Form 3 Science

Chapter One
Alveolus

RESPIRATION
Carbon dioxide Trachea RESPIRATION Ribs

Oxygen

Ribs
Oxygen

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide
Trachea

Oxygen

Lungs

Alveolus Lungs

Alveolus Lungs

Carbon dioxide

Oxygen
Ribs Lungs

Carbon dioxide

Lungs

Alveolus

Oxygen

Trachea

Inhalation ± breathing in. exhalation ± breathing out. 2. can get the gas it needs through simple diffusion because its body surface is big (compared to its body size). so he needs a respiratory system so that the gas he breath in is enough. 4. All living organisms need to take in oxygen in order to carry out cellular respiration (still remember ? Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy).Why a respiratory system is needed ? 1. 5. Respiration is the taking in of oxygen by our body from the external environment. amoeba. Comparison between a human and an amoeba. . Human has big body size and so its surface area is small. Small organism. 3.

3. b. secreted by goblet cells. Breathing through the nose Trap foreign particles Moist and warm the air Detect dangerous gas Trachea has a cartilage ring ± to keep the air passage open Trachea opens into two bronchus. Nostril nasal cavity pharynx trachea bronchus bronchioles alveolus 2. 4.Structure of air passage Air passage into the lungs 1. c. 6. eventually into air sacs. . called alveolus. The inner lining of trachea has a layer of mucus to trap particles. 5. a. Bronchus open into bronchioles.

shorter distance of diffusion c. Moist surface ± easier gas diffusion b. Adaptation of alveolus for gases exchange: a.Alveolus 1. At the alveoli. 2. At the end of the bronchioles are small air sacs called alveoli. Large number of alveolus ± larger surface for diffusion . Large number of capillaries ± better transportation d. Thin alveolus wall. 3. gases exchange takes place.

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Structure of the supporting tissues The ribs Intercostals muscle Diaphragm There are 10 pairs of ribs attaching backbone and the sternum 5. Intercostals muscle attaches to the ribs. Diaphragm is situated at the bottom of the rib cage. When the intercostals muscle contract. 6. . At rest. the ribs move upwards and outwards. 3. it curves upwards and flatten when contracts. and vice-versa. 1. 2. 7. 4.

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3. The thoracic cavity decreases. Intercostals muscle contract The ribs move upwards and outwards. The diaphragm muscle relax. 4. The air pressure in the lungs rises. Atmospheric air pressure forces the air into the lungs. Intercostals muscle relax The ribs move downwards and inwards. 5. 6. . 2. 6.Inhalation 1. Air pressure in the lungs forces the air out into the atmosphere. Exhalation 1. The air pressure in the lungs lowers. and it flattens. 4. and it curves upwards. 5. The diaphragm muscle contract. 3. 2. The thoracic cavity increases.

The transport of oxygen in the human body Alveolus O2 Hb + O2 HbCO2 Hb + CO2 HbO2 Hb + CO2 HbO2 HbCO2 Hb + O2 Blood CO2 Cell .

Carbaminohaemoglobin breaks into Hb and CO2. CO2 diffuses into the alveolus. O2 is supplied to the cells. CO2 is produced. In the alveolus . Carbaminohaemoglobin is carried to the lungs. CO2 diffuses into the blood.In the alveolus O2 moisture alveolus wall blood in the capillary In the blood Oxyhaemoglobin is carried to the cells At the cells Oxyhaemoglobin breaks into Hb and O2. Respiration is carried out. In the blood CO2 combines with haemoglobin to form carbaminohaemoglobin.

etc releases harmful substances. 1. smoke from factories. Tar ± alveolus wall less elastic. Smoking. . 2.prevent harmful substances from removal. open burning. . and Hb cannot bind O2. block air passages. Carbon monoxide ± binds with Hb. Some harmful substances that may harm RS.The importance of healthy respiratory system Respiratory system is important and must be taken care of properly. Harmful substances ± cause cancer. 3.

. 4. Use unleaded petrol Encourage car pooling Use catalytic converters to reduce the amount of harmful substances from the vehicles 6. 1. Bronchitis 2.Respiratory diseases 1. Smoking mother. 3. 5. Emphysema 3. How to improve air quality Stop smoking Control the flow and the number of traffic. Stop open burning 8. Enforce laws to curb pollutants from factories and vehicles 7. Planting of more trees. 2.

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