South East Asia

Ethnic Relations





together six Toy()t<l. FoumhHion-furtded researches iIlumiml'ling '"Ta.:riou~ dimensions til lH~. sOciety and politics in el'hnimdly plural Snntr[(.~~.'iitAsill, M'Ir'lhena rIANZNs CONf'UCTIN ~ LAND U~E ,o\!"lTI 1----_ O'\;\.'NTRSHU" PATJERNS AND THE "MORO ~'ROBj,f.bit" IN SOlm-rBfu~ I'HIUPPlNESlrilces lhe rninoritizallon of 1he 1,~[.j:mjj;l.':4 elJm()~linSsuistic groups in Mind""nao i.a the itrl;rodu,ction !)f the stilf:e'tr land lE:lws'~:n.d policies ~nd the' "l\itoro p t'ob~em" hj the· resu Hin3; oonnid with traditional land U~t:: an.'! ownership practices, ln IN'rER~ETHNrC CONFliCT TN. SUMBAVi/A, A. /I.. B~!1~ WHMW'AN,' ilflds thecausesof tl;1e 19$0. ethnic v~olence between !.h~' In~~Ftnt Bal.ine.s.e and lIlt local siuubwwfIlns )11" the social and polittcal changes fhal trallspilX:.cl O\let Hie' past decades of Balinese migration to
llJl1~l-S!llllfl pUIS


THB NORTHERN .HKAHIANUS Jocks at. the chrmget> bruught abou~ by Ih~1
opening of the shared border between Chirtll. and \ri~run, In Dl:'-'RADICAUZA110N OF .MINORl'i'y nr3S£NT •. :\. C.:\SH STUDY OF' THE l\,tALAY-,l\.liJSI..IM .MOVE.'l.1EN'!' [N &OU1'HERN 'fiCIAllj\.NDI 19'80- 1994 by SURIA Saniwa bin W J;ii Mi'lnm(KJd1 poli tical liber"~li7.ah~i'i,economic development and enhanced cu.lflu:al interaction and tolerance are examined 10 explain the mcdcrallon of lhe elhniu NtalaV'-M~uslim movement in Sou ~herl1 Thai lalkt Usrnan rEl.LY~.\i SOCLli.L INSfITlrr.IONS AND £THt>:IC COHESION IN i\tEUAL,\ld~scribe3lhe kinds .of int6'radi.()1l tha,'1l"('lke place across types, ~f settlemen ts - ethnicallysegregated Qnd tl$,grcgaled, elite and non -~I i 112 mold ,drlt\~:! i.r~~;i~ht~n ,ho~~ en1;'«1lu:~lural. Interaction. o '~o t ." ,.. In nIE TRAni nONS l!\ifl,UENCING SOCV\L 1f>.1']. F.llRA liON BETWEFN THE TH..\LmBlJDDfUSl's AND THE '!'H.AT- .•I..1AL.t\VS by ' Cfuveewun Vatlllapr~!Serl, l'emyoE Rahimrnula & .\1a.flol~ .'Htp~x~i:J s a translated and ct)l:IIik.llsed by r'l'~h'ib' MAI-IAlHNG'l the intt~gl·91l.iye fe'ature'and potential of ,T,lri<}m Hud.dhi.s~~J:lr.l Muslim l'Hes ami 1radi tiOflS are anal ned, , . These 'CflSe$,' m(;s~ of them wrltten originally in their respective fHl!.km<':lJb1l'ignages, are brought together by editor Mirium CORONJ~l. F'I~RKHR reach a. ".. der au"j cnce of Sou.the1l.'ff A$i an SH,lc(ies ¢: n ttl u siasts, to d

tJo' Tiert






ISBN971~91] 11-7-·g ThirdWorld Studies Center; Uni versit y of the Ph iUppines



Ethnic Relations outhEast Asia

Edited by Miriam Coronel Ferrer

A Publication of Ute Third \\/orld Studies Center University' of the Philippines Dillman under lhe Join I Auspices of The. Southeast Asian Regl.cn.ai Exch~l1ge Program (SEA..SR[f)

and th eToycta ."~ .)"u.ndation .

Sama~sama, Facets of Ethnic Rel.atio.ns in Southeast Asia *
Third Warl d Stu dies Center Palma Hall Basement U nivElrsity of the Philippines

D~I~m~n1 ·QuezonCity 1101 E~mail:wsc@.updi.liman.com.ph t Cop yri 9 hi by tile Authors 1999

Cover design by Lorrnle Vali no-Lazo

ISBN 971 ~9'1111-7-8
"JagoJog &. Bahasa Il'rIdonEiiSian word m€<anln-g "together'

Aoknowledg rnent

Ma; Serena I. Dlokno Jntroduction, The Plunllity of Coexis,wnce in Southeast Asia Miriam Co ronel Ferrer



ConfHctl ng Land Use .and Owner's hi.!)Patterns and the "Mora Pro blem'; in ,So utl1,9rn P'hi.l'ippines Myrthena L. F Lanza
linter-EthnicConflict in Sumbawa A.A. Bagus Wiifawan Vietnam~Chlina Cross-Border Do Tlen Sam De-rad ic:al~.zationof Mi noray Dissent, A Ca~s StiJdy of the e Malay-Mus lim Mov,ernent in Southe rn Thailand HI'SO~ 99411.5 1 Su ria Saniwa billl Wan Mahmood




in the Northern ~ ighlands of Vietnam


Soc'iallnstitutiQns Usrnan Pell)'

and Ethnic Cohe'sion in Medin


The Traditions influenci ng Sociallnie gratian Between the rhaj~Buddhist5 ilInd the Thai~Maiays Ch-ave®w.an Van llaprasEirt, Pe,rayo't Rahm mlll a: '& M ~mop JIUpo.s:a i1~ Trans/a h~d and Condensed bV Prachitr ManeJh/ng Directory of ALithors



My _gmlitud~goGi,~
~o the SouthEltt~t

A~km Studres

Re,9~onal [,:..

change Pn)grom (SE.,4,S EP) Council R


Dr. MariO' !:;ereno Diokno

Ihi:] U~ivarsily of lill!!. Phtlippihes, Dr, Chcmwi1 K,ase:l:'iri of 1 hommesol Uni.,,~rsity, D.r.Shah(]l;i~ 10li6 {)f UniV€!Hity of M(]ICiyf.:!l f1fid D" Touftk Abdvlk~h of LWI, ~;md Ih'e Toyoia tlnd Japan h:l!.)rlCilcrhomfor thGlr vlsionory pl,am for

n broG d rom rnun ['IV of SOL!~ ~9~t (In scholors in Sou ~hE:!-Ci~ ~ A.t i'W Th r oug their elforts, it has nQW bec:omr! possible for many srholnrs ill the. r"'fJion to int!;lrod and um:lelltake shiJ'die~·.(]crus5coun lries,



I C1rn eq U 011 y 9 reel h;)ful to au th ors A.A. BO'glJ s Wi r{'A'WO,' un J Dr. PeiUVfrO!1l 1,t'lduoesi'Q; Mjridanao-6m.~d My:rlhenc, FialY.!{l; Surio S:aniw[] bin V'lan Mdhrlnood ond Dr. Prar.hitr M(jhahitlgfror~'~ Soulher.n Thoi-


land; ond


Dr.. Do Tien Sam 'with


Qu~' Lr.mg rrsfrnnslo-

Ill!" OJId traveling compnnlen, for sI'pporting m~ In I'h is .:hallenge by gen(m)U~ry giving !t!eirtirri~,. coopercfion cmd' .~ch.;,ll~)r::rhjr:),lo 'he h~mTl V'le [J Iso 9 Clin a J m I.J eh fn'itn ~h e i1lI5igh'~ of au r (1IXmrn revi €l'we r's wi~h w h (jim ~'i€l. el collectively m{!t' in Antip.olo, Ri,Zal for '!J 'Iwo-d.ay c;onfe~qnc.e in I\!tay 1Y9E, They w~ri;! Dr, DioTi'O Vv'o:ng, Vi!;iti'ng FeHow (;It tf)ii! Nuli[lF1gl LJniversllv of Mah])'si'~; Dr. Consuelo PUl, former Deem oflh, ... Collftgc~ot -SOdClI )d· encas ond Ph ilo.sophy" lJni'wElr.;i1'y of I'h~ Phil ippines , a nd Dr: Am(JHJ

Pong~opkh, Un i '1'9 r$ilpl,






oJ "Chublongkorn

Help cornsIrorn various ori~ef people: Rhian T. ,.\lfIJerijQ who aided of Dr'S, W.irawcln'dext; lrneldo f\cJnnt~ who provided lochn it(l~ oss i skmc~ d uri ng th ~ meeti n £IS) Karl Mark Fe rrar CI' elf d th~ ICI t: ou] arld helped tie up IQo~'eends in '1he produdion srngQi Glenda LOPHl. far proofreading ihe bluepdnti anol,onl1ie 'V6linO'-Luzowho ex.i;:cured the (;Qv{l,.-d~sjgn_ My l'hanh 10°1 10 I'h-e IIlStHut9 of Squtheofl A~km $1udie.s rn Sin gorore forlh a won d ertu I ~i bro ty fadl i 1ias Gin d coil ecti on from \,vhI eh I drew most of r1''j,'f ~,ourc!3~ for the r:nlmdiudory C'Jrtidei 10 IJH~Third World Studi@s Ceoter for 1II,e IrIl>liIv fiorHl.1 5'U p port: end to An th any, who, pro .... d ide



Ihe CO!'lstclOl core ,and


Mal. $~wena I. 0 iokno

S~HJrH aHerlhebtm(l:lti on oJ Ihe $ EI'$RE ~

r C 01:1 n d I {S OlJ th(;!CI;?' t I\~.I C1n

Exchange PfQIgfClm} in· 1.994 ;lhE>:'Covn~il members proposed.lhui fhe studies ftFnded b'f th~ Torob Fouadetlon ~H'Iderib .lll!~rn(,j.· ij:onal Grrmts program be ciusi1sred orcund ~hclredtheme~, re,viwwm:1 end then pu hi ished, in sepd rah~'eln ~i'I()1 ogJes, S(Ji~e, th au gh not €!I'!bu 9 h, ol ii!E% e "s1Iudie~were p~,blj~h'ed. ,t", Iqrg'e port, I b(,;,!i~v€l, rerT~TJlnetJ th~~.ac:h of th 1If.! r o Wth OI'lL Th e ideb of the COli ndl, th Ef(3-Wr.fl,Wf.I s to cretll<:l £In o'ih e r ITIEln:lfiS9f dl~~'E!!''i1inatif'lf1re~p.fjrd~e.~ of $c:.)uinec{!'.ii k.iSln kchdr,Jrs !'1(.4 IL!S.t wi fh'i n fh eir lorn I ~om rn u riily b uJ' th~ IMnel' {]c('_iCjdemic Co m m U rliiiy in th (~



~'egk'n'i' an d !,.ot j ust fl~ in d ividulgl r.e~ e:qrc hes "but us I(] rg:e r pIBCl'!'S: en cernptlcSS~f1H com man th 17! rn,e~; hiW (? $, or P rob I~;rHS~
Thl:~ lJ'ook I~ th~efir~tt1.f w~h

end~~volS. Udl1g a surnrnury


pared ·by ~he Toyota Foundation, Midam .Comnel Ferrel, lh~ ooitQ~ ptJ! togeth flf ~IX ca~R stud ies of e'lh I~i c rekll iOt:1~spa n Jl i flU f.;Ir:r.oss::;ou Ih €u~1t\~ii{), tabng into [lccount :mch ·fq.clors CJ~ I~nd~ rOllit~,ion'and border relolio[l~
The va IU 0 bfth ~ ,wClrk.!ies nDfo'111 y i ri ~tscot;llrib u trdr~ 10 S01l~ ~·t,~j s tfl A~iCln sludies in general, orb ih.~ qUGstion ·Qf Irqm a;iq e,rhnicity, ini -~)Qrtk;lJ[or, It h 0. ,ShJdy tbqt bridg.es SO\:l1l'h~(J$t ;\0)0, rln .enprmOLJ~ tq5k on ils own,

bu1 Qr1€lhat ill m::CQss(:lry it w~ are: 10 builcl'a


klf ~dw:lurs

in Ihe

r~g:iO!, q nd sx pa nd horne -g row'~r kFlO"'t1 lao e CIbout 0 U 1{;i3lv®s South east € _ A~ion~ '(US 8l!'!nero!lv ~eprLve.d of knowinn how th~i.r ndghhQf~ v~ewlhqmselves owing lofhBi.f inabiliry to c~p(;:akor recrd the alher\ imrgu.qge The klCk of occess '0 IQCtl,! (SuuHred:>l '~Ian} pe~sre.ctiv€!~ oni;J n~"'; idGlf.g l7€'~nq propound~d in I.IlIdig8nolls ... ~t:i1i11g.SoCreClite,~":] huge:; gap. in til:Jr undersfonclIn:g .of



ib'.s6bil:i!~y dnd cullure

tJ w~b of o~~e~lhf~1I1e~dI9 bl~ known end lrndmstocd_ Lang'IJ£I£lG: cultur~, roliti.c~ ~nd bgistic;:, have no ·doubt .,~tood in ih~'"",c;IY of knowing, The'Surnbawcmese are cotnpletel.y: unknown tolhe F~iprrrtl" ~l~Ih'ough ~h(l IOMd of lheir flaJinese r'leighb(;)rt. Bolt,. ls ',...d""ly _~oefl ss pwn i

Buhvh ntlsa qLJL~ IIy fmr.ioH(]nt, wh ich this ',boo.k irn plib +1 [Jddf<3S~~S, y r,)oti6n of otherness lh'at lHl,derpin,s th~ .study of SoulheQsl h'ia, A]1hQugh Ihe we~,1htu: I'otig. bee;n IhiE:~~o~het (j~' dislincl' Frutn Ihe Ny."",t; SQ~~th~


eost A~jo t~, if! feet,

dise,. The Eiuddhts'ts and Mu,~I~m'S.bt"So.unh8mThojlund hnvE! n1lJch 10 offer !'~e Cll.r[s'HCins, Gild Mu,§lims or nelghhoring )ollihern Philippines by woy of

e);chanSjr-l's in

In~~r&~~l,!IIIHrf,l1 ~xper'EHlces,






Ihe scrne ioken,

netic n of (] th e r ~xi!ltf; _

r~]st Ti rno

one ·c(')uld f1l"glJ)3' thol In out own- sociatlesthe



elisiol'1 ~ oth €or th at

J a kmla

had not

At;iCln el'hnic comrnun ifies and womerlli1c)ve Iwll! place: l{l notlono] hislcries. i\dIHln'!nts. oflhe minorily nalifJ!iol1 tend to be ~::-;dude.c.Jrr()l1~ lill'! ne.xu~ of ih(;: notion's life. Thi!i, then, i~ to me Ille book ~ veil u (.:q ble contri b I.Jti on, ~

'I'.'r:H1ied to rl"!linq\J ish. Southoast

By hr i rr\1i!l 9

ou t th [l 'plli f;}r ornon g.

U ::i-h


evertnat otharis defined by


ralohons. tilthnicil"~ orsnrne'otller




helps lis.l,mders1'ondlhilit

~oiiOiI (>thlS'r, removihLl Ihi'!.

qlh er [rom Ih E! ran ks of Ih of 10'0'11'1 ~I i 9 nora d, tmd on ~Iw pnvil.fl'9Gd sphere of s'ludy,

br i n gi l1.g ~h e orh err nto

II was not eosy to put Ihe:>€!cn:,~ ~lL)diBS IQgelher l.lndH a coherent , !'!(:Ich r,dls i;ts.o'-"m·story ond curries ih;·o\.,.n fmme: It would have b~en h:ll' eusier perhops 1Q p!qi:e, them ~eponA.dy under CC!\Hltry studias

theme, br

~·Jharesome mi-ghllhhlk Ih~Y"':!it·~elnflg. i3utc 5outhe{l~1 f\.<;inlfl.sludies means puohintl tllBrrml dr1d culfurall frpntierllb€yor;d phy~·ic(.JJ one! Imllanol, bound-

(.Iri~s Thisis never on eg~~ job" bul do

j~ we



thi'<i bo.ok Qt:!9S.


Plurality of Coexistence, Six Cases

t .southeast Asia
Miria m Coronel Ferr-er·

Th€i 0~nic pi u mlliiy of S.OIl)~l E'! a,~iAs i r.m :ic()dtrH~s hq~ b~en wed 1f-I()w,!:]ve.r,h!l-Iyp~s C1f ,!ntep'Bthnic r€:rafkm$· futd ari8G Got qf t tha<~ mulliptidty [ln3' :>? diverse, dich·aotrloliS (cftegories Irke Nmaiority-min orily/' "'C h rT siiClllo.Musllirn, '" "rnl 9 tlmt" ~ndig~f!(l~I~:{' ncfsu ffic~d t9 co phav€! ItI~rhel r.:r;~s-'cross:ing of aJ:h.H:d!l€:~ thot ~):M ElF bClrii@'r&ihat divide ...

The. de5crip·~ioh[jnd

und~r,dCl!t"ldiFtg of i[lf"l;lroethnic



m,ad!il, m.o.rr~,cqm pl~x H W~ re~(;lgn Tielh a I el·hn IG~ Iy ifself i.s CI constandy j~volYin-0 source of rciGmtiiy, no mott~iI" "'Ihcer-e.Hi-lat ide!,ti1yi~ sO~lrc.ed:- serJOr based orlobj'0dlve drffensncesi cCirn.mon.aIW~~ in language! physiool Fed1tlr.es, culture and hi~l'OfY Many ·sdl0lntJ h av·@ sttCl.sS'ed ~h 8' SLJ b Iectivity oflh~ :r:H:>!io!rof n tdti on, -e~h nidtyu n J mCf!. A Ju;iH ~s ", .. p.eople ..... 0 f€t@I' th By belo ngtog·@ithe'r .. .' {R:13 i a r ·0 n d Olrlj h Enlo-e cifutd in Smith, 19t9"6:274·). Q!Jrre~LmiICidy,elhnicrty hm been de.

Clb~ctibp.d! os definr;ld by .cmouhider,

~.~ed ps .~.~di~.lindcultur~/~~ub.cILJlturein ·whkh pe.9ple Fe.elbO.Uf'19Iogelher by 0, common olrigin, hfS't0lYi' ..... (llues,o'ltitlJdes nnd behaviQr (yefrwn1 1'9'91:2),
i '

.k, such 1'he bos·is of th 15 shGlr€id 6.@langfn gn ~s~ n I!'l ~d not b aeb[acfiv€i athlbutl;!<sjlhey rI!'led only be perceiv~d or imagined, Nagl8lfulJ~ hig~ligh+ed m6 WI'1Gts.: 'Elfunicily i~hon (l'$(:ribe'd $t(ltu:.t lh(r~ situo!iQnally IS·


eMvated, OF'! defh n iG bou n q.(:J(ies om


s pa1iai Iyond ·tll3rnporoily

Hu id,

Cirndper1mcoble (1991 :78), lQyola, writing on Ihe-ihe openness oith€ AkhCl ·tt\ib(:!~ group in Now!he.m ThuJ;land to ouftide rllfhJ€!nc~~~ ~~kewise Moiedrilal '~ ....~in;,.;e-erim i~idenrrily Is ~ prQdu.d of a:dapfutdo n I !,,@s.j·dr.mtE Olod comprGllmfsl!I, jf may be reflew~cl., mddWed Clnd rernode in ~ach gen€iralion" (1996; 2~ 9). I Even ili~ fu\il c;o1~e of HKe, 11 i~:(Jrg'iJ~d ih ott~"le 5.e,Lede;d featuras ,tft~t ~l:Ipp(J5eql;y disfirilgu~:sh th@ group are less a function of buoiogy (':)r .9'qn~tt.cs tho n sodp-ty ~'sp'El.n:eptlon a:f 1hei rn fJo.rmnG~ .af su ch d~sfiJ1 ulsh~ 9 9 n rncrks (Berreman, 1991 :35 '36). S9r;:h constructs ore su~tCljned through sociol reloti0n~ or I·'pradces of.:tDmmitm>0n~·~(B€I.~lah ail [198]] in Y:0tr-loml €It Op ..clt:2) ..

The h~rm "E!th i city h os b€:-m~ uS!:ld to ancornpnss n cultu re w~vich includas kaditfbn, CCl're, VOhH~~,languoge, religion,. gnd common dfO'~GBnl



or rmf.'!-!stry (Eng, 199').8} Uhniciiw mtl'f 00 rngmdFtd (J~ sub-umts w,thm 1hl? IlIggQI nnii(mril lin I t Of! 'It.p. olher hond, elhn iCliy mCl'Y cui OU"O'IS ntrtlonnl hl':,uFldlllil!!i - ror e~t,,"ple, t~"l l¢lb~f "Maluf·M,dims~ apply '10 fhi:! Itdmnift'>d popqjloh(ms in Indonp.ua. Md~Dy~!tI, th ~ Philippi1'~~ nnd lhClilcmd II hr,;J~ <t],o b 1111 mgl.ll:1 '1lwlihu n{'lbn" eXIIlIt'ld bilrnl"l't Hlp. :;tolo I AI 11.11 :;'(II1)L! hrnn, n ........ !~lhf,.r Id~'ntihil~ h(l\l'1',! b'1']f1 QI'lr.,1'1!lJ ·...·h;Jrl.'l HU'lf13

wurn norm b(lI~JW he ";uLjwml'ld

Soool !i~IIJOh~l~ M···I'.;'i~udllOtJI.· wll",lh,." r."I':~ t~)kJliorl~ under Ih(' hr' '~ldm' Iflhfll ,...,f rtllim('] tv IYliItHHY1, ()p .• il·.7)

whl~o [)ihor~ plm ,) t'h,'n nn f1 fUfJhFH u~h"fdcrr)', nnrl f'lhMlr' qrallps ns ~uhdi .,·it-ion:. wilhm Ihe ~(!pOll1'O IIJ' ['c5 (S~" lhmlr", 199f1 1) 1 hl~ 1m ~ rinC'H" U.i1 r ~ll(~q!:)I'II.:lS ~lIInpl'f ~ho"'~1;!l0.', r,H ImJI nohons nnhou, lllllnl'~II)', rri,-n unJ ~lo'liJ (111' UllihclUl1 und 1f(jn~rnllj('lbl(l.




Thl!. t,,,'1U~prai1uJ ~I(lflt:d Clot crs un ullen1pl tel bl irlU logelillJi Toyp!a Foulu~ti'ion·funderJ ~ilJtli"~ thol can helrl iHu!HH10to l.l~pf3dt ~)fN"lfJ roilly"rr)1110n'I~'" rela'hoJ'l~ F'Orll) fin Inili{)! !i~1 20 pm'}jou::iy fUllded rossnrchns from 19~2 '0 1997. I 0 W~f ~ 1h,jrt:list:~d Frut! I lh ~ TCly(.~I~ I roundallonls; Lmfluo! llsls []nd hrl~f prolad de:,;rJlpl'nIl5 lc mnke \IIJ lilliE. 11fOled orlglnCllly tilled ·COrlflll:k, nnd CmTnwt R~'5ollJticll in M~lIorlly·Mfnor] 1)' I~l onons In 5q utheos I '\51 tl I!., Pmp osn I ror~h e PIJ bl i CIJ Ii on of 1'i:.1yol·u Foundulion-f undad RltS8C1fches ~ Tha ILS~was rurlhe,!],caled down 10 ~i:o:, A.5il ILHI1~,dQUI, Ih~ dualrfy nor ~h~ noncns of "ethn I( c(')nH,d~ ernd ~ccmflic.1 r'f!~nlution« cnrmol cophm~ the dvru:lmiCi dt:;C~f;S~d in l-fw' '$.E!,ll'!ded CCl·S~~ In lndonesm {~te or fh{;: case 5'hJdi!'!~by U~nlan PeJly and A.A. BoguS' \'v'iro .... 'on). for .,;;r.ompl.". 1 eve IS ne dear1,! defined erhllic.. majority.







b2b,Neen ~crll~l(il'ld 1118~O-[(lllr~J

JP of various e!hnic groups whD ~IH)r~ religious dorninnnce ..... all other lsiDmir elj,r'lC.lingguistil: llh groups in rrrost ports. SWl11:::11m rrnd other Fsltln.-l~",tI!h Ihe- sxcopfion of n f!;!w like Sr:.iloWQsi WH1 Ball At thp. mlcfO-If" ..~I, Ihe .... af1(lty In Inh~H~flmic mlalir::l'r15 ls ('Ilso

!skmds , Java rb;rlf is


Usmoll Pell)- S' scruple ',f fml'll1g ~pt:l:sot ethui,ully plural Iifllag'e5 in Meuon City (]1110:s~'1(.1thrs We hovo KurnplJllg R(Jn.ga~ oncl )ukorm!'oi I, ....,IHUg rho Chinese end JflvammJ r~spe~lIvely dommcte: anJ
Ku11'1f_!Ul1g I]UbUi"Q


reIL~tI'h lull!, I

wh~f'l3 'Ir·ere

i·~no ~lngl'J Q1·hnlc rn(llor-

II~' growp. Inch'~I'd, ''''If!I~
~~hgJ'l whll"h 'WC1 9liCh



q,"' Ifl

~~tl"'l(, qroups


11 WVP.f1

~11'e me





d~Ulml' ....... 1Il" lJI''IIr or Ih., pnl,\r ,,1 tllJluMn~ 1111 liti9lH ..hr :lwup~ m S~u1hl'lrn Ph,llflrllnl.!!. m" tlu' n1m""rf'I'Yv~~-il'v'~ Ihr' Inw

lh~J fl1ill,--,dly i;muld Thi.! 1~ltlrnl/od qUmo



land Chri$tlohiz,ed gmupIL But In predominantly MLJslim cQrnrnuniliE!~)tH~Y Gr'ecrhe dominant group to th.e upland ncn-lslcmic culturol oommunifias , The' hiatoricQI period end drcums,tollces also fmm€l m,ajorify-tninmi1y stohJr,'_ ,A.s COh:l·n notod, ~'efhnrc disfinctiv~lll.'l~s shlfts wi1hhisrorical drclJrTlstnnces, {lind Ihe le'rm 'rninori!)i' will be tnis'leading' WilholJ'-c;onlextu.a1 d!'!fitlnin,i,~'(1994: 8)_
In (lddftlor' t 'Plheron(J'lysts h{we poin-tl3d out that dMin.divoness, in

cul'1uml aspects, h1s1ory ond relCllivl:) srnallne~s I n number do no.! P'!.¥'~e make such g,roup.S:"mirlOrilies.1" Ahho~lgl. Flot 'Ih(;l domi n ani grCH.!IJ, in certo!n sod8fiesrrlrnmities af!!! nO'I' necesscrilv Ihe rnosr di~advC!ntaged group (Chaliand 1985: 6-7) In {TtiditJOI1, int!".--t'-ethnic r1ii1atiori~ do ilt.}t necessarily il1v(),lvE'!. subordinotion. I-k'lrowil'z.(1991 :48-;;lOj di:.lingll1is-ihl2:; heTWof!9nlw'O ij'P€}s of atn nlc n::.iClj,ions- the ronloa:tJ and rhe IHH flnk-ed, t, Tho Minmli).' Rights: Qroup th us dsllnes minorities nol in n urneri C{;iI jOlfFn ~ bt~! ln I'~;rni~ of th e it luck. o] p.ower (J rlli 'slalu s. In 'this d p.fl n 1·tiO.11, 'Gvgl~rlll(]lon Indians who ri1akf! up I'I'I~ mOlority pc}plJln lion are' rruI1Qrihes.· Uk~wi5e! dominant mlnorifies li~Q the Whil'e rnlm~rify In 5()tJlh· Af-·



ricr:.,·the Tutsi of BUr-lHldi, .ondlhose elf Germon df!'Scent Irr Lalin Amli'!rlCO nra [1m.1'rn i nori tit?s" (Ibld.). Ou r cosa stv dy on S umbawa sh{)ws howth e

B<tlinese·mrnmity enjoyed economic and polilic.al·domil~uncrj in the· ishmd, leoding to re_Si3ntrnp.nt f;'Nnfhe indiu~nouS -S,(]mawan nl(jjorily, Another cuse in point in I~Hnegfon is Iile"erhnic Chfl1!;!!;i'! tn Soulheml klCl who hme been discr.imlnoted in vatyiflH d~grees· by naHor~'111Inw;1:i pertain. ing.j-tl·accluhitkm of citiz'€lnflhi~); ClJl1'ure, 1·t;:ligio,Fi nJ fioduccllipol)_H~w!:'''IeIt e hacouse of fhe 13con("m~icwtH11,h tlwtthe'1 hold,{l'S ~ woup, I'hey hcva (::dl~E';? migrant .stotu f;.

Ir has olsa been (lrguo.d fhar rnajoril)'.min()firy r¢lations do no! apply-an I}' k),e~hnic 9'rQ't~p r~lations. (jiHI~rl~ (I )156:1 m(.lr~! i nclusive ddini .• lior'! d riliflo'ri~1 i'·ldlJ.de-l; .all '"tho~e who~ members expcrsanca (j wide ra rig e ,of d~ cri m i 0 atory tr~~.ahnen t -and freq u enl I'i r81-egaJ~d 10 ro.::;rtion S j 81(Jtiv~I~,~ow in .he s'lahJs structure or (J ~ociO!~,."i rhey nMd not be elhnichosed

beCCIUSB Ihe concepl

Nonefheles~.;, rnqjorify-rninori.ly Hd(ilit~ns nra t'lqLJo.lE:!q iih cthn i.fJry w 8nctl,pwlok:!> a fairly common sociol ~l.rril'ifk(lrlOn phMOnm13nOn elT1ployirig mdClll;lnd elhnic-criteriq; in other words, (j ~;'Iroli(kati()H where: Edgmljp, i'denHftable by ofJ sal of distind dl'(jfUdcridics, S!lf-

fers from fl"llJrgin,alily (lind subcrdincflon, Thl,1$ qes-pdGi it~ narrow frqm~, the tnQ.jo6l)'·n1Irlo'il'1 duarily r~mQfm. 1;1 1J.s~fuJ r.on(:E;!pl'in (]I1oryzinf,l.Q dQs~ of pheIH:Jrneno_ T9 Ihis closs b@Jo'nn Surit! SClniwobin \'v'on Mahmood1t study onfhe ath nrc mohf~il.ollon of Maloy·MLJSiim~ ln SoulhNn Thaifond,



a Fl d MYI'! he na Picnzo' sexplo rati on of cantl i cts 1n 1J:o.n~epti ·of Ia n 01 use air! and ownserhip between the Chr.istiqnized lr1oj(li'ity and the mh1oriJ1zed lsInmic·groupsof Southern Phll~ppir~es. Meanwhi.le,
CDI~G®m fo'F

rnargil,oliz:ed m&iorHles inSoutheClti't Asia

foe.used On hill tribes or

on foreiit dwelII


groups (Rigg 1997:


Des pite ttJ€ir drth'.m~ CE']"O;,. CJ II hese 9 n;:mps ore con sldered marg i M I~L8d in n v"o)"5:: gepgr:-(JpfiicCII, politicol, .coltural and 'sociol, eco'(l,orriic, 'cmd erwtronmental {RigRi \997; 11-8). (;eogrQp_nicol margina.iity may be d'u'E:to rsmeteness and inaceessibiiit~· 9f the group's territQ,!)" dispersal CiS a group, or sensitive bor.d€'tlin~s. Pol lti.CQ I fliarginol.ito,i 15;m:aF!,f~sted in e';;;~ilJs.i.orJ from mclnstreom po~itieal ,ef1ga.g~ent, qr Ja4 of de iooo or de I:ure cftllt3l'ishi-p as ~II thfJ cose olo bout half of the,· hill trl bes in NQ rlhern Tho ita nd~ Cultural and sociol marginolitv includes th$ otheringGmd r!1mdering inferior of the minority cujrure ~lang.Ulage,.ttlli.giant and the-lack of educntlon support, Economic marginality, on the other hand .• is I·he dlscrimfna!ory yie\lil of the mrnori·ty grqJJP'-S livelihood s!mte-gqe~as unproductlve or prirnllive. Findlly, e·iwir.qnmentql morgifiolily is being regordedos the couse 01 efivirqnmentti'~ degrp9ation (clue for instcnce fQs!c'sh and burn practices In the upland}, being vulnerabJe '0 noluro] hazards .. and suffer.fng from d~multipl~

gmded en ..... ~wnrru':nts.(lh~cL"



loday's ethnic Qjversity in S'owtheosl Asid QIoI~g witli .tne sO(i(J1 and pd;Hc~1I Issues qsw.;;:iClt~d with II - Is. the ui'l'fil1i3hed eulcorne 'Of a dVl10mic e\i'oliJ1'lonQry process. As such, tliere is no sfligl'e e>:.piom:rl"i-o[l f()( the ad gins of th i s diver:sity (Rom be et, q I, 1988]}. Many studle-s flave shown how the colonial ond pO"s,t-(}¢~ordoiperiod in Southeast Asio sow signlficanl demographic sliif'1s withln nahon()~1 bcundorles tllal hov(! created mony of the conH~c.ts that the nation-S!{lh;: k:ie,es tQda'l~ Stol'~ pol icy of resetrle rnent a nd economic expunsl on, j 11 pertiewlar, hOlve beet! plopointed for their o'1erbe,adng Influence .. Horne (l·9871 ~iled in RiwqFrto Tlnosudorrnc 1995 :37 4} 'rio1ed'how seHlemet1t schemes, NO st1fategy witnolJt rivel /' were. seen 9.S' Q peno ceo h:l'F econ om i C or1d socia I probl~ms by tile y(\:amg sfotes. IFI this vei n, My I1he no Ff0 rita's poper
a·n Mordond trcces how the reS!.!lttli~ment pclicies oimed


&fflJsii<t~ sccio]

tenslons j,n the Norlh ond the keen American interests in expandin'g th'$ plontofion econcmv saw the movement of Chrisficnlaed lowlond groups to 'the South,. 0 ",d ~iheo pen,ing up of Ia rge trocts of 10 F1dto these sartl ers .on d fcire~gn"owned a.gnculluml enterprises as well,




G overnmen tT0seltlemc:n t'~}rog!n:;l'msof ,th~ Vi etn a rrrese'gov~ rnrnenl cr.€!qt4do shrnlnr fmp'Qct AfI'eF 1954, the l'iurih Welnornese- go0'ew,

mel'll mdgl'lm:i k!3'~ .QJficju~~ b~~t~mging'~6 ~hP.' njoriry Kinh p.~opl~ ~"O r~m

ck.l~m WCli~j~~ ands"
!::Jl.rn::l13 op~nil"l9of fh

K;nh t1"Jovedl'o. th~,~® (;m".qs. 'I3Ythe end .of the 19HOS\.,thc>l' I):irlh populotion inll-t~ whole nQ!1h~tn r~gfQ.n gr~w from 640,000 to 1_2 million (litjeS'l"rom el, (]~" 1998;3, '6- 7)- After ret~nifk:alion 'in ~97S·; itl~r,provirlclCi~'m~qH1No~ Iwinh1ene.dm.p8Gple displaced byth@warmoved buck to.1Iheir h(:)ffi€! proYin,m,'S._. Res,ettlarne n t rn e-(h~Ores :wete .o l-so us ed to red is]ri 6 ute peopl e from ,overpop'ui:cr!ed rUftJ~mfltl~ ,dilld citi~'s rmd in help secure the border m'G!f}~rth Kinh ~vho5e IDyaJI~y ...... w osmore gUClfOlnt~€id (E~on£, 1992:277·8).
][1Cl mVQ'rse'mod€!, Hm0ng nnd ~m bQrd~:r in 'len s .oJthau son ds

In th e 1:960:s:, stat(;! forn~t ,IE: n til: rp ru~£ts wGtr£l esto bfi s h Bd n~ w Ien ds ~n:cQlJ rag ed rn th~. t! orlheJ'r] p.rovr rk~~ ~VQrk~ ers g n d fgrm~r~' frcmi thQ rive r de Ita ond bE'll.otlg i(lI r~10: Ih ~ ~tlm i c: m pi ()rit,

HD!JD~'(~bjd 2'8.5")"

by tlw


('JO,b}" Farti1f.:,rs:wNe


j<he J1Ic{rlh·

IlwEi 19g0~ h?, fhe pr.(.lvit'I ce.s south d


fo-r th 0 gJ'0~~v!hof ce~rutt', "YIN~n tobo.Goo; rubber, COMBA, r.;:alGt;IO onqle.Q ~$t(l1e'~w~r'e put vp by I)uh:;h pl.t;mlflJ'S • From f, BaSta' .~ '18, Med a n was· th-e cap ik~I of tht,;: h~.lllt(Jn~tl'!0F 9
C! fa

'COllOfI~(]~ e):JJqn~ion is rT"Istn n d s 01; ~t1s

M€ltClan inro;JJ phJroi tity b~ginn',ifl9: CI

in th,e,-s~cond

hCl~f of~h!!l 19'"


D~lf whQ e~JHd5ed ~j_v~horl~yover the: dly. Th-e city 'tJ.aS qbO~8 sde: elf th~ re$tdel'lce of tho Dukh~~id~rlt o41'he Ed;'1 Coast. 8'1'1909, it clcl-liev.etflhe .$tCltlJ~,zyf (I tn un ~d P a Ii:fy, tha~ rst ootiidfl J,W(l tJrHJ th t=! FiFlhl'o d o ~(~ in Ihe Dutcll Ea:s:~ Iindres. Th~tedhet, ii· serlled a5 ,0 corn·m9rci\,:i.! c~m.ti;;!rfor !3pot~ areas encl -th'9 CfH'!f€!f oflh"e n~vlw~JY ndwork oftR~ E~!d Cdcrd,. (:md thE!
o;(kr1in~$tratf\!eGap:irol and milimry h~odq"cllt'fien;.F(.ir NtJrlh S.umdlrd:, Bt, Ihe 1'-960~, it '0(1$. th$eduGf:,1fion and !h8"oJDg.ic,dlt£lI~tf!r fpr~e...vertll ~~tigjDfl$, :i nduding thi;! in.ditoren OU,S Btl fOlk ProfesJa n I Ch urch. Th ~ Ellttik h(j;I/~ ~ee,n m'igm~ll~i 11rj Me\Clar1~in ~e\V6rl d Wor II. t!q'd i fvg 10 'th e. e.th ~ ic ~li;.:, of th eci ty

an.d its:.$8:~rd hq.mog;enG>LJ.s. Cl'f1d hete('lZ:gl1lnolJ.s..~1il'si:denti[]1 atf!dS 19"62},


Me{1n ..... h~I.(!!,in l",_A. B.~9'U~ Wir.ow~n's papeT" we find how Ih.elr(;lnsmrgr~on: pmg!\(J!nsin p<!d-coiolllJial ~ndcm.£t;iCII arm pCl~y m~poI"IS"iblp-jol the ,signffi~ant pl'€Isellce of t30lfne~e people: In SU1F,1b(1 v/CI, Naiionwide, trclI~$mi-groNon ·ha£.been used ds' an ~nstmm.(,!'1'1t· t6 (jc.c.~Jp-F(lIp. i!~~tIH0!"w,l


l.iii olten"HJiuve to IOlf'l_cJ re"form in :Indoonesia (RiwClflto Op"6f :3l3·374)_ Likewb'l, in Thoil(md, .~o-((Jll~d -self-help kind sletll~'I'fletll p rogm tTl:!> wen;! de.'.'i sed by flw!·~'~J€!. E'J..g.iin'! In 111 rill db iI~O e f93Qs .. In 1940, th¢'So.ui'hern De~elopITi-enfS.eji!!1:h'l(mt wtI~ ophtiGd up in

,t1nd 08"


;he border pmvim:es·of N(lrothi''Ivot, Yolo end Sotun (the slte ofSuno bln



Won Muhmoodls ond Prochltr Mahaning':. studi~~) for Thai citizeos on Malay stun border, lat,e'FiIOi'rzHess: P~Qplfl in areas effected b~"COhTn!Unist rjd iv if es in the NQ rtho n:d No rtneast ~""@re moved to borde. r seftl ements near 1'he Lao end Cornbodlon 'borders [ChQr)d horne: Tolumo.ssawat( Despite th e 3m po rkmce of nd ~rS"tandif1g H~e dyham ics colo-

1980;35 ~37).

!iiol end Lndependent modern naHon-states to. explain to..dC1Y'S problem::;" 6bvlous,l~dhernovemenl of people within ..... w@ now cell Southeast Asia hCil'
'teok pJ(]c;:elong befo(,e the modern state structures were even put in place,


Fc)r i f1stonee, ther,~ are todoy 31 offi,e ially rocog nized efh n i c 9 rou ps MO seven didin'LtlinglJ~s,tk ,groups in the northern rnountcinous region of whot is presently r~cognl~ed as North Vi~tf'lan1.Th.ey include 1he Tai people who migrqtedl'o no,rlheFl1 Vietnam in large numbers inthe 9th to , Oth cernuries. TheIcls were follo..... by Ihft cLondesHne movementqf H'mong famied lies and dans -frorrr wh.a't we now so easily refer to us-the "'Chino border" in ·the 1 ]111 to 18'~ cs ntv ri es. The fad th at '~hes,e grou p~ ccrne frown .... 1no" eh h'Cls made'scl'rolat"S hesitate to C:Qlllhem~il':ldiger)o'Us peo#les,~ of Vietnom

.cnd evens even described them os "lnvcders" from CJ11n,!) {Op.dt:274}. Mi:d rntian has i rid esd been a rna ior so urce of ethnic divers ity in the region 'alf~Clugh not it) ~he "sim'ple I~~!ar-c(lkernonner' er:lVtsi'oned in the g ro n d cu Hun:l" h is1'Ori~{I~. schemes ·of i-l~-ln~ - Geld ner 0 rid B~yef'~ (Rornho et ol., Op.eil': 7.-.8). Mon .... chon to move e.rilarlClted fro rrr .... us .. ources. In a-rio s the iv\il"longkabo.lJ ;society of Weslern Sl,lmatnl, it is rl tradition 10 encourage
young people,


moles. to rne.renfuv, thot is, "to seorch for



and better prespscts

(;lWoy from their bi.rth place (Joan

Hnrdjono, 1"980:2 t -2'3) .. Economlcconsldercfions, ihai' is, the proverblol secrch for :greener postures, stand out in many cases but in the movement to Jovo from lhe other if-lands of lndoneslo, pursuit of (formal) education hes been (;]major impetus (Ibid.)' Other supporting foctors include kir:lship
nM ..... orks end I ndlviducl pr.eference·s and othtudes (pryor, In 1'rPhOon- end eorthqooke-prone Sa'L:Itheast ASial natural disasters olso count as ..:I slgrlific~nf foetor (see A.A. Bdg~S. WirClwon's stl_ldy).
end social

1"979: 711}.

The study of


re~(]tions- has


rcissd to -Ihe fore

issues relating 1'0 resource Q,~,IQt"ationend pdaical po Hiclporlon. As Q resui!', the slate Oli!"ol)thori;zed IJppr'Qpriotor of these' resources is always an lrnpertcnt odor in i'nter-ethnk; rlllictiom;;". This is especially Irue j'Frhestote ~ffecli\lely is

it'i the


o.f (] iingulqr'elhnk:/~lJI'Iural


Cl$ to creote



resentment and resrstnnce tmm 'jhB mmglncli~€cI groups" In such CI CO~B. the, po Iil jC:C11 relm ionshi!l (iSS!) me'S o shorp e.l;hru C cho rectsr Bu t IUS t us the sferle has no1 been &olely nee OU n~oble ror '!rt~OIC di ffe ran t 'O!IO n ,t he s~[rj€ l,fJt'Jd not tll ..... oys be jh~ leeus 01 Ifth.'lf·,elhnl(" sludl'~s srnce sociol ond t.ul ht(Olle:lI'(:@~ mtt:!rtJc1 m dOily lives lhFs rmx el br-:;c:!; Ih[]t{w~a ~~~ero LOnnlef
15 e/t!li"lrf'!ed 11"1 1\.vo papers In lhi~ I':ollediuu

Ollnough in Iwo quitrJ

cUferenl on kH"ld

rOII'I~::('ft I:lnd lime rrom~

Ol'@ dcol,~ WWl c:onH~~ril"lg cono:;ep!iOl'ts,

end Icncilonuft!
Mi!'l dcmno.

rl iH~renee

bC1WI3"I' ~"m Marc nnd Ihu Chri5lianm.ltl I h tJl hm M>!n plaYj ,d O'.lt fl~il r

~Hll;sIQ (] n~i1alrl1')~1i'l'ni 10.

l'r)k~~ Qtf iltJ rn ~h Iy'id ~t' C"~ 1hr.'l' !~'Iwpl;:.d tim

u·u~ tiov

rlliplno ~drh]r~ In en ~ urr.,,~ '-.I n rJ p FJr

Th.~' Olh(l'r I o] rl rw.,1V:IeCMI' 'Jlrll'(lQ'~ II f mrhn Irld(:lrUl'iHli"l I ~ICIfHj ~f S ~mb'r""i:J,
,~ ~IIII ",jjfr1Ir1,d;

We~I' ~>iJu3QT~f'i99~1f~ In 1980, A ?hlrd ropur gliml:l~e ('If 1he Qd'lnn1Tlgi=~ ond dl:;o1imnTt;lQ!."S
cO 1'1 n rise aul at




(lcro~, ethnic grorjp~lh(Jt 0 I)e III 09 tJ P oi M t1h~m border Ieod e butw'!HH,! Chi 11(1

and View.l m

I f'1

1he IOH!' 1930~.

Conf/ictlrlg Land (j:s.e & Ownership Patt'!lrns n........ h.1em in S1Duthflm PtullppmB:") In. M'l'11hena "mrrflicl

Ihi! 1;0011'1-(1in Mlndcni"lC' hetwGen thl"

uri 5; n g fro!"!"'!0 ppes in 9 sy5if!rm; or IO!ld 1.,15Jf: pr m::tl ces, In th,~ Ira d i· liollal MqrQ view, land 15 lnhented nnd held In IJsrJn.r(1 Q'{ the communit\' It is' non- e lie no ble ond held Irl fiUS~ by~he [lun r or ell lef S'Jch con cepts me four-rded both on CUSICffi(1)l' 10......end t~k:mlc prndrces on land tenure, A s,uNey conduc.1e.d bylhe ouiher cOF,~'m'rS~be 'r;len;:rs-ten-cc of rhes~ indigenous conceptions in rome Morn ~~hF1ic ~rcu~~. IrLdudlng the use of troeli1iontd btmlf,dories, cus1ctnory pfOO~ ol ownerskrp ~e,g_, presence of burial grounds und cemlarren1 ,~~(lJdut'~:!;I. nd i..-mHllcr!el.l mades of meosureo ments. However, in ll"I[Jny Tourug COnirntmifi~~ tfi present-dov Sulu arK! (lll'long Ihe Mog,uindom:iO in North end S:...uth COlcba~, Ihe legal reguirH· ment~ en lonQ tenure bo:;ecl on !he sy;lem of p,,"v{lie prop-arty MO naw

Moros end Inc Chri~1lcniurd





D~ tl

-ia rrn] ng lee h n 01ogies h t:l"'e'



'l1te red



The inti u x of non Mom

iC'rnl I r

9 migrcmi~, pOr1I~U lo


I nt he first



ow~!e d ,:or po roi e plo ntoli one nO n. 11,i\1.1~li her me"!:ir€od ers, o n d g{)venl me n I m prejects, all of ..... hiEh nucroorliod 01'1 Wi.o!O ccmf'l1W'lillicH'H:k Mill~(jrilali"or1

11<::J1 Mom lends, Colonial ol'\d posr-rolorucl pofic:ies or th~ Philip. pine! ,s;ln'e tm:lI~1a1E1d,he penelronon or rll'l.l"1dan.!:JCJ Ifl 111I~ form of (oreiUrl.


the 19005 dWrJi19 Amen:col'l cclcrnc] rule,

Jed to




the 1970s


qut'!1J Mml.m
ITlO nOpf)

r(!{;I~'anCe j~jJ

1(, more

tll,pO~s'r1ssir.ln, cs

r:::Otl"ObOft,:liad l!;u1Id s("arclly

b'f ,hp. personal ~. peuences



rQdo~, how" ... r, e

1'1'()~ [;lrl m(~ Ie rld~

111 'ht:'

ho rid ~ r.>f bi tI I'l~Jri b\j S i n~5$



weal~w Christkm landowners ond 0 .smalilandowning Mom and Lwmad (non-Moro indlU" rclnfions wilh Iheir ~mb8stra.l lands na,t .'li!Jrprriingly hrJv!l 61.iowtid them'to odo,p'i' ~9Ihe· stote's fmri1cw<oll"k FO~I tlded on the notions of crninanl dOIillOi,u and privtitQ properly. In erred, exta rnol processes, rn 0 re ~hall i rll em (li on ~l'i. Ffi~za arg u es hONe b rqu 9 h I'
tropo\l~ri:sh6id MOiD, Christirm sncus groups) f~rm.ers Qlnke. Th~ olita.mcl

elite, hovE!


alb ou 'I lhls ui'liena1Jon of rVloro lond and land use pructices,



tn Sumbawa

To Bxplain tho: SOU'fce5 of fensions ber..'1ee.ntho 10cCiI Samawmrs and miqran'l B!1illirwse, the paper hy AA Ba_g'UsWir·I)Wdli llrsttrcced the
bE;i!tlih.nrli'lg~ Bt;flinese rnigralion of to tho .islund of S,ufllbrrwr;j In West Nuso TQnggartJ Province., lndonesic. 'rhilalir~1 batch of mrgmnts Vi'US led by forrm~r guerilla leod8f l3apQk. Ny61Tl011 MCidilin 1953. Goyemment-sp()r!:>or~d ol,d ,sP'Ol'ltCJlnSOM£ migration of Balinese afFected by the 19'63 eruption .of Mt .Agur~g! inspired bylhe successes of e-r:gfier mi:grcinB, or esc(]Iplng from

tmbvlence brought cbout b~!the national poJiti.l=ol cOIl~Jid in 19.65:$u'bp;~qup.lltl:y fo.llowed. Both political and. socio-economic reosons thus .aCC911n1'
For B·(]llinese m;igralion to SumbtllwCI. Balifl~$e migr.ants eventually built their own cornrnunijies in ~4 sub-districts ancornpa_$slng towns and rurultrcnsrruqroflon site~ when;; 1'Il8'r' €islabl.ished frad!ili;onal community instituliiom



Ho'i'ior; sys'ien\

farmel'lr' orgclnrilCilions like the s~jbQk 'for managing the lrrlCind leH'lpj~$ which btl,rl the. I3(JI[rle.~e villlCiges by ccrnrnon

Over Ih.~ yepr:;~ sf"nll fighl's hC'.1'/~ taken p]tl.COl batw€i3n theind:igSamGwon ond ·the Brjlinese. migronh s. Moot olthese c¢f1Hids wer.~ due to p~tt;; reasons like fights between fOQlb;all I[jh~ or quorfL'lls I)Ve'r tj~e

med:i 11tely p raced ed III e ridl "g. Fi nJ W(JS the. a rrt:~$t f ~ll h aa d of th €' su bo a di~lrid hp.rld of Empang b~ th~ Bolin(ls.Q police chief wilhout the sCln~'~lon of the R8'g&f1CY of Sum6awa, Tho nB:>::t os the holding of a mixed m.ar-fio.ge· w b€p.ve~n a Bolinese ond a Samawurl_ In bolh ccses, Ihe I·(leol ,Snmo.'mms tesetll'ed I'he llrfogarice tii(ltiifestEl!d by B(:Ili~'\e~~c)ffidak The resentmen] of !he indi9~nf)U~ maj'ority is e:.x.plrJfnedfrom both

use of loud mkropnone.:> during re!igi'(ll}i csremonlas. Howover, i~ 1980, the inter-ethnic ccnfllel turned into (Ii mmpo·ge q:lUsing wid€.-sCCJlledestructi on of Eol inese p roperf es (J 1'1 d Ilo~&to Me o~ I I Sui inese , Two eve n ts j m-

the culilirall nnd strucillFol oS'ped!;. The lathitr. in particular; f1ef~rs to Ihe sociol mobility Bnloy~d by the migrall"~ Balinese.bolh in l'h~ eoonornlc ('.!f'id
polifico.adlmini,slmti've 'tr(~drng. ond advuticed


III ~herr'f(1rming

Not only have 'the 8ulinfl.~e domlnotsd endaovon; using tne 'farming rnelh-





Ihey broughl v.rrrh hem


Sol.. the

kaYe clso risen up to go",end ",ditrclJl d~'II:;lons W'F,lro pfc,::~icesj dlfferenees wlll(;h

ernrneni cHlclol pests. further aggmvote,d by

5ud1 sccio-econcrrnc

dfHe:renc6s III cui urot w~ra porlkulorlv highligh1ed III the mlx~d mmri09('l where the orronqemM~ g01 D~ on o bod stan end no e:he~:l1ve ~dIO'fon I'oo~ place m
The 1LlSO Du!brC"O 11\10$

uell(!od b polIce and rmlltmy irli,]rvan-

I'joll Lind "'11'11:then, 110 c::ontJIf::j ot :.irl'ljlm propcrncn It.lkml 101)1=0be'IWf;en lh lwo tlfOUp~, even 05 Bclines fl'llglrtlllon 1o Sumbowa continued WI;) 10 1996 when IlonS"~lgrQ"un 01 Boline-se 10 Sum H.I\,.'(3 WC$ doslilo b~ lhe rnrnent Cr.msci'Du5 f"Horr, an bu~h ~,tdes were mode to ensure Ihelt ~oc~t11Chf.ltlg~ prDceed· ,:;mcolhjy end ro flrft~flnl on)l' 51ml'or eetbreek '~pntllhl3lesii, GI.~ we k'lOw, IndollflSICI ~odQ~ .. r.ll ·frought "'''Ith lI'urylng 'I,;,po"$. IS oj ccnrrnuncl conlhcl



Vis,tnam-ChIflB Cross~B()tdBf Ttadmg m 'he Northem Highlands of \lUWUlill 11"1 paper, DQ Tien Som dlSC1J~~ed Ihljj changes thaI have token Ihis bl:tv<e n t twu pnoviolJsly ho~r.I! covrrlrles was reopened t~ trcde in Ine 990s "'e nchcncl can'fe~t of renovction, c.hCJr(:u::1Erizedy the introduclion ot mar et·onenred reforms loking place b in bcl'ih countries, pro .... ides the backdrop 10 Ihese miua-Ievel chenqes In th e no r1h ~ r n mounic i noDUS bard e r meo of VI e-ino.m mna b Hed 0'1' Clpproxiplace since the border

mete 1'1' 4 million p~opJe, rna ny 0 ..... hom belen 9 re ethn ic min a ri t¥ g Faups like t he Do 0', Gio'{, H rnOf1g, ond I h e. verious N\cn- Kn.mer "9(.(JU ps.

As o result o~ therene
ing octivities




ed ono encourO'fl""men' of private.lrad. e);po -unpc volumes hove growl' remen.


dously in the 1'990s, tn!!: gross domes rc prooud and revenve- genera ing ~apobllily of 1hE difleferi prQli'incas oove increased slgnificontl'r'. ondthe service industry hes de';lle-Iope-d rop'dl , sc1tin.g oH 0 grodlJol tn:mslorTllotion of 'Ine trilditionollv ogric.ulfl'uol er;:onom'l For the people, ~h09 cross-border

Iroding has increosed If'lcome.&. '-FOO!ed new emlJ!oymen' QPPQrtunitle~, ollegedJy reduo:;:ed pe v er1~. Clnd incroesed sWpPOrlfor sccicl welfare progl'ams CIi.I11utoi []di",ilies. hove QjSO dl\ler:sflie.d in form and Co nrCr"l' with Ih~ I in!roducHol"I of lel~\lision and olh~r communkction loolitic!;,

01'1 Ihe olher bond, ne-w probleO'Tt'. such 0:;. heigh'en d smugglrng end other dlegal lmdil'l9 o(ljo,Ijht?5, and urdoir I;omp lilian In buymg tmd setllllg hoy ertsen. Th ~I[]'t'. on 'he whole~ hll~ been unoble to pmvld!l
prolectil:m In

these who

mc'~ hCl~e been

d.tod'of(;)flt!:lged bv 'rhese

AI~o, lnvastrnents m 1I'lfr(l~'rucIUt~develormenl

prm:;llc!l5 rerrram Il"Ioder:a1Jot~to en


honce the

flow otgoods and p~opIG. 111®golrading, of heroin" women aJod t ,and weapons' aha threeten to creote more JQdcJI problems for both the ,ethnlc mo joritv and m~rJo!:ity popu lati ons, Th ese draw bckcs reo

mind us of a f'Ovorhtlj metolC"ihw' arnOri'lg Vietnamese' wkao one ·t;lpMsint) windcrw, @;"V@n the fires get in,



The:orfide p:rovlde,5 the c:ot-itexl for th~bngoin;g sQciol6hcJt1ges ~n Vlftn'q rn's northern hign'lo ndS" but fa i ~$~hort ofc;riticaHy ~)l(]m1n ingth e po· tep!ti 0 II~ !legbtl"'~i mp~ct '(:'r'I the ethll'l ic minariti"/5 'of 5U ch errhortc~d e:conom he:~dl~ity, legS'll ond ill egol i and cull U to I e ncraach'm$n,~ b~(Hj9 ht obQ~J I by te!ec~mmunkation fadlitilL'!!S, rh~ lartth) h9We\l~r;, is' t~~ 61.) Pjed of the rest" (if the projG!d grant wh1ch ;1£ st~1 'j!"'! progr.ess, [ETHNIC DEMOSI UZATI,ON

Most of fhl!l tex1'.sO'n .e1'f'i n rc parities in ?ql,JtheqM As i a ~ove ern pha.sJzed t'h~ non - resohJltton gnd conti [11)1 g thf~Q'f p'oS)3d by um,e$plv6Q ethr;rt n t~n$.h:;mli-. They :sougtM tp~:¥p:loin why ,ethnlc mQbH'iz.ofi,·qn took pl.ot:~ and why It w.ilil most likely fntensify [see, tQreX",crmples" BI.r_own 1994 ~ 'Christie,

in Southern Thai!cnd8 in the 19.70s. slant, Thi;s is cvldetlti'll fhe essays put tagethe r by ·Sil,.lhrk~~198 9} ond a ISb 1[1' Choi wqf s W Ney of m:a:derfl lc Ii~~r(lltu~ on p.oltoni (1992) , .
1980s' orand exernptiento-this

Writings on Ihe Mahy.Muslims


'S,uhrke Qlrgve.Q thqt ~he h~ghiy centra Iized T!ici r nd rn I nistmti 0 n ,its use of no! asoflkiaJ idnguoge-, and Thai as Ihe- 'dominofil1 Gulture:, pvi ~ey~re- ~i:mil5to: pprtk:J potionln po I itiqs. .;:1 I"I.d ad mi nistrQtip n qf Mo loy Mus" lirns, McVe'¥ ~:t9'89';·3o-3n based on ffekiwork ,dow:~ in tlle early 70s ar<d in 1970,. similarly points to th,e centrality 0f Buddhism in Thai ide(:ltily end
the-extraordinary r,lgidify of the modern Trial bureouerofie syste'm in Its fO.I:Tll,al hi!'!king end chclns ot com·Ii'(1G1l'1d bloch t as to, embf"{:[t:in,g nontID'


irWothe government


On the qth~t hQlnd, g6v~mmenfsupporl 'to ih"e regi'qn is acknowledged, 'S.uhrk~ P1:6ted ~he 'mQl'k~d inL!'~ase in Ma.lay Mu~s'llms i'n public ed!,,!;cotion lending ·to> i,n::;:reasedrileracy of Y9~nger @ge.gr.oupt and speckil1lg Obility in lllal- in the l.9"70s, The retic Qfprimary.se:lloais ond t~och~rs pet proVI n,,;al popu lotion he d (lI1~QQ one u p, In cl], g OV-etmTle nt e:>:pendi; t'U res for

th e three

th.er,es:s,t Suhrkecondudedi

Mo toy Mvsli m ptPvi ncesl n 197 clsc jncreosed, N O(;l e· Ina'l' this in<:reasi.ng pe!"leJ,rdrHon of th-e-3f{ll~ scheol


:s:ys~em has .sharptrvild dl'lbot& and Ewfli"Ct within ihe rnlnoritles, and' cer-



10i n Iy WIth~nlh a resi~IUllcl! n'lovemlflfl1.


A 1981 dls~ortatiml bit' Ulhol OUIYIJ'('J1Hlf1i A Srudy 01 lifle Muslim M!JII(I~~ iu

dis~orlOhon, S'lunlel'rd Uflillmsltiy JTi 9811. ml'e~lOr i ~nll r ~('Io" du d Ii! d HI g I Ihe 'l!l1i;pnn~~nll lund FarhH..I 1'0 bl1ng obouj pocu:I!Jull S:~ tI~!JUClnnod lila ~~pf'lfllr.1 CI,rJ,Mcn(l 990-' 74/ dlnd U1 (.11 tWOI r

("'fducallcu wuJ L Ihnjr SoulhlJl"JI Si(Jm/ 1111 U cled III (]l[W .... [199'')1) rTlflnl qt pJ o,dm:[J II nr1 1M S ~LJ 1h!;l' n u 1-


r.ilI1~~rC!H~~ dem!;lf1d~" to.r b .. 1;1 Ihf'l fMlonHt1' Dspi'jJr~s [)f r'ln 1U()dflr!1lmllon pHH:! ss s I nIl n~ tho rh I gO¥flmmrm',' SOlldmm rhminnd WCl~vlwod II:!. rJrll~i"'o~ nl In II~ f!Hecl~. MrVay lI989"39) 'or Insh:lnCli wrote I'hal thu

'rMrI[hul"lih~ttO", Ir! the form o( 1'lonO! ~es in srtClClI nm~nlllrlrinl'1; in hH1~ifln~ Aillni[ t!lflcinn f.lI'lH 10-..11"111>Idlmic cnnlpDhlTOI1 ...... hTch cnn hll I'(.ndu, IVIJ In

irt'l I nsi{iilrl 1~~l Ilke'~!~f" WFoI4':
1.iI..... !f!.U.

aprocd 0'1 ~}di.H;...lwn I1nd r.rdmlnl!l.lrohcm. ra~)I(1 6XpOnSIOl'i 01· ConjIlIlHIILt'!lit)!] gild economrc da\lablJnl "I nO'o'e bolh (JIc(':lOllbotflJ rhe pro III uru or m In on iy Hi IlJ;g~ ('J11C)1l on d o.d vonead iI While el:l'llim Ijh!!lafureo mosll\!' tended to hlghliijh~ ~w,tirlll wid po~enlial conHkJ, SUI ja's wo~, wl"Oiten rm:Jf!'! Ihf,n 0 decadll! lotm .... 1iJt'!rs~h~'
lindil'95 rnore dei-initely Ih!!! Qlhe-f wo~

De-radica/i'zafion of Minarily Djs.se·nt.A Case Study of the Ma/ayMuslIm Move{nent Itl So,uthem Thailand, t 980-1 994
SurlCJ IflOk.ed 01 rhma Hp~lll' r~I(lorslho ma'Y'aplolF1 th~ shift trom rndk:(JIIQ rnodaruta 01 "ll;' Muslem minority e~l;.mcmovement In Strujl~p.rrl Th ail Cd 11 d. h ese a Fe the d e rnocrol;j.zO'~ on O'f ille Thol pol ifico' system In th e. I980s, IfIlprovemen1111 i+1{l Ilvmg slondurds in the reg·ron nnri heigh ten€d mtsr-cLlltJ:Jml ifde'f(1dh:m and tol.emfu:e hellilole€l1 the: Thai Buddh isbi tm~1 MClI{J~'Muslims, parlkul!:!rlv Ihrough 'he educcriOl~ql 5')".!So'mm. To obtolll primary doro, Slirio ,odmini!;tererl !'!I srrudmed qt...!stiol"lI''1C1itP to 3D dhnic mif'lt'lfi1y rnavemonl Jl!!cdf!ts, lil Ihe 5(]iburi Di:;;trh;I Ul' , QQ.5 Scnbun "n~ thl" biggest Muslim populobon In Polil ni r,HDYlnCe Resp.ol'1llenl:; were de~m€'d 'fj I1d! cols·' it they We Fe fDrmcr cclw~dr of I}, e B orison Rel,'or II 'II Htl Sion 0:;11


8arlsan ~Jr;Jslon I Pllmbabl]5.'O" Pflh;l'lli {Bf'IPP) Tne('jlh!~r ~al of fElSf,H l~dI31l1~ "'Jar dCl51'lfi~d IlS "mDd'1ITJrle~ " rt'H~)' W~Fe MoICl" Mu~llm 1t:llJd~rr.haldfl~~ '~Oiirlicm; In Ihfl no"j;> I nrnnn] or did so In 'he ~Wf,I, odh@f [J~ IHlillirroll!> or adnilliish rj10rs

{BRS)and Ihe

from ·,Il'a r sl.Jll$ 131'tho qUll':lihonl'mn~ (:md olnor ~UUIC(lS, Smli:'i t':On. dudud tl1e11 tl'il !l!rUphIJSi~ on polihc.al f1ol'!-mllLrcuy dIJhUFl~ 1,-, ~hQ msurIJr'ldeor Thtl.j IJnFf1P' Mirudtu Pi om III Iho 1980~ j~lYlfl\.l dowt'1 01 Olmr. 01111 ll!ndl2n SiJb~~ul nIl'll,

ra ..otd









Ih~ govel'r;fr.lE'!nt and TIlE'!rebels look ploce. ~n 'fueeariy 1990s1 Muslirl"l 18ad~rs, ~_~p€tcjally 11H).~tlwi1h 'Ihe AI ·WtJhdOlh mgUIIllatiQn, ron fm elec:tive posts, whil~ oth~f members were appointed Io.governrnent officeS". Also under Primi2 Minister Prern, 01 's-ped(ll~ econorme prognJrn. (;{l,~led Pveni'; Chapo'oh HC'IHCJI!lf"Jg Wive Specicl Amos} diJ.d a security proqram c(jll~d Potiona R(fbob .MUlldrlg {Devek)pm(!l-rl'l at th[;l. Poli'ti(.';fll Sysl~ml

f(3l,cilllot'ed the In~e~lration of Ihe $Q;ullh E'!conarny with 'h·e national !>.ownomic system, thereb\1 sp~€lding up Ira,de. belw8en (Inri if'! viHagE'!s and improving livingskJJndgrd~._ These progr'atm WE?t1ll fd~owed by Iha New ~\spii'OIti{jn Scheme [111 198.8 Q!'"ld Oful1!F clEl.~fll:oprTl~nt pro~o;;1'c:I~ l!:Iunched by 'Ihe Kiq1)g. Econcrnic si'rol'egies forlh.e region oornpmhel1siV'ely jargetacl the development of agrictllruml industry' and tourism, l'aSmJfCe. consarvotion, 5eclifily and human resource d~velopment New resp.t1rd1e~ into rubber pltmHng end toppih".iy technologies Wen!! ~Jtilrzed to rehulilitCJtE'l' the nJbbGlr plant-GihClns. ~imilar support wns t:riven toaquactl.lrur~,
11'l1·re(JslL'dinleJ"(ii.1tion (llmong .M'CJluy-Mu~llmlll rhdi~Bi<fddhlstsand in Imding m;trvilies.i conductad either ln Thai Of Mr;l:ay, hot madE! the culturol 6mrfer morQ poreus. M'us!im gtlTJduahiH; of fue public

Thoi-MLl:.::Jrm5; school

system which


r-epla,~d the



ha'~e been ItI~'lp'l1lcl tQleoch ISllarnic courses fn stote-lrUIl sr.hooI5.. Muslim studenb OfB free fl) p.ractice th~irfCiith inside fh~ s hook, W$(ll' customorv do,thfl~ and con~.eg·uenHy,nwrs. M{lII(ly.M.us:lim~ havCl Q~b;'!dto



govemm,ent schools,
Re:'POI1 derrndo

i'he qVia:."lticll n!:l i ro p~I".:::s·i""", th ot Mol ('1y- MtJo;.li m!'l hnv~~. fmm·Jh@ demccratizotion of th€l Thoi pol i tlica I sy:s'tem gVen I'hoL:Jgh they do l10tthink they hQV0' fully ClItCJil1~d equal rlghh wi'thin .... 3 fhal pql'ity: 1 Not" did tn,,,!,! pslieve -th€ d~I;Hlg~ was doe to greater sympathy for tlw Musb(~fldiled w.e·t'Ei! mixed c.,~to whsthlO[ 01' t10f improvarnent rlf"~ economic wallA·belng ccn b~ o-ttrl bud ed to th ~ gaVe rrunen ~ p ral ads; All res pO!ldefll~ b eJ,leved ,thnt

111n~ AI~OI the ai.'lnerol perception hi thatthev enjoy b€ltter living skmdo,'ds. .. Iodtl~\ r.:om;~queril!ly, anhrmcinq 'their po'lilicolstat(ls. However, rf.,!acnom;

reiaiions be'lwc't)n lh~ two 8lhnic grolJps ora f1ei1:c!}ful a1lrhOLJ.gh '~hese may

1 HKE!SS,(]'Fi

1'1'be due

to increQs~d respe;ct"tor

the pm-l of Ih~Malcly-MusHms

the oJ'he'r" for i'h~ Thai Kitl~~. I~

nor to


The perosptlon that ~he atJu~lc movement hus become rnodaroto wes prevalent even though bfllit'lt whelher Of not support tor Ihe rnovernant hci~ wun~d Well> mor~ nrnblvclenf, A1ll101 of the, ihi:"eefad~oro, positive concurranea ..... ~xpr~s'~d ,only for the dernocretlzntion a.s cud Il'lcre-os,ed cullural i,,,lemdit'm. MCHiy did not s~e' improved livin!g stall1dards CIS, an ex-





foetor for


10 what exren] is thl~ de.rodiqlJli~otic>n 0 C()t~$CWiJ:S, rde.ologl(;u~ choioa of M(l~ay Musl'im le{]ders~ Irld~ed, on~m[]y mil:: wnethG'i" this NdE'!" ru dica~ izm,ion" may In f.(J~;t ba (J eon ti n'\Ja tron of Ihe ~with d rowo r stro tem";' alreildv dl'!s·cribed by Suhrke .earlieF, ruther than em Clc.thrp' p~lftidp!Jti'OIl if!

Sui, rk_~ described wi Iiid rowo I as mi n irn izi n 9 conro'd with Th Cli o Frieicd-s ond insti kJtio,ns and .prnt~r:1i n~}. on 111 e .othe r han d, in d ig,emm s v(Tlu~~ mld instii'i,J'tions. Inhu€lst,infjly, Suhl'b;{~lwo fudors !hot wouklmcike v,liff1dmw(l1 CldequatetJ permissive mntral gQY~rnn'E'lnt and a .~(;IlisfgIkm of the community with go ..... emrn~nt's protection of e:«i&ting religious end culfurol valves cppeor 10 60 present, Th(l extent to which ~CrJliom1c:, pd~ticQ,r and culturol p-wticip~l~on ha~ increased WOS not 1iho_roughly

ih,e 5ys~m.


l'he-refmEl rernolns an and


for further ~1udy,

rugby (1989: B8, 81}, 9n the olher- hond, VI'8W "l!'th reforms unclar. PrimQ t'<\inider Pre-m louded by SU!),{I, De~,pite-th~ ~hifl-s in 9t'f"lpha~j;-_;1 Ihe.y argu~ 1hatlhe oim h;ad largely b~p.n Ie} h-Jrliu:~,riFlcorporah:l ~h@.Ma,I('JIY MI,,~r.lm provinees ~nl'b Ihe- Thai bodv politiC. Th8)' also see- wp.(]knesses- in dev,eloprnsrft, pclidp..s nnQ .Ir)irn iJml' Ille ~collOlllic chai1ges heN'A only n~ode Ihe peosonts more \ll.IlnE!mbl!'!, The result is a siluution of '-'ClIlhm;!l1suspense" where bureaucratic procedures arc j 11oparufion, (;] d th oil effed of cu Hu n!J,1con tClr.t i~ min i m fl.-ed 9~ much CIS n
man'! sb:~pHcI$rn the pos-~i6Ie, with the!! 8!h!~t~ ChiiH;!S_epro\~'iding the m:onQnlk hetween jhe lwCI cultures.





Find!'./, one must ps,k how much mora :>ignifico'llt ora the "push" lbon jhO} "pull" foctors singled -Gut by Judo. $tudia~ In the- eorli 1980s h(lve oln;l-ady noted th~ de.dine ofrhe rebel movement by ~he 1970~,

In a 1982 paper, ladd ~1981;0;23128) atl6but@d the-dis.lntoflfJm1ion (lof some of dl~ movement orgemu;wtion!i: 10 ·..,'eak-l:eadef1i-hip and lack d funds, and l-he gmw!,n-9 recognition of th€: mambershp tiwi thelr sepmotis:t goals'ore

Ings) peaked in '~;;?9· 19~H I:md by then, there Were oniy five ~epmatlst 0rrJ 0 n:il·oth:m s Ien, Sep CIro li11 9 uarl [lns c:I t ~nO$t n u m bared 1,000' and unlike the Mora ro!lbel~ In Mindanao they received v,eft)' li11ie \'!xl~mol support,

Vlolant Qc.ti'y'~ti~~ ((]r50rMl kidnapping,

-QxecutiOl1S ond


Noti'lg thcl ih€l IBodersJ~ip (If lhese rm;wer1lenh come rrom the 1mditJo.nql 8,ljte~ - n;'!,lini.~)usnatClbl€l~ fmm the arrnexa-d MCJlclY ~I'rJtes und
Patani,. Muslims from trodit,ionol elite fcmlilie$ - Wid ,that lh0Y mli'€id 1m-gel", on Irad1t1onal ties, f-t1.cVeyfound thQir -CllpprOr;lcn narrow, \:liven lhul I.~ei.!,lctual traditional ou+horily had b:yl-hen 'Cl11'eady dimlni:sne.d_ MOlit J\/iuslirn notobles, especially tho~e lIP'c'Jlorly edu-c:aied, also did rloi see jJ~dep8n~



dence cs rJ reOll ,option €Konomically ohd size-wise, and di~dCiinedih€ olt!'lmative posed b.y traditi<>t) all religious: leaders and Insurgent bends. ~nrereslingly, McVey had by then a.J:goed the ambivolenceregdrdilf'lg separ"Crlt<:'mof rei i 9 I GUS 10ade,rs, es peel Ol~~V m (111 rt~sfed in theh' ncee pto n Oi\1 oflh e

!;tnte schoolsys.tem. The· FtlFJdame.l1trJICihange i~)("modak


f.H'lEH:l fl

lifa and displacethe centmllty ot the rnl~Agiousleader in .~odefy had effectively weclk· melior pom'nli(]~ source Df support for'separdlism, ReMgio'us leaden;

have not" as such, pf,oyed any mOlar. role in Ihe instlrre.dion. The modern Mu~rirTl elite, em the other hand, has been ul10ble te bridge its gap with th-€!

I$iomk peQsont masses to ~LJm ~be.llion irlm cf full-smie revolt. Andlyz,ing the wMknesses of the rnevernent ~ead9mh~p, McVey had jlws rightly pr.edided thol'lhe .vlt.llel!{,:E:"! CJf best allow fartha [ncracse in M,",slir~ pt1rtidwill pati 011 In the sY.:\lrem bu t nol in d epe,n d~1"'I fil'om the Thai ~tahl' ,989: 4 1 ,48ce

50,5:i} ,




White Ihe four mtides obove looked at drfferen~ cont!'!~.ts.o] ethnlJit difhi:r~"r11iahi)!l 'On,d Inobili~[]tionf th,@·lad lwa Ui1k:lw: in this .colledion e~ahlined ways and rnecns ~hf.l1have .eflham:;ed int@r-ethl1ic relrltic,~:s_.

Social institutions

and Ethnio Cohesion



Tih e -studies Usm9n PaIly un derrook.i n severt]1 kern p Ll rigs in Medon Cily ir, the lndeneslon islr.md of Sumotro explored hO'Nfue spotial orronqemerit oj vorious iI1stitu~;ons facilitate soclcl intef,(lrnof1l In and between d.Jff.'.i"en jiypGIS of settl emen ls ~ ethn i~ll~ Iy ~agregot,ed om'! a 99 rag aled, ~I its t· d and non-elite. The resHlffi reveal that people' in' elhnlcally st\!gregClted !se-Hlemerits tendp.q 'to maintain inf,era~lim' akmg primordial' ties as reflected fit frie.ndshl.p~ Ilmgal.y hased on kilfl~hip, ,r:md ~thnic: and religimJ's offlnHiE;!s; socicl cCiIl~ rnC!d~ rnosrlvto kin [l1!"Id co.Qihni'cj cmd krro ...... ledge' of th,,€: n€flghborhood reva,lving larg!;!ly "on "th€S~ more b~sic identities. On th'e other hand; residenJs of p~ural.sBttletnent ... 1~lrn:d,(:!dfo ~!;t('.lblish more "modern" "lypes of social,intOfmdioll ,lJw,d knowledge. They ~nioythe friend$hfp nf people oulslde the more irnmedicrkltfes., for lnskmce, In broader OCGUpCit'ional and politico I.nel>... rks. o In em other set of d (Ita IDqO Iori n9 Ih e rol e o] sodol tnstilu Ii on sfad 11tating inter·(;)thnic qnd inter-socJ(JI strat~ mmriages, Pelly found 'Ihot instj· 'tu'tiOM Iike th~ th eqh',e, q rt center on d sports yard provided neutral 'grou n.as rot i nt~r- Btlln le s6ci a Iizo lion, will I~ most ofhe r in !!iii I'Ll fion s inclu din 9 Ih~

church/mosque []nd srn,ooi- especiCJlly if thesIS me laoote'a on thE=! borderline of elJte .::mdil1on-Elliit6 settlemenb; rather IfHJI'n in ,the mtddl.e of one



Pelly concluded

that ~odal

insliluNbns libS!$.LhQO!.:t··Cir~C1ndrecre-

Iocof 0 n a II~o.w.s oth gro ij ps to ossu me!T1l)h.!"~ res po nSibi I.it'!'tor the u pke.e;p b of ~hes:e .,r1stitU'ti nsa n d sites. These con c LI".I.skmsoHer vrbon plon ners a rid a cbmnwnitv groups: with-a fr,mmework tcrrnore coCisdol:.l~ly.des'lgn the spo1'ial ormn.g'em~ms ir; their communities. Of covr-~~i'fDr most pans, the ·bufgE:onir;g urbon cei'rl~rt·df S6wtl1~g5t As~o helV€: girown with mO,€ ~ponl{j:nEi. ity beYcn rf fh:eG"Qntr.ci of gov.ernrnenl I'll a n ners QrJd oven 10 th e .poin:t of ai1ordry. Non ~thele:ss),on th ('l borderli rr-~s, f tlhes~s~Wlilm~nts can 'still .bE! q foun~I Ih~inter$fh::e~thol Reily tQ~nd pro--mi$'fng in bddgnrrg ~'19s:s!dhf'!kally
diffste ntiated com m ~JnitLe~1

ation fcclllties end hO[jse.~ of worsbip ~ocatedorl the bNd~rllne Q_f ~e.gl'€. goted, -s,effilement5 could fundio;}t"'I as an integrotivt:) factor, MOl(~"Qv@'~ such ..

Tl~eTradJtjons Influenolng Soda) I"n.t-egratfon· Between Th-ai-l3uddhists and Tha~~~MusJlms Southern Tf7ailand in
In ~his conde nseJ .... ~miiel1 in Eng Iish don etx'{ Pr~chi!r: Ma hah i ng

,the stud,y by C hovee"NCi n Vi:;mna plI'Oser.f, Pef"(l'f'(ll R.ah irnm u liel and Manop J i1fi;!~sa v(llri QUS- rih.p:ds. d nd ,celeQmtio n~ the Tl'lo i·B wddh"fsts ond Tho i" M u di tilt; i A Scutj,e rh Th{J i!~nd w~Je de .. cri bed end e¥oh.H:liliEHJ as to th e: $



~~'te.nt~h-e.yploy th~. fv,rrcfion of ~rh(Jili::;ing so~icd inte.gF'9tiQI1 be;tW!;!I~W! th,e tw-o g-roIJ ps. Note thot the" JQ bel "T hrii,.MI".I.sli m~t Is used hef~ to fefer t9 Islamiz~d ethnic Moloys. in Tha~ terrHor'jl, In ';::Qntrmt, Suria'~ pqpq:iF!J~ys·th.e term "Mokl'l'''M!Jsl1ms ~ fot the- some gfQI.) P! 0 rod Tho i- MtJ~1 i m-<i to r:efer tiO Isklmtz.ed TholietJhni.es. Respectful of H1e'f individual vl'ewpointson the.rnat. teri~he authors' respective \j-se"oLlahels..ore retaiMd.


r'e 11giou59 ro,""P-$ ·dq toke port in $l:;Ime forms Df e:de~d aid orldsupporl to €(]cn-6ther::""

re1i9~o!Js .riles ate eKd!..jsiv·~ both groups, ~both socio,to corrrtT;lOn fal k 'raditkms' ··ond

To lIlustrQf~rthe' Th~~ morr'iO\:le p~otedtFfe .starts. wilh i'he rriot:eChO!'0r mQV~.s on tq ih e rna rriGg~ proPQsCI!lond eng 09 etriBnt c(eremon ~r the house c:O'nstrudkm, tl1~.wedding ·dey cer.em()ni.e5, oF~dfinQII'I'thl3 merrio ge reg!strafion" inth e~e (:€Jerno~ie$, Mudi rns were fo.u nd 10 hav~ her p€4 outi n tile en gagement ceremOrl'fr the, Khamflork proc sssl 0 n w he.re the .9 mom pays homage 'to the bride's family on the L;h~ before tne \'i~~djng, the house (:on$1n.lctiQnond :the w€:ddlng day itseH. HeJp--exttended .ccrne ~n thEi form of [cbor, in gOOd5 CDntr~bufed lathe 'festiy~tYl ~nd in gfft.givrlig.



[ollo ...... lw ihe iormol ed





klmll,~, ef1gog~mliinl


emonYI end lhEl DduO! wedding tenilmony Unl.ktl In Thol custom, middleeless Mu~lims mf'ely cOlir;li'uc.l 0 ~$poroIG bouse for the newlyweds.. Thai pClliiLip[J1'ion lo~:es ploce In 'Ihl! wedding (:eremony itself. In the M~~5jim Slmol e I,~mon ily will u51mJly prepare a big' II, Ilglou~ I1roc:edur and oncuel or circ:urflCt5l0fl rile, (]

we-o.llhy who


This socicl especl of Ih~ rUt,! follows custcm-

urllv offer fli'tlsenls; Some T nnd during the och,lui iItOST.
thell Muslim tKlpOllon bests

Int.ludes ""i hal-Buddhists uests, ol-Budd llsls else help oulm th


df5(;UU bolt, bu!\mt!!~ ,nd fOrT1i1y moilers with I--Iowf!'~ej, In rhe mllglol,l~ me ,lstlll, Thcl-Buddhl51 per-

I:; hrnHed 10 'hal of po~~lVe observera


durit'l9 0 f-iClu~e'YiOrmln.g celebrortcn




boil! social groups" tlu~ '" hlle the faIH~ILQU~ !lBP,,'lC-B IS, exclusive 10 each 9f(~LJP' lha m!frry.ml:lking ~hrrl follcw.rs Ihe ~.el"'o!t(a apel1ed to fde'ld~ [ron, j:s

the other rellqlnn,

01her Thel BuddhJ!;; and 'Aus-t1m fmdllu;m:; Ore' described 10 come up wllh the ccrcluston that the mol"E s:a<:lal {]Cfiv[tie.'S If,lvolved in l'he IrrJditlcn and the more oflenille tmdrnon IS observed, the more the ImdltiQf'I foe llncted gOC I cd mjeg ration since Ihe OOXClSIOf] al!O\OJedfor more 0 pportunities for inte<roctiQI; ecresssocso-rehqious groups. S[Jd~ appropriate par. ti cl potion in the l rt:Idi~l rna! cerernen Ies (pc'rli<:uloriv 1he social OSpeCI) based c 0[1 cdequote k.no...... ledge and underslan.dif'l9 of 'he other's, customs if'! tum
focrlitole-d seeiel li'I"'egrcrion. he detlt'lle" SDDol irueg'tt:dion made possible by the d,ffeinent "rmfIliom varies_ The. wedding ceremony, clrcumcisian rites, the t::illebro ron o' Prophel MohC!mmed'~ birthday, and the Bud" dhisl ordinntion rites oppeored Q provide fh., highesf degree of soCiol Inlegrntron while the pest-Ient n robe presenl!a'ion, fne ozufQtmditi<;m end 1TCldlifiorl for the m~rit~m[]krng dedicated tD the deceosed facilit[]ted tile


Iowes I degreEl crI soc;al Inh!grohQn

pur loge1l'1er ~hesf! ecses to illumiand pOlirlc.s 11'1 lural Sou t'hetJs-I p ASil'J Ihe 10130109 end Bohosa Ind nesmn word mmO,r,umd rneans "'togelh r" and wes. chos n ooS,11 htle ~o caplure the lac: of co- xlsl nee tn
Under Scme-semo we hove

note \i'criovs dimen1il0/l·s. 0" IHe


phHOI fonm. acm$~ groups on

s cters 01 South as!



As reseerches done by SoulhcCi~1 ASf()n!l in 'rheir rescective courtfh~ C'olled~ orHcls! provide dl"'mcl pe~pedl"'e~ Th~'f am nlso


being rrmde o'will]ble ftJr thld frrsj lime to tile brooder Seuthecsl Asian tQrfl'lTIi"mity of scholurs ..... hose knowledge (Jt their rll~ighbors are limi1ed b~,
the tflf:KGess.ibilify g£ their i;:Qlleag\;l~~' works du.& 10 poor dissernlnotron outside of the home country and the fact that fQr most coses, the works

were written orlgloall)f in the home longlJog,e.

Like i'I' or not, English has

provided the medium lor putting togethertha.~e lowl!natiOl~(]1 studies for a regioMl!infemati"onal audieiH:e·. But to m~ltrply the recdership, the tasl
OU" Vf !eln (;I mesa contribute r Do from Vietnumese to Englishl he wou Id need to huve it (0 n cI theother Qrii c Ie$.)tro nslored hock 'to Vi et no rnese ~6r It to be reo'd c n d n pp recicted in Vie1 rro rn,

does not rea Iry end Iwro.




out by

Tien Sam, after having his· work trcnsloted

The truth is, it ..... af>net easy to put togeth~r wh:Jt mighf ...ery well be dis po rote ccsss wrli hom in voryl n~Jtim~ homes (the d ate of the oClwa rd o/l'he
proj{ld gronts ranges from 1986 to the present) and perspectives, with onl')! about two paragraphs of an cbstroct to. gUide thL'; selGc.tion process and no

knowl ed ge whatsoever

abo ut fha

a wi hbr But 1he' ccope rotl en ,ex~e nded b~'
meetings in


and the Friendships: e.sta:blisned In various

Paltani, Hanoi

and Antipolo


more than compensote

for the d"iHiculties end

The gef]Bml1r1teP'!t of the prqied, their own soclehes,

otter ell, WQSto help re-btnld

Ihis c.ammuni1'l6f SQutheost Agio:~sdediCClted to lJnd~:r$tarrding ~h·eii~ eighn








Rigg (1"997; 121).

~Srni1"h119'96':27"1), h::r in.slanr'F.'. idernifi€s the·f.ollowln'8 58V..;!!) attrlb~"'le~ QJf 1,1. notion, f)f which [.only) 'the fir~.1 live rn.dke I,,'Prm eth.ni·a: GHHurol dlflE1>l'enl!pti",n; l'erl'ibrral coni-j"gLJit~ wilh jnl~'rhal rl"lobiliiy; reiCllively lorge popLilatlon; e~.l~rno! politico.i relaHorl:S; c~)nSlder.Cible 'grn~p ~Elnllment enid lo~altYi dir~d merTlb~r· ship with cillzern;;l[p rig;ht~; o'l1d vertlccl BCOIl~rl1io;;:inf~gmtion [JI""Olilid' (! comrrvcn sYli!ler:1 (,t lob!;)r, 'Trlbe-~ po~s.e~~ ()f\IV tha%'l;I' ~wcJ Qn66ufe.s, J Mundo: dli<CI [n Du~,d end KadElrg.nhian (p ..3). Munck defined nal'ion os o wnique c:onB!?ti\l"~ 5ubie'ctivi1'~' strudurad hI' language .on<l CI common ecO ,"c·m i c h i~lnril sp I!l-Cifi i:. leQ r.J~ 0 rti tvl OF p'eopl e. ~ bid) I

~ For

eX'CI'f"rIpl.;!, 'lhe notion QI c CordilllOra

"'!\o1'kiF!» rn




of lJolitical mc.br~j,latlon gaMroted CJtn6ng sev~n.ll 8'lllf1.oolfnggui5Hc gWLJpS in ;!-'e r~gion ·tQ .,pro=~t 1'(lrg8.-s:~I,. irrfmslwdun' prcie~ts


d the f...\am::rS'rtiartlol

~,,",~;njivi~iqn.s0'1. "tbe h'dmon biolagi~aI.. . o K!lInlj,:)2dethrii.c: gto!J!=ls Qr~ Ih0:>0 wh.F!re social dO!;.5 'iJnd sthnlc orlgir~s ~Qirodde {JUhr;~ugh 'f] .~,}bordinQte gro,,",'P may prodvce em €t1;1",hol d~"i<il:S {"j~crip1i~~ t :'llrotifico!;"H1. f.\lsn! i! is a ::;itU(ltion where ihl1lre IS IdE:k of I"mdebhlp QU~Qnqrnr Gil the subordfrKlte grm,p. Umanbed .,thnl·c: grOI)p:; (Jrl!l s.~lem~ whOfi2 grr.l.ip_5Glr'l!" CJ"{)£:5,d·oss: pUIFollol e,hnt<: grtlup~ cc>-exlsl', .e<]ch group int.~m.Dlly sln:Mt<2d, ond none dedsi;""8 In .e:;JQbl,shing :,iLij)l)r or subor'.;jlllo.liPfl alth6,~.gh·Sor·n.~ mav hove Iarqe-r e.llles , hun others, {He r C·WitL, 1991 A ~,. 0) 5 J Cil8d In Y~tnDm 1991-10. ~"Elr',-,wnt;IDim~'I'h;:s hos b·",,.n iha I'I)Qosj.d.Dcurli;enfGd P-thnic t~,nflil;;.1. '.> Distin-gui:~heJfrcm Malay·Mv5lrmsin l'hal ·their lirrgualral1(;a is Thci, Musl iClf t·h.. Thqi- ,i.,.iLi:;litm are in I'h~ province 3a11Ji""\ wh.ich 'NgS not P.Oi"! 01 tho Did MJjk]y·M~I,~ljm Patuni klngd",m, HCiwGV€>~: $(J1Uri has the I.orgest.proportion ~lf M_usli!lll[ OrflQng Ihe Mudil"l1 provinces, III IVk\fey (1989;29]" O~ "lo1edt.ha~ lDr Muldy-Muslims, i1 wna m",j problerT'lol:id to s"'''' ·lhemse.l~e.s C!S ~1)bier.:ls cd 1h@King who,,, traditionally, &%d fl~ prq. tedor ..ot rnmorihes ~mder h~3 slJ'Zeroifiiv L~1 to. h.e d dji;!en ,:1 thE! T \oi '(',otiQn was is de('lrly

l-ow regime. ~ Christi!!)'~ definition of HlG'e ps d'lhOl! major


noi os Qcv0pJQble.


B'9F"e'iY1?rl, Ger,old D- 1 t;l'.91, "RaGe, Coste and O!h~r InvicliollS Dlstir-dions ill 5ociol .S'lrl:llifi~i'llIQr( II; f'.lGrf!1ol'1 R, Yclnam {ed). Majority cmd' Minority. The O"VtlClmlcs; of Race Ilnd Eihh,idty In Am{Jonlcun life, Mossochu:;ej"l:;; Nh-n



Edilion] ..

Br~"""fi, DO'lid. 1989. "'The Stole of Fthnidtv -and the Ethnjdfy of th", StotG: EU",ni~ PoliHcs in' Soul'he:JsI ,\s.ic," flhni-: f.!nd Rr.n~h:d SI.ldi<J~;· , 1994, Th!;! :,;I-Clrte!J no ethn i c p'O 1111 in South ear.i ki·a, C6 Londorr ---,..--and N Eiw York:, Ro lItl edge.

Chalkll)" GeF(Jt'd (eEl), 19'(19, MinodJy P'!}l)pl'es in the Ago 01 N,alion·St,afes, La nd'L11"1: PI iii o. PreJ;s. thti~li~, (;1 h'~ J 1 ~9.~). 16" Mo c:lil rrt H r~t"ry of So.'l)l heost AsAo, D eco.l 0 rllzot i r.m, N'{]tiof1ali~m a.Fld !l.epamti·~rrL Lc}ndon and Nl?!;\;'Yell+': TQunu Acad:~rrli~ St\Jdles, I. B. ou ris Plkl dl€;'!rs CJnd Sin gciPQroJ Imlihltr:::: of So ulh",aS"1 Asion SluJi es, Cohen, R,::.bi". '1996. ~DiasPQrD~ Qrl'd :lhlio nl1tit:>rj'$tCite~ from vidifTi:> Ie) ch,.. iI"~ 1
72,.3 (1996) 507.52.0. CQI~n, CloGS 1994. CommOfl Roaj's aruj Present EqfJdifo/; Efhnj<; Myths. Mlorrg Hi@hhm:l Popu.iclti<;.>""s of MtW1fard Soul('elaBj.k;~; Nardk: rmiihite d 5L)~llh. eost ,\_~,("ln S~l)dI11l5 (NIPS) R~purl I\l~.l 7.. ' DO'iiJ, Kumar end .sonrclSl'lCi1 K(.1dirgulTlw: 1,')"8.9. Fihnidty; Id~r)tity, t'-mflict p ri S!~. "'16(19 Kg ng: .Arena PrE'~.~. Eng, I,("!Ii\h, 1995, M~(llll:ng~ ;:;f MuMi-ethriidly, A Cose Study 01 Ethnfdty'and Ethn rc Rei oti 0 tis in Si n9'DP em", KUq Irj Lvrn p'~rl'; Oxf mel U I~i'ie rsily PF~S;S. l';V(ln~! GrGm. 1992. "'lnMmal C:oloniD.n~mrn th~ Cii),r,tral Ilighlar'!ds of Vie'I'nwn,," Sojmrm 7 ~2 (Aug usf), '.274 -303. Hllchcock, Mlc.ahel. VN;'}, »lntEOr·Elhrric Relatlon~ and TOllrhm in SIITIO, 5u<nb(!''''''(l,~ SojolJrn, 10:2 (Oe1;:rber), 23).58. 1-i or"iiljo n", .l con, 1980. "['llli ern:;;.{lnd Phi ,eI es I'" Migral~G11 and R8~el tl ernE'1"I1 In IndQ nesl 0," MIgrrrllon <::f'd RS5,eiHem eril: Rvt"<:li"rJroflrl pOik:JOtS, V0). 1 .. Mtlni I1:1: UN Social W~lfar~ Clnd Developmerif ,c:,.m"er for kl0.PeJ(:jfi~, Liii i stri)f1"!, Rita; Eva. Lr t1c;kbg.i N.8'uy!'!n 'Ikm. Ang) a nd Vue,ng XUt) I) Ti Fl iI. 'I 99"3.. Profit end Po..... M·y in Rural ViP-ffiolT!, Wirm~rs ·emd l.OSOl~ of a DisrnanHNed Revolution, fNort:L In.s'ill.!te of As,lon StudiGs, D~m<::,crol;ztlli()n in AsitJ Se· internet/bioi



nn (:

n ~5, No.3,)




McV@,/" Ruth T. 1964. »SepQmtlsmOf1cl the Perodoxes of 'I-h..~NoHcn-Sh.lle IPl Persp~Ktiviil~ in Urn JOQ.Jt'ak· and S. Vat'li (",ds), Arrned Sepamtism in SO!Jtheast Asi 3 ingp prare: Irrstitule of. 5o!.!~1il!lasl MM ::ill; d~~, ___ -:- __ • 1939",' "Idenlil'( >;ind Reb,lIjofl ... X19 Soul! ern Thai Mu:;lirns. \m' :SOLJth.-,,-,s( k~tlt.i Ri3vie-w, 14: 1·2 (Jo1"lLJo::;w'I'.OacembCfj,3$, N 09",1, J 0 a.l"'lo. 1991, ~The PoIilir.al Co nstrue+lon of Elhl"tl cltv" in 'N crrno t1 R. Y~i'nam . (eo), Mai c>rity ond Mi norily, The D ynami·cs Ra'cd ~nd EIlmrci ry in Arne ri-



N(1im, tY"1Qchtor 1976, ~V[)lunlC1ryMigmtiQn in lneloneslc" 111 A:\tru:.,ny H, Rich. mond, and Duni';!l KlJbQ! (ed~,), 5o!;'fe Stl..llii{ts in Inhll[)ationul Sociology 4. Lo!;lfldQn r.md California: Sage.

con Ufr;),


Allyn Cl"r'!dEl;]CNl





Pryn ~, fl.obi r1 J, 1 r:;-79. "I nterna! first I!J~mm0nOnQ I Symposfl.ml

r.... gr()1ion in S o,LJth.eo~!·A.M r'r('.{:eecll.'I):p.d th" 1i 0,» o(1kjaf] Sltld-ie~, Vb). JJJ {.sOl)th<m~ A~ iQ~. H on 8 I

Ram 6 p, Terr y ;..,.. K(I~I L. H 1J1te.reJ; WId K·CI~hl eel] (2.j I J091 ~ ~~~,). 19U8. E11'1n "r. o j"er:5il V tmd ·1 Co·nkol (~f Nulll·ral ResQ U rcas iFI . So ~J1h AJ;i C1. A,r,'" he easl Arbbr: Uf'liV'o:;rsity r:rI. Michigan Cerrt~(for :)Quth und Sou1hAtl:;,1 PISiCiti Studios h81.l JonathQ~;, 1 997, SQulh8a~1 Asia, th,,; hurnon londsccpe oi rTiode!rni.~a· tiol"l ood tll~ elopmer,j. lO1~dol' ond New York: Roull<Kl'J'''. ...
Ri'.\'oJ<!b Tir1O~I;dmmQ. nne It.; Polky
~ (j1

Ka ng~ ,A.~;urJR<'l~®qrch ~~!'vke.

1995, "T






Ir)'~.I'-ot;<""In "

ImplicC"lt ons Ior SI)5j(Jin(~ble Der.'£?iopm,ent in lndonasio (A'io (NOlt",!,), 199


b/.;)JI()wm 'btl(]!t~rIy .13;1j

. [lolltrc(iI StQrie..~,'·· !;oia~~n, _Scl;oll'~, Jon Ami". 1996, NTh~

2. ~Pail u nl i 11 th ~ I. 9BO:i.~,4.C(lJerrlL~ 1itera1 L'r~ Girid 7:' I,Fr:;bII.)Cil'V)' 1-:'::8. geogrc,ph~ of d:.llediv8 id~llritlilf, in C!I gIDbCililir;~1 \<Iorl d, ~ R~e~y d Inl-emH:lI'ioM/ 'po,'Jtjc;:-l! tCOflOliry 3: 'l Vvl nter .1996:565· 607 51,-.ilhl 8.C '1996. Undersl.Mdifl9 Third WOFld Politics, ,Th(.'!or>les 01' PoWlcal hu-An',:md, C hCliwc:~. S u hrko,
and .D,eve!Qpmen'l. Hernpshlre D!1;d L",·nJol): Mm;Mill[]n PFe~~ Ltd ~Th~ ~Aus~rmsof SQ uthern Tha;1 end, ~ SQ I dhfi'!;i ~I A,itm R,e V!f;JW, 14: 1·7 (jmll.1tl ry- D12o;::(' rnb)rj I 1-·1 fl. ~~Ith(l.~asn(]; }\mng. 198.9, ffThr:Jr Socie-1y (lr:d lh~ Mu~ljl'l Mino",'y···' 5ioulhecrS') ki"n Rf-" .... ;ew-, 1..4:1-2 ~J~nuary.Dl?c(jmbel("l,91- 11 L I T~"tlul"['jo~SO""/OI, Ch[]ndartl;), 198Q, MigratioR ana' Rl2s~ltfe"'l1ent J~urof·U{J_,a!l ('olides, Vo.l. 3. IVitll~il (;I: IJH!iodal WeH(]r~ and [J,')\,el.Q rmm1 Cen.lp( tOF tl~i f'oc~fi . (:1c Themes, M.. L(;dd, I 989, "Tboi M~wli rn 5ep-o F{;I'iISIl"it n Sj~!J1"hr hc;:dqnd. S.Ol,.l th
As-tFi, 1:9Bt?



Ti Ig

A~ion Revi~.,.,.., 14: 1-2· by, IJ em []Id n rld EI i :>8. 1 9$9,






the Porn ni !!'egiorl:
"l,/'I •

An I r'1Gr'[~ i'lifGltien." ,<;OLdheqGt Asi<:m R"Wlo;fW,

MLJ~Ii I'Tl ojJnd Thoi- B~...'rldhi l Kel(ltiu I~~ hi s 14 J ·2 (Jar'lu

01)" Ci e~elT1be·r), 7 3-B 9. ,Ingic:m, Wi II-!orn, 1961, «M~d(J ; Pri ry Reg i c nul Mlotr.-,pnl I tan ci ~'~'rj[Ql! o. »: The Jouma/ of Geogmplw, 61:2 {february)/ 59·67, Ymmonr Norni[]n R, (-ed), 1991, MajorilY (]n.d Mil'lorily, The Dynamics o,f RdC~ and l:;lhnici1¥ In ,Arr·,ericol'l life, Ma~;<;achlJsslk Allyn ond Hoco!"; (51" Edi










his10ry i,:. strewn wifh .crilicor events of


discontent, Political .and economic disempQwermeni has catalyz.ed rnlnoritv resistance or 'plJshed th .'Iperiphary"fo contest the ocficns of the ,'icenter," State irl1'ervention, fJilrticulmly in the form qf development pcliciescnd prcqrerns, hove currrulofivelv disrupted


rnecns of


of i ridig.eriO'us. '0 rnrnun 1ti~s a no Int-i n ged 0n th e i r prerogati'ie to thei r Q nces! 1'0 I d.ornoin. The.resistonce ill the 1970s o'f the Corddll·era indigef'lQ\J.s PIl!OplBSof Northem phirifJpine~ to the Chico River 001'1) prol,ed ls a scene that hOIl"been rep-Ioyed in many other communlties in rrtors r:econi limes: omorlg the tribes iii Mt. Apo, site. of 0 $tQt~ Grao1h"errnoi plantl in SOLJih
COio bo 1'0' where large.scale three en the oncestrel dcmoin mining interests of the B'loon and



a foreign corporation and in other orsos

"",bare iodigenoll's
of stale polic.ies.


groups have been clienoted priYbte' business interest7,

Irom l'h~ir lana as a result

10 5.oulheOs1' Aslc, te rri j¢~iol loss and r~pre:S5;on of lo n d ~!e rig hts s nave become driving "forceto doirn~ cfor'spe.c.iol) land a[1d resource rig ht:s th ro ugil pas i tiv~ I~gis la1iQfI, Whether o [med ~at aveni ng of u d he r dis(I

possessfcn Of ot restcrinq previous I'errltorr, these steps have led to strcins in tnter-ethrrlc r:elation,; and ethnic group-state relencns. Under question is theextent to \..;hi,eh lands and resources con be held and used in cccordence. with the c;UstO!TI£l1)' prcctlces of indiQenous' .peopl'es end the svstern or cpprocch by which daimsto 1'errUmy Grid cspirofions for genuine ClU-

tonCLrny Can be reconciled ",,"it'll store laws.


s.t'udy examines tJie ccse of the Moro people as a rnincrity r®lotid,ns11ip with the rf1ajotily Filipino eth.l'II~c g-roups in Southlilrn Phijijppine~~ 0 region wnt'U,a'a s:igr1ifkol'l1 level of ethnic segrnenialiQJl between Mu.s!lm M~ms ond Christian ~Fillpino) settlers ~XiSt3, The questicm of lend ond (dncestrol) territorit::lJ ~clOirns is pr-es.ented ns 0 signifl0lJn1 factor Fuelling situations: of confli,ci involving tlre two grqups, These conl'e.s1'ing cloims Wyre (] censeqoence of the colonial and post-colonic] central



govemmei1f's policies and prcctices that erodl'.id the Moros' customary forms of lend tenure ·alf~dother lend righ1>s Such polkies have been per. ceirved os favoring tile interesb of the dominant ethr~~c {Christian) Pilip-ina




T~e loss of lo n d or
prese:rit-day /'-JlorG insl.irrettiort
tl n


d (] s doe ume nt.ed e lsewhe re in sources cit.ed hereafter in the po pe r) Leo d partidpa nts iI'i the Mora -strugg Ie L';I nd th ~ tr SLJ pjk) rl 9 rou ps re Iale.
11:'Ind rights. to heiroeman(:. regl0nol aul'onOfl\y), for special

is ~a root grieva nce u nderIY~f'!g th Ii! (Hasson, 19.8()~253; femcmdez, 1987; 11 ;

their claim for 1enit~lr"t or oncestrol 1~.9.ClI!palitiwl stoliJS ii,e", genuine

A bigger pari of this work is its ~:.:~)rnir1ohQrl of the land qUflf,tiQfI [rom the perspeclive orvanto.g<l point .Or lhB vQ.rlOUS More minority qroups: II leeks mere ~Iosel~' ink~ th~ nature. oHh~ land issue f,lnd the spe~iti~ chcrocterfstlcs 9f t..... tore ICllld u~eand fhe Moro claim for land rights_ Also provlded is () brief description o~ theeorlv Mom soclcl formation and mode of subsistence Of production without which a deeper uridersh:u"'Iding of the lend lssue and irs irnplTcaticms to the ethnic. coI~flkl' in Ihe 5oI:Jth would be~ diHicult: The stl,Jd~ olso sets the More land issue in itshlstorlco] conl€:x~ 'Nifh o s!Jtve'l' of r(lleV~nlslate polities fromlh~ ctlbnial period t~ the present
MO{Q nohO["lol rnin·oritre"5 belong tQ 'the so-celled ,Malay rnee QS do the rest of the Philippine ethrtlc groups (exce~ for the ,Negril(:Js}, hey speuk related bu diff-emntiot"d language--s, ond prnctlce bur voried customs. Mcw®Qv-er,many MorQ cc-i'nml,lniti:es ore in close gebgrophi( proximih' ~ol hose of the Ch rlsflon (wd C't her non- Mus Iirn' Ffl ipi no 9(0ups. H O\I~


.ever, the Mo;;'Q~ rernain derncrcoted from lhe 'Ytnojori1y" In thlii Philippine j")ati<)rl-state not onbt' by religion ond hiatorlccl tt~perience bu:t by thelr er'Y',er~ gent ideniily CIS a Mom 11;J:fionalily 9~ os qSang.sa MoroN (Nluro no ion} (Gowing, 1979 .x], This distinction is enhnnced by -an lrnbolonce in (lCOnom; c adv.a ncern ant, The fv1.oros 11(1'0'13. lorge Iy been mOl'~ t no Ib:.~d by the pace (I~nd form d develc,pment -<:orri~d ovl' bylhe colonlo] gQV~rI'lll10.·r.d's olld during the- Phlippine Republlc's post-ccjonlcl period, 1 his paper contends that the peripher-Ize-d economic condltions of the Mom indigenDlHl people. resulHn9 from ~heir wholesale Ot.J$t{!) I' frurn ihei_.- lands ..deflnc~ Ihe ecorrormc bosts dtheir. stotus os 0 mino·ri·tizecl people,

he paHem of colonirrl and post-wcr policies res\Jhing in condlfions ..... hich brQ.ught obcu: the Mora .i!lnd queslion - !he contil"luing nonrecognition of th~eir rights to the control end .uSB :of 'their cncestrol doInOll'l:'01 os

vpheld b~' their own beliefs elf1dprocflces





i's9 ive n srress In this pp per, Th e r.~oro IOI'1d iss u e r s th ~'s framed ns -,0 .:onfifr;l ottributed to opposing systems of land lJ~8 prccliced by the indigo enous Moro-9rouPS and the f'lon-More 1 igrant settlers who ave occupied or I)se:d territories fro.difio~qlly ownep or mntrolle-d by lhe Moros,


ihis. ess(l't' drows on two sels 0-[ sources. The first get ccnslsts of 0 ~ew prima,ry!clr~hiv{]1 mr,JItefials, ethnographies on f"l1{]ior Mom ethnk groups,



ond other confernpernry


'th'lllrn.slllts ;o.f 0 !?W\!flY which ,Illxamin!!!d the coneepfions lonel use and ownership.!

The 9ther COl'il5jSJS of dota obtained f'rQm ()f rur[)1 Moros on

This siudy then proceeds from Ihe folloWing premlses.. that the Mom people of Soyf.h1O:lrn. Phrllppines have indjg~nOlJs paHerns of lond own ersh ~ d n:rWfli frQm ell limo I cmd h iSiiori.col apeci fici ti es. Wh i le jhese p. hcve '€l::<:f:€insiveh' been eroded over time; in morry Morocomrnunities with the lnirusiorl oi col 0,', i(l,1policies on land, soma of ·these potlems have persi sted !F!. a stlll sig 11 ifica n t fl! urn h p-r of rvrClI Mo!'DS omon 9 II-n:l vor] 0LJS
Moro ethnic qroups. A presentation ofSUochspecificm!'!~ c!l'lriainlyirriplj~s~a ·recaHing of a pw:t pre,d~lljn9 Spain's colonlol anterprise in Moroland (when

Hami.zation was aln;l£ldy ,lmJeIWoy there'. However,- indigt:l!'lous londholdin'g pott€lrn$, in 1his ·p.ap'er, r~f~rs ds weH 'qs if rio!' pfi'ncipClI1'l to !emg persisting concepts end pmdic@s In Mor'c i6c1'ollife induding their occcrnrnodolion 01" adoptic;mlhrough centuries, 'Of"the trQdilionsof lslom, THE SOUTHERN PHJLlPPIN'E MOROS ThQMqros or Btlngsa Maro

to,~,e 13 islurnized efunoillilgub;lic.


grO~JP~whO' 'inhabit mainly the S()u~hwE:dern -mos] portion u,f the Philippll(! (ircnfpelago - the mmple~ lslcnds of Mindanao and Sulo in Sovthern Philippines. Based on the offtcial Philippins census In 1990, a COh~~H'o,InHvlZIs.'ltimote. of the number af'MU$liru FiHpinosps :3 mllllon, or 0' least nV(fr
pe [cent of fue Ph iii ppi ne populi offon. Mom 9 rou piSme [lisa t~f~tl"oed10 tiS iliidiget-lou$ peoples:l' who have- reJoinad mud) of their indigenous life:;tyI'es,

helief~ and

attitLJdes, O[]JTlong whidl or~ those reboltin9 to h:md tH1d noilJrdll resource oWr1ershrp r.md Use. These More oofluriundies Dill diffeT'E'!nt!qted to some edent in the degr0G'offhi3irw:culturotior) of [slal"rl whih eurrre 10 IhlO!scmlhern port of thE'! Phii'ip;pine orcnipeiogo In the 13"> century .... IC! 10l1og dfstcmce. tradIng ridi\"dtrGs' wlfh the Amb wcirl'df (Mo,lur, cited lin MClguindorlt'l(l

98-8.:22). OJ Ihe. 13 Mom o!ilthnfc9.r~Up5"rhE! Tousuq and were Ihe mast" politically dominant. Tih!) sph~re5 of infl,u, anca or their eC;1I1ys.LJH'anatet exten·d§~ QYf'I'rthe cornmenltles of the othe,r M.ofQ groups~ {Krefer; 1972; Laarhov~m,1989') end 'Ihe Lumads.~


At-present, the Tcwsug inhabH th@volconic is,kmds cornprislnq the. present .sulu province while th'@Mtlguk,donClo I~ve in lli€l Dften it~tmdtl'ted vo~le~'s or plains of the Cotobclo provinces alorlg the RiO'·Gr{)if'ld~ -of
MaglllindQ!'loo. Another mojor

Ihe Maranao,


I'he largest

More grou pin

tenTIS of popu loti on. Th 9"r' riV9 Inr.h~ pi oi n S (J rou nd lab'l Lttn CJ 0, The· srn u IIer g.roups occu py I'r'i-Or e or less disti Ii d toe rtilo~i as $C[],tt'ef@d jill' Mindanoo and th~ Sulu isl1ands, th,ough In some ilrlstan:cas ·their livfng 5f;J[lCeS {Jn~p~netra~d by fQmllie~ belong,ing to the. larger groups, Trtrdl-




lIOd"!{]lly, "'1;I~~lrq SUb51;,1~T'I(e poltems O~ tOlJMd among th Moms The MQ9UII~do;;Jmm,]r'" k';l~Koll~ 5 deni01"\' agnC1Jliur~~t~ The MQranClC prm;: 11n~ bo1h ..... ond rlq Qgr culhJfl'> while ClI~.e"" li~ c !he 8odir~() depend Or'! 1"1

1hf:l ~r!(1iOI ih~lr INI1I'hooo nH~ TOiJSlJg end Sal'T'l~ll<1IMgoqed in beth ~,M und ("Qa:;1"i;ln!jt1,,,d11~'eM1I~od • {1~ T,~h;r;g OMd Imdmg, arid dF'~tlglitul !tJC IUIEI, wilih' the MllrtlrJrJO in th tenco l-i'ghloM&,. Ihe Irtu IJn, th ' Yokan e] Bo~rlnn ami 1h~ 1-\110 'm" ~ 01 (,I ~ (I - ore-dorn rmnrl,,' • wi Jdrrl (~'t1irlnlrl) IJqll[_~dh,lIIS s IVOWI1l!;;!. 1 ( 7'1 ". ulH 65 tWIJ .herr 196t1., K.. ,f 'r, 197 (~),


ihere uplnnd ~:(lInrJln ~(1rm~r~, I'he JtuYltl Mar)un MOFD.!. wilo Iwe m srnull ~Icn.cf 'hJ~rers hke Songil (ond heme", (JI~o em:qtH..lOin [rshrnn Dr mO!H'l(! ~ r·:)duc·~q ItMCI'II''II;;!)o'ld Ih,tl lrnnon tr:1! n ierllslu-nnen, praclir_() "1od~r.ed ~~"jdrum amHrI(l ( ClSlno, ,9761, 1 ,e:.:tl ~Qt

(ulhv(JhOr'l IWuln 1 6;; Allhough III mtmy ..... lo~emollng 0'1'5

1 hi] Pllkl ..... Olll Ml'llhog uml y~ -un Or"l:' ~Idl lng<:1'1 d 111 swiddeu Or I, d Itl~ I In P J~ow'Qn, Otlnber 199,ll.


ter 'dl OLW'~, 111t,=S 111 som
I ('11~ldered ~~[1'tt-sl:!df-tl or


ure Lanoo l'ilqhk:rrrci:!I,

ccm olso


J ' .).,,: adop'ed


use of




plow fOI


The rnO-JOfi,,. u1 Cli .I, <)ro gfCiJp5 n1Orf!o",€!f, lr-aditiOriO Iy procnced subsrstence econormes In enrher umes, Mom househclds ~us\Jally lorge) ware thB direc1 producers 0 heir b~ consumphcn In 11M Coroboto
plcms wblch supported a once jorge. ndlgE:nau!; More population,


f,/IOt1I1.1ll1daf}cmgrew lowlrmd nee TOhnCCO, betel or oreCd marily [or lhE:IF owr use tPendleton, . 93:;;_73~ 1 although

ate" priPElrt; of Ih~~e prod uce were ex Cr.Oflg_s:d !or ..... emo Cl "'tmety ot tares' prod u r:Lo;, with thB o lurncd (TifI:Jrav MQ enobol (5 E"'" 197n;.. pO-<1ionfound their ~~ov to the suhen's center ku 1 e "cemr{]I;v.:d ..-ed~striburiort of goods and out across ike sens for lrod [laomOVei'\ 19841 The Nmlnority'" Moro groups. wllC' were flo1 O~ mfluenced by the seml·lE'tJ;ool production relation!' In the,
5ull~nlJ1e cul1i\llJled Slnps 0 laM 0l"1 on md, ...lduoi bests malnl~ for Ih1.1 ~amll{s 51J~tel~Once HDw'e:ver rome 01 Ihem slill worked 'Ih~ Farm of the , j;1 ~U urmer

~y!.i!o!rr; ol elltCnange lobor.

Unhl recerl' d'Xod~, rrQrluL:IJ.....,'~ prcvwlcd Hl some


subsistence lI''1d

the MOFO IVrnf I!lconomy, lhulo. among In!! Malhag. ~neruqd.::r (dibblel and rllbm [$c~'lh"f ore ~uthCJenllools ,(;Ir Ih~1J "iJll1qln Cosh ~irctjloting nmong h~m l(i rare 1M ':!IJll ond B sljan. I rl I"I'~ TCU5U fmmel'!. who mill m:~ (;ll1d 1001 crOp5 mainly or food produtHCH'I (I ~J ""y IHe u, tlie rnulhcmppln~l of frl,J1 ancl ... g4!l10bl ~ 01 <ale, bUI on~(J fll lemlly netld~ hev benn m~t e

1':o~ despite

'~e'l"1r.urslons of




c;(]fJilall~m In

N. wllh the
1011 (lI'Id ..

o1h~1 rnCl~OI Mora group".






r ('\,ltivIJ-

big J(lndo\'lOC~ ,.-;hQgrow cosh crop ' 5u("h CI!; ~OPrrl end (:lbOCI1 ill Sul«. Among the Nti)guI odal"lOo ~md rY'.ortll1UO, pm.-Ill !"5 Im,ioc{]lln-a ~Arnl"



feudot portems of produc:I'iof'i were' noted, ill addition 'to the' observation that the bvlk of Ih!'l (ar.-ner'S' meorrs ot f.Ulstenooct)' come diredly from th~ir own production (AFRIM, ] 989), Moo!' 6f the forms tilled by rurcl Moro~ Gr~ smell in ~i~.e· nd when hired lobor fs used, this is freq~jedlHy smcll-scole, a with most members wming. from the to!l1ily 01' clen, who own the tools
used in productlon {ibid.). HOYli!lver; these Iraditiorldl potterns of Mora sub~isJen·~e and thes,oci I'] I formofion th El'j hove sustoi.ned ·0 re chung irig espec'ioll~ Qmpng the mcjor Mom groups; as pre..S!lml' conditi.ons that mold.these
patl'erns continue to chonqe.

At (] boU't the In id- ~5rl\ ce ntu ry p ri Q r to th.e nrri veil of th e 3ptlnlsh conquistadores in ,the philippine'S,. the soclel 'formations ofthe Moro people we,redeveloping into. more stable entilies.compored to those of the peoples

pol iti col ergo nizatiOi1 inita the "su Ita no lell ,0 r "datus hip," The foct thot Mom:; could odQpt scme '(l!Fthe more od>,lanc;e'd ;f1sti1ut~o~S" of their more developed neighbors ·in the' r~gJon l1loreo~,erproves that 1he:ir econornies h~d reached levels capobl,e of $Up!PQfti"ng o~ emerging ruling class (Cor.slanlino, 1975;27) and 0 f'oqj.er1 mere ,jefin~,d politicol class atructure (s'J:;oft,

luzon ond the Visoyos. The. penetration of Islam in the South superlrnpos-ed Isl'arnie 'fonns 0[1 the: e:(,istijrig stroduFe, consolidating their socio-

~9tl2: 145). By the end of
Spanish dornlnntion in

1898, the Tousuq m'ld

Mag u i ndon ClO pri ncl poliN es "(lind, 10 G rnuch lesser degree / the srrrelle r eonfede r'01t~ s;lrudu re of th e M::m;ma 0 pcmgompong I Med n k:k/ 1965 j had e.volved 1(]long tne lloes olo ·so.cia1Ifori}1otion grounded on a mocl~ of produ di'QfI based onl he lobor of 51eves (Wa rren i 1987: 52; Laumev.e n,

19-89 ;179) with som®whai communal elerrrents sut'\l~Vtl'lg hGrnthe 'cmtecedent formation (Ahmad, 1982:8; Me-rtado, 1982:.8). ('Lin~age cmd kinship interraceod w~th elcborote or"90nizatian for'producti(iFi ond def~nf,'e'" (Son Jucn, 19'85~.The ruling class extrccted surplus (su;ch ns o PQrtiofi of ~rops·or shore of harves1) tl~ trihIJ~(il, E;o;'trqdian wm ¥urth~r ~orlctioned b~,
persono] otttibutes {in Ihiii case for exampre of the "'datus-in-ftn;::t [Gowing, 1979.471}, adal (cu"Stomary low), th'!;!:ufama ~rn~1; reomed In I~JC!m}sup' pa,rtin~ 1iho;: ro.ler's stolus as the nighest P91iticol qnd f'e11giolJ5 QuthorIty in the reclrn.cnd as the liying embodiment .of the Prophet Mohammed (Kiefer,

19'72). The' economic; bose' cilhe suHOMte was brccdened by the surplus pr(;\duc·~9 fro m I he i nvolve rnent of its u pper clesses in exle nsl VB 1ntemotiorlCl' ir'ode, The kttt,er in li.nn, inc reosed the dern and for more mnn power of slave lo:bor 'for procvrinq sea and forest products I(Wanefl,1987; Loa rhcven, 1989).



C grl!;:u'lture

Despile ,the irnportonce of extsmol lrcde in the Memo social for. rem oi ned the me inactivity for fue mojority of Mo ros In




Sulu's volcanic i~lands a-nd In Mindanools, hinterland volleys. The sultnnote ne·eded 0 stable SOY'fCe ,of food ior an expanding populotlon, Slaves pkwed a key role In ,agrrcul'hJf'e and, as ln the TaU'sug polity, "C9lllribuled fawi:m:!s providing thEl food supply wl~kh maintained the COf'l''lrllVnlty· and Iree:J 0 datu and hi~ retinue frc;"msubsistence pursuits, to devote their labor

t; trading

dnd Fal.din:s:i~ {Wurren, 1987; 63).
divisions. then '.... ere gew;lfQliy delir;eo~Gd into the "commcnars," ond "slaves," The he.redtlD1)' aristocraq were eH1 d su Ita n~ 0[""1 wh 0 m the powe r 'of th e su Il6Mte was con

Moro doss

the" d otu s"

Commoners! call~e·d :sa.kop 1'0·rn~on "vessels" 91' Nh11Im...ers" ill Mog uindo nap end Mo rg nno, wet~ the enfra rich i s~d mem bel'S <?~'Ihe cornmu~i1y, bu,t unlike the doi'us, could flat hold titles (Scott, 1985;(; 1"42) nor have claims to speclol privileges b~fvirtue. of deSLer'1~ (St~W(]'rtl197 7' K~Jt;:r, 1972), Solop who lose- their rank due 10 foilu~ In th€ir per'fonnonce as vassals may be invokmtarlly condemned to debt peonage {Jrdb~came who! tlie Maguindo:noo (.:oli ~)Jipon (debl bondsmen or indentured freer,i€:n}(Stev.toifl', 1977) 0 r oripen in Mnro n ao (Sa be.r:, 19·61 ; 66), Among the 11]i)SU g, dishnttio n was mad e beiween bond 0 r d eht sloves - kkmong.Jilih an - and ~hf;) f~gulGf sleves, caned banytrga in Ta.usug a-nd Maguhdan(.l.o, N the bottom of the cioss structure, ·the bany-ag!J who were captive Of chat tel slaves Were fi:J·rbldden io !;lWr'I property. and were owned by th·eir dorus

(Kiefer; 1972; ~tewo'rt, 1977).
Vi/hile the modii1 of prodvctipn il'1 Northern Philippines \I\'G5 transt~~e pc niords, th e pre-c<o~oniaI Isja m i;;:0d sQ~thern soc1~t.i;!'$ su r( vived !,Intil the end of ·Spanhh rule" Bu" the autonomous development of th€J latter wQS clt8 rupted, choked bv co 10I1Qa pms"Su re fro'm 'the E~rc pea n I powers for whorn IhL'l Mora trading zones becornatbe bone of t(~mte'p~1ion iln. tile 19fh ee nturv, Mal@tl.ol resources wetl:\ d Fa ined res Isti ng the bloc k-

fo.rmed by


odes and ~Morocornpclgna' eithe dose of Spr.mish rule ~MdilJl,} 974.10; LClQt'hov:err, 1989: 181 )

E~cept for a few orecs al,ong the northern arid northeastern coed wh~re forts were estoblislled to she~t€r Sponish priest rnlsslons and to rein in Maro rolds on Christian s:eUlement:sin the north; the Mindanao and Sulu

l'e'rritories rernoined outside ~he·centrol of theSponish go .... erhi.ng outhorities, Hence, Morol.and ..... free from any of the land tenme structures imas posBd by ,the. $PQlilsh crdministratfon on tt1e conquered and convert-ed 11'1gated to the Arne een colon fa I, govern rna nt th·e co ntrol

T~ Treaty of Pdris subsequently orro(j,f an I o ncis iI"! j'hf'l Philippine ·on;:hipelago (Agof'lclllo, 19'90,212). With their militorpup~riorifiy re~nfo reed by o policy 01 (li:troclldl', th e u F1fi is heu to sic:.)f :O'U bi wgelt. n (

hobitcnrl$ dF lUi:on end VIsa·vas,


I[lg MorQlond

would be accomplished


the American colonizers.




Des'pite coloni·mt·lol'I 'oFid loter ~VMt_S in MO(olor'1d soo-re the /I,~oros 1nd igen o.rs r,festyl [j!~ W(l\j Id pers ist 1'b prese r)f Ii rues r Metcado ,1 9~'2 , i 159), A fvnddmerltof aSpect d Mora existence .and set of indig~nbij~ lifev ..qy.~ is 0: sy~tern of ~o(:iQ-;:;:~iH\Ji'ollrndi1ion:s,tha' I'T1dka up ih~ rVroro peo-pie\ .to~"j!;:~·ptse,gClrdrng land ownership onditS" tenure, r



h( u'ldi,.id\ltlls, hlJllhe dQ~qh@f' vHlrnQW rlqirl of dlsposl 1 11 o 11cl rfl0~' in"Q.ke II i I'~ -:;:~~I'! c.f {;Ii5PIJJe~or- 6ig~ ificanl demoiO gn:ip.h~c. 'af e~~olog':if.a~ ~htJ~'Ig,e_·Th'<! k;md 1t_~;8'H may b-e encumbe r~'d b UI "01 a i;t;:fl 01100--thu1 i!!;.", i'r,b 1 ,16,1, he remd~ed fl'c>!"'1'I" th", cOlln'''ll_)r''ftt{~ us.1ll_" \~col1,198:2~ 140)


'" lh~l (:§I;rnm~lrllp~'5 kmd


Inhe.rlte;d qnd held

In V~!j·

From the :a!:}folVe bn~ ·d(j!r,ives, lirt'tly, ,he MGrosl -adherence

te +he

pradice. (jf collec.tive ·inh.eritance q5 a bas!( cf one'$.righ1 ove; IClnJ vs~ .or the land/_s produce, Allthe maior Mor\i. gt'ou~ hove he con(:f.)p~ ()j ic::)(J

o~plfs~#r (heirloom Or (J_tliGeslr(J:1 pr~perly) \1 '\18r\'i·ew~ with ~~Ie·r.:ted wrvey

res'pondents (l!d~e'1 i nfcrmo nts. 1994; So'her,1974 ~I 5-,' Mastwa ~ 1988 128' 1-9'.82: 38i ··Kieler!'197 pi Pendlet';n,I,,?3S:. J~-li"i) ~hfchlher] .al1t;·<NS
.l) .. ~)Jft1,Jtt.ory rights to 0V~n J.J.I1¢I_.iI~ivol'ed or 6:eell1f~ingly abar;doflf::d 19i)d' (5.l.v:h Q$ o forestj,thdl is.part of cncestrcl property or the ..t.erritori'l;!S· \ffllJ<::::t I h~. i..Jld ~vllt.l! ILlJ,~... TII~ ~'Ih~r elt;:"lII~.jl!!; 1,)1 'Ir~Jdl'!i~Jrlt:ll kwd V5!=1' en m rion~d f!.o·rlte!'am fqund a,s w~11 ~lm'9n~ (tIl the mnjor MorD 9r.o\..1I:l;;;-

i.:.I~\_drJ...ldor"yrighi', 'r"!cm-o!ie.r1nhleSJatus the datu, J;!nd collediv.e Use Qf fond,









did irlh:l!rI,>ivEl

research on CotabotQ


giv(8-Slh~S' eccount "_, V 11 er d

(St8vkJr1, 198'8. 115)~
1I~~i, I'rnd i1iOr'{JI "~y.;t(;!rl1 I he ~-i,a.gu ifl9a [1:00 ... il~ ei"nf~I'~r:1i!::!b~~'kQmFfl(i.dity, A,II tho! I,:Qul:J

~iq IlQ! b(~k. nt land
D Ite rltjted

rr.'dis1:rJhul!!kl W~ r~ t~le. rig hMilo 10nd IJSe NQ 1(1.Kl il'se-II.. E~er"\ th~! ·(to·tV$. J id fl()t own the Iofrd b uj ~.Imp:lv Iwcl '111(1 pq-vdegf!-d 0 lloco ~i ti"9h~$ 10 1rlrld ng
»'(lW't1iadF 1JI(l


H~QIJr.,:Yas whichthcv


co 1TIfl{) nents









(;III the

Jo 10,

of i nd igeooue

km d tell u re

CJ mong t he ru (~ I To u S U g of



Among ihr:=Tnusoq, tbe ~ul"cFl$
'Ilie '1IIulr.rr ulflmme


dill ius were "tn;l[:litiQmJ~lv considered

~OW/lors"or DdmillOSfrarOI'!; Ir01mll:!ilohol.:) of nil conununul kmds. and 1hElir hvi'~. along wi~-h'he lO-l,'lcr headme., nevins I1llf~rrJhclk (pos.se~lonl oi ~ilJc;1!p sed by tkP;!lf ~ifl5men Hence, CllhQugh Ihe indlu viducl may hov. ngh1s Ihrough mhenlcnce and k[t1~hlp '0 Ihfi! ulliJ~ed sllel he would nm m(]lly esk pfl!m1I~!Ofl from tilt! I.!ln~mon. gerren:lny of Ihtl clan elJ.[lI,!;_ Per-r1'l,s.Slon 10 use IJn~e:cl site-s 1'10 clOlmed by t.lthfj~ wilhln 1he gOilerol !eJFfI'Ory of 0 community IoVol,;dld granted by 'lhl'J heedmen he of th(J1
\..ommulrli1y LOI';d. ~UbllX'l the (Ustc:lm ~hal indlvlduol~ can o(1lv hold u~ufrLJcIO'1' righl~,o'e rorely clienated by voluntary !Jgrce l11rmt, ~~pl!it.It'lII~ tr .non" kil"1smen ~Kicr~r, 1916,) 51rni Iwly, i FI tho MlJ9~llfldtllllJo lend ienure s 'r."~",, Ihe p~.$(Jkujancesfrd) lend 113lluff'l

kind blJr.ed on


de-darn~ "flicked ~wT;er"Sihlp of ~and Lj!ld~J comn'lm-al interests 'Jf !h~Jcltm of fl'lmHy" ~Ma~'urCl, 1088 128 1982 J8} Thi~ OOll'1g Ihl1 t:'O~~, loncl
con~Kle-rd ):lusaka hes motal
$onc1torll Clg III 11 S'I I'~ ClII~f1C1IiOfI,


Pmollf!1 concepts or~ found In .i.JIaronoo adol [c:w:;;tomary) low on Saber, wl1hrrQ on the lTod~honol $)'slem of IClf1dhoiding rights. sCiid

~19'74: 15).
1;1 (MoronGOI Mu~lim m(lY bii! porl·O'lUner Qf (J P(lFcol 01 land whICh ..... il:tlo!H12':dt9 his kin grQup or fomilv III tne us pongompQl1:g t!,l1oopDLlil , ~mlllt,f'tQed (IO'Nl1s!'1ip). end ogI;Jmc I ~\i111r:lge<om1T1~nJtrl. GeMloll'll'. i1E owns 00 Ind.~~du{ll p.orl::P.i o 01 'Md, for the prOpE!fli' colf.edl",eI belongs to hi5-klrn,lv or

kil1snlp whidl mDjI mdl3de many of his



sirnilo: 10 Ibe To,usug. 5JJkun which is partible lend ocpegsuh .. (right ,to lJ$.ufr!Jct)rf'S the MorOflOO gapo or mJcn_ggapo - subdiVIded Icnd ..,hented by C' kin group-, acquired originc IIV throlJgll ,prior rig111of occupotimi {:If us,e (5.0btl r;. 19 i;Abdulla 11,1989) , GOP[J ls dlsli n gu Ished from ,bJ kola. Ihe CQtnm u fUJI of pu bhe londs. belonging to the whole ogomIl or p£lf1gompongi and owned ln common by lhe inhobi1oflis, The 1~1:Ier Includes rQre:it lands, l·."iOmp~, (lnd the. l.lrlsaHl(11o cogoncl crecs not o1'hef'Wjre dmmed by 0 S'p1e-<;lfic kinship-g~oup or .ndt~ Vidual members" ISober Cilnd Tomono, 190 I· t 1·11. The harm's etymolo.gy moy be 1'0 ,@d ~o K h ohuloM or HOQq vloh w hich me", n S ~prQ!Jelrly of AI k::M' or "righl of AII!)h" Isvcn Cjs,lhereJore •• he ¥OS'Ikmds, fillers. M1QS] (Abdullah, 1989', Scbm, 1961 (9) Moronoo ada' didO'tM Ihal londs which ore mhurlted (grmol CI IDles, 1ih!:rnl!~, ·Iert h~ 1,'I,ld~rt~) re not ro be cllonoted. u The redS(l1l [or illl!; I:';. ihot l,ends orc colledj ... o'Wrll!ld by Ihe familv Of elv f,llo1f.!Jd fCln~ilie!l, 'the paSSi'!Uicn - liml ir., u~t!fru~t - o-r whi.:h rnQ~ revolve CH"OIJndporllculr:u m mbar.. upon prior arrCrlQ-omunt (Dumcrpo" 196/1 t1 Somewho




One may abo discern som€ Influence uf Islomic proctlces on Moro lond tenure. IVloroslhe'fi claim that e~erything in no'ltHr3,induding land, belonqs to AI Ioh and wer~ crea.ted 'for the survival of men, ThuS'/ even ~o the !vtolbog M!.f::ilims of Southem Palmvan, {Ionly fhe produce of the lemd

can he truly possessed" (Iflt€:f',iew wilh Molbog informants in Bclobcc, October 19.94}, "Lond is umQrFoh. trus IOCJn~d 10 mot) f,?, his use." In qnothe r stud V 0. n Mo rana 0 Moros, me iQrity of th e responde nts be Iieye 'Ihot OWhing (1.~,. IJsing orholdin,gl 6f lend by the: 'Iraoitionud WtJY5 d occupolion and (:-uitlvation "is (In rsl(lmi~ proc.ti.~~.," ,Morr,:Dver, a Muslim's owner"Isl.amic.~ clrld ls I®.giliml:z.ed-when the cultivotor PDY£: 1+',El (Mus.lim ".;:;hori'ly 10)(."') frorn CI portion of the I~H)d's produce (Dutllo(p(J, 1984; 51) _ This I'DitterpFOIclice ~ QS survived to lhi!> dO'r among rno ny M Of 0 fa rrnars wh9 eustorno ri Iy "Get <1 sid e {:IS much Up 2.5 to 10 p£l'(efi~ of their prcd~ce for zokot, The influence ·of Muslhn prrncjp~es In !he More Indigenous land sy.stem is..aho shown in [] greater number- ot fOffil.(lI!S who are aware of fhe coexlstence of Claar or customary laws (jr:od

ship 'Of lend becomes


I's!amic precepts as g;ovemi!'ig~he t!se.ot oncestrol ortroditiorro] lends 'than those merely awarl;l of the use of sh.'lrrah k}wr~·{SOli'! Tobie 2, Appendix) ,il Isltlmic prectices ate also evident in the Morm,' beliefs .ond prccfices can-

cerning th~ mo:nqgemenl or cui tivoti (J n of f~l"rms M9 certoi n Iand' sltes, Among' the major MQro gr.oup.!>, pr.o'yer:!lto AllaH (mOl r~cit~d in a" lrnportont ogriculturQl odlvlHes In the farrns and other plonting sites, Y~t, in visits t9 lilfomlot'lts of th-e O:Iner MQra groups. snch es the Patow(]nil Kol,bug~Jn, and KQI{l!gan1 the blf;l.nding of onlmist OJ pre-lslornlc and lslcrnic oolids is vlsible if! their octlvltles, especially in the different phases of tarming to induce a successful harvest season.' Cont-emporary Motos sur ..... eyed co~fi'rmth.c afo(€men icned in digel)oij.s notions of land tenlJf~, For il,",stol"lc.e,majority of rvr(.lj Moros' interviewed ccnsidered fo rest areas cs co mm lJ rld IIy own ed 'or u-sed by the vill(jgein imditionCli"times_ Sam€! Mom gt'O~ps maintoin tho'l"lhe for~d$un:i the most importtJFlt slte or resource. A. still greater number (indicated bv 72,00 percent of lhe summery of inforrmm1's) identified fishinggr:pu!1Jds as com rrnmdl Q re es, Su ch g reu nd 5 CI re a ~.jtoI reso IJ rce to ihe seof(J ri ng To U:Su Sam!;]1 a nd Badia:!), Even bv ri a I sites and 10nd .0[1 wh leh wClSq u es ere bUilt ere considered cornmurrol by C! censidercble number. TQ mOl1i


othe.rs; crchcrds are' cemrnunclly o.wnedfor ~J~e.bythe dan, uf1li~eform p.iots or ,sw~dde[l fields and hGfI1e$ifes whith oreJro,:;HtionoUy owned 6~, an individu.al fOn'li:ly (:s~~ Appendix, Tobie 3), Tob.le-3 (which presents·data on
fh~ slJlrvey r nforrT1ants from 0 II of 13 Mo Fa 9 rou ps) also reveo Is 1'hatl he respondents have a camp reherrslve a\o'!ljJreness tl1ei'r system -of Ic:md and ·of Mturol resource use (;IS shown in Iheir indigenous or traditional taxonomy of land oreos and resource sites.




Land QcquisitlQrI through inheri~9n(e, prior cullivo.iiol'l or occupc1'!oFt, and co-ownership bv yirtt).;;; of de~f.:faj1tcr kinshir';) were ~ike'Arise corroborated by th!3 5U rvey responde nts, !"i,cgt·of 1h e respondents were. owo re of inMritom:e C1S a bOsi~ of G1cqlJiring ownership or 1)se .Qf lend, Other [nodes of Cicquj:>i~ion mentioned bv a still ~'griifLc(mt number of respondents \~'e(e land given as bride gift, acqurred b~' righ'l of descen fwm 1hl'l

corrlli'1Li!1It':/s onceslors or kinship wi~h the doli's elders or dtl1'u, prlor U!>~. ond ccntlnuous occupcncy O'f Innd, and kmd given CIS reward by the com" Flwnity heed (refer to .A,ppendix, Tob~E!5'f· In the case of lands gll{en as
re)A'ord or gift frr;;-rnhe C9rrir'lunil~' head Or ocqulred with pe~rniss·~on. from heed-non Of prior o'.vner, possession of the lor,d does not constitute ne r$hi p OS,{l 9 rO,n1of usutrucl, ·On e Of th 8 b'lher of lhe::;€:Iorm s hO:l at time,:; become (1 source 'Of conflict 9lmong comnwnity members. T ese present p er'!:::E!ption~in dicQte t hail n bti(,>r15 ·of lndigen Ol.)s IC'l nd own ersl Ii j) have persisted in ihe MQro people's consclousness. One ftnds.to.!rlinuify trom this. occount written during the cclonicl period: .



1 he ,,_.l,()!"os are '!nd('.l-llIIia iflo thEM Spfl~('~ 0 r owner:shp, e:s.pe~l~lllynff lend,' For ~.>;.ot:In~f),le, I some of~ . Moro~ r~n th1:! . !he west end s?U'th"vest ~·ld~s '2If Lake.. I nnuo belleve ('Ihfltj KCJ.gtQ.g·o n- Lcd9 d ~shkl:s I i rfC' lJId in 9. ~h~ (J IC0(J: we~ 1 of I he p MO[l][lding ri';(~", ·hich sp.li!i!la ~ave r-p.v~nll~' egun to O<:Ct.JPY, w b I e be th~ if· ~iwl~ loncl. Thp-~,..... v!:l their h u ,¥;I.s, and orot~ ov!;lr tli l'he loss of IhE'! COVrif'f)' ot their 'oj-hers, Ihe placei wh.e.f"f.lth~lr grandparents WE,!I'1;! bud.ed", Blr~ the I~JiQr9" .f1(~\'0. 1'101 for a tong period 1(1 I'he post bee" livil'l.g in .slJ.ch distrid~. r-...fewer1he· less:, the very j,(~(~1haI" scme oJ-l·heir people ~(lrr)~lirml' In .hf1: t pqsl ho-e II... d ~··l!lf;1 Mo rei "il ins .of ~Ome ,olll I:r eo 1l'1r1l1J I"Il't1' ~ of -g iv~!s. th em irO[11 Ihslr p()~nl c-f vie,·! I~e rig ht 1'0 ownorship". ~H~Hifl,gtof'i,t\nnual Feport oj lilf" Governor t)f l.onoo, 1Y~3¢-

most of the survey inFormants, confli.:J or misunderstanding if-; the pas! whfmrhere wer.e yet no settlers end other out~lders who, competed lond_ ,4$ one Kolagorl i["I formanl exploinedi ,.... en h

rarely en-sued


clai"rnan1s, to a kQompobn (uncestfQI lond] belong to the &Om6 kin gmuF, cornrnunity, or tribe, they Can [usl "tclk it ov~_r.'" Conflict frequently ensued

in kIter times wh~n


from the


Chrlstic;m pcpuloficn arrived

and gradlJdly took over lends. To cornpsccte maHer.s, 'the r-.jQlihern migrants, coming if) their 1ho·uscJnds, carried with them documents that saidt~wy had a clOirrr or right to the land .. This rm:lnne'r' of pro ..... owneriFlg ship on the basis of a piece of poper on I,and was olien to the MOf() (see Table 6, Appendi;(}. As Table 6 shows, for most Moi'O respondents, '"the presenceoi dt"\(';l's·oncestors' burl ol g rou n ro n ked cs the most 1rn po rio nt e.... idem;~' of one's claim to ance~lTol lond or domain (rnenlioned by 44




p~rcent and ranked fimt ari'long all Mom groups, with the exceptlon of the TOlJsug rasccndents who pointed to n10J;)S' end tltles ond to wham burtcl grmmds ra~ked .ollly os seco!)d), G~neolo.gjes or sa/siia was the next most menriQ:ned basis for proving kmJ clolms (mentiofled by 40" per'(ent). Other bases used in estobli.shu1g one's prior ~ghts to' cncestrcl lund (rn0n1iOr'!"!d by more th.on a hlrd of elll the i'nformants) were - CIJSfomarr occupcticn of thf.l ~and bv one's clan members .os far bock es OM con remember; I·he 'presence of permcnerrr structures such os di be'S conels ond other l'I'lO rkers I built by dcirncnt's r'eI>!:Jti¥€~ oncestors, and 6"~h€r·e'/idenc·~ of OCC.UpGlor tlan such os maps and titles (,the ~mt beLf'lQ th~ rnosi frequ,enHy rnenficned

b1' fhe TbuSllg respondents],
indigen'QVZ land tepure 'cornmon I bo undo ries or ire diti 0 [101 Iq ndrnorks to define the terdtNiol cloims 'cf their corr1ltlunlty and 1he: Use of trodltlonol modes of measurement. Theuse of t'1(ltUfQllondmar~t; to lnd]col'~ bounduries is 'noted ill SOI~0by's Ot;Covr1t.'of the. foundlnq of lhe Sui tonote of Sulu by Abu Bokr dwin.g the 15th centurv, Based on the tors,'!os l:gMeo,109 i es) I Scaleeby noted tho I Jo 10 isl a nd, 'NOS dlv id ed Inro fl vot! ud ITli n lstrntlve dlstrlets ecch one odminHered by ,0 'Dongfima. The dlstricis' "boundories which it seemed necessorj at that time to define were marked

Another chcroctertsfic

q II Mo ro grow ps is" th e .use



Df n9tu ra

b~'lorge trees, none of which is living 'a1' present" (SaieI?6y, 19'63:47), In tirnes, some of such districts' borders were still definer by natural '(mdmorks; h£l!'1Ce ~~he wa~efllhed js ger1l~rnlly considered 0:; the: dividing. litl€i beivteen loU and GHung" ~Ibid,). Other 'andrno:rks werf.· hjlly and rocky sections o] /ori or low growing frees •ind men-mode bridges mmkiflg the l!idges of ftJlrms (Kiefe:I;,'1976:99}, U '1'iI the r"eC8Fl1' qecad~i, des omdonrs the .sultanol'~ have continually used similar landmarks accordlnq 10> their needs. T6d,QYhowe\le~ th~ traJa!Q·n~~ TC4Usug vie ...... k.rn:qlY1ork~ of'






gjvmg wo_y fa

Ihe modem surveyor's


muniiie.s (If present-dey Sulll {lfld the- Mog.uind(CInao of North end .Scuth Cctoboto \t~J1erelend tenure chcmg'e.s end lne impact of Flew fanning procrices bro~ght eboul by the Northern-Filipino settlers hove !iubsr,antioily altered proctices. To a greo er extenf.l'raditioflallondrnorks ond meosvre-

Surve:i findings reveol thol the trodition}}! methods qre still u.sed 11''1 cornmunlties nf the ether Mom ethniC groups, unlike in monv Tov.su~ com-

men-is (](.(! stili procficed in Tawi-lowi (among the Semel]. In Bosilcn (ornol1g the Yakan)r among the MogLJlndcmoo in Moguinclano.o'province-on;d among l1he r'l'ls1:of ,the Mort) 9 rou ps (e;.:;cept the Kali b:ugtm who..~e te rrltory is now pei'lefroted



settlers), Aootit ~wo-'th~rds p1

survey respondents

j'r1entioned ths use of nolu ra I boo ndmies ·suen CISdvrion CIn d m ang'o trees, orchords i:lFId bamboo grOves, as the most frequently used, ioilb:wed by ditches Or cnncl s end dikes. C reeks,stre'o rns, apri ngs a nd riverS' ~ re (1159'

us ed es pecio Hy in La nee



0 nd MQg u inda n ClO, A sign 1fie ont percernc g'e (81 %) of the inronnonb 1rorn tr,~ Innco and Towi·Tawi provinces reported l'h~,u5e .0'1'~r,!d"iti'~l'lcii mel'JSUrrer(lehl!1 tQ determine kmd size in wrnlMom

areas, [urther validating earlier studies (s<':la DqJmarpol 1984,:47. DRC ReAmong the I rodith:ma I 'fneOSlJr<")men"l ui"Ii1S, mentioned os th~ most fr~quentl~' us,eo are dupa, frtpa, orftl1hom [l.e., the two arms ol,lt&1relchedl, Qna the fo~t tpi.Ci, slkJ, 'takap) Of f.Q(~tsfep (1:cmgkCl), Troditionnl kmd boundcries and meosurernent still prevoil among, man'!, rutQ,1 iVioros (ClS indk:oted by 68 percent of the tote] rrurnber of resoondents) noiwi1hstondlng the' lnrcods of Philippine br~d low in Morc arSGS
searcn BtJIJ~rin. 1976), ~see to,bl e


I he trend toward using more precise measurements Ir:. .sull,} and the Cotaboto p'mvinces'i!'lldicote adopfaticon to Philippine lo,~vs bossd Ot1 [I .system of p rivote prope (ty ow ner~ni p _ To bl e 7' 'IJ ~l ws 0 n 1·( the To u s u 9 o infofll1an1s sc.o:ring very high (82%} in the non-use of froditionel rneosure rnents fQllo.."..~~d bv the North COlabafo' Mag~lindClnaos, lhi~. ls corr.5~sh;nt with th!O!results of Table 6 where lh!l SOme respondent groups' exhibited higl1 percentage. scores in 'Ihl'_! se of 1'ifle$ CJ!; bosis of lord ownership. u
The notion that land in 'Ih~Mota -:;o[!,!frll;nity is voluntary agreement





especi(JHy t9 "outslders' finds SUppOI if'! riH'llority respondents' bdref thr.:l'1non-kinsmen Of hPn·rnerlib-illrs of the wn~munity or' ethnic group conno! J]Qrtir::1pote in kmd use and disp'ositiDn_ For instance, wh~n asked if lond nol owned/used commun(]I1~·can b~ tram;" Fer.ft)d, lent or rented to IflJivi d u ols crh er tho n rei qtLves 011 d ~~h~ t th em members of tne.e'l-hrlic group the- re~,poFldenl be-longs, rnui9f1tyof the :s..U j'V(,J~! espO'()d!1!ntsonswereci r In tbe negative. A greoll\!t" peKentClge: (~8%) 9f the lowl number of 420 'respondents rel11hat the k.:mdnot .cornrnuncllv used crmnot ot"'.i olieneted to non-releftves c:ompo(€d to obou! 34 percent whO' Olf'lswered posHkel·,. and 21i {letcenl' who gave no response. A bigger number ~47%) disapproved of dispOSing '(lnd renting out land to individ'Yaie riOI be longi ng tq ,he\ r eth ni C '!:)fO(J P (c:om po red to 0;,ly.,4 4 % \.A,o aig reed}, I'ollo~1 frequently c;it,!:"d reoson for disapproving IS Ihe likefy occurreflce -of fulure dispute.!;, "Or cQnHic~s. ine: psrcen . were l.mO'<ldded or gov8 "don'j N ~now respon $€$ (see To ble 4:1. The sa rns r~O~9 n W\JS also cited rnosl

frequently among the respondent~. who disagreed wilh the temporary (),Il~nallan of land lo non-klnsrnen, Also significontl)" the M::iros' reseritmeni 'arising frem historical experience:;> of sociol discrimiJ1at~ot'l-'Qr ethnic chouviriisrn orrd for many ot them, of land di'sipvsses$i'on, are reElecl!i!d in 'other reosons given by the respondents: their perception of the non-Moros [nonlumad~ as ildomin,eeriFlg~; IhCl!ir cpprehenslon of Nbndgmbping" i "rid '11i~glvif'lg~'about diFferences in cultural practices, Nclab!ly, a60IJt 12 PWcent of- theili~Ormc:int9 who responded nega+~vely thoLJght there wos nc


il:J,~ti-fk(jti on

fo r Ine FIon -0 lie"lat.ot1 of Io II r::i hoi d in g fo "(-l.u t$ i dersl'olh e I' t hon the fodthClt tradition or (J !:ll:i I dlctoies it. p,' ~mQII p€ll"~enr (7%~ believed Ihat land i~ root olienoble by on';' mecr.s riflr1(j os one reman Ihe, b~li8r rhcn th.~ .1$ idgoin~ lslornic pr,n~ipl£~ Olh'er5 soid 'hol nornuiler how s"Yioll; kmd

Iho~ 1!Ci pV50kr; ~orm-~;1 "eli rse or bu.milg


alienOled und, besldes, selli 1"19i1 might

nrir q


On the othel' hOlld, 1'1 iQr1")" of the n:;tspofldentt; .... Jho do no I' object tc thedisposltion, lendir"9 or renlinPl oul of land 10 NOlJbr.~ers" stipulated uso c:or\Jifi9 "the outslders ucceptonce Into the cOfllll1lJnit/, by' rhe rt emQ,O!l'.s., lders or trudlnonol leoders. If he or she "oecomes Cl MlJsllI"n" 0,' If e Ihe· person becomes c 1'081(111011 [by if'lte"tY){;J(I·ie'ge. or oitil'l til ~n ony ol the ...lloge!~ k:n W'(',v')C;. Hurr.aniki"i(.ln !e(ls·;:lr.s we·re olso . iled as ,..,her' III\~ i ~cutsl eer" poor or I'S.0 n ,e..-ocu eel relu gee. S I'iJ I, o r E:i"'N ol'her res (I ~)'ld ents ' Qgreed ;0 "ouisioers" .onl}" 60 ro, ...;n·i;j"jhf~ 1L~f"\dlrom thr: ·'Dvner," voluritor...


ilv giving

a shore of the



tel the

seosor-ol crops would be plQrdwl

the land

lessor, nnd pr(wfd0:..1 onlv lI:f Hltt:. Owner WOi 1'I(~dIli~
S~em"''1~8 (;I

K".alibv.go'1ond f'91(j\oJclIl'infol rrmr-ts, ryr .nstonr e, I l::lgre-ed to ollovJins non-klnsmenorni ether "r;u side~!':t the LJ5lOof "k.Clii'lg,'I1'" ~sy..idde'n;- let"d proviJedlhe site is olre(J.ch' abondol1e:(" Ifl whicr C(J~,~ Ihr>,
f'riCre tolerant

land bck, he sho"lld ~:ve 1hE cultivoto:::r tlme ro 'fird cJIl()1her 5i1e.) inrj,y,. olcrrnorrts from the swidden-pr:l:=-tir.1n9 qr~:vm tended .~{


culli ... olor need net ask perrriisslo> frqrn liS: P[~'JIc!U;' o'w'c;", Moro~ .. also" belit,!v~d In cammO'l 1ro(~irlo,"'al COnC(lFJIS =e crt(7d ';:) obligptions In lonur1al relotrcns r.md land uS,e 't1Gnqg~mer11. 5UGh pol f!: n~ vrelo ba understood "'/J1hl~ the (rome oj t..,e· pre~Gxis1i'ng Mom fo'(n'Jlion of ktnshtp-bcssd villages and r(:"M socienes and n ihJi:! cOflte:x.: at ~J r o e~ls~iny sedentary ond s~'Il(idefj -svstems oi kmd cultivation. In Irl;~ser- up, mest members of t~te cornrrrunlfv ~r.l':-'I'r'ed~tce~s 1D 'nnd and produc~io'1, b,n the reglJia+i()n wos 0 pferogt).~i'le. of rank Of litle he dotus, sl)ltans, comrn unily hend m c~ 0 .. "Y, 110 gelc Iem e lei (q FS v,.' hose eccrrorn ic reiIt'):s~ rnn nf'f tc age. r1w dis1ritlutior'1 of ih€: pl'oduce- in the commlmity, ,ediStnbwlng w'£B)111! if the produce is limiteJ, rcrher than eccumulotinq it 1hus, ;( th.e~' ~'::Jcl access b greater s.urph)s, thE'! r.lCliIJ:)' ana their fi:jFniliC!s Were ff~E:d fr(lI~ I productive lab(")f ond d~1ViYed their ener~l€!s I 'Ilhe pun;i It 01 pc-lilies uno' trade (Swti', 1982: 140), DCJtlJ~ Of other chieffO 01£9 perS,'ilQII~ su~peNlsad preducticn on their fields ariel rhe dj';'ributioFLof th~ 1-rar,(E',{,'5 o.;:;corJirrg ttl lhe needs otthair 5!1~Op, one! resolved lund and other disPLJte~ without vlolence, Their followers, in response jo rh~l dQt~'~ lunctions 01 powers performed in th{:jir beholf, recinwcqled in terms of rnctericl 5Upp0I1, FOr 1'I-15ir rig h fS 1-0 IJ se len d ,he sakDP' S 0 bli gCH loris ento Ii~d su p;:rod in re rrns oJ CI :pori ion of prod u C(;I, tn b u rs, I !;lX'e.S, 0.1' ma n pov.'€t/1a bor a e rv] ce 05. req u j rud b,t the doh.!. Y-et, unlike the condluon of ordinary "hare 1Bncnls In the teucal


land symem, the SA:Jkap, under the semi-feud(]1 dOlushlp were recipient;:; of
~i'he{ O'5siSlunce. Ilkel malenoi gifts. fOQd Or loons 11"1 limes of "cirl:lship~j ln

rotum for thelr 1000cfty10 Ine 'chi'e IStawoJIf. 1977:(8).
Receiving lribut~ (bUiS. bets in ~'kmJl1go end MO~I'Uiildclnool from f0"10W6fl1 or vO$sol!i y,as 0 clommo'l':t ",!odlce IfI Ilhe Igndholdll1g system of

ihe dolu~hip_ Ine[JrI~ tlm~, Ihe: Sul,tC!ln of Mosiu OWrHld ~va!t londholdln'Qs farmed by his slove" lonon!s and m'attv43:!'L He (wos) en'tUiedl'o bw~ from lower-mink mem~~, his s.ull{].I\otc~ lSober. T961 :59, Cls~old to outher b~ t:lctu inlorrnQ,nls). 11"1 bigger ~(ll"ldhold[n9!1 01 !he Magluindanao aulIhe tan, trjbuh~.llcklng of [I morl!' e:drcc:live 1>011' WQS e.xhmded to I'he non.·Morc u-Ibes tc:c'lled HCli'!:l'ro~OSIn histonc.al QccQunbJ,) whO W0re mDstl~ Timroy and Mal'lobos.


Ii@: ~old wilh

"'1l!1$.SOJ$ lbi!


he Sl,Ihon

M.Ilhorne:tr.H15. !hough
FlClfUfoJ'{lo~ Ilr~


mos1t~ I-h:m::lfore'!i cppr'eH@d

be sold qfllho londs. The

. are '5Qmi!ll mea • Only jlH~ lclt@r I'i]oy tne former.


bound to ,ac.compor'l'l' Ih<lir :ords on Cfl~ ~U'dden Il'~pediholl: bUI rilttl' Haro{Q'c<!> __. pay 'l'eClrl~(;erroil1 I lo~'e5 whi~.h ore no' ~~-Ged f'l"Qm the MohomelQIi ~o~scl~. They Por 0 bO<15/h!!lU, Clr Iond rilL A Hl:lrcklri:tli rem II,),pt:l'f.' "'fl~l~
~en boH!!I~ ~~0IIf (u 1!I"IU~ked'rice) 40 lb. 00; ih~ of rice, abou1 6D Ilh,: .one lowl. Cln~ huncil 01' plantains, 30 roots; _.. on d SO h!!:nM of IndilJrI t:OJfl • _, il-r-.;111 ~hlE!'I' mu~'t ~eJI 50 botlel~ of po<loyequal io 2.000 pouno' weight,lor one k(mQ,tll'l (\l



piece oj ~OCfS6 cbth ~i~!Wwov-ell" 19 Inch@s;. broad ~lJrd$ iol"lg")I[Fol"re5:j 1780:2981.


nd six

Lond use po'fmen~ (]Ibm kom lam;! QCclJl:l!ed in vsutrud or farm·ed In tltntl'l'lC)' werefiixed by Cusjom or C1-dot, This practice persists, tada~ cmang some rurol Moros desflile Ine 1i;ll1lullJlrequir,emernts in'trodu,e:ed by 1'1111' colonial Qfldpo£1Clo1ofiiaii gOllemmenls. Hence. os In trodltional JQ~Q,

the !fen' tsuklln may c:onsliMe a 'll'el)'sm(] II peime'ri ~CIge of one' 5 pr-od u ce 'and does net ve I)' eil he r wiln the S'l't: 01 j},e farm or the cctuc I he rvf3st(Keifar. , 9'76). AlfnOng. trodilla:nol Moguindonco end Marnnoo ~alrrneF$,the tiner is nol obUg1Jtad 10 pay renl unlil he: lend ls able to yield surplus harve.sil; 01 which 11me s/he is. then Wlpeded 10 shore 0:$ voluntary elrns or c;hmlly to:o;, 01 0 mC:lli,mlJm {Ole 'of 10' peroSl'lt of Ihe 'lloOlume, of crop:; {svch (.15rice, com or sweet pOhllO] (Gen. 501'l'0$C,Iy inltll'Vll!W, April, 1994: Qlnd Ienoo de~ SUI"il'!+~Mew, May, 199"'J', Molbog ado" dem(Jnds no poymcmt for borrowed IClnd, M:c:e.pl lor a b!Jlidle (bUlgko/l of ,Jatay (unhl.fsked nee) for evtilry h(li'IJ'es;ted plot oJ koingln '!:;widdan~eld). as zako, I(Balcbat;;, P~ICTwcm Interviuw, Oct. 1.9(5). Inl ,~onie-r lirrlMl!S in Ihl!! bl9gcer ~'UltCinClte:sJ Ii[]~e!j, [:lind 'rib· \J'te~or oJ'h(!lrlol'ld po me" wc.n!l given oolher local (i,nter'l'l'Mldiory) head-



rnen who eoll Elcl thern for lhe sulton SomhrnQS, when 'he landowneI~ provide the form tool:;, animol:; ond seeds mide from the form. the tenant shall'e!l with him 01 mosl one-hcli of Ihe hervesi Tht5 tendency toworcls 0
smell or lesser constunt .... olue 0'1 fnbtll~ OJ 1 ed lend u~e fJQvrnents 1'13 qll1red oj Ihe so op or lenDnl r89o,rdle:ss of he prod.uce ond exttmr of Ihe lema .. llllad, is 10 be mnlexluohmd In Ihe: e.sse.n:Ce of thc s~atl,l~of 'he Mol'<;) 'lll iit! in th~ [rnd i1Jcmo I I:lQIlly I", Mora rook ~,OC mlv, ihe SlJ III:; f1' ~ 0 r do I'u' ~ clelrn 10 power and pr~~llge was no! mer Iv hb bU1h IrHO the rloblilly ond control OI.!'crrae] Cisll'lle. bUI also his. eenve looder':!;hlP or control over CJ lorge group oi +olloweM [5u:'o'\I'CJJ1, 19771 Uh ...I!<O', n .l1e nnseunl polili~~ I I 0' ether Mom g ro U P5, U W05c 1he 0 biiH'I' 10 C111mt I and p~~esr, O!l rno n~ 'Iollowen; or dependenl!> and c.oo!>Elqu~nll II., acclJrTlulc1'ion of I!lOOt powe~ ~ho1' al"1bol'iced 1:}110'~ pow~r Clod pr~!ige. more rhcn lend own.eNhlp II~eH Thl~ Ihen ~yg9es1'~ 1he pmlcipl::di~y oj ike polrlkol as~cJ If! rhe t, 'rHJrial I"\llolicm~hip between lr.e londrold~dl:lh.s/suhDn5 and rhelr 'snortlcroppmg ~O'koPI Clod .,mpilcsls on by(lh¥ lind S1Jppon from the: lolfer In return fo·r 'Ina fCirmer's preleetien and 054~5IDnre,



required fa wo:rk the fields and rT'IOllllCIn 1M economy The sKpiodalion 01 form sloves consisted !'lot .only In the Ixml'cgo's providing for their oWn [leeds and y..rnnishomi'he fields end gortien5 given them b", Iheir c1atus 'but il'l renderitl[lo1her lash demonried imm then; b-f tne lutter, slIch os- the collection of marine end l\.Ingle products fa· the rode Far.ning being thelr major ·oconom.ic obligoUon. ,they were ob!igclerd to remit c fi~sd por:lioOn of their produce io 1ne.irrnosters duough ~he vIllage hB(u::ime1' [War

Unlike Ihe .s.okop and uhpon who .tero needed to proviI:IItl more following or politlccl ~iJpporilor the llot:)llit;" lhe b;:lny<:rqr.1 rn the big sultanetes, m ore tho r1 an 'I'tni n9 else, "",erB needed cs pori or the Iarg€ Iobo r brce

rer., 1987 :04)_

Among lhesrne rler More 9 J?UD5 ,-encmq relo hon s did n n I' e'xisr in their settlements 01'1 the Some level ill In polities. of ·rne sultcnotes F~udcl forms of lend relnncns 11l1er de\lelope:d with he in reduchon of the


clctu syslem antllslcm In 1h.eMom groups' sodeues tn[lt were ~rought
the Infl u en c:e of the 5u IU


nd lvklgl;,IIodlJ'n~o suflancrt-es

The MDrt;) 1rodiliollC!II ehtes rlgh! Of po ..... 10 con ral cccess nghts er to lend ~chartlder,sficgl,ly combined w.~foI pollhcol or I::H.m;!ouLro~ic-rndi!Clry power nnd therr role cs "Allch's Ylceyenmrs , 1'5 ~Iill r~cogni1.ced, notablv among iho Morllnoos and M[]gurnaom:u)!; 1'1'115., desprlt! c.hClM~'e!iin the More polity from the ~mdiflonol 5~ruClUr:el 10 Ih.a ",rl!~I;'In' foNT! of gOV"er. nonce, Tha p(Jrccptions.. o~ c number of Suju Informcmls O!~O kmd !'uppol"'l to 11m ."illW IMol1hsir lltid,IIOIlOlleodtlB ere "!il )o\U)rd~· of lonili boJonqi"q 1011.11011 end oi land~ as (]m;:!!!Oiml domrJin and (ommUJ'clf'l' o'>"l"1oc-1, ~'!,Ien


b~longlilg. +0 Allah and left tha unused sites, ol which owne'rship Or use i.J Ifift)otely belongs to thetrodltlonal !ead€f5. likewise, Marall'c]O don e~dl9rs or ~1J11"JI1s H:ve permission io anyone( provided he belongs to the clan or il> ('l member of the sulton's domain, to opef\ an unused slte .to farm l,fJam~lo(o~~111'1 I'em:lnc.y or DS bon'owed lQ.nd ~LclliuO del Sur in'terviewi June. 1995). Data frorrl II Ie survey sludy soem to imj.ll~' that'lhe same: procHce p re.'a i fs among '01her Marc g r01.1 ps (~e TQ ble 8), Asked who dec i des thealloCQhorl or opporticning of land (or rts produrce) CQllectively owned by ~hfl community tor indl'lid\Jol use, rnrJjority (57%) of the respondents mentioned 1he suhon.jollowed by 1hfl vlHoge or ~ommunity eJQ~~,(2EL83%,l, theri the datu (19%), The 'est 'Of th.e respondents mentioned th!3 imall1, the pongfr[Tlo [sulton's personal representative) a'ld 10'::01 gO'l~mrnent lenders, or significcUlctl to note ~~(~" ist,hal amorl.~ the srnuller Morc ,g:(Oups- -- l.e., rhe Yokrm, Sama~, $rlllgud/. kalogon. Glnd l(oIIDL.lgan - Ih€ vdlageQr community elders ore more relled upon f~'r deCisions. 011. such malte(!"; and other land - (Ialdled iilHJeg in Ihe communltv, On ih~ other hOrld; majoriiy,eif the Mr:m::maCl Of1f1 Mcrguirl'cicJrlCIo itlforrnnntt point 10 the sultnn ond datu For
omollg fogto OpumclY is land

fne Molbog, Ihe

by their oncestofS. SllC;i1 IOJl1d.~ indude



on the olloc.atior

of l::o~,mul1olly owned lond Mom 'kmd pmdicet is Ih(\: system of ex




pino'ethnic: groups' Folh~f, smaller trpditio'ns

+iqnge labor

also found In oihzr Hliln 1'heform;

the whole membr:JIsh.p of on

'UjJOm.01 or vlllqge do not ~'J6rk together; klnshlp gr'9Up~, for exorrtple, tw;' fornilies in the ~ome clan enguge m cooparctlve form [cbnr, In rurol Mora communities, a form {c)mily customarily "exchanges faml honds ·....th another farnily durlng times i of plowing, harrowing', weeding)'!orve-sllrl~~, om:lthreshin-g; ond otherphoses O'r farm work, In Lonoc, thi~ system of gi~ing r)nd returning help is toUed kapom(l_gclfJot'(J or kosoda.sodo) a c\)stcmal)' pradicf:) inc!1 Mpronoo ond Imnon form Cdmrl'lur'lities,~\ Under this sy.s1l3rn, no ccrnpanscnlon or j:loymMts {1m due to those:-who help except the givlf')q of pagano f'sElIV1ng"') 10 the guest-helpers (SahP.oF and Tomano, 1961: 84) ~im!l~r to the )l.lo5.awitof Ihe KaleJ go n ' EX(,h.Cl nge Itl bo r whlc h is so ncrioned by the COIll me nity Elnd


ru;iQt, rnlnlmlres leber shortllge 01 the peak of icrmlng adiviti6:!>; EWiry ~Aoro family tl1\.l5 bel,efits [rem this exthan!;)G (ind fromlhG mlJtuully agreed upon sharing of the harvests pn:H:ficlld in Morc vil~(jge~_ !J,f,. wi~h other

Filipino indigenous grOLJP~, the-Moms', until todny, hove {bolh pre-Islamic end Islam-influenced) rituals wherethe better-off mfl'mbers oftne ugema also shcre their harvests and other weohh 1'0 the t:ornn"ltmi~y bv lidding Gom mu nol feosts:, ' What oppears In the 060".'13 set-up and In 011 the other kind USe procflees i.~ the tradition of ~hrJflng Qf land resources arYlong ii;ommu(1Hy members. While Morc arJat provides for common ownership of certain



IOf1d~ under Ih~ (.orrlmlitHlI InT~Hl!~ts 01 Ihl! h]ml'~, Ian CIt VIII(]gu WhfJI i~ !iElldtl'f1llnolcd is lha rrop(ln~11y 10 W"'~ or shoro nrnnnq the l'Aorn~ .>v.~nl[) ~6lifflld!lf~~ or non-Moms. (" hn!O an h ornustactd rl~ I n Ih~ 'WI I d~ of corn hI l tn' 11 In Ih~, t3rul~ ~I'l[]f]; ol~el'~Elr-G(;Ilml!ln"On 11'1 MlnJ~IIIIJ(J told hlll:~ nf Mnl'l" !:larH<id{)~I~ nl1d kH'It;jne~s. 01 Mm[' chlol'lmn ..4-.0 gn"..EI 'ljP d'IJIFTls ,),1..(~~1



Irmd kl

qm'f!1 ~~!1~llnj

fm Ihu b,jfl('!"111 tl~ ~~ujl


~H{lro/.d, t


I rl,

1 ~311 Hoyci!}n r[]p~) oM bUI Alltlh, una nll;ll"I hilI" oi !i}
cun u~u Ihn

SlllCO lund I~ nOllhu rUlclud.t1q
U,f11j '5

'ro ~ho Mom roul O ....n~r klul t
mw outsrdei
• ~ Itl III

MU:lI~111 hnl'1"q~. uflly

t.., nu

/1J1~lh ~


mlVOl11.']lrorn IIH~c[jI'~[mH1lly OWUQl"lll,ipI~ n)r,ruPlid

who b~'lL:ornu!; LI rnoru-

Ir.lf~d ~:H1d "'~!jIJI

f" u,rlhnf, ~]j1CI) tOI ~~~fliO !lltf.lS

If]l~ lund obundLHNd bw Ihn ownor, tHuJ lil1JL,o.!rls LrJI,"L ILl 11i' ,·or,',nuJ'lily. Mr)]~~fmH':~plion~ '.'l\I~LJld 'II .:;~ ~JlS~ f_hmu~(l Hl ILlhu jmr '(HJ ·.",h~HI I.. d m


'diny Ihl, hmd SII·. II IIIJ~d IlIp¥.e:, ~111L n

1;,!.lnflib,l~ ("I"tJrnmIJlur!

!',I11!(!.llflI11'~ M~'ro~

uod Ihif r J rllll'r1l~ f IllPIfUl 'S't1I1o(~ I;l

whcJI1'l, ii I Ih!~ fmiw11
r"!lW C,jStiZ

6,~11~·f. 1111w tum.l~ w~~n IIUH'lly ·11~rll· f~"r tI~I' t,j,

wer~ I ~p prl~td uj ~i:ltllj!!f1. ,,",fl~" tlHI'J' ~cme ~I-I1M ~ <J I ,-u I 'In Ii rhetl 10Mb rmd :sI[1okH1~l .,:wmt:lr~hlp U'<'~T III>-!lll, -;v. 'LAd Lfo! 1fbl.lbilltl b~ 1111' Moros whe l.lr.lillBr f:cltl1(! ID ~lll Ip th~m bfLlHk HlI~ ~mlg~t.~ (]l'Iid r elurned 10 r~d~itT'! 1he kJridr; on Ihl", h~~I~ ol !l"r~tr(l~ ri~~hh (~uner, P~llbppjnr, Frell

'I nu


rres.~,JuJ¥ 2, 1932~ Hm.Js.h,£!rY.19M,.1 ?6Y i II
rh? 15me {)t Imld IJ-:>e by fJ n d di~p osrtion 'to. :g rou p ~ of In dWlduCl,ls D~J T5 'Ql: th~, r d t.II1 ()f cornmuniry finds support In SlI,N(;!~ flndmgs. Q[][l:iBF pointed out, thalJgh ~1e
Again, chunqinq (]ltilude5 some ,'lime:. on


~w~gesl en::enloge omong p



10 ,jisnrprove.



arh\ln'~)Clfm~ u~l!'!noti{m of !rmd tn non-kmsmsn


Pr8-ex.i~tin~1 potlet~$
r~ceni [irnes ~n some

or Mo.o


o ..... !'Ief~hip have survived



even sn (lr-eg~ wh~r~

soi II ih e ~w,ddgn E! rs among Ilu.! Martm{]o~ In Ih ts mea h (I d ~a 9 m d uI;J Ity shiH b $i;;:diBflloty renmUle~lt h-nmu'ng whu;:h Ih", ";.IlIH~rJpruch('~d in l'I2n·

hnvte er!l:ro[1ch'P.d Fo] eltiJTT1pl~, in Nnrih lc,ntll{l ucpulunon In.::mClH! lrod I~d ltD morr! ltl!Jl!lf'lCY cmal"lg'ml!. nCI'l·Mus.~lm ~ElHj!}r.; by~ neal among lI~e f/lnrCrlf.lO Mcu:l1!l HOWFl\~r. 6f;fCf11~s.e' 01 fn, rerulng s{ an.::rty )f Grubl!:!




I ir,lUshsfl, 11'1 the IQ!s 1yf)(j'~. nrcnunrao tClf Ih~ dl!;slmrimdy In the Icnant1r' n:lhH: inolWOtlil jhc MushrnSc trl1d m)ll MH5hmr., 11'1Ibtl diH~Hp.nC1) Ir1 seci [II -sln If-tm [) 01 bl)H1 gJDU p5_ '"Thli! ~ocm I trUr:tLllll o [T] on r.J ~ t M lr~ IIrn 5," l'kl'\j~hGn' ~Ojd, "IH.J"S dlr.ul~i~d r~'leol Inri IHid r 1h.~ i'lf'id '~rTHml~ Wllh th.; Idn.sh'lIC) grO~JP~ (lnJ i5 tUhurllud tlrm.Hlq 111u murnburs ol IhlJrrl "n inu-.I.IJI r 1 ~'1\8.19(1r;l ] 11 ~




The RegQl1an doctrl ne pi.'Qe@o a II kmds in the hands of Spcmbh th~ ownership of th~ 5floni~h 1;:rC\wn,In1898~ Spain ~Q the United Sfutes u ndeor the Treety of Pari15. All kmds vested in ·the 5 po rli sh Crow~., 1hus bC'l"come the property ofth~ United States;' The 0 rgd nic A.:::J of 1 902 o,Hhe US Ccmg ress 9 m nted the A_me~TCLtn cok~ni(]1Ho,vern rlH:i.ntin the ·Phi Iipp ines aut hQf!1y t-c/formulnte vorlous loWs in dclrrit'!'lI;sMf!ng the ~:>:.tensive p!J'blil!: lends (Pej£er,1948~ 104).. Tne COI,b· nlol QQ'Ier.nnierit created the Bon;w:'l).o.f NOrl"CllriStkm Irlbes {BNOl'rhat pul "Mort¥,onQ,'norl-Christi'-<lon:' Filipino~ urider speo:;i,(]i, rutel.t!ge, The qgency's lesk wcsto -9y:st~rnqttcClllyi,(wesJigate the'conditiorl$ dna f'Yl'lpor:t vp.on fh~ practico I o.perqti on of QI:llegis lotkm ..... refere.nc:e.o nclFli·Ch ri sJi6n p_eopll%." ~th t On the bacsis.d the BNcr s Si,J i'\ieys, the a'gel'lGY me de.recommen dQtiof'ls -on policies and le9~slotiol'J j'tlstrum,etlltol t,o. po~iNing and controlling the h i1he 1"1'0 un o~dmi ~(]ted Mof'"0.5(Gow~ng, 1 977; 6 7 j Hid roselle, "M~ mora rt-

c::onquistcd6res, under 'soldlhe Phi I~ppin6S

.dum ;to G.Qvemor. Gener.0) I Concerning

l.930; Guiri'!JQt1o, I!A Repon·
Sulu! 19·34~},


MifiQOOao. on.d Sul.u, ~ Avgvst 5~ the Development ~Ion for Mindanqo and



co lon 10 I 9 overnment

cclQt5~fi d 110 n din e


o nd ~$.t(]1I>1 is hed


lows is a brief Fe",ie'W of such h!g i!;latkm Ia.n dhokl ing .$yslerrl_

whe re

Cl nd'

a (Giang, 1969}"
the ir-effe(;ts

region Wh(lt 101-

on' th e Mara

pa5s~cL 'The Philipptne. BHI (or Cooper ~I) u.;ph--eJdp'revioysJye.~{lc1e:d ~$p{]ntsh ccuja:!>trQ~ laws, limited !o 16 hsctcres 'the 'omo'uFit of IQnd. that to~uld be 9cqulr~d by in'di"'id:u.ols,-and f!,~an up.per lih"litfpr tprpora1ions 0<1
I ,024 hectores. Thi;;!.bite!" ~str.1Gtiot'llWC;fS Ipbbied by Aniericon democrots w.ho w'Gre opposed to the Republican {]dminis.fraHor{s Phiiippin,e polity (Peber:1 (5). The- Land R.~gIstrati 'OnAct .requ~re~ the a~q wisltion ..of a 'Torrens Tit'le'" by private peJr1lOns or CG)rporati onses p roof ()if Land ·Owl)er.-

~n 1902.,

t he

Phi ll P 8.1 J~ Brll n

(-Hi d

'ihe lor~d

Ri?g_btroltio n

Act were


Havil1g lived by their trodlt1onol kmd ptUdkes,the moss· Gf MorQ sokop ond other Iess fort",nate OCCIJ pants o~ land defCH:JUed In Iodgi ng' claims to definile porcsls of lendeither bec(]lJ~e they p~t· tneirtlJl1 trt;JsJin sh~p" ..cU"st~mary Iand laws c,r were u nW 111 to po ~ fhg land ta;-< i ng {Beckelt i 1 9'82: 403}, Thot~he rfotlon of Ia nd ml~~did notmH:;h Of! with the Mcro~ m n also be oiiri:buted to fhffi.rtraditiof) of ·sett11ng land ownership· disputes inter·

!'lolly {Hgusherr~ lac, cU,). Where serne Moros regiS"ti:fr'ed urld-er the new land :owMn;hip syst~I!I,·stitil they e.hd.ed vp porting with ~he;r lands C'fr rnertgJjging them rather t:hal1 rmm 'thej'r lond~ themselves. (Ma~t!Jraj 1y8.2} , Qthlilffi seldom heJld the.. money or vnders;tpndil"lg ·ofleg~;d procedures tc
o~tairi "the tif'le, "Some

of tho~ifIwhotri~

tq inmate the'titling

pJQ.c.e85 lo.sJ

their lo rid or rnon 8)1 to UnsCTUj){) Ious po Flies. orne de fus elso rnc de tile nil;s~{lkaof KlJPpo~lnglhQlinefr cuslQffiOI'l' rjghhi over lond ond: lebor would rerne i n wHh the injrpdlJdloll 01 ~ai1d htling S~ill.~he new Ie nd 10..... ke ngth. s en~d tho PO~!1I en eiserne dG11,J~.. For insfOfu:;e, d unng. the Hm~govemment ~iJrv€l~·of 1h~ 1920$ ~·o gr'e>CF1 omotilnl oJ IOlnd Ir! Jelo wc<sdirectly regl~tere~ 111SuUOI'1 JOII'll'!ElI .• ",I.Klfmn's nome by F*i'r50tl.S who hed n.gnts of u"'v~rvCI.


!loll rooli01:i,l"Ig, Inol ike dbll:ru::Ucn b0JwCS'1'l unimcrr~ IHul(lr ownershif:! end QWf'lleir~~,rp righl$ of l.iS~AI'IoIC1 w"CI5!'!O~ normon~ made in Westem Land of I.o..... ~Klalert 1976) Co.F1\i'Qr-s.~1YI 1n Magulndcmoo. s.ornll'l dOlus who un~ da~1l(')od 1M m~o nin g of1 he new5)i$'1em did ebte i 1"1 'ii 11es Ihei r oWn ICJl'lds e to



of ~h!!ir daMI1'Ie;n, er

Ijd~diJ"l ih{li~

<lWf1 l"I-omM



o.c:cup[e<.! by ihellf ·followers (Stewor:l, 19;68: 1) 6), pmvldJnglhe


then ba:s~

fortodc V


land 10rdism

I!'I 1903 jO f'lc·ther low WI!JS e ~och::-d i!'1lrodu'l::ing In e he!rnesteed sy$~iIlIm which p rescrl bed ~he.sa Ie or lec,s:e o~ pubHc lond.~ to F itipirlOs, Amflfioons end ·oj hers 're-gcldlen of ~Ulli cm[J~Uy. II \!IOI Y n der ·this low thot Jilpoln.e:se co.rpora'ion~ w;er,fj Qble'lo ,o(;quir,CilIiXlr1' of ~heirhalding.s In Oovao provine·a {Pe~efl 1948; 1 05w 1 Cl6~ Thi:i laY", ~os c.l<l:sely~o!'!owed byt~e l\iblk wfld Ac:1 oi 1905 under wk~ch all 'Ofl'j,~ unregisl1el!'"edunder the Acl of 1902 were clBda red os plJ blic Ie nrlS. urrdre. ,he ad rninislreticm CiJlne s!ate. Thus WQS lold down 1~e fegol baSkS by whk:h mony MQros'"\J",d other

trilbdls beccrne "illegal" occupcnts 01 the kll1d~ th.:;l!r G:noestot'll· hC1d eccup~edFor cerliu ries, 11"1 9.. Ihe flu bhe Land A.c.t 926 wos I~gis loted to 1'91


0 greater



hQm:egf>l~arb of Christion settlers·



oftiHes. lei land. While th ose riJ rnilicr ,.... hlhe Ibureovcrc!'~ic process leQaJjl .l1i8X:l thEM land claims, such os.fh~ edu(.{l~ noli'.res, burecucrots (]nd for~igfl lend specu!oiorsi the ones tess bU;lwled.gEiQble pf~he pror;:edl.,lffts, moslly jn,e. Moro$ and' clhe-r tribels, log.ge,d behind ~n apw-oprh:rting dispos.CIb~eand a Iian obl!3: IO(1ru- I~ W05 ,r'flpo rted rnot the survey portl B;'il, il1~t6(]d of moking deflni'lecmrQngeme:nfs for pn:l'hKUng Ih-e: rights of nonChrisHc n l1C1ii'll"es. mere~y {love the ~aM8r verbal o.SSl}rnlloatn mthe:ir llights wOl.,lld be respeded and prole-ded TI'I\I$, Ir;mdQroibbe~ on.d speculeiers ,€lxploiled the tod lhoi 1he Bureeu 01 lon"j:$ ~be sed p n 0 nly of do Im L.I pon p~ori1Y of nliog inslood of priol'tly oi OCCYpcli'u::y' (Pehter, 194B: 1-42,: see olr,so Mosl.ure, 19' 8.2;3:8; arid P"e I"Idalun, 19331 Me ny Moros like I'h~
MOQ'uindonaos Qli~o too'~ Ihe codos:tral .nl""f!~ es
irT1f'lOSI:!I'g:>l~'~on 1h~r'rL

To .spe,ed up Ihe ~~gi.slmTIo.i(lfr -tffi!~, the: Cooqs!Ti=l1 Ad of 191 Of ap~roved in- 1913, rricde codastrci $Urv.ev mondaio!)!' b8for~lh(!l grOJ1ltirl"g'



Th~ ~rmpl'f ·obondOfled ~heir lands and rnevedro olhe r orno:. whic h hnd not ~,~. ooen .$UI"UlVoi!d d r wl-lich h nd 6gtil"l c:J[J~!:iFj¢d as pu biie ionds_ 01 herssol d '~heit fOl1ltb. Clwo,y IQ se~ller.l fa r ~idIC"Y lousl r




smell p"ayrrlt')nhL I.:md re-o.iizing onl~ much later the vulue of Ihe prap$Mv thE;!~'h C1dIest, fel r·they hQ9 been ChM1 eO,(Stewa rt, 1 988: 1 1 ()). It·sh au ld be nQted 1hr;li othlill' ir]bcls n rid rrrony lowland Ch risfio ['I peosQf'l1s a lso fo,u rVQ the cost .of cpd[J.str"Q1 surveys nigh, not to m,L'lnt~a!1 their ignoran'ce {if such proced ures. Thus, most of the ti tI es 9 ramd.~nder th e Ir.:md laws from 1902 up to 191 0 w~re for large privota IQndholdiflg.?, It hoppened thli,s thot ofl'er the po;>soge of the aforemerdioned laws, I'he coloniel :90'lemment dre~... an rncreas.ing quafrti1y .,f})ugof, ebcco or hemp commercially g Q'.vn in big heclendos and wcs cble tQ slap up fhe production of logs from the frontier ore.as- {PACT, 19.84 :219).
To adv{]lr.e,e its eco norl1ic interests ill the Phili pp i nes 6y expo ndi ng I he pi 0 ntnl i.Qll €l("Q['Jomy and fue Phi Ii ppi ne morkei f-or ~ts fi nlS hed ·prod· ucts,the .Atnetiwl'1 colonicl n~.gime qlielled Moro resistance ,Ie colonizo: liOri, Americen companies I'hen r\Jsh'ed tothe Jrontler region to tap its &g. riculturo] potentlol cmd invested in new larg,e--scale plentoncns davo1(!cJ t£J cemmerctel crops such cis rubber and pln~dPpli1! {Hayden, ~Moro Mallu, script/ 19.33; Go-wing, 19.77 :2:91). A series of ~and Ir;iw~issved by th¢ cclonio] fCicili1a.led ArTleric:rn lorge-scole (co,rpot'a1~) ccquisition of lends $etllet1: from Visa~!as and Luzon' were. en COli i'O[Jf1d .0 migraie to Mindanao by the ope.nin.9 u.P cf kmds (B homesteads [md the Qdoption Q n d i!liP Iemerrtcti Q n of s ettle ment progra ms


As the inJ,ernol C()lonl:mtinn of Momland

proqresssd, ~he,mllitar~

opprccch to the ~1\bfO problem" -ccnrinued. Th@.Sponlsh outhorttles' strotegv fOf the Goloniwt1on o,f the South erlhJiled lorge.scale relo(,;otion of
'Christian peoscnts frornlhe North 10 obvicte the; necessity of mcintclnlnq a large army bU1 the pkin .vas not reolized due to fitlrG~ MQfO resistcnce (Tan, 1977: 73'1, I.orgre-scalro nllgration fa the South of Christian Ftlipll'ro settlers Clccelera{ed onlv during ihe 1930$ tJP to Ihe 1950s (Ton, 1977:80; Mogdoler.o, 1990: 8i Giang, 1969·:83~a4~.

Iosel the ~t:JJgf'i 'ortnis .res,ettlernerlt sthei'f1C; pi!o' rl1igrCll"lt agric~JI. turcl col on i GS, in Mindanoo were fii'S,t sS'tab.ITshedto ef'lcol!roge I·ondless frJ rm er.'i;rom th e'Norl h to imm igrale 1'0 1'Iw t~5Spopulated tI recs of Mi ndon no f Welzer, 1948~ see Silvo ~PS~lLJr.L), 1979, for.a detpfled essay on the sobjer;:l' ;:]nd for an earlier d iscou rse 0'1"1 such prcgn;nns cs th~~ rei ote to the Mi nda rmo probf~ml.13etwef:n 1913 end 1917/ three such lows {Acts 2254 and 2280 in1913, and Ad 2280 if! 1914) wer~ pa:>!l~dhy the Philippine Commlssip" estab[ishlng seven agricultural colonies in Mor-olond - six in Ihe· .Cotubui'o Volley, homeland of fhG Mi;lguindOJ)OO Moros" and one in Lanao, troditionoUy Inhabited by the Moranao and lronon Moros. The alms of Ihe .::oJot'lTes ware 1) to IFiICr{>,CI$€l f.ood production, 2") to bclence the didribuf.ion of popu tatiort in the reg ion. 3) to develop ihe ·exJerlsJ .. e uncu Iti\l'O'led oreos,


reiullons clOd thEi Ji~onlpl@t€ fuslort of non - Ch rislJcm (9 rbqJp~} popul ati:n 9 I~ e p rovinces of th e An;:llI'pel(lgd" (ped.N,I',. 1948i GOWi"flg" 1977; 29'1; Santos and Elardcl, ~A Tan toti 1,If;1 Pion for·th e Deve Ioprllel11'o'f Atlri'cLJ ItLJ ft"11 Colon i es Un d erl h:e I-Je...... COiOt1i1JHwtiort lClw~ HClyder'l Papers}, The series' (jf I@gi_dntlon received! -fu.lf11ntl"f encoumqemenl fwm lli,a new C('")loniq.1 administration in 19'1 J unIi

end 4} to ·bring about horrnonious
all Ch risti an
CI n d

de r He rri~:O.n(brough
cdministrufion [nlhe. (T<lnl 'I977:79). The

i in by lhe ch (J ng e from Rep ubl'jcc;Jn to Domocro Ii c US.) who udvoccted the; filipini:mtiofl of Ihe llllLU1rh !'O\orly celani.lOtion Law:>wet'e f91lnw@d by Ad 2806 in

·the ~(lkon,

19 ~9 which resul'led in Iii!>.: ppenil~\1 Lamiro.n in Ba$ilan, the dOIl)I,Iill ()t of l(JWi-TCI.... Morilog Qf Bukidnolr'i and Mi:tgr;moy of Ccit(]l:iaro_ . i, FWr1l then f)n !!utilltw.C(jmmQnw.ea.lih govemmBn~ wcs e~tci"bld&hedin 1935, altnollgh !1O.gov13rnme:Tlt·~ponsorGld setllernent .... p~JI 'up, hundr,ar:b of 'u.$ ~j!lltl Gl rs- (rom 1"h I>{o'flh s.li II rm;lY'ed SO~Jth 11"1 th e fernie vel lays of Mi n d (J n G.O e to

th~ir own,




.setller~COhJf115ts prl

more s lress un d er the C om m 0.1'1 ~oJeaIth 441 was, passed! m,mling Ihe N!J1ional
~NLSJ~which more vigurously lows {pelzG,! 1948: 138).

..... e: n L€.gis~ati ve I\d 1'-..1 h o, Lcmd Saule-merlt AdmlnisJration corrie-d (lut the, alms ofthe eorlier settlement

r e tiod


wos gil,l~rl

seiliers ~oatqujre

While theS'e programs stepped up-ihe inHo;;; of :Il(rrl-M(l't-(~ Fillpll'o lands ir~ whal wer~f in kHJ port of the indi_garlol.ols locol

ecmmunlfies' nncestrol lorglil-sa:Jllo ncquisihon


'CLb6 signiliCCIntly



of I!,:lnr;kby Filip,ino lundI9.d:>, bmBCHJCmm and ei'gn oor,pora~dn& (pcJi1ir';I;I'lariy ag'ri-bu$hl1ess) (pACT/ 1984~220). Ii
q n m gmti on swell


th IJIS d lJrinn th i_~ peri ad th et Christi

ment (and th~ Chris:li(~n settlers). hrJrJ plcnnad to depriv@ them of 1heir lond (GlonYI cited In Schaleg[jI1983: 71)_ R€lporfing on Ih,!:!land problem durirlg'the Comrnonweallh period, Gulierre:r. al'lribute('l the di$pvt~s ~ver land do ims by Mmo an d Ch ri sti a n srdtl en os sf m ui OIred by di Ffere n ces IIII COI1,ceplion,~ or land use righl's (Guherrel/ i'Mond-lly Rapod ol tho Cotabato .Gov€lrnm/,' May 10, 1.934)_ RESeTILEMENlT UNDER. THE IPOST-WAR.

3 pl'ea d i n g'l n 1'0 ~l e lslcnd ~gion\ pt'(Hj'!Jdiv~ ureC1$;but not wifhout J:feating more dispules [Jllq -anhnncinq 1ibe already wldespreod Mora convicliun 1h(;l1 th1d l~nvem-




Resettl'em€nt in Mindanoo WIlS even more tKcelen:tted upon the granl of politicol irrdep.endel1ceto l'he Pnilippfmg, in 1946_ Migration provided a 'rlillaose valve to the s'l"lihing pecsant unrestin Ihe North ()'Nill[!

to the

of lands in !he h'i';wd$> q wealthyfow_ On {A the pretel(t of cverpopulntlcn or ov:en:.rowding probl:€ims inlhe. m)rrln:mll blGlnds more res,eHlemernt schemes were ~rnnlan~e.nt€!d throu.gh ag-enci€ls
fncr€lasing coneenfrution




sroffed with Christion nlipirws·. nl(l [eonornic Development COr1pS (EDCOR) Iprog ram in 19 50 wos (l maosuea pu rsu ed 10 po rll y defLJS~thg I-Iu k" a groti an j'e.blililion in CerriTo'! luzon by resE'!ttli!1glnnclless "Hub" in hnm8~lGCldsiFl Mindanao_ (~hl'i:.r gg:efl~le~ oh:fltmb:-ed were Un'! tfllfld Seltlem€:llj' (jnd DeN

velop!'!iE'!nt Company (Li\S WECO) fQ~lowt=!dby the l'-Jatif,)fIul Rp.$~ttI~rnel!Tt an cl Reh G,bi! i ~{]'Ii on Ad mi n lstro Ii011 {NARIt-\} of 1?.5 4 I und the e~ kMi~ h!I'M n t. Mlly, IQf e Land ,'\u Ih Nil y !.ats r fo lue.;:o m e th e De~ t'l rfmarrl of




Re·form in

fhe 1960s

cmd 19708 {Gowing,




11/90: 10). TheJnlpod of rsseftlemen! p.olidp..!> (.md the lend laws vJhich le:gi1i" mitBdlhe' influx of more ·.s:-ettler.$ ond corporate pell~trotion into the .SolJlh co n be ~·e i n~w phe: n om QrJ 01 qwwth of pOpLJ ief on in th e postwar y€lm~., an In so shori a 'lime, I'he indigen(,)lJs 'inh(fbitw1ts of Mlndunoo b~~~(:m1f!outtWFtlb~r~d (Tt'lble 13, Appendix) and c(lnSetltJ~ntly h;lft behind in poliliccl nnd economic "developrn~r1'LM In 1h~ MOlD people/s cuse, if!dLJC~r.J rni'gmfion d~~pla'c@dlhemIrom ~heir donl(fil~S and pushed them inlo Ihe,i!"ll"l'!~ rior where rnos! M(~ro communities am found to{kry,'" It! [J,'e(;1S:where non-More scltlers come I'il pr~ll(")min('.lle, political power from thp- MO!QS shifl>ed to rile Ch rbli(jl~111iqmnt~, Old
ne ......pWClvinC!;!$, .r:rellting new pollficcil
,tybrQ pr{_wlnce~ W~rf!

~wbdivlded into



prlor rfghb'1'o lond "",htlp. tha lattl3r (~JStififld t'h~dr hornesleod riqht_~.. C(J~ElS <A ~mc.h"COnfrontation ovcrlond clcrrns w'e- docuruenied in MIO EDCOR forms in Buldcn God KCfpotogan of the Cotobato and l.nnuo provlncas

the Mdr<ls

I~,th~ dec:od$·$fQllowing World ,\Nor H, 'lhE! rmtoflonf'::;nl blill~.,,€eri a nd ~lh C h ri sti ",1[1~e:!H~ rs LOn'ti n LJ ed, Th €I Iormer o.s~ erl'e d irr~Jr e

Magdakmu, 11984: 41"42), Vvhot began as violent among (J few indiv'ldLJois from both :;ides (em qggnevoo ,Morn '(:If'1d.own~.r who.~e land wns mistak0nly aJlocclfed 1<) CJ r,ettler resol"h9d ·to revenge killing prompting the relulives of hi!: v.ictim to kill him} precipiIScaff, 1955;
dteclln confronto'lions

Mer-6's [Jnd thGMarc grLe'/tmc€!~ li).(.,pcessed in vlohl!rd rw.id".J~tt_~~reCid f{Js~ and jh~ re~uqJi'!nce of U,ota local
lal!fld reCi.)rr~"t:e unrest
(Hl''Wllg rfHl


'of sociel


bre'C1kdown of jow rmd order re~'istcm ce

in some

MLJslim aroos.


rJiJ' the

iKamJun J"i'J1r:d'

i on



1"( 77, 1 1 'I} begot]



Q I oJ-I'p.n 1i 0,11, l~gr$jut!V[~

Thus, by 19 54,


[orrnu kl~E':ld fr~r Muslim

Mirldcmao on the baSIS of IhE! recommendations of Q Special CcJtlgrtit$10001 Commitffie (composed of M()ro leghlotQfS) tash~d 10 inv~~I1~JrJl'l'! tfw "Moro problem," ThE! cqmmitt€G mlled ror' Iha "Integmtiqn of the Muslims i!1~(:)th~ Philippine body pditic~ in order k;l A.tf0d "i n a more rapid Qn~ complete n%H1W re Iheil' et[Jnon1ic, socrol. moral arid pd.ilka] odvcnccmanti (Mastura! 1984,245, quoteJ i 1'1 .salgadol 19-89: 'Iii}, 01l~! resp(H'se



o nol \... s c vested with powm:s never fully entrusted to lt, nor was itgiv~n fh.e resources to ~ffeeti'y'elv carry out it; functJ6ns, As turned oul, Its prc.~grom for the

to this recornm endotior1 wClS th e erection cif the 'Cm'llmiSB 10 n on N ef Il'lt~roliQn (eNI) by virtue of R,A, 1883; 1957, The eNI, however,

rdtef ond'di!ly~loprMnt of nation.ol mlnorales hod little effe'f on majority of the '001'0;5 pnd o:the rind i<gen s gru LI P5, Sup po~edly on rl1'lp Iementorlo 11 ou of the state's first social policy for the Moros, the Commission was unable to. clter the conditions of the lTIino.!ity populotlons nor respo!\d to their needs and bEing about thsil' il~tegrati"orl (I.hld).
The Sencqte\Comrn~tlee ani National Minorities amendeq the eNI chcrler in 19M on fhe b{]S~s· !heir 1963 study of Mow prob~ems C!O fhe of MorOSlhenlselve's ~rcelved them, The Comrnllt~ report identified n'jand problents~' ns the most importont al'no'[J"9I [],lltlie ~ole'goli~s ,o'fp't"obJe~s confronting the mirlolities {the others being educa'~ion, livelihood, heGllth end lronsportction), cmd offeclinQ their rdatior'l$nlp with i'tie Chrlstiun sM· tlers. Althougl, it t~nded to view the Mol'o' questlon moQro€! concretely by lo,oki-flg into. the people's perspective .of Ihe proplerfl, the .<:ommitte4;l report reS~l;.te.db.osk;oUy t he sa rflEf,po IiOr' fmn''I(~wor~ - thot of i nt~g ratl ngr he Moros crd ether ethnic minorities into 'the Filipino not,ionol polity, The Committee's study of 1he problems of minorities thus. proceeded from the premise tim' lh~ main obstocle ta the in~6grolion of ,MQro COI11mtH1it~es'layI] the. gl(lring I


dlsporlties that nave prevo,led over 0 long' 1irne. (Masturo,. 1977)_ The rscom mendel'ions of the Com rntitee {the «Ma no t'I R~pori'~;') were later reflected in tho additional functions 0+ Ihe eNI, most e$pecioHy that of assistitl'g, the M.olrOs in Iheir lend cloims. The eN I, however, WQS onsu c:c:essfu IJUI~::- to th(1l cornpl exity d: lego I proc€iedi ng Sin the adi udiwUOFl of the people's land problems and also because of theinsuffiden.cy of funds fSalgado, fot.. eH.; see ols 0 5 i Iva (p.~"~~ud.}, 7 9): 19



L.and dispufesorisinq from ccnfldingdai!"il~ bIJS€9 on .oppposinn concepts 9f tenure. sy~tems would endurs as a 1'l"iCij6rini'tant in rt.1)kl'tiorl~ cmong IVlor6$, tti10ls and Chr~stkm Filipinos; Int~r-ethnk shrmi$he~ (for ~,g,., belween Morn furrners end 'Christian I.ogg,ers.) erupted in Cofabc;Jto and greW" too high pitch in the eorl-y 1970$. Arrne.d clashes spllled lnto other rom rnu nlfies ]n Centro I Mi ndonco, whe re the fighti ng wcs first confined, set off by the veodetkis· ~:U;:f"oA"e0i"1 jhe armed Mom ond 11On-Mor,o· vrgikmte gruvps. 1he most notorious paramilitary' group was 'lhi1l "ILAGK [liferolly meaning Nrot") reportedly hocked up by ChristiCl"l polltlclcns oJ"ld the COrllstClbukHY. Its Muslim ccvnterporl was the Blac6hirts, ~ord to be' the miljtary arm' of the Mindanao independen(..€l Mov0menl founded by



Mora p6Ii~ic.ians ~Gt.'l-wing, 1979:192-l94, Ahmad; loccit;15),.ln 1.971, the Moro Ngiiono! liberalion Frof'l' (MNLF) was, ~ormolly ,organized. In a $peJ=ial Moro ~\$5ambly cOFlVened by NlJf Misuol'l in Zcmhconqo In tlie same year, portkipClt'lls resolved 10 achie .... the goal of t,heroting the e Nfl,ong"stI M(}ro~(Mom Nahon). The MNU' abo critid-zed Americon irnpericllsrn for i~~"plunder ot ". noturc' resources lncludinq alh and minerals N In th.e Bong'sCi Mom hOrr'leltmd ~quoled In Buco'V, 1987 :25). Und.er Mdrti a I Law,1 h a MN Lf erne rged tlS the rri oti org an ize.d 'and widest-based Mora resistOFlce It engaged the gove.rnmeni in 0. War tt;ot repor-l-edly requlreclthe-deployment oi hvo-lhi-ros of the Philippine crrnedIcrces (ihid,) w~ose ope~'(lti()nsco"Je(ed(]lmoM 60 percent ~ the land moo of Mir'l,jom:HJ ~'1ndSulu (Ahat, 1997: 18~,I! As a resu]] of the intense militarization, large numbers of Moro and Christian rehlgees left their communities, EtOtimates of the number at Mora re4ugees creoted by Ihe conflk:, ranged Irorn 250,000 '10 rl million, indudiF'i~ those' who f1@dto S.aboh(ci~ed in DOTlln nnd Ra~hagtm, 1981 [. Al ,he war's h~ight in the mid.70s, areas evocuclad were esl1nKrted dt over a million hedor<3S, '(Ahmad; lec.cit.:3).
Two- ul'lp'!Jb!.ldz-ed rnissions con.duct6lq in j 9.72 reveal the continu1n 9 dis possesson indig~naLis grouP!;' in -I he 97 O~L The 'l:lJO nomic Mi sslon to.- Mindanao, in its (.Jnp1,Jblishedreport, -Cited "..ith concern the rapid end uncontrolled "opening I)p~ Miridm'lbo'S unsettled parts which had




res.ult'€d In indiscriminate, e:.:ploitatiot'1 of lhii.! r6g1arfs resources, Fut"lhermore, 'where t~e.moderniz:ed ,pkmtations r.:Jndi~dustdes were estoblishedl

~the MU{ll.im communities hove irl\(ori'C1bly losl their lands: end resources."
The other report from the Presldel1tial Land PoliC), Cornmifte~ ecrroborctsd the ftlrmer'sfil"dj,ngsl noting ~hal "members of culturoi rnlnoritiescrid otl1er sr(101'settl ern have been] driven away b~' i nf1\! t:i! nncl pe rsons {,:ind big compo ni es who have bee n cwcrdad tYg hts to lallds len 9 {loc;u pied b'l' fbrlfJIer group$'" (Mastum" 19'77, roc.: eft,), It recormnended thc!'t onocc\J'l'ole cenSUG an status o·f reservotlons and i'he extefl'I' of s.eHlemenl' thereon be


rna de(J brei.) ,


What fol~owe.d

WQ~ the
05 OSD

d~nt'iol Decree 410 known

Nlor.;:-os gO'o'ernment's. encctrnent of Pr~si. the ~<ncestFollLands Decree. Appwved in concrete response to

1974, the Itr,w wO'S la u ded

lend DSSiJ"eIrid a 0

:;i-ep towcrr'd::: pre!;erving the territorles of indtg~nQos cornrnunltles, albeit percelved by others os an in·effB~Hve proqrom and contributing I"iothing to Ihii:, premcfion of the indig.enous ~oples' o ncastrc I IQnd righ:ls. PO 410 defined Ofl(;estmllands as orsos occupied ond cultivated by Ml,islim end tribal Filipinos on an excluslve, open and continvcus basis for I'h~ pcsl 30 years, The decree stipuh~e5 ancestral IOl"1d.~ should b~ subdivide~ int.Q Ilve-hectcre fomlly plots, after which titles will be given. In its Yl:lo.rsof existence, no Mom or tribal Filipino acqlJired ar1¥ title pUr'5IJOI,j' to the de-



cre~ Tlus con be el plumed Df an Imp eHleohll9 order tMlnl~'r'~ of "',ar'IJ tol ReSOWf<flS r~~neml Aarr;lnl~'rotl,. '.:- rder f-.lo ::erlfl~ at I';) l.:ll which ~Hecll... ly negclfed IbEl deerel;!" by tl..:(;:'mphng irom Ir~ co~.erCl£l~ +0I'r.m r r~' e serves. wQ.el'!;h~d'$. end creos e~s6J)haIIO reseorcn recreuuon, scenic uno

wildlife purposes. TIICl order "~""9u'~rh~: oncestrcl r(]F1d n, 11 lor 1111 111(J~t~ It~ wl10 lo~lod to nCl~ll1ale 111euecree's UI11m ~n en:oUIe. lJ.r..:.tyl.lIUm. (Jrid ""tire lmuble 10 lI(qUII propel Idl~~ 1(J I t~lll'!'. of t!I I!: :Jp~H.J ,-II dr euuct-n 'III rLyflc!" 1983:1

Th· L orlrrl,dl~ hC"fI L" en I nd ('wd 11~ l"Ol'ltllpll r. In gl)~ HI 1'ht: ~orl'Jtlc..1111 1f 1he Indigl:nuvl. 1 p pI.1 ( n(] 8ratll~rs) Tilr ~tlI'n,· L onu 1dll:11I)1l ~ ol'S. l·rr~·1;.' j III rh,~ p( • ,tll II l JII,l( II In A,I rot 1111:lA\Jlcil'ol'''ou~ R'uu,cm ~ ML.I~IHn M~rtdur'Ol lARI~!JMI Clnd rill" Cornpltlh~fl~I"'t' Agram:m Reiorm Lo... tCA.RlI r 1988 both I;;in~I<·t ;J urlll •
wm" VI~W

lhe Aq~ilr1(l oo",c!lnm~nl

72 H Thl::l rl~s:poflol ..)f prorechon 01 ht: r1te~lr(tI d0r11{J1 tS/lHl1d- (II Indi-gEmous culturul ccmrnurunes (.;leI" 1 Art XII. nonetheless provides ha "lil1~ secured under lhe Torrens s,-s ern ono ('gh!s alr~ad" vest d und~lr

t~~e: Galrnoylon

9cmlr. oct, whr!e deci[]ring




:should be resoeci d· ISc - :2 An XlI (Rep Ad No, 6734
CARL cornoms
0 :51JTt1Of


SyS1em from cncesrrcl lced dClIf"n:' ~1;) ....a~-2'; lHl[ll~ in ~_A 673.4 whpch pre-Ieels lond~ lost Ihrougn rD1C~ IP.(JWUl/C, the CARL's defini ticn of Pl"lcestrol lands j'a_ils to !=JToled 11)I1ds or do~n.oll~~ bs1 IhroLJgh hJl'ca rrmi[:!u(e Or forcible \J~urrAlfJc!fI [Sedtoft 9, RA No 6657 [1988f) in Ger man, ht., 1992. 6.7) bet gmt'1lif1g ~I~ollf til@!! ouronomouc re~[on~, the respeclive l~grslo!ure'5 mar e"ad jneir owr bm .,m or~c_esh'oldO(nQin en~J[lciClted in this Ad and ot~, '\!ljicnal laws, cI-ernmi\jr dgfOrltm refc·rm lows '10 be enocted in the {VIU51Im • \Jli::mcmous '~gll ." could not COf'ltrodkt . e).;15tiog stole lows (S1,Jcn or; Sec 6 l of: QS} '=:In::;ri UhGr.) nor resuliin the

by the

1 he
TOI rens




those covered

Jolter'!; ornendrnent.
In oddillOTl,

o rnojor

I';lter.J 01 dl;>s.eJ1Slon ~n the enccrment

of k A

6734 nnd theeveots thcr led 10 I~ \l:>h 0 r III PO~l tl ve Mora respooses lern off delll"l!!oling ~h~"ovl;l of

eKplOJLn50whv r~911Jw dl~ [101 - '5 ~hr. q ~tl on or te m to r,' OF the pro I-> rhe area 10 conS'lrl1Jt~ the r~r;p.orl 0-1 (W
pH;.~m[~, 0

h.ch nlso

lnces cknmed

MorQ3; conccp inn or ao m-eh.ltoble cknrn ho one s Vltluti:: 01 ada. wfllch connects TErrnlary wl,h d,~scent tJ!~d Ih 'lIlh _filed l~f'1ce;hnJ fl{lh l'. rom I L 0 suhcnores em I nncipoli llus, Til Oruu Il\cludes 1ne fi~" pro~mcos Ihm have ma~orlly Moro populo. lions ~IQnno Sur, MngulnuuruJO, BI:1'(;llo'1'Sutlr on r ruwl Towi) "nt] iglhl

mOIl Iy stems IrOI'n Imi kJlltis/dorn!llii

The ARMM cOver~ b~ lhe MNLF

rin] O~





rhe original 11 prov Mora r he I~~ue l III



olhe::lr$ WhOl;~ POPUICl1Iol1~ rltd nOW PII'~rwhC!lmmnl~


b'ul whtlrP3




Not sIJrpMsif'lg I~, the Morns rego.rd the Orgol'llk Ao 'for Muslim

an "~elT!ascvlotedl impl0Fn@ntoltion of fne Tripolil Agreement'

(Mjndev~ 1995: 25),

different ,from the



IregLon91 ~Ol:Jt9nOmOli'5," ~i.'~'1 created during the Man:::os era, As to the let-

.•. {;I Imge nu m b!.!rof Muslims cfte.r I~H;: org~ nizr,ltion of Reg 1011 IX and XII ......re, shocked to fi nd tht;ll lerg-e pam of e their tmdiliQnal hornelond, I0gelheF with th~ir' Muslim POPI)ICilions; "'~(€l 0 1J~~de tila two reg ions QIIIQ,ttEld. to in e ,Mu sllrns, witness South CotQb(Jto, DCiVOO Bukidrioi1, Palawon, etc.

(Mo~(l!l"Ora, , 9B3-1984~]

16), go.\le

dimension to rnokIng M~ ride nUD a- -priprity for 1"1'10$31V6 i nil"mtrvctu r.e devebpment pro reds. But while Inte'nded 10 olleviate pOvertyl the dev~lopmefit projects: clso intensified the exploiloliorl the peoplti's [errd end rs5Q\UO.ll~, end, in some areas, aggrav'QI'ed the IQnd proble.m(FianzQ, 199.6:79). Local peopie a Iso p~rceived thep~ projects as bel'lef'iciol moinly to outs ide infere.§ts. Two of such lorqe-scale programs, one built under the Mor"Cos administratioll

The M[]I'C~ adminis:lroti,o{'J


!ts cQ'Unter-ir'lS:urgency operat1ions

in Mindanao

(Salg!1do, Joc.cit.) by


and lhe other under ,th~ Aqulno pnasi(.Ienc'f, w~re the Agvs

Pmied of the MamMo villagers suff.er€d dlsplocement .ond the~nfry pi new settlers [see Washburn, 198'; "Our lake. For Others,'; DRe R,e.s. Bu'-, 1977 ;ond Wences1ao 1990), 5imilarly, the fishporl project dtsplacoo Ci MoguindQMO community in Barangay Tarnbler, General Santos City (see: Aoi, 1993; Fia n zo lOP.. c;it).

dcm projects, and the Ganem I Santos Intern.o1ionnl Fishpori Mindanao Gmwlh Plan. With the /::onstfl,lcti,O'n of the clams.


II, and IV



The loss ond e):.propriotion of
.a nd th e erosi on. of the peop,let s i n:dlgenolJs lend use public poliC'y {and events/c,h'oUlg,es reS-\.!Iltin~ from

Moro oncestrol lends

and resources practices eithe r by

it} or by outright IOllldgrobbln'lg ht;ls clso ,oifected other Mora ethnic: gm.ups oithQtJgh liHle hos been doc umented about Ihe. lotter' s ~pe riences in ih is ~ontex:1. This fQc~ may be unferrt';!.dfrom the s.uf\ley da~a snbWl n'g ttle ~poli.dents.' bworeness of the changes or events that hod an lmpoctcn the Moros.' truditions 011 lond Clnd noturo] resources use. From the dateli in Tobl:e 11 1 .A, IOAdgrobbin9t mUit(lfizQtkm, boundary disputes, development projects (lInd



stete land policies or programs werE! the most frBqw~n Iv cited foctors per altered, rf not effoced the flAoros' IndigenclJ~ land n-yh1.s. 'I h('ls®oercepflcrrs, confirming wha"! hav€ been cited from hl~~tQrlc(.l11 do:l0, are shared by I~e re:s.pQr.d(l) nts irorn th e oth er Mo ro ethll ic 9 rou ps _

c:ei,'ed to hove

Fcllov ..-up irlil;lf'."iew!'• .of selected informants also reve'JI thol each. group had a &tory kdell In 0118 cose, Ih-f.l M.Oros lOst their lands by deloult bG~rw"'-~ rhflY failed to perfect their tHies, Wh-en Ilie? G(Jt'1fikl $?"r~md 10 lamboango in th~ mid -70g cousrng. gov.ernmaf"Jt fQ~es to move ;n, K{}ilblJgon formers [0£ with 'h~ir CI1(isji"cm l1(lighbors) lefi their fcnlTl-s Qnl'~ '0 find neW migronls in possession of Certiticntel> of Lend OWnefsnip Awmr.ls (CLOAs~ oq::vpying· the land U [:lon therr ~t\Jrn (Kcr[ibu.g:an ir>.ter ..ew, .i Dalon.gin! [pi], Ott 1987, ~nd :.sepl, 1994)_ The K.,;drbugorJ farmers htJ..,~ givll)(1 up contfostin.g their clnirrt. The siClr~' 'if rhree l<afogQrl' fa_milies In K"odonl_oan,Matil-eJis ·of their pimllar drSpO~~~5SI0nqf about 64 hectnres 0 untitl,w lands ("'ihh;:.h formed part of their Nkcrt!fT}poOrl~)by (.i bos.nessrnonsettler of Spanish descenl, The GQS{! dragged ,n court for !our yeDTs until the complainants gove IJ.Pi unable to Clflord~he cos I of court l~ligo~lon ~,~k,gan ~ntervi,ewl Matft" 00';'00 d~1 Sur, Ma::,r,.1994j, Land dispo.ssession also [es~J~ted in ccses when wealil;y dwisti(:1n, s01tI~rs CQllvded \·;~th local Christian (or in some cases Momj offrcials who took advcmtaqG· ·of the f.AorQ!l' fgnoronce of Philippine lurid la\l~s and gn;lbbed from the I~He.rwide tmct5 of their Itl.nds. One Sxwg/i·mo who. lost C:I wide tmct of cornrmmcl !~AQIb<?g, !Gnd ..vhfeh h-~ administered i,llutlmt,es this $1tlFalion, VlI1hou'l the ~l1gl'im"/5 I.;nawieqge, the land was SIJ1'V~y~q in the early 19505 and consequentlv fit:i~d in 1966, in the name of 0 wealthy settler; The Mc:lbog dlif!fiain q.uestloned ·the se tier'..:;· ncqvisiti¢n Cljth~ land end sought he ,mb,lrCltion qf the rll{J'(c'( ~wh~ Wr'JS(J Jerne -Mopun)_ The moyer detidl'lcl ill foyer of 'Ih~ settlerenthe b(J~Ji~, his.completed 'tfile, The corrplcmcrrr wo.s of ~d...sed by 1heglccol Bur1flou i~f Lcifld~" Dff~cilJr6 to pl.lr~ue his cess r:J ~he i t:;o.m nnd claim rightful o'•.,.netship.bQsa-d on .WntIIiLlQUS occupcncv. HowprQc~~~ng of

e'le,r,tHe C~:;0 never tOQk -!;.\ff os th~ cost af the SlJJV€)! (oj;48 hectare.s)· Dnd ropers rnade il diRievl1 fell" the Molbog clnirnonts {Mol bog

Ir)M:rv·~ew, Bar, Doltl, ~qlabCl(' Pobracion, POloworll,Od,

1he s~cura,r' of other ~,AQI'O cornmvnlties is net only tJ-,realerled b'i

ev.ents described it! the sltuotions ecrher mentro ned, Other forces, 1,.1[1leashed by post klild policies. have e"ffocled changes,. not only in thctr concepts of lend possessiorr, but e .... ln the. fitestyle of Moros, HJ.e-effects of en
exposure of rurol Moros. 10.. other group.s or structures aside from ~ei't'o!-" slJch o~ bu ~ines.s estnbl ish rnenls, ind USi ries ('To IG 1 l-Aj 0 nd ethe r private b
e",iiies, have ot fimes been negative_ A case in point is the situation today of the lrnnonsIn Buldoll M(J9uindClnQo- The log.ging indostrles owned b't· wealH11'Chris"lifJI1 businessmen have forced the lronon 'Farmers tq .shift to



toff,e~ c~"tivdtior'l. Rice could I'l.a.lcing~r grav.' in the p[ains due to contlnuCU$ logging which conseque.nt~y.eFode,d the soil and dried t~e rivers, Violence ensued alter of t he I99g; ng cempo n i es refused to corn peftlsote 43 ir'(mOonFarmers, whose coffee trees pl,anti3d ill 1 r~,5 hectores were 'de5tr¢~'!'ld by fhe firm's heavy equiprnJ;lnt wh~m these entefed Boldon and cleared the wc,y fcrtne COmpQI1y'5 logging opaf<:.l'Hof'ls iAloiarnienfo, 1990;


In this discussion, the primory Iocus wcs limited It) ·theoveraH impact of stai'a pdlq on tb~ M?I'O people's indi'(JIe;rLlDush'b.clition;'; on ~and and land te-n,ure. ond the COr(€sp.on.ciijng poflems- of reloflons. In cornblnothe two Cor~stitute a ITIotrix for i'he Mora lai'id system, The' colonial gOll'emment's land policies. upheld by the PQst~-,;.ar Pl-1iliPPine state and the subsequern pollicies adopted for the SoU'!'1!eiTI rhi~ippinas .have, os 1,"1 whole, alteeed O"the basis of Mom ogr-iclJHurol societ~! -. the, system Cif More cuslomary IQnd ownership and tiesto oncestroj londs" ,{RocOn1oro, 19..80:241), The totol P9ttem of land· pollcies based on a system of privo;le pmp'ilrt'l rig"l;!is, hcs corre.sJlondingly c:hang,~d the pre-e~1stlng mode of producflon in Moroland. The end r(!)s~llt is 0 hierarchical Iorrnntion where bJg


Q.grib-l!sines~ ccrpcrctlons, wealthy Christian. landlords and 0 small MQm landho,lding elite ore. ct the top, and ct tne rniodle, a gr@"oter number of smoiliandhoidingi tille~ of Mom peoscnts 6utrwmbering (he Christian settler-lcrmers, Further downihls .~trm(J ore the large moss of Chdstian settlers and l.umed ond (] lesser number of Morn' p.~man~~·dili:pr~'i'ed of r;Jriy land at nil (AFRIM, 1'98"9); Bul in recent ~'eClrs, mojority of the rurn] iVk)(os· have incre:asingly been pushed into the poorer pe()~o.nl' doss. Ahhqugh land COl1centration in MindcnQo has os wen reswlt€d in the dis.placeri;~nt of Christi on end l.urnod penscrns ..... the expansion of locol big, (lgrib'l)~irL~s il'h CH1d h-arisnntiona! corporofiore gaining sIgnificant control ove.rMrndan,co's·
land resources {AFRIM, MF'J1 1989 nos. 20-21)! rvrollv~oros carry the ,added burd,en of ho\iing limited opportunltles for income augmenting-activities (Alojamiel1to, 1993.), As ihe Moro p®asont economy grodlJally d~5in:le. gmted w 1th tile mass ive 0 pen iilg Q:f the Mi ndo no o frontie rs Q I t he storl oJ the t::erltuty, subsistence forming. dlscppscred, Mom Oind more rural Moros 1wmed to rJfodl.ldng cosh crops like -c 0-:;0 [11,.1 IT ccssovo, rice and obocc

(AFRIMI 19'89); q1hers moved down to l'h~ lowland aretls and ~re; cbin huge picmtcltions wh~rE! M6"ro lobor is ,oken las:t t{'; be hired (Aloiarnie-rJ'to, op cit,), Fvrther< Moro~ Who hl;lV6 remained in their small lnherited 10rms hav® st9yed poor; With no capitoll to b.uy the n~eded inpl)1's and unequipped wilh modern form tools, thriws~Jbsist on

sorbed osjormwcrkers


borel.y enerugh


farn~ly consumpfion,

Drawn by

ne{:e$sity- to adopt



to the 1enurial arrangemerois of the new landholding M(J·ro formers are €'xploit'Bd by usurers, landowners,
duction IDols, ond

sys1~m, ihe labor owners of rented procrop .traders' who gro;s5~y underprice Mom peasants'


prod u ce (APR~M, 1989).
Abo di$fur9e:d wer~ the old relqtion~ Qrobligojiorls of reciprocity of'kInd·tem,.JrEl_ Pf~viOlls.ly [cnd-owninq !;Ok9P were graduolly relegated to the 5mh)5 of tenants Qf Mow I.cmdbwners ""flO 'were able to
inthe system maintain [heir po(;s.essjoi'l of the vast trccts lond Ior their P'f'ivole, indi~Jdual family ownership to few of them o... ing huge trocts (rmging from m 50 to rno re them 1OD hectares a nd who earn thej,;- 1ncome prima rl'ly fro m



the exaclioo of land rent {AfIl:IM, 199]).
owners ollsoengrog.e in the trqdillg

A r'iumber of these of form produc® ~,(bid.).

Mom ian-d·

As to Mo 1'0 I rod !tiona I lond us e and ownersh I p, r;J sign1f1 con i num ber of Mo ros have a ppre ntty Cch(;m~®cJ thei r LOn cepticns a bowi lemd, Evident' In the survey's results is the ucceptcrtce 9f mcrjority 'of the respondents, wi~h th e exceptl o n of the Norll1 Cot.a'boto .Mogu inoa noo, of the $tot~' S' power of eITiiner;~ dornnin to tGlke over in& ..ld,.mlly end collectivelv owned
lend crrle due. c;ompeflsClti0(1 end for purposes of development (Table' 9}, Th ey a Iso e0:pressed th err readi ness .to a cq u i re indiviq va I possess Ion! use of IDnd, 0 nd considered th i s as the rnQ.st preferob le land h01din 9 prnctice (Tab Ie 1D-A] , On liyomon'Qi t:he Song u jj did rno jOlrity exp ress th0 htgh est preiereflce for co Ilecrl~e cr« nersh Ip Q.f land b~t th~ da n N ki n grou p, FLJ rther., asked as to It.' h@tner (lr r1Df they CIpp roved of'~Ub+~din 9 1 ei r Oflc€sJra I h land to th estate! s·1a nd t:egistr(ftlQrI ond 1iding 's''1sterr;, a lo rge petc('fntog~ f46%} of the r€SepOOdenfs agreed, the recsons most fr~quenlly given b.eing thesecurify of their oWf)Brt.hip of the l(Jnds endthe probability of lessllf disputes, among- co-owners or claimanfs. '·1 Whe n q werled as tq th~f r chol ce d th e modes of resolvi ng ttl n d jOlity pf lhe respond e nts p referreq the ~adat system fa IIow~d by

d lspu

tes,. me

od'ju?icotiol"l b~Qur"onk: lew,. for ~i~PiJi:~~ (n';!olvTng- parti~~· frorn the some kil1 0 r eth rtlc 9 roup (~ohle 10 -.8) _ The 'smGlII~,'Mo ro eth nic 9 rm.rps tend ed to p.ref.eF Mgojei 0 n o-f ICiin.d dis pules- before .corn m U n i1y heo d men, 51III, there was -0

sig n ifkant 13 pe rcent who p referred I he 'settl em ent ot conil ict in the fhu;ITppifl€ courts even for cases thot cue p\Jrelcyit9fem,aj ~Mor6~ affairs, arid
o Idrgel' nUlll'belr (22%) indicating will'ingnes.s or attepiance of the somf!

mode tor despctes Involving outsiders Incn-Moro£

or mernbers of other

groups)c The equtl.lly significant- petrentage of 20 percent' favoring the use of Islamic iow whe;f) the Irtigonts in the- -confJicl belol~gl 10 other ethnic grou'ps ma~ be'exj:Jtair'led by the res ponde nts , perception of the Icirnesse] ~sllJmic precepts and br the mel tnClI :such c;onflids may arise in




communities which, althou.gh ethnicoUy mixed/ are predominantly Ml,.ldim in relig:k:lh, It may also be ~h(J1 Moros ..... have adopted the practice of ho

kind titling Mill ~,~sor~ to the odCJt· und/or ~he Islamk system set! le rnerrl becouse it 'is o faste'r, less ~omp 1i cote d, le$s cosily
sa ri Iy in.... ve bou n de ry Of ol for the Moronoo's effie),

of dispute
t'l nd

mo re

df~tient method as perceived by the. r!#spol1dents, Also, seHlement throlJ"gh adaJ er lsi a rnic low may be ~S9~d' to in land dis put,as 'thQt do rloi necesOWI1E:

rship problern s ~sef;l!o,~so Abdl"llllai1, 1 9·89: 25



VO'rI cos cOl'lfl k;ti ve events ll ka Iend [)1 rabbi ng 1ncide nts 0 nd 111il ibiJwere identified cs dev'Ellopmenb in the. community "hot moy have: their 1"radilio!)(l1 practices obout land U"S€r (Table ~ 1.Aj _ Respon.

dent also perc®iVX'.ld 1M at rna n y 10 ods I hai usedto be mono ~€K1 co IIeoii v elr by thl!l 'I111'0ge or elM such os swldden fields/ orchards end foregt ersos, are now increasingly held tor pl'ivati:i use by il'idividLJol famili'es or n.s· pi u blic-e r 9 overn rnen·t·1 nd (Tobl e 'I 'I -B}, Ar.;;tval instq nces in '1he expea riel'"i~ of MoronotJ Mor6s is ,the ccnverslcn of most Marawi land orflOS into n g~",.ernment rTiilitary r~s·ervot.1oriand t~e atquisHicn' of lend In the toWI"IS ofSaguiorornmd BalQi by the l'Jationol+dwer Corporofionfo.r 'the l\g.us II and l'he p~ar1ned A'gu~ III Hydroei€l;;:tri, Projects (InJervj~w with KALlMWDAN stoff, Marawi, Dec, 1996; Baloi lrrlormnnt, Nov,. 19'97i\'Vm,hbuFl'l, 1981).


adoptli:li;l to "new" patterns. or concsptlons

which are

Ii€:rillg ·thei r indigemo1.ls rel'oHoFls with the~f CIncestro I Icmdi5 seems th e QlIl,ly option ollowef.hl1em·today iflhe~' crill ~o ovoid conf.licl. 11' mo,!, else be said 'thaf the Moro land hm~m.<j~y.s:t,em an omdlqom of VClr10US rneons of is 'customary cecess to IOlld use (such as lnherltance,

prior use or cccuponcv, efc, [liabl{l 51 ) and tMlBrerlt modes ot ownership or wntrol of corresponding resource sites (from pdvate!individuol owne.rshlp to collective US!?, ~V the vill.age [Ioble 3]), Cornhined wifh lhe infll.!~nc:e ofIslamic precepts (su.ch os retogn1;dng pri'l6te [but nctobselure] ownership of land, and the injunction to us.eiCultivate land}; the Mora ~ oble 10 0.(:C;ep't (Westi1nni:z.eq}Philippine land Iqws_ Still, our doto reveal that extemol, mere tho n inier no I processes {lhgt ~~,the Incu rsi Q ns from bo·th the stote cri d cap[tolist forces} couslnq the alienation of More ~andl>and land use orcc'tic9S, hove: driven marlY Moros to secure their lands by roegl,steringthem and ..... elc,oming th~ pradke of tiffing, Such outside "odors' have urnpirlged on the Moro worl d view on land Clnd olte red the importo nce .or rneo n i ng

ki'lis:hip credentlols,


t"mditionallv attached

to th~ land., Todoy, londli which not so long

0900 seemed

plentiful and wa,~ the bgam(/t. reserve fot the collectlve use of all c~mmuni1y members, h(lll oecame of'! irrcreosingiy·scon::;er~.=>oJ"Jrce wh~ch needs t'o be sofegl,mrdedl especiolly from ()outsiders,•. But while there hos bE:€I11 on increasing numbercf rUFerl Moros occednngtQ some principles.¢



!he· Phil~ppr'i'le land sysmm"sLJd~ m the (lr:C~ptoFice ~albejt G:)r1,di'tronaH of Ihe stCJtfl'.~power of erninen] domain and the Use of mor<'! precise I(lnd

i'he opening· 6~ more Mindanoa or4O,CS: jnf~afor stru elt' r'e proj sets e n d ag ro- i ndllski~ I d el,leioprnen'~ tms servnd 0 s th e: irnpetus, esped?llly fQr Mom illondi:;lwrmrs,:" to reQPprti,ise lhe.value of Ic,nd. \,\11,1 same hove b~g Il.I '1 to s~f15e th e rn oteri q I opportu rI ityl m p Iidt i FI such Ie procas's'as, olher Moros, srim~,rngthe resqJltit"!g rn.cre(;J~rn9 pressure for ~G!nd (and territory), I11Ov-e re:sP9nded lby odua.lly reverting to MC')fO trodi,tionol lood concepts. .
boundary measural'rfents;


The ~;I1J y d

th e·jr i ndi

reveo ~(sth at ~ s I9 t"I ifi con t n LJ 11.Ler a f ru ro I Moros h []V€l r.Jie! t:'I0U'S sY$'Iem qe I i~f and. pnldkes. on IQ nd LJ~e, fn


Moro communifies, concepts or practices based on fhe loc.aladoi coex islwifh th,~ t' ad!he Fen ce to lsi []H'1i ~ pra c:ep tS: rAe ordl ng h::i n d h oldi n g .. i


HfMel,le~ Ih e Morm:' pre- exi.st·i Ian d use palffirn s have been n subst{]lntiolly eroded by public po,liq ~ior:e celoniel fimes, ond stare npproa ches to resol 'i1i ng fue res I.J Ilt.1I"~t c9rJ,fI id hqve te nd ad to eVlC~¥L[11e th.e prn:6len1.. G~;)~'itlg (19 7.9: 190) optlv noted 'Ihe consequence oJ thh all tne t... toros; "Tne Muslim~ resented the detachmemt ot lends; e'lem thos€: which hod &Jooe unused, from the traditional pait8Fn of community land owner·:;hlp• with ih nd(lt and lslomic. son~tiO!'l$, This re~en'irnent incroosed as fh~y sn'",' th-e stBody occupalkm ,of good lands by outsiders Md {(!Icedthe pros.·dClnt& .. "


peel Ihal' soon ·them would be jnsuffieiemi' Iliving spoc:e for theil' descenSt"eh sentiments con£eqLJenl'ly round ar:ti"culalicn in cljJ',lnml organized responses from among Ih8 Moros ln Ihe form of rnovernentsjor sOilH.

dete,rmjriotian, the underpinning ror whic~ is the qlle~ficmof te.rrifoty and land U8<e rights,'~ This, de5pit,fi llha disce1fnlb~e trend toward)'. OQE;On1I1lodd1'-


this: skit./s t<1110 po~ica'esond prQgram~.

for Cl fuller understanding of Ihe cOtlHid. 11' must hE! pnint~d oul thai ,the consequences of the dOf,=rlnatibri. of the South by political Qlld ecol")omie

TilLs slilJdy, however; leaves no furecast as to the de,finitOl sfructure or frClmeW'Ofk at:cep~1;l.ble to re.solve the Mindanao cOr:lfiich'lhkh grew tr.mrr t11(! land problem. I'nquirirlg 'in+o ollier cruciol issues would be neGe'SS"ary
sfr!Jdui'esidBntified with the Northern FilJpino ond fpre~9n elites hove 'become moffi widespread .. ThE! oc:tlvi~e!; (If lhe lotter hove [ncmasingl~' ~GI\Jsf!'d land displor.:emefil and thQ economic: rmlfgirlCi~jzCltiml O!f tho non-Mere

[lm:rtcrd and Christran) m05~e~ (S€8 ,Mindanao Coalrlicmew.:;, N.;:llt,-D&c., 1994; TFDP Report· on Centr,rJf Mindclnuo; 1997}. An adequate explcnc'km of thB j~su,1i'! mig!'1 thus require [J broader 'pefspedive from whioh can




be emmined 1he dynomics within the Phlllppin~ stcte and the external ectcrs 0 r wider i!!CO no rnic fa fees 0 pe nIy o nd coverll yinvoi v.ed III the ~orl<m ct end uri shq.ping the de.vek:ipmer~1 of the South.. Herein, perhaps, lies the bosls for the [ormulofton of o more acceptable- policy framework or d~per .~pPr9qch 10 resolve Hl$ cd-nHid.





O~ [l".,.:·tl'iI~a"(m(J

loU fnd''g>!lHoU}l


h~p,,~~ ...I""l;!cIi1 ~1!r1:}\lgll 'h~lr l'Ir~~wj~fll ,.·b:IQfl~f)lp = ,hi' (I,~a whi(h r>.tl!lliJ.l. "_, cone I'~ lokdilV ~~ (}~ It... ilILJ.JdL 1h\, .,tl~IJ'l:ll '''~II'(':"\ 'al~nd ihNo:oin Th", (OIKep!'Jnll 'II"j~tO~(,j I'!o!lUi on 1 r Ilmd r1nd ~ Urill (" J'Clhl~ bu t (11,\:1 oil 1be rr~~-Q f un;13~ f,:)LJIld I n II, ~l[' i I' 111",(or1(.(!plo'l J:l11 !Jl rJ(}1 d'~'ln[J;n fColmc: ~ton , 992, c I i.l tlo~h I "mi ~ ure

1Ii t(lFC heln~oobl Yin


illr~ pCl p[' r PollEltN ['II ~Qnd Qtjll NOPlJt(J' R,.~t:)l(rr(l~


!.~f' .l,t'li1'lIfJ rill'

1~~rCI Pr.·I)pif1 QI ~o(dhl'lrn

'IiUf1ptJ>lllwrIl 1+1!t'oyoi~l PlJr,dc)"i IJ1"I ~Jr!d ,rtll'llumrm'too ~~1QQ ~ HI" s "H'!1 rI P f,O~M I ~I i'h,· pr~it'o:l 11fJ~I:ClFflpl.·1 d II, 1Q95 ~\ o'j(Jfl,~r ~Ivtl~ 1"I"lllnfll~'J !h,", ~',rld u] .. ~\IPi'I'1' I~r,ino ~I ~lllqll~11 ~(lI)'l~lilJ (fJClruu, Mmdlllicio Fo'I,J~. J,d, q., 199~,t, Undm


~htljppll1o~. ~ lo'lS"'OfCh. prol,"C1

>'!hl~h r,', olved


IIll1! AI~~'lfIIOli' fQllil"ll

jot Rl!1<~'H1:ll 111 MmdwltlO

(!\FRIM~ 111L




(':lnll.1', IMC Ij;,. ~urvll ... Ito'f)S pWI (if AH;:IM'~ 1i'>,.Ii(:l(JI(;h11 11'11l' " modtil' r:ll prod~,nlor' 'Cr." ~('ic,ol it'lnnrJflf:)n ,n Mmtl MIr'Cirif\()t), ~(,JO:;. C)l '! h~ I Il~ll~I lind i'1id~ eli Ih~~ ooffl8'f, me-lie: 1'lI'IoIiBd ~lI"..e¥ 1m ple f)"le Mr--ri If] I ?BFI9S3 ~<t' c,r>rr:li:l>nQnt ...,..,j1h 1h!f results 01 'this ~Iudy Same r~f If." In~~rvl'3W ~~h~id1,l~1I.' Ih~fll~ h !'on:" WI"rt' CIdo p,,,d 'n:;m IhCl r 1I1 DU'~flla'~ m500 rd 1 II'~ F\4) (")'1 Mtli£li'!OO lond ow",~["!;hip and !he c-c:umlSJ'liaJl Cernmtsssen Oil Trlbel FI'ljJino~ (ECTI-) [~~pJurCl1or'f$'iljdr [compilod Md ..... nil!!11 b~' V'I"IClln~ Cullap"), S.J" In rrlDui

II(~II with 11,,1'MeH)

P.... ')pIO'!'~ ~ourcl! (



no .. 5l_

TI~e. W()tld CCHJn(i~ ol h'ldlg;yrou~ ?i!erpks d@fif1;]~ Il1diH~r\OLl:~ peoples cs thcse WIH;1from 'lime rmm!!morlal tr!l~€ 1fI~\I:li:llreod kinds. wher'2 !lir."( I'n.~
i~."e,with seoul 1mditrQ1"t5 IIJlh:l£li 10 rfu; lu;m~·Jorid Il'Ihj,!nl,~d 'ror!1lh~1r hq,'1n!;] cull\! people,


I rmlto. ren d'!;iI1i lhem dl5"lmr I and [lEl imfTI


us "l'frhe


,,-len tI ~

C[~ n


InE" dehm11011

c r~


Ih2 Pittn02




b~ the

Corol!IE!H:l RegmlXll

.cofl$f~t<;!ntly e~p.~~~d

CQn5t.!hl[]h~1!! CarnntLs~ion 1ntHI by f>hdip~lnE! Ifldig~nou~ peopl~ trnc! 1nE!.rr jupparJ'




islho~ it is the form~r'~ !tpt.ciol ~l1JI'~~ 9utl~:onr~ es

intl'lE! Philippi'H~ CCf'l~tituti6ll

thol sets.o p-ort their do Ims j-c !tJ ntl. i'e;5(l1Ifl:e '1gl1 rn:. und ~ u J'(1 n OtM ko fI'I oi h er rninon Mes·. Lond is' (] tiO'y 'I~SUE! ;! flO! 1 he .1'I';Mt rlKljr.:;r ot'!~k:.::~d by mo f'j~ 01 the world rn InIH Hie-!; WI(jl~'t, 19"9 ~ - ;; Ell

• ThE!



1r.e: 5amul YO~Qo". BOrll"lO,




01 Iha 5 ~llr;.Ju re h i p2lo\:jo who ""'1!1f" once !.i.Ib~L"Ci~p fuJ\ol~;lhe Kologorr, SCllgd Ko!i1:nJgo" r1l'1d lml'llJl"

les of rhp ~In u ~ug) S~d IJ~ 111

ere QI'lC"l

u rtP,,_J' rh~ ~rhe-r~ 0'1 i" Hu~"';:_~ of • h 0 M(HIUlndonoo ~ull(lr"l~, n d I'fie' flo lo, 'on r tlnd M(')I bon of 'ioul hFOI rlWJ:l rr. , Ih~ no flo M LJ~li e>1~1101 i ngU'~'hC gmvP'S mdlge." ou~ ro MI ndn noo. l u mod FI'I
IU'}gU1~lj(i!JlI ( gnd g ~ roph LCQlly d 15~I!'lc1'fro rn m lJ,nJr 'iy"dd"Il ers, hIT~~ bp.0i3ndnYflni(l M ,rkl nn 0' ~ H'fl''lI~'1 IlrllrL'dlunds b~' 1h~ inAH~ oj k"""jr;lliid rhri~hrm Qt1r1 MQr(j sl'lltlers ritltl 'Ihe iIlW,~ioli d nil"JI'mFflj,lI1' I'Irawrh (Jndi bl.l·~m~~ or."rnh":lrI~ INCCP-P:ACT 1981U! I?) fJ1€IlI'iS

»[lrmFli fO jj,


pJQ fe. '. AI~D

lhe MQrrot., Ull~ I uri ,od

1'1111'1 "'~ PI

SrmH.r I. Jlrlfld~ who
li~, (.lI1dIIV{)

'Hmo In!!d lti ~h~ If hom~Jond~



lowle! n·d ~",nlu t :' ' p!trmamm'l

~~~ !'~In of C1{j ri(:~1 re wl1l1;h ~j~iilH!'~ HIJ plo~ P(>05MtiUld Inicrrr~onb

~ ['<mrl

lorrndfiP"~ilcl 01 ~hfl,r IW"ltk 6oIoFI9il1!:'i to MClro 9IO'"'F1'!1 rrujro r'~a!n1Iy ~oi'i"'m',;:id 1'0
OM "'orl

iflJ r


~IDI"'ing bmln

islc.r'l such as thiJ Kalibvgo.n troi'n ~(>€O'shorvest 10 BQdTu~, Molbog,




irnofr). (pr(]yer

n:'.~ntlof.'led Ihe glVll1~J of ~(ld(1qqh (~'()~urflury alrm:l leodstj'. Of p~ re,spcnaenl grO\.1p~, lh~
I-he leQstaware,

ancl Falqv"Clnl





land u~GJIQnd attrlb\Jte~ land ~,I~o;! :pHllClIc.e~ 9tI1,~lv to o_dat, ~Pe<:l i <110, In the comrrwnHy or 'ogmtUJ [h:lI1won.g ln PalqWQni or ,b.G'!'1\O)D Irr p kalugui1} ~fQg~ fg'stIV8 c.ornmvt'1~1 '-Ilferi1'l8:i. 'i'~ {jf'lcestnj~ ~piri't~ (the kigvioncgoy an'long K(~~ibug(JrI, kO,P(:lm(l'n9'u.I1go,j U'I'f1C1ng rural Mar-ano(')) and anvironrnsnl spl~i'l's such as in" forest or the /OD99dm (ltTi<l1"lg the\ Polar-vorll (1301qro~a" F'daw<:lri "~h~r ..ew, Oct. 994) or the lIm(!gad pocy 'Or tice spirits. Cll'[l(:.ng the Yoh:m, {See.i abo INuIH. 1965; Saber, I 961 ) " Co IIed awooY<:;lf1, aiay'ol1, adkrfcrb~ng(:IY i rtlU,uup:;ln,g oyin1(J In 1he 'I'D '1O!J~ i~A~rp diul~,cl'SI_ l'his prm;tioo Qf 0' CJ::lope=tivE? fLlrmpo(_)~ sttll Gxis1S In the ~On"r-



mlJ.r'itl<l)~ of the


M{ml grollp~_ 1\4,onlhly

~ See ol~o, G'utierre?:,



C,'lfobotQ GQ v emor Dio.nid6

V'/-ith t.nvnenship
i Benl'l~).,

in Ihi'~ {:ai;~ havil~g notss tho
I (15,,'

thE? irldL8~ncu~'

.V;ot'o land te~l.,Ir-e'system 61Ii 0:; delti ned by Phil i P pifle. ,~t.o~elaws_
ie;r i:)slc'nc.8,
dl ~t ri b ~I~ed

C;JS~ ot LC;I1'lo::;l where Ihe lundo prl .... Iy ti tl ed ',mde r Phi il,Dpi I·,!! at~ low, wene perC2i~'ed as Mom om:esrmllon& frr)n) the trodjt!o, 01 par.spectiIlE, The MQronc:.c vi .....; cqnsid~.r,ed rrlDrly 0; l>Lich kmds as bclongi!fQ to 1h.... ",oon,gcu'npo.';g I~"mn(j'~')""c:'H3n if tfH;WWere, [hen \Irlu;sed_ Also, sines they' ...... Ir;r.n1ed k!r from 1~ Eit.. centers of Mo I'CIf'tOQ oowe r, ,1·AoOflUIJ~ Iol eroted thl}ir ,-,cell pmi on b V 0. ul-si d ersl [ bl.Ji !hey \.I,'9,re ltrte-!" '..rndb Ie 10 red 0; If I I heii Id nds fro 1'11' 1he ~t1ler.!) who 'lJe'i;!' bod;,ed by the C:onsto6;;flmy_, N;n .:;ome eme:;1 Itlf'rd ..... ~pvn::h(]'S9d frol"" the MOfanqo, a even fhm'9 h 'ttx'ldltl-~nd th~eul" ggvc. nQ soncl] on '1'8 p_-e1i'man ent ehonctl on ::if ~d propeny» (Be-ntley; 1 ~81: 144l.

ui"',qer th e


lern en', p r



n c,t


l~ De~";Tibinq the '~lliotioh of the MaoulndtrriCia in Cotubato- '1'\ lhp, 'f'!r] t1,! be:for~ 196e, I£id;;. nnd Saber lK)ieQ ihnt ~l;nyMag ui rrdonoo forrr]e!'fS -'",,' hl~ 'Nt::r,'!! tor.:;:C~ by extreme economic J1,~i:~.~6it~ ~211 Iheir IDm::s, to. Ch,,:;tiun lirattle~~ toretreoted to the iroif3;riC">r Dr mlgrmjO!CI Fe; L~ f~ t;:;;wns ·,...nere ~...,orQa j1ill ~,r8d{_)rrd ·

~hOS8 who

noted (Isidro at'ld Saber, 19-68: B3, in O'Shaughnessy, 1979, op_ci'lj, m)t "..nFke oxperienced other f<_ifm~, of "Chrlsticn 8il'U;TCBChmenl'# or 1erri'l'oriai ~" [ rI)SI on by 0 uh~der~, Th e.s.e :::hoflge~ o~e. cl eorly IeH sde d Tr~ t is hi 9 h (ol'(j)~pi j)op~":Jhon trvcrease of ,jnof'j,MI)slirn::,t e5pec;iolly in lhe ColUlbutu ul'ld l.onoc. fr, glon5.' ThL)3, the- "non-lJ,uslrrrd' or.;hie.·.'eri numericdJ 1T1diCldl~r in pr~'jrncf!'~ whert' "M\ISI1F'11~» teo,Ji.er p~8damlnol'ed_ Mm;l' o] th.e migr~il)F1 c.f Ihe- nOFl-Moro (C:hr'~~iq",,~p~p~df.Jr;on wo~ i n~i oenlQI ~o thE gav,ernm~:n'I' s~I+1 ~m~n" progrom.s wln ell '::0'" 11m led In the po~1wcf'i' ye.o~ an II sirnllnr [rlm~Gi~'e) St:'OIB, us cw, cbd bl~ seen on 1h8 Tab I €I' S dati], J Dfl!(J rro,'fi Table 11-A rdaloo 1'(1 this fad. mil.lom:,(']tlon 68in~ ~JI1e p(lrceivQd £CLiS!3"' compelling the. Moros' cdop ion of ihe st"lte':; land ~t:,I(ling proc4 Thll; P19P;::8ptlon Is ful1her e<::mfimled by da~o f.-qm on emlier slud~, in which 0 :s.ignificClni number of rural MOIG residents reported that I'he kmd~, Ihe~' (.)t;oupisd Qi~!l li11&d (AfRIM, 1989}. HOWWi:!T, rnost or thost: title.~ ore 'Sf.'Iid to be in the 1'10rrrBS: (!f the-, rGS.panderrl'G" Pdr@t'lt~ or clari elders, ~ pn:1ctic::e in ke~'PL{',g ",ii-h th o traditi 01~ of I'f'laintoi n; t'(f;) th~ unIty e ~ oneness {"If rhe cI on or fa milt, '




'" In r~PQr\~


to. n ~Qu~tl p ~=uH? ny fro Hi ·V{lrio (jJIIIQK'lce~'and. (ldvQwc:V o~gffil,zatlq_nsi
bills de-alirlg

1,.1$.1 bol grovps, ri

Ii)o ig-

Th ... Philippinofl C,,1"j

gr€ss .qr-gft@tl





pMpf<li~,~AlIhG\.!l1h Ih",
or sth"hi>;::
I.o--.(:l,) In

reoch o'f-1hElir if"'l'iplem('lntaN'Ori
-gI'C'_"p~'klc01ed 0 ul$id~


fh8' ARMM,


n·.ARMM (jr>Ei<l~aul d be b-e;f1afi,o:iari~S c
for Ihe rec6gt"1ltioFI




Wtl~ 8ti~lded





righh i n prt~tecl~d 011'"00$ imple.mented by DEN R AdmTr'·i~l'aN.o~g (~Iiobllng 11w·!l$uanc~ of C~t1Hicote. '31fA.l"\c(l'Strai LOll'id dalms,j, i The low, hOW~'efi does no~ admit "wTl@rshfp. of th~ 111~lg.G;no',.rll l):)[Y)munfty ~G their Qnc~rol kmd claims' nN E1pes II weve,~lth'8 &1<::1~e'~inl€!'rv~n~'i6i"1 tharr ~!;!lr1t(>Fy If1 in Ih~ l'igFll<.l.~'( .~MI'I 'lf1 d I i nt(,lf~st" ~DI NTEG, I~e!"!;b'~ Fee Ki'l n MPA.5/ .. ,). To dl;]rGi) n6 1 1Qro 11).dig~no"l:l's 8ru~P' ha, attempl'~~ it) cVdiJ 6! Ih€!·k;w,.'sp'rO~isloi~"" Re'cenHy, ... R.A. 8371 81' the I ndi'JO!I":i(>us: P8(J~1as Rrghh ·p.,ei (IPRA} (:!If 1997 wbs:;fgn4d. Trrlo 10"1. I' iraOOBHs bagi rmi h,g~ in 'IMs 1990 Ar.teslt'Cil D Omtlitl EliII Hied i n Congr'es!;".. D;e'.,"ipH~the lobh !cnmched b¥ il1diglf!MIJS pMpfe's t>rgIClJ'liz-.c:nior'l~ for the bill'~ iPG:l~
o1her CU:!:loma(y


ti~ Qder



it ...... ,jffedrv~ly kill~d by legTsl(j~Qrs 'oYho haY$! intE'lr~ts Tn logging, i)llF.'iing IJI~ ond otl~~1'e~t[2lctrV<1. rnduostrie~· {Ibid;), S~,,:Ir:f~.8 1C'lhs IJlt~rl~J¥1 1"19 di ~"'rlGbqllilrrI8nl

d the I ndi!II ®l"l(l'J~. p~(..1fJe:; ,(Wt;) wlth 'lhE!. 9,~VElr'tlrn.erl~ . Pre.~i erl1 f iJ el R~mo~ reI J "~!lQnd~d by indv:di '~9 eJ ra-gttil aliv@ tl9'o.!!fld'tlfQ~ I p~ in ni s,..sc;cidl Ref<::, rn A:ger~d{], t orld Qrm.9~que!'ltl'(, W!l!..,ooms II1t6 be'in~, Ackf"j&iyl~dl'l!ecl !(Jill, i:I viclo;:)4)1 fdrlP~ by some N(30~, the low 'pr0vide-s for thl1i ~i:&Goql"liti6n, prcl~tt~o!~, "mc pror"rlCiHo~ of 1!-'e nghlf, of Ihe' i ndi gi€";I~OO$cult\J fa~ (;01~"i1'f! l"liH~tjptlf and 1h~ Croafiofl u of a NaN

or. Indrg~'J"jGU~ Pc>opleis'" tQsk€d to fo~l'liJlo:t(j ar...d i''Qpler!H~nr poJkip.-s 1Q rlr"oLtd the rights of IPs ~j1Jdldi ng th(1lti!liog or 1hdr 0 ncestro I Iur)01s W.A, b N <J B3.71 , [l9971, DIN lEG, App.afldix]. H GW@).iI0r, w~lll ethe 10".,. 0 .....(llt~ the lorilOrHJl Co.rnmi~sk:Jt'I

it:; I'mpll;ml~n~ ing ru Iil>l>, ~:f"11 i~i~m; h.~,;VB Qlyj b 8~n Ie.yell ~)(j Q[JQ inst ir! d pribHz!:illi~n in i'ri~ny areos \vhk~ D.uisi"d~ lr1lBres.t~ ~~uch !l~ mining G0m~ani~s") !::9f1 'Ihorn easHy rJc'qvi'r®-os rhi1ly 'MlyhQv~ 10' d>ool wi~h indivlouals rarher thljr; 8Mri (If!o e;o!~)rl1'lJr'lI~ie:;" und i:I':s.:rei:::.O o.n of "d;keI:fdy' exi slgnili 'ng OF wV8<S4ooil pr.opsrlV rignts ,\vli'l1.,... a;nces1rnl domains ~,~ee Deg()\lmn, 19971. rl'wloti 0 1\

sudl r5~ 'rs






r rlrll'n"r" 11 , ., Ih 111r] I~rl"k ,\1'Ih,II'lh, Itl!UOO
'I" nl f\t1)(

17 Mgr~lJ
(JI I j" tJf1IJ~ry


1 IN' • rh!! C~"lhl"l'-llng Sear!:h f(Jr ron D'oblO!<m· f1Mi!lpP hll F:l GmpJJ 1<:: J\jOO, 11<89 -Lol''',1 OWMl''!]t'I~ Di~P\11<



nnd It~

ll,t f<:lrV'l, [r-tr

nq , ... . \IJ'~ll"lll'n ~ Nleu Im"r 1~RIf "lmhc lind,". /1r "(lJ
,...,. II·h

I"" "!11·f.l1 MI",km'lli

Mod", (;If Prr;ld",tinn Pr c, f)d· Thn b~1fly,

rind 'jl;l.-inl r{'ll','oordlM!':1I'I· ..j WII"

AI ~IM, 111,

MI'-':I • Iru 11.,1)1


(\III '\I ·h"I1,~ ,npQrlf r,mrrn"! !',...Id "Vtl"'r~ (o'''',d



R'IM ,I.!U'~I


(nM~ uflpybll'~ IrUI"I"I

,j r t:iurl, t)C"'"


I'" t, ( hlll:tf\('), 1'l'.lPColt'1·

~u,b'''r. Jl

MOfo l,mdD'l'llor5



~d M,..,rt:l I .. n"n,


I Ja'~ ~hl J1M,Iml h,,,nd~ :;'I1l'hot! M~d'l pp(nju!:..!'-'111 11r'rJ -'lO~ Irll h:JO"fT1(J II,.. M<:>r o\<?:u - ,'Ioilllu1anlf'ilJ:! Ftx. ....•• lssu .... 2'2 ~ '\1'" .. 111, T"('),..jD'" 1'}90 HI~'Dr or 111'" flllpj1'l~ ~EOFllo. ~[i~htn EcJlll.o!'ll QLl('!.t'~r1 C-If" R.I~ Ucn tI r'ubli~I",g C , r"h[T'ud Alias h1l.Jr<.JUf~ 'm2' .~ (lnd CoIor'I'IlIl M!n.kJl')(lt;l " SEhm r"h'o;:"rl,de, AloIDm.en1r' 'sh d1o, ['~{;rnber, 1993 .• ,';lame" S,.lnw 'hE!' PQ'J<~rI'yThf~'Sh{'jld (/\ 1'101 '" r1'l q,.rr~1 MQrr .;oUS'~ 0 ds} .Bml~i2W AfRIM, tnc .. km ·-Jun,,-, 1y;lQ. "B",Irl(l f'I, ~ M.:lrc Kur(iH /V~, CJ,,~ 10(;oJ "lhe Ge'"'5fol '!.anlD= In!OYIlClflcnd fshpor' Prol~ct' [JAlfeltJp-1111<I'Ir i=o' W" OJT! ~ MQI'O ~l.rr'Gr ,!; r.1100i l~lIo.Ji· AW"I, A. 19'80. 1no: CrE5.I:d .he %1'II}j(I Moro ~q~le." IJhilipprrll(t5~ R€lpre.s;t;~(l n .(lnd RF.!sJsto~. _l11 r.;;.cl>' ~C"t1I1 ~ 1"\9 5amca j"OflOl" 9 Pil i P11'10 &~~~-G!lt,,J';;ll?m'f, 198.2 ~Th21.1~!'CI'l1 m:>('! 11'-1} COf'~P ::m" ihe Dol'_'e r:Jt Mflg,lin,:;jonoQ Under COIO"'>lJ;l'fi;:1.,ie A,iifetl MtCo~ 8. Ed de Jes,~s lEd.;). Phllipplne Sm:!ol Hislory; Globuillode ,,00 Soaal Tronsiarrnotlon .~M:mita; lP-flOC> d~ Manila A A,R
t.... '1

1\1 I~I M, Inr..' I ~ ~ ~ "\>(11" ~ Mind., rlfJ'~ r- '" I'~ J('o~'II'1t;rr
II, ,,. II'

')t ... ll'~ d

01 L( 111<1

C.~'11 Co'ln Irrt Imn

I f\ M !t\. Igl1<11Cl,"

J ~ jlt...:?



l'enlllO''r', C Of I'~r '"



~ T!;~ ~ ~~ !.'r,Of'\.J I.u..sll In· Ch';jr, Of' R",Ine;Cl ns i11 Ihe

b"I.J<'} R..glol",


J1h hPIHI1e'l, Jo'- Mur lOB

Da1'l~C!I~n QumferI.,.. -Ill'" 1,lom Ncrtronol

L,b"r:;rton h-onl'



1)'llcl:l1 ':0$1 fie'

~'ludy Mo," I:....r'o~ t n c. I i 7 f) T hI! Ja!nl:l Mapun - A Q,.g flijl!"ili} 5Q11TiCl ol:-1ely IS I.:.·,~~~(,n C,ty, .',!~o

I" S r.Mthern


1:eo Mt.ft·l~o



r'I1~'lnrrllt"'. R!!t\~,W
;1 ,


A P<Ul Re'iflsllt!'t1Q,J~lqrl

':"dr rd.u




" ,1"', v,...~ \,,"'~

llm:J~ ,'.,)" A,,'~('n o mrl'a n9 ilcrl":I.I'·

R....~uJI .. 1'" C nl<11 f~~IIJr.ii!IV'''1 i-Il'd. ,€h~
III I~.', ..... ,

,'41:<.:1' uJr>"'1"\ (f']'l{'llrp~r~cJt'i of .... K'~u~o.n FOI£] .'JG. "'!TAB)) 'I',.-,ndLlqo IArH,ud I~s"e) l'tll ·OUf l(']~c <.If Dher1f Th Moronno And I h~ • '['JJ~. -'f:..' R~~'!Jm:t;/1 fbI/PrIm Mnrrr ..... r il'f, Vul. '

" Ofl..... In, MlnrJ" C 1 D , r't Mc~I"1 A, I ·1 U. pl. ,II 1",HUII. h'ilh'lJd Qlld Rar;:ho,.O'O

Il!U I'H'l1l .. rl(N.~ f';HlpJ" R.lrJltt~ Ac+, 1\ r1'''(:)l.I PO'lpl L';J~dC. rlWI 1961 "rho:! CQPllll~! In Mir1f;!.mw, P"r5plJt.t' v "r. r't<J:.I .n It'>" "j; Irth r\rmll,d «II,t.""iKG rt]





~he U'9 r. ayaf1~ ;Po~g ~gh(:::lltl Tno, In DI NTEG fCordi llero h~d'gl:')r1~)i.J People!> LegC!1 COnl!lf). n. d. A Re50~'rre KU On; ~ N.JPJ;S, DfNR DAD No, 2. f! D. 705, 1P,~4: DU/TJorcpu, J(J Ime, Lkto be t i 9tH, Nt\r] E~pJOroKlj)'5;tu.dy (}' ivlm(1 n~o Mu s Ii rns Con cepis of l.nnd 0.''''11 ~r_~ f·~i It5 1mp IlcCltl'~m;;. fo r I'ha M Ii Idml C1Q Conflid _ p: n' DOl'15aiofl QUCliT!3!r/y, EVQng€ln~tn, o.SGOr. 'I 9B8_ "So rr)~ t\sfJer;ts -;.)f I"'~ H isto f)' o r rslom in Southeost A;;i[)h' Gowll"l.9, Peter (eeL)_ Utlcier"sttlndir!g l:1klm ond MU1litm:; in .he Pfljlippll'les. Otl~;:lJn 01)': New Day.

1996; "Ihe Impoc! oU(Jp(iIl~s-e OOA fJrojects 011 Mol'O IndigE:lI"lOIJS C<)mmunihes II" I hfl Soul'hern Phlllppllle~ Some Ol)s~rv!)llons." Pro. cf1e~Hng~ cd the UGJr,"/ lain 1,\lo~,'('md CQnfer~r'!ce, Odob£r J /- r 9, 199.6. l!_gn.oy.eng Pbng.Aghmrl Too, Inc, f.rlm;!~t,Thomos ,I 971 A VOY'I;I ge to New G u i l1'i!U nn drhe Mo!u ceo s Irom Bolumb~l~g'I;Jn; Including Ali I\4';C;;Otlf1t i\lf Mcrgl;rndicl\I"lCI0, 5,00100 r.md Other I.sld.n,d::;,In Trovell AccO!Jnls of Ihe--I~lfllids .[I 513-l(87), Mcmilo~ Fiiiplr"llfJn(l

Book Gui ld. w-tmO'(tor"l, A~),glJ$~, AUgoU51








~L("Jl1d"Ri,ghf~ and Land Tenure Situotion <:If f>hiiipp!i]Gt NtJflJto.~1 Resources l.!:)W

GCltmcryton, Dunle._ A!I.9v.st 1992. I<A("::~liob:olDomalon R(lCQgllition In the- Philippin€)s lre·nd:; In J unsp rud encc an cl L"l!) it Ie!'.i on, "" pr~llipf.}ine Na.illwi Resou~ ~r1:;; ~ Low JClumCl'i.· ,



I ?9'2.

rhe COlTlpr~·neF1sg ... Agruru],n o

Reform ,

Low, ¢Uid Re-

Gktrl_9, p\ll\Jrl(m, 1969_ M1J3'trn Ser.es<5'!'on or Ir.te~lr'C.tiOFi_ Crowl ng. P. 19 MClfldailS I'n MQfoJa.nd: Am·p'~jwn Go~~rn me<r,t or M us10m, f~Hrrn(l:S, IL899-1.920. Ph,l[ppme- ~n~er !Qr kk!n .stlJdi~s, Gowingl Pet,er; 19 7? M LJ~~umFi IilP~1l • Hil.rll og~ (Jr,d HorilOll• Q.(!elVIl Cit~,: cs Nev,' Day, GuTllgono, Te6fi;;;to, A r~epo.rJ0.. !hp- Deve/opn'Il"F1I Pltln {ot .Mindonao emu' $ufl;, 1 1934: Bo)! :1.9-8, J-IClyden roper::; .. GutierriilZ, Diun,isH)_ /'Ilonthl'y Repo!J 01 Cdtoho:to C70vemo., Dion)!';/Q G(!ilerr@.l, May rQ. ) 934_ !h.~ 27,31, HO'l'd~(l Pop~r5r Bently Hi:;to~"iool Uhrory of tf](f Unl¥er~i'ly qf MicbigClf], Hossen, Iltl tl rri i L 1 990, "The Mer'Q 1~(Jikm 0 I hbero tl Qo['J nt And TJ, e rre~{!n1 Fro Res1s~'01I ea.« Phi [l Flpines: Re'p re~51O!1 0 nd ~~ isklflC~_ IUJ ht, He Ilund: h~~~




M~ [lllo: Nai toriql




KSP. .

96q. «Agric:vltllrol CofCfngwti"O.[\ il'l Ihe Kgpgtagoll ~a.Sir'1i I.tll~rl(} dd NQrte, Mindanao, Philippines, ~ Yearbook of ,the 5Q~lth A~i{l 1111SHili f@. H lelde lbe rg U l~r~~(Sn,~_ Hoyd€ln, J.R.1933, ""f,-Ioro ~ianuscrif-lt_" Box 2B-30; Hayden PapBf$_ Heffington, J_J, An ['Jlml R<'!PQri of IhE! C~ONcnlor or [,onoo, ·1934-1935_ Box 2fl?9, HC!~d6'f1 Paper:>, flo;!nti-y· Is!oncol Library of llilj! University' 01 Mlciug'.ln_ H H@IO/d, "Three l-Iomfl:;tMd:; CQmr'nl,1I1d Moros.» 16" November 19:31, Bo~ ~B34, HClycler: Po p:e,r~'1·lfdr(}.~ojro, ludovico. M"J'Flo.mnd[}r~1 k) C-{lyembr-G~n~rQI C{lIH::errril19' Mfndon.aQ rmd S u/u• .A.uiju1;1 5, J 9'30_ B(~:( 19-5, HClvdi:m Pilpers...

hlcltJs~err. KkDtl5. 1 96H.l



19 "I ndi geno LiS" ond Moro Pe~p I 00 Relj.i~lif'!g Ag~lre.g~i ",n In ThE;.>i rAn· costrol LOI'ld~-- A ~-Jew c:h,arte~.·' Sano'lJgo. l(ider, T~(>mo;sM. 1972·, "The Tousug 'P,?iit~ one! ih!l $ ultM of Sui u: A S<lgmfl nh;HY Stole in 1hs Southern PhililPpilie-8.« SLihr $tudfo;l-5., 1· 64 . . 1976, "From farm Ienure to Land Tel'lure in Jolo: SOJWJ E1<!lP~ctS oJ Ch;I'l'9 ln TC1!j8Vg Iand Lcrw, CuJrUn3 ChQn.g~ In The Pl1il.ipprnes ~ Edi1e<'Jy fo,1arjo Zamora. h BO!M'E!1I Publishing . .Ld,amoven, Ruurcije, 1989, The Mogt.!i·ndanoo Sulte.Mlle: Triumph -r.oJ MOI"o Dl pl'omacy. QU~Wrl Cify: New Do,)",. Lyncn, Owen. 1984, ~Notiv!l Title: Th~ L:egal Clcirn oj ItldigenOlJ5 CiJizeli~. to Their A.nreslfq~ LDDd.-" Do-komi yO' N;;1f1 DO'!;I(lm'qA::ip$i'!; trfld Pr9c;ee-d'rtaS OJ( rl,.e Fir~1¢.=!rdii[ero I.til~r;/ Go-n,!J.re...~sJ C;:ordi II rMO Ct;;naU'lfal'i~'e Comn"Jittoie. M::icoroya, Balue AI. 0(;1, 1 983 . June- 1 9.84, "So IIAi ons 10 the Mi ndanco Co nfilet."" Mj'.r.d!CJM.O .Joum'al, Magdaleno, FedericCl. October-June, 1984, "TQWord 5ociul:Sd",J)r:e Theory ('lr'i the· ~8ciol LOFlflid in Mindctnao .." MlndcrrKI.o )01.1[1'101. Ma~dollen(li F,,,,denoo Yo 1990:~,c:,,~onho~iorl clI~d the Muro"lndio CQnfl id I" Mirdonoo. IT C,~nt~r lor PhiUppine Studfes., lJn.iven;ity of hlow-afiof M(]II"lOCi. Philippine Sludie~ D_isco..... ssion P,arer S€!(i'~s~ n-fJ, :i', Moiu!, CB.~Cir A_ .974, "The Mllslil"RS 1M The Philippine;s, A Hisl(:lric~1 Per5~pediv():' in '(;owi ng' and McAm is (ech). Tile. Musi i m ,ITIIpi Ms. /ltt!]"i I0;: Soli do ridad i KAMP.




PU'bli~hinf:l rkll)~I:!,

Mast uro, Mit h(')@10,

1977." De-.rel p1lM r.t Prog ru III b r- Mi nd~ln 0 q. end S IJ lu: o Prosp·ect." Pppef' pr03ent.;;d arlo iher Tel'ith Armucl Se.mlrID ! on Mindaf1ao Gi"e! Sulu Cullul'es, ll.t!g. F·20 197/, Silliman Univeqitv· . July 19"81-June... 1982, ~AmericlDn Pr~~,}1'1.C~ In Mi ndand'ot I he Ever11ful Yaol'S In (,:oobo,io/, Mit1.dall<C!o JOIJmq/, 31-53,. ___ -19B8, ~M<:;l9uindCJ~Hj~ l1oP!j!s,(:!nd TetifS-fr-bm th~ C:on~1i'lu-

'Gowin], (ed.~. Underrlfm[li![1lg [slom end M~_I'.~lIms·ii I New D(JY PlJbli!ihet'~. • !vt'ed"ick, Melvin, 196:5. EnOOrrtpt7161lr the l{)k"e~ ThIB' Social OtgGlliizali.on -of ("j ·of

.tn.; Philippines.

Moci'.,.m-PhifjppiM (Morn) A5iop.ie. Ph.D, Di~sr3rlation, Unlver,si'l'y of Chk;ogD .. ;!"t",rcodo; Eliseo Jr.. 1982, "The,; Mom $in ..ggIQ iJ) Per.:lip'I?(:-1ive art T\v(,),'-' 5dn,dll,go W ( rhi rd Q uaFfer). , 19!;l2. ~The Mmo keopfe'.s SI't'u'Jgle for SE!If-D~i~rlYljn<JtTon,M Mfndonoo:. Landor Ui'lf"ul'fil'ed PW"bl'nise~ (edifcd by TIJfne'r:. i;;,j. 01.) QveZc:in City: Nf.'o,'i' J)9Y f'ul:.:rkhers. . Mindi'1noQ CoaliliQIl9W.S:. Ni,)venl-b'~r·Oer:ember 1994 M,''1d(lt"!do 'fi::day, 18·24 D8c~ri),b<}rI997 . . .,-----,__ : 26 Mareh- 1 Apd I 1998-. Mil1dev. 1995, "The Mom':P€lopJe.~ (Bi.anr",\JaI IULie), Moro People's i{eso'-lr'Ce Cei~ter, Inc, July - S~pl'8r'nber 1'!l.9'!. "Intervi,e:.y with 5.(:(;, G en. of N/";>'MMQ. [NDgko koisang A.soso~yor'l t}g mgci MClg;!;D$C'ktrr~g Moro,~." Mora KtJ/:Jet. Oirene-:;!, Rene. 1980. C(l))ita'li~m In Phili ppine Agriculture. Quezon Ci y: Fou ndoti Or] for N eli i 6n~1r6t· Stprii es. . ., O'3ihatlghness)~ Thornas), 1979. «How Mun~ flllislims H(Js The Phi Iippi fle-s? " ~:hilrppjlle ~'--'fLldles 23/J 9751. R:epnr..t"ed in Gowing, 1979/ ap. df,




Peizer, Kolrl i 943, Pionser Seli'lemel'lit Ut~lhQtion ond A~ri~ulhjrDl

In thp- Asiotk Tropics. 5tiJdiG~ in Lund in SOlJth"wn Asig. N.e\,1 Y~fkA[Tle-riccm Geogn;'lphical SociElt~', 1949 -, P~ridfjkin., SCilipadCl_. Ml9lnorond'um fOf ,!-/O/1, Teofi~ld .G(JII'lg'pn6, Diredl1~ {~f Ifill BU(BClU of NOfl-Ch!~~tkm 1hb&'$i Co, 1933_ Box 27-30, HayJen PapG>'S_ P<lIt)d!eton, Rube, r€'bNmy, -1935, "Glimpse (,;l CnlobailO Pro\'in(:'e',~ PilI,lipptl'lc
Colonization Agricu/tul!'f; I. Tie$., N.olinnol Council of Chlirche~ In Ihe PhdIPpln!2~', 19,8.;), "The l.umods 01 Mindanao:' \Nhot 'Option Remaills .• DokcrrlliYcmi\..an Pogarni f'aperi- ""hhr9 First CorcN!lBfD Lo~d Cofl~S'~ _ Cordillera .Cornulla i i 'ie' Cummit~E?e_

'PeQplfr'~ ,A,~j(ln far Cullvrnl

Pi.li!rfJpir:J8 Graphic. ,.),ugusl S, 190.6, Plon~, .Rog!!r_ 19:94., Land Rights 'Jlld Min6rm8~.
Il'1otl!lrnut flU, , io


f'./'Inorilv Right~


,~~publr''- Ad


5.73<l ~I 9 a 9),

CoS'~ ri tr.!?' rk:mg~(! M.orQ Poop)e ~ Phi lippine,s and R;~~·i:stam::e,. Ulreh:;:k HolI~nd; KSP. Scbe" Mamitua ona MOIJ)'c\j, Tamano. li([$-)-19B-c:, "De-;;ision·mQklng onJ S.odol Cha ng e ; r, Ruml M~ rc I0 nd" (1 9(1), Rep·rjnted in MJndo no o Juumol! XII. 1·4, Sal~(tby; N<Ji~(,]b M. 1% 3: The I-I i1'ltory p.f Soull u. I tAan ik.l: F. i IIpmi iJ riO ~o"A G"d Id. (ReprJnt of the 19D8 edition). , Sdgcdo, GeoHr~)) G. Jon umy--' UtI.e.-, IQ89, "ne{'"lopm.eIl' [}(1li6es 18r r... lu~lim M,ir.:::lanca in th." Pm.Marl'id Low [Jeri()ci 119;9,~-1911),» POf.,fl?f eud in '~)e r 7,h N{]f;'onnr c.<")r;le'-·G')C'~ w' L:>'col c.!fld i'No1'iona·1 rlislory, r~t~1 i'nte-d -r. "<"1o'ro

Roco!'noro; JUlr=1. '1980.


S'an Luur"I! Epdonio

)r. Jul)("OcrooQr,


~Hypojh.e.~_~ T(0w(lrds Thct)"fizirlg S'lruggle Co.r Self-lJetel"nlln<;lt!o,-,,"


Concep1 of ihe Bongso, fJ,C'lt'(;> Nat'0rf's


D!liman ReV/a:.>" 61-M}, SontO~1 Pi:.!lJlinDQI'KI Elaydo" Inocencio,
!Dpmem c.f Ag,-ku Ilurol


:01 H a::r:1en Papers, I/'lillf'Clm Henry, 1962,
in the

cor Q'1i as

,Indoled, ~A T",n1a1iv!?Plo" for U11P [levl:::1 U nde~ the N Q\'! Cole» i':!dti or! law_" B(-!x?9in the. U!~h,sp(;niL~d Phi'lippines,»

·Ou:;.s $lrudu<e


P'orchm(i!n-t Ci,Jrtofl'l Clnd Olher


(hy W, 1-1, 5c(_)~). Qlje~(ln.C:it~': Ne;w Doy. Sil.,'o, RI;I~ ~pseud) 1979. Tw(; Hill'__' f the- Same. Lrmd: Truth RehhX} the o Pn;:;bf~m. Mi uantJo-SLilLJ (. . 'c(11 Stu.,j{e~ R~s~Clrch Gm1Jp,





N~IIV' 30 Se.p1embel 1996, ~E~"<3I)Ciml:c MiT.ode. in Mindtl~Oo: CUI', D'illiver?-" PhWppinlf) Gn;rphic, St(juff~r; Robe s, O~~obeT 1983-JlJt'\e 1984, "The Politi~s of Hecornin~T The M'ndor.m:-, Confli:;: Ii, A "ll"orld.-$yslen", Per$pli:ldi't~'" lv1incbnao }Qumd(. Slewarl. JtJr'n~s CI~!-k, l?77, People of Ihe /'/.-m.d P!qln,' ThiJ. C/wrlglrlg fcdqgy cd II)~ Rir::a Formil1Q' in CQt"/J a [0" Philipp lnes, Ph, D. D Issertotl on, lJni '"8r~il y c]




GOWing, P0ter (eel_).

.- , 9tW, ~rhi'i C-OIObCifo CO(l:fird: Impression of an OAs,d r," iJndersh:mdi'ng Islam and M~stim ill rh~ PMllppunoo.

·Quezon Cit,': NO'# Doy I'ublis' ers. $~)roe~,T '2 J udv I r; 32. ~ 1-I·o<T\8~I'eods ut 0

d I !)~V' Phifippino

r-r~", PfO!S,s,

BQ;l( 28-

34. HI)yder1
P.{1 pElfS.



Tut), Scmoel K. 1977, Tha Filiril'l0 Muslim Armed Str~ggl·a: 1 ,/O{}-19n,· JI..!;oIro11. Filipmas FOUfldGJti-or;, Ir~c_ Task for.:€! Deroineoe5 t)f j:ha priilippiries (Centrol MmdcI1100 RAgi-on), 1997. Tile. Ci:mr'o/ MJndonOO'in 1997 A i-1UfllOIl Righ~. SI11JO/iOf! RepM .. looio$. Henrv ond OU;llrl·E;l.s. Vv'oodhoUSEf, 1969. Minoritie~ and Politics_ Unive(· ~i1yof N~w MeXL('xl PMS. ViarrGl'l, James Fmn~i~.. 1927, A~ -I'he Edge- of SCHJlh e(]S~' A~i on 11is!ory ~essays by JClfl'1e5 Froflcis. WCil'f4!lnf. QuezO!1 eil)': New Day Pvblislwlffi. 'Noshburn, bnd·y . .Jul,~ 1981 .. ~A.n lIm:::qlJ~1 CQ'lte.5J; Th!;! Na1ioflClJ POWOf Corpernnon l/er.s!J~ ·M.manr)o ,vhdirns>« I.im.!id!an Q~I(lrtedy. V"~Ilt:Q~loo. PepIto. 1990. ~A Sly.d~ cd People'" Pertepll"olljOpinklFl~ ToW(](d~. Ag.us IV Hydro.electric PI!Jr~ In B_(Jron9e!V Non.gko, l3.oIDI. Lcnoo del NOfle."
MorQ Ku ri0(.

W\JIH, lil~g~r, ~.65- HF-eatu~' 1 In tP-lvie'.vee:i


Cullure .. ~



Ac:rntJd MoCoo ti m bo L Ba I0 L Lcrnoo del ~-.:!m!E;! AiTjirl0dm Cali, E~Qcutive Dire-ctor, KALiMUDAN, .Ma((]wl


.::r Ka iotlJ::!

TlJr(~I;lIr1 Aboclos, "[mom" tl09 Orner, Dokl"l~ghl, Ipi!. lamooanga did Sur ?O;'igririlci" KiJdorig, !:"lor. Dolif, Pgt)li:lcior), B610bcic Islond,\ P~llaw{][\

111fo rrnonts


Kadar; i(,r.t[l.

M'o ti i


Orienta I




APPENDLX Taole '1, Distribution of $u rv.B}! ,R;espondents by Ell:!no~lingguis~~c
Ma'~naQ MaQtliF'!I:tana.o

's LlIW, T;1wJ- Tawl
Taw'l·T<l.wi BMill:l1'1 bullLl .2.ambci1lr1rja 1<!!t.,[-T80WI·

UlnOl~ gEliI SlUr; I.<!n~o clel NQrte Ma gu indanao, Sull<lJl Kl<ldl3rat Sooth GCiwbato, NMil GCltobofto


3~ngil B~draD

Jilm~ IMs.piJlll MoJbog

Ba;[abac. POiI<lwOlii"l "Southern P:;IIa-o'i'.f!n


La";au del Sur [;J'OI\iO!O Qr1et!t'l1

Table 2. Awareness. .ofthe Sources of the. Practiqes or Procedures
G overn~ng'Ule Use of A l1ieestra~ land fin %)
Mag.u i Mal'lClO

R 8S·O'PO!1®€o.

Custom or Tradition (adoElt) IslamlC (~'l'J anan)





52: 17










ad-at a!'le Sha(lan

.others 16.66

No Answer




Table J. OWnersniplUsagG' Aoco:rding 'to Trsditional Practice as
Perce lived by P5



Cfll rmn ILl na 11'11 Communal1ly by aWTH3d/us~ hy ~he \linagB 'the CfP.ll'i 1'l2

QWll Bd/USEd

by [he ind'i

ramHy 32
35 7 12 9 11



37 21'

OrChilrll!i FQre"U'ld areas' Pa~lur~ lands
Fishing grounds MII"lInQ sties Suriill grounds Rice p.8ddles



9 4




60 11 fiG

'land on ,.'IIf'nCf! M~ue




Ho U salots or tmme&ites


"Forest areas Include nUIl-ngl grounds

Table 4.0n the Quest'iorl Orf whether (If not "Land 110t Owned/Used communally can be' sold/rented to Outsiders" 0111 ) %
To Ind~'I1dlJaJ!1l Olher ill<i'r! R'eliltlVes To Individuals not 8 f!longl ng to R's

E'thlfilC Gr'O'LJp/Tril~e

Don',! KnowlUMeetcleel





5. Tr-ad itionall

W;;tf!,/s all Irld ividual famHy can OwntUs~ {in %} Percentage I)islr,ibutioln of Rs by Provir'lt:e Sulu TawlTawi
North South


Responsll! Cate~lOries

Cottmto CoIribaIo, 71 28· 9 9


lLanao All del


By inh(;ll('iting'Ulf~I~nd It given as g'ift or bride gin If onl1l has been 9ilv~ ing hiland rel1t"lIrribute I.erthe datu, sultan or e~ders PJfior use, or cuillilla· lion of land previ<au-sly occupied Aft,sf. prior use, long and uncontested occl,l,panc.y of land Permtssion asked from pnor cul'~iv:;it[')rt tiller By tight of descent from or 'kinship wi~h the clan's elders. or datu syst:e.m Ely right of being born to the l.and











































41 40



32 4

25 2-1


as gnyen

Ihe cemrn u,I'I,ityhead P"lIrcl1ased/Buy,irng


A 13


Hl 10

T,heflgures.on the other m:inor M.oro,gr'{)l.Ips are omitted oonls, SQme'gave mutfipkl respot1iS9S,

hera. AIIIR:s. cover .1111 respol'lof



Table 6, Evidences lhat ~nd,entify One's Ancestral Land, Cited Respondents On %) ( rnultiph·J res pones allowEl.tI)
customary occupationby

by the

clmmanl's family or dan as fOir back In time as far as.
one can remember partnanent structures such as dikes, canals, or marksrs put up by: the an cesto rs af tn(l claimants ;;Ige of fruit trees. bamboo etc, planted and other ki1bwn Ian d ma:rl~s elders' stones fatmly gen.~aIQgLe6 (tN;j{sila I tarsfla) family burial wound.s.








25 55

22 40



54 1

48 8




Table 7, Whether or Not TI~ditlonal Measurements are- Still in Use in Determining S.ize or Area of Land Owned/Used (in %)
Respr.lnse·s Maguindanao



.ti.ll Rs









68· 28 4

The figures lor the ott<1lr Mom groups'. responses are omitted here All responses 1[1 lu tl e al'l of 420 respon d®'rTt~ c



Table 8. Dfstributio'll of ,Respons€3s on the QuesHon of Who A ppropriates Lan d Of Its ProdU ce fo r Indivldu~ I Use (un %)
Fi:6<.;l:p[HlJSe 'Co;lte{lmfes

For Land ColleL.'lfvely Owned by Cla.nl Kirishi p Group

F or Slit€<S Collec~ively Used/Owned by Villaga


of Family or

10.24 2.0


Household All (adult} F a FrIlly M emDe~:

DifJi.[f tmsm


Tawil Qlats

Mayo-rl LOCal


Table-9: On The Philippine Government's

Power of Eminenl Domaill
lMaranaQ Ali R~ 53.43


Sarna I


75 B 16.. 6 6

Don't Know/



0; •Do yell OIppr())l{l (lef Ute- Philippine go:v·~mmenrs ·stltsd, gnd used rOF purposes:·of development?"

ta king .OV!!F your lands to b(') camp(m·

All 're$p!JIlses



urss foc tl',~ other grg;yps :are Dmitted h.ere·,

or alllh~

resrJQnden~~. ex:cluding


woo did

not respond





Ta~lle 1O-A. System of L3ndhol'ding Prefem~d by the Rlil:spolidents (in ~,t) 'Categori'e'S of umdllolding PraoHc:e5
Irrd'ivicltJ!)1 PQssess'i"or).' Use' of land


""laguindanoo Tausug


A1V Rs



Ile,dive own1:l rsh i Pi! use l)y th~ cit'! n



Oollective Lise<1 6wfle ["snip by the agama (cam-


16 10 6

Combil\a!f.on Mail abO\l," lypes


AI~Fi.~ Includes al-!of 42{) respondents,


0 n the other Mom 9rouP~ "re

Qmmitte<d nere,

Ta.Qle10-13,Mode of Land Dlsl{ute Seltle:m!:lnt Preferred by Re~pi)ndent~ Modes'
(If confllct



InvoJv1ngath n iCl kin group mernbars or11 y


Involving ki,nJethnic members and non members 01' outsiders

!~I~ilippi'ne courts



C.ombi nation "Of Mat a n~ Ii;iamic


n~g<lyl Amicaple

set,l<m1ient 7



(titled) leaderSI officials


C~mmun1ty he~dmen,1 clan ~Ide.rs·

No o:msweri Don'l know



T~bl~'11~A. ChOlrJ:ges In the Community Pert:eiv-ed to havE!AffsGt'~d liradit,ofH'lJ La.Ad Use PrnGtice-s
.(R.'3nlred aC>J::or-ding to f1UIt!:1:I!£!f of !imQ-S. Fn€:ri'ltioolld "1lmOl~g 147 Re.spolJld@rllS)

1. Landgrabbinginddel'llt5 2. Pea~eancl order! Milita:ri2:atiofl 3~BOlindflry dli5_PUt$$ -4. Development' (frifraptnJc,ture) pwjepts; Ii GovemrnerT;t land p(lliore91 ,prQg:r.'Hn~. (:e~. cada:5tral ?urveys, I,Hld la¥es, ·etc;.) 6. Entry 6~ in du~~ries, business, trade'f'l;/ contacts with 'such sectors 7 E:Q!lJ cati<o!\ eduoatitma~ inmitutiofl.s: . _ .. ,g.:Contllc~ wiltf'll aniVal of 5et~lers, sha:pe·croppers 9, Go.verrrment!oan p~ruQram5!;need for ()ol~ateral 10, EJloP~lraged by IQcal leade.ffi~o title lands 1"1;.A.:gJari~n re.form p'rogr:am~ t~,Cont~c.t!' V\fitjh ()ther outsjdern (I.e. i5Ul'VeyolS, _engineers, gGvemm~nt, ·pragH'!m:s, pC!{~onn.el, etc.) . .. 1:3 LIiIHd to be usedaos do.wry T~bl'!il 11 ~B. Pen;:,e:lllta g~, D vstribut ion of R'espo nses StiH c(l~le{)tively .oWrI€d!
l!sed l:J.y the village

Status of A rei:'!s "(Tradjtii.GfU;111An cestra I La nds)(i!1! %)


the, P re5~m1'

Still coileG- Now privately] Now part of ti~ety us,eci'J ~odlvMIj.er!y public land QW,ti!€d by the US~dlOWfl ed i:1 an tw ral'nlly f by .C"9rrXl1athJr·1
9 19

Kailfrgin fields




4 2 24



11 15

12 33 12' 17 1


Fishing ·grn unds Miflling €iite~




4 2 2 2 2


Mosqu:e 1an ds'

3:3 ~6



7 9





Table 112-Ethnolirlgui5~iC. Groups o-f the Mom P'eople
19BO poputati-o_n Nurn,'beJ 742,9()2

29.67 Lanao del Sur. Lartao d·e'

Norte, MagUlnd:an;;l 0 M agwFld a n ao
644 ..584 25.74 M~gi.Jlndanao, NorthGot· a bate. Sultan K udarat So uth C otabato Zam boaqa, Buill "rawi·Tawi Basilan

Tau~ug Sarnal
'{alan Sangll

502,91 8 244,160 , 96,01)0

20.08 9_75 1.83







Sur, Sarangalii


28,536 Kalibuga.n
Jams Maput1



TClwi-Tawi, SLllu Zamboanga. Cagayan. de Gulu, Southeastem Palawen






P·alcwan (Bal<;lb<lt:: lsland, S.oulheastern PalaW;ln)
Southeastennillnd Eastern Pala-wan Lsnso del Sur Central










D@vao Onerltal

'Soorce5,:"MiJ<~anaCl MlliSIim~:' Ib~1"r FaCts <lng' Plf}lJf(is. No Minorldlfid Bnd D~f'it.JmarJizfjd. Reports em (he CliJncJiilMSfJf Philippines.. CGA·URM" lk'l63. p.14; GI}';,~ng 197-9':2.

fn"baf and Mom Peop!l;ni

ret (OCtrob1};'f

15; 1.981). p.



Table 13, Mow and Non~MomfQpulation
Mu,sl!ms N'D.n·Musllrns 110,926


1:55,162 284,507

424,557 71"1,43D

Musli'ms N.Qn~M 1.)51i m:s







del· Su r




Noilll~Musn Ins




13,94.3 133,348

Muslims Nlon- MusUms Z<:imtmanga del No:rt~
Muslims N Qn-M usl irns



20,6£19: 3B,H,6;80

ZOIrflboanga del S,L,! r

·C',;ifllbato. was, later dlvl d~d lnto ~g'Uf iPro~i!llices: N Min Cotab<lIto ,. South Ccitilbato, Mllgu:lnd@na,o, <inti Sililat'! KU~rat aut o.f thGl ftJ,1J:r, M~gUlfji:laJ'i<ail.~Si Ihe ol'ily .pr4:jv!hce. thai Is preOOrninalltly Muslim. mM>~Iy.jjfU~e M<lg!:liM!l!h<WMoro elhn{J~iQuis!k: group_


A.A. 8-agus Wirawan
The PO'~B 1'111 for cO~'I'rl to breo k 0 L)t (letwe e n elhn Ie {FOu p5 m tl\l al i ct q~'N~1 fl'crn severo I so u rces ~ co rnne ti t i011 over+he so me "tl e ns oJ I\vel; cp ho@d., p:en:eived disp{Jflties in sooo-econcrnlc st(JtLl~', the poihi.(:ol dormQ

nO!'Yce of




pradic€"0 {]nd


Q'.'e~ P'ne other, and 'Ihebrce of r:-vHIJ I'D' bf 8(Jen reS'Jllir,.9 In bicSes end P1i~\Jnder

sl0i1ding5 IKoen1ir,:ri""(Iningol, 1.98.2:.. 377 -38B). Despite effoits D'i go'.·erllmentd ~ q lid non- g()~~rM'efl to. r.roci!e.s, th€r'e ~"!('l"'e been Cl I~Um bsr at mter-eihnlc group' dashes fr, lrcnsmlqrcfion ore-as in I ndoneslrr, ·.·,herher beh... ·e~n ronsrmqrort 5 /rni9((Jnt~ themselvlt:s.:Or tne rnigwnts and thr~ 10-

cols. Excmples ere thedoshes !oelwe.en the .Javanese ane!" Bugis in Ront(l I.] RatQu {Jambi}. orrd be1v~eerl the ethilk J9.... onese end the 'b::ol ethrtic gr~up in l.ompung I.Chodidoh Budi Roharj,p, 19.9.5; 139·144). The corrilicfs bet\'/een tfte ethnic
. Balinese orrd the local ~~hrllc grQIJP,th~ Surnbcworrese. ~tnerge{l" (jfter rnonv ye"fJl~of Bofinese presence {I'll d s 1l)1Heme [1"1 ; n &1) m ba .... T hes eel oa 1'1 as om! IT1l!t.Ja I '0 i eses h ove evo <tld 'o, e!Pfes.don~ Ol'llOlig t~ e IO',al~> like 1~/\tJ8ff ior ··',b.II'i-DlnwCl Bali' (.A.!"!ll Jav·onesa and Bclinese") and NABCD(I fClr '·'A.nti-B.cJli, Chino (lnd Djowo" ~I~t'ltlBCl~inese. Chlnes.e and jql;anese). Mari1 of these Conrlll;ts were p-ctty and were se tled immed;~leh' for !£)l..o.....,plf!~ B~tine.sf- ond Suml:"1t!wQl'"lese }fOLllh quarre~;l1g o.... a foolLal1 game, feeling er Herded b'~ Ihe othe I' on f he streets lor bel r.g i rritoted by th ~ use of k,\I.)d m k::rap h Dnss .dLJfing trodihonal feligiGu~ ceremonies. As br :::l~ n1v informan1s c.ou\d remember; frequei"ll .... erbo] ex.chonges nove token pl(]G~ bl3'lwee'l the S'J.QCtwO"l'Iese (Hod the Balinese but the Vlorst ones happerred in 1956., 1965, 1978 Gild ir. 19:80, the Ias'l bO;iing the take.off point dlh!s study', w er(1in pu blil: hgures qnd governmer)l oHici(J1i; '•.,.ithinlhe ((If)10i'"lty ar,d rnino,rity grouP$ were r{),1ol'{:~d_ I. '. ,.'.




The i nt~r·ethnif. t.mlflicl b@l'\,veen minoriti Sa Ii neSEl ondthe iii 198.0 reoched {]: hia:h scolc enel resulted in the loss of livas, The rcmpage creale-d b·t ~he [eat·ous o n c v.en.geful

S.urnbOl,\f,mese t"\!lquired brJtn t'1e civilian ,or'iO militol)' outhorlhes to inl'er' vG!ne,incl.l.1.dirlg mobili'~ing security action fr~m the highss't rnilLtrn-;i Ie.... of eI the NI;,i5U Ie ngga ro Reg i Q n.

72 lhe





yC\lm 9 Ra lin ese

T he n member

confJi.d sturtedWilth {JO inter-dh!'lk ma.rriag.e in 1980 b.erNe-"'I~ pol i ternan WMd e Iop,ed wi Ih tj S urn baWY.l.IH'lse. W~mCln. you n:g GoU pie were mu 1u a I.~y in lorve_ The I!'! IQPp.mBnt of ~~B a If n ese ,.vith

!:lrJd h·apP8neci rn 1955, f 9:~1 emJ 197 Q. ThesO! efj~e,~, including thb~e of IV~CllnfQmn:]nb· wilh Sum'bQWtH~eN wrV'I;IS from T('Jl.iv;'d~9 tHld Sima, Were. resolved Ihr0ugh pecceful ·ond CJmitIlbl:e rrtecris G~d ,,:.·Hh um~erstandlngond tqlefOrH::~ hetwe-an the twQ8tnnic groups (Ini,f)tview wah Bop a k- N y~ mp n Mad rI, 29 Jon uo ry 19 9 7~, Th e fd emJ1Ce b e!Voieerl 1h" . 1"110 gmu p~ was attrihu ted to- th e rei e plt1~tBd by!he pl on·ee r mlgl'CI nts, Bap (I k M(J[Ji I a nd h i.s: fr.i efld~, wh 0 lJ lrdp. ~tood ·1hi3. sod~ -mllu red P aHerrl 0 f ih e
~ni~E!d n1arriarJ'f'l~.

elf Q1IW1ner ethnic grOLJ!) lssemcfion (;Id by Ba.lineie c,ldat {w~'tUtt'!Ory law}. Such mSi1s of i!lrnr"~lhnu~ rnmriage:; hove· ()(~'IJ[jlly raken pl(l(:~ rrrany lime:s irI Su rn b,c.-wo b~fo~e _"Se "..bn:;:ill i tlf(')n)1QrI'tS of ~"Yi s fC~Hsa r-ch rg cq HI ho'l

Stm=1b-awan@s,€:_ Ev&ry firne Modi! wcs h1\1[l'e,d k, stund

'ClI1 i~ter-e'lhnic:: marriag,e l"o(kpl.(jG~_, B(JprJk os wilne::::~ or 'rj~ an rntE;lITfI"ediat:y for ihe ~w.lCl

Th€) Bolil'1-G'i.€!·and Sumbc» ... ne~e;- adored Bap"CIk Madil, q


l3ap{lk Modil h<Jd 0 ';;lQad r¢h)~i'i."lJliship wi'lh Bopqk Mqd~ 1l_q'8q, theRege~.~ ~"if Slllnba ..... ft~"fl 1?60 10 1969 ([~1i.d_} THes:@:two ffgur!Ets 'Hem q npP9np.nt~(Jf thi; PK~ .orthio! II~d6n:e:~lillr'lCQmmLJnis:t p{))rty ~Nhen fhe 0"3.oS PKI f_S:epfember 30 MOY(j'ITl~nt fail~d ,coup lllHnpiof the pn) b~(),~~ t)ul. k'l 1)1S(f, beccu see of e a rrogcl rIt un d .d~.~potic f.rhtilude of ~ BuIi n.eM'!· ge rd i nvoJ \,i!'!rl 1!1 th 13' wedding,. ,l,Ij o!1 en QB t,ook p,1ac@ "("JI'1 d Ias;md frorll a ·17 to 19 S€premher_ FOI' thre~.day~; locel Surnbawane'se burned Ihehol)s€s, on!';, unJ 0 holElI owned by Ih~ Bdl~fles~. Pll'u~~i'~~et B(lllni;i!"!).E;! nffit:inLs of
"i,;j;(!2i: F10t


dogans such B ~ Ir·n·;es€:!

e~tmpt~,cJ fr<;:lmIh·~ mC!·~,~, d@strwcliOH_ IhQ 5\J rnbov"on'c80 raisfrd aSI "Ib about tim"Gth(lr our lon'Cls ·ore rerurned by l'he.s4

EI~ Vf!fl B u Ir rH:!,$~ we.r ~- kfll ~J ,n~h€ rn m PQ.9 f. Th r~e r Q Iloam fln unci onl'l dvilian we're kiillE'-!d il1 Taliwang 01'1·1, 7.se'p~€:mb>Qr. Th~. kiiling:5 :>pre tld~o th e ur ba III a r~ClS Where seven p eop Ie we re ,kill eel I pro rn ~I i fi 9: sev~r(JJ 8,ulillE'!Se. fficials tlildordi!'wry r~&elivid!'I.Ql~ ~~c.ape lo-fj.,cill: (Intf!rvi~w o to with Bapak I Wayan Rumpe£l~ ·'28"JanuGlty 1997). rh e ~ett!8rs in fh e r!'Cln5mig ration ~)i'e"" di d not !!: sen P:~ bBiTlglh·~ larg.eb oj (;Ir'lger (in lervi ev' wi~h Bppak Keweh r:md 8i1pqk Ny~)·n~anri!IH:9IJ, T B rAny 1·,996; Ek~p.ukDewa Pu'luh 5iroh Md Bopo~ ~w¢l Ker,l~ Sudi(J~dy" 10 May 1996),. In Kan('Jr oncl f.l"£ltll Gong, Ballml$~ trpnMll,ig:ranl;i' houses vtE?r~ destro'rr;!.d, (JIIHmugh in LI)Wr'Llk RheE!'. only ·~I:dble~ werf"? tCirn~tted, To proted Ih 8ms€iy€~, th€i 80 Imess mcale~ gothe.r~H:j in thei r respectiva hOrl"leyards while Ihe WOJ1ler:l end t;h~ldren remain.ced lndde theil' hO!;Jse~, h)! If"i~,ee·day!j IhB? entrvst,ed 1hemselves 1'0 rale, I"hey rer-rToined c~llrn (md



HWAir~8,ade,r.s not to fnHi(jlte

any GlttClck


The ll'1ilrtory company from th'e b::ol dldrid as we·11as the XVI UdOYl;Inal Provmcro] Amly Unil CQmg immer.litJte~y to hellp ond rescue. The
cqmrrmndonl ol XVI UdClydna, Brig. Gen. Daing Kalbuado gave 0 "shoot 1~ kill~ orderct those \vhQ·ftlmented ;,oiotence, He flew- to· L~.mYLlkia hellv


t~ appeal

for on and to

Ihi3 .... lolence. Fadwo




breQk, the B.ol in ese trans m igra nts we re secured in·9 heavily 9 IJO rded plo ce byihe Army (Intervi.ew with Svdio8o). Gripped with feor, nobody aFl'iong ·the Bollnese trans m igrotml: ret!) rn ed to ih ei r yill nqes fQ r On e mont h.
Some Sa Ii nese govern m',mi oHida Is were tro Ilsfe rred to ether re gians·to ensure their S-aIB'I-i' Prcperfles owned by the Balinese In the urbon nrecs hoOd for ell tlme lo be .g,uard,ed b.y :;eoJ,'lty ag(lnts.· For 1wo weeks,

urbc n Iffe was 'q u iet. Sebeteng
Boline;"Se,WoOS deSerhlld,

rno rtet,

w he

re rna i or~ty of th e mere honts ore

The t:onfHct" between the 'erhnlc Baliile'secmd th:t;: locnl $umbawanes.e con b~ traced !IQ se.... erolchcnqes that hove token ploce CIS o result d Bellnese migration over th~ post 30 YH!I'S, The resentment of the ifld-ige.noLJs maiprity group hes te be exp'airLed from the. !=ultuml and tfr.l.l d:u r·C1~ perspectives, T he strv.::h,1I F9~ ·(]sped<: re late to ~od (]~ mo biIiIV lin tne govemmerd ond economy, including F'I~anagom®ntond ownership at lund that have taken place among the migmnt grou-p. The cultural re-

sponses relate '10 chang~s

in de'TlQgraphy, 'Ihe


end other


This study wi II fi rs! provide a hockg reu 00 of Sum baw!J Di striCt ' Then it will revlew the fadors 'thot had to l()rg~-s'C;ah;lmigmtkm ot the Balinese in $•. lfnb-owu, namely the political dnd sociol Ioctors. Findlly, it will examine the 51rvdural source-s of lnter-ethnlc conflict that c;an help e:><pl nth e 1 9-80 outhu.rsi of ltiGI en ce of the ma 10rlt \[ eth rue 51;.1n bower n ess oi r (']gainstthe mrgrant minority Balinese. Spedfically" this S€C~~Of'l will describe the sorio-eccnomlc, political and cultural 9(lP.~ thot have emerged over Ihe' past decades of Balinese settlement in Sumbcwc.

Surnbcwe island, located.

and ECOf.aglc{fJ'J Features

bet....... een

] 116u 42'

10 119D



longitude· and 8~(JO to 9° 07 Soulli longitude, is pari of d.,e Wi:'SI Nuso Tefl9.gar-a Province {Kap~batenSumbClW(l, 198.9:3). II ls divided "[rno ·three f@g~~cLe~ called Bi m·o, Do mpu ""nd SwnbQW~. The Sum belw(] regen ty 'is
in the far w~1' s;de and its capitol tity ~s.sum~ClwQl BesQr. The Surnbcwo regency is bounded on the easl by the Dompu Di$trld~on the South by the lndoneskm Ocecm; and on the West part by Lombok island s:epqratoo by





Th!!- AI ns


I~ D

hU5)'c:ommul'1 icafion

Ii ne

conn ee1~fl~


bawi;!1 en

d ~~e lembek


Th e Sl.Imbcrwc mgoncy is rncrdfJ up 01 14 di5lfid~ El'fI'lpgng, PIClmprlng, Lope filopu'f1Ig. M~:l'l'o, HLjlu. M~i)'o I-Hlir. Sumb(]lwo, Bt,I'tIJ IJjlf!'I~lh, Uh;w, AI (I~, Setal LJ k, lI(J li~wi"],ng. J orowa I:m~l L!,j y~j k (Mono!;! rn ~i n

DtJmtlh ri~9k~itll NTB, I)


Ilw ~i..im!bf:lwfl f!lget'!91 enn~jst!; rno~~lyt:lr hig,~ I!.:!,ncl, WI1h oflly. til srnnll pOl1io~ coaml!;lir'B of loll!'l' .i.ul'ld ~hI..' ~!1:rld ir~ Hw ,~t!~le~n pml 0!f Ilho Ii 19{J[101. rnci n iy ti ~~ PIr.I mp a f19 ~ ~ d f ~]~ptm9 ~'JUH1$1 i... vA I)' rlud em d dIY, I h M or!;! t1 fl! c.!,,! it,IJ FCtC1db"~~'I'Fl!H'!! Bellu fri n 9 (HId StlbtJrong is, Or' ky ~'n d G
r' DVMrl'ld

by un dmb ru~h
'~QPGlrI g. cno'iJ!=!


r hI:! wldo [] 9~ IClJ I'tiJ r01 ure",~nmfo~!l d It! U IUrI b aCCIlIS{I I he~iiI t:I Fa 101,1,;1' rids end h eve ICI
such us com


AJCIS, S ~lm buwtl W<ltnt, R:i C(l 0!1 d


pl1luJ'u!1', and beafl

,~It:lflf~d hl1lHl

The nrc medly

,~O! s!ed e

arei1S .~fDP1'

l..enreh Muuntoin rlhl9f bm'!k QF rilwI", ura ai~'D c.ov~tEH:! b~ \/ef'!!! lolllJ"@'I!!~-T~e I'~p tr~m~ which grow en Ihe ri".,81f b~nk to,uchE!-cc.h Oln[lf !JIrllj form CI dark Ionn~1 on ihe 'Nalef! Tlllj vnrfous kind'S 0,1lreas 'that grow inl Ike fO(e~' of Iha Symhowa ragrilnq lndud!!!!! teak ond rad drE!< tm~


or thcBcil1J

I~ll!!:S~rnH'1!l1Olj k






A> in Dth er places in Indone£io, S lHubawo is!Oiid, espe CklH ym(~ re-g e n ~y, 11Os .n, tro,)~C(}I di~~r.!fa, cmd 1'£ Inft u enced bv l-he wes1 Oil d southflClsl wi 111 seosons. d ThB d:ry s.ec!~OI'l isfmm J un e to S eplern be!'1 wh f~e 111 W<lt seoson comes :€:ve~ N.o;",'ember toApn I (/b'id, I 5 -6) , e



nj~SI.!rn b [lWO

reg eng< n[]s ail an~ Ui of


:squ Ci! r'e .ki bme~~m.

Iobla 1 shows the d~slributioCH'! ~o;i!'Id:OCGofd~rlg oJ
p rtsas



The frg'Ulr~s s.ho .....rh(]'t IllZlnd uSled row agricul~ul'(li purpose's mi'nsmall P E'!.rOl;!n loge 1F'rigofed nc~' I~ n d.s 0 re hClfv,E!sta,a twice a year .Ionds
p![I('l:ed ~li,ilh 91O§1o .rica enn produc~ cgl'i:rn Itturel jOf1ld. mok@:5 up an Iy

wh j le

n::ril1 ·f"9d


O'1D3 a


U mm gamd



of Ih Q

f(]rm roklhan "...h!!:!'OOinar.!lld geb to hI>' IJJml~edwa:e C"'~I')" kmr 1'0 Uvo years from J'me 1'0 JIJIYI Ihe ~{JHT1e:f1; begm 1'0 bOok rOoI fond on d then CtJ I I"he ~or~~ ham Aug1Jst'o S9pte m ba r,. th (i itH mars bu rn 1h il: ros!or Iho cu I wood on d p Iow tllQ Iml d. At IhQ [lnd 01
5um6C1won[!W' I Jdobor.i UI"! hf! blilgin~~fno o'ilil'll fCli~~ "~lH;li;.'on, Ihe Iwmer~ 1 "'(:Hiou~ kirHcJ, o~ OfOiP~,~uch a~ ~o&l'o rico, corn end becns,


sturl ~Jrowiflg

'Ih~ rmgftltiorl of p!!'opltl
tmd If'iOI'~WH]th'nt

10 Sumbcwo

t:lff(;lct~JJ lrodittcnt!~ Irmd


U=I,ng ud ..cmt;l1d fl'rlrlcuhllml





11, Land

Use in Surnbewo

Land Ric.e







35,000 325.042

Un irr~gatedag'ric uIlll ro I liel9l';

Preserved and Teok fon'lsis

forest londs


fi~n do m 'olld $oh len d
River, swamp" pos1ure

& 'other gove rn m ent Ia nds

S:clJrca~ MonQgraif rlQ~r"\:Jh Sorn bcwo PrQ\>i si N~~<:!T~rl{j9{)mBa rot ,. 1 'Ii 91, II. n cultiv~te<l ~he Itllld!i more intsns !yely. Th ey engaged in :NW3W I enterprises, iF'l'dlJldingodministeting th('l frri9afjo~ system. Uillike the SumbClwanese who unfosfer,e-dlheir cattle, the Boline.se migrants kept their cottl'e in stable's becouse they coosldered cattle a borer hmrnfl:tl to' 1he farmers' crops.

Wrlh ·the deyel opm enr qf doms such us the Dos Sf'cng Be h, Dds BrQng Pun'gkil ill Mayo. subdistric.t. (md ·,he. Dds'Smng Jereweh, the: m'obile [nrrn could no.l' be mOjntofnep anymcwe_ : Lcuid became. sccrce rmd the prn.dic.eof~los;fl-fJnd-bum wa~ crihc~L'ed for l!s negotive impact on th~
erwi re nrrient,

Demogropl7i'o Feafurss
groups_ Ofner,hOln

The populatiM of Sumbawo the native people' Makoso-r, Selayor, Mondor and Bo]c. Sulawesi·li .... In SL,.imbowo Besor and ed slilts.,.

consists of various kinds- of l!;lthr.ic of SUlilbowa, ..here ore Ihe Btlgis, t Most of the migrants frQm.so~~th in the 'Iillage·s.okmg, the ~OQ.$t


tween tf)e districts of Alas ,ond Utnn whl;ln~ they IYCl~~ constructed

houses on

Oll1GF than 'hose ,e1-hnic grovps: mej]tion~d obo.".;e, there creoiso
the .lcvonese, Sosokneseend Balinese_ Many of the Javanese ere found inSurnbowo Beso r djy end live j n a 9,rou p of seH Iements. b10wn cs Ko m PU!!g .Ja'.vo, The BaIinese clso live in seitl Efment!ii" IriS um bowa Besa~,0&' well os in ·th€i troMmigr{;l1ioF'l Sites. The .. SbSOKtJese,whose plote of origin is the closesi' 1'0 Su.mbowtli mostly live in the 'We~te'ro port of Surnbnwo. lhe~' o !~ot d hove thei r own settl emeots but l'ive ·tog etlle.r with Ih~ riof va p~6p!e.

There ore olso the ethnic Chlnese ond Arcbs, Their presence is




rlc,~.ef), ocit:lt~d .... !rod cnd Ih ore typicall'f known all Jdiyenl eto = ~'f nornk Glt;I'ors., From 1920 k 1QJO 111 'he eru~! CQIOrllt;ll~~I1\, the nurnbcr oi l h i rl ose 11'1lgn:mB In 5umbawo me ~eCls.!l!d s,ign I fi C~Jfill yin 19201 InCn:i W~l'Ij JS2' Lhlnese res.dienl:. 1n SlJmbdw(,J 1,\ 1930, .hem number r059 to 605

ihe surne 10





ot Arnbrcn


olrnost doubled 199!):3·1 )

from 702

I 199 ~I W(f'l"HI



Sine!! rndupo nd"nul In 19115 '''d popUrOli()n of "Vest T J..I:H! "f, ~I'ggom (NTH) ,-pnhnuC).u ..' II1C'I!'O~ tJ dve 100 Inlprcv'JJ hoolill COII{1I1i;:)IIJ; III 1hl socl i~ In 1Q61, pc ulOhorl dlln11' '\,<,(1' O. 90 p~mplrl put ~~ knit in I V71, It rO~1l to 109, end 11\ 1976, Fj IUlrher IrlJ;:'e'J~iJd lo 121 IIQwl;\I('r,
Ih~ pcpvlution dI!IIS~1V In Lorl"lf~~ hrJ~ ll'j\,l!liS b"8FI Idqlltu 1111JII 1'l1ft'! in '~~m1hLrwu Aboui 7'2 p!:lIce·m o~ Ih( pop-uIOIIOI"t(If rhe N rEI llv!' in Lf)ffd"l!Jk I~~and (]l1hlJugh Lombok comp(l~~~ only 23 51 percent thf:l NTI) nren Sumbcwo I~~ond IS. residence 10 28 I percent of the f'.~rB population bVI It~ erec moh:i up 7649 pCHtenl ol ihe lo!ol ur<.:lO !Nl(}rloql~jll D(Jamh NHt



The popclotion daasi 10 lombck m 1961 ..... os174 pecple per squore kilometer, in 1976. II rose 0376 The c:lr;!JlSIty 01 Sumba, ..... In 1961 WO~ o ofll~~01 33 ~ople persq_ kin .• In 1971, il rm::reasoo to 40, orld ill 1976,10
01 From Ihese figu,es, one con S. erghl


'hIS denSity





t;l'n~~thai ot

Sumbowa idClm:L

Among the dislricl'Soj NTiI, Eo,>! lombok Is.the: rnesl densely popvlofed orec 1111961, poPoJluhDf1 defl5l1v wos at j.08 people p~r square kilorl1e1er; n~ r971, 11',~DS of 371 end on 1976, it reached '122, Tile je(j~i'

d.ensl1y In 1976. af33

area, an Ihe ,,6(;« '{.lnd, wUS the SlJmho .... di~tn"t, ,o , 961 wO's 0 23 people per ~Q. krn.. in 197', people.

lts populo01


i Grid

The' above n I, bers 'l'Idicnl~ fhol pooulction Increase in ·r~e dif fef~fll dls ricts of Wesl l"lur;o Tengg(]rg pmvil"lc '''''O~ wne'l{JI'I arret (J~ n re!>ulf I creoteri prDblems Fa,r one, rhe lo.,." nopulottcn densilV rF'i the 5urnbOWfI dLS'lri{t crtlroC'~ecllmmmlgmnl:s to <:Ome tlrrd live Int;lre

Moot of Ihe ~c pie In S.umbCl wa work in the cg nc u II uro I secto r,


primorT' plclI'ti grown





used for d

dOrtle5tic eonsurnptlon. ~vr.tell'm, Mora· ~!iull fer !JI.JflO

The rice rrodlJclJoI1 (Ireos il'llrw peo ,nc@ore ~h(!ROFW'fl9,'Ales, Uh:in Rire.e,
nd Surnbewe

djs1nc'~ These r;mKl& nC't'e geod 'lUc;cess in develCPlng

~oIn,f' 1Q 11, the Lunyu disk;'" h 5 produc

imgotian plentv

of rice CIS0

oIlhe rir!j

'the eree, porhcul~rlv


lhese Immel'S who pla,rvl on unimg(l'ted lema ncrrnnllv 5+0'1"1 .....ork III JWl'la They ~Ied Ini!! (],reo Clf'ld bEl{l,in by (utting the woods. In ,August end Se.pr~mber, the~ bum he le:;1 or Ihe df)< wood. In October and No 'iEimbe~, ~hey51'011 growing various jl1d~ or 'pIal'll" !>udi os com, gogo rice, ~'~gleloblfl orrow, wolerm~Jo". Jecb's locrs, ~(lm:hur:l9,$QoSome, pumpkinl m ginger, mung been, ~oyb9(ln P!lOI1U~I. Clnd ~ong been ~nmi., 1981

, 982:291
No'l on 01 rh ore;o 11'1 Sumoow(] drsl'~c' con be pk;!ll't~rJ with rlce, Ojil!lJ fmmun> grow coffet) , CoOConut kapok 'roe h:ol'lcm). ~Ql;Ir trefl:. fli\.ll', 1110£1ond fJ~O-I:I:I nul Colllk! 1tM$. mosHygrow In r'i'nunfOIIrl slop~s such 0 In.ROlX'ng and Lal"ltern_ Coc:onvl 'U!11J5. om lound 011over Sumbawo, wild kOPf:l1 ire s ore nol porHc:ul!:ld~ plcmlod In .he larm londs cui ofll~ In oockycm:ls Tha plcntinQI or SCnHI~-a. FlUIrOttg, and bOrlono ~~ done os an Qt1.'tne·.sida jot> fKClhlJpg~ '11 Sumoo';'Olo D!:!lom Ang (I TohlJlfl, 1990: 157

CatjJ'fH'olsing ., cnorber common 51ldEl lob In 5umbcwo AnirPIC::d!; rclsed ore horses, wcser .b!olffal05, CQI'Q, ond 'Smoll (Irm animols SI,JI:h as gocl'S/ I,(]mbs, ond chicKens" Almasl eva" family h-os a har.H! which they ij~ a:; 0 mode of in:mspDrtojioo_ SlIllloo.....a hO]'$t!'S are kncw.Jf1 be slrong to obedieni Ql"ldable 10 corr)' a !teo""" lood Buflala.fQrming 1S rQrried oul in the lIi1lages ond hlnl'!Tlcmds Buffaloes ore used for fmnsporrmg goods ond pl.owlng tne flelds_ wah the: de ..€!lopmen of modem transportation SoLie"0.$ venide$, these animol::. are ncwt:lIloys used less for tmnsportotiorr,

sector lIldudes weavin3. ploUing. gold ond silver are CQ"'" mostl by ..... oman. W~:iaviflg is usually done iii the iniervcl nme b~ een p'or;Eing end n01"lle5ting Weaving prooutlion mainly meets file dermmd~ 01 .he locol mor'll(€t although some producls are also lr.aded au SIde SlJll1bwlwo

The hOl1dkmfl

work and rron s'rflllh. The: hondiuClfts

The ~ro., wof'1 done by
niques used in o1her ports 01 m](;I11kmvesl 'r.hopping knives, loco I commtHliry.

.ne SumboWCI!le~e follow the some techIndcmes:io The goods produced. such os sic Ie, dngger end lonca. OI"E: used by the
go...emmen' officiolll



d .he Sumoo Io'Orreseore. Fi5hcry, ~rod'ng,crafts
(Jnd entrepr-(!i1eul1l_



(lind 011;0 ns

5i!'H:~ 1he op!lli11n-gof Sumbcw(l IJ~!;I loul'l~1 aeslimJ"on, !;.Qmeof lhe p1!:oplo ~lClVB d~pended en lhe lourism inGUil1)' for hvclil1tJOd

Sooio- CullLJ roll F,eatur:as Sumbowo dis1m;1 i$ populo led mostl b'l' the Sornow[) elhnic efOUp, 111t"lIDrlt'jl' ..... 01 hom ore h'\usIJm.'l Th.e .nnu"nCfJ 0' the Jov,mlese and




B uqis seem very daminard among the S u mbGlwanese., Su mbowo island wos conquere~ by the Majapqhit Kingdom iin centrel Java in the ~41" csnIy ry, D~wa MohonJ'la, RAing_ga, AJjipl1tj,. Menleri Telt/, l,eh,rah PHu, Punggowo, Boyongkam ore jov-ones0 h:lIlTIS used 1'0 refer to the Stilt'lnQt~ ofHc.!ols of 5Mmbowo- In geflerot . ~umoowanese prccflces ore simi~or todhat of Jovonese soci~ty, for instance, in th~ celebrefion of the sevl5!nth monlh o,f the pragnonq' of the wife (La'lw ManOOr 1984~31.32),
Aporrt From thei

n,n uencs




the. Surnbqiw(Jnese i~

ohm i nIl u anced by fhe· BUgrk$ beco use ~'he K1ngdom of Goa under Sultclllll Aloudinc.onquered Surnbowo. The influ!i!!fICe ofi'he Bug,is con be seen in the wO'Y'ohlre,ssing, espoedo(:d~yof the nobi~l1iyQnJd in ~~e wGdcll ng coslu rnes, Sllmbowo 01,$0usesthe Bugis.'tille rQdhe Ilobili'ty such os Dtmg Eng Datu. The 'mos~ dominant lnfluEH'1~eof the BU~9is OOR be found in the cm;:hit~c·ture of houses. In Sumrbawo, the houses.·Qf many pepple ar:e on stilts, including the pcdace<o.f the S!umbow~ S·lJ'ltonote. . much

The ethnic Somuwa uses the S umbowon liang u ega which is v~ry from rhat or- ~he Domrp~". QDd !:lIma societies. And so the

peCip~e who llve in ·fne area of To liwollig , Dodo, -Ba6oft Ropong' orH;l Botu Lanteh use '0 rattle r dlffere,nt IOIlQluog~' from thaf used by moot of the

s..amaw:o. The Sumbewonese enloy the horse mce. Every distrid hcs a horsemci ng fie.d no mutter how Sf){],r1:QIlI \lInd ordil'!ony; In th.e erees with many horses" an -annual horse race ,gnd horse.riding: contest is" held,usuolly du ring notienel holi daysSiJch as- Ir'lderpendence Day on .~7 Au._gJ:ts,t. The horse rac€' is. also airn.ed at developing the quality of lhfH>eople's coHle, falo roee, This race ls almost
Aport from the horse race, the Sumbowanese aho have the 'buf. the same os the cow race iln Madrura, but the f~rmeT IS held ·ifl1he rice field with· CIdepth of water ot leasl until knee level. []ttroc~ion.

The bt,lffalo roce is now used as. 'Cl'Iourist IBAUNiESE MIGRATION
Several foclo.-$. rnotivoted




B(]llnes~ to miglrote in SumbawCI ill revolution in Boli due to di,ffer-

'I~e pa~t decodes.

These fudo~.rnay ~ politico I such os the conflid amonG!

Ihe supporsers of the ~l1dDnesiCin notiolfl:o'

encesln ouHook-cmd !>tro'~g'f, end lo'er, ~he political .cCl1flict ir! 1965. Other motivatil"lgfocto'rn are socio-eeoncmlc ill origin 'such os the limited economic opporfu nilles, scon::ity of lObs im tnei r ong TnaI residence! and displacement due to l10tural 'co larni:lles. These soclo-ecenomic fadors are bolstered by cultural ratlj'ibU'~es of the· migrant _group, the Be Iil'le.se, The migfotiQ!rrof the Bolinese :to:Srumbowa included both spornoneous migra-



fion ond g6vernmen1-$upparted


cenform wlfh the theory proposed {Heeren" 1979: 173·176),



These fodQrs mentioned

He ree n and his predecessors

L ke in other Islorni.zed porn; of the Indonesian aKhipelogo before Dutch cclcnlol rule, the sultan or rajah owned the lond where he' reigns. l'iAorec .... ,ar,o rajah to the Sumbowgnese is CI highly respected pe~oll (Dewa Moraja}, considered to beo vnl1ing [igure {Dewa .MasWGllc!'l, Qrid q govemlogo Clutihority all throughout his kingdom (Datu Mutor), The s.umba~~'Cin rajah o ..... the kmd in the €intire kingdom end he g(We the ned right to use ond cult~".ote the lands te his people (lo[u Mcmccr, 1984:66, 28.29)_ Those who liv.ed in Or around the kingdQm nove to submit to his .authority and the IOWS.9fthe kingdom, commonly known QS Syurat Empat ~F.OtJi Rul~~):·K~lek d'ojofl9,Surola!o , BO~l!1g lanko {lr'ld Eneng Bcreng (jhJ~d., 28,67), '
ownerehip ,md au Iho'i'ty of Ihe kmd in ,the Netherlands Easl lndies. AI.I kinds with no proof of ownership [i.e. I c Torrens till e) were cons:idere'~ 10nd owned by the $~tll'e

The. lrnpesltlon

of Agrarian


Rule: ~Arorislw€t} in the re-

gaons outslde J avo i Fl 1875 ch cmged fhe

Kingdom .Q:F Sombowo pu~1i{:, domo In. .

fAA Bogus W,rowan198S:931',

lafJd (glliiv€rn~.m~i!lfSWQ(ld Dr gg land) As. Cl fj]~ull.r lands. rormerly owned by the like fhe foresth fl1Q-unl'Qins and ci:;)Qsi;> become

111 the 19.60s, tne independent ·Republic of lndoneslo proroolgated the notional ogric'ul1urcd law regulating/limiting the rig hi of land ownership. The· new law recQgniz.ed Ihecos,~urnory law ((.Idol) in ~".€:ry reg Ion os long as il does not ·confl icl with ·the no! i 0 F'lol i (Ire r€~t. Th.e bas lc printiple ~h[]l -Iandl W(]h~'r;. Oif" and nalura! resources are QWl)ed by 'the

go .... eff'!ltleri1 w"Os upheld. The g.Q\lemm~m'$ Q-utholFitywosde]eqat~c;l to the pro v i nda I govembl1i a rid "to the bU'pa~i (~gyrftl 01 the f"$g:e nq or d isfrlct level. For the trans:mlgroflon f,1mject, the national government, -repr!&senled by 11mgOVern-Qrin thetronsmigrOiflon $itel seleLI~d the sitetrom amo~g the Iends tnw.rpor"O~edbV the, mloni'c:d stott') as' pu b lie dome 1n q nd ~-'+iU unowned occord'ing 10 c,ostuFfiary I.ow. USing these crlterio, I'rom:inligrotion si1.\3's ere developed [n the. )>tIbdislricis of Plarnpong. Utan Rhe!'), Alas, w S.etelLJ ond l.unYL:1~. k Political Factors After Ihe n~s of FheOed Q roti a n Df· Independenee reached 80 In on 2·3 A'u~o~t· 1945, the youth Cfg.OJ' i;:ed ,ClI1d prepo red thlfITlsel ",~s '~P figi'll the retunnin'9 DutCh colcrnol mosters, The local response o·f th.e Balinese youth W'Osdivided into two simnds: the non-cooperotlve and the





forrnarF,(JvoJlSd the RepublliCQ~ (Reptjbltc of Indonesia Prodoma1io[!'~ position while Ibe letHer supported the D.utch-illoiljglE:'!d Fe de rali 0 n (RUSI1, tlF' ~h€ Roe p,ubl lc of lh;e Un iled States :of In donesk:d), Theform er were abo 0011 ~'h fl a1iTi 0" .wh iI~dh e loiler we re dewis i \,Isly Ioed ell' 0
co.operalive camps, Tba




th,·e" group

(Susanto Tirloprojo 19"66~] 6-17). The"!"1on~cooperahad the support cf the Republ:ir.;'s young 'lighters whilelh<.'!
group hod the support of the Council of Loco I Kin(,Jswho preferred use dif;;d¢mot;:y o v erwm.:

wq.:; pfl:""J.F8.d~ration and


for a few rnonlhs in Ihe eo.rly st(lge of dw lndonesion R~valvtrorl, Ih Po Re publ Ie ()f In donaslo h eJ~ power in the Ba Ii meg, Wih eu IIhe N IC~\ (H~thQrlandsJndies Civil Adminislra1km) $lIcceElded in establushing the ECI~I Il1doriElsTQIl Stote {Nil} on 24 Det:ember] 94 6,lhi,s lJu~~orily was ~akel'l (1;WO,,/ trom th Ed 'Re Pu 61 ncan [orces CI n d beq ueni:h ed '(19'0 to th G;! CO~Jn I ~n ci ol' b n 9 s who r ref@rmd 10 cooperate with I'he Du1ch frQm th O! '11."'1 ry stcrt,
Afler Republican

th~ rwpu!-em Morgo~ana

wm fo,r1he d(!f~os€l p;f fl'ldcmusiclll lndepcodence

b,.'e.nl nt'l 29 t"-ldvrimber 1. 9-16, a in Bali, ·Ihe leude.,:; of fhe. wom orre.sh~d

r;md it:;; Inilf:tQt)' cornrn.andants

'..!IId [olled

b), th~ fust Ind.one~inl"! State [PUput'(]ifl MIJI\garano, 1990: 1:520), However; some of th BSQ Ieaiders escoped a 11d wenHo th ~ forest 10 corrfinuo tlH~ guerilla slruggle, Others stayed· in Iherr homes in thE! dty, organized an underground ferce, and connnued the-struggle thro'Ulgh sed f:l1 pol itfcrll ~rgf:l nd:;:cd.i 01' s. ih ey did I~at coop€: rate wiJh ihe I)·urnau'crtdr(; / e:litB 1·€Idbylhe Resident who served as ,the h·e(.}d (_~f I'he regior~ rind Md responsible ,f(JY mainltiining peuce ond .(l,d.er.

wor-ik WCl.S done in ih€l nama of H1B Rep4lblic of Boord (OPRI) (S. Pendil, 1976: 30 1). rhe~~ odiofl:> in" smoll wars bero'lE;~E'!1'I the. Rep~jbljcon and the federal~sts supporters, The guerilk~

or the "non" and "co" -groups. ·the CQunc,il of Lccol Kings rnoved 10 tmn~hilel~ Ihe guerilltl gmupsin the ITlovnluins and rural urens, of'ld lihe-'o~)rfl~i1ioh· i~t$ I:f~'the ei~j;es: he,nlot1lly, a~piroj1otl:5 r(i. p.eO"~e j'hl'OlJgh I9Ggotitl'l"ion Mel cJiplortJr.lCYe·merg~. Bapak NUl' Ihill W.dfa,ku~uma ond Wjd~an(;l!~he hi,glhest leader,'; of Ihl<!'~G.;)nlulJll HEmdql,llJrlers~' of ~he .$mar'kr:ls Be$or Oernem (or the Stn.!ggl~ of the R~public ()f lif1do!ne~'i'Y d,eodd~d to surrondar to !Ih~ L Counci] of ·K.iflB~ In Bali through q sp~dCl.1 instruction on 2.] May 1948 (Ibid:, 318)" T.he Resident·and Bu'! the olher Republ'qc;ans, finT)ty (;(yt)t'il'lued the stl'l~r.l'9!p. through mDv·ement, Thev galli,ered ~he young wcrrlorsin ,the til)! end put up a people's organization, Among lhe~e yOUflg tnP.n wEtreT,ijtUk Dewc, Dewa Nyomcm Teget, Nyomem WiNg ond L GU$ti Bngui Sugwiwirn.

!!he und.erground



11'1uly 1946, II,ey orgrmiled 5VPPQrlers .1'1 Ibr. d!y o! Singarala (t'Jodh J B(lll ~ 1n10 CI sec ret of90 nilohon. Inc Guro\t an R!.l y0 I In don esrr I l"At~rd d.u

[GE~rM, or I\lof"l!e'~ MD'oI'ernenl lor IndClnf,l~Eon F~Il'!:I~ rn], At HII" ~artH' lime, In the southern re9~on oj Bal. wblich co ... rs [ler1pasm. I'>l~IJflrr.), e TIj,oIlI1QIi ",nd Br.mgoh, ,he r;)lGtJni~ulll~nt Maf~r.l'; alo:~.ar J~rllllI9"Wf..i DewrJn Per] ~!(;ih8OT~ Rep-vbl i~ Inil onesm (MBI DPR I. o~ G o n ~ rol H eerdq J" rter ~ or filet Sp~d ill Stwgg I~ 1111h ~ Rep v bile Qr Ind(j n 'J:~~(l}, ""'us es tel bl r5 h ed un del the Iooder:; hlp of Id'l Bogu$, Tonlero 1110 r'I{J Ano rn ~(l n do! mH:J Id~l R~Jg C Ij Inrno These orgOi'i~w1i0I'1~ oPflraloo ~a"'C:f<l'IV,no !o:'l!,HJN Ihrmjgh OLJ!Jrdln

worlt::lre bul os


\,lIl'1dergroun d mo~ em ~n"

-Ill!; 'Iw~ org.r.:lI1ll.o1lo.M ~~jh::.~u~n'lr nHlr9~J inlo one ur~t:lrll~(j ~~O!"lJ Lo"iu1L'm Pe~uangcll'l (Conlil''IU'I1-g Snuggltl~ en 27 NO'U~I1'.b{lr 19.'.19 Iho Th~ ~ Im or' 1h f" IleW oFgonrlQrlion "" es a pp rc pfle te 10 i hI 1"1(." r1 e, th,· c anti nu efion oflh~ :'Olrugg~i;) bo~td 00 lIu: idL"(lS cllhr' 1'} AU9y:.r 1945 I ndOf!l~roi~11 lndependence . On ~ .JCIrIUOI)'! ~50, .he Canlinulrrg SrrlJggl~ chf,lTIQed lts nnmeto 1hB ~Emfl.rgetlcy Govemtnenr of Ihe Republic of lndonesio" (P~mi!lrlnlah DOfl..Jrt,;lt Repvblik Indones~o 0'- PORt) ~[b!d_ 329 339], II i~ i m porh:lfl~IQ n ere thai 1h e e~l obi ishm~nl of the Emerge nq Goye rn me nt d ~ne Repu hi i c of Ind cnesre In Bali he d in'O hob w iththe t3~tCl.bllsh nt of me ~heEmergenc;y Goverrunent of the Repubhc of I ndonesi CI 1 5umnjeru _ Th e. n

e&lcblislied for the pu,tp<iSe of supporling the cont~rwity Q'r the ol Ihe R{!pobllc of Ind'o:nesfo ~PDRI. 1990,1 B-23) ..... 111 hlle Bali, th06 Errtergel1cv Ga vernmeni onlV (I strug-gle .orgcmi:mti.on suppo r11 F'!g ~ne Rep ub'lr , laiterW05

unitary state.


The ~lgnlng of United Pedeml

the Renv11le ,.;,greement on 1'7 JonuQlry 1948~-

tween the I!3fld~T$ d the R~PI'u6~ic oJ

Indon S-to~es PO'lOO It"le woy for

es[(] and

Irtr::bne~k:r Serl kot n 11 ed Sta1es a~ Indones I D~_ t"'9 reemeni, thE pn rties haclog reed to re.c.o.gnile, Ihorily in, Jo vo dnd Sumolero, HOW~"'Cf~ beseden rhe Round Tobie AQi:""eB.rnant 1n ThB HcrgLJi13 27 Dec.-emb!OH·1947, ~'{ereignty Con ~{]S granted to IIH~ Republ i t of U ni1e-dStates of Iftdon~s~o Th-e Ro1.J T~bl e' Ag rl;ls l"!"IEmi ncl tll;sc collar! ler Ihe ~nd Ir 011fo:~ or Cld'ITlecl mnAiol tn oJl the Begron§ (Ida. AAGde Agung, 1986_696-699)_ Corre~r.lor,dln9Iy, In 9rli1, Ihe milirory Cr;lmmi~StOfl cf I'h~ NegoFo lildoilCl~lg Tirnur under the le1;ld.er:sh'FI or Ju:suf fGr!Jched nn agreement wHn Ida Bug\J!OTon1aro t(ll!t,~~ Polurry ~, [J tL"fJde-, of fh-l;] ErT1en:Jtln~v Gov
er nrnent 01 I he R~p u b IIC oj lndcn ~IO. Boli, BllpCJI: Polen,!;! ogre~d 10 Qfrange
IQ ond Ihe armed movomen1 In Bile s\Jrrendc:p Clf th.e: ¥ovng gUBrlrlo Ugille,;:; who opeTt.'I',ed III the muurll'CUl':' On l5 Jenucr.' 1950, lhese fight ers rinaily~uru:JI1doffid OInd ..... !He oor.orbed in rha ArII)I"l~l .Batnllion u~ Ihtl



~heI,eode,r,j of th e eslo bl ishmen'f of N~gora In 1hB 1946 Lif'lg.go d jotl Hi er Rep u blic os 'M~ ali-




Nnlion~1 Army 01 Indorle!iro Tn I}(]II tS" Pendit, o~!c.ci~:34}

ri~ w~th,n the lecd.of lndeneac or ihe PD~ I Il"IdeBd 11 became a 'S horp co rtff~c'I oop..,.een ~he Co un dl of Strugg Ie of the Republic 01 Indol'le.s;o ond lila SlngiJtO~tl-bo~cd GERIM or Peoplo:r~ MO'.,rlJmcnl lor lndorlasicis hC,Mom, The connic.~ woraeni!!d ofter ,th~ NT1 kmued IbFe~ QFffi¥ COffipcinles QI '~he iormcr DUlt:h c.o~oniCiI Ofill'{, the Kllllinkli~k 1\Jt:rd~rlDl1cl~e:h Iflidri.5ch fKl"'l,Il), i,l'ilQ tho AI'iIT!'{ Qr Ilhe Republic iO:lf llie Unih~dS1L.11ns o~ In.r:k.lnft~.~ !APRISI {~t)jd.• 345}.
righlelS f.;reatoo


The surrender of ~he gluenllo oi the Em~fge:n,¥ GOV>!ilmmef'lf

el Ihe Republic

To~'op 1h~ wp~eflu1g


If'! rh",

PDR~orgQf~il.r.!l'I';'Hl, Ihe

u th con dectede Ba Ii "",~do Coli'! gl'\e&~. In Deflpo~Q r from ~~.- 17 April 1950, The '!foUllh Congr ~5 possed l;J resol u hOri Urg IIflg the E[J~t Ind 0 rieSian ~1oj o 10 (JfId ria kl:' dol'nocro hWI! 0" mCQiSuffi~CISsoon cs pm$1 ble !n

il~gOVl}mmento I bocllEt~ Th e Cong ress o [so k:galileld the yovth!D rgo n i zolion, ..... hich 1he'~r'1Ome<.!ihe Ke~OIYOn P:l'lmud.a NcsronollndoM1>io (KI?NI or NOli()1'Iol, Un~tv o~ Indone~~o!'l Y(l.!I.Ilht Ihoi p~@mote~ Ine BQlil'le~e ~'Outh>~ d~i,re{Dr un~1y. Ad u aI!y,lne orgtmim:lioo's gooJ was to nif.llp pCI';ie I he way f of a (JIflqlory Indon eslen :Stale. It A, Bogus Sonlifidto WO$ ct'!oseo 05 ~h('l leader in rhe 29" M[lY 19S(J Congress lib.id._. 346).

Meanwhile, I he lndon e;~tLln N011;:ma rt5t Pori), o(PN1} hel ped ease , belween '~he loodefs oJ Ihe rorrner pmH However, 'he cOrlflid con1loucd belw"een the Repu·btkol1 ,md F~deroJ "!;! roeps. There we re kllltl1gs end burning ol hDLJ:;,e.;;m E~!Cllt(]ftOR_ The (l'ttituae of Mai. Sit£lno~a.. APRI.Srommandonj who su,ppol1'ed Ihe Kings, tthe NIT orld· th" red~rolbh, il"lten.(;iHedlhe COirlflid befu!een die "non" end "co." The killing of IdQ Bogus·Gede, distrqcl hood Qr Bir.oyu{lo.bo.nonl. ""'",lOIS e result air th~s mn~lid
the tension

~Inlerview with II G_G_ S,UOO\lffl~T1..d I G_K_ Kcilei)_
Thl'i ume!lt s-UMidEr::i wr,en Maj Sih]~d~[]




Soli m, 0 Republ icon who w nde~lood the es piroHons, of the ~!i1 on -eooperc1ioil" leoder~ in BoiL No\oj- Salim chCll1YedlllielGd c;rI WQr FI~~,hi~ soldier;;

i oi ned

lh e gverlilc

W(l r in ~h e fi:lf1e.5.~;s,_Then,

ln the dtv end cJmrHieled i:Clho"!'i:S !1'1 the city,

jn ey iO~rl€ld I h'll ')'9v 1"19fi·ghti&n Ihe:JF Cl!SpTrd~fofl<Sto sceiol arid pol:~ti>cal orQ'cnl-

Tl,e:s'l,ugg!~ via ~ooa1'iXllitlmT o['gon~{Jnon!l opened Ihe way Jo~ the ~~l1ilig up ,afro.nnoj rep~n1'ott'fe in!irrhllfiof)~., Intl'le Sp.QrIor four mordhs.sincs the cS"tlbll~hm'<li"l' 0" Ik~' '1oul!, ofganiwliQI1. I(PNI, they rrI{J:du ~~... mi l'IIH;u:lwOy if'! e 'I'he Gemo.crolizcliofl proce$!I. The ChCrlg9S ii'll the ~JovQfnmen1 s,ys1>em 'Ihe fltoi'looal' lev'lll else oCOO,1'i!lfOl,oci Ine chorig!l!~ In 01 Boll Repre~erdg!,"",~~of~Qc.o.pl;dmca~ontianiJQlio(\l~ which fled flee_il with ins Re:pu blh:.an~ eo FitJm:I s,e(Il~. il1i the EkJ I'i Flrc!'otlnc:iti! Govcmmolfll' Couf;lcll I



~Lembilgg Perwak:illJln DlJlemh B(]li~. The: Pal'"Cllmuncn Agung {!h~ meeting of prl,ests Gnd Iradi1ionc I ] e rs~ ols.o plClvad 11;1 s'gnifica Ii~ role: inthe ;:;honge5.


TMIJ's:lnJgg~e VIti 'reprC'~l!nl(]ili.".eIn~tilutlon$ led to the nbolllion : Ihe ~yS:lem oj govemrnen, liUpp.o-r1ed by Ihc Federal!$! colon-tal r~yimf!

Clbolll~Of'l h~ rt::gl()r~(I~9 O\l'Nnrru'ln1'Su ppol1lecl b~ the l.oco I Kings .CJ nd I hili Ptir{]rmJnon Agung wo~ e reClll proof or tho Ir'iumph 01 ,the RepubliC(lln group_

or ~



III Sep1~rn~r

1951, ~n Boli, Ihl!! ~l!!pubHcon glOup fnshluled o n(iW locel wherfJ power r(lsilld e If! I ~~, Dewel!"'! P(.lm~rin 10 ha I"! Deereh (DPD or L,!gi~Ii:J~hrl: kcmb~~l' end 11ll! DewIJi'l Perwt!ki~(]r1 R!'I~yl'Jl lJoeroh (DPI<D oF Coun(ll C!f r!lliopl~'s RflpfE"Senlohvesj (DPRD (loll, 1951)
&yi>lem The Icrmcnon of the reg lone I govem rll1tlnt with rncde rn de f'I'IO erolic oilld nationali$ik: lealur1!S VilOf, not, hc!w{l'l'~r. on cssurunee 01 (l .£tobl'e life io soc iory. 11oppeo~ j h aline COJ'l~lic~ befwl..'1iJ rL !:J fOU ps 0 nd ber.veen pElr1lom::llities ..... 11hil1 thecircle 01 freedom frgktets irl Bali beccrne Ihe dv ~Oil'l1ic Jflctor in 1he d!t;!~[:ld~ brMare ond after Initl 'I '9055 ,!;J!3C.tiOfl_

"OLJffiid:eof his l1aH'.!'e '~QiL NY0ffiCin ModiJ ",tal; CI pmf,a,"S8k1f1o IIpkilled fighter_ He lm,ded af:m~ 0 nd woodproo IiIcls. on d ~os c SU pplle'r.of Ie bOr"tc Ja."g, Lombok, S'l,.daweSi a rid e~er:ulu(]Uy Joe) 5 u mOO'!o1Cl (1nJe1'~iIE:W with Ba po k N,

III porlit-4i10f, II·!!:!, ronm~1 beh"~n rn.diilliciuf:l1 revofu'llcnmy Figh~ers Ido Bog us MCI~lCi,dewo CI rid Idc: OGi 1.1S Ton'e~ sl mmered. 9 The two leeders hm;l their respe;di'o'edcUawers. Of1:nf~ to !!Jl.I.r CO~~ si'Ud"l is Nyomon Modil, 0 foUower of Id[] Bogu.s N\nhCldffi"~Cl and Oi slg.rlifrca ntfight~ rfrom jh~."';ill![]ge of Ke.s~rnClI'IJ(B.adui"\gl. Afler the rev-durBan, he chose I'D leave hrs place of birln 10 show his dissohsfoc.tbn ..... his- bt1i! 00 ~"X"righle(. With Ith: Mg h -spirit 0 nd fu II v~bror1CY Inspi red by ~us irl\(dvement in the s~ru gg Ie fDf in.dependen.ce,. he sai~ed '1:0. 1he otherslde O'f ~'he.Sr.Offl 100 try hhs luck




1997: 1-6}.

The perrnenenl ~tl1eme'nl of Bopo k N'Ioman Mooil ~n S!JrnoowQ ill 1952 w~s(m imporlant mi~,~to;)ne in ~he m;gm~ion process of ElolTn~s~' peepl (l 110 5!o.1fnOOwO If'! ~h.:l nexi poe nod E!lapok N ,(om'(JfI Mod i I wos th~ fr rd Boli1'le$e mi glronllo Sl!.!mWWQ He In'¥'lIe~ '~Ome of h~t ~iend~ to· loin him. As far O~ he cO:i;lJdremembo(,~hme. were l8 Ba,!inese mlgrarl"l~ in 1954 ilwo yOOI'S of'ler he resel'tledlhere_ Tn~;Sl!'! wern worl!:ers i n\Oi ted by EI!lpt1k Ny.orr'lon Modli 10 work os heuse ~oboter'5 f~r'!re"""iew wilh Elapok N. M(1dll, ·29 JOFH,ItU·y 1991).
11"1 lhe!iiucc:e~ding decc:n:le, ~'hor poli1~ca~ ftM::r~rs mOrival'(Id 'the l~cdlnB~f.l' mi9rt1~O, por1'ic.uli:n1y Ine Id~I'0'9lh:~d cQnn~-, b,lll'IWt~t'liI'1 '10 th!;i 11l{!1kmt1II~~s and c.om I'rHJn ~~15,m'}pe("1 ivtllv su pporilllt.i by ,the I ndona;:;11:ii N r.:l n jlcllc:d~st Ftul'y (PN~) end the iwlr ,Iod,ir,mCommufill51 Porty ~PKI). The ~d~o



k)[!icoi conflid reached its peak in the 30 .$eptombm 196!:l COlJP wh~ch led to th;~ d~I!I!S€! af the SUk01110 r>A':!s~d(lncyPoiiiDCa.l insrnbilily went hondit~ -hnnd ..... a geneTdl de!ciine [1"1 the~jand(lrd d living. Me-anwhila, ln ith

Be ~ias ds.ew'h ewe, fh f.! su m m q ry execu I'i on o f PKl me
From Ihe lop leQders h"}ltw villag'e members wili) 'the hel,p oflhe Army. BollF1E'!Sl'! s-¢aely tragedy

til 6e(s

ufld ~u pporle rs

were corried out by people suff~,re'd from this nt;llimlC1I

(Chmrui>.. 1997~38,1 O.s-~(6). 1

Although tho IranSff)igralr:)n prog,ram was stopped t-emporn rII}! bAcause or Ih'@change iu regim!\1, some families moved from their vjllt19i:l in Bali to ~ijmba ..... oer-(lI"se! of this unrest, without waiting for the go· CI s[.gl1ol of tflE~ n",w r~9inw, Accordin9 10 on inff'}t"fIl'<-:lnt, as fm 'CIS IHl remsrn'blllt1!, 10 lnndless






in !'!ariy 19M

b"l!:C:lU~,e they f·eo red ~or th'f.!~ '~Qf'llityin Bol i and wonted 10 ~I'Y1 prove '1 he'!r r livfngt:OfldHion (lotervi'Qw wilh I Wa~uri Rumpe[J C:Flld 'N_ Madtl, 2S<?9 Jnnuory 1 997)_ Tl,e~ do not fall in the 111~t~ ftrcmsmigr'c:mts bur' migromd D cmywoy bd·~ed on rnfllrrm::rtiO!l1 they gr.rlhered From eorller migrants, lIpol')

urrlvol, thel' lived

with other [lollin0se who 'hod $etl~d Bor,lier, Eventually. Ihe, new immigrcmts regislered Ihem~elves. as members (kr'oma) ()f .he vilfoqe. O%OC!Qtk}il, (lr:II1[or s.uL:o D'uk':l In Sumpavm. The ne .... seltierS peddled •


Clnd other


ch nn dis.0 in Sek.e:ter.g Market, '111 biggest rn I1rkst"i n ,S u m 6.(]WO 'Ioday, 11uOLJgh e wi. i en 111 W~~ IJ b Ie 10 'E1!ievr.qtaflw~ir Ilvln 9' c.'Q.['! d iii on, As. (l rn trite r rlHod, ey jhatr ,eo~l'lr1"!g~'h:Qrr'! p~ddllng mad>!] il p-tl~si.bhl.kir 1heri~ fa buy iand in lown, burld ooncrele houses,r.:md o... vehicles whkh ,fthGlY used in H~eir m
business, S()Cl-o~conomic Factors The eruption '

of Mi, ,A,glJngin, 1963 destroyed ,the



Ihe mrJjorilv .of Balinese society. hhas omllal/o damaged the rice fields and villogf:).$, Other'clispste:rs liks"dmughts ond floods followed the EHlJp· Iion, Tha IO~S of live Iih ocd (]nd th 8 'FBS'U ItOni t hard lH.e served es em [mpaIus I'm th·1Jl Bol:in~~e to avail of fhe benefr1's .of th,e tra~migr.atitm progrnrr'~ of the ,gQ!o{emment. ~rgl'l~migrotio,n WQ~ {)f'I~ of th~ altetmafiv€I help .offered to, the victims Qf the Mt AgLJ'nrJ aruptlon. Tha dale of (;OnfUSlon tJt ho;,rj,ng lost everything 11a'turnlJ~ inHu€tlf'lc@d the victims to tronl)tnlf~.rotA (Chonos,

The worst afre-ded were the residents




people] end Sule,lfi:ng {19 ,000 pe'ople) [lnperun L, Bgrihe in Charm~, .Ihid.) They W~r.e tran$mignJted '10 Lornpung (Sumat,ero)1 KcrjimClnt~n, Jombf, R~ngkU~LI, Bo"gk-(!I~nd S~:nlbowo, They rnse1'1le.d either r:i~ part of fn.e b'Clnsmlqrohon poHq of th~ gOVQmmt!mt or

spoi'i~one()us Ifliigrcmtll (I G~t_ Mada $utjaja



them~e~veS' sho'u~de:redlhe





10 Sumbowa

Those who enlisied in Ih~ gm'Bmment'.s, trcnsmiqrotton program consisted of two groups, one led by Kelut Kewek, the other
Tanggu, Each




was made up of

50 families,



tro rrsrn igra ,~d ln 1964 to ihe Prodr~Villoge, Pla IT! pa ng Djs~riL1 (! nte.rvh~w with Bop~k KM,eh and Bopok TW~'9gLJ,18 May 1996), The' locatio(:\" wos, f1QV.'e','er.H1suitable for h'obi1gtiQ!l end had ~irni'led fociliiies, ~~petiallv for l he.o!th ~{lre. The sit,ui:rtIQI"J Prode wq5 similQr 10 the tn;msmigrctiotlsi.t-es ifl ir'l Sum crl ro Vi he rill other vicf rns ~f no,l'u ro I dis asters we re tro na rnig roted cs
reporied bv L .Berthe. In Sumotra, the. t(ollsmigrOrlb, wta:re lsolcted from corrrrnunicotlorr network facilities for two. months .. Whell they reached Iho.: p~uce, 'hey hod no house toO I've in, no rnedkine end [ertlle land to lill (Cited in Chorrns, Op.dt.; 37-33).




After fv..<o months 111Prode, ~he trol"ls.migr<:inis were- plcqued bV rrH"J It)ria, ca u sing I he d eoth of Som€i' members. 'l' h@reS't moved to the ne>..1 town


lived with other Bclinese in

were. very

~kk"".'ere· Sen t


SakondlJka. lh~Ior..a I hoop ita L


Those who

In Soko n.du ka, tI-1ey were h~! ped by B opllk Modi I q nd 11 tri ends is 8opok t\Aad'i1~1IJ1.ded them to Batugo;qg qnd Kanor, which "Jere mud I sefer orens ,for st')tilemenL Ten bmilies stayed in l3atugong. The other families tlndo·r Bapak Kcwe:h Qnd Sop.ak Tunggu chose. to IDo.... to Kanor yill(.Jg~ ·e where they rille up to now. Todcv, they have g~OWf1 10 (l Iotcl of 215 fClfi"lili,es. The', set up tI IroditionaJ Balinese organization, the El[lnjar Teg\.ll S~r-L T hei~ mea n S O'i Ilve II hood it .s.ti II ·kJ rmfl1g b LJt dry fa rrn 1n g, rh~y p!o nt gaga tor gogo) rlCe.Cbr'rl and COCOnlJ't, and olso engage in cattle breeding. /!i family 1105011 Clveroge of one he.dare of Of'{ land to till.
The S(}Cio-.e.C:Oflll;lmic CQ r1:!ie9tJ€!,nc~ of


n ntu rq I co


r rl ~ it!:; ! IILlI

sl1uck Suli, Hke the Siririt earthquake in 1976 and the TunC]' Kismo: (tqndless P(WPt~I' along Nith the desire to Improve living.slM·dords, similmly pushed BoNnese peop Ie to migrate. However, tfle $1) mbowo 0 reo wa s not a pto n ned transrnlwotk.ir) ~itE! lor the victims of t"tl Siririt earthquake (ChwroJ,



Other Supporting !=actof'$
II ismportant

to soy-thar it is


common proctlce .of the Bollness

10tronsrnlqrote ln groups. Thev differ ln thls ospect froll) H1€MjnclrIgka~lu in West S.urnegir'O ond the. B.ugis in .sulawesi who custom-Qtily th:m:smigffl~e Indi'y'fdlJolly (MQchtor Na~irn, 1-979~5 V53l. The S(IIlinesa in an lndi ...dual i meaner finds it difficlJrl 10 It'iav~ what he has in order 1Q make [I living By leaving the pia'ee, a B(llinese will lose

his culture.

hl~ mernbershlp rlglli (homo) in ~D~sa Perkromcn}. More-mer, he wdl lose hi-s identity fles.to c. Geem classifies seven culturall bonds of the Balinese; h:~rnple
~, the. co rnrmrn ity, subOk
(I rri g:Cl'tion sy~-

.tie:; ( drJoflYQ, pinon, /«Jhyangoflfiga


ternL kinsh i Pi CUS~'ei 0 Spt;!1Cific.rctoiti 01101 orGt:'lI1 ilo.Non (~.eke) ,0 nd 11~s to t spe.cificg.eogrCliphkal ddm~isk[]tIOIli {I Ma,de .sudariQ,l 992: 14}~


On theojhe~ hltlnd., ther Ba llnese wi II easi.~y' ~raf1!>rerEoUecH\!le~~ if there are p(),I~t~C.CI!I, ~oc~cd; rei igidu~ creconomlc pressures. A!thtOL'Jg~ s,trom~' sOLiol bonds and rigid group djsdp,lin,e preveiFlil' on ilfidiYidu{]l~1'0 mig'Fate Q'IOhfl, ~hE!~ "homcterlS"liGS SLJ'PPQi11he' success of-group m~gttltton' (C.hcli!"' ms, op_c~r. :36~3"7)._ In parl1tular, '!i1!ii rcle played 6~ fheecrller .s,ettlelf>,in Ihii;eose, Borak Modll ofld his 'Jri,e,n@ WiN !lC1ye been living to S~mbawo sjnee 19.5.2, was fmporh:Jnt W~eh .Bopo~ Maoil wen~- ho~e ~l;:) Boli" he gavel rrfom~at.itm on the Gonditlon, Ci'rlld pro~pect:::; oj re$etrHng wFii eltCOtHog:ed 9th~tY> too miQmte - Thos I 0 gf"QVpU n d~r-I:he It-30od ershl p- of GuM1 Mod-e Pcmteg d nd his ..frienqs troOm Bell;lVl,I lfi;J be n 6tJ took eight \;\Is rkers with thern. A third -group,/'W persons fn ;;JUunder the ~eadeJ1iihlp -of BO!pQ.k Me.regJgJmm Bang!" arri.,ted in S\:!mbcFwa,in ].954, The ned group WQS a sd 0(40 famili~S' soh:Jiers and pdkemef'l from P'Ok"po, and traders and·


..... rs: ..... mfgrated in 19S1: lhe next hatch were the 100 ,f'omil1-.;:s>of orke ho 'tran$m~grents who were moved by th ~~O'vernm e nt as· [:) response to l~e loss of liVf.lihQQ.d dLHl to the nott}Yol dis{l$ter$'. They errived ~;l Sumb.t;!w()- in 196·L Dmis celled 1111.s second period ·ottrgn'smig.ra:tign from 19t?3-1965
csthe pion~eting Mrgral'ibn ~eriq,~,' The third migration
. is -~hQrac1€ri<led.as mass phas.& ~'~)169~ 197AJ


mf:grotk:m, eithe r cs pc rt of gove1:1I'! ment prog rom or cs secntoneouser seH"motiv,ot·ed migra.iiolil. [}U'fll'lg ~hTsthne! tr:onsmigrQtTon. was :0 very lmporta I'lt com ponenf of ih~ 'f~~1 five-year notion a,1 deve lcpm ent progm rn (RiEPELITA I(and. WClS thus,prornoted irnens:i.vely. News ohoLJt the successes ofthe earlier Salines,e. groups who had migrated also g'ot eround. kr Stl'cll, during this p~rl¢Q, os manVt;l~ 6Al12 fQmiH~s or 31 }j71 peQple m.igf{J't~d

Suma:tra~ Kalimar'rtoflj

or)d Sulawfrsi

(SekdumT Dharmd,1978:64j"

So:oe-don the offi ciQ I records Q·f the Provlnclcl Tro(:'!srnlgr-otion .of". fice, 4 1 0 fa m i IIes. or] ,1 62 peoplespontq neD\J'si.y mo>,ed to We<atNus!] Tenggoro .... A1i<;h ~nd~lde:s Lombok end SlJmb\lwf.l (Konwll TI'41f'!smlgrO$i Bali, 19.74) Ac~ordrRg fo one tronsm1grant from Goak Village {DisJrid of Baoyklij
whD jedCl group of seIF·m~th/Cited tronsrnigroo1s1 15 Families come 10·Kar-m with BClpak K®-weh). Inspired by the success of ,~:rorl1~r ,:Jilil~eS{l tronr;migmntf,l, B thet;"ecs~If' ffioHvated rrtl-

Vi~Jage.. U~an Rhee dishic1' ir; 1970 (I:nfer.vie.,.i
grants d i:d not en IiM i n lhe offi:c:ial Ii'~~dihe

Gove rn mML

Cah er spontoneDus rnigrG1nlts ..... s" th e 9 ro u p I~d by Mr, SJ;ltu b a composed }'if 2:3 fomi Ii es flJ"Qffi Melayo Viflags {J em boro) and N,,,,.:5 0 PMid·(l (K 11.1 ku rig ). Th-,;,:y .o rri..,..ed ot th e tro n.smi gTCfti 0 n s;ij;e in LWIlYU k Rhee, L1}~'r'uk ng 'disJrid~il 1 96 9 (Interview with DeYI'a.KeM Sc.d~(]r..a) _ This bote h was Iollowed by thl'!,.group of 8·0 fOl'nHie$: led bv D:ewQ Putu Sinah and De:wo Ke1!1t Su,.jiaf1;G who went· to LI,.lRyvk in 1970. They walked odor 'os 150 km for




days, fr~m 'Sumba ..... to -lhe'dCtSl-gI[:'!oi'aci lf1(Jn~:;"m~gl'otipn .f;ifu., ThR'ir tJl thing&were 1rtlrJ!spofi"E;id by a horse provided by the dislrid neud ofRClmpung_ ThM, 0 ~ird grf;WP' (:omp~,ed of 42 famrlie~ roUo:wed in 1971, AflefQ yeolr of ~'etll;n 9 down and' od i I!J1s.fin to thli!' naW env~r.ol'lmenti 9 Jam'i n e 'strvck ~heOT(lO- ~n addl'~tOnl heallh pro6J~ms ~~ch as mala'na and vtrus tFCIrlls:mit· 'fcl31dby wi~d Qni m ojs til ~@ih:"nedlh,err IIHeinlh err new $eH~eTnenl {/.bld,) I,owe-:ver wHhtheir pe!FS!ilYoraflC~; (lnd medidoGr s(.'mtto thflm, fu.;;:y mqh· ag€id tC:~UMV~_ In f9'73 they hervested nee, corn {lind petlr'~.~Is'.
aevelf"l Fa tTl in (l sfru

dk llQ:oj


l!fl 197 6 .b~r,:q.if~e oHlle 'drOough t emU'
qn d


feye-no fm~JhJl1l cQo:pemH'on}' bqsed on the' sdidorijy' of the. group l;inQhl(;;:d fhs m to fin d wq ~t; and !n~UnS I~(lo fi'ld ::;.oloctioM t"(~ Hll~~1I;l pf9b[ er.m~. fh ~~rwrviv{]1 rnDti VQI~d th:8i r frcQ:nd:; (m,d re~ativ~ to iqi.h th em i nl Lu n yuL
r!l'9tong Ili:se1Jr~h ~P!"l~ in.
l:rN;r(,)!]~~d in.

~bt'l of cf'Opi; b~ wild bO(J11;S~ n d IGaS€! cornie, I-I ard work.

Ihe sp irH oJ

Ma'v 1966 ~bowec;l

I~m~ IrurWrliligr~Hlh;"

i"r1 Lunywk had


inurnb@r tel 68 famrlie$. They were allowe,d b~~ ihe r(.)co~ g'uvS.u1"11b Clwa tOI put- U' P (I tl9W vi "'ag@ wh i ch th €iy flomred S u kamoj u.

S.ukClrllt:du wus

divl ded i litt) $LJ kCilma~!J Ai

~Ir~ier",jew wflh MadQ 0 ka, ] 0 May 1 996}, ,


El (] nd 5 u kad ani oi



hqd ~hovghsp{K~

lo l[Jcc(:)ml'Ylodqh;:


.~ei1len,If;isi mp9<l1ant- to !,(>t~ th9i i fI 1 971 , ~~v bawo /~ p~p U!o!'ipn dieJl ~rIy tn of 41 par.J.lq, km, UnCf8.a~€!d to 01 $:q. ~rn- in l V80, an·d to 63 '?q km 1'1 1990 (]<:oti!or.Slotis.fik Kabupa~r1'5!lJrnbl',lwa Pr.opiMi NHl I. 1971. 1980,
on9 ] ~90), These Fi9 u res :;;hOM' hai th eden s i'ly d the papl} lotion did n ot ~ (tlPJd Iychange in 20 '{p. 0 rs, R'"A'l';Q LJ Se of ~hts,S1J m b(l~·C1 C)oi"Str! (;1 wcrs 'sIi II op~n for theseHlementof nriigmr1ts up to the 199Q.s,



51nee l 9581 B~li tle~e om crol~ ~ the' ci'v~Iian and rrri~jterry btl'[GlC1 U· n C1's~~nnQd SumbowOI_ At thotfime, jhooe whe Wflre fJ6sMd In ln Slimb.awa did no! D~C'lllpy high pdsino.n1 rl~, "say, hlO'!J.ids 0f gO·Jefnmp.~~ irdHI.ti;ons, irl !il,e df~i!tid 9f 'Sumbtlw,j, HOWCV~i, in fhe l-978s, severol J[j"'IJ!'1t!l~e and Baline\~i:! pub~i"o;: ~.eFV[]~~ll were transferre.d to im"p'ortont PO~}!l; ;rnhe bcol gOv~J·hrnenl. 5~trg1-e.,gic osh;'i~ the di":3trldh~oded 6Y·C1lkd1ne..sL:< p
cr.aties were Were: Ihe ONice of thE'l.Stote Ajlonl~Y, I'~~ S'iqle COl:Jrl -of .Jv!ilice, lhe police. Ih.e s.tel~e-owned e:1'edric compr.lny, the local .bmn.ch ~tthego."'~m;n~~i~h:i! Heopll'll-s Book Indonesla/lhe !Qt:a.l publrchospiltcd/ arid the JQhxommu IlF~anon 'Offi'c@·_1hl£l. new b~Jrscucrcts a,fte·n·.did i,o! understand the aSfJirolion Go!~h~pe,apie in the area._ For Ihls melson, any aduation In wntltl'!vp.r seale in carrying oul .[JitU(;![S d1nd policies created a negcrtiv,e r.ecd;.()n ·trom Ih-e SurnbowOlne~B. These higdll19hl~d Jumb,(;Iw.Qne$e' IJInd th~ mifloiify !l,igninf 1"h~ gop


bel\t.'Her~ the [TlCijl")rify





armgcmce. of 11lf'!ir~ompahi(lts in govemrnel1t posts: ochr~I1'r' ~.,.ar'rie d 1·1l e Ba I~n ese rn igrants th e"",~e~Vi3s, QSpeel oU y frhos e 01 rnorrglh e wdra bt IJQOr1E;l'er f.k:dTI119S£ migrqnts such as Borak Modil and tho migranl$


who CUrnB ~ntE'lr such f;)I~ Bapak RlJrnpeg.. In vDin, Ihe'~ e,:!:,ertedeFforh in. m~k}tl(l thes9 civil se,v[mts tolerunt (.lf1d un~j]rS'~(;Indirig of lhe sndo-cLJIIm'al cliffen\lntes (Iniervi'G-wwith B~jpak Mudil tH'!d Bapak RUrTlp8g).


I,n 011 e. si gn ~flca n t In$kll"l CG th e crruqonce a nd police offkifll (Ih~ I-mad 01 !he local po~h;~

d~~poti CTFJ lu re of unit) offended Ihe

tm1S1 powerful man in tlw Regew::y of .sumhawu. The pollee Re'gerll's (Jlurhmiiy byam'lllting his subordinate, Ih~ he.w:J of Ihp.- distrk.1 of fmponr~, without rhE'! Regent's w)-signcrl .. Tl1fs lneidfenf lncreosed the resP-lfllrm·)~·1 th~ majority $umbawanre£e no] 01'11,( againsl ,the rmHce af~tCJ[ 6u1 'EiIsQ agoiinsf QII Ih!l oth€:r Ilalrr"r~s,(."l officials, officer

Rp-nent; the

bYf.ltl!O!:f.ld Ihe·


Withill the Bqlrin~H! mi·gmnk commonifv everybody wa~ aware uf ihE:l h~ad of the f,H..lllo~L Bcrpak Modil talkf;}d with the. police. chit~r obout. the metier but ~h~ letter only onswered, "Ivai,) rf it ·.,.~rl;!" . Ihe R@genl· hirnseH who h()d ccrnmitted 0 m'istoke, h~ '\'>!oold l:Ie qr(e$ts>d, whai more Ihl"! head of lhe subdistrict" (Interview wilh l3ap(j~ Madil)_

tht) orrogam:-e


The horrnortious

I if,r;!ba.sed on 1i'i1erance


two demde-s {1952-1980} wos put $1,1 scquenl case <;),f rnix9d rnQrr~~lg~. Ar,. b

servnnfs becurne ou j sh t)tily.

ihe tmgQ~

Llf mOJ~

buill (lnd' nurtured for lest. by th~~ incod,enl rmd (] re:i,IJI~,pll B.alrTlese civil tmg12lr wh'en the open c<mflid broh:



The pr·af>el:H:~eof Ih~fit.sl Bol,in{!~·e, magranl~ ~rr 19521..yqs choracter. iLe.d by Ihe Bl.,isin~ll!i.5pirit of BaprJk. Nyorn!Ji'1 M{:!di~, Hapak RegO-fJ; Bapak
Ihes€! Inr.lividull~~ moy bQ categorized os "forCRd be(;uu::;~ they Were exiles. At tbe some litTw.;lhey Were puonegr mign::rt'l-ts bacom;(>, fhey wentthere to- '~{lek greene! pasf'ur~~ (GlortH Dervis

C~bm and others,

ciled in Cnan-a-s., Op.Cil'~3 7), Fr.om 1952-1960, tht:ry 8-xpF.lrierrq;;rd fai'lure~ and greell d~mcultres in running 'Iheir bLJsil1!3.~se~, However, O'S pi91'je-~r rniqrtmfs I'hey plCly~d an Importunl role in motivalinn other Baline~~ to.lr~' th'f.:ir' Ilw~ ln Q nGl.,..' plnce as Imd"lrS, businessmen. contmctors ond lond-

"owning Iormers.





mi~:W;HrI'$!lrrot'i8!~li81!'ant-~ were·very Ih'rmrge·iic ('md hardworkli~g alld w0rC1 fhus able In lrnprova lheilr :;t~lnd(]rd of living_ Skw,·I,(,.

b~:JE~thElf ith t\, f) ethnic ChlrH;l..~e,the'y be'[lun to dDrr1frmtEi the eCi!;lnQF'1ir. w life of the $urn6t1wan tqwns. in 19BO, Ihe Chin!}!i@ and l3ulinl;!s~ In Su.mi:JClwD numbered. 9 75 (O,3%) and 4, 75,6 ~l ,56%) resp~ctlYElty ~Kw~t~r Stati~lik

Ko6upot~n I ~80:'61 ). El[],line~e migrollts



Thcr pioncarlnq €rllrllBnt pfbj~{:t~ such

LJhOpOtlicipllh;~,d if 1 local 90';'sr~rving a!;, cont.l'adors!lluppilier,s of 6urld~llg mcrtfl.i6ls end lnbor racrujtars, H:lElr'ebv enc:ourarling the dtri\lcd of rrrore BatiMse [n Surnbowo. Bapuk Madil himself sd up (] successful cantfucJQ~


ir1ElLNsi'nes',..caH1Bd '!FirmCl NM" in 1958. The lirm Was well con neded with Ihe kj'c:cd gMerrit'r'lf,!nl and w'as able to contrucl infrqstructu ro proje,t::ts (IhI ivi€!w with Bcpok Madil)_ One of hi~,!;qt1S, \/</[Jyan RtlnlegJ WaS entrusted to develop the hot~1 ond bustrcnaportoficn iroduslries ln 1915, Tmnbura HQI'~ and CI nUi11b.L'I,f of hi,~ hH~,e~w(t-r'e ~e' on fire dlJl'ing. the 1980 conflicL

\'Vh(;lfltI,lrl!J$ returned t-a norrnclcv, hls busurass c.olltirwed end in ,the 1990s. he vElnlured into Ihe, phonnw;:y ond $uperrriarb~l bM1;InE!SS {lhM.),
Anoth!!:!' bus,in",,~~mQn' [s Mw'Jn Suptqrfa, WhOOWMS PT Sen10wa cmd is Inl;orverJ in rhe timber indu~I;rf. Madej -Su'purto r!i fhe rid-les! mall in Swnbawo B~s;:lI: lie WCj~obi to (J~CJ:infunds l;Jy going into 0 [oint venture 't.'d~ n Sitl9apr;r~Qn firm ,A.nother company @flgrl_g~d inh::r-rsI,Clndtradqji; is DWT!ed b~' ~B Bal.iI1es,E! tT1igran1~, hlgCl1kclF1 Nyoman Poyeh cmd Nr~rlb;Hi KcolulRe:t1drmg {fb,:d.). The pr~fit ecrncd b't, th~il' cornpunles encbled tIl,os€'


business [nmilios 'to bJJ't' lands, bulld big
In ~lle lower

IIt_lu~e,~ and

own com",Jere-tlble ro


the Salines€!

in (] 9'mduol manner,

dorniriClI'e the daily bUY''::Hid-sell'/rdoil industry in Sekf<tet1lJ and Sumbowa Besar rnorkelscs lower-closs small ret(jilj~.r.~ m,d middle-class bjJsinEi!~;smen, I'n Seketf!li'lg rrH~r¥eri 'I'he biggest mqrike,~in Surnh(j,w~~ B,e~ar, 80 parcent at the Iroders ar~ i~lhn'c Elalines,e_ TheiY'own stores, hohills, und trcnspertufion comp(lnip..~ clnd enjoy[J be1tm standard of living cornpured lo Jheir life i1' Ih(~ir plar.,e of ofigin_

Thl~ pre~l:!n(~e of tmd.€ rs, bu $1n e~s rn en

migront,S' 9rodually


alboul changeS'



wcirll f;I'r(.lliri'~Cibon ot Sumbownnese

~{)de1y. The Ballnes,e'\


n dfamHusex

pan d ~d th e

tower Qnd

mlddl e

d (L~S'e$;

Olhers wera qble' to !:!nter ilie upper' strala of mdl'lly and formed 'the Ollila ,group In Ihf:'l loco] government ndruinislrutlon and thp.-commerciol sector In I-h.;:, town,s·_, land .o ..... 'f'I8rs:hfp and oo11,l'e-r(lisjrl'9 modEl lharn IhE\! ditf;] tmmArt- i rl trtooi, viii a 9£1$,
The BaiinEl,se millml1fs who Olil€! lo'se'lrle in S,tlmbavm W(jtE:l uctuElII~,poor in th'e.ir ploc; of origin, But ',becdu~e ~f 1heirindlistrv end p~rs~\I~~I,'H,:fi CIS well as IIH~ir~tr{,)tll11dr-ive 11[) ucceed 6('l;::(iU~E;!' )f ienga/l s G (~i teeling of ernb'ortls:>ment if they -"JillIail ,n I'he:lr venhrre tp se~k br grean1;!f pCI~hnes), thme ...,qs Irmn~~{L~E,!'~lr8~sul"cfof them to w9rk hard 1f1


Ltr~G·~·~h ara

th.~y ,~ettl~d



B,6Ime.$~·el1ioyed mode them to b~ rich, This condifion g.r(Jdually created an econ,omicgap betwoen thril! traders IJnd bu~i.fH~·ssm.en ...... we're Glthnic Bolrnese;'CIind consumers 110 who, wme r"n().dly 1tJ.r:q I p.i;:: pl e jor ·the 5.u m b oWOm;!.se mO iorUty. most of wh om i,Iol€ ~ poor; o The reoll1nd pe:ro:dved seonomic gap in tvm resulted In socldl envy thql i::reuh:~d,-ondi.hotls ['Or ethnic ccmfltct.
sh:.mdard of livin.g the

rhe. higher



to· ~he sthnrc ChinE¥:'Q who ij,re conside+ed

The h[~rd work and par$ri,lv€trtJinCe oOf th9 ElCllirles~!rcmsrnigrar1t form·ers curnbillilld wi1h 1hE:!ir ew farmli1[) techl1ique~ broughl about changes' n I n Ih e e cosysferrr. Til evopen e d up tom ste d m"€!fJLS Cl n d l'Ook over gJ'~~~y c;md obcndcned f'ields left by the Im:ph and kansformed the~r~ nto riq;! farms, orchards and residenflol creos, They bred irVfl;<:tock IJInd 'blJrh~rnbh~::;,
ron !!i!'! onimo]s. In the relnvseoson, t~ey built o wlJter control ~y5tel1i .~lmila'r~o 'Ihe 8(1/iMse trodiliiono/ subak ::;ystem ...... hi~h re[~ul[Jtlf;'d !]Ild d'.i· ~rilullh'.,d warur ·fairly. ~~c.r.m bs' said Ihot th€ljl hud n,rgol'liled tw~)lyp@s of

~w~ydQms; the ItVjO/1 flu/an rice field (wliivl:rled wflen fhere is min) pl,anfed

with gogg rics, CQI'n and peunuls in I'owlond (II'P-al>like lunytJ'k Clnd KoNlr .. In 'ifi-e lowlands and uplonds of th~ rio:r'~hem bem:hesc, th~ gardening eco~'pe ..... devcl~ped wilh rice, i:llfC!nges, mcin;goes, (Xong,ss, coconuts and pee-os
nuts as rro ps.
MOll! of Ihe I3tllinfl'Sg. tmnsrnr9r~.lnt$ F0C1cl-ieJ SUr.t.8SS ofter 1975, bOHghf lands fnxl1 native serflen;. They iinfroJuced 'nlSw wuy!;; of culiivatfnfl londs difFefE!"ntFrom I'htl methods u~ed by tho Su rnonw.(mese h)-. li1!,l1 cats, ,As, mentioned earlier, SumbClwanes,e fmmerl! hod th~rr own fanning Ie hnique thai ieCJuired moving [rom t")tle place to onother end br0!3ding cartl e-

wi n n:::HJfila kin 9 stu bi es for t
are in

th e

nn ~n~ els, 111'8 m08 ~ su CC€ilmnJ I Ba-

1inese Iwnsmigranls



il'i and Suk<m'ltJIIJ ..1he'1 pioneered

ln Ih~,commercicl ph:mtCltion offruil' tress such os OrcH'ig@'s~ rnanSjOEl8 ond n ubi and olso brQd cows gild chi,r;H'lf'I, B.afne~e transn-ligronts owned orr aven~ge of w.m hechJre$ per family lin Sukomaiu" ond frQm one 16 one(J nd- c-h cM h~dCl res ~n Komar ond vVqJreJUfri. Modern lflleEdn s of trclll8poralinn "vare. oble 10 reach !hes£! nreus, makin'g p~s$ibh~thQ deli'J,el)'
of agrkultlJrfJI pmduc:elo Sim~larl"tl fJloods could more town markets



gU"I~ide Ih~t

e-qsil~' be brought


Ihe Iwt1smigratiori

f~giufl, si:te,

the IDec] b, S1J rnbawarl ese [iotrn fmtnin(J~ were preesured by the

The success of th'I!'IS0' Boljne5e trcnsrrriqroots cmJ51edworr~; l:Jmong E'!~ wh 0 v/ork'e d I nih eir fi eM~ ~Irnmobi le

presence of the tmmmigrcmt!;, especi!~I1}~ ~ h8n the sucoe·s~flJl BCJ~ine:;-e ... :;tQrted to nccumulure.rnors IClnd~,

lh rilse-

cow rse ,th e re were abo B.a'i r nese fom Il,i9'S wh Q rarnol ned poor, fa [11 i II (.lS served as ~h orecrepp ers (11', co r~ta kers of CO~S and ~I(tyed in th~l"il' mcu;terl:; house. xrJ.mple:>orelhe. tamily (~fMnde RU9le ond the





fmniiy of r-J~D["rm Sudmmi





el Lu I~V!j~

Culium( Gap Ifllur.elhlllk
a(,,~lhOnl!L ~1'[lfU~ und
IU' hmghll'!n,~d nn~t unl'l' hy fhl-tn.r·'n"~s In p[j~lbnl1~ II go 'Jl:Jmmun 1(1 I rillthonly, Llld ~d~() hv dd 1ic.!liyiOt'l. Ii fuJjhnrml lows rmd cosjorns, (!TId iood ('"Ihrml


rOllmr.ll~ ill Irkllnll ur;~il'9 il ~'rn
I1l1qm1l 11'.lIw.

if! ~I:l

JIIlf',t'hl;f1~ h(l~'l



Ifl I'rtllh

['or It


r ~L!"""ltIm Iho I:,Q~(lk Ir!d

In .... ~I[lO'~11 IJlhlllf'

\:IfOIJp'" ill I, huh III~"'II {501l111l 'll Sulm,,~sl). ,md bt I~,"ifl Ih 1.:f'I,~.tl('1n SIr'I'IFlCm, I'lXPIlillf.lln tr<lflsJnluwnl$ and Ihe local p'Jtipk In P,'lIlwnWI (Vip~1

ol Mi{Hll'[,]


ul1d who ,ml]tl'.!'ct!

Islfln1 fn,c)dici{,h



Op.CI! 163-165)

ItI SU!lIb(~wo,

liH!' ~~"Jloutv llal",,,~.·

SumlJ(lwt!I1f~~O ar~ MU,IIIHl1S, 1 h~ Hindu rwrnb.:rrod ·j.1 16 (I 'i6 % tho poplllrlliol1) tlflflll Hl n !OIJ')fi~( Smntll,.;un, Jmu," rmd Jnvan~ who oro.N uslrm t1umieHu,·.d 296/430 (97 47%) In 19HO tKcH1II;)r -='taflstl~, Kobllp{J ten )\irrlbawu, 1980: 60), U~h!,lt elhllic mlOonIY groups, Clre r hrrsbqns ul,d Btl d

1'1., f hnrlu (lnd rhf'l mrW'1rltv


dhists (S~e Table 2}
AHe:r about
rnuruhes am

'" 0 year:!>. It'l

1996, Ihe B(Jhlltl~e




csssiu 1'Iy esto bJ is-h ad cornm u!'IiIIBS spreod ou J

I 4 distil id:;;,


es e zorn-

two IYPQ~:Ihe mign':J!"l1 commwHht>, 1f1 the la .... 'n5, and ~he conuwur-ities in 1he ·.illcil eo e IrCltt~lT1igranr ~,(l[llm~nl tla~


make up 13 dt$'trids,. JOlJF.'wcrh.. Lllfl'~uk. Tal.wong. SeJe-luk Alcrs, Utr.HI Rhee.,
Batulan~~h, Moypl1ilfJ. MO'!/cbulu, Ropong, Lope Iopok, Plompang and clllPQng' (Kqn1'[J1 SiCillsHk Prop~r'~i IHB, J~??O-140) Although they dHtO!'!' rrbm Pouch Ot1~@I,rhE rnstnuhorrs thol ~hey bu,lrOJ ~{)n1pje. the ct,JlTmiU·

nil~1irls'lil!Jlion Lulled bOll(ul and "..mCl~~e5bound b common worship (plJraJ lr;!tnpJo e~t koyanglf:l'r-l rl'esah,Uoge ~empJ~sJ ~ra.srmjlm ~()Ihorn In Jhl'-Ir J,onH~ villoga", {SandlnfJb::m dellBClI"l Cholros, Op.cI/. :18) (See Inblus 3 und.:1 1'01' rIm number of bOfirOF In m districts, ,md Ihe number of h~fHpjP.!> in five disrrlcls, of thp. Sumb[lw(1 RrJ.g4;mc. In 1996)
Asrde I rom rhe cornmu [11,.". '" ~iil1J hCl115. th~'1 oj 50 ion 11F3d P a rh (1 j 1w org~~I'1i2:alioIl5'~Qh;j/lrJ) lIke Ih~ "'/ha~, 0 yfllUp 01 tormers shcmng 11mwoh~r i''rigoliotl r.y.:iilaFI1 rllirlflg' II,.. ph:mlifl 5C05.011 IlI'1d I'1'1cmogll'!J 1110 m~1I111bcr'i; ~xmllibu I'ir:m~,:1 n d r, f!~ I I) n d II,,, ~okoh a 'eJllm r t~rLJtl1I. tho vel; 1ft ofgmu zu1 Ijou whrt:M mlW"I'9~r. In ilpurb rnerauhon rho lo,jm ~olrr'md foorbtl.ll dlJb~



t tlltl~d

PiJlrc DnWrirf}






2, PO 'P U 'u\1'10 N BP5EDON RELIGION PER DISTRCIT 1,\1THE SUMBA\oVA REGENCY IN 1980 Hindu TOTAL irn Calhdic ·Chrhl'jo.n Ehddhl!it


Lun~'~"~ Tc>li,(.\;J,~

:'! 43


I,.; J7 > 7.7
14 4


15 1]99


7,116 10//70 57,100

A;iclrl,_Iron R'hee

R,;lulr::r'1t",h ~;vrnb!1 ~~,!I:]

40,460 2ji::;L~1 7,482 53,il;i9
19.,<llO 14,764


-, ...

2.155 12


[./ ..:110



,~O.755 21 ,(.69
7,493 5£,090 19,~2?










'6,0;'2 24,196

I 8


6 305

21 I

I r327
19,202 16 ..38-7






10.-11%) Regency



1981 :61


W!-)~i NLI[,G TenggorJ)



BanjarJ ComP"Wnd N<ltIle ~r_ Y.adl~ -5" rl

Sp.1elu'l{ Saileh,Jlk


Femiill~ gQ, 113



TOTAL ...07 ' Z50

Br, Sw:IHl<!f!


137 H

Sr. 61J~n~S~ri Br. Sub Duks'
Sr, Walla.ghi Br, \l\lana.gl'j I



'Ala's LIUln Rhee
Utan IRhee Llh!in Rhaa Ut.m R~~~~ LJttln Flhe~ Utsnfl!h~ SumbJIw.., Surl]~.a'h';il Plampailg








11 a,"


2BS E2

Elf, Sumb€r S;ill'i
Sf. PUi'.a1>:$;Jri J;lLSUira DLI~a, Ell'. TCl'!JiJ.J'S<:\1i Sf. Mfll1.~N3.d11




2~a 2~J ~31




Br, Kemlral'lg S~ri Br.UPlli!~n~ V BJ. :SlJk~!M~lY



1.747 1,028

195 '·8"3 I,'35V,·

16~, ~,7S~ .

1 ,~$~







I un~vk




0 (II


PLan PI,I(1t1.1 Sa1

Puro POI'I'
.6 PI) 0 Be1u : IIni"tJ


a ~ura
leila I

1 F't.oro DoJ.

If\ Jt 'yt:l

oaiamn ~iXI


OQkm 2 I'IJIL:l Soli 1I.g1.l"EI :3 Pllia M~r't;I Su t TOl01 1 t.luro \'{Uldu Sail '} Pero 1)allro \", r.'







Il'nc ElUOt'tO


Jo-g01 Pr:r.'I10


5 Pur'.)

]IQflSOll ~rt.q

6. '1




T0101 1, Flu/a .J\glJny G I rr Notr.a 2. Pure Dol (!m Gr:mdo StrJi

.3 F\J~ LIlr.Uf PU/'W'O Sidi 11. Puro l\I'cl'r~::lgQn~ 5 F\lfQ Caro;' flt,-,::nc
6. Pura rto BU.ytll1<l



7, PI/tO UI St.M, ToloJ 1. PIJlO Ds;;,a

I 1


OVl.l bElen nl!Jl;ible 'Ilnol.Jgh 1r1 ffl.slilt'mdiny Kub ,tmsllr.m KB dun Dill drmgt:m 51511:lm Ual'ljl':l!l'I,B. Aslovm 1987.2·8·22") Tll!i1S re~llba:; hove em 1I!1pll"lltioll Orl Ih BOVllrrnmf.!nt':s pr;rlfq dimdf>d lowllnis Ihe oSpm.;!trOfl~ 0 Ihe ethnlt' M('ilir1B!>O rnigntmt5. rho locul O~ umm I," 111 IJHMl allow'!!1 lhu RC1lln~$Q '

migrou'I:s/ 'trDdllicmll

10' hrmgo [Bl:lndln9~on

pr mDtJ~rn, dongcn

'h1 buHdlhQIJ OW~l cornrnun lIT' bO~Jndild by Iholl! 'r!l~pDch ... l' lorrl tm)' 1 (kern IUTlIj'Q~ bCJllJ!:I./villogOl ~'nml'lluj1llyl BtJ$od on mcmd~ of Ih~f iil'Td~1 ism

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful