HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus) & AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome


Overview HIV biasanya menyerang sel-sel utama pada system imun tubuh seperti sel T h (khususnya sel CD4 +), makrofag, dan sel dendrite. Infeksi HIV mengarah kepada jumlah sel CD4+ yang rendah melalui 3 mekanisme utama, pertama pembunuhan virus secara langsung dari sel yang terinfeksi, kedua, peningkatan jumlah apoptosis pada sel yang terinfeksi, dan ketiga pembunuhan sel CD4 + yang terinfeksi oleh sel limfosit CD8 sitotoksik yang mengenali sel yang terinfeksi. Ketiga jumlah sel CD4 + turun di bawah level kritis, cell-mediated immunity hilang, dan tubuh menjadi lebih rentan terhadap infeksi oportunistik.

Definition HIV biasanya disebut Human Lymphotropic Virus Type III, Lymphadenopathyassosiated virus dan Lympadenopathy virus. Tidak masalah nama apa yang digunakan, HIV adalah sebuah retrovirus. (sebuah retrovirus mempunyai sebuah genom RNA dan sebuah reverse transcriptase enzyme. Menggunakan reverse transcriptase, virus menggunakan RNAnya sebagai bagian untuk membuat DNA komplemen yang dapat berintegrasi ke dalam DNA dari organism host). ( Sebuah lentivirus dari sebuah subgroup retrovirus, HIV menyebabkan AIDS. Virus membunuh atau merusak sel-sel dari system imun tubuh. HIV secara progresif merusak kemampuan tubuh untuk melawan infeksi dan beberapa kanker. Orang-orang yang didiagnosis dengan AIDS mungkin akan mengembangkan penyakit yang mengancam hidup dari virus-virus atau bakteri-bakteri yang jarang membuat orang sehat menjadi sakit. Infeksi ini disebut infeksi oportunistik. ( HIV adalah sebuah retrovirus yang dapat mengarah pada AIDS, sebuah kondisi dimana manusia, system imunnya gagal, dan mengarah pada infeksi oportunistik yang mengancam hidup. (

Causes Transfer of : 1. Blood 2. Semen 3. Vaginal-fluid 4. Pre-ejaculate 5. Breast milk Route of transmission are : 1. Unprotected sexual intercourse 2. Contaminated needles 3. Breast milk 4. Transmission from infected mother to her baby at birth 5. Blood Transfusion

which may result in liver failure and death. 9. rectum. Fusion inhibitors: This is the newest class of anti -HIV drugs. 4. 2. dideoxyinosine). amprenavir (Agenerase). and 3TC (lamivudine [Epivir]). saquinavir (Invirase). The common side effects from protease inhibitors include nausea. penis. Examples of NNRTIS are delavirdine (Rescriptor) and nevirapine (Viramune). 3. Presently. During pregnancy or birth of infected mother to her baby 3. a combination of several drugs called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used to treat people with HIV. Various drugs are available to treat these infectious complications. and nelfinavir (Viracept). These drugs include foscarnet sodium (Foscavir) and ganciclovir (Cytovene. inflammation of the pancreas. The antiretroviral viral drugs do not cure people of HIV infection or AIDS. Other complications are enlarged liver and fatty liver. Casual contacts (sharing of food. These drugs are AZT (zidovudine [Retrovir]). d4T (stavudine [Zerit]). . Protease inhibitors: These medications interrupt virus replication at a later step in its life cycle. they also have side effects that can be severe. indinavir sulphate (Crixivan). This treatment is not a cure. gonorrhea) more likely Medications 1. People who have STD (syphilis. saliva) Exception 5. ddC (zalcitabine [Hivid]. People infected with HIV are prone to opportunistic infections. These include ritonavir (Norvir). Having sex with an infected partner (vagina.emedicinehealth. They include decrease of red or white blood cells. mouth) 2. These drugs may slow the spread of HIV in the body and delay the onset of opportunistic Route of transmission are : 1. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIS): These medications are used in combination with other drugs to help keep the virus from multiplying. and painful nerve damage. However. The virus still persists in various body sites. bedding. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: They interrupt the virus from making copies of itself. 8. 6. Using both classes of drugs reduces the chances of developing resistance in the virus. Vitrasert) to treat cytomegalovirus eye infection. Needles or syringes that contaminated with blood from an infected person 4. Septra) to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. These drugs can interact with other drugs and result in serious side effects. a lopinavir and ritonavir combination (Kaletra). They stop viral replication and delay the development of AIDS. and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim. The first drug of this class (enfuvirtide [Fuzeon]) has recently been approved in the United States. and other gastrointestinal symptoms. chemotherapy. towels. and injections of alpha -interferon. diarrhea. Fusion inhibitors block HIV from entering the human immune cell. vulva. genital herpes. Treatments for Kaposi sarcoma or other cancers include radiation. fluconazole (Diflucan) to treat yeast infections. 7. 5. such as in the lymph glands.

HIV-1 (firstly recognized in Pasteur Institute ) dan HIV-2 Hubungan fraktur dan imunodefisiensi .Patogenesis HIV terbagi menjadi 2.

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