Cleanroom HVAC Design in Ten Easy Steps

By: Vincent A. Sakraida, PE, LEED AP

PRIMER ON E:
Know Your Starting Point How Many Particles are There in Standard Air?

H ow Many Particles?

500,000 to 1 Million 1 Million to 10 Million 10 Million to 100 Million 100 Million to 1 Billion 1 Billion to 10 Billion 10 Billion to 100 Billion

Lets N arrow it Dow n

1 Billion to 2.5 Billion 2.5 Billion to 5 Billion 5 Billion to 7.5 Billion 7.5 Billion to 10 Billion

98 2.16 4.672 501.Atm osp here Particle Distribu tion PARTICLE SIZE (MICRON) 0.85 7.54 37.235 645 28 2.10 0.22 32.491 906.17 16.51 100.18 4.98 2.22 0.613 338.00 2.22 0.95 20.00 PERCENT BY WEIGHT ------0.959.728 69.213.0.54 21.02 .10 0.845 395.0.05 0.28 14.00 10.890.02 0.288.46 1.890.01 21.06 2.00 1.16 ----------------------------100.577.973 212.389.20 23.05 0.15 2.60 9.64 4.55+ AVERAGE QUANTITY PER CUBIC FOOT 173.564 3.00 .705 15.38 17.02 0.46 0.01 .801.65 -10.499 PERCENT BY COUNT 7.92 0.929.

PRIMER TWO: Know Your End Point How Many Particles are Allowed in a Class 100 Cleanroom? .

000 to 500.000 to 1 Million .000 to 10.H ow Many Particles in a Class 100 Cleanroom Per Cu bic Meter? 100 100 to 1.000 to 100.000 1.000 100.000 10.000 500.

000 300.000 to 400.000 to 500.000 .000 400.Lets N arrow it Dow n 100.000 200.000 to 300.000 to 200.

.Actu ally!!!! A Cleanroom Cleanliness Class 100 classification will allow 138.281 particles per cubic meter.

1 Microns 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0.2 Microns 2 24 237 2370 23700 237000 0.3 Microns 0.5 Microns 1.0 Microns 10 102 1020 10200 102000 4 35 352 3520 35200 352000 3520000 35200000 8 83 832 8320 83200 8320000 8320000 29 293 2930 29300 293000 Particles are per square meter Table from Institute of Environmental Science Testing IEST standard 14644 standard .Airborne Particle Cleanliness Class Class Name ISO 1 ISO 2 ISO 3 (1) ISO 4 (10) ISO 5 (100) ISO 6 (1000) ISO 7 (10000) ISO 8 (100000) ISO 9 Note: 0.0 Microns 5.

0 Microns 7 17.91 35 99.5 300 875 0.1 Microns 9.14 7.1 350 991 0.5 (1000) M5 M5.3 100 283 1000 2830 10000 28300 100000 283000 5.5 Microns 0.5 (10000) M6 M6.3 Microns 0.75 30 87.5 (100000) M7 Note: 0.283 1 2.5 70 175 700 1750 Particles are per square foot Federal Standard 209E .5 (100) M4 M4.Airborne Particle Cleanliness Class Class Name M1 M1.83 10 28.2 Microns 2.4 75 214 750 2140 0.5 (10) M3 M3.5 21.5 (1) M2 M2.875 3 8.

PRIMER TH REE: How Do You Get There? We use HEPA Filters .

What is a H EPA Filter? HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor. A HEPA filter is typically in a 2 by 2 or 2 by 4 configuration. The HEPA filter media is constructed of all borosite glass paper which is pleated and sealed into a filter frame with urethane. . A HEPA Filter is a filter that has a minimum efficiency of 99. IEST Standard IES-RP-CC001 provides filter design and construction requirements.97% by DOP test method.

How can this be? . The filter is capable of capturing particles that are much smaller than the tightest spacing between fibers. yielding a product that does not have a controlled pore size.H ow d o H EPA Filters Work? A typical fibrous filter is composed of an extremely large number of randomly oriented fibers. The filter mat resembles a dense jungle with the haphazard spacing and orientation of trees and thicket.

. They are: Straining Effect. Diffusion Effect. Interception Effect. Inertia Effect.H ow d o H EPA Filters w ork? There are four mechanisms that a filter utilizes to capture particles. The least prevalent mechanism of particle capture. Most effective on larger particles. Straining Effect: Straining occurs in a filter when particles enter passages between two or more fibers that have dimensions less than the particle diameter.

rejoining on the downstream side of the filter. and collide with the fibers and are captured. Inertia impaction is less prevalent and most effective against particles larger than 1 micron.H ow d o H EPA Filters w ork? Inertia Effect: An air stream is broken up into many smaller streams as it travels through the randomly oriented fiber filter bed. Any particles that have sufficient inertia are not capable of bending around the fibers with the air stream. . These streams can bend around the fibers.

1 micron. Should the particle follow a path which would cause it to make contact with the fiber. .H ow d o H EPA Filters w ork? Interception Effect: Unlike larger. smaller diameter particles will alter their path along with the flow lines around the filter fiber. it is captured and retained. The interception effect is a primary method of particle capture for particles over 0. more massive particles subject to inertia impaction.

and that these molecules are in random motion. The diffusion effect is primary capture mechanism for particles under 0. increases the probability of collision with a filter fiber. . it is retained by strong intermolecular forces. The random motion. Once a particle collides with a fiber. Brownian Motion.H ow d o H EPA Filters w ork? Diffusion Effect: The diffusion effect is based on the kinetic theory which says that an ideal gas is composed of a very large number of particles called molecules.1 microns.

A wide range of particle diameters is usually present in the air being filtered. There is a particle size that is slightly to large to be efficiently captured by diffusion and slightly too small to be effectively captured by one of the other mechanism. . The particles in the ?? to ?? micron size are least effectively filtered. Interception and diffusion effects are more favorable for particles less than 1 micron.H ow d o H EPA Filters w ork? Filtration Efficiency Curve: Straining and inertia effects are more favorable for particles over 1 micron.

3 99.3 99.97% @ 0.1 Penetration Test Mil-STD 282 Mil-STD 282 * Mil-STD 282 Mil-STD 282 Mil-STD 282 * IEST-RP-CC007 Scan Test None None Photometer Photometer Photometer Particle Counter Two Flow Leak Test .99% @ 0. The different types of HEPA filters include: Filter Type A B C D E F * Filter Efficiency 99.Are All H EPA Filters Created Equ ally? Not exactly.97% @ 0.3 99.3 99. there are six different types of HEPA filters with various efficiency ratings and testing methods for certain types of applications.3 99.97% @ 0.999% @ 0.999% @ 0.

Plastics Nuclear Facilities Laminar Flow for Semiconductors and Drug Manufacturing Semiconductors and Drug Manufacturing Hazardous Biological Containment Facilities Semiconductor . Hospitals.What Are These H EPA Filters Used For? Filter Type A B C D E F Application Industrial. Food.

. Must take process flow into consideration. Must take contamination proximity to sensitive areas into consideration. Must take facility limitations into consideration.STEP ON E: Evaluate Layout for People/Material Flow Must take people flow into consideration.

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IE. A class 100.000 cleanroom opening into a class 1. the lower the cleanliness classification needs to be.STEP TWO: Determine Space Cleanliness Classification The more sensitive the process. . but a class 100. No more than a two order of magnitude difference between two adjoining spaces that have access to each other.000 cleanroom opening into a class 100 cleanroom is not good.000 cleanroom is OK.

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Try to reduce extensive pressurization cascade. a pressure differential of 0. Try not to have a pressure differential of more than 0.10 IN WG between two spaces that open to each other. . Typically.03 IN WG to 0. Airlocks do not need to have their own pressure.Determine Space Pressurization Space Pressurization prevents contaminants from entering the cleanroom through infiltration.05 IN WG is standard between cleanroom and uncontrolled environment.

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. Need consider process.Determine Space Supply Air Flow Primarily based upon the space cleanliness classification. Need to consider activity within the space.

600 240 .80 fpm 25 40 fpm 10 15 fpm 1 8 fpm Air Changes per Hour 360 .20 .480 150 240 40 60 5 .Cleanroom Air Change Rate Ranges Cleanroom Classification ISO 4 Class 10 ISO 5 Class 100 ISO 6 Class 1000 ISO 7 Class 10000 ISO 8 Class 100000 Air Flow Velocity 50 90 fpm 40 .

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STEP FIVE:
Determine Space Air Exfiltration Flow
Primarily based upon the pressure differential between connected spaces. Need to consider process exhaust. Need to consider architectural construction.

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Air flows may need to change to accommodate infiltration. and return air. Need to track where the exfiltration air goes to and where the infiltration air comes from. exhaust. and exhaust air flows. exfiltration. .STEP SIX: Determine Space Air Balance Primarily based upon the supply air plus air infiltration minus exfiltration.

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STEP SEVEN : What variables need to be evaluated? Temperature (66 F to 72 F) Humidity (45 % +/.5%) Space Pressurization Cleanroom Classification Laminarity Electrostatic Discharge Requirement Noise Level Vibration .

STEP EIGH T: Determine Mechanical System to be Used Main variable affecting mechanical system selection is cleanliness classification. Other factors affecting mechanical system selection include: Space Availability Available funding Process Requirements Space Orientation System Air Flow Required Reliability Energy Cost Local Climate .

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Include humidifier manifold heat into calculations. 0.4% DB/MWB cooling design and 0. .STEP N IN E: Perform Heating/Cooling Calculations Use the most conservative climate conditions (99. Include infiltration into your calculations.6% heating design.4% WB/MDB cooling design. Don t forget to include recirculation fan heat into calculations. Include process loads into calculations.

250 SF to 1.000 (ISO7) 1.500 SF .250 SF to 1.000 (ISO6) 1.000 SF Class 100 (ISO5) 1.500 SF Class 10.750 SF to 2.500 SF to 2.000 square feet cleanroom. the approximate total facility square footage range needed for each cleanroom classification is as follows: Class 100.STEP TEN : Fight for Mechanical Room Space If you have a 1.000 (ISO8) 1.750 SF Class 1.

The primary ways to save energy is by: Reducing Air Flow Reducing Static Pressure Drop in System .EXTRA CREDIT Saving Energy Cleanrooms are highly energy intensive.

082 0.248 0. .742 0.97% @ 0.337 0.111 0.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS CFM 400 500 600 700 800 900 6 12 Press depth depth Diff 0.3 Micrometers Efficiency 24 by 48 Gasketed Filter.147 0.057 0.557 Filter Media Depth 99.172 0.185 0.449 0.440 0. Pressure Drops are in Inches Water Column.229 .586 0.036 0.146 0.112 0.330 0.

216 0.3 0.197 0.554 0.998 0.092 0.235 0.604 0.308 0.180 0. .700 0.138 0.99% @ 0.424 0.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS CFM 400 500 600 700 800 900 2 4 Press Filter Media Depth depth depth Diff 99.444 0.789 0.312 0. Pressure Drops are in Inches Water Column.298 Micrometers Efficiency 24 by 48 Gasketed Filter.059 0.132 0.

.721 0.623 0.403 Micrometers Efficiency 24 by 48 Gasketed Filter.124 0.156 0.235 0.788 0.179 0.477 0.244 0.12 0.079 0.318 1.368 0.995% @ 0.529 0.191 0.941 0.244 0.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS CFM 400 500 600 700 800 900 2 4 Press Filter Media Depth depth depth Diff 99.350 0. Pressure Drops are in Inches Water Column.

H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Filter Media Depth 99.97% filter had a 75% drop in static pressure when filter depth was increased from 6 to 12 . .99% filter had a 30% drop in static pressure when filter depth was increased from 2 to 4 . 99.995% filter had a 34% drop in static pressure when filter depth was increased from 2 to 4 . 99.

56/year.99% filter. $38.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Filter Media Depth Using a fan efficiency of 70%. $27.995% filter.86/year. . For 99. motor efficiency of 90% and electrical cost of 0. $20. the energy savings per 24 by 48 HEPA filter is: For 99.97% filter.10 $/kwh. For 99.48/year.

.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Filter Media Depth Other advantageous of using deeper filter media include following: Lower electrical construction cost due to smaller fan motor and electrical service. Deeper filter can contain more contaminants resulting in less frequent filter changes resulting in maintenance cost savings and filter replacement cost savings.

045 0.021 0.444 0.99% @ 0.037 0.009 500 600 700 800 900 0.206 0.308 0.028 0.047 Filter Frame 99. Pressure Drops are in Inches Water Column.197 0.014 0.322 0.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS CFM Gask Gel Press -eted Seal Diff 400 0.998 1.826 0. .465 0.604 0.632 0.789 0.3 Micrometers Efficiency 24 by 48 Filter with 2 media depth.

12 400 0.392 0.768 0.047 0.721 0.035 0.059 1.99% @ 0.529 0.024 0.191 1.250 0.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS CFM Gask Gel Press Filter Frame -eted Seal Diff 99.564 0.941 1.269 0. Pressure Drops are in Inches Water Column.368 0. .000 0.235 0.015 500 600 700 800 900 0.078 Micrometers Efficiency 24 by 48 Filter with 2 media depth.

995% filter had a 6% increase in static pressure when filter was changed from gasketed to gel seal. 99.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Filter Frame 99. .99% filter had a 5% increase in static pressure when filter was changed from gasketed to gel seal.

For 99.99% filter. .37/year.19/year.10 $/kwh.995% filter. the energy savings per 24 by 48 HEPA filter is: For 99. motor efficiency of 90% and electrical cost of 0. $5.H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Filter Frame Using a fan efficiency of 70%. $3.

H EPA FILTER EN ERGY SAVIN GS Other Filter Criteria To Consider In a hooded filter. Filter screens have minimal impact on filter pressure drop. Using the 12 will reduce duct pressure drop and hood turbulence. Filter pressure drop increases faster with separators. duct connections come in 10 and 12 diameters. Don t use separators. .

As an example.0 IN WG. we are going to compare the required brake horsepower for each fan type to supply 18.FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Type There are number of fan types available for recirculation units.000 CFM at 4. The optimum fan size was selected for each type. .

6 BHP 15. SWSI) 25.3 BHP 16.7 BHP 17.6 BHP .FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Type Tube Axial Fan Vane Axial Fan Plenum Fan (Quiet) Plenum Fan Plug Fan (BI) Centrifugal (BI.6 BHP 15.3 BHP 22.

5 BHP 13.1 BHP 14.SWSI) 15.FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Type Centrifugal Fan (AF.9 BHP .DWDI) Plug Fan (AF) Centrifugal Fan (AF.

FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Type The horsepower difference between the most and least efficient fan is 11.6 BHP difference which translates into $392/year difference in fan energy cost. . there is a 0.447/year difference in fan energy cost.4 BHP which translates into $7. Even between the most efficient and second most efficient fan.

FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Sizing For a particular type fan. . there are usually several fan sizes that can meet the specific system operating criteria. and meeting 18. IN WG.000 CFM at 40. we are going to look at the required brake horsepower for different sized centrifugal fans with single width single inlet. air foil. As an example.

Wheel) Dia. Wheel) Dia.4 BHP 17.8 BHP 13. Wheel) 20.FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Sizing Size 27 (27 Size 30 (30 Size 33 (33 Size 36 (36 Size 40 (40 Dia.9 BHP 13. Wheel) Dia.1 BHP 14. Wheel) Dia.9 BHP .

FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Fan Sizing The horsepower difference between the most and least efficient fan is 6.246/year difference in fan energy cost. .5 BHP which translates into $4.

.FAN EN ERGY SAVIN GS Other Energy Saving Measures Use variable frequency drive and modulate air flow to maintain specific particle level. A room does not have to be all of one cleanliness classification. Reduce space pressure differential and keep pressure cascading to a minimum. Use isolation technology.

Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards IEST STANDARDS IEST-RP-CC001 IEST-RP-CC002 IEST-RP-CC003 HEPA and ULPA Filters Unidirectional-Flow Clean-Air Devices Garment System Considerations for Cleanrooms and other Controlled Environments Evaluating Wiping Materials Used in Cleanrooms and Other Controlled Environments Cleanroom Gloves and Finger Cots Used in Cleanrooms and Other Controlled Environments IEST-RP-CC004 IEST-RP-CC005 .

Operating and Monitoring Procedures .Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards IEST STANDARDS IEST-RP-CC006 IEST-RP-CC007 IEST-RP-CC008 IEST-RP-CC011 IEST-RP-CC012 IEST-RP-CC013 IEST-RP-CC016 IESt-RP-CC018 Testing Cleanrooms Testing ULPA Filters Gas-Phase Adsorber Cells A Glossary of Terms and Definitions Relating to Contamination Control Considerations in Cleanroom Design Equipment Calibration or Validation Procedure The Rate of Deposition of Nonvolatile Residue in Cleanrooms Cleanroom Housekeeping .

Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards IEST STANDARDS IEST-RP-CC019 Qualifications for Organizations Engaged in the Testing and Certification of Cleanrooms and Clean-Air Devices Substrates and Forms for Documentation Testing HEPA and ULPA Filter Media Electrostatic Charge in Cleanrooms And Other Controlled Environments Microorganisms in Cleanrooms Measuring and Reporting Vibration in Microelectronics Facilities Cleanroom Operations IEST-RP-CC020 IEST-RP-CC021 IEST-RP-CC022 IEST-RP-CC023 IEST-RP-CC024 IEST-RP-CC026 .

Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards IEST STANDARDS IEST-RP-CC027 IEST-RP-CC028 IEST-RP-CC029 IEST-RP-CC031 Personnel Practice and Procedures in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments Minienvironments Automotive Paint Spray Applications Method for Characterizing Outgassed Organic Compounds from Cleanroom Materials and Components HEPA and ULPA Filter Leak Tests Counting Airborne Particles for Classification and Monitoring of Cleanrooms and Clean Zones. Determination of the Concentration of Airborne Ultra Particles IEST-RP-CC034 IEST-G-CC1001 IEST-G-CC1002 .

209E SMACNA NEBB .Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards IEST STANDARDS IEST-G-CC1003 IEST-G-CC1004 Measurement of Airborne Macroparticle Size Sequencing Sampling Plan for Use in Classification of the Particulate Cleanliness of Air in Cleanrooms and Clean Zones Airborne Particulate Cleanliness Classes in Cleanrooms and Clean Zones Ductwork Construction Standards Air Balancing Standard Fed Std.

Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards ISO STANDARDS ISO 14644-1 Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 1 Classification of Air Cleanliness Cleanrooms and Associate Controlled Environments Part 2 Specifications for Testing and Monitoring to Prove Continued Compliance W/ ISO 14644-1 Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 3 Test Methods ISO 14644-2 ISO 14644-3 .

Construction and Start-up Cleanrooms and Associate Controlled Environments Part 5 Operations Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 6 Vocabulary Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 7 Separative Devices (Clean Air Hoods. Isolators. Gloveboxes. Minienvironments) ISO 14644-5 ISO 14644-6 ISO 14644-7 .Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards ISO STANDARDS ISO 14644-4 Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 4 Design.

Cleanroom Cod es and Stand ard s List of Cleanroom Standards ISO STANDARDS ISO 14644-8 ISO 14698-1 ISO 14698-2 Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 8 Classification of Airborne Molecular Contamination Cleanrooms and Associate Controlled Environments Part 1 General Principles and Methods Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Biocontamination ControlEvaluation & Interpretation of Biocontamination Data Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Part 3 Measurement of the Efficiency of Processes of Cleaning ISO 14644-3 .