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p THE BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED of TRANSLATED FROM THE CATALAN ram6n LULL WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY BY E.S^^k. ALLISON PEERS LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE NEW YORK AND TORONTO : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1923 .

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so far as I can find. and some of the hymns and poems. El Desconort. it has never once been translated into Such an omission can only be explained English. liberties have been taken with the text. MORE Majorcan little than six centuries classic by our comparative ignorance of the treasures of Spanish Mysticism. while following. and. of which it forms a part. as a rule. and vii . would have been attractive to reproduce the original version of the book together with this translation.PREFACE have passed since this was written. together with the translations of (at least) Els Cent Noms de Deu. but in a little- known though It beautiful idiom. that of Catalonia. On the other hand. to substitute Very few paraphrase for faithful and exact translation. and even more so to have translated the whole of Blanquerna. and perhaps in part by the fact that Lull wrote. the oldest text (which is of the fourteenth century) I have not scrupled to add to my translation a few passages found only in the editions of Paris (1505) and Valencia (1521). But it seemed best begin by making known some of Lull's best work short as to to wide a circle of readers as possible. which illuminate the author's thought. not in Castilian. through a desire to expound Lull's ideas. or seem in other ways to be of real value. I hope that both these projects may be realised in the future. Accordingly. I have not allowed myself.

ALLISON PEERS The Jan. forceful words. Liverpool. E. Essen- the reader has Lull's own vivid and tially. i% . I9 2 3. therefore. with the impediment of a foreign language removed.viii PREFACE these only where a slight expansion or change of construction has served to bring out the meaning of an otherwise quite obscure word or phrase. University.

' and that one whose aim is to reach the state of Union with God must necessarily be as a fool in his relations with the world. and its restlessness which stay till it reaches its goal. it seems to thrive in the average mind. * average man is grossly. not long after the days of St. His error has again and again been exposed. Yet. perhaps. But not content with the mystic's life. that man would surely be the Majorcan Ramon Lull. vision of the splendours of that Golden Age of Mysticism which dawned for Spain three hundred His mystic writings and esyears after his birth. confuted. the Apostle of Africa. is suffice to destroy the the story of one man's career could mistaken idea that the mystic ' an unpractical dreamer. conception of what it really he should not be blamed. Here the tranquillity. is. inexcusably mistaken. as it were.INTRODUCTORY ESSAY THE Mystic. with ceaseless spiritual activity. Francis of Assisi. disproved by example after example to the contrary. he asserts that mysticism is essentially unpractical. as a life of He has no and for that. pecially his BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE I B . Now. for if all that. if not of indolence and ease. he presently bemisinterpreting comes more daring . a predisciple he was. whose He gives us. knows no average man has seldom understood the its He conceives the Mystic Life.' Lull lived far back in the thirteenth century.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
b e l o v ed
spirituality,

are full

compounded with
fire,'

of the purest and noblest the quintessence of

love.

'

If ye will have

he

'

cries,

O ye that love,
His famous

come

light your lanterns at my heart.' * phrase, He who loves not lives not,'

sums up
:

his

inspiration.

His

life

is

Yet Lull was no cloistered visionary. full of romance and adventure so

crowded with incident is it that many pages will not suffice even to summarise its principal happenings. His capacities showed the rare combination of he was both these, and scholar and man of affairs he was also the man of God. To the service of his Master, for Whom alone he lived, and for Whom he died, Lull was able to bring the full and complete tribute of an efficient and active body, a superb mind, and an ardent, unconquerable spirit.
:

Ram6n Lull was born

in Palma, the capital of Majorca, on January 25, 1235. His father had taken part in the conquest of Majorca from the Saracens

some

six years earlier, and for his services had received the gift of an estate, which his son inherited.

The boy was brought up

page in the royal court of Majorca, and, in spite of a sound religious education and the interest and favour of the King, he had
as a

2

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND TH E BELOVED
hardly reached years of discretion lead a careless and dissolute life.
tell

when he began

to

His biographers
.

how the King, to slop his degrading pracmarried him to a certain D a Blanca Picany, tices, but without thereby reforming him in the least.
of
Lull was chiefly enamoured of a Genoese lady, so passionately that he dared one day to ride on horseback into the Church of St. Eulalia, where she was

engaged in devotion. Eventually she herself arrested his intrigues. Receiving from him some gallant verses on the theme of her bosom, she called

him

into her presence, and, uncovering herself before him, disclosed a malignant cancer by which her breast was slowly being consumed.

This terrible shock marked the
Lull's

first

stage in

conversion.

another

man

back to the palace as taciturn and sombre as he had
jovial.

He went

formerly been gay and
well be true that he
Crucified, saying, in some lines of
<

The

tradition
'

may

saw

at this

time a vision of the

he himself autobiography tells us of five such visions, though when they occurred is not certain. Be this as it may, he turned from his evil life and
:

Ramon,

follow

Me

fixed his affections

on God

:

When I was grown and knew the world and its vanities, began to do evil and entered on sin. Forgetting the true God I went after carnal things. But it pleased Jesus Christ in His great pity to present Himself to me five
I

3

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
times as if crucified, that I might remember Him and set love on Him, doing what I could that He might be known through all the world and the truth be taught concerning the great Trinity and the Incarnation. And thus I was inspired and moved by so great love, that I loved no other thing but that He should be honoured,

my

and

I

began to do

Him

1 willing service.

From

the

first,

as these lines significantly bear ideals

evidence, Lull's
specific objects.

new

were directed towards

of the

largely aside emotional

He was set upon the conversion Jews and Mohammedans who figured so And setting in thirteenth-century Spain.
methods
as resolutely as the idea

so general then of conversion by force, he began to ponder what he conceived to be worthy means of
a progressive and unanswerable appeal to the reason. A sermon heard on the Feast of St. Francis (October 4, 1266) supplied the spark which kindled Lull's plans into action. He

compassing his aim

sold all his land, with the exception of a portion retained for himself and his family, gave up his
position of seneschal in the royal palace, and retired to a Cistercian monastery and later to Mount

first

life of study and meditation with the object of fitting himself to become a missionary to the Moslems.

Randa, near Palma, living there a

The

record of Lull's
prayer, fast
1

life

in

Mount Randa
ecstasy and
ii.

is

one

not only of

and
4

vigil,

vision,

El Desconorty

when satisfied of their orthodoxy. endowed a college in Miramar for the training in sciences and languages of thirteen Franciscan missionaries Thus one For to the Saracens (1275). a short time he remained at Miramar. a professor of theology. spends two years lecturing in the all the time as well as King to college is founded in Navarre through Lull goes farther afield Philip of France. He University of Paris. teaching Arabic and the Art General. and. directly inspired He scholar's vast plans for the conversion of Islam . part of Lull's ideals was realised. learning teaching.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED but of the study of Arabic and the elaboration of his scheme of a book which was to illuminate and conbelieved this Art General to be by the Holy Spirit. which was part of the Majorcan kingdom. Success continues to attend him. but not in a measure that can satisfy his ardent soul. To King James II of Majorca were explained the vert the world. Once it was sufficiently developed he turned in his practical way to means by which its study could be advanced. and a School of Oriental Languages founded. at Perpignan. the King submitted them to one Bertram de Berengario. Then he is at Rome. 5 . 1282 we read of his being back in France again. A In Palestine. But before long we find him lecturing on the Art in Montpellier. Ethiopia and Morocco. Egypt. where his enterprise is sanctioned by the Pope.

attemptsanction for new missionary projects . once more in Genoa (1300). attracted by his reasoning. and to go himself to Africa as an Apostle of the Faith.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Ever burning for more triumphs. at 1283. For a time he evaded of this enemies and remained in the country. and he returned to Naples. 1296). next in Paris (1297-8). but a year life showed him its futility. back in Majorca. and before long Lull found himself in Condemned to death for his preaching. he was reprieved by the intercession of a Saracen of influence. but the monarch began to fear for his throne. embraced Christianity . following his own logical public method. prison. and very After landed in Tunis about 1291. He was only too successful. Rome ing unsuccessfully obtain (c. Many of as events the infidels. again we find him in Genoa. leaving Tunis amid his insults and blows. is some delay (the chronology of this period uncertain 1 ) he set sail from Genoa. and banished from Africa. is 6 . on pain of being stoned to death should he ever return. Here he remained writing and teaching then he went to to for a time . Professing only a desire to learn the truth to convert or be converted might prove he began to debate in with the Moslems. and hence of our classic. he resolves at last to put the lukewarmness of Europe to shame. then on a new campaign in Cyprus 1 The put down date of Blanquerna.

while to die a martyr's death when his work should be done was his great ambition. At the outset he was successful. but the latter. for He is hated and And his ' dishonoured by more Him.' says an imaginary opponent ' why dost thou weary the body. 1 where he Lull is said to have been enticed to England (in the of 1305) by King Edward I.' men than honour and love In 1306 Lull determined to make an attempt to preach once more in Africa. much occupied in other affairs. throw away thy wealth and leave the joys of ' this world. where he made slays. gave him no support. But this story has no sure foundation. and go about as an outcast of the people ? To reply is the simplest imaginable. ' to him in his little classic. to Genoa and Paris (1303). Lyon and Montpellier (1305). who believed him to have the secret of the Philosopher's Stone. No difficulty or objection. Palma. as the records of these years show.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED and Armenia (1300-2). could curb his zeal . back via Rhodes and Malta. Barcelona. founding a school at Bona. 1 Here he saw both the King and Pope Clement V. the thought of imprisonment or torture made no difference to his plans. honour my Beloved's Name. Everywhere and always evangelisation filled his thoughts. Foolish Lover. With the former he planned a crusade for the Holy Land. summer 7 .

was a thing of the past. Lull Paris. as some inhabisay. and eventually was exiled again in the same year of his leaving Italy. lectured. Some- thing in Lull's personality. memorable dispute with the Saracen and other experiences in Africa. So this dauntless fighter went once more to ever. the pleas of certain Catalan and Genoese tants) . he was preach ginning promptly arrested.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED first to Bugia. summarily tried. for he approached Pope Clement V again with proposals Enthusiasm for crusades. he was even allowed the privilege of a disputation with a Mohammedan champion. 8 . however (or. and bein the market-place. wrote. howfor a new crusade. But it apologist would seem that these experiences had been ting his modifying his belief in intellectual conversion. and neither the Pope nor Italy as a whole gave the scheme any support. and hence provided a new field for missionary effort. The ship in which he was returning suffered shipwreck off Pisa. But on proceeding to dungeon with a view to later execution. and imprisoned in a loathsome went. which at that time was in the grip of Averroism. Seventy-three years old as he was. infidel and taught unceasingly against the philosophy. where he landed and remained In Pisa he wrote a book incorporafor two years. saved him once more . and won for himself fresh glory. all but stoned by the crowds.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED accomplishing in Europe what only physical force withheld from him in Africa. to brave its terrors and to suffer his conversion martyrdom for the Faith at last as from he had wished if it might be the will 9 . to was nearing the end of his activities. sionary The at the feet picture of the venerable misof the Head of the Church. Perhaps it was this. slow to take. his him the name of dodeur royal admirer. indeed. however. pouring forth his impassioned pleas for those enterprises which authority so hesitated to allow. and the peril which the Greeks He were in from the Turks themes not exhausted even after seven hundred years. is indeed a moving one. his of the continuance of his work must have encouraged beyond measure one who. gave by which. These. lations. The Council of Vienne (131 1-2) gave Lull another of those opportunities which he was never illumine. King Philip. in the natural course of life. painted the glory of the Holy Places. the plight of the Chrisrecovering tians in Armenia. which inspired him cross once more to Africa. The number of requests which were granted was but among them was a wider scheme relatively small. in one or another of its transhe is still known to-day. were but a few of Lull's representations. than any yet sanctioned for a system of colleges for This earnest the teaching of missionary languages.

and. And the will of God it proved to be. vessel. proclaiming himself that same Ramon who had formerly been condemned in Bugia. Success that the hour of supreme bold. and buried with 10 . He passed to Tunis. On his arrival he began his work less openly than before. that life remained in the body until it and that adverse winds forced the reached Palma. but took him out of the and Stoned him (June 30. but for where he had some unknown reason was made him compelled to return to Bugia. further success. It seems that two Genoese merchants begged his body and carried it to Majorca. but some versions have it that a great pyramid of light aided them in their search for it.BOOK OF THE LO VER AND THE BELOVED of God. the greatest sorrow and mourning. which was making for Genoa. On August 14. even as a city Jewish martyrs. and for some months contrived to preach secretly. This time the crowd broke loose. mob had Stoned the first of Christian Various accounts are given of his burial. and not only clamoured for Lull's death. make conversions and confirm the faithful of earlier days. assembled a come. 1315). 1314. he set out from Palma for Bugia. vast concourse. Feeling perhaps even if it meant the supreme sacrifice had effort he threw prudence to the winds. he preached once more the faith of the Saviour. to land at Here the body was received with Lull's birthplace.

no longer extant if indeed they ever existed. is purely a_ mystical work. Blanquerna. mathematics. The Libre de Amich e Amat. will have emphasised more forcibly than much argument the practical and the scholarly sides of Lull's temperament. Nor is there need to describe his system and doctrine. medicine.' own country Lull receives the simpler of a saint. Martyr unconquered of Jesus Christ. with which he is credited. Ramon 1 Lull was beatified by Pius IX. such as metaphysics.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED due solemnity in the Francis of Assisi. sacristy of the convent of St. which is here translated. homage But in his II The foregoing sketch. Doctor illuminate. The remainder deal with the most diverse subjects. logic. nor of the thousands of other works. physics. II . Master universal in all arts and sciences. to We shall say hundred and eighty-six treatises nothing here of the four x which he is known have written. at once scholastic and popular in character. and this essay is concerned with the mystical side of 1 Less than half of these works are theological. and chemistry. for all its brevity. calls The him title-page of his great romance. ethics.

and spoke of God with his deacon. himself again to meditation and prayer. interprets a passage from Blanquerna It may well be so. opening the windows of his cell. At daybreak he celebrated Mass with devotion. that on God he might set his love. Lull's who some sixty years ago first published as autobiographical. to help him say them. he would betake plains beneath. The Book of the Lover and the Beloved takes us from the African preachings and the disputations of the Sorbonne to those long night-watches and days of retreat which must always have accompanied them. they both wept for the greatness of the devotion which thenargument inspired in them. his custom was to enter the church and ring for mattins. and the reading . to lift his eyes to the hills. while Blanquerna left the church to recreate his mind which was wearied by the work he had done. And as they talked together of God and His works. . poems. and when his deacon appeared. so wonderfully illumined by the flame which burnt through his long life of self-sacrifice. 12 . . and praying with all possible devotion. Being then in his hermitage he would rise at midnight. Rossello. and. would fall to contemplating the heavens and the stars. Then the deacon went into the garden and busied himself with the cultivation of the trees in it. that his soul might be fixed upon God alone. but which we are apt to forget in contemplating that form of activity which the world counts greatest Or the thoughts which the Book gives us may first .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Lull's mind. After long contemplation and much weeping. have come to the young convert in the solitude of his monastery and the retreat of Mount Randa. and to let them rest on the Feeling rested at last.

and draw from it inspiration for his endless tasks. he went up to the terrace. . On awaking he said vespers with the deacon. . a Such weeks.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED of Holy Scripture or the great book of Contemplation. In this state he remained until he~retired to rest. afterwards giving himself up for a while to sleep in order to gather strength for the labours of the night. . and so he would be occupied until the hours of Terce. discoursing with himself on the greatness of God and man's inconstancies. refreshing. Sext and Nones. . visited the spring. thinking on what pleased him most and was fittest preparation for his hours of prayer. in some sacred retreat. his eyes fixed on the heavens and the stars. God and from Nature strength and To these seasons of his mystical may be supposed. After sunset. the short of Ram6n (Lo Cant de RamSn). or walked in the places he loved most. aruTsuch was the fervour of his contemplation that even upon his bed he found himself in mystic converse with the All-Powerful. After this he dined and went into the garden. and there remained long in devout meditation. or at the least days. we owe verses Of Lull's the many ' are narrative or doctrinal St. background as this we must almost of assume in a life at once so active and so necessity No doubt Lull was able often to spend spiritual. and then re. writings. . for example . ' ' Sin of Adam (Lo Peccat de n'Adam). written at the request . mained alone. and above Song ' all the Medicine for Sin ' (Medicina de Peccat) and ' of the King of Majorca ' 13 . : hymns entitled Hours of Our Lady Mary * the ' ' (Horas de Nostra Dona Sancla Maria).

mainly. its well as autobiographical. until Aloma in . Mystical of Christ too. hand. it is. as Names ' poem El Desconort. The mance story is of a certain gallant and wealthy youth named Evast. on the other than doctrinal. Luis de Le6n. and in places extravagant. or a Catholic Pilgrim''s Progress.' though is that of disillusion at the refusal of those spirit in high places to help forward his schemes of But neither of these has either evangelisation. a collection which forms part of the novel-like Blanquerna. is more mystical ' in matter as well as in title. the mystical treatise Of Names of God (Els Cent the (De los Nombres de Crislo) almost exactly three hundred years later by written the Salamancan friar. is a somewhat fantastic. is the dialogue ' made in his old age. if parallels to it must be found. Blanquerna. The collection of a hundred songs on the ' ' Noms de Deu). Lull's chief contribution to mystical literature. the strength or the beauty of the collection of prose poems here translated. as a whole.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED the purely didactic verse Application of the Art General. though not by virtue of the sections entitled the Art of Contemplation and our Book of the Lover and the Beloved. and suggests. called who marries a beautiful and virtuous girl Aloma. They live together in and happiness. religious roa religious Utopia. but have no 14 great piety children. His chief contribution entirely.

and endeavours to marry Blana to a beautiful girl called Cana. passes who eventually becomes abbess of her convent .' purporting to be an account of the 15 . he resolves to himself to the religious life. The child is brought up with great care. saying that they can both serve God best in the slate to which He has called them . on proposing this oversight of the household. and to give Blanquerna the But. howdevote sees that he ever. which occupies prolixity the lives of Evast left Blanquerna has them it the rest of the romance. is nun. Aloma Blanquerna is grieved. The second book hero's life before he is of Blanquerna deals with the ordained priest and rises to ' the rank of abbot in the monastery which he has A digression follows. they find that he has resolved to become a hermit. and a boy. querna's reply while he himself retires to the desert to carry out his The story then describes circumstantially resolve. after some long digressions upon convent life. of Ave Maria. to the later history of Blanquerna. Blanquerna. . disapproves. entitled The Book entered. Aloma.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED her sorrow prays to God. they decide in the end to lead lives of greater austerity in their home. and when his father a youth of discretion. to persuade Cana to become and with some after and Aloma on to Cana. and in the fear of is God . and finally. to the boy. is born to them.

he says. none other. to 16 .' Thus disguised. and by reason of my exceeding love I would know no measure in my speech.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED devotions to The third Our Lady which the hero established. The story ends with the decision of Blanquerna. I would be as a fool. And above he can deliver himself of the shame he feels will grant so little last because the Head of the Church aid to those recorded who aim at following Christ's command to convert all nations.' course.' His cardinals are quaintly named Deo. The various religious ideals presented by Lull in succession lead up to the great ideal of his life the : evangelisation of the world. the author can write much which he might not one To Ramon the ' all otherwise have dared to put into words. and after the clauses of the Gloria in Excelsis every clause activity expounded which the Church should show the court of the is so as to illustrate the in converting the heathen. book presents him as a bishop. the pope now grown old in the service of the Church and the conversion of the heathen. c to do reverence and honour to Jesus Christ. of jester. Blanquerna's supreme all infidels aim as pope is to strive ' that and schis- matics may be brought into the union of the Holy Catholic Faith. than Lull himself. Pope comes at length a Fool. and the fourth as pope.

its mystical aspect. His new life is described in detail. is accessible to those who 17 c . first probably for the time. nevertheless. the reader must . is by far the simpler and more of the two. the author himself declares. and it is inter- woven with this description that we come upon the Book of the Lover and the Beloved and the Art of Contemplation. still read. and in particular its The Book of the prayers. Ill We have no wish to add to these few notes a lengthy commentary upon the substance of a book which. Lover and the Beloved is mystical throughout. less for its didactic passages than for its close relation with the whole romance. that the hearts of men might be moved to true contrition. The former It is. and devote his last days to contemplation and prayer. and their wills and \ understandings to loftier nights in the contemplation V of God. their eyes to I abundance of tears.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED renounce his high office. ' It / was written. which are of great beauty. the Art of Contemplation being appealing considerably longer and full of doctrinal teaching. judge.' How well it attains its object. and how truly it j reflects the mystic's being. retire to a hermitage.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
read only English. Scholars have debated over Lull's probable debt to sufism, on the one hand, and, on the other, his influence upon the long line

of mystics who have followed him. There is still to be said upon these and other topics,
that will

much much

light on Spain and Spanish But in this essay enough has mysticism been said of Lull's life and works to form the indispensable prelude to his Book. For the present, therefore, we prefer to stand back, and allow Lull's ardent spirit to work its miracles still. Work them

throw fresh
both.

catalansurely must. Writing in his native that he might appeal, not to learned provenzal,' men, but to the people, by the people he is read still.
it

'

He

needs none of the

written in his

century.

Expositions,' such as were and as late as the seventeenth age Here and there a passage confuses the

'

own

modern mind by

its

mediaeval subtleties

;

or the

frequent references to the will, understanding, memory (so common in most of the thystics)

and

may

puzzle the simple reader until he has learned to But the vast majority of the three interpret them.

hundred and sixty-six verses,' put together to be read one on each day of the year, may still so be read.

'

They speak
thirteenth.
their

to

the twentieth century as clearly,

picturesquely, and forcibly as they spoke to the

Have we perhaps even more need of
?

message

18

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
They speak of
cessors St. Teresa

elementals.

Like his great suc-

John of the Cross, Lull knows no Master but his Beloved, Jesus Christ ; he surpasses them perhaps in this, that he is never unmindful of the world his Beloved came to save. His is no cloistered love. He could never say, with
St.

and

John of the Cross, Live in the world as though there were in it but God and thy soul.' Ringing
St.

'

for ever in his ears
'

is

the Beloved's last

command.
'

Never was Love's regal dalmatic worn with more grace and fitness than by this 'jester,' this fool of love.' It is no compliment to Lull to call
'

a

him, as the great scholar Menendez Pelayo does, ' Spanish Jacopone da Todi.' Jacopone, it is true,
:

sang of love with unsurpassable fervour

Amor, amore, tanto tu me fai, Amore, amor, che nol posso patire ; Amor, amore, tanto me te dai, Amor, amore, ben credo morire ; Amore, amore, tanto preso m'hai, Amor, amore, famme 'n te transire ; Amor, dolce languire, Amor mio desioso, Amor mio delettoso,

Annegame en amore.

But Lull, who,
fervour, under

like

Jacopone,

owed most of

his

God, to St. Francis, has a note of his own, no less deep, no less pure. His key is perhaps in that eloquent definition, which has been slightly
19

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
expanded
phrase
in translation that the full force of every
felt
:

may be

' What meanest thou by love ? said the Beloved. And ' It is to bear on one's heart the the Lover answered sweet words of the Beloved. It is sacred marks and the It is boldto long for Him with desire and with tears. It is the desire for the It is fear. It is fervour. ness. Beloved above all things. It is that which causes the Lover to grow faint when he hears the Beloved's praises.
'
:

II It is

that in

which

I die daily,

and

in

which

is all

my

will.'

Lull might well have written, as did a late Franciscan, John of the Angels, of the Triumphs of the Love of
'

God.'

Mystic Way in search of his Beloved.' Much of his Book, thereBut it has none fore, deals with the Mystic Life.
to tread the

Love impels him

'

of the exclusiveness of the Living Flame of Love and
the Spiritual Canticle. There are passages for_the beginner as well as for the proficient, paables in

three lines for the plain
reflections which,

man, sermons

in phrases,

by

their very simplicity, kindle the

devotion of the wayfaring man as he reads them. As we read the brief records of imaginary conversations

between the Lover and

'

those

who asked him

concerning his Beloved,' we can imagine ourselves in some African coast-town where the stranger who
has just landed is being pressed, by the surging crowd which surrounds him, to give reasons for his

20

' And again. For is as eternal and universal in its appeal as the Ideal Life which it extols. it is rooted and grounded it in love. this and we may believe that it will be so again. And we that are following in the path of Lull composed his treatise. For it was the fruit. between meditation and prayer. Then we come upon some quaintly-worded. masterpiece in little. after which he would write down At midnight he arose. Nurtured by experience. will paradoxical phrase which only reflection illumine and meditation make real.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED faith. he wrote : the outcome of more concretely his ' contemplation. looked out upon the heavens and the stars. and cast away from him all thoughts of the world. watered by faith. 21 . ' ' He would engage in prayer.' runs the preface. It has been potent in the past. The calm and confident answers supply the secret of Lull's power. not of subtleties. we know when he jj but of silence. signed it with his Beloved's Sign. and meditate upon God and His virtues. and sent it out to a world which he longed to save.' So.

.

making And / to suffer pain which brought delight. 2 Many Lovers came together to love One only. cares. They are peopled by They are lit up by love. ' : How long shall it 4 The Lover wept and said be till the darkness of the world is past. that the mad rush of men towards hell may cease ? When comes the hour wards. Him Long and perilous are the paths by which the Lover seeks his Beloved. 3 their Beloved. my ' Wert thou And the Beloved answered : heart with 23 . who made them all to abound in love.' the sun with splendour. and his him thoughts of Him were very pleasant. And the Beloved love that by which his replied that he had still to own love could be increased. sighs and tears. shall When lay shall the guilty ? which water. each declared his Beloved perfection.THE BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED i The Lover asked his Beloved if there remained in anything still to be loved. that flows downnature and mount upwards ? change the innocent be more in number than When shall the Lover with joy Ah in its ! down his life for the Beloved ? And when shall the Beloved see the Lover grow faint for love of Him?' 5 Said the Lover to the Beloved fill ' : Thou that fillest love.

answered the Lover.' replied the Lover.' 6 The Beloved made trial/bf His Lover to see if his love for were perfect. arid remembrance differ from ignorance and ledge Him oblivion.' be patient ? so that Thou double still Yea. O Lover. love.' 9 Said the Beloved to the Lover ' ' : * : io They asked the Lover ' : Why answerest thou not thy Beloved when He 24 calleth thee?' He re- .' Hast thou Lover remembrance of anything with which I have rewarded thee. grief and sorrow. thine eyes had not shed those nor hadst thou come to this place to see thy Beloved.' also my Knowest thou If The Lover replied what love meaneth ? yet I knew not the meaning of love.' that Thou sendest me and ' the 8 ' Say. that thou wouldst love Me thus ? 7 The Beloved asked the ' : ' ' Yea. I should know the meaning of labour.' asked the Beloved. with love.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED not filled tears. wilt thou ' if I ' double ' thy trials. trials ' for I distinguish not between the joys. and He asked him how the presence of the Beloved differed from The Lover answered: 'As knowHis absence.

that He may 15 25 . throw away thy of this world.' he people ? Lover. thou bird that singest. and said ' : By love can the Beloved be seen.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED ' plied : I brave great perils that He may come. Fool of Love. that he might kiss His feet. for He is hated and dishonoured by more men 12 than honour and love Him. hast thou placed thyself in the care of my Beloved. and go about as an outcast of the ' 'To honour my Beloved's Name. why ' replied. 14 Our Lady presented her Son book concerning Our Lady's to the Lover. which can be the better the Beloved in the Lover. in his ' and that he might write virtues. and ii I ' speak to Foolish Him begging His graces. Beloved ' ? The Lover answered. And he found his Beloved. and how he was like to die. and the graces which He 13 Beloved gave him. by grief and by labours.' The Lover sought for one who should tell his how great trials he was enduring for love of Him. or the Lover in the seen. who was reading in a book wherein were written all the griefs which love made him to suffer for his Beloved. Say.' dost thou weary thy wealth and leave the joys body. and the Lover by sighs and tears.' ' Say.

Love made her home. the Understanding and the them was the nearer to his Beloved.' ^ Between Hopj^nd Fear. Sighs and Tears came to be judged by the Beloved.And who makes : me love 16 to sing is but the Lord of love* to whom not to to sin. when she is forgotten.. and increase in thee thy love?' The bird replied '. And the Beloved gave judgment 20 26 . and makes the heart to burn with love. dies. 17 There was a contention between the eyes and the memory of the Lover. 19 There wis strife Ibetween the Lover and the Beloved. and asked Him which of them loved Him the more deeply. and the Understanding came 18 The Lover asked Will which of nearer to the Bgloved than did the Will.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED guard thee from indifference. and. and anethe/who loved Him saw it and wept. And the two ran. till peace and concord were made between the Beloved and the Lover. But Memory said that remembrance brings tears to the eyes. for the eyes said that it ^1 C ) was better to see the Beloved than to remember Him. So unlike the pleasures of this world are her foundations. She lives on thought.

and as medicine gave him truth. And the birds ended rheir song. The Lover fell sick and thought on the Beloved.' How long wilt thou be with thy Beas loved ? 'As long birds my thoughts remain on Him. ' : And he answered nobler house than see See all Him for yourselves in a the nobility of creation .' ' Whence comest thou ? ' ' I ' When ' wilt thou return ' ' ? go to my Beloved. quenched his thirst with Jove made him to rest in patience. the dawn.' Whither goest 24 They said to the Lover thou }/ He answered e I come from my Beloved. 23 They asked the Lover where his Beloved was. who fed him on His merits. clothed him with humility.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED that sighs were nearer to the seat of love. and the Beloved.' 'I shall be with my Beloved. and the Lover died in the dawn for his who Beloved.' 25 The is hymned the dawn. to the eyes. and his griefs re21 And the Beloved came to drink of the same fountain. but and ' : Him too in my love. that the love of one whose griefs were doubled. awakened. doubled might be doubiecTalso. my griefs : my tears. and tears The Lover came to drink of the fountain which gives love to him who has none. 27 . 22 .

and the Thou needest not to ' at Me only.' : Beloved met. gift 30 him a greater The Beloved filled His Lover with gifts of love. and he said to the bird 26 understand not Beloved. for in thy song I see my Beloved before mine eyes. and grieved not for his tribulations. for they would but make him love the more deeply. we may make ourselves understood by love . that I may for thine eyes give thee what thou 29 The Lover was disobedient to his Beloved . and his remembrance.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED The bird sang in the garden of the The Lover came. that he '. 28 his Beloved be absent from The Lover and Look the Beloved said to the Lover speak to Me. And he wept. speak to wiliest. ' : If we speech. And"~"tTieceloved came in the vesture of His Lover. 28 . might not fall asleep. for he had laboured much in seeking for his Beloved and he feared lest he should forget Him. and the Lover wept. and the greater the Lover's tribulations.' one another's 27 The Lover was wearied. than that which he had lost. the greater was his joy and delight. that His Lover might So He gave regain what he had lost. My heart. and died.

' This is Love's contract the Lover must be long-suffering. and to see if his Beloved was But everywhere he found nought but And so he delved into the earth to see if there he could find the devotion which was lacking above ground. well served. fearful. thou bird that singest of love. bed of love. just and liberal with those that love Him. for said ' : The secrets of my Beloved torture my deeds reveal them not.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 31 The Lover me. Now he stumbled and fell among and as the thorns a . 33 The Lover set forth over hill and plain in search of true devotion. and my mouth keeps 32 silence and reveals them : to none. trustful . diligent. but they were to him as flowers. replied ' what couldst thou give to show thy love for Him ? 35 Pensively the Lover trod those paths which lead to the Beloved. he must be ready to face great dangers for the honour of his Beloved. do ' nought but torture ' : me now ' ? And the bird If Love made thee not to bear trials. patient. why does Beloved. 34 my Say. And his Beloved is pledged to be true and free. 36 They asked the Lover ' : Wilt thou for another 29 . humble. He who has made me His servant. indifference.

wisdom and love nay. and sang of his Beloved. The Lover rose early and went to seek his He found travellers on the road. for I see picture to me my Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED change thy Beloved what other is he answered better or nobler than He ? : ' And .' all things that 30 .' ' : Wherein is the glory 38 They asked the Lover ' of thy Beloved ? He answered ' He is Glory ' itself. The tears of love gather . than the waves of the sea proper to love than is more swifdy and sighing is more whiteness to snow. They answered did the eyes of thy mind lose sight of ' Beloved ? The Lover replied ' Since I first thy saw my Beloved in my thoughts. ' Why.' Wherein lies His They asked him : : ' power ' ? He answered lies ' : He ' is ' Power itself. and he if ' they had seen his Beloved. For and is ? He is the supreme Good He is infinite . He has never been asked : him When : absent from the eyes of my body.' ' And wherefore is He Beca use He is Love its elf.' And wherein ' His wisdom ? He is Wisdom loved ' itself.' to be ? 39 Beloved. He perfection. and love in the lover's heart than is the brilliance of the lightning to the eye. or the thunder to the ear. in greatness. eternal.' 37 said The Lover ' : Swifter is wept.

And the bird sang of that Countenance so full of delight. The Beloved heard His Lover's blows. Deity and Humanity opened the doors. with humility. mercy and bounty. and joined together make concord between Lover and Beloved. to live alone. that 46 tree. for amid many people he was lonely. desires and thoughts the other is of weeping and crying. and with eyes of grace. 44 There are two fires that warm the love of a true Lover one is of pleasures. sighs and tears the Lover gazed upon the Beloved . the door is kept by justice and mercy. 43 to Deity and Humanity met. and went away he might gain the companionship of his Beloved. justice and piety. of fear and grief. and the Lover went in to his Beloved. charity and patience. as we have already said. 42 The Lover beat upon his Beloved's door with blows of love and hope. : : 45 The Lover longed for solitude. contrition and atonement . the 40 Beloved gazed upon His Lover. sighs and tears . 41 The keys of the gates of love are gilded with cares and desires. devotion. in the shade of a great Men passed by that place. and asked him why 3i . The Lover was all alone.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED With eyes of thought and grief. piety. the cord which binds them is woven of conscience.

48 fail The Lover feared whether his Beloved would him in his greatest need . and tears to his eyes. the greater gro^&. that love might return to him. and he ceased from loving Him.my griefju when dost wound me. the Lover recounted his griefs to the By signs of love.' 51 love The Lover sighed and said Ah What is my The Beloved answered ? Thy love is a * : ! ' ' : mark and a seal by which thou dost show forth honour before men. Beloved. the . And : 47 the Beloved Lover held converse with by means of fear and thought. until now. now that I have seen you and heard you . they approach and are united 50 its and Being. and the Beloved restored hope and charity to the Lover's heart. Then he had contrition and repent" ance of heart . for their love mingles as water mingles with wine. Whether Lover and Beloved are near or far is all one .' My 32 . I was in the company of my Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED ' the Lover replied I am alone.' he was alone. They are linked as heat with light as Essence . ' : Said the Lover to the Beloved : My grief an d Thou Thou the more surely healing are both in Thee healest me. weeping and crying. even then dost Thou give me health. v49.

and myself have yielded up to understanding. and they asked him if he had 54 losl his senses.' The Lover replied It would be a greater miracle yet if the Beloved did not awaken ' : : him.' The Beloved Nor since thou has!: known Me and ' : Me have Ionce^ forgotten jhee. for I was ever in Thee. singing of his love . since 56 He has desired his love. since I knew Thee. nor ceased to love Thee.' he answered. by Thee and with loved answered have I Thee wheresoever I went. never once deceived or failed thee. and the : ' See Him here in the it strength which gives me 53 fled to bear my torments. ' : Beloved ' ? increase of He answered my love. wounded and killed.' my Him is left in me remember my It would be a miracle that 55 The Beloved said the Lover should sleep and forget the love of the ' Beloved.' The heart of the Lover soared to the heights of 33 d . ' has taken my will. so that there naught but memory. with which I Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 52 The Lover saw himself taken and bound. ' My I Beloved.' As though mad went the Lover through a city. for the love of his Beloved and those who tortured him asked him Where is thy .' ' : Said the Lover to the Beloved I have never from Thee.

And when he reached his Beloved iie con template d Him with joy and delight. What means the trembling of the leaves. with kisses. And the Lover 59 call to his swooned. so strongly did these two lovers memory his Beloved. and the scent of the flowers. and the breeze caused the leaves to tremble. and the scent of ' the flowers ' ? : asked ' the bird of the Lover.' met two The Lover went in desire of his Beloved and friends.' And where dosl: thou : ' : ' rest ? ' ' In the ' ' afflictions trusl: of love. But the BelovecTTed him do wn again to this world to make trial of him with tribulations and adversities.' 58 The bird sang upon a branch in leaf and flower.' physician 1 ? is The have in ' my And who creatures all I The signs which in thy masler ? see of my Beloved. adversity. 34 .' I ' ' WhoJsJLhy Beloved. and bore away the scent of the flowers. embraces and tears. leaves He answered signifies The trembling of the obedience. ' Wherein is all thy 57 They asked the Lover ' wealth ? He answered In the poverty which I bear for my Beloved. so that he might not lose his Him in the deep places of this world.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED love for the Beloved's abode. who greeted each other lovingly.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 60 till The Lover thought on death. and the Beloved added to the account eternal bliss. perils and trials which His Lover had borne for love of Him . ' answered. is ' Else must I die .' 64 The Lover him for the time of his service. longings. what wouldst thou do ? 62 ' love Him still.' he in the Lover who ever loves. JFool of Love. and to cease to care for deception and falsehood. sirs ! have love. seeing that to cease to love death and love is life. if thy Beloved no longer 'I should cared for thee. and was afraid. patience and hope.' firsT: 61 They asked the Lover where his love ' : began. and gave Himself for a recompense to His Lover. in doing honour to my It Beloved. tears. honours and It is serves his Beloved with courage.' Say. desired his Beloved to recompense And the Beloved reckoned the thoughts. began in the glory of replied and from that beginning I was led to my ' neighbour even as myself. 65 They asked the Lover what he meant by 35 .' 63 They asked ' the Lover what he meant by perse- verance. he remembered his Beloved. that you may fear neither death nor danger.' he replied. Then in a loud who were near ' : voice he cried to those Ah. both happiness and sorrow. my Beloved love And he .

Love's sake. borne for happiness.' they answered. I would give Thee all of myself that I may have all of Thee. and in all. is sorrow ? ' ' honour done honour. place that ! haunts of my Beloved Thou thy wilt tell my Beloved that I suffer trials and ' : griefs for His sake.' The If I am wholly thine. replied : art so great a Whole. and Thou all of me. what Beloved answered ' part in Me will thy son have. that Thou canst ? The Lover 36 ' O . and with all. And they 'To get ' Beloved. and through all.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED It is sorrow. recallest the blessed And he said ' : Ah. ' O Fool. thy brother.' ' * It is the remembrance of disthen.' And : wholly unless thou art ' the Lover said Let me be : Me wholly Thine and be Thou wholly mine. ' what.' And that Place made reply When Beloved hung upon me.' ' to my misery ? he replied.' ' : 6j Said the Lover to his Beloved Thou art aR.' The Beloved answered : ' Thou canst not have wholly Mine.' * for such fleeting joys are followed by perpetual torment. He bore for thy love greater trials and sorrows than all other trials and sorrows that Love could give to its servants. who is worthy of ' asked him again What : all is one's desires in this world.' he replied. thy sister ' and thy father my Beloved ! Thou.' -><^ gazing on a Place where he had 66 The Lover was seen his Beloved.

and eternity with time.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED abound. who was complaining of his Beloved that He increased not 71 Many trials and of Love. love and hope may 69 more deeply into my mind. and abounding both in fresh thoughts and in old memories. And without these fruits Love's servants have no part in her. nor mean. And infinity with quantity. subtle yet simple. brilliant. nor 68 end. The Beloved made reply that the trials and sorrows for which he reproached Love were that very increase of love.' love of love are both long and short. O What art thou Beloved said I Fool ? The Lover answered : ' ' ' : measuring greater with lesser. desires. The Lover thought And the measuring. enter faith. fullness with want. 70 They asked the Lover of love ? And the Lover ' : What are the fruits made answer They ' * : are pleasures. is The paths clear. 37 . and greatness he found in Him neither beginning. strong. this I am do that humility and patience. his love. torments. diligent.' persons were with the Lover. thoughts.' long and deeply on the ind everlaslingness of his Beloved. For pure and bright. and yet be wholly of each one who gives himself wholly to Thee. perils. that it gave him so many and sorrows. sighs and griefs. trials.

said Such are ' : they who with subtle reasoning attempt to com- prehend the Beloved. nor love for were Where did thy love 75 They asked the Fool have its birth in the secrets of the Beloved. the for love. which was in being ' thy heart ' : thy love ? He answered and . the more the children laboured to 72 catch the butterflies. as he watched them. and trampling down the flowers .' first. and. Fool. And the Lover. And Faith reveals the secrets of the love.' made not so. Fool of Love. said it Both came into being together for heart had not been reflection. Who opens the doors to the simple and closes them to the subtle. is this ' and what for : me by the ' gifts of Love. 74 or Say. and saw in the meadow many children who were pursuing butterflies. which thou art thoughtful and The Lover answered 'lam thinkperplexed ? ing of the beauties of my Beloved. for . or in ' the revelation of them ? Love in its He replied : : ' ' : fullness makes no such 38 distinction as this . and the likeness between the bliss and the sorrow which are brought 73 Say.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED The Lover entered a delightful meadow.' Beloved through the casement of ' why dost thou not speak. the higher did these fly.

that they might be more acceptable to the Beloved. in bids you ever love / weeping gain and in for this is loss in short. when my heart was filled and enriched with thoughts and desires. And they asked of Love that he would clothe and adorn them after his own manner.' Love bring thee 1 ' ' ? The wondrous ways of my ' Beloved. he reveals them.' he replied. And for this cause the Lover must ever be suffering. ' Love's commandment. and yet when they are revealed he keeps them secret still. and my eyes with tears. and said : in walking and sitting. in whatsoever you do. His honours and His exceeding worth.' secretly the secretly also 76 The secrets of love. and bade them ask of him the most desirable and pleasing gifts.' ' How did these things come ? Through my memory and receive them ? How didst thou understanding. sighs c And what did and griefs. in in sleeping and laughing.' ' ? Say. C7?T) The Lover cried aloud to : all men. ^Love and waking. unrevealed. cause anguish and grief.' ' ' How With love and hope.BOOK OF THE L OVER AND THE BELOVED Lover hides the secrets of his Beloved . 77 Love called his lovers. when did Love first come to thee 79 ' ' In that time. Fool.' c ' 39 . in speech and in silence. revelation of love brings fervour and fear. in buying and selling.

And he ' : answered eternal ' : It is the inflowing of infinite goodness. He answered It is a mingling of joy and sorrow. wisdom. which flows to the Lover from the Beloved. what meanest thou by a marvel ? ' : ' He replied It is a marvel to love things absent . This is that power. life. who loses trust in his Beloved loses also his love and hope. And the Beloved replied to the Lover ' There is nought in Me that can forsake nor fail thee.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED dost thou keep them ' ? * With justice and pru- dence. and little has he learned to love who is impatient of tribulations and he ' : . and asked Him were others who could help him to suffer and : bear the grievous trials which he endured for love of Him. more than things present ancf no less to love things 40 . if he is ashamed to praise his Beloved.' 82 They asked the Beloved concerning the love of His Lover.' ' 83 Say.' They asked the Lover concerning the love of his Beloved. temperance and courage. of fervency and fear.' 80 The Beloved sang. O Fool. and said Little the Lover knows of love.' 81 if there The Lover wrote to his Beloved. charity and perfection. or if he fears to do Him honour in that place where He is most dishonoured .

are one and the same thing. and he found a man who was dying without love.' 86 The Lover was sorrowful. Lover.' 85 The Lover asked loving. love is the tree. And he said How great a sadness is it that any man So the Lover said to should die without love him that was dying Say. the flowers and the leaves fruit And in God. that his sorrow might thereby And be relieved. why dosl thou die ' : ' ! ' : without love ' ? And he ' replied : Because I lived without love. without either griefs or trials.' 84 The Lover went to seek his Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED seen and things corruptible more than things unseen and incorruptible. 87ySick with love was the Lover. and wearied with overmuch thought. And in that same hour the Lover was healed. the answered of which is loving . in which he might see Him in His virtues. ' : his Beloved itself? ' ' : greater or love Which is the The Beloved In this mortal life. 41 . and his So the Beloved sent that book to the trials and griefs were doubled. therefore he begged his Beloved to send him a book. and ajphysjcjan came in to see him who doubled his sorrows and his thoughts. love and loving are trials and griefs.

But the Beloved brought life to His Lover by revealing to him His Countenance. and afterwards was in rapture.' ways dosT: Thou come to my heart. and He remained on high that he might ever seek Him.' ' 92 thee sin. and 91 the Lover sought his Beloved with his memory and understanding. and asked Him whither He had been. He inclined His Head him . O Fool. clothed in new and scarlet robes. ( answered the Beloved. The Lover wept. hast thou ' ' weep for thy Beloved ? shame when men see Shame apart from ' answered the Lover. The Lover found his Beloved. and one alone. 88 89 ^IThe Lover said to the Beloved ' : By many and revealesT: Thyself to my sight. And by many names do I name Thee.' Say. He stretched out His Arms to embrace him to kiss . Far from thy memory.' 42 .' and in a place which thy ' understanding knew not. and they had great joy of the Beloved as they communed of Him. But the love by which Thou sustained me and humbles! me is one. 90 The Beloved revealed Himself to His Lover. that he might worthily love Him.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Love went apart with the Lover. and Love swooned thereat. The Beloved was absent from His Lover. signifies want of love in one who knows not how to love.

and the Beloved said to him The Lover called thee to come to this assembly ? Need and love compelled me to come. consolation and patience.' Where dwellest thou ' ' is 'By Whence comest thou ? Love. virtue and tears. tribulations and And the Lover tended his body with hope and devotion.' ' How dost thou ' ' thy 1 4 name ? From love.' Is the Lover. I have ' my ' ' Beloved. Lover the Beloved planted trials/.' Who ' brought thee up ' ? ' Love. To this assembly came ' Who the Lover. and I have sins against there pardon in thy Beloved ? ? Yea. Thy adornments and Thy glory.' What ' ' ' ? 'In ' love. The Lover watered the seed with his In the body of the griefs.' he answered.' ' Who thou ' gave thee born ? ' ' In love.' Hast thou ' aught but love faults . gathered an assembly of tions many noble knights.' answered Beloved there is justice and 43 .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 93 The Beloved planted in the heart of the Lover love. Thy wonders. answered that I might behold Thy face.' ' ' : 95 They asked ' : the Lover ' : Whence ' ' art thou ' ? He answered belong birth 1 ' From love. 'in my Yea.' Where wast Love. sent many : invita- and gave great gifts. 94 The Beloved made a great feast.' Whither goest thou ? live ? love.' ' To whom dost thou ? ' ' ' ? 'I belong to love. sighs and longings.' 'To love.

and the steward demanded of Him the 44 . for mercy causes me hope and justice^to jf fear.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED mercy. by revealing to him His Presence. who was despised among the people. 97 The light of the Beloved's abode came to illumine the ^Cover's dwelling. The Beloved answered him. that the Beloved might be lodged there. devoted lovers.' They asked him why He bore such ' : a He answered and was dead. and to fill it with joy. fied. dead. 98 They asked the Lover what sign the Beloved The sign of bore upon His banner. and his sorrow was increased. and said * : Lo.' I suffer these wrongs for want of fervent and The Lover wept. and therefore am I lodged between fear and to hope .' S 96 The Beloved left the Lover. The Lover found his Beloved. He replied c : One sign. and he told the Beloved what great wrong was done to His Name.' 99 The Beloved came to lodge in the dwelling of His Lover. with grief and with thoughts. And the Lover cast out all things from his dwelling. but the Beloved comforted him. being His lovers must follow His He was once cruciand because those who glory in Because steps. which was full of darkness. and the Lover sought Him in his thoughts. and inquired for Him of men in the language of love.

101 Every day si ghs and jears .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED reckoning. that understanding might be exalted and love for the Beloved might Memory and into the be increased. and sent to Him from been 103 tears. The Beloved gave sighs. peace and honour in this world .' ioo gift. that between them there may be solace and companionship. that they might bring him back his Beloved the joys which for so long had his. gift the to His Lover the gift of wea riness and g rief. for long ago Will met together. which 104 Lover served The Lover begged his Beloved to give him riches. with a He paid the price of all men. thoughts. and the Beloved revealed His Countenance to the memory and understanding of the Lover. love and goodwill. his thoughts. yea. to But the Lover said ' : My Beloved is be lodged freely. and climbed mountain of the Beloved. 102 The Lover desired his Beloved. and gave Himself as the Supreme Aim to his will. ' : 105 They asked ' honour ? Lover In what consists He answered In comprehending and the ' : 45 . with his Beloved.are messengers between the Lover and the Beloved.

who loves His lovers with infinite and eternal love. Ah. saying that he had given him noble gifts loyalty. what great Ah. for that he had given him such gifts as these. and Thou as a my love.' And they asked him also ' ' : In what consists dishonour ? He answered Him. even to death. grief. and in the way he met two lions. even as Thou didst who was In the path of love the Lover found another silent.' 107 my griefs. courage. for Love might be present at his passwith Love he could better endure death. and who with tears.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED loving my Beloved. and he blamed the Lover who cried out upon Love. So he sent Memory to his Beloved. hope. patience. what great happiness it is to love my Beloved. Thou wast present in my torments . and a sad countenance made accusation and reproach against Love. that ing. : devotion. And Love made excuse. The Lover was afraid. temperance and happiness . for he desired to live and serve his Beloved. perfect and complete in everything!' said : 108 The Lover sang and ! ' affliction is love 109 The Lover went into a far country seeking his Beloved. 46 .' ' : In for- getting 1 06 and ceasing to love 'O my until I cried that Beloved. I was tormented by love. and then did love ease guerdon didst increase double my torment.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED And two tears lions while the Lover thought upon his Beloved. no The Lover journeyed over hill and dale. the came humbly to the Lover. bird was singing upon a branch I will a fresh thought to the lover who will give me give : A ' -"47 . for the Beloved has few such lovers as these. The hermit replied that his own thoughts also. licked the from his eyes. The Lover wakened the hermit. whether hejwas sleeping or waking. were imprisonedby Love. And therefore is the love of the care in Beloved ever active. so they both wept. but he could find no way of escape from the imprisonment in which Love had for so long enthralled his body and his thoughts and all his desires and joys. And the Lover joyed greatly at finding a fellow-prisoner . While the Lover went labouring thus. and asked him if in his dreams he had seen the Beloved. nor has the Lover aught in himself in which the Beloved joys not and has no part. and caressed his hands and feet. . There is naught in the Beloved which is not and sorrow for the Lover. he found a hermit who was sleeping near to a fair spring. So the Lover went on his way in search of his Beloved. while that of the Lover is grief and 112 suffering.

their and weeping and together. bore the Stronger love toward the other ? The Lover loved all who feared his Beloved. and the Lover gave two to the bird. Which of them.' The bird gave that fresh thought to the Lover. Then the Lover said He who fears not my Beloved must fear everything.' What meanest thou 117 They asked the Lover ' He answered ' It is to have by occasion of love ? : 48 . and he feared all who feared Him not. 114 love The Lover and the Beloved strove. and he passed along a road where there was a fierce lion which killed all who passed by it carelessly and without devotion. and the Lover felt his griefs increased. 113 their The Lover and caresses the Beloved met and embraces. and the Lover was speechless before his Beloved. Then the crying.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED t wo . and their made peace between them. bore witness to their meeting. that its grief might be assuaged . and he ' : who fears Him may be bold and fervent in all things ' : beside. And there 115 arose this doubt : Had the Lover more of love or of fear? 116 The Lover thought to follow his Beloved. think you. Beloved asked the Lover concerning his slate.

understanding in knowledge. Weep. O heart ! And. forgetting my Beloved. understanding and will.' 120 Lover. the understanding in the will .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED pleasure in penance. and through that bright cloud the Lover and the Beloved held converse. and I neither live nor feel. cry out and awaken the watchdogs who sleep. O eyes ! Sigh. and made it as bright and resplendent as is the moon by night. 119 They asked the Lover ' darkness ? He replied ' : Beloved. and my eyes are in grief and tears. these words ' : 121 The Lover wrote My Beloved delighteth because I raise my thoughts to Him. as the day-star at dawn. E 49 . peace in obedience. riches strife in 118 Love shone through the cloud which came between the Lover and the Beloved. nor taste nor see nor hear.' in titution. malevolence. loyalty in despoverty. health in abstinence. the sun at midday. sighs The marks of the Beloved are seen in the who for love's sake is in thought and grief. love in diligence. consolation^ in remembrance. hope in patience.' ' What is the greatest The absence of my And what is the greatest light ? The : ' ' ' presence of my Beloved. and and contempt of the people. tears.' 122 Ah.

Yet and my Beloved threatens promises gifts aricf rewards. 123 whom He has so greatly The enmity of men to my Beloved increases. understanding. and will. with justice and wisdom. With the pen of love. sighs and tears. that they might never be parted . 125 tears. crying out upon the dishonour which his 124 fort Beloved endured. the Lover wrote Beloved. And the nearer was the Lover to the Beloved. 50 . the more he grieved and wept. and the cord with which these two loves were bound was woven of thoughts and griefs. letters to his devotion tarried.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED memory. And despise both His threats and memory and His promises. And in these he told how how love was dying. will The Beloved drew near to the Lover. with the water of his and on paper of suffering. and how falsewere increasing the number of His 126 The Lover and the Beloved were bound in love with the bonds of memory. to comand console him for the grief which he suffered and the tears which he shed. hood and error enemies. to forget not the dishonour which is done my Beloved by those honoured.

lations.' The Lover said to his Wellbeloved Teach me how to make Thee known and loved and praised among men. his pillow of : tears. and in his mouth were and in his will was contempt entered the Lover's heart praises of his Beloved .' The Beloved filled His Lover with ' 131 : jsig hs devotion.' The Beloved answered For love of thee I became incarnate. 128 The Beloved clothed His Lover in a vesl:.^ And boldness to praise the Beloved . coat and mantle. 129 130 praise The Beloved and defend said to His Lover ' : Thou shalt where men fear to The Lover answered Provide me praise Me. and tear s. His clothed with thoughts. And none knew if the fabric of the pillow was that of the sheets or of the coverlet. The Lover replied thathe could not forget Him because he could not do otherwise than know Him.' then with love. and endured the in places ' : Me ' : pains of death. body He The Beloved adjured His Lover not to forget Him.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 127 The Lover lay in the bed of love his sheets were of joy. his feet with tribuand his head with a garland of tears. his coverlet was of griefs. charity. thoughts. 51 . and gave him helmet of love. of the murmurings of men who judge falsely. tribulations. patience.

hope and and temperance prudence. 135 The Lover went to the wars for the honour of faith.' S* the Lover ' : 133 ' They asked Whereof 'is Ljaye^ born. praise and preach. goal of his love for the Beloved and other objects grief. For this cause his longing desires and thoughts gave the Lover sorrow and 52 . Strength with which to vanquish his Beloved's enemies. who is forgets things defended by all Him His from all harm.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 132 The Lover said to the people ' : remembers my Beloved. and receives a part in blessings.' 134 The Lover forgot all that was beneath the high heavens that his understanding might soar the higher towards a knowledge of the Beloved. justice. blocked his path. The Lover desired to attain to the farthest . to contemplate. and he in remembering my Beloved. and took with him charity. in remembering He who truly Him forall gets all things around . ' : through forgetfulness. And the Lover would have been vanquished if the Beloved had not helped him 136 to make known His greatness. whom his will desired to comprehend. it dies remembrance. whereon does it live. his Beloved. and wherefore does it die ? The Lover answered Love is born of it lives on understanding.

and the Beloved^ wept. to Christian his princes and to teach them by Artjy and Beloved. despised by the world. for his losses could not be regained. pale and thin with fast and vigil. The Lover was ness of his Beloved. 140 The Lover made complaint fire to his Beloved of the heat of the which raged in his breast. and 141 none could comfort him.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED and rejoiced in the greatBut afterwards the Lover was sad because of overmuch thought and reflection. the joys or the sorrows. and gave him the comfort of patience and the sure hope of reward. The Lover wept for all that he had lost . 1 Works of Lull 53 himself. know that in that man thou lookest upon salvation and everlasting weal. sated with food and sleep. /138 The Lover was sent by his Beloved to unbelievers. . his Elements x to know and^oyeJ^his 139 If thou seest a lover clothed in fine raiment. And he knew not which he felt the more deeply 137 glad. know that in that man thou seest damnation and torment. prizing vainglory. The Lover was like to die. And if thou seest a lover poorly clothed.

weep and lament the dishonour which and his laments and tears are the I have of fruit My love. . and to have pity on those who endured trials for love of Him. 144 The Lover said but love clothe s my he art with thoughts _of delight. And the Lover despised their reproaches. because he went about as a fool for love's sake. : wearied with loving.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED God created the night that men might keep and meditate upon the glories of the Beloved there was a time when the Lover thought that it was created for the rest and sleep of those who were 142 vigil. The Lover made oath to the Beloved that for trials and sufferand he begged the Beloved that He would think upon his trials and sufferings. : and 145 my body praise with tears. c I am clothed in vile raiment .' ' The Beloved sang. and himself reproved them. and said I who Me to sing My praises aright. The Beloved made oath that it was the nature and property of His love to love all those that loved Him. 143 Men reproached and reproved the Lover. love of Him he endured and loved 54 . enemies of My honour have tormented and despised Therefore have I sent my Lover that he may suffered. griefs and : sufferings. taught those and the them.' 146 ings. because they loved not his Beloved.

Beloved came down from the heights of Heaven and He came to earth to weep and suffer and die for the sake of love. and to teach men to know and love and praise His Name. honour and goodness of the Beloved and treasure of the Lover. thin. and the Squire said ' Some of Love's secrets : reveal others. pale. who was walking along in pensive fashion . before every- do to the false when they honour him by naming him thing in their letters. and poorly clothed. 55 are the riches And the . The Lover met a Squire. that thou mayesT: find thy Beloved ! And the Lover asked him how he had recognised him . The Lover wept and called upon his Beloved. to do that the Saracens Him the same honour prophet Mahomet.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED The Lover was glad. and rejoiced in the nature and property of his Beloved. and the Lover took comfort in gazing upon his Beloved. 149 The Lover reproached ^Chrislian people. recognition. 148 until the . because in their letters they put not firsT: the name of his^eloveb!. Jesus ChrisT. 150 and he saluted the Lover and said ' : Now God ' guide thee.' and therefore between lovers there is 151 The glory. 147 The Beloved silenced His Lover.

152 A great and goodly company of tried lover's have gathered together . torments. increased more the Lover's love ? 155 In the secrets of the Lover are revealed the secrets of the Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Beloved's treasure is the store of thoughts. think you. the Beloved sang. of revelation ? the greater cause 156 They asked the Fool by what signs his Beloved might be known. and the Lover reWhich of these two causes. think you. they bear the banner of love. and in the is secrets of the Beloved are revealed the secrets of the Lover. Which of the two emotions. And love. lest their they will have with them none who has not Beloved should be dishonoured. Which of these two secrets. and feels at the shame which the Lover going as a fool among men makes him to be esteemed and loved. desires. on which is the form and figure of their Beloved. tears and griefs with which the Lover ever loves and honours his Beloved. 153 riches They who show move the Lover their folly to by heaping up be a fool for love . joiced to hear Him. is the greater occasion of love ? 154 Love made the Lover to be sad through excess of thought . think you. He answered 56 ' : By mercy and .

without mutation or change. O loving. which are essentially in His Will.' And why I may 57 so ? ' ' Because I the better under- . and for his Beloved to be everywhere known and praised. And Love asked Indifference why he had come to that place. that Indifference might be vanquished and destroyed thereby.' he replied. ' f ' ) That the Lover may cease to love.' ' understand falsehood that stand truth. that he desired the good of all above the good of each. which dost thou strive to He understand the better falsehood or truth ? 160 Say. ' for I have only hated that I may the better love. and their love was increased.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED pity.' The replied.' he and the Beloved to be honoured. and desired of all the world^ 158 Love and Indifference met in a garden. words of Indifference were greatly displeasing to the Beloved and the Lover.' Lover. where the Lovkr-and the Beloved were talking in secret.' 157 Such was the love which the Lover had to his Beloved. ' ' O answered ' : Truth. in which dost thou take the ' 'In greater pleasure in loving or in hating ? ' ' 159 Say. Fool.

Thoughts. and he wished to disguise himself that he might not be taken captive on the way . and why does not of my griefs ? ' Thy mercy heal me 162 The Lover desired to go into a far country to do honour to his Beloved. but the Beloved him revealed to him His Presence. wept not ' ' 58 . and the Lover revived. flee from his Beloved. then. nor his pale and drawn face. and he inquired of Him if His love and His mercy were one and the same thing. The Lover met his Beloved. How didst thou know Me. 163 Imprisoned was the Lover in the prison of Love. ThereLover Why.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 161 The Lover perceived that he was loved by his Beloved. and he knew Him The Beloved reproved him. And patience and hope consoled the Lover was dying. complaints and sighs. because he until he knew Him. does Thy love ' : torment me.' He asked. Griefs tormented him. since thine eyes were not 164 and wept. desires and memories held and enchained him lest he might . but he could not hide the tears in his eyes. And so he was taken captive on the journey and delivered to the tormentors by the enemies of his Beloved. The Beloved affirmed that in His essence there was no distinction fore said the between His love and His mercy. nor the thoughts. the sorrow and grief of his heart.

come to my eyes.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND TH E BELOVED already wet with tears 1 ' ? And the Lover answered : By memory. It all the desire for the Beloved above things. which for long had wept but now would weep no more. It is fervour. whence flow the tears in ' : streams j. if ye will 167 Said the Lover have fire. to bring tears to his eyes. and he fell to considering tating 59 . It is that which causes the Lover to grow It is will. through which. And the Lover answered sacred marks and the sweet words on one's heart the of the Beloved.' meanest thou by love?' said the It is to bear Beloved. my love was increased. understanding and will.di= on the great love which he had for his Beloved. It is to long for Him with desire ' : Ci^l^What and with is fear. come light your lanterns at my heart . tears.' faint when he hears the Beloved's praises. as soon as the eyes of my body saw Thee.if-thoughts of love. "and the great trials and perils into which this love for so long had led him. and in which is all my 1 66 Devotion and Absent Longing sent thoughts as messengers to the Lover's heart. come gather them from 168 my It meditations/^- happened one day that the Lover was. It is It is boldness. O ye that love.me. that in which I die daily. if water.

have I my Beloved. ' griefs ? He ' : Say. he said. I have given them to thee that others may love and honour 169 The Lover was wiping away for Love's sake he ' : Me 170 also.' Hast castles or cities. had he not been inspired with a love for His with that very love through which his had come ? sufferings the tears which had shed.' ' Say. as Presence.' 172 They a sked the Lover ' : How ' knowest thou the justice of thy Beloved's decrees ? He answered : 60 . thou be a how and long wilt suffer trials and my 171 Beloved * shall and forced to weep Till answered and soul in me. ' : O I ' Fool. O thou that goes! as a fool for love's sake. that none should see the sufferings which the Beloved sent him. trials. tears. And for he thus discoursed with himself. it came to him that his Beloved had recompensed him already. have thoughts of love. which are better than kingdoms or empires. hast thou riches ? ' ' He thou ? ' answered villas. provinces or : kingdoms He answered sires. But the Beloved said Why wouldst thou hide from others these marks of thy love ? Behold.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED his reward. would surely be great. which. degriefs.' separate body I slave.

' * more Say. 177 guilty ? Say. whom indeed be full of de- and error. thoughts and tears. increasing his ' trials and perils. and 61 .' ' Say. O Fool. and scarce worthy to be defended. errors and defend thyself ' He answered crimes of which thou art accused ? : and said ' : I have to defend . O Fool.' the 178 The Beloved raised the understanding of Lover that he might comprehend His greatness. ' O Fool. men ceit falsely accuse man may is my Beloved. And the Beloved made reply by so grievously. which of these knows the 173 of love he that has joys or he that has trials and ' griefs ? He answered ' : There can be no know- other. why defendesl: thou Love when 175 ' it thus tries and torments thy body and thy soul ? He answered ' : Because it increases my worth and my happiness. why dosl That He answered ' : I thou excuse the may not be like those who accuse the innocent with the guilty.' ledge of love without both the one and the ' Why wilt thou not 174 They asked the Lover from the falsehoods.' his 176 The Lover grieved and cried out on because He caused Love to torment him Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED ' In that He allots to his lovers an equality of joys and of griefs.

City. and aspire to a love of the Beloved and His perfection. though it is so high. and asked were none with whom he might speak of Beloved as he wished.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED incline his memory to recall his own shortcomings. a greater happiness and joy to me than what I once loved before ever I loved Thee. as he wondered how his trials could have their source in the glory of his Beloved. And they showed The Lover went through him a poor man who was weeping for love. and who sought a companion with whom to speak of love. so that his will might hate them. And then he thought of the sun.' my will to love 180 if there his a. strikes the weak eyes of us men that are here below. thoughts of the Lover were between forgetfulness of his torments his joys and remembrance of for the joys of love drive the memory of sorrow away. 182 The . which. that all I hated once is now. through love of Thee. 179 great The Lover sang of his Beloved and is said : So Thee. and the tortures of love happiness which it recall the brings. 62 . felicity in who has such great Himself. 181 Thoughtful and perplexed was the Lover.

O Fool. and the will love Him more truly. who were disputing of his Beloved. The Lover was in a vast forest.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 183 They asked ^the Lover: 'Will thy Beloved ever take away thrloye^J And he answered No. not while memoryTias power to remember. seeking his He found there Truth and Falsehood. my Lover had never learned to love Me. what is the greatest comparison ' He and similitude of all that can be made ? ' 184 answered 1 That between Lover and Beloved. And the Lover cried out to Love that he would come to the aid of Truth. nor had I ' : : tormented him with sighs and with griefs. There came thejemptation toj:he Lover to memory might awaken and find the Beloved's Presence once more . that his love should thereby become deeper.' Say.' 186 tears. nor ' : understanding to comprehend the Beloved's glory. leave his Beloved. that the understanding should comprehend Him more sublimely. for Truth praised Him and Falsehood accused Him. with trials and Beloved.' For the greatness of : ' ' ' : : Hast Thou never 185 They asked the Beloved ' ^had pity ? He answered ' If I had not had pity.' He replied For what reason ? They asked him their love. 187. that 63 .

189 So earnestly did the Lover desire that his Beloved should be honoured and praised. that he doubted if he abhorred it enough. and he lived -b y grief And his joys and torments were mingled and united. that his But such oblivion and grief might have some rest. On the day when it 1 88 his Beloved. had p atien ce. and yet in glory and bliss. and the other for the joy of the remembrance. 190 The Loverwas like to die ofjoy. time. that he doubted if he honoured Him enough . in (contemplation ^of his Beloved. And for this cause the Lover was thoughtful. ignorance had themselves fore he made him to lifted suffer . there- understanding up and Jiis_jnernory. and became one and the same thing in And for this cause the Lover the Lover's will. and so strongly did he abhor the dishonour paid to his Beloved. seemed to be living and dying at one and the same . and his . and wavered between love and fear. came to the Lover that he had forgotten his Beloved. For one Jiour only the Lover w^JxLfahiJiave 191 forgotten his Belo yeH^an d known Him not.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED For one day the Lover ceased to remember and on the next day he remembered that he had forgotten Him. he was in sorrow and pain. the one for having forgotten Him.

which the contrary of indifference. c ' /I96^ Say.' ' the bounty and riches of my Say. whensoever Beloved.' .' Wherein dost thou seek strength consolation ? ' ' ' 'In the eternal 65 treasuers of F my Beloved. and because it fills so few others with love for the honour of my Beloved.' And why so ? is Because nearest to my : heart is ' love. 1 Yea. I Lover.' How then is this ? ' 'I am ' O ' ' because my love is no greater. 195 he replied. hast thou riches ? Yea.' ' Hast thou poverty ? ' I haye__lQye. hast thou envy ? He answered I forget Yea.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 192 So great was the love of the Lover to his Beloved that he believed all things that He revealed to him. where is Wiswered In the poweToTmy He thy power ? Belovecl? Where' ' with dost thou fight thine enemies ? With the ' of my Beloved.' ' 194 ' Say.' he replied. And therefore was the love of the Lover for ever between belief and understanding. 193 They asked ' the Lover ' farthest from thy heart ? ' ' What thing is He answered In' : ' : difference. O Fool. And so earnestly did he desire to comprehend Him that he strove with his reason to understand all things that were said of Him.' ' have love. ' : O Lover.' poor.

The Lover affirmed that all Beloved. which lovest thou the the mercy or the justice of thy Beloved ' 197 more ' ? He answered ' : So~greatly it doTToveahd will to love fear His justice that I find not in my anything more. : ' : so that at thy death thou shalt be able through aid to vanquish thy mortal enemies.' 198 Sins and merits were striving his remorse. sins. ' What wilt thou come to thee that ? I who asked him I have And Love replied may nurture and direct thy life. eclipse in the heavens all There was an the earth. and denied that in Him was perfection in was any fault is Which of these two. ? think you. And it recalled to the 201 ' Love came to the Lover.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Say. among themand re- selves in the Lover's conscience. which the Beloved reveals Himself to His lovers. but mercy and the assurance of pardon .' my 66 . O Fool. Justice membrance increased hope increased in his will and therefore in the Lover's penitence the merits conquered the 199 his at all. the greater wonder 200 ness over and darkLover that his guilt had separated him long ago from his Wellbeloved and the darkness had banished the This is that light by light from his understanding.

a man who was dying with-.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 202 sick When the Loverjfor got his B eloved.^And die without love. when wilt thou be great enough to drive away sin. plexed. Lover and Beloved are so straitly united in the Beloved that they are of His Essence. and are one. trials. and his Beloved gave him ing.' So the Lover sighed and wept.Love and loving. Lo ve fell when he gave himself to over-much think. for the dishonour which it brought 203 The Lover found So he asked that man Why dost And he answered There thou die without love ? is none who will give me knowledge of love. and said Ah. all which agree without So the Beloved is to be loved 67 other objects of affection. all and the Lover was perseen Love. and to win for my Beloved many fervent and ardent lovers who will never shrink from praising His Name ? to his Beloved. And he asked men if they had '205. griefs and cares. devotion. And this though Lover and Beloved are above entitles distinct. So his love vanished. . diversity of essence. the Lover wept that a man should ouflove. and he himself fell sick. anH his heart ceased to think and his eyes to weep. ' : ' ' : ' : ' 204 The Lover tempted Love to see if he would remain in his heart though he remembered not his Beloved . or teach me to be a lover.

' O Fool.' Say. the love of the Beloved is sufficient to give graces and blessings to His creatures. gave alms.' accomplished without great The Lover watched and fasted.' 68 .' the Lover if his Beloved had need ' 210 They asked ' of aught. and extol His surpassing worth. and I must seek Him with great faith. nor mount on Therefore he prayed high. wept. alms and vigils with the heat of love. Yea. of those who will love and praise Him. O Fool. the Beloved that He would deign first to warm him in his journeys. And none - of These things can be love. but the Lover considered that water does not by nature grow hot. unless it be first heated. how canst thou be most like to ' He replied ' By comprehending thy Beloved ? and loving with all my power the beauties and the ' 209 : perfections of my Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 206 love is ' Say.' he answered. and journey ? He answered with all speed. wherefore hast thou so great ' : Because long and perilous the journey which I make in search of my Beloved. that he might accomplish his desires. ' : 208 The Lover met love of the Lover a pilgrim who sang If the suffices not to move his Beloved to pity and pardon. and travelled afar that the Will of the Beloved might be moved to inspire His subjects with love to 207 honour His Name .

' When the Lover heard these words. my Beloved. but a hundred fear and love Me . asked the Lover where his Beloved was. and now. of every thousand. and he transcendent because He is in a And therefore. hardly is there one who loves Me for My goodness and nobility. dishonour and death. to make him love the tree whence He plucks the rods wherewith He chastens His lovers. how much hast Thou given to man and how greatly hast Thou honoured him Why then has man thus forgotten Thee ? ' ' ! 213 The Lover was said that He was praising his Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 211 The Beloved chastened His Lover's heart with rods of love. when they place where place is not. for I to revere Me. he replied : 69 . as ' : his Beloved. he wept bitterly for the dishonour paid to his Beloved . and he said : Ah. and ninety of these hundred fear Me by reason of the pains of hell. And this is that tree on which He suffered grief. 212 in The Lover met glory. and ten love Me for the sake of the glory hereafter . that He might bring back to love of Him those lovers whom He had lost. who appeared of all is power and cried One worthy honour. know Me and love Me. that so And he How ' strange a thing it few among men revere and know and love Thee as And the Beloved answered him Thou deservest ! and said created ' : him Greatly has man grieved Me .

' But what wilt thou ? replied ' * My will is as Thine.' 214 The Beloved bought a slave that He might show him His graces. and made him to suffer griefs and heavy thoughts. and accused him before the Beloved.' Hast thou then no will ? asked the Beloved. because the Lover was incensed And at the trials which Love made him to bear. but is I know not where . for he who is no more lord of his will can not be impatient. therefore the Lover cried out on Love. and patience. And He asked him What wilt thou eat and drink ? The slave ' What Thou wilt. as he was free and had not been constrained.' There was great strife and contention between Love and the Lover.' him Love gave himself to any who would receive and since he gave himself to few and inspired few with love. sighs and tears. ' : free will. He answered A subject and a slave has no other will than to obey his Lord and ' ' : ' ' : ' ' : his Beloved.' 215 The Beloved inquired of His Lover ' if he had He answered: All things please me. therefore I cannot but be patient. for I desire all lovers to have the greatest merit and glory. But Love I strive not against made his defence and said 216 .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED c He is. 217 70 . I only know that my Beloved in my remembrance.

for my love has ' : united me to One.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED they debated whether Love or the Lover was to blame. three mounted to the con- templation of the Beloved's glories. There was a contention whether Love has And the Lover resolved the contention. and He chastened the Lover with griefs and rewarded him with increase of love. 221 The will of the Lover left him and flew to the^ the Beloved gave it into the capof the Lover. 219 The Lover . so he commanded the understanding to soar as high as it 220 The might . and to One alone. that he might use it to love and tivity serve Him. And 222 The Lover said that I have left O let not my Beloved think Him to love another. that he might have great love toward his Beloved . thought and nourished with patience. and the understanding commanded the so that all memory. has for neighbours the perfections and the Beloved's neighbours are the thoughts of the Lover. So both of them came to the judgmentseat of the Beloved . of the Beloved Lover's will loved to soar on high. Beloved. and the trials and tears which Love gives him to bear. saying that Love is born of 218 more of thought than of patience.' 71 The Beloved .

' 224 In the heart of the Lover gathered the glories and beauties of the Beloved. and there served Him sighs and tears . ' : O my hasl ears Beloved. that art worthy of Thou and taught and accustomed to hear my eyes to see my Thy wonders. for I have lovers who have loved Me more fervently and for longer than he. thy name had not been written in the book of those who shall come to eternal bliss. And these have inspired thoughts which have brought tears to my eyes and The Beloved answered the griefs to my heart. 226 Love put joys and 72 trials together into the Lover's thoughts. and the Beloved paid His reckoning with memories.' Said the Lover to his all Beloved love.' Had I not taught and guided thee so. and His Lover made Him a bed of thoughts. increasing his thoughts and griefs. so that he had altogether died if the Beloved had increased in him any further the thoughts of His greatness. and the joys made complaint of . 225 The Beloved came to sojourn in the hoslelry of the Lover .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED answered and said I ' : Let not My Lover think that am many 223 loved and served by him alone . from which are wiped Lover : ' out the names of such as shall go to eternal punishment.

And with tribulations . in the end. behold. death. The Lover went into solitude . to which in Lover's will also moves . 229 Love is an ocean. ' 230 ' O Fool.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED that company and accused Love before the Beloved. The Lover him perished his perished in this ocean. But when He had parted them from the sorrows which Love gives to his lovers. and remained quite alone in the company of many people.' Think you now that the Lover's will is in truer harmony 73 . and But when the his body by fafts and affliclions. manner the and this is the end. what is love ? 'He answered like : Love working together of thought and adtion towards one end. these the Lover things went no longer with him. 227 his The marks of the Beloved are. love which the Lover has to in the beginning. those marks did the Lover preach before the lovers of his Beloved. ' and the work of Say. they vanished and were gone. and. and his heart was accompanied by thoughts. is a his fulfilment began. tears . 228 Lover returned to the companionship of men. it has no port or shore. his eyes by tears. that men may serve and honour his Beloved. then. and with trials. its waves troubled by the winds .

and Love revived in the thoughts which the Lover sent to his Beloved. The Lover wakened.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED with this end or when he longs to be with his Beloved. for he had naught whereby to live.' all things to obey My commandments and Say. ' is thy Beto die. pine. weep. think you. sigh Who is Thy 232 They asked the Beloved ' He who fears naught so Lover ? answered He that he may honour and praise My Name. and Love died. and who : ' : renounces counsels.' He answered He who makes me and and love. who do penance for the love of their and of those who do penance from fear of the pains of hell. is 74 . which is the heavier and more grievous burden the trials of love. ' 233 : ask it of those Beloved. O Fool.' 234 The Lover slept. The infused science comes from prayer and devotion . acquired science comes from study and under235 said : The Lover ' from the standing. desire. when he longs to convert to Him many lovers ? 231 loved They asked ? ' the Lover ' : c : Who suffer.' Which of the two. and will. or the trials of ' those that love not ? And he answered ' Go. then.

from longing. for which cause he lamented and wept. by his Beloved. His Beloved called him to come to Him.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED more proper and more pleasing to the Lover. for to praise His exceeding I may serve my Beloved.' answered From Himself alone. He And whence haft thou all these things ? And whence hast thou From love. did the Beloved heal him of his sickness. wilt thou be free of all things ? answered: 'Yea. thoughts and trials. Love patience. perseverance. and the more he felt of love and and the more perfectly grief. the more grievously did love afflict him . .' thy Beloved ? He answered 1 ' ' ' : ' ' 237 He ' Fool. and which possesses he the more perfectly ? ' 236 Say. and the Lover Love fell sick. who made him 75 to remember His virtue and honour. O ' Yea.' Wilt thou be a prisoner ? ' ' 238 Love tormented the Lover. and the nearer came the Lover to his Beloved. obedience and he was cured fell sick grew well. ' whence hast thou thy needs ' ? From thoughts. and be healed . the more he loved. 239 and the Lover tended him with and hope. save only of my Beloved. from from trials and from perseverance. of sighs and that tears.' ' Say. O : Fool.' adoration. dangers and exiles. worthiness was I created. .

in bearing trials for love's sake or ' in enjoying pleasures ? The Lover took counsel with his Beloved. answered : ' O Fool. On two things the Lover was wont to medithe one was the Essence and the goodness of 76 . and the Lover would have died had 243 Love destroyed faithful memory 244 tate : not revealed to him his Beloved.' And what are solace and companionship ? Solitude in the Lover's save his heart.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED what is solitude ? He and companionship between Lover and Beloved. wept. ' ' It is solace ' ' ' Beloved. when he remembers naught 240 Say.' The Beloved gave Love his freedom. and was sad at the dishonour which is paid to Love by the ungrateful among men and by false lovers. and those which come through afflictions are the perils come through of impatience. And for this cause the Lover 242 allowed . all that was in the heart of his Lover that he might live and have free course in it .' 241 They asked the Lover ' : In which is there greater danger. and men to take him to themselves as much as would but scarce one was found who would they take him to his heart. and replied ' : The perils which pleasures are the perils of ignorance .

but one of them only took life and put forth leaf that and gave flower and this single fruit from fruit.' : follows that if I spoke falsehoods I should be praised by men. mocked. thou wilt be beaten by men. He knew not which of these was the more excellent and the more pleasing to the Beloved. O Fool. Think you come many seeds ? may 77 . O Fool. to the pleasures of this world and ' ' : unhappy sinners who dishonour and forget my Beloved in whose thoughts I would have no part nor lot. And the Lover preferred to be blamed and reproved in this wise. and the Beloved shewed His justice. loved and honoured. He Say. since my Beloved has no part in the thoughts of the . than to be one of those that falsely accused him.' ' 246 If thou speakesl truth. served. his Beloved. and defended by those who despise my Beloved. wouldsl thou fain die ? 245 answered 'Yea.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED and the other was his Beloved's works. The Lover was patient.' 247 False flatterers were speaking ill of the Lover one day in the presence of his Beloved. reproved and He answered ' From those words it killed. tormented. them. 248 The Beloved planted many seeds in the heart of His Lover. wisdom and power.

' 253 The Lover wept and was the sad. 251 The Beloved clothed Himself in the garment of His Lover. and the Lover to rise toward the Beloved. eternal. So the Lover desired to wear like crimson garments daily. that his dress might be that of his Beloved. and thus he cannot reach the Beloved unless he pass through Love. were losing Beloved justice through ignorance but he rejoiced in the 78 . because of His manifold properties.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 249 is Far above Love . made the Beloved to descend to the Lover. Love and Beloved. that he might be His companion in glory for ever. so that the Lover cannot first reach Love unless his thoughts and desires have passed through the Beloved. in which are Lover. is the Beloved lies . personal. And this ascending and descending is the being and the life of Love of that Love which makes the Lover to endure pain and which ever serves the Beloved. O Fool. ' : and infinite. and beyond is the Lover . ' Say. And before Love stands the Beloved. when he saw his how unbelievers . far beneath it the Lover and Love. what did thy Beloved before the 252 ' He answered world was ? My Beloved loved. and on the left side is the Lover . which between these two. 250 On the right side of Love stands the Beloved.

which Beloved the principle of eternal generation. think you. and again in His Being and perfection. . 256 They said to the Lover ' : Corruption is is con- opposed to it. who punishes those that know Him and are disobedient Which. . it would be impossible that non-existence or end should harmonise with By these words the Lover saw in his corruption. 255 The found to wit. And if this were so. If it were eternally is the contrary of non-existence corrupting and corrupted. that which diminished it would be truth. variety and harmony which the Lover in the Beloved revealed to him His secrets. as generation. it would follow that there would be a want of the 79 . 257 for If that his which increases the love of the Lover Beloved were falseness. was greater. to the greater con- cordance of essence without contrariety. His plurality and unity.' trary to being.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED of his Beloved. and again in the contrariety between virtue and vice . which have greater harmony between themselves than nonexistence and imperfection. his sorrow or his his when he saw at seeing joy? And was his joy greater Beloved honoured than his sorrow ? Him despised 254 The Lover contemplated his Beloved in all the variety and harmony of His virtues .

and said that greatest degree of perfection and the greatest possible freedom from imperfection. And neither the power. he praised and loved Him too because it pleased Him to take his form and nature. the wisdom who had created all so that. And it may be 80 . And the greatest the Lover thought. extolled the power. for He had created him and given him all things and . because by these numbers every bodily form passed to existence harmony of number. And while the Lover Beloved thus. 258 if in The Lover praised his Beloved. there was revealed to him the Trinity of his Beloved. pure and present in Him were the essence and operation. praised his 259 In the numbers 1 and 3 the Lover found greater harmony than between any others. was in the Unity and the Trinity of his Beloved. his Beloved must be simple. and that there would be harmony in Him between the false and the mean.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED great and the true in the Beloved. The Lover and the will of his Beloved. . had nothing existed. 260 from non-existence. but for His things. save only sin power and wisdom and will. the wisdom nor the will of the Beloved are an occasion of sin. 261 The Lover praised and loved his Beloved.

and with sad and heavy thoughts he wrote down the words which He uttered . and by mercy and hope he was comforted. for the love . how to love . his praise or 262 Love tempted the wisdom of the Lover. And that redemption the Lover was perplexed. and asked him whether the Beloved showed the greater love in taking his nature. of his Beloved 265 With tears in his eyes the Lover described the Passion and the pains which his Beloved bore for love of him . G .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED asked. ' Incarnation ' to bring about : And this reply provoked Which was the greater love ? the question again 263 The Lover went from door to door asking alms to keep in mind the love of his Beloved for His servants. and replied at last was destined to put away unthe happiness. humility and patience. Which had his love ? more of perfection. 266 The Beloved taught His Lover in speech . and Love instructed him 81 and Patience. which are well-pleasing to the Beloved. and to practise the virtues of poverty. 264 They asked pardon of the Lover. or in redeeming him. and the Lover not only pardoned them but gave them himself and his goods. and bliss.

: they had seen His What are the ' the Beloved said rich : My Lover ardent yet fearful . builded it . and to praise Him in those places wherein He was dishonoured.' ' speak concerning thy So the Lover renounced world. joyful. and with justice. * they asked ' qualities of fi> Thy Lover and pensive ? Him And . for such a price as would buy the whole my world. the 270 The Lover builded a fair Beloved might dwell . and went forth lovingly to seek his Beloved. and yet poor . and there the Beloved washed the 82 .' I desire ? He answered have sold 269 Preach.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED to bear afflictions for the love of Him to whom he had given himself 267 to be a servant. complaints and griefs he devotion and hope he adorned it city wherein his thoughts. . weep and fast.' 268 They asked ' the Lover ' : ' : Wilt thou it sell thy already to Beloved. 271 fortitude and temperance he The Lover drank of love at the fountain of the Beloved. prudence. Beloved . faith. of love. with joy. tears. O Fool. furnished it. if The Beloved asked men and is Lover. sad and every day he grieves because of his love.

that the world was created so his that eternity should be more harmony with is Beloved. could it be ordered for one end only . which quantity and therefore the justice of his Beloved was before time and finite quantities were. and yet.' 273 The Lover saw who . and the world had suffered thereby. if it were not so ordered. ' 272 ' It is He answered Say. nor. ' O Fool. and for is this if no place or material order would suffice . the world were eternal.' ? He answered In fa ith 83 . there would be wanting in his Beloved perfection of wisdom and will. than with the world. if He justice restored not to every man his own body. ' 275 Say. what is sin ? the turning and directing of the intention ' : away from the all final Cause and Intention for which things have been created by my in Beloved. which are a ladder whereby understanding may rise to a comprehension of the secrets of my Beloved. saying that the of his Beloved would not be perfect. though many a time he had despised and forgotten His greatness. is Infinite Essence of greatness and a finite alT perfection.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED Lover's feet. 274 The Lover defended said that the world his Beloved against those who eternal. wherein ' : is the beginning of wisdom and devotion*. O Fool.

It is the opposite of this world's worth. who illumines faith and nurtures devotion. .' 277 ' They asked is ' : Which ' is greater : the possible or the impossible ? He answered The in my greater in man.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED ' 276 Where then have ' faith ' : and devotion In their beginning ? He answered the Lover my Beloved. what is true worth ? He . and harmony but in my Beloved they are equal in ' and in unity. chamber had and in his coffers at the gates of his palace but few poor. which ' is the greater ' : difference harmony . O ? Fool. hasT: : thou seen one without his ' reason I have seen a lord of the He answered Church.' ' '281 Knowesl thou. who had many cups on his table. difference in unity plurality ' greater in plurality. Fool.' 280 Say. ? ' O Fool. and in his many garments and great wealth a great bed. He answered is Save in my Be- loved.' 279 Say. and many plates and knives of and silver. desire for which ' false and vainglorious lovers they go after worth and achieve only worthlessness. answered : O ' Lover. agreement. and impossibility and actuality. and the impossible possible since power and possibility are in Beloved.' ' 278 or Say.

' why.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED my Beloved.' continued the Lover. ' the voice of the Beloved ? 283 The trials and tribulations that the Lover endured for love's sake made him weary and apt to be i mpatient .' He answered Nay. hearing the voice of another. your and. and he" begged his Beloved to restore his love again.' loyalty ? It is ' ' fear of ' charity ' ' : 282 The Lover went one day into a cloister. you may not catch name of another. too. and the Beloved reproved him. born of and of shame which men reproach. and th ejno nks inquired of him if he..' '"Yea.' said ' : To whom ' : art ' thou vowed ' thou thy given to my ' Beloved.' And what is honour ? He answered It is to think on my Beloved. ' of the order of my Beloved. do not you that are religious take the Name of my Beloved ? May it to that which is not be that. 85 . as you bear the love may grow less.' Hast thou added aught to the rule of ' He answered ' Naught can be thy Beloved ? will ? is : He To my Beloved.' he answered. saying that he whom either trouble or happiness affected thus knew but contrite little of Jove./ So the Lover was and wept. to desire Him and to praise His glorious Name. it added And already perfect. ' What rule dost thou follow ' ' ? He Hast answered ? : ' My ' Beloved's. were a religious.

love unites three things. O answered Him. draws on high. And I I hope greet Thee with Thine own Sign. I come to walk in Thee. love of my love and sum of my perfections.' They asked him ' : He answered : Is thy Beloved. And in like manner love inflames And one 288 the thoughts.' ' : which Fire gives 287 The Lover cried aloud and said its heat gives lightness. Thou who art the sight of my eyes.' said the Lover. and that lightness warmth.' And who can say whether in love there is more of liberty ' ' : ' or of bondage ? 285 The Beloved called His Lover. for Thou dost call me. yea.' They asked ' : the Lover ' : What is the world ' ? He answered which * ' It is a book for such as can read. in is revealed my Beloved. then. what is love ? Love is that whicE throws the free into bondage. binding them securely the one to the others. and the source of all my beginnings ' ' ? 286 Thee. by for eternal life and eternal blessing. ' O my I Beloved. and to those that are in bonds gives liberty. gives lightness and draws on high. O Fool.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED He answered 2^4^ Say. this wherein consists book 86 ' ? He answered ' : In . and What wilt Thou. thought of my thoughts. saying ' : he my Beloved. in the world ? ' And even as the writer is in his book.' Yea.

' 290 loved They asked ' the Lover ' : ' : Is the it world to be ? He answered Truly is. for its artificer's sake. which comes belongs to is this that ' ' : through the Beloved. since my Beloved contains it all. which The Lover answered and said the Lord. ' to thee as a fool ? who is he that loves and seems He The Lover answered ' : that loves the truth.' ' Say.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED my my 289 therefore Beloved. The Lover was in peril in the great ocean of and he trussed in his Beloved.' And who is poor ' ' 'He that ? 'He loves falsehood. but as a piece of work. and tribulation. And the Lord and the Beloved said Who 291 his : makes division in Us. sighs and griefs . that are One only ? It is pity.' love. 293 The Lover rejoiced in the Being of his Be- 87 .' ' shadow and makes no account of the rich ? ' that And whom doft thou call loves truth. and to his Beloved concerning his ' Lord. O Lover. and is the world in my Beloved rather than Beloved in the world. tears. for 292 the ocean was of love. or as the night by reason of the day which follows it.' J The Lover cried out to his Lord concerning Beloved. who came to him with troubles. thoughts.

or made greater or less. and made sub eel and constrained to honour and serve my Beloved. then. for so great art Thou that all things which have remem' brance and joy and understanding of Thee are great . answered even as the sun which shines over all the world.BOOK OF THE LOVE R AND THE BELOVED loved. 297 be merciful. my my Beloved's unity pluralities . yet even I know Thy pardon and love. if it in darkness. for (said he) from His Being is all other Being j derived. it leaves all things and when it shines forth it brings the so is Even more my Beloved. and by It sustained. withdraw its brightness.' 295 My Beloved thoughts and my is is one.' ' Thou knowest my sinfulness. 296 O Beloved. by Thy greatness my desires. Thou knowest better than I who Thou art . and Thy greatness makes all things small which are contrary to Thy honour and commandments. my thoughts and my afflictions are made great . the source of plurality of all unities and His all pluralities and all and unities. and pardon. ' ' He What is the Being of thy Beloved ? 294 It is a bright ray throughout all things. since Thou hast awakened in 88 me . and in His unity love are united in one will . By no being can He be condemned or destroyed. O Beloved . ' : For day.

and it seemed to him as though it were of three colours. whether salvation or eternal punishment. draw truth from my will. with feeling. is sovereign. And he cried ' O marvellous distinction of three. can save me through Thy goodness. that I may honour Thy Name. the Lover went in search of 89 . that my will may love Thee .' me. in truth ? : ! The Beloved created. imagination. 302 By verdant understanding and paths. and cause it to hate my shortcomings. draw water from mine eyes. and the Lover remained companionship of his Beloved. O Beloved. and the Lover wept. The 301 for ever in the Beloved finished His work. The Beloved judged. yet it can condemn me through Thy justice. mercy and pardon. for it bring O Truth that I love. O Beloved. for the three together are one And how can this ' be in the image. and the Lover destroyed. and the desire to die a shameful Thy Name may be thereby exalted. Then the Beloved created glory again for the Lover. unless it be so of itself.' 299 s 300 The Lover gazed at the rainbow. and since Thy truth. 298 ' it is wholly perfection.' Thy power.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED contrition death that and pain. will. visit my contrite heart. and my failures and imBut let Thy power work its will in perfections.

on mine let there be contrition. that in my my love to Thee may be increased . and the greater power over the Lover ? 304 * my evil Thou hast placed me. perils for his Beloved's sake. And in those paths the Lover en- dured griefs and he might lift up Beloved. that makest not. restoration and help . if Thou why didst Thou will to create me. remembrance and hatred of honour and praise Thee. O my Beloved. ' 306 love will My will. On Thy part may there be mercy and pity. think you. aidest me me thus to the to rise. pardon. that his will who wills that and understanding to his His lovers may comprehend and love 303 Him exceedingly. humility. Which of these two forces. has by nature Lover. with sighs and tears. that my Beloved. The perfection of the Beloved uplifted His his own shortcomings cast him down. perseverance and remembrance of Thy sacred Passion. O Thy honour or despise Thy worth. and why didst Thou endure grief for my sake and bear Thy so grievous Passion ? Since Thou didst help 305 ' O Beloved.' me to love. between and Thy good. patience. and in 90 . help me also to descend my faults and my thoughts may the better rise again Thou made free to to desire.' Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED his Beloved. hast failings.

hast then. Remember. Then wherefore. art sovereign liberality. by that Name my will Thee so seeks to adore Beloved. in giving him (being) or in granting him many creatures to serve him. and he spake words * : to his Beloved in these O Beloved. honoured Thy Lover. may place in servitude my free and praise Thy honour. that I will. Jesus Christ. shouldst Thou who Thou be slow to wisdom and give Thy Lover tears. never from Thy Lover. my will into danger. Thou put Thy Lover in this danger. since the Lover has Thy Thee and mercy. Jesus Christ. griefs. art both God and Man. O Beloved. in his perils and tribula- tions. than has this Thy Lover ' ? 309 The Lover wept. never wert Thou spari ng or aught but liberal to Thy Lover. grief in my heart. nor can Thee came fault nor Thy Lover grace attain to perfection but through Then. do Thou remember him in such possessions. why honourest not so Thou who knowingly have many ignorant men.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED granting me this liberty.' and multiply tears 307 ( O failing to Beloved. greatly as God and Man. been less guilty of dishonouring Thy Name. O Beloved.' e 308 called O Beloved. hast And if Thou. through none of his merits. who in one Name. 91 . thoughts.

Thy Lover asks of Thee long life that he may receive of Thee many of the gifts O aforesaid. if Thou dost help just men against thoughts their mortal enemies.' 312 The Beloved had mercy upon His Lover. and because of His Lover's needs. . but 92 . that he may tread the martyr's path as a and desires for Thy honour. testimony of love.' 311 The Lover made complaint to his Beloved of temptations which came to him daily to disturb his ' Such thoughts. that the lover may think upon God and love His grace and honour. Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED love that he may do honour to Thy Name ? So then. help Thy Lover that he may sacrifice his will to Thy glory and as to his body. And the Beloved answered him : temptations are occasions of recourse to the memory. you.' c 310 O Beloved. help to increase my And if Thou dost help sinners to lead just lives. think strongly to moved the Beloved the more forgive His Lover's sins ? 313 Our Lady and cried to my Beloved the Saints and angels in glory ' Remember the errors into : which the world has fallen through ignorance. because of His perfect love. Which of those two reasons.

Love comes from love. So that however it be the Lover receives love. and from the Divine Nature the powers of his soul descended. comforts and joys from his Beloved. And the 316 and tears afflictions for Beloved watches His Lover. to glory in the human 315 nature of his Beloved. and the straiter his love. trials and griefs. and mounted the ladder of humanity to glory in the Divine Nature . as thoughts lead to tears and griefs to sighs. the broader are the paths. His love. thoughts from thoughts from griefs . With his imagination the Lover formed and pictured his Beloved's Countenance in bodily wise. the vaster is his love . and love leads to love. and with his understanding he beautified It in 93 . The straiter are the paths along which the Lover journeys to his Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED remember how how Beloved.' O and 314 The Lover lifted up the powers of his soul. And they brought to the Lover graces which lit up his understanding and made 318 his will to increase in love. great the ignorance of Thine enemies. great is Thy justice. 317 who bears all these The desires of the Lover and his memories of the Beloved's greatness kept vigils and went on journeys and pilgrimages.

and that his cause him neither vexation nor sorrow. but was sad he might be comforted. through a d^y^f^ibulations . at the and he_forgot-^ absence of his lord. and his memory recalled his Beloved's virtues and His promises. and made his testament with the counsel of his Beloved. and in this evil-speaking his understanding his Beloved's justice and patience . 323 The Lovemfell . his 321 understanding beheld Him in them . that his Beloved. His sins and 94 .BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED spiritual things . 319 The Lover purchased of thoughts another ^ 320 The Lover was in a far country. speak evil 322 The Lover heard men of his Be- loved.sick. his children and his friends. and with his will he worshipped It in all creatures. the memory of his Beloved returned to him. his will had pleasure in that which he heard . a day of tears with and a day of love came . for perceived His justice would punish the evil-speakers. and both his thoughts and his love were increased. But soon his wife. exile might The Lover heard his Beloved's words . while His patience would await their contrition and repentance. In which of these two think you that the Lover believed more earnestly ? .

think you. contempt. poverty and nakedness. with the renunciation of this world and contempt for the revilings of men. and he would have died had he not and had remembrance of his Beloved. of old age and lasciviousness. Which of these two.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED faults he bequeathed worldly pleasures to tears . and to Passion which his Beloved endured memory for love of him. who healed him with hope and memory. sickness and tribulations . 325 The Lover endured hunger and thirst. was : nearer to the bed of the Lover ? 95 . cold heat. And to his activity he bequeathed the guidance of unbelievers. and how the delights which are here so pleasant may be the occasion of eternal torments. who go to their doom through ignorance. to his his underthe standing his Beloved's graces. 324 The_ scent of fl owers brought to the Lover's mind the evil stench of riches and meanness.-between trials and in joys he lay down to sleep and in trials he joyS awakened. The taste of sweet things recalled to him the bitterness of temporal possessions and of entering and The enjoyment of earthly quitting this world. of discontent and pride. penance and contrition . To his eyes he left to to his heart sighs of love . pleasures made him feel how quickly this world passes. '326 The Lover made his bed.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 327 In anger the Lover lay down to sleep. remembering his Beloved. did the Lover feel the more deeply the love of his Beloved or the scorn of men ? 328 to -. which it so far exceeds.' Another time they both inquired of him. curious. Which. until which love and death are the gates and the . He answered of great sages is as a great heap of a few grains. afraid. think you.' And the Lover came and said True simplicity has he who commits all his ways to my ' Beloved.' For simplicity is to exalt faith above understanding. entrance. over-subtle and presumptuous. superfluous. were disputing concerning simthe one againsT: the other. And the one The ' The simple man is he ' other said The simple : who knows nothing. The Lover thought upon he remembered the death. asking that he would tell them if the science of the The science simple is a great one. and in all that pertains to my Beloved it is to avoid completely all 330 things vain. 329 said : Two men ' plicity. For all these are contrary to simplicity. re- senting the revilings of men . but 331 ' : 96 . in patience he awak- ened.' lives : man is he who without sin. and he was city of his Beloved.

' 334 The Lover thought uponiiis__sjngx and for fear of hell he would fain have wept. until 332 The Lover lost jewel ' Which profiteth thee put to him this question thou hadst or thy patience in all more. And those that it know not how to this. know not what is truly to love Him. And the enemies of my Beloved are known by presumption and curiosity.' a which he greatly his Beloved prized. but he could not. and they asked Love's messenger where and in what thing the heart was most ardently inflamed with devotion and love. Love's messenger answered with all ' : In the House of God.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED the science of the simple less is a small neither grains. : ' even as love for Him is acquired by simplicity. for He alone is Holiest of the holy. when we humble o urselve s and adore Him do our powers . 97 H . and was sorely distressed..' The Lover replied sumption and curiosity ? Vanity is the mother of curiosity. because curiosity nor over-subtlety are ' ' heap of numberpresumption nor added to the heap And what is the work of preof simple men. the jewel that ' the ads of thy Beloved ? : 333 Many lovers came together. and pride is the mother of p'relumptJonTand therefore is their work the work of vanity and pride.

for tears of love are more pleasing Him than tears shed through fear. So the Lover unof this his soul of the cares anct"p*leasures might bear the weight with world.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED . on the one hand. works might be lost. few and small tears for fear. trials The Lover fell asleep while thinking on the and the obstacles which he met in serving his Beloved . his heart 98 . that were rough and hard his lovers to he should set out. 336 337 The Lover had to journey long over roads . and Wisdom answered that he must weep earnestly and often. But the Beloved sent consciousness to him. and. on the other. and he awakened to the merits and powers of his Beloved. 'i ^ So he begged Love to give him tears. And solace the tears which he shed for love brought and rest. that by love and not by fear he might honour his Beloved. he shed many and great tears for love's sake. carrying theJbteavy 1 Love makes burdened and the time came when burden that bear. and his soul journey along those roads in its Beloved's company. 335 The Lover obeyed Wisdom . and he feared lest through those hindrances his. and. [that more ease. but for the love of his Beloved rather than for the pains of hell to . while the tears of fear gave him him sorrow and tribulation.

Beloved. the Beloved. And while the Lover was journeying thus. In which of the two 339 As the Lover contemplated think you that memory grew more thinking on the Beloved ? fruitful in 340 With fervour and fear the Lover journeyed abroad to honour his Beloved. was the nearer to his understanding ? 342 They asked the Lover in what 99 manner the h 2 . and he gazed upon his Beloved. or the Lover Him not ? men who spoke ill of the who was silent and defended his Beloved.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED 338 Before the Lover. Fervour bore him along and fear preserved him from danger. his conceived subtleties and his will understanding loved Him more and more. was the more to be blamed. The Lover gazed upon himself that he might 341 be a mirror in which to behold his Beloved . and the Lover made neither reply nor defence of his Beloved. as in a mirror wherein he could learn to know himself. he found sighs which brought him greetings from his Through which of these four comthink you that the Lover received the panions greatest consolation in his Beloved ? and tears. they spoke ill of the Beloved. Which of these two mirrors. think you. Which. one day. think you.

but necromancy. : all men love not thy that love Beloved ? He answered They Him sin. the second was doubtful.' .' said the Lover It is 'it is no science. Which of those two ways. in disguise. that was the meaning of these happenings was seeking his Beloved ? to the Lover 344 Full of tears and anguish the Lover went in search of his Beloved. think you.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED heart of Beloved. What. but the other two were glad. The first wept. who asked them if they had seen his Beloved. by the path of the senses and also by the jnt ellectual _road. Thou art deceived. work of the sovereign Master. and inquired of him He reWhat means thy . because of their 343 Theology and Philosophy.' not have night in their hearts. man was turned towards He answered them and ' the love of his said ' : Even as the sunflower turns to the sun. as he went after which of them did the Beloved reveal Himself to him the more openly ? 345 The Lover met an astrologer. Medicine and Law met the Lover.astrologyj? ' ' : * plied ' : It is a science that foretells things to come. did he enter his Beloved ? And in first. then. think you. or the black art.' that ' How ' is it. and the science of deceiving and lying prophets which dishonour the one falsely so called. ioo At all times it has .

investing them with the names of God and of good and profaning holy things with figures and and by writings. crying Oh.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED been the messenger of evil tidings . Thus it shall be clearly seen to which of 348 the their what extent they have loved Him. all Lover wept errors are implanted in the world. and it runs clean contrary to the providence of my Beloved. how who follow after lust of knowledge are all they : ! ' For through lust of knowledge and presumption fall into the greatest depths of impiety. will 347 cause At the Day of Judgment the Beloved all that men have given Him in this world to be placed on one side. for in place of the evils which it threatens He promises good 346 vain things. and on the other side all that they have given to the world. for all the insults And the which are offered to his Beloved by ignorant men.' The Lover went forth.' bitterly. itself The Lover's will was enamoured of ' : and Is it more like the understanding asked Beloved to love oneself or to love the Beloved ? For the Beloved is to be loved more than anything 101 . and two gifts is the greater and nobler. do they insulting the Name of God and with curses and incantations invoking evil spirits as good angels. And through presumption images angels.

pensively. ' : ' ' Creator can make nobler a creature. and at each of its four extremities he had That a precious jewel set. towards the north.' 350 One day perceived that he the Lover was at prayer. 351 tears. and sons. and it brought the Truth 352 to his remembrance. what is the greatest and noblest He answered be found in the creature ? And why That which is one with the Creator. and he wept not . could the reply to the understanding most truly ? make ' 349 ' love to ' O Fool. thinking The Lover was walking 102 on his Beloved. think you. and women. and more vainglory. And thereupon were his eyes wet with and pain.' will With what answer. towards the south and east. Sign he wore ever upon him. and he espied the Sign of his Beloved. And his understanding found that men have each of the things aforesaid to their servants than has his Beloved. and he found on the way many people . and his soul was in sorrow One day the Lover was looking towards the and towards the west. and meats.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED beside.' Because there is nothing with which the so ? Say. And therefore he caused that Sign to be engraven. and in order that he might weep he bade his thoughts to think upon wealth. as bright as the sun.

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
and great multitudes who asked him for news. And the Lover, who was rejoicing in his Beloved, gave them not that which they asked of him, and said that he could not reply to their words without departing far from his Beloved.

Behind and before was the Lover vested in Love said love, and he went seeking his Beloved. He Where goes!: thou, O Lover ? to him thou mayest answered :' I go to my Beloved, that
353
'

'

:

be increased.'
'

Say, 354 answered
:

O

Fool,

what

is'

Rel igion

'

?

He

Purity of thought, ancTlongirig for death by which the Beloved may be honoured, and renouncing the world, that nothing may hinder

one from contemplating of His Name.'
'

Him and

speaking truth

355

Say,

O

Fool, what are
' '

trials, sighs,
'
:

laments,

afflictions, perils, tears ?

of the Beloved.'

He answered And why are they so

The
'

joys

*

?

That

He may be the more

deeply loved by reason of them, and the Lover be the more bounteously rewarded.'

356 The Lover passed through divers places and found many men who were rejoicing, laughing and singing and living in great joy and comfort. And he wonderejiif this world were meant for laughing
or for weeping.

103

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
357

So the Virtues 'came,

to
:

pronounce upon that
'

question. because the faithless are
believers.'

And

Faith said
said
'

It

is

for

weeping,
the

more

in

number than

Hope weeping, because few are those that hope in God, whereas many put their truft in the riches of earth.' Charity said
:

It is for

:

*

It is for

love

God

weeping, because so few areTriose that and their neighbour.' And there followed
all.

the other Virtues, and so declared they

358

The lovers sought

to

prove Love's messenger,

and they

said that they should go through the world,

crying that worshippers muft honour servants as servants and the Lord as a lord, so that their requests might better be heard, and because there needs not
to love, save the Beloved.

They asked Love's messenger whence came Beloved so many useless servants, viler, more abject, and more contemptible than secular men.
359
to the

Love's

messenger

answered
the

come through

the fault

and said of those whose task
:

'

They
it is

to

furnish their Sovereign, Beloved, with servants.
as

King of Kings, the They make no question, they ought, concerning the wisdom nor the lives

whom they choose. And they will not take for His train they allow to serve the Eternal King in His palace, and
nor the habits of those
those

whom

in the

most holy ministry of His Table.
104

Wherefore

BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED
ought they to fear the severed retributions when they are called by the Beloved to their account.'
360

They asked
dies ?
c
'

the Lover

'
:

In which

is

love

greater, in the

who
dies.'

Lover who He answered
' '

lives
c
:

or in the Lover

In the Lover

who
lives

for love

And why ? it may yet be
it

Because in one
greater, but in

who

one who

dies for love

can be no greater.'

361

Two

lovers

met

:

the

one

revealed

his

Beloved, and the other learned of Him. And it was disputed which of those two was nearer to his

Beloved

;

and

in

the

solution

the

Lover

took

knowledge of the demonstration of the Trinity.
'

362

Say,
'

O

Fool,

why

dost thou speak with such
' :

subtlety

?

He answered

That

I

may

raise

my

understanding
ness,

to the height of

and that thereby more and serve Him.'
363

my Beloved's greatmen may honour, love

the wine of and love for his Beloved. memory, understanding And that wine the Beloved made bitter with His

The Lover drank deeply of

Lover's tears.

Love heated and inflamed the Lover with remembrance of his Beloved ; and the Beloved cooled his ardour, with sorrows and tears and forgetfulness of the delights of this world, and the
364
105

' Say. Colchester.BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED So his love grew. them Conscience. BALLANTYNE * COj LTD.' Printed in England at THE BALLANTYNE PRES3 SPOTTISWOODB. honour and glory all throughout the world. and are they then sent ? where the joyful company of true lovers. when he remembered wherefore he suffered grief and affMion.' ' is imprisons love. and 365 dies trials.' ' 'In thoughts of the world to and sustenance ? come. pity 'To eternal bliss. renunciation and contrition.' Wherefore they that had inquired of him ' prepared to renounce this world. fear. that they might think the more deeply upon the next. and the : ' He answered ' ' And who is he companionship of wilful men.' ' And and justice.' frees them ? that Mercy. and the men of the world persecutions renunciation of vainglories. what is It love and serve my ? He this_world ? of those that the prison-house ' And who is he that Beloved. be ever given praise. 366 answered : O ' Fool. where they shall ' ' ' laud. and that their love might live and find nourishment. London & Eton . bless to whom and glorify the Beloved everlastingly. They asked the Lover this question Wherein In the deThe Lover answered love ? : ' ' ' : And whence has it life lights of this world.

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