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Vo!lurne .31'5.• issue 5813

COVIEIR
A solalF f.~rm (Ql~~(ts a Unyfr ii('~'1QIl

IDIE,PAJUM IENI1'S,
73 11
733

O'f the 174,000 t~rawtlU~ of' ent>rg,~ s~rikill,g Ea r~ih iln~hlt 'form, ,Of)UllliIQ ht, ~n 2005" '~~e-r.ti~~ ~f 910OO~.en ~fgJY OOrirlUIiYipliol'i war; abom 16. 3 l~rawan). See the special ~ct'OI'1I on $!Js,lal00bil,lty a !~d eQlergy lbe~il!lmn.g on page 78]. PhoN fll'~t'Mio\Q:: .K!i1iiy.Krous$iSderl(@

742 743

739'

S,.reR"Ii;,lil Orlll ne This: WeekiCl Sciellc1(?

~djt~i~' (:h~h:e (ont.ad: SJEie/l{;e RQII'IU:ol'l1! Sampi!?'S
N~llsmak~r:$ Nl"I\I' !Ii'md:uc:ts SCieRri:,e Careers,

:;;4S 867

871

Onmges:

G,eltylO~jlMi ~si~jl

IE,D'ITOIRIAL
:..~ ~diff)riat p. 737,- S!:.i1fW~ C"a~~.r.r H!uif:m Po 868

1'37

relrlr~rl orrooe rl'iQi'enal I:i!'ld PQdW5t W~ p. 131 Qr go la w~"'N.gkfilC'eml19-rfrf}/sc ie.&~[I~ ~'armrbNj"rrl
ffX

by Jolm p,' Holdren

~IIJE!

rgy o1l!lid :5.ustai

naillilily

~> SuslDIrrilblMy and Enef!JJ' .serr?Oi'I p, 781

SPECIAL

SECTION

Sustainahility
IIN'irRODUCfliONI
EIi1~rgy ,r.,r: t~,~L(iiil'i') H!alill

and E,1n,e rgy'
781,

INIIEWS,
A:SI.iI)ti:l~nab~e 'ftlt.Uf'e', HWe

Pay Up IrlNml

782 734 735 786 787

Sl@@.iI1l9 ;:I NatiilHIf! lli!b IInt:e the LtQ lilt Emekol Momenl flil~ :S;tl~l!d Stl1iiU (eHs IHITrad; Hcm!'~® Make B'kduJeb Wrulll' l1'op'~in
SIlT!;:!lll1h~'rI~hl.!iI, IEredrij~'i!!dnotih. ,andthi@ I:M'i1!lI!ty !l:h f~rle M~:s

A,f:l!!e:~r~lr Sm:ii'!Uf'arms
Wlringl Ulil EUir,ope':~ (ol'!$llfln~

758

Hi!{d:roI]I';N'I~c~i!1omly? tet $Ui1lli9Iht [lit:) t,~e WQrk G~idin!J1 a r! 'Oi ~ r~If!~~r!1iOOR!~!l;€'~"!'Clbt~W.altt~r~ I
Irea,diingl

788 789'
790
1

INIE,W:S O,f TIHIE WEclt<
I ~tematiOf)a;[ Teal!'Iil R~ll~s.es D~s~gJi!.C(l~t f'Of
11'!J~'tGiiElQi~, p"nide 5millS~f:!{

746
747 748

the NlIJdea,r' Fue ~(vci~eMi i'u~~i eld
ii'll

791,

N(ii'ViIay~ PI Nud€l~r Deml(!ll'l'StraJt]Ofl IPi'!o~ei(;t?

PhO'toiy(ll~aks
FOrI'lMl!r

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792 792
793 794,
795

BP' B,ei:sIBig on llIC Ber~ley Ahka~

~(lIrNoV€,I.IBio(ueib; (enter

ILB<llde'r:5 Elfldo:rs.e Sderu:e IIl1t1ativ€s

Reth~nking Modll,er Nature'$ (lhoi('e$, Marine Seeks 11Mnd'~lIIEMII?IRI~:SS

R~dsm A.UegaJlions Taint (h·in.e5e ~n{lrll'O IF!eC~I.I;l
Over~ea,> 11i1 ~~lllt

748
749 749

(ata l)!'Zing the l~i'Iii,ergei'l(:e 0:1'a Pr anlcii ilBi(lrefiliiery

R:e'!t s.Ylll1lpt(llms. Rev~r:5edifl Mke
:..~xi~nce
UpI'f'Sl

fleparl/ by 1. Guy et oiIL

IPlcRSPECfIVES
DCl!,!'t F(j\r~,~t 1~!!)n9''I'twm IF,u!'!I:l"IiIII~llIt;:dRese"H:iliil1l E~ergy G.I\\'I, Wliiresides (l{rd G. W. (~blre(f Toward CQ~HH~(t;i!,l'C' sotar EfI.@'rg~ US!!! N, S. leviis Cha ~i~!?nlg~ ill E~'£iif1 s eering ,I\~](liob~s, B~oitlel:50 P\r,c,nl:ll,lil;tn en ~or

SCIENC ESOJPE

796 798
SOl

R!l"Se.::w;,~Ri~'sr-cG!ll1id raUr-il'l the Pre-srd~IIlI:'~
Sp~Ii!'di~lglPlaUli
NIH Child re!ll/~ swd'!i SP'u~ fight. NStF EduC<ltiClIIIIP«Ignllllli 8I1!\bound~ 5d~UlI[ie Adv15~r l8aUli!\!SCilm~;r
~ASI'I TiileslCI ~~ $pa!lef'or. Scl'linQe

750

G. 51t:phanapoufo5
Bi'(mll;a~ ~ecah:Hra 1'I(j~: Ellgi nee rn 1119 llalnt5..mil Em.yrnes fl(llf' ~ Bi'(lIfuels Produ dio III M. f. fNmmeJ el at Etha 1'10 ~illr Susta:illl"lble I, a ). Goldembe'lfg

INIEWS ,F10CUS
Sdefili~l$.leU P,oHcyan.;a lter~ We're Alil Warming 808
til!;!'

754

1E11'I~r9~'Futuro
of :S~lthiJ'lY iHII

u:s. JlJ{lL;()'~ .A, ~\i!trm,m~lIll:SI!OI(h,mgQ?
Study Gf 1M andl lh~ Mi nd Hits .i;ll High Note U5i( ill lYiontre'a ~ (()rt~ro'!lI:H$i'al ilmm (t!lb (oming Into'Tille'irr O\~n? M
S,1J1;rn C61l C~ndida~fs,IProlihllal~ 758

Wo:r~d

Ren!~I'!"''lble Erie rgy So L!rt".e~<llIla till~R@:aJt]ti,~ Ellergy Agefldl~ J. PQ!'(jCi~ik Pil'e~r]n9t(l C~pU,l!I!'@ rb~:n (a

760

D. P. 5c/lrog
WWIH, sc:ierrlcemagl.org

SCIle,NeE! VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY 2007

725

CONTENTS
SC~IEN'CIE EX'IRIE,SS
""tW'IN"$

I

cien cexp ress_ 0 1'9'
AlflMOSPHElFtlC SCIENCE R.apidl O.a'Ii!.g~$il1llll(e I)is(iha~q!e' hOii!1 GI1OOPil!~lndOltlU~tG'la.ciers t. M, Howat, J, R, JOlJgMn, I)t :SC'(lrll00S :SoltdLh~ mB1!~n;:m~n~ show l~~too lfi'5dlilrg~' lirom ~1M!l11iij!ji!)r ijlJ~.etg'l~dm~ of th~ 'Gr~I1I~ltlJl,lloo Sheet dilU illQ,dl in 2:004 bUl ~I?I!I decr'@<J:$@d alm.lp~~~ 1m 2006"

MEDI:C.l~E

Iil.ewfxlll Oir N eUirolog~ica~. Defects ina Mouse Mill d:e~ of ReU.Syn d~(Dme }. 611Y.]. (iOll,}.. S~ffi'dgr!. 5. Cr:Jbb,~..Bird [11'1 mouse replica of an autlurHiik.-e gell~Hc di5Oirdl~f, eoctwMioo ,or ~'hed'eJeclive genE Oil r ~~rter ~mploms ,ap'pear amelioralM ~'h~ di~~1e, 51!.i~g;es~11i1{lliiIerapw~lta pproo,dh. a

10.l!.126h(ierm~.1l.13a389
S1RU C'fLJRAl B~Ol!OGY Clrysla~S:tr1UC:tUN!S ,of the Adelii'Ylllt.e S,en~Or fro nil I~if>sio\nVellls't AMP41!::'t:i'!l,iilted FlrQtei~ Ki naiSe iii. r£iwfiley (lt~d L ,'Sl~,(l'jiiro The c rys:ti!l S';nuc~lUfe 011,i!! k~ mel.abol,i( fi?1gU1lo!l!.orfeW,i'!~!!. hCI'Wit s·lm~s the rJI~o ~rAJP to AMIP' ; nitialIT!9 Jeedba~k prG~5Sil!5~O ,jJiPlIimi~eJ\JP !eveh ill! lihe i:ieU.

10'.112:Msci e<nce,l 13 M"i8
PHYSICS A n Inh~ n,sii( B'!IJ:nd~(i!!nl\l~lldlE lee [tonk >Glass wilh Ul1idi[!!cl;lonaJl, 'Do liIiIailis

i~ Uliderdoped Cupral:es: Y. /(,orisof(tJ IE! ut
T~,fam~ties
CUP1Olte-SU~fC:-Oll!dluc,t01S slOOWIl! shi!rre a oo~m~~ el'ectronic Ol~ to :5up!l\fstr,ud!u re thllt rm:~:v lhe pr'ecYr£or ~h~ to th e oll!f;lI!l 0'~5iUpe~,o~uhJc.wi,~~+ be

ar

W.1l26I$cien(E'.] B 75 0,::1

1{11l2Ms.cte!'lce"lB6584

lETTERS
Umii~ IIli~he 1'~UIiIiI'lIn CH1(Ie!'r 6e'nome IPr,o,jecl?' 762 IN.: j. Chng: L;1, h:tfb Gnd J. H. Sielas; B.'S, StruuS"s Ft@sp~'nsc T. Sjoblom @l at G,@I1il'[E;;(Ilr€s,s:i~n ilfld [Ethrlk Din~r@mes MI. 5. B,lliti{jfr ,C:OIIil:REC1iIIClNS CIJ!!RII'lfATlONS ANI) 766

TEClHlNllCAl C!OMIMIE.NT

ABSliIRAC.TS

MEDiCINE Conrlllllelrlt o~ "O'be!'$ta~itn, oil, Pe pili de IE n(]od@d by tile G'hnl:~.in G@lIIe, OIPIP~s;eS, GhF!i!llill's En@(l~ dJiI1 f'ood Iintake~

lV. (fumre{

eu'L

fu}! tj!d'ill iW./"IHtfmtttrU1g_rJfgfrgilr:tnrlMY!lJlII3l5lfjI11

Jl7t.&r

BOOIKS ITAL
(iOfilelllllporary

IRi!!iPilrli!l@ to (()m!1iN~!1JtOf! ~Ob~~i:!tiill!.

a P'Il,ptide' Ell1colhd

It Crawford. E(1~rf'.deweri by (). A(kt'fman

PUetrylllllld (QnOOm!~:r<lry'Sdem.ll

767

by t~~ G!nf@'UI1 Gil'I1I@, 'OpP()iS~s Ghlfelir!i':s Uf@(,g 011 f(l~~
11'l1ltak~"

foe Fir~tScimtii,c: AfIl1Ieiri~"lfil B~nji~mu Fran k~in an d n ~:he' nmuil Qr (;e-ni!ll~ P J. E, a~O{)lil1, rfNrie.wed by fl ..F. fJyUa

768

J

'l,(;_

lhtmg et aL

IBREVIA
769 PLAN H ARY SCI ENCiE IE til(elatdu:s~ ((),)rnk Grr,aHiU ArtiiS:t C~illghti ~ t.h~ Act 15 A~ ~etbiscel',R~Fr€fld't M. Sh,owall:e~p_ He:ijenstein Hl,Jbb~", S.p'OlIU?TelJ;:SIl;Q.pe Qb5er'llil~on5·ind:i{;~lt~ p~uLdlO!'5 ~mriUed ~h~ll frUIifl S~'~lIInn'~ IMOI'I ~rj(:e:l,;!Idu5 oollid~ Io'jitll(Jth,~r 5<lI~~Ui~esiln lilc S<1niH!il~. inCl'@\as,ing ~heir atoo.d [)5. r

f?OIL.IICY IFOIRUM
1]1iIiI e! (or 011 ,fiIJ'~1III Era

K. M. ,lord ,CJm:i V~ r. T'liR-klffli

or Sden(lil [lDiplSI'l:I1ICY

a

Allrelilli(!!

as G,yr,o:o(opes
p. 803

771 772 773

R. M. Alfi)((#ldew ~::. R~OTi L Ja~{e
[:t 6,. P!llmpim'~ Up Sur~a(>e Air
»RfJfltlf,h

IR;IESIEAIRCHAIRJII C,LE,S,
ATMos.PHERI'C: SCIENCE I[)il'lfl'd Mea$lJremuts 'of the (Qli!ve·~li~e Recy(limlgi 816 o~ the Ulplpe r TrrID;[1Q$phe re 1. ,H.. Bertram et al, i) ITil(:!. m!2\Hu~~FIil'!mts~1!lIIp!ly th at ~h ~·ill.l?of deep ()Qon,'!{@(tr~n Ij! illi ltJetrop!lSpha~' may gela,sler lila" lP'r~dicletR~, alifectjag Our ulnderstalildiJfl; or cllernllcal ~clh:m~ 'Urlalir"
l

Am,le p. 816

Btright I'nsight ~Inili:'l' Bal(~~r~,a~Glf:diRiig
KeOf1JS
}o~

R~f'Drr p .. 853

Carl DrQPk:ts al1d flli!bb~e:i 'Thi U1k? I. It Epstein ;:..;:. ~f)O{iS1)1), lmJ o"d au R GeU!ullalr DemoHt;!on a tmdthe Ruies: of Eng,a:gt1 me nt

775
716 777

::-=:0

Per5p'~'{jI{ff p,

n1

R.). Yoo/.e
R.

»Rep!Jffp,

,81'&

PkQIl~n!doUil I~(I Some IlHea!o'", tillting

r. ,BiArb~f

.. ", ittpfJ:N p, 838

---

CHlB~OLOGY A Mem'br a ~H!IRe~Ie'1Pt~rr!CIIiIdil'l:o ~ B'il'ildin [ll lP,r~i~e~ln 8:210 ~ lIt.Itedi(rte~ (e:Ulul.alf U pt.al~e of Vita ifI1ii iilI It f;i" K"awagu.rhi ,~t aL It mem!mllllE! proMill 'l!.lith a [llrwioolsl'l' HnkooINilIhmc.lion bindis tile c.urfer IlfMein 10i!l;']tamin.1\ tauS~ rt:Lea:ll:0'1UII~lj'itarlli~fl, diM 'traIil5:PO~tll t ililO (ell~. i

7732<,853:

WWIH, sc:ierlcemagl.org

SCIlc,NCE! VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY 2007

CONTENTS

I

ASTROPHYSICS

A Commoffl E:l:p\~iStO!ll!M~(ha i'!i$!l1i f~r Typ ~ la 82S S~p~nill1l'll'aE! p, A MGllllH et at. SpBt;tm~ m~Q1 ~m~ nl of too '!1:IJjJ'ijl'lsi®1II®r lyp1l! 1<1 SUlp!:lmO'!!'i1il!' ~h~ lihiliE ~h!1y .. U fOfmi!di hOIilil ~t<I rs or I!~SJ2ti.ill~y lim saliM mass, amitmilllg n ~h elr use for di~tai100 1'lfI.i3<1wr'i:1 nt'S. rna
APPILIED PHYS~C 5

GENETICS lR~lati'lltl ~Mlpac~ oft'll ~d~t!l i!lf,l'aod Co PrYN !.i!m'bef Vali,gllQQn 'll1mi G~ne Exp~il'ssklli!. Phe!il{ltype~ B. E" SJ.'W~!JN eot all. V~r:io1liMin gf! n~ ~~r@gi.[)nl <lIinQl!g humans is !l;aIl500 b)' dJi1r~~Ili~ iii! sirn9l~ n!J('lIl'!Jlid,~S .a~ vroU asin lim IIlJmiJi2r 01 ClJpill!i ef '91i!1"I~1S, M ICROtilOlO GY IEvilc:lelw~ l1hCilF{I{a~A.dhe~kll'l COlilllil,~exe5 f'oll1err ..

S33

Cod'in g!Oe!C!od~n.gl a rncl Ill.eversiibility (l,f' IDropl.e't 828 1friliDll~ in Mkmflrui.dk fnJ'etJ.'jIorrks M',}. FW~'5tma,rt I!: Gorsterki, (i lM'. Whites'dE's A iiI11tCr.DiF:l!iJf:d1ics~12",i~ inl whicn dm'j)lets mO'l't into 'one oftl!.'o. untqu~l (ilannifls 5!11w~ r1!!:V,el'Sib~ ooflll~i~ei'lr eollects ~Mt taJl'l boe mliIt'lIPlllaredi tl) Mc'Ocie ancl d\l:(!XIe Sigll~11L:;,~,PmQrnnlf~, 115 APPLIm

IB,act!erialGndilil,g;Moti~Hy 7. Mig,J'1(l:l e~ al,
IJ I'®i.ptIC~edly. bG(teri!a elm mO~Il'<l" eutary~te~ do. by;GI her~,ng~lilI~ ~Ii.!tf~c:~ viatl!M~TeJlltacJh~fCln, '~it.~thilt cOliltillllla UiY feplen'i~t! at the raorward end. :.:.> Perspt'(ll~ep, 773 CELL sioto GY AIlOplIDiSis I ~itiialtE!d Wih@n ISH3 Ligin:lls IE.mQ ilIgll' 856 M~ ~.tipl@'IB.d.·2H~m(l~.og!;,Not B~ er 8:i!! k S. N, WfIU:l: et ill, Two,(@lQ de:.l!h-f1e!~lelll p~(lWijrrlS1!1 eel!! ID be Cl)nstHlilly ifi,hilbHed by pro~w:rvi.w.l p'Ja~eillinopr.weliIldei!1:h d~f~~~l'in hllm~n oo'lls. b)'
:1>;0.

Plwmcs

Mim!i~lulidi:1::liubbl!e lll'gic:: i 832 M', Pmk(J5.b and /IJ., GefSlrrmfeJ(} !Jog[( gi!!t~ aliI!' ,clea~etl bV eil:ptojti,li'Ig the nonlinear ~haJ",ioll of bubble~ lIa,wHng ~ii1atn otherwise I~Mar I~,~c~ollu:illlic: ~elll. ~
~> ~!sptC' na g. 175

P{!!f~p~dJ'II~P_ .776

CHEMlSTRY Chellfl~i(",'lillnd Sp@C[rQs,(OlPiJe jF@V-O:llID' (iompLtr,; ~ '1iu{jo drt Of! ~ifa ,~till. t-Jll~i[oom~nt<ll'cWd~tioo~

E¥iden(@ (or

i3111,

HJ5

MOLECULAJR BIOLOG;Y (IPlbI !)aliJiii1l!9!.lIR'OCQ9'r!ilio~

by lf~!tsuib<i!'lgIIRINA

Ip()ilym~raS!~! ! f. !Jf(Je(ktJ·er el1:lt
Tb~ ~~ m"9~u~Il~!1d inl 1Il!~A, by ld~~'!.dQl~lliglil~ ~~U~1l'$ ~r.lns~ri bi ng polyllm~r<i~1!to in~@'rt uridine, an i111mormi;lln,lJdlJloiid'~. hal~il!9 pmgnHlS iUlltiblaiiltinAJI IDNA rlllpi3ilr.
!BIOPHYSICS

A hlig ifl~a,l'enl sl<!lte 01' irl(m impliCJ!e'd iill marly e'm!i'm~l'( <Jfld hOI>bl:\e I'll dTi~r"ll;ter'1~ (l[)JIiIIlQI,Ini:I <lIt ~Effi' ~1iliI~r .. tum" illl ~ s:~ltJ!e

OCEAN Sel'EN CE Sm,,~l .~il!ytlDj)~a klj,lfi ai'id Ca rl:iQ!1 E1.lj)(lr.trJrom~h~ ill S~ rfaC:E!'O(~Ii'l t: L Rit:llcordsrm ,O:Jl(i ,G"A JachoIl A.oondla:rnt lPioopl,1l1'1k!Qr'I, 1h1l!Ug.:ht~1;I 00 t,c-t;I'slI1IlIli te S~W~ illl tlil!'! illroalil, iidJuaUy ~[ln.tr:ibtd~ t® thil!llm: of C;3 noon ~oth~ d~ptih~ ill am iIImoomlprapiirlion.al. to 'IhBi'f prodlJ{l~ii.,
-=-> P'erspectwf! p. lfJ

838

Alilt!~['Illg~ M~d'lal['lO$~iil~rs, ijll1 Moth~

Med~i;lte mgllt

(ol1~rol

863

S. P. Stint' e!. <III, MolM' ,aDl~.Mm~t!1!~llrot3ilimlilll mmi!l:rn tlttid: rday this c
ii1~,(ha r1OM! It~Qry in'PUt tCl HeiJn!!11 (~n~<ersbo<maillfltain ~tabilU)'

du(iI'il91~lghl ~

Pl!Il[JWJVf!p.

III

CEll S~GNAUNG IIf1!t~g~c!'lliOI!'! (lfTG.f"P g ~d IR,a~MAlPI( r.glll,altirlg) S Wh~llIgh !filS3 Phi):O;;I}Ii1orylalh:JIf!i
M'. (ordiH'Q/lSj:

840

>el aL

T!!.IOpromi n@nt 5tg MUngl p.ltliil'.lal)i'S ilililllor~:ntrm ct!tl !.i f!JW'th and ~hwl4l!pm~~Uin~@'l'SC!cti3t .. (omm,Q:m tulTl(n §JUppIf@55~J; p5].
SlRU CTUftAl B~OlO G"I'

Stru d lire 'o~'~oePreflJts;iolil Fo~m (If tile \i'lesklJ~iiI t r

843
FraIlllG:r'OOll1lH Prmiu(liol1 to (arbo:n Tradlilri9: S l!s.lillimlb~~n i!rgy Carurs E Gm.l'eringl title I?lalnE.'l1N~lhSolalr P,anel~ B ringing Remote, IInitermillffl~ lEnergy Sou.r{f'sil n'lo tlne
~~ 5UfUJifflJbilr!J

s:tol'l1h!ltit1!>Vims ~ly(,opra~e~ln G 5" l~odr,f', F. A. ,R,f!Y, 'i: ,r;aumn., 5. firl!!S5.(1lteiU IDf5~it~ lifIe re~'trsu!)i ~ity01 th ~ .prn!:tSS, In..e prorei n th.lll i~U~~S rabies/·lite vir!ll5es ~liithl cell m:emtiranes d:urIng' inlN~loi'l unD~rl!tOM
iI! dramMic: reorgaRilO'I~0J11 UpOf'lrLJ1510]i'l,

868
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~1I11111!'1 'IrIih.U\!-A

U2.!A BIIL1'Z~ ~110;00,~~"'t'lIl11'itirl

'ti!>!"'5!O""'I!fojftM.:N!#!!~ _~~I:a~I!!lI'_I«!iI8"l1~~00IiI!1~1~"~Iil:~""Ii!iI!'!III~,I!.!~'Iil~~,Q,,fO.t'ilj\"~ioIt! ... IOC ~:I1~,li!!!IWCOinNL\II: ~~Otl !iI'_ iIil.i~ $:lUlO tI;i;:I: ""'"lilIOIlI:i:I ~ ... tOlli ~'IIIIII:i U.'.!M OOlo,j!Ot.Mtir.MH!iiO!i 1~'i!!Iom.:.OI!!',_lIi~H'" !!OilMil ... fltillimg ,i!l!tIi,~ '100' ~;'n' iI.. 01tt.('-';htJo:t"',p''''JoiIl')'~ II:! Ib.m-.-'I .......... , "'p,;. ... d·"'" 1ho'~h1 'Ooor..... e",... 'iUOTr,~liII!;J>J~ ~ri",....ot..! 1flliI·,.ilJj(j'lpOr .. Ikf<.&'

' '.Il'1\0l,''

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J"IiidoiOlltf ..

ilo .... .,W.Ol~~,1'i>".;,:iorllllrMia1 ,.e.'~"'~',10~6,~it·§;_~·",b!ond

In ~_

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SCIlc,NCE! VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY 2007

729

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.

-, I I _

SCIIENICENO'W
WW'I'l"sciem:.en(lw.'org DAILY NEWS COVERAGE

IP<lt!lrS(iieIilCe frOiilil the IIi),e!!p-f'an II iII1~ king craD lr«lIIm~ lC! c(Jj!lquer t\u.laratica_ I[i!ome)tiit: V~I>I.e<nu~in the ]llIng ~e1' I!itll.ed'l1m~ ooall.eill1<1les 10 them I'aihhliul,

mep

CIr,<lckilillglCOni[]N1ter~ Code Building material HIM ,a,slll"pl'll'iiil1gly iut.ltlrnti(
f[1ll1keliip.

SPECIAL Gl,u OOiSfl ~~ul,nicm of pl.<lnt gel!le' express;QIlI.

SECTION

Sustainability and IEner'QY
SC~'ENCECAREEIR:5
\'f!\!w. ~iefu:eca ree t'!..(Irg CAREER R E50 UR( ES FOR S(I ENTISTS

SCIlENCE/S STIKIE
\'\Il.v~'l.~u:.e.org
SluNllt TRANSOUCTION t>.NOWlHlGE ENVIRONMUfl
PEIR'SPIECHVE; S!J.ve'~t Se'llIs:or, Sou upri~inlgl Il?alrtlller~

US:

~rom G!TElener P'F!lIduct,]on

'I.Q

Cad QflTl'adi !il'FS~IS;laiPllaJb'le'
~~ergy ~lQ~kiill the

Efle,rgy C,ilfell:fS,

J.~~s!Jn
Sd~l(~(.QIreers prcntes ~ihf~e' ~ienH~I:Sd<lifl9ISU'$t~ill:gb1.e private :seOliClr.

lAi (ben
The glycolyUc: eil"¥Ii11e
11exo~inil'le it fo~,rma I:lUc!eilr mlFlple-J!! to, rlflgu!ilI!e the lftll!lS(ri,pD®I!l,(I~ l<lf91et gE1'~es.

IHElfER;

B,~aiki!'lgl

D. Kra.pp.m(Jl1~

r C,eollAdi'Vallio!'l1 bv IIKK~
f.C111E1N_C£JPODCA",",-,-.__~_...
Lis:!,lHI ttl fUl'

'Thlue Is; IfIO:rttll!l11l ol'ie way 'to lnhil:lit. 8(110 hma~g,n andilUmit N~KBa,a:ivill:)'.

Podcas:t

~@

1!od 'hllnili!]ngl chall!iln'gl~:;

9' FelbnJllI'Y j(j'~Ii"e hear abut re:Slealrdl
{IWIf

S:Yistaffif1lalb~e'em'uglY'. a E IJ! ~()J)Il~n
pil!r~pll:t~,i~ en ~I'U:lr9Y po'liji(¥" ~nd Ir'ecernt 1)1~@~rleS;S n ~ plll,iltIl!lHI~.albi$i$'.
WlM'i'dKle lill;einfl9,QrgIlIlboutJpo~sb.d1l

WWIH, sc:ierlcemagl.org

SCIlc,NeE! VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY 2007

WIITIED BY ~rEILLA H,U FlTLElf AN ID PHI L. 5Z:U ROMI

-e Goingl N,olnUnearty wllth the fLow
NOi'lllillea r plF(j(,e~s:e5(~U'll Ibe hiQihlly d]Sl'up!tiw or 1u ribiJle:ntt, and 1hlJ'S:WQIJ~d be IJln~il"'ely (;.andidla~esf;of beilnng time Irev~r5ible ~see t:~e perspecllwe by E,~iSl\@'i!mll). uers~mralli1l d ai. (p. 8218)expLo1:t the ~ine.TJir F ;)IIndl :J;rm)(lith low o;Il))'odatedl 'lj\Ilitl~ mklr,oni[lid]('5 to uwtea sy::;tem tl1""ll !i1~1)\'l.S nonli liIea r behavio~ I'tl t.h,e I'll otio iIiIiSof ervtrall1ied d ropl~ets; tha t: (gIlmIbe reversed wi~htil1l~~. As the ~ili[lid U.oIi\ISlowO;llrd .~ T-~!,IIn:ct~Qn, ~he

~J1ituainEld dlropl,~t:s !nr~s:1dhoosE' Ofl!il rb.ra!'!!!!:hor~hEl (li~her.and t.hlis d~G.i~ioffil illfll~a ffilomll]n~;lr depe:nndeflce on rhle HllIIid How iiI.ffilG the IraN!' of dlr,opl!e:t p~odl!ctio:Fil. AUE!'r thE! t,'Wo st.roorn:s r~con1biil1l~,the (hoplets ~.l~.e (J,fI( d! partkllll~dJr repea,l partam O~ ,enccJcdling tll.ail can be' dJE!(,od:l!!d Ihro~gh aJ rtllf€!mll of tl~~mll~d :110l1'li'. P~akalsh and 'er.s,hell1lfe~t!lI {p. H32} e'Xplo~~: n;of'llill'1le-,a Ibe-hroThVioi'of blub:b'~~~ ria mkmililidic r ~ :5·ys~e!VI! l) create bfllbble l,ogl.~,in ~hi'ch 'the' blllbble5 n;:ip.re:S~J1lt bit'~{If ~
]ffilfofim']ltial'l

They

simHar to Mle onesand z:er,os used ilFildigital nlmpuIUuti:OIFl" Ueaite.a series of sill'llpLe devicesim!chndlllglA!~ID. OR, ,~mdl NOT
!illITllpl~fi(tltio.rl (fll'lld IPW(!~$:$]ng.

galte.s, as ,yeU as more Ciompiex signal

b:rightlm,,,,~eHIHype 1,11 upen· ~ nO\l'~N~martE' thelirn s.c:l1I1eof the most u5;~h)l probes Oir (QS lII1IoLogJiI;al diS 1.11lI{E~S. 0 b5!1'IMtiOIll!ii 1 oft bese ~u~~n! ov::i~$ugges'ted l~,~e:.;i:il'MU Ol~ da rk ~lfler9lf, bu t u melrtain~ie$ lingler, (lnrd b>e1;,lier 1l:.11Q\¥led ge of t~,e p hy~k~, li!1l'e'S<e steHi3Jr of ex~~miom; is needed to illlll,lPrOVIllll:Je~r lJll'll as dl$tarnce' 1ndlca tors. By map!)i ng 'Ihe' e](l)afls"~(nn of the '5ll1pemovaeX!Jllosi~1lI 1n dirhmml spec;~lr'lIl line'5, MillUI! Ii ,I?t al:. (p. 825) show t ha~, alHype la ~tlp@nlO\l'a'~ fO'flTlIfro m t ~~ explosion, c~'astar of the sa 1'Ile- mass, and til el r erecta reach O!!H[0' s,lrni lar tli~tan(@:s. Si rIii III~€!tiom of l~'~ @il:pIOS10IlS ~ndi31ll!Cllysi:5,0'1 ~he re co ~deodl(~l;Iflge s in ibdg hitness ewer 't,; me S!.lpport t hi So f111(11; These Ilg,. ;J. H~!iult~IIJoin1~oa single ~xp~o')iGln I'IIH!(hanism 'I::i kif 'Sl,Iperf!(lV1:! Type ,~ IP!'og~ni~~r'S, ~!!ipPQrlil1g The predictable

th wt!g h the p ~!!X:e~s€!~ r @i!I'Qre'0 ga ti all an din ((IrIP{)lra~.i,on"Th b fi ndillig implij es!ihC! l the a 1lI1 O~.!IIlt

l'I:iclfilarGlilsOIrnl i1d lad!s:ol1 (p. :938; sel? U1i~IP'l?r$pecM'II'E!!!by ,Barber) (rilaitenge lhis a'$~!,If'Ilp~~Otl1 I¥y ae5iclribing hCliW the very SollllilU diulQlropln, caUe,d ~pkop ~aJl'lkt(lin, lha l do min ate ocean p:r!rn~fYPf'OCu t:ti<i iii ever la ~ge ~eglens, can al~o canlribule to expmt
li'

,Dlirecny Observed
Aun(l~phern C' deelP (Of1J~OCUQi'I,whnc:h U:~f1$IPort $ ill! r [r,om the slIrra (!!' to the lIpper!IFOp{IIS phielll is diHic.uU til) !I'Ie-asure. and QUlr lJflde~M~!'Idil1g III I.his pm~~ss has f11i~inlybeen based 00111 1'11101:1111.il'lg. B~:rtr;Jilrm, eJ'
(p.

.,1.

o'r pie oplankton that to l!il~ UllX rnr carbon
Uli'ldi@

(0 III~JFi

H:l

h [e~he deep

51l.6; IP!Jb~ ~sh!ild online 5 ]alllllary; 5~elhe Perspect iV>e by mil eg te~ pr(l¥~de
d ~Ire(l (lbS€N.;IItleral (o:nstrali 11!~ U), '~,l1e'prO(e5S, wi t I1r meaSlIrf!l1Ilents or a
$i!I ~te OIf rra C~ g{lSE'~

O(BlIn hills .beer! sigImHi{.mHy

~~:s~ lied. ~i'ldt hat lh,(t i mil imllm lcmcte or t~e1ie' ti n:y photo~ymt hesize r~ as ..c,a rb 01'1 IPllIIlIl ps"

h~$ been oYeriloo~E!d.

and a@fiOscllsmade
illl 'I~U!5IUlfIiI

me:rli

il~e

ith'eir
::i!
',,"

(os,rnologilc<I

I.U5!e'.
l

.~

ISmall Sil1kil1g Surprise
I at~.holll!)lh 'th e f

Viral Prefusion Conformation Revea led
11).::

~or!li r!e'n'tlll upp,er

l·rQPQ5~~'er'e~1" the eastern IlJrn;~d SHlle5 affild
Calmu!al. Using the dfsl.ril;mthm ol dlel11lkdil :sp edes 'III nO'5Ie' kl neti (5 are weU u nderslood to determh;E: tfut,~ smeunt of 'ti.m,!?~h"t air SptHlds iIl~Jh,e upper I roposohe re,lhey (,alClll[aILeod jfl1 portant d y~iJ.rn~(o1! I. pa Fa It! Il't@rs Slid as l~'e'
'~XH:!f1~ to

Fhilbdilvir'us~s. whfdl f!1!dllde: nllUlTi'€!fIiI

Ihs WIlt;!;l'n'lr!3tionr ilJiU COl in uU! <llll11osphi@tF,@1!5 '... kept ill! ~h'eck: lP~rtly by hOlN I1fII"d (0,2. is o:m~ s.umed by mi!r~liIe Illllotosyn'th,eHc orgal'lis.lnS,
{lr! ~y on es '~.h !!j.@Q !lH~stelr CO~ at. ~pl!ir'!ll31rf,~~Hlf llf!(lS.~ 'that s.~ to~11@' botare nk III Oir the eeea n and Wi nrd lip ; 1'1 SI'! d irlle Ins ,. i Ilis~~nlilfaHy t~H~ught t'hat 'tile' mlcill imp!lJr;~ tanrt ,d<lISos ol'ganis'I'Jls ul'liponj;Uile fore)l;lJorI-

g

Ito

p,a l:ilog em, lik.e rabiesvirus, erlleu the (e~l through the ,endoOj't~( pathway. Vi~C!I. msmb;rlllll!1 luslan with (el~lIl.arr ndos;om.1ll. meme branes iS~lrigg ered bV a p Ii'H:1ePEffi!denB~I!l~(hU<lll [ham1'g'~ or <II~ramsmemlntlne viral glympr~t~f!'l (G)'. Now R{)!dl'~ E':t 'll7l. (p. 843) have

I,\Ih kh (@.IT'lt!dion poe rtu r bs. l he ({I ~li1'I'~mtarl upper troposphere' during S ll!J'l'! me~. 'Ihe hadioln or boul'II:lia ry hll/'IH <llir prl1~elll ~i conn

ar

.~ ing (arb or~ hom ~ihes!,l r~;;Ic.e to dee~,er ~'II~t,ers ~ iu,e h~ lo1lrglll pmytjJll~lllilMon ~u(ih <Is. dilltQI1l!:i .~ :~ l~at -C~!i! sklk ~ap1Jdly e'I'IC!~glh to! ;:nJQlc1 he,ing (on~lIli'lmed by mno(lbe-~ on the way down.
1;,0

de ~errni Iil,ed ~ihepr,~hJ~;011 rmrn of I.he ,~tlS~{I G n j;wcnle1n ho III ve 5i~u 1.;:1 r stom~li 1;1.vurII,lS, (omllil~s is;ofll with the pO:lithah;J<fIl~blJlchH'e IFI~\I'e-illlli tile ~trlUctl,J rail rreQrg:~lllIiz,a lionll be lil'lUte Gil llil'ese ~o:rl1l~ !JllUd~lJ9g,e5>tSo a pallhw<lY fQr~:he' dlr,lIlllatf.l;, b lit rever$ib1e (hange,.

ljIeC:llve ~H.imow,"ii!d Ihe (Ori~eCl~ 1:l' ~i,i!mllr'i1 .. rate ,on h.e lIpper lm,po'lijlllen!'. 1rhl'S,~ res 1I1lo; iP~~~E!nl, ~I dii!l~enge to (Ii.irrefi.l id!i!a~abiillilt !iii rCl!:.es.~s. tha~ cQflillrot I~ppelr troI!lQ~p!her~' (lmn;e ;;Ind ii'Simp~chm (Iimate.

Thl s We ek 1n 5 cierKe'

Docu rnentinq Dlv,ersity
niuman g;~n@'lf:c div@rsvly ilflldud~s PQ~IY1TIorph~sms at 'individuid, pOints witl1ri'" ,g@n~s, as 1i!'~ll as iloilfial1.10n ia co py IIIi!lliIlb~,r. Str,jlIUiger Ill" 01,. (p. 8 ~ aJ' presenit a whole·g,~nome~urv~y or the e'r re~:l or S~dl s d ~ner@il1(@~ 91@rll!!l~.xlpr@,~rQrl or nE!,alr'ly 11.5,000 tJ~ns{r~:ill's. 11'1 0111 order to Ulnd!r~ti!liIiJ ;[omp'le:l: pa u'EHIfn~~ !lIf inh@ri.la!mel!! [su chi as qu an lt~aHvl!!tJraH:s), it wirll be necE!ss-ary to ~ook at imtMYIM1 s ohl'atria~ion.

L(]'U1t!' 'f'wpfowe ~he wud'd ~~i~hIltlA5 O~i,"~!N:~$'. will You rdiSCCWelf e):adlem: i'J'iruN~lH'ies ,lull tendere: '1nd{~I.lf!pe,ni'll gnJ ups (~nik.~n!"'n d,f!n: l'r;{1 ( \r,ei.:.:n'O who .siH~re a love of l.f~1nJing ~lI'ld d ist; fH'fU'Y, -

'lib etll'DIIJ~ideau

MalKe Your Move
Mot.iLity il'llJacierl.a is il'llporlal'll ror patilogenesi:sand rOf bdC~jH~a~hel1llot.,uiis.S:o-c.aUed c QII:id'iIIlQl IilHdily 11111 bac:~rlu,rll MYXQCO(Cf/Hl1n,r/1lI5 is pOll'ller~d tby ~I;\'Odhlil1c~ eAg~IiIe-s,: S nmlHily '(powthe eredilly type IV pi In ,andl PI rn{ltHlry, or IUlIfli known mecha r1i~ml, B,y f,aliolvi ngl~he ioc,aUz;a~ion IpaU:erflcf ,atnr A. m 011Ii I,y-sp el:ma: protei 1'1, M;i,g iii (11:et at (p. 85,3; se'e the PerSl)e(live ~y lJ(e<lt~ have 1'10·\\1'eli sillS,) (OI!''EiJiIO!dl.hi!ll the mlO1Jl popu la r hY1PoUu1!sis '~orA rnn til it)', diredied :5 ~i e~e~f'e'tiOJl,. j'r~ lihQy ~o Itll:! filii i,fl((IIrre-c~ a nd that if'llr a~eltu ~ar ill1,oto.r·(.~ l,I,p~>ed dhesi Oil ((I1I~ple~e$ ptlwer mQVemeflt.n~U~. ~aueA a ~i and €!l!kafyot~c. ceUs nllay use a si (:!i)~lair n a IllS~ ~vH .aJd a! hes,ion-br~red media ni'sm!:a:r mO'~i li~y.

JtUl~V 4"\2,2·" 2.00 '7

1~I"p:lo.1l"C Ti~:;~I;, iI!!J~~~e:orril.sdmtt~O!1, rur' !1:.u~lL1Ir;;~1i8t~ e~'\pi{Jil"Clr'S eertand for' vullii.es,[rom '~heeastern §:'011ssi;:mds, to the heart oniheHLhOl SOl &. mOI~:!

Gala

••ilI. ~

la~IOS Islands "Dr,20r(]lc'7

priS{:Oi,ll~I"n~U:'W~Fl'S.

A Receptor for Vita min ,A Upta ke
V~ta ill! ifil A ~~,als; I:illrgte pWfIlber of bi r.do{[licall a lunctlens, iandudingl roles in vi'sion.I',e-prodil!c{~,ioii!.imlltr'!!.l!111,V,I.issue r,e.ge'l€ ra [~Ori!.,end tll€iU~l!Jna~ signa ling. TM @x~st@nr(,~ f .fI1 (@ll surQ Jac.e f'E!'l:ep,lor 1'01"line vitamilill$u:..a'rrrietr re:ril1!ol
b~1II in 9 protli!flill (R,B P') ~~as pi fO·,[]!Js@dmore ~ Ul.1l1i! 30 years ~gQ. 1(,l\'1a!JI'l!lchii et!!it. (p',.820, P u bli:)he d on~iille 2~S ]3 n ual'''l) IlDW tre,~mt lh,e idemtitkatioll a lid! {lila UtI ( ~~riz.altio n o~ 'the [(i!1it;j-:saugh:1 RBP ['e(epMf. Th~ REIP rec~pUJ.r is a mlJnipci'iS-tlraIlSrIil'~mhllneo domain pml~in with rebust RBP binding andvi~.amil'l r!!rnrd is tMi;!lill~d ~a~lhlll: j(;plll:~lie'd ~ c@Uul.:lr w(ali[;Irl:i '~Qr ¥il~mijll Ii. upt.1!!K,e.

,.!IrI!;I!l,y 2;1-A~.~l~S~2t .~n07 Dls('..o\/eI'someofUtem,lest ~' . ,_" '- Oitrom>in Sn.]lzer:II<lII"IId, folf'
~.~.i":~ '

:" "~tl
Ilbe S·.riiss AI.ps

"\F!ru;IlJ.'1Il1ted :~slcs"'[!In beard the AJ'/V islt1'ful,f],j' \:vhil!e R:"''Ploriing lthe [a&r.lI1.<lling Gfl:l~~~~~ a,'Chijp~1~t,t,"r~~'Vhel'e ~:\riildlire Ilhouuds~ Fwnn$.iI"I.!'iO + !lH'_

Anfalk.in

"',

,

,

'

\(\r~ull,;lrn.g.!!~ . prp,enZl~~I.un.,c.1 A ~rn,gdIJei'g.~')llll~~~he high s .• <l~J,s,Lt])r.ot;')rine &. St G,l nen.

.Jl!.dJ' Z4-i\t:I~ll1~t, ,2,0 D''i 6
/\n QII,]~f"mldlngimI"Qduction tothe 11J§llure rcsel'\~S .md A lIpta'ke .[Iclivily _~ c m.nfl.'(Jl. ne. \~.Jdn.. .inCh.l.d~!lg -._.if. '.' re h~mul~., 5~r<llkilS." [Ill dlllymg
r~);,:(~iS.•..VI~t:I. ..

~ila€lagils,car

and :B~I~m.v!

Pe."

_~I·!i~1(~t. }\5:r.lie,

fII':.~ .
" ..
A:. '

i"

1-.•. '.
. -

.•

The, Grim] R'e'aper
Thill!p~~t~~ ns Bal~ a~d Bilik ,a re .key ~~digli(jrs OIfcell dea~1l:Si9f):1Is,l~~t hU1.Cli~f11 a~~ij,e,1"liUldto i1~ rig l lo IDformat ~ .atpO,[lto:s~~. Thfr@is. evid@HC@ ror rm.1I~ti le n'lQ ~@SQlf Jl!?g LIlli!lion, l!Ji~ anld Ba ki'o c€!lls, p Sal': S.orne stl,Jdit!~ have pmpo5'e!'d !hl1ll ol,ilIe,r llli!eI1Il betrs. or the Be 1-2IaJn~i I" of proLeins in lera:~J \Vi th and
d~rE!dly aCli,vale 8,011(al!ll,ti IBak-a Sil:'Etrl.:!J10 il'lwlil~ch (I!l~ 'S!I!l'1Ilvals@emi5~Obll! thE!tier.t!i!dt ~t!3Jteof thE! (ell. However, :;u:tlvilY {If Balx aad Elaki5< a ll:cnheld in cheek by interaclti!ll:fl wit h pro'S Il,uvi v.al pr(ilei t:n~, rilrntd it Illilrily be! ~hill re ~i<e'ff ~ thi si n Ili biHo ~ determi nes [he o!ll~' s r,1IIl!. WHI,i set ,u,(. (pi. ,85,6; sell Ul,e o Petrs.pectnve by VifJlliIl~fi) preseml e'llh:lel'l~,e ~hkil the dteril!llU )tate Qr B<I,xand Salk woul.d lead t(l {d d'~~[h. Cells lac kif! ~ lh ~ cI i!leel a(.tiv.;)ll'~ rs 0 f Ba~ a !~d Sa:k ~lill Uln.-d>e'r,gO! oil p<lptlijsi;s in f'll:iPQ~~Sli: [0 (lvene'Xpr,ession Oi~ upstrea mt (On'! P orten ts o~ 'Ihe (,eU death Ipat hway.

P,Cl"lI! & .Ma!cltll Piccl1lJU
.~!u_l~' .~M~""'i-\tlgliJJst8,
~()O'7

on Autopi lot?

I.

Driscmrel' th~ hl~-::.!' d~'illij{"jl ~ul:d utiI'! p~~'!~G!,;lll~Uln.d Il~l",it,.g~ (1;1; !Hm~ I :;; \'\'1i~h DI.'. nou~li1s ShitJifiOI.ll •. r.),llil~io:JIe ,,]L!~~li1. niZeO;_Mii~I~;tl , • ." 1111,1 ~.chu, the Na?..c~L Lines ". &. ~~IilO S3 ,6!l3; air, ro!

Xiuj.L1t113 '& E-IlUlLZf1I
AIlIP1l,J1!'i.t

5' -c22~ 200:'t

Disco~fer the Silk Floadin fu:Ji' western Chiin<lwilJh tB'ip leader
:111.', 'Ch.'.is '[;!ilI:Iljf),entel',Visji~~he
!nlcil'rnt

dfrel':, ~]:i Tm'pm'l ~I'ldUnIl;U1U]i.

~.eb~nrkL'n·V Kil"~~\~U', und see th('! [\,rr.l~or.rm
$;3.S9.5 + i1ll.1';

Two,Wi rllgl S: GIO od
50me~lyilllg
..II

and ~lunza,

J

'FaurWw ng s Better
inili€(ts have two wil1g~, h:l're!is oHum. hilvl! fom. The (OJllfTHIn hou~eny, whkh pOl1ses:ses: w hll'Qwirtgs, I'nake:s lIi's,e (lflllie \I'~$l~;la~ hirldwing Hhe' pil!oduh.J!1l-sha,ped 113.lt~lF€) as a :so~rCIe' of .~ lfI:iechra!1QsEins.~:ry illj}i!!~. ~(I the nreuraj (erit~rS ~hat :;~ppiDrl~ta bll! ~li~M. Sam!! ,ei 01. I( p'.eG 3;~e,e U1E! t5 Petrspective by .;!I.I.E1')l<l~d,er)h ave il:sk~d! wiu!th er m~~h~, \'Ih:idTl h.!l¥e fo Ulr~vingiS, ~55e~~ ,1:1 simila r Ikind .~ rlJ!J m~hll:QfltrQl m'@,t:h~ ! lI1isll1. Inr~te~d. ~.h~anten ~ae iil ppeaw to sef\'e a hal!en:: ~li~t~mtiol'l by provldr ~ ing 'me(hantll)sensmy il1lput.lhroll,tghr hairs Qr brisUe~ klCi~ted al~hek base, whose dlenedijQIDl~ are '[!r,alns· ill ~atE:ld illito ,[lH(?ref~lneu rral.signi!l~~.

(}«d,I,jol,[!," I~'i:fl! b,,·J(jvl'n:u··c.s
{Q,jru'l} .915')11' 11£11 ';lI!' n ~g,~II," .
!!I!iii"!Ij,.ILLI!!Iij!.'!"!\~!Ii~'

il~

,~IJ 'E£.lt.,~,~,t/~ t~~fj1U 1(:'i:llenf.fiif,r

AAA;STranels
C upcrl

.~

171}50 ~\]t]nl[eh'FdkJ Bo ... d ti!rlel, Dllg rOlt'I]I<I 9501,"-'

ElIl',~n: f'lll\J\S~lruilbe~cll,I[!!lIie.:<il)ediimiu~l~,(]OI1W n'l tlll? HI~~: WWll.V ;~~~lth~ftB.'LJ1~I~lio.r~$ir.mn

WWIH, sc:ierlcemagl.o.rg

SClieNeE! VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY007 2

735

lHIE 1:HEMIE FOR THE 2007 ANNIUA!L MHTINIG ]~Im P. He)ldl~n' is, I:~ p~e5kl~!1t or I,M ,A/Wi., !the diredor of lliteWoCi'ds

{)~15

~Q ~.

9 I:e:b!ii!ary. ls "Seienc~

a'lld

OF 1rHE MAS, T{) B~ HELD IN SAN fRA.IN(I:5(O l~dm{i~t),gyfUf Su~I~'i~n1d'jIG"WU·.'Blili!~g-" rRlb~,tImJ~ (:If 'rh~
Sd~ICi]

~n~~:gy,\~,hiclrni:'i!thefocus of dl is ~p~:h) ~issue of
CeJltnl~.elementin

linked to the meet~.ng.IQems us

iI

the web 01' iIliitc[[\dned t;;])ilI,llelllgc;;tfuJat l:hislllilCilue cmboCli.es..

~@t~ I!~e<llll;h

fJen1er,

ltilw lf~r'~sOl and lQhrn !Hei nil: IPr,Oir~SSIIlf ,0111 I~vnlro:m mental P'iJ\ky ~,t ih1ar'l'ilrd, illldltlle diJre(oo~ ~rthe fl'wgr.i!lrq1! en s.c:ieiliCe, 'I'ecnIlCl'l.ogl)', ~ml Public P'oU'rI"in It!!<l!¥<!!"(i's !<Rl!g;!)~ Sd~Q~ (Jif Go-ver,f!m~l.

·"VeII':being has !;'''J1VUlf{Mln,umi!1i1L ciopo]ilic,lI. and cu iluml din,~,l;msto~::; s '1;\ ell as ecoaomic w a on,ec~.nd thegoa I of lli'l~:s~al!I'n!flb~~I~beillg €'llila i lsi mpn::tvi I1iga I~.of these d imensJom;ltn a ,'VC~, W.aY5 '~I],dto. endpeimsthat <IIl'e: consiste'mnwi,lh m'l.~m<lilliingthe ilm]provem.enls~ndefim,:ulie.~y. TIiiI,i~ chal lenge includes not on lyimp.mlV.~ng SlII:SUI i~udMy the :M,md<l.ru .of Iiv illg in developing
l"~li!.~trir.::s,but
OiI~S~! convening

'~O,! &l~sm~.nllbi~ bl:lS~!' the

currr.::nHy

\an~lISHl~!l!;}!JII~ practices

sU!PJ)Oxt'ung l~~lestandard of~~,\'im~]1} :undustriil.l.iz:ed QJ~f!'S.

Gvilb:tHioaN .~bit~l)r t(lm,('l~t ihis. immense ch~~~i",D'I;~ ,c:te;nr:]y d~peIDid:;. on our :>trerl,;t~$ m b1'B1u~rnjseieaee and cllI_gilITl.eering.Btu. it alse depends on om."stu<:llgul.lsun the ~,od.<l1 :SC1'CIlCes .n~.d i~~ "secial t.,.-clmol.o:gy"· h~ Ili.;: ~b:rm OflriW!:f,i~c:s... , gO\I'C'mmt.~nl" ~mid,I~w. a s \¥e~'~ (l!mtl~e- :';(JoCi~H!l1 a~ wi~ aud wi ll to ilmteg rate oJn efthese elementsjrt pUJ(;'su i~ the SUS!<I~ nable-well-bei Ii1g goal, of No [X'lrl ~JI'~Jli:-; ch,fll~~.cng~ i:> Il~OfG' C<.t!mpl~'\ ~J.r mu~ dt;;:!n~;)1ltdi~g dUiUi!its 'en~l'gYd:~!lu;:~m;h)fI, Thisis so in pan because e'D'lerID'~lIPP~Y ~s.ligJh~ty im;tert",vined with netional <IIlllid ill~el,ll,ml:io:tl."ll seC;Wtlly <lind wi,l:h :ml:11llny of the Jm.H)Sl: d<l1.u<lging and dange'IPm~s. el1\rimrln:tenl:<l~, proble'rn!S--:f'rom ilIDid(loJi.1ir <II u01~i.ly'to globill.1cl imule ChofU:lge-a5\Mell as \;\,u.th the c,,~p'JC;.I:y ~~.1.et"l W basic hmtlifm needs 81.1d lite ~CC01~O]mlkg rowth. The nmhipl ~d~y impour~01[lce of ~]e.'i!elinkages would l~l ale em:r<o:!)1 ve.>.;~ngiss'Ue even in ,uld a a ~~'Orldw~cre energy ~.em~lld \:\'3S CQll,5ta:~L 13m th.3[ is Hal dlC;:'\!!JO~d 'Ivc'~~\~e in, CO:l'nt~nllfng pt)pi)I!l:\itiOi!l grO\M[il ;):!I1Id!p!!pidi}1 rising affillJ(lf1.(-';: i:~ JlIi!i!.'IIlY pr!ns of I itt! globe are drUvil,g JT~ I:fi~e of iaerease in energy use ~hmhas sl:aggerillg, j,'ml]piic<ltiLons. Even if the energy elfT~.ciem;y of the wetld !;lif.tln(il!n)"_gw~ wo:rld prnlb,:c pel' t~!1iilof 1ili1i~!ly-'i,,\!l;)re~o c()~~ti~i1!IJil itlC rease~I ~h~ to lo:Iilg-ter,Iii~. i~~oriC<l] rnl>e of abmn I % per year, the I.oeil!:ult~,QrI of In~,hlH);1:_~~f!"1I0,1Id, populaliou :~ i .U'id eC(ijlolH~t:pl\~:~c'tiI.JllS 'ii1i/\lUld ~nl~]~~ q~mdr~!plii'ig \~1{)tld Illilergy usein thi s c.'t:;lm~i')l. 1:Im world where ~(lcl('ly oue-third ofp,jnmry ,J energy comes from oil (~,\'\Nhirds oh~,e ~1m~~~ni.l'ng hi:gjh~q.llaUly supplies Of\:lI11~'Gh p:rob.<lIbly lie under the vol;;ui~,e Midd!~ f.~lstl Oimd SO% ccmm.e~ frmn oi I. coal, and :Ul.nur.d gas combined {vi rt~I<I~ .t~~! carbon diex ide from the Iy tlfUu:: (1ombus(im~l\'Y~~khCO~1ilillues10 go slr.mi!,llu hU~)I:I'~,e o ~1.m(}Sphem)1. d~fU lll'II~dd~e-ol:'th1;H'oad
energy lFdjecto:!), cm:UJ!m be m<!lll<lged s,i~lmll)~Yby ~pm~.dillg wil,,]I: we are path is ItlQ1 ~.lI,:::relylIll!sus.t~:inabk: i~ <I p:resc:riplio.n fow d~saster, is

alre,niy ~rOi:lllf.l' Sud] a
to a.

The perils of oil dependence arid
iacreases

d~lml,ll:e

(.~h;)lrlge. coupl~d with the dem,uld (or large
services, compel
.3If'U,I

illl~iU!' pel,·-Ic."p.it<~ avai~~bm,ly

of energy

aa (!a~y trausiticn

different

paih.Jrs requiremenrs include a reducli,{lll i!1'l I01ml~·iX~rml.nioJJ1;:m1jNth(;m.:h~e....d)le. g t ,
0\\,..,

IhrHl.Iii~[e]jy, by Inea:I~~ Ihm {l1'C dcs~ra.bl~ iJ~,heilli t
()~impro\·i!lg

right).

~.s]~arp~yh~c'reascd ~.~uph!lsis

the effid~nt"y of 011(;;!'g)'·cn~l\,~rsio!l .ui!de~d t_j~ {ai~i!ti!~gllr.'Iiml)f(M;.': th~ In'J;~rgy

eU~cJem:;yofltle '\vorl:deconomy mot by I % per yearbtu by 2% per }'e<u or more}, A.~~~ro'wtrud is; ... severallold increase ill1pl~blic <lnd rri..... i~1"''Gs:~~.,~I1~:;.t~~ ~w i'l\I!pfm,~~h~ technologies of energy supply. We; need [(I know ~,~U':ttl.erand ho'w the cerbon dioxide lrom I:~:-;:;i ~-fm::1use C"~l be .!ffordt'l'b'~)' m~d t-e]uilbly :;,eq,UI~l1!.l~~. '1"~'a}'i'i:QlI'l!llh~ OlmiLQ'.'iphe:~;w~,dheJf and l1m~' lIIucle.u ene.rgy can 00 nm.de Sl!J:fil: ellil,OlI£h and pmlifeTalion-resistam enou£ilm 110be 5Il1bs'~'2II'Ii(iaUy expanded worhJ\vidc~ and to \vJ,~ait eX[e:1JH biofuel production canbe increased wi~1ia()iln il1n{)l.le~mbl.e wmp.<IcLs Olil. food supply or ecosy~le]rnl services. A:D1.d need teimpreve the \ve ¥liWonj;;lbj.~.hyof the di reel hllJness.~ng nf $un~ ig1~.tFor ~o;.o.ckl)l'g ,~~.crgy needs, Mu(;h insiyin aoout thecurrent prospeets i:n I!~ese aad olll1e:~dilne~~.s~om; efthe elme:~:gy 'problem ls avai lable ~n tJlis special issue of Scienee. St iI] more ~bom energy is on the ~"1Jgelldil. for [he SOli'!Friuld seo meet! !'IS. <1ikm:: \,v:llh mneh else :::.erl1~~ntl "Science ,nHl17edmg~oy:>' f'01f to Susta h;1<il.h1e\lVe:~I,~:Being." .1OOI1J'iITIiM:::ndl to yOlll' suemion, Nothing is mere im,pu!I"I<I.nll.o the h .",11 hlJlm<!l1i! ;;::Qliditiollill~'~e 2: I $I: oemurylt1<l1i! risillg w thi,s se~.of ch~ll]eJl!;es.

WWIH, sc:ierlcemagl.org

SC lieNeE!

VOL.315

9 FEBR:LJARY 2007

,
I

--

I

-,
-

-

-

-

,

~

EDITED BY GILBEIRT OI~INAND JAKE YESTO~

G( [}lO'G

v

ILe,vE!,ling the IlLandlscap,e
~t.ha s b eelll reC:Qgniz:ed forse rn.e ti m e that. hu mall'lS "lroE!'the' t rnest ]rnporU!.l'!t '~!i'OrP,~ rphh: .a~~nt, modlUyh1! ~ Q IJH pl.(jjne~;"~ SHifface, d\lfiillrrin9l the e'fffBct~of defo~r~ tatioill,. de~ertl' fl(.'ltnoJl,arld ef(lst~ UI c,alol sed Ily olth er P FID(es.s.es gllob~lly. H~I;iI~ e·ver, title' deti!liih of these adiliit~es are enl~g,MellliinQl.ilIlild Wi~kl!l:SOIil iliilld McE ~r(J~ C(ltli! ~!~ml! Ul@ ra tes (If Elr(!~h~ !iJfro!f!i! hurnsn <lclivHyilll diU,Et,remt s'e'mll'l!!jll with liI<1lt!!uil~.l1m'GeSSe5 oil n,d \'Iit h lon(l=t~fm a 1i1,~ :~11i ~n='I.e'm'lr3Jt~s 'i ~fened th rol!!gh!)L!~; E8irlh's h~,,~ory,.Al:umt S' gi9al~olll'5 (Gt) ,~lfsedhenlt per y!:1a~ an:: (lilo U~Ih:t to Ilaii!!",eb@el'l dlep o:;U@dil1atl!!raltly by rirvers d'lI!f"iing t ~e p'ilsl 540 1iiI]~lijol1 'YW rs, ih,ii!re m,flis b ~m l1ilgh v.aritlitia n albolilt this >1!1'I!',~ra9~, pau~k (lla~l" si'!l(,'e ~h.e ~Ii~( ene ~nd dltJ1riiil'g 'gladal ti!in ~;be ;;rver ag!e flox t!)d~y is iilbQ~~~ 1 (;!,t!yt;:'i;lr.Most !l)ifthi:~ m:ateria~ (aDQUll 80%)~orne's hOIill mO!IJlilitainolJ~ reI9lio'n~ wl1ere ,ilatllra,l e.wiSlolfl rates are hig!hes:t. Fo:r COmlp.<llrisolm, itis e:S'l~m~te!~tha,t h!,iimari!~ mI~\¥ mo,v!;: albo!,ilt i'S G,t of dirlt andl r()(ik af'!lrl!,lall~!f~ mQstlY"~!iI kh1,i-ilying er l~~~&~~p(Jg,ralPhyaJII~$ .• aiildl parU{)LJllafty mil~r ceasts, 'fih~s ,dUI!Hen(ceil'lllp,~h~s tillat.llarglll diml>l.Im1i of' IhLJm.lni-derl;voo detritus are beilil'!:i :l;,tolred pr]r:JiIoCirlly oOI~ filoOmiptalllli> a!fld in sm'i1I~ls'llr'e.a 11111 nel\l.Io,riks on (oa5ti:1lL Im'la,i as ]l1Jlme{Ha~et:f dmlllll'sl.oPf f mom 5'1U:itl areas, 1fhii s 'nUl); glr,ealUy ex(oeed~

the

mQ~~m@f1t

I!lf

mi:lb.H~(!~ by

~hristo>c@ru! tce sl1@,e:~:~., BH ~

MOLECULAR

ElIOLOG'i

R,eml[l,d,e,lliinglwitlh

a IP~(J!lra~ Motif

call1'l dis!frmgulshQlbl!!'age da'Ss;~s.,thel1la.ge-:rall:C! i1Illalysis (an <illS<! rovide 1i1a,5oe~i rates r,or rep~op Im,~
dIL~(t~O!ill i!!UJ sUfY~".,al.Th~ all'tiPlllO~'~,th;:h~fi

(HEMIST

R'If

The transitinn hormvegetat'iW' gro'i\l~,hw flo!¥i?ringvQ th~ IP~.i!!'It r(;ltJidflp~is i~ilil p!1!rl, r~gylat~d A

iJlIl8'lysis (an boeused to ~ell.awgeL'5 for IPOpUlatian
rof~HI'Yery,

by thegeneo

eXj)rre$$i(lFnof' nc is. kl'lO'ilJil l(l be ~gl,lII_aled by vilIlriolJs :5igllaUng pa'~~millys.lhal rnodi~y l~,~

Flowering

,[OCw:

C ~f.1.r}. lI~eo

Isll~~~lhal, b_eyo:rl,~!iE:'c(~mB~rymO,di~ki:lti~n~ o'r,of.' ... E!.l.~ll!llg(hrQl1!l~ll!!1 'co.npoliN~!1II~. aJdd!~!(I!!l ,Ihe
a~llll(i'f'i( Ihisl.QI'I e va ri ai'll. H 2A.2. a ~ ~ s '[Cl'the ClIlfIlro:ls 001'1 FK e)iplreS,'5~Oifl •. ~i:5tone H'2A.Z_ils dllpOSae ~ a:nI,(I FtC dhrQi'IQ 1l!tHII by the Arabfd,op'~ sf> vari.ai'lt ·of ~lmeSWill ((llmpl,ex. whid~ hal~
:8.-'.'

chlr,omatinn illl ~'!i11 it is embedded. ich

Deat

era',.

~

:!!

B'Ill~~iIlger and ,p.~1Y haw cDl~mplonedilhe case 'o~ Ihe marbled nrlllrrelre't '!8m(bymmp,hU$ n1amwmtu.s)_ alii elmG:ialmger,ed~ellbfrd from the (a~ifonilliarn coest w:hkh l,in~peuedly resrs !n~9h VIP in old-gro~'!i! h Wil ilr@;r(Jus u.~s. and, MloS@' p1ig ~t hss olmLy fe(E:'n~[y(Orne to atttl'lmtion.1I1he IIll! nr,~le't IPOPl!'lati (l~ i!l b~il'lgl d'Nill!l1'lIf!dl asa I'~S.UU1):1: aU1!icks. r,FOIIJ1I (row~, 1:Iy·llJ99in9 • .a nd es.peci{lHy via (tl,e to:>~(lr the fish .~ they B<lIL hat R~lPrQdu.'li(llll irSe~lJ~J'!" SfllE f~r IIlI urtrel'e't~; til ey I;jIY .~ ~,in9lle ,egg lha~ w~lghs up 1001 Q l!<'Irt@r o'~ th~ aodl,i II ~ird'!!

8

hl'llil1l ma I wlnb~iSli(l1m i~ i!tlnQ:s;ph~r~c reli.l!s:e (:If to~ic the IlIiIt1Imay pfE!viOl..! 5.Ly tr a pped i II Hie ~'oUd ![;QilIt AtUl{Ilig h wr~l1l eiiln lsslon fil~ratiofl systemlS e-Hkfenitly H!Il1OVl1!' o(l;h:lit:.~'d eKury (011'1m pounds, lne¥~re lim eilfeni'o!ie alllr,llIppil1!J l~,e l1l1I elllI~in it5~"lter"iIl50 ~uble e[e'rnl'lIl<Il. state. CmlllblJsliolil o~ I:hLmine-ridl biteminous eoals tends I.Q pass lll~,5 1Il.'l!'I(IUI)i'I,llrOIU:~ h the fil'lers, <111 oibsre!'r'llaHon that has

IBrormtirne .5orub On e dr il\vhad. or pOl!'i\er generation

.~ been

patE! in the ~ w,~mQdellilfl,g <lndindh/idui:llli'zilflg Oil LocClI. uod ,[fi m,1!l~!i1ornaifl:i. With hi:liOIlA:l H2A.Z es ~n of d .~ its dl[O,malil'l pa(ka'ging, the FtC gene is better 'ili po~s;!l'dI a([i,v~ ~~1plF~sio\f'!. ~I iSlhe r,Dbu st
5hill~~1([1

in y~ st Ic

pi! rtici

1OOi!!111:1Uribu t.ed llO m,(HtU.!1)' o:i:i dal.i on by Ul~~hb:u 1I1ll~. u el at. the ilE!,fore U e;(1P~Oi'1ed'~he' calPadty '0 r b!'O mi J1 e,
(hllmi ne's mQ[e !,{JIla rlaa bolecon-

.~
r::!

i '" the '!iegela~i\le i
~

ro~

g:e!l:!l:~.~o Q~-iodi e re s,idLla ~Hg'(O) in z l[(IilIl. emissl011 stream:5. laboralory:lCi! ~e' tests re'!l1~b::d i! g r~atef tllallil
hund re{ifol.d' @ nlh;lUl(:.~m!m tin t tu~ oo:idaU(!!f1 Ir,ale re~atiVoe !O' I'Inea ~l,Jl'\ed c!hlla r illo'!lion kilil,~ti(S, :oHlove r. t!he M

exprre5~iol'ii ,o~ ftC l.l~allemits r

ill maintenance

Oi~

nate. -

P]H

.~t(J_m(til 19. ~rO.tu}Sflpoc ,:1.06.,1(148447 (;ro07).

E.(OLOGY/EVOlUlI0N

.i M,aJ Iil!a'g 1.lrn'QIMlunl'l' l:ets
;~ OI1~ dl al~e.llge iiii WIll~lVaUOI'l ma lfIa~e-.metn~i~ .~ ~mirn~'lil1~ .~'Iflata ~~sl~iln~~lf~ P?P?~~~JOi'l s.~lo~ld ~, look hke. GNlgrOlp.hK ollmd9el'n~tq{ ~nfo.rmalltm ~ COlIII rn~dlWy be ohl:alinei:l r fa m 1TI!l1~ell ml :specirnens, .~ bUl it a~ f~ !liIany bird~. l~~r@ (lr@ !1'!ClrphotDQlij-

~ig hl, ami adults wm. a!bandon breed ill:9 in the! faJ(@ or il'lSiufrici@m Jooo . The re' .1! foe sltlrne Im~!hodotogkal. risk~ with EI~Natio;m[[l.ys's., bUll [or I.his blrd, cOriltE!lII1I~raryda~.1i hom HeM st.udi~ ~\'~re c~mparecl 'i\liU~~lle' mu~~um d al:<ll, I,'I,Ihida dtowed ltnatthe- r~p'rodU:CliiY~ SWl((.eS~ ,of (Q1'I~em pli.1rary nlunr,el~ls i~,lirU1st an md1~r ohl1lgl'liludllle~'S a th~il i~ ai'l:enl~~~go_was (A '[col091 8a~29'6(200'n.

rea([iof1l ~~I"Srtmnera((ele,fa~ed bry .aldsml!1tioll or tho[?reagent!> onto fl.y"t!stn palrHdes, I;jJjth mol,!:! !l,r no inhibit ton ob.5,erv,~d from

Q;.:yg~n. (0, walllr.,Cij MCL SuUU[ diiw:ide pf~!d milldly inhibitory,. \~here~~ NlO had ~ s·lITll1ll,li',fQliI1Ioting !:lHed; 'iJlIiI tllile JlV-!il~h-m@diilal~d Qdd aiiQiil. By eXira polati fig lhe-ir d.;llLa 'h) the

h tg he r ~€11fIper,~Hu!'le$or at p()\'\re~pLil m!lell'nissll:Hl
OntifllJw
Clfol

page ]·41

EDITORS'CHOII:CE
:5lre.[lII1ll,lhe 1m!hioT,) e's.lhml~f! lh<lll'h~ addition of 0_<1part per miWOFl o~ brom1lii'l€ to ~l.~€ 'gas cou I.dI oxidiill2! 60% or re ~id u.[Il. Hg(O). - J SV f{jj~fjM.~d, rfftmol, 41,. lO"I02]J~MUOSIl
(20Q7).
CHH~ISTR:V

The alPlPeal Qr 'qua !'Itt! mda:ts S!terns rrQm 'their 11ighly llllffilable otpliaiiland elettmnk prn1perlies, Their 5ltre-depefl!l:lle!ult ~lIJmrn~s~el1'ce, eJ.llllllple', riOr f[,) '~imiingl ~.s.e ill bio~.O!Ji{:<li~en')ing ami ~1'I1I.[I:gi ng.

It-h,)\,,u~:loI'ef. !M €):(epW;m of ~,hi'S· pptic"UoFl, Wilth a rnoslle-ch l'Iolo~ies.tm l mulrl take .[Iliva Imtage or Qua Il1lum dots do !'lot OP!!!~ ~jiJ :S(llut~o~.t carl al:~ I
be di'fWkult '10 pa (10; a larg~ mn[ellllrCIIlio,ll of quan~I,nn, o~s.into <l ~Iidi :MHKb.n~i <lInd ~el'l il d o1l1ii5!:!ITIbl.yi'~SliJc:c!!'sS!fu I,h~ ~U11l1 n!!'st:eml proper-

ties ~a!'lbe lost be~alll~e of U~ FQn)l!lllioll or l,r~f,)

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7'42

IEDIli'IED

BY COf!4SUNCE.

HOILDEN

Dali Postmortem
Eighteen 'years alhe~ the OIeath of Salvi3ldor !DaU, some of his
'!Jj@,j1,@ticrnal~e.ri!all lives 011. Mbchal@L Rioed@r:5,. a P@r1I5yLv~ilia fOl'emk: tm.:iJcolog lsta nd lo t1g llifl"l@' f;Thfil Qr Ul!L~Sp'.anishs u r jr,@@list, d@ci,dl@d to r@coli@~lh@ !DNA of thls painter 1.ri.l'ho''lllk@d hi tlUllke- art. cut of sd'
eMltUic discoveries

Friemls ·o'[Da&fs 11Mfrance sent IRieders h~iO' reedingr lubes that n,ad kept the artist alive during his last days. After exbi;lcling arid fingerprontilllg DiNA from both tubes, Ill:iedeni fo u I1Id t'hralt the sa mp les \!uere id i!!m~cal a nldfll'·ee' or a ny other' gen e-l~C m,elleriat So ~~ey had lQ Ibe Dai.fs. lRieden plains to :send tth~ [)NIA UI ,glaUe"ri~s and museums to he~p them all,llhenltica~!2 disp~lled II)al~
..
n

wo:rbirn ~he fill! tu re,

NIIDA V,elrS,tl5 Wikiilpedi'a
Wann to irllprove- yoo r public il1l'l.:lgle?I1ny rewri l.ing yO\! f ~lfIItfiJ Ofllh~ Wi kl Pil'dif~ W@'b$;it~_ III ~~aiSt. l.haf!l!i1 e ~t!(lk'~a~!tr1 SOIlll!'QIiI@ at llil@U.S. by N~iM(l11!a1~,f'Islililn~ OrrugP!Jbu:se (Nm~.la~t on y~1U, a n antmYl'Tilol!s emIP~O)'~eo'r lhe1U;j,em:y '!indkalW by the liP addlress) repeatEdly 'e~'liloved (,!)Iltroversial S'Etdiol1!iiof an ar~.idl'! on NI[)A,

I'I1IGni th e e nlrteos, were rnemions o[ tor d!!b.aUs. O'!f!r th@ ~l;Itl'riQ;y or 1i!1€!rijlliafli1! giv,en to NIBAof UI1I r:ied weed re~'~r(hi:!r:5 ill

re pl.adn.9 the I'I1l with

pl'GS€'

alxlll~

"'1Ji1ii pFecmenited

QPlXlftl.l nilie~" at th irlstilu~' a Vldils aim 'l;If "irnpJt'!lvilllg the hea ~ihof the Nation." Aillcmg ihe :se-dIIlH'S dt~el.iE!dldurin9 a heated edlvl;irlg baU[e wi~h lrvn~ipedians, the dtrlzen~ who milie and

~h~ IJl1iv@rsij~y Qr Mvssi~sippj and (Qm,llllairnl~ tij1i;illgoven!llrIU~UQl~lalisrk!'1i)1'l emerg~!ilC:Y ~OQnl visits ov~~~~ate,tiQ~d~l!"ger~f POL l o D~letedseclimli5 h<!ljIe )ilUe be~nr restored. But NI[lA Imalii'iltai!is that lh,~ ~\'rlt~-up is "biased" and "'riih:! wHlhiillaUIIWClI(aes.HilflCllli.!di I1!g Qi!I~dC!'ed 'jllflr'O F!QllC! tiQIl ;:!Iild i ~~Qrrll!;:!l tlOifl (l1lJ IUln-NmA-f'umied n~w1U,h-and

"'only touches on iii ~ma~1sobset" 'of the
resea u;lh !JO rUo!lijQ.

agency's

W'atchiingtih,e G,llareiie'rs,

«:No Sweat
By lr.lI:jHiOIill, .a hrod::ey player's ier:sey t,~ ~.;!II.ed 01 SWe<!teu.lnlit
Na liG):nal HIl(b!y l.e.iigue (NH!) IPllayers .ar! 9!I!ti,ng new '~olll) ttnal~ minimize per~iuali~n. A:t the I'l!qu es,l of Ret'ilo~, II'I'hkhr I'I1Iltlnlufad uras U lIIi fOlll'llIs ror'the NI1IL. resealroehers .11 Cel'ltrill. M:r~(hligaIDI nh!'ElI'5Hy in U I!i'IQIU!H Pll!'~9nt l~sledlfhlr~e dfHerelial, d!E!sig!l1s a~aI~fls.1 aJ (onlvenl,o(na,I~'Weat£\r to see 'i'IrIMch If.epl iii leentilge playeu CQC'[e.st durin~ a sil'l1l!1la'I.E,d ~\i!:Dl'ko~t"ThE! idea is lO ~i!lld lih~ wlnbinati,ol1l ®,f liller., yalrllll, am:! Mm(B.J.~e ll1lal rm:;n;:il'tli:ze~ heart di$Sj~<I[ij@1\ ~ s.ays: Maurfeen M<!lrGilliway, a~!.JIndiollall aIPJli!r'l21 de~ig 1lI~r. She i! m d c.oUe!agu!!!i. Ilseirl i!liI'II1!UIII'lIl came fa to m.a111h Ii!! su rr ilt:e t!!1frI ill!! rt!'~lJlrll~ ®~ l Ilh~' jers~y, t h~ ud erlyi I1Iglpads, ill!il u~de'rgarmE!l1l. a n d tb $l!I b~~C:l'ssktm!. Th ey al'So' IJiS'edas(a~' 1llre'J' mak1? 3D imilge·~ to :~t!JIdy how lh~ ligh~er~rilning [0' ~eat!l\r~ mmrm '<Mil~ 't.he o1Ilh~etR, Th,El'Y rot! rn~Ihat ~he dr:$ig~ IOOdlw!d sikir! I:eIil,prer~Uili'l~ ~!ias iIJlI tid'i as 3,-3 DC. The ~'eo.~ii!iI "teriat ~\ihid~ ~s.englilrl!:!li!lred to, ualn~port mOis;ti!Jre.aiWavfi'om [lilt [jodly. ~Ii![~@(j~~ the pla,y'et ((lQ~~r. but~.h!i! (u~ of th e ,g.alrlillielnl wa s ~ho, ill'llPOlI'tallilt, 5<l.YsMaJcGi Ui\l'riilY. fl:elllb@~.kept ~:[Qs.!il tilb5 QIiI i~s p;r'~lQl~es" Ma~G~Uivr~y says. "hljjlll~~ '!;IrI ca III ~u:; Solly, 'Oh. we "'tallilt kI see the n~wjersey: bu~they i.ook. ihern~U bad;:." N~L ~Iay;ef~ w~r them s~arijng Ine~ sea~n, ~~i~l NiIl'Jd job fo;r M.iI~Gim'llr,iIY ami wUMJU e-!i: !(;QCIIle:r b.asbltb:a l~ IU nifcIlrTrni·.

wm

w-st

D'I~WidUng evidelue for g~ob.i'Jl warming ...WIlBre Olin:!~lev s,~u~ll1ki !1lgra$;t~~? 10 findi QUi!. ~liC!~ ~\I't:r l'O ~his aat1!i'SI.o,('@holJis!! hornl ~h~ \VOl ~d Gittci@u ~&:mi:lOrin,g Se,vi<i~ (wGM$~ in Zl.lricih, $\lIi 11letl:aiild. lust paiSl~d aH!~jhe ,200~ 1Iml 2005 measurenle~t~ {If f1~l dn;;llnge in ke t~i,dknles.~,iO~ ~as'~ boa~alK~,lor 100 9li:tder:s, ifllduding SQlIth (a'lca'tle i 111 Washi'liligton slate, Sa~ntSor~i:1IIin 1 F~an(e'r and Bahf'CI del. Dia~I:(I ill Air'!ltar(:t1c:a. Rt'5>Nr(i1e r5 have belf'lI1mntillru:olJ sly l'I1lonilmlllg 30 mQu!flt~in g,[!1I(~@r:s Seinc!? :98Q.lhe lnid'FI!!'S<s, 1 0'1 ~h;i"! ;r;;rerage g!laci er~ell hy 72 5 miU~me lief'S in 2.004 alld another 625 !iI!mijlll1e~er!l 1m!2005. Only 2{}% 0'1 ths g[a ders lIw,e ,~,nlld'Fgi ngl.

610 "WUm~ji!lgla(ie'!':S prO';' i.d~oal~ line I)Ir

for reslib

Oli! ~~er~l

hlin,th~d: laders g

gOi~lg

baek to 1990. yQlI Gin d'OINnl>Oild repmls, issillea i!Vil'fYS YEarS, th~ l r~(O!'d vafi.1!blil'~ SiJ'~ as !'iiIDWfI1~rlt. Qf til 9lfl~~er' front One ~imltaJlhm Qlr~h~ ~~tt s is i.hal ]l d(les·ffiI't provide'.IiI cQmplete archive-to gel da~lI~)(I.end r 1119b,u:k It! 1959', you have to C(l,m(lct WGI\~S, >::. \'ri''oVw_g eo, li n~lh ,( 11h'igfI1::;

w'l,ilffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

SCI~NC~

VOl. 3~S

9

FEBRUARY.2007

74.3

EDIUD BY VUDHI)I1IBHATIACHAR.jIH

Hm,!·,",hjimu/.~ IYode. !c;"p~lIrestlm.e essence ofh;~ol~ flgisl Knm Se:h!mhlt-Nicl.~~n. v.r:~o died i:n :[)ul'ha:~n.Norll.1 C~[f)li~~ilI. o:lrn. 5 J~~nu'llI)'at the ;"ge 0 (9'~.. Consi dered the fath.er ef'ecm p.<lfOnive ,2 p1l!y!>ifl~O~Y ~~d ti~f"''lJr~thtl.;lbiok~£y. th~ Duke U~~iV!ii!l'.~jly lI\I;lilie~u·ehe' endured the heat ofthe S alimr,iI1nd the cold ofllrne Arctiic to learn I,UWi,' a an imals thri ve in exneme ,clUllni'lle..~,

Deaths

He discevered, fbr
I.he nose-not

e.1U~m]:)I'il:. Ihc;:llllnQis,t!!re-.l;.1OImlrVlglgl1lJluIC~.g.~

in

water s;~:o:rod its ~:un;np-Iml'ps protect camels agiNinst ill

dehydnniml.

t1ind lha[ special g,I'IIJ!,d;') help ~"tb~I[l(JS,1'I~dn~urinerepllles, ,

S:~,ed excess :5:11.11. His labwns amenagcrle, iu~c.!nding a misnamed I (JO·k ilognmlf! f~lnfdc OMriC[~ ci~led P€l('~ wh;nw,lS 'l souree Rw I-Id]'!) omeleis. (Pel:ehelped SC:lia:un,li}('II~:~Nielsen hiscolleagues learn hmv .nul ostrich1;;:~ 'Cii!'i" nUli'n in the h€'~n wi~l~{ll!l $\1i.\'e~Uling.) '··Kml( iillvoktld h'l,1JI;I, ef'us <I ~em;e ofclll·.uosi~y abOUl 11m ...animal!! Fli1m::tiou." says Bm;h:lra. Slgek (~fSWUJilforo U niv~l'$il)! Jill .p~!~O A:~~IJ. irom ia, Cal

~N £HUEIF

R~S<(,HBr(~UK,

1IiI!I.rPiil11&i:Urlll,alr is the !"lew il, Briti-sn iflOinIP,F<ofH

ceo m Can(ier

XenQP(15

thl1lt prollid~s

tadpol,e and on reprQgrill'llming adult ell!lls.sudras live'rrcells .. into pilil1i(j'e,a~ k ist~t

1I (ompll~er

W1Imer~ S4, !'lOW pi'OQi'tllffi·

cells to treat dialbete:s.
.BU IUIJIIING B.IRI GHT. Brrli]n WalFIfI,erha d C1lrc~a:l!'s \vante<d to be a 111$tr!l:lflorner. And a Uholug hi a {ilFI(LImsta fIU::e.$~~d1rirni filM jobs in radio and h TV as ill nG!~~:Si rene r ~llSt!~ad,. Warn e r stiU d m.ilna:g:~dr to, $p~l1Id COiJl!lUe-ssll{lJ[enights UO!),CKtog the wa:d I~ga ~d wall~il1l of at ste,r'o,idl bri ghtg Il'ie-~)from his ba(kya~d obS~Naton'Y M~th of (Qllora do Spri Ul.g~, GO,lQfiilldQ,Lilislwee'k. his cOrii~rf'bubo,ns: eilfli:ed him the American As;troll1{1l1llkal S.odely's fhstol'wr ChimnMiss. Allilalaillir Acl'rieve-m~fU Medal: a sih,l(;!1'me>c1a~ ~ lien and aS1000 hcnerariuru

mer. has p!Jblished
rlrIorelha n ,2 ClCIN~(:mds of \I~ I)'~ ,ast~r(l]d I1Igl b~ig'~u1les:s. IUS~llg data captured \!ililn cheap OWl u It nne !l!i]thle lig ht d:etec tors, A Ugh t cu rve revea ls net only l'h e sll,ap E! and ,otatto rI, of as;te r'Oiid:~bllt til lso \!,lhElthe:r an apparent soma ry aste ra1idis act 1Ii1llly a pair. Walmer's dlSOOV'@ry of nlume-mu:S·lPilirs: il1l the mtllil"l aIS~IUO~ (j belt haschaU.e ng:ed th eo rlsts 10 eXjjlajin how billa I'Y a~ler!iJid$
f(lflli

s'500 miHiQI'I a YNlr for cancer reseerch. h1~slJ((e<ed~ cihemirsl A lex Mil r kh tim, • The IPtmnc@ o~ Walles mas.1i'IIol1~he m.oball Envi;ronment.al CillzellAwalrd from IHarvard Med~(,al S(I~oolfolr his efforts to promote S'lI'S!.a i111,) If:!farrni n9 a nd elv.iworl1m1iH1it.aUy b fr~'l:n.d~y urban d~'I.I'elo,P:ll'lernt Pdnce (h.;ules, Ir'ec:el'!Jed the honor last moothrfrOil'il actress M~ryl S~i'~ep a nd fOfme-~ U.'S. ilir:::e IPj"~$~deil'lll Ail Gore in New York, City. • ]e illl1eUe Wmngl or Cd megfe M~U.o iii U t:llVe r~ity in PiU.~bL!T9Ih. Pel'lllsylva nia,. hes t~~N~',I~ nam~d heed ,ofth~ INalional Sdenc~ fQl,lmlat:ion's $527 miUion (ompu~ieri;lnd Il1IrormalionSd ~ill(() ric] 1E'11I'Q]IlQll"l'ringdrh~(a 9 torat'e. She replaces Peler Fl'eefl1~m, 1,'11110 ha~ ,~ iO]rH~da Wfls'hillgton, (JI"C.,wl'ISuiting' U~m.
1

AWARDS

I

(Guild

there.

!M,O\} E IS,
~ TM.DING

(OINT~INlENTS. ]oJlar'~ho1ll'l.5la{k, a

~. Briilish d~e:lo.pi'Urital bioiogijst is (om~ng to ~ the Unrkversrty of MillilileSI)!:91 nell mQnth b) .t!l replace C~ther]!');e Verf~mie1:l:S head Qfits :~ Stem !G~llll1stltule. The Mii1lrileso~ol irnsUtllte ~ has clo'se t~e~~\li'th the Sitem Cell Iinstitute at '~ the u I'iItv~rsfty of Leu'rlen, B~Lglillm, whi(lh Verfailllie no,~h~ds. . . .' ; Slilck, 58" 'ham lh@ dllp:artment of Il1 IbiolQgy !;Iil1ldl bio(he.rll]stry al the UnliverM:y (If .~ Bath, wll~re h esrnbl'ished ill ~n!re 'fm .~ Re,generativ; Medki Iil:e.Oe?cri b~lngstem 'cell ;~ research as the- aIP,phe<dm~I1{~o'f d~e-lop.~ mental biology,. ~ stalck ~alY$ h~ pia !lS, to con~, tim!le his work beth en taillmgenerationil'l U'1e

B,RIEAKIIN GfI!1IllE SllllO,S,. As a ~sl'd (1(, ne~vl'll1ii]nte'dlIPh.O. physilciist. D.:;Iniel'~Qld final'll brrQ~e 'fresh inti!! udi ~d plinary 9 rOUl,nG by ,ap plyiin'9 h~!i >expe'rU:se- in comrpteKnuids a luI {I ra nula !I1Ililr~eri.:)lbto the $~l!)Id~ 'Of
~niIIT"'iill tOHII11lQt]Qn.

i

hl d'espHe the inf1o\i'ative!l1le:% of ~is rHellrC~-Qr perhsps bec,a!lil5~ of ]t-Ilis 6-ffi,(mth sea ITch for an a,(adern~( ~ob po'~~d a (hii~leirilge. Physncs del' a rl me-nils SilIi<i h]s wod( \lilasfl'truflda menta l elloll!gh. and b'iology dspartments ducked th~r'1~IIS,wOlrK rla,so't. almed at ba5ic questiollu SllI!Ch as how il:.eHs work. Ofl~ ~.nt~rviewer, heSilYs, tnld hi m"llllill~ I wolJlld be, ~!fflrkiing
011

a fl islailld ~ \!I!i thr fe''1

C~1'1l rlli!~cti ens

on (.am pus,

..

.~ (jll~",lip

~

-----------------------------IQf this page? cornall peCl!f.de@ai!:[I'Ii.c~
w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org SCI~NC~ VOl. 3~S

Bm his Pli!fS@v,t:!ratnn hr~,s p.fl1id ,(Iliff. tast mcnth, h~ ~'I,I'Ofl tenure-traek slet jl!~the ph,sks de'pin'hllle!~ttal'~ J G~t'iirgia Iln!l,tilu~~ ,Off hdlnol,09Y ill'l,AUanlta. ''UI~ e,:tpe('~ thGlt he wiM build GI n(c:e~sfl!llp.no9~am .. ,. that ~'IiU ma'~e !lII~~qllecQl'i'ltri~lUliQl'iIs. ~c the s,t,ud:Y k~(;o'mc'lioll 0# j)j (ltQ gl¥ ,an d biQ med~ nks,'~ s,avs Mei-Vi n ChIOU, n]:!j. nerl depillI"tfili e:nt , ha'ir"

9

FEBRUARY.2007

745

.;;stiil'1!~U:Ci~:nITtcan[ !Q ~~(;Ip that Im'-~ess.a!ung.

Inlt.• sr.D.atiiolna.1 TS'Blm R'B,leaIS,8:SDesi'gnl, ICO:stf',or Nl'ext Glf',eat Palrti,clls' Smasher
Aim. i Uilt€rnariollil~! icamlsas :rc lea~da pi!'diimi~ lmuy design ami COSI estjmate for the lurernet \~intcll\1;r'li1s dug ~ilnlll earlier machine, 01" tlli.e older accelerators dl<J:l:u,'.i]m leecll:he IRJiC.

~!'IN!F!~~t~I'lrlhe ..

~",I:ii!mu.e OO~pgl1dz.: areq~(;~l l'o

fmnm. lh.e U.S" Depanment of E: Ullergy (DOE:), ~() kl!il.o\,\·~\~Hilfn~,e tGt<!~ Q9S:~ would be, DOE htfls requested $(JO lffilim.QJ;l fin I LC' R& Di n ~i~c,]i 2008. ye<,1_f O\'Cf ~he:PRS~ye!lif. ~he GDE~mns,.foraned a rough "baseline CO]iiJi!ijlu@.tin:ll'il" tacked ~o~ether frorl,u .2. decades of :R&D at various

Tl~ lHCand LlC-';M:(l h'lthlo;; mnc b'llip,fU"k. ~ so ~.Ih~,nk~:Iis doable," says. AIIJ:rec:hl Wagner, rese ..re~CiI'!lsay .iSl~.e iillUl.'C ofthe~r HchL ebai r ol"lh.e board of direercrs :lh.rthe Gel".Illmm In Beijin,;tftlis \"'l"ek..lhe ]lC GlobEl.~ [)~i:1'I pmt[dephysil;:~ ~~~bQ"jIDI:Y ESY in Hmnbul'~. D Ellol'll.{GDEl, Ica.11iiI1ept111ro dhimt ll~.c r "v!Ii~,e" of ·'BUlUnl.l.he clmdl..if!!; ul~r,o the 1:lOl'LtIcian1>." Some the 35 .k,iI0 meter-lo ng ~:1.l.~C ne wou ld be hi researchers .. Iimwever.soryil is too, e.'l!tly lTI name $6,6S bm,km .'IJnd13,OOO perstlll'y~R!ffi ufl!rlbpr, ~I priee. "I'm nfraid i]n"Hlilt: .!:,\O'slwiU jll(,~l;h.">I;::' phl;j ur m iril~~JQ!}kIh~ val ~I~ d,iW!;1:SIhm:) 01 ~)'S Kimru YCll.;(l}'''' whu IE".ldsILC [l:&D;;It til!; s COSI estimate because it does :~lot account far KEK p,nl ic~.e Ilhysk;s ~'aoordtol'Y iu Ts·ulklllb<t. inl1o.'!l:!cl'JiI! ur.dl ·the n~'M:h~ne l".omp~.el~d:-i~ j,OlPi)!1!_ '"1\ L':!Jig increase \1!.rill MM (mqJroj~cl.·· is 20 !.oat (~lC ,ei:Q1'1 tesl:-oJ' m-{;f1~led a:mrhlgelK:Y The llC \:o.I~,Urobe in deuli:ll fl~enome:I:I:fII p to oO\er po~em;i;tli(,100l i(J\'l:irmn..,;;,. \;~:lm~hi fllerem d re sea rehers ex peer to ,g limll:lje ';ll the lHC \\'ht~h is SlClrnedu]ed to be turned 'OIl in Nt)"\.iemceunaies h.nmdiein duli~n=1lI1 vlr.1ys.. !iO!.)!s Bm:ry ber, M;;ut)'·Ilh~Is;~c.iSlf; eetthc UK' tn proexp B~ris,ih ofd~c C~lilb~ifl ~:I\~"i'ilJi,l[~olTechomlogy UI1I,Pa...";;'''Lcle'D:la,l>vh.o .~eads~he (~OE. clince the ~mJJg·Mlll~n Hi~gs boscn ami possiby .Indud~ngsueb t"ilC'wn; wou~d.for el(~m· My i:a!"flll nf!loC"\iiJ pard.el~~ pr-1¥1I,k1·c.r.~ ;I lI~'(I~1 U pie. ]like.liY double tile amount ersered in I:~U~ cflilled supersymmetty .. 8m I~,H~ ~I.c wiJ] iedgel's of the U.S.gove.m~:nel'lt. So if the smash pm~ons illto 'protOllS"I'nld each p:r('l~onis ~;uiomd
li~lC~

Ctl~i~d(;r OLe). tl~Bhoped·for
smasher thar

Iflbs lnta acnhercnt ":i~f~renc~ d~sign."
making ehangestlrm reduced the cost by lIbout 25%. "n\teyili!.ve done a good job ,,,,il~olll ::;tre~:chililg the I in1it s 'beyond reason,"
says GlHILlherGc:s!chollke.
alb

slr<l.ugl~H;.Iia.(nparticle

nm.'lIly

aeeeleratcr

r~~'si ei ::;'1 at CERN. "1 lite des~gn has eva lved
ilm.toa COSl.·C(ll1Scic!~IS ~h:s~.gn"··

rh~ (~DE made

:>I;,wlilnd Ch;M~.g>e~ t~) the

UD1,~tedS tlyte~ L1QM~d the machi noeand bore 11,~~.1 expens«, its 00nl.tri butil:onl. \\ro.l,I~d total. f the aoo~I,I:$7j bi]~ion", B<lliish says, The WJ lue eS1DfIlJHte is l'Oll~ghly eql&<ll to tlu:: co~t Oft~le laf!ge' ~IfujronCflilkk:r (LHC).(~lt' 27';ki IQI.Ii1i.l!et'er~.~ollg::i['ClU~,fIr aeeeleeuor under (
C(lnMruCt~l\Iii f!~ Ull;l Em"(lll'l.7l;lIl

its>elh tangle of'psrticles

I;,dled q~<Irk::iand

bMic 1<I)l(Iu~: the ~mn;him:. For exa:11l1ph:, the of bm~OI~'Uni;l if.·oJmligllroriQJfI.(,;~f!U~d for ill. 7-kjlo!'!t61er circu illr lmlilfil, near mcb end of Ihe coUUde:r ~o .!Kll!~ aceelerators bO\!,I['lmi cooling mgstih,d' wuu.h.l'c::orlOef]m)~the e·iecrmn.,<; and pu~itrons. The new dc:s~~nca~b; for nn~ c i:reu~,~r un Itc:1 t near the center lh.n\'vill ~110~1,'re bntl~I.l'lrngs.The b.ac.:e:li~~I~ splillhL;) b~~im:'>:~I' l\~,'Oro o[lIHdc~II;ticles inllhe he<IJ1it5of~""10 de!lC:CIOf:l>: in the new desi.g_n,. th.e be'dnlll'>call ide atj lmt one inleraction point .• ~nd,researchers 'i,\r:~U swap the
imo and out anile ~'incor no w.~y to nmke ~1:>UbMOlIll.· ~·i.ally ]~es.~expel]s,i\.'e \"il~,~mlllf:\edudllgihe sci("n~ufi:c seope (}ft~1eJl!MJecC' ~ff,~h Sf(VS_ The referenee design ,1:1i1id. value e:Sl.ulnale gigamh: detectors

gluens, So there:>U:~li n,g OOmS~Oll will be too 1Ji:les.'\)" ~o ~'e'iIl:;d !:I<.nm:key (lropenie:o> onhe neM!' p<lrtides. "fhe ILC will cQlhde elecaons into tlm~iit" <!Imi~lUiJU~ii ib.I~llg~, posi~JIi(lll!ls. o tnmk~ s t cleaner collisions lhm wnllCillow phYS~lci:i>l:i> to

~:iWli:.Now

'lh.ere]5

Piirti(~I!iOi flilY$ic!'

nail

d~)\\IU:! dl;l~tLy rates

aad other

P<!lnJI!1\I;l!er!'

~3boratQi.ry CERN near Ge:ne\!a. S,\",rit2iel.·I:lImi. The LHe (:'0.1;14"7billiiQl;1 S\vis.", fml~(:S (~bmul: $.l~ b:iHiol'l). bm lhm does not im::lnde~1m.e Itli_q II'J,.

need'ro te lio'1;~ ~ c1omrpj!ele lheory. But nrst~,~:~ci!>ts Inust pC'rstla.d(:gfj!,rcr:~]i' ments Ul ~lJJ:i ng ror tlle machine. ,HiI.d the vI.lue

willnndergo an international irJ;:\'~I;;\Vthis sp.r.Lng.Tbatseview .is: one key te keep:ung d':te p:roj cctfiromn r,cpe .. t~n~lhe story of !:~.cSupe:rtt)],UI~IC'lill:gSuper .coU:dell'.lme ill,-11ItedaocelI;n'iltu:r.~n 'Va ~Hh!!e~ ie, "f ~~;M:;'. 't11~lCOl¥I!gr~.!>~ kiHed, ml:l:;:omplel:ecLin 1993. after its budget ~,xr;lf)d~d('rOIl) $4 bil~iUtti! ~o biUkl~~- DOE $8 A ~p~~'~I01ili\'lol \'",il'l $!l:r\~ O!1i}~ r~\'i)(:w ~'e<!a'gt s~y1> R.o·b.in Stni1·in,. mS,SOG.i3te direGto~."lh.r bigj~l.-eftLergy~[y.~C!:i <1.1DOE. p It£' ~.·es'Careher.s w.iill~ nnw usC" I~]C l'IelCJiieI1Ce (;~~~[1 .15 me ~tanirag po.inl: for,] mO.re delnded ·'engi:llI.eenlIll& desig~." Meall\V~lile. phys ici~!> \Ji.I m hlbby r'Of ~~ h~['!<lirll~LI i·PllI.'LI f!"aml;;\\i(~rk ootweengm-.e11llmeunts 1.0 fl:!llIll.d. the' pl,-ojeCl. A d\i.'(:is~Jr!! alJol)iII!c~\ihl;lre btLild d'!~Ill~ach~neis s~.iU fm: of~t "My gllIe.s...;;s l~<1I1 t:~.eintem,llioltilll i ll1'lll1iellwr,k will b~ .in 1);~3Cc:l i.~~,I.{I !It the ear- ~ 20

~,I

ciSl ~lKEK <lmJ Asi~linl.regioIlc<ll. direc~Qrofl!iLe GDE. "UII.ni:II:Ilel,l,. we: C'al1n:ol: :::O<lY<L1li)1thillg ~ ~bo:u~ [h~nn~~lli.h:e:" ~DiR!UI,l!II' (HO' B

lies~:"

::N~

Mil:l4I ...ki

NQ:l.<tki.'1 P<Lfiiliic,~e pby~:i,·

I

746

IENERGY

IPIESE.ARCH

Can all oil COli1llp,1lnytake the lead iI1l1h(;bio~ fuel!'i n':'1'!J.~m:i,o~th:liUlII,gh anuapreeedented investment in academic research? BP last weekmade n IOwy.ca.r. $5'11)[1 mi ~Uon bel fH'I sucha corporate- fllHllded. big-science ~rpl1r'oiach. [tchl'l~ d~'€:J!l]v,ersity fl,fCal~fc~r[ 111~a{llIe). Berkel'ey, to hast its n;aew EIll,t':,fgy
BioslC~cnces hl!lliinne (E131).!) ·VCIHLH.'e thai

Many oper.u iona I <I s.~~;s of~:~,e new Ell! have ye~lO be wtJifk~d out. and :->{Jn~~couM be c'Ou!C!l]ui,QU s, U{" Berke iey is IbO str,nlg,e~" Hl cnrpornt~-f~ul.ded ~d~'lilc-e lIS \lioIClm~sthe cm~;· ~[D\'\el."Sy that :ut C<lin!>J)~.rk. It\'I. ...s eririeizedfer i a $25 mimo'!t!. 5-yriHlr deal '!i1lIH[1 E~t~u!p~f~n
Ilhall:il.~.13.celtilic<'l1 g:i:!Ull Novarri s
i:mI

dlidln 't pan out," Burnsi de says UC Bed'.iCI.ey scientists leveraged N(nr,lIrli~11!m:ji:iiIO do
mllicliB, r1ulre;mol!ec~1.I<lr

biology.

scieml~fs:rs s:rrl1'Cs..." t~rn.e~mp01i[nllce or liJWliMil,lg trust throll1!h dkli:ly scientilllc in~ieF
actions toprepare fflr H~!3in~vit<llhk: figlus over .~P,Hilld other lhomy U ssues, M:ic'.m biola-

Otheli

1.998 t hflt

SP":;; Jim .B[e.~oncalls "~I privOilellY 11undl;:d 111~~.tton;3i1 h\b.·.. Aead(nli'i~ic p~,81nt cientists and s eliig~neen) win wotk,doligs~,de UP specialisti; in [hciIlJSI~t~LtC. c~nduct~llg a mix {) r b~!si~ o.'l~d,app.li!.;;d work I see p. 790). A ~:HlPIPY parmersh ip, say e'x.:~n:: ceu I.d yu.e~d IJ"~,.

CmmpBIIIIY BF

Umliilol',~r.~it~

(IOII'POfalte' l~ml'e~ltmen~ UGOM

f~ime,fram!i'!' Annollln:cfl,dl lO-yeiiu's
],(1 '~ealrs

IFoCinJ:S: l:IiilD~Uel1i Il3:iGt'ueis"
r~nei'labt~

demie sc ience in se rviee '0 r :SOl:: iend need S" Exxl!i:nMobl~.Troyoru~. SJtanhmll S!2S M Bollt. ,IS,]U any mOlni"g~. there couM be $.OLT1~e SOhIlHI'lb,ergE'r, iln~ reasions <I~m1£, the \\'<])1. G'!IfI:@r .. 1 ~ft~~riic \\thcn HiP deeidcdm becst in b~ol~uc']s reseaeeh i:1~em:.hJ irs ehoiees were limited, .. IPIl1.er' Scl'l1p~~ R!~e-.arcih s::IlmDM Having O!l~~1 n.'H~:~ hiHlogis~$ (Ul!lh(; COI111'II1$li~!Jte' p,n,lY'S roster of ~,02JJOO el,nployees 'WOTid~ whle ruled out anIn-hcuse n:sean:::i;t effort, says Bre:-,oll, And Steven Kconia, wlmQ ~.ve '['1~e:\'Qmpmly exclusive :~g,ce'lUsilrng provistepped, dool n as provost 0 flhc Cal iforuia simms for ~lfIiy drug d lscoverles, and the lustitute ofTedrlll,ology to beco:I:I.1Lechief'sci.,mmgl."l.nenl\lI'<l:::l net R!·I1le\'\,~d. A.ldlOUgh BP eIM~S[ ~A HP i:lm. ;004., Il~ix'edf~,e ideO! of sim2 \WUlt:s its. closed arees to be busy with cempi}' fIWflirtii!l.g gl'.1!nlS [(] pmfe:.~~~)rs.. .[1 conflS mereial develapment, Br~~"onen.~lphasb:!ef> to seruum of energy cO:Ili1I\p<lnies.ed by E1':,1':.ou- [11(:: cOlllpllLny 's co:rnlllli~u:L1.e.IlI~ sbm.'.i ng imell M{lbH is d(1~ng,(:;;t~ ~~lble: AgltnH~ pro,grr21!'O ~ocum Irrnp~r~' t {I P')wg~b academic sciel1!~ lsts doesn't l~os;~e:1" .. luctua the ~~.ilJ~, ffie. .~ 1'<1 and honoring their need to publ ~s:h."Th is h;<ls \~N=~~-c.ooh,.,:r 1:<1 that KflO~l ~n he iievesis lk" gm te be ~oout open re1i(~areh."i~c s..,1Y.'i:_ essential for ,I s,Wlt'cessllu~rese~fCh enterprise. l3~lt of course. 'tbe dev iI ~!'> i'lJ'I. the de~"ils, 111~~mt>w~:r. i{ot1l1in cllX'id~d\~..;. pr.iv<lK~~ ue Bt:rk".h:y ofnda~ Beth BlW~l~idt; T.t'ild pub\l:i:c"Ib:ig.8cieilH:e:· UP 1,mw:::.iJed <I competiScience thal rto mnre 1.1'1<:1,1:11 30' of the tot a ~ th:l!) ttl hn!;,[ the inst~~i;W~- BC[~1,,4cy ;Mldits UC liiUd,ll1g 'l[,f~]l,lld SP~1Ii!t d~~ 50 BP ~de~ot~t\). '00' (l!l .. whn \V;~n"\'{ltkg.n~'l!flJpri.~tm"y i~lb~a~n~t:ins.il)"ttJliler~. neigh'boring L'!\"'!l1:l~~e Berkeley N3.tio:~<t1 :laboratory (LBNl, and the Ullitute faei lit ies on the pirnllercampu; ..es .. Koon:un \'eui,ty of] 1~,i.[I.() U rba~l<]-C~<lInp·<Ii~n. is. ~<ll')(.'.rs;l~d '!h"l~;;!dt'lt been fi~.l.,1 ' ized and could dm~:lge yC1rly. "\,VC"':t: l;nVii:nli~g l~~i:;as we go cl(~gCJ(~ IOlllr other uni Vlersily teams" ~ilIys mil ulon,g:' he admits, Koon i[I, inpa rt because of s:~rmlg councetions to biotech, weU~eqllippe(i! scie'11I.lifi.c A ccurmen problem that IEB:~needs to f~l~m~ fum:.!a h i~!.ory of ,doi ng bi~ sci"~rl~~~. av[~id.says seclologlst Lawrence Busch 'of iss, The im>lilU ~e w.i~,~it iJil. a yel~~~bI,Niesi.gnJf!d s Mi,c;~l~g<ln St,lte Unil.w!rsily in IE<I:MLOlIlLsing. who 11.fISst1!,niied!ltltl Ntl<vnnisd~al.. is ":mh~ bli~ Id~n~ IOn thtl U'C Be'l"k1;ll~y ~alln~pl~~.\\'iU" 15 lilemed I.,.bs. The ~nsd~.ule. nd! <I .sJL~li1Uel: a m<lt>C~.led eXIJecl:m ion s." abo 1L1. eli!.':,] reb I)oy[ sb:iel' r:l~.i]i.ly a.tmi.n;oi;f;. w.u~,i Ir.lC'lude s.pooe for on:s.. Eh'e~lkthrfH,.lgh drl;ll.gs and l.uci!1!ltiv~ p,lIOpl'ie~ry.B P'researoh <Ii':> ,\,"en ,IS open ~,"bsfQ~ licr:n~in.S de~ls."ju~l didlil't happen.'" he \'roU1L~,. O~C sil\IIC1: lin!,!IiIM:. 1,Ii>dl .:.ay:s •. was B ~cadeIl1Lics.A joi:~.t board wi II Sf;':.~~C'I.p.r'nj~L" inwlmit lJ3 N l b ioc,~.e·m U ("1~ri!'itoph el; st tlmt "feCl[~ of O\cad:em ic I'weedoun k,st 1,11' that SOIl~~r\lille~tu~h;;;'! "~pirif of ne~d biUty;." Nov~mis was bu.y~!lgthe dep~n.lffi~€,~l~ .~lIny

a new model for industrial

SUppO!"l

of'aca-

rue: Be!~~ele)l

2001$'

20013

@'nl!ry:v S year!

2006

!liIG rn ElliUca~
rt~ii!r6!

gi~ J!;1ffrey Go;rdo~l Qn~!'I:shi~.gmll

UrJ!~\'eJ-

m.e ..

:shy :~11IiSt. Louis, Misso~ri, <L\rel:c:rn~l pa.I"~:ua{;r ~vith P~i zer .mQl: ot1~er d1ru.g compau iC5 dun Pfizer ~iI .1lCfJlni mel S;<l)lSt~~~l the most suo,IS cessfu Ipmj!;:ct ~ now fru 111'11 l)j,ili'Ill"(;):;i,£fl j reh proposals re'V~.ewed by ~1Uthe partners. A 2001 dif;l(:isg,o~by computer chip gi.~m.lm",.] to set lILp ;;) .I1'lrb~dj;d;cel1l!. to the: lie Berkel.ey csmpusralsed tJ~.c prod ~'C:li .ily of ~Lnivc,rsity v
,\lOftw'o1l1e reSe'.1fC~,1.er:s.. ~~l)lScOln~)u lier scienti ~t. Jt1J;~pl.~H~ ~l(:r:>;Wh~. bee ausc there W~I"C

suddenly "more smert people tow-milk ,\fi~:li1:'
[0 C\(Ml'r.;:~~t. h~ Sf~t-;.11Inc

k~d r(H.)~~.m~~;!m.~

for proprietary
00 H~lbor'l:ri.on

r'~:iil;l.m.;h"\".1:> never used,"

A'hhmlg~, the lype 00:[in,dustry..,m;l ivC':rsity en~·' gs~onedO1.t E81 "isn 'rthat ~~Cf:w." ays cco:~m~l 1St I[)OlUlld Siegel oW s

UC Rj\l'enicie.

who

lUH;

:stu,d~e-dsuch

<UI:<1,:~.geme s, t he sea Ie'-a diec<l.de-l Olll.!:: [It eomm irmerrt and !!L $50~~mi(l'n ;)mml;)l] b~1.dcet-is: m.lprecedeaned,. 'f11.e u13gniwde

~~I~o n~isi1isC1I~i.esli(jll~ am)Wi!llle pnlpelf r{)l~·pf i:~ldusu:'y01'1 C<limpml •. say.s ecoIl;OI'II:i:~gl. David All.dn:l1:sch af]nelliI.'l!11'1 LJni''!lcrshy,. :B!omningil1u;. "We :Irn.eed comp"~;l ie::;; w bewQI;:kn,Uij,g 'wil:h c~mplISCl>. bUI. W'f,; dOll 't \~'~UH ifld~s,try(:lllil,\len Imi",ers:ulies. Thus .is :lIig~]t(m thm lirL~.·'

..:~u11i!!INiJ'115(;11iI

WWW'.s;cienoomag.olrgSCI~NC;lc.

VOL 3t5

9 FEBRUARl( .2007

747'

I

N.EWS OF TI-I E WEEK
AIFAICAIN Se~ENGE

PRHOR.I A" SOUjrftillAJ RI(~,-

Sic i enc e 'H'I.d ~:ech~,o]ogy {S& T l'.
a:l(ho~i.gh b:i~h~d,3S the Inm~n'tl]~mcs ofhrs~ ,v~~k's A rrlc~!'IUI:lion (AU J summit in Addis Ab.:'lIb'l. Ethiopia,

says, "there wasn't much d iscussian" oW specific!l1; detail~ will need to be ironed OlU 'by SCtCli'llX In;ill1i.Ktc;rs.,FIC'1)W~~<; that biolil-ehi).()I(l~y isi!upt"lli't;;!fil bUrl C~'l!l~n!1J~.I~~f '"il wi II ~:ake' ]ong time W 1.'CaUy gel il going." a
~1.'1j\~'!Am<lqld M~'g<!l~ agree

had t'l~\'V'.ili~ as leaders addressed
pre~sillg issues such <LSI:~,e D~:rr!l.llr

])<I11-AI'rlcOlin lmelleomal

th~!tcrea~il'lg a Propc'lfty Org<lniZ2L-

cenflicr.

B~L~o~ the last dOiY.dLt:
s~ate .. ~C)'~)m~'ed iniri..rives

heads of

tion (,IPO~-.,!com;e'p[~I,ldorn~d. bi' sm~lmit 1e'<uJer~wotlld be an ill.l1 portaun SlepliO\\i;;Ud
e::'~:llbl~l1i~jlngcommon shmd;;linls 1UiUj,go;;ll5L

aimed at bolSA:cr,~ngl"C&eal:'ch fund ililCrel:1Silllg the conunent's datIl on in(~Ucc~;u~~I·prop issues. Vlidl ~i!ly l:unl,eplIIb:l,k: debate. the leaders ~LII:g~d member Silalt,e'> to revitalize

CUI.'remly. there are t,'lO sepan.n:e o['.galJJiza~ ~kr~s'on Ul~ '~O!Uhn.~!lL each repn~:;.~.mi.ll!;l .~ natioas; 10 GIber countries, 6 nllostly in nonhel'n Afl:ic.~I.m.'Cnet eepresenred <'u:!ll.I.l".i1.c

r~.eir tLrliv,,,,rsi~ ies !ll!1.dspend .u le.~~
I % of g ["OS So dO:ffiiUi::i;! ie ~~,rod et u ,~'GDIP) n researchend de\ielop~ i!lliIlilinl!J the .mt~. RW~;lldO!I's, Pr~~idlih[]ll: o p{lul. ~gt!me Il'~ed'~edllJ IYllcotD)l20.10" hl ndditiol1. the eQ:U tile ~dll!ll(,e alld~eclllw laoglY spoodiilllg. 15'U:~~m Cf!~~~~d ~~l(l~ exten s iV\l lt f'(tf S&l" agreements with otlhtcr devel Opiil,lg "[he :~nes~:deIH3hemselves eommitted to t

h.e'ld~ of~n;,I[eOIsked fot., rep
bm'l
tiC)

Of

I, by July on

i:~lmr!~OnHieex.ist,~ng [POl!: h~tO~1pan-

A:m.icmll

regions. announced nq;:\V schO,i.Jltshgps ~osumstudy of science. and deelared 20m to be AI1i(:a\ "sc]elltific jUlll(WOlrOOI] ye"~r:"
~1,I<l:l~ the

"Maintaining

ll,1,C:: status qJUO

isact OIn

ollt~o,~fO:l" Afric~C said R\~.f1:~~~f.I P'1"El!':,id(;:~l[ P,m~. Kagame, He s<'li.dRwanda. pl1llmoo to

dCJub:~~ S &1" !>pe!ld ing 1103% oHmpt)'V¢l" its
the next 5,ye.trs .U1:d1 bolster uts researeh insti~lJtions.. Most ,·\fric<lAl natiens are now well
[u:.kl<\,'·
NC\'",

t:rnditi.o.lll::l~ l\;!t'BQI\i!Jh:;:d~c ~md gel1l(:lic rcSO~t!"Ces. Nntirl~~h,lId~d I~e :,;umilmilOl,ge'Ulda, on M~lg<l1lx: S1l')':l'l. Vi/Olga (;![)lllrove:r:su31: pU,U~lOS<I:l1 .'H[~ng~weni science and ~!;,)dmol g)':' ~1I,g o ro Cfet'lW~' new Afric~ln science and innovaOu,e Wnilii!~iv,e endorserl by ArrIc,I S, s.ciltion limd. lie expects it will be taken up by enee ministers tu!d tacitly approved by science utinisters J(!~er lfuLi!) ye .. . Us gQtd n A.U leadersi s .~ dlevelopmelll of a 2 0·year h,e \Viouh.il, be t·o pool resources fr{)m .AfiwiJ;;<Jn biOl'Cc:h~lOI'OlilY t;l:~lt>cg~f [0 C~.!'!In~l~1escurccs r ll§ui~QI'nS;and 'oul:>~dc danors ~!1l!ddisttibl.u.::: i:IIl,~ol.'e~;iOlul~ speeialries, Pm' example, E,IS! co m pe til. ive rese arehand deve Iopme nt f\frie~, whic~ already has Ihl~fltnd bjotll;"Ch ~J",;Int~[hrtlughotlttllB cellui!le'~t. "There isa ["f!,11 otemi,11 fur :res.e<lrch :syrtel,""p expertise. 'I'I'OliM be encoussged to buiM: on ~:Iil.:i.s base. Other alehes include crop bioteeh gies" if these' agl'eem,el1ll~'Slead to pall-Afric."I1l
1

r rO!llll.lJ:

\voI!!IM, ~<'lkeLlP~S'lU;:.'J SUC~l as

ihe

III;.'}beaehmatk,
\I\,·~.O

AgruJ!lQl~li~t

John

ill [lrnewe~l. pharmaceutical

b]Qte~hin the

~i~m~ie~. ~i,d Mj'llV<lr'l.Bht f~nding cmlflJmOIl
ground

M:u gatx:,

d~reets the. S&"f office of the soc ial a:nl.d economic

:r.ul'l.1ership :~b:r.Atricm1. Deve:~opm!l::lu.

wh ic~, promotes

progr,e~" hll Aflikf!. =-1f.YS key pfli!ll is lhfl~ the

aorth, med kill b.iotccful, ~:I1I,th.c so m:~•.find b:LO(~iyer~i ty :rres~,n:;chin Cennal t\ tl~i!;<l. Soli(J5!~te ]):~.ys,idst Ph~11 Mj\\ltIl<l. di rectorgt~nenll nf Seuth Afri:a's S&l' d~p;H'I[lm~tM.

.s.2

on

ill

diverse

continent

whose

1"~iolJ!:J have VII,:i.ddy v.uy:i'lJlg :reo':!oun;es and priorili.e:> \'I.·i II co\~lthUJeto be 11 challellb'e.
~ItO:iI![ltil' ~OE!NI"lj

c!:lll!ld ;)d!lpt ~'O.)l~r OlHJ1m~y's wf~rk. ]i:vi~g •. and e:Sp'ec~,<II~yCUIUJf3]1 elnvi,mn:lm~ent.'" he s,,,y:;;.But ,ct111dhi [Ins ,ire i.mi~r(j\ri~S" U ~~ys" 3 and ii.n the :ru~:url:': hen;~;11m>, he :111.0 need i~or ~ t Hcity lIillLi] laslw,ee~. w!te:lill al'n. a~lOnymOll:'<; d,es.cer:lll 50meho~v ~'nllS cO!j'm~cl~ol'wi~th !ll :t::ePflrate pmqg:II"~lm; l'Or hU.t;IY.~ilI,n;dl_!H Ilu~!nyi. OJ b; pos~in£ (lin the ]J'O'pu]lm u.S.,,:oosed ~,ni~~r,U1I.el:Chil1l~,"-eve:n,1 seconcl or lil,i n!I·~S1ilnernJ:~Qn The ·'l1m.i n gQa:li.·"h'e m a inlati,Il::i," ":i:-; 10 i:5 A~1cr~'Cl:I!l li'll~(tyl.for i.l1iIsl@.~,cl?-a:~ldthen:c,. ..:::r;.paltld ~n'tem;;Jtiovnal ~l(:dlin~ge gund ,~ol~;)Ibn- ~ j"flrl,Hll Jr~mY,!i HI XIlf!."iJm Wd~uC'atifJ'ftll and Scholar.ship) noted tlmt the Cbim::s:e ver::;,~ol1 fon: iSI1U)t c[H]sILdc4'ed <I "weal" :~mfeigllier. f<ll:UOI.l." ,~nthis Cilse, imerllia~jona~ lllil:aniS ~ ~l0J11"·,h~ n(:SlC ;,!l'!c:eSlry. ~IiIIIJOj(IIN B H;;trr~n e.>ipJ!'li~Hi, of ~h~ feUo\vship riiJ~es limhs ~Iilt.'
a

A.~,e'w prOgrlln~, Thfut aims: ta Injeet ~Ol'i'ii;: awa rd ~ to !f:i hit(iYi' 1,'(~ij.i fo:~tgn ~liiHlifi:~. ( interllm~onal blaod into Clml:ilna'ssc ient ~rk ~Js no~ 0 f Chi n ese desce IJit l" T Iml p,i1I, [,11e i s \iiJ(Irk.[u!:'C1,;; hi;l1sC'l'lm~ UI'idcr fire f{Ir ';1'id~.d:>rnrk~d r! n~I:l"ry if,) f an gry r'CfI'C inns (m t irig elhn ic {'h inese, ()md,d:'!OIt the Clli~,l~e Ch:~mt~'.'5e:1 nile met 5il~S .. bg:YI a d 'b.~":;'l~ng the ACi:I.demy of Sc~e nee s (eA:5) couarer t 11<111: p:mgrnmas ":rndSI.'· imd ··d.i::>crimil1Jatory." Cril[i:,':!'jare mi $:s~ng lhrl:1'pOlllt The t1ompl., ims htu{(: ~.11e:.ril!. scare experts Last Septel1lh~r, eAS hmnched 8 pro~ 52ty. The db,t inet hm between 'mewi (per.;oJl s grmn to pro\']de fellln\fsitips rOlf tQP to of Chi,ne!'>e de.s,~enU .,J:DiIdfo~'nufyr is, ml I 50 "ii,nlermll~O()[laO!l,1 ym.JII:lg re.se,nc.~.ers'" uml,r;:[ "imecresting" fO:lill1Lll{)if r<lcis,nm. :says Ste'van ~h~ ~ug:c (lif 35 ~!(l w,oik il'! CAS 11lbunmuies HlIlmdL Illi!l <l!mlll~o[lologist .~[~ill1.~U~h.!e~rsiry. for I yea r wi ~h :s:al<ll·.~e:!> c.lpped a~: 100,000 {)if Wash i~gt(m" Se'<liu:l.e,"who has: dOlliC fie]I()JI" yl!~U~·h.or $.12 ..9nO. r!i>n1;!\jv!lb~(,lfm" ;;'! S~ eond \..<tJrl: i~l Cil i:I1~! fpD' Imltlo!'e th~!n20 y~;)flo;. l"!:I~ ~l[,'emuse is tll<lt '~.. nyone ~vhio is of C hl,~,e:se year" The <linnO~II:u:;ememrece~vetl. I~n~e '~WI,b-

The d~'Pmy J in..""Chlil" (If CAS':;; 'ed~lc~ulion de[p,1 rl.llm.l.e:IIII.t.i He ~,e .. defends .~ proL ng he grl.1m. Li pointseut th~H CAS !.!.~r~a.dy h<!to:
numerous

i nCIf;lI!ll~i'\feprognuni'! W ,,!l~rnct "Abnm'l~hiD-d

lnw)'i.

Program.

u.s.

the Qne~Hundr~d- Talent ofresearchers in ,and Jl'Ip.'lllC'5e~:'Ibsan:: lnt,crmHiomil~:'

SllC:~, as

says Li. "O'L!I.! feCeIHI),,"\,r~:

CAS hOlSlll[lfllosl none." Umil
\VOHli,ed w~~elher /t',i hUG.vi

i

748

I

I

1-

I

1--=

,

,

I

I

I

M IE,D IIC ~INIIE,

Fnm,c,e: Jihle IUa01le OiaJlne
PARIIIS;-/l.lilitW g:Il\l'~mm:e'nt repnrl blam~s b·arlly m!i!nag,ed pubti{ n:!~ei31n:h IhfstoriC:IUy 1m ~ U!lJf oomme-rc:iaJl P'f!YOUS aMcaUs hlr hJ!ndiilng pr1J'Jjeds rather than ·iimlUllJllonli., ~Delj.pite n1~!iL!i'@s. take'n SUI1I(@ li'l€' 19'9'9' ini'lQv.at~oi!il and rese\ilnh t81w, the ml'l1illT1:er(:ii[ll~;!'ation ,of rere~r(h hal; rIot IPJrQ9re~S'ed iiii Fra mN~~e ror 15 year5, ~ the rep~.nt say5" l!;!erUiilod ~l)1'1IfU,lIben. p~sude!1t (!If d'u;:: iii d\!(l" Gal::.Y group 5:ilu'IIom Il.a Recher(h~, 's.e:ysUne 250-page repen "I,ake~ JIlIO il(Wunt or the 51:2!e
lOCll1tr·a(J!S
<Ilr'~il5,sueh

Semeefthe

dr<lnmlii:1::neumlogical

problems

of Ret!. SY~1,dm!n(:C~II~b~, ~wn:;:cd iu nn cxperim~i'it:;;!1 m~'Hu;'e !mHJ~~, researchers h1rvr<: wurul Althoughtl~e~.'II\or-kdoes not ]l<I:'Vf: direct ~h(;1r'lpi,;~!lt appl iC(ltin~s, :;ci~!ui ~is St~!~l}ij lg ic ~ ~:I'a,e ev<JiSUIt lng genetli:c dimrder haul, [he r~ d nd-

reinit encodes. Female ~riI].ice ith [he bloc-ked w !lIleq,l de\!Clj]l~C!;.dl1ornl'il~dI::; for4 to .~.2nrlond1s before ~howi!lg. R~~~-likl;1o.~lpl~)m~, in'Ch~d~
ill~£

imp'I~,:lredrn,ob.iUty

•. an O!,bnonmli g;l'~t,

tremors, ;ul,d bMlth~ng dkliliC'~lhi¢:s..
Then I:hlc researc ful.ers tamed Mecp2 back

as .j ::ii.grl 11M ueaunems ,,~fe ,It 11:<,",,1 pessible ,in pril1li\:iple, "Tb~5 is VCi)' exci ~i~.lg:· says Huda ZoghbL a g"(tn~dcisl ~HBnylor Colkge of Meducine jln Houston, Tex<lS>,"It gives us researchers !lndthe f;fu!U~li~"and pf!tie.~!~ hope ~h.u~OI:S euncaver [biochemical] P<lith!\l:,l,ays w
illlg."

on. '~xpk)idn.~ ..mother g.~l~et:l:ley'd be.'lw',~·ed
on the mice, This gem: encoded a~.ybrid prorein: a [)NA.spiieing Cb':llzyme rused
[0811

th:1tl.could

be :s~}fe'IIYU~Ul~mI~,pul:ucd.'I've eau

R'OQ'II't1r ~OJ,i11e funcli(JI,IiiI,

Sid!'>, Tilley develop liiol'TJ]ally for the f ~Jr5l 6, to ~H l'U:!ont hs (I f Iife.but they t heu b~gi!1 tu lose mtlbi~ity OlHdth.;:ir!:.::ugnilivl:;:

I O.orm

i1!illhe!il~ siril s," Ret! s.yndrm:nc 21fl·cct.l> rmtghlh' one ill

de'\'el.o:I')nh'm~stalls, Re ugirlscan ~, oe well h iJUtl ~!lM~llf.J{j;(j. bu~ d~t>Yendsre severe mental and phy3k:i'l~ del'n.dls. j\,jutmiotl:i'i :~11 gene called MECP7 are to <I, bl''I!me.~r()iW n~lU;at~:m]:s im),this si:L'lgle gene 01.1 lh~ X chnl~UO!;f.m~~. f a roglJllmOlr (~I.· j~~1 mh(:~r geues, COUJses n,eu.l'o~ogi:c..] preblems i"lJm't k!lOWI~ (Sti<"~ct',S DL;.lc(,!nher 2n(J6.1~. l5 36). bm I~.e ~ew :s:tlldy, plIblli slliil.ecl onli IJ,e t~ls wed: i by Sci e fl ('(' [www.seieeeern ..g.org/cg.i/ c on tent t~b$~mc l/ I '~:':>:389 ). :i!usge5i:s that

est~':CIge:l:l eceptor, TIle enzyme C'.lIlJ :reoogniz.e r .mli oomm1f;l the !:W!dbtock ~f'! Nk''lJ2. but ~:~ anaehed estrogen receptor prevented :ill from euiering thecell auelerss. iBy illjecnng the ~,1I1 ""'i'[h t.rnm,ox.i fell .• \ dntg th"lt hinds estroice gen Ireo(\'!~~mrJ>. resc~['cheN> sent the hibr:id the pmteinm ~cuu~.ing ~rll.o the nucleus to snip mil dmma.dblock and OC$tOI'¢ Ji\4b:p.:t f\'ft~f Ih.;;mI!:.::~h4'ld !\;c~ivoo f~\<~ \~£',kly Hm,l!:}xulen il~ectum~:s,. the RlI:m~l~keympt:oJ,m. s .,11bur d isapp(l[!~,d. A f~w of the rodsms coatinuedto walk with lhe~r hindUmhs almorm .•!I~}1 apml. but atherwise 11l,(."Y far \~t: h,lm HI dfisti l:lgJl' ~~h, from the irge:nfi~ ically nerma] 1"~I:)iIli'\J'CS:_ ltwas a pl(lgt,S:;!IJill surprise, b-.'lCOlltlJS(: researehers had feared th,u I~e dI.eve~.opmenl.~] Iflt".S flf J'\lf.'CfJl h:d I:{)mis~ilug p~mliull.~nlly ()!' disabled neural eonnect ions, "T hegene m.l,
petception
out

of lilbs iJf theffa(t ~hat IOOS'!IPllilJlv( are .<lwam ed ·~orprie rily resesreh
115

!iJal1ot@chooIJJ9ie~or I~Fl~fgy"~ Mon~lmb@rl says j f1dU:'lUy ls 10 ll:lllarn~ arid ~ha[ (lmp.all~es

~hOlll(j1~ir~ ii!i!(;reof ~e' llO.QOOP'h .0 ..sWdents
who grad uate1Fre1fKn ~dllOi!i each ye[lr" call tosciel1ti51:s to ioil1ldvil. :5'Brvanl~,in ~treel PfQt~lS.this w~r.:, ·-UIRlBARA ,CA;SASiSUS

Il!e~ail't:h 1IFli()!il~ all ~~ c ~lin!1i th e Irepor'l ina

FIDIA, IRe,lllrts; IDlliUIg

S,tud i8',S: B",n~kIIOIl
A ye[lr:ly update frtlml:he U"S. IFood and Dru9 M!TIini~!lfali(j~l ~~IDA) 0111~\'he~I!J~F (:Oliijl1i!ni~ are mQIii~tolri the safely and enicacyof[h~ri3' ng ple~ .alher they fl]l the m~rk~t shows thai, smh ~hldies are ongol n9: 27 4 il1[1l~, or j 7"/0. Qr l~l€IYl.lImber prolrl~s.€d. MeaJmwhli€, n.ea try twolhird~,or 1026 po.5~m.rketirtg ~I!lndte~,111l'l,llmJ'l y:t:!tstarted. FDA t<lD!l't !iciIY hm malllIY of thos.t!1 .aFe- Sitalb::d Qr hOlY IrI1alf!lY 11~ soon to b@gin. Some ,oulsiders. ~iY cle~ner d.;lta are needed and th~l fD~,iillfld drllJ~ wllflj)ilnies shou'ld morE!'

rei.~

is LI:u<l~ cnee the b.r<l'il'llill£l!s missed

big time on ~omeingl1edieflt nfnol'in,~l

rhe damage 10 [he :UU;:IiVOM s :system may not de'l,le.lopfli1tent"il's~,c'\'crgoing to be able to be peunanenr, recovell;' Bird s,'lY5. ·''We dmtL,gh~::L~.l<l,ybe ,,,,re:d Jadty Guy and Adrlam), HUl'd oil'the Univerg:1l: t ~ Ilm.e~,i roni on ()if the SY:U:l.l o proms, but we d kif'! ~[~nHdp~ul;; things \1!'OuJd be Fevc~d tll:;j~t ~.itynf EdiiilblJtrg·h.UK". and ool~e!!lgll.es ere<~~ed i.ce wi.tl1 ~~toelle~ic m,ldlblock-,;} :s(ri~lg :1111 on the' :sc.::<l~le thtll ,!;~'!e f01md,." of DNA-i~!,a,;rt~dl J\rhfq)l' "l~le moWiSi~ imo Til"" nm;lb~g~ sugge:)';llhm th·~ hlCk of vers,ion ohheiummn, ge:m.e'l thm pl't':vented ;HL>cJ~] dJa.esn'[ do irrevl':u:sible darn~~eIQ I1CUoeJ~s foo.n" u.'ll'ading lh>cg~m,: to 11UII.:C~~,~ t pm· I.'ml~•. S.9Y";Rudo~f Jae'~isch Ofllhc Wh~{dulad 111.l~lil'utlefor Bimnetlical Resellrclil~n: C<un~
hridg~, MfU~S~IChu~CHS, "H~[';i.!limltH,t Uk!,; ~

aggr,essiVELy pUl'Sl!Je line ~Nr.{!ies;. '~liIch as

tho5e

as~ilssfi1g 'thil!' scl'fety or aJ (le,Flafi'l d ru9 dMI11. ~l1ffiiere'!irmit b!2€lIl.[l hugedilrnlulll or IPmgl"'e1i:;~ in dear~ll'\ll lh~ b{i(k~ogl., X!·vsIl~)r~erlili(llogfj;s~ Bru:c,e !'saty or lille Ulli¥€lrs~'iy of Washington, SeaUlIl. rlOA says dlat some c~ lll1~ '$11.1.2: mijlllion r~u estoo hy l~e White H (mst this w~k r~F
drL,lg~5afe'lyuln ilialjves will. gOliOW<lm p()St" m<1 rkeling ~ulrveilll<!nol!. -]IEINN~~IERC:OI.ZIIN

dre'dmlwcS'ult:' he'ldd:s,. St iI Lnln~ s[tcdy do~s~.'t jJ(Jiot ~oan llb'lli(i~iS Mr"~~g)' '~I1:,ni~g Jt~u :-.yndrom~.,. "L!m,,!1l for gene ~n~m!u.iOi~n:sG.'Ii~.·l be lrepi!.ilr:ed bytllil£ lec:'I'a,~
~1 i,que dle Ed~n b:uc:£h teiln~! lJ:iiI:: d,.and t'>i Illiliply lmus~illg MEC:P2. dtitel: by gene thCl'ill.PY or

MIII11.Averts: H IIlI ngler :Sniiike
TI1~M.a:s~adm"etlS IfIISU.illlJle of~e{l1l'1o~ogy in (a rrnbrid'9~ilIg rf!&i thiis 'i\'~k to let ilIrI Ar!ric!:InAnleric~m ~tem'!1:eIL Ire~e8n!her who didllfllQ't reoo'i~ Le-n)Jr,~ rtl!l'li3lin I~!'Ica mpu~ sew, al addiH:Ollii3lIll1lQnUII~" Jdlnt~ Sm'~lrtey Uue[llen@d in L1'1'.!CEll1Tilbe;rw blllgi!llaJ Ii!J 1I119~r sM'ijlke iJ'llEr dl~ te,1l1llre d~niallthai he allriblllles [(II racism. lihe univenity, whid'i 'SCii;cllihi$ ~'il~klihat Ja'CiSim was; n!ll~ a.ffarJor ~n the tenulPe d ed~kml plan:~ to ~et. l:IP al COillm~ iltee to eJl;almirle ~le :st.atu:s !)fi i!Il in.{lrr· ily f1K!lILty Illl!1!111iJersOill GlmplJl5.
-AND'REW lAWI!.E!I1I,

."dmini~leri[lg ~hepmte.in. is not hkeJy to
Zoglmhi .. d others s.ay, l[,~<1I:"s.bec:am>e m :!;!!.id~ \.\1 hh Ri\;lu syndrome .oi!lr~~dy mak~ MEC'P2 pllTo~eil:lJ i:ril.... bout halhhelr ceUs. [h,uri! s l'u ,. ~i;;~[ld k l1'PY ofM£.· P 2 on th~~r $!;;Coml X Chl:'m1tlOSom,e" The~ ce.~]I:swmiJd ,end up ~vil~]a S,~trpht5of MECP2,. \',~Jic:h~PIl~illi'S t'(l be jl:il,s'tas dOlI:l,mgi~,1g liS a diefici~' is. P~nd:ing @,~~crmu!~ stntleg ic.~ 'ii{(~ 'l be: eOll but t ~l.c ~Y. II.mms.e ''I.''Ork 5ugge~a£ lll~<Ltsuell efforts, OIri,;: ' ..>ell '1:vtl[~h p~l~rl~ ing, "'GI9II~G MIUtlR
WOilrk,

~ HOI~e'. G,irt'5 with Reu sYWldlrome h.aloif illilplll]i'iee ~ ntlO !)lIily; mou se Sll,ldi~s hinl.M ~ rem.edy,

I

N.EWS OF THE WEEK
2008 U.,S. BUDGET

I U.S. BUDGET

2008 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Re's,earch Riis,e's~alnd Fa:lli,s~iln The Presidents Spenldiln'g Plan
Jtt')t as he hlliis :-;tfry~d'Ihe C{)ln~ iill traq, President GemgeW. BUS[l 1135 stuck to his guns

wi~h his bml~t PR1P~l~<I!i~, 5 Fd)nl~ll)'.he .on st'1lI1, Congress a 2008 btdgelreqL~,e~l for scitHJ!C1f;l

th.,,;~ favors a~'ounl,f~11f,,,g(.lm,;i~~5~lPo

ponjng the physic;11 sciences andputs Ihe sq ueeze Oli! mOSI, 0 fthe re S:~, (I r the fe.d!e r11~ research establishment as palit of;n~ o'i.le:r.il~, $2.9 tril lion plarllh flit ,elf!mps. d()\'!.i!l (II) mfl~t
civilian spendi,l'ng. Lag~ yc<I!'". the lu~""idcnl1> hudget proposed ~he Al'1,l,e r~C,Ul C orn'pi:lt i~ ivene S~ [11! iI ~,allive (AC1). II, ~,O'..ye~r oubl in!,'lof the Nmioll'f1:l d i~ ence i~olllml,d."tiQn(NSF). 'the Dep~r~,rnii:~.1l of

s~

Er:tcrgy's (DnE''!;) OIHo;:ofSd,em;:c. ;;Ind BOre lab,," ~lit~~~ t N"':Q,iura;;t~I,~$tiM!.;,': CSlf!!1(hmJ:;''''J:!.d u Tec:~mo]ogy '~N[S.T). At the S3IlU: drn.e. he Science <mel TedmolQflY. 'B i~lm~di.c<,~~ lsrs dOll'l see much of lobby asked Cnngli\~M tocur the N.uiuJil<1lJ ~Ilsli~nh or He.1~th (N [1-]). \1III1IicUn. up .1b.ost hal r a silver lirrlng, "h's distressing," said Jon makes the $60 bi II ion (i;;d!;:t.:!] science .Wild te:chnology RelZh!f[leg.~sl <lthl!!:: e[l ief ,H '~~eFederati Or! blidget..iiul'J 2008 reqruf:stfoUmvs suir, Ifit of Amencan Socielue.s for lb. peri mental \I!JC!JC W 00 ;.lIdOpH::t.i inWCl~u 'wholly lJIl'n I il;::~~y Biology. \\~~ic~ has 'c~lh;dFor !;'I 6% boost fOI" prospect, giveu.l l~.e Demecrsric eomrel of N[H."O~lr 1001~wl,~llbe1.0have ~'hishmlged c CO!1gre~s-gl)vi.;q:IU'l~~!'Il Sl:!.pp(n·~ fBr basic wh~!1I H g~l>l hrough C(1!D'l~!:~$!>'" researc h weu l d r ~~e by <I :lrn,1.:iIUHI I e seu The 20018bm~et is I.lanlelf toilnl>eI'PI,-el tilall 0..5% fro:~u :lmis 1007 request, [f];Im;.tpres idenii<l~. :requesis because O)311g;'li'eSS A,'c!';Qrd~l.gly. the m:',lI'mgjWlesli::; getliilg u hu:-;n'tf~IiI~;ojI~ed work Q:Wi dll: 20001 b"dgeL

dk;d •. ;dIY~lilix~d r~ce~~liO!l from seience h gUlUPj:;:. "The [pre;!;:udeIJfs] budget 11<15much po,sitivf;l I'!It\.V::; for (~.e mUi(Jo;tiY~ re~~l!r~hml""tir" skies, butit also raises some ,'eiJ:Y sericus eonceras," :;ltly:->:Roooril Be<J:dt,M. p:~:'lide:l1Il of Ihe 6.2-membe,1f A:ssoc~mioll of Americo1!l1 Univer.o;Itie5 (AAU). He praises the ACllt~llld~ng but chasr ises the Adlmill.l istr'<I!11i,onfOIf "s.!IlOr!'Ch,m~~ ing" defense research aad making \l,,'J~f!l amonmsre <I $500 IIrnil~li.on cut in NIH fl!.mdi.ng. Demm::rat ie lcglslaiors who fO]llmv scienee <IDe eq'~I~ll .mnbi\'a~el;lt "TIle pr~:itdent ; bucl.wet i)' 1 il'nchldes a Whv goad. target .. fO'I' R& [) 11m:dlung ~l:I,~:igllol'es 1)(10(1 jnil;Ul,Y of our C~1tll'll~'IfyS prioriries," says :R,cpr~s.Clltaii.v~ B~rt Gordon {0-1 N). ~'hai r of ~he Ho~~:;(;; C~lIn!llim;;:e~~fi

Thep~e"ious.

~R.cPlJbl~ca.n-~ed Congress

'Ldjm~fI1!(;ld in D(;lcI;.':1l1Pr.:" .l,ner Ol.dl;lri~lg... ~ng des, to keep spend~1lig .al 2006 leveb:IJIBlllill
L5 Fcbnm[jI'. and tlte new D~mQC'l~ulicliiIUjOIi]Sl1lOV!f pllui:lI1~ wgedleJl' a ra_[l~][ 2007liJlJI.dJ!1,et. A resolution ~ldflll[~d ou J ~. ~ml~~ryy th(l J b House would hold ~nost federal i1gelll.ci.e.s te 200'6 levels, but with a few neiable eseep-

ity

ili1.clmling. NSf. DOE'~ ()ffice SemIte is ,e.,"!.pecl.od to ~.1k.e~lp ri.~e'lSure s:lunl~y. the The 200'3 lti:~qu~J;I. scienccwl II play eut I'or
~W(1i:1l15 •.

Science, ~mdN[ST~'Ule

or

h~the

!1~ id~t

of 1:i:J.1;l b]U\lf d~bf!tl; ~l"I~J;l I nLq m

war and ei1ill'ts to shtril1lk the fi:ldend deficit. Here 0lJ!'e 50mr;: ind1v:idUfII ~g~.I'!I.('y igb~~.~l~S: ~ NIHI: Its 2:om~reqW!S~p.fMr.o special ~IUentloll W younger :SCiillIH~SlS despite COD:lIH~i~in.g less than I~~~ amoune Congress Is expected tu approve for2{m7. New and l1ompelh~g.t!l'lnns il'n th~ rro~i'I(mtNp:~f.n \\c'OlLld.surpllS!; I (WOO for the f"in~t ti rne in ye ..rs, S;<'ljIS N 1.1fi.[[)iiJiec~or E~iilSZdImOL]_~l.i. on tfi1C \liI';)yiow"drd il.chu!e\.'lIlg ":itaM~ .,. ::-m:<t<lilluble·'grm"'th. F"ndiillgCQr hig~lI.~pri.o1i'i!.y"R.olldmall" p:roje<;ls. under lln.C N] H di rector's connol \~riI iLn.cre<lSill" aswi 1:11 I spec ial !!T<lIllS, for ffi rst-ti 111.1(;::'1'3. BhHlu~dk:a~lnbbyb:as ngur~ Ihal NJ H weu Id~}(;lmlliy receive $5001 mill ienless under ttl~ pres ldeut's 'b~,dg.~~ "!!lin 2007. in part t:h
because ~,ISoCl.)llltl'lib~t!iQI~lilt: Glob2uI.Fundto to Fughl.f\[[lS, Tuberculesis, and M<lI~rifi m,d O'rliller d is.ea s es in the deve~op~ ~\iO:fklwould iii ng rise from $99 ~~i~Hnnto $300 mi.m.o~l,. '.~.ey ~ also :l1ol.e til:l<ll the'tot,l~ IHlmbeiliofgmntsw'mdd ~

Age""y N1ati!ll,r1al.III'IM:iMes

IlIf

Health

zoe!?

MiliUS!!!

>CR:'" ,28,931

2!l€lS re.quest
2<8,(;'2:1 309 ,6,,4,2.9

%
!ilh!illllge!

-1.1%

'n.•lrlsfer tQ mobal Fundi i
Nli!liO:!"II~1 Sci~noo fllUl1ldij~(Im

99
5.'916
4.766

+2<03%
+8.'jl~I!l'

Rfl~aiF(jIil' Eii!lU:(aWlIn'
NIMA
S(']~mc;il'

,5,131

,+1.7~a,
",,~.1%,
0+6.5%

'00
16,2\47

75®
1],30'
$,.•51'

[:(j)l~rall0il'i De~!1mf,'N¥t @f IEflw'gy, OU'ioo ~f Scie",~ De~rtmi!,ltt of III:Ie1Ni8e, Dilsi!t I"ese.ardh OAJRPA Ill<a:sicmesea d Home~nd '5e(I!.Iri~.y,.sd!l·III~ ijmjwdm~~liI'gr~ Oepartmi1,nt of Go;rnliliief.C!i~

5.2:51 3,401.

~·.9',2i4

:M'!!6
1,5M

4,.397 1,4.2B
ts.3

",5.0% +15.~~g, +1 5 ,61¥li
....8.7%

dl~)p, A:~'koi;;dIlxli,l~'lh~ ]~kj£:1 ~ ilwnd of S1,1~~a C'~t- ~ b&:k tl Sernl,re :LfiI~I~jorily-;ralf~l-~a~d., '~,;enet : "\'V~
going to let I.hat ~millppeM." NS!~: Director .Arth:::~1Bc:niilcrn s,1'l:yshe's "ltIlJore dIan Impp~{'for <11 b~K~gelh'll' I:ms IJJoO.n1Ii for tI t $51 mil:llioll i.l'lliti~lD.~'!{eW add cornJ.:Jiutalion<l]

I
I:f

~45
l.(.I!l13 3701

9'~fi
3$.9

"i'5.5!l.lD -,;;;!,7"h -3·.2Ilfoll +150.5% -4.1% '!o35.3%
I).~%

NQM.(lceallliumtl atm(D~:plileric l!'~~arol'l

'" §!
~
i::! z

~

NISlll<Jbs,

Ad!.l,~nlS~;jj1 ifI!(ihno,19!D' Program EiIlIil'lQ;[1lII'keiiltal. 1P'~tclClfo:f'l A~Nl(y~ciem.'!e l!ISD~ I'i~m~e'tili~er,~~eii!~I!:i1 1lI.S. GeO~I!iEJi~~t SIlNe~ FOGla and Drug M1iIlIl'nlis:lJatioll'
" ~uudlo,. 'ilIl ~~~:1 t j)nI!lr::r, IlI\I!l:i Sil!rWl ~JI.

42679' .563 '97S

492
®

UO

54(1 257
9']5

1.965
~_~

2:.0<85

-!'ti.l%

1 ~l!!-'!:!, ~~!!:r'l!!i I~~ ~;~ll!c:It!,_r.m..

~~

rq:Q<!!~IQt!gfOI~IH'!I:~~

I~]ck

a 11!I1!!!llIIlbew;lihe (;unr~l'll HOUSE s,lJ!(l;ndling, plil!!l m<!JI be !h~ 'b~l '!I<Hdsti!Cil:to reql.!le~l. tor .20'OB;, tU.'lCau-st ((Jn91~ss.lhiI'SiiI't r::omple~~dlloIi'ork (J11~lhe 200'7 bud'gU

m@,i!SI!!~

the ~residenl's

l;!~e'ml;ll1il$im(1th~ hio!lo,gk.fi!1 o:umdpil}'sj(;"l)l~ciences and 'ellginee:I'.~ng,}s '~leU,IS <I. $24 mill:~on :§ ililcre~~s.t;i!"! <l S9[) lIn~:iMio!l r!'(}~i~\ml:ilr !'!"mjP!'~ reSie,u'c:h. infr<l!>lI"~I.C'I.lII'e .H unliver;s:uti'~:l; ~~'hh~ I~milii;':d endOWl):lcntll .. NSF hopes, to ~dd ,200 graduolte rese<lrdil feliowshi~:i'Si~,,200S. ~ With reg,H'd tOo major ~(:cwrguciU~ic5. ~ Ihe a,gen!l::Y has reqluc51:cd $32 m~.Uioil,11O ~ . CamirUl,t):d On' l)< 753 ~

I

i-

U.S. BUDGET200B

I

NEWS OF THE WEEK

I

IrliASA Tri:es to Make S[pal!l:e~f,or S!cie mel:
If'lJASA oC.aml8' L.ln,~ew 1i!@Ii!vy rirll lsst menth honn 11112'NlaU.on.lllilli.ca~l8l1nil!s· :Mal(i()113~ RE'Selillid~ COlliI'd f!l)<f 'c:lJUi~'!} iIIfnp~rtal1,[ e~nh sO:e.nc.e' mis:sii!'J<fLS. allied jlJS~. this 'I'IIIeek., aM~fher <!(1H!eillIY parlel OOIllJI1l.al n'l1a th i1ti~.lWenrIJIlU illl ~ar!lie pmjeds sueh i31~ Lhe ].mne5. We91rn'5pi!,ce Telescope, :o;l[i!~ed for a .20 n Ii! Utl!:!t a fie' hI[!rlin:g S llfii l~iJl'f;nlF~'phYSi(~ Illf'fQrls. Byl NA$A, Qnki'~ls say tlila~. thell!' ,2008 b!Uldget. wiU plJUhe ag,e<ntY':!i·beleag uered :S; 5.5. iID]lhn :sc.i~n~ ,jlU19 ITa1111 ack on a Ill'! IIIr~ bil~!:Irll;ed~lr(!ck. b E~hi bit A. ~.aiy ag:~nl('y m1ntda:ls,_ i:51~e prnIPo5ed lie~lorat hm or ~¥etral iPlf\(I!lecu h~l'IgJ:ng in Umbo d:urili1l~ Ihe ~,m ~eillr. IlLjoimll U.S.-Jap~lIIe'~€ :!iJllllluluaH des.i91r1,e;d me\ll!ilH>E! gloloi!lL pFe(i~i~a~a:n \1ri1l be ~aun{~E!d illl till' two ~hasli!s in 2:013 ,a!ri:d 2CH4. And aner sever~l yea~5 or !)'II€'r!"l!!fil~all'!d del.ilYs., tJ.'l'e ~1'Il.tllllllrilstrophysics nnj'i~'i(lm-Keplllr, ,cle5,t!Jnecl ttl di~mvelr iIl;(uas<@lar plaJn~ls, aln~ the Wi~@-Pi~ld ~llrralrEd SUF'!i'ey E~pIQ~ef '(bell!Jwt ~~h:idlwi~l :Fll'Odu (@ ,a, d'@'L:ai ~1fIap or th'e iIiIfran~d L!ln:iven'l2-~\1ill by n@'xt led ye~r be griltell1 ~h:e morrey 'they ne,Mi ~o fly. TI1i3l n!WS rnay nol be E!l1o!!lgh tlO:5ilitisry lISJlFOP hys:kf s\s worried that the qlJe~e Qr n1IissiQrrI~,icS qlllickly e!1itI[ll'ty~ng, "nlere are 1'10 IQw-(o~1. qllkklI'~pillm5e !K:f~nt'e p,m!!l ri:lnns bei Ill,!! pre<p.aroo t.eday, ~ :5.illf-i M..llrilha H<lJYIl:E!S, ll a ast rOp'h)t5.i[ijs~.at (OrllellliJlliltv'erli Uy .m cl 'll'i!Le~d1Ilir ollbe a (<ld1li1my p.a n el that r€\l~ast!d ilS rEport ,(10 7 fli!!b~lJ!i!r)'. NASA req,u@sle'a the !'l:lp!Drt la$1 ~@'a~. It is deer, hor.oever. lhiil[ N!A5,A'ssGel'lce pmg rram rremaim, inl {lfis;~ ilfief hi)~lll~ to poruv up S2.41'1 bjUicm fl'Ollli jlts 2rOO7~201l bu,dget p~arl to (rj)1,I'~ :o;hlillUe and! space M:atio.I'I~llIol"l:faUs... No Sp!iI.(l&u;jlH al~e slatem to' lo~lfl'ol,l the la:rge Eilr'th-abse-:rvifll9 IPlatrOfllU flOW ill OJ·bill, ,inldlhe~dn ~(l:E!ft(es budget wiU reillflaitn at abolll $15 bmiQIl fo~ the rO[!fs~l3bll! fullln~. Se'IIt!f1IIl frrmpoort!int 11:5 Lrop'ilysin: rtlrg hrs, suehss l hill S poi'!rC~ I !'!t,e r{emm~tlY Mi:sS'ioJil, r"l!IiI~iJil Ii1III1 held

Why dGlesthis ~~lfdy h!ll1;le< nu;h~trrolil!JIlegi)I ...H¥e 'backi ng de spile NIIH':5 pl(til ~'I POV(trly? 51.1p(lr~iitr!i ar,g~e ~fl3t it ,~o mcm;: Ithan pay ror hs~~rijf p i.dd

i't

~!~diSto

e\!',!r1 lEI l-~,@i!r 1.% redwrliol'l

illl~1!!

~

d~s@::!~esit @ull11im:l.~,Bul

ollie lI:!ialll1,eclk .. I 1l:l'llltlyi51 who req !Jested ~lrlOffilyrtl~ty ,dai n~~ thaI <I,dVl:l(<lrLie'S (r~al@d iii larg;e ,and 'g'~!J9ro1[jlhi(a~l~ d~vl!r$@'c©'n~:ti'tu@rI~ by n.:Imihgl the 'll'a~gl!lal'id c.eli1lers alfld idemlu!yingr li1'eariy 100 fu[ulr.e stludnit~. The l~b-

byi~t, wh~ caUed lhe! lalcli.c'!j, an "'oulraQill,"

lik~filed them

~Q

m~th-

eds used byanySJIedatitrlillrest 'l!iroup to rdilin fede[al fUll'lmiill'lg [Of
<I

large- pmjec:t.
The (lI1i1dren'!i study

is ~Ol a ~ped~l-int,~resl
pro~ ect, S t! V~ loll byij :~L ]~h~ P>OJiter; lpanlrn~r al " a IliQe Hogan, :& Hanson law fi rI11'IIn Wash] l'I£lliOl'1I,. i O.c p'llner, a (grlillriH Replll blka III re p I'(!'~elllll.aU'I,I',efrom IIIUn:Q1s wh® chaired ~he nlo.1Jili~p1l11liI1l. that sets NIH':l] Illucly;el, has Illlltlmlihireclllly the van· ~iJ~rd (el'!t~rs. "W@ ~ s,pe(t,e-rj l~~ ra(ll~~th.JJndi!llg ~s'Very ttg ht alild dii~j"i" (lJJ~lffor ; 111,'~sHg<l~ors,~ R savSo, ad'di trig that ('ongre5"i iIIl3!5 IlIlJl thes.tuu:ly iiii !.he NIH dir~lOr's b:LD(!gel Fith@r ihafll ~a\i [migit ~~1Il:I PEt@'against iriJ!f~li~i!~~[ilrliti3te::i grants ;ill imlMduali nstilliites. study's (o:>t ~ts IlOt ~rWiraL .. !Nmcede~ I!eol'lard @riflrasaWld~,.a preventhre medit:ine reSAlar!l:he~ ~~hoInas ma'Rlpioned it ilkm,gside hi~ c@Ueilgue IPhHip la ~d ri~ana~. MOlml '5; I') a i Sd1,Ii)O~ !Memo ~e ifll New It!rk City. B~ l tl:r he 'says ]t' s ~he best way to find 'Ihe comp!l>e-.x ract~rs. llil i31t iii re feedi 11191 ilUiI ~e~idlemli(" 01 dliri0nk dlil(jlulod iII.nesl>. ....nIGl! MARSI'IALIL

ne

ro~~lUse @~ bl,icl~el!l;QffiI~iiran !!lb. Even ~umltr sdell1lc~, III@\V in: fawJ bees use o"W OOfIIlerc:lioll ~o hl,i man it!> eXI~t~r,ati[ln, lace50 an nc:erlariln ~lllljn~ ai~ler Ih~ prole!Ted (@li1 a re~\1 of
SQphi$li.caI~li!d !1lW!f5 dQub~tI to $1.5 bi~ lien. D,~puty eXIji!Imatiol'l [h:i,eof [)ioulJ~s (oo~@'says sL!l~hr'llwr:s ma,y Ifl~t b!1Iil@(~s.saJry.:lt aiL ~Wel1E!i!d: to haw a really gOM rrliP,~'h~ sa,ys. "ilf's h.a rd ttl Soay W~ 1'I@ed IfIIUJ(h 1!tli!jr'E: t~alli dn~ L " Neillierth:eles~, NA;5AAri[\e$ '[il~ea l"(h (el!lt~r i.n Moontalln Vi:E!!i~ (anJrrtl~a, will.pllt ~O!Jethl1r iii c.h~~,r Ilnd htsiler Clpliotrl forlhf! men" -AN DREW LAWlJER

INSF Edu,ca~i,on'r'lll~rll'a.m IRiebounds Vile aush A~ m ilil is~!'ati!lm''5.enolft.50W rein illl th e Nir~riQIiI!ill S!;jel'!t~ FQli!.ll~til)rrI'~ (M~~tf'5) edlJlcalion: p:r~9ri:llll1l5m'~ be C(llII1lilflg ~oan f!nd, M~iha III <I ~fs;1 [mlm a OOi!ll,~te~sknfla~ly mQi!IIdalli;l~ 'ev~e~'I' il ~xn$li~g led'iitf,;;)1~norts to o
ill'lllpr<Dv>e rrmalh alnd :~d!:! !'Ice ~£I~.K<llij n. ill NS r' 5 2008 bYdg~t flldudes s 30 11!'!iIU().nN) !!i!l'\I'il,ie its ~ !ltl~m3ti(S aoo S(:tenu! Pil!rlnECIr~h:ippmgram, a (!emp~lili\ll2' grants; pmQram!lhal teams url'~1i'Er'Sili~ialfld ~lIDcal $Cno~1rclisn~(lS to im~ro¥.e @'h!mE!'~la!Jal!ildi ~i!wu~d;jjry s(hool mal.n and me'm@. BEg Ulil iIIQ 200 2 as a $,z,o;fJ1 milliolil presid!lfIli!:lll illiliative. U~e NS ~ P rog ram l'lal:nlshru i'lk ~(i (ii pmp(i~ed !JT'i'ai I'Il~J1<iIl(~~leve~ Mrt; mmi~:n f n 2007 ~lIhHe1al s~milar' IIImgFiillll1 iln~lhe IDepaJlnnlmt ,~rfdJuciItiOfi! 'thilt awa rd:~blOl~~ 9'i'I!1~ l@!ev~ry s~~e 9 rrr.;w~Ipidly (sd~t.I«', ~ 4 Febrll.:try 2006, p. 1092)" nUl Atlmilil is'tr.lltt(m'~ reqlll~~t would p~rm~t ;]I lIlle\1.r rouml or crnJi)pe~Hi.v~ r).·yeara.warrls., 'Xl,ys NSf Director Ardfill Bement, alliDng vt~.h d@'l,l'el~pililg "1JOi:Jl[ kits" 'I'o~ l.e'a(h!i!'1'S ba s.ed Olill sloI(enrullP rogralliJiS.~O dal~~. MallY leg; 5La~ms have lomlg <li~g uedthal NSF could do.a beller ,j~b lin an ~h@Ot!f,loi!rttll'l@nt or EducaliiiJn, and iii na~i!\vQfa~l rl@der<:ll fl [OQ r~:"',!1i5· lh@ by il'll:er.i3lge11!(:yAia,de lII1li( (oliil~liliv.e neM Cou FIe i~.(1\(0 ~o IIJe refea~e~ la~E!'r this IFbl@:nth siitems to bNU then~ OliJl. MI [hrink th'" the An: r~cog!mile$ the Q,L.lolIlUy of OlJr i!S!;e~~l'IIIMt~arid ®m ~UHeS!; in: achieving. !iji9nHi~anil5,tudlel'll Ol!'ICOrQ'e~. says Bernei'll. ,~ho ha!! seel'!, ,~ i!iIfah liir the upc:omiiilg ~ repo:rt. R!olll1!~lSIm'~iI,.iiI~sociate ,ciire(~@r for malllagll1!l'I1I~nt at h~ Whiitl1! 1-10 use orr; Ii:Ei 0 r Ma 1m,a,~.'Il1it'! ~ijil! ~d Blil dglill:t,. told 5dtnce ~asrl mQi'Uh ~he!'l i W\I:5!F isalllill;mg lhw<e o1Igtm;;i:e!O "with: a' ~twn 9 'Irac'k recoJd ror rig@;rQuiIi eval.liillli@n~~h~!l ((l1lI1d ~e m@deil:s(ror ~ther agend es ~ryingl to iiIlil pmv,e ~(ie ffiI(e !il1iI~ milth instmd:iQIlD. -]EnlR:EY MER:VIS

INiIN IChiillden'SS1uI~ SlMdS ~iglw f
gur~(~m" ~li a,;; leiFh,DU rli 5a~ thE Nati'!ln al i,rI~lillites of itteaHh (00 H~'{a III 't ,d!o~dl 11. But 1.e9i~lcH(lr!l beil:ie'!lt! ~ha t a lIl1lCissivl!SeQ!f(n~'or the sources (If {Inmlllic ailR1fll1lS :'!l1!Kh:a,~ ,[!,!>thmaa:nmidialbetes. is worth S3 bi~ltGln meor the :nf!~ 25 year:>. Th:i~,wee~, rm the ~e(sJ1d s:lr;aiglht. Y'i1ar,Pre!;idieI1l GE!'!Olrge W, Bu~h's lbllld~lFe'lfrE!ql!l~Sll(!l(Ilfigrre~ ~e~oed rCiU [ ru Ildill'!) f(lT the f!iJatiol'nail (hilklreo's Sludy, whkh: would I111uoUll00,OO 0' 11~W'l!ulIJm; ~inflii trI'g~n I he womb) a rid (b l!liIo!'1litnnr Iheir h>Nlt~ oi'!!1Jde'"<poslIl'E 1,0 Eil)!,I']ro:nmel'Ual ~ij~ks hn:r a, qUliulter(l:!'IMlJry (Science, 1;0 IOecE!minr 2004" p. t.SS3,). A!!Ilhori:i!ed ~y (on~fre-s:s in ,2(100, the slu,dy ueceived n.2 mmiG'1'I in 200~ L\O ~lIp[ilorl ~'I.I'ell1l ~'IIIam,guad ~ r !I;:ernter::;hat.I,'I'illl help deliigJil lliit ShllililV,· Il.alit week. (II H~lIJiS~ 50pemling :l'Ilall t
rQf 2007 included $,69 mmio:n for the slud¥. amid :S!.JPIP(lrier5-a~e !ljeraringlUp to plJ~ h r'~r $:l! 11 IIlmiG:lnilll tim ,200$ f1~o1l i V'lalr that beg in'5 IJ rI )l OJ;.~ober.

WWW'.s;cienoomag,olrgSCH~:r\IC;lc.

VOL 3t5

9 FEBRUARlf.2007

751

U.S. BUDGET200B
beg.in u~1gf ding d~eLaser hl~~1ia feeo meter 'ur<1'" i!<11 0 nal"W<1~'e i
Obsc:rv3toI"Y.!lnul
~l1fJ21cS

I

NEWS OF THE WEEK
hml~<l!~S'te)

I

AmericCifI (ompetitnvel1es:Ii

------------------------

Initiative

stretehed

out

lh~

scheduled

nJIHIH!lP

of
~ l4

Th'<lll cut, if il ll:iiOld S lip. could gremly extend cOIl1lp]e~ ion (I f the s y:ste1!1lTI.,mtOW planned l:ali 4 years aft.er [he shmtle 1;. k~:s[ f1igh~. iID!, I fl. 20
NI~5i: The propnsed 2~% bOOM over theI:leusc-appreved 2007 funds \wllk~ ~drwuleC;:1li pi\lPtH~dht'b I.,;j;;p;mgjot'! <:It thiS ~£:.~!1Cy1: BUillder, Colau:arlo, carapus 3'1II.c an upgrade ~.oti:te

new launcher to rake

'he moon.

Il:ullion~l, cn:\'ironrll'l.cnl:m13~u! ocean ()!b~e:lfv.noryl:J,e'~~'Od;s OOC.~~ of se

cmuil'luedt\'~>caH~1Jg

d!;".\ig11s..
to wiu

of thei"

B1siU~WJ.1 :-:.-.y:-: hL;;!il$l,}

h(!Ji'Iii~

iElI2 filii'
.... 10,

OJ

co:~,£rl::s~~o:~;al3pprmn'll. in vessel,

20(Jr7ro begill! bl!gldin,g"
i:im.lArctic researeh

sun mil-

IPiJI!~leded
fund!!;

NIS:r Center for

N~~!tH11!l R~~tl,HCh

in

HOME LAIN!DSIECLHUTY; llle [)epm,l~ ment ofl!l1lnu:lmltJl,:Se~lriEY (nl~ S), whese Science and Tedu:dOigy djf'~CB)F.1~e \'\,lOi~~ tcpri manded by
CO[l!;1:I'f:SS,

2

INISF
:100& jljOO!l 2910 ~u ~m,<l, 20l!~

o~1 ~~~~~~~~~~~~. ,~mOl jljm04·

i:lsr

ye;lf

for I1i1Ilismi[lll3g~

ing

.~t~fi uanees, \\,'..nrs to eur its .

Fi~c.'Il'fflar SHU ,(omrpetit~ve'. Tlh~Ai:lmllllihtroni®1'II has requeMed ,~ S'Gi(OIU!l ~~a,~ l[)i£lllil(r~a,Se~ the 'tlilriee! a9'~Mt's lll'ldpr ACt of kif'

ml~,~,cer~iy pmgr,.unsby

IE.NI~R.GY:Un:der);Cc:ret!lry ofSeie·n.oe .Ray;moml Orbaclm S<;1;r-> '~Im<lLI: ~~ second eonseeuiise ye.'iC of to its C urrent roster of seven, t h<lllCXp3:)'n;!o:n. lar,gei!:1cr.cm;e,,~ ,.. !llIaw DOE to take "0 ur s ]i.ke~yl["olrl~~~~t~hlh) i~~ !t'!Ur!(;:y I-'hr ~2'1iMrst 5h;:l'l if!to ~~e\~' t'lo'.rri.IQry .• Thii;: ~'1I'l~ct~d " 200'7 :ill1lcre<llsc, he lIdds" "'rep<li:red Ihc d,nll~ illg censers, Jay Cohen" the d:in:::(;'IQr.;u~"s 1l.CV!.' mldt:1'Secro!ary, pwmi~ ~h.n~hepro~rm'l~! 'lj,',~~1rlge" ~oprog!1rn~klns ~tffi"l,'t'd fo:rl],u~d!i. The 2008 I:eque)ilw{mld give $.1,(jICllllil~ beunee back, "'Plei15e view this as <I lnmsi lion }fel:i!ras lore re.~~ gH ~l1e;[centers] l:l'rogrt'Llfl \Vllilli i lion toward the '$6 bi:~1 i.olllLlnrernarioual

20'%. rn $39 mfumQllr. AJiui[lltl'lOllIgJ1, ornci~ls also 1)lan!!D add tbutr UL1 i"''I::[si~y·lb~edcenters of exce:ille Uilce s

"Itm

n

m

(ionil:~,e]',t;burg, J\1Jaryl<lnd. Itwou k~1 <'I180PVOv ide $2:2 mill iml ~tu f~!\'~ new pa:lJgnHJ:1S in ,flre as Sill c11 as l1 '.llIlofech:~l,o logy a [f~tc ~ima te science, "Thi s is actual 1::/:fI gre~l d~y ~Oli NI,ST:' says l.~,e ;Jgenc.:)''s dire,r::torWu,Hi~m JelffG:jI. As in P~'\l~OUSf6'q)U~M~,he ]'f@klJlliU t wculd zeeo eut the Advanced Technology I?rogra:lml (ATf)" wi} lch hel.]'s compauies C0li11:Im,l:e i ali ze :1101 see IlIl lee hllloiogi'i::::i. The re H:otu!;e :ll~,)c:!:iding bill offers ATP:1'I ~~yelo'l:1i" ref~rieve.'lt '$ 79 1[]1~~,1 " iCi\~

our mission,"
['C1ll~~flK "fI,iU}1

he says, ,uld.~l:Ig l~"H DJ-IS commilttcd 'to b~:siC'research,"

T heunoml,d,ear

E xpe r,~mlenra I Reaetor

iu
[0

Cad~r~dH::.FnHlce,

:Pf()~ ~Clt;!"~hHCd

E~A: Th~ E!)v~n~mn~m ..IP!'t)~eli;:t.ion Ag~m;y'5 OMn:ce of Research and De"llelo:p.I:I;~,el,lrr\'QlIJ~d \ suffer ,;"4. I % CUI f'[om the House-approved level, "fhm'S less duu) the 6.'7% redlDcttOn the Adminism:nio!1i Mlugil'nlu.f 2007. E FA ,chief sciemis.E 'George G~,IY S;<lYS[hm the 2001:) req~rest i.~~h[dl:s ~!lla~~ ij)[)Ocsts foil"i.!lit.romul·~~ros~?Ireh
01'1

NOAA: The N<1liolm'I~: Oceanic and Annespherie Administml.io.l1I. us seek ing $40 mi IHoll more for ocean resesrch aspan Qrf ml (wtlTlIll $. t23tmUhon boost under the president's S,PME; NASA Admin~5tr;n:u1' Michael Gr~mn Ocean A.ction r~:O!I:L~Sci.rf'uce. 2: Febnl<lry. { S,IYS he us. happy Wi~~l the proposed p.~85~ . .Elm NOAA's malnprngrem fo:r d i dpli nes ~1;,1(,edno !1@'( 1(Ji~~L~ .. deferl~ in hope~~ .3.1 % increase over lh~pre:;,udcnl's re,~lj~Ch-lh~ omlC~nfOoc%lnic and AunesorrepJeni.s,h:iJ~ DOD"s agillg scienceand tech1007 request, :l3l1l1he 2007 budget coming plleric: Research (OAR,~u·onl,d. drop by ~luIO'd'Y t1L~~P:~~1}'t~~. idea J.;; defimli~l;dy~:I;;:;,- d~wl1i th~ plike foomthe nt;;"'VD~m(je!".ni(l·nnl 1.3% from the HQu~e2007 !'pend~ng bill '1i.~ enari n,g \!,,'.ut1'n. foil!: s Q]ml he H~, ll :" S3yS AAU's Congress .~5 !qlllile suother Ill<lilte,r .. "We"re' on whicl1,fuI.cws to 2006 levels.. M!lI~:~£"\1!,' O\we:~"~.1h~ ba'lic research 1~(lI.1f('lHo the mccivillgcl1d l of~ lli~l.dg~t W~ dtm'llikc:' AGRICIULlURE: The Adm~lli,mmion reprised <t~ the Defense Ad.v'Ulced ~lite:se<1I'C~,1 Peojeets g;r.ouses Grufri~l, re'R:ninstQ'1 Imtf-biUi(m·· A.g;;;:ncy ..vould rise by 5.5% •.to S ~. 3 .mi II leu, 5 d('lll~rredliclioll in NASA'!; ~I]hrl to bl~nd~l its .goal of hU~llt ing C()lm~ petit iv~ research .al Ihe U.S. Dep<a.rl.ll,n,ellit of Agr;ilc'LIlJI.lIre .. The
N;l!tiu!l,f~1 Re~t;>i!U'C.h,h~ili;fI'~V~
WtJtild

~'EI"IEN:S~~ s.il,v1.'lr Ihl1!nl: ~Il ~~ 8.7% em ~{11" 1"h~ i basie l\es.earc:.Ii1, :m~:Irn,eDep.ntL'il,l:em of Defeun se ([IOI)) is a big boest to t~~eNat uonal Defense Edlilc <ll i~J[I!Prog nun, from :iiI 9n,'1.iU ion to $44 millio:rnr. ·fhcp:n)grn]1l].bcgl:min.2006, ]lro~ vides ~holarghip::> w U. S. umh::~:gr.HJ:LIl<II:ea'~ < gJI:<IJ(]u<l~etudents in scieace <iUl~ilelllgi:noel,i nag s

app]ied energy science "Mould enjoy ,I \\1 hOppi!l~ :2 6%i nereaseovera U glbove T h!.;; 2007 request, l1Iot<lb]ly fO:IF biomass research lS I .1:3m~,I~ia~,) a;n,d nuclear waste l'e'Cycl,illg ~l~nd.~e~ ($395 m~ U:l(llID!.),

Ul<U10n:dll:lolkJ.gyimd

li:s:~

OllsSes.';meil;ll"

s''I;':C ~

35%jmnpro
laslliOOnth, J,o'htnMlIrblJ[ger b5:.am~ tile' [rnlgesl~er~tng prI15~id~f1lt.a l 5{ iealC!e .u:Mwr in UJ .S. hi5tO:ry, n~!@ 66-yee r-old laser ~hysldst hli'lsl)tIm ~J1 Ihe thick of lIliIill'IV policy Wildes ilJ1 nhe- 5 112 y~arrs he'!j ~1Ye:d i?r'esid(!,lfIl (i@(I]:tgf! W. B~$Ii!.but h~"s (~Jri~!,uryengaged in a!ill~ll:O!lI!lh~ Iig,lill--ag~.frifl~tIl:iII1lC@t !In Novembe,r, Mil rburger Wl:l~diagl1 o8edl wi'lll m.(m-Hlodg:ldl1: s ~Ytnp~lOma <I~d M'ga IIlIa round or lrslIil1ll!l!!!Us. The Ie'~rl~il:ts 'o!llhe chemolhe;r1llpy hav! 'Il::if~!!d lhe [orm@r p[lesld@nt 'CDffS,IQrlIY BfOO~, Urlh.rerr!!~W[lnd (l1J1J.(;"'llmed~re(wr o;F BrooUavelli Nlatiolflallalborrarl!Dry to ~mk much (lr~he ~~rne hom m:; hDlI11Ie!irll NiIlli\'Yllirk. l1i11i!; W~k,. Mar-btl Jg er'~ cond~t1mll be(.ilI'I1'~ ~lJ bii (when h~ Jmis~~dl hE!Ad tmiill~~ lira lion'5.iUllililial 1
S(il!!'l('€! bud!Jle-t brie,rilng, c\I'jl!,r whi(h h~ fiJ!)F1liili!~[~ pf'esiti€!s. Mjal!:k can't 00 he'r€!benijs~ hi! i!l cunnenUlI' rng'h~illg ;;I, baUle W("lh (<lItrI(,er, ~~hrkh lIle i!> winning. ~ explaillled R.idnard Ru,~'j'e.;n~de1put.V dI~rKIQJ [Qr ~~dli'iQloyy"Inc! MrIi rb~m';liJ:r's 19[ifgltirnJ~arid'~.Malrbll.! flgll!f is t);P ~~~dIto te-s liiry Jill!ld we ell;, berme'the HQuse science m,lIfIlm,i i1t.'!!'ie, ..:] .D..Mi.

$257 mmi~n.jILll"~t :-;Ughllyle~:s limn title agency n::quc:ued hlst year. And
Ih~WirliM;l Hg~L!:ie re.'!!l<Lted i.t'iip[Qp'os~]1 10

crCll.t!ccompetiti'l'c a.w~nls '!hr 9.4% of the s~·eaUed Fonml.~a .I~mcli~,lg:~,l'lIld'ed Oln h) IOJI1I,d~grllm IJ no ver:i;,ii es e'lc.lm Y'em'. J\,gr:~c1I~,~ l Him schoo] lobb}}i$~s say t1~BY \vUl efl!1i~jnM.i;l W oppmi,e Uun move ~mle:ss:the over .. 11 pie S"'l~ bIS~l;!r. T~~fI~ dUI;Csn't l~~'lppe~li!'! lh~ f\dn~,i.l1Jis.tr:<I1ion·s. req,uesl for $5,)0 UTI,~iUion. 9l.rm~gldy!le .2006 kvd.
R~p;glrt~ b(Yud hqh I!h<lrt~ar~h~ rjq·!l. Adlri~'11eh 0, n9

(O!'iI'sta rU:@ H C!!lc:len" EU KilQl.iscl" A:ndfel'j LOI\'I'le~, E~iC!!1 1l~,lr'Sh;JIl, RQt)ert f" 'Si<:ir'l!ike'.0'1 n d IEri~ $to~5'!.l~L

WWW'.s;cienoomag.olrgSCH~:r\IC;lc, VOL 3t5

9 FEBRUARl( ,2007

THE. I!lAST TIMIE: 'iI1HE INURGOVERINM

HITAIL P;fiJm~OUl CI ~mate ChMge: ( [fCC) assessed ~ the :smle of the climate, ineal'ly 1001. i~ i:l. g;ot p.)l]lit,; I;;n(l~!ghhe!'!rillg.. TI~ \~,'(Iv1dW';ts "V<101fiing. it :sa:i:d!l~~d hmmilim activilY \:\I"S. "I~kely" 10 be d.riving most oflhc ~'II",:u'I1i1ling, Ba,ekll'ncn. rhecommittee specified tl bel~:e.f-lh<m-6~
Chfin~(;~ltm i;:1(.lIC1'~Y ringing t.:liu.!on;cltwnt a

rists, 'Here'sa few bi~,~il)n doll.lIrs-gell'llmis rhgh't: ,,' Ail.;;,)!~r.VS."1Fh~yII.)flk~l~~ mO~)61i;and ~.,,Y'~ <lillel"lhe fil.:Sl rp.o(' report, they gat i! right. [t~\isHU ~i..,!1;ce.n.o~ ri;iv~.dl;'illflll~h .. hut
~hc'lieiencehas gone n bettersud better ;]nd 'b;cucr. !!;M;:'re ~~~mi~;1g in lhe alr, 3fndl~lL(S CO..,

4150 wmr:ibmi mig a~1Illi10:l'''' of CiiJrrale Ciltl1~ge 1007: Tile Pfl},sif/.·(JJ Sde~jc~'fj:(l.~i.\i,There "'\if IS no e.1iqlue of s:eniim .i nside rs ::75 % of 1l0m,~,~

n"l!ll;1d~~d fllll,tllOr'$ '1Irr.;.~ :1m..,","" ~,~~hlii!lole. <I~nd r
one-thied o:f'l:I..UjhD~"S,g,Q<t t!leur r~IMlIdegree in the P~!;[ HI y~'~rs. Am hers had the ir dl~~~ll dmptenfe~l,ieo\'\red b)i' u III comers, MOIre lh''1n 60[1 VQhL~hN~r~~l s~lluni.ui!1,g JO,OOO cO~lmerus, ALII:t:lmo:rs. responded to every connneur, dll:ur

t'h<lnga ng the el i~,~l;J.te:· -

'badmigh! things g~l'!Th,Jt de'pended 20..;}'!,;:~r-~l~d ~flut ~[)\l,' ~~1~sith,'~' 1li11~" t[l~ climil!A;::i.YNle.llll m~gh~be to ril\,i~g gre\'uhom,l:
A~d
,~1O\1\1
(J~.~

\1!,lith such 5~] r-Qs!>~mmc~, ~M~ I pee r~port :~.layreally go somewhere, especially iu th~ 1li!.GW~Y r~c~ptiv~ Uuit>ed ShH~:>[see
iSH.

s idebur, p. '75611. where
em

g!ISC'S. (iiVCI:),

rheuncenalnnescthe
lho;;:~~~d

~'PCC

has. ~,Qllg comesred [fCr reports.

.! ~nn~~U of sciband

repruls

l[l."'Cept~OI1WdS Oil!

side.

Six yc'dl'$ of research 1;?Ile]'.he ~l£~ghlC'inc.d t confidence ~s obvieus .. The w .. umillgis o]~n(]. cenaililly fnope:i:theirsep on h irs home this rime .• ol! ·W"<I.:IIU secienes to mm.denmn,~d "unequivocal.' Humans are "very ~ikdy" ( h h;he:i U~ 90% Iike iihl,)Cld) b~l~~, U~(l ~hi)Tf~is is a ro~1 problem. ~li!Hlit affects tht; fill gld I:irfe of my ki.(ils.. " \'v<I.II'Ilm,iing.A~.l d the eli IlI:Il;Uesystem is "very unhkdy" (0 be so tnsensaive au;;lfD render
rmWlre",v.UiI;TIl ing ~lnoon,seqlJenli<1]. 1'hii; is.l~~e ~.v~y wm;; s.uPPQ[;odi to work, .it
I!)!Rlirll tJ!I,

COOl~-d:ililming ~;e,lldaurhnr Gabriele Heged of Duke U~~i.vc'r... in Du:liulIll1. North Cm1'~ . ily

s~rolithrlio!\wlrdi~~m ufbusll1l~:::;S. SI:fu!1er&. F(H"

ruud r'iJvi~\t~r$ ~'crtif~~deach "Ct;,pm)~~, With fillU.~~ ~'lfioflb;l d :.\idew,;1;,'i illi hm~d ~mlhol1> g.alhelJledun Psrls, FI<U1C~. w,uth .lQD 1J'iep:re.sen~.ni\fesof .~ ~1<u.~~m5flu -4 d,~~rs~oh<tlshOUl- l':l D • ~:~'Dc '1¥ordhllg or a scientist-written Summary ~. :i for rolicYIll~.e;rs. IE The f<lc~. f ¥."Irmi~1g W:lS pelrhaps. Ihenrno. .. ~., o ~l
~

wor:k

Crcattld by!1rne Wor~d .Mcteol'o:logic211

O~fli-

~]rne<liir~sO. 749C M,larmen[!.1an .UI~ 190(l;, [IP {'roI1l,~ ~ ~ut:~nwry \"I~~l~n~ i; ,onJ.6OCin th~ hIS'! repon, ":E ~eyen of 1:l:1Je~!ls;ll,ve:I'IIe ~~.n'S :lri!n!lk a'l1Imong r;l tJl.e U wl'lrn.H~si ye~:r¥; i~], [!50b~3.r-~.ong] ~ th~ ~

I
~ ~ ~

.1!Ccordin.:g U) gl<'lcio,~Qgi::nRiclm'lni, AUiey of P~r:tfls'jl\la~.u~. Slfll~ Univers.ity in Stare Coli lege ... h:ad"~lthoIIF 0111 thi s I pee :urep on. '11~c g!ll¥~rnlll1:!;(:'lHS f.lnh~~\ff!rld saijdro ~den-

zation and the 1J:llrited N,dicms l!nvirmnnem

P'mgrammc •.the .1 p·CC had [he p.rooo&s d.o\,,'i1
for its n)1nrt~jl.'18sess;nfil.em report. :rQlty g.oven,!!fI~n(:s !mlli1]!l;)lJted du;;15,O leadauthorsand

in st nun e'l'Ita I lee erd," uete s the :iumnmry (ipcc:--\\"g.I.•.J,j~~lI',.~dl~)r.\lVan1liifilg I uecan ~va~e.~ ~I,lnrilliki(JIg mouata in£: laciers, and rc::tTeati~,l£ :$[JJO\V c(wer St~~,gthe!led Ihe ~rvid~noe.

~

754

NEWSFOCIJS
So lh~ IfCC ;;;nUI10n; cW'i;lrli;1[1·'!hllpro&.~db:.Y ~hc'clQm"l'dlr~<m<II,]:lUlIlerM that the W'<'Irmi.~lg is just !nll "urr~~lmheatislandeffect" driven by inc reasi ng .11ll0U rns II f hear-absarbi Ilg om~~
creme :;u~:J~sph~ ~L.TIUlJ eiTed!S; :rrl.!iI~,hclJlCporl t it l,l.,s ",,\ ne;li~r~le ilJlnm.mlL'e·· on the g.i("lb(d number, U.k~visc;:. new .~nl~I~s. :~i:!V~
,s.,!:),:,!. D'lq!

I

:h(}\i\lhfwrd the (:'~ lmare $ys~~m \",I'~Sdriven duri"Ii: I ong=pa.Slt eve'lJi~SS~I.C ''I.S, the last iceage h
<L1Iin.d aw h
1.1nJl,Clln.

climate ehanged rhen, And

l~rg,.;l}i~~ul~d 11~~ h~~Mj~IQgmll;l'fwhyth~rmemeters

Wm:~lin£, than r1:;m(J!t1:·sen ...i ng :X~lem lli;:;.h~)d:
det:ac.ted higjller h~rheounosphere '(Science, i 2: Mil)' 200{>, p. S25~. Swdie:.. by several gl'iQ~~)S :~li.weim;rea~d the smd,i.~·delenlminfd w~Hl1llillg. hllll,dy recoru::mmg the dil1crell~'IC" This cQ,llfidelll!ly observed w'llil;n~ng ofthe globL:; ~~n'l h~ a:mJlyth !Jm.g but mostly hu !li'l!l~. i:~.du.ced, the I,POC' finds, True, nlOdeling studies haw: s:hO\!,r~,l tj~i1U natu-

<It. E~~rths surface measured

more

rnode~s .~.we l'tuwerg:ed Oil! .1 narrnwer :tl.ul.ge 01.' el u.Dl!1'2lI.C Sl!"1l!!:; it~:vily. 1he; [rCCcom:lw]es~.1.,:~[J.olh r1fl.O<Je,]l\. and ~i>I·c~imm~ ~h"\~ngc." P()i~l,[. ~ f~lid)' sensitive to d i~~l;jM$}i~I~!ri,Th~ \' .. m¥t!~i!lg fm~~! oubl ill:!; uf d CO~ "is It''IJ· Ullli.kd): ~o be less th,r~. ~,5~C:" :-.!}; tll~ renort. IiI,{l~ the le~..; HU] n.5~CfOilj,I'l;_IWI;ld d by some eemrsnsns. Abesl e.sti.mateis about 3"C. with ,I :~ikdy~,'lngegf2~ ·1:0 4,S'C. Wharf rI~'n? Looki~.lgahead. the repen projects .;)W~J.II'iI,U~ .iog of aboul O,4cC fur lll~ nll;:x~2 d~Cfu1~~. That is, <JibO~1.1 as mpid;<ls the \l\"<Irm~ng of the

p;rus.t 15 ye;;1ffi, bl~l 50% fO);\;[~r than dlC W<1irrlll· i.~'lil ft~,1e past 50 years. By the e ml of rh is o cCIllI.m:)';.£I.oh21~.te.mp(i!mnlre.~ migl:M nse any~ where betweena su b:>'I;IIHi:<1i I L 7° ('an d <I \\,lhfIPpi ng 4.O~c. depend i~lg O.~lI he .~ml>O'l,IIm.t t () greenhouse g<.~e::;; m itted .I'lm some l.Hodell f e Ilroj~c~kniiS:. bMC-!oi:U!nllmH!r A~c'l~c KC2Iicc (1111 bt.u dj~iliPP~ill1' hl~~i~l~his; e~~.hii')I. h 1:> very liilk.ely ~1IiI.fllestremes of heat, he<ll\'V<lv(l!s •. and h~u\'Y

p~,cipitati(lrl l;l\le:i1t::;,\\':i II oC(ln~:ill~;et(~

r'll ferces in the

ciilllilll!

~ystcnil-:;uc.~!I:fl c~!nm:er volcsuees ~'mld suns the

b ri, ghtc~j:~g- haYC' i~1

f~c~ h;:d eo l¥.!r.~~.i!.'!lgl h

point om. Amd ~~er:mll~r~1I ps aad down S o:[c][u ffi.iHle h 'J:VC'I~. l imiles W1J rmedrhe globe, But Walflin.er;, then h,ot /Ji, rmnddh:!·Qlr·~lhe-l'Qad5(en~rio (.ails I-Qr w'arming5. Clil

the past.

3S

skeptics

beco me' more freqlJl.C]fH. R.ai.~.~,:~, lowe r latitudes wi]1 decrease, :~~~lding,lo more dW~Lght 01'1 seme hot topics. lhe [pee comes dOWiI.l on the oon$C:l"vllJtive side_ h 5i~CS evi deuce or more :umnel'lse i:1ln11.';tl.C<llle ac.~livi~)t ~,:Il1. NOilrlh the AUfl~~ ~~!m;~t~ Iml~~yros~~I~rf' ·(,'l)r'!!~~'Sil. ic, i~lg b [U paiats iI. 11m.1U r~y picture elsewhere, iIII ine ",",I.utl}ioubwl.'£· reservarions 't.SdeJl,-,(!, II] Novd ~~.llber 2mJ(i..p. 9'1,'0)1, As to t~.les()-ca]~,ed merid[on~] overturning dreul~ti(l11 (MOq~the cOlweyor bell of currents dm.l delivers ' ....·II~IIiI,~ I water ~o~hC1! far North At~all~k:-tllC:rc i~ :lI1loi ~:~(:n~w~ 1;.\\'.ide:~'~~ln s;i!y\'I.;h~~ther il~~LS. ~!m~;~d under gl()h<l~. u<Ll'llnJing. accmxilir1Ig10 the: [pee.

t,;o~lra:r)' ~'Oa ~~ igh·prafi ~ :repon of~! ],[11%
ing tSciem», 17 Novf!lllberWD6.

&l.l\ ..... -

p., 10M). But

~U of lhcS(;' natural ,,13r~- !ll!Q.ro 1i1:i!r]1 6°( hi! h~glh ~@,riI~~m~i!tih!d~~, <I~:iions combirl,uio:~. in h8lw nltl1 warmed n~\'J!lr!d enough. f.lst enough, and nwlongel.loug~,l ~1:11I1 rhe I:igjngcographic pauel:ll~slO produce liu!' observedwarm i~. l~e~!Jn f~rnd~.I1rn.lli!Il;)dd studies, nothi:~g ,vaIiJliL:;;I:~,e wl,)rild as observed

except ~he,tJ:drit.ion

()fgre~I,l'I:1ouseg •...,e~ ~.n the

.! chuk~. "and Ji~~(r the hig~5~ .~nm i~a
.t3

dill;: &~ocmd h~i~fof 2,O.h CCHI.IIi1Jy were I;c-i:i' Ukft'{1' 11 eili"~h111l duri uS <11l)1 other 50-ye;I'O' i,~lII gp.;rilld i~l dtL;': ~(lsi 500 :y~{Ir-;~" d~~ f~l"KJift G!(}~,·
~t

actual .u~u:mnt3 e'[llTI,iued, Fr(Ull ~h~dil;':~ uf:trl!,g.~~E cll~fn:~~OO .. ]nc!\.IId,w ill1lg the I:itu:tn.ous hockiey~sti!cl cnrve:: oflhe j)ll'Ist m:i~.I~~lnil!m); ~~mp~~!wro (Sciftu(r!. 4 AngliM 2006, p, 60:3). thei.:rCC cencludes t:I'n.3.t. t!~e' recent \'!'"i!l.rnil~ng isqui.lC OUl o.f the ouHn~ f)1. "Northeru Hemispheee !:emper,nures dllr.iin~

t:~~

the

.i

~lS.t

I J()O ~<lIC1>.,

gases l.naY.be \v~nnh:~g.lhe PI~.net. bl,n '~ III:O~y mm;~.l. they say. 111e cl unare s~~eln ~·s b :~ not sensit ive emm~h to gfeenhonse g:ri~es to .~ (l\~~!'hea~thl; globc."~l~~y ~y . I'llii:' lhe fi~~ linlile, .~ liu.'! I PC:C .report '~~recrly ~unt~fs~h'l~ 3'l'glJ~ i m~!'lL Strv¢'l1'I1 di~ref~!'l~ u:f.~\iidt:_n_e'e hilile~ gpo.nuto <I. rnooe .... u.eiy strong eli nmte :>ensIUv.~ it y (S(,'i~nl"~'" 2: I Apl'i ~]OOt}, p. 351 j. The '~I"UlP'" .~ lioll of Mmml: flimmdro in 1991 thi:c~ned the ~, $tn.~osph~ri.chaze Ila.yi,;:rmld ~oQ.~!$d,cllhnil:te • ~ pl1O'1lidillllg a ~auge of s.i:l.on:-tel;m ·cljm,~teSI.:.mI~ .~ s,i[~v~ry Pull~(]cIi~~lfl[(l~OI,l u,:;~s •. have d~l(lfmi ~lGd h:llg·r.aJliI;ge ~~reca'flt.IPce sc:iemi:m, I

I house

Conu-.Jlifitm5 have conceded

linn g:reen-

..

illl i?aril>wam

of g:meefil:hiouise warm; rig gl'u.ii1g

~Ul

cD!hanel.

w!NYJI.sdE'lncern~g.org SC;I~NC!

VOl. 3~S

9

FEBRUARY.2007

I

NEWSFOCIJS

This ti n"),e~n;Hm ~, issu ing ye~~no:'hew inter, mI,i,lltl'O <'l1~!ies.:Slfllel'l~ mlQll .®,f~h~ ~I_a!il>€t's dilil~,a'~ich:e~l~h b~ii: 1]1161il'! t~l\!~Il!l~gh lll{lo,~ lih 'lh:roill'ing g.aroU iIl~ (I III i9 Ii re, Ellelfl ~n the Uilfli tl~dS:tCllle s, win Nil s kepUds I'lli a rilO'IJt in I.UI1I'1I n(oormernl aoout gloDBll 'mrll1llln!:i was aheadr CIs iii rg h ssit ,ever had been. U.s. iliiedi,~ had boo!'!1 ait ~@tI~lr piU:hiWlfl dlfI'lalt~ ~(!Jf a, y~alr snd lfIiI~ro• .AlFld ~tD(a~. !ale, ~rnI nj;jh(lnIa~ IXlI~Hc;ial'l~hnlI1 bOi~hef' ttr~,[.Quntry· s major ~DI,its teal parrlieswere I)~stni!llg or even iml)lemrellllillig !he;ir 1)\'111'1 prop!l)~IL!> ~or ~injn'9 ln 9u~ell~'ou~e 91115 '!!miSisiolil,~, ~llt ~.ilk~ :;I 'sudde!1l jolt S(lJI1Je'~me5; ber(l~e I.'O'E bec:~:l'I!u!' aw311"e or a danger, .. rmll'rn ~r '!lice I!lresid emt ,AI GiJr':e! Si1ll~ in his 05G1f-rmIDUm 1Ii~E!dgrLQb;ill. wUlrning d®c!LJmt'lItamV.tln 'm:onvellienl Truth, ~f:0;0, the shod:. to p,ublic and ~ml[iiliGi3il pef(eptioo::l this ti m~ Il~,aV harv£: OOflfIllln !::!rge P'art kQITl Mtlthtf N:[jlilne, mh~re hdS been "iii .:hnfic ~rlp' t'!i~ [med s.torh~) a'~Ol.lt 1,'i,'eather 'e'~~eds lihati3ire bn:Jl till ~lJl'ltlllQl"" IlQle gellsd~l'Itis<t.Mkhilel. OI!lPe.nhl'!'illll,1:!f ~,fI'lfj'!'Iwton Ullivenit,y. from ~rJil1lQ) hrrialfles~lIIclll ,as K~Ulril1~allldme\llilll~ AJr(,tksea ice t®, iIliIid·Ja~UJa dg n(l(il iI bio()lns ; nWa~~ il'lgilolll, [lC IY wm tn,!:!'w~i~dl 'wI!1Itill.er drrivt! ~.he ~ody poi[itk lo E!vnlual i9CD'iOI'l 011 gtlllixi I.~'IIalrmi ~g? SO!1ll~ (llln~rvE! rs IbrtliellE! 5(1. rnp~,()balb.lY ~(s IiO!JUiS!,~ says ()Jp,~enhe~ml!!'.r. he sentill'u!mlll.oWiHd U,S, action ~is jUislllol g;oirngl ~O !3o, T balk" 1E!~tfI'I'amly o~ the j®mng dilill.;lle eve nits fiIl<Lli' them~I~~ 'go awa1y, al l~al!it l@rnlPorari~y, Ilt'e'-m@lJl:ing l.wMnli~h in~il1e,Ardit: nd! 'SAJifgI.lS d!aally hura ,ljr ~halll1.~$il1l~he AU~rllk, ,a mJ)IiI!\]' other i:~iill'kite l~ndls, ,a ~ al:l:o s l!Ibj~(t RI niiiitura i S'oVi ngr. th:al c(IIl.lldlemplJra Ii&y '~bw or e'll\~11 pifiU:5eS~ITII!!or 9 klb!i! l \'la [m,'

iJi!du~~d dfll1oi'1te' (tnal]1ge ~as h)]1g dQlninilled

go'lt,enuunt

polky,. pUlb~k

ia~

ho~es t dillY'S' ~~ 191;j:1;I il1!lIfI1l..u;JI9!{ a~hiI1IgOOI1!,., W D.C, ~\lith d MUg hl 9 rillll[)i ng rru.tdl ~rtilt\:, AIr!il'l'lrica~We~i, (lnld h~ge wHdrires~acin9 ii1'Uol!lgh a ll!1,der-dry ¥ellmv)~one IMarliol1l1lllPCllrik. I.~<ldill'lg d.h1lte 1'·~elin(liIer [ames Hi!lII1~!i11l1or NASA's Goddaro il!'lS'lntliitl~ :hH Spa!:e St!Jdlies in Ne~.' York (illy te-stm~d on Cap1toIIHilli. This Wi!I~ 'gr'e.en'11Cluse warmilllg. he ~lli[d (onglre">S c:®nlid'enU!If. f/!f@l~ll(o~r,ag@. fillEi'St tWlok !ldt a(.cording t~Hj iiiI€IIt a('.oullfiI~ilil!1l b:v p~H~icaloci'!Nlh$B lIAaXli\lsll. ~Qn of tllie' UI1~vefSiily off O:dcnm ,11111<1 J l! ~esBlD~'On of PacHk Ulilive~~W in F,@restGrove,OrregJl)f1l, it ~Irced agaf!Jl ill! 1992. whe!l the fir~t Prie'.s,itient George BlJ~h soigllfled!ile U:l'lited NatcOl'l5 ,Framl!.'\Wrk C®fi1l\l!l'Ilton !!):n (limare {~,arnr~e. fifle'!1i !II1!edii(!!aU.el1!tt(Hn promlpUy pWi!1I'I'!'netei1. U perked I!Ip Q,FlII~ brieUy. I!he' BoykoU IIDrol~e,r!i notf!,. in respons,e, ~opomil;i!1 e~.J1l~, ~LJ{1iI as wh~.n ~r'e1il:dernt G.emge W. Bus h rejected the Kyoto Prmoml trmi~ing glrermh(p!,!.s~ ,t;lol!~ mliSiicms· in ,'002, N'e!te,rl~ele5s;, global wam~ng n'ev€'felllti~elyvall1hhed frOO1 tfle Ameri(.il11I

'OIlls<TIlt!iS'n~Ii.11'l the

j:!1!iS~ cC9pl.e

Qfyears, ~lhe ~Il:

iiSlille!

has; movli!d

U,jl

the

agenda" :;I!lQllli1, ~1f' poli~kQrl crl:l1'UlIltrlni.;atiol1i$ 1le5e~rrl)h~ .Matthew Ni'Sbel of ,!!I,rn~,ri(a~ UnlilolerlliLY 'ulillNil,~llilligto n, D'.C., al1.d it d id it w1~iI1C!ullfuie ucsU'C)lboO:SI hom i! ~in!J'~~.triggll!rinrg p~j~ncill EC>VeniL pubii[ :5,tiUl inhe' hasllI'[ el.e'Valec:l glooo I w~mltfl!llJ to ns htg heSilI~ls iIDr !!!'IVirClf!~'iHll.a'l (;()'i'lCrtITI. Nisb~t f!0lieS, bliJl the Sill ~je(l has pBrm.e\i!'~:ed teLe'll'i,;;imil, rrm ovijes, and book~, SBg Ill!~dOIll~O th~ IbllSl· fUil'S5, style. am]] gardenifi! ~ pa9~t aii1i(!brok.tlfl into d "ilV COIiIW liSa~iool, Media atl:@u'l'lionl r~~dli!d aI11i1[l-'~fm@ ~ig ~ in~t}O'6, NliSibet ,has rou lUll. as g<1u:g@dllby the nuntibe.r of arlides illl ~Ij~~ 11i~"s.papers.~nld In,e mllJltl,latislk rrellallkm ool\li'~elll the IlJIIl!diaand p®mkiifilllS was (~,al1koo way up as rnport~r~ fe.d off

il1!g(s, I1fIQ~e d~m~llk >e'~fecl'S, The f!mA~n~t:h:a!ils.llIrge U!1I nenli\i!f111O gllohll '!IIai!ll'lfll1g starrled witifra a ~nl1'lil.ilrily (olI'rnbustibi1.e mIl( eli lIIJIaleori ~fl(j? a'fld W€nlml'~'eathN, 0111 ,oflhe s one

or

~he policy debl~~(' and PQlitida~ 50 ~e'I'Ils~renrgth rrOlf!lll'Iledioil (overage. d So whe~,go[ !h@ .P~~Iillo)~~l!ll l so high io ~h~ UmlOO S~t~s, this t~!T1earolJ nd ~
MalllY oD,serverssee g leba ~wa fllllling 11fIo'lol'im,J thehfll to b urm'tlr mrlJ(h tl:Je w~y

when :irlcomes ~o~11e.ilue of the w(lrJd~. gre,n ice' sheet. 01'11 reenrn.l and <un:! Ant<ll"['~[i:c~;-G hif!P~ thl;'; ~l~r ·of25% Co:~rr.lry ~nlh~ ~Ii- am~ ~he' Hklily~~..- lim ~a 1~\I't:1I, f~Ot& ~ro Jil{}t ~l~ n s nlli m""w C1l}lstm~}~.eIllffilLe 'lite DaJ~ /f/tlN" Tomor- in much dispute., '[~e ocemil~s '\'>'armi:rm.g RDUI l'it:m'.t~r'l\!,tj;w~t~~ slu"~'i~'l; llfth~ MOC '!i\'Uulld !1;(l~ ~h~ ref()!1il "'xp~l!ld i:~S.!1I'!!l1U!~I~i n ~Ii.it:;i~r$ ar~ i~.nn ~:ooeze ~'P dle! No.nh A~I;0Jntuc.TII1.e regiml won 'I. 11,~.l,eltung the :;e;['l. and GI:een~<Ioo. is Ililileli illg e\''Cll ,cool off, thm~k,; to .grvel1~o~ure \wrll1ling. i.-tl!01Jllld its edges, !IS ",rell Thfli dl'mrc iI,liP S,CifI .And if~ very lI!llllikely!~.e MOe 'i\'ill ~b;mpdy le'te~ <L::> lh$;~<18 .3 ~,ulill:imret:l::rsp~r y,e.n ~ate~y" g~lm dO'\'V1)~h~;;;C~I1I:1,1TY.the rq?llf[ &;;1)1$. Tbc .1PUC p.~j'OCI$ Ih"u ~'gI kv~l. will ocmtinltC The :~,rC'(' I:::;:ovt:Jly conselfv~.[li:v'e, i~,l liThe to fi~e 28 to 43 celHime'~e.~';\l:un ~:his ce:mtur)l. opinl(~n 0 r ~O!illle rilG.'\V~Y {lt~l~k~liiI sci('f1ti S[S. d.;:pel1lding on~I1!1lissIm'lS.
euto ]JIIFoject<l\,'ery ,Ilike~)lretluotiol] illl.iVlOC nO'!i~II:l:}'~]iIte e.llldianTllle c;eiI.lulrrY.lJer~

~liaePCCgoes ]

h :us also g;enend]y <lgreed that the i,[lCC caleulatien leaves out <I I.IDlienl:i~lllly imporl!.'!J!lffa:CB)1f. SO:Jm~~gblC! ers dro1lh, ifig ~(~llY]!I:t~ Gileell~.al,u:i. and \~(esl. Antarctic.) have :s~)ed up .~'a:If~e PI,!St5hl .~ y~,m.. sume gf ~J~~I'!~ 0. doubl~'llg lheir !rpeed {SdftJlc:e .. 24 M,m",ch 2006. p •. 1(98). B~Ht~1isghu::ic.r ~cc!1tlem- ~ lion ~,snot inducleclun l~,e tree se.,.~ltlve:11 ~ q, lH'ojoct ion "bec{iHs~ a bacSi:si 1'1 ptlbli ~h¢d Ih- ~ cramm:: is. ~<LckiDl,g•· ,m;:~or-dillg~o the report. .. I!! T,l~ll dhln'l sh\1i.'G1l \j\!i~h S()f~'D;e~s~~wrr(~h~r.>.~

i

..

NEWSFOCIJS

I

ozene de'5lmdrolFl did

~InUne-198'Os"Thoorle'~k.c'l predii:ctiol1"5 were priClmpling '5'0In1~ g,o~,rn~menits '1,0lrnl'gl~11I curlilH (1\aImollru(D~m:a~born [0 (fFO emll5siolllS. nl~fI if'@s~an::I'i~fS r'~ogliliz,e.i!'J til@: spfil'!~tim.@ 1!J.z.QIII~ ol@ i1JDi,I'~ring onr 11il1~ h Antalf[l,k" ga~wnil2iing inlema~ionallnegetialioI15' o~ elil'lllinalil!llg (FC'J, G~~ba'lw,anflli!flg m;(!y n;@'l,I'l'rIil~'@ lille @q~~'IIalii!~t of~1l1i! QZQru! heli!a, iJulllile (I[InUJ~Q1tiveeUecHouM be t~'1es.iliftle. .A!m~ri(.;!IinS "are 5-tartil'l~ to< see d~alngle~ ~~ Ole we-athe~," s.ay~ ~;llee!i1 (laUSSErIi, !p~~{!e~l Ol~ 'tile ~~ (jen~eJ' ~i!i Global Oilm1e Cill~ngeirn Ar~ingt(lI1lJ Virginri'.fil. lhl"rl1!rrh'il'!i, Ilhe 200illn~ni:cane ~~i5on, w1~h f~l,J~hl,J,~riQ~es"~f~oilkin~ hi!VQ( i(ro!'S fl~.~d'~. Ir~UIJ!r'!'~d' I:\al~inal tn by 2005; yealf anef year of r'E!)(1:nd-bmakirngl shrimkag;~ or Arctic sea OCf, <lc(om· I!ol~ flied bey in't.1!~es o:Fh IJIiI9JIY po~"r bears. g,~ad~,rs;ai:ce~eralilil ~ IthEliJ ~!Jisht~, ~:nesell inr Gree:nllan!:l and ArlI.arctica, d'riv:1ng IUiJ 's'~a lle!vel; oil mi those dafflldl~ls ~1lI the Ina~ion'!I c~pi~aL PollitJiui[ i!ll'Id IWOEilmfll[( factors hotV@al~i(I h(!!lped rmd the '~ire. M1my

A~mil's ~herk Mrminri~~lration'~ p,N;iri{ IlI\a rijnIE:ElfIlliromn,ellllill Lailor ato:ry in SeaHIE!',W.a shiim1'gtolll, see5 the' Irttenl. ,rrapicl Antk liI.Iarmin.g "<II!> .fi,r<!ir~y5tf1Ong JiI!11U.!fi!l "IIariabiliilys<ign.a,IClrt l~iP ~rl~n9.iI@tlllil ~hymralllma~@'1 (ha:ng;~, It's iIo@fY likely we' eauld ~:we'.al 5.y~ r lP'~riQd ()oklE!'r teR'1i~erall)lrII2'S, and ~~Le coutd (If s.ay, ~l1a, iII'li! den'~. hlClv~glob;(!l WoalriJli rig.' ~ Ol~'er WoOr ryillgl ,dim ate '~if\~ndl~coo Id Pfll,Ise orr m()d1eri:lu~a:!! w~11. Pa:rl (If l~e si.ll~e bill pciwer~iill Atlu'lk hUlrfl(,gIf'i,es ~,if!!c!!il99!5, is anrib~uable UrI'a mi'l'~Jlm!l{yde iln~ih~ propnrli(l:n of ma~m slmullu" o'lI((mdllllg to melll1omlogist G'f'~g~zy Ho~!ag'ld'i;jl th eo INl.atiollQ;a!ll Geoflll.llr ror A:!!1'l~5ph~ri(, I~es~_,a,n:h ~111B<lulder, Cdlofild1o {5r;iel:lIC1!?, 101 NOll,i'emoor ,~()06, PI 910'), So limeAU,mlk {ouM 'QUI! t d(l~vl1lil bill, h ~ :says., .l!1thol!!Qh pfi: mhaps no~. uf!~il2 020 or lal.e:r. A!1!O'~ih~r e dimalte thl'eill~-t~e l:.otlap'S~ lh,!? dima'~.e-moderaling currents of b.! or Al~amk-f>f!'eIlH 10 In[l'ijleIre~eded a~read,v" l<l~e~1l 200'5, (I(.~~.o!J'rapher'S reported rDe-<1IMlirirng sil_al:lle 30% .s.~m~d'own11'1 s'I,N:a:lLed' meridiol'l'lI~ 11 the

.il1~lem~tive:s t,cn expeil1!i]ve ,oil,

ffQf

e~giilllp'IJe', WQuldSilso

ease

gre(!!llIhl[ll!l~ wl'lrming. BlUt to l~e Ulll1l11t!lll.1!t dri!mi!~k dnlllliHltiil ~V'!21nts have h~iglhit;ellli,ediflll'~e'il. glob;;lll w,wlliirng <!(lwi;s,ts, have aJ~em@lilfies I!! n ~@'ii.3!l!I[.e h ttllpier, iiE~e.1lr( nOLi@'. ne dij'm~~e hers :5ystl:!m~wing5 r~Dm w,arm teeeel al!ld Ibad:, fmlll1l wet to dry. El N1iili!lJ"5 'UlI'JIlJSUa I \'6! rm~h 1n t hi!! tropic,al fD,iM:ifi, is: .i1u,S,l QIII ~ o'f IJ1il'l1lY Ili3ll)1 ijl! (:[imli'lle vilri.a~ i ~on~, Allld Uia~dil'lilil~e 5YS~.e 1111! ~ oe~ l'i, a II, qyi~~(Ill ilS O\I,I!~, Such l'Iiltural V.cr1ab,i1lity eou ld temporarUl.y rein rUf!(e er re"in ill gLo:b>al ~Wlr!1!!!lngeU;e(ts. ~n iI ~lIi.Id¥ io press oil t ~It'@jOl!Jmof oj' (]inwte, [or eXEllmllDle. m.ode'le;r Galhrie~e Heg~rl or [luke' UIII~¥er·

6'll'S

...1_

r-1ioI.Iiij~
11'9.110 195'D

siry ~I'll IDurh()
~i8I)t

liii!.

North

GIIIClti 11i!,,,nd

cil'lt~aglil es F@<iClflSULlc:t@~

No:rltllwn H~.mli$p ~Ier'!! tellll[pe!ratune r'rollll n?l!:orclll smh as ~r~ rin,gs !iI'Ad Urlel'l (! I!!!p@:rlicmed tl:le W.;I rrniflg l!I$l ng a Silrfilple dT· rm,ale lIl!od~l,llh~y f®u:illd that rising ~!ll'!ills;or gre!!lnhCluse gasl!~ .a C(I(!l,JIf\I[ for ab!l)r1Jt !l)lle -third of the ~31'"1g'~. 3pijd warlll1!lil'lS (we ~ J ~h,.E!' lirst han @'Ilhe past (en~JlIl'Y, bu1lal1oliner 'th~r~ IllUk1ill1a\ll!1l W.U'DII amd warm ,Olgalillll. The wortel, ll~pe(:i!aUythe Ardf:c;, warllil~dirn the 193;Os .mlll '40s bee 1m a niil'~mal waHrni ng. (warm colms), IIIlI lalrge- fl~iil.dti,~ tCl ~i3I~llraill,ii3 rI;::IhiIRy. What WarRlc5lh~ l1emi;s.ph-e~ecan ill~W~tlIQ~~I~~(,(Qfdingl to a IJ1ilOd.f~illlg ~tudy rt!'po~ed3,O )~;lmllary in G~(Jp1ir5i'C(}.r ileSeX;Jf'(Rt,~ter!f, Mod· ,o'llerlUrrlilll'Q druda~fron only to ~Ij)m:ede ~at,e last year that their record e.l.er R~llg Zhang a rid lhi:s CQ~I~9U~ at lh,e GeilJillmY$1i1;al f~yid IDyn alJTiil~_S Lab- was, sa nQi~y that they '!lJ·yldn"llielqabl,v deter;;t tiny c1hllnge.ahe-r all. (S'dE'IJre. 17 If!\I(I¥e1l11be 2{l06, p, 10(4). rr oraw~y in Pdlll(dalli, !'New]~rs.ey, ri(ll,llndthato~dUalill.n~ in the now of 'INa rm Wil'U~iIl~~ il'lto the f!\Il(Hln A:(I""lltn( ooill~d ~Qlv€,~,dd~d SIJbSMIIMi11ly I !I), tn~ ]1i.lS,t h(MI naw r~ ~dilll'lg~~ rigb.i'l~lYli'Mill, ii'lr~~lllliiL~ ~oli IJcall di~vi~i'l{el'le'S$, v~ e-i!lr~"'20Ull {eJ1~lJrymrlmin9. mllllriblJlltld ~Q th~ ImidJ.cenh~"Y p.Ilu~illJ \varmtlile pllbH(':~ mood :!1m n~ro;,ilnd Ilhe 'C)f{tk eW.lllomk~ o~ IE: m1!H!I,lI'S u ndea [ at I ]JI!t;i. al'!~ ool~~(m!'d the lI'J~bviO'lJS gf~lwl!!sl'l·r~tll:ed warming' (If M'le'l)aJs! f~w this IPoi!'!t S~rne' Xlv.. IU)\"IeiofE'(, Ulill ~~e (If bizarrE! w€ailher and PI:!UtD(S ll!1i~ der;adles.,.lfwh.at Iilil~beeil'l going up and duWlll rOf alllea'5t.a H1flIlury grD@5,do'.'llllJ boos.1.ed by tme media 1110'1\1' 1'1II:5ures thl're'~ 1'10 turnillig batik. EllIE1nlif h1! di· a:g~in, th€ OiilQIOif1l!l ~.arplljrlg 'that IO(ilk off in Ule 'lOti oOl!ld !i!@tic€ably'Slowin m~te cr iZ~lles~ fad~~ f~r a!i!\lh il~. "I tim !ilk f! a~~or1lill, Ileg~'Slati(mi) ~n'wiit.l,b~ ii'I -4 y.eers, ~s.ay~ (I€lussen" Q:the:r:s.IIiIO'l\'~ver, '!Wlird: sultlil ooril~de!rlc~ 1Il1:ty 00 l1'Iis~ine1I1'~J{:!10 or 15 ye~rs" plll(ed, Sdel'!,~~ hls [(!Ina n N~lDfIi'lii Oreskes@f ~h~ UliliV'er~ llf (If (ali~Q:mi;ar, Salil Nall!lra,'l vanab~~ilY i:> ~ern ~IJo.nger lin plac:es~lIdn as.lhe .~r'dic ($deate, S; j.a niJllry, ~. 36), one o:f two di lliihl~.k ~C;1IIna in l~!! (:0\1~ lII1ilill!~ Gore ~~:tI!S Di'~go~ rnc.aHli~ihe erae,r'IliY,r::raz!! ar liI1e late 197'Ors, l,'I,Ihen :5o\1rin~ oil, ptk!!:5 rie~ '~Ji! film, 11Ji! 1:93'05 to 1940!>, ~fle Ardi( \!!~Iii~ed t~ e'l.l'ell ~iglh~t ~ellll~r· hi~ ~he drQ~ dreai1l~'~If eli! ~1i9Y ifld'~iPe:nd~,fl()el~ ii(l1J~ ~1(O!i'I~ lI'II'inioll ,~nd a Ire Mi1~llve ( aJtu~s, than nOllt, of!iy ta ceol back down ,lily thE! 1970:5 •.[) [awing Oil~12 C:~ifn'a 00 r!l!e~s" llhCi~panoo .ciS~oon a'~ Iprb!sffelt "We919l ~;!id~ dllir a while, bu~ we Ilrw~~I.s, Arclk researcherr Jiaml's r.lverhmdi olllihe Nati,onal Ore.arnli£ <lInd dndllli'l ~all::.e sl'rimn 5lt"p;;;.... th~ -H.• A.I.

'feu

.~ gl!C~]
:;ii.

~s Slel:b:~ Ra:hmMorf of lhert~~sd;un

s(lmeth~ng 'iN);:t'HtrllL{,l~ modd
know

rigJ1~llltl"\,' .. but

\\'e

[nstnllne' fer (' ~~llI1m~e Imp.act Resf!"d~h nl Ger~ ~ m<lfl>~.ll~ .mlh.ore~a !x:if:u{,f: pflp~rI~~u ~U(l~1~ lii tlli<ll extrllp'ola~.ed Ir-Cl:lm.ll~.e :rec::el'lt se,~"leve~ n,~e'
~U(l '1;7;

tu [tis!:! flW!~ilil!:l r from 0.5 me~~r(U .. noef.r~ il

d.is<lS:lr01.t~ 1.4 rllilleters b'y the e~ul ofllli.e ce~~,~!IJl:Ii"y. D2LjI~b~fo:r'C tilL;: .2 FebrmllY [pee reP'll!"1

i('s .iII,OIppe:lmii,~.g:' R".~.l mSlm.·r I:o~,dIhe A~wdOT~l:t'd Press. '.1\ dm;;~um~m U~~ IhfU( t~~;rj$ to lI:l~.d.eres~.i~mlte the ,flU sk:· And the day oolb~-e ~hc;t rrcCroll;;'ii~. 0) ~{jl1J'.it ~Lper~[)·mnhQred with !>eve~, eo],~.e<lgllieS'-W<1S, publ,i!lhed Quiline
by S~'i.(!J'u~(\,n\I'I\I'.~relllJell~li:l
g,or:glc§~tcol'lt.cn!l

Imli.c,ne." dle'ywfote. Such pllbli.c.~y e'xp:lFc:ss.e'd com:: e rlJis are eiy ro b~com~more ('1!~l!nO!t~y$ !;Hn~a~ mooe]er Nli('~l.,.e~, M.acOr.;tckel:l of!1liIe (,~in~a!e

w...

1!'i~:thu~1;;~~lW<l$h~:l'!gllJlV!!. N~TI.'V lh~ D,C lh~t
c:o'mitIrJJ,'lians Imve ooel1l d.e.<Iit \vith. he: .say:;. sci,· ~]lt ~sts~.olonger cm'tl;cl:!1lodHbo~1lapfle<l~il]gto be <I~.mm]iSl '!,viU be i':lpe~k~n,g mIt .lbQm the

roeh;<Ise:. he .m,d o~l~,el!l~alll f~e~¥llco~ m:~er~ ab::l'tlrnctfI136843). The se'1S ha"\'e been r~:lillg at Ilh@' ~app~rl1'l;o:;t r;,'tIC projcC'!cd iUll pi1l:;~ I.poe .1<' ('on I.mlrla.ns-s(mkl,; u~u Inl r"'j.iQ;t'lt:.. be T ~ ~:CC' sectli,Qm., on ::seil-~.e\,.e~I:ise are "obvi:omdy f relPoliI::>. Ihe muhor.! II,mted" Sea levc:1 "In<l.y be :~ filCH t]lQl;i ~itll SlO:!), i:H:lCglLU&~ i0(;)-sh~(l(d~efly ~s. ~pflndi ng ~llorl.)qukldy thfl!l c~i ~~tcmt]dldt;; i

!

~e'''~

ov(:~lyC~lil,iltDOU5. -iRIICH . o.IUl' A.• KE,IUi: With,addiooJ]~I.r!i!piming t¥ I!lIicholelBalt.er in IP.. liis,

IPee bdng

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org SC;I~NC!

VOL 3~S 9 FEBRUARY.2007

757

I

PAOflllllE:

BRAIIINL M US:IIC, AND

SOUNI[)

RESI~ARCH

CENTER

logical

~!lf>Ll~

~nup to 2.5n fIh,cl88 ~ .. $ t (I n
emotional reactions Nll:ilve

St'udy of MUI:s,ic and the Mindl Hits 81 Hi'gh Nlote' iin Mo,o't:,r',e'al
,j)"Oer bla:tUi illig tlO lilIa/V'e tl~lIe~r'~l,eLd~:alkelmil s:erffi0us;I~J(, '1m'O 1musidali1l~!iIi:.ientnjsts h:a,'!IIil! '~'OUnJdled .i.lJfllntlll'ldisciplinary ce:nt~1f to undlerst:amlll ~:oiw~nd IPe:rlia'ips Vli~irulllmilmllS l1la'k~ music
MOlNfRltJi,l. (ANA,D,A~-~f5 S.,;UII'd!i1.y night ill!
flmnenco i!ll

'lliil.Ol'litor group

'pC'n~:ronua.~l,ce's,The sensors wm: monitor hlet~ rate, skiaelecrri Cod re spou ses . an d rt eVC~il i[aci rill I11:tIU S-CU~::IL ure of a:wld:iCl:.lm.ce me Inbers v'lho give indiormed consent, sOJy~ McGi1i1
rct::ca reher Step he 11

M c;:Adam!>. who h'c!ilds.

d~h; pna'~. of thl;: proj4ol!Ct t\!1(J!t[l~r 50 se-.).s.\vil] be equipped with palm pl;~.OlS, wbich subjeers will betrained 10 use: ro iadicate [h(':~r
reaenons by moving a :5ly.~lIs"through e'll1!O"

MO[fJ~[e~l~it,lt~1liQl!<lrl:er. miud. the

dancers me infull '\,,11i~, l the Casa GOIlicia ~
rC:lOlllil.lra!lJt .f\.~al.~ ~."''flltn~ll \\Iit'~ a gal!'dcui.!'l

he~;h~lir ~mnlJs the \I!,uocleu flonr i~,l !51~1t\C;ltO bu~ts fL"ltlUd a~ Hru~r.;!i{.";_ke:rs.\v1lih~~£lr~lnneil: yelps out <I :~lilj4hl\(};:1~OO: YlU,W, .AI 'l~abre { nem:b)', Isabelle Perei:z sips <I gh~s!Sof Rioj,1 with <I wistful smjle, "This music 'l~.'i,'I."]yllJ gu.vc;,,> mean imense ~1:iS.!HiI1~'·5~~~ says.

eepuon orpi~!:h., Ami they IUI.,.'edesnensrrated that p]mliiliilS' .~hi]ity to remember ICI~lg.((1m· ~)~.ic:nedpi eces reI ies on e lose ooo:ru inaticn b~I'\'VCl;:nisli:~l mOl:or and fmditoryn:~(::!l!lo.ry d cir-cuits ill, the brain, in eennast III previous asl>1,Ji.m!.~ptions~tuH th~ n, ..ek~d)l \~S b .. ,u!1dtl~at ), the .~~ IIIgers weuld Siillllpiyfol:l!ow:, Even bdore .11RA.MS was created" the
MQU,Hre<ll1

~iomd space," McAd"uns ~}'s.
These h ig!:H.ed1 faci~ it:i.e5 wi U al ~~\~rthe BRAMS ~~~!n [0 ~mp up its research 'COIl:side'mbl:r. "ViIe wi U be a '!lIe to s.1:~~d]y mlmic,1I11 ~ rG!"~el'1li(l):! and prod ..ictlon im! !nuro !l~:lur'')1
C.Ol1itC)!,ts:."

saysPeretz, "'We

C::J'~,

move

rilrOlm,~.

group had e:S~,IMi~hed .1 worldmusic reseerch, "'fhey arc

class

fq1ut<lti{1!UlUn

13m music is ruere lI.~"ua a S"ltwu;day just
n~~liu ple01s:lIIn'e forPel.'elz. aneuropsychejoy ist ~n lt~.~ Ul:!i\'~ rs]~}'of M om n~,<J1 tUM). Peretz has devoted her C'.nrecr to u~d:erstml{l~

number

one: bya ~:ong::l~101:.:·' ::>.<1)1:-; Ja:liiI,l!'i.hecl

Bh,UfWICh<l. 01il~;lJ:sicresearcher and tl.le provest n:IT~II1 Uniii,'.ersil)' in Mt'(IFord ~~&.~.}(~h~l~lI~, s

",~fu.oreviewed

tlm.e BR.AjV.1 S

hlig~\ihYf'~:ld h~1\~r l~umill1 brai 1'1 ill~lm,\(:;,us rhe to create Simi :re:s:pond tD sequences oJ"ootLm:ls. hit 2005, LiQgcth,cr with bxa:in.im;f~gilngspeeiali,!'lll.,oberl Z<lrorre, of McGi.n Un~\IIer.;:i~ in Mn~1jueaL she ereated t~~.t: ~[.(;mMi(mlll ~ L<I bo:mr:ory ~cm B D'OJ.in. N,Iu sic. ~t:lm,d Sou n d RN$~f~fC'h(B RAM S l. a j(l'i!li! prl)J~Ci:(I fUM

uml M,~Cml <I~~I."I~ull. DRAMS receiveda L
li()12Ii~ ,o:FSl2 milUiQM, i:l1I, I m~u"Cil,i[lggranl < fmm

gov~uunC:IJ!~·and university sources, The nUl/lmC}'wi II !lllow the members 'of iB RAMS, bldlll,din,g Peretz ..Zatorre .• 1n1Ld nine ether

bl.'aiu~l.!But {l:l1.rillgm.m::l~ oW' 8 M JjJ ste l@1N!W; BRAt!~5 Ce- 0 ire ClOIF t1la<u li:mtll:e. each ,ofthem \\~IS ;: NionIJe'dl~b.'-l"ed k':<I.d ii.wesligaID,T:'S,~oexplare lsa be-lIe P!lr{l'll.pl<l:yi[f~ :so.i!o.... nd rl.'!'Ii'uive.l:j' music'~!ll}(~(~r]l;ls. They $i!;;e:k ~oil.l~~d~r~nu'!deha mber, ~mdaperformf(lw scient i~U,W~ re ~v~n ~ how Innmll1Ls, cooperate to pe]ffOrmwgel~,lC'r, Ilisl.e[lir.llg, As, a gil,'1 in Belgiuln.Pe:relz. !'>pelH aaee i;'lb spDr~:i.ng a $lOO •. m computerized m on the UI\II CBlmp~ls im::1ude sound booth:S.'l DUlin iIn;n.gilng Ji<lb. :JII1l. echo-faee

g~r1J~. Josef Rn~!St:'hl;\t;:kl;;r. it ue uroscie rtt i:S,l at G e'ofg!eHn.v~l Univcrs.il;r Metii,cal Center i~lWuhul1ll.l1iton .. 1)'.C.• also a gi"aj~t n,;;~'h,;~""~r. agrees: "TI~.et\.\IO them, plus fht,; (,.~o[l~~g~~.;:s '~h~y have ,i!:i...·1~mliM!:d,are 1I1nb~:'lt3:bJe m at~d~~,':' The new h]OOr,alodes

the study of single .ifld~.v:ild.llals :0~e,'enl:ll 1 ;';~Ilbjecls ,"The g.ro\lp~:S'lirodel:l~lgrliflg~m:u~i,· c:fIl, :ill:5tlrlnm:::nts, th~t can 'be p:~;[IIycdby subjecl~umJeJf'~oi :Img m'~!:l'netuc resoaance irni<l,ging (MR~)'!n<lin SC<l~$. Latorre .'lays such :~tud~t,;S<wlll all(]I1;~us; Ul uaderstand "..:~ydil:', " fereut .Undl::uv idu:ruh; have gr~f!1'ergr lesser f"l;i]ity for lea rn Wmtg., n d W~iU bra in <I
ae~.ivirt.y 'paU~f:~.s dHTt:'f'- ~.

eutiate a vietuoso FOD'PerelZ,

from:1
50. "rid

~
~
Oil

or

'1I'I~.~ljI C{)!lI'!.pcn;i:i;I.plm~r."

e
:::I

Z;;il'Orr~. 52. tht;:: ere ..tiO!l of ~ BRAM S i:-ilh~ hi,gh nO~~~!1 :ill
Il'IlOre than :2::; years of ~

research

~llJi:O music

and d.e

I

h~l\'"chi ldrenand adu lts h'iil!'!'1
1Iil~dthe

!t! pl.~ymusie,

Id;alilom;:~i~~, betweelm,~um;!~and bnguagc. ··BRAiV.iS \Vi~~:JIIUow'l;J!:f; to 1i:1i>~r.)Jmsic ou;<) pmt,11 UIll~Qthe n,11o(';.t omp~e~ .is.peC!;:; of o humall l;,ro,inll il~lIlctiml.~' seyR,Zmorrc. All'e'ldy ..BRAMS re..,e<lrc~u:n.·s, h~~repil.l~

B5~e~d(lrrer~Jifu!m. \";~ie~l records !h~ prec:-i se demiJls ofea.cil. ke)'l>troke and foat.-)IDcl:1i mOV(1!~]ent O~le ofBRAMS's 1m1t1,sl !;PC""i.f1~u~.arlab,\j,. however.wiU be located on the (HI~cr sh!.:/; HlWIl. ,u the conccvt~'naJIIof McGiH":::; Scl,ll.di.ch School of MU,s,iic.

.~ yl;,'!~!r$ i sludyi!'ll:J, ,cl~!ssvc~]~ ~uitar, 8::,; the

;
'i

or

po~nlCd~refUS (l,f(he br-.d~ i!lvo~.\'edi~IThepBr~

lilne siite begm.1 llmlliver:;i.ly studies.. 110\'l;,'eVel,", ~. •• [ kllC\V lhflt I W.'IJS be~tcr sciel1Jc~;" !'Ii She S r~cei\l\ed her Ph.D, illt the .f[ee IJlrnli,VeTsi~y of Br~Is..~I!> i111 .~ 984 avnd CO)Ulle 1:0 McGi III imt, 1.98:5. ~ \;Vi,thher d:QC~onl.li supel'vi~or Jo~e MO.lI<lis. '" l!i "" :l>b€l JYmptlSl;,j (1:11thefl~eliea I ground;;; d~f!( the: ~

e

~.

758

NEWSFOCIJS
br,~Ii~,l hf!d~p~(:itlJi~~d !l~l~mlpf!dl\\iIT~Y'" proflu to 'I1JUISic., even ifh stl;tJ,mdsome eegnirive d\.)JlII~iflc!l, such as he"lr~ ing, wirh ,~<Ing~!,'lge. Bu[ nHI'~y re searche rs \,\I,cre :skcplicatargll~ng thaltJlc neural ,eiIl"CilIU[S invelved ill music II.HOslly overlapped "\iil~,

I

ducing and responding

~ml other ~l,R'Cli.OIK At UM.P~reT~ b~gm~ !5wdying ~tibj~~ts slulfe~:ing I:hml oongeni tal 3.1m,ms.ii.'l" n inhera i tedform ()h~t~,'1;; de<lfuess ~h<! dQ~'" not l af1ect l,t]l,guOIge or other rnemal ~hncli'o~m;l;. lll h the ~99'C~!'i, she expanded this research to brain-d,u,naged patients suffering (rom socl:1U;ed aequired amusia, :l;llOWi~.l!l: that l'Il(llny of them <I~SQ had m)lI,m:al.~,anglLage ,lbi Iities, Tb,u (:![}!1Ivh~~I;;i1n~;li.!~y It::f& ll~;.ush~ \iiJ~~ doub
righl: J\I.I.~I:5ic and language occupy d~l1'erelll"m()d,ulcs.'··
I[SdC;'J'IC~.

1])n.u_<;C' used iUllI~II'~I~g(:

a~:k.ed~h~Pfdr H) (lrg_a.!llizc;:a Cll'lf~~!'lo~~)n d~ii;: bi:oiog:i.c:all fOlmdlll1imns or~.nus~.c. Soon alTe!'" '!i\'<IIrdthe Field, beg!llm to explode, One ~'(',l~SOJiL Z'Ho~re !\ays.w'l!\ (h,1[brain researchers such (;t£.hi.mI~scl f bChJan tlollai:l(lri,u ing \Ivith c'Ilgnitl\t,e ps)'cwolo~iM~ such .11.<;; !?erel:Z. "T11.e C:t)l.;!.n~tion people sl;mn;:d 1"l3."i~.i;dng. 'I:.j.cy. thcr.cis a 'Ilmhl Ulilll~t~e.' f\nd '[lw ~e-lD!\l~de.nli$ts. fl~d~lt'i1.'i.g-' ing people began re<llliz.illg.~h;1t~]meyhati sorueth ung w ~nntriht!1ie to d~ [1I;.'ngn~liv~]mtld~~:-;..·· "f~~e collaberatieu between Perera and ZOl:~{_}IIT!:. for ei'>~!lnp~,i;:", hasidentified lhe bl<li~l regiullli aj)p".l['e:~1tlydefec~'ive ~,:mI. people "!,,id.l
congell~rnl amusia, '!i\~l~.chailf-ects 5% orM.{)!~ of some popu~:alions. I:il,the Octolser 2006

emke" wlthna

I!lliapli'lllii funcdo:UiI. &h(i c(]!iI~d€'d

ill a recent review i.~~()g/.!j:l'~ml that mesr C
.bypolhese:s aheut .music·"".rok ]nlmn~n evo11lIrio:~, in'krenlly u~ne'::m.1.ble.".1 believe IIWll 'Illif! music IS i~~. our genes •.but belief ils net seieL~oe'':-n.1.ore ev~idelil'ce iSmlee\ded she says, N~wl'l~h~'1 Z!!Hl rrc ~~~jIs, "Piu kcr h9S ess, served ~s ,~ l!s~~d 11."'lW f\")f iit:~.I,;.m!i"C'h~n:. til~'O
believe that music serves a
IIIni'(~ll\e

hiologic~111

lilf lhe ~""pln:.;i(}lll in d~i:;. research, Za.ton:e adds, is that '·':I1iI,Uls.iacan serve ,a~ aprobe :~muju:it .dJmll every mental ~llnc:tuon. including perception. motor per ..
~1I1e:rc01.)i·~]lftI

tf!lle, A mJ

[orm~m:::~,mmnory. 3't~lc~ni:Oi1.and emotlon," r n add iriorr, some Blt A M S rese are h :unay

issue of Bn;lin. P~rru:ii':. Zatorrs, ~~d H'l."ir

have pl'a(:Ucllll.f!ppHcuHfln~;_ Frlf example.

I June

zon .~.p.I6J6),.

did seem to i,l)lhe blmi n,

"lsabelles

work h!.l~~ fU:Ilii.d!l~li!:llind.~:r ~IH1,g\}d ur underC o st~,l1d~ng Qfhmli.! ti:tebr.Jill processes umsic," sa.y$ an;:h.~Q~,og.~!>l Steven Mit.h~n of the dfm.l .• m thoU' of

U!l1.~\'",~rs~ty f Readl n:g .~!:'! lh~ U~it~dKij f!g~ u The Siug; r,pl!.Neanden h~Js. I f there .lire ~P!.1C'ifll areas in d'w bra i ~ for
lIlI'usic:. whereare they? That qlues,l.uon

.m~lctoo t~clUroim<"lgiW1:g. ex:pen Zatorre.who,
like Peretz. has J.1<Jd'J lifelong ".If~IJ1ilty fJo.r mus;ic-hc:h.f~s p~~~'ed rhe orgal'D 1;i nee ~](~ \\1;;1,:> a cll1:u~.d. BO:flil. in :i3uenos Alfe.s;. A rgent il'l<ll .• Za~~H reD'!'i!.1)"I j ered hlQh utilI' ~y,t.':ho]ogy an d music ~I Bosum Ul:luversi.ly. "\1:~.el'e~.el<1yed p
rhe
OJ:gilll1i

atlecal

churches,

'~lIImillg$.:;l5 far

each service.He receivedhis Ph,D, in esperimenral psycholog)l at. 131't1'l.V:un Unfv,ershy :U.~I i 981,. arid 'the 5;.Hlliteyear started <Ii postdoe <1~ McGilL where ke has been f:'vecr since. Al M c( im. Zatorre \'\,ofIS in l1!1J liIl~early d~~ys r o
~hc:nellroimi1gungrevo~utton, u3i,mtg, MRJ <lndl co-workers s,~oole(][Ll<ll.l on MR~seens •. lOi~lc"

other ~l'l!l;.hllkll~!!i:t~o swdy llll4;lp:rT](;-.e!\~ingf t o bodl music ~mLd speecllm. i"h:s team W2IS the' fil:'!>1 10 dC1!Jnonstrnte dim,~~\!ncc~, i.~.hra;~n aC'li~ vati()~,l p..merns, between musicians ,"'lIo lrn<1i~le ~b.'!(ilu~cpitc~ ~nd those W~10(~Ol"ltt~1S'\1!i'e1l;L~. : ~he fil::St~o lccaljee enrarional response-s to mus.~~i!l ~hl,,'lb~@i1J1i,Fn!i ~"~mp.~G.Zilito;!,"~ ~md
cone"lguL:;:~ ~ho\vedl~ h.~l thu '":iih iver::;.-d!o\\' JIlI,the.,"spi~,c'· fueUngl]/;taI mElllypeop~e gf:'1 \!iih.c:nl

~he)iIi~:reL1.1:0pi eH,... m.bl~lll1ll!5ic corre.~'~le~ ~
wi{h aClh~lion of l;:!.rnh'n. ~.'egionsslIcll aslh,e ~~m}lgdal<l ,mdi the omitol'rQ:mtnd l~one~...regiolls~h.u <L:rea.llso 3,s!>ociated wh~, rot<;spfl!)~ef; Hl fnod a:~d :;:ex. [)espi,te lhese<lc.:conm,p.~i.sll"Hne'l1lS. ui I m r'l."io~mly ~rfSlZ:!!lld ZrIWJ'i:l;"l.Uke. (I~~i~r!m!.Sic

d~anmlividu ..ls had ~e:;'5whi~:t; m;itlt~;r in rhe [lfig~n li'OMt<lllilnfe~i:or gyru5'o,. an are~lj l:ISI behind the .righl ~~dc or the fm·>ch;c~d. eomp~red 10. i:llUs.icallly ilQ[utml; eoneo Is. Tlrue resu hs "\if'l'ie C01~ S,b;~~~lWi~h earl ~~ \!Jli:~l'k by Zamrn,; r and otheTS s~lggestin(g '~lh"l,the r:ilshll:rmlt,d cortex ito: im;plh;:;l!i!;,j ~!l~ro~~\'i~lg p~!JCh fl~~d ru!ll!;;:m.belfial,gm~!:;,~c.n c{JIurm'jt. hmgml.g,(;l .~s.nJll~~Sll I often .~OC~~]II.zed the ~.en:side of'tlli]c brnf.n. on Ye:t \\Ih.ere<l~ '\iOrk onmwls~,c;d~e"~li1in.g i:-.
Slhowi,~g prog:rr:es.'>.'·'muSilc rc'm~i

nu, 3IllYS~CI:'Y."

Peretz S<ly.s. '~The bigg:esr,clueshon i~whm it"i:s ran'.'· Rese'<m::hers have SLJ,gge:Sled nli<lmll}1 see= 1H.trio~fonvhymusi~a] ~IbilH i~-~In i~hll~a\l'~ evohred ~uiCh <IS, enhancement of socil,a~ ;soli·~

IkItients.lem:ilming IiO speak a..g<li.llJ a!k'r s~I1,'ukies or o~l~~{b!R!~ninj~ri~~ do somere r.:lp~dly if 1~.C'y sing ~Long with anether person. Studyi.~.gthe nC~l,o"d eha:~geg that. acco.mpan:r such Iher1lpi,es could boo:Sltheir effectiveness .. ~Iys P~:ret1.:..Za~tlrr~ ~S he ~\~nhtI,HJly \,va:liiit:-: 1:0 improve lhe leclllll,ohJBY ofco·c~]e"J:li i~~pi<"lmt> tbe h<l!l"dflf h~~ring can ]i!.i~fl l~~ $0 mmic. ·'Cl~:I"Te~[ impi<uns .In: dl;lgisn~dlo IVllil.1>::U rnl~'ZC I) en:e~Hion of sp e'el::h:' he says. "lll1ey ,are m.lI: gm.HJ. f{~r II.~lU sn,c." Ahlmu!1~ll tbe cre~.tion of B.RAMS £Cl':1ll1S Iikely~o keep fel.'elt:: <lllfild Z,IOOJ:ll'ie ~n~1rne from F.JIlI.ks millsi",' ~I.lemros!!.'ieil.1ce I'ese<l,:~h. ooth of

[;i....

!iii resean.IChe:l'S..' \~re'rn!l'Lrgilmaii~oo'" Peretz s<ly~ •

d<:!r~ly <lite! ilmcre~~~in!;l:ct"lmmu~ic,lti:M bl'll'~'t'l~~'
II,UC:lIlleL"l!

.,,,td 'J.:hilldrenl

(SeieJlc{'. 12

Nov~~nIll,bcr'

.~ Bh!1mdl<L ~rccs.: "'l~]llid~l~ uph~U b<lUI~ ('OmL~ '; villil,ci~ 1~p,~e~~t1.u,~,11m;.ic u,~~]pon';1In'I.:S wa:i ~.
~ ('O]:lflmIn \'¢ Qr b.ra II'

p.~1.cI"1!O~mm. " T~~~ n,g llLrflil

~ point forPerr:'tz and l.u:om: cam:e .in 2000. .~ w~~e~ tbe N~\v Yo['k ACiildeilill y of 5; c i~n(~ s'

:2 004, p. I.I.20~. But 1i\!1:~~X ,ca~ltious. flbout i~ s~Ldm. SI[!ecwdl<~!:li,Qu ld though ::ihe 11.11:il1 s. , lo:nlg ;;1,j"<~led;il.ga~ns;1 ohrims b:y rcs.carc ~1.Crss.~lch a:5 FI''IIf'!~<l:rdUnil~ier5uty \."{)gJlmil~,'i,le; scilem il$.\ Ste.Y,en P'ink:er t~l~H ,ul,JIsk iSj~IS~ ";:a~tdiw:ry <:heeseVOl. 3~S

~p:~ss SOffi~ ~!).~[al~ia f()r~lilcmli!sk~:~ C',r1q:1o~fS; I~,ey left behi~,ld. Za!orr-e ~slhr,uUed lllitat t~,e C~l.ipe:~ lilI,l:hc (i:lmli;;~rc~m~mwh~r~ BRA MS il! hou sed h<l1><I ~.,,'Odti:tJg org~n.. "M.)I dl.'e<ll~ll I!> a 10 do c;'{l'lc·l'li cntg i~ the Ino~."lli~g IUI.dlpla~ :Un m !m.e afl:elillQOU"~'he :ii<lys,f>'~retz;:ilti~~. her g~ti~,l".s
l;ar;"IIl1~Ie: my dmi~:'~1~ li~.nes,~ £t i]l~ haveregllJfet'>."
Sll~'S.

"blH

:l>Ul~le:-

w'lNYl.l'.sdE'lncern~g.org SCI~NC~

9 FEBRUARY.2007

I
FI.e eTIllpl'ul:s:ize s, as does Verrilli] I i e.~}i:ll these cells are d.e.qrly not ,1$ versatile as ES cells. BU.t despite thcllrlilm].uI3tiof1ls, they could prove 1;0be useful t~.lel.'lpelllic'1Uy. "I\. lot (if p~"Ople' hflrvt: lest imclX:s[ ill Mf\ P eel Is

hy tl]~ pohu," :;~y$'V~i~s:mai1.'·Wh~.l ui.~r p;aper will he.lp do is ge~ everybody to look
~~l~(.tg~i~," O~'h(;:1i',I; agree,

"I'm sure g~ \~im

revive interest i~ MAP cells," says stem cell re~,IfC her Ptll! I Sc~.:~Uer the U nil \'i::Uj~.I)' of of

M i~mLFlorid.1.. 'G.MIll.g to tilil@
Imnillff"OW
I~S: ~ \,\I\f~

B(l!1;~rn;)Lr~}1;:V basjc <lIly contai

IYPL;;S

of srem cells: those thm give rise tobleed lUld lh:e :st~."QIJ~l<l:~ stern eells that develop ~nto bene, [i~l. muscle, and c.mih~~e. MAP cells ~re del'~'Vcd from. early preeursersia this latter rop!JIhltiolii .. Vcrill'ili~ik·s. L\C~ms;1.~~l~bicdall MAP <cells.
HlilufG

or

'~t;;:o~ by

~cddl;!ltwl~~!li.if'! try.ing 'I~I
ceb
{a

gro\l!;r Imlu~.r.;f:'nlC1!iJY~l~31 ste1li1;1

type widl'~n

d~e .~etefng:\"ln~Ous;si[omal cell p(lpul.uiu!l~"
~hey carne up with a CUhL~I.·,e $.yste:mI.l, thiU for'i::v(;;[I ]11LQI"e prim1itive oelils {Sciellce.. 21 J nne 20m, p. 2126 t The fiuy cells OiIl\Cst~k't~y~u1iJ~('lt:;; uf lab cti~n~re,1;.'!;lUirinjg.at l 1e;J:S~ popula;riC!lIll. doublilll:gl:> lb~dbJ.oe dlisp~.lIY.:m i]'l~f;(l!l1~ of fhi.;: eh;ll'!;!c~riS1.k:$·~f·ES oo11s.

seemed to select

Veda i.ll ie was not prepared for the extreme reacrien wil:1.e1li she went p!ll.M:i.cwith i~r f~mli ~l£.;-;ijn .2!1)()2."C\l'n<1inly~he pereepdon on the pa:r~ of everyone \1;13..., these eel. Is; were go.il'lg liO do~f··-~~.;u is.. accomplish teats hithesto ascribed only to ES cells-« says O<}vidSc;;.,dd,en, co,·diretCWu fd'lh~ Dlesp~~e 'liI'iidilesl~elptld!im~. '(atherllilJlIl! '!Jelia~II~:iie IP,e'~$l\1lrveiredi ~11iiI1 lreseilifch am,d remains her Harvard S~:e.rnll'Cen~main.lI.le. 13m.he says. olpMlml~stic tl~!a!~l1erJll\APc' (ens ~!dl~~. daly be u5efl!l!~. 1mltJiwerap'y one' ttley t umed tlm Hi! be ",<'1 v~fy fidel Iy 0(;):11 it'D work with," E ve n seie rrti srs \\'1110 obta ined sial because ereaung them hwolvcs the oeUl>direelly fj''(laml VCrif1il'~~li~ cou~dlfl make Carhcrine VClffamie ofthe ulm~'\'~'l:silyor Mi~mJ.e.s(JI~~ ade OJ big splash in 2002 when m dieSl.f!JI.rt:li.ollof an embryo, Scientists, too, ~hi:lD'l11 perform. for examp le .. M'Hcus W·~I:C \;ag~'r 1!t'Itry Iht:tn (lUL B~u i~l [he: }~~;;Lrs G:rn:~~p~.a liver stem cell rescareber at she reported in /Vlmm: t~~=:ll ~~b~J'idell I~ her t iva ted .1ty pe of ce U\lI,':~llrn some seem iIlg~y since. MAP cells have failed to live up to OresonHeJhlm. &. Science Univem:;iAy in n;m~:rkiibl e pr~)p~rtfl.J C~~U~dmu~jt iP(ltI;IH s. ~XI)I;lChitk)f~l'i" ThG'ypr(rv~d h.-urd h'l g:r(J'li!I', fund P(l:r(~fund ~<;;,l.ys. h~ tried very ~Uffl. hu~ f~i]~d ~)g.el MAPctJ;ll:-. ru d~\'elop iUilJO .iwp.~tocy~!oi:~ "JdI~1 .tprug~:Ji1.~ n'vlA.P,c~Jl~ .llld derived ~ HU the m II;;over CQ fl~e .n mCie~ing.'" \""15~1!w~o n one could IiCp:licate the Namre WQ:t':k. i:nllllke: ,l"hos.e Ii.vc:rs had been desrro~d, i:rnm. flu::' srromal cells of til,H':hone marrow. Las~month, :howf;}ver. Ve:r~r~lil~,i'r:::'sIl1eU5 the cells seemed to be able to nun i nro Verfa.i Ui:~has ~.ret'lilled beT high hopes for ·"1I110st. if'nct all",c{!Il: ype:,~.~he team WfOI.e. t MAP cdJ,b;, al~:I~,O!llglrl ~~cl;;llowled~estlmt. she gained fliCsh illlteil'tioJIl. lu I.~':teJa:unuary issae And wflll.ell il~e(!ed into a mouse embryo, ofthe Jmwnal of£vp~rjml.m{al At(idichw. a i'Jra etID.;}l~ct.lhe or.igimdchi~u:m [ Jiie:l.11llmigill t:lmey appeared lO COII~Hj,blHe ['0 most ~ro:up <iiI: I\I.i.i:llllrnsota and S~;[nforo U:1.1 e ivers ity iJ~]vebeen wrong .. ··We· caunoresclude c'n:~ somar iC ee II l ypI.';:; •. ereati rig ·11. su-e ,d Ied reported tJi'Qat~h'l;lyhad used MAP eetls 10 rel1!!t~ylhim th,;lUis no~ d~;I,;110ftt»i(f~" iI11~IilJ3:rl~.;llin {!himeri.c mou:l>e.MA:P cells were surprisrebu ild the blood system in mice. The, v.'.nk chimerism, S:~.e s~.)1s.if'U:s:uon.in which ill;~'~~ ~ i11(~ Iy ve r$~lHI; fo:r,uluh eells.w ~,o&~ fm~s h~$ ]n\IJpl'~,o.;~~d skeprie. SUlldbrd bloml one d!~].f.I~d cell lype~ !HerSt! withlhif;' loeals, first i csute to se ient USI5>' <Iue.lIl.li.o:un s.hol:~ ~y befO!re ~ were generally believed tobe predererstem oe.I~.researcher Irving \Me:iIStl!lill<IH. who o collaberated o un.lhc new ~.vark,Wcis!:;,man mi]1.cd-i~l fact, they .iooked ~:~rnl'lHH as ~Jl.e\leil:'$~Im~lIla.rrmr,· pO!'.II:::r =;q1~'eJ.1"Cd {Sdt>fl('i'. ~ gooJm.embr.yonic stel,n l.ES) cells .. cans ll'n.eresult "remarkable," His skepti1.5M"r~l,l. 2002. ~)j.1989) and ubi~,~liHe:I.y to ~ led cism •.II~e ;;tdd&,"nn~lk~.$lm~e .1 IlC·l"f~ClC(),~I@bo. Altho ..~g~'a ~l"f'lilli.e Wglt:i c~mioM In her V dis.mus:iollll:ncnl with the notion thm adult ~ claims, the press seiaed m1 M.AP !;.lell:l'l s ,UII r<uor. because l[ insisted 011 ,{eery rigoreus a cells were capable ohml ing into other types I!! altcrJ:wuh,.~to ES eel Is..'\Mh kh are (\(l~lro\'er- crjt~d~l for the ·eNre;rril\L~.i.;:n~s_" of cells, Now researchers believe dl~'~in ~
ST'E.MCE.LlS

Con'l:r,o,velr'siaIIMar.r'o,w Ce'lll:s C·omlin'g lntn Their IDwln?

NEWSFOCIJS

I


ne !St!fiIii U!U ~iilmlS(C!Il@ is get!.ijrl~ (rowd~. O~r th! p.aSI r@wy·~r:s, S(~~~li'5h have< reillorieti <II 'II'<lriely of new' lY!le!> (llr r;~liIl !!:ells. r~mlil beth ,;millll~l and hll!llIIiillfl s@urt@5" ~l1Idu:din91 r~talli\l'!r. nto~$E! te-s,tes" bCJI18 m;:URil'r'il, and ~liIlb:~~l:cal-cQrdbloJ!ldl. One' ad l~e IiTnosl fi~elil\-a~d 'J,llIi:d'ely publid:zedSWdi'e-5, by An:tholly AJ~a~a ~,f Wa'ke Forest U!l!iVerSl[Y ~ilJ Win$~oil..l5alel't Nlorlh CllroliC1t1\d~cribed the po!tl1ntial o:~[ell:!;iMl~iJll!li:l ~m.1lfIh!1'amnietic ( (il!!lid til) d:irrf.!t!lmr>aJ~@ in:IO all ~hr~~ glllt~ I@y~,rsQI!1lfijtfO' illd !f~ wn'~ ilI1d l@ brallnll:eUsil'l live mice (S'deMe, 12]l<1I11!11ary. p" 170). AU lb rfil'po!iis o1lreIPr,e-liJ!1Jin~)'. @rld IflOil1@ 1 o~thll .1eW o~U lYP~ il! II'IlXlal~ 10 !be aMe to dll!p~ic:ale~he potellitialof @liIlbrYOlilk ~I.!m '~1ES) cells, Nonelllie~esl>, illl '(®li11lbjlllllrtiCII'II.,they m3ll ane day !le1:i!t11ie ~rili11le ~Iaye;r~illll5tem, (ell ~IlBrl!lPy .. A!elll' e~ 11'l1l,les,: °US5(s; A gro~p ~l ruh~UJliWltrS.~tyof D~s'S'e;kJ®;rIf Gerli[li!II1Y has ~de~ll· i1m rim.il IXIllulaitioo or n:ells hmn human (ord Moodi, whrklillhey call MSS:Cs. or IIInN!~tri:(~etI o;oIn!Olli( stern (ells. II1hey lhave HIlII<lny 'O\I'erllallPingl [Bi3Ilmt'5 M~h lIMP (;@U~. they ~eptlrl.,djiUer@nhatilrlg inw .111 \I'.iiriet¥ d li~l!!es, 11'1 ~ ~U'l),. .'IE:PC~,::[l'®,t1g~<ls teserde or TuU.s Llllllliverr!>Hy S(111I;m~or Mei:lidin,e in , illostlillll, M.::Is,sa'I;,~lJIsdb. is CUlrfutly C,C'Ildbl,::;tilrlg .::IIsll!ldy Grnj@dil'l9 boll!e'!!I1Iilffi9w-derived (e~b(aUed emH~~li<lelj,1l1 p'r~gemli~o:r ~e~,b (EP(5) iril'~!l)

~atients with <lllgiu~ilfl hopes G~ He· a,lingl new 111~®od 1l'~ssels 'tolAle IiIMrL '. "'M AMI ()d~s; Ii girUilIl!p at U1E! [lJ Inhrersity @f Mi.amnSt'hool of Me~ i·
C~IiI!E! in

[(!Ilion

Florida INrH@IHDFte:d a Plll~l!'([IIi ~ ~ [1)1 ~ ip ® l,el'lll" (e lls hOI1ll

hurn3D11 bonl~ ili'ilafUOW ~ni'lt!~'~y h~ve ,M,ulti p I.e IilF(lgem1i~Qr~,. MAl' (e~lt du bbi!11dfila rriflw·~5!olfltoo adult mllllliltlnil;lrag,~ iFldlu(;ilbte (MIAMU (if.l ~I~, 'sw't;h as ilil'~jelr(!1fTl rit il!re- ju ~t Q~'~ ly~e of S'b.Ii!H'I cellllll nde, 11l~estig;a~on. MIAM'I cells may (Qmp~emel'li MAl? ! ullls,. IIWy sav, e;(lPlre!l~,i",.~ lh~ two stem (Jeill mar iOierfr.Nall10g am.! S©oc2, a.hll~ MAl? c}e~l'5, I.a!!:k:. Iiloben Lanza or A.dvanr:ro (~llliredll1lo~og:!l' II"'~. iI'IWo.TlLe'n~r,,",'\a~sa:dlUJsel~, predicts, lJiJa~til vtlri!!ly or (m1erent MenJilcelis \'Iil'H prove 'o~~m!i!llorr dif. ~~~eJ!!tdi~seaseos,lind in $lOD.ne ((!ses., S! iiO~ rm ~:l;am~ inlwhich [)10M ves· t·(t, lil!!ls and nr!lllr'~m"ar!! d,m~ged, mope than en.e ~1ellll (elll ty~e wm b11! 1500. U

Marrm5 GmrllpEC" afllhe Oreg'on IHea~lh SC.i:eme lJinriv>E!aily in l~rU.al'ld 8. agrefs. thin Hthe~e's.3 good (I1iance~ tha l n'eII~s.ti!illi cd ~hr!~aies ' Yilil n~~'y p primaril;v 0111 Iflol'I-ES (ells. fS ,(e~l~<I ~~ es~ntna ~re~e,<lrcl1tWiols.. But. he says" .Ii!. lne '~lHlP~rl'~, $~alt'! I):r krnO'lliiled9e:, ~I liia,~lil't 1'Il'~t ~s.1Il1S1'lE! p8~""111 wlw W<llio't ~eery Oir l~elm rij]~ P I!IWng irnto ~o;ple. " -(.!IiI-

m,fmy-pe:dl •.• mose+reponedeases ps

of

so-eajled adult cell pla:!dcity;~;~]e~lppem:am:e of cells s\III'~,lC'hil1i,lg ]d~IJlrtit ieswas ,~!l i~)inisreul r

lead~ng signsls frcen fused cells. But V~:!'~i~im~ \V,dS;g'l~l~f.liruh:dout and fns;iml :UIlI,the Ilmmue blood p.a:per and :s.a,y lhe s fir.!.dilm,gs a:ro indispU"llhl(l... The !X:~~al\.ihGrs IAJ{lk mouse MAP' cells ,1I11i1.d expanded th:enll, wi~lm.up ~o80 populaJtiolTh doubli.u:tJgS, "filley thel] i:r<II'IS-

Ver[r.ime <lUr~buh')fS ~heir sueeess in pan to or .uIllJprov,ed c u lmre ol)mni i~]O!lS Oi!<t':rthe pt!K\ h<!~ if.'llm:enyei!lr$, \,\~lk:h ure ~S1lI~ting in II:Ii]Ol:eI'nOlltogelfJt'llIScell pOPll~ ,)rioUils
the devd:opmlm,el~t
\'Vitll hig~. [~vcls 0.[ Oct4, the mainm@,r~rt~y share W.ilh IES cells, verr.I~lli,e. 'whohm. been
\'\,'tl~king

limi:latio~s
So far. says Verf<lul,i~e.Wl:irill:[ gjves her group

the most~IDl]Me is try,~r!gQ;(J make nerve cells mmdheart oe.~~, N~ s eejls me ectodermal ti s~
sue •.aliid "it
S!c~nlL1!;

easier

ttl

m3k~ !n~~d~r,~~
tYM

and endoderm," she !'mys. Alld evelrn. though

;ub:Jth l\IU rlrn~S(,l~a ,f~.dl:~l~U!l~~'~rsity of Leuven i III ~elgj [LIml IOf the j:li'lSI ye<lf 'HiI.d is ItlC,W sertled ,It Leaven <IS heilld of :i.tsstesn cell

hean lisfi:.l.J!~is!'!1!~$t!dL;l~m:.ll. no

l~~s had

.my hick cmlx.,~Il.g MAP' cells to funetica a!>
heart cells ,e:uthel":Even :~Il.:~lm!,'~\.\iC still ean't ... make C<JH~i~t\;OlfIYylbill1lg.Wl;lic~. is :stJli<Ulge"" !'KI}"s Verfa,j nk NOl1elhc.~ess, ::;11~.c~ ore opt! nml~slic m

plamed them illl" 28 mice whose b~ne~~l,m"ru\1i.r in:il\:lt~U~." ~,I~Ml it'd.ijn::d, a rlUmberQfgr~n.pl:i. h hml been de.~troyed by rnd:fa~io[ll. Beciimse MAP ~llililiBl.y III Eu,mpc, ilrl MAP ce]I~. Clllliwti.o:Il .. She ~,ws, :-J{n~~e rHlper::l'_'.lbom 1:'\\'0,30 cells are :;.IO'w ro £,rtfl.'" <MlI1g dUl5 wtmlJ: be ur:IJ,~b.le to 1I,;ep(lit:fu bltie tII.1f' b!OCJ.ciI, s,ystem f<ll''S~ e'D:tmlgh~o rhi rds with her as .~co"',lulhro:r-lmn~ so (:,Ir
~a'\,l~,~mous;~ fni~~l dyk!:!lg of mdi.fl~kYilil.,Dh,~y rliJso ilJjecled blood s~.eilllcells. [!1! tl~l;; l.udy. rep[)r~ii;donl~ne M ~511~[I:L~llIfY inll~lejorlf'lwtdJ E.'ftJl:;Ji/Ht'flltd Mwli.d/w, th~ ~MAP' t'ell~ SlIU'Vilo'E!d .u,1d con .. ·~ll'tlbm\''d to [h~ blor1<d1sY!>D(:I'b"iJl': .~ of2.~ oflile'23 ,mice .. b(;~n .p~ibli ~~~I;;'d MA P e~lls. !litld mfl.l1e~!ll i~] on lillie::work:s, bun NOIV,ember ..

,lbm!t MAP cells' uhiln,~~!:w;:l:s.:n:ility
WC::'iSSm,u,l. ",ito
r~CeD'!l re]lf]~.i~!'llk.epliC"dl s

thRill,

is

des,pite:lile

bklC.d

SUCC(;;~ ..s.

it's st~,Ulmt cI.e<u"ex<lcdy how MAP ,cells

~

"S~i~~~isis

~lU.:;t !HHV

f~lr ii,;;."'O!Impll!. F~ii~ Pn~!'ipe:r:... group 31 l:lm.e'Ulluversu'~.y of N.H\~II'irai~l Pa~nll]mm. S.pahin., pulJii!i:hed ,1, p<!pi~~ in BI.(Jod U'f;'po!.'Hng UU'I[MAP cdl~ cO.llIilTibuteto ti'Ssuesli~l('~~D:lg Il~~w.fllls~)fv,c~!ls"'lld .[l~~rieg
!1l11l'il!l(lr;:: •.

\\,.~UM;)[C~MP to IES 'cells. ES
Sl3l11.dil:rd

('\fi;1I!!i,

fI~

~heg,ll]d

orp~ur~.p(ltel.lcy-wh~!ch is USIJi\I]y defill(.'.das 'the: cl:lp!lb.m1y of g~m,'!mtlin,g aU (leU types ~,:lll OJdnh body, There are sevenJl1 I~,l!e i,n~.porUI~t m~!i'kel'sofp]urip'l)h,:ncy. ~.1ai1ri~]Y Oct4, N,mog. <lml Sox2. The Jbili'ty IQ fb{~~IiI~.
b~~j~I)~~~WfS c~U~cl ~rat(lnmS is ~)fll;:~ln~(l b.~h.:: ~r.'::i>b~or p]lIrip().lenf.~Y •• !... th~ g,enl;lru~$.

~ ~:I!ld!;li::5la~d ~~~H nlm~~1l!i

Ii: Ie cell inlO ~. Irnl0use bIOl:stocys.t MAP ceUs ;;'j co~uu!:hor Weissman. Th3l l!H(lod milkers. ,M.A,P (ells. po'pu~ate nU::ldng l";uck Hvc:rs ~Ild a~~~'iI~' hlHlve 0<:14 .. butltl.e)l lac:k both Nilnog <'Ind 3 S!l)x2. No,r c(t]U, I~l,eyform len.HO:nli.l<lS,,, '''We ~ OI"::i!i.lr:lJS. Sun,1Le t-ell:s;. :i'he ~Iys. .~ malk.~~ lhe~n.] promis,i:lIIIg 11nO!)l~elymplill1oo'e. termed l~lrl.e.m ':IDITIuhipol!ellf bec.mse the ",ells '~ ~:e:H me IU. 0 pI: ion bec~m se r r1r1:3y "have to co:umnit inl the do ~lh~pl)pu~<lHOfl i$ re<!!'di~)1 "''X~!ld~bhl., ill CO.!il!- di~h. first----'[~le ~m'~ro~lml;lmif! viv~1may not den~j~~~y mn 'I\!OIv~1lll H~el:e.f!lli,u·<;S of give'lh.e r.ughls.igmds,." She says, a I~ ~f~cl.ozen ES celis," s:.11~ Verf<li.llie. .. ~ U<lSl IiO hecnm.'ltopoi.elic stem ceUs .. which <II'~' ~ dimcuh to I;lxpal~d in dl'~ k'lb.lh[ fvnu. he ~~~ Cl~mtill:y if! p:.~~~nu~ion !l;lrW!.n.d'e'l'reVK;\i,;' Vt'rf.~~~liol;l :;.htl re,greh: th~ hYI~e UViilf h~r SI;'1~ wiill pl,'esent ev,u~~l,ce Ilmt lI:ra,d:~frel.'e'lIiI,t~:<Lted Fillldi~g.-;,\I,~~ic:h gees.m,"imll,arge llar~ pal:uls.ilI.e .says .. Slc.iel,uistil v.'Ould h<lve to find <I '~v;lyto :~ boos.i 1~1~.epOc d <'IIwh i.ch MAP c~],~s w",!'k. S MAP ceHs C'f1~1 diWCl'eunt~atc 1.0 spcc:Lfic ceU i.e!!Ily moli \~Ited" --;:!.~ldby no means confil1cd ·~perh<lps by IH1::lhu~,lg t~,em to <lll1lu)re: to ,MAP c>eUs,W~I:I~these .. Kll other ty()es of H types <lind be ofd~ell1lpe~llic benefit :UfII]1,lice" cdl:;. she ~ys •.it ~ston S!OOlm. m p:rcdi>C1 ~, ~dv~lm::~dslagcofdcvelopln~nl belbm dlG'Y t\.t hcrsy:s. a biotech compOltny .in C h~vehlljHl SI";;111 'bi;:. (ound" ~ me~r<msp]I'~IiI,ted. And o~ comselhe ~tmly Oh~o. ~,sl~cel:l!8e(l~u pa.'Odm:e file ce~I::;,,.\~1irIi'ch \\i~,le'reIrc'<llmem~ ,.~,~~I,~ are pa.re!lt~~,b}J d'l(l Uni'ii(:rsitYQfM:jnll¢_"mO!l!. .~ must bll ooplic;;,uoo\v ith hUIllOlin MAP (;'(;]Is. ""C:ONiS,TANCf; !IiIOlLD,E:~ ~1:1 IIII1tHI

.~ m .dl Mo 00." p rod

~ MAP

ceJls can .m,<Ike uor-

Vii:rf<lii]lic allS(l belbrve;s; the

lion of a chinm.eru(! .m.QU1>efrom iI~oGdng a

ceUZiO m~y holdpm~.uli~e

for

san·

g
~

-

-.

-

-;;lto-

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

SC;I~NC!

VOL 3~S

9

FEBRUARY.2007

L,ETTERS I BOOKS

I rOUCY FOR.UM I EDUCATIONI

FORUM I PIE.RSPIECTIVE.5

,~m~ng !I;nr;;l~{}d for ie

~;.fg~tiden~ ~fi'c~l~Qn. The authors" statement lh<ll "the num her 0:[' Imluuiona.l '~"'Clll$ o~currlin.~ du:riillig the evo~mion onrourmm UII1lO.r'S·.... is much Sl'e(ll;~er [hml p.rcvin:tls~)'I~~ou!Jln" ~,g1liio.ImS a h'urg€' HI· erature cnnunet hetemgen:e:uty and 1.<Lmlo.I1~, nmtaJiom; :illl human eancers ( 1). There ;Jr€; imlP'ufwlII,l li m i.!,u iOf!S !l('l di!);-

ALTHIOUGH THE. EHORr'5 OF VOGHSTEIN ANiD (0 LlEAGtlIlES TO DEFINE THE MUTA.TIONAL. ~.~m!sclipe ,of two of the ~,~H):-Jl ecmmen h!.1llnmllcancers ~breu:-Jland colon) are fut~gMy commendable ~"nl.e eonsensus co (]iIllB sequences ofhu~minllib,IIeOlS1and eelorectal cancers,' T_ Sj()b~n!n('f (IC R~~~lrch Artf~I~.1 J OC[,. 2006.1~" 2:6:11" th~y also pi~.ti~nl~) ;-;~~rk f~~l~ity the challenges fa C il,l£, the Hmm~ Cancer Genome ~l1oj ect ( H C'GP )1. Ol~e wo:nde rs <1bo~u dl e: an meri~s of :),U!~,~ hi,gh·c(ll'Ot, h'},'",-effk~.uen(;y. ,ll~dU!1d mat~ly dl::'i~~l"i tive-type p "brute force" stud ies, A:~~:Il,ollgh p revle ~Isly l'LIlllkn,HlV.'ll ta led gel~es "",e.re nlU unearthed, the rmlCI~omllC'om;eqllcm::e5 of most of I:tile::;cand their actual , [ole im,~lII,mo:rigen;esi's, are unknown, almlde\ie:ITII.\,vith, t11,_!it kl10wledg,e we are a ~on,gwa~' fmln id.cnlifyilllg new therapeutlc {!lfgcu_ Scroen'ung to id~ntify p ole[lti'l~,y ilJ].1port:nrn.l genes i[I no llI,1rnem<n,wptlieli,c n'U;)1ignl<lncie s i snow I p oS$~b]'~ because or reee III advances h1J tran sPQiioal-b~"0'L unblased, 'Iib~\~rd mU'mselll.;sis screens \,\lh~l puttl!uhd for rissse-speclfic mut;il~t::nlilsis in firTI,~C,e 1}. The <ld"I:!r.lt<lge of such a system .is!irn.<lll.'e:sc<III.'c.&n.ers U,
ii!ll~iI~~l ions

,cover)! of :nilmrnted genes '~y[)NA sequesei.ll~~. Firsr, th,evl,l.st a11ajoriy of DNA seq'l!IIeIf:ICC a lte rat ion s !m:: Si.:trlg:le-n,~1.c~c tlde e

polylnorrhi~1~~K. g~nnlin~ ~H~h!l~j;(1I~1~. peR errors .. or DNA duplications, More. dl<lll
91}'!<"Inf

th~

.i~III!C~L:i·t~'tid~ flll(;>~~ljun:;;

ebserved by Sj8blo~,~,et al. were !R~lSQI'l~~tjcm:l~1lnio~. S~c;('lnd 000Vi(;:nliomd E) N!A. :iiec~~LelJicin,gdo es
filot d~10Cluonelenal (wndoitn), ]j]],Ulat~o~ls. (lIlIId a conseusus

sea

qucnee js

i~~farm~l~vc of murations in !!ilmgl.e cells. tUlhollgb beth randcm and
UO[

c~mid~in'ilft

'[hal iIli t~.<!le.C!~l~lpefiiit~. <.iIUlId!TIn i~~ ,I .. iu

Wlii'll~r

dOfl:;11 mut~ltiolhl

could drive:

IJ~ o[X'ie'I'Vi.ftlgl:fuJ.e' devc~op:rnelll and prog reSSltO:Il, f tu mors ~:n, II iee, o I MOlil:lOel!],lI,odehi of IHnn"l1 cancer <Ire lrol!JitgQ:t~<IIUyg';mer;l:~:ed tg OQrIn~iLIII, nown genc:ti:c C.hl<lll@!i:S :idJe:I~,~,i,f~e>d hm,nan canC(;:Jfs .. Recem k in] stud les hrl'v~d cmfHl!~!mlC~d pm~'GI'of' [he reverse, tGSi!l!;ll!lb:~aiithe mtlJ:i ties detected ~n cancer mouse model S to sllll.cl:y previ oHsl.yllmka.lo'Y.r,I,1. sY[I~.teni::.ge~.l.e~~c ~esimH;and their sigji!~fiCiJ~n(le iml hU[l~il1ii! cancers (3. 4). TheK~ C(lmp@ir'.;iI~iv1;: fl!lCllg~llomh: appr.o:u::h.es combi 1]00 \l;fi,th [lIlJlhia~ed unuagenesis scree ns shou ld prev ide al is l of h igh ~ pr~.or.u'ly !i,\I:gCIS Ih3l can then be smdied cernprehensively for mutaeieus and epigenetic a1Di:iOl,nla]~.~.~esin~,l!m.m cancer 'HiI.d validatedas lheHlpeut~c [,u'Yels" Such O!lpp(~~lche's m'L~! be more .rat~.aIm<lJ. !I]:ul,co~~~cff1ectivc" :aMtlIl;Vhl~ ~ better ooml~m!l!ni~c bC'I''VCe~l ~dl,icv.~ng the m;wow g,o~ds,of the BeG!" and ~lPProIJ~il'~liun, offi.In:t1i ng tiO ether "\;Orlh\"~l i]e C.Ulice'D" ffcns, e WEE: ]. ClHIN:G

tlJ!I~.ma.'.ige'lmcs.is,. random Iml~llI!~
i:~uIliS m.~}r ill so tI.cC~HII~l~ for

cell hererogeneliy, metastasls, O)Ind drug resist111.1ce (,2). T:liD~rd. x panslon of the H UIlJ,l,m e c.,'LI~CGrGenome PmJecllmlsl·be rig(lIn'llslly justified :LIl Ihe lXI~re'XI of di min ished ~""I c:l· n ~ngfor thl;; ifIJv~~'iga,mr-in~!iOlI~d grmn~. rhar
lUl'nlllOr

,.nie c r.iil ieal

Ibu ~~;Imerm~.:~lgewapproaehes n

to

im!~I.'(li\FC c~ncer lr(!atil'nH~IUalld progaesls,
LAWR.EINClE A •.lOIE:B ANI[) JII50lN HI.'HIElM
~~. p.alhal!Jg~, Uni'llf@ ~ty SeaRle. WA.9n95, lUSt!.. D~~rtffit\nt
I1-.f W~·shll!'ig~ilnl<.

1. t, S. (oILii!l'. (. !Ill. C~nI~rn.,S. JIa\1tmamn. A. J. DiiPIIl'. n A. t..g~!M:rmd'Q,JVa1HMo'iili6. 272 (~O(D)). tl. A.I. ID!l!~l,jr, KAk:ilQ~, 0, A. L1rg~e5\pa;diJ, iIo!" G. wpe£a~!t. Nl A, t~kim. NfJtrJff 4]1~, .21 ~OlQOIl). 2

Refe<re!flces:

1, !LA.

3 •. P\l t;im f.I"1.,. Gell :125.1~6? ~.2006)'. .,. L Lmd"r t,r 01.• f£ll ::Illl'~,'Il~3; 2()D6~. ~

~oe:~,C- F. 5il:!ijr;]99~eo.~, I~ij!!h, Ca\!t{e!'~" 34.,. 2311 (1974}. ,. J, ti, ~~ll:~$~,,!:jl ••~flJ{. MUU!(w. '$,;. u'5:A.l(13 •
1LI;IHB (200r;)'_

Rer1erefl.oes

IN THEIR RE.'SEARCH ARlln~ IN THIEm RESfARCH ARTIntE "THE (ONI$IE:N· s,rl end i.~lg~0C1l~.c~re ImnuM~breast ~nld s s of eclerectal cancers" { 13 Oct .2000.p" 2M':~.T. Sjoblom et al.,pre~em:lhc '1I1,],Qst extensive data il'li<.'!I(lbh~ (lin £~~qU!~~it"i~lgof DN A Iffl~ll i IUllmtnC<'IJlce:IFs..ScqLJIcm;ing of 465 Mb from mmd complexity of cmloer ~el'wmes.. Ti'le filldh:IJgs 'lh,11 ""[qlm.e vast In~ljo:rily of genes \\iere ~]ot k~10WJii to be m~1~<\I,ediug lm,lI1.o11>,"I:l1e average h~i!m:U)'rharbored 90 ~ml:~3,h:~d g~lles, no gewe was ClQ~I:-;~~telUlymutated in either breast 01' celorecral tumors. and tTh.elfC was no ~~nH;l~!11il p~.@.el of Ilm!U~;:"t~denes f!~gll!!e g 'lg.ains;1 nUlss.ivt: DNA. sequem;::ung beillg <In
MI~

"TIM E (ON:5cN-

coding ll,eqaenees ef hum<\l1 breasr

and coloreceal cancers" t.1 J Oct. 2006. p, 26~). S. Sjo,b[mll] e ~l. re'poft <11m ~ilfgili;j:1 total (I r & 1.6.986 j1I Ulali\fCl1Iuc leotide d'l!~nlgcs. in WO.l'IOI'S. f ~~~'iG;. 32% or 259.957 sil(:)w! O C~,la~.lgeswelli'edi.~c:anl:ed as .ins,ignif~caut .. 1\.

21

ll!lfi!:!:Of~ y~dded

~89

C<'U10t;;f-0,iI,5sm;:i<iH:ed

S0c(]::~d screen unc(w.e!'~dI33.693 changes,
b ~H we'

gelle~

t~nd tew::als dle

eIilOJfIHOlil.S

di'l,rersity

are, no1 t.old how lIlany we[~ s.i knit.

762

I

lEITERS
The winno,,",'ulltg process, wlldc:h redaced the eandidates ro W changes, would pr,obably 91
have reducedthe si]emlt mutations propert~o'[I:;Hely.. .AII~lldepe~ll.derl~ !'lc.roe~:Jrn lml,,~ilg~ '0 f 111.U~I:S~ , iomas <lfler alkylation 1~,U;:T<I"'yround 16% silll;':nt[!ln,uUlIiu!l$; In Slk!ill. O~ $y!iiio'li!yll,ui;ms•. Inlll:<ltn,Qilrn,~ <Ire assumed to be nO:lIII,~ seleetlve. A fruql!l~ijC'y {If 1ib~~~ 25 % is to be usefulas cll[~lgnosllc!md I~e'r<i!poellit i:cwrgel'S. '0 nee elou a~ Jml,madQ['Jti; are identified in late-stage or tl~.cn:!py~

ones known

expected if ]1.UUl'M,ion is 1'~',~,1{! The fl'l:!'om. quency of silent :mlultadons in the hilH~r~ l:l.1:timm~ Agem,; y for R.e:-!em,·ch on 'C ..racer pS: 3 database {l} is 4.41%, \\i.hlll ,(I t:~'nt':or~tkal e.)oI;pecl<uion of 13.S'Yo lor rnDn.dom~uut<1,~~OIII using the 1153 );el0ct iom of eodous, JUSI as the !~}\Vrr~'tl~!!,;H1;~y[lf~l~!I;l*l't'l1m:'lliol'ls ht p53 ! ind.i,ciues thaI. this gene is se~ec[ed dlU'l"in,g u!morg.gen~:sil~", Stl n~eir high rre~l!ency hll tili!> :l>e!qlJl.enc~n£d1:o.l't .ilnd lcates [hmt:~'n.~' vast Il'ill!ljiorily of mutmions nceur [lHJ:dom~y "md <lTC' fcundi i.:1,1 uncrs n <IS passergers. This Co.lIII,~ elusian in I)~)waym~ni~~i;.:o:~~~~h~ impmt~mc~ of p<lini,cul.u: muterinns ro:1' which the per-

it could be usefld to search ~Qlr such ...lterati OIL::;iu ea rlier sl<~g.e c~i!:l ~C',~I1>amp~~ 1> wh~r~ iI~ Ul!;;ym1)Y bepresel'llt in ,I s:nm.,IU fractuon oflllrno:lI cells, Ho'w~v~r. gl;,'flO!'il~-\"lid~ ldentifleatian of a~ter<JJuom; present ,Urismall tumor 5ubi)OP11:1,1lOlm at sis ]ll.e.it her feasible 1;101" desi rab·:I!e~u
resistara 'tull~.[lI.r:-l, I~:~~ me, ti

c~nlf!g~ ofsil.~fll:

mUi~llk~n:;< L"!-;]mU'l!f ~u th~IU

ofp5 J, The Sanger Center Dat<l !3iE1:5!e. COS~ M Ie MSt:HIWt~]~ 109 si lent ~~lUl:mi.ons; ,of mil of 23 35 ~:nul'lIli.ml s (4,67%) in eigllt cancerre:12I!liCd g~.ncs (e.g ... CIDKN.::;U·\. ar-It E K[T.

and .RB.ll for \'!,~.licb more than 100 IOI:al l~lUU!ltion:l!: hlld been recorded. Newcancerr-~I~~t1<ld f:l.~n(;is may potn;silJly h~~d\i;:luinr.ld by Ilneli:Lods :!;;1rm,g,la.r l~.ose used by Sjoblom to et td, The question is whether massive seq uencing .US au e fficienl w<l.y~o 'U nc OVC'f
them ng<l~ rhe nst
~flU ge

bttCkgnmlfod of

1i,,1!m1-

dom murarional Hoi se "
lEliIEIRNARO S. S'liII1tAUS;S ~lP<llltrl!l~n!Sof M'D~QCI.IIlilr (l@Iit~li(.. amll (e~. BiDlag~ .. nd Radihn~o!'lamll Cell!Ula~O.[)colon, U!'li~~r511:~ of 'Chlcag!i!"

4) s.cqUC:mliCng s,wdli~s cannot re phu;:1;: i ~lllleliom)1 studies :~nmodel Ollp:UlIli::>lm.,nld esis nf illhc::ril:~d eancer syndromes sueh rhe ~ aner stud ies are esse In~3~ to reduce as I~mwlia~ aclenO:lmmtom;; polyposis, neurnm(lrbidHy and nH.trHI~hy fromcaneer, But fib['o!mHo~i , Li- F~~~lm~~ i :>~tm!.dronul.j UVI,;:·' sequell.cung; studies can gusde run,e'~~,m13:11 s nile lm~)irtl:.;is ..and llIn!uh.ipI~ endocrare nee- studies by f;OC1~Bil'~ them on ge~~~ that ..ife l plasia, fjir.l.1IJly. il. \Vau.ld have 'poi.lued 10 likely to pl<lY <'I. ro~c i~]u:umm cancers. We h viml,flUy ,II! the ItmjcJ,rpath,:l."IY!' curremly h;)Mll derilU.111:-JHHI.ed l~m slJlch~el1l.es e ,In. be knowmI, It.O be lnvnlved in ne,op:~.'Is.i".•. Om icl.en'tmed by re]I,llivdy simple and inexpens[udy 1:0o.k less th,Hil Oil year to 'COIfI,~,p ere ~ive t>~I~.. ';!l~ i!~gmGt hods. f\:;' !~e:h.~lfl'~ngy I H (encethe technology was deve~,oped,. and improves, such sequencmg will become co~t .-1 rl ny fr,OIc t i~)!lo r ,.... ll alw,,!~, .~C'l~B<1~.Iy I:;Wf!l m()l~ C(ll\t->l;;:rrifo.1Gt~v~. turn th~ p~'llCG,;:';''i To spent to discover <I subset ohh,e lidentified OIl its head by trying to :~den;tiLfy g,enes genes l~.rol!g.h (\lH'n\f~Lm.t i(I! nal means, Ih~!5 i.n:I~powlI1il. in ~ml1il~mleaneer rhrough flmc= ,eIfo:rl demonstrare iLl tj~'It un biased ge ruCUltH: tional siud ies, followt:d! md}' I~!ei.·by seq ueae~equ£llc.ing is !l,~ ~1o::tr(;':'~~c.~y (ffi'icif:l]rl.t w~y 10 c ing" \voukllli{!; !>~lbSI:f~.~'Ii~iaH}' oo~t1Y911d more discover C',meel' genes. less cornprehensi ve, KnlilIAS s]bo LOM} $I~N ]iO'N ~S.], IJI.IIJRA n WOOII!),:t 'C~lIlg, Srrauss, and L~)~b1I~1d Bic:I~~ raise D •.IWILlIAM'!i IMRSONS} JIMMV' 1~I~N.l :J nll:~.~,berof mb,e'f points ill their thollg,ht~ liliil:OM.AS BARBiEIR.1• ImANAMiMIDIElIKIER~ 1 provo:king Leuers, 'IMQ1iclm \"'~ address here. RIEBIECCA J.lEM:V,l HMAIINE P'iITAK," I) W~ have <l.lr~<~dyp{)ilfl:n:::d Oltt tll,I,\,j If!lAiiMliE SILilliIMAN.1 STiEVES\mIBO',l l,<Ir_gefmcllm,l of the nH~:I'ltuO.ru; Ib~LI:I:d1 canin P,HIILLIP BUI'](JIiiIIMJjILJrS,. (HIRIS. m:I?HIER FMREllL, il ~ eers were ,~g.kely ~(I be passen ger m~ntions, .. fA.UlIL iMIEEH,,'~So.ANII'OiRD' D', MAIIitK"oW~iiIiZ.~ A~lho~ighIJl,e observed plethora Q If' mura ~ JOSEPH W~ WS,4 DAWN II)AWSON, ~ ticns :1!J~1Jy account for the cl ini,f,;a~.. MJ bicU JAMES: )C, V. Wil LlSO,N.? AD! p, GAZD.AR~' ~,ogi'ca~ ~in.ewerogeneity o:r nnnors, most of
d~em!~re nm ].ik~~y a
II)

(hi~g;O:. Il6(1,637.IL!I$A.

b~iim~grii]

to neu-

R6iftlen(e\'l
l C, ,,!\J~~r ~l !j'j" C~t;lI{""R~ (>6, 3lJe7 f;2ll0\5~', z ~. OIi1oi~re;!' 01., M!.mI\. M!i'ID.f" 19, 6o:r (20lD:;l)i.

plasia P'r-e:cisely for Ihis reason. "'II': designed ameasure (CaMP !'cor~~.J'~llrank genes via their mUlalimlli.'-eq,uency. t<lkilt:ag into
aeeount gG:nc~d~c2I11~~ nueleetidc eentcxr.

]A'''E.5 HMflIGAIN/IJEO WU.' (HIW:GSHENIG Il1IUlVII! G~OIijiA.NINI PAIRMIGmNII~~ BEIN tlO IMR'K.lO IKUIIfl'IS 1l:.IBJIi:(HMA!N" n INiO<O lAS IMMIIDOPOUUJ'i,:l IBiERTVOG ElliSTlEIN\.~· ENNElHW: K ,KINIZIJER,:l

V~rnR: IE, VEn;CULESclijJl
~tuliloo.g (l!'IliU!J ~'Ilid Ho.mrdl Hug'hl!'5MOOi{~1 ~n1Isli~Ul~. Sid.nfY Kimllld (QIIII~Jtll!ilmsiv~ i(.1I11t[llr (ftn@r ilt Jahns Hlo,pk.lr1s, tJl;~Ulimor.fl,. Mil 2123l. IUSA. ~Dep~~tllfl,emt ,oil Pa~lh~og!l and! Mi(lro'bjol>Dg~, G~nt~r fGlf (.010111 Can(@r ~.eS'earch... :rod sou·t~, Caro.Una (am(er (ielrft!N;, j)iIr~ion '011 ll<;I,stic'~~earc:h. UnJ,\let~IIYOiI 500~h C~rdll:~a 5i!"Jhoitl~,01 MMj(in~ .• ColullIWiiil,.S( ;;t9229,. Il!Ist!.. l[lep~~~m~nloll ~di~ljjje, 1!\Illa!'!d CanCoer.(eRler, a!lld Howard ~'ughe,s M!!di~~t ~ml~lfi~I!I~. Ci!'~ iMl~erill Re~~Ne Uni~~rsi!y ~Ildl l!Ilfiivmiil!l l'iIo~Pllilb o~ (tmr~lalld, {tw.l\~aDd, 0 IH4411)6, U$k ~O~P'lJ~)ini!ill l1l<Ilho~y a~ Irel!ai'd (.a!fit!t;r C,1?l'iter. of (;r~1! IM!sWl"IiI R!l:!i@fIroU.Iliv@rsi:ly and UlI"t'l'~lfSiI1l'HDsp,itals. 01 (]'e.ol1t!ilfld, Cleyen<! fild" OHl441®6, U)A, ~1f.a1-Dldl C. SiIllI1TlQfl~ (omJHehe f'!s!ile (alilctJ' G~!i1te!i', Ul'I'fV!!lrslW IO-f ·!eJI;as St:iJU!IrwI;i~!~m Medi~~i ~nrter, ID<"! lq<M~, IX 75390, UI)A. M.@dk.aL C,Q~t\t!\r" Dall~s, ifll ',I"S,390, USA. ~Ag,@ Ill{oori alos(j~n!.1e Cl!Irpor.'lti o iii" aeyerl~. MA 0'1915, ILDS.!!!. i~50fl. <l@lJ@lije; u:.c 'SI~I.I! (~~'!il!', PII,168103, !!JoSJi, ~O~i1rlml'fiIS 0' On~ili[cl~y, Bio:ililt~li(til!M P.li1iho~91. j!Jhns HOpkins Medical ~rntitutHen$, 'B3Ulll!.Gre. l',ii[l 2:12(15, USA. IOSldne~ ~rni1lel C~i'flpfo~~.11'n~v~ ~11I~~ C:ll'J'lW <!It 19:1m~HlgiP!dfl~. C Ba,mJf!1~re, IlI.O 21231. USA, II O'epa ~trnen! of Rad~.1lt~on Onoo~agr~ ~~d Oe,p~flll\eomt'01'a:ioch~nlistry &ll!IlYiol[e(lular

IR!eSIPOlllls,e IMAGIINE THAT NO MOLECULAR CA~KER Rf~
sc:;m,[\chh<ld ever beelm pe~:lblf:[lu:d before tilLe: SjoMmn (!l aI, :r>l.udy O~ co.lon:clI!IJ '~1Incers .. 101,) ::>inSlc 5~rDke. ~he ~~tud}' w(ndd ll'lave ~dc'llldfied.3il of the COIill~CI1SUS codl]ng seque~u."e yel:les now kllil{lWII.1~(I! p]:ny ai, rol.e :~.111 thi.s tumor type. ~mI.cludung TP5~~. Pe. A KR.4S.. SMAD4. FBX~J'7., EPUrl3. SNUD1. iIIJ1t~ TGF'B'lW. M.3UliYothel.'gencl> IUn pa.·~:'!Ji~ (1\1 slyi mll~!t;!u:tIdi n (:,oh'lr'l;)t:(al w:m(lr:;~¥i;;re cmu::olni.nuH.ly disc:olVe'red 10 be ~mM'Hed'l1 ~:i,gi'iifi.ct!!lt' fn~qu~r'ici,es" T~e~ included gf:nest%mt <l.1l:1ecerm:<lI~:o~he p,nhogenesis of fJ,tll~["' for~nfl Q f C"lH1!ccr,. :such as eN AS. /VF!, allid IUli, The sl:~I,dywould al~o ~,l,JYe pllrtl~ v~d~d Ulrp.r0ct'd€'I~IGd c:I~e£ H'I l~~P;,!~ {)ge~,-

Those genes, with the higJlesl OIM:r s.core:s a;n; Ih~ one: s of '1fiu~![ ~nh~r¢::>t :~(JU' hLlU r,(: ge net it: <tIll!!.! flmcl ~onfll sllU dies., A I] of the
ggnJ;'~

!:lot!!?d

fI~~O~I~ r~.~~k~d ~l1i,!O~lg !hl,;; lOp

30.

MH.::h g~nes" 2:) (hu d!lIa stn:mg~ysuppor~ prevkru:s re::iu~~~~,:~dic"ni:~.g lhm~: mOM: l~l!lnOinl C~inl1er~ ha'l'c iI I1ltu2I!l.ion nHe l~Jlit is s[mI.~.i 10 l~flt lar observed in OOI,TI.m] cdls (I). A s!IIiIl,.dlJn1.c·, li on of ,cal1lce I'S, have h~,ghe'r mut<1I: io n I'a~:es becl.iuSiI;; .ofm~sm~~(.;:li1I repair d~flci(;m~~e~. S~u:;hC,lllcers were excl uded r~-o:nj],om sl~ld:il bec'm!:;..~ mmilli·!.ln~i!l th~~ wm.or["$ ar~ m(l~ diffi:Cll h HJ~lHerpre'l, 3) O~~~~Mldyw"J; de~igned to identify lho~e lfiiLi\,ltioil$ dmt JIiI,l<IY dr.ilv,e ll.qmurigen e::;il~ i.e.• dOllal Ulullt[illions, Sln:,h m~ll,l'~i,o~:$ •. h,nre been s]h1o,"\l'n,l lobe din:cdy re~poll!ii1Jle For lilUllor pl"ngress.iou and an! the only
a

'fIamo!!! Ceil1le~ rOr 'ht.fa~:h\lUli( OfiC.o'Lo9~ Re-£ta:fdi ancli De~f1l11~i~(If IP~lM~yj Urn~rsilY of i~~s SOO1ihw.@>t~m

I

lEITERS
81m11lQV, M<lrI!l:m,eand 5W~~ilrt Gl!llooet<lurn C<l!nCi~r@met ( Unijll~isil¥ cf M,iJrryllind '~[hool of M:&iic,iltE'" IB.l'Ilrimore. MID

2::J!2i~l,lJSA. ·Pre,ell1l~~d!!Ires.~ lIl~~ Rewa rch La:bor~to~iflt ElLlLillly and! u.rnp.a:ili'l'. i'ndli'~ll~po~is. I~ 462;05, UsA. Re~erenl!:e
1, (_ ~g~~~1\

joe I~in'~w; ~_'I,i'gg,e~lein. NiiiW"re';J;?6; 'I!I.

6<lljU9:B).

Glenll Ex,n1ssiio'D ,and Ethnic Diiffs!lrl'Dces
IN HlEIRARlIICLE "I NIIISIANS AN IDW'HITES, G EN E

expressionvari es 'by race' (New~"i ~ he ~ft
\l\feek. 1.2,Jan .. p, ]73)1 •. I, Couz~,n e1{p~ainl,s

that recent research has de'Ml1smn~d '~h,u
there :i,ss,ign[ficmn v:ar.~ ..uen 1.1:11 gent" expression 'in A!S,~!lI1~and .... 11iu:'S.,'lh~,ou::;h pwvj,c].

ill gibe' d~scla hnerthat ''"[ l elrleric va rial ion s ofianguage further addsre d~e problem !'lot bei~g <1.b]e ace lU.Ullely describe IJf d,IS10 amolfilg, races, ,IOI'!,!; a political hot pOWLO" has alse been ..!J scienufic puzzle." ~n:dDCd. s;,i:f;! the referenee POPlll<lli.oIl,\~flmo do these Ol,ndwopok)g;ists "nul g.~'~.e!~.ci:;.t'jalikehave peo]Jllerepre:oiem'! Cer!'liniy. both Asiaaud been kC~~:mI:~Y lnrerested ilJ1 delCr.~m:~ningjl~sl ~EI,l rope are ve ry I a.l:g~ and di VC'Ii'.'H!COllllii~ \'\.~~~u makes U$ driA:er~l1il ;U Ih~ ,igt'fl(llic' level I1JG~.I$. 1)0 th soeiaUy and h ioh"}Sk~Hy- The The pllFOb]lem is ]~(lV'" these i.!~fiereIHN;:::l: are diffe:renoe ingene espeessiou betweemhe J<l!~i1e~1; aud Chi~~~J$$lll.'ijl;:Cts eited iill this 00i1CCSph~1!~ lzed, Afi!:SvdL;ic~~d~s d iseu ~i.(li1" 'of ~'e are still lefl aski.~,lg: what :15a r<lre'~'RlIce reporr demonsttatesthat var,ua~io~, cceurs is t n!~.y ,I b i(l:h'lg,jll;:'i! I iind i~!x.unom~C' pfohl em, rl!{)t~mly en H c{Dn~ililem''l1 Ieve I b1H ,,,1.")0 of not :simp~y iI so~iolo"~ica~pl'obb;:I,~,las m~lIly I o c<llly. wh ich is, in,dicative of 1::I'I.uelf,IIii,~ :lliilL\'t:~1I:IDI,cd.N my. l! should be ~oSkc(L"'~Ihal ci:!udc v!lrifLlion rather Than racialvarlasiou, does itmean to say thar gene expression We s.:hm~ldIL10l 5il:mpl.y be <'Is-king hOI\"" hmml'Ul varu~sre['!.rveel'1i "As.iHlIlS·· ;lIndl"wh ires,' ~'111t Iil.~ !J:roups v2Iry interms (If genetie comp{)~i:~ ClOl,ll!ext of this research, '''As~,<lnC means I:.~on.bmhmM tllia.os.e ,g,roups Villi)' in terms of either Ja 1}3IDleSeor Ch inese, or bmll.g ro~lpS the sneial sud biolegica] proeesses that (;1'\':l1iilld (hem, pooled lOg~,ther. The term "white" isused
imerd~nge<lb~,)1 wW'n,·'C'llJca~:iJUli" :lind people

or

of

"E'lLIIlrtlP

e.n~descent," Th~sumpl"edse use

C'CilR,IR,IEUIIOIN,S; :A.ND CLAIR:III;::IICAliUllfrilIS
Br,eYi<!~ ~ri~nt lfI-oDF!C(!ojJilfl_g ~~me!'llS c.onst;lWld!i!1I hi1l'!il!!'I.ge!flOm~~ B. veriatesiTIe!'r:!I: ~22:De;r, 2006. 1", 3.819Z). Tabt! S:J. tile ,Ii)! ~hooL'dh,a,v@ Ibl!m iflchu:loo imlh@ '~uppOfiti I:lg, On~l'm MillI!ri~~ I'SOMl, rartRer lihIanlI'o:!mOolilib~ ~ut'hor'~ 'iVOOsim,I1IM~ S,'1 indlud'li:slh~ (oordin<lt~~f liM." ~DII1i~ n!llocOOlng 5Il'iIljuen!:fli ~1h1l1lhe e~h.ii11it ~ha.tgenam~ <lng' the roH~pomdil'1Q CiOOfd~ffl_~tesi!'l, tile 1I1!1111111m, geiitOi'ile" 'lilw ,ere:pl1~['It ~liIaf~ ~qilej}j)es tUx C~~~) I!I,OWIl been iI~ositedl ~t Ii'lDIl.J/EMI8IJ(i@I1I~mt ~ndar dil!! W'O'jec!.~",~ion AA\I'XOI)OOOO~_ TIi1.e~~on d~liiltledin tlni~P~P!f!l'l~~lurlilf$,t ~En~n, MVXOlOClOOOO- Tlite<l~UlIDrs Iha,ve a1so,~wbmm.edl ~he~~ce~ oflhese M:qtJ!enc~, lotl1ie Tra(!ellirmive it Ute rNC.I3!J. t.i'bte~, sa arKIS9Sm()kilc a~ M'!1: beoo indlllli1edllil' ihe SCM, alild ~he foUlcmng $I<it>eim~~l, shci:lld h~~ .b~e" ,!ld~(!d ~c' Ihlii ackno~dgmffil$, im,:relefE:OOIlS; 'The ~qtJlllIl{l!S or th!! human and ~lI!liIlllilml milfk nml(:ocImg! ~ll1i111!i!ll1S .1fii!in Too~58 and 9.~ liibl!?S '51. ~S.8, I'Id 59 am I1Il1\!j .3~llm~ ilbl.~ m~htli!@ 50M m M'M.:imn(@lR1g>~f9i1(OOltnrull'i1lIllt:U!ll5a!of,I.()8,9m (1, Reseafdi Ai'liiiei~e!5:"The
(OIl~rInUll1l

IPlep,.ild II:: 1ih'e:GhreUnl(j,ene OIIP,Pl)s'e~Ghrellii~~~ EH~'~u; Il)n F,Orid Iintake"
IElliNJ:ldI,e'ld I!JrIl'
j•

CO:MIMt:Nr ON "'IIm1iJ'ls.fatiin. a

N. (hanrol,

R:,AI;~!I!!r·P'erl!~], 1~~pri!1l~Ii!,

cbamogi!i$ \lI,e~ !'f!i~5ed.. olmi!llhe arnHI<!li~ JQf IN11klciMa_fn~ \!I1S oml1il~!d, C, G" EI~I~ T. 1riI1!J[ii1Q,and 'Ii, 0, V~c~uier OIp,pear t~1l!)E'.(, G.IEilil k I,sat Tec~as oM IJIl!I~efs1ty; 1 Hil'bln~l,s at Ihe SUl1!nyb~ookRHearch lil~tUul.il ami! Dilparl.ment Oi~'Medical M SiDptiJ,ysics. llJ'ni'ler£it!l' 01' Toromo; V.ID. \!!";I(quier is a~ Uli~ S(W~~;'p'l' IIiI~li~~~io~ of rO"e:aMgra~:tw" (,onecu!d groop ,id!l1:i!3' tion:5;, .hen imlliil{,jrdu~I~,~phai beti(~llly: P. ~~H. M.]. ~.and rum, ID" lVloa41ott 1(, PHJliU, fl. 50l1iflllOrov, National (el1llf, f(Jf a Biioll!{l!mo1.ogy M,c~rm~fton,r N!1IliGi1IoiIt ~l:I:ml')1 CIi!Mookifl@, B~lII~C!$..da, M D, ::l(!$~M. !JJo.')A. Q,Il~drig:o, It" ~lrfifll'l us, rit, :~a!ii\ll, D~,P.lr!m~mt ,~'f Il[i:il~y and 11'I5Ii~II~!o r G@Rr:ii!lW Xi~D(~ ~Ind Poli-ry, IDul(-e UllIlo,ll1:rs:i1.y, IDurham, N',c:2 n()8. !iJ')A, Ni1:lI::i Adiamt Bh:do91 Oepart!iflenl. Ca~UorM~ ~o'l)ite~hnh: Slill,e Ul'iili\l'er$~llY' San lIU1$ ObiSIP!), (1'1 93 0'1(17, USA. (. Fly!Zi3nis, Dep<lirlmtm (]I( 8i Q~(l!!lY,ILInn.rersity 01 P"lItra~,IPalir<lI!o., Greece., <lnd ~he' Dep<l!rlmeni. (]I11I.Il,ol~(:~,la rand G:ilU'liU Bic1.llg),. i3:ayllilr (olte!lle ,of 1Y1e-,midnt. one Baylor l?iL~l~, OustOn. T.'(17 0]0, 11.1:51\. iI. Ii.. G~lind'D. IB~!J'[echlii~oQ(Y IIRI~tilu'[e, H Ulnnver5id;ocl N~[ucuullAutoo!!lrm~ d!i! Me.:ficlII~UN.AM).(I!l~m~,vao, Mo~1n~ Me:tii(Q62250" lI- v" (io'Ld~'li[m~, !!par~rn~llIl,ol' D M01i!Culla~, ('eUullar, amd Dev(!loprrne~m~1'B.i!lll(lgr~,Uni~'f~il.)I' of (aLif~m'i 8!!!mk}~~e~; .., B.~r~Ley. 0..9'412](1, USA, G, Ma~ f11m.g,Ra~"i· Newman CenWrGrBfcgn'riOrrn:a~ln. ~s,aL~ In~!I!lIte r~r Bicloglta~ '5U,!d(.e'$,lLalolla, CII 9.2'U6, ijSA.D, Mellott Geii1M~r01 Mlairlne Bictechno'l£Iigy, lLI'ni~erslt~ 01 Mar:r1ia md IBi01Je\chMlog~ In~t~luIe, CllitL!m'bu5 Cel'!tet. IB~Ulmo r~. MD j1 1202, USA. ). Song, O~pnlmfil1lt of Ii\clmdar ,and ~:d!i.llilr lliOL'oQY ,al'lilill3;iodl~mis~ry, BfOW,n Uni'o\l!'r:sity, Pffi1ll0enct, R:I OC;9'l:il~ liSA. D, f. loerwiilig,~r, ID~1P<lrlmenl of lE!:kll(]lglLcal S dem)es~ Gi':(]orge Warsrn"nglon Un~v!i:rsilill'. 'Wil5Ihim;~too, 11)( 2(l0i~2, USA.A. Wibilm;lil~~~k)~, Dep.OIftl'l1i,elfil. f .:.!bdL09(i1', !Ulli~"rsl~ of l!iIi!w~i~ o ,aJlM@no~.H~(lMIJ;Jl\J, I!iIII 96822. ILlSJt ~DiF€,CI. J@.iISUfm'llmJt 01 tm!! ru1L ~@qu~(~d@IJII!OOli\l'llloiding ~ncl'jQill@ o~ .iliinudek ,aiD" b~ ,'It t Woodsid~ el 01. m '(10 N'ov. 2()(l6., p, !OClll ,(In paogill' 10l)2, ~ key Tn ng_ 2C is in(l')tflld: II'n1lI~il" efld ~~r Figl_ 2(, ~Iw de!(ri:plion:! (If '~~e.oolOi' ~ blo{~SSh~d ISd,. ·l)j~~"IMelro,", U"(bj!IK~, F to ~ {btlJe~. and Uoll (O'ldlllllat'ed~tllle F!O ii!l'li$r""I(lIlm~(ili1,~1ine I~irIPimlSJequence 51J:0I'ITIfn fig. 3( is alsc incOOle<ei:.1'beo oorrec~ed Fig. 3( i~5~MlI ifIe~,
iliepil!iI'iIIli.:

!I~1I01i1ii! of ~he ~fii Li [,[Mill SrfOi'i9yWCeiltrafu. fJrrrpjJltilus· bf SM UKihin G~l!lOli1e Srequendng {it) IN\in!'.2(106. I!I'. '9111!1), ~'g~5 951 .md 95,2, C!lHlfS Il.!i!m lI1Iad!i! illl rl!lulrmb@r,iflgloiluthar,s' .. f~iIj,~~ioo5: Sorm@ rOn

);, nl~"liiil)~,. 1~~~~X·!.e 'G(J<a~~gl~,.!J: li;!d~!l'@;~~ A. A ~,(h'llm!lw .alt, ~, 'tog e', to'., .Nl@'.:ij'eafl .•
~. Jl:!@d!,~gl!leil:, ]. P. ,Gal~iiz:zi, ]1. A. ~'@!ltijil1"

H..'If.a.!I,~hy,C

UOmiE1111!!>·CO\rr~Els

mat l'I1.~,,!beSl:a~nd~~ not oond GPR39''Mlti ob:~e.".ed 00' elle<ts of I:)bestatil1 0 ~ GfR3"iHJim5fec~ed 'c,e~ls in variou,r; rundio!l~l a,siXI:Ys(~~dlic .1dil!fil!lsil'lil' mon(IjJoos,ph.lI~(! ll,mom:tilJlll, calcium m®biliizilliolll, <lnd fi P,R39 in~.eflnalwZ:iiltllofill'. OWlr n~~ullS indicate ~liiat obesliIHJilis, ~t~nec~gl'l~te lig,!II'U;lh:u G PR39"
Fun teiili at "w1fj(ie11lc~g,ol1tl(l9i!coote!!lJIullr3151Sa131
7~~

Zh,Oi rig el at (Resean:hl I\rtacl.es", 11 No"'~mboer 200S, p. 99,(j.) rel'lomdiliflaJl ob:e!;!:aUJiI, <Ii ptpth'il,e derh/!i!i!I Irpm Ule 9 i'lre~i!l plreCur~(lr, ~(ti~'~I~d tile mpha~ G prO'leilfl4::oupl~d receptor GPR39., HO~e'ief, Ifcjt fOlllle!

"OIbleis1;althll, a f'elpthi,e' En,ooded by th,e' IGhfe~hlll Gene. OPIP'iO'Si9'SObrelliin's EI,e'cts In FOld Iintake"
RE:SI?ONSE 'li01 CIMMIENl (lIN Jia!il~: Zha~g, (Y!1ltlhi~ IIK~~~I'!, Pe~'GieWiIilt!en,S~ef'aIii, Kas$, li!!lC \fEr DQlld~. med~r MoeltnliU!5, A .. wonl ]. W. til51J1@1l
'We canJilol ffiProd'uCfl' 'O·U~ or 5gilili3 II i:ndllngs M ,oo.e-Sla!in bi I'lI1lirig ~:lildlactiioia!iClnl 01 o(JPR 3 9 ~ecep~O!s ~n vilto. HO\'I~e:r, we I;,m repNJduce 'Ot!Jf'Ofigil'!lll. iifldii'l'1!!l~ @9~he in ",iVll elf!1tiSo! ob Eslaiin illl Fl'llile (d'~t~!1la:5E1sirl~iJod inlal(!, g<lStri( emplyil'l9 r€5pllrn!~s;. a 1'1111 oody ""'fig lit ~~,[1,) llncfew pr1!(jse e~p ef~men!a l (cmdinlo,ns. Flif~h,e r smudies i1r,e:n~m:leG ~ m~(ll h~ @X<I(l rdijtiun b@lwr<l!!lrl

C

(L3

'~l01

OJO+r~"T-~~FI~~'l'-~........I~-....*,,-· Edsnsiol1l ~nm)
.~~. f(iCJj$!

HI

20

30

·O.O~

Il.L

~ ~
0-;-----1----11----,

o

E:dens;km (rnm)

10

2.0

,3{)

1'iu!1I ai1t!i~Oi'i<ieq,U~ii'iC~"IIy]. COli~1iln Sept 200t, 1),.],222), Due'~ ,Ii'! !!!diVing,elillor,Ihe sei'ilern~ M pilgf 12231 ·~uelwm.ailldl ~~da!a !alled f'Or.a!bout an hOi!!l'!l~ 109~.h!!!l" ~~llIiili!ld ~k!pa~JS ('Ued [Iii U~ ~~. wa,~in«li'llltl.. III sl!t'Oul'd Ihg!_'ereoo,"I!:l.J'e!"steli ~ndIP>lldil~!i1tM ~l)'rg~t OImhour am(il ~I.her ,~im>edl 't1i1~ Ipag~ i)f Uw p~t"

o~I·~~in ''.6>6.d

~fld~he

G Jlr~teiili)-(~u~~d

~!l1pt'i;lr

{lPR:3:9•

Fllil t@xIi at mom.Mimwl11lilg,ory,rtgfu'loo~tlfIIJIfIl1ll]]l515813J

71'66

POETIRY

Metaphors

8'B'

wiit:hVolU
work I ehese a PhJl (iisserL'a-

thepl;n1.ets. (,rille 'best NASA. pho~() uf P'1~l'~o a ti!~y fulU \V'<ll~ of light wilh an ~uroWPOUIH= ingat lt.] Car] Sagan agreed .~transferred eolleges Pm~trv <lJllId to beli],'iI)!' tech llIlC'~l! ud v iser OJ yelilir huer. <I 'LXJililll,puter C>O<lf'iltem P C)lr,aJ!tV on The Pilllt('1S: A Cosmic miJ;lakeb1iI~' placed me in SI::i.IlUlI:l,e Ellglish, Bec;,l'LIsel ~ad .Pastor'lli. aswe II ,IS arneut.R'~f.Hut Cmwf!1m; Ed, bi;)e!mwr[iL~vng~tl'}"sll)'1y be. of 1m' do~tnn;ll C(llmlllfllittcc. (h::[ ard lJInil,lersiq/ hlUl ~n~h~.~i"slk~~ily whk~h also lucludedthe pn~l "II p r'~55, (1;.;1 Drd, :2J:)OfL my life. I considered A, Ft, Ammons. W.ith ~hiltduo ~5(D P'.P·$35, :I;; , 9.00rUl1nin.gimer~(;;rC;i:llce for me. h fl!l.te. I :is N 9r80J199'25!!a 23, By the time I. 3Im,'ted lwa s able to p ursue st udies gr.l[Il~aIre'\\'o:ffiuK emell, in poetry ilnd science. pore liU~leili;;ld oh.tnged. Studenrs slinmml tod.ro,se' O'l,fer N.ASA photos and map s, b.i;:l\:'iWll IJOe:I]"Y~mJ sd~~o~.mliI'OlLnythi.l1g. a MtcmJplan~l.ary~)'bys. a~u!11 the divide seemed i'llF~er. P,I,lys]dst Ric:::im,<lJd audit lecture!'> i ~1 the soF~y!~~n1U~ dL;lc'~arod t h1.!t tl,~ U!l~V,L;;!.'S~ t;:ou:I'd e a [kaJ sei enees l I oo,!,;.ard~d
ol1llylJ.e ul1de~fSliood illlliil.e bm~wl~l.ge of InPlilh~ maries, .m arget I didn·t s:P'C<lk. The Utef<llry

~I,f~S,h~n,C,n, '~,nl,'.IC,~.rin!i!:,~ BO!!:lU,', 111,UI1J,iVC'~ , •• !ty i!1 ~9(~61;,\,~ru: <l~"1g!'iGtl C. P. Srtl.l~;V'~, The 1h'o Crjlim'f.:'s (!) to read-s-a fH ling cl~~li g~v,r;;ll~~er~aI~ of m,;.~d~mi c "li:l ~y ~' lili: <II U.S. coUe_ges." where students (llOliivever wi!l.te-ir'~I'!:1:ing and ~~I~~!bl,imlbleaheir interestN~ had to choose between 'the sciences and ~,hcful1,J!m~nili~~L Fifts(:'ill1]md by psychohlgy and the nourisJ~jn!:! field of ueurescjence, ,I j!lW;rHd~~{)nf~,or j I'! bk:t! psy,c;hology, lh.u "ivh.en I::odltem p ililf,i3] rv

' A

~~m~ Oi~I:~~ m~t~.plwsknl iHi~d
in science <Indpooetl'Y.as ene of

th~la~d!1!i(~i!\g \:\I.~y"I~~lt the
I,H

ind works,

research, ,f'~llfln£. ether l\flp~CS. pnJYu I~r i\.Ci011Coe television prqi~lm5.. :sc;~enoe C<111's;.and interdiscip]ill1):ry books, l'nave ,!I.I~. he)'pcd 10 bridge ~fu.e c;;wenlOUS m!imge. 1]1 is mest recent o:flcl.'il'lg begi~s with imI1lllll:olQl:list and poet Mil;oShliV UOhib di~nngui~hin,g tll!i~ rarioual pm;~iuf'l uf se ience from tlin,eemotianall bqg~m~d dMm~~i'Ninr;~:-ir;:.~pl.ii:;' of poet ry.I~,~o.1 iSo "astonnb

l'hM

W'I~,in .~ 9'7'2.

the

:~'~5i

time when it was pnssible to
leern ~,'erythil':lgk:lIiIO\'\tn. abouD

~5hed by the frequent ,incideJ~ce of HtiJu re at high
s.c~'noollor f~'ihir¢
si~y)
l~,at 1U

univcr-

:fe<1.IUreS

in the

biO'J~p~i~- .. (l,f p(1'C[S," H(l , insisrs that "a gci.elli~.:ilst. even wr.ulillg poetry. is and !'h:oul d be,lI1d lll'US[ relI'm:in
a scient isr., . . I.-Ie i. So t ~., e member oflhe il1ile~~lOC:tll.1111 C{]1illlm1!>tn~ly wl]o stjll hfls, ~]

d~~p aad v~$ibl>l;;l impuf-' ranee ferthe soci,ety and its

eve!)'d~1!)fI ire." That 's bou nd
to ru f1l1e some rrn:~~.er:i>,
.<II,~ amidme:

Poe'[ G(h'!l'if>l1\lio~m olTers <I smart. r.;I.]1lgil1~ c~say th:;lt touches en Lucretius' p~.len()memll! ~y~.•G~l!erill~'''' ~hKJy ntf {lp~.k's.

r,m-

it all

<IS

Il<llllrel.--wh'i:~e

earn-

critics I ~.l,e'~regarded ... ience c

<1;:;

<l~M'il~e-lical

ba1illlO l!Iir[~mdgCiiminefCe~,illg. A renewaed scholartoek me aside one ~<'liy and said:

"Wh,lts OJ nice girl like ~b('lul ami!ll~ 'lcids·~·'

>'i(J~L doin,g

writung

1 ~1i'L(I been lislel;lil1l~ 00, Gusu~v Holst's The Phmel'x.l;!nchallltl;;d by H~ Iyric.]~Aighl~. hu~ alsopnzzi.ed by 01U·'lpp~re:I1lI.I1l.eedltn imagine'

ing degrees in ereative writing <lm'ld El1glish litr;::l'llture. Such m.cl.Uoo.ri.cs arrived UII:lbidden as l,wd.d {"ontcmpor .. (,~q .f1i_)t"lI:r ~'id COJlJempcm.u,l' Scicw('(;;' _ The \"fl~Uml.;) i5 Enl olTsp rung of a p.roject that b eg:i:!mI, wil~ a group ~]f ers O!!l ~h~ P~] ~. 93 IEdliunblll:gi1l lnternaricaal 9
SciC'lm,oc Fe.,,~i~l !lll'!d.~~d 10 '~poot-sc'iemJi S.~ enc eumers," eften over hLriJc!I, ()II' j:~ a ~ab. ,~, ~llin.~:1ia,egoal of a ,'me,111l i~.lgllll im~!"Cha;~g~ 'bCt'!N\~elJ'i! p(l!G:t!ry

Sl:IeHey's gi.vil:llg h i,U]~,se~,:r electric shocks 10 see if illis

hairweuld ::01;.u'Hl on end (:ut did),. Loopi1ll'\(~ipawillg
dnst~:rlll galaxies, and P'hilip llllrkin once dtx;]I,Jring that he (I!Juk~i1!~['S~;lLnd,JLll}fthilng '

Vcnu~ IHa goddess of love or Mars ~SE~h.C brin.~er of w:ar iIII urde:Ii'~:Ofind thenlil c<lpliv"n~ ing,.wh~~' [fulL' phygic~~ realil)' onhC'pk~nd~ olli:I.'ed artist s ~~d se ie'l1l,tii,s{s.. ike starlliln~ .d n~"iiV 'l'i~ws, l1f ",vI'I!f![ ..~ iimllm~ri~y (:~iJ~ \ 1!~,ltu!'G: .u C!(l!nlL!CU~lii~. picturesque I.!ntbct'!r~!'i. fresh o~~ l'I1Ieta~)l~ and elemental nove.lt les ripe lor ors, wordplay .:'1.5 v..1Ii.l.~1:$ !I gJ·<M.hmHy wide.~.il.g ~
nperhlre onn:IIerin
fro'lH

to do with the 'I'I'onders of nature," mnnng mmllY ot~l;;r topics, ln an i.m'<lgi.nifu·y d ia~.ogue(origi 11:;1~~.y'Wrial~ri in
1957) tle~\Vof;.lel'llil,cmrol)h)1~!i.t1[qg

ist Grcy

\:i,'aIh3r~ttld

filmmaker Jean Cecteau, Mnrgf!!l has CnC'a~i~1 d.c-

0111£1 se ienee," :~ t hal imerc~~ngc S n:,:<]~Iy still <I. fro.l1!~ier'J o.n. ~'mnly cmt(lpuses":r:es-i
U~.

scribe

whm s;mpr.ises,5lHllla.y

'pilrl bt.'IC!l.use

\fiew j tlSl ()Vie~:the ~lexll:i;:lloe post. dep;!N1metl~IJ!i.I.\iC bet'OJnemah~~ .f:!i [ulIderfool. or in Olibil. A great If.,;rll of Hin.e ~lni~ o;~lik(J dolis, of subs~ci;Jltie5. ~ ve n.l;:,wh ich 1 to(lJ;. ]h~n~~ .\!It> (r~~ Ve"r.>~. r "v~lu:::~reC)fl~U&\!a Ii)' rr05p~r5by Iy. '~ diec ided w ~~rite <'I 3Hute of S!(;ielli~ific:aUy 3CClJ~ IUl<1rmwingthe vi!e\\'. But less:so. :~ n!~~ p~!;;ms alb{)mt~e p'h!ll~ls. A~ld. ~~!'!!~ rd I lhi ~lk, i~l socie'~ i~l ,~i!llh:,mL ¥.i~.el\c s.or:;i.emists alild i1:lJIm>inis.L'" ibeen re<!lUng M!et.:"II)lli)Is,i~"l~ I~~mg,~:l>t md .• •.• ~ ~mdclli G~ek poel.s., j!,moI1Jg others. ~.vho often Ilu::~i. at [he Cro.l'lSIUAds, .~ emb~.lced the teve~aliQJ,1::; sdenceun Iheir oflm.eoessit}fi;~) d iSC~ISS neuf01;.'l!hi,cs.. C!Qnt~mploM:i.\''(1:m;;~ro'" Tille Irellieri~Ji'i5tM,MOOrof An AI'hemyoJ iWtld:~e.llitl\'eI scie~,H;e'. dl~ sense and sel1ls:i- Saillldii R1i~;chil! ,lMiU~lr's; O(lIl'OF! 5 bUhy 01' <'II1li~'!Mlls.Or~lG~:tm1e-Il oJ Space'. c .~ Qnd .Mf$~elY 0/ ll.re~J\!l Web site: WM'I\'\1iafll'<ldk:el1l\<!l'l.(,iom1 hidden

as "an act 'with !ln~ ~mgel. In ',llIilger ... a d~lrklrne:ss. lor d.e s.i::ln·ch~. I. 0 f ~ qll ~Sti()~l:" igil Vr.lidtel.··s u~'p,ly iIlid.lJLde.s the obse,u\,,,n:i:cm [h~lt"M m:hlines t'f~noope!'S~~d~d~Q :qumbl(;l on (I!:e."il.us,.-Exce'pt th.u
j)'oelg:y

efJove

8

or

h isn 't stum'li'II~!\::!: lind dlt':y arel1ll't d:l'ea:n;lS," O!11cr ,engaging CS~:<I)lS:

follow. studdedlwli,dl ..,,,,,it and h~lmor~ B~c!ull\.eI.!iJ.cy b(;lJm~fir from I1i1IliI'lmyd~gre~si,OiI,1:S. it.s hrurd ~o 'i;lpi~~l!nim (h~li!l.

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

SC;I~NC!

VOL 3~S

9 FEBRUARY.2007

I
but rn c'I.~(jfl!>€'af~;;~1 lh~l~c~ to sugg,e,'it rhelr ~ nn1ge of thougfuJ.t.~oe( W. N,Herben asks, "L:U'1i poets write IlIle~II!D.i~lgrnHy about science, or m:c they i~,lslead ~im~le~] to \~'1[i[i~g poe~ry thiiLl cmplorys SCiClrltifkl:ermhlOl.og_y?" Pc:;ct John BlIm:i~de c:~~~mpiions "bemll)! of the t~.e rcal .. "" The ~lku'l it dt~rkn~L"'s;uftlte ~.ctl1,~l1ll !lnghl,. U~~ :;;..h and physicality ~g:jd alclllk;vi$d gf ..ce ofreill,llJodieg.'"'Wil.hm1.1 "'D:LeceSS.:II:Y 3we:' he wrile~ '~Il}' dest'fip~i~~n Qf th~ \\1'~Jrld is ,~I ie,
Poet S!imoIa. A rnn irage de

chi,p

l"~~:at lI\vj,(l:e berliln. rut 's ury -orb.d]' ade.

[nulsp(lnd~:r ilnpl;ilinf0C~ lim his ~rm) n):;!!;d ~l Michael Don;1ghiy"s poem "'Grimo~re:· he felt that ·"Thmu,glm. Mtclmel"s \",'O.ITis 1 ~,'I<I.S ~Ibk: ~'O look <It In),is~lf ilm, .~~ell!·d~me-m;:ion<'J1 space," eq ually for string the-

sihl1;:rM~flh (.P11iUp iSite r (E beaezer Kiuln.e:rs~ey). [n uontrn.:i!t~D the po~.m;zm·iOJlIOO ofll;lrlseen Itt.l\wdays, how refl]>esh~llg to Ihi[lk of"[m]cmbcrs o~T c~ellW pl'C'm::~;[img] the the
Hflp!.dffil,&ml~,
~I
;;iI

(Thomas

S yng, ...rnd

Bapt i st min

Ifle\VlP'.11i~owphy ofml~ure:' F!ro~llidiins falViC as; a s;d~I~li~l ~OIllCS Irern

:!t~r~nm~ 1, {, P. s~ i'h~'il"w-o (1fllo.:~ ana!frf Scirmlifi:.R~~li:jria.ti! (Glnnbfidge' !J!fIi,.... W~t 'C.am!l!rndg~,19~'9},

m,goifl,grefi!lle~1I1:I;lnt ol'Htet,~plml'. There is no ~Ucl.1.Ih:ung asa moleeu hu suucrure, 0111y .. Iuule
model of Pilng~"nlg ballis hc~{II~og(:I.~.ler by HllSTOfiY 'OF SeIIE.NeE

r~ nes

scieace as ",1111

hi~ k"ge~d~~fY di.;;~:qll'bn~ti'<U~~Ul t~",~l I igh~!ll,!~gis electrical and from e'Xpe~.;mel1l!'!> Ihli'ltled ~o the pri m.:ipl e (l'f.chilrg~ ctms~r'''~li q1. Ch.ipl, i~l Q 's beck, howevet preseats <Iffiillny-doc-acles--Io.n.g
el\;mllip,le(l f ~~1,1'i;l~h dud 1.11 igh~ L'lot: m!l: ,J*> i ~g j import~Ult 1'10'1'>' cience and tlhe resl: of culture s nnec i~terpelm~ln1[G(iI, de~ply_ :C~]<tphn aliso j]llUlll~,nales>the whole specmun ofF~unk~a!'l's !>c:i~l'nl'iHc~Uld leeh!1ok~~{;<l1 acbievements 3mid aetivities, UerJOCO'Unl dcnlJon~ rates 'why fral,l k~i.n,became ~Il intermu iUl:Dlll!l1elt:brity. The lDoo.k delves ]!Uo '!,'\,'Oik ' [h~~toU:en gOe1:'S uumenriened in :ltitlpul~r~j!ed

pipe-cjeaners to I.lel,pus bel ieve ,un ir," l.itentry (;;rhic: Adalflidc M(]rri~ t~t)!lMd~n; l'){]lth science .)11.1<1 poetryas lh.oughl experi mears and reas.o!hsa la Eh,lSte~ulIuu ··[.il]t is the theory vihioh deeideswhst \\i~ can observe," Astrollmner

Jocelyn i]:(l n Burne:U \li,liJ:iH~'SW ith elegsnt eluhm •..llS'I,1],)boUl poems :recHlililiig ~rm,ce i im1li~eryfind how p{)cl.ryh(:'~ls a:vndcnricil{:s ,J~~ nmny Sl!"".,w {'lfht'f Re;fll;:'C'th1Jg n!1JhJ;::f cn~.~ 1.'e~liQim, " ~,20 or so &>tr1l:L'IOllfUypoems" wr,~l~ of

ur~.

ten ~l~,0e 1950. shewcnders '!ivhy peers seem
to al\lDi~d uew Wi'lVd.eL~g;ths (few refer to the

radieseleseopes,

IU.l!U~

to

l'I,·r·dY <ls~rog}omy).

Her ess.ay provides a superb gui ded wur of ~Slrt'H10.n1ii1!y paerus, pa~l!;illg ins;i~hHluI~y "u

m<lnyporls

OfC<l~L
life
<~Imd, v.~lik

P~y(':hi~~1ii&lK;;1:],Re:dfield Jam:iSiol~ asks,
"C'm:!1 a writers
really he unders:1000, \l;'.uthm~1 al least 21 :m,d,i~,lle'll,t3J"y scientific

staries .aOOLI.t Ff<'lJ.lk~i!n receives oli1ly sl~,ghl ,r~d abtCl'lth:m in, other biogn!!.phi.~.s"h:! addit~on lO na..S.l y.eiur.~ R'•. l .. .. I.~~ing. rW~.fiu;. G.'.J.#i/U;.'ri".,g. ' s.. '-lb.. ~'-J\.r~ri.!1IS FllUlk Hn~ iM'es~iga.'nkJ!l!i:-; nf 1;t1if;'1;; ~,ri,cSumli U)" thl;;i Nf!tin~~ul I\.;c~d~mil;;ii'iset fort Ill, 3, :nr<ltoegy l':alr ensur ung "that ~:~~C it)'. Chapl i:1m oifeni t:'xcell.enl aC~Q~n1~S,. to!' d Unilted Stm~;j is rhe cprei.'lmierplace in the \\iOo'!d eN.~l!np~e. uueresr In and studies of ocean his fer innOV'.,~ ion," .1olten th~[Ik tharau im.~IDIrt:'o:'IJll c~l,rrc:r;m; lll1dlm~vig;ltuon~iIIs,n his deSl:'r1,lliolll, i of the 'Gu~f Stf>l;'Zim unci his ob~e~"\'mion of the cemponent success i" 10 h.n"~ a clear visien of Amerk:.111 science's pasr, AI].Qlhelr book dispersiomi. ef'oil Oil \I\,r<u~r (\!Ir.~lti:il:l. mollnted 10 . from ':HW,6 oilers alaok ~CkiJ'rI~U !n~Ji'h~]p an .;.,d~ycntryloro the n~id of .!nu')nolay.er f~lim.s). She also dm'::lalllm.emSlFr..nuklins e...tenensblesucha I.ook foru-!ard: Joyce E. Ol~plill:S T/~" First Sde:ruijk' Am~rit;:~m; Btmjo.mtn s~w .,onsid~r.Mi(l~s fI:Fh~21l nOli,v. \vJrlid~ l~;l\le Fr~lr~klbr and tht? P!IJ'.1.~/j:t qfGeuius. ente red popular :mu:nll:orJl l]~]ro'lIglln. the inven" Franklin "is Cllrl'e:nl~y celebrated as .::-un t~on oHIil.!.':f:rnnkJill" stove.

I

or

~I

ulld:er::;~.~nd~:ogf emotiens.jemo pcmmC:lil~, coguailivc pS;)Icho.logy,
,nul genetics?" Re<l~iz;il'l'!ll, lh<lil iVl ilron, for ~xampl e. cOlll.d write

Amme<m

:s~m'es!nmiloru R~!II1I(h:r,

Chllpl.ill

chose e1'\,o:Ik:mllg\l~ [b.n illlll!1l~i-

1ilhc' Fijrst Seij e Iltifi,t;

.AIlH!r~d::an
B(;!J1j(IJmm Fn'lillkh.n

"AnI1~~! rokelnese" b

becaase he and the 'PLIrsull knew exacl~y where [Iem 1~]y.Iil~\I~ of G~nilJs ~lllg sl;;:~~1 i~ f~ ~!ldl d~lll!:~lli~~r.-; ~ wi by Jr;y.r;e E Cr...plin t:fuJere on.CIa ,emH~_g;fuJ IlIiIl~.£ln jusl .• bias, Olm.c"s l'elldilL~g of Ftmu/J,w! Sa sic BO(ll~.s [P'ersi!L1s Boo ks Grou p I, Lo,~t.\,,'hich \nnqld b~ .1 shiallfl,e" N'0W Vorl.200!5_ 431 PIl. And yet., how d.f~\1!I~igQlore Ih~ :S::27.5 0, CSJ7. 50unde.lyi ng ,Ilm,oods'? Thi s q~l.esti.m]1 nol, <I sta~e:Srl1l3'lm \'!;'~,lO d ~iC1 sci~ ~S8i\l' '9700465009558, h1ls fwk:d IJ'!!#uy polite (f~nd impo~~~~, H (l bG':'I~~l.e(;t ~t'I~~ t;nl~~n b~lI;li1!l~S'e b!:.: honJ db~:lI: :>cie:~lt::e. ti~!l:l'iu~er,m:)' 'Im!rrel~. Ho.v dOOl' OD1l.e S<IJVOI: Bnmo SdUJI.Zs ph<lntm;nu~,_g;orl.cal t\Ia.d he \\'<'lS, ~'blc tD do so be:C;1ulsc, in t~~.e prosemnd dm~]~I·-~,ikepaiming~. Ibrex.<nHpk:. e~,ghlt'i!llnthcentur)'~ ~~~erllle beCtUIl,lI.~ pi'ln of am! co.mp.~etely iglm ore I ~1.C dmn in~iII~:ri . ol:).~c:.:;". p~lbl ic CUhlll"C." x
::>io:~s on1is <t!ll\!'iOI"kS'! In all. 21 esS<lys by si:.ieljU~S1s.p()e'~. and "E~",p'erimem~ iUl(] de~~lons:~nnioll!S wer.;:: pt1.bIic evem,ts,~' Ch,ap:ili n cOImm::.m.t!>. Tbelerm
sd~i!lt~,!\t \ll~'l~~o't'eo'im~d thl.-;.~9~'~ until CG~lWfY.

a. po~~,lic:ial.l w.ho happcIl!l':d te doa :~i.~~lecience 'U11l the side," s writes eh!<lp~ih1. ,I Harvard UDlli~ VGI' s ity h~!iimri~n or science. Then she ~,lDles SJO:rmlething of l!loor~:o;tin Ol~fCUn'i;i!U.,£~ \\Ihll!l S!c.ue]m.ce:;mdI]ne .rest ofs.ociety n:[i[CIl S!cC'~n IlOI.e's j1jp~ rI: "But l~J<U, .esc ~i:r)lliol'l :rmts the c.~n d before dlC ht'il:'~_ F.\1'ink!i~.\'W'L~

n;ai1!lc!:.n:mkU~.'s seie:M:tiic oonlr.ubtuuOIls-sltdn, f <I.~,lThi~ <lfHi of the GuH' StU:-e<lm.<Ul'l:s8e'l'l~hly m d ia,gi<unfm the Fr<:mklun S~DVe', R[ld~is musical i!l~trU!tl~fIIl :(lhe··gla~~, <l]"II1~fl:!licf"')--;;1S;. \\''I:~I ~~ tile' C\fol wniOml of IlOrtlITli:~lu.l'edepi[;ti.l:I,g hiJlI1IJ ilS,j m,rnl of Sc,;ienc~~, Unf~)nurtlt!l~~Y. !~~ny of th'!.: ilmm,tll,':!!tiol:ls a:J.~ poorly :repl.udluced. a:micl. SQilil:l!e
i;l.reI1c~ly illc:gib.~~~ AnyoDl.e. IiIlIchid il'lgEllI.1Y !llci elfl.r~sl. W'~,o '!i,lvril:C'S lWlk .~~\\' ud~-~rilgi~~ a.t> ~ this tlm~riilb; t he (_1iCc:asi,o:IfI'~~ tec~,lD,l nC3t 0:1" sdlenlif~uC' error.

~nd C~:(1!plill i~n~l~x~~pdo!'!l, B~r~:h~ fG'!.v. t minor i:Il1~~cm,JC~(;1'>in the bOQk dUIl1.ut di:)jtl<l!c~:
fmn,~, her cle.gfuH d.emQ:IJlstnlti;on of the m~hy
OlrFrdl1~:dilf'5 :sdemi'!ic <IHd civicolCtgvilie.'l or fmlml tlutl d.e~noll:$'lr."ItiullJ·s abi.!~ity 110 pro~

eriUC'~ ilnd

Ol

hal[ldru~ of p{'l!..llm~!>. om Ihis fin
,roh.l:irn,lf:'.ASI~f' ~mCflm'!l:~!'.'l,,'

ell,ne.nOlLi,ni_ng <liml illmnii.n<l~~n£:

<lind m8iny ciruz.e.ns fmmn]!I

s~~pchHd of b~ef

i1JU\r/Jl{NWCIl:.r

P(j(!11:r ~~f1,dC(}m{!,.I'II)(jrtll:~· SdenCt.',

refresh".

i;~]gly, doesn't ai ~n fQrcoh.~l'iL;:nee:, or cv,en decomm. b~I,~ oilers c.onl~~lm,geJJ1.cy smhpies
from
~L

'p:mfes:sioll:S hOld <I h~~nd~n 'ld\l<md~g~!;I~\l !!!Pp!l;·df.tin~ sdemifk knDwl.edge, Fm"llus foU1tlOUS electri.c-'li e:;,:pel:irli:le~.t&. Franmkli!} colk\bo:t'lll!CdJ \,,r,ul~~~,a bwyer

"!l()ike~lia.ougil'lt'SiilOC1~([ inure ~~emtl'e" NJoreo~ler. C'h.lpl ilm,:s d~,,'ers.c. ,ecleCl ie. extell s:.i:vemi x of iI"E';1\~i.U't::~ saure~s suggests miMl}i ye-~rs' \!,!(l:t"litt ofusef:l~i and eltiO)I~hle furl hell I'e<ldiing,
Re,teflel1,c:e
'L tra1iJ)malU Re;sQn:h Counci~ RJ#ngA~~ I'ffl!'(ia~g Slom!: f:~'1izM!J a!!ld fmp1~ArriigkQ for Il' 8\<i9~leT l!1ec.l'lll:mlc FuWJi' N1ItIan!!lIAmd~mi~ Plffi~ 1Ml~img. o ( 100, IPC, 2006)'_'illa,p.ed~.rulll9lll]A~i3 ,mml

:frn1]ti~r d'HU.~'n;,'Lppny .• ~i> ml,.1i.C~] more

hm.pitabte '~i~'lInit ~1se-,cIliObe. When cybcmetn~ cist Kevi!l Wanvick {,,~'bf)'once ~"ladl;,'I s i~k,:ml

'1he H:viewn is at tme Ann e~l(ilmlIlIkttqlll!Jte r Phy.~i,~~, 'D (lillie
[-lIl'ilil

PIII~ics EIIDip5e,(~Il\?4j~ P~rk. 1lI,1i".! 2074Q-384J, ~cPfll<l@ali p.;org

USllb

7'68

SC~IENCE ArNl[} SOC~ETY

Tiiml,e for 18 Nle'w Elr'8 ,of: ,Scien ce D ipllomalcy

Sdemlii~ls

dii pl.oman,

1m" Oil I11ICH'Igl Am eric!3l's

rnest !!~Wed:h.l'e

During

S

~,~~:~:,c~I~.~~ll;.:~;:~.'.~~,~.l~~~.!:r. , _lo~ere:i~J~ polk'}' over the p ..l:-.l 50 yl;l.~r~.

!;:i~,"~~. .. ~ b

lhfm \"1lf.Ji5" The; US. g9vem~1,~imt
sheuld focus on doing lillliw,ngs [hm. po:;iluvely alr~"(:I;fUl'l;:ign s.od~t~ii:~ ,nul ~pe1lk to whm we si,(lndlbr "IS
a natien. '\\V~i>~lGuld rostClimn.!J:ibie

the 'Co,~dWar.~he develcpmear

uuitial:i\Fe:!> l~,'aatpl.u.U1~.OtedLlcltion •. e eeonnm Ie gr(}W[~l. hU!!'l~fUl wsllbeimlg ..and l,lope. So.viel scientists provided "I c~,I.i.c<d't:OI,mCCll.LOIl between adversaries ( .i J. More' thsn 3'[1 y.L'ars ~I'v..'e mu:!,;;:<rSIill.ld InlbJ.i.c d:uplo!hOley i~l these h:tlml!S,. the role or ~1~. roLm!i\ :!iciemifnc exchanges between Ihe Unhed StlIlC'S ami. Chinalald t~lcg.roundwo:rk. S&T liS pivo~~I.Sdelmtifi.e educafor.\ relatiomshi:J:'I [h"lt~<'ls. gl1mvll'iiucreasi ns1y tion ocwotle:i Cit!i'lellS'WlLth I:he Cr1It1i,calthi nki b1g ~1l:~llsnecessary for d~~p and complex P)" .1 I'CCCllf ~."rs. sd(1!:~~ n :;u1.'OI;;Z'1..';f~d :!l<lnidp.uory gmlti!llili'!t!;~ Ijfk t~flJ:<a~nl'J.1;lmha~ been ;)!. ck\f!r~igni!~ (Jf fr~elld'S:~lip berween the Ur:I,ited States and :58.T Pf!~~ g~Qd dililliJiRII~~ .• :5c~r~ar~' (l!1 SialiC' Clind(lllim:z~ Ri;::C! <Iud cmnpel:iJion :uu the global coumries SA!ehas ~!'i;clJia.. Egypt. and Pltkb:~an. ;lJ:t;(h.mges d:o[ume!ll's. wBIh IFldiil'~, Mirlister !OI Sd!l!l1Ic:ealldi ;0COnO!~'" S&T .UJ3 li~lked$rrcl!1>g]y with h~ghl"len'!l parlidp.,llioH fh:nll11he dU'pl~ 1f~chn!!l101ilY.Kapil~'Sij)aiL.llil,e,rsignlifllg .un iUlrn~rel~,3i S&f ag reeJ1l1.e<Il~ 'W.ilh eeonomic developmeer (71, t !l!li.1tic conlm~miries in both eeuntries ~J)'(!iiee ]7 Octoiber 2 (106. ZO"~by public opiwimil poU s ~n sevfigtLl[l!, .rigbJ~t e .. i~ Middle Eastern nWlOOiI~s. where UUlitcd St()t~s has reached all ~timc ~m!jl'fi,P.o~1$ th.;: Un]l~d St~W~ is p~rd C~~hu.!Jy ullWP'1.i11ar, his t~me lo~dopt sckmoo dup~mfhliley lin til in J3 eounnies indieate that (Jim,]y 40% of :indic<'l~ethm S& T are Ihe s.ingJe mast :lieSpeCI:ed new era. Old-lll:shioned di:I~lol1\i]cy between ,gov.em~u~lu~. whU¢ nC;lce~,;'lry. is no lo~g(!lr thos.;: $~:~ve)l,L;)d\'1(:\.\1 A11i!~!~rie~\ i~nUe"~lC(: in; ~1~~~m~L~. Am~rica:m!soe-lt;:tyHill SQd~1 sci.. ,ml'fecienl.lnl this <l,b'lt"l {j~,thelsrernet, rapid and the world '1!S m>1lillllypositive, 1111 c>or:u~J""l)I:,45% enee research indicates that eollabo rnit.~onto relalivdy ~IO";N-COSi~:m\,re~,. 24~.hotl,r ~.obill view China 1l0.s,iiively <I;lrui.:;'8% l~lO~d ,I[td g s.ollve COilUOO.11I1 :p'l'Ohlemt;is one Qif(lm.ebest Ui'<lYs favor111;:\\':::', ~)O~'i."erof IWIlI,g{fw:rrIlTIe1lt,11 ,or<~ni~ <Lpl~views of Europe. D~,:dike of America the 10 fO:5kll poo£t U~~[i;lhniiCllls b~t'li"'~l~ grQ\i~, (9). :zal.it'i!l!n5N,aOs).priwt~ OOl'ltlIP211l~~5,a!1d social ( CXlcmlslo l,cm.g.dlllcIHendLs !In,d,allies, Ol1lly Undler S ecretary E-! ltghe-s i.ltcre2lsingllY 30% of Canadians .. 21 'X-, o~~Gel.nmns. <100 "PPI1ec:ime:o; the uni(yil'i\g POo\lI't:TOf~~e'1l\,1e (!fn networks i:;. ri:i.ing.lo p1l'Oliii:l,;l and advlIm::elJ.S. interests, dle u.s, gOV!emment needs liO aeeelShe heki In<ljO:rC\'eliltS OIlrn bre<lSll C,Ulee:1i m1\1'Me~ ~,j% ofTul.'ks hoM :~avQf.:ble opinions of the .. (':r.:~t~ ~nga~me!lt li~;jd] leS!;: Itl;-W ac[(W'.~nd iES d ~ ness in the M~ddle East <llild Ius launched Uffililr~d S.tf~t~ (5)" ro bui I.d: positive rela tien s11ips wi ~~n, fare:ugn ,~ Pl'ojec~.on ri~l;1ti:tlgm,ulari,. ,~ fl. Saia.c~~<lS i ereReaders mllly ask "'~inythis 11~1!I;uers fthe ~ puM~c~. a,...'II\reUas rhelr ~Jlplnin<!~K ated IlGW [n~(lrn1HI(Jl'lal Science fu]'bl'ighr U.S, g.m~rJ:'!llill'~!l[ c'h<!r~l;;d \,vi'th pmt0!;.;[ing is IJ. S. illte]t:ests. Ilm w.Lnn~ng ~)Q~m Iy I1:o]'Q.tcs~:s mll~rdsancl :S[l.pported ac~ivitues, led by Under ~arii Sc ienee and te'c.~:m,o.llogy (S& T) oHer :I. prom.i~! ng emIr,)' pa.llbl f:hr !::ng!llgiu:tg cit izen s overseas. The m1S1i\'t,"'J".isl:~n:al, il1lcl:cash,g~~.(lUI: Scc.W:"::I:l1lI"Yf State for Democracy ami OklNlI o and d.v:~I.soc ie'~ ,i,')r~<1ni~1 worldwide ..An interests depend 0[1 the support ~or ~n AI~lil~. Paula Dobr.~mlsk:y~ ~o cll~.lr~'V,l!tenetions o~linio!.lpi~!,; en the op-ed page llfl~!I,)' \\,ni'ks of w[Jm~n ~icntt~b>!ltK~ 'eu~~i:!m4;.~rs ~ least acquiescence] or ford~ij flt~lutl~tio.n~," Washing/em Times ClI ned on the 1II.S. gover,-,m.· Yel, i.lm ~~, ern. "I\'b,e'reiin[erml[li,om,.l~ skepl'U,Ne.~live imagesof'the Un~.I.ed. Stares translate !l1!\;1IU t!J)!1i':C(l.!Ylit;1.:n~,c f,JP"pt;lriioi~.itjll?:""I!r(lrd~d dSi~l f1bo* US_ fm:,ci.!!I~po~icy 'lIbo1i~(,h;. g.U\Id ~.r'~C'Qly CO!l ~troi~fb;onAmericau in !lu~~to erament em1 unly do ~o rLu~d~. imiLtdy c ivi I utt implenlil;lIU p~.di.~.". by \''''id~pre<:Ld respect fu.r AflrJ.~r~~<'Ul T H). ence ..~nlub~]il:y~Q S& WeCOJ;lcnr. BUlwhhoutl~.C engagement <lnd s!Qcie~y-i~;u'!'I'U,d scienl.ists :1lInd ing ,eng~necn;-Englll,ging fDre:rgJlll::itize.~'lij is tlregoo:ll of pubCOI1li!]I]g.tmenlof Ihe US. scientific eommujioiu in dtiis di plom~cy of deeds i~:l Ilk: d,ipIOloOlC}'. f"c> the 9/11 CumL~l~~iC!n [!Ii.j]Jon will need HJ Ility:. the gtl,rel'll~ne~.t. c~mmtot :succeed, (6) llfl:(rc:;,lI"Seored, en~g~n~ foreign public opin- order lor th.c new Si!C:h~l~.ce di.p.lmmlcy tr~sucM.~ienceis. tmJ s:lmuld ,ion i~ vli.II1~,~O winnintg the global ~;~Tu.gl;!]e f ceed. -r.!:te faCT lli1<'l1 o re~] .. in. OlUlside the l1ealm 0 f po:lli t~csalldy id,e.u.Presidenl :Busll dea~.y <lgrees .. lillaviD:l,g Willy IDiplom'i],cyfllillll'OiI!I!lI11ru SCi'l!1I1u:e? mflij.;C$ sci~m!t:i:;'\1> l~e:ner~I.i~~J.~!i.lr this ~sk $ N~arty 4 }'(;~ ~ugftIh~UJm,i~!2dStaH~:; m'l.;r~d 'lppnimed (ln~~)fhil> dow~~~.dvise:ffi. K<'lren ~ I.low C'dlm~lrn.e us. sc'ien.'l'!ecommtrlJily con~ .. .'u ,emnpl.e.xmd dilf::icuU wm," with .~I:'",.q.Since' Ih~gJ].es. ttl du:' pO.sition of Under SeCF":toUY of .. l!'ibl~le m s.d!;l[lcII;! dipltln~..cy an;(1 rem~llcllh~ St~.ttl for Pn.!lllk: Oill~~llmK.·Y!lml Pl!bli{.~Affairs '~Ih~rn .. S!l1b~!1 pu'Mi,e opinionj\('l£,<lrr'din:t; the il1.2!o(}5. De:spitt" thish,ig;~\i-Ie\'el mtenlion. ~~i""iU~,1dIJl21.tAmericml~ <Iredefined b:y more r.~all ~ ~ s~cifi.c U.S . .!ElWcrmnen~ po.~ncics'! lndivi!dll,l'll i;!i. 'Cr.r]rt()moli,Il£A:tl1~rk:.l!li's .i~~lagc UVt.'IJ.'Selll>. ~on.~ ~EmlOtt ~5ccho.ol, 'Olr 1'n'ler~aJll0nal Affall FS, i!'!:~ 'G~o~~e l~,ey t~lmes toPe <I da\Jnli~lg~<Ii5k.p<llrricu~<Jd:y ilm,pre- ~ientisl:S can, C\C!iIltrilmle byre<l~I~zilll:g~'lm.u; Wi!~l!iiimgl.On UIl1l~'vilrs,i,~!I', Walshi mgUlfI, DC 21005,2, 'liiStl~ 2GhMint@fl1laii!1lRa~ OIUil:@r,AAAS, l,\'II;;j~mng'GlIiI', ID( :2@OO5, are valHaM~ O!Iimb"'l!>sadors of g.ood\v.il~. l'~ey d!lnlil'l"'ll1~y M~lsl:im COI.llllri~~ 'i!' ,I" USA. can l"nt;e:I~l'lifyd~.e.ur global ac~i\'ilie:> antll p~m(Jt,e :~n,l our vie'>\', ptaMic di.plom~q is ulIiIJma ~ d~ live 'wh~1l {lX(:n;:iscd~hl:'o~L~hde~d~radt~[ gnh\'IJer ~llgag(l!Ul;im "",till ·C(;Ju~n~rpflm.. \\,'orld:el "tw1!hor fa r mrresj>Dnlll!mm: VI.IIr.d:j<l@i!I~~~.&l9

of orga1liiiz31h':m:-; such ,f)SI]l(: !n'~enifltim1J[l11 tnst i,l:tUe :Wor A I)P I ied Systems An:dys,i:s and sd(.':nlifk~xch:;rung~s b(:lW'c;i"C!l merican <lind A

or

In

w'l,Jlffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

SCI~NC~

VOL 3~S

9 FEBRUARY.2007

I

POI..ICYFORLJM
wlde, They Ca~;l inc re fl S~ ~hI;:ir
efforts to invjte forefJglll peers to review scienrifle articles and
pa,peffi. Senior
C!alll

u.s. researchers

b~t[., un forl~l~l@~~Iy.. h;~,(l[ \l'l'(:n~qui.pp~d lO ill science d:~plolHacy. 'Wi~h I~mited resoarces far .s&Tooopel.ml.io.n. ~.i.11:1i~oo scien-

engage

use their own iIDllcrl'n2l.t~mu!l ~H::~~ works, inci[l!tlli ngb':lmler !5~Udears ~.Itd p;LJJltdocs\~'O:r'ldng outslde of ~h~Ui~i~~d S~~u"":oi,. hl r~~c~ mH l,g j lUll io:r sc ~Ie ists li,:11l nt ether l'OUI'I~ tries, t~ e ~I'I.]berate \;\1' it h peers, andto pm:lllOte broader iJ'Ile:rrn<l~

rific expertise, aad pressure to fOCUSi Ol~ tire (IIl!~'YE crises fl:!~l]e'rIJl!l:~ ~()Ilfg';lel".m, c'mlg;agc.. m;enl:.tile depmlmelllfl' effbns must be comple.n,.{:m~d by~lhl work of oU,~r f~ge~.l,cic, s
U nles:il those r~~o~!;,.\;:;. il~t.:~~u~ drJ~~lnk..ny, ~~~Jid~. do not believe is: I:i.kely. the D~3rl~ we
UF],\l!U .'t".l.~~ i ll il~'Ii;-d~'ilm:'b {ll' w more Mrppofi: ~n the area or science di,pl.o.rn~('y, hus time :furthe ~c,i~;l'nti~lc clJmml!!n~,ly to

t~(lmJ'~tXJper'Lliu~. U.S. sciemi srs c

II11!erna't~I)'~<ll Cm'l~'ere'IH:el)'l1llWO!iiIU'l1i!J Lei31deifSII'l 5denu:e,. Tiil:d'!II1!I)J'L~91~. '~f!d IEI!,gillf!€@rlil'1!gl: IKuw.lit (i:ty. KUIoi'til!it,EI ttl 10 .

sll10ul,d make <I special eflofi! to )ilnlU a ry2007 engage ",\,'.~II~ s.eieIDl:lis.1:s1]1I.'Hncounmes \\11e~1C: llm.e Ul1it~d S~1!Ile:!J is lm,liislmde;r;s1X.'JoOocll or d i&:~ik~d-Ilot tf!jt~S~il}1 or p['{)n~m~ <lLfl}! governmera policy. lim to !build bridges OlIradlmlsL TIii.ey cau engage more Wi(~l, unive.L's,h.y S.Hlck'llitts

increaseits rcle in dipl()fl];;1cy-.md
C\oI!;;Il take 'tJle

nmyl'Je

unprecedemed i:ulle[il,l<ltilol1L<t1 agreem.ent to. d~v1,;ilop tils~o!) ~n~~gy. M()oo~v~r. dipk'l!ll1.i'!cy to eenduct researeh in parts of the world critic .. ~ to ~CietHif:i,c
COILIli

I~l.d_NOI1,!~;O'\tl;c'r1lllmml~lJl i>C':i~niliflc (_'rf.-g<lllDzatiom, are more cred:ib.h:, mTIre n i'lm.lbi e •.

;)l!I'I!d~"henest

create epportaaities

hf1)~~]n ma~y cases mere respectedl]iII~11l1 the U.S. government overseas. "fheJI ~vork at the gmsseoets ~.e'l<'elon glob,,]1

and Ihe ~rerlle~'il public (jver.>ea,s. not ju~ other
scientists, and let tl1e'~m, knrnv 1lo\'i!I' seiemists

Ilc~~th.A vigorous new scienee di.plonu~t:y. erifrom all n.<ltiUriISU1l~..ke a ecllective diffe:ll~ . e!lmtl:ld to foreignl cili zens .1!5,;veU as li1~eirgm''e:~-,IIiI· C:IH:C il:il l~dil"lives. I~ so dQi:~~. llS, seieamcnls. \V~~~ promete ~~~)IItlll \","C:~~,.bcin~ .• wiU rlsts \,yiJI make the wudd. a b~'~tefphl,~~!;. Second, rhe he~i~,!h nnh~ US, 5d~nlifk: 1l.::~4;f]l sc ~nQi,;i, ~~ld will ~~~~~~ 'P~ibUc d iplnand pel:I,I,~'IPs ilnpw\,'f! ron:igltel.'S· ,..iews of (joml:L~.m:l ity dependson l!herom inued \\.'iI~i.ng~ 1]l>lL~y. Om country needs <Ii new 'e.Fd of sdem .. "C

udvaneemeru, Sciem'ific re~eaoch r1nl,~iI'lS From asll"t)~Ulm!ie9~ obOOl'\mtuon in A~,sllr!l~i!l tD <I'fiCh"le(!~'{J!£)i,c,d research ~n l ib:t,1 depends on bn'l.i:ldcl" aocc&..;. as well as d.iph]m~lti,~ ~~Illro.r~

prob~eu.ill~ SUd.l as elleryy. clean 'w'.lter. mld

SUites for sl~ld:y. research, i:I:n,u u.s, science cmnnmrtLly bcMl1d .iL \",OR. Vast! diIT~c~ullies... ·colU.lb,im:d widl a perception Ih,u the Untilled St.'Iles. does net wel ~ 1" f!ullllltr imflllffil!olooJl1lll!ai:itth~IQl]ooimgo!lmt cornl~ ror~igm::ii&.rodue.(~d the nt~mbei' nf'for~mljmillUalll8lllii'i5litiJl~fiOr'A:P,pliJ!(j Yifl!fiU ~ ~11f!'1~ Ulil be' fOiiM ~1.VIlW'.IIilii50ul}(.aU. ei;lIiI, s.tudeil:m'l oomillglo the Uni~ed StOltesaller 2.~. 'iVi!Ii'ig'. HI~i. 51ud. Php_. .~l .~L~(I j~i1: U•.l~9 911t Thislreud is b~inl1i~g to u,"\I~r,.::~., b(~t ~'li:$I9'9), neg,at~\fel)er{;ie~)liom;: persist mK! i~ :iimporl:a:UII.t is ~. !i,e.' rrnoc~ Rn~~fIi'l18ilion a'boiil U~S. ~i~tffil'l o;dl!fioil~ <Ii~~mt.nn., Sl!e·MM'.!i1!~m,9~liI'I!1I10m~td. 10renmlll vigilianl. TheUS. f'Co:tlQJmlybeneiWi!;i; afthe major 'U.s. scienufie <LIte! e::ml.ginu,:er.u~ <I. M. B. d"AKy. M. A.. levi. ~shM;glQlj iilm'j, 17 Alfrilill!t societies H~NO)dy have :)p~cl~fiil; mce~ tllr ini- greatly fr-umlbru:igl1l! sci enri sts <l~cl sci enee Q 2005., 5. sec 1No~ld 5ervkt ptJlL200~."_Noioald~iJilll~n!M. t i!at~ves deduciltux110 inlICrnaJt io:n<lll ('O~ laoom~ (I j). '\,Ve miMI 5t C:[l:5u~'ctlilat lila .e U:~lee d State .... ,orglpil!l&l'altic[@<illill!w:LQiI.-!oolinrri!l'!:rogiamj)lI'l6S. ti:OIllS, To g~,\,CjLIS~'om:cx<ln~lp]e. in j,IIlHHIWY remaius '1.um.~'t.~Ve.. :J,dI \'\leh.umil.lg.. u 1'I1tp'i'nid'.. 3,id'-EolPm .. 168 Third. scieatists mre ejtizens .. Like t~~eir AAASjoined the U.S,. De:l?<lrtilrn.le'[litofSnue. 6. 'Su' ~ww.'9-Hrommmi~ri,g,~,WiFepJ:flJiffl~,iIlIl!l. '1. !'iIiJ.l~omai ~!l'imcll (Qumdl, rfj~ ,r.IJ"fiQm~mm'1l~1.e 0/ [he Kl)W~~,H g(wr:;:nli:ilH~~l~" ;)! K~I\';!I~lil~ .~nd sciC(l1Jl:ue I'~n::s (]iLU'~sid~hht: ~k;!lli fie' COUlmtllU·, n ${iMce ai'1!!1ledlWf~!lym liHtJnlilriMar .i!A':~~m: em::e NOO ~o ,oonvC:::I1l.e~,COa:lrellCn(1('! in KlI'W'I:lil . ni~y. m~~ny scientisrs <'Indcngillil.eel.'s, sIm:re con~ An llffl.peroli~ /rJr lhl' U.S, AgM'Ji' /rN 1l'I~t?mtllrQMJ Cit}, Hl rlrom[l'!~ ~l~l,!,\'l)!db. \I!{mn~n of sdt:!m~~l~ ~~rns .LhniLHneg.... t~\i~ pen:ep~ion!' {1f ~h!<i D~fJlJmmllWaliDnall, AI::l!I!ffili~ Pres$, Walbim gt.:ln. [lC.2006t 'Ulliled St<l:te"~., [I'n,e: gpod IU':'WS is Ih~1scilen1 and e~@;iilm.eeli"S illlhe bm<lder Midd.~e E<lst (see' !is. J. Z09!J.:i.]. :~~, .1lr!pn~s,l'jo!lir ofAlme:rk.rJ,~ HiJwArlW.5 ~fW figure abo'l'~).AA ..'\S~2Ls 9~SO n::ee'I1lIly sl~lcd i li:Jlh, ~lavc soniitc a.b~~i.[.yI:O eha:mtg_e ~ho~cpcrAment'Q, HoJ~""'n:rLi;~,I.~A1;Ja<r,I~Ameti,~ m.~l\Jli' cepliolilS for the 00[00[, ~1fI1~,rnil~all!ill"W,urnillgtQ~. D{,liOO4iL ;Ipil01 ~]lrogl'<I:m that [-emo'teiy li'U1.ks US. ~. Ii'~rall ~!'\l'\!i"'l ie'e t(, til. ~rd, ·1Mi~1:al;idemi~ (j!llQuI~ ~::;:l::.%~rch~!'.l;with uijiv~l1>hy~lc'Vd. s:cien~ J;nl~ hil'le to) SiliY~'b!lut~~c. cJp1OOlKY, • 1l~~1 Oilil'!~ d.ent'S. :illl deve~,opi IIiIg mmd Il:lmu:: rgij ng i:ountraes in, Die Way FOlm,I}Ji·,d! A!mel't.a:~ Pdjtic.!l5~i! Iml!lwlioo flDlTL1C<.I Cernrm~@i;~11i Q}fi~'~~, W~$hilgtQn, D(, Jf1,Al,lg!lGi: ~iI)~, I.JNl;:r to sh,w~ ;)lfld di~(,!~ls~!S!~~lli~~.:t P"IXlf!; I Wl~o ~"ho~ld k"1ld ~ ren~"",\'~d nil[t~~~Vil~dd~ ~ s 1~, ~mI!!~f51'aJ1:Y;,y Ml07 i!il!eor"\e~ wilillM Cfrfo~ide 00 acro~ nn~ge of ~cienijfic Ji~'i pli.~les U J J. ~llCl; dip:tumacy'! Ufl~om~ml~~ly. Iht;re i:" C.'Uf~he!f~OO1ilJ!,!, Um;!er S;~ro<tl!!V!l!~!'J.~ di';l;I!il~e!!, Yet. deo~!Jit>C c~l,rrer:u1eifo:rl:S:, :scientific org,lnlirent ~y no Ideall Us.. gJovc'rl.lulent ~.ge~llC'y 10 l!imer~t III!:!!!J\«I'~'FarlI~imgl~11tIi!i~and ~dlJt!!ij:tr1 ;U ,am imlpi!J!;l'iIt~'ogl r>(;!F dil!l~~q; m,~p~mJigrn~I~.~~ Zllt~~lll!'>([Ill du ffiUwe, ~(;l<Jd.1 su:->lt~t~mI,t'id ellhu. Techl'lic.tl ,'lg,el'l:cies. waek~3{11811.8O!0350l.hlm. Of cOIill.rs.e. iBl~1;I~is a&~mnc.~~'Im<1l s:ciC:I~lislS such~IS I.he IlDepm."tm.elU of E:rn.crgy. Nali(J.~JII u. rJ;l'~ de:;"iJl'.~'oJn of liIle [;I!l:<Jj'~r.:i!~"'I:!'~ ren!:~ and en,gineeJrS, are wiUirag w be ~llllLlJb<lSsm:Joil11 ]]1stilUW~ of [~Ie'll(h.and N'1R:~lornd ewmnn~cs A P~i'a:m. ~J!oi!' It.wli\\d~t~~-9OO'idj)O\IiiJjj~!t grg~lli~IO~mI704'17~!cpdt <lJliC~ to p":rli~ Ilate ~ Lhe new sc,~em:e ~p i I] d IQ~ :mdl S:~ce Admillis~li<ltli,on "Ire' (lIiI.o'tinH,pp:ropr~.~ 12- ~Or"~ ,~l1JmO~~(~.en\ilf~e new IFu1MglTIl ,aw<i~, S~ 1'i!1<l~Y.Why ",1"'l.lUWI:~~>"! Tilt; ;)mi$~1i.'e:r b, d~n;~- iI[~ly) ~R.H.:m;!;;d0111 their oou:e oo~~$.iom;arid m.m',S!O!b~!!)!I'ffrrlJM.!'~~201l!l1l6~8l_lrtfifl., fol.dl. F~r.;l while !>CBence ho~d1sgre,n oonef:uls ~JUIt::restjed ill i:um lern<ll i01l<l1 ~olll<1L~or<Jt 10. iOJ,l U. IIJE!IO~/Il1l1n9.:i'OO ~jjll!;f.gill9 CiOOi\11fy 'Owj~lJ~h P,~rn~IF'!jjj'. hllp:J~~_;1a'at;_I)r,gted,~ev_}Urore~Jlirlm;_ fo:r d·ip]omilcy. dipl fliltll;i;CY fi i~() l11;!,nl;;fkl' Sclthe: '~Xl\ml it advalt'Oes [huse: mi~5i~n:;. Thl;; 1l~. IJl;E~.'_n!er,l!Irl9'ence.~;:oX':in.st<nlce. :unlm::ge-9clI~e progmms, Ntliti;ol1l<l~ Scienoe FmLI;ubn,Lom, has <Ib~m.iJJder 15. riJ:tIiiom~ W di!m.l!',01 Scien~ !\I1J1io:1ikIIl A~~di!lllll' or such fUS~I,'l'eIf~!1Iiio~~~ Jh~:If.m.QllmlidcarExper.i~ Imllldale t:hallJ d1{!:t:ica~Il'Cie~".but N S.F); goa.! it:ngin~m9, ,:wIll1sti~ ~I M~diCJiM, 1i'I:r;llg"'~tl~ 'he 6~'ih~ Sf,t)r'IN: f.rj~tgitiIlIJand Empll)yin§.AmerktJ II).f Illle.ma I :ReOlcto\U (rfER l {14 J. scienli 5~S from ~.sto fCls!:erb"silc~se, ..[ch. eomeq~iendy. i.~~ GOB"'gi'lftt iWlomk ftJtuM~Nallori.rnll R.Clld'i!fi'I~ 1i'M~, ~~lajGr pm~'e:r$ :st~ch <lis, Chi:I1l;)l. hdkl. :Rus~i;Ji. illl)l)naliofl!f1~ IlI:cth.,~lk-,."~I"¢ des~.k<fiOO L'Oa,d!d:I"C~ 1lMQn~riglalfl" 'OC. 200Sh to jheIlaited
1

America il.tOlrog the way. SC'te~,u-]s;tscanalso encollmge t~mi.r lIllt\fCr:i'iHe:ii.research instinuians, pwl~sitlmd seeieties, and laboratories tIl' adop[ g,~oba1elm:ga,ge~ ~~lcotas a priority" Ahhou~h a :~Oilrg~l':lUll of :illullividu<li efforts [is itIHj)ort<Ull.effeCl'rive glf!l.')O~.~!~g~(,:,"\;:nl will l~ m{)_o;~~nnlterlilialif it en.!.'lI'Igt:s '\\~lolle Q .I:'glmilizmi.oI11Sm, .~.~tMm.1Y v

ness orftlr~i,gn sd~m:i5tt5 ~d s~Iil.dIL"I'!n; come to

J:i,p~.omacy. andwensed the(1tlmmi~U'lW!1.l unht;:

,!

KOliea.

Japail:l.

1::i.1e Eu~,'op,ean Ulm.:Lon.. a,~ld

$pecific

11,;e~,ju~h

q~ll,es;~i{)J,lS. Hu:

DeI}1l1IrtI1l1lel~t

[he U~lil~d S~a~es 'v~]I"'I1'orkto,g.e~her in ~~, of SUire is desig;lil~c1[o

fOCliS

on dlpkHm~cy-

'_

__

I

_

---

,_
I __

1

I

,I

1

'

BIOPHVSIICS

MD~hs ~ne(he'ir alrltenoae as part. ofl a motion senS~lilg s!j'$tem that e;n;su~es~tal)le nignl,

reet io [IS,to restore the stanis quo. They need mknow, for tlx,ilrl"lple. when l~,eir ni,ghl is, d~,slmrbed !by an edd y in ~'U rbu leur a.i:r or by ani nnperfee!:li)1 executed w illg beat. D:r,lgou~:flies. depead on S~i~~U lin this iufo(n"~

F

I}I.' i!1g ii1~.liit:::t1'.' ~. ".,."d. W .dJ.~.CA;'.~Cl'l::!bWW.~lqU~.d ~m,10,\iemel1its, o:r~:lil.e~r mVml, bodies, so t~Hlt Ihlil}' 1~~a~lm,~k~f!!W Il,~~oe~~m'y CQr-

r(}di'nt;_~~e:-; fromp(~Hion I nll'io~hiO~l J. 'lh~ lh.;]~:tel,"e swings. frm1l:l1 one side 0.1' it 10 the (~d~~r.whh constant 'IHg~~ll.Ir ' Vd(lCily relarive tOljl~c rod, AI.thotug~iD both <Ingl:JlJiall"velce-

al~d no ~o;!hC're:.::. TIWlY ti~1;': U~eir ~unWi1ql,~~ in the V,lilY lh<lil fllies~ge h'lllem.'e5. ~,'li~.Hpeed n~ms: () moths hovering in fnm~ ,tlf ilWi art! fici<~I f fl ower shewed thatthe anten nae vibraee auhe

i, rs mcvemears. and Sill !I'III (! enect ile I'IS nf tlhle' ::lmeU1JII''I:e.'lur.ilm~<Ibk liO Cariolisforces, could .~ seeu jn IlG' fHms, S!;;panl~~eleetrom;lt~o:n.That \"'iorbw~U ij['QbrjglH dfl_y~tghl bmwnuld 11iO~ besatistacteryia ~u::'.(IN,hl'lik~· mnnj,O:I1I.. Secosd, the haltere's path curves 10 phys.i:o~.ogic3~e~.perimenls s.~()Wed~l.,,:tsense oueside. ~s shewn byl~I~.e iI.I.'I."OWS, CO.r:uoltil:!> org~ns, at the bases anhe amcmme were' senness becauseeyes cannnt provide precise in~or[JliI;nion (Iuickly Ull dim~ig!hLM,ol:h$, ~i'~ elJil.uuS~' od'e~e~ t these defleclions. ive ~ 1~~rCe:i:IfI,~.lIS~ ontheh~lher'c '~o g,ive it thesiil '~Cl A ~ilmlpte cXI~erhmml cO!l'iifiU'I'l"iled the il~nactive at 11ight need inl.ol.'ma~,ionabolll C101m~l~cmem:s f aee elerat iml. o portaace of the <l.nleJnll,iJ.efor stable .flight ~lnl\"'<~nl;ed rnovemem S 'ro ul<lti Iiililj:1I1 night staWhen 11 rctari ng'm,j ss ,gYlIiCiSicope is disIllt~lc'lnnoths hove:rnd ,~n .in '~hcm.ght.~hlln~bility, l;~:sp~daUywhc~~,hovcr~mlgio collect turhccl the heavy wheel rotating at hi~h rllo"Cio'lr~lnm n{!Wl;'fS. On p,lg,e ~63 uf ~his, issue, Sane and colleagues (I) exr!~~n ~1J.QW ~~ hawkmath seases it>.
movement, Two .;:IT~CL" COf1lDribm(:
[0

ities are constanr, l~,e h.. ltere has Codoli,::; acce:llenllion, perpendiculas to irs j)!~.me of
ttllis;"

w.ing be'.LtI~(1llq,em;y labmn .2 71-;]~). \Ylu;lrJ,the i1o,""eli''i,\Il15 made lO SW~ly. [he moth ~n~.cke:d

Firsr, the speed of llm.e halrere is :~ IJICJ-e<l~:ung s as it !n(1V(lS f~lnl~i,;rrf!ln~h(; JJ"ud'~ axis f

or

own rotar io.rtllj), 'i;\!

These researchers found fh.rlll1e

:~ rnou:hs moven"lem-de'~ectioll system dl~pc!lds~~f~dy on th~ COil"io!~:.; IJet't ~ .~ ,whi,dl ~fep:s s~l)i~m~nggyro~copes: sta.~ bI~. 11.'11$~ff~Cl!S ~!!1 1)~}pf.re!1il:J~fJ4;1e'1< ~i of an obje>i:~: iewed ill <I rotating on v

'I
,:rl

I

fl1lm,;:: of reference,
10 .Ul kIM:~W

seemi.ml.£ly au]'ib-

tu,.lb]e

'lr~.m:n~ force,

We

~ ~.I[l'e!l.dy

~ ()f

of th,e unportance C 0 rio I:is f(}~;ce~~ r di pt eras 1'0. IDe'tfctffillilgl m~:ai~'ion5 (iliop lef~) #'. d ipterram ny. i!'iIh~(11 .• liIS!C$ Mlter~s., ~nd (~<lP rU:@tlfldal awk moth, li'i'il~(:h iilS h US'IlS its, ,;mt~nf]a~ f~ r IrlJ'ta~,~J;I!l~~!!l~ilng ~JijI'lg Wglhl. d (BoU:o!1ll t~,eimlD'iaglriHlTl Sihow5~ihreeposhijQ!u d uri ngl rota61j r'i of ,\lllilklS~l ali<l the CoriOl1is~((ele-ratigQ (Jill Lliie haHef~ otr antGllFlnii.

.~ flie::> {h[n~:senies.. mosquitoes. etc,'. t:ii lnstead of h,,~ving fnl.lluwingslli'k~ .~ other i~lS:ClS~ dipte.mms ~~,rve on~,y ~ l\Wl'. Their IWlld 'wms-" lllilvl;; been ~ red Heed to u 11)1 cl ub-shaped hi:!lh'!n~s,
,Iil

fi! (sec the fi.gurc,

l:t~.iI.t beat al t~.C'.
1

'~ ~ame ,freqm~lme)1 ,.IS the f?re win~s. ,Iii ~,r :hc:lrr~l;:illcrcs;areeut on, these n ies ~ .~ become unstable ~I]~.ight and :$00:111 ! crash [0 ~he: rtltu~d, P:ri~,gi$ (2) ~xpl~i!l~d g .~ how Coriolis forf.'~~0\111 the halteres inform tlics. of remitia,n s 0 f lhci::r b~(l!es,. e,~a b], i~'l.g ~~~e.~.1.l)olly stably.. S;rlm.e (tf rd. [10'l\' luud lhm
I.· .•.

:;pc;~d :-;~rcHlgly cuuuteraets the d~~turbance, lu conrrast.the C'ori(lli:-; fort'~s- en
hafteressre

ber, but if '~h~~!" <i~HI;~I)~~e ~.v~r~ '~l1lp~IH"t~d
Ill;ur

d1~ir b'IM:5. l~e- moths

were

f~r

~~1:Olfe

.~ hilwlh:: mcths ean dJo~ili]is WiAh the.~n!llH~lm1l1ae,

8 althoWl,gh de~ec: ti 01:11 of ue:~dynmn
~

ic <ls\,\felll

In '~hed~mgrf!m.a wei r~pre~~!Hi~g;l. fly's body is rol<llillg\vilh comm,l:Iml <IIng[I,l;lf •i.... velochyint~le iIi phlllt; of Ihe p\il,~O'. Al the i S<1 t i'lml!fi:. I.~'mlte'l'e,~].ilnged ~o the :~\Od me < mmres ,~ in ~ p!.i]IlC pCI.'pe!1dicuhLr to the p,I;P~'I", J\sl]~e

1i

i
2 o

<liS

Corioil,is. forces In<lyhmfe

,I

mle,.

I .~

lhe' dilUtOr 15. lnlne' 11rn;~l~ute~or ilnregraEilj\~ ,~md Co!'!'!paratM Biology, I!Jn:i'!'erlity of !Leeds, Leeds LS,2 !lilli, u~ E UK.E~n]~it~!fiIu'e~alnd'er@'eedi~,~c:,

!.ikel}' U) crash tothe ground or collide with the Ily directly, IJro5i:eild.tbey cause ~dighl: l~.e w,IIL\liIh'en~he mll~enmle were glued benrl il'ii.g oft he slillk oifl hehal tere, \vlmic h i~:; hac k Oilil. the .ml~otll'n:::"heveri ng ab~ Iby \\,'a S detected by sense ,Ofg<l.nS. which in nun ~,I rrgelyrestered, Axons eressi ng the cu ts had !S!.,~nRllIl.;ue[he f]y to nmke tlin.e neces!><1ry been se\'el1ed. ~o lhe' ~ensQory inform:niml !lU,IIS[ h;)vl.;; b~e!lrro'i.l kitld b}i~hl)'grs(l1i1!-~m thi;l adjl~~mWllD:t~ 100~I:'>\\'i~g b(,fl[. St l'eJ}!!~,pte~<1 litl.lY p,II'as it ic i ns.e-Cls. ,h<li~·,e base;!!; oflhe antermm!' . ( ~ :~d'lDC'~dfore ;,:~-'iimSS ~hm se,~n~ ~n\\i,,)rk lik~ }\!'!imtlh: n,l;;ed ~hf~e>-d~m~mI$uo[l~J infor·, ~l,altere.s (31. btu ¥ore di.d no! knov::rlm:tii :~]ov.P Illation <Ibmu rohnions, Ver~:eb:rnles gel. this \l\,'he'~l1er other!!l sects '~,SC Corioli.s, foroe5 to from th~,('! S!emiC:'irt::l;J11:!lr !l~a.ls in~ t;:!lc:~.'C.:lr. c seJrni'ie [cwt~ons. [n the:il: n:potri, S,lne <lndcolOne mi,~,nexpe-cl eilch c<'lml~to be se,llls]live oilly ~o rota~ iloD1l! lIS tl\Vn plane. '1rJ,u th~ »i uuiUiI ICgL.gJ.tcS dc.'>cribc rO'l;Uitl:r:l d~'t~~ors I.hm '\vo['k .nia III ,us not (Iui:~:e0 simpl e H). Nevel,'thele~..,. 0 on I:he same rminc:iple iu b.l.wk rnlollil.!>. Lik,e ~lOS~ 0(11(:[ ill S£lcn,. nHuh~, h~'!.lefour \\'i ngs ·11 of til re\': c;;tnrdsis slJ.mde~l[ m &(;llSe ",ny ~e'l
SCI~NC~ VOl. 3~S 9 FEBRUARY.2007

tiny. fm.'~DO 81m,,!]ro stabilize

w'INYII.sdE'lncern~g.org

771

I

PERSPECTIVES
OC''I)'~1Jti(1~l, On~ mig~]T !lOg t:1>ipeCl (W(I hllh~[~.

ble CO!llrn!lil";;~l (~il I[he p'kul·euf the h.;;JjI[~ro's
bean mes geneil:I'l~e;S :uao eut-ot-plaue fhll"Ce. but [!:mll still 11y after one halrere ~UlSbeen
.<l:l]upul<Lted ~ugg.e~~:~I.g e<L~;b ha here rm1)' ill;_([ be Ulpab~,e of d~stillgULShl:ung :iI~.~. three CO:IrUI)Q~ nears, Tlmey co~q~do(lnl~eiv;_.bly gel: the lhil:d ene by !;c~:;:ilng.lcnsio~ as 'wd~ f~sbemJiln~h'

01:(womnelm nae, to be cepable of d istUngui.slli ~ ing three cornpeuenrs of rotarieu, but n~I:Y ean, for <l r,alher ::.ub~lere<!:-iO'.lil The spe:ctnll1il1 orCor~!01IS foreeslsas peaks .n~J]~.efrequency of~rme halrere be,lit and a~
twiC.::l}l>\'ll f'r.;"lt;wency. ii!lld th~ re:~atiM;:I'l~~nj~

N O'W"'II'~W~ other insects.

UlJd like ~o 'k!lO'J;\1\..\h~th(l~
<Is.

\vel:11m; hawk moths. use
Ttum
<illly
(;!jp~-

1.Iil.ci.r ~nlCllllifile ttl sense retations,

!Pilily s'6l;m.~:->PQteritially useful to ~1I1iilnaL

nyil.lg:

~~Id!;; ~h!;;pe~~kg tl:f depeitd$ on ~h~p~~m~ of Ilrol<llli.on, ofthe body. Thus, Ute sense Qrg<IlllS i.Ull, ~hi;; ilo,~11k ~)h~e haltere e-,"'r!;!~i~1I1ce~~mi1'\of two n'eCJInel1C~.es01' meclsaaiea I st imulation, \\~~icb ch~ulge,\i as the plane of rOtOl.tLOil dmlmges,. enabling each h,dte:ril:U) di::;,tungllish rwo oomponents of" rol:fl!limL The Ihi IJ"dpm;,'Si~

th(;;~i'S'!3Ik:-:.. but n~is \l"lfilild ~q~iir~I:~c ~Lbiliry
~o measure li,~!y ~r]wlotu;)[ti(l\IliS. i:~.3. ImLch i<lrger cenrripeml ~;g!'l;~ In 1!!l!}''-<1i:i.i;;., h"'(Il~;.tlw~;,,, (5). or mllemlillae set at dilWerent angles. e:<lidlll capable o~di~ti.l.glli~l~ing two 1;Q11~!pOne·.nts tlfw~.\~ ti on. c<lin to.gelitte'f pnw:ide flillJl, i IlIlhm~.'ltion abou,t mI2llti,(ull;in !~lree",di m~m;ia~ul~ 5i~1CC"

R!rlmt'lll(~. :t~.I':Sane,.A. l)ieud'on~J!" M. A. Willis, 1i. L Dl!lnii!4, S{iMl"l' 3:li.5. 863120(6)'. 2. kll't S.1'ri119,1~, .~i1!!'i':1,Irons, Ii!. s.ot:. .15 23;l j47 (l'1A,l!Ih ~. W. IPb;.G. iN~llaCh" .!. lhll, HaltifMill~r:h'/'jftt!n ;8OJ, 3:7i (l!l9D, o!l. M,. m,l1~er.N?tfr.}, ZO!)l 5@,:l:J9 G!:OO@}, 5. U. ~a'Ib.iidh..}'Camp. Phy.io1. A 1,'7], U:99~U.

,,3:

ATMOSPHIERIC

SCIEll'iJiCE

lo~\'eriUllg wmullm douds .assodated \lJfilh thll!nd~r$OO rm$~na bt~ the ~pread ·of P()l~Lllion en 1fit!r(O!l!tilil~ rita~, C(!le~. S

<lny. 'li~mg:e~'l.. hY~lr.QC'U'l.Cln~l <I1~d ~ .• ~ulhnJ pelluranrs involved rn acid rai [I, <11md J~.lmotochemk;d S,Uil~Og.are m;uil~ly removed wilhi!lll hours or days near E.mh's surface, bm have mllLChilongerl~ie~ tirnes ifLh.;:)' reach I~(: cold and dry Upp~f' t ropos.pheure.n Ol.ltiuules frem 8 loll kill.
T~l\'1I~ri!l~ >cumu~~:;; cluuds Mso{:ililt~d Wil~ thul,ui.e:lF£ [iQl:llmj, (see the fi.g'U re I can I.<~p.idIy t'i.'<l.!lrSpo:r.t these poUlilallts H)~'~]ellper tmpou

M

sphere, Thisprccesa.combiued with fm:a winds <It higJll !lhil~Hle:s" !l1.lml;fs sp.llelll,df the o po~llItim1 over ~,:Uill~rconlfneUilnl~scales {I)" Slll.b(ieq~1.e'n.l chemical trmuiWorm,llioll of these species illl the uppermIJ.H~t.;phere~e<'L(i~, W theprcducrion efozene ,(lJ. and ot'aerosol ~rQ ieles (3) . which .1lFft;crgl(llm~. cllmare. h'l 1f~ddlli'!!J d@~p (QllV~d.i(l!i!I. A tbu I'Iders.10rim('i!U ses C(l!llv,(!(tilo'~lranlSp()'r1.(Jof INO.. ~nJlliI :5l11 rr.l:C~SoulF(es, to the 9!dJ~it~o~rn, eorweetian moisrens l~l.eupper lOOuppe~ Ir()po,spiilere; li:gl1tntng ini~cls.add~1i;onal NO., RaIn washes, out I.he wale-I'"soiui:lie IHlNO~.Hlgn N10.:ilnd pesphcre, where water v~por ~UiS a large low Hfl40~thus Tfld~ultf;:' r~s<h COI1Nettion" AS! the d~HJJd,pfl)r;:~s~edl aids l.ransporl!edl dQ'i'i'1iMI1I'1d ~\I\Ilil"lhil' f(JU~efK~c~· diltl<lle <I1'I,d il~ Ilres.I\KJ\~.~e!o inereason illgl dilys, NO. i~ IiQnverleQ W, I'll NO}, <It " rOlt~ ~~te~fIlg!l!lidi by l(Kal, chem1is:tlY, The NO'jH MOI mtlCl~:hlils proing e(jlu~~ililrrMio!1s ef gn:~'l~lO~M'C'gJlse,.;(4)" videsal docklhatllUCIm loo lill1115'ii~('€mnN'C:l{licm to be irlhwred • .I-]owe\'er. the II'lIte at which the lIpper trepeofm!i If'O ~ 'hu~· I;;ITi.c'hmlly tran sported fhrot~,g~Jl t hi,;:!!;A;l s.;P'!l..'f~ ~"f1tl~I'iL;:dutlf ~~d,~tippHed~.\IifI~ n·~.~h B~rirr~!ner (rI,~s~ mcasu ~il1t:i~l~ surface ai r C<1JI!I1UI; be :llil~:~~m~ddijr·~~lIy.. i~ s £:.1;;11oxides '~NO~.whichis ~he s mll,~ 0 f 'No. clouds. In conrrast, the very \.~r ter-seluhle ~ ... therefore d:~nlcHIt to ~\,lllm.'1JiC: in,~!uem:ie of altld NO~) and nirtic aeld (~,~n'.;jOj) qLn<liffil,tif,)! the HNOj is .ql~.ickly remeved by li".'Ii.m1 during to' aenceof cenveetion 011 the upper trn ~ (;OIW~CI:~Oll. O~.!).;ein dlle upper lmpo~ph~[e. deepconvection on C.~~lru~1f: !rirqmliily.. Q,f]1 the in i~] '~~ld page 816 of this issue, Berrram et (~J. {5) posphere. The G2Ita were obtaul~cd b:f th,c NO~ is s.IQwly oxkliz'ed loHU>40;l and !-INO) NASA DC-8 research airplane, ,,,,hid Mnl.1,~ reg;enenH:e.s NO of IL1'Iui I Slie<l.d:y ..,SnHe levels are use extensive ebservanons o1!J~llined dllr~ng pled rhe at me s!'pllen:~o\/e'.f' ea stern N [)rth reac bed ~.to:2 week s later (see the ng[l:roe). <I. recent <Ii rcD<IJt~. camp<li!l.~' te infer theturuever rsre of lh~ lil~p~r tooiP(¥srl~re O\'l;lr ~h1;.': !;:oJ!,.'j;l,{;;f:JiI B~nmm (·t uf. observedNOjHN01 rmius; America kl1iJu I)' aad A lli~lIi!S1: 20M (6). U pre I' IJllltiled St,lteS<llld C<lmld<ld.min£ summer, that we fie 0 f1ecn, 5 to 1I] ti rnes <IS, :I~li:g_lIa as tfiopospheric a.irl'eceml:i" <liITecH~d by npW<lI:d mOU~JI1i5 illi! C'lt1!l~d:-; u~t!.~lly l'gmOlilli!.~!h~\~h Itw- cxpec!iild fr,~D'l~.sl~ady-sM'" ~~Iunibd~~m. These dliua wm I,jll~'l'w qUilm~t3Jiv~ ~~~"~$ of They lI:l;e this: imbala:lm.ee to ~<llclll;2ltc Il.nm.le~slD <lSi!:!les"'> 11m\'deep ~omrectio~, a~Tect." els of NO~lhul ~.ow ~.e\'els of l'INOr com~ ~he tu.mc;:s:L:~cecCoiliVC1!'ctiolll Qccl;l.l"n;:iL SinUlthe oompositioll of the UIlIx::r t~.'Oposrhere. p::uedl.o the .':Hlrro~ndingair {7)I. T~rn·e NO~ or:i,gin<Jtes ~:h,)fngrOlI·~.J,-.level :\IOll[I,'W~. i'luch It'l neolls me.lS~l,reliU~I.lI" f hydrogen 0.... o :uQe as c h::C'u: ic Ult t i~:;{I!ld ~~:r~. OiiJlJd n'om the rod.icals ;lind o~ilil,e~1i cl~ClmlkaJ perameu;:n; ~on1ih~ ~W~Iti.Qff~,im.~111 ~Piii r!ffign! ~f.A~m~pI1,~riJl; S~I~il~~ ~ tighfll~,:n.s dUll ac{.;cmm,panJir:~ \.~onv~l:ii,·e stnin lhe nlle <Il\.\ihiclin. NO", i" Q:!ii,idized to Un~\'e,'~lIi1"0'[ Wa~h'lIlgl~n, Seame •.\VMSJ!:9S, USA. (-mai ~

m

jae"4jle.@~lrn$uY..~i~!an.edu

C loud~, NO~s notwryw.1ue'.i-soltli.bl ~ ~nd ,I;

is

~~IN03iThe "tl~th(]rs ~lS~ ti. phOE(lch~iUk,f~[box

IPERSPECTIVES
m(~dt4 (0 predi.C'f t~~eevolutinn ufNO ~ .unci ~,"INO~ <tiler coavecticn, "fhis medel ,11]m\"s, rhem 10 relate the observed NO/liNO;) r<'ll~ow the rime since eonveetion. This
brl ng
B)

I

lh'~ lupp.;,'r ,~olP(l&phere.~n <lddiliQal

lO

(j!)!'I1 ii'il <I. m~~~!l~r dll;lt dOG"~ 1mot

de:poe:,~,d Oil

copious, ,nUOUn1'ts f NO 3'7 The anthers IbwlDlld o [~u!Ocl.er~ltdynheneed levels e surface pol-

or

k nOVi:ledge of surtacee

missions,

F'mme 1l100,eI nUl.)' be able [0 represent s

lut ams ..such as siulfm d~m.ide 'ImJ.d c a rhou "chemlcal clock' shows that <uboutha:~fof ~nolJlloxilh::. in lresh~y U"~n!Spol"tcd :;1111'. l'h:~s ~he Ol iw at ~I tl it ades Li)el'i\,'een 7 ..5 ~nd I ~.5 km firesill air also eoamined IO~"f eoneemraucas is less th~u,1 d'fuy:!; ]Id.~~ld ouly 2:5% OI"E:h~ of bi.g !~::;;II~~idt:~. O \;,i~~clilhad been llc~uv~nl!~d air h~!s.alol 1li;'l\;;:fI~!lnll~n'ccdby cg!wccH~)n ..it,ri!,g UPW"d:rora!~~pl~rL~~f'idu:g~co" c r h "i;j~ltm.lions of ulh<lf"illiepatricles, rd]ec:ting new over t he past .) days" il'"hi!;l Th~Mgh lime resolution pf ~:bemf;l'~~II1:- part i(,': I~ '~]rtl!'ji.tiv!~, chemical c lock PH~menrsaed Ilmc :llilIl:gereg~,on smnp]cd by v ides ~ :JIll],eiil,l,lS 1'01: liming the physi e .. 1 and ~he research aircraft ~!UOW Bertram et (II. to d~Ii:~11ic<!1pmcif;l.\'i:-ii:UiIgr,1:1,u OCU!.~:\'ll~IS l~ <'!ia: ' ages. l~.e:reby p:~ov9,diflg new cou51:raunib on qmnHify rhe uvemU effec~5 of 'co nveet ion, lIi!:ileir. ;iI,~'!Ii,lysi 5~.mlpIi.c~ l htlil d~1ring smmllJll~cr. the nues of ezene pIi1l.1d,w;t~(1Iffil•. P<lrlicl~ for~l,;n~,Oi.mI. and .nmli:xi ngwith slIr.rounclli ug ai F. convecl:im reslIPiplies the llpper~roposphere w itil fresh !'l!ffflC~ ,r!]r rough Iy ~\~i.;!)' 5, !olll B ~c;;!w;;e n r li I'OH1;;d ~tln~lul~'er mV€lr. p global annesphericreudels C311iUlOl s~mll];He days. This Hood or surface air is ~:lmjecled by IlJUI.HCrOUS indi'V.idlmJI thlUlu:iers;~orm:s, AbDul. in:t1i'v.idmn.l ell'md s.y~~~tl:.nm.s.lllilsl.e9d+ they use .100,000 thmlden)lO:lim.s uccur etlcl1y;~,u :~n paramererizatiens (I f OOIliVec'[iOIl!, The sll1ldJy thc United Sh'llC'&. nm.ostl.y d~l,ri~.g :>ull1'lI'i~cr. b)' Bertram er a]. provides a new benehmark Wh,l,l did lhii:s pervasive cloud p:Lll1ipin~ lor testing '~be;serepresenterions of co:rUiec-

l1l'leemu i~le[JI~"II-$c;)~~ eoffel't uf wrlN·eclion~ls captured in t:l~C'sc IliKW <tirernfri rneasuremenrs, Huwever. reproducing [he acruatlacarion a:undintcm:Hy () f Ct'l1,1v{;clio n 0!1 ~n~~ ler :J>c~l~s re'J!t~.,i!m.sa eh~~Ue!lg", l1.'!l UmH~ llur,lbHity 'It] d fullly understand the extent of humnu in~lu~

enee en

<HII:iIHJ ~rh.:r.~c C~lmp(ISilili;)ft

~:, 11$, ,65:1li7 (1'J1l:'l)'. 2~" tl::, E. P'id!:erif1~ffal:"ji; G~.hj(l:,~. '97" ]1'85 U.99.?1 3- A, 0, (lad?~ei"'U; ~y$, ~$,ltn(il, :]639'1 U9'J@), -l. [).l!iind(!jD1.,,:Naj~ 34i9, SiIIOU.99'U. :5,. T,!;t, :BerJlJilImfltJi." St"ienc~ 3:15.,.au (2)Oon p:ub[j~hedl anliM ~ JamlJary 200i ~'iO..11261sdlena!.1'l!J~!iIl!B), 6. H. II. 5'i~gh"w. H. Brulli~~ lit. (rawlllr'Q, I), ] ,.~:!I(ob,. It 1. f RVM:LtJ. GNpIr$,. Ii',~, 111,. D'l4SO 1 W:l(I6-). 7. liL R.l!)i(il;~iI eioJ., Sc;~<l!3~,~60 U9!1.7'l

:ll. L T,.I(jidf~l,J'~pi¥

R!etiei!i-e!i!()!!l'~

MICRO

13110 LOG Y A'~ m Ii:: If'@~d-~]roo, motion Qr :sow~ ssill@ adif!i!:S'!O!1S P:NlIVid'e s the Ion;@ nel!!'d@dliil prop ~l .til rod ·sill.'!ped OOCl!ti!<ri lim.

Accord i~g

0

r!I pll.g~ 853 !.1flM~i.~$U~. N.ligJ'Ol~'t at. 'pTl(}\'ide evidence fo:r. <1, novel

-

mode of bacterial
1'0

]ocomotioll

(i).

the~if mode L a baete rium

Se"~rd~d for !l10i[flr Ilrm(li!l~ o:.tIi! th~ ~q1!lid~ Jicml'iPus, ii, slender, l\C!!CI~siilOlped O",.cl.cl',iwJ.lll that 1U00000es by gl~.ding. They focu~e,dtln a ceiled-coil protein ct1J~h:dJ.\.glZ
i\<I.\·.JJtG(,-OC(,~/S

or

~h~ll these

fuei

f~p,r.;;f>~l'IIt

poi ~us tlf,)dh~s:~on
.Ui:i;QC iate

!hut <I~so lh,lt f(uce :~sappli ed a~.tl'n,c:se points,
The occurrence of Ag~Z foci .11 :I"t::'gubrly

l'ixed ~ :t!Ilen,(l~,~i1J111JI tht!hey ies

adheresto a SO:liid surfa'Ge fit regula:rintcrvals "long i.I::-; il;,le:~~: bod!}'. Coord il~<'ll;edllbn:-eis u niform Iy <I'PPI iled.ufocai ,nl:l1es.ion compleses fmclllh,e: Ice~~,U1~OVI;;::-;ro~@I~VI;l [0 th~~t: Ul<cL QmlDnim~~,ve' measurerneats <'Imlm<lthJe~muu~ cal nl()de:]i~g prt:~icl [hOlt rhc zenes of <l:dll€;·, sian ::lire orgaaized oaan internal helnc~1 l:mck and that :rc~fili vc ~nOVC~U~Rl: l he track of couldpower a ~pi.~F<liiflg.. eorkscrew-like m()tio~{W~!:"'.~lsurFi!QC (~C: the fi.!l!llr~,. T~u::rna de~ is din exp]<In<ltion for I:h,ephe~ 1l0~~1 e!H)~ ,~~ i~di mo~i~ ~. :Fv!:~~' f fgl flig iry.. a bO!cterial 1Tl{:I\'ernel!1Lttha~ pliOp ~~:; ceU s, over ,) soUd sUlililee. \Vhi~c g~,kh,~;lg,ceUuhflr rIl(JI! ~Ol:l iSo !:!mooth mul ce,1~s,tnw,~li rI s.~Ii't!ii.g~'n ~. occas~o l1Ji'II~ Iy nl:v~rsi ng in di.:rect io~. ines.. Despi.teits obser\, .• iom, il'll a ·wide \'iJ.riery of n bacu'!riJI species,. ~:~.emechani!iIH of ghdillg motiUty !hll$~Q'lgrCI1l<llinlld <'! my$~~!"y" ~$ gl id ilng De II s d:o not req wli re eJ,.tem.<I] :sl me" lur~s ~stvch ,1$ :~,~I,!:l:t:n'lor pm ~ t~llil co~~ld
po~e[lJllb~,~y !!:C:::Jve :!IS:<I1l ohvious, clrivemech~ ~mism+ With this LIi1I illd, 1V[Ugnot ei ld, m
1be' ilulhor i~,n ~he DepniIme"Vll 'Dlf lliD~Q'gy, Indiil11i<l i Un~~ls;III!I'.IEIloomingtolil, IN 47405, USA., ,[-mall:

because

nU.llliUU

cellsthat lack the

g>clle

~hflll

encedestsispearein are u~L~I!lMe g]ide {21. 1:0 lriil,c:::'bacieria were engineer-ed suchthat yel~ lu\,,1 nuor,r;::~'Ct":nl pro(ei!1 \iiJ;;LS 1~ls~dto Ag~.z" and when viewed under the Illl:icroscope.

ft~f!ctiQl'lal Agll appeared <'IS bngIUly[hvn. reseear j 11M racel IlI:I,~,'1ri:Oci,.T~~re ug.ll this ~p'Pl'rulidl, lht:~S,(!~rclu::rs 50i l}lllly Inol1~'tor(ld theposirien >0 ft!These loci1ls cells moved. In \A"~.Td,~ingthc movi~g. 'cl;'ll!s. Mi.g~.OI ttl (C/. In <Ide' several surpris,in£ ob:s.erV<lI,~mls.
t\g]Z fod~!ViI!~ ~~ st~Ha.fI!~ry "\lilh ~~speci
l he 8!!b~Ull~e. 'IlfiId dllu5 Ol. I;I;:U <lPIJ~OILni ~tl O UlJ1lJovere~,i1l t i 'VC 10 the .i mmobU :~:zed .1 nlerna:~ prole in. T hi:-i [lb;~'eirv<Hion::J.~!i:M:~e!)lslll<~l AglZ ]1r]!PIrks (l'Iliollm'jI Foc~ ,~focal mJ~hcs[on s l~o,Ul'iLple.1{es,) m\,vbich the ceH ;llJi,chon ~o ::l sohcl, surfm::e t!o push ilseJlf .3~,O:Im.!;!. C o!)~i l(:m~\lih t hi s ~~)i oU~(;~$i l~;e cel~s do s t r s. DlIot fO.fm AgJIZ foci .It ·posilioDlS wThe:re they (.~u f'lOt c![)mac~ U~esu·rfnctl •.such Ii!!~"~;h~ri!'!:l: be~,l(lD or' rare!'J,i!lil i11£ mo[uol;1 s. flJnl,H~II'~lg III
~];Io.l'\(!.

w~l'l~ an iI1ttrace.~lulian: .~].CI a I t rae k, ie f\gJZ couk] pllrtk;~i:rmte in l:l"ln;1:: ,gem::nllio:n , It is :SllL"lICIJI,f"dHy sin%i,i<lli?' eLlI:m:ryollc IInyQsi~UI. to ;,1. matnr protein Ih!?tlI~~dliHi~'e& intraeel luklr u:Illovemenl ~il~ongcyloske~e!~d :u::tiiillf]bers. The p'efiodkity obNe-jrv~dfor AglZ I!' c~Hl!~il\wm \\'ith!ll.epitch of the Ix\ck!:r.i ,I~ cywskelel:a~ p:rot.c~n MreB.u Th.mllolog of euhurym.ic

which fu:nn.s ~.hel ix i'lrn.~ide hfceil ~ lfcomrl(;;-'>,)~s CO'mit3.i~.i11g Mr~B ~Ild A:gIZ 'c)oIha.Ih~y c(.m,ld tl1eor-el-~c<tllyS"::::'Dlfltate fo:oce by3 Ill:eclia.aiIlislll r¢k\t~dio~lw m~Jt~i~mntors i~~\f()lv,~d i~ ~u~~ryor~c 1;."iI;llld.iv.~.\jiml, whi~~blood cd! n,uClli~,ity. and. mU1>c:le>com:rm::tiol'll, B.,X'3.'U se

(.n..

aetia,

b!iJtl~MreU and AglZ ine found in ~he C>f~()p.lasD1lilI,th.c adhes~.oll co.mplex wml,ld m::OC:SSi'llr~ i]y ha,,'!!: ~('I~·m\.'e$'seIUlllkip~e 1;.,}~e[Sof the ,ce~I.
e'llille!ope to internet \.\'~lh e'xtemall slnhSlrnte, <tn Th~ fO(:<l1~ldhesio!HnO~{)1" compl.ex '~u~I:~d be quite la,rge'. and IlU'lll,e:l'OWlcS 'Pmlein~::>la,ve ooel1l, I implier!~~dn glhU,,~~h'~ft,".(1I~ldflciC~~mmllt:~~U~e ~ il_~ <I!>s.emMy., stIfLn,c'tme .. "'~l1ld :iiimcti.cm (4), My~tc:riom;beh-Ma: ~)ggreg.atc'[, :1~ 'Vc beC1:'~ .•l
mi.cro:scQpic;.ny obs.ein'etl

\\~~]en the

lag.ging

po.le of ~

cen

ciltdN:::; up lie!<In A::l.~Z c:llm>~e:r. lh~ r-OC~I!:I di~ ... pers~s ~!ldl <iI ne\" focus fo!:rns ~ltl'h~ c~ln

<lnd biochemiiically

I e<:ldiIlg IPolle..Ay,l,Z d ispe:ml~: com:"! are-~~ W,ilh

db~~ms@iooiilM,1ld1J

('e[iular

r'I;~<i!X~I[!on. whi,ell slL~ge5tS not (lnly

Ip'~irifh~d fro:rml:~~ OlLti$li" l,f~~rs. of Aif; ,'f.fHlI11U,'i arid ~,u igh~ <II op;;nl i.ci p;~t'e ~n t:~.e gl.id il1g s m(".Ch~ni~ll (5. 6).

w'l,Jlffl.sdE'lncern~g.org SC;I~NC!

VOL 3~S 9 FEBRUARY.2007

I

PERSPECTIVES
Tog(ln~ragl;: u!lldiroclioL'iliill mfW(l!1l~!1Jtall components, of the :!'Del ical introloeUu I<lTtrack must prei>lI.nmh~y travel iu rhe same dillX:ttO:!~

[rel.~livere (he <Lclhe:.;a(l;rn complexes
[IIIUItSlbC3

;Hi!!.J fon:e

un ifo.r.rn~}~ over l:~lI.ehcl ..1'1.• i Treck :p;(d~~LFity mu:s( therefore also revesse lmkrlo~\':[m.but Fn;:Si:-l renmrk'IMy :ifilm,lib!.r in nu::;e:~~.urnj~li·\"'~cnch~ eells reverse dir,~cUon.To lIIdl.iJJ:;es:.f.: SI.rUC1ii,.1r~to AgIZ:.II1L!I'·eforc. ~<lnydisti~l'C~!'i1l1t('1rll. lm~igh~'be r~gul~red. by ~hi~ {';I.mrd i"~itio~. M iW'!~det (II" ~xpl{'lit~d the well-established f'Jcl; t~m'lt the freGiliency of ;J C:O:ffimmnJImotuf. :Ev.idence suggests that clir~>Cli()g)eversals dUlii~g g:1~ding in M. ;,:.mr Fr..:S i~~! motor regtd,ril~r b\!! is not reqvi~cl Mi.g~!IJ~ eN ed. pru .... d~ <!pictt~r~ of one g for pi~u:s ro~cegenerali,all ll'). Sil1li~<Ir.~y.~,t meehanism illparlicu~.a:l". 'hilS 'is: regu:l!arred by a serses oj' sl,g1il:a1transand the f'ield of ducers calledthe Frt:: p rntei mi. They show is pcss i.ble 1Il<.!~Alg IZ is not d i.:r\lcdy in- gl~dillg nw[~.lity 11m" has <'l molecular hanpplied thm AglZ fod coalesce at the: new leading 110.ie of [he ce I~c;Ol':lomnmiulJIu w.ulh!1 change ilill di rect ion. a corre I:lr~.o11.th~lt is rnai 1lUl.~ned

Thus. i~ ;T!ddl~ioul~n rcgu~.;l!I.i!lg (lH;; ;l!ccivHy d iffere nr nffi;otm':S. the Frz system must c{'bor~,in~te each such llhi.!I.t tll.ey de not run S9 l,~wh:lnel'ilUS ly in ()Ppo,s~!.e di rec ti nns. How :IF:I"Z inregrates vhe h:va motors w!;
of two

ceH~LhJrh.;:lic'll ~'r"ck. iiir:ld'~O'\'\.I Is fur·ct>geuerared? How is IlhlloveUil.l,l::III: t~umlg;h the separate adhe sion roc i prt:C]se.ly coordinated? Firl<ll~y. is Ag;IZ regl~.~m():ry ~.:-; direcdy or ~t iJili\'ol ved :~ li'o:roe gemlCT2It ie rl'! Ill, GI id i~l.g mctil it), il1i!iOWUld irI m<l[lY d i~1l'L~ulj'rclsted b~eH::ria. ~H,d j[ s·!.;~ln:.o> .~ikeJy Ih~llin iqu emeeha ni ~m!>for glid Inghvl;l eve Ived indepe ndenrl y ,p;.n. NO:Ill.eliu::~es$.

voJ.ved i:~l fcmee ge~.1,ermion e~l]u.er. but
is {llreg~LI!lt.tlUhglil
acij:l.es:irQ.UlIcomplexes,

r3~her

eol:()CllIH zes wit h tline foc 11 I

dl e by wh ic h to eX~'J1re ~he~mge.ll'p:~le[L~omo enon ..Their obs,t':r'lfat~;Orls; mayalso pnwiae insi g.iTh[ ~.[lJlolbe ori.g[ill1l.:s 0 f more comple x
eu Mryo~k motets,
r, R!l'rm~(~
if, Mi!!ll1qi: fj!1J., S~j~·315\.1;l5;1

even when l~~ reversal rn:;qu.~~H~Y isradic<liU.y a~~:eredlbyrnlllt;uioml:S in the .Frz: system. Therefeee, it i!~I~eiU'l>th.u the Frz signel tt<lll~dw::I::tonp.u~lw.xy m.ay cQordimne eellui91'· re vcIJ'~2i1s ·by e om.I.'n~Hng A.giZ. loe::JJHz!.l.~
tiion dY[ill[lllics. Precisely

lh~ :Jm.~odc:d proposed Spe·cif~C'.]ny"

by Mignol

ef (If.

accommodaresa number of observ aticns I:eg<lrrlil.lg 1'1.. rmlt/w~~ g~idillg.If1oti.lhy ..

the k>Galization awaits ~",plfUl,ul!.)f!, It :u:s ilfl]IPQJ:l<J::~H note l~Hd M: ;nm#n.fs to usesa second motor $iY~Tem-a retractile p~.Im;-l~~<lt ls jndependem l:l~.e· focal a.dhesion cmmp]e:x:e!ii tan !lis{D PO\1I.t:l'S ~1I1~)\!e"

ho.v Frz controls of AglZ :;Jlld track po.I(I.rity

or

over salid surfaees (see the figure], The Frt S:y$~emalso reguletes this S;Cpfl~t~· [[,notnw by contrell i[[l!:: prore in leeal j zat j'Oiil, dyna !nic.'l th r~lu~h ~ prm~ij 11ea ~ Fr'tS ( 7), I~d
[[11<1;:1111:

adhesion comph,r.",e-s aeeoura for ~he laek of visible external drive structure s d nri liS fhi~ [ype g·f [1ITI~O\'e ~ ment and also ¢xp~R~n [I~eacute ~(:Ubendi.f!gl~!()t:~!';~~<'ls.lnn~l~ l~fSduri ~l~ idi ng. ( I)' m;:l;' g;1 .FUI,·llu:f.IIl].ore, the m,odelis. cons asr'(!:lll \ ..~i l~.l the prev icus observatlens {l f S~I!l(!i ul....,·",1:10 demonstrated dun ghdh~g speed I~ r:l!l.de~ pendentofcell length mldpIL1~:(hcled that lime g~.iding meter is distrilmt,ed ;dorlg the
fOC'I~.

Ug@1~, ~. [;l.'l'ang IN (iJ-, J. !itlCiet:ilti. ::!!~i6. 61!~ (~oo·~, (2006).

~, It (.;j.rbaUidim·LDil!l',Mf«DbiaL M'aI. "'''I ..kef":' ]Il', 8B3 4, I?; 'l'amffria n N. ®!IIdl~
lIHao~N:l1.49.,

Wll1Ii1t:,~I.. H~I1IltIl, Mal: f ~.S:5{2(t1)3}.. 5. A. C Blur.w.rt[, It. P. 8urcJll.aro, ].A. Krm:!li::eLJ.. 6i1!tlwitiJ. :U2,6,66·(19n) ..
6. ;., f.reeow, H. llleiCheiilbilJiI1,. I:L wn~d~U

o. ].

.ti\:l.leda1. 11::79, 1246 tli99·n. t. r; Migl101;. .1_IU.wrlie]f~ 1')_ R. W!1tlan, S6~~ no', ~5 ii. Sun, z, ~ i!J!j,1lt Shi. Pm~.IIl~i1.AtGd.Sr~ U:S:A 9:~., il'5178 999i}. 9, M. ~ M:rBfldt.Anml.~: MktOO1~'.~!5. 9!~2(tO!U. 4
~~{II}»).

B,

body ofl~(l c~lIand llo1Io!(:~Ui!:ed.w till.': cell pole (fi).HoweveD'. qu.estionsrema~i'lm. W.li1i!Lt is U\l~ ·L;;xilc·[mell~e1.l[;:)Jr aarure oflh~ i:!ln[l-

n

'Gel m!)'oI'i D19[.1illie O)(Hhap~dl bacteiriU!il! M. x(m.!htl~ !JI~~S'~.W(I i:liUoe-;renl molililY5y5lems. One mode lI!ii!:!S an e(l[t1:!iI"~lIl oloOr m {r'e'tJi"a(J.iIe jl<ili).Th e m.thetfrs t:h"ii ta1 by the flor(:e 9e'J'i~r atJl!dl ~ 100m all! iW!Jt~F!i!al m(ltor~lhilt m()v~ .:'llo!l;~ ::'1 hfl'li(01llJrad .. .:'lS
dQ'{nlbl!d ~'i tl~~gflOiler Q~.

HYIl(1theticOl~ hielncOli~ cy~u5~.tI.et.al riiJ.er

~'"""tioII

,Forward guoi!'!!,) mClwmem
.

(m~ha ut !l11i)

IPERSPECTIVES
CHEMISTRY BlJbll~) n~wi,n9 Uml<ll;9n n:1II1TOIioi c'haU!!l!i can

I

be enmdled with lnr'O~i!l1alio~a!i!cl niladel.O 1D~rlerm ~o!:ikoper,a,tiol1ls lilk,!! thois,e in i'l mmpul~'r.

spent evening, have stm;edlinto lhfll hl~tg lass (If beer Qrt;hl_r!1Iil,p"gJ~e .md wondered v.~h<u;~el:in;d U1,1;~:~$ i'll lill.e fusing lie bubbk:::. bef(H"1: L!s.·?~n !h:i~ issue, fucrsHn,nill et ,al. {11],1 ~se 828 (I) .,md Prakash ailei GerSl.lrlenfuM Qmlpflige fBi: (2)rep(l!rtthdr use ofmicmnlJ~dict,echllliolog;y to. C::OIlSWllC[ sueams or

H

-

0\\1 il'1!m'i)'

ofu~m d~j;l~itl~

of

awell-

Wt'ir nl ..iti!]pU~;;!li~g themas [h~ I;;q~i~k!lt ·of
Tur.in!fs

visioe of ,I universal cmnputi~]g I'm~dl~nr;; ~j'). These d!el]';l,ollstli<1J[o:ncS e f tUn,c' ower p nf reI~;~i'ii'e:iy ~~mple ·~.''''(I-cgmpone.I~.t

micmllLddicnmv::J,

male nne .\101]der hflW' far .ill.is;possuh~e tfl go in 'C{l:ml, strtlc.:tung III icmnuid:~c "thinkung

drople'~S m(,~~tid-in-n(~~Lid) buhb:lc$ (gasand
in~Iii,Cluid)~jl,13~ encode and decede :iillfor~· can II,mnio.~l.or ~~e'rforrnllq;i.c ..1 opernlio~". Since its ,el'm:Jlld't"J1Ce ill lh~ 19'90s. ~.li.cron lli1.ides Ill'lsloooomCl: apowerful Hl~hl1i;llJ ue iWm:'II. i wide \'ar.~el)' Of11ppl i ca tiens i.l:i b ioteelsnelogy,. cn~n nccrrj,llg, pl:l)' sics, BI!')a citemij.MIY By ~1 ~~dy.h'lgP !i;H;:~~~~if! chaane ~:>whh t)' p k'~ll clilne~,lsi~o:UIls 'Ofteml1! to ili~ll1ld~iedsof miernme~no" re~~i.1:rc~(:5rs can cO:JroUUCl(~(l~urulleclrei;'!Ctioas \.\!Jinile e:COJu)J;nftz~llg ,on~~l.e c::o!lm5ul~.~,pli.on

(h)'vi{Xl~:' Cflrll'lfl~ll!lr' 00!nPG1~ \l,"ilh
iI! sWc(') or
.iJI c{!r(!h~'(). <1:1lI-<Ii!ll fOIN:er~ ta.i~, Sl~ecu~.iiz~d 3:pphciujom;,7 It. ls

11.uwpos:siblel:O

bWlild microHuidic

dli~~~ o:mU'lini ng ~~U'lmdlrui[jls. ,.mIId:re.iu;~ () able !:,Ie:m;enls. (rH. ~nl1d these el:e~neil,ns I;!all benulde ~urc:;:·rfmm .imporml1lt conlI:ul ~~nd~.lJl,Jmo:!)'m~k:-; (7), Mk'roll~.idic networks :~.a\'e ,lir-elldy been used [0 solve Mh;r(Jn!li]dli(:~~hl$ dIlenll~:bfy • .A. mli(i!)n~uidi:t:d"~nlll?l mPLt~.c. pm'bfems. (9"). Pill:mlo:.x ic,dly. OJ:Ie obsta" s Ci:!I1'ie~Wil:OOf d rOIl!et~ (11wll.lm~ 2'50 p:t i~~ 00 ntil~u!!· de 1:(1 lirLe pnlC~,crd use of nIiljcrolluidi,r;; devices e us S'tr·eam or Qil.IAdiIP~_e,d (rom, 0.8)] 'hI!' sroj)l'e1S ad: has been ~~liei lack of pOl;tt'lbi:~ir[y. b-m re~lill r as lliIi (i'O'Ileacto<lS. Uri wh idh!:he IrNg'~lf'Its,aj'f ra pff'l1:ly \\Ork ( I €A. II) s'ug~~tf; "\,'a)'S i~l '~vhicfullhij s hurmlD:ed (upp~r I)Inl!lulatnng region) al!ihlrt IJh e,rl Ita ilSdle ImlY be oveeenme, lil;1rtee ..nt~l' o dispersion nowen.!!~om~ ~Iic!'!)' Sudll n N~urocUii-~::m(] etll.np~I~~ chip!> ,;in;: cerl'lll!i!lIy alii i;i riran·9~ ~nt i;;i;lJ'i be used ~~(iJli!lF(ll (hell1'luca! reacnllJ!fe cO:l1.~p,le;:.;:.~~anchel:niicaUy ill~elt dmplet~ tion I1CtWO;~sM ol !fl'I~mscwndlim~ $'C{ll~" o.r~nLbhl.es. One v.my to enhsnee t~lecapahility Qflllll,~c~'Qnuidicevices is ro cQnIilbiml:. dH:l1!il.l d (see the fi!:,~IIrc;}with the bii,s.tabi~ity. ~1SCm~complex seql1CIl;CCS of path dl,oi.oes (e.g., d AABAAJ3) i{.~<ln generated, T,~i5 ~:~ml)le I'im:l!~. and lj,\itwesl:lmml in n01'l1 i~,1e<rlr 'aemic'I,I1 be dynamics (11),. On ,I macroacopie sC<l~·e. the prJnci.ple provides the basis for l!:Iie work

~

UfJ and '"(]lllpwa~i.(m~l!1bf di ffk:uk ffiiflidl!i;l-

of pt'IM-;ibly scarce marerials, n:nM in $,liiLdl
chaanels emill IJe characterized by l\VO di!l.nelll,slonless ~lu~,b~r&. the R,cyr\lolds Iu~mber (R''! J. <lind the c3pil~.hU''Y IlUmbe'f (Gf).\~elJll, /1(! is

Imv .. in~niO:'lI ~ff(lct~ are ~l(;)gl~~ible.ai!'Dd f]uJd n i::>llamil1<lr and s.illllpk: ,I u the mml.'OVI' S}l\2I:res f a lypi.rnJ micmnlJ idie dledee, this r s o almost .1~'i t~le ease , ..ray5

0,,1

The C<lP mary number (en) C'haq:lllcl>er~Zi;"s.

the bali<lncebet\MtH'::1l !'lLlrifacc l:en~iollIl nd visa
clOns :ro.rc::e-s,. Gl determines the behavior

or
<.i

[h~ bubbles or dreplets

\\,~'le~

U~(;y reach

oft:\'\ropmhs.\N~!1 p.id. ~heChntHld [~un olr~.t5 dec:od iliig~ht: 5!i'ilIll1 <II. ,ei~Klfby re\'~t'jing tbe the~O\\l'Cst rcs[s.t<mcc EO now. lBec~us,efh,e d[r,ec~~:oll1lof now 01: by j)iI:l>su.wg the Slr~alfl g pre:sen,ce ora d'mph:tor bubb:te irtC[e'l~s. the dllroughil S6ComJ 100~p, .~ 11,;es.isl<LHC,e 01 ch'H]llel. <~ :se't:ond bubbl.e fr<'lkash dlnd Gershenfeld t<lke .. luore .~ arriv~~!;!:.uf!jlm(~lion bc~;,;n."Cn t\:..r~)c:lN~ml~~S L;;l'>,pl idtly COmpl~!;f~tion,~"dOQm of vi~'\ .... reprop o !>e1Jll.lil'lgbi~s .of ~,nform<l.lion a:s: lJubM!esilli a 1= of Slim iii:!!!:' but unequ<lIl I.eillglh wli,ll~ake' rmlh .B :~ IJ!fhH" lhl;; fir~ ~akes'the s~~{Yner '-I~h 1\.. As. ~he dlafIJrI~l. <'Iml,c-'{)I'k~~nH:t~irc ~:hc;l~ p lI!its om.ly ~ inler""~~1belw~'ell drol)lct:l> d,ecremies. Irlme canoy om the iJl'lClioll.'> .of Boolean ANID. OR. .~ 1Ut'~ NOT £,!lies but ;JIJ~"'O can bc~i.llll«::d!:C).~ellu:{j'

j)o~J1t :.11. wiruue h <I chsrmel spl its into ]V,'O bl';;!w';·~Ii;~. For '('(I less limn O!!~:rUtk~~l, (3). valw~ that depends on the length of~1'ae bubble o:r dlroph:'·l9nCilhcgcoluctn.')'{I:FLh.e chm~I!I[4,~. sur~ f'icel:eu.ion cl:O:~.~in[ltes. so tb,e bt~bole ~,1Dltis. hl!JAHhJ.;r" UkI.; lh-':[il'~v~~~'!"'~n Ru·t.ioLm FruNER poem The Romi No! Tala,." ,~4). rhe bubble must 'Ch~l(lti.~ ~Ilf~d~- ltll(lU~h_ R)~iSp!'t'lt~lgA mliM ~io:!!:;J;.1':l5 "dle unl;: ]Ii:~ m~\~el~d by:' 01.sll~i~ tary bHbbl.c 01: df-oplf:'~ fbrced 10 st'ltlc (lilmone

reponed by b(ni1, oh~u,':, .gmupt\c se fllerstnmn el al. generate <L series of drnpkas a~ periodically or aperi{ldica~ly vall"y i_~,g times mn! pass the Ilres,lUJti.I:i,gst ream ~'I.'{mgh ~ 1(jOJ."~:~1lI[ OIfli;:rs [~l(~ choice between two ",Iigj.nly d iIfere:l1t' chmm1.1.el s, lh~lI"eby n1.odiryi~lg Eil(:i~lilia.! ii'iilgnj!!'opl,cl ~iimL;~~re:rv~!ll.~lld i em::odil,S .1'111.~nplll sigll><ll. Remm.:kably. mdLk:e
F!"!I;)st\; fro\lC~l,;:r. \'lihQ "'dut~h~L;;d if [ !>~o~lid f\JleP.>1lnm~r:t al. Oi'IreOi!ble to 1.'Cs:tore I.he ini~ii.. ~ series ofinl:erv!lls" thus
~Vl;;r ClOnl'te b,ICk:'

or

prn~olype Bel(lusov-Zh.?ill:m~j:1liI~kyreacricn .thm.beenusediu dev:iceS.lha~ count (1J'l~store imag~s(/4). solve mazes (151.~nd perrbutl!ll logical. eperanons {.I6). Carried '01.It i~ microa []uidic ItCt\\,\O.I'k, an :app1i':opr~~,tclyehosen set of ntml inear re,lclio;lm:!-l not ol1,ly ~:ni ies 1JLlt,II~O m provides in~i~l[illto I~,c Incc'h~tnism~)fbh;md dou:il,lg (.17). AJ~liiIolllg:~. it is dli,Wri,cu~tIQ envi$iQ!') ;~~kro~.U.~idic ~~yst~'!l~~~ j f1I '!iJ,,11~.~h th~ num'~"\f of cmu~~'1,;'tim15lU ~l :i.ini~Je ~lemeill·bJ.:gin:;, IA'Hl,ppmil.ch the IUlinbcr ol'synrul'J.,'!es. mal,} i.fH.I'L\'idml~ Iletqron. Olddimlg n."Penoire of chemthe ist.ry Ul the :n,e~.ihi~ity a:~d c~pab i:~fly or rapid !!!\~1[u;hing pm\'ideJ b'y nli.cn:dllidi,c;s :l:hmdd IlJl>llke ilP'O.ssible to pe'lfbmlll tt'l.sks of amsider~
~rbleC(IIi'\~p]e,~~~y. ,",V.uiU fll.l~ure.[ ames: .Bonds. be' eq L],il)ped Wilh

'I!!

.1 T'1i\~ autlio~ 'I~

~ii! the Flepanmenl ~f CIheml~lir)' anti the • V~!~tI(~llItti!r rill' (!!Imp~~x)y~~~ Bt"I1I~~i$ ~ fifI~,. Uilli"jf~l:y.

r:i Wa~tham.,. MiA Q245~"9'lJ.I0', Ui5f!. E.·:I1I1I1·il, ,ell~leiln@ ·el b~<!i'lde~s.,ed\J1

mi~nlfluidic ~)mrlli~rs or e:1m.t'Ud~!,S~l~Ufi( i~liO ... slrn.oe <lIJtd ., re fueled by .. boule of spf,~ng ~V'dICl'(or pl'emi~,nm, \>oo,[I;&u)?Plub."Ibiy ~~{)t"b~ll to pmdm;e Inoreelabomte arrnl!lgemeritS C"dJ,Jia- !m.ep()~::>ibi,lity of,c~rryil:lS OLitml impre::>~ive '\I1'lri.cty ofwsks; u:>1.I{illly "l&'ioci,M.ed w.ith 'b.lI"aJim • ble Qf~Cli.ll~as COlml:Crs. O,5>Cmamffi. Oil"m'lmlQfcoJ,npmer.; WJIUul~.dollbtedlly insp.ir-e rru:mj' OJ:)' arrd,ys.ll is, pCB.'.h'lIP.'i nottot.,Myt1Id:l'tched to< !l1lO[(.' >Cf~ITHiw tl5t'S of !1l!kro:n~lidh.::~\; ..beui'! in ~!ll;flgi~l~;;~S'[~d!m flf bubb!cs .~nda ~e~ (if ru~GS
SCI~NC~ VOL 3~S 9 FEBRUARY.2007

~'tl~

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

775

I

PERSPECTIVES
s.YSt1:!llS like th,e
reportsand
(In~S

~'\p~(:Jfwd in

lht!!>.;.

two

ill more (;'OI~TI,pileX~r Fdnge'me:IUS,

6.1[. Tho~Ie~' S,.J. l'IIaer~_t S. f!:. Q~<I~..f,Sr:i~fI{1: 2919\ '5:60 (2002". l.A. Gr!li!nmm,M. Ellifill!trg~. S. R. (lm),k.il, SdMa' 3I(!Q,
'i'~5 {l!(!!O3).

11017., 1664 (2003~, :lioil. A,K~if!'l1!f1ag~ V. K.I.I'~MQ,
II,!!:El45, ~1iii9~.
.;!{)i!17 W)(tQ'J.

I. it 1~i;li!I!~m. njjlm. A

('oI'It..m.

th1:l1,c;..;ploit cll.CJ:nis~,ry aswell,
R.e,~llfen(e;
L ~_~.lTul~tm~m.. P; G2Ir~I~OI;i 'G, M_\'illil)e;;itI~,.5oi:'J'M~ 31!l~ ;92a (.lI:OOi~. 2, ~. fri!kla1l!1. 1M"G!YY!li!lllfeM.. Sd!l'JlOf' n5. 8~il(200"t ;1:, I!). R, lim'" :~, !".An~\ "., A, Vl'!I~ It, "",:s't!ll1I~.~ ~ ~A1'l1. 9,~ OS.4S.~H I~'QO"~. ~" It f..r!;i~~Ma~tclrM~&1\tI1 ruel!f~Ii'fD!t. ~~'rQr!l;"l!9i2:n, pp. 'iI ;nd 1[,0, 'i, A. M. tllrnmg.I'I'·Il~ tMdoJ'l."''lDIh.. 42.BO n93~',

::1.5. 0. S'tti!llbOOl:,.A. ToUI.. tt ShOWilll1Jf!r,SdM~ 2:6'7. 868 '1l6. O,s:t~jj)'bOO!:. Fl.~~Jtu~ef!. ~. SMwalh~r,}" fi'jll", (flem. l[QO., 'll89?O (1:9%), :~.7_ M.IK.. F:uJ\)'~, IE, L !O'I1!n~n·"'e1!T!~. R. F.. t:!ir!il9~lID. A~cnem, fnl,U 431.153.1 (~oo,4I). :1l9. iI. Song, ~ 0, il'ic~.1t f.l~mag)Im.~ ,QIJM, {nt, Ed., ..~, 763 (200!J),

J.I~ui!fSllt'!ilII.tIQ;t. lDJil9rJl,jj1N 19. 47104 Q.OM~. 'i'_ I). r, CIILu.IE_ i'~Dnli.1'I1. 1(, III'lI., tL. D'. Strood, G- Me il\l1I'I1~[.m, 1W:Jc. ,fflfll. AM4. Sd.. (.iI,:S'.RI,~B, 91i1 f20Dtl!l. 2 10- P. GarStetlci,.·M.llFwer~Iiii~"" ~ A. ~Ildib~ S,. K. SOia, G" M,WltII~1d~!, lOll (hip " ~i7 (2:000), ll~, ~Q!!i!'i~r ,~~¢,., {lfw~Qte~# ~,1705 (~OO'4t
1'10\" 1;1. I.

S.

lit '~Ijl~eil'!..,~ .PL. [j\Q]m~,

fnr/lMltttjoill

,ria,I'IIrmljl1\M! :

S,,'"

u

Q~CilIt1.rcWm").1!fi1~ f'OJ'rem.li, '~Il!~ Ch!lQ~~O~~ordi~!i!iY.Ii'~, HiM'ifntl J:99.e:}. ~. G~red;i\ ~. 'f,05ni'l:ilWiI, 'If, rg:.ar~~!i1u. P'IlIS- (hern. A
(l'lrolrwl {l~i{~

CELL BIOLO(~Y

Ce,llilullair Deml,ollli'l:ion and thle Bules 011 Elnglaglemle'nt

Do@s (~ll (h~3Ith~(:(liH'by' p'lIiilUn!lj t.h plll!g on Bd,-2 ~H~s.upport 'Dr pumnSiI Ug,~ bijgger QIl B:ax

a(tivatioii1l?

ily. Bm wi~)~li!ll th,isr.1iI~d!Jy: three Hlcliom. are <It odds wil:h each oulrer as lht'yriv;d ~'OprO:llw1:e or blockcell de:-.Jlh.Allni~lpoJJlUI1c ~1]lIembelrS.m:1 ~('I rc:stmi ~~pm~po'pICJt.UC members. Mo:re cf an eni~,m hasiLleen dre acliviltyof"BHJ~only pro~~:il'l'l."fi,l!ni~y m~mb~!"&d~fut ham a ~i~.gllillumi r s {OJ B.IB domain I Wil~, Ol~.er l3d-2 proteins, BI~IJ"Q~pl"Oteins can t}] ltd toO d~fllerel11 slJ.b...~L Iy s Q'hllite Bd-,2Hm!lilv, 'bt~lwl'leiher ~l~ey u.......,i:..>i: ooU s~tiddc hy aetlvat ung pro"'apoL')pi.ut.ic :nm.cmbcl:S Q!I" hdlibiting "lmi-<l,puptutic ~hlrn]ill)'members ~i1a'::i been debmed, On pl'lge B56oflh~si3.,ue.Wii1'is •nul t;oll;:ag~u€:S V) 0g!~c:!ud~that IU-i] -~)n1y proteuJlS- Vi,,'o.rk sole!y b~ thw;nti~g ~mtu..ap~~w," sis Bd-2I1rnt,tlins. lilus ~~I;;un tI~ CUlUrtlV!Oirs}'. ng \Ve' nov.,' umle.rsl;;md oae way [0 sl:<l1rtt~u:' >ce'li's dt':~~hnladl, ~nery. Dd-2 :1.;egll~~'lte:!:i tis~lDe lile~llth by iil,l~l~bil'ing ~upopt(isbt BlIx t~nd homll~og Bilk) ha~ I:~J; in;; opposite etiffeci ofpn1ll1,lo'ting ,'Ij)Optosis d~sp.H~ ~I :;~!rpri~ingly similar thre(;l..dimen-

E

~~1(~~!~jO!1 of

\;I;i:IM~~~~uk~hle. UW"iX)pitlJ-

,S,i.S.s i

of one _grou;ptlf prore~!~.~~e BcJ~2 ~mn~ ·

:i_lldi.3PU.t;.~b.IY m~.de:l",lhe. d.:O.'.I'~lUI!km

B''l.Nwm.' urigin~uUy id~~uinl;.1d oJs 01 BI,;·I~ l-bhni~ng pr-ote.DIl and was t~,lought to be l!lhibhed bylll~~ iml;;f"C'l.i~!~ t,n. Hnwever, ooJI:I'mry 10 rhis ··.I'hcos.tmn.~.odel:.·· in he<lhlm:y cells, Sa,IXis u:LQ~:bound ~o Be 1-2 but e..,,-i~[1'l<IS <I monomer Ii. m,the cytose I (3' )., How C <111:1 am iapolP'lotic Bd~2fil!llily memherskcep proO!p>o.p~:otic B<I:X I Dlcheck WiJi1I£ml d itrec::t ~J1~:er<lC'~ HcufJ 01).(; s!fll~1 len ~llay ,~~;~t~r [l11the' achvhy
ofBHJ"(m],y proteins, Cell-llee models ofBflX aeriveuen, \:"l.lidll

i~~ I\; i:! U,~~I pl:p\,\'~ J tides bind to B.\1I\.and cause a >OOl1Jfol1lnatUoll31 ,cI,1a!'l.g:e~nd 01 ig:t)mer.i~.,.~ionof B~!x. ~.ereby d 'I(liv<lllh~g the mi.locho]1.dl!'iai oe:lll, c!uh path" d
!~~~t with rhe ~i:~~!'J'.I~ modc~ \\II;'!{y: HO\"!,' lh(;!~, [)tJ]]eQU~er d

BH3~o!1lypru~eil!l:s

lh,ur do {1I10tbil1l.ci[o Bax l:so-c,lIlecl"mom.'LC li",,'!!:i.f'l!,c prO!t.eimL~) i~du(li.l'~p[)~nOKis?' On~?Cl,~ib:iI~" i.ry .is~ll<n ..etivatcr proreins eeuld be se~l~li$~~G~d 13d-2. The ~C~iWllffr$ ceuld he by ~ireed11i..(n[l~ this <!SS\f) Uali,o~~ ir d isp laced b;y c no.I1Elctivali~g BH3,-only prot e.ins, The re-

denot flilHy reflect l~,~un vivo simatien,
ShOV.'tJl2Ll p:rr:cH'jpaptol.k Bax ;lI.Clss~,crg ISli ~ c.llbf ,'\.'id,lpeptid~5 cOHe~JRl\Irn,dinlgto t~,l.eBH3 dm.na:irl1l, of ol:lly <II,e\'!o' Bl,~3 f ~mdy proteins, ~lmf~b1yhose from Bid ~md Bim. TO illduce t

leased

.'ICt~\.llQr:5. could

the 1m. hind to Baxand

trigger e ell deil~:Iia. (jl 0 ne I)mblem 0 If til is mode::~ i:-;~1~'1:t<I<.::livm{){L' proteins ,t Him and Bi!t~~, do not detectably bill,~d to B<II~ Hm1il\e,,re:r: . .. recent wark shows lh.:n Sl<I!Mlh:ing [he BH3 cy~O(:;hn.'O:rn.e C release fiUmLl, irolil.tt:d n.U:~loclmll~ doma:~n stmcuae (001.: he~ice:s)of Bud and Bim dria (4-6)1, IBid .~nd Bim ~D\;'lh~~!'roferrud' t,o as ,II IO\7Ilf;.the p€'p~ides lU bind tQ ~x. kl;l~pirngdtr.;; ··<ICtU~lilUOI:' p.mtehlll.s:." This seenario is cans islheo:rypl~lIs~,ble ( 7).
-------------------

: Pro-ap optotio[ prate iiTI~

Il hi3-(Iml~ protein 5

Anl.i-J Il'DIlli:)t lc prol.oill5

sional

Mrm::Wfe.

hi:. nuw

:;:lcl,;>l;:ipl1.:d

~POP[Qt~c ri!]ml~~,YI1.~.e~Hbe'rs," .Dm;~udi:[lg Bd<~:.

th,., .ulli.-

Ba!lJ Noxa fiim a.i~. Puma Billl

~cH.

B,;:I.--2

Bcl~xl!..,'ln]d Md~1. restrain B"lxand Bak ~c~hli I'Y. o.~ce aeti vateill B:Etllt Bel induce !ulld pe[lm:~.bilizat~oll,o:hheml.li~och(U]dri~d membrane. ~hen:!;~y .. llowing cyteehrcme c release ;:!f'!(j lhtl fu;:d\.oal~O'U1! of CIfU:;;p.fU&:e~(",i\'~l id~ c,IHllyze 'prole in dieg r'<Ida.t I!c:'l~,l). is c<I!.'!cacl.e 1'1:1 of e\~ell t~ lU~~~n.u'ltl\;ll)1 lead::i: 'In bre<lM!tl'\Mll of ~;~lelCell(!!ee~11e :flgm.'e ~"
'The auhlor ~$ 111the 5ul1((~~ W~urolog!y IB~ndl, N'atEollili l'n~ti'I!IJI[eof r\leur'!J~llK.Ikal DlSlOrdm and S1lrll:k;e. Hilil~onill • yoo~r>@.n;m;js:n;lI1.go.'II'

1
~

Bd-~

/'

•••

1

1011

CytO'Chr()me C ~e!~)e affif casP"'!le OlCliva~o!'!

Ik·$~~i.!inil!ilg@'rilJ~~Sc A!ilti·;;1 (l!~li:l~~( (l~2'~i.!l1i!ilym~MJlOOr$ p B

bl~ck

tl1~ '~lr~I1!~~Dl1It~(1Il Ipri(l-~ ,(I~ Pll",~!)t!( B~;.: er' p

nnit~I.Uite$01 li'Iearth, BenlEiisc!la\MD2089'2" l!I:S:A.. IE·mai~

h:aIP~ Itly dire.aly bind irlg ,a!'ld if! hi~itilllgi B<lL~0111 l!Il~toCihofldri<IJ rio'llowil'l;~ a 'CiordQml'a:~!i(l:n:al {_hOlmg,Q.,SH3·cmlV pi'Ot~il1is promote .lIPOpto5,jos hlindi ng 10 an d iflhi ililing anM-apoprt.Olic Bd-2 Jam ily prnteiil1!CUvity. by

IPERSPECTIVES
h1,C(](n!I'L~l\l~[O the 0~II-flt'(le:m~)d~ls. Winis et al. show~11a~ Bid ,uul nin'l areaot ;[1,111
required. for apop~.os.is. in ViVD., Using .mlice

I

!Hm'l.'cdl de.,f~[h~p'rr~mflljl,g Ba;.; i:i>~lh"3fed
remains

from the cyl.o.ml. to thel1:1iinc~lIQ1lfad:[ri~~ dm'il1lg apoprosis,

unknown.

hlCkillig Bid and B.~m. theauthors

show Ih"l ItOl1>:;lCiiva'ting 'prulei]D;s sti I ~i~~duce apopltMi:s in \fivo.lley also ,t:onfim~, lll[[~, B~IH mmdl.B:idl~il 10 bind 'Il'nl-~poptmicBalk 3!1i1,d
B011(.•ThlUK.

and overexpression
this releesuon.

demains d~l,t hari.'1flr bh~dlim!.g pockets f~)f H3 B domains, EbuciJa~illlghovv B~B"O\~ly piliuteins relieve inhibiticn of .Inembr!Uu::!-ll1lscrl!ed B;2IX ofl3d~2 somehow I):we\<ej;'g~~'" by Bd~2 ru(IU~reS fre~~hill!\.~£lu i~IO the strueh translecares

BI-li3-otlly pfut~i~:s

<~ppe",lrable to promol.e apopw~
~ ann- ...pOpIO~.:tC. I toa,]mlog.'>. to pnml;ol;e ,'JPopw~i:-J. wi lhm~~ displ<lici~,lg aCli\~IWJ pm~iins.. W.~at then ~l(,"l~V.fltc Bax s ,.:II <lIl!.1

lt ffi2l)' be tJu't[ccllrlJlal" srress tures ()fthL::mcl1~~r"':I1Ie.cmboodcd Ibrms;, alters the conlbmmtli.on of B.u:. to a se<lmli-<~ctiWims and l'olh::<igue:ii 111.'lke clear that v~'U~dt~h:~~ s SOIn~ ufl1'ncB~x lhc~ 13 FIJ·on'llypr.ot~ins ean promeie :;llpopmsis Target ~:pNifidty ,!]of mtl'i.ie-$ ~(j mitgcholldri<~. \\\~~rl.;; ~;.;:cb'iv~~y i~~ib.Wi~,g 'by 1!i:i'!~~~p~lpl,gitk Bd-2 aHl3-ol'll~ protetns <lfIIli"3popliOti!C Bil:I~.2.a.mily rnesnl r'IU1~ilymembers (see the Table), lVlo.~eove:r.
.JlIi.lilthlp~tk

sis solely by ~nhibiling Bc.:'I-l

SH~-m:l'~

p~ot@:in

EI:d.-2 -p.rG,mll"1

hers bpnd

;AIHi

i~lbib~t ir h'~'~ 11I'-II~tict~i~~r IM-il·(]i!1h' p:wow'Ln~ ,eng,-'gl;l 1)'-101:[ icular am i-<Ilm:p~OI~.C Bcl-J nUlml~I~YIYlIC.IiI;l,be!'S.
~!lldstress-

th,e !':ig11.re). Si,:T:1lIilm:~y.ntfl:scenl

B.]k olig.omtir:io {J\I!1 mj[ochomlr:i,! Bc~-2 m;eooumJ by Bcl~2'lnld~~e:.~-eby blocked rmm. '~lrilh0r Omg:flm~liiz;;J;<md B~~ktoset the uritochontion:m.d fooJn ~n:ducilllg apoptosis Md-l Binll (/m.lhe~~ !i!cm[flc~iv~~,,:d f!)fm.... drhd 0~U de..~ Pflt~W~iJ' i~ I:~ IPUllfJfl motilOl'I'! The situatien fo:, Bak of Ba.'l: OIl1Id. B3k could be re.~u:eved B;alm ceuld 'be mere sn:aighlfo.l"I.tUIIld ofBc.~-1 .inhibituon by BnJ-D~d~1 11)1ml ~Imml.for Ba x. hilcontm sr 1;('1 IiIUllll03 proteins to ..,Uo~,\" ompletien c cytosellc !I_lli.d11Ilo:l1lm~TIerrC Bm\,:. o ~:'M~n'L~ !ocal.io~, 01 igo.l1M:riZ§Jt UOlfa • l1)~k B~k :i:;; mtOl!lll<'l~~:ybtmmllOliiilliwmi:d cy~cx:hruI1l1.ec release, chondrin and COffili!:.;lit uiivdy bound W Md~:~ CQlm~p]~~f!ling tileis..'>ltc fmiher:!lre experi~und Bcl-"'I..'l!lti.·~.poptl,_ui.;Bc~-2 ~:l"H!!.~i]y!l'!~1:m· m~!1;t:oindk~~hlM lh<'!.t Bc'~-2m~u,t ch4iln~~ eonbers {8. 91. "fbm" 31rnp,le rel ief fl'{lll1,l, i~l~~iMliO:I1I, Ihnn<lti.an ClI1I,~h.el1fliwc:~.omlr~ato illihibil Beax ~hroli.1-gh bindi ng ~ f B]-[3-ll~dypro~ei!15 could (1 h Thus. !lL1ivaKld f(lrn~~ ofBd·2: m:ayblJock activated :ion'IlIS of Bax, i]g!lilm. ci(insis~.em with ~lnil.e'ls;ih B!I'k~D oligemenze <mel induce a,~ ~o~i,:-i (Ddgi~l'lny proposed in the rhe-Ol'UH, as the rheostat mndel e'.""ce;::p~ th<1.tinhibition model. Ho","'eveD'. mlllmll forms of B<'Ik less cccu ~'S (ii.ov"'ll!'.tre<il1~ oftheellll~i,;e .BOiIXand Belab~c to bind Bd''Xb ~d Mel .:~ il:ti]l~rO(]luirc ;U~ :2 iICli\'Ulicm S,t(;~'lS" Two eerural helices of Bax m,1Ikn;1O~\,:nl,aerivation step to induce <lPOplOiSis and 8 cI-2become embedded deeply in the ~li'lflcl~.olujr ita Ig'l~~~~~hra~~ !lg ~clijvm~o~_. dun ,,6)0. in:dk";!! ir.g dl!)t' $j mply re!'lffii~!'I~in~'!Iibtlion by Mcl~:~ and Bcl~~l. i'SO nol ellil~ug~. tb:'~b>'unlbldlnJg <l11d: undoubtedly de~lm'yil1g bd Bum ~U!li!a Nlooca

'Inm""i'ng~i:i-."iut'l·!'ip!;ld,r.c~gI.!lalion n

speeiflc ce.lmular respenses, Bt.")Iond the issue or BSlKlIlld Bak .f~Cli\!!ll~nfll'ClilUiJiIlS tbe ce1lnti!<1:11 qlle,~li!D1l oH.ow they S~ill,UH~;Jte itm:::~.o.nl.d:u'i::d m m~mb~!1epClim~l!bil~1;_f!lio.ll, .~ process dlal has defied intense research efforts so far.
:ll,~. ~I WI!~i~tl,~I"s.::km"e :li~!5, ~6 ~:z·oon. :1'. '!l.I, K.CIfSIlfI~e!';~.ll. S!tmUf'l. 0\, ]" ~~5, D, E. ,Mer!),. l~1M, (liM~ 5~mIrl\ ((M(g Bloc il, :iln U'99D. 3. 'to J. H~w..,!I;,]. YOI!.!~,J• .BioI: OIfm. ZlIl, 10111 U'll'~a). !L if, I<lfflem~ ~~@'.,.Mal d} l1, 51:) {2'OO$.L C 5,. M~Ce!tQ ,r( w., fOtJ(t'f (ell 9. ssr (l1llO61 s, Ii. t(~m.~tli, Nat, Cln 13f(d, :13:<18 (2fiQ6.i. 1- t 1::1- .~~fi~kye!' 01, Mill,. (eJI ,~4, I?II ~_jlO()6)W 5. A" IUu!OOllliliti C. MwldJeii'j~, III ItIl!I'eil, lE.ilI\hile, ,Gtnil1 1»1, ~7, ~n.2~200[~. 9.S. NIWilli~.~(lL, Gfm'~D.ev. 1'!1.1294 12005~. :l!9.~. C Rl!HroW:, G. (, 5!!lOre. J. 8iUl. CJIi:em.. Z716,l5003'!} ~2(03),. 11. P.J. Dlug~: il!l'01., ~OO J.<l~, 228:l' {~OO~}.

Rl!feren!!les

a,

Piceplankten Diol Some
Heavy Li·ftiln,g

Tiny miJIGeUuLar pl~l1ts c.aUed rPf:l;i~pl<lnkt(!)m pl<1Y an nlii!,~xp'ectedlvIlarrgle m~e 11:1 uai'lsl:m~t o'r the
orglll'lnc matt@'r to the dill@'I)i(I(el'ln.

nl!lut~~;;~I:~y. 5~].\N' It i

O

v~r n~.t,:p.i'utl.l 25

ytt~Ursi

til1dif~r:>fa:1mding Ch~ilg;~d dra-

[ll~l tbis

of du::Woodwe-l, struc lure of openfllC~~lfi !;'i;;~J~ys'~~Il1:-; Ims.

"microbi~~ fMd web" i~~~JI~ minQr a role in important oceanic p]J('iOess>essm::h ,IS nsh. preduction and s~<-!I~i¢,~tr"'.;1!i~m~rf C~jtbor;ii'1
oCC<n:l,.

clear th"'!' l~.e trad i~'~t)n~!l ~nthe deep

whick h,~Thi~1 I]llit:~r~ns.fer f pi.('(:iI~l~!jk~~ffI! o em:'· bon thl1OUSi~1 the food 'web is d isproporticn"tG~y 10\\1 ~~~~h~ tn tlwirml.(;~l~ri~i~<Iryprudueti vit)' l N PP) (f~. \vhe:~I.iI$~11t:oon~riDllliiml of h[g~.(I~-lh tht: i.lJlng) ortaf1;r~ 1(11' d IllIl,o:nlm, blooms, when they occ;m. but th.ey :sJm,QW c!Dllvi m.:ill£])! th.npico·,
dialOH1S

food \'1,,1:::0. which is a ehaln frnm diarouis
~hr(lug;~'g. cm~~•• t'e<lIls to f~:-;h. is limil:ed to !lligh":bimnflss diill.om Iblomm. lil:i)lloccur only illlerllIil~t~emly~n lin: open O(le~IL .A b;_lck~
gro~lInd

food \!tebbJ:sed

m.l very

~lm.l,d~IILI Illi,c;el=

lu:t~]"pLains (pieopl<llii!k~.()~l. wil~ di ..~,~oor5.
<S ".unJand sma]1 pmiloz.o,mllnimal1l is, p~~S~lll in ~!n re~ign$ l~ f d~e tl C(HI!'i1 !nOli!;; 0]" less ~orl6111:wm,I~,ylhrougl\u:ml the :ye,Jr Ii-51. Bio~o!ili.elL I ~ca nO!1! rflphcr.s h~v'~ ~SS'1,l mod
i~ ~"'!hQJ i~in t~~ S~hOO~ Qf '~H1 En'\!irQ.nnwnt ~ amI!! tillnhS:den.ces. Q~ IUlI~ii1Ief5iLY, eaura-rl, NC2BiSl6.. B U)A,. f-lI'IOIil; ribarber@di!Jk~_ed'u

On p<lge :S38 of this, ISSU~, :Rldlit~SOn irl1ld J"lcksml (6)~haUel\~p~ ~h:is 'IS:ioU[J,lIpllio~lby shm\,'~ng~~lffiat :'Iu~.o{ml)hIe {phoEo5ynill'net ic) pi.il~oplon.llkliOIli.ne; <I. .sOlln.'e of organic ClllfOO.m1I rca: large zoopl.;mk!OIlI sw;:iII,<!I S i!:opepodls ;n~d

is

di:S~)N[p'Orllon!ltc~y

Ri~h.nd:)oll <1IldJ.lc:b;oH do Ilut dbpme

p~.alliklollcalli

aiso be an imponanl

SOlIa'lre,of

fflit ~hJ;,':~nh::li,ll1llte ~lrg1):~ie rC~ioo!iilP{loO~ d"u fheIs the :rbL~. uf p<lrI-Il,I.es .~illkilllg 10 dlC;>,deep (lCiI."ariS~ ~he- fis,lInffi I'. ' The ~ul.~hors,used ~,n\'ler.;eand net '~iOrI,:. ::a_ilil[YSIesto eSitfllbHsh ihfll pi.~ophlilkton!nll'l5~
fern,~,m::h
n~~ore ne'!v,liy sym~e:-;itz~d cm'bQ.Ui1

new (lrgan~ccW'bun fur l<l!r~ei;ofJpl,n~:k((m :and
detTitll~ p.mdm:ti:on.
Th~ prud.l'C~.vvty(jl]~!,\"<'l(inm: UliH '\:~'if;.\re Slarl ing po illl (bill' :Ri.chm'd~on mud Jackson·s a~la.iysc's ('all~1c!1UJ~~I.~lCU S, Jo.illl. Global Oceml Fh.lL,\ SttLldiy OGOFS)inlhe eq,~mlOr,ulll

'~.~jil

~~~Iil~"'~

~llI'\OlU.gh the food "~'eb tha~~ had previi[)~lsl.y iJeen a5s.~lm,ecl,.[h1i ~fi Iilding d iif'e I'll fro m the p~~'iem. [)g!.'n~. bio~~)gk;;Jj~ d (If f!CG~un(~Jr,fuph)l.
SC;I~NC! VOL 3~S

P;at::ifk in 1.992 ilbld. il~ t'~.(: naxdlCI:U1 A.j"f~bj,ml Sen :LIl 199'5" rhe1>e utl,ises 8~n~p'l,ed two du::;" d~lCl lEI NiDi}!) SOlithel:!1 Osc~n!ltion (ENSOJ'

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

9 FEBRUARY.2007

777

I

PERSPECTIVES
p~~~!'It o'\'(:{ the vast areas QfIJ(Jpic~1 find sub~mpi ea I oceans and, ill il rim~sp,tce SlUmm3~ lion. pkoplmnkton WPP adds lip to ill nlaj,oli source of m~~r~ne Nfl'r (/-5). Furthermoee, p.lod d~~r.ung the SOH!!li{,!;V'eSl MmlS0!)]~. Even in, llmic~l'C' :lI.ndpt:empod gmzing 011 picoplankunder favornb.ie grewth ecnditions, both the I:HI[de:Ll'H.lch u~)\. enlill~g .< eftlre Sml.~~.wes~ ~Ol'l It pllth ,*). Wi thoU! O:I;'~1mic jJlsgreg.;,tles and pic()p:~..nilkwn .UmiC atoms illlCre.~ein ab::d.me dn MmlS!om~ (12). pi.copl~~kmn NPP \,,'RS)O to lu~kf~W grazers. ill th~ ~l1ort-liCrm d ilurlnn biom,'~$l>.~ltd ~~rodu{ltjv1lj' ( 11). TJ1Ctn!!gni.I.IUI.d{: 5()!1, ·t'i:h)I,;;~lN PT', The ~I;;"'\r r~~d~s~IX):i'wd by N tnclib<'llioil 1,,;xp~ii'im~!us, U~e prod~ICl~g1tl. uf nfg]l1!b~~~ PP by ric(lphlm!,k~(I~l~ p!'tlb~lbly R::ucliaard5DJ~ il1mdl Jacksonare thus relevant n;o~ p;n1.ieu 12I~e org'llm ic C'dWOObl, demtus by "W'e~ even hu:!}111ef' than prev.uollsly d'<Iimed, and ti:te (lnlyfi.J~ t~ww~II-.stl<!~in~d, 1(~1!.i-1rnl~l:ri·~ll~ condig<!~J;ldj~ nii;;gf"ti(J'irnQr~jIJ1ftI icate d!;:I:~.~tit~lilct1n~ n~vilnoorpr-~t,l~iQn of Ridmrdwn ~~ml J"lc:'k"gn tieus \\:.h,erepicq):II'lIlk~,o:l1l,are: usuoHy dI,omil~l,U'U~ not he deiermined, will till,~1Sbe of great. ~lnle:re:Sl 10 ocean 1%0[1.0(/3., 14}. but ~]~~O fllf hi£Jl~-nu~ri~tl:~!';oruJitilll1.\l,. h~ eenuast, ~he iuve rse and I~e~',"u:rk gists, bi~)gegdu::i:n~."I"" muJ modelers investiThe thesisadvanced by R idl<1,lldsOIl and ,lilull.ys,e;s used by Rudl<ux'lsou ,,~d Jackson g<lting: how climate dliluge w:ul~alrec~: .uban c were (icsig1l1i.ed 10 determine !'I~I possible eyel i11ilg or oeeenic tlsh Pli"oo'ucth:n Jacksan c'~~~~ len,~~" Ihe mfl~lnstre~m com::ep!. of carbon paths and their v;ur~<Ibilli[)1 as a functhe: role pl<~yed by pk:opi~mk~:onexport bul As Ri.dmn:lstm and JII.d.SOIl poi.n't om •. most 'OC(;l:U'mI (\~(Jsy$~()..!)trn. models dfl ~lfH gh1(l ~h~rema}i e I~~ disfl~ro!.;;l'nl~lnthOlnis f!~'p~r- tion Of!YlunSOl'lr! ",~d INSO stare at a v.ar!" h much o.li"Ol]~y ""l'ei.ghi~.~Q p~:cop.~,mk~olm, exporr as a souree of sinking 'Jll<1.1it u hue orglluic ic c<lriloon. On 'the orllle:r .Iumd. the models cited by Rucl\i.!Il~dson al~U!,Jackson doinc.ludc I.~.c link tIo~cS :un liiU:: A rail i;r~, Sea, P i.l'opl~I~lwn N r'P was a !!UbSUllu.iml.fractieu (between 60 lind 9{r'~'M'ohClti:i1 NPP .milll sites e.'(cept thore!\.am=

:mu~s lu tlleP~i fie and

th""\iulumS{](]f~ Cfll:!d i-

C'llib(]~l due;;~:o~h~ cn~ls'l~llptiQ~lOf m~nic .,g£I:eg:atesby lia:~~ ooopl~nkl:On (pmh 7)1 ('~llIlOllx: qmtniliried!lt present. nor have there been many srudies qumnifyi:L'1£, lheirn~l:'t of

ple;. the

n~;.:

betW'e>eIlil. j:llioophu:ibon. prot i~tali gr.lOllr.=ts. and 11'IJr.~e. zoopl:fln~t!on (see pAths 2: fundi 6 i. l&l.c .a fi,gU!JG)th~ll: thi& .rmO!!lysi~ ~bnw..,; t~) be in1,port.nu. :h should therefore be possiMe to

use rhese medels for ('.."ll~.lini!lg the eonse(jr[LeIlCeS,of d~.elilew nux rates determined by

[?icruJg;d'RJ!'!,md

J01:clsoJ:l.

Coupied Ol:'eO!l!ll~<lUno~pJ:lere mQde~sftJrc:ed \1!Iith!is~IH! CO~ i[~d~cat~:l'll upp~r~ul.:e~1l ... t smu iflic<llli~n, <lind SI<ub iIity w,~11 increase an d mb.;iql~Wm d~cf(w~ in th~ Il~X~ 50 YL;;a.Vl' (6): these co liI,d it iOI'lS .~ ncrease the dO:lm.l nee i1,1.1 of pice pl:anktnJ] (H- J j)1 rela!]\le to dklhl!Ll:ls i!ih~ p,I~.{!pI~~nkil;Q(nroodi w~. "Iilll~$~c~n i:clot)(i Ili'~b b~~~(1on p.i(~;pl~ n~.~()n :shQ!.li'Hh~ pa U1:S Cilrg:~ni( car~f bon nu~ d'ete,mined I)~ Ri:c;hardwn ,~rJd Jadkoo!i! '(lit Or'll!!e leU ~ ,!~~ d(i~'Sk:al"mi(:nM~iarl ~QOP'~(glri!yt The lvtord bm:.es: {~arg'~' Z«i'pia mktorn alnil'l parltc:tlia h'! ,or'(l.alnflciiletritus) are 1\'10ca rillon pOll!$. ~hal:, a;::oordilng to Riclil"rdooll i:!lidi Ja-cksM, r,~(chro(l subsla ntil ~~.'(p()rltof liIi~(lplalnl~ool1i (;ellrbon. Thi~ f'I~ irdOiT!i'a~i(lnJsU9~~~.s U~;}ttile ['oki' of Ilkoplanklo'nin ,c;a~b(1I!le.xporl ilind lish proi!!IU dien IFIQOOs.llurtlill'r il'l~s;lilll<!lien ~nlbatl1l 0 ils@r· !V<lliorn .lncd moiCIeb.

and ether
IQ assume

~.lil;rop['ll~ku.)gl. It W::-i reasenable
thatNPP

microplenkton will decrease, especially .ll low and mid!.I;fIli~ l;L)d~~. he ~ T ~Sll~S ra is(':d byR id.ll;jir,iJs;nml d an Jaeksou thu!! merit careful scrutiny and confln~)li(IVl by tltl~ef e~"~rt~h~r$. r
:!L

increaseand

N:rr by I,llrger

Iry picoplaakton

wm

elli~3~ first 11.!'Ic:hng.L~l[ldry (14) has shmvn, that ~~~~icelluht!" :<~ni~l:1.lshat grsze 1m p.ico~ t pbmkl;(J1'I have lrn igh potentia~ growth n..ues ;J;mt(t c~m kJ;.'~p pij~t;: 'with pi0t)p.I~llJli:toFigr(i\Vlh. thereby eH'ici.enl~Jly cOI'ISUmilm,s~1,1.e' extra pi9~)pku!lk~ml biu~mt.s th~t g$ produood d~lri~g ... ~he !lJIl~'[ (JIfl~wol1!ble gro~"th ~uli1ldit,~on~ A'i>., result of lllDis bil!ll~ulce !:Jc!\vf:en gl"'owlh <lnd gll.·.lz:i~l:g..pi("op~;;ulkton tit) nOi .fl~t'n.m.ll:;u:~ iil:1 . ., ~;~igh=biOl~UISS bloom. Withmn such blooms. th~ ;nnmll.ll ofpicopl<flnktOIJi himn<lss eXf!!O:r:red: W ~he deep :S.e';u asslulffi,ed to be :Irnli[lim<llt :ils E'I.}~d(lm:;e:or tf!~ldry'slili:!lanc~ hYP(Hilesjs f ( 14), C:O!lm,u!s 1110111111 al1l illlg.e'l1li Otis di.i utli,on~in:ClJ.~ l1{uitu~ ~",p~~me:u~1 (/5)~l1:Hde·te.iIli!!,ilh::S b~]~:b the gluwl~~ rate of the .m,wI.rophs and Iheir' morlal ity ~[~ due in grrazi.I1J£_ I~.~ 'Ivever. the d ih.llioli[,-i m::L.llnu ~on exp eli ~ O ~~lili:lll h:;· ot, d~~i.g:ncd 1.0 dl;:tCr!1f1IiM ,all poss~blen p.n1l1.s Ofp~,{:iOpl'Hilkton c,nbcm. sm:~.l <15t1hl,o;~e sh(]l!,;~'nin P<lT~:i$.3 ~o 5 i~ t1lengluro _ For el;,fUlll!~ .

ety of leearions. OV!!'I.' til,!:' ti~,~lesc<LI,e I\;~SiO ~'Vcdby the lr fI !'1(l1..!y~~s: t week S [0. mOlfnf~s 1.~he pi cop lalll1t.;.lCiiI1 '~]irodueed mere organic C!lrjbo:~ th~n~ 'wa~ eaten by th",ir g:raze:U'.s:: <I. portion oflhis newpicopl<lllilk:l;on ~~~rbO!l \~l> ~xprjrtJCd ~tl H~~ Ifl~fg~ ;t.~)opl :~.k· ~ lUJiland de~ritm; ~J{l liS}, R:. idaaKl~o fI .. o~.:-; ~nd JackSlo]l, s.ugge:st l,~].aLthe expm,'~. nUKeS ihey dete:Hlu i:~ edprobOl bl y iI'Ivo]j\'ed the fo n:ll,I'~ li.nn 0 f Qrga nh; aggre!:FlltcsFm Ilill'pico pi a~.k ~ ~O;U"I. l p.]~11.3l. 'conS~1 mpli 0[1 ofl:bos.e ~lggr-.e .. !,l..He:Sb~i ia r£e Zioophtl1 kto 1:11 '~p 'l.th 7l. and thep~ldur.::tiflln off>ecal m;;twri~1 bypeh1!gic

'~~rbq!,!I!~d b:!' Ih;;: I!~Qdl!~mg ipi~~Hor ~"'~!I1lI~,m r~~'ir.!lti!llli. (:I. J" ,¥h~r. S(j~i!' :U 6, 72 fl96~~. 9. [l. Ol!!lllng,}. PlI'l.iJ'.li!'ruI,f1\!'.I'. ll, 1 !1l~'8~~. 110'. ft IVffiiOIl, UIl'lllC~ G!teoJilCgf; 3:5,:ns.93 C19901. :l!:l R. r El<irbeor,M. R H;5Wd< QCI'bc;il.g~:h~.rrJ. CJ.des :.!()\ GEl4,'5·0l(il:M)'. :l:;:. IlL1. s.afb~'~ at, ().~~.S£(j 1I:~f. 'I ~s, l:iJ27 (z,ijoU. l'L.mi.c1ues gr'lzi,:L~g 01.1 t~,e p:iiCOpl,u,lkton :li.~. M.ft:. l,llm·dl"/It tlf~ D~.p0i't'I1l Rct. It ·4:~,29;53, '(J:998) .. lP~uh:s "*~I~.ld 8). ],'1. M. ,R.l~~ryer .a~ UI!tIJll!ll~ .• ,Qct1'l'll'Ja;g!; ,<12, ,~o:~ f199'n. 15. M. :R,~~I'}'; It. P.H:ns~lI., MIl!.. 8ia1. 1~7,28:3 U9S2). :~ llln.ere IUS imleed glillbstallil:u<l1 e,'I:.porl. 0 f f 1\6_ J. t~nnielf!'!J' el' (r/~ Gr@!l'J ~hem. (¥,/n iill. pil;Opl~JlJk!.Q~, cru.'bon to lim.·ge .roapla~kt('llma'1d G1ii3001 (Z{lI)4}. detr~t!JI:';. t:hel,l SOI1,~,e conc~pts alm1]f oC>emm:i:c JiJ'. ~'1li'IlIllk !hi!' fil}F fnr IU 'Q@mwID~~WllfJ'llfl 01111 ~ Iij"s.. ~ JGOFS. bfO:!'1:~~ochc!:llk~ll 'c:yc·.~ing noed to b~

2. K. W. jj t.IDI...S(,;Ma.;~i9, 2\l';! (i98~)" 3. ~.Azillllf'fiil'l~ ~1l~~w1. Prof). Sf'!. 10., .~S7 U983)·. >lI_ T. p.~U.el Mlm.rfe300, 7'0'1f:!.9~}. 5" (1ii~tiIm ti' oJ.,. Witli,tie ],~!1i,3i40 {1l98e1. .I'L if, ~_ Rn~rn~rdsom, Gc.iI.]Mk![Jm,.Sdf.r:I(f'31S.IiI!36 ? rN~ pl'iNr}!' 1lI~d:(j[~lfilyi~ di1fin!d ~!thh.'11,l1~ newlv ·5.Y!llbe-Ml~d m.gil!~iI; (iilib~n ml'iJlu~ ~Il!l'~flj~,nit

w.

J. B. WaliN'bury ~

R!i!:rl!r'II!IlI{~.lnd NlDlm. i
tl!. W.c~rm' 7'l.293 ti97,}, 2

'>"W;

gr.

~~on.

rev.~s,ed" abm:td«UllC>e Ofp.IC()ipl'lllk~QIli ~eli[.d:::' ~ob~~loth!~!~iltl\'\.'.bu~ dl~y 1l11iC cnl1id~~lfl'tJsly

n.e

.,,~m

S u st a in ,CJ b ili ty and Ene,rgy
INtR010UCTION

CONlEINTS
IN elI'S
II Sl!l'~lallnabl{!Fu~w~. Iii'We IPi!Y Up Fronl

Energy for the Long Haul
PERHAP51'HE GREATEST CHALLH4GE IN REAUZING A Sru5lA~NABLE Fll.fHJIRE ~S e:Uler-SyCo.mStTlli1Ilpl~on. ]1is lI~,li~,l;i,ltdy tllilebasisfer a ~au;se partofthe gRdb<llecom:nny. <i:~ more ~,f it" wiU be required ~l'lrf~iz.>~ li\i1n~ st@:!l&~rd~~ '~,~l¢~v~lt)ping '\r'orikt in d

sn.VEr-l (!-IILI Sleering ill, Nlltwrlil!~ 'l.ab I'nl:o' lh@ 1liglm~

?'i8S
186
787 788

IUHlRPI'1 IIHAKERS

;fi.iNIJI !HAllS 'l'llEEltR

'Eiurd_.alMcm~nt ~'tsS~h.1e,dl Sol!i!r CeUs on Jrac'k
OINT (Hr!l.fE'LE. Ho~'~oMI~f! S10{:UI!I!l [ruly fop~~r DE.8I!A

Tod~~)~, <!~I;: most.~yd.;:~mh::~u'011 n{lm:l;:ne\\~!b:~e~{~:.>si I I~.el:.>~h~~h~l'ii'l: W\~

'lR."l:Ji1

and

v.,'i]l~oor:u~hUle tobe a Ililliljor cause OfpoUulion :.H1..clI, c Inmnm:c change. Because: efthese problems .• md i(llLIID" d\villd~in,g :mpply of petroleum .I~ndi 11Ig su~~aim.ble"Itefl'mrive:-; :i.., bceomiug illCl'lei!,S~~ngJIY urgenL Tillis special issue focuses on scene of the chd!enyes ;;mclefforts needed ~Ii] harness J(.oul,eu\<tble em:rg}' moee effectively.n a slJ!'m~kie1n scale 10 [J]OJkea d in.e~l1iCe .md soate of the people \11,1110lIre \!,iori<:lilng 0[1 < Ih~~1;;problems, A~ h'l~!\1ocllii0~d j.n~:~4;l nn>l N~\Vs"lnicl~ (p_ 78,::n, lhe Ed~roviru by I ]o~dren (p, '137,. <melthe' Perspeerive lzyWU.r~lf!s~des, and Cf'."btree( p. 'J'(6).nm .•my of rhe {lIln~t3m1<1,iiilS'~ll~~S'!.iml~ !\o'quiriii m~~nrres.e~!l'(Ih eHon:s: ~" unde'rfu~<B4;lld are<'l~ Much of the focus on S~I£I:<li,mlihleel1e'mgyis aimed aI. differ,elt~ ways oj"~<II)ping :into the most Il'bumlml[ ~.'C~l.e\v:lblcesource; SO~ilV r e:un~;l'gy.. Lewis (p, 79'8) points oUi dun tk dire!;\ oonversion of :mn~ ig1rutwithsolar eel I~.eii~,u:rinto t:,lectTicily Q\lI'lhi}'idroge:m.• I~c.e::;;cos\ kl;llmks indc(pemlcnl O:ftheili i'ltri~:5ic dliciellcy.\~~~ 11:tiJ.nSt. be found ~o kM'ei(,"pilrodlL{;~'ioll C.'Ol>I:snd deslJ,J:f] bct~erOOlli\N.:rsi.onl a mID M()J:age :sy~lems. ,ill:] ~lle shm~u;,nu, uli:lii<'tLlion!)fb~{IIll'f~S." relies n'lf~ill'~Y (]iJro s~l~ar~lf~l~nl<lIdo!l: f Cwidell':Ilxlfg

!!OmOH5malIThil1li!1[1,. Elledliili~d f1r:otn, and ths 18!@~Ui~ IJ~,ill rf~II];~1!l'I.~

A Fl!n!1 'f,or5!mall F"Im~

,!'1m
789 790

WirWiig IUp Euro~"s (@'iI~line
[lArt.lIIEL N DU RJ!. .1iiI!i'i!hog~m EIlOllo:rny?

:tet SIi!!'l~i~lit DOcllie.rlk:
~U\l'tl KOONINI Guidnlil!!l.aIl'l'Oin~lIlk;err Into
1l1!1lI!!!l!IIab~~hlll!/~

7'!ll! :;"92
792:

TA~10 iLAlJ f fre.>ding!ihe Nlld~ar

793
791\'1 795

Mlliiefieilel Nuclil'~r Dermlllllstrai~lCtn, P,ro1,~ct? I1'hato:yalJtait5 ilfl F@(u~, lin K EII~IL G ~~lhifl[tlmg n~~lhllf ~~w~·~ I~ !(hor(ie~
l!J~f1fflIY;.II,

FiLi~[ (:!'de

'ImHA~r;i MAI!:WUAIIJi

flJrlli!iiFMlIrlliuH:;e~k5 a

tp, 80~) d~..cusses htm" B.ri~zil use Qr el~il:!oi f1'Ofrl :-lugunZ!.r!e 111:1:'; N grt.~lly reduced ~1" need fo:lI' imparted all N[;lIlylorttg-ter.m goalshsve lbee:~. for biomass ut.il:~Z:llion: for. sel eXmnl)~e. the ELIImpe ..i!Il. U nion ,~ l hopes l\l p:rodJU1;,~II {[LIIUf!ier Qf its mtli&p!.1rti1~:01li EU fuels from b.imllulfSsby 2{1J'O. as disclissetiby 1.01 imillmell't elf.. (~ 804). Bem~rwilYs ~rc

Mod1~IIE'h\!lRBS
1!,(IIH5OIlJMHI( (a!~il)i~lQg lIhIe! Eiliru::r,g~n(]e()f~ fraak~l Bio~f1nelrl!'

IPie rs.plE!,ct1ves
7'96 llloil1,'t f'orget

~ 100 nwdcd Ihrpmc~!;!.[n,g I.he-~W;;1Ji]!llblc $1,D~;;. and euw~rs:iQllIO ~~ igh~rll~cohoi~ or. even alkanes i,~ .. tll~e. ~epl\lu~.opotl~rOs (p". ®OI ) ex:pIOl'eS tile options .uffbrrled by desu S r~(j~~girilil;leiii:'i,~ bi()~Yll[h~1 ie piU~.\i\lu)rsin ~l~erob~_.;. I Imv we t.. d·,Je f:'IlI.e:I.'.£;}f PJ,'i(lb:I:emsw~IIIuFll all 3, mnnber arpal icy issues, Protoeni k (p, 8~.0,) d ~"CtU~~;o;hmv the EIJ j!>, ::-.. min.g Ut1!g':l'i. and l,'!n~)c~l!ling fmldillg ftlf ..~~>r1'!<ui\f~ ei1e~.;y, Filillully. S,ehll:''Ig (p. S~.2} eJ\p,~~.ne:slhel~<Lsibi.1 it}, of !ltl'.r;llne.:;;ttlTin.g c ~ rbon dio .... de fmlml fo,;;sul~fu(!1 useand our liCC~]~.o~ogica.lreadiness anclwHU~lgJU:::SS In J
:iimplem~I~.t such schemes" The Ncwsscetion pmHI'cl> ~:18Dionfl& dil:il~lnrs..,computer'I1.~odde~:s, eAI1~aim,or lab :industry. and bench scientistswho are 'i,\rrili n g the t::a1'lydmp~el1'>ofthe nest book 0111 e:lmeil'gy research, Some Qiflite:l'in. are de.v:elo:ping beuer pJlal1l~:S 10 grow.:!lS :Fuel.Of w,ays W cenven them lDilme'[~:l...,noL O~hefS onrudev~lopil!'~ (;~i!J<'Ii~y~b;~u exlrael~)'dn)ge!'l fmn\\i"dtt::l' or generate eleeuieity rOOJ~l Irlydlrogen. \\llm[ they all share is a desure 10. f ndl new t\llll:)"S ~~ pifi'livl:!lr the f~~tLII.re.SC'ie~.lcii£11reel"!i.,or;:;: l~lle!5:'1 look at dll\,~ )'O~111iS l~rjIVi!iJe~eC~OI" scientists W,~l£!litre 011 thcur :!1.rsl ste'j]M to (_~.I:Ii'ieC'1"l> iu ent.'ifgyR&D: iii, ~o:un_~U:~hI~l[ hdping~~'fu~1 !nc~t i~s. db1ig~~liol1!f): nd~:r t~~ Kyoto Protm;\I;)1. ;)I. former. u particle pilys,icisl deg:~gD1l,:~n;solar energy systems, and a Ph,DA,evd engineer i!il~egroDi~,~ :::;ll~lfu~ij]tlMr.;: e'~.~·,ctr.~dty ~~lppH~si~.to p1)1i,~'~f ;l.rid. Ithe ! ~ P'lHll SZ!UROM~I, BARBAR:AJASNIV; lDANIEI~ CURV, ]AM'e:5 :A1JI;511 \ BR!OOtcS HA!NS(IIN N

~o'l'!g~TennFWl1dam.e;1l!iI<illies:Nf(ti
G. ,W,Ciabllef

ill E!'Ie~
(i M.

!Whilf'tiik'sand

798
!lOll

i'owOlrl!il (o$lIoEf'lec,tilve~la.r EnergiY It!I$E! ~ N,5.~s (h~nenges ; n Eng; nron1~ ,Mkr,ai~5 (or iiMui!b; if!irOOU,ttfionr G.. 5tepll(JJW.P()Uf.o~
Il!ilOmW:l, lRie(<ll,ijtfan(!~:Engilu:ering Pl<IIfIB.trod Eirlii:.I11Jl~~lerl!iofLJetI:~ Pwdtu;llo'n 1'~1'..E. .fUmm~ @It ill.

604

a:OSEtlilanol, f·er " SU~.Jina~te IEin~~yFlrtuf,e J. GokJMliJf!fg

sao

J. Po1,clttll!:
U2

RI!flI(!~~btl! EIlt~fg~Sll\lr(~~ ~nd Un~' $eU;[ng an [nergyAgefi!.~

fJI~i!lm~oJ

IfIr~pi!lrilllgru c.a,pillrl! (~~fbQilIl D. f!Scw09

See also· rdatfd EdilfNirJ1pqge 73,,; Srif'nai' Ca,r!l\m~ljO'll PO!J.~ ,868.: f,ori'~f!; ~,ffi\l:'l!(e~Cf~(~Jlt1j"lWJli(y

'Science
781

w'lN'l'll.sdE'lncern~g.org

SCI~NC~

VOL 3~S

9

FEBRUARY.2007

Sustatnabjlity
(!II

and Energy

EW,5

A Sustainable Future, I'f We IPay IUp Flrolnt:
The oH sir!0 eks oif:~he 197' Os spa rked a .s~lo,rt-~ived golden a'gl!: ,of energlY R&ID, Today"$ ,~m~'I'i~HI (OnCen1:5 havenft caJ1lWseda sinrlffibu bonanza, yet

w. :e~sh called

II'ts BIEHl A YEAR

SIN(IE PRESmlE:N1I'GEORGiE
!Jt1J

researchers to hL;;lp the

to oi I and ~I:-; r.eI~!m~t:1;1 {])r'ir.,}t~i,gi'l~.m~toes of!;SI1i,~ry)i. '"By ilpp.iyi.ng the talent '11rn.de(;h~;uI~Qgy of t America, ~1I1as caC~lntr)l C~.ml dralfDHII.h:aUy
impl'{)i'!,\'COUlr eaviroameat,
~1 rro~~HU1~,·bOl!sGd ~ €lconnllil~~.(md

1J:Irn,i States sJ1~.ke 0Ff illl '·addi.cli.oll'" ted

dependence [he pll5;'l."h(l :1i<.'lkt iacethen, S

move beyond ~, makeou r on M idd le Easrem oi I a til i~,1g

[{l~k Orb~l.;:iilk~

or

illig the petroleum

h.abir hasiniensrtted,

P4l~ ineal Uustabi I :ily :i !Jjkey reg ions ~.ImtSUI'P~ ply oil and natural gas aad oil prices near ~n all-thnc MgJ, have :~1~adC' encrgy the issue of the m.omen't. with newspapers, liiI,l1lg;2IZ,Unes, and TV news pmgl,~."mls e:i:.lo~l!i~lg vir~lIIes the

of n)o~tnp :5(l]~lr:~U~.windl turbines .. bio( I:hels. and hybrk~~lle.rgy cal'S, AIll ~his is rl;)mi ni~~ell!1 the late 197Ui<i. of when nil shooks p:rompaml a surge of il1iICiI'~1
to convcmioll'f11 scmn;cs of oil~" But there are some :S]£II,il'i.cmn differences, TfJdayS conocn~is dri\t'c[~hy worries. <l'bO~~D climale ella nge in addi tic n W fea rs of ene:~~ in~curi~y. And whereas the 1970soU shacks in alternatives

d~l~'l:d ~.un.,a~~dy~is 1,[lst ye~lrr of grclun:diJ.ji). In rhe fO:~~(]lI!!"~'lg~l!;'1IVSp"dgtl5. wg: ellefgy R& Di ,We5UHe:ill ~iii I In~~.~o:ilI:)~h;H profile SOIl'J.lt! of the; peopl.e who Me :['D.~~O\'\tillg ~ogethe:r j)3,'QVi.de 95% of the enecrgy research ~:i.IIl:di~l~in gilfgdu::;~rit.lil~d eeumries, Almost these new p..,tW*l il1l~I~.ef<~y researclr, EIlc:rgy-po~ ..cy experts and several recem i aU of those ,cmmtrie-s :>lc<u,WI¥ inereased IlmdIhe sll~dies ~.gn;~ fhati f'!iv~;)Ir~tnmalk€'ally sub ~ i~g um i~ l<l:te ~910s~o III id-I 9:8Os, when sl.~n:li.<1~ d1.<I'l!1.ge 1:0 OUIl energy s~.pply. hug.e levels tapered oIJlImil~'lm.e l]1[id~ I990,s, Whey increases i:ll f~Lnd~l~g'!.'vin heneeded, [hut h;lV~ rem;c'li~H;:d~iiry}~J>i S~<~g~l~1l1 since ever prospects lor sharp increases ilrni en,ergy (see figure.p. 7S3}. Tae biggest falls have resea rc 1m. seern unl ik(l:~y. "T here certa in iy been in fl!!1!lI~ng~fl!ilud~.!r o.iUild f()~~i:~fuel r:<&[) (see f~gure. p, 783)I.iu:a. some QCmn:l:ries.. shnuld be [more fundi ng]," says carbon sequcstrariou expert Roberl Secoluw of ~'tlss~ fudrescallC'hus~e~ than I0% of'!.l\.~mtit i . \1i,',I:-; ,U tl,~.epeak, The e:xeeption is §,lp:al1l. Princeton U:trnli,versi.ry. Alt~oush rhere are !>Oi'ltlJe" s:ig.~·,; ufb'lJ.;:\\' money in tal:',gC-ll.:d areas \1\1'l~~chi;N :~ne:r~a~hl!igfunding Ul1iJlil this k decade, RlLlm::i b~<I]1H:S 1i1li:5drop on ~. decade of a lternative-energy resea reh bollin i~~ the

phQI:G\fOhali,(," cells: and computer modellers a!(,'en,·ei:!esi.gl'ling nuclear reactors frolJm, the

United Stales and elsewhere, ".1 don't see muj 0 r i n CHH&!!i·j;ls bee a U~·~ o f t be fed I:HII deficit," says physic:i.Sl Ernest I\Iloni2, iQ,U

nil pr.ic$;~.and ov~rst~pply. ch1i~lgimJ. pen,;eptiofl=:i of !l'~dem: ptl\,'i~rfoHowing lh,1;l <loc:ude~;lts<ll Three Mile Island i:n.Pi::'nIil'~Y]V3.(If.lO\~1

en,ergy"'poli,ey
achusetts

;.;pec:~~~~.5l .u rhe M<I~~,"'

IIrn,stiwte ofil"cclmology il~ Cambridge and rrl!"rt!l(tr undcrsccretnry 111 (be US. Depm'ltme:tml .of IEIiIle'rg)' ( DO E I. ''1" Imere

niasnd ar Ch,olrnobyt Ukn.line. aoo rHlI:b~i; pol ides that have :ihi i'I£:1dl Dl!"e5pom.ib ilily R&
fi:oll.lIlhe

p&blic

te

the privare

~~I:Our,

are ~Ul~g:~ nJl:(~~1ti!1'!l~S ahead," ~Hd~ed in the prolfllJ}'red .~sm;!I.1e:r ofn",w fllnldul,g. for~~le'11W- Un:ilwd S~me.s .• tirn,e<llnll.icipale'd yearlong Il'ell!ltli:!d, R& D. til ill time ;ru:'01[~l.d" researeh dol ~ bud;:tlt freeze c~uld dttiay ~Vil:tQ :>;(lD'lhl OfU\L;; h.nts-ot ell ms-haave y:el~o oogin] nmvil'lg imi, projec[s~lm'lt Im\'e been l~.Ip'ped for inereases eartl!iI!~';~" science ~l~s.lI>.;o The ch:,n~god over th~ (Scit'"rc[·. ~. ; December 2.006. p, l 6661" 5 'f~,1 ese dI::illllil,lhnd in g prospects fell O'W,l past iq'I~~n(::u,ol,;lmufy: Nfl'W g4;l:~.e'liclsts ...nod
~ynlhetk c1in.e:l,u~s~::s twei'lkilJg <Lglri.{;~l.It\lll,·<L1 <I'1Jle crops lOUlif!:<lke bent'!' ~iquid fuels: mfHef']<~I$ 5CieJu,us;~:s are W1I.1 ~gill.lg .m.oreetf"icie'l1.cy out of pcrjod

lndu s~ry I'n~sso far f<l]1 led to ta ke up the slaek, \vhn~ ,govemUil~i.,';m mo!'l~y has d\,,~if'!died. The US, ,e~lergy ilLl.dU stry is a factor of .AUlm,er~ca~l, busin e S1>. The shor rage 0 r bot h ,'" p~LbliC3liid pr~V'dlclll~ldia~~is ~~avi_ng,11 serious., 11Ilmp~l on n~w.b.loml COrlmlUlg lUlU) l~lni~ar~~ 01' I~ rcse ~ rICh, .. F~eJIds sa ~~H."1 I IJ; [\'1'1.1. h fl~d,~:u' ~ researd~ell;'S'l." SOl,'S, SQOolow,_'c'E_I:I~Tgy keeps ~ not geullrng enough m:w recnnts.: 0

~Obelow the average R&Dvm~nsiw

of

:1

0 r rei a live: dccl i:rlc in ellcrgy It&: :[). P"u[ Runc.~ 0 r~he Pac incNorth\'\,~M N;;'!!iona I
in Ri.dnJ~!Ind.W~:.'lilll[:Irn,g,lon. pro-

lnbomtory

782

There are :f>om,e signs of !I revival

hnCl'n~~iolmi2ll~. EIm.t'rgy

Agency {J(A~ to

however, R:u'['~d:~r,eiP'Ur~poim~ 00 energycenscrvaelon research which gll'~w .\1tlilll.1,g~y i:n fire Uni·tedl States aad .h~'f:!.i1ln dllri,:I~,g the late 19'90.s and iato this decade. Rllne~ a~5.uSi!lg]~SOlil ~he gj:'{i!>vth of wind energy in Eurepe. Concern about c,rro~m ~l:lJli~iun:;;nl1d <'I desire tobeeome world leaders iu) renewables tt"CIUlO~llqgy spurrodlile E~MropC'anUnJ:O:bn,(f.Ul =:Iud some national £.Or're'mmt:-~:rs to invest in wi ud e-mcrgyR,& D ;1;." \iIJC~t!lS previdc subs id ies Rile] nut i~,lcelmt:uv,es ,elJlerg_y W conll~ parli~.i H) ,~~tup wi1Jildf.<l~~s.The rssult has been a phenom~rml~towd1 in in:i>la~k(11 'w,iud c!l~]ild,t}1(see fugure. top right) thlH is 1I10W ~tiui\'.iilI:em 1,0 :50 enalfired pawer SI!I:t.ioillS. Hu: E.U.'s,L'\;newabh:!s industry now has an amra .. 1 turnover of$20 bill:tcm, halftheworld
m'lrk,('i.

m]ap our scenarios for afuurre clea n
energy sl,IIpp'J,y. A!ccol:d.ing ttl< l~ile ~U ~ 40'1000

~ ~ 3(J\OOO ~ .... Zil'fi'OO

we-port. JjlIIJI 101 ished last )1em:,"~here is an acute needlto sl:<libilize dec! in i~;lgbud~~ ~(s for ~nl;::]'gy-r~IOllledR&D and then
iil.u::re<lse them," Nieholas
St<eI,111,
<.I

,d.luef

eccnom ie ad viser to t h~U.K, g\w~m-,
Dl.~.eu~tV;1~lisnm.Q:re speei fie, ln bis [uni111Dentia l review on the
,eCQI101l1'l1tCS

()f,di-

'Oitill~ GGy.emmellJil~ ~liWel'gir III:,&D Wliili,ol\es1lmleliWt
• •

~ilp.i!ll IJIj,
G(i!!1]

:SmlmiilMI

'l!1d \;:mp~:~l}(;;' )(lo,.onOpeople •.

!lalY F."ilIlIOO

i!DY


sp~m

In his speechlast year, Bush voiced !lH:::\!1 euthusiasm :for noYdl~orm~ {If energy te C~I:lno logy <'I Ull.dl<Irmouncedrhe
131iU1Chof Im •. s Ad VBllloed [I~e.rgy h~il.i!)1 ive, 1.~I.csubseq ueutly proposed ~. 22% :illlclX':;tS(; in DOEfiUlding for elcaa eneI~y u.'ldmoioll.Y ill] 20m, fo:::aJls.ung 001, impnwi~lg th€l~ffid(!nc)' Qf c~u~ as \V(iU a s ex p ,uHli!'iS th~ use of b io j.·W!.elo;;'!iid devdopi:11g fuel celiis. 3nd. on ele"Olr,ucitygen~ti~g u;!chnoIQgi~ indm!il~g clean Goal" a;dI"'m~Ct.--d ~mclc.au prn:vcll'. sollar, 3bnd

(11 i@i.!<! ~1.l!!l!~

~'en 1I.I.'1l 1~!lnliDlll
:I:~!lII1~"'1)' IJieMhll11

1iI,1 ;nec~m~.l£Je p ubi i shed Imil October. ~e rorecas~ that tll1Ci'MIPB:Cl 01' d-oin,!il Im,[)lhil.lg to couarerglebal w~lr'lmliu.!;l ,could amouurte between ;.% ~!:ld 20% ofg,looal y;rof1~ dcaiestic prodaet.whe reas cfforlS oCns~ng ~. of i % (1.0.1:' could counter the worst effect s, Those e Ifort~ wou~ d include, atieaM dOllhling the CLIrreat amoum of energy R&D fund-

i!1~ and
1101:1

,I

f:i\'~fo~d rease ln inc

S~Ip-

for l~,e deploym,ellu lec11L'1o~:(I,gies .•

ef'new

'"

I
iii

~ :16,:Qi!l(I ~ jll,IIJOO

'G'Q'Vili!rli1limelfiit ~n:e~l!f R&D S,pelJildlngl 1 in M,a~o:r~A 'Count~i&s I

;;; \1\'i 1J,{t The~

.-.: couglillt IIll!lh~ <'!1~IIC!p.ft1edllr~ldgG1lreeze, .~ OJ~.eofthe most eagerly 'l.w'lired DOE
~

B

~n,;e'~5 .'ecei,,'ecl S LTbm iml in g rumli n~ duriing~CI.06. hll.l sm,m: ~u..;y g!e~ bu ikl

J
~ "S
go.

i 10\0lI0
!i

n,OOD

.[~_I""l~'
• 0111 , 11",,1

.~~~
.~'I!I!;l9 I[o:;;rmol~

An ~.lnb~luollS, report released in 2005 by t he US. N !I~~oni('l~ f\clldC:l'I.lilks !i::1U it led Ri sb~g,MNwellle (i ()lIl1eri:rig Swrm ~ii!illl~d 1.00 identi fYll,cTions ro hel p the United SMIle""cosupere

andprusperin IbL;; 21:H e~~'-, tmry. A~uollg a mnnber of
reco.mmnend<ltiol:l~, it il.dvo~ c.t~:~d t1rneC'~le.Jtion of ,I new ilI.gency Wgll:i:lill :[)OE. akin Hb the Defense Adv<l~L~Ced Research Projects Agency .

"'Hikl~

[0

tiTUI!lid energy R&O. T~is; $:300 lIiIlmkm ~~ysar

IlOOCI
0000 4i!M1OI

new body., dlUbb,ed ARPA~E,

~ i nhi<"uivl's i~a plan

HI

f \\/0 rI~W

~h('llUld ii.wnwith

.~ bioene'rgf eeseareh centers ~o C3Iil'y mil ~ basieresearc h on Inicro bln ~a:~d 'pl!lIn:

~

~

and 'billild IIP [0 Sibil liou a fI~.lmUy over:5 o.r 6 y(:~II'S. A btll to. SCI up

~ syst'ellllS wi~hthe .~im ofC'-onvert~111Jl: ined.~ iblcplant

!

fihcl"t': such as ct,:I:lul{~s'G: i:lUO ~ ; ethane I rbr bioi'iw: 1s:.V\ritlll 25 mill~:o01, .~ ~)\I~!"5 years o!li'hl;: ~llbl~ far G',Ll;ho[,.Il.;ir.!i~~r, .~ auiversities, n<llio;L~.~1 labs ... ud ol:i:l!l:U"ll!*,11Iu~ i ~ Ijml$ are vying to :hl.OSI thel:l~," decislon is A ~ expected illl the 5unnl1e.~: Dleoi Icompany BP .~ has ]<]WlIlChlcd 3. slrmlar scheme. offeriug

s~

late

:~<IS~ ye<lr-$I.:l iHHll

renewables

b~ UiOIil, wi IIIbe speur 011 elil.ergy ,elnclcm::y.~u~ increase

of 40% ever l.~e pr,e~~iO'l!5 Fr.'lnnC\~''Ofk pr-ogmlil~. !I:Im<J more than 500ftl of aM nen-nuelear

:

~ $500 million ove~'10 year'S. to <Ill iva~titl]lioi1llro eilm.ergy :runding. lnthe United Kingdom. f~ ~ run an Ell er,!;lYB insei ences :1ustiuue ,~s,e·e ~UC:lI/mI\'Vhi~e. gover.mlme.nt (m.c.rgy r,evicw ; ~ p. 790:). A d~cisk~mI (l:rl th(,l s:~tc-~i~hGI" i~tile· 00mph~r~dl~s[:>MJI~!!i!lerprorn,iS'ed a N.uior.!iHll
1.llsti.wte iforEne,lI'gyTechil.lOlogie.s.
hud~~t illil
~.~i;.'l ro,~in!'l

A R:rA.~1!w!lsplI'esen~ed to Cong,ress in De C(: Inbcr 2005 by R~pr'~s.t:nt~liv(: B.arl (Jolidoiii,(Il'- TN~. Gordon, now the HO~IS(l i>Ci~~l(:~(:v!m~~~ttoe~(:h1ir, i reintrmlm::ed the hiU last mtH~I'l~. O!l!i.l S<l)"l'i M lfuJ<lil research heallild~jscolh~'.fIg~les have •. xm· d ue ted for reports on the futare of IIuel ear energy ,!llld coal also suggests tluu a doubl ill,lg of ooseorrlCh spend ~ is I]ece.s~'l[)'. nag Uirilll<looly •.il\''I'ill. ~e pO~li,l.icS"H du~II~ghe!il

~C)"I(\Ithf!lWi n dicl~!te t1~c f.HI;:

l'lf

1;:11C~gy

.~ Ulm.:u~edS laH~sm.' llrn.e· n iled Ki ngdo~n-.i s U .~ ~•.! "'..... '",,,, dv-' I'. "i'.'" ,[11,!,: i~~lt·· nlmkPs,"",,'L .. ~ "'),1"'''''''1',·1 [,r ....... ,'''" .• y .~.,~ .• " •. ~ I'K •. ~'." ,Il.._". .~ • "We''\1'e come 10 re,I]lize dun the i:un.t~r:;r:otionof ~ .!a: lrl.io~cientles. find. ,encl"gyis .'1 very pmverf~111 .~ one:' says Stevellil. Koomill:l. B.P'S cl~iefsctl.r::nt[i.sl.
b .f3

wil:iill<l

re::.,c<I["Ch.If oil !Suppl ies *ue· flJ flliler

thl.'e<llte'~.ed

h uf$.2(10mm io:!'!~r y~llr. by g~t;P~ll k s. fir n~\:~''~'!II ~de!1C'1i::flr:~l.um!!'!AU of these il1iiliR~ive.!! <l1I'C giving energy i,~JliI4"lCd cI,irnmte chm1s,eis. sullicie!m to ,'onv i:l1i.ce skepl'i.cs., cn;crgy ,'esear:ch 11/ll2lI}I mgain lin.c prOspCi". 13m w:uU :b~contumLe to do 50 if the luice of oi 1~~It~r d]rt)ps ;lIga:in'! "l'hfl~ r~llla ill:;;

II!':' 1Ji:roPC.".a:l . . lC ~

[J" IlIlem, ,~Sf~~!'lO II.'Illg new • ~ '11.e _ lLJ.,,'iicr,;

.~ eI~ergy tec~lno:llogies..

§ Frmne'l"'OI.'k

hi tllTi,{: blte"'l: 7·ye.~'w researdm p:rogr,1m-i:lipproved

f~~~~reh~l I'rmd'i-ilMf.ledtld [;!Il(l~~!l U~e1.!rm. bl~l" Io1.Ulll kr 0 f ~.iI!I lI~:rIl~ilal n::pomisan: C'I,~~.ii,l£, for n hl~]"CllL~::\' i.111 ~:Iil,~fID" R&D flU all cnllrdy d ifferenl: st'al!:. n.e G8 mr;.lc~.i[lmgof \,\'ul:Id lenders ,It G'~e~~u~gJ~s. in July 20U5 (:all€i'~ OUllTill: UK.,
SCI~NC~ VOL 3~S

to be

8~1,1:"

S<l,)1SKoQtl,l in"

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

9 FEBRUARY.2007

Sustai nabillity and E:ner,gy
~.lIltoeXiSlill!progr<lms.

The

new

progr<lms

Steerinq a N,ati'onal Lab lnto the Lilght.
Stev,en nm is ena crusade to mClllk'E':5 otallf ,poiwer worlt. His weaponls, ~awr!~ncleB,erkeh:y NI,~rt~o'n~all[ Labora'~lory
i

,SYllichrotron.an ellec'lnm !nief't)$~opy ~e:!H(:r.~l !lal:!:of<T!bric~~ion f~dliit)'. ,1i~d.l Slip~li'(.'(lmp~~hl\g C!l;Sim't~r-oth~r Ih;:Hl h) ,e~,l'"ouragensers to target their n:!:seil,IICh on i.lrn.1.PJQv~ng :;;0Ia r p ~1"'Ii'~r gener'~l ion. S~ I'wr, C~llI 'S ambitions ate geHilllg a wanu recep~.ion

a Is.o ~VCIU.klll'l rae il ities-s-a

{Ifli::Ci

the hlitl N; four

'1::!riO~1.:!11 user

bOlh ilJi*,~:deami outside the lab, "lthiuk it's
great," 5,1Y~~1ilysids;~ N.11e Lewis oflhe ('a]I~.p
nJf!l ia ~n:s[~t~1 f Technol flg¥ Lt;.;o add ing: "lr YOl! need wlay mare
~liliI

P'~"'Is:~d(l!~ll,

Laboralory (lBN l ),.• rnd you travel about .2 50 i!lii~Ct1:i~(~~ C ~~.IiJ1,RClad betere it splits offOril.lO other tent.'Lc]es of
1[~l;'I~h o\'~f.~m;~k~,I)M Ft';;l!lC.i~o S4i1n B<~)'.)~','jpi~.e i~ ~~l{lJft length. il~ a [

D

gl1~delrl,

emls.

riv,~pa:s'! !11~gU<'lrdh(l~!~t;ai
10

rhe orlly

pr()\'oI;\lfll,~~y .~~~ub~ty more

'~hiC1i;{l!lS;."

the ennane e Bcrkclc~ Narloaal

La,!;,'re n ee

"[Gening] Chu was 3. coup:" adds Carolyu B('Irto<,.::zi, a Unu \ '[IfS,it)l ofCa],i ftnu]!l. :BClJkc~e~.,

chemist, who also directs the Molecu!.cn Foundr}l, DOE's IWI~.of~ubrk.ati:dlnus.er f~}Cmty_ "lle'sre<I~~;Ybeen aMe to i~sri'LF.e people." r'\sk~dwhy ~c d~cidcd 2 Y~'H'& "go tfl 'q~dl S~g~nfOfdUl1iiv{;:~~ily .IIH..IL'ilo\,e up tb~
road to LBNL Chu doesn'] hesirare. ••[ was

fini n,g elilllde, The :~ml(1 named h;

fi.n 1997phy~ie5 Nobelisl
direciotr

S~elte;n

dr}'i.~.g up
go,"
\.VOI£

iiI.~,a !'icie!l!t~s~ and

had nowhere

ro

elm. who boca me the lab's S.iXlhi

he deiflap!lIlS

Ibe!"on:: b:rcd:ing up" In

2: yean

ago and ever

si nee has been wo:rikinglo steer irs re~~re~, iI) <T~li!(f~,t,' !'(~c:Ufln_H ii~ di focus: <I s;\'\,reepi.ung agenda <Iime'lll ~~t 'lki~'y solar tl'!1Je!yy ~~ p'l"l;lclim cal, eommere iii I. <~u~dl o:rldw chn~lgi n~ .rei\tI~ly. :s ince I'aki 1li,S hi s new- job. C'hu. 5 8, J'n~s tnrvckd the 'il~!oi>cm~ki ,g n ~'1,1ease (b\IF oo.I'1r pliN>'er; Some of c 11~lil r{;j'rai~ 5 are fAl1mli~.iai: rtilrG8Iti U),_g glacisrs, mere..'kl~ll<~gilngsrorms, mul sea-levelrise, Some, though.

reality. his lab of ]3 studerusend possdccs thrivin,g. He moved there ill:! ~,987after

9 )Mars ~M AT&T :SeU Labs in Nltw J~rs~y.
where he di,cl.the work that ",",'OIl hin1. ,I slimre. td'il Nobel Pdx,..;;: dl;lvellfping laser-based techn iq1ues to C(lO~.~I'U ~1i6r5 of <l'!oIfiS ~(I just
aho\leabs.o lute zero, He coati nues to. pursue

th.n """Q~k•. 'l~l.~ughhe::' sl,O\".'[llys'lm~.fting hi s
lab over
~ljfs,.
IO\1!I'Qd.:.

in 'bi.ophys,j,:;;s. h~ um'~ .• he ,

.~re less well knO\,,"I1, Mlch as lu!w
increased \!JliItel: c'!I'!!pormioll frem sails ceuld

j~'!;'Iparoizc f<Thr.~~~.i~)gin Mid\~I~,~~ Uniiod the St a tes, 'Snsl<liimlible.carbon-neutrnl enel'f"l)l us. U~ ~UOS;l important sIC e iemi fk~ehll ~I l'iIgG\W ~ fil.cel.OO<lY," Chuis fan.d of say:~ng,
On t~~ l',upply l:dd~-,('h~ SlI!)'l5Cl.1~wt c"rtXl'l'l:n,\l~:mllem:l:gy MUIII,"t'e:5 f,ltlce a ~,()st ofprob-

buildone oflwo ~]25, rnimon Bi()ErI~rgy IfI!~tiute!-i~o be fUIrn.d.edby the Dep'lfl:m.e.m of Energy ( DOE )1~ll. ove'd ~.rl>. w ill pmpcl Ol.dllOlI1Ce:,:.;~n mHm~eclrnlrn,o logy <lIld synthetie
hi(i:~t)gy i~to bL!H~[ 'V;;lJI:.;ofm~kii'i~ bio.f1.Dd~, Second is I,Q win <I $500 miUion pot plil.~ 'lilP by the oil gu.•mt Sf for abiefuels institute (seep, 7'90 I, F.~ lly ... UII i n it~.~t~ca lled n!O! ve

he was Plropel'~CJ, to make t he move by his (:O:11Cf!'mover elimare c:itange .• '.It's qllll,ule sobering," C]ro,ll ~ays nfthe scale ef'rhe n:~sk. "Uris is 3, prnbj~em we hW'ilcte address, and we have ,I ~i iled Olrnt:mflt {) nime il']' db ]'L m W~~.at.'1,:12 do i.1i1I fi.U'st helf of tll i5;, cent ~1ry,. \ the
\\I'C' \,~:Ul sCi) rhc

5:00 to. ~,OOOy.ears

.cu~se'qn~fiJcJL;~1>r~)r the I~~l(t ," Chu knov ..~ fullwell t~iU ~olvi!lg this

preble m is ce f~~jlll to li,:~;\fo.llye' gave rll.ln~H~nt polk}' and igHC;1:j"~"'tiol"w~ .bllh'l.mu~y •. and jt < may even depend more 00,1 bu~.I.dill~gcades

lems, '\I\li]l.d, :mJldClIf pffi\c-er, iUldl bi'ofl(Jeis ~re I!!II'JII ikdy (!flllYli me seen W !'ITheel..~I of the needs, of a E;: ivi I iZl:IJt kill thm. il'n 2:005 WHIS using ener.gy i:ua. Ill] tb:rln!:l ;)m\e of about 1.6[willion '\\'<lllS. < with! rolllghl~r 8 Q"l.4J of"ut comi~,g fnrm rbssi~1 6,!~I&. SOii<lI"~,\;~r al~<;Qhfl5liV1.l~trnion!\. tJu~I~~ £mlre.ams more energy tD'W'~rdEarth 'illl an hOWir dmll~ OlU 6 billion oh:i: use ill a )I'~wr. challel'ib"C is nnd.ung \!J3ys!tl captlJ1.re~nd store f~l~Q~:mu;r:ID'th>f~i(Jt~ c'~J;.fIP tlind ~Irtckn!_ To meet th.u ch<lIJ:eug.e. CIiiI:LJ( ~"Ulllc,med ~l"s ~lu:~G: :;;~p~If~:~h)i~'LfI~,~\"~~ '[1) ylJ"'~ O!I.~~O;l$l ~!n

.,l

1

ne

Hellos will :~ookbeyond bj,oene>.rgytninclude topics such <I;;; DiI<'Il1otech':bi"'l5.tld ph orevo I't<l.i es and fltel"'gcne~.millJg cmalysl.s, Ahh.ougih mme of t~l'-;;IUflPfh"1) Is; h1ld 'I)cel!"! tll!ldoo l~y [~l~! i~u:. Sc.ieut.'t! ",,:em ~o j:lJ.'tSs,. elm>! kCJdy tm!'> velioo.1 CO!ll'l!llj~ml;;!ns. fRwn prh',ue :roUn:I~=- {If<T!ba~u $50 n]iilll~allJ :u1td lip In $70 miUiQiua, fr-om the sU.ue ()if C~l~irumia"'<Yt}~l uy l,t) l'iI~ilke ~lm~
tiilin ,I~d gel wlllel1JillUdil1g:'

t'~'na:l~ science, 13m he seems to thrive on The multifaceted challenge, gl~ding effort~es:dy between rillhlern,e joplcs suchas l~o\l;1 localtax pol icy in Ch:i na stops dl,at cOlJlury
ilts ffi!.'n clealHllil: !'l,:guhl= (iorn,s. w!1.e'~he'r COzpump~d lOI:h~ iIJ,eean Hoor wil~ st... y put.. and the po!erHi<l1 o~
rrmn3dher,ul1l.g~D ,flrdl~lecurr;d ~91lf!ltwations [0 redUCt; the ... amOlliM of ene~t'gY u.scd 10 heat. coni. Fmd ~ ;;:: Ught b~li~di~.g:.~" ~ - In the' emL~Clin.usays, i,~ ~t,lt:e an <lrray of ~ ",,'il solulion:-;tn huld I:.'~;rlx.)!l ~mi~!OklPil~lu ~~lf!n- ~ ageab,le :~evc~ s..,And lhey hfu've hl sta'r~,hap;p~I'IJ , § .. ~J1,g r~ Say::; ('ilu: ·'We don·~.l1~ll!!irethe option ~ st.

Chu 5.1.~)!S.
CN:.pect

.11'tlmt 1.1,11ldi ng ('o.m(,:!>,Chu.

s Httle

~Toub,~e;getting S'C:ilenti~ts~:!l)fol~m.r

<l!RllliUle

ofLBNl.

1,\es{!'l:'Ir{;ht to 11~ol<'lr <lge.liuia. T,hef'ii,r.>l

is a P~'{lpOS1)I~.'~o~e\w!H \",'i~hfull(lo\~1 nmiol~"!~ up !..ltisS'Ind~~~ und l.n.vrence lj""enhOH ilud

a.pposili ml \\'ithin U3:N L., 'b'ec~Hl:S~ lh~ program.s ,,>\"onld !:'x,po,lnd dl,e ~<l,I)'sCtl.nem

:$52:S ~~lmi.m~mHlual blJdge'~ ~.'a~herthan

CUI

~ofail Olll (his (lIl~:'

":R;OIBIRT

If. 5,ERVI'

n

(!

784

IE,ul:reka M,omelnt Puts Sliced Solar Cells olin Irack
Stuck. Miith ,coriliverllltiiollrnltllL'~.ed~ml1loLogy,,f! pail! of Austlrtili[i,alll n~s,e'aIFdfH!r5 hit

Their reelnrique starts wiJll. :!I silicon wafer I or 2 mill~.IDIHllel.':s~hicl. They etch stot s comp.letely tlh rough 't'lm wafer. I csv imlg C siliClo~ !urIps C{)!'Ii~~CWdll'l th~ ~dg~ uf thL;l 'W"<Ifer ~,:lllsolneth~ll,lg~lm<lt resembles a d,:l1Cu~-a1' grm. They lh~imdope, in~h\ni~e. and eo;M du~ gtr:iU10 produce pi:lIOlovolltaic cells, dC;litlcb the strips fwrn the wafer, ~md h~y them un Iheir s ide:-;Wor encapsularion. ,Em.;h suip Ilonm; ~I SLlVE: R QCU 50 m HlO mi:lllmeters .kmg .. I or ,2 miUimeters \'v.idle. ;.I!L~d 40 [0 flO microrueters til iek. f'AA'I;lS:;;[n,g "",,'!flirs, th~~,\"'iy P mdw.;~~ cells dmr coliil.taiml,jus.t one-lemb the'5,il:icm:l used in IIU)lliIla~ -"o],u' (.l~]l~with the same SU~f'lI.le ,'In.,'7I. And ~:~'nllll cutltl.C eestofflnished wi~1 'm.odu~el> 1:WOn1 current $45[lper~\''''u '1111)' to !'omelhi~~ a.ppro1JcJII.ing $1 pelf \!"aH.I3.~a~e:fS says. Ek\lc~~s~ t1hc pmc~&s ~r~:;'!!:S bod~ =-idl?S ofth~ SlJVERs.lh.ey ,'(ml.d: be usedin <lpplic<'Lliolm:!> to c.~plur~ both directand reflected Ughl. :S'p.llc:ed S II VERs iu .11 glass sandwich create a
t ran sp.PIreIII penel

thaI could act as

wu ~]dO\l;r

upon a. way to take silffionll cells s,o,mewhe'ir'e' new
wlIfer5> from a. cyi]mI;dl.·.uc<11 si.~~ao:mI fld ~ldd!J.t)P~Ili1l:-; ~lfidl CQ,llit'1 g:s to (~~e surface. To reduce silicon use, SQl.~l,e roups, g seem ".mI. :de';'I~.oocasi.OlJi fo.r U<l-5~;1e!Sorsci.enturic ~ i~sighl, B~~tl~ll!ats~n.in,gproduced ~.eareka 0iIl\': ~xploring exotic marcrials; others are mO;.lm.l.e:IiI:IIb'rpha~m''OIitllics researchers Andre ..\" H'y,~llgto I()nlml~hii n fi,hn~ of l1fJ,onm:;:lry..,ta]i~ iae :BI!akcrs and Kla~~t\; \:~?ebGr_WhiJ~ {~l.;uHe[ing sllicou OIl 11 subsrrate. B~.uk>CiI"i>.and \V~be~1i ,Iiong iml. ,I rocking c<u:~i.~g,e,.,lite 1'1'!'0Australian were nyu.l1l£ to pushthe Ii,lJ:ll of ctmvenits ~i:fm'L[si 1 icnn [~cl~jliJology. NE!li UI:'I,),!] Universi ty (AN U )s,cie!Hi sts cnneeived a I'Il,;\\'\c\1<1lY of llJ.l<lking. solar c~~is that Blakers, .5 L hasworked enphotovoltaics :5 inee his S[ udent ,(IJI<IYS:. He camed h is.Ph, []I. proneises m reduce the com 0 f panels b:y as and did lris initial pO'.,,~dm.:':> i;~,e' rili'ver~ily .It U much ~'1~'75o/.... lustend of lry:iin~ to m~ke the wafers used in solar cell s thinner to gave en of Nc\,v S01;Jlthi al.es lIlukr Greea. w.~os~ W expensive lV)'SllJll'une si I~CCl\~. Ihey st<nr! Wit~.l a ~I'OUp ~mlld)j.'t~~e eft'ic::.~eJmcy record for siili.i.coml llia.ic:kw.a:lier OImI,ddivide it into lil.ous;<lncl,s of sclar cetls. kiter a :sliml.t <'IJ.lhe!\il<lx 1F'1l<llllcik kl1mg. ~hi~s]icl;'::' lh~Hd~~yd~~bSU VE R:i;, [n~tiM~ ftlf Solid S~~lh:: .Phy.'iik.cs if! S'im~g<1.rt. "The S,UVE.R cell ~:s a hiBhJy origiaal Oe.rmaIJIY. [nakeD'S set l]P iii sjlicon photo"~'lptml\:h. the be:)t\7I'<lY y~t ::t.\!gge:;;'~\,"l;1 m'Lk· vcltaics research lub "It ANU in Canberra, gf lag small. ~f]icit::'IilIsolarcells," says Martin \:\'~;H:n other researchers 'begi!lll moving Green, !I phtnovolttti.cs (t.'I(pert al, .he lJll:~vel'l>.~ty bC'yond silicon, ;B:I!lI£~r~ and his tea.m~,ound f ofNe\,\i SOlllhWa~es :~nSydney. Australia, A ~Jrn,eywere he! d bm::k by fu ad ing. "\Ve dec.ided the pm':_s ibi~iH(;':s 'I""e;ru widllun. pilot pi~lu' in Add:;tide-is now pmdud~lg hle.,(p~oOO\1ll'ha[ SUVE.R eel ~s..tilil.dfull~scale eemmercieliza[he con SHa ints we had," 'soaY:i>Wei:n.':'lr, whe 993 lIo!i'l tlol.lld hI,;; usr 2 ~~~il'S- 'iW.'f!Y. Th'l-l S UVE R jotm~d thelab as [~Pb.D. swdl,;;m i~ ~. al)d j em;:t l~dv<llru'IS~ cm1l1,e~ frm~l dr!!lnl!lrit;,IUy is IlIO,\1-' U Stll1iOr~eCl(~r'~r. The hVO \\I'il.repmmcl.erillig llh'MI! :pos.l:;.ibili~ rodu:c;il~gthe WIre of e:".llel:ic!li\'le milnOOl"'y;$t~:U i'mI.c .~ sihC::Oil. due rrnller.~111 ,dUl:ice for wl.~f'cells trf ~i,esOIllhlll SCQ~tish trnita ~n 2m:m en rOL~tl:to t~ ~ because orits.relati.\'C.ly hwgh enicie~]C)' ilm COIlJ~ rell(1!'lIwlbk: ·eillergy cOI1,1(:rt;noe in Ed~llb~l.rgh. ;~ veni:lIlg w~iilr t1lileil::gyinno elec~rilci~y; "h \VRS <Ilme cQII~oomti:o[l." [J:.~<lkers :;<ry;') of ~ ~e=>c~rdl>:'rn ;tlmlHld the v;,{)l,··id~~l.'erncing ~liI,cruI,OUll,lenlt f im:>PJ;r~;~i{m. h took just .~ (';QU~ o .i5

rLid~

A

tl~lI.'lm,ride.tl.U{).'~~h i

to hisroric IEd~!'Ibllrg~]wQi.Ii~d not

·~.I~.e. Sc.:OH.ish.· .,e.o.umry~

CUl rnund

hlgot

ill

ld'IS~ while sliU :g;enel.lI.ing declri.cily. And because theyare thin. SLIYERs are .11:c.'I;.ibk enou~11 tn be used im m]~·up solar panels, .origin EIl(:rgy, an Aus;t!l'a~i~!l!)i!iJUI1!I~ gas and elecrrieity :;ef!ennor m'ld ~upp~ier. liren,sed the SLlVIIE R It'c~m_1,li)logy i'un, .2003 mild bliih a piiollJ.humt iUi Ad~.~;iid~ 'th,nt clJ\~lp,Uiy
spokespersen 1"CI!I,lY '\iIJ,iQodsmys,imas verified

th~tirSLIVER", canbe prvduced reliaMy and ill qmll'ltiity.\~tood S<ly~ Orig,un is mJW iu discusulumocr" ofpm:ent~"lill partners to scale lip p:mdm::t:ion.lhe C'omm,c:~"C.uill
Siml(\ \Vilh ",11 5!hall

I'LI~r thi s ~~~r \\I~ II H.dy be in Eurep e or No rth America to be closer to 1llJ3.I".kt1:,~s to ~~lkC3dv~lnlage of and ~m''emmen[inCenl.iveslbw t~ Itt:TD1I~lIi\'ee~H.lU"J),. Whcl\:ver S LIVER sam: made, "'~l~cm:~ arc illil.1I porrant niche appl icarions for til is apptoaeh, £;uelm asjn powL;:r.ing porrahle
;<I,

p~xum)'[ Iht'ypla!~ funnrlUil~e w

""Xll~!ipm~nt" M!~ ,'ivai teclsnique

Green,

Wh~l

1:;.\1!'\lrlking:

011

to reduce

silicon

usage ..

But, he adds, "'I l11inla fW:lor 01'4 clearly wnukd be au cverestimatlon Of~U1Y cost
advmmllge," H~ notes thm hmNilillg Ibl!.:2000 W .3 00 [I SUVE iR s creat ed t:ro In each wafer
IPl1~~ (ln~.!lI!l~1 fa-CHlri.l~g (:h~~i!lilIl&I'(;.

IBlakers fore:see~ CD:Slg~,iII.U; il'or the S UV!lER ~!eCh,WLol "vhe:n~1 mow~ ~(l n~~~s t'lg)1

~')roduCliQl~..A!> for handlillg the' SUVERs. he s..y~, they have de:vi.sed <Ii s:in:~ll),I.e.5lChenli,C~h,1t
wOI,'k::1,

"witholllltdb[D'~:;.m,m;;:hine

vi~ion.or

to find,,~'O)Ys to minimi~[htl ;;,n~,ou!'!!! f,~ili~ pi ~ of mo.n'~::!i o'·\,'IIOru.. bO)cl\ ~n o .~ con :un.eecled .. lnlOO lracliti.o.un~ll ~lp'Prml{";h. they (ll~Lcet'~l.eilifirst SoL ['l.l'En. L'ells.

5

pi!!ik-21nd·pla.oc cquupmcnl." He pn)mi.s~s ~h!lt the .pro'pri,etal:y pro\"e::>::! \~'i,nbe I[l;:\'eailed at COl1foe~nc~ som~liJn(; Ihh; y~l~',~mdh'S ~fJth-

th~ kd~ Wpf(~·

ifl.gd~a~ cl()l~ld!fl be im ..gined
til mugh Scod'lllmli.

01'11"1

tf.f!in ride

-lENIN IS ,NOR:M.IIL.E

w'lNY!.l'.sdE'lncern~g.org SC;I~NC!

VOL 3~S 9 FEBRUARY.2007

\

I.. on proiect is for Chappleto ereare the ~ DNA tools with which lig.n:i:ru. eposiriou COil" d be modiJied, NeJ.!l.Purdue·s Richerd

M(lihu~. ~tnln~~(ll~k' ~x~rl, will !(lencrlr.e~ <~lettl:lm1ge'u~,.~c tree !mp~il'l,g!ll. and chemical
~\'Olllu"t!o;; lh~ fooam,l, each, "11 dovetails so nk:e:ly WU'lll the work I've done," ('happ.~e~.\ys, "l~e app~iod nature of the workis a ~(:\V I.wi:s.t for Chapple ... vho S<Ly::> he ".,.~ways a~m~:~~~d &{)J1m.eOllilcehc would do it"E:xpc~ts $Ol!.Y research is wotgff.l~mdbr~aki'~g the: in terms o:rr basic science, but IUt. does ca.rry risks, Ch~tlfamong themis whether the ,n~hlie will rejee: l.rnnsgellilc U'C!CS. Reseaeehers <II~e buo)l~d by widespread U.S .• ~ccepl;l.i:tce ofmodifi,ed food crops. now common in U;S. gr~ery r~Jducts. But [~!l~!,lin~ng El~irupeO'l.I:l esistance and Greenpeace r U.S ..A.'s
diffi.culty ofrecoverung cellulose

e:ngi~~0rMk'hat;l Ladischwill

S~ft c:eU. Ch:apIM'5 "",ork
'in .~olP~ilIrl9gge1!ts !
ill

'i1u~aper aiU~ of e'lih~,nol. s

Truly Poplar
I

H10w

'1,10

,M,alkeBiofuels

bt.;Uef~'h ..tlu~n~gerlic

tr~iI;~are !fu"dang.er

if!

thewoods" make 5lUppm'le:rs such <1:5 bioCht':~~lisrt S~url\\l'llMi'lnsf:~eld ofthe lInivc'.rsily
of IBl'.utish CohU:I1iI.iLbi<~ illl V~urnl'OlJIyer. C<!LllIll:d'l. believe it eould be "a ham sell," One p~U1;of Cllil<lpp:~e'sanswer is to. fil.'H1 IYi~~lbQ~ie fi~.g(,lrpr~ 1'11$ loil"th~ tml11sgeni:c \"~ri-

(Hn~ !(htl,ppl.ehas lOml,g r,ev,eled]lm the details CITplant bio,(:'hem]Sbry. Nlo,w he sf1 nall~lly9 eU] n 9 ~Ii h iilnid5 dirty 5
chemicalrepertoire" led to gr;:HJ:~I<lte \I!"nrk ill biochemistry for Chul1l'l~,e.\'~ln arrived at \ Solm:nliUes I<lb i:un,1990 with 00 trn.i.n1l,.uugin gellietic~. Bmhe c~uk1dy Lear;l1ed enm~g1:1to ere!'Ill;::Imrlill;)l,lln.of the modc~ species And)i'(lopi'li,'! and dewll1p a rm!ll1lising j)ille'~~bdllkm)!':I;htx:l of d1~rac~:e[i!ziuJig pn]YS<loc.brides: in the eel l.w':'J.II lS'duuct'. 20Augu~~~.993. l(32)1, p. A related side POOj('lCl led W a d:Us.-cmICI.')i in ver:-;ityil~ \Ve:>t Louf'lye~~~. [lIldil1li1ol. hiOl:!> the pin~w....W dlflt clJ'e.nes I i~,l ~I'I• '1 "TIJci1!~ cell . wall s.~itlener and, behinll,d cellulose. ~:hesecIredrd;,VI'l the ml~l~ oh ~e'Y metabolic p,ldn1i,ray in p~afiJ~~r---'\:vo:rkl'h~u ha~ \... 'On~:uM a ~ol:ud CJndlliiu'ituahund~un poIYIi1~.~:ien E~Irl~.lJJii(H ofth.e ,enzy.m.<lit'uc; step thar Ir~p~~lalion "'I,no,,!;! aC<1iC1enlric researclrers. Ye~: rlimLiI description plmH scientists such {i!>, him have hl~lg Le~ds t{JboIJ~,sl!';;lig~t fl~d brauehcdforms of remained secoad-class citizens [i,ll the ,~if;: ~,ibrllliUil, !te]ps expl<l,i 1iI1\~~hy cerrai III plm,1ls break seiences :ffiiJltlding g3m.e.,.Nm'll'. :~]ov.'e'l'{::T. \\dl ~1r dov.'mI,more elIsily dum others. Over the next the g()ve:r~,l~uen~em brae ing b~d~wle.Is.. b.i'l~ic 15 years, Chappleuncovered key genetic researchers such as Chapple 3.1'C l'irtld~llg Ilml:l'lllimJ,~,illU~,steps tn rhe pilt~1l.'1va:y. arnnunrthemselves thrust out 'Of thei r academic lng to ,,I "['luge" contra,bUlion. ~HyS chemise eloi SIers ~nJinlo [!:I~ slfJ'Olt~ighL and m.~lcfllguc JO:hnR3~ph ofthe Universii.l.y 0 f .. "h's llke t:I'ley s~Y----'lhe !:'i~tu placa at lhe' \Vis(lo!'l si~. M.ad~$O:mi Il;igi:J,t lin~e:'S21YS Ol.l:~p~e,~i, :Bll.l ("hlll~ple''S llign.itn :us." nuisance toethaanl ,nl,]'lkecfS., 3£ Qnl;;~iml;; mlJrmJr Chrb: S[li1'l~l'i:rvme .. rl ilkl~l lacks ~i1zym~sfrom se~ting <l!llh~cdlub c;hemi:ill <It StanfomdUniversity i~~, ~do P Aha, ~.Ot>cteO bl:t!,lk it dow,l~ ton.~ake e'l:fui<1Jnol.So the C<'iIUlflu~:m1i.~.5ay~ Ch ..lyple is beil'S ffiOO~~t hi! U.S. Departmem 001'E~l'~l'<dy!;ll"'~IU~. Cli!i~ppl~ l f<lct Sor~r"\i.i]l~e ~1'y::;. C~lapp:~e 'cont~mmlI.y hall ~Qsee h~,v oe:~ll:i\ ~m1odified~o mllke differellilt e:N.p~.ohed ~i,:ua a mk ip~~.ed. il'll nU1C:ll'GCS nil hi s kll'ld~ or ll.t'am lll~~Sof:~ igNi ~n could help p'!)pla r cO.l.upete economic.,.!]y with corn <I'8~, feed,~ callreer-:'il1n""a~banre~ cmcl)e o:ill h:iug O\l,~1)1 tbe S{ock_The li!'5t s;oc;pillll~e J-y~ar. :$ 1.4 Illil· huesl_ A 1{~sd!l'Hioll\7!I'irhphHu:;;·"a~~l.fltt:~ng

A plam~"

nl\1lstl:~'n~ltle hiochemici:'l~ miautiae of Chnl ('l,1<1;pple never e."'p'tlI;,1ed~Q COllidll,ct rescarels rot:!I'l~ring ill diesel ex('a.valm and "I g~if;e:rJ.~mqSe forgrtl'llvi~1g trees, B.lt[ [hat i; ''!.'v'hcreClulpplc :~ow finds. himse I r._~~ h G ~ xpl oreswbe I~~~ r pop I or trees could replace corn as ,I crop fOI" making ethanol fllr fuel, Over the past 15 years. Ch<lpp~e,. <Ii plan& bieehemist a1 P~I,runc Uni-

eues ~he 1!;C~lm grow$.. Thm irnfimnmkm miSlll cna.hle' l'Ie5e'<II't;ho':; to f:und sil:n~~.<1flY valuaale tree:iiillil<:lhuf!.!: ~ilId breed Ihem.llm lh11[poi:LUS 1.0 ;]nothe~' challenge: the "":~,:ughlm~m::'<IS Meil.~n putsit, of t~m silrn.g <Ip.~n the li'llyr:ii,td pe<lk:s OJ.1 dm;nn.<Ittl'Jmms to nail dolt\',lm.\!\'hich part o f [he .i'ln.gevprbu eorrespends 10 't he

baIlrClfh oil crit ical metabof I
~~lds,

[1::5 OWl,t

of thourigliu

d~(l[ r](lj,~tsli':m akt::. Colleagues say Chapple has the

11II~lcupfor the job. and he.'s 1acluded in the

proj.ect COlm sultat i(;IrIIS wi Ib experrs 011 The soeictal .muj,craical impacts of ll'n.e 'WOi~'Il:.. Despite Chapple's timitedexpeeience in ~~~orki:L~g with, industry partners, for exampie. M~,~IM S,!)'$ Ch<!ppk\,vi(o!ely .-~ddN%~d concerns of vi:si.lung COlnpafliY a:Wf'icia is. by ~., I;lmp.h.u;i.;.::ing P~Lrdue·:s e~",pl;lrie:l:lci;,'iwid! ~
gove.rl1rmt:'Il,l n:~g~Llatnr.;. !!!i.

Reg!l!idle~s of hrn.~' c~WC'Ctive~,yCh!lpph:::'s team overeoutes lfm,€: obstacles 10 Ill,ak.il,lfl' i!J. ~Q popiar a kgiti~ul)l~~fu~l crop. om; lhi.ng is ~ de"u:: Pit'lllilscientists 3fe being ~.<l.v[ished with n{.1wfotJn{l'lnL;:~n~M ~~ml cash,Just as g!1'!! ify- ~.

I

I

imls" says C~~lpple.are the ::i~ifhl1~.<luiwde:i: of hit> dJep.'ulincllIfsgmdu<lte snrdents, wha he
s.lyshl~\ie!!il'smJ~]y\'ie\.ved res.e.nt:t~ Orilr:~lI1J1fs ::IS I!es...; attnl!l'<t~\'e tih~Ul'biomcd.icBl~,r~u·fmi:i:;. I' " never romiidered plant sd.ellc~ bf:'Ib:N . " says Anton m:u~!lk, :I'i,:ltS,l~yeaI" Pmdue g:~~admuc:: tlla s vewye.x,c1ling:·

;;i

I
!:i!

~ ~
~

d!ent J!l bi(lche:[\~iz;;,lfy."A'M fIfO!. sudden i~ fb"els ~
-Iall HlINlI'I51CIiIl ~

786

snys. Since then, she
a

~UI'5 kept !l:Il

e~i'eeru l:ali

eases of"'hi.gh perfollln'll:1CJe disorder,"

Small Thinkinq, Electrified Froth, And the B,eauty of a F'inl,e M,es,s
,A,melectmdl"e:mist: s,eeklng llilettelr bljHd~ng ma~,erials,for lPowew~gleneratingl devio!!'s hymll1ls,the'virtues o~ I'h]gh~pelrformamc,e, isorder" d
\:\1'hoWOJk.~f~ the US: Navy. Ro lisen doesn't mind rockung the boat. Ask he:r aJ)[)~n [tlcl ('L;;~~&"1Uldhe \\,'~$rQ:~ s uo a,i~~1;!l lell:ing yuu Iha'~lh'l;.'!l\f~lIy most other ehem isrs Inll,Uld the~:1" eleerrcdes=.stae king regular cr)'~n,llsi~HO srrucunestens Ilm1'h::l:'ome[CIJ:~linise=-ls the w~'I'e of the: past, s Thejillm:e. R.gl~son predicts. will be bQl~,

T hat fascl nat ion wid] mess iness drew

1R'!.)li~(lllto *;~('I'~ckri~id buni!:lc~diMy Ughtmmos:t\o:J:,:ilc I;.,ti~k~g~t'~bi'¢,\:!,/~'iei, _g:t'ls so that the rores{v.~,li.ch :nmlke up about HO% of III en.~ate ri .,11.s) :-1 uy C onaec l'l;;d. 1;1!~,Hi n g hlbYUii,mhs of tannels thm~lgh~lIrhidl molecules Cf:lIiiI. pass al !nOS I lmhhH~c red, .A cubic 'ceUl.t~,meter of Ole rogel m,vy c{ult<li:11 <I. WI<~~. surface alw~n ZIIpp:r:r~m:::h~ng I 00 square I11CtC:r::;,-j~t!>E. E~.e SOfil or"re,d eM'lte·· ycm need .~11<lm~y!iceleec trodes, rtoii!>on !laYs,.. 1]e:r lah and. ethers are
pOl~.

wei~~ll:

~ml~.el'i<li~::Sriddled~V'illiil

Rolis,rma~d

.1-> Debra

Dlr

SOmt'Oll'~

or

workinl;l on li!'li~l~ the minute tunnelswith e~~eeu'l)cal~.lygH" Jfthey succeed, a:rn, erogel a eleetrode would form 11 lbw.:,·dimem;iolltl]

smaller .nil,doIDeiSSie'r, "\~I'~"",e lived lou h,x!'l,gi!) du;; o:~g~ nr

'I 3Dj matrix un'lli.k~~lilmylllii.illmg ,c~lI:re.lIltly in usc. "~VhC;:!l ihi ~ \~"''1!>fi~~propo~d, h: tou!..: (ii; if~l of crit icism <IS be ing ~.lllre sc i,enee fi crioa,"
~iY" \1Vhit~ •. who also i~\'G.stg~:tl;:i'i]-D ~l1;'cun· i chemical systems, ,Bu.!: now. he says, llmain~ stream (1:ne,!!y reseercbers arc takilllg n,.oli:sml"s ide~!'l seriou:5Ily: One is ful]ph NUlZ:.l), 11chemlcll \:vho researches ~11C1!1 acllsm the U~li"'Crs;~.lY of ~Jm.ino:i s, U mOilml"Cb<ln,1.1p<l ign, ~. OIilllylm.illl,£,iu.e r \V8I'1lShaW~joknl1gly. a 3D ClilCI:gy (i(;'\lioc r.i~s;

~,m"s,onry.lh.e g1op""'lIld-.s~o,p a:ppt.'O<Lch Ul maki~g I~il]_g:ii liM baaeries <1m!:liud·(.'t\U eleetrode
struct ures :'. she
$,IYS;,

0 n t henanosea

:lIem

\'.11i-ch Cin.01~.1 iSlry h~PI)J;!n~. :~~O\"'(;'\''Cr.I1!l~L'Cri=-'lh, OJIiea far cry fro~] lud!y lrrickwork, They're bad Iymi xc d.i rre ~u Ia r~ySH'll!C W red, s hOl throug.lIa, with holes, Chemists must harness ~hmiroc~ul:rliiity. R(l\I~S1o~ $;;I~;&. InbuHd IxItu~r devices ~rolffl,~ beuem up'. the ·'S~l.emakes people t:m..ink:' saysHenry \lilhite. 'hl.~de\:[wchellilli!5! .,,1 ihe Univelf'll,iry of Ut.a h in SaJI: Lake Ci tY.... :Everi .if yQU don' E <1£ l'eewiJi:l her. 8!1eC;;in ~a~~,y 'ti:IF S Ihlllg:> up <I.11td
Il.lmkie thliL1:g!'J, Imp;pen." Wh;l[ has stirred ROUM)~. 52, up :Wtlf Ehe ~)>lI.s~6 ye:'~m; is ;r:hemi:stry. She s<lys her pas3

~ial~

$00

cff~'l iv~: "¥~J~!hWI'~ to findl ~!W,f!yH'l
Since

11I1>l1ll<e :ill VI,,'Ofk'~\'itll.ID~l:1be <Ioorn,b." ing

Offth~ job, Ro I iMill hm-;bt>~'mI k!l~~W1i'i !u klb
:a few rnlel<lpilor,ic<l1 bombs, herself
~t) 9

has c 'll'1lj:HI ig~l ed foreefull y o 11 issues <1:!Ti:::C ~ins ,>\iClIlm.e:1I1 i'1,1 science, iuelu (Hng

n. she

cbildcarefor n~,~.",ersh),1 researchers ;;Iud effbD'l~ to close OJS:1;c1listi,c~ill"gender g.•P"· in I New 'li'iIa.'I{E'. 1il,~lisCln.sa,ys !Jllio)n\l'!ln~ioi'l13i1 rm.. terialll ma,y 1110 ldlihe- k.e~' to !l~gher·powe~e;(jiflliel retls,

slon ign~l~1 wh~!l she ~tudi0d tl~t;~"bjl;;cthI
11~~.g:liIi school arid real izedthat she had '''21'U:l, in:!>bul1lclivc undersumding ,of redox reacrions," She ~mil.ed~IIiI,l:mlgh coUege in 3 ye:l:li'S,

[Y$lS for

nlile'[~Hlml~'·I)m~1;; redfuel

~.)lliIt~romote 1'e<lcl:non p

C~] Is. Catas .n~, 111:LeI eel I'so ~'W'Oelec-

r'~h'l''iIl)~[ ~wo") fmJ ill ~9S.0 reeclved her Ph.!!).. frem the Urlivers:iJty ofNolrth <L<llioli:lm<1l" Chflpel HiU. U~.i:~t~r,(;:s~G:d ,11) ·ac;;l~~~~,ic ill

c<!!J!~r;::r m\"r'~I:Y (l,I··ch~n(lic.d cmnp~\!l!il:~' b ~p'.
utat i011 for shUl:mI.tng women sei e III ists inro i ~mlll1l<'1geD111ielH jobs. she 5ignled.on as ., re:=>eilU:Cl.~ chemist iU dm N~v2IJ~ RescRI'!Ch :l!lh~ oF.ltory (NRL} ill W<l;.~ril1g~oJm. O_c. Sh~ .~~<1$ . been the Ire ever since. Now: .• lS, heaci of N R.L's, Ad"l!lm;~d Eh~-e~roc~iu3m,iC'ai h,1.aI~ri:;)ds StlC~on. ROldi~OIl S'[IP~:r\'ise~sll"iO sta~l: :SCiremi~:S.

tredes: [he anede, which t>:uiip!Sp.I"ONH:'IJ~ and electrons nJfOm the celj's I1:Lel(h}~d1IIro~ell01',1 hydrog(l:f!~!ii cl~ ehem i ~i!lI). aud the c !,t bode, \\1~ ich splns O;",ygenmolec~d.es from OJ ir so the
ccell~.I(;<Inorm l,l'O mainwaste f pl\(}di~IGt.'Ware'!".]u (;.'Ombi~lali,{JIlJ.~he :re"!l~t!j)n5 c re.l,h:: an electrical CtLrrculi Ihm can be 1'I<I,rnc.:;scd power. B~ltcr for C<lt .. lys:~rn,etUiLmOrepll'<\.'I!J, ]n an car.ly 'p:mjtl:ct. :Rn]isOl]'", .IRb ~'Cmti·~

Ihl'i~lpper ranks of Scil;';!Hifk liu~dersl~i.p" ,(rn3olh lR,o.~ison ;a,nd. NRL represenratives stresst hat she um:lCI131;:f!'~' tl1lesc aetivu ies on her ow 11 lime and ~vi~~,mn the ~ab1; involve11i'I.cnt) .1:1:1,.2;000, h1!.l'lm! cd~10ri~~.Ci~l!mic:td& in Engil.,{t(u'lrlg News, she c<111 ed fOIl" [~H:: U.S_~O"i.'cr.-:uIVi~~[ to enforce e(!lu~llilyhl uai-

[x. a 13\V tih.n wi [II!Uaold1i fedeJ;<llllhn.clii;rrag ~'roIi1l~ schoo]!\. jb~tlldto dus,cra mi'llatt1i <L.g~):iJ:l~l 'ii\fUrI'II!;11. He~:'1iii.k.e-'mI.Cl-prisonel.'S, ilI:pproaGhrn~kes; some
(;(llhmgues
l.WC.IS}'.,

\'~r--iity {,.~hfi.Jmi:;tryr.:tc~,I~ie~ by j:n'i.inldng Tid~

but Ro~.ison ::;'(1)1$ she is

"llnreliJentmnly lIImpol:og:etic" about ~r...[ 've ~l m l!i\lld'crst;)lud the !>qu';:!I[ll!.sh!!ii.(l!>s by so In,ln y s.c .uen l iSl S 11n d iild m~ 1,1 r,H ors;\'1' iI:h ~,,~I:

nhl'..1;.Idla:~"t¥.'(:"(l~ic ! bits

tJf

i'J'lmhu~nFjJ,. ...fiudn:l~[~lr!'ih •
of

.,~.2

...popull<lrerecl1l,'ocOJ1<"II~.ys.1:fOf d[r-e<.1 o;xidmion

reg.fll:d to o~~~yi~g rh!.;lit\,\C she ~')'s. \V he rI it co :lliI~e!-;W t'h e ilIWS of n<l Hm: ..

15 .0; (:;
.~. 0

!'fll~r p~lS1,oOt:'S. • .-m!.!!US:~l~~_Y,! C~~Up_1;l tl
JJ£

UIH.ler~

,~ gtddui_.t~,

~
~ ... .~

refSe(lrclraet:s~ ~"\~leil:rellinU., 'but '\\1e s lh~'tveolilLr ~.fljtii..::."" :iln a. lot of lfi!i,e,..;;.,''!1 ~:Imcs~:;:~ . ~~~rs ~.. ,. , Ro~,i s,on ·:s~e<IIn first bno ke ~he c:lrmtt of ~l:!Jergyv~:;;e·flrchin th~ mid-H.190~. with a Delen~ Ad'l(lInced Re:M:'<lJ,'(;h P:mjecl<;. Agency j)li(}jec~.wcre1.lle new lIiiigll~."'perfomun~ce (;l:It1l.

m~tllan~L l'~I;!lL~~a~-..rial .•~)m~ss." Rolison ,\,,~ S<;JYS:: a c;<1.rpet of nL~he'l1ililim oJ"ide' festooned
\"dlh!;v,allet~i'lldISI,;Wile:ii, o\;~dyi'l\g

~o:li.:!ion lis, :I;~~{jrc Iltltielll.L It could, l:.\'Ike YCfur:>. she <UCk~10wledges. for her iIl.m:1os'c'lle

r:ich, core . Yet

it

W<I:S

~~p~~lliiluma better cat;lliy SI: l ill~1l

()rd~r~y plfld~.um-.ruthcnium al~.o'y.Nanur'c " '>';1<1, s, Cin::al :ung <'111:1 opl::u n~I<l1~mer S,CCl~o:1,l fQ r ad s,orp lio]')l ~ul!ldd:'l<'lr:ge E'!1i~lSptl:rL'· RQ[i S.o~l
SC;I~NC! VOL 3~S

d~cl.roclu:ll~k!l1 de,\,ck::e;.~ to be!!:!!' tfnri~" '''\OVe':we all he '\Fer)' bQHo\lrnl of the mlll'Cmnlain :~O]"i,.ael cc:Jils."· s.hc l.Iays___:bm that JWlI f ffiVf!!lS thtl be!\.\ .s1;.'e!l~ry is &till i!~e~d. ..jI!lOBEI!{il" C:O ONiiU
i]ppn)~chlo

w'l,ilffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

9 FEBRUARY.2007

787'

A Fu@l for Small Farms
WH E.N SHE W'AS GROWII!N(i UP ONI A

] 2: • hett[lr'i1!'~a ern ifill MonlkeUQ,. I ~Iinls, Emily O IHea~on bouie-fed O'rj[:!hal'l ~aL\I'es al!l!d fl~lped move 'ClIIUil>e' thm'll~h chtes .. Now 28, H~!'!tol'l is a n 3I'~ Iro IfH)m iM 1,'Ioiiltf'l(e ~es, :3 p' la fit a rid biolechology (olll1pamy in Thousand Oillb,

Coil HQm;a, ·~r!d she sees h er i~;b ii!iI (lev~lop~~ '1i ~ ne-w biQruel!e~(;ls.lod;:s ,i3J~ ~ \\1'(1], to S!1!ve a
dyingl I:ue>edi: famil~y·owm,ed farms. 5pe;ciH~aUly,. He(!~QI!iIlocuses on HOp:. such a~ Misramlw5, all ~11l(.redH)I~ na~d1f glrr;;l:Ss,lh.at

9'"'ows to

ill

h,eiglh~ (If Iii, nl!lter} and has been

lo'I.Iideily~tud~.~d as CIIbiofllel feedis:lmk in Europe b~l~ ~Ol in lM Lh1itl!d Sta ies. A oose~rch prcl'E!(~ IHealorn eendaeted ss all !lIl1Iderlgra dlNl.~e al [he Ullil\i'@rsity or minoi~ Ulrb:aJl'lal-(h"m:paign" in .2001 !ihllrill'ed~hal th,e 'grass (Outd ~msil:lly QQ,JI~~(!!IIllpeN~ ill ~ref!,t Ame rrij(Qjfl feed ~~{d5 c !!)f; c.hoic;fl,. imluding solii'!'itchgra~s.. ~U was <l very simlP~e prQjrect. but lt ~lIaldn !;t'l,l'~~ bee ~~ tried." she '5~ys ef the e Hort. which tile :st<lte orr minofiS fll!1ded in en ~I~on10 e'!1!(OtI~a~€biorueb. 'fill ~ ~'!IOJkhas lQ €I ~{} jl@f:SOrl proj@ct on biomass crops [I~ lh~ liIfin'l,i'e,r;ity and lal!ll1lched IH@'.1It~ (eJ rser 5el~C~1I1gbrsads fa r (@f@~ to n's eljlef1it~ally sell. 51~ !tOil es th~U worrk (J) uld gn,ve sll'll'la~l f:;innstill;l dHIIi'iOe LO produce' crops silich as .Miscanlhtls fo:r ro(a~ b cor'e'~ine~nes."'Th eire 's pl~1l!ly i'i~e·eI IIQr e! rill' 1)'0 diJl( F2IT to COi1!lFi bu t~," says Heaton. S,he is iil ~SIO llry"n'g to {Jea le n e'N' \f;;!lfietiE!s, (If ~~~Qcks~h.H ca mJ SiJrv~v~~.rtJl,ll!i h

~oo

r~

CRllil(S OF W~N[lIPOWER ORIN PO~Nl O{I!T~h.al ~he:n lhe Wind d.{ile'Slll't blow, Ithe Wlr~ef1it d:(j-esn'l !low. Aill Ilr~~o1md-b;:n~d ,"~rlll'~-~\U'fer !l;OIllllPIlIllY has, CQml~ UiHfti~h a II1QVr~l,solllltftm till t~(ljt pwMem: (I, su bn:a @tocUi:city mrid ~ifllki iilg(!U~h O~ I,\ii Imd f.i!lr·ms a~l a foun~ l~~ I:OOISl'S (I~ Eli r~lP~, rr(liilll ~11~ Ba,IW:
and! N®I'~1il'5l!!.1IS, LQlh!! Mediitenam~tlnin lh ~ .50ILllh. With wirnl fa rllJ1l!> Iln®ugh Iar
ilp.artte

umdilirom;. '1 ~e'111!ly to 11l.tllk!11 n!t~1 p'l.rmts.," gel she sa,~so,f heir job, Her fatherr,. ]ohll Cauefl¥. is aliso geUing in 0111 the ,1U:;1. He maintains a O. 6·~ eel.;! re ~tartd o,FMis('Omlmslllat he ~S€S to
u!lculate (aroon. Uti)!;rmfiHlne<r~ M!@~ingeredits rm carbon s€qlllesterei:lin plaints or sell, -:EU Il~N1I'1i5eH

be in diUer-

ell't Ii'!'fNI'lh'~r ~y~te:!1D5, i~ alwilYS be will1dy5'offDewhe:re '~!1Ibl!1d l~'e grid. 'i\lill #Iii rtri dly, <I devell(lgle:r al'lI:!1<ope ra~o r (If' wi nd r.(iilrll'l1l'1dlll olrclUfld Irdalild amd the li!!IIit'eod K h'1lgdlO'lfI1l, 'Hlld 1k ll'fQjoc~ lInd~r (rQn~UluCl~o!1l iJiI th I:! Irish S lOa" carne u,p ~\lith i I'll!: ~lU~~lng!ihe· S2{1.IFifI!!g:a,waJu Ark low Bial11f
alol1lg' the (O<lst~0'[ G.erulIl.1lIlY. the Nelher~.1Inds,the u..~ ,Hull ether {Qluliltrrie~.nu~)e gener.. a~ly o~~y serve domes.t[c l1Ilarik'e'ts, ~!!Il ~he Sill~e;rgrijd pr(ll~o$es hooking wUllld r~nrliS~o gl ,~rijd th,i\lIl Z e~N~\lld~~hlroillghol,n. the If!lJm'lh Sea, into tihe B~ll~i(, nd lhe,ll, via the EngH:>1lI1 (hall'llllel. h;! Iri~n '5~' andl t~e A%l:ti,n;t.ie Coll~t of IrelLalnil.IFUQlfI11IUi,~r'e, the g,ridl w()lM extend wi!!lh acress Ui'l!' 8.aly or f3.1scay ~ Iplllnm:d

'tIl~uo\~a o~ om u ro~ ~ ~

II! Ol~f~ho~!l!

SliP ~rgMd ir! 2{IOi.lhere a Je' I!lOW ~.~!'lYl1lnsh ~r~ wind r;ar~s. Ill! ill O'F

I

andr lMfiI ~~r 'lh~ Ilber~afiJpe-f1Iillsi!l ~~ hu'O ~~€ weSL~rIi! M;ooilerral!'lE(lIf!. . As d test bBd (or I.he '~edlllliilJ'loQf, Afrtrkity is prropo!5hllg tQJI build a 1l1J~'E!! wind farm in h~ oolllllhm ~ iii Nllr~h Ssa, till $;U PIP!ly !!l@ tlridl)f ~!Il 11m U. K .• ~he· 'N@il.ml! filillll~ S• .i!ml'G ~rl1rlii!nif. OIi!!bb.e!·1lIthe lLOGW Fou 11- ~. datic 1'1 Plro~ed, it WOLJki n~i of 2000. lu rbines, BClI~h,c[lpci,ble of gem~rnti ng 5 rne9!1lr~IlL'5. <lllld w®urd ~ m ~t
Olliff 3000

I

10 gigaJlil'alUS ~~ouM b€:·e.r!olUglh to p~~\ler more ~h.aJfl8 mriU:iclJiI Ii; 111CDWles.. "Good wind reSO!!lrce, sl'ijlIU~w \'1.300[, high, (h!li'I').!lnd, c(lIl.l~We~int'E!r(!!)i~l'leuedc-n stl (rOmle~ ~ ~ i_.~

:;qll!tHt: kil!)meters.

Its

o

tn-gether iiii the !Hluthe rn I!>J'Dr!ih " says Chris. V~lIl, inet-a.~ oHhe Superg rid pmje~l hIII~thAintridly. SM, Aijrlfici~.y is .. urre:nlly :sleek~JiI; ~IJP'porl ror 'the PfOj@~l JWIIIII lh'~ thr~ mll~onii!l90'\l'@rilllllll'~r:lt'S.as well. as. the Eump ea 1'1 U liIiorn. A.jlCl rt lrem pnrvidilnl] zero-eerboa 5l!1S.l<lii 1II<llbl.el]lowe!", llil,~ Supe rgrid has am)1~h~, .a:ililvalill49_ El: It w>ouId p~Oifitt~ a ~@ad~'-m<Qdt! Wiay or r!lHl~ ~~r ,arounlli '!h~ IE.UI. MOSit II!lecI'IQ uh::ity in Wfo,pe is ge"e ~al~ arid! dis~fib:lJited bV rtatioiilal p o~~er (ofilipafij.ie~.nlere ~sti It ~eua de a(F~S!l Ibcnml mi----:;Glmlitthillgl thrat.I'I:Je E.iIJ. j s tryingl to, eneeu r·[lQ;e. ~111(l'Cllr~lll11aln (Qnm~i~'li~olll !il1II~ rnemb errs of e ~h~E'urOj!)@af! Pa1ril~~ITIl?nit€l1.~ tlilcoug nl 'ut ~vas ar g iJO~ i(j@a. ~I.li~b so many boxes, ~ Veal >il)'s. Buildffl~ onshore is.eitpens:!'IIli!, points. out Graen~e (ooper of tllle Br~'lijsh WUI1.d helrglY A5s:m:iia'lli~:1l.r but aiUnoLlgh thE1 e(olilmnics 0"[ the 5upeJ"!;Jrtt:i might IIltlt s-Iad:: Ulp I1iO~1.I, Ih~N:ostGf energy i~inUi?1Ii5im.g .. '1h~H~ wi~l. 00 a paint willen SQlfI1IeQlllewiU s.ay, 'fhiis isa IIlQ-brra'il'l,er:'" ~'li!NlliH:U;IR1r
.

E
~ ~. ~ 2
o;lI'

g
~

~.

7sa

l11li ..reeent decades turn out 02'

in devising

c~tilIysls that

Hydroqen IE,(onlolmy? Let Sunlight 00 the 'Work
1 1

eou hJ seen be a new .g~ mCI: otf im p:rogres~, Nocera ! ys his SfO~\P isclase to .... f.,.~tbH~l'n:ungl"iC lt S wit h a new rI.J11Iu::n~ su ~unb~]~lSd C!!l'~dysllh;,'!l,~!b~'lrbS~~gM<'Ind iIJ~~$ t~J:

13m there

,energy to stitch oxygen

atoms together

to

IL~,ok~lrng a de,am way to, pr'odl!lce bydm'Og,e'l~jIlDanie~~h)cewa wantsto'f!Lm, fOim' (I, hu~:l celij ba,ckw(I,rd, pow:ew,ed by sLlnl[ight

make 0:1:' The

1TIL~W C"'IJ<~ly;,J isn't

very effi-

H
i 11£,of

y~;m~e]~eemrS ~,ike~lnldejJ.I ~ ~ fuel, ('on:", O!:!1!l;: \v~(h o~yg~!li Ul a fud l1dl aad t't It produces w... er and elecrriciry, widlO[Ltllll.e' t
:r:lIQ~,:UOUSpollutaats

that,u::omnpmlY the

hun,'itrl-

mO~l fO!i:~il JJ\JeI~, But it hasa dlml ~ade: Although t here is p]!cnly ofllllydr,ogCJll ,m''Oun~t1,

the way he e;,xpeered il to, NgCi~m :....y.s. which gives him !;:{JliLridlmce that they're lJegillulilng UJ WLncle~ian~ ,~l.owro 'con[ro~ the moiton and bUlldi~g ofdiffeD"Clilt atoms \)I.. iththeie new catalysts, Although ]-[,cyduk ,sa::lS h~ h~;S!1'l~~a~dthe d~tfl~ll> oft])D..., new l~<I~,ilys!t "~ny :-.y5!eJll where ~;h~y Y"'~·' ean tum water 1:0..0 is ;a~~lIge dvanee beesuse oil' .. .. the di.m:l::u]ty oi~lhe .I~m.'Oblt;lh,"
cieut yet, lBut itworks Nocera ll.ck.b1i.o,\d,odget>, th!lt eve!]' thissnd o't~er advances ~:l group has made are m\b)! is steps comparedto what 's needed for an h~(hH1Uh~1,v II;;:r.dun of l~~ l~Cl'!.!lO.iu~y. On!;; problem I.S, that. Nocera's catalysrs lmm; far

i t's l'iOlllldw'UI,h, other,J(Oliii!iS ,ill cOJnplex, mol~CU ~C&., and it ttlkL:."~~rge :;JJmou~.ts. or energy tll :>ldp it fi'~t;l, MQn;:(l"~r.!1'l~,o~~l hydftlg(;::n roday :U:l:l made frcm fossil t~~e:l::;,. releasing vasr Gll!(!!uhie~ o:r carbon diox ldeln the precess. Daniel. Nocera 'IS:,hAlp.~ng change to I hilt The M;}s~achl!seus [nMi lute ofTec!m;ol~
ogy (MIT) chemistis iooking fo:rlllcv,' ways, tn U~ $,I!Ii~11 1:0 $pl it \',V'olwri nlo Oll;)lgen and iglu i:J!yd.r-ogen. In essence, Nocera jls l~yi Dl~I:o run ~ ~'ln;,'l~c!$11 in .rewrn~+"·\Vhyca:~·t \ow r'~c:l.~,gil:J,eel."he fuell oo.~~, t ba<:li:v,f'd,msT' he-asks, '~('~l~~ ('eptlm:~~.y.t's very easy:" i hliis q'lweli~ hil~ ,OJ cole rful srart, l ike I1n~H'iI,y

felluw -Grat.eflll

DC'iUI

fans with their tieUptliill~.b~UJle.f!4IDCeJim hepes to Iii i1Idnew (ill.3i~~SI:§ that h~m~ Sl!Jnligl1llQ Im.;Ike hlydrogen hai'lt

dyt1:UJ'I-sh irts, Nocera, 49',~1\\'m.fascinared by
colors \vh(;l:!rI, he was ,gmwi.~g~I'Il--not yIJ~,e h col fI~'S themse IveSi.fuJ,f!'\''II'~\.'~r. but by lhe' processes lh<l:~ .~i;e beh~nd.~l~,eJm,l.".I. warned to

understand d~""('(I~nl's m,nl.'lfi,i'~&." No(:~n. of
says. And that sparked his interest i.~, heme iSH,,)'. In between gohrn~ to some 80 Dead s~,~ws, he ~;e;Jr[led t~,~ the 'I::o:~ors, see <Ire e 'l~ we d riven bJi \l,iJro lch fre q ueucic S (l f llghr arc' absorbed .• md reflected by :1I111'ller:i]'lis Wme:n, ..

~'h t ligh~ .~:;~:b.~Q'!1b~d.H .. ~.k~"'l'> .;,I,'\;1~~rOl~."; ~")~It
of dlieir b"d.•~,..~d:-;~<lte.. send i,~,1 the mil11lw <I, g diane ling frenzy. As they retum to the:l:r rels-

bonds in~lI!g.<1Ir malecules, All1ll;l hean ofthl;i precess :i,sthe .~~uness,u11l~ I) fe]ec~OO:mI:S excited by ~~n1JJ~.ghL Noc~rra ~s laaki ng Far nevel e~ro~ ~ysts thatw iUPi: rferm some oftlmes~ rasks more ~n'~ci~n:1 y, ~ Five years 38°0 he and thelll-gf:'ddm1le :sHI~ de n~ A lan H~}~d~1 des ignl;)d ~ ruthen ilin~lk

'Ct'lmaLll rurbeuium ... rare and expeasive mel:<lt Hm Nocera is~,oping to find eheaper IIIat eri al s t'lh$l work as wei L H (l recent! y launched a new proj,ec I 'Ii\' ith M n00 l~e<Lgm:s to s )"!mt hcsjze a mu tr it ud J!; oWueve lme ra ~ OJ: ide ,cmm.lpounds ror~,esring <IS possible Ulilu~r-sp;i ill~ eat~IY!>:l:s. in A handful of other group::; around rhe world are er:lg!)ged Ln,related efforts. One irpp.ro'1C,~·rUlf~Uledby researchers .,1 the Nfil i Qn<l~, tc newable Energy La~':m:ratory .in I Golde'IlI.. ('o~:unJdo. fbr example, uses semicenductcrs to absorb sunl ig~:Handcreate \;~(,:c,rkt~~ d~~~rg~~ 1lre~liiu;m used 1.0 s;plh N~<il water, A.h~.ough tbis approach is currently more \;ifr~ci,l;;I1!~t~a~ N{)(~~nl\.'l~;.lwly$~&, he r sem iecnduetnrs i~.eed,ed arest i~ I.too oos;I~;y to
be' eQ'mlmcr~i.a.I[I.)1 viable, At t~'n.i~po.illl .. Nm::el'<l ,m'gwLes. ~H such !'ii1r.l.legies: <,lre worrh p'lJlI'f>U ing, "I' ~nno I. ~l~ir:c Whf~l the winne r wi I~, be ~h,1 isable 10 make energywithout ~ ,l~,hl~ng i;'Ur11 CO., to the f~[mOSp~~.l;:r~';'

Ii .~
t:i
,~

.~ ::. 8
.~

r=i

Clill'lI]!Y·5:t lhm ~~I:i:>ligill~ ,,,,,nergy tll' sl!:ip pro~cms, a:nd elceuons ' .... omm.l ac.id <In:d slltch ~i'!fe rest. ~:heygive off h~,JL B.y~he lime' d~e~nwg~~her to mil k~lt, 1.'Ulolecl!~es, Nocera WillS a gl.·ad~l.ilI.le snad.~~H ~n lhe Cali i~ (They're :uln try.ing to Fill.cfa con5illl hat fOu1i~.lnslimre ofTechmiology ,in Pm~mdeml, does, rhes<'Ilne thillgwilh wafer ,rather dum l!lie w,,,s woll,1ce:li'illg 11o,"", :line could design sys;= .tll, <Lc.iJd.)Buulimai was the em.y !>tep. It~"even ~elns~:o t,:Of~pUl.ir'B ~Iqcu·on ~ (;l};C ~~,~dy sw~b mor·e di cU!l~H} ~Jf!blane oKy,gen~ ~n)(;l'riu~d ~ spl.uwi ng v,,1'iII.er I i~,l Ihe'n.~,logeJ~~ler~:o <unl It 1~lglrn:t.,nul me I:i:lern to .nm.'lke f~leL "Ri,gtlt. Ollt of l~~ bl~cks.. r was il"ller'(l:H1;';d in'll $~'dmr f~1:n1fl O.,-,! ~~"'Pth=.U'!Mt}uld be !l~l;ldll;;d w energy COI,H'er:ll~OJ'I." Nocera ",ays,. Oil". as, complete thew .•ter-sphuiml,g reacti.m~s <Im1.d i ma", imizc l~.~ cff~cu~n,c}l Q,f t:~c:::procc:ss, Deadh"1Id:s mi~]]t plll ii, f.intiilJ1lg, ~ w2liY to ho:~d ow.to l t:I,e,~ight. "nl,~.l~quire·s <l 'ce:n<~i~1 OIg;UlI,]z.ltion;,'":mys : :P:~;;trlts lhis byphot,p::;;y~lbcsis: dn 1wo .1~.I.~ydllk 11lowa cllcmisl.rypm.fe!H'Or a:t tbe Unllv,e~::sity ofC";llifornia. bnrim:, And :it"s,one m:3:l>sh'e prol,ein 't::omp~,e:1i.esspl,it''I,ral:e:r ami. c(I[:bollii di(]l.'>(id~ nd forgG: n~w I.;,':m;)my-&tOI·it~g oFll:ie re'a~OI~Sthere"s ooel~ SO~I~lde pmgress a

based

No~~er<1 says, '·Afi.fiillLg of energy

R&D tiln e:.m.guntlcr-

the hls~ 30 years bl the Uilited Stares has

been dml it h'ls b~e[llre'iled

<j~,Ul

m

i.11Iig; p[:ohic'mI~. 'l;viflm 11 Htde 'Ii" ooml1onellt~nd ..I bi,g '0.' There needs t,O be an 'R' bigger 1;lmJlm Ihe ·'D.' There <Ire \,;']uo,~e new ar-e<Jsof t>denc~ an:d I;;ngi~(;~r~llg :Ih~'~ iIleed to b(l dus,covered m so Ive ttl is p~:Qb.le]1l]"·

S~iU. N{lce"mi~ cfi!livine~d I'he the b!!t'lfld ity of re.s,e.nchers. :mI,ow~,e i~g i~.spi.nXII t,o find !I lC:arbOJH1~uh'1'li s,cm:roe o~· ,energy ,,,,illl :sucoeed. "rn gmuRllIlu::e i~;"he S<:liYS,• ] tllink sci~n1cC C.(111 d~liwr~ c.hcapmld . eifidem ::rolutiolli. [ bel~,eve :~l eeply:' d
,t:OInlUlI[I

~iRO!IIERTf, SIUt'IICiE

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

SCI~NC~

VOL 3~S

9

FEBRUARY.2007

799

Some ""fork Ii:)'[ JII\SON led ~o t1n.eEO!!rthshine project, 0!Il!a effartjo monirnr Eanhs l'Cl'1cC:I:rul(."C by ~~mea!l>u.riillg ilffi\,r llI1i~ch eal1h]ight raU~ onthe mecu's dmk face, '"Eanhs.bune helps us to In'id~rn12Lnd t~'It;:Il\tl~Cof dou!l~ill el imate:' S~"l:> 'Goode., 1(.001.1 ill s ooli~alJ()l,mnli':, Aller he' beeame Calteeh's pflOVOS;~ in I Q95..t((lOTl in O\t~fMY\I\' .. m~~ {I'\,'1;;:rh,n~lcJ f (1:[ theinstinne's bi.ological sciences and expaml.:-liolll of neurosciences, '!!.'i well as ill'S :~Iwolve~ mene ~.:JJl projects such asthe Thirty Meter Telescope .. Bu[ ill 2:00]. when a colki:lMHC: m:J!d hill:Ll,BP W,1)!; iook,ing tor .;1 ch iefsdeHl:i!l'l, he (l\;,\dd0d 10 toll.:; rhc ph~"g~, .•[ wam!;,ld ~{)rimJ mu how lihe p:ri,rale sector works," [h.e sJYs, and """!'nElI'';Y ·"\lJa.s ~(li ~ [0 lJeim\f,;;OOMa rlg: n
Kool'lil1 $..l'~y!) he spellit Jm.i~r.r5l y€:<1~ ami a Imlfin t'~lC 1C3:r'llri:mig!loo~I.I. (mergy. a precess job 1~<'J;1c~a"ged hisviews ... I ' ....S mare Sikel'itic,all I :!Ibo~lt.climate >cha~ge ill. few y~Blrs ~g,o" Now

Guidinq an Oil Tanker Into Re newa b,l,eW'at"e rs
Steven KJoonin galv,e upacademic tHe ffiml CalHomia for the harsh realitties
of the ener,glY indllL~ls,tlry!, nd !h,e/s Ihltllvlmg a wba~e of a time a
LONItl'ON!-StevenK:oorlilll'S ctlreertoolk, a ~.t!rprisillglmn hl 2004" Aftcr~],~:l'Ir.ly3. decades ,IS ,HI. <'II(;<ldemic~~eol'elii:c<l,1 physicist, im::hlldl-

['vr::: CQIlm.eIIQmt(~more

~m,~IEII:'dhe] t

ree view"

eist :r:hlil:ip 'Goode of the New Jersey lUM;~iune

afT ocilmdog,yill NC'i\\i![k.

Koonin~va!i born '.IIul raised i:lIII, tl\li,iYi.nlk N Ocy. ~cltlCO'lh:d 1MC<.'llt~ch ~Jld M and jolncd the C <I~~ech facti It)' inl 9 1:} spee i<!,.~:iiz91.1.£ in nuclear ~:li!d,":;any-budy 'th~nry.. CO~lrr~~~rs were developing rapid.ly at the time. and Koo.~j~lIfQmmd~olsoft~;ling~ tOBipplyoo.m,put~ .. ~ng lrn.leth'lm~ ~tl:"At Q!f!I(;~,!}Qifi(~. e Ml!)'S,. ;~, repp;}o h teaeknowledge publicly that, peop,~e nl~/ be sentarive from 113M oft~'li"Cd,hilffil a new device C<IU.ed;1 personal computertc see ifhe could cf~usil1!!l; clill1i!Ltt: 'ch~u!i,!il,(;);. 'N()!.1it. co.l1'n1miued to find uses for it.Tn the mld-l 980.s. he gm Ilnmrc "beyend petroleum:' it is cemplemeeriBlg ()i~,~xplor.lltifmwhh invesunern in ~~(]Ihlr fnvolv:ed in science adviceto gnwr~mttm. and wjnd pO\lI,ier. ,dC<I:Im. CO<1~,techim:ilogy, <lndl everJJUI.;d~.y i;~jrnr.g JASON. mJ.~ .i udependenr jo l1ril)fl!l!~ls.Kc](ll'ain '$, j(]b is tu ~lel.ri!~~{)C.1J:!';B,r'~ g!ll~rp(If !iIC]~mist~ that advises the g(r\,i~rn; meut 0111. science ~nd tccimollogy. Si50(Jl.;miI li.on·il..yellr re~r.:t"L'dl:fulll(lin~. pku:~ts tec:hn(1:~ogy ~17~legy.a~~d gene m~lr)l'cV".uili.gdi ze O1bolll~he energy challenges l.'aci:ll1gI1me '\it~rJd. "S(1J~l~rLi~,c,;; ~. fcc I like l'w gO[ t~.\: mi.'iti:lWt~n~ d.erlhl job i1'1 the~'ilorld:·K..ooni 111 S<IY.s, Spe<l.kingin BoP's smart ~l,e<ldq!iJl.;illr~e.rs ,U:lnl Insti~ nne of"Jechnol0ID' (Caheeh) inPa~,denfl", he ~~11lled ~ll1::i hi S so W11]~.er,Im,-Ollli.tor.~iaront:> and moved h.l LondoI'! to became chief $:de~ti~t of the: 01,1com1pallY B~ BUl hUt> new role :h. not aU .,bm!loiL SP \\"'1~ dlC;: fir~i i~tJr oil CQilmlpalil)' m

iug 9 }~gtrsas PUO\l'(),."l of the Cfl]if'n:rnla

n.

{,'he :hllergQVclr",lilnH::Im,m~, Panel on Climate 'h~a1r.g:e h .. s ooncluded thm llemrenl;~~:res .<n:e .ising iili1 part <IS a result .of hll:I1lHUl <lcdv~.tY"1 l ikt'fIIilos~:e[Qe:r,g)'p~llld~,~il<, sees no silver he fu~I,I]et l]lllll w~u save rhe pl!llm.c[ [m.m elimaie d~a!~goC•.hl.Qt'''$ome ;;Im~~o lJn~sa 'bigg('f C11Iibc!!' !man ethers," I le <Ii.dvot;.ue> h!!;rge-'s<:aie efforts im! eil:rbol~ ~"<iI ~!I,;~trmi(l~la~ fOl>$j rtJ1~~bunltllg I Illruns.,~ 'I'I'eili ~J.S a new genel,'mion ef nuelear pm';~r :~~ti{1iim.s. And he ~!y$ i[ \'\Mi.~!d be "lrresponsible" not to ~'l!iive~t~.g<tte ~1t~.~:r 'I¥<~y:-;h~
deal wh&n gk'bill.l 'WInning. such as geeengi-

neering; incre.~sing Ianl~''5 r,dhx;tuvity by P~Ll1llJpillg ]1~~lel'ial imo the u1P;p~r ~U11;o.5p.l~C'lr, One area claiming much ef'his.aueutian is bioflm.e'i:s . Current biofuel effens, lia.e i.'I:rgues.. ;,;~rl;; ~tnlpp ed ~lmo .<!grueu~hand foodproducI.ion andare "net QPl~,Im]id." KQon~J1 \1!,'<Inl~ to

~~1vanize ,~if;lneHeiMs. bi(l[~(;hno!!Ogv!ilS..• ~~ricultural seiemisrs, Cllg~ncer3. <lind ol~lI.ers '10 :iii "llo biofiu~b; right" 8P hasput up $500 !1iii1il- ~ lien over I (I years tu createan Er,tergy ~~)O- ,.,
sei!ilfQ(:~s~!m~.;t!i1!J!H~ 0:']3]), 'Ulf!(UI!lCI;'{II~ythet
n\ic;l

~inh'GrsHks

,fl~

..; ~

51. James :S'~~~O\r'~", Koonhil. :55, ~·~nf;!i~t~O:L1 .1
cm:e'e'l" that lmas
~1~.S.O taken

vyil1lg fur Ih,is prize, and the ".\llillUleii saould he

~
t;;;

him intoO climate I

oo::ieaH'ch,md sci enee ..dviioe ..' "l like film,dillg
om aibl10UL'~:~l£way the \va~d works, ami,..

iml;:lll~i:i' lssue is p~lbl,i hl;l:t ~ t;his initiative haswon pk'lIlIdul~ "K,uonjin ~
~l:f{1<lJt

8
!ij

1~~.oug~lt hard

how tOo slnliC'lurc rhe IEBt

~ik¢~~1U'ling ]if:\\"ll~i!lgc<;;:" ]-[e-'S a quick Sl~tdy:
Colleagues .~l1rdI'::nergY=iPol.ilcy experts are imrre~4.-d by hi,~kmmi~~dge (lf~'i.~ltH is ';:S.~!ltU<I~ly ... ne"",' f~.el d to him. "1] e 's r,ilsen tn ~he' dl1d~ellgt'f.n~~~~l$ l,m([!T~U)~:sinnlV~~lCtl ill. ~he oompany." :'m.y~ph}"S:i.cist EmeSot Monlizoli'~he Mllissad;uJSCItS J[!J~tUlUill!: ofTect:i!Ilol.ogy (rVIH) in C<lIwlbridge. ~ll~mrmer l)iep;Hln:ent of
E!},c;rgy ~LI~dcfS~c.ret;,'lrYwho ;;libm :>hfi On ;)~ 'M:lhf~s()ry pf!ne~.for "He'll wen P,f!:H the

and i.~:will havea hn of i~up<lCI:' S'1iYS carbon
sequesrratiun expert Robert Soeelow of IPd~H~e'~(}lmni'V~!:'~Hy. "'SP' has made o:!!CO!llU m:ut,lrnlfem go big in energy b:uo:sdences. I. to doubt th~$ \.vmi~d have h1ipp'~n¢d\.\I'hh{li.L1l SteVie KOOJ.lin.," "'''.)1::; Mon~.z. K()()~.lill ~s p~re<l2,;edwith the bl~zt; h,~ liBI t I:u<~s 1.!m;ed. ·'PI<lIm.t selleti.>c,ils~::\<1re~'llking to c chc.liiI~i$t$alld ~ngi~~.CCffi" Re$e,,"rch~[s are ."" l;.1)iL~~ inrg 01.1 tOo tihe ch~ll.eng~ :" he' say:s, i'foe

g:
~

!!l

~.
0

I

5l

f

~Im.np Olll the ~.oearniI1ig c ~Irve:' ~mys.sol <II' physi-

sr.

,Alive to the ,~hU,enll1ll!. KOI(Hli!'l wants t.o ~dI(I
bJofuels ri.1I'1l."

f;! ~ ~. -DAINIEL, 'CU:R"II' ~

Some eountries

do not need so .mmm.y. This

Treadinq the N'u(lealr

bri nl£$ 'LIPthe CO:l!!ll!lldru~~: Do you make Oi! db :you bu y [mLCJ,ear fuel]? So the [filel mtnk]
~il,'.!Hgo

Fuel ('ycle Min'e,fiel,d

~~n;Li!l!~ltil~

idea iSlo have ~lis;y~le"!n '~h~r~by rcoun~:~.~l>] to rbe market to btly luel, <Inc! iftll,ey
[Q

because of ptlli~.it:;,1J t(;;1J&n~:>"

'mCiJdq RaUlf has the unenviable job of" makhllQIIIA,E'/s TIilrnlmematlona[fuel ba n k w@:rk. AI~ldthe c:l.oclk]s: 'Ii elk] n g
VII iIElriII NA, AU :STRIIA,~N'lUi':: lear \'\.~~P(]r!S c<!pib [Iity ~Dl.lt'~d~p!l'(;fld w "l'~~ali!y as 30 more l~oll!l!i:~de's i~l eemiug decades if lhe thl'c
tt'.iI~1e il.ln.llld.e~~rfllell'lol'll,inl!e:>.

I.~.en the}! would com,e to ll~eseassuranee-ef:S1.J]pp~y mechanisrns. lt's Jike if yo,u have

bO~L~~,lt <Ii luc:kel fmnm"m airline and that <li'rline C011l~,pal1ygncsb(::II~Hlp.anolhel'a id:~ UlC' wi.I.11honor that ticket.
jj):

B~'~ffide'.!l, t!1lI'e!,o~lilt~(al d'IDnere~('e;.!l,. aile

Ih@l'@t:e(lilllll,(all halll.el~g)es? c

0]1 ill. 'pIICsent ,emlr.i>e •. !)C'co~."d.ing to
MO~,HIITH:d m"B''u,1.ui.ei.director

gell"en~ I ef'the ]1I1I'I;.e:r~.HltuOIJ11I1 Atomic E!l{;rgy Ag,c'!'n~~y[A EA). ( is flr:ighlen ir:l,g sceuarjo lnigh~ be avoided if the "h<1!v:l')!j"
B'LIUlh

The cha~~'l>~l;;~to htl"'e it be milll[i~~ID{ln.ll is \1irililOlIl a t.rnn:dcr of leclmo logy. fOiIi' cxmnIlh:.. ir yau had six co~m[ries l:tlki1m;!! part, the: el'll:i,ehD1i],el1ll' tedmo~ogy nrtIi:ghl be eeming ~rom ih~ Et~f~)P~f~!l!l!:. [they] w~)tild run fund I~.e technology. The o~h.e:1I'comnri.es 31Jlepan

onh~

'l.t~l!"!f!g~:ml4'n[ and Q~m~~(Ji~~u~ sid~,

couldagree on a better sc~e:l1lm,e for ~ha'r.in!il ~'lLd plnductif1!l1 WW[~l the "have-acts.' A number of ~)rop~sal havenow bL;l~'~pmfor. ~ wardte a,,~lo\~' coumries to U!:H: ~~j(:le~ril!l~l:'ID' \,VW7Itlm ;;i.I;Xluh'in:g

eentrifuges

of their

owim for

'I
{rhUiI,

c!'!vi$:~nnsthe ex pe ruse

Q~:50 5!!:~e;liIt.i~tsi.al!ldtechlll1l~~1aIllS from 'l!!lJelil 1iJ:@' ·ilmr~l,,~dI~ T.hey ecu ld be ilD:vo] vcd, h~u they ~~uuIdn 't <lliI be sitting i01, l'liu.c [enrichment] ease ... e d ll!<ll!ls. N one of these multi flat ional sehemes
'C<Ii!!!liI!t!'y~'O'!!!~d !1Il!It nf

e !~idcm ent h

lli!

ellJrichun~Iillrnni:LI~U. AmQiJmg these is lhe establishmeat IAEA.-contro.lh::d illl:(:rIlElitllonal fl]cl

bank

I~mm,w~,:ich all '00 untries cou ld d WW" Tlm~: pl<l~.gOl <1. boost b~t ye,ll!"11~m the US.-b~lSed
NWidc,u "fh~tLl ]llil~'ll~ \'~ (NT I), 01111ndJ;'Pclild~ i CI1i[~ mlJJl,1l bseked by US. biJI~ormure\;\farJ'e'mll

Ib:[ dlJill1't have these ~~C'~ll(~lo~'ie~ 'Ilready. [t ·5as if you hOtl~ll shares !,mI, ,. omnp;o1~y like :n~,dSecurity Policy Coordinaricn section TOYOtgL You"rc- interested i~.the pmducr, amnd cOClrdillil<llI;Or {Imu: .1Ar:.A l~ud"b;f1nk [lroj" which ill, l~i5 case is the enriched uranium eer. Sd"f','e!m"€:~ \vithR"uuf. a C<l~~l!:di'H)"'!I·hh COl1i'liing nUL YOlL [~f~Uy dml't need lO know Pakist<ll'lm paeents .. in his olff~ce ill 1A EA how the production line works, h~adc~~'lilrl~r:;, h'!!~~lt;AIJMri~un c<l!pita L here

reprceessi I'IIg IJ ei rig tr<1'1rn sfel'll"cdi to conarries

"1,{II.1iI rill e:OI:lArilINON

Buff~U', The NT[p~e(]gGd $50 urillion 10 g",~ up tbe bank, as IQ{lmg 21s.lA.EA secures another :$.100 In iU ian" er I:~~C'~qu iva lc ntimllnuel ear ' IlL:e]. Iby Se,lJ:tenlber 20mt So I~r. ueene h~s r)'~n mon~~. Oli fnd. ml the t<l,b~e.. ,md thewaole ideajemains ~f'lIw(,1sely conueversia I., ""Vhe~lin,er the 'US" would aetut!1~}'place its [Iuld~<lrlmaterial urtder flilll IAEA cemml remalns to !beseen," :f>ays. Fra nl
~''UI] H~,ppeL

OJ: WIi!I.!I'ffis: a fi!l!lel bank Qeed~d?
This wholl;l!hiin~ =-I.n.~d ~ntl~efan of2003 when ou d~!I'\CCHlrgeneral [MJo.luuflcd Em.mldeiJ. drew anel1l~'ion W liiLe nlct rhar
nuclear t3iu~ehb1~C~lt and rt;p['(J~i,;$;~i'rl~ techllologY<lte intoo many hands, Todill:Y.there are eight. HJ I ij ,eotmtll"ies W.il.iillthe cap!l:1bi Iby tu if:,nrrnch mml]~n'il <.IJ'Jid about l.~e samermmber thai 'C111.1 reprocess, spenrluel ro make

Q: What r.!lIII;~ IIAIEA ~]ih;L, t~ Iplay1 is One of the crirlcisms is. tllut.lhll,s ~,s,. grand . phn~ ffm:li!l\ the! ABA to eX,piil.lU;~ and be <I supereenerollingageney. .. " Bw we don't \1i.~.m[ set lip all empire, Uwe dQ set lip an liO [A:EA fuel bank, we ",,'!:)uldllikc'ly eoatract it ~ll.a toi n~~m!l f}1.
,()~W~ti!!t m~gl'!lt a 11'II!'!'cj~~1l" Ir~fi!ai:Si5a!fl;oo!IDle~'!1! W'f' ~lllId!elilr:5f~er'i~e'2 The intake of'people su~d~ing nuclearscience i[I univershies h,IS been dec! ini ng, \didl h~s; made a slml~U~r and ~~~l'iI[uUCJi pool I()fru~c]lear~eclllc;ued Ileoplle avai I~ ~b I~. Th.IDll hOl!$.also l'nl,fldl;.!l ife d irr~(~l~ It (or [lilt: ]AEA 1 beC~~1i.lSe\1!'e lI1~ed inspect,on; and ot~~.ersti!lff whh nw:.::ICl;'lf e:o:.penise. M,).ny of lI~ hope that ~ ~jm:Jea,r :rellais~f~~~ce wiH ml;:!!n that ~.11,ll,(::llea;r ill no w longer be<l5:;;~.H:·:iatedwil:b be~,ng ullS;rfe. <lfld th.u t~,lis, encourage s.l~ldenls. The \,'I'(Hld oen;;(.inly !1!l,~dsmm\; P.eOI~Ie-wi~h ~I nw::lear Si.: i.e 1M:: e' education.

a nm::!e<iJrpol icy ex pen

<ITP!ri:llce-

toll lJmlivernity" MillI:he,I!o' Bunn, a ~lOllplfO.~[fcr~

plu~o:lI1l.ihJl.m.,Tbe quesriuu is whether prednetlen will~ be restrieted to these

fuel
COUIl~

:;n H'lrV<ltnil U!'ni~1'~p;il)'. says the hankh,,]s ··i,;Ibeuel"lh,m,·e\~1l chance' of'beill;g ~, up.. O[he~.h,{l!\\l(;)vt::r. ~uoo ,~a~ h~}Ypy mlom th~ tellnsbe~ I'Ig off'er-ed. ":Fofgoi!mlg Ur'lll.lium

arion speeialist

U'ieE orwl~~d~cr new anes will enter the market. The issue is that l:h.esame teehnolo~:Wcan b~ used both Fo1i' nelear e:n~r~}i n 3'IUi :I, ~nIC lear we",pons ]~rog:I'.n1J]l.

emit'hmem

ply

is mlot

<II]

h~ Oil'l'Jl.,'lr l\(lClbl~!in S<!>S'Cl!rit;1 !nfsup~l.Ccep1.<~M.e oplion fo:r lfilny nOl'i~

0 Mil hy woubJi a n 1:1 de~lr
1 :

~1I!i,p'E!'fl!:l IIHIIUO n

1~1,.u~lenr ~l.ll.mtrie"~+" saY$ JO&¢ Go'Memberg. iI. II,nu;letn f(~el ,eyd,e e1>i:.penm Ihe Ullivenj.l:y of ~ S~n f~ulo; Urazilt

wali'ilf~o, ,er'ii"OU.?

for 'o:liI.e~~jllg. !;!'II1I!richme:IJI~: reprocessillg m,HI

~

A I: the

CC],1U::'f

oflbJi:s

are wry cX]X'Il:sive ~h~'tivhk,:s. S'cuil~.g l]P~I!:l stDfm :;:1:1::::; mriq l,'i~lf; e:!1! ic~m ~!'lJ~p].!~t i s~f'~ eCll !'lom ~,Cf!I Hr:lle 5:S T r
you have e ig In t.o ii,(I nmc.it':io'lr power SC;I~NC! VOL 3~S
I,'e!lctorl),

wm

.~ the:; S:-year-ol d hei:!l.dof L<\EA.'s Veri fic,I!Ion

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

9

FEBRUARY.2007

·7'91

NonN,ay: A Nuclear Demlon stratton Pro,ject?
IS, A MAN WITH A RA1J:IER 1H1U1~ualmi.~)ion: H~ 'wants his hlil:melnd or Norway to lak>e the lea,d ~I'Ide\le~oph'j~ a l!1ew (orlm o[ rmdea.r pm~\I1r. NOlr\~'tlV is ElJrolpe"s lalrgle;>tpelroletliflll eK!'pm~;e ~,rml1ll its No r;th Sea ~iI,anti gas fie~d~, .and Li~le~ml" !1! physlcisl (j,t lhe UlIliVNsity or laeflQ>eln,. iIleUeves the muntry rJeed5 to do 50me:th~ng about it) carbon 'I?m~s.-~imil~, IN'Orli'l'i'll~ has ~Me 'experiemlce wfl(trl flud~iI' po","er but has Of]J~ (Iff the' ~~orld's ~argl€:U res err\N~S{l ( the rl UI"Il. Li lIle st,fl I. :Ii a y~ T'!J orw,iliY shol!!~d pioneer a I'!Et~v.inlle~.e'l'Itliv 'sal'€! ffo~m or ~udea r reaerer cailled an ene rgy am~ mie~ ~hal aUIil'5 01'1 '[horiuFIli. ~lll;'I,!oil,l~dbe a ~~od thing Ui iii ave OU1tlIF loptililm,] to, starrd OIl1l, ~ lllle!smi. s~ys" yd~IFI~bb;'il,a I~obeiis~ andffOrrllerr di~ec:rorg~nelrall o( Eurolle's partid.e phys-h lalb!(EIRIM,. E(l,llllWESifltn

,t:h~lIIlI pioil1l,ed l~e id!e~ or line em:rg t a fn'p'lm~r ~n the 1990:5, alrld (Ew-tIN ~esf,aJH:he-~~dEt\lt~oped a d~i,gn and tes~ed some o'n:he rte)!' ideas, A (On' vent iO~la ~ ris:Si.cl!ll U!~(.tDr hold~ ~nOi!lgh (issil@ material ~m a m,ule<llr (illain ueacliolfl to take 1J'!ac@'; n@utron-,a!JsQrbing rodls @IUUf@' lIfJal the u!a(tiolll doe~llIl mil (Jut Iili[ controi, aillho ugh l~ir5. .1lI~.'I,!aysrei1'lQiins a r1$ik. the '~l1er'9Y a1mpl Hler d oeSin"l havE! ellou ghlissile rna L€1rialll'O5IJSt1li1ll .C1chai ill r€!.1!( ue i1, I!'iSI.eCldi, om ~(C~[ef~torf,'~ f~5 Ii high-energy piutide'i into. lil1l:! (!lIel,. prompting

a cCI!l1:;ade or rissim'l re:Ci(Hol'Is and prQdl,J(iiflg h ea t. Th~' a DIlO!1! nt o:r iIi~.-:!l~pr~porlhm1l119 the 50 ifl~ensilY (If lliR'e beam, and the acce~e;artor can be desTgflle'ds.o that the !311111pHUell' Glim ll1evelr ()Vfu&~eaL A~th(li;lgh Hie' a mount !D~ wast~ pro~ ,bc@il:l is; @~ lIl@c~@d Ul' In 1,0'.\1. ~~rtjd~a'Gc:~I'@fa·· tors aren't dilea P. i31l'1d 'Ofle with the llie(e~5,[n:y illJ~\'~r Ilia s !'l@\I'IU b8'@1fi blLJ~lt ILm~t~l wants ,NIm'l\l~yto piol'lf!er this lwmn or elflr!!l>Fgy by if I!! midiIlIg and nostirll9 a protelYpoI1l----,1Iil.1l cost of about €5SiO miHion-and h~ 1I1ede~l~ ~€'trS(ln~a1F!iJsad'e t~ ~in ,ewer the ( N'Or\'\H!'Q,ia 1'1 pub li( and gloveflill m ent, li~le:s.lll!;l

INE.G,EV DIES.[RT.15AAEl~Wh{u
GllJ~i~nl

s.i.lys hoe U!'Iak-e-s h'!l'Q orr lhfe~ PU:s,EtnlaljOttSa
week. Although the gOive~nmellillslPi'ary of IIIIH:lea ~ pom'le~. a rte r <I de b:a~ei 11 the na II:Oflil I tlliSem'bly, the' '~n!fg'~' lmunishu cellad for an itl·d,;:'pth s ~udy" NOI"Wl;I,yi~~n a ~l'Iiq!.H~ Pc~~tijOI'l to undertake ~U(~ an el1tllr~Fise b9'(.ilI~!ie it

h "5 beens.q uirre ~i .;!rWi!,¥ OiDtreVi?I'lIUil' and h ,,:5 Ulg no~'I'ama~>@c!a l'Il!~dtdsolft1~ $.250 bin ion. (IE IRrNl':s,lea n-Pi eril',e Revo'~, 1;\It! 'frl'jlmkedi (In UM~~11"'e!rf,gy amll~irie-F at (E.RN, says Ui€illil~eztfj,l has r!lade "a 'lolof po~.ilical progln~s~" ill NoI"W'aY. R~nT!lw~d ~nteres.l Ifill nuclear 'j}ower 'i~ gem e>rClltirlgi HlI r1Qi)Uy about tllis tee h l'Iology. Rel/ol :says,: ~Ir it sta ~ts to !ly, elllNy,of1 e ~~iwa!'lt II 10 be p;uH:d il.~ -D<ANIII~lfllERV

°

rerneWdlble >Bnergy-at.l.!i!as't Na!no!!lal Soli!~ 1E!'!,ii'rgIV Cel1!N~r here. ~h~,~~vlIDlta,i( ells have beli!W! Qlr!illiIJ,ul ~iIll!' de'c,ade'>~ il.u.u c they'v~ ne~~ I~rten (om~liliiiJ~ ~~i~h r(k5S!1~ r~eb, IF~inn~rnc ~~~m5~Q h{:lw! f(lu nd .QI \Vay' l>Ci! s!~sh~~e prke .. i"'li~ t)l0'9Y is a r~al. COmlt@'imew as .aJ s~'l!i.!'lklnr~Qthe ~~Qrt~') energy pfob~elllfl," say~ Iphy)i(is~. Rtllbe-fl lledulI MC({)i!llrle~1of thi! Nal~O!1!al R~lllmall~e Erl!:!rglY ~oouaoory ilfl GolJ!!lel'1l,(Q~~:rad(i. , l1fu1,~ «R1t 1ngred i!!!nlti~ p 81rchedt1!. lihe '1orCUtliof hi:!; 10-tolll ri?rlec'lor: iii 'lqlJilirl? girl d la, celilli IIIli emm; ~ aCF~Ii~ (ill~ed .iHlencutratm :!)liiotGl'l,l'Qillaic (CPV) u:U InrSl~eildQh:p1re,Hliing sollalr paneIUtf'o).'S ,]I broad! 11rea lO t<lPc,ture pliRo~~ms, Fairna m U5'~ 11 rene(~(Ir to (DIlIC'el1:1rale l ille Ii ~hllfJ{)O limes OnJ~® a 'SmI<a ll targ et, il"lradi~~ensl sil~ ~GIl!-ba$@d' .~1D1.au~115 Qln,'llla n1cih~the Ih@'aI~"but a'9alt]UlnIi alfs~[ifi dil~b:~S<E!IlII!:i!!Ul r dl€!V~wpil!d by a ~'~a~ atlti€! W"ri!lH'i,ho'r'i!f liilSli'wt~ for SQ~ar Ej!j~rgy S~st~,ms, in Ff~ib.i.u'\g. G~n!1Ia!'!y. "'iU.tll'lIl~Y wmk5 1'<1 r lIIliore efrfdernUy al hiQline<r leulllIPt'rilltures, ~ ~(lIYSIrilllmlllll. By usflmg ,a mn cenllratingl r'e'l~eJ:'tm,till!! sY!il@m Rl<':lli;;es, best ucse GJlril'~ lm®sl eJ:jle!IliSb\i@,(iompo(;ll!nl. the (PV (@~I, ild Fi!lmififl w e~tii!lllllle~ can reach 40% ef~idel!lc._j" a~. ((ilWen.im.;l1 SUiI1Hglnl 'tIl e'~e(:tridly. WHh (hi~ '5:yslel1f1, F~hfil~1'i beli'~@s he cafl1 btlilld ~ ]pQwe-r phUll rQ~tess tt-ilIll ~It~ mtlgill; niIJnlb~f Cl'f $1000, per killl>Wim. Qff eb:!,~ri(al ,a padty, "'Gdtnnglffle ~~~C€ th"t l~',\I~:S re~tble. hi (I:l'Il:!,Oil! a ,l~rge' :s~C!1€~ ~(llI'S M((o~f'I€ll~ ~ail-dl ~ there-':s, iii long wall' 'to ,go hum I.hi:~~t.i!ge<,.n ILalrge is exac>tly th,e scali!! Fi!'illTli:Ul ~$ '!ihlfllkrln9 al!~ngr: s,~lfeaJd~n92Q,Ooo (PV (el~s O'!lE!F an area or 112 Si'iU~ re k.1~omel\e~~o g:e-rneralle 19 ig.j,il\'l~U,With mass-p,rOJlll!l;:ed Clj)'VceLis" h~ FIl;;ln t'!>llhl:!il ~ tille ce~l a~ 51IlillillJ:n. ~(oA1~~de-rirnQI the5ilVitng5., the sYl>l~'1l!I can !Jay ror HseHwit~illl 2' de(if.de~, ~ he5>ilYs. The > t~a!il'lls hO~]1I!1Jto' !1J'I"k,e it ~ap!)eTl soo~er by inw~.~$jlllg the ,~rrkie!i!CY (lIf ~h~ (PV celt hH ~~aIflllIP~~.by iilMing ~:li!tfi~ ltlly,er~oJ 51lJ lar (ell~s;'~hi'!l(a,ptlJrea broader ralflg~ or the wnele 1II~.lh5,
r 1 1

wlllks t'i k~"1Il up:ib:i'~-d !llI!V!'IllumbrEtllc!1 lilladlilll:f !1fI1~r'ors,is th~ lu llllJe Qr !iI[mrdilll,g lo' its w?a~:m. [)avid Fa ilium , a phYfi~d:5t whQ direds. the 6if!n~

"';JO!HN BlOMiANINCI'N

792

Rethinkinq Mo,thler
Nature,'s, Choices
~J;;~

Jay

1~~,gls,l[ffing ~~I[ii~V'~15, th~lrilol .g, p,o'~rbio'~uetSOl 1t1,~/s,gQ'~'liIg t~1'g'~:~ e 'i,s rnic robes to m ell kie:s,ometlhui [U]lg bene r

T
f[)f

are ~omJtef!~~ll'h~. g,.l:;in,. line hdiSbeen ki:~lg Qifli:te 1.'WId
!()!.'ll·l!t~ry: l

try toimprove their y.ielcl,s .• which in rum has :pmduced,1 gi u~ or mlf~,. That g 1m, and high o~11 prices. has saddenly made 'COlin .(:t:~1111 ()~ IlH1r~ I;lCO!10rnl lea II)' '!.I iable .•. You get olrtl,~e 'p:~,me.unNe:br<lsk<l. and ,~l smells like a 'br.e\\,'ii;:i"Y:' he ~~~. In bis e,!l'm1 to beat mil eill1llm:ll, 1{e'<Lsliug v. 'Q]l, 't 'be slarti ng itom .scraldl. He :us n~ready well known ~7o:1f ~Jiroduc ing m,l .~ I:I!t u mlala:lfi ,II drug 'e,dled arlcmif>inin u~~ng s,)'.l'iIt~;lr;lic biol{:IS},.The melecule, (I >co:I!iI,~.p~e.1>!. doub~:il: ring snuemre, is w.olrm:fflily derived from a plal'ilit_ But doing sa isexp enstve, Sf~"nver !~~ra~'t
6 yem's. Keaslillgsgroltl.p lailLs,inserted meee

more thana

h packs

for :il:ll volUlne,;)lUd IlIflJfH i.I!fi[l5IC~ it's sl.~bh:. rransporrable .• Hld I1lonoorrosi,\"C" A lie rnative f~ue'ls" Iik~ ~thlflm1t~.,h~~:iii l!n~UlJ1l~ttu 1:O1~ lew, Unllke!rjmmline. which ~s <I co U!(;C' I~i{I ~'!0' fin ed l U.~'U,~I~~.gIh hi,rclll:t)(;mbolls, eth,llIilO:1 ~s <I shortcIn,a~lI~ alcohol, sporeing 11less energetic c"lrbo:I~·o.x.ygen bond alongside some of llliu~ powerlotsofencl:gy pack .1 c<lfbolli·l,l)it.h,ugelJll bonds [Ig ofgat>o.~iru;:" It d~~iv~rs about

E.'((;/u!pj"hi{l c:oli~l1d yeast. setting ap 3.l,n!o~.e'Cul~,r <Isse]1~.b~.yine l (h'~l.\llowl';I:Ile bUg,::';lochinm ()U~~~.ed:lill£,. The s;~.rntegy not enly works, but imp.l[im~e~.nenJ~s ever Ih~ Y'~furt> h,i\ll,: :JIl~o boosted the <I!l't~Dlmi~~ mnpm [I, "mi]I~,io:lli~mld. e<lsi ing niUiiI O K Iwpc:.sI~lrlh\:o'liimpro\'~nli!~.~u:.;will make th~ dmg cheap enough tc hewidely <lITtm:.l~lbl~ i,lin dcve.~oping coantries. potclati:<llly saving 111m iO:IiI.S of lives. Kei!sl ing's fears wi Ih
d~~e~l S0ilif;tSi~lO

(h,m a

300/,1 less t;n~~~y tioluml;; th~~n by g<ls.ol'i.ne. Ifs :!;{i:~~, lIs-eill!. m; <I g,<ISOIine <icM i~li,\'0 cm~. bl~t i~can'( :lbr do it ,III. "We're not gOlnlg 10 be p~~Uirig uch ethanol ilm planes," m says J<'IY K~a~.1 ing, <I chemical Ilm,tenor de:s,igI11~r.l<oea:sl~n'!J is beUi!llfJ tholl s;ylfl'~ih~ni' i;l~()1()91wuU c:ng ]nl!'~ erat t h~ U~,ve rs it}l' (If OIliowhi,m lQ m"~~ mnt:rQOOS llnat tl.WI'ICIJl tHlPlS;f)OrlJtiolll flilel. i Cal i forn i. <I. Berkeley .• md the l~L\!i.'r,~ooeBt'i'kel~y N,uioniil blj{ito"l,tn~:>,. "\~,~ ~Ip~n oo!'lC@do~, Cal~li(lrnif!_ ··hil1"!bn~ll ~15 )'C~!X prob,lbly "','O~IJdUil'it clllDOilie l[edlaltlo.I], 3S :l! luel ir wewill be In::lkiu£ hiofuels oll':l.er than etlra rJol. JllE11U~re' d:tdn '[ give illD ~I£:" and symh"'t~c 'bi(I!IO'J"Y,~viHbe whut l~~,nkl;'i,'l dliU But. :,;.'.y~Keasl :ilmI,~. "we don .~,have ~o p05SiIMe.," he p.red rCI;~.. Brazil dcr~,'lI~ abom ,on:e",;t:~ilV(I of itt': [!~uns,. fLCX'~pt. \\i!wllli1lturl;:' h~sgi.v~ll'I. s," Kcaslhlg u is IJOn<l,'t:ioll fuel rrcitl,l1~~h,ntol ade fOOJiill .sugar m Hying 1.0 fOfcelill<l.uue to eecenssder her options, and~~,isteal of dtoiee is ~YI~I.I.h;lie e~~nc"HI.il[ iij the eoeler US. el'inum,;, cern is kin,g, Keasling, >42. g:rew up OJI his f<D.I1ily's biok'lgy.inv;ihilCh !re.;.;~:h~n;· add :;;liml remn\~ 200-h~ctar~ coru 1ind s(~}tb'e1i.n f,;lnn !Ill entire bi.os';l"Jllthelic l:li'Lltl,Ways to d'a.egenomes Harvard Nebl,·<'I!5k'l., aad he sti~lloo'b lik~ he oroi:g.'l:Iislli]l~ to gl:~ them H) produce better dinags, Ill,<lite:ria II.s", l'-pcli.im3PS" one da)l'o belongs there, wid:! bis dooilN:mllped IU.lir3·~.d Cuds. Ke~.:)lg.ng is one of dre discip liue's barrel-like chest, He gl!n~m''''(jwhenasked \!l~'nethe[' c(m~~idw~~d he ~tayhmg: to become the le.i!ldil~1I!; advocates and pmctilio.nern. And he s f~,fthge;lrlemtit).IiI, [ilfhis.llu.nu~.yto \\·Q.I'k~lhe fl.!L':n:], ~uhm~ lhllll 'by h~~rli!!1!g nOI!,'~~p,mh\\:1ly$~Il~O ye'<l Sl: ~'Ul(1 oiller microbes.~~ey(.1(mld pl.iOc.:!Uce "No. TI:1e:stork dropped 1lH.'l'~~,1 Ih,e wrong km~ ~H-~,ik~IvydllUc<lroo!l!>.. or $:~ort'er V~fS~nrl5 p!(l(:<¢," h~·I.1!li1.ip1O, K:~~"Ihogsl irpl;'d .a\~'a!)'~(l ~l~ c,lIled,1 ]kanes dun ("011:11 be stitched togetlli.er by 1J:1lI iversit;y ·of NebmsluL Li:l1tC()II1i.~~.en to <I on P~.I) . .ill '1ht' Ulmjvt'!rt>i~y nf Mk~hiS ..m .md ,I .i ~~~lCm.1S; 01" s.impl.c clmt'llU ie.d ]iI.moessn 11ig• ... I No, .one lm.... s beell <Jb.le to dothi ~ ye l. but pos~dlocw~th S klll1fom Un ivcrs ~ty Ngbe.~ ~m.:~ Keasll.i.l1lg and~is: shUde~tsm:\'! \wJ.likillg o:I'I,tffilc l"Ciltm:eAli"lImr K.ornbCFg. "'.It 'N, ireaUy ~'nard to .~ prob.1:em. "JayhlGls a good visioJ,l:' ::1.'1IJl'l Chris, make ~pro:i'i.t" £:ilro,>vi•• g com" Kem.li~,1g !:my.':l" 'e Son~,cnd:~,~c.,pla~t 'l~doch,enlisl,at St~llford G=xrdaillbii.~ I1l1iltlll.;: p.l"icoepcr busheJ h~l$ ri;l the ~ Ul1! iwrsi~y in P~lilo l\~,H) C.ulirOf~li.;;t. (lnd reil,1,1,a~ned 1;1lr-g;e~.y~1,nd.Hmged ::i~,:UiI.ce l<'Ltc ..
.~ co-·fomtder of lS9 .. a syUilthe'~ bio~ogy ic
SlaW~~

art~IfIljJ~Shljn earned him the t~lle of Di.;;r."O!r.f'l' nmg<lzine's Sciemis.t or~DueVein ]11 2&)6. Now. Kea.!li.ing W.HlIHl togo ene better, S\"'!lPfli~~ aut $om~orlIDIe!"i!~g·buildi~g

enzymes he ~;nlrodllc::ed into mi!t:roJh.es in fm"Or g f 0 rhers th~~! an ccnstruetl inear hyd rec earbeus, "We built this rl.arf!cn,m, to produce lhl~ hyd~ocalibol1l [~r~~lllisini.n];." KC:fls.!ing ~ljfS.. "We: can remove ,11~,v Ofl.~,1.e ge:n.e::;, {O Hllke OUt an~I~1dsinill fmd pUI:: in a din~n:m~ hydroc.. rbenlrs that :sill1l,llP]Il:,.·' r
Al La;::!1st!)11 psper, E\'~l'II i f[he microbes Co;~l produce h.K~~sli~.lg .. t1:r.::knowh:dges 11Ni~(\\iU~'~

be the end Qn~e stDiry. Des!p:~lel~].cinl'pre~ive im.Jm:wemenls at ltettinghu~ m ,ch~~HI cutan sur lma laria I compou nd, th~y !>t uI~lyp iCf~ 11)1 coUec::t onl,y " couple of dt.~,~~~Ii<nns per ~iter of.Lt ;11. tile' ead of fermeutarien, That eonld be

.. big ~;t\lbl~,:-mlhr a H<ln~](lr~<!ti(q. fu(;::~~hllt hi!il\ 110 be nell. only cheap but ~I so w.uklly ."bumlam. "Thi:-; i:;· .ltFI,!ssive....t~i:i: would r~~l~ire ~. sealeup offe:nnt'1lu!.Ituon n.cYe'r seenbefbrc." As a result, Keasliug arguC's th,al it's ~m!)ortzlU1.t 1'01" sjlHthetic b~!Dlogy top-ush mtl.er

,~Il~c.lrt:s

1i0~N""lte

~Ifcrn.uivoe flt~ 1$. O;nQi)' ~ltch

~de<l is. w' ret"!UI.g~rl!;lem" planll's,' i:ll1le.Wlwillll,e'd
!l~t\..orks t

of ligni~, ... celhdo$lillO mak'\;~k . ~ld
to lire;.ak rhem
dO\,'!./Il,nld

1.9405,.T1hal'spmmpled SC;I~NC!

farn,~.ers to oon~ imud iy VOL 3~S 9

eOJ~\!ert Illc;nm, lO el~~nol .. Am)I~1i.cr li,~ to boost the ~lbilit), ofDt~,~:croiJe.':110 IDI,l.,ke .mld~o~,ef<ute 'ctlul'~oll" "1'~1,is.is an e.xciti.ng linl~.C tn, he in the 'eneP.cl:Y rest:.tl1l;;h an:.l,." K.e<i5nng ~<lys. ·'The bio~:ogy isjlls,t tre!l~ng to the point W~J.e~,'i!i: it has :.offiri;dl i:mg!o ol'fee -:FI.O:B:EIR1r IF. :SERViICiE

·e.tsier :ror micwb~s

w'l,llffl.sdE'lncern~g.org

FEBRUARY.2007

Sustai nabillity and E:ner,gy
If' 'I. 0 IF II l E.::
1

IR II I( 1MA.R. El

M,:A IR 'T ~ N IE A. IlJ

Fo'rml,er Mari'ne Seeks a M,o,del EM.PR.E:S:S,
test nUJJIcl[ear ,ealctoir desuigms~ rumputatianat physidst Rich Martineau ,ueaitling (ill SOlph,hiti,(a.'~!ed ~Iew slmul,atmo'I~1from nM:~'gro:~ll~dup
]'0
1I[lI,AII1IOFALILS, IID'A!11I0~Whelher he S

is;

ehew-

iog tnbacco Of drivi1mg his hoJ!lt{;f~d '78 ChG'vy p~ekup, R.id1M ... i!lil"'~~~ n srandsout in a erewd, Tile C(nnpUI~li.m.li!1 p,hysi.ci:st ,.ggres::>ivel.yprotect~his s'tll!m; as 1I1l!outt:)ider. !keep~ng the II n inv iled 01.U of his. cLlIbiele $H (~~e Id~:I~~) N~tion<l~ La.b~l.f~inry 'ONtl' i~. hkuho Falls with ill. blackretraetable shade, And ~h 1:~.gl.inG' ~··$!~!Ili hi from fhll;: fonuer Of! IJ. S. j\JIi'lrim:' and pl.'csidem of' a leeal gun dLll.'b reads: ..rt!)me d~d!l(l!t create u g fel:i.t empire by ~,ll1v.ing meetings, The}" d.id it by ki]iing all. these \'.11'110OllPOSled thC1::m:' 13m :itl Sept,emlJer, JVI<lrtine~m arranged and h~)~I.x~ a dt;:ddtdly C01~.unun,fIJlga~h~.rU.ng. 0l.2~od!Jy; i[lvitl:uiOll~l'Ily cOilrndmr.e un, moo:e~.in~ nuclear 1:f!1I(![OrS,A:Ili~ong the 44 p.m:t]/cipmlls. \\o:ere '~x~rl~il'i ~~)pHed,dh. ~Llpero(nnpl~liil1g. m and nudeaf {~Imgint::er.ing.as well as top modelililg researchers from the ;1.ll:n1~,pOlce,md l]ucle2Lrwe!!.PQl~s :Wield s, "Tlsere was exe ltement in the air," s~ys Columbla Unli'l.'er.~i[y co:mput,)t ional mathematician D,w:~d Keyes, who adds tbat the q~I1ilh-y of assembled
academ ie ['urepower "SIJ rprised' him, "This M<lfi!ttl i~~m~e 1rn~ cl!:tli,rd~e$ is ("'~11P~t6-d the b}' :L;etdilntii.u:~ l~~t you need coasensus," '''lhat lUl.lmptcd Martineau, 47. wrofi:cn

~llm.neslI~l.(i. floods, net m~cI.e!lrreaeters, As ill result, ~¥herem'i ;lirpl!m'Lt: buil~cklrf; I1lJiiV h;I~'e ntdd clynamil::s medels so mbll~1 dun lhey can buiJ!d whflle j~l$ (]!~ e(l!npll~n; and t~~~I~"\"'l;':r i:~d· w 11lume~ tests. nuclear engineers sri]]' depend on ("n~d~.25·Y~ii"·(j.ldl(.1MlpUl:~f prtlg;i'<lms. Three )Ie.,.rs a go. M ,Ir ~jne·3.1Jpro p osed developing a new ,eOlnplllationa.lIV1lod,e:l1 :fOil" n;!~LC[Q\~1l to .INL nl<lrm.g:er K,alhryn McC'anllY. Wi~h5'Cam mO:IllCY(lMai!Ii!i1b1c fmJu W&.,h~ng':OI1!.. D.C.. MoCafithy he.lpedpeP.luOl!lile .~NL cilie~ 10 pn;wid!e some hmi6al fnnd~ for the effort As a \''!i'f}i t'ig~.of thil!l'lb, M;)!!1im!.e.au ha~dubood
tlia.C e~ue~rging model IEnl.l.nm.oed. MlIhi<r:!~ysiQi R~.ac!or Simllh'l~i~Jn SUl1:1; (EMf'RESS). "Kalhyhl1lJdl~~leenfidence ill,lln:(!\"IIilC/~ no mlC e

else did.'" he: StlY:i: f hi s lJ{l~s.."A ner 15 Ylimrs of o sl<1igml~·i:llg., e.1'!:.ploo.ed into this lhin:g/' [ Arg:om,u~ Nat uon:.J1 :l;<l.oorntol'Y l!eiJIfllllng abeut I:~~p(l~\r~rli! I Pflf<1!~.h:J (,;U!llP~~1 ifli,g t~l;:'h~ i~llrr.;:::;; I~.em::w reactorruadelwoutd need" .It'le also [NL medelers
M~!rt i'1G'~1lI! :>pem the sn !ll~~!~r ef 20[)4 .H

began a:ssemb~.ing a lC!II11. Along with two ul~t!h h'ld.gm'lmd:!l in [luc.ie'<'l]" engineering, the effort hss attracted D:'In~ Knoll and Hansell, both accomphs,~ed cem·p~~I~t~.on~d~)~,ysicisD:S iwd [wllIn dU.l:>D~ng 1'(lC1:"1.i

N:ew'~ll'il~!!I. Martineau wal1l~ to "start at tl'l~II:lo~tml1l ~ o:f ltyd~lIr moo~lulfIg"

m(Jodtlli~~ corp:s IU Los AIOlJlIiIO"; Naliomd L,d.~.. ard.tm,)!, .<1 ~,uJcle.,r v.~ilpons .Ialb. ll~e llt."<l1T!+:; £,i\.1ad. ~15 .M"diiilt;.fU! sees it.is ~[I ··st.<I:rt<It the bottom," us:ungl1tllHl.,.me~t'I:l1 phy::;~c~ piillCiple:s l't) overhaul the eutdared models, RELA.r,fOl' example, si mul ••tes Ihe hoe,Mo~d 11I~~UII\1Ilooh~v~flrofa rooc'~.oiihUlt nn]y ill oDliedimensioe and for i.oe'Jiize(!ii vessel s;h~!pes. M~rli~.efulll \'\1'.:11'11$ EMPRESS 10 work I mi. three dimensions, incOl"(mrn:t~l]g the n.·e<li~,~
life~eometry
'01'

pbml and 'lVoidi~~ the fud~e fm::/~:O:1ffi LA.P RE nses to~pplmnlfl'flli(':h>8Jrd-l(l.modcl ~s sueh his :i.ndJ!.penden:! Ila~'ulieis h~~ desire 1;0 build ., as ~aves:~lllmllll1.d.,rie~. sllphi:~th~a(~d digi.t~l~ model ·~Jf\lJil~a.~ g.t'i1C'S .e;:l'lJ Lab off:ilda:lls are reelistic about the scope inside .,.IlIHcl~e.ureaetcr ..Sud~<I. [Inodel wuul.d ~)hhi;,': pr:lljt;:C't f!.l'gd i~;.; ~nl:>pl;14~~:I;Ori!".'i~H!iil1g: \!';n~~~!:,s~\i!I'hf~l L !llOd~~~r iN Gk~n 1~1~~s~~l~federa~ fll:~.dinnlg. especiajly <IS :ilfs: unclear be "defi nitely needed" to jump-stan the' U,S, nuclear !:.Uilergy indm;~!:y and a .fI'ilOljor C;<I'US the "::<'00,,,,concept" <Ifter the popular hU\M the l~e\,\' De:~11llCmh;;[ln 1.1'0 Iledlt ong ress nffil~p:JIrnrt'llm:l1i~ove:rnmclia. older models ~ul':I'ie!il;tly video game S:ysICIU, \:vil! be disposedl tow;ml advanced uuclear used by nuclearengineer», snY;'1iViUlLt1t:t1~ 011U1l1 E ;,tis~i~]greaetoreomputer models ~tIi\'eDli'l energy work" ··\lilc don't have ~lm.f~/ll itt: of GClJ1cr:;1IA~Dmics. III SI:'IIl Diego. >CBI'l.n 1i:~1i1l~.a. been overhAlIr~d mach :si~.cel~~.c~~.cydayefthe arnouut of time and .i:n1J~mite amourn of U.S .. :~,uck':,lr enterprise ]n ihe .1~:r7ns and The gcal of Tfu.~ Il~W reactor model reSOlUrces 1:0 ~}1~S~dmiiJ'wc'!,'cry sil1igh~ (bing M:ntineall is deve·.lioping. all.NL :us to <11110\\' I 980.s .. Back then, co:mm.pulaliolla~. pi:IJysic:us~;s 10 llill.emelecelar seale .. S1WS. INL admiuis" dcvi:;,ed Sh1li!.U~fl[~O!m. rro.~~~lT!Is.i!1:c]udi~g,m~~ n<'!~or Ken~1 PM"Jfil~€;hm~t!flghJ. ~1'!!~i!1E'i!lrS, ~a\lcmmHHl1~ f~g!ul~turs, 'Ofr~fI!H oper.uDJCS to les:l novel d.es.ig,lmc;uncepts lIsi.lli@ dubbed .RlElAP.IJ~<I;I: tried to depi.ct oondiili.m~!S Siti U. M<'Ininn:mu's sangu ine abolll the ,,\IHh in !'1m::~e~~ rr~~~e (on. l!~dil;;!"Im.Ofrn 111~~!':It! ~lnure: ofEMP'RESS" He once dreamt orflySU'Ptlf'l',()I:!~,pm~!':;~mw(:;a.d of ('oMly ·pl'O~Jtwe:;:. idt~m soemnios. "Nm:I~Jj ellJgi.~ef:r:~ngW.JS, The o~.der In()d,e~s mostly d~pi'Cl anli.r;~ml~ecl ace:: i:~gjel.s illl the Ma:rj,l'Ies ;:umd ll;ioil,1I' e~.lmis dlll)' ~ li!';c Il.oJ:'lOSpac:c, ,It the C~'lting od,g.~ [in mo(lld,~ ::IS h.d:p~,~g expalld fIIuc.iCl:21r mver to rcdl!llcc \-vater-crm~~d,U\·.v-iC1::l'lm.pcrnhLI"!C unlll~lbmb"¢~C~ I p UJ[~, 'l\1lel:eilS .Maniml.e.m \Van1Sto he~.p i!lmdm;~ ~.ng]lIit l~.e!il:nle:· $;IY:S Ke.yt!s., B'lIit <l11:eTWlun u.s. dependem:y on foreign oil. "God OCltIIiIn:y sjmllllltt~ ~narein~O\r.):liw dc];.~grns.]ndud~ M~nrtim~~~~~ n:;. .. J a:lilc:foD1ld!.;1: ~md l&lll"Ce Mile ca Iry. and Corps,," sa)!'s M .. rtinclIlI 0 f his .<1 He~ n .hslartdL" g;overnmellt re:se,nd]ru~d_g drie,dj tiP; ing g~:s-oooled reaoL"iOI:l:! th<t~; worl ;Il higher giallCt>s" ,,[ \te a h'\lI:~~'!.1f8!roJtt.l m do ·this," M ;)!.rti fll~ ,HI'S ,vork i~lt he I {)g (lis III (I d e:.~~d ~tlli!l KIINTlSCIIiI tt:lliIm.p l.~tIIturesalul utUb:e di IlTel.\f)lltl:'ue]s sw;h e

a."!1;tydt'{l mp!;·II;;..;;!r,.v'o.l$i~."You :~<.'lW'lokJ1{l\~t \!o"here your [Ln'celfr;rimies. eome tl~:om :5!OI:im.<I:t you kn:o\.\' ",,·lin ~ch d~;s~~rl d1.."l~il~iuJro] ters," ~l~t S<l>'s.lNlIlilLde<lf ril!!seard. chief Pll ill ip F~nd .. M{)r(: el 1lberate vi rtu aI r~ii.CL'CJr..; eou hi also s.iLnra:ubte aceident scenarios ~:Im urder 1;0 uain

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'OIP~i ~]fI s, c~\lUIu Mu tie lilt CIi'His IBarrett and oM'Ie ~t IDlJmesk S'(lcb ~vs le J'~~~n~ m~r.l:llI}'dr~!.es. ~ lJi(~!l'l.':w~~bll.l·s" S{ll)'SJgI!l1~S: j'~~eksfi~..a l"~misl at Mjc:big;m State llrlmiver~~ity~n E3S~ L<'lJ]~~ lli,g. "Ther~ itS ml'O grL;j~~ S{)l~~~'~ of hydnlgen because i.t cmnesptimarily from steam reforming of aatural gus." b~ ~!)t~, "This ,,'{mid be nmking it our uf'biom,I!;)~ sources," T:O C'ommc:rd~-tIU.~e li~e APR lee h 1110!ogy., DUUIl1.esic: and COU"boFdwr Ra:nl.uyCortrU,gh,l l>p~lI~ oU a ,cmKIJp.'1IW cal ~ed Vi remit En~I:gY Sys. l:eilns:.TJia.e4~yemFold start-up has developoo a unit ~t1at cmvems £!ycerol~, 0 cheapbypmcb;l ofhiodiesel IJroduct,~(:In-~n[o 11ydro;en and mt:!~.Irn<lllie<'Iud buu,'m;~ll,c mixt[l:re 110d~"ive <I ilQ..,kilow;_lu~[lennoOr, V~rem sold Ihe device ~o l~eloc a 1Ulililty cQm;p<my. and fbI' the past ye<lli

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Vi rent has·]]l't; turned <I p:rofi [ ye~, howTl~1;i cnml~}~~ny is MiJ~ I i.!)~g'!g i4p invesrcrs. such <IS Cargill '11m,d Honda, and w'Orkhlg frOlli'l1 grmns" inc~udilbg $2: miltion ~IiO:rJ,1L the U.S. depi'ln~ml,e[lt:sof Agric'ul,w:re !lind Enu:rgy; ·'·Don't rung rutnlate me.because W~ don',! have money frem product sales

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~~rho:hlydrai.cs ]h: Of~ OppO!i11~ ends of.a Cil(ll'nl ~ comirug tbi!'\~g[h.the doer," ConrUg:~lt says, rodu~'\l rel~mOOtln inl1!p{l!rK'\J p~~:~)~~tQII"l~(rll"ldkl.'!i~specuum. The hydrOoc"rbmlsinpet!'tl:k~l~m Wlm,~nfed larger ~.ugliur molecules. APR . to cut esrbon emissions from ve:hic:l,eso. Bm ml1e moleeules wi~lrn.I~,' fmlc:'rimli1llglJi(ll~:~S- i'1:iJ:SO ~eml,dedlO produce rn,el]n.amle' and other m05l Cili'ilo wen't nll'l uli1eomeil. so ~ieil!~i~lli, 'ldd-g~l:-; such a.~1inll.xygen bOi.'id~cl~o <'I J~yd(.,,· hydnlc~~rbol'i:!i <~Hed,j~bllloe$. So iii .2rm4 •. c mu s,t find wilIy:S Lo 'co rwert p lant mai~.eil" into g,en. [I hydroxy] group-that provide ready Dmnes:i:c and coHe<lg,lIes ch<ln~~~llm.e 'Cat<I~Jfiil sites FUflfe-.]cti,Qn~, So t:~e components 'Of I;() maximize the pmd~iCliQJro 'of<llk<llrn~instead practical fuels, Mudl hope-'.Indi hypr.:centers on ha'lr,~e5~ng microbes .nmg, t:lll.)11lI:le8 pe~To~lemn.nel'el<lti\fe~y stable .nild R:qt~.ill,'e t~ ofhyd~:ogen. po~eIMi"'lly openill~ a new ~iOUI:e H lii:~SO ro couvert hlomass ro ethanol. Bt~~J~~u;s. tle modi I'i~;;ttioru m produce p'i!~)! i:UD(; ~nd (),l~(lr roHq\Jlid nU3:I~~.T~(' r~&e~rc~~(~r~, a;dd~~ ~ !1ml.s,. lnl. coutrast, cai'bohydmles, bristle w~,lh SU!'P to ~Ii~,lk horter alkanes ~IHO J~offil,ger Dumesic, a chemic-oil e:m~ neer .at: Ihe Ul1hre:IFSily s ones ofWis(il)!l~iJl. lVI,ad iso~. j1;; bl,1l!1':ing all(jtl~r In'liI. lil(e thnse hm,dh;::Sli;;1 fll~L flililcH(mal grOlup~dlfit fI'lIf~k~[he compnunds An expert lin cm~]~ysils. umesic jig se.,'1n:;h~I~ fur D .Mo~4:recently. Darnesic and ~lUg tesm ~il.1Ve less smbk: <I.nd less Cal)~lb~e of wWJJ!>t:rmding a phiio-sopher~~ !;WI1C!tD ~urn sugall:" water ~rlllD lite: h~.ghwml1ern.run-:'!i used tn prueess petre ~ muml 3, way lO omI'l'crl the. S.~I~.:rr tmctose .~ntcl fuels ,... d hi£her v,ilue chemicals, n ,I c·O!lI1IlI.pound kuewn as h)'dro~... ~nel~y 1y t:J~emic'i]:-l. Those ~um;l~.o:~~~~ glt)lJIJ'I!\ must be DumC;.!;:~c.57 •. is OnlCl: of a grow.ing nu~nbcr' strilll,c!J, aW;;IY to lrn:liIsf:orm~J'nc cmrboh)ldl.~uleo; ~:l.II'fllrn~. HM!~ Ini.ght serve as a :fl)!ctisliocik fOil" of C'o1:!<t~y$.is esperts wino are m;i~,ls.heur ~kih, ~ e'm.el"d-y·pa.d"Jecl hydrocm,bons. t m~lkill.]g fuels, hm it cOllid haveeven gre~~eD" nlo Pt'll"'''iIuli.~11 ~".!I"p]~ad~1iIl"fil:iJ ~l~A;i1rikar' 1.0 produce To p3re down carbchydrates, D~I,~nesi,c to convert so-called bierenewalsles. such as ;>,qg,l!I"<; aad (lth~f~;tIr'bohyd!t;!l,~!;:!'l,im:o lJq)<droJ,;:n,p~flysh~Wf(]g~no;;;(Ji;S'i:!.!<;~~y:;.~~, il1whk:[~ rhe p{)ly~~~~fl' ~lndi;ldl~f highef-v"lu~ substances, geIll, liquid I1lels,;)l1d procuroon:: forplastics, C.1t'l~yst resides OM the :sul;1'ace of <I. sol id :MIIJ~ IDml~,e::;:£csays, PNNL's\'ife'rpy also sees [be Those eH'hrts HlO!:Y ~ C rucial fu,,"lrm'l5Corming pOr! suchas iX)\",'de~d. <llmnhlU1'!1l oi'O.id~.lron~ .!Uurein ehem i'C,1 b. ··W~'re foc usi ngmm; h biomr~,nhllgiN[,ll ~I gllInd amohion tooum ece[(;'t'Ii~ly, todliniq LU!Sefheteregeneous eBWI~y~ 1]1Q:IJ"e 0111 chemi.cllls.lha:mI an fuels bceaese of the opportunities fO:1i ~flmk.:l~liy vuablc l'Cality" sis \1t1'C]:,'C hnncd on petrclcum dtcmi$tirY. say)'; Ih~bigg:er[rmrginl:ii<lnd As does ,11petmhmu,n refiulle.ry, il. biorefilIll,· Dumesie, "Ovt::nhe p<:liSl 5[1years, people have p[Lllillllg~1rnefieM along," he says. Tl~() c~~ll}lsi", ofbim~,lme\~v.lIbl{l!Sl is !iam in k~fI1uCla lo~ ~tbnu[ how tl:111n~(lkc.ch!lF.!Cll.;:riZe. GrywU I have w crank O~H·lIv:ui~ny offuels aad ehemicals to ~ml.a:li:inm,~zeprof~,l, says Todd .:Ju,~d cilll;;'l~}'SI:S. <1111(1. I of that carries ever le:St 3) irs infancy, \IA]ieh nffi.3kes the fi eld exci ti Il~. W~rp~I., dl~~nil;l ;l[ P~dJiC' No-nhw~:H dlrG'CU}l' lit) 'Cilrb~)!hydm~l;1"s. a Dml~L;jsic says, "Iim~g]!ll;; tlU!l th ...r~ ,"va:;;~ N!H ~on'i L,l bonuol)' ,~ N l) ,inHiml fQird. I ]'IN ]n 2~D02. Dume:ii~c "md ,t:oUea!;lLe'S u:-;ed per,~od [)If r~me in the eal'ly (~ays.[)fpetro~eul1l,~. \\ra~s:hi ngt!lilm~alm.d··C<ll!lly~~i~ ,~l)i ng I~'} (?I;"i[~ i:l!: be pl.mimlm 10 ea.tilllyze the p.rOO:u~.Cil,i()n of·~~ydj"IQ~ chemi.sllry wlilien :~.cwlhillg~ hiall'lh':ned ~U <'I~,J,[ ki tid of h,we lbl~eel ]11Snuw ic.~i for bOI.h fla.e~s,OlIIfIJ chemic'l~s ia~the ~OmI~ gell ,~IilSflf01l1 "I soh~l.~otl caroohydmle i~l Ime l ill'!il,e., of n~n,:!~ ar :his p~1:Iit.~lJu~11e~ic ~.ysh.eS p~n'viding W!l.t en". Du bbed ilq tLe 0 ~LSpha tle rcfoiim ing ::Is, \VC ~no'\!e ~~lO th,i"l oi:her a)'\c,.:" b~ J;ay!L F : ~ industry ,,,·ilh Qpl:ions. "so thai: when cmfoo(Ai:'R.,I. Ilte~o'N.!~emper.;:mm: l)I;ocess require.8 J:\;nd this. much ~eem~ SLU-e: No Imnwr how ~ilydll,'.nesooco.me more r~<'Idily OIM<I'ih:tMe, "vt: ~lesSeliler-gy (h,m IF<lJt~ilimmlsteam :~-efbrmillllg;. I~c~~nolo,gi(;lsfor biof~¢ls O:lIldbi.()r~nqli~g ln whidl \V".;!~ef \i,~p(]r i!l~efftC't5\,viIh :~ne'~l~anl:".evntve. Cf!I'ii"liysus .~!'iSUfl:;l ~o b~"n im.po!'Hufu em'!!·~-ake-~:~~I;"Jn difflilrem w;r~~," As raw Illaterials fur Ilte~3. petrole'mlffi: <Iud Tille <td.W1I'K:e ]il'lks, hydlllO~eu lec~.ulOo~ogie~~,.nd p.art ort~.e mix. -A:DR.lA.N' (HOI
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I,IS~ ~11 IlroocC)l8~i~l.); !h~ el'erude oj~ to rl,lc~~:In ; or Ilw bKllrJogk'a] tp;.~l1;;.til;m~ ~woh'\;-d ill pl~o!(I:.;,>nlh.~:ii~, in lixilllg C02, :lml irr! lJuodc;gm~.;,lioll; ihcbydlml,i:on of 00:2 10 C'dru~Il'1r:rl\C ;m1J; Ihe ~lL1VCi!1tt)!li~ ol~ etct!f{l!4S i;n b,~nl;T~~:lht:' OjlCm.'liO:ll or ri[JI~1 cells;; !he C'k:~~!il\j] ~.'di~u!S;~ &1-0;; ~iu~t'i imcotl,g] '~.c!l1ilbusl iOti cltg UI1~";s, ;!n~IIi'iaU1}' OO'tCrr'5. (i~VCul (be t:lim:'it'ifilUl> iilllpo:rtmi.c,;; of (;!I;11~I'ysil~i~ rhe p:ii'ildilie:lkf~~ lilhl sIDril~ of Cli\:(g)'. i in. Ih~P-l'Od~tcti£i1l (i,f psroehcm i;cais lIr.aI&It::nnlii.tclfi<l~s, derilwd ffOm !.ihem. <J:lild ia~ a~:l1j)t-oki[!,ic:al ami! 1ll0:-i1. geochemical! pl'OC.'l!SSes. his as'to~lishillS land :1 Huk!: dishem1'c-~1~~IS.~ew link: I:;; h I<oown or Ihe rl:!mbmcn~al~ of cm<l~)"f,i~: Iww c;t~"~YSl\1 ~l~C"~~I.1\.ho\~' cO!lIrrol 1~lc~n. es10 ,Iud

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li~d\I\l'hose ~I~C can most r("trn;illy be (:xpand~..u I( (':;;p<lciaU y in ·~hempi.dl)' gmlwillg",·C'tmol:lljl of
C~I~l1fl),

problC'~nli is; {me: ,::lpP'!'!OO.eh. UmlC'rs:l:lntling ItrlC unldcrly iiilg probk:nms, b, .ZlJu~C!llhi::r. IJI]C l.in21t and is 8t least as Irnpurlanl" much tC.'iS: expensive, asd p'C'rhr~p'sultimllte.~y I,hnc-savi~!g". EDlcrgy 'HK~ dimiiHe are problems thm will extend mer decades oeccmunes, and 1he un im!ilgi I1'jblc [cchllQ<logi!.~of ~00 y,ca~t~nm m~w wul ~ rest on flllmd~llncn!'IIp;!~~.1!rch nHI!,:~~wrt new;'. ~h,[~ \Nh,u ftlllowj; i~a ~k~teh or:11inf;l.reprc~~c:nlt·:11i,!~IOJlg-t'l:nll pmbkHlillil'lfCS;(;urch Ihal. are v iwl 1.0 the de\r'dor!JIIl~l~ future" tClcimoln.g}! lor cr.ergy. \IV!;; ,C'rnpil;;J:oiiz:e Ilmtlll~i<illj:;;l. il!l pt."T~

rulil'irmll~

,~LCroSS drnC' liuU S~JL'CI[lilfl, oj' processes ill.vclvtld inl en.ergy andthe c~wiromnC'nL of 'C.h:aJ.rQJ!!ila~d E.:<(frtatmOilf!

Tlralli!Sp(lirl

Pi~otOC','OCiullron 01" Ihe scmriromiunol'

or dye

or

To gcneJ'fli.c ClUiil)Cnll. thc ckenon :liIltlSl Hl,I,)\iC ~o one c~.cdrodc.rntcl the hoI!!: to IIll: mhe-.r.. befbre they cornbine, 111~ IUOCCSSCS.:ID! im:tHciclll in ~!lalCI~,i]18 tlIml rnig:M m;lkci 11C-"'I~C'!~:.;;i\'C' pli!nl![F
o;lk o(.i'L.'lbcli\'~\ robj,~y_~I,o'Illi n~.
dr!S.Ordl;<,r"''r.'I, Of (!IlI,lIi1lLl !~.1..u0l, ~~·n'l~ooJl{hJ(:ror.)! I\"h~lhcr irlorg.,·mit:

oollll"'Ql!1com 0("" selar ·OC'II CUC.l~ an exciton:: a ~il1l!<U.c~ bu. :i!."~Noci;ucrl ole ,[!!hul c~cc~ron H. ;'l)" h

sonnl and

idc.{l!i!y.nl.o,trr~ic; overlap,

:Ut [ends W ~mpho,lsil.l)

tI.ooer:mtn·~di;ng

Ilte~iiil11~gc!x'[\lvcen

00(11

m!ll.c.rU."I.ls., Other.;. ml~glu select dmcr(ml.l:y. dumgJi! ffillu..,,1 lists j!NiOlI~:d prob.m:bly!ia'!l'c

8~fIll't"oI:LS

and clliil'lilll.C IS P.'I.11,uruJ~rly ill~poU'l.!ill:m 16). Uere is a rx::iw~$i~ .serm~ tl:lm ""'loVe;nli&l do r :romcliring £f.X}/j." "fhi.~ llrgell.CY l'I1lny oc ju.~~i licd, blll, ~iIC T:nms~. aL'ro IlC'II'lt'11nbcl" ~hC'1)1'O[Dle~nsof thill p,rovidin.;ll C'HCL'g)' m:nd m<lil~minrn,g.~hc C!IlVillOl1IUll!!~~.are IIDI .dJ!!Jln 1.0 g.O .~W'JI..y. 110 malleI' how

or brood

er oOrymJi.c~, Ultde~1::m.din~ il.li.em and eireuun,',;;ul,il\g ihdr defieleneies is 0:1'1(:bey 10 aoo'l!clJOCIi'I'Csolar cells, (hll!m~sUy COl ·c,ffCO2

n,~ O~9~r'i

IE~(ti'ad!! IlPlr,aibL~m

A tJy(troSC~l .fuel ce~:1OJ~t'3leS b)' extrnctin£ elcctrous rl'O~n 11.2 ami n:an51:eITi~Jg t~'aC'Jn IhroliiSh
an c1"lcrmd CircUDt W Oz Uo g):!'.fII;,.~ottc 11iO). If

i!OJ!lrl "'W If}' U~fulg cmroJn ooc:l1Jlok)gl:e{'i,I~'hc n.1l.'~1 to eto sontc1hhlS 1.0 lind tcclmQlogicJI .~o:l.~!tiol!1:5lo IlJribak;.ca~e ~)rob'J,e-mls w>C':o;.houM U!Ol Ibfl,,"C'L lh.u,\'IC ~m:M 1~'ltlJl]gi!,t:]~ ulld!tl'stauiJ 'hcn~,. ~ \'\,'C ,i!'C' til ~!nd lite !no..~1 ve;, ~u:.1~ ';,1il] .. bl~ .sn~uljm!.~. r~lnd'~mJl~!I!!<II.n;1Scm;b in SIl.:i~ C'IlCC ,lilt! cngi!!o;.u.w:lg lIS inr'l)QIi:(lJJDt lJn~~1,!;!,nding p.tKn<m'a';na relc:'!r<Ll1ItQ (~ncrgy und lhe '1.']" iru!:i~ nilli::l111 k:adi!i 10 flCW llx'lmolto.gi:C:;, ;UltdDOolhc ~lbil i.ty

~hc H~15 §C~~~r<l1oo ckiC'trochr:mic3:Uy. ~Iw
ve
1i"S(

11,,1·

rcac~ iOlls take pllm;:e" In cill h.cI" c\~cnt,I'hc
(I

~lal1lsfcr

r c~cctmn:il. frOl.1l ~bO to om: c1cc-

r

I;rrCcl~

~r-o.uc ,HJld to (;)2 fro.r11 OHIO_h,e-I:aL'e :>Iow l\:;;I.C" Hous'~r!d I<H'\;'cr till;': cn1.C~cl1:cyor rlOlct iC~l~fud {c(lI]:-oid.l;ring lhc fn,.'!I.;~~~r~J' or '[h~Lt:ac,ti:Cu~:;; ... i~~ olvl.J-d.).nlJ;; :;..10w ... ur iIlK~l'tiCm\·\:r:siun GilL:!! of 4,;;OJ!,'~ 4 IJ~ and 2 112;0, ',,;x.enili)li~ ~.

~l.in~

u:stI..
'"'[0

l~iP~l1lirnf!nI oi CIIoorni!.lI1YOInd Cill!llilic<ll S10lam',. H~ffiI [lei iJ!f!n!o'llfS1ty. Ci!ntJr[~t. ~ l)~l3:S. US)lt,~~~~~ '5cl~li1Cil' DivisiDn,Al9mm~·lNiilliooa\ L1~ord!tCiIl!J'. I\rgoIllIllU~. I~ iliOU9,
E'-l1lai~

whom oonrm.ponGk!nm ~llIOulidl Oil' .. dd:[l~~. !l~hlieside~@!JInWg[tlul'!'-mr'i<lrd,f\du

mh~ beh.w [{J:, (jo r Ihe ~Llmo:;:phJ;;'i7I; -1Llld (X."l~'U!~)!. <!L.lJdlhe chcYni~lry and pmpcrl ic;;, of ('0]: 3.t 11igh pR!;,"1>UIfl,,£. .Fog· decmlc.s, tbLICf(': 11ru:O; 'Q.._~;'J'i ~,ilde broad.cr clas.i of ~:t~lCliQJL~ ~n which II single process ,~luil'e,~ th~ tnllllls.fcr Ofrmj~l~plc ~tc('· It:8cfll:'eh, wl'loC,thc., rUmLOI1il.cil1n~ Or c.\p~Ornl'l.lJ)', in, tronS. Ui1:dcmtai1:c~illg thc:ro re<l'I.kll1~ and 11111d· nhfs Ji"eill: it 'IVa:> co:tlsidlc.oo a soh>eJ pP.)b\i.Ci'l'n, ins stlmtcg;les rQLI' dt'Cullwcn~ing thck limilatioll:il I PliIlprol!fi!i!:gl (II'! Ph.(ltooYlilitlilesl:~ ,we inl'VlQI'l,ml. in d,Cl,~c:l!opillg ncw, 11m(loI"C' pmc~ 11iC rrooc!~s of uplakc and jilXOlL:o:n oif CO;! in, tical procedufC's, [or I\.,"'actions rang i~lg frounl}l!~ hiologkal ph.otQsynthesis is 1l0~ an cplimiit..cd dcclrodtel~lklll proCJ.lII.c~iml Q,f I:~~tlI.i1.dlhc usc

1S.<lkcy :nnol€'(ulc in glooo~ w.armililg (6). ill dhcmf:ca~ and biologkal rm::1 11I'OC.hJlctioll ,mId •. ill IlL\:::llusc. WClfmiS!. know e\'cf)'lh~ng po.~~nMc .mhOlLll hs !lilysical am:! ,dlclllical inl:crn.cIJon.~. hnpOll<ln~ t(llpk;~ j Ild~tdc new !lIses of (iO:i! ill, 1atJ'gc--~al>C' chemIstry (whr,."I;l;;l .i~has lheallrnclh'c ~~wrc IllO'!.ti'l h~s ncgali.w ~1l. new chcmfc.1l IWC!I.GU1:l (C0:2, !he ~l~~lC'lll,l~~di o ~ILQ!]l'> 01' ~iUl tlr~~(.,11111. !Iu;:J1I:)l:~ (If COJ in! dCll;mlillintg

SPEC,IIALSECTION
cncyreiJ
iii

ire;"

UlfldCP.>tflll.d

il1l!1,

the rurtd~mc.m.:ll,ll phcnome1li1, ,of cxistif:lg <liU! aIWil'l1lIlll\,C cne~i conycrs ions, 'SoHdlSU1a~ Hglnillg, ,tw 'C'J,;mnpl,e. C;;Iirl <!,Qhievc C'nIC.~!1i; ies

3-'0% or mO!l:. r:ro\'!d~dI~h,,!
\\~J;

or

~I!]~~~~!~~~

Ih~ !nooh~-

niSl1Iil~¢1:J.ll.lrdnillgtl~~~ I;:OITl"'~~rSL{m of ck'.Clrunl,g ~n{,'il:gy '~n
Ilh['!:~om;:_ New undlCX';.;la!id~1liJ;l of ~'ilt;ch,II'li~m~ of rri~ lion, \vt.'W •. ~lIid clli~~ifili also
l'irn;"j,de:o

l~eW:;'~['.JIr(;gjtls
!e.S:9::~

rOt M-

diJeil1t

Ih,@ (1fIf;l[~rist!'y
MQk~c.t!L€i')

~lfSffili!1,[

The chemlstl), of

,~m:ln mn~cllemis~'I0I).

-~
1'~1t

ecules dOHl ~!1<lI'c:ii nmlm)i 01S-IliIi.'t~ of ~'n!;lt:ID'.md (l~nll!ll1J:

H~[l\

1~2.

O2• CO;!. CO 'Ifor

NO!,:., O~.N~ SO.i. nI~. b,. C'i I];OH. ~·ICI.:and ~'tlill,.~n'l'1lru ..U \'il,dly ;inUI)DJ1"lI~! 1:;0111'Il>OlU::'lI.'II.~

FUscl1.C~ {,oo!'I.."ch

Fiig. ll. 1ih~ 'CiOrrllP~W;~vS't~m ofl ~n;~rg!f bw~ in th:e' Url~!im :S;t;;:!t~sin,2005, tn, Mulre than, hillU Q'r the 'e'nel9lf 1~[r~d1IJQ~dij~, "ni.cfiCrei'l~~ili& a ""tdL: r.:l.nge wils~ed. ILInils are i'n qlllad:5; 1 quad ~ lOu IB,r;[tl~h~ht'rlil1li'!'L tmlil5 ~ 1.0;5, e);lIjGu~es. I[fiiglllr'e pnl'ifJ.lrEtd by lI.aWf,el'l~1! ofinfo:nllillion l'I.lbonn dtcl>c L.in'rmo re' INlal(ionial Laboratory" ~ rni!j[i~r!;i~y ef (,;j nfonrrial nd Ute U.S. Oep~lirtn'1,en~of IEilIe:r,gy~ molecules ~lIIdIhei!' eemblof"big surprises oncn referred 110' as C"HlCl"£,'Cl1.t bchOlvim:. Om di,mcW!lt)' i~~ lUm_rc~t,md~ng and modding these ~~y';;!,c'!ll:\' ~C',tds w 'u~~(;(."n:I~!Uii;!l, thm do!/!(j 'MilO'SI cilh;c usslens or energy alLd ~11C ~im~.wit~~ o.~J]have a nr:prb;j[ngly poor yield. j rml ThC';;\'Cincllkicm:iC'S are an Op~l(lrtmlity, P,~lOliO- C'~~\ mcnt nnd or '~he costsend impacts of a I rnm,si ,~lJy locl~'[~O~OIDI (.a \1i.~llill I'C'J ~ly i~,~hc ",yuahcsish",,,,,,inllTIt!tI'lC <JioPI)C'.d for,l~c closedS!!.!p involvinlg ~h(l reaction [If CO,! witVI rjbll~QWdiphOlllph,uc(wi~h i~" '0i.1I!nl~ti~lg J'!C'U;;a

of Ihw: di."~'UlIssioJl_"'"

~llaL"\,'C:I: It is fair:liy illC'rnt:'i[Clu!~ICmlooynam oc:a~Iy, and severnl keyzeacuons ~IOorcXJn\P~C''' .he

~UnCi!lL~Y' nC'S1! syst.cms

,illiirC

the Ilill.lmll

IUm.1C'

natiens Ilmt is needed 1:0 U!I'Idersmnd lhc complex systems of which they
;t'I_llC [I! p<H'1.

kC')'

New II~dlea~:Sellfl~uilti 1i1,~1 'Wheiilltfro The Spc.cWIll ofi.(kJS

IiliII

(hil~f'

(;'yclL;' ~"Lp:~UfC (,nergy from '~hc S lIll i~ trml!ls £If ~ha~ nre u~ful ;,IS Ii;(';n:.(if)" The pl1[);.'liPCCl~ 0 r re-

(:1,.:1]:\.".'

(;(j~.1nf a kilow<l![ prodl!Jct>d by 8ulic'Ou ~oll,ir I~k:m'irrUrmll:tUl~will the bLlmill~ OiCi:r,m1

len"" or CII:Ct'g;.\I and glo'b;!]; s~ewm"(lil.lip is IJ!Ot complete, based just on \~..M~<J!t !lOW kIJo\'I.'. we \1ilc !]JL,.'(;d ~it,"\'\1 idt,"'I~', ,md lOW [[,Icod 10 know
which o(rh(;
cw[mrIE

rOT dC.11 ins wifhp,ro'b-

s!~lO'1i!im~bonB ml!l;xof

c<ngill(iCriJlg bUo!o.g~crul plluWllylIIH1~~i~ for gl1ClIllCr C:11lic:iCllCy,Il'b.txiliiftii iiugifllCl:i}IOO~ ie nillx thmug]~ specific lJiosynlhelic plidwra),s,gtOwlng pbnlus itlregimcs On'L"TI~pc.UIllureor s.aHlliuywhcre uley ulorma~~y do not nourish,. and difICclly produeins tiLlels such 21.'1 UJ. Cilt. or alcohols mit: !III aU'lu:illg ones, but ones lh,uwm require decades

IJ~ [0 gloh,'Llw!u'Jnilllr~(!Whlll,l<, irr~demil. an: IlilC: !!:!oba,~soorccs fUlid sinks, [or cnruon andhow do Ihe")" i~llcmct'! WhfLt Cfll:lone s;[I,Yabouttlse impac:t of reehnologies for gen,emling IlhJIdC:!I'r power O:Cl thcp;Qi!emia~ for prolirClimioin or m~clear WC<\PO:IlIS'? De ve ~Q'P'mnenlof~] le~hoo,ry of

comi11ex sys!crus to the ilOim where II.Si VCS I'C~,ioblc restllr.s >( Or' at Ica.'S\ ~lIliS who\'ili! I:eU,ffbmly of hll~illilti~yc ireSMli\'h to ircmlizc:. ',''LCprosr~cl of Im~h~id(lgk:al phm'Osyntlilcsis (\\iherc "phocan be qumuDlied~ remains a key clllfLbHng ca~Qsymhcsi:;;;"I:nighl include IYJ,o-;iIlSi,pirctlphyskal ~)abili~. and is prnl'mbi~y dlC' l1oCS~ way ot mlnimizJHg t~IC po~(!nli<1I mlscrles ol:"lht la,\\' of and chemlca! ''C''dC~iO\n:s or ImlOrc sua [gilll fo.l'!,V;II\i ~ulhHCIl(tcd OOI15!1,lquC'n~l'i, pho~oc h~m ic:J I or :plrK.1IJOth~f.ln,dprocesses Ihal gC:!lCI.ltC· n[,~dsor :l~{llil;.l'~r~1,1'[r,::}', .. 'I'sn \'\,'~urnU~~'~;\i
IIII,.'W

rr,~~q,1<un;:h.

Th,El EfHdel1J~y ,oif El'lerr9!1' l!Ii!ij,e

p;lorcd and unpro"'lxl. ~d!:~,:;,will worl '19)" [)[:vclopjail!?; alfmdllhlc Icc%ltOklgie,,, fOr ["(;11110\,IIl;g CmUCJll [rom the allb1ioSp~~erc 'lor ,exmnp.i!e. by grow iingbjor.al."ISStmel oOll'!!CfiHn,g lito !I stobie ~.ormof carbon ~ nnl Sl be iC~p~Oi\,."'d11I0W. ifnhcy are W be opl;[ons In ~he rUJIl~ll:'C. C~l[Ilnging dlC anx.xio of Earlh. ~"lil1imlalillg pll()!~OOYlllhe:l1:i)'l in dl.c ~13 by thle :J:Cldhion of cssentlal trace eleIlli:IUS such as ~'ITII1, devclol)ing new 11111cie.."I:r. power cyd~. <Jj hydrogen economy. new melhOCM!.tor sqMII~til1g [FJ."~'fi (such as Co.;,! timn ah') i1U!ldHq~D id~.room"W'I11!t'Jt;;'r<I'(I],'C StlllM;!ir1;{Dfldl.!(njv liy tao'C~1L1Y ckctllc po'Iy~r wi~hO~ltlg~fi, IlL'Oklgic,d IJ~llIt1d~lclim1J. new '~'011(;CgJlt.'" ill h;JII[[,'.li~~. <Ul~l:
I1ll1,lo,gl. 'Po.: (:Xp10H:;Jrlimd,ilDll!lill!m1ully lind reiill~liCilHy. These PJ:{)bk:nm::; ullll).."'qul re IOllg-lCnn, pHliCnl hT~tJml{'lflt iUl ,I,IJUldam!i:ntall~ll to yoc-Idl rlC'w IJlI1d validated ideas " These problems are also. ill, :>tlillC C2I. ,.;:ll, :;.11nici,";:!li~y l~~hnli.Cll~ .. Lllml,~lcir impol.l1lLl1CcisIfillQ~I.(}h~'iotll:l' to :;pCcill.~i5tS,The ~I~[tkar (~~'liOU

'Compte x Systerm. UndcrsUHildl~ll!il energy flIra<!ilflC environment ;lI I1Q I.i<:a~ Iy Iy poses a, series o r problems that we p.rc:'lcilldy have ncil~'aC'i1'line fIiIatllCI1matl;(:8:1 tools rIQr~h,.;:dMa It,l ~uh/c.. M(JtSl gl'obil~ ,$y;...;tcmlS tl1"~ "'complex" ,ill p:1ly,:;icisiS' dcflilfi~ioll oftltc ,wro: They Q,mprise mmllY cOJ11;pml~nts, wit~1 m[Jny clC'g~s of :l:l'cC'do:m, uS~ll'IJlly ~nl.crnctiIlg Ilon~

.lncLrc.. ~:i:ng Lite d'f:i.d,"CllCy of ~~lll.."r.gy (1!;Jn"~in;:ion and 51(Je'3gc' i", II Il,'liijor o'p'ponmlily. MfII~IY of our ~mndfllr(l CI1C.uyy cuavcrsion routes ~J)C lin from their' 'arnot cfficierlC'Y Hmil::;.:Elceuic· ity prooucliolll whh the present mlx o,f flLC..~S IS oniy H'Yo ~nlc:ulo!lTIt fill :1\'cr~Lg,.;:. th,,.;:i,yjJ!k:al (lilllt(1I11i10b~~c engi"\: b pcrhapr> 25'% cTflcicHt, ,md an iUlcml.cic.ocent bJUlh is. onl)1 5% cnick:n.t for prod.l1Idngds~ble H~ht l~u:if'Ca:sing cnld···

,m

oo:.yg,cn ck"(lrode (ru.,> one ..;:amplcl, mighl ~m .... <!IJl e,.,""oiicprobk'lll illl SciCillO~, but h is hard~CI

w"fM"sdenoemBg"org

SCW~I~IC~ VOL 315> 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
believe d~fl111 hydlitlg.CI.-1 OC{)m:nny that IUSt.Xi clcC'nrol)':>~ togescrare [1:2:and 0;2 fmlIn Wflltc~, and a fuel cell to COlIlyert [~14 and Oil; bock t() WaI.CI:' Vlna CI[ectIDI.1S, ceuld llli1koe a sU~~!<I.nli;1I
(Qmrib~I:llml
ilnpro\le~
'lQ

S61v

il~!ij

ihe

probj,CIfIll';

of

~n.cQ;y {lilt!

gl,ohml

~Jobi'd cite!');.",),\"'~lhO\~l amucb-

stcwil.a.i;::hiIJ will Ii:'equirc the $ml~.C pmicnt, I1cxib:l!;, and ~liolldly·ooscd investment, ~f society boc.l ~eycs!l~t the prob~,eWilsill~hcse ereas ,,~sunic.icntly ~mJ}Ort..lllt I.QRJfQ'V~d~ a mb';:l

8tMr.c fIt=ft!I'J, .NtH~·tor .~Ilf ~:!'!tt;lN!jZtlIt;Dr:i, N. S. Lmi~. Go W. GrJb1lift. CIIll~ir~ (woIik:!flop r4!pOIit.. OO:E oi~~~Qf BilI~ ~~~:f5rn!l1m, ,irolllS,), '~.,..d~~, gOiJJb~J;i!p(iI1!l1<l'bS1lii'Mt!;JI1IIrr.1~I:!U. 5. S)1~rm~!M! ~le-C)'dle tf!ef9Y·f'e'Clii m~~g!l AA~L)o>~ ~~ia~lltenewab~ [mef9:l' ~bQraijl)')')', _-~rel9tlM1
/I,

idlC'Jl~i n~liQ:~~ of th~~I~l"!:lh";mi~. notin ;my sense !~W; lh,c roclo,'Il clu;!luisII)' ,(~rn1'i:}'~~~ 1m:;; OOt;."!I~i;1 S.~bjl;l~l. 1' 0 active ill~t;."ru:;t q l]~iim~t~~ suecess I lor ~(lcm:k.~. I
\)!l~siDt1plyl~.\'''I::d new ~d~~~" i\~~mh~r!\'''It5an to ,',.ork rl!~ !!h~ b.~gpmb. lems, is IIh<11tit'!,;'), will .,rl~L.. cllll~ Q11Q(,lll.;lk"llll~~ )/r!\l11g ~opk. OWl' I.hli: ptJ~t JOj·t~ura. th¢ N a ~ ~itJli~]; Ili"Dit~I(':l tilf In~lhll1m::. li ~~t1:~I~lb.h~aui'd 1 ~(i1erou .. 5ullpGrI. '[{); n.:'Ci\iiIL ilnd build II very clI'CCt~\'c COi\UllHflily QJ bioJ~.l00ic."i1 sc:i.cnti:sls,

OX}"§C'Jl>C'~'l;I!I:«~c. TI~

",'of!.; l'or i~ Ill~~ m~c!ll.od! )~(lun,g: ~)e{lp~c,
Rer~~~u:e~ ;;Ing! IN@t~:s;
~l!.IPIli!'.!ilIi!nl!'~ (ollllldl 01 AIDcisim rm SOmi!l~ aMI

!JiIll,l't!iMedi.,M<I:ljosi!;

html.

T~~91"99:r ~MID.~~E!ie!:g)' .1mp~Ii~,. r~lmttt'W rtMti\le Rt1Jt of fm~t9ing (~nje$ 1(~l}Q6~, 'Ali$fp.. ~
:NJ'G4 (1Ilterr!l"~[!lIniI1 lEi1e~iI' l!.gellCY, ~~~, ,(04), -;wo~tf;l~e".l;!!!)~~~oli:J!)g13. &:<.!iir ~IMtM ~ /'0' M~ul't II St(rn· ,f;r:ltN11r f~jw~·, J,W1:II!je'i, l ~!UIn,. 'Ghi!ilS 1[.,gt_lli1~ r~. U:s.. I~~rtm~ 01 [nerID' (000 Offic~ ·iJf 12>i'l EI1ergj Sciem~E!S • .200U I'IWII.M~.m~~bs1ir<imJt1ffl1I1iSE:C. gootI'c:ASTI\P[~t!hlm1, ,', Wl.wld fnnw Ou~k

6. See d~iru56iQ!l'.i. of ·QlI:libaldifllitt>e ~Ili!i'!lKe~romlllt MaUrlWI':lJ M't~ 'Illr A1im~j:lhi!i'l~ 1le~~~iI1l.. WioWl.ut.:lt.et:iiil ( rt~d1fdLim>loo·. '1. ],.M. II)eUll:h, !t K, l~~r, Ma'kiril,!il ~e.~n1Jl:r:Jf)YWOtt' ;'1pP#Wl;r:JIl~fn :(~~.I' omlln~ :EIlWfO.!'JtJWjl '((2m~rid[ll! S. til. S. lMi~,10. G. ,MQ~efil. fitN. NDrl ktm. S{Ji. u,s..4. lOl 'll5[29 l:200Il), 9. M. s, Ore1Stlb-, I. l. r1htoo1i~5, NDWJf 4:1..4, 33:2 f2001~ ..

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lircJyau.!! 10 :>n~11 refl'ccl.km Io... ses, g;J:id shad irlg

TOW8,rd C,ost-EHelc'livle 5:lo,18r 'Ener,gy USIS'
N<lit'IlI<li11l lewi .. ·S" At fl!~Sieiill:, solar el'ler9¥ i!:'oflrver.siQ!lI t·&hnH't~!]iesfac;e

l

IO£~·.-:'. Iud nthcr 10'&~~.a 1the.5 l(lI'O'M!~cvc~ [h,n < any ImtC'tit<l~i'y:..tcm will ~HI\re to sorae ,!!\(ll,,;'tll. S:i~~.ppcd nn,i;ldllk-S!l1owh~~v~,cflk~ktm::~e~. PV of '15 lO 2n% i~) m:my eases, A~ sillch <l~cnictc<Ju:y. if Ih~ co!'! of" m:oiM·(;' :is-S"(IOfm2 tn. and ir ~.;.c
~~~~~ iJ1ID a cc."QWlll~ ~c <B(\t,n~n(muy~n!,l, :;;(ld ro!,:~'l d ,llii nh(l IiWV\.'!rI.L'Ir. griu t1tl'llllC{':liolll. C'll::c ,. \'tIllic~l!ldd II ~ileliOi of .. 2 tothe ·uJ!.lil n&lrrlllb'd i>y~lel1ii OO~l), i

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in U~ N-O-CoJlh:~dI "b,I~,IIl{,'(; of ~Y.'l1,()Jn....• (,\ouch •

,c;®st !'lind :5JcalablIUty hurdle's 11"1 tille techrn.®[ogies ~eqluiredfor 11mmpiel~ ,en;~r9:Y sy~l:elfli!.To pnl-Vilhl!lill ~m~· ~~id~:llre<ld primary '~ile~:tIiY· ~iOUlme, :mliu iIl!;r)iIlrgy III1IUIS'tbe 'C[lPliUIN!'li, mmerrled, and ~tmed iifl a (O~t-Ie<H.ea:ti'll.e 'fa,m~olll. New rd,eve,~OpI1l1Emtl;in n\iHillo~echlll:o~ogIY.Ibiotechllolo{lY • .and th~ mtiteri!1Ilf£ iln~ plrn}lsk.al~.iemes mily lE!'nrab~.es.1i~:~·C n'ge ,[lp~nla(hes tio ,mst·eHet:ti'l!le!, '~~obi!Hy sea ~able· :!i)'sl:e-mis:f·or solar Illler9lt IlIS@. ha

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resnurce d\\iitff!'i,dl o:t.hcr ~lH'i!'!Ig and ~ils."i~,·h1I~cd C'1l~r:g}' n:.'$OIJ.~t;1;.'1'i [(;''Chllobgy

re\.hlotionin lc,x isling [IV manl!lilC" ~ndl,od!'i..but wil~ also l1I.-o.qll scicucc and ~L'C

thcn. I.hc sale price of ~1~Jd~cmln(!('teJ:l.W cleenri!:::~ly ml~!>~.bc ..2$ m So..30 IlcrkilowlIH=lwliIr. $0 (k WHI! toreee, erthc inh ii;l i e~pil~1 inve,sl.lliIcnl. and eost 0'1' IVIK'Il1.C',Yoverthe ~ ~clill1c of the PV i ill:i\I:l!~mocm 1(2., 4l, Cun:cmly,. h{l!;,\'C~lcr~ l!t:i~hy~'C"J1~' electrical l)[IweI' g,~1nemli,(}ncests o.q~:cnUl!ch less, Wil~1 ClIIJI'Clll rune! new inslil~Ulali!]:H~oo~i~lg -...$,OJJ3 to 80.05 IJiCrlk\\fh (I). UCillCC,. ro.r solar ciCCll'icil)l to be oo.sl..;.':omIlC11llv!C wjtl~ foss! 11lnR'<0c1 ciCCI rici~rtil 'uli~i~y SC"OIJc. l!l!~p:m'l'cmcnliS
ill. emj;;

coltlbiim:::>cl ~ l)_ Wil.h

wmd

inc.BL'i!.:;;:ing "·Ul;'m:iJ'm m~ t..i~rf:JOIN1CUU1111 I;mcrgy p:r,mhl.(:'li(1I1, :wlar

dtt·~richy ~Qrph{JID",()~miC' (rV ~ I!l!d~ rr~oloID' is meenvh~!2,hd&lhtclij)(~ :[l~cl~[iiIJn. s a pmemiaJlly a
Sll slaii1~blc C;1\.~y pro. g;I:ohail sQ,iar electuicily market is ('!.lir1:C111~y llno:L1C t~ml1l SW billiolv'ycar.~md Ihe· ilndllstu.)' i~growil~ at more !hml 30% pcr<Jjmnml 1(':'. U{lWC\'Cf. low~~0:5t. llJ-,,,,,-~10<Id3bk. I!b~i~~ 1l\1k...oolt,(:lrid~ has 01~wn)'~ :l(:!\'I(,'dIH~ ,il for;. c un ida'blc COSlOOllil p.;:1.i101' ro:!' c:l:eclli'ic;:11 power gCllcrnHon. To pro'V.rd'C·'1~n:I~ywMcs~~w<ld Vrlm;lry ~IH:IJ~Y Smlf«l, ;\O:lar CllCrgy nnl~t be ";<l!a~~lll!\.'d. (;'Gmlcrttd. OIIilld SIO!'L.~ iu ,I co.~l·crr ..cti"c: rill~hion, ' w.ildcsp:ucnd IlPJlm:a.chDO

dliceiOllJhc

~lR'.akl~wo:ugh!S. 10 ~'!~'ib.l~. n a ~rnl\IO> i n [(;"1111, .. hlhly nlmnl)J1ri)Cllurnhk: loml. th~ UJIl'lmlr}\v.~ Cos! capture, C(llf1"'ct;.:u"ion. mid Sl!Qm~eof :S~ll1ilighl fJJ1C key step is~hc C<lIlPturcand oOIlVC.L'SlOJl of the enh::rgy eomalned i.1il so.l1ir photons, Fi.glll'C I )].hOWSDhc 1'lI:llly mmortilzcd CO:>I afd:cc· tl'icity :fiS iI Hmclaoll of Ihc efrkicncy ilnd cost of iln~n5la:Ucd IPV modu~e (2 ..4) ..Bct<luse~hc WLZiI CIlcrgy IlIDV idled by the Sun is. fixed O\'CiI' [he 30-

il.'n'CY

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Il1,_lnli r.'Cl.uril1l;l (:1N~\1

111111.1:11ll!) ~l!Ibfiitarlti~.lIy i

IiCdut(;'(I_

111,cusreni manu IfI.cturlllg. ~diC'[n{:~ lOr 5ibased solar cells, the CD~l of tile p:rQ(\J..~;.ct]ftl1ld purifled S~is on~)' abeat I £rIm On~lC nllfl~ cost of Ihe [i''V nmduk. Some of the Si is ~os~nl:D ililg elm I.Iljbouk:sil~to wafers, amI ol.hcr (OSl~~re incurred in pO.llishirl£lhe wa.fcrs. making dlC dUliil:scd jl!nc:~ ion in. thc Si imol!! 1):ilO1!ovoltaLic dC'\lJ,GC..fllilrkai:ing Ihe il:iQfldli(!~ing
lr.lillspauclll.

l.il~clr.icu~y o\.ii\'iOi.: Ih ..n (1p'r;lr!.l!~d ,~I <IE~ njnhn(9:~ sh!!l;i:!;;' b~nldl !,lOl[l !"[llar (;tIlWCiR iun rllL;ur the Ih1;tll\.'Di~::oJJ! I illrnJt ur 10'Y;; t~:ni.ciir;m:yw!JI,IM de\' itill:: i~3 1%, hl,:t,Ulliil; p11Cli1.OIl Il<i.\,trig ~~m;rgi(~, ~ I~Ql 11m, ii:!I." I.hc IlL'tl:Jed. tt:t"Ili1,(,~!I)g_V i.U· il W\'"f'1.: lower than [hI::: rub.'Kl'J-pl.iQu thrt..,;"hold on.h~ 11(;'1 lye cxpe.lfl~iYc flnd if [hclJC were :110 fiOS'l~tlr~~tiv{: PV mfll.criial are fi.tn l'I~o:rbcd. WhCL"~N:;'1)~lOl.Ol'lS mnC('hj)f~i:>mlO :>to~ ;000 c1iSPJItchll~e COIWCilOO having CI\(ugUcsi'llucb .hi_gJt(f. thrnn ~lC band gal) mpia:1 y liclcasc hem 10 Ih.c :Iall~'cc0',[ the oo~id <lnd d~iI'>Cji'o:r>C Mliti Ilml.cIYC<lf]lili Il OI1~)' ;] ru$ell.~:1 in8:ed!flllilIrl In~mliiite .aml Kav:ti INGMJKen!.!e Imlijtn.!te. 2ID ternal energy cq~m~w ll~l or lh~ b~lw gar ~,!). Noyes l<ib0i'0!1)~Wy, 72. caljlOi'ft~ hlllliMe !i>1. T,W~noli· ~!l27· SmaU le<~ ('cl:li. ha.VC' dcmmlslroUeCl (,"ffich!ncics o!J)', Pasad@m....(A 9:hl2~, USI'l.. E-mail: .i1~~·i@ilS. {a~e"h.edlJ or>:200/n, with Ihe re.~mlh~ing losse;~ <l~most CH13\'l,'111 ,I :.:;6hlr

YC<I!f Ii[~lrmc llf <I. PV moolil.lc. once ~hC' l'lllcrgy oOlwc1'3iOll c1'ficit.'nq' or a PV moollk:is C-SI;:ll1.'l" ~:i'shcd.th~Kl1~1 ;m~«mt ·~),rod!Jd" cl~~rr.i;ity ~lJ:odL!'Ced by the moo ullc <Lt ,"" NrJ~l~a(ivc midImil.liJ!d~ ~(X,'mkln is kn'O'wn rO!'I'I~e liie~i~le Qnh~ !'iy:i.t1;lll. The l.hoonltlk"ll dlictl:.'!lcy ~inalt f(}r C\'lm

or

gtltiS:s.. mas khl£ ond n'itl.king 11lC e~cc~rl:c..11con~1'C1S. seallin,g. tilt ccll~s, c.o:IUJccling the ,~llls tOlgelher l'Cnably into a Ulloo\lh;, ana, ~a~hlg dle nlO!!lLdc 1m shipment. ~.llt!lo(;" hl such ;\yslen1'~' milecuc~'IDI!I;;{llw.;:rnioa ern!;; L\,'nc)'~5~~,'~I)!~'nl~ im
~n
~l~ t{}

belli.,'lf '_lmmli~1; lh~:i\l.~lh~riiKII.i'd n

'~'lI;l!H';

iIlNOI\·'\,"(! W~dl m!lk~lIgDhl;

fin"ul PV lliHXiulc=.
lh~~ J 1%

h:n,PJ.th'cJ]tcnn.':> ill .o;;lliciclicyab(J'l.c

lh.QQJ\.1ict!~ lillinil are l)Ossibi:c ifth.ccallstmhtt::;.lh>ll lrre inoorpora~cd iu·tolh.; :ro-<:DH~(J Slm",~klcyQlIe~1" ~]OOi~liic.'l:l ,ei11cicnlc,Y limit all(! relaxed 12'),. For ~;.;;umpJ:c,.if ph[J'[(}J1s h:JIyillg ~~ltt~rgi..:=.., greJ.ier ihmJ, t~~e hilml!jjflp of ihe Ilbs,.oili'ilhlg 1~.lalC'ria:~dkillot di:;.o;.ipi'llC Iltd r c:.:tlC's.~ c:tlCrgy m; hc.'lt. but illstcad pr.clli:lucedmoJ:c \iolt<IgC Oli

SPECIIIALSECTION
gcncf:'.:Hcd rn'lL~I,~piI,C. low~cncrg_,!". lh~m~aH~ clcC'Ul'Ins from the cllerg,Y 01' a s~rIIgk:absorbed photo.~. lI~orelkill c;lilicicltcies in ,C'.... cess of 60'H. would, i~prin'C~p!c" be alJLaillid:i'lc. .t\b.._~'f1t.'Cus h>lv1'I!Ig<l higMy q1..m~111m<! bOl~d $~l:Il!Clmre, ",~,d~ as (!It~<lniMm wellsaad q~~~m~l!n 01ti:. can ~"!CQre.~ Q if,;"~~}'~)!\XItI~C dcsiwd Ilnoot;o:(r,~g,2h !~ I"e'~,
roi;!!;'n~ 0\:'5(,\1"\,',,~,im]t'>m PhS,,; ~~m~ltl!,l!l~ dP:~'ii&lmr,~ e
cll,"HIDIl[Stl1~h,.~ the I}rodi!,i,~

eyer. there is nO nmthod rQrc~Hc~cnt~y C};.tnllcl,iug th1:: pholOgcncl<fLtQd carriers IroOm the q~aalhiJl1l <IIot structure I/O p,Nxl!Jcc clcc~ridly in ,fUll 'CXI!CJ:ilUlI c:irouh. M<liICOOlis \,~hh "mi Iri-ool:ld~'" (iii W~!I "'Inremrediarc bands' a 1100 (lIfer tlil'C' possibi! i~)' for

.~w

u ~trnhi;,ghcn'Crgyoom'c~~jfl~ (l!rrtci~lC}' '11. 6), III ~h~~ :;;iPI~~~~ .. din~f(l!:n .jnr;~~m. hi;;l,W!l e-®~~il,.'$, p
WQ~I p.rQ:lI!O~~",h~qjpli\l!ll fmn~ di n~~lti W
!ml:iililL;ld

pl.cm,.;nt[llD~OJI ,. I,nm:dditian,. dtcscrmn,c.diflilt; r~1\: Q1irl"Cnl~'y c)<trcUincl)J C{)~I,I).. and melhQ(l~ of rc~iillililg jhe highpcl'f()liInafl!::c witla scallab:lic. il:l.eXI)~l:s4 m<lJlulilch:ll'ing n.le~hods wou Id<llso ve be l'C{ll!i I\1d,.

In

dlCOlbsC'IllN ofllH;trk(l~ \'<I~Il!c:l of

ineroases

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ml;.S!,~pri!I~!'il)'

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Ci;U m".~L;r.i,,~ s
fJ'r~llMI.; m~

l,.'llti[,dy(1,ui'f~n.~u i. 11m~!lI.n.lct~l':iIlg p'ro~l('SS. ~m"h ion, \'\Iiil~~~~,gll cl~~m1lll!11 ~nt:~' k~ els and l!1li;tdlnli,: ~ now far Ih~ proof l1t'illlung. p:ftiill.iing, y idd" of nlillil~tip~,{;L~1I':Gil!PJlS fltlinl a siM gl..:: ubt<ll:y~x>d dlUC'tiCl!1l dill',,:!'Cn~.'I'QJ:t3.~ (Fog. 2), The ri~(~-~1S [OU-:to-.rroHnllmmfadmuDlg. ~lG~n~~n.!lh~to: l~n d~~ri~1ICd uhC(m;~if,;,IIII}i~l!:l or other ul!rn~ow-I;;m~ ;)!ppm<ld~I,.'\S. ~o i~lP~iL"."_ phntG~, ~'IL),!;l;br ctllJ:<lblil'ihi,ng <lin i.\"ii!i~L;;'!~Oi:prtHlf h..~ }',I.."I In be dOllmJ!l~It;;LU\;-d ill a pm~lif,;~d .illl~1~~~1~11i:~)1l PV l~'£:h~!(ll'~1!il>'. Th i~ a[(;a isw ~!~n; Ih:r HliG pKlL%~'\l or' il1l.crc~l {jlAllP'n;:1~nt, how-

wid~ !~~~Hllpot,~~~i<il:1 10

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fliil!~mMylil:illllic lim~t a~ 46,200' Suns

solru' cJcctrk:i~y"
The k~yissuC' im,'olVCl.~'hel rn<ic-olT b::'IWC~i1l l1.mlcri.m.1nlri~' and device ~)c:I:Jiommncc. In a f ~>,pk.aJ p~OI:m.u' selar cell dcsiSUl.. the C~l,l~-;C colfrior~ are co~loclOCld the same dJifit.'t' ien :IS ill !i~ht is ~~h>.w!b~'<i" \ mi~li:Lmun ~hidkn~ J .he

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(el,~ i1> :iel

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~h~m~tt~ri J,bi,"C'll~~ rnlC'ph{lto{)x{,.~il(-dC'~lilIlMe .. tUrrklfS musl hve l'lulieii.c!1I.lj' long ~",';ilhin 111~ :!lb:>oritlillg mmcril al to :JI.IT.H\'C dlC elec IIlCll:i. aT

junetion, \1!'here IltC)' ean be

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:tJOl)

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C08t (USSl:I'IiI;i) if'iig. 1. So'lcllf eleclricity 'm~l'Sas Iun..:l]on ,®~ mQdlJ'~eo eUkhmcy and ,"051. lIliefheo,rt!'H,cal eili£ifn,{~es <1m :sho,wn 'I~'r tbJl~e (~S~S~the ,s.n(l!l;k~tzy"Q!lI.oe,iss:e r lfJn1I~t. at ql)lalf1luml (:(I~¥1~r~i()111 dervi(e wilt! .ill slliI'gle band r,or lJa,p" ln ~hid '~J'riie-fS of bm~~~nef9Vi.!il.l flQ:t(!ibSlJFbedl ~!f!d(!S!rri~lrs ~~~nllrgyh~g~~1f' trnHll th~ balld g)l!P lhel'llI'iIO'a ~o t!iie hi! nd gap; th e !Ie({l ntrl.tiWi'l th~ ~,m,~dyn!ilmk ~n ~i~ 0,1'1 Eanh ifG),r:1 S UI1I Cllf cont:::~ntralicDlli; tile' m
CiOli!iV~r!!alll.$yst~rn, (~.u,ri!lfU SOM1F cell

an c;lk:cl:ric~1 ClUl:'f'C;llt Iloo t]mYLl_gh Ihe I'IM!UI,llic contacts ffi,nhic cclt hllll)Ure 3Ib,u:H'bcr mo~cUi1<l~S with short dnm~c CJlTtcir·lilc!hlle.<;; can IhcreWore clTccl~vc.~y JP.'1oih :sun!lugh! but cmmm !i"'cb' com:Cl'll lilJI ablrorbccl CllC'I1il}1 in!£l elecmJ".icily. ln turn, absorber .Imlteria'i is wilh the ~nocc$sarYrlUily "we gc,ncmlly 'c('I'SI~yUJ produee aad m<!!li~llra;cUlilt:. O~c.'l;pcr rnmJC'.l'u:ds.. such as

c:noc-

IIIl odlule) li@in.zoille I. 'Th~ d1lislfu~d l]lil~ ~rl2 @quli'oost llirn@sof! a WS1. j:.l@i' Ilea k '~'i'altt(WJ 1J..H!i~s. e)timl1ll.! An r(l,r tlte' lmil'lijli1lllllTll blilltanc,'e"'(lr·'.s:ys.t:emlS !l:1!)St '!;riveli! (lI!llT'(!;n'~ .!liian~ra(W~~l1:g fiI't~lh()dsfi~ al:~(Ilii'ld~cated"A ICO'l1!vi!'F!i@,rn ,((Jnil@f:S~(I!1 r.a~rori)~hO'lt.$1JI~p C:!ml(J~tiz@s Q I!!t b~ -$ O.O~SJkWlillJiw ~ al 30-~ar ~iI@tnl!lf!~ (h~ or PV rmldlilein the ri:e~d. [AdaplE!Q 'liiom (4)]1

aJ!1dthe s:e~~:!'Id",~,iOii th~rm(!dlY!1'.3m~cUllflit f'~F ~Ii!Y~rth"b:a_s~dl5()I,ar

i!101!"~~lK: :paflLcl!II!1ItJC :l.Oiid:;; 111,gr.,llin s.i:.ot,...... ~);'II'II."I,llIy nl~\'IC'short dlIT[Jil(; tarrier I ijcliln1!;.~~ tmd,!br inGlI.~X; rtmmh~!1fuio;1] (}f ch:JI.rg~carriers .1'[ thC'gmilriOOlulW.ti ..~'1 ''''''itll!
8111..

{ll]lunic l1!{llym.cft' or

ob' such materials, lUl11S'OOjljl-tl'liek'llcss~pl[ruDy oonstminn is hi~clLY why :c1.11 CmWl1l [~V cells ~lI~il
in
tbe

[9

g,rren regina. labelled wne :~,inl fig. 1 Apf)road~C's to circl!llUlvculting thus, cas ,el'l'kkncy tmde-off £!cncrn~!y il1.\'olvc or!JtlOg(lml~it:ilulon or rhe directicns of Hg'hl 'Ibs.orp~i()n.

QUilintum

\lj\eUs

Ev------~!!r--------~--.-.--~a*.--------------------Tc co:nliil.c!:s Iriig. 2. :ii\lssiMe merhoas gf dmJlnwernUrng ~he' 3::i.,otJ) em(ii~n~y liirnit fo:r therrnalized c(ln~ersim OJ '~il'l~:le-limlll:l '!:i,eIPab:;:o~tion ~hrle1l h®~d siO~ar ''! II,Hl~lIlil'l('®r1'1lersioli1l!>ystern" (A) Iinterrnedl~at>e-b,aln.d :s;otarr ~el~ {B} 'q Ui! n~lIlm1-~wU SlOti1lr (jllll!. IAdlapU!d hID m (2l~ w"fM"sdenoemBg.,org

fmd. CJ1Ul~ carrierccllect toiL I ~:~g~l :ISIJo!:Cir<llio n<ll1om(~. for e:ll<lmpll:e, call pl.'OVldl;: a 10l1g dhm:ns'i:0I1 for J i~IH ,;(aso!p'i'ml whtlc :1,'cqL!~rirlg only th,~~c<u!'i~!15imovc wd ~ ..I~y. ,dong IllL ..~ !'ihon dil1llclIsi~m of I.hc .,1,1110n~d. I{~ st:r~U[llt(,;d by ~ht; 11II~'[.. 1hi.; '1.1.1 rgicfll~ j UIl1C,tI.OI] <lind c(~I~~~,.;d II ~ doctrJcity IF''~ J) (2, 7~ i\ 0011'" CCpL~.any :;ilin ~:kl.l"lppro;~ch in1volYc~ i I:hc H:>C' (I f hll.crpcll,elrmilflg I1C~wurk.:. ur inmg3ilic ~l.bs.orbcrs, s~leh. ,IS edTe . 'll\:itrapoos" ~0: ~ :'fJn-lciio:r organic 1)o~YI'l1.cric'absorh::r;,;. q Qil. ~llCh. as (he orsani,c OOl1:d~I!C~iltgpo]yuncr,

SCW~I~[C~ VOL 3150 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
dyc~" bclc~r ,elcCllu~!!ll'C5,~LI1d 'bcitcr COHI.rol over. the OOoo!l"~l~unj}l~oflilllhc ~nl.Crrilci8 ~ OOl1tflCI illlCii Ih_<lI,clllmnt~)' IimitslllIc voltage ()rodu~ by seeh SYSttll1S 10 about 5{llm <)0%, or ~I.<;; iiJ1CO-

l"ctiCfll va~ ue, The sta~lili!)'01· st:!!l;1ilsysl.ent<;: ",,'l,n also 1'!1,,~dte be demousuatcd under !0gx:mlion;:d l;;{lIml:ition,~ for I;x.wm_~dp eriods [>] (I Y~:!IIft:) '~o :JJ!m'" !h~.~to 1'1", imp~l;'n~!,;,"]l[~d .~fI~h,,; m1lf~\;:trkliX- Ck:ar]y, mh~1I1.c~s ill hlbiUC :;c;:imll;:c m\:
[0 I.:llfJ"bh:: ilH l;uch Jrmal~li;trllllclilll'Cd !>y:;;t(l ~!llly olfer <Q. pr.1.(:!k'IL u!~",!lo~\"-co{':1 Cip't:il]~1 lot ~dJ;JrcloC"~rici~}' IlliOdUClnOJl tn, [C'~11'

mk~'(kx!

A~lhOlUgh lIi~~n; ill 'nrtllil~~lid{)u~POk'lil~I~11 fut
!!lfO'\vt&i

ft':Kr PV in ,elcctli,cily
lilJ1 jj~\'Ci'. ~

~.t~RU~ io:n.

~OI1Lr

dttlrieity

a .11IHleii",i~d {;oi~uibi.lto:,DQ

pri~mry ,en~

~cueli.'ili:01l Wilh(}'ii~D!.JiS~..eI1~l~e v

luetlmds l"or sloril~~ !llld di)':,u'iibluin~g;mnss:ii\!c qllmH~llc)':,of c'l\!cuicily (1,. 3. 12). ~1.1JI silnply. the S~m ~OO~ Gliit !ocal~r ,every 11~~hl. and ~le ilUicrIrniucncy .~!HJilOsl.,,\dh.>' t~lC',iiH[!nm~ cycle nm:i:~ be dcah w~lh lO II~r(1!\' ,Jt I'll! ~L bi.l!'ic·~m~cl'IMclI~r~· ide ~l,~ ~n!~~y s}~H'l\;mfrom d~", ~hl!l!. 1111.'l~.. ~k of rnsH:!UCCli.vcl:lI:go-!\c,dc eleeuicnl :iloorngc ealil'n'C"i~:y n Eal1h l~r!dcrH:ej1 tlw 'C<l!! lor d~w!.:~Of~ o ~lW~~l of ~pn..c(."'!ba.."",-d ~l!lIr :poWClf :S~'~II\,'H~~ On IE<lrti~. the dK"'!~lei\lll~~!hod IOf !l1a,S.:, ,~,dC(:lficsi\~ ily M(lir.lg'iJ is purulllX\tl,~\!;lIL" s~nrm.g,l.::'. \'1ihiC:~! can 'be .1Il~lm:~vcly i,.;nt. bu[ even that r~s eff!\: docs not !K'Il~1O!w(:1i jif I:ve~! ro;Cii'\'onr \\.'ouki have to be 1II111ed caeh m,y and ('!mp~ied each Iliglu~ adj· i.Jip dnljollll~ly,. a SIi."I2gcril1J,gmnQum. ofwater would be needed 10 coullpcnSiMlC lill: Ihe dI~UL'llill, ycle ~r c one WCf)C!O 1:1J,\ovidc' m:lIcr:~JlI oonlribl1tion ~o a !Ite 1~lirn<lry U,S, 'rJiJ' gklh,1I ,cnc~y gC'~.lcm;~L{Jn thl'()Ug;h I hi s npllr03ch, Billu.er.~~a1!'Ca mlil~ 31)rnJ 1JWO·1lCh to clcclil.'ic:lty ::l1to:rogc. but rowbtuJttcl}'

,albOOfpliolm (dlo\\I1l11hl:llern !lith th,~ reds) and 100r th:e'~d~). lAd.1!pU:dlfIFOml'2)]

Fiig. ], An ~f$ or 00 III~nQ!!!~.~~lUis~r.alil1\B ~ iii .aJp,prQ""h to Of th ogoJil,ilitirMt:iO 11 !;Ilf the ,dhe(t~(lrn· of Ug'ht charge carrie r m ~~(tiOIii {rild'iilll~y oUiI.~\I\1I'rd fhe Sill dace till

or

S:YSI(:m~ [hat. by d~ri'l:liliml. have
I~rgc~licn.'a~
lI.~uKl lIl~rOI}I1o

3.

in '~:Ilc.ilr luncr[ilci.2lJ eomaet :jn·ef~ rc.l'alive to rheir projected geometric a rem, for li~ht

ltlO;l! pa FtJC es ~ 1100-300 A)
~r'bM:II d)IQ molecule's,

rn,$m;pl ion, MIci~IO(ls ror oonlmU in!:! 1iIlC' chenieel PllOilCllk"5 of~hc surr.1c~mld june lions, of such sys· IlCms, and lhcrcbyrodm;:h~g their 1l<1[lU::il] tendency to p:romote' deleterious charge: carrier rocol1lbin~· lion. OlJro tl11..,!,icfnrc eriucel, S:l~'Ch
b(:l!::n

storu~c LQ be CO$~--cffcctivc ;;;)!11orlizcd li:rchlnc of <I PV
GlU'<lnl~ljl..'$ nn""t~!"'ii~ w(Juld

OVCJ'lhc
sys~c~:Il,

3'O-yca_r
Cm!'l!1IDUJlS

md'lod:.;;h'I\''I;'

dL;'w;,lr1pCdW£lr

hm'C'

to

LX' hm~hidi

'm~r'~!'ft
COW1~r e~l'Od'e ['rOO)

oL;'ltai!]\v,dl.d~:I~II]cd S~1'IiI iccmOue· lor su.l1f'lcr::.;; (! 0) airnd \\,i ll l'1CiKli 10

up 10 Ih() ~ti(n. ~:I1d Uu;:;y wO'u~o 1ll<l\<C t{l'C:o~l.:I\l liuk as kfttl'illIC.id ~nll.Crk;:;; w!tillc proY.irlinlg I.lie

be: dccvclopo(], and implemcnted ~Il!IC· ('CssJli:Utt for ~hc: higl] junetion area s.ysl<:ms to ()bl!li~1 'high P5'Yfl) ell,

erg)' conversion efficiencies ~MlMatilOl@d :!lelair [t\l~. fIll ~mkhroilIl li11!rnO~lImnlllil~e' lilIel\VOf"p:mvides (ollediM of (h.arge carrri8:sin~etle:d lmlto it as, ,Qj f!BliIlJ: of a:bS(l~do'n ,"f $lInljgllt byline adsoMDoo dye imlolecllir~. The (lppos'V~~y cQ)ar!I;ed ~ rlle-,r i1a!!J';I"e5 throug,h ~~!l:~ntacain9 ~iq,u1d . Or ~Jlyim!eri!!: p:n~e to .iI1 ~ 'C!@i,.II1t.eretea~de, oom.p~~:ing th~ ~~~tfi~l ,drw!t ]til!!h~wlaJ~ll. [Adajjoo fnD!lIii (2Yll
Fiig.~.
~1rl:]y{phl;n~y](mc\.'illlykll:I,;C)_

rrom

:i1udadevices,

Su,ci!

!':y~l\;'l1I~'U·~ Ii.IIU~

dc:r .,,~' id.(';S,pn:;;LJ il:l\'es~ ig;uitll] Oil prr::;A,.'iIl[, ,and Lh" key i.:; not oilly I!I.:J oomil~. :ill]lilllil::tl(~ COllmc[ belWC1I!nll:!c Ii~lnl.~ ~orbi Ill:; ;.lIlldC:h4'lJ,gc-co:l ~OCi in,g, p~1m,~., btufilh,(} to OOflll\)1 du;: chcmisi{'l' ~I.~Ihe
inLiCrJacc be~wccn th.;;:two 1)11'I]:iic.~~hm mfilkc up ~1,1e evkc. JI.u]clion rccQl~lbifimio" is <I dl;],\:'tcd r.i.()us lo;'i!; p~~ilw,i~-~:y in mm'",,}'p~ml.nr solar ";~\('~I

Aool1o(;p~lIally [,,;liu~di !Oysce~nuS ihe dyC'S<:lIlS~li selar cell, ill zed whtidl ,t! mndom, d isordered m;~" work of h'l(!XIK:m.ivc Jjq)2 panlcles is (!scdwco:l~cC'l thcch,ugc eerricrs, l!!'cl ig~1t abllg~jpt km is iPCl'rOrmr..ll hj',~~! Old~on)C'cl dyc molC".·l;:lll~.,~, 'Iud the iul,1,.'"I-nt(:i~~1mJ:UI~~ c diiSil.Ul~C it> kcpt Mlliiln by Ui:'iC of ,I liqll!lid 01:· 't'tJ'ra.\!I!IClLu'VC PQ~ynl!;.T to ~)(~ll.eH"Um·he pore str1lle'~UJC 0.( Ill\!' 50]lid ~lIld t col ~~.Ihe other chan-gc carrier type to connplel,c the curctdil ill Ihc oc:,111 {rig. 4,) Smalll ··C1.I:.UIlIP~(l\If' dYC-~ll~'Il:;i~;z~'!d. olar cd Is. Inr'llC s shu'>\"D! d1ici~~Il.t:ie:- ~H> high al;' 10 11tl' Il ~iD..

cycle .ilifc of~ilh:i.L1m:·iOJ1bfUHIC:r1e£_ I!lI]ov.1J.ti,vc ap· proaches io Il1fl&"ivc..llrrw·co,l'! cll.crgy stOl'M.!!;Cill.cl.ln(ling potI!UDI.if~n)i fL slIJ){!;r.oon.dlfcling global Irnl1£~nissio.ll grid. :mperoarpm.citors.r:liy\\'hccls. dC,. asrmmrmtcd by. Sma~Icy (11) will he impo:r1aJll

cm~i)Jj(,'fSor a

fUIH sobr

capture, cOl:lvcr-

sion. JlLUdslO-J'<lIgcenergy s,y.>~cm,

~riD~lSlbe: ~JroS'~ ~aq:act~vcme~hod for (;08'tCrTC\:livc' massive encrgy :i!,IOrn,g,cis in the Ibrm ofch!C'lnka~ bon~c~ !tr.c_ c'h<:micOlI :i1llcl~/I,ftcg'OlU. Ihu:5 ;lJPPlirnl1;;h if; central ro ~d~o~~y~nhcsi~n:nd,is mh~ iJ.;1"is. tor !lll1ch 'Of !llC recent ,[l~H:ulion {,k.WO~l,;l~ ¢&;\'dt;.1fUll~llt (llf h~f.lr~ld~. to Phnwl\)'ltmh{;.,'\i~, .limvl'cvi;:r, qlLenl~Ylhc:
;t;<lL~lrlJlII.'SaI

abnut
CillC-:gy

mu,,"'["_"llt~! of

~hl1: i['Jl.orL~i'tyuf l"OCl.mlnal £lIlnlii!:'i~'iI, and conseycmrly il.vCfflg.~d t;.to~mge cr:.

{In.

1.l:IJhclLIghalp'n!.s!.!rrli Jiarg.,;:..area dc·vi:Ce~typieaJlly

cd~ de:dc<:s, an.d su(;h jtul1cliolluccmnilit;1[11 ion gcncrnUybe:cQmcs dominant in diw~rcIer~

have cfl:lcicl~dc:o
efficiency

or <SI!4. Improvcments,

i:tl

the

orsuch sYS.i[CHlIsw.illllrt:qllirc

impJ:oVl::d

ulckl1,cy of.c!"on the tl."asLt'S~'gl'O"win£ ~Ilnll$ iiS I:e..;;s nlmn Iii • and I C'tr1 IIty Icsslhaa-n 10.':;' to 0.5% (1). yw,l ~1S aO:lUpil~-,d [0 i.he > IS'Yo dlicic.i:lcy vn~lU";''' d~i;ipl\a.y~di·by curreu'! .PV d{':\'~Cl~ 11). H~DiCC',!() ~11'S!i offler, l['IJ:ld"rckll,too COl1i: .. H:<l~ dD:~n nnmtc Ihe Ills 1.111 i~ mate: commcrc~alpol!CI1,I.ifll of bionlcls as

SPEC,IIALSECTION
~)hm,o;:.;ySlcfn U p'rodllllChl1lj 0;2 fmrn, rn 12.0~1] an encQ."Y..r;Ir.c~m ~a~hkm.~:Io¥fcv,.:r, It1.) hu~mm· made cilI,mlysl, $)'SIIC.~lS, either molecular or heterogeneous, have yet !:Ic\:H ~d;cn(m~ thai ,~GIM'eDlcrgy wJn',elr:>h;m and S"lornge systems, show po:;~fmllmncc even close IIOll1:m ,nof the O~~e "f'lP'J;{I;];c'hto ::;1\l\rln,gCI!;\:ld~'[~cDlefgy in dlCm~c;!1 bonds is thW11gh 'el~~fO~ys:i~. in whiC"h n;:n~g<ll!cl~'1ITImu!c "',ystC'UIlS, Dcvd\.lP1I~cnt or such \"",~("'Ti:!l !i.1l!!~in~ ! [~ <In!;! O;! i~~ C!Q;;IH~~y:t'l~T,. C"'<i!!}'\S~\"'(IlI!eI p.K"'i~,e ,IIke..y ~Iwhl~!l:g~~chm.l!· an HO'\'lJv(,'r, ])I·b..~c;:d 1;l~",~lr(l!!.ysi:S~I] ".I;i~ic or gy for <II HI I! :;;(l!ml G!:U;:[~,}'~ml\ ~iQl~ ,Limo, ~"IQI'· !1~lIlml !!:lcdia is ~;o;p04'JI:;.iv.;and uUlliIkL~ly~p iJ,0 llg~ sy~~~n~. \1\l:~I('ll:h,;r iII:lC (ue!!:· ion n ing :;'y5k'D~:I ~s St.·p.lM:':il'U(~, scalable iot~lC h::vd:. i:hM WQ~.dd be r~lli[\(~ forth i~,r r"Oc,~";S", 10 b~ ~11;1~~rUOlI in g!oLl.d .. til iu ,I PV""CI.i;;C1rob'5.~ combi ~mli[}.n, or inlc' prj,IlfI<1I}' CI]~!1lY pmduotiOli _ N i-b ..~!.'dch;"l:~I(1~~ £Jr<.l't1;,"d. ~I~ i1m ~I fu II)' ~~liI.iici:lll~holo!'iy,nl~i~1 :;;p. f ic y~i~ ill b1",~ic:atIU~ou~ );o~lIlillii." is d'iCiilpcl' bu~ [CliIlI l1ii~l Uti~"~ the in1ci[pit~ru Ch11~~"P~t".JI~d

uinarerial t"'(j:fllril:m~oj':;: 1:0 rll1in~my C~lCI1:lY Sl~Jply. wnSI ruiims dora imnc the u II imare ,oinlnlCJ1;i~.1 potclllia~ {If [,!V~d:c:lh>Cd
:w hcress eosr-relarcd

crm

will be roqunrod if~hl': 11j:UI[IDreillilall oj]" solar enisto be fCalized,.
l

[F!efe~eil'!!Ct5a:!ild N~tes ~- World ~~ef9rA.m'~.r;j~ ~~

20Q4 ~¢t)te; ]. Goldoem'lmg, T. S, ilJl!!an5:liD~, IS!il~" l!Illitedll\laliOO!i ~

(I

Z,0(4), (1oWi'W.'Ul:!dlil', Of'!J!'M~~~~Milmi'.21J~o1i.Mii'i}. 2. 1!1.:l~~ Rfse(Jfm fer .$oJ'tlf 6i'l!l'JgY MiIi.!'l11irm

lle'o'et~pme~.: lP'lfQ~~I1:Irn.og', ~~ 'fOil.

3. o!l.

5.

requires

llmii'il,)inig

Ihe ~1l1)UI. ~I.~u'ml ,0.remeve ~ 1

IJle("O~ (IJ)~ addi~ioilaJ~y. even [~,;: lbet>~. fuel eells are {mlly 50 1.0{-.{I% ene rgy.cl}ici.e~n Ilitdlhc ~i","St CIC'Clro~~!,s,h; nits lillie 5U 1,0 7if~ cnerg,J'~ u cll:oc.iicm (/.~). ~o d'tC: fil ~~,-c)loClc' Cl1cfS,Y )'!'tm~ \'v~lolc :<)'slCln renmin I~~Csame in cidl,er C~: di:';Ch::u;c C!:ffu.i.C~lC>' 01" s:m:'11 " ~y.'iltl.'ln is C\II'remly {lin~y.2 5 to 3r~. C!cm1y, better c.a:!:.ii!lys~:-:. CO~!~nl.'Clivc and e mcicm C'I~;)!mlC'. eouversicu, am] ~Wt1Ugc of!'un!ighl. Each or!he~ flluc!i(')·m; lb. the 1ll11l1Iic!~Clf(m't!<m,"!Ofl!ilillt rom: i~wo~ '\I~d in
I'i.tf,;! fu!1'aw~i(u~
("x.iS'l~lCC 11100
il)!dl'O'gC!1<lSC

c:I.~tIf!::IIt..:u)l~pt!:~r.; di 1\,'CI~r'l':!rtil!:JWlOC' .l lO fllcJl~\','iilli no wires find ""Inh (iJlI::\!water ,ui~,cl S\iD~ligln as the inpul::>. is an illh:!l:CSl.il'lg ~)oilin ordiscuss;irm from, boa h cost ami Cll,~~ltccrii'li£ pcuspec~ i\ es, I k,\\ ever. thc~c,~! com1lOllCIl.ISulcedcd to enable the

t.
B,

fl.

(US, ~rifl!1eni a,f Enef9j',W.a~!!.i~gl.on,·OC. j!OOS~ (i,wM.oJ!flrilol!.,galt¥~porutil~IlMl~,h'JI'IbiS.[tI). M. II. iMleft f! al.. S"mm:-e .l9a:. 9a;~ 120(0) • M" ~ GreEl\ 11lii-JGfne"loH~ ~~~lqi{~ /JJva{r(ed 'SiDJar f-n~ C~M'M {Sllliin~~Ii-Vi'!IlI.a~ Bl!flifiJ.. 004t 2 I!. '~. '5i:Iri,a~lflr, Ml. A. Petrui~V. 'I. l~imQ'i', AppJ" t!IIY!i., t£f.[; 16'1,.2~nl!ll {:W05~, MI. PI. Gr~n. P«tg. ,~QtornIt, ~. {2a~JilI, 8.,Ij'J. Ka:re5, H. A" ,!I;maler D~ ~. s, lewh. .J'" AppI,f!1\JS, ?7,. U42Jo.il (lO050)\ il,:I, .MlUiMlI'I, I. (,rur. ,II.. 1'•. Ali"n~o!~o!:, .!ii.tl$ BtilJ ~o.,<111

.mea,;

'13"

n~l;"dl;'d. N,I~lI11L,,': ~~'ro\'id(;"iiil(! l $U'C"h ,cmm~.>':::ts, ith w nh.c ,~~~:;.:ymc!' (I1)()U'.ning m Ihe' thermo;11'1;

r

h u~ iIs 0\\,!1 dl"IU('!'Ig()~.:!.lInd!illh',;"]grrl!irm

ror

inllO ,I 1"1.111)' 1i~ru::IOCJnins. ~i v~e~~tic. globail),' sc.tla ble $y"h,"~ll wi I'!.:~'I.,"ql!lire~~'r!lhcr dv.ulCi.111. both n in
b<l1'ic ~C'il".'.rK"C<!ndl".'~!g~r!cainI!:. S\L'Ch ndV"•mces, hig,l,.'~h~\r \\r~~l Old·..O)ncc:;; ~u I,)Xi~~II~ lc-ehno!o!lli('~

,or ~l(;I~

dYI1 .. rJ1ic

!l0~011i.] .
wvrh tl1~

(Of

prodl!!.:'~io,n of lb

rrol~l

])0, ~, S. LM~ 'nl'Jrg. aMI.. ~, 06900 (2005), ll. M. Gri!'Ilet ~1(J.~ '4'1~,3JlI {;WO,]}, l:!l. It 51fn~H~~, ~U M\lW, l!Il!!$, S"~ ;JQ) 4 ~~ ,~()Q!IJ, U. ]. t\!Y., .Sli.mml'Jr)',of f1tl~il' t/~l!r:r PtM.rKiftM fjUalico;Jl RMfW<iblI! EIlerg)' 1.a~(millQ(", Gc:ildm co, 200liH ~~,~jel-9!)\\!'1;!l;Jcs/l!)Q~C1>!.i!l6l!'~~"wdl}. 1.<1. ~pponil'!iI ~~ '1m!!u.s, Dtp1ll1tllll!nl. C!I EnffID'ood ~SF"

(2005~, 9. G. ~ ii:t

ul.,

xUl'l',e

01;7(1, 1,')'9,9 (19'j1!s!~.

l~lO.

~Ll!lcl

OJo:.yg(~ll~~!W}.~villg

ctlXnp1ux

or

PE RS FIEeTIV!: S

Chs,llll,sn'ges in IEnllginl'e'ering IMlicr'Dllbe!s for BI,oiflu,e!l,s,P'r'oducti,onl
elnviJl(Dn i'I1i~ntall ((lncems, gln.~ supp lvil'll~'taIbm ly) been pmlililpt~ln91 PQtkY'iiIilake~5to putadded empl1a$i~ (11'1, rren!l'!~~Clbleen,e~!!JI)!' ~OllroeS. IForrne 5!ci,e;ntij'fk I!:o:mrrllluinlity, ae(!eilltadlJCI nee!>" ,emb,o~~ed inl fle:ill llnlSig hts,ii1l~o bas.k bioh)gy a nd tI&~ilIolllgi!f that CilIlii be a ~pli ed to ilIl eUib olil!: ,engiilil'e€'rirn9~i!lre ~elilelri!ltil'lgl ,(lonlsiderable' e))citemenlt.ihe re i~ ju!)tified ,optiml~,n1Ithat tlhe riul.~. !lnlelllUilil ,of bi:oI,Ulel pmdlmionfrorll m,ll~ukIS~[bio,rna!Mi,i'fiU be \
~<lI!OIIe

mreillll.cd 1.0 loosen jj p doc: Iigill~I1:~renu!o®c filler: cnl3illg,l,cUJlc:m in a s~eplJlrui em:! take limn a lew ~uimu;cs to mllliy hours, Several methods 11>9,!;,c been l!JIs-cd ror Ihi,s ~J~.H'P0se.such as,biollmruss

lremlil~rn

\'\!i~l

salurmcd stc<lnl

m;~ 2000'(',

C:llP~o--

sion w~lh ammonia, ,md cookil,g wiHl \lit"II1Jl dilute acid (6). l)J.~tll:e acid 1"!'I'ctreJlmCiltS, are [as I 'trnUtltlllCsl, whereas stC'am.-b~cd u..;:'all1llcnts C~UlI ~111;)e up to J d<li)'" After pl'C~i~C';jl[lrnC'llt,.thcolid s S~il}l"lll'~'M! is C'"'<.~1!{Y8'cCl. ~ocdl.u]o!)I~ic C!!!l.ymc..;;
Ilmi.ditlll(.'$l nhe cc~ I!,IIi!.'):;;~c,mel hem uod ~llk!i.5LCbioII1l1m~"counpi'm(;nt~.i[l re]b~i;(; I~whydl."l'll~:f.'i~pml

[(I)f1:(1mk Qifldl ge,op~1it~(~l.fg(OO rs (~igh oil prirre~,

,obt1l1nable

nn the
((I

Ineoct to to

t5 ~t!'lIr).

six- <lIE! fI \'c-c;,.r1iJ,t"Jl] filU!:!,.{lr..;, n:::sriceehd)' (f1long with aeetie acid find Hgn~ll" dedvl'ld ~)heno!ic by.;producls). T.~~c type of
dllCl[l;,prin~;,tr~~y
j)nOlir,CaU1l.cn.t dcfl ~H!." tiD.c Oplll111ml C'J1ZYliltC III b.. • Il!Il'C1.0be lIscd al1.dI~lc ()OmpGsil ion of Ihc h)'~ dro!YS1S p:r'Oci\lCt)1" 'fhellancr [II\!' i'cnlille.nloCd by cth;:i_nO!J"I~rodllldn.s micrnorga.n isms :5uc:h as ge-I~CIic3Jlly cl'IIgil1ecrcd YCf!aIS. Z) mW,WI'lO,'f{ Il:wf-A~ii!!; I(FJ_g" 2)" 15:dterh'MamU. O:r' Piellia stipUi~~ .. (fig. .3), Pr,c~nlly. (;cllll~SC '1IIydm:lysis and ICl"ImlClllk"lIkln alt: comhiulcd in. 11 ~inglc l~ni~.lcm~cCl dlC :-;i ~!lU1!<!m,lrIufo. .~.. ~chm'irit"llion fr;:I."Bl!Cl1 wdon

r oOllver! i~8, b~mllas:i>-trIcrivcd u;a~l::;po:rlmio.Dlb~orl!J.CI;~WJlS filM IlmlJoOscrl illlnhc tiiJ10s., Once ~19t1in.lhc idea, is ~ing ~e.riolJsly (X)mel1lll)~;u,-"'1i f!5 EI 'p;QS".
he [de..
{I

T

sugars

.~ub~ulllbstil~!teR:tJ're~rolcmll-l'la se~llkl'lidfl.lcls, Gcm~omi:c and gcopa:~!tical jllJctor.; lhigh oil Iilrl.~,!o,)m,'il!nmnCIJI'11 co:~n;em....m~d (iil!llpl:y i:n)1n,,1.bii~:y~'h'_lw '~I1;;!!.~!ill)' 1~10lI}"1;'{1 ,I!'Q Ie i:n rt,.... l
"iving ~1l~,,'n.'l\,I. i'l"lI.\~Il~\'\I'lbk; ~';S\l~I,~_ ~
.1111 I~OWO::;:','CT.

I (I to 15 ycm:s. NC!o,\' apl)J.'IO;ldDCS to iJ:i;ohlgy arc: ladng silla:l~ by the gcll'omic~ 1'e''>'oh.lllioJl: unp:rccedcmed obl~hy to uam,fer gelles, mootlllm~ :gene ,expression. [[rid e~1!iIl~CI"pmloCins; fflld 3, UCW Il~ill'cl-SCI. :1.011"il'1tl;dying : hiologiiC;;l1 syslCllH In a hO~lS.(i:C n1l1mlCr 1")i:5~C~.l~ b"J()~ogy (I) I. '~Ve al'C' <!l~o ...ccing adv,mccs. in, m~IOJ!oolic C1!'lgirJ!~~!1g
(2 4),\'1 il b UI1.1'g(H~1

coma)o~U1d\-;

ny

'of OVC1!]~f(nd,wlci~!g uscfl.ul nl~ ICli!I,d Iy ,Ind, (;."ollll~iII'I~or~ll}'
UI.ld.d)ClJ.lic P'I~~IW'I)'~

.uk! ilicuml, illflpo..~l.u~ :i ~~IQ'IY [JIl.l'vide<:! hy :>dC'n~iiiC' <lmd K:-chno IO!5!ial I il{h~llo~,> illl h~o;:;,cicnc(:S fmd biOOl:gifK';:[ing th[l[ SllpflOl1. iIlcrca,'l100 Qlptil'l'il iSl'n alrolJU real nzilnglhc I~ III pOj,Cnl ial or biom~'Ss nm tile liquid fLJcls i1~ ",'i~;hin Ihc llCX~
Depai!llffitifflt o~ (l'iei'i'ij~l Efig1i'1!i'ilfiruJ,~~saCl'imet~~ ~'!!i' ~ituU!' of T~(ljmDl@~, CAlIlbridg~< I'!M 012139, U5.i\. E-nil: greg5'~'@lDit,ed",

I;ngiIlL"Crin,g (;clls ,mdmhtir

frul1~. thc:;~ iic:ld~ wi:!11 ~a.tl':i1 pl'atl:onn o:r~CCliJlOlo· a g it'S th,,'ll ~ (fiti C.1IJ fo.r CI'V'C'.iiC"Oll1I il1;fl remrunj I1g o~:ii!."cl,e..,:in cost-clilich:nl, bioJm-:I produclion
(5). [".ol1~hinl~tiontlre(JiUlC(.l:i'I:;;.~nld: ItICj,hocli;

(SSF) Sla!li~. ThcmL~fmnle of !I;(m]biuin,g !iiH'I;~ I:;'h,lI"ific,il il)n {lh..;; bre~.k illg 'Up Qf I;.."(Hil~1!.I(;'x. c;uixlilydi.·rrt",>;:o; i:l1nQ IlI1mt~,;aceharid(;,,~, OIn.d i!hum:'1]lflIuOn {dK.' (~oliln::u:sir:m or ,) cmbohydn1Lh':: 't~) (,fLrllOfl dio;o,:ldc and aloQl1ol} hl 3, ~:illl,glc'lIllil,Wfl,';

·Dylhe

fro~-Ilcclhll~O&[C' bioumiS.S, Fi~ure 1 shows i.h~ bm;ie

iCollJil::cS

bimnfl.'i... ·IfI-blofwds {B::!(3) pl"floCess ,61. Alicr han~cs!, bimml.'>s, is lCduc.cd in size and d~Y1

.or

3.

imhlllitiol:l of the hydl'\1llyl.ic cll_Z)lmcs products (7). 111~ SS£!' S1Cp 1)'1)i(",rn.~lyI~st~ 3~tI 6 tlrn.y:i,w.uth ,(.'Cllulo5o;; 11yJmly:.;i:;; being i.h(!siow. ,llimrii.~ulg sicp..lhc:pooducl ofSSf is (I. rndtc. di lL.lic,clh<ll1.o.1SlilCJin of4i{)o 4,5% lrom \vhkh Clthano~. ~!S separated by disl:i:1Ilatio:Fl,
10 p~¥CIl1

ro.9.(;lioiil

w"fM"sdenoCemBg.,org

SCW~I~IC~ VOL 315> 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
13iomfli.~:S
iIUI)ro, pl~IIi\.""Lliincnl.

and

hy-

drol)tsis, a.c areas in ~lC'Cdof dmsti,c

ernent,

Despite

Sl.1bSlillUl~i3~

rcdlllC:~en ~ l nthecost (I he HLLllolytl.c ~11~J1nes {~}. Sl!gOlr release ft"()lll

SSF:ste;p

~!inlil;~~~~tI15 ~,,,,pcn~~vc an il~~p. 'Nrh!1lj]S: thc~n[l~I C"ri~i~,,1 i!~ oVQf1I~~. IJm~:;~, In)lh~
biQ:IIl!l!lJ!.~,

and

ifi]fJ\.\

If

Sim~UaflieQ.U~ Sa~Mriffmlioiill
IF'ermeiiill>atfolili

and d~v~lopnm~~m i]~ all llrea" ~ r ~"llZ)' e ProdW;ii(}n, m fCd~!t;\1'd Ih~ ~oM orC'C.n~IIO:lytil; en'0'~n'l..~ hy ;,l fl;u,;lOr or :I I) ~o 30, dnw~

'h;:nlt>i\'~ research

~v20

to

30

C~b1l:... p,L:."i1g.1!loll

m,(llrrod~i:Ccd (.'!', 9). A ~~~'Kil.~!jh~hi~ il> eCfnail1~ >' iII~ iinpoi1flii.l fid;Viiifiec. i~ b o:;:tim:,\l,l~ tl~il~ ~le CIlZY.ntCOOSl win ~l:l!i,'VC be ,limJ'I!!..'r'rodttcccl!o a ~C\!!!~ to C\1n~rflrnbh: 10 that of currenl <11)rro:u:hci> thOlt rmooucc cllKmol lronl fh~ star-ch ill 00l'1J1 kCI1lC'I~, m <I COSI (!If 3J ·to C't.;'nttlper gail'ol1 of oUmnol. E.xpr-,e;s... iou (cli~ul~'l{ ~!1 :ll'fT~1(;,!llun!;l Irn~ilnil"illl"''''' or !r.JI1-"fcr of .he bio.~Llel~,~YI1[11~$izi~~g pmln.\iOl)1 if~~('1 ,11 cc:Ul~I~'"Wlrocluc ~Ilg, uy.mi<;;m a!'C' b~~~ng o pur.;.m.'.d in a ~~m~t~ ll.imlOd l.h()co~~i'lolid;:'LK'db.inpf-on~ ,tCBP), (.1m. CB~r, h[]<\,~'C'v{'t. i~1):r.l.·l\("~"l~Y hmlil~!l(.\d! by nhc: 1't~!I!i.\'", in,lhi]'ury o:~y~rR&t t\) rI'(XIl~'" ro~..al1iilbin:,lln cellulase... m. high rM($ thttmgh ~ tl~cir cmlopills:mic rcl.tcul'Um aut!secrcl.my palln~ Wli~ s, and Il~c relanve {widl fl'gfrrd 1:0 E. l:ail and )''-'3:;;0 :I~ntl deve~o~nenn of l.nol(.'Cu~Z1r bi~ Olog.i.Cil~ mc~hod., lQ rn.rulipl.Ilall'C o'J'gmris;ul~(sm:'h a ~ Trochodcrnlm) ~hal rocro[e cellulases llalllmUy,

or t:1Il~.-

l{l~ll:

lIOO3:11Iil, liP>

~ffldl!Jct: IBwr~

~~ninfoell!.!l06e
Hnsrllli{!~emellt

4~4..s%,eiham~ [notwl!l'le<)

'* or

CXlmC'~) do not
CO!miliOJ15

!Jslmlh' 1I'I..~nSk!l~ ~,vci~HI! indLISI ri~.1 d1<ll W!.~ ~Y!ldltl~C media, Norrl)'JIi!yl~\;)n ie, 'p!tys.ic'O(I1.C'n'li¢~~1 h)rdlfo.Dtuic;

The nt!:l~h.m gl ucose M!PrI~SS~." resllimijon iv~ SuCC.wfl'tj1.11~n:-r'S ,(\i?'rr.'~ ·i.;ia!l!urlluccslhc ~unOlunor m.dcnOStllC tlri,ph(lSf)~atc a\lailalde for 1\1101.Ctl~ b,ioo.yJ~[llCS:is, whkh m~' ZLL~ render ildirJ'icu I~ IbrC'lu·YHW ,]~)dl!!cflnn in }.'C'l.!8~ to be OOITIJ](.'1iliv>C'
\.. r~lh ~.r'lzyl~~c:r,00i;11Ii;.'~ ocm by <ICITI}fuijc fungi such m~ p T[iehodcml~1or A:\~~illllll~_Whi;:n 1J''C'.I:ili:d;:d CBP \\'.iIJllll~lfIIj())' I.ik~OCJ1C:fil ofC(JI'lilpkrdy d~ul~n:uln.!!l

cau;:c i~ ,~jX~ls the: !l!o\VIJ.~R'·<l'unPllI:i licmi()H coo.t l:l\noo(;"~!~C~l dc'l!m:s uhc .~i~cofdw,1'lbo~~r]nt of rlwn-l.Q~1l' !)~lL'C~ t~ter h~, (;lKJn!in'J~l;ld '~IT]If.If'l'<lch~:;; R{)m Im;)!ciu 'C'llginl,;'{,~riug. ~I'~c cn~i!',;:: ~)l~r!.g ~~,I~~"d V<il6'{~~I!\, by :Q1.c!cffi.~~a~1ud d~ It~I:,,'!.1 illg I.iU!fl.g<I~ o\'~n;xpJ\.'::>....,j,~Joll, ,md fuii~lil~:;' 'l,.\l1!i\U!'II;·1;:~.·~ in~ l{~ t2i.k!c adV,lllt,~ ~)rJl:'[llli!1n~.lic:;; ,-;e.lk iUI mlw4,ull. or' MiIN"lliC :.nlid'i It'd w tllac fCml1.~1l1ur, l o.~ d'~ pJ:l;;l;Cll(i~ of~lthibirl'Qry WIl1ipL~WfDld... by~:s C'H"yll~e IPrOOuC'uioll. .~n Cu,~tir.lC(':ring better .nlicrMrgarli:.n:l~ lOt prodll~el!lor biO:lll:l.'>l>hycirol,ysis tr-lLleh fI.'lIlUl1iLlia>, bior~,.:I::; p'rodillCticm. oombirlat.ori:llI scarc!tc!I. lor Fwfot'il'ls, rUr.JIJlldcrilvatt~ aJld ~)b,",,1i01lC:i.l.and. of pmmisul1lg, largel, ge~C'$ and ('Ililcr :l'ab--.SC<l.~.1\:- c;ourne. !hctmdcllY 0 finall product i~U:. I r. as p.c"ti:nn::llb shoilnld 'be: OOlldiLidcc:! w.iih syuDi.heiic s.t'L'iJI1:>likdy •.WI(;: mil. ilim~~~,,; ihc Sitllids lootlill'!:J into thl~ SSP ililllii, lil)[lll \W,;; may IJe nNe ro i]'K'I\.'1l\i.C nncd in, In icrr.l'I$ o:~·:ideni Hied til1'gd. g>enlcs or rell SlIbln,\'IIltimDy Ihe 11uIilll c'i.h:mol roi:ICenl~.tiQrlS. Tillis P;~~~llOt)'pe..,. rcsljlG.~oiblnined Wit~1 tlilC m.ore con~ nmes lile ,-'IIlgJilllecnllg oJ ~tlml'liO~-iok'IUn~~railflS. \.'~'llieul complex mO:!k~ {:Luria. brnt!~ or }'c..~!

11~c coss l. of PllJrifyhig OC'1I'll~fi";C ~illd or higher <llCtivi~)lor the eell-essoelaied «HLi IB1sc Ci1ZYil'i'C', To aQOOi1~I)I&h this gililL '~he hydrolysis ilnd fers ~Ilclltm iO<.11steps will have to beoooi'dina~oo well inside .f!I sill1,gic cell. such tl~<l1 ncil.hcr one limi[:5~hC' nverall cenverslon processio IlIDceed ,m III &"> lmum Gflp<<lLC hy. .f\:I;dlOU@h aualnable ever a h,)llger'!im~ scale, III lhe nearterm B2B wi~l bem::lit fronl Ihe <IV:!ilab:i.~ oriargc it)' 4lLn:I{mniSof inc.",pc~\.~ive <l.IHl more Olct~\'c «,1h!la:5e.~.This OfliX!I'I.Ll!l~IY slrol!k~ ~ P1U:l'iU~. b.y

m~lhod~ >(!i![gch ns higtiH~~llp~r<!!~~Lre' p'1l:!'lre<llmems mld '1·!ol....c~d~l),'d:r,oI)'~i~) much r,!!'<;Icr uu'c' ~han cl!zY[!lml.iC"IWlIIrr;:ll[!,{:h~ .dbL.;'!l :(![ the CU.~I of [~'du~'d ~lI!~1Ir yiiJld-l d!,t(l ~o 11.Illd~!'iinalhlC' :-;.ide [,ca.cli{ll",~Jlhi~ lis :I. prol.:dem Ihal C'~I 00 >~1;Q!\"~11lially soh ed byuIOVC.~~:ion::~fl!tln.r dl~g~IS QpcU-Jting :lI. o;plnnl2lJ OOIli.m;t ~ium:;.'" a !)JS'10 mill:imIL'C' Ilhe nne s of st~al".(lcg.nldii1g sklc !:',COCIions\'".i~lOllt imprui'" i~lg biomass hydool~'£i5 in. tl~~ !1:irs!.I)irtre. 11'lC'pres~;'!JI. 2. Zymomo,'Ws mobiJis, .<II m~ffioollk,[lUy CI'lCC of IigJllinthJI, clrocli\'Cl~j aoc~mlJlmcs in the l~ilgilileerE·d bacteria il.Jls,~dl for fenl1.e'mJI1!il>Qbo~h roli(l~ frncltron asjhe crnt'l!!ih}'drnil($m~~~ydlU~Y".,rod >gkJIICIl.!lIeand x:yl.ose to >e~h,mol. fC'rredit: :ZhiUl>g • Milll.; DO ElN IRIEL] a~~'~1 illlCrJbn!!l.m.'c'I~<lI1Vc<!~:I)' ~'\.ilh ~illrn~ion and ean . [1ccyclil1ig opcmti(}l~ and c~mp~jli:'all! errOl'ts to w]lkh can oola'melhe ,iildvo/"~ CH\'.u:ullIlilCall ill o[}uimize the I)er.fomliill~ce or dle hydrolysis step, which~hc proc:css 1al!;!'s place, or!1~ tlmmt imt'l.dNtlflCCa IllmlC\l'ia~·jmndJ~ngmK1hods ,il~!dI1C\\' l!h:mliol1 devices spocifkdy il(kiressi~~g nhc pn!1."ulOc,Nm nueh 1ll0gp..,"\'iiilllsi::Jem l'!ltdc on dID; ~ront,~[h1lJl!'IlC(:;Uts(;' (If 1~lC' p~0I1ol,;p'li[):n Iln~ II 1](lcWlIi,rril.i ...... of ~ijg;111!~C<11h...;isl~llCY,.or :"'L;i!UClltc1 (:o.1tJpk:l'I:. rh:j~llm'l"'~ ..s ~~Dlmm)llll)!Gil1c'bl);.'cr,uJ~d ~ldl ['L.,l(;rilin,g :-:;dl~T1.e.~ (,whcn;!by I~Ml]illl l't~n1I}[)\i"!l1 Rip eedes t~le hydroly:\,i!S :step) IIJ1C ;;;(JriiC IloI)!>su'lJa lilks be ~liC)(lu~flk"IJ:1y II :oin!!i1C'gene, Or m !lltl>l. a. imroc!fllffl b tha~OOlilld c;xp~oil dlCli1s.t rares (]I~.·ph:r->i('OChcmDcIlI 0.1' !!l~!i~~" there is nO\"'1ftccmn!lllfiJEin~g evidence hydm~ysis whikiflllinuillizingfLavcrsc sl~ !."Cae- IIUllt no s,nllgJe :!:lcn!e eflll cm:lQif,~ 11J1~cllObcswilli. rlons .. Fhlal~y. usc of nord ~)il1CSoJ $Olvl'ms :iu.ch wic:mitCC to cllmn.o.1 find ot11o..y.toxic oQ!l'lf!Oimd~. On~lhc OOml3l)i •. wJCrTIiIiaCC is ~ nmllig;cnk~l'3 ut tim!. as, Ihose derived from tonk .ll<llIli:cl5 31'cpromisillg nll!.~~ ,C:I cIt~dby drnSlk."lU,y di n'cl:e~n~l\PptroaCl1Ql:. be o ahcm ..u.llvl:Sthai, should be further cvahmloo. SlLr.h as giolJz~ nnscri:plnou lnachiltcry !l"n~inC'Oi'iinli The cost c(Dmpe~ili"em"!'!S ,a PI·OOC'5;'j. such as Ih~1 depleicd ~11 Filg, I, depends on product This mCihod m'td hs c.....:lilSions should be i tiill::r. ytcJlcI, alia prod.~clivily .. F.iinil:1 IlrOOUCl ~~tcr sysI.cn,at[ca~ly cq)!o1lC'd 10 nlt~1tify~rnn~riptton, is .;m import.l'tll cost d\:'!crmi~aJl1I 11101. Illy bcG ~bcwr ~nlt:m~~ IJID~ can ilflCllCa.w tine wk~.'a11'Ce of

or

un

L3cc."HI1>C IJ~C CO~~ 'of ,L hj'tMl1;:I:ilR~(j~r~\'cd1\1\:1: dcpt;;:lld!> C'tilic;;~ny 011 Mw yu(ddl nr:>~!lg,lr (,;mlv~r:.ir.lIl!io l.h~ 1]11>;1] ~m>l:lll,l~~..fmL~h ~l,t[~iHLi:'m hm; lK~ti fOCllsed O~l Lh~ ~I]gin{:(=rirmg, or:;;tl1lirJ~. to l!i:SC lll,1IS~lg2I.fl>dcJ:S'oo rronn l.liiorniJ~~ hydm~y$ils. in. [

IlldlM.triid :5lmim, 1:0lhetina~ ~'l!el'lrOO_~~t. as weir! as orhcr l'!Il~cva.mt(Jxic oonlpt;~~!mis,

or ~

I"1flfILici;i~arlllc~1~lOSC
.~k~rnic..:nl,llm;{:

SUg:[IJ1'8tha.t <l,jlC prOOuCi.S

0:1'

~lydroIy:;,~s"S~~~h Sl,Igar:.; may cOlIsliili.tt': :5 1.0 30% of thl.: toir~lt:iIf:roohydn:i!l."'~ ~ hClloe, vnrbous s~'Hucgie:;J~flV\.': h~n IJised [0 M1~~nl)1ci~hcr [0 illlrfl)d!llce the CIIK~I~ollPilthw'tliy in. l~m!Jra'l.xyi<ose C'{)nsmn~l:S (12) or W ~'11!:linlccrIhc

SPEC,IIALSECTION
~uPl)licxJ
~SlLCh3»
ri'{)n~

cllriJon·rfCC

S!O~ITC\,,&

n:ueic<ilr er sOlilr'l

"11~~ could

PfLlihWi.iy. Ah.hcugh lihisilS ~~1jh.\bk: [Of mode:;.t ~l~:l;.'Cllhru IC-CHt~llIS. it has :11101Ix;cnalICl1ili)"~OO ror.

be a~coinplll:i!~'tOO 1:111' o:mvemkmai :F~:ilchC'r"Tffiill;_~llIl:rrx;~ s,

rroocss 1~1iOOnClill,i~~yI! princiis r'rill determinant Qfc<lpil<l-II;QSt for ~H~!('l'sic ~thimO! .. !h~C<l1)i1);;l!.1 !i;l~t if! ~Si~llIi!~!~~~ -:$41~ .~'II(lI1~ cnnLribl!ln:illg 10 w .25% uflh~ I,;Qhrmol mmtu.l~lCtHr:iIl,g cost >( J 7),I-~()\\'!.,."'IIIL;r, tbesc flgwl'li.:l': .11l.~ 'well ,m;,the g:11~ q~(~I(;t1 in 't~1i;f Ih~~ow i~~ ra ~t<~ph, VlII) cO'I'it'id.\."illb~y frmn~ouruc to ~o~:rocmicl ::;,[\;:11 ~o ti u~'IC' dcpelldt'ii!,

large. omcr-ot:nmglliludescale illL"i. ~IKJrCaSes, on lite gllOllllds (hm ut will eaese large pCfllillrtml iGn$ in IheIHct.--lxl!ilcs and, hence, tlle lJlhysio~ogy Qr~h~ Qrg.;'1!liS!ll. Y~'t. lilts \Ii' m I1Q~~m~n if a III C1lZYm~S in d1-C l"'l!~hw;jl.y ro.'L;:~imih'!f!)' OlI_H1j1i~Wc,lQ:. bi;l;<!tlt'le- the Q1I1fI~ s,~ldym'~ wiLh ~pl,,~~ lin ~l1!;_~~'100llit~ ,,~I~ k
'!.~,ill ~PJll~TI'l:it Sifr:lUIUI!lI;_~I!s' i:l1rn,;~I~": of Ihe ~~tiv.i:ly orail~ i;C'u:t'flln~ IO.Y:II, Irldml wi n ~bDl.lUncct ~~! ..bolilc 1L;:\",t;.dg.whill\t; ,ll.~!,_1W.i~gp.Jl!:llWtly n~ux tn iriQ(~~-:t; 'by Ih~ ~1li!C finclo, /. "nlJ;;only linl!it;lliQI1 iii su~h!1 t\Ch~l:ilti'5 Ui~ c~lll \ol!illl'ii£. ''''~iieh!il'i1L~ n(lt be i'iM~ III nre{j11ftl~'ilooa~ drul....i(".1in)'Un~I4'>ild .l r'li':l,'o-uiii:-l, rdI Cilz.J'i'i1.t'S of Ii 1_m~tWf.y (it .~ esof

rm

cle\oC:~~l:k,.'dfur ,)\<(;mll ~Yl'[(>liblaJra.ul. ads (14. 25). ~n!'1:l1[d [h]'s ~c;:iIrC~.'i, akmg \,,'~nh :id"flI1ccd r~I1Tlbntor ftll..xl ing s,lrolCg~CS I.hflt c.on· ys.is. Ol)~ilni:.illli:O:l'i,~mdl M:m,itivil)/ studi ics (J8). 1001 InH:mbol i:c f~etilviny all"!', Fiig. 3. An SO(!lCHitoe. f'~rmel1t:tllti©ntaln~ used t])i~t,lirt the P,rooucE.s.epill.-.rl ion for ethanol, the Im~hll bioThe' C'lipiml OOSIn1J5! be reduced proce~, or ~lmmin.!!l ~e!lhJlosi:c tmatiE1;ria,1]nlu e'tlila nel, ~:CII',ed]~: ~.LlelcUITCntly produced .. is carried ,QUi by d~s\Hby more ~l1Ln11IlJf ror an o::olilOlnkal Ne~j,!IEftierg)i'(OJ'iII ~\\ili'ly ~ f ~i1di!1'ii1~ 00 [lNII'!IEl~ Ill,'OCeJ..S (a~O:llg \:vilh a $imi I~r r~dljo-Imicn, l\.11hough Ill.nure and well Ol1li mi zed. il. n::m,!!Ins.an clbCl'gy-i ~~llctl sive and O\'c:mi I cl'!:[:iIcnrcoo!!hxk COSI .. \\"hOch \vi~1 come' x ylosc-caI.aOOllizi Ilg IJa,thwa¥ in n<llul:<ll ethsnol p'rodllloo'S {B. U). ThcsWltc ofthc: mil is rather sive :\~C'p 'oontribul~~]g 17 W 20 cems per gal~,n l)rilThiwily from yicil'd im(ltUVC-Hl<:IlL"i. or an 'c.nCf'~ U 7. 2' 7). 111,ligJl1 0]' !tocunulJlnllhng reports deC 1'0))'. and a. LS 10 2:5 eems per gaU!on n:dlOC~:i.on \'\/lI::lIlldvancoo as far as the cJlgilllceril1lg efvarious p;)i~lIMIYS (im:ll!d'illg pemose pho.'Sphme. .in cellulolytic enzyme OJIs-ts). /'l.chk'l.':i,n£ ~'hc S'Cribing cm~ figl!l1llim'l<l'i. ehJngcs ill 111<l~eriallsinl glyt."':Ol lic. cl1mmlogcnk. y andredex b<l~:mcillg) aoovc'gool 0'1". ~quival!clI~~Y. dotubiling process rei!fUln3CIO smJ~ I 'cu~ Itl'uncillal \'l c1mJlYc::;, (11i1. !t:~!lIK'<J;'lu'!l_n.\ ionic s!f"Oagdl). it 'IHI!l-Y be !..k-.;;,cr~l or ']liodl~O(;Ii \' ~l}'. rcqt! ires a o(lOldi naicd applif.lach is eeneemed, A:!l 3fC'lI~hat Im~ !'I."lCC1\'tl~~I<!!~ i\'(:I), such ph<;U(IJ1]1;.'iI1<1w'i Ih 1f(,';S~1 ~r) l~~i,!ir i lor illlJUO\ in-lg all units o r I he proC(;'$:ii,und, ~11 [noeV:;_llllI:;lI!L,' liml.li~od .mJ~n,iol1 Ii::;!ll,lt (Dr~LI:J:,I8!1f ,-:r;m~)1po:rl~~and t 1JKIU;'illli~] Ill' ~~c~II~~.iJlL)! ,~[i~1nl'[11 ~);lI:rmioJl_ One cuu, rilrli(;ula", Ull;! hinrrmSi\ pWt~Il!(;"fI1 um;-nlll.hydlOl_ys~l\ ~l:l~i:rI"(';M~lllm~ofl_ J~I\;'J'~ cvid('1l0l': 1.lml_ a ~11~1 i~ is U (11 v:I!SL(J'UI, rOt CXilJ.'i1pk. pIl'lI(K~'>SCS ill which CI~'li~e.. ~iLl(k of :iuch lIrtlJlspo[[t"r:. may be in .oper,nloll~ ~~('P~nilH.:~l:'n~onc\(l, 11'1 iet, because these ,M!: apPiU'Clllly tlllC precess rdil:e~;limjlljll1rg stcps, i\1.lcr uml f~d~om. prej~I1C:I~[ifllly 011.some mrlleriOlI: lurad i( J5) arid thattheir 3CI.ivily .filmy (L'cpc:ud on ,$ig.' desorbs w]hcnuhc I1lfneni.rul dl:anges cOIlllgtlTa. thtu, the vo~l!imcuic prOO'lIcdvil;, of rt:rmenmlirn'i n}~lillg ddltrlOO ~~ylite sugar composil ton orille muSi.he improved {p.rcscmly betweenl .5~md .2.(1 liollmillic.u ,a smell cnvjmllmel~ml c~lflngc, SCP!L' ~.cnnt{!mi.llion ~m::dimll I6}, E~~£id~E orsl~gar f ion 1'34l.oninl such schemes 'WOLlI:d be ellu:opically {as gmnms,0 r edmn.olp.rodlllled I)cr hour i.lnd fcr.tnenIm~l.sp()n 3,t the moloc!..i] <lil'~cvcl <lind bel~cr oppooed 10 1.1I1Iil,dl)CcaHy) driven. COli ~dbe less endlarn.cleriz.:JJlion of klmti.c and regulmory plUp'- wr vohHne}. whfdl is; the I)loom:t ofdlC spcci.l:k crlies, i:m~ludil1g q1.l0tllml-'."~lsillg :nnc:chanlisms., ergy intcl\~hre~h,m cwrem QI)CI,·,l\l.aon ,-md po,~.~... prod llc~h'ity {,grn.Ull!,-" of product procJli,nxcl per bly OO1.lId be cO:flsc)~kimoo 'w~h fcr.tnemill:iml in .. :;houM bcgivcn hig~p-riority ~rnn:sei!ll>C_;'I"~ml~1 glffillfl of o.-:Hs. per hour} ~wd lite lot3~reI! CO])· ccnlmttoll dml.c~ll 'be $llSlaincd mnl'lllc len:ncntor. rrovidc Ihe bMis forl~le sim,t1I~aIlCOlls:~se ol'lhe :sit~l.c .st ~J, As mCluiOll .. I. ,elhanol is UlO'IIhc ~rolc0.1,"0(\x The ~mJC't;"> a.gHh~. is liimii~cdh)llJlCprc:ilCm;:i: of(i'lc .~~gar rni1>llmcJ;,c~S«I rronll blmnmss hydrolys.l'" r Iilml~ ~\LCI to be Pl'>octucr..'Xi from c:clllJloo,[c ~ionliolS\'). tlIJ' opr!Qsed~o the sIO"O,'II'C'I; sUbopl~m<l'1 :iiCquelllamI :mme' iUlhibiwrycompoll'nd$.: hcnce. ~!lle ofrnofC' Bl:IJla!lO~ I;;;\:urrc~lly orn:um;1ing ~~~!'mti(l!n 'lll;.'cnu::;c an~t the 001011Pli(iii;C~8iii, Pl'(l{lluc" Ii.!!! usc chOLr'KtCI'izing mo"H p~"Cscm (l!1X'I.<!!iQ!l;;-<;' wl!.'!<In~ ~!.!I~1illli.\\'m h5~g;If)l 1Il"C'C'Qn~\I~~.lCl;.l si~nllll1~ni.x)lII)'iI)' tb, !.','1'l .• ~h'il}']~ ' .Addilimlally, ~~~i~:TJ;; Il~W11l;;~.Uvil}' Qfiil~p{llt;;rni"I.~~ll1!t;.'rlo~ ImJ\l'"cTlk':'iwi~h 1-'~1'K,'lC>t 'to l;.Ua:ms,iv1.i.l'l~';:;,.'1. VQI1U~ il.i,y. '~II!~n:gy d(11lcsi,.y."m¢D COl!;"; o\'IJ:npk. liim11.iIlbl1.ilm~, h,y ~1,)o]ril:!jntm~.z: IIrobrti.... unll~l ·• bci!l~I'-"'~'~\lt;;'1;,II,. f Vfuimlll; ~I,ppro!~~:h~h'-Vi:: b(1CJIi~ggc."k\,l,ror (j.~ ~par;;'Jtion~(1<:%').hidc rn:nn bu~;mtlt miln,;.r l aibc~il. ;II lOw ~'mk",!;;1>II it> .~rnlP'lJJ!!<Illlt.w I'!;."rru!.;l1~b;:f hi.gJ'ICIr ll.lCQhflh;, ~,~kfUU~I.';;... VMI](l'lIi:i; l}~PiL';S of aut! .in~n;;}~;uliigd'llo:~1i.,'.Ci li,e t;1}C~all"bQ1. ~)roduCI ivi l,y. :\uth ~hru.Om: rli!l.llt" orQ '2 b. prOOILlOl..'"d i.'tU-Cl}ch moii:t:or ci~a~nol, lor £), I~I yi~kl oHI.:5Ig. of ct~lfllfml pet 11::; iin~reilsb Ii!;! d1.C'!lI~Qul'l. of '~ro~c·l:ilnil ul:lg" c;n· ()g~sme pO:>l>iblc bj,och~lnic.1I1y dcrh-,cd b:i,or~els. ~t :Is not. dC'ilf y,et wh:l.c~1 nllC{S) will,~bClhc idc-al ,,"ym~s. cl~vmc ~rcgy,bl.iOll,. cofact{lf R;:Jl'rci~isll' gi'WIIl of g.lIHOO:;C OOI:lSUlI'K:ti. A:;;, c."lt'bmli oxidmlnlia ~(J COl ~~ ~'~!i:I~tial f(lrg!.;l1Cr::'lling Ih~ t::1lA,lil'\Y !1lK! bi,olhel. ilnd the ilfi5'!'\-cr 10 Ihi:;; 'IlI~~i(m n1il.yWCn IllCilt.mild increase Orlll"OCLll:50r u,p~y. AldlOUgh s n,;'O)X (;'K]lli,,'~IIC'a~tIk':Ctk"tl 'it) :>l~flil1 t~(~IILI'tilr ... flllnc~ :;.allil"; of ihciSlC': ilJ:ilprofLCh,,;.~ are ",tllid~ :;oll1,c oi.!lcn.;, dlo:pcud olladdl(~·LlollilJI If~C'IOn-s., ~illC:~hfic,o; LIIIC': tW~ of b-lOJlt!!lSS ~lVailable. pi!l!itic~J'ar ,dUrl'lntk OOM[lilioll::-;, ikll1~ fll~dih~ (;ibmol P,!liJWlI"'Y iL~eJir, an intCfi~iiH'lg; are GG'o8:>ly m~~SUI1-t:k-d.A mih~r obvimi1-'i flPPlUllCh IOJ'lgtK,1TIl, idea, :I::> t~lc C"-<II)tllJ'C oolw>i!rsion t:o am:1I 'OOlnposilion~ of ~lIgifie ctnlsskwlS. TI'Il!:: ,~bmly to inerea:-'iCIh~ !TIlL\ (l'Iro!Jjgh a palnW,'aY is lnyiJI' tooclone. lr.u:t1>fci:. <ltldco:nlnlli gcI};.\1): l'rot~ ,d ilferent liquid .b\I~S. oFlh~., CO~ ~y mc.ms of bydfll.1;,"eii1 cfC'Jsilllg the :!Clivi!)! of c~'I)' single cllzymc il1lhe

limal.OO,lhm ~lC' ,enzym~::; of ~Iycolysls. m,-,k~ lip to to I ~ o:rlhc total ccl:lular jlroteill). ~llQ.wc~Ia". mmiytic WQrk. FlIf1hcn1llo:re. costs Ihis rrohlel~l crill be' oV'I."'Itt1mc bj' CI~!:l.inccring 11101fC' C1l\iC OnzynlCSl. P-.1!lhway llux runpm1cmocm O ootlifibuOC!(J by (he ~ llnll...m'C ia~!C'~ml~u!i!~~ ClIl1!'k7i!I. 'be .htl.'1.~C(1 ~n lb)i rolmlmllOO m::~i\ ~l)' C~~m!1CCml!lll 01'"dlC 11a1h,1U1d (/9), hillSbeen M_lCe~~fi.l!llb' used in ~f,O]afimt (h'C!'311i ~~r~K'n1 .u'!idr~.~ '\Ya}' C!tlZ}'~U~8 i~ ly~:ul~biio.;")'JIII~~i~ 11m, ;u:nlroti~ w:niull Heid pmcrilk-:-d for 'jg~'iS.l,lingllle ~t.:'Il;Jli\.L; i~~l· rxnr!l.'1I~C ,('If 111C' m:rLmls,~]roccss lmih1, v dlJC'~ion(11)."'1.d ~.ml'rilydfOX.)'blll)"l'<lW S)'Illhc,'iils in E: ,~;jl {22}. Ol!mol1g {J~her ~yi'1lr:.:m:ii.Dl:l~~ml iF mId Ibeir i~ncmcli:ol1.",nlls.f!i.~li" mu inH (),f J~I!JX :>~!Jilll1l~iO~ ,nkL:')I m{lwoo] ic I.lmnch albl~~inu.ul~u~ iO~1 R];:.ck<L,!§l,Cl\. ~O:rI'hC poims (13).. guidLi'd li:!'yPui{ dJ;;!;t;,'Ilnill!(l~;on m1}th· ~HlItlgl1ll;~'dS,_Y~I(!I'!I1 l'lp¢r''''!~OU~ nU,J,~1 e b IIilmimu') cstimil~es that need In be valklal~d b_y dClail\::d Cj11lf:'l~rica~ ruled

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VOL 315>

9 flE6RUARY

2.007

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
~.~Iflnt;". :r~hl\d ~'lC pooinE mm>l be addressed dih.rootlty 8~ld11dcqllruely a~lIthe has ,tt '",,11jc'h f:\..">'ClL~I~iiS wj n 'be ~lbtc 10 cFlg,b ICC, pa~b~ immtdiatc fllll.ure. wayS:II1>]II<lkc m:hanlItg\: of'a va.liicty or cona hions Ref~re.lIl(e!i <lrull INot1l5 whlll a gcreat d\::gl'l!:C of o;mlioolC>C. i\(_~'~liQJkl'ny. :ll. T. klHkihr:, 1. (iaHl!ih t, HoO!l" A.Ir.iw. ~~, ~r(,s Hum. gem:lIllC ~tcllWS 00\11' !provIdc a stm~g~'nrOJ"I:ViJiN ~ Z, 3"~ {.NO]}, \"iI!IlP~Y ~')f~J;,'IJe)1 be tI.~cd i~~mn~~'rC pmlll\\~i I,Q 2" ]lIE~ I!ai~. Sdf;n~ ~,Ol. lM~ ~1!:~9~1!1 i;(nfl~~!1,l't;:~~,NcvQ!1!!w!t.1\.'l, .~~ il i!1]~'XJol1m!1.~o 'O dc\, ~~!op 3. G. ~"ph;jm~!D$. ~.1. v,,11[~ .Si:'tl.'Ilc.t 25a;. 167S !J!9'9'I}, r!,:'A;;hll1:oli;tgi!,."S for !Ill!; S)fI,~lh'i,\'lill ~!~~ s.¢"'WJl!im~. or ~, G, Sl~prn~n.~~. S~n!b:r. fl'!!'lyj$ ~~~Ii_U, Ji.. lQI].ilIi ri'il'l'ilS,. including
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~b~\~ah,,:'n1IT~ivlj r(J~IR,bo..')t,HI,I~~L~y~~1 ~ I,ntck'llr what add:utiQJl::H.~ :ruqLlir.!.'rt1..;rlis ;;1110]1 tC'Clmologic;s. \'",illl po~c in !J~ (~g<!l of a mbui>!, oOSl..(;fTk::~~!lL cmm]l{xl i:tY-RCa!i: l]mL-;;'~ ~I~ ~&~"""&ilTlg '[lie potCliti~lt elf 'itl>lr.tJ;:'rd mtlli projccled l{:d~ltu!cl!5~Cl> to develop et1liL·cfli!.~.ME

OC1.ir iil i'ilrbi'ild wasreaehed hymii:limlll~ in,vc~nti:!l1t dil"Cdly in bloriJIc~s Ii'i!'" ~w"fCh.The major b~o~cielloes amllti1'Oo!!nSiIIOO'h,~ iU~lmclul:C w'ht.CJ~\'clr\l)r.>d in Ihc,~roec$:ii,('if C'x~lloJ'in,g ~lcdic",1 appl Lt'atlons grbinillgy "nod
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U99H.

,f.t.,,~

PERSPIECTIVE.

IBiii'o,mIIBSSIR'B'cal'ci'tr'B;nce:: IEngiinere~lrinlg p111lants and E,nzy'mles '10 r B i,ofue Is Pmdiue:li0 n
,M;kh!i!I,ed 1:.
,Malrrlk R.
H]I1JllfilU!~ ~

lools .UI1iEJu~ fields (I r :S%liL;n~:s ~YDiEll!,:lie funt! biQ~o.gy(5). S'[~roh rrom eom glilim snd simple &.lgru'S rrom 91g;Jr 'Cd!U~C and b."C'~ arc oom::mly b.:Lllg useddls ro::dy for 'Clhllll!)i [tI11l£1111:lIji)n. blU. ID hillI11C.o;stI:!C :'.t1ll!.'Ct~ml:o>ll£!rusOCltl!;linw in 1'Ila n~ nbcrs. \fC mu~, HN ow."l'OO~m," Ih~ problcnl" C<llIsodi by b~mnill.<;~ ~'lk ~rr.moc. (\~rluIO!ic P«Jl.-'-~illg qI!~um ~"O!n'
('tIgc
Ml!;I!!'C un~il \,\'C impJtlv~ (i) !lllJ OC-~li.'''i()liy ~O~\,i k~· ~~lOCs ,arbre:Jkillg down ~~~.re lulose inw Sl!g<!ffl. eeJ I( ii), Ihe ~ow yi~>Jd.'\ oif :SUgtllfl' l!;om mher plant p(l~y" $lIOd!l<lrii~~ O,lI'IlO (iii.) Ihe !ir:'lr~lllv al of lignin. ,I ~Im~

5hi1· YOII!I Diilllg\,l iDl'<lliiid K. JOIl'IlilS ®:fiI,,~ Wil~lii!lm
D. lIfou~t~

:s.. Aldnev,:l

N]rnl~O:5;.3

]Io!nn ~!IJ. Bra~}lIh,®rmils

Ugltocellultoslc: lJioma1S1> hss I~ong been IreoogMrizedla~ Oil Iloteliltii!l~. :O;liIil.aii1ab1e~llIn:e lar iiIllixecl SUgi3ifS ror rermBntatijorm m Illio:ffu:ebi,and I)~her biolll1a~eri.!lls" Se1lier,al tedilflol,Ogies, hat),!'€' been deve~oped during ~he Piil~t ;60 years th .. t 1I11J)w~his ()umersiom, pm(e:s.s~o «cur, armc:llhe cIlrearobjedwe maw is to make' t ~his prl®(E:~ ol5.t.-Cml1l petiti'lle in tOl:lCJll'~ m1lirkets. IHere. \\Ie [oolsiaer tfl~ n:ahlllr1lilre~i)'tcJln{l:! (If plant ,oel~\llaUs·110 IiTiIll:!FobiaLtilild e nzymtlif:. d!l:()OI'lS~u:r:ai(l:1l. 'CioUlredil{ely known a~ "bi®m<llSs maldIDr Ji!nre'. ~ Itis this prl~p<efty (1'[ plaints th"'l ~i5 la rgely r,e:sp.ol15'jM~for~'he high 'lios~(!If U~noce Ull~JJi$~wJllofeJ'S,lon. 1,(1 ,ardl!i~ 5u~illla'b~e energy prnd!1lc.th:llil, itwUl 00 IlElUl~'5dlry to wermme the {liie'rnh;al and ~tru:.:::l!mal pr1lperti~ tmt mtlle eooQv-ed'inr iJl0lll1il1i5to p:r'e1.i'ent.i~, di~s51~mbty·. in bJ.olhcls. .. st~t3i lli1Lb~c and n;H'1;!\\"abh: cncry)' liI.:'.';JOOI'CCdlillJCJJl ~u(li\igdc liqll!:id ~ml1;;;lmlilm~!ln1i1~~:5,In The U.S,.DCpm1!1lCJU of E~!!;T~.Y OlliC'C of ~hc Bi{~I'll,I~<l .Pv:ogL<l~n ha15 oiI.lWm'Llivi; C,iIIl;fl!,Y nll.1t c,m ~Ii... p~,l1;1/,i lo~i I ~"bm;~ dli;\'(;Jn~xI ,u >'iOL;ITI,uriuIbr ~IP1)lyill!ilJO% or the 20M l1li'l1t{)rg.{o.'OCllin!!;: ,h:nmnd with 'b:i,oIWr,ds by ~ml,ltkm fUIi.~I. I:cJ;FKlnliil;. 111};)1ill)' 1~"{lUlllI~(;\1tmV,L:; In ~h(; )o'("ilr 2030, wh ic.'h I:Qli.Ighly lnmsblli\.;S 1)0 <l. il'li li';';.ocd 'l.::\t"-"rI5h'~ .rt~iIlCh illtd dcydlopn'lCtlE. tflf'!;;.'Cl of ,~~o b.illlioJ1 gall\;ms per )'Cili' 0'1iI II nrilh:,:h ~Chti'rniCOiI <iudl 1S.[(il$fleu~es Ceill!'. N~lioill,al Rc!iilljfL'i<lble< thmllal L.!ilih'll:djlJ~OO OOS;ts (2. J). Shnijllrly. l.h.:: Enl]1fg~ ~Atlln~ml')';. !Il.o'd~1I., m BMOl, USA, ,lDl!paIi'IJOOIlU .E ~"-~"fiIl Unr.on 1'Il:I;> dfJrj)L-d :I. vi~i(]iTI in. \.lIhridl d~.. o~ food S([~lIce. CQ.!M~ U~t~~lty. I!th~ INY ioiM3. m~o-f(JlIrnh oJ d'lC' E.U·;S, lmiTI:.pmil:Uiml r~d:>w~111 USA. ~NJtioo;!~. BiIlII!lnHgy C.enter; IN.. tioo~~ RilillM!'l'lilbW b~ dt:nvc-d fl1lrtH :bio fiIid!> IT)" 2030 (4). iIIl!..~ po.E)nlllg~ ~ilbnfato.r)'" !fJ.dlden" m B0401. US.rI\" ~ilti,CffiJI ii~:Iemb.I:~';:l'\."S'>lll~in ,cri,1 . ielll Chilllc:ngcs 1:0 '"'[0 whom oonr'~8J!0JlGk!nm ~llIOulidlOil' .. dd:n~~. E'-l1lai~ the S1:icnli,roc: c(m:nmm:ii.y Ihal. l'Cqlllirc' cHttillg,mil:ejlimrnd@ ~~~Lg,DV
~~l'Os,rams

lively il1ltr.1cl!lbl~ po1.Ylrncf of IflIiH';llyl[l:rop<'llloid :;ubUlni1::;;, 11. J~ ck:rur Ihm [oc~w.ol~r.td !IIlI\lr~!ic(~ rnllll5l. bcucilllll:a,"'ti IDrI'ilke 1Jijol[I~S ~HSlflill.~hleIlJild
OOSJ!

cllaclh<e.
In IiL1LjlC~iorclii'l(,'iik.'S. baofueis will be prrn'Jl1!.oed
IlC'SO'lU'CCS.

~mmbiOl'W.lsS
Ii~:l~hl

inc~udinfl COl'fl.!l,l'aiIlS

31ul

lI:lSIc: blO:lfUliliSS

,'sillch as agrioull.llu;<11 m;~-

~£ll worl~d\\lldc ,d~mal1d for cnergy. ~mS!tablc' ;jJI_nd llnCCrlJjn IJiCh\o!Jeli 1M S{)t~fCt.'S" and CfIoHcern (l\'!i:f glob,~1clin~]~c Ctll~J~C il<J!v~~ ~,od ~ ,U 1~"5M~~!C1; i~1 ~lC dC\'l;'lopnwnt of

H

ducr.. fOJ:cstry \V<lSK'S and thinning::>. ""ISle ~:naf1Cr. crops.). Cliflil;.'!1.tl)1 in ~1C' Unt!.t'(1 Sla~r:s. i.'iptlrffi'!i.imal£ly 45,:5 nnilHollllm'l> me in. :ngricuhumil prodl!c~ioJl lfimcc~ mn· rood .. feed •.,mcllibcr .rlOt.."ds '16~.A 1~lll rq)Ol'iL j 7) It.....:mgg.~~llhat hl I,he
:J!!iJd Cllt'L,gy

nCi~rlCfBl, nmrc Ihilill 13 hil ~KmIOI1~ of b~~I.m!."s I;tl\nk!l he Iln;Jlt;;~~I:t:~J <lImu.dly in !h(,~UnilJ;,io, S"~~~".'i on 01.I'lll;'il,uill;lhlL; b~ll.~i~ mn.;~I}' liulll 'l!lri~·uH\IE". 1 <lI~~t . ~l:m;~;11)'~}un;: ..'iS. Til~~Il,m <lind al-WO&lTh (i'!I) Imvc
~11~f.IdC8cribt:d1 till: .~lK,111.i~t

l:ok for ~~\'o'...W;IP.l,I~, h~h·qlkcD};ily gr:msSlfLlfldpo."(Cnfl~l~ ror bioctlll,V('I':f;i.O~l. l\~lDd'I.Cr study (9) ITh~ ,SlIOWilI d1a1 blO,nl&;S has the ]'mtcnll ial 1.0 sinrll1lllam.xl1lIsiW mecl,l.hi.:: 110lion'~ n::~'>ds for liq;uidtr.iTh.."f}Oi1:t1lkm :l'MC:11<lIW few ~Ood.li::ctl, arldr.boo::r, prrr\ iclcd iJJulI ",~. dcvckJl) loore <Idvm'ICooijocl,lfmlagic~ IDld make ccn<]in; liUld-lliSC dlaJilgCS tl,IOI~W{lilkllbOi, i\.~~1 h:c mo.f'C IlCi,

SPECIIIALSECTION
lund. The Co."I-CQI:nPCi lin ,.~ ~)rOO~I(:lion,orbiQli1!cl:fl is ClUn:o.ntly PIX,"'!I"CI\tcd by the high cost or bioIDIl1'b~~ l~dswd.s and the processes tOr «lf1,Y«IDn\£. oJmlll<b_'>S iI£iI :!t1g.9:L'S- ~li11 is,~hc«I:l1~or~hc IiIlCnlOchl!mlc;y r,I;"CIIlC<!1HlmC'llt rule! 0I'IZ)'1~~ 1'I)~d![(l!ys~:i>IJIni~ Qlpcr.Mimls in
~.~jrn;cnllC'C'}'. tvl.;!L",i!l1i~r.i!l~ OPIl\'CI'"

<linn }'.i~ld t,.""~nli\l! lor on~~!Ji;!!l1!g 1:~."xI~~k is COl'\'t,
BlIllU,l!!lS; R.eGI

tdtllidi

ml()E!

PJ:Jnl~~iomm~; has ~voh"~-d oo:rn:p'k.~ :stl1l.dlUl!11
aud chemical
11Il(,,'l;h,~~~!lH]''' for lQf>i~ ili~
:>iUglU':;'

~nl!Jwty 210 40%w~i!;l:~lt by w~ig!l.~ofbiD1IW1~~', T.h~",;jJiC')l ~IlV~·rn,.., ~lL1n~dlu~lliCS : IJPllillrNWt;a~:d~miJ.G> !lnd u~ig{l!i!K-.:lllll.tidb;,. ,i~ic:h ~arl be IWirth!:,;i( h)"t"n~:r7~1 or [C;Hi!Cll:t.cd. Rl.l!lmI.l\'.~!of

th"llu~och~lliIi;cillprctfCl1jlLiillC;lfn., t'lJz.yllwi.ic Ivydl\)lysls, and sugar fCflncnal,al.iollto Cllla.lilOI 01' otlncr rl[1le~s,E1'lislingblo:miiss cnnversion schemes ~yp" iCil~I~I'dy OIHI oo-m~illaliQIl ordacm!c.d ana el1Z)'_ l1'l!i:1ltK:1re.1.mI:I1.1.... i\ pro1Ye:l!n~ellt f't~p IS ~!~mIDty cond\r~,tcd 1!J1,.'d~;tQC r~lcil;t:rnlCC hy dC"jfml~tP1l.l::r· irJnJ;; and ~~\uhi!i?:i!].g h~m.it~!IM0i'ic h,prlJ'9:o.;i·

(;'Vcr. dlC yiCt4s or.sotL.l~.i~i£Cd :;JIl1£,tU-:-;,.arc less. i.'ht1Jl, quanlllillJ\,lC (i.e,. (10 to' 70"....n) 08). IF'o:rd L1..':' acid
c

u~m11e~1IS, elease (If mono- m'td o~iigm~cric sugars r ~mm hCI]r1cenul!o~ e...... bilbils I1Ill111thmx.1aI kinetics in. \vhich1!! i>low OOmIJ'{lIlCIlI, c!'iL'!;clly 1'C1i!!t~ lo~h~

'0

h~:gh (l,r 'OOl1\!C~('In U9. 10~.F~r 'c,,,,;!mrlc. ,. 00:;;1 ~~tlm!x,~r nr",~q;IIl;·h1,;11j.l:!lJ l:\') ~llo'VC !1Q~,\':-d ~~~~hc

soh.dlili~ti~n

9r<iyh~.n1 ~1l1~~~~!l;:!,)I!~nI[j~:JpT!!\;,<IDi no

1K~Ix'J>t 1l1~!!\,h;I(-d II~ !I pf1ir of p:,'n~I~lcJirst-orrd.-r l ~.ci.inllt>: OlK: tllliIit:J""Ikel, plate at IIf1L>;i r.,U'C un:.!:
,",liO:Li~~r 1Il'!1L1 progR;-~S ,u~ ;)I~lliJ!c;'h =-kl\,Wf 11'<11"" \~ffi~u! !J.p\·I.'tiIl~ tI~i!'l n's~l~ i~, l:io~d'l,<lr :Il !.Ii.1N 'ti:I:n;:, ru~d1il. Itiill)' dlpClid M .:iii numbcu: of fH!;IOrn. isll(:'Jrn!I~ Ioc:gt1lre.~lu~~ co:rrl~!!;I:iiill! bDoll"llili:1I. den,.;i~y~:~he

a ~ul!

m~
;lIlij~

il,~ ~t[\u;:!I,nlt:!ll

fR1.~n lil10 micrObi[~1 'IItJ

il',illCltCc Orliliil:o.ti,Wif ('iiil:t'jXbi1C1111::. (S!lJich. ss liigii in, acic.i.I'lCUlrnlizin,gru.r,h, mid 1l!Jt."'lyl aJJld other mlbo:.:.ylie <!Cia grolllf)l;li I)i&nl eel:1 :IIn;ICIHIi'C(kbCh.ltlill~~he p''<L1,tiCllr!l1rlyl be ClU iclk: m~d el~killllkl!l irur wa:~Ci>: {H) the 'U:'l'aIJW!m~ll~ and dCI'I~i~y '~hc V<lscllll~r of Iy;pe." of edL" or r:nirn:: of l1l'inuuy and scco:ndruy cell wds): or mass trmn~:kJI'iI. PL''C'~'L·'~OIitm.cnl bundlClt; (i ii~Ilac l1datl\.'CmnOltil~t 01"s.cl!::re~l.chyschemes Im ... (lin .dk."!.linc C'x:pIOl;1ve dceom-nl ~ m ~lOJ:W~S.Wl~ck ~'~'an) l.is$lLC'~(iv) lhc degree (I r I ig~ tt'CitlIDJOgy W 11L\l:J(IL,CCmcri;ds wilh "U;lO'C~l<lbllc lJ!uyu~\l.I~c dig,~\~'!ibi~iti-r;s. !O!1>('IJHj]I"". di~lIll\C'.\;lId· l,!!j~l1ion <in,~organ i:c ~h ~nt cX!r..!C,tirm",;:11<1\'l:OOi:tl For ~!itica!jon (i0); (vl !hc stntCWl:"d~ hC~l!fOg.l'llcity IPRljXl~d ~,~'ilh (li:ll]. ... id~·f.,1llJ;k:;I!D~ (J J ~, The .md COml.1pkxil)' ,of ce~Il-\\';d.~t,,{111."'liW!..ir~!J; sueh <1~ fiullic OIcidi proUJ("'l!Il'1..~111! ;I! ~~O'" Ii!) 200:'1(' ifI':l!1t!i,.'l'li. all-mlinc ! -ooe~. known ·<!.':l.!!!llllI1DIl'la :ribcr ;ccxp~!n... in ~lk.l:ofibl'jllS <lltel mmfi~ polY~lCf$ (In: (\'.~)Ih.c d~ ce~:I~!looc' cell w1!l~:;: I'IWI:I!' acccs:;.iillcloC'l sne:<im~{J\!FEX).lt'll\ es the hcmil;~~ tl!iOl'C ~npl~!o::but ... C!UJI1IQ!:'$. A~pn()dC'm1_ii,) ~CH~I;!iCl' c1ml ~cn,g).\...or C'tlzyum:,'l' aeting {!In an i~)1oh!h~e eh !~IY~lilg f p;.'!l~IJ";l~ rem1cillin~ oc!! \,~'<i!n~U!l.\iitlcf.1IJ}J!y n~o'l!l.': the c sW!bSl!!mlC' Ul):aml (viii the inh~bi'Qfli\ U) NlI~C" ~I~ h{ln:!iooblo.~ al'l,,; hydll"o!y~~'{i ,iu!d !hc' SllIg<i1l!"l\, ~'lu'l!:,;'l.. hk'~r}lJr!~'Jlb(lhydm!)';-;i~ l261 GI~~\nl 'rl1!liJl~!m " !il!!ll ('t...is!!'~'~I:ur;)!.nyin ~".{,.~II OIrrusorllbii~it<;¢1 <liz;; "R'lJl'l'lI'II1!CQK ;'Iud (l~:i!i,."OI"I1I(,'ilH~ hnwi~]oJli,' W~~~ or .811(': g~n~rm~ld.du rillg t:ol'"l'I.'(lfliiPll proI CCS~CSi u.:n. ln Ihe CM[cXI or the JJit1R:fil1cu,)'. tl~csc chcmiC1ll191t1d :S1.Jl:i1C'~!JDru.~ ~~I.l!Jresof biomess ~,fli'Cl I iql~id (l'I::rruti,uioll andio.r' i:1U"yn~(![!t(;{1cssn~ bUHy 311.d actlv ~ly and. Ilnls. converslcn eests, I\~ the moll!Cul~u'lC\ cllFig. 2).~he CtySl<llIilllC cclh.do.s'Coore of .ccH-~!,;'l!I~llcmfibl'ih" (ltH is n iljgh~y lJ::!si",tmlt In chcilnic:~ and bjologtc<d h)l~ drolysis OCc,,'1!lt;;;Cofil.s SlruCILlIlC, in \:vhk:h chain.,> ofcelkldcxtrblS:!ire pl'CciS!CIy a:rmll£oo. The chair CQnfuif111!iMim~{I nile gh..!oosc p:,'Jl.jd lQC,Il ce~~ulo~c In ~bLiOC[i; Ihe Ilydr"(l(!\,}'! gOOllP.S iIJ~o f<ll_di.JI(eq liIa!OI~~

IIiIl1Ulkin~dol,fi" (Fig_ .~). Nml!llru~ f;ia.ol'li,~di~\"i.iJ 'Iv ctl'HUti~l.c ~o the ret~lle-il:U"JIIC(~o:f li_gnocc~-, lulesie Il~tx!Slt)!{;k to cJcie.miC'.!!J'Ioor ,"i~ZyI11~l'iin[

elude lib rhe "-::11idcrmo] [i.'iS"l! 0 f'lhcplnHI

bod~!.

ht;!l'1i~~luIL'Y.;;~:[1"O:!11 dl.'C m~~ro~lbril~, i~'~ioWl,l:r:t10 ~"'iPQilC U'bC'crySiIlil.~1 U!:1C' cdhl~ooc oott. ,,~hicih 1;'0111 then be hy.clro~y-..:(\d by m~lIliIla:;c 'CnzYltl.t!5 •. Dn ~uJJ U[ioj'j..p-re~fCfill'I'DCU[ typi:Cilnyb:i'Cilks dOO'lil tille rnaerescepie rigidity o[b:iomo&'> mttl dccreru;cs, th~ ph~:i~c~ h,rlTDCrs tomass lrnl'U->pO.'iI. r>l;:(I~a~ml!m, TIlcl'1.1'locll.Cmirnl l)rro'C':Ltmcl1;l of b['OI~l<L..;s, l'I!o1s:i{ms been I'OC"()sni~ as 11 ~tkal

un

iJI

n oril.'unort

iml :;)Incillhc ,I~ip.h;lllt~!ydl"Og~'fD <l1:O]Jk~

~h(:lft~ i\'i r;lf-onJjl irlh:rclm~n h}>'dwg.cn. rnJJl~ill;gIx~I\'II'!."."Cn adjfloom d mins ~11I21 cdlllll&lsc sheet find \'\'crIker lilydro;pllQ.. hie iu~erncliion:.~ be I.weenl celmlllo,,'>(!sheets, The ~1j!d'rQP:hob~c race of eel hllo..'i'C shoos 111mkcs CI.')!s .. ~alilillcCcHildoS'Cresi:!!!J.ant to acid hydrolysis becam'Ci~ o:mtriln1ltCSto the fOml['Ui.mnor a. dense Ia.ycll' OF\Mmcr ncanhe hydnw~dCCl~l!lo.."lC sudoce It J j ,.The Slrongi:rucn;:hain, hydmgcl"le"'mDdi.~ ~I,.. \\'011< unfLke.'):crY:S~fLllill.c cellulose resislEIlnll. W C:1t0'm.ul~ hydm~ysi~ {Hl'. wl~s h,emiC"l::II~JI\lsC'
il1m ,",xi"l ~]!{Y}lilio.1K As ,I rt::s1,J II,

and mna~phous cellulose m'C l:cn'Clily digestible, l~i~I!CN.I!~b' "'~IlK:I\II'CS in P~"nI" 11100conlribuw !Q blnH1"~~ l'!.;:c;"'I~ilr"l]o~, or c"'\'IIl!lllt~. "Icce.;,;;" HI f
~hct,"I)''!\;t;.lllin\i ,~lli~ll.o..~ Cl)~ or 111I1;!,"'IUlibri~s .liS R..;.""riC'~I.!'\l,by <II !;:o;}Ding {l.~' wntNTl1I1iJU!; {.dhlllOliC ,llbCi ~Icll'llcdh.l~o..~ 06}. AI. .fI ll:iLtl:oocopic and LiiI'Elc:ro-

:roopk: ::-.calc" Ih'i.~,oonpk-x l1Cll:'ro~lOO!ll'> nSlu[C' of biomass. cremes nal~ss'm1i1qOl'1 Ihnilluiol'ls lor deli~'C:i)'()rC~lcm or 'bloc'll.:ll'l i.~~ c~ ~,,s1S. rcal
(u rrenit B~~!WI(tS;$Cir:)iliI¥.et"Si~:jl i1fl':ld~Vl d~ogy

The biore:l.illlery i5 cnlVisim led i.o OJinrip:ris~ .toWlI' IllJjor :!lCC!iolls..: fecdswck imrv\."St mId sI.oragc.

IFi{Il. :1.. S,tn.!I(tlllil'.ilil t1nd cih@mkai. oomp'l@ocily o~l!:le!illofl'll;l!!ll!Jiol'!lali'S" (A) E:!1ampL@ Qr hilg:i'l-d@Mity ilaie!i 'C~rtIiI ~1J)1i'~rhaN,~~~d (llil the ea!l~m p-1ailil~o~ i'lonhem (~I.(lri1ld1o.~IB) .An aj~~mk 'r\OI"(.~ Ir!1kJ(l9raIP~ ~if the- mab~ ~r'C'JiI(ihyma (ii?U-waU )urr~(~, Th~ dialF!1!et.ef olf iJildf\iidu~L m](filtibri~. b olll~.y o1IbOlJlt3~o ~. "mil',. S,t;1IIle Ibar. S't') mill. (C) A, 1i~.. nrning e:~e1drQm lini~rQ~r;'lph anne ml!sS""~c;tiQIli ,of
(I'~

c:elJwall thi,i;:[,;;nes.sestypical, row hi9m'e!r'llltJfl~ :s~rllic;tlire. Sc;i1Il~bar, 5,0 SCW~I~IC~ VOL 31S 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

a !l1I~iz~ s~~m sh'I)ifl';s.l!'asn!l~r blllm::Ull!salF!~

~ilh~ijiSSll!~S", .!IS W~llM

the di'l!'~r:se cd s-iu:s. $~aIP~S, ~iild
~lrlil.

w"fM"sdenoemBg.,org

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
E1~~'J./mik' {J,~Il"d(J:li(Jrl, In ~m!lIre. \'ario!lscdulolly~ic mkroQr,galllo'llWS, pI,\O(hl"'C Ciu;ytllCSlhill

1.llllClI,ODl$)'I1el"~slici!lny and asse,~tl.:l wi~]til; nliClioorg;!Ili:iilll ~sueh

rol~tdcU1.".d 1.0 be the fm~ :limiling step ~ 0;:1Il11,1£( actti01l. is ,,"0I1~PUshccll by cMJgh.llm .... 3100 ases kno\lI tl as ~llc·~~'§i""c··,cclM<lI?ICs.
I~-;:;"
Qllfero'):M]rn.g IB~~~m~S5 Recakiilrranre

as jhe ,cnll~;olomc {':7,. ~~I,i)1or <!J;~ i!1(km]cr!dC'~I!Y l~l:ch1L" mo~
Ilul1~[lJlru!1d1 mmllY bn~1;fj,~!
Imoit'S) (19). AI~'IDII.Ig;h

~B~il :iiSIlO~.
d(x:o!1-

C'llm1;,''ln h~{)m!l!..~!1\ ~flll !.(;"1;:h· 11{l~!VJilk~<l ;,m;,p:ri'~.l[ll".ily ~c;:\'~IOf~:

fUlI~yiu~.ow.ri1IratJwniltlnly ~nz.}'iint.""
;;U\J,;: im,lr;l~\'i¢dinoc!!·w~!! sl nJUi.:'ti:m), r.1.!."i!l .tlr e.tl.yllil'k."~ ii,"'C~&'lryW

lL~tlpiriC'aUy. b:.1.~; O!~~i!nil{\cl 'lII]clt~:\~md~ngo.ft~!~ bioJ.ogLICll~and eh""~tt:iGl~ p:ml"J!.;:rli~ lliOH1~ R_Q~lt 5~~ldiL.~ of p:l.trn d~\ ,lnp:ill!1,'ln~ ,carb!,1hr,[m.!1;.': ehe... i:'lr)'. ~1ttl .[~l.:.' ultran
:-.htJellite o'.f

or

Ih.ttc1,; .!i\cn~T;!11 C;,I1i,t.;1§O-

arc oQ:I1.'iiOOrtldi 11:rdft)~y-ft 1'illIl:ive

c(;U-W1l11 it:Ifuh..i'1I1ik oeUlII8SGS. ' ~~en~ice~l!llla~C5!,ruI(I th~nt'!CC~ C'J~11Ct<.. \!"hi!:!hi l1e1udc hcmicc'llluiOSC' iki,..tu~C:il~u\\l, I~Jlcnolltc acid C:::1'[C'ITh"C. and pcss;lhly 1i~llhl l(iI>i;b'raci'ing modif)'~ng ell" ... :}rJ!'l~ (29). Onoo~h~ hlO'!V!i·

p:iftwldc
Ilr.OOucill![l

i1i.."I\,

re~:I,'Wa111l> OOtn.iUliJC to irnsj~lll" hilo 'blai!l'ii.":;
To Il.".ach lito(: ~o3l of

cmlVcr.;[{)iL

C<l1.1'-'oo:i11Jl'!.."1jtivc

,lila

room l~i()rn,a"s,lltc"'<e U1t,"tY!' Ii ndings room fllkln~selenee and C1)Joohy;~ld i!1t1;:g,..u~di~ul)

biefuels

(101 ~lJklS!,;'

~(~r

c'CH"~~mll IIItcl{lnbL~L<;: has been CGmpJnl:!~::'il<d by chemical Ji)!iI.""
b(~ lE'i.t'd 10 i>lruCI.liI'lL"S,

"~"'f~,"!I,,"d\.'I'i~l

~fl.'<lli!ne!ll~.ti"CnlUI;L"ii<'L;'u~~m"l'~,m

F:ig!. :a... (A.) A ~lili'ipl",iM llfL'Cidelshl)wif'l~ lihe' ~unl~~lIc:tioi'i ~~' the n:laj(l!f jloly· : !i.ilHhari~!lS ~n '~'he(Em ~~a~l. (Lig flin is rIOt ~ho~~n her~ ooLi!useits 'ili1i~~rac:tiolil!l, Hire
mOil: ~~~l~e$~~b1ishedJ ln

dflui.: d!''Cmi'>~I)' mu.." ~1IC~r.qn."I<llcd [he oon",cr~itin pi!(l!l;C~. :Flur;th~f5t~dil:,,, wi.~! ~Il;. doub[oo~y rely all ... fO:I' eX<lml~le.~h\! (fl.!!;. doprm,1ll Orn>i;\\' lodml'ql!Cs. Ihl'"
:~m<lgi n~ and ch..mc~L;'~j."'ing rhe d!.O!nic-oI] H'lfltlgltOl:phy o(~h(' cell

hy.dIJO;JY4~ IIlC c~y:;.~:amne CL'i!lU!a,,~ OOIC:oi. ur Iht::-c Cr.ys~3I1il~eC(':HU~05C is hydro.. Iyzcd bylh...: synergistic m.ction of C'Jl(kHlclin,g ~willfil ~1'OC~~o h:: cellulose ch,li 11 CUlZYll11CS b known <'1.$, cmfog It!ciHm:;;c)':, .s!I'ld exoacl~ll,g CI~Y~,

knO\vn
11t

as C,;,,~

g IIlI.caI10~, The ClildDgJ1 ueanascs

10000[cS~ll'~acc sites

~ocalimls •.

C:O!ili!pOIi!~nts.~g;e1her. 8) mh€'364:h~in m~l:lt (If me' ~~bJ'~o~ !~k!fIlef1il~!Y fi'b~'l. ( H~re.the dleviclion illhh~ glu!;.m,h~illlsis basd gel1era[ly en,," ,;·rai}l' 5~rut:tllN~ of I(eltulose I~ (19'), It: hss beeli1iprQPooed {16} Ihat~he 0:: truro~e ~~mefltal'Y fibrii [lillay C:oi'ita~111thme gr~~p~·of glucan chaiiiiS: ]Ifi ~ro!!!p C1 {I~d} ir,eo six~FtL!e- cJJtStallmf ,c;hl'lin1l;in group (2: ~Irel!nl' ar~ 12 subi:lryS'~ll]lIn~ dli!illiS ·lNiIh a SliIltlH d!!gl"~ of ,d~~on:lllr; an d 'in! ~~OI1l,~ (3 (b1ue) :lItrel,B "Il.ufO'!(e. chal]ns '~'hail:are ~Uilff~1:a Ilnn~ \lfl~h ill !(I~gie'd~g;i'Ee (If dioorder. (0 The il1~,at· a nd ~Inoon::hail) h:ydro~en~()!i!~ oelw.o.rk 1n (el~lJlose lilt

s,1.Irrg!!:@ ()Uhe rigi~c~lllJ!kl~ (IfYSitaUt~~rQ~!1iI~n9thE! l'If!il!:rmibrilmH'l?Wrk. P@cr!ns ,~f@ \V!lU :it llia~ n':U'LOllt1~"('lr iiCflle. The ,c;r'oi'S"~il1k@d ~:mll¥S<lnh'Hides l(Drlilil~'FI~ ,01 hydrated! gl'lt thl'lt"glu@s~ the (J;!rul~~'I\~'ll future of [o(.."'~JjlITlh flitilled :lD.(",1(';1"-

thj~ 'S")!'Ste'f'IiI, hemkoe.1l~lO'5(,~ dQ~lyaSi~datedl are

ti:l' the

lOOming biol1m.;;,,> rocakitrulllee
piiimaril~1
!OOL~ 'Nl

wiU, nile c~lgntl!.x;'I"ing Qor new I!)cJJI :JiI~$,10 be qrn.ded. w by n£wl.y ClWaliCCl'lld cl1izynncs d'o$i,gn~1 fbl1"~hlsrow.

?lmu." d~'sigJu.tU(Wd~"';Of1Sfm~;["{co::m $~n.lldiC'S of pI[lIl~ celllw;:1111bj:Osy~uhes;is ;we locshming ~o
lkm.
I]IU\'

probaMy rOlmd at l';]j~ld'om, a1o.llg ~hc ce[I(IIc.k·.l'ilj,'l!1Jat~dnsert lI\"mcr i mlrll~(;~lIc in Ihe p ,n ,4}, bil"md. c.~mil1fl ru101,,;'"11''' 1i\."d~lcillg n(m~ and
rl1dudllg cli!I~M end pair;

i'dc new mldC'l'l'lanaiingmWll

t~~C:olIJllorlire row

fI-o-'
I:'J:!..

IpB1Im cd \\'O'Inl(1m, J\llh~I'JilJl nlol.lc,.'h of nu r kl.1(}wJ\:tt1lJ: i:;; a[rlC{;dol~lt t!ul:' cell \'I.'llI.iL>;of hig~K"[ 'pilanbi are .
VI(;\,,\.'(J

cilcrni."'_1)'

of

~bc

or

gl~lC(~o;idnSt~ tec1I!obliilSt'S) ftC.'[ 10 !lyd'roly6C ecllooio:>e. [~e prod~lJ{j
(l~lhJlflIle aaion, and tlnis

as an

1l~'"TIlbty

of birJPCl~Y-

lieve the S:)!stc:1ll from, Qld-prod'llCl
inhilb:itkm, CcJ!Ld;liSe-\ ~m.l ottlcr g:lywsyl hyduo.Ih.-<£S, (Jf)), are kmJ'I\'Ul

w Ilro~C\,>(lI1.In:rLl~h a

mes, hl som.c ways Inim.ickillg Ii ·'.iliqll id crysIF~.. .syU1~h(!5i7.lld by , pf~I'I\\'.~~YS a'l-yet ul"Dd:Otcilm~ned wit~l cr)l1;u:olis {HI.J2~ For cx1ll~1lp;1:c.0:+ h.~o.~is sy.mJ1.C:5ized and a~cmb1kld
Oil Illasmf.l membrane.whereils hC'l'l'nk:eUula.'>CS 3IJ)C sy.nlhcsir'iM in, dae Goigi tB~}P'lI,U[I!:)" DcspilC Oll!f lack Qf demi~.cd

l\\~O"'.~ep,

IKn,.~hlmtd-lypc l1l!CclHmL'>1n t~':.~1 . 1C'1l¥C'S tiu:: term ~Jl[ll C 1 c.;).f;bon ~1}'(h\1~~!1 the 11 wnligumtion III
i( !\.'I,ctnion C'Qn!;1.~'Di.'d

(lfSWIl:,;'lod1l."lnlst~:y)

(If.<I

k!!Owk.IQge !l~.aJdi!!g

C!>ln~\III;~~ Sll\!c~

n.".clkm !]:1\.~I~nli!'i!!n ~h,n1~'iI~'!"~"nh", ~mi,ml h}l~Dm1\..)~
limt:mion
lJn\~~1(.1·
:>[<.::rJ::liIChel'lii:i:-;1ly)

ill ~'he mmrlg~I~'lluO:I'1 n
of

H.m;,. 1'I;~,,<u;(.;'h. dWlri!!~ lilt: ~~1b"'~ 20 )'\I,.',m"i,. 1"U];C.ly!t~l.Ic~i[l!]~~t Ir! up~)r()Ii.u;h.ho:; kx]l.o .abocly (1f hl'I:"orrlliitiol1l tr\.~~ooiIflgtroiltn~l(,;u!n,,,of !liG

~nol~cul('S !JO'i.JldilliV,ldc (he :>pooc
!lIltdC.L lite nonliloouei.ngchaill1i end ~J:I!:J tl~~:i\ I'C",'Cll~iI, rmll ~l:Iea1p ing inlo Llt... ocI~ultllCcl)~ifil. mll~ ~

IFig.1J:.

Arlis.ti1c ((I~u::ep!t (If alf11€'.';@9Jl~c~mas~ (t~~ T.
C! single (nC!ir'!

(€,eS'ei (1j!Ilobf(lh)!ro~at$~ 0

;l)ctintm '01"1!l: ~staUiIl"l!! l:'lIlhIlWSI.!.lln ~h~iS~ptclillnt, the (;arbehyd Fo11@·bindi"ill d (Ieh) - relil:igni~~.s,,(liiild Ilfnld~oo the (elhJll(l~' :'ll,ilrffa!(!e, By. al IP~Oi(.~S;

!CmovaJ of oo1lWcxlril1~ loom thc ~llicrofiillritl core i~Ihoughil: 1:0 OCetJl' at .~1CSC new d1!iIll~ ends and t~'ai...,

Oif (e~l!.!!tQ~is"dil:(ry.$itam~,~" (JJnd d1h@ct~dir!'lo·rne (rig hU. "l'hi~ eom:yrne' 1£ tholllglht. till pn~ll~eg a1Q!Il.g11cd!J!to~, (h~n (il~Ying Q'fl~ (~I,t~bi~Si~~f]~~ P~f (a'ta,~t!( ~~Jilt. u flt:il.t~e chafin entd~ 'Dr the enz.yme be(0il11,~il1lo'!dillltlte,(i (40. 41).

unde-rstood,

nQ~'ftllty

modull@

ccll vmll ~'Wll m= CI"lCCI.~VC lOr enhmx in;g CillZ).\tIl'C oc:liorl., S~i.ldies .hilVC shown. d~m ~.emalk: l:Ci1iOCwall01"
hL·I'U~i~\.~JltJlJr}'';(·l>, eiLher at'idie nit by
elilZ)/lbTIililJi: p~~(_'S,

<lcti'll'e'-'5<ite lInn el ~

Oir

th eo c;al<lllytit domrlrfl

I\.~h~, ~al i.he

m,lrkc;c rc'il~.K'iiml ~!11 Clililulms.;: ~oodl·
i~DgsrcqLJircd to OOllVer! cdllJ~ooe

SPEC,IIALSECTION
gl ucese l:1. J4). 'OIhcr 5l~ldiG; ~'li!fVC shown 'IllOil.<l ooau(;tiofll in phenollc esters, such as t~~ dmr.:tctcrislk or the liil~fIgCS be!\VC';1l. lignins ;[!1~ hemic'dh!llo..~,. also 1}C];1lmi~ <I redUC! ion 111 I;,'ClhJ~:l.."C :1 ooc1~ngs 0 I J" I~ has l~g !h~ri7.'t.>d. th~rt:;fore". Ilkl~ ~n.grllL.""I~llg plbm cell
Oif w;1I]!I. by
~.\\~'ii~
;)I

w ,co;;lIo~i{jsc

1II!I.'.O!ill~ :;flit{'~lf[riflcmiO:II and .fen'~tlflilion (SSI:} scheme used b,y uau.."",> ir! a P(flJOl.'SS ,de\'Cl1'Qjl>Cd Ib, G!II~ Oil (J :r\.<~o~roo;ntly. tboughts about COJllbillil1S SSFwi!h ,elilZYJllC Iw.OO~1C1ion have

r

n

ac, :200!J} (fMmim~,w~d:t,go'!'~e"hn[(alIIlI~dl!'nr:i01lirinO'llw~hlml}. i. It !). prn..d:;et"'~, "iB:io~~.i!~ fe~d~ftJf <l
AtiRulit ~R~ {iNRCt U5lJJ!,1Ma~hlh!Jtr.ti,

r~t!~too

III H'C'i.V

<!I)proaclw:s tQ ~B~;which w~!ld od!Ii!IQb'~k or

c,iU1C'nc.(I~!i!1C ~'Jlgim,"C'L~llgml ~l~"UKlr.og~l tsq!lch as
S(4.·ch~mmJ'l.'e'ii' f".~I'i?i'ht;;'fr'·~[~ bl;:

~~'lill~~. thi,;: 111!{l1~'«III"r i~!J;,'l1i\Ctr~mjl l1Q~

e.
9.

hi;!ni~ntllln~,

IiJ1ln~~~. "Ild~II~,I~

1~~~C;:ro-

("t)~IU~ !X."'1II1t ~nlnno.L~ ,d1i~iJ,;llt usc of Opt;tly cll~n~';S. Furrmlly. of ctJll:s.Lt!~~lblygf(':iillCt po16!1!iai h'me:~il,,111(1 ;tI;:omdi~g~y gw.l1:~' diFlic!.Jla ~Y.i:-; the l]o[lj~,~bilily of (;1~1~!II!l:ung,dl!,; IWru!.J!\; .,1' eGl~ I i,J~M.~il5CW Ctiu:l!d 1fl1~i..~III!.Jlosc ",ynlhus.c emi.'ip:b be a~tt.wclI.O 1):rodll{l";:''WOt.Jlitk.''tr (in k'trn'i.':orcit&lcr ,d";IJilG"e of Ci)'liil!iil ~~lill:i:Ou t.Jf Ijo(j~y:ilIl(:~ZMt{;1fi) relilili.~

f]bril~

~n~i~!i,;.i;rin!il 11 ~IM~~ ·1fl"Qi;J~N,;i;r ls.~I~lil;Il:l, Cl'a~· .. Iridium' ;h~mrfJ,c,"Jum) to be (~dlllnml~~n:il::" For
dlll~C Ilrt:I'I'llon111Im case, th~~bilK'II,.;~j.[CIx~Ii!C'r.i~ ~T,lO;: ~~c '~(l gmlli,..-rh on ~'"C~IUlI~cn.~,dl from the ~m(;~CliCY ur ol.~g~m;ld,,[l'Iidc Ulf1'1ako I;ombinot;d ~vibh il:lt~d(idlul;n-ph~pho.mIYI~c,d~v~.~ nf 1[3.-

]0'.

U.
:li2.

cclhJb~

:n" .~~.
liS.

fie~~bi'lity I!!I' ,~ BIi~frm"VooAnI'!U~~·Sl.ilpp~·U),iI!i; Ridlg~ ~'i{il1al !!.!!~r~igny !;l.e~~ i"NOO5, !!Jn~er ~ii;ad fX);tfOO .. llJi2005··U3', O:I~. Ritil!l!~, ifIM. (l'IJm~l: 0'" Tilmln\ ~. Hill, c. 1Lt'~ITIliIIl, Sc:litt1re 31,4, 159,8 ~:t!oo6i. $,. NiiillieW!. R,MmS\M,r'D~ tnrN!i.Y ~, 9, 191 ~200!j)" 0. ].,(:O~glWt.i~. R~ Mo'. ,(',dl SitJi.. 6., 3'5.1) {;tOO,)), K. !i;t<!Jm~ 8. T. l<!r!!~ !l A.Sitcl~, Pi:C1m ~1. 'l ~, 315 (1'99A~. MI. 'Eo Ifirl'und IW. 'F. IMh. C. E. ~fl. ("!tff. 0p;!l}. IlkIromrllOl, '10., 3,5.'8U'9~, C. E.Wy,mafl ~!'oJ.,~~ilW.~, i'mMf. w" 19~5l ~2005~, y, Nl~ilIl)'llll'l~ jii" ILOOIJiIIlI" H" (mlWj. ). Am, (hem. Soc;
12>11, 01~ ~OOlt 9 J. f. .IM11hI!iM ~~' al..Cilrb~{, (2llIIJrl}..

8l0!!M',!W <li'id Bl~noill~m

1I1I!I~m!j.:lillil' T!i!dl1Jir.al

lese l'IUil'C' m1~nilhl(! '[if;) cl!cOOI~t\lItl!Oticlif~ '\VOli ~J s~ch a 1)lrurn5,'iU"\'ivc'i1ndnhuilvc? I\nmhcr seale of Cn'OCldVC cn~ince~u~ Qf ~Iam cells =uw structUIlC' Ilimyoc ,II, lhc~wi or Ilhc o(iJ',~<ln'izmrol1 o:f f1'1~lIn t~~l("'l'. :FOf example, bt."'(' .. use OJlhlC high C'('(U10Lnic ou!d cl'(''Jg:t.~ticQ,"lI3~ or~liJ1d~ in~. hiQIl.111l,i\1ill[1)l)"""",..;illgmt1f(;liinL;'n'(;';;. 'Wtaul'd ide"d~ Iy be c<lpab~e 001"1I!$.~nglectl5lock$. ill li~c 1- !oo 15-o~~~tiHK'!!.!"r<!gmcni !'ru!b'e (!If),. l'hi~ lll!quip."l' f ~11l!lC'~ru]YM ,!dlf.;,ni(:'~ and ('I!U}'!11C)! p.'!!!~~!m1iCJ.Jl ~hrnllghn!,I1~ th~ n~1u~J.;,.~Jfuc Op~.11IlOIt I)jlT~~t}'n

eeed [tIe Ib~D~~I'b>ctie eost or ec:l~llil'IS.\: )'l'I'he. ...is. ~ :iJI.I~~pu:rl·i lite 1b.. "ibiIJ illy or <In~mbic pllOCCSSin~ i1£ . of ccUulm:Lc bjoll~<lS$, itihout added saoch:II\:llyllt w cl~yun~ ,~3M~
OI!lUMkfol' 011'1 dvi!lllued A Bi®,re'fijinelrry' IlliIdl!l~:try

g:hJt~(j1>kli:cbO~jtl:;., ruaolhc=rrru.h!;~·~.:r 1M)! lu10wli. ii~l rgj~\\l.i. &,:tciut.,,~bel ii.!~~ 111;l.n 1i1lt.~ Ix;lt~li~ ex-

16. S, 'V. Di~~" M. E. Himmel. J,

A.~"

fits,

~iI:1. 133 '(2006}.. rll!ild C;lj~m.,:S4. ~97
~~Ig,;~01

1)7, r:rg~~un~m.: ie~i.)' i~ d~Med ~.h.~(OrnbEn~

I~~~~t~r~, ,~~idi~,.~n!!ldu~.rti!lli'la! 'Itelt~@nt Hltn1I1I!~ prtlr~atllf1.enll,. 'IIImim <lrt~all)' IU~ oxeti~ ~dm libot~led: laml c~lw~lI Im1l'ic!!.'UI!IDle, re'pr'~~e!!i;the !!l!ii\I!Jt d·egr~ c! ~~!lfiilii'. UJ. It T~~ I\t L HmrnellC Gt~mamll, ,ff~, reo'J~,

or

dij~L"!h!~,] SlIIhl~91'id. \lI1IDI.'I' IIln1u!:!lw)m pn:.uu tii;.;uJ.': .it'\, cOl!oolk::d Iby LIte fLlT:.mgcm~.lilm.of \·a.,.,C1Itflit bl;Jlldl~'S.

oon~dfrlion... 111C9C ini1llro~'cI1flCHL~ l1Xjllire . EIIJIi'I(;'(.'f'fn~ t'ml~/y.:st~ and hyl'( 'Wi 1J.:r:~i(m dCCIJcr Il!JldID'UITloing of !i;CII,l!1[!f",lild l~l]()lLc sy!"'I,..1fm~ [I~ rmIDl}' w.u)'~ rl\t'lO~ssi \fe' 'cdlld.!$CS 0l!:11C' ']WCI.~~~. New gClrnC'r.l~L'QllS0rh)ldrol;'lOC CI'lZ)fH!!l'S ~l~N 11li.~ir tHl~"o:I~lit<'llllimu[s, mid en· '1no~cin nmt1;;hilll\;"'" ~Fig. 3);hm"'·~\'Cr. ~')t,;'lh,lIb:."<Cwill II rWllttlLtll1 O'Jtzynltl;,~ fllJ](;limn a~lil {JUt: 11'1' l\'I'O{ln:k;~ Orln.1g~ ergy 1)!!Im~willl ~ n:llOdili\XI[C) s('n'C tLI!;illlli):~m:t;,d subslttucs fur Ih{.'lC lie\,,' .g~I1{J1llioll1 (iltty!nc;;. IrI· n~Jltlll[lem{m:~ :-illow~y ~hfl:rlOlhDt prl]}'sfLrelmt[d.-I!S(~ dcc{li!t i~ ~ll1il'Cll)I' (la..s.i.1JIe 1I11l1lhc nCMgt~craL [.em I( 15~. lllorl.UIiOhi~l.y,~Jt(; (1lizymlll.i.c dl'Cn:ysmUli7.il~ U of CI1Cl'~.\I planlS win hllnOOrGhc ~f'l;Cl; cn~cOOillg liOl~pr.occ>sii:o oo~h criitk~1 IlIld roorly iJndcr CI1fl:YJlilC.S necessary for se:lf.d.cOO'lSlrtlCI:Loll. 3.oti· :>1000. mtd dlLIS OOlt'iidcrnb!e rcscmlCh is nooded to C'Jlham:c ~lCpcrfol:'manc\: .of ccHtlilllsc .action.!: r~ valiC'd before iDr'I,-eSl, or at the n0:n11id oonchlskm of t~IC growth cydc, ~.OOt. w lmprovc IthciXT[mlimlll<iC of,oeliulimscspri.. ~l<!iL~lyWQUOWI'~O 00l~1ISQj.: l~) Inlning d~"crsi~ to R,dm@D1u!!i and' INo~l!§ nnd new C'nzymcpamd igl'l'Is,alt:d ItI~)kl~owlcdgc!:11. A, P. (" f;j~ij', ,~n~y Po1ky ~4, 322 20!):l.J1, b<."ISOOIJ1:'011;:'i'n ,cngino;::nll1g. :r-or dlC lillter app.roadl 2. u.s. Dep,,!'!!M!t Q~ IEneJID': iQf!ic~ "ftlui' OiOOl!im, Progr.m!, w l~ dCcth"e. the ll1CCinnisllll of action orth~,;"c 3Q ~ 30 'I'l\1Ir~p, W<r.l~irrg~M,.DC" :!.ltlZ Iu,ii~~t ;::006 ('!I'!'M', ~G.i:~~!!;'~hQPibiGm!ii5S,gplll~ d ~1lZ}'l11~ fnlllc WllleNI of ~lC:ccllulOO'C' s'!.niilcc mlil=>l 3. Orii~~ of th~ m~Illil!~ ~~ggraiJI roSIl'l, 'MJJ~[i·¥eo~ .~ t!nticlI'tood al ~1C' m(ll~aDI[I: Icvd. Allh{}l!,!;;h .~.~
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con\f'C~iml lfIi'OCCi'>."!!;>; are OlUfOC1 ~\cb!le"'\lSlc ~~~cyrc in 11m1;:ticc~rnlay and a CX!J:;lll~~O~~ rUlU~ ~i:'()r~:ri~ is I. .. y for Ih~ pWlbl tC .[0 .~ [0 I,m\'i(;io!fl. Ai!.hough d~wiJlop~Ii1l !h~ !!(.,dUl.orngy frJl: ¢O~.(llll'CLV\'c- 11I1I0l{lr fi.l:dprodLI~Lioll by 2.(0)0 is C'l1all('\I'Igjn~, 1!l1C: dvaJlilo.'S in scic'mi~ic UL'lticr:· a s:t:.mclil~ IlCC~sary to 9ch1cvc bhi~ gonl appear ~mli~i&\I'c,.ni:! gCltcrnlp.'blh ro.l'w.[lr.d 8~mlg .he biological flte!.!:;'1)I'OdtLC~io:nI'OtUC wi] ~~lC'mil~re]y on m'l'io(llidal~ou Ofp~C5SiJlg steps, oo~hin lhe
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Sustains bHity and EnerglY
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JIUle. redLlcb'1g depeadeace on oil iftlll'{)fts trom po~iI.icany ilmslfilbic region.'> .. Rcnccwfliblcs are less polllll~il'l,£":. botil irnterms of'lloc.al eruiss ion s

(such <IS INl!l:lioLli<.1IJtes. sllIIll[lJIf, and I~d) and gg~nhm!S(' gases (,alton ~io;ii.idcOl_nd mctlmH'C')' llml, ~t~ global W;~ml~~g. hey ~1~<lI::lO '!lOP: l:;;Bl1t;1f~ T
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A~i:1I~ilgh I!1M;IUlolugicr~lIy It]SIWn;., SifmK~ ofdtc arc ItlOn:: ";""p'I.;iltc'ii \'C !han c!ltlrgy ~lRldLll;Gd rnn~ rOf,\\il Ihi,;'ls. Thill is; R!~melllabh~eli!~rg!y is o'n~ Olf '~l1e'most e'Uki:e-nt !,!fa~~'lo a,(hiev~s,ustaimla'bl~rt del;\el()pmei!1t~ Ilncr~il5~ng ~rr!.iOJlhll·ly !ill; C'lJS.Cfor tl~\,:: "~~cw ~'l:,'i.cW;.JIbl~." its s,iha~ ]n tin,e \llOdd liI1li:ltrilx \lfiUI help plr®lomlgj the eKis~el1lce o~ 'rossilfu:el ~eserv,e~. ,add re'r>!>Ute Tn-.u;liliQ:i'i;a1 ;OI:"i,'l'i~ [s 1~'t1,ucnl~y llL1t Iht: objQt1 of b thireats pOS<ed by dimate II:hiange" and enable be~t)erse{lnity ,of the energy slIIpply' en 01 'globa,l seale, OOl~]ni:i'eial 'nrul.ll,,'lllC'liO:It.';,1bl~(1 .i:t ~ don~~Lj~A. cVilIIl!to MQs:t Oit the "mmr w'~mfl'h!'i',a,bieIII [i)'II['9yoolm::es" are stHl II ndlergoin 9 ~.ar'g,e-nal~e c:ommen:ia,l jj,ll~iI... ons. c,'(e~p1 'Ill..: ~~t\·iroi!.l'i'rnmlones, COS! e ,d'e'I.!'e'~opm;~n:t.. ut serne te(hfllll'~9ies b are abeadly we~l ,~t.abtii~h~d" Th~e ~ndlJ.!de Brazmalll io Miglarif:;i:me ethanol, which" alt'llf 3'0 ye~lir:S Qr p:N)dilJdnQ[Il. l~il gllQball en~r9Y cQliI1Im.Ocdity tm .. t is 1l1J!lty !.:10ruti:t:Ib~.cs; be I!te InmdaJl1.Cn~1 bamcrfo wide. ~ll:'C1td OOOj")1ion of Irnilillamil biQmow. d~'pilA: i~ 'Gompet'ilive wHh m:oto,r gaso~iliu~aml appmprililite f'olr ffilfili.icatiionin !many c:m.mtries. :i!i~IJ'3C'lh;enc:~li'Olu a $!J.l"~i;litmhi lily 1~'X'i:ti\.'e. A ]l'lll1l1oorOr~lm~eglel1 ha:vc-bccn <ldoplCdi by 6.:;%, <Lilli reacwables 13i\%. The i<lI"J,CliI, Ill1LL\1. ~$. SU:.S'l!iIIitI3. blc CIl..C I"~y rllilW!.re de .IilCU.~ds oll.:an.' . go~'emn1ilJn~s in lhc ~!l(h.I!:Slri.dlii':cr! cl'lmllriQ1.!llild ~rnclil!i(ln;d blolll<l!l'>.'l (fl:. SII/(!. of ~Clml nrimmy 011" uncr,"'a~cd share or w'C.If!ClW'lbk: cnc~'. JCi5pCci;;IHyun(li}w::klpi~1gcounuies, O!l~ in~(lf!l(I!~iomd (~ni!1ci Ii1 in8lilill~im!S, te 'C:I1.{;~lmlge 1 ~r1!Y),which ij~ lQ8!Jdullllinly in~n~~mciC!!n W,<lYS. ~h~' U.~~1,of "n~~w f(!n~\~~ble.".:· ,[lllti Uli.:rt; Iw\'1.: of ,;I:It; ~!ll wOIys .H'C'ht.t~\i'c ~\I!r;:'h.. gn'lI.11 ~!>. by S!Udli~ ill highl}1 'polrU~;::lnl~rrimi.lij.\,,,: c(.IOkiug r.;;plk~~tting hlrgC Bnl!Zillumt Ilrng!':dll1 ofi;;Ug.;lIrihe :;:WVJ..~ u....d IIJ)! poor mral lanpu l,rti(lIlN. k':<idU~1g ; ~n been several successes, Im~C(J iQinl~lC: l!:SC of Ill:!!:. lbrc.<!k~ :<.L!l:lr:>idies. and fCf!c'wable p():nl'b~in .. ea lilt: l,"than[~I,i>I,lr:t(-,d, iU Lhie 1970::>" m~ny eases 10 dcfoxclllm.i(!u. ~,,~~~,I,~rd~R ps.~. E:'.\anupJ~. i!~ Ih~ ],~rgc gw\\rlh l 1hl,; Wodd COIl!H1~!'ifl:~:r! E'~w~rollm~nl an-d on The '~'I"'W ''''''H;iwabTc IC'n~!:gY :ii0>1.[L"(."!;"'" .lmOlQlH t D(l\ld(lpm~'~l {\VCEDl in. ~9S,1 d~f:ill!~d ··l'OliIflW I ('i ~x<~illiJl:!"~ EJ = I 018' j t er 3.4% of (h(:l !((lr:~non;::han 359,i. I~f }'!I,'.(Uf. 'l.U:M;;iCrlfom .:1.ilcJW (I i ~:i:ul]~iblc dcv~3npiJt1.~!n··OJS d~vcl(!;prl1lm.l. Ih~1 wr;ll. nh~c ~ 5im~u; m. 'bre-:<Ikdowl'l of lilt' cOTI· fu~1.9L; ~·.alu(l) rOt wind ;lI.nd $t'!~.mrpllOl.on.o~~!ni(,lin "uteetsthc n(:edl.~f 1I1.~ pICM"'~l \.",itir'imn eom- triDtnL'O.ni ofm::w renewablcs, which iileiLldc &n1Ill.i11 illth.IiS;~'rirrdu.a::dC:01JII111.ri('S, su.ch~~s Deltrnark, G~ro hydrop(l\¥<er plr~ilis.. M~I:I)' or 1J1cse ~J:!Cllll"'1o.;gic:;, umliiilY, SlPlIli:J:l,and lite lI:niK'd St:llJ.cS (4')<, These p-romisili!,; the mMlily of fi.lture g.cill!.Xf~1 talllS to k'ChllClJagics. lUX!' slowliy spreadil1ig IJC:'I dcvc:llll)inlg nIle!!l. rheir own needs" 0). The elusiveness or 9I"C &~~11 ul'ld.c.goil1\g large-scale cormuereial such ZIden nilioll ims Iccl·t0 tmend illg di scussiens colln,"ics~hroLl£h several slratc'gi:t:'S. dcvel:c~I~~ne~n, jnd.!Jdil'lg so!ar, wind •.g.cmhC'~mall. <lI:lHongsocial s(OC'll1h,l~ I~.!!laming the mll;lin~ng or ami modern biorn:l.~. 'fhe ~ruyC$t p:lut n. 9% of In dc"l'doping. countries.me best c.xampl'c of "n.!LIU'[:'Ic gCI1Cm~imlS,." ~hel(lJ!JI) is modem ~i,onl"'s~ \\il~kh refer.;: 10 :! la'Y~ grow~h in the !J~ Oi.·l1CllCW.wIe;;:s !!lIven i .ilo'WIC'vc'{,in Ihe case of CIl!l.:r,gy, (;,1'i:h.n~qibiJ,c b LnmM" Ilfi,l)dllce(]~ll ;<II s~!s!ainab~c \;v:l)l ,mId lI~d by ~11C:':lI_g·<U'cam:.:' clh<lllol pmgu;<lm in 1f3.r.aziL Too.JY. ethanol prodlJJctioll nUnl Sll@<lrc.tilUC in dlC Ib.x, i~hl!cb ~t!PJ~.<,(.m! OOil41 of!~I\;, Im,d \i\fOirki .. ... lOr (l]oC~.i!i~ilYg~!1.t!f'~io!m, h~l~11I'O(hll('liol1. and a Cmmlil)' is Ui ~nUml ],iters H.2 bi~liOJll ,~1~.lon~} ~"'~nspnt1;niQn of Jliqllidli;Jdfi;. h illcll!ll(l'c~ wood (';nt·~ r;ll~)Il'·~Y, A!CO'~~iil;~!l~lJlfOd'U~tion~!l'd ,md f()OC(S;[ K~idl!l!('$ fmll'l.f!;.~rblOi~[~Olll;mdl'or rcryc:!r. ['CClllljri~g ,armmd :; ~nillionlll;X1illi1."S or con!i;Wlmp~~!m"i111'rfC!\(;lltly kflowm~ '['l~T\r(~ ! of oi~ wiHI<JS!,llflIDld 4 ~ ;(C'ars,~iIIltl!ral~ 64YCllfli" sUSl.ai~<ltbleflJl~lrmgclm"HI. 18 Wil.;'li :~ !1J[al'~a:nUrml I OhlfKI. The COIT!IJelilion ~or land 1I~ between food < ",rid eoal ~55 ~1I~':ii( .. Alilll\lllgh !"CI)' SUH1[[1'li fiw. ,md <l:Yr'.iclIIlli1.II'II) and WI n;.'li.idlll,'S '1."m:::111cl ing ol'l1d !lId has HOi hOC'!11 '~Wlbsl[:.mlu'I~: SUg.;JI["G.IalC rb.m
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A

~(j

,mcl~ .nrr~tII~y:;.ili illlmt~tl';S '!If]:)Y lOSl'iill ~lId:;. c:.. nntnl.ix, c:(m~,U~k1{xiI fl,~ 1~]cworrM's Jrol1Lili so.uroc of Cltt'tgy lor more !Imlli «tllC or hVO ~lC'tfu~i()liiS. Besides lhe l'>.'>iljeof dcpkl1icm. [o$$i]1 Iite!1 IJ.~ p'ut::s~n.u>cr.i.o'[j.~clw~rom'l1lenmll rrobl:cms. rani.c~ s IlIIl'lirly 8joball w,<liu:rlli~,Ig. A~so.~llci r prodlLCtilllfl Cl)st~ ',""d~:I, in.crease' a:i>1\'~C'tveS, ruPIII;\()<lc!~ c;dmus-

,Ill

n

solidw,l!iilc and li.quid ~rlhllcn.li\). Frollil1 the ptr:;ptt':l.i\r,!..~ of sl!IIi'ilfllinmo!].ccJI("rgy dC\lc]!olJlmCilll. !"CneWtdliks orc: widdYlllvrrli lob It::. cllSmnlll,lgU'C'.,mcr :.cclllril:Y of lhe ,el~y SlIPP~Y

cov~;r:, ~O'JA. 0 (10m]' CUI~it~vm(,;d!alld<lind ~% of to,ml b!~d available !'OrrligricLUI~LJ:n::ill I]~!;; cOll.rmy. TOH~I ;ug..'ilI'C,\ii:m:; fltCflI (fo.r sU~fllr ~nd Clil!l110~j s crop i$ 5.6 ~ini Illiob'llhcetflOCS.

~ion allldas mo~ C'Xf)cUlsi,\'ck..'Chtldogla arc l!fC<i ~o CXl)iJm'C ,mnlcK~rncl less; <lUmctlvC fl.!'50tlrCl'S. F~L101!1I)'. thctc<l!re i~lCrerulialg CO~~CC'I1!.'" l:or,hc .~mity (llf ~he oil Sl!I)jl,~y. or,igirlmillig mni,nly ~fom il(lli~ic.ally !iJ11"'ta~l~ IlClliolli.'i. of thc '1,,'oridi. E~~l)~ ror m";:]~·,u 'CI!1ICI:gy. I hCIHOS'1 likely alwITlOJ!tivC1''0 IQ~'iil~lu:~!l, OIl'C!1.mCW;_lblc ~Ol~~ .~I~II;]~ ]rlydrut;I(,;~~~~c. 11," bi(m~,I::>""', wi Il.cl, ~~)I 'lr. glVlhcml"~. <Iflo. .Vrlmint;: 'tidal • .fi§1,I1\~ ]1 :;;~IOW;", ih~ 1~~I:e."';IJ:I. ","odd .;u..:rgy ~I~,.;, :FOSS:i:~ItIC($lt Qil. coal. ~.nd gru.~JiCpR....·.Cllli:'lo' t % l of dte to.1fi1lworld Cll~rgy ,sllJ)ply, llll,clca;' (;Ir~v
L!lm~'J{f!r!iHlI' i!d

II

!i~.d\~rOO@lee.ltip.br

sao

P;)wlo, S,j]@ P.illIlo.,

Elr.lI:~il~ lE.·m~n ~

III
A:el'leWH.I'J:f,e:!il: 13.6t11%.

'·Pr'~s@l!Ill~~lIWlt<l1Y far tl'1l!' IEnliir,j]~InI!fll; S'i:<liVi! Silo o~ PiluW" BraliL

IFig •. 1. W'or~ciIt.otal ~dmalry ,energy :supply ,2004", s.m,res ,of 11.2 biHion ~:O'i'ISoiffoil ell!luh!ailimt. 4'70 EJ (15, 16).

O'f

SPECIIIALSECTION
:ProdUCI,iofi

()fcthrun{),1

:r~Xlll1: :>LJg:fl~11l,~can

~~

wilhoi!l~ SCi:iOLI~ d;)l,m<lg~ to l1illLH<l1 ecosystems, ~Voj'ld\v.i;dic. ,~9I1lC 20 mUU,ml hectaresare used for growing S~!,g<lr:;"lle. mos! lil' for :>I_gill!' IWOO!;luctJ;{lI1l5). A s rnnp'J,c C;lJ!C\!a~b'O:n ~~(I'wi'~hm ! c;<i~~nd ing!hc ..
Oilh';.iiCOllinlUi~ Ilro~T<!m by 01, r.1,l;:wr or !O ~LI;" ;;;tl~,Lddij~i(m;a! ~ij ll!i~liGn Jh;:~~<1I:\;-S S.~I~~'1;;"IIl:~ of iLlarn;!illlnd il~ oah~'TC'o~nD[rc:s,)wm,ll~ S'Llpr1y C'ltough dh!ll~oJI iorel)~':;LC~ UJI'*' orlhL: gll:i,oJlinll
~1ITW!!!iwlL;'~h"r!L1'~

rcpl~:c:aJl~d inl

COI~Lllrnling one-;~cml or tl'lc I,om~ mnOll.mt ofhill'd f clirrency (milll e;':I)()t'i!s, i\1t~lOli'gh h was a dieeision m!adc: lry~'he r~Clern'll gon:mmcn.t d~lfin£ a. mi litmy regi unC', i~ waswell accepted ll)' dtc cl~~' ill fl(IiC.i,~.y."S ricu ~u,!rnl ~~QT, and ear I!Ila~lU t~C"tlWl;lffi, Simil "'Tpg~~ci'~ a rebei I~g 'C011Si,dcN'~ by ~!w EiII!fOP~l Un Kn~,J<lll.;m. ;:an!d ~-ev~ro~~~~c.~~!l

DY 20i(J~ cLhfLlllOI became ~LII:lly (:ou'IIpclitivc whh g~,ollia'I'C enjhe iiillclmll;l.orla:1.mmt.c~s ,v:!th·

g,ovcmancilt intervention ct.hano~, IJrOOm::t[Qf:Iare <I Ih:ing 13ir.:lzfil (Fig, .2), because 1l~\'\1 ool'len, ~rQm lhe ~o('1]J{lm~C5 Qf
~)Ul

Subs,idic.'!: fur of the paM in
c~l<lJm~r:I.<l~ns

scale >llld

~lC

in a]iU;l w{lir~d.Th i!l. [and ,ifCll :~~ <l MliI,IU fr..(:~in~ Bf lhc !11n!\,;limn ~ b~Uimt h(;cl;,ucs of
ll\'<C'd

~irJ.lib1iry t'ru~

in hca{Hy haNl';ii;E.~di m~ ~hl['rl.~MiJC"1_

\V.lilli.

;'V'.I:>

th~ :proc~,,:; lhm ('$I!libl i~h~d ~~ rol111y

~h~ ~J~!il~-dSt'I~J;"S. S!ll.cl1 :1 :pl~!it-'Y d~cii.<i.orl L"I'C,UICd 11 ~:tl:'lrlbL.,j:ror dhmmi" a1:ldpr..ocl~d~()1f1i.ll~;rca:>~~ mp,idl:y.Eth. ann! O:~[5 dcdilic;d <!.In¥!g "~,~mi~g eurve' ~6) ;1 ..S IjjJ.'od~ct;on ill(;"",I~\:"d ~Un 'Ivl['mgc (,.% I'iot;!" 'C.. r, } !'min'i U.9 billicm glIUM:. i~l '~9&O lo 3.0 billiOll g;IHQj'i~il~1900fUUid Ill! 42 billli:tii::1 g{iilllm'il> iin.

~m;l!!lern]~hno!()gy .'~~'ili!:;i!l)~~(I'(I<lY. :"tI!cli!~I;S. !I]II;; lilfi~ or hililh·IlI:\o"""~P;' ~oull.ip;. 11l1l! ,,110\\/ cogL~IIL'miion o:f 1;k.'1,:lril;: ~ly, with sILnphL'M,.'i! sold

no

lh~ c1m:it:ic p()w~r .!!!IridL The Bmr.i!ian Clll<!IllOI progr;un ~Wrl!cd OJI~
way
IG

IJI~ C~~l::.li1olp-rogr.'[jn luI lJrdz~ 1" r.~11 ~fit\:' ~le

1:~nOs. Ihe Bi'iOOiian Federnl GovcriH~"eif~ mandated
fhc ~ni:.XHH:e 0

(blends up to 2 50/~) and Cll'C()1.I~d ca r mak!C1'S ~o preduee cJ\S,incs ~:lIIg~~lhl~ (Hl tplllI'C hydL<!i!OO
cdm!1:ol O·OO'~~. Broz~hml <I(_rol~!ionof m:m~

rm~ ~l)iclirollls cthan{i.~ :iIII ~as'Q~i11,1:'

dalti'r:ll Il.'guhniou!:t> dCb':!rmi~.li"g IhL;' ,~mnOlll!l~ C'lhOll1ol u[~be 111Ii::.;.cd wilh Wl!it~linitC (b.~;ic'III)'

or
.11

lOOt,. The (iOi>t of (!I.hfuna~ iuli 9,fmwr~~ ~Jl~ j)roxi~nlltel)' three timi~ 'the CMt (if ~'>('Ili ~~C.Inil £ovcJ.nnt~nl:ail ci.los%lIh~tdiC'S paid fer Ihe price dUlbrel1i«' ... the: Innn,). The s ub-:1.idics, eame mo.,,!I), rrom .ta:,'!,.~ OllSOls·olin:e <lIld we~ thus Ilaid ~y <I!.u~()I'lIIobil'c ,dr! \ICUl'. AU r~cll~f~re~ were commlkld by U~~gOI\,I\!lmmc;m. O\~L;'m!lsl!b.s~dim;,
~o 'L..'Il:ianfll af!.,~ ~';)l!ijll~,u~~~d b~ aBound lJSSJO [0 Mllim~ O'VCf 2f! yem~ (7~ but weft: more than o lli~l by Oil tlSS5Q billl ion i:1I.>d1ll)C'tiQIl nl",}l!lmlcllm

n:~u~ the rol,i,niCC Oil oil iIlil1rorn..~, but it Wm;; ~OOjj r'~ li'l(.,o thf~t :il h11d im'iport[l~il en,Iii Itlt'ifiilel1l!11 antd s.c.ci91 bCii~fll~ (8 ~ ("cmV('r;s,teJI1, to ~Ihfil'io.~ 9~kiWed the pllfiShl!il-OUi lead adl· d~jd.v~~mtd MTBE '~mcl.hylll.Cit1~arybmyl clh~i'l

,i

or

and i'Cdu~ed .~lL~fUl'.P3:rliclilhilC nmncr. and carbon monoxide emi~siol1."\, h h~~~d mi~i~,te grcenh(}Llsc ~~ C'J.ni!>. i(ms enidcntly. bY~laviUlg s a 1I!!.11 pc!$:itf'vcenergy oojl>!!~~c1.: t~ne\7i.' .. ble cn~rgj'
OWIlUl

versus ro..~i! Iud Jnplll~l, 0I!~,o. \l.llllg<9!1:c.me
()rn;;1i).

td!,~nt1~ in Br;izi I
andis

less

Ih1I1lnthl,,'II' ~U~~,'ll

Rem.:wablc Pm1rolio Stm~(j"rd rOIi H!el) 'WOl.<: Cli.~l11i .. ] WllI!c S~C(:I;.\S$ !l!e' pmgrn!111. The r!lOli\ .. ~iol~was I.a reduce oil ~mpo!1l~!ha!. \'~'(;$C

or

fcdmCll:01ll.lcS,1'0.1.· clh.mol prodll!cl.ion a:lb:l!c 2,

compC!i!l\iC

wllh

g;i!~~inc

in Ule

Ullil.~d

i!11~um.",•r.~of !hc end or 20m'io. Si!lOO the' 1990!l . :;,u'b~idi~ 1],1\1.1,; b~L,,~~~ 11ItIgJ."I,,,,",~i\"J.;'I1' n.'rnm'~-,.d,. nd a

S~"!K~., even ~~~1;;"idCiI]!l:O;: Ih(lu~n~}(J'!,! d'!.I~y or USS054 ~rwdloJ~.1lJld ~'I~ll!y<dr!(;u~ney 11:W!l1O!n.

liillb le 1. "New reJil ~'1.able-$,." by :SQlI!r·l;;ei~2CJ 0-4 {.:Hi); updaled with d~tal from (4,. 16}, A:)Sml1l.ed illv·~mge ,mm.rerrs10n ,~fHde,rIc.y; for bi.)<IlI1I.~~,In.e-at, 135%; biemas.s II!lwriCity, 22.'o/~; bJlllmass C:OI1il~
MI1IM heat
,[I

lull pm~ew ,(CHP), 80%; '£ilealn,e;rmlilill

ll()oo",.-----------------------------~IE)illlanOI ~riC!l<~ rllraziil illl -Aonerdam ~;l!fiart g;noiliilll pliQ$I

....

'l1'le(~ri(i~y"10%; aU O'~Il>E!f~"00%. ]
Se1l!I[lce/

2004

t@~hI1il6Iogy Modem lfot!3J~ EI:ioetil<l!ll!D ~

E)!.1joule!>

(1m

Sl1(1fe J!f! 'tills 'l:·e(I'I!~f

bio.rlUI£:!l

fJler9¥

9!.'Ol 0.67

BiodiQ.s~~
E:b~mricily Hc~t 1i()ti9J~ IHeotricily
HeM

0!07 1.33 6;9~ (i€I!lI'h€frnul eMt9Y
Hl9 0.28 CUI:O

0'"1-----.....,,...-------.----

o

....... ----

......

----...,...-----'1
E! ra2i I.

Small ilytiroprJW(J'
15.12

H1tfU:I' el,ecufcity
1,5'0

''IIitn ttl e price' ef

IFig. 2.

'Uhalnoll!Ulfl'lil1lg! (l!N@ iin 'II\(!Jlume, (®m~aring!llhe· pri:tle paid to '@'~hn,ol ~rodlllC:@'rsill '£iI<!SI1l,I!l ne' in th'ei Illte:rIflCi.'l:il1l:na~. rna,rht 'elf Ro:U.errdlam(6).

50$(.1' l!Jt~~ HOil wOliler
phOiWv@~tJt i ;2,.5'0 ;2,.37

Co~t
(US.S P ~r g,lllorn}'

0,06 Sl!lga,n;~ne, BfOJ~l 2006. m'l.ih!;lllitinnpart ~iI:I: :;t006. m~Jn U.s. imp(1I11;al'! S IlIgalr Ibeet, EJu,rope, 21003
Cilml" U.S" 2006
C~'~lll~~S~th~ rI~~US, ~ AA;1ii~v~(I 1111 2.(1(16

Eflf:'i1W biolID<lnJ£;;e ~ren,e:w,a:Drre- OIUpl1lt to,fDssf~iiil.pm)

e~~ctri'dl}':. rid g
"hQiW~@ltai(. 0106 e~l)\aridl}':. QH"'9lrid 1i1h:e-,I1lf1:a.l ele~trlcit.~ (U)1. Mar:lllf fllerg (lidm) 1iQt~~ Ol~ll

0.81

(if)

:1.35

()?, 2:.89 (17) :LDI3 (1:1')

in
.2.1. (19) :Il.4 (!", 11)

]'0"0
2'.2'$ {U) 1.'D17 ($.:1:)

(I.n

i~rge-tror

2.0:l!2

w"fM"sdenc-emBg.,org

S·CW~I~IC~ VOL 315< 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
lies lJ.O% or less w:ith modem Ilcxiblc rlilel vohk~ 1.(l(.JlijlO~Qgics)19), The summer wholesale [Jr.i,QC £as{)l~l!Ic lnjhe United S!~MCS,is albOMI S I. Q per £;]'11&1:!l:Lc ~Il clh,mo!1 whole",a Ie (l,1'i:o: L~ <lJxllmd USS25 1[l!C1,'gallkln UO}, 'CC~]'Ukl~ c~lmnoi U~;)I. pll(IJn~s~l1goption ill!he long ~t;'TIli! .. lnl! i~!lQ~ 'b.r;ing prodt!lC'OO (In a QO!1!Q.~ f!.ll;,.'il.; i:.l.! lWol:I\;)-" Th", ~OIlEl,~[-i,ql-'~ t<Jf!&~a ; s ~=-I{)IIi,\' 1'. ~
The C'ihfhnlol pr~lrmn i:uBrut.:iI w!l:> bilSOOOJl
]J[]l

l.lil~l!j;
~;

"lih!.rd Sh~~

,0000d glI~ pm~" ~ ,~p
IiM!I'N.UYIDlb;r.(~

or

ind igc'llo!jst.cchnology (botl~ inl the illtdt!! $Iriml and agU'Jil:lll~turn.1al'C~) and, in eonuastto \\'illd Oll]d sob. ph(ll(!!voltai~., does not dC'PCtHJ '00 illl])Qro.. an 01 he teoc'll'I1C1.1!Ogy be lrnllf>lc.tIioo III C<l1f1 (Hhwcl,~\'cloring cPl!11!ric..~. Um~! T~,.,k1!u'O!.I~l ;ql!mlrl.gi~ l}t,;"l;9!HC 0011];b b
~11l,,1'Jt'i~ll~y'~.Ilk. :m ;;I1(,,"J11!~W :B!!1"."'l~~y~i_"'I:o;: \ M:my ~lmc~'Ping Qotm~rics hav~ :su~l~~~I~ cenduti(lliiS 10 o:.xpand aud rep~~clltJ.: i:hc Br.rdtillul ~LIg."L~l;1111~ pmW'~lu. sWlppbblg~hL; w.Gfld·:s (',din!;'; niator vch:ic~~~w il.h 11 n.~:nc,·....bk;. cfllci· . ~~n~LI~II.

3@Mmh 2OilI6; ~Iilblfil!t

m~~!'!er~OO·~hilld-~·~w~
11. M. IPa&i~o, IU.S. ~m!m'l~ rn1~(ommlt!N!' 'I'lif!~ilil1l~I!:elli~~t~ flreI S~,,~d\1lNiI~ (NlatiC!f'!~~ Rtnew.a~I~[rn,r'liI!i' IM~~O!1O!'lIBiQ~~rW' C.enilO'l.1!9 ~1l~'~OO ~); :!1Ii!ill<im~~~I.Iittp:lfol!m~r~~~iI ~.tt!~wMicJini:lru:. dm1'1~f'rirtl-1lrue&r~s~iQ!l-...H~rrim~~,

~!~tm:r.

6{} c<C'~~i'"per g:,tl1nll. b~,

d~~iS,,.. i~~,"",quirl~ I1m1~{Jl' USS I.{I' per

advaisces i!lprotili:cimg:, t:{lik~ing, and OOJ'I'\!(."rl· ing bi(ll!1Il~IL"s.AU!ltil'cre"llislk n.~~ rch l.a!1,lc! I:;' ...
'~of(,l(,hoc;o[;.· cos~ of ~l:(mluctiol!q !n I~it;'
g~,lIm~.,mt:i~ i 2m2

w~~·

]·~!'Jn~S.liIiI~i'iiI!L1fi=,l!l.~!itll\lil~L1iD='M27. 10m c_om e1li<loo1, 'Iif@ ~~ (4), 12. Wilf~!I B:a~~ "'!Haw lhe Woold' (b!1k'~_rJ:jy~r~m~rt ~It~!I'I ~ d'irnall;i ,ino ~P(!~1e ~1t{Jff' ~/I'I'orl,li~n'l:, 5t!lllilril'iM~2006~; .!r\!"ilalii~~ ,M mm,iI1'ifS.~~iml!t~

The; dcv~lopmm:.i'i1 .of mhc:r biounasto:~deri",~ ~ildtl in Bmodll of d~whcre could IJcI1cfit lrom suel~ ill :;:i£,ht~,Pl:omisiHl:: eand td!l~~S!Ikli1,1;j~hQ,~c lines are the: foHowin~~: lc
I ~The' PIll7H:! IIndfoH of ethanol :tll'om cc.~hlll:osnmlC!I'IOllI)1" \\'h ich 51 ul~ I'C{IU ~res cons>~d.'crllb~c

on

~n. ~

Rerere~u:es and, INOles
1, I"hllilgd INalno~5., Report 01 .(h~Vi'o:il(! Cj)i'ijm~iijl1, oil

lEl'!iI>iilMfli'lMt:llmd i)f!'{,[!tJ),prrnf!nl, UlI1111!dIrmlom~ ~n@f'~'L ~~ mbi..)', ~~'h p!~l!)!' m~.i!l!~~ 11 ~~~b~ 19~1. IDa(l.ii'fllMt JRf~lJlll/; A ,:l;WjII~IiIi! ,'l:~\mhT.U1i,~ OOcl.ilnlB,llIti'ganMJlll,2tilIe"!42-187 Jilltm. ,~ IEritlsh f'etrot~Ii!!]lI~ 8:P Stalij5ljCi!lll!le'lii~ of Wo!lt!! I:nerg)!'~ ..~ib~reo o:lt Wi!II'i.!Jp-~om1l;l{@!l!ls~~I!J~in~!ltiIiI~~b,~I~fl.i'

i:p(ll$o.lid w~~~.cs.waNlJ.>"'W$Il(:t., indU~lrial iCmUelllr&. s waslC'$ \\'.ill ahate .~ cUli!>irlcrnbl!c share of greenhouse; gfl~ t1i13!twollki bcrc.I\:llSi.....a Wlh(! mrnos;pltcre. repilac~ng ~1~C!fos.~iJ ~ilcJ~ for il'-'3t Hild Cll::Clri'c i~yproduction,
~11dl1.'1mIUlfiC

R& D cl1:br! ~cfOire 1'(,'OJ!Cili Ilig I he prodll!C'~ iOI~ sWI.gc. I r [hclcchnoiogy for such CtJil1'~rs ion I:;; e ~~nll~)pl,,'Sn,~~li~h~d. it ~",'olll(j OJX.'H! ti!1t!'r11101lliO Of1'" r(Hlllmil~ for the use ora~] kiml~ of wood mw (Hiler blomass rC(.od~ockfi, rol' cllln,lnolllrOOuClion, 2) The c!l,hUlHt!i.ld use of bwf,lll." pmda)1~C'd fUlIl1 nmic!piii~I t'l'nl·~lCr;:.;iori Im:tlf,Hill~ WIWIII ieill ot

OOdlgr,i:WdI'~~erWil'llpc!liI:ffil'i~l'918(J.6,ptill. Erj)bi!id. S. Tb~ li!!miliral. us, EUiaii'lOIIOOm~tit: OlIM rf<ld~ Df~IDrlillf1i5: ~m,pacrQru 1).,$. arldl ltr~nLijilll EthanQ!l, ~!I!~ (W~t'i'¥.! PiI!!Elr O;6"1!{;!!42:7 Ol;lilbef ;:!@III6), i)'o'ill~i!tll~ @1_.~rd;~OI~-ed~tllic.ali(illfsJ D&SiPfilf1F~_t.!iLl~2f.flidl'. ],4. U!.$., [!e~alillmeillt Qf AI.l:ri,uL'iJllr~. E!;lil1!lil!~l!Iglhe !l\IeIt ~~QY ~~ntl! cf Corn EJ~n~ H. ';;h~pouli'l..~, A.. Oullitld, M, :5" G1,a~f ~lU. Oep1irll'lWlll of ~MuILrLu~~. ~l;\lJ1_i~ ~~r~h S~IJi:', 'Of!lio~ of ~n!l!"91. ~riU!l1ur.a. ~mle ~~j!Qi'~ 11.10n:tl; a!l$ibb~' ;:jl """",,~!e-rs.u!i!l~.

cr

gCIYJ\PilibLlc;J~onS!\\l~mllAER72 [JPO'.F•
~,5. W![)P, U~I)(EAA. WK,li'ilDrtd ~efgil' llism:!I!TlBIlI: O!I!I'I'ii!w,2lOCi<1: tliId\!J1!o (Uni1ied ruitf!lln~ ~!lllpmi!'l1t f':roguam,. 'llmnedl N\aliDn~ [)t,pilfllrn~mt d [ro,oom'( ,~~d Si!d~ AJ{;ail':l, WarUdi IEI'!~rsJ.~()~a]ci!,;woi~}; ~~l!i!M.e al C lII'olM_urndp,nngten~ITg))'~(M;!r200=.h1rn. il6. iEA., Key world ~~@r[1 ~1a1'I:!iIk!l (l11'~mlIallll'i\il~~~rg-iI' ~~m~~, 200~); a'l'ii!i~b'l!lat~j~,,,,~~ddL !!p:(litl=:H~" 17. UiSDA" 1he l'tttifOllilfC kaJrb.ilNy of .~thmld Plod.fJditJII fiiam S!)I9~~ 1m' rhf .r./m-rw' Swle'il runr~e'~ S~!oe~ ~"'I'fi!!Ii1! o:f IigffaJltIJ1l),.2_)'. ]1:8. I.. C. MOl~i!d". ~(';rNlm~.Mt ~~ "ifliMi!on~ ,!W1dl n~l'!l1i' ~ ~aL~!i!~fj iQ bic-e1JlT!ilJl()1.~llrol!i~mCl!1J ~m;! iI!'j~ im Eif,;uil."; D\03il!!im!~ ~I._~nkl!.oof'l'l,Ii!rf'~~agl!'Ym~(!'f3'if!dr. Ii'l\D!XII;. A. i;3wem, iec!tmol_'6qr Uililmi !fe'I!iBV!' amdl ~... i;lQn ~!;rl!t~~~! ~""il<!i 1!11'rem~j,.;~!!.m~~q: 'h!t;:b; irn,h 1f,J((' '(!iJlliti!d ~i'I~d~m D~p:Ylrnten·~ IJlff~fi~iiI' <lIiIti imdli!lr)!' ~PDIiIIBJ'iiJ2IO07;e~s.rru:lp URNI t)3mm:: i!\Oaill!!b!~ a! ~od~t9P\'AlkfIIrI~i1J!15om3JPI1lI.

g1ob<l'LI\fl_u~ertglilllLl~wll(atr!llnW.M~'!U_~f:iM_JO!J6f s:rJ!i.GI~GJt~u~i~(iWii1g~!JSIil~·d~mee!~ Sl1I.ti~liralre1li!w.J~IlJ1!!POi\.W!:IlIiibo~;wo6 .:tI.t 3. I, (iohBemcerg. "Tho!, I.:.il~ ref rein~ble tml1fgillS"'
i~c~'~~nd ~\lIIMirlOf fh~ !!iI~e'Il!lalign~1GO!lllere'll'lie' ~r ~ IRtm~~~ lEfi'!!rgi~~. ~.fiil1 .~4); availlatJr~ .ail.~ "~i!lt'l\i1ID'lt~0IiM.dBiIj)tnj~bplfeNn·f.!!tliM1ar~,.fIiI~. Om jaM ~~i3I~, ~. iROOi. GIbIMI. SI.!tu~ f)ii!p!.'lli: 2006 iJi,pd~l~ (R~m~'2ibLl! Ene1WIPQ1Cl'~l'I.'I\1lI11'! funl'!e 21~HJent~!t 2006~ ~'o'ailil~t~ ,<IIWiM',I'!!:Ii1'·:!.,J'!~gffoR~G~UOO6~U~~1~,j;Jdf, S. IFACI. fAO)TA.l ~lin~ N\!!mi1~ F.oOil .ail'IeI'! ,;!i.giii~llU\J~1!

em.

3) 111£·use ol"r\lamiXl rmut.s rOl"dilc IltOOm:lion of C'k'!:'lnci~y ,either by direct OO[lllbt.l~tion or by ,~,a.'\jlicalio:n and 1l'W of hjghliY cm;icm g.~" lUT"blues \'\J.m<1lso replace cITkiclltly coo II. ltaluml g.a...... oi I. and even ~lIl::I~1:lU' :smlltics. RcFoflC'MOO wood can also l1i."dUJ;1i:: dre 1lf."'C-d rorddo~l.td tile! wooo, ,oont!'O~l~r!g CmC~'1!l~Y ro]c;.se,~ of gL'!i,1C~~~ ~'I(lU~ gase.:. Uu'OuJ!lh 1ll;lItlC'[.lfiC1!ld'ly inili;rriw;:.&_

(Jrgilililililan, ,~OO6)~ il\I~i!iibl{!lllrttf1lirJI1llMIlliUilMK.II ~d~~I~~i!i!pL ~ I, GaI!!i!f!'Imerg'.S. 1. fa!lM. O. IlIKan" i? HI.. NMI:~r~ 6irlm6M 8Jl.lt'lIt'll1' 2.l. 31)1 (21)(111), 7. 11_GO'~etPb~.g, s, J. (oellili!, O. WtO~. f!lftgy ii'~ :l!.;!!~ i 8. ]I. G. riil Sl~. G, IE, 'serl1'~, ~,It oflllfOJ" J. 'C, Ca~~, M F-'~mbHg. 56~ 20:1J. 91H (l',illll), 9'. 5. T. Co~lIiIo., J, GoId~rrlb1!fll\; '0. IW:rnn" 1:'. Gl:l!Irdal1i!s$, ~1'l!'lmfllYl 10. 26 t200'6i'. 'Or! e1iI!a!lal iIIl!!fi!1"l iIl:e
iLW(1')l UU'IOlOIMI.

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M!iI ~

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lor ll~hll,ilIimj~1iion~

IR,e'Dlelw,sbllle' EOlellr'gl'Y ,Source!:s, I, n dl '11hlll' IRea, Ii'liii'8!S 10it ,S ani Ing an IEID,e!lrglY A,gendil8
linE!· ElIIr(lpeali!. (Qmmf!~~i(ln

The BIIl:opcall {_·mmnis.\.ioII has bccn dcvo~~ ill,g considerablc' ::u~cmiml 10 el1ergy issues. for. SO'll1.C linlCtlO'W, We were IC!ldcrs il~ tltc' I)J--oecss !Ilm brougln ilbout the KyolD P,~owcoi and have schl'me 1n [1l.'C,"",o'rld. In March 20m,. we lrub~ishoo a (:i[iI.;'CnPa.per m~ 'cu~C'rgy (2). which ",'e imvc now.m~he beghmfl1(S .20{);. :folof km'tlQ l!pwhh ,) :iitrn~cgi' cm:rg.)ri p\lck,lg'c (~~) <Jtcld!r."S~ing\.'V~Q1:gy polic}' in g,f".'ltu,~1 ,m,d, al:l:{Dmn~
i!1,g

dc'''C'~lollecl t~c

nrs~ ~ru'sc-scah;: CIMissiollS

tl'ad-

lining

.r~l!l~FC

E~liInl)l,....m po~!.cym~V;;_1!:i(.}\!!'> :;pcci lie

P1erHlel;:llV>e'de~crib ~ Ilt5e, ,md the mh~lllait

ret:~iIlt prD grle~,

has been dell'(JIl'in,g ((I[fIs~de,rab~eaU~I1I~lll'Jl'!to e·li!e~!!.w lSSoll!es...wMs il'l EUl10pe tJ)'~'I\Qlrd achieving gill'a I5r(l~ rell~lo'I'.able eli!~~g y ted'ltlD~egy (:dIf1i play, als wel~. a:!; me newSnateglc merrgy Pi;lc:k,aye., imll1lcClbcy o:f !;hec·hallcng~.s suchal;; 'CI1OJ:g)' slipply.~hen tll~ N,POI'iLlOward! the end of last YC<lr lly Si r N ich('i.~<lSStem (I) on I ilC cCOIromics or dimil~(! dlilng:c anus!, stl,re:l,y Ilil\'C: mng 3. '" <lrning belt

I,llll;.~n~n~,

llcr~'\"is Il.u'IdoLlbtcClly moving liIp lhepol:i.I1,I;;)I1 <lgcIlJa<l as iil:tl iSSl1C I h.n flOCoCds to be 3Qchsgd mgenl~y. ~r YCiiiJ":1:~hre;]j~s ~.~~. io Eurorx:an g."1S::;UIPP ~ics during th~ diS-p'IJLe bct\\un Ru~i3. <Iud Ukraine did not s~ow Ihe

E

OI1~; or ~h"-,,,C':;.pcd lie clCU1o;;'ll.IIlWm bt; ~ht; ChlbQnLl~ml ill (h...::1E1IJop'l..";mlcv,d ofa SIn<liC-gut: IGncl'g:'y Toc:hIfIO~{lgy Plan (4). R.~$~afC'h UIila: Ic>chllo~~v ""iln tlnd:Oubt!oo~:y be cruci.~ to crn.ck-

illg the CllCI'l;-OY,Uldi clinm,m,tc change nuL .A re~cnl :snnJy pttM ished ~ y~·he El~. ~f'!can Co fiIIm.i:sSiQill {Fig. I J {:\;." s~mw:s. dm~. ire .... il~!illg~~l1,ds

SPEC,IIALSECTION
COlli!,ifIUC.b<y

sILl:>t<l~nably hii~LI: {)OU

I UOO parts per nni,l~ lion, by volume, lh:lll is. well above what is considered 1lI1 '~C:Ptabic ,r;mgc for s!ab:il~izaI,{)

2050 CO2

emissions

wm

be: 1I1,li~

rion, Wi!lilOtU dClormin\X! aClio'lil. energy deI1Imml ,~d~~ ,"klu~~lc and cloc~~'kilY demand will

q lH~drll!p]~. fl;~tllh~11:g in an ~Q% ~ ~ll(;'!'C,",,~C~n 4 Ilml,"~D" ~ I"Ir,PC'fI'~ l:bmvidl;;'\i m!J!.~h:~y ;,OIJ/ffl of ~~!i;cI)' ~lni:s.'iii'OIh"', !~~m."~"~r.~~~ull~loi\ilic.d ~~~\'~~91l!1!\;-n~, CU~llfIll1,ldwiiih ~m)ng ~U!ibI,)I~ l;;orl~~atil1l,poiiic;,\.'t'i. tric.ilty nCIL~"" iu 1J~I:IIIIl[iI.rk. H:.'l wd,1 H~ S% ~rl can limnil 'll~b"impacl." w,i:t~1world t':IVH.is,...iol1l~ ~Da:Ib~!l: Sp!iiul ~.1It16"4l ~H Gerrrl,iuy, If other I\,I~cl1i1lbcr SI,>It~· nn,)td1¢d [hI; ~,~\!dR.dml Sw~d~!l. G;!1!ll11· k!1;'lwQC'n 2015 and 2Q~O ,ll1d dt;trc;l"i!lglh~~ ;,!!. Wl~r_,hi III i~ 'Ital11lcUl ,t;'{lll!:'limint" C<L':H';\h I r of ny, ;lnd Al!I~t[il.!.have OIW,l.im,;d ~ri _g.1,."{l'~hQ.tJimal l:hc tOlal~~i!,~dili,_g ~!m::,kwGluki 'il~ 11111dt: orlnw~ h"'~~ltlfil,liJiI'iPJl ~hnd :r.nlal'~~;lI~~~!!l' [lilt: ~h~lrc oj'

'"0

knpruvimH~ f"u,cI ccl;i,s or rodes iglil ing ~~>cclrU,city gru iwS iii rhe Illl,l.iolfla:1 and ElU;op'C'a,ll~cv,cls up tonow, grids to deal wid~ more deccmrnti;zoo power DtI_ri~agthe IilfSt Imlf of 2007. !he eomnnTs-ge nnc;~m lon, \'!IJ~ l:i!eliC'l'c' that r,.:rn,C\vaA'l ha vejhe ~s IJ!O- slon 'v~U cOlllnll, imcnsi\',ely '>\'jnh all those thill, Imve a OO,~C~91~la.y in such a $Irn~~i,c jj~.:iIjl,On teatlal to provide am!:!JrnGtI~hi[~ or EU elec~hc basis ,(lrlll~~ consultat i:Gns. "lCXl\'\,'~H be tric.i,l;y bl' ;l:O;ZO,(3I. C I!!l'fCHl sl;ln i'Sli~ indii;m~ drown ~IP W\\,~,tl 'the mi{,k~lc Q!' the )J\i,,"\If, tb]il9H ~!mt !hi~~i,s not ;;II~l III~~gy,"'L"'I1~~",blc gP<Jt w~ 11d
which '~Jw r~~~I~h ~ol1li!n~nli.'y. :IIm91~goth~ffi, '!.'ViI] ~'~~m itl~ t~ gu\'C~l .. crJIIll1ltCillt), It ~sim ..

C'lt~rgy bu iild~llg:'. 1Ii1:id more LI~fni,lltl~ ot' the If

vehieles would lia\'~ IQlwor very ~ow cl;mjs..~ioln~t>,~ dcarrc;.:antw!~c OnlOW locl~nol'ogiC'a! dcv~kifltl~'I. w illIIeontri hutc ~oUlUi CliICiiID" anti cil,viro~lIm1cnml

r o~i,c),o.I1jcctivCl<,

rciteWllbl~ee ni';;[~' in h.::tn ~[ig.midoOO~illiJgWOlllJ jliI111jlO<,~ 500/(1.. A~ b~o"i..h::b, SwCilel] has II Iready achieved II mmi{CL share or 4'% of dIe petrolmarket for li!~(icthmt('j;~. lind G,;:rmany ils the worM leader tor hiodict':ct Wilh6% ol'fhc'

ror

ro:tla.l1i. tlrl1~ttitt:C'IT'-fUIion of the SErd~.cg~~ Enc·rgy Tc-~imi::llog>' Phlll i~ 11 c\o~I.lIAm~r~v~lllO:ltom-!.!!.p p.mcil,.~~ir i~ z;; ~o h1~VC <lily Ch~I:11C'" n f aehievi i:l1g. i~s :;.L!~~~~cl t:lbjeclivt," orhl.:~li.g ,~ rd';;rclii~ jlO~.lil rOf ri.nu~EilltO~'iilj Uj'iioiJiI !I.cLi\li'!i~!> :ill, Ihi;i;a~U,. Since 11fIIjo' aril)o.inlmcn:l. ru.~ElUm~$iJ' Science

and Research

Conmlis:sio'JIC'r

ill

N~),\'CIW~I:'

The :-iu'OlI~cgk cnc:rgJl Ilack<ligc :lC1~ a mrge~ of 20% of EULC()rH,~'~ energy com~ng: from re1!>C'w<lbl(~ sources by 20:W. ]1' St~cccs...ll~I,lhi:;; . ~""oVlklm~·l,'I.n [1'1,11by 1010 '[h~ EuropL.l,m lhli(Jwl

diesel mml'k,~t Bi{l,I:l~eb:could! accouru for

<1$

O::U) wnuld use abolnl 13% less CII'Cr:~y than ~oo:!y.~vil,g € !Of) 111U:ionand a!'Ol!l1d jl~O m!;1I:1~c ~ng~ for such energy ranging between 55% a~~d~OW~. ~O!l~ of CO:t each ~I~<l!l·.F~f ~hi~~ be rl\."Jlits:lic. I~
,~.igllliG~u~L. Mridl.1'~ m,,'J..~d~ob(; rr~,u:kD1".~~JII~~,r~., iC~III)' ~1'C~lk~ Today rCll~"',,,,~\blc' I~g:. C'llcrgy [j; 0111 dle' who:!!,; ctilfOlly 2I.1:idimilt~lI'I~lin1.:m.EWIl ~f\VIC are loOk ill.ig 1.0 Il1IIflin~9jln a mix MYUi'CCS of Ci1l~ crgy.ll d:Hjd}1 wiadlcss ,dfliY rules out gcnu'::iifl~ Ifh~EIU1!OPL:lOllUl ' 'mmnisl'i~ol1i h."L~ C'(,~ll~l]!y mkcilll.~i:;; OJ~bnard ill il;:O:: lC~\iresearch flunJling [ p:rogmm. I.he Se\I~rtlh. Frdilncwllrk Pmgrfllilbnlc

much <!!.~~4% of Irm~~I:lQnfl!dtii, b)! 20.20 ~3}. The EUl'OfH."OJiU :I~'l!bl.~cis .!L soc.~c'!I.·ly inra\IOf of ..d ~IJMiJt'i real!/,; W;lbl~ :;'{1U!rCIJ:S 0" ~Ilc~y. \7l.'im ~~g a I'OCCnt Qpin ien 110U (6l' sho\\ ling ,'!:ppJ'oval, I.'arl-"

Ihe chii!Hcll-S'~ !1~,MWCra~, ~. c,~n think or 110 l'x;t!cl' .UI~lIl$I.!<Llionf ]h~~ ..ppm-adl Ihan the o
iljl<l!J~ tlfC-Il~'~Y.·

1001(.. I ha:\'!:! imrs~oo onthe impOClOBllcc of sciC'JlCCand fC&C'<l ut: h a)1[1iI~ }i,eyfo solv ~I~~mall)! of

l~leIH!l.in

.or

solar 311:('] ~~ iadpowe r, Ami yet, 0111 .rl ~'ri,glu winldy daj~. CI]C~y I11J)" go unused, becm~se i[ (amto! be stered easi Iy. Rel iabil i~)'and c'onlullllil)i ,'I}C ha!>~,c.ruQtI.ire~llcnts :ufrencwabk: sOI.m::cs of energy :l1iC~o be seen as viabk: 31~cnJlfllliw.'S W .oil, !!,(ls. a~d coaL RcSC'rureh ml(i ~C'dl]loh:n:g:icOJj!dcvdopmcrn .wc;)jll1cacly l'lringil'!g illS Ckll'll,(;,Jrto. sohn~ionls irl ]hi:5; rield, Ihmug'h
!ion lrom

(h\,\lnlhiln the i:lli(!ugy theme o,~'~hcC100PCrfl· ' tionrprogrnm. whic.~1will focus o;n mme~rbQll or rec.luooo-car:bo,n 'SOlII'CCS (I r energy. cmphru, siswill be gh'ClJl to rencwnlJ.~c ck'clr,icity gencratio!n. reuewable fuel pUiLJdm:lion. hydrogen a rJd rue ~ cell:;" C-Ol C;~~]tUIft' mid S!Or.l.gclcch" no 10£ ks. SI1lm1 cncrgYllet\\lork:s. ene-:gy crn,· dency am] sm'imgs. ~mckru.' I1ssioll :iia(cly l1nd 'IMa SlC' !1Ilan:lgement"lhc dC'\I'C!O[)lIlCfIIl (I r n.1l'·
si~n
C!!CIi1lY,

~1i!lablc 1,1'cO!HI!nit gfOWlh 1I!nd 'l.'O.!mlp~~iljl\,~n.~"l wilhfllUl dmli!!l:!;l:.ul]!ll (:lUI: (llll\' irn!lml~'I]," TilL,! ;i 1I1i'1\\·t:r~o I't-.coUl~U] dlcsc:rel!LL~ rul'lll!lJra'J);I ies in knowi~g ung ~~lOrcand bdn!!l bertcr, We Ii ~wc ~ chauec 'to work to!i\el~Cr to de ... lop soJ,LI:liamls I!('! ~h'C e pmb!cms eliiulll!e CI'l:JiIl,gC and cne rgy lOti ppJ.y ~hm run olll), ensure our l.uwl1! cool1.OJnic devc!opmc.nt,. ~HlIl Sh'e' ElI.ropean :SdClll,ist~ an!d crm]pilllLcSlhe 01~rCll1UI1 hy~o be lor l'JCnmi Il} <II. Ihe cuning edge o.f~C'chl1.(!!lpg,icaldJC''i(c~opJnenl. . ~t I::> CI'ud!!!!), ifJlportanl lhm we !Ilkc tll:i s; o;ppo!1unity and make i[ wmk.

or ns: rn Il,din,s, secure and sus:SOll!roc." or C~!(l~:i!.,~1!H!i~ MIPP0ril: our l
IhJIH

!:iIt"!I~" ~\'C h,I\,'1,,1:,';jI:rinu[; rr~qjuirr~'\

or

anclbo\V!edgc

lor

C'J1C!:gyp

n] icy~

Iln'lkin~. Hie S~':l(;:lllh fW;llrnlCwork f'm.goarmne in,[;rC1~'iiC~\l lh!"~ tIIml u.-~I fWIndi n~1l {wui hlhl(; to C~h.'irg_y fi:i'il~;-.rc'h fit I.hI:: EUR)PCfLIII k:\'d [0 'f::'!'186

1. 5~~ R~~ OI1!!b!: iEtl;l!!m].iQ5: d' (J~r!!<!~~ (i~w~~. 006. 2 Mii\i.lhm~iM~rM~Ij', jjM"di!jlf!M~mtJ\i!;'i'i~w..r 5t~rnJe!'i~'LecOf!cmics3ijlnilte__(j]al1!!J~

Re'~er,eJ1iOlil-:sa Ifll!l N,eote:s

mirHi(m

!l

yCfllr. COJHI)Hrcd to E'574 nl inl~on Ol.

year

~Il dllcprcviiOlIS.

progr8lv].

Bli:!.

th:is is not

omnbilltcd Crr[ir~ is needed. ~,n rom'C 3rea.,>, w'C have mtO\',oolownl'd roml:mm resea~!n ,agendas <11I;hc Ell1\opeml level Ihrough the creal,lon of EuropC<l'~ tcdmology ~)im bn~s, (.'l',. Several C~jiSl iill tile' energy fic'l:d. ~udlJHling lor hydmgcln and :fuc~ celis, IlhI1'10vo:lil,ah;::s. zcmCllOUgh:1iI10rc

~1i1l,~~imd~:l,dm. .l_ C.omfi'l~illIi11of ~1iJ~ IE:ur.oJil~n'Gommmifi!!~ G.rI.\M ~-!: Al f!lJfopron Stm.r*.I« Slnr.ll'l~aOle. ("~WVf'l2tld Siea!!fe f.J'j~. S[CGlOO6l ni. hUp:J\!'ei!:.I!u!'C!p.ii,>liW
eIIJ~'~~~i~f1i1).1IPf1NliJiJlllID'1dBCI.

3.

:t!OO6_O:UliL91l!_d'xIrffiMLen.iJ>dL (ommtl.$illl)!'If 1M :Eurl)!iI~n(IJrnI1tU!1I~~t Co~~k'llIr;M'fIOm ~'(ommi'5SNm m i\fI1!' fJilOptttll ('~uoo:r(1M lilt! fJ:!ropfIJn ,PMraJlJfIIll' AliI Entlg}' P:t!1iq' .1m €;tlrctp'f, ((Ji~M;roO'nllfil1al. !\tlp;1'eI:,elJr~'Mufe'~~~'
MI!fID_pollqridadl)i_tn~rgip'_polkyJou'!ur._(!m-:pd~. rillWl1roA"StfQf;~r.MerW l'~~)I'

c mi~si(ln 1'l:ts...,iJi-iin.::i1)O\\"Cr Il~'UUS. ancl SJnarl ga:ids. NOllcdw!cs-;'l.. we ha.vc seen in~\c:>tmcnl in c ~~C'l'Jl,Y rC'M:OIfi;:h hc~ng reduc~dun n,"'I,io~~OII b~ldg~~;\ OVCT the iJiiilM 20 }"J;,~~ Qf t-..'Q', And! he
not do.nc i~l !I r... l1lllllll.I.I.--d., lLm:;~oordin'l:i(\d w,uy. g k::adil'lg m dup:!liefltiou :i,l'i :;Ornc :a.n;'fb~ lind mh(:r imporlillllfit OSPOC! beirlg •., IU:fldcr~Llll.ldoo o.r ig. 1101X':~. Thie" is !be rai:;Qi~ d'CI.re ,of lfl':: StnH~
~"~~~\~~I~]il Ih,1I

~. EU!llPL'arn (JIlmI'[jH'ioo..

P~J1,'CO~OO7l'a'H.

'~ev~.~ergii1~.~rg~~

dildll9 Jl1a~k..@m~lJJ!di'lllJj)!W _;pI~i\,,@n.jXlf..

5. Emol!leillrl COlfllmj~l1!n. WrJ..rldE1J~gy :r:ro:rml'oy,
Gu.rlGoJ: -m$fJ, hi~{p:fU!~j~I'O,F'Ul!llJlJ!;li!\auht M~lID'ipdr~lo-1'I23fi.~dr. IS. wrC!ll~!i! Ccrnmj~~ !!oref!iIY Y«~~;,: KlIrJ!ideJgf:'f'ff«'Pti~r:i·~. ;!!OO6. Ii.tiw:nee-etriO,puY/{,~~~' tn~g.ipllr.!ln~rg'i'_;ted'l",.iI!uJ\abammtt§_em,p!lI, :l'. ~rcJ!leari CQlfIlmi5Sioo.. ,rJlfi(iaUarmral, dIoolll1lllf'iflt L4!12 {1001'!.}; h1,~p:fN!.u~·l'e)!'~:M,pit!~W'lEii:U:r'W\l'.da?u15=Oi~ l:~006::'~12:~)jI:E.N:HTMt !B. f« rl!l1~ef inb.rma~ ·~eE '-tlFJt«!!fti!i!;;,el!wpllJeW

,zoo6.

i:. ~-<~nTie~~ 'U' i~mm:i;lottclJ. !.liionn O

Fiig.1.•

gk ElilelKv T~lmO:I.QID'Plan, \.,~Ilich'wil~. (Plio;.' ;}!!lR~'tI OU,.rroviu..: a lJa. . i~ for all ~Il(:rgy k-oh· . [jo.log~! c·!l'ori::oin :EiUrop~. QV\c;w(maiuglhc; ~nck (I r oohcroncc lhM hilS lIal rmlwli:1tdy ih."CII1 present to a gI:ca1Ci1' or lcs..'lCr C'xtC'lll, ill Ihe re.l1IC'a~'Chprow"fM ..sdenoemBg.,org

l~ornmrnklg~\pla~bm~lldNiidl!J~Len.IrIll!JL
9. ifIIl~ i!lwl~OI' Inlh~ ~~00JlI~1!:J1I CJlji1llmls~~n~ '!I:f ~S:Cie~ ~iI1I!I

Rll:!e-.ilrrihl .. iO,1i261f.l:iB~~e.iH'9IJ)B6

SCW~I~ICIl! VOL 31S

9 flE6RUARY 2.007

:8111

Sustains bHity and EnerglY
P'E AS IPIEC'TIVE The sci~ilItu~c qll.cslLtmls ilooul.'C;;UUOIlI ~cqllcs .. nmti:"-m are l~dl'l'mrU},' <liSWChlli)d wilh OOl'L(;CI'llS ~l)otlll th.e r.;;l ilaib\iIlit}, {I r ~IOrngC (I r ya.~~ q:lJmllhies Qr'C'o~in ulildcrgrollll.d N]posj,torJes. Wi:llllbe CO~ ~i:H~'!!C"J TIle goodnews ;i s Ill<nlhe :['I;.SCF'I'QJI'S do aot hove lQ~rut'C CO2 ~'oJC\'cr. jll!!S'! lP'll,!;;, cnO'~lg!l'~(l Olj~QW ~W~~<U~tlT1l!~ qyde .~()Ji;id~!1,;~lhc lII!1'~~ c."II~1!t)'J~ ! sph~vk' C02 ~o ~}"'W PJ\I·il]d~Sllri,~. 1~\\'ls,. The OCC~Urlt"D:IllU1.UUI~ ,0 i~.1l1J;~ w;u~ll!!lc;h qnlJOJI ~... ~I]e ~1inI01'Oplu.~~;IliiIffi~ly dK: tio.,--p OCt.·tITl,~"~liclilim~ in . )\,'1 1(1 cqJ!.qi~ibr"l!.l: wilh ~ll; c:~ I~~n i'OOsil ruel CI"lIl:!bl!l~lion.O\,'~"t.h~ time )leille ormil'iiil1~ .grIlle l deep Qt"!L_"m1,Ui)I!II~Jily vt100, te 2000 )'Loll'S, l1a1lHtI~, upml.:e or LU;2: bylhc ,ooem~. O!:}.J'illJili~d witl1 ,dii~ roh.!l.i:Ui:i Clrn~l~:dr[le C!ifL.'to:i'i~ll:.W ilillab:soi:b 90'xIl of Ihli:eruibun released bylmmiln aC'~i'irjti!.."jl;A~ ~fil1'lg ..
3.'>

liIs@qlJ! @'~~r,1Itljolllho en tl'lr'g11! !iOIi!'r'CieSi of r'O!lsn'lh.u:! l (10 IIIIIbusliJ:lnI, p1.!lrlic:ulillrly (QaJI,isilIlII @S5@lIItii.lil UIIllJl(l~le;rlt ,or a lIlY '~@'rn pl~J! to ,fljvold e(!HIst~(lp Iili,e f m p:~tU ,or til! man-in Ilili.!(@dl d,]lIllIi!l.@' ell€! rlg@'. (lIUlS, S(ienliikafld ecenernle (ha.llel'lges stiU lexl:St:, but none <lIre ~ri'OlII) ,enD'U!lI1l to s'lI!J'gesl ~ha t carben ceptureand sloFlIg;e \!tiUl not \'lork iJ'l Hile sea~.e reqlLli red to OnS'el lriUlom; ,of tOilS or earbon diiw:fide ,eflliiSsions ncr the l1ext (I!rl'~Llry. The dt.aIUeng>eis, \yheillar th,e 1e,ehflolloQY w]~l be wead:y whioo ~5;o(i'~l)'di!'dde$~~~t ~t,s dJiI~ tOI g!!l goingl. t
(,1lI~bs

do Ilnt 1todcn~ UI 111~ <ll:!:lm.q'lht~)j: (';:,l~:nl,ldl11g lh~ ["02 1[011) 'P1~1.ct:.,~ W~!t'l1::; \w (kl, I!I~ foosil ~JueJ~ and tl~C'u! swrin'lg it iu~oltJgie reposiloric;i,. OJ. '1il1iO~~ k~II;IWI101..-; c,~rbon :)l\,;X!I!!l;,.~~ ~.r:<u.~[){I1_ \ !iiUI"'r'Il.'Y of l.\lJK·~gy oplio)l;;; nwd,.I,.~ (;'I(... r J ~,h~~rmc of these is ;ls~h'Cr b~lk~l"The world"s; n C'llcrgy $~r&lcm is TOOhnuncllsc, Ihe th irsl. i"ormoro 21Jld nlIO.l:',e ,crraC'rgy~roiJnd th~ ",,'m.i!!:! .lQo MCp,. lUM
_;;.(llUIl.li..\'O Ihl;,l~ <1Il1d

U~I:t!!gtcS,!O IAJ\\'~r c!IIrOOn diaoc.idc {l'Oj!} Cilfli8~im~s to mit~~,tc c:lrimab:: chal1J;;lccolue . _ in three nm'ors: rod~fdn~,~hC' amount of' c<nii!l·S"ylhe 'wo~ld uses, dlhcr~hrousil more cfHc~enl, technology or ~hl.'{Iugh !C'h.mg~·s~n Ii Ib~ sl.yk~$ .ulid bcha\ iors: C'x.p'Uld~ the 'll}le or e~lC'J:IDi Ilg

-S

u~Jealllc or cm'itoH jil<lle:> lU100]npmiso1110 coal cver ~no~ so &'l Inc! i1li, C1lil1ll. and the UIl,il.ccl St"nl;!S, eXI:n::mc] the~1i"~toc;l-: of coal-rill!d power pl~n!i., So d~\'clop.i'l1srn"dd~'iI~~(), (hc
!!1'11 ~SSiOilS".

the !?oe(ilo~oc ~"lo1'a~ of

i~

can prcveun

SlJIJ,.

t(Olc'h!1(1I()~i(!sl.oll!$Cro~1 wi~lliml~r~]b'l!si!lig ('O~ In [i~ ;)11linrl!il\tll.':IIUnm}' wen be d~~ mo.."~ t~ri!iC'al

it,s.

:->t<ln:li.9.1e.uika.g.c ovcr~he l

IlC'X,t jC\\"

miUc!lIlirn" Ilu:

d~1HIII('I1~~ !..\r .. (1(', :n k'_'~"'Elbr Ih~ I~"!l BlO )'crIT~. w I,Imiluhc 11(1~ibi!ity of 01:11OInhrtk~bk~mtd cOlin·

IJ[tc,;:dy :irlOllrilli8i Il~ItCa-~:.¥Sy~l~''1-nt:'HI:ID.;; n~~lIozed, . [f c,~rl,..'10!1.;,e{JlK'SI ... 'i:cm fro~noo!d rol'll~bl!~iJ;ln g iSL_~~lla~!d ~i1I!J]itig'1.1\J'Ih~ \H)~l i!~lP"I(:n.ll ofgl~o~1
\~·.~~nl":iil1g, h:.t~ w
iIliJJI~ifII1Ci'ir.:;iIioll,.
!>!mnll(.b;

crubon eyele C-ii'1~1l'(gnd~c II. Ol~r eurrem ~md'c~llandillg oJ CQ~ il1~oc~iml in .!'Cdin1Oill~'u)'[it;.'$i;,'IYO~~ {In hm.d ,\1ug~"5.ts lh'<!l If:'<Ilk;;,~~ mllCi.'i <iN ~ikd)'to bi; WI}' low De:-;p:iw mm~yyt...rs of C;<!llCI1CIlICC il1joc~ion or wilh c~, IbL" cnlm!1c(,10 oil~!JCm'clY. few :>tuciic,'l have O!!Ctl!.!m~\.'br~~W<B!lilIR~cl. ~k a ge rates over I:im.c the irH,()n,'[~ls kmlil ~nou!lh ~I;I be c~rtllli!l! 1.Im,u~ i!11~ CO;!

~.n.

(l:11[dcpcndenec

on lossi~ fi.je-Is 100 SlliUng. All !]~n.."e snl.cgk!1> me essential, bUI.the onewe lIl1'1C' filir.1hcst from mlilizinsis cm'l';!Ol) scqlllcsimlion. lilc mtc.l'il~nco(] IN.' carbon scqm$lr..I~~.ollcall

be- cxl~Jain~ld with

{HU;:

"",'oro: co"l. Cool, pn~duOC'S p:rcdl;t:lt;d t\t.), l~~C mid-dk

~hC'!'!1!O".. ~ CG.! 'pt,;r uu.v~ (;'u.crgy M ,I~l f~~i~ fiiu:lI~ .'Ii;a~.y lwiL"i,J: 'l~nl~lch a_" mrtl!.11:J.~~,I~, And lurllik,L.' r
p:1Ju'OJc~ml .am;l.I11~uHlr.d gll~" which
.'1:('(;

(.1i..'(:linc in to~<u1pr<xtu(:ttoIFl w'cll

bc'§[)[C

a,,, around dK.' wod(r] Wiih n il1~1i't1 {.'Odilreserves, cOlii~lrk:s in the Europe..flnl Union have chosen, 10 MPs fields. 0(10:2 cxi..,b; as a supcn:rilkal Uuid Wi~ll I'Ol~£hl,YImlfline density ofwmer,. Ci(l'l is u;;q~pcd cll1pha.'l.i?..c c~jmall! Illi~.igatiml so-ale-flies. lhm.~'o-b~ IOW-jJ)Clnlcabjlity cap rocks aad by cap:illl~u)' eus on en:cuyy eil1cicncy. l'Cl'lC\\".,ible Sij)UI~e.S. and mldcOIr powet or ihc major coal Ilt'OOl1!ct'TS. ~brre5, tUH can C$C~X" iI" ~"ooimcnt<!I)'forll1!i1lLon s Rl!~i~l. e~li'm. ,1!!Vldl~d~<! l~;~\'Cbt.."iCll uu~willin,g w are C'(lmp.I\OlH~"(1by [mclullJ."$:. I~mll"\.or okl driU .hob, 111,e h<lndililll (lhe.~ SUlCSQ1l'(l1t.md the world ~~;TmOr;: ~hol'iHIC'.!'i!u l.'t1o'!l(}~uic g!'n\~\I~h. ;l!lhOLI~l Ch~ll~ ·co,ulg<!~~IIc;.Ltiollc,f]b~t", which m,~ll}' ~.\;'C each ~I'IJ~'Cl rmJlsh 1).' 1 I1m1mon l)(H~S ol' CO2. per . )leas. abny amOlHll compared 00, (he need for .IS 015 <'I$ICP IOW!lrtI ~~tJ,I;.-gIr:;lILm~ cUJlHdly. art fl'mrc a,o\'1!!H.lOO ~hl[Hl elIDe!lit U.S, policies. hl UJ!C' ~mlch as ·110 ~liHionron~ il'~'fy,c;.I!!rby lhe m~cldkof
Ul1.ill".ld St;Ji~(,,"i\~Iht;~ ·(~re ::«;it"ill~ilk: .uld ~'(.mmrni(: qll.lt_~[iQnsIhal. ru!lIl~l be llO'l'i\\'CIL-d b(:ro~llIl]l.(_1. :;.c!liled~Jl~O:yI11i(;l1l .Iix; ndl~('V'l:d. Hlnnaflll.C of ron d~ i~ eL"l1[iC.flI C'U'Klll~l In S'l1:ggCSI. I.~!m t'ilr:1JOJl S.Ct]jllCSll'IllUlilne~1I1Ilm be (ionC'. TIl,e ro'i.l oooifilde is.

.i~! ~h(: way of il.'> lJro.;Jd ootll1 i:ralilll: U~limd SU\l1.:'S, and

will ~my put ~\'l~rl IDtlhc iI1¢,x r ri.J\\' CCI1imules. :111 ~~lOi\,toruh.c gL'O kigile1~1 w1l:UiTlgS !JIIlitfcir COII15l.flt:r.l,· liOll,,!illch deep saline {l.q~il!C:n;or old eil all1d

or Ill!;' ~1c~ulr)'. Ihen; i!!'i. C1101lI~.h(:0<111 ~o hlst rb:r .. 1;:(:llItul".il,,':<l, :!l l!t'l1~I.m(:,unrr.;,~ll ruw~, 0 f lI!!i.C" !md Ttilm mrmk(~ :i.l.ch~;lp ~Im~ vC w tlll~l~l 11.:'\'(;1)' mht:r £Omt',C ,or ('riclID' ijTabk: ] b, Tooru,Y.eruli runl pc .. 1,l'Oicwn Cflch ,L(COlmlror rollghly 40% or!"1;IObfll C"{J:! em is..<;imls. UiJ.Il by the CI:ld orlhe OOlllllf'y. C1]al'Cl")li,jd nCCOLlIlI. fut morenhmt 80''l''a. Ev~n ow i.t~1 imgc' imp:rovcmcntsiln cmoie~~c"yand ,)het.lo.mc11Ol1.1r.ncs. of ~ row[h in mlclcar: s.oblr. wi:ncL mlld bioHlOS$ ~'I1!:~r SQUIU'&. th!! world :!lliU rely i!C'av il)' OJ'l cool t~~:D\.:--.::I,d ~Ylhe Ih"C' oou~nri~'.'i ti~1u~

polilical will.w,'hkhmay
p~11b:1 icn::amion

reqllire ~non::tl!:mmttk

Ihe C(:lll~I!)'_ An ~mJ'i!f)~:l1t (ILI1.':S:tion ~!>wltc~hr;[ If;;;ilk.m~~ r.:tlCS wi II :ril~ ~~ mOrt OlIrndmore,:: C(~ ~.:.l i[ljt:dcd !1I1i1he ~.c.~erv(~lrS It It st(:m~ J ilkely llilli. I I~ UillllUy b"OO~v~ic1lJ1 ~CDlilll:gl> w m 'pro\,I:idc ad.cq;LJlli.H! sto:mwc, blu Ihc druhl tOo oomoii:;.'tl'fi![C'lhu5i do Hm. ji~1 ex is•. A more C....pflll~Sj,VC progmm ailfl~"'c1 ai, .

to c liimole dlmlg;c impoCls be tOre

IiIltmilOri~lg ul1.d.clglxmn.d C02 illjccti.mns h~ a
wide v;'llTI,ely or gco.iDgicl.d s.cl~jl'lgs, is, c$scnlJaL
i\,. l'I."CCrllIlL1~)oo.d kk'lnlflcd a !cru..-'PIOO'· <111rr,ooch 1.0 Slo:mg.c by hnjocliing (1()~h~ ~dhllClU, Ix:lm'Vlhc sea l1'oor (J I, Wil~!dh avoids the hOZ:a1:ds, 01"

wm

il('l(kl 75% WQfld 1'I.-'fC!:"'!'CS:i~le Ullik."\.I Slat~, RlIS)lja. (,h~lla. l!1dia. <ma A.~I:lHnllla ,~n" At> .1 ~~'lCh nol(')giic,~1 8lQ·,ltCg_y. c;:utxm S(;q~~lr;:l~ ~inn r~~ not ,111p(~yonl:y lo ~)~II pI311i!:>; inl;h.'QJ.
COl !J;'.Ij'1 ~\l("q\I~1(!11I;:~.~u~ bf.; d~tding~iQ)mill~\.oorniJUSlion" 'V:lflkh w'O~II~II\:l'i~IIE
~:Ily :pOijl~t ~QU~I; or

or

c::lrbon $i!qllcsu:<ttion 'bi... "COmc.s a roq,lIirclll.clltfor lmrn h~s: coo~, in me me<llllime.~hcre are crilical s:tcps tlml C<l11 be t:tkCl1 Ihm. lwiUI p'rcp;il!rC l!!S lorthc 1I1{l!Llll;,.'111 whc!llhm p1;}~ilk~1 \"'illl lilmilly Ol.f!ivU'l.

Table ll. Carbofll ,aolllte"J1~il1f 'gigatolll's (GO of ·f,os'5.ilfu:~l
(ZOOS) (6). Goa~. fle:;;·efV~~ U niter! stones IRru~si81
1.34.0 Ili.M

p:r1o'll',eon r'E!'S'er:ve!> ami antl! ..~ production!

i:I'I ncgmivc (!'1:ni~~io.lil!'i.Cr~~xm .~"·(]lL(;"'1Jm.iO:II O! ~oo' re.ti::.ffi to C'11hfL1f10C'd bio~ogteil~. IlIptakc I.hrolilgh

PrQliitlCUiii~tr!
0.3'0

lR~~~I~s
3,,)(1

'~I~hICti!(lri!1

re:tom,1~tfl.')UI or fe-lil:iIIi:r..<!1Inon 01" ~muinoC phylOpialflkAO"J'l. B.Mllhc pol,c;l1Iitillo ,enhance bJologi.cal
01 Er!flh Oin~ rti i'hl!tali'i/ Sdtm<iEo:s:.IHaJli'ardi LIlli· v!'!rsily, carnbrfidgt?,. M.!\ 001138, USA. lE-m!il.il: schr~g@l'!ps. liIarY<lrdi,i1d~ .D~illlffitiillt

Clhiin<l
lilndliil!

AIU,stri.!liia Middle E"SI
i,tlt~ ~\!,Jl;I' r,~d

1:117.1, 8:>.4 6:9.0 58.6

0.'15
:1,.2:4 0..2:2:

3.6 9.0 2.9
0.7
ij"~

0.29(11.3:3:

0.412 0.16 0,'0'3

26,,2 :1,.3 0,16

0..0,3: 0.0.2:

0.2:3:

O.'~)2
lL.U

1...4

Q.o2:
(1,106-

'DI.3 61("1.2

D.Oil 3.23:

'i)QJ!,2

t4S.,a

3,.59

39'.4 9';B~.4

i1!.:a

812

SPECIIIALSECTION
direct oceae injection, Iltctudklg. ;il'il1lJ:Jaell.~n oecaa o C'Colo~y, ~fl til:!::> C<L:;e, 002: wouM :i>lffy :sCJ:rarntc ffom Ihe OOCi1n,l~mc h ex1S1;; h~ sedimem vu t~e ~lgll p:re;'iSil!I'C ;[1100 low tell1f!<;rn~i!IIl'C as a d'miilC Ii\f~lid QrQOJlmjnoo Wi~ll'!'Ol1C ,~Illk! mi,oolicl hydrn1;e,
1)l::'1pilc high\.'jj" 1)Q~ibljc !COOl>l.lhi5

E:IttLnc, pialnslo ~liilM hHI ~kx;l;rk:i IY1;lcn,Cnn urrlg :pIJilnts, one il1l~o(lim.d find one III r.flliiomi~" IIlln wi~h 1:CS!l~:dJe.'iS ol"lhc CliI .. ~nflSL,> 0:1:1 :ii!lIch ~ rlJl.~d 0031 ,,,'011M :wg uesier eo~ enhanced o.U i\.'Cmocry. ~cl Energy has aliso madl: a c{l~uniUl1ielll,!O [)I>IIlffi,lhc\l!orki's, ,c..\iiStlnS a'I'SCI:I<l~or ])lnl\,i!:riZ«l a a cooJ rlluus (e1>\ct~..!ing~he 1SO I1C\V Ill!~~i>Cf'i:;.;t.,-d '00<11 !)~~ild coal g<l!Si ~1c t[Q:I1 p~;mt \~'ilh~'1lJesurntIgn.
~~\'~ ~1LJe;;trnlkfn OO$L~ CfLll .b!;

agy isiJl1pOUIDflt to di:>eovcr ·whctll.cr tllCp!'OifI\iocs 0:1"

~Ii~.

Btl!

f~ inll)[l!t."I~!t !iJJ-COOt'l~! r~m::>LTiil~:;.(ii~an.g,.; ~s rouMd
in
rllL'l;~

~blilJ!I!:;;',

fjDm ,~Jpm~lrg,LiJ!;~-dil1J1!i,;alltru)'
:.In'1:l'id 1;_"N~Jl."irvC'~~lOlTIii.~lr~r~ ~C~1!ol
O\'~[

,\'hich ,~ r."!r bal'iiI1~<~td I~.y ,,~~o
ii:pm
O!I1\iC

<!fIl~'l(m~hr!1~y

r'1!In~ ~.!1n~~ OI.I~lIly in

iJrnc V ~i,tt;d Siml.~)
COl ~ i;:h.tm.g~
VCslm\.,'Illi. }'li".Bf;

llC'mtinilll.,g pr-OoC'l,}$Sin f! bil ~Km!D.!1~ f ~ mm1;:~h,1ll :,my n,,'SpO~!!;;;I:II~ ,~Jilll{ll;i,I,;
~~C

pl1\'J!I;I~IOO !U~I~~!y :JCli,lOml'llfl!datlt;,

~rri::)Ji. in,.,:;~l!:,~ ..

~){]~_i:c}' ~!I

n~~.L~,ih¢ illWilil11is

.or c..'l:.pnd~J',!h~ fl;qLli
~~l:illJrl)'

lip

be

rrllmgo:t

pro'b1cIl1l,.
I l][i~llim!

au! ad\"lm_\edoofllg.al;ir.c:ati.o!~

~mC!lt~

i:ntil,;l,-d usl!.
IOn:>'

CunSl\;'Fv;llil'il'i;;

J;;S!iIl.11utl,":S of ~t'""l,~!'V{lir lwi(:~
lIiiU. ITtti!::h,.

~n~l~ be nll;.lltt:h;~d by .m cnbnt 10 op:~inl!if5C our abri Ili~y ~n c1lplUn; the CO;! linIn e",~sti!llg p~il-

the

;11'(; DI.'imi? I'lii::lnl

orc0,2;.

j}llL1ll11i~hl

c.\cei\d

Th~ fl!tr C:li;C~C-d5 rh~ C~\11LC:it:1 of oi land .!l',iis~i.e].ds.. whi.ch wi~~be illlKli'£ ihe 1i!::>1.'Ultll:,'C:L<;; ror sequesHnli:on flroj:CCls because ;lukiiliol1itl'~ revenues from enhasccd oil llCCoVCl~.F'ol't~nti!l,tC'~y,lhe ('.')ad~)' of dOOJ) saliae <lelll ~reus: ,:!i~d dC'Cfl-SCJ sooi ~'lC'nIS, it> morc limn ~l1ough 110 h,mdl~ eenMiCll, (lif wrn:k'l oo<!~enissicns (3,. 4'1. This ~1li.'a!1:;' ~l'm~lhclf.IC:uiLCI:I1."l f'i1N~ !)I~(id 1{1 st'(·j:~ CO~ uad~'I:groUflCl mOl)' nol, be lire naes lIIscci by nh.c ~nid(~lc Ihe o",nUlIY <ISS~'(luC".<.trntikll~ clrOfls CK~

or

'iI'~rn:l!~-d c()i:il pl.,,[I]I~ enlnpf~a\::i! wilh lite OO"l of 1'i1.o~rt'il'ilC::'",'IIbl:c CI1C~ :5Qu~;.o" iilCit'ac'iiI'ilgnhe 00;:,1. or ,eloCl.ricity rronli eosl by 50'Yoio add SCqL1CSlmli{)l~ St.'Cii~lg like 3, ba~n. \Vhl(..'1il O~'LC n~l~ude~ dIe dli~bllti.ma ml.d delivcl)! dl:!i~C$,clcclric bins oFnlm!! ~Olt'>l.m1C<.rs: \'\~(}'Lddri"i! OIII~Y.200i or so, So, v;'h:¥ :1:>Ihi~ 110t<I.

A:nd mQrcproj~C'~<;; !'Ilia), soon be amtGl,!nQI;,,'C~ as oomrml~!~ ~;!t;"wn~o\ i(,;1\1>' lcg~51!;!I~9J~®n1.:rnn~"g {"Oz .,"rlli~r]o]lL" as .. pol i~ ~"i3t iJle\~i~h i!iW. G~\,('!Il the (llIrn·~I.~i ql;ll;;.~i.~O:I'I:;;uhOWIl ~~I;I~r.:I,iiall k!OltClOlogy. ila~ 'c:'i;J1l'C1ll '~~(mrunit~ ~!llntic.., !hal !ll!<lkc it lhn !ik,d)' ~1m,l ~n,~~!}' cor!lp~~niL;S: win ili.\'C'OI i~~"qIlll~""tHllip:11 oitr:r a z.;!U:;l~lint=illJM:cincl •.anrl Ihe I'K~IiljC!~. n:~~iuio; nll!!l.nIiI:Ikt:~tu~~:i:l4;li we wiU, ~ciil1 ~hc Il:C'x:! r(:'\v )!car.. 11 !pritt flll truiibon high,

i.;~oiJgh ~C! foJ'c-.e ;:;(X'j,tk'Stiiil~[(mi"roll~ ooilli. \cV&~m een to,,",-YII1In::,'ntdo In make iSilrell19l, Cal'ba~l sequesInllliCfI1 i:> le<l>dy when \~r!! I'Lc~d il'? WhmcvCi' the

pmh. il is lill1.'CIO il.C'~~oins, ~~:j!JSI. \\Iilh $:rl1111'III·~i!;~. ~Jll"i'j.ettsbut Wi~l lill~-$lcruc hICilL"lri:l1 expel~mlmt:'.
The
.<lI1l1Ol!llCCmcn18

p,ii!.nd. h :Sl!gg~'l\I:S ~ml a bm,ro K'S¢mt'hpwgl"n.Ul flll11!'i! bI.,! ~'1I~col(llr .. :god IIb,U r!ll(;U~ :m:lljust Quq \~rh~UI wilUI be: done 111tti!~ .irW:U fiJw dc:c<tci(:-£. 1I1!l1~~1~ 0.111 .'i,pilJmoches lJ~rul ili'll bcnecdcd 3l the SC'J~I!wl~en! w

or

hisJ1C'I'I~riorilY ill cI~n~liC ChillI1S'C' rt."gi~llati'O!i~Most l~i '~Pf~I!~[[} eJimmc ~1'!il!'!gC.Il.lil:ig;n:!ion !]!IVC ft.~l~l. on 11»111:)""11'k.'IC'h~lIli"'!I~, ~~rin1iLlib' (;".,1[1 .1I1d 1 [r.'lLre progl,';ll'llt'l. Apt:oblC'l.1l i~that Ihe cap in 8L!!)Ope,md m~y oflhe ·~alt. under cl:i~el,"",,,iGn in the
U.S .. CO!~n.~'l )'~~ki.. Pllc¢On c,~rb(:m d1>l~"~ \",'~'.III I.x;kl~.~' (i*10r~'lPAAI!f(; and ~on~. E\,(.'l!l if lhe tbl.:
C~1fIWl1"tC
lO
~mv(_'trL"(~ IJcjI!i~'C'H:Ol'l1lp:m~C& :!fI~g~1Ih~i[:(lM::

bjl

l11COltimgi~!g iJ,.."t'~UtlC ~hl1Jworld

BP :lnd Xcc~EIlC;'rg>, are l1ol..lCii'i 1~;Lny iicuch

~lq~tol;-"l>IFJr itmp~j,~'C,-" tlpll,)!<nil!!jl,11 dim;m;,ll.u

Ioc.,... lions •. w~lhOlh,!iIl(jIl!1 ,or C"<lPIUttl'~tl:<lu;:gi!:."l\ a and

~\lidcrvafi~)1
~)[lIlWr

U.s. gm'¢ITl!TL!;.~n
:lU m ~re 1t'l~\I.dUefed~

{If.g~'Ologic.1d ~'Ui~~'l rOr~'lIOrn~'C'~ 'file

can CIJOOIi!!IT~ ~1C';\C err-oris. .uil. ar;k1i~ion~l OI~L;&,!rn;~J!:.ijllgsure ~h;lIlL'IlL,.w .1IW 20 l'arge ~lqLl~"'I"ililQUi ~M:Od1cCU; oJlCc.tti!!!!l fur
00 lhlll 'Ilily

21.11100011 ell'~SSL'ons will be c:Jp1l1!M(.iL Ad'diliai1ill qillCSlio.1't'>sum::tmd t1l!~n~

C)!!pcIl~

sive pan of earbon :scqMl.:S1trn,tml:l,~'lC eapllll'l"OFCOl Ihml ~ ooa~tirOO.IK)W·cr p~aJilI.' !lJ~l'\.\'"nnimm~ ptll\'l'1'~ izcd coal p!lam~ 1",,,'11 mal in <!Iif. !lIOOt(;iulg :1 lQ\v~ r~:illl~ emUC~1 ·COjI~In.\/;.ldfir ~O%. 11~JiJ.')gcI!t I~Io Cal' alld 80/0 \vmc~ CO~eM], oc SCI"IllI)OO(~ fiuD'n lII1c ~l~Im~"OIl ~!S~.lg amlne hqlOOs or oQlCI" chcmDaJL!s. :u!d ~hen CXJtmctoo ;jJIjlll 'Ill~1fC&d ror i!~oc~j(m i~1OCJ « Stll!uaj!C ioc.jJ~irMI~s, "[hi" LL'lOi 'C'l1.c!IDi. rol'~'l1y 30'*. ot
~hc cm ... rgy J~~m l~lC coal (:Ondli,ilSlio.n in I~li; 11!'5l p~m;1I) (4), <Illd m"'Y "'ll~ Ih{;' 1J,t;IK1Qllnng ('O!oll of e:htriciilY !'ronl coo II hy ,,'1)%, ~5)<, .-.hilJ;)u!_!h d~~..~
yd. n coal ~)Ifl.m t~ml.~leliccs ('futMl scquJ:'SJtlilllmL I)Ll~~
C;';;UirliWlCSlJIJ.'e; I:lOOiUil.nlll!Si,·e~ u

um'(~S! in. nhc~ iUirru..'ilru,C~1,J1'C ll'illlliuc'il rOt Sl."qU(,'Stmti:Cm ~aLt'lC 0[' Volillilir}'rcn dl~ 'price of crlfl.'!cn1. nus, it seems tl'laLall.C!lher 1l1[',CI1lIrniSWIl roq~iil:\.,~, is 111:lcas'~1D gel CIll'bonl S(.'qw:sl .. nio:t'lprojocL~ StlUiOO. Am! thl"J:C are mml}f >DIller qucstiomi,. Who win «~:ti <I. s'tom-!:."C' site: .<1~""p:pliOrli.nc? UO'\'{ ry wi n 'L~~C C<limcit~1 00 (rc,tcun1uncd'! ,;\ri~[l wi II 00 respoll.~ibk jrCO~ r.cab? .1lOll/V \MiI! \~!C S;)fC'~U."I:L'd against cheatung.'? ·[t is cl,eal: dm[ ~ovcrlullcnt::< need w p~Jy ~mm: .ro!c in ("-'02 s~om-f!c. jtlst a.'ii, ~hc')'do ~n nlhl'F fbrm~ OfW(ISIC di~ml![j~lI. ut ~llC b C'\,UCl, ~k.*iUJl\ nr'IIP1:'1~~cy U!fl~ikcly In h~ decided <Ii~ un UtO It(,;'ur !i.1:llur~, lon~ befoIe cm'b()11. ~oqu~~I<IHOI1l1x1COml'S IiOlilll!l~ rmC'lic(t. BUlDIK~ lUIlCC~rllli:l1-

J:';!R1blL:.'::Il't> l.1'i~[[ do arise

widl(,~{lifu1"C IOf SIO.mgc ean be 1d~crtif1:ed. By CI\.'illing 8001t:1pc!iLUVC bidding IN'OCCSS roo JoUJ.£~ term ,.:;cql~ll<lIiOill COllIrncls.,lhc Uni~oo Slal.CS Crull Cf~$\JrC'lhal~he 1l'i(ll\:1, ooSl-c!l:1ciC'tlI. sUlli.tC'gics\\':i~1be ~ whilcl~$'I.i~g a variety of C;~]ltlre ;mid SIOl::l,gC i)pti(1ln~ i~dnJlid 1'ClroU Ihng o~(k~:1~·~\c;wl.1doo,~ rng proms. nc Uail.cd SmlC:i!, ~m:l ilhc ... rld :ml... 'Cill"m "<! ·0011scG~!cslJ'mion IDt I~g~nItOW,bllUl soon illId nt
ml
~1it'C

>Our dlla] l~l,gC 1octa.y :~ to (''Hthat ]hc !J:.'(h~ml{Di..,),is p...dy \,\11C1l SC!101lS . 1')I)li lic;I~,tClion tm dliln~lC' ch,mgc is f~ll(~!ly T.m_kc'rt IFDere~e;['loe;sa iili!I N,a.tes
1. Briili5;!h I?~Mlelirn.. 5PS.1"li~1itili ~1'm Q!f Vfooldl E1IiIMllil' (lOO6~; il...ailiibll! 011. _b,p,cQmVproi:IlK.1bni:liB!J. d·a!'(i!tegl'J!)'~=6a.f2&coDllerrUrj;;;;7Q)213 90. 2_ h B~Ifaw, (. I~~~ii!lrn.. If. L.a, ~.lim~ ~l(Ira~

CI~~J:lll:OIIJI_S, :ilc<Jjc.

Ihfl:c Ihcre i~. rem.

alsobc re~rol1ll.o allow for in pure oxygcn ...f1lllto~h tile St.'I,"U<ttiOll 01" oo.ygcn rrmn 'lir is similarl~ 'ctlCfg_Y inlCfl5ive. and Cile l]iIOd~ ~C';l' ions: 00 the p;1~ntw()(~ki be Sl~llSlfllUrilll and 1i~"C~y as cootly ~4:1j:Ui\'! G'!isii~lC<llk!]jl o.f coot whrk:h imulYl!s healing ~md a.dclin,g pure O:lly~1l 1,0nmkc ~ll~ni:llllY~C or ,"llrb~111 m(mo~l,dc ,and hy'~mg~llI. c,m bc IlUSOO "illl.cor lbr ~YI~I'h~~J:5f !iqll~d rl.l!cis 01' [01: clcc~ o !licil)". l1!c;;;c rlbrll:ol Il;'"U~ be dt.:~~IQ',;1 to 1'!\xlli.uoL::
()i)3~

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ly ::lbOll~ll1(-:''CfLlf!~ Mhclf iSSUiCS oolllrlhallH;os m ::l. l;lCitcf'f1l doud iIlCSS,~h discollI':agesiltd!iJlsu)' froJn fl.t Ilnlti:ng in\o\esmrlelllS~owilr:d ~qllcsllil.lt~o:n ,efforts.

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:x:;-quc ..<tml~Oi1. '

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DtSI)i~c' rL~l~ obstacles. fl \:.<IIr.iclYof carbon s.cqllc::mmlkm 3c~iviJties are' pllOCccding. :RCgi.Olll!l.l Ilal1ncr.5:hlps hra.vcbeen cSI<lbl~~~lt.~ the Urlll£d In Slrues,. S'lIlPfl'OrlOO bJ' t~~eU.S. DCI)Mfnl1Ctll of En· CQ!:Y (,DOEl. to study lite I)oSs]bmdC".:> 'for soqlJClSlm~ion .arollUIWd'te(:(lulmy, ~1:I2OU3. ,Pu.'I:..~id~llt Bllsl.~ rum01!~lC(!da ,oo,umuilnu.:m loFlM~mcCi!!n, a DOE INnj~l Rl! t~~I~kI <llzt"l'fl"'C1ni,i::1i\.icmroi:d ga.... il1c<~lio.n !;'l~,n't ~h"l \'I/'OI,"d CHP~U~ <lH'd ~w~..!llh1;
~,:'!cWr!lg .-.1"'1) r(tr"·"'Ollt~ but iii ~~ingJ~"v~~. <lI:i.ilic-.ni:ou 1:llulfli lll~.t g d('I:I'l!mMrntC"l:\. c.1flmJ'I g.,·qm:i)HnU~OH u~,Io.Hi~:i.'kdJ 1.0
il pmdll~(,;"tl. F~II~IJ:(:lCi(;n is,~n

Il!tM11M trm~ ~n(102 im wd[;mtJ!jt~I~!fIb:Min~: ll~m~lM [rom Il'fllroLtWll ~Y5tern~,. Re,1Xf1 (1fl!llf:Greet1hWI4iGa~,
~hii'lo1o!l~1!<l Ci:!liiPl!~1W1! Rm~D CMIr~, C~nItiM~ 1l1(1lillible ill iIII'I\Ij\<,rn.2:m.mm.~iJlPl!JIlfI~E!Sl

{.ma,n;

;L K. Z. IH:~~!\'. 0." p._W1f~g, (. F. HaiVe'y, ~ S, 1Jir;k1iler, (i!{ac, lI!ad, liGl:ld, ..Sd.rJ.:S'JI. j~,lI2'29ill (2006). .~. IPC~ Special R!epa;! UI CQIDoo' D~Q;i;id~ C~II'lJ!Jr'e and S1!rif~i!' ~lrlt~iITI~nMl i'&i'i~1 ull (lim:lll1! (JIiJan~t>.

sro:!I:Q,*!l5{G:!iG,fU;!r~bi!w~O!"ehj!jITI~Jl,i! Ped~~!'!"'!p!!~.

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,1~Ml'

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200:5), aoailil>lt al Wl\w,ipc",dIt.Kti'tiI~>t::GJijrid~};.Imr!, 5. S. Ali!d~r:S!)!'I. R. ~~I~ .hi!'l!CJ: ~, flll'illim. I!'fW(o!r.~9.
]!(l? Qli)1H},

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.high ('a;,t MlLt'~cl OI~~iilirm h{!S Nl:'III. ~\1(,lrl [o(;OO~gfliti:l'iro!io~l nS1~rrnrur~ J~[PIOI1i{)'lllIlgcaml

l~tIi&C ~liiItlk:5 &1fl!:.'CSlcJ:IiM the OO~1.'> ~Lre 10Vi0~ t~Lmn it:Iirollning ai'l c.... sti~g pulvc:~ i Cfi1il p!!lllli r(.J~ 1,-iffi¥l.::V(T, ,r;:xpc"tk~~ with gtB.,;i~icl'L'lion pl~nlii;iii;linra;iied. ih~lI\; me glll.~ lWO .:l1lIChplant;; in the 1Uil~tOO States, aud n::iLI.ICf is capillI\: rca~,I..
!\,Ili:'l:l'Il: Cno.,)lll'3SCGlll:nl of 0001 ~si:lltruim~ ~'il mdl-

oo:mr,irHoe dIe' \vorld 111m. Cad'MJli, SIXIUi::>ltatioll, u:o; d'L(' rJght strrfleflY IOl.'edL~ (it'):! C111i::'iSlmls. MOl-:C· OY~. a ,~o\VQt" pll<ln.t>C!'l)Qi::altCdby tile gO'\icmll'lCnt [luy fiJi:! to couviU'lCX: P!)'\IL"T O!JnlUl:Jll1i~~i1iill the Cffii!.~

6, D.ilol on Pro'I'ffl fUi!fll'.~ .and 1lf«l1J{~On Me' ·frMl U}. {_iJbc~ ·~~me:nl·w.t~ '!:.iIk.wlalelii JS5~!Wl~1 2'5.4 ta!\'!!. U '~on = 1011 ~ or (j!rIbon I!l!r teraiMI! (I']) ·01 ~l'la~

'1l9.9 ·tO~i of 1[Q~1xi1l per n 'QIII'E~I'QI~iJj1!l;ilnill U •.c! UHli5 01 (a!'tiJgI'I ~r 1]1QII1;jjQ~a<!1 ga~, [):jfl!::rre~c~ 1be1We\;n :3i\tth~adb!. b'iIUirnlii'illllo$, ~'~i'Iit~. ~ul!!,bitl1Ji'1iiilili:i~eMU a~dl
HQ\j:;~ ilrrnil

\re.~1 de[ct'ilrtJin~oo. lw::kily, Fui~IlIIi1CG';:II, 11m cmnpC'~il.Ol'S. Briiiish P,cGrolclim ,U1P ~ inl coop.:;:m~IDIlI wi(lil Genei'm.!
!>\X]li,;::<;iJrai.io:n are

or

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VOL 3150 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

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1- _ ~

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r!ll;'·llimi~<H~.y ,ml~~Y:5.i.~ Qrlill!.; ~~I~w C\If\fC5 ~~g [lpp(ll~i~i{j!] {fl':: (..,4") ~L5il~gtll!l;' H1~p.&),;:~" mo~I~! ( !;l1!1l~MW:;'L" ~]mb di!rcn,::I1f;~'-"l in .ih~o:P~iiiml 1;:rr~"~l tOE) mtilong the l.'Jnbcddcd :>r:tI~d~itt:;!:n.,y OII(~mJ, be ruhlllOd~o the de.~~"'"C ~""hil:;h~hf:}' 1;l!1i;:OUIilW, t!!:l IE-ri~l,g graiins. DE, ~hc ,dr.1J:lla.ic"!!nl1~i'll"'1 f ~n~r¢~~ ~I'i ilI('tI"lit;C n; ~b [l-

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S.,"",',

by il:;; lIIliiI,p~ill Ide tien •.1[c!!CI1c'S Sil~4M: i,.:; IliOI. well refirescnlt~d·by a simple Irilax'ia~ cII.il'h<;ok!. The ex trnordi Imr~]lyh i,g:ha~ooclo of Encc~1tdll:;:. it> reasenable tor <J ,~oo~ogieally 'U::II\.'C' 'body un-

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c{ln~imt{Jilt s :rc.surfa.civ[g. The lhell lil!lt give rise lo~hc ..'as't.I~\IUl{l!ll.~ E ring~h:.u en- dcrgnillg ,~hl<)1.l!.l.s at le<l~, I ~,salLoelli!cs. DCSI)itl! il)1 snman size, I' ~ ~ for' aH cLribC'ddcc.l SllItellites is, ~IOiwevcr. Sid kin,;. because Ihe odlcr !book'!' ilOll,vc anclont, El1reladllS Ii!'even rno~ de;:cniil1g of i~:;: ~~mlk inm::~hC surfaces, Most ic~,'moons in the ,m.!ler ~mm"'$.ilkc.i lere, W'!:fqlOlil I i~bb~e Sp<l!;,,""C' T~lb'" (1.2. '\'OOI1C''~I :~S:r~ oh!'iC'~v<ltion,~ s,"llllm"s :ili~~eni~e!i ~liR:r ,"),8lCHll h,m,: p \'1!Jlm"."l~l"\"~Xm and 0.4 or ,~I \ H\IO QJ}~i~i(m ~11I!J~ jOhnw howm:;u!"'~ri~1,~:;igiml!in.M (.2): '~~I]!iom~~l~h,.u;h;: l':mL.;'llih,::\.\'iI11 roh ...i\'I,;1y fl'mn IGllc~]t.dw; ,dh';'O; the ~pp;...\:;~IT'nw of ius,E-ring YOlllng S(!J rHltlL'" :;'1,I~ina" ~'wl!li.1.l.'[·!i .. EUWiJlIll = 0.9

de~iicl CII~ Ihc~nit~ffijJh,~':;i.e!}~ :;.~[ruchure 3n.bd dCI\sily of~'\;,';M,tl~~lh~ffii ntC' DE m:r:np,lil.~d:C:;, i~:ij" 8), ;,Llfld widlht> of the en:lb.edclcd sm.cllilcii'phase curves oorrel ;)I~e \,~D1l posil,loi[i in Ihe E-rill!:l. (liG, S~). IhlX.'C grolJll'lng..-: of sale II itcli. emerge w itIJ~ simliar OE m1mpl~lUdes aed wk~~h:.::: elh~ aUld T Enc:cl~d~t5; Mima .. DiOnc. tuld Rhea:, and J',muf;; s,

,~l1d Ep~rll~hcliS.. hl ~nr.!-cl(:~s~h'iIi'lIctt.«;~rWll ~)' n."rltldtllC(~ !l:lL:' E,·.r.iIlg h).i.ghWIL,';S... pmfi~.~. J:ct.hy:s,md . Ellcc'lt!Clu!'iC1>iI)cfictlC'C .SlIb;;.'!a.nI ially higl1er imnl,tl:l rates fro!HE.Jfillg p;!r!ic~!hmldo M~mm Diom'. s, ,~Ilcl Rh~1a (9}. E·fi~l!!l r.:utic!Li':S clo mn iU'!3l!l!.cl J,IIlUil. Oln<!ErinwlhCu'l. AI.~"~IS~ Rmr ;1~Miliollat $rl"('IJ~ s!ll.dl:i,I.\.~orbit wil.hil'lbhc :IE :rung: I:'IMO b~~wcc.il Mhl.tllS [l11d: Enc:cla:d as ami two mere L~;!ilrnllblii!m connpafliom. or Tcnhys .fi:nld Dione .. f\I~lOlUgh rnClI$l.lfll.... . mClllS mus::! await~hc ooquii'>ili.olJ of !!ow-a Casslni il1il<.llgcs, we' pl'i:.'d let Ilmt I' ~ I tor these bl10011 S :IS ~\'C,n. ]m~\'it:lbl}i,. n~ateriO!~ fronl EIU;ci<!dlUS im~ucls "II sa~d I.i~(l or~li~ w ithin the E ring. ... ing cnlmndng ilheir albedos al. Ihe .imnds nf'a dimin'lllii\IC'

nmlgh1Do:t:l>" 011 Ihe n~l1l of 13 JlliiUHUY 20t}). a rfn:'lf: pcrft.'Ct aligllltiLcnU. onhc S~jn,E::uth.and SatUl':lil enebled the measurement or [he ;l'LI,bedQiS or the :S;,llllmkul S:ltc~ HIles, at ~hc smruUcsl, solar phase 1(E."rilll~San -SOlwl'l!ll ;nngi:e {,(,l == (1,01") anaiml.ble at 1.4
Sallll.'·n~!s hcl:io('cll!r1c db:-

:lul1 N~)I'LIIlC':;; TrilC!fl Il~ = o,~t5}1,. wh1ch 31SO has aeti \'C gc)iM:I'l>. \lV~ Wi,.roifX!S1C ]hm. in~cr3CI ions \Vidrl E~uilg I
{<If!

rp

p3nicl~cs. UlltimlllC'ly fmm, :Etl()C~3d~ls·pllwncs.

-4

ranee . f're\! I.Otl s I)'• thel r ,gC01HC. ric ;~I bedas wcre poor!)! d!i.:n::n~lined ,~nd
cnuld be
\"",,1 i[J:I[u~lidn:nly

,.:,"""

2~ ~
r!lhsEli ~

S i<lI1lL
IRi:l~lmi!iI1JC@oS, ,<I.~d ND~@<S,

iii.
;;:"

Kl'}' (':"1itrrtpi~lmin!§

p.ulo1tm'k1..

-~-_.J::OL.·' -Ie ~ -

ric: Itloocl s

to

zere phase.

'Goo'uncllr'ic flI~bc,do,. 11. is Ibc~ !;mio of a SfIIldlhc's rc'iii tlcctancc ,m 0: W to that 0Ii!:i;a! 1t'!.;!f,Y$ IR~~ or a pel: fOCI: ~y d in;us ins disk vicwcdfL~ the S8.m,;; [Fig.. 1. The m,~ Ii! Vi:sLU"~ 9,mmetric .allhe,~O.p (Le,fhl1,rtical.a:d"l), ,oHne p>oshim~ ,fLiIldflPIJareru size, @mbeddled Solt@ llllJe~ Mimas ((1t9,6), EnCleli!du (l.3St Tl@'thsU .. 23), A~tl albedos measured at Illi:one {il!.,.OO'),iillilid Rhea (0).95} venus rradi.a'l dilSl:iHll,aelrom s.imulfl (ii's) ~me (Ippooh:i:on arc: conmimics ~liIe pole-on ~efle·ctall"l(e ~#f} j)wfiLe (sotldl line and r~ight s icBCiI.·~bl)' :11 !shoe-,I: 11mla prc'I,!'~nkQ!l ~~~) ,of the E ringl. IHST's lNiid'e Jll@W !lind! Piane:tOll!), (aiitHHoiI 2 (WIFPCll) ,ooolf"~d b()~n till,e 1995 rrilFlg plaln,e um .. '_']llIg~ (l,I!J)lIodlne viQo1.I!;~ c~tinl'uc", Uabk: S II, r1J,.·cx;It:!l~p'h:. p i;j L 23, lor ~~e'lIl~t:es ~il'ttr!.li~ OiPP@Sj:~~(llil ~Jj1ith tbil: :X!lili!rl:n'l'~r {FS5SW), Tcth)!~ "~rJo;ll'~ 0.80 pn;:vi· ~und\~c!.: ~h~ ]Iigh ,~lhy(lo~Qn Tetliays, Mil1l;)1:>, n~i~~ly"md p ill :~ lor Di~~I1~; . .00 Vl:r};ll~ 0.S5 DioJlc •• U.lJ RiI(~~.AfL'<:'r!.:jcctit!n .ffirom Em~clla· , 1f!!rli:violJ~ly ,[lj. \Vil:h thcC'xceplmon O!UJfIWW::; (p = O.. ~) fJli.d Epkn,clhcliii; lp = OJJ}. which ofbil. dus' :iii)~I,Lhpole •. Iiongnl;v:ihuionm'! fo~.u:sc'Xcill:: 7 the (loccnlricnlics. orE~r~l\g ,~ins (.rlJ. These il'HcrioU'w l.h!!<E riiilgAhc albedo,," o r;a,1 I sflIcHl,I'c:; im!~~l !1.ll,,~.);I!Ih;l~, 11C;:~ appro x i~1l:,1,t~or 1;,'.)H;:(~~d '~.m il.y run udcs co~~U~~I;.':v.,uiJh~h~ i;nlilb~~o.~.'L;'"d ir~ {.n. A ~lron,g c{)r.r,~h.ll~olJx:isb;, (Fig .. I) llelW~~If! s,lJIifaces !Ii. hig,hrdHiivc \'(':k1cuLie;..; (6). Mc.lIl>i. or c the t:JOOUl ~l:lllil1g Iron d'lis lk'lradbl!a~tklg. lilU:; JJ and [hI.: 1:lOlo-O'D~ftldu ••1 renCClmlC{; profit~ of' with illc Er.ilng ~r;: ~b 1.1U1Ciio~~01" oruitrl~ md iu.,> , backaf1lto Ihll!)j.ffildlite sHr.lirl,Cc!!:, coatirl.& IJ~cnn to Ca~ypso m1d Uclcl'lc, Lagrnl.n.gian. s',!l,tdlil.cs of' clean. icy rnkroi!'lruc~lm."'Sslliilil~1 eltlll'l.~lcing (IrIC rel]ed.allcc ai. i(ljJpos~tiot1 {7), TcdlYS and Drone. respccli\lc~y. arc \'usibte wllhiin USTs lieid (I r "I,C\\,. BQtlh 0lI~~)~m~e I':> I; AI~lOUgh a mOl\!! complete' 1I11idCYSlml'I~J1S

Wi1iv. ~. Mwrnill I'r§'l,.]~~~n, ..AZ~ ~9alSt II1IW,:l!.-~6. 3. C"M!lIlMtiom ,0:1 eruetID' <i1!.O!'i~IJ :.. 1.lr iI ~Ielli~e ~ S!i.ii\gn~~ 1;ie(1&a1l~e'dilli!ll Of Ihi~s "!liJlO.n~ 10[; II.. 0. L li);:IITIrfi9~~,~ at" ftDfjj~90, 31li ~rjJ<911. 5. M. IfIldk1~B. 8tlfJIl~. looms 11'1•. ~l!O '12000'11. 6. 0. f. H~!'!!ll~~n, Pi, ~m~ Sc:ie1lff 4:64. ~(1 ~1~4)'. J. 7. '1'. 5~~1,!~.t0\';11'. fletfEi!'li~~ei!1l,!t'tlM 1S:~~9~ ~OJl. !3. 8. H~e-, ko.r:G!515,7, sas '(2002t I'!., ]!J11,m; hi. HO!"~ll:ri1 J ~y$. ~. :!;~7, J$jg6 ROO;;!}, 1:.0. fI, 1)1 N1chlllr~(]n tt r:l.. ,5{lfflCf :l:~,i!, 09 b99~~. 5 B. 8a!iled 'D!!I '~e,f\!a~ig.!I~ wilh N~uro~e.llf! :51i!3C~ ~~nCf~ H$li,. OO~~irnedl.!lt 51!HII!leo Tet~~ope S6~nce !l1Irntule, p; It i!cil:nafjlW~~ ~U".pJ»r1 rwm f,I_0!!5~'s ~~ne~;\(~ Gech!gy ~f1d GegpIJ,~ic~ ~1'Qg~liTI,

1. C. C. IPdnco t'l m,., .SckI'JU 3U :39'3 ~'::!OO~J, 2. 1.. A. BUrnl,in Salfthl~ •.~,A. B~Im~,1M.S, MaUIhe'!\1!. ~

s.

nl~

Sl!Ip1Podingl @III'I~'I'1~ M .. t@\Ii'ii.d ¥Mlif.Si:~MCemll9,ar~g1i'c~I@iltfl'jjl.lf3jl~;Bl~&"lI.!i~OC1l :Ftg.51 fablts s''ll ,mc S2
RBft;rffi~e!j,

5 Se¢.>embef 2.006; i!CU\ple!d '( ~ov.em'ber 200& 10,ljJ2~$fil!m" IH4681

thew v.dm:s (Ire lU1CCtl1ain becau)1c or lorw 8i:l!ln"~'~O'II,p,i,s~ t<~~ip:s and 1001:g~con~~ ~ions Ihv ch,I'll1l; t!';l!l11iof",·dTk·i;cllcy. hl .. ddi·
ilo~"'C'\iC\r.

~he~'t!goHth ph)'s ic.d proper!: I:eS is 1l!I~ium!.~ely 14851, USA. CX.petK'tl fliPm the ollml'}'siis of r~l~ SO~;U I~h..~ "la, r.'1!00'! (orfespolf!deMeslOOuld ~lUr\i'l;S lrc~kcl,~!tt "'1.,''r~U~'~ ror{lP::;n :smo<'~ Ol. ~blmr®!jIjrgjrnudu

or

Vib. VA. n9ID~. 1lJ:!)II. ~~rlmeml '!:Ir,A:~rooOOW. W€'.Ilesli!), (Q~eae.. 1III~tstey, i!M. Oil~al, USA. lSear,!llfI for ~l'ol!.~"e51JiI.al tlll1!e~~r.!Ce InstIM'eo, iV!oum'al~V'i~ CA 9't.:O>t3, US:.i\
'Di!parImEfill

~~J!l<lllmellotol

li.s-llrOI"lOIffiIj". Uii~r$,l~li'Oi'

\l'iil"®i~~~OI~ItQnl!5"

of Jl5tUriO~.QI1II~, (1lIIDI!~ Un1.'mrsi'Lf, 11hill:a, NIY be ad'clIre~sedl. E"Il11a1~:

I;)'¢~~ O1IW

Direct IMeasure'menls, of the Con'vec'tiiv,e Recylcliinlg of' this UIPper Trnpasphere
nmoUIiV HI. IBelrtll",tHnl/ Alilln,!! E. 1i?l!!uffil'l!](,l II?'~ILI[J. WQ~,Ldri~!!!!I:i!/ ]~(lhl'l!l Croi!!Jln:s~.;O! :A!~tlrI ]1., Kwal!l,~ Pall!Jl~ '11, :W@l'Il'1belr,g~ -Eric Sclheu,el'/' J.~cik I[lillll, i!! M,elody Averv}' G[I!!'1fI5~c!line,oI! ~.q, :St@'phaJ!'IIi~ A. Vall,~ ] iHiI1@S H. l(r(r~{Qrd. ~ C!!lm@,r'ii:J'11I ,MCIr\~ltI!I!g'il't'ii:J'!'II/ A!'!!tQlli'llf (~al~k@/' :5., Kelill~e~:h E. IliIm(ki&FVn,91M' I~f'!!'Y Fl!!I~I~ller'g', GIF.,eg IHiJ~Y~l1. DOilflal~d R. Bla~e. ~2 H :U;1l Hla!'!lwall!t S, Sin,gh,,:U :Sa!!i!f!~ll!llt Hlal~lJ,1I R'ichOiiJdI E, SheU~r, u ALan Fri~d. :14, B~ianl G. He~k_,eo$,15 ROI'IQltdl c;" (:Oh:~I1L1.~ ,

iml"'m1~n~ .~~upli(:m~o:!~Sl Ibrlhc h)l{lrnlg.!lli~:1 !I!,lf,)' 1~~'I.!lIfIil.Uge-C1:f t~llJ' \.\!;,a:~l;lf\,';~~ ~~-dbttCk on ~~ob<lI[1fmp;:mM,m::: (.M).
~<I!'i,

\1!f~dc;scr:ibc ~~nlu,.\'ih:od wr (~!IIc~lllm.il~g.:t'[Olt!,
po;;.i~ija!]of !~~ UT; the t~!i§th of (illliC tlml ~nl ;Ii... ~1~l'lll ~por;:llc}; U!'bHi¢ LIT ;!n~T OOJ1'\!~"CI.i:mi,mid we
ill lh~ {'M,llflDW a~ :1 :ruu~clk'tj~ 'Iim~ :>ilrnre COJh !(.'(;tkm. of \.VC iJ5'C measurements (if N02 (19, 2.(1), ~~ 011' i~ c.alcllilBlted room NCl.!. 0)0 I ~Ol.m~(1 fll.lo.tol)il>i:> 1m!C:::,), IlllNOJ «1/, 12')1, 011 and II!IOl (21). OJ.

in si ~~I 'li1caS\!r-c"n~!~t~

or Ihe

ehem te',!1 corn-

d~scu& Ih¢ cht:lf:li~~1)" OCCUtr1r'1g ...
rogiClli

aerosol malubeli" del1.~h)'

w~ pJ'e's.f.!~tas,tatlis;t](a

nk' n ux cocJTicUc-tl'h. 1,.111'1 fi(lJ'r NO~ (.f,'>I(~~), HNO~ (.Jm,'Q i)' m~d !'mHIY Olh~f ~pct"ie:;. :If(! c.'1lcl1.l1..~~cdl ,(25). CO (26), and (-of);!; (171 (lb'to,tini,ld cll1.l!'".illg ~hL,;']m(l't:CO:u-

lirom ~~'hich l}hQ!h1~)!,..;b: rate

(j..

n- SO.:=.ae1i

~ !i€!'p,rii!:!i~!1t:aJli(H'! ~f the' agg r(!glate e-HIe'i::ts of d~ep !xIll!yOO:ioJ1 'l'm~'h@' 'clh~mistIFY!i!ffilddy~m~(s ~Iff~h~ !jpp~1' u'(lp@:Sl:)h,~,e(UJT) based en di~(t aircraft @b5,~rvgltiol:!'~ 'of the- (iI1emi!c:Qll COlli! p!)!5iliQIi), Qf 111~ []T !l)\I'er~he' eaS'lem Un~ted SI:a,~~slllld Ca nad(l d'uril"lglslilimmeir. these lm~a~ur<E!'m.e'I'll5. pro'll'~de Il,lIni~!JI e Qb:s,eilValio na~. 'C!1ll'lslrlliinlS Oil HII~ ,clh~misNy O(lll'11i mlgi d,o~myiml of C'OI'IV'edicm ,[lInd t~eo Irate' at \lIrniCltl ,ak In th'~ UT 1,5,re(yded. 1fhe~e re'SII,I~tspUlvi:de 'qlllillntitative measures that Gall'IbE!! u.~,e to !l!Ja~uate glob,al d.imlale allid (h~llI1istrvmod'ells.
eer OOI1f'rI'OClion a highly eifDcicll1 mxh~ is :miSiH ,tOli"tllC' ~'c:tiLic~11r:ru~SpO]'t ,of air rrom n,caJ"Eanh s slUrtace ,(0 to, 2km ~ 00, ~he UT ~(~~o .~ bl~I 5). Typical cunvective 2: I(

li~K'Hta~ChC1ni,C'a~ TfOl!ll~lNI

E,.,.pcrimc!1l Norlh

stonns (12')" ""~l.LdC!ll. of the <1g_gJ:l!,gm.cclfoct:;, of O com~lO(:~iofion Ihe ch'Cmic<.l, ,Ctl!l1p{l.;"i!i'~l a!1d ~adimh'C ro~chlg or tire UT i'l!ilvcbcc~1 Im:gdy the rw\'i I~OC (),I' ,I~locl'c]'ing and uhcory (1 J. 1 ~). J [Ci!'C. we (~cscu'ilbc nm:lli1l1l!'Clm\!HS til <U~ pro\! ide dfl~~·[Illfr.;;J,lh Wilhill !11~ OOll~'o;; t ~\'C' ~~.(l!!111!s' ,u~ a dilf('.C'l link hCIWCCi!l ,HI nbil,crv<liblc j11iOP;::r!.y mllWloC'lii8.i'(n'\o\:T d~will~ Ilo\\lllml O(lC'lI1"S ow!' ,<I 'H~drhetmcmbk .of (;'Ol1v!I;"Cliv,L;' (,;v.cnlJs, I:;]Q:~c[ ~pmi[~1 :;c.ale (I). ('olwoctir.m is .:Hl'iiCl Hie ch("nnic,ll !Jll1d rad imlh'C MIl:\c:qlL~rK·Cl\. o r C(lDH'\l~Cliol] and ~ igltllli~ rig ~rck11.0WJI 'I() ilJe: ~:;,~,f:tCiil~cd .. :Iig,hlning. an il'l1lpo.utall1t $i~)Hruc of NO.., tNOjj,' ~ NQJ I'- NVd ~1'I~he UT (8., 9J', Iflrgc tJ, 15. 16). U~JIJCrIl'Opo.'>phcric 0,). cl.lh~r The source :::;tr,c~l~thDnd sparial di,sliri:bmiolll oJ ~raillspoliI.cd dh'L~[ly rromlilc boundary ;Inycr v i!:!,

D

N ye:;-uU' -I rroml:lJ;ssil fuel coJllbustion

( .11 ~. 1'\,1!hOll,gh d1.CfC 11<1. been a ml111rer 01" c.i1SC' \':C studies oflilc ehemiesl c.lli'(IS of ~rlldivi.d:uml

,';~(lfms have :qlrrti,1Isc.ak.~ nf!\.'~~:;;or kilDll1Cwn-; and VCl1i.C1l~ velocities as largoe ns 15 In 5-11 {6l'" ml~kil1~their ~.oca~inf111cm:c in ~he LIT (:'.Xllll."':I:HCi)1 ~Hmlg. nco flil!pj,cl UI)\\'ard I]ow isoolanccd b~i

""e~1I

IighLnir:J,g NO~ emissions are IlCJi~ 'Well known. WUdl cs~i~natcs mllging, Jmlll ~ to 2D liS N ycar-1 fo:, thc glnbl1l <l'l,'em;gc' COll~lH":cd to 25 Tg

om.

eonvcctiou 0[' rOfi~lI.'iI ihl Shu aile!: detrnimncn~ or COJ1\'ccti\'dy .Iollcd OJPrccmso:rs INO.-:. oeid
hydrogen radicels m:Oil'). and hyc]rocmtmu~:sl in lhe ol!l!lnow regL'Oll. diueclly CHlllil1~C

lDepartI'!W,m Gf Chel!1lrishy. l!I~i~lsity 01 (~iforli1~a. IIeIiN~; 'PI 9~720, LISA.~DM~1o!'l (hewrl~1f'IJ ~1i!d 'Chel'l'!l(al 01 E:ngil\li!erllIg. (a1:~!Jmr.a Ili5tl'IiJi~' Twuio'iDrJr!. IPasad1ffiiJ, (A 9].125. US!I.. ~l}M~i~~ EQ~~eeri !'!!l~l'!;d ~Ji5ed)ciefl~e, (~lir!:lrli1i<1l~1~~ ~I T~1md(ltg~, ~..~~ CA9'U2$, us;!"'" oiIDivisiDn 01 Gdegjfila~;d PiIlll'lf!l!aay Sd~~@5" (1IlifDr.rIiI1 Inrtirute on,*)hn9'lIl!.h'. fMi'i!c~oo. CA 91.1.l5. USA. ~11rn;~Mt 'f.o~ the '~tudi1d Eat~~. o!ans, an<! $p.aa!'. 1.Ii11'1'i!~U;, f New O iD' Harilpsliiire, C!urnal1l, ~fI 03a,iN. USA. ~rtI\SA lii 1iHj1e!~ R:!i~rr.:h CeAw. H$NIp!O!'!,'liA .236~i1,.I,ISA,lS(It!oo~ of (lml!!'! <lind E;l1'1lfI dl!ftoo Tll'dilFlOlOiJJ, trni'll!rsil)"iJl Ha.WOlii ;gU~oa, S

ar

IMiilllj,\,C' forcing (/S" ;\'ddi· ti'!:maMy.,d\!ep ronv~tion",coot1ll~ for 0. su'bstantim.l n.tC~r;(m OfillC net. ~luix of moistmt: lium ,Vhc:J!.r E,mill's ,~lil!'f<!;l;;;:10 llu: llr· II 'I rig. :l}. '['Ill':;;', dIe ~~l'Il~!lI~ which til];!; lJT is Mnod ~JvoC".r:byro!w«[i('lll
0. IXiSiliM;;':

thro!IJg.h

"~'i.

,I\:rnclCuca UNTE X~NA ~ uI)O,ud Ih~~~~ASA DC ·fl, (l~). MtusllrC'!n1.Ni!'~w~m 1~,Id~ ,U! ~d~illlJ!dl.;'r' ..~ b ,\\',,('11 d~ t;ld'Lce .gmd 12.:1 kn1 over <1. wid!: ;!rell oWlhc UU1~h.·.d~lfllc.~and C.ll[l:lci\l, W\.~l of 4!O"W and bclwr.!CI'1 30f' .llnd SfrN. There W'~.'e II large ~nllnbcr' (I r ven k'1l!I: pro ~ les, rrlIlQwil\g~ reasonalbly IIJnbkllSoo suu.is,lkaJI s:!'lmpHI\goffflimvcrl~l~s I't!£ ion duri rig July and A,1I2USI 2004 .. ,,"\,Fe'lise I h,c dc\'~m ion ofl ilC o'b,,,,c'f'o'cd NOiUNOl rm.tin li:om :;;lcadj1 SI,UIC'as. ;;mil1dic.nor of con\lO(:lti\e i!d]u:':Il~. The No.,./I.]NDJ, rafio is I'lC\iCllO near inrinhy iii! moist eenveetien as a ~1lI11[ of pl'dbi'!ZntbJ We! llo'Q\'C~lglngof UNO) rolmi vc ~~.NO.>' 0.<:.. the: jJ()~ubilil}' of UNOj is _IG'R ~iJnl."" Ihill~ or NO.,,) (,29)0. FUIJI.hC'r.~i;gMlIDlin!:g.pmd,IiH."~d NO_., o['}:1~.;;n O~llcidcru with eO!l\'~;.(."" O lion.mmu:'k.,(xHy CllhmlcC';s, NO,... iu~ the oln~lJ)w rogion lli. N]qHpH~lg on~l©!C processes Illflkcs. I.he e iN'OillNtl3 II"fIlnoiUI11~e fill, GlTcclh'e illdicmrrr UT ofco:nvccl:ii'l'\! ~llnUC1l'ICC. w.hcn:: NOV~ INo.1>:>I is illilicmiv,e orreccilt cl!:md otaUlow ~j'(}. 31)" hll.hc <lilY:> a'fla: eouvection, dlC rnl10 decayslfi~'Ilf(l MCOOY :iit<UJc.pl:ovidhlg a cilC'llHtca:1dock jlsn

n

mmlrk~~~be .tCltgl.~1 dbne ~hilt fill ,fIJi:r mass 1m:; speill~ in I1hc Ulolleu' Cfl.Il\'cclion (;tn Previous Mu.dies haw: ~liS'Cdspecies Ihal h~'r,'cno UT smlocc (c.g., ('I hU or al!c-rmuivc' d1l:!miJc ..~ r.:ui:G:;;;~o pnwJdc "'~ imme" or <lb"C' Ol!:irll dlC:UT ~J4,~~:n. i ·u!'" s~liI'cl;}' is U~~qlL~ bl,;"1;a~l.sc of ~'IC. ;'~:V.;li li!y or i ~Ibi

or

u.n

or

IFi'!lI. lL. In mri!Sl: CO!'l'l!e(~

~11)!1. from air IPori!ed
tfo'l~lilml ilflID this. pr~~

tmf

lEar!h~~

n~rIia(i~ fillpiiily '~am" ill.

MI.antill, GI'l 3@B2.. l!ISA, lti(;p'altni@nlcf (Et~rnistn.f, l!I"'i"'~r.i!V '01(al~OO1~. !!Vill!!!:. O!!. '92MI7. USA. :IJN!!lkfiA J\~ ,~~~rr:h Cellt~.~U'e1:t FIWI, CA9!!i(1:9:S. i.i$j\,~,~;UiQf'I<!t

Oeeanhl: Sdetire. Ul1!i...e~;ty 01 Noal)llallidl ,CbU.e.g;;: Par~ MD 20742.lJSlI. flNt!r5A 'G~ard Spa~e ~Llg~tQ,f'lter, Gp~eli1bei~ MIl .20711. USA. l~~~I:rno<:n.tr;Jf Me1.>e¢rd.Q. FLQrid~ Stint iJ!l!he<r>l1Y. Tall<!l~aml~ FL 32306. t!S/t l'sclilool I)f Ira rtti! and rumo~phe;r~cScl~iil~ (l~or~.iI In~tiwteor TerJImclQgy.

Hool1lu111l> IH~ 9682,2,

USA. "'Depalllni1@~lol

l\Irnos!lh!1lii'

<l!nd

ClnD' d'e-the Ufli" 1111 mi:rlc add <hig~ly :s.cliJbMis efifi·
lJ_J)\'r1il rrl

cllllilitty ~UlvE!fl~d ~mile

(enrer

1sGraduate School of Qu-.Ili'!.!lIgraplw. Ui'lfh,i-ersity or IfU,.. I~l;)md,tbIT"~o;e~, ~I 0:2'38.:;.usA r6~rtml!n' (If ~2rt1\ 3nd Pli:lOetiI~:~dmre. 'l!Irn,i'l\~iry or Qilif!Jm~, 1Il~IilE'l.l!ll.Q!I I

(or J\ImOS,p.~ftilt::

R~earm. hilder.

(0

80306, USA.

'f!lJO~ Un~rub~) ~jl:!$. 'NO~is ~lOO !by .00f!r (JlJIleflt Ik.!Mi!fliilg f:IJ() ,prod""~(Ifl~ IFeSIJlti,fltjl in I'!iigh
NO:JHN:~ raiOOsilfllhe' mJ'l'lft!dl'ilire. oo~ region Abr delU!~i'lm.~t i~i!O .It!e UiiI',NO~ 115, Q~!l¥!i:rt~' to IIiN~ bV OM Ili!~tmg'~e ~'~!1d l"ro~h, ~(000 mali! NO~ rollowed by hyd'[Dly5l1lio of '!he N.~~ prOOl!K.\ al ~ig'hl iI1h~ chemical. ewl'utiiOlliQflh~ INO:JHNO) ratio pro'l'Kkls: 0111 ILlillIiqlle mdi~a~or 0'1 ~~ len~ 0.'1 tilne' lTIatili SilIll1p1,erl 3ir m1l.~ h-a"l !:!een in '~'Iv!UT.aft.eil ilOl1mOI'1,.

'~4720. U)Jr"

·Vo w!lon1l oo~~~~p~!ifen~e l)ahei11@,ochl!rnI,ool'keley.ed'u

1!IiIouldi be add~eSlie'd. ,E··rmait

RESEARCH ARTICLES
whcr:c ~'I::l,the l1:ac~iflnL~ oocm~icnt NOil INO) i:i' ~""'I~I.Ct! to he ~<l~r then jhe .sII;Wy"SIl'l!C !1!KlIlI;' ~i\,i,I;n~i'!.i~ d,;'lt;il .. ~~ !.h'lI~ ~n U~~\fiol,l:'J -.;;wd~\~, v"lw b",'1:;'{lu~ W1,;1 ~!I\'~llg:i!1~ runlO\'~ I:!!NOJj A n~r lh~urlil;,~1 w:rli'!tiJli;nta~li,,;n~ il~ l~lC11'1,,'111' .r1L\~ I~L"~~TIhlll~ Iht~ iin~~ I\l1!td~ ~~~y ~:;;I!;II~ un '[0
of il1c rol1lV1.,~ti(n!, m:ilX ul~g

NO.2• on. and ~ INOj, mCa>1t!!1;111'Cl11~~ wi(l~ hig'h ~!In~ rr,;~!~ni('ln" \""hi~h ~.now~!J~ ~tI!iJd ... IH1I';.h ttl

~C~!K!i."lll
~1'ilJSOi

cvolutjor~ or dlC NO!] INO} t.illio ,a~tI;<t CO!W4;1;~ '~iondqX'~,~s ImlJdy 0\11 ~hc 'P.. rtiliIOl1i ~,g Nq~ 1(bt;tw~"t;'Jl NO ~Hid .~0:il~' ~1C. cOI~tx.~u[lIl:i:t1in of

~~ ~.~t)\!,!; Ih~~,

ih,_: 'ii~~l~

OLlr o'b!SCh'{'u.iOI1t'> :;;I~ow Ih~~ N0:.lUN0'l

rano i.o

.or

fll

l, Md llit fI~~ inic lilteacrl.ii'll'l11 IiIlitmge<lnl l!!aJrlitn ~HlIii ill ~h,e lilli!. ngl The ehemi.cfi~ :I>il~k.~ IIr NO!-; at\! reacliun with of Oil 10 ~rodltcc: IiNO~ (!Sq. B and ~~, lihrou~I:1

nux.

Eq • .5 11~ .. ~!i~ g[\l;atc If !ill,1I] f'I kan (Fi!;l. 2~. ud~['; HIli; dim,;rcn~ tK'I'O'\ICC~'i Ih~,obs~~~'A;Jn!Ulioand

b(l rnueh h ighcf llHln .lIc mlio described b'J1 Eq, :5

'by

fttlm\;'I~I!iI~l".C!n~~.. !DQl;."S......oo ;IiI: ~~ d~I~~~~OO p 01' ~[tlil~J,;: 311;a. FnJn:iH:nl:ggl r~I.,"\'\lll<lllid~ flum~lill:iml in Ihe o~IH1:ow ~im~ (43. 44~. :~igI!IIYl~ 4A OcllK:'ts 1ll1: tbaction of ~1:{.k'!~tiO!l fludei r~!Uld it!. !11m3· 10 IO"Il!H !bin as <lI Ihm::!i,L'l!II ~iri1i;) z;.i!u;:~ of or.!lil'icL.'Cli,·c ill~11ii~'1~C_Ul'C 1~.~[iOl'i or PUrlijc~'t> in

TIle aerosol size dtslf1bmiQI]J I)ro\'i,-~s an inil1d~mQr QI' ... ~r fl..'<t;lr'm!y {_~··"il1.od

I

dUll jiJ;[tMicwd

gm\\l;:>

\;;'Iil~b aluiludic.

NO~ qEqs. 2:ai, and 2h}. w.~~cre M uq""lue>cln~ a third ~mll.(!a!le le,g,. N2• q.:) 1JI~.u, IlIbso:tb.'i1 t!~c C'XCCf;:1; vll1rntrmm~en~\~y of ~le m:socioukm 1:e,~~klJl.:oll 10\\'Cd by l!)jtk"ClI~~~ or N;tO.:;, ro 11Rxi!tcC .llNOJ 0'6), NO", i.... . ~~'g(lnl.l!1~lCd HNO;] ~}ho:toJ~· ,1ll'U by ...i[\l W'lID~o~y"~is NO;!} ,~~. 10 N~ + all
f

rt,"K in~L')rO] 1 \..~~[!! ... I;'JNO~,twld ~UID~(IU~'l'[ NOj 3< i.!ud 4~.

M~

1.~No.:l~ M
~

I'~)
(2a) (2b~

NQ~ f OJ N030 NOl -t NO:! 1M Ni)~

M

~.'INOJ.....!!:-. (}II i + N02

~3l

'NO,'!lUNOl

.I'\:-;Sl!ml~n.g a dili!llKd stem)y S~alC liar ~ INOJ'" .UlUta,can be calk;ulatod. 3$

il'hc

aed I:I1.cljmitlg ~altlicatru' derived from il. L~ R.... . in illi>lI,ized in the: UT by cloud p:!'OO..'S.~il1~,. trml.~ S alia aJ"l iitdiC<iNO,,,, ~K'"I.\O;x)';(!.cI!IY~i1hrn~c ~PAN), and NOy ::::: Cllll![lllCelHCmSin ('I ~,~OOI[Ii 1:=02:. N~ ~ tCilJ ~ I]!(.'oo,'l), IUU<!i~es ~ tot a II ",Utyl, nilr.1itci1 I fOl'OrreOl.'l\ c~ud ~ssil~~ (J3 J. ~\'l'Il;! ob~!;,,.\Iot;,'d dmil'lg Ihe Ii""I. 2: day~~a'tkll' ekmd 1~IOCC§ill;, IINO~ I· 2 ~ N!~O~ ~ oti~C'~· minor oonlp!ln~cm'sH lm v c~h{l}vm NO!.lIINO;:l ~o be :;.ign ifijc"Ql~bp I\~ !;;~)\pc(ll()d.OO~l ~1c'Y.noo NOli" <!nd ~Il' hll'llcr Ih~1I1Iill¢ ~!c1~d)'·~~~lh;!' p.f(.\o,iclitl!'1 i I~ I:ht; I"lR~..;!:,;'d1[NO~ .are Oh!~h.'r"!;,'C~m ~hO!1 !i~nC'l WiJil4, B OIIi'Dcli EnI'o(iI1C(I'IlJi;.'Jl~ NQ, dl!ll!1n'i!l, !h~ I~~ C). in UT 13('. J/. 38 42)_ ni~ lrl,~S,l:iCtll $ho~v~! 10 ~i:\~1 ,.ys i~inc.hcmivc d Crtm;oc.l~{l1l1 QrOOlIlK.bay~ be PI'i:nlilll:i I~ .>1 resu II. of convcet ion and ~iglin· 11I.j'Cfl!ldl(l~' ~:ig~!.nillg NO~ (.Jtl). The :ii\lppl'e$fiL'011 , nilllg ro~ni~ioi.~i7jngt~ac !;¥~.;t.~\1!11 hcfo[t;: ~'<ldy ~"I.~~e it> <LcclI1i\.l\'~\d (J{.I. 3ft ATt.IIlou~h !1iu;,re ~ru £Hi~~r or ~-INOl ;Il :;~!an. lim'!,;':' il'l C'lc.w indoc,ninu of I~NOl SC'I:~/{.!.Illg[llg dll.r.in!l~]'V\·t"e'liorl. Fi:gl!llfl;40 hyW!OtIl\n."i.Cs'140 41). we I]ik.(; ~'~L~IC tll_ Ui}1 (!! rind no 1C'!t~dcl1cc lilt .~~ l~lIcelmn.i~I)n,ollmt thm~ CO:l1· a..'1nfirhil~ Ihmrt'fICti,:c IllilW.g(m lNOJ.J il!li conserved dlllrh~!£ the ch... i(,~lllp~iu~ m veelionucspcmsibh: [lilt holdbl:g NOil :nI"iOJ OU[ (I [SI.carly slaw in LIte U'F, roIWL'!OlKlI1l, 3 r."lI::l~llm l}ro'Virl~ fi.nrihcr ",,~ppon for ~lC usc or NQJlIINO,:l as 3 marker represemChl!'rrnl(am sigraahll res .(I~ 'il:oIl1.lIl!ction. Figure 3 ing I'ime since cmlv(,ClLDoI1!. dCI)OCL'l;(lUI! orman.;' OOll\'CCI~.vcly inll11cnccdnir UelFl'liGtll pr~ ~!!SiSifl'!Jl hi! Wlflv@ctl!W' 'l!luHlliow. masses smnploo inthe UT dUl111g ~NTEX-NA. ThllCC di;r.~incl (ml\'CC1ivc ~Wcm!i. {40 In IlO km M<ll)pi~~glhc cn~clnolc of ol:i<)1crv,lIions made !hroughoLUl!hC' UT om<J' [he ('Ooldun:b'C of time wi~l-).<ire id;;mi!loo 'by (''!1111ll1CCHJC!!lk''; ~l NQi~·-INOl ..s in Fng. 31\.. C'oinlcidenn ,c~~hanccnmell;1Sare lIu'tsCitl since eonvectlen a~h:w us to assess the ehcm.in SO~.. >l!nI indkawr ()\r~ recent ~ol!!ld:;lj1r-l~ycr leal and dynamical Plro~!CS oeculT,~ng mile£' couveetion WU!]JoOlU[.ITrh!_I1HiJiling :ll<lgmngi[ln conWU!1::C for lir~ ,<Iif. and in lIIhTIIrmc oD:ndcn~uion 'I!~[ion ~udy. ln ll~is'I!~ .. bisil\ we Q;l(JHCt:!lIll,IIC O!I! m ..C'!f:i (UC'N) (3 Dp:S H1 If!!n, whc!I"c Dpi~ the !

~achilng II m~,:>:il'l1lillul.' U:I k~n. PJ~\'toill:-;ob· at s.cn"~liol~ oJ N0A" lind IINOil ei Ihcriinea~iLi~t1

I

Bliio li.~ti'dlin~al'il)t!~ i:; 11II~~ dl!ilrmllg Ihe lillN! :tl::-w day.,.,whi:ch C6rrll~11'nS '[~lm~ll!..': NOjl.I.NO:J i1'ilio,

d'ii'CCl~y 01: c"lclIJ.mcd

rn:Hn ooscrvatilOilS.

of

or

an(.',

(~:~ottionl +

2kN~~'+H:o~Jf:i) (ml) x
(.5}

I'lmlide

,clif~IfJl~~0r)', an

:s

indic:liO'J

or

dO~Dd

d~i·

i

",

"• •, ~
,.

.' •

,~

!I

ill1l1Cfoom .il-!c~~f~IlClarybowldary IEliycr W!:l.U. ilack\/Itard air ~rnjcci.orics. ill~ti:alli2ied. along (he nigh"! Hack and 1l~1IiPlJ;;d ()nlDll~c ~lalial ami Ie:un~)!Um~distriln1tima of clouo-ttl-gJUl!!Itd lighming ~tl~kcs. i~clIk<l1c:~h.m~bls air 1J1~"'" t~'3::'> Iun'LICHc-td by I.ig:i:!!ning ,dXl~111 dOlL)' 'bdb!!c DC·;F: ..,]q.Hpling (Fi]l, ) E I. S:~il;;h It·1U!I,In;..... \\'i!.11 hiJili~ NO;IJ~NO~
n'frEX-·N/L

tn~i rllli1I~nl ,Wiig_J.B) ~4J. 44), SIHIlP dc:t;rr{;:s(.-ri in co.2 also illdicm(; ih£ pmcncc oflJollIlidary-ktiyer air 111;}1has been depleted in, CO.:! b!f photos;ynlhclic ilCIhi~~y(Fig, .3 q (44). EIl!mrtCCn~cllts in CO. CI ~:~. and \'!1ir.iollls hydrocaruo]ls; rclillivc' to dtc sUI:ilIOlJmujin~ 1fT air \vcre :llso OOsct:vod In dteSc flitLlI1:l~$. o:mliflinillg ~ihmthese l}aR."CiisOI':lg.-

Ihe !~!TI~ (C\~n~~Ii[ of CO and 0]:inn TIlle time c\'olut!iou! of ("0 rui"h:1t :ckll1Ui:nn~C'all ili~:O Ihe lJT issci ibyuhcfLDUJ'IWtllCC of aUid

on

~"'Luim; WI."n; o~~rv\;"(1 dillJ!l.I.~hOlri Ihl;iUT d~ln-il]£:

The m~

Friig. 2 .•.Olm!f'Ii'l'rl deViia,tnof1l,of Ihll! NO.\lHNOll ratio r'i'(IfifI stlNJ~Y :itaite' gill ill'rUfl(tic)JIl olr gLttw:d~il1l~e UiiI'.•

vahues

1o'l1~illll

l-krrl vertit;ajl Ilin~ are
IMClJHNO.3ratio

dellioted by clrdes. Thll!f>te'a~t.:lte

ms CC!k~~~.€dflro,rJq IiTi!N~'I,!('W 1r:40» Oltii!~dl JIliMIJ ' The g,raysctlle dolt! p!llll!s wl!fe G11[{lI!aledl [mm o'l~l
,()MeMl'aOiiiiS l<Ikell duriinml iINITEX·NA.

To .~~~ihc CXr-0lll. h)wl:iich ~clC 'l.JT Over til(; ~Sh:::iin UDl~tOO S:t.''l:L1(;,j;, COllad.o ,during the ilnd SiUfniUcr Qf:2004 \w::> inIlHcn,cOO, by cmn'o(.xiiOl~. and to dcscrib-c tile dlCinl !ell], c,' oll..nion COllvccii\l~ ouHll)w, 'We lJM:t1 ,fjj, CQl'lshltb.K."ti i.iniilc· dCpCit"k!n~i ph.otl.c.~lc~niC'i)l oolol~nQ(lC~ W milp (he o[mC't"!!-crl NO.JI lNOJ, mDio to lite [irnc :since' the l:a~i(l,\\'as ~<lit<I. ;rc:initial ~d (-I.i), It wm.-; i~1 ilialiZl::d wiuh o'b.se:rvallolls "I,~-kmvcrlicru inlenialb: fWln (I to t2km, The deri\'Cd ~i.llling indical{wllor (he cOJW(;!l:;I:uvdy in~ltqt:'lJcod air.~nlp:l~dl Oil I:~ Au:gus! 1006 i~ $hm'lll!l ~11fi.!} 3D. The pmpt.'lk~ I:lr~hc

or

which (he cmn eel i\l~ plume entrains air ['rotn the lm.ck;gmLltld ur ,(.fig, SA). ~3(!C!lHSC Ihe cheliDllca,1clock dilOOll)1 d.e~nd$ o.~ i: IQ~.wc colls'lmincd 00111 OH and [10.2 1O tht': oh;Yerv.alions OL'><l. fimCltml 01" NO,'\' omd Pl\~lrc: ill du: lime.d~nl~m modclu:;oo, [Og,CIlCfllllC' l:il:l'l\:. As a rcsulL ~~:ccan ~lt;:nlQl!' thelHodc~ to detcrm~nc Iltl: IUopcil'unixing ml1.: oflhe: oom'l::cli,vc plmMc by mil!1Chi Ilg~hc IMoo~lJ.:d mro ()b:l~I"C'd Hme 1;."\loil\ltion or'(iO ,Itlcr WIlV\."'tt~OJ.l. U5,iu~g th~ ap· 1~f1Jl.dl ror <L i3cri'l,,~ {If IOr1~""hv~'d Ol-Gl!I,;'l;k,:; ,~~,g, .• en. C'~~. CH:"OI-B. \'\,'(l ~,lll:;ldl'l~1Ul ,WCf'I,g"C ~~IUxil1f):rmc (~f J)j· l!.02 d,IY -I llliA,:!"dt,'tn~mnC:!l1 O imo Ih~' If[ ·n.]:> i~l.ll gOl:!d; ~tgl\:("Incrll wilDllill: "IIJp.;;r Ilknil. 01"0.06 1:0 0'.1 d~ly~Il d.;:$i:flniDlCo(lby ]R[~y ei al,. rrom ~lb:scirvaAkms 01:"coaw.;xtive~lui!n:," ooscrvOO ifil the strn.to.~p~le:re(47),,1 lo~vcycr. il ~$ slo,~a: rlI'1:a!ll the ,2.da.y dillmima tin1£.' scale d~km~.il1~-dby \iVfltlg f!i. (11. rm~~l bservation:.; in. o lhe U1' (31) . .B()'''il!.ll.'>'C~hc DC-:-::~]idnot mUlin~(;ly oompk: iil the: lurbHlc1~1 cUlvimllnbC1l11. dircciJ~' stIlm~nd ing OOl1H,'d ~vco~Ulo\ ... lhisll.1ixins rn,tc' , likely rdlec'!=tdiiTlIIsh'C aJ1d she..'1l'-in.duccd m~",i~lg sWlb.;;:cqUClll ~o the inili,"I~llIdn!~cnl Ill~xfng OOC'urrjng Cb'1nI,l d"~!<Iimnct!t from I'ho conv~'11\'(: syz>tl.i'.!'n. fi.lIlcl iOti

Ihe mtcm

~m".'\Illbe of our I

~i1<;";:II!:\'I,Ia'tI1l1i1i1!lz.;

;In; z.;IJ,PW!1

~Il

Fig.<;" '" ~o6.
w"fM ..sdenoeemBg.,org

Figl;ln;: ':'iB .~li.O'I\'s !he o~, 111i", ill£: m~i'l ilIIS.. of Li,l'~k~ :>i~boc lYl:nV~eli!J:],i.We Iilltt! Ih.iil.

SCW~I~IC~

VOL 315:

9 flE6RUARY

2.007

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
here O~ a,\"cr~~c. CCi-mictt~v~ly lon:~ a~f masses 'CQn·~ 11J;l:'~~U~lCC~ .. ii, is, !I1~~:il1!I)'IO know\,,~i.dl high ~<I~n Oll ilhan d1C 'lil<t~k.g;r01lm~.lIT. Thi s N~ !!CS~ conf~dl;.'n~~bQth~h~ ~~"'~~.~ \\'bichlhe IIUT ill to ,~~d~ Qmj.c":i!l!t~n~\''''~'ih lh~ Q~~~r<~cd jt> \f~niiQ,d inl1~l'1;nI;;Q~~ l;:o!ll\'G~li.nH "'1:l~~h~ n"~!~'D:!~ b:., j)rr~t uir ir~ I.il~ ~ml\~cl.i\'d}' un{]l~I~n~~~~ 1Iir nll:Bs.."c;s,_ E,!rn~ u,,~niurl {)']1~1",~~,1fI,;-d OVl,,'t the QontiIJII!I,11,ul l[h de[~lTilnir~~ Illli.:: ~rctiu;rl tlr Pill alit COIlUniil.'d StHk,,~Juning, [l\,FJiEX:NA~ wi~:lI(j~~' O~ ~a~flooin Iwsh ooll'~'C"C!i\!cm!ltlO\v.wc used gh~cr" in dW' PBL !:h.m<l!nm~ ~.J.'\:), R<!pid ch.mgL,;-<l in!!hc: .... ti~lS of i~_~oll.lhll; ~o~!l.-ili\o\oo a spcd~ A~WJn~u~1g U'J lUi1\ing I'aliQ' 11'r'L,;oilsC'n"cd d~HijriMIhe ~llffi~:2 H~1U~'!;'!lC' QOlrullJ;il,\,,-cl !~sta:ri~ic:dUy lHlrH~l~ ~1d~l)'lS ..$tCIi irlclnliD1ral~nl. w.ilh lhe ob~cr!tI.."d 00.3 pi iDiigof 0011] dlc OOliJ'idm), IU,YC'tfilld I~"C lrupt]~ 1ell n~nol''i'lo.r! a bCi...clh!l:~l'ii~ ilII~ \'lJ.liJc by th~ elK! s,J~h(lj\;dUilllin'ig~NT[X..j\lA.. \I!,'C ea:ulC'.?i.Ieula[c the of day .2.UIC db.~li:rvctl mlc e r ~1'iel\!ilM,~ slows frn.clio:n ,of PEL !Iif ~i\.'S.\:im ii~[~sh eenveetien C'X~~)f~eil,li1fully i[111 fun !IS)"I'I1Iljla~C i1l!O:i'I~ times w mI1J~rooc&~ 2.C'J!O an.clI the ali III ~xil~ rnl.io <IP"" i't~ ttl a.oooro~11I!l.to proodliili;'; a '~\'Hlstmr~ value of tli,211'luol mor~, This is a S~Irpl.i..;hmg :rcsult as ou r model ofthc O~ mil:! of change :u~c\er :a,l~P!:o'.!,('hc$ZC«I! bll~ con~ i~w(li:l,[rIprcdic'! net inerease (~f3 nano I morJ l (l~ dl,J:r <l!l [he end of d'l.}' .5 (·J9~, \\'h!.:~ IX.IU-Wf,FO"!is th'C; m~~l ~li",~u!il ~luO of Xinh'i'ih (;oul\,l/,leli\:,,; ulnlr~w (a.q idi:Jlo (or.stl~afifl'l!l, Oliil ;the' .~~liflVed'~'lie.lrIiilQ\!\e'r rat'e' :':PI.".CU(.g U l(l:f d~~UiI'. Th~OCHIV~\Clivc wl1lo\,,!.;'r .. ulc of the 6la1;_d WIS,l!lg mm.' I.iltling il'l~i(_"~~mr~, is Ih(: IXJUiIi UT i'l critical 101";)!en!I~~dy d!.~1I'lb~!lg No.,... rn(~Ualm.u~.hlg ratiio oJ speeics X :lin I.h~ UI:' ~73 !p"". and 0.1 ch~n1~t\'11)' ill the UT 1~50}. I low· eo 1L 5 kin I, lInid. [X l_,lllcoc ill:; "he i1i~fln i'ilil:llXillg ~~Ili()of s:Jx.."Ci~ X b\;l\H\L~ra(I and 1.5 kru. U:;illg l!;v(;r~ ,ab.pTC->C'"I. nhcrc m~ :ft)\c\ o'b.:";("~'31l'l)11-fu~1S!;~ <::oTlslmims :lIxail:JlJle tl'ithcr nl~~oorologicfl~ Of Q~nlmnOrrls !til' olD. LU,',l.' CI-I~OH.'I~, illld [ fmC'liM of :P'Btl'lir in Chtiln[cal ~ io h.~!\'.the aM!l:uc!!J'u~ eIT''CeE£(I r~on[vcc- C'JU6 \I!'C ClThlcllIlinedl lh,,-~ fresh ",Oili\, octh:mw be 0019 J 0.05, 0. ll ~ 1),03. Hem in the: clilm:nt gClflemlioll orgt1oha~ chcrnisi.lJi O.l() ~ 0.05, 0.15 .:l!. (!LOS .':lnd 0.34 ± 0,09. • and ,clim3lC~mm,~·I&. 110 dctcrnmim:: Illte convective ~lImovcr maC' of the lIT from dlC ol'l,~I"atkms I\cspcclivcly, We cablla.l.l::d II wci£lh~ed awrn.gc ~(;.rthe rrn''li{l~oFPUL <1ir~n cgnvccll\'l;! 'o\M!Il~W or [I. ~." t 0;02 byw~!g!nin,g e..11;;h"'.. lue b)i ~lC '
inv~,\1~ ~!JI1t~'l: or jl!-", 1!.lIu;;!;'ri!<Bi,!1!.y. T,~n~, .!1.1'!..lIt ~n\?' wilLl,1li~m:t ~m!v~~.iw:ly lof~d PBL air ro"pidly
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i!1~he Illrlmkmt C!Wimlm~~ll of~hc dCID<ltn~n.g ~bw" These rCl'l!.llII~1IJ!t' eon s;i~l.!;:n~w~d] !he ob~ Sl.,'rvl;!Ili()m, ufR:R:y (,'1' ~11.,wlltl d~ltl1tilunc.d Ihe ffll~1 iun of ~m.po..sphCfit' air ill t1[!i'ivt.'Cl:uVG pi iJlliIe~ ~illljll(ld, in d~.c :>t~l.o:.>phere te be Lle~\"I;.':Ci:l.O.·~ail1d
0.4 (471. ~It)~v.::vor;omres\lIr.., ;:;u~~::,~Ii SllII.:lIIIc-t.' Ilrnclkm dUln ~1C' ob.~'i·vaJtinns or Ca,~lm~ t/},. et who C."IkLJ !ailed t~~e trnc~ioi1loftilol!ll1rlruy-~a)'cr aUtin fi-esh co:nvOC't UVC out now LQ be lX:<l\.\'CCI103:2 .md O.M IJ.l). and Ihe ~m](_ldiIlS studies (If MLUIl~n\lf'l'Je ~'l(~L who c~lID!lh~~cd the r~I_(:~i{ln of

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
[I,Qoo;; k!!l Il!1i-2 ;;;:-1. 'fIlis com;spo:nds C(I!1VCCto a tlJ!mO\'l;rr-l!c 0.37 d~(' (lI!~i:rl,g <H (;OTLlmn ~~.1;,t,:;;8 of I. Q :0;; ~o· kg!ll bC!W~c.l~".2 ;;Bllt;l, ~i~ll I,ly m_"]~~Q:ln~y !!r;'i'I,~i~i:,a.i.io!.il~g1Il~ of .\.r!!i, th~ Fl,lrtlli::r i!~V('JlI~~ti(m j,s nt,,~~l.:d ~n ~ i:'ilri~ut ~~Il ~O:III\'~t'I.i\IL~I}'in r!~I~~nt;~I~, Im11~mt~ ol·'~lw poilll(:;' to (I ~~l~~\'::Ihlt: nfx i:s d~~!,.'l1llilt~d ll_Rknil~, ('!~r\l~din o.j I>oml..:d ml) ([om ~h~ S'lII.l:lnnlcf by i_~~L~iI,lITlO\'('T mh:: {\'lIneel bC'1l.WL"1,;U (105 and I!1l1d~;'l;:.i!uld iht: ~Q'lroc of i.hr.:: di:n'e~':ilcc 1Jc~.\.\~IL'n. our observed IUI.ll0'll'1.'Y m~c .1110 [I'le one dt'Yi\'od of 2004 OH!r 'the l1onhe,""5.~crnUni~cd St.1~~'S, 1'1.2 ,day +] ~ ami !h~fl;"'''iI;;'liori g:r r'IBL air conTh~~lii!lro\",';gjd ~Pl~I;;\f liIlIl~g~Q\\!~J.,1~ HJ5 and ~,liD1cd ~'I~ livsh C"'!l\1r1,,'i~~!:ion 't,l;;j,1lUl~cd ~o ~]C a fmm U1U !11.{ldd_ art j,. '~:O:nclui:rian:!l. Ol,lr (lb;;m'!II:iOP1~ pmvid:;;: uriique 11.::1 kn'i :;,u~t"'~t~, two pn!!s:i:bilili~.:,;s.: I:lijlj~OOI.~~'I.1:;~ CO:I!1~!1ulil UJ 'l ~ mud WI; 't!i~ndih,JILIc"d 'C{lch pC!,i~lit \\Iitli 'Ihc l~lt:ml ;,m~~~t: f lIi(:' !llijact:liT. & poi~ut>, cOli:illrnilfll" 011 Iu) Ih~ o CXlt'::llt ttl wh~cJrl ,~",.ra\'('rC'live ckllid,rop& atl IW~'rd~ do ~lf.!il cx1.(.'1id hi.gJtCf al. th~ RLte of 0, U5 cia)' -! . 'litll1Jpo;:i'iIluth5Ihr;;: ~OI1,tbh~itUlI UT {llIril]~ somIJmlii ]U,S kIn (j\,t'iI' llt~ mid-IIII.~IlKl~ tiuril1g SolU1ifi· F'ig,lifC 613 depicts the Clbt;r;!i'VI..'tI and jhrec ~ne, {5J}, or Ihal tn:mspoi"l or ::.mll!ospilL:.ci:c ilk dc:h ~~:lCr.,til) the ~tfLCliun anotnlndl!!i:)'-:I:il.y~f !_iir~f!I.'!lCnl in, COnlv"::CIJViCout!1ow. rutd {iii} the eonveaive cl!ilcuri!llcd IlOl·~~.l<i1 rroque IiICY dlsrlriiJlIlIlions ilzoo il~ I ~NOJ ool1t1'ibLItc:> lO IH.I":ll~alt thl.c NOlJllNOJ I) r '~hllc sinee com eeti ve innuo;::noc bCI,WCCIl 7. S O\,ciuhlnina: l::.lleoF'lhc ill. til ad,'diljon. the chemrilljo km<i!! <liltitllildcs hi~hcr dmn 105 ktn. of ical elock de~11 b--L'd here de lines a ,00001imll:tc To c011:\l,mi~l Ihe' IlU'n!O\,cr rnlJ.:: ohhc lIT l:ron1 and ~l..5 km, The S:Il<lI)C' (he dii~~I.;lmlkmsus;Ilmi. c<lnbc UiiiCtl~oa... sess dlc. chcmi:m'Y o~c~lring ~'h~ CI1."Cftnhlc: ~ti!tisl~CS ~lIcrnlodrmm om cal- g_c-S!S d1<ll UI air $;i]nlIl1~d .JJm~ns INTEX.~NA c;Ld1!tC'O t~lnc sinee C'Q!wc(lti'l~ i!lJlltCnc(: (fig. {lAJ'. ",,"'as: ~~:mn~y i!lrnW!!!:no~'d by c{l!nvcctioJl. and ~u!,t (iownwinc] .nor oOlw(lmh'c. i'WC'C~irln.These direct we oC{Ul~fl,!ICU,;'d OJ. t"'\'{l-clinl.::lnii:io~!1~1(lDll model cOlw(,:"C~iw~yl\Jifred plumes did nm h~l\'C .i'iu,fI'!~!l~"lII!"'~ of aJHf1a~glht,·iC'ra~~"" If.llil~m :;:! new of Ihe lff. f)~l Ihe ba,~i~of~yp.rc~d.w~nld~p:;-edl'i,. Ci(~l~ ,i'uw; It~ d11rl11ij" mix or: .1gl;; l)cftH',~ ~.. nnf.iPtll!Ortwluity Ihr ~II,H~~~it'-l!li\'~ of IwO(!",1 repk':Nl~ p~'I(!l' governing lIT orono. ~"'Cassume .hat bl!:m.kC'l'> i:Iuys rOI" ,!I1yiu~JividlJ<l1 <4 !]lil1g.:vl1."w:il!.d,. ail' WII!'l n,msp;!l11cd tethe east ~c!ltiMiml}1 oou\rICClion. a!1d 1.~§hU1rij!1og al1d~hcir i!l1lIl;H_I;I.Oil ~mdc~ poi:nl.w llil:<."~hrough '~ilc~_ll\P~i'lg. :rcci!jo~ OU~ {If 1~'aC dOn10l!~n. C..lcuh.,~d Iloql!c!]~y disdirl11l(IJ. ~rihlUiolll': nf lim'l;~~inCG couveetien, ob1:,~u!l!iI)d ~l1d tl1<ll cad, l'K:Ii Ult lilolt> n~~ bcL;'~ i~~ flulI;:ll~"'d by

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
lFiig. 16.. {Ii) Nlol'nHI~i!~ed ff@qu'~I1CY~ll~~ibL!tij(liFI ln the tiililil'ei' s.inc.!! ~(mvel!:ti'!le
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Iater ::1m~s of \ ~tamin A deficiency ~n humans, Giveu thcmlc vi!;;i!min A i~1 immune fo:gl,l !..don 1~gldl'h~ ,,~I:sA;;'\,"P~ i~ ofv it'lU~li.~~ ~bi,~ y A -~~Ji~i~rlt ~hi"I1rcl~ to ijnr~!nrl b¢ri~re "is~ml ~ymp'iol'ns (;\'}. it i.s .~ik.dy 1.lml.the iDnnlilliln.c :00)1:.., remis crfm(l~nmi:wd in RB,P km~ckoli!t rniee (;,\'(In WI!id~r \'i~,~p'ui~ 1\ sdfldL;IiD'~ onHditio~'l". rlidl;;~d. the t'irt.~ill;ll.in.g iDtlJ~nmio!:'lloblulin .m1lioUl1l in Ih~:;e IT'iUOC h~.1r that iii. ""'i Id.lypo;: liI'II;icc, ij ~ even kIilltb· vilnDfiJ~n Ai>~ifGd(11,Cy (9), lu hllli-

or

by ~£lging m, the Nte'ITl!l~nu:s of RBP, lHlcr on the RrE~nd. on i.!l~C$lin<l11 ql.~i~h(!]I~<l1 cells b'jndingRl'o']n ".! i.~. RB.f' P'!'(l!i;:g ~<Dnj~Ig<1lcd ~ During: ~!hc pa<;l, ,;; decades, evidence ~mj'i ,,,!~ "'~I,;~!~~~I~<I!~-d for. the QN;i:<;~i,;raOt;,~r ~h~ \'Vit!i! Ih~ i;:!'£l;iis-~:il®!' ~o ~rE nl!"~IJ~l.n"'B(';$,, ltrau {n

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cludilng I~~ p~aC:~1l1!1('7-20)., dlor(llid p~~1m:;. (.18, 2 J),tC5~is (18" ,and .rnacmrhllgC'~ (J.n The C\,;"~I ~l!I!rtf~~ RBP Wl.;~I*'U'UDOl ora~y sl'llt;,"(:·~r~ p¢1ully hil1d~ to RBP hll~ ;11:-;0n~ooi:ll~1;:1l \'in<urillu!,~ A IUra~k I~om vi~mt1li!aI\.-Irnld:~o,clRBP(hotQ.R.B~)'} (15-17, lO. 21. 23), Ucre, W~ 1\:."J)~rt the iden-

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(Fig.

lC), ~!!I&'" 5p~It':~:rolt~¢I,rry .<Ilra:)l]),15,~~tevcakw !.hal Ih~ RB.r bille1illg p[Cileitl ill t~ic OO~l'ip,h::x'm.'l \ STR,,:\.6. 3.p'ro~(;iI1 dim 118~II.PiJli.liti'l<c!mli~mCtln-

tifie:uiO:i~of d1.C' RBPIfIX"'Cjj[ob" as STRfl\.6. 9. Ibr.tnl~ dOi1l1'li nM but ,~m:;no htJn~o)o.!;) 10 m~ypreIcilii. willn k~lOW:1I nm.clkil~ (lll~, Sll~ S.'l'RA6 b I) widcl~J expressed m!Jj]ti.lrruD"~lllC~~1hr..mc demain lit:,tiBoic add i~~dll!::,z,dCIi~C' in, P 19 ,e~~"bl)~ol1iic ~ IH'OlCilt STRA6 ItlCI. all three cl"itcria.cxpccted of the RBP I'!!OCplOl'. Firs;t,il. cmlrcr~d RBP l),~nd- ca:~\Ci'IKillla 'cc~l!i (.211), STtM6, medialtes IUlilP IYi ndi1li!g 3 tid '~~~ammr'! ~n~~o!iollJ."r~\Ctocl clk Second. ilum'<ii;fJlu:i! eel" o lu!..r U,I]m'kc 001' v i!<a!'ni~l A.Third. i!~""<~ ~oc,,1iO'Xd A upital~~ ~.ro<m h!l)t~,.RBP, To ~C.Sl'wh~!Lhe, STRA6 ti[lulld (onf(',f RBP bil~dv!'!'1: IRil~!~tt'Cl",d lID [0 ~c eel lu~~r loc'.!liol~ C"~'lit,;"(;l~ld !h~~R!:! P .n;. . (el~~, Wi.,) 'I[".n~rooledbiii~'iu!~ STRA6 eDNA imn . Q~~111'(1r i~IDmlivol;:' ti~~ UL.":.'O. Id~li!liU(~~iO!!!1 ·~:fhe IR!BP fE'(!llptor as SiliRA6 .• ("OS~I cells, B{I\ inC' SIR/\,6 In!:IIj;~!:lC:IOO bll!l t ~~(lt lQ~Ilr.'!l!slilcncd ccUs bound In A,P~RBP wi'l!!. P~lc"r~]i.:dol:lg.;;tOlciCl'In p1.!rilY·ing .he RB·PIflJ· it \\I(Iz;, n not ~htU"l!l ill li!~ ~9}"(Ii[.; Uml t~:II}j\L,; CV:1]\lJD" inehl!d~>d lhe r~ ~.li.I)' [Ii' the' rol'L.'pDM h~gnl.,.llililiIY (Kd = 5'9 nM) (fjg, 2. A 1Ul1:O BX An .. g (::XiM& <11. S;pc(;~.fue ~~n 1;u,rfiu::~ I(~O~~IF:Jicor RBP' (or rn.:n~~ <Il'!:o. 'IJu~' 'Iir.;LllKUc-llt n~UllUrc- of hind~Ili.![!;" ('~t"C!ok.'" of I,mbb;("~"d .RB.r blIMikcd fl'li:il p:~nd~~g II Wht:I&!~r ST~tA6 could We ,design~-d a SU'J~:cg_v to !>t!ibi lizcIJ~C! .1l11P· ~.cI,u\lirylFig.1B}\ To IlL'!>! [lC~~pltor im.cf'J.cn.i{'!'!!.m~d this. S[[':'Jii!.C'gyermiued p enhance cellular \'.~IfIl'l1iil1l A u~wkc: Im.an holelD!i!p.3 ntnlliml 'DI Mli'l'5iDla.gy, Oalliilil Gf'ffel!l ~dfJol'II. 115 REP,. we ~jei'.wrilltcd bo~"h Jill -retino Ilbi!l"'~'£i ashigh afl:1inlilY I)ltrl Ikmion .of the 'RBP-fC(;jcptor MedkililE!~t UaA, 6S{I C~r~ E. ¥oum.g D!iilll' SWIh, ()Omi)h::~, neSltMcgycoliilbim:d tl~c 6XhiS'!i.dinc says IFig. :!CI lind h,igl~-perfhnl~runcc· IiqMid lss AngI!I@s" (II 9lCI095, USA. :!:,luI.1!'5 S1!rrlin Ey~ [l1IsljtLJN~, chrmllilltogl'llphy ~U,:n.qbased assays (Fig. 2. David Geff~m' 5cihoot af Medirineal il!lGLI\" um 5~ein P,li3Z3, tag U li·s Hlg). nickel sysWI1I1<uul8 biftmctioll·,61S0 C! t "fOYil'll [)fl!,re' ~!iltltl, !.Os Ii!Il!ge:tes, CI\ '1100050, !i)1(]! ,~II. STRA6 expression dL~mllatlea lIy ~nal cross-linkerwhhan amunc-l'C&cti,\I.C' group iJ!)J!I.. ro~ MaS$$~~C!J@me<tl!lJ Ilabi:lJ~'!mf1, ~.mi!l creased cc!ll!~ <II!" v il<l!.min A lq]~a_1kc fro!'l1hD~O,lIld ,01 phOl{lirC'<lcti ve gu'OW!P' {F~.g.~At ';llc WI ed s InMiI.I11.e, DlMIiIG@fitll School (),f fI!IBf;l~cill!i! .n. il.KlJ\j!'6{l ~mr:ViwJuiu Ail\ I'l!iClbrentiaHy :\Ilor~d,01:" wtinyl. ' bovine RPE eells all the sl."n.i1ng material beW~~twoodl PI<I~ .;!\n9'~~~ 1('Jl 9iO~24. US~ ~,Bi'~in CS1l'.I'S, a flcr lI'p't:.'lkc Inurn, holo-RIW 1[.:?5), eci~hill. L cause they arc knowmc C'X]),fCSS, the :R]3:P reRU@.3ri:lll tlnsrillllP. U(1lA, Los AIl@@l~ 0\ 9001\)5, U5f1. slJIeiPdJilli1llena; f ,~icin~, o David Gellen S!::llcal '01 Medk:ine Ittin'ol aC)\I.U3HS:fcro.sc,~l!I)U\ is ~lC enzyme dml n ccr~or [It h'igh ,OO'UDC entr:ll iom, I 1'3 l. Because ~t U(IIJ!" 6I5(J Oiai~,'~5 :E. 'l'GU!i!g OPvt SouUi, LM .Am.geles., C0I1VCrlS reti [~O~ I~~ ir~ji~ inw Co"1!Cir (:6) .<!ndP~:lYs N ~1.elfm]!1. ll .t~k.'I~inc phosll!l,Ettrua:: (/\:1> )~ a ggcd . (ilL 9,o:o9St, USA, ~[;hiHlill'l!l!nl nf IN~liHObiolO[y,. OoiMd 01J!] impo:I'W~!~ mk' in ,ritamin A ~romge '~27, :!N). REP \\';;I.~",bh:. U1I ~l~~c:]fic;dll)' hind ~o irs reGelll!iIl ~{~;OOl 11:1~edid~e at U (lA, 65:0 Charl'e-s ~" YQIJ Ilg cepmr 01] RPE c~lIJs w;lh .. .\l~ainilll:!il paucm TIII!.I~"" w~ illC~I~Dd~dRAT l;,;"I)~~Si~OIl M1MI, '\'.~. L .url [),rili'~ :)OUtl1, [~Angeles, 0.90095, USA. fI'I~~1l11brilllC;s~Fig,. ~;ilUa1il~ up,nukc <lIl'i-""lryS. By l~"iH,g mlrtil1i!I}' tm"',,-,'l:l, A 'To ~!to!'ll ~.o~~~p(i!!l~ilOe :s1IiIOu!d' be <ldd~~5'Iied, :E:"!'Il~i~ ex I)C(,,~'cd for bmioJ[U~('!lc;i~ Cln lll.r~lirlol-~mf;, \'1{(; fulLll~ thm. STIlA6 aeImJlm@llloonBt,u(I<I.rou I ]3)0. w(; ~Il'i'Ll{:d ~Ili ~.l<1lggcd RBP ~1~lus.RBP~ .
~Ujj'i.~, tess

dfi[J( ilcll,~p'progressive almph), oflhe relilml 'Pigm.Ci~I, ep'ilhelililin lRPE~ ,U)'Oill'~~CS U nder c(mdi ~i(Jns: ~'i'rVLtamiIt A ('],elkiClIC)' ' arwhieh wilcl-'I),llC mice bcl'mvJ;) 1l0UHIilIU.>'. ItS!!? k nock01.!! mice h.·I!ve!i.C"'~!1;dbvclt1ip!l"!!i"n~~,dde fC'C15 ill~Dnb'!)'n.~ UJ) ~~tdmpid vi!':~m1 ~,r~ .~~ .ldull.. '111~'f 111(:,-r'L;-~y Oll!'I'(;"Cik ofvil~u'l1lirw A (k;litit:llcy In b! addition. l;h~~ mice, I4pidbJ clcveh;lJ) tcsliclJ!l\u d.1.':iecl" (.Il),.
n;iflelj,on eati~~"!i

urRI3P

latkilil dcfccl~mJi

um.

.or

"Q~

Fiig. 1.' A,l, Sd~lmat~ ~ dii31glralm of th El !itr at-

SUlIWIO

ide-l1I.tHy th~ R8 P ~'IC@'p'ror •. 'l'h~ slmdJurre 'Gf the ~mililo~
,~glY IIJS(;!(I~o

A.
18:2-

11I'IlEI1Am'1!!1illcta ,!?!!nraUw l

I~

~1Mg

I

... ,.. ... +

...

~111l1X ~JlP IC~lin!!',er

~'~a(dv'~a IiId phl'loo~@ ..

u~w

ulJiSscllinl(e,i:s

$ho~~1'iI Il'Iil

'itHu~tratoo a~ r,ed~ylif'l· bois 'jn tirl,e dia_g,raflil.

the

tOl~ <llilid

1115f!i2: 6>4, -,
-4, Hi:rFlBPl't ~p.tor ,oomp~![

Tlhe teller 1jJ, al:uwe the!! sym'bol h~!' RBP IrEP~
~Il\nt~, 6J(t;I~slagi3it lime ~he N termini;$.. Shaded r,e-a.:!!fi,g ~.es rep r,~~e.r1t IiIl el'lilbra~I'.~"(I) B;irndlilllg '(l!f AIP"Rll P u), flrEshly di~~'ct~dt blJlII~m~tF.!IIfIE

.,.._
w

,cells ,(to:Il). :PIP readfo III ~~dl!,d j~.,~e~pI:unpte. PreS'em:e o,f lO·Wo'ld ,!!'i(,ces'S, RBP alho~i~nedthe!! ~1lbelililg (b~lItrJl'Iil). The
~'~.iIlo:!~olllal ~nillpe' ,of an

25 ....,
t

19~

RP~ cd lIS. 'l'!l,:iilUl1Ied in r~ili! db~dlll]n,~ 'i!ll e.:!ch lPiUl!r~, Scail~ ~'r~i~diical:e' 10 ~HT1', (<:) Immll!oQblot ~na ~~i~ ~!i.in9 iI n antibod y against RB P. MotllKular weig'ht marikeris5hO!.'I1'I on the left tinl kD). lhe ,HiSr-RI3Pmonomer ~"m!d t~p~s:en:tsH~:s"RBI'liha!ti,'!i.as
w1fM"sdenoemBg.,org

bOI!!f!d to tRIPEmlIDl'br~~ !;Ilyl not (]F©rS~trrl~e!jjl tQ(h~ :~~~.~l\(lr.Urdi'l,g~e-d RaP (ol1i1Petition in l:ane1'11pre¥wl'E!'a Hi~~R.Iilt"(rom bindingt to RPE nnem'brimeiJInd ~hf'refi:iF~ 1~j)'liiiil\roos.1g~.a:tsf,j)r bon'! thii' (O'!i!l!p~il');'''lld thi! F!i'llClflC!'l'!ii'oF a!ildl, b VOL 3150 9 ftE6RUARY 2.007

SCW~I~IC~

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
~j\ il)' wasmost c\ idem in Ihe P~~~IlC-COr L.:RAT ' {fig, ,2('), beeaase lRl'lT m;l!k!o:',s ~I'pm;.::li~l!c to

d~!c ~(10 STRA6. Vi~;]m ~nA
~mC!"'ll.!,

~1~ll~C

tl'm~~f~~cdwg ~h STRA6,,~dla.:_R./\T\\,<!8~!
\;Ji,fl'~~ll ~hCt;U~\X!l!ro'iiml

~ru~,,'i!:;:iImi~l A
of r>t;.1:inyl

<II!

hig~

Of'lonQQrIIr<1lriIllI1l~n~hcror'f!l

~'t{lIl,'l~~lb~c d~'I1.iv;,aJti:vi;: or 'Iil;:jl]llin~ A Ilu tDlLn.'""iC flk"-"'[lY,:;, 11e;IU.i:y 11U :;:~x-eilic v il.uni!l A Ul1~otikli;' ,Ototi;vi~)'.\~lid~ \,""015: \ ~~!1sili\'C:t<l' bkJo~kill.[!: by .Ul excess of 1(lI1l1~b!;:k"d RBH W<I=l;""t~"T:R, Ihe

nM in 1illi;;'1lfI~.,uitllU .[u~d~~l~~II~ily aho1.ll 25'%. of lhe i.n:bli ~"KI!o<~i:'! ~\'i'lyW<Ir,'l ( .. ken up hy wll[" in I hour, and ahml! 3,m.'.. of l~c !I1I"ijRtdi01~t;:~i\'ilYwa.~.!<Iik'C'Jl ep RBi'
ijl\l~I~ ].

by ('IOISr'~o;~~:ii by cells in .2 h(l{lir~.nC "mom'll ofl)C~inol mkcn igtrlly IJP 'b~'cellsin :~hour is .. 1XI!~l4.6 t~mc-8~hc mo~C8 <It or l!~!-n,,'ti!1{l!- (:It !loBr ~oIJIKI ~~hJ; Q~!! -~tLrJ~(;~ s.t~~~y S~~~;\
\11;1(; al!,;(1u ~d HPLC' to !1I1:lty~~~ v.~l:;Hmin A tl,p'i3iw
m~.l~'tI~!lI~~

W11k'>

Ul

::or

.~,t? ('C]J~ITl~.

by STR.A.fi {.P:ig,

O)l'lf,l1U}'. u!ll~!crui

!iuk::

r~l~"~O~~1 C

2:.

I)

~f)

n)"~II. t!1~;-;;

rttin)'~ ~~iI;,"lf_

eells m;lcU!'l1Ilu! .. ~!."CI, (iOs..'~ I,,1d~:;;£<!IIl.~~.OcIl,;dilh ' w

lRJ\.T1UIOli~ d it! ~lCt:lU~li~T~ur!.~.1 1'; liiil1lU. ~1Iir'munlof n:;il.iny~CstCffi,mn ccJ,~~t1!C1miit;;~c-Cl(\fI \l;'.~1111SnV\6 ru~cl lRAT ~h{jiJ,.v~d!ll~. -foW h~g~er flllmOlllll of 5

fC;tin~~ester HC"CliiUtilm ian,

]~~iJ;l

that of cdill': ul)n;;...

lfccl.ec1.with LRAT ~r.oililC (Fit- 2. D IIi F), AI. the s;~lllI.<lliag relinoI,RBP eloncenlrmion (O.M ,~,~,t.)

i
Iii .S'fRAI) ,0, lli..AAT l!i. Il!)fr~OGIDdI IElIS~ '" mil( WP
'i.iiiI

5CI '1
4Q'
3ij.

~

db

I!! ~

used rC)l' th~ I~Pl(, 3$$01)":'. the a.mmml of rotinol mkc~n Will by cdl!i.~ll 1 hlOli.~1." is!!bmJ~ 141111il~ dlC mnilb; of R BP bnW!l1.d!no lh~ cell ~m~!l;,1CeU ,~lJ;;'ady < ~Jut~,H'ok>-RBP ijll m(l 'b!ood i~in (;QU1Il~(l,,,,. wilh

I :l!O ~ICI
'ii Ilil:
11:1

2tI, 001 M'·ruapnl1!Q
j

I,

I

~O

150

~. ~.

In
lUI

n
{e-=
It~~_ep'

'lh~~ !.il)'ftlxi~C' bil'lt1,i~lg IJWU.l.Lll, !.r.nl.~!hyrel:!n nTR~ Allhough ITR blocks lite ",'~mmi~l A '~Xil
~~IC ~!1 ~hchC!!o-~B.p ..TIR ~llJl!C'" '~29ll.1l1.ellIl.ct mlull li~~I[;-" wk!~ UJl vit.-ullllln A fro!!!.l holn<-RHp .. TIR in ~h{:Mood in ,~'V\o !\'U gg('$ 1,' tlimll TIR canMot eornp~.('lc~y i:I'Ih:ihD~ti~lLC v.iMItL~~n j'\ I,Ip1nh

/"

'TJU,60

~LAAl

~mmh.olo-RHP.

W!~CI'I we fl.~s!li'y~d \'ilrUmlui A ilIllt3lkc b~ usi,nl,g hllulHln serum as the :oourcc of

nile h.O:lo-EUlP·lliR ccroplcx.
c:1.1ii.d"nI~y take up 'ti!muin

,(Fig. 2. Galla

en

1\

STRAti CQuld 'S1.iU frmll this CClmp!le~
in

lseeausc robnoic>!.l:id

~Q!~re§UhMc.l' STR.,M

I~'

,

..
r'~(mW1

10

ct!1<lin C;llIocr ec~1 ~~llC~,s(lt:h 1!:;, \1\fi Drinu'I1:l!l colon ~dCIlOC<lircinomll cells a."., JfJ). W'C used WiD. cells as anil1d~pcn(kilu. n1.OOcl to study 'Ill !~m~i t\ upla!c nlod~moo by STRJ\;6. We ~n· n
C1'C<~~

~

mtt~nQic m::id l~iBm~nltiirldl [t{,C.nl,;;IS~o,d i'~(.;xpn;,'::;,· .. :'lim]1 by RNA Illllcri!"('I"Clttc (RNAl)c Onll si~ I~Ul
r----------------,
II

STRl\.6

'C>i.pn,""l'i~~'()ll'lun\lViDrc:cllbi

h2!'

IHI

wi[h STIll\{j's fUlnlC'lir}u in m.ctli;iJtingvimflU~l!Ul A ilIp1.8kc Irorn!m.lo-.RHr~ hs increased expressjon by :t'ClhmicfL'C:id lllCillm~IlJ eehaneed v~ull1illin A

Ii.Iptnkc I)c~i"~ Iy. 'W hCb'Cm;;u!s decreased expression by specific RNJ.\.i kllClckdO\~ n suppressed vitarain A uptake activity ,(Hg, .3A). ,~n<J:ddilion. we periOf1l1h::d .~J _i\ i knoc:kdowne.>;per.illlCillffi on, primal'), bev hie RP.E clIinm.'Cs, Agaiin a dC1:I'C<ISC ill STRA.6 e,.... pression seppressed RPE's vil,[lmin: A UI~!tllkcac~hiil,y frrml hoiO"-IUl'P (Fig.3B~', Because SrRA:Uo is IHl~ hOHlOlog(1uS 10,IIilY :I~mll;:dn of kQlrJ~~Wl ~lLm;,~ion<1I1.d htl~ aCV\:,f been dmr..ctI;Ti~d ~"~ '~hl"i~>1tn.lel~u.~l! hweJ" \\'1; ~~"d <lit unhi1~'Wd, ~~Ir;nt::gy W ,~~ Ihe dr~"A;;'1:'; nf n~l~ln~lli)[)I'I~ {]n ~rm.A6 ii.Lrlc~ioll., w~ prr);ljllJ..1~'dand dmmeFilg. 2:. ~U!Pbi!ldfl1g snd ¥itarmlf! A ~pta:ke (!tli~l}' (If SlRA6. {A) II3~nd~!IlgI)f RB:'P' to ~ive (Or! ~~ll5 tr.msr;ected ~'!Ii[hs.1Wt6 '~t:llP~' nollo L.!fi~ran~re;cwd t~l~ [bo~1om). 'Th~ AP' ma'Cliom Ilm~lI~t i:5, eejp IJ1lIrpte. but d Scale' ba r., 2!C1~Im, ~OO' (ooc12{1li'atnonldepenaemlE!' olf the binanng o~ AlP-ilftBP to ~ive GO::;-] cel~slJans'rected ~1oIi1h s:TltA6. Gorllrols liIr,e:LRJ!I.T-trtl!nile(:ted (e[ls., Wl~ranlsr;eC1:OOI::el~s. ,iJlildSliMlrOOlllsfllltl«l c.cU~ Mt~ SO~ lim'l.a'belild Il:IBP dllringl Ibindill1g. 1IlIe ~I.ol's ~or ~EMie tluee (mlitro'~ ,ne SlIJjle;nmpo~cI,nn 'this ~ph,,{O (iompari~l OIf ~,(!lifbinIA v l,.Ip'ta~e ac:~~iid~~rrlllm ~tlI·rdi!i'l~~.IilIP.UI,5, I" anti SJI~deflol'e IiIntJaliil$fe(~d ~eil~(! nd ,o~~b",alil~~'@CI@diilth,Sl1RA6 .•LWlT.and' ;00'. ,F@~I)@(trVf.ity.> IRB:P.1.QOx l!~lablllOO h~RBP. \ 'Thtl'a.cI:iJo!ity of SA. cells ]5, deffirned a!>](Doalo. &ml" barsilmlilc,at~ SD.. (D to ,m til Pl(as~ys of 'Yitamin .A.uptll'koe for m.S-1 (!eills ~rgn."sr\ec:ood 'Io~1Jn Sll'AA6, iil'l{j LRli!If ~!l~eun) or IURAl! alot1l,l {rre(1);;ulId ~(Jr 1iI1i1U';;)llsf€(ooa:l (~lli(bhle), AUI. ailsorlliilince lI!nit~ (EI') IHPiLCIpraM~f!,of Itmn:e extra{(~ of CDSel reruls aiter VLl!ilimil11 A lIIjltake h'®lTII hobJi.!I1!BP. Ari'(l;wtlead~iuildfl':al~peak::;fe'P~J1UliiIgl iietinyl e$te.r, P~'ks· ~f~5~liiItin!1lIle'~I'I:e-~tub~e p~~lde~ '~~~MtSk~) ~J1!I'e~:; .~~ g!1~~~l (0 111l@1. (E) Ov'~~Y of lJhe- 'rttinvl, @Sil:rN pe.l!k~ ID {O),~F,~' '~fl~V Qrr~bs.QrplilQn SP'Ilctifa of the relinylestler p~akl; in (10". ~G' Oytlrfl.ay e~!.he rrelill}'[lesl'E!'I' pe,]lksh m ~m'il.iu HIF'lC 1rI1IIIIS ,1IS sl:im'lln ilil n» bU;l llI!iilil!)i 2'5~1ohumaln ~erum a~ tlil@ muree ,~f n~to-IRS~. (H) O'il\e'tI.;ay of alb&o'r1Pti~i1i ~,f1et.Ctralof tlil@ peaks ~In '(G).
Il:rizcdi .501""f1llOOlliil
1f1i~c.lise ilnLlI~IiI~~

Q·r stAAb

am:ll ,burld 1.llilt J oflhem h,"l'i"'C SJL.IJlSwl1itiallfi~ "~tam~n i\ Llptake activir-v (Fig, J, C~o E), The 100C<litiollS these mut;;11 ions iIII ~e p1.lt-atlvc h~'I:ll"'I1~(;,u!Jl1l1le[opolL:!!l:Y model of StRA6 rm:: :s!wwn in fig" Sill MLIimli.::l 2 ,md J {M2 and! M3, ~"'Of.\C nnt c..'\;r~res~ecl atthe cell sttrfaee, whkh maj'

or

or

be slImdC'nt to account

[01:

the dmrn:ltic ~oss or

~lBP binciin!;land vilml1in A Uplru.!C ac~i\l~Y Imlll ho!O~R111'. Mu~ant I (M I) was nO'n:n.'ln)~ C~~'pfil."':&."iI,;'4;! at ~hC' cell ~u!1bcc hlJl~had sLLh~.<Inlu"dly
~dUC1;"dRBPl1u]diu_g ;111,1
\'~"11l LI1 A

I,Jp~kc

~1.:':'r uviny. Ihl:'r.G!l~ of RIIW' bi.r'icli!llg fOIl M l nil~y ~'[{XolinU I(~r.i~:. t)wcr\ni.lmi:i~!'i A ~PI:lkL~ .acD ly. I i\!~

822

RESEARCH ARTICLES
mi!i!1

sTRAI\'!li!!~~i1l!~oo v ii<lm~!~~pl~,k).;: it;; ~;PQ~i !k: to A n:.BP_ s.fRA6 1..'1;n1il 11;1 !,i'lll~l;:IInCI;:~n~ b.r ~1)"I~!\i nO~. of vi m1LnniITIA \\!llC~l'l'i~mnibi .AWa.,oou:Md to ho.vi~w~crum~bl.lmi!l (BSA) or Wi-~O!CI(lglob".11~~ I~fig.4A h SUV\6.mcrli.llt;d vit~n11~nJ\ upl,;.;tk!L;; W;I~ ~~[~~dbI\; wich~.~[J to n,;l~nC!,I-RBP eo~.f~g.3. ST.M6 IitN\A'i inl na dve 0011 lype.~ <'lInd STRJ!;6 IIIl'LlIla'lJe.IiU~sis. ,tA~
Riet~'no~(. add (RA) tre..atm.ellJ1. of 'wmr ~~l~ ilfltrllWs;e$ ;th,~expie$$i~~ ,of SlRAb andlhe vimlil1lnlil A l!Iplake, aidiwy 'o~ Wl[)r [eUs;, wherE1il1is

C!'iil r ~(~iIl'ri~~~,iQn S:'liRA;t;H'i!.~.;!~·a~~d¥ita~ Qf A l!.pta.klll' tro~ hQt!l)-Ft~~, \l\h; tbli!!nd 111m

CCnlro.~~!I:m(Fig. 48 ..md ~ig. S2~. /\ vmicty of l"U~ ics from ~lQ ('I1I!S13 ~lI;lcndC';~ ad imlic,~tlNl. tJmt h i;n~lll!t;)'!o\'~i~ is '1O'! !'L;'qtl!ijl'qi lor RI,;!,P r~~~p:to:r
~n~l~l,i1bt~:.K1 \' ~i,~~m A l~pl~1k~ffhm~ o-RBP ill! llo1 (liJ-J 7. 10, 2J,. 25~ ]11 ;jg[\\"'1;mc!~.i.wu(h Ih~,,~c surd ies, nl~wpn;lk iI1hillinll:8 '~Il"~ dfucu i'>'C'ly ~nhibi~cd cl1ldocy~(1(;.li~~ not inhibil SlRJ\!6,did medill'tl.'tI vil,lllll11 A llplakC by STRA6.Hr.UL~fi~I);,,"d
1

'O~I cc'I~$, QV rc~in(l[);:>lC:id s!im,~bJoo WiDrr Q:I~ {Fig. "Ie and 4[)~M~lnlf-lro!l!."l'p~l\1:rcd ~,!um 1.f"!1~~i,;~1,qd L" h1~'C \ ill:)lq:ni!~ '~p~l;;~ oL;! {\ ~tu\'ifry ~i~nil:;rf 10 daM. ur!~\'~~II:;, {Fi£l"4E," The Rlb.uslm.:'t U\Iny of l.lrD~s i cd~-Ili:,t':C~ySilc:rn~lo i1~IIl""" ..
Olyi~~~l i;<JldfiCYlosi~·h~,,-wd '!l1cch,mi"m. \1I,1'~ ,1~n Oli~ ,d~'8igl'1~,;cl ;>1&~~}'li!1~1J'l1[1Hi'tr!n:::d 1.lI1.-1d~ BP <L!Il R rui.cl. \'ilt;u]~.i:iiA IJware!ti,~ilit> bo~ncl '[0 RBI'" in Ihe

I

RPE

:S1lAA6 RI/!JlAJJ:weQlnil'~t Sll.!IlPrES;S~~
STiM.6 !!'xIPJ'essijOI1 Ii! midi 'viti'lllllll rl A I!lp'ta ~~,,pc.tij'!..-ity'.Ne ~sn~ative rontro,t 1!it_l\jI_Ai 'Illi;gol'nu:le~lld~ {(I~igo}. S-1. $.2, and 5-3 !1Ir'eRNAij oUgQ,~ fOf huma III SllIFlA6." EmIr bars il1ldiclIIre SD. (BJ'S11F1A6 RNAfl tre,t]lI:~ Imelilt !luppr@sse'S SntM exlpr~'liioliii ,plltd vij'tam~1il A u ptalke a~li~ty of prilmOlry bovil'U~ RIPE !(ulturlli'. S.4,

ilL IIIlI

U

~ 2~
"'IC
-

19 'II

,

5-5., ~;md S,,6a~e RNAi OliglM f~r b ~vil1@ Sll'RA6" ~C) Com Ih1Ii!i;somJ~ f Vltalmi~ .AI U!ptake actuvitles sf

E
.
I
!~I "

'.\ T ~,11 ~,'I.~ "~nll SlM6 ,~wnor 1m utants ,G,lniil1s-. p'ro1l:15 (hU), Lil!lJ)2.51i~!lHi~lS,tilTYl':;:36~~i'i~3t36 (M2)" ill nd L@IJ~9:;!~,Ar:9Z97 (M3}. mU~1IInt Ml, M2, or M3. Activity of ,celh lrarls,fe~ted wiith Wir SirIillA.6.1s irll;!,fined O!I~ Ac:Ii\iilty of 1::ell5 tiral1ld@ulldlwititl WI' SlM.6 1) der-in13dlas 1Il00P/o. (D) CClfilll,~iuls~n UIOPfo. ~lBSud,aw e~re~'!ih:m o·f wilrl"l}'pe or m'LlIli!n~ STRA6 as .i!~1IYed Ibv 1mmiurn0<5l:airlililg or '~rill'l~.reded Ilive ,(;OS-l,(!ells.SG:ale bar ,i1!JO' ~ulm. 'elf AP-RBP bij ndilflg .a,[l!llvii6e:r; of (05-1 ,cells.tralil:de(:tedl \\liltl bmti'ne SlIRli1!,6WT or

C05-1 'c~~'l$U'am$i'e(~dw'i~hb~~

fiig_4. (hafact~l',ait'om,of $TRA6rm:edflOltedvil<lmin A YSJt_a~ 1mrn
STRA6 llft8<dl!;;lm~ 3H~-r~lji1ol tdj)tt~loohom ~If'h~etin(il 100 uPlidi to RElP, Ii:lut nQt~H-r!!tirr.QI,
(A)

I

,.6.'1001

I~I

m.,ole-RBi?

tl--~

B~
I .

I

bllulil{l to, B:5Jl! or ~"~g;ClogiloOOli'n. ~l.r.;:ms<f~cOOd"q!1)di((!~~s traOSr!(·· lion wilh STRA6 and LRAT. Retirwl IlIpt:a~e ,adivity of lramfoo:ed (e~ls, rrolllil iuoi~Il"lFtIBlFi ls defiined as 100%. ErJ10r Ibarsindi{a~e SO" ~Ij STAA6~ ~ediated vi~mili! .A. UII9~~ is'5aW~ rabie· with ,r!!lgardlo r@tililo~.·R:BP' ,(!on'Cie;n1r amml. Th.~ hi9il1e~t. ~e<l"llilll I!Jpta~~ctMlY at 60 mll1!is d~~d ,M lOrY/",_ tCJMI (a rnDiltl!!_fla !Dr ~,_ bllrnr; inm b11,l)~ .2-d~1,lOOS~ and

Ii
jJ

I:!-I

!:i _
I

-G!OlI!ruii
.' ,ll,OIM!H

, -I
~ sa
jl'15<

101i1 1:1.5

'lSDI

1f.~~(!!!I!I)

1
I

l~

~-MI _-00>
'fi50

ClI*iMl ~
I:'"

.I,
~-

:s.odiumaziidtl'}

eHl:lctwayirrITibits

I

~mrse;radfsh peroxhj1i'l~e O~RP) !I1fIdoqrom or mS-l 'cell~ '~er'tJi,but ,lio~$ liIotinhii:J;it Ih!~t(lmin A.
IlIptakeaclWity oi Co.5~] (eUs, lirilln~ JiE!c!ted ~""jm511M6 ,pfld LRA1r (SItU {rigtrt}" l,. LRAT trr<'lll1sf'e!'(led (ells.

1 1 1
I

,m.

~

In

A

The i!lctivii~ ~~ M. (el1~ \VfI~tlOUttlltlis,

n
Olg

I

i'"

~"~Q

--

I

!!!

1~' <!II .. 1lI1

irrhiiJ1L5HRP ~n:docy~s]~by MDr (ellis, (ie~\'1. blIlt. does: net imrhilbit, \!~l:Ii!min It i!JptakeacH\Iii'ty @f ~vnDj"ceUs Wght).The,a:cti~~ ~ff'WiDr «:tl:s.i.l'e~~d ,'lilt'll 4()'ml\~ rreliln;1l1c add! but Mlh;Ql!tM~ ·is· d~nn~ oi:!S 1OO,!!t/0.(Ii) Viit~mml A !J.~~~' ~I:itfil!!ty~r liliU!mbrtln~kildjol1ls 'o~ I'mm:all ,ernbJ)l'll'nk ki'dliley2'93 {'eI!I.s,. U~ S, I., nd5J1. demCiltp n1iem bra:l'l!MO rmm iUl1iuiili'nie~:edc,el~ c:e~ls!rande(led ~\!ith5nw..6, LmT,
1

,(!ermoo a'S, ];(I~Al,

(11)),I\~I ~octiV€ry e

I~UId,(:jo!Id~

0II1i1~b(!)~, repeotiv'l;llif .• R. 100;.: hlDio~I3P. The adi'l'iity OIf Sl'l ('e~lsis, llelITnOO as I :mOOPk. (F) 1Ii!IIt!P rt!ll~aii"lis·ollitstde (he'~~~ aher S1Ri\6-m!\\:diaL~ viitamirl A I,JI~talke fr~m IhCl~~-~E!11fI :e: h!';liJ~, Ahs©~pliQ!'l spe'~r~ ,(!f flOP that r'~m~i!1~ifli th~ for supoemat1ml Ilf ulrItriln5fede.d {:eL~ (left) and (eru~!J'iln5reCl.ed Wiltl1 5"I'M.611nd
I~RAJ(lrigiiit)art1
~nO'iVfl.

w1fM"sdenoemBg.,org

S·C:W~I~IC~ VOL 31S

9 flE6RUARY

2.007

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
C'l!1~fClllooimnOllro;r oeIMrn'\'.il ..min A UplJ.!kc, \1Il\'.J rlJ!ri~k-d lihe R,B:rp~ !liN ,oo~1ct!Twre rncdinm ~f~'G'~!I~ll~r tllP~':;~~~vi"lIlIl!~nA ~1d1 V'l1,,~...~n,-d of d~~ ahtimiPti~}]:1~p<,K'Ul,llJ!of ih~Pturi ii~d, R BP (fig, 4F" Apn;.li'f'l,.,]ti31~ doctu-il>~~ l.h~ vilruliin A l:k~llk; ~I] Ib,RBP ~"Ik~n FmlVl 'he !"!mcdiumofSTJRi\6· ..nod LW\T·!!lUI1i!'ifbc~L;-d cd ~ "gll;j] "~11[,"d "£i!lIi~l!';1 'IJJQ ~J]doc~,r[w.;il!Wil!KCd!n(:cihli:ni:;;I1i, [lLo~IiI[~~j!<II~iornl :5TRA6i~ ,(jCHill51i!lti1!'rnitwi~h '~If its him:diotl'liin the R.B[~ receptor. TJ~~It.~SM!C loe&~iZlll.tj(m of SJRA:6 has been SI.lill'll~d [Jre\'i~ OIilS!.Y{24}, SlRJ\:t., j!> cxpt\-~ during ~m,b:!'y~ Oink: dc\'~lormci1.t m~c1 d'LC' ",<lull bmin. Sl)iccn, .~n k iCllliC'Y, Ic 11m le :b'C<Jlilliitl Iro.CI• .a:m1, [>C'S!is (and a~ lower qUlo11'1'1 ~tiCl'J inh~ru1 ,1I,d h,.mg.).,FliIl1hCl'lnol'c. STRAtI is h ighl)i cmichod ill Ihc R PEin~llc ,l(iuh (,,"yc (2tf~. To fUrtti!l;"f :;''ll!dry 1!~!J ,oe.'i!~iOH ~ tlfSTRA6 in flduh 0'ID1I4'>. we prt1ii;1ll:c~Id, 'P,i~)r(;[1(Jm'lI~~ru~hool-t."!i. <!gaill!\lOO\lin~ STRA1f~ aI'~>I"l IlCdol'llloo

btood vessels m:b'1i~iH~ Sl'RNl tF:ilg, SF), III r'l1r t10c<1'w\ ...uth N<llro:n;;t1 ('~'Jl~~r fQr Biol~hll0IQg}' ·
IllJbnl~\II~ 1m] (NCIJ! )'s 1J';"'11!\",,-~-d ~-q1[!l1\)l1~ ~~ (ES TIl L'lc"I[!I~CXIIP¢K~ioMpmm¢ror So TRAil. \1i"I; o[ll>l'nlt~ ST.RA!6 C'li;llCo;sLml i!llhc I)hl~~tm!il {PiE} 50~, .. 'he ~<:p~1;1C!~ (Fig. 5-1~~. Dfi$CU~~i,i)'Ili'. The C'x,i"'tcnc;:c or .R]3:P n..'C~[]~ mli i~ !;;lUI\ptOrI,"di a ~~ ~mdy or t\' idL;'i~OC. he h-y T

(h~-cn ihe Imll'lll ldo!t;)'.ilD'Ctdclr~ts· nl1C~lld~l!1g toX.il; ily) orvi~mnh1 A <l1!lOi~;5.d'cn, at ~",,~~ 4 )'. <! 'lJ I;;'QI!tm!k'\,l !li,;,1~'IL'ii,;' r \,gwu~lin A ill~O ,~d!\5. I~O'm o
hQlo-RBP dtrnWlh SntA61.H~'1m~ ~~""Qltu~iomJ[y ~1.dvmll,:Hg.c 01,,'..:[ Ilmnl>"~[;'i rue cl~llhsio:ln.of vit1tunin

no

'II~

A. This ~l1o;:hm~i!'ilnmakes i~ 'po!:lll,ihic to achieve
h~.gh efl'ii;ill;ncy ..nd SP,"'C ifki.ly for \'~!'IIl~ i\ il~

dd i\,t~1)'

'to (liJH<llllS ~ i~'ta:[,iI It.m~,the

Ii'l~r l'Cha~ M

ab[iit:liCe

of \!i!~~mi'iin A

1:[\0]1] !ibliJ'iilitilt

~ryl~n'o-

eytes 3~ul t..::~mn~,' j}J.btlluniul .• "ih:i,ch Ci'iil. bil,t!V:lhl· min A • .a~le:l:~J.g;:i:i,i!s>t :!>iunp~c (Hi'lI~::.ioi11 of~linol rrmn the Rill> lo~be eel I tm1C':tu'hrnnc&'> the modlml i:'IVii {lh'i Im~lin i\ dc~'i\,i:r)ll~~r :R. BlIP' (J1 I. The 1iJ.'C"l thJ~ rree v~mmin A can din1Jse through mcm"t,;m~c;s is 1101, OJ aood<lU'gUfI1c<JlI<I!,S.<l1 ~~~l the cxi steuee of a Il RB~ rocq~~{lr.Fil1'i1l n~ rI}i a ~I ... '~i~"limirl i\ ill bJood i"~bo~u!d lolhe :;.olullli':; ~hr>Ol!~h cell mcmbr.me)1. Secend, ~mwm ~!"","l!~llllcs n!n,t~ uk>:>IImt

R Br:rr~

Ihe \'~'yc,. mill.pJ!:i.!,.':~:::~tla, ~~:-;I.il~, b 3n'id ~IRA{'l':i I(}C;iJi~Z$il1ic.\111 ii1 MiiJi b!'!}i.iiI l s conh :.iSI.ci1ll will} \"i Iful~~ii~ roles h~ i'CgM Ia-~ .adti h A's iat! bralll aC-1ivitics ,(34k slnch as :>ynall'it!c t)lns~ktl'ly {J5~1and con.ic.zll sYll.dlnmy dul'iinl:,l sleet) U6). STR.i\(! C~ll\I'CS."'ion in the 1~IEliCenmm~d ~tfu;. is: C(l!IISiSlCm~",'lth the I;(II~ of RBP ill ~fe~iV!j::r~ng \1'~I,~!l1i A lo!h~:;c tissues lH. 121. S1fRA6 exn 1'lR'~i{lIl~n ~he-Spk'A.'ll ;utd !:h)'mu~i!>. ro'L~i~'~.nl

C;:Olflplcx.

wl'l~cht;"anI1n.1.

rl\-lCi~ pa'ili

C.Ui! di m!:>.C' dl..\[JQnd CH~nn;'P11· IlI:IL,,~UUprOlln(:' l fi,g:_ 5. A ,)[I C). a 1C!~::n(i!U Q;nlRb:l~l~ L bT1n:w lr~dl1-"~X!il1!CPl t.'l riu~i~ilni~~ ~ 1I1~ir~lmn~pon_ w,uli'l lt~ role' in irrUf;r"'JCI~llIg w~,lhRBP ,iu!milc: For CN,fUUlpJ!~, l:!mS!mglfll1ldiin ~S.I!1 paS~~IJ~c: memchorireapil laris blood ,(l .. 1111 n oonurll.~l, 10 i!s; branc by simple d~IIusiou!, blill p:r.o.slagl.mJm:liin tr.llll.~pon!c:r grco[l}t r~.cHitfllcs iT:S~l:ilnl..,pon[cross, absence inll1(! el1.(hJ~lCilkll eells of ..he: chorlemel1i1h~'H~lC':S O'j), hI addition. there is stmulg exCJ(liUmis (.Pig, 5-. A and B), STR.A6 wasespresscd peri mC~l~1 C\' ild:cI1C'Cupp!illi1iln,g~hc ex bswm;,c of s int'i!I'nrml blood vessels, iil1o,j.hc;r~ocalicm oljhe b~ood-roti~m bnniCl' {.F~S,.5, D and Eb, 1,ID!o-~,~B!P an ItBP ~!iCC()tOI!' that Ili'IIOOi<llCS eel Ilum: vinlllmin

im~mjl~mh~~loChC'~ni:\l1)1 on ~c\'cml a.duh 0IWU1.""
ln ~hc'RPE S:rRA6 i~~~di~'d

lOI]~C b ...\;OIo,Ii1.f.'l~~d ~hroug!! !1~~"lllbr.u1e~ ~WI bll~

ar

there are

\'1/tth a rol-t; lor v~,;nil1~nA in illillnull1~ m,~~I!I~,t~Ltm and in pre\lcnlion ~.g.1i'll:;;t Infecl'~ouS disease Ui. .:r7)I. AC'OO:udi:v~g IQ NCl3r:;. EST a !w:~y-:;.i~. STRA,u. is: ,dm !J.",p:r~iI(\d iuq [nmwm ~.;kinand lung. lootliq kil1~VIill'u!10 d!.,;1J(;l1d on 'tcl<lmin A (or PfOJl!!;J"
tlUJ]llml skin k~... uinQeyli!S were .UQilIltti10' have LIte hi~,lIi~ [m~ Ilnm:iiln.g iK'llvity OrllllY cell OJ tissuc'lypc.s tesied ,t!8}, T~c ahsence or very low C:O::I~UCl!!S[{m or STIl!\6in the' ~iver ll..t) ulfI.ke.s p,~l!f.\kl~o()e:iCil.1

~illlCl:i.oJ1 (Jill.• 39). lJl'ldi~(~I('I~li:lIii .. ~

~~dditio.D'lto blood·bl'llinlixtr,ricu':ll, H obscr .... in fI oo pro"'Ol!i.~study {U~, \\'C rOLlnd SfR1\~ c~p~im~ i!~ <titmcylc perivascelar (,J1dtecl,hm sUI'!ifIlII.nd Fiig. S. Imm'lllOCl~OGiI:~l<Ition

~rom ~J;.'I~a'W~ blood vessels ili. <l 1XI't<t.."'l1lial~01In::c or vjll~Il ~tlA ror M@'Il'c!' cclls ~!l~h(l: !'C~iml (J V~

n~

T1hi~, !l,tlldy has iaC'lfIlined STRi\{ll'~!i. .. e RB·P !'f;.'II;(:)r~o:r; The RBP.:~rFltMl h
(13

A uptake

J.n,

~1l$C'.

vj~amiil'! A

Liver is d'lC major she of p:roduc~ion of !ooclcdRBI~ !(I dc~~vcr Vfl\'uniu~ A~('I
~W-g.1!!.'"

sy:>tem represents a Sl1mll-lHo:lcclilic dclh.'ct,y mcC:hml b,n~ thai. iavo h;,I.'$ c'x'lracd ~ular c<llil'ucr an
,]wl~i!1

btl~ docs

!lO~ depend

on ("ndocylos!s.

in thc liver aad absorucd vil.amjn A rrom ho!o-RBP l~rOOt1ced by liver :iL"i.c~I: iSllOl'i: cil.1cuil a w()'uld be creanJ!d
pI1C'swd

IX\rip.ilel>!l

lf STRAt,

w;;!..",

.hjghl)'

t1X~

100t

SlRJ\6. G~m s1~lilIil ~~ :51MOI, Rlild S'tgmd i~poerop· :linn, din apir.al RP',E riI1Iar~r W I(l!r GSl hisCilet:::di'! ~, an

5cate [b~rs rePfi~ 110 ~lmill WtQ (0 and! 40' ~11ifI l'n (0)0 Ie (iI"D. CH, 'Il:tio-

'~mdllJotheli.ill uU riI1I8irk!Elr (lB, [}, F~ G, and [H). BhJI~~lg· rial Is !1u'!!d€l1!r S1amn irA:;"· diamidi 11UJI,2:=IPi1,enyliindQI.@

mAPo,

fOid"OS, pI1owreOO<j}tDF'Di.d" 'E!'r £'99111'1 e!l1lt~ !QN[~ oOll,t:er ..u~r 'layer; iMINt, inner a

!!Hld,~r laiyer. 'lA ;:ll'!.d [B) 511Mb is rorali~ed lathe b!QlSeli:tll€'.ra l membrane of
thli!' RJliE, Arro\¥h~d; f~di-

1c;1I!~S:lgnals olll~he I1ltJlfat ~eml~aliJe of RPEcdls.. t() A. l:alng;~ntll(!~S&tiClIli IDf the RPE t~. ~D aM [E" ST!RA..6 ~~91Ialsa~' lif'I:(I$t ,~nricMdin ~he RiPE: L:i,yer ,of !he ¥ bu1
d Fealso prt'f,Emil"l the Ibroad loie-s&el.J. 1111 ~t:ii~(I. ((lis; an loveriexposei:l pidllJ1e1' o,f (I)) to

~hQ\'II'tine ~ker5'i~l1~b in ~titf!o:! bloolli! ~s.. (F) ~Q(.a,lii:1!~iIOn or SrR:A6,i~ h ipPQ(:.;t mlp~s,. E);;ilfJfll[lli,e~o( ~arge blood ve'Sll.elsp os~'I:i~e~Il<r :STRA6 (~ilIlrgeIi'! rrmwheo1lrl) and liIe~Fl'tive ~ar S'fRA,6 {S'm.1!lll (I!'r(lwh.~ad). l1e' STFlA,6·I'!I~g3!ti~~,~s~l, ~.s: $l.i~rol!n~oo by

:S"l"~_M-[p(l~ni"l;l o!'l S!WJ(;;Y~~per~I\I'l~SC~~.l! r endfeet (!IE~ lQ~al~Z;lllfQ!IJ QifSntM ijll'l ptllulrItal. (I) S1i[RA6,i:!i h:i,~hLV ,expnHisEH:iilil lI!iubset ,of c(lU:!)ilil IhE1
spk!~n.

824

STIV\:) was o:rigim!I.~~y~;;)!\mdto be a !iC~inQic acid ,~]imtl!"t~d g.C~C in cancer cell lines (.lif. JiJ), H9W~\'1,;r, ~~ i~p!ll,.,.i!ll),; ~h~[ s .~.~~ <I!\"l
l;1;:ft.."Iin noaearreer
r...'i:~nlJ[lie ~leid to
iI1t;'1'(,'OtiCl'l

4.

~II

.8i~mulalcSH~A6>L:"x~sio:n" C'};AI:1,11pk.'ilmnin f\ co~nbil1td widl rc!~nni'C \
Ul;:tilrtin.~ I,Jp~lki;i~~ lu~g 'nlic

iY11II;.>S ~Im! [~''''p'0n~.ttl I;;'af
at;:.t.rj

[I). s, Gaodm!il!l, in 7i1e: ~ir:l{fids, M,. 8:, SpoI"i1!,. 1\. ll- Robe'f!5.- ID_ '$.. (iOO!ilmam', ~1jI~. (,I!.~aernk II"In~~ New ifci~ :ll;B';~, ~ 2. ,pp. ;j:!L~lt s. lit iltomlt~r,M., 1'1[, GrHiI, ll!!ru~ ti. It I\I.(j;rLlI'il, StWJjt~ .

,Z$O.• 199 U:9900.
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IFig,. 'l,Wihe Z'@!i'ii'(Idi(!gti!m'~ [)~Sr )( Mli~ trilxllititlrl cd '~!he! prillcip",di!imDJl'r~ I!;. 1~l'iSm groups l'n Sif!IJela. Hl:liKediIFlil1ls''S, '''I~ij (li!lk~ro, 'i!'@lodty viii !he Wi exo IMP~~ Iploolofll model) of diiH€nmt Dumin:g "Cklcllly ';V(}I~ilion ~nd L~;o;:lmpt)btiJig i~ 'Ul~ to pl'(ld!lu:~i~ :S~o!"'fn 'V~!II:\1 dedme·' c.u! w:;1!~ ime.':l, wl'!.(ln~h~ i()l~t~!'iInOf>! pm1!s of!!hc: ~jOl;~",~H:::vi'8i~ll;:. we dcri\'OO Ihe olll~' e,"'t~rH!,im~ ~,eit~ perralFOOt~ 8.m~ (8) ta 1Y«:f,y rm SN IlIiImin®~lity), IndivlmJl:lt5Ne of ~hi; ulk ,ot'S i, Th is rq)~enll~ ,,~ow~'flinniitof ~ are 'col(J.F!!Id a(.~(J.~dfngl'Q thil'ir l:he OI,lltcl' C:""C'iUof~liIIr,liiili~. H¢ Sivdot,i.ty ~1Si) '"i i:o\ similar i~1 an SNelii.I'C!!,IIook'&." orlhcir ~liim,i~ vEtoOl'l1l' eW'lIiJ'IllClIl (:U:): BVG~ Iihl~ kr~ Ilietoo)y gra:di~fiI~ (1~'l;fG), 9~ I:. nuOtli.ty,: 1,Si, - I t ,t)jJl]':i 1300 km ),- U• a!\d f~l rlt [,00. O,prt,!,,! drci.e<s, il"!dical'€! A ,le~' SNc. del1ilt~das ~l~gh.vcloci~Y~!lnl(lk1'u the- mass I[J~ s!.aIJ!~ ~-lF;e .. SIMi lor 01 VG) SNe U I). are' respol'l'~ibJc ror mo~, ohhc '1,, -.1,, each Still, :50'Jj.:l Cirl:IM indka,te that dlspersion Thl!)' have <11, rn~)idlly OO;rcgs.i~~~ !i~Si} or 5&Nj, ~~ (lpel1lmil!n§l~indk;(!tf:! 1::1, l':!dbrtl nm:dmum =lI1d vc:!'Y"higll""'C!ocil), aH the< SlJlrrIIof liU::5e (l.rn8lC If!4S'E. liI1B!~s)" ,11:, 'Ii' I i~lC~, 11(l~~~y th~ :re~lul! 0:[ high'"'>'df:ICity b~cl:~ (1f1l$Se5 sno~~ b tille SlI,Urll (If NiS,!; and !h.u~(:';,ul'Y ]little ~na."''''\:IJn!diki~!~~lk "llCfliJ)' bll~e~~.N~ IME ~a$S. 'indic!1l~r'!g tilie tot,,~,m,,~, iliWH'd(le'i~y ab!'iO'fJ1~i:m~."m!!JIn.t;£ U ~\I'Fs) U2~ f bmne!lil. n,e IME mass is :the ~hm carl .abnommn:r bmadm (he SUI lil1.cpr1()'iik~ dllfr~ ifelll!(E! b ~lw~e!'i (Iro,ss,il'S· and 02, /3)" Alll!O~!gh excluding them from~Il:i; tri~n~l.es, ~F@ .l!mrdlli~Ni am Itllln,d ,"aI'lIlJll(: (k~n:',l!\e;)1 the di~rl\iQn~n ~,(Si}signi j: iirl rQmJhly mmi5l<mt ameums iin ttl@ d~~Sl PI:'UU (I~ ,i!!~l SN,!?, irirum.!)/ ~,,fSil) = 11.3.00 ~ 6501k1:n1 So-II" W~ Ir,espedivEi' ,e~ hJlTlinmRy.:' M(:;;tCl" il'lcIWlde' ~111 t1111,.,<,>e ill. (lUT clis(:!.I5S.imL !iNc: Thcmai ... nlunn Si \'docil),! IhtL~1'11I~!.Ircd is ~1 Mif' NSE) := 0 ..20 ± 0.05 M'e (~lrer i Ilorizontal, ~ded .:rre1l.l'" Ttr~ !5tiNi eo:n...eN2I:t.h'e c.il.timalC. The deep [i,bSli)l'fl~O:IfI core isprorlucoo if! IIJ,ycrs Qif high Si abun IdmRle. Si is mass determines the SNi ~lImi mi'O·' s~t~6IIt 'cor~eklre~ ·wi·~ ~~5, {,B): p'rt!scnt ai, highcr' velochics, indirolcd b),'lhc M( Nil' = :1l,34 - 0.67 am~'S, (8), wavc!J,e~~th orb'Jil.lc~1 Jb8m"plio~ in~hll: !."arliesl [M'ol. 'IMt~ rms dii5:po~r.~:;QiIiI MQ UmW!'~,~i.ag,oul :'>haded a rea},lIhe lolat NSE rrIIa~ mrr,~'Late s \vi~ Ami!; 0.13 ,.;poc~tr.mn each SN. However, Il1C;I;!Illrillgllu! of {B) bet~r tha,nM(:S6Ml; M(NSE) "" 'lli,55 - '~)'69&m1l5 {8) rM'J • FQ1iS di!:prt.rsi~!'! 0,.09.~ (li!,pp,~r d~.gg(lf!-al, hlw!~~)1~ ."h!'>rufii~ \'clIU;i~y yields ion ~a-:gC'f,:GHucr siha.d@!l !~!fie~},:IME:~~i!~ m05Uy Dutsi:d!!lh!! iron..grou,lllione. lih!! O!!l~lIr Sj:~eilocillyissIrI'Iilar forr aUSN'@ @);Upt oocaH.'>Clhe !."3i'1i1:!.\\1 speclrn 1m\'e dillcOC'Itlcpocll'> ,HVi('],SNe. 111'.1:% endo~d by IflillEs rlepre~nti!; th e lolaJ bu rnsd mass ..Wlnen alU :Sf'IJ i! reimlurlE1dl, ~h~ e <me tml.Ybc aITOOtoo by UVFs (Il~.Olur melhod (lver~ge v~~u~ ts -lLO~5 ::t: 0/09' Mia {Illljlp~,r ho,ri~~f1ta![ :siil"lJ(jJ~cl al'~"'I), E:.;:clldllg Ii!I\!GSNeo,.mc ¥""lue is rel~ab~ydClClTI1im:,"S lI~cotltCl'kntiQIl ·l!lrdlC 'blll[k -1,01:ft. 0.0,) Mt;l! (hori:mntlli tin:d: i30UiI vall!lll!s "W'1l! nm:lepeli1ld'~nt,of [l,ma'~(B}.llhu 11 '';I\~rsim'l !Of tini1i pto~. or~ME'i. "lith S,N names ,tlnll a bar diaglraJriI1l, :s:ee -rig5:, 5,2 anldl S.3. The i!]l~ l,;X~I1!t oJ Si, dc!cnlIiil1cdi Imnrnlh~ ,flsyn~pll)ltc velocity of Hie Si~! 6355 A Ili~icin~ As CXPC:Ck'tt the :!lIiNi IlIiIfM o!Jrr(.i;Jt.(~ bwr;r..;;t'ly d(~l1isill.y~\ldociIJ! Jl~BnbuliQ'J'i ,of uhc s,trrlndiln~, pntiilnlililXimul1r11slJk~trn [lig. 1 in tUn is .1 siecp fllJIllC!OC1Il! of ruJii~ ,~B)\ The btiglne.'>t (slowe.~I~ oJu:;.di:rnen,$h:lIiioL J~/C!l1 exp l:os~orl lilDO(k.lIW'7 l n wiih Am:1 S "IPII f,fullgirrlg [rom O. 9 M0 lor ihe diCX]'n[ah~g) SNc have the IhillilCSl. Sil .Wi:1C'S. S:ll)wcS1)..ti;cc.llinlinrg lrlllSt IHll'ihmm~·SN~ to O.·~•\Ie (:I.i~ S I), 1111ite l'l.Cbll~!Irph!i$C. dle gasis transB llle inliler eJecta., dmluniltcd hy NS:E clcmeets, pOllCmu. and lim! CI'I'~issh!~ty depends; em the mass ~.or d~e lash:st,doclifling ,'d~ flilll'OC:Sl one. s, UCll'OOl. j are best observed -I ye<liU' r1f\'Cr Ilhe c,xp:insioJl.. ~n;:,msquare tmt~) di'5pe1skm :is n, ~J but SNc M~ or II~e cmi~til'lg ion, t\cnmncly cstitmll~ing .hi::;, \\'1'1:011 dil~nio:l1 eaused bye. x panslon nmllkCSlhe wilh hnCl'Iilled~a.c dcdine rnt~ 1.l:\nla~ (BJ - t05~o mass l'CCjuircs d_Clenninil~g the inlllizatLu'.1fIMmc SN belu .. V(~ik<: I), nebula, ,e,\p!Ji.sin;g the d(;.'CIl!('S1 the gm1., FmbIddctl lines 1,5~nm:gIlhude:-;; ~show var:Tm ocms. rallHosl a rae.or o ficU and Fel][ la;yCl'S., ('oliliskms wilh [~lC 10SI, ly,afthch;~prodlJCOO domimne SN la nebl~113r spectra, f!C'r1ec~i the ng of2 lor .he SlllflllC \'3 tile or.lIom,.s (ll'). These SNc hj'"litc'dccay of~Ni- ~{"()_sc;l"ehl."allihe gas, high ablll'l'dllnce 0,1'N SE Ilnatl;:riat Fe b::1, moot I}' Ih,;: roliid cn\~ Sc.JLtK.'r. aOOtH l~le me..'Il1 hlll~hJosity dcdill:C"l,)le rcl<!Jlioem (16), wllicll tools. 'c~J.lil~lng :1:mliflJ[to~~mo::>tly ill Ibrbid.~ ~}rOOllC'lor 56N! dC'C],)(. whIch proviCl~ healing. Oll.{c the '0CIJ1~r:i~u[iQllS(1rl'i6~i. ~Fc. ;Im~s8Nl dClll,inc ..... The :~!:;lblC'.1J~'!!.I!Jl()lli"I:ich :iootupe.<;; Mu:::C ,m~d l'J!tNioo WI; moocl~cd lhe ll~fuli,ll<lJr spcC'~mll~h1,1; ;<1 IAA oC'{lmL1blllilC In hc.ning h~lt ~ro o;.u,t],ihW!tc to !lI~ addCl;~ W!gt!~h~'Tto .... ~~~(c!hc ltmi!l NSI; n~f,;ol. cI dl,l\.~~~ 10 (J;(19 J\10" II' S~"c wilh ~ode Ihm (:mll~~Iil!~~';.'llinll; (;'n~~"'ipl'!. ~mlo.l.ndn,g coolin£l.~"C'I.I.IM; Ihf;jl ~1M I;"11Ili[ r(lJbidd~nJU!~I;~- ~\'C ~Jisp;;"i""!OPl ' Th",ju' p:1~!'11~(; ,lfre('i!~ tilt; ionlil'_'L!;im~I:l<llolll'l:;~~, dill~~n;IlI,UU}I,lIJb or ~~~. ,Jll\!nhl,iL'i ~)I\_'iS~m;IDly il.I.'lling ;and (;(xlling i:l~lil(jll:~tM,1'III.'h~nll.{J!cl)'mlm~;t: ("qu.illibd~1I1.1 (NtTE) (14) •. iin.dll.dling odiL':l:l:>ity .Bmh iilUrCITl'ml'>lly pI'Q(ILIO!,_~ m,'l':P :UIl nhe '1ND, m din~I.'ll.:'I:n 1.c'H~lX'G'ltl,ll\_~ b~l~ :;imilkw NS:tt'{:ll~ta~l ll!'Ie hi~ht';);.t d('n~$iCi('l;.Tlcl(;~4re nJ~bl1lllll: lilics ImY(; hiI.vc :;,ii~li]flJ Amt5 (/1), it i~~i'kdy lhm Ilb~ln(kum;t'S <li,nd OPWllldoll.CC strutHic!li.io:rl. \\le mjOJ.:n~d: I,h~ w.<l','~I~n.glhsindL"lin,g!m:is.l'flbll': .nrom IIw~ orS:~.F'{'. U iJ mlh(iI' I.!\liiil LCfl1:pemn.!i'C primanily db· Imnil'lcdlC OIXl.dt)' mlld light",llIvvc SllZlp::. \\fc C1ctcfl11llnlCd t~'le 11m.~~rule! diisiribliition iin 1MiJ~•.Pt<ilnck In~titl1t 1(; Jli$~ln~;11, I(.;jml-Sdi'lNarM~h;td· ~tr.. ~ 1,9,SNll fl~Kning, G~mlarry. ~palll!lIlllll~ 0.'1' TIl.e O'IU.c1: ~lkK;i!)' of 1J1C v NSF:.: rcgi{!ll. dctclr\'CJocily or the I~e il&olopcS (.and Ihus of :l'o6N'i).. rulrai0l'll.l'", 5dlOO~ IJf5cie11l{1!; UimiYEfllity Gl']~" Eltmk!r& l~iiJlOO Urol'tr~ widih or thcr,e Il:im.~ C,o:tI'Clf~C." ~le s,ii~.'11l111ill~1Ctmsly lilting du: rui:in of'dlli: two "tro:n~:>l ~u. TiQ'kyo:mc{l(lB, ]!ap"'~3~~rdl (entEf r(lf nile ~,,~ Fe eJni..,.i;iIO:il:i: (Iig. Si ~ 0J1C',ltclu4700 A.,irt.l(;llIJ(ll::s wilh Si I~minosiiy (19,. Ii eoitlddes \.~~~hi.he LJllili'ller!if, chDo'lGI welKe, ILI~wE'lSiill of T~ S BUI1Jk1jo-ku,. !J,obh Fcn Jindr-ej:~ ~ !illcs. wh.cI'lCa.'> the othr::r.I~car il!ll(!n:no~ Si vdocilY.. millkirl£; the tron.'>:it&lI1I rrom Vo~ In-oon ]apart '~~~lrulOINlImnaw dll iI>~mf!)5.i~ oomplctc· lo illco.mpk~le burning: dilFcrencc' O:~tQriQ #lWQ~rn'loo ~i '~!,'[Jie; 'VI~, iitl'lpdoQ :U, ~'"~1!U 5201J )\. :is Qn~y dllc '0 F,d t ,1\ ~o""" upper nu~,lil.III rli~!l!" ~¥. ~1lII'I III tI$I~lllOO"l' <lid ,1'!.s~rnPlYSic~ the m>lSsof 5SNi is set D)' d1.C' lb,,"lclIloo a strollg ihctween ahcse two \!doci'icll, L\h'j 650 ± 9<ID llMriv.eBlLy1'1'1 Qj~ifoonid.l,:'ianlll Cll1ln~l:lI56 HiQh51ree1, SanlAll km ~-I. is oonsi)lt~I~'wi~h~w,. This mml'$ .rrom Cmli.'ii::\.4nn liuu::s, tin ll"lIIticulm' ,~t73~O A),. ' ('nu, (Ii 9500Il,. U9\. (,1~iMO Niil2icm.a('I!di ,lislrof~l(,1F IWQ di ~Ij(;l].\ Ililcthoo::1 appJicd ~;[I da'la oh~"i!l:oo In lh~ db~~11I,."$~ kl)'e~N (Fig" I) ... m SNe C<l!n" ~Flli!t(lriO J!i~lHnomiro di tliid:O'I\;i, Vj~.ot.o'd€!li()~J;IIi!~mi!J, :,1I,~1ll~ ~.y~.l!';lp<I't, ~~lil1 -ttl ~o 0.3 Me oJ ~'1~bk NSE r~OIIlI1'C~, 2, HS],Z2 r~~~I~~.~, 1l1U~, WhL"i!~:;.~h~ IW,r>1oi o:f SGNi ... nd (.'oll.~'wilb :Ii ~j~~ SC1ilUL;'t :lInld nQ cl~p~nr~crjC:C on "To wnorn c:or~'~~ponden~e 1IhIouM ~f' add,pei'Se'd. E:'llIail; 11I11{·l'iI.ly 'IJiC SJ"l.~lIitill 11OOltY, C'd!'i diJtit~r sigl'ii:fieaml)., maual[@!i'ipa.garch~il!g.mpg',~e tWilS {HI !~cc ~LIS;(J· USn

cloci.y !'rom the- bh~hifl Qrlh~ of the ;l.lrong: Si! I ('!JSS A h~lC ~~~ all !i,p<;I~~r!I\'I.~lC~~t\)i"';,It'i \'i;5~bl\;, T~~ i,~\,'~IOt;;'ii.y ~1I,<~h,,'ZI:;;C'-;wii.iIlii~n!"l, Fittillg lh~ rKl6tn~..xinuuu
C'."i.If}.m"iClI1 \

~Iboorpi iQ~ OCl~

ne

:~
I~

lei

or

,I

ne

or

or

um

.or

nc

REPORTS
T,!'!b~ 1, Re5'iJl:t$ and !,'ltM
I'I'iQde~s.
pMamliloofs

ef piS!fam~r~!i!lIld thr~e"d~ii!II~f!sil(!!1J~I,de~iy,(ld d~~~!Hiltf(l!l1
M'{lMEl

I

M@del
1[)800 1020 1[)5

e:Y,~1(105~ ,e;~!l}

M(r!liSE) IW.J (1.638 0.833, 1I..1~1

(Mol'

tlllIlT" ($)'

1.(104 1,23'1 1,:S,2l'!

0.547'

a.,us,
0.220

(1,.,67:S

o.n~
0.731

2,4,0 1.92

1.3:3 re~~lil~i;

9. fil11bS 'I':If~t ~!~ai:l:1-I !O~ ± -' Q,()5· M@o e.'(Cltidii1~ IJVG SNe1. i~cL\::PCild~1.t:l~ ('If Am~~ (.8}. This ls " lower

she.!11of SI, encloses

0.00 M@ ~-LO~
~ilnil

t<l ~~Ie

burned

IfIU1SS.

:iolI

~

II

Ull

L-C~

[&y$JI

The H~hH!JIi'VC W~dlh " is relm,tcd In !!Iml;!) (B) 12m :UHJ (_!i.'U)clld!' 'O.nI'~lccjcc~OO. mns'.1 N/,;,jj, [he kil!oC'lic c:nc-rgy E~. Olli1d ~hl,) 'i:I'I~I1c:iIY 'I: .l!1
t
Ot;

M~m~ ,~:(1 pol com;prils:ii1~ dt~ full :ilfir. Modell DSOO'. wilh hs dense dis;lr.ibl~tiou of ig,ll:Ltiol'll'oii1fls, C'xlmLlsls, the caruml.cO!liyscn Ihe!' at the \:VI) center <lIUnCiS~ cmup~clcl)'ill Ihe

liwly. \\'~Jle~·',lronl~ed.

(ii~

:I m,wLllg

dcn"sm~toll phase, The cnerg), release quickly
.~I,'U:, and '~h(: :l.t!il.s "1.;'qlUcm. dCilO'MI'~L'01l ~!llli:tlb' tr.ul....lbm~~ ~O\71-dC!1!shy (I!~!L.:'r ,u!;lrj,.1rl ~o .. m ~ME."_ In '~lnl J;;lIst. ,the fol~W;gII1itillD] f;pm~ of Dmxle~ [)~ COIl;;"UlnC' liu!C nl!llilC'rial during die dcf1~,gm~tn.vt k~'I\'in!;lmil]!'C' Ilt~1 aI hugh d~P1~i,:t~. ~""hicl! i~ ,Cl;l,nv('!t~¢1 J~lo'''I~YW NSE i~olil]p~ in Ih~~'VugurmJI:> ti~[oJl'Il;,o.np.h~1&C. Mode~ D20
pt(l\'urtc!I' mI. U!llC'ntlcdiume C:l5~_

c."'p,molt the

r-l-m)' 'Wheli! Lwis ~~s:s,i~,~,it 'was 1!!5limated fi:om tIii'e1 relation 'Delwee1n t.li:l and ~15 O(~} derived from the (I~lher)1f!4~. Tille doiliSi1ed ~ineis '" ~ifli!al' nl!91',e<5SI0i1'l o'hW!11 1MmimJ~sUy ,;iind o I(IIDsewed LC wid~h rOlF the severn 51Me- mmmon to Ie) ~U'$amlp'~~ ii!t1lh.at of (2'91. SYflithetic bolom~tnic: oil LCw~dths were o[bltrine,a assu rIiIing that: {1~i~lE!be \Yidl~ 1: deper'ld~ Oil! eje(l~dl 11Il1lS'S M'~* killlet,lic:
(l'~ ..

Fiig. :2', ObSi~rvee and synthetic luill!lilll,os~tydocLil1e-rrate re ~a~illin1S~or title SN!e in om sa mpte. (o~ers.indkat!! velocity e\I'Q~lIltijol'l aain fi~,,:It. Tine ~eak IUril1iill'lMi~y Wi3i~ -mmlll!ltedfrlll!l1i M(~IMil' l_ QIS l =2 x l~~M(s.6iNn ,(28:)0. Observoo Ib~k!· mlMric IligM-(Urv,~ (~C)i,'ii~d~hs W!I',@ obttailil~dl from olb~rve-d rf,5e ami d:edil'le lliine5 (l9} a"l r '"

dE~M~illll. We u..... ou, Moo

9::;!~1I1il~pliOJl

by allt'lp<L1ling ~lillnul~'Clriz:cd lighl-l'lllr\(: w!dLhs und ('Omlllll'in!!,': 1h~'11 I{I O'lJi:-.cfW.. V,dLL~ The >d ~~;;ul~u[llg h,l!miu!Oi>i~y d(;d:ini".""fi~~l.l lj 1L!ioll (fi~. 2~ n U!> v(.ryli~llt ~:rld pU"Jeli~".:llly id()l1[i~..Jj 'ttl tile 011served OJ]J:~. This I'l~LI~l S!I,IPlll;'lrL",our OP.::lJ::ily Pfl-

o~r h1'POI~K'Sis, lll2lT th~ 11\Et.<;sbumed is. simiiilr in an SNda. IGi \ten its \\<C,fl,!.: dcpc~~rl'ci'i.re on E". till!: n~hl.cUi"lce ,%, OCilhis nol n'rucJl8ft'!:,'(wd irmo!\!' oFlhC' euier lPilli'ilofdtc
[aJlclri;a)ji~ll.

efilroooffilill~

The CjcCli1 COin,liJOSiD ions, of L&mmnoocll explaslon .s a@rt:c groGsly Wi~l thcresu.l:ts derived from, milespedrn. Tile NSE mass I~ruc:cd I~ngcs from

lef!e~mr(k'

a!1ld ~PiidlY K atS

t

0.:

K~'f~M!j, {ll),
cj !!r:J)iit~

lffll()dW d]s~ri blJlti()11 was, lased'. (1m,) mile El'.!(IP~I)$iQn k~l1eti( energ,y de~ell'ld~ QIl! t~1! burning ~rodl!ct: Ek ;;: L~!"!)6 Mr~r,m :t.74 ,Mlbtab!e N~.E)T 1,24 +
MUME) - 0.46:1 xmo5:Ji
IIIiI

(iji~ FOIF t! ~l SNe..

M~i ..

MOl.

il'h.@'W7 U~

leil!]l (7). (iv) Opalchy 1:5

~S"~llfalll!te ~i ,1Ib:so:rpti:o n (30). Auo rdi I1g,l~l, i iii!!
CQrrIii"

NS!E elelrIU!IiI'~ I!:ontriblil~e liI1iluh !!I'Iare 'tmaln IlM.h,

b Kalilse ~he1r,'nomk L~~l S~illIW!!],E is mo ~ .a1(rI:Ord~n'!Jt,otth.e a blilfldI~lnl(e~ oMin~',eflt
~ 0:.

P~!?x. HI@ 'Clpadty w~~ th@oF!?for! p~lr.ametriz@d

M(N5!E} + 0.1 MmIl\E) (6). To '()llmPiJlf~ UU~ p:1llr"lliIetrii~d LC widths. tv, observed 'vaJWiE!'SO T, <! ~$ic~k: f~(t(l:r x "" Ttl'I.!'.itS CQf!lpl.JItedrlC!f' ,~~ch,(lr the :~lWn :~N,~ !!;cm'lmOrrlto Q~r :XImpl.t a!!u! thl\!t of (29').liht' a'!lt'I'<Ig:e faclor, x:: 24.4,47, wa~ lJI,sed to $ocale aU SNe. nliO~ :'ll't~w th~ ~li'Idivi~ll!IaI5INe. ulnti rnUDn nne ItS the Ilin~"H regw,e-ssio,n i1etlll'e@n ~!Ull1i]i'lio~ity.. nd :1>ynltheli'iCL( wid'tlh 1m Olilr :s,illmpLe '(li f 2'3 SNe l!al, If@iI'~ ltE!rsn ~I) (If tho ~ IP~(I'I.~~i~hSIN 1fI~lm~s,. rig .• 54.. 5@@

:species;

0.63R 110 1.141 M@, TIl,~weJ:.k'iil C'x;p~O$i~);ns WID is, burned 11.) ~.MEs, as ~lC'l\C do COlllribuw' mc$ul! fuOJn optilm<l~ bmn ~~lg in lhc Lie!] J!!f.'l~ron. phase (2'6), <llld ~lQb.I:LJminJOl!~ S.Nc~..m\'! n~ mm:h ttl· tile' OP~U!'>" [f :SN~I~bum .. ,..im~ ~If !1I1I!t'l:i.. l!he ~]IlJg(.'n~i!.Or rem:hcd in nur 11~;:tr,l!nl~~ri:;;;wion. However, 'he oomli~kms far DDT aced Ilulhcr hlVe.~:ig.'lLtioll. n'!lll~l'li~ ;ul!Oo !ikdy w .Ix; th~ :;'Ilne. .mn~l.liy ,\/0 aE\1'ClmJ<!in~i ~1e5C C'liC1l1ilS mmy be c,:;;.plaincd \Vi~hhl Btit'.1i:ll;;t1 Ihe OUIl'{~mc; (I r lhe: bl,lrulil1!il d.qp1,i11,oS a SiIlg:I~' rm!T!C~Hlrk_ S(ln~c c.",,~romdyluruinous c$$li!i!ltially 011, fuc] d'cmi~y" a \';jJI.fi<llOCm m iro.tl" gallup ck"nnt;~I1\m:~llclion in MCh Wu. 'l~C\lliJreS SNelu 1l1,1j' cm~lcfro~!l \'(.'ry r.lpid~~1 rnt;8!lin_g\lJlDs; r Wh(li\~ mtl&'i ¢XCtl;l"th,.rU'Ch (17). bill th~~ :91~ JtL~;_ d ifr~~rt11!\V[) (;"pilr.lS!ion h.iiSl,ori!.~';L Thrio;: ~n [WH The dli,~lribwll.UO~1 (k:ri\'(ld from (]hii,TI7Jli:01l1l. of d~efld~ ollll1c:: d!::l!1~l~f the blllrlll~ng_ Oncc [11.;: o binning prodLlC'm;~m.We SNeT..L eouldrcadt ' foom. \V[) p::ilchc,~ ,'irlC1~ fi Lhc['JliOUl uelear Illrrln~ is agl'li[od m~nrIrr~e ecatet The name Ilil ~l>t SI~j['I. 3::1, Ihe var;m~QI:l ,of a single illh:i9~ IJlItlilmde~.I.he II subsnsic dcl1~gml.ion. 12 mediated Ibymi. ilbJl'tC igni~kJn COil ligmmiO'JI. :in ~\i/CI'ld.cI!lYOO, cropb:y s~,cr.:lll 11'<11l sport flUId f1e(;dc:rated by ltI,f" dctOlUttions. The h':L1ninoshy dedj,nc"mtc rc:1'ailton. can be n::prod.~Jl,cC(1 l~IDg this [Ii~~ribl1ltion ,md a bu i!cUl(ie. As II pl1QlP"lS.1tcscmwards, il coul d sinilple opaci I)' paramet L'iz<lltlo:n. Ol:lr resulil S undcr,go a dcll8iY'lliolHo-<icto:rmlilJn~rnl1t;,;;l.~Ol1 lDDT) and cominuc asa sbock-drlven s\!l}i;!r~ 9.upprnt lil'C' MCb scellm~o f(xl" mo.:i<1 SNdru.add~ng

~O.

n,

dc~ol1<l1,km il.n. Thils, c0l1s1iiltUC.<;lile most ex~N',mc c)'plosl on soc~3u'io tL<iluif>."Oibic"1;:;.\,ploI'Jng

sonic d'c~omnion wave. in

<! );{N;..l~(;1d d~!aycd

(lQll~d(ncc

iD

Ihcir

U:i!C

m: dislrmcehldicalflfS.

ne

~hcHl1dt$ of

!~cto, cxp~o$lons,.

li1lIe{er,JiliflJ(!Ei.i3ml N()!tei
1. ~ Nbnmto. ~.-t::,. Il.ielffi!iIfIl1I. ~. Vl!!~~, ~f!;)li.}. T

{'Ii~her dt!tlffi"CtoristLts. SNcta ~ utrnilltab~1 ~l()n:lOgcl1(:ools. 11'1 p;l111C1.I,I!:n:,lhc 1'I<II[fOW (~ispersio:~ or ~1;C 01.11~:Si ,,'e~oici!y incliiC<ll.esa si milru- CX~etl.t ~.hcnl1rnlueli!<LL bumil1g in. f~'1 SNcla: SN.c thaI. p<rodtK:e lc~ 5bNi sYilllhesizc ltoorcIM.Es. nc :si 1n111b11 inteup:relJ!Ltioll or d'tCsc' scennir~g~y.mtitilclkal resu II!> is~IJaI thcnlillOl1~lclcar

or

\?lie !JKlIclclcd the c'x~~lo~iG~~ lII~ijng OJ! I1wQI,I' d ~~Ili;:'I~~iOll I(;n;l-M;ll '~f1p~Jo<I~h j, Thl: i~!li.. d (2J ~iAln nt' [11,,; dl,,~(1li~gHU!i.ol] 11.'1:1:111,." U\'1'1lh.~: ~~.. ',j :;,!ochmSlit .PfiXX'&" ~il~r;;jti!!g .. n1m~b('1I·· or ~gl!aiticOIl Sl.X1IS~Ia(cdi nutdondy fluadl isouopi:C!l~l,y whhiin 'iSU' km of tflc \Vl) ~fI~er (U),

w.~..

2. :'I. ~. 5. 6, :i'. B,

or

bUfI1.ing «msur~ simi'I<l!'I:n~~ il!1 aU SNda, \~c C'.\I~lol'C' ,,\'he~hcr Ihis :;;~1tuio ~.s ooniiii~tenl w~d:!IibiO l.HCI, rlU:IiI;1,,1 tm). AI}P~yi]lg d<l<n.'lily. t~1,; \Ick'l{:'ily ~.!iI,I("~JlI~ Ilindd ,\N1 V)o. WI.: lrm~:r.· Ihiil'il n(S:il) III a.tms ~Fig. U. \~.t.: nlid diDI. dilL':Cmhc:r

klcau sc alte :DD,l is lloc~r, Vo.'c it 'OOCllIfS fj;~ tiutm I!::H-CC pCflelrn~cs the inl.cnrml nWn~~lf!!llCltllllC':lhc onsct of Ihc 00c;allc-d diS4 r~bllllri.1d ~l\!mi~'lg I'Cghm: (2;5). This, ha~i1ls at ~m~1 fud dellsi~k'S.. aller some \VD IlI,'e-C:l(p,mlskm ill ti'l'e de1lagl."atiol1.pimse,. TIle de~m"'1tiol] is triggered <lI'iffic:J.ll~y wilerc'lhe d'losm DDT critl;,'Jfion ~ 11irsl .s'~lis,tied.t)'piCOlUy IlCo;"Ir the G\1~!.'r ~Icl~~ or tH1~ ddbgf<~~ion :-;!t\!t;:ture(Tab!e W hm.
\VOili

<lssumn.loo~hal

2:!l!6. 6Al.ll l'!l~>, ( I'!.l ,I. 1Wdi:ii~.r;, it P'. ~ii'$!i~e~,1'•.~ 'i"iii~~, B~Ile[b~rnt!~u" AsrIm.~ t, 42:6, lLa'9 (19'9'4), I). fta~. ,1_ Iii, DQI}gJ!\tt, Itt NiflIlilQkI •. FA;:. [~j~I!IfI~Ii1m, AsrImpiJy!: J. ~9cq. 61.9 (j_9M). M. Hi, fillilUp"AliIJrt¥ffl}(J.}. 4-13" UOS f19~3t A, >G. Fli~'$et al., ,II$!I(l'n. I. J!1!6. 1009 '~1:!l\l!8t ~, 1"e~lmull~r,!'l ",., A'rlrop!l,~ i- ~:t1. ,65 {li'9~9~~ 11\ IIMflfl\dI:~. jN" Hm.l!lK~mdl, J. C,. NiMlty@f. AJ:r.r:on" Mt.r;opl;l,Y$. ~;9'1. 111,61 ~2(11:J~1 \1'. I'll ~m~()', I!c rill. l!il'IaMtla't, E. S.,01<1nl,'~~ Rev" ~m.
92,

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liJO\.

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l\, (.

Ol&~;D, Q. YmI!),A$.rrqIDJ»'. J. 611~ !Jj! I

or

I ~h{lll,''''s [JOT p;n:~UQ1L;'t(l!';,1~'. 111""'(: tiimull:dOClJ]!%wilh mID.;W. Md :s i~JIlititm ~I~. [ctmcd D&OO. [)20. :[ijnd O~. 1'C"S1:tL"C-

w. :H~L\etlf,ilIlilIiI:.~, c. I~itmeytr,. AAfflJI. ~. Arifr.tI'!, NltopJiys. ]8~ 19'1i(200!)). :11. $, .~t'tlil t 171", kltmpJ'lyr, " 16:l:~.1011 (2005). t ],2. f!:. A. I'.!laElilI~ ft ~. Aa;tf~~,. j, ,6:23. L31 ~200~)'. 'u- I\\. TM~~,. p_ ;lr,.. ~~Ii" K, 'I!~~~. K•.~~\ M'mphyt j, ~iI!~, ](] (2IXl!i~). 4 l!4. P, A, M<Illali. K. ~~~~o.. . ~,ata!, ;.M,;ie4i!,.,wraJil~~J. F t 5I~"l!lMl ~OOl),

(;200~).

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SCW~I~IC~ VOL 3150 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

I

REPORTS
is 's.
E:. W"'~e'J'" 1:1. f.i!~I1Il, S, ll~i!1ni!a:w. E:.Sl!!"diilllil,
~l hUp:1l'ar:xL\o~~~lr,&p:~OOl!,~(l~ p"~ilII ~'I'3i!~ (2'OOIl},

1;(;, P. It ~Uoilli.. II. ~[j~i.MIkl""'1~., "'10m. NrJt. R. ,Al"~nJJ'l, Sot. 31~51. ll'~ {lo!OO6l • .1i, ~. A..fllanal~ il\t Di •. ~J' S4:7. 9as ~:::!OO'1!l, )8, [l, Ka5eP,S. E. W~'e'J',. pr'epnrul a'!ll!Lalllt at h!'iJ~;lI~n..grg1W~$I;r~·phlO6'095~OI '(~()Q~~19., Ii'. A. '!"mlll, E:. C:illptlh,fO. D.,I. lJMz5m~r. M..furallo, s, Eiene::Lli.. ASi\l'rJp~, J, 499, L.q9 2:(!!,G, Gi!ldlra~e;- fl'aL, ~o¢'.J5. J" 558" 359 (.2JlOU, .21. W. n, Aimetl. MtaJlIlly~ I. 25,~, 18S ~:lt982~. 21, Ii. M, tii~"'~111o~, A4;i',Fq!l, Mj)'"~~. 2!4S, :ll,~ UM:~'.

mm,1,

23. II. IGo'bJ!lbek. .1. C. Hiemeyl1r. AsrRll'J, AlItJl'Iphy.l·, ;aia e~ sn QIIX!Ii). 2~. ~, L Wtl!OS~~.s. WuA'!CIi,. M,.IKIlJ~IM, A!.It~~ t 6W. ~l;ll (20i04I.I. 25. II C. H~~~, 5, Eo W~~.htJQPh~ f. 4:i!'io i~OI{l':l97}., 26. l~.K. ~€'pb\@:, W. H 1!r~hYJlldt ~ C. Hl-rer,. S, E, Wroslty. AWM AililrOJlhys-. 448, 112(!IM). ;11" l!:l~/l!, H(rnII:!i! ~ !l~",.~~"b1~, ~Q;e (~Ij!.~t 2!l. M. s.ltilEn!!l~r.~ IlJ!ibtllldgut A!:!rm. MttDP.,4~:t 4~~ {~OiO[I. 29'. 6. G!JonI~rd~ B. l.eillluflldgul. '~. D'. V~({~ MttOO. MJepIIys. 359. 375 I200G}. 30. A. 'IN•. fii, p,m~rOti~,~ol, A.lt~\1!'J,M§~5. 3&,. :SiZ:~ (l':l?&~,

1:11, Il'l'.'!: ll'!iI~~ E:. Pial!l aM D. Sa ~r !for l"Ie(p 'willl datil iIIIiI'l!t>i!. This, lIl'I~k 'W~ ~·rtI!!!' ~~.pQl'1ed b~the- 1::~.~ri1 uniol)ffl'~ HWimlA I?OI@lllltlli~i\rogtai'li'lm~ 1J1'I000,r OOfI'lrad HPIIN'Cf· 200HI0301,. ·'Il:liI~ I%'~iu; 01 TyPi!I~ S:U.p~rnO'i!at"·

5!I.!Jp;po.rtingl Olilllfl'lil' Ma~e,r.iial. "ww;5C~~miI!J,arlj!~g"'cD!ln.enmU!!.lI'3Jl5lS:B:lliS2's.tOC:l! 'F9!:. 51 i,I(l ~5 Jiibl4!Sl
,Ii!derel!~~ IZ OC!cber 2006, ~m~I~1]12 De«!1fIlb~rr218

10,t1::!~st:i~m~~ iH,6.2S9

'C,o,ding/D'e!coding and Rev,ersibliility of DrOIP,le't'Irains ill IMlicr,oilluid ic Netwolrlks,
Droplets af Olll'e!' ~i:quid ~uspelilded 11m Sie(o:nd,imm~~dblE! ill i[iqll~d! mOlJl! Um:mglh iii IInll[wHuidiic dievice in which i! eh .. nl!!~~pllils int!CI'~'i\lO' Ibro'!lilcn,es Uallil:r'OOOlime~t d,olo'l'D151rellm. Time Idr:oplll~ I!:hoo5.e a m p:atilJi !:lased On the I'ILI '1IIberelf d ro p!.ets that o(I:U;PY each branch, The ij ntll ra,ct~olilalniQ;(,lg arolpl.etsil1 I <the clhallil'lel:s results lin Nlmptex :5!eqUE!l'Ic:es of p;a'~'h ·!l.e~ectien. TillE! linearity of H'Ul! nmli thmuglil the l'I1i(mc:~alnne~, trI'GI~'I!e'lller. nsures that: the behaviDlr of tlile! ~,ystE!\m(an be· revel'.5lI1!d. 1fihiis, e reversibHity makes il~ poss:ibl.@to emrypt and declFYpt S~.9111,lIls odedl in thl!intte<r~alb; between ~ d ul'iillis-ts .. i1ihe en(otilin.9/d:eudrng dl!vi(~ i~.i'Ihlll1c!thll1a~, m](roUlil idl~c sysll@1!TiI thM. [@l'i,ufires. d roIP~!tsto rI$vig.{1i@ o\! l'I@lw~l'[i.: 'in a IPlrl~r:s~ 1in"1fI1fl1eir' lI"oIi~hout til!!! Ul~l? Qr ~ahl'le5. ~Mt(:he-s; llW Otl'uH' !Tllili!'a:luCif Ii!'Ueflli1!ll ,~~nt rot[.

whichooll{'lj,da~ 11ill'1k:ics inlhc bulk lluiCl took IhcP:1 <lCC' (I r .he dYC'UB Tayku"':;: ~1'> rcrimcntil (6). They dt:'~lo~~~armcdl~h1!:[1~!C:fl.;~vCF.;.ibi~ of dlC il)' d:.'mnnlt.!l of Ill.., *,j'~~~m d~(l";lld~d crilica:lb' (lit Ih~ uumber I1fltlHnc<lI,r'CVCUI\~, dl<ll is" colk"jQns bct ween IJar! it~c.".lhm ~ool;:,place d~!ri~!g rot<u!on.h! berh ·or.h(.'sC' ~y~~l,.'m:s. in {I<Uf!'. ;~nd mh~ motion ()r~h~ ~i<un'i(:g' fluid C,1n ~ a.IJm"Ox~·

or

mill[tl(lly c!¢:M:rif:i~

by thlii ro~'~I.");~It!I!.;'S[O~I:,~S;{"qIW':;11"

lion !/I.

I.hl:~.d.i1;. {;.~\'tce.s. Ipm'Vlid1.~,[I d bol~~ !m:lll inC<Lf I.IJ\;riooii,C' ;lI'Id chlll.o[ic) midi rl;:'vcn;ibk khfU\lirlffl of ~JO\'IIS ofl[lll1id:;.~ill.llw'Ugh ItO .rnicrollll1idit Sy$K'IfIl ~cl;)tS sil11llllilllltcously dcmofl:ll.r.illlcd oolhof .:h,;. ..e classes of dYll~m~kc,~. I low R~ynold6; ,i:lumocr A fite" I'hebciilavior of fluids lypicflUy can b<c rcvcrsooas WIlle ~O;YSJtemere goll]:£: hillCkwmrl w
1lt(;;I1]!!'i 1.0

T

ile. WI. Of.~I.l.OC:.. ~c·

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fll.'"

now or bo~hlliqukis.~.I~mllghlhc mtcrOClmllatc~S aHm','s the djHmlllk:s to be re\'crsi~k. W~ believe tim! tilis sys!.Cm cml serve rus it 1}lllt ro:m~ for in~i ~m: hy re\'mJng the dil.'CC(ocm or~he fmceJ, ~tll'(.iyins the Ifal~si olflill.llon'I~l1.carsyS"lCin'l!.~lronl •. ~ reversible to il1J'eycrniM~ dY~l~ll'ks,. 'fhcU'eV'crn· apiPlioo,w the Sy.;'lCI.n R.ccemwmk has. dClililcd .. Illic:t'Ol~uidic: :>yslcm~, whkb dcm.ol'lSII1IIC 1l0l~~ able. non lillie/u' dyn~tI:nic8. dun the ctcvicc' demonSlIi<l~es an;: also usdLl~ rOl' "bLb-ml-a-oCh~p" Iin.COlI" 'behaviors such as IlC'I:!oetic or Ch,K'IlnlC" dYllam iQ!,,,!:ilat ,arc chhcr i~l~lcrcl1dy il1l'Cvcrsibl,c a pp:lica! OCl'IfIS systems 1hm perronll 111~ysioc"'d~. chcmk<ll, Qr 'bl.oiIDgicOlI~Lm.cl.ion ... on mu~limCler~ or~m"'c !lUI been den10JlSir..uod to be l'eversib!le I( I 3l Il'l.:~~. dl;'.'<Cn'l:~C' :J m~cmn~licliii; dC\~~~iC to 'Ccnt.~!.n~r-M;3k:pJalJ(lnm fbJ' ~,~~npJc.Wt; \'\IC ~hr-J!~ i'!vlIIY~ !.·'C'\'1;L~~hl~. d !1{H].~:in~,,~r dy.~aH~.lk.o;;.~:nl ~I:\.i,,"d dl;\\'i.cc~ol}n1>l;c.~".;;~ l.he ~T.!ll~:olrcp""'t'it;l1~{,j by
drtjpl~il.~ by cntodil1;1;l <!law dl'l.:'ll d{~c(l(lillg it-liiSoiuag uFi~y'~hc pl'!..~~.m.;.-(trii"I"~il n~}W in IU:i;,mdo«~nc li'n;y l'1cic"C[OJL(; Qr o ~iqLJidi>. f'hw,',t\ ald'IC sfmd ~~'etl>gl.h ocilll\::s ( ].Q 101 00 ~JUln) rooollflccling dClVI{fISU-CilIIl1i..!hcbill my <:'f.10i:~ tha~ are ,C'lmmCl.Cri~Ii.(: of m~rol1llkJlc ~s'~f'I'~S ~I~~HIlllc d RlI1~CIS inlak(; cause lite rcs~s.'l.ance tQ' [y:p;("".:~ly OoCi:m 111. ~O"'I\' R.c ~:ild duit;. ~tl'l:: ,dmninmi:ltl nOWihro(igh Cild~ br.:illd'l to tivoh,t'in lUiilli: int~ !IOnlillCll[ fi.lshiml: t~mlili, the .cl1;'(_l'fllctsjll ,,_,.,1C.lia by \'it'oCoslrty; h~c:rt~!.i .llly:;.rnl~:'L l n~il...ghlill role ~rol'tCh innrLlcll~e the dhoicc .of lilLbs.Cqll';;~lidrop- (4). Viscosiiy.doll~im}i.!..iI ~]ow:Smlrcgo'\'cmed. by let"> 1l!!.'1W1i..'CU1 Ib.r.m.chcs by Inoo i:fy illg l.he rnics of' i:'1Ulllioru (I rllllO~ bnl~hl'tt ,rure I iilcaf in dl.C vcloc illy the rll!1udi, (_,I~ssic cxpcrilllCI]I,$ by T<liy~or l5") ~[l,eiPa!ilJl!I1ent 01 ClIiIIl'rnis.IJl')'and Chamkal Blol~" Wiarv.1f.c dcm{llJls~rn"oo how lO\\'" Rli! now~ can be· 'IreUI'!Hlfei'S1ty. 12 Oi4:Fo!i'd'Street Ca.rn!:l!'ldge, MA 100138, USA, verwd. A drop, dye add~d ~o " Vif£OLIS fhlid '!lltSll~wtE! ~I' P~~I (Ii<I!mi~lry. It\tllim h.a.mf!m~ (If Sci· ~(!l ween ~\'!i'Ocyl.ind(1f.8 \~'w;.t'tn:;'oCh",-d b}' roi"'.ilig enll~, Ka~P:JZata 4l!i52. 011.-,224 'IIIilISilW. IPoIand'" the ium;:r Ci!1~ .. ald :!i:'Ub<t:~'111;r;!lil~y n.~ll!lli'ilillW~OOb)' 'To whom ~t:ir,~~plNl~n~e 1!I1!o~.dl be addr,~~.m.E~mai~ ~'C\t;l!i;;illl;[,': ~h{.'"darccliOJl WWl~OI]. Ra'"iC':ll~ Iy, !]~h'teslde~@gfl1.t~growpJhaR'ar.jl.e,jIu (GJl1.WJ; ga~1@
~]cli5 ,,,),:>1(;1'111,. (lru~JIOL" of

liqWlid ~hmlllg.h .he cI,..m~ck Thi!i 00· re;.;Wlh~ in nonlinear d:ynO'lmi(.1>- rb"Op!i."'1:lii :.;cl!ecl rmlil'l~ \\'llh mUlrolli1lh:lc !X'riodici~y. mld in some hb!llItCt .... Ill!;)! dlOOac ~:H:ililt il'l Ill] 1Ip!C"tiooic s rfL":hio.nwhcl\.~s. I~le dlfUffiC'h::l')s.ilcaJ.I;y linear
h:l\'lor

1100w

or

Micoronuidic S)lSI(-;il~ hm,'creecnlly IJCCIl u~d: n1Hllip.ha.->e i]O'!.\.'s. where Ill.(!' nuid:;; illdmk: suspended droplets (8 mj and bllbb~cs J H) wilh sLlbstantia'l comrol over .heir sizC'. velnme Irncti(m in ~1'lC' ·c.u~'iC'rfll!lid ..•md Ih~ll.CnC)'or['Dloom:;'tion (J 4. J 5). The in!C'r~jall suesscs 1'l~1l1 ill thc.'~c nmllhilj~m~c SYS;liC1l116 imrodll.cc m:ml incantiC".:> :~nto t~ICcqtl!llltim~s or [l0\\,. even at low \'JllJ!cS orRc, These nml~lllcm1dC'S are \\\iC..1I.k, ti~flWC\!Cr,oOHl~)"1;redw:i IJ~ tl~c iinc1!l' oomribau~ L'OI]
10 gc~emlJ!

a

!no t!hc dynu~ni!:."S (Ul·l. <I1)tj 1h.~l!l:lo!'C du !lot arI~1

Ihe ,'cl,\,,;nNibihly (Jf IhClltrl[,J.\,,,;n1!.'r~l or hllM}I~';S o:r dlfOj:Dlcl:. lhmu~h 1111Ini,Cme~!<lIIU~d_
\~tc ~nl.Cmioml Uy i:nitrod uce an nddii 1~'r)JlilL

S\mngly oolllHnear co.unpol1£ill~ ~m:oche :illt~melio:ns nhfltg.oycm the mOlioll1 0 r drol)k~s.: fig. IA shows ~he device we usc. The ImJillhlca~lY arises from the' bii~1i.IYchoke 1~I:lt Ihe dl'Oplcts, make
arthe T imc·r::lcctl.on. EiilCh dl."oplctlh<lil enters

lhis ill~elli"CCti.oaehooscs Ihe branch Ofihc loop Ihrough which~he hc..\adccl1Il1:C' llows :~norc
.mpia Iy cqlll ivak,'1l.1:1y.Dhe 1)<1111h,amc~el".i~cd c 'by

!he analler fh!ldic 11~1st;lI1cC ,~J 71', Bc:cmllse Ihe sys1cm oJ~L~mcs at ;jJI. ~·{\Pl:t~<ll)iml!miJcr «Hr~) 11m. i:;, ~n~,d(,.1l:0I\Iilih d1>_'~ '!'be d!'Ofllt:"" 1'C!1~,!in I
iutolCl "':-; ~1i.1Y ~nmvc Ilhw!lllh. th~ T i!l1\1'l~'1;':CI[on 1'.,";'). Ihi; rrucc~sof<:htlf.l:o;il~g ;'!I}.nil ,;,mlp.I~!iI;""Ih~ <tili'l"CiJ\;IK1C;:o; .in [he rn:tc;.; of now ~)f c::>mi:!II.."C;jJm: h di«)tlgh lit,.; Drartcl1'-"i> ofnhc: loap iHIO~1 b:iillii:uy wllLlcc; il drop let of aqUOOliS SoJ.lllion i:; cDlher. prrc.o;.cjn in or .m.b.se~l ~roi!n<1. bmanch. \'\r&iI~TI ,-L drup~m m.o"",,--;si:l][tlllgh. 11 br.luadb IOf ihc loop. ~~ilnC'reil:ie..~ ~Ci(;r.;:~'>it!Si1l1tCC1.0 ~:l:ow ill ihfLj dnfllllld.l]l~ drop!.."! cO:llscqu~a~[~yccf('3scs. i.he d Iiol.l:e fk'lIW (I r lte:l!.oooo;lw~c ~hrnu.~h~'L'C' hL'fum;h ii,

am

wOJ~~r-b,I~"tIinkl:nm'ing 'II: in ~I T ~n'OC"I!iccliml!. w~.lC.[,C 1",'0 I)j;lth~ d'aful II"oru1Ia limp by

M.1qucnl;;e.~

{If"

r

or

or

10hf,E!du.pI~PAlJ

Pi.I]C' e'l QJ.~<'iI;"'C

.ilil'!I\t.:.';:.;lig.ilII[t"l!I~1~ill~~1m' ~ysll:m.

or

~JOCl.lp[cs,al1d ifI:Croa.'>CSlal J oon$1<'I1~ rnth:()J.~bw) Ihe l'<JI~e.. mow 1l1mL~~1 d1.e'~!bcr bl'm:nch (I Q :2!). B."COll~ the Illexl dropk.,to ,,"'ill[!:l"lil~ T in~el'~~ linn .. :Ib,o 1.'iI1[lOt"S 1:11(1diannd ~hl'nugh whk:h dlC hC}!;!!i;ioc'Ul~ Il{liW~ U~101'G mr~(n}'. hc ci1f1io~ .hal ~
(int: drn;pkl :i11ak~~inn~It:IlCCJl .ht: ,[."iioH::~of Ihe He;':l dr(Jf'i~~I. 1In.~,v.i.i'1g Ut~ jlUliCI:iOJ'i. th~,> Ii::-cdat

or

lin

828

REPORTS
oo~b; between successive drop~el:il. resalrs in a rlonlim~"f ;;;y~'wm t!mt ,cxhihi~ bit\I~~lion,~ .:m,g i!~:~WJI1~r u~r:I!,;'riod~i:;!l~I~;IJ\·;or, l!mdillC<WL1)' i~~ .• The d~c oJ1IGrnbioll .1'1' thJ; Sy~I~~llIiI d~ruw:. [tom iW:{l ""tl4,UI:t:cs; (i) t1r1~ time t~\'ollllii,[)n or ih.:: l1:uid~c Fiig. 1" tbe ricro1~!JIfdi( devi~~, (A)' Pi. g;m~raUjle,d slI:he\mailM: diagram of the
rrJ'l(rodfialrllrlf!ol ne.twork. I~ exadEKa IU!' '(j~Il!.ai ni n'g aJ !l1Jr'ffa{1A; (3 Wo Spall1r nt SO by' r!1:11S'S) ~eezec:l 'l1Ir~ dr®plets ot ~qllllwm.ink I1I.~i8'l;tlnQc.'lQr~h:c 1\\'0 arms
IlG[ll ~!W<lr!r.ms~blnWnig~

or Ihe IoopO!1m1d {.i:il)the (II' ~N !Il~~r" ",,1;5. bel \\'{,'cn

d!!l·JP·It,.'1:~ ~1.1!Cri11g ~hJ;; ~oop<Llrnd ~11D-'i'Ii;: ~~wi,'N,;n dll1Jf'l·.IC'~'i.~~I i~!!!; ir, 1:t,~~n:;t:rJ;!lhiyl" a rt",,~ll of th~ ! il!IS r:rl,lcil>~ cm~fi;ll~:ntl:lllt 0 r t&K':::rui:ut:e ,of the uen-

liJl~"r~ to ~oolati.'{Ievenl,,,, Ihis stmngjYl!lonlim:.tlr deviee dCnlnq1!."~ml~~ rex ~~n.l.~bi!~Q>,." I;:h;!J'lC'~C!·i~1.ic Qypil;,~ b11~ rl.{j( !~n~v~-d to, !il~i.l'lr "y;'ilf/,)I~~,
i:)~

I

The bl!!>k~~nic;:rnll~l,idk sy~l¢nl! \~

tI"'G ©Ol1t~I~.'wh:id~ :II. fJ;;",ali1noc!!.~,
i:;h<unlc~,

He~ad'ecafile'

A

//
'I'

i[n~,ei~

genem1m

'l)ropll\!~:

./ L,oP,
fi~l! mSfstc rs relic
I~ ~'-' "1

1Prit.~""fIdruprt.1 g¢!!ilTIIIOr, :!I. is.C~~ml duumc~ b.r.m-chc:;.inllo ;;Iioop ;mclllhlit!
~~ldnl.l;dicn.;<;i~to!1l,
,,';'~:11L;r

~I(lng!'i(;"(;ljOJ1~ of

O!J9:'

===::::!iI

il.tl,n· ~ !>I;:'rpeJ1[itrne~tllti~I()I filt ml'l.'ipm?llictit-..of \\'Oi,ilt1d, ili.io f~ ~i!".I.~). igltt't: I A f :i!.:ctC'h..!:; [he &eil~rn.1 f:C1i1im oflh~iile~work. [In.;;:;.$tIre applied m I.i re.~eif'l:\Qir .i~e~aeJl:lC':,1ni:iIHll

fCDlck.d

or

or dye i11llhe if P.tI nCliotn. Th,!!' dflJPieu prO!!:eeded

In'kinle~ "",.~
,lEi:
: 1111

I'~.:!I!!!!'·""""""!I"I!'''''''''''''''!!!!I!''''''''''!!!!!I!!I!!!J·

..

,..LiiII!"""'-

c
:

loiJne t(ilOp,~~!nE'l\e ih~ lOOk@F!~ of the~'W p~Ih'S, {B) AIii, 0jl9G1l miitJ'G9ttlph ,~f the. ~oop 'shmvirlg one'
,!:irop!@tin Ilhi! ~ bf!MIch a nd one dlrlJp.tet: In the'

IOU~

r~
;;

I

.. o. .....
I

1:;-:

e:
i

0

I

!'
J..

11'1 fr~
• 1
;lJ '1iI
I

I~n

t . 'I I i •
-·~ll
~I

.'

~

:

eomains ..3% by HUiS.'i. Spm~ 8:0. a noulonlc sm~h.cmnL ares~i"\.'~"liia·Ormlaqllltlml~ :\Oilu~t{)n mKl of ink. or dye. ereaies dropicis ''uOOI1."mnt inlclVOIls: or time :uu. T jlJ!nttim~" The dropk~lS~hcll move a Ihmlqg,h ,~I1IJ~!d~c liC".).i~!nr. which d<!!l1m'l.." dlC dlrulgl;~ i~~ IPrct'!:'um Ol~lite T jllllclion C.11.18~'>cl hy (iltlpi\jl.">UIOl\ ig<1! inJi!:tilrwlIgh Iht: I0O;1li ,nlfld (l1~~I!\:'$

!!Ii!~edllhf(lll!ig~ ili~ I~ ,~nd Out wfimws, rrl<f!rbd in (IE!). A :~ikeil'idikar~$

,(IIull~t (ihal1ll~'L ~O' li?Inls ~shO\'!!iFl~'@ fnrefill'a~ bel'Iwen dmpleL5. as I!he-y

I
I

900ll!lm

:1

I

1'.iI!!!;t!'!!I''';;II!;;I!I;_;S;I!IIIE.'.'';_

10
I

kil, u
.

'fOUL .! TOUl2

,""

QUIt

Ihm. ~~!C: bliljbk'~ 1l!!fJC' !uo;ch.!ccd m. .. ro~t<:lm~l fro'lu:cm::y. /!;,Ih:r the ~i.\lwr. !he dmp!J~b'l reach 01! 10101"Ihi!l~ h,t.,~ ,a".ynQmC!lri~ br.l]]cll~: in Ih~ lii}'..,;ICfDi! $hown inF;.g. I B.lh~~ long(lrbr['Ul(;h is
L 9i'! Il'IllI1 ~oflgand I.h~ !>imnc.r I ,J8 Ifilb1!. F:iml.Hly. lhe drop~Cl::; ·~IlW.r·(;IUlroi.igh l.ill.mhcr I1li1Mic resislor 300 olin or li~c;Sylstelfn.

,

,

the ~~·s.en.o~ f .ilI ,('jni) pO' ~.et 'The !!Ippoef !l~.ot1ihm~ 1!lIilif~:rml tjmeinte liVals (Tl~,1!t! nd lin..~ b91tJi'l!~eliid r,opt@ts as they r,e~ched the ~oo~. The Lo\w,r p~ot depicts llile t.\\lO' diUer,emlliflfle 'iIi1Ml'!.!1al£, (~~1lII,;1 and Too"I;2)~h[flt ~~parated dN'p~e<ts a ~ ~hey erl!i!!lf!I;~~ frem thQ< wop wh!l'n tlil'e ~ysliem oper:1!tedi in peri(l~-2: mO'd@. ~·ii9•. ,2: •. i"eri®dJkllrld aperiodk

n!'l'!ll!,r_l'

::I'

~.

,

~ ,~

i!!

We n]{l<iili~tm."dlihc times m ,,\,'hkh droplets

exh ~.hc·~oop;]!!he r!oOi'>llim1..'" mmked in. t Fig. 1 B US~I1,g a biglHpCOO clmf1:!C-cooplcdldevice COmlCfJ.Uc belmvi(l, of (he ~ysu:m. deI);;md,,>on th~ il]l~p,'aL" 0 f 1~!nC th!l;t ~<:LmiC Ih~ dropict.'> asthey arrive ~t the entrance to the loop. For $urndcm~)' Im'gcil11J.'1.'V:lis 'bch'!,'Ccll dOOI>S ~t > ~ .04· 5), only one d\iOfllct l't<lss(;'s
I]mJugh the klOp W~.f1 lime.
I\cW;(.~1l mpi~bi d d(l(;'ue;lst:,~w

ClJ~er and

11 mode .mcl em l'Illi apenod~c mede, The' !In;l!,P;SptO't '~h~ T bt. 'ililt~rval n' (1"""'1~ ~rSll!5~hE!' iI1~hlmlter'li'.tl (1",,)1 l. ~he hl~iV:a'l$ a~ fb(ij'ifjg Uzedll)y the rIII!?~n of Uln!inoorv.a,lsil'l, @aJcl1s:et !I:J'r d~'Ia «1"». '1fUl~ t~rt·halildl map'~ (a ~!ld c)iliow !!)f!~ Chl$l@r .afl(ijim:ii~~OO· ~ha t Uu:! in~ewi! lS bell1'1'e@m drull~ welfe IlliniriCDrm a 5 the-v re'all:hiea the ~eQI!l. lhe- ~I!J mb~r ~f dllhste:rsin rnap T b r'~i3il5 the tJnimodlat peliiiod~dly 01' ~he~yn~m. a p d iSmUJi.lIS· no di~:em' M ab'~ dl!~ein9 and thl!~ denQ~.~ aJpericdk beh·Ciliiiolr. lhe nlllfl1l ber.~ ~'~xtOO lh~ dU51e.r~ 1111 p~u: all(! r!: ,!:il!liUJiI.@thf! ~I!J rnb@r ~f ,~ala p~l nlSilil 'e'.. dl dlll!5mr. \lli1e'.rea5. the n!llmber'iD1 IPwt dsihcows the rU.!lTJ_b~r f d~~ o po~illll:s In th!ll entir,e pl.at. (8) Pi. bJ~ flJr'GCit~:ond~ag ra ml 1m tfuJesys~em. As (he di~Il'a(llllml!~t; hilI! Ileiii~ht erlhe ink)in{),'e\a~dlll1e periooici:ly of th~ :sy~team (lhanged+Th~ ~lim~r$,a~QVE ~h~ cha~t d!l!!lClI;@ th~ lP~ri(Jdi(~ty denloiilstir.tl~edror '~.M ri31Iil!!l~o:ffthe·

bd~iOlf. 00 PIiJ,]nc(!r@m(Jl!l!i of the 5'ysteml :5hmllnifl Fflg.l!ifl {i~pert~d~

As. ~hi,,;~n~crv.ds~1!C0:90
:.1, 1)1.

drnpll)t flr-

i!'!

.:i!~.

:2
1-....;..-·

I~

:2: 11
'.'
1:

~~
1 ....

,~
11
!il

",,~t .

1 11
I!!!!I

1~~'-~lIi--*"""2-~3

·Tl·{l>
n

Ii"..:" ;nHll~ j~lIiJlt~tem ""hi Ie II~ pre\' iOt115. SI.iH ·ollC ~up:ii~:i' 'ihe s.l'io:rtc:rbrunch" The ilnciX;f~~ ~n .ile HiilidilC fiC5i;ii>hlilil<:e ofl.lllc sllorr~r bmnch due [0 .he pR."iCllCC or the dro;pkl is sti mdcJ1~ to diivc~1. C\;'C'ty second drorJ.CI. i~llD the Ilong.cr brmach. [kcm~ Ih:c rales. 0 r 'I1owlhrou.gh each 0 f dlC lilmmidleJ (nlTcJ'~ Ihe itnCI;·.,t~d5i.between dooP;lcl S (;1!;iI.li1;Q;the loops ilQ~t in Slu"'q'LICtlGCS ofa ~OI1g-CL imcl'vfll roHmved by a sho1il~r one (.r-.g.1 C); ~vc n:rcr W 1~1i:sregime as ·l~criod-::!". ,For O.\10 :> I > U)4 $•• ~hc sysilcm c'xhibiils ~'iIC'I:iod-3, mK! pcn(}d-4
'bcimvTor; A~ wcd~"I;[;C<~ l~lCi!~t1:Jv;I~~ lx,:1\\'CI,'H drQp'rc~.,
d1!..l ~(,.·io.p, Z'!)r:;,tCI~ d~~p~ay~ ,I :iil.ni~ oi' I h~ ~jfl.m::;lI!tiflll~ 1.0 high ... ~r-cII.d1.;'i: p"'rL{l{.l.ic:mId 'Ipo;;:[~. n(~ic bdnl\,.i,(~;t~.To dmmcm:i£c l.ik'pt:r.L{)U ieil.ilil. \Vc t"()lI:>illI.CI.Poi;nCll~ Irli~lps, whictl llr>cp:I~I1i of the Ihnc Jltll.c:M Ilbei,:vccn lite lid, <ll1d I~ ~ 1. Sl drql1c~ verSILJS~]1CtiHl:e ilfll.crv<ll bel.w:ccn Lilli: rI~l,
ll1iCl I'

~'m~ring

ihc k~t (11 [~lld c~ ctlm~:;polld: W

li'i~dm;pkt Wig .2A). The two pl~l$ on.
~lC

int~r"'11I1:>

~eigln !!)ff ·the f'fB~li'!;'(Iir of

111110;.

Gray

bars d~rli!Jte ar~s '7i'nerelhe S)'slelllil beOillllOO ilplfliiadir.ally. Thf51aleoo of
th~ SY$~fillI (IS ~e]P~S~rlted by' Pojnm!i!p1l biJInd d ~Ire 111111i<ed O~ 'the IbihJrcatiorii !l:IfIll9~am!.
'GlIre

bel~~cn drop~cis lxlo;n;: t~iCY fCa.ch i.h~ loop fOIi 1,,,"'0d ulfcrcnt valllc!; of I'IIIe mean. ui:li.C1:\Oid hciwcen. dropl~c~s (1).679 and 0.591 s. for sCI s :i,~md iil" The l'i,g~n-imndp.l!ol~'b)~n sci i d'cpkl)t Ihe' sysl~m demo:rtslLI3Gllig perIDd~3 bch;wi{ll": (he 33 roi~lns on Ihi~IJ~gl iM~in'~o tllre~ dll~M'S, The tighl.':b!;;tU1d p]OI in ~l ii (01) 5hGw~~hL'; ~ls'k,"Iln llCh~~"i!1:!ili!~ ;lIl
3pL:.'Tr()dic mUIb!l(:~

~h~ intc:r;'!11Is ,42

l1l\.'a~un.icl.

do

miotelm,kit on
..org

t~bGPoiliC"dgflTl\~~P'

w1fM,.sdenoemBg

StCW~I~IC~ VOL 315:

9 flE6RUARY 2.007

REPORTS
the sy~WIl1. l\'s Uw:sy1t'tcIll in itilJiU>, evolves in time (b;:;:!bfC ~WW~"f;;I~! ef t!he clj~cluof~ of~)Q,1i.'~, the ('l'~!~~.I~I}$}~Q~~~omh~L;'1'lumt~l~\li 011~f,;.",~ri:!.H':I1.~ dfOp~~I:O;lf~lOvt; fhlJn k" Wi ri~l~ ~n lh~ I;:h~:I~(,;1 (Lh~ ntll ~~1~IP ~IUJW.,ti,[oi ~·Ilrubt.;:_ W~ rl1'; a'h!.: p~~~or ~ ~onp .~5 l~j"itiolH:;~ in Ih~ wnt~lt of' the pf()!,. aeih~ ~litmg~n. ~1~)plicd in lh~ I'l-......:~r'\.riiir; . hClI:H.·· coulIl.~ng lorth.C' bLl'ik :'pLu!':}. \lI,,~ r~bt Ult': ~uiiorl deeanc andir!k ,I!id ~hen :rnisc Ihe \'i~l,ci;'!n~i~~in£ of r;:'~1!cl mrlet \,vilhi!fll]~e dm'l~m.cr versus ~imJ;las ~}bL;illk in ~~P" i(l:r 2ji[l1 ~un u~ing~ l1!icffi,l1it~i' iL1l1{."1r. ~hl;~JB!A:,1ll ,L;,"\'OhCK, The bandson t~~ kfi &id~ of R:;IIiN.;~~ v~ll incr~IL,"--"l Ihe l:il\_~tllt; l!I~]rlil,;d ~. I.hi~ th~'pJot .~~rc \'cliJly 5pa!l"xi.~hc U:(iiforlt)J $PUt::ilig ~ ~h~ i!~1kdti.c 1.00,l!:U<wall'. ili~~ in..; TIlle oUO\\!. m'Ki ~ltdiOL'luiTIg 1.1'i1U~. dropJ'!;!L~ (:Iilti'lf n:i1c Idil side of lib: 1:l1~1S. ooc!\.;ns~'... d~e, ~nltcii\'I}'I;s OClW'b"Cnl droJ:ilccs thC' I~op s~purn~dI by eOliSHilH iirll.efV;lii.tJs time nhc staooaml dev imit!i~ of the ii1[oi:f\'!}t~is. .~2'Y~of ool~ril1~ loo~ The i\.~lll!ilfl.~ ti~c l~ciio<lk~ljes the lucan illlen.~[il), The ~1llild~o.ullhelii1£l~t.side of !be palhs selected bytlile (Dml)lebi Ch'li~G\: at:;: we \;'~:tythe 11OO:;:SUrc appHoo 10 the ink, \eVeobserve the I hne-spsec 1)101. show thai. '11,lcdfOJ~k:t., ex.il. the ~i:':11mJ-L -2. -3. -4 and -:5 l~chOlViol:~ as l>\'cU <1.<: d~ht side (If the loop i:I~ il~rC'.I.'\'a~sth::H 1'C1'1e<JJ! in OO];j Ine~. wherc jhe d rnplets sch,~~brnnchC'S gn:ilL!'P)l.of SC:~"Cin,T~!c Poiu~ea:tl6mtlll~ (l1~ Ille ri~ht O!~J(lriOdic'.lJ~y. The {'ilJ.i.:cf'\.'mion of a hi ri,l!lC'a~ialr~ in seti fir Fig,. 38 conr. ~1\'''; lhmlhc 5)iSh.:TI1 OJ~' c<wc,<i;d~ i~~~'pie,1! ,or- !l'!,~~~~ iut.1'ir sy$W.~n.'l, 110~~ cmM.)~· if! u p¢l!1·0(1-7 mod'!! whil~ 1!J1~mnl~IllIM!,~~. To ,d~ll;,nui!!i.,! wlwdl~~r ~1(': ,rB)'l'IIUn1c", ormh~ liql!llid f1'tl!\'\;'l'> Ihmw~lnJ !hl.'Ollg~! l~!,,~ ~)'Sh~UlIl"\\,rhen ,"Yil1H~m n.:vcr.;;ib.h;,·. we ~~~lilIJ.iC' a ::>}'SLCm arc~~ OOll~ "n!r~wl,;~r;.JC'[iac cl iro::tiolll Q;f How tlnnugh the ~3i.ni.lIl.g (lI!le' loop rollowed ~Y'l ,'<piraling olJ!I~~ c:hmmd'>. ihe d!l'OpIClill'm!.Cf th!l:l 11gl1~ :;.ide oftl:!c C"lm!11~(:'1...g-5 em t{m~ (.11) .~nwhich Wi.,!~nQr()'mh(,; loop in ~riocil~ "J n'llXl'(;'JiLllId ~flM,.'1'!l!:~ ~'hJJn ~he l,cn "'1;'q'U~~;r;:t:' 0 f droplt'L:' !~!llJD i:,;}1~1[hi) lotl~'_ \IIJ'(~ $l!D sid(~ il~ .[~:SUU:lIlI'! of ~n!ijih!1n pl.c'-~daeil,lI+ l'Irl~ s:r.m:Jl· ~:hc:preslilLUU Ol1~plicd10 tl,~~e.xadcc;lllc fmdnhc: dOli'll cil!Vlfll.tQI1 t! f Ihll iUler\'.\tls inC'l'C&"I!!;;, howaqucOLIs, sohniQu of dye so thar the dcviClC ever. to 15% oCd;,('! l'1'iCilI'il l ime um.erv~1~,n(!r \VC arpcrni.Cl> pcriiod~7 medcfor a s'HIf:lkic.ntly long lin recerscd Ihe di.n::clio.n or now, The spjrul was p~rioo oftlrne lhal~he si'J'iral channel .l:Hil;;; \11' itJil la!]!! C110l1!llh to hotd ~ 10 IHlriods cf'seven drop. d ro;p~C1." ~Il fIi pocrioo-7 c:onl'1,sura. ion, \1VC !hen~ lets cnch. The system dCll.1011~'tI':lt(!." .re,:e~ibj'lily rev,crsc Ihe dil'CCl~OIl or~]I1YW Ihml~ghlhe SY"'!Clll O,\'C'l" !ivclllcr.ioo-7 :grolll pi' 01' drop lI::t.. but faib to leY}' rflg:gl i!~g!'wothroe=war valves, T~~c v.lll",'~ revC'mc lhe period-7 beh,lVioL" to pcJim:lo~. beaavior lor hmger ,'lOQUJ.:!1C(';'i'.WC' 'believe d]g~ (he ,~w~~C'~~ <1lI~rl ied 1}j)1.\'il.'iUFC Irum the hcx'Idt.:'C'I!~c '!he ,~uW:l,y to t1i1.C mnlc,t of .he dcvlce (13). rhih!JIC in Ihe rc'VCll'Sibilh)' or lire systctn after 11I\'e Fi,gmc 31\ shO\vs lJtlim~pace di~Uilllll of rerioc1.~ mJld the Increase in I,he Slm1dm.ITIde\dmioll d mp~c!S u~;;[j\',cliuig rOl"\,v.sru mid b:lIckw;;I:J;rlt]Lrm.!!gli~ o nbc inwl'v,lis OlJl'C c:l~jsed b2f the droplO1's !110~ illS Flg\!fe 2U
t!6~S. ~';;~HI,'IT!101l'i_~ lt~c lJt.'1iOOi~jti~ WI; Ql;tilCf'i,~C

a b~r~I"~1J.t~OJ1dilllgmm to fgrlhe

or

doscr~ogelhcr as ~1l.tYl'lJ'C :ii'lQre,~IIlItiloc inner r~l!1g or~hcsp~r:;Il. Th~ !lJ'I'I,,'!1l,ihiliI)'11r ,Ill,; ,~~}'~~;n~~~css]';st~'m ~l ~~p<.~I1~ ol1l die il11i.1".'llSila ",it)' iCl.l" LillO's,!; dylll:;t!11i~ 'h1 p.:ri~llrbtL] ~mls. 'The sC!lu!:ril1illac right.-h~trrld Poi'ncaN rnii!iJ]~hown in Fig. JC' {ii) demon-

or

sl!Ol~L'C!> ...t Dhl:.~ Ih rs;y~~em : i.'iubj~c~d to pot:~t~I!:~'i!' Di(]~j; UpG'ill It; 'I"¢[';J;\11 ,of Lho:;; "'.1'1.,1(: li:rm of f1[j~\' of
l1C'kfi(~Cl!tie. Despite lhi..:..,!,; :P(,[,IU~i31it}lj~, ~hc: dooil~!Cl",:>~ilm, C'x:i,[ dl(:~Ofll~ ill,9 IH::riod.1 ~ilj',h iQ'I~.

or

or

Tille d)'filam~£l>ihercforepreseree

the eoherenee

of the si.~n fil, TIle de\ icc witill .one h'lOl) IJml,IA,'c dC;l.Cu'ib.Jd

pJlC\liOlI~I)' dCm~Jl"1 rntcs reVQJ.'Subili~y upon 1\.'vor.;.mJ (I f 1110di roclio:n (I f tl'o\\,. \1iJc Ihum~lI,.n
IlCrioo-2 sc<llK'nOt;."'l'.llIlW(:V!:!·. are IiCvc~i~l~ ifdlC dl'l1pII:)",,,,u,," ~~mIbIiW,1I!!Il~ ~hvCl'll£lh <LbtoL'llld kloOp id~mti('..~1 ~O. ,nld dOi\I!I'I!~rur1L,." n~ the fil};.~ ,one ..ru ,(Fig. 4, A and H). TI~i!-l;rror!C'll), of revcl'll.ibilily witlimut rt'qll:iri n;!;lu rov~J Q fdlC di!~cl ion flow is dLJ~ 1/0, b<I.ckw,ud/lor;.\'.1Iim I'YHI1n(ltry .• The lJ!.-~ri[}d.Js.tql<Q(ln~ ABABAB Iwhcl(l A. dlf.;ntll,l::S!l k],ngct il'lw[\r::l.~a:l'ld B fl. shuncr t'¥lIl!} looks C'.X~clly

or

dl.c Sfume wheth(;r read in Ihe Ibm'md or re""c~c
dkCCli:on, wi'~I~ B :I_tr\wrysrolkm ..ill~ an A. We use nhc~.\'\Jo~l.oop device to encode fmelt decode a sugnml co.mprflsillg Ihe illIcl,,~ls of ti,IMe

li)el.'\'(l!ndroplcl~. We' lI~ Ihcdevicc In FP8-4A ~o 1WOOc\'j.',~n ,m,d()j!l ~,ig.ni1lI"'rlcll~~C device in Fi,g. a 4Sro P'~<:ll"~'" digil.al onC',,~I!hcl1~gh~'x:I'!h iees d'c'V M! capablc ofpfl'ICC'!!..">illS ci~hcr~ypc' of:si,!!)rmL'[:'0 cllrodcl'~IC an;[1~gs.gml~,.,,\'C m,ooulatclhc rre~ SUi~C "Wi !:cd 10 d~c1\.'lliC'l'VOir 01' il11.:. ~~bout dlC
rfiig. 3:. Rever~~ fig the ~ehiavior of th~ ~yst~m+ (PO A1!l (Iop,tlc:31l mic~(Ig.~a!l·h,of d wjllim OII(lJvimJ£I throt!91h the clil~IlI'I~I. on ,e~th!iirsi\:le olf tlhe 1.00 p.We stretlhed

,__jt=-==I
I

L,eR
I I
~

I!
II

i ~. '.......'i!"
11
°o!-_ -~.~

~l!

~I~1

'~,!5

~.eflgl~hb¥ ill fartor or nil1le.. ILI:5illl~1 Adeb~ p,~~,to5h()p, ~o make the dmp~ets mo r~
l(tasily

~he widt h (If th~ chi!

fuql~1 rel,a,ti'l,lleol:Oit~

~.:i!!~=='!3fhe dmple~ il'l ·~'he'optic;tI~. I'lriuographi r ~~'<7J!< ()orres:pond t.~,·~he· poi,n~ at Ute top, 'of ~h~ pllJIt fn {8.) to 'io'!ilYi(ih Idash~dI~!nil's am dr~h7lInJ" The liol)lpis dlrawn sche'flilalkilUy glnldl ;,$, nl()t pllil (If(il~ o~th:~l I1iik~(I~ '~raph, (:B) A plot or the positkm 'Ilf d rD:pl,e.ts iirl till e ~,y~teomals Oi ]umtnQIm ,of 'Ii: 1(1.. '1 time; IEoIlC,h hQl'Iiroli1t~l~trce of this ~klt repre'5lwts ;]5n!1!ps:hot 'of tlhe sYf>'l:em. lihe· br~d: area'> :'>iglnli~v the Il:r,e~m::e ,of gJ dlr~ple~, a,l'ld ~h(l w111ite p~lr~ d:'Il'pid ~he ab~!lmll(jE!!01 dmpll~t~,. The- drr,oplet!> inillatllv m'O'l!"efmm l~~t t®, right: they @J'H@w th'~ loClp !!'IIi~n 'l!!llif!llrllll! s@p\~r.ati~f! ~l1!dJ @x!t s~rQt'@'~ by oil ~@p~'tiF!~ ~!i!1ql!@lF!Cl! o'r $~Vt~r'!ilF!t@r\la'Ls. Alt.e.r the d~rc(~iofl 0:[ Iikwi .of h'~x<ldecalm,e thrQugh tlhe £y~tem lis, .re:ver~ed•. the droplets lI'IlOi'!!le! hllrn rig'ht to ~~n. 'e,nt:er l~e loop,int period-7 mode antdl exitwi~h L1r1irmm separali(lnI. lful,e Se'\I'fri lf1~p~aUl1gf1nterva~,> They af'~ IrJH!W~~'~Il!~~ rg,~ht·lhaJrldl sid!~ Qf Ih e plot {C) ItIQ1~!ilur~ ma!p~ sl:J OW]1I19 the liJi~.iQd!~ c~tv or tile t!fa!~11 'of dmp~ets beJou::! treverlial ami (ii) after re!j,l\er~t The mps~nt (1) plOillh,eo Ilt.h ]lIIlelVa~ ~r.n) versus tile Il + ]st nnte Nail (f"f..1), w1'lere'9i5 the imi'l,psinl (i,j), p1iOll~ne n .., Istv~r~liIS the nth. liii,.aU mall!>, '~he ~liIteNa ~s. a roe 1l0uliI.al]])ed' by the mealfl ,of H~eil'ltelVah;im eiulh~lo~ dl.a:taJ(<J».
---:::2-~3 fw.,t-:'f>
0o.!t==';il'1r,"::::;::-·2:~'

viiSib~e, ~he i!ilitf~l p~:sitjo~~ 'of

3'1:"'"1----..,

..

m

l'

REPORTS ,A
Inl'ei:

I

Ifiig.

_1
,n

rn;[lut s]g~

Dro plE:t) illrri!of!ed at the filr~1 lcepsepa ratedi by wrying. illpenodmc!.iirmN1!' imleirvaill, \i'j(hkh~omn a ~ngnal amdi el1l1-e~ge r~~m t~!l: rii'~t Iloo'p "'m(od'ed~1'I a PreriQ~-2 fasta~Qr.,Th~y ~h~fl~r'1iV-erse '~he :se~1Jlildi lCl~;P, ~lIld the ti m~ ijillie!¥(ll:i fie-tweenl the d~CilPlet~ret!HIi! ~L'l the Qirlgiiiial. ~eC!ulelii(e, ne ~(I~~S 1111A) \V@,i1l po~~[~OI1 il'Id SI!u:h tili"t~,~ s;h;O~t!r iJr.1lf'lcih f 11 ( lneri r~t.ltQo!l \lla~ Or! i! odHhmmt side. ,of the cleih!'ke. Uliilln tile :"inofler i:nuCI:nchiinJllile">f(,emd loop. The IlooiP~ in (8) ~\lere po~ilion;@,d s.u~hClit.the snllll"ter brtm~'hes WEiI:@ 011 tlfi@ :~i'l!m@ slde olf the de¥ioE!'. The tJ."HI nmli'gur.ati(Dnls result q,lIil1l1t:a'tiv.ety l!i1l'~e: same ~ha\l'ior. {( and Ill) PI.ol$ $n!l)\~i!ilgl the i np1.lll <100 ell1l,ooded illnalQg sigrtab (C} <lind the ~IlpUi[ arldl d'e(m~ed '\jiglnal~ (D) o;~~i~~d' u~'ng ~he device in (11.), ~E

S.d'lematJ1~ diagr(llm~

I'll,. EIft(jodIiIllQI alnd dsondiilllgJ

,of the e~'om1errd\e,c~der del;i'ke~,

i!

si'gml

(A a IIIdl

IIJ'

i IF' .~~'-~--------~~----------~
....

[lll.pU~SlUn .~I

11

_~DI~~~~.

tflllll·~fIo11

~1lI1 'liS

{1E)i:ln:d '~n;PUlt .andi!I~o,ti!!d sign.a'ls (F') obt31in@,ti lU~in~ (f-e'~ci!il]J '~Bt IE.a(;h peak,abov@ b~i,.ax,i~ v;3lll!!@ Ill~ Q,2BOs rl!lpr@s!!lllls.1Ji 1" while !!ad v!tll[ey lilelow thi? 0.225 'S; lFel!)reSle'flts~ O. Th~ digital :5<lgl!llat::['O{l]01 liS. ~ tlltvall.e!iit t~,the dedmal ri.I.llir!i'l be r 37. Tlilii1 a_r~i.J'ii$ in (E)$how 1~'ii1 bits il'll~il~ illpl!lt ~~n'~1 tha~ do not a Prp;e~r e in~h~ @'1II1:0d@ld ii[lJ!il!lltH.!t f'@1'!:PiJ~l'iUQ tJili@ d@(odledl S'ign!i'!llilli (F). ~ \.'mb; ()f)~l~O~ldiD1g](Ihcmidpoinl (lflhc:L'CgiOl:~ t
dmr.~L>Clit,,'1ri:;x;iJ by 1~{;:limI!-2 kimv~o:r by :;uljl(ll:o;[in]l ~hc;lici.~1'l[oi'lhe reservoir (:If i!lk lIIC'tWt.'l!;1IB -'-I ~nm l!I~ing Ih(: micropoi'iitiio~'!C1:. Gmligi,ng lhcl:'icu.~l1l of lite il"ik ln thus n'l!l!~'u'tCiJ'~d lows for precise eonIm~ of.he p:m.::sstllX:ruppHed to tbe ink, Displacing I]~C re._~r\'oi,r tl,pw.altl~ by u.l mm Iic:luli1s ill H:tl i~lcre..se~nl IlUCSSUrcair a,n~y rOJJ02.piXlIlI,.(JSper sqmll'c i~ch 'fp-'siJ The drolpkls that foHn wJhik

and

f)

IPlot$sh{Jwing t~i!i~pl!t ~i1.delFic@dood~gital 'Si~nals

ao 2~ :ail ·lfliMMTmiriit'ber

3;5; .((11

To C'~l.:li!Ca \'a~m;:of 1.we dI:'Cf'(.'{ISC 1I!~ volw,l,lc ••ppliOO !o~hi,; \'.ilv~ I.tl' 1.0074V to dl:;cn;3sC the pn:~~iml.l.:H~}rli(;d l.o~h(; ink ..,110 nll~C:fI..·a'i(: tliic i nlltcl.,\'ilhbcIW~'Cil (hrJpkl.-"" To e.1'1pr(·:'l\1~ 0, We OOlf'l/cm"_.dy hicrease the VOlk"LgCappH.oo tlO' tlrlc

valve 10 ~,[176 V: ilP~g,uuc .J.E m~d F. Sll~)W$ the il,pm. eneeded, and decoded signals I'm tile' hi= IUlIY I1l1lnL'ClI' IOIJWl. which ,eo,u:r,esIJoOnds,lo> tirlc dcci 11m a I Immbc·r 37. Two hits, in the h1lmt 11' \"'~~,li:llc and lower d1'C' P;'''Slwoir or ink iJIJ'C SiW~OlI lire iJl'St and ~ns., I·:;. doso •. apJK' .... lal m,kroHlIidi.c ~Iclwor-ksl wllhoUl l!I:>ul,g valves 0, !5wi'tdw,"i, the encoded 5igmd in fig. 4 E.~~l 1t!J<'&two S-lil~arm!.'dh)' ']rc'riootc imc!'\,'<lL... of linl";: 'timl muge[rom g,:diH 3 1.0 [I,~(l s, We recorded the h'liS'~mccs, I wo COUl:&i!ClIl,ivcru.urk.'l.<; (ti1oc itll.iC:rva~s ~h~le Ihm ~1a._">S'CS ilel;W'C1:B w,llsC'!C~Jli ve ckoJ)lec:;. lU':',\\"'C'CB\"lh ic'h tOl'llued Ihe peak ofl ~'ac :iiTSJlll1ls ~ Il1lIe{er,liliflJ(!Ei.i3ml N(J!tei 31'4: :q'l,1l_~.'Il«l by :llIlmclocntly ~>ong perioo::J 01' ~imc mov.illg dmJ1.!gh .be ,wegTmlSmarked as "inrnu 1. fl, lllU~e. ft, F.ar,r, 0. It. lil'lk. til.. J, fiUEl~:rna:n. P. GiI,r.ted;il Pljy$, ~ E 5wl, N~ri~. srJjtol.'!l;rue.r Pl\i~ ",ig!lat'" "encoded :>!g!1.1l,'"' OlInd '·~k.~rliClcd~ig!l<I~," Ulii.l1liJ(I~h dropii.cn,;; choose !Iu:: s,~mc ~~.nhthwugh 'l!ll,. O%~ll (MIJtj.)\ h! fQg. 4A. Th~ ~:lrM lemp ';Jl~ld~,'i~h~ dml~~~i.~ by ~he IOO,P,u.~!I.'''l';pOC't1,;'dly. !-he ~.'''';lf[,;' ~l<ltl,ld m the 2. fl, Ga,r.ted:il ffl, .1, rm:F!5Im<I!1', G. m, 'lM1Iilni~e5" ,1lfrp. dr..Jm~li~"'Llly ~h;;mg~ng~hl; :\t,l(~l,ICntt;of illl.~~rv.,~I" :>ign,~1.. nJ,;"r Ilu: dJ'Op~b, Im:i:'i ~hmll,lgh [h~ ~1.,1I;."Qlld filtl{, Utt, ?~, 2J45~ {2(100l', loop, :JI,~lhtl!.llgh111(; )C';.!k_" {I.,pp:::~ mK~ ialiDiiml~ laK~r ~ nfl.iulllebclwti(:n (n~ICI:o; ,W:i!!:. 4('~\lh(; inlcm~ls ~. P,. GIl.rltf!d:I" M, I. rllt~~mfllG.. M,W,hiI1Hld'6. Nalfm ofl1rlC= encoded sigll~:l1dil}~r rR')m the ~lil.t:rH~I~of ~han iilm dtcilllJJWll ~:I~IKtI.lhi:; CNpcrilllil~lll, denont!'!'I.!5ro :lL 168 1200~i}" ~. I-!, ~ '~gJMl, ~ [l, .5<1rQ(i(j~, A. ~j!I;iri,,IIJoiw. ~; I\Md strnIO::Slh."J:1 deL(; systemcan lfilil~ fllll:~yd:~ D, IhciW1PWI~ r.1ig.nal by an ilVcnigC of .33.3"):'11, The: limP., J6, 3al(200.:l~. :YCCfiiiUJ loop dWH decodesjhc s:ilgJnal{Fig. 4D}, m:mui'\!ifll~y encoded signaal. 5. G'. !. T~iII!r. im l'/{(!r!"-!'ll'll Cam-rmlf;te~f fft!~ M«h~N;~ ~inlc {'i ({i. K"(:endy :il'tlldlcd ~'he IJollllCI."UY The .iJnc~>'a'lsof the decoded s.ignru d:in;;:r frol'll Ftlm~ ~Ed~~l:iolil ~~m~meml (Mte-r, ~~!tlm.. lW!" illl the ~hOSell1ill RlI1'1llhc inpu! $i~na~ by ~n <I'\'crn,ge or between rcYCii~ibmt)" and :iITC~Ujoillhy :ll%jj)l 6. O. ].. J1n~.J.P, GDl'u~> J. IF. Bfildy; A. M!. LeS~~l'!ik~. .2.3~4. 110w {If a \'i~oovs ~~]l>Clli~i(loJl GfcoUokbl rar~ fflMrfe' 4a(l. 9517 aGO!!). To encooe a di8i~JiI s~la~. we lise an eke .. ti.c:le:s. They siloW\.-..d tillal. it cril,iCdI mtll~bel"(Dr 7. 'If. MoSl:itlires. So !It OVii~e, b; ~ ftl¥J. 77, !Jon nmli iltcar 'oo~Ii:il.I,(iIll:!i.l}C'! wee~ the I)mlidcs :initia~cs ~lUn iC<llllly co:nlrolled yalivc (l3)!O adjusl, Ihe (200S}. ~)resS!.JI1c applkd to th(!rc:i,,~n oir orink.\lVc se~ the trnnsiticm w ~1l'C\'crs~bilily" We: LIScO the: il S. L. Mlila(, f'j, 8ontc~!t. It . II. S~IIre. l:pf1l Pt.l~ ~J!'lI; ~U, I J 31W {MCl3.), !he 'br,15IdJ f1C rOf tho ,ode by ,,;pp~yfng I.1115V combinalion of IIDnHm:oar C\i\C'I~I:s d'lC'~ll!clion 9. V.IOOfseilll !!:.1i'Ii. li!:l:Ilmil;1', IF. Ii!. ~tdl S. lit. Ql!~'~.f. f'tj)Yl, or path.,>:by 111.IIbbkl'OLmi t~~c:li!l~;U nature of [he 10 llie- \',d\'c (\"'h:k:h <l1},IJii!O-1i -3.18 p$i. Of~resSlUjC i!kv; .!.ert, 86-, 01163 ~Q!!I1I, I tQ ~.o!ht; :rt-i'l~rv(lir,pril1k} <t!ld 3.2{~lPl<li ol.·p.~~l'lun::~· v ~OJ:,ll~, ~lo;~\jof I~uid'l llmll!!!h nilN;~:och,nm,d~,
Ihe ~';~r'!IIoirof 1u;,....adt.l-(;~lIio;::_ 'fhe d~~]l!.l"il" tll~U! R~Leh Ilit::~iuN~.klolJ ~'1J):_tmk'tl by (11.2613 +- 'C)'oO$ :s,. QIb~1~i:11 oompkx bel1l,'Ivior while: pt~i!'ig uilc 1[(:\ !:Ifll:ijji~ ily tl!'.f lhe :-0)' :rt~I'I'iI. \\(c 1II~~tl. t~L<; n't~\!:t!;,~O'. 1l'. W\laI, M. IRam,. M!. ,!Iibk:ilfia~1 iii. A. 5t~h~. flff!1~"fe'j5 ~!'1.]116C,200:st n. 11. (.u'b:i~dl, (,·M. l1Ie.,Phy:t FlI.liD$]f1,~"iJ) ~200,!l).

~'nC!)1n .mel dccrypl Tlie~\:l.':rsubk:- d}rrl,,IIll1iCi\ 01' Ihe cm:::oderfdccodtT dcr;cribedlul'I Fig_ "I, dcumll1Slr.He nun mE[lInolk"ll PCJtlWIIb:lIiflll:. do 1],01. prevent thcnnOl1li.pu~mioIlcd dm.\1,eodc:d in, trains ()if dmpk~s>, The cm::oocl'/dceodcr is on. exam~llc of~ mk.ml1uidic device lhrul gcn.emu;,;s compl!c% col~u:O:1 lIiJij(:cto.nes (Df dfiOp.k:ts (e.g,. of clircc!ing drops iflw pI"C(letiJ1cd bl'3.llchc,'" of i.blb, nonli
Il(,.,".WSystC<!lltr)

iIllflfJllmtiotl1_

W"fM"

sdenoeemBg., org

SCW~I~IC~ VOL 3150 9 fiE 6R-UARY 2.007

I

REPORTS
] .. 11\. G.:uditLol PIlpc. iIt.ev., lift 317. ii!J4 $iJ\l. t:i!(tOillll, P. ~f:!,~~I:j, Hl A.. :~feIM, ~ r!.!L \Nb'il~id~ Fli,.~Rev, u!i!. 94, 164S0::ll ~2005J. lA" ~. (iarne(J;~ ffl.JI Fue~l!J1li1n~ ,A, ril\!'l1~. G. I'!\. Wtab;:~de;" fI, lAb 'CiJIp' fl. O? WlM}. 1:50. ~. Guillen, .It" Calill, ~~; it n, 0.66,]011. fhtid M~i\i', 'ltC', !I.6,r; !:l'1li1lD. 17, W. !Eng,l. 1!.lJ. ~00Il~. A.. COOIll,fl'. P,miuol. .11. Mjjlfi, ~, Iile..: ~,gt, '5IZ0a,:IoD~ '~2(1j)Sl 18., [I, ft. lin'l:, S" t, Amna, 11). A. Wt~lZ. H, A. 51Oiil •• PIIJl:, kw. (;1(105), 16., t. Ii'. IEr!!tI:iMM,}. 12, Ii.. i';t GOI!um-CaI\!!),

19. IP.G.ar!i'ed:~ hi. A. ~iii:l!,W~h, ~, M. WII~~de:5• .Ap¢. Hlyt,~flt. 36, l~.:!l,Il)a ~OO$L :20.. ~, it ~~" (U~, ,jI!~n,. j. M. Rlimlil)m., t flr.lfil M~h. :!l0!1. 279 (20641)" 21 "" WQ!1g., c, J. !!'qt;I~Iii. S. ffl!!!Iril. t: f~iJ: ~. Z9!Z. ~5 ('1I:9....S:I. 22~ IF~, 51 dtf.il~t~tl:i~ d~g~ ~f llr!~ mil!:roft~rdlc!!le'~!!<,
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:5~pp~iftin!l' CIiI'I~nE! Mat,eirrial,
~;iI:~eoo;:!Jli!g,CI!li~!ili!"!II!J1 •.enUirl,lllllll:!l~'514ror(1

Maltl'r~15 oodl Mlr!1Ji'I rxI~

m~~~~ ,~e ~iW;:.l~ m~~~~ en SdMIN" Onlifl;l!.

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,2:4. 11li~y,-oril:, !oN55lliPP"ted b)'lllt

U.s. OepiIfIlmlfll or

!~lt 1154503 f.l004')'. n.

W~ '-h~~~ I-!larwrdumer f'~r W<lm~il:<!LIl,s.y~tem~ 'k!~ Iill~

!Ene'9ii' u~der oi!\'!'oiI!'dI I.'IHG02 OOEIi:~5a.!i2, P.G,I~~~5 1m ~ I<oumd;Ui.(]D Jor f'l}'lim ~SLiM~t '~or rlm~md~J ~1l'J'.I'O~~

30 Au!JIJI~12.006,) 1l({tJ)tedi n Oecim'lC« MOO :Pu~I!i;5!ed Q!il'~~ 4 Toil IlUi!Q' 2,00':1; 10,11!2ij1')(if!m.lB451.4
1~'(~r:~i~l!lil!lffi'!~~oo Whr:ndt!~lhl~ p~r.

111aliQll.. becaase dmil'll.S a ~ogk o,l)Crnlioll a bil. is Ilcilhcr creaiedner dC'slnDYoo..
The Pn::ls~\lro·dri \'!;.\n
ill!.()rcn~mcelW
(]~W

or bubb~"',b~n

,Ill

We dem~'l'1liitralte I!ll1h,re~$ill cornp~t<ltij~:n in amiaIIH~Llidi,c tJl'llo~pi1ase mkr.DlilJuf:dk SY$le!'fllll. N~:mUJnei!lrity'is iIlr~~oa:ll!l()edil1J~o oth~mrijse lln!:!'i3Ir,r'eve rsiMe, lO1.'l'-iReynoLds iii umber nl'lW 'via an blllbtile-tn-bLJlbb~.e tlyd mdyra<llif1icintel"i3)(tncHil5,. A bublile tJraJ\i\ElliirJg iin <31 ,clt'liilfln~lreij)re~ell1ts ;!I bil.. p:r,Qvi,ciil'lgias ,iith Ih~ (apilibiitiill' to :'iimIllU<me(m~ly tlram,po:rt liIli!terials i3!f1d pelrilorm Ilogical ulnlro'l O'~r<lltions,. We demol'll>lrate bulJbre leg~{ ANDfORJ,fiIIOT Ql'lller;, a lUggllf! nill·nOp, <I rippl@ coantsr, fiiilil1ilfl~ r,estur!llllQIIl, .;!t nVlg os.dU1Iil(lr, <lllidi an 'el@dre=bllblille liIiIodl!I.alter. Thes.@ sho\1,! the ~lorliti'l1@'~rily, gill; 1'1. b~st€!bility, syfl(hriiJ'r'!]~tiQn, G!i~((!dillibillity•. ICioobacik. tl ~dl ,progr€!mmo:'!bility reqlllired for SCi!lilb~e 1II li'!lersal. m mputatiol1. Witll ~n(lrecJl~il1g (om pb:::xii[yi n IlalrgEl,sc<IEl mi{l[,oHlIid~( n l pmce)Sors, bulbb~e ~egk pr'O¥id,e!j an [l1'I-~hiill I!lJ'OIi:e5:5 c.o:ntrolliTiled<lilliisl'lil ~lnt@gr<lliIfl9 chem~!Stry and CQm,p l!tlltkm.

n1icl'I:-,fhllid~c~'!iCi!~I;I'(lrk c,~n be de~'TR1Cdwilh a,~im!}lmecldYllilmic 1]0,,,, ~S~laru::e ~mxld S~Il~ICoph"Ml now 1,1I!sl~mll:\c of a chalmc~ m ~M\' RcywJId~ mUlllX'f can bel all· ·~~ro.'!;.i.I1N111.OO .tlplQ 'I~ 'fJl-J~fl'w.\\'h>L;'~ iJ.fJlI.Q is

un,

C(

l.k~f'!H,"d ~t." lh~' ~'I)I(h:;Julie l~i~~u!~(:c pL.'T uilit 1l:iJ!.~th.~ is l:he: dy.I\:lLll'Iic ",ism':.s,ily •. aJld Ii :Jlliti ~i' :lItCU!eIldght and width Oir~he 11ll~croClilaumcJ. The

\\thc;re piicoiitCfS of rnllids can Il!C precis~y mmlll jJnalaK'd in micllO:l1COp'Jc ctID_Unels WI mrc~'rollLrolLcd rcac!ion ro!'ldiniO!!~. Il:l\ C re\'olwim]i~:tl~ ,;LU1,ulylk:'LI chcl'II~:jslry ,~.r:!I:i, bjo~ci~ ~1l(:(;'5., RJ.;·.i;:cmad \'wr~~ i11. i,;Imllm~l\;n:i(: Irl:I:U .;lIlUil!I'~)C' .
rJ1iC]:O\':ii~\'C;s In ,md tnrgl'-~'J~,Ci.lltit.;'gfffi~o.l~ (2~ t~tr.'oi'C OI111:bk,tJ,OOllilplex pmot'S:> ·ooli.Hnl lonl wide WIR!ly {J. ~J) of Ilppllk'1r.akl.rls in $ni1lgl~l!mscr.nieRJoo re..<tctors. .~looi,:'I'C''o''\.Y; pncumstie cllflS~o:in(~r:icmL'CiI.'o. valves I'l.'qillire cxrcmal maercscoplc Sio!c1i1oids ~.or1h:l:ir 0PCI:dI!im~. and cmX:OJ;dablli~)1and reed[r."Lckt where ~iiI.:sign<ll <'lel.Sru! ~;t~11) ,1!:roClJnrenl~Iy

M

icoo:[i]uiduc "lah-on-a-ch il)" dcvlees.

ror microfJllidic p.roo.."'S.">()rs. .PI. Il~_d)hlc u:Jvc~illg .in a mtcu'(loChamlC'1 can '"cpl'fC'SCm .[1, bh on IIrQmll!!t[UDl ,O]!S we] ~.IS c1!!fI'Y dlemiclllpa),[ood, a n'iakitlg it p(l.;~iMc to i~~I_C.ilJ'JW' chi."'1nisLry "lith ooonpu n_lIio~l ror pmeess ,C(lI]U-,{lLBtlbblt: logiC' I)I:C·
o

lac ~il1g in nmlc rol~ tlidiic COnl:liO~ 3 n::h ii•.cClllt'CS. Severnl rcm:lioll cllenralsu'les ha¥c l~111 il'l1l~ rlC:milC:I~lcdi11 segm£"illtl::d-.nQw IW'lriplmsc mku.'{)-rc<lClors. 'W here Jmli vldmll mmo ~flcr dooP;I,c:c:;. U'<lVC:\,hlgin....cic micl10challnels ;lrc ll!sed .~ 1'I:<1!t:~ i .~ cm!t<r,i~!\.l~ ,~J.,i), .I)[r.~Ic.r;;'1.lOl~h(l!\.'! Km ( ~~ 'In-U

u~Dfon1ll;nitm .uel)I'l'.."IIC11!!hElOn .fntllLn in PlI[ to OUIP~lil; Elnto, dovices .('<'1]] be cm~::u(~l;'(I,.!lUow,· ul1g impk-mcunmioll of (C(ni1lbirl:illil.ori,a!1 S("{lltC.n· aa:id tlfll13oo1,CIlll logic, A 1J~1.bblcean be ~rulkirloolllOO toa d~$~rcd .I~oca/liml in !l eomples mi,clofllbidic network v,io a ~,e.. s ofl'o,gic g_.1tC5 correspoOnding to an 0Clui'lmllentBoolcml ckcuit logic g<11G h<l'~c beC~l 11l1:1~k11l'CmcdchCJnical~y ~u, d't{;jl1lj~f11 COilico.llrmliou Wffi'CS ~n Il.
Sl,.'iI'\lc.\l~hG

rmrrily dne 10 vi!iCtll,JS diMi,j~uiml .un ~1:bI;Elilin fihn nni(gl).lid slItimmadillg 1iI1C hllhD~(:_ W~lhEhc pn.""'eeec 0 f sur-I'acmm m.okc~II\e."o:nWlc ak.wmer intertace, '\iii SCOli~ di&~ip'iilttiQinin IhcluhriC-Illi:on IIUIII ~lJrrthc:u inereascs as a I)C5U~l of lihe no-slip OOlU Ild, ru-y condltimas ill lillc il1[erfrvce. In lhis C~, ~lC I'JIlC's,>~re mp across 3. innitC-~CIl£lh btlbbll:: :iSiilIlro a

clr'OlJdue to 9 lang lllUbb~e fl:owing in I. ,~,,'hc;c dele bubble rndim; in an m~" ooum:led nuidi~grcJilCl' dl<lln lite channel widlh :md.he cmni.nuD'lIs phll."lC' ,oompJiI:!le~y ~"'Ch1, ihe ch:l.lUl.e~ ~'urJ,:!OC'.~rlOl1lillt.'ar and .j"" l~mpor!iol1 .. 1 i 10 tJp D: (l"h'~1(3Gj'f;!~. here Cd is~he cap.iI1l3l)· w I~tllnber(Gl • ~ud(l").!i :is the fl:o\\1 \ docily (1f~hc OOllilillltoUl' phase, and cr IsI.he su.rlb.cc tCIllStol11 ioc:l\\o\I.l"C'Jl liiquid aad gm. phase (2], 1.Jl. For small ~k>wrll!!:;'::'il, increased ~b\\' :!:J!._,,",~ll!1a nee is 3]r.~· this
Ch1trllld

~tJre

B,clmlsov-2 ha!hotim,iky
DNA

hydrod)'l];[l!lnic f]'Llklk lo,gk Uof, \'I.'ast!~cd ~o lluU,I.Ol tl"~C'C!I.tlry commllcu:. an ,d~411l!id:i,c: dT~]!iJI"y. nOfJlrcl'i'bI;\IClh'e Hl.CIlU::WY, and a" :<.inl.]]ic cOO!mp~I,~' ij I S~.i~C>C"_111i.W hjg,h HeY'll· the QM~ Inm1i:ren; 1\i1;IWlilt'd for iu~~ru.i,d intl.,,'TnC1:i['}n~ "IQC'nN~!'it,~!ic(ii) f(:h"~ltCl> 11<.1.\'(:'1.]I(;"ill Il:I.Upo[ii~;d. IOf nn~h ir 'l.k{lp·I~;t m,llmgCIll1~!ll~ bl.nth~J;iL;~ n:1qu:!r:,~ C,IIlIW'~ he al1<.Iim,ui:lfll::.d .UUI.h,; mi~lu...c;(lpil.c ~(Iun· ~xtt.-:rw~11 (i'Umrlli~ of indi vititrnll g;;u.4.:.'&, .De~'i(\~';S thftiE. dric:-; n(i,.;d~xI fl.J.J: higher opl;n1!ting :;.pt..'Cd-i ami c-x[lloul. I.h~ dYlJlar:nic::;, ofdropl.cl:; inside mit.m .., in~fI.';}:sia\giIltcgl;fll.i:Oll,. nll id~ wid'! non·NClVl>L?l]lfln <:h&lm:l$ ,'O'\')u.k1 m'llk.c lligh.thoollighpUlI. screcn~a'l,g ilo1ymcr m:&li'~i... e:; hllM ~n used 1.0 re~liZC' D, .1LtldCO:lltbiilmori~11 :>I.i1idics pos.,>lbJe (9}, i:flU 1)3~~ COI~k'lnn '!low :>ouroe <li:ld <I b.i~~;;)blcg.1it.c t h'l, 17,. !;i~~~ tlj_lcimiqLi~~" H) iJ!l\'~ ~lOirnw~J..;dc(m~ Book:9n!ogie in Ill, :;.inglb.plllJ5":: Newton im~.!1I1l1:id {JO, wr~ :in'I.Pk:r:lll!.:·m(~ y c~13n~~ kl [kl,w~';ij.i:"klll('C b tIDI o",.;riltd~vidillill drop~eb. ,Ve lleiiilOl'll.'>il'3K: bubbJ~ !og;k: ~'l[ljl iini).!:c" (J~), billi bCCfLi:lSC its ilnp!lIIl and OILU.pHi.rcpU'C,'~CIllill. tioUJ \!I,'CI'C' nQi,~he sm~e, i~l~C: devices. c-Guldlml ~m:nlt~ tmivcml BOO:lC.lIll lo~k: in p~~)'$ic-al,nu1.d dynamoc:iL 1l1i.o; l)J;'oddes a door"~el-I~vd, inl.1.~'- !:Dc cascaded, :Bubblc: logic. !:Da~d on hydroIl,jjl iniac~ntlji di:gjl,;tI l1~w coni ro~lnt::dmfli!lm dYDl1utlk buh'blc-to-bLlbbhc :i,ntcfactOCHJs,. :is tHaI'C simila!" ;in hil, I"'l)~e~lIaliJon kllhoo.l'C'!kOl~ bill i.u:d

(I.n. ~ILlrcly

rcac't:i.on,

(I])

~nd ill

,~n

lrCilOtDes ~,C'dlk;a~ v.~ILle.b;;;y{)ud which il.isom'l!stam {1'/}., \Mten ahuhble IH:m'.elinlg in a :nnicro,hmmc~ alT~v,cs at a bifLr~<lIioll w I:tlllh:nv cap:U,lmr uUlllbcr (where d1'CbL!blllc docs not ,~p,llitbcca\~:ilC' S\ll'fucc ICI1Sk'O.n dmlli!'l<l~r::"s~hc:viscmls Sll'CSS~, it chClm'l.'l\. !he bmnr;:h wilh hi,~'l'Cl't il1'''~'IIl~m'{~~llii

IiflCar~y dependcm

on~hc bllb~k knStll um il ~l

fkl'\,>'

(J 3.,

1'6).

Wi~JI .il.]lin-cn .... 1~d Il<:t\,..:11~';lii~I,II]t1~, 10 .he . d~l~ pf:(';l;(~I'OC Or;l hub:blc inl a Iliilicrritdhmmd. 1l\:'lw

line:; in :srwnoUl1dll'lg in'l~1U11l1l!)('tlxl climmcl::;, Cfill. 'be pCil.1,iurlJed, The n.on:lhtcaritj! in such fl systcirl
of i:i'OOi:fa,da~ :Ii'of(c dul' 10 Ih~ pt;.."iOJ'lCC o~' !rue S'lufare iii ihe nLI[cl~niiCTJ1ICC.., f~ ,27). Thc:se n.onlil~Clu· jimc..Gepclldcntinicffi'Ci~mil11c'i~ill1n~hc boLlll~my cmlJitio.nb

iTrr.i~s Innlll£'ilmrodlj.d.ioa

(entH for S'i~ and Alilms, Ma~mmrrts

~iIl!OW, ~rnbi~ge, ~ 0:2139', USA. ·Yo w!lon1l oo~~e~pPd'en~e1!IiIouldi be add~eSlie'd. ,E"n1Iait
m~m wp@tlnkL,i!!lIiIJ

In5li[!JI:i!' m Tm:lh·

bal~ lowe

a9)tim._'l~

r.ulid~~,nidi 1,U. ,vu<l~l1(:ti(: buhhlt !ll~mo:[)' (!(}} ,
~,~I}'~Ji!'l~'j.rii'liU;a:~linn~

ondio ,da~'ic cpUision uf

or Iw,lgDllL'1'I:itdmi.11~in~

~n

lions m'C lite ltalsis of out' bubhk- ~og k ,gillC';. ~n Ihe imp!cnl.Cnlalion ci'e:scribed.I'tCre. we LJSOO \\'a~r 3;<; Ihe ~iq!Ji.d IliiIcdilUl1I IwililOldded :SlJr~1clan~ 2% ,(wA,\,) Tw~elll 20 10 :slo\bili~~hc illi!crl:ao::s! ,ouilld n~Iu.'t'J;gcn b!.~bhl~ f~,all"-vbuhb!c Ill.gic dcvil;;es weI"( r..hric,tlc<cl in Ilmiy{dimotil}'] si~OX'I!ld (pnvm) hy siligl(l.~'lj',~r )loll iiUlOgmpl:IY aUld
pliilmlrul'io11ding

g;intd

li~I1:r&. TlL>i.:;SIj_~

St];h::!'lic~ :rI.U l~C!IL'itrve0 Ii (or·

to Pyrcx :;L!i~Il1"LI.\_';S.,.

832

REPORTS
Fig\~n,::I l lOp p;)\li"; f.I.'C ,~:5{1 mOY(~' S I) $h;:m~.~ ;:m AND,OR mibt~~ 'logic ~tc ~'!iJ~ C\'TI~~;;t!C'~ l)l,_~ AN!!) (.) ~91 OR (+) ~!m~h<l~~"'''OI,Is;~J.is !1~~""~ ;I:'
ro ~n.,""fy lb~~ ~lQua:;;~~"iionA ...shown ill uhIJ~lll",T COIWttJl, ~E i'ir:.1: bubbl~ IlrriV.~lg at t&~ iilK'iio:~1
Fan"([!l~l fOllllt (llr~f\\!~ :lij.grn!~I'ronll OIlC ,gill!: W

Q,-:llltij"Q:I,

net ~~ "I] inptlt ~ign"~. f9r mU!lipl';g;l~t'$
i!llPk~'~!~t'l>-d 'b~r sp!iu~ Ilg bl;.lbb~1,:";;;, n ~~
(2)"), fl:."A;!I~llhjjll~Ir('l'itm11~i~11 nf

een !be T j~!]~!.i~11
:;;41_

m'lnl~COi!lYHU-I1W

llIa~h~hM~

I;:PIl~ol orlh~ dif!.;"!i;tiQll Qfn,~1iI' j!hC()11~ll~l 'lbl,lhbi:~ arrlvijn,\l <BIt .:111; bif~u~alio:n (lmtuom row,

channel, ~!ucc,ed! :l4Q~ 1110'\ can be dyon and oll',lilcll.>t))' (J!l~bl~"g

I

or

I\+B (I.he wider ,d!iU1Ll~. W~t]l ]~~ n..".. i!'i!~llbCC~, im';l:1;';;IS;I~!he (M.utl'lll,t ~:1C'i"'1' n.~~t.m~ A-l B ~nid ,1i:~L!ldilU:til'ig~1 ~bbk: ;miviri~ ~'I~r~, A"B. "Ili.c lHit\':' I.. ICC pliJlldd lilt all .I'hlir ol'i:.tl:Jll.'C]l-; l>:ho;,v:> 'tliat the: two IJtl.1)hl!.:;S, iiill~.'act oJll.~~r du::y :lim ...c Wilhiiil " \lI'iindOWf(! llm Ill!.;; y."iIC ~, - '0.:5 ms at liIo'\\! m!e Q - 1l2S ~~/SI dCk'ii'm~.liJ1oob)1 Ithe i!::sidelu thne Or~K: bubbk: ~nt~'acgil!1.~ gOOnt(![I)'.
cni!J:115

<J!lwa~

or

.F~gll:~ l '~OOlronll row, ;lIt:1;, ~I~:;O nltwi~ S2) d('[n· Gn._"'lrn~ci'i 1I1'!~\',~~.~A,"B a ga'~.which: i~lp.l£n~cnt!!, .. NOT lInd AND willi ~;~in Ih<li~ :,;n1,~I~¢r tiQ a b1l,llbbk tm'i M\'.i'(l',h a~,~rgc,OIlUC_Tll$'C' an:1; '~\..'O eOl~ritlT..:LCt~n'il~, 3i>)'I'i'i!nTi.c1ric.-.;: iiri. inpt~1 ch:ml1n'i~1 WicJl IJI~ i1:;.yi~~ilmel"Dt.,; T jll~e!iQi1 (OOt[iOll.' ,'.~ndl 3.

s~ann (I r iiUet.-:JlOO !~ow !wunllhe ,oomroi chmll,..c:~ {tor) jnlo the wider or the two binJloc<u:i:oru::. B.)' illlooaw:: iHl:!: a Ihubb~c into thc
IUIf1'Uw

Ihe cormul dmrll1c~ <~Q~ wi!!;l!l a LUl!hhlc pa8~CS !hn.{lu,gh. Ii:;: .ugOll~illU~b':~1(lb!tlCd !D lh~ i<li?~ of Ihe l"_lhhl~_ pN:lvudiuig ~;'lUUIal<lp,hu~ ill fig. l ,toom."i:ui'i tm~, :ri!!!Jn ColUl'irilll)ag~Li~S\ the c1~nfjR::lt· ~ionk'S... bubble si:l~ (bllbbllc :1r:~~U~Jel\l!l.ljih~l, widlhl_ Se,g.mcnte{M;ll~'l"ea(w:l.'S ()Jt~111 eperaie at Id l~ohC'l,lIz ~roqw~llcics.whefC' dte'l~mili~l~ faclot."

center ro lumn ~~ The

Ch:Ill1!l-(~ il~(~k-cl orl

flow

fit)'Ul

't.!'I
C

iii

Ii!!

5
a::

L-,.., ....... ----.,

~ ........ ~"""!

w
~

II:: l!U
:;:!:

>

l~me

1.01 1.5 ~02.S E3ubli;l'le. lellllgJ~ItI'(::hann:el

wid~h

wi~h gl'!~ In.ilit can be used tQ s,mtdl ~ ~af!le'r bu'bbre, bV .1!; SrI'I'i! Illl r ona, IfIJ;rtil;(? n IFiig. 1". Un~wrs.\!ll micr'ofll!llidk bu'bb'~e ,~og[ic.. imh~top r'OIlNsliwws .~ t\\le,;inpll~ ANID·OR gate. The (hanFlell1eoigJlilti~ 70 J,llllli; s;~ale b8ir, ]00 ~Lm • Will <I. \\!<I~~r blJlbbles shm\!ll.~hl' rati®, of tl1E!~;ii!_~ theinput to '~hE!(ooltJ'ol li5 lL2" and th~ or ~l(l!.'ii ra,~e-o~ 0.2:5, J-llIs ,UI~ iliiitrog~iiI tbllb"~es ~vitn011 pr~S'Slilre of 1Q!.5 p:s~,he t gJr:ap!iJ si1(1I;\ISthe [neD IiiItin~~r df'pen(lem:.e of tlteilillet now 011 the mliluol blJlbbie S~i'lel' two ratios v,r the cOl1lro[ tjJ~hEl' iflllEl't now rate" fo,r '~<I,teproptllgaHml dle~ilIYh ~ ms, The bll!lw~ W\'M d~pk~ a IIIni'l!le,r501l ~ Ii·B g"te

Fig. 2. IUs<U!I),lll]l,y."A~i) F) TO!fI;g[~ng1off a Hip,fklp 11U!'I!IiI~ o ny; \lfith ill \lIi!1l>e'1 ne\ll rart:e 'Clf 0'.2:5 jiilJ':s. tht~Wik:hillg lillileis 8 rns, 'The ,miiulIlliell. ~,~ifJht 1$ 1'0 pm;s(ale bo1lr~
1100 1JL1lII.(G) Chaln~~ 11m ~reE :~urri:lce eflie'll£!Y01)rm th.e
U),gl'!:JI~

(s.oUdl

~~I1I~)al!iHi

:~l;Qr,~(j{dal~hedl ll Ii'l@) bub<b~~ dnnimlg Sl\'i'il'(liIingl. (EO
<Ii

FI~,p"I1lQPS(e!:s(ad ~d rorQliim ripple' Il:omllter.

o
IHI

,',

,2

IiIme(,ms)ec),

.'lI,

4

s

a

'f

0

,

w"'fM"sdenoeemBg.,org

SCW~t~tC~ VOL 3150 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

I

REPORTS
~;h, h i,gh.-~hro~~lfll1l s.OI\.~ning ~:ii,I~e I;m~ inthm~J i:(l!n ~;';;IC!',n~,ti()(nrfOlnindividlJ!;I! '~ioplC!"" \V1;,l IJr~$qH .. 'bj~.\4Ibl~ m~'(:I1<II~~'l'!n (fig. 2 .. ~td
!!.lO, ..ir;

or

n:koa.'OC'

SJ) ~.JI:I;,Ihk of olll-dC'l1l:J1ncl~.Jp;pil]!& :m:d ofindi ,'itlu(!l~ h~lt)1ble..", innr1cl1li1~llt~\d. ~:-;1U
[\

~A~· Il~~!,;'n~l~ ~DU;;o~lliml!l:Pl.lbb~~ \\'i~h l",m d~fP!ic~.! ITr! ~olx"" wh~n,; ~1C' si!IIl'iiu;:'!,:' ~n~IlFY of,h~~bl,lbbk: isat
(fig" a iltilfn~ m~nH, ;J:; s~nO\ul,in 'nil~p~:~ of 0r1~tgy \ rc ~in1C {Fig. 2(; .uw (I:g.S I A ~ The (~VOCC holds a

energy by OK!('Ip:ling a sh~e wilh~hc ,,'1..!11ITN ,;~rc.1I. TIw niR'l41Q)~ ~me~f}'

mK1~~t

n~p~l1opm~~110l)',
Fiig.

luibMc miniuml

'll"'~'"

l-C'1

ilL:i.

81i!1r:ra OC

3. IPrlOgJ~Jl1m:ablt ,(Wf~th

bu'hble 9iC'fteraror. A pialiJil!lJID nm(lQ~oor'

single blilbMc .ill,dc:~flni1:Ciyuntil ,h i~w.ggloo hy w~n:[!!l~rht1t)~)k <lrriving ,Ll till: i!1lct, d~"'dg~"g mh~~~oTI,~b1Il~:~!J~ y !~ow '!IU'Cil;li~h ,he ,d~"~~I1~l, b oomH,idil!:.\llh~~ lolb..:.'li_ A.hho11g1l Ih~ im,"Om~~g bt:i:h~lb I~ muCir! longer rlltul 'ih¢ R~~,)/ld~tPI;'l!~n! criit(:ria 1'rwb:~C<Hk~IP (1.5). ~he p~'OI~reor .. b\lh~J~ U~~~iJl~nop1;;!l,,"'~In;!l': ~Ill<l~ in~omi~g i~ n the l"'I:J;,h:J~ travels 10 ;II :-liugtc J{l~ ,.viohmll breakup !1'tHfic bil.i.itatr l'fm dingmnn ~~.pI01k1t1~ni fig. SIB ~llfid, 11J~li\epe~n:abili'~)! lire 'liii~eIt~e :b~~Ig.S I.e i, \.Vc i:I'

50 ~11iTil, fuidmess 200'll'Un), R:::;; 95 oorm:) rD~lm!letll:l:y a 2."J.Hi'!J )i~k~ ,dic!!)I]de di~eclrl~ ba mllll" is ~FI1Ibedded bei[®'kv ,i1Ii partar

mi1~h:;tni:;l~ 1.0 iinpl:Cnn~nt .a Ili,rn.g,. S2.,. 'wiith~ s,\\'ildlinc ti,lb'lic rum order or 111ll1:gf~jtlldC'less than Ihn [lOr OQln'p'-lmblc ~m1.cm$oOl)ic c~emclll_'" :<Udl <IS solenoid \'<llves (n a~\,,'C~1 as a ,c<l!~,!(led ripr1c OO!l.!l1ter
hfi\lC USOO 'til~5

st;;l~Je i1~1

Sl!!.';ill(:hl

water nIDw fa~' OAB~Vs;.
1fI~tn;J'9'm'pr'5l!r,e;

HO'II'ii~rOCllsill!!J1 ,g@(lm~ (channel heig~t 70 ~m,

n'ig.2U).
TQ pr,ovid,c; ,;;t!l1 ,d(;"C,ltronk: in~~rfn'O\C to bU!~'hk: Itl'~ic (~vir."t.~. we d~\,(l-to,p''d,~ lhL,':u1'llI:dd~'Cuo llU1.JbJcmochJbtor (.Fi~, 30!!nd movie S4~ capable orgc!1em~ivlg b~lbb~ on d~I'~lillld ~yndlrl()n~?tld !rI< an c.l't;c.n(;' I1ll~~·. MClhnd'l Ib:r hi~~· f['CqI!ll~Il(;Y
MIU.~ItUf:!,1.IS

5 p:si~, 5<aw too r, lOOlllm. (A til o() A 2:1"'11de pul~is aJ)ptioo loltie' Ihl'a.tew %:n 1.00 fIllS;, f@!iU~]~l1lgl mtlie ,~rowth (If oil Imei'li$(li~, A~rO'.'II.s ~ooroCf!re .:Ii rection !C!!ffkj.\!.f. ~D)oA ga~~~m:en~
l!iu~liImr,a'tei thil: \lIMer,. '~E) Thlillli~mi?,nt Ibroo'k~intoa ~sifltj(~f~il' 'viQi 'Il@;; flO(liJ:;ifig(2'8)o,ki~low~d by (F) th~ ili'!l~fra(~IreMild~gl. d

produt"~iol] of .~m:lH{mi~pCrlie :!lllic:rn-

DtlhD'IL"Sand dropl.c'!l>in nlicit'lfililliciuc dc~iccs h~u!c been cxlJi;llsh,dy studied {1f:-29}. iEh."'Cllfi!:l~liCr.iiIklll o:n-dcnm.nd sh~k OCIU{!OLlS dmp'k~~ lJl}I I'Cqui ~s high Oll-chi,p C~OC~.1C fi:C'II~ m~ the omC't:" or -I kV. OUI:thCf.ill1!illlelectro bllbbl~ gC'~lC'rnlor. uses an ~mcgr.:u.cd InicrdilC'tllCr <II] d rnmlilicd

or

~kH ~fflcllsing g~'Omc:lJ;y(Fig. 3')' Clt'Q,]ihlingp... o em,jon ,II a m!tth !fI\VCT vnltJ:w: 0(11 V), For 'htJ Ci!!SC ofpvl;.'s:ml:e-<idvcal flnw (Fig. 3l'l,~.I'here lS a :stmic balaacc at the aiir~\':lICr .i~ncJ;'lhce1M' + ii'" C,u-~k U91, where ilP isjhe d~nbrcm:c in pliJ;."8SI!II~. "!'~.is t~!~\~U~oo~t;: SIIt's:oo. ,md k rcp:l'C3I.'~!'S;
Ihe meen CtnlfVO,Ilmt;:_ i\.!l .('Lpp~ii'L;"d Wn13)Crmurc jJul..c red LK'i:;S; the KUrl}[[;C Icn~i,oll r!J :n Ihe aj r\"';:litcr intctdanc, !ln~owifigfU .~n:.; m!lIli'iCil! 00' pelt(.tr.uc the li'lllil[d(fig. 3D), wll k:h breaks [0 rom 11 :s:i,I1,glc j)~~blc t Pig. IE I. A s'l8mktl:'dtrst of C~li:1Ca(h:~bm and rl'loooock I,'

ill, a new togic ram ily is steady"-S.1a1copcm~i()n 01" ring oodHmor. \lVe imr~enlcm~tecl ~liswi~l tiu'ce idcntk:f11 1\W[) ~lI{;s eoanecrcd vill l~lrccdday lincs. in a I'ialg Slrr'lIlCI~llllC (1:"ig. 41\ and movie SSl \'Viih CtlHSl3l1t- freq~lelllC:Y T-jtll1.Ctio:n bll'bb~c~l::llICl"II!01'S at the i:npt!~, A bubble pil\(lo~min.g ~rou!lC:l the ~jng Clc~<lY~inC' (Fig. 41\. a.now) un"" cn:,~~s tlte !\!{'ii:5!Ol1ijlCC .of d1'Cm~,~g,~g !C'h~~~mt:d \'ihl.'ll i. ,m.1vl,;~.~.tlhC' iup~n. n( one of tho t~~rcc
ill

r= UP(&v

Q(pl:ltm in)l
Fiig. 4. FeedbillcK,

..
(A) lnree AND gC!res coli1r1e(t)i!'d .as CI ring

(,a~cadltlMt1;ly,. al1ldi SlImhro!lirz.atiol1l.

'o5dUat.gr,~'i'1~1h (Dnstillnt'-ht!''itum~y bulbMe glern.e[atms <It '~'he'inputs. A bullb~e aniivi'ng al t~'li1il'lput 'd'~lay ~irl~r!;lleolls.es OIle .ll:t the Q~tpYlt det~ llli1!e'T S;,::!~ 001[',. 100 um, OJ:) 1[)'epe!lldi~lIIae of th~ '05t~;UaliQnflr'elI:I!liem:YDI1tlleilow r.ale ,Q.({) A UUlidk lladder nelM,rkfor til1li'ng restcmlitio!ll.Witha fLMY ralt!.' of 0,,5 ~IY:!>, iii re~to~iill.;\on a),f-]0 nu ;i~ adliieve,~ a)l!Ierill :Spililri of-40 Ims. S{dl@ bar, lOO ,JcIM.

(I~: L.. d:C·V~(;Ccalfn t'K; wriucn us 11m ~ \l'dH•.\\;hcrej'is I:bc o."ciniil~o;r Ir.. ...... "lucne)" I 1::. tile ~,eilQ,glh orthc dc.lay line, l' iis Ihc IHeilll velocity ef !:Iu; lrulbb:l:e I,rnvclliflg hn ihe d..:l3.y liinc, [Ined Tdl is t~l.c ~Jropil!j,mion dday of the ..'\ND g!l:tc. TIl rl.~ freqllCltcy can be liimoo, h~· ill.crcasi~g thc~loi!i,~' le ol"tltc'conliinu(I!lJs, phase nn 'W:!g., 413). The opern[img or blllbh~e logic 11I;.''Q'Llircs Ihe re:llnivc anl\',d Oii'hubhlC'S ."'~a g.'l!c 1:0. ~ wi~hin :! 1r.m5ill im~; sC'<I.laililiry p;qui.!l.~ ~it,,~Of~ti(lH !tl~live~i unill!;l C'!T{lI'S. We ~(c'hk",'(;"d 'Jh.i5 "'~~!.. phll1!1f I1LIIOic ~i,slanc!: 11lI.dclcr 1~1work_n~!l
b~ioll
fi:cqli..:.ncy

AND ~lt'''... g1.~IQ:!·~~i~,g rm.,;"\\l\JLI!\_~ rllllK~ ,I]",. ,~ bUl]dll_~" ~mDlhcr bubble .UIlI~·\_;.;pQn:.C',.llK' o~ili-

or

goo:l'J:ltlry (Pi~

4[" ~tr'idnti,ovi!: S(~, rl.aoc';S. illl,,;!'-

834

REPORTS
cermccting
fhild channels

{oonlimm~~pll<1~

l:ltirlh('1' Il'(\du(l!onj~~ .~iA!' i,:;: ~ibl'<:- !,:~ri~h fiu'l\Cf i }Ow.Vtchill!g lil1:l~. rih(~tk:\'[c~ l1~h ..ni<;ll:1!il ,do 11O~ d~'U]cml (lin uen-Newtcnan nllli,1 Ilropcl1l.ic,.;; il~~Ili;C. m,uH:h~ng dimcn,,,,ionlcss nnw p,~mm(lt(ln;: w~~1allm;vm..bb~(l Ingie Cir(:lUi~s to be d!"'!ii!~I~OO ~sil1g d~I)'C'n:ml Ou id;;.,~u:cl:li a~ WMJ.;'f dllJpJ(;lI$ in uil 0.1" oil droplcl$ Unl mcr~ w n,c 1IJ11~vcnml logic !:V'ltCS" IJoggle Hirl-Ilop .• r.il)p'I~ (x'!m~l-er. SYIlChrolili.zc •• riilDg o~cin,m:tiQ-l", and elecao bubb,k;: rnml'lilmor Irl:'l!Seil~OO here ,e..-.;hibi~. ~lm'lli Il~rily. biii>mbiHly. !>lin. syncil'l'Olblzal.ion., C<l::1c1!:ding. fuedback. 11m] pro£rnn]L~mbiliuy, I ~~:IVil~g ~hD\.~'I~ lli.--quifl.'Icl r~n;J'!!C'I'I~l'S01" ,1 SC'<lI"b~,e the logic .~;un~!y,~I~' (;,I!l 00' lI,,-cd ~. (:t\C'awrom~~k... .mll icro Iltii,dk circu its capable 0 r per rOf.ll11i ng.
:rn'I.'billm.)'

nO~'\l["l;~sj~Wia"!(;e rl!J.l;l"\'\.~n l\\'O dIT~1-C~l)'in,g, ~hm]I,~~!:'< '~~~;mDir~~L~~t>~'pl~s~Q\\f I~git'Oi;;Bnll;;e p,', n v~lopnllC;:IH of \'~:}'.brg~"~\'I!I~ !l~il;:rnll!!l!~~~' Il,,'lIC' \'\IU~l,. > Ro}. A ~in!'):khtlhbk m~\ f$in~ [h~ hL~d\;;r ~ ~m-s ~hr ~L~ in ~11\-'lBS itH,;htdi a!!]!,crmliIJimttorimJ is sk~\vc(1 dcn",'n by I1m'o' li:1.'lrollgh Ill..: a.lt,"~nl:IL~ dl~ll~~l>;_ry arK! dtlillg dil~cov..:ry" These bu.bM~ [!~l'th. Vl,rhciIl brnl'h b~hbl~ are ~lre!'l~nlsimlilila~ ~ogj.cproccssers, \vh(;'re a bi~ inlb!il11!a~~in can ~If.;-Oi!ll:;;:~}"'t~~.f(;is,,I!l~l nL1<W [m~llh(; d1-:<lll~d with •.:I.!'iO C'any .. 'L;':ho:!1iJIc-:.J:l:r<,>']:rn,,~ 1l11!lrgoe dK'ni~,!:!)r \vi ah ~':{](Il1JJru~u~ian. Dh~k'ldi'n~ bul1bk: I!I Ihe (lJ!!~'!I\I ~th I:~ich~~ing bi!llb'bl e•.cf,~~tirig, ,are~ul~cvdoci.i Iy g~~ditIU il v lim RJ!'riii!rll'~u:e~ .uu;i: IN@te~ l]:iC l:i~b'bk';S~:re SjiljChl'tluiztd (~~~. S3}, :lL M. & l,fmg~f. !i,..f: 'Cho!J,l Dlo:i'liI!iil, 1\ Si!'n~r, .BOCJi.i~ l:il.ibhlc loy;ii: chiil'.5 imvI! jt()I~\L)-v ii'i,g s, ft tOiII~ke, SritMf aa'B, 113 ~200:OJ. 2" T" lliiU~i'I. S, ], ~~ftd, S" Q~'k~. Siiffjr;g ~\lliit SSI[) p'.BL11S:, 't!~ey ean be riillbrka~d ;in !I wide- varicI)I {2002); IPlibrn~hi1d1OIiII~nl! 26~ptOO1~!tI .~o.2 ~nm!!ria~s. inol!JJdin~ ~ilkml ami .~lils:l".lhal 1li1lC' (1!J',1112~:5!:ien(~.iO\!6~~6)" c-on~p~Dn'l~!i! WiDh 1I!."'<lCIi:O:n c'hcmislI:iC's ~Il.."lli~!lib~,c 3, C C ~e!1 01~ Sdeffl:J~no,. 11'11'3~05.). g[ ( for PDMSdl'lb1ncls. MO:l:c(llv~r. because Ihey o~ 4. IF. K~ B~~~aDll~. L YQtI, C. IL liLa m5!em, ,F. ~ A:rnOl.<l,. :5. It tQljJ',[~t,Sriillct 3J019,H7 ~2:00S:~. C'!'l'I:~e<!i~ 100v Reyno!ds and c,",~~i~ l1uunbcrn, hla)!

size, eost, <1m.!OOIWp~.",~t)l Qf current micro!lQII!t~ic sy~'1mr!!j,. ~hf.'f!iby '~JHll~~ Ihe de" i!l);!
Ihe

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or

or

le. J. Ves~ildI, ~, W, 1'i.b!I. T, ~UIlIilka~iJ, ,Appl. {!!Jty~ iflll; a:4. SOJ4{.ilOO4l\ [9. E. f~d16~, f. ii'ofd'GI~ • .iffI. J lfit!(Jf.~'YS:, 2] ... i~ 2 U982~. ;!(I'. H. (Iliing, Ed.• Mo:1gIiltliC&bbrfr«fjIjQ~Y; II'i!ti:yftlld~ CftaJll ~t,. t{J~{)~'gftftl S[DfDgr!! !INl.d I'muuJrrg (UEJEJE. F'rm. ~e!!II Ylllf~, 91n 1 U. F,·1911!.l1~. G, ~~m, IR,"'IV~, ], ~ir~ M~ (hi~ 5, 6"6 !200!i}. 22. F. P. BnlbelilOIl,] .. tlWd Mt1r;h. 10, ]66 (19'61}.. 23. "l,W<D!i91 ~5.. C ~~,.J. RrlirJ~~, :~i2.9.!:i U~!SL 2.<1, C. W. hrk. Pllys.; FluJIB 4, 2~35 (199,2'), 25. 0, li~k, :5, ~'. [Ll ..W~il:.i,~.51Q!l!~. P~. flflli'; ~~r, ~2, 00"50.3 (~~Al, :26, M. ]I. IFum1m~rn.. f. Gami!di, G. M.lII'hrIMid't'i, 5cN!tJ-,r~ 1'15, alB Ul)(l7); pu~lilhed 'Dnll~e4 )ollnlllary 2007 CUD.,1l125f!:tN!no~.lU~:~Ul
2:i\'. V. 1bDr~eml

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it. Iii. .ZhI!lIl!J, t s:. iliwrn .• It f, ~~mjl.!f~Q\I'. J. Am. (lINn. So!:'. '12~, 11170 (20030), 1. IP_ It, 'e. ~~¥~ tl 0/", (4~' (brp 4,. .il?'? UOO.l!> •. It lil linl!: t!I'~I., lngilW, (1It-~ lilt £{1, 4!l;, ,lSl5.:6 {~DIJr;.}. A !JI. M, mnN:;01; .'" Ajd'~ri, S,iell!(~ )O/?, :681 (2005). 1!D. «c. T~IfI.~, s, NIIi,~, A. I, ~ V. (dri!linmt A. i". L~, lab (h~ 4, 2'9.;J:{200'¢). Itt. Go CII;;UliIba{. P. Befl oil. iY!. lQO!niwt. A. Ajd~Jil k iWI/. Pllyf.. Wl- :8·9,.~H4!1.Qil~z,i)m.l 1!2. O. S:ti!'ilnboc~ If'. KenuilI!irn.. ,tt ~Ii1Qr.mllL!r. /. !'!Jys. Ctfttm.. :!!OQ,.l&~1l) (19&6). 18. G. SE~r.q. 11 S~JI!II.I1idliK, 11 'Jr. 211ang. [. Wim"'~. SmJ'ltl' 314. B:8S {2006}. liA. .!'l!. 'Co!'M'a)'", A Guide w Rrj'1iir::s (!Yo! r.d;Qa~ ~O!HIooI19nJ. :])5- (_ 11_8~L~"~iTlJing\ fll/Mi, $'y,iI~_5:1!l!'Si9f1' {Wilq
liml.eooMcf. N~ yQ(~ [_i,i71}.

~_ lit.

,Ii!n~n,ie l

~.

hIli Oi(p !lI, ;11N (2004).

ilk!!. terr. SQ, IIl1.63 @oon ,(L P. G<I,r~~d:ilel @1.,/Wlt 1"Jjys,~.eN,:8~, o:'~.!J {i!:oo«I. 29. '1'. Wanil, ,M,. ra~ioIf~. M.. Alril!1itiarn., H. S:tiOrnt>tlMlophOftfh Z6, .. 3T16 {;lOO51, 3·11 M. iiIe, ]b S. 1('110. VI T..Oiill\, IlfJpf. P/'Ift, ,'«I. S;'!.OO 1.9:li6
(200Sh,

R;. ~.

[R1lIb~fIl'l-.. IF.H. .tfllIwh:l, S. [It QL!a,k:t, Phy£,

H. S!.!rl...c~ e·~erm r~r <I ~li!bN~oagJ~dlll!]liI dl\i~ru~~ u ""'~ ~IJ;I~i!tI rrom ~1fI~iO~ capM~ h:f ~ higm!fiJiI!f!d all'rn~r., ,!ftI:mtilm '1$,0. \l'1!lion Il!!liNlM, m5nlrnwmii ~r~~IfII~ 1O~~- 1h~ 9ra~l~im~g~ flPorn lh~ Uii'i'I~'.!i WU~ 1lI1[jlln!~\~ 'lIil~liill'iI '~~:i!~i'i.:l~ "'j).pLll!~ ~'ilil a~ ,ed'g.e' d'eleollf' w.a~ ustclla IkI(dt~~h~lMf"tt~·~al1dii~!l ihe-f:r p:~mete'f,
~ z_ ~~Jipait1.e!1 ~1~~i! iUTIl6illltef fOrr Bi~s ~d A1~m~, ~N5IF

9rllnl. C(_f!..O:I2·2<l'Ii'~. :$lI!Ip;pnrtingl OrnIU~'I'Ii~ h!'n'i~1 NI.. "l!!W.5l:~emJlmilg,a!W~!Ji!c~1I~liiU!fl.!!ll815.l'5:81lia:J:2'lOCl IFig!. Sl ~md S;, MIMi!':! Sl to .5:6 .~ Oct.t 2006; ~(Iefill~1 S JaIlUa,i'Y ,~OOi 1O,1.li261~iemc~.Ul6'9(1,!

1!.6..

A, Gr,~i$rt!<!n, 9505 (~Il!l))),

M, ~lllie\r~eor,

~ R. Qllake, Sdtitce ~O-,

ntl~~ process OOIl[OO:~ and oompu~a!im~ i!~ im.cgr.11.tll r<!ShiOL~. StII"ch ,ei.n;:uli!l'ruii!:Y re'" an

:Il,.

A. GmMi1311"

(2'00,0.

s R, Ooo~.

fMy!. !?,fIv. Lf~i!. 92~ 004SOIl

ICheimical,8lnl,d ,SIP,e'ct:ro:s"c:op,ic E,vide!nc!e lor an Fev-,IOxo 'Co,mlp,llex
F~tlip,e'l1lago de' 'l)i.i'l!'>e]lrtli,i~. AI[,~ liIIi CIfI'~l1da,'I", I[).eoos!hlrl BiBner1iee,:i! Xi~ope.l!Ig Shill 1'1, l Sl!.ljm~ Monda Lawr'CUlo~ -QIl!.lC' ]r,,;!t IERilIHe IB~mif!a~r/t IErclkol.lrd MunJt:k/'t if@rrelilc~ ]. (O~UliliSj]_t L .

Teu:R;[Nllnido m!3cffiC'YCUc ligllll1ai; '~TAMb)

ctm i>lflbil~ll(; a "'flr[c~y.01' hi_g~~-\I'akm iron eomp'lcx.cs, indud itmg ~1hi:gil.;o--pjn [S = :2) fronnV I romp~ex. hll.CTIlt1.ooi mc-sp.in (S = ~) iixmU \/J ooll~p.lbcs." oxo-:i:tiklgcd diin;)Il~~V)1 d~mcr.>. H:nd :.m S - 1 h,1011(.~~.Ili:TAML_'mdiC;:11-rnlion) cOJnrh~':.l!i:. lalll n:vicwo:l ill PH, 111e ~'mLJCtm311Iy clmrac~erizcrl It\6bridgod wmph;:x, [(r-'cIVnt )ijJ'{)XO )];!-. 2. '~B·. a It\1\1 L. is SI}('1\I!"~lin rig. I) ",1M abmillcd by ~clialS ihe nm:nO:IHG1C irnnUII} IIIlCC!JJrsor. IF~J'I.iJ:"'U I~O)f" .~.\vi~h a[,1.' IN). Pc- TAML 1l'Cli\'alion o:fpoC'Ju.xidc h;l!.'l tw:en shown to be· ~s~fU:I. i!l.~LI.I.l11."!'f.IL~ <11)JlliC-"ltim~~ I Q. 1m. Th~~cp!tll,(l!1!d
~1lW

i.:!.

Inm(V)·Q,X.Q slPec~e~ha,'II\~ betnt IprQP01i~d as key rt.1u;.ti'll\e1llilll;ermedlii'llesint ~lhe !(,"lti':llY5~s oxygtnt· ,ef aJcUwatilil.g ifl'nl'Jme~ alntds.Ylilth eli!: !!:o1!taILys.ts;. Herre, 'W<e I"e.>PQrt;~!he SYll1the~nsQf ~lfe'(T:AMU(O)o]-i'l1 • 1!I'~iulV (J!I!al1tijtmiv~ yie[d!. where- mA.MLiso 1'! filii ~(rll(ydi(tetri!() IiliIlide' li:g~lnd. IM~S5~P~\N;;trOmet 11)'. Mossbll u<er, e t~(tron, Ipaf.l!lma.g ~ ~l'k~es~l'!a ~(,~. a!'ld .~;tFay .l!b:l(Hp:~~i~F!~pe!l;uQs,opj~s:, a,:; '!!leU a-s ~iI;:a~tivilY :Shldi~s a!ld de-l'liltyr!.JlfiC~h)i!lIall~h~\~f) ,t:ii1!l(;UiLalli~l'Ilrs· Slh(}w !~ha~tM~Il(lI1.!IlJ"U~d fhour:s lilt -60cO l'n'le~mediate· is a ~~iiii!5' '" 112 irOiii! M-C!l)/~ oomp,\.;:'.x,~~~n'lAML systeml~ halre pr~f\itt!l to b~ 'e'mciel1it c;a!;allY$t$ 'in the deC!ompos~lio:n ,@f nUImE;>rOUISp~Uutant$ by hydrog,en pemi.~de, imd' Ute species \"le (i1ara<etenlledli!) al Ililke~yreadive in ~ermlediatein~llese lIead];" iilS.

TAML

(,I (C'I~mLII~iOl])PI'!;.'¥.'llIS ti'lciNm

\~~'Ih

dbwi r 1.~1<i:-t1l.~]'ti'm;d ~l'Ilmg .un:ick}·,\f o-(k'moni. Iy

chaH":ngillg oxida!io-ns ill! many ~~nmrio:.> {I-J). It hilt> long IJfi~'1 I,mown 1;]19[ hem.!.:,,", Il:Klised sys~i'ms, biolog;i.cai as \'rell!b~ synli ~ncik:.00 ~lQl attain the :iJ)ol'LfV) 13~C. ~ R.t!!I:iael:, the sO-oClitlk.d
"('o~nl~GUlnd illtclI'rllCdialc I"
FCl:\1 (0;<;'0 (pOl'phyriIHa:lk,:d<alioll

H

~gh-Vilk'ilD' iOO n-o~o iu~lJI~i~"f[mdifitG. ru::\: .. u.~ hn. biolo,gin~ ~Sl,cm~to C11IW)'OUI

l

:i,llivolvcs

the

cytoo;;:hromeP4S0 mutant tV, I ~·f)5). Ml whic~cl ( opa k-a11~Y d\;~C'Cwd tl"mn;<;;icll!s were tCl1.talj\,c~)'1l!.~:>ig~i!.:;d Pc" -0.;<;0 S;l:ilCd.L!'~. Que :rJIj]doo..work".;:n., 10 ~ on. -I Ie' ffilS.~S, 0., 180""'1,~iOC .. b.-I" CXI)(;"l:"lIln,;:ms, Jl~vC pO::>I.u~alJ;.'iLllh<b1 l~~~ HO·f~' -0""0. 0.....id;lirl. is an il1itcl".~ncdiJite ill lite' ]Iarge farnHy orR iciked io,"')i1•. _' ..

c",,"pi::.itl'tCIITIS of

flU

irolll·corroic

OOl11Ip!l:~

(4~'ilnd

Irlq

'I

111l1;rdorc. iI ha;:;, bt~L~1I .1rt~ROnllbk; to e'x!IX~t (1/) IJ].-ulhh. ul'lacroC"ycl~c ligam:l w(l.lIld be (,lli)l,\~:~k;of siaibmdl1g::tfl oND·im.DllVl, co.rnplex when. fin, FC~I!fI'AM L Dcml~p~c}j,~S,I ~oncd w iah an !.'»!)'gei\l· iiLwm unn s feli a~Ult such a.>; fl'ClIlI,')\l\.idc. f\ '·fllli.ely of ~run~lIV)cmnplcx(;'S h~\i"; oo";:j] SyirliJIc:>i:zctl by re;lcii~lg iro:tl(l[jpl\."'ClIr.sOffi with o.xygen dcm:on;
:me~rtifliilnl: g! (llei1'll~~I)I'. C~~r'!e9ilt Miil!~~ iJ~~~j~!I'. Pilil'Sbwrgh.,. PA 15213. USA,. J:~pilT!Bnl nf (I~nnlru''I' .~JI;!I (en1Jef~or lIteto'ls.ln B~ocat.l'l)'s1s,~ii1i'o'el'>ll)i of Mim~
MlnoollpcilW, MN SSIl§:S .• ~,il. ''f~~~ ;MhQ~ OOi!l~!lioo~l;!~ ~~<llly 'U! UIlS ~rl\:_ tiTo Mw:m ulfll!~~ll:d~r1oo ..1noot-d 00 ilcldr~d ~-rnO!iL:: qLlE@c:fum.ul'llln.t"d LI ~I.(M;elbii'g@~IIHjirevMJillu.e.ilu E. ~ Lit);
1!il100'~HnIM!cl'u

,. Fe~VtO~ f+·).

:gcrmsc enzymes

(1), hn~~{\'"omr1e1>!:.es arc' o

\\!hi:ch is wd~~s!llblishodil'l!
ctl'lIl;ll'lctl,~~!"rn.'51urr!1;d \\'iIJ~

pC'~~...idm;c$ ;uK! cm!5i,cleroblt j u$li~

cx,octldln:glJirnrc',

but rccclllly,. \Vieg,h,m:h and pn::.

~o k '!hL; n;.ac~ivc (I!~'\,idi;!:i~g ~PG'¢i:I",'" Ihe c}'I.ochlitn1l1i:l P4S0s' it .~t~~nl~J', ~"n~o:mb N fka!iclrl
1!IJid cO-worn>e1'll

or

ciJ"',wOJkcrs 1(-C:ll0rill:d ~PCCUmsrollic cvid"nO(.'ror .. n~::):!l·~'bI.'''H1C S = U2 .imn{V}·nilridn. opmpk\
j:it{uDI,u;;od bJIJl&aOLoIY$isohl:i :.I>!idoilt'ln(Hil

aL1JOrlcd

]a",":.I:'

fh~:;;h :pIbLCI.tolysi:;.

ci!IIroor (6)"

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S·CW~I~IC~ VOL 315< 9 flE6RUARY 2.007

I

REPORTS
Wi!: smdied :iimI~~~le~. 3: ';,\'ilt~~M~lmlJ!c.r or in Qr~"'lIli>csolvests such Ihm dw ~"c~ion c",-n b-C' ~fU.-";;~!'Q'iiCQ,PY br.'i'\\Ir;;.:.ll 4.2 and ~40 K In ;Iptlli\'(1 !ll(mii!\l!~·~d fI(lti~,dh' <!l~Cmpl,'ll·;;r~\IIF~'" as low as ~l(l~(.' (J J, lJ.), A ~!I!I1i~~·[lppID<lld~ \,""IJ,.~ ",pplicd ~.l~.g!~.ic I!dd~~~II)~ flO T. Thn;~ I.-'~p",,-~m"ti\'f; • F m .. . ... __ . ,,'.~' . , s:pq:tm .of a ti!llv~(ll~ IlI\1lmrql.t~. -60"'C ~~ .-;11.0W1l1 '1~1\; w·~ p~"(,W1I1>O:r~ 1.0 1~'IOIIlW:r""WI11!-.,,"'~... II~.in f'.~g.. 2 B; ~uk!~l.i(ln!11 ~po.,1t'mla~ di:;;pi!l},(lt:i iu [("liJlu::diitt~ in. iihc :~~iQrt..; -ofTAML t1oTnpk,x..:.'S,. 1Ig..82. The m'it~.ti!.y 51~~)~ cor!~~1bll~ !lc,,'1iJy \\\I'1(l .re)1>Drllli.c s}rn~hc\1~r ".d il.11nl'iJ~n og rom~ ph.. ill :!fI~i!ll:Jiy ~~. qu,II!1'~il,1!i~ }'ilil]d. ,Hid i!.~\:~·I~mcot; ~t;~iZlll~ici;1"I w-uLh ('If)lLl;'I~, decl.ro~ '1fi.;J!Rlniill)Igm::l~t re>mi1~lj('lt (EP.R.~ MOi>:ilial,lr.."ii, md :".'"1]]11' 3h;,.t~rpli(jl~ ~lmooQpi~.~Ik~ Wi!] ~ a:;; elce!roSpray inn-

Imiorl:" I1m100 (1111 'Eq.. I ~oOlllling lQ~l~c rmr.!_m1j~·li~tcd in T"bkl l. 'fhC'~hoP1~~iCJI~ eurves in ii .md~ii irl.fi~ .. :2.131 ,·q,l!\,:"\VI,;~1~ 9~% orth~!ll!ll! F~in
Ilh~ ~n~pi~.in ~X~~:JCllt 3g.t,,,,·~·at1q!t.\\,~iihmlK' ErR

95% ofr:!1LC.. ~o.rplinl1, wia'h Ih(: ~'i~iljm'i~y S

=

EP.IL The

M&.Kl1i:11!b'1

.U1d ~h~L'lwe .... ~t;oci,II~~h H2 ~1)(:-ci~';S olm:n,'1;."cl b}' llJX1e~~1 0.1' J were ::.iITI.u·

dm,u [O:92(S)1 s<pinJ~I:lcr F'\:' mj[Jk".D~11~J. S~noc:llI:r,I~ ~~lCe for dU~·lI!OJ'urcf J deli ves o
'!.;... .

l!ii.ro\\':llh dt~ S = 111 ::;pil~ liJ1m~lHIJ)liliill'l

~hll'll x~l{I)y 11~~rp~io~1 ~1l~1C:'tmoflpic; !.R.ldL\'~ ilt S Ihe- F ~ K ~'(Igj,,~. {Th(.~.fle K edg.e c:mr~~'P(:incl",to mhr.."EltmiS illiOllJ cnh~~"Clli I s cill".e'r[{J.:I'i W'Hie tOl!;· 'liiilllUln Or ~1:c~lrul'l ::>13D.cN. ~ A l':ml~fr!le hl Iro~lj,

11'WS-'"i>lXIel.I'Ht~OO)' (ESI..iN~S). ~eti\lhy ~"Dudies,!lnd d~~si.1V fum:::ijo.~ml dtOON ,(.On), 1hcrcac!ion oj'lffl14!II[FcV!!:B"'(:II;l!O')1 (II •. ~ to ,2 mM I \\ ith :2 to 5 cqllh';J;IC'llt~ (cquiv ~ of 111iza~ion

,1-1- ~·g;·B

t- ..•.• ,4.,[

~1>J~r.1B·II
15/..J~ 1M,,:!

~C'Qi'zJ12)PI}
ck-Cl'ttm

1/)1 II ~
i~,he [

CI:~l(,N~()I\,'~ill,U%~ure~n 3, C.'dlibit5 .~] K ; edge ;111 ]2.5.3 eV. an CIll(.T:; ",alu~ 1 cV hi~ler ? ..4 Ihrnl~h<u. aSiroCimeel willh its htm(.m), jllteCUfSOr.

.~ nnd [Or
~lC'

tlulI)o.

oollsisLrcnt w[th ·Ihe i~:i£~cr oxidlrllton
3d p.~c-edge tmm:itioll li"Olmd

cl1klropel'bC'Juooic acid

{'If

PBAl'

blll}'roni!1ri,~ (/4) pr-oou~ diirol!([V)1 din~~·r. I (fi~. II, drliUr;,,1O ]VIl,i;). ll'~ 1"!;.~.:;Le~itJn ~)mi);'(;tl~ then ~1rough 0,111'b~yCt ltiL'Il:;b.n·~ ; aCICfi"J!t~ EPR-silent Fe~ IV) imcnncdimc (,[I M&~mll~r ... ;tIC~rlU"n i~sh.Qwn in fig, S3) to y i:c III p Wilhiu lS mi~~ mile,· ~hc Olddili(u~ Qr mCrID'-. <I cl.w,jJgnt..',\,.\!l1 i>p!;:"C!,(;"l\... J. COlIrJjl I~x .3,(.F~g. 1. },j0!~[{! Iin~ l' exhibits Ji~I'illU~l. :I.bi;orplnDu 1'I.1~t"li: il'1\i'1 i'll 44·5 Ilm (wl~cre the c'1!IlinCliorl co(!mci~nL e. is; .:5140-0M-:I ~nm-I, cali~r:;;m'!d ~y re R!iiCUlCC [0 Mos.s bauer SllCCU'31 and ,6.31[) nm {E 4200 [VI ~ CllID-! I. Al (-MJ~C..3doc<l!Ys by H)'7~ itl~)O~nill1l, bw, it i~, .1iblc f.of at k ...~ ene 1l1l1mh 31 n K. ~ Cmnplc:l!.3, was also obt:mil11.:di~Olo(,'!(!Ini~!ril(l m 4.(JPC, 1111t llh~~. Wmll()"~~ lIre~l doc<li)is by I Q% a in about .s mi u, prob<lib'J,y by Jju.l:ockh~gthesolvcm 't J /). ]n the cmnse OrO~_f studies, \'!,'c lerufHcd Ihm J IC'iI.H he {I!b~ai!1(~dl.mnl il.i.i!tiwly w ilh ~cqui\ 0'1' q

fi4jgC in liwilh~n a bm,lI[ .~O:;.!hc
ai,

:<t<Ucof3. The 1:-:h~ ECI,. 'I.. ~ .~~. ~!C' Bohr
!1\ii1gw:!!{J!Ii; ~~

s~~anill1J!C'!"<U~Of: g i~li~r;;". h,l,!l:.;;.or: IEI~ ... !lu; g U! ~Ilpli(".d IIIIl(iJ:lnClie [i(;1d! A i~(he S7F~ m .. g.Tll~ui(; 3AJ T),1!kiJrl.g !ll~t)It"(:o~,ml U1:J1!tmly J1Q'JA.0 r Ihe hYjOCirr~m: tOIl!'Or: 1 h1.lhc mocl~,:<lr sp.in op;t'rntoF. ~111111llc 1 [the rcmlliatlcr being Fc{NH. a pI\.'"" is odg~ an..'11 m~a~l6Q uni!~ c,~~ be ~tirlli[u.(;df(ir of gNIll-N i~the naelear g}'r"QH!;l.gf!L:'licl!3ai{), &. I,;. <lilt! l~m·1.,;til~ C;;Lut~'Sio.BlIlco~npo.!1CnUi [If 1:, ,lIld ~Iie ~'I:I;!
H,'iI:n1 dt.~~i1x~D_h~ im~mt1~(1IT1 bi:;t ..\,~'II;.'I! Ihe 1I11l)ld~ qrum.drupolcI:l1l::!ltiI(l1ll Q ,~nld lhl': Ck'!:'lr.i£ field gll1ld.uenQ (l:'PG) [Cill,rO:r r prilleipill eomeonents r'Xl>' l~. (I ~ .!lIEf) =- (,({II' 2><1.1) ~ + 11,-/]. wilil '11, W~, V»')IV\02~' A.t 4.~. K, Iltc' cllcclmnk SI,hl .3 relaxes

:;m"l"lple 0 rJ ~ qui~c ~mOll~. w iith .m OIOC" s or ,.:18 lU!lin~, eO'!l~p_d wilh 1[" Ll!lifc.~ fL1f rn lFig,

A
11111
''IlJi
~J

5Im""~v (ilrl~he time scale of Mossbaucr ~c!t'Oscopy ~tabnLn ~0-'1' s~ J!ld ~hllS ~'VI".:.,fIIlJS'C'I''\.'\I IUJ"il° ~.n:J.g~'lt.~ich)','pcrf~nc~!lI·Ii.I!CIU!)I! At I~O K. ~ho~rjn .. sy!il.cm ~w.r,"Qm:.h.cs rthe f~st rc]l.axalio.u ~ilnit, ill1d the m<lg~~e~ic hypcrlifJ!! jl~[cl~m.c~Kms 'were essentiaHy <lcvem.,g).xiout, The Sf1CCtJillll~ Ii of Fig. :m (:l\;.hililils. ;;;! dOllbfc,t (~.oli:d lLI!I;)\\'~t~ ql.ll:tclrllpolc :;,pliuirlg tJ,Ee = 425 mlllf~ .mdi~llI(;,r :-;hill .1') = O.46ql) 1'11l1r'l.1h. 't relat u\'t,': w Fe !TI,I;.~!~m. 298 K ); I £I = O"",2~ 3)lllllrnf:> !iI 4,.2 It. l1]is li vlll!ucllt" cons&.hxnbly loW'('t Ilml'llhc IO'livcriG .:is OfuI>CD\cd [or an)' Fr(:-TAM L compte;.;;., ~'CHaCillily So = o.n~ 1l1lli'lls (ill 4.2 K) for !til S I j:roo~ I'\l~ oornwJ,C(I.rl (table 85). Because 3 has a.Il:3~Fnl)lcg,m~ ckcrtl'Onic s:r)i~~.we assi.lPloo this spedcs to a .Iklw~pitl ,f WevB"'(OW 0OOlltJc'X. 111 ,mero-ro witihlllC mass ~lH\os.QOJ)ic
5

or

'.iI-iI
''Ell

g'lIl ilJ!',!I, ~ 35ml

M!iJIgllil,e~mc Fiie~d ~m'll1'

400

4501

mCPBA

whl.. "'!1;;I11iil~1 .n""l't(!ll]l!:ii.

or IlOK'l1n~]~ ~~"'I!l(b

~~Cihargc rn~~,) (n 01:) or oWl.2. the m.1SS and isol.opic dislributi(m p,mem ofwhi.ch coJ.'D"'CS;pon.Q wa ro:rml!lmio.n (!If [Fe-vB"" Isec :iiUppO:I.tin,g cm~iinc I1IIfneriil~ lSOM) I.exl <tl-:-Idl:i!g. Si, I,. Ol1lly data. Oi~e O[ll:lel"~'k \Y8s~rvcd" m niilz".5:-: 1.1:. and it cOI'I\,'SJiiOl1dcd to a ,d.ccay pirodUCI, of 3" mltllCi.)i ~ :FcwU*(m-ch 10 mile nz.Dal.c W' :I:ulrOOm;!I'OIl of I.~:! 1o~ll~O dn; $0i1\~C'1[u'mooi<l yield~d illl W 3S% ~ or Wevn~,(]sa)r(mf7; = 4-44,2,) 30 mlil of illC\1 t};;'l.t inn; I'Ji,i~'':uUy,'In,;: dr) 1101 kTltJw m\';Ch'~I.

such as W;)I(iI.·, pyridine. lind ~nlm[.c' 1tC'id \""~L; pro.clll" The ~1'iIl;crmlllL<u~wlI:c.~ It}f,3, w!iTein~dt... perldCl'l'~ O.rdiC: presence ()nhescpm\)Jllif~1 1Ug_flndts, E51~MS cn.millflLlioll of j~.bllDymlli.trile rol!lll·' Diol~S.oL3, re,'eal(1d om: pro~nin,eiu. iml ill H imL"S,.

mr

111,C

s-olid ·11~~'teS F~g, :2 B arc SPC(;i:r:a~simuiu

"ncr

SI1Ug...;:url.hl:

c"Xch,L1:agc O!;t~lll.1ii. ~nt&I.C ::lX K EPR lipo..xotnm:n ut3l Fig. 2A.•:\01i1<l
1'l..'lII.clloll IJ1~ I~

I inc}, P'OCiJ.arud: m6(JC(· iI~ dlC gltlllili.fo:rrnil'lg. wi:vcnt. U.. uity:n:m iirile. the nmfljor rcmm~:bcIQrllgs b ~.o<linS -I fl :species w i~h v<~ln(.'S of aib-out .~.99" ,I;' l, ;r.)1 •. ami 1,14. [;(t \~.d~~ ali'CIhe cigcll,va~u~s iC~1iOOlfg, w.~lidIOO!llpks dte elli.1Clt"ol1 LC s.;pinl. S, W the app~icdJ nmgn~~ic ~cUIB (~q!1 ,.~ 1he d<lslacd H~lC roprescuts <l s-rCcirn~ :siml.liJlti,OlI, dmwil lQ cm,'rcspo:nd to <lUI S La spill oon,c:enUmlion of (].9.2(5,~ (estimated eroo!: From SI}CCIr.d s.iml.!~ali~n in ullC' IC<1i..~1 sign~tic~nll diSiU

or
FCIflJTIed dllninga fl'aIaton ifll 114ltrrI),onitl11.e .aitt --00:"( Iby ~~ addid(1rn of 3 tf.l~'iiljl of !l'i(IPE\I!\. The 'illl~1l:t snm..s tI1~hQn(m~·a.ql!la w.mptcx I, ~f~P~"'(HzQr)]-.

IF;!!I. 1. ~Iir[c aiwllrpUM~ctr'a of ]! Masluocl tLfl.~and ,~fZ (d~t1oo ~Iil@) andl 3 (so1!d ll!'!€~~$·Ih~

SI]itls per Fe J1lO,lccl.l,~e. min"of ~~~,.;c~~, r\ p!'"C)1~nl "YheretJll~rl'ee-ba~e IH~B'"leh~I'IiI~"dei$:;i:,3..6JQ, 9;9· ' i!l1ill.lmn~plo~, w~.lh g~ = g~: = 2.06'~P1d.t';';l ~ 2.00 11e~o:! melhy:l-3, 4.,a,'9 "tetr ~h'fd roO-l!. 11I"<'-.4AI,'11" ~o 2 _02 1:;0II1lrib!..llll;:S ilPout 3% ofllw 'lo'M =,:PUUI IbeDll!ot.etr o1iJ\il,uytlloilride<li:i liIe-2,S, 7, It[1(6H, llH)·
~o:11Cr:lnn'ill.ioll.
tEl'~lr.<IICii'l~.

1.73S,Mlh () 'l,ri!lllJe-s a~umoo to, h~~ It Gall5$~1f! d~s~ribu~~" with ~~~=:,O:Z, ~IlJ_~ CLO'3.il~d'~_~ ('I,(lS, liISl_g iI !p-a>ckllt~¥1!dt I.ot :ll mo. J1~y a:l!!l:S Q_lh~ EM~j)~lmm ~:s ~ress.ecin iubnba!l]l' IIIrtits. (B) MO~'lll~r!>,pedl'al I~I,[I~cmt 2 rnM. s~'FM1nrkhed I);evW(OW, .3:, ii!i'l.n--ibl1liyl',ClU'Iitrit-e ~~erd!e(l at ]4[) K 0) and 4.2 K (ii iI~dliii~il'lil1Iil~mtkl1ieldsil1dlica~e-rl; l in;r:i~rrt 11 Ib~1I'III perpel1ldikuLar (iij and p.ara~le~ ti gn~im 00 the apptle~1 fi:etd. ne solid IUn.e;sa~ :~(trol!~ s;imu'l.atlooiS IIl~-sed 'IlFl Eq. 1. I!Isi~!il1 !.he' param~~r~ '(l~ Tgibl~ 1; iI$ dra\'\In· they rep.~e.s~iilt. 95% Qfi the t:o~t ahsClfIP~~n, .ArrQWS (fn i andii) il1dicate !ill d~ prod!llC~ Qf Fe) of 3: 'l7fi1hMQ ~ (3% 3A m ml~and ~ '" ~l08 Ii'I'lmls:.

Fr~gl. 2 .• ,(A) X-balild E~R :5pe(~runi!of ,abol,!lt :2 rrr1l.l1i 3 iin ;I',"I-butyro:rrbiLe .. (olrnd~90:ns.: r ~ 28 lK;fire~.l!lelliicy, 9.56 GHI~; IrniU'OI.lIave pOl.lfil!f, o.. !l!i!Vll.i I!li!OOUI[~,ti(lfl~ lL m'L TIte-tda51hoo lil1.~15g,~~(itr,,1 ~1iIl1tI~aJli®1l fur Ih~lil'tJ8ijorily speci~, 1, IIfillilg Ih~ ro~~ ... paraliTlel"ers: g~-15)86, fh .. 1L%6. f}'z.-\Ii.n[i
f>llre..enri(hedl

.o~

REPORTS
P\H'e), Uis value is ,cl~Slinc:~ly!rgCll'than ihose b oescrved tar known S = I ~ic'o;~~~dimn~ oxoimnt! V) ~1)i,,'"C~C.>1 ~no JfI ~I~i,",<;,) J), {;;!~ U
lDi~Cl .;~,iJ~~It~

fm ma

i~n·oil'i;o

~Inil region

~<;

'~:l:iJK-cl&oll~ iiJ1 !II]fl~}':;;,i~ of f&K': ..:xk:llikd

abo, X-I",LY

the scsuercrs ,:nUl:' and :U12 A.t1r-cCQI1~g$I~"lH J 1'1 mM in 5000:I .. elume b)i volume ,acc~ol1'~Ifqll!i'l.'QrmCIP'W\ <il will1 ~9\vZ mQ,I1S trom dN' m<l'C'I)'Oa;:ychc !ig<1l1d !r!~c~. \)i.'I!!tl;'f. ')i,ri~hIlw-~~c (If :~ -40D• '1 q~Iio,~}~ii<llij ~~y p!fOl:I~C1.:'\! t~i3lhiO"Wlr~Q£... ;J>'l fO~lIld if! tlIw ~,{.A fS (litsHor t t~~ Uill A ~C:;J!~· ~(J!OC'ri;). ~ni:q~t;: tor J 3nd<i,o;:si~1~~ Bl UIC ,oxo 1Ilon~ IJ'!hill!~m:n~rc {~. n~M OP~~h~ ~1l,.~J.l~T',.ti_ng rn" \JVlk'~
3 ClIll DC' IOnliiUla[t'lt:i :!:i, IlfcV'Bi'(0lr bji a cGmhiml'IIDU of C\~idCJi~r.1(l!l1 l)t~'tm"'Pr.ay n~I~~j,1~Clrmll~~ry, EPR,. M~bmll~_f ..mlly~l~. ;,1l1d "'-~.1y .. b:''£lq'130:n s;~'ttrmt;~>r. O)ti.~i~r.cfU\'IIn~l II1k a'ba... fOri1llLilialit.l'.Ii .3 disc • pI1~Y::; :,i.!illklll~'e fCilfilivily r~ltut'l's oJ .'!, :>~rojj.gly I.he olo:klizii~!l; .i'i:'O~1~!) Q(H'IlJ)lcx. Thus, fCSiClioll of ~"'{less 1I~llhcnylpl1i08phi IlC'~1U cqllri\ ~'Wilhp:l.'C fol1'l'aoo
of an plJ'() ~mlil, Thus, mili~D1;~Lct~on
\.1/".1:;' e'dni.ed

I

ab:50!jllion I~ sl U'!.1t;'~U re {E,.,{AfS, fie

~",,·.m}' .. b:.li;l!rp~ ilQli ~pt;'"ClrU!"I'Q,~ Fig, lEI). b~ !I~ ol~l!Ii n~d ,oolk"iU..;n;, thn:ic siu;:ll!.i; O."} () ~ciUb:~r

no;;

or~hc

Ihl8b (00,2% ~~yvolume;,.

OUlt iD~.hG'pJ'>i,';S,(i'ili1,'l~ of t i~lCGrpoF.:l,tiGn 01' g~o

O.irn~hc l'io~is of the MUSl;!J.aLi:o:r m:llaIY.5is ohl~b. ~unri.le, AI. !.. A. foui' N/O ~!IIlh~rcj'S; !III. 5~ 1JO A, and rive r seancrers at 2.!'l:2 A" sec SU.fV.~ Ie-Xl for deta i,1 0 f d1,efiuing protoeol]. s \\fhercas I,fixed

iri- 'Ihe p1l;i~~i;.!oo rr,n(iU'Cl wn-'l ~h[,1~T'I'L;-dl'l}' &~ cilmllrn<LtllgD".l~)i~r Di.11b'lN :!ipt'·.cI.mn1~~1:;;tudl~_ t\~ &:_~tlcrioo~ Ihe SOM' t~xl. ~r.,;blcSJ}. 1)1IlidlalLtill. i~~

1i:a11il le ll. Mil,~Ih<llI;l.er, IEPR, aliiid OFT pi! rameters or ~1~,e'l!'IB" Nu m ber~ ~Il IPaJroe;nti1reseslffil,dije,atethe ,e-~tim~tfJ!di';!IFIXHS, the oo~:st :s~gn~lrt(ai'it d~gi'l'S"BeC~USI~ DFf (ab:l!,dal'iOiiQ$, in g~!t~ra~ly p~o(h,ic~ ((lO'tact tems,lhat .[Ire- to 0 ~tm a ll (iso1_mpid, the .11, 'II'<llu:~s~'I!er'~oM.airn ed by i!lcid~ the 'c.:Il~U1'lat.edl sp:in· n,g d'ip@kir OO:!'ltriji},ution 'ttl the- ex~;e;rime,[ltallA&~!!I' (A .. ,.. AI!' + A~}13 illnd th,e-o .gld:d~!ilg ~ (orrle(tl'(!fll ~o.r tn~ 100~bitai. Wlfltlribl!!tii~n as dl@m]~,~in th@ SOMl:ext

~o n-.

~ooJedi"('3t1ily wilh OIhi .. ~il';:;~bshtU_,"';!;, ili~'i.'der~imilk'll' eerditiens, 11100 lihm...ii~~ a~ ii1j)Ofjl!c~li(in whcn f~I~'!lO '~pllL"":lCnrl, 1l,ii)fIItiSQIl::M:i>o,,,=~d~,"'CI, qU<'UlIIitlli1i'llcl)! ~ Ihe cmrespetndilt-£ sl~ll:hxidc. Sl.lb~(lkhL'{)m~.ic n:<)Cli.C!t~'~ ~I ,,,tyrcuJ:: mi],l".yclo-

oc~cm:

ro.lc.t:itm wi!h ~t~I)I~OOn7-cneg<nllt; n l'!1i".llll~'C (If

~noo uced

~he ,oorresponding

epoxides;

=

L9!), 1.97" 1.74

-49.3:f]ICt -1.5(15), -16.3{1l5) -!'lHi, -9.5,-1L5.0I

+4,2~5{[jrn +~.5lL

'O.65(H'i')
~)i.n

-0.4·2(3)'"
-'(l'.:39

H}h~l)lk~h:_l!l!o~ am.! .1JCcilt'iphvnon-iJ. III Ihl.~ ca~!;'!o1 1l't':U rc'It;~i:I! lOlli1lpl~~lJ~YUl irun;[.~ I.~). ~I ¢ anii'.:tllfC of imwciI"'-\[!!cn! ~ron '!:o~npJ!:lxC',~ '~~I'I.'l l~md\tCiOd. i.m:!l!d~ng ~11O di:i.l'On(lVj, dimt!';2, lx id111ion or 9., H}-d~hydm."I:UI~U:aC~~lIc' ~nDt;:tl.ld(\d
\..'h..:!'t J {1kl
I;!iumm:ir.:uiv.cl)! lii'l ~L1'1lhr:a¢(;ln;e'I.m;l1: .. nIT c-J]it:lIIIaJt~lk" u;ii;ing li.:luss:iilll 'lI"ili]

I.he

~im.cIiiJJlml BILV[l

mid basis !il.:!1.(l·31 H_i c:l'cariv .
=

Ar-. :il ,(,I')
'J:DI ,~ I!::; 'u:i'

----,

E

:~

e ,01
ii::

7'10

i=------.....'11141

--.,J :' 7'i11'11111 j~

••

I

. ••
,

col1f1rgumtbon 3s~he grollnd state or .3. A goonlctry-oplirnizcd sU10crure hJo£(.tilut" wilhrul, orb:i1R~ diagr.nn is ~~O'Ix'n in fig. 4. 'file C~C1JImoo
j.J~

~lI,\'o[,rhc low-sp-ln. lS

1m

IFe"'n"'(OU:"

,. ,..~

Fe=O bond IC~lg.th I ,60 l"o. is~n C".U-cHClll ~wm\-"ll~ wi~h our EXJ\FS resuhs, Ihi~ d~$!!<nu;c is Q,Q!J to O. I .1\ shorlcr lhaH 1Ji~oscrcPOLilcd rOl' Fe'\!' 0 cm~lp1'c.,.cS (IJ}, l1tc C~lltr.lCljm~ the

or

or

::II

I

,f

.-

-8:2'

'010

Fc-O

bWK~ renOC~!l. <l!'J

f!"rA~')1

order from 2 i~l dli~GlI[tt'(--d ()~t of 111(:' 4.NpJ'tntt:
ctI!c:'ldmi(lI1~

7'11'1101 7~:20

1~8fj

:2

~,

by 005 iL DFT ;:oOl~m\(,dl lill(; ~O\vt$1 cNcillCd S = 311 ~mc m be ;jJ:llf(J~-TANJL (:flliim rodic!l11 SJfllc" ~F'dv{B")(f})r, a~ 1900 CIl1l;-~ rather than Ihe metal-based SlfUI.C o[mdned b)! a ;opJal flip transhion from x.y 10 xz .~ 15)"

inereasc in ti~c~b~mdbcJ!!d f';C'LV~Otn 2-5- TIle Fe ,1'0!11 i)1

Enefg1!1I~e·V) l1he li'lSle't sh!o\\i;;ot~e ifliii:'il9Jilifiedl!lls __,.. 3d tralnl$il~OillfeaU!iff2s,

,·(A)I

One-clecuna
IlolI"phy:rin'HC$
t1IlC

o:ll.i(~al.ions

or

imn-exo-

Wiig. 3.,. tAo) X:·rra~·dimmlpJt;Qrn f1ea~-ed~e .sped~a (Fe K edgle~of 3 bo'lid lil'le)afl:ri i (da~h,edlline". l~iB) F(ll;uie~ trans:ffofMs of ~he FE' K~d'.ge EXAIFSd~t(l (f;{(kt} {dots) and t~,~m (~~tid ~i!l!@) 'rDIf 3 wv~h 0 .7 0 SCtitlEf'er at 158 A. ((lIU WOo ~C~Uerler$ at IJi7 A, .'lIndriilolf (5!caner>ef5 al~ 2.62 a., The 'iln5J!1!'tsihowsIF(lllIrier-fitt'ered ~XAFSspe(~rill {k:lx'{k:U {dots~ ~!lid~he ~ijt. (s;ollid l]lf!lill F!lJiurie,r~f~f!is[(I~m rdn~e k 2l'O 14:9 ,&.-1; braJck"tf.)tis'r(lml range;. r' ~ I[). ,0 to HIll .A. The Mttilng prlltioc!:l~is detai~illd ~nS;(),Mt'~xt
1

dum Illelit! based as in 3, (./6). A n1!3lJm ra~lnr
oolliH:ib:ming to dlii'> diirferenc~ us.~he slIi'Ol1l£,euGdono!' c<t;'padty orille d~prolOimled amide nfrtmgellS

gC'lfIeraUy ~:ig.."Illdbased "MiIlC'r

=

F'~g. 4. (Je~m~U'y--op.tn~j:zoo Mnu:tm@ of3 .1!: obtainoo rnnrn. DR G:Ili:lJliatiOI11! ,tgre;e'n..

a TAI\IIL!e~rn;].nr01iI compal\.'\J with ihe p}'il~:Q'Jes 0 rIlle: ilO~l)1 rin dial1:[-OIl. Ileacc, ihe TAMl injeoc·ts. nmllC d~1l;'HUllic ch~ iu!o~he 3d, shcn 1:h~U!dbl.".'i ;)I. por)Dflhyri!~. ~heux.iby ¥.ui ~~Dlg Ihl.:
of Ihl;Ut:do.'!;.·...c!~W md;>ll.~orb.iit;Jl <md
dl.~t~~}JI U-aJ:l:;~T

or

t;.1J(,"I:gy

plJuK;<:ting I.!J~ imnl(V ),agaim'[.

iJiofli;

!I',~;

'~~riI;

ltilli!~.rJi~

~tt-nI1i t:l1c l}helly:11m!li~I)',
:z:2i--, TI~.: ''I'ahh.;s;cillcllina~~d 10.1" M1 g." ll, lind A·~~.z 0.

tro<g!lln;amd!· gray. ,c;amb®n). For C:Iam1ly~ Ih~--drogen <itnm~, ,il!r'e no'l she!ill n. IEllreC::holilk IcI-o.rb;i~a~.diagram o~ 'he Fell
'OMwr

rrom DfT. S'~lect@d1 ben.d
alll'!:!

·is.

.5h(l\lli'l,

as derived

x: mrecIBoin)

ren!l1h5: ~e-Q, 1,60 A; Fe-N.. 1.,66 A. (1)1.... 0 nilll'(I~efliS akm:g

185~nll
'16311

1,91.

UOIi1};·~e·IFe~s[1,5 A ~boll,!~ th~ pta liI,e d!!'~illed by the fom iii mi de niiJriog:~n~,
w"fM"sdenc-emBg.,org

llIitJr,e'g,em~ alongr. dht:-

A (IWJ

(T~blc' l), provide :SiNlIg i>IiiI)JKIflIO Ql'ili' irol~lV) <lISs~l]nlC'ln._ t~le iso.mwlic s~:i:tl ~<l~Q]lmed ~oL ~p(:13"(0)] , () = 0.39 mnn!;:i, 15 I~.l cxecllcnt llg~ml!i1i wi:th ihcclillrl anil is sHbSianinfLlly I~r t~mll 11mtca'klilialcd for [FC'w.(B"'~~·(O)l-. Ii - 0.15 mm. Icakld;ulcd i) vallie.>; foOr :r-cTAl\lllc:omp!c~"S:l.~ wid1in OJ..!:!!oO.03 Hliln's: with the e;l,;I)C11IllCllt.d vrul:u(!s:soc laMe SS).. The ~m:(l!\'''~ of 3d do;;liI)on (n,dl!Jci"g Ihe !IItiddii~g
Orlh~
~]IIJIC b

,I

10
E.li1eI'l9~ (c'I1il-1~

f

dmJR>i;) ~~~lcl Ihe :sh.grt~ning

Qf ~hc

F,"~·O bOlKi

tll"~'.Im;:c ('~b1I~mitiDig

I]ilo: l:;i)\';)II~111t 4!!

iX'iPul:1lJtioD~'("iich ~riCEEli,'iC I_~ic (;1\::J!:~tmi1dO;;l:il,ily :'1.

SCW~I~IC~

VOL 3150

9 flE6RUARY 2.007

I

REPORTS
~hc Fe mltl~t!s, d'au:sae>cIiC'Oi!:'iilllg 0.11] 'C9U11~:rn.S!~,!hC' n'Cl ie h}'1l!CTJine imQ1'CI~~m. AI.J.dS~, where A'~ = RJ:", -2~~-U T:SIi!~i~\.!i!()H ort.:= 2t~l;m-1 aad NmQ\ra] of ,rt)ll electron Iflnlll :tl'!1; r.;dQ."'·aetivc !i~n~ i[l~it ...l ~lll:s.. ~niI10r q!'[i;'Gt m~ (I (~.g" !) = 6:.01H = ~OOOm~-~ ~i\r(',;';>1lh~ ob~r'>'l';-d \,,,,IIlI\;: J!" = . OJ) nnnis far If'(l"o:l*rt'l0)f comp;;nt,LNi 1.74 [~I]d"'~b= ~.3'if V9),
W~~l

3

= -O.JJ

mm1s liI[ IFelvr(I3")(O)~l~1(!fLt1~(l
{lj

r['{JHilf!~II..'X. 3,UWlll arpt~,1t:li !1l ht]\I'~ a Im'!l'~in

d?

5:.5). h~:SI'l\..'C'~·ioll of the!) ff' results shows lhnl ~h~ f\,"-U bond r Jh"".. n~~f.l'y '~hL;' 5<llllC eo-

c@nf~gu!,u~ion ir~ cC'lntr.J!~tlo,1 ~'""~t~y deseri ~ i~!L;C~.m!!;c !n:,ulg,ur~~(; ~V )o-oxo Co!'Ilpkrx t!ll'~,
WhLCh ~ hi~l ~ili. pfU'ilk1l,llrut iniK"rc~[
~:iC:i'il.ab1.~ m

V2, J 7"UIJ~ l1k~e~llkl,lli!lll:d Uliipf~ire.dl$p~l~ di~li:>ilY
Ou~

\':ll~tcY~l!.'llht;:

1f,,~·Obo~dls ill Fe:1v=O QQ:I'ii:,pkxcs.
is

S
in

=

dit!' 0;"';0 ~mlJj} 01: 3

0.12, ~'hk:h

FO.4} !1J,)'OOlnpariooll w~l1h r;e~\,i=O Ct1i'UD~ plexes ~~,~}; dte di lferencc Crul~ Ill! u:a<;:cd to !I $ftii I~ po.lluizalLioml (]I m~C'bon.ditlll (I\; I d:v.J oru inFlil , The C.xcl~I~C rl!!:HClilli;Ji1 (g,Cl1.Cm\il.'\.I by Ihe ~~
C'xjX"ClCd

b" I~~ Ihill!

J..:, hj' EII]~ Cl'!itcrn1L {)our TANJL.-!<:'~[l\liI.lYi:OO I'('~t(i!imj:\.

clectl10n 1~IO'ICU'i; virlmd Ihe

d~ level bC~ow

d~= level, t't~ oOn.';1.;~~l.!!I1OC, t!1":!ro;!'iSf:i;, a elee~ron t~~i.1)'rr(l!'I1I 11: In d~ .Usg!X.~~L;'r l[~l rj;otu I~ ~ ro d~. !(.,~uhil1.g in .;;~.(i~ti\'~ spill ,tl~1.~ily in 'fll,. n which,. o.ll1!'lbillCd \">'L~i~ posiHw '''fIin (lci:1S~il)'b Ihe~r (.. OA~ ),ij",Ik.L'"l uet 5Pin lk'fl.r.>il.yo~' less (hrn~ 0.4, a axisel' Eq. :~ 1).l)I~nlk+s,dlef'C" ) bond w~dlin 5~" 'fJ1~ 1II1Jl~I~rodC]II,i('u'Ouiln the ~ orfuil~11 c

or

l!l:e

Ihei]' pro\'~i'i,JlW[CI]I~i~1 un ~,'t)~U! ehcm!.IiI. oppoufll!iJnity 1.0 .::Iucildme el:et'llientmy SI.cps iln thec'iimalyli:e c)dcs of TA~II L ac~i \ nU::lIrs, 1<Ik,ill~ aclivrull'l...~ onltc hisJl by 1)!lJri!y or J. wilh ]1.<: vru'imQs luoJnillCill~ spcclmbS~i"'/, TIle
]fIi\."SCrnI wO'i'kpnM,ri.dcs

!'Copic

S~:grlllhlll'C$,

<IS ,I

~toidg~(lm.'tric: l'(;'.olgCI1I.

n~:;

p'rodl:lt1CS :l ~al].C n~lti~,'C x com.]X'!Ilcnt "'p.il!i-d:iJJOkrl"

ofmh:c:

pen ,or the ;J IC.n.J'QJ'~ i.I,(s,..~/gNiiN = ,t 14,.4, ~8. . ~],.5.7'1 '[ lind togclhc, w~Dh~hc 7 isol.ropic conl,'JC'~ term gives Ihe hl~'Crr" A \'.:ih.w m.lc:mgx. OWi~lg ulfhe Im"l~c'cl1.Crgy llZliPS,'!l!."'1wCC'n~ l ~11cml:rro\,,>'ly "paocd ('cix", rd)'.~J Il:llir and!hc O.'lht!f 3dtcvcl:s, :->piJu-()rbil COlllp!i~~g acts primm'lI}1 ~1~~'C~!l (~" auld ,oY'" ,,,~!clllt'OO\I:Ccs (i) :m en1:'«!\ \1.: g value' ii,'.. - 2{ I ViM (g", and gy are 110t afli-Clcd)rnld (~i)>!n mbitci:lJ oontriblJlttoll to t1'le nmg-

R.e-r~r~.IIlCe5anlil INo~e!> :Ii. II. ,('j. [)el1ii~a,;" T. M, .Malmi, ~ .. G. ~li~af; 1.S(illilidl!lt~ II'w; J!OS,22 ~3 (;l;OOIi). 2~ IE. I.. SDlamoo ,eta/,. C~MJ',. 1/it:r,I. 100, 23S, {::mom.. 3. f,!I. GIliI.a5,.M. P. Me'h!n, M. ~•. kiR~!'I, t, Que IF., ,ChrJP], !1~1t lqlll, 'J'l'i' ~OI!M~_ 4. Ill. We ~~Jl~w mi!lra. ill. ZI'Ii!lm!:l, ~r.om:Mlb.. ft ..ilm. Clfttm. Sob 12;7. :un!'! '2:000). S. M, 'r4~WMfi'lb ~!:ll., $, Am.. ~ So,;:. ·~:;;la,'lS eo !'lOOQ, 6.. lIt .Mi~a,·~:d~ tt(ll.,~ Clle'm., ".1.,Ed, 'M u ~91):8 1

'~m,

~OI, :7M ~<1(1061. mnl!! (~~[oIIn valirl! riDl' ,tl'll!! OM-~I!!;fIKII!I ~a"iI'I';oFmil aJdlllin.:;! (cmtalllli;: h 530 ~m·! 21~. Mirri ttl!!' 1\~1!i d~rteQf 1G c~~Ii!t)'af 1l1'1h~ i!d~ed'~ is noI UQ;~~,!!!'. f!' ",.2 9!'I.1! JIN ''''~~Jd hiI~ bei!nl.Bm il~ SI) T. .~O', V. t!\. f.i!~~t ~ t:;, Bl!:n~PlI M, 'T, (ire:o.. M. p, H~md~d)JI~ A, :5-.. I~~~ J.~- Ci\lem, :SaC 126, 8128 ROO6h ,211. ],. 8~dli1i,; M. 'E!rnr~i'I, (. EO. :Sd\itffl!l'. Inflfg., ,Cl'!I!m, ~,t tl83JS (199J), .22. mn~ ~Il. w,\U SllflllCiilM !1r' ~[HI '!i~aflt~IffiOO'bll:l'S (E;.i!.'/.I am!l'GiYI·38'16? O..Q.),ll1e Htinz. Emd'awil'l'll:m.~, a.lll,), ll!Mro!'lrne!1~<ll f'rOle;ction ,!'I;~~!T!t)" ~r:a!lll Ill!) 133 '[0 lJ,(J, Md '!n~ IH~n~ F()~Il~!jg.1iI1or tb~ ·rer~ lileun S::tJ~~i$ (Dr El'lii'lf'l).llmenliii ~~r~ ~Il'd ODIlB,). XM dal~ Irffe ,'dIle<1:edi 0111 !!ieamlLIl1e X3B <111m' r!l;niil!RiI~ S),ricliillillron Liqlt~.sw~c@,;iI!ihi.dI s~L!I~~edllb,. Ilt~ U\,S. ~ ~p:>rlme~l; ~f ~1lIe1.gy ~M '11i'Ie~3Uoma1. rru1i1illt~ ~f H~~I~, W~ i!l1Q1._~'0II!~ II'!, ((j~oi!5 i!~dlA. Gl!Oitl f~

19.

~e, F•. ~~~~, i, rfr(tlg_~i1~,

h5. ~e: ~ iIl'il'rn_.tr.iI!ll!;ilD~ ~dl.:,f - '~dJI'~~ h\tJer i~IfllerlJ!f !lfJ~nlhe' 1i!pIliHg.;m~ral(r~lliO~I:!Il,(n~~ .... (lj",)", r.mer,~·~ i~!hi! IMOX-MDI!! o.I,l:ir~ d '111~IPli!!i'II'l mOI!l)':. C""ill'll!ll1l:1ihe 1~l]je{id,,,, d,.J - doy s~j~Mg, 16. l,·K ~,~,]. IfIw:6I',. aftl.~ '110(1, 4J'4 tlOO6.}, 1.')'. It 'Det:II~f. M, Il\ (~ Eo i., 'Sall:rnom. I, fnrJ.(fj, 8fM:hr!:ffI, 100, 61l~ t20ctO).

,.'t

!o'i!t~a~I~5[jgg~iW:ii~

1'2005-), t. A. CITi\!l1itl~,~ ai". J, iMfg" Bfudiltrn_ '100. 606 120(6)'01\ Ciml)lII'I 6 01" ~ Am.. Cfttnl. .SI!"(',nn, 2:)o.~ {~}l, ~I. 1D.1l_~tf\l "'"An.9M. Oifffl; Int Ed.4!ii, ~974I:2Oa6.t 1,.0..S. S.. G~pla !I.\~' ai, Sdt!-!l~ ~9!ll. 326 ~20iJill. 1i.:Ii. t,!i, I, Banos e.r:il!I.. lrlDfr1, (,hM):, lIie:v. 17,11,361L~l~ai. ~2. M. It l!!lWioWSo'l;i ft' o/:. ,SdM,~' ]:]0. 'l!!OO(I ~2(1!O!it m. ]HJ. I~ornd~ <'lt$t;il?fl'l!"t ,Ol", lOJ7 (ZOO;!}. .~ l!.4. l.!lIiltlillb lImd II'IlI1il1i~m~ 11ft ,1IIl{,lI111Ih!~IlS, s~,por:ling rnaJjeria~ on 5dflKt" O~U!\ill'.

S~piPOIfr.n!!i1 Crnllil'le< Mat,e'r.iial. ~;5l:ij~rni!g,argtqilil'C!Jlll1le!1~fUlWll,~:N1l7ro(1 Malt,~ls aod Mil!1ltiQcIlJ
SIJM 1f~:g

a.

rHg!- 51 ~ )~ f~Illf!~ s''ll '10, S6 R~IeFeo~~,
:I ~II>I 201!1r6; i!Wi~U I!)~ bet 2006 pu~li~metl ooll.u~ 2l DKiemb~ lfl0r6: 10, 11!1!iiI!ld~m ..1H.~~1.i '!~c.t!J~~CJ[~ inf~~~ool '~en cttill;~ 1.h1~ Il'~pe<r.

Simsilil IPihytoplanik'to,n and Ca,rboln IExIP'Ollri f'rolm the ,Surfa1c·e IOlce,811
TtlllTlmli IL. R:ichilrdsonJ!.., <lIm,dl u~o'rgeA.

iIlCllU(~ dir1;.'Ct ml!l~~ s~Jch .,s ~1~!'CW~lim]nll!d ill(lOTJlOl:'<ii~iol] into ~':IIlDltg dl'~riniS. wnd! ,ind il\:"C!

(.""( un. p

Ihrollgt!

lhe

('{)I1MIIl~PI:ioll

)ac::ksv:IfIOl

AuwM'(lphliC ~i~11lpta IU[!;;I,on d(lIn]!l~i~e- p:rimallY prodl!! 'ti(l'!ll Oc'il'@rarg@ i~(@:aI!l]C r"@~IQ~~ bl.!tCllr,~ I:I~U@ve~ l t(l c(J[ltrlbll!tl~ re~athl'l!ly ~~ltl@to (gl(tbofl ,~:(p!i;)rthom :S'l.!r~'a(~ ~Y>E!'f$,~:$i!'lIgl,analYsll's ,~f dat~fl\~m the eqll!!:al'(liiallP'a,I:Hk O(:e~l'!aildArrabial!l5~~. 'LlileshOllji I~at the relallll~ dfr~(lt gll1dindire(t 'c(lIHribl:l[io n ,of P'hi:o,llta I1lkroli!W ~~po:rt i~pr(lPQ,rliiOl:!'~l to, theh Mtalilet p ril'lil~ry prfldll,J:I:::t~(lIil, :despi~e their ~1lfI.i:I,u si:~. We ~uggl'S;t that (!I~lprimary pmdu~elr~ n01t lust the ~ar'geceUS" can (IDrdribultl' lo l'.xlpmt '[lI"om Ihoe sl.ufac:e ~..a.yew tile m::en at rai~es pmporliona~ to their Ipmdul[tiol1l rate5. of

u...oo im~lhcse Sllldi(;,l\ !(4) p1ttilicubrre organic ~m1xm (POC) ~hL'" thal o'rigi:nalci[] froOm each illp~l ~::nnocc, here ~lC NP.P O~·l"<lCh. ph)' tophmikl.iOn size d:ass. ~n~ihe EqPac.l"or c~.al11plc~ pjoopJ~mklr()i1. rolliH:ibu~~d 70'% 01' nnon;;::of the lOooll N PP measured (jurii'll£! JGO:fS EcnP.ac ]II'I'IC serIes, CI'I1I !ses
c>limmes th:c
wti)ll

lIIggregllllCS b)' O:rglM1i)m'l~ llrc It((W'O]'1;: f~lHllys,i(lj;

m hit!,l~(;r U'O;pllic le",d~.

0:11 !P3(;OpJfll1iktollr

ruJcl

b it~l,[~iL"l:u,~n:;~ ronmu!ioms 'n~HiI~Jot::Cllrwithin ~ll~po.;b~:~ 100d, Wt'lb (I,J). AuIQ,1Irophi'cpii.c~)J)IMd'iI.'Oll {<l ~LIJ:I irl tlia~m;liCir]o[iJ:n oolwbuu.c I~rillu~ prodlL~lioi'Q hfl lhcsc IicgjON: bUI, are bcl~vN to COJItribl.llc rck~li.\!dy liid!:: 'ttl ,mrlxlI1 ,;xi}[;jl't iffiln J;~lmJilo~ ~y~ k ('X':. OC,(,fII.!I:SC01:' I.i~dr ~n![lJII ;SllC:;~ :~Iow s.il~kin'lg; mi(!!;, .ftnld nJil)id 1i.l1.i~ilz.l!l.tiQn ihc Illi:crobial in Wop,
~KIl'IU,jllk,j ~)I

C

,lrI;!{,'!!]

(:;."I:pO'rI.

fromnhc(J¢~;,tllic

hlj'~~r i"

~~liJIrFtJO(l L"u!,l).;'. f<lllkl1iy ~~; Ik iug Ilhy ~~rl;o'l:l'~I~li.la, !l\ICh: .,,!\ ~ d ialmu!;, OlIn; b,;:I:~..;: lu l[;{mln;Jl! ~.utmJl n~l:X 'I/I~d from wlpper oOl.~1], 1~~)1(:ffi undllhci;r oontrilnll·· tiom,IQ C:Kpol1l. Ilre ·relic~l!.'d to be .dii:fpropor.

IiC'5J:lOJ'I,;~iMeibr ~7% of PO lo.'\."'i.PO:I1,\'11) ocurWn c;"'poncd Ilu:mlgll. dlc ~ll~400r*u~k~n (:f). M~\i';{l(lp~,mk~n COlli;).\Irm,;"d bo~h pit"Qp~,mkkm.-d~·rivcdd~ti~L~,r~l~l: P'iO~}p.r"'Ulkl.~llll.r~;dl'lli("l:ngmhl,'!l1\, S~milm~}'. <ilt " .rm:mhtiIU :.nuaiol] ~ll Ihe Anibimn S~".;;Ldurillig Ih~
\\'C~

dClfi[~:5, <I!~ld 7(11M! oJ

tLonlatdy larger limnd1,coi,r Co.llll:i~)lllior,l$ ~o totml pri Hilary poooduction ( .1 ~:erc we IiS~ whether the

cOilltlJ'ib~luom of picf'lpbn:kI{H~ to t"1rruL"oll !lrI,lX~t). "~iidtt:
rrorlli

n

iN<Jrt~l(;'il~1.M!lJl!iJoo.n.ljlico~knd{1:O.11 NPP was g(fAJ, {'Iflh~toi~fli fUl'btl W<'lS ..he soulfICCrOIi 97 l'liJd 75% 01" lite ~oroll caib(m c;:.,:,pol"llcdrrom dte Ctirpho,tic llone
tc'S~J>C"'Clu~'d~ q li~. nlC:

Ih::

iilitfflte

t)CC!'l~l are, i!l;lrat'"i., db;p:mpor,.

tiol1i1iclly

Ilow.

relat ~!;;\~ wturi!buli;on,,> of ~1(: PltlOlJ l!anki.C!llUo< cfllrucm CX!l>Ori ,a(lcrca"cd \1!i~aere
[he}, jp,tOOuccd IlCIi.lt~vdyless onhc~o!<I1 N pp b~l
\VCN: l1o:JlctlilCtes..,

roc

1~!~dI~,Ih~o.moplfiiilklol]~i&~,.vtly:;,

lMall'ine scie'.IiK:E!£ I'rDgfall1l1l1la l!)\I1panmernt &f 18io!Qgiitlll ~S;CienGe5!. Uml'o'et'sU!!' !)'f Sootih (i~in~ Co'lilmbl\;l, 'SiC
,292)018,IJ5f\, 2'D@i!iI'tI'fl~m (If O(l!<lIl~ajlh1.TelO!JsA&M Ulm~\I1!mw. illS 3146" .(tll~~~ :~til~iofl, D: 71843~3146,

Using results ,f.l!orn ;illYersc mlQ. [u;:h\'Ork an<lly~s or u.s, Joint G 10001 O~e.1;n Flux S~lLJdy (JGOr:S "data rrom the equ;:llGr,ia~P.acHk ~E'IPac I amI Ar..lblan SCOJ, \'\fC ~~how I h>!ll 'Ihe IlClaah'C' ,oBlrub'u~i(l'r!~ or va.-ioills rh)'t<lpmll_k~ml !5.lze
c111h~~'.\110 c,lrbcUl
cOI1Jt~iblJuioms,
It) ~1\~'l!ilf.! ;;t!'l;:

\-\le believe
plank-ton 10

sllbs-I,mlial (F~g. ~ and Trt:Mc.~ t dla1. dliC' 'Col1lrlbulimu 0 r pi:co-c.noon fll[q,,,, fmnil, occ<lnk: S\~Lf."!.Ce
~1(r

L!iSA.

prof1'(lnti(m,~IIJ11j'lbl;;ir
pmdWlC'I.ion

!<lyeP.'Ohaw; 'aim~ thlll

OOCIil QVCr~,ook~b<.~c;:H~1SC
".Ii;:

O'I~Un~IF

m,ttle

Ol![~Q~l

~dl si"cc.~~I:iku~g

·Yo w!lon1l oo~~e~pplifen~e 1!IiIouldi be add~eSlie'd. ,E'·rmait tidlardscn@1!Ji1ll5t,!~dlll

loU.1

1'I~1 pcil'li1!11)'

(NPP),

(3)1

W!~" n

pt)lc~'iDi~11cXi'loJi

d/'llal~lics.. "Luit;l, dlt: lmrhiC"p<ll.hw~lj's 0 f pitol~tl'iWiky~ pJallkron li~'iirrrHlgh e(,Oto;y:slJt"irni.~. Tilt: :;";llIiualiii.1 p:.!i:PC'1t

838

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