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Published by: muaz_aminu1422 on Jan 26, 2011
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TYPES OF FAULTS :The following problems required addressing & consideration from the point of view of applying protection:‡ Short circuit protection ‡ Stator electrical faults ‡ Loss of excitation ‡ Over voltage ‡ Overload protection ‡ Unbalanced load protection ‡ Under /over frequency protection ‡ Mechanical Faults

Different Protections used for Generator
Generator Differential Protection. Generator Inter Turn Protection. Generator Negative Sequence Protection. Generator Loss of Excitation Protection. Generator Over Voltage Protection. Frequency Protection Generator Over Load/ Over Current Protection Generator Rotor Earth Fault Protection Generator Back Up Impedance protection Generator Low Forward power Interlock Generator reverse power protection. 95% stator Earth Fault Protection

Instrument Transformers ‡ ‡ ‡ Current Transformers Turns ratio is inversely proportional to the ratio specified Secondary current is according to primary current only Should not be left open circuited ‡ ‡ ‡ Potential Transformers Turns ratio is directly proportional to the ratio specified Secondary current is according to burden connected Should not be short circuited .

Protection Classes ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Class A Protection This master trip will operate when the fault needs to isolate the generator immediately This gives command to open the generator breaker and field breaker. Class B Protection This master trip will operate when the fault is not serious in view of generator or it is not directly harmful to generator This gives the command to trip turbine or Prime Mover Tripped .

Elements of protection system ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Current relays Voltage relays Power relays Impedance relays Frequency relays Special function relays Auxiliary Relays Timers .

4% Cooling: water/ Hydrogen Cooled Neutral Grounding: High Impedance (Through NGT) .Specifications of Generator Make: BHEL MVA: 247 Connection: Three Phase Double Star Connected.5% Transient Impedance: 21. of Poles: 2 Synchronous Impedance: 222% Sub Transient Impedance: 30. Voltage: 15750 Volts Current: 9050 Amp Frequency: 50 Hz Speed: 3000 RPM No.

PROTECTION AGAINST 3 PHASE . The voltage is said to restrain the current element. SHORT CIRCUIT (51 V) Voltage restrained over current relay is one of the most commonly used protection against generator external short circuit protection. . The reason of introducing a voltage signal into over current device is to provide a relay that can ride through momentary overload conditions such as motor starting and still provide proper short circuit protection. Typical voltage setting of this relay is (80-90%) of nominal.

Earth conductor can provide back up protection for all earth relays at the generator voltage level. It provides protection against generator internal earth faults.EARTH FAULT PROTECTION :-( 51 G ) A relay connected to a current transformer mounted on the Neutral. however not all the stator winding can be protected against earth fault using this protection function. The relay settings should be higher than the expected harmonic current following the neutral during normal load condition and not more than 33% of the maximum earth faults generator currents. .

.STATOR WINDING ELECTRICAL FAULTS Failure of the stator winding or connection insulation can result in a severe damage to the winding and stator core. The extent of the damage depends on the magnitude and duration of the fault current.

Accordingly they will provide better protection and in large generating systems maintaining stability by fast clearing faulted generators.10% difference in CT·s current. . Typical setting of the differential relay is 5. The zone of protection of differential protection can be extended to cover the connecting cabling.DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION (87) To respond quickly to a phase fault with damaging heavy currents. high speed differential protection is normally applied to generator equal or higher than 500 KVA. Differential relays operates only for faults within their protected zone they are inherently Selective and can operate much faster.

. Thermal relay (49 Q ) is normally connected to RTD·S resistance temperature detectors imbedded in the stator winding of generators . governed by the level of rotor excitation.It Provides protection for the machine in the over load area but not fault conditions Each phase of the winding shall be connected to 2 RTD·S at the hot spot defined by supplier. The generator manufacture should be consulted during the setting of this relay.STATOR OVERHEATING PROTECTION (49Q) Accidental over loading might occur through the combination of full active load current governed by the prime mover (KW) output and an abnormally high reactive current component KVAR output. The trip & alarm setting of this relay depends on the insulation class & temperature rise of the generator.

In this case the machine runs as induction generator execited from the others machines on the system. The last might cause instability of the power system & over heating of the other machines. .PROTECTION AGAINST LOSS OF EXCITATION Loss of excitation can occur when the generator is operating at only 2030% of rated power. Rapid automatic disconnection is then required in order not only to protect the generator but also to protect other machines from which the faulted machine withdraw its excitation as an induction generator . generator terminal voltage decreases and the stator currents starts to increase. The generator quickly over heats due to the system slip frequency currents induced in it .

This relay must be used with a proper time delay to stabilize the protection against maloperation in response to transient conditions.PROTECTION AGAINST LOSS OF EXCITATION The last might cause instability of the power system & over heating of the other machines. . Relay (40) loss of excitation is an impedance viewed from the generator terminals.

. A sudden change in load particularly reactive powered component will give rise a substantial change in voltage. b) Sudden loss of load (Due to the tripping of outgoing feeders leaving the machine isolated or feeding over small load). c) Operation under manual central of the voltage regulator.PROTECTION AGAINST OVER VOLTAGES Over voltage may occur due to the transient surges on the network and can also be caused from other reasons such as : a) Defective operation of AVR when the machine is running in isolated operation.

.PROTECTION AGAINST OVER VOLTAGES A typical setting for over voltage relay (59) is 107 % of rated stator voltage with a time delay of 10 sec. to allow for transients due to load switch off / rejection . over voltages resulting from recovery from fault or motor starting .

Setting must be chosen to avoid maloperation during voltage dips during power system fault clearance or associated with motor starting. It protects generators against prolonged over load or failure of AVR.UNDER VOLTAGE PROTECTION :-( 27) (OVER LOAD PROTECTION ) Under voltage protection is used for generator feeding an isolated system. .

The resulting eddy currents are very large and cause severe heating of the rotor.PROTECTION AGAINST UNBALANCED CONDITIONS RELAY FUNCTION (46) Phase balanced load produces a reaction field that is constant and rotates synchronously with the rotor field system. The zero sequence produces no main armature reaction. Any phase unbalance can be resolved into positive and negative sequence component. . thereby producing double frequency currents in the field system and in rotor body. The positive sequence component is similar to the normal balanced load. This protection is not required when the generator has large negative phase sequence capacity. The negative sequence component field reaction rotates in the opposite direction to the DC field system.

however over frequency may occur in case sudden removal loads.UNDER / OVER FREQUENCY PROTECTION 81% SEQUENCE CAPACITY :The governor fitted to the prime mover normally provides protection against over frequency.5 seconds. Typical settings of under frequency is 49 HZ for 20 seconds & 48 HZ for 0. Under frequency as a result of over load of generators operating in isolated systems. Prime mover & generator load must be protected against excessively low Frequency by tripping of the generators concerned. Over frequency setting 51 HZ for 10 seconds and 52 HZ for 1 second .

This setting must be checked during commissioning. on operation to prevent operation of the relay with transient power swings that may arise following synchronization Typical protection settings is 50% of motoring power .REVERSE POWER PROTECTION :(32) Reverse power protection in its simple form means motoring of the prim mover . Gas turbine could suffers from gear box damage. The manufacture value for motoring percentage of rated power should be consulted. if the prime mover has lost power for any reason and start to be motored by the system. Diesel engine could catch fire or suffer from damages to its gear box or shafts. . The reverse power protection should be provided with time delay.

Resistance temperature detectors (RTD·s) embedded near the driving & non driving end bearing to trip the generator breaker in case of over heating of the bearing. The generator manufacture should be consulted to provide this setting. Consequently causing mechanical damage. .GENERATOR BEARING PROTECTION: -(38) Failure of the generator lubrication system may cause over heating of generator bearing.

4% Cooling: water/ Hydrogen Cooled Neutral Grounding: High Impedance (Through NGT) .Specifications of Generator Make: BHEL MVA: 247 Connection: Three Phase Double Star Connected.5% Transient Impedance: 21. Voltage: 15750 Volts Current: 9050 Amp Frequency: 50 Hz Speed: 3000 RPM No. of Poles: 2 Synchronous Impedance: 222% Sub Transient Impedance: 30.

In currents If there is any inter-turn short with in the winging If gen is supplying through fault and small circulating currents gets proportionately increased Tripping provided at 5% of rated current ‡ ‡ ‡ .Generator Inter Turn Protection Difference of sharing between split phases Reasons of diff.

Generator Capability for I2 Continuous I2 capability 5% of Im I22 * t = 8 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Balanced and unbalanced systems Sequence components Positive sequence component I1 = 1/3 (IR +a2 *IY + a * IB) Negative sequence component I2 = 1/3 (IR +a *IY + a2 * IB) Zero sequence component I0 = 1/3 (IR +IY + IB) Effect of negative sequence component on synchronous machine.Generator Negative Sequence Protection.

Balanced Phasers .

305*15.752/247)(10000/5)(110/15750) = 31.14 ohm .306311993 Xa1 = 2. Study of Generator capability curve Setting criteria Xa1 = 0.5% = 0.22(15.139 ohm Xb1 = Xd * CTR/PTR Xd (ohmic) = Xd(pu)*kv2/MVA Xb1 = 2.752/247 =0.Generator Loss of Excitation Protection.305 pu ««subtransient reactance of generator Xd in ohms = Xd (pu)*kv2/MVA = 0.5*Xd*CTR/PTR Xd = 30.

Generator capability curve .

generator transformer. UAT. 5 Sec delay Stage ² 2 = 15%. etc Generator Over Voltage Capability ² 10% Setting Adopted Stage ² 1 = 10%. 500msec delay ‡ ‡ . excitation transformer. Generator high voltage is harm full to the insulation of generator.Generator Over Voltage Protection.

Frequency Protection Over frequency protection ‡ It indicates excess generation than demand hence tripping should graded among the units Under frequency protection Under frequency is harmful to turbine Adopted settings .

1 SEC DELAY 52.5 HZ. 2 SEC DELAY 52. 1 2 3 4 5 CAPACITY UNDER FREQ.5 54.15 SEC DELAY SEC DELAY 52. 0. TRIP SETTING OVER FREQUENCY SETTING TRIP 30 MW 30 MW 210 MW 210 MW 210 MW 47 HZ.5 HZ.0 HZ.0 SEC DELAY .0 HZ.Adopted Frequency settings UNIT NO. 2. 21.


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