This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
OLAP (27 marks) Write a 2500 word report on the operational data using OLTP and analytical data using OLAP. The report should include the following: a. Overview of OLTP b. Overview of OLAP c. Four advantages and Four disadvantages of the OLTP d. Four advantages and Four disadvantages of the OLAP e. Give your reasons for which type of organization you would recommend OLTP or OLAP.
INTRODUCTION OLTP and OLAP systems are transaction and analytical systems respectively. They are the branches of information systems. OLTP systems are transaction based systems which provide the source data and OLAP systems are analytical system which are used to analyze the data. Here in OLTP systems, a transaction is a logical task which must be finished of aborted, in this case, intermediate states are not accepted. An analytical system is capable of analyzing large amounts of data. OLTP systems are used to handle large amounts of short online transactions. The operations performed by a OLTP system are insert, update and delete. OLTP systems maintain data integrity and they also provide fast query processing in environments having multiple access. Transactions per second determine the efficiency of this system. The current and detailed data is stored as an entity model in this type of system usually 3NF. The databases in this type of a system mostly contain transactional data. OLAP systems have low number of transaction when compared to a OLTP system. OLAP systems store historical data. The response time determines the efficiency of this system. Queries from this type of systems are more complex. Data mining techniques also use OLAP application. These systems store data in a star schema in their databases. DEFINITION OF OLAP OLAP is computer processing that enables a user to easily and selectively extract and view data from different points of view. In other words OLAP is a term that describes a technology that uses a multi dimensional view of aggregate data to provide quick access to strategic information for the purpose of advanced analysis. To facilitate this kind of analysis, OLAP data is stored in a multidimensional database. Whereas a relational database can be thought of as two-dimensional, a multidimensional database considers each data attribute as a separate "dimension." OLAP software can locate the intersection of dimensions and display them.
OVERVIEW OF OLAP OLAP system can handle any number of queries at the same time. There are two types of OLAP systems, they are multi dimensional and relational which are in short called as MOLAP and ROLAP. OLAP systems are mainly used to process multidimensional queries and are used mostly in business related fields because they have efficient budgeting. OLAP is defined as multidimensional cubes which uses matrix to represent things to analyze and calculate. OLAP is also used for discovery of relationships and also in data mining. It is not necessary that a OLAP database should be as large as a data ware house. Data can be imported from existing relational databases to create multidimensional database using a open database connectivity. Hyperion Solution's Essbase and Oracle's Express Server are leading OLAP products which are designed for multiple-user environments. Pre-calculation and storage is necessary because the data is stores in multi – dimensional arrays. Relational database works directly with relational OLAP. In here aggregate information is kept by creation of relational table and the values being stored respectively. Here the relational part holds more data and the specialized storage holds lesser data. There is also an other type of OLAP which is called as hybrid. The hybrid is like a combination of relational and specialized space, in other words hybrid is a blend of both multidimensional and relational OLAP which is more efficient and useful than the other two types. But I consider relational is better in performance that the rest. The other types are Web-based OLAP, desktop based OLAP and Real time OLAP, and these are not most prominently used.
FEATURES OLAP systems are normally offline systems and are the secondary source of information. The main operation of OLAP systems is read-only. OLAP operations include rollup (increasing the level of aggregation) and drill-down (decreasing the level of aggregation or increasing detail) along one or more dimension hierarchies,
multidimensional view of data). In these systems, standard file formats and standard naming conventions are used. The data n=must be integrated and organized by the dimensions of the business. All types of data are integrated into one system and the data is updated periodically. These systems contain historical data and also have the time key (time series analysis). Only one warehouse server (logical server) is used in these type of systems. Rolap architecture accesses data directly from ware houses. According to ROLAP architects , OLAP capabilities are best only when provided against a relational database. Multidimensional databases are used to provide analysis and they believe that OLAP is best implemented by storing data multi dimensionally. While comparing the different architectures we can see that Query performance of ROLAP is not high and ROLAP has limitations in specialized functions because it relies on databases to perform its calculations. MOLAP provides better performance and it requires less storage because it uses compression techniques when compared to ROLAP. MOLAP implementations always have a database explosion threat.
ADVANTAGES OF OLAP OLAP systems have effective decision making and they also provide access to strategic information. Application backlogs are reduced in OLAP systems. These systems respond more quickly to market demands and they also reduce the network traffic and query drag on transaction systems or data warehouses. OLAP applications provide faster service and in whole they increase the productivity of the organization. These systems can be used in all types of business. DISADVANTAGES OF OLAP These systems cannot access data in a very short time. When it come to MOLAP systems, they are limited to data that they can handle because the calculations are performed only when the cube is built. Large amounts of data cannot be included in the cube itself, in other words only summary level information will be included. Functionalities inherent to relational database are leveraged by ROLAP and also the performance of ROLAP can be slow because the ROLAP report is an SQL query in a relational database, if the data size is large the query time will be long. The cube technology do not exist in an organization and hence MOLAP requires extra investment. Irrespective of the advantages and disadvantages, OLAP is more preferred because large volumes of data can be stored in this types of processing technique.
RECOMMENDATIONS OLAP applications can be used in a wide variety of organizational functions. Finance departments can use OLAP for applications such as budgeting, activity-based costing, financial performance analysis, and financial modeling. OLAP can also be used for Sales analysis by sales departments. Marketing departments can use OLAP for market research analysis, sales forecasting, promotions analysis, customer analysis, and market & customer segmentation, These include in the OLAP based applications and Typical manufacturing of OLAP applications should include production planning and defect analysis. The key indicator of a successful OLAP application is its ability to provide information as needed. This requires more than a base level of detailed data. Industries that have large amount of data can use OLAP systems for example industries like transport, retail and consumer goods. These industries tend to have rich internal and external data.
DEFINITION OF OLTP OLTP is a class of program that facilitates and manages transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transactions. Probably the most widely installed OLTP product is IBM's CICS (Customer Information Control System). OVERVIEW OF OLTP The main task that OLTP systems deal with is TRANSACTIONS. They generate and handle transaction based applications. For example these types of systems are used in e-banking where transaction is necessary and plays a major role another place where they are used are automated teller machines in which transaction should me made very fast. In this case, the system must respond very fast to the users request. So these kind of systems use a broking software and a client server processing that allows transactions on various platforms. They are capable of handling large amounts of concurrent data. The SOA architecture (service oriented architecture) and web services are added with OLTP so that online transactions can be done. The main purpose of these systems is to provide efficient transactions online. The size of data is reduced and the duplicates are reduced using the normalization technique. User using these type of systems are very much concerned with the total time taken for the transactions and most of the users are likely to do short DML transactions. The performance load should be reduced by allocating more space inorder to keep the system effective.
FEATURES OLTP systems have recent and current data in their databases, they are the primary source of information, OLTP system is an online system in which data can be updated online. Different types are file formats are holded by different systems. The data is organized by the application and there are different naming conventions. Can be used and a wide range of hardware platforms and there is no need for time series analysis. The data is typically not integrated. The major functions of this system are insert, update, delete and select. ADVANTAGES OF OLTP Customer have their own choice of making payments. In these type of systems, the results are more accurate and precise. The transactions are modified timely and hence support a stable organization. Individual processes are simplified hence speeding up the process. DISADVANTAGES OF OLTP In case of a server failure there are chances for data loss and processes can delay. Locking issues affect DML operations and hence bitmap indexes will not work good for these systems. Even a very careless mistake could lead to severe problems later leading to wastage of time and money. Since the information is made available worldwide, it is easy for hackers to gain access hence these systems are prone to a direct attack. OLTP systems are very efficient and they reduce manual work and are capable of handling large data and processing it. These systems can be very helpful in large organizations dealing with huge amounts of data. Drawback of these systems are these systems are not reliable and the security is not so high because they can be affected by network availability issues , system failure and even if the database is corrupted.
RECOMMENDATIONS My recommendations are, people or organizations those who are in need of transaction based applications mainly focusing on data retrieval and entry can use these types of systems. For example these systems can be uses by organizations like mail order, manufacturing, survey organizations, airlines banks etc. Electronic
banking, order processing , e- trading , e-commerce are some types of application based on these systems. OLAP VS OLTP
CRITERIA OLAP SYSTEM ONLINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING (DATA WAREHOUSE) SOURCE OF DATA PURPOSE OF DATA WHAT THE DATA REVEALS INSERTS AND UPDATES QUERIES OLAP- DATA COMES FROM VARIOUS OLTP DATABASES TO HELP WITH PLANNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION SUPPORT MULTI DIMENSIONAL VIEWS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF BUSINESS ACTIVITIES PERIODIC LONG-RUNNING BATCH JOBS REFRESH THE DATA OFTEN COMPLEX QUERIES INVOLVES AGGREGATIONS PROCESSING SPEED DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT OF DATA INVOLVED; BATCH DATA REFRESHED AND COMPLEX QUERIES MAY TAKE MANY HOURS; QUERY SPEED CAN BE IMPROVED BY CREATING INDEXES SPACE REQUIREMENTS LARGER DUE TO THE EXISTANCE OF AGGREGATION STRUCTURES AND THE HISTORY DATA; REQUIRES MORE INDEXES THAN OLTP DATABASE DESIGN TYPICALLY DE-NORMALIZED WITH FEWER TABLES;USE OF STAR OR SNOWFLAKE SCHEMAS BACKUP AND RECOVERY INSTEAD F REGULAR BACKUPS, SOME ENVIRONMENTS MAY CONSIDER SIMPLY RELOADING THE OLTP DATA AS A RECOVERY METHOD. BACKUP IS NECESSARY BECAUSE OPERATIONAL DATA IS CRITICAL TO RUM THE BUSINESS, DATA LOSS IS LIKELY TO ENTAIL SIGNIFICANT MONETARY LOSS AND LEGAL LIABILITY. HIGHLY NORMALIZED WITH MANY TABLES CAN BE RELATIVELY SMALL IF HISTORICAL DATA IS ARCHIVED OLTP SYSTEM ONLINE TRANSACTION PROCESSING (OPERATIONAL SYSTEM) OLTP; OPERATIONAL DATA, IS THE ORIGINAL SOURCE OF DATA TO CONTROL AND RUN FUNDAMENTAL BUSINESS TASKS. A SNAPSHOT OF ONGOING BUSINESS PROCESS SHART AND FAST INSERTS AND UPDATES INITIATED BY END USERS RELATIVELY STANDARDIZED AND SIMPLE QUERIES RETURNING RELATIVELY FEW RECORDS TYPICALLY VERY FAST
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.