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Sections

  • INTRODUCTORY
  • THEORY AND TECHNIQUE
  • WORKING DRAWINGS
  • FARM STRUCTURES
  • MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING
  • PICTORIAL DRAWING

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AGRICULTURAL DRAWING AND THE DESIGN OF FARM STRUCTURES .

McGraw-Hill BookCompairy^ ElGCtrical World TheEngineGiin^ and Mining Journal EngkieGring Record Engineering Ngws KailwayA^e Gazette American Machinist American Engjneei- Signal EngiriGGr Electric Railway Journal Coal Age Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering Power .

C. IVES.. NEW YORK 6 BOUVERIE STREET. LONDON. Inc. E. First Edition McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITT AUTHOR OF "engineering DRAWING. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OP AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. AND E.. S. B. FRENCH.i^ /VGRICULTURAL DRAWING AND THE DESIGN OF FARM STRUCTUEES BY THOMAS E. 239 WEST 39TH STREET. 1915 . E. M. THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITT FREDERICK W. PBOrESSOR OP ENGINEERING DRAWING. M." "ESSENTIALS OF LETTERING." ETC.

mapi^e press tork pa . 1915. Inc. the.Copyright. by the McGkaw-Hill Book Company.

and the instructor may make his choice from these numerous problems to cover the different divisions of the subject matter included in the text. to give in convenient form information necessary in designing some structures. or to pass upon a set of plans. architectural drawings. and mentally see the finished structure before it is built. tables. Many are from work designed and built by the authors. but also supplying class material. These problems have been selected for their practical value. even trade and machinery catalogues. D. Drawing courses vary in length. have been grouped in one chapter. The assistance of Mr. The freehand method of introducing projection drawing has been used with marked success in agricultural classes. which he wishes to have made. "take off" his bill of materials. Government bulletins. E. Turnbull is gratefully acknowledged. His literature is full of illustrations and technical sketches. this book is cultural engineering. August 10. He can make sketches of broken parts of machinery. there is no class to whom the value of technical drawmuch force as to the progressive farmer. and a variety of problems of various kinds and of progressive difficulty have been arranged. In the last chapter is given a list of books and bulletins on allied subjects. and to suggest or furnish supplementary problems. The authors will be glad to cooperate with teachers using the book as a text book. agricultural periodicals and books. with outlines for a considerable number of additional ones. he should be able to read The man with the ability to draw " to scale " can plan his buildings. and all are dependable in design. and other items of miscellaneous information useful in drawing and designing have also been included. W. I. etc. C. by giving him what is in reality a new language in which to express and draftsmen." Columbus. but is record his ideas. T. or of special pieces edge. which may thus be varied from year to year. L. In short. he has an asset of distinct' advantage and value. Svensen and Mr.PREFACE As the title implies. F. Engineering Drawing intended primarily for students in agriculture and agriis a required subject in practically all college agricultural courses." The principles and processes involved are described and illustrated. cannot be fully understood without this knowl- In order to build properly.make a layout of his buildings or a plat of his farm. not only giving suggestions to the farm owner. 330428 . State bulletins.. A number of formulas. he can. 1915. Aside from mechanics and builders. It is not given in these courses with the idea of making professional regarded as an important subject for increasing the efficiency of the farm owner or manager. F. estimate the costs. W. *Some of the material in it has been condensed from the larger text book " "A Manual •* of Engineer- ing Drawing. This book is a text book* rather than a "course in drawing. which to be read intelligently require a knowledge of ing should appeal with as technical drawing.

archive.org/details/agriculturaldrawOOfrenrich .Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2008 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation http://www.

lighting. roofs. vii . ventilation. the timber frame. — — —Pictorial drawings—Working drawings CHAPTER Theory and Technique ing with List of instruments II —Principles of orthographic projection—Sketching —Drawinstruments—Alphabet of —Inking— and materials lines 6 ^Lettering. forms. requirements.CONTENTS Page Preface v CHAPTER Introductory I 1 — Importance of drawing Different kinds of drawing Topographical drawing Examples. Rules of material— Checking — Conventional symbols — Fastenings — Bolts and screws — Pipe — Developed surfaces — Method of working—Sketching from the object — Problems. for Bill 26 CHAPTER Farm Structures IV Symbols Plans Elevations Dimensions Wood construction Designing Sections Framing. estimate The horse barn The general purpose barn The swine house Dipping vat The sheep barn The poultry house Implement sheds Corn cribs Granaries Ice houses Garages Smoke houses The dairy house The silo The manure — — — — — — — — 47 — — — pit — — — — — — — — — — — — —The septic tank— Fences. paddocks. VI map —Topographical drawing—Contours 90 CHAPTER Pictorial Drawing Uses Isometric drawing • . the plank frame. composition. — 100 —Oblique drawing — Cabinet drawing —Sketching—Problems. CHAPTER Working Drawings Classes of working drawings III —Sectional views—Turned sections—Auxiliary views—Use of dimensioning —Title — scale — Dimensioning. a concrete water tank Brick. slate. composition roofing. kinds. tile. hurdles. bill of material. storage Complete plans and specifications of a dairy barn. . symbols. . . joints and details of construction. reinforcing. fire stopping and rat proofing Concrete. shingles. — of — — — — — its CHAPTER V Maps and Topographical Drawing Instruments Plats Quadrangle sheets — —A farm survey—Farm —^Landscape maps— office Profiles —Problems. pens and gates—The farm house and requirements — Plans a farm house—Problems. space required. bonds Stone Stucco Hollow tile Roofing materials. galvanized roofing Method of preparing plans The dairy barn.

sheet metal. ventilation and sewage disposal Blue printing Problems. ready roofing quired for storage Space required for farm implements Ration for beef feeders Table for the selection of native woods Strength of timbers. sash. VIII — — bulletins —State Experiment Station and Agricultural 122 Index 125 . — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER Selected Bibliography Books on allied subjects Government College bulletins Trade publications. table of proportions for different uses Silos and silage. glass. VII Page 112 lumber. metal roofing. lighting. mill work. rope. wire. tables Concrete. table Sunshine table Dairy score card Kitchen score card— Estimating. taking off quantities. cubic estimates. drain Weight of roofing Weights of materials Space retUe. units of measurement. slate. other approximate methods.viii CONTENTS CHAPTER Construction Data Stock and commercial sizes. detailed estimates. pipe. present prices Heating.

spoken or the other by drawing pictures. ordinary language. one written. of describ- picture from his own imagination. feels in and the interested reader all imagination vividly before him. probably no two persons reading the same In story ever see exactly the same picture. event their writing that he can see it called a word-picture. 1. that when describing is some scene or reading a story do not construct any imaginative picture at It all. fact some very able people are almost lacking ^o^ -tiai^'^^sr Fig. But he has simply taken the author's suggestions and has filled in the details of the would evidently be almost impossible to describe the appearance and construction of a proposed new machine or building so that it could be built. But interesting picture does he have. and the by using words. in Some writers are so skillful in their use of the power of mental imagery. . by using words alone. the second often called the universal graphical is stronger his visualizing power the fuller and more The first method is language. and in words. —A pen-and-ink perspective drawing.AGRICULTURAL DRAWING CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY There are two general methods ing things.

3. —An isometric illustration. —An isometric drawing.A — Fig. 2. FRAME aA2.AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Fig. .

. ing used in technical work. moreover. the second method. object looks like. but as it cannot be measured. 10 Wood Screws Fig. much more accu- Different Kinds of Drawing There are several different kinds of drawThey may be and quickly by a drawing than by this descriptive verbal description. the drawing is of no value to build from. tractor has Artists in perspective directly and illustrators draw from the object or method of describing objects by lines becomes a real language. drawing. The shape of even the simplest object can be explained rately and an increasing power to represent and explain what he has able to think in space. too involved and difficult to be of general use.INTRODUCTORY Thus in technical description. Its this Thus landscape before them. but very simple in its principles. 1 illustrates the appearance of a perspective drawing rendered in pen and ink. 4. Perspective drawing is. without being paid an "extra" for it!) detail of the structure. method of drawing is and while it shows what the it may not be because the again only to be sup- divided broadly into pictorial drawings and working drawings. artist's picture. But artist's drawing simply like an suggestive. (The ordinary conno imagination that will supply something not shown on the drawings. should be able to read It is and write is in the language. becomes by far the more important. in his mind. where nothing can be left to the imagination. appearance of a proposed building or group of buildings. to be studied in the same way as any other language. the is This eye is called perspective drawing. that is. pen and ink or pencil. used by architects in showing the 'Z No. assumes the observer to be standing at a certain point thorough mastery fessional engineer is necessary for the pro- the plans and works out the perspective from by somewhat complicated methods. not a complicated nor mysterious subject. This drawing shows the building just as a photograph or sketch taken from the same point would do. and the ability to learn it does not depend upon any natural talent. Pictorial Drawings. Fig. As one studies it he feels a growing consciousness of being finishing it (or rendering as he calls it) in water color. but everyone who has anything to do with building or machinery should know the elementary principles of the subject. —A working drawing and a picture. plied leaves much Drawing an object as to it actually appears Technical drawing must describe accurately every by the observer's imagination. The architect in drawing a building not yet erected. and architect.

IB Fig. 5. —A topographical drawing. . 4°-0 e.AGRICULTURAL DRAWING N. 2 149.

with the rudiments of which we should be familiar. while the working drawing must show it as it actually is. etc. 2 is a typical isometric illustration from a Government bulletin. and which shows the construction more clearly than any other kind of drawing would do. Working Drawings. and is the kind of drawing used in connection with surveying. 3 a more complicated example as used in an implement catalogue. These systems are very useful in showing details of construction. but also the contour.INTRODUCTORY making pictorial drawsome purposes is by isometric or oblique drawing. They are not difficult to make. giving the exact shape and dimensions of every part. Architectural drawings are working draw- The makes perspective drawings. and shows not only the location of the various features. and the method is fully explained in Chapter VI. previously referred to. Still another kind of drawing. This includes the drawing of maps and plats. principally to show his ings. mechanical and architectural. 5 is a topographic drawing of a farm and farmstead. and may be called the grammar of this graphical language. is topographic drawing. in a system known technically as "orthographic projection. architect clients. as buildings. and Fig. A working drawing is a drawing that gives all the information for the complete con- struction of the object represented." the principles of Topographic Drawing. and are also used very commonly for illustrations in bulletins and books. . fields. This is the basis of all industrial drawing.. Its particular value and interest to the farmer is explained in Chapter V. who are unable to read the working is drawings. or as it is sometimes called. — Thus the essential difference between a pictorial drawing and a working drawing is that the pictorial drawing shows the object as it appears. going to look Fig. This is done by making different "views" of the object. simpler of A way ings suitable for which are explained in the next chapter. the lay of the land. as they are used to build from. ditches. what the building like. showing the method of representing land and water features. 4 illustrates a pictorial drawing and a working drawing of a simple object. Fig. Fig.

and bow spacer are de- object from It is its projections. 8. in rolls. as being the method best The 1. following is a list of instruments and materials needed: A set of drawing instruments. pencils. a ruling adapted for showing an object exactly as it As it does not show the object as is to be. high-grade instruments. freehand. pencil pen and a bow pen. is sometimes done 4. is the best. Instruments For instrumental drawing an outfit of drawing materials must be at hand. accurate working drawings it is necessary to use instruments and work to dimensions.) 6. 3. 11. one must be trained in reading it. constructive drawings. when it is called "technical sketch- Transparent amber 5. Sandpaper pad for sharpening pencils. Those who will do only occasional drawing can get along with a comparatively inexpensive outfit. our purpose in this chapter to study the principles of this system and the tech- but not necessary additions. 9. long enough. con- taining a 6 inch compass with pen. it will appear to the eye. Orthographic Projection Orthographic projection name is the theoretical given to a method of drawing two or . each has a particular use. A T-square. and a protractor should also be at hand. For the work outlined in this book a 30" blade is A nique of its execution. Our first work in studying the principles will be done as freehand sketching. Waterproof drawing ink. after which the technique of instrumental or mechanical drawing will be taken up. angular shape or two flat ones. These come in various lengths and grades. drawing board of soft pine. Drawing Eraser." but for designing structures and making An architect's scale. Constructive drawing freehand. that is for drawings of things which are to be made. pencil and lengthening bar. and often the final working Thumb tacks. and in exercising the visualizing power of the imagination to see the A bow sirable 2. Most working drawon buff or creamings are made colored "detail paper" which is sold by the yard. either one tri- ing. (An engineer's scale of decimal parts is Preliminary studies and schemes for new structures or machines are usually sketched first needed in map work. and are afterwards traced on tracing cloth or Drawing paper. 10.CHAPTER II THEORY AND TECHNIQUE Of the several kinds of drawing just reFor ferred to. Professional draftsmen use expensive. a pair of dividers. cleated to prevent warping (or a drawing table with pine top). 7. the system known as orthographic projection is used almost exclusively. tracing paper. A 45° triangle and a 30°-60° triangle. drawing of a simple object wanted is made without instruments.

and the heights of the front and side views are equal. 10) con- be surrounded by transparent planes perpendicular to each other (as if it were inside of a box with glass sides). 11. Looking at it directly from the front would give the front view (h) on which the face B only would be visible. by looking straight we down at it from the top. These planes are then Fig. another view looking straight at the front. These three views describe completely the form of the object. 9 the three views of the carefully. to Thus if we were asked make the projec- FiG. 7(a). FiG. point of the object. the resulting figures on the planes will be the "projections " of the from the front view. the side view is the same as the width of the top view. Similarly the lengths of the front and top views are equal. —Three views of bracket. C and E would show. on which the faces A. — Pictorial view of block. Evidently the width of tions of the block Fig. perhaps more accurately and Fig.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE more views of an object its in order to show the Fig. and if necessary. a third" looking directly at the same bracket. and exact shapes of parts and their relation to each other. It means practically that we draw one view of the object as it would appear if we looked directly down on the top of it. is jection is that the object (Fig. 8. a top view as shown in Fig. 6. imagined to be opened up into one surface. 8 is the pictorial view of a bracket. 9. —Pictorial view of bracket. Study and compare these views. the theory of orthographic pro- end or side of the object. 6. If lines perpendicular to these planes be extended or "projected" to them from every ceived to c A (oj E /-' <\ c-y B /^ o 'T F F (c) Fig. Explaining. . and the side view directly across Fig. 7. while on the side view (c) the faces D and F only would show. shown in pictorial view in would have. represented by the drawing paper (as if the object. In combination the top view is always placed directly above the front view. —Three views of block.

13. A 13. A B A surface parallel to a plane of prois opened out). on the front view is leaving off the outlines of the edges. 11. and in compara- view directly across Notice particularly 3. tively rare cases a (as if bottom view —The three projections. — line bottom were opened on their hinges A parallel until flush with the front). C and E on A surface inclined to a plane of prois jection foreshortened. o o TXl: \2/ given. (Fig. and the of it Similarly 4. that the top view This shows the reason for the rule already is directly above the Fig. as of Fig. to a plane of pro- desirable the other end of the glass box. side views are necessary. C on the the top view of Fig. Thus the opened planes would be lines of the hinges. .— The "glass box. as face 7. jection will 5. faces A. o B 1 c 1 o H 1 k! 1 6! ! 1 1 ! ! > FiG. 13. jection shown in its true size. perpendicular to a plane of show following principles will be noted.8 sides of AGRICULTURAL DRAWING the glass box were hinged. the same view front view. From a study of these projections the A line in its true length. as appear as in Fig. and the side from the front view. 12. projection will be projected as a point. like Fig. and the surface perpendicular to a plane of the three views would projection projected as a line. that on the side view the front of the object Sometimes two is facing the front view. view of these 12." is \S/ / A Fig. fiat and and. side and K on view of Fig. 76). —The box opened. 7.

Fig. and paper. a pencil eraser. after studying the object until the views are clear. Get the main dimensions and proportions first. ruled As a general rule to be followed. Fig. 18. In such a figure as Fig. not close to the point. The pencil should be held with freedom. or No. Fig. and remember that the view showing the contour or characteristic shape should Fig. F. is used. and the front and side views the front elevation and side elevation respectively. 15. the view showing the characteristic contour or shape of a piece should be drawn first. vertical lines drawn downward. are the materials shorter than true length. and horizontal lines from to right. left Fig. . needed. blocking in the necessary number of views so that they will fit the sheet. 17. In architectural drawing the top view is always called the plan. to advantage. 16. The side view would then be blocked in. on which would be spaced the principal points of the front and top views. 14. so that the finished book. either in note be drawn first. thus in Figs. 21o on page 13 the top view would be drawn first. The holes would then be added and the outlines brightened. is so im- much practice Our first work will be sketching in orthographic projection from pictorial views and models. one to be made. In beginning a sketch. always start with center lines or base lines. and the sketch at this stage would be something like Fig. An H. or single sheet sketch would look like Fig. Sketching.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE 6. first —Sketching a vertical line. mentally. 6 and 8 the front view would be the in faint lines. —Sketching a horizontal line. Training in freehand sketching portant that there should be in it. Jo. 16 the sketch would be started by drawing a vertical center line. 9 all An inclined line will its have a projection clipped on a board. 3 drawing pencil sharpened to a long conical point. while in Fig. not too sharp. pad. Sometimes coordinate paper. 14. This is generally the view showing circles if there are any. to be used sparingly.

is Drawing with Instruments. a set of different kinds of lines needed may properly be called an alphabet The ones in general use are given of lines. —Finished sketch. which are to be sketched in orthographic projection. Our further work done in the subject will be chiefly with instruments. and the first requirement is the ability to use the drawing instruments Alphabet of Lines. basis of the language of drawing With continued practice will come a facility in their use which will free the mind from any thought of the means of correctly. making the views necessary to This describe the object fully and clearly. in Fig. once formed are very overcome. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING exercises given in this chapter careful atten- 20 and 21 are collections of pictorial views of various familiar objects. 18. 22. These habits also a test the student's judgment in observing and recording proportions. Architectural and structural drawings are made with a line not heavier than shown at (1). Fig. . 17. 19. As the the line. It is very easy to get into primarily for practice in projection but of is bad habits in using the instruments unless good form be observed at the start. instrumental drawing is necessary in all accurate work in designing and drafting. The weight will of line for the visible outline expression. and in the vary with the kind of drawing. is tion should be paid to the explanations hints and on the methods of handling the differ- ent instruments. Fig.10 Figs. As has been said. difficult to m T —First stage t of sketch.

THEORY AND TECHNIQUE

11

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Fig. 19.

— Problems for working sketches.

12

AGRICULTURAL DRAWING

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M

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Fig. 20.

—Problems

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working sketches.

THEORY AND TECHNIQUE

13

Fig. 21.

—Problems for working sketches.

and lines . The T square is for drawing parallel horizontal lines. hatching lines lines. drawing vertical 45 and 60 degrees. be clean against the leji edge of the drawing board. Center lines. —The alphabet fine illustrated. dimension lines and cross visible outline (2) invisible outline -(3) center line (3a) center line in pencil // 1- (4) (5) dimension line extension line (6) alternate position (7) line of (8) motion cutting plane ^\/ty^ Wl^iM^^t -^]/^ (9) break line -^ Fig. Y ']/v' (10) limiting break (11) cross hatching line —The alphabet of lines.14 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Use of T Square and Triangles. uniform the various other 23 shows these and lines as used on a ^ The for triangles are used against the lines T square at 30. and is always used with its head (1) while drawings of machine parts are usually outUned with a much wider line. 22. 23. £xfef)SK)n //he \Secfybn //nes (Cross hakf7//^) /^\ Fig. should Fig. drawing.

24. Always . —Use of triangles. to be). Sharpen a hard pencil (4H or 6H) to a long sharp point. Suppose the size of the drawing is to be 12" X 18" with a border line M" from the Drawing a vertical line. cutting away the wood and pointing the lead by rubbing it on the sandpaper pad. lines at 15 little edge (the paper should preferably be a larger than the j&nished drawing is 15 degrees and 75 degrees may be drawn. Fasten a piece of paper to the board. the use of the instruments ob- and the method of laying out a drawing should be sufficiently familiar to the beginner.) Have the sand-paper pad always at hand and keep the pencil point sharp. squaring the top edge with the T square. pushing the tacks down to their heads. and the use of some of the instruments. at the same time marking 3^^" for the border line. marking the distances with the pencil. and putting a thumb tack in each corner. lower edge and measure 18". Lay the scale down on the paper close to the Fig. so that succeeding work can be done without hesitation or fault in execution.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE With the two triangles together. 24 illustrates these combinations. as it stays sharp longer. Fig. The detailed construction is of the two following sheets given to illustrate the method of procedure in making a drawing. If these drawings are structions carefully. (For straight line work some prefer a fiat wedge-shaped point. made following the inif making them over is necessary untU a satisfactory result tained.

second finger. The needle point may be guided to the center with the little finger of the left hand. —Starting the circle. using one hand only in opening and closing use a short dash. 29. 26. vertical lines with T square in the adjusted to pass exactly through the mark. Fig. When the lead is Fig. Fig. not a dot. position of the fingers the compass adjusted to by first pinching the instrument open with the thumb and 28. 27. and through the points the compasses. At the left edge mark 12" and y^" border line points. then setting the needle point (shoulder point) in position at the center and is shown in Fig. draw horizontal lines with the T square. — Completing the circle. 28. Use of the Compasses. on the lower edge draw the triangle against the lines right.16 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING adjusting the pencil point to the mark. In drawing a circle the radius should be measured and marked on the center line and it Fig. keeping the compasses inclined Fig. up to perhaps 3 inches in diameter may be drawn with legs straight after completing the circle Circles but for larger sizes the legs are bent at the . Horizontal left the hand should be raised to the handle and the circle drawn (clockwise) in one sweep should always be drawn from to and vertical lines upward. in laying off a dimension. position illustrated in Big. —Position The for large circle. by twirling the handle with the thumb and forefinger. 25. 27. —Setting the compass. slightly. Through these four points on the left edge. Fig. 26.

and for dividing lines by trial.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE 17 Fig. — Correct and incorrect tangents. —Setting the bow pen. 30. that two lines are tangent to each other when their centers are tangent. 33. ting. Small adjustments are made with one hand. as illustrated in enlarged form in Fig. in drawing tangent circles. —Bisecting a line with dividers. —Use of lengthening bar. They are handled Fig. 29. Fig. 32. particularly number of the same diameter. and not when the lines simply touch each other. with the bow-pen. The dividers are used for transferring measurements from one part of the drawing to another. when there are the lengthening bar as shown in Fig. 32. 31. Notice particularly. Fig. are made Fig. . 33 in the same way as the compasses. with the needle point in position on the paper. In changing the setto avoid wear and final stripping of the thread. Small a circles. joints so of as to be perpendicular to large the against the nut should be relieved paper. Circles too for the reach the compass are drawn with by holding spinning the the points in the left hand and nut in or out with the finger. 31. the pressure of the spring Use of Dividers. 30. Fig. for stepping off distances. Fig.

are hidden lines. and on this measure the distances for the centers. and are projected from the front is When inked. lines is Such a feeding is stick. PROBLEM The first 1. and at one of the centers The first requirement of a good drawing. we would have 7^". 4". and the line spaced again with the new setting. removing the other leg from its position on the paper. Avoid pricking unsightly holes paper. we find that the left edge of the front view should be started an inch from the left border. with the holes filled with suet greatly enjoyed by birds in winter. —Feeding stick for birds. show as a full line on the top view. This block will stick 1 for birds shown Lay off a 12" X 18" sheet with }4" border as described on page 15. A quick preliminary freehand sketch will aid in this study. Now with the scale measure along the base line the horizontal dimensions for the front view. and allowing an inch 1 mark the drawing radius will (%") of the circle. marking points for the thickness of the end boards.18 illustrates the trial. Subtracting this from the width of the sheet inside the border. 4". 10". is to have the views well spaced on the sheet. first AGRICULTURAL DRAWING method of bisecting a line by opening the dividers at a guess to off. and subtracting these 15" from the length of the sheet. leaving an inch between views. showing their depth. shown as indicated in the lines. 35. like At this stage the appear something Fig. we find that the base line should be drawn about 1%" from the bottom border line. the drawing It is finished in pencil it is to be shown in finished stage in Fig. one-half the length of the line the distance If and stepping the division be short. 2J4". and dividing this space between top and bottom. Through these points draw horizontal and vertical hues. . Through the first point on the front view draw a long perpendicular. the leg should be thrown out to one-half the remainder. 11". until after the Over-running pencil drawing should not be erased inked. side views of the holes. measure on this the height of the front view and the thickness of the bottom board. the front view is completed. sheet is to be three views of the feeding in Fig. and the height of the front view. after deciding on the requisite views. The top and alphabet of view. 34. leaving about 1>^" between views. thus blocking out the three views. and the width. On the front view draw the center line A-B for the holes. 17". 36. line view. When the circles are drawn and the short line formed by the chamfer of the end boards is projected across from the side view. In adding the width of the top view. estimated by the eye. Adding the length. Next draw on the side Fig. in the The position of a small prick point may little be preserved if necessary by drawing a ring around it with the pencil. and leaving say l^'i" between views. At the same time measure on the base line the width of the side view. the slant line of the end boards and a dotted showing the block behind. On the same line mark the width of the top view. 34. without between front and side views.

1 11» 1t 1 r- ---1 r~~ — BIRD FEEDING STICK OAK J(^ ^ <i^ -(i>[ JOHN Fig. —First stage of penciling. . 35. 36. W.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE 19 Fig. BLACK —Finished ink drawing.

which is filled by pen. Next draw vertical lines through A and B. Complete the measurements for the front view. If inked lines appear imperfect in any way. 2. With the radii indicated draw the circle arcs with A. figure /n/f or? oufs/'c/e of S/ade^ ran under done on Sheet view and lay out base center line for the front view. On this mark the 1" radius for the middle whose center is at C Measure up from the C \^i" and draw the upper horizontal line. correction in each case suggest — Correct pisition of ruling pen. being careful not to get any ink on the outside of the blades. measuring the widths and projecting the other dimensions from the front circle. ^/of er/ough /r?/r fo fih'/sh //'ne center Fig. Not more than threesixteenths of an inch should be put in or it Pen pressed aga/ns/' Tscfuare Too ho/z/ Fig. The construction for the arcs from the centers ¥ and G is suggested on the figure. 39. Fig. lines. 38 illustrates the characteristic appearance of several kinds of faulty lines. in straight away /hom Tstfuare PROBLEM The next lines. between the nibs of the pen.— Faulty blot. 37. drawing. the front view set off the centers A and B IM" from Measure up Y/^" on the the vertical center line. 37. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING If the ink refuses to flow Finished drawings are either inked on the dried and clogged in the it is because it is extreme point of the paper or traced on tracing cloth. If it still by pinching the blades fresh ink added. Straight Hnes are inked with the ruUng pen. sheet. 38. Faulty Lines. stage Fig. /%/? b/ades rjof Aepf para//e/ /b the spacing as was line. is held as illustrated in Keep it in a plane perpendicular to the paper and draw the lines with T view. of 40 illustrates a partially Fig. 39. the reason should be ascertained immediately. touching the quill filler attached to the cork of the ink bottle. completed finished the drawing. then draw top and side views. will drop out in a After adjusting the nibs with the screw to give the correct thickness of line. B and C as centers. three views of a windmill brake is Pen foo c/ose fo ec/^e //7k ran unc/er P • shoe. Fig. vertical center line and draw the horizontal line DE. should be wiped out and The pen should always be wiped clean after using. the pen Fig. The itself. will Fig. This clot or obstruction may be re- moved by touching refuses to start it the pen on the finger or slightly. an exercise and curved Draw the border 1 lines. and a vertical Evidently the front Tsquare w Tsquare for frianff/ej s/ipped info wet //he n nitwmii iiiiiiiiinin— iii^>i^w^ipn» r \ — — I — On the base line of is the one to make first. f^/7 s/opec/ — Windmill brake shoe. or sometimes on tracing paper. Remember as a fundamental rule that . and 41 the square and triangle.20 Inking.

CAST (RON ^ r n . 40. WINDMILL BKAhvL 5MUt. . I I —First stages in penciling.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE 21 r^Tf^N Fig. BLACK — Inked drawing. r ^ — LJ 1 rn rS r^ — 1 1 JOHN Fig. W. 41.

So far as its appearance is concerned. notes working drawing requires the addition on material and finish. ABCDEFGHIJKLMN —Upright single-stroke capitals. hold position shown in Fig. and usually all capitals. Single-stroke Vertical Caps. For large sizes in this style. Working drawings are lettered in a rapid only single-stroke style. 42. by continued and careful practice. ing. illegible figures are very apt to cause mistakes be acquired To practice this letter in the work. but that the width of the stroke of the pen is the width of the stem of the letter. but in usefulness by lettering done ignorantly or The upright single stroke ''commercial gothic" letter shown in Fig. 512 or Leonard's ball point No. — Position for as lettering. Lettering A of dimensions. only in appearance. and a title. either vertical or inclined. 43 and of guide lines . a comparatively coarse pen such as Hunt's No. there is no part of a drawing so important as the letter- pen. The term "singlestroke" or "one stroke" does not mean that the entire letter is made without lifting the OP0RSTUVWXYZ& 1234567890^ Fig. A good drawing may be ruined not carelessly.. uniform and capable of rapid execution. 516 F is used. draw a page the pen in The ability to letter well can ^{q" apart. 42 is one of the standard forms.22 circles AGRICULTURAL DRAWING and circle arcs are always inked before the straight lines are inked. Fig. 43. all of which must be lettered freehand in a style that is perfectly legible.

In connection with the inclined capitals. Letters should then be combined same way as explained but with the for vertical of into words. t^EERlS^S!t Fig. direction of strokes Single-stroke Inclined Caps.'M' i^ V W X V Z #0 Q CC30 UJP R e. draftsmen prefer inclined letters to They should be practiced EEE////\\\\O0 iH' L 'F C T N" N' ¥% M. showing strokes. 1.8. 44. 45 shows the alphabet with the order l234 66789Qi — Inclined single-stroke capitals. S . Have the areas of the white spaces triangle either at 60 degrees or at a slant of between letters approximately equal (thus two o's would be spaced much closer together than two n's). 2 O' € 9 '5 7 & Hill |i' I Fig. Keep words well separated. rules: addition slant Keep the direction lines drawn lightly in pencil with a ^XlW/' T? OP 2. remembering three general letters close together. 44. —Order and direction of strokes. and direction -of strokes indicated. mTTUi tMWSEXJ£^ Rfinhardf li —Single-stroke lower case. and watching the copy vertical letters. 3.THEORY AND TECHNIQUE practice 23 each letter a number of times. Single-stroke Inclined Lower Case. leaving a space between them at least equal to the height of the letters. 2 to Fig. a standard letter for notes known to engineers . in the letters. carefully. VWX YZ& 5. in order to keep the slant uniform. 46. 45. following the order and Many given in Fig. f^S tU' Fig.& 3.

cross The addition called of the practice should be in comlettering without the terminal strokes. When well executed. this letter adds much to the beauty of an architectural drawing and should be used for such work in preference to the other styles given. architectural As soon mastered. which is appropriate for ABCDEFGHIjFCLMN OP aP.STUVWXYZ&' 12345678901 Fig. in Fig. 46. and it will be noted that the shapes vary somewhat from the Gothic. requires a . shown in analyzed form shows a single stroke letter based on the Roman. and bills of material are somewhat little more time than the straight Gothic letters.24 as the Reinhardt letter. The body is and examples are drawings in shown in connection with the Chapters IV and V. Single-stroke Fig. the capitals. 47. —Single-stroke Old Roman. Never do any guide line letters. legible and effective style which can be made very rapidly after its swing has been mastered. as the letter forms have been all drawings. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING standardized in form. 47 letters are made It two-thirds the height of is Roman. position. serifs. having a for both tops and bottoms of the Do clined letters Titles not combine vertical letters and inon the same drawing. This a very simple. is much used.

into the drawing-ink bottle. use the dividers as reamers or pincers or picks. If too thick throw it away. oil the joints of compasses. Never scrub a drawing all over with the eraser after finishing. use the T-square as a hammer. take dimensions by setting the dividers on the scale. lay a weight on the T-square to hold it in position. leave the ink bottle uncorked. dilute ink with water. screw the nibs of the pen too tight. hold the pen over the drawing while filling. This applies with particular force to pens. Never fold a drawing or tracing. Never put instruments away without cleaning. draw with the lower edge of the T-square. use a blotter on inked lines. .THEORY AND TECHNIQUE A PAGE OF CAUTIONS ' 26 Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never Never less use the scale as a ruler. run backward over a line either with pencil or pen. cut paper with a knife and the edge of the T-square as a guide. put either end of a pencil in the mouth.) Never try to use the same thumb tack holes when putting paper down the second time. jab the dividers into the drawing board. It takes the life out of the inked lines. Never put a writing pen which has been used in ordinary writing ink. (Ink once frozen is worth- afterward.

be.. and no In such cases a view is drawn as if the object were sawed through and the front removed so as to expose the A view interior. 114 on page 60 illustrates an assembly drawing. as illustrated in Fig. giving the complete a technical description a structure or machine which has been designed for a certain purpose and place. The drawing will thus include." of all the information necessary for the complete construction of the object It is A detail drawing is a drawing of a separate piece or group of pieces. as explained II." and the surfaces of the materials thus cut are indicated by "section lining" or An assembly drawing or general 26 "cross-hatching" with diagonal lines. 48. (4) a descriptive material. and in some cases a bill of In architectural drawing the notes of explanation and information regarding details of materials and finish are often too extensive to be included on the drawings. (2) figured dimensions of all the parts. often Often exterior it is more. completely. Chapter Thus to represent an object rule Sectional Views. ing in orthographic projection. by dimensioning Fig. The basis of practically all working drawis Fig. and should convey clearly all description for the making of each piece. etc. so are written separately and are called the specifications. at least two views would be necessary. as its name implies. Two . known as a sectional view. 115. which gives represented. make many views as are necessary to describe the object. (1) the full graphic representation of the shape of every explicitly that and drawing. 48. not possible to show interior by dotted lines on the would more. or a Working drawings are divided drawings. and Fig. no further instruction to the builder would be required. These specifications have equal importance and weight with the drawings. finish. — Illustration of a section. as The general construction clearly view. of this kind is Classes of Working Drawings. (3) explanatory notes giving specifications in regard to material. part of the object. In a very simple case the assembly drawing the facts regarding it so may be made to serve also as the detail it fully. assembly drawings and detail "section. page 61 a detail drawing. title.CHAPTER III WORKING DRAWINGS The definition of a working drawing has drawing is. a drawing of already been stated as being "a drawing a structure or machine showing the relative positions of the different parts. into two general classes.

section. as in Fig. 116. A line is drawn (line 8 in the alphabet of on the adjacent view to show where the section is assumed to be cut. A B ". view is taken. Auxiliary Views. —Section of roller bearing. as " Section volved in place. bearings and bolts. and short arrows indicate the direction in which the lines) "Turned sections" are little or revolved sections sectional views if of a figure as drawn on some part they had been cut and re- FiG. 54. which may be thought of as simply a projection . MlZMii H Fig. amples are shown in Figs. all of which are drawn in full. 49 illustrates the method of showing a section containing shafts. (See Fig. They show the shape of the cross-section of the object at that place. and on a finished drawing are generally put in directly in ink without penciling. Fig.) Somedifferent times several sections through and are often used to good advantage. bolts. 27 Section lines are spaced by eye.. In a sectional view it is not necessary to cut through everything in the plane of the For example. show to better advantage if left in full. page 62. nuts. Ex- places are required to explain the construction fully. etc. it can be done to better advantage by making what is known as an auxiliary view. the other half in full. shafts. 49 and 50. 50. H//^ which saves space and is to show one-half a view in section and labor. This line is lettered on each end and the section is named to correspond. 2-/0 »^ — Revolved sections. A common practice. 49. Sometimes when it is necessary to show some feature on an inclined face of an object.WORKING DRAWINGS adjoining surfaces are sectioned in different directions.

On the usual triangular Use studied until it can be used with facility. 1-0^"— The scale and its divisions be a'-r^" . the numbers form there are eleven cluding the full different scales. 7 ^' 7 1_ f r ~r z. and the feet numbered th*e other way. 7F —Reading the architect's scale. —An auxiliary view. If the object is too large to be duawn half foot). looking straight against the inclined surface. % inch dicular to this center line from the inclined = = 1 foot. the dimensions are reduced proportionately by the use of the architect's scale. and also for half size (scale of 6 inches = 1 width of this auxiliary view would be the true width of the object. inches to the foot. 53 illustrates the scale in position for measuring should the length 7 feet 5 inches. twelve equal parts and each of these subdivided into eighths. 52. inch face. Notice that the divided foot has the zero it Fig. and therefore face. so that dimensions given in feet and inches may be measured directly. In representing objects which are larger than can be drawn full size. inch = 1 foot. Thus the width of the auxiliary view would be the same as the width of the top view of the object. and its length is of course shown in edge on the front view. ^g inch = 1'. 52. Evidently the as illustrated in Fig. with the inches running from one way. . 50. divided into inches and eighths of inches. then project the lengths across perpen- = 3-^ 1 foot. a top view is not needed. which is used both for full size. as illustrated in Fig.^^^^^^^^ £ f ^' "XT XT ^ y ^ ^^^. often called quarter parallel to the inclined a length of 3 inches on the drawing On this is equal to one foot on the object. scale of usual one for ordinary For very large buildings the % inch = 1 foot is used. scale the distance of 3 inches is divided into that is. and 1 inch is = foot. are and notice that while the foot marks numbered in both directions. size. On the other end of the 3 inch scale will be found the scale of 13^ Other scales used are 1 inches = 1 foot. /IIMI//II. This distance should be thought of not as 3 inches but as a foot.28 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING sixteenths. as indicated by "T^" on the figure. 3^:4 % 1 inch = 1 foot. as in the example given. 2'-0' (^^'^v^\^^:^^^^^\^\^^w^W^^^^^^\^^^^. by considering the divisions on the scale to have double values. The scale of 34 inch foot the house plans. the drawing is made to the scale of 3 size. although in many cases. of the Scale. Thus to draw an auxiliary view we would first draw a center line for it. See for example what fraction of an inch is represented by the smallest division on each scale. Fig.^^^^A^^' ^S^^ ^ Fig. in- for the smaller scale are always closer to the size scale of inches and edge than those for the larger one. 51. on the inside. not drawn. and would measure the width each way from the center line.

as shown in the Always give an require the figures. of a circle should be given. no matter what part of the sheet they are on. All dimensions must be done with careful thought of the purpose of the drawing. In general do not repeat dimensions on adjacent views. Where there are no inches it should be Fig. 5 in. 29 of lines. short extension lines being drawn from the object if the dimension line is on the outside. be and dimension lines drawn before any figures are Dimensions always indicate the finished size of the piece. General Rules for Dimensioning.WORKING DRAWINGS Dimensioning. Dimensions should generally be placed between views. the entire value of the drawing as a working drawing Ues in the This placing of the figured dimensioiiing. getting the figures necessary venient for and most conthe workman who is to work Fractions should be zontal line as 21". Never workman to add or subtract Dimensioning. After the correct representation of the object by its projections. . alphabet and the exact points between which the distance is measured are indicated by arrow heads on the ends of the line.) written 5'-0". Dimensions should read from the bottom and right side of the sheet. made with a hori- from it. The diameter not the radius. 53. Feet and inches are indicated thus 5'-6". the extension should added. — Measuring with scale (7 ft. over-all dimension. 5'-0>^". Dimension figures are placed in a space left in the dimension line. To make the best drawing the draftsman should be familiar with the various processes of construction and shop methods which enter into the building of the object represented.

checker. and First. date. taking the divisions through one at a time. initials or name man. In doing this the system below should be followed. material is too extensive to be put written separately. and Fourth. size and material of each piece. will including number. Sixth.. as a barn the bill of for example.i>:-"A-. see that stock sizes of materials drawing. see that all specifications for contents will vary according to the kind of material are correctly given. tracer. As each dimension is verified. 54. number wanted. see that each piece correctly illustrated. etc. check all dimensions by scaling. and also by calculation where necessary. so is dimension not agreeing with the scaled distance. In general it should contain the of name of the structure. and the method of showing dimensions in special cases. on the drawings. 54 should be observed carefully. line. should be heavily underscored as in Fig. Never put a dimension on a drawing. who it is is to put yourself in the place of the one work from the drawing. add any explanatory notes that ^increase the efficiency of the drawing. easy to read. Conventional Symbols signs the bill of material is a tabulated form on drawing giving the name. Fig. and see if is Do not he afraid to put notes on drawings. Various shown in Chapter IV.-. name manufacturer of draftstitles are or owner. put a check mark (s/) in pencil above it. Before being sent out for use. The In technical drawing there are certain l^d simplified outlines called "con- ventions" which are adopted and recognized .30 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Never use any center line as a dimension line of the Several examples are shown in Chapter IV. Fifth. in the lower right hand corner. —Symbols for materials in section. noting the shape of the arrow heads. surface is to be "finished" or machined. For a large structure. A The figure also illustrates the use of Checking. but be careful to word it so clearly that the meaning cannot possibly be misunderstood. scale. The boxed its title to a working drawing is usually Third. 55.>: WOOD ( c/r055 ^Ecr/on] LIQUID CONC/iCTE Fig. Supplement the graphic language by the English language whenever added information can be conveyed. the placing of the check mark. Second. a working drawing should be checked for errors and omissions. if possible by some one other than the man who made it. the symbol "f" to indicate that a metal CAST IRON (metal W e£N£/fAL) BABBITT (oa WHITE METAL) BRASS (or composition) CAST STEEL WROUGHT IRON •:v:. and drafting record have been used as far as possible.

S. the U. In specifying materials to it is much safer When specified. ROUND SECTION and giving the page 74. unless there is some special reason for their location or number. Fastenings. S. Fastenings are permanent.. easier to read however if generally recog- nized sections are used for the materials. Bolts and screws are used for fastening ANGLE IRON parts together. Standard. Among other forms are the sharp V. keys and pins. as bolts. page 48. 57. for these different purposes. 56 a number of conventional breaks and other symbols. Such be useful in agricultural in various places in drawing have been given this book. If. is The drawing Screw threads and gear wheels for example are not drawn in their actual outline but are shown conventionally. fastening either are indicated by conventional symbols. wood. and of these as may for topography. A long object of uniform section larger scale may be and thus to better advantage by drawing it as if a piece were broken out of the middle and the ends pushed up together. BEAM Bolts and Screws. Symbols used in building construction are shown in Fig. with the tip flattened and the root filled in. as rivets and nails. indicating the break by the symbols of Fig. . Fig. method of representing the ordinary types used. The usual form of screw thread is the U. Other conventions are used for electrical constructions. or removable. such as rivets. ROUND SECTION an example of this principle applied to the drawing of a building. etc. not otherwise is Fig. different There are many CHAIN ROPE OR CABLE Fig. screws. In drawing ordinary wooden structures the nails are not shown. wiring and apparatus.WORKING DRAWINGS as standing for materials or 31 commonly used than to depend on a symbol. for adjusting. is over-all dimension. a V thread at 60 degrees. Fig. necessity In every working drawing will occur the of representing the methods of WOOD I (square SECTION) parts together. and for trans- mitting power or motion. we should tional know the conven- — Conventional breaks and symbols. 96. In drawing.. and Fig. forms of bolts. for sections of concrete. the square thread and the buttress thread. 56. Other fastenings. 126. etc. add the name of the material as a note Standard always understood as required. and several different kinds of threads. 56 or by the "limiting break line" (line shown to 10 of the alphabet of lines). bolts. commoner 55 shows some of the conventional section lining symbols.

38 Fig. Sometimes it is necessary to draw a full sized pattern to which a piece of sheet metal may be cut. of the actual threads. i/. know the outside diameter. which differs slightly from the actual diameter.66 1. figuring sizes needed. which when rolled or formed up will There are adopted standards for standard hexagonal and square head bolts and nuts.53 .32 In ordinary drawing. lowing table gives these ABC Fig. Fig. make a required piece.06 1. the length (under the head) and amount of thread. but to look well they should somewhat approximate it. so that in drawing pipe we should SQUARE Fig.61 2.05 1. 58. given to show the proportions and method of drawing a hex.84 IM IK 2 2K 3 1. which usually exaggerated slightly in drawing. one face. or distance apart. and in a square head. one view only is necessary.10 .86 .35 4. Developed Surfaces.315 1.19 . Figs. spaced exactly to the pitch.38 1. 62 illustrates a number of common forms of screw fastenings.05 1. the Pipes. — Dimensioned The method bolt. and in —Some forms ec/TrPESS of threads.S. 59.675 .9 2. The operation In of laying out the pattern is from the drawing called the development of the surface.5 . It is not necessary to have the lines best. .30 . with the construction of the chamfer finish. 60 and 61 are full size Y^' bolts. 63. In drawing a hex.49 2. M % M K 1 . AGRICULTURAL DRAWING threads are not form but are indicated conFig.06 2.46 3.875 3. Pipe Sizes Nominal inside Actual outside Actual diameter diameter inside Internal diameter area —Conventional threads. 57. drawn in actual and the only dimensions required are the diameter.36 .82 1.62 . 58 shows several methods ventionally. is Pipe is designated by the nominal inside diameter.375 2. we should know the The folsizes. actual inside diameters or areas. Fig.03 3. head and a square head bolt and nut. To Dtaw a Bolt. of drawing the usual is fittings to different scales shown in Fig. 59. hence in drawing.78 7. STANDARD SHARP V Pipe threads are cut on a taper.54 . head three faces are shown. That shown in A is the simplest and used.49 .

61. OF BOLT. —Construction of square head bolt. S = li D *s' Fig. . —Construction of hexagonal head bolt. D = DMM. OF BOLT Fig.WORKING DRAWINGS 33 D= DIAM. 60.

the base on in it. as elements on the front view.^ ^^^^^^^. Cast Iron —Various bolts and screws. Fig. STUD @ Headless Button Head Pan 'Head RIVET DRIVE SCREW 1/ WOOD SCREWS ^ V Head Safety SET SCREWS iH f/Z/M KZ223 /y///l ryXy^ WAGON and the pattern 3 feel BOX BOLT Fig. Sq. Fig. Fig. In the development of must tical any object we and in pracapplications must allow for seams and first have its projections. 65. Project these points our limited space we can only suggest the fundamentals of this branch of working drawings. WASHERS Through these points draw front for a cone would be a sector." Divide the base into a number of equal parts. Draw the stretchout line with a radius equal to the To . Draw the stretchout line and step off the divisions of PLOW BOLT EYE BOLT Flot Round Fillister MACHINE SCREWS Round cocNMC =0 imiim> LAG SCREW ( Bent «««^=^) HANGER BOLT EXPANSION BOLT SCREW HOOKS ^^ i TURN BUCKLES ^ o CAP SCREW WINO NUT ^. 67. Fig. whose width would be the length of the cylinder and whose length would be equal to the circumference. develop a Truncated Cone. 66. 64. To The pattern for a cylinder would evidently be a rectangle. In rolling a cylinder out. lap.34 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING develop a Cylinder. 62. called the "stretchout line. Connect of the base. the base will develop into a straight line. with a radius equal to the slant height and an arc equal in length to the circumference the elements and project their lengths across order from the view. Divide the base as before. these points by a smooth curve.

69 With O'A' as a development of radius. finding the Since the edge EA is not shown in its true length on the front view. Fig. slant height of the completed cone. by swinging the top view of the line from OA to OA" on EA. struction with the seam at the corner EA. O'A'. and O'A' will be the pyramid To develop a Pyramid. Fig. —Pipe fittings.*^ surface of a square prism with a sloping top. true length of an element of this cone. The conis evident from the figure. To develop a Prism. then E'A. 65. apex O. Step off the divisions of the base on the stretchout line as shown and connect the two end points with the center 0' Then draw the arc for the small end with the radius . draw an arc as in the the cone and on this step off . (The may be imagined to be slipped inside of a cone having the same slant as the edges of the pyramid. 63. and projecting the point development of the A" down to A^ Fig. 68 illustrates the Project will E across to the line O'A'. be true length of the edge EA. it must be revolved about the axis of the pyramid until it is parallel to the vertical plane. O'B'.) shows the method of developing a truncated square pyramid with the seam Fig. 64. Complete the pyramid. as drawn in small scale and large scale.WORKING DRAWINGS 35 Fig.

67. —Development of a cylinder. — Development of a cone. 66. 1 li^^ U^^ Fig.36 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING -j/ ''r \ \ •^ \P^ 1 . / -2 Fig. .

68. 3 C of a prism.WORKING DRAWINGS GC 37 FB DC AB A Fig. . — Development of a pyramid. 69. — Development o - 1 \ / DC Fig.

ink center lines. third. fifth. Method of Working In making a working drawing. Make the working drawing words 2. after the scheming and inventing has been done in freehand sketches. observe the proportions and block dimension in principal parts of the outline. ink all circles. tracing cloth for blue printing. Working drawing of heavy clevis.. seventh. as for example. and making preliminings fourth. The bottom is rabbeted so as to be water tight." etc. Fig. Be particularly careful to follow the we were concerned with the often projections only. or preferably traced on line. in the case of a broken piece of machinery. of service. fourth. The procedure would be somewhat in the order indicated. Specify wrought iron or mild steel. mensions given. date and sign the sketch. fifth. the order of procedure in penciling should be about as follows: first. Fig. First. The commonest fault in sketching is the overlooking of some important dimension whose omission is discovered as soon as the working drawing to scale is started. lay out the check the drawing carefully. A two foot rule and calipers would be required for castings and small objects. and follow the method of ond. lines draw all and arrow-heads. PROBLEMS In application of the principles of this view and lay off the principal dimensions. working as outlined on the previous page. Connect the points ABCDA with O giving the folding edges. finish the projections. and a steel tape ting for larger structures. The drawmay be inked. it is rules for dimensioning. Some of di- the problems have complete data and Sketching from the Object. sec- chapter. Sometimes it requires considerable ingenuity to get accurate measurements. 72. always selecting as large a scale as possible. will not appear on the drawing. deciding upon extension and dimension title lines. (Of course the "hammer. dimensioned sketch from the object itself. Fig. vertical. of a box for fence repair kit. draw center lines for each A plumb line is often and other devices will suggest themselves as the occasion demands. First. . and title are to be drawn. title. inclined. third. draw the dimension lines. complete the projections. and the complete working drawings with all necessary dimensions. sixth.) sketch center lines. Find the development of the upper end by drawing an arc with the radius O'E'. ink notes. and put in the dimensions. 71. second. Order of Inking. selecting suitable scale. deciding upon the number and rangement of views. third. and the saw cuts are to hold cords for making divisions. plan ar- the sheet. others are intended to be designed by the student. study the object and determine the necessary views. Working drawing of sheep feeding rack. ink the straight lines in the order horizontal. to necessary make a Problems 1. section line cut surfaces sixth. selections from the following problems are to be made. measure the object and put the dimensions on the sketch.38 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING any figures in. Use a standard sized sheet (either 12" X 18" or 18" X 24"). box. fifth. from the sketch. seventh. check the tracing. 3. seventh. and border ary sketch plan for the sheet. the four edges of the base of the pyramid ABCD. check for errors and omissions. 70. notes. In our previous consideration of freehand sketching from pictorial views (page 9). 4. Fig. the views necessary. before put- Working drawing of germinating or corn testing from the sketch. then circle arcs. fourth. lay off the sheet with border line. and block out space for the title. ink the dimensions. . In connection with working drawings. second. sixth.

. 39 sills Decide length wanted and space six feet apart. FiG.— Clevis. Working drawing of gang mold for test pieces. Working drawing A wood brace may be substituted for the wrought iron brace. 70. 76. of sack holder. and the flaring boards prevent dirt from getting into the wool on the sheep's neck. —Sheep rack. This mold is for making standard 1^" X \yi" X 6" test specimens used in the rough determi8. not more than 5. Fig. 77.— Toolbox. alternate form Working drawing of sheep feeding rack using shown in Fig. 73. 6. 7. 71. Fig. 75.WORKING DRAWINGS 73. Working drawing of milk stool. Fig. 73. The hooks may be made of mortised finishing nails. Sat^ Cufs I 'Peep / MATERIAL Fig. 72. Fig. — Com tester. 74. This has larger capacity than Fig. Fig.

Fig. Fig. Working drawing of plank road drag. The bed pieces are hung to the rear axle by clip irons. Working drawing of low-down silo rack. f^ir^e appl-t. 9. 81. using auxiliary projection for nose.40 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING nation of the breaking strength of cement. with 1}4" hole and fastened with %" bolts. Fig. 82 (side view and auxiliary projection are the only views white: £:quai- AND HEPOS£:/V£ needed). the bed and reach have been removed. 14. 78 (the trough is cast inverted). 79. Detail such parts as are necessary for showing construction. 13. Fig. 10. using same dimensions as in Problem 10. Working drawing of split log drag.— Milk stool. Working drawing of forms for concrete hog trough. %" long. Fig. 75. Fig. - —Sheep rack.a Mixrupe op PAPrs bo/lco i. Working drawing of stone boat. Use conventional symbol in showing a chain 7 ft. The wrought iron end plates are }i" stock 80. Fig. 77. attached to hooks. 12. 74. —Gang mold. Working drawing of boot jack. ./f\/s£:£:o oJi. The rack is swung under the axles of a wagon from which -As'^ Fig. 11.

^f plaf-e Fig. . 79. —Form for concrete trough. —Road drag. 78.WORKING DRAWINGS 41 Fig.

42 15. and is and very efficient. completed This drawing may be in upright Gothic the lettering to be painted on the board. Fig. 30. Fig. 92. 82. e/ffcH BEECH Fig. right half of side view in section. two bed or body pieces are to be 2" X 8" hard pine sixteen feet long set on edge. Floor the whole with 1" material. Working drawing of farm gate of your own easily built design. including bill of material. Working drawing of grindstone and frame. making assembly and detail drawings. 27. Working drawing of view and section). 84 view and section). For securing the cross pieces to the bed. Working drawing of sheave. Working drawing road. fly AGRICULTURAL DRAWING wheel. 87. Fig. —Stone boat. board. dimension of of pipe. of fly trap. 90. Develop patterns for sheet metal hopper. 89. 91. 16. Fig. Develop patterns for three piece elbow. Fig. Fig. use clip irons as shown in Fig. The 31. page 8L 22. Develop pattern for hexagonal lamp shade.—Boot 86. (front 17. 94. Develop pattern for funnel. 21. 93. This the Rochester cold box. by adding forming them up and pasting. or community Fig. Working drawing of farm gate. Fig.—Silo rack. Fig. Make a working drawing of a hay rack. see 28. Fig. 83 (front 19. allowance must be made for lap. 85 (for table of pipe sizes). Fig. Fig. 94. Suggestions of different forms may be had from Fig. 95. 29. Fig. 80. Fig. 95. Working drawing is design 20. Show 23. 24. called of ice box. gas engine. 26. Fig. or eight feet for wide rack. The bait holders d are can lids. 88. 18. Fig. If this is done. Across these place on edge five 2" X 6" pieces seven feet long for narrow rack. Models may be made of problems 26 to 30 by cutting the patterns out of paper and rolling or Fig. Working drawing Working drawing of cattle breeding crate. Length may be varied if desired. Working drawing of flanged roller. 20 {M and . Develop pattern for conical reflector. 81. 133. jack. Working drawing of home made muffler for 25. bulletin fully letters.

— Muffler. To these fasten three fence boards lengthwise and spaced evenly up and down. side. erect 2" X 4" pieces thirty-eight to 34. 84. Fig. Design a basket rack. The bed pieces should be placed so as overhang the front bolster eighteen inches. 43 N) page to forty-two inches long at each end of every crosspiece. securing them with bolts or irons. 85. . On the end standards nail similar boards and secure the comers with large hasps and staples.WORKING DRAWINGS 12. 83. 7 Sfonc/ard Fyange for f^/'pe 3 "s^ondore^ /tupe Fig. 31. will be required. Fig. On the hay rack described in Prob. and flare back to full width. posts to be reinforced with four J^" rods. and should be twenty-four inches apart in front to allow a wide turning radius for the front wheels. A simple basket rack 32. —Flanged roller.— Flywheel. Working drawing of gang mold for fence posts seven feet long with 4X4 top and 4X6 bottom. Rods not to be closer than 1" to outside. at the The front should be provided with a rear bolster. The post to be reinforced by four %" rods wired at each foot 33. forty-two inches. may be made as follows. Make 12" X A standard. for false bolster to prevent shifting from side to of a working drawing of a gate post mold 12" X S'-O" concrete post. made 2" X 4" pieces six feet long of length.

1 Legs pes.0" X 12 X 8'. Cross Boards. one to horse stable. 38. —Ice box." pipe. c»csrNur fiOL£ J'-O'OECP £NDS AND BOTTOM OF INSIDE Of WOOO£N BOX LINCD WITH 'WIRE FLY SCHEEN.2" Wood vise screw 8" from top.ON6 IS^'tvlOE IS '0££P PACI^ED TIGHT IVITH FINE WOOD SM/m/NGS. pes. hinged lid should be provided. 86.44 36. <^j SPACe AROUAID ZINC TO BE FIU. using 34" X 52" sash. from the well to a tank in the barn yard.2" X 4X2'. ZINC TANK £3"i. 1 pes. flange. Note on drawing and IX make list of all necessary fittings. Fig. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Design a work bench 34" high. A sloping. and off this line three outlets. one to hog house and one to dairy house. tee. 2 2 4 4 pes. that to tank 2"." pipe and the following fittings: cross. 36. 90° ell. —use \}4. 87. Design a layout of the water piping for a Design a cold frame.£D AND Wl^r. 1 X 14 X 8'. Design a suitable wood box for firewood. —Farm gate. Design a pipe railing for the approach to a bank barn 37.9" farm where the water is piped from a well to a sink in the kitchen. The house supply pipe is 1".0" X 12 X 2'. TANKi "<.— Bulletin board. . 4X2'. 2 Cross Ties 2 pes. 3 - -* Fig. 39. 88. Fig. all others }4. Box to be of neat design to match woodwork in kitchen. i \ /rtf WHITC fWCMATCHCD AND OHESSED /"fAMTEPIAL 4t4fVST or LOCUST Oft SIDES. using the following material Top Aprons .

Leff -i t^ C/fANK. 90. Drill A ji?/? ^ Fig.—Sheave. SH/iFr. /. B£ARING. —Cattle breeding crate.STElCL —Grindstone frame details. Fig.WORKING DRAWINGS 45 " /. 89. C.W:/. '§' Fig. . 91.

page be cut trap nest illustrated in Fig. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Design and draw a trap nest. —Funnel and hopper. 92. Design and make working drawing of a tool made from Figs. and may be suggested by other illustrations throughout the book. 41. chest. r^H k Fig. — a" - »[ —Reflector and lamp shade. 3 ft. is The Connect!page 2. Fig. Fig. —Homemade fly trap. Additional working drawing problems may Fig.46 40. with wringer board in the middle. 42. — Three-piece elbow. 110. 180. long. should be at least 12" square in the clear. 2. 160 to 181 in Chapter VI. 95. . Design a wash bench 16" high. The two till chest shown in Fig. 94. Nest may serve for suggestion. 93.

In structural drawing we need to know the conventional symbols for doors.. Fig. properly be included any structural work for made up is confining. gates. which are usugrouped on separate sheets. etc. structures. of working drawings. The drawing structures must be done to such small scale that the details of these parts can not be a dairy barn. The plan of a building if is really a horizontal section as the building were cut The actual execution of these structural 47 through at the height of the windows and the top lifted off. simply suiting form to function. or materials. course machinery. a manure pit and a silo would add to the eflEiciency of and different parts. called while enclosing and and a knowledge used in a facility in the use of the scale of the conventional symbols representing different covering structures would include houses. as well as the symbols for sections of different materials. It gives him the power to plan for improvements. and of dwellings. Their construction is shown by detail ally drawings to larger scale. Plans. This cutting plane may be . After one familiar with the instruments animals. Training in this systematic process of reasoning. and making it to such form it will serve its full purpose to the best advantage possible. front view and side view. to estimate costs. In this chapter we are to consider the methods of designing and drawing these Designing is shown but are only indicated by standard signs. lar value to the farmer. and examples used in working drawings were illustrated. materials of larger and sheds. and to read intelligently plans presented to him'. and in the ability to think on paper is of particu- that Symbols. whose application will be needed in reading the drawings following.CHAPTER IV FARM STRUCTURES Under the head built of farm structures would enclosing or covering drawings are is comparatively simple. side or end elevation are used instead of top view. structures.. etc. windows. together with any building work which would improve them or make them more efficient. the drawing of it is the application of the principles of the language which we have been studying. After the general design has been thought out. and the theory that tures is is including Thus would be fences. and in drawing the problems given. and be practical and economical both in construction and operation. As mentioned in Chapter II the terms plan and front. following mentally in detail through the operations which will be performed in it. as they principally of straight lines. On page 30 the use of conventional symbols was explained. 96 gives a number of these symbols. confining barns. all needed in making drawings of struc- paddocks. for example. ture Thus in the design of any strucwe must first consider the reasons all and uses for it. pens.

Numeral in center indicates number of Standard 16 C P Incandescent Lamps DOUBLE HUN6 FRAME LI -CZD WINDOWJ Fig. -A--/yv— BR. 6a3 Only Ceiling Outlet Drop Cord Oi/flef. Electric only Numeraf in center irTdicafes number of Standard ISCf Incondascsnf Lamps indlcofs Brocket Outlet : Combination 4-/6 C P Sfonc/and Incandescent Lc?/7tps crnc^ <? g Oi7S Lam/:fs.•: . p! Tafephona Outlet —Architectural symbols.•:. Ceiling Outlet. BracAef Ot/tlef: Oas only ROLLING BAiUi DOOR— PL/MMK. •^^:v--f .IMJECT OM -V V nn-^ I II II FIMIJHED LUMBER. Combination 4-16 CP Standard Incondrxarit f indicafra Lamps crnd 2 Gos Lamps..1CIC IN ELEVATIOIi. J riQ Bell Outlet. .:^: ELEVATION. •A'" — IN " -^^^-Mr •• ' •'• • • •• • • 'V FRAME WALL JECTION CEMEMT AND PLA5TERw IN JECTION TERRACOTTA WALL IN JECTION ^ A 4 ^ EARTH IN JECTION COnCRETE IN JECTION JTAOEJ IN DUAWING CONCRETE JYMBOU Ceiling Outlet. 96. .m-.ICIC1N -j..«.48 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING RJL/BBLE JTONE IM JECTION CUT JTONE IM JECTION CUT JTONE IN ELEVATION ^Mummnnm — ROUGH LUMBER. IN JECTION ? Ly ::.-T ^ .IN JECTION /y>. Large 5cale. 5mall Scale BRICK. F/oor Outlet . Electric only Numeraf in center indicates number of Standard 16 Cf /rKondescsnt Lamps. Bracket Outlet. WOOD IN ELEVATION ^ =? ^ ^ BR.

97. using single lines for the walls. Plans of houses and larger buildings are usually drawn to the scale of ]/i" = 1 ft. heights and these points to then through a high window. dimensions and notes are most important. windows from the floor. in order to determine the best advantage. and all the views projected across is the elevation. . In drawing an elevation. Thus dimensions should always be given to and from accessible points so that they may be laid off accurately and without computation. to aid in getting correct pro- merous examples of vertical sections given in this chapter. This cornice wall section often left on the finished heights. etc. Drawings of smaller structures may be made to 3^^" or even \" scale. illustrated in Fig.). The terms "longi- tudinal section" and "transverse" or "cross section" are sometimes used to indicate that the section is taken lengthwise or drawing should be finished in ink until all the sheets are complete in pencil. before a scale drawing Cross section paper is often used is started. portions. etc. — Pictorial illustration of a "plan. heights of 97 where it passes through the fireplace. a Dimensions. as often a change on one view will necessitate changing several others. An elevation is a front or side view of a of of building. in sketching. to show and construction. Vertical sections are often necessary to shown on one sheet. Sections. Nuare and scheming should be done with the aid rough freehand sketches. Fig. As in other working drawings." In planning a of new building the thinking stairways. The rules for dimensioning given on page 29 should be applied. glass sizes.. and the needs of the builder always kept in mind. show interior construction. (sometimes written I" = 4 ft. trusses and other details.FARM STRUCTURES assumed to vary in height at different points show the parts of the plan to the This is 49 always first ''wall section" should off be laid in order to at one side. drawing. and is of use in indicating the location windows and doors. Elevations. No crosswise. cornice lines. and generally one view only is placed on a sheet. such as framing. heights floors. of floors. showing the exterior appearance.

representing modern practice in design and construction. 117 and different methods of The braced frame is 127. Dimensions for building work should be given in even feet and inches. is given of the kinds of on page 113. and the "balloon frame" in Figs. as an example to be followed. and estimate. of construction. mercially. In the plan of this chapter. will be followed by a dis- and illustration of each of several farm structures. sufficient length is readily is adapted purchased or tures are at present built of wood. if necessary supplemented by ing. 114. as they may be necessary in details. Often they are not at all Infamiliar with plank frame construction. Wood Construction. will be of use in these computations. due to . and soft wood from cone-bearing trees. By far the greatest number wood used its is of farm struc- The timber frame is the older type and is very substantial and reliable. framing are illustrated. the pin-joint be made in the problems given at the end of the chapter. such as barn framthere are two general systems. Some tables of commercial sizes for reference will be found on page 112. The application cussion typical of the principles explained is to timbers must be given in order that the quantities may be taken off. Fig. selected must be wood The Commercial and stock sizes should be used as far as possible on account of economy. and details. shown in the horse barn. their wood used for differsomewhat in the order of desirability and availability.50 AGRICXJLTURAL DRAWING the available or stress. hard wood being from deciduous trees. made of heavy and the plank frame. "Wood is classified in wood and Regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems. the plank truss in Fig. In large construction. is leading to the use of southern and western lumber. except wood If best suited to the par- ticular purpose. timbers. It is used in localities where large squared timber of good quality and available. a short discussion of different building materials and their uses. 116. the first one giving complete plans. Many will it is variations of the problems as stated. frame. workmeil through the country are more famiUar with timber framing. A ent list a stock size while the former purposes. and the ''plank truss" or the "balloon frame. The kinds of joints intended must be shown. and to prevent the cutting up of special timbers in places where shorter lengths have been designed. largely The but from local timber. these hoped that the varied selection of examples and the description of requirements and present practice will enable him to adapt the principles and make dependable working drawings of any ordinary structure needed. The sizes and lengths of and of general methods of pre- paring drawings. avoiding fractions of inches as far as possible. either in the form of braced. made up of two inch planking. and specify on the drawing. has to be cut to order. specifications. In making a drawing for a framed structure it is necessary to show clearly the method Plan of the Chapter. The designer will select. The plank frame is gradual diminution in many sections." In the structures which follow. suggest themselves to the student. a piece of glass 1" X 10" costs more than one 8" X 10" because the latter is table of comparative strength of timbers and the loads they will carry given on page 114. bill of material. a general way comsoft wood. used for carrying load the sizes needed in the figured for safe load. For example. stances of collapse are numerous. as hard to sections where timber must be hauled long distances.

CURB ROOF MAN5AR. possible to get barn). SAnBREL OR. 99. regarding plank frame requirements. 98. A greater advantage in cost is in mow practically free from obstruction with . that it is constructed at some saving in timber (perhaps 10% of complete cost of space partially free from timbers in it is pin-joint construction. —Joints and framing BROK. The advantages of the plank frame are While it is comparatively simple to obtain FishFlaf-e Splice Gained Joint Halved Joint Fig.OOF — Forms of mow a roofs. Also fewer men are required for raising. Balloon FnnvePlale details.Ef1 GABLE ROOF Fig.D R.FARM STRUCTURES faulty 51 workmanship and lack of information the time saved in cutting out and erection.

102. thus of the ridge is one-half the the plank frame. when the height span the slope. evidently 45°. lOL —Fire-stopping and rat-proofing. joints and details of construction used in — Detail of frame construction. 100 is parative gable roof as usually spoken the ratio roof of the- same span. or slope of. and a gambrel (or curb) Fig. is called "one-half pitch. 99 shows some. or the seh'-supporting roof of the balloon frame. Fig. framing are illustrated in Fig. —Comparative diagram of roof shapes. 98. is of a a diagram showing the commow capacity of a 3^ pitch and 3^ pitch gable roof. Fig. The pitch. In deciding upon the kind of framing to be used these advantages and disadvantages must be weighed and local conditions taken into account. 100. of the 'different forms of roofs used. . In smaller structures the stresses from loads factor.52 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING of the rise to the span." Roof Sheafhin^- Fig. and wind pressure are not so large a and the framing becomes a much simpler problem ttian that of the barn. A few examples of the more common Fig.

particularly so in granaries and residences. sills. by siding or weather-boarding. . tvie/th shoirn. put in by pouring or tamping into pre- viously prepared forms or molds. the student should learn the builder's names of the various pieces used in building. storwill storage in damp studs. plates and injure the best of cements. and with good design and careful supervision makes a most desirable and Concrete is easily erected structure. The growing scarcity of timber and the increasing demand for fireproof and sanitary coarse particles. A>W Cribbing Portland cement as manufactured by the is a reliable material. If not already familiar with them. not easily crushed with the The frame of a wooden structure is enclosed by covering it in various ways. and gravel or crushed stone place in proportions to suit various classes of work. 104. P Ship Lap F/at Battmns leading companies. 101 illustrates details of fire-stopping 53 is structures occasioning a steadily increasing It is and rat proofing. tures every shipment age. rafters. Concrete. although a small percentage In general it should of clay is not injurious. Fbi^rTypas'Orop Skiing Berti Siding. 1 Clinton Wine Clofh Reinforcemei WThis cfimension is goverrjed ty I This tank has a capacity of 2 barrels in lengthi^ foreact^ foot ntien maite the ^ y). to examine all it to be sure that no 102 and 115 and are used throughout the chapter. be rather coarse. S/foOid/hd Reinforcement - 1 toj^ ll Mortarr. Poor places. girders. ribbons.FARM STRUCTURES Fig. Different forms weather boarding are shown in Fig. 103. Sand should be free from vegetable and earthy matter. that is tested. a material practically indestructible. which are important considerations in plank frame construction. 103. as joists. It is it sand. — Forms of siding. — Concrete water tank. use of concrete as a building material. should be fairly clean and varied in . i^'DraJn^Tile ''•:i^C-'-' '"'"- ^Cinder or 6rafe/ Fill Tamp lYe// Fig. It is thus well These names are given on Figs. of fingers. present. Imdfr Fi//-S" the character of the soil. or a mixture of fine and Gravel and crushed stone size. although for important engineering strucis Fig. If lumpy cement lumps are must be used. throw out lumps. made by mixing cement.

concrete structures are somewhat kind. being unsupported pressures.54 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING concrete is When used in beams. In the last few years there has been a great advance made in the quality and texture. —American bond. and second the construction of the forms. and also the amounts of cement. This latter is often a separate problem as the forms must be designed so as to be set up practically and economically. Notice the use of 106. of face brick is Fig.'f^*fc. The symbols for brick in section and elevation . first. of The advice a competent engineer should be sought such structures. and there ing brick structures there are several points more beautiful brick work now being than ever before. oldest One of the known building ma- terials. kinds available in his section.->»?r^a'U^>. or appearance. built the smooth pressed brick formerly used for fine with which he should be familiar. great variety of surfaces Two in distinct things must be considered structures.-ii-/. each cubic yard. Concrete is an excellent material when properly used. or walls sustaining replaced by rougher texture face bricks of a has to be reinforced with steel or iron rods. but more extensively in sections where brick works are located. work has gone entirely out of vogue. giving effects. tall posts. as the cost of transportation greatly increases the ex- pense of the material. but the large number of failures recorded shows that one can not be too careful in mixing and for applying it. will inform himself in regard to the lowing Brick. figures.—English bond. sand and stone in •^^p:*^ »teMt '^^a^i l^^^S iS-ir^SSSfFVFSSW s<i«WJ«33yKSW<%i5 t>-te>ti'. it floor slabs.. 107. Fig.Sii/»V*a'K .«Sfet5!fAlRa*. brick has had and will continue to maintain a preeminent place for durability and beauty. the symbol for concrete in this and the fol- brick. drawing concrete the much more artistic and The prospective builder beautiful expecting to use representation of the structure itself.Sw »S'. 104 an example. wires or wire netting. and the prices In drawof common brick and face brick.— Flemish bond. It is used throughout the entire country. The table given on page 115 will serve as a guide as to the proportions to be used in the various forms of construction. 105. and be strong enough to support the weight of the conThus the drawings for crete until it sets. different from those of any other The section of a water tank is shown in Fig.*^>'«'.Ai?":>J?V^"'iV '¥j&tfS^s45£*i£?5?'i»^l>^ ri^^^^«'<yJi&^3S^^fiS^ S. and colors.^S Fig. Incidentally.

107 and Dutch bond. 9" wall Stone sills and caps are in general use. 106. 109. common in or Stucco.— Dutch bond. and Fig. Stone is not so generally common as a wall building material. 96. — Stucco on hollow tile. Stucco is a mixture of cement and sand with a little lime. Where brick to heat necessary. fire should be used. 105. —Random and coursed rubble. Fig. applied as plaster to the exterior of a building and finished either . Stone walls are from 16" to 24" in thickness. 109 illustrates different forms of laying up. an average size is 23^^ X 4 X 8. 108. and even for foundations it is being largely replaced by concrete. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 96 shows the symbols used for stone in section and elevation. and should be dimensioned to come out and 13" wall. Fig. vary considerably in different locaUties and for different kinds. or as they are usually termed. Sometimes it is used for picturesque effect. 108. For careful designing he should pleasing variations from the American These form bond but cost a resistance little more is for laying. Brick walls are drawn 8" and 12" thick. Face brick are laid usually in even with the brick courses. English bond. forms are Flemish bond. American bond. field stones often being used for the purpose. as Other illustrated Fig. Stone. 110.FARM STRUCTURES are 55 shown in Fig. The sizes of brick English cross bond. Fig. or as it is sometimes called. except in certain comparatively small sections where local stone is plentiful. know accurately the size of brick to be used.

is made of galvanized coming into general use. It is easily applied and the better grades are very Roofing buildings. The lighting should be well distributed. The location must be well drained. The barn has come to be a clean. adheres perfectly if properly Make detail drawings of such parts as require applied. To illustrate these steps. It has the advantage of being cheap and easily put on. roof They are made various color redwood and cedar. Slate makes a desirable roofing material. sec- tional view of hollow tile construction (from the National Fireproofing Company) is shown in Fig. objections may be overcome by making the floors with sand or float finish. plans. as it and best In preparing plans for any building the will go through the following operations: (1 ) Make preliminary sketches Carry through the general drawings. oftener someon metal Preparing Plans designer on hollow tile. It comes in lengths 6. or if so situated as to make good drainage possible. non-absorbent Concrete fills this requirement. wood of all lath. (4) Take off the quantities required of material and tabulate in a bill of material.56 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING It is smooth or oftener " rough-cast. but would not be used on residences on account of its appearance and its heat absorption. It is heavier than shingles. It makes a dry wall. Dairy Barn With the authorities. the design of a dairy barn. Wood than shingles are more commonly used covering. additional explanation. and requires sheathing and paper under it. Composition roofing of various kinds and trade names is very common. and effects may be obtained by the milk regulated by health and the successful attempt to stop filth at the source. sale of Roofing Materials. the present-day dairy use of shingle stains. commencing on page 57. and the framing should be built to suit. (2) elevations (3) and sections. is somewhat greater than tile is for shingle at the south or east. Old brick buildings are sometimes resurfaced by adding a coat of stucco. well lighted and well ventilated structure. 8. Provision must be made for the removal of manure at least once daily. and by flooring the stalls with cork brick or creosoted in wood blocks. and It used principally for large heavier per square than slate." times put on lath. Various colors and grades are on the market. or by using a plank overlay them over the concrete. A (6) Write specifications. any other of cypress. 110. As a building material it is becoming increasingly popular on account of its appearance and durability. The barn should be faced the yard is possible so that cost roof. Galvanized iron roofing. 10 and 12 feet. but better if placed 100 feet away. is light. Ample storage for feed should be provided. including drawings. but is objected to by some persons. costs more. Estimate the cost. or steel bedding must not be overlooked. is durable. least 4 feet of glass provided for and at each animal. hence the roof must be framed to carry it. fireproof each and easily constructed. to a pit required to be at least 50 feet from the barn. There should be at least 500 . material. The floors should be of Some water tight. and will serve as a guide for other buildings. specifications and bill of material has been carried through. The. (5) Hollow tile with stucco finish is undoubtedly one of the coming building materials.

^2*8 Fig. 4'-6" long. Hog barn.FARM STRUCTURES cubic feet of space allowed for each animal to prevent dust. the floor must be tightly ceiled may be Small cows require stall space 3 ft. Where hay or straw is to be stored above the stable. the following data . —Preliminary sketch used. of dairy barn. large cows from 3'-6" to 4'-0" stall width and 5'-0" to 5-6" in length. In planning. in addition flue ventilation should and seed from sifting houses or chicken houses must not be located within 100 feet of the through. 111. Flues with a cross sectional area of less than 200 square inches are not very efficient. wide. dirt 57 and be installed of such capacity that each animal will have 25 square inches of flue area.

58 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING > < -9 V\ -r- '=ic:fH-r!!n |0 tu — UJ>- <n O 0! Z I- a" :z O w .

FARM STRUCTURES 59 .

60 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING .

FARM STRUCTURES 61 .

which may be obtained from the State Dairy and Food Commissioner. a complete set of drawings for a dairy barn of modern design to accommodate 24 Holstein cows following specifications for the dairy barn illustrated may serve as an example of the general form used for such structures. Fig. plank truss frame is usually called the "Shawver barn. Specifications for Dairy Barn. Beginning with Fig. of grain or other concentrates. and 2 tons of straw bedding. usually about of construction. Feeding alleys should not be less than 3 Litter alleys should have a feet wide. minimum width of 4 feet. 115 is a sheet of details showing floor construction Architect. . average gutter 115. All materials shall be of best grade and no substitutions shall be allowed in place of material hereinafter specified.62 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING and manger construction. Fig. but in In figuring storage space. window detail and framing joints. specifications always contain first. occupied by various materials given in covering of all the Chapter VII. illustrates the Mangers may be from 2'-6" to 3'-0" wide. 1" in 10 feet will be sufficient for the flow of the gutter. P. and Fig. Architects' forms for residences and public and providing for bull. The general specific condition clause is followed in by the clauses for the different classes of work and material. George W. calves. Jones. Data regarding the space is such a structure as a barn or residence. buildings are much longer. except on written order of the . Accompanying taining the drawings for any shown in detail in Fig. Ohio. Smith. Ill illustrating the preliminary freehand sketch. Different states have similar score cards. Fig. they should be typewritten. Specifications of materials and workmanship required for the erection and completion of a frame dairy barn for Mr. work and forming part This clause the contract. have been estimated for a year's and hospital and hay capacity feed. itemized statement rethe materials Floors and stalls should slope toward the garding structure and methods of A slope of gutter from 3^^" to 3^^" per foot. 112 is the plan of this barn. incidentally. 113 the side elevation. particularly in the general condition clause. its mean- be used in checking up a set of plans. construction required. 114 the end elevation and sections. Shawver. Gutters may range from 12" to 22" in width An and vary from 5" to 16" in depth. This may carefully so that in case of dispute. Silos cases." as it was first developed by Mr. is shown. Specifications. After the introductory head. A careful study of the dairy score card is should therefore be worded given on page 116 advised. General. 2 tons of hay. what is known as the general condition clause. order of their occurrence in the progress The Plans for a Dairy Bam. ing can not be questioned. John L. structure should be the specifications. under a separate cover and the different items grouped under appropriate headings. but sufficient for full explanation of the requirements. or in scoring an existing barn to see if it conforms to the requirements. These are short and concise. and this increased to 8 feet if a spreader is to be driven through. calculate on the average basis that each animal will require the following amounts per feeding season: 4 tons of ensilage. is advantageous use of pictorial drawing for details of construction. 1000 lbs. This sheet. Jefferson Thos. County. it is In a very simple possible to include all of this information as notes on the drawing. showing that the The is the plank truss type. con- a definite.

y-p960 ft. long leaf yellow pine free from shakes and winds. possible weighing 40 lbs. 1 hemlock laid close and covered with good quality tarred roofing felt. Any changes from the drawings or specifications. B.2X6 . shall be one course work with 1 part cement. Superstructure. gutters and other concrete work not •included in piers. ypor oak.384 linear ft. fir or local wood) laid tightly in painted joints. and set in place by the contractor.M. 2 parts sand and 4 parts stone. All timber shall be well seasoned. in squares (100 sq. All trim and finishing lumber to be clear white pine. = X 12 . 2 parts sand and 3 parts stone. spouting and flashing shall be No.8 X 8 X 4'-0" = 640 ft. All exterior wood work shall be primed with pure boiled linseed oil and best quality white lead. must at the discretion of the architect. shall clean sand. Tile drains shall be laid as directed by the architect. All hardware and stable fittings to be furnished by the owner. Bill of Sill The mixture must be wet enough to fill all forms and trenches and always show a film of water after reasonable tamping.M. 2 Timber. stable fittings. Material Posts 2X8 12 24 12 Main Brace . per square. 1 part Portland cement. 1 grade of (black Bangor) slate. B. 2 Purlin Braces. all expense attached for such work and materials to be borne by the contractor. Forms for work above grade must be of dressed lumber and leave the walls smooth. than 25 times after the addition of water. 2 forms shall be water-tight and made of material strong enough to prevent bulging. painted with two coats red lead and linseed oil paint. excavation in cubic yards. for all piers The proportions be as follows. 2 X Purlin Support 2 Short Brace . Gutters. and in tongue and grooved flooring and ceiling }4 more than the total should be added. All cement. Materials.. All concrete shall be placed within 20 minutes after mixing.480 linear ft. and crushed stone ranging in size from 3^" to 13^". The excavation shall be made according to lines and levels set by the architect. Collar Beams. or any extras. 6 Trusses Size No. A batch mixer must be used and each batch turned not less ware. Bill of Material A complete bill of all the materials re- quired in the construction would be needed The laying of such tile is to be paid for by the owner at a rate not to exceed 30 cents for each lineal rod. Roof sheathing to be No. lumber in board measure. All concrete shall be composed of Portland cement. linseed oil Two additional coats of pure premises within 24 hours after notification. B.. X 10 . are to be agreed upon in writing before being made. and paint. foundation and walls. and walls below grade. 5'-0" and 3'-2") Foot pieces (Foundation Ribbon) & 2X8 X 6 Purlin Strut. Slate shall be No. and all trenches dressed smooth. All framing lumber shall be clear grade. Length Ft. tongue and grooved yellow pine (hemlock.. and estimating. and reduced to cubic yards.M. and pure white lead paint shall be applied as soon as consistent with good results. roofing felt ft. All floors. yp86 ft. mangers. B. Concrete piers and walls are figured for their cubic contents.FARM STRUCTURES All work must be done in manner by skilled workmen. Retempering of concrete will not be permitted. = . slate. Concrete for ordering floors are estimated in square feet (or square yards). sand and stone will be inspected and approved by the architect. All Girders 2 Posts .. Lumber should be figured in length to the nearest even foot over. Mow flooring. Work not done according to the manner specifically stated..) and hardfrom dealers' prices obtained. and tamped free from voids. Siding shall be clear cypress (red cedar. be taken out and properly constructed.M.4 . ' Concrete. .2X6 36 24 22 31 6'-0" 4'-0" 8'-0" 6'-0" 288 72 176 186 y-py-p- ypyp. All rejected material must be removed from the 63 owner and the best architect.. . 24 gauge galvanized iron. Excavation. redwood or white pine). tile being furnished by the owner. etc. X X 10 8 24 12 18'-0" 28'-0" 28'-0" 14'-0" 576 yp672 yp1120 y-p224 yp- (cut into 4'-4".. The bill of lumber of the superstructure of the dairy barn is here given as a guide.

$4200. . 10" X 12".. a removable plank overlay is used in stalls in connection with the concrete floor. 8 Light check rail windows.M." on page 119. Five feet is comfortable Double stalls are usually for a heavy horse. B. 1X6 The side toward — T.M. barn sash 10" X 12" for gable. X 4 T. Ribbon Joists Joists at truss 2X6 2X6 2X8 2X6 2 1 68 4 6 10 118 18 12'-0" 14'-0" X X 10 3 2X8 12'-0" 12'-0" 12'-0" 12'-0" 432' lineal Bridging Rafters (short) (long) 816 56 96 120 2360 288 108 ypy-p. • Windows frames complete for 10" X 12". Box stalls range in size from 8 X 10 to 10 X 12 feet.p. and ample storage for ypypyp. being water proof and resiUent. (above plate) end The Horse Barn 2X6 . may be back from the manure spreader stall is comfortably. Braces. y. B. 16'-0" 800 ft.. The litter alley should be at least three should be at least The estimated silos cost of this barn. The essentials for a good horse barn are. better height. 975 ft. plenty of light. as an average estimate. barn sash 10 X 12 complete with frames 24 lineal ft. but the initial cost is high (about $55. feet. C. 14 check rail windows 8 Lt. "yP^"'" linft. One thousand dollars. to prevent injury to the knees. 2 X 6 28 14'-0" 14'-0" 112 392 y. added for these items. good drainage in all directions. The floor may be of plank. track and hangers for gable doors. Girts (Nail) . cypress 10" random The ceiling should be at least eight feet high in the clear. Ceiling 2400 sq.p. ft. ft. An average manger is two feet wide and three feet six inches high.. to allow a medium horse to If and feed room. Feed Estimate. but concrete has proven to be satisfactory and sanitary. ^^?^ Intermediate Posts Posts Inter. 4 double as per details on Sheet 4. superficial area. 4-4 Lt. convenience of location. convenient interior arrangement. 18'-0" 3800 ft. without is four feet wide. if used. . six Roof Sheathing—3840 length. concrete or cork brick. B. B. f 1 X 12 | j >< 12 X X 12'-0" 42 504 y. ypy-p- hay and walls grain. tamped clay. alleys. crete foundation. usually however. eight feet will be necessary.p. 1 the animal should slope inward from four inches to six inches.p.M. 2X6 2X8 2X4 4X6 2X8 2 62 62 12'-0" 16'-0" 744 yp1224 yp112 Lookouts filler & 166'-0" lineal yp- Hay Plate Pole 1 Purlin X X 10 20 20 10 < 2X4 6 16'-0" 12'-0" 12'-0" 12'-0" 32 yp320 yp400 y-p80 y-p- Studs (short at lower floor). feet wide.M. 400 lineal feet white pine trim. 10-6 Lt.64 Size AGRICULTURAL DRAWING No.I. 1" X Slate— 16" X 10" 39 squares. Single stalls are made from four feet to six feet in width. Cork brick makes an ideal floor. 2 -cupolas to be built at mill. It should be laid on con- The may if barn boards. 2X6 18 18'-0" 324 y. 2 Covering Battens. Brick with plank overlay is also used sometimes. eight feet wide. Floor 2400 sq. be of a single thickness of they are tight and draft proof. IJ4" X 6" 14 The length of stalls is nine inches including mangers. . Clay is sometimes considered as the best floor. Length Ft. a to be driven through. and G. B. Data used as a basis in determining the estimate will be found under "estimating. 6 single windows.00 per thousand).M. 56 sash wts.1X3 3896 eal ft. and nine feet would be a Seven hundred to one thousand cubic feet of space should be allowed for each animal. 8 Inter. &G. „ .

FARM STRUCTURES 65 .

66 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING .

FARM STRUCTURES 67 .

so as to secure a maximum Both the of sunlight the day. A concrete floor extends throughout the length of the barn. This barn yard should be paved with conIt is estimated that the crete or brick. provided on the manger fronts so that in cold weather the stable maybe closed tightly. the first story of which is used as a covered and sheltered barn yard. stalls Three box are provided. detail of a horse stall shown in Fig. by raising the two longitudinal bents first. grain and silage. Ample storage space has been provided for hay. or a clear space of twelve feet be- The horse barn shown in Fig. well as for the storage of Some foot prefer to build solid them six feet. The size and spacing of the windows is designed for ample light and ventilation. paving of such a yard saved. tween the cowg and the horses. internal angle of the The stall partitions are of concrete reinforced with ^^" round rods extending above the partition and forming a grating up to the to L to the south. with the addition that there must be provided either a tight and does not shut the stalls.68 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING top. and possibly other farm animals. the individual cot and the colony house. in use has attached to it a large storage shed for straw. combination general purpose barn for cattle. accommodate horses of varying sizes. straw.way. specialized dairy or horse barns are not required. elevation and section of an L shaped barn of the balloon framed and self-supporting roof type of construcThis barn is designed to face with the tion. which give the plan. thirty square inches should be provided for each horse. The stalls are floored with plank over the concrete. rolling doors throughout and the The stalls are of different widths ceiling.. . is A 118. The frame type and is the pin joint timber frame constructed so that the mow is the feeding of concentrates. will pay for itself within two years in the value of the manure In the stable proper the stall floors and alley slope toward a shallow gutter at the rear of the stall. from interior partition between horse and cow stables. Windows with sash tilting inward at the make a good means of ventilation. this construction permitting a ical where the cows are confined except during milking time. 116 may be studied as an example of the application of the features mentioned in a compact and practical design. run. houses in general use. 117 and 118. and for milkRoughage is to be fed in the open space is free from cross beams. The Swine House There are two distinct types of swine more econom- arrangement of floor joists. horses. An example of another form of general purpose barn is shown in Figs. A common form of general purpose barn now The plan is a familiar one in that the horses are fed from the main Solid drop swing doors are drive. is used. The General Purpose Barn On farms a where the separate highly "When ventilating flues aroused. A five surmounted by steel bars or heavy wire mesh has the advantage partition that it allows the horses to see each other light When this barn contains a dairy stable it is necessary to observe the laws in force for dairy barns. open run between the horse stable and the milking stalls comply with the law in effectually separating the two stables. thus allowing the use of the newer type of hay slings. as feed. etc. Stall partitions should be very solidly constructed for at least five feet in height. The space above the drive-way in the lean-to may be used to advantage for the storage This barn would be built of hay or grain. The cow stalls are designed to be used for ing only.

— "A-type" individual hog class. with wings of five units each extending to the east and west respectively. An abbreviation of this table will be found on page 117. A good scheme to follow for a large plant would consist of a central feed storage and mixing house with principal axis running north and south. so that it to be kept apart from skids practically divide the herd. of a colony hog house. The half-monitor roof shown is peculiarly adapted to give a two row hog house sunshine on both sides of the alley. 121 Shade htyar Fig. The plan shows two units of 2 pens each.FARM STRUCTURES The individual house is 69 in feeding used where one and labor and at the same time sow and her Utter are other swine. 120 shows other models of Wisconsin Type with the same general shows a unit plan and sectional elevation. the house must face with windows to the south. cot. A dipping vat is connection with the hog house may be made 30'' wide at the top and from 18" to 20" wide at the bottom. 6-0" continue with a level bottpm 3-0" deep and long. Windour in rear /Z's<fuare Fig. — Individual hog cots. Fig. 119. A slope 7-0" long to the level of the floor should be provided. to aid the hogs in getting out. which is best when necessary to have the house running north and south and B. S. 119. 120. The house may be made of any desired length by adding the required number of units. Chapter seven. 122 shows two other types of house. Fig. enabling one to build the house so as to take advantage of the sun in his locality during the months from January to Bulletin June inclusive. with a single row of pens. It will be seen that. be moved from time to time for sanitary reasons or to change the run. for a house facing south. may A common and inexpensive cot is shown in Sunshine tables are published in Farmer's No. slab wirt. together with some details. and . 438 U. A tilting board at the . to be effective. which might be It is usually built upon desirable in time of epidemic. /i Z'on Door 14'* 30' Make of. This would make an establishment of 20 pens and feed house that would be very well arranged to save time Fig. The tank should start with one vertical end. Department of Agriculture. Svspend of iop to sw/nf(retjy Fig. A. with a full monitor roof.

121. 'Kj^' fe Cinder a' OrcTvel Fill ^ ' '-^•''^^^ -^10^ 5ECTION 'An Bracket of F^lnforcemenf PLAN SHOWING TWO UNITS f/?od TiesofNo.pTm^ '-ir tTTTTTTi T% s^^ ^^^ rzwm_ MAT ForFrame DETAILS OF GUARDRAIL SUGGESTIONS /7?(9/Vr ELEVATION OF PEN roof. colony type with half-monitor . ^^ Tf?OUGH SECTION OF ^rv.9 Wire. Swine house. Fig.^^ . .. Space 12"a pari 4''- '-H.70 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING / /ingle of Sun's fhys for Latif-ude March 1st ot 40°N. — o^^«^.

twelve square feet of floor space should be allowed for each breeding ewe. 123. as climatic and other conditions vary so widely in different parts of the country. There are prevailing types in different sections. lbs. anj up. hence the location should be well drained. it pared to other farm buildings. —Poultry house designed should be so built as to permit closing in case of driving storms from the south. Care in both drainage and ventilation will give the dryness required. Sunlight must be admitted. 4 3 lbs. and while the shed may be open toward the south or southeast. the house should face south or southeast. There is no generally accepted standard form as com- The requirements few so long as the sheep are kept dry and out of drafts.FARM STRUCTURES perpendicular end is 71 used for throwing the provided for dividing the space into tem- animals into the dip. —Alternate forms of colony swine house.. Fresh air is demanded. A sufficient number of hurdles should be . The Sheep Barn for sheep sheltering are A B It is only possible in this discussion to present the general requirements of such a building as a poultry house. each well adapted for its particular location. ensilage. Feed storage should be provided follows for as 2 to 4 lbs. 122. thus poultry house construction. fyVireMesh END ELEVATION for 100 hens. of hay. 00 DD l^aH. hence the ventilation is an important consideration. The Poultry House Fig. Comfort may be called the key word in In designing. and 2 to of grain per sheep per day. J^^ FRONT ELEVATION - ^'^-^ 6' Concrete Wall -^^^ SECTION Hinges fl'^'^ — Hini^e =^ * ¥-r-^''^^ CTmn: ffiE I Propping Board -24-0"- Uli Nest Boxes Under-i ^ ^ Broody Coop mil -"Prepared Roofing Covered Bath -Z8'-0'- ^Mustin Frame Inside - fWireMesh- PLAN Fig. IE 00 an Muslin Frame Hinge fo Sir/ng in 00 DD mfh f mesh Coi>vr ifire ntf. porary pens. and six square feet for each fatting lamb.

but the concrete floor has the advantage of being sanitary and rat and vermin proof. good trap nest is is shown in Fig. should slope. One nest for three to five birds is a fair allowance. They ing and arranging these little dummies. and if made twelve feet in height will accommodate tractors. Roosts should be about ten inches above the dropping boards. writing the name on each. machines above the surrounding grade and thus prevents rust. By Roofs should be water-tight. Fig. if the span is not over fourteen feet wide. The concrete floor is optional. half monitor or gable. arrangement and construction. to prevent roosting. sible added. length and width. unless the nests are placed under the dropping board. but the shed roof with slope to the north is cheap and satisfactory. Too glass radiates an excessive amount and sometimes causes condensation heat. frame should be hinged to facilitate cleaning the dropping board. dropping one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch to a foot. as shed. Small houses with a capacity of from seventy-five to three hundred birds are to square of floor space to each bird Should be feet be preferred. but is desirable in that it raises the wheels of the should be twelve by twelve by the floor. and eight to twelve inches The roost of space allowed for each fowl. allowed. It should be made to slope toward the front of the shed. 123 a house designed for one hundred pos- and will give suggestions as to A list of the floor space required for some standard farm implements is given on page 113. and from two to five The best way to plan a machine shed is make a list of the implements to be housed. each of these machines. Experience has shown that taking into account the amount and kind of machinery now in use.72 if AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Implement Sheds It is possible being built on a south or southeast slope. bearing in mind the season and use of each implement. Measure including probable later additions. from twelve to fourteen inches apart. Twelve foot openings will take in the widest machine. the overall dimensions. A repair room or tool house is sometimes Chapter birds. 124 shows the working drawing of one type of shed. They may be of any type. generally recognized wise farmer tools who houses his that he is a implements and when not in actual service in the field. a shed of eighteen to twentyfour feet in width is the most economical in construction. to much of of too much moisture. and will give sufl&cient protection during the cold months. ma- A I. Fig. and a plan drawn with the exact knowledge of what it will hold. the cloth will allow good circulation without any draft. If covered with muslin frames. but other openings for ventilaThese openings tion should be provided. together with a lumber bill for it. of Floors may be of earth if well drained. with a implement may be derived. One square foot of glass area for each twenty square feet of floor space is a minimum. Wire mesh bottoms will aid in The top board of the nest box^ Doors may be added to prevent snow or rain from being driven in on the chinery. Nests must be convenient for the laying hens. hay-loaders and other implements requiring head room. . lay sions separately to scale off these dimen- and cut out paper the different rectangles representing mashift- chines. 2. sixteeen inches and placed about twelve inches above cleaning. should be so placed as to allow circulation without drafts. the approximate dimensions of the building necessary for definite place for each them.

.. i 1^ ^ ^ •••f• ' .* ^ 1 // f / / 'o 03 .0 . < 1 w \ ^ '•< ". - ^ iO< r V V// // * ^^ • I \ // // w »--''". • ^ £ c ^ (S u ^ n 01 " \^ a —1 --{• a.__. / ^ .FARM STRUCTURES f 73 .9 %'."'"1" I :3 /A~\ VO 1 ^ I- o V5 [-> tU Q us X (O • • • 1- f/ // / o '"^ '.9-5-* °vO 1 .01 •a V ' r 'i i>-A ^.'. « .' I o < o Id \ ^. '•^ II 2 O \ / o> tu -''~ -J 2 < lU § S o> Z O c <*- c g c2 TJ ^-^ Si V N " t "E o (0 I.. -y •a • •. \ / <§§ c (A ^ II .. b'<" ^ u t-i Z'. 2 "o 1 1 ^ u +- o ' ' .

125.. In dry localities Tight cally eliminate the two former pests. SECTION floor. mouse. cribs should not be built more than they five feet in width.j Slats spaced ^"'^^ ^ = 1 H I- 1-4 Concrete^ H ! \\ M ! jf T 33 bIHH SECTION END ELEVATION SECTIONFig. One-fourth inch wire may be eight to ten feet wide. or3-ply 1 prepared roofing. wood floor. stright sides. In regions where very moist. and bird proof cribs are easily constructed. —Double it is corn crib. construction about the eaves will prevent annoyance from the birds. or 3 p/g prepared roofing.s END ELEVATION SECTION i"^** ' SIDE ELEVATION flaring sides. A corn crib should be constructed so as Rat. concrete the grain. 126. Fig. as in Ohio. H '^S. SIDE ELEVATION —Double corn crib. to allow the air to circulate freely through A concrete floor will practi- Roof covering may be V-crimped gal\/anizee/ metal. Z4'Cent Roof covering may be V-crimped galvanized metal^ shingles. Z't&'-^ 1 7^ itvdi ^ 1 iffHan/ivood^y I . Two mesh screen placed under the floor . shingles.74 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Corn Cribs and one-half cubic feet should be allowed for a bushel of ear corn.

FARM STRUCTURES
wood floors, and between slats and on the walls, will effectually stop rodents and birds. Figs. 125 and 126 show suggested construcIn addition for two types of double crib. tion to shelter and stability, the double crib
slats of

75

ings the use of the "limiting break" line
is

studs

illustrated.

Granaries

The important

consideration in the con-

struction of granaries

and bins

for

loose

T
ICE STORAGE

ROCHESTER MODEL ICE H0U3E- J5T0N5 aP'CY.
BUREAU OF HEALTH
Ice to

ROCHESTER.

NEW

YORK. I903.

least /B of rammec/ saw dust all around ice. 5ide boards of hemlock to ^e Jaid so tfie shrinkage will provide ^'space betn^eer? each board to insure drying of outside layer cfsaiv

be packed in solid mass ivUh brvken joi'nfs,

<?/

tighfly

ffust

±

All air to be excluded from underneath the

ice.

Free circulation

of air

oirer ice.

and brokenstone,
\f-30'\

Drainage must be proi^ided, but drain shou/id be b/inded mth sand grant, or anders.Thus warm air irill not find .its

M.

Ml'

way in atong the drain and melt the ice. Do not build this house in a sheltered place The sun and wind dry ttie outer layer of sair dust. Dry sairc/ust is a ^aod non-can.

^V^ =
SAW
\DU5T BIN
Open\ Underneath

ctactor

All sfcidd/n^ B"" 4' hemlock. Corner pcuts -^'f^: 5/din^ f'^S" or f'^ 8' hemlock fence boards.

PLAN
HH

Foundation t-BfS Concnete.

HKU

Sheet Me/al, Shingle, or
Conjposition Roof.

y\k //
r!
II

\:x.

.

=-

=
<E=s:

— =—
1 1 1

P
=
,

II

^ ^

'^^^

<

^^>

.."i/^

/ ^'/

/"

/

\ V\

,

\>

[^J
.
.

1

li:-,|

,

:

:

'

:' .
.
..I

,

,

1

.,

,

1

1

l:«;l
'

1 1

1 1 1

m/h

cinders or graye '

*V

L

i.

r

<,-,

-

*\

1

1

^
is

er

S/Df ELEVATION

SECTION AFig. 127.

END ELEVATION

MID-SECTION

has the advantage of providing space which may be utilized for winter storage of farm implements. One of the two examples is shown with concrete floor construction and the other with a wood floor. In these draw-

grain

is

to be sure that the structure

designed with sufficient strength to prevent bulging of the sides and springing of the
floors.

tion this

In elevator and large bin construcbecomes a real engineering problem,

76

AGRICULTURAL DRAWING
(3)

but in any, case the weight of the maximum grain contents should be figured and the
structure designed to suit.

Ventilation of space above

ice.

The
walla,

elaborate

and expensive insulated
thicknesses of different
of

The numerous
Concrete,

with

many
the

recorded accidents from failure of elevated
bin
floors

materials, are being replacedvby simpler con-'
st ruction,

serve

as

warnings.
is

limit

simplicity

being

properly reinforced,
for granaries.

the ideal material

reached in the Rochester ice house illustrated
in Fig. 127,

Concrete floors laid directly on earth should be well underdrained ^nd damp-proofed. In any granary construction
is

which
In
it

is

being built by

many
is

farmers,
efficiency.

and shows remarkable

results in

the entire insulation

the

rat proofing

essential.

Incidentally, rats

and mice

will not gnaw hemlock. The growing tendency to build community elevators is lessening the number of

farm

granaries.

Ice Houses
Ice storage, formerly regarded as a luxury,
is,

saw dust, which, when the building is properly located in an exposed position, is kept dry by the free air circulation through the openings between the boards, and dry saw dust is one of the most effective insulating materials known. The requirements for the successful construction and packing
layer of
of this

for dairy farms at least,

a necessity.

house are given on the drawing. In designing a building of specified ca-

The proper
-V

cooling of milk

and the storage

pacity, figure

on the basis that a cubic foot

Kf:^v;;:;..:r h7T?Ty

A

\'>

l/\

m
l^ferproof Paper.

^w

Inside

Fig. 128.

Insulated'^valls for ice-house construction.

in

demands the use of ice summer. The average dairy requires a storage of from one-half to one and one-half
of dairy products

of ice weighs about fifty-seven pounds, or roughly one ton of ice will require forty

cubic feet, including packing.

Twelve inches

tons of ice per cow.

The requirements
very carefully.
(1)

for ice

tion are simple but they

must be

house construccarried out

should be allowed on top, bottom and sides for saw dust. Several approved types of
insulated walls are

shown

in Fig. 128.

There must be ample drainage, and
air.

Garages

the drainage so arranged as to exclude
(2)

A
may

simple problem in building construction

Careful insulation of walls.

be made in the design of a garage.

FARM STRUCTURES

77

For an average farm. A suspended iron rack on which the meat is laid is an improvement over the usual sticks and strings. either of the forms for the silo Much and The alternative of sharp steel building concrete construction of silos. exit. although the fire A dairy house in which an aerator. cooler. with a hip roof. separator. for brick in elevation to small scale is used on the drawing. but the problem of its design may be used. is a common type. The symbol built of brick. pit. and necessarily of simple construction so that it may easily be kept clean and sanitary. and provided with a window. best location for windows. is an adjunct to the and in its simplest form is the temporary storage of milk. as many still house. The smoke formerly A very common type for keeping the night milking until the following morning. and a ventilator in the roof. some has even been written against it. opposite the door. method as in of hooks for suspending the meat the unsightly holes will eliminate wooden the usually made when good stringing hams. is not so common a farm structure at the present day. Regarding the silo from the point of view of design and drawing it seems unnecessary to include the details of construction. materials for walls and roof. a brick house 6' by 8'. with a tank extending across one side. hollow tile. The size of machine or machines to be housed is of course the j&rst The Dairy House The dairy house dairy barn. crete blocks. Concrete floors and tanks are sanitary. or hollow tile. It may con- be built frame. The Silo has been written in recent years on its desirability. dust and flies. 129 shows a garage for a small car. and brick are particularly well adapted for dairy house construction. Provision for a work bench or the method of gasoline storage. flowing constantly through a tank in which the milk cans are set. and churn are to be used. is a house eight by ten feet inside. five feet square. the desirability of a repair of entrance and and method of artificial lighting will all be decided in the preliminary study of the problem. brick. stucco or even galvanized iron. The moral effect of a strong lock should not be overlooked. in the arranging of the equipment in the most convenient and economical form. but probably oftener the cooling of the milk depends upon a water supply from a spring or well. meats.78 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING It may be built of wood. much more cheaply than they can . Smoke Houses found on every farm. and the average farmer is well informed as to its advantages and limitations. should be hung at least five feet above the fire. but the ice-house type of insulated frame wall is satisfactory. former case forms may be secured from those who make a specialty of building and renting them. convenience conformity of the exterior to the surrounding architecture. Concrete or concrete blocks. consideration. A safeguard in the form of an arch or sheet of metal above the fire to prevent loss of meat from blazing fat or unexpected flares. concrete. or the ones. per- manent and easily constructed. It must be of a type that will protect against heat. provision for water and drainage. is desirable. A small building. having a grate arranged for burning cobs or chips. prefer to smoke of their own brick. Fig. and with vents near the roof. and planning a build- ing to suit. used for It is sometimes built in combination with the ice house. becomes a problem in design. has The meat a capacity for eight hams. shelf. frame smoke house has an undesirable risk.

bacterial action.. tile. and gives better results than the single tank. 131 is The value of the covered manure pit for the preservation and conservation of stable manure is The type shown known as the double chambered septic tank. . stave silos 2 inches. and if pos- and sible screened against flies. by natural Silo foundation of concrete. becoming more and more ap- Pa- preciated. Pens and Gates The pose. 130 tion adaptable for silos of shows a section of concrete foundaany type. — Double chambered septic tank. and the exterior outline It is desirable that it 79 be roofed. tanks or vats to which the manure is taken and stored until finally used on the fields. will depend upon the material and 9 V^'^^^^^^^^'^T^ Concrete block and vitrified tile varies from 4 to 8 inches. The pit should be built not less than 100 feet from the dairy stable. The small appended table gives the size and capacity required for herds of various sizes. lath plaster. Fig. OF WIDTH Silo tables of use in this connection are found on page 115. and our drawing simply circles of the required diameter on the plan. 130. The size. the plan. on the elevation. or Gurler and type 6". Fences. unsatisfactory and dangerous to health. as indicated on Manhole Cover. fence to be effective durable. The • Septic Tank 9". I. the corner posts must be set . The open cesspool is at best a temporary affair. Scientific study of bacteria and bacterial action on sewage has resulted in the recommendation of the use of the septic tank. DIMENSIONS OF TANK NO. — purified and outlet. finish top kJnc^ h 3(//f of silo. a necessity.FARM STRUCTURES be made for use on one job. Fig. a simple under- /:?:4 Concrefe \^i'Rcl. and galvanized iron a single black line. 131. and high enough for its puris When a fence made of posts sup- accessible for wagon or spreader. must be strong. 132 shows a manure pit designed for twenty head of stock. and stave. Manure pits are simply large tented improvements are sometimes added. PERSONS INSIDE 4-0" 6 4-0" 8 4-0IZ A B 6-0" 3-66-6" 4-0" 7-0" 5-0" The Manure Pit Fig. monolithic concrete 6 inches. although most dairy requirements permit a minimum of fifty feet. in Fig. thickness of the wall. Paddocks. porting wire. tight. and should be so arranged as to be easily A table of sizes is appended. galvanized iron silos are purchased ready for erection. C. and laundry and bath conveniences in country homes has made the provision for suitable and sanitary means for taking care of house wastes and sewage. In connection with a barn problem our interest is in the required capacity.f^od5 6'aparf \ •o "o "^^^^Mmm^^ ^- ground receptacle with in which the sewage is inlet Fig. The introduction of water supply.

80 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING 1 Jt JJ. %> § 5 ^ ^ is ^ 1§ ^ ^ ^ ? "S. k. .

Gate posts should be large enough to bear it Hurdles are simply movable or portable fence or gate sections constructed so as to the weight of the gate without allowing to sag. depending upon the nature of the soil. They made modate most machinery. The height should conform to the fence. The construction will vary according to the animals to be confined. intended for a single animal or a few animals. are of 81 average wire fence is 48" high with posts 16 feet apart and in the ground from 18" to 3 feet. and the sections may be any length convenient for handling. nailed. They or for are used for temporary aid There are numerous forms of gates as built on the farm. better for the passage of large loads of hay. of 133 illustrates animals. Wire paddocks are seldom used on account of liability of injury to the animals. as they receive harder service than Fig. the fence. Paddocks are designed for close confine- ment of animals. and many types for sale in while separating the market. stand alone. All corners The or ends must be thoroughly braced. screwed or are A 12 foot opening will accomfeet is bolted firmly to the posts. confinement. 36" and 42" designs that may be used. as a rule should be made stronger than the fence of which they form a movable section. The bracing in . Pens are used for smaller enclosures than 4 feet deep. Gates. and are usually constructed paddocks. but 14 from 5 to 8 feet in height. and are a necessary part of the in diagram the several different equipment of sheep barns.FARM STRUCTURES deeply and be firmly anchored. —Some forms of gate construction. Corner and brace posts are set common heights. 133. lines Fig. of boards or planks.

the service of a competent architect should be engaged. A greater mistake is to buy any steps be saved?" Women walk . and preliminary freehand sketches tried until an apparently satisfactory arrangement is obtained. and the securing of the maximum of convenience. but the fee of a good architect is more than saved in his protection of the owner. Living porch. the direction to the road. wishes and taste of the particular family which is to occupy the one proposed. a set of readywill "why is this the best place. and the planting. all have a bearing on the shape and the architectural style to be determined upon. harmonious design. and sink. the views toward the house and from the house. range. with not only the general requirements of a also the individual requirements. but the most interesting as well as the most complicated of farm. and the thought of the needs of the family. the question. and in locating the table. Where interests conflict. cupboards. the following rooms may be included 1. making a list of the stores and supplies and planning the most convenient place for each. 7. Wash room. collectively and individually. 4. as a basis for the final plans and specifications. express in its appearance the individuality of the owner. so as to owner in present work- able sketch plans to the architect. who will be able to work up the owner's ideas into a Planning is simply a process of reasoning. A list of the rooms desired is written. and architectural correctness. To secure all this. to say nothing of the satisfaction of having jel important room in the house. each. to be placed or who is to Our setting discussion of the farm house assist the prospective is in- tended to down his ideas. with thought in of the purpose of each.82 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING made plans each case is designed to form a truss and prevent deformation. In designing the farm residence there must be added to these the items of beauty. Kitchen (and pantry). The house must look as and should if it belonged in its location. in the first floor: 2. and much thought should be given to its arrangement. both the The "lay" of the land. because of inability to adapt it. Thus this problem becomes farm house considered. gives the reason for everything put in the plan. office or bed room. This is worked up in a 1/8" scale drawing. 8. all the structures about the fit The house must be planned to surroundings and the family. kitchen is The in many respects the most from mistakes. economy of space and labor. 6. 3. is a temptation sometimes to accept a contractor's offer to furnish plans free. pantry. Den. and durability. exterior and interior. and sometimes a desired feature must be omitted. Dining room. and whose knowledge and advice on the technical points of construction will protect Screened work porch. made with no is reference as to The Farm House In the design of the buildings previously considered. and success in it depends upon one's knowledge of these needs and the ability to correlate and adapt them into a well-balanced design. the principles of planning and construction involved were based on the consideration of the uses and functions of where the house occupy it. 5. There The architect is the owner's representative in dealing with the contractor. Living room. the advantages and disadvantages are weighed. These are usually made on Part or all of tracing paper. The first floor plan is the first to be made. The reasoning mentioned should be applied. mentally answering pleasing house. Stair hall.

FARM STRUCTURES 83 •FIRST-FLOOR-PLAN • 5CALEL: Va'-IFTFig. —First floor plan of farm house. 134. .

but is broken to show what is under. The 1. The kitchen score card given on page 117 has been used in checking the desirable points in existing kitchens. should space in each. music room. and rear planned their kitchens did not think! The kitchen should have cross-ventilation. with ample closet tion that should not be omitted. conveniently arranged for summer dining is a desirable consideration. and should open to a rear porch. in location. 5. The dining room should preferably face east. and rectangular rather than square in shape. The outside walls. with cross-ventilation first if possible. In planning the stairway the number of risers should be figured. from the field. is The consideration in a bed room a well- . In a large house other rooms. Bed rooms should have at least two winstair well hall necessary. on a scale of 100. and if possible a fire-place. have quiet continuous lines. the latter case a room may be designed as an office or den. The entire run is never shown on one plan. It should have a south and west exposure. Sleeping porch. sometimes for continuous use and sometimes In for emergency use in case of illness. by knowing the size of a dining table and the space needed for each person. bed room. etc. Stairs should never be less than 3 feet wide. Sleeping rooms. The wash room open to the facilities for is an important consideraIt 2. Linen closet. and used as an emergency Rooms for help. The size can be figured accurately from the number to be accommodated.84 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING men who way is miles of useless steps because the made a feature of the house. but many in building farm houses prefer a direct double swinging door. not too large. always provided as well. Good comfortable porches should be regarded as a necessity in farm house planning. It should and if The amount stair of space given to stairs and and chimneys are traced from the space cut up to the first floor. Group windows are more effective and pleasing than single windows. and a screened living porch. which provides an air lock. 6. be convenient of access. helps' dining and sitting rooms. A working porch off the kitchen should be screened.. It will be noticed that the isolated and list generally unused "parlor" has been omitted from the of first floor rooms. A first floor bed room is often desired. should be light and cheerful. No room should be made to serve as a passageway to another room. 3. Thus if the rise is 73^^ inches the tread would be 10 inches. such as a library. The living room is the largest room in the house. In nearly all city and suburban houses. rear. may be added^ according to the owners' desires and financial stairs are ability. 7. Provision for plenty of coat hooks should not be forgotten. depends upon the economy In large houses the main stair- dows. The sentiment of the home centers about the fire-place. second floor should contain Hall. and the best advantage. the kitchen is connected to the dining room through a serving pantry. on which all rooms should open. keeping out odors and heat. be somewhat isolated planned for an office should be easily accessible from the outside. In planning the second floor it is not necessary that all walls run through from the first floor partitions. be well lighted and sanitary. 4. and the rule may be used that the sum of the rise and tread should be 173^^ inches. Sewing room. In small houses one stairway may serve all purposes. and have ample lavatory men's convenience in coming Bath. reception room. and on the plan the lines representing the risers would be drawn 10 inches apart.

—Second floor plan of farm house.FARM STRUCTURES 85 'SECOND* FLOOR* PLAN scale: V^"-ift* Fig. . 135.

External angles should be avoided. one ensilage cutter. one corn binder. one gang plow. buildings are not given. with 6'-0" X 8'-0" floor. These plans illustrate the use of the symbols and the appearance of the usual set of plans. tightly screened. and project side necessary. use an auxiliary profirst laundry a convenience. and the data is on rollers. to show their For a farm where much help is location. All the should be drawn. one grain binder. need not be larger than 6' X 9'. Figs. Design a machine shed for the following implements: Two wagons. one grain drill. Generally on house plans the attic plan and roof plan are combined in one figure. two peg tooth harrows. one hay tedder. It is better to have fewer and larger ones. one sulky plow. nor should owner wishes to go. Rooms for help are best arranged to be reached from a rear stairway and isolated from the rest of the second floor. Before starting a problem read the discusup other reference read- and not from any room. the second is ample closet room. or assigned upstairs hall. but are to be detersleeping porch is A becoming a popular It mined from the requirements and planning distribution. the furnace and fuel room should be separate from the storage room. The basement should extend under the entire house. cutting down sizes some. These may be fastened with carriage buttons. Select suitable scale on and A basement laundry and drying room. the ten well as the inside cellar stairs. by simplifying construcchanging materials. with concrete floor and drains.86 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING If planned space for the bed. sion carefully. A clothes chute to the laundry may be provided. 135 first floor Problems. It should have an outside grade entrance as hall. The porch may open from the or to be assumed by the student. The probable cost of a proposed house may be estimated roughly by cubing it. should be the space required for animals and storage practical of and canvas curtains pro- and economical problems are vided for inclement weather. and second floor plans of a farm house. The title following problems are to have comof material. plete working plans'drawn. and supplement the information found from your own practical knowledge and experience. its stated. a private sleeping porch may open to a bed room or dressing room. Modern farm houses often have the lighting and water supply systems in the basement. and bills The sizes of tion. A small sewing room is a convenient addiIt of rooms. one disc harrow. 3. one side delivery hay rake. embodying some desirable features. one mower. A large linen closet opening to the hall is very desirable. three sides of the tank. employed it is very desirable to have more than one bath room. Make end view If view from jection. Radical cutting may mean the entire tion. after drawing the preliminary sketch plans the estimate runs higher than the closets should not break into the rectangle of the room. figuring addition to every house plan. or mounted Some the suggestive rather than definite. Draw an "A" type of hog cot. with water and ranged. flue A is connections should be arclothes chute opening into the follow directions for working given on page 38. with dimensions. one common rake. Design and make working drawings for forms of a concrete watering trough to hold barrels of water when filled within two inches of Provide concrete paving six feet wide top. the process of "cutting" must be resorted to. 2. and 136 show the basement. or omitting fixtures revision or discarding of the first plan. 134. The mistake should not be made of having many small rooms. PROBLEMS. Attic stairs should always start from the by the instructor. . is If a furnace the used. look ing. it. 1. one hay loader. as explained under "estimating" on page 118. The bath room should be located so as to make the plumbing simple and economical. across corners. that they be cut off is.

^jL — Basement plan of farm house.FARM STRUCTURES -32-b - 87 U 4 \//////////.4 -5-iaM* 16'- 8" -\o'-o"- m^^ t DRYING ROOM Pier M ~ni' '\ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZl v/\ r//zz ASH PIT VEGETABLE STORAGE ^P'er m i-QtA V///////////////////////////////////^ fe'-9"- 6'-e"- 19'.3' -13-3"- -32-6" -5-7"-H')}"K-5'-7- BASEMENT^ PLAN* * 8'-l' SCALE Vq = FT : 1 • {/^Piers Fig. . 136. .

.R.. e. /2'-6"x. ooyr. /4'% 17' 3.S./6-0" .=J-°L-r pojecH Fig.88 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING -^^ /<-/TCH£N \\ FA NTRr\ L^. TEA/ANT House 9-6' xff' \ ^. Sm /?OOAf //'%/2' P. f^ \ Porch U.. 137. „ • L. —Sketch plans of farm houses.R.

built four feet below ground. one manure spreader. one walking plow. Provide feed room. Design a dairy barn for 12 cows. hay storage and grain bins. Design a manure pit for the barn of Problem 15. combined dining and living room. and miscellaneous small tools. In the plan show runs and dipping vat. If square or rectangular tank is made the horizontal rods should be bent so as to turn corners. Feed room to be separated from. Design a single corn crib. The concrete arch should be at least 6" thick and strongly 2-row corn planter. To the barn attach a straw shed./f. the top a concrete or . /e 1 16 . 14. (There will be 50% more lambs than ewes in the average flock. structure. one brick arch. 20. and two bed rooms. but accessible to dairy stable. 31. 1200 bushels capacity. Design a colony type house for twenty brood sows. 16. Design a tenant house. to allow of covering with earth. so that there may be no interference with light on the bank side. 5. Provide a tank 18" deep and not less than 17" wide. Design a septic tank for a family of 6 persons. 4. This 6. and 3^" horizontal rods spaced 6" apart for first 30". 8 work horses. or 6 feet in diameter. 26. may be divided into two compartments. one small cultivator.) Design a rectangular general purpose barn for 6 regular horse stalls.FARM STRUCTURES two 2-row cultivators. Design a laying house for 50 hens. of floor space for each steer. 137. Design a colony type house for ten brood sows. (This figure was taken from an actual house!) X 6" X 16' plank. Design a double corn crib. and a dairy house provided with cold (Try L 16. Design a root cellar of 600 bushels capacity. Show piping for continuous flow of water. Make a sketch and bill of material for a paddock for horses. cans. with a span of not over 8 feet. Z'>rLOOR /4 i/^' Design a dairy barn for 30 cows. 500 bushels capacity.) 27. A farmer has 8 milch cows. and bent to extend up into the walls 2'-6". or may be parallel to the main 13. Design a sheep shed for 200 breeding ewes. 138. with a bridge leading to the approach. 11. 18. Design an ice house for a dairy farm having 24 cows. Design an ice house for 10 tons of ice. Design a garage for a machine. reinforced in both directions with %" rods spaced 6" apart. Have it 6 feet high. 24. It is suggested that this be made a bank barn. ft. Remodel the house shown in Fig. Design a poultry house for 200 birds. Design a general purpose barn to house this stock and provide necessary feed. figuring sizes and spacing of openings to fit these blocks. Design a water storage tank with a capacity of 50 barrels. Add twelve feet for a tool repair room. and a footing must be provided. A real example of poor planning. Have the entrance on south end. four box stalls for brood mares. or T shape in preliminary sketches. and a dairy stable for 16 cows. Design a storage barn for 75 tons of hay. 19. having a base 6 feet square. 10. to make it more convenient and comfortable. 17. Compute sizes and add silos. Design a farm house. selecting the scheme from one of the sketches of Fig. 28. to enclose one acre. and is feeding 25 steers. Allow 25 sq. The shed may be arranged either to form an ell. Design a granary to hold 1200 bushels of wheat and 600 bushels of oats. (If tank and floor are elevated above grade it will save labor in handling reinforced. 29. 9.) 8. 21. the shed capacity to be two tons of straw per animal. 12. 32. 89 one single row sulky culti- vator. made of concrete blocks 8" X 8" X 16". making provision for box stalls and calf pens. Design a machine shed for the implements in use on your farm. 7. 26. using stucco on 8" hollow tile walls. bolted to posts 8 feet from center to center. and bedding storage. 30. inside. 23. The dairy stable must conform to the score card on page 116. Design a dairy house. Design a manure pit for the bam of Problem 13. room and cooler. Provide central storage and feed house. 8" apart for next 30". containing a kitchen. The walls should taper (on the inside) from 10" thick at the base to 5" at the top. The tank should have a floor /Ox/J' ions' e. and provide storage 22. and above this %" rods spaced 7" apart. The walls should be reinforced with %" vertical rods spaced 16" apart. Design a brick smoke house. using 2" suitable gate. Design a combination garage and carriage house. the first floor of which is a covered yard. one spring wagon. 8" thick.

A farm office should have on hand a protractor for laying off angles on the map. as many are.92 inches. With it a map may be made to any desired tape. levels grading or ditching. "Gunter's chain" of 4 rods (66 divided and locations of the parts composing and imparts to the owner or manager. while desirable. but a small farm level (prices of which range from ten to forty dollars) will be of constant value on every farm. is not a necessary investment on the farm. 50 and 60 parts to the inch. buildings and boundaries. For general use on the farm a 100 ft. a sizes 1^ \AAAAAAAAAA. etc. for laying out drains. —Engineers' scale and protractor.AA\4\Axla \ better conception or mental picture of these can be gained without it. fields. determining fall of streams for water power. it will be for found very valuable in laying out For rough determination of used. in showing the most desirable locations for roads and lanes. and a 12 inch engineer's scale. for division of fields. graduated in feet . 139.CHAPTER V MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING An important consideration in both the ownership and management of a farm is to have accurate maps and plats. A farm map gives at once a comprehensive idea of the entire farm and the relative areas. and laying out road and fence lines. and for the addition of improvements. in order to plan work. leveling building foundations. If provided with a 90 are now given in feet and tenths of feet. and incidentally to the interested visitor. This chapter takes up briefly the methods and application of this branch of the language of drawing. horizontal circle. a hand level may be An "A" frame for this purpose is illustrated in Fig. divided into 10. Land measurernents were formerly given and measurements made with a feet). it. 172. in ownership so that there may be no question nor dispute regarding Unes or boundaries. steel and inches will be of constant service in laying out and measuring fields. tion of crops. 40. soil fertility. kind of birdseye view which is of great assistance to him in planning his work. It gives a relations than Fig. rota- in rods. Lengths Instruments. 20. and keep a record of crop production. and for the few times when tenths of feet are needed they may be calculated from inches. It is an expensive instrument and. A surveyor uses a transit for turning off angles and for obtaining magnetic bearings or directions of lines. 30. into 100 "links" of 7. and in management.

A map represented. when made and by whom. (8) A survey to be legal must be made by a surveyor. mayprotractor and engineer's scale virtually a top view of the area and south. with which the monument may be aligned. The North Point serves to orient the map. It should contain: (1) map. . and the imaginary or relative elevations lines representing divisions of authority or The relief. plat of a farm survey should give necessary for location. is called a "plat" or "land map. 139. (4) Location of highways. magnetic meridian is referred to. The is are illustrated in Fig. (6) Names of owners of abutting property. and depressions of the surface of the ground. (4) High- shown The map of an ordinary farm may be drawn from 40 feet to 100 feet relatively so small that objects are ways and streams should be indicated by the symbols of Fig. (3) Monuments are markers set in the ground. (2) The acreage of a farm or field is calculated by well-known methods. A map plotted from a plane survey. and having the relief omitted. or from the description in the deed to the property. The clearly all * general information. (5) Official division lines within the tract. purpose of the the information the legal description of the parcel of land. (. If a boundary runs up the middle of a stream on a farm survey. Plats. When a it is necessary to move and put back monu- The scale of a map varies of course with the extent of territory to be shown on a sheet of given size.MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING scale. (1) a survey to be legal must be made in "metes and bounds. (2) (3) (8) Certification." The map (1) for office use should contain Location of buildings. showing the natural features and the works ownership. Fig. be a Thus a line be made to such a scale as 10 chains to the inch. and wooden stakes should be avoided. as for example in road improvements. of man. should be done carefully. etc. but in any map the scale is ment. is sometimes added. or if the bearing of a line is its old-style measurements are preferred.7) Title and north point. adjacent property holders. Under these heads. and a note should state whether the true or Lengths and bearings of the several sides. streams. Acreage. A better marker is a gas pipe stake line deflecting at to the west of the north set in concrete in a land tile. to a (7) The title map is a concise formal statement of A Farm Survey. 140 is an example of a farm plat. date. to the inch. to give the complete description of an area. 142. (6) symbolically. and key to symbols. and be certified as correct by the County Surveyor's office." Under this head would come the plat of a Adding the names of the owners of abutting property aids in fixing the location of the land in relation to farm survey. blazed on a tree. or sometimes on the older surveys.miliarize himself with the State laws of his state. scale. or other legal divisions. would number of feet to the inch . The importance of good monuments should be emphasized. The owner should fa. Waterlining if attempted. made from the surveyor's record. In addition to the items of tne farm survey. an angle of 15 degrees and south line. it is best to omit the waterlining. giving name of owner. Official division lines would (5) mean township and range lines. A Farm a Office Map. 15° W. Location and description of monuments found and set. in which case the map is called a contour map. or 91 deviation from north N. witness stakes should be set first. An iron pin or pipe is sometimes used.

state of fertility. and planning work ahead. 140.C. It will also serve in directing and drives. with the fields numbered and pipes. such .92 (2) AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Location of all drains and underground all fields. This map. soil tests. rbcf/Tc/ ^ore rffAcr/2 &^£»r^ tracts M/tD/SOA/ TIVP. T/7e ^e£7r//7^s are ca/co'/cz/ea' /9v/77 PLAT TH£J. etc. farm labor. dates of improve- unfenced.iVARD FARM ^ S/o/7e Mo/?. (3) recorded in a farm book will be a valuable Division lines of fenced or aid in recording crop rotation. LA/<£ CO. Numbers on All lanes all fields.rjv Fig. ments. (4) (5) Ca SUK —Farm plat from plane survey./S/S 83/p23 c. . / /7eredy cer/ify //?e a/?Oi^e p/t7/ /o be c'orrec/ O. SCALE /'-zoo' ^t/Af£ S. production.

-I- Iv-" A*.!r 1-^ /^ -X 9< 1— X >• .// \ .-^-g7_i^g^_i"3'.MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING -« K 93 K ¥: X—r-X y X p— X X- -K K X K- -X X X X^ V—A--\ \ \ \ t v*^\ i._/ . ^«3 \ \ \ \ \ \ I >1^ 1^ ' \ \ \ \ \ \ 'A-x. I 2_!^_ i.1 ^ A.-' /^ / I . \t< V-it X » X X *- \ 5 \ . <- A-' \ <vj \ V s ft-'- L) \ \- \ ^.

. -^ -".- ^— -fe *^ ^~ — _ — -mt.. —Topographic symbols.^lu \\\\\ III Corn ^U \ \ ^U -^U -^^ '^l'^ Wrt '>t^ rtU ^ IJ.V\-\'-\-\ Willows Q' Pine.V'.-ii'd-^:i:|:i:l:l-'i:i-i-'i:i. 142.^ '^l-^ -^ '^^^ ijrt. & Brush N'y- Cleared Land >)/- Cultivated \i'* Land \ o o aV -^ -^^• -4/-^Ir* >i« o(/i G G <3 O © O O <• H H '^U I ->l^ .i-i:i i. -sj. . •'.1^ ^ 0<?X' y^^^.-^ '^I'"' -'- 1 '^J'~ '>l'^ ri^ '^t-* "ir '4-1 rl^ '4-\ '>^ nt^ -4\ n M M MM \ \ \ \ \ I I \ I I f I \ '^^^ Orchard ^>^' -^ H.i.IV' <^K .. = ] 1 Falls and Rapids in Large Stream - Canals Sma// Stream Contours Intermittent Streams ^ ^—i ^ — "k.-lv^i:i:i:i-i:i:l \\.? Meadoty i [kciduous Trees Evergreen Trees i i f j i ^3- t i i3 ^ o e Cy i f I £3 f y> '^- a & .-ji..94 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I II c? ti (i! tf ti ca o o w y i^* (i>(j<2 a iMlllllMlMthMiiiu^ "'iiillili^lllllkwiiiiiiii'' Railrocrc/ Hedge Rail or ^ Rock/5 Worm Fence Cut and Electric Railway Bui/dmffs Stone Fence Wire FerKe .alliiliUiMiiiMlliix^ '""iTiTnimi"'"' Sfafe Line Private Roads embankment Picket fince \fZ"ij mml Bridge County Line Tovvnsh'ip Line m Levees £- Cemeteries Prt^rty orFieId Line nof k Church Fenced School \ '. Willow.A >N|'.-I- t <2 •'' ft tix. *rj^^ ~ - ik - 2fe.'-l..^^^ .>(' . — >*t " —•^ Fresh ^^ 4J^ t/farsh Depression Contours Lake or Pond Spring RELIEF WATER FEATURES . ^ V*^^ o t5 ^^^ »^^ O • . ••5 <>!-.^^ Tobacco ^ vineyard VEGETATION Fig."'-^ ^ lic^ QOvO© ..

The different kinds of planting and vegetation are indicated by symbols. Sometimes the contour lines are drawn on the farm map to aid still further in its use. or cork board. 143. the edge of the water would be one possible contour. that is. by using pins 'with variously colored heads in locating and recording operations. If features. the new shore . such a map. 82 Fig. Some use lines. Contours. prints or blue line prints may be made. the same "level. but also the relative hills elevations and depressions. and extensive filed from year print to year. 50' — Contour map." of still Thus the shore Topographical Drawing. and the original tracing kept up to date in regard to permanent improvements.MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING as fence repairs. In operating be given to each tenant. They should be made with a fine pen and not overworked. lines. blue contour Fig. in that it gives not only the imaginary division line of a If body water represents a contour. a prints are used to work from. and the relief is generally shown by the the map is made on tracing cloth. Fig. while the 142 is a page of standard symbols used in topographic drawing. particularly in planning drainage. a portion of a farm should be flooded. mounted on soft pine. or the slopes of and valleys. may A contour is a line on the surface of the ground which at every point passes through the same elevation. 95 plowing. If the water went down one foot in depth. etc. call the positions of natural land and water and the "culture" (as topographers the works of man). A topographic map is a more nearly complete description than a land map. 141 shows a farm map for office use.

being generally used. in which the contour intervals are ten feet for Fig. parks and additions. together with the contours. Landscape Maps are used in the study of improvements for estates. Contour 4. and planting. 144. grade would rise seven feet in a distance of 100 feet. 144. thus a road of 7 per cent. roads. 143 illustrates a contour map. Government. and be found of much value and interest to any land owner. with 4 Fig. They are distributed at the nominal highways. and give the elevations of all cross roads. not have less than —0. For plats. and a drain with —0. grade would have a fall Tile drains should of 6 inches in 100 feet. and will give a familiarity with the symbols. S. the light lines and lines. may . lines are also shown landscape maps the be used. Some degree of embellishment is permissible. taken along the line view is termed a proas shown in Fig. Land features are usually indicated in vertical letters and water Problems. Fig. letters of Fig. The U. Roman of Fig. Geolog- Survey. Fig. country places. 145 illustrates a landscape map of an addition. and will serve as suggestions for the student or farm owner. is If ABCD file. the tour interval of one foot. 5. and color is sometimes used on them. fifty feet for the heavier in Fig. Here it is seen is a vertical section of Fig. C. U. or grade of a line is the percentage of its vertical rise or fall. or plotted to a larger scale in order to each state. The that following problems illustrate the type arise in connection with this branch of drawing. that known A" paper. To find if a particular section has been completed. Open ditches vary from 2 to 8 feet fall per mile. and for showing the artistic effect to be gained in the arrangement ical The gradient. Profiles.5 per cent. Notes on contour and profile maps are generally made in Reinhardt letters. 47 may page Quadrangle Sheets. 143 the mapping that the vertical distances are exaggerated. On 42 are well adapted.96 line AGRICULTURAL DRAWING would form a new contour. in cooperation with the different states. houses and other topography. with a confeatures in inclined letters. These maps show all show the grades to better advantage. and mostly to the scale of approximately one inch to the mile. Washington. and under the direction of the Geological Survey. D. above mean sea will They are of value in grading drains and level. are usually Profiles made on as "Plate ruled profile paper. in feet horizontal divisions and sions 20 vertical divi- to the inch. — Profile from contour map.1% grade. in sections called quadrangles. cost of ten cents each. S. on separate sheets of about 16" X 20". and the method of using maps. write to the Director. The lettering done on maps should be simple and legible. 46.

Ohio.Harfer Osive^o.MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING 97 CLEVELAND OHIO MAPLE HEIGHTS ADDITION THE FOREST CITY LAND CO Fig. 146. 20 D 5 79''28W 1074.PugJy. 76 5tone rr./9/5 Iron pipe driven Fatr NIZ'ISE- 760. PTBailey. . 7Z ground. 145.J. o'- ^ Fig.fi. l\/fonumer)f cor.O.Aliar/-er. Lloyd. 5p/ke driven in b/aze.Chcr/r) 35 5fa. lape 24 Compass /7 36 Bearing D/sfance Ju/y ^e.Bro^n.48 N34°00W 1805. onumeni i of Hi^liway Iron peg j of Hghway L ar^e < ')ak jree t>/a zed. ii i N72°e8'E 1149. A. —^Landscape map. Survey of Truck Farm of A.32 Iron Pin inConcre/i. Suryeyor J. 77T7r~ ^PA field —Page from book. 5 7'26'f 1694.

98 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING .

Plot the impounding reservoir. page 4. 146. showing location of buildings. natural obstacles. Draw a farm map for office use. draw on Plate A profile paper. The western half of this farm needs drainage. Fig. Fig. Locate on the contour map. 147. highway. 5. showing planting of different fields Redesign the above. walks and drives. Draw the map. bridges. and make a finished drawing. of Fig.. and draw a landscape map. page 2. culverts. locate the best place for a drain or drains. Draw a map of your home farm. and draw a strip map 300 feet wide showing the proposed road. To obtain the grade.MAPS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING PROBLEMS. and indicate the grade of each. recording all data as outlined on 1. 10. On Fig. Enlarge the farmstead of Fig. road from P to Choose a location bearing in mind Q. and natural and cultural 3. from deeds. 9. 6. Enlarge a portion of Fig. a profile of the chosen location. = 1 inch. and a prevailing westerly wind. points or "hubs" on the location map. proximity to better and by symbols. 5 to the scale 20 ft. features. It is proposed to build a 40 ft. etc. with proposed planting. Locate these 50 ft. showing all the items referred to under this head. 99 From 91. showing all drains. more economical arrangement of plant. 8. locating each stretch. to secure if possible. 147. On profile show gradient and depth of ditch at each 50 feet of length. of . 5. a farmstead. plat the farm. grades. all or measurements. 141. accessibility to fields. bearing in mind drainage. 7. 147 locate a dam at an advantageous position. divisions of ownership etc. the note book page shown in Fig. 4. From the contour map shown in Fig. Draw a profile. 147.

familiarity with these two methods is very desirable. To avoid confusion each system will be explained are somewhat is struction separately. lines parallel to the axes. is Fig. through these points. as they are often used both to illustrate some object or detail more clearly and to make working sketches and drawings.CHAPTER VI PICTORIAL DRAWING In Chapter I a general division was made between pictorial drawings and working drawings. —Isometric axes. as at (B). Isometric drawing isometric axes. Perspective drawing was defined. In orthographic projection we had virtually a separate view for each face of a rectangular object. which are designed to combine the advantages of both orthographic and perspective. Isometric Drawing. Fig. under side of an object the axes are reversed. the figure of three lines at 120 degrees apart. as we have seen. the method of convery much the same for both. based on a skeleton is ness of the object be laid off on the three axes. are generally made in orthographic projection. but often a working drawing of simple construction may be drawn to better advantage in isometric or oblique. 149. 148. called the may be completed by drawing One drawn vertically. the others with the 30° triangle. of a rectanguthe length. Working drawings. 149. breadth and thick- FiG. and the student should be careful not to confuse the two methods in the same drawing. When it is desired to show the A 100 line parallel to an isometric axis is . Although they have disadvantages and limitations. and reference was made to the simpler pictorial methods of isometric and oblique drawing. In these pictorial representations the object is so placed that three faces of it are visible on one view. Although theoretically these two systems different. 148(A). as shown in Fig. lines The If intersection of these three would be the front corner lar object.

which has square corners can be a skeleton of isometric construc- FiG. —Object with isometric lines Fig. —Object with non-isometric Hnes. To draw an object which has non-isometric lines in it. 149 are of equal length on the object but evidently of very unequal length on the isometric drawing. Thus all the lines of an object object composed entirely of isometric lines. Non-isometric lines can For example. Often it is necessary to draw one or more orthographic views first and box them with rectangular construction lines. the diagonals of the rectangle on Fig. and illustrates the method of making measurements on the original isometric axes and on lines parallel to them. The one important measurements can be made only on isometric lines. which can be drawn isometrically and measurements upon them measured directly. 150 is the isometric drawing of an . A line which is is not parallel to an isometric axis a non-isometric rule is called line. 150.PICTORIAL DRAWING called 101 an isometric line. not be measured. 151. Fig. tion lines must be built up. upon which measurements can be made.

giving D for the ellipse. Fig. and by drawA and B to the middle of the opposite sides. 152.102 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING transferred. Thus to get the isometric each other. a circle on it for example showing its true shape. This gives oblique drawing a distinct advantage over isometric for the representation of objects with curved or irregular outlines. 153 illustrates this construction on the isometric of a shelf. Hidden lines are always omitted except when necessary for the description of the piece. or cross axis may be at any angle. Isometric sections as illustrated in Fig. 153. the cut faces always being taken in isometric planes. A circle on any isometric plane will be projected as an ellipse. 155. B. Oblique Drawing. place . It differs in that two of the axes are always at right angles to Fig. as shown in Fig. and the isometric square circumscribing the circle must always rectangular figure. while the third. be drawn first. Fia. The usual construction is to make a four centered circle-arc approxima- tion. the plane of the two axes at right angles will appear without distortion. —Approximate isometric circle. C. Fig. —An isometric section. any circle-arc the isometric square of its diameter should be drawn in the plane of the of To draw intelligently in isometric it is face with as much of this construction as is only necessary to remember the direction of the three principal isometric planes. 154 may sometimes be used to good advan- tage. represented by the three visible faces of a cube or necessary to find centers for the part of the circle needed. the face drawn on is generally used. Fig. 151 illustrates made and this construction. finding the centers for the arcs ing 60 degree lines from the corners centers A. which has been drawn with reversed axes to show the under side. Fig. 152. 154. though 30 degrees Thus. Oblique drawing is similar to isometric in having three axes representing three mutually perpendicular lines upon which measurements can be made. and the first rule would be.

157. 155. the apparent distortion. rule should be followed to be too wide or thick. NOT THUS NOT THUS rule. which is noticeable both in oblique and isometric drawings. /\/OT THUS Fig. If 103 Fig.PICTORIAL DRAWING the object with the irregular outline or contour on the front plane. objects in oblique drawing always appearing there is no irregular outUne the second Fig. — Illustration of first rule. Other rules for drawing in oblique are similar to those for isometric. 156. Fig. — Illustration of second always place the object with the longest dimension parallel This is on account of to the front. 156. . 5 "g Y> ^ 5 THUS Fig. 157. —Oblique axes 71 illustrated.

The sketches are dimensioned. for practice in reading orthographic projection.104 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Keep dimension and extension plane of the face. to read a whole drawing at one glance. in Figs. in an attempt to overcome the appearance of excessive thickness. 19. and cabinet drawing compared. view to find out what kind of a corner it is. oblique. 1st. oblique and cabi- two purposes: practice in isometric net drawing. a 12" X 18" sheet will contain any four of the first its axis sixteen problems. nor expect to be able. Cabinet drawing is a modification of oblique drawing in which all of the measurements parallel to the cross axis are reduced one-half. acquired a facility in In reading a drawing remember that a line on any view always means a corner or edge and that one must always look at the other Fig. 20 and 21 we made orthographic projections from the pictures. while others may be taken as reading problems to be sketched freehand. when. lines in the Cabinet Drawing. with instruments. 158. it will be noticed. and it is expected that some will be made as finished drawings. — 'Isometric. The beginner's mistake is in spoiling the appearance of his sketch by getting the axes too steep. Keep circles. 158 illustrates the comparative appearance of a figure Do lines. thus a sheet may be . Do not try. To the dimensions and scales given. Fig. Keep the axes flat. not confuse the drawing with dotted Problems. Sketching. illustrating some object or detail of in construction. for and oblique The numerous examples ing of pictorial draw- drawing. 2nd. The serve following problems are intended to drawn in isometric. used in illustration and explanation throughout this book will serve to suggest various practical applications of the subject that may be made after the student has its use. parallel lines parallel. form working sketches. just the reverse of what was done in our preliminary study of working drawings. < Always block in squares before sketching circle In isometric drawing remember that a on the top face will be an ellipse with horizontal. This translation from orthographic to pictorial form is. One of the valuable uses of isometric is and oblique or for either dimensioned to making freehand sketches. The following points should be observed.

^ ^\\ 1 /o^ Fig. —Corner plate. / § HOLE Fig. Fig. 165.—Shelf. // 4- i ± Fig.PICTORIAL DRAWING 105 Fig. 164. Fig.. -13 \4 i T r II < I •' ^ . 159. —Work bench drawer. 161. 162. . —Angle stop. 163. i i <^> J-U. T Fig.—Washer. — Countersunk washer.— Button. 160.

—Bench. 166. 170. —Section of barn door track Fig. LENGTH TO SU/T SfAce: Fig. .106 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING AUITEfflAL WHOUGHT Fig. 167. —Bolster stake iron. 168. IffON Off —Comer bracket. Fig.

PICTORIAL DRAWING

107

M
®

Fig. 171.

—Two forms

of

saw

horse.

made up
^

of Nos. 1, 3, 5

and

7,

of 2, 4, 6

and
^—

8.

Selections

or an alternate from problems
-

pictorial

made from
Chapter
allowed.

problems such as 24 and 25, may be the problems at the end of
III, selecting scale to fit

the space

PROBLEMS.
1.

Isometric drawing of angle stop,

Fig.

159.

Full size.
2.

Isometric drawing of drawer, Fig. 160.
1'.

Scale Full

IK" =
3.
size.

Isometric drawing of button, Fig. 161.

4.

Isometric drawing of corner plate. Fig. 162. Isometric section of washer, Fig. 163. Isometric section of washer. Fig. 164.
Full size.

Full size.
5.

Fig.

172.— "A" frame.

17 to 22 may be placed two on a sheet, and 23 should preferably be made large enough
to occupy a sheet alone.

Full size. Isometric drawing of shelf, Fig. 165. Scale 6" = 1'. Use reversed axes so as to show under
6. 7.

side.
8.

Isometric drawing of corner bracket, Fig. 166.

Numerous other

Scale

3" =

1'.

Use reversed axes

Fig.

173.— Sheep

hurdle.

108
9.

AGRICULTURAL DRAWING
Oblique drawing of section of bird-proof track Have break Fig. 167. Full size.
13. Isometric

drawing

of horse, Fig. 171.

Scale

for rolling door.
line follow

1" =
lines.

1'.

Notice

construction

for

non-isometric

form

of section.
iron,

10.

Oblique drawing of bolster stake
Scale

Fig.

14. Isometric

drawing of horse, alternate form
Scale 1"

168.

6" =

1'.

B
9i'

of Fig. 171. 15.

=

1'.

Oblique drawing of land level frame, Fig. 172.

Scale

%" =

!'.

16. Oblique

(or

isometric)

drawing

of

sheep

Tr
II
1

hurdle, Fig. 173.
Fig. 174.
18.

Scale y^"

= V
drawing of bird house,

17. Oblique (or isometric)

-H—

Scale 6"

=

1'.

Fig. 175.

(or isometric) drawing of book rack, Scale 6" = 1'. 19. Oblique (or cabinet) drawing of wheel. Fig.

Oblique

/O

/

A

176.

Scale 3"

=

1'.

20. Isometric (or oblique) drawing of angle brace,
Fig. 177.

Af/irSft/AL
Fig. 174.

—Bird house.

Full size.
(oblique

21. Isometric

or cabinet)
Scale

kitchen step ladder. Fig. 178.
Fig. 179.

drawing of 3" = 1'.

22. Isometric (or oblique) drawing of stone rake,

Scale

%" =

1'.

23. Oblique

(isometric

or

two-till tool chest, Fig. 180.

cabinet) Scale 3"

drawing of

=

1'.

Draw

with

lid

open, or break out a section, in order to

show
le/^TM ro
T

interior.

24. Isometric or oblique drawing of milking stool,
Fig. 75.
St/I

Fig. 175.
11.

— Book rack.
Scale

25. Isometric or oblique drawing of
Fig. 77.

gang mold,,

Oblique
Oblique
Scale

(or

isometric) drawing of spreader
Fig. 169.

for concrete forms.
12.

3" =

1'.

(or isometric)
1'.

drawing

of bench, Fig.

objects of Fig. 181 are to be sketched' freehand in the most suitable pictorial

The

170.

1^" =

system.

Fig. 176.

—Wooden wheelbarrow wheel.

PICTORIAL DRAWING

109

Fig. 177.

—Angle brace.

Fig. 178.

—Kitchen step-ladder.

Fig. 4-0" tvashurs S-i'6 Bo/fJ wifhwaahtrt Fig. —Tool . 2-g xy 8oJ/s with n'osherj £ \or>cl /ocir nut. 180.^ \%/y>/y'^/////^y^^/y>^yJyyy / /i^jls — /5 TO 0£ MAP£ OF^ A7/iT£R/Al. 179. chest.no AGRICULTURAL DRAWING e'-o"- eye Ao/Z-s /orpi///- . —Stone rake. ?=T --^-^ "«^iTj- ^ ^^ J'l r ^ _5 ji? 77/./.

—Reading problems.PICTORIAL DRAWING rr II 111 n !SlIi>ii\»l*I'^ o i. . ff - C r-- i=XP=^ 0-F Fig. 181.

10". for example. 12". 6". It is charged for by the linear is M M foot. then by 6" to 48". Sheet Metal is sold by gauge number 10 to 30 (thick to thin). 12".S. 16" 14".. 6". as the These measurement varies with different actual woods and in different localities. and preparing working drawings and specifications. Mill Work means work prepared at the planing mill. according as over. Stock and Commercial Sizes.. 7 X 9. 14" 16" 10". Glass comes in single and double strength obtainable. and as suggestions in their use a few problems are appended. 14" 14". are too various to be enumerated. A piece of 2" X 4" Y. 12" 12" 12".. 12". 00 to 36. or by the piece. Over 24'-0" and under lO'-O" is special. 16" 14". stock sizes of materials should be used as far as possible. and for the length add 6" to the length of the are locally recognized." Sizes run in inches as 6 X 8.. Dressed lumber indicated S2S. Windows are made Lumber. Screws. 8". familiar with the trade sizes One not classifica- thus i%6" thick. 8 X 10. and items of miscellaneous information are assembled in this chapter. etc. and there are 4 packs to (the letter ^ always used for 1000. 14"." "Florentine.. and in sizes 20" X 28" and 14" nominal. comes in lengths of about 20 ft. S4S. To obtain the width of frame add 43^" to the glass width for a 2-light window. either "check rail. SIS. 4". up to 24'-0". the widths advancing by 2" to 30".- 16" 12" to 120". J4" thick. and either plain or surfaced on one side.. for ready reference. 10"." or Lumber comes in standard lengths of 10-0". Sash has the same standard thicknesses as doors. etc. 8"." "chipped. and avoidance of trouble in procuring. thick to thin. and an S2S. 8 X 12. etc. and 112 . Doors have standard thicknesses of 13^". nails. "plain rail. and two panes. 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 8". Thickness window glass. 10". Width 10". one should be sure that grades and sizes of any materials specified Shingles are termed or ^^ according as 5 butts or 6 butts measure 2" thick. Galvanized iron runs in size from 24" X 72". such as "frosted. A 1" SIS board is both sides. may be not sizes are called X 20". 14". 12". as explained on page 32. 8". or all it is galvanized. (local) 6". 24" X 24" X 1% D. etc. Tin comes in two weights IC and IX. 6". 1%" and 1^". and is specified by the glass sizes. 12'-0". 6". Pipe is measured by the nominal inside It diameter. following 1" 4". For economy. etc. and a variety of obscure glass.). 8". to 16" 4". Their widths and heights vary in even two inches." "casement. 14'-0".P. 4". A number of tables. is Wire measured by wire gauge number. 10". plate glass of different thicknesses. They are 16" long. As these commercial sizes and standards vary somewhat in different parts of the country. and the lengths by 10". the needs certain information as designer to materials and commercial practice.CHAPTER VII CONSTRUCTION DATA In designing structures. larger than 1^" or 1%" X is 3^^"." An order would read 2 Lt. of which the latter is heavier. In width and thickness the nominal sizes are obtainable.

Table for the Selection Native Woods. shelled corn 2 lbs. Corn cultivator Corn binder Grain binder Grain Roller drill (8 ' 9' 9 ' (7 ft. ft.P. one ton occupies 512 cu. = IK cu. smallest practical size is 3". one ton occupies 600 to 800 cu. 100 sq. poplar. poplar. and contains 231 cu. 1 bu. per square. per cu. 95 130 130 iron. Heavy framing yellow pine. cotton seed meal 300. per cu.CONSTRUCTION DATA tions should at once 113 Lbs. spruce. The following table gives the over-all allowance for some common implements. Cast iron Wrought Granite Ice 12" and 24". It is sold in rolls of 108 sq. yellow pine. Straw. Hay. oak. Drain Tile comes in lengths 450 480 170 53 62. 1100 to 1400. There are various kinds and grades. ft. ready roofing 40 to 150. by the square. ft. Rope is measured by its largest diameter. as 3 strand or 4 strand. Space Required for Farm Implements. with the Sand. become so. inches. corn silage lbs. redwood. arranged woods somewhat in the order of their desirability and availability. redwood. Widths advance by inches and lengths by two inches. Joists Siding cypress. strength of rafters. and an important problem should not be attempted without assistance. . ft. Weights of Materials. the sizes the same as galvanized iron. ft. cut) Manure spreader hoe) 8 5 ' ' ' X 6' X lOM' X 10' X 11' X 17' X 12' X 7' X 14' X 14' X 16' X 9' X 3' Slate 750 to 900. clover or alfalfa The weight materials is per cubic foot of different per 1000 weight of live animal. The best sash cord is braided. = 2}^ cu. pine. and specified by its number of strands. and is usually a composition of bituminous or resinous compounds and felt It is sometimes coated with or paper. mon Oak The following list gives the suitable materials. oak. 1 bu. The snow load. pressed. coarse sand or slate. oak. making one square with allowance for laps. names. 12 lbs. 5 lbs.5 Water A gallon of water weighs S}i lbs. redwood. of often required. Slate is sold Metal Roofing comes in sheets or rolls. ft. Light framing hemlock. 20 lbs. 52 ft. Side delivery rake 10^' 6' 6' X 12' Corn planter X5' Weight of Roofing. 25 lbs. galvanized iron 100 to tile Ration for Beef Feeders. for different purposes. tractor horse) 9 8 5 ' The approximate weights coverings are 5' ' needed in determining the and wind pressure are also factors to be added in figuring roofs. Corn on cob. Add to the list for your own requirements. Ready Roofing comes under various trade Space Required for Storage. yellow pine. . Small grain. Yellow pine White pine Hemlock Maple Brick (average) Concrete (average) 45 25 25 49 125 140 — — — — — cedar. ft. wet Gravel assistance of a hardware store man. red cedar. Shingles run about 250 lbs. of different roof Mower Hay loader Rake (common 2 30 H. per cu. dry Sand.. Hay. table gives the weight of The following some of the comLbs. white Shingles cypress. and diameThe ters advance by inches up to 10" then by 2" up to 24". ft.

114 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Flooring oak. maple. feet. in. 75 for white oak.j . w 400 1600 Vehicles —hickory. edge grain yellow pine. (in etc. as figured from the 8 (Continued. L. 16 12 16 12 12 10 Note difference between edgewise and . in. birch. feet W. W „^ = —^ BD^A — D 4 of durability) osage B 2 2 * L •4 red cedar. The following tables give the safe load in pounds that can be carried by long leaf yellow pine timbers. W — . fixed at one end and uniformly loaded. fir. —cypress. is Formula lbs. 100 for yellow pine. and as indicated above. where W Beam loaded. D. in. cherry. walnut.) 1 4 * The values of W in this table are evidently just I. etc. supported at both ends and uniformly -" JormulaTr = D. black locust. % Table I Table III Beam fixed at one end and concentrated load at the other end. feet W. To find the comparative strength of other kinds of wood take 75% of the amount for white oak. pounds 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 *2 4 4 4 6 8 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 8 4 6 4 4 4 4 8 8 4 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 4 4 6 200 450 800 300 675 1200 800 400 8 10 12 12 12 10 10 10 12 800 640 532 1200 2132 3332 -2856 no 2 3 3 2 12 8 10 12 12 8 10 4 4 6 6 6 8 6 8 6 8 900 600 450 1066 3 3 6 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 8 8 10 10 10 12 10 6 8 10 10 10 12 10 12 800 900 675 540 1600 1200 960 1500 2000 1666 2880 2400 3600 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 8 12 14 16 4 12 12 12 12 16 12 12 12 12 8 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 8 8 10 10 * 8 10 12 12 12 12 2500 2000 4800 3200 5000 7200 4800 4266 6666 9600 6400 10000 14400 8532 13332 19200 14400 24000 18000 flat. r — . white cedar. oak. cypress. black ash. double those of Table formulas indicated. mahogany. catalpa. redwood. birch (cypress for porch). lbs. in inches. oak. ash. its depth in inches and L its length in the constant. is B. Fence posts — order Tanks orange. 60% for white pine and 55 for hemlock. in. oak. the safe load in B the breadth of the beam B. yellow pine. D A L. Interior finish — Table II — Beam „ J^ormula . chestnut. Strength of Timbers. mulberry..

or 4 will be of value in checking the plans of a dairy barn. The following table will serve as a guide as Height.8 7-10 8-10 9-12 9-12 11-15 11-16 12-17 15-21 16-22 18-26 13 13 7 13 14 16 13 15 19 21 19 25 25 25 33 33 33 33 24 25 30 35 36 43 50 55 Cement Sand Stone 2 2 3 4 5 2M 3 6 8 1. Dairy Score Card. 438. Sunshine Table. silos.46 0. 16 16 16 Cement.89 0. barnyard paving. and the capacity in number on 180 days feed with 40 of cows.47 0. single course walks. yd. foundation walls (D) 1:3:6 for footings. 10 10 10 11 • mixtures. A is the height dis- window.46 0. cows to feed for 180 to fill off 2" days feed used in making concrete for different purIt also gives the amounts of each in a cubic yard of concrete of the different poses. .77 0. Department of Agriculture and is of use in designing swine houses. The score card for dairy inspection given {F) Top course of two-course floors and walks made of 1:2 cement and sand.46 1. piers. in showing the relation between windows and width of pen so that the sun's rays may strike the floor. * The values of W All data refers to settled ensilage. {B) 1:2:4 for concrete blocks. on a 40 lb. tons to the proportions of cement. of sacks = 1 bbl. yd. B 2 D 4 w 320 266 mate number of acres required to fill each the number of cows. based lb. Use 16 20 30 32 32 32 36 30 34 38 32 36 40 44 26 47 51 62 74 87 91 109 128 131 155 180 207 3.5 5. Capy. Table VI Concrete. Table Proportions V Sand. ration. U. and Beam supported at both ends.93 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) 1:2:3 for tanks. Stone. feet. U. ration. of Agriculture.) 1 down the minimum amount per day. cu. Bureau . No. (C) 1:2>^:5 (light). reinforced beams and columns. Cement is usually sold in sacks of 96 lbs. sand and stone No. Department Animal Industry. Formula W L 10 12 = —— j in tons of silos of different sizes. S. acres No. which is necessary to have in figuring the quantities needed for a piece of 12 12 14 14 14 work. in this table are evidently one-half of those in Table III.92 0. S.. Table VII is compiled from Farmers' Bulletin No. (E) 1:4:8 for footings mass work where great strength is not required. with concentrated The following table gives the capacities load in the middle. first course of two course walks. or in examining an on the next page existing plant.CONSTRUCTION DATA Table IV Silos 115 Silage. small culverts..91 0.01 4 0. cu.70 1. Diam. and B the horizontal tance from window to rear of pen.77 0. silos. feet.8 6. bbl. It is printed in Circular 199.44 0. of top of for stable floors. the approxisize.52 0. foundations. fence posts.19 1. cows. to keep the ensilage fed 4 2 * (Continued.

ft. 2 Freedom from dust Freedom from odors Cleanliness of bedding 3 2 Barnyard Clean Well drained 1 1 Removal of manure from stable daily to 50 feet Smooth. 1 1 (If 1. ft. 1. 2. 2. 56° to 60°. — — + Methods = If any exceptionally filthy condition is . walls.5. Transportation below 50° F (51° to 55°. found.. . 2. room . tight walls and ceiling Proper stall. 4.) and no tuberculosis is found. Cubic feet of space per ft. or if months and all reacting animals removed 5 (If tested within a year and reacting animals are found and Stables Cleanliness of stables Floor Walls Ceiling and ledges 2 1 1 removed. (Less than 500 ft. 1 sq. 2 sq. Water for cleaning (Clean.5. less than 400 tempera1 1. the total score may be further limited. convenient.) Stored below 50° F (51° to 55°. tie. If the water is exposed to dangerous contamination. 56° to 60°. dry hands 3 3 6 cloth.) and ceiling Light.) Food (clean and wholesome) Water (clean and fresh) Mangers and partitions 1 1 Windows Stable air at milking time Stables Location of stable Well drained 1 Free from contaminating surroundings 1 Construction of stable Tight. 1. 3 (Placed over steam jet.. .5.. of glass per cow (Three sq. 2. ventilation. and manger Provision for light: Four sq. 0. controllable system at bottom. 2. screens delivered twice a day. 56° to 60°. cow 500 ft.) Milk Room or Milk House Location: Free from contaminating sur- (51° to 55°. sound floor and proper gutter. .) Small-top milking pail Milk removed immediately from stable without pouring from pail Cooled immediately after milking each Milk cooler Clean milking suits cow Cooled below SOT 1. 2. other openft with boiling water. 0. 0.) Total 40 Total 60 Equipment Final Score. or there is evidence of the presence of a dangerous disease in animals or attendants. particularly dirty utensils.) windows. or scalded .) Bedding Ventilation Care and cleanliness of utensils Thoroughly washed 2 Sterilized in steam for 15 minutes.) for controlling Handling the Milk Cleanliness of attendants in milk Utensils Construction and condition of utensils. 1.) Protected from contamination Cleanliness of milking Clean. roundings Construction of milk room Floor. 3. 1. ft. ft.) Udders washed and wiped (Udders cleaned with moist 4. 6. . allow perfect score for storage and transportation.. the score shall be 0. and abundant. less than 300 Provision ture cleaned with dry cloth or brush at least 15 minutes before milking. ..11« AGRICULTURAL DRAWING Dairy Score Card Score Score Equipment Perfect Methods Allowed Perfect Allowed Cows Health Apparently in good health If tested with tuberculin within a year tested within six Cows Clean 1 (Free from visible dirt. Deduct for uneven distribu- tion. 1 . .) Separate rooms for washing utensils and handling milk Facilities for steam (Hot water. 3 (Windows hinged sliding ings. . 1 1 Cleanliness of milk Milk Room ob Milk House room Utensils and Milking 3.. Note Note 1. Provision for fresh flue air.5.

this method of judging. of. Some of these depend on actual measurements. convenience. if no covered porch. of. table. cut. If rear stairs of. 4'-10" 3'-7" 12' 12' 9'-9" 7'-7" 12' 16'-0" 12' 10' 4'-ll" 5'-ll" 4'-6" 5'-5" 10' 10' 12'-5" 10' 44°N. m. 1st Feb. kitchen or in remodeUng an old one. . Shelv failing reach the standard indicated. cont.). 5'-4" * 12' 12' 12' 12' 4'-0" 10' 5'-5" 6'-6" 10' 8'-2" 10' 10' 42°N. pantry) are farther apart than 12 ft. 3'-10" 2'-10" 12' 12' 12' 13'-10" 10'-9" 12' 10' 4'-l" 10' 10' 10' 48°N. 11. Distances If any two (sink. p. convenience. l8t Mar. 4'-4" 12' 12' 9'-l" 7'-0" 8'-5" 6'-6" 12' 14'-11" ll'-6" 12' 3'-3" 10' 10' 10' 10' 46°N. the ideal kitchen would score 100 points. go up from Kitchen. size. The kitchen score card given may be used in connection with the planning of a new In Serving ing. if only one cut 5 Stores Pantry. (Kitchen score card. and cuts are made under each of the four heads for any items to Pantry.for — Kitchen at Scored by — Doors If more than 4. 3 o I. convenience.. Accessibility to front door. 3 o swung if direct. Clock Shelf.cut 1 point for each. points. —Arrangement of space for equipment Sink —convenience Stove convenience Table —convenience 2 —Storage 1 Plan— 35 Points. Outside door direct to covered porch. 3pts. 1st Lat. m. Jan. 5'-10" 4'-5" 12' 12' 10' 5'-10" 7'-0" 10' 8'-9" 10'-6" 10' 14'-4" 17'-2" 13 '-4" 10' 40°N. 117 and 2 1st Sun in Rear at 10 a. Door to Dining Room double each ft. Refrigerator. Accessibility to upstairs. 15 Accessibility to cellar. Light and Ventilation 25 15 Two exposures. Apr.CONSTRUCTION DATA Table VII. stove. A 4'-10" B lO'-O" 12' A 6'-4" 7'-7" B lO'-O" 12' A 9'-4" 11 '-3" B 10' A 15'-6" 18'-7" B 10' 38°N. 3 adequate. while others are matters of judgment. 3'-5" 12' 4'-ll" 12' 7'-10" 12' 12'-11" 12' Kitchen Score Card. cut }4 pt.

in Pantry. Height of 1 point. there are two general methods. artificial light —at Estimating. at table.drainage 5 6 —Fireless Cooker — Chair and stool Total 100 Dwellings. lOf^ ten years ago would run 12 to 18^ fortable. Remarks Glass area = 20% of floor area. cont. cut 2 points. It consists simply in figuring the and con 12 floor cubic contents of the entire building. K. wood wainscot IV. 10 to 12 12 to 15 " good " 15 to 20 Barns. 1 pt. condition. no broiler. etc " brick. by a unit price per cubic foot. cut 40 points. 3 points. Floors 1 —Floor Resilient and grease proof. Monolith Linocloth Approximate estimates are used termining cost. cheerful. The methods are based on a knowledge of the cost of similar structures. or In making an estimate of the cost of a proposed structure.. sills 1 point. The following list of unit costs may be cost of one. preHminary sketches are made. leum. material. meas- oven is less than 10" from uring to the outside of the walls. small frame. tin. good " " " plumbing. — 10 Points. and are fairlyaccurate and reliable if all conditions. if smaller than 6 pt.118 {Kitchen score card. and a house built for 1 uncom- 8 or now. no thermometer. and the detailed estimate. softwood. — If under 34" cut 1 Ventilating hood or flue III. and multiplying cut 1 pt. Cut for iron. are known. or a taken as giving safe general averages at the present time. if The cost of building is Splashboard. single. cut 2 pts. ft. stove. at sink. no hot water in Kitchen. at table. no plumbing " " frame. The cubic method is the one generally after used. O. heating. Equipment 1 —Stove —adequate dition If If If —30 points. Drainboard double. etc. the approximate estimate.). small " large (with stables) 3 to 4 4 to 5 . or for getting the approximate cost 2—Walls Light. cut 1 point. Transom on outside door. size — 1 point. if materials and labor. etc. K. Kitchen is used as Laundry. Hardwood. oil carpet. such as the relative cost of labor and materials. Size. 3 points each. complete • 5 to 6 8 to 9 . 3 points each. sanitary. with the rise in prices of —cut Height—cut 4—Refrigerator sq. cut 15 points. Satisfactory daylight Satisfactory —at Suggestions for Improvement stove. cut 1 point for each 1% under. cut 20 points. per inch. cut 2 points wood 3—Table Size steadily increasing. plain. which has been determined by dividing the 2—Sink Enamel or Porcelain O.. cut 3 points if number of similar structures by the number of cubic feet contained. if Window none. at sink. 3 —Woodwork Cut Cut for Cut for wall paper or dark color for dust catching or projections — mouldings 1 point.. for de- the size possible for a given Cut for cracks. AGRICULTURAL DRAWING If If If no water in Kitchen. and Walls — point.

and with ascertained local prices fully in connection with the planning and pro- on materials and labor.00 Swine houses. Detailed Estimates. per ton capacity $1 50 to $4 50 Residences.CONSTRUCTION DATA Other approximate are 119 methods the for pre- square foot liminary estimates on the area in square feet method. complete. ft. The accurate method amounts of estimating is to and Sewage Disposal. or per ton of material to be stored.M. yd. per cu. = 1" X 12" X 12") be used for heating. cu. per animal .00 per square $4320. yd. the from actual costs. M Concrete floors and walks. per sq. per sq. gravel and crushed stone yd. Dwellings. suitable provision must be made and shown on the plans for location and outlets. costs per unit are listed below. ft. $12 00 Silos. or if a hotair or hot-water furnace is to be installed. and to provide totals of the cost of each this total should be item in place. ft Dairy barns (large). In lighting. Unit costs following figures. per cu. . per pen Hay storage barns. if gas or electric plants are to be installed. Frame Floor Sheathing per cu.54 $5 68 $0 48 $59.00 $2 50 to $ 3. Lumber Brick Brick work Stone work cu. Lighting. per M M per M per $400 00 $200 00 $25 . (4 sacks) Cement Sand. ft $1.00 In . . foot. or $2. .25 . The advantage of an independent electric plant for both light and .00 . room Windows. ft. per cu. add the design of farm structures. . per per sq. in planning a residence we have to whether stoves and fireplaces will Materials are measured in the following units of measurement.50 to $ 2.00 to $10. tingencies. (or ft. 112 to 115. based covered by the plan.00 to $10 . per sq. ft. Concrete and masonry Feet of board measure (B.) square thousand bbl. per sq.11 $35. Ventilation. except to call atten- tion to the need of considering them ing into the structure. . sometimes cord or perch) Excavation Roofing Paint Shingles square (100 sq.a cubic estimate this would give 5^ per cubic foot.40 $30. yd Concrete work in place (reinforced).50 to $10. and the unit methods of cost per room. . Plumbing. ft. per cu. and to locate registers or radiators where desired in each room.00 Heating. Concrete work in place (no forms). As a general guide to present prices. wall surface cu. and if so to see that flues and chimneys are arranged in the most convenient and economical way. the of all the different materials enter- discuss these subjects.25 $1 . 7 to 12fi The total cost of barn as estimated is $5.40 $25. per sq. yd. ft Stables. It is beyond the scope of this book to care- "take off" from the finished drawings. per sq. to place furnace and fuel Thousand (M) sq.00 $11. average Doors Siding Slate . yd $8. yd Concrete work in place (forms).) (sometimes sold by the ton) rooms to the best advantage for runs of pipe and location of air intake. tractor. per ton capacity. yd. figures refer to All work in place. were used in the estimate of the dairy barn whose plans were given in Figs. and in the case of a general con- Thus decide 10% for profits.00 $5 . Painting each per sq. yd. per Stables (horse or dairy). (cu. To on the drawings for the systems added say 10% for con- posed. per animal to be housed.00.00 $2. Average Excavation Foundation Concrete floor $0 30 $7 20 $0.

What will the floor 9)4 per sq. no and expose to sunlight for from one-half to three minutes. what will be the cost of excavating for the house shown in Fig. or sometimes on tracing paper. To make a blue print. Silage (compacted) weighs approximately 40 pounds per cubic ft. Footing 30" below grade. except as fresh air is introduced through furnace registers. These tracings are Practically At $5. 134? Make a sketch of wall section showing grade line. suggestive of made. working drawings are made in pencil on detail paper and traced on tracing cloth. obtainable. Then take out exposed paper and put it in a bath of water for about five minutes. Problems. for the whole period? Blue print paper is bought ready sensitized and may be had in different weights and degrees of rapidity. either alone nection with the illustrations in Chapters III and IV. sand. There are various state codes to be observed regarding soil pipes. number of prints may be taken from one tracing. A ventilating flue and hood is a desirable addition to the kitchen. is able to have made at comparatively slight memories cluster. blue-printed by exposing a piece of sensitized light or electric light in paper in contact with the tracing to suna printing frame made for the purpose. 1. estimate the the foundation for the machine shed shown 124. The track is supported by a yellow pine timber projecting 6'-0" without support. In planning for plumbing.120 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING for the entire farmstead should be power considered. ft. 112 to 115 is to . The ventilation of dairy and horse barns to. How large must his silo be to allow 200 days' feeding. and should for economy be kept in vertical runs. King's ''Ventilation" should be procured and studied. The dairy barn shown in Figs. in must they be 3. In almost any town one blue prints cost. using or in con- or problems PROBLEMS. 182. Thus the bath room is best located somewhere over the kitchen. 8. A farmer is feeding 40 steers the ration given on page 113. A grain bin with a capacity of 500 bushels of wheat is 12'-0" X 8'-0". particularly if water power is the frame with inked side toward the glass and place the unexposed paper on it with the sensitized surface against the tracing. pipes should be on inside walls if possible.? 5. a transparentized fabric. How many tons of silage will be contained in a silo 14' X 38' if 6' is allowed for settlement after filling? 6. It is not usual in residence construction to provide a ventilating system. 104 all 4. The open fireplace has a distinct value as a ventilator. to support the load safely? How much if cement. and hang up to dry. The resulting print Any has white lines on a blue ground. supposing that the ration is the cost at same 7. A general estimate of $30. apart from its sentimental value as the spot about which home depending upon the speed of the paper. etc. How large In sewage disposal the advantage of the tank has already been referred to. consideration in and is a very modern con- corners are turned under. Lock up in the frame. vents. Fig. The joists are of white pine spaced 12" from center to center. seeing that has already been referred important struction.00 per person for septic a family of ordinary size figuring the cost of an may be made approved type. Hay is taken in at the end of a barn in loads varying from 500 to 1200 pounds. Blue Printing. lay the tracing in At SO^ per cubic yard. The following problems are a large number that can be the data given. and basement 7' in the clear. its capacity 15 barrels of water? cost of in Fig. and stone will be is necessary to construct the water tank shown in Fig. The dangerous cesspool should be abandoned. What should its dimensions be? 2.00 per cubic yard.

— Blue-print frame. 121 how much Allowing 1 gal. What is the weight of the wrought iron bolster iron Make an shown in Fig. ft. barn shown in Fig. Make a cubic estimate of the cost of the house estimate of the cost of the horse shown 10. 182. to 300 sq.CONSTRUCTION DATA be painted two coats. gallon? 9. in Fig. What will be the dimensions of a storage barn to hold 120 tons of hay? Make allowance for onehalf of space above plate. ft. 134. for priming coat and coat. 168? O/ass Fig. for second will the paint cost at $2. to 500 sq. 116. 11.00 per 1 gal. 12. . Use approximate methods to check your detailed estimate.

Radford Architec- — Experiment Stations. 206 pp. The list is classified into books. some of the branches referred to in the Ekblaw. intended for advertising purposes.CHAPTER VIII SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A short list of is books and pamphlets on "Farm tates buildings of practical. may be had on application to the Editor and Chief. Poultry Houses and Fixtures. N. Sanders Publish1914.50. 347 pp. McBride Nast & Co. $1. Georgie Boynton. A. Quincy. 1914. "A 1909. ill. — Ellis. A monthly list of the bulletins published by the U. — A from the standpoint . Hopkins. R." collection of . every climate. A text book for Agricultural Engineering courses. Chicago. . ing Co. Y. — The Rochester Ice House. and while tural Co. 242 pp. A compilation of articles appearing in the Breeder's Gazette. S. J.00. $1. in Fig. N. not to be regarded at all as a complete but simply as a representative selection of the rapid strides in scientific MacMillan & Co. Reliable Poultry Jour1913. McBride Nast & Co. 111. of recent publications. discussion of the planning of the kitchen of economy in operation. W. 1914. ill." aid to those wishing to investigate further A book designed for large escountry places. and sanitary research. C. $2. ill. a large portion of the books and other material now in print may be regarded as practically obsolete. Co.25. Radford. sanitary and aror aUied subjects into here included. $. Y. State bulletins may be seapplying to the Agricultural Excured by periment Station of the State. and much information may be gained from them. of barns. The Efficient y Kitchen. McBride Nast & Co.50.. house illustrated some of these publications are well worth Board of Health. Y. T. common-sense plans out-buildings. contributed U.75. $2.00. 127. Modern Farm Buildings. Department of Agriculture at Washington. bulletins of the —Farm Buildings. $1.. and the use of new or improved building materials and methods of construction. every fancy. Making a Garage. ill. Government and state bulletins are published with some frequency. and stock sheds. $. Practical Barn Plans. Department of Agriculture.. by practical 354 pp. N. — A Reliable Poultry Journal. and books or pamphlets issued by manufacturing concerns. compilation of articles appearing in the "Poultry house suggestions for every breed. Rochester. nal Pub. Alfred. A. K. present work. Manufacturers are compiling valuable and interesting data and information in their catalogues of materials or appliances. securing and preserving. with a general discussion of materials. On account construction and engineering of farm structures. bulletins of State Colleges and Agricultural men and dealing with actual structures. 172 pp. 1913. Division of Publications.. Chicago. —Farm Structures. D. rather than the average farm.." Child. ill. 637 ill. A bulletin describing in detail the construc- tion and operation of the ice BOOKS. 1913.00. 95 pp. It is list. S. as a possible tistic lines. of the series of — One 122 "House and Garden Mak- ing" books. .

No. Kentucky cultural — and Agri- Experiment Station. 123 of concrete. Tables of position of sun's rays at different times of the year. figs. Farmers' Bulletin No. . in each case with working drawings and cost based on actual experience. or for home study. 26 pp. A reference book on the different branches of Ames. — Poultry field. $2. Ives. N. 1914. Silo. & Sons. Ames. Methods and structures pertaining tion. Mo. 37 figs. Department of Agricidture. E. $.25. Y. — Farm Poultry Houses. Well adapted to southern conditions. C. — Use Water N. Movable Hog Houses. 475. Samuel. $2. An extensive discussion of planning. The principles. Bulletin No. Plumbfor These three bulletins are excellent comprehensive treatments. Discussion of Farm Sanitation. ' 82 pp. — The Ice Houses Farmers' Bulletin No. ^ Of interest principally to farm women. FoBTiER.lmost necessary. 17 figs. G. Elliott. Brief discussion of ice houses essentials. Wiley — Surveying Manual. 37 figs. especially designed for a brief course. Modern Silo Construction. and Sewage Homes. Covers average conditions met in this Farmers' Bulletin No. McGraw-Hill. Ames. —The Farm A short treatise on surveying. Bulletin No. S. 7 8 pi. MacMillan Co. $2. Houses and Workable explanation and How to Build $2. dairy farm for keeping milk and cream in the best marketable condition is discussed. C. Disposal Country Bulletin No. 141. Ky. pp. modified Wisconsin types of 1912. MacMillan Jno. and practice of of drainage. 11 figs. The student who expects to work along these lines will find such a book 9. ' 8. N. 289 pp.50. —Water Supply. 1914. Y. and the Use of Ice on the Dairy Farm. — Farmers' Bulletin No. Iowa State College.00. 623. — Bulletin No. N. —A Manual State of Engineer- Experiment Station and Agricultural 132. fixtures 107 pp. Iowa.SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY White. and application. 50 While this discussion is intended primarily for the State of Kentucky. Iowa. Bulletin No. Farmers' Bulletin No. McGraw-Hill.00. Jno. mechanical and electrical engineers. stave Silo. Lexington. 43 pp. Practical Farm Drainage. Suggested designs for six ice houses. — Homemade Monthly Bulletin No. technical drawing. 574.. Iowa State College. 296 pp. 29 pp. Jr.00. & Co. to irriga- French. specifi- — — — — Book of Little Houses. Missouri State Board of Agriculture. — Hog Houses.50. The use of ice on the of 265 1915. Them. Wiley & Sons. 38 figs. 179." The Missouri 47 pp. 62 figs. Farmers' Bulletin House Construction. ^ Handbooks. 57. figs. 20 pp. civil. Thos. it is wide enough to be of interest to dairymen generally. Iowa State Agricultural Experiment Station College. H. Iowa. College Bulletins. $1 . 6 figs. 1908. . Irrigation. 589. 152. Silos. Valuable "pocket size" reference books with engineering data and information are published for architects. — Bulletins U. 13 figs. 1911. 21 figs. E. Valuable for the design of sunlight type of swine house. —Successful and devices. Kitchen as a Workshop. in 24 pp. Y. 607. : cations. Vol. principally of arid lands. Columbia. 188 pp. 20 pp. 68 pp. —Ice Houses. 438. 20 pp. ing. XII. Construction Equipment of Dairy Barn. Y. C. ing Drawing. 46 pp.

. Covers the subject in a — land Cement Co. Ventilation. Economy 111. 9 figs. ill. Lowden Mfg. ill. Successful Stucco Houses. adapted by a manufacturer of stable ventilators. Easton. Co. Lowden's Barn Plans. 126 pp. ^ Concrete Silos. 136 figs. 66 figs. Clinton Wire thorough manner.. Co. $1. N.00. 63 figs. Cornell University. Universal Portland Ce111. suitable to Small 111. ill.124 AGRICULTURAL DRAWING 110. Building Poultry Houses. Owatonna. Y. Co. Experiment. Barn. Cement James Mfg. — Georgia Experiment The Modern Farmer. figs. Allentown. Chicago. Alpha Port- Presents arguments for round barn as a type. of the Round Universal Portland Chicago. 274. Co. Construction. Dairy Barn. King. ill. H. Farm Buildings of Concrete. Clinton. 158 pp. Bulletin No. its ConstrucAmerican Association Portland Ce- .. 143. Pa. Lehigh Portland Station. silo Co. Fairfield. The Concrete House and ment Mfrs. Illinois Agricultural Experi- ment Station. — New York. Urbana. F. 44 pp. 94 pp. Trade Publications. Agricultural Experiment Station. 26 pp. 42 Concrete in the Country.) (How to build a Dairy AND ON THE Farm. 44 pp. King Ventilating Co. ^Concrete ment 104 pp.. tion. Ithaca. Able discussion of types of region. Cement Co... 112 pp. Bulletin No. Cement 64 pp. Bulletin No. Pa. Wis. Ga.. Minn. 128 pp. A standard work on stable ventilation. Cloth Co. Fort Atkinson. about the Atlas Portland Home The James Way. ill. Iowa... Mass.

strength Bed rooms. 53 weight of. Books. 95. 33 to draw. 55 cork. 34 Connecticut trap nest. 30 Circle. 48 C Cabinet drawing. 31. 115 specifications for. 16 Clevis. 113 Bulletin board. 103 Cement. Gunter's. 4. Architect's scale. 108 list of. 39 Crosshatching. 44 Architectural drawing. 122 Boot jack. 48 weight of. 73 Bird house. 82 5. 30. 17 Braced frame. 54 Alphabet of lines. 120 Bolster stake iron. 108 Blue prints. 106 Agricultural college bulletins. to develop. 3 Assembly drawing. 96 Contours. 104 Cattle breeding crate. 41 proportions for. 28 bonding. 64 Basement. 63 for implement shed. 113 Cone. cost of. 64 symbols. 106 Bolts. lettering. 118 125 . 26 Cubic estimating. of a survey. service of. 119 fence post. 114 Bill of material. 115 Certification. 50 Chain. 106 of. 17 use of. 50. 27 Cautions. isometric. isometric. 68 horse. 16 Concrete. 70 Commercial sizes. 48 watering trough. 74 tester. 63 symbols. 84 Bench. 45 Brick. 32 Book rack. 45 Artist. 50 Barn-yard. 118. 86 plan. 90 Checking. 95 printing. 86 Beams. conventional. 9 24 symbols. 56 general purpose. 10. 44. 24 Approximate estimates. 24. 42 Bow pen. 100 oblique. 119 dairy. 68 Bams.INDEX Adjustable spacing block. 102 to draw. 54. 43 hog trough. 6 lengthening bar. 98 profile from. 95 Conventional lines. 43 gate post. covered. 27 standard. 91 B Balloon frame. 123 Breaks. 118 Architect. 31 Breeding crate. 112 Compass. 14 symbols. 25 Axes. 2 Contour map. 26 Auxiliary views. 30 for dairy barn. 31 in section. 94 Corn crib. 53 cost of. 87 Bath-room. 39 Colony swine house.

6. 49 Engineer's scale. 17 Doors. 102 Framing. 119 estimate for. 113 Drawing paper. 51 Drains. 56 specifications for. 6 Dwellings. 76. 25 Finish mark. fall of. 26 isometric. 7. 67 Glass. 9 G 26 orthographic. 60. 112 roofing. 115 Fly wheel. 84 Dipping vat. 104 detail. 49 Dining room. concrete for. 87. Fence posts. plans of. 119 Garage. Gang mold. 78 problem. 112 symbols. 115 Fences. 118 detailed. 46 Form. 88 implements. 27 Hall. 26 Feed alleys. 29 structures. 112 Good form. to develop. 50 balloon frame. 50. grade pin joints. 83. 61. 90 Ensilage. cost of. 113 level. weight of. 78. 66. 45 Gunter's chain. 97 problems. 34 Farm house. 6 cautions. 119 Estimating. 59. 91 Fastenings. 18 house. 3 5. 114 for. 75 Grindstone. 5. 47 survey. 86. 115 weight of. for concrete trough. cost of. 84 Experiment station . 66. 62. 119 Developed surfaces. 96 Dividers. 50. 91 structures. 120 Estimate. 90 map.126 Culture. 10 Gradient. 69 Ditches. 68 braced frame. 61 requirements for. 46 Dimensioning. 79 Field book. 68 plans for. 2. 113 of. 41 Foundation. 64 details. 81 General purpose bam. 5. 64. 30 Fire-stopping. woods for. 118 approximate. 64 plans for. 43 Detailed estimates. assembly. 43 trap. 56. 115 use of. 123 Half-section. for dairy barn. 85. 90 Extension lines. 82 D Dairy barn. perspective. 32 wood proportions for. 26 cabinet. 100 oblique. 48 Drain. of bolt. silo 79 concrete for. 32 rules for. 40 118 E Elevations. 62 90. tile. 44. 64 concrete. 94 Cylinder. 96 Drawing. 5 Granaries. 118 cubic. 95 INDEX symbols. 29 bulletins. 31 Faulty lines. 68 Freehand sketching. 96 Grammar. stair. 89 score card. 114 Floors. 9. 116 Detail drawings. 12 62. 20 Feeding stick. space required. 58. Galvanized iron. 77 Gates. 52 Flooring.

82 ice. 20. 72 Non-isometric lines. 25 order of. M 113 72. 72. 119 cot. 44 trial. 43 roman. 101 Notes on drawings. 96 Reinhardt. 5. poultry. 101 2. 86 Horse barn. Metal roofing. alphabet of 10. 71 smoke. 51 Joists. 23 . 97 problems. 65 House. 73 problem. 112 Miter box. 113 sizes of. 5. 84 Ice boxes. 102 map. 80 Maps. 43 K N Kitchen. 114 Isometric. 119 symbols. 20 grade of. 1 Lengthening bar. 101 section. 107 bearing of. 26 sketching. 84 step ladder. 104 Markers. 10 6 measuring. space required Inking. 96 Language. 48 Lines. 79. 91 dimension. Implement sheds. 86 Mangers. woods for. cow. framing. 17 to divide by Living room. 22. 22 Oblique drawing. 99 quadrangle. 76 symbols. 71. 100 problems. 38 on maps. 96 topographic. 30 O Landscape maps. 96 isometric. 91 Joints. farm. 76 Interior finish. 70 Hurdles. 102 farm office. 78 farm. 23 basket. 38 Instruments. 117 Nests.INDEX Hay rack. 9 tangent. 107 Lighting. 90 drawing with. 62. 73 for. 17 Lettering. 17 Lumber. 42 127 Lettering. civil engineering. 64 plan for. 91 Order. lines. single stroke inclined. 91 landscape. 75. of inking. 3 113 Monuments. 38 of penciling. 90 frame. circle. 22 Heating. 48 weight of. 40 Mill work. 2. 78 swine. 14 poultry. 113 Milk stool. 69 problem. 29 faulty. 95 drawing. dairy. 81. 38 Insulated walls. 91 Muffler. 76 implement. 84 5. 96. 67 horse 64 Manure pit. 22. Office. 82. 73 Hog Level. list of. 112 houses. 109 score card. Machine shed. 90 Implements. 24 upright.

56 Orthographic projection. 31. 22 ruling. 22 . 6 architect's. 34 Sectional views. 107 rack. 51 diagram. 99 structural. 74. order of. 40 Sash. 53 Posts. materials. 100 Pipe. forms of. Saw-horse. 45 Sheep. 38 Pens. 9 Penciling. 11. 50 Planning. ice house. 107 Scale. 23 Rendering. 38 Profiles. 96 weight of. 76 26 Roman letters. 3. barn. engineer's. 86 Portland cement. 91 use of. 113 Silo. inclined letters. 89 of a map. 113 Roofs. 117 Screened porch. 56. 24 Rope. 35 Problems. 120 Porches. 104 map. 103 Ruling pen. 115 rack. 30 for dimensioning. for checking. INDEX Rochester 7. Paving. 115 Pencil. 119 ready. forms of. isometric. 113 Patterns. 119 foundations. 3 Pictorial drawing. to develop. 53 selection of woods for. 20 20 Sack-holder. 76 Ration for beef feeders. 35 Sheet metal. 26. 102 Septic tank. 82 Plans. 79. 112 s Perspective drawing. elementary. 13 working drawings. 27 Single stroke. 113 Roofing. 49 turned. 56 metal. 80 Plank frame. 28 90 Plats. 39. 115 Record. 42 tables. 6 use of. Sheave. 71 hurdle. 112 suitable woods for. 121 cost of. 26 Sections. 35 manure. 5. 114 Poultry houses. 84 Screws. 84 sleeping. 9. 6. 75. 81 Painting. 92 Reinhardt letters. 52 tile. 32. 113 R Rat-proofing. 71 Prism. dairy. 120 sketching. 29 for oblique drawing. 41 vertical letters. 113 Paddocks. 3 Revolved sections. to develop. 79 proportions of concrete for. 112 fittings. 47 Pit. 113 Siding. 79 Sewage disposal. 20 isometric. 86.128 Order of preparing plans. 79. Rules. wood for. 24 Road drag. concrete for. 23 roman letters. 12. 78 cost of. 28 Score card. 96 40 Protractor. 90 Pyramid. 116 kitchen. 81 lettering. 113 Q Quadrangle sheet. farm. 15 sketching with. 32 to make. 27 18. 91 Plumbing. animal. 52. 42 56 weight of. 112 Shingles.

a farm. 63 Space required. 129 S. 17 scale. 112 detail of. 14 Table. 56 Sketching. 118. use of. wood for. specifications strength of. 20 Windows. 94 Trade publications. 48 conventional. 110 Topographic drawing. 122. 113 Weight. for. dipping. 15 Troughs. 6 use of. 123 quadrangle sheets. 117 Tangents. 16 dividers. 96 standard threads. 11. space for. Tile. detail of. 56 weight of. 115 Wash room. roofing. 13 Slate. 32 silo. size of. 113 weight of. 30 Tool box. * 32 64 38 113 stall. 91 working drawing. for storage. 113 Timber. 86. concrete proportions. 119 sunshine tables for. 117 Symbols. 39 chest. 124 Trap nest. 91 certification. map. 90. 120 W T-square. 113 Weights of materials. 72 Triangles. 61 symbols. 31 pipe. 5. U. 26 for dairy bam. 14 48 materials in section. 112 Threads. 119 U. 89 Stock and commercial sizes. 113 for farm implements. 95 symbols. Standard. 41 Turned section. 108 Windmill brake shoe. 69 Vegetation symbols. drain. concrete for. 114 Ventilation. 55 Sunshine table for swine houses. 115 pipe sizes. 9 from objects. 115 sunshine. 55 boat. 68 cost of. 94 Vat. 61. 89 Stucco. 114 Structures. 91 Swine house. 112 Titles. 30 topographic. 32 Use of compass. 115. architectural. Government. 27 u Unit costs. 32 selection of woods. 57. 119 Units of measurement. 114 weight of. proportions of concrete for. 112 Stone. 1 13 Specifications. farm. 117 Survey. weight of. 56. forms of. 113 Tin. 30. 78 pictorial. 14. S. 42 rake. 2. 6 84 64 Stalls. 78 Stables. 104 problems. 115. 119 Stairs. 113 Wheelbarrow wheel. 17 Tanks. 115 woods for. 24 roofing. 48 . 31 lighting.INDEX Sizes. space required for. 113 Strength of timbers. 89 115 strength of timbers. 57. lumber. 47 problems. 113 Smoke houses. 84 Water features. 114 Threads. cost of. 94 storage tank. 114. 94 Vehicles. hollow. 12. 68 Steers. 115. 110 Storage. bulletins. concrete. 62 Spring house. 113 Walks. 67. 28 T-square and triangles.

130 Windows. method of . Wood. 111 drawer. 67 INDEX Work bench. 44. 5 selection of. classes of. 5. construction. 114 113 definition. 112 ventilating. 105 3. 38 strength of. weight of. Wire. 50 Working drawing. 113 26 26 making.

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THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE STAMPED BELOW AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE.R.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY OVERDUE. THE PENALTY WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH DAY AND TO $I. 27Aug58IV!F PCC. JV?AR io •• NOV 5 1941 '^^^^^ D.q .'37 ^ .r.W^^^^ 0CT2 1 19.C D Lw 1960 MAY 4 LD 21-95m-7.97 A^\y* -^ .

VE 21779 UNIVERSITY OF GAUFORNIA LIBRARY H .

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