famed Chassidic sage Rabbi Hillel of Poritz was delegated by R. as seen in the following episode. often referred to Kabbalistic concepts in his ethical discourses. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (the Mitteler Rebbe-55345588. he would reply: "The neshamah (soul) understands!" This reply was not a cavalier retort. It harbours a profound thought discussed in Chassidism and articulated a century earlier by R. When the rabbi was challenged that these are ideas foreign to his listeners. At the same time .
Pardes Rimonim XII: 18. cf. Or haTorah-Neui'irn. Song IV: 15. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. the letter equivalent to the number 50 and alluding to the '50 Gates o Binah' (Rosh Hmhanah 21b. vol. .. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Likutei Tmah IV:7ld and V:5d. ~ When the neshamuh hears. R.). Psalms XXXIV: 15: sur mera ue'osey tou (turn away from evil and . Cf. 373.e. on Zohur III:16a (also noting. and this fact raised some doubts in Rabbi Hillel's mind. The people he met on his travels ranged from the scholarly and perceptive to the quite simple. Scripture states 'And flowing streams from Leuanon (Lebanon)':' Leuanon stands for Lamed-Bet [and] Nun.2 i. The Rebbe answered in the affirmative and said: "The teachings of Chassidism are heard by the wshamah (soul). the Chochmah (wisdom) and Binah (understanding) in the n e s h ~ m a h . 183. Moshe Cordovero. and he reviewed for them Chassidic discourses he had learned in Lubavitch. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. the remaining three letters spell Nun. vol. 1:p. and this results in a strengthening of the asey tou (do good)' relating to the 248 com1. Likutei Leui Yitzchuk-Zohur. R. Dov Ber whether to continue reviewing Chassidic discourses for those unable to understand them. 3. See R. there is a b w and stream in the illumination of the soul which vivifies the body. He asked R.8 Foreword to Third Edition Rabbi Hillel was to encourage and strengthen the religious life of the communities he visited. alluding to the '32 Wondrous Paths of Chochmah' (Sefer Yetzirah I: 1. The word Leuanon is divisible into two components. R. Zohur I:4a and f 261b). Cf. that the gimatriya-numerical equivalent-of the word baLeoanon is the same as that of Chochmah-Binah) 4. each forming a symbolic number: the first two letters (Lamed-Bet) form the number 32. incidentally. 2. 1I:p.
and also ibid.Cf. and notes ad loc. XVIII (on Lamentations II:19)... Note. Tikunei Zohur XXI:49a. 1:p. Likutei Sichot. XII). and R.. Cf. sect. V:p. Schneerson of Lubavitch. though. Schneerson. vol. et passim. Hayom Yom. Kidurhin 30b. 1I:p 473f. Chaim David . 6. Eliyahu Rabba. the comment by R. There is a unique merit. Or Ne'erau V:2. but this fact must not deter either the teaching or the learning of it. ch. ch. an objectively purifying. 29 and 51. XXI (on Numbers XXIV:5). 460f. p. 31) man's essential and foremost concentration and involvement should be with the positive aspect of asey tou. vol. ibid. Menachem M.Foreword to Third Edition 9 mandments [which the Torah enjoins man] to do. in the very perusal of these sacred texts. p. R. Menachem M. that Chassidism emphasizes that after an initial cognizance to avoid wrong-doing (see Tanya. also the Baal Shem Tov's comment that the light of Torah (goodness) causes darkness (evil) to disappear.. edifying and invigorating effect. ch. Cf. 5. See Likutei Torah V:48b-c. IX. See R. 138. end of ch. end of ch. as with Torah in general. and of the sur mera (turn away from evil)' relating to the 365 prohibitions [of the Torah] The difficult and complex concepts and doctines of Jewish Mysticism are all-pervasive in Chassidism. ch. 31. Eliyahu Zutta. vol. and ch. just as the kindling of light dispels darkness.. Nitzauim (see my The Great Maggid. in Degel Machane Ephrayim. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Mahurash) quoted in Sefer Hasichot 5700. VI (on Menachot V:8). R.6 even if they are difficult to understand and sometimes not comprehended. do good). 124f. this will then of itself effect the negative sur mera. 41. Moshe Cordovero. 7. Tzauacrt Hariuash.
The significance thereof is far-reaching. Tikunim 107c.. 8. implies of itself obligation of involvement. mysticism) . Hilchot Talmud Torah II:13. 1164. s. which are the four levels of meaning and interpretation of the Torah. For an example of the application of these four levels of interpretation. and Mekor Chessed ad loc. Hilchot Talmud Torah. Sha'ar haMitzvot.. therefore.v. see R. cit. (supra. Baal Shem Tov's comment quoted in Likutim Yekarim. See Shulchan Aruch of R. and their relationship to Chassidism. 102b. Sha'ar Ruuch Hakodesh. Chaim Vital. and also II:2. Sefer Chassidim sect. s. 108b. i&m.10 Foreword to Third Edition This objective and independent potency makes it possible for all to become involved with Pnimiyut haTorah (the "inner" aspects of the Torah). sect." The possibility of involvement with Pnimiyut haTorah. XXVI. ad loc. 9. Sha'ar haGilgulim XVI-XVII. 3. Avoduh Zara 19a. Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat h a C h s i d u t [presently available in English translation: O n the Essence of C h s i d u s ] ch. ibid. and infra.v. Keriah bechochmat haKabbalah. R. note 29. . Menachern M. Cf. 9-17. In the context of the Talmudic passage of the "Four who entered the Pardes (Garden. and Sod ( esoterics. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Avodat Hakodesh. sect. and Zohar I:26b. Moreh beEtzba II:44. also ibid. Tel Aviv 5723. notes 6 and 8). See Hilchot Talmud Torah. 10. Chaim Vital. Schneerson of Lubavitch. p. 1:4 and 11:10. 22b. R. ed. Cf. Remez (or Re'iyah). and R. Introduction.1° Azulay (Chidu). lgeret Hakodesh. and Sod.. Zohar I:185a and III:85b. Orchard) "-Chagigah 14b-the Zohar reads the word Pardes as an acronym for Peshat. and Tosaphot. Remez (allu:~ sion). D e m h ( hermeneutics). see Zohar Chadash. 111:llOa and 202a. demanding that each and everyone study Torah to the best of his abilities and the utmost of his capacities-on all four levels of the T ~ r a h Peshut ( simple meaning). Isaac Luria. Tanya. in view of the fact that the precept of Talmud Torah (Torah-study) is allcomprehensive. Derush.
R. Moses and David. lent special impetus to the aforementioned. in whole or in part. Israel Bml Shem Tov. In the famous epistle addressed to his brotherin-law. . I ascended level after level until I reached the palace of the Messiah. what I saw and learned when I ascended there. . ~ ' Baal Shem Tov recalls the a wondrous experience: "On Rosh Hashanah 5507 (1746) I performed the evocation of aliyat haneshamah (ascent of the soul to celestial spheres) . I saw wondrous things in a vision as I had not seen heretofore since the day I reached maturity. I asked the Messiah: 'When will the master come [to redeem Israel]? And he answered: "By this you shall know it: when your teachings will be- ll. 12. in Keter Shem TOUand other works. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy (to whom it had been entrusted by the Baal Shem Tov for delivery to R. . who revealed and disseminated Pnimiyut haTorah in the form and modes of Darkey haChmsidut (the ways and practices of Chassidism) and Torat haChmsidut ( the teachings of Chassidism ) . Methuselah.Foreword t o Third Edition 11 The advent of R. Abraham Gershon) as an appendix to his Ben Porat Yosseph. This letter was published first by R. Seth. 115. Jacob. Subsequently it has been reprinted. Abraham. where the Messiah studies Torah with all the Tannaim (teachers of the Mishnah) and the Tzadikim (righteous people). p. ". see . . even face to face. It is impossible to relate and tell. . and also the Seven Shepherds12. Adam. Abraham Gershon of K ~ t o v . . Cf. The Great Maggid.
872f. Exodus XIV:8). 13. sect. sect. For a Chassidic interpretation o this encounter. the Baal Shem Tov's grandson and disciple. 1:p. externally)' . vol. Beshulach. f voi. 14. 10. XVI-XVIII (esp. Likutei Diburim. vol. as stated in the Zohar: Sukah 52b. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. refers to this letter in his writings and adds: "This [reply of the Messiah] seems alluded in the verse 'And the children of Israel went out [of Egypt] beyad ramah (with uplifted hand. pp. that is when [Israel] shall come out of exile. 11. ch. and 'your springs will be dispersed chutzah (abroad. and the word gaky alludes to the time when his teachings shall be revealed and his springs will be dispersed. . 572 and 6186f. . 15. 1II:p. Degel Machune Ephrayim. the gloss by T z m h Tzedek in Likutei Torah III:33b."16 The Baal Shem Tov's vision in essence reflects an ancient premise of the mystics. Cf. 1 (p. Keter Shem Tou."I4 R. and his Or haTorah-Neui'im. .j. 476 ff. see Mystical Concepts in Chassidism. . Bereish is an acronym for R. . [ Targum Onkebs renders the translation of beyad r a m h as] bereish gaby (openly).Foreword to Third Edition come renowned and will be revealed throughout the world. see R. See Likutei Sichot. Moshe Chaim Ephraim of Sudylkov. Kelipot (shells) is the Kabbalistic term for the aspects of evil. 2a-b) .' . then the kelipot13 will perish and it will be a time of propitiousness and deliverance. Israel Baal Shem. and Shfr Hashirim Rabba VII1:end of 9.
i. also Zohar III:153a. the 'Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil' (Genesis II:9) symbolizes the exoteric Talmud and Halachah (which deal with the clarification of what is permitted. Zohar III:124b. Zohar III:153b).16 the Sefer haZohar. XXVI. at the end of days. . See Zohar Chadash. and 1.. and in the merit thereof 'You shall proclaim liberty throughout the land. Tikunei Zohar VI:23b-24a. explained at length in Zgeret Hakodesh. and Zohar Chadash. . 6d: 'One must not reveal the mys- ". See the sequel of our passage in the Zohar (and its exposition in Igeret Hakodesh. sect. the Kabbalah. ch. cf. Shimon bar Yochai]. Kuntres Etz hachayim.. 5 and 11-13. the Book of the Zohar (Book of Splendor) . in mercy. and what is forbidden. And because in the future Israel will taste from the Tree of Life. unfit and impure. XXVI). . Shimon bar Yochai] when it will be revealed in the last generation. In Kabbalistic terminology. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch. Tikunim 96c. and the 'Tree of Life' symbolizes the esoteric aspects of the Torah. they will leave the exile with it. See also ibid.e. 3."17 so many people here below (on earth) shall be sustained (yitpamssun) by this work of [R. Tikunim 106c-d. sect.' (Leviticus XXV:lO)"ls The teachings of the Kabbalah originally were restricted to yechidei segulah.. and R. 18. 19. the clarification or 'knowledge' of 'good' and 'evil'). XXI:53b (and the commentary Kisse Melech ad loc. And . a chosen few whose saintliness matched their scholarship and who had mastered the strict prerequisites1@to 16. and Zohar Chadnsh. cf. .Foreword to Third Edition 13 '"And they that are wise shall shine as the splendor of the firmament' ( Daniel XI1 :3) with this work of [R. fit and pure. Bereishit. in other words. Appendix 1 1 17.
Or Ne'erau. 31-32. and R. too. See Zohar III:159a. . whose studies endure and he is G-d-fearing and erudite in everything. Man must study the wisdom of the Kabbalah. stated in the sacred Zohar21 that permission to reveal was teries of the Torah except to a person that is wise and studied Scripture and Talmud. only observing the things above him.). Introduction to Etz Chayim.radiate in this body like a lamp placed in a glass reflector: shining and invigorating him to understand the mysteries of the Torah and revealing its depths . Moshe Cordovero notes that he who wishes to pursue the esoteric teachings of the Torah must first possess some basic knowledge of nigbh (the exoteric Torah). . . part I: ch. 20. To study the mysteries of the Torah before Scripture. 33-34. also The Great Maggid. Chairn Vital. Mishnah and Talmud is at best 'like a soul without a body. but first his body must be purified. otherwise he would be like one who 'gazes at the stars. See Pessachim 119a. lacking efficacy and accountability . . Dov Ber of Mezhirech. p. Hilchot Yessodei Hatorah IV: 13. .'. "The whole science of the Kabbalah had been concealed from all the scholars except for a select few-and even that was in a mode of 'walking secretly' and not ~ R. Cf. pp. Chagigah l l b and 13a. and thus failing to see holes right under his feet: ultimately he will fall into a deep pit'. . Kehot. ad loc.14 Foreword to Third Edition entering the orchard of mysticism. beginning of Introduction. I: ch. Or Torah. 21. R. 114-116. the laws relevant to the daily life c/f the Jew. 258 ( e d . publicly. This is effected by practising the mitzuot which serve this purpose [ c f . . and Tikunei Zohar. See also R. and also ibid. also ibid. infra. Moreh Neuuchim. Moses Nachmanides' Introduction to his Commentary on the Torah.' Cf. Cf. ~ Shimon bar Yochai.. Genesis Rabba XLIV:I] and are essential.. II:149a and III:79a. Maimonides. 6. Chagigah l l b and 13a. R. ch. and note 20. Tehillim. as mentioned in the G e r n a r ~.The soul of man is a lamp of the Eternal (Proverbs XX:27) . 77a). Only thereafter can the neshamah (soul) . sect. Kidushin 71a. and Zohar III:105b and 244a (with Nitzutzei Orot and Nitzutzei Zohar. Maimonides.
and Maimonides' reference to the restoration of prophecy prior to the Messianic redemption. vol. 24.e. to the period immediately preceding the Messianic era. R. for both the great and the small.e.. in his Introduction to Or haChumuh. was to last only to 'the end of days. Likutei Sichot. Shimon bar Yochai foresaw an ever-increasing revelation of mysticism in the period preceding the Messianic redemption to the point that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom. in this context R. in his lgeret T e y m n (see also his Moreh Neuuchim 1I:end of ch. Cf. and not another. As it is by virtue of this merit."24 22. 588f. 36)."23 Indeed. Abraham Azulay..Foreword to Third Edition 15 given to him and his associates only. Since the year 5300 it is a most meritorious precept to be occupied therewith in public. it is improper to be slothful [with this study] .' i. the Kabbalah) was but for a set period of time. 23. however. sect. Rashi's commentary on Song I:2. namely up until the end of the year 5250 (1490). that the King Messiah will come in the future. quoting earlier sages. XXVI. lgeret Hakodesh. . "The decree against open involvement with Chochmath haEmeth (the Wisdom of the Truth. Zohar 1:118a. From then onwards it is called the 'last generation. I1:p. i. Cf.' and the decree was nullified and it is permissible to occupy oneself with the Zohar."22 T i concealment and hs restriction.
~ ~ Ever since then there has been a continuous flow of mystic works appearing in print: the writings and teachings of the aforementioned R. Moshe Cordovero. Tel Aviv 5721. R. Chaim Vital. Sefer HagiG . and preoccupation with. For the basic difference between the systems of R. Joseph Ergas. All these works. Jerusalem 1967. ed. whose expository works-of remarkably lucid style-have become primary sources. See R. Chaim Vital. whose all-encompassing teachings soon were recognized universally as final and authoritative and had an impact on the totality of Jewish life. 178f. and cf. See R. Moshe Cordovero and R. Moses Zacuto's glosses on Etz Chayim and Meuo She'arim. p. Isaac Luria declared that as of then it is not only permissible but a duty to reveal Pnimiyut haTorah. Sefer haChizyonoth II:17. the Kabbalah. [See also Sefer Toldot haAri. sect. R. sect. Menachem Azarya de Fano. Immediately after him followed R. It was the age of R. special tracts propagating the principles and premises of the Kabbalah and introducing the novice to them. end of Introduction to Peloch haRimon. mystical expositions of the Bible and Rabbinic texts. 158f. Moshe Cordovero and R. Isaac Luria. the Ari ( "Lion"). 100 note 1. p. the esoteric part of T ~ r a h . Isaac Luria. note 2 (Mevo She'arim.)] 28.. and of their disciples. also ibid. lgeret Hakodesh.26 It was an age that ushered in an altogether new era: R. and p. p. VI (ed. 335a).16 Foreword to Third Edition The century following the year 5250-referred to above-witnessed a phenomenal flourishing and revolutionary expansion in the study of. Shomes Emunim I:17. Isaac Luria see R. mostly written by scholars whose authoritative 25. XXVI. commentaries on the Zohar.
Moshe Cordovero. ch. Abraham Amlay's Introduction to Or haChamah. p. 156b). p. vol. and ." Cf. (also in Or haChassidut. Or Ne'erau (parts I-V).cf. On the Essence o Chassidus. Joseph Ergas. in spite. Shomer Emunim. stressed the signilicance of. Kuntres Znyanah she1 Torat haChassidut. ch. vol. p. as stated in Tikunei [Zohar] that by merit of the Zohar the King Messiah will be revealed. Kuntres Limud h C h s i d u t . Kuntres Etz haChayim. Shmuel of Lubavitch quoted in Sefer Hatoldot-MaHarash.). also Introduction to Sha'ar haHakdamot. Appendix (p.. ) 27. Shimon bar Yochai to resolve all prob- . quoted in The Great Moggid. pp. Kuntres Acharon. an intensive study of Pnintiyut h ~ T r n a h ~ ~ very gulim. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. sect. comment by R. and precisely because of the spiritual decline of our own times (see the incisive parable by R. p. . Isaac de Lattes' Approbation to the first printing of the Zohar (prefacing most editions since). ch. it is necessary to reveal Chochmat haEmet (the mystical teachings of the Torah) in order that the Messiah will come. On the obligatory aspect in the study of Pnimyut haTorah see also Tanya. Chain Vital's resolution of the seeming contradiction between this claim and the restrictive prerequisites referred to above (notes 19-21). which is the last era. V1I:p. and his letter published in Hatamim 1:p. Likutei f Sichot. no one would be able to pursue this study unless he had an instructor as great as R. and Appendix 111.Foreword to Third Edition 17 expertise in the Talmudic-Halachic branches of the Torah equalled their mastery of the Kabbalah. See especially R. R. R. 25%.. 13 and 21. I. R. R. 150f. 81. Note also R. Zohur II:26).the need for. They state emphatically the admissibility and necessity thereof nowadays. 91f. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. 169%. IV (p. 19ff. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar huHakdamot. 206ff. 32: "In this our present era. R. 117-119. They and many others went to great lengths to refute in detail the various objections raised to an extensive study of mysticism. 10. and the analogy offered in Likutei Sichot. by stating: "If we were to apply the prerequisites as strictly as they appear to be. etc.
see Zohar III:152a. comparing them to silver and gold Tespectively. 29. passim. ch. the frequent discussion of this theme in Likutei Sichot (see index. Kuntres Torat Mhassidut. Heaven forbid. 26 and 50. ed. Heaven forbid. because the subject matter is questionable . See further the sources cited in the preceding note. 28. Hafotzat haMayanot. one must think 'If this matter appears to be vain-it is on my account [see Yerushalmi. because he thinks himself very wise and without deficiency on his part". Moreh Neuuchim. Cf. ch. esoteric) parts of the Torah. I: ch. Introduction. passkn. Thus it seems to me that the mitzvah to pursue this wisdom remains in effect.2@ However. p. Kuntres Etz haChayim. Introduction (in comment on Proverbs XXV: 1 ) . Cf. a d . Maimonides' distinction between the nigleh (revealed. The study [of mysticism] is prohibited only to him who is unable to stand in the Palace of the King and may come to heresy. provided one has adopted the following approach: When seeing bewildering passages which may arouse doubts. Introductions. Sha'ar haHakdamot. parts IV-V. Pnimiyut haTorah). this open dissemination of the Kabbalah. which began gradually in mediaeval times and expanded drastically from lems encountered. Kol Ramah on Zohur III:14la (quoted in Nitzutzei Zohar. Tel Aviv. ) . Moreh Neuuchim. On the illuminating aspect of Pnimiyut haTorah in relation to the other parts of Torah see Or Ne'erau. 23b f . and not. Pe'ah 1:1 on Deuteronomy XXXII:47]. The exoteric and esoteric layers of the Torah are usually compared and referred to as the body and the soul of the Torah. 21ff. Chassidut. Kuntres Etz haChayim. and the anthology Or ha- C hassidut. 31-34. s. 15. . and 111: ch. Maimonides. . and also Etz Chayim. that is. Kuntres Inyanuh she1 Torat haChassidut ( O n the Essence of Chassidus) .. I don't understand it because of the deficiency of my intellect. exoteric) and nistar (concealed. Kuntres Limud huchassidut. .v.18 Foreword to Third Edition ou12%f the Torah which animates and illuminates the body of the exoteric tradition.
See Degel Machane Ephrayim. sect. Israel Baal Shem Tov who revealed and propagated the teachings of Chassidism. and contained and alluded to. 1II:pp. His scholarly disciples thus. vol. too. Chassidism made it possible that not only the discerning scholar but every one may 'taste from the Tree of Life' and be inspired by it. Vayeshev. Likutei Sichot.Foreword to Third Edition 19 the sixteenth century onward. of section Tstzaceh (Likutim). His words. In this new stage mysticism was popularized on a much wider scale. A new era began with the rise of R. His pithy words were easily understood by simple folks at whom they were often directed and set their souls on fire to worship the Omnipresent with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. Two centuries passed since R. The Baal Shem Tov propagated and disseminated ideas and ideals of Pnimiyut haTorah in such ways and manners as could be absorbed by all. invariably were based on. however. During his numerous travels he would address differing audiences with short and seemingly simple comments or parables relating to Torah and the Divine service. by each relative to his own level. profound premises and insights of the mystical depths of Torah. 874 and 875. Isaac Luria before there was a further development bringing the Zohar's vision of the 'end of days' a major step closer to realization. . remained restricted basically to the scholarly world. and beg. could and would probe these teachings and meditate on them to extricate their inexhaustible lessons relating to themselves at their own level of scholarship and understandingS3O 30.
but of an immanent and all-pervasive understanding and comprehension. Dov Ber of Lubavitch in his Introduction to Biurei huZohar. 33. to mean limud be'iyun gad01 dauka-an intensive study of. of an extensive study of Pnimiyuth haTorah. i. Every attempt was made to realize fully the 'dissemination of the fountains of Chassidism chutxclh'-outside. passim (s. When R. even in such places and to such people which at first glance might seem far removed from any relationship with the subjectmatters of C h a ~ s i d i s m . See Likutei Sichot. ch. Pnimiyut haTorah).If ~at first this dissemination had been ~ indirectly.u.20 Foreword to Third Edition This new approach. was to change in the course of time. continued in one form or another through the second generation of Chassidism. Hafotzat huMayanot.. 32. and comprehenrive deliberation on Pnimyut haTomh.' this. See The Great Maggid.e. led by R. as quoted above. C b s i d u t . Dov Ber of M e ~ h i r e c h . Schneur Zalman of Liadi interprets the Zohar's precondition to the Messiainic redemption. VII. The Zohar's vision of the overall study of Pnimiyut haTorah is not one of merely a formal acceptance in principle or of a transcendental acquaintance.a3 he follows clearly in the footsteps of the classic commentators preceding him: "'And became in the future Israel lemit'am (will taste) 31. . Quoted by R.and ~~ those following thereafter. or in a transcendent mode of 'the neshmah hears and understands. too.
Foreword to Third Edition
from the Tree of Life-': Note the expression kmit'am. It implies that the meanings of the Zohar's teachings ultimately will become manifest in a mode of tuu ta'am (goodness of taste; good discernment; Psalms CXIX:66); to the point that
every palate tasting it will desire it, as opposed to he who studies [the Zohar] superficially only. The latter will not sense its sweetness, while Scripture states 'Taste and see that the Eternal is good' ( Psalmr XXX1V:Q).
'"-they will leave the exile with [the Zohar]': This is meant to be when they will taste (i.e.,discern; comprehend)
the meanings of its delightful teachings, as in these our own times which are the 'end of days' and the era of the redemption, as we wrote in section Vayera (Zohar I: folio) 117, see there."a'
R. Sholom Buzaglo writes in his commentary on Tikunei Zohar:
"Note the expression 'when it will become manifest below.' This clearly indicates that . . . here below it will not be manifest until the 'last generation,' i.e., the 'end of days,' meaning quite specifically close to the era of the Messiah who will come on this account.35 "Verily, it is now hundreds of years already since the [Zohur] was revealed below, yet the descendant of David still has not come. But pay close attentioin to the text: it
34. R. Sholom Buzaglo, Hadrat Melech on Zohar 111:124b. 35. See also R. Sholom Buzaglo's introductions prefacing Tikunei
Foreword to Third Edition
states ' y i t p m s s u n (they will be sustained; provided for) by this work.' The implication is that the profound teachings [of the Zohar] will be explicated-according to the premises ~ revealed by R. Isaac L ~ r i a .. . .~ This is what is meant by [the term] parnassah (sustenance; provision), i.e., that they will understand and benefit from its light which is 'sweet to the soul and health to the bones' ( Prooerbs XVI:24). He who studies [the Zohar and Pnimiyut haTorah] superficially (girsa be'alma) will reap a good reward for his effort and sanctifies his soul in purity, but the special remedy by virtue of which 'you shall proclaim liberty' is when yitparnessun (they will be sustained by) and study the meanings of the teachings [of the Z ~ h a r ] . " ~ ~ VII The progressive evolution in the manifestation and exposition of Pnimiyut haTorah reached a new milestone in our own age. For now, some two hundred years after the advent of the Baal Shem Tov and the Chassidic Movement, these teachings have been, and continue to be made available not only in systematized form and and in intelligible terminology and simplified exposition, but also translated into modern languages. This new development was ini36. Cf. R. Chaim Vital, Etz Chayim 1:s; Sha'ar haHakdamot, 11; Shomer Emunm I : 17. 37. Kisse Melech on the passage from Tikunei Zohar VI:23b quoted above.
Foreword to Third Edition
tiated by R. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn of L u b a ~ i t c h and inten,~~ sified in every conceivable way by HnR'137 his successor, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch N''D''1W. This latest expansion has in effect removed the last barriers to the fullest and widest possible dissemination of Pnimiyut huTorah-"the fountains of Chassidus which were unlocked by R. Israel Baal Shem Tov, who envisaged Chassidus as a stream of 'living waters,' growing deeper and wider, until it should reach every segment of the Jewish People and bring new inspiration and vitality into their daily lives."3v In our own days, thus, the path has been cleared and paved for the realization of R. Shimon bar Yochai's vision that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom,"-culminating in the era of "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of G-d as the waters cover the sea" (Isaiah XI :9) "And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour and every man his brother saying 'Know the Eternal,' for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of theml" (Jeremiah XXX1:33I4O
This book was written in the context and for the purpose of the aforesaid. Its justification is measured by the extent of achieving that end.
38. See Likutei Sichot, vol. 1II:pp. 874-6, and vol. X1II:p. 180; Kovetz Yud Shuat, pp. 69-71. 39. Foreword by Lubavitcher Rebbe to the English translation of Tanya. See also Likutei Sichot, vol. X1II:p. 177ff. (in conjunction with the publication of the bi-lingual edition of Tanya, London 1975). 40. See Zohar III:23a and Mairnonides, Hilchot Melachim XII:5.
there is hardly a more gratifying reward for the author.24 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM If the need for a new printing indicates some success. J. The present edition differs from the previous one by minor revisions and additions in both the text and the notes. and supplementary references to works published since then. IMMANUEL SCLIOCHET Toronto. 28 Menuchem Au 5739 .
there are different schools of learning and interpretation. . The paragraphs dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh appear also alongside the translation. An attempt has been made to offer simplified outlines and explanations to the English-reading novice in this field. involving very delicate premises and principles of the teachings of the Kabbalah and Chassidism. Schneur Zalman of Liadi's celebrated Likutei Amarim-Tanya. It is an introduction sewing two purposes: to acquaint the reader with the general nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh. as in other branches of knowledge. and acquaint him with. appear here on their own. This separate publication was necessitated by technical difficulties but also serves to emphasize the following point. the fourth part of R.Foreword to First Edition This volume is a companion to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. by way of a brief and general Introduction. The explanatory notes. and to introduce the reader to. The Explanatory Notes deal with profoundly intricate subjects. forming the bulk of this volume. though numerous references have been made to them in the footnotes of the translation. but the subject-matter is not as simple as may appear here. In Jewish Mysticism. some basic concepts and doctrines which appear throughout that work.
But it should be noted that the explanations offered in this volume" represent their author's understanding of the subjects. The involved terminology and subtle phraseology in all the works mentioned often threaten to entrap anyone who cannot claim to belong to the exclusive circle of t"n 'y?l' (adepts in the esoteric science). Schneur Zalman of Liadi. the basic sources of the Explanatory Notes are the writings of R. and there remains but to paraphrase the Psalmist with the apology and prayer: "Who can understand (and prevent) errors? Clear Thou me from hidden faultsl" (Psalms 19:13) Toronto. the reader is reminded that ambition is not necessarily identical with achievement. As the footnotes show. For example. with abundant references to the original writings of the Zohar and of R. in the school of R. 1 Nissan 5728 1 J. ' The same applies to the explanations given in the footnotes of the translation. since shortly after its inception (sixteenth century). Though he strove to grasp and offer the views and interpretations of R. we find. dominates the world of Jewish Mysticism. Nonetheless. Isaac Luria which. .26 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM These schools differ not only one from another. but sometimes subdivide into further branches within themselves. it is hoped that this Introduction will prove successful in its aims.S.I. Isaac Luria. The obvious purpose is to present them in a way that will help clarify the contents of Zgeret Hakodesh. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. differing interpretations of even so basic a doctrine of that great master as tzimtzum. in +e very first generation after the passing of its founder.
' (ii) The first three chapters have been entirely rewritten. On the other hand. This has led to some major changes: ( i ) This volume was written and intended as an Introduction to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. I have followed the suggestion to give it a separate title whilst retaining the original one as a sub-title. appear in the abbreviated Introductiurl prefacing the translation. growing out of the original intent and purpose. are retained. 11-17 in the first edition of this work) which. and to the footnotes of its translation.with the numbers in the bi-lingual edition noted in parentheses. reference is made to both . the numerous references to Igeret Hakodesh.Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition The first edition of this introductory tract has been out of print for a long time. in any case. . The need for a second edition is not only gratifying but also provides an auspicious opportunity to revise and to take into consideration comments and suggestions received since the first printing. " Where the numbering of these footnotes differs between the original editions of the translation (New York 1968 and 1972) and the bi-lingual edition (London 1973). But as it has come to be used for general reference. For this reason I have omitted from the revised edition the technical parts dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh (pp.
But this new edition does afford an opportunity to rectify an omission in the first one.28 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The other chapters were expanded. Technical difficulties prevent me. to give due acknowledgment to my wife H"D"7nw for compiling the helpful indices of both this work and the translation of Zgeret Hakodesh. 26 Nissan 5731 . from adding a few additional chapters on related concepts and doctrines. and otherwise underwent only minor revisions. namely. Toronto. at this time.
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM .
author of ParAs Rimonim. But in these works they appear mostly seminal and rudimentary. Known by the acrostic REMAK. and many other works. Founder and leader of a Kabbalistic school in Safed that soon became the dominant school in Jewish Mysticism. Moses Cordoverol and R. etc. Shiur Komuh. such as Etz Chuyim. Or Ne'erav. Peri Etz Chayim. The intricate system of the Lurianic Kabbalah. Leader of a prominent Kabbalistic school in Safed. They are concepts and doctrines that have their origins in the basic works of the Kabbalah such as Sefer Yetzirah and the Zohar-writings. Chayim Vital f (1543-1620).Introduction This book deals with fundamental concepts and doctrines which appear throughout the writings of Chassidism and are essential for a proper understanding of them. Likutei Torah. Mevoh She'arlm. Shu'ar hatlakdamot. is authoritatively recorded in the multi-voluminous writings o ARl's principal disciple R. Known by the acrostic ARI. which forms the theoretical basis of Chassidic thought. 2. 1534-1572. REMAK is regarded as one o the most important and lucid expositors and systematists f of Jewish Mysticism. and exerted a profound influence on the whole Jewish world. Isaac L ~ r i a Thus any attempt to . .~ explain these concepts and doctrines as they appear in the writ- 1. They assume their accepted authoritative fonns only in the comprehensive expositions of R. Elimu Rabba:y. 1522-1570.
There are many philosophical questions and problems that are related to.3 can be done only in the context of the works of his predecessors. Known as the Rau (Rabbij. and amongst Chassidim as the Alter Rebbe (Elder Rabbi). too. Where other works prove helpful. Founder and leader of Chubad. 1745-1813. These outlines and explanations neither are. published by Kehot: New York 1969. author of Likutei Amarim (Tanya). Torah Or. these various concepts and doctrines which are beyond the scope of this book to deal with.32 Introduction ings of R. and nothing more. Verily. as an attempt at simplified outlines and explanations. nor claim to be. and cross-references enlightening to the serious student seeking to delve further into the subject-matter.) . themselves. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. complete in. are cited in the footnotes. They are discussed here because the marginal notes accompanying the translation of Igeret Hakodesh (where these concepts and doctrines appear) could not do justice to them. etc. But even the chapters following should be regarded as merely explanatory notes.Chassidism. Likutei Torah. often involving difficult and delicate premises and principles which touch upon many basic theological problems. an authoritative revision of Shulchun Aruch. It is to be remembered that the concepts and doctrines discussed deal with profoundly intricate subjects. and by. For this reason the reader will find many references to them throughout this book. such an objective would require a much larger volume if not several volumes. ( A detailed biography in English is presently available. and can be raised about. Those interested in pursuing the subjects further are referred to readily available works devoted to that 3. these.
~ 4. such as the writings of R. Teshuvot Divrei Yosef. that Ibn Gabbai's works are preLurianic (Auodut Hakohsh was completed in 1531. and is a relatively easy philosophical introduction to the main issues and principles of Jewish Mysticism. dealing with its most important problems and containing profound critical discussions of various philosophical expositions. though. and Derech Emunuh in 1539). Renowned Talmudist and Kabbalist of the Lurianic school.Introduction 33 purpose. 1685-1730. It should be noted. and ToEa'at Yabkov. originally from Spain and later in Egypt. 5. . Shomer Emunim is written in the form of a dialogue between a mystic (adherent and defender of the Kabbalah) and his rationalist critic. Joseph E r g a ~ . etc. often cited in the footnotes. Author of Avodut Hakodesh.Author of Minchat Yosef. residing in Livorno and Pisa. Meir ibn Gabbai4 and R. One of the first and foremost systematists of the Kabbalah. Avodat Hakodesh is an elaborate introduction to the Kabbalah. Shomer Emunim. Derech Emunah.
Mechilta. as it is stated "The Torah speaks in the language of man. is highly anthropomorphic. and our Sages use anthropomorphic language. the Prophets. and Tanchuma. and thus in the expositions following."' For "Had they limited themselves to abstract terns and con1. Sifm on Levit. 20:2. The reason is because these are the only type of words that man can use in any meaningful way. The terms are borrowed from human concepts and the empirical world. Berachot 31b.world. Anthropomorphism The terminology of Kabbalah and Chassidism. on Exodus 15:7 and 19:18. . The forms of spatial-temporal concepts are imposed upon the mind of man who lives in a spatial-temporarl.CHAPTER ONE Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 1. It is for this very reason that the Torah.
Berachot. Then we can proceed to an understanding that the presentation is only approximate and metaphorical. as Scripture states explicitly: "To whom then will you liken G-d? Or what likeness will you compare to Him? .36 MYSTICAL CON(=EPTSIN CHASSIDISM cepts appropriate to G-d.e. Sha'ar Hayichud: ch. The words and ideas used have accordingly to be such as are adapted to the hearer's mental capacity so that the subject would first sink into his mind in the corporeal sense in which the concrete terms are understood." (Isaiah 40:18. 131). 10. "The wise thinker will endeavor to strip the husk of the terms (i. . no. and will raise his conception step by step until he will at last attain to as much knowledge of the truth as his intellect is capable of apprehending. 25). are non-ascribable to the Divinity. Hikhot Yesodei Hatorah I:7-12. 35f. and that the reality is too subtle. 271 (1I:p. All and any anthropomorphic notions and concepts. R. To who will you liken Me that I should be equal. 357 (1:p. 9 2 ) . Judah Halevi. their materialistic meaning) from the kernel. Kuzay IV:5. spatial and coporeal connotations. and 46. and Comment. 33. Responsa no.. Cf. . Tanya 1I:lO. Otzar Hageonim."" Thus it is to be kept in mind at all times that the terms and concepts need to be stripped of all and any temporal. Bachya ibn Pakuda. says the Holy One. too exalted and remote for us to comprehend its subtlety. we would have understood neither the terms nor the concepts. strictly speaking. and Moreh Neuuchim I:28. R. Maimonides. This cardinal premise was adopted by Maimonides as the 2. Chouot Haleuouot. .
talking and so on. Di Yiddishe Heim. 10. 3 and 5. Schneur ZaEman o Liadi. III:65b. II:20a. vol. Sanhedrin. these terms are carefully chosen and possess a profound meaning. and on the supernal levels of the strictly spiritual realm there are no such things as eyes. See also Chouot Habuouot. Hilchot Teshuvah III:7. 4. and so on. 1:ch. and man in particular. and allusions to. and 11: ch. et passim. however. Midrash Tanchuma. hands. seeing. ears. 117a. note 2). To be sure. Intr.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 37 third in his compilation of the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles of Faith". ch. there is no likeness whatever between G-d and the creation. walking. nor such activities and affections as hearing. Rabba I:4. 10. Moreh Nevuchim I:36 (and the references to Maimonides." parts I and 11. 140a. Commentary on Mishnah. to ch. Zohar I:38a. (Most of these sources are quoted in the discussion of the "correspondence-theory" in J. is not arbitrary just because it is under the protection of the above qualification. 205b. The Rabbinic-Midrashic and mystical writings abound with references to the idea that the world below in general. it should also be noted that the anthropomorphic terminology used in Scripture.. all these spatial-temporal activities and concepts do 3. 2. supra. ibid. Aud de R. Cf. Schochet. by the mystics and by others. However. Rather. certain supernal concepts and notions to which the9 correspond. nos. are created in the "image" of the "world above".I. 75bf. Pekudei: 3. XI f (New York 1970). 31. Eccles.a At the same time. Nathan.) . "The Psychological System of R. 3-4. 48b.' All the categories to be found in the world below and in man are homonymous representations of. ibid.
Toldot Adam: Bayit Neeman. sect. XXII (Shu'ar Hakinuyim). SoIomon ibn Aderet. p. part 111. (all of which quote R. p. categories. 65. Cf. R. R.in accordance with the aforesaid .. strictly and purely spiritual. calling to mind and denoting the full concrete entity of that person. Isaiah Horowitz (ad loc. Pardes Rimonim. Isaiah Horowitz.exactly the other . the whole of R. 10d) makes the interesting point that strictly speaking it is not that "the Torah speaks in the language of man. specific categories. Shomer Emunim I:24f.38 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM symbolise. Sha'ar I (ed. ch. cit. 2." but . and ch. R. ch. Sha'arei Orah. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. esp. notions and concepts that are of a strictly spiritual nature. 2b). Joseph Cikatilla aptly explains this correspondence-relationship by means of the following analogy. See also R. p. Even so. for that reason come into being in correspondence to the original supernal. 268. Thus it is with the anthropomorphic and anthropopathic concepts and terms: There is no concrete or direct link or likeness between them and the meanings they seek to express. For a fuller discussion of the mystics' view of anthropomorphisms see R. In addition. Meir ibn Cabbai. R. Joseph Ergas. Moses Cordovero's Shi'ur Komah is devoted to this topic. In a widely-quoted passage. Joseph Gikatilla). and. Moses Cordovero. Shenei Luchot Habrit. that writing is a symbol or sign relating to. link or relationship between the written letters or words on paper and the physio-mental entity of the person whose name has been recorded. Avodat Hakodesh. R. on Baua Batra 74b (Jerusalem 1966. there is surely no likeness. and denoting. non-spatial and non-temporal5 5. indeed. they are corresponding signs and symbols relating to. 90). Warsaw 1883. When writing the name of a person on a piece of paper. but nonetheless. esp.
6. "There are four principles: masculine and feminine (1"lr). Judgment ( D i n ) and compassion (Rachamim). vol. functions and manifestations. .U. . The Man-M etaphor In discussing Divinity relative to the Universe. the mode or form of emanation-reception and so forth (see lgeret Hakodesh. Likutei Sichot. . "The whole universe functions according to the principium of masculine and feminine" (R. note 9). sees but is not seen . . . is the way the anthropomorphic terminology is to be u n d e r s t o ~ d . does not eat and does not drink . S. sect. 363f. . the favourite metaphor of the mystics (as of many philosophers) is the analogy to man. . . p. Berayta de R. . . emanating (influencing) category and the passive. This should be remembered with particular regard to the so-called "erotic" concepts and symbolisms. so the Holy One. and "conjunctio" and so on. influencer or . and in particular in terms of the various soul-powers. The "proof-texts" for this usage are the verse "From my flesh I envisage G-d" (Job 19:26) and the Rabbinic analogy "Just as the soul permeates the whole body . . Etz Chayim 11:6). . no man knows where its place is . Theological concepts and the G-d-world relationship. because all terrestrial concepts are allusions to supernal ones! Cf. are often explained in terms of the soul-body relationship. XV. . their faculties. like the frequent occurrence of terms as "masculine" and "feminine". In general these denote the aspects of the active. abides in the innermost precincts. upper and lower.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 39 This. then. is pure . Peri Etz Chayim. . 11. . is unique in the body . receiving qualities and categories. Blessed is way around. Yishmael. ~ 2. Chayim Vital. Sha'ar Hakorbanot. 6. ch. sustains the whole body . .
g. Tikuwi Zohar 13:28a. Noach: pp. Shomer Emunim I:26f. op. quoted at length by R. and is completely inadequate: emanator (Mashpia') and influenced ( Mushpa'. Schneur Zalman points out. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (New York 1955). and 'Olat Tamid.. see the commentaries ad loc. XXV and XXIX. ed. See references supra. too. such terminology is not uniquely Kabbalistic. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. (p. 18. R. Peri Etz Chayim. Igeret Hakodesh. and esp. 2a).). ch.. 7. 8 and 121. Moreh Nevuchim.).40 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM He. note 4.. . as R. p. Tel Aviv 1963. upper and emanator. Actually. Tel Aviv 1966. 6 and 17. cit. this is but an anthropomorphic approximation which cannot be carried too far and needs to be qualified. see Pardess Rimonim XX1I:l. 91ff. pp. too. of sect. 8df. It must be remembered. . R.[Baua Batra 74b: "All that the Holy One. See Shomer Emunim II:9. the masculine corresponds to compassion. 8."' This. The earlier mystics. and the feminine corresponds to judgment. and 111: ch. Berachot 10a. Shenei Luchot Habrit. He created male and female". Shi'ur Komah. ad loc. beg. . Hakdamah 1I:end of Derush 2 (ed. and sect. 13a). see Likutei Torah V:9a.. Buber) 103:4. elaborate on the usage of these particular concepts. 5 (see notes ad loc. Introduction. also called Mekabel recipient). It may be found in the Talmudic writings . As a rule. Midrash Tehilltm (ed. XV."~ But even while an understanding of the soul is helpful in understanding matters relating to the Divinity.. beg. Schneur Zalman explains at length why the mystics purposely chose such delicate and seemingly peculiar terminology. that in some respects the analogy breaks down. in a sense. I: ch." idem. Jacob ibn Chabib in his Hakoteu on Ayin Yabkouf as well as in the philosophical literature [e. blessed is He. and Biurei Hamhar. and ibid. follows on the above-mentioned principle of a "terrestrial-supernal c~rrespondence.. 6aff. cit. of Sha'ar Hatefillah (ed. lower and recipient. p. created in His world. .
Heaven forbid. 2. . ch."lo Thus while the body may be fully subordinate to the soul. .Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 41 "This parallel is only to appease the ear. R. e. abounds in the Talmudic-Midrashic and mediaeval-philosophic writings. For the human soul . nor by the word itself. who brings everything into existence ex nihilo. affected by the accidents of the world and its changes. they are nevertheless two distinct entities. 10.ll 3. The Light-Metaphor Just as the soul provides a favourite metaphor. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. see. 42. In contrast. in their very sources. infra. blessed is He. . Sefer Hachakirah 1:8 (New York 1955. .. for the source of the body and its essence does not come into being from the soul . 11. 3. while the Holy One. . one from the other. just as the light of the sun is nullified in the sun itself". . they do not effect any change in Him. so we find that the term "light" is favoured by the mystics to describe the various emanations and manifestations of the Divinity. . In truth. and ch. end of section 4. . blessed is He. Zbid. Cf.. II:6. 12. the analogy has no similarity whatever to the object of comparison.g. Zbid.12 This term is carefully chosen for a number of reasons. See at length R. Berachot . Tanya. pp. is affected by the accidents of the body and its pain . however. everything is absolutely nullified. is not.ch. Joseph Albo sees in it the following advantages that may analogously be related to E d : 9. like the previous one. This metaphor.s " Also. "The soul and the body are actually distinct. . 7b-8b and 26a-b). too. I. note 18. "in relation to The Holy One.
ends of ch.42 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM ( i ) The existence of light cannot be denied. The mystics have a special affinity for the term Or because its numerical value (gimatriya) is equivalent to that of raz (mystery): " 'Let there be light' (Gen. emanation) rather than or. 3. 31 (esp. though. ( v ) One who has never seen a luminous body in his life cannot conceive colours nor the agreeableness and delightfulness of light.e. the radiation of the Shechinah). . (iv) Light delights the soul. Rabba ch. (ii) Light is not a corporeal thing. 5 (New York 1956. 50b f . Moses Narboni. and especially IV:3. Emunot Vede'ot 1II:lO. light bears a greater sirnilarity to the things which are free from matter than anything else 17a. (vi) And even he who has seen luminous objects cannot endure to gaze upon an intense light. ch.. 6). Commentary on Moreh Nevuchim I:35. Moreh Nevuchim I . 5. See further R. Sa'adiah Gaon. and so on. Eliezer. 1:3)-i. and ibid. and if he insists upon gazing beyond his power of endurance his eyes become dim so that he cannot see thereafter even that which is normally visible. let there be Raz (Mystery. etc. (iii) Light causes the faculty of sight and the visible colours to pass from potentiality to actuality. 64a and so forth (the concept of Ziu Hashechinah. Sifre. R. Kuzuy II:7-8 and III:17. ) . 19 and 25. par. By possessing all these qualities. on Numbers 6:25. the philosophical works use mostly the term shefa' (effluence. Derech Mitzuotecha. ch. Pirkei de R. see more on that in R. Numbers Rabba 15:5. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. p. In general. also. and Midrashim. 76. Lecit. Concealment). Haumunat Elokut: ch..
and cf. Joseph Ergas lists the following advantages:" ( a ) Light is the most subtle and tenuous of all sense-perceptions.. 4. Cf. 15.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 43 to which such things may be compared. Moses Cordovero. or of differently coloured lights. 13.15 ( b ) Light has numerous qualities characteristic of the Divine emanations. (iv) Light does not mix and mingle with another substance. (iii) Light irradiates all physical objects and is able to penetrate unhindered all transparent objects.. (ii) Light spreads itself instantaneously. R. Zohur I:140a and Zohur Chadash. Even when its source is concealed or removed. 1701)." . ( v ) Light per se never changes. Or Ne'erau (Fuerth. is not due to any change in the light per se but is due to external factors. and hence they are compared to light so as to make the matter intelligible. This is a unique quality of light which is not shared with any other substance. for Raz and Or are one thing".. the previous rays do not remain entities separate from the luminary but are withdrawn with it. R. 14. B e reishit:8d. K u z q IV:3: "The noblest and finest of all material things. The perception of more or less intense light. zkkarim II:29. for example : (i) Light is emitted from the luminary without ever becoming separated from it. Shomer Emunim 11:11. 111: ch.13 Likewise. as. see Tikunei Zohur 21:53b. thus no longer emitting perceptible light.
16 But here again."'~ Indeed. and ibid.44 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS EN CHASSIDISM (vi) Light is essential to life in general. literal sense. this term is only an homonymous approximation. See also Emunot Vedebt I:3 and II:2 with regard to light being an accident (as opposed to substance) and having a limit and boundary. See also R. 18. Joseph Albo already cautions that "No error should be made to the effect that intellectual light is something emanating from a corporeal object like sensible light. ch. see there at length. R. the ernittance of perceptible light from its source is automatic and intrinsically necessary: the luminary cannot 16. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch shows how. Moses Cordovero. 4b). pp. Elima Rabbaty. Torah Or. 52. this analogy. 1:i:9 (p. they are the empirical perceptions that make the use of this analogy so attractive and helpful in our context. and l a c ff. For example. used by way of metaphor and analogy. and Siddur 'im Perush Hamilot. 17. (vii) Light is received and absorbed relative to the capacities of the recipient. R. while an exact "scientific analysis" is not really relevant to our purposes. Cf. It is not to be taken in its full. too.. cit.. in some respects. Moses Cordovero is still more emphatic in warning that this metaphor must not be carried too far "For there is no image whatever that can be imagined that is not ~orporeal. and so on. ad bc. Obviously this "descriptive analysis" of light is based on the general human perception-the sense-perception4 it. Vayakhel: 87a-b. Ikkarim. Tanya I . Schnew Zalman. Apart from the fact that this metaphor is qualified in any case (as we shall see). evidently breaks down and is inadequate. 48a ff. ."" R. 11:10. R.
. (supra.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 45 withhold the light. Needless to say that this restrictive quality cannot be ascribed to the emanations of the Omnipotent. 19. ch. ad loc. spatial and corporeal connotations and must be understood in a strictly spiritual sense. 3-4. note 12).ls In conclusion. as the mystics never tire to say. See also ShXur Komuh. cit. Derech Mitzootecha. then. it cannot be mentioned too often or stressed too much that all terms and concepts related to the Divinity must be stripped of all and any temporal.
qualitative as well as quantitative.CHAPTER TWO Tzimtzum One of the basic theological problems is concerned with the seeming enigma of reconciling G-d with the universe: How can there be a transition from the Infinite to the finite. the concepts and doctrines discussed here. between the effect . I have not changed (Malachi 3:6)? In essence. For regardless of how long this chain of causal evolutions may be. how do we reconcile the Divine creation or bringing about of the universe and its multifarious parts with the eternal and inviolable absolute perfection of G-d. from absolute Unity or Oneness to multifariousness? Moreover. Creation is often explained in terms of a theory of emanationism: by means of a chain of successive emanations from "higher" to "lower" the finite evolved from the Infinite. and matter evolved from spirit. But this suggestion as it stands is insufficient. To speak of a casual evolutionary process of successive emanations merely begs the question and does not answer it. there always remains some relationship. of whom Scripture affirms "I the Eternal. from pure Intelligence to matter. and in the chapters following. all relate to these issues.
nor even (that most subtle and diaphanous type of "matter") of the angel^.retaining a basic relationship between the first link and the last one . this world would not. or the souls themselves. would it be in a gradual process of causal evolution. 48. even numerous contractions will not avail to there being matter as dense as earth by way of an evolution from the spirituality of the abstract intelligences.nor.) ."^ Again: T h e creation of the worlds is not by way of a development from cause to effect .so. it is the power of the blessed En Sof (Infinite). for even myriads upon myriads of occulations and evolutions from grade to grade in a causal process will not avail the development and coming into being of physical matter . . Thus. XX. sect.not even the matter of the firmament5 . the Infinite.' In a gradual evolution and causal process "The effect is encompassed by the cause. connected and interrelated . too. for that matter.out of an evohtion from spirit. . 2. Just as in a material chain the links are interlocked. 1 Tanya I: ch. in such a case. even the (spiritual) Ohm Haba ( World-to-Come). . Thus. . the supernal Garden of Eden. Zgeret Hukodesh. . since the beginning of the chain of emanations is G-d. (See there note 33 in my EngLsh translation on the concept of the "angelic matter". in relation to which it is essentially non-existent . Rather. the aspect of infinity is never really cast off: Had the world descended from the light of the Infinite according to a gradual descent from grade to grade by means of cause and effect.48 MYSTICAL ~ ~ V C E P T IN C H A S ~ I S M S and its cause. have ever been created in its present form -in a finite and limited order .
Nathan ben Yechiel. And this principle is at the root of the doctrines of tzimtzum and the Sefirot introduced by the Kabbalah (and elaborated upon in Chassidism) to solve the problem of creation. Aruch. Its roots. oc~ultation. 6. The word tzimtzum has two meanings: (1) contraction... condensation. Likutei Torah IV:&. ex nihilo. IV:20d. until finite and physical substances become possible. and (2) concealment. See Torah Or. This intricate theory is &st treated in detail by R. and Zohar Chadash. kefitzah) which breaks the gradualism and establishes a radical distinction between cause and effect: a radical act of creation. e.g. . that something non-divine and finite should come about.* Only after that has occurred can we speak of an evolutionary process culminating in finite and material entities.~ 3. and this is not by way of a developmental order but by way of a lea^'. I:15a.~ Though both these meanings apply in our context. 4.the Omnipotent. 41d and 42b f. s. though. For the doctrine of tzimtzum refers to a refraction and concealment of the radiating emanation from the Gdhead.).u. are to be found in the Zohar. . the second one does so. ad bc. Likutei Torah V:40b f."^ Hence.. Esther:SOa and 11f3c. Vaetchanan:Sla. to create . . 5. a "leap" or "jump" (dilug. more than the first. in a number of stages and in a progressive development of degrees. See R. necessitates there being in the process of emanation a "radical step". Isaac L ~ r i a The basic works of his system all begin with an exposition . also ibid. OYr)Y (and the additional references in Aruch HashcJsm. perhaps.
sect. Shu'ar Hahakdamot. note 38.50 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of t z i r n t ~ u m . 8. see Pardess Rimonim 1II:l seq. R. G-d as He is in Himself js called En Sof: the Infinite. esp. pp. part 11. Isaac Luria takes a mediating view. or (b) to the Divine Will. but to a level of Divinity which exceedingly excels this latter plane. See also Likutei Torah I:7b. Etz Chayim.. He that Is Without Limit (End). vol. chapter 111. no thought can grasp You a t all . there is no term applicable to the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself (according to the second opinion) . 6-7 and 9-10. You have no known Name 7. where R. E. Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. Tanya. and R. . Pelach Harimon. Mevoh She'arim. Menachem Azaryah de Fano. . 21-22 and 48-49. 166 ff. and V:40b ff. nor to the Divine Will. Especially Torah Or. Menachem Azaryah de Fano for the choice in terminology of En Sof (That Is Without End) rather than the seemingly more compre- . Sholom Dov-Ber Schneersohn.9 and above all in Torah Or and Likutei Torah.g. appears also-with variants and additions-in R.. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. i. 9. [The discourse in Likutei Torah 1I:Slb 8. In fact there is a dispute among the Kabbalists whether the term En Sof applies to (a) the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. Likutei Torah II:5lb fi. XX (New York 1970.). Vayera: 13c 8.R. 11.. p.. and infra.lo Prior to creation there is but G-d alone.. Or Hatorah-Vayikra. Especially ch. 698fl. that the term En Sof does not apply to the very Essence and Being of G d as He is in Himself. a major exposition of tzimtzum. in turn. 10. See at length R.l 11. etc. Schneur Zalman partly deals with it in T ~ n y a . to G-d qua First Cause of all beings-while. ad Eoc.e.ll Of G-d as En Sof nothing can be postulated except that He is En Sof: "High above all heights and hidden beyond all concealments. 3-4. ~ ~ more extensively in Sha'ar Hayichud Vehaemunah. ch.. Schneur Zalman quotes the works of R.
for You fill all Names and You are the perfection of them a11."12 In a mystical way, rather difficult to explain, there is a manifestation or Self-revelation of G-d qua En Sof even before the act of creation.l3 This manifestation is called Or En Sof (the Light of the En Sof), and we speak of this Light as equally omnipresent and infinite. This distinction between En Sof and Or En Sof is extremely important and must be kept in mind. For when speaking of tzimtzum and the Sefrot we relate these to the Or En Sof, the Light and Radiation, rather than to the Luminary and Radiator ( Ma-or ), the En Sof. hensive term En Lo Techihh (That Is Without Beginning). Cf. Yom Tou . . . 5666, p. 165. 12. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.:17a-b (cf. Tanya I, ch. 48 and 51; Zgeret Hakodesh sect. XI1 and XX). The term En Sof "indicates that there is no grasping Him, neither by apprehension nor by any thought whatever; He is abstracted and separate from all thoughts. He is prior to all those that were emanated, created, formed and fashioned, and no time of start and beginning applies to Him, for He is continually present and exists for everlasting without any beginning or end whatsoever"; Etz Chayim I: 1; see also R. Chayim Vital, Sha'ar Hahakdunwt, end of Hakdamah 111. En Sof therefore, is an indication of absolute perfection: "En Sof means perfection without any deficiency"; Likutei Torah IV:16a (quoting Aoodat Hakohsh I:8, who in turn is quoting R. Azriel of Ceronah, Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsum 3). 13. The difficulty in this concept is that revelation or manifestation generally presupposes another existent in, or to whom, this manifestation is directed, while the En Sof is the sole omnipresent existent. R. Schneur Zalman offers what he calls a "possible answer" by drawing an analogy to a person speaking to himself: speech is a medium of communicationthus self-revelation - to another outside the self. For man to communicate with himself he need not speak but thinks to himself, uses his faculty
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSJDLSM
Now, "when it arose in the Divine Will"14 to bring about the world and the creatures, the first act in the creative process was to bring about space in which the Divine emanations and ultimately the evolving, finite world could have a place to exist. This "primordial space" was brought about by a contraction or "withdrawal" and concentration of Divinity into Itself: the omnipresent, infinite Light of the En Sof was "withdrawn" into Himself; that is, it was screened, dimmed, hidden and concealed, and where it was dimmed - where this occultation and concealment of the Light occurred - an "empty" place, a "void (makorn panuy; chalal) evolved into primordial space. This is the act of the first tzimtwm, the radical act of d3ug and kefitzah, as it were: an act of Divine Self-limitation, so to speak, as opposed to revelation. However, this does not mean that the chakl is literally empty and void of all Divine radiation, that the Divine Presence is literally of thought; in fact, thought is more comprehensive than speech, for some thoughts are difficult to articulate altogether, or would involve a lengthy process before they can be uttered and so on. Speech is merely a form of self-expression and self-revelation, and the lowest form of it at that. Nevertheless, one may still, at times, vest one's thoughts and intellections in distinct and limited letters and words to express them to oneself. In some metaphorical sense, analogous thereto, there is a mode of selfrevelation of the En Sof even prior to creation. See Likutet TOY& II:52d f.; cf. Torah Or, Vayakhel: 87a-b, and Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, pp. 48a ff. 164a ff. and 14. This phrase is not to be taken in a temporal sense implying a change in the C-dhead, a supposition incompatible with the very idea and concept of the G-dhead and the explicit statement of Scripture that "I, the Eternal, I have not changed" (Malachi3:6).Change depends on time; it is a relative, temporal-spatial concept. But time and space are
and totally withdrawn therefrom. Such interpretationl"ould suggest an illegitimate ascription of spatiality, and hence corporeality, to the Infinite, and violate the principle of omnipresence affirmed in the most literal sense by Scripture1" and traditional7 The chalol is metaphorically spoken of as a void in relation to that which is "beyond or "outside" the chalal: "outside" the chulal there is a full manifestation of the Or En Sof while inside the chulul the Light is concealed. The En Sof, the Luminary (Ma-or)
themselves creations. From our present, temporal-spatial perspective there is a "before" and "after", but not from the eternal, supra-temporal and supra-spatial perspective. See more on this concept of time (and its relation to creation) in Etz Chuyim I: 1; Sha'ar Hahakdamot, Hakd. 111; Shenei Luchot Habrit, Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (Glossary Note, p. 4b); Shomer Emunim 1 :14 f.; 1 Tanya II:7; Torah Or, Miketz: 37a; etc. Cf. Moreh Neouchim II:13 and 30 (and also ibid., I:52), and Responsa of R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Bitaon Chubad (Kfar Chabad 1971), no. 33:p. 51 f.; Likutei Sichot, vol. X, p. 176 f. [For a detailed comprehensive discussion of the problem of time in historio-philosophical context, see Sefer Hachakirah, part 1 1 (p. 1 28a seg.) and Addenda (p. 108a seq.) .] Cf. also Keter Shem Too, ed. Kehot, beg. of sect. 348; and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech, Or Torah, ed. Kehot, Addenda, sect. 23a and 52. 15. There have been some interpretations of this kind. Their inherent difficulties are dealt with critically in Shomer Emunim II:34ff., and Tanya II:7. 16. "The whole earth is full of His glory" (Isaiah 6:3); "Do I not fill the heavens and the earth, says the Eternal" (Jeremiah 23:24)-"1, indeed, i.e., His very Being and Essence, as it were, and not His glory only!" (Zgeret Hakodesh, sect. XX and XXV). Cf. Chouot Haleuouot I: 10. 17. "There is no place on earth void of the Divine Indwelling Presence (Shechinah)"; Mechilta de Rashby (ed. D. Hoffman, p. 2) and
as it were.. see also the other Midrashim on this verse. Igarot Ba'al Hatanya. 9 5 8 ) . Schneur Zalman. See my The Great Maggid. lgeret Hakodesh. Kehot: New York 1974. in relation to the void there is not an absolute and total withdrawal: some residue or vestige (reshimu) of the Light remains in the ~halal. Itself is totally unaffected by tzimtzttm. and the references cited there. 45). Jerusalem 1956. note 39. 18. Cf. 119. See also the references cited in Midrash Hagadol. will now no longer consume and nullify the contents of Midrash Hagadol-Shemot (ed. VIII. Even this concealment and occulation is strictly relative: relative to the void and its subsequent contents. on Exodus 3:2. vol. The principal purpose of tzimtzum is to create a chulal in which the Divine creatures would be able to exist and subsist as opposed to becoming dissolved in the Divine Omneity. Moreover. ad Zoc. and is the most stringent in the preservation of the . this outline o tzimtzum follows the interpretation of f R.54 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM whence the Light issues. sect. this first act of tzimtzum is a radical "leap" (dilug)that creates the possibility for a gradual process and evolution of emanations to take place and to culminate in the creation of finite and corporeal entities. and in Torah Shelemh. The infinite radiation of the Divine Light having been dimmed and concealed. Tzimtzum relates only to the Light of the En Sof. p. and ibid. cit. I and XX).strictly speaking affecting the Light itself in any way. To be sure. op. even in the Light per se there is no real change whatever: it is neither reduced nor removed but merely concealed. Tikunez Zohar 5739113 ar~d 70:122b (cf. Shi'ur Komah. without . 70f.~8 Despite all these qualifications and the metaphorical interpretation of the withdrawal of the Light. cit. p. Moreover.. 248-251. ch. pp. 56 (Jerusalem 1952. no. 33-34. p.. "There is no place devoid of Him". pp.
(See Tanya I: 20. Schneur Zalman and his predecessors that oh-d-uis G-d there is no change whatever. p. there is no other" in the sense that strictly speaking there is no other existent outside G d . there have been other interpretations of tzimtzum that take a more. sect. and R. 31. Derushirn Naim: Shabbat Hagadol 5349. . and not to the En Sof. Menachem M. et passim. (See Tanya II:6. ) . is and remains the sole true reality. or altogether literal view of this doctrine (see supra. Jerusalem 1968. You are after the creation of the world in the sense that G-d was. 43. This follows on the general "acosmic" view of R. 1. VI. For the four types of interpretations that have been suggested at various times. In the second phase of the creative process an overt ray or radiation of the Divine Light is made to beam into the primeval space of the c h k l . 111. note 15).the chulal in the way. and that even in the Or En Sof it is but relative to the creation rather than to the Divine Light per se. the liturgical phrase "You were prior to the creation of the world. Judah Loewe. Cf. quoted infra. 1I:p.) But. that a spark is totally consumed and nullified in the flame itself. 30a). Its key-concepts are that tzimtzum relates to the Or En Sof. 34 f . no. Schneerson of Lubavitch. it is the immaunaffectedness of G d . ch. Targum Onkebs on Exodus 15:ll. Isaiah Horowitz (Shenei Luchot Habdt. for example. in interpreting Deuteronomy 4:39 "the Eternal is G d . or the way the light of a candle would be totally absorbed and nullified in the very intense light of the sun.) And thus he follows his ancestor R. This thin ray or "line" (kau) irradiates the chulal and is the source of the subsequent emanations: it is both the creative and the vivifying force of the creation. . throughout all his works. p. the Mahural of Prague (Derashot Maharal. lgeret Hakodesh. ed. and creation does not affect Him in any way implying whatever change. Bitaon Chabad (Kfar Chabad 1970). see Responsa of R. Beassarah Maamurot: ch. . end of section 1. as already mentioned. He constantly quotes.
in a very general sense. More specifically. ch. however. Unlike the first tzimtzum . It is by way of this kau that the process of successive emanations and causal development takes place. . " ~ ~ "There is. see Tanya I:49. the particular aspects of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and are of many diverse kinds. ultimately culminating in the lowest stage and creation represented by this finite. the kav itself also undergoes a series of numerous.this development and evolution can be spoken of as gradual and causal. That is. ize. thus. ch. Each of these contractions and concealments makes it possible for a suecessively lower stage or creation to take place. IV. to be vested in them and influence and animate them so that they may receive existence ex nihilo and be in a state of finitude and l i m i t a t i ~ n . there are three levels of powerful and comprehensive contractions and condensations which give rise to the lower three Worlds in which there is the appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. though. material and pluralistic world.which was by way of dilug ("leap") . 20. as it were. 48. Tanya I . successive contractions and concealments. no change whatever in His blessed Self but 19. In general. tzimtzurn is "Something in the nature of an occultation and concealment of the flow of the light and life-force so that only an extremely minute portion of the light and lifeforce should irradite and flow forth to the lower beings in a manifest way. and infra.56 MYSTICAL (X)NCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM nence of G-d in creation while the concealed Light is the allencompassing transcendence of G-d taking in all creation. Specifically speaking we still make some radical distinctions in the process of tzimtzum even after the dilug.*9 To sumn. However.
incidentally. see commentaries on this Midrmh (which. .. . Hence it seems to them as if the light and life-force of the Omnipresent. Tanya I. but "like the snail whose garment is part of its very self'21 (Genesis Rabba 21:s). In general. These tzimtzumim are all in the nature of a "veiling of the Countenance" (Hester Panim). 22. blessed is He. see also ibid. . . but in our context they are not. .only for the created entities which receive their life-force . through a process of gradual descent from cause to effect and a downward gradation by means of numerous and various contractions (tzimtzumim) so that the created entities can receive their life and existence from it without losing their entity. Heaven forbid. ch. blessed is He . . to obscure and conceal the light and life-force . there is no tzimtzum. so that it shall not manifest itself in a greater radiance than the lower worIds are capable of receiving. concealment and occulation that would conceal and hide before Him and "the darkness is even as the light" (Psalms 139:12) as it is written "Even the darkness does not obscure from You . . is much-quoted in mystical works). . ."22 21. II:6. .). Yet in regard to the Holy One. . 21. garments are entities separate and distinct from their bearer." (ibid. were something apart from His blessed Self . For the tzimtzumim and "garments" are not things distinct from His blessed Self.
as mentioned before. These intermediary stages are generally divided into five classes or grades. See supra.CHAPTER THREE Sefirot 1. Of the En Sof. (3) the finite world. becoming ever more intensely screened and obscured from one level to the next. except that He is En S0f. chapter 11. Meaning of Sefirot Tzimtzum on its various levels brings about a series of numerous intermediary stages between the infinite Light of the En Sof and the finite universe. . and (4) the intermediary levels in the successive development of the creative process brought about by means of tzimtzumim. (2)Or En Softhe Self-manifestation of G-d. notes 11-12. referred to as the Five Worlds or Realms. are referred to as the Sejirot.l Names or attributes apply only to mani1. making possible the creation of the finite and pluralistic world. The varying radiations of the Divine Light in these Worlds. nothing can be postulated. There are four principal aspects: ( 1) En Sof.
brilliance or luminary. The doctrine of the Sefirot is first mentioned in Sefer Yetzirah. mispar (number) or sapar (to number). ch. commentaries of R. to those aspects of Divinity which are revealed in.. "All the attributes of the Holy One. and aid. are designated and called by (their) terms relative only to the upper and lower beings alone". 3. and to His c r e a t i ~ n . because the sense of touch relates and applies only to a physical object that can be grasped with the hand. whoever would hear such a statement will laugh. and Likutei Torah I:&. Parsless Rimonim 4:lO. with respect to the En Sof. Zohur ChudaPh. see Exodus 24:10. Schneur Zalrnan goes even beyond Maimonides' definition of the attributes as negations (Moreh Nevuchim 158-80) : It is even inappropriate to say that "it is impossible to apprehend Gd". Yitro. Tanya II:9.60 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM festations. In a sense. VIII. Sefirah-singular form. Tanya 1I:lO. Truly so. and cf. Shtur Komah. blessed be He. vol. Bo:BOa. . f. Moreh Nevuchim I:61.: 12b. siper (to tell: relate). Numbers Rabba 14:12. His WilI and His Wisdom. Moses Hagoleh and R. or related to. and see also Kumy 112. . Tikunei Zohar. 57-58. in order for finite creations to 2. the aspect of intellect and apprehension in relation to the Holy One. 33b. . See Zohur II:136bf. Sometimes I am called . The word Sefirah is variably interpreted as derived from. blessed be He. Exodus Rabba 3:6: "You wish to know My Name? I am called according to My workings. V:7d. . Ezekiel 1:26). Cf. and safra (scribe). the Or En Sof with the The ultimately evolving world. sefer (book)..". as it were.These Divine manifestations or attributes are ~ dimmed radiations from the Light of the En Sof and they are called S e f i r ~ t . and is briefly referred to in the Midrash. p. note 179.". Sefirot-plural form. Cf Zohar 111: 2571. Torah Shebmuh. ~ Sefirot bridge. Shomer Emunim II:54 8. separ (boundary). because that would be like saying "of a lofty and profound wisdom that it cannot be touched with the hands because of the profundity of the concept. . See also the discussion of attributes in Torah Or. That is. Intr.. is considered as an actual physical action . 151.. sapir (sapphire. R. Surely.
ibid.g. 26. ad loc. 3-12.Addenda sect. Auot de R. Shomer Emunim II:64ff. kings. and III:288a. Sha'ar X X . levels. Thus the Sefrot are to be conceived as "vessels" in which the Divine Light is vested and effects Its workings through them. 111. ch. . ch. pillars. there are two aspects to the Sefirot: Orot and Kelim. Shenei Luchot Habrit. and Shi'ur Komah. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah VI: 1 f. 34. crowns. Though there are basically only seven such Names. and the Names are the Sefirot". Israel Baal Shem Tov's caveat quoted in Keter Shem Too. but relate to the various aspects of the Sefirot on different levels. cf. sect. the aspect of the Light of the En Sof vested in the Kelim of the Sefirot.. Maimonides. garments. cf. See also R. 4.-The doctrine of the Sefirot is . cit. Etz Chuyim 5:5. 3-12. see in detail Likutei Torah II:5lc. The ten sacred Divine Names that one is prohibited to destroy or erase -[see Sheuuot 35a. However. The Divine Names are to be identified only with the Orot. 2.1-are usually identified with the ten Sejirot: "the Sejirot are the Names. ch. ~ Only by Its prior investment in the Sefirot in all the intermediary stages brought about by tzinztzurn could I t be vested in a finite and physical world. 3d). Shomer Emunim II:67.come about. colours. As varying manifestations and principles the Sefrot are also referred to (in Zohar and other works) by other terms suited to the context (e. see Zohur II:42b. sect. thus not with the Kelim or with the Sefrot as compounds of Orot and Kelim..5 Moses Botaril on Sefer Yetzirah I:2. Natan. Sht"ur Komah. firmaments. this identification must be qualified. 50d f. V) are "divisible" into two aspects: Orot (Lights) and Kelim (Vessels). For the Sefirot (as will be explained infra. The Sefirot and the Names are not fully identical in the plain sense.lights. These interpretations do not conflict with one another. the Light of the En Sof vested Itself in the S e j i r ~ t . they are "seven that are ten" as some may appear in different forms. see Zohar 1II:lla f . and the notes ad loc. faces. Shenei Luchot Habrit. Pardess Aimunim. (As mentioned in the preceding note. and so on). Pardess Rimonim 8:2. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p. ch. ch. see Elima Rabbaty.). E l i m Rabbaty VI:2 (p. and cf. wreaths.) 5 . See Igeret Hakodesh. XX. See Igeret Hakodesh.
cf. emits ten crowns. On the contrary. XX. Shomer Emunim I:41 f. Tzimtzum and the Sefirot explain how it is possible for finite and multifarious creations to come about from an Infinite. beginning of sect. Pardess Rimonim 1:8 f. There is no suggestion whatever that the Sefirot are to be taken as entities distinct and separate from the En Sof. Sefer Yetzirah I:7. (The word beli-muh.. Perush Eser Sefirot. their beginning is wedged in their end . As we speak of them in terms of numerous gradations. taken from lob 26:7.. denotes that they are not anything substantial and apprehensible. ) 7. and at times lengthy. Auodut Hakodesh I:8. e.l. see the commentaries a. For the Eternal is One. supernal thus essential to an understanding of the principle of creation. Simple (as opposed to compound) One. and 2: 6.62 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The Sefirot are thus Divine emanations.) 6. especially the one attributed to Nachmanides. there is a basic and intrinsic unity between the En Sof and the Sejirot. various phases in the manifestation of Divinity. blessed is He. See Zgeret Hakodesh. Pardess Rimonirn 1:1. and prior to One what can you ~ o u n t l " ~ This simile is re-stated in the Zohar with even greater emphasis: "The Holy One.. and 11: 13 ff. Shomer Emunim 1:61. Azriel of Geronah. and notes 18-20 of this chapter. This absolute and intrinsic unity has already been stressed in the ancient Sefer Yetxirah: "The ten Sefirot are without anything ( beli-mah). (See also further on.e Their end is wedged in their beginning. see. . or that the transcendent G-dhead also be a "personal" G d . extreme care must be taken to avoid any fatal misconception of dualism or a plurality in the G-dhead. arguments the mystics prove from both traditional and philosophical points of view that the doctrine of Sefirot is essential to explain the possibility of the creation of the universe as well as the possibility of a subsequent Divine Providence.. R. In numerous. Responsa 3-5.g. and there is no second to Him.like a flame bound up in the coal.
holy crowns. With these He crowns Himself and in these He vests Himself. He is they and they are He, just as the flame is bound up in the coal, and there is no division there."Vll differentiation is but from our perspective and relative to our knowledge, while above all is One; all is set in one balance, unvarying and eternal, as it is written "I, the Eternal, I have not changed." (Malachi 3:6).@ Maimonides' statement that with G-d His Essence, His Being and His Knowledge are absolutely one,1° a simple unity and not a compound one,ll applies equally to all the Divine attributes and to all the holy Names ascribed to Him.l"t is all an absolute, simple unity which is His very Essence and Being. However, as Mai-
8. Zohar III:70a; see also ibid., I:50b f . 9. Zohar II:176a; cf. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.: 17a. See also Avodat Hakodesh 1:ll-12; Pardess Rimonim 5:4; Shomer Emunim I:56 8. and 67, and ibid., II:11 and 57. The Sefirot are not some kind of actual intermediaries of intermediating powers. They are beli-mh, abstract concepts of Divine manifestations and nothing more. Hence the mystics emphasize and caution to bear this in mind, in particular at the time of prayer. Man addresses the very G-dhead and not any Sefirot or Attributes. Thus it is written "whensoever we call upon Him" (Deut. 4:7)-upon Him, i.e., to exclude His attributes! See R. Bachya ben R. Asher, Commentary on Deut. 4:7 and on Deut. 11:13; Pardess Rimonim 32:2 (where this exclusion is attributed to the Midrash Sifre). Cf. R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Teshuoot Haribash, responsum 157; and Likutei Torah II:51c and 111: 30d. See also R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Hayom Yom, p. 95 (quoted in Keter Shem Tou, Addenda, p. 22 note 24). 10. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1I:lO; Shemonuh Perakim, end of ch. VIII. 11. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah I:7; cf. Moreh Nevuchim I:57. 12. See Moreh Nevuchim I:57.
MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM
monides stated,13 "This matter is beyond the power of speech to express and beyond the power of the ear to hear and the human heart to understand clearly."14 It is beyond apprehension to apprehend how He unites with them. That is why the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, which are the Sefirot, are referred to in the sacred Zoharl%s the "Mystery of the Faith-which is faith that transcends the intellect.la The Torah uses human phraseology only to enable the ear to hear what it can understand, and therefore permission was granted to the mystics to speak allegorically of Sefirot. It is, by way of illustration, like the unity of the light of the sun in its orb with the solar globe - (the solar globe being the luminary, while the radiation and beam that spreads forth and shines from it is called light). When the light is in its source, in the orb of the sun, it is united with it in absolute unity; for there is but one entity: the body of the luminary which emits light. All the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, His Will, and His Wisdom, are designated by these names only in relation to the creatures.li This concept of the Sefirot or attributes also explains the very reason for creation. For even while the Sefirot or attributes are in absolute unity with the G-dhead, they have actual application
13. Hilchot Yesodei Hatomh 11:10. 14. Tanya II:8. 15. See Zohar I:38a, 39a, 152b, 230b, 231a; ibid., II:253a, and 111:143a. 16. Tanya 11: end of ch. 9; see Likutei Torah III:68d. 17. Tanya II:10. Cf. ibid., ch. 3, and Igeret Hakodesh, sect. XX.
in relation to creation only. Thus to actualise, as it were, these Divine potencies, powers or attributes (e.g., wisdom, kindness, compassion, sovereignty and so on) G-d created the universe in which to manifest them (to have subjects upon whom to express or manifest His kindness and compassion, with whom to manifest His majesty, and so on).18 In a similar vein, creation also is a means through which G-d is able to manifest His power or potency in finite enicies no less than in the infinite - thereby preserving the principle of absolute omnipotence.lg This does not mean that creation implies a change in the G-dhead, that creation lends the G-dhead a perfection It did not possess before. For all the attributes are eternally of the very Essence and Being of G-d, absolutely one with Him; it is only that they are manifested through creation.20 For the En Sof, as stated earlier, is "absolute perfection without any deficiency", and " 'You were before the world was created, You are since the world was
18. Z o h r 111:69b; ibid., 257b f .; Pardess Rimonim 2 :6; Shi'ur Komuh, Torah, sect. XIII: Introd. and ch. 3; Etz C h y i m 1:1, and Shdar Hakelalim, ch. 1; Shomer Emutrim II:12 ST. See, though, note 21 infra. 19. Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsa 3 and 7; Par&ss Rimonim 2:6. Cf. supra note 5 and the sources cited there, and Likutei Torah III:68d. 20. See Shomer Emunim 11:12 ff., where the author also deals with a number of problems related to this concept. See also R. Meir ibn Gabbai, Derech Emunuh (an exposition and elaboration of R. Azriel's P e m h Eser Sefirot, dealing with most aspects relating to the doctrine of the Sefirot), passim. 21. Tanya I: ch. 20; see supra, ch. 2, note 18. In effect, thus, we
." etc.f o r reasons to be explained further on. see in detail R. ."~] 2. Chesed ( Kindness. Chochmah (Wisdom). Ceuurah ( Might. note 3. Hillel of Paritz. . Netzach (Endurance. Sefer Yetzimh I:4. . . Yesod ( Foundation) .38b (also quoted in the Maggid's Or Torah. Kingship). . I n some schemes Keter is omitted from the order of the ten S e f i ~ o t ~ ~ . Dov Ber of Mezhirech stated incisively: "The reasons offered by the rnekubbalim (mystics) for the [Divine] intent in the creation are unsatisfactory in terms of the true intent of creation . 22.. 37). see commentaries a. Grace. Majesty) . 23. sect. these schemes take Chochmah as the first of the ten and insert Da'at (Knowledge) as a Sefirah after Binah. p. Power. the Eternal.66 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM created'-exactly the same without any change. Victory) . O r d e ~ the Sefirot of The Sefirot are ten spheres or c l a s s e s 2 ~ n following order: Keter the ( Crown) . Tiferet ( Beauty ) . The total order of the Sefirot is generally divided into two must conclude that in final analysis the 'reasons' suggested for the Divine creation must ultimately break down. Prevalence) . Binah ( Understanding). and the references cited supra. Malchut ( Sovereignty. as it is written 'For I. Pelach Harimon. Shir Hashirim. Hod ( Splendour.. transcending altogether reason and delight. "Ten and not nine. See note 38 infru. Benevolence ) . The root for the source of the creation is the aspect of an essential and simple Will ( Ratzon) .. Addenda. . Above there is absolute perfection and there is no deficiency whatsoever . ten and not eleven". I have not ~hanged'. Strictly speaking no reason whatsoever is required . and as R.l.
~~ other such groupings and distinctions that abound in the mystical writings20 (and some of these we shall meet up with in the chapters following). VIII. In an extended sense. ch. all the Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes). 3.~? Another distinction is made by calling the first three the "three Rishomt" (the three First Ones. 24. The faculties of the intellect. The "seven Lower Ones" are subdivided into the two triads of Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet and Netzach-Hod-Yesod (all these six together are called the "six Ketzaootn-the "six Extremeties"). e.Sefirot 67 groups referred to as the "three mothers and the seven multiple^. the above are the principal or most common ones. the immot (mothers)25from and through which the other seven Sefirot issue forth. though. par. 9 (p. at times referred to as the three Mochin (Brains). Derech Emunuh. Pardess Rimonim I: 1-2 and VIII:25. sections 4-7. Emotive Facultie~). 27. 29. Sefer Yetzirah I:10. 3. this chapter. Tanya I: ch. ." in the same sense.). and the singular last one of M a l c h ~ t While there are a number of .. See. the first three are the principal Sefirot."^^ That is. and ch. or at times the three Upper Ones). 28. 25. 36 f. see infra. note 149. Sometimes also called the "three fathers. See infra. 26. When beginning with Chochmah. the triad of the first three Sejirot is also called Sechel ( I n t e l l e ~ t ) ~ ~ the other seven while Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes.g. See Tanya I: ch. and the other seven are called the "seven Tachtonot" (seven Lower Ones).
VIII).). Zohar 1:147a. XVII and note 31 (37) a. or the Most Ancient Being. so Keter is essentially distinct from the other Sefir~t. as it were. The tenn itself denotes its significance: As a crown is on top of the head and encompasses it. 32. Etz Chayim 25:5 and 42:l. of the E m a n a t ~ r . XIII. see Zgeret Hakodesh.68 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM 3. The origin of this term i Daniel 7:9. and as such the "lowest level". or Atik Yominthe Ancient of Days. sect.3~ Keter is so sublime and concealed that nothing 30.. 36).it is sometimes applied to the highest aspect of Keter. 34. to the very core and essence of this Sefirah. XX.~O is the first emanIt ation. so Keter is on top of all the Sefirot and encompasses them all. Zbid.32 and is referred to as Ayin (naught) .1. 31. note 38.. In the same sense it is also called Atik or Atika Kadisha (the Ancient One. and see infra. i..e. particularly in the context of s the Partzufim (see infra. Zohar III:256b. Keter Keter is the highest level or sphere of the Sefirot. Zohar III:288a ff. The analogy is carried further: just as the crown is not a part of the head nor of the body. Zgeret Hakodesh. Though At& is essentially a term applied to the En Sof (in the sense of being the First Cause. and it abounds in Sifra Detzeniyuta and the Zdrot. sect. Chagigah 14a). 9 (p. ch.-For another interpretation of the term Keter see Derech Emunah. sect. XVII. e. because it is the most "ancient" or original emanation from the .g. ch. and XXIX. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4 and Zgeret Hako&sl~. also called Atika dechol Atikin-the Most Ancient of all Ancients. 33. ~ ~ That is why Keter is called Temira dechol Temirin (the most hidden of all hidden) .33The~e terms signify the total concealment of the rank of Keter due to its supreme ~ublimity. or the Holy Ancient One). 13 and 22 (cf. see. but distinct therefrom.
.c. see also Zohar 111: end of 269a and 289b) where the peshat appears to support the opinion of R. a. This controversy evolves around the interpretation of Zohur I: beginning of 31b (see Derech Emet and other comment. 98c. Zohar III:17a. See Chugigah 13a. 2.. V .. et passim.37 no letter can describe or represent Keter. While all are agreed that Keter exceedingly excels the Sefiot (Chochmah to Malchut). some say that Keter is identical with . Chaim Vital. applies to it Ben Sira's dictum:35 "Seek not the things that are beyond you and search not out things that are hidden from While the other Sefirot are sometimes represented by various letters of the alphabet. par. and R. See also Torah Or. (the first) Hei-Binuh. Esther. 37. R.l. The four letters of the Tetragrammaton represent the ten Sefirot: Yud-Chochmh. Da'at is usually counted as one of the Sefirot while Keter is excluded (see Etz Chayim 23:1. Keter is represented by the "thorn" of the Yud (thus not by any letter but a mere dot). ibid. In the system of R. 36. See Auodat Hakodesh I:3. Zohar II:42b and 158a. I t is too sublime to be included. see Tanya III:4. Nitzutzei Orot. or the unit of the six Midot from Chesed to Yesod. (the latter) Hei-Malchut. Chaim David Azulay. 258a. Moses Cordovero always counts Keter as part of the ten Sefirot and excludes Da'at as a separate Sefirah (see Pardess Rimonim 3:l ff. 2 5 6 and 42:l).. and ibid.38 In fact. 2:3 fl. sect. Moses Cordovero (a. Isaac Luria. Igeret Hakodesh. In fact this has long been a matter of dispute among the earliest Kabbalists. Isaac Luria. and R. 35. though R. and Or Ne'erau 6:1.l. and see also ibid. on the meaning of At&. The Zohar. 5). Meuoh She'arim 111:1:1. on Zohur I:31a.. therefore. 38. That is why Keter is sometimes excluded from the scheme of the Sefirot.) interprets otherwise. I t is a category and class all in itself. Vau-Tiferet.Sefirot 69 can be said or postulated of it. followed by Chassidism... it is called the "intermediary" between En Sof. 5 and 8.
sect. note 11). XX. and also ibid. R.1. or to C d qua First Cause (see supra..~~ of Divine manifestations and as such is called Ratzon Ha'elyon the En Sof (rather with the Or En Sof) and therefore to be excluded from the scheme of Sefirot. however. Sefer Haemunot IV: end of ch. hence. Torah Or. Likutei Torah V:8a f . and so on) relates to the disputed issue whether the term En Sof itself has reference to the actual Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. see Etz Chayim 23:5 and 8. though with the mistaken reference to IV:l-and by R. sect. (See the discussion of these issues in Parcless Rimonim 3: 1ff. what appears to be a similar view is that expounded by R. Vayechi: 105a.l.. and Etz Chayim 42: 1 . In the context of the aforesaid. ) The view of R. note 76 infra. and Likutei Torah III:49c.70 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM the En Sof and the Sefirot. .. and on the other. 166ff. Isaac Luria adds that when speaking of the essential Sefirot-Keter is included. a. for a wider discussion of all this see Torah Or. as i t were: it is the "lowest level" of the Light of the En Sof and from it. is to be counted among them. but when speaking of their general aspects (Chitzoniyut of the Sefirot) Keter is omitted and Da'at is inserted instead. and through it. Meir ibn Gabbai. is an emanation and effect having a cause just like the other Sefirot and. XX and XXIX. See lgeret Hakodesh. Isaac Luria is a third opinion to the effect that Keter is somewhere in between Or En Sof and the Sefirot. 10-discussed in Pardess Rimonim 3:3. II:53b. how can one speak of "higher" and "lower" in relation to the En Sof. Cf. 39. bridging the gap. issue forth the successive Divine emanations (thus being the very root or soul of the S e f i r ~ t ) Keter represents the "lever" .. This issue (and the related problems as. pp. and Likutei Torah II:46c and V:8a. and bridging or linking them: the "lowest" level of the En Sof as well as the very root or source of the Sefirot following. it is part of the ten Sefirot (see Etz Chayim a. and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. XVII. cf.c. or how can one relate the actual essence of the En Sof to Keter.c. 11. part of both. . Others. Avodat Hakodesh I:2-3). too. state that Keter. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. e. Thus on the one hand it is an aspect of the Or En Sof and excluded. ch.g.
41.e... note 22 (24)). See Igeret Hakodesh. When reason achieves its goal it fulfils a higher aim: the realisation of some deepseated.42 Chochmah 40. XXIX. Torah is an expression of Reason or the Divine Wisdom (Chochmah). 42. Chochmah is the root of the succeeding attributes. Zohar 1:5a).e. Reason is focused towards achieving a certain goal. Thus when we speak. innermost desire or will. it is the "Will of a U the "essence-will" or the "will to will. This innermost desire or will is the Abyssmal or Supreme Will (see Igeret Hakodesh. V and the asm references cited in note 76 (82) a. the very source of origin of the Torah.the S e f i ~ o t ) . Igeret Hakodesh. of the Torah as the blueprint for the world (Gene& Rabba I: 1. et p s i . See lgeret Hakodesh. sect. sect.. ~ ~ 4. Chochmah-Binah-Da'at These three Sefirot form a triad. e.g. understanding and knowledge. Chochmah is called Reishit regard- . That is why it is called Reishit (Beginning). and notes 37-8 a.g.) "the Torah derives from Chochmuh but its source and root surpasses exceedingly the rank of Chochmah and is called the Supreme Will. But the very purpose of achieving that goal transcends the rational faculty and underlies it. Zohar 111:129a and 288b.. i. XXIX.1. Analogous to them are the three faculties in man's intellect of the same names.1. Zohar I:3b. sect. wisdom. which precedes all powers or attributes (i. sect." That is. I." as it were. in abbreviation called ChuBaD. This is the meaning of the frequent phrase (e. Keter would be the Supreme Will underlying this blueprint.Sefirot 71 (the Supreme or Abysmal Will) of G-d: not a particular will focused on some specific goal but the original Divine Willingness (Ratzon) underlying the creative will.
Kehot. V . .. Psalms 10424. Chaim Vital. See Nachmanides on Genesis I:l. note 20" (25). p. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. and his Or Torah. note 43 supra). i. Tanya I. though not in actu . Arba Meot Shekel Kessef (ed. 44. 47. 45.the root of all four elements". 176. Chochmah is called Yesh (a substance). sect. see Igeret Hakodesh.72 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM represents the first creative activity of Gd. or by. see Zohur I:31b.C h o c h W 6 may be translated in two interrelated ways.43 it is the initial Divine instrument of actual creation. Moreh Nevuchim II:30. and "the Eternal has founded the earth be-Chochmah".in potency. Kedoshim. through the mediation of Keter. and cf. Two (categories of) Reishit) . Thus in relation to Keter which is Ayin. sect. see also R. The En Sof. When Keter is included we speak of two spheres that are called Reishit: Keter and Chochmah (as alluded in the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit. See also R. 2 and II:9. 94a-b. The first sense is with. as said).^' Everything derives from Chochmah. sect. ed. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. 82a. 46. for "Keter is like unto the prime matter that is called hyle which contains within it . notes 22 and 76 (82) f . IV. 35. both of which are significant in our context. and thence begins creation. thus Chochmah is the instrument and hyle of rea at ion. See Tanya I: ch. The same applies to the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit (Reishit referring to Chochmuh. Igeret Hakodesh. Maggid Deuarau Leyahkou. Strictly speaking the term hyle relates to Keter.44 Thus it is written:45 "You have made them all be-Chochmah". 43. -The term hyk is applied here to Chochmah in the extended sense of Chochmuh being the basic "substance" of creation that can be referred to as yesh (cf. p. ch.e. Chochmuh. is "vested in C h o c h n d . Etz Chayim 42:l. Tel Aviv 1964). Proverbs 3: 19. Chochmah is immanent in everything (albeit in ever-increasing concealment) and animates everything. B e . as it is less of whether Keter is counted or not.
. is referred 48. Tikunei Zohar. Chochmah is so concentrated and compact that it is not apprehensible in itself. note 63. sect. V . Tanya I: ch. 19. Igeret Hakodesh. simple. See Tanya 1:ch. However. the beginning and first revelation of creation.Sefirot 73 written "Chochmah gives life to them that have it" (Ecclesiastes 7:12) The second sense is in Chochmah. XI. Intr.I"D n"3. 52. 55. .: 4a and 69:112b. sect. XIV and XVII. too. The letters of the word na3R make up . This means that in Chochmah is founded the creation. See infra. and the possibilities of all further beings exist there in pot en ti^. . the "potentiality" of "what is". In itself Chochmah is a state of obscurity (mocha setima-the concealed brain).54 Thus there is little that can be said of Chochmah.a. sect. Zohar III:235b.^^ Thus the word Chochmah is interpreted to mean n"D R"3. Intr. 19. 34b-c and lOOa 8. and Tanya I: ch.: 12a. (note 48 supra). 49. "All the lower ones are rooted and compounded in Chochmah. and notes 16 ff. the Yud51-a small. non-descriptive point. Zohar Chadash. Igeret Hakodesh. 51. for which reason C h o c h d .50 Chochmah is the seed of creation. 50. See note 37. see also ibid. 3. 54. supra. See Bemchot 34b. Cf. lgeret Hakodesh. Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. which is the mystical principle of 'you have made them all in Chochmah' " Etz Chayim 25: 1. and it is referred to as Edens2 of which it is saids3 "no eye has seen it". Tanya I: ch. V. Zbid.1. See also Tikunei Zohar.. note 22. Zohar III:290a. 18. II:9Oa. 53. Chochmah is represented by the first letter. Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton which symbolise all the Sefirot.
56. Tikunei Zohar 22:63b. When cogitating on the idea. the details of which are not yet differentiated and externalised. 59. 3. Chochmuh is informed in Binah. It is the seminal idea. the "inner thought". Cf."59 Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton Binuh is represented by the Hei. This is the faculty and state of Binah ( understanding) Binoh is really the expansion and elucidation of Chochmah. 1:13. and "becomes known solely through Binah. the That is.60 Unlike the simple non-dimensional point of Yud. 60. 58.1. V . sect. lgeret Hakodesh. Tanya I: ch. 3. . in itself.74 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM The potentia of Chochmah is brought out from total obscurity This and externalised in Binah.~" will be understood by drawing on the analogy to the faculties of the human intellect: Chochmuh corresponds to an intuitive flash of intellectual illumination: the original idea per se. cf. they are not yet processed but intensely concentrated in the intuitive flash. 57. sect. The hidden intellect is apprehended by the intellectually cognising subject. the idea will be understood. essentially. its details and implications will become revealed. XV and note 70 (87) a."58 The standard definition of the faculty of Binah is "To understand or derive one matter out of another matter. The individuations concealed in the original flash are then externalised and become manifest in the mind. I: ch. Chochmah is still called ayin. Chagigah 14a. though in relation to Keter it is yesh (note 43 supra). Sifre on Deut. Zohar 1:lSb. Tanya. note 37. The process of induction-deduction. Zohar Chadash 4a. the next Sefir~h. See supra. lgeret Hakodesh.
See also Zohar I:lb. The intellect which forms and develops an idea. internally. Igeret Hakodesh. are a potential power that needs to be. strictly speaking. V. note 11. Tanya III:4. Tikuwi Zohar 42:81b. The concept. also Shemom Perakim. That is why Deut. Y-Chochmah.: 17a. V. to the effect that every action or acting upon. as essence of the Midot. see Tikunei Zohur. are on a plane of AYiN: A-Keter. See Moreh Nevuchim II:4 to the effect that wisdom or reason does not produce motion. 63. The concept is there and it is clear in the mind. 177). 29:30 ("the hidden things are unto the Eternal") is applied to the Sefirot Chochmah and Binah. a c t ~ a l i s e d . Vayera (ed. p. it is not fully realised.""* symbolising the meaning of these categories and their relationship. Hence it is Da'at.Sefirot 75 Hei is a more concrete letter: it has dimensions of length and width signifying the dimensions of explanation. N-Binah. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. Addenda. However. 62.~' Therefore the Zohar refers to the Sefirot of Chochmah and Binah as "The dot (Chochmah) in the palace (Binah). and see my notes on the Maggid's Or Torah. will not produce motion without the existence of a desire (emotive disposition) for the object of which an idea has been formed. Kehot. Hakd. Intr. note 15. understanding and manife~tation. sect. it does not lead to any conclusion. and the ability to move to act upon this idea. Igeret Hakodesh. originates in the appetitive faculty of the soul. Zohur I:6a. thus in the emotive dispositions (Midot) of man. but has not yet been. that is the volitive power . when in the mind. Keter-Chochmah-Binah. But it is only in the mind. notes 43 and 55 supra. wisdom and understanding. Chochmh and Binah ~~ are two separate faculties: the intuitive flash of intellectual cog61. Cf. XI. while externally it is inaudible and in~isible.Moreover. 2. I. Cf. Chochmah and Binah by themselves are abstract. Igeret Hakodesh. Cf. sect. Zohur II:158a. 64."~ On its own. sect. ch. Thus all three.
et passim.. it is a direct derivative or aspect of Keter. 25.that is. and the references in note 79 (97) a. Etz Chayirn 48:2. Shenei Luchot Habrit. for it transcends Chochmah and Binah. But how are they joined? How does the "dot" come to.1. Sha'ar 24 f . so we must speak of two categories of Da'at . the power of understanding this flash. 66. Derush Be'inyan Hada'at (pp. and so is the power of inductiondeduction . Sha'ar Hahakdamot.(Binah). and become externalised and informed in. However. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p. See Zohar III:291a. Genesis 4:1. See the detailed discussion of Da'at in P a r h s Rimonim 3:8 and 9:5-6. Likutei Torah III:87c f . end of sect. This unifying principle is called Da'at Elyon.the union of Chuchmh with Binuh. ~ ~ moving to action. 17. . Cf.66 Thus Da'at is the unifying principle that brings together and joins the faculties of Chochmah and Binah. 273bff. 67. the "palace"? These two states .the union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . See lgeret Hakodesh. XV.O5 The etymological meaning of Da'at is attachment or union. Etz Chayim. 65.). Tikunei Zohar 69:99a. 68.." the Supernal Will that wishes and seeks .76 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM nition (Chochmah) may be there. just as we are speaking of two states. and the practical implementation of the informed concept . effects or "activities" at two different levels. notes 70 and 73 infra. (besides the sources mentioned in the notes following.and hence is able to effect . 5a fl).are effected by the faculty of Da'at. Cf. especially note 72). or acting upon that which is proposed by Chochmah and Binah. Daht on two planes: Da'at Elyon (Upper or Superior Da'at ) and Daht Tachton (Lower or Infgrior Da'at ) .
The profound inner concentration on. but he does not cany this knowledge and understanding to its logical conclusion to apply it consistently with its inherent implications. It must be channelled to the emotive attributes so that they will act upon it in terms of appropriate dispositions: to seek or pursue that which wisdom dictates should be sought. Cf..70 The principle of wisdom need not only be understood but also felt and sensed. this personal sensing (Hargashuh). . and devotion to.U. of Ayin Ya'akou). 71. and to avoid that which wisdom dictates should be avoided.l. that is. of the Midot. "Study is greater because it leads to action" (Kiddwhin 40b) -"for there is no action without Chochmah" (Zohar 1:266a). See Berachot 17a: "The goal of Chochmah is repentance and good deeds". he has the knowledge of G-d's existence and believes in the Divine ability to help him. 69. the Chochmah informed in Binuh. For example. It is the full preoccupation in the apprehended and understood concept until an intense union is effected between the intellect and the emotions (Sechel and Midot) 71 and the idea is brought to its logical conclusion in practical especially the glossary notes a. To possess wisdom or even understanding does not yet mean that it will actually be implemented and applied in practise. S. Thus this faculty of Da'at Tachton is the very root and essence. Haamanot Elokut: ch. us. is the faculty of Da'at Tachton.But to bring about this union is itself but a means towards a further end:"O to implement or apply and bring to fruition the concept of Chochmah that has been informed in Binah. 2 See note 64 supra. a thief may be found to pray for Divine assistance in the very midst of his nefarious activities (Berachot 63a. 70. Znyan Hada'at and Veaz Meuuar. or soul and controlling guide. and note 73 infra. Derech Mitzootecha.
73. ~ " n Da'at the original idea and concept has matured into corresponding dispositions. Therefore Da'at is the all-inclusive essence of the Midot. and infra. 3 and 42. ix.l. See note 65 supra. Mishpatim:74cff. See also Derech Mitzvotecha.~ 72. the seed of Abba is implanted in the womb of lmma and there the rudimentary plant of the seed is developed.c. XV. Ibid. alternatively. 76.Zohar II:123a and III:289b f . 74. Meuoh She'arim V:1:12 and 14 ("the principal f illumination and manifestation of the brains in man is by means o Da'at") . Likutei Torah 111:2d and 87cf. Da'at is called Ben (Son).. . the offspring of this union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . and Tanya I . and follows upon. 8. Pardess Rimonim 8 :17. externalised and informed. Zgeret Hakodesh. 75. note 9. See references in note 74 supra.'2 It is this faculty of Da'at that is usually referred to when the term Da'at appears ~ n q u a l i f i e d . Torah Or. Tiferet (or the first six Midot in unison) is called the "son" and Malchut is called the "daughter". This faculty of Da'd Tachton is below.. See Etz Chayim 22:l: "Chochmah and Binah (alone) are to no avail. Zohar III:290a ff." Cf. expanded. or.-Cf. for Chochmah and Binuh are concealed and become manifest only by means of Da'at. Thus the Midot are called the children of Chochmah and Binah. sect. Chochnmh and Binah. and of it is said "If there is no Binalt there can be no Da'at" j Auot 3 :17). chs.78 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CI~ASSDDISM application. of the emotive powers or attributes of the lower S e f i ~ o tFor~the Midot express and reveal . ~ ~ In the metaphorical terminology of the Kabbalah and Chassidism C h o c h m h is called Abba (Father) and Biracrh is called I m m (Mother).. et pmsim..74Metaphorically speaking. ch. a.
we did so by analogical reference to the soul-faculties of man: Keter (the allencompassing will) leading to Chochmnh (the intuitive or seminal intellectual flash) which is joined by Da'at Elyon to Bimh (the faculty of understanding and elucidation) thence to be realised in Da'at Tachton and to become enacted in the dispositions of the Midot. Sefer Hamaamrim 5700 (New York 1955). with man the execution of his will and wisdom is a category distinct. a gradual. dependent yet separate. Etz Chayim 23:s and 8. Yesod and Malch~t. developing process in temporally distinct stages. with G-d there is no temporal sequence. p. sense. Tiferet. Isaiah Horowitz has stressed.~' One final comment in relation to the aforesaid. Gvurah. Obviously this cannot be said of the Divine process. 38. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn. a temporal sequence. See also R. 40:6. and lgeret Hakodesh. XV.these dispositions originating in Sechel in terms of Chesed. All these "stages" are simultaneous to the extent that as soon as "it arises in G-d's Will" His Will is performed instantaneously and there is no "before" and "after" except in some extremely subtle. 77. In man there is.. In explaining these Sefirot and their interrelationship as we have done so far (and shall be doing in the chapters following). see also ibid. the analogy is inadequate and breaks down for two basic reasons : Firstly. As R. 3. therefore. See Tanya I: ch. from his will and It is in this context as "soul (essence) of the Midot" that Da'at is not counted as a separate Sefirah to replace Keter (see supra note 38). qualitatiue. sect. . N e t m h . Hod. For as a mere soul without its own independent vessel or body it cannot be included as one of the ten principles of the Sefi7ot. Secondly.
section 1 and note 18 ad loc. 2. and Zgeret Hakodesh. cf. sect. S. et passim.0. 81. regardless of the merits of the r e ~ i p i e n t . 84. I. G-d brought into being . sect. 80. animating all creation. Etz Chayim 18:5 (see infra."8l That is. See supra. V. Inyan Hada'at. Igeret Hakodesh. Cf.7s Chesed means kindness in a sense of absolute. sect. see also Avodat Hakodesh I:3. Psalm 89:3. see Tanya II:4.~@ the very crystallisation of the disposiIt is tion to bestow good and kindness for the very sake of kindness. infra. See Tanya II:4. Shenei Luchot Habrit.-Though . supra. and Pardess Rimonim 8:l. Cf." and it is from . The implication of Chesed (creation and its continuous sustenance) is a manifestation of the infinite benevolence (Chesed) that is of the essence of G-d. Pardess Rimonim 2:6. sect.the world and a 1 the creat u r e ~ Creation. and thus it is written "The world was built by Chesed. and Pardess Rimonim 11:3. 82.~~ this attribute that the Divine life-force. Cf. ~ ~ Chesed is the attribute or disposition that underlies the creation.80 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wisdom. as it is intrinsic to the nature of the benevolent to be benevolent in actu. note 86). and notes 77-82 (83-88) a. gratuitous and unlimited benev~lence.l. sect. Pardess Rimonim 23:8. XI. ch. Zgeret Hakodesh. this chapter. therefore. 7Dn. Zohar III:69b and 257b f . 83.. and Igeret Hakodesh. V and X. 79. issues forth.1. cf. see Moreh Nevuchim III:53. See Zohar I1:168b. is an act of Chesed.84 78. while with G-d they are one absolute and inseparable unity.c. s. Etz Chayim I:l.ex nihilo . a. note 103. to bring about recipients for the Divine benevolence. XI11 and XV.U.
note 6. restrained. limit and restrain. assume actualised manifestation through the process and presence of creation. the effulgence of the Divine Chesed is as boundless as its Source while the creatures to which it emanates are limited and finite. See Pardess Rimonim 8:2. however. In themselves. in proportion to the prospective recipient's merit. concealed. gratuitous fashion. It is the attribute of Din (Law and J ~ d g m e n t ) .contracting. This is effected through Geourah. and infra. 85.-Etz Chayim 18:5: "All fixed measures and limitations are but from the side of Gevurah. See Meooh Shehrim I: 1 : 1: "Every limitation of emanation is from . 86. does not allow the Supernal Light to extend. chapter V. and its full force screened. Gevurah. as Divine attributes. withdrawing. If exposed to it they would become nullified in it and cease to exist. ~ ~ demands that Din Chesed be distributed justly. but sets to it a limitation and measure to the point of (actual) need-for the light to extend that far but no further". Meooh She'arim I:l:l. Cf. see supra end of section 1. note 89. The finite creatures cannot possibly absorb and endure so abundant and powerful an effulgence as the Divine Chesed. For Chesed indicates an extension in all matters beyond the limit. and the references cited there in note 18) : all the Sefirot. i.e.. in fact it is relevant to all the Sefirot (as mentioned earlier. Chesed needs to be controlled. and infra. See infra. Thus it is the principle that seeks to control. and not in boundless. note 100.Sefirot 81 However. Chesed this principle and implication is mostly related to Chesed and Malchut. Cevurah means Might or Power in a sense of severity. 87.86 Geourah implies t ~ i m t z u r n . con~~ cealing and limiting the Divine emanations. limited.
But as both Chesed and Gevurah are Divine attributes [Gevurah and Din] . XII. the positive effects of Gevurah emerge only by prior stimulus or effort.verily.@" This is not to say. XIII.~' Particularly in the context of the act of creation. cf.is.82 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDDISM and Gevurah pose an antimony as principles diametrically opposed to one another. chapter 11. for positive aspects of Geuurah. XV. sect. On the contrary. note 100. sect. As a general rule. However. Every tzi~ntzum [an aspect of] Din. . 90. in whole or in part. as expression of the Divine Love and Benev~lence. . 91. Igeret Hakodesh. Noach: p. sect. See supra. lgeret Hakodesh. VIII. and Igeret Hakodesh. as expressed by tzimtzum . 88. and cf. note 8 6 ) . preceding note. Just as Chesed by itself would make it impossible for creation to subsist so Gevural~ itself would preclude the existence by of creation. XV." See also is Tanya II:4 and 6." for Geuurah seeks to prevent. however.~Vor we have seeqB3tzimtzum makes it possible for G-d's creatures to exist and subsist. though. an . the outflow of C h e ~ e d . Cf. and XV. in effect. and cf. that Gevurah is a strictly negative concept. 89. 93. this is not the case if Gevurah were to be singularly dominant. chapter XI. being one of the Divine attributes it must be seen as positive and contributory. XII. sect. infra. the Divine benevolence as channelled through Gevurah may have an exclusively distinct ad~antage. See Etz Chayim 18:5 (supra. . note 9. See Tanya II:6. ~ ' Thus from the severity of Gevurah derive also the stern Divine Judgments. In fact. 92. Yc. See Torah Or. Gevurah . also Igeret Hakodesh. See infra.
See Tanya II:4-6. 132. XI1 and XV. Tiferet. Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar (New York 1971). Igeret Hakodesh. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. that the creatures may continue to exist even while benefitting from Chesed. Tiferet harmonises and blends the free outpouring from Chesed with the severe tzimtzum of Geuurah. they form a triad referred to by the acrostic ChaGaT. therefore. and infra. on Zohar I:168a. It blends them in such a way so that Chesed will still issue forth. the Divine attribute of Tiferet. and 9:3. is not an equal mixture but tends towards Chesed. these three are the basic or essential Midot in relation to which the others are but derivatives as will be seen in the following section. See R. and the harmonious colourfulness of this attribute makes it beautiful ( Tiferet ) . For all the Midot are either an aspect of Chesed (of outpouring and effluence) or of Gevurah (of withdrawal and restraint) or an aspect of Tiferet (of harmonious blending of the 94. Pardess Rimonim 8:2.in absolute unity with the Divine essence they are neither separate principles nor do they counter one another. p.e. 96. XII. sect. i. Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. sect. though limited by Gevurah so as to make the Chesed endurable.05 This quality accounts for this Sefirah being called Tiferet. note 103.06 The relationship between these three Sefirot is clearly seen. 95.g4 They are able to "operate" successfully by a mediating faculty. Also.. Igeret Hakodesh. . together. beauty: it blends the differing colours of Chesed and Geuurah. That is why.
179 ff.lo0 and Tiferet with Rachamim (Compassion. just like Ra'at is the "soul" of the Midot (supra. Mostly in the context of the Partzufim. For an extensive discussion of these two terms and their relationship. 46 ff. and also ibid. sect. Zohar Chodash. Intr. see Zohar I:31a and passim. 99. Chesed per se would thus be the very core of Rachamim. Magnificence) because it expresses the infinite Greatness (Benwolence) of G-d. 51b. Tanya II:4. chapter VIII.. Tikunei Zohar. Tikunei Zohnr 22:67b. Likutei Torah IV:17c%. the Divine Compassion. et passim. sect. In the Scriptural reference to the Midot in I Chronicles 29:11. lgeret Hakodesh. in comment on Reut. note 61).. 134. there is a distinct difference between these two terms with Gedulah denoting a superior level of Divine Benevolence than Chesed. I. However. or "Rachamim within Rachamirn" ( Z o h 111:145b). Yitro. note 95).84 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS M CHASSIDLSM former two aspects). XI1 and XIII. . 100. see R. and sect. vol. Vayera: p. vol. 31b. Zohar III:302a. ch. Moreover. and R. Mercy). XI1 and XV. cf. VI and note 6 a. In this context. the term Gedulah appears.: 17b. Obviously it is called Rachamim because of the predominance of Chesed (see supra. quite frequently Tiferet alone@? is spoken of as the principle of the Midot because it compounds within itself the basic dispositions of the Midot. Zgeret Hakodesh. see infra. Thus Chesed is called Gedulah (Greatness.Q8 There are a number of terms that often appear as synonyms for these three Midot.9BCkuurO is synonymous with Din ( Judgment). Sh'muel Schneersohn. Or HatorahBereishit (New York 1966). Zohar II:175b. Likutei Torah-Torat Sh'muel (New York 1946). and not Chesed.l. Sifre on Numbers 27:12 (sect. 101. so Tiferet is the "body" of the Midot. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. strictly speaking. 111. 98..lol Rachamim. 3:24). is the harmonising princi97.
from the aspect of Gewrah. there is frequent reference to various other factors 102. Igeret Hakodesh. sect. Psalms 139: 12). nothing is truly fit to receive the Divine benevolence except that from the Divine perspective it is all one ("even the darkness does not darken from You and the night shines as the day-the darkness is even as the light". because the motive is strictly .). For Tiferet recognises the validity of Gevurah-that strictly speaking the recipient is undeserving-but out of a sense of Rachamim (Compassion) permits a restrained flow of C k s e d . But these aspects of truth are relatiue to these conffitcing perspectives: the perspective of Chesed on its own and the perspective of Geuurah on its own.. sect. i. of law and justice.lo2 and thus the Divine plan of creation is made possible and the "disposition of the benevolent to be benevolent" is actualised. as Divine attributes. Igeret Hakodesh. and therefore "in the light of the King's Countenance there is life" (Proverbs 16:15). inasmuch as even "the heavens are not pure in His eyes" (Job 15:15) and "His angels He charges with deficiency" (ibid. but they are so only when they stand on their own. ibid. out of absolute. Thus. 103. is an aspect of truth. 28c. Zohar Chodarh.l. XV. and cf. VI. XX and note 32 (35) a.e. Thus. See Etz Chuyim 35:3. The quality of C k s e d to dispense benevolence in unlimited fashion.ple that restrains excessive Chesed and mitigates severe Ceuurah. is absolute truth in the sense that it reconciles and harmonises Chesed and Geuurah. sect. gratuitous and infinite benevolence without regard to the merits of the recipient. Toldot. 31b. Yiho. are E m d (truth).lo3 Similarly. and Zgeret Hakodesh.. Tiferet. sect. see Moreh Nevuchirn III:13. truth demands the withholding of the Divine Grace. 4: 18.. In this context Tiferet is also called Emet (Truth). note 22 (26).On the other hand. 11. in proportion to the recipient's merits. the quality of Geuurah to withhold and restrict the Divine effusion is again truthful for the very reason that truth and justice demand distribution in justness and equity. on the other hand. For. strictly speaking. that it is not contradicted or opposed by either Chesed or Geuurah or any other attribute. It need be understood that all the Midot. ibid.
. et pasJ. vol. I . p. The most frequent reference. sect. by his individual position. and the only one that concerns us in Igeret Hakodesh.2. III:302a. 104. 376-7 (variant version). and note 27 (28) a. 107. even Gevurah will agree to this flow. Thus Abraham represents Chesed because his inclinations and activities expressed kindness and benevolence to the highest degree..86 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN (SHASSIDISM which correspond to these Midot as well as to the other Sefirot.c. Zbid.lo8 one of compassion. sect. Maamarei Admur Hazaken-5565. Aaron and David. without any opposition: Emet Le-amito. and ibid. Moses.and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanuh 5666. Joseph. Supra.c. note 105. note 22 (26).. VI. 52.c.im. disposition and mode of service and worship. (note 103). and Igeret Hakodesh. XIII.l . sect. also Zohar II:276b. Igeret Hakodesh. everything relates directly to one or more of the Sefirot in its own individual way. p . references cited in Igeret Hakodesh.. note 7 (Q). sect. therefore. a. 434 f. sect. 11. or by way of metaphor and analogy. Jamb. See Etx Chayim. a . and ibid. sect. Zohar I:41a. Supra. 11. see Igeret Hakodesh. 108. a. 106.lo7 Jacob represents Tiferet because he compounded the Chesed of his grandfather and the Geuzlrah of his father. . See also Zohar I:74a and 146a. Zohar Chadash. Sefer Habahir 48 (131).loWach of these. et passim. and.Io4 Thus the seven Midot have corresponding entities in the seven dominating figures of Scripture that are referred to as the "fathers of the universe": Abraham. 105. corresponds to one of the Midot. absolute truth. (note 95 supra).l. is made to the three Patriarchs as they correspond to the first three Midot. Tiferet is a truth rccognised from every aspect. note 105.1. XIII. As the Sefirot are the Divine instruments through which everything comes into being. Likutei Leui Yitzchak.lo6 Isaac symbolises Gevurah as this attribute was most dominant in him. Isaac.
Gevurah and Tiferet.c. 110. or "mechanically. Netxach-Hod-Yesod These three Sefirot. XIX See Tikunei Zohar 19:45a. vessels. on simple faith. 112.l. I. a. they form dispositions to actualise themselves. is that Netzach. supra-rational dispositions which seek to carry the attributes of ChuGaT to their logical conclusion. and Zgeret Hakodesh. these three "lower" Midot serve as tools." rather than on the stimulus of reason (Sechel) the way ChaGaT do. (the latter two 109. These dispositions are no longer directly influenced or controlled by ChaBaD but are the simple.llo In other words. 113. Pardess Rimonim 7:2. See Tanya II:5. Hod and Yesod are the receptacles for the three Patriarchs. Their basic significance. works being the principal sources for the explanation following). See further. sect. for Chesed. . and cf. See supra. Hod of Gevurah and Yesod of Tiferet.'09 i. 8:17 and 24. as it were. Binah and Da'at.l12 - Chesed-Gevurah-Tiferet are the very essence of the attributes they signify and are directly influenced and directed by Chochmah. XV and note 41 (48) a.. 22:68b. sect. sect. Zgeret Hakodesh. Zohar III:236a.1. which act. as well as the characteristic of their relationship. Hod and Yesod. Likutei Torah. form a triad known by the acrostic NeHY. 111.6..lll This does not mean that NeHY are identical with ChaGaT: Netzach is merely a branch and channel of Chesed. and 30:74a. These dispositions are Netzach.llS Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. notes 105-108. Once the attributes of ChaGaT are established by ChaBaD. or channels through which the aforementioned "upper" Midot effect their purpose and factual application.e. too. lgeret Hakodesh. Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d.
through Tiferet. Tikunei Zohar.thus mitigating its aspect of the severity of G e ~ u r a h . E. "two thighs" (Zohur I:26b. For since they evolve through the comprehensive attribute of Tiferet. and 114. 117.tends towards Chesed. nor Gevurah with Hod. Netzach is not even proportionally identical with Chesed. l ~ ~ Another substantive distinction is the following. Unlike the other Midot. nor Yesod with Tiferet. Netzach does not possess the simple intensity of Chesed nor Hod that of Geuurah. 115.. Netzach and Hod usually go paired together. and so forth. for the above-mentioned reason it differs from Tiferet not only in intensity. like unto twins."l16 And similarly the terms relating to these two attributes are usually such as are intimately related to one another. Intr. so Netzach and Hod are the two brothers Moses and Aaron (Zohar I:256b. 116. despite their identification as branches or derivatives of their predecessors. and 11:276b. the "two hips" (Tikunei Zohar 13:29a). Likewise with Yesod. "two kidneys" (Zohar III:296a) .2 and 8:24. but more significantly because it tends towards Hod (the side of Gevurcfh) while Tiferet . The Zohm refers to them as "two halves of one body. I:4. Zohr III:236a. though it mediates between Netzach and Hod as Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Geuurah.: 17a) . which includes within it both Chesed and Geuurah.as we have seen .l17 In this context.g. . Just as ChaGaT are the three Patriarchs..88 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Also. See Pardess Rimonim 7. Ibid. Netzach is also able to receive and apply the positive aspects of Gevurah while Hod is able to receive the flow of Chesed . 114 On the other hand.
Netzach and Hod are called the "supports of the upper Sefirot" analogous to the loins.ll9 Thus they are. For example. the latter will be unable to understand and absorb the information. See Zgeret Hakodesh.. as said. 26d. 119. The father has already contemplated the facts. and ibid.1. they are clear in his own mind.ll8 Hence they are seen to be outside the body itself. thighs or legs in the body of man which support and uphold the whole body (including the head). see Pardess Rimonim a. sect. But when he now confronts his son with that information (i. Vayera. he understands them fully. on the level of activity.1. cited supra. I.c.e. the father and ref. though they support the body . If the information is to be conveyed effectively.leading it to its destination in general and channeling Chesed and Cevurah in particular. In the metaphor of the man-analogy. the Divine Names and other terms relating to these two attributes are usually a plural form of one concept. 118.. i. note 105). sect. I. and Likutei Torah III:9Oc-d. Zohar Chadosh.Sefirot 89 in light of the aforesaid. Zgeret Hakodesh. Netzach and Hod are the "kidneys that advise.. outside the body of ChuBaD and ChuGaT. when a father seeks to convey some intellectual information to his son." That is. the facts as they are in themselves and in their totality) without bringing the reasoning down to the child's level. sect. V and note 100 (109) a. directly concerned with the ultimate issuance of Chesed and Geuurah. . Also.e. at the time of the actual emanations from the upper Midot it is necessary to deliberate how they are to issue forth in such a way that would be most just and beneficial. he cannot teach him the simple facts by themselves as they are in his own mind.
. as yet. thus much more intense and severe than Hod. cited there. notes 64 ( 7 9 ) and 68 (83). to carry the above metaphor further: If the father's mind is not set on teaching his son. XV. see Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d. There are two considerations: on the one hand to teach the child as much as possible ( notion of Chesed). If the conveyance of the information is to be fully effective. unable to absorb (notion of Geuurah). and on the other to withhold that which the child is. sect. lgeret Hakodesh. to preserve the Divine Majesty and Splendour from being dissipated in the abundant Benevolence ( Chesed ) . 122.I2" Net. and the ref.' 2 2 Now. then the son cannot be an efficacious recipient for the father's knowledge... While Hod is the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the concept o f majesty. the deliberation of the father and the arrangement of the facts and reasoning in such a way that the child will be able to grasp them effectively. are the functions of Netzach and Hod.I2*Hod seeks to restrain (Geuurah) the excess of absorbability.e. These considerations. Geuurah would be the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the confrontation or presence of majesty. note 41 (48) and the references cited there. one requires not only an 120. 121.zaclz thus represents the attribute of Endurance. Ibid. See ibid. of prevailing and standing up against. the aspects of Geuurah) with the flow of the Divine Benevolence (Chesed). .!30 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM needs to consider the limited faculties of his son's mind and teach him accordingly. and conquering all that would withhold or interfere (i.
as the third. Cf. In fact. and of no lesser importance. It is not sufficient for the father to place himself momentarily on the son's level. XV. If the son were to hear his father pronouncing the facts to himself. supra. notes 112 and 114. with love and willingness. sect.especially when he hears his father utte-ing them clearly and in detail. See Pardess Rimonim 8:24 and 9:4. 124.l23 As Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Gevurah. and Etz Chayim 46:3. He must unite himself with the son. the very degree of illuminating clarification depends on that bond. the harmonising principle. an inner bond between the teacher and the student-recipient. so Yesod mediates. and the greater and more intense is the efficacy of the father's efforts. as it were (the deliberation of N e t m h and Hod). create a bond between them. And the greater the father's desire and willingness to teach . Zgeret Hakodesh. Now this bond uniting Emanator and recipient is the attribute of Yesod. But this type ~f newly acquired knowledge is by no means comparable to the more pmfound knowledge he would have acquired had the father taught him directly.the more intense is the bond uniting the two. blends and compounds Netzach and Hodiz4 Moreover. The father's mind needs to be set on teaching his son. but he must create a channel of communication.Sefirot 01 illuminating clarification and presentation of the facts proportionate to the student's capacities. of these active Sefirot which 123. .stemming from the father's love for his child . he would surely grasp some points of information . He must want to teach him. but also.
e. Zohar III:271b. S. Addenda. and cf. 129. Proverbs 1025. Liturgy. i.1. His appellation then was that of King". Hence the lowest level in spiritual categories is usually referred . See also next note. ibid. which alludes to the seven Midot (see supra. sect.1. and note 44 (47) a..lZ5and Yesod serves as the all-inclusive principle joining heaven to earth. Zohar I:31a. Tikunei Zohr 21:55b. note 99). Eliezer. sect. III:257a (and Nitzutzei Orot. cf. Thus Yesod is the Foundatioin of the ~ r e a t i 0 n . Yesod is the blending channel of all the preceding Sefirot: all the Sefirot "pour" their light into Yesod. a.c. Berachot 40b. In I Chronicles 29:11. See lgeret Hakodesh. symbol of the Sefirah Yesod) is the Foundation (Yesod) of the world". Zohar. 126. the principle of Yesod is expressed by the words Y7N11 C9DV3 73 9 3 which the Zohar (based on a Targum) interprets "for all (kol.V. Adon Olam. II:116a. 3 . (note 126). See also Tossafot. 331H 7DN.) et passim. "The Tzaddik (Righteous. note 44 (51). l ~ ~ 7. Tanya II:7. X X . the all-comprehensive Sefrah of Yesod) joins the heaven and the earth". 6:145b. the last and '~ "lowest level" of the S e f i ~ o t . and fgeret Hakodesh. not so when there are no subjects.lZ6making it possible for the emanations of the Sefirot to issue forth effectively unto the creatures. et passim.92 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM compound within them the preceding essential Sefirot.2. "When by His Will was fashioned every thing. ch.. Kingship or Sovereignty is a state of being rather than an activity: when there are subjects subservient to the king one can speak of Kingship and Sovereignty. ~does not exert any influence of its 125. Malchut Malchut is unique among the Sefirot.'" Thus Malchut. Pirkei de R. a. 128. XV. 127. See Tikunei Zohar 21:55b.
Tikunei Zohar 19:40b." (like unto "the moon that has no light of its own save that which i s given unto it by the sun". Nidah 31b. Therefore to as the Makhut (or more emphatically yet. Zohar 1:249b. sect. iiild ibid. e. Igeret Hakodesh. 134.131 Thus Malchut is referred to as the "Architect wherewith the whole creation was made"132 and "Nothing occurs among the lower beings unless it be through M a 1 ~ h u t . See also ibid. XX. See Zohar I:50a. and 251b. III:290a fl. 133. VIII.1. and cf.) ... and sect. Pardess Rimonim 11:2. and Zohar Chadash. XXI. see. note 25 (26).-Probably for this reason did R. See further Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. Joseph Albo suggest (in the context of identifying the Intelligences with the Sefirot) that Makhut is identical with the sphere of the Active Intellect (see Zkkarim II:11). sect. but this has been severely criticised by the Kabbalists. The potentia of the world '~~ ( t h e seed of Chochmuh) is externalised and individuated in the womb of Binuh but remains concealed like a foetus. through which the original creative plan is actualised. XV. as it were. 1la.. II:22a. 130. sect."130 93 On the other hand. Shabhat 156a). et passim. note 9. It is through Malchut that the latent and potential creation emerges into manifest reality and substantiaIity. Malchut plays an important role. Avodat Hakodesh I:7. l ~ ~ As Binuh is the Supernal Mother (Immu Ilaah) so Malchut is the Nether Mother (Imma T ~ t a u h ) . II:145b. 132.. et passim. I t is the very instrument. as Malchut of Makhut) of that category. Etz Chayim 6:5.g. Makhut is called "a dim speculum because it has no (light) of its own. 8:5. . 36:l.Sefirot own except that "which the other Sefirot pour into it. note 21 (24). 131. Tikunei Zohar 44:82b. XX (and note 59 (62) a. Igeret Hakodesh. see also Tanya II:7. Cf.
Tikunei Zohar. Binah-the "concealed world-is implanted in the womb of Malchut and thence egresses into manifest being. the potentiality of what is. See Zohar II:127a (cf. sect.. the Divine speech (the ten fiats of Genesis I by which the world was created and came into being. Zohar 1:l b and II:127a]. S. 3: 140a. 141.'~~way By and means of the succeeding Sefirot (the Midot).. Tanya 11:11-12). and ibid. see Zgeret Hakodesh. Thus Malchut is called the "manifest world (Alma &-ZtgaEya) Malchut is the "Mouth of G d : 1 3 7the Word of the Eternal and the Breath of His Mouth by which the world came into actual. Zohar Chadash. lnw nt3. Zohur Chadash. By analogy to human speech.1. 52. sect. Addenda. as it were. Intr.V. 140. 139.: 17a. 138. note 50. Cf. XX.. [Also Alma Tataah (Lower World). manifest being. V . sect. X X X . Pardess Rimonim 23: 13. 142.141 Through Malchut everything comes into manifest being. Yitro 34c. Zohar 1:lb and 11: 127a. ibid.94 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDZSM Binah is called the concealed world (Alma de-ztka~sya). Tikunei Zohar 70: 121a. Also Alma llaah (the Upper World) . 136. -Tanya I: ch. Malchut is.1.1. Psalms 33:6. and sect. See supra. Avot V: 1.l. 1:lb).. Zgeret Hakodesh. . of Tikunirn. and notes 43-45 (45-47) and 64 (67). ibid. f which is but the expression and manifestation or revelation o the speaker's inner thoughts and dispositions. sect. that what is. See Zohar 11:127a.140 In Malchut the potentiality is finally actualised.. XXV. cf. For 135. 137.139 so Malchut is called ?"n. beg. a.142 The attribute of Malchut actually explains its own term.. and notes 50 (53) and 59 (62) a. and notes 46-50 (49-53) a. X X .'38 As Chuchmah is n"t) n"2. 93a. and notes 23-24 (25-26) a.
Cf. the Divine Indwelling Presence or Immanen~e. However. 8: end of ch. 144. XXV. Igeret Hakodesh. and ibid. sect.l. Tanya. note 128. 26. sect. thus. 52. any unqualified mention of Shechinah usually refers to the lower level of Malchut. I: ch. and supra. XX and XXV. lgeret Hakodesh. That is why Malchut is identical with Shechinah.Id3When finite creatures come into being through the Sefirah of Malchut the Divine attribute of Kingship. For a further discussion of Malchut see Pardess Rimonim 7:3-4 and 8.. is the origin of the revelation of the light of the En Sof which extends to. 24 and ch. 145. .notes 18 and 22 supra. The world and the creatures provide prospective recipients for G-d's benevolence. Sovereignty.'~~ 143. Binah and Malchut) so we speak of Shechitmh on two levels ("higher" and "lower". and illuminates. the world and creatures in a "revealed manner. cf. becomes meaningful and In Malchut. Tanya II:7. and ibid. note 25 (26) a. From this source there extends to each individual entity the particular light and vitality suitable for it: informing. They make it possible to speak of a Divine Kingdom as "There cannot be a King without a nation" and people distinct from Himself over which to rule.-Zmma and Shechinah thus are identical terms. note 22 (23). sect. VIII.it is through MaIchut that the disposition of the Benevolent to be benevolent can be actualised: a world and creatures come into being.. Zgeret Hakodesh. Just as we speak of Imma on two levels ("higher" and "lower". See Tanya II:7. animating and sustaining it. VIII. sect. Bimh and Malchut). and esp..
and 2:1. 147. in the chapter on Tzimtzum. immediately upon "entering" the chalal it revolved parallel to the perimeter of the chalal. Hakd. but below or inside the perimeter) of the chalal. and also ibid.'~" As mentioned above. lggulim and Yosher. but not really attached to it except by means of the kau from which it evolved. "higher" and "lower". That is. Pardess Rimonim 6:7. and (iii) the void (below said concentric sphere) of the remainder of the chalal. note 29 ( 3 2 ) . X X . Likutei Torah III:37c f . At this stage we thus have (i) the all-encompassing sphere of the Or En Sof (manifest outside the chalal and concealed within the chalal). The principal sources for this section are Etz Chayim 1:2-5. the "line" or ray of light that descended from the Or En Sof encompassing the chalal to the very core or midst of This the ~ h a l a 1 . 148. This is how we obtain the relative terms of "above" and "below". This first concentric sphere is as close to the all-encompassing Or En Sof as possible. note 159. IV and V.96 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM 8. that part of the chalal (the sphere) and its aspect of tzimtzum would have been nullified: the inner . thus establishing a concentric sphere within it. 2:7. l ~ ~ kav did not extend from the circumference to the central point in one immediate and complete manifestation.l48 This concentric sphere of dimmed Or En Sof is called Keter. See also Zgeret Hakodesh. and the centre of the chalal being the lowest level.. 146. The "Body of the Sefirot" There are two basic schemes in the emanation of the Sejirot or Divine Lights after the concealment of t~irntzum. sect. the Divine Light was manifested in the sphere of the primordial space (chalal) by means of the kao. (ii) the concentric sphere in the upper realm (right adjacent to. and so forth: the periphery of the chalal being the highest level. but gradually. round about the inside of the chalal. For if the Luminary (Or En Sof) and the sphere inside the chalal would be truly attached to each other. and infra. Sha'ar Hahakdamot.
Thus each of these ten spheres follows out of and succeeds the preceding one. In fact. ten and not eleven"). to repeat the same process: a new revolution around the c h h l to form another concentric sphere immediately below that of Keter.) and III:9b f .1. gradually descending to the very centre of the chaIal. they are fully distinct one from another. until the tenth concentric sphere was formed. (and Nitzutzei Orot.one within the other .149 This is the scheme of Iggulim ( circles. 150. circles within circles. in the very centre of the chulal. . expanding and revolving. see Zohur III:257b. and the Sefirot as a whole are also determined in number ("ten and not nine. Sha'ar Hahakdamot.or like a brain encompassed by many membranes one over the other. garments). In this initial scheme of Iggulim the Sefirot are like the skins of an onion . namely that of Malchut.Thereupon the kao was extended somewhat further. in an extended sense. It is by their individually determined measures that the Sefirot are distinguished and differentiated one from another (as we shall see infra. (1. For every Sefirah has a determined measure and dimension (in a qualitative sense).150 The significant point of this scheme is that essentially all the Sefirot are related to one sphere would have been absorbed by the outer one to revert to the state of one simple light of the En Sof. This new sphere is Chochmh. IV. See Zohar I: 19b f . chapter V ) . however. Sefer Yetzirah I:4-5. or concentric spheres). Hakd. And in this way the kau was extended ever further. 149. with a successive dimming of the light so that each one is distinct from all others. Etz Chuyim 1:2. again only partly. Hence also the term Midot for the Sefirot. Midot means fixed measures and dimensions (and.
"'" This analogy serves to point out the full inter-relationship between the Sefirot of Yoslaer (just as man's organs are interrelated to one another to form a single body). XV) . see Etz Chayim. even while underscoring and retaining the unique characteristics of each one. see Etz Chayim 8:l. 7:29).c. sect. 152."15* that is. See Pardess Rimonim 6:3. IV. Straightness) is derived from the verse "Gd made man yashar (upright)" (Eccles. Hakd.2. The term Yosher (Uprightness. Thus in the scheme of Yoshr the Sefirot are not simple faculties or principles independent of each other. The second. self-contained sphere or point. a.98 MYSTICAL CONCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM another only in terms of a successive process: the one emanating after the other but each one really a separate. "Analogous to man who divides into organs all of whieh exist level upon level and perfect one another. subsequent scheme of emanating Sefirot is that of "Yosher-like unto the appearance of a man standing upright. rather than to f that o Iggulim. Etz Chayim 1:2. Etz Chayim 1:l. most references to the Sefirot in the Zohar relate to the scheme o Yosher. Shdar Hahakdamot. 1:27)-Etz Chayim l:2-for the inherent faculties and powers of man's soul and their interactions are analogous (albeit in a strictly homonymous sense) to the Sefrot (see Igeret Hakodesh.-In general. f . and Sha'ar Hahakdamot. but they form an essentially unified body. yet all of them (together) form one body. In relation to this scheme of the Sefirot it is said "and G d created man in His image" (Gen. The analogy is carried further to the point 151. Zohar 1:134b.
Tiferet is the body. to the source of thought and intellect. More specifically. see supra. Tikunei Zohar. masculine and feminine). thus related to. yet inde- 153. Chochmah corresponds to the brain in general i. As Malchut is the manifesting aspect. in an extended sense.. the sides of Chesed and Gevurah.e. a. Also called the "kidneys that counsel". "The sign of the Holy Covenant. Binah and Da'at.16' together supporting the whole body and leading it to its ~~ destination. the seat of understanding. 155. Intr.. . N e t m h is the right leg or thigh while Hod is the left leg or thigh. supra. Binah corresponds to the heart.of relating the particular Sefirot to particular limbs or organs in the Body or Form (Partzuf) of Man: 1 5 ~ Chochmah. Chesed is the right arm while Gevurah is the left arm.e. it is said to correspond to the mouth." referring to circumcision (the sign or seal of the covenant or bond between G d and Israel) .. and Shahr Hahukdamot. are the three brains in man's head. with regards to the two aspects of Yesod relative to the two types of Partzufim (i.l. in the explanatory notes for the individual Sejirot. and cf. note 117. Yesod is the organ of p r o ~ r e a t i o n lthrough which the emanations of the higher Sefirot issue forth to Malchut to bring about a manifest creation.: 17a. intervening and mediating between. and compounding.. 154. the organ of speech by means of which the speaker's inner thoughts and emotive dispositions are expressed and revealed. Keter is the crown encompassing.See Etz Chayim.c.
left. . 157. and in the Zdrot. the Supernal Da'at. symbolic of the central. the Sefirot of Yosher are often illustrated by way of three lines-right. See Zohar 111: 153b ( d passim). ( 2 ) Binah-Gewrah-Hod on the left side. the scheme of Yosher underscores not only the functions of the Sefirot but also their inter-relationship as a unit or Body. the body. Keter is frequently referred to as "skull". Etz Chayim 1:2. This is done by placing Chuchmah on the right side. in line with but above Gevurah and Hod. in the context of the manmetaphor. Thus we have three new triads: (1)Chochmah-Chesed-Netzach.-See Etz Chayim 32:l and 25:5 on the superiority of the "skull" [Keter] over the "brains" [Chochmah-Binah-Da'at]. lb6 As mentioned. In Sifra Detzeniyuta.100 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CELASSIDLSM pendent of. in line with but above Chesed and Netzach. Therefore in spite of the locations of the "physical counterparts" in the body of man. Shdar Hahakdarnot. the "side of Chesed.and (3) Keter-Tiferet-Yesod-Makhut in the middle." because there is an innate relationship between these three ( C b s e d is a branch of Chochmah and Netzach is a branch of Chesed). IV. it is often referred to as the skull encompassing (thus transcending) the brain. and by placing Binah on the left side. and centre. the "side of Gewrah. a branch or 156. more specifically. mediating or all-inclusive harmonising principles they are.on the right side.lS7 It is also in this scheme of Yosher that we speak of the faculty of Da'at Elyon. and Hod is a branch of Gevurah). Hakd. This faculty." because there is an innate relationship between these three (Gevurah is a branch of Binah.
or some are spoken of as mediating principles. the unifying principle of Chochmah and Binah. obviously does not have a separate organ in this scheme. Schneerson a. 38. Pmtzufim. Menachem M.~~~ The full significance of these two schemes of Zggulim and Yosher will emerge later on in the context of Shedrat Hakelim. would require some "common denominator. see supra. But this raises a question: How.g. every 158." The mystics solve this problem by stating that. the antinomy between Chesed and Geuurah. 159. and in some cases seemingly contradictory principles (e. can the Sefirot interrelate and interact when they appear to be separate. At the same time we have also seen the inter-relationship and interaction of the Sefirot in a developmental sequence from Keter to MaIchut. would thus be placed in the middle line as the apex of the triangle Chochmah-Bin~h-Da'at. and between Netzach and Hod)? For even when the Sefirot do not contradict each other. chapters VII-IX. S. 4. and notes by R. and Tohu and T i k ~ n . p.derivative of Keter. The Sefirot as Compounds So far we have discussed the Sejirot mainly in terms of particular attributes. l ~ ~ 9. in effect. they still are essentially unique powers which. See Sefer Hamaamarim 5700.-Dabt Tachton. Da'at. in fact. in order to interact. as specific principles and potencies.1. .. as essence of the Midot. Infra. sect.V.
Binuh of Chochmah and so on. thereby leading to a wrong conception of division in the Sefirotic scheme) even while retaining the specific identity of. the S4rah of Chesed is divisible into Chochmh of Chesed. 161. and essential unity of. and so on.. for example. XI1 and XIII. and so forth.'^' This mutual inclusiveness has an important. sect. the word "general" is an intentional qualification.g.. the Sefirot. Chesed and Geuurah). and so forth. as the attribute of Chesed 160. as explained in the sources mentioned. references cited infra. chapter IX. B i d of Chesed. .-In referring to every Sefirah as a compound of "ten general levels". and differentiation among. Likutei Torah ZII:87a fl. so that every Sefirah can still be referred to by a specific name and differs radically from all other^. the Sefirot (as opposed to regarding each Sefimh as Independent and non-related. for. and 69:lleb. See Tanya 1I:lO. cf. and 89d 8. these ten levels subdivide each into ten sub-levels. The differentiation between the Sefirot is retained in full so that in every Sefirah its own aspect is predominant and determinative: Chochmah of Chochmah in Chochmah.lBOThus the Sefirah of Chochmah divides into Chochmh of Chchmah. Binah of Binah in Binah.102 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Sefirah is a compound of ten general levels: every Sefirah contains within itself aspects of all the ten Sefirot. also Zohar II:l85b. two-fold sigrdcance: ( a ) It indicates the integral bond between. ( b ) It allows the necessary interaction of all Sefirot in everything even though their distinguishing aspects or determinative characteristics may appear to be opposed to each other (e. lgeret Hakodesh. in effect. and Tikunei Zohar 70:125b and 135a.. Thus. See Tikunei Zohar 47:84a.
10 and 11. .lB2 This concept of the Sefirot as Compounds is intimately related to the concept of the scheme of Yosher and. pp.).. it will involve all other Sefirot.. as with the latter. ibid. 11 ) . its full significance will emerge in the later chapters on Shevirat Hakelim. The issues mentioned here are dealt with in detail by R. by way of the aspect of Chesed included in every other Sefirah. Sha'ar 5. esp. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 2. including Geuurah. ch. also Maimonides. ch. 8:2) which reflects strikingly the argument in Z o h II:23b f.Sefirot 103 will express and manifest itself. especially ch. Hilchot Yesohi Hatorah 1V:l-2 (quoted by Cordovero.1. See also R. and Tohu and Tikun. 1. 153b and 189a-b. see also the glossary note in Zohar II:24a (and Nitzutzei Z o h r a. Moses Cordovero in Pardess Rimonim. Partzufim. Or Torah. ibid. Cf. 5. and Sha'ar 8. 162. (quoted at length by Cordovero.
. occultation and condensation of the light of the En Sof. each of which is a microcosm on its own. i.e. Tanya I: ch. . i. The numerous other levels are the myriads of gradations into which these five worlds subdivide. thereby animating and lendBut ing them e~istence. relative 1. Essentially these Worlds are Divine "Garments" in which the Or En Sof conceals and clothes Itself.. These numerous levels are divided into five comprehensive categories. The Concept of " W w W Tzimtzum. one lower than the other. 43.CHAPTER FOUR Worlds 1. referred to as the Five Realms or Worlds.~ just as tzimtzum and the S 4 r o t are allegorical concepts that assume substantive reality only in relation to man and creation.e. from the creature's perspective (looking "from below upwards") but are non-real in essence. brought about numerous levels. the process of a progressive dimming.
"~ they. sect.l. in that the "higher" ones receive this radiance without as many garments and screens as the lower ones. Ibid. Yet 2.^ so it is with these Worlds. "Even in completely inanimate matter. 5. and that in two respects: firstly. any difference is due to the recipients. in the physical world . because the "higher" worlds are those which receive a radiance infinitely greater than the "lower" ones. chapter 11.on the lowest level. The difference between them is with regard to the stream of vitality from the En Sof in terms of "revelation out of concealment. ch. 1 .4 The core and essence of the blessed En Sof is identical in the higher and lower worlds. 4. supra. XXV. and as He is to be found in the higher worlds so He is to be found in the very lowest. but only corporeal and physical things that appear lifeles~.106 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to G-d (looking "from above downward^"). Cf. and secondly."No light or vitality whatever i s visibly revealed. too. even the spiritual ones. 40. section 1. Cf. Tanya I: ch.. and all creatures therein receive each according to its capacity and nature. notes 1817.3 To be sure. Zgeret Hakodesh." For the higher worlds receive in a more revealed form than do the lower ones. do not receive the light in such a revealed form but only by means of numerous concealing "garments" which hide and screen the Divine Light so that ultimately . 111. and note 18 a. and ch. When we speak of different Worlds or Realms. See supra. 1 3. The lower worlds. such as stones or earth . the light of the En Sof fills all worlds alike and there is no pIace void of Him.
6. or part of the soul. and its core and essence is. being inherent in them. which give life and existence to inanimate matter that it might arise out of the naught and nothingness that preceded the Six Days of Creation". 40 and 51. In that sense the Holy One. . Thus one cannot say that it divides into a number of parts corresponding to the number of organs in the body. XXV. for example.: 17a. there is a "soul" and spiritual life-force . and Etz Chayim 50: passim. Intr. Zgeret Hakodesh. The entire soul is a single and simple (as opposed to compound) spiritual entity.d (Isaiah 45:12).contain light and vitality from the En Sof which lends them existence ex nihib. 38. Thus as the different bodily organs express and manifest different powers this is not due to a different soul. the ear for hearing. Rather. the whole soul pervades the entire body equally. blessed is He. the mouth for speaking and so on. . But from the different kinds of potencies or powers and vitalities contained in the soul's intrinsic essence. without any dimensions of space or size. 7. Tanya I: chs. See also Tanya I: ch. . is the "Most Hidden of All Hidden"B and is called the "hidden G . each of the body's organs receives the power and vitality appropriate to itself according to its own capacity and character -the eye for seeing. Tikunei Zohar. Tanya II:l. based on Etz Chayim 39:3. from head to foot. corporeal shape or physical limitation. in the feet no less than in the brain. so that they will not revert to their state of naught and nothingness as they were prior to their creation. sect. but it is due to their own unique or water.' This is analogous to the presence of the soul in the body.
Maimonides. 10. but only in the condition or capacity of the place to be illuminated. as well as ibfd. Cf. person is able to give birth to a physically normal child. see also Siddur im P e m h Hamilot. There is thus no change in the light itself. DSy (to be concealed. a. (sources cited in preceding note). hidden) ." in proximity to.1. see. and Midrash Rabba. Exodus 3: 15.. ch. All powers of the soul are intrinsic to the whole soul and independent of the body. 48a ff. and itself spelled sometimes as. or otherwise defective. The light does so in accordance with the presence or absence of obstructions. For the word D'1lY is etymologically related to.. these terms do not refer to any spatial dimensions but to qualitative differences in degree and level. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1153. The term Ohmot (Worlds) thus denotes the concealment and dimming of the Divine Light. The general sources for the following paragraphs are R. 51. also Eccles.. Ibid.1. and Rashi.108 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM composition and capacity. the En Sof and so on. a. and even into rooms within rooms. 9 . or distant from. In fact this concept of relative concealments and occultations may be read in the very term of world in Hebrew. pp. See Tikunei Zohar 42:82a. p. Ibid. and the comment in Pesachh 50b. Chaim .@ Thus when we speak of "higher" and "lower.. 164c-d.1° 2.8 A similar analogy is to the light of the sun which penetrates the rooms of a house. 11. 3:11. and Rashi.g. e. Etz Chayim 1:2. The Division of the Wor2ds The five comprehensive worlds are : ( 1) Adam Kadmn. as is evident from the fact that a blind. This anthropomorphic term means Prim- 8. and Sefer Habahir 8 (10).
chapter 11. lucid Sefirot which are concealed and hidden. Etz Chayim 1:4. 14. Zohar III:193b. note 34. Etz Chayim 1:4."14 ( 2 ) Atzilut. cf. This World reVital. 15. Hai Gaon and R. Kadmon denotes "being primary of all primaries. Shu'arei Kedushah 1II:l f. These latter three names are derived from the creative terms in Isaiah 43:7.. Torah Or.. sect. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. Shomer Emunim I:46 f . thus further removed from the En Sof. Esther.. See Pardess Rimonim 11:2 ff. .. lgeret Hakodesh. See also Shomer Ernunim I:62 f."12 This World is also called the Realm of Keter Elyon (the Supreme Keter). as in Numbers 11:17 and Ecclesiastes 2:10.the World of Action or Making. ( 4 ) Yetzirah-the World of Formation. See Tikunei Zohar 69:115b. and united with. Asher. (3) Berinh-the World of Creation. and 70: 120a. supra. Commntay on Exodus 34:6. Chamai Gaon in Pardess Rimonim 11:l and 3. It is the first and highest stage after tzimtzum took place and yet so sublime that in a sense it may be spoken of as completely attached to. Pardess Rimonim 5:4.ordial Man. See the responsa by R. and 70: 135b. 13. the En Sof. and cf. 98b. 12. and 12:5. The term is derived from the root YYN.15 Atzilut is the stage following Adam Kadmon. Bachya ben R. and 43: Intr. the World of Emanation. supra. Adam Kadmon is the most pristine emanation. Tikunei Zohar 19:42a. chapter 11. the "lucid and luminous light" ( R Y n l Y D l RY T I N ) and frequently referred to as Tzachtzachot13-implying the "pure. See also R. Cf. XXIX. and (5) Asiyah. note 38.
. 13 f. and Iess intense. The World of Atzilut (and a fortiori. see Etz Chayim 1:4. ibid. there are. too.. it is also the "soul" or spiritual substratum and life-force o all worlds. note 20. for the emanation of Adam Kadmon extends f from the highest level to the very central point of the chalal (the world of Asiyah). or Prussa ( curtain.la Thus we speak of a Massach. X X .20 This denotes the immense separation and distinction between these levels.18 thus in smaIler measure. See Tanya I : chs. DiVinity. cf. Supra. the full intensity and effect of tzimtzum is first noticeable in this Realm. Zgeret Hakodesh. in effect.1° But AtxiEdit is still in such close proximity to the En Sof that it. ch. 19. and draws its vivification 16. chapter VIII. note 2. In fact. infra. Igeret Hakodesh. three levels of powerful and comprehensive contraction and condensation. or from Adam Kadmon. though. 39 and 49. . covering) separating between Atziht and Beriah (and between the subsequent worlds) . of sect. In that sense Atzilut is the "soul" of Beriah. thus in smaller measure and less intense than Adam Kcrdmon. 20. however. also. which give rise to the three lower Worlds. Although the particular aspects and rungs of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and generally are of many diverse kinds.110 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSLDISM ceives its vivification (the Divine Emanation and Life-force) uia. note 17. In an exf tended sense. XX. albeit in ever-increasing concealment. Yetzirah is still further removed. and Zgeret Hakodesh. chapter VII. Adam Kadmon) is G-dliness itelf. 18. is "One with It. of Klalut ABYA-I). See Etz Chuyim 42:4 (ibid." being.l7 B* e is further removed. than that of Atzilut. sect. XX. 44: 1. In that sense Adam Kadmon is the "soul" o Atzilut. sect. 17. infra. and draws its vivification through Atzilut. beg.
the third is about half pure and half impure. the second one is less pure than the first. Beriah of Atzilut. the Worlds also divide into the general classes o the Sefirot as f represented by the concept of the Worlds: thus we speak of Atzilut of Atzilut. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. so Adam Kadmon is elevated above all worlds. Beriah of Bedah. Be* to the first Hei.21 Like the ten S e f i r ~ these Five Worlds correspond to the t~~ letters of the Tetragrammaton: Atzilut corresponds to the Yud. . As Keter is elevated above all Sefirot. Though all ten Sefirot emanate and "function" in every World in particular (Keter of Atzilut. generally. only four Worlds are spoken of and referred to. Binah of Atzilut and so specific Sefirot predominate in each of the Worlds. See supra. Sha'arei Kedushah 111: 1-2. and the fourth contains more base metals than silver. cannot be represented by any specific letter but by the "thorn" of the Yud. Moreover. the Worlds correspond to the Sefirot themselves. Chochmah of Atzilut. 22. free of base metals. Asiyah of Atzilut.ves. R. chapter 111. Atzilut of Beriah. note 37. and Asyah to the latter Hei. Adam Kadmon. Yetzirah to the Vau. and Asiyah is the furthest removed having its vivification from Yetzirah.23 In fact. for its state of immense sublimity. just as the Sefirot are compounds dividing into themsel. 24. That is why. Every Realm always being the "soul" of the succeeding one. However. There always are some drosses that cannot be removed. even the first grade silver cannot be wholly and totally pure.through Beriah. 23. Moses Cordovero explains this division by means of an analogy to a silversmith who grades his silver according to the purity of the metal: The first grade is the most pure silver. Yetzirah of Atzilut. Thus even this &st grade can be subdivided 21. and so on until Adyah of Asiyah.
and Beriah. and is. the original emanation of the Divine Light). it is the realm of Keter. therefore.' indeed. 39 and 52. and Asiyah to Malchut. often compared to four modes of perception referred to as reshimah ( a mark). The same would apply also to the other three grades. note 51 (53).112 MYSTICAL OONCEPTS IN CHASSlDlSM Thus Adan Kadmon corresponds to Keter. Cf. it is the Realm of Chochmah. Atzilut corresponds to Chochmah. Etz Chayim 3:3. and asiyah (an enactment ) : A reshinacah is non-substantial. chdziuah ( a carving). Atzilut as the Body containing this soul. it is a mere sign marked down. because Chochmah is the predominant Sefirah in Atzilut.tzirah and Asyah as the outer Garments in which this Body is The difference hetween these worlds is one of degree in concealment of the Atzmut. or soul). (Pardess Rimonim 24:10) 25. V. 26. because these are respectively the predominant Sefirot in these particular Realms. the World of Adam Kadmon is referred to as the Atzmut (the Essence. chakikah (an engraving). because Keter is the predominant Sefirah in Adam Kadmon. note 23.25 In terms of the "Man-Image" of the Sefirot (the Partzuf of Adurn Kadmm. also Tanya I: chs. Yetzirah to the Midot (Chesed-GeuurahTiferet-Hod-Yesod). Ye. Igeret Hakodesh. sect. barely denoting a distinction between non-marked and marked. into more and less 'wholly pure. into the four general categories of silver as such. See supra. with each sub-division differing from the others in the degree of purity. Beriah corresponds to Bimh. .
(Genesis 2:17) Yetzimh then is related to the "dust 27. Atzilut is the first egression towards substantiality: between absolute naught and infinity and the category of substantiality and finitude. and Zgeret Hakodesh.Cf. note 21 (23). note 24 supra. XX. sect. ex nihib. See commentary of Nachmanides on Numbers 16:30. Precisely so. on the other hand. Zohar Chadrrsh. with the connotation of the coming into being of something new. completely in the realm of distinct substantiality and corporeality. formed man of the dust of the ground. . though still very subtle. just as an object hewn and carved is sensed in much greater degree than some engraving. is already sensed and perceived in greater measure than the reshimah. between absolute naught and reality (or. A chatziuah is more perceptible yet. Full perception. Its type of reality is so close to naught that there is practically no difference between them. the beginning of reality). thus denoting the close proximity -to the point of unity -of theSej4rot to their Source. correspondingly. Parhss Rimonirn 16:9. Beriah is the stage of a more perceptible and finite being than Atzilut.28 Therefore Beriah is radically different and removed f o Atdlut. Comparable to that is Yetzirah. Moses Cordovero reads these differences between the Worlds in their very names. 28.thus.~~ R. rather. and corresponding to it is the World which is called by this na~ne-Asiyah. A chakikah. is the finished product of an asiyah. Betiah he relates to the verse "But if the Eternal H339 ? I N 9 1 3 (creates a creation)" (Numbers 16:30). He suggests that the term Atzilut is also related to the preposition SYH (near-by). E d .Shomer Emunim I:51. Yetzirah he relates rm to the verse "1YT-and the Eternal. Bereishit 17b.
30. Asiyah is self-explicit as the most material and perceptible of these terms. Malchut of Atzilut thus serves as the mediary between Atzilut and Beriah. and this is also suggested by its appearance as the third and last term in the above-mentioned verse of Isaiah 43:7. 32. note 17.114 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM of the ground." a lower. all the Sefirot emanate throughout all the Worlds. in Yetzirah. As the Sefirot are in Atzilut they are still in explicit unity Makhut of Atzilut (as is the with their Emanat~r. section 3) serves as intermediary between a higher stage and the subsequent lower one. 31. as well as in Beriah. Pardqss Rimonirn 16:1. in general and in particular. much less spiritual.~OThrough "function" of Makhut) the Sefirot of Atzilut (latently immanent in Makhut of Atzilut) are projected further to manifest themselves in Beriah. re-emerges as Keter of Beriah.and notes 27* (30) and 43 (46) a. the World of 29.32 Therefore.~l While the Sefirot of Beriah are the actual Sefirot of AtziEzrt. All the Sefirot manifest themselves in Atzilut. and in Asiyah. the highest level of Beri~h. the lowest level of Atzilut. note 20. See supra. In that capacity Malchut of Atzilut assumes a characteristic of Keter which (as stated earlier in chapter 111. as has been said. sect. See supra.29 Now. in Beriah. For the "downward transition" from Atzilut to Beriah involves "passage" through the immense tzimtzum of the prassa that separates these worlds. level than Beriah. . XX. they are in Beriuh in a state of great concealment and condensation. Therefore Malchut of Atzilut. See lgeret Hakodesh.1.
and sublime angels. and Zgeret Hakodesh. 35. supra. there is the first appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. Through Malchut of Betiah the Sefirot (all latently present in Malchut) are projected further downwards to manifest themselves in Yetzirah. Igeret Hakodesh. physical world with finite. and 51 (quoted at the beginning of this chapter).they appear distinct and separate from Divinity. ~ ~ The implications of this creative process are two-fold. Tanya I: ch. XX. 39. See Shdarei Kedushah III:2. As this process continues. it culminates in the physical creatures and entities of our physical world. the Sefirot are not to be regarded as "creative agents" separate and distinct from Divinity. sect. See Tanya I: chs.94 For the En Sof alone is able to create and sustain all beings ex nihib. .Creation. On the other hand it implies the Divine Immanence or Indwelling Presence (Shechinah) even in the finite and physical. though still strictly spiritual: the souls of the righteous ( Tzadikim).because of the immense tzimtzum involved .86 33. On the one hand it allows for the possibility of a finite. For it is no less than the actual light of the En Sof that issues forth from Malchut of Atzilut. chapter 111. physical creatures to the point that . The same process repeats itself in the next stage of the creative development. VI and XXV. This allows for the appearance of creatures less sublime and more numerous than those of Beriah. note 9. 38. 34. sect. emerging there in still greater concealment and condensation. 40. in the lowest level of A ~ i y a h . and cf. albeit so strongly obscured and condensed that it is not manifest per se.
sometimes Atzmut . see Pardess Rimonim 4:l-4. Sha'ar Hahakdamot.Essence). The numerous grades of condensation presented five comprehensive classes of obscured and concealed Sefirot. The subject of Orot and Kelim is another controversial topic much discussed since the times of the early mystics. called the Five Worlds. in addition to the sources cited in the subsequent notes. and 47:l. Moses Cordovero and R. the actual emanations.CHAPTER FIVE Orot and Kelim 1. Etz Chayim 1:3. But by definition these Orot. are absolutely bound up with their Source. the En Sof. For further perusal of this involved theme. Isaac Luria. and commentaries a.1. . Pardess Rimonim. 40:8. Sha'ar IV. Now the actual emanations from the En Sof are called Orot (Lights. united with their Emanator. the subject is discussed as it appears In in Chassidism. see Zohar II:42b f . The Concepts of OROT KELIM' AND It has already been explained how the emanations from the En Sof are condensed and obscured by means of tzimtzum. the paragraphs following. Derush Keitzad Na'asim Hakelim . Thus. strictly speakI. an interpretation generally following the views of R..
distinction between them is made possible by the Kelim (Vessels) : Tzimtzum screened the light of the En Sof to such an extent that it produced ten different classes of concealment through each of which the Or En Sof manifests itself in a different way. For a name indicates something specific and limited. but only to Or En Sof. just as. 390. . Cf. Maggid Devarao Leya'akov. 93 (p. no name. Sha'ar Haykhud (Kuntres Hahitbonenut). . Pardess Rimonin 6:6.2 For all practical purposes the Orot themselves remain unchanged from their origin and Divine S o ~ r c eA~ . of the ten Sefirot. Vessels. thus there does not apply to it any name or term.). term. to recognize a distinction between one Sefimh and another. we can speak of Orot. 27 ff. by way of analogy (pp. the Light of the En Sof (singular).). we cannot really refer to Orot (Lights in the plural). of ranks and levels. 376 ff. Only then. R. note 1. ch. depending on the variations in the degrees of manifestation of the Or En Sof. These general types of concealment are called Kelim.E. sect. But as everything was a simple light. 19c). as different kinds of emanations or different kinds of Sejirot. applies to it . sect.". . They are the Vessels which contain the Lights. also Keter Shem See Tov. Meuoh Shebrim 1:l: l (see aIso the sequel a. letter or point. nor any image or form whatever.and Derushei ABYA:l (pp.). A distinction between Orot ( a scheme of Sefirot that differ from one another) can be made only after tzimtzum takes place relative to tzimtzum. 3.118 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM ing. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. . 50b ff. 2. This conception is at the core of the controversy mentioned supra. of different attributes. "Prior to tzimtzum all the light was equal in absolute unity and likeness . .
Just as trimtzum is synonymous with Gevurah and Din (supra. Mevoh She'arim VI:2:1. Din and Kelim. For by means of the condensation and dimming of the light it is possible for the Kelim to come into being and to be manifest"..-The Kelim are themselves mixtures of the lowest levels of lights "brought about by a condensation (hithbut) of the light" (Etz Chuyim 47: 11.c. and measure. And this is the principal meaning of the term Kelim. limitation.6 It is in this context of Orot and Kelim that R. and they originate in the reshimu (the faint residue) of the original light that had remained in the chaM after the initial tzimtzum. Hadrat MeZech on Zohar I:15a.Orot and Kelim 119 and metaphor. Moses Cordovero introduces a famous simile to explain the differentiation 4. a.' The purpose of tzimtzum is for the production of Kelim. within them the Atzmut (the Divine Essence. See also Shu'ar H a h a k h t . 111. 'The purpose of trimtzum is . 5 . Tzimtzum. and He separated" (Gen. ch. Etz Chayfm 4:3. the Light) vests Itself". 6. Gevurah. In interpretation of the Creation-account. Shalom Buzaglo. bodies contain souls.6 In fact. and ibfd. thus have for their purpose to limit and restrain the Divine effulgence from excessive radiation. 59). see at length R. Etz Chayim 1:3. this separation refers to the formation of the Kelim which "set and fashion a separation.so Kelim becomes synonymous with Geuurah and Din: "The attribute of Din always restricts Chesed so that it will not exceed. supra. 1:4). note 87). .1. note 1. just like a vessel restricts the waters so that they will not flow out. Hakd. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. to fashion the aspect of the Kelim. Tanya II:4. and just as there are various grades of tzimtzum so there are various types of ZbZim. Thus the Lights and the Kelim together make up the Sefirot. IV. . among the Orot". in the verse "and G-d saw the light that it was good. See Tanya II:4. Derush 11-Be'olam Hanekudirn (p. tzimtzum may be taken as synonymous with Kelim. .
intensified or dimmed and so forth. and the gloss which appears also in Zohar Chadash.) . Shdar Habechinah. So. The Kelim are the Divine tools that bear different colours corresponding to their individual character or activity (white for Chesed. too. and as. 8. Introduction l a (text. Light in itself is simple and colourless but can be divided and coloured. sect. vested in the Kelim. the Kelim is the "colourless" essence like the colourless w a ~ e r that appears coloured only when. (This simile appears already in Chovot Haleuouot. ch. XII. Sefe~. Cf. red for Gevurah and so on). Habahir 49 (137). A third simile is that of the soul in the body of man. Pardess Rimonim 4:4. and Zohar I:18b. Pardess Rimonim. The soul acts through the limbs and organs of the body and manifests itself differently through various activities. Tikunei Zohar. it is with the Sefrot.120 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wrought by the Kelim: When pouring water into a number of differently coloured glasses. Yet the soul is simple and unitary. Tikunim 117c). and acts through.8 Similarly. See also Zohar Chadash 34a-b.will appear coloured according to the hue of the vessels which contain them. On the concept of various rolours symbolizing and representing the different Sefirot see Zohar III:248b.though in themselves colourless . it is the same soul acting throughout the body.: The Divine Light (the Orot) that is contained in. through the intervening crystals. and Zgeret Hakodesh. and XIX:39b. these waters . 1. the Essence (the Orot) is analogous to a ray of light radiating through several crystals and thus assuming different colours. and 7. Sha'ar X.
the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut and so on. to the very extremity of purity and tenuity.). . less so than in Adam Kadmon but still totally spiritual.Orot and Kelim 121 all differences in manifestations (seeing. section 1. Pardcss Rimonim a. Heaven forbid . chapter IV (notes 8 and 9 . 9. hearing.1° and not to the Kelim (and. . Beware and do not err in this matter!" Etz Chayim 1:4. in thinking that in Adam Kadmon there are Kelim in the literal sense. supra. 12. supra. successively the Kelim become ever more obstructive until the Orot are practically hidden completely in Asiyah. cf.. hardly distinguishable from the Orot. this relates only to the measure and limitation in the activity geared towards the recipients in a set and limited fashion. a fortiori. Zbid.l. 10. the Orot ) themselves! These Kelim differ not only from one plane to another (relative to the Sefirot). "Do not err. 55 (pp. On the level of Adam Kadmon the Kelim (like the state of tzimtzum in that Realm) are extremely subtle and diaphanous. And so.where these similes are cited in the context of distinguishing between the Worlds). but more so from one World to another: there are the Orot and Kelim of Adam Kadmon. But the Kelim themselves are a very pure light. see also E l i m Rabbaty. When we refer [there] to Kelim it is only relative to the Light and Atzmut in them. speaking and so on) are due to the differences in the organ^. May'an 1II:VI: ch. ." 11. Etz Chyim 6:3: "The Kelim are to garb the light for the sake of the recipients. 99c fl. Cf.^ At the same time it must be kept in mind that when speaking of changes in the manifestations. or of limitations or fixed measures with regard to the Kelim of the Sefirot. chapter 111..12 On the level of Atzilut the Kelim are still very subtle. Cf. Heaven forbid.
Generally speaking. 13.Or Makif nm The Atzmut (Orot) as vested in the Kelim is also referred to as Orot Pnimiyim (Inner . unqualified. however.122 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Thus when we speak of the different classes of Sefirot.radiating and illuminating within the Kelim analogous to the soul vested and radiating within the body of man. It is the Or Pnimi. note 1. the term Orot. However. See Etz Chayim 2:3. for the Atzrnut to be ve5. The basic difference between these two aspects is as follows:14 Just as the soul of man is vested in all the limbs of the body. . successive grades of Kelim. i.Lights). of more or less intense radiations from the Sefi+ot (as the Worlds proceed from. irradiates and vitalizes them from within. and succeed each other). 14.or Transcending . mostly refers to this "inner soul"-aspect. usually referred to in singular form as Or Pnimi and Or Makif. this difference is not due to any change in the original Orot but because of the increasing intensity. two aspects: Orot Pnimiyirn (Inner Lights) and Orot Makifim (Encompassing .. There are. concealment and condensation effected by the numerous.ed in the Kelim it must be condensed and its intensity must be diminished Only a minute "part" of the light is thus condensed and confined within the Kelim.or Immanent . so the 070t Pnimiyim are vested within the Kelim of the Sefirot.13 2. See sources mentioned supra.Lights) . Or P i i .e.
The light per se. its original intensity is concealed. Zgeret Hakodesh. albeit pervasive. .16 15. It would be impossible for the finite body to contain and absorb the original light. See Tanya. of the Divine Light sustaining all being. in its full intensity. It is only a ray. Outside the chalal the light is in its pristine manifestation. sect.Filling or Pervading all Worlds). a "part". The Or Pnimi is analogous to the Immanence of E d ( Memale Kol Almin .encompassing them from without. We can compare this to the concept of tzimtzum discussed in Chapter Two: The light manifest within the chalal is contracted. in a state of occultation (tzimtzum) commensurate to the body's capacity. of the ultimate life-force. This is the Or Makif which irradiates the Kelim in a transcending. and the Or Makif compares to the light beyond or outside the chalal. 111.Orot and Kelim 123 To take the analogy further: The soul of man is neither a selfsufficient nor original power of life. The Or Pnimi compares to the light within. while the Or Makif is analogous to the Transcendence of G-d (Soueu Kol Almin Encompassing or Encircling all Worlds). Thus the "Light of the Eternal which is the soul of man" (Prouerbs 20. and note 11 (12) ad loc. cannot be absorbed by the body or Kelim. form. chapter 48. however. Thus there remains a more intense aspect of the Divine Light which cannot be vested in the Kelim and remains beyond them .27) must be a strongly concealed and contracted illumination.
. it manifests its vitality and powers in each limb or organ according to its composition and character: the brain for 16. is not described as being "invested but as "encircling and encompassing" ( Makif. which is not apprehended by the worlds. The influence which is not manifest. and the examples given there to illustrate and elucidate these concepts. just sufficient to animate them in a limited state. being diffused throughout all the organs.124 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM But just as in the case of Menude Kol Almin and Soueu Kol Almin. but remains in occultation and concealment relative to the worlds (Kelim or body). Thus even while the Or Makif is altogether concealed within the worlds or Kelim.lo The Or Makif (or Or Sovev) is the principal light from which only an extremely minute and contracted reflection clothes and reveals itself in the worlds (or Kelim. being clothed within the worlds (or Kelim. below-above. or body). we must beware of any spatial connotations in the literal sense ( inside-outside. its influence is nonetheless pervasive and active there in a hidden manner. end of section 1 and note 10 ad loc. See Tanya. Cf. supra. or body). chapter IV. the Or Pnimi compares to the various soul-powers which manifest themselves in specific limbs and organs according to their innate capacities. from head to foot. Sovev ) . 'filling7-'encompassing'). chapter 48. In the analogy from the soul. These concepts relate strictly to the degree of revealed influence or emanation: The influence which is in a state of revelation or manifestation in the worlds (or Kelim. Though the soul pervades the whole body. or body) is referred to in terms of investiture.
cf. section 3).V. the eye for seeing. The Or Makif is analoguos to the essence of the soul. It extends vitality and illumination equally throughout the body. analogous to the concept of ratzon . Thus the Or Makif constitutes the principal light and radiates in both pervasive and transcendent form without being manifest. V .17 17. p. In this context the Or Makif is the aspect of Keter. the mouth for speaking. Tanya. and S. 169 f . Achdut Hashem. chapter 51. chapter 111.0701. 120 f.. and Kelim 125 reasoning. though it remains concealed and the individual capacities are not manifested by it in the limbs and organs.the essence-will which both pervades and transcends (see supra. See Derech Mitzootecha. the feet for walking and so on. . This is the aspect of Or Pnimi which manifests itself in different ways and gradations. S . Binyan Mikdash. p. . remaining equally concealed throughout. without distinction between various parts. the ear for hearing.
Ibid. It is the most external.. sect.* Synonymous terms are Panim.CHAPTER SIX Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut are terms which occur frequently in Kabbalistic and Chassidic literature.~ 1. XXIIa (see notes . the core.). See lgeret Hakodesh. sect. Ibid. Chitzoniyut is the furthest point from the Pnimiyut. and Achor (pl. and Back. X I X . the lowest level. 2. Outwardness. and synonymous with the concept of Chit~oniyut. 3. Achor is both literally and conceptually the antonym of Panim. It refers to the innermost point. respectively. sect. Panim is an expression of Pnimiyut.l. of the subject to which it is applied. Externality. Pnimiyut means Inwardness. Face. IV and XU(. Achorayim).. the essence or essential-being of the subject to which it is applied. VII (see note 27 a.l Opposed to Pnimyut is Chitzoniyut. The terms themselves suggest their meanings. IV. XIX.
E.g.l.). Igeret Hakodesh. . For example. 4. and cf.l." 29(31) and 36(38) a. See Maimonides." this refers then to the lowest level of the Kelim of the Sefirah "Makhut of Aztilut.). when we come across a term4 such as the "aspect of the Chitzoniyut of the Kelim of Makhut of Atzilut. i. S h e m nah Perakim. sect. we refer to the very essence of that Sefirah. The Achorayim. or Chitzoniyut of a Sefirah.128 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM When we speak of the Pnimiyut of a Sefirah. VII.e. cited in Kessef Mishneh a. elaborated in Moreh Nevuchim I:21 and 37.. V.. Tanya I:22. the critique by R. ch. and HiZchot Yesodei Hatorah I:10 (cf. refers to the very lowest and most external rank and level of that Sefirah. Abraham ibn Daud. the Divine Light.
Moses Cordovero's interpretation on these passages see Pardess Rimonim 5:4.. (p. 56d f. Cf. Va'eira.) Meuoh She'arim II:2: 1-11. are central doctrines in the Kabbalah in general. Schneur Zalrnan this concept is explained in Torah Or. 60. Shdar Hahakdamot. AspakZuya Hameirah on Zohr 111: 135a %.. Vayesheu.). 110d. ibid. and in the teachings of R. Isaac Luria in particular. though see especially Etz Chuyim. Idra Rabba. 6 fl. Hechul . Tzvi Hirsh Horowitz. 53c 8. 142a-b. Eyn Habedo1ach:I:ch. ibid.. 81-109). Derush B e ' o h Hanekudim (pp. and Zdra Z ~ t t a . III:128a. 135a-b. The concept of Sheuirat Hakelim appears throughout the various works of the Lurianic system. and III:82c. ~ Shevirat Hakelim (the Breaking of the Vessels) is the keyconcept in the explanation of the basic problem of multifariousness 1. 2. 27c f. Shi'ur Komah. Zohar II:176b.' Their source is in the Zoharic books Sifra Detzeniyuta. and Yitro. Elima Rabbaty. In the writings of R. [For R.CHAPTER SEVEN Shevirat Hakelim Sheoird Hakelim. also R. Hanekudim (Sha'ar 8 f.] . Likutei Torah. II:37c ff. ch. and the adjunct concepts to be explained in the chapters following..
It is based on the Midrashic account of the building and destruction of the primordial world^. The most sublime aspect of the original point became Keter. It contained within it the successive radiations of Chochmah to Makhut. 4.^ and the mystical account of the eight kings who "reigned in the land of Edom. see also I Chronicles 1:43 ff. Binah to Makhut. Genesis Rabba 3:7. Now each Keli is commensurate with its respective Sejrah. from which the ten Sejrot proceeded in gradual order. and from the latter issued forth Malchut. At first there issued forth a highly concentrated. seminal point of light. Thus the Vessel of Chochmah is smaller than the Vessel of Keter. and 9:2. From Chochmah emanated the Sefirah Binah."~ The original emission of the Sefirot was that of the scheme of Zggulim. and so forth. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. When the light of the En Sof radiated to the Vessel of Keter (including the lights destined for the suc- 3. . When we speak of successive issuances. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. As the Sejirot axe on successively lower levels..130 MYSTICAL CONCEF'TS IN CHASSIDXSM and the origin of evil. From the most sublime aspect of Keter issued forth the Sefirah of Chochmah. before there reigned any king over the children of I~rael. it must be remembered that the first issue is that of a Keli (Vessel) into which an Or (Light) can then emanate and be contained. compounded of ten gradations. Genesis 36:31 f. their Kelim are also successively smaller. the Vessel of Binah is smaller than the Vessel of Chochmah. and from Binah issued forth the Midot in unison.
Chesed. being both "large" and "strong" enough. i. the relatively minor excess of light encompassed this Vessel by way of an Or Makif ( Encompassing. The Kelirn of Chochmh and Binah could contain these lights because of their close proximity to Keter. including the lights destined for the lower Sefirot.. The Vessel of Yesod was able to contain this light and project it further. from Binuh to Da'at.e. But as the Divine Light proceeded further. ) The same occurred with the flow from Chochmah to Binah. the point of Keter was able to contain and endure it. as with the other Sefirot. but also the lights meant for the lower Sefirot were projected into that Vessel. This process continued and repeated itself with the next Sefirot. Likewise. But then. though this emanation was already much less intense. The total light was then projected to the Vessel of the next Sefirah. to which was projected at first only the light destined for the remaining stage. or Transcending Light. thus all the Vessels broke. This was so because not only the light meant for Da'at. Malchut. the Vessel of Da'at could not contain the light and was shattered by the intensity of the radiation. for this term. when the total light emanated from the upper Sefirot to 5. section 2. The only change occurred on the level of Yesod. the Vessel of Chochmuh was able to absorb practically all of it. which were more than it could endure. when the light from Keter flowed to Chochmh.cessive Sejirot). chapter V. The unequal proportion of extremely intense Orot and extremely subtle Kelim precipitated this eventful occurrence. and it. too. . See supra. broke for the same reason.
ch. the principal "flaw" which precipitated the "breaking of the vessels" and the dissolution of the original scheme of the Sejirot. On all the aforementioned see sources mentioned supra. and cf.132 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Yesod . infra. That is why their Kelirn were unable to endure the Orot and they "died. ch. Ephraim's unity saved him despite his sinfulness..its Vessel also broke. I. see Genesis Rabba 38:6. only the higher and more subtle aspects broke. was already absorbed in the Vessel of Malchut. each going his own way without any love or affection between them. ch. I. Hence in Malchut the breakage was only partial6 The above account of the disproportion between the Orot and Kelim is a "descriptive account" of the "mechanical event" of Sheoirat Hakelim. section 8. while the lower ones remained relatively intact. At its root. In opposition to this pluralism "it is written: "Ephraim is united in idolatry. Sha'ar Hakelalim. bond or unity. thereby strengthening the lower and less subtle aspects of that Vessel. However. and Etz Chayim.These Sefirot of Iggulim were a Reshut Harabim ( a domain of pluralism) because there was no unison. Limudei Atzilut (Lemberg 1850).e. See supra. however. p. they were rather like individuals. let him alone" (Hosea 4:17). 7. 111. by then the light of Malchut. independent points (the scheme of I g g ~ l i r n ) . I X . note 1. when the total light of the Midot was projected to Malchut. Id f. is the fact that these Sefirot were ~ separate. .8 for unity effects preservation and maintenance. 8. Therefore. A common saying has it that when 6.
the sources speak mostly o the "seven Kings of Edom. in Genesis. 11. they will break. Etz Chclyim 11:s. made of the dust of the earth.see also ibid. only seven broke completely. it is only of the first seven Kings that Scripture states that they died.. while the body. These Kings who died allude to the Vessels which broke. In the first account of the Kings. . 9:2 and 19:l. 10."@For this very reason the first three Sefirot were preserved. but if you take just three together they will endure and will not break. Zohar a. is returned to earth. (supra note 2). in Chronicles." f 12. Analogous to this is that which occurred to the Kings: the "soul" [the Orot of the Sefirot] ascended to be re-absorbed in its source. However. the eight Kings who reigned in the Land of Edom are the Eight Sefirot issuing from B i d : Da'at to Malchut. Because the breakage was complete in the first seven. they are the primordial worlds which were destroyed. whereas for the body it is a lowering and degradation to be reduced from its erstwhile level of being part of man to the present level of a lifeless corpse. Ibid. for they were not separate points but inter-re1ated.. this refers to the breaking of the Vessels. in the second account. it is stated of all eight Kings that they died. and see Likutei Torah II:37c g..1.c.ll that is.l0 Now. but not of the eighth. while the remains 9. and III:87a 8.you take ten reeds separately. The soul per se. but not the eighth. therefore.12 Death means the separation of soul from body: the soul ascends to return to its source. Of these Kings it is stated that they reigned and then died. is not affected by death.
the analogy does not hold true altogether. Therefore. the word n B R l D divides into two parts: n'b and R"DY ("died. from a sublime level to lower levels. For in the case of the "Kings" there was not a real and final death.. referring to the death o the Kings and the division of the residue of the Divine Light f into 288 sparks (the sparks encumbered in the midst of the word n n . However. this refers to the unformed Sefirot of the Zggulirn." (ibid. within the "dead or broken vessels)." as it were. 15. A residue of the Orot remained attached to the fragments. Torah Or. i. Cf. they are regarded as having died. Etz Chayim 11:4. but separate principles. ." and the number 288). thereby causing the "death of the Kings. . we speak of 288 general sparks (Nitzotzin). as the parts fell to the realm of Atzilut. Hence." "And the spirit of G-d n 3 R l D (hovered) . fell to their "grave". to Beriah and so on. the residue of the Divine Light attached to them was also "fragmented. and 18:l. 14.134 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of the "body". Genesis Rabba 96:3. Vayeshev. 27d.e. Etz ChayZm 18:l. a real and final separation in totality of the Orot from the Kelim.). Likutei Tomh III:82c. l4 As the parts of the vessels were projected downwards they broke further into an ever increasing number of fragments. .15but as they fell further. these 288 sparks were subdivided 13. Death is used here in the figurative sense of applying to any degradation:13 as the broken Kelim fell. This is adduced in Genesis 1:2: "And the earth was tohu and vohu (unformed and unordered)". Zohar 111:13%. as they were not yet ordered and inter-related. the fragmented Kelim of the Sefirot.
the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Yetzirah.16 R. when he consumes this food and it is digested and assimilated in his body. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Beriah. as they are projected down the various levels and assimilated among them. metaphorically speaking. illustrates this process with an analogy to food:17 Man may select the best of foods in which. each one attached to a fragment. Precisely so. chemically speaking. they have some unassimilable parts which. not so much because the original fragments became cruder themselves. the broken Vessels. even the purest food will show some refuse that is expelled from the body for being unassimilable. Sefer Hagilgulim (Vilna 1886). Even so. they are the substance of evil. the great expositor of the Kabbalah. R. 17. and the lowest grades are in Asiyah. but because the more subtle aspects were gradually assimilated and absorbed among the successive grades and levels. Chaim Vital. Moses Cordovero. though essentially pure mixtures of light. Also. ch. . are called their 16.into an ever greater number of smaller sparks. metaphorically speaking. The most subtle aspects of the broken K l m are totally absorbed and assirniei lated in Atzilut. The lowest grades which could not be assimilated in the realm of holiness become the realm of impurity. it is totally and absolutely pure. Pardess Rimonim 25:1. as these fragments fell continuously deeper. there is no waste or useless matter whatever. 1. they became not only more numerous but also less tenuous. Meuoh She'arim II:3:8.
supra. They become more distinct entities and are.. This waste and refuse is the essence of evil and impurity. Din. note 57 (63) ). just as the waste of Abraham's Chesed extended to Ishmael.'* As they fell to Beriah. The substance of evil thus consists of the waste and remains of the Kings of Edom. Cf. and sect. Hence. sect. Edom. Hence.1. note 12). and Edom in its source is the aspect of the original Kelim (cf. Edom is the realm of Esau. see Igeret Hakodesh. note 107). The attribute of Isaac is that of Gevumh (see supra. they form the four elements. also infra. chapter V. just as Ishmael is the aspect of impure Chesed (see Igeret Hakodesh. they lead ever more "independent" existences.. 11. sect. just sufficient to sustain their existence. and note 14(17) a. that tzimtzum. 148a). the substance of evil is always referred to as the "waste" and "refuse" of the aspects of Geuurala (see Zohar I:74b. where some of it was assimilable 18. note 30 (33) 1. 111. The unassimilable waste of Yetzirah was projected to Asiyah. X X . On the higher levels they are the tenuous root-elements of the elements [which are practically spiritual. note 13 (16). ibid. The unassimilable waste of Beriah was projected to Yetzirah. . ch. son of Isaac. ' Now. is essentially a place to which Gevurah and Din are bound to and derive from (see sources cited supra. thus. as such. XXV. end of chapter IX. those aspects that could be assimilated in that World became the creatures of Beriah. where some of it was assimilable and became the creatures of Yetziwh. ibid. the fragments are the origin and substance of matter. material and cruder the elements become until they assume the characteristics of matter as we know it. Gewrah. because the fragments are deprived of the Orot and retain but a spark of holiness. That is. and the lower they fall the more tangible. the root-elements of all creations. The "waste" of Isaac's Gevurah extended to Esau.136 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM waste and refuse. 19. and K l m may be taken as synei onymous).) so Esau is the aspect of impure Gevurah (cf.
beginning of sect. XX. infm. indeed. while Atzilut is called the Realm of Yichud (Unity) because the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut are fully absorbed in Divinity and not separated from It.1. however. See infra.l. even on the lowest. . Igeret Hakodesh. that on all levels. 27d. Because of the multiplicity in them. See Torah Or. chapter 111. 22. there remain sparks of holiness attached to the fragments which sustain their existence.. 2. while the unassimilable waste of Asiyah remained on the lower levels of this Realm as the elements of evil. section 7. Vayeshev. thus acting as their "animating principles" or "souls". ch. and note 3 a. And this. Cf. chapters X and XI. is the very intent and purpose of Shevirat Hakelim: it brought about the subjects over which the King can rule in a meaningful way. Sha'ar Hakelalim. 21. and ibid. Note. and III:159a f.21 and provides then1 with a choice between good and evil so that the King may manifest His attributes of Chesed.Sheuirat Hakelim 137 and became the creatures of Asiyah. and notes 143-144 a. see Etz Chuyim. Cf. Din.22 20. chapter XI.. Rachamim and so on.20 The fragments thus are responsible for the multifariousness in G-d's creation. Etz Chayim 43: Introduction. Yetzirah and Asiyah are called the Realm of Pimd (Division). 19:3. See supra. see Zohar II:234a f.. and for the existence of evil. the lower Worlds of Beriuh.
were re-established in a new order in which the Kelim would be able to absorb and contain the Orot and the emanations could proceed in a gradual manner.CHAPTER EIGHT Partzufim The original scheme of the Sefirot was unable to exist. and therefore could not absorb any additional light meant for others. 1-11. 2. The Sefirot. Cf. sect. . The Kelim of the Midot were for their own Orot only. as seen in the preceding chapter. ch. This chapter is based essentially on Etz Chayim 11:7. In the new order the Sefirot had to be repaired in such a way that a breakage would not ensue. Hakd. Mevoh She'arim II:3:4. Shahr Hahakdamot. Likutei Tomh II:37d. The reason for the breakage was that the original Sefirot were independent principles and had not been brought into harmony with each other. 179b. therefore. thus allowing the 1. p. and Shu'ar Hakelalim. and V:19d. XIX. Igeret Hakodesh. Stddur h Perush Hamilot.
. and the principle of Binah is converted to the Partzuf of Immu (Mother. chapter 111.140 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDISM Divine emanations to proceed in such a way as would make it possible for a world to come into being. Arich Anpin. and able to absorb the Orot. In this Configuration we speak of Keter of Arich Anpin. note 16. from Keter of Adam Kadmon to Malchut of Asiyah (though in an ever more concealed mode). This Partzuf is called Arich Anpin (the long. causing them to function within one another. the other two Sefirot that remained intact were also transmuted. See lgeret Hakodesh. Visages. or Supernal Mother). Chochmuh of Arich Anpin. the basic Sefirot-scheme of Yosher as it is in the Realm of Adam Kadmon). but it is converted into a configuration analogous to the Man-Image (referred to above. by harmonising the Sefirot. cf.1. and note 86(95) a.. according to the scheme of Yosher. as it were. This is effected by extending. Macroprosopus). Thus the Kelim would be larger and stronger. also called the Yosher of Adam Kadmon (i. Thus it extends from the highest to the lowest level.. In this new order the Sefirot appear as Partzufirn (Forms.2 Subsequently. Binah of Arich Anpin. though Keter is the dominant aspect. The principle of Chochrnah is converted to the Partzuf of Abba (Father). supra. is the substratum of everything. Configurations). each compounding all ten Sefirot. the Sefirot. sect. Both Abba and Imma are complete Partzufirn. X X . Keter is no longer a simple point in which the other Sefirot are included as latent points. 2. or Extended Face.e. and so forth. chapter IV. section 8) in which every Sefirah functions.
Binah of Abba. Zohar III:4a. as it were. See Zohar I:30b f. Chochmah of Abba. again compounding the ten aspects of the Sefirot. These two Partzujim are related by Keter (the faculty of Da'at Elyon) : their Configurations issue both from Arich Anpin and. as the Partzuf of Bat (the Daughter). and it is called Nukvah in terms of the Z'egr Anpin: the Midot are the masculine aspect of the Z'eyr Anpin. issue forth from lmma as a unit. or unit. known as Z'eyr Anpin (the Small. . Microprosopus). by means of his worship and service to G-d. on its own. as the Partzuf of Ben (the Son). and so on. Nevertheless the relationship remains. a dual Configuration and are referred to as the "firm friends who never ~eparate". and so forth.4 To effect this union is the task of man. are parallel to each other (as Chochmah and Binah are in the scheme of Yosher. Through Z'eyr Anpin issues forth Malchut. and Keter of lmma. and III:4a. Thus they are. Chesed to Yesod.~ The six Midot. or Lesser Countenance. 4.. but because its Vessel did not break altogether it is a Partzuf. Malchut is essentially related to the Midot. one on the right and the other on the left). to become one with it. This is the concept of the 3. or simply Malchut. Hence Malchut yearns to be reunited with Z'eyr Anpin. known as Nukuah (the Female).Thus we speak of Keter of Abba. so to speak. again compounding all ten aspects of the Sefirot. whose Kelim had been shattered completely. Chochmah of lmma.
In that day shall the Eternal be One and His Name One. All is. Shalom Buzaglo. Of this final goal it is said: "And the Eternal shall be King over all the earth. 19. 7. . Atika Kadirha (see supra. Tanya 1:ch.: 3a. Zohur III:290a f. Kissei Melech on Tikunei Zohar. . 8. . ch.. ~ to At this point we must remind ourselves once more that all these terms. He is unchanging. See Keter Shem Tou. sect. 85. sect. note 34). Cf. is all One. 111. sect. chapter XI. R. See infra. 41. various aspects under which G-d manifests Himself. and His She~hinah". and He has not changed . blessed be He and blessed be His Name foreverla~ting.e. Should you ask. but from [above] His paths divide. The Partzufim are Faces. Zohar III:14la f ."O 5. He will not change. do not imply any pluralism in the G-dhead. all was.7 and whatever I said of the Z'eyr Anpin. Manifestations of the G-dhead. It is from our perspective that they differ one from another. everything is absolutely One.142 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM "Unification (Yichud) of the Holy One. Said Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: "Whatever I said of the Holy Ancient-One.~ re-establish total unity in the u n i ~ e r s e . Intr. and from [below] judgment is found. blessed is He."~ "The sum of all this is: the Ancient of the Ancient and the Z'eyr Anpin are absolutely One. the essence of Arich Anpin. Keter Shem Tov. s. Zgeret Hakodesh.o. 9. 6. what then is the difference between the one and the other? It is all One. W . i. 111. and all shall be. and the concept of the Partzufim. See Zohar III:83a." (Zechariah 14:Q). There is no division in Him.
. The Midot of Tohu are one below the other without any mutual inclusion whatever .each on its own. In this context R.rtz~fim. Tohu refers to the state of the original Sefirot. note 15. Etz Chayim 8: 1.' Tikun (Correction. as unformed and unordered points. see supra. and there was light") as referring to the World of Tikun. Reformation) refers to the state of the Sefirot rearranged. 2. These two orders are called the worlds of Tohu and Tikun. and the subsequent scheme of Yosher in which the Sefirot were rearranged and the fragments had been assimilated as much as possible.~ Thus among the Sefirot of Tohu there is no interrelationship. Isaac Luria reads Genesis 1:2 as referring to the World of Tohu. Restitution. and Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light. mended and reformed as Pa.CHAPTER NINE Tohu and Tikun We now have two schemes of Sefirot: the original scheme of Zggulim which precipitated Sheoirat Hakelirn. without relating 1. The term Tohu is taken from Genesis 1:2. chapter VII.
The Sefirot of Tikun.g. 4 . Animals. and these are in the full inter-relationship of the Sefirot as compounds. and. for being the original emission c. Genesis Rabha 3:7.f Sefirot. on the other hand. Tikun has an advantage and superiority over Tohu: the perfection of the mutual inclusiveness and unity of Tikun is the condition drawing forth a manifest indwelling of the Or En Sof that is not to be found in Tohu." The realm of Toltu refers to the primordial worlds that were destroyed... on the other hand. note 151). compound one another.* 3. . Chesed is simple and absolute Chesed. Binah. and so on). are able to interrelate. love and anger. Da'at ) .-This is not to be understood in a sense of there being some accidental flaw in the original World of T o ~ u . as simple and absolute Midot. and precipitate Sllcvirat Hakelim. unable to control or mitigate them. and 9:2.144 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to its opposite. chapter VII (notes 7-10). and III:87a 8. is said to be rooted higher than Tikun. In this context man is said to be rooted in the realm of Tikun as his soul compounds all ten aspects of the Sefirot (see supra. That is why the Midot assert themselves as Midot per se. therefore. and Geuurah is simple and absolute Gevurah. they are fully separated and nonrelated." The realm of Tikun refers to the new worlds of which it is said: "And G-d saw everything that H e had made.. without permitting the guidance of Sechel ( Chochmah. The Midot of Tikun permit the mitigating influence of Sechel and. chapter 111. Though Tohu. they oppose one another. thus. are rooted in Tohu: they express their natural emotive powers in a simple and extreme manner. See Likutci Torah II:37c ff. supra. of which G-d said "These do not please Me. Hence man is able to control or mitigate his soul-powers of Chesed and Geuurah (e. Likutei Torah II:37e fl. and behold it was very g o o d (Genesis 1:31) and G-d said "These please Me".
and the 'single saying' in the question refers to the unified compound of the Sefirot of Tikun. and so forth (the principles of reward and punishment spoken of in the Mishnah). 27a. 73a fl. makes it possible for G-d to manifest His attributes of Chesed. Mevoh She'arim I1:3:8. chapter XI. The actual order of creations through the stages of Tohu and Tikun allows for the possibility of evil. Cf. infra. Chairn Vital. Tiferet. ~ as this world could not subsist. in chapter XI on Birur and Tikun. the term Tikun has another. 6. a n active sense. the flaw and defect of Tohu were intentionally and purposely formed to allow for the possibility of the effects of Shevimt Hakelim. And why does Scripture teach this? Could it not have been created by a single saying? But this was in order to exact penalty from the wicked . Tolzu is the original world created by the and attribute of Din ( G e u ~ r a h ) .Tohu and Tikun 145 I n the same context. Gevurah. . the Creator mitigated the severity of Din by blending it with the attributes of Chesed and Rachamim. (I1:pp. see also R. See Zohar I:180b and 280b. Thus R. Zohar 111: 38a. On the contrary. bringing into being the world of Tikun.). note 3. supra. providing man with an opportunity to choose between good and evil which. Toldot. Cf. in turn.O Beside this descriptive connotation. and to give good reward to the righteous") to the effect that the 'Ten Sayings' in the opening statement allude to the ten separate Sefirot of Tohu. 5. and the discourse on this Mishnah in Sha'ar Hahakdamot (p. chapter V. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby Ve-Razal. . Isaac Luria interprets the Mishnah of Aoot V:l ("By ten sayings the world was created. which will b e explained further on. See Etz Chayim l l : 6 . Zohar Chadash.1. Genesis Rabba 12:15. 228 f.). note 18. Avot a. Cf. and chapter VII. .
' is encumbered and enclosed by the shells just as the edible fruit is encumbered and 1. Sitra Achra means the "other side. Kelipot means shells. .. Sitra Achra The terms in this chapter-heading are synonymous. or the Kelipot. Each of these subsists by virtue of a spark of holiness attached to them. as already mentioned earlier. They are the names for evil and impurity.e. This holy spark.. the "waste" of holiness that constitutes evil. Chitzonim. The substance of evil. or barks. consists of the unassimilable parts of the broken Vessels. thus their waste and refuse. and infra. See supra. note 20. chapter XI. the outer shells that contain the edible fruit but are themselves inedible.CHAPTER TEN Kel ipot." i. the side distinguished from and opposed to holiness and purity." i.e. chapter VII. Chitzonim means the ''external ones. the most exterior forces. their vital force without which they would cease to exist.
6 . Tanya I: ch. sect. therefore. and the term Nogall. are adduced in Ezekiel I: 14:4 "Stormy wind. one over the other. Their nurture and vitality from holiness comes to them through the medium of Kelipat Nogak3 The four Kelipot. and not altogether evil. On all this see Etz Chayim 49:2 8. There are four basic Kelipot. Thus it is in direct contact with holiness.j Whatever man is enjoined to do 2. and "a Brightness (Nogah) round about it" denotes the fourth Kelipah. The significance of these two classes will be understood by the following: The Torah. Maimonides. 6 f. It is an intermediary between holy and profane. Igeret Hakodesh." and "a fire taking hold of itself. Cf.. Mishnat R.Shemonah Perakim. divided into two classes:' the three altogether impure and evil Kelipot. Zohar III:227a. is the criterion of absolute good and absolute evi1." "great cloud. 5 . they are not in direct contact with the spark but cover the Kelipat Nogah. between absolute good and absolute evil. XXV and XXVI. On its own.148 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM enclosed by its shell. 4. ch. Kelipat Nogah (the Nogalz being a radiation from holiness). and Kelipat Nogah. Tanya I: ch. 3. The other three Kelipot are further removed. 37. Cf.. chs. Eliezer. 4 and 6. Hence we arrive at the analogous term of Kelipot. Hilchot Melachim VII1:ll.. the revealed Word of G-d." these denote the three totally impure Kelipot. it is unable to make itself felt and to dominate over the shell. idem. . Kelipat Nogah is the "skin" immediately covering the spark of holiness. See Zohar II:203a-b.
then the vitality of this action (and the permitted objects it involves) is distilled and absorbed in the realm of holine~s. or. Tzavaat Harioash. Kelipat Nogah. 5. thoughts. the realm of holiness. alternatively. Cf. . Sitm Achra 149 is absolute good.~' If.e. and so on) flow and derive from the three altogether impure Kelipot. between pure holiness and absolute impurity. commentaries by Nachmanides and R. sect. simple eating and drinking) is intentionally performed for a higher purpose. they can be elevated to. its vitality can 5' See Maimonides. and Shemonah Perakim. then this vitality is degraded and temporarily absorbed in the three unclean Kelipot. Asher on Leviticus ' 9:2. for the sake of Heaven (i. actions. to have the strength and energy to serve G-d).essentially flow and derive from Kelipat Nogah. Therefore all matters pertaining to the prohibitions of the Torah (the forbidden objects. the three evil Kelipot. When the permitted action (as. on the other hand. and be absorbed in.Kelipot. has some relationship to both. utterances. for example. All matters pertaining to the realm of what is essentially permissible (according to the Torah) . Chitzonim. and to the exclusion of what is prohibited . and be absorbed in. sect. ch. temporarily. being an intermediary category. Hilchot De'ot ch. and on Keter Shem Tov. Bachya ben R.. This means that all derivations of Kelipat Nogah can fall to. 3-4. without any more sublime intention. 94-95 (and my notes ad loc. because whereas the food is essentially fit and permitted for consumption (thus not forbidden). 2 8 2 ) .in distinction from what is commanded. the eating and drinking were for purely sensual pleasure. whatever man is prohibited from doing is absolute evil.
Tanya I: ch. the permitted matter is not tied and bound by the power of the Chitzonim so that it would be prevented from returning and ascending to holiness. until the day when death (another synonym for evil) will be devoured forever." "free". a Teshuuah coming from the depths of the heart." For the forbidden matter is bound and held captive in the power of the Chitzonim. ch. as it is written (Zechariah 13:2):"And I will cause the unclean spirit to pass from the earth". with great love and fervour. XXVI. or until the sinner who intentionally partook of the forbidden repents to such an extent that his premeditated sins become transmuted into veritable meritsY7 which is achieved through "repentance (Teshuuah) out of love." "bound. 8.e...1 s MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM revert and ascend to holiness along with the consumer when he returns (Teshuuah) to the service of C-da8 The etymology of the Hebrew terms for permitted and forbidden. Though even then a trace of the evil remains in the body. see also ibid. 8 . 6.s The meaning and intent of the Kelipot will be discussed in the next chapter. Muttar and Aswr respectively. elucidates this point. 8. The Chitzonim prevent it from ever ascending and becoming absorbed in holiness. . sect. Tanya I: ch. and Igeret Hakodesh. Muttar literally means "released." i. necessitating the purgatory of the grave. that is. 7. Assur literally rneans "chained. Rosh Hashanah 29a. and from a soul passionately desiring to cleave to the blessed G d and thirsting for G-d like a parched desert soil. 7.
gave to Israel the Torah .: 6a. . Cf. . note 14. Intr. For such was Hs blessed i Will that He delights in the sitra achra being subdued and in darkness being turned to light so that the Divine Light of the blessed En Sof shall shine forth in the place of darkness and sitra achra.' has his abode in this physical world which is also the abode of the Kelipot. apd Nasso: 18). blessed be He. And for this purpose the Holy One. 36. but the ultimate purpose [of creation] is the lowest world. Tanya I: ch. . note 2. Bechukotai: 3.". For it is man's task and mission to subdue the Kelipot and prevail over them by means of Torah and the M i t z w t in order to realise the Divine Will . . "Clearly the purpose of the evolution of the worlds and their gradual descent is not for the sake of the higher worlds .the making of this world an abode for Divinitya2 1. infra. 'The purpose of all the contractions (tzimtzumim) is the creation of . . throughout the world . 2. and Zgeret Hakodesh. See Tikunei Zohar.CHAPTER ELEVEN Birur and Tikun Man created last but first in intent. . sect. in comment on the Midrashic statement that the purpose of the creation is the Divine wish to have an abode in the nether realms just as in the supernal ones (Tanchuma. VII.
your G d . ch. 3. ibid.. the evil inclination as well as the good inclination. righteousness. and this is the essence of man's devotion in his Divine service: to elicit the Light of the blessed En Sof down below". and equity. For only where there is an alternative between good and evil can man have freedom of choice. as has been f explained earlier [Tanya I. and receive his requirements from a perspective of law. chapter IX. all your heart" means with both your inclinations. supra. Pardess Rimonim 253. and state that there can be no greater service done to G-d than to bring the evil inclination into subjection by the power of love for G-d.* The Kabbalah and Chassidism are very emphatic on this. 4. and Sha'ar Hakelalim. sect. Berachot IX:5. . to bring about the preeminence o light supplanting darkness . On the contrary. ch. . and see Emunot Vede'ot IV: Introd. Etz Chayim 11:6. for this is the purpose for the descent of the world . ch. Mishnah. Maimonides.3 Evil therefore serves a Divine purpose. This significant occurrence was not a catastrophic accident due to some flaw in the cosmogonic process. Zgeret Hakodesh. VII. Cf. . the evil inclination in man is an instrument for the love of G-d. 2. . and ch. In fact. . 1. 39: 1. it was a lawful and purposive development in order to bring about evil. 35-37] at length. For when man thus subdues evil the material human body and the subjugation of the sitra achra. Introduction to Commentary on the Mishnah. note 4. Accordingly it is written: "And you shall love the "with Eternal. 37:2. cf.152 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM It has already been explained that the Kelipot are derived from the "Breaking of the Vessels". And only where man uses this free choice to perform his tasks and duties can he be rewarded accordingly. 49. with all your heart" (Deuteronomy 6:s).
" "All that the Holy One. the Baal Shem Tov and the Maggid's comments on Avot IV:1. . can an evil servant come and counteract the will of his master and tempt man to walk in an evil way. p. because he has learnt how to make the very evil inclination serve G-d. so that man may be rewarded with benefits. that men should worship Him and walk in the way of truth. he becomes a true lover of G-d.' Cf. At this the royal father 4. in fidelity to his father's instructions. secretly. blessed is He. and Or Torah. the king brought before him a beautiful and clever woman and commanded her to seduce his son in order to test his obedience and devotion to his father. blessed is He. Obediently the woman used every blandishment to seduce the prince. 203. has made. 171 and Addenda sect. above and below. continually. repulsing him from the good way and causing him to disobey the will of the Lord?' To solve this apparent paradox the Zohar states that in fact the intended purpose of evil is merely to execute the Will of G-d. As this is the will of the Holy One. 91. sect.Birur and Tikun 153 and harnesses its power. rejected her allurements and thrust her from himself. then. Then. but he. Now who has seen a servant working against his master and laying plans to counteract everything that is of his master's will? It is the will of the Holy One. in Keter Shem Tou. how. is for the purpose of manifesting His glory and for His service. blessed is He. and illustrates this by the famous "parable of the harlot": A king instructed and cautioned his son to lead an exemplary moral life and not to fall prey to temptation.
foraWhen that Sitra is subdued. who caused all that glory to the prince? None other but the temptress! And the Zohar concludes: "Surely she is to be praised on all counts. 9. 130 (and my notes ad loc. and he bestowed upon his son the greatest gifts and highest honours. is exalted above6 and is aggrandized in His glory.. Shabr Hamitzuot on Exodus 22:6 (p. through his sinful actions. infra. blessed is He. the Kelipot exist only by virtue of the Divine Will and receive their vitality from the sources of holiness (the "sparks of holiness"). 26 and 253). 36) . 24. 6. and end of ch. sect. Zohar II:163a. That is. see Etz Chayim 31:2. 5. just sufficient for their intended purpose. . In our sense it can be quite real. cf. and secondly. Cf. ch. Chaim Vital. its source in the supernal Gevurot is subdued above. as well as on Keter Shem Tov. and idem. In fact. Etz Chayim 48:2. thus. also ibid. she caused the son to receive all that good and led to that intense love of the king for his Thus it is man's purpose to subdue the Sitra Achra and to harness its power for good. she fulfilled the king's command. see R. is not a mere negation. albeit in limited measure. lends additional vitality and strength to the Kelipot. See also the discussion of "evil" in Tzavaat Hariuash. they do not s d c e with the seduction of man but seek "to conquer and prevail with full force. But as man.. firstly. the Holy One. Now. Sha'ar Hapessukirn on Proverbs 9 :17 (p.154 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM rejoiced exceedingly." thus necessitating a severe battle against them. there is no worship of G-d except when it issues forth from darkness.. . and Likutei Torah III:37c 8. Evil.. as the sitra achra is subdued below. note 9. thus causing a sublime unification (Yichud) and an immense manifestation which then radiates downwards. 29. for. and no good except when it proceeds from evil. 267). To be sure. Tanya I: ch. See the commentaries on this passage. sect.
See Derech Emunah. And this is the task of man: to extricate that spark 7. 9a f .. See also ibid. XV. and that is the perfect wor~hip.Birur and Tikun 155 The perfection of all things is attained when the intermingled good and evil become totally good. elicits the most abundant good. There is a spark (Nitzotz) of Divinity attached to them which allows them to subsist as a servant to serve the Master's purpose. This is essentially also the concept of "the righteous turn the attrib- ." the mitigation of Gevurah. he causes a reciprocal effect that the Divine attribute of Gevumh will subdue and prevail over the Supernal Judgments (Hmntakat Hadinim: the "mitigation of the Judgments") and the Divine Chesed and Rachamim will manifest themselves below unhindered. Cf. supra. The KeEipot deriving from the original Kelim which. 10. also note 8."~ As man arouses his own attribute of geuurah8 to subdue the waste of the Supernal Cevurah below9 and to prevail over it. chapter I. Zohur Chadash. and sources cited there. 247a f. p. Tanya I: ch.1° The Kelipot thus serve a distinct purpose. The faculty in man's soul which corresponds to the Sefilah Gevurah. sect. 87b and 128b. section 2 (p. 9. for there is no good except if it issues out of evil." Cf. originate in the supernal Gevurah. 27. 8. note 18. the Kelipot are deprived of their vitality and cease to exist. ) . Selichot). and Igeret Hakodesh. in turn. see supra. See further Siddur im Perush Hamibt. that precisely this "sweetening of the judgments. 94b: "From the side of Geuurah they are called 'The valiant ones (Giborim) that stand in the breach. When this spark is extricated from the Kelipot and restored to the realm of Holiness to be absorbed there. Zohar II:184a. that repel the decrees [judgments]' (Liturgy. chapter VII... see supra. Tik. By that good His glory rises.
39:l. Most intimately related to.V. as opposed to Heorat Panim. and practically identical with. sect. Disencumbrance. end of ch. Panim). That is. mentioned in Deut. cf. 9. and the proper cosmic order is restored. 10 and 53. also Igeret Hakodesh. Tanya I : chs. and this is the concept of Tikun. See Etz Chayim 39:l. Pardess Rimonim 25:3. 11. also Zohar II:63a. and supra. IV and note 34(46) a. ch.1.. XI1 and XIII. and supra. while the limitations of Gevurah and the severity of Din emerge as the concealment implied by Gevurah is increased and strengthened by sin (the notion of Hesster Panim. Cf. See Zohar III:137b. the Shining Illumination or Manifestation of the Divine Countenance.156 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of holiness. this concept of Birur is the theme of l"t) nH7yil (the "elevation of Mayin Nukvin (feminine waters)"). by withstanding the temptations of evil. 11. thus causing the Restitution and Reintegration (Tikun) of the whole Being. This is called Birur. Igeret Hakodesh. Genesis Rabba 33:3. sect. sect. man. i. 6. lgeret Hakodesh. Chesed is free to emanate as the concealment and restraint of Gevurah and Din are removed. S. the potentially holy objects (Kelipat Nogah) are sublimated and absorbed in the realm of holiness by the properly performed actions and by safeguarding them from the Chitzonim. Igeret Hakodesh. actively or passively.e. . the "fruit" is extracted. in their Divinely intended context. as in Numbers 6:25. and the sources cited there. 31:17. XXVII and XXVIII. When man relates consciously to the derivatives of the Kelipot. For as Kelipat Nogah ute of Din and Gevurah into the attribute of Rachamim. the Concealment or "Hiding" of the Divine Countenance. while the wicked turn the attribute of Rachamim into the attribute of Gevurah and Din". The "shell" is broken. The implication is that there is no change in G-d but only in. see Etz Chayim. and relative to.ll Bimr means Extrication. end of sect. he extricates the spark of Divinity (Birur) and restores it to its source.
and causing the spark of holiness to be further and increasingly imprisoned and encumbered among the Kelipot.Tohu and Tikun 157 is fully absorbed in the realm of holiness. sect. sect. IV. 15. See Etz Chayim 47:6. and III:79a. Cf. Tanya I: ch. the spark of Holiness. .12 On the other hand. 37.lO The many sparks that fell because of his cata- 12. See Shahr Hapessukim. 4a. II:189a. Zohar III:74a ff. on Gen. See Tanya I: chs. end of ch. 7. cf. 17. note 10 supra. 14. 13. Sinful acts retain and sustain the Sitra Achra. every improper act (sin) causes just the opposite. the impure Kelipot (who receive their vitality through the medium of Kelipat Nogah) are deprived of their vitality and are annihilated.. thus strengthening them and increasing their power. ibid. Tanya I : ch. also lgeret Hakodesh. See Zohar II:184a. 16. Chayim 39:l. and cf. and XXVI. strengthened and increased the power of evil. Etz. quoted supra.lE Every one has his share of sparks that he has to extricate and disencumber.. For Adam. Igeret Hakodesh. C f . 2:17 (pp. the Divine Indwelling Presence. and 45. X.13 Kelipat Nogah is absorbed among the impure Kelipot.. Bereishit. by his sin. 1II:B. XXIII and XXXI.) for a detailed discussion of the sin of Adam and its implication. 37. or until the day when G-d will cause the spirit of impurity to pass from the earth. is exiled among the Kelipot to remain there bound up and without escape until the sinner repents intensely. This is known as the concept of the Shechinah-inexile: l 4 the Shechinah. XXV.6r. also ibid.
19:3. as interpreted in Sha'ar Hapessukim a. Ekev. Isaac Luria.'@ This is the cause and purpose of the Galut (Exile. et passim. sources cited in the preceding notes of this chapter (especially note 14). See Zgeret Hakoaksh.c. l l l b fl. sect. Re'ey (pp. sect. and in R. and D i a s p ~ r a ) And . 49. XI1 and XXVI. See Sha'ar Hamitzuot. Ki Tissa: 12. XXVI. sect. thereby prolonging the process of Birur. Sha'ar Hapessukim and Likutei Torah of R. 39: 1. 18. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar H a h a k h o t and Etz Chayim.. le5b f. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby on Zohar II:254b (p. 20. See Etz Chuyim 3:3. and in the periods of the First and Second Temples). See Zgeret Hakodesh. see the sources cited in notes 16-20. (sect. 26:l. for a detailed discussion of the concept of G l u t and its various forms. then the Shechinah is altogether freed from Its exile and Israel is redeemed: the Messianic Era is ushered in. Etz Chayim 50:3: "When man is born his soul needs to extricate those sparks that are of his share which had fallen unto Kelipat Nogah because of the sin of Adam. Cf.21 17. and see also Etz Chayim 36:2.). Cf. .. see Exodus Rabba 40:2 f. 111.Relative rectifications in the course of time were reversed and vacated by subsequent national sins of Israel (as in the Desert after the Exodus. 19. .1. and Torah Or.~~ when all the sparks shall have been released. 26: 1. sect. ) . and lgeret Hakohsh.158 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASS~ISM strophic a d x 7 remain for his descendantsla to extricate. p. also Tanya I : ch. VII.. The souls of all the descendants of Adam are "sparks" of the original soul of Adam. and Tanchuma. 109 and my notes ad loc." See also ibid. 21. et passim.). 9b f . Vayeshev. also M ~ o h She'azim II:3:8. Zbid. 27d. Tzavaat Harivash.
Bibliography and Index .
The Bibliography is limited to post-Talmudic texts. and their standard-commentaries. etc. Talmud.. Midrashim. . f The texts listed follow in alphabetical order o their titles. Bible. are not included.
R. Joseph Albo. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Moses Maimonides. R. Jerusalem 1968 Derech Emunuh. R. Judah Loewe of Prague. Brooklyn 1945 Avodat Hakodesh. Diessen 1946 Degel Machuneh Ephrayim. R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of Lubavitch. see Tanya lgeret Teyman.d. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Aruch. Brooklyn 1971 Kuntres Limud Hachussidut. R. ed. Jerusalem 1954 Ben Porat Yoseph. Menachem M . [R. Brooklyn 1956 . Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Keter Shem Too. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. R. Moses Cordovero. New York 1955 Avodat Hakodesh. Bachya ibn Pakuda. R. Jerusalem 1963 Derashot Maharal. R. Solomon ibn Ade~et. Kohut. R. Chaim Vital. R. R. New York 1954 Biurei Hazohur. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy.Bibliography Arba Meot Shekel Kessej. Jerusalem 1967 Derech Mitzvotechu. Jerusalem 1960 Ikkatim. Israel Baal Shem Tov]. R. Chaim David Azulay. R. R. Meir ibn Gabbai. Joseph I. Meir ibn Gabbai. R. Brooklyn 1965' Igeret Hakodesh. R. Jerusalem 1966 Emunot Vede'ot. Brooklyn 1955 Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. Brooklyn 1974 Kuntres Etz Hachuyim. Vilna n. ed. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1956 Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat Hachassidut. Nathan ben Yechiel. R. Tcl Aviv 1960 Hayom Y o n . Moshe Chaim Ephrayim of Sudylkov. Menachem M . Saadiah Gaon. R. R. Brooklyn 1953 Elina Rabbaty. Schneerson of Lubavitch. R. Brooklyn 1961 Hilchot Talmud Torah. Josefow 1885 Etz Chuyim. R. Jerusalem 1966 Chovot Hakvovot. Chaim Vital.
R. R. Brooklyn 1974 Mevoh She'arim. Jerusalem 1962 Pelach Harimon. Brooklyn 1969 Or Hatorah-Vayikra:II. Jerusalem (Margolius) 19511 Sefer Hachakirah. R. Jerusalem 1954 . Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. R. Joseph I . Moses Cordovero. Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Jerusalem 1963-1969 Sefer Chassidim. Jerusalem 1967 Perush Hamishnah. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Menachem M. Brooklyn 1957 Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Haifa 1928 Pardess Rimonim. Brooklyn 1946 Likutim Yekarim. Jerusalem 1974 Limudei Atzilut. R. Lemberg 1850 Maggid Devarav Leya'akou. ed. Judah Hachassid. Dov Ber of Mezhirech e. Jerusalem 1962 Pen' Etz Chayim. R. Tel Aviv 1963 Likutei Torah-Torat Shmuel. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Brooklyn 1965 Likutei Torah-Arizal. Tel Aviv 1961 Mishneh Torah. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. 1962-1978 Likutei Torah. R. Moses Cordovero. R. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. see Tanya Likutei Diburim. Vilna 1883 and ed. Fuerth 1701 Or Torah. R. Tel Aviv 1966 and [Jerusalem] 1970 Perush Eser Sefirot. Chaim Vital. to A. Brooklyn 1969 Or Ne'erav. R. R. Judah Halevi. Menachem Azaryah d e Fano. Moses Maimonides New York 1956 Moreh Neuuchim. Brooklyn 1966 Or Hatorah-Neviim Uketuvim:I. Joseph I. Brooklyn. attr. Brooklyn 1945 Kuzay. R. Vienna 1828 and Jerusalem 1960 Olat Tamid. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Or Hachamah. Chaim Vital. Azriel of Geronah. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Tel Aviv 1959 Likutei Amurim. R. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. R. Chaim Vital. Przemysl 1896 Or Hatorah-Bereishit:& R. R. Brooklyn 1970-1971 Likutei Sichot.162 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Kuntres Torat Hachussidut. R.a. R. Chaim Vital. Chaim Vital. [R. Chaim Vital. Brooklyn 1974 Otzar Hageonfm-Chagigah. Moses Maimonides. R. R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. R. R. R. R. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R.1. Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Hachizyonot. Abraham Azulay. Jerusalem 1957 [Sefer Habahir. R. Moses Maimonides. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch.
Sefer Ha'emunot, R. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov, Jerusalem 1969 Sefer Hagilgdim, R. Chaim Vital, Vilna 1886 Sefer Hamaamarim 5700, R.Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Ha-sichot 5700, R. Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1956 Sefer Hatoldot-Maharash, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1947 Sha'ar Hagilgulim, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Shahr Hahakdamot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Shahs Hamitzvot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hapessukim, R.Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hayichud [Ner Mitzvah Vetorah Or], R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1974 Shabr Maamarei Rashby Verazal, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Sha'ar Ruach Hakodesh, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Sha'arei Kedushah, R. Chaim Vital, Horodna 1794 Sha'arei Orah, R. Joseph Gikatilla, Jerusalem 1960 Shenei Luchot Haberit, R. Isaiah Horowitz, Jerusalem 1963 Shemomah Perakim, see Perush Hamishnah Shi'ur Komah, R. Moses Cordovero, Jerusalem 1966 Shomer Emunim, R. Joseph Ergas, Jerusalem 1965 Shdchan Aruch-Arizal, Jerusalem 1961 Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 Tanya, R. Shneur Zahnan of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 [English translation, London 19731 Teshuvot Haribash, R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Jerusalem 1968 'Teshuvot Ubiurkn' (Responsa by R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch) , Bitaon Chabad, Kfar Chabad 1970-1971 Torah Or, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1954 Tzauaat Harivash, [R. Israel Baal Shem Tov and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech], ed. J. I. Schochet, Brooklyn 1975 Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666, R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of I ubavitch, Brooklyn 1971
Aaron, 86, 88 Abba, 78, 140 Binuh of -, 141 Chochmah of -, 141 Keter of -, 141 Abraham, 11, 86, 136 Abraham ibn Daud, R. (Rabad), 128 Abraham Gershon of Kotov, R., 1 1 Achor, 127 Achorayim, 127-128 Adam, 11, 157, 158 Adam Kadmon, 108-112, 121, 140 Kelim of -, 121 Keter of -, 140 Orot of -, 121 Yosher of -, 140 Albo, R. Joseph, 41, 44, 93 Aliyat Haneshamah, 11 Alma deItgalya, 94 Alma deltkassya, 94 Alma Ilaah, 94 Alma Tataah, 94 Anthropomorphism, 35-39 Arich Anpin, 140, 141, 142 Binah of -, 140 Chochmuh of -, 140 Keter of -, 140 Asey too, 8f. Asiyah, World of, 109-115, 121, 135, 136, 137
Asiyah of -, 111 Makhut of -, 140 Asiyah, 112f. Assur, 150 Atik, 68,69 - &chl Atikin, 68 - Yomin, 68 Atika Kadisha, 68, 142 Atzdut, World of, 109-115, 121, 134, 135, 137 Asiyah of -, 111 Atzilut of -, 111 Beriah of -, 111 Binuh of -, 111 Chochmah of -, 111 Kelim of -, 121, 137 Keter of -, 111 Malchut of -, 114, 115, 128 Orot of -, 121, 137 Yetzirah of -, 111 Atzmut, 112, 117, 119, 121, 122 Ayin, 68, 72, 73 AYiN, 75 Azriel of Geronah, R., 51, 62, 65 Azulay, R. Abraham, 15, 17 AzuIay, R. Chaim David (Chida), 9, 69 Baal Shem Tov, see Israel Baal Shem Tov, R. Bachya ben Asher, R., 63, 109, 149 Bachya ibn Pakuda, R., 36
Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet, 67,80. Bat, 141 See Chugat Bechochmuh, see Chochmuh Chitzonim, 147-150, 156 Beli-mah, 62,63 Chitzoniyut, 70,127-128 Ben, 78,141 Chochmah, 8,66,67,69,71-79, Ben Sira, 69 87,93,94,97,99, 100, 101, Bereish galey, 12 112,130,140,141.See Chabad Bereishit, 72 Bechochmah, 72 see also Reishit Binah of -, 102 Beriah, World of -, 109-115, 134, Chochmuh of -, 102 135,136,137 Kelim of -, 130f. Atzilut of -, 111 '32Wondrous Paths of -,' 8 Beriah of -, 111 Chochmuh-Binuh-Da'at, 71, 100, Keter of -, 114 101,144.See also Chabad Malchut of -, 115 Chochmuh-Chesed-Netzach, 100 Binah, 8,66,69,71,74-79, 87, 92ff., 100,101,112,130, 99, Chochmat Haemet, 15%. 131,133,140,141.See Chabad Chutzah, 12,20 Binuh of -, 102 Colours, 120 Kelim of -, 130f. Cordovero, R. Moses, 8,9,14, 16, '50Gates of -,' 8 17,31,38,43,44,69, 111, 103, Binah-Geuurah-Hod, 100 113,117,119,129,135 Birur, 145,151,156 Creation, 47f.,52,54ff., 5w., Bloch, R.Joseph Leib, 7 64ff., 93,115,151f. 72, Botarel, R. Moses, 61 Da'at, 66,69-70, 75, 71, 76-79, 84, Brains, see Mochin 87,99,131. See Chubad Buzaglo, R. Sholom, 21,119,142 - Elyon, 76,79,100, 141 Chabad, 71, 89. 87, - Tachton, 76,77,78,79, 101 See Chochmuh-Binah-Da'at. Kelim of -, 131 Chagat, 83,87,88,89 David, 11,86 Chakikah, 112f. Death, 133f., 150 Chalal, 52-55, 96f., 119,123 D e m h , 10 110, De Fano, R. Menachem Azaryah, Chamai Gaon, R., 109 16,50 Chassidut, 7%. De Lattes, R. Isaac, 1 7 Chatziuah, 112f. Chesed, 66,79,80-86, 87ff., 99ff., Dilug, 49,52,54, 56 119,120,131, 136,137, 144, Din, 39,81,82,84,119,136,137,
Binah of -, 102 Chochmuh of -, 102
Dov Ber of Lubavitch, R., 7,8,
136 Evil. 144f. 8. 130.Ilaah. 95. l o l f .LeAmito. 66.65. 133. 53 Sovereignty of -. 55. 85 . 100. 153 Jacob. 47. Judgments of -. 43 Esau. 95. 95. 71. 42 G-d.. 123f. 50-55. 137 Transcendence of -. 135f. 99. 20.. 123f. 156 Hester Panim. 85. (Ribarh). 57. 117. ('Maggid').Tatwh. 152 Galut. 119f.38. 136 Kings of -. 82 Names of -. 155f. 91. 86 En Lo Techilah.166 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 145. 133. 142 Word of -. R. 115. 149. 93 . 158 Geduhh. 132 k Joseph. R. 88. 62fl. 7 3 Edom. 22.. 103. 48. R. 136. loot.. 66 Hit'abut. 66. 67 Intellect. 93 Isaac. 40 . 109 HaUat Mayin Nukuin. 38. 9. 95. 82. 10. 51 En Sof. 111 Latter -. as. 68. 129 Hyle. 85. R. R. 134. 33. 132. 66. 79. 23.. See Midot Benevolence of -. 69. 136 Emet.. 154 Giborim. 838.. 97. 59-62. 7 . 141 of Keter of -. 136 Isaac ben Sheshet. 72 Imma. R.. 16. 105-110. 100 Hai Gaon. 53. 70. 99. 141 . 137. See Chagat Geuurot. 63 Ishmael. . 12. 140. 101. 78. 80f. Unity of -. 11. See Chesed Immanence of -. 59ff. 48. 69. Tzvi Hirsh. 145. 157 Freedom of Choice. R. 111 Heorat Panim. 60f. 139 Hei. 136 Israel Baal Shem Tov. 79 Horowitz. 55f. 17. 152-155. 19. 155 Gikatilla. 93 Chochm~h -. 148.. 56. 150. 119 Hod.. 130. 155 Hargasha. 75. 84 Geuurah. 79. See Or En Sof E~hraim. 81-86.. 141 Immot. 83. 94 See also En Sof Gulgalta. 95. 77 Harmony. R. Active. 86. See Nehy Horowitz. 38 Gimatriya. Isaiah (Shelah). Omnipresence of -. 86 Jacob ibn Chabib. 130... R. 87-92. 87f. 61.. Attributes of -. 156 Hamtakat Hadinim. 115. 92. 153 Eden. 156 Hillel Halevi of Paritz. 14. Joseph. 11. 8. 74-75 First -.
18. 114. 156.97. 72. 139. 70. 72. 22. Kelim. 149 Narboni. 111. 69.. 96-97 Kefitzah. 68-71.. 62. 137 Mushpa. 129137. 152 Makif.. R. 117-125. 92. R. 19f. 15. 109 Kav. 86 Judah Halevi. see H&at Mayin Nukoin Meir ibn Gabbai. 65. 52 Keli. 112. 7f7. 50. 52 Malchut. 94. 108. 11. 93 Kadmon. 48. 94. 11 Midot. 42. 38 Judah Loewe of Prague. 66. 60 Moshe Chaim Ephrairn of Sudylkov. 141. 19.11 Joseph. 144 Mispar. 124 Makom Panuy. 63f. 157 158 Keter.Elyon. 67. 155 Kelipah. 123f. R. 79. R. 129. 75 Keter-Tqeret-Yesod-Makhut. 50. 12. 136 Mayin Nukvin. 41-45. 114. 40 Memale kol Almin. 36. 69. see Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 148-149. 110 Matter. 9. 10. 50.. 131. 40 Masscrch. 73 Mochin. 84 Merachefet. 92 Leuanon. (Maharal). 41. 112. 61. 141.. 53 Mashpb.67. . 37. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. See Koach-Muh Maimonides. Kabbalists. 132. 100 Moses. 128. 130-131 Keter-Chochmah-Binoh. R. 66. 130f. 158 Maggid. 88 Moses Hagoleh.Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. 76. 151152. 155. Moses. 97. 81. 16. 83f. 125. 8. 73. 100 Ketmvot. 11. 67 Koach-Mah. 145. 103. 101. R. R. (Tzemach Tzedek). 44. 134 Messiah. 60 Mitzvot. 15. 40 Muttar. 74. R.. 109 Kelim of -.. R. 14. 129. 12 Multifariousness. 9295. 61. 151 Mocha Setitnu. 33. Moses. 117. 128. Isaac (An'ml). 148. Messianic Age. 140f. 62.. 38. Kelipot. 139. 79. 8 Light. 130. 113. 112. See Or Luria. 150 Mystery of the Faith.69. 55 Kabbalah. 86. 143. 55-56. 67. 143. 156.. 42 . 99ff. 154. 96. 141 Malchut of -. 51. 17.99.94 Kol. Moses. 132.. 49. 147-150. llff. 140... 49. 93 Ma'or. 14. 75. Mah.157 Kelipat Nogah. R. 97. 99. 60. 70 Mekabel. 69. 149. 47. R. 31.78. R. 77ff. 23. 158 Methuselah. 64 Nachmanides.
Nitzotzin. 77. 86. 50. 84 Schneersohn. 118. R. 16ff. 67 Saadiah Caon. 154. 122 Panim.r 10. 108 . 145. 132 Rishonot. 127-128 Pnimiyut Hatorah. 108. 55. R. 156 . 122-125 . 140 . 17. 15.Habah. See Nehy Nigleh. 124 . 158 Nogah. Reshimu. 121f. 61. 105f. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. Partzufim. 84 Rashi. 18 Nistar. 144 Sefer.. 56f. Prassa. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch (Reshab).in Rachamim. 50 Schneerson.. 153-154 Pardes. 152 Orot. 155.. 87. 66.Makifin. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Maharash). 55. 101. 23. 137 Pnimiyut. 12. 42. 108. lOf. 70 Raz. 42 Safra. See Light .Ha'elyon. R. 10 Partzuf. 137. 67. 112f. 17.. 84. 101 Netzach-Hod-Yesod. 79. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch ~ " ~ ~ S t 9. 147. 114 Rachamim. 60 Schneersohn. 13. 79. 110. 51. 10 Pirud. See Worlds Or. 148. 59-62. 54. 101 Schneur Zalman of Liadi. 134-137.Tzach Umetzuchtulch.168 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Nathan ben Yechiel. 108 Ratzon. 63ff. 60 . 100. R. 72 Relativity.Pnimiyim. 125. 8. 42. 87. 49 Nehy.Soveu. R. R. t . 87 Nekeuah. 60 Sapir. 112. R. Dov Yehudah. 155. 8 Olam. 117-125.. Levi Yitzchak. R. See Will . 119 Reshut HarabZm. 87. 60 Sapar. 129 Schochet. 20. 32. 83 Schneerson. 156 Remez. 60 Sefirah. 39. 79 Schneersohn. 141 Nun.80. 23. 66. 88 Peshat. 7 . R. 71. 136. 103. 63. 71. see Zachar Neshamah. 157.. 20. 55. 53. See Soul Netzach.43 Reishit.. 143 Patriarchs. 44. See Kelipat Nogah Nukuah. 40. 122 . 109 Or En Sof. 68. 131ff. 48 Olamot. 18 Nitzotz..Makif. 115. 84.. 87-92. 54. (Aruch). 105-110. 10 Reshimah.Pnimi. 70. 122-125. 96. 9. 127 Parable of the harlot. 8. 8. Realm of. 51-55. 99. 99. 67. 139-142. 10. 43. 97. 7 Sechel. 131 . 124f. 130. 17. 142. 139.
109 Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. Moses. 13 Tree of Life. Sod. 1 1 Shevirat Hakelim. 16 Z'eyr Anpin. R. 16. 49. 71. 145 134. 157. Unification). 73. 59-103. 47-57. . R. 78. Temira dechol Temirin. 14. R. 95. 143. 1 . See Asiyah. 109. 38 Beriah. 10. 1 1 1 Sin. 134 Separ. 155 115. 51. 120. 156 Zacuto. 103. 91. 157 145. 74. 1 1 1 Tiferet. 60 Torah. 154. 79. 117. Shimon bar Yochai. 122-125 Worlds. 140. 103. 130-133. 17. 139. 9. 148. 115 1 Shepherds. 144f. 70 Tzadik. Primordial. 1 1 Shechinah. 61. 145. 42 Tzachtzachot.Tohu. 22. 144 Ziu Hashechinah. Yetzirah. 17. Sparks. 143-145. 10 See Ratzon. 99. 149. 87. 151. 123. 151. Sitra Achara. 91-92. 59. 151 Seth. 117-122. 79. Atzilut. 10. 72. 122. 69. 96. R. 13-15 Time. 8f. (Rashba). 66. R. 52-53. 142 Midot of -. 121.. 135. 39 88. 142. 79 Sefirot. 143 Tohu and Vohu. Yud. 157 Shefa. 147-150. 81. 56. 130. 101. 39. 39-41. 115. 69. 51. 135. 101. 152. R. 143. 107-108. 141. 103. Worlds. 158 Skull. Yesh. Tachtonot. 118. Seven. 143 Sefirot of -. 151. 141. 66. 69. 103. 143 Tetragrammaton. 157f. 52. 42 Sefirot of -. 158 Tree of Knowledge. 108. World of. 142 Vav. 15. 121. 74. 99. 62. 140. 1. (Rashby). 69. 14. Vital. 124 Soueu kol Almin. 92 Tzadikim. 105. 156.. 105-115. Yetzirah Soul. 74 Yesod. 83. 129Tzimtzum. 87.in Exile. 110. 143-145 1 1 114. Midot of -. see RQshi Solomon ibn Aderet. 23. 142. 31. 10 Yichud (Unity. 105. 144. 73. 68 154 Tannaim.151 13. 136. 82. 117.. 79f. 70f. Chairn. 96-101. 131. 154. 109. 1 1 1 Zachur-Nekeuah. 72. 150 Yichud. Solomon ben Isaac. 59. Supreme. 83-86. 114. 141. 13 . 67 136. 137. 145 Tikun. 69. Zohur. 119. 144 Sovev. 101. 76. Realm of. 137 Talmud Torah. 123f. see Gulgdta Will. 109-115. 137 Yosher. see Nitzotz 132 Sur mera [ve'asey tow]. 1 1 Teshuuah.
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