Get published in Science, win a trip to Stockholm, $25,000 - and eorn

the respect of Nobel laureates
Fstcblished In 1995, the GE & SCience Prize for Young Sciem.siS seeks to brl ng science to lite lJy recogniling outstanding Ph.D.s from mound the world and rewal'di ng their research In the field of molecular bio~ogy,

ure

This is your chance to gOln imernOllonol acclOlm and n:!cognitlOn
far yourself and your fomlly; and
10

turn your sclerrtifir idees

imo reality. It you wereoworded your Ph.D. 11'1 molecular bEOlogyduring 2006. describe your work in o lOaO-Vi/Ord essay, Then submit ilfor the 2007 GE &. Science Prize for Yaung life Scientists. A ponel of disii.ngluished scientists selects one Grand Prize winner and four regional winners. Oe,g,dline' e~!el'!ded to AUgY5t 1.. There' are few owords more re\I'IICrding in science than the Screm:.e/AAASLInd GE Hsohhcore-spunsored prize ~ JlJSI csk the Grand Prize winner for 2006 fn addition to having her E'SSO}l

Gmrid PrizE !Mi'IJIe~ !reoo ChM pre$Enl'S her ~, to (I 'CoptiYGled !l1.!diema

published

.n SCjence,

Irene Chen received $25,000, wcs fiown to

the awards ceremony in Smckllojm, Sweden. and got to pick the broins of Nobe~ laureates Andrew Fire and Craig IV1E!llo.·' GE &Sc:renc-e Prize 'or Young Life Sciem.ists: Life Science Re-imagined.

For more information,

go to v.!Ww.gehealthcG re.co m /Sf:. ience

GEfASclence
Pti~ercr Young Life Scientists

OAen l:undfe.'IIGwRri~nnl!r ~II'! Hio, liiil"ld ,CO!TImon g~(u:llMlI1, INobeIh:li",fieQ~e cr<!!!Q MeD!o

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cell-pelletinqsnd re'8uspens~onsteps.
,~Fastest {-8 minutes 'for 1-5 preos.), si!r!l1Pr!lestt procedulre~or purirfy~ng 'the highes~ qualli'~y pl!a,smid DINA.
'. Innovative colored buffell"s,1;permit error-tree 'viisUJall kfenUfica'Uof1 of oompl:s~e! bacterial cell lysis and ne utra ~izeJtli on.
SOOR: ~ldigGis<io!i11 e~ <I: .3 kb pl~!j!!!f!id iON(A mS(l:la,tJ{)d tmm .11: 113190 1JlI~1 ,fE, (;'01.1 cul'~I!JI~ usilfil:g tll1ttl' ZyppylW PI3JSlliTlidMinii,prep Kit era klit· 'fMIliIJS!I!Ipplier 'Gil. Thealmoun~ 0:1' CirAAA Iloiiil.dedlwas, smlilldl:ll1dizoo
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198.8.s~8.82-9682 U 9.1\. + 11-'714-288-96,82' ~rrn, WWW"Ly'Mmesealrch.eom

GE Healthcore

Pure protein is the choll.enge. f) PURE Expertise is the solution.
Imoglne hcvrnq -he cornbmed knov ledo€ 0' hundre ls Q' hr matogroph experts (J' your disposal You d be- ollie ,0 p In' even :he moss holldlgwig pro em ond 9(Jlli the
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N\e:";vsma~~rs
Nle'IVIiflrudiucts 'Srdenrt:,r? Career5,

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17
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61

SPECIAL

S ECTIION

The 'World of underqraduate Education
IINTRODUCTIIO,NI
Many \l'Q]C:IlS, Orl~ Messa~e 63

INIIEWS
!MAP: K;eepi iIiIgl S,m ~e AUSnAUA~
'j\ Cfi:s;j~ fJll, Stud,~fi,t; Q~~@!i1liltVi!lld Q~oI!ll:ty' f

66
67 68
69'

UN~nD SiATES::"lhisls H~,eFmnt UIll,e ..,. Wherr!l I (,l'1inI IRealLy MllIRllillOiU!Ull'lII,tle"

INIE,WS Qlf TIHIE WIEEIK,
5u pil1:r5l~Ed La b D ~.i!lWS Pi re' al NlIH ':5 IEnvi ml'lm!?nt~ lll'l,,~HlIJte

UINiirW IK.INGDOM: 'mw!:ih of What We Wiere iD'@~lng [)ijaln't. Weld;'
FRANCE: Opelfliili!'~Up 'l{l(n>e; Rest of the Wo,ld BRAZil '~ Do Not Malk-ll' a l)i:nfln(ri'OrlIBe:~iJti!'@n aJ!1ld IResta fch" Te-a!chrng

26
27

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sea Ane!fl]'(U1:e' lPrll)lJides.~ Nel;l.lVie~ ,of' Anum all EvO'l~tf o III
;>-> Researchlutrcte
fJ. 86

RUSSIA:

'ne ietllCrner s Sti~llihe (elillrill FigulI"E!' r

SeliJIH AIFRICA:: 'II Wi51i1 ... I C(lu:[~ GiVl' (mhelll1l A~l] Computers'

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73 74
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28
28 29 29

AUSUIIA,: ''ca ~ 'I H,~ve a Caf!l!er ••• 'W~thoul~ IE'i'igli~h' lIN OIA: S€!iQii1dl ~~liilnds: o:f
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30
31

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(lor

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NASA ~lIb Work8\r~ [ll'l'{fY New S!!!(urily .checks

K!fqI~lI!'ledge ,of' :Sd~!l1o!l: oil ~d~~(h!'lI!)I~Q'fJY

77
78

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Jef{l!lPifi 111. Of !iI,C!' rllil

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32

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~>Rf'prxr~.

35
36 38

78

6nmelry and '~iheIlmi!lQ1ina~iQriI Me'e'liililg
In. tI!liJ)l\ribolic S;P1l0~,5il@ Miltt~~s Prii:~~Proof ISffl!6 GiiiinlIll9J.!!!!~ .Il~~ne f\oo[ '~hot5Sp'~lal. tmfrilllil)' to lihat'5i N'ot 500le Kiflol Suml

reast cancer cure ' --ate reaches lOOo/fJ

Science
SC~ENCEEXPIRE,$$
'LI\i'W'I.IV.sdenr::e.xOfes~_org
NEUROS'CIIE NeE H'i!i!~"S'~~edllllmagiJi!'g
'C: HI: MilSTRY

CONTENTS

,I

f'l'I calf! Arrimall Ml(;!del ~'f Depressii!)ll

IR.e1o'e~bN'~~ro'phlfsij©klgkiall

Lhlkst~ [l!'!havt'Of

,II,

R. 0. Afro,ll, .L. .A. Mela.;'!'; MI. ROOf, Y. Grmg, H. (1tef)), Ie [)~fsse(:oill IN~ur.1 !lctWlity in ~hl;!hlippo(llmpi ~d with d",pr~mlol!l-li k~ sym,pt".rn~ . r!lts r!iljl~l5Ih@ dcgri!~ or almil;umal. IMlhOl.yior, pruvidilll'9 a d,yi! tll'lhe i:lJailn drQuits l.mdlilr~YiII'l1ldell N~ssiom NEUROS,CIIE NeE Mesti1C: Orgal1~lza'~iio.n Neurri:ill ,5t.e-mC~Lb lin '~he Ad'lI~~ IBr,alilli of F. 1. Mf'TkIf'. Z. M'JrzeGwh. A. Alvore-l-B'uylla

L~b~H~ee. Shi!'g~.Iil:~Q~.ecYle [)etecr;i(lll'l with O,Pth:all Microcavities M'. Am1olli. It R ~!JIk,(Nf1t S~t: Fraser" R. C. Fl(J~~(I, K;. j. V~Jwla
lO'J.126&.lem:e,114500\2

:$hlft~ lnll"le r'e:;lln~'n~eIr\il,q,uellll;~ O! mil;r{lIl;Ol,VU,~l1is~rfu n,~{lI'!~,l1zed'!'!lith Q-f ' ~~'~~tQr liI1n~t~1I;1,J1~s d~l~d i:llnding Il'f ill singl!~ m~~ld~ •. 't.ilD the C LJMA'1I"E.O~IANGE rb~t;lI~ <lindl Mi !telllnlo1~.Afii[1m::lic rC~.]liI'IiJt:eVario1llDililty , l'l'lfer '~lh!lip.1sta{]o.,OOO¥E!alr,~ J. j,oltMd' elail. A deu!li!r'luiil'l ~SQ'tClo,pe Ife(lClrlil korn anIAoL:a~tK ki!! core $h'I)W:5Hlatduri!lgl som~ int~f9ladals... mmper,allllnlS the~e~re 'up, 1."0 4.~SD(V!lilIf!!lleJ Ihi!'"' the~ h.a~ iloeen iClurin9 the lfI\oIO'r:;.i!Hi~e.

o

Thu,a'l1ous t:iP'es,cli !lew rneurons lfrat migrate ~Q a.dlUl,tmOI,j~eoH~(1iO!ly ,ofl~ii!'r>e INIdh,~QH!Jin a dlilferern ~ui!lregioo ai' !he' ~te II1 c:etl are.l, Ihe~ulJ·w!'Itri cu~~r ZO~~. 10.112~del1(e,,]]4IiII·91'il

lO,112(JS(tellce,1141Q3B

T,cCIHNllCAl OOMIME.NT ABSllRACTS
A WOlrld W!lithoi.!tMan9lro~e:S:~ N. C D!fke @l al. 41 StlppolFtili11!lj Ul'!dE!rglr~d ~Hlit~ ~;e's!la,r(ih F. .41i etal. IS(lpr~!'Ie. (toudl Dr(l!)'~ets.. Oiill'ldPhyl~plaI'lU'(lnl O. W; Wiugenrer ;~!:'sp~nse III. Mes,Mi'(il.e (wi II, NefJt!5
r((IIRRECTlION 5 AN D CI!A:RIF I CATIONS 43 NEUR(l:SC~EN DE C(l!'I'liIlI~l'!t O~ "Wal'ldefl!'!g MllrldSi Thl!! Die-r,aJ!Jl~t INIltWIHik a!lld SlifllUJll;.ls,-il'lde pi!!'!d~I1:tThOIJ~IM: 43

5. J. GilfJf!fJ etal,
11111 fed /JI 1'I\'i'1t•.Ul'Mt<l"m!lJl'.1i'l~!!l'VJ:"lIm,Mt"fl.l{tIJ 11158..J4t4JII

BOOKS £TAL
Tihe tlI'ippcll!;aliiJlpUlS, BQ!!I~ 44 P. Mdefsefl,. R. m()fris, D; A.r1l0jl"(i"~. Bliss. J. O'~eeJe, Eds". reviewed ~:yr. J. Sf!jn0W5~d Tln@ Bmmour.l~ Biol.G9yof0095 R }f!1l5eJl~ Ed., tevfewed by f. A. Osrl(m'(if!1' 45

IR!!Bp,'0I115!ll (omi'!i!'~I11~on ~Wi1!mlerin9 M~i'!d'iS: to flie[lera!!lU .Nehlllork ,and s:tim!iJhil$~I,i1d~pelil,d~ent 11110l[q,ghf' At f Moso,r~ et :;It lu11 f~! III wwl'olr.rfI!n(~mQ!J_I:O~rg~rnI1fMrtfuUjJl't5Bj4f4jr

IREVIIEW
ECOLOGY
,'I,.

POUCY FO~:UM~
'Wi ~Ul'Igli'l~s to '~IDl"lal~IFrO:~ir"l EmbryoiS, fl')r'
Stem (eWll'lesi~d A. D.. llWly ail{j .Ii. ft F"otJf!fI

S~al:lmlY and [livelFsity (If E(.o~yst~l'I'Is R. flies (JmJ 5, R. [arp€.fjler

58

46
PSYCHOlOGY

fERSPIECTllVIES
Shall~Matters ,M.,. WlI1 Herkf! >~ 49
RtfilJff p, J os

Are W(lm~n R~aUyM~:r,~lka,ti\l'll' n.Ii!~IM~PiI?' ~ M'.R. Me-hi i,H ,ail.
Contr.ary III IPQpu!o!rwisdom. IT!!i!le ~l1dlfem~le o()~le<ge ~'Uden~~ s 5'PtI~&.the s~m~ l1i~m~r or worth d{li,ty""--'}i)out ]5iOO~}.

82

R!ll'meombeillln~. UiI@ SubU@ IDif(@I'\@lrlC@S D. M'.lhlf!fl~mul," (JfrdR, 5:p.~e"f}gel
» R~~tm:f:rArlie!" P- 'Ii~

50

IRE,SEAIRCHAIRTIICUES
A'PPL.IIED PHYSiCS

:S:I!X; Cyroklll~S,;. ami Can(~{ r. Law:~m::t'; r Htlf/(!(fiQfm,. F. Baikvliil
>-~. fI~l'I;)fh ~

Wif\~less IP<!\'Illl~1I)"a !'!:def via StrXln.g,ly C!ll'!i!p~cl 51
M~9fletk 1l!J.i'S.QI'I~1:! CI(loS A. K(J.r~ etc all.
TIn~m~gn~k
fl1:$-1;IIiI~-m~~

83

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~illce IQv~rill dlS,talil~
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J. V'Orta!'J)

'\Ii,rt~!lUy Trlll~lwort:hy

53
54

laop.~r

ii remo~(;! d'~l,i'K~tiU'lJUgll

1i1'li!'~li!rs,

GENETICS

Shil'lif'l~ Light 0111 ~11e RapirHy E'II'~l!jliin9 SuucMe (I)~. Wl:Ite~ A. TokmCJ~()fl
Tille Ip,glO'l!~r S~"I:YOILI free ~o St~,I'alf

5,!!'" A,n@m(U1'~ G~MIIliI,e !R,@ij,ual'!h;.A!l:ces.~If,ilIil

86

w.

55 S6

IEl!!i11i'!rIHa~OaJrI Ge:l'!e IRll'perto~lr'fl: a!1i~ Ge:no~ic Orgal!'!~~iin,']OIi'! N. H. PUmO'l1liH a~. TIlle Cl1id;,'uii!lgeJ1'lWi,e ls m(1lr@'similar m th!!!t oJ wrtri!brOl!~~S.lh,(lnl flie5 or WQrI'l'1iS, .sl.ll~g.~st[m'gl l\il~t~ 't@mm;;ll!l iJJnOO~tOf01 i!T!~lti(IH~ul~r t ~ll!li'l'Illi'!lswas un@jp~ctool.y~ml'l~. =>;;> rIIIf!i'Il~i'MJoI €_ 2. 7

Rietrtl.5pe'tflll~~:il!.Qbed 'W. Cain n (1 n.4~200n ,1lI1lidl o1'1ifd 'Fumb!JI~I, ~1915=20cai) D' R.. Dall(!f.fy

E"cept.'io,nalll lrep,re:seAta:tlo,n from lliess S"ta, ing Imlatslr'ial' every time,
'1

eDNA

'Y'· ,..

qPC,

~n~rocludmlg qS,C:ltp,tm, ~[,Qm OUilI'Ita BiGS ci en:ce:s" Ule I'IM star:!d:ardfur r'e:p~l'JcllJ(ib~i~ spe~iflti~~peNi. <I rid :senSllUuiLy
in dtNA SYIiI~he~i'5 f,arqPCR. Nil) artier pt'~J~luttdl1~ivefS beUer5allfllpl~ r€1Pr~ent!3~iQI1i, ~ast,u,and ea~ier; qS(1rii~[.'1.l i~ (ii,v!1liIQ'bleins.eve,rral £0ifI1III<;LIb;; j'qS Clript1M ,~!DNAS,up,erfilil(:;The fl~,~ O'l'lly OlJti !IIljze~ dlrlle! oJii!,e-'ltJ!!!b@1st sb"and d:lNA.$y~H~l€Sij_s fOT 2: stll!P IFtJ.P(lft
T

,. qS'aipt1M

Fi~xd[l!IN,A Kit: 'Prilning flel<ibili'ty and

sel!fl!'s.it1lvity£or ~st s~lr,i!!ridcD NiA sY'FltheS:i~. • q'S cri~,tn~ (lime-Step qIRT"PiC,R: ~ it; Maxi !Inurn RJ-PClR @ffi.cieI1lCY, sen ~itMty,alld:sped'~c ily. IEl.ioscimces 1l:]V@ teflOCV,of~~I1,g·1lilIe iI rclEv~CPl1ilellit of pio:nee:rln~. reag,ems [nctudinglS!.!p€!rScliip~ Hi'tep RT·lPai. rg~ PliatioornilTaq. iSmJP'l.m, ,aoo iQI'M SOWI1OOix. qiScrijjt'~is th~~r''Ii!it~stimrl!s~lry-de1uln'i,ng p,roduct 'To leam 11lloWE'about qJS()!"ipf'~'ili~i~ ,qua'.lI1 tabi,IIlI.C1ll1i1:11
i

'utJe l'oomers,o:rqumra

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n ~TIr!!.lI 'to!!... ~~~ n
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Science
R:IES,EAR:CIHI AlfrnIC~ES CONfJNUED ...
NEUROSrCl1E NeE D,~ta~~ Gyrus N.~~.[lt!. @()(l'Ptl(H!; ~ M,e,dliat:~ ~pidl, 94 ~~tl'em S~@g ~~~!Jtt'(l:!iI Ih~ H~pPQ(g!'li! pa ~ N!E'!tJ!iii(l~k ifill I }. M'CfillJgfl e'l~l" IRiIls ,~Il! <i'1iItIl HI di~~ing,u1:!;h ~111~W @Iliwronl'l'wl:lt IH).rn: ~, ~tmib rOfill b~'~~llro ,0:[ disrtiiD(t p'<ll~~m~ ~ynillpli)[ ~lr~ngllh~niA;g ~n the
I

CONTENTS

,I

.
AI'tCI"II,4,EOlOGY

-.. .... ~~~~~~ull&

151, 1.21, 1124

ar

dillnltilte 9IYJlJi.

>;0'

~/!p.!'C1IVf

i\". 50

M. .pelfoglio ,e:1 at A ~ite'iFl !il)1J~her11i Il'Id~1L sb~m tIi!~l~ !out h!lmill'l pOP'UI;ltion~ p~~b~d
UuullgJhi Ih!l'i(;ilIUld~i( ToitJ.il!KJ!CiInk ~'~uplion 7],000 y~r!l .. g!l.

Midd~!! P'~I,@()I,itlhi( As~@!m.b!ag@JjrrG~liI thi! l,nd'ii3!~ 114 SUi IITi,Qor]ti 1i1'~fl~ IBiiffonli gl!'ld AftllN tih~ il'1l!I1i<a511I):er.... Iil!!ptf)('),iF! E

CHEM15TR¥

E VOI.U1J10 N
Pr.gw~!ils!!lqUI1I"!~!lS hu:iiGl~:e that <l ~tfill"~eIWrlm diSli:Cl'!'eJeci Q:'o'er~I cenlWiry <lgo·~ <lcu!I<!Uy oil (rmdlan101n,<l fiill!cllmJlthat dli!l~lefl!'9!lS v~ews 'tin bQd.~pI,)n ~!.lJlirQ:n, EVOlUfUJN

111(f,entifh:::atiofl ,of A(li!Je lEdge Sii~,~ 'ror El~ci~ro(hemkat ~00 11H2.IE.ljIo~ut'ioink,om Mo:S~ INa iii cu:atilll ysts r F. ]ommiilo e'~. t a IH~ur,a.gt;~wolutiiol1l conrelatM wrtti'l Un~J'ild'geIII n~th of ~riangul .. r ~to.s·Olilia oopa itEd5, i'f1j!eillljll1lgUlea(~1'J,J\e ~ilf' f Ih~5pollfiltial o ~ltEmati~ to F!'recioWii metal GitaIy5'1c'l.
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CHEMISTfiV

U trldu5:i.lndlil1g :~.e<ldMly at 'Il-ef1/ ll:l'lll 'T'!i1m,perill!Lm~~: 'i1ihe Re"lri::ti.ollls oi OiKvg'~m AlQm~wilh A~K.etrl,e'S H. S:Ob,f;~h e'~.at
A ~o1f·e-"l1le'rqy ~e~rfalilg~~nt oW t~ai'l~i!joil sla,l.e~(~ ewpl<!.iln ~'!:l,eII rru~I.!'<llrr ,r~pld w~ctfon Q1~tT1.pl~ lJl~le~l.H at .. e-1lY I low ~m-'pe~~I.'l,!r~.I.i~J: thQs:e '0<c'Yfri!l91 ill <lirtf~llI'O'.fl1I~~,,1 dl~. dOl.!

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G€jljill'lk .f'IF~IPE!r~ies, Ilnnl!€nd!1lg~hilllEv()ilvab~~llty ~~'118 G~jije E)lp~~$f(ii1! (. R. ,~tmd"elaL 'HilI:! ~lPHlSsi(Jrq Imr,~Is,01' g~ne:; IrI!\lU~ t~d by (en\;!lin ne!lrb~' ,~~(lfrIl!fll'S or !)y mal1~ ~Ialrlt '~~l!nimts~ol ... i !MrtKJula I'lJ rilpidl~. d 1 MEDICINE G~'li!der II)i5plQirity fln~n;Velr (alncoer fi)'~e tQ 5~'.,'( lEIiMeif,en,(e~iil1i My~68·B)epen.d~n~ Il·6 lP'rodiudionJ 121

AP PlIE:D PHYS~CS lon9·lLiv€d Gi1llllt Number fllurluli!Uol1l'sil1 Ii! "0$ S.W.i!rmillligi ,Grraflulli! r INematk IV. NfllOyon. 5. ,R,amaSw.olfl,ll. N. MlmoJl1 Ti11e<C!CIUKliVe- two-dinwn5l0,"'a~ m(lil,o:n (lif ,copper ~od~i~ a Sl~lution, (iOflst~a~ilIH Ily p,lrUde·panide ,cDntac I, 'shOll'5 si milar Etire5tQ, Cln'ly ilodtiflgl <100sW<!Hnl!ng b~~,P/iDr 1nl .mi!'mals <lind b!!c.!l!fiOl.
,.,. Penptthli!.r p. 19 GEOPHYSICS

W. f. /iI.(1UgJif!f el all.
TIn~'gr,~a~~fprodwrtioo 01 an il1lll<iiMIm~t~'Y qD!lkinl2 inl m .. t~ iI1f:G~ ~.'qlli1lin~ IIIf:g her S!li!l'(.eptilIi'Lity to Iwer r.llllmr. IIi~lr
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MEDICINE IR~ l)I ti:l!tlcll1l (If SP!!l'fI.t.arte<~usI~l'e$li iila~U;~n10rig eif'te~is.

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lhrQliI'gh UU~Adaptior Prol~ifll Myn.88r S. /l,()k:ofJi.1Ii,(llwl)/n (llUri R'.Mealbirov
1111 i(~ • .11111 m ihn'i!I~@~m'IImUlnll! signal,ing p.arn,'i'ay oOriU,oIISi lin~ f!';qJf,~ssion 01 ~vtr:a:l key 9~nts thal~ 1nlrluerm~ Ulm(lf d~~el.opm,~liIt ilil tIh~ 1nt't~im,e. »Pff'!II·willf p • .51 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Ve:a5i1 DNA p(liymell'<ll~ ;EPHrticij:lllte51Cl l~eildililg,..Stlrfltrld DNA ~pti'iiltJ1~:n

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SCIII::NOI!!,

VOL3176

JULY

.2007

'9

Science Alerts in Your Inbox
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or ScJenceEx[press has been posted, peruse the la.te.s,t~abLe'of con~el1ts 'u~J.r all fro m you r e·.maiI ~nbox. It) slar~ reoeiviing e·mEliI updI1\llte.5. go '~~):

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iEA;OilING R~SOIL!lR(E: Introd.iJ[tiJolil to IE:rJl"me: I<ililetic.sA~~iiI1o~ 1~"Ga[@;(;tQsil!ihf.l!~1? J. K: TflIQtson U:s~ ~hi) Qlfili:oo M'Q'rol'~CI U~acht~ll basic; 01~!l2yrF1~ ki ooliG.

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orderililgJ '(;;JJI!I1!O(il:Jrtihilt seems 'til) tie twiggewed by k)i:.a'~mobol'ls or inl'lIE!ra.ctiolls, ~1,H::has ln ~hie mOlI]ol1 o'f 'ftiiit:iks of birds, On a iiiiiJc:hsmtiUllir ~Ci1ll,E1',[M'gl w·odl-~h!i!ped !not~cu.le$i~5I1)h!t':on 'can ~io'rm a Ullemaltk ~iq~ UI~dI(rylilailUl1e phase' •.11'1whl](jll the rod ,ori,entaltilons i!l11F,e riO! liotro'pic but ~:efld ~:Q aJl~igl'l p'andllel~to tOne- ,1nilo~h,elr. NiI~r;mlyalnnl,ft ~t.(!Ill, dll) 5,; see th e' Per:'ipe'rtiv'e by '1/jjJ.linl He ('~~,) studied wpper rod$!i.ibOl,lt 5 ~nilllim'der:'i ill Len~ltll aJllmd0,8 mm~m~t@'IF:S~11i d~a.meter, ,find whosili! snds 1III,er@ thilln~d ~Iy et(hinlgJ

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I)NA uep:rodlldbtY' hCnlll ,p'la-rlt$~!td il'1~e(~ r!!!lIl!tli lShClmlhE! ~;ilty I st!cliun!;; or de'E1:[l k eonr'~ J,rom.ild$! ,glbove' the b~dro~k. #!it the lime ~~helil lffiri5 r[]e 'ro.rIH-ed, southern Gre~";land was, (overed b~t!! ,(!iii~r$e OOf€!Cill raf''e;S[ ~,Qn~i:stI11119 pine" s~)~u~e. a ldtr. Qf and y,~ illlld illhlb1ted by i'lrns.e!::t.~ 5!JIc;h as blJ,t~!l;rflits·lIl11d l1I'Wl~5-" 1ihlit~
Ii!e$'l,llts ~~ilIlld be il'll(HGative '(!If either ,etjdt'II1'5~'IIede!;llO!G1IItioil U~ ~u~hem Gr'e€llla IIild' i:lm111l9 the last illite~-

year'S oil nd ha:Vie 1IIt~m1ltiv~~y been di!:5s;ii~ied 1lle"1lJ1la~ bers '!lilh@ protijsl~ (if OIllIlima [ kiI1iQdOn1s.,. Jillille:n,i!z"6.u rm et ,~i.

'~I€l(iilll (E~l1iIianlor [l'NA~ufi!l'iv.a1
'rD'ilerLOlllger 'time scalle~ of up tal In~Uic:r! y.e;m.

Cold but Quick

(~'" U6} lhave p~r· (Iormed a phyl.o:genelic allla~i~ of ,an,amii'lQ..gldd
1I~i9nliltm[ and rind thll[~ihe my~o;lwn BuddelJ/Jf()ckfa pltm'N~.!'ello~ $lr~UiI'ge wo~m disc~' Em~dIllil{mi1 than <I cemlhny a.gQ-~) clilaUYi:l!1l a ilICl'ive, ffiIl.lS(!Ul1.a. w~ithi "g, ~fill.-shaped J enid' a r'whid1 iflC ~lJIdlel) i,ellll'f'i$h ,and ~,cnr:ls, dha Ilem ge:s .. 'I'i@ws on hod~pl.1lirl ,e-voilllliOJl .•

,,~. Oil!l1Ilica~. rl!ilt:ti'um:s in sah.!'timi gillrieraUy iI{<d~Ler~ ;J~' wil~ ri,s,if1:9 lemp~r~w re, b!;lt re(:~fI~ ie~ slud ::. ri. ha¥~ rewat~di,] d . aliso~ ga5'"lllhas'e rea;rJiolil) ~ belweellsmall, IlleullF,all mla!l-e(ute-~Ilhatfalilow th~

The

~ oIl'P!DsH:e U'e-tld. This ~h~!1omenonlllf ~,,~idreac~ tivHY"iIt low IEmllera~u reobears, en (lim U nderSltilr!O ing of tli!@ dl@Plri((l I. r!~ctiQI1I!l lihi3!~mal)' ~ (lI((!LUi 1m eeld il1i~erM~ Ila'r dOllds, wh'i:ch .iii ~ C11<1:1leJ1lIJ~I!1g La probe a;perffi"!lem~Uy+S,abb(!l,h eol at .~ (p. t(2) Ih.i!lVE!! pEl'Ffmmed pr'Ki!i~ i<ll:mr,almy foale ntE\~Sl!lremefim~ of 0 at()ftl re!3dOifl~with gas:-

i~n. The exis..N~.rlCeor a wo~m with~rll~le- (nidarla,

i i

Evide f10~fro m at Greener Greenland
At pi'E:5ent '9lCid!l!!i'~ (QveF aD out :1.0% i)'~'E,ar~itf:s t~rr,eofi~rii!l~ au::, but. th~r'~~s only Ii mn~~d 'surf

.~ phil~e ai'kene~ i:lelweefl -,,20 to 300 kelvin. They :S th~i'! moo~~~dl~he 1!.jj!JiJjsu-aUy rCijlid 1m;; 't,emj)e'r~f? t~r~ Ir,at~s lLI~ing(II 'theor~HiCal. '~r.a.m~!i'i,i~l"k!:halt

:g indudes
i~

L\!tQtr!1lrl~t1iQiIl s~ale~,.'one Ol~""hich hl!!.!'@l,!;,~5!oW''1ill'ltf9V F~1tn ill mg'lii'mnl Cii~il t [(lIIli-

:~ $oie'oUy Slil ble pJ'le·reac(iol:l ((Iml'!Jp1e~, [he res ults;

kiin!()\'I,Iledge ~bol:lt.the bio:ta ~hat'~w:ll[)iedJih.r;:se' VG'.i't (I re<liS be<W,orethe ke rorrm~d; most r05.S,iI. !W1de:nc€ f:sei'~her deeply ~iddlen, IH has b~11 5i[{(!Ijf8d illll\Cif dmilmg pt'rioos ~F gl~1I:dlll eXIPi:lll~ion.

01 the l<lr!le5~. ]Ii! [<111'11: recent plai5~~ fhh e-r'IJpti GIll milely caused ~'s d rarn~He (OOlUiIIQi E:~H~h' s (lima leo alnd p erha ps illHlJlenCM humal'l ev,~liIJi~i:olm-spe(m( ..\Iny eady hman)1111 ~a~t.'HIliA~ia-but E!'IIidElif1('i;! E!'I!i1I~l.!ror ~~iI1g ~lhe5eellJe(l~ha~been 'Sparse" P,e~uag~i~~t,ai. , , (p. 114) ~a~ ~dlen:tll~~e,d th"!'il'l"obaash in ail alfi(haeo~ogk~1 ~equl1!llicl!!n IlIIdia and Jmmil it to i !be- 'rid'! wi U'Istone a rlif~~ts" the '[oC!I$~ho\Va :5~ighl e'J,i'o~lI'rnmlj aeress lhe ",511Layt'w !lllli. a,r~ ra'i~lyCol1'lijlllJClu s. llili!l i"E!cof,d imp ~it1~ ~O((! l that PQPlJllatiom.like~:f mmained rll~!h~ region and. ih!1l t Ule $!il;P~ i~t al"ioll! or ~he toolssQ.aQlg!ests HB.;I,t k 1iIII(lI([!e1m humi:lns 1lI1ii'ly hlllffl' r'~il(hoo Intll<llily I.h~ lirneof the Tooole'rI1l~li(l111.

n,000 ¥e,[l rs agiO! Wi:lSOllie
or

'l,i'Ok:aIr!,1( ~u:~~fOf!' ill r~lba. e

!fildil)nesia"

"Our qoal is tal understand molecular

interaction in cells. IForthis purpose, excellent instruments are of essential Importance,"
:BecaUEH3: cell uma[JIirlg is: se fundemental til Und'8'fStanding ,cI8'ilul:ar processes - and ~n particular I'hl'e und.ers:t;allding diseases, such asP,arkill'i'son's" Alizliierm'8rls, arlld canGer~the wle'q~Dirlements foil' accurate Icolnrf'cu::a~micJ'Os;c:Opy are equa,llly~mportant

COtlfmUfd ftom 2£ge :lJ

D,iverswty, Stab~litYt al1d Controversy
Tille- reiatnon! be'l~l"el'l diversity amid s~,j!billW ~:5 one' or lile' most mm,tell'll~olJsi~SLle-"iiin emtogy: [)uner~nt ~h@(J'Fi@;!; (OliUIFadic~ @acih Oliil!l!<F,,~rnpirit.al, r@sullts oar@! i VIlWF!sis,t!!111 ,1'!nci ~ Ii!~Dr~ti(ians; a n ~ IIilmpifldsL~ t olten d'i:sagree. IveS:i;mdl C~trlillemite,u~p. 58) review th~~ debatl!! .!Ind [point (I~t the mI~mer(lI,:lSiLylPe's ,(!If ~lalb,jl[ilyllhal dillS( Iiib!l!di iHiE!lr'~Fltprop@rtilE!~s,or ;@(:Qs,)I:tt!tmtS; o1!!IId coH@spcmdillig ly n'!.m]li!W!!l~re!!ations b'Hll\!een djve'~i~yaml5talbimy.lEi'llpirk~~sUtdies, hlo"...~er, h~1 efin;phal~21edi Ol'!t)' a rle'LVor Uu~~e rellar~ions. Orlefl ign or~iljgjth<lse th,alt a roe!'i'l()st k1(!PIOrt3f'1l j'or Ipre~~iii)g e nvifOf1liiile-i1tallICiOilcefn~.IE!o(n Ihe Mi0pE1 ilmI.d~IJ;(!!I:1i ~hi!i~ 5lm:lie5~ho!llld 'brooderl ~o,iden my me(hi1ll1i~rlliS lhi1l~. evea~ 9 e~H!lra~i~ie'S rI or r i

The: American Associ.a!l~on fbr

d~fSiitY"Sl~bilitv fel~niOf!S.

the Advancen~.eml~of Science

Sea Anemone in the SpoUi'Qlht
1I111~l:a r~~,t eaanen:m S s

{AAASl, ~nlb:~isher f Science, o :isinilin1i:ng a seereh for ![dlitm'~' eirculauen tomembers o'f the AAAS and inst itutional sub-5

e JltellUllQ5~'eUa vect'eMi:si~ a 1'1 e fine mgi IIlg (fI[d,aria11 model. De~pitE ~healPlD;;trI~n:t morp noI[Qg i(<!~ s;i IiIiIplicit.y ohsal !i!1H!IiIiIOIl@S<,. je~lyfisl1. I()OI<l~~,antBal'her c;nidtH~arls. Putfii:! Illl et (II. (p, 8.6,; see lh,e 1iQ1!i!;iI,i$ ~lQfY by Pe!il !'Ii$i)r~~Qr~. considera ~Ie ('(lIfii~1!i! lexir.y f~ Lhe gencPlne ~:r Ithe sea
alfll~mOl!lle.,

i.IlII-CllIiii.d.The jourual ]8 pubI~i shed week l.y w itbworld wide
.:II' ~·Ik en·I~· uers, me IU!i.l!! mg ~,~ra ne s, e•

IhmJl!:lht
'9~1l$

[Q,

rth~ Nerl1tJ(o,$tlelirJ geool1l1!i! ~sl~l}lish~ ~h~ amfq1!!ity o'~ many g~!l .. s '~l~t J,,'l'erep,~~(ll!sly e be' IUtllique to 'IIerteiIJratf!'5 and pmvj,des i! dHre:N!nil. pt!tr5pe[~jll!!! en lh~ origil15(Dif f1lWiE!l

in animals,

Remem berrung the

iii forUllm~br file pres€: ntatin 111and d~ 5:5]011, scu of hmpo!1~!~t iss~Ie.~rehu.i.ng ~()

Science serves as

Fine Details

Patt€lI"fIt separal]O~

~slJhe IPW'Ol(€SS Iby

which lwo Sililillariil'lp'ul representalio~t5 ;!l!lel lr al1i~foll"l11'1 eel into 1m ere diI5,simi~ar n!~lililsut1tU(mdiin or~@nol ~edtllce i~te,ferei!'u:el ~ Iweefl 'the two
p~U'E!iFIiI ~Ij\'h!llll'l ~h!!'y are sUIb:~equ:ellitly

the advancement of science, with parti cular emphasis on the 'imer,;:l!::~ilml:S am:ol,'1g science, tech mel ogy, govemm en ~" iii nd society. Itincludes reviews and reports of research havinginter,disci~)limll.Yim,pact

slOred in !mei1i!'ory, III 101'!'9·h,eld but la!rlJlely li'l'!1tEsted IlJIll'Ol~esis ls Hlallhle MP'P!l)(.i!!lfiilp.a l diel'lt1!lte ,gynll$is i~vol:vloo~jlt ::m~i"j!J ~pl~rati en. M(HI ~l!Ih €,' I~t(p .• 911·tubU 5~,~dQ nl in~ 7 J!Uiil~;!:~(! th~ p p : Pelrs:pedw~ by IBarll1ietrrlllrl8llHI illlilJdl Sp'.relrilglei~)gem~J[lted ~ m.'OHseHilI:!'that specir-kaHf l<lfks N-mel~~hD-asp.:!rtine ~CeIJl~rsi!il de!lilt;;:!~~gr a mU.!lle' lls, Sl@tld ,ml ,cQJil~e)(til,a~ f,eii!r (iOn~ ilirDnT~19 Wol!$ u II)JOtaffected, hut. the mice lNere IlIl!1lal}~etOI di:SI(r"fI1Iina~,e bei'l'lel:!f1 tW(D slmilar (ol!1ldiili:pn~I1Qtchamhers.

Inflammation and Iurnor Proqressian
IHI E1'pdt.oceUuli!r lLilHJnom~,. 11wrnllJ],o:ni31l'ld d~<I,dly Ci31n{~J'of llit e l~\i'er; 115.3: to 51:ulIIles I1TIIOlFe keLy to o>(ur li iii! ~!f!e~l lh::!~ ~Il WoOlUtllfl (~1i!E Utf.i!''~~il ~'ll1fe- Ily ILaWflllrn(!':i et al.). wtlrki!t9 if! a .iiIi!OI.ls.@'mOOlel]Ji! ~\lhi( h ~i'i'!2irC.dtl'lCer isindlKed hy I~xposur~ to il memkall (i!rdll1log91n.IJli.Ii!lIg~er e1 aL (p.. 121) Ilmpos~ a Fn~~eiJU~ar ba.~h;. fo~ thi~ ~mell1llom!~lrml'l ,e.l<!~lal by lhoe ,[I(jfMm af Ule JeI't]ale hOUlflone e~lrogefl alld its aMlily 'k! 1'100 ~lIIiMllitinlbmlltl~l(u~neSJltms'~irlll1e tlver. E!itJcgJ~n acts OO~mlhi~:h!2(Jr~!.illn o:f illl~,el!kinr·6 Ot-6) by ~i~e,rImacl!'Oph(ilge~ Ikno"llll'la~ lKupHer oe'il~,.PrOOIJ(tij(ill of Ill-lEi ~a~, d~pen:deru 011'1 1,es;i.gnalif'!.{ladaiPlnr U p rol~ n My08S" wfuticfut ~n l~m maly IJ~actiivat'\1d b:v prod Litts or d)'i1l'l9 udlsin I.h!inj urad tiwr. ai~ken" N~h!)i)lm and Medw~~(i1!t(p, U4.)~I'l1ip1k,al!e Myl)$S, in promo~in9 ~ni!,(!IM'Ie'r (~Ui!.C4;'rr, th(il~ Ol~l~leil1l!e~tifle', I ~'FlflalfuT!aliof! is bCIIljn W be· i! risk ra(to:r~or OOI~fe'[ii!~Wff!ors.. I fl a n'lOu~e imlOO~~ ir:!t~sliflill tu mcrtic.~ ge~l~is, mitE Ladiing IMr08S~10'1l'i\ed inhibitEd 9rowt~ ~na Ijlrogressi'Qn of tumOfS.

attach specialweigla ~o evidence of significaut achievement in sdenrr[fk research, editorial experience and c;rc.!lll~vity. a"~/nn .• mess of leadieg trends in the scientific disciplines aad
managerial obi.ih~es. App]i,cati'ons or nominatiens should be.sccempanied by complete eurrieulurn vitae, ~mdllding refereed ~'lub~icadon~. ~:nd should be sent m\Q:

ILl selectingen editer-in-cbief the Board of Din;:cl"ors will

Gl1et.cbell SCilt!l'
Kx.ec'Ul~iveSeeretarv :s.ea~:lcEl C~uulinH'h~e'
'!O(

Bacterial SUisceptibility::Wnosle

Valdt ls It?

U~10Nc\:,' York A:,-,lemIH:' •. N\~
\f\fas.h.iingtJon.,. DC .10015

The 11LII1 Ilpith!!~iil! reprilt!ient a m~iorulllerraHl be~.W!lefl!.hel host i! mil the Qu~side micJrlobilllil ~~orld dine! ~ ~alve e\l'otll\~d slPec:Hk medi~UQi~'!1Is to enSlHE the e~lr!ideIJ!lt deara~(!e ICif palhQge~u •.mm~t!i1i!.lJort~!l('e (If I:hese pro~~.3S!!2!j; is de!;!riy evidetnlin 'the ~u:ng:~,or cystic rnbm~I[~,l\a!iEtHts,W'l!tm i! Fl!!' hYlPiI1r~ j uSlll1p1i hte ~o i!'!r«,t.i!lJi'! by Pseud()~W/lGS (Htfuginoso aiS .QJ lie soU of !!I1'i.italions iill the cY:Mi(.~ibr(:l~is.u3lrusf'!~embr3n~ ~ lCom:llJ[~.a !mel!!e glUl~lIIQ:r ((nR) gene. !(ol,\l'all.s:l~i et at. (I!. 130) prnljJid~ e!ol'~decelihi31l. a (il:iJlil ~atnel'lt or r n llil Ilrr~:s~eriO<l,l5 itl'lt~ceUlJ lair 5otrl~U::tl!l known <;115 rE!5lJ'alUl~~ ,also Illil~ !l prima ~ ~ole ij 11U~,~ d,~r:e iiigali fiSt liI~e ~ ..·~~ihis pol!~:h~glel1'. ltef ~ilP.1ldiillgCtF1iRYin e-pi!,helial !;eUs., P. ,~e,f!l!gi.tll:lW intlu,ed A r·e~n,litment ~r IiIiIIi:iaiQ~ ; vauU prQ1t.eiDl!~MV~) ~o Ili~id r;;l[ts ;;Illl~e CleiH~!.irr.a,ce aIDIdthe ~!,Ibs.eql!leID!lintemalizati:(l1'I Qr the 1li3J(te~ia. '~ ~11l I1ke', ~hi:liMVP -dependel'lt pr~e~l! wa~ requ ireclkl!r re s,l~ltamt to inJedio.n" 'whf dll :!iILJ~'gt1;l!5 thal1l1 1
.

guali ..ilc:iuion.s ~u"ld experruel1lce. f App [i{:ationIWl:a ~:erl!l:~s,sh.ou I.d be S€:IU: by.A'l[IIgust l5, 2001, The ,MAS is an
k,'tJuaJOpp()rt'lm.i~\· E~~~JJ1()J1el~

Sal.3ryis neg'otiab:le based on

-

:~ silll1lila r pll'(lces~ !1H1Iy be ~li1fIporliliflt 1i1 humans,

-s & NPA

Hle:re~your Unit to career advan~ememt
.AAAS ls illit [h~ IrQ.refralYl.of OO\UJi1fl6ng0il!rJv·rnroor I'~~ardl@rs - off'€ring iobse~ rdll, grants and fe:ij()'iN!lnips,. !j.ldll"bu1!ding

Wl)rks:hiops.~ndi S'lra~tgk .a.:M1ce through ScienooCa:reers..(l1g il:n1d·QUlrCentef fur Cilreers in :s.cr>enlt-e &. Tecmology. N PI\, the NaUo1Fl1l1. Po5t.ooct~ml Asso'i;a~lon. is providing a national·~ke and. ~kililg pOs1UI\I'Hrn~i~g~postdocsIFQr parilneringwHh fVlJJS·lin career !faLrs,~emi!'!ars, a f1Id,oth£i:r events. In [d:C~ M.NB wa~ inSl:ruJlli1lnt:LI in Iiletp:Tng~he 1M •. PA get st~.rted and d€"feiloJ.)linto a g!"l(lWirqg (1~1W! tlarukm ~t:!d

a v1tallimk 00 pDSI!doc s,uoo.ess..

IIF~Uffl a IP()stOOc or g;ra.d sUJdeli11, go I.lJIIDh€AAfl\S,i"Ij t% l!i!'Ilk to find out. ilow to s;petlcar;eersu!!:e5&'

~.D

1-

,

_

&-IIIIGH~RHWCATIIOII'IJ, NOT o-rUY liN THlE.IUIMIHIIJ' STATIES BUT IINJMANV OHlER NATIONS ~~w~ll.llas eeme ji'llQr reeera cri'ticb'm ,~lbotn;~ \~'ayit pr~pi!r~s!J!ld~fgrJduH~e !:l.ludc~,t,,~ the Ihr Ufe Af!i~n"'~~fd. tlf our readees, Ihete's <I~,"VQ-\'I.'t~yeoaeern about science edll~m:iQn. F First,we' are ~OSiiUgtoo !n(lIlY from the coho iiI. of exccp]ionnllny abk !;l'I)op.k,:Nho m:ugbt go \ on to .Jognl.dum;e'lI'o:ffi <lliiIdWor<,;e di~~il.glll.i$,httd research c,ureer~. l:~,e:second cnacern is, ~bout how \'VeU ~,'II'C1: Imam ~1iI ~be orbC!:rs ~npugtli!eurioslty ~od hasi(;l;Jlnd(;lrST!Uld~ng t:o (:i[!i!I.;,,] ~lfy!~eJl~, <I.S use 'fni, ci.riL;C~:1s off~le me de rnworld .. For~1hLe P;1liS,tyear :ilI.n:(] a J~.;.d.r. Scienee a~dI om ,eoIJbl:lo{If'l:llo:u's:Jt the Howill1d ] [ugb:es Me(ilii!cal. [nsliH!OCl ,~.HHM]) have OO~f'1 giv~l!1g ~]'m~<l~~!;;~lti(jmI. pf1{)_g!'O'ImslItd ~~pel'imJ;:m~ i~l U:lIn:n;;11y) W i undergraduate eduesrien •. i:11I1<1:m,ollthJy Educ:a!iQ!J~. [f:oruln.. I.Wl. i!Lnl~lO:U'lru:emen[ 01.111 011 lhi:s page (Schw,"(". 16 Dooellill ber 2005. p, I:741 ). 1--1 H MeI 'r~£;idemTUll'IIl Ceell i!lml [ ~.sl~L. fh(;llOri(~.-.I~)'. 'why \'\,q;J {_'O[~I do InOI"e' £o.r Kale,. ~. my [lillie high scheolg r.u:i.uiI.H!' v.IiI.low~~s: dn'r e<"!.diod iI.OOWl.l!;C i.ence ~I'i er bi.gh seheel blU :~OS.I im!ti?~~t ijH(:rt~~c h fil!'\>l~ ov,~r~faw~d uni,'e~:ulylectmie course iin sc ience ..Of,c()u!tse. ,,!,o;ehape lh31t lEiI.e d~IC'~li.on E FClrU~1r1! .ini.ti.;uiw~, @s it co!ujn~~:;;, win _~~n\· Of!1~ s;~l;;d~ productive ~ enough,lO keepltll.e nextgenerarien on::.<L~:e5 e'l1lgaged and excited. No\'!,1. forl:be' s'Ix:ond linu:in~lmt:lorn~~l~the News seetion Sc,ience frl(;ll~:i!, 0.[1 !i~a<::hi:ll'IIg and how io dio it [l.eUI;i". lw the I ]Ul1il~lorn ~Issue (p, I.2:70·l,.Science Is News irlOCHS described how three US.lI niversit les BruiJ.ve taken special steps to do ~o~,1Le~hing f01 their best scienceoriented ulld~.rgn ~.d~lil~~S. heir pur]'lOS!c nor, asonemi~hl expect, T is. m tura Ibem k~HOpre-Ph.D, tesearchers.Justead. Brigh<'!Ul~YQtll~g

or

Ullii've'rsi~y.lTrn.e U:un:irv,el'Sity ofTe:.,'I;i'ls. <"ind the Univer.si:ty

of COhJf"oldo

~~i~lm~!k~these srudems beuerprespeets n.l ~:'H~ to thtlli'w~()rio~!l"ly
:S:~ina]I~. pool Of,gO(ld high-scbool science le.m::h.e,1'!> the United Sl~les,. A depressing fJ.~, joke, ~Qld ~nmore '~h,lQl one slim~. goe~: ". \Vh,ll·5 dli:: fi rut ii<lmi.'i Ott!" .w6m,ge ~ i,!E::h.-~c·h{lO;~hy sics p te.adn:r'!"The mnwer is '\Co<lli;h:'rhese in::;t~.t~Jtion~ to ch<ln~1!:that . hope In dl ls week '$ lssue, we go ~bro@~ to pn~b~ t he s;~'tll~tiIO!l iIl~ematio~ a[ Iy It p.. ,(3); .1'-. i':!onmilmilligly im<l.£)i:IIl<l'rive teacher i,1111. B:IFl.'l&iI \'litho doubles as director of 'J. scieneeceuter; an 82·-Y~fu.r-o]d WOln.fUl'll in .B~ij~llg wbo ~~ii!Sn,l;lllilil,~t for six decades and survived the ClLiuwal Revo III tion I.Sdevelop i Illl: tHHLIJ:'Se: m ,1A",erial s for a bi ~ingua I Ilhysi,C5 ceurse-e-i 11 ~C'X ~ 11 nd CD'-R.OM~th!lt ",\lwllfin a !}"IP~Otrain e'l'n.g:u.un.eel"!!: phy:sic'i:i>l:S~!lnAnserieen W{:mK1Ilwilo and. ~1li1C'hesE ;!LrHl SC~e[!ICe al t1~.~ Ull!lversi.[ i' of A kren •• m urbsn co~npru l],~li1.sivei:li1l:'aiull iOil, where she klllaws s.hc call n~la;ke ddf"crem,:C'. E'!,1c!IiY SWI:Y has some c:n.omJl.mgClllcl'Il. 3bom it \?i,f"IY,'l in which Ihe ,qmd~lyof'~ ience e"IIUC.il ion C'lmi. be raised. J~,I:~f' Uu~tc:d Sl:ll~e.~., I!heli"e'~sa ~bi.~]\dl"lgpool ·01'p(m.:~nlia;~ sei~'~{le ~md~13]ll'studenlS, SID\\!~ ~t':ooto ~pok ~Itthe pM~'!Oinp~!t to ~e \~i~@thi1:~p~:nl\i ilil dm~oom kiud!l:, ()f imist ilmjQ~.H~re'~ 3 1.00!1-: ill colleges and [I,[Ii,'wsitii.es:ofsmmilarCOSl and selet:tThv.~t)'.fmm:HI study begun iII HliMJ, I~or th~ d[;.'.C~de W'9S.6~~]i'Qu,gh ~995. bm:;c;;!latrru'&~Qnly (;(l]~i,;:g~ \i\t~Iii;i~'Hn(IJ~red '!IVid,l rese.. ::~ m uUilliversili.es by measu r.ing bache lor's degJlleI:'s u'lvar-d:ed lin the previ eus dfcadew~lll:llhe Im~nbe.lr ofPh.D,~ p:rodm::oo l<l~l;i.~. unh~ !u,P fh'e 1nl'li~lJIriGmiin propufli()m~! r,mk were Hbet;u~;"U't5 FoulI! 001 leges, The tDp two, Reed ..ud S'Jl1UFlh:n~.o\Jiie. ne'lrly doubled~h.e PWdllClivity of r-:l.lIl"\I(;]I'<I .ul.d Ya~e" Even lite al'L~olu~(!: llnnbern OOIlb;]l]n5io.m~e surprises: Ca:rh::stoll gradU3!m;, OVC!:'ulllilis I)C'rh:ld I earned mere Ph, D. 's ~n ~Me\I,ni:S~'IFY than d idu,h;o.se of ~[;lIi'Wlrd Y:a~e. St:Jjlillhrd. orPu:i~e~:OiJJ1. Had Uil.~ro~c~rcln un:iv(:r.;;ilies dO!1~ a.o;; ~!.I~H lhc~ibJG"1.11.1 con~~s' H "l<'(}uldi'lnhlrg'() ~~l~l as; ~~r!S ]>001 Qf~jgh~leV\el SC.iC:'m1lists al:mm which we \'!'Orr)' so ·Imm,uch.Why dca't the.Y'! Maybe it's the' ilL1ti.I1I:Iil'Lt:)I 0 f the t·oHcge seuiug, Ailfl. lUll pl.e9sil'ua.t p,ut;:sibUi l~. dm~L.ghi,isl~<1Jl undcJ:g'radlmt~~ :in I!e~'1eil~.'I:.:h universit ~es. :lbllo,,,ving (h~ e,'Ilhm'I.]liol!110 ~Eil hu~ ,aiti1'1 .Hidl &0 "re<l~ research," sease tJlc ~n.lo!.ie[yofgr<!d~ate slwld!enl::':.an(j ~~j;!'m'JoIHml!'kel ~~ol:il'iOr ~tori~" from postdoes, 01'111£)1may observe ~hein,ere~i5illg~ypressuredwerk scbooules of fheiflacu~.~ymelii~OD':S, and the n....... t D"l.!'!ived !;co'~left f\Orfi('llmUy Hie, l!Il.~~oonlCht~!~ th!:ll.bliw or 1Y1,l~i"es:s school :~ook~ikt;:ll:l(:lierf1~ier~ ~~ui\'~~. WehI;\U~'f' ''b'i.kthem,

(,r

EDlUOBY

GIILBERT CHIIN ,AINCI]AKE YE5TON

EC'CIIl OGWE

'1O

run O,~

flishi ng Il1IId uees Regiilme' I(han~le'
'Thll!>pe!!edlof (hlll'liQIIl nil eU)!5ystie!iFmS waflgles hom thaimparcePr'lil;ll~ to th,~ ~bfi~IPt lrit.@pri~:, f!(lnUrI€l,i!!r (h~l1g!i,l's.h!.lf~rf1~d t.O as r'e,girllie :5,~ifts,) '~ve;[iim!El 5lCalles a~!>he;t: as lY~'Hin,e by ~htjr fI:::It~JfI~dHUcyh t~ shJldy @!fi!d €!V!i,l!ll ,~1)1t'e d'~m(JL!llt,t~, i.!'UJFi DUlt.e to s,,~e,cUk 'calu seSi.rl!Jle'lferilnelESiSi. Utei:!ccl.lrnlul,a· tiOlil I\'IIf d!ata OVe'1 perh'Dd:o; of decades, can pilr,01ll'ide'Crritilc,all ~!~u Oir llfIeICh,tln~:Stk propos<'!'ts .. U:$ii1!) ~ime5ieri~s dg'~ f,~l)mrishe'ry {atdl!'~~', irnl'!g-l;eum llIoll]toring "d pllil(fJkto!fi! aand Ilhmlktlv,ormJi$: H~hl biQrIliilSS, 11 oX!i9~m: (oril~~mtra'~i01'1mea:~!.ueme:llts aver~he past 50 rild yeal's, D,;:Isilta i,ov f'l' o.l. de$(IFil:!@ 'l:WO ma,fo'f r~,gili'TiIe s,lT! ~,ft:; ll'riId~Elver<lll miner olrll1!sil'l Uile Ii!:lac:k Sea t!C'os·y:st.em •. [P,reda· M'1'hhi!:S,J,iiicr"C< Ilc'{i!ri~1f~e,p:l~I:e,~]o ltie' 1960$, (ai!!~~liig'.Ii (;;fis.e.ad!e e'Hle(~'~ dQl'il'l '[he f'D'Dt;! (~~ilii,]r1 the :1970s whiil1eby , ,e~ t.op·dmlll~ (on~'lJmer (olliltr@,l wa\> '~P~il ced Iby' bono!ll1! .!,I~' reSOI1l rrl;:f (.'(II1!'trol il)f the $ys:h~ml,W1l~:d'l beJ;;illil'!,edorni Iil,a~ed by pl~lil~.U'lj',Oro'u:s'H:sh~s,A si~cond l!!I!(lj(ll!'s~in ha,p,.p.'~I"!I~dinthe ~rl!f 1'9905, '~he!'l thfl€: \!f!lS a po\Pullat~~if'! cOIlli;!pse' olr pl'IlI1U.il{{l~OWi nshe~ and ,a II OIUtbUlfll,l or tilUI,[lLie n jeUfrislh M.f1j?miopsis relity;. The tilufieries wltasulQlgll'st !lwriishi n 9' as the dri'lj'e,~ Qf both OIf t,~l!:se s:hi~'l'S"i~athe,~t ~~rI po:lhl'liol'l Of th,~ a~i'e'rl~ilvasio~ p'~r 5:@. The to p u(),~~k ~evel (If Ilr.e:dla~ t!ory fish has net r'emvered {amd 5.eems IHilllikely to), dholll,gill t.~,eclppetilram::e or ~he j!~Uyfi:l!h BeFfH!. OVO/'U, whkh Iney.s
(II'! M.

i€hJyi. may

p;r'~HJ'Ji~~~ f@C(f'!f\i!'fY (l,f d"le

th

InC.!d iIl]g~'il'str[),phk ta}'"@~(I~ plalilkt:!I,I'(),r~'i.!s

('ish. ~Al':S
56 . .u:S.A. '1104, :l!.OSH! (2.oa7) ..

Proc ..N~".Aald,

I MoM UNO

U)'GY
()f

[!hIe, Malrkhl'gs

Diversity

biflea lI~I~le') al.sn l<ilrgets thE! rea rr'lfIg,ecil a lIII~i· body' gene"i 'rO'r r", rlher tm,ll~~iQriI. ami thlt th i$ d iSICrimRllaltiQrI Q,'"u:s·imlel!Jtrld~llt[y (If tratrl~!l;r~!l'liOfl 1FI lII1!iliJUIn:! cells, - 51:5 B Nor, hllJ:m!'t:OOl. 317lS (200it 1

Amilwdy cl~wrsf~'f if! B (I.libi;s, ~",;:ltiiev'll:·dthrQugh tht sernstk r'l.?ilIm111l1gil.?ml.?nit eo~l,I'ariabl.e-(diversn.y~-jo]mJi191 ~V(())J] genel.k:!>eglillJ:~1:l15. Atlelk 1'
e.ldu ~i(lIl1~I1~lae-5 tiliilll (J:n~yon,e reG'Om1ollil'ed

iI U€II,e' [!'xIPIFes$ed if! a !J~\1e:1lc,~ltilll pan is thfCH:Jg)llllrq,e' s~hml'!1@ .l!cq!!!iSiHi(l{J of ~lliQ~lll,~I[ilii: marking by d e1l1le[luyl.a l;'D Ill! or theal1l,eile that ls to
uod@il"Qo ~t\f!n.:ll'! 91lIllil'i!'rU, flr.~en'ke[ el al. :sholiV ~hat,a ~'(olfId ~Iliajor n~e(hui$m. w!hi(m f!!!th~r el1lh~ III,C)e<S i btlo'y r ,1IIn1~ dhierSiily ;mllD ~s kmlll\llil as :somaltic hypermlllli'l·

I[)ryingl and WeUing1ID rop l!E!,t:s
l

l

air to shrink the dropl'!1~CIInd tQ,rl(Emlr,[llle the :!]t(lifl,llle, or wiwh \V.;lter Lo e:ll[ll;;llm:l 'the I:Irnplle'laFld di ~yte Ul~ ~Qhlte" 'l'1I1,~system wilI:I!J.!s.ed to d~t~r" Ilnif!le lh'e iM.lI.:U;;Q'I,IS phase diagram 'o~ poly(elillyL· 'e"llegly!;o~) (PIC,G)nod a 1T11II'IOrliWlIITII lfallE1 alne;! teo :5 LJ :iWcly regions II)'ff m.deal~~11iI~d glrO~loiHl preOi~' I.€'illl (ryst~15 tty$ozym~) ~roflll oluti ens co flti)i Iii" s in g sa U'5 amd PIE.G!. - PiDS, t. Am. (hem: SQC., 12:9" lCllo.2'lJjilOJlB2,(I!f f2:0(7). ~
l!STROlFi'HY5!',CS ~

i
~ ~

Ex:pllor'ing the l~hi:ls!~ reliIliellS or cornpl.'~ !lelllJliens rilQu,il~ aJ (eolll'!l'~!l[~ll't mi!'aP1'~ o~ S)':!;~i!nu!H(allty va r)ri n9!ihe comp!lI1!!'l'It (orlceif1trnti ens, 11'1

non {SHM),h; IIJ!1d'~f the
f>e'S~IFidecl'({mtrol.nle:f

SOlIme' allet~· generatoo 1lI'Il(e fn whkh d!ii:wlc,pi I'lg 13 C~~ls ~\1e;rii1'~ngfi'"

neered to (<lrllY CI pre-rea rfCinyed .[lint i· Ill}dy kcilppa lighl. cJI<lil'l at bo~h a I.· teles. In Ut!!S;l'~ 'tdell5. both i'! ~Ie~es. r.alt he~ lti'l'aiii ():n~y(l oe, \IIe'r,e e~l!lressed. vet dl'l;llI~liflvla'tJjonllml eo~tem.iv~ Il]Illl~r· fIfIilIt1!llkH11were ~O!'lr'hled to jld~ol1:e OIi the tINO. nlUiS., alt~.hollgh dlIli~i!lre IfII!:&5VJiIl1I11etiliylartlen did not i IIIIfhJElIIII.ce level or U'a!l1Suill'tioi'l 'the aI'ter ri!(ombf lfialtiOti {e);p,~ai I1t1l19 hOlv!JoUl r>eil rilml~d ,aUe ~e~ ~m,i'ld be <expre5:~ed in, 'thi ~ r SYS~.!illlflt th~$i;? dlirf~m::nci:!li didl (;Qf:fe'Spond to SniM l.Ilvelli., TIhE1fil'ld1ill1g~ sugg~l. Ihat ~~e slIrne epigl€fl€lk rn,i;!lrkij'!lg s.ystellrl theU fllal'ld1(!~~s m(ll'loill~e<~kex:prress.iol1o~ prodimtnveill' re(om-

this ve'~i'I,.S ~l'~m el'tll. de~eloped3 1!'l'Ql~r(lnll id it f;:ro~!!lrlllin \'lJhit:ih perm!1allitl! mem'bra V'!>eS ra,cili1t3te ¥~r'f.alii1Jnor the ~\'im:r (QJ!lIp~sidQI'I olr s.!)illJllie·oolllllall1illll'Q dropld5. Su J'r(!(~aP1t-sla bi liz,e,(i a qlleollsd r,opie!:'> .a re
l[)rop~~~~l!n(~IiII~rat~olt

GIlIiidh11g mha 'G,ra.v'ityW,aveSlearc;~
'Geril~llalln:dativity pll!1!dk~s Inflit. \l,Ihen 1ii11I!l5:iw

~
~

~.

i)bi<e(t~ crash into, eild~ Q~her. ~hev :shi;iy~demit r~ppl~:s ilrl lIDI~~~Qe-~:ffIIIe f'r"bhJi( (,a~led,g~~vit,,l
IlOnai.~loi'e~ [)Ielt!ctnorrl (}~I· ese Wil'll>l?SM. an eagerly p!!!rsued butas yet 'I?li!!~iye: g!lat The Iililerger Ilir illin<lrry Ib!<I(lk m(tlles 1,5,Oll,e e-xam:p~e 0:1a pm1jell~u[ ,event that iuas bee n II'i'~Us<'ll.ldited til @'(lIlt! HCi:ll~.lrrllihe h,opes ,(!If iden:tn~m119a de1lr "ravi,.1 i

~

:l5

5

! g
<:l

~~~di~!J~@ (!lSlOlUizi\!,tocm. aile! !hE! flat rectan'gul,ar mIS"i·sectl(1n 1j:I'the cha~ mi,el:s· "aU5ie5 l~'e d ro!)~e~5 to ildQP,t .a tI~~Uilt~ )h::ap e,~o tha~,llh!lllir1l1re"a, ella n !:i!l:5il\1lllh dnlplel VQb,lme. Ad fO plod is the~ Jllilll! fti,lvered' lrllQ .~ reglimn rctnel'E1 '~ihll' cihamne1lis m~nIllecled to re:ier1,i'o't~ a polv((lilne'thyil'S~lo~alFl~) me!il'1via br~n@. lI'h@ r(l!i@hl'(J,jr ((j III b@ nnw @'ilil@ ~ owitll dF~
stf~.ml·
0111

IJliO'!'lal wa!!~ sig~n~r~. wa~N~ si9!l]IIs,~r!d thus

'5uIP~r~~ya~ a~d (;~laIPS- ~
gra~!U<ltnonat
{J{,

ing' sta rs mail!' Cilbio proVide~lrong

l:J ;

ro~mei!l~nan

oil

,il!1il

e:F!larg,,~cl~e~ t~r!lll:llS; ~ of
ll~rr,om1Ied '~_.". ~

[or ,d,~t£!(tillrl. or1ll'lI1'lelrne~t!r el

({Dmf!ll1;l~er silf1.l,IW,tio~1:5 (lJ f~5~(lD1!- blJ r~ if!9~~lrs. prQgres~lng tCIl'i\~Fd~h~if g,Qlden ~,~rs al>n~:rI" bU:rI1Jng I:i elll~rOf!l stars, Tlte iludl(lrrs pafd speciai i a.ttell1~i;orl to the p.l rI.kLll ~[lrly s~lrol1g glrilvit~ti(J\Il[ll W.il\!I~ bu rs.t e;olr;l€d~d ]lIs;~. ;;ilh'l!!f ((I~la,psfl', ;;IS, th€ illraUlhlg mf.lt~~~;!Ilsl~m:s t!g ain 5,1th~ l1ariJ!li~J! co f'@ :

g
~
~

~

Ul:

ED ,ITORS'CHOICE
(tf the dying~tar. &ip'klring gl \\lTIde ramrJe a,i' Pi! r~I'I1N~!ter:s, f~ll~d a elea r set or \V(!!oI'e'!orm ~hifzy templates Uli!t~honlldl~J:lPedi'!E' the' se1!rm rm ~~aViU:!ti(l!iQallwa~lli. _. DV
Phys.. Rfi'r.
l..ftt

'96. 2:.S ]l'JJ(11 QOOn

A dr o'liwil.a( k or (hrmll<l liOg.ra phi( sep.a r.alti([lll~ii5 the ""~itingl UIllIS! nl:!(1l!s>a~yr'DF C:!!l1aly~@s,o MiiI'ii'el, t hom ~h~inl8:CliQn sil[~ tolirle deoledor. Highthf<i!.Jgl~ ~ut S(i:e,eJI!) are Ocfteiil,IUmited b,y thls ~'IIait-

Iinvitrogen CeHular Analysis
muminate b.ioiogry~ncontext

lin a Fal1r)!'"'P€mll nlerf'eirt!'rI1Ieler, hoo cl.oise~~ spaced reUedive Sl;lr~ace~ «IllI~e mu llipie n~ll~e(· tklni5i:!nd o~ly lPi:I!rti1t~tri3ini5J1l~iSS~OIl1 of .!:I1l1 itncoHlll151 lig 11'I1b~11'l, leadingt 1(1m!,dtiple '~I1I~ederill1lgllra 1iI1>mined 'IIt<li\!'@'5. J!i.clJ'lIs,tinglthe dis~ ntJt'; b!!l'IW!!n U~e rrdnl)!iS rht'eLyMJII! es Ihe' uglliI'S!1Ilil'tedi :spe cirtJlf!t-a

in.g p!H~od,dllrl 1'119hl'i'hkhiso'[,]J~ed s.iglfl,jJ~lpeak!; P1J(lqCllli!~e .!:I lalrgel~ Sjl~~O~, d~I~Cli~:n b~~1~n'~. RtI(!en'~ly, ~;pe(hoDS[{lpk ana rys.is in as ben elH:edl froll) $Qphfistkaled l'FIi:lth:emil~l('i;I~1 ,i'IIlg(lri:thnuth.a~
j,adllulate dec:orIVQ~l!UDn (If IntJ1Ilry Q'!ll~.dal~pinQl 51g I'lal:s~mm ;;t s'ililg le rlal.<ll 'Seil.~Du~r~byaliIO'witmg ITIIJUrph~ !i<!lnples !:o bE <! ITIlIlyz.E!d <ilUll~ Ql'lce .• T~iI~~ has iUlilple'~nented a slmHi31rmll~I:~ple'xif)g anr,oacn ttl gas (hr'om~togl~a~hr.S:p@c!U ca~ly.

Ui5~hd, tEc:hn~q~!i!til o~llca~. iiI!ilal)'Sis. mc,e el oj:
mal'l ufadllnedi
<I

rai!llm!i~ri ng -based ~tl1lErremmele~

(s~o~~nID~loi,\i}:hfQl!9h gllfll1icililgt an9i~ ~epositiolf!l l of l!li@ ~I.r!"lll:lini( mo'li~i!!rial ~isOO~lliydmxy,quinoli'lIIe) alumiUljjl~ '(Alq~).irh! spri 1119i5 we:re d'e'po5ited
betill'eff! 'l:Of'lductnl!lg

he il!5siglllled ,a dislim::l bimatry ill1je{~iom ~eqllente to each ~lTIlp~e '(~'IIithead "11. pf~mpUngl inj@(M

tien ,and eaeh ~O" Ii! 0 ':U:tillofl). lIl\liIl1.ipl.e .5.'l rntj)le~ ,i,ll!jE! then injLKled (Or'itinti.Jous.ly I:lIiI~O' se~Rltion (o:t1ll11l1ninsccord a,

wilih~fl~k aS5~9fi!00 ba H:!C!de'

alumimJtlffil llayelll! thaI
~~iilS!iIi~Ued-110% itnciden! ,light f,I, 6N

0"

5l1!"IuemlCe, rie-~I.dlimlgirn

h~ghil'.r pr,opor'tnOrt! or d€temd

[I

mu~h

'Si1g-

pole nlf<!~.C(lnnJ)fefoSes

Ole !ipr~liIgs. by 1.2 1'111'11, shifting the pea'k lr.a~smi~ion wa,\I'e~~!il!JUl hy 11.6,nrn, IBE1(!ilIUs.e A:kJ): is; mudh ooHer thn s:ilicm dli:o)!!1de. ,a !'Il:alluial puevi~lIs.ty ~sedr~ ~,,~,oolllrir:lg f~br~C"liQf'i•. ~h~ 'e',iI(!:efi:Si¥~ com ~r~g~oii!l d1(i~~ lnot induce br,~al!:.d(lwnof the s~ri:mg~" Envii~10ned ap'J)~!'Q'~i~ns ~lncilli.!d~ @ !tl(iYoIi! ~I.e IniHor elell1;t;l'nt in 11fl!f:[roe~ec:~r(lt:;melT!licall.~~~t.em;5;i3nd pre~1!I ITit2'a S'e.ns.itive cpli~(j t trallsdiu,(:ef. - MSl
IIp'pr. flJ,rys. telt.9D,
l

mils dlllriiml'!:i il g!iV€11I [itme I~eriod th,UI! ln !Jraditional !(~romalOgl".i:IJphy. The over~aRpirlg data (OilJ ~d

~~ d~col'lvo'l ~d it!1l00ind ~vidu'o1ll
ch rtllffil~log ra Hli5 by
Il~e'il

ns or

11 Hadllm~rd

trans-

(orm and 5Ubseqlleil1~ rI1Ii1!'~lrb aniipllil:a!ion:s" Th ill m '1i.i~h~i""iiiatYl!~d am jiil~~ clOmpoooo oJ:se-vili~all, ~
Olrl]OIl1k alwli1lolsaoo hydlmc..arbonli as 11 pro(lir-ofp:J!fldl)l'~ aim:! mMd @(fif uh~(fif,(lem,emif]l dell cy or l'1le,arlyatfa,(wr Q~ 40 ..- JsY I1I'i:!}ew, Chem, 1m.rd, 4,6, :!JOJIOI1Uani,e.200MI.512 [I {20ClJ).

em-

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For news and research with
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news. a fie! r~se'i1l.rch with the :g:reiltJeSlt impl1l(;t - 5t:ience,. WHIM o!;ler 7(lc;l,OClO week!ly print Ir,elllidi!!l;S, and millions IiiH)re ol1~ine. Sci(m.e;e ranks as, one oflhe rnos't hig~'ly read mullUdisdplinan'y' joUlrl'li!iIis in ~he wodd. Andl for imp~,d, Scieflce canl'l be beat, Ae,e;Qrdlln:g te 'tIu,'re'~emUy released ThonlSQn IS~ ~ mill (!ta tloi1l Repo rt 2005, Sdenc,e ~arlked as ~he No, 1. most- d~ecl au multrdisd p~.ini1lryfo urn al w~th ill ,C:11 ~iIDtiOI'l factor of 31. !Faun ded i lEBO by il'lIy,elll~Or [1J Tho ma,s Ed~sorl, an II pub listli ec by tih~ 1'I0npl"OI~t AAAS. Sciencels lie pu ta~ion as HlI;ij I,eadin g S,alllr'OO for news, n~SrfldJn:h. and ~.'I1iadiln edge p rese'liit~ til'(Nl ,of .c~'"t:ent g co n lin ues [0 gnl'w. lLoo:k:ill1ltIfor MW51.!nd rl!li!,s.etm::111 willil. i nmp[]'~:tthe wodd that b:liiflor~'Ow? Th en looki n Science.
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Tii'I'o ~fiStiUJ tes i~ rNl"lional ~IUliw tes. (j r i1I eaU ~ ~NilH) mayS()O~~el ,name challlg,r:s to the ~,m,phasil~ that addirtien is 0111 d:iseds€<,. hsl week, ,11 S emh1! p.a nal il!!) riled 10 rha ng!1 'the'
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DUlgAbuSie (NIIII)A) to tlhii! '""'i!tiYif!~ll~l$tlitll'tl:::
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Addidr,~ 111 a lUI to n~lila filII,ethe 1a tle l1a.l Inst hute an AI,wilHI~, Aibuse' and Akol1o~f1slm ~ {N lAAA) the "INoli~ nilllll1l\>tilllJile on Alcoh,o[1D isord errs a IIId H~al th. ~ lihe ~m'ss,pomoF, SfFlo'ltorjoe Bidlen (ID-DEt said! tlfle 'te[lIl!1 ~abl!se'" r~ ~pij(lnaU1;':e~
i;llnd d oe~lnI'~, (I!IDlv,eyth'lIl~ddklio c 11 is a brai n diflease. INIIOAd~Irec:~lI)r or.ill VoU,OIi'l' om N ~50felt ~ih(jt her [Im~mli.!le'~ Illame :o.i1QuLd en(mJl,lIaR~ addictnom, r.uch as pOJl'u)gr!llp,ny, galnbll~I1!;i. ~f'!d f(l!od,~<lYS NIIOA ,advi:5oe{ Gleon HI~Vl'5!Ofl. ~-S.heW(I~d~ Uk.l;!!t!1l~eWld t ~e Jnlless;ag'e li~.aH we :sholilld] look a~ th~ whofle Helldl. ~ N~AM dlijlroc~~r fif'llg-Kai Li aloo wal1~tl his. i!,!SlijUlt~'~ l!Iallllle rha IlfJled to ill1di(ate t hat mode,rale dri IiIki119 (oil n be healHdul. 1'1'i!@!ien::ll@ bilH oomp.anlioFl ~Ol a HD'U~~ ibmif'luoouc~clb~Rep~s~n~:alilve Palrick Kennedy ([Hfll)-\va:s news tal p~YLhi~tnsl ErilL IMI!!'>t~eJ'or tihE! Unh!'Ns,ily [if llie-xas, SQulhw@slt~rnl M:edi{.al (ent!r in lDaJ!la:s, "'My Ifirst reaC'tllolliitS. that )tlC Bfll!ihrl :!:l1oulld have' f'IiIore fIIlllPQ~lal1~thin.y:5 [oall,,"INes.Ue:r :5,i:I!ys,. E:qMl1Idililg NIID/i{~ RH.iI1l'iew t,~ "diseases ef addidJout ~ell:"1Sllke ~iD'vefkm," he adds, gfi!'en l,halL NIIH"s 1!Jleil'!tal heatth f!fl~liluLll' iill$O rmnds5<tudie-s on g1H1i1bl.ingdl1d olll~r Hlmpul.~h/e IHlhdyl.tm;.

iii Ir1'5~rchers ha'll'e lakenl the rir$t phOI[(la :~ gl.i! p ~s or OIl1'~ Q [!he' 'worlld',; ra re'5t bi rds: the :5

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PSli'(,hf~lrlc G!!111Qmli($ \l,iill. 00 !!5lablis,h@(j 'wiilh $,2'5 l!1fIiiUioll-oUle (IF 'the lalr~e~~giHs ir! (hoe La iJ,'1i:l! 17 "Yl;'1.lr hi S!!!OIry'---.homlh'E1 Th!ll!ocil()r'e Ea~Uef ~his Y€ifir, th! S~anleys r~mtd an ~d illlt.erdisdplimll'Y lOelli~:er (l1Il5leveITI:! 1iIU'! I"Ilal Ill Ifl<eSS'Il:l C!tl.li1l~ IBro~d 1:~H~hJj~:e iJ1l r<llllltlrr~dge, M.aI$.'SCi chlJseU~ {Sf ie.fue,
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ilillniOrtlileaslwliI (OI[Ofllilbill. :fii l?alJ~Sa~ama 11, di ~~dm of i n[en1~liofhilll pro.~ 9f@iitllS C!t~he AmericC!11l '~ B~lf'dCom5'ervalfll~, s:aiY5 o .~~Ji1'1l bhd U~'S its yll~lFaZ 'lpedalLized bill to sp,lil (If)'e'im h olllQ)W"s.I.e'lnlflled .~ b1llmll]Q~ sheets <Hid

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bas a rrawOJll:~r IIJII hsilo~ :"[0 un'Q1I11I~igliiO~S~Y dig:gru)SIt' pgilhl;,nts ~ith ,",,~"'_"I p'~y(hi1t~ri r d ismd,er~ basedon thei r DNA s~qlJJ~l1I(ei!'1, 10 Y~~f~' nml~," ,a;cGalrdinQ '1'0a.22: J U!l.@'~ITFlOl! f1C!IJTl!ent lnat'~a ta n order, ~he 1<1's p~es;id'elil~. h

She liI.eveu rilllI .<11 '~'e\lor lminelli an e~ellmfil mi~r~ml1e m~ <I: ~nrus"but Marry'llaslker (1'901-19'94.) ~uld a Ii!lIJg~ imll.aC.l 011'1 billmedr~IilLresearch .. 'Vhe fLllllldranse~ nd
lvil!! lcIyijs~ ls ~he la test U.SI. i!lJlM.lomd lli bra ~
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to, wH1Ilbo,rale witihline f1e~ celllter.

in the' years a hllr WO~lldlWar II. :;» IHQri le:'l.n ~m.nih.!i ~vffL

From primates to proteomics research
lFor careers In science, tu rn t,o,Scien'lc,f,

liJodt ge't lost if1ll~he(';areerjungme.AtSdenc,eCarelel"s.org~
we know sd'@II1C€.W.e am commltted to helpilllg you

of Sdence, the premier scientiFi,( journal. and the long

find experience o'f AAAS in advancing sclence around the '~herighitjob, and Ito deMf'llering~he useful, adv]oe you wodd ..sd'enceCalfeerS~IOof'g the naJturrahelecticHlll. ts ne€~d.,Du r know[ed ge ~s fTIrm fa uncle d on the experti s,eWWW,'. S c'ii e n C,e'CSJe e n;,~,o,rg ~,y
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MOVERS

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iIIi(rolQr,a,I;or~~(jh fllOl.ogy, is exp~u'QcI to ma1rkedllv ~nerease the rate a l ~lI~kh l nove

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to fiiglH 1he

elf mate cri)is.

effort to bL!~ld a flew nuclear IP!hy~k~ radll~ly [o:r gerli~raltlllligi r!1lre' d11emk~ll ]$(lu)P~~. fI~nfrii'ilg, who has worked tl~F~e: prevlo'liis $~inLS iIIt A FgJOfll'leo, is ";:!JJne~dy the m'UiMging diw,ec:tor lor science and ted'! no log Y' ii! t GeseUlschill'ft fij,r Schweri onernro1rs(hung nil bH O;js.~)1111Darlmswdt 6erflllalny~ the 'wodd's ,p.r~1Il1I er fa.cili ly for p:r,a du a~lg fa re ]SOUlpe-S i and SlI:!lills;hing !1ItO!mS~(llg:etner~iOI (n;!'i1lte nt'1.\\! S.lJ p,e-rheavy {'tllm@lflts. GSI s.de·rnU)ts ~ave(real~€d S~)( no·vel su plil!rh(j!avy ('t~m ents ifII moo nly~a rs, But Henning ilIii'ld olherSillffi bI!H~n9J tn.tJf~ ArgoFilne ma¥ ha'v~the ~nside~Ji:lJck Of! the iUltUB'l of ra'F'e llsotope B~~sear(h. lab is: The ,propoi~i n,gro ~I.!~Ld!1l$~5 5,0 mmi on ..eo:l:)olk beamradl~t:y" that. Mllh the help ,oif ne'l<'Il

h or" lQ move f·orwaJd"~ Pe~imetlu In:stlt.~11Q;wa~ ·f(li.ll'ld~d
1.9'99 with ,~$75 mrlilllfon
l

~II'I

dOll1 atioWi ilf'O'ffi

Mike Laz.alild~~~
(0-(£ (} ,oif Re-sea rdili III Motionl (~lrN, VIIhich is Ihe'millk~f of the u Mq'U~tou$ BI,a( ki~h;!HY whe,ll!L'ss e~mail de·vk'e, 'Wfil~ri e,utions fro mhV{iI ,ot her RI[M ,e~e(uti~res;. The (alli.3ldli;;iri 1ilriO Orit~r'~o goveHllliflel!lt'5 hallie since add~d more h.lndi ng" lheill)tfitllte

"no

has ((lrved out. a p,fominelllE nkhe for HrleH inH~td~ such as s~pe~strillg th~o:ry,. ql!t!mlum grr8vily, snd
qLJIgJl"llJum jinformlaMlI1lheowy.

I

'~
,0> .

I

Nonprofit World
GclQbat Alili ~In(e·f~ r UJ: 0 rug De\l"elei pmenl;. ililLso k iUl0!iV,n til) llB Allia iiiiCe<, a no n p mH~i n New ~ofk (ffity '~hat deve,lo~s lUI b.en,1Jj losis dru:gs, i~ililli!ving after 6 YIilIUS ~o ~:oo,kfor lii :Ille,', cha:llel1ge-. ,Mar],1J. r-rifitre, wm.o beume TISlliillm::@"s. (EO end president <ilf~erlead]~g the Ndllionla~ ~IlS'WtlJlles of Heahh's OUiice
liN 'G'rJOD H EJUJlfl'.,

r~~ di]rKtor fllrst

,oif ~he·

:~ .. ~
,I>!:

.~
:~ .~
:.;;

La:za ridfiS h]red Elun.QI1, ath@oretic.al. phy)i(i:Sl ilr'OII:!lWaterlQo Unhl'ersii\y, to s~lllp the ]Ins:!im'l~. Burtoll WOII'Ipltllldit~,ro:r ~irin,g ti 'l,aidjf~ ·OIfyllung and dynamk r€1s:ea,((hei'~ {Sde'iI1c:e. 5 [)e~ember 2iOOl3, p•.1650). ~BI] r~on n.li'!lped [b'llHd the beg]lfllli rII QS of an eXi.leUle.nl]I1Siitule, ~ SiliYS; Pri tllOO~O,1) ~o$lnQ~Qgist
Paull5tl~i'ln

hsrdt, chan r 'af Perillrfle[en"s

:~
,ilfj
!i

~

i
:S
f?
l~
1"i

I
g.

or r~(hll1io~ogy frims:r,(!I', i!l1Inoum.@d her d€!pflr~LlIFf:l last mOfllth ... IFre]re he~ped oversee the glro~\I'!h 'Of 1he· orgaIYi2a'll:O~ fromlhw,ee ~~:aI('rer~Lo ibuiLta 3D, portroi]o of d[rlu~ (alndidiates;, alml! ,l'Gi~edmore' Iha iIij, :$ 2:00 Ininio rnfrOcm, tile' Bill ::lInd ,Meli nda (i~re$ FQUi!il(iat]o:n ~nd '~he gO~Ni!r~ lInel1llSQ,t :se'ller,all(!Qurn·~ries.~lf$ ~he lright tilliie·to i~a,ve,\'1nel1 .1lIn ow'g:aflii::l:aJtion liS shoncQI," she: S,1l,yS. Frellre, who, sa1ys :shi! deliberate~ resig'i'iI€ld bet.o~e ]ob· hunting to ~~id ~5ecr:el mee1ii!1~~. ehil!1J.d: b dQSied door:;:, " wi bl~y O!i1! .~. to ng ~sa ~ f,she Mill'S, r~l~te a s(!amh oornmi~t~e f]ncls the IliH~ld. diredor.lleanwhile,. :she.'s;~.oQkingroF~Ih..~ Ileat (nl1llllenge thllt ·Will.(011 p:~lIlre [~~rllmillg]llltIrion,'~ pos.sibLy WI1I women's. ~r (~f!ldr~n'~. ~t~. ~,~

Sdellllifi(!klll.l'i'S©ry CQmmittee" 5teilflh[lrijl'5 com mjn~~ and !l(1f!iior ~:lilr'far~ now Sl(olJlti I"IIgl [or ca!rJdidQiles for a !'1ellll diliedo!f.Malt'lol(k s~ys. ifs a, p,re~:tymaUH'Q instiflJte .. "tt's more lha,!l a :5Wt Up r1IOW •. so I woul.d n't be· surprised if Utere was, a djifr~n'FiI'l ~.ol'ieof lea'd'~rsh~:p," li:Je says. IBl[llutmn,. \'l'ha,h~s writtem a nliS:t!lry o'f th@ ~nSlitul:€!~o b~ pl!JMfi~hed next ye.1.If,. is p~.all'l!i]!ilga 'Ye~r.~\~,yhom 5!(i;enICt' prQje~~5 in wlJilthem Fr.1lm:t', where hell. be!l;\t(Irk~i'iI9J 0.1'1pllll:ill1Shl11lg p.r('jlt~'C!ts.

'~

WW!.I"o'.:soiel1cema,g.aFS

SCII!:!.NCI:!

VOL 317

6 JULY 2007

2:5

S,ulp,ersi,z:edl Lah Draws, Fir'8 at NIH's, Envir,onmalnt:alll:lnstituia
The dUlroCl(l,r of I~~ Narional ~llistWUI~~S of ~hinlk its dear thO! Dr" SCi1nV;;lftz d id not uaderf.le<1L~I~'l> {NIH'sl e:I,wir-o:nllllile:uatal ~:le'~I~iill.inni~ ~l:1lnd the rules," ::>;tys NUl de'ptl~y direc~of M~~~!$ ]a~ood in ho[ \... m'i;\ro\'i('lr~~em~~~,,~,g~- Ruynard Ki!'l!l,IOllD.. rof~m:tm..!J, t~lthe ]olb !>lr~ffi!1lgmerao fhi sper.'ion~I&1ab, Oa'l'rid SdnV<1!fiZ, Sch\lI:arlz, Oil :p!J!lmo[lolQ'~i:';l$p!L'C,i;)l1 izi iii; ]n (iimc[or of the N.at~,on~11 :~nslitute of En\'in:n.lellrvirmHne·nm.~: lung diseases :us ~nown 1:0:1' ~:!iltel1l,11 He'ahh S'cie'~l'es.(NUEHS) since M •• y di~O\';eririlg the I'O~1;l S¢rn::t'tc VjJrn"l~:,t1n pl;_IYS~rI lOOS.broke: ethh~sl"U~es, a~ctm1lhmgto memos I:eSPQln~~G" 114'1:~fld ~oin cildolox:uns. At Duke's ob~.\ilied COI:J(gtess.,,1I, hen :h.ebrough~in ~11edii,;a~, '-"ell~elt,hewas head of'l de,piillrtmerU, "g~~,'er rese ~,IICC h en "froID his, forme r s had six research grnmJ,l:s,and ran ai<lb with e~np.lo}"~r. D~~k~ lhl.i\'~r.dly,T1~e p'f~blem. mere than 30 p~(Jpl~. he MI)'S, Th,e t~lCm~ of ."IO:mlgwil:~, oye:L:spemhllg.,lcdNr.~l.1 to t'dke 'tfl~e his .• PIPOintmeilH as: cli'liefo:hhe $642 miman I bi:ghly ui1:ustIlt!1 51ep this $,pring (J,fba:i.ring N U~HSinc'llu:led a kib \~~ith~,6~ni~rnleJm~b~~_ So1~\'!roI1I:tzrom M3 O\'!,f!I:1J11~b for ~bmn J ~ml!OIll~cS f Because he retaineda f~>()fllhy POSil!ClI:l.<It arrd ~~~di!n gabnm 3 dm!e:fllI'(:$t:~:Ut~ilcn:;b!)ck D~:~(::. ~\I);O ag~ciilllo ~"CIil!.SC hiui!lJsclF trom he ~.1l<lUe.ffi illi\~o~via:J~Ii:J,e uni~iersil¥, w Duke" The ease raises questiees about N(lg,oti~'~i(l1U; i"!)F th~' tJan:)l.f(lr of the \v'Jm~lli!nits NIH S~~al,.llld IiIJlP~l!10 bibs roll ~y Sch,\I!\';<lrtz lab to N Hi :fo]lm~ed Um,CWI!;'lUI] hi!i!h~.fma'king olJic:ilal!'l. The "d!:J-D'uki!1Jg" p'HICt;;~$. ~$: tHl;~ NIH ~lr~~s fOf'~noom'i!\gi~~flrs. d l~a,yS Miehad ofllilil;,~j~ll des.e'fl'lwe]il inan e-maj~ .Is o:~~.ofSt.1.'Ggne~iil'iJ~ti. 1\1] H dep~llty di f'et'll:{ir of ititramiJieral issues i.lliVol;v;ungtihe Nl:JE chief brought I~]S Ii;i~ eesearoh, The new lab W<l~~ p:~"cedluldel' tlQ ~,igh~by Setl~1tgr C'~~rleiS Gr.l:)s~:ey 1.R-,iA) ihe ~;I!ltho:d~.yhJrn,othretilIl.sth~qle o ~opKwide la:$~wce:k. Th~ ~eJm:l!lQ['also took Sc~'nr'liva!l1:Z10 .independenl o\'eri>~gl:ll:. Several d irec tors task fb.f 'f:'<'lrnilll,g "lbmn S 150.Um~.,1::1 ,HiI, expert ~:UH\'have labs, f~imu"'''I:lJy Mllill,i. to moderate w:imess, in <I.5be3WS~<I\Vs,iN,ilS whilehe was size" of a dezen people or so ..Genesmsn ~":1)iS($t1~Ii<libl~:. ~~(!w~. b Nll~HS dir~etor~despireadvlce fltfll~l NIH e~lic.s omci~ls lhEll he drop th~s\\I.'OI.·k. These A ]thmlgh SOi~mzs .Iab feU sciemi fi:roUy O,lru]lesser ethies pf()h.l~nf!l,,~111'·1;; d~!o:'Iill'id 1m!0l1'1 witi'lim! the N~n~[)n.alll~~rl. LUl1ng and ]3h)~d 8-]'lI1lLge" 21 June .~ct~elrfrnm f~m~~(!y to NUl lnstitnre (NI-'l LBn •.il was il.d~llill~:st!Cr!.':'d by dir~~ur' E~i,flsZl::rt~cJUwn.i+ NU~HS because NIEHS ill il1 North C'liIlI\o~i~~~, S:ch\1\"~,nz<MIdNI.H onkia.l:s say misuli1.der~ Ilu fI'O:Ir1I.l N]H'::; :In,~ in C<l1i:I1rptlS ii:l Ue~1m.e~diJ. .. s:tru;i.d;i~g,,, umle~~~ Imany ofth~~~ pmbl~m:iL "I M:!ryi,fil,~t! KingM!Iil ~y~ thi~ ~!O'U I~t;diij :I. ~llIck ..

of "'e~~eks ~lldb~l~ule~s'·~.~h;e:~ Sl:h\V~!ilZ oo,!iP1lnaski~ for w.';~\<el'i'> to briD:l@ imJlllm.1.0re ,or his[) luke s:D<LiW. '·rn~fui.QlIght .it W<lS reasonable

~o"llhl\v ~h~m~n C\f,.)l'It~llllH::: igi:t.;1!in~"'idl me,"
's,chwa.rlz sa.ys;, ,addillg tlll.31 a~,though his; 16-nll:l1il1ber i<'lIJ \,\"R~··I.u'g~,he n;l~.~"was net ' it I:m!)edi:ngmyabi lilY ~o dlreet the ~nsthu.te.~' B~n I1He;r 0 S!t':~li,o!iNI.EHS ollic~1 raised
CJlUI(;:.3l~on!S.NIH coneluded U~.~l.l <111[ of uot Uw gtu~~a ~pPQi!mn~gns \"t~l!"~ !.:fl\i~r,~d b)1 Sdn\';,1r1:ZS w3.ivt:.lI's. K:u:D:I.gtoll S<I;YS. Kli.ngton

tw

Oi~Is)()~~Oim'i..,d SC~'IM~m:: hild exceeded '[hr!t his ~.-II.)biN.dge~of$U! mil]ia\~ by 111000 thnn $4 mdll:i!m~!. ~",hit:h Klng~ol'il, Id[rfibul~~ te 21
'lO~ he il~h,m::!¥ldfu:r US]Il~ NIEHS (,)Ofr:;l ~lId][ties, l'oiil,l~,k:e "a clean brea k.'" Ki ugron ::1';'1)1$.

I

nml~s:~ ,lkeilifi ~ sSllImlpl ion t~.lil·~,ign:m pwould ' S

Sd,l\V"<1nz resi gm:::d as: head of h is 1.,,11in Feb-

rm~r}'.\"'hil.e NIH
staffer

<lpp!(l~IIlHid <II'!! NHLBE 10 3.dm ilm.~s,~:eir lab il:nJd 11l00,'ed 1.'11 ill the
glQ/($l

[2

Of

so

re!Ye;:n;rchen,liJ<1Ck
At

[1,')

Duke.

There u'C[le o~::m;t:;eq,Mcnce:s for the gues;~:s. oolm~ l1fwhom h~,bc~n 1)[ }IUEI~~S lon.g~s; .aJ;. i!i.'1.d 't(li~,hmd~v.~ mf'llli~C;; e'xp~rim~li!,ts.. eo:~l~ i:lmgliCI an N[,EHS Slc:ue:J~ti.~1' \\Iho asked I)IOl10 '00idl;;iUifi~d.S.i!,;hW"H·tz~y$talo:!t "it dh;rupii\if;l in lots of "~i":Y~:' biJ1.~th,)!t thl!' troli~\li;i:fI h~'i,e:found ClI!lcrI@bs ami are '"p:rogress~ng:'
.~8[J,~o:J'lths. ScIl\\'<I1FitZ
Si!I)1l>. .~e:iIS'l~~,"{JIeUO\I,/S f

'''7!~

The

lleUtlrfmlllJl

Gnl,,"s[ey <llso qWL!:"'.ljt~{J!IlI~

~'chw;JI.nz:·t; WOI'.1>: as ~111lCKp~n wimess 011 asbestoi:l ,case:slbr l<l~~' rms, K.i ~grtO:lil !;O<iys> ltl is If! i:~;vo.1ed 0(;1 v in]ci!ll. e:'!vn]WL:.Jl ions that Sclliw;lrtz

h.qd,~kl!1e '~f~ru he came io MEHS. Alth,lugh
ilgem::y :~~\adgr.:l;v,e cIQIlI,{,"Cnlsabout ~malll"'01~\filles:' l~t'ly felt they "C{),Ul'dIll,{JI~ ~:orre" .sC~i\v1Irtlllt! !:<top.KimJ~(Qn says. Sd'Ji\~;;'lrl"Z ]u;;IS
"'IHillil:YilLl. tbe

di~0l1tilluool~(:la~;"'~firm ~\,(l!rn. This is [l01 Sch\\rartz;"s f:urst brush with ~Q~lh"(l'lI(l!i'~Y. Ofl!'; of his first pr~lpOfO,d:'i ••t
N~IE~IS W~'8 te privatize th.e im>li~,lI~e'sjour~ n!fl~,,fm'imnmenml.llea/fll Pel"SfJf$nil'es. He

backed o¥f ;:If~elf ell/VirOl1mellltLl £ roUpS11llld
]1 N~Il,d~rh!!!l~e~ •. A. IF.allu;~ NO NIAIID
1.5 Ilr1ii'UliY scientists pml!esled. Two )l~'Jrn.io:r selcnlisl:S \,,'i~hin N IfHS oIrei~a m ixed assessment, Pcop~e nlay find ScI'1Nvart.r;'s ~t)'lc' aggffi-s$iv~.

IE:.abel l
]I. B'e'fg

NHllBI
NI'elM'S NIDIDK NHGRi NIE:Ii'S

11

IG.

~dlge'rs

F. C;olID'~ns
D. SCI1Wi!lifU

17 26 (1'10'" Vo

b~~"h,~'sooully r'"~s,~ing iJs"il1i~.~tlod \lifly. one sa.ys ... .ddil.lg th<nl :h.er~,opegt~.e eahiics, rev~ ...~mi-Ollils~..'nm!'t I",~dH) Seh\~'arl~:" d~J~K.m.re. M!ei.mwlmi:lt"l. Grasl>~.e~ ha~ ~1li:ked N~I~i for iililo,ifl:\ d~li;;~lifilllell[5-imJcludi IDI.ginfurmmi!.1l11 on s i'Ilill ih~1fc:011lInicts, :if <I.11y.iIlvoh.'i,iIIU·S m:be r
di~Ii'if:lChJ~byl{l

J~lly.

Batallldn'ga:cr. NIEHS d~me(klr Dllwd Sc.I1!W.lIrtl, il~f ,otllleil"Nm~RUlilllU~ d',i~i~. ~ ]l!Ig>glif5, alilmini~U·.!Ili~f dUlies, and ,~.adls,(llrts.€i! ~dl,gr(ll.l~•.Schl.l'l~ru's; 11iJ1lJ) '~JlillTlmoo arl't~r n~ 1o'iO~ilrl!ed I.I'IM "!Jernq!' !llulidelurJel's.

~JO(lnYNKIIj~~El!i: ~

I
~

Se,a Analmon,•
Genome
~O'l. ]~J\\'\;"lrbl:l!~ncll !;mt~:leRe

'[3,lt.NOM

res

P!r'OVild'8:S ,8 N,ewViaw of A,lniilms,1 E:v'oillut:iiion
ingllbe 450~.In U lion- ba sege nQ~~e of the cn~;dm·i<ln of·chy,uCJI;.lh,f; :-;tI~rlel be,!.mtlnlUl1I.e,
i\lt~m(l(osudJa I'(tCl~·'ISis. The: .:Iran g~nflmt: is aillready pr(u:.~l!IIc·ililig IlJiI.::m.)'!>'!.l rprises, Au.uof:lg the anemone's gene hllkage.~ in lIiIell1~lQd,e.s and fnllit flies,

soqueu~cer.; have just' jlmlUj:lool down gf I:i::re, ~~nd[~~e

view

11<15 given tbC:il.U

a new perspective on

ilJliimlmal~vo!u[iOlilL The 1liimv~!y d~coded lH'04A of a I;ew~('iem i:L~lereJ-tall[ sea 1lI1'1em.orle .IQ6ks S'urpJisi~g~!y $,imUUf'~fi,~)ul" \~I!l. ~~~um by O a ~,ed Nichol:l;!; Putnam and Dalli.e~ Rokhsar from the' U.S. Deparun~n[ of E.nlcrgy Joint

.~ It,OOO~r so prol~in·C'QdI~nggenes.. lh~ reseaeelrers h,l;ve identi fied 11M thou are, ail:so

M~JI.·eover. .he ,,~Inml'i;; ,gene:!>lookserteb-rmelike. n,l.ey efren are fllU ofl1om::odiul£: regions C'f1!lkd intrens, \villlih~h !1m .I11l1Ul.ch,!ess l1J~~lmO:11I nemarcdes :lIld '\lit flmes lhm,l ~n in v~r~(;)'])ral~s, Awd 1110re th;l!~ 80%oflh~
aaemone
i.l.ltf10:IrnS ;EIre in the 's<I:n,TI,il.':' places in hmmllls:. s'llgge!;l.ill~g t~~iU ~~~'(Ibtlincy'

Gtlrilome !rui~:ul~l~eill
ula, Iii'::pa,rt!;
011

Vi,(;Jlmll

Creek. Cilblbr~
i!n~)Hes~h!ll

:pa.ge 8,6, This

,Ioly existed i[ll.he C0n1I,1I101l aneestor. ·"'he\1!ICi'.rk.~I\'1)~~I~ .!) mi$~;i~lg
piece

eve mil very

.1J III1.Centgenomes i

'livee q ui re F

complex and con tai ned ~~.W;t th~g~ nes of'

oflh.ermzz;le.~"I'hichpoople

necessaryto
evelutlonary

buiJd lodfW'~ !l'toSl ~Qphis:t~creannes,

C-fIlied multicellular

"The ""''Urk is uuly sU!!1!rlin,g~)o!"i~$ deep
]lnpUc,u:uons;' 5<1YS me Hi S\\dltli, t!!l evo:~utionfU'y devdopmem[d bielogi~ OIl the Ulliliverni~y grW;I.s hi:~.!tDl~., Seanle, IJwti] Il(fil!i!. ~~c~lrehL;;n>.~>.'!v(:roli~d hL;:~vi1y on the sequenced gelliomes of I.he fru~l ny~ nellm .. ~od(;!.~mJ~:~~l .1!!i;;\V mhilN"i!w~ft~bnlt~s(0 of
uIUle~,":li~l'U:'ldg_ellilome

~tudy.ing; inlrO~~\i"ol~tiull h~IV(: been Sw;~dling nll: .~fl tit,", Pfl:;;,t. fe:w years," s<liys Majewski. "They presel~~ sm:mgvo:'l~id~rio!'l for en a
'Unll101ll-l.'ich af]ces;~QiI:" he says.

\Mhen Urney compared l~le:
ane mene £;enome

,'",i~:h these o:r

nn.~ researehers d~'~~rJmht~df~.u
150(Dc..........20%-oli the <'I neestral ge~~!eserrginared .. le'ranimais d diverged f"r~;!lll~' plamsend fungi,
Som>e genesappear

f"un,gL p~.~lul>.ailldprmisss, 'w'h:h::h jJ:I~.d.lI(le sl i.Uilm.emolds: 11 nd ci I i,a~e;s"

evolmi

011 ~.ead:ung IUp to

the vertebrates,

Bntthe

:~:e'Vi,' ~vol"k drfves

Illlmn~· ~H)Wstrea ml ined these :ililivertebrate g£1~QTnes:have b ~(;om!l'l. [11 oont!i;,'tcst,.tilile sea ;1ll!emO:I1I.c\ ~:enO:ll:lm,e .'~~:i> uot ch:mged. nraeh

10 'i:N~ CO'~'1-

and~Hlill~~ num)' ofthc~"itanl!:~" PJ~Sc;::un1 O~tr in
l{i:;:~ common Ol1m(.'eSroi"," S:i.1!)iS< j:!ce:k MfU~\WfJd, a geneti:c.ist <III NlcGil] Univer.;i~y in MOIli~re::lill, OMKld,l. It '1<~H3m,~ fliUlhe~,idl~i,;~()'Jm:ti~i II ~~1 I :,u.1S\\"(!f'rn~ny evo~~mi.(]illilill,·Y quesiions,"

MOlin:: ~Ilarllli '(In'e: waJy~:O '!!!'(I 11:. III ,ad:dWoiil l()shetlclifllg, 'light on ane i~;l1!t DNA nr com hi nat ~o~~~lf e~l~lIti(l.n,lhe n~wly '$~~elil(~1iI !!i~iIlonq~ w~'l!he-lp daray how th~s parisef am.:ient gen.es. "f.hese nm,;c:ll Alllim.."I~$divide i~lm l>1i.<O ~rolll]!'i. ~iP'O!ilge!' :SiI!'J ,il'!rn,~I1l!Q!1e repr'O~Ii!(rC$ ~~~!l!an.y, rfl.e-~!!i!lg '~gl$ (/i9fit),;;.,.;d g~n(',j;~~(I:~~ 5>[9gC fl:lrth~ cwiutlLon a'!:exuaU.y, Iih~v,~:~opin9 "I:econnt he.aJtl, lMn .:leaving a:ml'.s~ th~ of hijlsh~,y ,a ~n".;<~niz~d tissues, f1()[<lbl.), .md eumet.tW'<1:Il!Si. Theemll,le~m:!.Qm1!'; l'()m:,iM of cilJllI'lbjd.lk:::>. 'li:nidafi~,j~ sueh ~IS ~~~I;:~uonL;;:>. mid,dle !:)rIh~ body (let!). 11~~,v~fmd ~~u~~eko;.>. z.:,~~bK\i'que~'t~y and bil:altrUHn:il.,wll ieh iaclude ,eve~,ytl~ else: i!:lS seen imil bi]<llterial'ls. s;ays ee-auther i~mpe~&.iens, ~:~lh~~~, f!nd us.' (j~lh jd~.i~\)\ r~~ l s~!Uin bi.i~~~~i~lS., Th(ls.\,'l ~h~~dg¢nL;is.~'"P- §t.\hnFim~!i;y of Bo&{on U!~v~Nity; and cni'£fWHlIli'! bl<_~hoo ol'bet'()I"t'i bilaterim15 fe:senl the kn{)\",~blep<lf!ufthe ~m\.'r;:MlO!~,g'~111;l F ~~lI1erty <I:mtd~l~s gratll~1J~>e ~tude.n!t J..'mrl:~:;; set, TIlree-qm[r~eB.'S of'tbe g~'l1les. turn up [[I~II:Jl SuUi.v!ln also looked in tlre ioj,n:e11l1!Cme gC'ltcm:r.e di'fersru:fio(i imlto the wr.iet)1 ormll~nlridgmups t~:reem~ljor.,~ imal groups e;,,,,amilled h(m(lil:ms, fbr 283 .h:la.m.Ul!genes in\io~ vedin ol".vitlerdCilge known ~OdOly. !HlId. they are c()i~sidered relat uv,d.y ··shnr~e·· erganisms, C l1ii daria ns, far of diSie<J:SCS. They wiM, report in the ]u~.y iSSLU1C ~mo.l1lg the 111] but 1292 hl'll'lfC been ~.os.t.~n • th.e exrutliple. li'<'Ii\i(!: <'Ii WM)l.llill. but no ,m:llll.s:I:'!i~tQ tissue of.GeuJfJ.me lhfll they fu~lIld 226 .. MO.lleow!r. lin ri:u~l .<Ulduhe nen"mtode. .1 fe'w Ci:1SeS, :~/U.c]iIIas lheb:IJie:JSl C<lIIJ1,c('!'r ene g iOl)"en" net three; a nerve' ~~et.bu I: IlmQ eeneral Ollie of the big "''lllri))ri ses 0 f theauemnne g~n,~u~1!.(l, Swalla, is the discovery Itl!" says ~f\'{Yu!"'(\:yl.'il'l;;m perse, !J.RCA2.~ll~~!'I~m(,1i]1!~'sersienis mOl"!; simiv B.ioiog:us.IS have had ple:mlty ofbi]aleri;<ln lar ~o tlrn.elmm!<ln'S thall l:o[il~e iTUrul fly's or 10 01m::k.s of [DNA dml have the' S31.ne eempl e'"

p:I!r:tdy Il!:,\M: Ot~;er'-S, ia:l,d!ldi~,lg mlfS fOIr ccU~dh~siQ31 proll;:im;, and Sllgna Ii'~gmgleCl.I~'~-~. combillili'l!l~.nns are ofnt."W sequences <lindmuch HI01.'C

ny

~

~ ~'!O~1p~[r.is!oll~gcnes, ~md !1:.c~om~ fe~uJr,c~

B~![ to kl{lk b,H;~k~f! ti~,ne.tll'le\il ~medf!d :D ~Q:I~lbi I~ttll.i<'ln j;l.en:ome fur J ~
ge:ll!fl1~~ji;;S~:Uworkt\.,un~,

11!1I1,;l!1~

or S~MS as lu ~hi,;htUmr,iH

:;i.;;f'll1m~.

ihkd.y "'"
o

~~~~~mon ~

~O~l

.~i h~~~m~smid :lmQ~bilm~ria:1S
II) dU.l:U· crmllno~ o;I~!;:~stO.!"

e.1Hsl.ed

; 750 .'L1,d:liu.l1l, ye.lrs, .~g,;)"1:1[1, 2004.PlIl:nmn. I:::lle

Rokh~r. and theii ooll~~gLtesbeg;!!!ld,~ipil1l;i'r:'

hl:c:li\lud~l<li~. g.enes. nUl)' ha:ve SWlll:p~cd p!i;-\ces, but of·~c~I.~~~.ey haveli"~m~1i [led Ii I'Ikcd ~ogetheJr despiJe l[;1milidreds of:nilldj,Hiolls of ye:Q.1r.O o~ ¢VOll,JUjO!1 o:!i.lotlil.g sepll.r ...t~ path)";, [1i'l~.I:n("lIl:~:, Rok~nls,~.r. nd lh.eilli" ,eo,lleagwl,es a r~pun. Ri~~Hli\rc]n.ers :~iul'~ Sl;i~ 'C(lm,~n\f~l of lot'!

Ule ~emi<'\l'(}d!a's. A.II the",-~rei>u It::>g.UID s:!iLou", SiIj,),s. F~J'lnel:ty. tl1~t ••jVf!m~lt();,~(!lhI 'j; gell:o~~ 'll~y prav.ide IlIiIo:reill:>i£1ns iI:IltQ~I~eflnl!.i~:om.~ eVQ~,lti,Q1liof
bUIn;11:l

gen(:s [~lallll)r1ny related aniimam~,;'

f;;tU'

mom d.o$¢ly

2:1

I

NEWS OF TI-I E WEEK
CUMATE CHANGE

Oimlr~~nc seiemlsts

uSI:l:d tfl skepG.ies,l.aking pntshol~ ~t dU'lir fi.l;voriu:c line of'evidenee It)!' lil!ob~d~'!I,{!!r!fI~n~. com~s ~vhh lh~ ~cr.ii.it()r:f. [[ SUI: llIov,,' a glWOlip of mOl:illlStrf<lm aunospheric
9]iC

r~th.e:r ~"e'll(:l:(!'C IW.lgure). A 1l~:rrowr~1I1brc of "~imll~ ned\'I.'lJrr:~~,~:ing1' ~ (purple band )I~ul]!\ ri£h~ 01'1 Lhi1.3Cil~HI~~w!l.nl~.ing (bl~ek I.in~) 3:~d dt~~ ~

~iilnclly' abave simulatiens rununder eondi-

scieutists is di:SPllti.llJg ,~ :U'isia:ugeen i Qfglt,Jb;I:~ 'w<lnning. ~]nd!\,~.;:'!J.\:h~rs

g:2l~ c:IIi~llgcs are well kl1!.Owl:I. they now. 'but n,OI ~o tlil,ecuu'rrnlemC'ti:ng cooling ofpol.~utmll h~:z~s. ~l.'Illl(:d aeresels, Ac'ros:o~:\O enol the 'P~" e l by ire n,I;N::l ~I g away s (urn. I i.glitl <Ind n n u.ncl."e<lSi,imtgl:he .refil;eclil'\lu,ty of I

the ~,.ne:s~ climate assessmera by

are ghri!ling some grm.l[!l,dI:. Tttl:: t.~h.tlk:ngc ~o onep~lr~: 'Of

'0

:li..'o.----------"9F"---------"'"lF""9 ']'
,Moo_~b:~h~l
,g!,!~

!!~t~~"t f~r,d!!g!;

-;;;
i'I:!

;:'Moo.'els ~ 0.'5 _I

~i~1 001_i\iM~ur,a~ a!'ld i!miibl~fQge'fi!'~!; f'O:mllg:1! Oh~@r~i!Jt:io.n,~

I

the ~l'1i~c'rJlfI)\i'emme:l1itall Pnneil on., '" Climaie ('~UI:liIge '~lPCC)"is not a quesriou ofwh€=th~r~h\;) E<l.fthis warmi Ilg or wilmether :ill wi i,~ 'CQ[I~i
rinue te warm" u nderlnuna n

'i
1[),1i)i
I~

~ :I

1--+~iiiJitII=:;.--------..;;:-...;;..-=_--__=:__--1

innw~m~.sa)1~'Itmosp~~.eri: .ierl~ t~!>t :Robert Char:lj~{,u1 of I~(!' tllr1i[~ \1et:si.{y of W.ISJI1I~lUigl,(Hl. Sean!e. ollie C1nl.lfQ~mltlmn; of ~ cmm~c;:n~ t~rypl~b:~i.J;:~4;<,J ·gnli.!'tt:il!a:-;t w~;:l.::kin
Namre Rept}.1·(.f;·Clbl,l(J.ll? CI~i'mge.

eI ~luds, S~mebQ\,,~.I:he l~,rl;le reseaoc hers say_ mcdelerslailed to ,uf:aw on <I.m the U I1i'C'C rta iI) 'I)' i.~l er-ern i,Jil.. ne rosols ::;0 dun the h 20l'h·cellwry ~jmul!)tiOims '~ook more ce:rt"<!'illl~ru:lnthey should, M{ld~]~fktTm)l KfcQl.l (]:f lh~ Milt ie na:~ Ce'llIilerfor Atmospheric :R.c:!lcl:'Ireh iu BOlb~dcI,". Celorade. rem::ll.ed (he smIlie ecaehn ..ien bY'1I
di.~ere:l1i.t :~ut~. lUii an wllll!~t1hi~,s~.cd but w icl.e~y [Clli,OI~ed<ilil'I.~ysis i1I,e ei •. p.lottedth~ cotu'b:illcd effect of
g.r~"{,:.!lI~H~Wl~[;; gases

NJOt sQ.cllil1i!!iinl Thl: ullterltail'!ll,v f.ange in Lh!e'mlJde~ed Wl!nning ~~d bar) is OWilYha~r ihel:llllU!rtallllly ,ralllg;e (Q1OIilIge) of i1tL!lm.ul illilloonc.es.

Rt)(j;h~' af StockhO~lljll U:lrn~lversily. S\~leden-s<Jiy~ t;i:I,cclose !1JiI3td~ be~\,\!~~U~~OdL;;]S arid th~ ~iCm~l~ \~Ia!"m· ing is deceptive, "["Ime m<ltch "conveys :II Ion: more CD:unffldenc::e [in l11,e'models] tll'ln can be: ~~~Ipptdedi~l ~lct(mli~,~' SHY"".sd~\"'ilrt;.;:" To preve t:fuJ(';ir poh:Il.. liil,e 'comll~e:nluy s~ellU ~:ike .1, ::i!Tai.glllf<m1i.'m·d te;'i!l uf d:ima:te .mthors :rmiUte l~'g.er.lIlge uf du: si I1m~lil.lii::d warm~uli)(]€:ls Inl the ru:[![-~,pW I.he[I"CC climate .. irm.gs.l:hat is,I1n.(': width oftllG: j)ul'ph~ band, TI,l(': seienee reprJn~I~IS(;idi!l$J Fibnl1.iry (S~·i(fuc~. l"OiIfl\g~is only hfl~ f a.s Iflrg.;: ~s lh~y would expect ~lliO be.D:i'n.t.'Ys;ly, ,oon.'i>~de:ri.1lig the I<lr-ge 9' February p. 754). ] 4 £RlUpS ran their medels u!1(1~r 2:0th-ccntmy comlit ions (lfri~~!lg r.• fi!.g'e ·of unc!;':rtai!tlty~n ~he f;M."llll':!'idri\i~l,g ellW gJl.lt!e:unJil.OiL.t'lC gas.cs. As <I group., the :[[IiI,odel~,di.d Ill1ml:e el'niBIl'Ige i.11i the si.mu.linian£, '(Jiir~nllOlJsec"
SCIIE.N'CE !POLICY

ImjtCl!Hl '~.eand his cO-<;"ll!~l~,(]{11'~ !)~W;J (:~t'Ll the shnuhu.~on by t4, di In.'!relll~ climate l'I'1()!)i!~ els ofalil.e \\I1.UITI ing in rhe 20th if.:~:l1nm:y i~ not the: re;t:ssllri~.lg suceess ]PCC elaims it 10 be. I::tnu rew~!:'U,ui~g CQu~dbe muehwerse than thi!ll m ode I ~ng ~Iu,~geslj\j, hey say. or even t mor,~ mod~Ji;!!iw- I pice is!Htl~orseOrlc~de Lh~ gil,"o:uph'ills a j)oin:t. bunhcy say their reporlif you ~.QQ(k i.liI, the r:uglTlt p ifljcesl-rdlectsl~~e mlC>ert,limy the critic:-; .,n: ppi;lTi,l~ng out, Twcwt i.el.i:l'~'C'!il:m.ury ,~.:umlilatiQns v,rou:M

rions free ofhumflllinll:LaCIIlCe (~~ bond). B[llt'lm.c gmlJP of three ~1Jm.oopheric 5Cie,In,'"
~~st5~ehnr~S(HK S~-epLlell. Scllilw artz of the Brookhaven N~llioual IlaL1iDnuoirry iIJi Upton.

how

and ;;1~!irl!iQI~ usedi 1:11 ach of I I models '1,rer3US e responsive e~clm. odelwas ~:oa given m
ofgrccnhom;e g<IIses.1~.e.~atterI~c~ l

mnOll!lJat

lor" culled cl imate sen :;iiv[~.\f~de sIsom
Iwodel tomcdel. ~rljefound lhll~ the mare sea$.itiv\:a model was, t"lle SU·Or!ge:r tlli](l a~!:,Q:l::o!1 eeel ing (11<'111" the medel, The net re:sult d IiOve ofhav~:Ilg,~re;u(\r !l()m;ith~ktyeonlpeus;fln~dby <1 great1el: ~,e'ros() I. e :i'fecl: was 1:0 nIOU:IIO'W the .1PlilElremH r<lng'C of lJIun,certai.ln,ty. mi Sc~fuI.V;I<lrtz and h iSJ;;oll!img!.leo~ iII,Qit'e, "I dO]1ltt \\~]lt ceria i11 interests 10 clal III ~hal modelers are d,is:~,one::>l.···~ay5K:ie:ht ·'Thati;rm.ot wlun's gO'ing on.mVeilill thli)' n!:~~(: of t~m,:e:n<'lii1iG:~1; il'~ I:r~i'I~,g.~() g.ell~,e best Ih~}1 fit [lO observatious] willliJlhei:i model," T~'ilt'f;~,imrl:I)I'~useful st4,;iPH)\'f;l\:id m,ing O!
.~1Jll;ode'l prcdlicl.illJlg f"lUJUfC wanniag, f;orr ..

NC\IJ/ Ynrk: and H~!lnling

i
,.
~

S"cii,ence IG,ets New IHoml'l iin UUK. G'Dvlernmlllnl
Sc iem.-.e ~ppel!rs,U) hf~V\l:.1 more p:roff!ine.!'lt mie
in dUl: .B.:L'i.tish. govemmellll~BfNlI' the cabinet re5.IJlu me dm~ Iblk"'\i€idl<l~' \Meek '5lrnalldlw~r of
mBl~lrto his Gomon B]'O\iIJrI, On~(lfB\I"t1\V!l . fii!'i.>t $ .u:.:ts was, W creal:e' 3, new ministf:l' \,\'!ho:se !i;t~~lr j.'lQlWerfra{M~rr~I1U; 1vii1rn.istc:r Tony

I a i
of fl~lliId ing,'" M!ly~ Peter Colgrl;~~\'1;l the of Cil:m,pili~n fcrrScielme <I1und :[;ngimering. A~mm beH s h,we reoem~}' bar;:n ri Ilg~ ~g over a dec~ftm:.ill the ~:ml~nber of Sllill.~telUS (')pt~ i~.gto study ~ci(')!!lC'~at unh,'~rsi~:y II. 68 (~e: .]0[1 Sci~noe.4 Feb fllon), .2!005. p. 6(8). ifhe < mus "·\~IiUh~·I"'~ haVL;;f;tro~lg I.i~b\~r~lh WI ~.' ~ ~
~ !J

rhe c.~bilrrne~t"bie,"s'lY~

rf;l$pom;;ibiU~y ~:mtdudles bo[~ r~s~ilrd.l<lnd
11~~!1;]iner dllc:.lt~ol:l ..'''fllil,e gnvermne'IiI[1; e IOlilg~

CQS;UrI.'tU~.ogIM ~Jdn M n:r:t'S,pmskl!~un,to:fIDe Roya:~ Sacn . ety. TIle Uniled ,i-Gngdolu.s :5(; renee bWidget hiQd been Wli'lllilged by the [lep~r~m0J~~rOirTrn.(i'e 11l1Id Indus.try •.o;!ndhigher cduc!ltio~, by ~h():D~~~:nenl:urr [dllCll!tiClI~ :md Skills. BLnttline.ilfcmning f [1Jg..;~h~r ~.fI~ m.f!'~'D~pMl1IiI]ltiW~ forl!'iJnO\,~~k)n.
U:~,[ilvers.itli,es" 31ld Skills
C:011iO~ri!I

"
Iii

n~~ i

I D'.11.l:8) is cEUls,ing

l~ew~~I).i<lrUnenl,fOl·C~'1iM~n, Sc:Jm,oo~js.'}lld ~

HJD'm vis.~m'i [t~]~n mrik~I3rh~jn (Jiiiltl O!nhl! l1(.~t p,I;iCes i~:l.the ,..",rldlbr !icil:!.~lce.. re!'leiitd1. arld i~m Qi~.31 ~lon:' B:mw n s:~ idina s,t:'lt~I~t;:nt, Re~e,ltthers have c'a~u:i:mJI:s~)rwekomed Ulle I:l ~w O!!.rr,an~~Ill'cfll. "nl~ c:~1~~.leng~ Joh'" For Dcnha m., lbem,e'l'!' IUrl,l,i,lill is,lccl". \vi III now be lO
ensure' th:<Illllil.e df!:~"itI1me:f]jl

:~<'IS 18 slrnmg ''Il'Oice' in

bet",.~!s~'~ si l'ISi(! d!i;;p':'!i"ml~m is mlU;;,\1 ~J!'Oii:sil,bl'e rbrbo.th mHs ofl~~ ''dlJilll;'i!lII'Wm:f~ fi:lnd~ngs)l:.t(!!rn~~~,pe'tithlC gl<l~1l'l; Jiovidcd p bYlhe rrese.lll;.ll'l Cl~mrlcils ;md d~rect lbndinglo ~mi\'~rsit~·SC'i~!loo dc~pa:rtrvl.~nt&,"~ohl) ~lll~'a!Mn ~5S,o~jlg to Il<l\'>e welil,~~.'OO th:Jt t~,l~I,w'o h:lhre::; ~,'ii.'m~3il:n is~i.llQt <II~.d th,lt bmI1.5'ust.,[n Ililighievel],s d

I·.~mi~i'~s imo~ler l'O '~I'I!S~'!I'\i; !.~l:1!lYCl,ung r~l)pl.eOil <lr'echm)s;~r1g to:lll1Ldy Sl:ience <l!l'Idellg;~lleer]lig ~ ~]l i!. bigh~1i" Il!;;vd," COlgl"f,':llI.¥¢ says, ~ And Ilesear'C:1!1.ers<l;veone other beeh'i.,ith t_~ b
Ih~ p],;t~

fened ~he \,'olrd 'sciel1l,c~:f 1:0'appe.,r in the ~ ~ide:'.ays, Ree::;" : '-®JiINIElfILER.l! ~

for DHJS; '''W{!; 'ii~ould bOlW p.r~- ~

': ,

I I

I

I

I

I

1---------:

]POC modelers

sugJgeM, d'!~yh.we
Hl.imny lhiIhlm. hey ~

OJ

00. They

my they :Im.cvermeant to bener hOhM]e onuncert!QllIil'( aglUc on

!In-n,veJ

ton~llD,eir be5t mlcenain~y C3li'Im]!IH!S.

how

j)l1,iml'i (Il~l t1~at :mLU!:l1,~erictll ~!lWd.grapb~c.:II]c:r.I1(Uranges ~I1i '~11.e [pee .report lh~1 am

Hegl!;'~

B lestcl'WS Cn 111"01

S:arlk1ozv Ass t1111D es,

aerosols came

tOm!<IOO1i\'

the uppm;elm.t

llOUlgC

ef

.llnElChed to loow<~fming preru.cre:d for:2 :~ {1{J!lre
more
QI~.

PAR.IS,~RAN(&-!f'!;!fldl president Niioolas
.5.ild.Ql)' i:dulHning a (;amp.l~ln prnlmi~ Iby nlovl~9 q~kkly lO giv.e 1lI~!:)'realJtOJ1~rny lo hi!> C~uliiitPj'S liffi'Yer~ities, Hi$ (abji1eti,~ jliWl.~~as, in91 a bJlllOIl tRie lo,pi{ thih, w~ e:l:peded to be dJ!.lbijlli!d~:hi~ mQ!iill~ in thJ!.l Ni!liO'rl!:!~ ~~'~l'!1IlJly~ where .5..arkmy's UMP party has a ,najmi~y. U!l1ii\i'erSl'~Y ~'e~i;del:! <:lInd l~e Fli€llcln A~demy ls ,of Sc::ienc,es ~,1II!re m~~(a:m~d the 1:1111,bu l a gro!ll p 'o~~iI',a:de ~nt(ms (~U$ II~Im!!;)((fpl,gble~ bec~~se they say im:!q!IJ'~HLy b9i~.~\~'Bn M:'hoo~ wi n il1( rei!~~ wi'~IIlIJ~~ C{)li'llPE!lilil1J:r!. Many fIl!lIFri:l!I'I~~S;1!ytlt€ g:(W@r~liu!ll'1,GonUals "'l1iwenili,~ to{l 'tngl~Uy (s-e;E!. pagJe.>690). The flew bJlll gl]v@! l!ll'lW~liIilit~ 1rn1~:rehI?dCHITl 1:0 JiJlIaIH~IJ! '

ull~,{le.li1:!;]i~1l)':. bm~~k':Y daagree ~~120~INJC~llu.ry

thtl orner expCCIIc'tl b~ Sch\:\l1rlz and
OJ'In!illi,)'.!l.i!s

simu~,f1(klln$ ere not IPCC~b~s[~l~!U;Un~ of u ncerta:uaay. "I' in] q II ite p leasedw i[hi how \l,,'e\ile ~reatt!~,!l: lu'~oet~~!UiC'~:·~~)iS ~h~ 'Gfibri~le: Hege'rJi of Duke Ul:iveffi~~Yil1l, Durham. Northl

his col h~.aw~&.
~l;!~

;nuch, ~mlo~ (:OInl]\!ell;:

n,o~(;rror bars~.re ba,,~d!.'l!l'l

of lnll.cerm in~y"

Cnrtl.~in'1. ~1li1.1;: !(If t\MlO c{l'Qnl~n<lt~ln,g lead a~Ltlm:~, en du:::reh:~'.ullt lree '(.':~,Hli)iter. but "
it"'5 diJf~ic1:lh (0 ~OImnUlnk~ne"how they
ASTROPAIATIClE !P~IVSIC5

~h~ :SUcce\),,"- ·of2nth-CXlQUmy !'<iiUulati,MS" she' notes, ,~t'\MO'ldd. seem. 3S ILllJ1edprevi.o[H;;,ly (Science. g J~~~(t., 1412).IPOC am!d iJ~mlX)\re p,
of

it!i comm~llJlic;d:i(1n

d iwn<llie.';Ci~IJ,~".e.
-lR:I:(;fU'i!RiD ~ KiER.R

The y.mlhful fie~d Of'1'JU'Qp<:~rl]c'le pl1ysic.>i.the sW~~Yt)I' nhe llll~.\lCr~'!,'im
tharrain I:h~ 'OOl':!IJli~ucrny" .•
~,n'im~, il!<lYS.g:lt<livi,lYwaves .. <ind,aeurrincs

dowlil ou E ..r.!:~~-hH~n gfow.i!lg
\"'\;I~~~.

otW!i:t.ite ftl;f"l~.lwa sti!'1JJCl!;!re .rlll!l!.di~g. Lasl

bl,Jd~ets.,i~~~tm~l"Its., .ami reah~taite, and b;e!;tO'.!/li new ~r:; Qn5(~ll:ml presi;JJemts, 'wd~ es more- (,ollllroIQ'!l1H IJl2r~onne~ l1Il',<Jtters.. So,me 'COriOO~~!1!~~~~liTil~l1tS [r!~b~1114i1!dU1difl~ c)~'
aUowing IJIIlliverrsitie5 tD S,e~€d5iude;nL'S €lnl€ril1lJ

a bodIy n:iP~-ese 11I:il1l,g;Jstropa rli.{.ll:e physidst:s a0JiirJ5·S Europei releflS\edI~[le n~tdn:dlQfa\i!j,'i:sh I~S!oFfac iluti.e'l. '''We're tTyillg to deelde ~~'n,ici:l

lh~ nliJih:!f's ~~eLinst~ad~f ~dJi!f!ltin.g C!U, i

hwge ]!lfmslfilu;:'I~U'eSi C,U'Jibe funded m tile ne'ltl Ul y,e;tll's," says Stavres K~~l\\l<ilI1l,eV~~s f ,0 Fra'l1Ic,;:"$Nl!Ili{l~lal ·~n:l;t,~'I~t'cor. N~H~I~'ail"('lInd f :
P~lfI:ide PhY)jur:::s,

appfiG3.nl'5,....,weu~ S(f;ilpp~d alrterlillE~ gOWmtff1efl;ll1eg~ti:alredi w.~I, Ulllt(l1l5 anclMlu:letll mO'll'e~nenltlilas~Wlle~, 8~t ul110n!lMiU hilw (tdled, an their' mei1'lb~1'$t'O~'(i!le~t 'the re~soo bi ~l
.,MARTiIN ENSERIINIIK

Physio:.il>t"stiUd:ri:~g H'le~ high-ene'l1!Y visltoO:fS trom space wl.se wide range o:hech~ a 11~[ques-v"slc3",enl!s' fiJ~,ed wirh WOllN~~" to cl.e:~eClm;!!liI~ri~;19Zl""UII<!Y" (ill' telescopes to, Spt;U

S:oU!I'iiuIg OII'ilIFak,e S:uIg,ar
F~"rul~ (;al)lse'(I,c,a!ln'(;er, 12 U.s. 'el'l!,lil'!(lllrneI1L~~ it
hiS~ttl1I!XPE!rt:s lasl ~k asked ~Ul' U.S. Food andDmg Adminlslrra~iool 'IFDA) to review the PiO!.Eli1ltfail he"~lh risks or Ihu ~t~ffliciahwe~tiiner a5p1Jrr~;ame.which appea rs in; everylhing hom m~df!(inJ!.ls .~I:I 1i~~,'SQdi\!So. slllldly published lki!il d A
maner del!eC'tOlU • .a1UJ ulil.d.erground detector fbr

the fl!a~fuJ, ligJ'nt whena l~ig~l..cllC:l"6ryg:,l.I:nJrn:]~ of F<~)l h~15 the upper atmtl::Jplw:fC, ,imd nmedef(liL11,~ ~I~'I'S wi;tll ,;Irms several ki~,O{fmM:;t~rs, long ro
S~:ImS~ g~viry
Wfl.\'~~_ ]!1.20n~., six EilIr(Jpe~i1 rUL'lJJ:lilll[g'lg!e~H;ies: ro:rllllH::d tIm.eA stropert ide

Phy~i~ Em~)r.~~lln C()~'rdi~i.Hi()!l (ApP~Cl to l)ool.lheiIL" efforts in the r~el.:ll,. ~OInmitk~ '~~f"dS A
~ll]P
this

.3 yl::tln: a.gu to litwel,up a road m'lpllIliC~

~lC~llri~o ,~s~nl~w~ny p~~tQli1I d~-'C'ay. '11ft!.d;.,. <'!nd ['Jlt.'''I-,~.en,eff~liil'J~;ravity\'I.''lV.e ill!ltier.ferom;el:er. ASPERA ~"fIQII'd imnol" K!lL"3f:1;~\l;lli; ~y$lhi~
:i.l:ll1 of COiI!ilS.eJ,~Sll:s~buiJ!dia1!il, el'OOfci)j;t: I~Ses;s'flL~tid

eflilfl ,;'I,I<lSjoillmed ~I'I2,006 by ~. new Earopean Un i~~~~E+ -fu1I'iid-.:d asrre fUU"~i(! h:: u ~)~,lysicsa:li::tWl)r,k ,cll~ledASPiERA..

u.,

The ro ..dU~~lr 'c~~~mi~t)~~div~d~d d~~

I

i a~ked

t'ic]dl ~1'I1IJO seven themes .. :ul:llc,imi,mng dark~,nut[tcr st': i!, r c h t: s" oC ~~.;1liIr'g'~d, (:'0 SHID{':~I,':'Iy delC~,aO[s. ~IiIJd neUlfinoe~",perimeDJJt~ .... nd
lie'sc<tl'C'hcli"s t·o pl:\OPOSC racUitU:es.

.~ Throl~£hjto\,\ill :1Iil1}ee'~.iings di ...ogue\,\lil:h [~nd l ~ reSlCi!:n::ll~crs,tl'!c t'Qlmm~HQ~ c~m!.': l~pwiH~its ~ highL;;(iI!priu!iit)' proj('ct" for (,~K:h thl;o'nH,:;. "'We Ii: oovered prnct k:ally every pnlject ~[n Euroa)e t1r '>'\lith Etu·olJel1ll pl~rldeipHli(j!liU.:' s~ys ('lorn~ ~~l nee C'I~ r C h:ri s;~;uanlS~:i~:eri.~l.g DIES Y. i ¢I~ Dr ~ Germ,l!l)"s P~!~t cIe p hy5ic5~;dJo. h~~(i\I,gh ~ A '[~le ~ ciJllmlmitt.ee declares. t~"H .. llihe Ilililhe:H ~ mIlked prnj0C[S ~~ !1<:(1!d:0d ApPE,C pU'5h!;:-d Ilnl:1Fto~}n.e fm.liIll of 1he. ~inc for E"U.11JJ~dg~lg: o ;) n~w [e'les(:l!)p~ i1rroy 100:r pll!~~ltl ray5... (l d(ll:k

I
i

i!lii Euroll~,wl~rc 11~r:t:l I.7~~lhanal rU!lii.d.i~g a~ .,~enc:i.es \\'.itlil ilill~1s ill <I,strop<1i1il1:depbysics .• Work ingg:roup:s fOIi eac hi ti,u::'[l,~lew iIII Iliov.' ~:I;ntlerhe dml'i .ff~tl-m<lp pJ:opu5i!I~~;'I'ilh milesto:un.es,mel budge-Is ~Ild ('olm,si.d,er how l:iJICY ~:11~gln ~ifl tie wi.~~. si~nijklilreftig:r'!!'l :vn Ihe ilJnited SIB,tlI:S O~:'ap..9iIiD. J A:~p.n::se~tt:. Ihe~o~L~ ClOstonlle ~v~n pmjecls PIT~llO~d ,(,e:.I.2 bi]Uo!'H \ii;tmld be ro.1J~dyl)j.'iice~:he lnrnding C:lnr:re~ltl:y <lV'd.il= <lb~~~nEwupe fur a"'U:'O:piLt1icl~·phy&i~. EWl.m;p'e3),1 as'Iropi<lrticle phys.iclu:sts h<l\le' ~~~ywek~t.nled [I](l road m(lr-t '·'Th~ ,oomllMI~lity ~l.1Sbeen I:iJlm.gJu OO~th:'f mare thnil, e~l!ilt befa~~" ~ys. John C~'~·. ~pok~';pt;lrroJ~ the Jior ANTARES: ,C:oll<lbornt~oJl., llNhi,ch is ,eollstul,ot-

m.onih in Environmental He(JlUll'ef5,fJed'ives kll.md ~.(Dm€!ij,lilallm~,releul;;emi.a~ and Ilynl,pllilJm:as. in 1T11!~eraits r'eKE!ll1lf1119less a5pillr[,nm~ ln~li!nthe' rec[)ilf'Ill1ended maiKilin um fo r 1il~l11gJniS; ilIIt hi~'hE!'r dose:s, the rOlts .herd <! m~lrkerl ~m:rea.5..@ inl {.a.nc~J:stinrCI'IJ.ghotit '!h~ .t:lo!1y: Preg!1lllflt ral5 Wt!U! f,ed U!i~ swet!t~r!(:>r, anti aillmais f@(@~'@dit m'L'C:e< liney'd ~eem\'''E'(lliliE~d. llie \wll'k, b:;r $(j~r&ist~at~lhE!tU rop!an Ran]auinl FOijnda'tkm of i[)Itl'[!(Dlogy and EIWironmell1!al ScienCl'15ilil 8olOO91'1il1"Itai.y, h ~mcre 5t! IfIsHil;leenl more lreallf'5tk"llil~ n eilflie r a~pillr~!me sll!ldles., ~,)'S J~me:i I1IluU Or' thil ~~:t';Offil~l,
im'tii'lUilEof EI1l'lol'ircmrIlle,nla~ Health Sdem:e'i,. W:hil signe'd lIDfWlo dlE! FDAlleltE~ dr~l'l:oo by the Washlll1lglDIfI, ID.C'.-Iuaillei:! Willdlufog 9 rou P Cenl,erfo~Sde;fl(.e~1:! 'th~' PlJlblic !tnle1lesL BUt bBGame the $~L1Jjy' [olilllktswiil.h BilIrlier wtDrk, FIDI,!J, '5PO~esp !?!'S0f) M~(h·~el HemdilW! ~,~lih~1 Ih!!!tIIgem:y f'illrl!i Ihe r;~llld)' IJrnp!!rsua~iw i1Ind that ~as~aftalme i~ :sare:" ,FDA's. !E.llrope'alil COOfk hlirlJ~ftt li1aiSnot ~e5IPD'i"ld~ pi.!blidy to Iheslu~y" -]IEN N I:FER ClDlUlllN

.!ug ~,~~ullii nQ t~kt~oop'~ on

the !'e~be>dlolT

H<lm;e's ,Mec'lilel,'l'"'d:Jll~dm,t."Qa~t
-DA!NI EL CIL!ElR,1f'

2:9

I

NEWS OF TI-I E WEEK
SCIIIEN'CE

POLICY

A blmJ;ted science' bUiLillOJilllCrncy anda n<1.\ved gref1!t~i;lil.'V;;Ird,illg: :!'!)lsLern have: l(lng hampered EgJtP,tliiO!ln eesearch, wi ttl critics cem,pi:! il1'ung ~h~!t h_Rl' HUie (If rhe selence budgel'trick]~~ dO\l!m tooproductive sc ienrists, In an ,effort 10 n~~'~21rgc't~~.u S,yS-h~',ll, IEgypt,'S govemme:va,t IUS mmrin,lglio creare <a. :U'C!'l~,<ln;h-~ul1dJJIl,g '1ig~I1it:y. hl"(;l:I~~ l>'C:f:em:;~ budgeto and 'bolstel" pol it k:.;'IJ1 ~m::ikiuglibr science.. '·We must have an effactive mechanism

~o rexe<lrcll. perlil~lJJ~~ Or t ~l1les the ,CUfreilmlrn~:e. I, H~ ;;Idd~d tha("fesll"~Cluri~g thJt '''ci~min~
research ",eelJOG's o.lln.eof the gQ\'em;l'IImellfs 'l'111..,;un i

pii,flrilk~.. N,i7J rt~i I~ ooi~~roft'i;mtml~ " ~ ilUVl;l
rhe :revdiluped system, chairi,llllg

~!l

g'Qll\S m salaries <I:lfld overhead l'O~I;Sat ;ovenln'il~,n r~:;,~~!reTh eenters and 1!l0t ,enQugl~ (('I m.eril.jb<lsed grnllls:. The p~~n!led.l"~~r~Ch~iii~g\M~litdr!Ul~f~r t
m.ost £ Fdnl~g;u\'i.llig fum: tions of Egypl:'s masslve Al:ad~IllY of 's·dc.l1Itifi.c Research lInd recilluJlogy '~:o dil:e; new g,mn,ting agency., \vhkJru w.ulU he called the ~,gYi1tJI:;I!n N;;utiona:1 Fu:n,dillllg A_g.e:tru,cy. Helal slays, [he iI.c;u~elll~.y ",\:vill &Iudy import:!ln~,[itopics aadprnduce

(1, IJIf!W U~~ nm.cn'ikl: S:&'T counc:~I---lInodek:,d on ill, silm:dllll1' p~'lnel illl! J(1-PII[a:-Mihn'ciru will il~ldmle si:... ~~e.i~,'t :i,s,rs.e i.gllt

r:nr di$lribdng~s~reh

fimds ~n a cnmllelisySll."1ill
illililQ-

tuve basis," Egypt'S seienee imllunn:s:ter, elllgi[Ieer

fh'U1YHe~'.-!l.IOld S;Ci~·fU:r.t .The eurreut
needs ~o 'be (ll!,-'e:rrh,ndedl.he says, beesuse

pul'! :s&. r .ru!I.d: illicl'eillie spemdill£ ..wh:i:diL [-I'i:hi~ 1% ofl1.1e GDP"ill:l the shert ~h~t wiI"ing plan nnd is ,1w~Hi!lg a p~sidc;~Hi~~. t~'rm" ;,l:f!dv;luuldhl~~r~.I1-GK~~~~1,'(']i~d EI~~;!lafei saysthe team found ·~s;J."l]if.icam decree te give il~h.erDn;:C of ~Im\':, From t~,u~ " prob~,e:~~,~the ,f!d:n~,i:~j~n,u of S&l' ,j n si n iun p-n'l~.id ~nt rm d Oo'I""!1. w-e- areca mrninedto inc[\em;i:l~g seleneeand ~iCclmo:logy [S&T] ~ID'Jll:'m;:~:uc;lilJ,g xcessive ibu~eOllltCu:.,q"~lIld i e fm,l()rltls:~u.thm eou ~dliloe mddre .. sed by the CI"C'= s spending and strengthentng Egypria IiII science :'l-]eltI!l Stl}'$'. mialJl of <ilI1illtw<' furadiill.g ~ge1.1Cy ,v.itil an ,cilm.lplm .. .• sis on oompcli.t~\J\c grIUlil~. Other cr.iI ic-s (::.tn· Snn i lar promises ~llilV~ bceu m!lo:ekfon:;. ~:eniCIl:hm ]{)ol1Ll1uch O:rt~.le science lmdSe:::t :11(}W but EID'.I~fs S&T SI)e'm.clill,S. <IS <l IJer--cell1tage of.g ross, dbm.es.~ic Ilrm~mil (GOP) has fa U~n (0 n. 2 ".-!"W I 11 below the ~. ~Ive.rage for deve Io~ ~J1g % cmliHrie({!. Atid ..hhQ~lghEgypt
v'~lio:ll,i~ h.l~il1g./u his m:gil1g;" l~;e mni,o~'~ C ab:~nel:IfecenUy .'IJproved a sc ience eestruc"'"i)"S slmuldreach

IID'rtlbl ios. as "\ie.]~as represenl:<lIU,1e.'l ofiJldwls~:ry ~md rill~llc~.Aly IE:ilwSin!l1fd," a Univenity of Cflijn} ~!1igim;~rillg Pf(l,r~~]r. l,l\.~ll) ]~cll 111,£ream ~:Ila:lL1r.uti.qned Egypl's. S&TSyst(;!cnilll,. says, "we c ntltld $~;ffin~.rolii~il~;}1 Sl~~P'YIl" w imwrove science. The 1'1(:\'1 omlnc.i:~ w.i~~. devclQll ~plall. to

r a,bl ne lmc;;-nberswith

re search

f1;;pur!~. hut h ~ h~mn.:: r~d~ '!,viH not be in
f~LI"lding f.lesciilrch."l'l1,!: ..academy's aCI.il:lg

presid em. "ig renemyprofessoe
S,h.o-n~.rJl-w1'no W3S
illuong,

M ehse n

the o:fficI.<IIs:

"i.lho lOok

!Jill?'!

~:ohj,Sdenct'

in 'I:herestructuring m]ksdl ..~he' supports liile I>rgpo!'m Ii

for ;l '~~~\,\I' ft]!lding .-_g(i!lC')/, H~ ~!;'!id ~h~ d:ei.li~s; of the academy's resteueturing "31FC sdll U.~d~fdi$l;;~ssg~!):' P:<lin~y because the guycl:nme:lu has notp~,blicl:zed the plans Egypti:111l SCI(\tHi:sts a:1"C ~'-Iking ,I 'iil"'''.:iH.l.nd-l'lee,uthlide. iBui Illituy would be pleased :if reform fII11~~IlS better

",up~:n)n. "VVe 'Ii\'Ou1!dliike to ~eem.orefiln.di~l.£
geui~~g!:C!'Db.e' seientists
v.~.l!odo

rese.mrclil,"

says phy~ie~$l Amr Sh~'!!1ua\:\~i, .1l~StJCi'!f~ au ~JeOlril rO['lre~rch .H Tille Al1leil'.lcan Uui,ver:si ty
i:ll-Ll:liro. He :!i;_";Y~ l)'P~Cii~ GlWptliOlll gru.'i!i.l f! ~:en:dls to be ',\1el,1' IQ'Ii~i"-a few i:lmusl:Iiflld do!ll~ lars. Far th~l, N';;lson. mill'li)! :U1ID.i"'Grsiny-b"R~d resea rche rs :we Iy o:lmi ruernation ..1 roesearch gr~ts $R)IV! EI,l[~)re", No,!!!h Alunl~riCil, ~!uj lh~ ,Ardb S&"f H:mnd~lti:on. The IOI.le Egyptifl'l!l-bc)~m1 science Nobe~ 1000nr~;_I~e" physk-.d c,hemist Ahmed H. Z~Jw~!i] (Nobc~ pr.~'VIllul:e'1" for dJelnistry, ~999) on~.c C.lIiiiftlmU'1 ]~l.\i~i~M~e ofTedmulo;y in P~I~en.l., c~lIk:i11 t~u;~ EgYp'I.i~np~~m'..a po~ilh,l~ ~l:Cll!il"rward" but added !:1m!mere d''lal.~res<Lre needed
"Yml,
{'.I:~:t do

II~i:!I.s most tlxticwlsive research the structure in lb~· Ar.il'b world .~~l rerrns of research <Iud d!eve:llopa
rtllEHH

unlrs, h r~!lk.$UD\l{1.r~b,e
(!I,II,uongArab COUII~H,"e",

bouom

iIII ex r end iturespe r scle n I i:~L
Despite E!yp{'~~ rradi tirmal
liIl1d engi-

Slr('llilgl:hs, in chemistry

nee d. ng Ire'searc h. the Iln ite d lN1'1Jlions Ed HCiU~O~l~ l, Sdc:l1it:i fic, and Cultural Org.ul~ztju.iml s,lII.r~ v,ey:s ind iC'<I~eth<l~ the II~ a~.wcm ~~
tlm.",\,\I'(;Ir~d·s ;i.d~!Hifi,~ l.lublk'Mi.olls ~,lasI'arlel.l over lJl.le
$hIM"~~f

CIJ\e.,,~ive ~ci.en;ce· in, .tn ,enVillr()n~

iu~~dec

Old\;:

to

~.IbUUl

O.3%. dmvg-:i

i'l\om 1].4% i.n 19QI. ilnd ]~S~!!il\lcd ofregist~l:(;;d P8H'!Ilts IHIS bec~~

n!il-i::m~: e~l!(C~S~iVif;l bl.r,~,~ulcracy.'· he: s!!l!d. (If Zew'3i,l,who ~;l<IIS 1>pcko'll,w:LthlEgypt"s pxesid,em ~ .LbtM" ~Ile Il!;:l;,"tl f-or :iClt::nOl:: i-lI;;furms. :M~gbre:5IA;,1d ~ seveml ye.al':sago LI~I E&'VIl1,miC"'dlJe'!1 high-.k:vrell ~
com~cII to p~lmole :sa:::ienoe :!Ifld a Ill;0 III"'lm,:rit~ ~

H,eI~1 S<l.y~ part of the lle10N pl;):~ gu~JiJl: ~oj unlp,sl<'!rtin!1o~ S
1'01;11:1,. '\1<~tiQJl.1:01:

bm.edr' fundlj!UI,!!!agency •. nlode.led ~np<ln on ~
/I.l1l1\';ri(,':~(:~ atjj)n;l~Sdl>11(,1~fu'I1d,"lljOI1i, N

i

which he ·'\II,i':nns tOi see

:Scli,en:ce' ~m.linlisle'r !ii:el:,.t whose 1,)Orlfolio

~~lOr(l ,comp(ll~~ion

,'-'U'ld mgr,~ Srn ~I,p~ f re:-::~%'1rl;.~herl';ro:L!!i,l. di f,0 I ren~~M: i.Mt~hn.ti!orls or urli vers,itie:s \V:~,Q <IPP~Y (Ii [u]yro:r gr"!I1[s:~ j Pr~me Mi:l~isj~rAluned Nazif.a thl1lnelf CO\t11[)uter el1l£i!r1eeril,lg !p.WOa fes...""u at O]iI'o UniVerffiliily. said in ill Sl '-Hem em: [h.-.It be\vU i push f(l f Eg;ypllod!:~te m-ore oril'! budget

.~~so thn!-e-1.~pi:I!!IS '.~ vety OlImlJi~i()m;

i]lc:~l.!d(;$igh~r ilicb.':~liol!il, says his ~~i!ll$uyis ~ h p],MI'I for '" ~ Egypt'!; I..m.ivcr"~ideS.'· tllilt ""fiU j,llJ'imic IUnl1.f'W- ~

I

uti r-eftJir:nillcS. is rnO\i;ullg I1Iit dlC' ~~,lIe~me ~o ~ ~I.e· e...xp~lld EgypCshlitJ;:li!liM_io.Qr;;l~, ~iol~t;~fic:~'Oliab- ~

QJ"dtions.. Hel<l:1 thinks I:lte presidemi',lil dl::cree ~ l'tial:l! \:o.~li ~~.in I,noaion 11,u~S{)n.~n.<:e 1.'e1l.trnc~~ljlrII ti1 i~eol1!ld ("(]]ille il:;; 5(JOfl fll; thh mO!l!~h.
Q

g

--RUBiIl. KUiErililG ~

30

': ,

I I

I

I

I

I

1---------:

BII!lIE!'prinUmllJ' (;:~dh1rlen:s Study
R!€'Se,grrdlers~nl i10~~!IiIe'igh fill 0.1'1 '~le f/!ll~liofl~l ( Chilldr,Bn':!i Slnid:lI' {INIC'SJ,..a prnpmBd B biniorrl ~r~M (I~d~~~d ((lVlgr~s ..L~~l\vtli:k, l~~ by NatLom 1.III1l5!ti~ule~ Health O'llIIHJiIII IBelinl'~~iI, O'IT ~1Y~aJrld. (f@!ic:ri'~oo how it irlllE!ml~ to lr.a(k l:he hillatlh ·of 100.,000 U.s.. clrlildre.n. ime r,ouglhiy MJO-page ~eseard1Iplalfl, d.evetoped by NiHI 5<ti1lU ndolll~ide' sdentis~~, ouUinills re5.elilrdl tI

HOMELA!NI[]

$IECUIF!IITY

INA·S,A Lab W·o~rk.r's D'Bc'ry INe'w Se'curirly Chlecks
Aer"iQspaoe eJlil~lle!:r Denni:s Byrnes p:wefeJl'S.lhe (l~f!Wfl~k ~!iU},,!ro~:~~~nlmAS.A~ JetPnlpl;lN similJLaooFo:aio.I)IUPtl) in Pli:sadt:'ll3, L<llubni3, u:~a fl'lrJ.l1il~rjob\:'!ti~h ,I defense oCllUru(,[Of d'lal lL1eqJuired· <.I high..!e\id sel'llDi~' dea[<'111ce.Bu[ 01 'b.'1c~ground to be checked ".,. ilm.erl.j'Ollll. c,UU'!{ll~V(i!rl'l.ril~.ir:iJd~Gl~de~~1 \ ~yst~'~~.'~Gt~~l!) [oM rpm.. cn~,plo~s duriug a 4 June v:Lsk That mes:;age lil~sn·1 gone down well
)i'QUI!"

~le'd~odc5 and the ~tJ,):dy's. ;10 hypoolf!e.ses,..-. hOll1l1 whether lle5tkjdes C!lIUW ineuro~oglf:Ga~ proMe~m to hm 5!llt:t,all pmgrillTllS illRl!Je~<;e chl:ldr;e<n's he-i1!II~. 'Officials sO!Orlill,m pest thl!.! dlDLl!lfllell1 onti'~e, ..1ma submit it 'to the NatioFiat At;ad!!.mui@s~·or1Ilrast.-IJ:(l(k r!Vi@~lI..A me F@ . deLgliledl ~roto(@l nlus~ be i!pp:r~¥ed by the Whf'~ ~ Oi!.I5~ Ix!f·CI~ I~e ~~liJd, a~ iJe9in, c !1F1mUrmnl •. now ·5,e:l l.or m1d·20 Ofl. IMI H ha5111't wa~~~d !.a rUloo the NCS. bll~ (~!'!g!iESS !JjaW! i~
S69 l'IfIiIlianin 20117 with in9 r,o!" 2'008.

s 110

ll1Ii~Hol'I ~ellid·-;JOI[E!rLYiN KAlISIER:

federal cnl~W,l1.CII).r:sto ill ndergoan esteas ive b 'lcky; reundeheek b~f\Qr,~· n:lcdvi~!;! an ~<h;:~lUif:ic!ltuo!l b~dg,~ha$
11~.ew r~~I~requi.ring g~ve:1ilByrll,u::s an ~Lncomfonab]e sense of clejtil vu."I came ~:oJ PL te get WN't:'Iyr,wom t~~e

i.lUilong same JP'l, emp!O'yee~. "Sig~in,glbi,~ form a.~lOUms to ~.!~'V iting n~(: 0\1'~m~wllt g 10 go Clim. n ope.n. fis~,ling. e..\pedihon.~' s,~ysplm.1E a ~U1[y ~ iGmh,t :R;nbt;lll't Nl.;lt~(lfl"On~ ~m;ph)1"'"';:

S:penli.il1lg M eaSIliEl P~,e,as:es R:oblIllt IClOnstiulloncy
hllll'lan retum to Unl m~OI1l.N~t oor~~[.a 5~l'!i!I~e5pe.. lll!1i 1P<'!FIe'lsaid Ia~l \~ert. A relJ101't d a'(()~mptillyi III~a IbiU W~l~:all1i n~the< ag,enty's rolIDti

NASA eiilrl],eil' thies, year {clin.{.eL'I1d plilln'>rm a s.!l vies of ~unar la!'!d@~ CIS !pu@Cl!rsoilS 10 lh~

of39 years, teehnieal writer Susan Foster ..
~ubJuunedlhler resig~'<Ili!!11I1 a.il:erle.,rnt~ljg efthe ~.lI;';\V pg~icy lhi!;l ~iti~g. RlUmbliit'ig$gfPfO'~l hOllv'e1l1ls.o ilri,se:~. l NASA's God.d'lm, Sp.ace a

C:i.tIt;l!feof~~C"reey:· I'm baek in i,t,"

he:!lo1!YS.~Now 1 :~~ellilke ' ..;~enl~IT(~llIla 211>1)4

The new ru lewhich

F~ighl
has
,<)

C\."1rn,ttlT iIII

G reenbelt. M<1J:yl~l1iI.d,wMq ieh
of OOIa.tll':Jctaxs.

d:il:C(,';li'ileis.'>lcedlby President Geo:~c:\V. !J1iIi iSh ro ~~nprQ,ve $~H,~ua:i[y.H fe:der;r~I~i:ud n~i~s;.

l.:Irge

mlfUlmll?l$lI"

Ne'lson

;;l~lddl~"e

JPL

('O~~~VgI\les lfil'l1'~ ~ «l~l-

2 008 b!,Jd9~1fnd!IJ.de~ $48.7 :mmh:m m keep I:: muon La ~der:!j 011 liradirllhe Wi! ~~ or a reo:!li!t Nlail;{ln;!~IRe~tlr<lh Cm.mdi~ report (hi.. ! b~(k~ ~l!(1i mi!;$iollS, (is; s<J!eilI~~ij(.a Iy\iatll.abl~. ~ LegJv5lato:~ abo il1ldud~ $2.3 mji~limlfm ill join~
NASA-lDep;:!~ltrlilenl

~~(11I]re; ""'O:f'ke[l[S, to p.m\rid.e l:heUirf]n~e'E];JriJbIS

~l!nlgi\i~ln~ gm'e:rnmem p~rmiis..kllil m <Cl'tllki".C't .
infOJ1I~lation iI.oom their

P;!lsJ!".lrom '''~C~,lOO~ii,.

ru$~d~l1~ia~. m'~'I!1;)L,g...,m~IDIt;l:g~~t~, em:pk~ers.,
tlfimim'll justice
Ol.sefll~ic!1.. retail bus:il1l.es~~ C$1'2IIb~.i:s:bl!.'u~.Im.u;., ether SOU!l}C:S of:i.njj:'urma~ or tim:' Fedel~I.~\.\iaili:lkers h;_~,\"ebeen required to d~ Ihb. fr.iU' ~~r-$;~h~ p~~u~lj~l~~.·=' d~r~eth'~

extends the :lteq~lirement ~o cmUr.iCtorn, v.\Qrk~ ing;fll fedeml fm::il:~li.e5.

J PL is mmi~:g\ld 'by thi:: (::<1,1l~mll!)J In:}.rilUite i
sU'llcmre

pi!ain,ed to t~iOfo.fiI.llelip.h~S;l:oUsts now i:un, Congress, Rep~~f!lE~~l~Ve~ ~MlmnEh:II~rs,R_:J\,<1[) V ( and R[lsh Hol~,~D-NJ), lh<"IIl the ne~~requirelll(;r'n C(J~ukl hun rhe ~i,o,defld~O\.~r1t'!~!tt'",r!blliry w hure~le "verybesr ~~e'11I1i fie;n~dengineer ... i!ffi.g Wlelll to oo,d.n::~, eur II~miiQlll; campl~x ~ch~ ~,1ic<IJ! :L~eeds:," .1.[0:111: the d~rective Ii,s.bel D1Ig ::;.,y~ ilnplcl1"iit~:[,()'d in U \\'i;iJt th~lt u1JiidC'r,"hl~ "the ope'1ll and IOOeeIliV~TI::mJlii::Bl~:" req,u iredroli" doin.g s:<:1:enre. ·'n.ere ill, areal poss~lbriihlylhmdl:~s 'mile

da rik ene fq;,r th~ lthe spaCf age ffiI(f \\iamb to delay beCilllJSe of budg~1 cJ:)ll:Slra~l1~s a !lid .• added mOllf:Y for earlhscie'IlJ[.es res.ei!lrd~ in lilne wi~i1 their Hoo se COOl1t~rPil ns, (lu l th~~~o,bi:ll:s
dis.agre,~ ol1lhe need to hunt ror exlr.as(lilar pl.1! r!@ts. A1thoi.!r;g hl.he H!iJ'i.!s.@ ilf'lCreas@drl!f!ld" ing. ttl!! Senate! $I.HJ9@~lS th.at NASA ~caL@'ba(;'k its ,plaml:5 even mi(lN~. ~ Dll!llEW' 1IlAWII1ER

~'fIcn~I'9Y mfs~l,ol1i tQ stl!dly

win di~.\:'oL!r.'I~;~c ient iM;o;i(Ofi% \"l)rk~ng \,\"ilh s On 21. May. Holr wrote rerhe Cammeree

EClhJIV ILab: Nlot Dllea,dlY:et
50mle 40 ,liD:! r~ ugl~ly 1(10 $t<li~frnern bel$ a'l the .5.aiWl1l1alllRiver E(oI.Q~y taiJoratory Yfi!'f! Illl go 29' ]UIlE: by the l,Jiliiveusily or Geo~n'a (UGIA), whkhlillfa nages th~ lib. M~~th~ [l,~.pi)rlm.e!lit. ,of ~l'Iergy mi. i>2.:2 1iI1IL1!l~ol1in .2007 [ulld illg (S'i;'1~,e, 18 IM~. p. 969), UGA~ii!il~drioIilla~e' up (he ~OS5., Ue dQlIe-1l a:r '!Iof<l(utly wi'[l.sl:CIiY,.

oni,;ch.~olngy i.~.lIF"lsllde:~a. 'but irs ~~m.n.·a~ rlm.cii':(jlbml goveml'lllC'n!:." ill.d'ds..:In aide

is owned by NJ\SA----t~1'I1 ikelfl,1 ,my

an .Iolt"s.

of EnKlrgy bibs. whieh are owned by their CU!l~r~!(;[(lrs, "AU!;)f'ou!!rrop~rry ~:s fede~.11p:mperly, mm.d l~.epresidellf~ d~.redl.~irve
Dq)iU'"lmlU:'1l11:

1);::1l.Thl'ilme.m, hic~~.dt':vdorJ!.~da Ct)]:mnon stanw

~
~

i!

~ ~

!
~

~
o

bMg,~~;lkib)_~ ~~.e..gellcy 1.0~d~.illk d.u~direC'ti',lE: ~1i1Q!.dd ~:IOW ~}!S im!d,ividu~i$'wi.lrki~~ un f('ld:~r;)~1 pfl.1perty 00 ~mlP'l'emJ;le;nt~'d:. CUml~t'm::~.."'ll;l$ ytl! LOre."I.:lQUld:. l J ,L:s M.c.'fllr'eguf s.:;~)'l><![,IlJ)'OIU! \!,.'l~oobj:e(:;l:S II,llUS.lundergo the ~.Ulllie 1:J~~~.gl'Ot~l~ld~~c:ck!S c ~hmh.~\,~~t;:n ]'iI:i(lmred(If i,;~~\'~1 ~I"\.'mlil::;;.:· f;,WY;S: [I.) fl1e l?'t)~iiey"~hottld\""'l;lrl\ dUH Ihrol~!::h !th~ V'eroni.ci1M,cGreg:or, JP'l spoke'speirsg~n. COllI'( s:ysteltl." Byt~e$ 0i:1iI.d hi:s OoUeiig~~es~IY lJ!ffid~r th~l~inl~rlu~tat ion, ]li110~l ofth~ l(IIb's dlt~Y~Irf!! rc~dy to hire .1J.lawyc:::r ~nd 5UJC the ~,I.!J!OIJworke:rs awe <'IITe'c~ecll. and NAS.A. gO''''em''lln~I;1'I1I;~. Meanwhii~e..JrL officia~seli\:pecl . ev!'i)J;')' ~nlp1Qye~to .h;,ll\'e.~.C\'1'~[)s;befor~ 'tile: i;ld~ni~lii'it'nuor MiiCh:il~1 G~in'~n m(ld~it has detlr dla~ they hf!~'Un~ ~~ok;-e."E,ryou do !~Ol 27 Oci!(d.ler de-;)1.dml1!~, ..yUIDIiIII] IlIB!IIiIAIII':A(IIilARjIBf \WInt to !;url1el~dl;lr the Illfo.. <'lu(H'I~o .all.o:w m
1111

wlir([ for ~fu.~!1~W fd~!1ilif~mifln

SC!ysfonm~r cI~re~lor Pal!!~,Bertsch, ~t~lllou9h
,()m~itllsil!Fe".)'t~IH~ryinQll~ IlgllUe<QUt. !low tu :s.'lIPr;l~:rt re5egH:hlh3~ is (Ofi!li!'ll.lin.g with outside hmdi I1g; .til MGA onidlll5.ilY:Ii "'llRi~rsil,. en;· ,c:ie!i!(ijes;j, ~lI11lll ~p !lli!l.!th or tile ~l.a~k. pick "EU IiIBIN1iliSClIiI
u

VAlrilJIGYANG. :!H)UTH IKOR~A~, AlrilJll[l' BATAViA, I:L!UIIl!JIOI:5-Deep ]I:ltside Korea's JeombolJJg hl.h:m:~,I<li.ll.~n :.I, '1""l,~t suffused with <In

a:!ld Ililt':

[lUUh.1ors all~~v~:l. $i!,1gM~~!lli pl!fpO~~:

to ,nffi,inirnlize t~le :lIa.1J1mlbeu· sf'llJr.uo~ls, n<'l.s:h.es of insi.d\:: the n~ffitl!lls. :e!re 3~.the K.ore~ H I.l:ltvisihle

~Idrhch red glow,,]

giant bl:,I(;li;,cube beglusto UlllfoM. One~hic'k. lead-lined '~":J]~,fi IIed 'wiith IIIill,1,eillltio~t al ong\'I!' irh t~,l!~ box 's base, i nches ,IVI'1:Iy frolm,l [he liesr of UH~ S tructure ~.o reve a~ fl small er Ieube o f shrim~'uer:ing coppe~·..1'\ YOUU1,£ 1ni:'l:IiD.steps [tp and a chain. l~ilnd n'V(;r~;;'!HL and gnldu~H,y. amid tlhe cI.U.lt!T of steel, the face ,(I f l~l~ IXIPP~T' c~~beri!Ocs. The n\!,etil;~of COi!Hi or 'liile rei ics of ,I ~.~:U~H ighr bt: Im,b aeeordedsueh ~~U'i,t':I:ij'ty, ut hl~~t i~ ~;~ b ,m'~ie,Ii"OO:llllte 01, tunnel delved fur a hyd:m~

M .. ss Se.I1i1CbtKJ~,IS) 'e1'\~rim.erU.l1;l:l\;eil!f('h~rs are bopl~,g 10 'be the first to spot what no
om:-i
11d ispul:ably-:m,.I<Il

M:leil befol1~;parl:i.-

r,~ns

des, of d ,.:rk matter. A'!i~ryeiin. (lrprepill:<u~o~.pbyskislKim Sun Kee of Seoul N:illio.IKI~. UllivCl'sily <uld hi:.:;KJMS C(~nt'as.ue.. s h~gml m1!;i!,g d.:m_l here ~~I'Sl~,l.1nth wi th 1:1. I OO-k i ~og II.-,;u;n.l o anay 0 f ~ryt'italll •. 81eh, d!~~y I~l~"'i'hUI~(:'to reeord one 01" ~"'\I'O iin:;m:\Ilit:E::S. vl,te.,lly i rnemct~ng :111,1<1 ssi'l,le ~"!I~tiC~~St ,\V [M Pl> ' ,-prh~Hl,e :iu,d~d~lt,~ fbI"

rt.00,)rGeneva. ''\.~'~~~~rI3Jmd.eou~d!i1HI~e dia!rk 1lIiI1;lttetU' soon as it" turns on next S'j:Fril,lg. as '"':rhis ~s lilme e~l~ in wIr]k:h t~,u~ Qeffiltm~,the= Ql1:tica~prediciions are fimdl,y beil:lg[!t:ffib~r' :says .EUas Cabru:l"~ ofSta:Uilfo:l"d Uni.vcrshyifl P:illa All'll, C:ali,:~orni,;!I:. whQI:b:r ,I decade has stalked d~]nlk maneras th.e Qo·~pokes:per:sOJl of tl!n~O)'t'lg('iliic- Dark M;)~t~i!Se~n~hItCDMS~ p:rojC:CL "Thebest guess ilswi~,liDil1.n::'ach."T.I:lli:ll
r:l"l,l~pl;;"t:llbnll~ researchers, At
~I

roc~m~,~'(lifk-,

or

pO\1i.t~rstatiun

~nr.!!9nl.ll,;:.!~tl,;':n~ K{)r~~~'i.:hL;: l

treasure is precieus on~,y toa ~).~n~c'i,'1i: p hys lc iSL rn~,S]de t ~~.,e op P er a ub e area c cI'I'dinfiry parth::h.:s 35 Imla'~y models p.redu()l. dozen blocks 01' crY'jl<ll~.Une cesi um iad ide, '·[fdll.ey dOH'~:imienlC'l: \'I.'ith maner, we have doped 'with t'haUimn and wired 'Willill cll'e(~~ ml' hope to fin,d litem;" says Kim. t~omLics ~I'm~~'i.'ll. r1l:gjs~er lile ti l1!i eo':!~c~nt~ II... i s The KJMS experiment is one of.~ I:hll.l of liglnproej,m.:ed, inside line crystals, dozen experrmenrs racing to detect dark= R..l;lse-f~fe~hlW'S maki ng (I. f\i\v fi~31 ~\lJ~f~k$ ~U~lu~r are parUd~s. Uk-e K~m:<;;eam, gri;lUr&~n r to t~.l'eilu 'CI,"Y:S[ii1!an a )!,' before sealing it up ~e~reli'<l,iecumries <life ,e~lIlllli!Sed in se-called Olg,}:in,ltid be:Si nn i~g. ,~[iI,olher'!.1I'{)~dly (I u~~~ •. di reel searehes, strlv i~g U'l~.iX1l: hi! ~lu'lid~~ [ The 15 Delllimeter:; ofg<u1i.~rn!lllli3j'-broci;;il:lg josdi'l1JJgol"!(b.OIU'Y atomic: l]lIC:~.e:u. Olher~ are Ulmi~~g tOI:~~t;: !'jlkies, ]11i!1l.d~I:QCt searches I:hat leadand ,.1eu.t1r'Q:!l .. qLlef1:chi~goi~i~ the Ml?lck seek s~,g[lS0 ITdliilrk-llmil,UeIf p>Jmtic les.mnihi latcube, Ihe ~,Oci':!lHin1i'el:en of cop pet that o ~bl>orb x·r~.ys from the- :11~;;td. the ~.~!trogel:l .!fI!go~.~~llothG:r in the ~~(\,u.,t~f ga.:~~xi.~s. • piped i'lmtt) the coppcroo1l:. 1~1.e red :~~ight. il.lld ,Meanwhilt:, t~].eworld's ~ll.1g~l:poo-wed\d'lwm LhejUi} In~~~:J"!>,gfrockbet\\t~~n ~hLli Ch~'llbc[' smasher, ~h~La[g~ ~~kudnl~l Comd~;r (tHe)

dark :Lu<'Iuer-ticklllnlg ce:siulllI,l and iodiD:le mB;:'~~iin "\I~y ~:~~H ~ iib~:~at~~ nf!~h{)fl.i~!u, ..~ Thm\ <1.'5!Sumiwgdark pllrtidc5 w[lgJe~lIridl

s!hQP~ <lit FeJ:ilmli N3t:i:omll.Accele'r<uor l.sherat.Qllfy (Fermi hlb) i~B~UlVi,f'I,.HI i~li'l,is.mJllli'l:~lh>l'ln .h!f'll.:hh,e tn~endees, \""l.~eired tl"nat cl~~nlNn"l1110 ter ~[h~~t;., .. wijll be d.,1t;CtL"(I \I\!idl:~n 5 ~~Irs. '" [luscO\fel1' :~s 101: 1 gnllranleed. The ~[l/vmed ~. a. lh~or~~i'c<d !m"d~;d.:;;, s~.!gg~s~that experii

menters should
the~:rgrasp,
C~1Il aever

,\igO§~ h.we 50

dark

n'il'ln~r

in ~
~

iFI";I'~ic.~e.., be wm I'

but others pre:::dh:t tirucghmnly

elusive d'a.u reseerchers

hope t:o snare them. It 'l; flrnfl/kc~ ee-break Si,llmtlO:I1I. p~dicl$ Rucky iKJo.lb. <l rosmo:l!ogast OIt the Uni,velrsil}, OfC!lj:c.;~O in [1~~!1IOlS: "Eit~e:r ~I~5 y~~rs W~'\Vm k~ow what d<l:~k fb.l'<I!tU'!'.r Of we w,i~i~. is, m:Vl!l~rknew"

$. i:
:lil

i
~. ~

~

i

,. Th~ lH'un~l(lF i:lilf k M<'lIU;~r: 5ymp@sil!JrI'll IlIn (ollidl:l.r. A lDi~cl;,am:llf!ld~,ect :5earch~s,.l.o"'t2 Mlily

~ ~

3.2

NEWSI'OCIJS
",IJI!iI'5~ti!1fI
"'I11III,

II

Now. another (:l(])'e~fiml;:!1!~. ~'lk~nthe has ~ead in ~elf!i'Hi\fity. Tine XENON 10 expertmeet, \1\.'lIlich resides; il1!a.uLnine! .inHrnn S~lSSO. ln ~,~n3, ..Fru!tzZwid:y '0 f'l.1i'Ie·COlIi.i fD:m i<lIIlMi~ h~lly,consi s;~1-l~f.'1lank 11llled~lIri lh !~ k ilo5 une Of"[:t::C~I~H)logy ill Pt~sfbden~ clillc'~I,lliIted gmmns of ~iq'~~d XCIlOIl. When phlgcd hy a .. ~hat the CQm<,~e~:u:sn~rof ~<lht'...es lloml;~ in~ i .. WTMP. a xenon nucleus !'>IICluld rebeund !{)ul i ule vis.ihle :~~o;Iit~.(lrre hold itsel f IEhet.ectiilillg 'is beLiev]li1,g l]i1rou~hlhle liqu~;d ·~op:r.-m~uce~.flm;h of~igTm,l ~i:lg!.;;fh~i'. Some tQt!t!i.~~nm;)Uer mu~t $UPP]Y The prlJoOf ls ~n lhe-lX'irlid~~, The meil!i<t ulwiumd knock Fret: rl~dI1~1 of ~1~'lw!'il$,.I~Apri ~., ~helllxtJ:a grn,viry t~,m:~keepilltlrn e g<lI;J~~es from x ous W<'l)l to fiml.d the:l1m, IUS 10 C'd~l:h~~lIem Ib!L.ln~.lp~ lm.e X~[NON 10 jeam, led by Elena Apru,~.eof ~:lyingil1~o spuce, he ~1i"e~S9n~d, Th"I~ m~~.\tl;lr- imgilH~ {)rd~I~11lI!yU1l1,"U;~f,;1.nd.lheKJMS C~li~!mib~I'] University, reported lh~~ it ~cHld iek ideaga ined eredenc e ab (I'LII,l .:I decade s el'l.per,uIM.emjo.il:ls more~lm.m <I, dozen experisearched W.il~mfive t~,[!'n~es Senn:ii!il~'V'ily0:[ the later \\',~t:lllj,1$tronOmlTI:i::l[ljf~.ml1ldI~t\'r :~l1Idi¥i:cl~ ~1!~ms.tlr]~1a~ hu !'n.tingI:'orco]~ i:sio:un.s~'!I~[~, ~v:.e~' CDMS-U!'nd f£lund ~liJ.th~n~, mod !_!kl~::J:xie5 alse ku.::k e:Il1,Qugh hrm:unolllli rm.Q~~ greater selil.si~;ivi~y-i[ldllldi.nS one th:lI~ Togo head liO head \v:i i~ slJc:l~etlbU'~:s,t~.e K [MS tenrn had ItO start frl~Uil.l cratah. A s ~:erro hold Oll, ~o their ~ran;" sugg~~~,"g Ihiill cI~im~d fl signal Spotting dark mffll.l~r ls east e3.clla, g:lll~~1II.Y embedded is in. <I\'<I.!il,clulllp. 0".1" ie r !Said tha n diLIllle,. hO\~1ev,er. The pa rrie les decade <;1£0 •. Korea dli,d, not have a partiele "hslu," nfdr!di; ]l!~;l:m~r. f~dUty.'<\v,~m1wayS' Imd to g~ !)hro~d should h~Wn'ii~lwBh nrd~~1lryman~r e''V~n ph~iS;i.c& Evidm.lce 'C{ml~,:n-UleSlal1lil0~mt. lu 2:003, more f~b~)o1th,~ dO[ill;n~trinO$"'~l icll can;cip for reseereh aad Ir<l~n~ g," ~1yS Ki.rn,. wl~o CI.U n re searehers wi (hi N f\S A's orbi t ing in,.us; liCCith at J~pau';sKEK 3.occ:lem~:or' abl W~I kiasen Micro~1I!1.IveAW:lisotrop)~ .Pmboe oru:~or:)fh~ Tsukub a in the :~9gQj. When S,omll1 KOI!C!I'!ii selenee mini S>1f)lla~mC'ht\d ,t Wl\IIAP} n1ieas.tIl:~I'I~~~ big ball1lg's I:'iJte~l!'~ a Creat~\'e 1R.·e!:1e~Lrchlniliil·tive i.:llll'997 .. !~.o'w-Ille cosmic ~.llicn:n~'I\'~weaekb glim~nc~-tb~ t(:mnpe;vuture of \",bi~h varfcs Kim. 'liVith col le3Hue:s Kn,lllil.l Hong loa ot eV~J :50 ~H~uIy ;).cOO.<;;;;I:h.G: ~ky ~ Sf.:ieJ!'(;;"'. KY~;lIlgp~l'Qk. Nutiu~fll Unht~fsh:y in 14 february .2.()03,.p,991~ l. The p~:~;~el,"lm Da.egu, SOlufuI, K!mre~l, and, Kim ¥con.!;: of hot mlldl;oi.d spors reveals much Duk of Sejong Un.ivershy in Seeul, ebour how rhe mm,hrcnlc evo~lv(1!'d.,and poullced. Thrice due ~!I.iool·K:lllm sl~bm]l·' ~.Cd the it aJpt]y ~HI med KIMSp:ropcnml. researchers fOllu~d tll~y coul'd cXIlI~ri!lthe dQuds. Astrolill),lil'Iers (~n inier 'II,Ihere d~H~ ll!IaU~r lies ln spat;~, lb~l !'lobo.d~ lJ1C1M, whi1!tii is.
observed p1.ltle:,"U1if the llll~,\'ef~ ccasists of 51% l;l:rdiu~I!'Y 1V1~al(:r~ 22% d:mJrk m~~[~]". <~l:Iid 73% weird .s.I1':~oe~stl.'eH::I~]In!; "d1lll~k :lI1l:dllhmioo~~mey fai]!ed. FUI]!k~~.ly.2000,. in

~!m"l~HU of\V lMP y d,a:rk m a tt er s~o u~d remain rro][L~. big bang, 1"!~~l nc~HHliy the u eoi nc idence. or "·W~h41? mirnck:' ~~Jllggesls ~hO!ll ~uper:symme~rj'i::i, more; d'HHl aaother stab in the dark, FellS says,

!hey opt~'d for anevel '(::(;~~~MU ,~odid(l de'~;e,C:lor'__"ll:ld Hm funded, They'C'~nqgilu,a
second bresk whea th~lrri.liigc:onslnLmjQl~

(,:!N~Y." ~U i.~·!~rn.c:lQ!'!g lhrflugh gro:vby.

Researchers havenever
U:KllN:r.

CtlPUQill:;d

a

of the ¥~~gymS 1\!~11ped S'!oi'<\g(;; :Po;.,ver
l?'I~IiI,L'1 small section off oae tnnne] caved in.. and pl<Jnl gff'ici.d~ were ~1~lI:en<lbl~ hostlngthe to experlmem •.

speck ofdark
CQs~]liJC

however, like a

Cheshire C,lt tbe ~lull'hide5 i:ll

p.lai~l SiUgl:iil~ pre~umlLbly no.ali I~g t~lI!'lYLi~~ §'I kll'i,y <lil[i,d [be sc lar system and s;111.owi:lmg OIl]Y il;~ gl1t"llhy as its gr.ull.l"1l<IU coynessvexes phys lie i... t£.i,,\1h<) f~,~ sume ~h:;llda rk 1U;t\[ le.D"lIlI1I!ust: cnnsist of psrndes. "This h~~Ll~ best ,evid~I~.CQ~1i.te~HW~ of 11C'\'11 ~)Ilys~.c.s,,"sa~s. .Ilonatlmn Feag, <I '
om !:iu;~.OI:isllM 111£ U:~j"!.lc;:~rsily of C~Ulbl:iuril'l. [rv:un:e. "J['Sj; !'ii~.upIJ¥a r.~C'l tbl.. there u is dark m~m'Cf~1~ld \'V1.'l dual'l:!.:Jij{)\V \VJ~jfLti.~.is:· ~

·'We we re "eli], .1 y,'''s !l)'S K ~~~Sun tid Kee. The collapse "opened ~IP [usr enoW)_gh. ~p:;!!ce~if,,)!, the expe riJliD~~!'II~ "•• Siaee thel1ll.~llil.el1;lCliSl ,Jmum~s,l~l!>k has been III d~\f~n~p a de~~C'!fJfU'~im:g:eruyfro~~f traee radinacrive isetopes, The KIMS
~~e~lln lil:;1ls, ~~~.o~1lC1l.mit], y~rs s;1.I.l.dyi~,g I~{: _.c.intill'~lion sigml~s of g,III:t1i1lm rn.ys.uI d .

through

E!lll'th lin$lUpedt;d.R~~eili.rc~t,~~

mu~!t

stray ~o:;~nic

f'I!!~1>.

\\'~1iche~ull~ chah1 r~!it'-

TheoristS llm'.e dre'<Imed IiiIp doze'n:s olfpos·

$.ib.iIHi~:>. D~rn n~!!U~r :r,)~ld b~ p;,~,rtklil,;;-;h;,'i~ ~ t ~~'mll.d ei'iislif ;:;p<u:e hfl5 minULsclII]e II:MH\
d.ifll£.Iihsiom;. Or il {l'O'I:!IJi{llb(!!' p<lrl,ich~:li 'c:n~l,ed
.1lX

also shi.eld del:ecto:1'S ~mlH cmmli.c It.ty:s ;j,lIId at her 000 UIl:alrY P<lil:l~:c]:e:ilSCllll.lm. they Inay perCf;l~V~;

lio:n:s in lhe

a~mosplim,eu:'

d.in

the r'd~e iOO C~\ptlilledm"kl.1cs,-.;. Ihle fro:l1~~fIIcom::cpulil,I.llmole in the theol}' of the strong :rumm.er fur the' past [:e\'V years. lUIS, been an force Ul"n b~nc;]sDie ll~~ells. ~.;q)~r]!ncm c~IIGdCDMS,.whtdl i!I!!nU i.J11ith~ MOSI pmllQlis~,ng may lle lhieudea lhlll dink SOUd,Ul Mine :UIIII]or~ber.n, MimH!S'OHI .. 1J:s mflUc!' ~O!lsists ul'p~rlicl;t,;!~ p:r~d~cu;~dy b .5 ~ ki log~m "cr)i(lg~l1ilic" d\;ll<eCtO;t" CO~SiSl'" !:If :superS,)'I1l~llelw)':, 3. tlln,eoreli.cal :scl~,t::rne limt slac k~ {I f g erma n iWI,m :lIld s,i I iUcon VIlafe rs pairs every k[H;)l;\'f1J pllrHcle\.'I'~~h a :~!,ia\.'h;lr_ c:utded~:l!i wh.hi~, :f~ fl".~ell~o~' of II lk'ig.n~e of '~ t1:llcli gscove.red s:up elflH!Lr.t~,e 1"1'1.(: ~.ghte Sl ab:S[llute zet[l. ] f iI "VIMP cras,hes iIUOi1l r. ~ .~ Su,p~lipa:r~n~I)",. peete.:! to be iJ. fe~\iImll1dl'tld ex ~ucleus,. it s,hm,lld kn.m;:k .lom;ct;c'Vern~ do~~ I~;~rlile:s <IS ;mI,~,)so.sive ,n; <l prCllOll .. COL! lei be the trons .,md ,r.oon~e <I. tiny J?l~l~e of heal. ,AmlI.O!lg"KO~lgln\;VDvJn }\Ild H·itil1t~racts w.ith .Iyz~n!g both th~ ch.~rg~ ... d. be!lt sig['a.~~ls. n lfeSI::<lrc1ia.er.; ~'a~,llook £'urdm:k..;rmlUer :~'J.."lI.tucle.s '~ {wdilill~ry m.drer'IS Olml,licip.:ncd,Ihen a s:imple :~ c~icr~1<litlOlll S~,mIl1Slh<'l:t. ~'ong h~y t~le rig;fuI,l and weed uruD neutiiOlls<lnd otber red heni.l'I,gs,.
liO

ioms lh,lt~';We been hypij)dl.e~i ired

p;uch

or ordi~nm:y oo~ I iskill S.

the sufi: t'ties ufd,f~kpm:lic~e~ ;lmid [h~

b.ackgrol!lln,ld '·llil.o~:se" of "T~1e i1eU~ron ~igna~ i$, vli:ry :simi hutu w[lOA:I WI;:

l~UJjl g.i'lierise~:o <I h,urtlill,£ IH:tIlrnns.

expect

<liW~MP s.igl1ilillw lookm,,·e:'
IT! U M

]iIl

e,,,,p.la i11~. $(l~he e~~,peri ~ue.rIler'"

Khi1~. nn d

'I

ways to semell it out. Sof..'1D' they himlC Iwcdm::ed H by 99,999%., ~l~says. KJMS won'l ~,ll1I].nm.e:d~ r.uw]1 CDMS .•ltt'!~:y ' 1lHd XENON~O l'u.r oVI,md~ f;~nsitivilr)i. B,UI KJM.:5 w.i]I~, c~(;;c:lirl ulrn.e imporuu:ll :reiEl."ud: If l'~,e'W[ M P-nll.el,e:u s:i nleUI!t:l I.on dC'lPc~~.d~ on how e.~e11 p.nlic~e S;pifiS" K1MS~)i'iU 11.... \re ~I b eUer c ha~.cC1!<0 f see iug tilt; e ffecL ·'Tb!.! i nmlk.e:s .KJN.IS c'l1mp~e:r1IiIenl<uyw~lh e.IJMs. ~nd XENON I 0." Ki ~l~: says"

K[ MS Co:!!1 31 sa) IIe!>-t'OHfil (liflw.e

mO!lrie

spe~~

lacllI,I!U" reoent claim,s Ulli p~,ysics.. in 1997mu:l

I

NEWSl'm:Us
s.ignsuf d~urk-i'!1~uoei! parta.d.e~ i.~l rbeheavelillS.\Vhcnt.'!NOW:IMVlPs ilfil1Jg.~i•~cticil~~~:o ~ . col

The Em~op(':;;m!LB, will smash prorons
Ingelher <1:1 ne~llie,s :Se\'ell~ tn,rnes gre<JIe:r Ihan e Blrly prev~o~Ls cellisions. I.·cc:re;mtillig. i:1l bilI~on~ of tiny explmiioDil.s, cOlilJdi[io~s rhar
l'Il8ivC'lfl ,exus!cd
S~llc(: 'the

Iid:c.~~{.Io:ry ~ys; they 1;;[111 annibilaie each ollt~rt!J] produce high-

big lJang.U"

slI.pcm"-

ene rgyg.iH'ii!U ara y
photons or ether

onHn~rypurticl~~T
l-!Jl.e c]1l,l,ellTgi:D1IggeaerH~ion of g''liil,lllTla1',1)" "toe lese apes" shou Id
b.(! well-suited
[0

p.ElrtD'l,e'IfS e.,'Il.ist. thie LHC ~hould crank them !;)~Uby the f~.Q~$a:!to!Jlil. say~Ah;:'X; Tum~nffi'~r ljce Ulll~vershy in HOUl>lnn. Ttl~l{,~~ .. wh~ ~ma:ikl> an :l~[CpElrtnde' detector. ·'M.o st 0 f on !h~~e models predict thatwe win fii1~ (l~1!

exeluderhe dillrk IUElUel1:' IPiLrlicles, w.hhful

(I]"

'Foo!bright?

IUSS'~ maps o~ gam

iiIlii

ra~s o!IIl~il1;e< c,enteir ,ohltle Milky Wl3V may lea;~

,2 }~eR~:" he ~ily:;. ··nl .. ':"'!,"'ilIy ever)'une d ex.cI u:d . We 'Ireon the dboa:srep .... '

is

!j(l

d~~s ~o damk miluer i['ootlin lliie g~gre,

P'tlItrti Ogl i~ L~hllg,e:~beir ill Uh i m~!~eiy. U ihree m~~a~od Ii recr derec~ ~ 1:aU's.elesoopes" and co~,ii.dcr::;ic--nmy ~~iQy.e t to strike pfl)' dirt betore ~c~mi~ts (:~lI1Ls",}'\VI:l!al No, o~i:I,e'rexpelr.imenl has repwoollu::ed the rher," $i;]~{'s, Ji<l:[lfilel'B~Lckiey.,an astroncmer d!iiI!u'k nmuer is, "',Iti:! re.<l~!ly gQill1g to OO(lt~i'!'e: l:hlll MW~shi~g.tOil UniV(;~:rs~ly in St. Louis. w~ dL::leclli:'iI.;: panicles h1J()lIr !;la.la~y snd pmDANIA sigl1Jal.~lmwwr; aud nlt)~'il'ltysids!$' di MllUS:S the sightill1,g. Because K~.MS .LVI. isseuri, \v1I~owoeks 0:1] VE,RI.1"AS .. dlHce l~u:~,ni'l~ I.he h~,IbI"I~ld tlmt we eenvince (,~lp~(lys a simil~:r dl!l~ec~orIlIrwy-wiUli HE.SS ~l~$aloo~.d)'~~ifppedth~ ,~am!~ ro.J' (I~ffl!;;~VI;lS lhml~·~y {lrol]a~ salf1!~ th]ng.~' S~i~ cesium :~odi.d.e:lii,mi<sl:e.1lcl sooilr~~miodide-> of g~,ow cOn1I:ung fl1o:Ill:1. the heart OrOUl1" Mi,~ky fDd"~13'ro B'lh"Z~ III theoD'istDt Sl~u'lf{ird 1[1 niverrn~my experts say .it C<ll:~] provide all unam\lI.'3Y g<!.I~'Lxy.lhe: lun,1.0S:t obrv.iml!l! pbce to 1.001< sity.. In 111e: racete spot. durk :~~.Btte!rhe saiyS,. •. "You dml't win ~ll1tH t:"'!l:rybodiy :ri]!gis~:le.s·:~ b:ig~~OHSte"l of ~he DA MA resuhs, DA.:I'I·(IA f:'br d<!rk. ~l.Utie·~. Unlb:ri~gmridy" those gUllIIIma g~oup lesder Rita Bernab~i, iIphy.sicistat the ways: come oV';;i"\'~h,elmlln.£ly from I,uorl;:'munOf course, I:~e e Ifurts !UillY wnot co~~e Ulmiver.'liJry of ,Rume TOf Ve.rg,n ...., di:sagree5. d ;uu: sOllrce:!;, such as htll: g.15. So researchers log,et.h,e:r ::;0' h(!lrl~]lOnio!JI.~ly. Direcl: searches ··No d~l1ecl compaeison V\iull be po,'Ss,ib,~e:·' she lillmy h<l,vc::' tO~11ll11 aw.,y from the cersral gh.ll1ll: mi£!1:n spolp.arli.cl!es so :~1":SS~\lC:th,at lheLHC and k)a:j;; fI~'so-cfI:M:ed(h~tf sphemid fI~!;f~1 ax@r£.u~s, bec!:l!u$~ cesinm iodide isIe, ..s sensican'tgeueratetlrem. Or .. ~1l ~pHe rd·lb(; ~jv.e' rolow-ms ss dark -rnauer pi<lrt icles tE'lkUI iesthat orbit our gill~!t!D;.y.Those galaxees "WIMP miracle," darll]]31ter IIIigllt tu rn out shol~hlcom~ i~I~) ~'~1I1 'i,{i~'1,iv or ,,\ihe~ NASA's DAMA~ deteerors were, ill 2003. Bem,lb~i'~ 10 Ct]l:1Ilpr~S'"everal dUTerelu lypt;;~ (If p.utis gump I"i~-edtlp:m [~~~gradedl 250-1\;.u~,ogram Gi!lmlmHI""<I}1 1.~1gjc Area is tp:J('! C "[:e I escop e r des. ReSlea:rche f'S31 so r~oe3 p sychol'ogi!ca!11 delcewr ea]hn! DAMA.llIB,Rf\. hsil1ljliai (GLAST) hl~]sls i~lt(l olfbit~ril~l~s as car.ly ellal]{!~1!ge .if f~.e:y (hu:ee ~olil~,ell~~~,g" ·'Th.;; findin(gs are due u) bere,I,e-dsed ~le:KIyemr. .1S '1~1~'W~ IlII:er. i Ir.r~t ~lrn,iins. you 'lVoldd 2m)' 'l,Vitmld be .. • ~s U1.lIl [[)(il!1':k-m~I[~r~iiJ1J!1Jib~~~lIio~~ \>wl~ld plJiOd.~!I,)e Ihh; rt;alT ., $~yi\i D~Ulh;~ A!wrib. a eOMS cQlnp~[itkm amQil_gdfldHna~mr (t\\~~f.~ i lllelil:~S is: liI.e<lll iiii!; lip. The C DN.I S teaml h<LS o~her p1H'~ic,~e:s.lao. The H:lllssi31l-U<lI:~;]~:i lellm nle.nbet from C<l:seWe's~e'fli1l."nu: f:ursl al~·~d}i c~ll~~c~~d~~augifl ~~,~ ro~~'ik~(he ti1<ltd ij~~PAMELA i~~90ki:!i!glof"~itiprt1~V.~!'"i]~i~g wotlld h~"'~tu d~)L~ try tQm~k'1,;:i~ d ~(I w~ lu I s!en~ili\'ily le.~d this ~unHllIer. Nle<l:~.\\,'haJe. Ollli1d (llher iUlnipaflideij oorn ~~li!1he p.mcre.t\!5. t go <1'%'<11)," OilmJprtWe it \"''<l5.1 .spliuii~.:m;s;s~g!mi. re1>em:l::ber.s. in North A~llcrJ:t~a. Europe. :'lind] And lC"eC~Lbe.ml. iI.r:ray of 4200. .1 ighi~ ~CIilSOr.; he says,. That Gould be: l:d,cky. ~1S it would Asi;l ~OO ckploying orplm.lgling.ll g~.gglr.:orever be.in£ l~tl~~rered.into le Sou~~.P;o~.e ootuld d i.c!l:,. fflGluire dle(:lkil'~ every cl)IH.iei'liable way ~lIn )Opal: ~~l::nui:lm.oofiwoliilm, inll~ il<'l!liiln~ISin l~'D.eSll~ .• i~~ oruuUili'lry j)!:I:rl.iclc III igllt m i.u:im,D,t,: :JI.\V~MP: more fIIlnoitiou:s (re~ector:s. iundlldiin~ XMA SS, ~n SOO-killkl£'fillTlspi1elriC'd.1 ~qJlILid ~"Cen:OIli de~e,""_' Zip pi, ng .11.0 :~£! 'VI,' itil ltc lue:ll1,d OlJ s t:1il,erg y. :s lilt t~l(!LrS flp.[iClhle~.umlosl reSe<1iK hI!: 11S. tall' lh.n~~i'()a.l~hnd~n!il.~jlili:i> I jfe:J:r :lI'Id \\f,~I.1be bu:iih nleOl:surud illbi ~miOilms el.ec:~mn vailS or Ge\{ of i.~d[Ldillg :K.;irm Sun K.ee. V,iOll~!d 10li."'eto hmie. i~l KJlHTli~b~. J~r'!W. ··FOillh.,;: fj rs~~ me. '~~i,)' a fe'\li.1 ltMouildl:jm~rn(!'t whh '~h~ic~w cr~ .... ij t~ Kim h()I!(;'!'lh~~ '\:V~I:h,in ~leoJlr..his l!!'<.iU:UIn'(t!n~ di:wec:t detec!:im:l ,eJ::perimen!:s ;<I1Je 'Hm:vi:ng [mrl 3, n<l£~~.es.of'lii;g~;r. A. stream of Itm GeV lleUlri~ bers~'I'm have llIoclJIHulated em:mgh cl~l<!I, in reSim~ t~111~reh~'Uri$!~~\"tguldSl1!y thO!t{I pl'ir?JI'j' n[l$ c.;Qmi:ll~,(~tQl of H'Ie sWlweJwld be ll. $ur~ Ih~ir KUf~f.,tI CfYPI: W f;e'lf~a~~.COl"'" iIH~irig. t yQu~voliII:lclI ~xpecl to ~cc ~oll:l~,el~l.~~,g." says llig)l,l ofd.il:m:liilm~tler lirud!(I1il'lg there. says Fmnc:is WIM1P S!1g~<1i HI,e fQ{l"l1iIl: of ~ \:lli M:r be~~ind L l~'lfrei!'l.ce K!1'LlI~. !9. ~hi;lOliist I C~$e '\i\i'est(!!r!ll ~ Flai~~Il. ~ p~.y~i.dsl :I'll the U~.i\l!!.\lr!;i.ty of l~~~tChe;sIJ1in~gfun is .a~loi:her (jl,~.est.~mi!.·;'We; dOH't know '1!",t1<1t <lW:~Mr ..viMllook li,k,c.:· R!:~rve UliI,iven:i.ty in Cle'\!d~JiI.cl, OhiQ. Wiscoa'ls:~n. Madiool~. "'HO~1i,1else do }IOti gel,l l 00 a~v!lc~ILTii~P tlUi iiJfth~ iiUfI1'(" ~flysKiml'n.. T'h~y !nay S()O.ill n~d out--{lild Be~;(lre l'ese:J!li'Chel".'lfind d3ik-rn;(lu~.U' [Ji!lJ~ :soh'e; om: oft~~.e bigger ~,uy:Mc;li"i.es. 'lil'tlil,IH wa~s to :s,kill1l ,iI ,cat illll,phiy;t;i.~.,. M ~;;i!l1!whi aSlr(I~~(l!l1effi se;;ttch h~,g l"orr tides.~ili~GyIn~yoo ~b~ero m;,llrlllfr.CIU~~he:!l~l. I~~ a:l"€l -AEH'Ijl,ANI 'CI>O ANID R:I:CIHIA,RD'S1'ONIE

search for :sucb sigJl:1s. ~g~in i~ 2000. fel'e~fdl~rswi[h tll~ It'.;1]ii!!u~ Si~~~ 2004, tb~ EllJi'0p~'f!fI!~nmdled High DAMA e:lt1peliinnml <'1;1 ran Sassereported G Em:'I'UY Stereoscopic SyMe:llil.l. (HESS~in eVli:dem~e of WIMPs, ia a ~O{),..kil(lgI"'LiI.ml rl"d), R Ni:!:mlibi~l. An·ic;1l.~~S: used hI; four dcteeters 'of sodium iodide clfy~"l,~I~ISci~m(;'r!.]; M~irc:bi ~o look 11~rlishl CJiiellled'\:vlib.el1 .~ S'1[1Hn"~ly 2,0001. p, 157'0) ..Tbe II:emn fmL~ldlh~u the rate: s:mflsh,{ls, ima the 1.I111su,;!>phem ~nd lr~ggers ,~U1 i.i\'01 h.uil,c.~.e 0 f piln[ild.es. Si.~.ui~ar.~y. Ve ry l'h.e of flashes \ve~l lQ]pllnd downwith rhe sea[~';:'Ig:illg Telescope !5ml'~" Th!lt \liIo~dd m"lk~ ~~Il:SC inhcg~i:~~l(y Energetic R.~ldi!:'l,thl~l arms im;,id~;<l cloud yf'!lVIMPs :;~ t'.h.~tthe t\rro;!y SY~~~'~~LU ,t VERJTAS) ,<lithe b.-J,:;;I;;; f o solar :sy~tem ~j)(';e5,D s;1:eady \1i,i"IM'Pwi.mt .As, Mmmt'I-]op~i,n£ in Arizena began t:;lking E~nh circles rhe sea, h\~·()t!ld ~h~r.!l!Iil~~~Yd ~I~il ler till is ye<l!f. '''!~e S3mm~ r~y obserearl rush into and <IV1iio'l)' fmniililbe V!;,I~ncl. c<ll~s,illg v;Jti.ons <Ire rellJ~y the emily 'mIy N) measure ~hl! i(;O~I~s]oU rate 1'0 rise and f(1It i HIe halo distribution aad tie Hlis all loge-

Even ilt:the lH>C l;[1ec,\I~om: newparticles, however .. il: [Irn,lighl: n>o't I'e'\fe;;~~ enough about Il~'Ill to nail d(lwrlwlmkh ,of [hl!l~~:fmY'!rof~
sions of supe['syumlmel:'!'Y namre P~H!YSby. 'S<l)l:i> Mic.&l!.l:1cl Sc~,uni.trl of NlmLh'\\Il'!£te'I".f:i1 Uni ve~U'£ily

in E \i;IIlSlm1.lmmlg,i~.

That

'l.V(llll]cl1

req ILi~I[lte

~Ulother ~('Iniid~I,' Hl~rtt:::allld &1.U.JiY p!llI!tueleE ~Il gre.ll:e'li del..il: ther[ltopo;sed 40-~jlonle~erlo~g ~1~'~ma~jot:!'[1~ Uil~a:r Col Hdcr;

n~

~
~ ~

. ~

NEWSI'OCIJS
MICROE3IAIL ECOLOGY <locl.'etiol1l, iee comanm, microbes thill~coul,d be revived iu the ]~b, Il,Ib.lll~.y SlC]cunlnsts infer th~ll

II

I~.£ fee sheet,

Re~"€:1iu:':ch~V"5'~a!\l'€; ~~ gfi!~

fhr!l

The O,ark and MUlshy S,iidl'l 0,1 A Frlo,zenIIC'onliinlent
Rese!l!!r1che!rsare unmV'elri.ngl ,aJ weUeif 'worl(il t!llrnldelithe Amlltil!ulic~(ie t~,a.nHH!'Y ,~,e!f illillalgi n ed. Bll.llt ifSi, 'fa.rhom (.lealr wh:iich I~,ilfiil!' '~o:rm,s caU t'hls €!!>:tl1~mlE!!@lllli'ii~lr!ini1il nlIiE!lfIlt lilrelm'l!
BliG sa, M:Q'NTAN,#I.,-"Vet~.i!Uln:!:s might. seem inC(H"I,gnnm:-lin All!ta~·clh;,'I's fnliUl:UiI, W'I:.'l~ei'i. BUlR.%"e1li1 esped i~i:onshave uneovered a hid~ d~11JI~nd~cape of :~ak€':'ii" lil~i1n;]lnes" ::md ap'~r~ 1 ent rivers s<I!Ii1.dwicliu,'d between iee iI'il.d rock. T~~~..,vast '!l\.relands, impri :>t'lf!0dl ~!!ld~rlh~ t ice. nffi,3)' even be ~een%i~.lg'with ~!ite'. "1'J~ere:S, water '~'lilery~vhCreLll,lldi:'I: there," su.y5Jul~~, Priseu.n mie-r"Qbiolo~i5\ .~l MmltOU1.. 1 here .~~~st 1'IiI()ll1l~. Pris~u aad Ol~,e't 'e'x pert~ OQIll~red !lot~ on Ihc~at~t~I~I~~1 i.zi n,g clues 1:(,1 \~,hflllhis mlp\flrri.l.I.I~.h~dand l<llL'gely uuplumbed world miyln be Hke-,)t!'!.d laid plans fOf ex pl.oring b.
SI:."Itf:! U~1.ivc:Ii"Si.t.)' i~nBn,.zt::l1um. At a Intltl:t~ng II! over the pnst decade. Dri]lsth<ll have bot-

rhese microbe!'
CJ[~~~ r

were

Vllii~Qk de,lI!Ijl:e~H" aud

1;tudiies have shewn thl,lllhr~ mIr~ierebes

temed

Ot~t belo~v theice

sheet hmre:often hit

\"'<~Iier or '''''1:J,'1J,l.1. M),firice.

Tilt': .ioelJilailllkm ing

mdi;;,]tin~up from i1E,mlh's core, Th,il\v:'oiUmi~]iL I)omhin(.)d with in~~mse: rus(';,~.re frn~:al~e io~ p
bCHringd.own,. allows \\'<~~er pm::lkels, under the

n~.c (lC:n1lill~ntI'mps ~at

sheette keeptheir Uqui.d [orin iU nOlIJ'ul<lUy flit.'l~zi~~gIiempoerll~llres. AI~t{),I,&,All!t;jrclic.~~ !Ol,Ibgl1ac'ii'll.~kt:!~ Clmlt~lftll Q:~undllo.,OOO ~lIbh,~ ded 'wiJ[~ mU1dcst !I1~unbcr:.;of ~~1ierobcE. i ,u'"o!JIl'id WO cell!'> per llliUilil,er:,,,c\col'd~ng to !kiioom.eI!o:i'Sof\?r.'<Iler-1Ibolll 10% of the-fresh sWdies. 100 by Priscl[1I, a~d iBm:: nl Ch r:b-;tllC::l!r,. ~ 'WIil~r i~ 3~~ ih1,;: lakes CIS~l;!hli:'~ o:~ E.'l1l'th.

areclose rebli~,'es,ofthm:e foundlfom Green1'~~1d the Hirmll~:fas. Ito 1'l~eire~f'I;:" at her ~igU'l ~ ('I r vj~~~ity mili. "'\!"ell. The sole sedi~,ne[li:core uader l!iliC,~ ice sheet ~e::;:i~~ ,'l(~~r l'ttr wlicrob~::; h~bifi~Hn~ng with IliFe. :~n2004. Brn,an [aDo]1 ofthe 'U1;l:i\!crsity ef Californla, Ri,,~r~~!d·~. and co I~.~:mgul.e~ fQUllId, l'1l!i:'11 soddem S1oi~ ulI1ider the KHm b lee Sueam inWes.t AnHl'rotiCiJI Dmll~incd H) IIiIln~i~ ~ion eel Is per g:l"<um-comp<lIiroble to ti~I<l·~. of h1!k() $~di~uCnl1S fnundin t~p~mwrogt[)~~$ .. •md :si:l1J,l,i.l<lr sed imems found, lIndte:1i.!;li1.S1ciers 10 in New Ze~~~Ild and Norwa;)l. GItI(.~i'II,ice fmmthe\/bst1ok cere ,is ~1ml-

!.rli.crubi,o~Qgi:;;l ~.~L(~~Li~i"':l'1 State Univer:s.wty in Baton

RO~lge. i\~' he g!~da.I.·accre,tim (
icc' trarrs i,tUou, they repn rred last yeflr in Lbullolog_"v' mN! OeewlOgrr.'I!lit;l:. l~e: number rh;~sro ,~rOllmtd 400 eel lsper mi~.iiIi.!er: A.ccllfelion ice iSlIlso

The nrs( b[g_ $Ih.!~ge is
lilkel}, ~o m:cl.u in l.ake Vos.tok, Ih~ IfuJg~~t of A~.Ulr.C!Uea·s I 5iO~<Ii'n,,dJ~c:oll[ljl:i:lIl,g hldden lakes, A Rust'.i'l!'!-I~;d teamis p re'p a rill g to penet I';al:e' <Inld :muiI].pleVos~ok iill 100'9.,. The operatien ~,llay help ::leu,le a point. of sharp sci t';l~.tiJ·!C dEs· iJute:whelbe r 1:I,u: Con~,et:1~.c ut-sized Ia ke, 0\"1: rIa in by i1I1!nrii:Dh~u~:l5 kilometers ,of ice. hafborsnrThicl'iQb~jd life, ··\VI,f, n~\ier~'lm!,!J..gh[life Q~}'Uld ex ist down there ," I?'ruscli :says. Now he s a believer, O~:he]" rcG:~cardl~n;

rich in oi'g~nk: c~r'Ih<m. Chrisl,uer
'sOly!:i,

"Th is suggeS:Ds dUll ke :i s a. source of bOith 'cens,l~d (If'gt~!lk: arbon," e Othcr researchers think th .... tthe iee-e-and perhaps Vos,w~.'s waters-e-islargely :''I,~r~~e. S~r!.ey BCl(dl,1It. ~ n1Jo~e'cnhl.f ihiologist .it the retl'r~~burg N1!J1t:k~!!rPhysics ~:Jmstil'I..I~:C (PNPl) in Russia, and :~,~!l: eulleaguas have ,a]g(li been probillg A~t~rcHel1\; fri.gi.d water warld is l'IilIor,c tllil.eVostok !:O[t'i for mie robes, and DNA, A l are sik.eplic:'S. tI )1110iUn limn e1»,pe.cled" T'I."'O reeent studi es ie B~I~ (:.,\\perl:f; ,efl~lc~,r '[h~~'~ far ~~}nn;'1 ~hat 1>1;' t:~~~U te~:J1ij~ linil~ fou.m!dthat ~mu~ ~U~~I~~if l!:uh~l~d~ll~ l'alk~;t>¢~U1 t~~, m~~~9~~g.• Bulat reportad otlell fli:lIlds: no cells ilJ samples fr-o~,n both Ant<!lfc'tDC<Ithan meets the eye. "¥k"r~ seeun:g; IWO<'II1iJ1IIItnmd-lhey burnt thei:1tbiiunks aud IlU i(lln a 'wide: rnmg.ii: '0 f s~bg I~I~ ia I '~!l'ili(ln~IIJt;l!.r~:>, It.nwr-.t;:~e'i.~~~ d\;:PfGss:i9~., Th~~n !ld~ng~ g.1 ;):ci",~ and aeere ~]O!l i~~,<incl, neve r !"','!'tl!\l r ~int m thl;li e.",i~il:llCe ll.ftro'!n~i~mrivers, !jII,'J'Lfil1:L::t~'l~20 1;,1;;11:> l!Il~iUilileu:, iB~!~m doesput from Lake Vo:-.tokr:o ""l:t~'1~IQ:~v. ::IWotl1WY enviper rOf1lm~nlli:· s:ays~ter Doran, il[~1 eal'~ll.sc:ie'mI.- ~:S' lo:Ill"ge. peilihflps. as Engl~lld's , ifc: Iiis gro'LI,pb!tls found ili"hru~]H.:s----;~nllld sUlC.k ]m!1OIl'i1 s.ign ~js.~ d'ne U:uB.~\'e~.'s~,I,)f ~.It llfn~inoi!ii It eh~.(';'igO. ra i~e Ihe M;.tke~ ,(Ill! iI,uem pts to 1;;;]1' :urno Ihe l~(n ill'Crul:ioll jc'ii,': (lom.~ins DNA. ofbil,c·reri'l < Fo:r now. thie slt;flrt"i ing wel~~md:s nrelena. lake~L '''''iI~fc h~vc [0 ui:h: aw~ters~~.ed similar to thermO'.phil~.'c ~~1ed.e:.'l[nvel~~s,on inco.glli,l<'l. Robin Bell. u geOI)llysic~st it~ upplimlch," DOf'.il1l MIY..,. ~fpo! IluntmJ;!s inmm~le the ocean llom..Sud\i :mJ,]icmbes. he SoWS. CO.~lIInbi~. Un~,\'!lri>i~y. SOIys,"we' '\.'e~Ol <I :I!ong a w:<Llerslled .he :says. '~\'",eIm~y be 'C:Ollt<liJ:l]iimj[~ l c;;·o~Lld cI:ir.nlgiIJ,g ~o lrocks ill.'DlImJ,d Voslok be \1!10l!>! ~(I g,o" l~ e:fotl,;· cQmpr<;~l~ndin~\1i.lb;H '1> b~e <l!!'!idi'mll<'lk~ ~djlm!;!:m$.) il1~ thif'lg~ n~Wd~e 'l:V~~)f d(M,\\i!'l&troam: The dbla~.'epm:ncy e~'ee'[I th.e RJiJssian ~f1d b A~:lh!Ougll 110 .s,ltI:bg;lac~alhike: Ilas yet ooen go.ing on mll.der t~leI.ce. U.S,. ce~I if;.'t)lU~tSllml~dbe due ~(l d~~~e~m s;;ampfv(;ktld.r~~~~rJ;hers ha"l~ drme:d to whhil'l ~,oom90 TIfiI.e!er-s ofVo .',wk::;; s,l!i1.rf'I.l'C'o filum [ce I' I :il1llg lee h~1,i'ql!i1,e.,>. III i~rohi.al e,cni.tlgi.sl S,i!,YS: '~~f\'Vi~k VilmQentofL~wul tI.~iversi~yh~Qtt~bt"C•. tim]:!; l~et:~1i(lf :r~~ion is :iIHumi.~lfut.~Jm.g. Wh~f.I C<!I.n<Id3.W here<l~ !Bu l<lt":lli:e~,m iU ses~:low driUl:d dQw"llllirmi,I:O~"'om abou 240 metern cyl1o]):]C'lry., PrisCl~ a!ld C'irul"t~t~r G:(l'tHli C~US; ;ilbov~llc I,ake'. tjI1~C(lro(:~"'lin~.e~ from gl~d,..1 or ic.-e, cOlnpo~ec.l coml~acted~[J)o\',',. lO "ICCI;iC~ lilldc:r 3liSh~ m~lcl,'Q.~'\.~gpe ~aLning eI(."1;twon mie!\)._<;o(!P~" ~}'s VhlO~~lt,"]t eQuid b~ thfil O!:'~ doo~ ]c~, Io-:rrnoo \"'~';;I~ Va;;J;!(lk Wl!.I.I~[,~'ro~:ze*, to
lhela

on

t

or

\IVWI,I'Y,soiel1cema,g.aFS

SCII!:!.NCI!

VOL 317

6 JULY 2007

I

NEWSl'm:Us
!~~r~~" ,1l10'~(Ij'h("'l(irog,(;)~t:hyi!l th~ice core,"
Olhers: ,u'gue thatPri seuand col le'I£~le's, lla~ve been .Iedaslmy by an ~rtil3Ct To kocp tl'i1.e ~I:ok V bm,~hol~rifon~,'n~z:in,l!!l shut,it':i> HUoo\"'ilh dlr,iUi;JilgIl~lid •.111CJ]i~tdro~lrbons are 3 feast fGlr b.m::leri~. ~~Yfl CIlr,~"lIler. "\¥e can d,liink ,al'the h[)~~~e I,l'l a 65~'w~'1 'C;~lU'iclnn~~t u~nl!x:." e lrina Ale!dl:ifilil~mJ her ooU~llg~~ iU O~~
IPN:P[ Jouad that same mi.c:ro'l:l'L,!s in the'

A!l~a!!'iCl~,ca's M<:Ml~!'dO!Dr)! Vhllt:ysi!l,,\il~[ch
~~ g rou p fou nd hyd roc arbon -eat i n g is

Ufet, R1i!ym(]c~.dlbu~d t har
u!'rium species duces it protein

OU~

('11j"~ru.mbtl'·core :pm~

ffi(l~rnl the V05!ok til>llll, Will. thelab

ddUiHg n~jd Itl<'!!lc:b~p~1;;:ie~thi!lt Chri!'uil,~r 3111dothers have found ills:~de ceres from

microbes. "The oqpm ..sms arethere i in ~;mure:'fri:SCl! !>;'IY)1" ' • .r~:Li'lt eeausewe Nee it in b the dr~Ui:l:]gfluid doeS'll'l ~neil,n~l'soot u:illi\!c:' Th.u dep;Mr: ngtwith~['lIldil1g, if!" <'J: mysh~!'y bow ~llh::!'nb~50 cau ll:UliV~V~ dClCP in the Vfl\~:I:ok;;or~.whh;:h n~~r th~ bottom cO~lid be ~:Jnil~ion to 2 mimo~, ye<lU's olel, 1.1"he t c'lii~h had r~m~.i.~;'ieJ Ih};tol;lrl! all ~~'HH time.
'·t~.H~ irgencmes

•.blocks ice~ryg,l<I~gHIWIIl. Tbis ~tLggel'\tl'the bm;[en<Ji ~H'~'~'Cs~.3p:illlg the icc: f~HltlfIJd t~C;r.lr1, 0 :~mh~~1

miee damrlge. !'iHyS Ch,riMner, The protein 1U:~glll work ItS IHuifr~'c;~(:o:!, as !.'11 seed fhr e ry Sl~ ~FpJrmat ien to flJrml~aalee cot; (lcUl araund the baeteria,

""Tbk. d~b<ll:~~ ill w

I1Qt

be resolved mil~i:1

Vo~[okand

fr·m;n the T;".ylm,-Glacier

i:UiI,

ftliltar-Clic'l-micJ1obes that ~hey ~.r£ued were 1l~liV(: 10 tih¢ icc" 111'1l€: rnif~ry baC'reriilliml,Ih,~ pri dlll.iUill! n~i.d\rvere Sphingomoll<l:i> species, kt'll1!w cuntami n~:!Jus f jet fud-like rI 0 (h~ drilltilJlg nll~,d mostly keroseae, "Tl1tere'is 1'10

accu 11m~Jite eaeugh damage 'Ih.u they would en'~'cl:i\lely b,!;: dead,' Ch rl.:i>tnt':r ~,ay!J" Olil.e III icrobsal rer~].!i!e mi,g:lub~th,e water ebannels betweeu the ice c:liySl~.ls,. s<l,y~ BWI.ford
·W{)1lIIJ.d

Lake Vestek hi sampled direcvly," s~ys V i~~ Wh,en R1!~~iil, bre ••b dmn~g~, i[\,\,j 1:1 cent, be :~ike explori.~,l,s: WI differe~u IJiI..ner, The .
driUill.!1: Lbm
~~i!,~ p.recGld~d

Il1iislli!verlEMoo has

been "~ike puuililg piuholes inthe ,cominelll."
S!lY1' ••

Priee .. ~p~lysh;:ij$tf~'~ ~hi('lUni\'CJrsily ofC~~[i~ Priseu
rom i~l. Berk.cl.ey. Cli1rjl:Sllua,eJi"~ nd b i otpihysi ~

'\\~f;) don'l know w~~fs(ln th~

i nd ic .. ien for' ]~,HjI,i.gc'I1i(Hlg nill ierobes," n eist James R~;:..'nwm:lof the Unhrers,~'~.yof Alekhinu c~nchDde~. Nev,td.1. Las \le~n!l:."In: te:Slil1g whel,rner the .'l,peci.(JlHyadapt,ed to tj~~ coid Priseu [~buts this by IUli.llIl.h1'g~D a study ~iJll mierobesare

bottorn of" th.~t ice sheet ," Wel:ll. we' do know one t~.ing: ]t':t. '\wt-M!ASOIN 1IIIlIIM.AlrII Masolll 11'1:!1IIlJ~n,;!!i,ree'l\}n(e loyrlnil~i!i': in Gam'tluidije'. ls M<'Is~dhus@U5"

PIA()fILE; ESI<JE WILU:,RSLEV

-Anl'Ci!B'n't DINIA's

lntrepid Expl1olre'r

Aft:@:rfen~~iIII,g ,off Ib~il.rS!j'SI!llll'VIVlfll °f,ros~i'te., 1:11 n~~rJP"iilmrg fll!l~silml51b@lI"ia, IE!iike: Wiu'e:rs I~ : t!.!lll~rn,ed:o !lIlelll!~ti,!S and is 1iI1~1I¥ 'tlisJi1li:m.g tj~,e t b!ll!1IJ11lildlari@s ~f oiIIlII:cieililt Dll researdil

I S Apd~. 2005.p. 41l}7}.:h \"''<IS du: O!.d~l DNA e'\~r disc!!)vert'd bYr'!nJ)'fi) [~UUl! 2nO..Q{lQI yt;;llffi. Not I.ong illh:ai" rhst, Wilh::l"s,k!'II begen to wOliLder iilimMl~ili!e ignored lee cere bot!oms :lin lme bui Iding h,is kll] sh<!lred"'\li~hSt~lfense[l S CUnl:)lh~~'Sear\!h group. didt!h~ pL;:l1!~lll.lto'$l ~mll!f.:ilndillil.eul stu~cll.ellll;y w!lait me: Si~~yiee is: icy r~rJm~[!fro~t. ri,ghtT' Judkl('l1JJ!.~~y '~uui!:Qg
e•• [

"'I~d.meltiin,g tlme COilJie bOno[lJ1JilO.WUUer-:!il~e\'<Ind his coHe,lgw:::;; l!:r~.<Jilyz(!d!~iler::Clsull~.llJgwarerfbr I

signs of DNA, VVhat \Vi~lerl'll,ev f~i~~,ld. aud reporlR on page ~: I~, bmkie bi:s 'Q'IIIf!lD'\C!iX1rd ~ far

the ol~clest NAcveU'reorn~rec!. <md pmmi ses D
~Ofie'iiv.rilie the history of 'Gir'OOIl].md's ejlnm;ne. I-H:s;te~11!'II id~lnml;:d f~]'n,ddated g~!lelic sequences iom. ,cOJlife'mtllSlmes. bllllerl1:ies. beetles, aad .a v.a!ii~ll'ofmbeir bereal forest
p~ allits---LI'IICfS of i!flIcien~ fm~s
I}lllt

\V.i:lliersle\'

s.ay.!leevered ~ol,lth~~~~GfcC:':'~lalldIl~rI.l!1p'S ~s

'QO'PEN HlAG'ilN .• DlENMAIIllIK-11ii
the

the hfL1;~nl~~lt of

!Mi;O~l~M~H~ lhund~

Mr~:r:~~~tt "'h

'II~~

Niels 80br lnsritute in C'opeDlllhagell. J flr~Gn P,~d\,1r S~~ffc;!~;,;~'r>! ls .~. !;!l(fyp~1 ~ pul p blue P;;lrk.~, o~r his ~'-ijihin<'Iml:s'h;onto ~~ep~, .md inside ill :stor!lgt: locker eoelsd to i:'I QOl1llstam: -2,6.0(:. A:i~eJf d~,ggillig dl:l:iOlu.ghom: of the ,[~lHlI'· dreds 01[["cili.rdbcml'd bQlxc.s,SUlck:ed inside. the , kmnded dimlll«rologi~t:lii't::. ,oul" di[il:Y.pbiSlil. .... , wrapped ~y~ilil.d:enl.ril'e ~bmn :)5 c;m iong. nl;l f]l)t';l!!l c'~lU:m.. ,>V2J,S(: Wil m:tml!i:L~ OOW:lm ofm~ ice core driUed tTrnlcough Oreenhm.d';' i;ce' 'l:,iP iitb :~9.g.l~s jj'llrll1'll~mpr()je-t.1 Iro ~,tlOkm 'p~!~~ C~li:l1fl1'l'1!le. Bln~:lmi5 COiro bOtlmnW1lS c:o.l1l!!lidered
too disturbed by lhe gJI~.cierabo\tC' ~mltoo~~1!~ ~.~miniJtedw:iltjJil~ih:;md dirt from belliQ'l'" to

y.h~Id

!1i'IIuchil1l l'o'rm;;u io~. says; Std'f,e !~se:ll. ·'rYe t:a""ell c(lrl: ohbi:s diny, :llJIs~lglil:ilfic.m~: :liHOIl;1 fro:],H $JH<lUI &lmp~ie5 of sOI,1 he coIl:el;ted l'rol1!~ t h~ :5 ~lM~ ~!lIPil flVI,f1 $')'flS~ Sch:,u:t:. ri piec~gfk~ fnr 26 ye~fl1."he ~U:s ~" ~~ii'U~r'"
I~

dur;iIIlS d1i:ocus,s,ions\~rilhEske that we lrnO:m1,l,ed in ~. ~tt~c:fil:r~t:' e:~ke WiUl:irSle,\. '~~e .. cl~w;:~orof till: (:e;I1J:~~ "0 r A ncle 111Oenet les <11tliae Un.! versily of COpr.::~.l~101iiil:'n,hm. ~')(ml!lu~pa",l 8 yeur.'Jre.ISo~ ing 'in ~{um.nioll abollit t'~l.cdlist~nil: pma from d~sc'lJ1ded ice <llild e\'en les;s Wa~.lyp,l.lce£l. :s i~(;'t!,fi rsl. e1':tr.m:rilm,g DN.A Ili,'o~n gi.II.:::ii:Jic,e in I 1999.~h~ J6~}I~~·(ltdbiologi~~~la." pk'lni<l~ll:d V.']]J<!l~.le't'i'lil~ "diulilDNA ~___;~lme :dl<lcti,olli :alld e dOEili~g nrp!~~m ~md!r~iI11;,i1 DNA fl'(lmjllSit<! few gr,uns of :s:offi~i icc. ~:Il 0m. he nxfe~ <lnd 2 f:incd ~Inc.i~nt DNA re:t::carcll will,~n bi;: e1f\.tn~,1;teclthe 3'00.001:1-· j:o 4nOJ)O O-)'\e~,r~old DNA (')I"$1I~a!li'!!i~m~hs. 'b.iso!), !T.i;i)c.~~S, arid much

oni:r

f,l'f baek <1.<;: 800 ..000 )re,lr~ ..go. T~Ie-ro!>u!t~ h~w i.Il'llp.~~d hi~e(i~~\:'a,gUt;;~ illm,the close-kl'li'l. hi.!!ll],lly t:Qmll]peli:l:~\1e m'lcie.lIl,l DNA rG$~~h C'Q!.m~~~in~.ly., "Togo U'Of!ii!1 dirty \\rnleu:to alorest ~'~~II <of :illSllidl' is p~~~y'1ITK!~~~,g:" .MllIuhc'w Col.lins (}f lill.c Uniwrsity S3;yS of\b:rkilllmtt: U. K. "Wt;; ~peq;li<lclJIlar h{l!i~rfilii' .rne
aPJ~~l"s to hmr~ go\lIle badk~:llni5~lnle.,"

IF!'omf~IIr-'I!!'ilIPPru !lglo, Ie!ne.tiio: Willli;fS~~V~~d hi~ idei!i1iH(~~.1h'J.~~~R.f!I1~

g~\ll

lip re,u.i ing about DilIll~:S~lege'n~l:SSllC~J ::IS .Arc~ tic 'll:i\:p~Orer K!'!wJ R;;'fimu~~~,1l il:rmddt.'vourillg:,
[Jutldy Lo,n8~wIY. OiL I}OI)'UJI<lrBclgi ..n oo.m~c book l~lal~hmI1~c!ed th~ i:ld:ve~~lI~:C$ of~ii]!!- ~ diJ,d Americ,m lIiI,Ml!mrn.t<limil marl. "'1 <l~.\"'<IYS: ~ [~'l.(Y~~liit. \~~S 'boVIiI 200 }i'(lO,1j:1'S l:OO hU\1.~' 1 ~,k.;; ~. 5<tyS,. "EXI)~'O\~in£,Ameri'c"<1 i,lnti:Je begiunj~,lg ~

\Motll,ld,~,,~ fillue

~rl~cdy."

~

NEWSI'OCIJS
I~ [9t) I. th~ I \}-)'('~.a:.o~d~,!,1vi~ d~dd~d ~!) . s
slPfnd~heinunllnerbirre<Q:k illIDIhe¥.,k~nilli regi.ou of Siberia. "]I W<L'O as elose $ YOl!!1 could g;el ~o UIl!bl:o.V!tl .Iand,'" S~~)~ R<Jrte;,nowa~ illlthmiP(d~ ogis;,~' ~ul LltL': U]ii'VclfSity !lJirf\~rl~u!>ill Denmark, "There \\;eJ!e times \~~,len S!;,Jfved andhad ·~itl l\'e (·~H~~.gt~U,,," it \WS \'()ilfY ~~~ili"g~l theliP'1:1c:' Th~ brot~~~ r~tl~Il'il~d thp.~ !>ti:rl~inen; iill il. 1'>OVi; collecting el~hnogm,'pbi.c d3~a .md, fih,ning ~1! !nQ'i.I~~na S ibt.N~iUl tribe, 1111 191J3. 1). ::;h~lrle hruldJed local asked Eske 10 spc,rtl,d:the wi~,lter flur 'Irappi1n,g, He read i~y u gJ1!:OO.•Liv il~g ~,i e k Buddy LOn!pC'\~dy "was a chaace W 111~1fi11~ In}'
,(':h~ii,(~hor)d d~lliiil~" Si;lIYS\~!~I~ I~v. lers Wi ~I n~e\~. who s poke al mo ~!t no R'Ll S;S,. e

II

re:t~.n~ingn ~he Uni\i~rsity(lfC(lplimh~g~~l in t 2005:.__:he \~I'1.S, YO~ln~esl Ihn (lmfes3'or at the t~c' ufru]vcrs,ity----he'j; built n 22~pe::nmf'll!)b frol'llil serareh, \ViUC'rsJev's ancient DNA. successes haw imp,lic.uion:N for a wiele r.llli;e ,of fie~ld5.~r-umI1l.
cl.hn~t~ e~:¥I!1~~II)~~(Ji.qgy.Ftl~~'(!I.!li1JP~c. giadid k~ tilda' trul!n ;J1KJl~l6OJ11u}l6aN, g~t~ to~ COiml11):ressed by theglacier's 'wdght and mov~ men~ ~g p!rovkh: g~lQddinmt-e d'ft.~."U doesn't bring doubt thar wcba.ve older ic,e, we just. can't dir,ell;:tly I;.;umlll ir," MW~' U~:lgv.r;rsil)' llf Copen~l.<lge~lglacier expert Durrhe DaM Jensen, 1'Il\oll.a~~ommT'on ,\:Vililers.levs latest rese'ar,ell. J:UlC;U.i, di~1:1;1Itolosists have relied n~ mud~ls~f) !argu~ lhm~{HHh~m Gn;~ll~f!l1d \\f'd:!J lree ofiict"-'and epen ~o plruug.m\I'''-I~~dllr,~ng the Eelni:m. or li:I:SI.Hm~rgll.m:ia] per.iod. some 130.000 io 116 ..GaQiye.m:s ''!g0, Thi:l ~ew results eonU'::;tdh:;1dl!ll :Rlicmwio: Anlee-freo ne~i1tUllHlin GJ!il::enhUld wDu~d .~~l'1ieeplaced In,f;l r 450~OOO" to EOI1,OnO~ycar~ald fnl"l.;:,!;:t DNA

hurt, ~ndl1l(] ~!P i!l~miS!olan)dcf!hi!1! \ii;'ttbl:h~ i:I.ud·"bi~~:t:e1:l :mll:live t~.~)P ell .. nd 311~.OLher u&s;= R i.311. "\",,~e'h<~d31n:!Iii,~1.mi.linn. u"aps. lea, ... ~d n some ore,ld" Tlli1.n's ~.t~' reealls, Theteam he hU~l~dnliiJ)Oge food. somctum~l>, ~Ugghlg for IO'ig[lirn:!liI1 ,deep .. lti~"E 'W1I1,ers!lev d r1l~5 IQ,rr liJ<e~m'al~o5!t heme 50 kito~ ofme;iJltt~fi![OU,sm. wilis~:-cl!eep S~mp!les ~lnSiberial. ~.n.(l!\'V, Tln~y were attaeked by bears, aud Wtl~~ pichld :~~fllins \~'il[\(l~l~"\' l~l"~ly mmiOfls yf[i.rI'1;I;:::;', is ~~.indi:s~r~mifl~l~ 'ilVill~:rnl.~~· i:~I:h"'I;.'i r.mlll(lrnic~ c~~ with dQ:o";!'i. Ib~l:'!d ~~nl'llli~,ier, Any spe1ik of DNA-fi,urn, EI sing~e ymlngeill" pilam ,.Ind: .1nin~1lI.1 DNA. The slJIn!iva:l1 onee got I.ost <I~I0111l.e.OmJy ~y building a f.ire and kee:pi!1g ]lgoi:~gall il~ight dld he ~l,flililge skin ,0011Sfi,Y.ora :Jngl'e pollen I:lJmrn UO<~ti!~gin ()t 450.0n!O·Y~'J]',,(l[dDNA sllgg:es.~sl~~n the w sutvive. 'esc<lpingwhbi rro:l>lbi.t,c O~~ his awindow-'!M)u~.d throw an' <Ill e:nI in'!: inil.de~.t ice :l~<1,s,ooe:Jm arnnnd much longer than previf.t~ce'-liIld testicles, sm1Ll,pl.e\.\iut[l ~AJRI!I&efmodeen DNA. ·']l~'l eusly lhol!g~L ~f seuthern Green IUll!d remained ice-covered dmiug~'~,e hisl intesBy CluislIlms,.I:he ml~l ,m,ce' of.~w:fu<IS<I tK~.~" field fmwhich 1:l1efirsl, ,dilCl:ld.ewas avery r.~~,~ per bad C[lmp!.(lt~ly worn o:IU'lbr 'i;Vi Ilk.:r$llilv. Bm t~:~ng dil,O"C~d~{ ~lmi; Co~~il1l:!;. 'S<il!Y$ ·'lhe' new g:lacial pl;.'fiod it cUl!!Lldmean glob~ 'w~u:'mill!i! ~,eneW'd~jOI:l :tlsonillmed te thiJ,1k ~,OOllll1(Jlhi Ill; el se \\i{mld ha.ve to, ;el: rnuelrworse bdore iu COIllCO~,llilil'Bb.~ck sdl.ool in De:lm:lfmlfk to wmm"l DNA ;l!liid oo!'!il'U~lil1@:ll{)!l~· pl~~~ly meus ,~~V<iytha On.".!;!lll!andi lee ~:h<G"€'t ~.1l~y. "1 w"s m~nlal]y ehfm,~d" h~ S~iy$. "I hu!t ~!!lCiGn~' tried ~o sWdy for my genetics exaurs, but As :l%'Irll{lf lh<Jil g:ene:r<l[ iilllln, w]Uers.]e~1 has An.d!<llt~mu~U,Ctel~t'usts once assumed II~OIl~ eV!!:I'yl:Mng seemed very [Llm.important. cemco.mbuned ·unno\\'''llivel:ec!~:Iliques w ~thexeepural d!egm.dalionprevecun.ted DNA. older than t~ml'-lily ::;~ving~lmt ~.le~Wl~res cmllr~1CQrlil.~l- I OO.m:H) yeiln:firQ!H beilm.g readable, wme~i'O, '<Ired to cluil)' ~;trrv:iiV""t'· imu!o:I1,. WhelfiCl~st~u;peR l)ri:D1~.t:rsllmtlatch on sl.cv$ ~c:ecerework {">P~:ua:s QlICW dQQ:rs.·"n~is fmnd~il'!'g all1l,iiilI'H:l!l!liIt forest meaas l,'l.re:limply don .~:tlllm~' ho-w Il~r we CHn ro :DNA. .'Jt1I'lmh;'1111.'e mtmUy ~.illm.lecl.ttjWl8t om: ¥e~Wli:M:er.'lJe;v e'\~ntu3I1y begml to see epperItype or,ol~.t:n.i5m. Ih~ ~i:s 2003 perllnlll1mst go back," ~mysl~:olh:i~er, 01, co-author of the S,;f(:-JlutpaperU_I!1Ji(i(:,~ t'h~it wot~l.d [';:('Iti!}fy Irn.~s<!dv(;'i!Ui;Jirfl*" \VOl1k.\l!lj~l'en'!~v u~ prim~n;~o ~b c~laro~ slp:ilit ." [ find bl~e s'!l!isf;u:;ti!o.1li~IlOOiIL~;g,el~.pl.o· ph![.s:~ NA !Inl,d miliOchondrli~~~. . , D DNA rmm~1 Wil]crsle\, is ~I.ready ~ye:ung A~(:rIrc:'rk~l. r,mio~lon a mersal :~~\'~I inst~<ld:'lli", sa:)(~,"The wid!.; '",lr:iety of pi<JDllS and ,i'!~li!l1~;ds.nis meaar wf~oo iee te:n'!l~rnlure.s liIla~~() d(]~li'11 -50p w 2..~:st-cel1i!ttry ,t!."l;pltll,L\er iCS3sC.ie,lIltust" l~lehad to be parrt!iculillr.~y Ci!lre.llil.~ about ~.ecpil.1g m~y h~e kepll[)NA preserved fD'J,"cvel1i ~loJ1ger tll=w Q!iC(lnland'~ rchLlhrcly b~hny -20~('. h,u~m~ls ilm evolution, :~~(;'O~',toiogy. ~nd ~,od~rl1 DNA nut Ofli"Ca_gt;:nl:t': ~nd 1~e'rl-m0iost !Wp~tl!,nion migronioD11 man led W~11er..I.evto ~he :'mmples. Tes.ts, "'>'ere IITWI~iilll limklpell1delll~ ~"b8: to "Au:u:iemn DNA ~,~.1.sn·'1 eakt'c1-:iin 'I~lle m~':xlfh'e p nt-,jg~'iin~~ud!lt!1t DNJ'\ ficld~ S~;nccltD O.mi1,;: in s:how the :!\l~UIES: r,:(}:la.ldb~ n:ll'l:(lduct>d. U,\lii~g ¥~lr~,:r't'i~~'I'B~oin~lo:;f;)e :it,g,oi.i!i~ "",,'(:~llIUlH"lllil,;T;'." CQrenha8~I,1\'1"IS,,,!,-urkiung ama,llllCi,e"I1II: DNA, he chemic31s h<lr-sh enollsh~Q IJJ:e3l openm~lgh he SHYS. ~~'i albnlitcmnil1l.g p'<!l.per ill A.fl'l"Obioi"· i:n~;prm";~~~~~~f';'~i,.!td.$d'(~I~~!lPQly!n~~i~ a C f mkr(lb1f!~~po~l).whl~f}\U d~"wQYing ~Jre~dy (,igl'. h~(lv~~ ~H'ks.wl'!Q;d~~r~!~i~,mt![:INA ~chc hai n .re'lcliol1ll fPC R l' 'Ied'a.n i(ll~e5. He.! I :i!tl IlrtL_gm~li!h::d'!~1imOliI ONA \'".u;, ai:ltld~r d'wl- niqll.es 'ool~kl de~t"C't tnu.;~ yf' ~ilt-!JU ol:nw- pl<ll!l" ~gall ~,rtl~ilI.ni:rngwi~l:l S'\,'ant~Paabo al'the .MiL" lenge-o~c the ll!:'am solved byi:leatiarlg t~.l!e ets. Its lypi.{'~)I. oO~.I.C-dgltlCS sa~. ai' Wilie-rsl!~vs ftmlck 11l!$!!iwleiuJ[ Evol~lti)mlry .Arulh!r'opolkn[lck far ~kins l!neJ;i;;p2til:edqu~k-rm •. "\lV~lle sedi mems\'\'i ih~i[lybead $,," \Ve ",,'tl re~ot ogy in Lcip:rJg,Gerrnil'my;. a. It':ader:ill the 311iCteilil only ;fIpplying c)!is;l~rng t:ecln1J:iquesw :mi.ew I'm dofllg hI~t1lll:b~cmliiicstk'i'l!tion ~5C'RiIJlCIl. e's d h DNA. fi~~d. Jill 2Q04. ~le lr.<¥\,Ie]ed w O.... lb]ld ro pwbleIDll:i,," lle :i;iI)I:S .• "We h<ll.d to combine 1Ii~ki~ i.ID()Ul\~~l(;:'~hertheres :1~!eoII Mi.1f'S:·~<l}Is d ~.lI'ere'll~p.UH. of d iiThe I'll me~h()ds ~.Ino.. n::.~e:!rcher JO<lic11iaim B!!1rgerl1lhhe JOh.'U111!i;l)l; :~woa.'k wi~li1. tmJ.o:tlill.er'pi.oneerA.lan Cooper: if .~ Th(;lpos~i bil iH~s gl' &>eql~tllm.cing a!'llc:i~m new prol0coL'" GU~c;'lrlber:g Uru\~]Shy i!~M~in?. O(~'mmy, ~ DNA hEldled to. a:Ill,il]i~h] 1:1001111 in. the ,eiuly Wi.Uer:s~.e'v Ins 3, reput,H:uon for be ing \lVillersl.ev1> p:as:!.li.on for~he Il<IIbhaSIL1,'l t:I .,*1990':::. BWit wUd:~y itlp'lim,~:-lHc d~ims .altijd ~1!~l!~... U~i!Uiegl~. D l!ri~'!g,J trip t -~Bl:l~jlTn~. "'I i em irdy replaciI;;d :~i' I·O'!.iefor rhe grem U'lU'· l doors. He :ils dU.e ~ore l1I1JillfriedOJ) 4fiHlgm>l a ,~ .J1.U'rI~Mi~ _A\illjIl:-t>J~e· fi~~li~lge!l:l~editiQJ~:S: ne<u,'iy :~1d lO ""()lwil~Ce hi Il:Il tQ H1lke half <I d:l'lY olllO !i~C the FurbiddC:l~ City ijJls.t~"d of'\vor!.;jl,g .in~1 O~l ~I~ isl.~il1id ",\'i~h ~lO bddgt;:;t; orroad:t:: in ~ dlscrt'cl~~d ~h~~1~ld. f\t !~UC,~,v"ol,5 'tlt~U'c~ne~il~ dml,s vUIIt:I<J!b:lhty of <IllCl,eJ!It .DNA ~eclmlq~J(:s d ilrtrk 110itel:rocml, (l'n :l~~per~ tbe~ ..iho.ie t inrll,e,:' smnhem S'I'I.'edeml. "Even lhe p(,iest has tiO to;Lkc @ ,cil.V):oe;' Wi]k:rsle:'l" 5~y~ ha.llDil.y, "Ifi> ~ to OO!lJ~@!n!]i)t'!.t~OI). rCR.~h.e dG.~~oprncmIll;;IU says M ich~d Hofrdwr. ~n ·a~.d,l,mlDNA gpL;;goi_ml,gu) be f~ruastic," ~A\ND:IU:,W CURRY '~ mr3db:mciem DNA. an<lly$ispoS8ib:~c wi~Jll:~ts, ci:1li~i:sta~:dl.e Max PI"ILckln,sf:~U~le ,un Leipz;ig. :~ :i1ibi]iW w copy DNA fV,;1gm.;ms in ~ s11~nple Gen.no ny; The i f.uefisilY hflS ptli d (l ff; 5i nee Jlftld'mw elJ I'I'y i$ .a rIilN~~an(~:O'LIfIlffifst.n, Brarilin. j i

.(!"n:~~~

1l~,,,1

e

,I

I
GECIMETAY ANDn·iE IIMA:GU\IAnON

I

7-11

JIUNE

PRINClEiIi'OINi

IUINlIVIERSIITY,

PIR~NCETON"

INIE,W .lIIE.ASIEY

e<J'~be physical ~y:mQd\;:~ed by (.]k~.l!1ga tan,g.led ~t ri ng of C h riSl~~1,'IS ~iglns (or j 1.1 stan exten sicn cord) <l,tlib,dplug~i [I£, i rs twO ends : IO~lll]~·r. al'~'a fr~~ilfull~ol,lre~01· ')illL;:~lbolic ~

M il:l~h::miiti{.~ i~l:'is$il'lce the I '9llii c\'lnniry h1iti~ Tlmrshlil'~ il'~I?fin~lO:ilil. fo~!nd ~.!l~ ~il:aJmp.lii: with <'I '!IolILJ1.nill,e of'about explored the strange re'jJlInlof hyperbol ic 0["<1 smallll.n~nifo~(L geom~try.in \'\,t.~kh IJ~ln~n~:~ lin~filJ~h~w~~lill {)I ,9:$ .~36~82, A f~w y~~n later, Jeffrey '\1I,!,ayslh.n IEuciid aever iIH11I,g.illed. And cos'\JVc!cks.als.o <I. s~.lIdeII[ ofTlmrsto:Dl,:S. COITl-

t'i'm~iihld$. They [inJv~dcd $olne of thr.::: nnol evidence for Thurs.rcus r:u~'~'e<lcbing 'Jieom~ui zat ion C~)nj(;lf.~'lU t ~1;;1; sidebar, re lJ.e~ow): Tlumm.1i1l hansel f proveclt:liae ,coil:lJech~~

mQlo,g iiSH; h 'lV'~pom:~ef(;d irs i.gnp.1i.C'll]OU:5< I:bl~the universe ever since iEim,H:i.:L1 iutroduc:cd curved Sp;;1!C~in his gel1ic'l"lI;~ 1~.eQl"y of

plil.l~d." smaller one, with
<trrpro~",.i,~,uj!f,t,e~.y0.94270736.

,.1

volume of

posed to he working

101m.

"I "M:a.s,supsom€!thing else."

fbr m:'l!l~Jo~~~~, 'lfi;j~.ns~!1lai::i W'bY. Weelks S"!ilSI'le:c:~ed~b~ his :L~]"mifo]diSlh.e
rHII!Jll:I"'.'lIiI~

~1'I1!.."I~lest he h~.dIrttO prnof_ "It\,w:[;, I"Wll

rel[ll~,'!.fily. oderu researchers M have !.ong k!'!ow!l ~h~u mmon,glh~ pe:>cu Iiari lie sofbiyperboli; gem]m,~
m.II")I. there ~,S3 hYllCill;bolli.e threed illh~~lS[O(U1~ll,spm~iI;!l. tJlf .3 ";JI!Il1l['J~fgl . d o fl f:l!}ilt 'li"O ~l:IIme.T:I'n.ey' v e even

dom chance OJJld dum.b hICk:' he S.'!;\i!il. The ~!1Jiti<l1 ~lfom. ~u pro!\.~ its
nlin~.:IJiI.1!'I~i~y,. however; we:ru. l1i1fl're~ w9,r:di!iJ. Fell" a .Iong ~:~mc. the' best dmlt '1I,I,asknmVll1 '\"IS~:h~ll ~1lI'li<I11-, dIe ej;~.vO~.mvte :~.a(j 1.0. be IU. ~!ea~;t0.00 I.. Only illl thepacsl :~ yem did Gl1bllii 0 !If!d o~h~p"!; b~,gin Ito improve lhe b~II.I!~.!l rstta 0.•1M.llle!) '~~l 0.33. aJUljlq:st :2 ),{;'U"S3~O, to @.67.

10 Iii!;. hOld ;J. eand i,dt~,I"efor the :s~~dlil'sl. hyperibolic s;p.."bC~. ~~. i.~y t
$l~ [!illl

knowmI as '~~ll;l\Veif;lk.:.'i·fllfullJJi~bld.W,~.3tl:hc')f di d I~'t I~\i.ave \\'<'I.S, proof'tlbe theory COldd~'t COl\~~ [II' sorm::d1J.il1g .'l.LIlffi:uUer yet, NlY\'l' ~he;:y [l.we th'~ll(){).

n

The final oO'!U~\i<l~ pcunded io

.'1

D",vid 'Gabll.i of'Princetou Ullii~ vcrslry, Rob(lr''t M~y~.rbofr of lBos~o:ll1.('011 ege •. and [reter N.I illey ofd~~ Ull~wr$hl'Cl:FM~lbour~e iUi!
AlI~lI:'II,ti.<I have ShQWnllu'It W'eek!i manlfotd is indeed tlin,e

the here

pilJ~r pasted to the 1I1'Xi\! p.re~)a:illl server en .30 M,iIY I !I:r1i:hi;O]'l~chibsl [110'.5.4325). "h's; p.r.;:lit.)' :i!~na~d!l~.·' ~ys; s ('o~i:lm. Adams, ofWiUb"ns Col~c,gl,;;hll WfilhmlsHl\V~', M"'$s~clJn.lI~eus."The preof'uses <I ~;HEg;e vm.iely of di fferent metheds,"

smallest possible ~Iyperbo~,ti.c
~~c:e:, Theirpmof"
M "I

nmny ~fthem brand-new,
notes, u:;lli:lai in p~mucular

,Adi!f,~lS

l,li·eselilllCd

eenfereucebenor'ing the m<lt~l.emiJ'ric i<lu\Vi I!iam 'illll [II'SIiOI'I. is, pan nr.'1 l(,'l~g~il" ~1l"n[[Dl! understand (he

doesn't
W~~ks.l'(;cnllls. W~~ls.\\!ho isutm¥ !.'U!'li~l'(_~pendent geometer in Cantoa, New York .. m;lifii,~fllidnmv

,qlll,:~lWLI~ti,1 gets he

it."

'1usl

W~,lh~he 5~.uul~llesl ~yperboi~c ~ smal lest? Experts bel ieve ~[:s.Iik,e]y re be the one Me'y(ld~off found merethen 25 years \"'ell! on m t'li':ri~c14pr~gram. f~u doing [{)nladdttieaal new putatiem •. of hypell·bo.li(:mJni:folds. f]j"~l>I:: ~go. B!lU Mey,erlloff':says. ideas ~re needed lopin down the:ne,~.~ maniprogr.!IQn, SUii~pP~Il.il:ll !l\~il~bl~ m'.\V~t:ksi:; fbld. JUslgel~~rlg~~~.e .s,l1m~,I,e~~.\~o I um,ep'u l Web !)~.te '.n www.georne~Yg.<lmeS\.Oili'g,) f.ig~t at tb~ ~cl~t; of \Vl~Ul~heyt:fjuld lhf'; W~~k~ m!}'lifCi'~dI ,~~ ba;~d OUl [~~ :';1~QrOe I:~'li~!n PI1OYt::, he s<J.}'s:"We"mie really h~l1gi[lg on b)! otliOllli:d <I PEI.ilt o:fintertwiried ~OOpiS kllim'!,~~s u ourfi~l~~r~~p'.~:' th~!iMr~i~eh~~dli!~k. andl·,;nflt"", \~ich Li!lk",
kn:fl\i!.f~I.

Wh~ll ~~bOUl [he~~J.i:1

structure of small-velume ~~yperbol;IUc 3 -man ifol ds, l'opn log~M&wnuhj ~·W!lt1ll.[1~Iy I:uke to have llI: .~isr O:W'I~le'Sie :S~jilccs At le <ISl .. I:he-y ~c !law s I,DJC of whetr'C [0 s;larL The COlitc:ept oflem'll volume is me<lnntmg~ less in ordinary Euelidean g~on~~t~y, because <Illy sh<]p~ Cill1 b~'sc.~~ledo ,my size, t Bl~t thecurvature ~)f hH~rbo]i.G' g~o~~:~ry bring:~with ~r 1miJ!i~1::;ic~JliliS of :~e~glh.tl!f~'~. and VO~UmL~. :Forexample, you esn finul d~e" area uf a ~.lype!1boHelri"lgle by add~ng up its angles and sllbll:at'l~l1Jg~he sum 111;0111 jj!'
iI.I::10 known [IS I SO"'}. In ~lile :~ 970s. llilJlm's~ml1l, 11i0\Ji,i .H Come.llil. Un ivcl'silly ..proved
I(

PRIIClEY PlROOf KEEPS GAINIING SUPPORT
INo report 1m adv<l111 es in (O,Po~ogY'i,~mm[!lle~E lllliese davs wilhoU'~.alii u,pdale m'l'Ft!1I8~ian liIlIilllllee !1rliUiCialftG~9Qry P@J@imiill'S pro(lr onh~r:sW!1"!l G~om@!td~ti:Ofl (oJ1l'jsC:IUf@ and! its gllnllio!1-dof[l~r mr·eUli!~f, the Poirn.~al"'~ wnjedUiFe (S,rigoR[!1'" ,2:2: De.(!!mlJer 2006., ~. 1:B~8) . .iMler po,ilil!i OiVler IPeir,etman's IPi! per:s f·i)r .;1 Yif'alr'S,. [Op(l~oglists a ~ c,oli!f:idle!i!t or l~ ~ r~su~l.. s;a,ys Joh!'li Morga !'Ii of (o~ lunl:Iia U1l11iwlI1iit.y, ldiho '~aw <lin ov·~rvi!!W or th~ proo.l.dIllh e Tlii Llr!ilOIli ({m,r~.N!liu;:e .. M'lIcill@f the mn;~· del1(~ deri\i'e~ rlro!!n.a:lU::malli'!!'·e p~oor:s rE!l!!,illrch!:!rs hav~ deviS'e~ II'! the wake i:Jlf Pefe.1"'l~~'5 work. Morrgan ami 6aBngTiaill ,e~ Prill!oe~.mll U1niversily,rm I1!xampl!e,.ha,ve!wrnUemi iii hook--~elllgth ~)i!pO!io'~iolm t h~t! "gOE;'!] !IS·fal"a5 line ~i !ilcaln~ ,(,ol'lie(tur!;'~ andl;;lre ClIrre.nH:r "'~5 % oil 'Dhe w~ tiln)'lI!) In ~he ,Ma-iis, glr~J!1e GmmllUiz:a liiJrI ,C(mj I:dlll fe, "1 ne'~rr dOl,lbted ]t. \'lQU ~d be proved/ rhl.l~~Qn~id 1111 rel1ll~r~ at ;;II bal'l(Juet 1n11l115, hOnJ!I):r."~t' is
L~

suq'lri$i!lg pfOr~rly Of~iYI)~rbglicm! ...nifa! ds: G i~le'm31Ii1Y ir.ufi ni tel co]~leC:lmo~. SWI.c:h1 of m.fmiWolds. un~ lfiIHHTiiberI;)f~'h~ con~'eill'o:~1 will he O;fSIli1J3Uma Vlolmn~. (:8y C:OI1lIU'3:s:t •. fQ!r eX~lnl)l~e" there is no sma]~e:t),t osi.th~ ~eal p nmllber.) In p;n~icu ~:m;:. lhe ellti p:. col :1~ec~:~olil of~U hyp~rboli.c m~nifo~d~ !1HIS[ h·~l'i.'~ a SiL~,l<l~ lees:l: I,'epr'!l:~eu~<lti ve.
<!!i

l1lillllVWll [uleriu i. to see' the co:mllulnl.lll' ow,n!lrship

,tI~thtis lIIla~hllmaliG.'"

Meycd~of[ then

fl

gr~d~a~~s~ttd~m: f o

NEWSI'OCIJS

II

Bizllflf,e Poolll Sh,ols SIPIi' Ifa II te I' Inlli 11 iily
[f<i[J,~.11~hen1'l.liit:'ian imliv!~I.e:-; )'tua, to phl:)'b~l~
llards, \l"late~~ om,Ybu·~~i.k~lyto

,,'!,lind up 01'ing tt) nl~lk~shetsen a l'ibl~ of :;~lm~weird.
poiygoll!ftll 'sllil.ape--O!lf e"!Iemil, I.m,e ourside on b]I]Jhwcl:s"was
or

such u l1;1bl~. The nodolm of "outer

Pli()..

posedln tb~~9S'O!!i by Bernhard NelJ!~'lann and pepu ~,<Llfi z'e d hunouSlmnhe~~l,;lI:lci OJ.m,
<:lI!lIdmath~1111Iatk:,f11llyImlililded phy5ii,cu:sts~ .ii~~,

Kiil~t ~ihoory is IIlJ'~t(If si~p ~ -SOl! I'!ding questi:Ofi,.:s '!MI mriiV@' f~~i'St,ii'!dmailhelll1.atiaam,; @fflJFi:S 1.0 ,aiVlS!.'!\l!,r '~ll~lif! fou decad~. Ollie or Uw simple·st hag '10do wirth 'the m~nim;:!lluJlmbeu ,(!!r times a ~l1iol ha,~ li(!(m~'S U'!l!i!l~f'w~eil1 y'~!lI draw itin two dfmE!1'I1Z1w.s. In pl1lrt!ii(I!J!iiit. Hllfro kin!M~il!1f'@ i~lFl~ng togetl18it tD r~rlil1l QIt~ ~~r!iler"mor~ coomiplka'l.edi~Jn(!!t (see rfQl!i re), c;an the! Il'leli'll krmlR llle ~~ r;g.Wflli'lIith'rewtlllu'l'ls'Sh~g,s l~aH '!II,e orf9ii\al1W~ kmiO~5 comb11'lE!di? "Th~sllmblem has b~Emmil. I~hilirl!mever;~ :5.lY5llmol.tl:reori!it (olirn, Jli.ti,a,ITIIS or Wil.~i;ams(.on~g~iirn r Wiltfarn~~~'!\If1, l'!~'~5;1!(~I!!MlUs.. ~h~ "11:'s 11il@~l~'bvfoy~ I1II,!1~iil1ln to oil,$&,''' lMa~l1emQlll'd)am; thnnk '~he~m5wNis no:.liJlul·iile p'rolilern has rell1'la~l1ledstubl:lOmly !lI1l!!iolveo •. NOlN, ~10'~7tel,i'tl", Mall'(, l~c:k~i!'JilbyalF O)j,~,~uJ Utrli'lj''ersity ~.l!S~,abl1i~ :Slfl101lls~epilll the r:lig hl dire<tijQIiI. He h~s&ihm'lll '~lhi:l( . ..._ ~lllln <IIoorstaof ('f. OS' '~iI1eU!lJliI'I.. b,:e.rr rlt ra~to.r~,2:8,lj to de(l'l~a.5d;y :~jl1t;i.s ..,ca. "'. il'l@~ be eX1Kl./·· KI1.ollh!1!oris{$ d\emlHt th-e fiIlhn~!1llal(~o!l~i!i1~· ..... lIIumber Qr .ilI1 mOl [(: by the e:l:p"es5liOIil' Ild(tO. The . ....•. '~Jr~foil kn~l. [or ,exam\ll:le, ~fI bE! (lrr,wm willI:! jl.Us~./ .. 'lftueeCQ',(I$'Sil1:gs. \Vdl!:!f.~~S:lh~ figL!re-eijgnl ml:)i~.'eiQiJir,e:s fOUir. r Whern IkflQl$ K:I, anti K2: ,;;Ire ~tnr 1'19tllgeilh~r~o fo:rma kIno.t'51J m,., tmenolJeti t;,flK2, ,th~umsin!Jj
d~NK~), ~n(D. re
C[)... .. - ',
c ··•

~he ~nos by ]urgen Mo~er as <I strippedd~)·\.",~"'toy" mod~1 of planili;'~.lry~~OUOgl. lJIhe setup is si lI'ipl,e: Allm.oh;je:c;~starri rig <It ;I,
PQ~·IIU >:(1 eutside son:l,e~ cCo:nvcN. fig~l:rc
liS ,l tOllitlhin~!l\i~
S:UC:~I

..

lC Q.
i

... -....... •.....•.....

. ..

I

polygtH'I zips o.1lollr:'I:;>~n~i~ln line just

b
.- /

I\

. ...

fi,gul.'i1: 10 ij~~,C'W pO:~:IU I :u.l!~e x S <I III e d:ii~l<tll1,ce fitg,1lIii1 fhiepoi, Ill, of C'O 11 ~a,c l {!i~~ fi,gUft;:}. h th~n Ii~p~at!> 'Ibis (](\1'Ci! mul over; fh(,f~by Qrbit~lIUigth~ I'j~ure ill. ,<;o:!y, a clockwise fashhm, Ne~l,mm,nn: asked

whether

such

,<I

trajectory

could be
dIu:: objeiGl

anbouaded:

that is.whelhcr

could ' 1.1:1011 100nclhilgprog!1es,sivtdy fur·· up lherr ;:lIld fan.hlel.· f:L"OIfI the cenmd figur~.
Tlli!'> is 1l!WdOgolis to ~h~qu(:i>ti.[m ef ~d.e'thef planetary orb:ul:-i in the solar sys~iSm, ro !>talbll;;. ;\l]pro\!!L'!l!l results h()'i'!\l~"'!l,~r. a \,!I\i,;!nl ~he other way. !For reg.uhm pO.lygoilms.
<111:1 tra;jectmi.es i!:re oou:rmd,e (l <Iud ror p~~y~
1

is oiwiCilUi-sI.y no tar'ger [lira 1'1 i!::(KjJ) + ,!::(K:!). The ()Dn~:eC!t.urei,~ lh!1it :c.(KrNI:(,) ~uals dK~) + d~).1il!llt i~ r~deed Hille fiGr :~he '~~r!(iil 'Ithe ri~lJre-eiglht kUQQt ~lil![i .allhD~her~i;l~e~k!not Ilheonis'fis hQt, ha,\I'e'been al~lle to d1ie,c:k.IBUli,lbe ¥er1ncati(l!ll9~ts u Flwi!~tdv~~ 'the llll:lWllb~~ oW crOOsl]!!gS iflO'e1M~S., lit'~ all~~gl1ttner pm:sillll:1\ L[IIJ:.~'llIbyI'Ig,tl1), UlI'al ~!I'ro knot's., 'M~h reqllirin!!l! 10.0 cms.sing5... umld be put '~.og.@th~!' and! th~!i! redf a~'il!l!~mtht~$119'91 (l!'OO$iln'gs. li1l(k€inb~ls r~cenl remll:" lII!~i(h he ,iIDeg:anwml(jn~ om abmJlt a Y.e"H <lH}lI, lsllhal dK.~fn{t has ~o be .i)ll kiiSt as larg@' as (C(K1) + !l:(K2))/281.m@, l:Jasic~d,~alis l(l thi'i!iIk:~~'I~(:h ~11'!t:l~ >2I!l'@Ui!dos@d f [fl." s:ph@rreal ~lIllb Ie ~nd !III Bn ,tal\lfl.UUly a 1iIi!lf,ze \V:hi?ll.must ha,p;pmlQ lM ~lI!tbbl.~:Snr !he kill O'~ $!lIliIll~ ll;!lliste!J

IiiU rrrt!ber,

ill!~~)< lf1r:'1'f1 $~alpewll~ g

fewer 'c:m~i!1gs, The aJlo1ll.ysj~ ~l1(Idl.lt~ the f·~klr 2S,]. To prOVll the rlL!lU,wliljeC:!lIre, IlTIallil'E!maHcialllll !leei'd '10 w'ili Ul@' [h'E! m.ll'fllber aU th'E! ~'I,Iay,(i O!l\'I11 lO '1. SO-lillie0i~her3lppr®~uh wm be Il!Ieeded ror l~3it dlflln. lac:k<e,llby saJy~."'The !1l1l!111ber [28<11 1;5. .p.illrldllll~.I~ wo.rk (lilt, ~ he nolE!'~.~On'E!' prdb[lb~y ~iillnw,edl.u::!!il~lIrl'he!~ lm\i!y:iJe to arol.Ul1d:llOO, but. rliril nol 51Ure if!> worth the e rfo'rL.~·

gouswhosevertices have rnti:o~i!1cocrdinates, trajectories awe IWI only bounded but <'115'0 'pel",i~d ic: A frera fill ire mrmrm,oo:rof steps, eac h '[raj eCH:.HYW~ nds lUP Ib~(k wfulero h started. .Ri.(;ln.:!.ru S.C~lW;U·~. of Brawn z Unijiversity ha!'O y;i"J,i(:;lfl ,,-!p(l~hi\ie ;1ma~J;;;f to NGl!m!;um'!, qm~~!~o.ll"; TI~U:![lreis, i.ndeed i!I. ~onvc'x fi.gLll.I:t:' ~'V.ith 3.~~~lIl1bQ,tbnded l:rr:ajecto!l"y-.3~1 .infillHc IlUl.llber or~hem. in fi,u::t -rhee~'(mnple UI1lI1S lOut tl~itlvoh!~!I fal1lo~t~ :;;~~:a~.tht.l PCI1irOl>(,l:
k ile .., ...]]r,i~ch Roser .l'Ieil.ll.'Osentrroom::edimrllh,f! i

[r.njec~oU"i!;l:S" !f\l:lf

the

,Pel1lifO!'Jc

three large. actagonal yet sm<lll~.e:1i" e~,io:I1I:'l.3rm.d so ou. The larger r ~l'id larger clouds of S~1f~l]c:r and jU'iI~:;In(;r which H;;tj~c·toli"ies bounce p~r~odic,!lIy f,'om one' region to [he other {!lee figure, regions. Schwasz fOUI1I,d. co~n',er,!1:etl re <I b~~gw}. ArQund tl~~sere,g,inn~ H~s a c:h.llmd i'(lt of P(l in~!I;fr~lm.wh ~ch the If;ljicC'l ~rief;
of SIlrM.Uer regilom. '~color=clQded red lim,fi.g-

kite, he :Fom:rd reglons \!'dth in

,m:HU Ildl~be $C regi ens i5<1 huger cloud of

3re'linbau:rm.dm:l.

un~)with ~.imi~(!l.r lraj~e~oI'YI:H:ha\i'ia,r. ~~d

Sc1lwan~'£

inilial pr:oofw.=".£ he'avHy

19?,O~~~'if!: on~ nf
k.!lmlj,'l~
i~

~:'\'Qrli~c~s

W~~'tl~J~~ri~,

co~,np'lIt~ilioi1lil.~,He' has ul<l,de W1Il!J1,ch i.l ,of ~o~~e~lUf~.I. bl!:lt p~ns ~rt;;'l': l i1.1 CUin pu~erp .... ssisled. (.sc:~.w~rtz'5 pmSltoll.lll, BiH~<Ir.d

~ fi'il\\:I~);ldSyil1l1 me'~ry;

dm;'lJ tli1at pwd.llLce l]cl'llpt:r[od:~C' dUngs of the :p:I~IU~ \.vhhloC'<II.

01:::> t'heP~nnH5e

K.~ng., 1!O~v~il~M'i,;1i:i h~s \V~b sit~ •. W\,'.q, .... M<uh.bro\'\.'f!.l::d~.t-fes. ~AIlh,e S<J:I!iI~1;l time. he hms, fnum:l 3 gencral: da:1Osof khes

[or whk:h, w.it:~.~~e he~p of the 'C0a:11pu~:er. he
C~11i

.~ Sch\WIrlZ dl.:;covered :rh~~ 'Lmbmmded nu.~ .~ jeclOry RrO~1I,1d Hl~Pe]'lm!ie k~te by l'\.'r.ililJb\£ U g r.aph:~cs pro,g ram forsyst'~:ni!ll<lt iijC~~lIy 'Ii 'L'!lXrl(llih~g uaj(lciori!;;.$. around kh~s, whi(:~

s,imw

unbOlltlldC'd

til".'Ijcctories,

,exiSL

i he pi,cll:ed

i ttl'!"blH~nd~dlrajtH,;.I(l,des

3S the s.impl est tr.gu res far wh i.o:hl
COl!

Id possibly

.~ eXI st."~. l~n[llk f Im~ys,.elra s a g:o(lod:expe:rI~ 0

:Bm~:~t[~r. h-c s~s .•. [ l,liiIcdlot:s of thl!lg£ ~hfli • didn'lwork OU1!" ~ . g, A key ~oIhe d is,c,o\'~ry \\'Oli> t:hat he 'e0111- Oourt~r l]mriU, mm{!r(llb~ll~ ;Ji!'!Wili ,j!f~'u!ldl~ Plllflr(!S(l ig .p~ued not OI1L~Y induvidlll,11 tr...jectorie-s but ki[e (bhlll') MI!l u:a\!'~1QUllwamIClJ@1!'9l, if ¥Oli Ili<k ttl!! :~ ~ Iso e~t ireregio:rm.sc mt$i~'d ng: 0 ,.c,q1)ll\l-aI~!n right SlarlUiltg pO~tnjL
'WW!.I".',:soiel1c::ema,g.aFS SCllc.NCI:: VOL 317

"The work IS\lery bC<l.lll.irn-ul," say:s Se:li'_g:e] Ta b~tc.!;rlllikov . .fii !t In1l then~,<I~~J ~3.:11) i~ rd~ b I i;,.) ~xp~r I llt felill1 sylvan iil S~:...~~ Ulmi v~il'Slrl.yi!'! Stme Colleg.e., .'[t. i,~ <LIHtleg;un p ieee' p110~ s,n!mm1brng Olr:ld;1 dt"Ccpin~islu imo ilhe eo:tn~-, 1)lj,mMeJ. dJlmHni(;o'Ii~. :p][c.Ii1I,Onl.eml reve<ll,ed ~~ the cxr~!'·in~.ef.l.t!;;" Sch\\i~rt<!. ~]m\'ev~,H • admits tht I:he JllfOblem ilS: stiU ~, puz.'!!,e,11{1:liU: dOll't '~Cllnp]el~.ly ~md~"mHflnd "[ \vh"fs goiug' mil,"

or

6 JULY 2007

Ka~liIewilile'SO!l:hi:l!. ph.IO. ~g,ot [l1Itere5~ed'in Ma,tlil rather
~O!t@"

~lWt I

liked

diagir.!rrnmirug

~n~el1:(es~.i1lli!'!lh 5dool. In wUe:ge'.llfo!4!nd II similar s.on, of all'(hi~ecW:f,al~ppfC!,~h tal mtJlhlf!ilrI~ti(:S ~ IU:l$,::j~In:~I~.

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find out more at www.aaas.org/st.ori.es

LETTERS I BOO KS ~ POUCY FORUM I IEDUCAT~ONFORUM

P E.RS PI: C liVES

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A1I" ,MHTUJG OFWUR.lD MAINGROVIE ~XPIER1I"S!HI HI) LASt YMIF!. I.N A AusmJH'I. h w.~~~:DiI'il!n~.~n{)u$~y 'Ctiil[ 'I;~,tl filcelwe prospect ohl agreed wfir~d dCI~[ived ofdlfl ~rv,i:C'£s(ln\elred by mm}grO\'i~et1Qt.'1s~~!1IiIIs:.I)~'r~ hlrpS\IIj'~llhi'll~]'ae~e.:d ImJ)\'e<lIIi1l.

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om.1en;:d mCl:rl;:d1!llllJO(Dj100 b~l of ShLlllt\'lred U'oIJcc~1end ~l!btf[)p.k:O!~. Ctl:;r~Mlifle:li ,(t), T.h.~y sre di.~lpp~<l:ri~lg
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are needed ml\'~ to e~~hl~ socicries amund tim!.;; \"'~)f~!dl H 1:c'Iilerse the tread of l]'Il<Ingr'mre loss aad ensure lh<l~.l'in.ture : sell1~tiQf:I,s 'enjoy [he IilC(lsyEoom services p~(w~!dedb)' such
wlu9I}h;: mUlIrnJ cQm;;:)'S~:ems. NI•.c, DUKlE.~'" ]I•• O!. ,MrE'M'N ECKE.,;2 :5~.DIIifI1M.ANIM.,!·A. M •.Ell!!l'IS;ON, ~ . Em~lrg'iIFlg rll'()m~hl? ~!fI'!br~(.c QI ~ PlIIolIlQi'ro,v@ tlrt~-li n~d tCQilil1lU1ll'lliif!1lo()'rlherJll3lra2ii.Uli~$r.:! K.AN:GIER;, ~ U.IBIE R.G ~ S. (MINIC(I,:r 1<:. DUllE,s K. c, IEWEIl. ~ E1R, pesc.rJldCl.re~,Uke cOla'5lilli5hejJ;~ rmll'ldWidCl-, know that heiilllhy 11I1'ilIl'lgrnv:Ils nrllli:lll '~ooililli;shiiFlJ!i C.1[).IIi'IIELD,.~~ rill. KO:mAM_n S. 'If: IWEE')l c, MAIR(HAI~m,.~~ and al secmt lwemllwlDd, I. I~HJ[RIEI"AU.S, s IF. IDcAHDOtUtI·GUE:BA~P~ i rilmg 11m. fllmosl: eve~:yCim,mtry d~at hag HltE1I1gmves •.aml mle1! oCOIul.I1I~H:~D l('e~tl\e~Of M.ii.rllill2· Stwdles' 1!IIn~'I1er~~tyil~ Queensland. SI: tuc~a.. !Old ~O 72, l!{J,js:lfan~, lAu~~r~ll~1I Rj\!~rs In~~E1!m~::md S~~oolor Em.yirll!iiffiWl~,,9MB SO GiCMC:, GliHi1Jll tln1~rsi~y. rise mure ropid~)' ;~nde\~:~gpJingcoumries, where >900/(l) of the\,volid"s IQM 9'126., AU5ruril~la. ~sd!!J;Q~of 8IDi!J'!lka!5ci~II1{i!~, 1'1ind~H Il!IlIlllwrsil)"" GPO 8:~ 2100. m~ngmves arc located. The vc'mci ly and dcta:u~. Ofl~~E UN Food :Hld MeUlr!le, $.A SI)C)il, AU5~U~, ~Hl!i)'\\!lr,dl Unlver5It~, .Harv<!fd Ifore.M;. 324 NOflh Main Streel, W{!1;m:!iharm, MA. ®U 66, I:JtSJI, :~Aifr@olj"W~l!nu=nn~il!1ll~riii r W:oilar- III nd M~~r@sfms Ali! r]cuhlJre o.l"d,,~n~zm~on (11 ouwhichtaese ObSeilf'!l".ttio I'I!S. il:re d ,na IWrpr.omilRa~~, O~7··4!.l8 Hli1IQ~nd. G~minllll11j"~Ve(hnica~ llf,rrl,1II!f!5iLy ID~iln, b<lsed~]ay be ~r'£,lI;able .bu~ mangfiQVe .~m.sesdulli:ng lhc~<l$.t qU<ln.er Waldw!l!~~~s:tJ,j!VI F'oHm(!ifle ii1form'allik, fGs'Uach :U.:U 017351iMI' ..nill" Germany. IIl11d C~!lll!ry !"J!liIge con~iS~Ill!1t1y b~t\"aen 35 and 86'ii.io. As m;Ml.~n}\I(; areas r,gip~i!ljmmlo!:li Biil!Dg)iilllrnlDilll'l e G~ne:ti(,~ !Pardi.~ Ur1ii"~~ilhl d@glij5lndidJ~firenre, ~l.eo are beeemiag s.rnraUer or :h,g:lrn.le·~lted. their 1.0l~lg~N':[il1.1sllIlwv:ilV'd.:1 is. <iU Viii lloFiil<iii!a. 17" 1.501125 lPli'enZe, U,aJ~y. ·(~n~~11 fOr 'Umpic,ail Marine E(otoiJ~. if:.. ~ r~lmhei~'ra~s.e· 6. 2a:3~59 Bll!mell., G~rllill<lin~.~U.s" DeJ).~~m~m;! Oi~ .r!'Igri(wU:wre fo~~~~ . gOO,,1~ :ns:k• .i'llfiId iil~~Ifn~i~1 ~'¢c}Systeil!l!1 services m.~)' be lese, ')llM(@', :1:12,6 NW 7ill lalll~. G~in;~lIIil~, FL B261!1:3, U~A.!DF.1j[IIJ:lty 1lI( S'o@l1I[@ (GQ[@ Hi~I~ Wh(!:~e Ilmnu~gm\lerotre!'.ts are c~eau-d!blli H<!ILJaoClIDlnr~ .• Ul1bii!i.llJiZiU ion. U:n!!;'er~U!!,,o'r TechllliOlo.gy. SYd'u!~. iPost Olflce Bolt 123, E!ro~dwa.y NI)iN 2007, l\uS!irall~'. '''' Qrco~"lilla~dfH] O:~ detl;:rlif)ra!!~ dtt~ to i~dil!'ect,errocts Ofj:iO.i:!tuti,O:I1. ~md ~!lLiIhm.iltm1i' of 'G@n@fal Bmarn)!' findl NMul'e M<inag@il11Cflt...M;ingm'l'@ IV!ilrll!il!1Frm~nl6rcll.p. ,~ upstream ~;<IIldu::JJ:! (3.4t their species richness: :us expectedto dedli ..~ Vrije IJIllIiv.iir:ifileiill:rml5et fll!ilil~n2 .• !Bel.OS,S BMseis, Biilgium. 1JIl:Gi.M(. EJ\ :U:2 5,
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U:n~itIl;rsi~ af ~. Nownel'!, N',ew,~I[ed!oUlla,,,nd Uft 103.lnMln!l. de RHhe~ne pour ~~·l)eve!lQiJlPel1ilel1il(IRO). r!tI~jeme. Friim(I!·.~Bk!l:ol1ilpte:tHy Rl!'5earcliifo()u~, dQ' !Lal!!o.fatOiIY ,of GtJilillliil, Bo~nYi!! nil! Niil~L!i!'!e' Manlllg:emeni. rManQ.rtwe Managerne>nt 'G~OW,PI 'Vrije unr~'o'ellilleit llmum~1. f.l_einla~n Z, EHQSO 8JU5~elS. Belgi\llm,

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thm

UlIlil~e[;r ..dUl<'LIil~

researeh in{.ml\tl\<;e~ illl~e,w.:;.~

iu !;c'i~1i'!ilijl:'i,~~md related research earcers, Imfeed'l~ Sjtudeu~ .re:searcJ:1.ers and edlitors wi Ih, a~~lute rbl~U f'i!:l~ llUdi;lr~nlih~(1'i[~ iu jQijrl]~ I, ~he Jfmrm~1 (J.f~b.:IIfl8 l.m~e.~,icgi'Jl"fiJFS oy[; \V'W'II~!Jyi ,.o:rg}.w'e ~~ave eJ"",periCIllCOO ,!] rsl-il3.nd

IllsD[IPFsne. Cloud Dlrop,I's,t8" 811d1IPh'y1lopll,onlkto'D
THERE IS, AIM: IE:RROR THAT MAY IINI\I',MIDA1iE the m<li iii oon:dl!iL,s,lon of I:hie Rese1U:~h Art iiCh: "lPhyiio~)laJr:I[kU)Ili"[I;ul cll:md um::ss :uu!'ful.e Sout h~

,(3). The[efore. the avemge Se'd"'i.<lter~5'apre'liI.e oom:::ellJlmt~QI'iI hl the NP was -7.3 pk:(mmles Ib.:-! lp.M). L.iS'ted in the aurhers' "fabte 2: is an ml'eragl! iseprene COIiI.cenlll'::uiQIl of J 1.4 rn!!fj'gO(l!alg!~L -I l nM)in the NP. This I,elll.ch;, me
10

beUeve

thiiU

.is>OPI'>CI.1C

is not the

n;:mlSOI1l, fo!l"

ImeirohseF'i.ied e:ll.tr'l doml albedo.
'OliVIER W.WIN!GEN:TIER:
,NM:S1801.

~ver._d onhe po~nts d~'lt tht: rll!thoffi r.l.i!'i~. We fit J"'iI.hO"lV!e'fer.b.e~,k:ve that u nder~ gl1~d~IaH:ireS'(mJchprngrmll!'l shilJlIJI,ld, p]:~lCt: ~~mrc ernp~.li!:;,b; ~ the B.r[of sc i,cind [ic com~ m ~~nl!1ic;uio!'!.n.!;±: oondltfl jm:::iM.d~[[l~ 0rronu~
11,1.it}1 1:0

~wn Ot.~<lfi·"by N. Mcskhi,d;re

,md A. Ncn:c:s.

New 1YiE')'K:Or.m5'til.uie or M1n1rr!9 3ncl TemMlo<QY, S(!!COt!"O.
[USA..

oomnmlllnli,c'H:e!lllJl.d:erglliildlJ~ne:re~eillre.iil,

([ DCG. 200(},p. 1419), The: .mIOO,rn ooporl: ,m,l in~,rea:;e ~JI cloud reil']~cl;ivil'Y[e!i.!.!hi~gfro:WIl[1 30% de;crc'<l);e:in e~!Om~ d[upl.ct ~~]:eclive us n;lCIi anti ~~ douMiug of duud d!'Op~\.:tml111b~r o~)n~ ceaHr.n!tOf] mre'~ a ~;!Ifgt!'plm}'!o.p.ll"ilmkt()alb~:cmm

\'\,'Ork I)() a bro:IdGf a!udi:(;lm;~. Sw::'~ a!'ll,;l'i:,p~ri~ enoe <Ii~.sodeve'klps sl;:.iI~.ls :neoo!>sary foX'the' n wdd bm It'ly~ei11mH~.reof ~d('!ufh:\i.:ri l~rlS. i These 5ki]~s are othe'l"wise missil:d ''>'illili'mI e:l1Jg~ossed ~Il\~~ bill 'iiVl:)rk or !lot d(1:'wlO'pllld n~lly,,~\'hen merdlY ,writing flm~ I 1."Dre,!Xlrh~. . A culmreof ~!,;poos;!ubUilY l;Iifld i.I:'IiU~glihyi!i .all,~o <.I.e've~opecl m. :Sltlden~: mllho~1> f3ce I:igorous, demands ()fsciellliHcrevi,e\'o'!lllUi ,e.clliting (d~n!,

If)th~ S~mh~~$'QOoearrtl,.oos;\l1ti~gin :!In,-<-;.,;,If'J ~. .5
W' 1n-il,o:Fcm::!fgyreflccD:ed back ~o sp3ce.1rhe:r

ki ,U~, 10;1. 81537 ~2~(!l\ll' ~[jgi::lQ_i'Oin}, £. J.Il. ]Ohm50li'I, M~ ~ M!I: ~,", n.9 tlt99~, 3. R:. $;l;~d'er, ~i'ipU:/wMw_mp41'·ITIl~lliIz~mP9,dW~~~e;rme-~ herni'j,It1m!.
l.. !O, W.l!'!'i!1g~!'!I~ du!., ft«. Not~ k.ud

Re'r~r,I!'lfII(:es

mUi~l,1.!~~~hese eh!..~£.e-stIJ' e~rhill!:lnet11dSl)pl:'i;'n~ i
prod~tced illil Ihe b1ool1l. Our Ifle~lsU'ltemr::IUs
m1ld~ dll,lr.il.lg t~i1~ SOlll~ern OC~.fIn h:oll 13xpeliil1ille]lfts (soreX) ( ./)\"'er-e ~!=>e~JI,by Meskh idzc ;;!~d N~nes to' s,-ca.le s~a'\.iiJ~l~r'SOP:UCIlC i V'."I~e:; b<l!S'ed on me<ls~rcd cMomphyll-<l con~ celUr.'IliO'J:lS. UnrQ!nl:um~e~y. t~:leyCOI1'IICnedi om

ReS,PIDns:e WE "l'HANIK

WINGUHU.

IFOR ~115

lE.nu..

~l1;doe,d!.,\\Il;: nlis.iIHit;:rprer.ed );om(l: ofth-c datEl inWing:em:eJ t't {f,l. {,~)" '!rVe '\'eT-eWII~!lmV<'lle th,~I"~O~C enu:'a.don or di 5$'!;1I\'~dlg!l!sCS;
mc',Hm:U'e;d in and ar'{l'Lmcllhe fe:lftitilcd ~~'Cl"i fI (J 1n~l~mld 11l0( [0 se~,~"iu,e 'COIlf

6 JULY 2007

VOL 317'

S:CIIIICI~IC.I!

. WNw.:sdencemag.org

LETTERS
ccmrarlons blu~~m.b;~.iIi!g It!OS ilil,lhe~(ladU
s,pace ofan eqtIJII~,:b:IMwr.\!{he'l]ccraected,

I

radiathe v.... hlles of C~i~l Teble 2 should be ticn "rA it).. sea-surface te !'rrpem11l~1.r¢, \\,']D'ld ~rreduced byabout three o.rdel:s o~·~n<'lg~l~~speed. ocean mjxed-layer depth. etc.] tlld~ (see correct inn o~pm.g~ 43). Til i~ does ijJI~u~1 ph~Hophlillil;;too spec.i~tiQ;1l encnuatered
ricas [i.e .. ph'olOI'>YllIthelicaUy active 11I0it.hOWe\rCf, .~h,erour eouel usiens o:w iso-

1:~(I!llhi,ghly

'i.1~.r~ab~'~ lil!w~:m!lJl~ll.lilmul

condi-

N. MESI(~IIID,~~.I • .FIND,A. N ENiE:~~
~StI!l:ool. 'Oi~ Efllnh amlA~rm osph~rrur )d~,nll;~ G~argijl InYll'lllilre G11'~~molO;~, ,,tI,liant.l, GIl 3i(li.Btl~ U'SIi, ~5(~,oo~ 'QI (Iheml('a~ and BiCDm~le(jul<!r IElli!j1nleerllfl!j, Georg~a I!'!smut!! 'Il;~ i@(hrnoLog(!t Miam~iI, GA, 3@'iBl, USA.

duringthe experimenrs. Given the ~~bO'!,re • CUHi!fil ~i!ld~e~~ IDe p~f'i1imle.M ,o:1 l!l!IIrlfilf<., E<I,rlll." an!!l prwc se'(.~rmd~H)' {l'r~~li'Iik aeresel (SnA ~ a~~d dl~ u !J1.e~,U1 i!l'l)l i~1 i.:';I}!:lfe:nc·w,=SOf\ Al1f!'l'O~~hrncSde!lc!ls" INonb C~~:~~a :s.~t~Ufl!~llr~iI1l'. ~ti!iigh, Me 276'9S, USA. :wiei,d, m st:<lle~h;n "j$opre'lle is not tine rcahYllodle~~s, The nlt:llrema,ins thatreporred i~OpiXl~~ air-sea nUX~l) ~~d cO'!I\e~,UI!'t,!llt ion ~, SOI'l forl.heir observed extra clousl ai.bedo" f R!d'W~IlI()~5 intlte 1!'i1.illti ne b(l(I]iJd'lrylily~t t MaL} vary implies u levelof ~~lldern~~1nd:ing curih~t :1. O. W. Willgfl'll~ flI al.. Pro" NarL A,!G\Gt ~J" U; s;A, '1:01" by orders of :nmagniU!l.d,e,,,,,hh the a;\rernge re:Ulidy does notexist. SiB' (20041, CUUcil;lntnl,]:~,o;U1~ betweeu 4 ,~~nd prH:vtmd: 2:50 \\li;: have stioW:1lU 11 direct and ~~I,'ml,g l~nk z, A, Ie, ~~, tJ. C;upenlf!(,M.~. fiL~[Il!~J,.~fI}'J. ~'. li.QoIl, ~lJaH~OOl). ~ilu~eil .~Ol o6 x IOq'nm:oleclIlcs C1l1-l :s.-~ bel\lIieC1:J~ of l pl'nyH)p]lank~on lind clouds GiYl::;1iI1 3:. ',Ill. J. I!Ii1:I~mil!~e, ,Po S. lij~~ 5. A Ir,em~U, ~~,.ifu. ,(2-6). For the hi£h end ,o~'measured iso- the idell!i~ f~ed pOle'mlti1) lor oeeaa- e1lil~iued hll,.. :2675 tt997}. l>l!. isoprene (illl'ld ,olhe]"\rO]<1Il~;h~ or,g<1J1k: COItl~ prene levels jill the Southern Oce,nl [wh]ch ~, J. p; ~reffibe,rg,,,,Ii,. 8. Guenlher, ,t!;. Tumipse-e!l, £ii!!!'iI'lJ"', O1IIrc :r!urib~~~d (0 ~nh>J!~.~~dp~~~lt()phlnk[~n POH!'!:(]S) f:Jif'! .~m'n.os.pl~~fico.xidb::bi!,g 'cap.l~cHy Ci'l1!'m.l.~9.1120!!1SJ' 5. '1'. 'l'ob!!~6fui~!11. J. l~ l MO!~m~(j~ ~,I1.~n.1i. .All:imO!~, amadnew-particle forml'I,tilOlJ ,~4!~i'1. pQi.!l~ the plrodootiilvity {51]. our simulations suggest J. GefJpIrys. Rts.104, 81M'll'~1999~. (0 ~:h.ulh~ ameant of SOA is pahmti~!ny sibUHy ofiseprene SOA lC(lil'Udbu~~lIlg 6. E. !J:a~DU ~!~t..<I1r.m~ f~if~1l1. , ro~.2:!2'OCm. enough '~O irnpact dO'WI,d dl'Dlde l nUllm.lbe:r UU! llJobiil ~ CCNbmlgel, i!i< real aad \\'onh ". fl; ~l1Il:i'Mdrol f/ll'l,. ,Arm os. C'htm. M¥s" i~, 4601 elii,p.Il'l'.fi.llIg.,. ~:2(1Dli). cmlc,~nlrmimH;. T1l,W!> large r~ng~ lU:;tybe

i1iab~.e2~. Ocesln (h~~roiPhy~1 a. Illl:te5" anti atm.osplleti(
f.ll'~51pedi~t5: "Rto:ssessl.mg

(DIU!(2I1~riltiofi~ ,(1~i5V.P~~Di~

(.a,rtm~ 5i filM" Ib:l' [I. IF: 'B;Mreir

Dis~o~~d ~sopref'!ie'
(Q:n~lIilr.o1lIiQn~'PM)
.-A ~II"

IlsopJm,e lIu:t
(108· ffiQ[alUl!!!'5 tml~~ s~])

IE~,timale'cl MI3'L,
~JlOOIiI!r agicm {pg m"l}

C2:2iume, p,,1708). rhe ~,umrmnl! ~iflll.~m(e ~ inIlQN·et;t It ~hl!Mlld rt~d.. ·ILe:~ (~rbmo~ dl~Ci')iide l~ '~~Iken, ijp Il~ ~h~!

Soo!h~m O~~:IiI. <!IndIr;Ilofel!J,y trtlJ)tca~ ~~OOilre~~,'hilmiIPOO'"
iflouslylbowglU. ~ A~IliI~g:l!

"'OF' e,,;, "
;)0,

(Il III'

fAJ UI 8:..,6

F;8 (U:;. 2.2
0'.'1

1!om.ru:1i!!ll

IsoJI~elil~ SOf.l S!(IO

P~l!'Spe(tN~, ·nece,mt I)rog~s~nd c~ntlnulf1g !puu~es in ele(IroSI~tlcs· 1Pt l S. Schelin {IS Nne, Po 1:512tT~' $l!ffi"

mmr~n~~b~~~CLh~Q~W~~'~~~M~~~~
i!ld~;l'iiolfllCil o'hatgHi il!i!.lIIiallng

1.~, 1~,2 ~2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3.0
RI'1fIIClJI!!$~ lpln~p~~th~olllilrie "Tilae

Mill, Mllil

12\7 2"0 1~.lDJ!

no

30

1.6
~1(1

al.4

34

1:8200 ,2lH1OO 'NUm
til

20
6(1

;1000
SOl

2
by !iii.

piilrHd~s 'is .aJfNlifl!lllo'l!!ll!(l·

pnnling! lIi!dl!noI1l9!1' and mily hilre IDilhl![ indu~liI:illl .il\~ptiQl[ions. • In. ihi!' fjigllffi C!lplioo,

",20Cl·IJ.~" s~'IO~'ldflll,nl ~3!Q;01J!.I1l." !?,oWiql'F',~,rull'll:·ID~l1Ig1!~IIr d!l'~~wJ rnlnm.Q~ b~ l- H~U';n It M. 1I'lIIjita CHI MiI~, p.9'(7). .allld Tihe! 1i:I@@P~1M Imning! ~ttMtil!ilS 1,,'j~j[Q Il'm~illlll?Oudf a@~orib@dI.~i!i:lInp"rntmil'lg o~r:illiom. 1h~ (,q!fieCll'e'® $IlooL'I.! oofll!i,I'!fI1!1~g'Qpe~U!!!fll5, !!rIgll)<1!lgl.m~bWJ.wi@fQ'\'-e~bw~!'I. ~~~I~~ later ~l!'Ilhii1 alfliCle., f,er,p!l'~i¥es~ boy T. B. RJl.!'I'IiIUS5~2i Apri ~ It S5..3), ''Jilll!' P,!If!l~«~I"'i!,~tal.e~ Ihat the C'.o!lF!lPOumd(llswmetl by S. ago eJ:at r;5',/e:,IlC'e 31.6, SS5 {lOon) cal.<ll.\I'l!1~Ihe lfI,yd'rOg;m~lilllfl of beililXiikl(!~d:~'~il'lhe (llII1IeilJlO'lldr:mg.i3lcoocl. th~ 5Ialemml.lr,~rillJtoiJl~O" llfetLmin!lJ)' r~dt that WilliS oot Iprf'5enledl nm,!I.e: pu~'IiltIedp.a,pe~.

~ etrIl, (],.6~b.,. f,li, ltO0[I) , AprQtlU(IWIl~rI\!m::~ljJi~ iOIi11I1l!O[ lIiIe: dllM t~belii In iFig.3:(10 lbe o'Cmlm:!. A wffUI.ed wHi:oo ap!p&'Iii'i> !.i~lOrliOii lIiIe lllWt. Me5~nidllti! andl

ly:~se OICliljijty 01 .. ~~riallype

~nec~o~ ~~mIV

Rt~e;!lr>Clli'I AiIii!1d~.5~ ·Pln!i't(l,p~lrikIO!il arid c!roudiness ~nllht ~ulherfil Oooa!ii~!J,y NI. Ii.. Nem.es U IDe,,, 2®G6., p. :141,9)'.II,n TOible 2, Ulli1 r~S()Fei'I:~ C ~F!l1' l~liltm~" .1I1!1f1 S()AvallJl!~ ~~inmrf«!. lIOO (Q1lI'l!CIl!d~;JlIl'I!' iufiH:l.wn ~.Il(IIJ~. Iffl.r d'~I~lill~d 1);l1ill!1! lk!g'

"II PI"O!i'!'!hing ml!i!1llc of .If!ydJOgemIH: aCIM~

'i!fIdl. :~oo migill'lil~ piliper,

'"!~ r----300
'""7'~

CllMMIiN1U'ION "'Walnd erinlY Mi OllIs::'Th.e Dlefalullt N!etw'ork ,and Stimuli ilIIs-llnld"eplend ent lh~n!lgild'"
:S'il.i1i1Ij.. G~I~I~E1;d, I~f(li:lile Du m(lilt:h~i I~, Q.~S,. .s,imo:IiI$, Ch!'il;o; [1', .ri!t~~,. l 1F
........ ~~

,;,tw
.~ UF.............. ........... ~~~ ~~ j': 111,5'j,

o~

PalllJl~ W. B'L!II~gle:'ii!~
Ji.\lSQaIl
tOi~ (j;J~

.too
!1t\Ci

el' ,m. (;Rf.~m.• 19 january 2:007. p.3,93) attn ootmtl acli'ilily 'in [A~mililmgioo~
~f~s~illig" b rain te lh@ O<iCl\Ir~em::e a~ mil1dl-wa n:derinflJ_ H'GW@'i!@f,p.rll'Yious

~~~li:t~~tr! ,l
rij r· '!.:. ~.
~",
110

re'5e<!:rdh ~@Sallnl{)ili!s,trated the' dHH,ulty '(lI1disting,1,I ismn~ ~hik;typoe O'fS'llm~hrl5·b:Jd'ependerot Ihoilginll ~ircm~lrmU~li5·0rifiiWted thoug1'il (e.g., w,nchrUIi'IMS), CiO:nsfdil!rat~cm ,of bC1li11 o9Sibili'tie~ is MQ]lIirl1'cIto r(%iol:~el:t1ls amllj!'luil~, ~ full t~ ill J.!illl>'l\Q:~J1.!iEmllg.lMg'(gil'mQn'!lluL1611~81!l!'1'~3[b
rl'l

't )~ .. '. ~ "~, ~
'I'J F.l1IJ.1,

~1IiUI
lil~

RlESP(H~SE: TO. CIMMEiD ON "Waln!d,edng IMinds::. Tlbe Def'i:lult I~etwork a ndl Stii Wltl'llllll!!i.-Ind epe n,d eDt .,OIIl!Ight'" ,MaLia! E MOIS1Ul. Michael I. NO"~GJIIll, ]iohn D. Va.ll Horln. Iliifll1[el M,. WeQl1u!!u, ,Scott T. IG,r.an.o:l!I, (. Nie<i i. M,iflCJal@
'51100rt e!' at ~ug;g@'SlllI:Jal attilrilyin ~M i:leI'au~ll'Nrw(l1i:: ml"Yoo du.!! tolllil~ ~rnt@rg@n[e {jl'~timliiluS"@f~led raiJul'r thllrl si!imuturk!de~l'!d~FltUUi!U,ghl:.. Altoough both kUridl5

'ol'!hoo giht likelV ,e merge during
sUm!lJ'llJ3'-ii'lCleglMtle,nt

tmg-lh<lt

famililr lhollgh!t

,c'omi nal.M

,,",sRs, we

~rgUe--iilIM. l'epclJt d~w SJuggest· UinCl)n:nm1i'u~d cognilhre pe~[GcI:~.

rull'~J;Xil <It ~'u<i.en(emllgJ~:r9/Qiirwqn1Jfu[V3UI!i8.M/!1i3(

N E~JlROSCIEN{;E

~hh" ob~r\"!.I,tio:.~lhr ~l(ll('II' proc.is.ely the brtli~!l is
cmt"wm;redhitli~ Jilot yetbecl'llil~~,y a,piPF~d'!led , The hippocampns 1la$!UtIr;:Ictc::d! rain medb derfi,whio hmle~lH!ll(ri..red ih,e spi'lne dhmibuted eades IJnh~' gI'~nnllccells .ill t~u:: entate: d gyrus ,IS Clinmg.ogml<illh:~~II:i.o3'1 Us imr'Ul'S.Ioa of

T'heHlipIP,o,camlpus'R'Bv'iew
k"St..s[~ld i!';(i form of 5ii)i'!la;Plic ·pl~.S,lidly i~,:~C I brniiil. aimJ S1ev-~td]fO!ri'1l'i,~f Io:rng-l~rn~ dl;'ipre~.· u team of23 researchers, s,~:ylt1d'by ;) ed~,~ sion (i.n which the eW:~cii.enc:Y' of :l;ynapSies l{ln;, vi.il;li~i'gitli,gn\\<ldyfl, pounds, iMld wlmil1g d\;,~I1:~~~~mthil;!r!';xI]inc~~~~) were ~bQ di $ever 850, !)3ges-Snnmlrlllldzes 50yei'!:r.s of' covered there •.as wasa ~ong-lcnn clmug1e i~n e;_."d~.,b~i (E..spote~:lt·i:'lt,~OO). A Ilh~Jl~gh~imi[y "1I:n~:I~mic.d. p111~:~(llogi~t;~.I. hehavieral and rese<lin:;~] 01] the sea ~l rse-shsped strue mile e iblr~(lrl1l::; of .\!,yn~pli.c ~)~.1IISitncilyhave been
·~'l: ... ... c'\'.~m.pu.!i}J,mk-. ~VilLh.~ g ~,~a.~ .. liPt)o I .. ... ... t.iOri pl.;;a:i~1dof20 lN~H'}o. "iUen by ,1.1 w

'. T

~h~'ree i;J1:r~~t cn~~.~ti.\'ity of a:rua(' A3!""
3:ltwel(i\i~1;ll'lIi'(ltk th!!lt P~i'[o:rl,n~

8~

P!!U..:rw eem-

p.leli,QlJm Neil :Bul!'ges;s's clm3pt,el: pmlv~d!es "Hill .• overview (lflh~\;e IVl!(ldl;l~S,mdrheirconsequelJlces., The recenc (Uooov,e~y by May=l3riu

and EdvHm M(l~r of ~rid !;;el~~in the ent't'lrbi-

IIlOQllcostex ((,:ells~!~i(lI: 1.'e:Spc)f](1 to .lm::<l1iiol]s, all <I. buried d~p with~n I]ile brain!'!;;medial 'l0rnlpOw ~~~xa;go:nl.'l]lgrid~ml feed ]n~o Ihe hi~l"Im;P-ll.1 ~~l1.ed elsewhere, 'I~~ ~~ ipro(:~mprl s remains F'<'Illo]be"his. h(l\ll,I'C\Ie:r. much mo:relli1<'1J1l. ;I, Iler~ ~'Ii1.e ~)!I:lc;ecells) """IS nQ~ ~)OOdltC'Hrl by ~m;y these of gold s!alKiim"d" ~rc~o~ \\,'(]rt,;.n~ h(:HJ~ also C:f!pn~r($ '~~~~Iu:!"\,; Hmi~t~J]m;of t1~ w;tl<l!lpru,(j(,fu~]!'! pri~h~ofbasamissGd (~£lIporl!"~iLumhy, BUtlh~ dlseov.. cry was also missed by <I generation of phyt;i~ of the f"it::ldOl:~dt 'vi~lll serve <1.<; <I reliab~,e gllli,cie 1li1I~~es offOCordill~~I:'ooillll giln!;!i~!e l!l:!Uru~Swhil.e B far the next gem:l:i'wicm ofhippoemtlJpo.lagists, ~he IDlimal is ~'CSniuedt~l. chair <Ire ill~l!>u.I!'Od o.log:is.t;s "",,1~.100 s,II.ldicd :rnl:s. .lIl mazes, tihal were! <I The volume l.Jeg.in~WiUl11 hh,,~orical per~(msl~:m.1Ito de~a-:lthe grid pa[[~'m. in 'me dluprero[l hippm;ampal :pnY::IIj:ohlID' and J aim Att'~li; SQ,eiet.jI :for' Netiros.cf~11CCm{l~t~~ ~pecli.ve Wrdll~l bjl' setne of dl0~.e '~SJ~ol1s:i~lL'l ~h!lviOl·, ~n~'l1'hi<L!11 O'K.Dl!fe dt;u;crii:b~!ll fb·lt the origilllmi research, .Fifty n:cJCJrdinss ifn::i,i,1'isili(gle hi.ppo~ l:ami ye<l!fiS..1\~O. Ridmird Mornsllll~d SusmHIDI. }"C'afs <lfio,. rh·{md~ Mjlnc:r dis'~~n1!pHIn(:Urrons h~ f~c;:ly Jlt(:I'V~ Tont:l!ll~w~ Il[~d ~!.\liPi r.il:cdpl,lb.1 i.~dleb~lIte o~ lh~ Hil!lpQ)IC~,mp!JIsBilOk ~ov~'fl;ldl:n C l(:(ui.!'1Ig UU!t ~()th (It i.!:!g rats, ~flh~ ral:- :hO!!;d been \'\Ih~th~:i \'i~ wQllld l~fWf'lmore OiIbQutlh~ f~~!¥creg·fI.<I~nOO! p~~m<l~r::sar,e.~h.en as h~~~pocampi~nd surm~Lndin_g a t·~OIl onhe hipPOCOlfll!P:~il:S :l"OOJin stlUdyung l[curn.1 Per A.r,itlene.n, Hichfjm M,rNJfis•. 1J8I!iri A mfff8f. p lace Iceli!r--'\,vhillch r,e~oml c:ircl!i.ls or froD'l~mo:!ecl~l.,r~em:dc:;, lniheir regiol.l~' fro:m, d'l~ rest of!hl: Tim BUs:;,. l1nd ,on~y\'l'ile~, ill I.'mis lfI.rnliL· ill. speei fie ch<lp~er. Osten.WUMam \Vls:dein. <1m!!; brnl.1iII ( 111m.fll~ anempt ~o alleviste Jr)/J'i' (rKfif!ffJ. fris, I:IlIU"'i.!cwi.)]e ep.~lep~y, ][.n:d proplace ln its enclos l[lie,........,\,\iOl1ld Rolf S.preI1geJ :mml:mHi ze l1Wmole~ulnr llIeVeT ~.1ave OOIlll1Ddi:i'lcCl\~e~:ed. u.nech.ul~sm.s that have b~enl!iJu m::l~D opeD'ilte; dueed an OlI~moSl I'll! recase of OJ>l;fOi(i l.iIni"'QiS iW Press, ~!lltcrogn~.d\-:~uullCsi~ in .~~~.~. New York, 2007, Wh~'I':I;)! rot~mro:~a !l(l:W C!l1iV~W~~ in the hippoc~mpu:> ,and th~ genetic l('1oi$~l~~1 B68 :IlP- S12~. (60. pm:ie[l~:Hi. .M., .AI'; iSI!llSl!llk]~.I)~true rnent, tl~.e~ eel Is;CIInil~lodyfom.~,011 ~~Oc1.ve 0c1.11(l>\\1'l!:1{it spocilrlC ce]~ ~pes 10 be rnanipuISB N !:11:EQ1951 0027 3. It)ri~ldividu~'lj~, who e[.~~tll rnap of hs surraU~ld:i!'!gs 'tll!Uis :I~l~d illl dilFli;lrenlp.~!'~sonh~ ~lirrtlC,f~lpl~!i: 10 ,S:~<lb]e forll]>o1J'IY days. Tllme everdiscover :hlippQ{';3lrn,lp~lll:H'liCli!Om;. such as p ..~~ c:aQ1Ven new experiences to ~Q:ng.Ie'ml 5."l:o.~ge',[I. M. '!:; mel1~,~ . an df:ctrIl,;a~~acli\'i~:y i:nl,lhehi,pftern "OInp.lelio:~, iJru,tline A3 region .. C my of ~"!,ff,ml:il th.,! occurredwell hefoee dte pucrunpnl~ in fh;;1;lymO\'illig r.ti~(l;~il~;,Jtes at 4 A mi;lli1g~h,e!~m~1impm:1imn di::;'C{..r'i.ie'ries ope.r,mioll\w:5 spaeed, T~,iswas iii mm.ing Jll'Oi~t ~o 61Jz. 'wl:dc~m.~t.cs~~~.c actlr'!i'ily of lime place Oli:bol,lt:d1~ bra:h:l is l~~.~f1.~rnding rhatin 3.d~'~u, 1;:m~l,lt ohtu;~ tiil~'ing of,rliu;e Jhr the :-'1\Jdy uft~.e :hipPoc<lmpw", \\'\l1ic~1uru;il (.1;:11:)"The adv<tI1{.. 1I,1~\I'" neusons areborn i'lil. the dentate gyn:s nf then had been~~~.ou~JI,1.tl:O pari efthe 001rril.c~ ce:lj~ bea spi'lt.es,.lrelati,vel:Ot~:ae : :I'tmse oflhe'·,ij-lo 6+lz [he hippm:.1III1lp~S <lind lhallheilli survival <)1'1 ~fI:Uy s~s(~m ~~!ldinvolved in ~iiillfilinm;." We litylijllll,. p[(}\lkk~s h~ghl}! ~(.·e~lr"rr~i!roJfo£mOl~ion d~p~~~.d::i experienee, ~n.;ri!l··~iI:lridlt;dJ" ~IV'\ijnow know ,t foom research on ~ml!olllk:ey.sby on the lacatiea of the rot Iilin.eimp]~u'l1li.mil!llof [u:~ul.l!enl (or ~ven an exercisewheel) .. H;(JOI.'l!:! S~mlnZ~]~mld Larf}1 SquinH thOllt th~ mO'!!,gni·, tude of t he mc'rnIOl'Ypiroble:~u iuereases as

n~

r~.ve~

lUore

anhe

('!:lrl:CX S'LnT,(lundillg

"t~'nC'lia.il~paC2t:1n~

pm, is ~umlged:H. M. h."d ~.n1..~~ve' le:SKJI1I, of h~.R !tl~d:i~1I.t:mporol lo~~~" '
The d<1Lpt~'r by Ti In B~iss, G F'<'Ih~lln Collif'!lgridM:~., ~ud Rich~irdl Morri~ ~guM s,!md on

its !lJwn

Ol,s.~

B2-plIIge

mOilogr.apholil

h.ip-

pocailup1l11 synaptic: pl1astidty. the chmlgc in i'>yn..ptk: ~trerlgl~. ~.l.OughlloumJedie .lenmil!1g,. LOflg=term potcnlial.U0'I11 (L"fP). \Vil~i<ch 1m:;
bee ~nllite ..n ~ li1I.l:porh~l:I~ field of reseu['ch iU. ~.ISO\\'n Ilr:iighl. \c\fa:S,di.:scovered wheil hi£liiii~ fr'C~~~~(:ystimu~~tklf~ (l:fdl~ jI:'!P~!1$l~ ~he hippocailnlllllS, lre£lIthed ill~ mOI.'t': emi:c:.~elll !>lIbse~ qul;,'!U r~Sp~Jnls~-s o.'!t $y~iJ]7$es in [h~ d!eI1M~

gynlot>. l. TP
Whe f~er.~r'

.,,1

h i~:i~liOC:i!,lr~llj<9] :l>Ji'llal~SlCS is the
:Bio'logy, i.!l!l!il.refSii!,V (If

(<JtiiIQl~Ii'll",

Sail O~':)'(I.~:nd lh;~ H1~,u~ Htlg:l\~ ~~d~~~11 Instllu!lo S"II!: Illns.tll~i!efor BioIO!llfoI5tu:dle!;" La 19[1a, CJI, 92lm. US:A. E·ilT:Ia~~!tr;ry@~a'lk~dl.l

isln ~hll' [)~~me!lliol

44

BOO KS, ETAt.
!ll~\vgm:~.~ I~ iX'lh, '\;'UI"ViWmld g(1Lwiredin~!) existi n\!1;dOCllli~s" This is in~, ellOcmr,lgemel1l ~l) leaden aetive life, lu ~]er.'cha,pt~r stmctuml m~ ph:~$lid.ty. III iz.]be~!n.GOl] ld oOIli~id~rn the poe..fiiblcru:m!C-li(lam~of LIt('$~ nt:\I!;,IItCum'Hi
~!1tldepressants

I

and liDa\',~1

oeeerredas much as ~.OOIOOO%Il'S' earlier th'UiI, ~ggest:eJi by S ,'1\'0 1<.lnen, Regadess. s ~JI.3g,~ lIll.91t, the "\.'O~nS.ltil.C dogi; elesesr OillC!e:>.ltvf '~Il!d~:h:<ll be;~~1Nior.s. ll1:h.. erved in ~l00ern do~~ or.igUmu:c \"'fiJtll~IJmCwel f. fi'l,'e
Chapi!;e[1j.

~,we~sred'lJloes~iIDei I' prol ~fenlti:on. ],1iI ~iQllIlIT:'<J81,. suchas f!l'\07.ac; el~h~'lC(: hi:pptlc~~mpfd neIH·ogt;::~csi~.Th~ htpp(ilctH¥iI)l~Il' omllin~LeS:to amaze. TIle hip\pm;mtlpu::; has ~rvl,,-'d ~~~ R!J~t:ti1 ;j1, stcue, and dii.':cipilc'l'illlgII:S secrets is helpi~;lg us h.l understand miHll,)' eore I)rim;]IJles ofbtoJii!l flnJ:Ct·ion. The Uippommpt,l:s Book records the
ilil~pl'ffishreresults ofmird~~odi~g ttl date and passes 't~;leterch in tile .I1e:.t g;en:erot'i:on. .
MI.n26!~cit!OO'!.U4!2 B9

de,din;

w~t'lm b.:;isic~uliTmd
J~W!iie~l'~ O'V'i.;Wi.i

:speoC~lf.it::.Ln)1 behav~or bL;gJ~n ith w

i~w oflhe

~thl.jlogk&~

l'ou,lldali,QUil for;na,im<!ll beh.i:'wioli. which includes 11e'Q1i;~,uy ;il$Pi.'lC~~~lnh~<J!njn'ii: c bmull ;fIlld nervoas .an.di eM,d,oa,·n~.eS!!"Stemus.,

E~eml b;;o:iql\~ well-wriuen chapter on behrwiorarn genetics. fhih; 10 I:~vetuptO expecG1a'tinl1i~. as t~ di~ct~R'1liO:l1i on ~d~ntil[(yin'lg
g,e~les seems to

11e:~

is the mnSi[~s,llIldied U';;lll in do~., alse di s-

have been

g'(lrl(;tids~&h highHght~

S'I nue:g,~~sW~1r devel-

'i.vri~:I1i, fOI" meuse

,AI[1\J11 MA

l. 8 EH A,V IOR

op~.ng cl',osses\~\ilm.il.eHc;k:~,o.wl,ed,gi~ [Iun [his llI,ppmil.ch II; munKldcd mul ]mprJ.cliC1'll A:~~d.t i

DevDted '110 Do,g's
:~Ih[hi:ml<li.~3bili~.Yot.~'3,drni1:. asse r1.~' .. bl}r ofl11e dog gl:!lOrn,c: .sequence'~ J). .. '.' 2.5 moHio[l :"iillgle~mLC'laotkJ)e poiy~ ' ffi(lrphis.ms. and ~:llilllLe[()~I:ii· published ~tlldie~, 0111m..ppiD]Sc::ompjle. ... lmiil.s,(l-J). 'canille bioil& gis~ arercrumh~,g 'V~~ '!;~I'in$ for nrlaI.t)' thci~ Ul firM leve: unde.lfs~<lndiug ~h,e,bi!ol.i(i~yof d~ b~I!lr~vi{lii.Toward t~~l ~,d.T1k~'Be1:r(n'im~luJ ~ llioiogy {)jJ)ogi~"ed~:lcd hyPer Jensen {:<Illet~lO~" Og,lst.nl U~.1k.Opi ng Unh!ersity, S\'.\lOOen)!' fiUs an ill~potlant niche.
'w· ..· ,·.· '

faU~ h1il!liLe~lt ion who~.e-g.erlome ...s~o,e~,non i
3wdi.!.!s,~,"'hi>C'h ~I~ ~ikdy be the ~~.1e't'ht)d .f tn o eheiee lib!' fil'idlill,g genes ,LSOC!<Ci~]~edIwith IJilil.e~ Oi:yp,c;.~ ofi flit~:res;!, Next, lJle~~a~l'l B~lbIl;aUui'~",lddi~;<;~ ~f!~;'(lf)1' ph)"sifl~ng)'~ ~~f ~(l.t imelrt"st.isvo"Q{lik 'P)' sitm,riug till'll. 'commry 1:0

cusses <'Ii~IJieS'S:ton;md eKcitilhi]ily. and offers: an ~1D~gijl\gsocNon em p(;;l1'on,l]il~1 f<Jf!niltitlr!. Tine section ends W:~l:~] d3~,11 ~vhkh)sU-s A excellent dlal'ltc:r (Jim, l}ulnl'l.Ili,·anuTIr1",1 lnteraeli,{JIl!~.~nd social cogmii:on.\\il~i(:ii1 di.S\:ll~~S Wil detail ~~~ ,c:~m;;!Oic ,tlXper.im~~t:i,Fal"i.nSI:!'Ince •. ,j,I~.leDii ial i7..edw·ol:f puppies are a] loweot.1 '10 soc seek cCi~.~pa:~iQ:ns~~.ip wilih i2it}~~r ~'lhUIn!iln tiJj aJ dQ:g.!:h~y g~f!(;'i!l'".i~ choose th~ dO'.jl.\."ih'i;lf1;.a~ Iy
dogs i!j],ways choose hil'Llm~ns, Mmkl.osi .rt:'Ili1l,illds l!SI~!lID:I~~(·on.'aml~nicmio!f! be't'i..~ell dogs ~md
hUI1ULllS

l'l()iP:ul~J be~ie[ ~he dog:s'!i,\fQ'~ldisno~black and
w~lIli~e-tln,ey are "IMe to di:St;r]minllH:' 111etll.st ~

geesln

both d[I1OCti.o:lliS ~md that dog.'>

some

ClJ]OI1S •.

The hook re ...:~lyhilS J,rs, 5lJIri,(]i;e with Du:ri.t 1~~~~~Oi·~'t(ln;en·s di~~j:o~ of Ch~If'Jcterisde p;iuite'lJm!!iof·:sm:i.d oorul;vior: ~nclWldirl.t!leveryth~!'Igfrom haw d(l~J;~:onm:~l~'~ica[edM:~ngrl~ to e:sto.diJlishillig .soci,<lll rillhlS OlIilld dominance hilernrchy. :i>'~]e.li~].~i,gh,ts; traits of specific I bm~is. n,Jr irl:!il.~nce" NOl[di.: breeds ilOO wltl,.,,[ ilIble W deal with ,cm:l!]~ct, whereas golden weuie\'ern· s_how sod<l~j tolm~n:;>e" T~~mi 'q)P'J,'{lI~g pri<l:l:ely ~o 1e<IIrII,llng. P~ml!eI13.Reid ooverr:s,the bkll.ogy Olilildl'lt~y(:hok~gy f eHdl~~g o desired behaeiors as \1I.;;eU illS, exti.ngniS!],ling 'IlIInwmn.~ed

g.~ernny ,L';m~~hiiJae 'MQI'!.~. For example, (~!J1>:!:l Imve a Im:u:mmonic vl:::'f;:.;ion lhe bark thatis of
Ullknm,l\!~in \\:olv('S. :liug:~~slilng[h.1lt d~s use b.niks to e.:"::pre.'l;S <I much wider r'<'I~e of emeliorllf'

Llm~l'\'O!\ll;l,o;;.

The last :>eet~OIladdresses be~~."viiiOI<'l.I p:~iOb= ~em!>,.espec:uaUy tl.l~ngs~:~l<lt. go 'ilvro:ntg in can dog-hmmrlll 1[ie'I<ltimls. The two q;,h,,]ptel1! pro-

Gea:red tD srmiel!li!:S ofa!llirtrullbehavim veterinarians, tUlie book is ::ip~h:Intol'{:mr

and sec-

~iOJ:l!i. <l;c~,Oh~lich e

foc;lI~:s,o:rl

someaspect

of

r i~e Iii e h lI'lJi:(al'li'.lI~
lEI io Ilol!!ly~rl OlJlIgs

d~g bt;;full;li\dan~1h)log~l" b The stage is set by

I

1

tlffi~ fi~~ dln.~ ,e~lapt~i');. which are d,e'!,'d~ed liO P(ft,J,rJj·wm. fa. und~!I'SIiI!lt!hlg the c\t'O~urion <lind d:o[llil.e:!nuJt:,I.~ CABI, W<!,I~i~gI0r"d, UK, :rom. 216 p p, tit"m (1fth~ d.!og.U~ing P apilr. S70. tl5.IE5S. DNA, <lil~llyses,.~ete,r ISBN 9781845931872. Sav~~~i~~n ~)\Iid~:> ~. ,~Ietlr,mdvivid di:-,c:LUjsion afDlu: dog's ori,giu. com:1 uding thEIl dmnesticOlliol!l islliJwly ~oh'l.vc {H... (.;urr~d OIiily
om::e,abolltl ;)AUIO ~arg, BlgO, 111i1dun elllstc:nl A~i[I.By 0(1:1.11 son. ('<tlik:s: Vil~, ;r~d Je]'nil.ifer p<rni

h~oovi{lf\\\ dl~l!gh (lpt;:nuu 1:[!;~nmi~lg elassiami
lnoll~'!le." en dog,,,~um I:hcir Irehltio!l,l:S wi~lill umoulS" One d1a:pl:e,r is devmli:d h w ft.~n'il og....whie~. un li~.t; \l.nl V~~t~:;l!e'~ :t~l d OardCi:ed s.oci,JlstfILu::~moe ,nnd ll:m.dJ ~ollnll:'~iol1ll <IS
gfl1UP$

vlde d;;:5cripli:Ol:asre:Jlat-ed 1.10 cm.nic<l11 s,}I[Id remes and <l de~<tiled gloN~mry gf ~e.li1nsthat veteruillary !:mnd.el]i'S winffim:l Rse:full. The l'OV~ ·~rO'lg~.hoW.eW'::f. dloeSffil,l)( eM~ltd I)[) broed~ specific diseases sw:ThlI as bun terrier obses~i\'~-.e~11!f1~pu~$h;,r.;1 is(l1f1(!~rm'J.d ~,p:rjf~~r ~ol.g~, d
A.llhm~,gh dOglllililsbeb!lli\f~iOJi preeeeupies l~c typical v~1e;ri~!!:rian-ci ic:nt iret~1 ions,hip., t~i:i\ vollun~.e <l1)~~.ydlelln(1;nl'itrOlh:-:s~b:t ,ml~ne c

C'sl cm.lol:lituoilling. 1fi11e'~hird ~tkm

of ti!lf~l!Jti;ldilndh'idt~~I~s occl~pyi,~g d·efin,ed] t~rgi'~:{cl~ies, It :r.~i~i.'l~ :;mne .itl'te:weii-ling IgrltJ,b:iy ~nto (JUr live:s. lheya~

b(j'lmavtoml bio~Q:g~ is; ~,,(qJ1,li;itdy ~lll~lilli,~ $n .nul, ofil!1.e,II·: No ImU:eli"hmv they .ne mld~ed,. do~ ~('lntj f!!~~ t(~ ~~irpris~ by fiui~.~ ~ ~~)m~ ~,:;
!j'lllilf~ en~n!gh

leoJ10!1.rd<JdICI1re~s the o:ri.gi~, of breed d iversily. Tirley '!lff~f a'~~xel:II~!'I!~ d~sel!s:;iOli1 elf '~~i,)' I1UJ~ecll~ :lInU:llinQ\t~ <If u'!,ediID suucly dog {lr~g~llls, ~nd th~1'I ~'Iun:!&~:i!'ii~oco~!'id~fiUhYl1!sof Ul,~ :~.:I1min~er .lIt. (j tin,ni~g o~ dmne~liC'~lio~~ €l\'lems. ~ ~rg~n.!'1Ig ~(:Iltljy tl~1 dJol~1C'-5i:ICiI~1O:1lJ mHy il,;IVe ~

q ucsd:mils. .F'or example'., v..1l<lIl mgn.~iltc'.s th!e 10 bUeres( us,. ~1~T~cdollil\!e(mclllgh 110fi 1.1 mo" e ~,la.",jnlum ~ize gf!lfi.'t'i]~ pl!lc:k'! ApP<lrtmlly IrIfj~~ liorlil.l,to]d5.fI~.d de\1{;lf e'Il;(Ju£.h~oreud (ll~r as,OJ~e ~n[§11tglJlts& Ihe.~MIJ~abilityorfoo{t btu moods. Hmvt.hey dlo ::III ~hat, iI~,d more, is; mther l~'l.U lhe [ess-elfkie:ii1l s{J(~ialSU1!(,~tulie re<l]~~ wb~]l Tire ./J{ditJ,'N'iQwrd BioJQgr oIDng.'i !l1'es~;l!'i(;~'£~l'v: nmnlJcr of do£s t:hm can effec= lis aU ...b.cml.

I
z

~hl{llyImmtu~d:uw:.IRJ ~.cump~!hgcl,o,iptl:lilon cHuinu! I)CTS.Omd~t)I;.Kemh Svarlile:fg poill~t!\ alit ~hii~:~"Soo~~hel'$ilill~(;resc~dki il1!.d:ividtl.f~i cl:in:~ren-t'es in a:UlI,i~mdelulV.iorluw(: b OI,voided t~le! o:n~

R!d'ei!i'(ll1l(!~~'

1I.

11;,

;2'. t(, iQt:!i!Jse '~l(lO'2}.

~lfIdblil~'libliil N 01., Mal!ll~<!:I:e. 003 1(2005;1. d' ai" p:f«.~fL~,od. Xi, Q.s,A. '91" 9 ~30

:~

t~12I~.tm~e'IN~flon~~ ~~m~fI (j~JlrQr.fiIetR~~~ r,cb ,~ ~lnsuune.N'.aHt!'lil.a!l 1!n5:mule~ Health, Belhe:5.da .• M_O M t:I 2069'2. USA. E·II'!1Ol;t'e:Jos~r~nd'@maiUJlilili1.gov
l~ T~,~ rEl~'il'eWf;lr
II'"

ccpt. of ~'rsmlallty b~'"i!ttLSeof" reflf of ~~lta1rO= ['lOIUO"~li:filn." ~dledescribe::; !prtwm,dily lmi,~~ ;)I.:; '·di~itiO:~f'li. K1Cl<¥n>ll1;)lt~g;u larIY1il1md persiisteudy determine belil,!ll'll:iou[ in mtiny d~fI'er= em t)'~s ·OfS~Hl,u~·ons." nU'~~l'I~n~t~kdul]1~

3:. 1(, 1(j1~a.I~ ~~'" G,Mlmiil' ,~~" :115."Jl!2C1't2001§;), tl; !l. M. II. S;ut~erl!'l at, SdMl:.t ];lL~, llU ~:n)(m. !l" III. A1iIrc!I'n1·M.e::!lim~, ih~s~~lItti!1ilil~r~ 1J1II~1!I'!i1l" Q'f

Vienl!a"j![umi~ (1996).

EM EU~'YON I C 8 TEM

CELLS A

Wiillingne!s,s't,o 'DIQlnatle Frozen Embryo,;s, for S,telm Clell Re's,earc:h
or.~' 'Ctl:~'~erl1i:i apot!'i tl1ep1fim<!!ry sou rce o.~~t,em cells, h ll!mil,all~m~ bryos, ~HIH~; prompl~1 nne gl lille II'illO::ill cmu:ellil:~u:('mspWI,Oiic dleb;<Iles in~he history ,of h~(lm.ediC;;Li5ldem::e" FO~~,OWD!lJglh,~ .trMllOU n.cement of ;I, rejilrl~Clion Oof u.s. fed-

11anona ~slJNey iI'Idic:a tes that, ra r mil ny i nfill'rtij,1 i ty pia u ents racing d'€lcisiol':l So a t)(lIUl
pr.Ellfs,rred option.

e IiTIlbl)l'o dis: pa,sili 0Ill, rillS E!!ln:11 iSll1te liTI,af8Jlllv

M

~r'-I]fl~~d~~g ro reseatchwkh

bb1.esils.o~;ned lrom e'~m,bfYOs, before At~grugl 1010] (.I )muI. mOI:~ ret-..enlly •.a prestdem ~<II. velD Upl1okl in~ this fe.lltric1lDO:n (2 )"there ,m~i1~, been ~ clear messagefrom the i;ci~nli fie conrmun ity that the e Ii,gib,le ,~i nesare ,~,(l)l QTdyim]d~q~I"lb:::in~~mllber but t'lisa uwns~f¢

aboom10 0(;11

~g d~rivl;!l ESceU lines, MmlY M l:h~:iI~ ,emllbr,),\os;;\I,redes't royecl ~n mny event. ~.I.oreever..~~dl::hQL~:gh some indi\ii~,ba~.~ppose th~ o destruction OIt..U1Y tmnmDlI~;:m.~br)'o. dleru,ving S,I:e'U1m, cell lil~,e:s frnm IUUlUll1l embryos rern<li,ua,wn.!;lafterin ~e:rI:~~il}1 eatment avoids ,~l u

Wh<1!l

ttl do "'t'ith thegrrem<1Jini~g

crY{lpre-

served cmb.YQ5-hov,r t(l\!irei~fll ihe options of denari nglh~mj to ~[!I,{JI~lu:iIT u~di:~:(I;i 'COl!p~,e•. le discarding [hem. or dmlofllll'llg them lOIr stem (leil,i or other research 1(61. The results of [~ese de]liberJ.~.klns arebJ~ely lInklilO\!.iI'l<lnul
<1r.~' Uk;(;iy

d~!OU!lct f<i;;[ OIfp.f~nkul.1)rl)'

I)~mmw,(;lns lal

cflmpii~,lt:(;d by !>hWsin prefer-

issues assoeiared \\.'11:11 Cret"1;1,UOn of,eil,nbJrYos e.x.p.iI'essly for researeh purposes 3.rrud with the

ences QlVf'f time, The on Iy lIIlaboDi'l!2l~, es~::illnal.e of the IlIJlUbt1:f of embryos i~,l IIln,c: ni.~r:d U

use of somal ie ce~~. nm:.~e,n· ·01I:1~fer. 111,t'hct. it tr

is research tilling stem cell Jines dCfi'V~d From 's'Uclia. escess embryos (J)I'n;J( would beconl'e ~'~i.gibk ~Of f{:dcr~1 funding 1>ilQ'lUld

lin:!"'lr<i~f!1'1lti(l rd re<
sem:chl.l'bereis also

Stlntl~came ~i{)m<.I. 200.3 ~WIrvey of.~[I~'erl~.ii tjl e1inic!;~y Holr~1J1Ia:m!, al .. ij,:midii,C~lil1g I:hat •. es <ltrhoiJIgh .•bOWIl 400.000 embryusare Cl~lrl .rc;::~t~,y!i:~:ol'~d nUJC~t ,~87%~ !l.~ bcin~ h'C~d fOf "p;f~l i'!i:~U ~reaun !';JH "~I ., nd Uf! I)' 2.8%., nf :I :1.0000e~ub~:j~os iJJe a \,,1)] lable ~b:II' research "i l" Hof~illOln <lIml co-workers' ,~o!'1is.en'l'!ili\1e
esn:ul1llla:t,e. gi'veili1 expected embryos, W'h'lhl. [I~o:>:i rates in prooll~Y 27'5 cell Ilines

duction ,I) f stem cells frmll~'IT}'tlpre.ser'vtld
\vou'M: resu I~ i¢l tht:: u IlI~k(; si U!~I)'
t iQlJ~ th<lil eve ry denated em 1:11)1,0

S~NI'II

ceU

lre~\f

a r(h

-=~===========
(I

w~s liS(ld for g~:e~l 0]l researeh, 0
A 'm'I~loU'1m itat ion i

(lof dUll

11Ulief'timy

111M~:ar(h

~::::~~~=========:

limil~d
DiSpOiSm~1it ~~ttI)I1I10.r I(lme o:r~~llof ('Yopresef!;l'eal 'Elimb~ (IlIfJFel1ltLy SWfedi. ~ SC rn. so!i!'i,~'U( (,~l[!'llildcll~' ha!1! ~fii!r. Key; Stimci;fnalt ~i 'fla!;!'~I1!(jcr). YI~ ~clf

:1l1l!tjonll~ su:U'vt."Y Wl'l,s,~:~ljlll, eli nics

,(rnliiler t h<1l1pul:~en~5 'tm!i!i:mselves) \~7\':reasked .:Ibout ~ll'Iib:uyo

d isposlt ion. The ou~y

studi'i:s

1[]l!OUlilIl

in!;l evidence

~-e:portiOJlg cliinlcdy on p'l[ie~,n prd-: erenees ilndk"fute £r~i!lJl~r will i'il~:SS; to dOlllHe Ii:lml1nj.'Os .LC!llire!!earc.:in. 1JlU are

th~n Am~ri(: al1l sc 1'·' f'IM iii IS, Sire losi ng gnHllllJd to other eoUlI1it:l'i,e:sw i[ h
I~

by luw f;~spon$!l;;r,a[~

'~.'l!').S mal]

lessI:ikel~' (gra¥). r-~tl!il(iLive I"JI)IkiL:S J). FlII.rther. surveys of the Anleri.calii~l1b~ic imJic,!t~ dl~tther¢ is wid,espre.f!d s~prON' for

size .. and SlImpl iI1g from~l, :si I1gi~c '1.uni:c:[:}:~he C s 119) ilnd were 1:.lI.s:u~II.ly e tlndl~H:::[(!:d hl'PQ~'lJlll~li(ll1ll~om:sicle lnlec United Sl<'llles.irlldudill!;:
~'!iJlf'!..'i~~~

and A~~:ilr!l[i~.!Forex·~JnI~'~·~. eress-

seetional surveys 0 f i'lnl7erti Iit}' 'p'l'~iemts\';ri th ~dl~~~YfCb :;,t~~(:~j~d, ~mbr)llul'>~Ur~~HI.y l\~l;ir~d i"dic"tl~ hrot'ldl;ll1' ernbi)'()~lii(;s:tr;;:~11r;::U(liS cell) re~ap;,;~ lh;;~1 o Thtl p(l~tnli~,1 imp.<.Ict uf:;'ucb ieg~."']<!ltiou <Iece[l~.'J neethan en rrW::IU US. eS[iW11,al:eS·f o on seem cell selence is, at this poin[ ollily I:~,~· I' ondQJl of dOml,a.don ~or research. :In '" eats 2Uc:rOSs, ;;Iol:iti.cfl~. religleus, iUil.d soelae~ a, ccuamic liiUli,e:-;. W,ilb .Ipprov;;ll e51:~m.~'tl~d<l~.spec l~k.aive, h(Jweveli. g ivea a :!es~\"reU rec- Am;~r.;l~.i 10 ro 44% were \,iiini Ilig ro dl'lmu:e ~. o,g.!llized~l.ho[ug.h~,o less dcel sive-marm I embryos, lirr research ,~1'If" J! JI. 66o/~0 fibre In~blit~ overall (.4). the U~~ ired A WilOllgJl .1lf1Y use of human embryos Jor (Jl:d le:lioge for il'lf~n iJil'ypatie~u....whose con ~ Ki.['I,gdom. i1 prospective ~llIJrW;.'~y fO!i[DJid that ~ Il.nedic<ll roese<lrc:h is ,eonm.weli'.si<]l. !Ho.mci sent 1.mIS~ precede the 'ill'I:!lllicall co:nd lICI of 1m.!:' option of thm<!lting :SlJperUUiluer:lrj' s: eni''lbry()srem~~~n~ng hmvitro f~rWi~!l~ r~se;)reh ~lfl O1I!f!Y nlJf;f embr)iO~\\la$ chos~!l by 54% of inf~~tm'ly ~. '~;Hnbry~ renli!.i)ir!in!1!~nJ(:f t1r,Oiili~.IVI;")I tre<]une'l:1i~:has bee'.r.ll comp]e'tetil: art!' ' (IVW). ]nlrn,1:OSI,e:3ses.lhie e,n~ibryos arepla.oed 'R~~ti l:lil:s <11the' l:ume or IVf ( i 2) . e r:::
~;egislative ,efforts rtc

:U smppo III

fh,um~1iI

ES

i

:~~l

i

wid~'~y;"ti~w'e'~ ,fISIl'!~ mQs'tmo~lly ,flild pol,h~C;2li.l:l' .".>iJcepla.blecurre]1ft. $I(mflce fl'omwhi.d~1
JlOu~e un:r... !'~f'~l!'l'IIed~Gal Gell:ter, [l.!.:!rMrn, rile Z771C!, e USA., ~tOOIl~. IHoIPkfil'l~ IB@rll1ll\l1lInsiiUJih~ 0'1 Biooilhic~

eaUil'lllore. MEl!212.0S" USA.

h'l cn)'~1s.m!'iiS,eb~.~l!ge more wi;;f,een~.'lted than I:;m1Jd ,~del,ybe :relulf,~u'ld to ~ v.ronm;u~.~ uieril,j to; at the t~me of terti liZl'it io'l1 ~ r ~Il QI;der ~Q ili1l,cre<l:sehe dl.'JI'lC~S 'QI'pre.gmrml.c)r~ruJnOl t S!i.mI.gl~cyd.cpf rvr:; lIIVith ~pooduc;ti.w r:l'l::Jje~18 comp]eted!.. m,Hilly p,ui.ellll:s

I"'

:pEI~j,enls rec;eiv~ng; Ifl(l,Ume'l:It 091one

'\,Ve e(~JiI(J.ue'r~.flS!l!t'IfB).·; 221 ![) ~~n uf ~~r'I~:~i ~ l.\~ i ~ {lf~,:une ;
gca~r~lphi!c~.I~y divel::";('l' j]1!fel:ti]~ly ~

(najar.,

cente~ ;und<lSkedl:he~e theiri!ll,[e!rlio!mS· rarlh~
currently
SlO:l~d (,[3)"

]J<l,tients. about
,e:u¥~1bryo~l.bey

~.
~

e;uce

\,,'l~;11 i:::>

·Autihorfo~c(lill\~~pomdence E·I'f:1<!jl:.~erIOO~@m(;dufi:u~cr-u

one~~~"1 !no!.'.~J]y dHn~ult msk of de<:iding

r<l,rt:~c'iflating oeuters ~ were l(lc~~(ld i~, C.~Ufomi<l. C6Iol"i~d(l"dl~ ~

POLICY FORUM
Di~triCl of Cohunbla, MaJi')fla~Hl Missuuri.
New Jersey. Nor~h 0100111]'1;].O:lJlegnn. Pe:unllll,~

I

rather ~tmli! ~ mornlpltefereg,l.ce-Ul'l~ the tdea OfsUflfil1!eoIH! else ge!lt~lI.ing thelr emlhryo ,,'~d rou~,1i,i'n,£ '~mu:ir em:1'~~!C g child is experieaeed bal!'ll1~d '(lI11ib,:yos ''!MCr~!1~"'i:'r ~$I,:cd for perb:r these Pflli.~.~t~ asl IUtl:~.efill)I)I~.~~rfU:B:i;'l~'H~. A ti:ilOlI !(I~ 1244 j;Xilie]l!t~ reliUrnsd tht: ~1H:- ~uission In dO'niilt~ tL~~ir ~~lbryo~ nu~ ~le-m rf![~lenh~n ~~ m{lw~ly wiI'on,g. But qu~litmiv(i vey. for ,I, 60% resptm,se 1:3;~e verall [,63% fOil" cell research and because some aflh,ese o waa:[k \\~ithlinfe:rli III)' j)3;1.Ii:e~.ltS suggests a d if.... \1i.'M'iL1: 5~, /~ for ~~!lgq:5lui~ug n, o part 1]':1'$, patients m:iil!y !]Q( be re<!di~y :~~u.::.!t~'lble fer f(:r~t ~l,(lf'~i vh;:w-th;,l~ih~fr: are d~i;:p ,(mOIlleor fC'I]'IG~.c'n; surveys; were SC]u. tiO OIll.}' consent: so~i.c·il<LdOl~. hn, ollr ::;l1:ildy, 5% of responslbilities 10 one's own emba.'Yos;m~e member of'a CIJ11.p~e.\l/e made cle01~rwl: individmll:ij, to whom we M::IU a (;]!llesi:UYnll~li.re reS~JlJa,15ibi~iti~:i. tho:n p~-ec ~'lde ;'I~~;O\,\lli;llg th!lI~.1 W the ~he curse l t~l.lit the eg.ub~fO is desl~ed if In:n!. m{)lw~11 or ~lied. which may serve [IS .Ul to d:e\'dopilll~.o dli:~(~r-en i~~]Olil know~;used for reseatch. estimate of rhepcrcentage ofini~rlilUly edge, pllftidp(l!ion, or l.mle: of'thase \V~.oerepati:erull:S mJlti.o:lJi,dlywlm h3.v,e been.lest ro Ibl~ ~lit~d them (6. 15, 16). (!lUlL d;n ...suglJ:est th~it Of t~J'el 0.20 respondents who. reported t~~,ii;'o;'!Y Ul{ltinf:(,'lrtml};pO'!iU~ms resolve th~ \ thmthi,;)1 h~v~ ~mbryo"'C~!fOOf!Uy stored, 4,95, low-up ~r!d will n{~'1be "vo;'!il;)bl~ HJ provide ,t4Q%) iUlldiicHWdthat they were :sonle\v,Im,::It 0.1" coasent for ~ll1ydisllO'sitli,O:I1loption. In 3Jcld i~ veryper-Sl]lm almo ral challen ge:of supemu .... vi:'ry ~:i.~!~.i:y!C! dO:~<lN! Lhe.iI." c'~nbl.·Jlos IA1<.r tion, it lu~~ay I1iCJI.be ~o&!i:ilble for~hoS!e seeking me:rary embryo dill:~s~.li.()n is coun.~o:uni!'L:~U CII.'IIJISeln en1bry~ research to leeate reproIOoU' wil'h, I.~.~Oli1d!!lsi!orl~. tlf'~he A'n1l.ericlU111lilll,blc. c researeh pU[]p'o:st'l~.These il95 indiv.idmlh coutrolted the di::;PQ~itiQ!JII ,of£rom 2001[) h, Juedv.t:lgame,te donors, some of\vi1oln m~)I l~.e' mmjorhy 01' v.ljiwl1J1!J tl:lillll'pOlr~,1\i,lnmlJ~1 ('!~l3050 embg;ym•. Even ~fonly ha~f of these be ~r~,\",~iIIig.'igo censent io research, :hi othelt bryonie sl;em cell. researeh, , ~ embryos u]t.im~l~~y ~,~'~~ dO:~WllL;d this f~~d~ C~£:(1lS. members of H ~ol,lph~ !ll:[:1lY disagree FMi!l!Ri\jGt,~.liii'id NOlll1!S iog fillg~~sbi th.u ~~f(l!l!1,dH10Q Q~' the 3900 t,,~ aih(ll!! whloltllie.i ~y don~~I~ ~nlilbryo:'i :fur re:1_ ·~i~1'I1 dL~~1i~~1!<; ,~m ~et] ~!!~,. $ 1:9]rtJ1y 2(106 5900 embryos cUl"re:Im.t~.y stared [)'y the i:l1Ifer~· search, 1iI.ItI,lm~gh 11I1OSt oft~J'crespeudeurs we ~)ri!nscl'ipll, IoMMI;wrhUifhou:!il!'QQi{fllm~ll!iI~~01J d~i~yarieors in our ~~mple woald be avall- sl~r\,~yt\d belll(:\f(i;d lh.-.u thei rpanuer wOUId p IO,Bf.l)OOW8Q-9 .. ~h1mL ag:ree wi til tlmeir i.IliICIIil.t !.ems,. ,fllblelhr flesearc:ll. PU1l)0!i'!i!S. 2:. 'G"W. 5~ml(l, 'ill! I'iOI!J~~1 Rl!!flIf!Sem!atiiji!l, V1!'roof HI,ft. 0 ilI1Q;~h~~5~1t! (~rn, ,'*~~ ~~iJ.I!DlJi:fI]~i :tid; ~ 1':1'My Re.s~)ondents till~he Sll1rv!~)(e.xprecs~(\d When i~d:eniUty p<I'tieJI!LlS-choose ree\l'e:l~ ~reiliJer wil~~:ngjll,ess to d.on<lteel.ubrros,
IO~X$'l;:~I'd~

sy~\m:~il~l. and Virg~~,i.:1I. Theres,pondcl1its were <ls:ked!(~,an~wer a $,el of quesriaus \\dth o~],e of th~ followilll.g: vel"y .iikc::'ly. semewhat ~ike Iy.. 'l'Olli1lie~'I.\!:i.u: ]i:kely. very mll u~d:~ld,y. UJ!~~llrcJdOI!'a't kltO\:l.'. 011"

beeome ...vk~b~estem C(l'~~~~iJiI~. :~~Stdlh~.glu :rollg hly 2000 to 3'000 vi ,Ibl,e stem cell lines, abe ruL~U)O rimes ~he IlUI!lfil!her of .1 ines CUfrerln)¥O!v~.il:ab:~e ro,r red!er<.i!~ ~llll!di!l£" 1'hb; WSIikC!l.y au Lipper cslJi:m!m~uc'.beeause it is ~ikely ~hll~ rrnu~ypatiems wu,th l:mrren~ly

r,h.er,e tS a po&~ibjllhy.l1f 'COllr&~.ll~a~ rhe reilwI,ct<l!IiI.ceof ill~ertili!y perients to don me embryos teancther cOIJI.p]e is ;1 pn.denli3J

when

C~rlo;!ii~m charaeterisdes

of

rhe research were specified. I:Ii1. .u~:i,cukill'. p !h~ r~f(:~I~:lag.Q':reporting t~J;.'!th~y \,~'Ouklb¢ l sO:lmu:wh":l; ,o:r \'il!:1IY .iwke~.y 'liCI dOIl,ne inereased from 49% for. medi(.'::1Ilre);e:<lr,c~l On g.enel'll!.l) hJ 6000 f{JIrwe~ear'Ch ilm, wllil;h sbi:m cells .Ire deri'l{~d, [Similal' increases we'l"C observed tor research to' un:(~ef::>tA:lnd 01: deve:~op ll1e<l:~~ meD'll for hum<l;nJdise.tile or injury {62%) ~md

s~a,wcl.l.more ;;~ppears [I(J 00 ~Il issue than t~,1'e be ~,iefIh,\'!l~C i.;:~ti f~c prug ress j 'l,itSI ifi~s the $ instrumeatal use of ,earl.y humaa l:ifc.111
CO!lU"O;'i!~I. bro-adllCC-li;pw1Ii!.ce to
(l(f

th~ optio"

2006 atw~'l. wt;il!"'1ilU~!~~~Jl'iI!:'l\l~~;m~lMoM ~ 'Qi7/2,QOO'OiiI'l'9-5,lttml, 3. A, 9fridg.~ "HIM (!iii!!I;. SI~iITi(~II. ~i'llfoo'b~ .Sciii!ii1[~; ~~ir:I~fM A;oJ1, 1.9.i!lJllfth :1.007; ii't.llillilbl.~ from A~(l'ed ~~, W-<l(:r~~~·~a,r.omDJ,l';II)!YJiI1!mn

of donating ,e~,ubiIiYos, :Wo:r esearch, mOlnlY r Il~"lf::rres,pOndenll> iu our sU:II'\,'eyt}x:preS5ed a \",mirlg~e!'i5 to d'OIrmi'e their l[erl!1l",~~I~[Jg eJJn.llbryos to anet her infe;t1 ~le CQUI' le.J n f~.Cl.

!i1!ilt!l'...'ld!,,_~'lOOlOOK~. 11,_[(. L IHud~OIil,_ S, 5ol)!t, Iii. II,. If\!!l~n, ~(ll~ ] C~~t Mlic AI,f;t;~d~,,,~,Sil~m ,Ctll ~YJ"_rffl (G@me,k!,:mdI

rn

!lubffi, :Jl'~ijt)" (imler, Wi!!5mi~~~g~.OC.jfJOO~J; M.'N-.dfta~iQ';q'JltJ~Ii!!!f!Cru,~?;a,CliDn=;det~iI&rejI!iltl 5,-~~m ·Cell~~~r&i Ifnllan~lmen!~O! o:llO!!I1',
'"

individuals wirh embryos ell! r:lI'end;y :stored ~mil.:ic~led th.n Irhey we l1e
ol:l,~Y of Sfll'!'1ie:~vh~lu ,fW

.2.2'%

r~l_

:!-IJ~- ~~

f~)rre:$e~ur,ch W ilnrm"l\i~i!b:fun~U~y
I:uk!e.ly domlte

treOt!l'!(;;aH

v.;;ry Uk",l)!

lO dO]lJi)l'¢ t~~U)m, In

,t {):I %)1] . Pcrlli.aps most s,u;rpri:S~llg, 28%ulldli~ c.~~ed~ll'<ltlin:l~Y(}~Q]d h~ Nflm~'\.""ll~[ or v~ry w
to emhryos

allm.ot eG."\oup~e .imemlli n~ rme£ll!D:!LlmC'y-oom~ hl

p1!r<lb](;i~l m!mb\'.'lf tu

~~l!lSe ",vito

indk.lued

I. 6, 9. :liD. 'l1l.
112.

IIi ~mpm\'e clolluug

~cehniqlJes for !n~d ica~1>cicmx:. Our dam sll~est. tlltO'lli~ ~)!, Ire<lSo:~;~bl,e ~o al!~u~ne t~l50% j)finf~iF'I~liLY ~ti~!lR:;~ wid~ cryolne,seil"ved emb~os ,,\i~:Hddbe w:iUing !(I dQ'm~tC'~~ei;r '~mb'fYos; for s!~ml c~1 i r~~eun;h. [f Q,I~[I,y~l"lf{Jfth\l::;e e,~~.bryo~\%'f:lre U)OO donated, th~n. lCl2lls~'{ll the rrl.olJimll1ll on "I cd. (7) l'indiU'll!!l lhO!H 400.000 embrY!.}:i\ ,fire cmrt':lu.~y C'lij"{lip.rescr\'cd rn.un, dDt': Uillited StaQ:es. as mal'llY .1::> 25% oHhem. 01" HJO"OOI) ern,brY0:il. !l:m~ld be ;J'o'Jlili<!Ib.le fUll" S;~e'IIl ce,11 r.ef'ef!!'ch. ]f",,'e ,euntinne '!,vUIl rhe H('Iffim~:ml

they '~v.ere I!ilke.ly to I~law i,l;lld di:s'Clll'!ti them. Thu,,"" n:s;~reh cl!Iii~el'gcd~H l~~:~ pr~fcli['cd optilOil for .\lIL~pel'l'Iulher.~ry embryos-the Ir~H·eetiw Pi'!I;::f~f~nc~ ,~f Ihf.is~ fa~ iJ'g Ih~ v,ery pe:lI':So:I1I,;JJ or,l~ di~.e~,nm.. o:f\,\"!].'I~ to. m do with ';:imlbryos n,t)'~u~l$d for i!rW~miUty

l!3.

1.Wl_~(orng~~~lilm~iiJ!l1201Irn> 1i!M'!l!'1_1w<m~~:!I~'" A, I).ll~.rlftUi', •.ft!i'.~'I. feiiL 8.!i. ~~3 ~20il6h S !D.!. IlJ!l1Jma,f\'! flot. ifiMil. ,S/)fflL 7'9.1063 ~200[3). C,Ii" f!Ii~:ml1l~ ~!r!I",~JjlI. f/.(pr.grJ. n.EI,' 11'l~OO), 8:,). Vall Voo.rl1is. 11:1.. Gliimllea!llA. Eo S;paf~,J. l. hi. GeI,ilm:!. R If. We~!i. f,mtf. ,Sr.ffi{; n. ,6'011 fA?!)?}, iii: J. B~nQfl.K ~a~d'eJS, ,~d.l ,~t. jl;aiill, '!i,~ '(200.t~. t(, ,Hil!lJIm~ !~Ef!g. t Ti~Dey, feltil', Stfri1, 86" 86 '(2006t M. Cltm~Gllj1iIl'i. e. Ii'IJimts, fit iltlbelil. m 5!m.i~ it, A. f. ... MIiIri!L'Ilih., Hu:m. ik.fNfM1:, 19!,OO91 mOO4~. ~!I!rlal!lndlillfii!~'oo~ at: ~l a~ ~ ~orilOO n oHIll!' orfglmat 'l;Iuej:liomll'<'Iirll. iH~ 'iI!~ililblfil~~Llpp~ning rn~tiflliil;L Q!l
Sd~i'lt~ Oll'liFii!'.

pi.t~f;!1lS' 1?~p:roow;:liiv,e gu,d~.
The pre'IIB.~j~.i y~ew ng
h~lS,hml:]1J,~~~.al bcUe

fs

et (fl. as'~lIInpt'i!o:IIII_S about d1.e :s.w.:cess, of
dedvi!'!~ Ii!'l~s from ~n)'[!pn~~~l'v~d ",min"yos. we ~311m Ie ~j1J"le~h.<Il ~r5% c-a 6 lh,e el~bry(los. !; ur!Jiv,~~h~ freei'~-tl.l~W\,r 'p:mCt;i; &, ~hell 6,5.1100el1~bryo5 "'>'Quldbe ;l'!;,'.,ri~,<l,M,e, .2,5% 'of whkh (16.25.0) C'ou~db~ (:".pcct~d ~:O devel OJ) to lhe b:llaslocy:s~ s:~age.0 flhe.se, ~ com:,~r,!,ifUive t5% cou Id b~ 'exp~cted t(l

or

ab(lU:~ il'lc !nora~, st.\U!~ of.liluffiOo1,n,l cinbryos );houl,.:I he !llily predicl.~:\'e of l1u)ra~. "J,I'~cw::; ub'oll[ l~:te <tClle plabi lily of Ite~e"lrch .req wL:ir~ ing Ihei.r desnllcl-io:I~.-lhH!. H :respec~ful Sl~!~c~\:\tol!~d I,;\:f!tai I g~v~!ng (~~,qj ,g.,fililmlbryos n the dU'Ince to devel.o:p into. d,l ild I1fl n P4), Ehu (D'l!r tim:" sugges( H~ut ftlf I:llOS~: of the

iIlIdiv.id ml]s w.ho crea~e em~)!jYOs; ~:~.!~Oljes of

:lA. ~igl1t ro lif~ Ai:l200l. H,!I:. 6:18" ]10111 (!Dmg.re~.t In '!lM~r!llfi ~:i!OO7)~ IMW"MmJ!~900!, :ll§,. 'S. .:II!! rn~~. irIfJ'. ~M H 210.1~61 {lOO:!lJ. 16" C lamllelte". 'i: l81glle~,~)l ~M~, ,6;). 10ll1~:a99)1 n. il'hb rm:I~kw.u!1llP.p.ort!d bit 1iIrIi!' '(;reH1IW1[1 ~\:iilM.:l·Ii~i:I.:' ~m~IJu'keo ti'lSii'~ ror G!!!ilil!Jf~SQ~~ ,all.d pgEi",:~ 'ui!li'Ile,r f. GMDIiIb'!' tE!lihiu ILai;Oi.:lm lPom"" ~ihj!,i~egll: d 'C~liile,r f{!!l" ~ige't!'!~, H!Jm~l'LiIi~" i!Ifod Hi~!or)'~~ M~ditijnf!o;MIl naitWl~1 Hle\Vtlwng ~l1d EI~ac~r1KliltJI~. ~!1iI'(1,~Ol ~l7ijl51:r-en,W,!: thii!~~l;Jl!r ~~~-~9~~ ~ tmi$ jiu'I:lje;:l.~pe<r;i\!~ t W~I!:i;th lor ~~ i!'l~ir.!it~ ali!!! '!ilui;j;jr!~ ami:!JE" ifiate$ ·rcr wm!1'!effi'$o!!lI'~iS !PiI~~50rWt, SllJippi!i'IllliI~ ·Oi'i~Iii~ lM.'lti!iii~~ 1A:oote~n11Ml\I'n.:l~06701DCl :~I~~1i: ;::007, lO,In 6.!\lae;mCIl'"l1l!!! 06,1 I~~t~e ~liisi:nr'!'llma'i~nr"fJenm;~gl~li1i$ P.r.
I

~l v~~g a b~by. the preferellcehi~~o~ [h~ t a
theilrrem:lIim,:ill1lg

embry;o:s have n c,h<ln~e <It

Uf~.b~n nu.lu;;r th;lnl!h~y b~ tls,~din ~ \!;,ray (u;,s'e~,rc~,1 tl:ld if not., simp.~y des1TlIc~:hm) ..•

~"hmensur.es lIli~UI:he'y dO' !lot

Career advice, insight and tools.
Turn to the experts for the b~gpicture ..

V~s~twww.. cle nceCareers. org S

¥orur caijeer ls too lmpertant to ~e,~v~to ehanee •. S~]ito I1inrti ~!iie ru;ghtjo bJ @I" Ie l. ea ree-l"3diy ice, tUrin to LitH! ~~plerts, At Sdel1(eCareerS.Ol'g 'Wit kArow selenee. And we are ummiued ~Q help.ing I~alke yO,Uf Ci},reer rOr'lNard. Our
kJl1owled:g:e :~sfijrmll,y founded on lh,e ,exper~~~e of

th'e pr'e1lflier se venUfk: jo lJllma I,

and: the ~()n g: ,ex,iflerffen (E

erf MAS in :O'irldlVarfil1drFl,1sl!ieI'1IC@ ,,;uound the w\~,rhtP'bll yOlJfsel'f mnrr~hepktOlfewith the e>tpertsin science. Vi:s.it
www.sclenlfleCar'eeU's.org.

Sc.ien'(~,

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Whim m1iJl'Isphe-ri(a~ !lllraIH.Jt;n~ystiems.,orm f
!>\lIiHm£, dit'!mity l's 110 ~onger lI'I.IeUdefined.

ope:1ll1 )Klllf cye;s. dmw <Ii ~ ink: Il'!.'»!. the ::;h~e'~."md d<:'t:ermi~,e~h!l:l~oc.,,1 oon5.iil,yofdbts by (;oumJ~iUilg t~,eir lIl.mlll-

~. 1
Now

youII:' eyes, :I:Ill.d IJmfm:mnly and r,J.I"nidQT1dyfiU .~ :lihto,!:;,t rmp~!I d(li~ nf \1,1t~1

ltlgi ..... nIi::.'I.t~fd~I.'~.~Vijro~g:T:. . ... ilk.i\;;.iil'~._.imJ, ~.I(l~

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her i1l1l. the Imx"Y.i::uu have J~1.::\t t aken a !ii<lInp~!e-<!l s1<l.nis~:iC:'dl measuremeutused

i~opin~l1n ]pons ,1!~ldMOt]d $:;llmpT~alil;."(;.
COrnmll~QlII sease sugges~slhfll line QVlernIII dCI,lSily (:a:mI,be est! ~!rllatcdbyt:1'neir d~m.i.!y in dle !)ample <'IfltI lh11~ this ~~li[l1;",u£ i:m[l'l'i;Jve$, with dle ~.i,,£o·HI~t;;sa~nll!l.e. On ,page 100Sof dot

~his iSS'Ll!!:!. N'~F.,.y;_nfb {:It al. (II repOI1i1 S:peC~illi;;Ua inr bru~kdm\'~ oftll,is IiISSlllr!!p~i(m.,. l ,1 d~~ir elc-

ganl e:>!.p~r!me!u. ~lilcks !m.~de Ofp]"-:i:;:L;;S uf
coppel: wi:rre.me vHlTl'Ited 3Im,d,rnlUc ~ummd

berween ~\\iI!)d~~ly spal1tidhori~om~l~pk~t:es. CoulITlt~n~.ill snll!)shot:; or~'lm.c sys:teli1l~. the [!UII'uber of Sticks N :in boxes on !1;crem;Jng size,
NOllmY<lm1l as (1/. fmd that t!l,lei:r sample-to-samp.l~ n ~~nl<al~O!m$ gf(lll,:'!.!proporLi.<m~Uy tfl' N lml

S~lrm!l !'im'id Si;\iiu:~, ~n Ull!o t~pt.ril1l!e-J'ilS (if Nara~'a,1'i ,elCiL, oiig~lat(ldslid:1S fOirm S\iWi~lI'I'i_kig natE'S llii~l. 1~"l1lbit giant number fluctUlalicu'l), Sflill~rl,a!,patmrns are Clbsel¥ed fn fi~h swanns (~;op lefO. 5wi~l5 i1m~ alls@ Clbs!I!l"IQd illl :!l~stllm~ '~Itali:lre tll>Me!tn jd'r:lUl'liiIll9,~or eXI1lITlp~" iff thil! mo'ti:on ~r bubilles il1l<I flllNlrea roo m ~rntltl. g

other werds, Ihe~nc.d eSlilm~te 1b:U'the mfer'dU . ~ d~rlS~lY dn~sn(lt i~lprn"'l:)' widl smli!lpl.€' ~~!'.e .~ <lind de'.~-sity iis :ulU defined. The <JIUdlOl.'S :fIiererto z ~ this observ;rt.icm [IS gi.J:lmt mumlJer 11~tCHmtuons,
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th~gi,~~ll mucm'1[tons.in rhL;;ir e1{~rimem:_. s to ::>uc;h n:l,lemat~m-n:f,; i~ ~xpl;i:r.i.m~.~ns,.!~~ey enthe complex '~()Hplin,g be'tween i1I~jsnmeniL cmlni~e:f!ied S:Uf]Jlllii~i.~~ .~,L1IJ.clI:~e: c:ylimlri,c<l11 a dens,ily,. lind 11o~:v. rods. arglmbly lin.c ;\;alll:plest aematie particles,. S\vmmi!li!g Rimd gimU till~mbeT:fI,t1tlU.]tiO:imc8 dQ lIii1ll futIDll.l nematic S:l,ilii~;:; unci do not e1>l~ ib,it M'llh~illm~:tic:.'-i"I~ {l~iti;sueh giatl!lnlillchnldoll'~ lfir a bread 'c:~1ISS sysl.(\]nS, T,~lcaelltl';li,l are ill :h!i:lll:~markol:'th<e ,a]i:grnnf:fIl di:sp:~aycd by gi.mt. nuct ml~io:n-n.s ( f) ..T:~c <I"'1:I'~1,Qrsacb iC'l;'Cd of" I~.eir present b:weak'~:m~;(n~gh ol1lly .I:ier etch:~I,g i:~mi~lhw.~~.n !:iM:es dnn """t1.enf1 WL-\:tl~~lti!m]:i!, are: drllivt1:111ool~eciOIl~ of aonspherlcal :I~illi'licles. i ~ndepelITl.del~LS<llllp! e-m-sample nLnclmll~ ions, Theoretical models have been dt,"I,e:~oped 10 I~.e :L'lJds, obtain sticks \li"b~. thi nnerends '($Ce to gwO\\1 (l~llly as Ihe sqU;ilDie f{)o[yt fl·l· At T!i1!is thaaI~.e figure I: Ihl" U[lk~ltl.wn f!Uls,ons. these sl:iclo:s de..crib~ S\\I;.'I!f;!illi!)~ flnd U!i~]'nii1tH~I1iDobSit,;:!V~din sehools offisb.. flocks. of birds, he:rus: otsfll.eJ(!,p., exllinibil uemarie o:rue'L: .. To c:oma)]li,ca~.ellilli1(!~:ers rem ~]PPlies 1"0 s~mp~e e:qlwLu~iIJ1·iuIn s:ystcnts ~lrbacterial t'olorli~~.-{lInen b>t:Jrro~vil1gfj;!j)~l ~l!nh!;:!".. AJ~~n~Hl af. ~c(;11\l~ly ~r'R)rm(ld (,,'1' ($U~.C~"lS''1 g~$'u t'tHls~.~nll~m~r<!il'l!ro) bu~ si mnl~.ar,e'xn)f:riu:l~.eI:lH; nld ~ observed th .. t v.:c'.'!Ik m does not ilIutm.n<ll1.C"a:~~.y i!lPllly to flO:I1.cq:ui~.ib- OCI[lilib!lUlITll. edels fQm·rn~gneti7.:alio:n:.\"'~1Ii,!Jh c(lIi1i>~dcrthe aJigUI1l('n[ of ::IrrowJiike ob~,c:c~s. (.'Oup,ling l~l\'V(;-eij;l tilL! nCl1'm:ltjc o:~der ~ml s,l'ttrili;li.!IJli1Il s)'l'ltcm~~~Ie~~, I)sJu\"ing!OySli~J.~S~, NtU:;IY"Ul (!f' (~l.use the Mneq:tl!llbmuliTh ~ys. A very sinl pi e noneq t~ili~b~:l~mI.l,rIiIl(jde,llllm;JJr om; in·pl<!llIiE: vibr,ll]:o:liIiS ofllrn.e !l-'LIPpor~. p~.ne . ~~IUof c;ho:ice- for p~yt>.ic:u::·u;s: gr~nu~I!lI!"!1l~~I~i~ ~~hi'bits iC(lutMlrat~'\.'~uDli.ofi 3rj,R~ 'wh.en Ifuicsl;; ~ !ll~)' $U(I-n.gnyiilU1J]l(:~n(,IC tht: s~",d!~'li n!G~lm,oliuil (lis, w~,li.dl are collections of mac riOscopic i1rmn,,\-'S<l'fi;ea]~IO\"ed to pra!pag:<It~: (2,.,1.1'1 s,~mil<l.r ,~8). Cle:'<u]y, SW,lli:niilillS, :i,s~.slII.btle: pr-u~.enl. <lind -' I ., r~r~!~_~S SttC) ~5 ~!mg g~-'~U\'l-,. !l~!'-'''.Clf-m t~l~ !lKI~~(i~\'>,ti ~\pIIGGti~ ~i,;;S.prJ!lS;~l'i;) pr~daft~lg:'l; ,",!ld 'h~ pr£\d;;;~ nature (ihh~s;w<!nni!~g :-;~a~(l ~~~I:;l:-.e;u~t :liy;;;lem-s.ricb. Th,t: :iti,~idikeshape is, del;i~ioil-malkilli,g cm~ arise (J'). Tener and Tn Olnd '[~,letru~~~ition ttl :-!''\;''II.ln1n,g l:ii gUll: yelfi.~l]y cmdi:]~,fOIi'~he giant number j:l~,(ilU<U.UO:IiI,~ to ~Lm1Jer,l;~ood. first :P'Oun~~d ant lilt: gi.al1l nm:nJjlIt~mH' in occur, Wl1e!IiB their overall de~!)ily ~IS klrge such ll.ll(l!(lels (4). lIte ,e1>lperinu::.lI1In;ofNar~y.rlll:l es eli. '.IIIX: part enough" llmearby s.l].,cks al igl1l. seruethi rig ~Irnic]~1 ]n these :>:l"S'lellrls, the pailf~id.es hMiCfI preora b:Ugg,eu;:story;whc::re nQft~flll~l~ib.rium. syselm .~iso be seea in e'I~Lili,bri~ljIU. syste[L1Ui: of ferred direeuan ol'pro:P<'l!'ltkll'l~jU1:-!~: lilk.e re,11 I:elIns ofrmns:pbiaicod particles 'i':!J-!.hibit· :l;1JIrp:ri_s~ elJ:ong,lled p<lJtidJes j\l.Lt:m lotS, I iquud ,c~·y~1<11:s •. 1:111, fils.b :l1ll.d oi rus. bm, 20m, R<lm;J:s\"rdlm~y -rll til. Il51' il1l,~ beh,n~ior: We do nol yet m:uclerst<'l:aui l~:e ~h!; $Uck s~S'!~~ al igJiliIm~C::'!m'~erlus~ ~ddilil)lil<1l1 \"'{.'Illd~rod \Mhtll ,vtltdd hO!ppe!"l 6.1f '·.illc~ili\liL;; con$';lt~l~Gn:~~ ~~~r~. e'~'mlie:rs(riki!'l!!l 'of An ne~,muic:s:'li.q,tq,id, crysud" un wh!ul\b tln.e p,mli~ e.,(l1lmple Oflhi:s: is~~~e flindi.n_g dm[, OOnlf"dfY Hl liloneq lIiHb~i !l1I.Ilm, bellav,~or.: A ~i.gned pmti.cles l,;'le--sl"HlV~ ~r~ Ori~!IUl1[~()imJ b~!~ h~iveid~mk:,d IJt(},p.Ig'M13: I!(.nd n1(rm I~~-s{:l.'\le- "l''I:\I!lrm$.'' expe,en~!kl!'i. M&M c~undi~s C~!'lbl.;; rm.cked vismdly' remi:~i~c:elllr oU~\iCJi.~e :seen in gclu~o~'s he.,-,£!s ~Ilcll til'ls ~~~ilre s.ticks in the p~se:lJ1,t Il'l{lire eReclnlVlely ll~~n ~llilere:l!,f9). the
AI" • ~

offish (~e the ng,UN,: ". N!)~lyl;ll'i ,(~j (lJ" aUl:ibu~e

in ~he Kal1!l!ildlllQih Ol'll!1n L1:b~alDr)':" leid'~1II Q Umvers.1!:i'.nOel RA. leidtip, INe~~er~:md~~ m'i'Iin!,k;e@. 'E'l1iIail: :~ pmjySk$.~d'ei'n,lIni!l,m'l
IE Thlif'illlIith!:Jr ~

fl.xperi.~w~~.l). Tll1e'i!:' tbem)' ·plf"CClictt.'dI~'!a.t 1h::I,nmic ::l)f5!Jelni:l 31$.0 should e:1>Ihibit gi.LIlt !.uullb~1r IhLcu~adpl:!!.'>. ,;mdlhe~ w~~ :re«:'!lJtly

[~~gi~.e ftlfthL'lf. iIl:~~asil'ig thii;; deflk!l,ity of !m.e :i>licks illil,I'liIi,e e;....pe.rirn~llIi;ol'Namyalflet ~-I.

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ob:M:,~.",~ed complltel' sim~huim,ls ~6). inl Hm'\!e:V{;f. \l;/Ill~n N;;I.!"",)yall1 t,:1 (fl. !fied

poim. th~ ~~~C~~S ",~dU~l.il1de-r leach

w fhld

o~1m.er60 l,uudl lhlll thein; clIYI.l<ln~l:i,c:sw~,11 : s~.ow dffi\"!l d~~llaticOl!lly" and c'(lll€lCtiv~'lyd~e S'I;~ck$

I

PERSPECTIVES
wl Ullx;i~!f~v~ a ri.gid ~yst~:n~-, m; -'~h~~ys~m the Si(iln~ u!ld(;luIYI!lg !l16"Cl]'-'Jmi~!U'! To ,f.nS\ ...er wi 1:11 jallllm,ed U 0). :S'~il.II.dies of jimnm i~,1g i~, these questions, pjmysi,eusl:S, wmincre'I:'i~J1~ly be co lleetions of s:pheri.crd 'pnftich:s have mu:ov~ ~ubject rice grains, rods; needles, disks, and ered many aspects of the rich srructuse mI~er nO~l!'pherir.:i.ftJ objects to shaking and QJf~hcl:;C(i,isa:rdm:cd systems (/1-14), D~~pi,te sheari~~.g in the Cimni~lg yeats, '\\\f~~iUi!iclear the: <l,b~IliCIf;:ofuem,ui.c erder.jhese syMems ;dre<llclly is tl1m :slmpe' ;1ITI,l~'ttefN, show swl r:II~.l!1lg ~~",ar j~mm ing Ir.a:l'Dsilio:~ ~be iRerierenioes ($~~ the" I~iglir~ll.',l"obililg th~ !lrj11[i~:~IiJrd~fi~! f ' :lL'II'_ Mar~~an.S, RolI~5'l\ia:m'i, N4 ~~r1.S~f~n~ 311'; l'[l~ and 'ffilmeCh3in~C1d properties of nemetie p"1.f!:i~ ~~OO?~. cles, such ;.1::5 eililp.:-le::o, prom ises to proij,li.de ',1f. 'Vi!:~~~ yir~k,iE.IBltJlr·,i2IW1l. I:.C!)~~ O.S~t A. I'res·lil iw,.ights 1.[111£1SW311TIl:ing 1il.I1:clj;EJjmmi ng. ,Ii'/i''''' Rev. (eU', 'l'S" n26U99~'.
0(1);:-' the I:~ml~it~o:mj11(1 :iiwm:1Iuirn.g precede thftj~]lIiIJIiI,l i'1i.Il t.. unsi,~imilor'co:im:i.d:e,,,'h~ia, i~:! < Do
3~ I.ID. ~.~. lQner, 1rf.fLI. ,~hrs. k'C'i~f :~II, ~1I;;l$t!l:99E1), S. 5, ~m~air.!,)'. !'i. A. 5i!!ih~ ].Jtl~iilr . ~~ •f leU. ,6:2:. 196<{200!l~. 6. H. OliJIi~.F. Gim~il. It iIIP!m1iil!llll~ P~)IJ,l1'm ~I~J. 6,. 9 'l®I)li6~ ~2006~. t. 'iJ. ~~r~<!~, ~,!\I:e!fi(ln~ 5- ~!I1~YI'<!Ji1ly.J, SWl. ~', ,iDG," PQ:1OO'S,ta0M). IB, g, 5. Ar~nson., D. v,olllitJlir., L S.'rl:iml'fn!l. Pll~:. R,I!W;t 15. ICU301 ~,OO7L 9. iI" 'Dcow6 rilt. S"~e !!Q(3, wo a'OO4Jt
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[1. 'Oi.

CIlU.l1~,I. ~~aii~.Nl. It ~~ii'lb,s.,~IJI!~m\ N(jl,rm 'm. 51'3 ~2005).

Di!.!!d!tI~i, G.M'l!lj~. G, FJi'm'lL Pll~ •..lrel': Le~t '~5,. 265'101 ~200~~. :~l, l\, $. ti!~.~;'!!. R...~e .. s.. ("Gt~tle(. fi),]. IMiall. ND~(i~ . flhp. l, tl6M20G7'), :il3. w. G.1E1l{!~~~C!I!Ik. E. SlOrrnfilL Mo. 'illlill Hll!I:iI:I!, ri, \1M )<IOII1lo(!l~ f'hy>.;fr.er.-,!.id(_ sr. l~~OO:1l ~,OO6L l!.i!. r•.lemeillillilll, 0.. Il)ilUtl'iO'~ ,G. BiooIi'f.l.-P. Bou~h!~!Jd; ll<!Iail~l!lr~Gml~M:n~Uip:ltar.'!iIvJII:,gJ~:I\D~, 'lS3~liv1.

s.s, Ma~~i;IM[U~

396, zt (1'.19'S~,

gimil[ ntaC'l~lmiom;, P~I'S;iSi[ near j~mmill~.? A~
~~\~llI1TI~n!i:! nd swiriiUlrg t\!.unillitl]:i:~estllti.olil!s of a

rNlEU ROS CI ElrNJlCiE

Rem1emb1el:rin,gl th,1e Siubtle

o

Mlcl! u.se it sp~,i~i~ rill L1[QtrtJlli<5 rnitJIlu re~elll()r in the dl1li'1~<lltegyru~ Qir tlle hipPoICiilmpus to de'te(~ SfIfIa~liChai'l9~S f r'lth~i ~ :i[J.! rf(!!U ndlioQ!S and d iJfe,r"
,e;nt.~:atf! etw~elill"ii m1l,ilITexperieme:li,. b

iifflerenlCes

_. ci.endy

A

!!,(lOd

taxi driverin

11 cosmopclhaa

sign,,~s to the gl'.~ml!..~e of the dentate cells

<J.'lfDSy;I1<JptiC'"

P<'!!thWil}' 1111he t

hipPocOI!mp'1!s.

c~~yili~uto f]nd,m'llIrbi~rl.lry deSl.irll.l.~ gyrus (see [he' f~!!!;ULCe)..l"he 1I,eill~ne gyrus, in .JiQllI [r'fl:~~, :H:;)lrlil~gpu~:~U. ~I'n,y 'L;lJI"i~ wr~. sends ~~ul'Q!l~1 pWiOj~C'li ens (;L"iOnS)10 :lInci ~\I'il.h~,igh precis~nm, reIY~:Dlg ,mill C A3 h~p,poc<mrnpa 1 cells, CA3 neurens pre-

r{lcoH~ctio[l (lrlh~ehy?;;
in~o a'C:COLml chEln~.es

hwout and t3!kin!
Oll~ n%'I:di

jeet to CAl ~~lid~l
IHlippo~altml'M

c!lilU~ .•lh1:J!.:.~ t>mblishi!'1lg ~

To l'olnp,IC::'le t~.le:lir~uill. oCA I cells send output s~g!l~I~ back to ~h~ ~nwrhimlW 'Cl)n~x, In :addition 10 Ihlis major 1:I.'.~.ll:'ym~ptrcpath!"\lay. there !'!:ro eenaeetlens b~t\:v.~~n CA3,
cells .1 nd add

in trnma

CO.IIII.~

ituo:nt<ll.1

en lot:I~,~:~

diti.O:lils. The' hi.pIPQC'~lllpu:r; h;ce'llJ~:r~~. sach to

~.,,~k!'l rely 'on ~~l,e.m,Qryand ::;pl.!~ uavilh.,,:~ i,~~
g~liQ'n,.al~d th~\V<:IY ]11 which h doea thris is a key issue i:lIII, :l.e~I,I:1(Jsd!;1'I:L'CI);" more thau a ~ Over decade. the TOolJle!1:~~\~'a.lbol"<twryll')S ] t'l:Im'J~

I

nal COI,'~icaljnputs ontebath CAl lI~cl ,-'A I cells, Synapti.c :st["~l:Igths ai each uede in the
~Ii\lym.plicpathw, ..y C<~DilI be rnlodr~hned. <l.l'ldlill.is is 'r<!D"~~jy

ly1_£;d [he IimOClilJn of neu r!J!l,;u~r~fHHi ei ly

~ffill

~h~ mdenr hipPOCllIIHI'l'LlS Ib~selecti.vdy alteringtl1l!;l !.;lxpri.;i~:o:;io~ genes OlIls..\~(ld~I!;;Xll of 'liVith the fll.me li.OI~ or :S:y~il~I'liSe's. rhe j lImicliOI1i!;;, thm. Itad 1.1 laW CU~Umuu ilC~ti{H1 between JlC l;J1f'on~· O. .11. 011 p~,.g,e94 onhi~ issue, Md,+ll.gh. 1"o~.C!!;('jj\:'I!ij. ~lIiId coU~~gUt;S;(J)id~nt~.I.y ~J~ impor~,un role for :SYl'laptic pb.lsticity ill,llifi,e d~!1r~~H~ yil"~~ g onijl~ ~~:ippt)c~~~~,pu~ I~'-l!i':~,. f(lf ing .. Thefilldin,g~~:x;ph1iuhllw we delecl
S!mI,l I clhillngct.~ ~I~

de:p€l'Ide!'H en the N~m~l;[~yl~ .D~3sp~ma~ie,(NMDAj recep-

!~~f,whieh ~s activated

;U

s.ynJ:'lp:se!i by l:llii.ene mO'IT3:r~$"
I11II~m!'r llll]lIUH~c.AUer,~J~.gt'~{: g
S11''I;1~~h

of i~.1di.\1 id lII.<l1 ~)':~:apthat.whe;mt,

~t;~.!il~~~'~l·~~ab·l(i~~ip~:toeamp~1 ~~Lluron!O tCJ

iUl,legfateimo ensembles
env ifunme~lL
hilV(l!

;J.cl.~:'ll<!it:~d. ~oti~d~pr~,i~'~~ ~IJ~!lt' f~;'I~:IiJ!ros f th~ ,..

:i n eu r e nv~·ronm£l,lt.

HiPi~(,,;,'UTl~:ilI'I~phlce" cell s "
for such

perha ps

lung been u]kcn as evldence

:,mo'\1l'il:'lg us

upd ..re <1I1dguide (l,m choices, The prl ncipal exdlalory neurons oft hie m,lrl1Lnm] ian b ippocmnpwt~ are O[g<HlIlized into ~;hl1ee dilf:e.relU oe~,~ 1~lyen) lilil<l:l are l:ulJie;<lrlly c(l~a:!,~e~ed,Th,(l' e:~torhi nai t'or~:~x \v'liai(:~ ..,
W

IKI1l!l)wilifUJwlil'<I~~wllil~n•. ill'idw'h,el1e'.
5m.a1l.

pl,'i(}vi.de.s the I'IlI<ljo[' ~.I]~~lIt :se:nl!>orti:a~ ill.llbr~ of call m;:Hkl!~ liOlhl; ~lippoc~!mp~:s. sends ~~et~V1!~]flg detect

liiI Lnem(ms.e ~n,;!ilrl,'the dent"~~ gyl1J~ f~gb;1I1!ollhe thipiPOof;.1lmgu,ls

chil!lge~il1l

the

<l!l~mil~'S S~<ltij<l~

.galla dmE!~ii!ti(i'I!l! b~LwE:el!'i !'it;:(.!:'!iit Il;;:P!!l!riIlIllClllsnhat Citit:lIdlll thl! SillTlIG pilace. Tn!! \'Ih~'t@ D, M, Elarutimll1<1n i:s ·~~tht DeiP"l'lm~lflt G~ 8:per~milnl,iIII ..rmM. ua~e ,a, "a~h o.f5"gnalil1 9 between diiUenmt p¥M~!I', IJnntersll.yoIIO~IC!'d,'5ti~:tli!ll~r~s,Roalll, 'Od01d, regli"!l'I~ ('II' tl1e~ Irip PQc.a I1n ~:li.iS. ~tll$O!I)i' iiilrj(lrllila~iQ il O)(ll 3< Ull!), UK, IE·ma~~: trlJalliltlli!nlt~ffil~n@I!;!N,m:.i!'o'!ull:. t R. SlPrt.!'!ge'l 'I;s atliht ,~ Nii!!'I~k 1ii!J51i~"'t~ MN~C<!II (iH! I[lni~.~rM hiIPI'!1(1'~!lJ! pI.! S 1[(!!lf!1 ~h~ ~J1t{)lrh i!'!.i! ~ rlO~ R~se!~'cll, HI~ldelber'i'l. G~;rmilm,)t E.m1lj~.r~U,1prMJ~J@:. wde);. iilnd 'ilS:5llfllt bacd<. to '!lhllllmo~rh~F1al. (lorl:e:l:
eli!",irQliiil'le.ri~ .

IIlp,iIl:lM~id~lOOrg,'~gl,d@

j)[Iie>r P'rr(JIC!l'SSing .•

in:ref.nalll~prese.I1iI<llt ion s ( 4). Place cells me >l'IJctl.'IJConly whe:ml the BlIl~~ mal ism i1 pmli,eubnT po,silllmll m[l space, These neurons could dll.erefore idenri fy l~~e 1lnimal 's. 'Cl!rrem s~ti aJ l(Jc~lion ,[1 !1:m. in (10!1~ ~. ce.li"l w.i~h otbie'f Ilemorud erlse!'mlbles .. tmck i!i l~i;;: ~!'Iimfl~'~ !11i'(l.ve;m~rnl". Buc beyo~l(i ~]X1:H.d ~. ! ~mlJ'QrrlIi'i ..don,. llmi~~poca:U:UTIp'll Ileum n'flll: 'llCti.vil 'I :1!: .:.;: m;:1:)'pKNi.de il!OOI!C c!l;lll'l;l;pk:te~p~Kel'bli!:~:i(JU Ii"" !il olTepisodes or e1>!:.pedences (.). 6}. 5 Dis t.ine l f~UI r!;lS of :h.ij,p:poc~.l1Ii!P01l~. ac~~:v~ !i! ily-i,h. sQ"c<lUedDil:e'~rro.ljl'~~~, ,code-.uc di IJe:w- ~ ~tnli~Uy s~~l~idw smaH o;l!!ldIl!I!rgecha~lges ~ to

50

6 JULY2007

VOL 317' SjCllllCl~IC.1! .WNw.:sdencemag.org

IPERSPECTIVES
in envireumental or ~onu~xl:~!~JG~wres. f s,lIggeS,ta 11g t barjhereare mu ~Iri le mec.fuJ,il~ p nisms by\,~'bkhCJ'(periienCl::::S,(~in1! be difl"ercUII~' M'lled (7.. in. s.m;}U eh ,rn.£e~ in cOIll:e:!!,uml
cues 1iC~,~Jtill a dlil~g~ ~UII, eorrelatcd 1.~1e r>Ollii ...laetivities f'[JU>e rem:,~pp:in:")
d~~Hal:C g)lr~$and

I

neuiura the

CAJ. whereas la!li'£;(;lr i~JOi:'liU~liu~re::aIU I~UiI the recsuitment ofdilfere:nt m!~I,mlJlS, espe~ii.d~:yigl Ct\3 f'glob.lll f!i:!nupphlg"} {81. Mcflugh et al. observed lhalU'<Ile remi!lip~ p:lllig. hl.U~not ,g~,Qb.~~,relll:mpping, l1l,';:~:!i disrupred ][1 mice genelic;JI,Uly eUl£,ine~re<l to lack NMilJArec~ptors ilil. the d~IU:llI.e.I!n~rus, 'llack of a func tioual receptor preveat s {':bfmg~$ gil :;'Yll1i~ptk s~~rengdH.This.pheno~:we'3111~.O~\l\fld <lilltllil.or:slO IiIs'~ss,t~h.ero~~eof the rate rl1!'n~3ppung i.In' d.~ lilte're Ilit i:llitl ng. re~'wl:!'C,~1 sim ih.llrexpe~ielll!ljil:s. M!cfl~lghtf1 {J'J. ~1~C1d medl ficd fC;;J:r eeaa diljo[liliiS rmr,ldigni lillll\Mhich one of 1\'1.'0 c}\:p~ii.inl~.f,!tld I;lO!1[cx~sIO '~vhid~ !nio~are (lXP{).:H;~ \'1/".\5; r;"l,i:~d 'liVith~h~ i".!,~im.~~ f~ceivlng a fcotsboek. Ahfuu:mg:~. :Im.li.ce ~I~u;king NMDA receprors Jn ehe derlun~ gyrm, ;[IiCqll~I1Cd ;<Indo retained CIQ.l1ltexmal le!llr cOlldi~ ch~ng~si!l
>CDm~/!\Hi!d

I)f(:~e hipp~;)c~npuscomahl~te$ ~.grt';f!,~~~p u s ~onvard I.n~ our understaading ofh:olW the ~l!emory errors tllnllUil. li.M~lypc mice 'W.ilh hippoc.mnrms works. The clUlWIe:llige I1!OW is w ir11~tC[deI1iH.lt~ gyn!!i p~.ly:-;ilo1(J~y:T.he I'I;,ICluireto un(]er.>I;;l,niCIlhl:1< ro:~e!'> of indiv:iclll~al N M DA. ~l,(:nt fors;rl.ll~i~~ lPaH~l:ilm separation is the reee pLiOrsubu nits, dU'~n:~lllt fiotli;~~l5 f s;yni!llp~ o same for b(llb the reference ,'.lIld \",\or.k~ng ric p]:ru$,~i,t:,ity nong~lermpme'liI~iim:ioll,. lon,!:1;i 1~.'!(;:luorj' ,compon~r~l~ of th is task. Thcr~f~'Hm'. t(::tr~1iiI, ij(:pr~ sl Q:!~,a~,d de plH:~'~llauen], and i!np~jir~d :;!p~lial p<.'!iu~n~ $,~p,'il1,'j.tion ef!iili,iHH I~e- v<lfioUl~ hipp[u; !ittli.~.~ I subregl ajl~ (dorel(.phlima t~,ls spat i<l,iwor~.i ng memory de f"ticit" sal-posterior and vennal-aarerior] i iU,l reguIk~er tfflck ofwhh:~ll ,<l~mll$, dl~y~;)d a.lre;"ld)l v ~;suled . mak ing more spmn<l ~ "work in!;,C
1'('1

sg~ivii: !l

::or,lt ial

'iI\'\')

ridrtl,,ll, ~l!~mgry till~d~;, 1:~ling be~1.iJ~,rigf,
R!~e;r~!Tl~~5 P: 1: 1-l!ugj'I.!!, :),lig!!~a."W.!l' (gil ~11", lUi' ~1l~96), .1'. Iii:, Hab~'f!'O,r,,,,s"dli'n.t'2.'~'1, 2.ll'(2002>. 3. if -.~. MtHl!!gh tl oJ •• S!:ie'i'!u :;!;I(lI', 911 ~OO71: !Wli'Ji5he.d QnLirn~7 ,Ium'~~OO7(~rll0l6"6ernce;l(1tl(l26,lI, Il. J. O'i.ll!trl~ L N~deb!frt H~l1'J.pm 1I'.I'1'l' (ogJillil~ ~rlOp ~()li!1!l~d'llIl.,~v~d., 1978:1. 5, !;;, It. w~ Ill',I'!, Dud~ll,em~ ~, f!~~!i!~b;I'lI!11',~r'!l~
:]1. J.Z-lsii~n,.

proceSs.I~ile te'l'IilI::pornl c'~n1te1'\:I.~~,,()ci<1itedl wi ttl OJ 11 eve:mrt ,[ "\\\11.1.1: happeued, and when") and recerd or represent
:Iltillust also

aa <Inimal

,v.~lkh lneatlons IUUVB been vislted r.eceilil:t~y. A role Jerthe hippocampns in er:n:.itn[:ung

t~!'npof1'~ ~(;':q,tII~~l~(;$ r'!.)d~~ts, in

~!l$

been

deI1lOlUQsta.O!I,te'd,( 11). NO'\!!,' •. the new studies l!.,ulh gC:'II1.etiel!l,I.ly~:ullodl]fied mice shew lhiat~

NMDA reeepror-dependear
S)lI1!<lll:"t,:S :lin the dt::umIlUc gyrw"

:p]a~~~ci.ty.n
po~.i~

an(ll~~C

ble subsequent nMereltl<lppi l:ilgof eorre ~ii,ted ~'H;: ural ~C'ti v iltn,cs. ~ nmril!J~IN': ~fl t~I'!Ji'! On;ll p

Hon~ng.....tl~e animals [earned to asseciate ·
fe,'lr \V:~lh 1<1 pl,miclll;u' erllVir:on:me:lfl.t-th.ey w~r,~ £;Io\~,'er !i.:~rnpan~dia wild-typ~ littermoues :ilnleo.!.fI.1 to d iscri,:llillmit.€: between i.m1~ i IWO sim:i~'i!!f o !1iOOXl~.This r~$l~ k is Cll!1J!; iSt'e!ll e \'\' ith the i.de;! Ut,u sYIl!ITplic :plasridty .11f.lIJtom;l~· 1:1'11.1 x- dlentale gy:liliIl~~ n<lpS!cs is :~rnpor;. cm~ sy ~~irn:t. ~ilen Sp1)~iiilli. \ OQ:irn.te1'\iis used !iQidentil}'
the app:roI'W~3te :D'I1l:ClllDrY Irecelvhag root:shock or nOI;j. and slJI,b::.C'quemly

i!1:~l)rmr.ti(l!~proc~~tiii~g. mvWi.l~g ameehap by \V:lilid.l recent e~:peri.enGc's could be rep!ies~ilmted and dlllHi d ift~re:l'i!! ~:m~d. The develepment of miee with inactivated oractlvased genes in specif~:(' reg[o:mIJS
Iil[s.nml

:~g"6ill9 (ZOO'll). 1'. 'S;.lH!iljeib, .1. ,ti.lw'$e~, A. T!t\fe5, MAI..I!I05:e1;.E. !. MQ~~, ci~Ii'~ 305, l~,).) (2{I04l1 S 8. j. ie, ~l.!j,'I:!lb, ,~ LJ!ij~~~, MAl. ~flr, IlL II. Mi:JStI; Sdernl\' 315, 961. ~OOl)'. ,. !fl, 1iIlr¥l, ~~; 1Ml., 1~.41J:~.{1!il74~, :~{I.g, r.i~l'Ji!ii'inti Mi!li,liJ!.J" 1il~I~r. as, 837 ~OO7~. n, N.]" IForllln. 1(. l ;Ag5le'l; iii, IB, iE,1,noo,'b,lIIm\ WfJW,t lilrurofd. 5, ,~58 t'lU2)"
6. S. ~~II911ib lIlal" 5denre

!19'7, ~nU9M),

CANCEIFI

a

lIo:r

m,dd I~~ the app~,l()PJial:e belravioral 11,;espomse A Oi?UslglFlal'il'lgi ~lrnteti1 ~$sodgt~dl wit'hthe i!'!rllateimf!lli,l'iH~ ~,es,p(ln$e is; Un'k!oo ·lOa pa.t~w.ay that It t\'l];Je~h~r nr !lnl to b~C(l~m,~inm,u'i b ile) q '9 ~" s'Upp arts. C.ilflU![ !lmglre5si:olfl. e "fhisn[otio.1li ~l.~ISo:llel'll beelJl. considered ,un uieerssre !101[ j US~ m<l!~igml!'!l( celts, !r,;:'fn~sof ;l!'l~b~U[}' reeal I ··wb~f'· to ~lilrp~;fiI;d in rhe dev~l(lrmil;\liU ef ~N,pel!i~lc.n!'al ancll Ii,,~r "where," aml,co:u~d make a key ccatribunon MOI.'C LI'Ii!:mI: of the cancer mass 'C3.11J h~]f ccloneancers :un mice, MyD3:8 fUllct ion has be; made :()~1;;uPllo.rli~.g ce:~~s t~~h~s b~)C:ll w~~rnc~aroc~~ri~ll.·d s 1:0I.i'piSiodi.(~tt'Clnoryh1 ~~umaI1H'.Th~' N.MO/" i ~nt~~~imwt~ illlJ~',ltl1~ recep~)m·-mll.u'll'llt mice cOll~ld~ hO'wc'Ii<t:lr, fihr-obl!~r~ts,1i~'me mm:r~piI~L£,e.)i, endotllie- :lieS:IJ'OIiI~e (4).. 11,-elayiJlg !'l~lg~<'l~Sj~I~ciited hy l <lil1d l~fU~, ~~~i3:,: ca~!l!ei,j:rs C~jmlf.Hprogfl:;);N i~,t,o Hf~,_ a('quir~ ::>pi1lli1l.1 tn~m,or}' '\vh~ll,kt3m~l!m.,g til pat~li]~~I'iiJ~s$(~ia:rod ~1l~k'eu~l,;':s,~!td by 'tal~ l in[iamnl<'L!,OTy cywildneillll.erU,ellk in··~ (ll-~.)" Ili."vi~g<"l:te '\"'<I~el:1ln<lz:e. .1 The dellt imp]i!Cilt ion. thte<~~en~ns rne:~<l,sl<tl !clesio!]!'> \vi ~h!OlJIt, hen}. !hG:~lio~., b. fhal:NMDi\, ~~,wr-cl~~ ndL;:!l~ Th~Pf'OC~S:> by \l;~lich ntlfm~] ~j~lls '1!r~ rn"" It'> k~entin~uti[}!1!i!l lJ!"om()ti~,g~!J!,I'iIi:;~r !l-Jg~\,·.',;P :;pruial IJmtem sepiL:r.ul.iorl ,in the d:e~H.\le cnl~llt;;d. ~p\,JI':td~Kl andiIflO'!il!1'~uijllied ~f1(:'.. r:H'::~fu :-;k~~l :~\'Cal5 a Im)~,~;llhlilf,)i:Jt~~Ji"'Yc'{1W1kl be tiliid gyrus, h; :UII.01requ~,:re:d to s<o.lve lhe wau::Ii"~ is c~o:s.e~,y~IRI;e(~ID :~Il llanl f[i!lIIlion ~1!lfId 1110 till:~[ed for dfug(~.~reXoplllienL r ~ to m'll:e. So \vhen ~:*,pmrei[1,fiM:lponnllion <1b:y [remodeling dm~ n~"t;l!r.:i in li$:SlU,~~ [is thr.: dam· Early e%pr.:rin'iL~l]r::ide:ffiI~ol,lslr.neodtlm.e neei(~ ~;;eatureo r h ip'pm!Blmpai [unct i.oun,? a~ of acute f nthllnml!uiQlFn ~s,repaired ( !). Two fQlr .anf]mmmm~ory cyt:oikines £'Lu::h ''IIs, lmno:r M:t:.I~]ugh(/l'll. show lhlllt :mbale climng;es jY<1pe.lfS, 1[1this :issue:, by N.mglt'1l~ ei at. 0111 p1.I!i!,e ~ecr{)Sisl~~c a (.i1.• md jnnammr.'l~JJ[y cd Is ~OJ ~.2~.(1) <lImJ R<lkuff::'·NailQlIm and Me'd'zhi:!:ov in t~,e sllfbli.al cotnex:t :ue' ::l[rlli,cienl to rtc>CJIU ire slIc;h, <liS mm:::~ph".g,es ~6), ill thf!' d,eveiop:merll:

.-. C

pau~rn s~pllnuijo~. bturm~ su~h (':(Jn~~Xl :s,hiu ftrs ne,ce:ss::~~y"! ]na S,:UIH ~ih'lr .s~lJdy.. Inice' 100ddl~ NMOA reeept~rs,in the d~~mue:

the ~n~ch"ll:iSilns {:If COl:UiI.ool""re~:a~ed i[I!'1a:n.~'1i11a"· llJe'Ccmly • .,ct'iv;luio:lrn of tl,lelrn~scfii,pli.OlIll. flilc,wr ~~(U). lhey' ,dJ~SiCri b~ 1l:1limpt_)rl.;nl:~ ro,~efot t"~n Iilude;)f ~11dor!cl3 (NiF-li>:iBl. whh:·'h is CrijliCllI II'!! gym!;; I,earned: to di.S'crimil1l.ue lOOtwee,l1I, krlr'.:tceI 11I]!;r1i J!:ligmiling prott'!'inm c<lHed M.y108~, t'e:~I.'LII.,r~espollses m TLR Ili.g:EIIl(I~.mdill-i. \'II'llic;:h 1ir~~~,s. r~di~d ofa ~n.~b~e ,C;:(lnt~lin fuod '!iVa,.imp:~~.l'i:~!:ed i~~heil\!1filJti: i~~nmme response pm]J;~.ol:ilil~ IliIImim'l,e hep3,t:o~d!I~lbn allil.d ~ol,a11i re'lvoncls,md 'I,vhlnch .ums'lre 11001: re'i"!'arded: rJ~I!''J.I!l!llnmf~rei 1iI11t~ Cm~r'e rOf Tr.i!n~lAlio"dl Om(!ota'!l~l C'aiu:c:i'lQP'l:~~( i~ j,. T~'1C' ~ T~~y 3,{,';qui.n;;d Sp~.t~;iI] "·r-ef~~11CC"l'lema'r~, I <v Cfl[ld~i~iiOl"1 lrortml N;,1li.4glcr In.iH!:Ite of {an~e'r. 1E!:n~.s andliihif L~nd:DI1I s~hoo~ ~f m. dkllhe mioe iln tille W,IUmlI1l13:le experimen~: : dl<lt Medicine and DeMi'~lf)',(~~~terhtluSie' Square, Lood'cl1! e.lat. ~~d N~,.hml'lm,l.mdM,edl.hli!/O'i{~~ lV.lylJ!8S EC])MISBQ, UK. E"iilIl~il; l)'alffC~I~~~m@ cQfl(Ie~-\!)f!!l,I,J'k Il 10). ~!(J!wot.;:ver. dile: !ll1lltarU: mi~G:collld ~o~ Iml fly f1ulction ups~tlm of N F·KBin oeUs.

01'!. IHI:g,1:l U4olJ't ~lidvanell

(lUi!' lIJ$!oo!'$~m~ing (If

and spread (l:f oom~ «\perim~n'~a~ 'Mmo:ffl. M~

I

PERSPECTIVES
in'Vol'llt-'d ln im!llmmi'l~',Hio!l-assoc~ated ca~~cer
(see til~e l'igulJ'e,.
A. key ,['iudjllg of Nallig}(;:r (!t
{1r
1\1'1 ~CRO

I'UMOR
EflNI RONIr\IENT

iN FIJI.I!.'dII'lATIORl ~INDUI(E[IiCANHIR

is ~h~l,

che'll!'I:rr.::a~])'induc:l;ld liver ,d,u:l1ii1ge ill mice iC'OlLds; (O l:~ne Myng3-d~pocndCIl[ ,ili'Q,duc:t:,~,OI:lJof Il-6 :prodm:'[~on. i1'1 this :~ r eancer mod:et ive 1.11.·6. ~d~ by Iiver ~U~Ciu.ol~hiflg~KlIpffer' m ..
I~

eil.'iU~).pfonlil~l(~~'

nU'Ililtli' p'!'"y,grre.%i~!l!.B.y

s;pecifi,c.<IM,y e~:irl1llin~}tffingN:F -KB act]V'olIJion in

imnH!1iW !ieU~

Jnmlri.'llil1!g

m;_~c,rt,ph;_~ge", g«n.p pr~v i(llt~~ly el)tl.bthh.
i:~s~ilf:dri1l!Elt. dmi,mg the dcve!ap,me:[JJ!; .of liver c.mi{.1~:~"'",IL-6 secreted by Klup~T(:;1T cells ~~qll]res NF -KB ,ac~i\l]ty. MyD8S is requ ireli;;~1 I:or bmh TLR and rL~~1 10 act~v,at~ NF'·KB
iun,

rhe iunnre ,ill,nmlu~:e,response (4). 111e d:ml. of N~t~gl~r N rH. !Sugg~$~ f~;;H TLR Iig~l!1ds «(1j"
Ill.~ 1,~m~ie~lsed by de ad he P<lWC)lIe:S) "ou:~d
drive N:F-tc.B!lel~,""~1l ion in Klt,p:fIDel." cl:'lls

~hm~giil MyDS;~. However. [h,eselective 2IIM.]t~Cinof MyD88 .iI.~KWI:,pffcrool~s is ~qll.irOi:I 10 firu,11 lyes:~<1:i)11 i:imch is I ink, AM!ll~iOri Oil' sped ~ic Tl, Rt-; o!"Lhc ]l,..~. ~t::e:p't'C1r \wtl~daJso r~VI~i!li \';~~,e;t~wr ib]lion of these receptors cOU ~d i nh j:JJi\Oi:eC[ OlI,g.'lIi liver tr~ll~mr devdopmel1l,t, !lSI A hho~.gh t~lie $u~dy by N,llugier ~'t"d. impUe.lillmii11 ~l.~~. [H,' ]~.!9mld5~brlllil ~ IHi!Iy IrigR g,er MyDSgflcth!iJy .mcl ..n innate immane ~I;e:ipm.lse ill.l lii\'Cr cancers, ~itis, Iikelyl:t~<lI.lcti"'~ti(lll ofNlyD88 ~n :s:ptl1BL."ln~ou!S coio!m c~r.~ ciiI'lO~eUile»is..as d.eSCf:iibecl by Rako:n:~~N<l.hcmHl

Il!IfhUI!!'!II\1! tiiQ:D! Sll!l'!l!n Co1!JD!ot:@f IPHllglressiol!i'!, Imrlll.! 1Il'!:!' Cll!lis ~n~~'ltr~tl!!ihc rrdClrti,Q'nvilro.(lli1flEl'IIlt a [~!FIor. of f/4.a lIglef el t1l.i3 rid Ra ~of,f- N<lhcnllIlI lInd Medjljl~it(lll~lJi9!!1lm I.nill tine dll'1Ie'klp:rmmt ,of H"'E!r i:ll'I.d ~nt~s~ mil GIl ifI(l~,rs, inl mi,ee- m~y de-IPE!,n:d Cl~li ~ilgrrl~I~~ng a pathiUil1!' 11'1 inrutrating fmllilllne ce-th Iht 1rllv(lll'l/e-~. Ule ~rou~:Tn MyOS8. thF.l'~(€I.!1~crill!lti{llf'lll;,!i(;OOr ~F-d,. ~ildl tlh~ P~~-~I1U.jlmlll'lal!Qry crt(!kinc IL-6. Sliioon '}!1~ imi1Jg~s'of IUJllfta n li:III11Cer$, ~,ike'~yre {~evelop liver caacer
,I:N

female s

se\'e;re,~y COil.~,l:piItQmi1'i.tl immune

re.spOI:lSiI~S"

bcc,;lUs{: est rtl·gcru ~ro ~~'Yinbibi ters CDI:' ] t.-.6
plUdm:t~on ..A.l all <I,~e!:>. women <Ire less Iike I)! th~!.'! n~t<:11 to df!v~l.np color! eancer ~.JO). ,EstIlO'Jjelill hormone re'p.h,li::ellle~.n tll,lern:I'Y also l'edw::,esl~l.eililddem;:e of eolorectal canee r

and MI;~~,iHW. i:; dri\'~n b}I ('fl!~~!'I1i~!1~1 b<lcl~ria that e IliCO WI.IliI:er imeS:l:in~l~ tlrn;l m::mpl:iJa,ges. These a,lII,thor!i,cm::;~ed MyD88-de'I'li(,;~!eni
(,Mycl.~,~""'_) ice 'iINit~~, m mice

Th~ .I1.mlin~s ,of N<?Itlglf;lr (/'1 OI.1Uld Rakon:. NailiOlill,1l1i1 <Il1ld iV.~edibito .. St[i;'·;I;1£,dn:ua. the F'<1!liolll" ~h; f~!" i!1hiitlitin,g:i~namm!ltory I;:"yl\flki!l~$~!l C<I'liaur: Il~6 :~s:i.lI,n~]:~i;(·,med ]11 I:he pl'~r~sion
Of~\iCr.illj

dm~ s:pol1itaJ~,e{l~iI sly

in

P()$i~'illJe

I1iOp,mM!'~ women

..lgld

in several

atheD"h,~lmWlC'lilil!l.1e::ffiindu.di~~g m nliiplle mye]o;[(Jif:,),. proSI"lt~ C<lIl1~~r. nd o'i!,i~J;iml a

s .~:<IJv,e dc.vel.op i:D1J:t.esli~a~ nanors dUI2 to a mUWlioE), i,~11 murine C o]on canccrrnodc:I:s.!Cli'nlfl'le th~, .m;enom<!li:om. poIYPO!i:i~5 coli (A,PC) gene fu>ver colon llLJIll1mrn l bli:lll m'~~:~=:i. These estro ~ (ApcM,~,lIlj+). MOJI~l~ityof the resulting ,m,j)ce gen-relsted gendcili d,;uff'cirenl'es mJOIY 'wen \'\,\flsredtu;€."d by mo.~' d1!fi!'l 011'/0. 6 Ahh(l~!gh [he ~J!iJe~dlo mhe'!" cancers, :ID8Jellce of MyD88 did not alfecl i:1Il ion of idm f[ooie\l\er. MyDS8 see.ul;n.s: ro have <I w~de.r ~lil'-lmgraa!1!cy. micrn:s!;';oph; nunors t~1]k"d to w]~ in nrrn;ili.g~.m('Y(]hi~1'l f~,g\llialion of IL-6 P[llog,Ill;SS. and p.roduct,~nm of IHllIIl'I'}'f ~n:nml1~:I~l:il- PI'OdUC'ltOI1lI. Although R~k,ofr-N<I,ho1Jm and wry !;ind li:s:;/U~·re,noclc]mg, faetors {i,~eh~di.~,g Mcdlz.hitrw do U'ill :l':p~cify the ~gI;:'9:Jmd SIC:>; Il~6)ciecn:N:l!.'led,This s~lIdy did 111mcielielirnline c~rn"~1cl.eristics uf [he miee used in tbeir th~!'iill~ of MyV88i.'ir NF ':I/eB$,ign~~,iblgil:lh~ t ~XI)~jf·i~l~nl:>.~~l~y p.rL;;'':>~~.lbllOevidenee t~!I~ on~,ymaleswere p:ro~ec:ted iromoo,lon cancer inleslirmi llilll 'lcrOp~,l.,ge's of the ApcMllin/+ d~IIL;:!~d, Wn Apt;:Mi" + lii!lic~. j:-hVl~1I'c;;l". G~!lC!m,ift ~!'iI( i) t~~v~~1~mv~ \!,,'hen MyDgSWfl\> ~h,r~'lb:~,!~uOJII ofNP'~KB .1!cTiv,uiofi in macromice (pr~:-.om'l~I"lblybud'a ;nM!~,~ ;r~d fem'IJr;:). 1]~il,!lge cells p:ro~e~1 mice f.,om chc~,nli,caUy 1\Jly1)88 ~nduced the Cix ~~ress~ol;l lacto:li".l> of induoed c{J:I:(U) ,c'tLn::unomll::>. (~le enzymes COiX-2: and MMP-7 . .m:u:lll~I.)i If::> imporUlIlI m note llbm NF~f.(iB ab;n has, lhm not only C~]h8~Ce tumur pJ1OgresSi[o~, but cy~opro\l!(~i,\remld itnJ~i-.Jpop~omclU10't[OIJS, iUiI ..Iso "lfj'e~Ilivo]\ied int U He rep~1il'. h seems f S:S lI,ll<l1 ~:g;m~mlil !:;eJI~:!ii (i. 9)1" ~~Io\~'-ever. 1I:1,e'~,ther thtn My DS8 roeg,u! ,ueS<l ti !>!l:u.e~'rep<li~rpa~h~ o,f ~h~s~phoenulrl~~:S ;i!p~<l:r$ '10 '00 MyDR8 \"~y ~h~l bo~hpijjiO~~(ll~.~.a~ld ,s~rig$~rod by. ~ d.epenlde:II'U .• !nl.ggc;:'s~~:Im,g lh<ll MyD~;S .is, gfowi~,g nl3lignfllllcy. o'n~.y n;:spl~nsib'h.~fur i!'IJ~l,<!~mml~ijTI!H.t5SQChm~d Dolllii¢$l\ il!,;~rvm~~Hs. i,~ m~!(.le IKIW2II'IJ)' re~nnnOf :~rommiQi~l,·by F-KB. N '~V".J'~l.oe (;,Im:e, ~['evenli(li.~, t~;lernpjl! A::;: to RllJdl A.llo,hcr k,~y finding of N~WLgic:r ~f, ~l, SlI~g}!=.~tC;'d by N~ug~~!i ~1J.., ~lrogcnmlim{:[~ ei' 11:'e:11.!testOo the Sl::illIde-r d~,fliere1lil,Q1::~ :illl :~~oer C",llil~ v ~:cs:th<lit inhibit excc:ssive [L-b production c~r su:;;~ep[ib]~.hy. [!1 Ih~ir IllfJClell, the ;;tClrum)~ !n~.ght prev'~!llt cbronic 1]\,\(,;. ll~s~a$~i[ll'Ui1e!ll. c CelJ:lt<aillily. TLR ,llig<nlld'~m:epo._'<;':!ible nnrgets ~O'r of I'L~6 ''>'e'r>e OIilily seell,l in nml.e :~uice. Male rt!lj(l~~and!n~l~r-<lro thU:1;;"(l tflo n\'c (imG's ~s c.aUC~t Th~mp(~uks. bu~ dU;lir i,fIlhibi[[Oll CQl!ld 6 JULY 2007 VOL 317'
S:CIIIICI~IC.1!

can.cer, Anl'~bodi~s lhatklh~brt lL~.()OCli!O:l1J are
:X11~<lI1d i!lit:tive .in rhe'lQ~lfil...,;toid ;~~lfitr~ p.atiel,n~ m
I(! I).

~.
..r

They :Ire also hig.hly elTect~.ve .in the [l-,('-dru\1l;.'1:I nllry~irrpmlUfeJj1'lilivi$ disorrdcii

i
~
~.' .'

'ClJisllenmn's disease 'll~l.d, ,clUr.reni~ly :un Phase are ~fU,cHmli(<'llltil':i<ll~ in ~id1iir ~ldv;}:~l~!;;daaccrs c

't 12).
,~i

HUl wi Ii these !lg,cnH;

~llmi1.ll, poJml!Jlell{}p.1U1s11

I women;

\\'O!d{besr iamales ')

~ ..
;1j
~

R!cleretl!(!elI, 1.. ,; B~Ulw!lt """ ~I~. A. ~~'!\i!I]J~ tt O
iHl{lOO5'.

(iIffi!'e'f

(e.I'l ',',

; '"
~ ~

2. 'In. 'E:. N\!lu~~
3.

s, !liilroll-r.!a~!lurn"

tf ,01.,. S.t1tn~? 3::i:::l.

ili ~2.oo7)'
1211

,~" ') •.A!l;!ira, K TilkJe!!!i!"WI.R.e<i!, 1mm~!'J'or" 4, 49'!l
f2{H;I'<li}. !I. IlL~!lirl!!'i!'ljf/,.lJDtittd,lM. S.B2e, {1M'», 6. E. 'If. Lin,. ,f4, !oJ. ~!lIu.!ltn, It G, RIl~lI.~. 1~lla.J(!".l.E'¥o

~,oo'n.

It. M~jto~,,~ifnre.'3i17,

I
3i &'l
:E

n.lt'4. :1:9'3,72j1'~OOli. ']. f:, it GI!!l~MfluL, (f:Ilns., 28:5(~64t

w.

C
~,

E. i'i~ilf~Itr'6(lf.., NIl!,r,I~~3::li .&1i~61 ~2(1(Mh • '9.~. ,1itI!d3, iii, :~~mt~\l. ll. !,UQ, H.ldIM. til:. t:ru-illl., ,Ctl.1 ]11j, 9'7? (200Si), :lI!O'. C, 1M. rra[lquh~r. ]1. MaIj~llibim~, A. IL~~. o.l.lIrn'bllm, 1.4. :SuU!lin!il,.cQ(h.rrg~f.!ml(i'b.!lJ;~Sp!: iII'f~ mOO.:110 ~~O(i~. :H. E. (~~!i' I Dol, ,AIIl.i'i'J~ I RIJ;!;UIm"4'., 3:lli!3 (;!OOl!),

e,

~
t.;

:]2. L

'I',~JI,G. M.

{Mat ,42.

,Alild'enall, Ill, llIi!Wlmt, 11\, f. Nllklld\li. E~i!':/. ,'9!3 '(2006),
W"U~61Jeieil!Ce,l:l!Il

S

60!5 O!

il

. WNw.:sdencemag.org

IPERSPECTIVES
COMPUTER SCI!IE.!NICIE
Q rill (h~stg1ll,1KI fliI~y i flWUlse the irn,p I'@ s:s;i~:nof t.Jf!ll S;lW~fl~ill@ss. bllll t~t does. net make the ]rdonil1'at~oll (Of!Jv.ey,ed

I

H!!lW ,!)rllifil@ p@lr~~!las

IIIl or'E! r'E!,1~\ilb~l!.

ilrimpr~:;~ion of ~'ilh1;;~iilll~e~·I.0- !itrntd~J,;".X~ to~c'~ fltl'ie.r l\lm~k. blit SUU':~ lankl~ b IE.'lce i~lite~lctiQJ1~ derives fron~1 nl:~IJt:i~ ~,[lto SI'l<lc:e, ine.r.t <bIlI.d 1II1el'lg.'Lged, mod a i 'nb~f'II';M~(lllt~; 'Viii h~ilr\'1l~(~" J~:st .gi.'viIDIgthe user finer (,,".untrol ever th~ see faces and gestures a:un.d listen to em:::'hl avatar is nOI <ls.:"Iti sFadory Oipt.OCYffii.howevC[, rhr othert'iworw. Om: gl~~i~le iDllit:er<.lJ:."l~Omi,.!re 1;:,;:-; ifL!seni lH~l~t' i:\p~t~iry'tbeil.' i;l.",,'mar'llevery ~~ . sensory. dOillil.l~mneclinstead b;y te~1::Wc.seilld e~ movement <lmd'!$f:M!LI[lil" they WOtlld beteo di!;· mal t read di~cUSi;.iOll Lmo.~I&, ml parlk~~palt~ ~ trarted to ~:mI.ga.!LW t;l~e i:O:billwrsftti.Ql~. i.'ls;dr .in ~nte.;.;:l chsrs, Ye~'~:Ih~lm<lybe d;;!nginrg. 0.1111 ine Cassell <lnd Vi]hj~.I~lllSOll·S sohu:uon "','<l:!! to. 3D SpflCe:s ~\!C~ 'l~ ThC'J,(,<lnd S(~~"(J}f(:f fB,\l- pffJ:'J:rf!!'ll S'u~bbli~\fiufS i!1i~OU~~;;'!V!ll~rs. IO b~ Lifo ture det ...:i~:edv,il1ll<l~, env i:lrCJillune~ilI;s.i B\'vbi d~, set off '~11e~mthe user indicilLl.ed sO.DlIrn.c desised users rC::~'llLfCSen~ llln.cmsciveswith grnp.tlliC:I!I,I. aetion, For'imtmlce. ifthC' usc:r illl(iic:ated ~with OlV'dl.US. ,o:~eli1, igl~Iy clJ!lI10miztlble. h il roimpl!e Iyp.ed ,r.;ommmld) '11.'u.n ~11ll w<JiI!II'tecl to A~I~n; Iinay elos;ely~emblc apersen, or' '~:I~.d cOIli','Cr5],!IltQi~l.Ihe' avatar weuld brell~ a ~he)"m1]i.lY beflll:H~IS'I,~Ci.l,1 ereetiens sueh O1i;S il~~?11y by averti [Ig_ilS g.'l7-e... rid lUpo.'I'iI.. ~eilYiIlg would ](](ljk a!t ~ts l'iilQJ:;':llt pflrl:!J1~r.nO;]its, J~C-;jid ~1i~lls flt!it!ll.ki~~ ~i:Z~I~!!:, Tll!i;iw'(lIl~i!:l(;luse dat~-~ back tQtlh~ mid-]{)!80_". \VW~fl!~!j)uJ;;1"',\iG~ ~!~d !lifldw.u.\··~ 'US1;lf:;; of dd~ ~ysl~m f(~ufldh .more •. in g;llllCS SmJ~.las, Wrimu 3lm,d ~n the Qn~i ne n3UI~,I~ and en,gl:lgiJl;l,g~ 113:111 ne with :snuib::: o seclal sp aee llcdl/lm. Ast~clmt'llog)i .~as '1.\'3Ul1'8 ~!l'!dn~hl~"ltlhe1r c{lGiLven;;miomd pen3Jcllv.lIlloeed. they have gonefw]':Im beiDillg s~l'ItiC' ners
VJ;'C1'e

O

lion lags
iiQJflZ'l

b~:~~mJ ~~ldl~iring :;1·dIL Mel

Wit hilV(i g<i!~

aval<ll,';S, \".,h,oSoe:1lppe'<lI'<Im:e :l<Iises Idgh expecta-

()f~WlUiI~;nnlik1;l behaviers bm\!."ho~

am:l.gestutt.'es ~re reIiM.ive~LYpr,imhi\te. I:'lm\~·vt'J:.

it

~8 qL!i,t~ oo~lce~.\'~ib.~elh<TH OJ! ~In

('WI.'ye.lr~

more' e::Ii;preSJ>]ve.

20 im:ag:e.s to complex 3D <lllJ !tIiI:!li.ODlS. comple'tewlu!'hl!le~.1 istic ~il. fr~sh[orl<llJle l~kl! iiil:ag, ~ and d}!,n!lnl:JJic ~ad~tI (lXp[C~"i.oa~The oCllidle~]£,e in cl'eali:~,!;!. mooo s,opl,1isli~ C'~lil~'dI lv,~~ii!J'sl~~p~It!j'tly thL;:d~l!1'1!£lif!l If'C(l~l; i i~, ( pmer gml~'hics, ~uc:h .HI bener rell:dleri~lg onm ir and fabric or more I,i.le li,ke g.i!i.i~. kinenmtics.,.Yel
the:reis also a$;1JJib.:s~<lrlii,ia] $OC:iill

R..esem:cher!li~J~ve ruund d~,n users [!'Ifeto!
llumbE.'r Qf,dl;u;,~C:ler lmils!'1nm a"'~lLJrreoo.viior
~!l'nd ~pp~,f~ra~\jxtTh~y jlud~1\,: a't,MlSiffit]fn>lll a~

I.iffl~$ (l,r high C'ng~ili·~~~,;;!~J. seeh aswhen imli\renli::m,g a ~tor'yw pcop~le Inn)' makeless ,e)''C com;,'!!;!. po!;.~ib.~y because g~Zillg fit ~mJI:lin.el! IW~ce itsel f,'1 co!lJlmit ivelly i.l1lt~i~:S]'IIeprocess, is ~~~'.tpS.l.1ec<ll~$t: ohhis, v.<e haw ~hep(lP'llI~Uf I(lhm~gh ~~mmbs:~anti;Jt'ed)beiieftlll,u: S011.M!OIlilC who 1~l;:)Ik~s sl~~dy and d~~C'1 ey1.:l: 0u~M~C'~is
bi;:!ilnll: liaol.~est,U). 0J1li~U1.hmiiJl,l.\I'(1r, b~:~l:1Jvion; !li('n~r:fl~~d a bv !SOfl\~:re poogl~"un c<ln~cre.u.e t~lf!'S3me impres- -----. "--'.... _. . -;!I'--

~]'tfttm,"Swm.we behavior is ne.u~y itmperceplible Ih'l:rill ~lIUln!um~wl II be iII.V'.1Li lab:le. ' ":!'etl.hU$,ralises. il.upOJI~]n~ questioliliS <I.OOllt I:~ rdj~Miw ofl]w i:V'I~pr~s,,"i \'\l~ forrr! ~!'! Oll~ ~\'I<tM~"medli<tled imernc;tli:on,~. 11'1 our face-tor ~!leeil1lcmclimn!S, nU'Iilly of the eues we read IiO assess l'mil'S ~uch ~~ truMJm[lhili1e~~ lliiwt;l re.l:1 I.i~llk:> the tr,!Iit G~,Zi" d~ruiCliol1, I'm e..-.:am,plc. to lill~sd~,red~y to ... "l:li.ll line is seellilg.Wheiilll!oli!;!: " ( ~M~,\~rted :is. thl~sa :t::ign]1 of tl1!:l.tt~~ti(1n Durin~ it •.

humael ike' and deady ~e~ldered (as cppesed U) ~ml~lnl~~!ll!OI,t~) b~ th~mQ~r ml!1!i0til\l~ o~d: 91~ [0 most credible 11')" In 11I!1~.Ol:IlII.dio~niy 'COmfeil,".li.I!I;~ lion. sim~Jly ~dd~ng3:rra. i<II~I'Jil\,lrwl'lQ.:!;e: head and

sien

of trustwcrthiness

or

rl:ie'lld;li~ess.

hut

element get-

eye

m(Jvellil,lle~li$.

maiiChlh~ cenversatian

fk"'~1

wi,l~mgt n gfCImHH~lgc'\Jl1ifll;W,;t~oll

liO <]n~mder-

tUng tbe avatar to i.IM~~C·1 wkh oth~il1l grace~l.1icrcaS~$IlIsers·l~c:recpli.oll ofLh~ir pawtl:lcTS" r'l.d:~y ;uu! llre"~i,~t~:ciJ.]~.y,, ,exRDlIm,p~:e,if <rill WOlf llill~!worlbim::5:'J and friellild~illle:i>s. Ted ... "s o.IIiI,:~~lteg y r,aphka] iIJI[er.1cdolill$ ,rre <1.'1'311<11.' is rendered \,\,I]t1'a det.,.i:IJed e:yes,ah:e'DlI, S,lm rnlh-er ,"Wk"!i\f.f~rd .B~h@\dof.al mrhisli~~. . OlppropwhMe gaze direetion is e:$s~WiI.ti~t AU such lbe!m\rloli.S. w~;lichill\e!m;en fOJgJI.~l.l~ed i:m1 f'i'c~_'~nw;~ in~~r.I!cl:iol1,. l!S( be I;;xpUcitly .. f m cm1.l'd.i[~1to the: 3V"lllar. We' ear.r)! o~n soci~1imltcmc~im1t!l\vil1,,!) h'i.l~ II.lm1lllber of Cloml1i1liun icm:ive Jb.ellil.'\,I:i:o]~. :iind i~ d1.til c~t~ ·n~~r~nW:l1t~f~n,. ~t1U,t;of mind Ctlin~~UI'I'i:C~I~ .
ti~fe ,c:oJllpe:telicy•• utd so on. ~or iillislmlOc.
)i{'!lq

lying ,eoplit iw pmeess Q(I" oth~r 'c<l~1~ti.ve:~Ie'" , mem, ,A.~ bell<rvim:al ::lol'hll',;u:e hecomes ruore ~ophisdcmed arewe Cre<il~ill,lg <lJ~lt.:1iL"S willi that

~i

l~c[~;!iJ~i ng.I>I~lurf!,c~iv,t':

Oi!Ind seem i~,g.lly

~'ri.endly !lm are .in f<lict the ]dea~ .Ill'l!lsk beh:und

whicl~ ~ d~~h~~!l~~1 (~I! m0\11ipul!~[~'iB IJi;;.~r:I 'C<'I!!1 operate'? Once <'lini,n1:~t!rf'IDe .~nd,Hdes bmmltmI i!':c ~V!lll;itrs,. Ithe i;!;suc .!lJrl.n~~f .in~cJpreU!!iun of
chamt:ter
t~lil;S; frChTill ~m£:rmlll(;r.llld <~~f.n<l'1l"

Iml"'Y ti,'\;o~ <~ ~(,'(j~IOil.i!l!:1linOO ·,!Cruc""" tlw f't](lm ,~~ ~. ciU'C'k,mil pllil'ty .~ml !r.':(:i~11U gu spr.!'<lk w l1]m. d "101m. cal'ry m~t Ih is goall :m.ol oWlly by \wlk iml,g w.:::ros.o;'~hl:: ootn !J,m,dso by nmkillig eyt:e(ll'll~<'tc t r s:mili ng" 11!i.is~ng your bl'O\I!;I'S,!)djllsli:~g. your do:t~:U:::r-;1 com:ple."i, !!let of l'OImmlllic,n~'IfI~' beh3vj:or1>~:li1ilLtumllicate your i:ll1Ilem:i,oI1.1:0 SUlI.lt ~. cO!)J\~rs,lrt~on, .~U!('l\ii,i 4)U ~o gl'lllg(l hi~ 'wi II ing~ )
Illes.'>10 Jo so ..<lind shmv yml,r [Ilevel nrdetermillll<l~ U(li~. C[lliOOIl!Thm:!

V~i~hi~mtl."tlIl,I

soci~~1 be~2livi.or.s, seen]1 sti Itt"d ,,:~d at\'\,'lbvBloo. ey ~[!n be ~noved ~o n
III,V!ltoU:Swith mI.l I:he8f!

n ~~i.(,-d

U'iiM

~h!ivior~ is: iJ1~\litabl~. fOf ewn'l! ~10nf!'Clioni~ <lnilllle'Ulllllel<lMe bll:~,la\'i Ol:".:il CoalVe'YS <111 i~~p~~... ~!~~f ~ $!l!C~,d i~~p~~~s ~~~d d~S~~l~~. How ''1.'1;: ,,1~5'" th~:i(li~:;l!elj dr.::P~H~J:Snlh.tl o (lon!C1I!.t fi:mll w,lTh:ic~in. .~,I\e used t]ndilla.ow ",":c they \'iev.,themll, il'l re~,m~on~)() rell.~,.;worldpl".t('t~ce.ln l~l.C' re~ill \VOrld, we liSle many slr~lcg!es W enh<lncer!~.e :hnpwe:ii\sion we I:m~le011 o~~ers. \Ve em~)loy resmfm.~ c;ml!mlt~nns ~nd ,~pec::ch Cf~llcl~liis.'\,\r~'lWm:ak~U!p•. ~!m:J ~~~4~11'~[l pl,f!slic SfU'ge:ry,. tn the '\.'iI'iL1I3.llre::!l,I:lJil.l.ude.1]~.zedooClies. ~!!'!d·P'l'.(I~e( ldn ~re lhi.;;nofilU (2),., bUllh~.!r(l s
i:llso
(.I

Vi!110~e~e~""nll'ltge!1'lif I~ossible el~]~l!i,n:cc-

lm;:~ts.B,~~~;cm;.o'l~lIld oon~aglJl¢s ha~ condl~LctedS!ilyer~1 e''I ~\!eT~mll:ems d~[gitall m~m... (I~,l .iCfY. sl.!.cb ~s mp:u'p~,ii'lg ;;I, peno:!l.'!f;; QoW~~f~lC~
inl.to the <l:Y~.l<H.· ~lhleir 'CO~,lYeffial:i{)illml p<'L'I:itmnr Oil'

or ha.viJro.gl}'iI;)Il <1i\"O;!tf~l" do~~IJ'~limic

dt{l~r~es-

I

PERSPECTIVES
UI!:l;.I$ (4).

They

f(l~l!ld~:~~u p~op'l() ~:n,u ,gnYlilp

to messages d.elivel:ed by t\"tCllIll taee' aV;0JIM,made by cml'lbi.niUillg the fcm'l:lfecs On~.le pe{IiJ~lein ]~Ile gn:mpl. nlifi. ooulcl b€' a useful ~e:;"Ch~.liqu~ enha~ldng th~ eohcfor

1J~ef:d eleser intention

\!'':~e!l d~~Xipdon ~co!ll~ tOCl p~\~I(lntmo::~ b ~tlji)dil~1pooss~.vely pers.~illi*f~ dle ~'H)S,t ~gorrw r cOe'ltly s,ig;nll~.s, or s(H;:i<l;~ sOlIliacdon:s, mOlY be oHsly and ,rcliab~y~ro~m£l:ed. needed [51 S~n;;p.k::il!ms eitizens oft~u:; liln~!~e R;etrerm{~; may demiO'Ill!d~'O il:ueract ,'",il~~'!I.nd:~d,Jil(~~s. Iy c OI~ 1. J. COl~Ii~l\IH.Vi1hi~lmiD11 AIIiI!OOM!~t.rJ:A9Mrj.ami (hwo'~g~1 tjjusl:cd'l~lkm ilfltmJlat.i.o~,1-lh~:e·· sites.
:!!" . l. S. M. I!)~P~(ilo ilfl~ hych"l. Suli.l;Z9J, 14 ,(~(tDl).• I!'[ II. ].~. IB<li'lfr.l~l)n, A. It lle.'l'lL Tn AIltl!l!Ii'I Dr Wsr.!l DM,l"I'ily: {ollUwmli'Qn flr'/.d ltl!f;r(l~!cfj iIj ShrJfM Wrruai E:.J'wiitll'ii'l'!M1:l',Il5<dIl!rtlede>r. A. Al:eb~" Edi~('Sprin[ler~Ilagl •.~~ndon'.l(ll';l6~,pp.. 1-,16. ~. [, D(I:il~ltI. S:!glla4 fn.Jtl!" tIM Fmigtl (Uili ~~. (~mbr!idg~ ~n MA. 'pr.ss)'.
!ilufli\iilyfl'.l SjlIletm ~, 45tL~!l9t I( ,l" ttowak, C. ~!Jh, J, (9RW,Il'J~~~

siveness of ~"f!o;mphi:t:jdly di!\.per;:sed gr(J~lp[.l. Tocl;}.y. mo~\ 3D gnlpli'l.ie;d s~le~ <llire fallll;;J;$;y Ye,t I~(.")I ~~Sll l:r,und~llil:'\1 p(dilicia~l~;" ~rgl~ll1~nls g~m~. w:~.~re!!'olcil,·layi.ng and aniUoo ~~ :~fl'\
\l,,~remOfi~pe~SUil!i;iv~.~h~n \ U~~iffao~...\wre un~y~!oc~~t';;i;llbtll also ~rlai~i. A~ !;llei;i!] :-:~b. ."S made ~o subtly resemble the listl!'n,er!>. ra:uslUiIig suc.lliI, as S~.lCcmd .Lije gain popu!<mtty. Citi1er.uSle.'l the $[X'l,;'tef~lfaworld in \~'hic~;l up;:pgmYQlq ¢m~fging.~~d~!din.,g iic~lclemic~~~t~lre~. barded withm:ldlly compelling ;iii! c<limpan,gns retail stores, 1iII~d busiJilICssDiI.l,eel.illg:s .. These ~jre~ilI;~:I.~1 peop:~cjast I j'ke YllU. ~y w~U ~~quire ,I n~n.geof"w\",.t<l!rde:iiign.'lii. Il(ll (l~ly Relliahi]i,tyull'l'Ulves.mN~deolf~,. Less 1.'C~i:<]ble in '~enlll,~ ted,lllli:cal ~Op~iMic~niiOll bUl also of Cml1lllm'lil,ical~OI1 ofi!(;llle~~¢~p£r or ~a'S,ier; acm~s a continuum from!lm must auraerlve is

~,,3 (2:005)'.

(~m.

11"

i'~

CHEMISTRY

Shinlinlg Li'ghl,on th'8IR,aIP~dly Evolv'inlg ,StrUC'tl!.llrle 0" Wat:ler

Iim,e,-resQlved in ha red~pe,(tm"impy is sheddi~t;i ligh~ or! Ut~ divnamics, o~ hydrQ~e-rl
bll'nd]I't!;lin liqJuid waierr"

Ii~,u i~l;<d~~"Sj!'lQ(.':th!~.ro·\~!l.li!lg C~ft~:i!l.asptX:!$, of ~he h:ydm~'I:I';I:l!J{I,HI~ng strucmre or.of ti:te ~I~ref~$l ri!'!1~ ~~I~:ll ov~r ""hidl the SI:l'uc~ur$ changes. Nm:l:l~ a, uew generariou of t~ me'"

T~;;~:~;1~7u':~:::~:~:,:';:~
m:;e:liliTI.tost:ro:l:ui.Ulllrdl"C(~,
sC.ee,ll,u!Ion..

SPOCtli10SCOPY'

bridges

,E.ldui '~ool pmvld.e:s

ol:lly

;1,

b{1~d Jil0'l::\Morkill~klu~d \~t~r ,~VC)~v~'·'.,I1m tlm~~ surdies h)ld~,i!.l'Je:n,ool1ldi I~ ispmhe,d by menin'.lri:!'n,~~te I.~~~~()~}/ of th~0-]-[ b(lOOc-s~ld~
illg. vmg<lil:im~l. \~,'h:ucht deereases Wit~,l i~llcfe sed ...

ihe g<tipOOlweerl! these metheds b~'pro\'id[11ig .01 SmJCtu;re~llSil1ii\ie pn:ibe o:f.hm;vtl~e ll)i'dirogel1/-

scales ef 48 fs..400 fS.. 3Ui1.d: .4 ps, and f1l!l'lb~ ~,. uted the short rimes tol]w:;Wtl~~O,l'U;S g,n the hydrogen bonds mild the blg. times to' h}d~'O~ !il.~:!1i~bond re~ki~g ~lld fQnf:lii~lg. b r('$liJ!llts \~'e'reCJmdit<lil:i~,ely sinnilar to :si'~l.1,ukilliIQI'IS"'l}ul LllJ()li.!'!~ seale fi.1r hyclro.g€'!1t-bu~.d lU~1!ki~g \""~IS

n~~

ne<l'I~y

UI!I'O

times slower I:h<lnfar t~:lewidely

resolved vihr<ltkmfll ~pec~ooSQopi!es is pmvidi~g det,ri~,edim)ight5 in!t'o hQ~tlrhe stlillC'MrI: gf water 'evo~\'es. l'h.c resales ~i:se questloes <libmlt the. nature of h)'dnlgen 'ooll,dilmg" The srructure of 1iqu i.cl 'Wdilier is !;Iegler<l~ Iy conceived as a dis~rdeJt',[1 i1{llwn!'k (If m(Jil~1o eutes eesneeted by ~'Dy<llfiO£,el1ll bOl~ds,II). Th~s ~'tf1l.~wn;! n~C'~lQ.\tt!!'.'i. <'lind OO(JiI'giHl!b~(;l~ on time sesles bel,"\'CC~IiI, fi;,~I.O-I~ s ~and .II ps, {~,tli""l'~sJ. ~o [) l'!Oi~ ~lJldrogeu-t}olld d~'9ruli:UC:::!l .isat the hc;~" anile ul'li<IJ:!JIe111ys,ic<ul.chelrlll!t:OJtillild biol(l;i~ p cal p!rope!:ti~ Of~.~I~r; ~nsiglu!>, i~toil" l':l:ru>t;, ..... tural pr~per~:i,es l'nil\'e come from x-ray and ~~~Hwn-z.;c~ml;lri~lg~xp~wi~lJ~!lt~.\'Ii~~ic~~ f~ck ~ dym~n'ilk;'ll iu ~lU"m'I~~oil; ins ight~irHo .i ~ s dYlUllHi(';s ~ia~,ve beel1li g~l[:~.ed froml ultrafast ~~m0-re~()~jvedexper] m.(;!:,fQu,.whi ell have lacked S;!.U'~H::tmi:L1 detail, The most detailed m~.d,eilSt ,nld ~I1Sof liClUid~\"1 ter ded\l'ei'i f£Om molecuJ::lr,dYl'lamlic:s SillJlnd3~!~tms:... which COrl1li' m(l~l1yT~,lt :~heiiqt~.ida(; fi:~;idmol;f;;"Clll(l:;;wjdl charges,. Sm:h :si IIlU 1.'LI.iOll!> ,p:mv~de <llla~o nnr by-u((lI.n fl~rn,pt~ct~f"ie hYW~)idrQ~e!'l k~rildl" O:il! i~g c:h(ln~s '!Nitfl~d,me. but thei,r dY11a:mtrl:ics lrna:ve IlL;!Vcr been P(!'011Cori1y tcsI~d~~illcSl(!!l{pel:ii)'m~ni,
liI1,e allliho:r '!is illl thil 1!):~Il!ilrIJlliLlntIl~ (hemi~ry. Maw~(ihySl!~~IllIIi~illl!~ I)r!~ch~l~~, CO!mbridg~,.iWl 02139. USA. E"l!Ilf1j~:lObn~~(]r@mi~.oou.
1

of the h)ldr,oge~1 bmui in vilrnmch h p"linicip<Jlws.. llu~:IiLe\...~i; Ine~11(:d Qf~l\'O-dill1l.t1'ndonal in:fr.are:d sp eOlms,'Copy (2. 0' Ut)1 uses u~,!Ji;otl'u,t:ilflrou~d i~ght pulses to tmck lJg,ID'" i the freq uescies 0 f di m'eUlnl: O~i~ sl.~ngth
b(l!'I(1llllevol "II~\\I~!'lth time, However, speenoscopy
['~~[ YOili!.
C;)1II1~U)lt.

used SPClIE ','1mITlPil·P ~,\I<1Jteil'lmlOdels" FeckDe( ,of. nlm.tJie :sin~li],If QbStN;\"<'lli:onsfbr HDO :iJnD20 usi:l1g the: related t(!)cl~iI'D.iql:il.c of echo peak shill: :Spi."Ctro~opy. Inadditiou 10 50-1~ n!lct~I;;;~tiOIl5,

~vef)jt~ing. S1m\,I.m1i{r~s

<tIll'll;!.i mpOlU't.311;lt. lor 'pl1Ov.udi ng the SlU'WI~UU·l.'I~ in[Crllrenll~o.~. of the e"'q}eWi~,iI.l1!!nl:S"drJ.w:ing (1i~ OJ Iheorelleal JI~~~ripT ki~ ufhO'w 1~1ii:O~i-m f~u.em::y is cl:ewl"mlille(~1 hyrllllo~ by

g~n-,b~)ndi!1!g~rm;t~'~~t2--4), This lecdh.ack (ll:ocess i~.v,,'h:il;h thesim-

.imerpr,eb~li.on.Ii(JQ] h<l.:5in i~:~.<l~\(;Id"' ,
IU~<lli()1l

desedbe~ how srruetural

C'h~lng~); Ii1p~ilr i!lll:~.c experiment, UIIl1.d e0'\,perii'liLenrnt provides the It~l,e bern::liIIrnI]O:!rk for the: ~mnpn~e:il" moo.el Asbm'),ff/' (d. w~:ru I~o~ Hrst ~o pell:'.worm 1Dm e;:;;::perimel:li~ m.1 Wlil'w;l!i ()1. By stw.Jyi:IlS till1t'~SUk!ll"<ili SMiitcl:i~ngi:li Iil~ro[l,em Ibond. Inl!hiis 2Sa:-i:o;; seqll~I1(!~~ken h(l(IlI11 O-D 'Vibrn:li.ol1 of d ihtte 14DO i.UiI, oil (~i1!iSSr.Cill simlulatioPl. slruotu ral fludlul;ll'~cms nne!.loo the switchingi FI~O (D i~ t:h~~H ~sO'~.ope).,they of a hydmgf1!rillxmd bflWt~,n l~ d!cmar mal~~c:tl~~~ootIQliIli)' ilDldilill
~al,a~~ the t~me stales (.",1;:[ '1'1.11i,c'i11 ;)! \:'I,,~l~'r moi."cuk soJmpl('s d;ill1::mwu

bydliLl£.Clun,-bond~·llgf."{mf~~m'luim,1:s" They obser~d d)'iJm'l!frlic:'i011 lilmle VOL 317'

to tl1~ilf)J)ll(loa!chi !1Ie1D' a((!eIPlIU {ora nge). i'Ig

aOCE~tor noote(ul~ {upJ)<t:!,r~E!'mt(l 11fIl~ a!)cej)tor (i!l.p~~r r[9ht}. lillie !1Jydrog~Pl·b(l'!ild clO.mlGclivi!y ~~ ((JI~.r oocill:g,shio'wingl u,@ rnt~lli~ il lro'lill~he' i!litial.acl:ep~or '~blue)U!rm.!glh the; bir"" rcal~d slate ('~F@c?!'l)

6 JULY 2007

S:CIIIICI~IC.I!WNw.:sdencemag.org .

IPERSPECTIVES
~h>e)!'(lbSG!!VC1l4 h:ll'd!l(lg~noondr::, v]b,J";f~'lil~g ~~litha pe.U'iodof.200 :11>. and nerwork l'eiOrgallll~ .1 iow.all a l A~j)s time scale (4). ".lIt Nlo,~ recent .2 :01 R experi mems nil! pure ~:I;p h~\te n.."llC£lJi.ed ~ dilt~C:I:cnl tYPL!ofdiY~1~n'n'l:" i es: llia.eflow of \'i,bmli:ol'l'l~e:llit:,~M ion,throu.g~~ m~u'~I:y '\:\\'I;l,t~rmflkcl,l'~~s.The O~li vi'kimtianl>, in ~heliquid are ,t.::l]illlC'Clhl'~ !;IR~!'iHiUln~j;p!',~acl J
ovel,·,Imny molecules. These cn~l.ect]ve vibr;I.~·

I

of these ~p~d!$sr~-i(yr:m~d @ 1~.ydroge~.1 'oond W,U~]lj'~,~.50 fs ,~' 10). TJ~h demcasuated l]mt·
liquid \"'~tcr doc'!!,noreontain "'diillmgling

Is i[ pOSf;ibl~ to do b€,H~r'!lJ~~re Of~re llmitat Dons tointerpset iI1ig 'l'!'ate[r~i)JOpel.:des. in
terms ofhydrrogen bending, as detailed ~40

bonds" [11a[peil\~:~~tt ..~n iutennediase in rhe .1S S\\,'il:C:~:~I!I,gf hydrogC'n~oollded o snucrures, T~.lelli"lltLid reo;~~llli.le~ ttnn~!!l1in;J.brupt. eoneerted eveats t:~~tswitch ~ hydr~gcn bn~d IWiJm Q~~ rmfm~r tl'l ~il'!othtif;
S~,mlll.3lioll:S hy L<lage' and Hynes p~o-

elft'ic: ienti ru~rlfil~r;lI~~~1 ar ene:rgy :r'ed~slVibmi{H:lI, which ('0\.,.111.1]1 (Jl: et have sllm1l,':11, OCQLn'~ '''':ilhllli <1f1I;;i.\l,lrol,ou-diil1mily

~jQlIl,~ror;~~ fr(ll11 It

vjd~.~ d~!i~j1(;;dm(:c,~<1l1!1i1imfQnhi~ process
(II). "fhey tJ::CI'I.~;rI.d.lh3t. S'iN.ilchi.l~g inilivO<.lves the c:oi1.1,cen,~d le:uugthe:lJling of a h)"dlrog,e:m bond

years 'Igo b)1 Ei~il.~b~!I'g and K,ml'Z~ll,l'l:1[g (J ,2). Perhaps, rCl>Card~Cffi should focus on m1i~O:1"C l~n.gible o!bseT',~;;!Ible!'> such <I:s[twld~;}1f position 31md1.,':~,L;lCt~O~ d..;:n~ity. 01" l~ei'K~I~s II. dYr1i~m k~~11 dl.;;fi~iti(ln {'If a hydlr'ng.~ bend \~iiII ]uigilp.tls l a [liy ~ne<l'Il1I,iilngf~I,.~ :refe:r to ~"bead as :staMle to ilfil pe:rSi[l:i:io :fur i:o!ll.§er tll,H1 f~vibnlttQrm:1 period, ill, cI~<'lmcter]zalion pns:sibl.e !:lOin, by exper] m~rll .ul:d s im!!~,a~ iOJ~, he ],u;,~kuf -c,lai~T

effecrive

t:~ISt:50 fs (6). rllrl]a,ell'.n~,o.re'.I~,e vibnnion;;)1 beHc\ie:en donor ~11:ld <lccep:ro~. accoeipanied ityin these marrers is O:!Ine.Juunpl,e· f what o exc ilatioll e1liiergy iliil! lh~ O·H bond, C,fIIS!C8£i1('S, by mtalio1:l off~ d\olJ:li'lr~ O~Ii-!b01!ldInward makes w;fIJ~ersn ,e.liIigm.wlk': smbs~;n.l1ce" .r~lpid~y imo bending \l'i.b:m:~woms •. ~rn.lil:lmdered au;a. <l.ppmachri[~l1g aew hydrogcn';bolJd aceepR!d~wCIll(:~5 mu]cc~I~.n ooml!:i()~s.. mHI h~f~Ji~g ~ft~~SUf'" HU·(sse [Ih~ flgm"G)I. At Ith~~nH~f;i~jO:!1!SI3;~~·. ]i.. if'. lit 5ti!liiilgl!!r, Sl't!i'lceZ09,~.~1. (l900l~ the donor l~ydmge~Jbond i:sb:if[~lrc<lu~d NJIJJn:ciillgSWiD:hLiin less th.m. ! ps (i. !~). hus. T 2. R, ,I!i~/.K. ~, ilMlle!'; J.lt Klmes.l. PiJ,!S. ~A ];O~, twa accepters, TII~is s:.~v~.~c::h]'b"rug the dymn.n:~es or ''V<It!IJ'~ I~{IX'J,V ide au IlII.lIJsu~i.ly beN~.w!el~l !rue' lU5l~ ~OOOh

route fer di!'j;~ip,ui,~.l\g. vibr.nioll!'ll

occurs when l1~;ei~.l]lj.~1 <I(;ce;ptor experiC~lces
ij

:I:" '1.

s, A. C'(!KfU~

(,11. b~llce,

]" II.. '51kif!neJ;.1.

·O\!fJrl,

rJry5.

exe

i~3~ iOflJ)!)eel~erg:r

we:~~x!uf:()nrecess p

Ib~1

.m,omcIHa.ry ovt1!rbcoQ'rdimuio:~b)l'
i.1l1i1d the new accepter

guide~, the ,con\~ersmom, he<i.Cll1lmll$ o ltC'h;; in

'topl1odi.

hydrogeil]l00lfbds t.!llder~ooQ:wd

iils

An l~iirn;;!,r!!$·\,\I'e;red ~1~I~s~i{l~ '~~!fksltw:himl ~~n By whkh m!;~haniisMI dw!) the (i,t!:iJ.'Clur~ of I iq [Li d 'lWlte:r e..o.~vewil'~, ti me·! Sinl'IJI~' sllll.dlie:s Or\~(,lte:r: Wh>'ll :uS: <I hyd:mgen boud'! ' Re:l\.em~c:~er~ rre m lyiase\,\I'ork iml£ den niell I~tiOIlS ~ave described P'iCOOOC'O!KIJr(,<100ngemelUs

1'L'~tL'Crlus~!ll~[nic!l!1 rc~ctJi;ons"

i!tm~I~~"d.

betweea

"~nll~f)~(iCnl l:mctme::;,'·_ S
,oJ

gmups of meleculeswith
gen-bend

certain hydro·

conlneC:[li,!;,fity about which the l>lil:ilJCJtUI'~n~ct~~I:(;$;9}. RG-"O~~1t ( :>wdi.;;s h!'l'1~ sharpened the pierure, W.~~:~, lit. i[;mres. et 20

(II. liv,atc~~~d adj!W~!'t ~!i'lHl~~euru~" did not lh3t
appoe<lili hld'lFOM,cn bonded,<I'llu.i showed 'Ihar ...11

fmr ](1J!:lt,<I11C{;!, 3, geClltl,l!etri.c cr,ll.c:11'i.O];liu simil!l~<l:~.ion", r 3 dis't~ngu[:~hirlg spectral o fe!:J.l'Lu,e ~,1l1xperimeuts e .. The use of s!m(~.l ~Hn11~ ransterahla, y~$-OI:-I1[) de :fi:~dtio~·u.(O describe 01. hen:mneno'l1l dillOllV<lrie:s :smomlrnl:v p in :>p~o~anti tim~~a.'" I~d to !OOllY mytl!ner.l~~
riens; <1.bmlt Ilm<W.f1:0retlo:on.ci Ie dii,:n'ere'Ii1.l tud ies, s

], ILQIP'I~D, A. TIl!~f1)ii[ko:f~P. L. 'Gelsiler. S'ci~ce .~IO(!',]693 'CI!OOn. :5,. J. B,Mbulll!'~Il'1.,~, Clrfm PIlys; 12:11.. 124.n '(OlOO~I. Q. M. t, Cowi!!l ,el 01.., N!lIillre4l14, 1!:~~WI.m5)" i. l. Llllldllf!rl!fIl'J ..,C1Ii!'m. ~ L!!'n. 42~. ~,;!9 toornloJ-. S.S;.AJ;h~r", lIt liIu~~.A. E~glW. E. '[.]1. ~rub~l'il1ig" if. Elt.a~!I;!.. J" Phyf. ~ ,IIl:U" 14] ,t;!OO]}. ,. !l O!];!nim~.S. ~i1iD,J1{C,. Cflfm. ~', ]2;, 741 U9'!1'}. :l!Q. I,0', er @."',~.iV1!N.4Gm:I: $(\ ~M :Hi:ll, :iUloOJL.9{.1000l, rr, El'. li!~~, J; T. !1yo!l~ 5C!l<ni!'e'311 iall RJlI(t6}, ::112. ill. E~~~ber;. w; t:i'lwIlmOlM, 71'tf'S'ilrlflaillff' Qru:J Propulie:s U!IW'Q.r>!ll' ruaFMl!~!'I,.O~!~!'d1196ro,
I~~~

e..i. f'~lI:o. J" D'. ~~,~.

];~O, ~l!!0I71(il:OO.:l) ..

W~rele S;~ IPO\~eirtra ~:SflilliS~i(l1il1iI1~y aHo~~ ((1m p uters, ,~el~ lIl'e1i, ,and olh~r devic:e5 to pllo

ne uf'the b~I.3;:l1owlllOcbmi.ology lu~g~ W'irel~$l> {hU~!IIi~ so per.'!.ms4ve (my .ISJltfjp deviees frOJril,l. my ~IZD~,e5i.i~J!J'I1It'ri: ,c;Jpn~r~ng i'iiUone ,~\,~rd c"lIrn see iuuine lncalwireless b(n~ Ih~ ~nrn~~;~onnd lh~ baU1~ a [ffl'lli;e $t'3tOr:l !l. '~i~1 ~s; lwrite] th~U f~~~d~fl;fVi~y 1illlfoFlllOllion Age. '\!\'e il~.~\ ..~.ull lo be oOlmcoNed,. ~'\i'Ondef ~,'Ii'h is so clJil~iClI'llt1Ibo:u[prl'lll,'iclillllg <I ..~ b~il~~()l]_~pfli1:.~io~ d~ o~~hl~ Qonm::ct Of w.in~k:ss p~'i'!Nl,;lr I;.I~H·:d,A~d Oi1~ ~~n Ir1l0 sfer ~~~t comrse. :rI Rlpidl,y !i:.'\~:l'amJ~I\gpl~lhO'm of "'!;'~fe~ PIJ\.~er OlI';;\'1i.'il:H "l:-! inlbfl'l'il[litioJ:! by 11!i1.~ea:oo of ~,ess,l:ea~;lnlOlogie.s,--celllub]r !)11Om~,WiFi .. In;) e~)ecll11om<lig:m:dc;: :I'ad.iiltioll~ ir.ldl\cd,. ~nl1iligJh[ ~s. ... [~e uhim'llie source of rm')Sl oflmte em:::;rgy~li.re l<LgS" iue~(}(l~~.mId llIl';,'Inymheffi-provi,de B d!l~aOOlmeCilIi,'I~ly. But (ij.esl)it(!~lllpro:vcnm:::!ius r n ~t$C. SUI!IIIighl C!11l be e~"ilrn[)rd imld~,y i:lrotel1.:sf:. ]$ binoory t'Cdlrl!oloSY iUld MO(llI'J:!"s L<Ji\"'. the om' i~ ~lin barely e!ll.ou£h: The ~JlIllil:iihimie ~,[L~(l'eO:!l£i ngperforaJlillIR'!.': I.)fpOTI:<]b~.e de\! ices faHliin~ on ilm,yI3ptQJ)"C'0:!I.rr.i:e.s, about.25 VI. abmu oo~;fl)f\"ihif~ti$1l!;;61led. ~lill :~llJ,S rt."llching. Ii)!' apO\ ..~n.:QI1(I fur more lL." olllel11l t~ilThn v,-e vl,'(mldl:lke. Bm~. ~,IOW Kull'S: el al. By wire~~s OmmlhliLmiC'<L~ol1is slruJd.m:!s, 0111 !'e~Qn ,(l!'1l~1; 83 oHhis i~IlW;l ,It'! i!'lge-nil.lus n'e(l~:~~rll(uu,L Sl!iml~~ls \.'t'rybri:;ht. Arypial i oilly - ~00 InW,!I[mcliO:I1I <I~ll}roochlh~l Inay offer U!,;,rl 'C~I.m~e for '~i1i'LU~ WiH sti:!tilJl.~lr'<'Ldlu,nes, :
"\\~rcless 1~dQ~~1{J). i~atlme OptoDif~edron1lk~ Re~~nlil (e~!n, So~tlli,;amploCl1IIJfI'~!ler~Uy. SO!lJ'tI1;MflPIOIii SO l.~ ]I3:J" UK.
JiI1if' illiliiillO,1

0

-

be ~o:ml'pletety he~ 0:1'the uaU socCket.

fiI~'~'

t,~j:ihJ:~intoa

con!>Ul!m'I~tion. '~HISUlC'haJ SOlU~ mighl ,u::~p:rCI. Se.lfntai'1~L2:.~r-d,to heolhi:l (.;1 :1l1.1uch :L~,lore re...~~n3ble\\-'tlIT)' th~Ul CllrIDemiT O~10~rr.!J!i: ~ ()V':~r\\\tuFO.

Geu~ ng ill'Olllld ·~~.esei.ss'l~esi5tri,1.;.y. Themi!: ~,~!.w~ ~\'!!mi1bc:r of:~~.C1d~r;!.t~l.y!..i~~"{;'.$sn,d ~ e~Toim~ ~~:'!<~ke~\'ld, :i;y.'5II~'U11~ wl:o;5:~ly to illg '~2:). bill.lied 011Ilc~u~mJtaCl (~.e.., ocmh~.1C1:ter~:m1:'lge) po"'~'t\r[rnn:d~r, Th~..e 'lI1:selh~ ,'!iOn of m,!,glliel~:c . rf:dd induct~QIIiI iOUUD.d ~Imnst;ormerorall In

~t;;.'~'i

:induction mo~or. bo~,hof",imich re~)'on ~.nonIrndlii11!tim~ "eV<Llliesc:enf' fi.ekl th<l~ r'tlduces the row,~r lost to r.l!;d~,~!tion. th~ p()\\,'(':r~l!lsf~ But fiil.l]s

81ml1. T~.e re~il.!his.1 po\",~~d plld Oil ,,,,h!ell 1'! SUit.3b.ly e.mabi.e:.cl dev~.ce c<lin be 1~li~ce~ 'to

orr vel'ysilee'~ly

~nd the fI!I.l1Ig.e.itS ve.l")I

ofl% Ql"thewut]j;tge n~il!t~, tOprn. ... ~,y ~8ip- ~hflrge-w[re~ess. i~u!~ 01;i!tnot \I~rym,obi~(\l, ,'Of top" This h~s ~:'!i1l!O con~quenoes: (i,1If ,,\~~,\f;I:e~ Kturs eJ ,at" '1",rQ~k ~rmuld t~is by i1:Ulakil!l,g ])0'\\ ~li" ~,~~ $hnp~!y sproy,(;~d Ol,i1t 101"~l!l.)ffi:Ul.C to b!}lhtll~ "'l'ie'UQdcr'<' ~f1;C~ta1C '·~i~r" (I f d~cO~:~l:ot.1::" ifit
P!)\\"Gf fiOt~rel3
\\iel,';e

IE-nnill~:w,s~~w.a;rit@u@OO,m!l

tTi.c,d pOW'Cuoperd~e .u du: s~mel:1,~,oderatiC :slunl~gM, I:\''!i:n il, ~hO:rN"dllge \'\IQl~ld ~~m\!'~<l pl'odligio~.s pmll./l."§ redio fro·q·~~.~ncy.\I)lith 'eurl..'lfuUy cho::'G:n '

I

PERSPECTIVES

\\

"

GOlil'l!ll c:orlllle'ss. ~L.eft'l A (!on'l,!l~l1'lhm;)Jl. radio~fillilslIIl~Her, sLidil as in <I WiFi lin k, ellllits, Will;lfS;Indil. wea ~el'l mpid t~wiilln dhtall1 Cle', (~i.$!ililt'l tQu rs el aI.have devis>eo tern for uari1lsllI1,iuingl ptO~rer#l1:eretlhe- e'illergy 'flow is mudl m.ore dir«.led, whki:! prn.:iuoe"i: h1gh~r emclen,c.y,
t\l;;'O coils form a :!lin~le eoupl~d~~~o!la~t S~01.cn~r,~ l!.ndehave ;,lI~ Ih()ijg:~ Ob

<I ~~~

p'al<lm,en::IrS.~he

lInin~'f!~,~dradio m.ruatuIOl.l. l'hiis may not :seC:mIl.

[he field. ~.ltlmug~, lhepTeMmin<l'lrY

~"'I'e:~,~

1l1m~~f!i.~Iill1nJpon~on (ln~pr)\\f€,1' Lr:J:R.~f~rf(,"d m~ms here ~ook I)!:'omish,g {lnd fl~~ro$(]iHml 3, "'~!LIiIlmel"''''<IS ()pelJedben1J,~ecll them thOllIC:J:n, lml ,i~ is sull a .IOlof rndi () power; 3 'll:enU~ <If m~tu:re of" tll~,e'nr.1linsl:'er sill.ou:lld help, Anl.d haadscr, fore1(;(I1l111~.e is .lilUi~;od ~Q mudl. :~C!~!> i.mt:].I)rn'\rCluentlltp.Elrli.e~llI~rly in no~u::nllils;.si:vc •. CiI:1f.ry s.ub&~alliliill.ll)mVel~·over' r.U'Dges, ef'several meters (see t~,lefiSILllre). dlilr~lhis.BlIlm~ Kl~rs f!J t1~.poillill O!ut, [lmis 1:,<111 di.'irl<~ l'il)., m.1Ymean t~.u portilbl,e device b(!~~~ut,;ed by :imprtwi:JIIg tl~£'CQl'liiIl!D:~U\\f1JL~ ,and The deC~j1 ill the ooIJP~.i.~g benvcc'll the Pffi\fer IJi::qu~reml~nI£ lmlY kk,.,"'gill 10 f~ll So ~'fC source andseceiver \vi:I:~,iIi;creasin,g souece.MU>e rt~!· 'i'l.·ir'e-l"Teeyet, but ,revO:~lIl:ionlis il'I~h.e.iiit the des!S'] lo keep [he e.xternal field s mo:~ r.eQe.~vers,~r,;1:l.i(ln ~s!;:ti~l,~wit~!;:t~p n;:~~~.tive pur~ly !lli!lgm~li,l;:,p(ll'Osibly~:~abU . ng fl~rthcr Re:rl!irern{lE!i,andl NotlflS t1.l !;,~tnl igh~-~I;ylerodif.ti'll~ 'ti!'.'!!lsf\~f,FI(J~I!'~\'4;.'if. oodw::tiY!l~)f h~d~hh~~q;dJ$, A!lld ~!U"'~t~ireltC~ 1. It t!Lir!l~!il'1~Si."iM-tl!' 3:l!.7,8,~ (2j)01~ IP~ MLij~i! tMs nolQi~ger translates di:~C'dy lnto <I decay 'I:dlecls nmy pmvern:a]~ageabl!e.~ we: ~,lOile. fi::n 11urn~ ;roo 7 ~~no;l1U1'meflQ~.114!llS;4>, 01· pewer lru.JroSI~r elficienc)l.oocause lmlril!il$e,.\il!1'1\pl,:.dun imerferenee caused by unin<!. 'S~.·!or,~~rq~~~. :5~1#~~~'S~lilffi' ~~.plla~rn. p~r,(Clm. ferred pewer remains 't r.rtp~){Xll ~II"Oml(1 the tellded ~eil'bgc fm'l1i11 higbl"'speed rad io-fee-

ql!eracy .1IIi~~tnel tmnsJlil~is:s][mlines has beeu source aad all me pewer COWlJd sti IJ be naasless (I rml issue than \~I,IS0(1J1 ee feared, '[:l~el'll: ferred. widl ideal cmnponeDIlI~:S" Thi's redi]:IIDique (:'fHU10~if'! r~~~ ily (l'J(~~~~d the !'l'u:!g~ ~Il(jkdl~ !n~~ stil ~ he ~f;'!>U~$ with loss [If pO\\r~r 3:~d
Illite~.y-:fbif exampie.. Ihe PO\\'ef ~r~:pi,pecl ~Ili(lm:ed IL<L(li<illimll caused by meta ]<Ind other

:I. ]. P·f'.I1!i!I~,pef:50m~1 a1mmli:l1iic;atio~ .~Ild neie 20 In

tlLiirlO

tiDI.Jlt "I.s,~'. 'liJrell~mp~~. if'Ol:!<mer!!isiQI'I'~ foUabl1l display:
WIWf.~ClIymi!MJ,li:liri.?:Mllilnd~J>ltm~.

aft'lu9ul Lh~~£)urecwill ~~~ld tt'lri~

h~l~r~n to be ~y~.ng ~111)1:~,1 wil~~i!1 t~n~c~~p~- (~bj~(:I$,!J~;M

<.I,bl),. and imperfect real oollJlpOnelH:S will C1IJUSe' IOl~ses___:bnl .it does !~ldp :~()tI(compare' a figures 2 and 4i~ Kuru c:l al,), AHUI tbere is a~.ot;fu::f'liikclybc.~.e:fl,1 Jram the use of these re:SO~,l;,UJcoe:ii,i.'lg 5uggested by Pemlll")1 (3,. 'l,v:hid,l. ald(l[lreSSCSI~,e' possible Ill~<l~!t~l oUDJ:;.;:rn.Urulike ;! r:~~lvpr'op<lgalfing c elec l:romagmtc::tk: \~rave (such I!lcS, sunl igln),

RETROSPECT~VIE

'''''TIi;;re tht; ~~e(:l~'C: ~ml~~tic omnpr)ll~m~ aad ilj,r'el mJ~,w~ys of sim ilar iIlwl:ls:i~.y 011 ilIverag.e.
are ('lvcf\VtI~chnilillg~y .lli~9g~ 11.1 ~.st:ollhj be ex~l'emely 111~I.pfu~ ~dtt!.'.::ii~g ~h~':~az!lni m health, ~,~ because mnst ol1di.llIuy m<J~er:iills, ,~indud:uIlS
r~;!;OumlCC:";

IRolblert: W~Cahln (192,~20'01')and ID8Vidi 'Turnblulllll(119'15~2100'1Il
I

th~sc:

IliIe~:~c i11 eharacter,

i~ yt:~r'S, <!~o, the pr'C,cut$.011l' discix.ly ~mnil:y ned Nazi Ge'rllJ11<luy in ~933. O1llil1.dilll r.~':Or;~~) ,~1!:~i!'f~Ct more $trtJng~y \v~~h ~ !"tilf th~ C rl.~.~~~ rij~I.N~C i~~. t~) ni!,l~~ _c.~·~.-!ll._ ~.:t.~.li._l~ 1942. Rob'ilr~~~~~~rod ~mh!"idg.~Uniwrsity _IJ!.IIl'gy-wou, h~fldii::~)' e mp':~rii~.'1 IliI;1;;~e::!~ 'I t J'. TmllbuU W,i~~bllf,UiI, O[fa ~ SFr;:!bnHl:ryl tJt5 i, el!~ct:ri,c ~h"~Ii\'\'iiffil~~e m.~gm:lic ~"{l,lnpllfl~l!1t ~f an cl.e>CLro:IIiI]<lgllct~c;: \IIl'lIVe, so 1:l:Ic ahsorbed sarlly so give~~1irs eng~:~.ecri.llmg i.~.npoilil<ln(\e 01:1 !I. fl!rn,[ I.y f~u'rn in !3: I In ira, ~~,I:iGlllnilS. I.S :11: pO\li.'er ean 00 Im~~!ch 1~f;lbr agivenameunt ~f' illlil d Ci(Ji.~~,p~:(;!:X]'Y.· ov..lCve.:r. by~!Jige ho1Je I '9410:->. ~~lmi~iY H rarely ventured more drHI~ a tC\\f
pow(':r n<l Hls:lll::'rliCd. TliD.ishelps; eiikicltcy but,

S

the mkrQ\'\"!i'l,oe oven--s>tyi.e heari ng with inb:~1in ti ssue Ihj[~ deflaes the'lmu~vrl hll~m limin> f~]r all [radiu~ frequency deviees SUCI:l 'Il!! ~,uobi:~e phones. Thl:-l ~:n~,e( ilS !t[)r ye~'b~erI 1~!lWot;l!lby sm[iJh
diolfd Sl!Lfely tests, but it~ook);vel'Y 1~J)ml'lli:!!iJng.. A]tllOl~ll tl1~ ti.y;;l~nml ;~O'W WtlriG; ~t!ld trni!mS~ lef$ II, use'lh~, ooW !Df pm"!'t!1rover <Inimpress:ll\l"e

[<'II: ~nore

imp(JlFtam.. i,[ reduces

[~efi eM waseb eurte be Ira nsformed. Robert w. (~ill~nandDavid 1"llIrnb~I~I. ",.r.IIDo. beth dlieJ iIII Apri II of t hi s ye;nr •.:p:~'lyed \I iM11 nJ~~!S in~~t(: evelopment ofthi s ttle,\!J selence. d The two me~, C31rn,l:e: fro:n% re'IllI""r"mb~)1 dif~ fere~l llal~kgnlUwnd~. Qlh~ \,\I{Hlb()fgl ilUo.(I
<lind ,ar[is'~L() lewisll f:am:~~,y ill HiI't~L OCmlillQ1Y. Qll I) S,eJilih~lllbe:r l ~}2·4,The
IJIX):'>I}emll!> lihe 'iI!lJIihiDf i~ln Ihe Diilpildll\tlnt 01 Malelruilb Ili!n!linee~ingl" Dre~l Ul!li'lle~itf; Phil.ad>eil~1;ia, fA. 191.04, LISA. E-maln·:
dotl,e.rtrd'@dlr~.~I~p .

IliliM.es from

thei r fflr In (2).. H.cl gffldu3xed

~r'mil1Lhigh schoel
MCV1!t'n'OLHh

iu 19'3:2, .n file h,e]gbl of
W3.!>

the Depression .. but

able to

3U! .. ~I!1d

C[lUe';~. 'l\.ih~ch was gm\'ltm~d by ~.
,_

lp:J:l.~he~ l;I~s:~nl ~mc impoJtarnt ·i&."l~~ du'l~
'uOVll or pn\:ve;r lOl~sfetrod. -? \Ii cU~!ld}l' ~l!iIdsup as
~,Ult:daddressnllig, For e;o.;"'~,lp~. ofth~

I.~,e'Pl'es'by[er.i<ll1:li sect to whi.ch his rRnll'~lly bi::lll!l,ge-d. He~ he I:H;~eamif;; ~.!]h,;rest~d Irl :phys;h:;<I~.'~~,lernl~s:~y:Elnd went 0111 o ,,!SCholar~ ~bip al'Dd. Pb~lD"a~,he' [J:~hfers~:~:y a t nf[l.Ihtoi~ il~, 19'39'. C'.liIHl'S; .m1ajoU' (;onu:jbUlianslo the !l~\V ::lcl.ca:l,oe o:ITp~lysh;HJI :1IiI,l,c:ta~:~IlIII'ID' ;t<t:lrt'ed d m~

~ :

i

i
!i! ~

i.l"!.g hi s groJC~llIitOO r~OO';;i!rc~.wh€D"~ hi~. '''!.pefili~ ~ e

56

6 JULY 2007

VOL 317'

S:CIIIICI~IC.I! .WNw.:sdencemag.org

IPERSPECTIVES
andI, S. Servl (3)i d~~l{l!)Smneti thL;l cvmUdity oIW~,omo~~neous, nuelearien theory for a stress ~nO\Vii:m,G:n!]s H) de~br.ml p~.astDcal~.yl. form selidmeral crystals, The undcr,s~.;ull.d~ solid ..... l id Imllsl'o.r:li1t:l ~t iomthe nucleat ion o Dislocations hll,d been Pnl~;lO~ed(,0 e::!q,lli'J]:[l ing was tbt the jnrerfacial free tlme:rgy [If coherenr cobalt particles from dilure ~hc dlserepauey betweea the vc,ry h~.g.i;I be l~\1'(~Cil~~ tnel;f~ 'cryl';l~~anld I irs :~~,c~tII US! SCl~id:so~~,lio~lS ef cob~h in copper. SoUd~ I pred iered ~I'e~i~l~~nc'e'pl:,l :ii,~ to icily ofpe rfeet !'une nucleanen precesses fo·rml '[he basis thereferebe small. l\lfubuU 'L!~nrk;dOUl.~1(~:;u~~i~uc;m;!; the of the 1:~t:hno]ogucI;liUy vil~11,p:~ce);~ of ,011 !~~U'll crystals, COUl'P1U'cd to th~D'1'ueh SIUi,'iU!il!' m~f~$~H'~d VIiIWU~~\)'Df ~clt~~driJif~ fri;,'l~:;d~ '0f a low-m~Hi1m.g-p(l'irl~ mel~1. g~!I- 5tn~i1gtht~i1hl,g l'Q'!JI:it~Uk: al~o}I,\l.byprt..'>Cipila-, g li~l.lllili. ~~mlound th<lllhe S:m1,],dll slUpereoQ\iiin:g:s f lion harden ing, me<to,1 c.rym<lis. :~n pure meta]t::liysla~s" dlslo(",Ui~lli::! l'i1ri !nQI!,'1;l1liliJqd~rthe i"lflw:I1J,Qi,: (Jfwry ~'!:!lm~ seen rl;l;:;~I~ie;d Iy [HUn panicles {If t:Hr~, Bgt'~ (If these rlione~r" made nm~wgl:~~r ~ffilH)1111 :s~eaU" stresses. ~Mel<Ll. p:rooessi:ng lecm,~ rnuo:re politely called "he~crogem::()il1s catsvital eomriburiens, e..m studied the orysl lysts," By breaki Ilig up I:~I~ j,dI g<lHh~m l'L~.iol:p'lp,~;y 1~I;JI~' OflLll:.mi~! lTI" ~nl;,l~il~ ,ll!lk,dh~'i 1"11'I1'ILles lm<1.d Oi.h"'i:l~f;j~LMtdsolute 'l~{l m:li. ~e>C;omJ p~,lase-::;.• md ether obsraeles 1(\Mhich Impede .inllO slrn~U droplets, so llulIli:telii:: were 1,11Iore Ili~,g. OI'I1I.d ()rdered intermet .. mc <!IIu'0Y5. Tumdrophi:IJii [h~n I:~.em were p:h>ces of d in, he hulill Imifldc impOrl2IJIU cf1liiitribmiom';. m solidthe mevement disllooC'~li.o:tlils !'~O lmpreve ~hemetals' resistancejo pl;l'!ll~,Cdel'm',II:I,l1IA:LCn~ achieved the \rery ~,ilIrg~ ~~lIper-coolings charsnne di.ll'lIS.UOI'I ;.m,dl!he srrucnne oCliqluids.. Bothscieutists ,~]~) swd~~d !ll~~~~lic glfl$:$(;):S <'lind ~o (:n!~lrfl'~ briH~~ l~cmr~. U~W (h~ ~C'ijQftSlk of~f!;.lba~is ~;all\)d "homog~~~nlJl&" adyeu~tof d i!>~.oC:<ltio~l!he'ory, however, l ~u.~ nueleation. His, result indicated ~1 .I;u~e (Illel~ U ie i!.I~oy:s. l~jJJ can be eaoledte fom~. inte rfae hili ene,rgy beu,\~t1!,ei~1rY:l:lt~~~rile and e Ii qm~sli.tlnof \v.llDat l:onl.ro:ls; the p~pil!:rl.:ies or r.ugid.~umcrys:t."mm: solids,l, n,eilur~se'!I:~h liquid g.,idl~!JImll. lathe e,nrl)t18th eennrry, wus illH';lnLll1ent,l~ in (~.e de',re~.opIiIH:nl ·of mel~l~.alloy;~ s~~c:h'IS· steel l'tmhllfil,ol be ~ddreSc"ed SC~Cl~,t~fic~Uy. l:od~jI"~9.~~mach~:on1!UC:rJ,S!l1;r1U su perenol i.lJiIg (a u~m"~I'i.UU re be~~(Jw lIil.H::~t:i':l1Ig tenrperamrej re stan 10 the

I

mems demon ~:~ii1i tedl~.e reali l}fO f d isloes!:ions ,~~'ine d~efe(;ts, whose ~ml!ovemem:under

v'ery

or

.F:lto:u:i~. is gf<J:d!lll,lI:te student h work" C .tho alsupreposed ~l

']~,:ii

scieaee. in,!,i~.lieh the
pmpewli,es-

5'UCl'l;;~r~d,rn(~d~ll ~1bflil;!;if:1li;lc'I~a~:Lonl of new 'cryst,<Il" r,r(lfl1~,ed

ilt ntC~U~ of lll~iJCr!i!al'\>is .nl'!(ldi~·il,;id 1!)prod~L~ new

<Iud impreved

d~!ri~l,g: r~~rysta]Iizarlcu a softeni:ung prm::cs:> lh<lt occurs

sl!ch as highsr s~re~lJ:'!tbs
o rurn,pl:oved: elect rk~ll:and

whel~ heavily deformed metals <lire healed. .JU Ol\'orl.llg them to be
!iC!'~,~.]:l~d~JM(l C\M l{)[)j(,:'Cl1;" I", n

i1~!.lJ!!;ne~kproperl:ies~11e'I.><led fo.r f1WI.ic:~<JiliO:D1,," mn£i~l.£,
~ircml1 ~~g.uues Lu.:liiii'" i fOJII.mu;iol1"ii:!OD"dg.e devices,
fi1('I!'I1I

his llnodiel.
introdueed

tmH!!

dm,')l~ocat~ol:ll!i

b~ pr.e·i"~oU~, d~f(!!'-

rn,uion rearranged to create • :s,m~nI'l:!g]om. e f d.I5OI()!~ at ienfree ~ry:;.tills th'lt can grOli,i to
'OC,'(iOI:llC 11C\,f gr.aull~5.

t~c~de~ne .u several unii
versities

Cr~hll\,~~f'Sa successful

ill the 'lIlIl,ited

TI1~~, model

p~;ovi"l'edthe basis 'Of aln~,()s~ all
subsequent research into this
import.Hlit i!l(;t~:;,lri.i.l~ precess, IDavffidlTIlI,rllill!mU wh ieh is used 10 centre I the siille 'IDlbl!!rm\\r. Cil~n <1lmlur.ie!U<IHurl. ~1[1'I$ [n ffitlwl~f lie a~~,oys :improvetheir Slre,lIlgtll <Ln:d~llhi]lity to 1.;:3 renhe il had reperted h si III ill;[u obser va1:0 be ~hilpcd. fo.r example, i.liD. :lIiutm)rllubji~ ~i.ofllslb:r tiliH~fl'l1!c.z.i!iilg OfW$IMu. Turnll1!l1J1 \~,'a~ bCld~!E:!> tlm1<1de liom pressed .\11:eel sheets, WI abl!e 'I(l, e." pl~~i.:liiI ow l;\ihat 'I,'I.'·m.. ~Ul~)pelilin; and T~~rilij'1"ij ~n~d~(ml,;: onh\;:!n~:ajar' diScC1;w~r~ shewl u;~.u1Ji'\,'t;:r:;;f;'I~!l~~;p,~ie~~ II iomi. To ::ohowih<ll this p:i.im;~ple a~:so;Jpplied ies ill 1l1al.er:i!ls science .~ifi:erjoinil'lg. I~~eGE .. rot,;lll~~rch i~b~lr~tary 1.946•. ~~is ~.!~gAA.!H to m~~!!.1~ :i!:'! wiil} !ii~J!!pl~Cr.y$t<i~ t'·ti)"UCt~~N$,! in'l'e.'i~ig,ui,on~irHo dle nUdil;!;li~li(Nl of MrWlC::mc h ;<noli 1'01fiI, Oi" Ii,; Ypper. Turn buR, t{lg~thei: I.und tm I1isfomuui,QiIlS {ilJdl iii Uy ~he :so][di!"i~ w,uth .lit Ii C~x:~~,dcw[opcd it simp:~e e:;(pel:i~.llem.l~ nw~nl $, of stw.Jying lhep h.en~U;!ileflQ(L~ " cmion of liq~rid me~:<lls" huwcd dl.u such ~ S,y iiDemh~~ slJ1ffi,al:ll dmJ1l!eu;; of bUgh-mei,ling~ comple..'(. prooesses cou.Mi be qn::l.fltUlat.i.wlly

K~l1Igdom .~nd Ff'd:iYCe •. ~.!Im. ~'S was 'T~tmb~ll] lIHan'l;lrd ~ atle~: he lel1r Gi3 n:;m :~96,2. Cahnalsn madegrear C'On~ ~[]I[)il_.l kl~s to pu hi ~sbi fig" part icularl y tl)a,e encyc lcred le rome Pll,'L'.';;icaf Melr:dhug)' that he en-edited w:i,tlh Pel.e~r:HiI'I:lit'n. TiI,J!:"nbuJ]. in his r~CI!I!'Jch !llIrld 1C'~(,,'!hi!m.g,. was

.a.~,w"ys ,I materials scieutist ,c:m~.t'JIuSabiJ!JIl ~nyf'lJ:i!lt~rhd \:~'ith :illtJt;r,e~[j~lg 1>tn,1cn~~!I:1 problems .. independent of its dl,e~.nic~.11 bu~~dingT S,f!diy, T~rnbull n(:Wf 'nmsl~t~d his I eC'tm!l: I1!(H~::i m~!jnu;t~lI:ul .~!1~ fonn.LU tions h~ro~ ~cxtbt)ok. Those of us''\vhQ h<nvc

\vriu€:n sl!ch
(:o Np{!litor.

~\'l:Xlb(H)ks <lir~free

of ~ ffil1jor

m;m,dersl:ood. The [heory for this type of beeu developed <Ii decil.de or so .~ !li::lTd~r by physklT~~ c:he;m~&H:' mclyill,g cryf;~ s .~ ~<l1 .i ~ zc~li.()n fliom !m!JPCr.s"llILJmu;:\(jIII~.q'lJ d sol:'lI.~ ~ i5~lk1!'!S.The inhi 1.1 Ihm~ fI[~~a:I ,of Ii erY(;;I,f~ I-for :~ eXl'lmple. S<lihfroD, all I'Iq~~emJL,\l:;<1]1 soIu,,..
PlfOCIeS1S, ~,13.d

pOJl'1ln1e'~ul;l;.such

<til! ,copper.

~n ml ][len: ~l!b~

Simlil:':rrm,d lhe:l,1coohlil,g lilll.ellu below Ihe.ir ~,e I~'~ml£,~~~,n pe:rawros. ~h(;y d~V'lmol1lslrlll,t~d very 1<I~e 'L.niDd,e:m;oo~.i:riI.gs.

but· his t,e'xIhoo k. v.,'oul d~~vc beellil. [J conuiibuli,on t!]'.~~, v<oeregret nO'[ h.wiilml,g<l\'<1 iI<lb~,e Lo. us"
J!!~I~Hr~!1!()~~ ~~ ,Ngikl~ :L litllii., Ohm, l'1li!'AIr'f rtf BelwrgIr:l1!! IK~~ Guild If>Ubli~1'Iilig, ~U~I@)I,.. Ut;, 01005)'.

or

Through

(he:..seI;!lxpJi;;r~:~~em'~ 'Iheorl;.!,t~~nd

ie,l.! insi.~n;s. thep~evi.olll~~.y ,e~up.iD:.ical :!lludy

.~I:km-w~s. knm\,'I)to mq~~i.rc higMy ~uPCr:i>!I~

of ~~'(.!t"'il5C1,~idufic atkmh,~d ~.{.:q~~ a ~Icar : i~"ccl
sc:i:emitk tbllQnid3tii,Qilrn,. rurnb'L.II.ll~.<Ili1ijllll,l~s. !(I.I~ .I~~.gu~s!u GE\¥~!1l ow,to de-v:{:h)]il' ",Chlll~hc til~,c d i::iCip.~~::lm.c melal·\tl.~I0)" 'ra:o t:e~sing" of

~" Ela!lid 'I"~mWli' 5.a IIt!:biO!lfil~1l)'
WiWf,rrm,l'Irgt~

(i!!'I

b~'JDuma, i1i1

.~ ullied condi,tioa.l~ because ~he fi~:s( 5m.dl .. ; crysta.lw i~nn. bei ng ChG!11 icalVy d iH:'¢.n;;nl 'Ill trOlnw'ltl:1' 001 mioll. ~~~s,a~<Irg'e :~l1Iltl:ml~1c ial :~ (':n~fID". YGr, i~.go~'S 'l1fU'l~~tfl:ls; ~;~(l:d.(1don~y u

fiIIlSi~J!C:,M1(I[I-!l7~"ll)i;o,.ll~~9i:1l •

3. I, s" :Sel'l'i 0, Turn~ulLL.,lla.~tikfll!i: :lA, 1161 ~I966)•

til

!liI

panicu~.;;trly .im.p!)fUu~.( ~.!IerstitHly. he

pcn~r:bp~ijn:ns QO~IJT rnrcly, !\tabH!~y can be U~ ~~~ <'I.~\\Ihr~~h~ ~Y"i~lv~. ~ !"d"'r!i!~ ~ol,.~~hiln)ril.ll~, l.i}. rr \'ihocb 1,]q:!,IU" f)!1;;~W!;.".!lInly i!iJl1!ld :;;~O!;:hru;;Lie:JLlly, !.hlOJ H~np.i!LCt {Jf ih~~ Sihm~k:lii d!;;p.;;!l(~ 'Oll cmmmjl!lilJ""~!is~!1CC (5). wh~ch '<Ill be !I1I'.1;!l'l!Imd by the \'.!:!i~biliIJ in th~ d~mgc in OOIl1bti"eddlL:,,~It~i:[il;~ :lh!:iH tll'l¢ ~iD11~ prnil'u. ~'{j Ihe
!~@'1i~!1;'(1 by

Und:e[S't,m,din g, the Ire~.atiollisillip' bell;'!l~elll dlivenily .alllil:l ~tabil1ity reql.ll ires a ~rlOllfLedge ofholl:'f species inter.ad ~~i~hea,dll o~heral1d ho~'\!'eachis aiUie'deod hy the eJI!fiIrOI'lIIIi1,eont lh,~ ire~at:iollSlhiill! i~,also, "Qmj)Ile:~, be~<lu~e:~he 'QOI'ICllpl 'oW stalbmt,y ~;s mIllHTIff.a,eted~ dHl;er,erlt typecs: oirr;l:aib'ililly dl~clrib~119 !~iner~lIIt. p,,,,oper~h~s, Oir ,ec,o;s.ysl!!ms leadllQ mll.l~tf,pl:e-,l!iJi'l,l\ersity~tiillbHit1i ~!aib1!l)ifIships. A grol~'fiIl11'g If! y m!Jer 'e~ ~mp1iric;l!l ~hJ!(!I~~s<d~mQIII S!Uate IPQ~ti'll'e ,gi~l':>ity"s1:@ !bmty f'lilL;l!tiQ~ts,~~ n~se Sit~~les ps, ~'Olj'H~!!Ie:r., avE! emplhills~iIl:ed only ill few tvpe~ oJ stability, a rnd~hey warEt1y 1I.I11Jo(;;O'!le!'r the mlKlhiaiflii!i1iJil1i h u!spo:nsi'blllf,o; :S<tability. B:et:1I1U:511! illnthr,opogerlk 'r::nang:E!s ,often olUed, rtallilHyaml dliversity simu![~a,neol!i~ly, dliversi~":5tabimy iF,e!laUCllii~l'ilPiS ca~liiDt b~ ll!ntie.r~t(l!JdQlul'S,icle the GOl'lte)!il ar fil'i! ,e-iilV!lfOftime~tC!l drllw rs afre(lil'li~' iJetlir. il'ii~ S~UU ,attention .awayrlflc Wil ,tii~~rsit1)H!tabililY ~!Ii~~~tijJ,ru:hliPSOOW(iw,dlihe fl'iUiti iJ}lef,~CitCir:!i.• ~n(ill!!di!'i~ dhl'~r~l,l¥, th::'l~d'iC:l:aJt!!l~'he S't3ibmty 'Ci!Jeco$;yst!1!m~,

);~fiock:;. The ...e h\!o M:i1reilt~ 01.' s:uabi.HI)' ~the~l~ rellinii:1 'to ~i.iml:lr;iJliIn1. ~m!l, I.he dllftng_e ib1 cOI!~'1bi~'ilcti Cb,::ili"
lit)!." ~~~i~t.>,d b'~jl'i~f.K;~[~

or

sii,li~s, in res~n:"! t:o, I'CI)C,flltOO~uiCk:.-logcthC'r dC!li!nn ~I'lea llriioo measure or s1,abl ~ity: the CiVCll<IUr
;,l)'::1ICn11 \'<Irii:lIbiHty. For C'.\';.\'l:Il~r~~, .t1i l.11:ore iIiC:i.(:;lmll ~~!cm is klilOCked k:)1:i1l::i~en., irn~mle,[;lml ~h{)dl;:,~. m~d mpid ~nl!l'I1r<u""s I]W!U tIJ~~ ~slt'm more qll,lt{;[I;;I~ l(lwOIrd i1;,>.o ~I,li~ib,riu~n. ~;(llh or \,'!fiq~clt I~d '!CIlow~rowr.dl, i;:(1~n"'l!!II:~t.y \I;.r!l!lbiliEy lillo).

In adcUI'h:lJ1IO s~ocks. cmljrommmial ":lCflm~

C'UI!Iiii;.'i'i, ifil r,s ~~_IC1;;~$illiJ!] (':4). h~nCC!lCgl~li.r ~pc:riook). or ~,~~~b~ l!Jl_"'l~tlblc ~."'lim::!U'gn,~i~ '(oO'",iLep~ ,@if S,taiJi Ii~y 1lli!j co~~lio.ll of S:l:ilIb~li1Y 'C'OIlO~pa.'ii:'ict~ m~ (clil<itllk:} U 2. 13). lHQ\\l ram~li'lt' Jl.{Iil~pnint A 1;i,mdaH~~;~~'ld ~1rQ~]cn~ir~ i[l!i~ ~O~I:CN.t i~'[h,~1 ..Ur<M;'Hl~"i~,I 1)~,t,iI~hll,{jf.-l~l(i'}' ~mb!l~J~Lllit cydl,;. ~n !.i'B1piik'lll dl"l~ laJlgl;;'"B;.d~(lLrc d~".ignl HI'I.~<'Ii:l (;,]l(lli r. ~t!lbi.1 C~1Jl l~;l\ll~ii11Hl];y dm1:~.'~l1It. liiu~1 i01:1:> whaeh d~11; $LR)U!!l irlI!:1K1.C[aQm; b()q\\i("{;<J:I .ptC)' ,11](1 it~:~ ~tltdy. i't .is 1~(;'~ry[!)kn!JW C\rIOU~:I ffillo~l i[y & the dynallllic!\ oj:" .fm '~"(\().1Y~lcm,8Jlla. [liIe~I~;vlJlll]· ItJ $11 ar,.d cllchd.i:.iinitiolJ gives fl dliflbwtu rtJ[~d"U:or gCJ'tCII....le P;;;1JIc:~lIIf1n.y Ot;ca UmaJl!!l del1~,~tics ~1,1C11ial pcnurl\il~io.~:\ Ihm, inlllp.lng~ IU[IDil hlo d i\lersi~y-Slfl:b~I~ty p;:;1il~jo~::\h~I).Di ~l:crcJlI IllCOrcl.· (.I tj). ,ane measure (.1ifll1te si;:ibiHry (.1irS)i~!c.rrns Will11 il,;!1~ ~~}TU;:qll'" or sn.."Il~,il~!ypply. ,d(;:p~p]~ing l.millC ~ f.1O~poip]l Hli;~'I~~D:r.'i i:i vl'hdl~!,,"f tlliJ "Unl't;,toli ~:oi. ~~ect<lpp;r'OjlrjilH: cnln,j~tons of s'Wbilily; t~'leJ"C d i.yf-k;: f;}ril'lht':lfl"iTI~dynl:illnic:;; cxhijgj~t\d by 3 :;;y:.i~I~1 d:iJ!IOllC. j\l~oihl;'r COllOCf!i.Dh~abiliiy II1lfrt~uwlic~ '1'",jll'~ollc:n ~ ~c,'ernl ap~m)prila~c del1nh~on.~. 1]lb"S.C cQncep.t~,fI~SO ildcildly lO::cy rC;'Lflilre\S-Wi: :md the i)'j}C or 1){;'1I.lunm lil0iJi dt~ ,~)r:s;l\.'1l1 'C);;IXc;'" t~) ,;;iiitCf dmutic of 110IJdl.1l0Li;(': :;;Y$i.eIlJas delJ'lClltls, :rlicnces.I.~c~., VI1\: gflvc lin 0'1 erviC!ill10rSOlt)e typt.."S on the .:1IJnJt!~jlludc rnucttl;}l~on!;,with more ~tabli.: will refer tv '~11'J.:1!11 a.'> m.cch:Ulis!ll't..-d\a~IO~Ji!bb"r o dijciale 5tfL1:ni~il.y. ThC'SC tlredtoni.'mas il1iv()~v..:: Ihe of sialliHI.y ,6). We roc~s (lUI 'OOIl,C>;,lll!;or:::'1:1bjliitjl SySiCll1lS ha,ving ~(w r."mnp:llitudc 't1m:IJlJottiolls or .. c ~lm~,i~wo~vc:so:me iUlicgm,tcd mC35UIlC oflhc wme aggrcga,te mca.~!lIreof Ihe syst~liIl. :strenglh of in!emctioll5 aH1:GIl£ ~"'(;T'Cs.~hcmode eJ~[ire'ecosystem. :such ilsdre SiLmm~ed d'cl]sity of n" Ihe :5yslJ.:m has.>I single. m,IN~' c'IlJil,ibrilJll.n ill, which specie;:;; illlter<1.ct 'h\~iloethC'1." ~hC,'Y:l!rc' I]oinl, :'ijpiCt: ies dC'nsirl,II.'S ~\1 rml nW;lln,O!i~(.:!in OOI1l1po:!l:ilors. protkll.orS,ImUlllu ...lisls. cle. ),dl,!il ~ vcs m ~he rtlod·w~'b~Oj]olq:g}' .• md !he wa}~ ill ','_'~~ch b:i :;')111$1:,1]010 'o~ C'lwir'()~nlcnt,,1 P,;w!'!.ntmuior!s. l!)eiP~il!jIne!ll: ar~~:t' Un'I'ii'ef$$(y ~f'Wi~Q,~~r!TI,Madi$Qi\ ~~i!\i"S '~_",pL;;ri~ru~~ d~rr~!lt~yp:;iilOr~!l\,'it~)NO!1£!ltt;k~ l;ul\"im~!1!1(,!!iA,d pcIiJ;lra:.1a~im~ !lila)' W~ 53706,. UISA. E-maH: alii... ,es~c,edu~(~~:eJ' f'Gr ~l~'Tllal Ptrl~lIrbul.iPli~_ B~m,l~ lit'llh ~pt;.'IC[.(,.'S imtrt'u,)c!ln.'~~~CromlDrplll~or d 1;hocb d'iiil dwn~c U!l!mlO'logy; I.In[\oe!Sil), o-f Wisoonsl!h M<IId150"" WI, :5,3;706; reJll!i[lDfliio~.... C311 ~pc:{"i(: ... t1cl:i:!iilit:;!> IF~ig. I C). If d~~."e:pi.uL\lC :l!iCi:~ni:is ,I:irnd C~l\Iiroi'i~~1L':11UIi~. UI'~ ~.mOlil:. mjl!rRl.!!l@wis(,)!dlll

all Nf)L.'Cil.'K n~lh~fLI~n "'[K,,'Ci~-lC\'c:11 !ll(,a,,"IlJIW.: these :raru nlJlgll;ll!lr.i.llly ~J1UI.,;'ll\!'Jld";Il~,)li.t~~L.~i'ui!~r l !Ire t71, 11llmn',f'OUS re~~l!Ires or 1,;.'COJ'Y!SICI1IlS f~ITtl~~ lhey .:::mnplet(~I,y ip~St;paI':!Lbk~ !>1:lbi~i1y,~,IlC~ud divCl!Sil.y ([i~m,oc"l"'of spccie~'~I. iu!!; Systcll~:> lJ\lH.y have a~mmmi\l,~ smhte :Slta~C!i IJ~c ~tlit:l1igtill ,Ornr:llomeliOl.ls m1ilong :speei~.mhe (.f'i.ll. I A). nn w.hicb ihcli.1!i3! dCl1sit t.I..'S of species, !.opo:l~og:)'·of !oot! webs, ~TDd the ~~nsitivilk'S of 0:1' C'VCIll Ihc~n;L'itc.m:c or species, dCpr:!f:ld 'Oll specics,[j) difTercntn~pes of cmliromllCl1.ta~ pertheir illit~91 delllsi~ics, Ilf Wl',. FOili e:-;;H~lpk~, !'Urool.iam. Empil'ic,d stooi~s h[i!\icg'conemUy Sch~jrCf 111 'it: U .shm~~ed Ihm llillillilow Du'OC:h ~iJiCl!if.ed motte sp.'(;~nc.m.lly '0111 di\i,C'rsi~y.. p<1nic~u~ lake:;; CJ~~ occur in Ci,II'lCr a dcar4v,mC'1' !;tU1.: ,ao~n. .lm'Jy ill l!he pa.'i:l t5 y~.m;Ii'$, nis is because ,d1i\I'Cr~ .il1!:lld bygu'CCn 31lgae o[~I.uroicl,.;\\'mer s!m.c si~y is easier [0, measure ml(l ]nrunlipulatc 111[J[nI. domil]mcd by blllC"S~OOIl 3't.Qac; o:nte blue-green <Hiler ]l'<lllWCS Orl1arulm:!~, ccns,ystcmlS, and bcc::mse a)sacgc1. cst:!b!IL"hoo. thcy :slmdc :!!nd tli~C'reby "'lachrosc<l.n::h ~ ret'cvmn 1.0 the dcb1l1e !Jbmn~hc [iCl[:lcl .!lI,"'C1] alg.1tC',. c!'C'Jt'ing " sclf"fICrr:te:m,lIi!1g wor1dwid,e 10M'i orl1i<l(ih\'c!'S~.y (I, 2~ snJb~ ~Wlltc"foL' ~.yst~!11S\Vi~h[lI~I.'1i'!1'<lli'tlc s1l;)hle .~ liZ'i~o:ri(";),I~y.DJ:u~ r"'~!lUiQ!lil:-;~!~ P~C'i[\\II1.:~111dii~ stmes, tl~lI.~ cOn:tl1.;pl or ,';'nlhillity d(P(,~lds 01'1 UriC uumber ,or fl~[Cl1l11lu"esmkl~,c ~lm)l";S..~ More 8'CmIMc d)':rl~lnliC;s ul!1d('~o .1 qUVl]i~.tivc c:tmng¢ ~c.g.• . "'~tI;~I.y t1!1.'d s:~;]b:ill!I,IJI hrLc!ol l'!tL"'Cn ool1~e~ll iOUi" 011(; speeks goc~ C'x~iirnel, or til plJutll cquiliDrili.Hll IJ.H'i:eml'il I.~!coootr.c.illresults commdic~ed eat1rn sylOlCms arc Ehose witli~ ~lb,VC:i[ &mb'lie S;lfltC~" OillllC,; cll~pildcrd rc:;H~ISwere ~neen sistent, fLnd Ann1!hoc ronnern ar smibilil)', Uo.lllifig's l!!.."'S.iliiC'J1CC bi rUr:rollC:';~m:oa cydic .rltlrnClor). l\:r~ul':bmlEi(!l~~ni!ht 3~SOiltd ~clc' the c,,~.ilCtC~ l'iJl). dcscri~s theease wuth whidl sy:sl(~ms can ~bcol:'C'ti:cionls and cll\pi~ic:ilol" ,oflcn disagreed, .A~.,houghlhe SMlmil~laS bl';glm I!t'! il1il11JJ5ide.~vc 3wn ~cln between !Iltcl'mu:i.\I'c slilbll:: ~;atcs. wilil uon 0 r:>;peC1es Wirg. ~E ~orlhenu'\!~siQJl or ilCV\1 lear I:hm C(O ~{lJgist'i; risk bDL'Omillg oC()ll1nrlmilien~ mOlt'!! stl!i;'blc sys~cm3 b,wIng higher bmit'iicrs 10 species ~Fig. ~f.t W:hcu~an C'xl.inrlion occurs, <jj,OOIJ[ the- d iverni1)l-SIl9bilhy dcbm,(!, Are '1,1>(: sWdmh~ng, swibilily could Il:nc mC<L"illl11;."X! h.Y ~hc mmlbcr or OW111~g 1.0 d ll~c.mctto~~:s ~fl1l0llg :SPCiCl,CS, olhoJ: spcciesdlilt gc ~cQ."m(lW'ib,'c,;.;til:oc:1. ('If bJ! ukhl£ I:hc r~~n quest iOl:lsfliOOlllt divc'ffiilY1lJllIi :st1hil:!iY'! A,:r,e we askillgl~lCi1n in the riglnl Ihe cmnpcflSilIOIY chrmg:e ill comhilu.1d: densities S\ySlCll~S III iShl. n~cl,l:lme e~'Cul ~Il ll:le .. ill.~tlc.c of Cu~vln:m nlCllwl l)cr!\.IIilx~Ji:ons ,~.F'g. m). T.lilC' of an: spt.."'Cics ~.1 lJ). 'VhCill iaw3siolls O«lIr, J \'\.'.a:fJ' Our gfIa'~:hcrc !~~ .sQ mL!chw 81lSiWCf nal ~t;;lli;l.i'llily (1)utl.<l,IJ!C ITlCaS'IJI:-cd, .;)5, Ihe CIJlUlCC thai, alii ~hel!c qILlcs,tiol1:i>;Jj$,~O ShOWlil.1~~h,C)1 SI,m need I:e5Ulling l~o.l)!1lI;]i~iol1l dymm~k·s arc governed by IIl.v:ldCl' :i~ :-;~lc~FL!I. or~he IllH11ber {:Ir ~oond~lIY "~IHr.JIJ;:~(l1'8"tlllU Ctl!l I hClllsclve;;; lbe sl,e1b~c and ~o be asilled. l'Il~:O:!'(1~iiCiiilire~~~h

S

n;;~bi~iI)' lms <Inch i~i~I~'

]n ~ol(lgy.

h~ ~"I)~o:rodho\1I'

n

b"tion.~ 111<1)' abln ~.U$(; permaneru, '.pJ:~" L;hml.g.~ in d(1'Jll'C!.~hie cJ,;tmt,l,(lifij$(itfi or~'l,)e~!I$ U 7). l'Uchr !IN d(;"C:!'(..a, si~lg ~nrifii."ic l'""~(£ increase. For ~~a1I!~]~. fm,-;If!t £11. !Un ,(ti\Jjtk'!d II I'l~~ w.~iJl) 9111 iJlllperl1ncflli:!~e'I1IK'fllb-tflnc: mKinllt::t:ii ,teidi:~:cd OilCh:Il!C Sihowil'lg how the ,dl:r('Ct Cm:CI, I) f ookliil'icatiml ollplall!knlmi.c !!i,pCC.tcS,.and lile' i1l~l!111~iions m'l1lollg, IhcUI!, d,mlilg~>d dw ~tntclm·e [I.r Ihl! cm]1.n~tmily. Jl're;.., perlmib<lltions may 'ch.m.ng(:'~~![Il Iy Ihe 'cquiJ~bril~nl (J 9) bm also, m~ when :iiC'Vcre ('lmug~~ dl{l; dym:llniti1 luu'Lmd .. cql!'HibriwlIl (2~1) Wig. ~. ~ A mo1!C$IlUblcsystcm D m I§hl be one whose COlllbll'l(''(] species denshies ;It equilibrium chOlngc' mare skJwl1l' wheu ~lIbjt::c!ecllo a 11~ pl;.'I1~jll'bOJ~iOI1i. Ul:!J (,,11 Of onc i:\lV.~'liITrI ~.ro;;n:C<l· 1Fl~~ l)t)rltI rbllir:ll'~'" hClhtc Ihe

or

n~

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sa

REViEW
drive :1l~'C~umi...n.~in sPQCiCl' dIm .... \~i~ies.I!w:;~ W11!"~OO soned Q{!!i ;,J!:!ld 'q[t1m:J.ti!T~~i~o.. ~q~I'(;f)1't;L!1d~lC~v

I

~.l!''Ch~u~~ istic ~k~~! d~'\"~l'l'ity"i::Jil:!i~iiy rc~fttion~hi~ ..."

R(l'!;I'i:ewof W~

IEmiP'irictll.Stuidiiil2'!i
;1

~"tI(]!11'lCd

~urv~y nf $2

81tidks givir\,l:l,M dioclfl.>iiy~!(Ibi.l!i!~ n.::]al:ii'm~hi.jX'i ,tmlliJk~ ~.l':.iQ.!\: of

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I]~e 52 were p,ubli. ..hecl, ~in.re :1,900. re:lilec~iU!~~l!:' bU~Hing inli:lt'5! in crnpirk~I~'"'St~ elf !'uch lielmtioHshi«)!I. Of the 5.2 ~t~lcli~~ 37 d~

'01

o

o

rocl.ly Il1Ji.IJ!Iipulttwd d~ve~'Si.ty; ~hc ren'!l.i!l~I'~ 15 ii:li!im' used indl:roci rll<w!ipll!.atimU'i. of d~W!'S~l}'Of in· ~('1J'q~ion;.tI1y$i,l~~l~-d ~ys,~:1"'~ !Jw~ dil1C'~-d uv~div!JfSal>,. TIli:l mo.~ 'OOI~ 1l10n ®111!li~ ion~ of ~1t!l!lbiIii!!' \~r~l;e ill"'Ul'iib]li~y. \''''ri~b~:~ilY .. !oIi.\'o1i$tlnc~. ~lld Ui)llUll] rates, ~:n(Dkil1g 59 r up
[I

6"1·fClmtoll;.'i,hi'[2t>i 2I!utlimrs rcp(lIu:d

of l,hc,.,,('l59.lh(;

rekniioH!>hips in4~ C3~Si (69%l fllld n'c.gatuve re~m i(msl~ips ~[l tm),y R cases ,t 14%~ wh~1 no oli"iJ!U!llD:i(g;tIOlIS [Clal i{l[I~:>hips IOir the remaillio.cr {mble S2l. ~ili,,·c: I'C'b~ipl1!1h~,I'~
~;~~\I'C w~re .1l.1($'1Qnl!l~Ollbl (

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species, {85""Itlt or !!he lS, studies ~lca_'!.'UriTlg 'oo,unnumily \Pd.rill~ilil.l,y. 72°1.. ~ho\",'od IUClsi~i\'c rd1l1~nll~ ,~hi~L.~. OOlil:<i~S!L;'I!n tvi~h Ih¢ ''Or)l~~I1~ iOlill1ii'" \ ![:'IV il~m.~~r div{:IiN~Y l'~I~k [0 k~ v.rlfiaMccOliflmullilD~ (!5~k NOIl.l'it~lek'S,~CI'I1IIfJiricflll Sll.Idks hflvc ~iXltlscd m~~';Inl~o.:>tub5l11 r~i.bk: o

stuQ;[es o"lI~he SlWct"SS of :mv.[1."i'\!c

rupon(;o tot

~~l'eJ'll ~\Ii~h 11~,ilI~t.e(i(!S~~(~s'lk) pulsie ll~rt!JlFiba;~i(lilis.to<) pr~~ P@f~U:~~(lIm~t~Srll'~tem"SMtha ·~t'.iibte'~l!~11brium. Wlhfl' ( ::!1i'f\l1!\\lSu(e th~ eqiuilibriulliIII de!;Ils,1tiies 'Ilf ~~!!ide:~ i~ alnd j ~ six·s,llede'.5. 'l'CQSYS~l'FIII as the @1'I~1[(IllmeIDIt d\eglr.il'i:l@~ ,~jlllniilil~k[rates ,or imm~asE! na d!1?C[illle ~m .. Uspedi'es)' .. ~f1!he Il'h p!!In.ellhe eqLlil.lh1rWum poirul: (rll~id\:!s 'wilh the lfllll~tahte po']nt a.1 which :!!poE!CJe1'S j goe') !l~~l~Uld Qr 11'.;:r:bt1C~';('iI\~ tl~a!laCQH~.a:diflictt;ilif the 1~9ht panel, tn,eo !i!q~illbril!lmpt)'int biflifr'l;;aresint.o Oil s;mbL.a flOIDIpoi n:t. Clmi'l(~Or,(E~ RespoIDIsl? of eWiSy:s~efflll5 to ~Ill!l!li~~\.{) .iI1w,1'it~'1[~.Ilf!l('mbi,d el'::lil'ld:i:m:r!!l m the m.o~t. (Q1II1I1lfI0l'II ~pec:ies (iIl'xlim(iI1:~n: lifIarked by <llrf'O'Ill). 11'1 leifl pa mel, InO ,ofuer5pe;t:l1~~ffflt '~he e~tiru;~il'l cOIil1ml.m:ttil,~,u]d I()I il~VI,'$i:i:g,,1h,;il the· right pamlel, m~ee .i'ldd~tfiolllal ~pede-s. went exl1rmd. '~IF) Rt~~Qn5E Qlf e~os.y:sllr;!m$ to 'iflrva~i(l!i1l (mll!~iS·iCin !lI1hlrlked b'y .a~ro\'II). 11F! left pa!i! ~~ Uh~ ifil¥adif1!gl:lpecf~:i pers~sl~ ~7ri~~ gM9il1~~. the thl.l !i>:~PKi~i lJi1I the· rig ht p~n.e~, n,¥~(;If the ~ri9i!lig~s:pooe:s ('!d~'iJ·I.YlIl1\.,,":ii(l:f C(U}»~Clll1i>. .Fol1y~~elllt~x1inc:t.See rig. S,2fior deta:i,is:. Ol1£ :51,tlilie:>. illCi:ud(;(], .1~l(;t\\'Mn.CI1I." (;l:n only il Shlg(l:Clropl'iic ~cvc~; the 1lI1ccilanisiliiS ufI:dcriyb'lg ,clIi\IClS:ity~til!:ii lily [!CIa· remiilin.dcr fl1.I!<i:>til:\'I!J,UHIII!I,inl)i:eti"QPhnc Icvc:ls. 0;. sm'bll hy rdm iOi!l:tOh ips .. :E;;;:,cp,1.i~,)lls. are :>Oi1Il(,' tdcnlliflcd. h is 1lI!ldcJrw J:lc1illCr, studies 011 hw;;]s.iibiIhy, for c;(allll))lc:, ~lm:l~m,\jkz lioosnips are 1l.(]!1. indtK~Cld n~sm!i:mcntsl~3iI. ifll<:gr;:lled O\,\1;,~ Ihrcc ru~. bserved di,,~rrs,i~.y.Si:[lbiliy re1ai.iQJ1ship cal] be o i iflter:l:klmJ Q1.rmun.:lWpllic :h::\'Cb,. such :lis Itli!;«Jbiu~ snrdies el o~. i(ltJ), ::dltnv.cJ Ih~~!G~,l!)re-dii\ICr.::;~ Ine.1Slir:hlg COl l!ir:Odllci.i(m. Wilhl]~it; 1101.crogcl. oommLHliti.es ~CfL\I\~~Si> 10 rocky !ililrtaee C'~ptH;ccll. gcIlCR!.I:i\it~d. any Oldlef :.,Ysk'11n. OUT'umk:r.>~anding of such ~ftC'Ch:ani can, ..ms ; the1:eby inhibiling lIlY<lSi~(; spect~, and .Duk~s ueousmix, ii, wouM be :inc,mltolJls topeffonn <Ii 'be aided by $tal,is,tk:;.]'~y iying data If!' thoorotic<ll. ~m:la-.;mJlysh' ~O~I)! HI dC'l~vc 'broad !:Qnlciusil:ms (2'7) obta:i,ltoo a shiililaf I~uh [orgrnss,l;md commLmvlrl.:s~jhese studies Ihlls show dwrole allmgjll: clh'(.'\I':1~ly-slabili~yreTatlo:l'lsb ~ps. ~mxlCk 1G1Igh .dl cmrll'ic;l~ sludk!s 'ILI<llhaAI~ i\~~othctSi!ri ing ~~cnllllie k ('Ir~he smd tcs is :i~O'w G r~peci~ r n'lef<ll..cliGnsimdCillcl1l1~ningi~\I;)iSibHi~r. li\'e~yCmnlXlfe thek r..r.'i'ldls 'lJo ~lrol:Y, loo oRen: ~llism;li~ch~.:;: ~ \'V<i;'C1I ~~\'PC!'i'~nO'Jltii!i~ld b ~lO(lI)' Ultde~l;~n.ding d~c !'Iloc]l<!inis!'l!l!5.un.dJ;;.rlyil1£ o~i~cr few figoIiOU::d~ill'!!I~~~g<!I~ l.lile~h<!JrI the i!>!1!ls.t}fl'i("S of [ol~.. bil hy i~ niclt; di i'liTClilt ~po;:i;l~l}' 5~i(;~!';r~r;dc.\lu~!c(:m;,~i(in.... lbnd"w~b wpology. ~n:i~J~i~im~~~]~1;l f~ 'us: 'to .•~s.j1~~ !h~¢ p;;f~ .... light and
~$~,ed

delinilKllls of st:a~jJ]ly: 1l1OflC .;·EUl ~lailfoFlI'£ OOI1!IJ11:01l1,), l1sed lhcorel.leal c_lblllrhiom, h",vclfnot :OCCfl! w~b ligmro c."'>pc'.rIfl:liio'nwtlly m deu.':rIn~n.~ Illc role of'dl'lefflity ~mble 52':1. A s'trhkh~g ~alllJlt: onhc :iI\Kiu,cs lshcw hC['CL'():gctncO\)5 they are, "h~t1.y~llwt.'lCisurd ics tn~~ljgalicd

IF~'!:iI" . [)ifil'~nm~lY!Ile-s. of .~1ab~tiLy,.d~poel1:din.g en th~ inltlerrernt dyni31lilllks ofa~y~remlinl:d 1

e~"~@ri~iiK~S., .A1lt~ml!!~v~)~Ib~s.:ta'l'@~. hi!,whkh lh~ kritiaJl rl~nrltijes~~' J!~l!ir'sped~s d:~t~~ll1!k!eJthkhS'ped~s l)~rSl!St: W \
p.alirs of a llermlti\!'e~.y persiiSlil1!{I1 'or m:ll1lpeir5~~lil1lgI5pet:n~<lreS!ho~'i'iil ~'llillli, oli:d and! dash.edl ~ines, [ie11pecti'll1e11(. NQmpoilllt. s ~B) e~'lJmbril!ll,~lh,lstifa~ooI,y a stabte anda (haoti( at!Ji!w'J:r+(~ P~be pe~M~.UQ~5to ~~~~ wi~ alsl:abl~ '~qtJi~ibri~f!il, Th~

!th~ ~lPe o~ ,pertlJlrbalio,nit

ooln p~n!i!~.m!l1iiS; U'g!i! d!l'fl'!liml(s ,~r ill l\ilMpeCies

lin~5• .i:lci:ld ilombiliied deli!siliessl1owlil

SY$1:Wiii alrtl!r ~~1!n9t2> piJ~se j)~rlu~tlOill,

by be :h~"'Y l]~e.1JTIh~n'gtit lParli'l'~1liVe;o;Ihe ~

ii\iltill

~pm~,ilieillsilit$
sall'U!

~oij\1~ bv

J

<!Im;1 tlj~~o'l~tli ..... ilit'S
~rlilujbii~iol:\]'

Gil.' "'~CiL's to

Ii::livim~:UQ'i~rmll UIiG!!k:in'rtloh~il'ig. popubll~O:I:i

dYn.1~~ {c"I,hIDtI,Ii!1'i

i.J[ld:t:riyiiflg

~pO'i'!~1d

di¥~~ily.

~,a!~l<;:'; ~~Ii.d eOt'i'i'MiiIJl'iiiy

V3rtl1Lbi~~ly). o'\,lItb""~r,i,rdte H

Oi.~.S]~. ]rw~ WL~h ~o~~~

illil¢IiL<I; i~l ~il;ii' tmJ:l\.)"xl

of I!]K·tm:;li~Ip:ltdiGli:OJll~

,eP'J'ipirical :~i>lUll" iii

REVlEW
l'hc li!;;h1 ,orlh,; ry. it is 11m :mn1cicl!l1 tor 111(1)' to' p!l;dicl CQ~11y whether tt!1~di, !':'i l)'-S\;Ibilht n;;!;lli~ ll..'iihip~ JlQi1ilit e Of 1lJ,;g<I,iVJ;;: 1l1Odcl~oo~llk!
give tll.\l r~£hi PrI.)d,lli;;lion(af ~h~ \:\rlll1ngfl'aSO]l:l., 11l!S~L:'l.ul. tllC'oruiicr.ul !:tlocld:;;, 11It~lllSi.be jvu:Cgc(1 by IlllOir ubi~iny '10 t'.1l:flilll!1C I!ic Clf!tirc' dyn<lrl1i~ ef Ihe t'l'l1IpiriCi:i1 :;;~tClll" For CK~:m~]lc, for ~1~'l.ldy

A
!l i! IMI

A;U~!ili1iIli!J~'

:s-'_I:!!el :5' .. e5! :2 2.2 2
jg

IFig.. 2.. :$tl'bility 'o~ r.l11lr:iomly een:;U'I!J'c~d (ompe'llltij!,r@ ooiillffi!.mities versus diversity II, portFayedls.o '!hOlt.
!l.j'

~Ocu,~ili,g011 Sl3bi~ily ll't{,"lilSlJl~C1 bj' COr:iilDll11liity \llItiHbility,. '~.hiC oflhe nmdel i$ in... ,fLbilil!i' ro, Iii k~i. 'I'I~I:d)'J'I1~~nic.'or ~lll s:p..'Ckc!'l ill, Ilac~. n~itlimily 11'1 a ~lml~lically Irigooou:! W!iy. nc precess. fmodel 11nill" :t\."qli!iresthe explkit idcluii~k:ni. :n and ql.!:lIIli1i ati n. of spedcs inlcmc~iOll:;., . ~,\ ,II ai the 1\:. ,I:lOf1Se iJ! inell\! idua~ Sf,ccic. 10 em! iro nU'llCIl~ I ~'JCl!'lmbalio.llS ' I (1,. 211~, \VC know no ~!U~)l on du\ ..~jt)1 w~d :ill"~
bil~:lyIth,~! expl ititij~ ~i't;,,, ;J mr.:dr.u~i."ll[ic ~mJclct t'O. '~,Lftr.i~ But if ~.VC' dmp 'time r:cq1!l~~n'lCm tlwl 'nhil ~"Iudy rOCliS on di \'clNily. i1u\ro' arc I1UIII'l'Cf(IlIS ..
Sl ~clli ~

i 1r:E
B

j ~

~'I&
!Ill

G2
0

~~lng\fI

resi~et'iCe

Z

~

:28
.3

INo IlIji10'liilt

,!l'ttff!~tifJff! --lCtI

th;~a\!~r,a!J@ n'i!!Jlnilb@f,(if sub1~ SI:aU~!i andl Hol~inq's resilie!llll!, ffilea51l1rod by llit1 r,arll! at ~lNhi(h po'PUI.aUOIl ltenrsiHes, <i!f1e .repe~led frQiiI'i the un~abte :statiOl1lilFV point. Ibe1\",e~n slabl,~ states.
(D) for S)isl:e-ms '~'i!ith

positiw d~VE r$lly'"stability r,elat~ol'l-' shills hal{-e' posiiltlfe' SI.oIPl'S. (A) FO'F m~em$ ~vilhaltemi!lti:llle stable, 5Jtal'e'S"

- ____ ,_,_-,--

~

Ii

IMI
1).,

Amplrtude
51
ncflpoiR1

-

to rs, 'U1e IPrevalenoe o:r cycitc: (white

1'1011 pl'li,l"It

aUral:-

r;egil'll1l} versus dlall'ltiic (o.rang,e, Ul!gion)

or

.i;;

I!L,

I 0\

1.2
iI

Ineramar

fl!H:tlu!3!til(llnsin [c'lilibil!i@d sp,!!'d!l'S! d~Fls:i~<es, I1lIEN'lSl!Iredl the' minim.LlIII1I by

altra(l'(IrS, and '~he' a IOpUtlldie of

on sl:abihly

il!",] fil

raedels

'(0

dm'l. For

C

IP,IJIISBIMlli'IIlI! rDali'Ofil8
41

df>Vlded bv th~ fi'ia~iPfilum d'ill'Plstty (dta!i~'ed I1Fle).. .(0, F'!IJf :~lI'~~IiI'I:'S wflh sl:ab1eeqLlili briia, 11iI,~(halr.ad:erii~til:
!'·e-ill.lrl1

.':8) '~l.l,)d '!h,~ ~hilil or ,il 1.;;uikm· chllill mOdel [0 pl\'lii,C'1111.' CO:llSC'qUL,.'II~ of &lllC(:i~'s,L~i.iItClio!liS on. thl!! dl:'lIsrci's species
. :l;m11D)I~. 'WOOUO!1

or

a
:;..

uev
1fCVUIIIi

IIL8

\lIhere CV~mMis tIllle co;eWficient ef
variation a::
Ia:i

rat,e, ]JCVtulsto, ,and lICV~I'
in tlile daalinge' in albllfiild~nre

106
G.A

rellilIDIinillig ij~ il'lli.!rtwal ~onlIlnl.llljl~ Ill; ::ill· eess '5:. of tilLs 111.0(1.;;1 relied 'OJ1 its [~lbiillj(~w qm;mli fy the

~

2

b~tween sam;ples. and CV_ is th-

key inremct il1<UlS among :!il1Ccics. i\S ml'odu:r cxmn!)I~. K.lug ('I at: (19') measured Ih(! 1U'i1)0l1.'l\:S

1112
0'
Q

of l;wc~l,lwIH~rpb!l1k~on U! pLJ.I~\d ,mm IlWCSS ' decreases i~1pi I. d'c~crmil1ing lc:!Oth'll1c sensi IU' ity

D
'\
"

IPl'&5iB pe:1'iI!.llItl!altIQlIiI5,

or SlXlCil:.'l'
II{

110 11!1; :pcl'!ml;1n~l'OU and how !'ipcc,iCii~ species i'UICrnl:liOI1S propagluoo Ihe ll!CrtUdl3.l.ioll

IllftJol.Ightile ,rood web, Ahh ugh Iiesc :studi!;" do l !lI,.':\icalll'lc 00'1£-o r dlivcrsi\Ji .. lhe. SI.Ig_gI.",,1'110w

b

...... ,red ~",_

(oe'f1iiidelilt I'l'f varialil'lln ,offiUte rommUiniLy dernsl'l.y throlllgh time, (D'). ~ !;Ihangr in mean ctlmlbinedl den~ir1ies.. ~ (with 9S111iOil1c1lusi:ol1l Ib@ull'ld's giwnl by the 'O~i'Qge-~glillf'l)l. when .!iills:pocies; @peri!lIIce a pres:s pN~Urbl:lti~fl '~hllt d~rea~esintrin~k rate~ Vir in(Jell'!5:l!.

,I~t.: S S1CllilS nllight ch(l!llg'C' if dillcI\;11t SfI(."cics werelna, R.e'vi:ew .Gli~iIlh,eory

,a
E

iii

(I

-

1
... ~""""'"""!'!:"'!!!!8"'"",!!!!,_
riiiiii __ ,

III

;S

e

-1

t!I

wsa i.hoo:rel:i.cxitl I hematin:: 'lh~:1 isrel(W8D1I~1.0 Ib~ relatiunship be~ween ,a ~VCfSj[y Ili'ld sl<lhml~' l6). To enler thts iilemllu:,c. 'we used f~ silag!e. :sim'pk mood «Fig. 2). Tlse sse or .. :sil'lgll,e model CIlrnI)hmsizcs l,hml~le same S)'SICm Imty C'xhibilllLimerous divcrsity-smbilit re:kuiol'lships arising tluill dinCrcIH dclinili{)rls of smbU.h. . ]1 lso S~lO\\':ll, lima Ihe same rnccl'ulmL'lf1:lS :lilllcad to d it.TC1l.:IilI, d iVC:I:sity-:"laibi lily liClill,ioll.'h lps, I.If 1l1('lcle~ eonsiders oll.ly !;OlllJPctilh'c hllern caio.m. '(1!1!1C I{Q('Ihtc Ic\'ch •• dIIID'klgh \'\.'1!'Si(ln l;vUlhI,~~'o There
8

i.

EliIl~nc:.I~n,

I
~ F'

!B

a
"" ......
.

~00"i.I.

M,ri! m~,S'UI'Ie'$ the' 'l'fIIagIlitude of the Inl!~ Iperllmbatiorl heIor,e !he f>ti!ilLe eq,lIilnlnium bjflJrcate~. crealililgl ei~her a qld~( mlnpoint, alua· [oCif or ani atirado.T ,,fillh one species e:dind:., (IE) I~o:rsySU!T!S wji~h ,ill stable eqlulibri!,lI!i1il. tlte numbm Dt ~K.Ond\ary (21))e~lin!(~cms ·Cillllsed b)i' r-ernmvi ng 'lihe mast. (ommon s~l\ciet a'Fi~ i:iJmlNnsati)oril (G!lnllilt.~cl ,115the' inuJe':.u@im [omhi rned <ll:lIIIndlan'CIe1 OiJ sourrivil1l 9 sop.eo

:Ii!

~~

-0

~

~" ,...
-

SQ'Ji. ~,

2'" ,pUl'ItllOiilll' ...

'-

"

des iimm~dlial~lv a'~t,~reXfnIII ctlonl rr,~lilti'!l,e 10 tile abLlml,<Im:::,e ~e of spedes: 'iba~ \7fent extilnd). (Fe) For syst~ms M~1l Ii! stable eqiJiilibrll,im.

III

'1~'(JI,phie ··dl-; tl'ig. S2) ~~~~" nl~Jn)' i'i,~~llil'l'r ... le... :~ 100tira:nshipiS. A.1[h~)ll~iq thilO ~1\~lICi~cas·1;1'i,~C't ~y'nh..~ 'Iypc ofthcOly !liLII, i~Imt micfll:1 for IJlltlcllilrUIDdi'llg, !"eftl dill,,~ [rom. r.:al =>,)lslCm::;. il is no:ncihd~

,I

IlIW.!!ilJil:ons

Ute numlber I'lll attempts: b~fiYe' i'lnl inlro,du(ed species sl!u:ces)rtJi~lly illvaa@!il, and the m.ilrifib@~of :ss~Dm:iiny iIl,;;tincli:lll1l1 !H.lIIISe~ Ib.!ft.he imi':ad~r. ~G)
IfiJI IF,andiJrn!y OOrniS'~Fl!Id;@d OCl!lrllfllil¥-

va luaibl.'c ~ , hOIl~ om imuiti· fl, ,:i:lld cana'lo· 11IlI~ Inc LISpOss:ible dh.'crsity-SlahiUt. relali flships. Of 1:1:dir cr.;ily-$t;)bilfl~ rclali'.:'IIilips tha~ we oml:vui!.'i.I lar ] J d~~llutiMS or swlbilliiy, tOi!Jir \I,'clJ'C ptJS,ii.h,\c. ~ix. n~g"l.i \'Ii:, amI I 11k,\:, Dlctlrly :Ii~ro' jig, 1. l\, to F). FUirtllMlulre. sl1Cci~-r.i.ch :iys~ ~cms. '\""~fC' 111OP': Ii kc'~y 10 ~how .J g;.e.;JI.terrnlligc Qf d i.'C'rs:lt)'-stiilbi lil}'I'1;dllll i!JInshi~~: tire prc'lt,~len;c;e of S):'lem~'wilh Olltl!l,nal,i\il! s'Lalde ~~3Ie. and Ilollpoin! allmC'lorg il1crc.J~t':d \\Iilh din.'~ilJ' ~fig .::!Gl, Tlw (i'~U~m . .. c",hibi~ccl, b), ~hc ~im'pl'L! lII'ioCld arc gc'nt:m.ll .. COll!Si:..lclllt 'wil:h I.hlo: Ibma,~r l.hOOrul.ic;11 liicr.u! in"!: 1,61•. 1l1Ihl1u_gI1l>CH'iiC di v .sityI~
1

~

I
~

0- .....
....

:2_~
!ii§,l!!i§, _ -'IiIrj;]

.ii,
.

.2

'I,

~"'iri
~''i!i.~~

- ....

',

Altliinwl5

.."',

;2

;
,S

~

preva t£HIU! of :s.Jtal:de: pofll~. altermtnve :s'labl,e' st;,tes. ,and IIlClMt,O/nilles,
t;iOiii!!!ry

z
Q

,0

' !1!1!.

6,
!lUI

~~",
\ £]'

Pos·sll!I e ,dyrnun'les. NonpGInl
'S pililfnl

~

Ia.

~M:I

""-

,

'"

sbIl:e 1f1!a\'eS

Nrern:auve

\

\

(U!

.....

g~v.es tlil e p oporlion 0'1 r<mdlu:mlv ((lIIS'lmded (ommllln~ittes 'that \lIere f@asiblLe f~.e.. had il!Fi @li1IuHiill1uurIi point ,vith pDs,itive dellsitil'.ll, e,f illi. !!lpedes). WlIli(h ;;5, a 'flll1l!illP'Ement f"O,r tlt~ tliJrli~ t,ypes of dVfli!.mC~" For @t!m leve~ o~ .ai.versit.yn, l(j~OOO' Iri!ln1~l'llll1i !;);ImmuniLie:s, weH~ (o,n~tr!JCIi.e~.S~e ~g. S2 for de1ails.

,!JllJa)(tofS. The dashed Un~

~'''Ii!I.

C

2

-...

~!!!!ii

.....

,"",,",~"P

2

IDillInsily. "

REViEW
!I1Q'r~~ill.c;)r ·chll!~g,,'ll (i~~.;;:lydi!!g 'IrWCk,"i!~d~~,g.~bfliJPt. ~md ~~!.l!ii .. lly im.,,\~"lNilill~ Q!lL~l)R~) \'~'i!h iIV~l~ cm,",~ql,l¢~~~ !:Ilm Ih~l; r:al~J,.'ilh" fl,;llH\.'"-:o;¢pI!. itlitil;) av¢r.1I!!!~ or t O,Drmrul:L(!mlJlty ~O:I'I:si~c;ic~ Q~mlJt11~,mit~":i,;lat i:;dc'ii.IDhilizi:ilg, ~1iI:~1.t1!"d~, ~U[~~ sbJbuli~il~g" rr:~"jit:M;-ot:i'i.\l. ~ilr :hi!l~tlaUl \'\i~~I-!btJia~g"(p" U ~. II:JCrea..5,ulii.,glhl~ ~k;\I .•ur~cc --'-of ~TI:P il'ic<IIl ~t!..!di!l:'s .1.!~}lg~,\'en ~lu~dcl C(llni!ill.mi[)'. Ilh!!l: d i~~~rt3il.}!· ~}'"These CO!Up!J i:colHol!~W!!~C~ .he need to jOf !~ppl~ pmhk~.l1lS 'U!~\K.."" lilr inl;:r:t..;;~i!~g Ih~ undi.lu};i!a!~I.ih~ 1\~CClnl!li~I'Il~ l!Il.JdGrI),i:ng di\!~i!,}is!ll!bi~i.IY p.!J~IJ;nt !'ll~~ll d i~fI~.re.g" Fi.!!l, 2D!, ( rutigt: (if d~fitli~iD"~:;;. (I r i>t3b~HrJ+I~ at'iD Ili~M~!;ln~l! ~UiJbi~ity~b:~ion ...li1upx [).:,~i.:c Ih!(S pijCllil'~ iIXll'l!~lilC\it\l. LIi.cre are rib'iii~ly,. W;::ilChlilm to dtc C'lJl[!,irieal ~llIdi~~">t mhe ir\l(;rJCl~Ui:1S l'I:i:1lilH!5 iI1\ihiple I;u~i.{)ffi~Ln(-c~ iiJ1g :.-011110: gt'iIlCrfllilO("£" Par (kli,llii[LUI:j:' ,of s:taftll.ility in[ \!C!1,vin5 dYi1!9miic~. ~~!Ci~~ccie:> i~ih~i""JeI,ioifl!O IH~t1eo,lill~U·C them ·w.~h the brood theGil"ei.ie21,1 ~.~Jb,j.llilY.n n1urh on,be :l:il.cm~iJlC un.divcr.;oly,::iIlfld S!.~hiI~l)' dliv('f'Silly~s. In.'ffl(ldrlitl lin iilde:l?o(;'tt\clenl I •. peuems, Om' d~e fom I.YIjj.,"S of .~mbili],l' m,C"iS'I 't i,';i0l1'J~tlitioil~!,c~ld.~oefCille~et;ati\.c d~\,~r.:;i~. heav i~y represcn~oo (59 et:r M, 1\:] micr,~ships,). two \,'miab Ic-, wili~ C'.'t,per.iIl'L(:~ll~ d!Si~l:iccllo 1lC'5;;t tbr Il'tc :;tabi Ii~y rebl1 ionsh:ipil. S'p~c;ifie", Ily. species(i nvasibi I it)' ami 1"C~~isHmce, £,cn~mil)! J:,i'V,~ c:1:Tcet~ Ord~\'Ci1ii~ly "'Il'eli sc" by s.c1\::eljl1~~ccie." species in.tel<lctirms: und.;::rlklh.;:: e:ll,i:.le~~cc .,itclnlIlive )l,mhl\:: $nn~ (FiS- 2M liud IIDI:11X!'fm thco:l'etic,,~d i\iC''''$:ilr~.-;Ulbi lit)' ~.'Cbnioll_"i~lil'sthm,t l'mK!om]:y from !I sl)CCics IloOOLI,.Iow~vcr. dh e'r~il,)'i~ ulllik~lylo dHl!~lgc in i~olm[:on I~om olht."f I aMlI,<lt:'lars: (fl~, 213.). :s il1!1i~'~rly. !iilli\.,'Cfc$,","I)~ci~ arc positive. <lmla thittl (\~"ria'bHi:ly) w1~ give ,1 ro!ii! iWi I'C~O!!~iQnshil'l~'I~lC'n !.1'flbcl 0 r di \ir;;~il)! ,!lhre drive~ 'Itli'C•.i!1a 1f;.'OO!!')'SI(l!l1! '~~lI'bilily, mld in ~'l1I_Cl il~lcmction~ C'UI!o'1.! li~!:! ~1(;~re'l.$i;l in L't!ll!!IU 1Clll~ ~h~~~otl1(.,,!,,driv",r.;. w]~1 I ~k1;,'lI)' be d1.e 11Jl,li!~~~H.q~!,,',il W~dl inef(';!~,~ltg odv~"I.\!ti1~1.y~Fv,g. 2C). C'cm''I'c~'cly. on n,"jl.i","'t!!ncei~ I~~;~o.g(.'[h~f,. !i~(,,'\;.~nlllk~ ulp50 ()I' M rd~llij'0l)~nli~1'i;, ~ lis .~UMg~;<ll" Llull Uu; plf1.;l- or ~(h.'S0 f' cliVI~Thiiy. ~or ~~.aJl~~li.~" iilll1d U\.. dmll.ge '~I1Il'C.ii(,,~..(jll'!1'~rU:!I!lt1;;"m il!lcr,J(::!i{ln~ Wll]d.crl ~mh" 'L) ~rl<!':il i \'1: divers i[y~!1!t:lb ll i]y Ire Ion 10 nshi~] ~br Im,~a diroc~ Illi:ltl ou i.'Cru>Y:iilcrn!W-od~!ClIDn. !mlld~rnnoo o~f clrHpirIeal ::tIlldiCil SIrnOWi~l~pesl'ref!~iml[:on. and c;uiJ;on ~l(l!rn.gcmvl <!h;;o ,cimng.I(,!,'l re~~1ltlm;:c. I 'Vn:slst~ \''''h~n $poccics !c.'>.I,wnd di r~ tive [ili.daa~ol1:>ll~i.P'5.(43 ·lJf 6'1'" 1;i,tbJcS2) dQ~o c b(i~u~ !!ln~y use d~fi~~ilio",,~ :t'~1bililj1 (I~,u[ure ~hccliw.:~ilY of pbUl~" WIld (;GJtMi!fl1L;'!'S. k....1ing '~o f1:;I\)!!!1y l("~~~\lironm{,1!f!~1 \'m'~w'ion. nhc v<i'!ilaio.v! (;f~rI:)(:lI]bludg[); V3),. 1111J,~. Silll:..10!,~ pu.~ili ..'Cn;:r~!~o~~I.~~f1~. NoU!~~lh~~~s. ~i'LIr[l~L.!fC!l]awlg,~ i~l ill lhdr '~"ClIl'i!bul1.C'd. '(;"CO!\~IS1~~n~(lvd n;:l>rU.lJ~$L'l l.i:t.;;~I)I'~o dC'C[fC{I;.~wirtiJl ill~~("ffi>ing di \'er.;;i~jl rltMC'~Ill';e dht(:il:siry .Ii!; ilOI Ol.pri~tM)' driver. but ii. fnighL be a th~pl)l glll1.e".JI.~ly ~n)clfCl.~ ItiG"g:lli \'l:d:ivenoiby~t3bili1y fiX:~aUioils~:lips for i>I.ai~ill~[y me4"~nllfCd as moondflry dui,'i.i('tt" •. A key ooflisidi:::mtlG.Il is ~'im~r IJ~C ttc~rcase.~ .iiil abuadauec ,or OOI1r~~ S!jX"Ci:es are coiLIa:u.clJbl1l:ltlocrl by im::rea&cs,iH onlu::us.ln.mhe ru~:illrotl!Q~C'nlicc1mngc dC'C~ d iversh:y. il wiU, IiCtlml rstes, yet ei~ht OrlllC nine CI~l]ll rie~ ~sDm:li~, ~h[1Aused [hiisll~e<iS'l.li£ reporl,!::[j~ posjlivl:! 011" 110 like;I,}' [10 so illl 3. nrnll:mnrom wr;!)' •. ruI. s:pccilk p'l:11rnlWc!er,iv~l.klll rb:,"1m1odcli used For F~& 1.mhe o c r:i:ccl, (I r spccies-euv iWJlnoc:nt ill:leraC! lOins, W relm.ti!:mshil' U..Lble S2}, GivCll. tire lreqllem, mls!llJoCcies arc c.lfIC\ll!liliIl.g,ed or C'~il1l~hm!i!d ~~ Imrnilll; marehes lilcl,W!;''C1l ~!Upirikal ::1~mH~'S ~l00ry •. actieu In lhis ease, the C~CcIS a~'I0,~ ![Jrdi\~c~i!y and im:rea$le c<m.uMlmi~:y rQiiSlm'l'Ce' oominal~ thm il ll.1. omnm be du~cnl=lt1gk.>dftnm ~l,bcdJoCI\~ !!'If of ~K"Cicl!='spociC!! inwl:i.!c!ions ro d1.'CI'C.1!..'IC llC~um \~ IIi1~n~, is di 11fc:~~~~ dmw r!ny :;;I1ll'l!Ig toncl:u· (h.rul.g~r!g!'ii]~ic.j1 oOJnJiIO$~I.ilm ,(34), Illilki~~l!l,!he .. l ml.I;'S, c.1!!~ijng a PO$ili.\'C' dV\IIC'.r,;;jj'1Y·!l~bi.liIY nil~~ sion:-1{~Dmlhc ~lITIj]i~jCl !\!ll!(h('~. Tili:;; I)c-cmp~m· sr.~oltdm:y C'I'Ibct or diivers ily 011 Im].dlllC]iorl~ sizesihe 1'lC00 ~(I slalisrf.caIJ'}I ~lll~odc.1lll1Q' dal:ill. ~iomil~ II' wilen s1abiUly is. 1'I'OCllS'UII'edi ilil tCliiIllS of I.!l1dej,'l>tilJKiJb~.c011110' ]nnile oonlc'~t ofdte p.rimrny \!mxi:.1bi~ity. IICV_ .. NO~ClhclCS!'i. the decSI=lb:iti~drivCf d~aJ1,ging~i1e CCOS),:5lC!ll. i!~ger:ti.'tl of ;:;peciu;·~~Icl1 i'~tcr.t(:ti:on:s.~s:S:OCJi~ WlIlii(h IDrjvei~~it'y-St;abHity R.elailiollllO:Mp:i!? Willi tlw 11111ny ,cfu~ I~i~im~s; s1'<Jllhi 'lire !1n.!~t of lily. il~~ll!: decHm\'ic in VCVoorn n::;1!,iliw Ul llCVHl:S:tll: R~(!~Hllm~lIddlt]o~!Ii ill n~c:iln1~1l[); .of ,t{lmpc"l~n.io~,Ih(:,~..-.e~'Ii~'Olr!l(,'ll~ i1!lk \vhuch d:r.;-n1n:iili:o:rl:ii a~ mI1D.~I.~~~v.al1l~ fM TIItr:: :If(;']miomotimip IJ,(tWtiJ:[D div~l'i.hy fillrd &mbiliey npplit;d prohk1ill'i SiurrIDu:ilrHn;g jhe lo.~~ of bin"'tiill'cswou!d kehc ~mll~. di¥clr.iiil)I.. The: prcS8;1l1]g qucl,aio~lSi or appH:cd hfiS imcrcSl!~d coo1o!lislS .$ultccnhc il1cqp:DIOllJ of Rffilihcr dllllli gC'!lem~il:i.,;;s"UhiC IfIfildd m,ore s!ll~C'.C&lid Iy fC'';IC,'lI~corqp~iem i(ms, For c::GimlP~c. o~()logy klVt1~ve h1ll1l'llfll] drrii"Ciffi,~i;ld'Lldiiil£ eli.. mhedisclrhe (351, Ilnd thl: 3bst~ o:f .Ii, P.':Simiue ChOUlgc:, mut~icnl ir~pllt. toxillS, il'iY3sl\iC' Iwo~nc:aSlJutii of )1t\'iJbi Ihyin iC5iq:ro.i~SC l~le smm~ 10 dilit.ml, rcfil~crcs!bc COIDlpl£xhl' oW:the probkm. cli:'ri,\'es WtOI1i11 the s:po.;jes" m'CIIt':1Jlllloil;atioi.1,of b1olog~caJln::;:;uliJrucs. I'!,ilm::];1 of lille ((m~pk:d,l)' P"c:li1JLlIhlI~lml CiJiU S~IOW o[pposilc d ii'\lCrsl~y.,stllbjlii.ty Duultfpi icily of dh'eI'Sily",sujb.~Hty re!aAiO!nlshill~. relati;Olll>hips. This, is, seen [or poCil:ll.ll1hatkms amI Imld lIISC cl'lilngc' (3m" UCSCd.i:ivcfS HWI.)' depending nn.he clefilll:I:1.on'J of d~~i,C'~:ily r!!l1Id intemc~: forc ..... am:ple. ,clhllat-e ohii'!J1gc lind :>pedes conl!SCdb.y c1><l,iflClimls: AJiCil' CIi.~il1:cl~oJls. S])O!:ics~ stmibi.ll~lY ami ofl:lile {1Q]lreX] :inwhich :lI1i C'COdcih cOmmllli.1lilies ore nKHi'C Ukc1lym sum,::. im.cI:';fLCtiO'I1S.IlilV!.':' f1lte.redi ~irerogimcs i~ .Alnslmn b(lil'\'.:3~r(lIlC:SI.I]~ellt:by3hcrnn:g, tlile dYllIamics ·of(lil(.': SY:;1~tH tis 1)C:rt~I.tbcd, We r::.mmol cxpcc[ a .gcncn.:i. ro:londilry c:li.dnC"liom. ~I~cgm:ivc di \fcrnil:N,mb:illh~i sp3!ilaltllo:mic >or :lane] OOi\\er (3n, 1:1IInilCfllluorc. OO.lIcilision aOOLlI. the diversity-sm'bitlhyreli!llim~rc~;JiIiOlt~hil))yet a~&1:1how grro~CI' ro:ll.pensatio:n slli,}, and sfln:piy inc,rt;!l;'Jingl he mHiI:ibt;;:r of::;~!..!d,ie.... ~mny clmnQCS 31lC (!iCC~~;rilJg ~u broad ;;;p;.:J:timJ qlQsiUvc n;:,1!miO:I,l~hipJ, IIIl!hc :IHo.ael. ,gmlpcIlM~ eOO$,yt;~cL~l'" m:JiI gene nne one, win I inta;'ClI_s.h~r,;Jly ~n dijTel'cill~ ~ion J5 00 ...~roll!ll ~lat '-Icspitc sccnnclary e.~'~il'lc~ :'lt~!~!:~~C'l:m$ a ~;md..."t:~lpehm i~~ R ..ahc'J,'•.han .f(tar4;h I:br g~'iJ\\''iI.'~lili~ pml~rn~ i~~. dh·idcd into ,~I~a~~. r~b~i\"cly ho:rm}~~!~D:;.I5:'l:g,· !i[ll1~. OO'i!nM!f~~..u:>j~';)ci~ abu!ld1~K:{,j1' O~g "vt"l'~'C .rdmiQ!I!!iih~I~:;;.\'\It: ~""()lli!I'!u;<~~l: ~nr.'nl!,.'i~:...~~d)l ~Jiflb~1ml thl!1m~h~fin.mr..!" .~':ilBt:VJ;;- or di\,~Th.1IY~\'iwhili~y h~~~'l,lU,\l!'i whAm the .ll~rn'i:l~lll!I:!iU~. ~ci~"S !il.~ iJ],\~'l\!li!:!;rli]f!g :Ul(,;'"Qb,misJl1~, i\. giv('clJl ,di\'t;in~;i.ty~IOl;ll~ \vllml!G t.'1aim;:1 II'fmn ~t1r!i;iJ':>~C:~Dl." \v:i~h ~2 .~po!:t;i~. Silllu.~ A~I (~rb: d!i;U.iUli:ti(m~, d ;!m'lb.iiit)' we ,I,'I;1,vl; iI~J.~y,. SJKl~iI."t;..iiUch COllllnmnili!G; <luX:nntlte Ii~d'y to Sllfibillil,)' lX.~liitiml.'iihip IlI<J.y ·be· dri .... by I]~U Iliplll en repc~ i~l\lfI-dCP.> ,t j:1oL'll>l!.ive div(T,:,iL')'-stabi'I,U1:.y .rel!u.~ d(;~lFi~cl nrC :reIC\!fuul. 1[(1! In IC;)l~~ ~evcllILI [IPt)'I:i;cd ml~duwn:i&111.", 8i'iid Ihe sm~lC J.nwl:uiJiilsnls ml1l~y c\tQk~ dii ~tCv~.IiU. d i'\!cn;iily-'s!!libH~ty relm[(lIIl"'~li~s i IkHl~~lip~ yet if Lbci:I:I""lcl~r i~, Llc<:C'SSlid it i:: proh.I(!IUJ. '~labli.': 53 ~ N(1nClhc~css,. !>1!fi,blifY uril tl~c ~ lil;;cU~ toCJi,IJ~ more ~c(;(lmb,1}' cXlillct~ml:; dcpC'lldmg oDlldlC' ·ckJli1Iil~iJS: ordivcrsil.y <II,d sm· i:aee of PJi'-~PCfil:Llrbill,tioIiSiis oHeil ccn:U<lI, be· blilily, We llIco:!, nm~' S!w!cs fCve.1ling c1':ilc~ly Callis!; nl!lllly Ilumn dl'iv~ Clhi!ll:a,g~ hydrology. !t~dl;fC lieI3l~io,n~h1p}" lb. aat{)thcr~'{]mrlk31:~mi, tlrUC! .s1UI,ll: mcclru.~ bk;l~O(;heil~~e[lj1:inJlilili5.or Imb~3t ahtLiiilch.."rit>tiC:i '''ih[~i.ihe:;c mcchlli.l[i£~D15 ~iXC.. 11hiil i'l,'<iIu'~IIt.".." mooC!li> jQiIlk>d In ";il1lpirk~rl. s-tucliilC'Si.imt lmrcpffidt'l.{lc, ill II C lIit::m c,m hrn;vc dil~!crc.i!li elJl"cci.S.For ~X1!n~!c, thM ~K"iiMfl1U~,tl.ioll gI'Owlh rnles. hiiotic in:tcr· :sIa1.istica~:ly ooimsi. \\'",1),. nm.1 {'rilly a d~\'c~i,lymJllTlcrous otincr COll~pelilion gcncrnlly dCSiahi~ iz",'"'S dYUI,Ullaics, ii~~ aCiions, bimnmss Illtexhu::1km, <l1U1d cl.\ea$i~gthe likeli ~~oor:ldoFiJl!ernnJtivc !iI,a'b~c slR.i.cs Pl:'O!::l!:Ssesh:ll, a'~b;:l, 1W"i1i' an ~o..".y~cm n.ll1l:trolm;. ~'lbilli~'y1:'C)31!im~ship a:mtihi:: dy.rl.u:niC';5 C:li.~1II1. t will 'r.c'alil 10 hlbi~ed~r asyslcnl. and IIDnpoinl,i:lllrncH:u:s. and decl\,"ls~ng 1'C~l.Im Some of thCillC ~~ssper!lIIrnlililions, Soc'\'eI.'<l1ddilli[iom., (I r slabiJi!y In I'~ikll~ar. ccologic,)~ ~~!Dpr~ .U'; arCl1ult 0:1' lL!nc''''~lcc~oo:ly mles itO·" $lab~ i."qI!..!i'Jibril~1ll pooiull. NonC1hril~~, 1'0, dct~n i~icil15,or :8l'abi lily~n1 hwol.ving dymllit~~ c.\w!'I5<i\'~ or irrever.;iMc changes iill wm~ :lJlfG' sla.bi I ity .. g",il1l~l I)r!!!~:$ pCI1.l:.IrI)"]~(ln!:l, ha "eo ~ivtCl .~jI1~!i\'cb' ;!lW!~~i{llli.. N(l~~~!:hdi.l'S), liju~c CC:;;liil;;'~IT in OI.~y.~Wll1 ~!:!lI.!~tum V2~. The Miln ic$., oomJ~!i~icl!~ ~s ~n.l dC~!;lbiJ:u;<:il1g. far mh~e dt:liUliti{UL-~,or s;~ab.ili~y 3.!i;': h'Y [0 un{k:r~tl!niIUU1Eao':'1'sI~an A~"8.11rn('ML V,rJ, ('t111r;h,l!{~"L;d [i1,;'~url);iiJ~~mi~ (fig. 2.D). (he ::hl''''J';;l~ clcen.iili:ciul ~JbmuliJ'iO: i Il~. tht: )i;;~ii'i!: 8~ would aea..r ir d.u~'\~ie~ il'l, (~i!ihli~hct;l buL il~OOIli1p]tlt!I:-'vidi;tloc !li~uHclIirrilg,~nnt:[g~ll!!l ~ol;~~leh!11 k-.iii_gt.,," [)'ivcil'l>hy i~ .. ~

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~].~ny forcc's i;IMp.iug

1E!IWIIL'11 DQ N@LMIII«:.e! Dl'5blnclttlrl IBetllM~n T>e!'lchiluJ! and R:eSfatl'!ClIl' iRll!IiSS'IIA;ihe fe...d~er I:~ SlWdtf (eilli~fallFigl.!!re'

mtde(gl:<~duaIieSTEM educm~}orl" 1~is:special issue ,looks <lti}~e~Qpi.j',; fiH;U~ing T by on th.;; ~ives of SG'h~f~r. un .~D;ld 1:0other f*c llhy Qlll;!l1b~ffi :in .rr1 d04G:fI'cCI'UIlLri($ Y
on six. cO:Ili[~inelll:s,The gmU~Ji :U::1 meant to be n::;pr'ii:~i.lt<lt of sci e'lllli:i!lS teaelri n; ive ~~rge ~1 umbers ofu Ild!ergfadWl .•uliiS.~lrr:oU1J!d d'a_,e (Yrld. Tb~1 lst iii, sk~',!,I\,Ittdlo\~1 rd dl~ w mo~a ]m]u$Jr]ali~edJ COll!:!~!:~es ut also ~~!ldu,d~s~hose]~ Wl1!,ch rhe seientific b ililfr!ls~rllcnur,e is dcve.loj)iDi.grJpdy, An ;90coiliup<lnying Ill<lp pl.'C'SCl1il;<; some basic ]l'I!fOfITlJi.'IIlil'l1ilboul hig1JgereducO!l:~ionin each COl!JUr'Y. Despite 'I.hcvasl dilfercl1ices .il1 th!C! makc~1.p of their students,. the poli.cies, that gov~r~lhig~.~i!" ~d U'l;'~U i!on+!l~l(1 [he c t~lmnd ~~~d'~CQ~){lI:nicll1.e~ors than .~h:J!.p!i: [h~ p rofessioll1ll,. these seiem iSJt!i:speak in surprisi ugly sim i1m veiees, 11m, s~;(J!li'y lier a tI.'tory. l:h~}lpl1'ir:l~t!ol1!gg ing im!:t,~ rest a~d POQi!' 'r~jj'!u'a~iolilhl :>ei,~ p !~e'~~!no!lg
heavy prefessional burdeas, and anriseieace attitudesin St~Ci~tY'ltl!!rg~. 'YiiSl ~h~N are p\~lt(,::it¢S (~f ligbt ;.'!m~l'Ilgthese d.~rk clouds, Em;:!~ f;"JClIhy meD'l'iLfier~~ ~m ... edto 'bri I]Jg~d.em;e to ~ife for 5tlt,h:m::; i1'1 <18 g e:NC'ilin~and :illllovaljv~ \\~I)'S, T!ley mx: alse 'flUligil~d ~n I1JilJYrlllld activities oms,id!l: thee h~;';5r'Om.n-fll)m i11$Qr[l,~ja~1 ienc eeducaeionta sc elect ion C·<r~lf!lPil.i£nsa~Il1e.cllal s.rre!ld~n~k.11Qwl'f1:(lge and~:lle values of seiem i:lIic thi I~killg"
,res.OILlIOOes.,

[nll~m:AUlGomp:U'lers'
WiU1QI<!~ Ell glis'"

SOliJjlJH AIFRICA.

'I Wisn ", .• II Couldl Gi'ol'C

J!liJiiSlfiUPi ''C,anl'l "" a,lle ,a C~ reer •.•" II~ DIll, Beyond 1,~hmd!5,(I;f'E:!i!;Ein~nc~
CH~ Nt! '1leiS ~mJl'Orloil!llll(;l
~m!

74,
7,6

A~kS~IL!d~Il~~ Voi!l:e' f(),r

DjjiS~iliI~W(IIrl an il'ih:~i~ '~111'

students,

insufficiem

$OWI'H KOR.EA )lr. S~(lng

COil.! Rer,Cml1l r~'

n
is

]j\PAN :SiPre.ild~n~l:<fIow~Ei<dgef Sti(l;F1c;e o and r;~l:lhno!og~ IROUNI[JITl\IBIUE Suaigjlht'TaU: Aho:wt SlIM, ED1!;JiC'~tij()in
,St,.~,tli$D t~/(1MrJ tlii.r,wJ rul9i!' 17; S!:M'l'II,e; (!i'f«~ tll1li S!:ie!l~~'1 SJ7(f ~rlll'ri!ll1 QII
Oii!\1f,U~Hl!!IWI'W.~«'JIl!lll'"~v

For [In additional pe[S;peclive. Sciene« invi led three d isitiruy;uisJred educators
tJ,l,eissue s fac~:l1Igande rgraduare S"fE M edm:.at ion. Ex'c,er]pts of thei r C(lll'all1!l~I;;e1l,tS "p~]r;!~u~n U]~!>iss1Je:.~hl;lcomplere dlseussicn is "~VOi!il.;.lble at w v,i \',V ..S'Ciem:crnI3g..cu".!lIs.c ie:.'ui'LJ nde rgrnd educi:I.t iQIlOI,. Th is iss lie ,<I lse :11I~I rks < t~e debut ofli:le: S.iyl1irl~ rmnsdu(,'teofl Knowll;.\dge E~r1Vin.lm1~)em hmifl'H1!1 elilih. as: well !IS t~llt'CL'! Tea,ehi:~,gReseurees, We hope. th~~ yt)l~ on find lhc~llilt~~ r@"~kag~ cmn~~U I;:llfI1[llg~~ id~\;;il' in~ ~o ~)~~ own worldview of undergll<ldmlile educarica, [IT does .. please met us> know <iiI: i't
\v,,\'!w, t.;l~!lce:lIi!~i.\g.Qf!!lsci~·.:»ll~.~~u~[~. ~ 10 explore

IlIt'1i1l'ftqr!t(.~.rklfltt7

Science
VOL 317 6 JULY 2007

'WW!.I".',;soiel1cema,g.aFS SCllc.NCI::

says Rat[~je:n', o;'WLIIII.ivcrsilics ll.m nl,k~ng i~1III. stu-

dletl!~s!o~Iudy seiescewho dn not ]mi{I!\~I!J rhe pre'~r.Hi(m. and pmsibly abmty, 10 complClc ceurses ,0 fpml:ler rigor." He St~y,\j th.u. high seheel !lH.QdentsI~:;t\'ebeen aUowcd 10 d:rifi m..~y fl:"oml:aking e:hi;~nr;;i:"!ging eeurses ~l~eh es calculus, aad teachers lack i:un,c:enl:h'es: t!o
ll!pgl1~de lh~it kRQ1>\"~~dge, i.3!!]J i.t~sn·1 3.111 laomand g dioOlu .. One

,AU SIII.ILI

A

"A Cri.si's in Student Ouantityand Q'ual,ity"
Katlh. Handasyde en~'i:stslI1Iatiy@spedes, a:sser~i,v'e~merkali1$" a,nd ,alnll~hin~1 A else on hand b) rek~ilillde a p'cJ:5si Cllf1lltorsdence arlflong undergraldls l
I

positive ~rendliB:lithe und)r;:rgrnthQ~.t,e rml!ks., says Haudasyde, is the mas s.i ve i. n U1>!. of overseas students in lh~ past 5: ye'~rl;' i\d.oSl cemeto Albslrdl~;J. rliiOilIll.~,newly all]uenl eastern Asia \\/il:h dm~rsigh!~s~~~ caroer~in on b[l.s~:nl,e:s biotech [10k)!:),. e:lm s, gm,ll.eell"ing,<lnd medieine, T:~.e',.dd:e'd clhn~ie di.""e~·si.ty-.j!]J clluarter of A u:sn,l] i <Jill uill1der.~ ~ liWW h.,il rad ~'JlO~l1~b road->' re~Hy opeoil 1:~1~ orld ~O!l" w QUr students," she s..ys .. A 1,)01,1 6% 0 ftfule oV~!)',l;~<liS s:t1,l.d~l!mts eumc l ~'romthe Uflh~d StiU.4;:~.• ut;ru;nd~h,l:t bringl'i'1 smlle to Wr!;fIIIl.d<lsyde's ~!)'ce. "\"lilal: w'e a 1:11 I~\'~ <'lbOl!'~the Amertcan students hi hnw

n

much mereasserrive

1~I.ey are ~,:Im, the

CI,I::;3~

room
MElBO~IIll:INIe:,.AUSlR:ALI~ Trm.'IlIJ iB]iS down

~hm:! s.A,yssit::!I.'" she says. She aveids u

an~c~dL.:mic halh'Vfiy Wiih her I:ly~vay shoc'l ofredCli!il~;l~goldltJl<llurOilml 'I.~'hin b:1i<1~d !'!:lmOli~~ OUi I'~m ~t'lhilild 'O:Jrn,.; ear, K;uhl~.I~.~d,~~~lde' look.s. I~;keshe's just wandered i.1iI1 from the ALI:'S~:rr<ll~ll b'll:iifut. ~n rTIC~~s,~~.e1.:ls. lBnllh.e LJlli~ 1
versi ty

rull1d:Jlll ~.nm:irl;J:ry lJiieSea.Jt:.Ii1, proje!!;t-befoU'e w ~Il!l~ ~ g{lnu~nc S5500~CI\~'r.f.lml;llll~\vard ng

ID:f <I. dllwe]opmem1]] Mmlly of ca!:erpi 11000.ffi.
But H:md~&yd\;l~l'nd hc;r t,'tl<lk>a:J;l!I£'s ''''OIT),
that such high-achieving scieuee under!:rm(lU<ltes, are ll:iecolni.lIII.g, .ijlIll.cre<Ltdllg~ymre'.

usi Ill£, tlii:e nllioill1ikef·'Bood~lrn.aw:red loudmf.Hliths"-~ CO~lUUO:~.term b~r~·-bUi hl3f poi nr is clear, "They spark ,c,omrers;rulions [~In

classes] \"'l~~re t~Ol!!eh~r8: tMm~:U)' [;.t.n!g.g~€! t!~l ~el smdears ~oi,~~.te'r<~c,t'· At the same 1~.me.l:lte:im:rem;;ingdiversity

"\Verel~ci!iJ!g ,<I crisis," ~~1y::; ]'\;~er R,J!titir~lll. the UM. dean ofsc:ienc:es. "l)L)th hl terms ofqml.fl~ ~:],1,nl,1]:nllls-p'I:~1icul.~rl)f tUn,:;,eg£':lay:~ £ duck~ n li~ and qual ity ofstudents," T~,l~ 'Over,1II fi<u;.a b~,~I:lledp~.alyplls,_is already hurujlnlg~or tiou of Austm]iaJ] mld!e~:gmdmue's cl.~oos>iDllg auather 011 Au strail' ia's t:lild@!)Jgered n<f~'~ive ~i~'no~·~I~r;;d :f!('ld'~has he]d sn~ll!.d}';]1abo:ur 20%, bm [lJ'owr.h ~Il specialized app]ied ficdds. ~ecie-s: 'lJ'IIl.d.erglTIdlmre seience .[J]lli.,"Ijo.rs. SL1~fi !ldl~ rhe me] ~$l~red around ;1 ~O\'I.' suehas ~!'1!filjT1l1l<'!ti(11!1 ~~".Clm(d():;'Y"h~:;; "m;;I~~d" tOlb:~e I1f~.c Zoology D!:])3.u.·n'l'le~mulea.rm:ml. i 3 Sle:ady OOc:~im!' the basic seences, he SEIIY's. ~In Devi :Snuart~ Fo!X. lhc'iri ustruc tor, ~I~ts (!~C T~'!l1 d eel j,rle' has bad :a Col.' respoud i.~g UlI1iderST<l(lu.".·te~ do lhe~:lIikillilg.. "We're :u5illil~ effecl O:Iiii. nu III her of faeu lt y P o~i.~ions I:h.c :!JiPJ~'i~J;re me~~I,lr.ethe ~"[ihUliCJ.~~ryi,l"adoolJ because AUl'1tra~i~ll Hijiv~r:>i[i~~, i!lC~M.{,m~g between behaviors fOil" .<lUr<1.Cl] rIB ~n'l.tes,versus UM. 'receive' gm1er,IIU'illlenl fand inlg 0 J] ~ perb~!\':Ls,. "'4riousdml,~ ~vnidh~£,pr~d!~H!of;:i," :to,lYS D~ni~1 H~,1:!"1Jt~r.~. ;';i:~~dl~~,~ "'W~·~~ I~ut;ing:fu ~h]rd.,;}~~;n !!d~~t~Th~y htYpi~,lgt~l~pf(lj!~C'1 h:nge," :;I~.y:-iR.uhjeJi1. M~:~11effi<Ullic:-i :has,!~"Ik:e~l M ore willi msuh iIJI~ poer~re\.'i£\li'ii:d p uh]k:ation. the b.iggest hit. wi~thio:IJ .30f~ decline. ill] iac~I,lty .B!ilc!k.in her oUiil1e. H.,ndi~!:>yd~• .fa compact, ~llll;$ acrcssthe ooumry over d~1i: past decade . .a row in.!ilup iIi.~a mrnl.R rca,l ;~Alldas.yd,e 4g"year=ol.d\ f!l$t~t3~ kiung bailor el1eu.'gy. raves, .mOl! I: he,1r s~l!IldeIllS. '''[[)[ iI. gotldl )!Iei]r. up liO h~.1r d~ci.ded .1.1 age 6~o h~(;onOJJe it zooi,ogi::i4. She Qf~:Iil.e umleiL'gm,d:~i1I!le prqject:!i produce,) p1!I.b~ tries 10 e!HLlI.laliethe "p<l:lSSion :ul:di ,ex.(.~ilemenf' i:h;:,nion:" &he :;:;.efS. "Mdoo,UilY ~ud!em(;; eVl:~~ thr.( ·S:h{.l~.xj)~r1!el.lcG-d3.f1 Yf.->,fLlff$ ago a.~ iU$Qd~r· !l1m. g.r3dlJilI~e im,the same d.el)~rt~iue:lm,l. "The pllbliish~"IVO IUlpers. before Urn.ey £:r<ldmue.'" w n~Ul!'npfes:sl~:i,ie l'['<!ckn:~~utdis!X~n~y di!J1.!t11O d~lS SI)'S t'llere s mr! Ul,;;f. a:~d s'~[ln' ~ r~ 1,l;S:ll i w.~iEIIll~.~.,.nd<lcSyde: c;eliis "lmndls-O:mJ, n'!se<ln::!~,~ ~:oad,e:dwith th.e hWl,g:edivers.ity oFmod.e:m fOCil,lscd ~~~chillg," im;!]I~l,di.lflg G:i:.pos.in~ ~n t~l!i!;:st~mat.~~ tll1;der~~kef~O~I!i:," sh~ !;~ys., ;ooo~og}'~rn.l~jQJS. o the tri."I~ mlild t~~bu:ll<ll~,Ons.Or ~ Bui ihilll hOlPlI:IY stOl:Y dioesn'i. seeltlw 'mold gpl!:U w:r:itli:ng. ··hwas ~:\(lN~~.(lly l!I['.le~'U:~'" ~ys I~u~G~!iie·wh~v~ kG~pI~,e~r .•To clfIS);flf.l{)!l1S OJ:U~onn::~r M!lde!lIII.ts, at<ll·il: :Br~scoe, vlho $U(;~ N !1ii~led. many sc.te~:lcedr::pioutmelll!'S ~l<I.~e needed c'Cssf~I~.ly pe:r.>uaded ap.<1lnei (If,c~asS!!n;r~l~s to ~o l(fwere~m':',r~clil r{lqui!"~'ll~ms.. "[:un ~ffGcl:'
e>C!J IQg:ist,whQ

of M,l::~bO~1me 'l U MJ

h!iilSn'~corrected n serious ~!!lderr~pre~:rl!~.lI:uon u~, e <I IVlIIHI s,cs 0 f i nd ~geIllol,]s peop le, ,A.blumgb as Ill,Ul)f as .5% of AlI8U~~.iRIihl:l are ilIll.J ig;Cil.1011S. make up on~,y I,% O.r~mDeSlUthey d'erurocfy" J-\ml~doellee i~.i'10'lr~1m.e~)mn:NnI r ( l.lilei.r .ii ~of~nfl.i:ors. :!!;3YS A~mder'Sonn,direcs ]tlll! lor ~lfUM's C0illr.e fl,lr Fk!lIml,wd SOd~lY,

speci2l1 izes .i n Au sua ~ i~li'sendal;lgeI:'0d

I1llillive

lPoor p:~epi:'L~<tli.ml is one reason. he :i>:fI)fs•. ~~()ng with .. laek of ~liLlHgc'nou!; ]c~.!ders in academia. Handasyde ,ag:ltees.,. There is 110

cas:yfi::o:. shl;; ~ys, but "'vh~'!VI:; 'lmd~YIi~d \
.are mare success stories,'

One piG'C¢~lfg~]{)d

news arrjved t:~is

:::;pl:illg \\I~lh l~,e ~~ni(mi!Uce~~l:~m ufa bm~g~1 w~n.df:'a]t The goverument is 3:euil1Jg aside au extru $4 bil~~,Itli!U ne.1>I,lye.lIrmillnemldll'l\f.mll~m .. ~ ..i[:~. he Intere &1£.0 u.lmgll!owaed un i vers.~ty [ imfF:'dstfl!CtlLnl:: '!JI]~g[<ldes. ThOll" \Mil! be <I boon
1.0 :science.

s.ays R:,'I~hj en. '"bet;.<U1S'e OUII' te<lch~ i~g~:nd laD f~c iIHi~'s arB $~~Iek ilm Utel960s;
is <lIsa. re'vi!'Oijl~.g H it1>
I~Of fl!mJi~g

~lIld .,70s:· '[.!'n.egm:ermntilnt

rormwilOll

unlvejf,<;ith~s.wi[~~ S~1:l:- :~ a

llJif:i(;:m}[boo;~[ fm" I!!:cienlifiC' oc.mrse.<;, Il;lm'tic'u- ~ :Z: I~riy thoS'f,': .i!wo.ldl1g.lahiii. ·'1 C~' liH;:]i~'te if's ~ i<lkell~~~nl::; 100~g.:·:1mys R .. i:bjerli .. ··h1lil.t 'live'rel :

fh~.aJI)'coming Mound 10' s~~~~g ~h01t ~lJturl:'depeoos {.Jim, scienti.sts:·' m~r
~OINi

O~I~ ~~

~

BiOHiANNOrl!l

§

.6 JIULY2007

VOl3f7

:SCII~NCI!!!: 'WVffl.so1em:ema:g.OFg

"'"Thl'is Is the Front Line ••• Where I Can ,Re'ally Ma~e a IDiffere,nce"
lisa :Pa;lwkall~ld (oHeaIQune:stake en creetienism aJlmdllo~herantis6en~ifi( her atntudes, in '~he dalsls:r'CH)m~a iii din the \1'IOtmg bOIOitlh n
AKRON, OHIO-U-Sil Park's il1C.rltlduc~or)' physiC<L~, !ilf:o]ogy class 3!t tlil,e Ullil"ersily of Akron n~I~S, frfm.~th~ frol'![ fU'!.cll[h~ bae;k onh~ NJOliIIl. :sinul,lt;ule'om.~,y. Some SMldenlsliul!al e into the fromseats and d~!u eagerly with
ofArimma-for her Ph_D," bdorere~un.illg to the ar'Ca in 19950 re join the F,u:;uby ,o:i'th.c U~i1i~ V~rs:ilY 11:f Akin!'!. Withrel~,~i'!,'e~'y few of~jh.ei.f s;~:udelnsaimlug to beeome :re$;cmrt"hseic:m;tis't!O, P3ll':lk ~:l1Id

~mld~u:!illg crciliJionis.nrn. lu recent yltm,;. r~rk h<J[,; seen u lide of creationism :ri!oiing bo~'~ om C!l.1l1!~.Pt~S olf .•. \~ wj!ich"~m[H;:t :~it!e~:sl]y 3!i1d ii'm.he ~1'I!<'~dm'l;,f The Cil~upel:' netes <1Inll11iiOt of IlOl~]gyhlsu'li.leu11jf JubnFh!(!'!.I~;L;. refG'rr~nglo an

~va!1lg;~ li~1!~ ~~chutch m
1Illilversity"s

O'il

Ih~ 1;'I(lg~ th~ llf

1J~b..:'1In C3~np1l5.

Cf<l,';;1li:ioniM speakers visit the campus fai rl'I regu 1.3.r I 'I:. sp oasored by I:'C I:i_g,i 0[1 s g.mL~pscra "critical thi~lkeri:'i club." Ira her
geo]ogy classes, lI?"Ult;. cxp,licg,dy debanks the idea Ith1]~~ll~ bibl~e~1 11fl10{')(jl e ~[orm~d the Guaml C<lrliY0I.l. M~lII1.y of her surdents have (m.iy <1 sk~why 'b~(:l!;Jl!.w~l!'!d 1~~\'olmiull."My ]~.Igh school Ib~,oi.()gy teacher on~y went over it for iI. ee u.n pi e 01:' d9y.!>-didl~ 'I ~,\f'allit.to get il110 it,"

P"rk. while o(he~ dr~i1i:mo Ihe very ]ma'rrnv; i
I~a.vi~g tIlUply S1e,[!lI'~n I~onl oftll:l.em. i

W,men PllTk annmmces ,~~;)~the ~lpCOJ.ltilllg fin!.!I'¢1>i,l'lfl1 w,~~~ cover ~~mtil1:ri:A~ th¢ \v,ho.le fro~J term, rath£iir thll~ju~lth:~ I[lst f~\,v ','!I~'>!;lks. the
HI.J1,d~I.US in the back row aren' I

ll!<lPPY. "Thisis dlEl h,,[d~l class!" hi sse s one stud c nt, hi nnde ha II: Wt:I but eye makeup firmly hi, pl:J.C'e :H 9: I j,uu. l~er 'n,e~:g.'bor,
who~ haadis cibl.;\;'!l on the dc:::k. d![)e~l·~.al)peali ~o hear, B~ d\~f;l~dflfH~~ h:OUi. hm~v""r. even 1:I~DS.e ill, the back rew h.liV'C rn:stirmclilheu;moel.ve:t; (0 do ;J slm.~I~ gnnlp exercise '1!"ith gi;H'U plm"li'e
re]icfm:ll::p..o:;,.

~ler Cloll,t';I:glqes<Ires€!<~rin~. elf(Jilit~ ~ov.."I1[d MIl'S freshmlJ~ ~~ccm.J:lmJ]~.lS.D'liHtjor Kacj' ~heir se ~fl:n.I.i ~. fie iwr!l~Y, "Title: g(1~I~is lhll~ :5 ye'lf.l; Grogg.. 19. JUQ}~arBnmdm~ B€~:mlf(l!ldt~ ,~.vho 21 from Ilmiil. I:bey tan j:H'ocess plans to be ,il b~oi.ogy l-e.u:!~er. infora!f1,atioill QIlI, :say. g!.Qb!l~ @:I!mvs l]lll~U ll~~ seie III U'iC' ag(: w."r.nlli.f!!g h'!: ,1 reasonable of Ea~his more reliable than tbc Mbllk'I~, O~iI.{;:' [hl.t when ~Il .. eomesto evol utlon, 'he SI.lI:Y:$, •• ']
hold with .IIl,temi.gei~H design."

]fhe;lt]kes f;:I:fl'~1J)O.IleolJ1.tJo.logy course, IliIe'.I~. e'.j:U 3111'Eilltin: leeh ture l~~n ~1l;~'\JI1L:;r1' int(lIW~~gcnl des~.gn :ugmnenns .. lo:ll!;~'It~ll P~rk ~!ld her eol~ie'<Iglve, bio.llogy

professor

r..fuJ.~Cf.li!.~r,elass c

can

nmll.' e~ :pI;J.i:l:l, that mOL~ru:ain:->lbrm ...
w~.e:retectcuic pimes cO]1ufe:U'M,'C .. Score a:UM;;filii S(:i~[i)rifiC'lit~mcy "I've been Hl a plI"iv~He li.beI":o1!

arts ~-dl{)!ll, a b~g ressarchl l~!l!ilII~isis the franl llnes," says Pari.: I!:botn the: Universily of Ai:.Jlrun. <~ opell ....1Ilrol h,nenl 111 ' lm:iv~r:;ily i~l~ ~Ul(f:'llI1~~~'I~rn Ohk'i
VCI.·SHly. llInd here.

Thi'!i!nlvelo;pC', ~I,e~s~. 'Gc@!lo~~,slLisa P<i!w~ ks fiDr rossils th~t ttio c;an ~er'il~aiS pal.eodi m.lilk ma rkers whn~llsh's nou.lnel~ing til O(ftli~111 ~!Ii'~rnilificallv ~iterr.al'e ~lll:(i'E!,i1iI~. W<liY."11_YS McC'mUlell S A.dld's PInk, "'We~1i.eed

Stephen \Vcek5 .• worked ~lenstcp to elect <I pro-science 1,;.j:]lldlidtlte to the Ohio Beard of :r:.dneat ion. "'1 co IJ ld )l,O t. sta ud by <I n d do nothi I]:g:' ,':HJy.'l Parl .. She analyzed 10c<I:11 Ilolling datathat were httf!~fused to d'e~)loy \f~~lunre ..... OT! v(lii qg d~¥" .. ! real izedl 't:lin is rs is p:5l~eoecQlogy. ~ have two species. Democrat and Rep'ubUc:an, nd l 'm lookingar their a site d.Us.I:riblJlion:~ S ueh h:llrd wtlwkinvolvl':sl'!"mJdf:loifs, however: V.wlk ,mdWeeks each IVlIii's..'iedfl j,rn:lII<'Iry
d~~~ni~~!i1r ~Ub!lil~~nimig t~~'ar'Ch PrfJp0!>i.l;\i:ttl

ciW tli1ll's hO~:l'ing replace to

its ~.OSI: manu-

f~~'Hlring1J,~~I;l\,\I'i!h pO~·Y~~.l~f Sdiil:~t~~~i!ld

tfi I;xh,l'!.".;it'(i [Sg:I;J!.d};l!n$] !it!>. C i~i!~!'![>'"

tm.e N3~ionll~ Science fO!1llI1.di.:rutiO'mI (NSF)."'J;o me, :l"ig;l~t~ngfur ~"\ltJ':I~uio~p<ln: CJf~liiIY is _i~lIb:'
M~y~ Wi:~kt\,. "B!Jllhc: sY:5tem is uor ~lliLP riO b~N1Cflll:lro.o.'ie who ITIIl'Ik!clhi:s kind ohm:we:'

Toeng~~e their slw!ent:i. Ptlfl;;. McCllnnelL and olhcrn ~I:y~o .11l1J3.kc scIcn,u::e l1e~evam \.\l·~lh ·~.()college.aud •. lhirdi don't make ilooyoncl 1. ·'iUl.<1Ltlli.r),,·bu.'·.{.>d." xercises like [~le e oae \"~Ih.the ~he Fi rst y,eill.r., 50!!')':'g.eol1o.gy ~u'Ofes:sor DfI\I'udl Ird icf 1llf\P'. Dudng:llnother of PU!rk'sc la:s~es, WkConnc.lI. OO"idlllho:r witllil.r ..rk and others oJ iI. IbJi' ex;ullllpJe,S!~nts 1J1iitllygJIlt ill oo~Hed :Iud 11~"I~' :inlJ.Mfij.ctTIIi'Y earl:ll. $Ciem:e~e.xIIbQok"Tlilis to:!l~water. So;p:I,u')[I,no[l! S,n"dh RoIOlIl, 24. rOC'<I~s I IS th~if h;g up 10 g~t S!:lme .."ilin;sre:· SfWf: P'Jrk. ~h~u .1 c:lwmi cill~:Vl~lysi s fo!i.Qd that ;iI~~~ding n "nlis i's VI:,h.ere I. C<11lre'<lil~iy ake a. d:irlrl:!;F.:!Hce:" m brand of water hO!lcll pIl oronly 4.5. Says .1 ~~ P~dt. 4 L e,l!lil i,(f~;mljWYwiJh'~~(~i1l. gretv Shl'l P~~~k: "YQ~~'",,~ to n'nlilke il li'tlii;;'I,ram or you gOl :~ ttl' ~n <11, blue~Ci<ihlr s'l.J1bllrh ol'Devehutd I:h,e lose Itilem ••..• 11lleil.r eyes: glaze <over when J/U/IJ ~ watl1:r they 11~!"Sitlll~ :~ dlm!~hl\C.ol·~.NASA. ~~gi~e~ !:1Ddf11~~Il;h~~. '~i t~I1jlk" bo!.lt gtn)ul1;d\\r,;n~el.·:. B~'Ll ·!:!~dl ['oople [co:u~dn l be elln~l even if! ~ne{l. .1.1 Iy drim.k·? 1'lwy ",(ere wt,dly im:~o it" ,t:! ~:.' III :.ron':! 11> . r·. ~-,f1VlOla.' .uo.say.s . I'!I 'II. 1["1 Ol'~' ,ul ~ I:'ar,!'>•• ") l¢ ij;;'Ivi:Dil.g;1 diV'e~ cm::>..'>cl.ia:n. of S~lld~:r!its ~ '~ r«euved her B.A. :~i.iOm ne,nby College (~r alsO' :U1Ileaili1:S dun: rc.uk ami her ,oolleague,\8. i(J~~eu the :~Wt'I()l':lera~~dh~<1!doo l~(-n'] the Uni'W:rsilji C10I)tl'om In;;lU!ls;t~am m'l:iwd(;)-~to\,V'.lrd$dll!:loo.
!I'n.emlivcrsglY are lhiefirnl i.mI, dw:il" i;hUlJ1lli'I~~ [0 go 'WWIoI".'.:soiel1cema,g.aFS SCllc.NCI:! VOL 317

bio:t~~hfiolng,y; i\ :-;il:<liJle fraCIIYal of:-;'t~td~m~ ~I

P~rk hasbeen fumuJed NSE. desipire by
b)1 ~ SIIn:1lJ~,1 gro'Ul,!) oflllndc:'n-g

.1

110\11,' SlICCCS,S rate i I1i p.alcob]o.logy" m1:d by mle.r sou lice.s-enoug n, ~o Slip port! re-:s:c'<Iwch
rud.LJale and ImlS~

W(s sn,l!d~n~."O~(l '~hlngdlOlilgotme'inHI
1)<~I.eoma~.ogy is j m,l :h."ndl ~~I~lg fo.::;;.sils,," the tl.~~)'$P~~rk s.o.?I~ Is"m~l;,~p thflt\~(Hlde'l'i1er l1lenl.~:Im~1diS'COveIiY. 1I,1 i'lle." To judge by s¢~1:iorMcli::.;.n Ki1!'nd~(':. r~rk"s .' <ll.:)pruilch i~ ,"!'Orn iIDIg. '" I, "'VlU:I!~: do what :she W does;~ $flysK~]l).dk.,cannd~ndy s.~r~eQ'lill,~ co~re 5'ln~lples. i,ll:l. the sink ... [ w31l'1:~o be <I
pf~~,e(1In'OIOgli!s;~':·..JEWlA.IIilJiIi!l ~U.LWA

6 JULY 2007

i.~v,o~.\led some \¥3,Y. Leicester's ia

ehem is:lry

",Muc:hl of Wh,at We Welre D,o,ilnlg Didn't WOlrk"
I)lerek Rallne sleesim1lb?!glra~edl sciences as a IPo't!entlall saviorfer d~scipUmlles f.acingl de,diwming student ~lnIt{Nr'e'st ,!3llnlrd diM mdUIIiliQI number om dielparttments ,ar
IJEmCES1iiER\, IltKi~Te<lchil:Jlphy:i>~cal sciences He~iDCe'Riliine's slrug_gleliO boo~t l.etllcesliers

cle~lJ!m~:n:~ dt.we1:opil,g i~

OI

Pill.oOl~~.

;]'Lild a

t~w (lI1~~!::r .K .. lJ!I\~vc:rsit~es arc 3~fcring l.ilC~:1J" U curnc ula, A~th(Jugh Mud~,e:oj[lfthe effeet iveuess

!;)~·PBL Inl\/C p'md~N,::~d~u~u.~dktl}ry r(:$luU:S, $Dm~ 8ugge:s~f~>:lill>LUd~m~r~li)i~ l!heir kill'fwleclge~l!IIgel' aadare betta,' <I:lap:plying it to real\lIrut1:di'li1muion~ The UK .. gevernnsent is a lse be'hueclly
lac Id ing~~~.e l(lrohiem.

physi,c:s educatien

Thil: lack 0 f "r;,;l~.o:n 011 isa "b<iS r.li~,urre'· Of1:CUlY

n~!lirs gm.iei.rlilm€'f1i~ .• C:~:;]IrgU't1i. Perrer Catgn.;:ave

ofthe e~mp'l:i£ill for Scicn{;e;']nd Engi]W;:'F,ing
In LQlm.d[l:~~. B~uf!ftr.;lr som~ high-p!,Qm~
deparunent i!:losu re s (SC'iellce, 'I. iFebnJ'lr)' 2005. p, ess, mld .~ D:2{le:lm.~lx:r 200.(), p, 1363L ImesovermneJi1t [,1!~1' ye.~r put up' S I 50 mi IHan over 3 y~lI~ to ~lf:II~,fiUl[;lUC~1(pens~v,L'l e labb3seti eoursesaed gave grm'il's~:opll~ys~csl' dlflm,· it;:U".y. C!lgijnl~dng, ~nd m~tl'l¢Ili1i'iti.~s:s&)~'i(!li~;s ~[I :5linml,<UL:: d~:IiIl'~:J'ld fI~d .~mpr~,\'~,cul:ric~!Ia. lUI" ~ille is :tnvo~:vt':d ~Il Q'I1Iflsuch pmjrev1 being :nm

m a British l~fli\~~!:'$.iny~an p!\;'("!uii(~t!(i:hl!!!$i00,("1 uessthese d<'lYs..:~ml3'skDerek RElillf'.I), phy'Si~ eist at d~,elJlli'ver£i,ty of Leteester wllD,ohass V'>'Owkedd iii~m Iy to bM.\H lH,nh et:!nJruhnem and )in~Jcnt <l.cbiC-''V't:llncIU!U ~~~ij5!ilJlLidsiz~ p'lWsics dep<~llhm:llit R~i~lCh~"lX~li'l the: f'O~lf.nllt of~ffQrn ~.o

uml(;rgr..'!dl!~l'ephy~iC'$rrog~m. [-IQ h iw~s() f i b,{IinOOI at Cmnb:rid;l;;'e Un~\iersity and did P()SI~ dt1Cmrnl~iI'CI1.'k;)l O:o:I:O:l:d inlq I.mn~Ultnl .i1i,el.diI11.c:~ Or)1 ",llld '.lstroph)1!l\i(;'~ 1:l1al b....nched .im.o bio ~ i p11jf:l:ie&. ~b!:it;,t::i:flel'li~'.tnce' lC~lchingat I!I~~Um.i~'eii~illy <o:nei~"t';s~.ermilde him "see 11m'\! much of \\i~~l'\'\,~\,~re doi~~ didll~'t,,,'Uik," ~11;.': S£ly~, ~1lC.

in~~Jdm;e i:~~(.l<\l"olth~ t~i1\,;11illgsU:;}I~egie.~ md ~. ~
uew degree program known <IS Imegr<lOCld Sc~eJril~s. 'Y.el dt'SpliLe rhe country's :mJ:rudll,y gm'l'l'i:l!IIg ualver:iiil}i':'iys~ni[Lt. app]k:atioJls for some
subje:c;t~.

dii1y for lhil;;:'-'v1:~~

\)if

~truggli~

M~Ldei'!t Hi."

'by the [n!l.filI!J1JeofPhysk:s ,nOP) in London ~o
QIi't"l:llleit IlnL~lid~ scipliil~iM'Y degree W[111r1fu1C"d~J~,jI'

i[ldudi~;l,g p!hysics and
sl~cki'rrns,in

cl1l~~lis;ITY, h~V(:b~~'ml stagl~~~u.
"Bi!;! depaermentsaee
~lflOO

dase of phy~ic~ "Derek suh~i(iys uplhr someIhill£, ne\v:· SOlyS ID.rs :r~ilip [)l'olJlrn.o(I!KI. R~li*1mC~c.:U,i<llUy b(:~~nd~wllopj~g sauC'h mJ
{'te~ree 5 ye<'lf'.!i<lgo il1l.'J:I1I, aU~Ili1plliCIei'!.paoo sci-

[:!>~"Y,oo!1l" ]1." S.f~It>, lRairt:L;'. As ,a 1I,'t\SWllt, Pt:i'jl'S!iICS depaU'~mel1ts hav,t: 21 elesed O\'ei, the I)i!st decade, and ~ml~1~lhmli;g. if Of'lll UiK. uni versides ]1l.0 I,Ql1Igcr onicr 'I,n]dcrg,radu<lte dU:,I~,l:::1try ceueses, iEw:rm, the I ikes i oft1iB,eUf]iV!eil.·s,i~y efLeiceser are ~1ni!yJlil'!g~o!n;! I~Je~ 110ll~S., r P hy sics and cfueIn iSH), <111,'1(;:; c.m.g:i'lt i~ avicleus elrcle, High detl1andlO,If' grn.d:~llIil:e.li 1.:~OInlln.igjh- Cllllrl~l~glIJlii<o~itf. nle~ek Rail1le~a~s s'tildellll~~a~ ~~oo'ked~n~o c tech i.~.d~l.stry3nd the f~n~l1Lda~ W(lrkiIlU;J1 halrd ~ by'eour;!:e'.Ultey OM inle,i'e$I,if'l£l. secliOr 11;1:s memlt !We""~r l:~tdellll~ s gCJliu~jntJl) t~~C'hiug. That d-ei~~~l.edc(~eh~n:g ~lft1~ f\:if a bl~t~~r ~ns,ut~i:loo h~m !t'iPfoblelUcorps=-sente 25:0,4 of UK .. lliIigh schools. lor based le.'IT1Ilil1lg, ,(.psq. 'I'Im <IPJ)J,'oach ofiel:l used ~.x1Hllpr~.~QW h~v~ !H,) .. p!?d~lbi.l p~ysk~s in !ll~d:~C'filRChf!t;)ls a~dpi,m~~c~-d, Ca!lad~'s ~ ~<!ch~r-c(ll:J!ld mem~Ii.·1,'\'~r :illlSj1'1rrirlg te:m,;:hr;:i:S. W,kNl;i~~~rU!'li\'~r:;;ily ,il1'~'~ l~)7!O~. says Ra~l':Ie. \'101'11 lehlead S 10 fewe r s!udcnts, \Vou.·iking ill lc~ms, students aI'\~ givC1:'I1I, a .• !ieleCI:i~l£ physics or chemistry at uL~i\fe.r!'lily .. r~.d-w(l,D'ldPlr(lb,~em toresearch. s(),~ve ulld then expUcate to the class, One exerejse 'C8:S~::; (Al 3,gc16~ lJ.K.p~npM.s choose just thu:ee or Ihur. subjeClsw '(."(m~ throu£h to g;w'oldmlliO:ii1 slmlent~ as rhe crew of a ,C<Irgo p,l;ule th,u i.m:s iml!.C d .n ~~'e 18. illn:dlm.ey :s'tudyll]a.eiJ .mmajor ~tlm,os~ ,t:J:<)shed ml 01, :eSCJr1[~sl.ua.dflll.ld asks, them 10 1{,'\~lui\'~~y for 3 )i(\afS; ~lU!ll]ve:rsil}t,~, CU:J!lSH'uel !>(J1Ii!li.'l s'orl ofb(l'lCfl!l tl) CQ1mlmuni~ This (Urt: .sil~tmkml1<t~ dC'l.lt!i>o.ped desp~,le 3, c;'1~etheil' poSiirliol1l,. Snd.l proble<n.~1dvil1lg "is ~
42% ,gr(1.!'~hi~l ~tl UK.':\; un(_~Q;L\f!lJli,f~t~ ~ p~ubl~'ion betwee:lm 1995, all~d 2005 ..lIU! <I gQ\~nllj,~ ~1~~tci1lmp~ig~~, .!§el~! ~~asl oll:c~~udf flU to of yomlg peop:le t'o,lltend lIIm1i\n:rsi!:)f. aut ~Qme subjocu;h~m lost ,groundl: the mud sl'g~ swdy~ nl1lg p:1~ysic";ll scicm.-es ,illml tb,upped b:y ne<I~I~f ne o

l"~e~'t;'1!lrOam~ll m .Leict;'$ter.l&-lll':[nl,l;~nH~d SdCI,1CesOOUrsehillS, beea :nnmillg. for.3 years :unO\\~ trs.:ungPBL t:xtens~.vely. The curri.oo~Hmt~. ru'ks sl.L1I= ~:lml:S hOl!!tihey m~ghtrn,,\re blll.ilt the ~J}'f<lmid~, f o IEgypla~~d usedthem :Fa. fustrt'l:l:lO~lW. 3J.dllillcfI moves on to :-.rmc'Cscience, lI1anotedmQlogy. bi ome'cil:3nlics. <llIiU]qua:unUI~~,I:e1 eperrarion.
<;imm~ mh~]" s:tuhj€ICI'5c Alii rDI'lhl;:~ (~)P~CS are presel1it~d in PBL seeaarios such as Inoclk.o:n1l1

cases,

20 .12lDJiI.d.on O[}OO],pit'S, "YOu Cm1. ask:!l!my ques[iuln. 110 n:la!t~r h\lW ~nllp.id.'" S~)'.S Sr8!(.>(ll~d-y(;9]'

m~ll pwduclion.",~U'ld

prl.i:r"IV':mkj~~ftfinhG

~~ldelg~"ld~L,~[eBe.rm,\V.l1wn.
LJnd~~,~~I;sJl~~ ~~~.~ j'~1 nQclJ:!;:j~l~ [fl, lucrsue the .illmtegmled :Sci,elil.cesdegree, ~,l<,,\¥e"'eif. lhi~· 1r:" fiM gr.-tdu~i!1lg C·bl&s ~i;qp~~b~~9!111y yc. si 11\. ~~l.dellil~. iml <l. 't.ylfil'ic.i~ y'~~~r, OJ:DU.d lewe:rlb ..m I() enmr the program". '·Sln(~Clnsil:re VI.'<Ify of So:.L~.1ethil1g new," says CQU rse <1(1 min i,,,tnJito~ Alex Mack. ~m.d semerlmes mlislurc of \\4UH it p.rep,'lres t iIDe:I'I'i1 to do. Ritine tlli nks h's ,ide.d I'mi:njll~glbr il1lterdisci:pji:I1I"~ry ~och, sC'~eUJce=

b;r~s.~djm~uslfy. or '~e"H:;hjng. Ra.in~

]!'

hop.in!ll

.. ~
Z

I.mat mf'£ decision 10 :S1)Ollt~O',1" simibtr de1ffees ::::. \:\I~ljU\,'!.ii~ o ev~ry df!)t 1.s:ro~;'H·ch~r~:· d SI1YS fH ~hro~ (]{h~rlu!~i\'~~ill~~:-S~trrl~y.Ul~,,;e~if)~ &.Drll:~lI, SYl1fwns. [I~e<ld a project It'D devel.o~~, oflSMi.'i A1Ilgl:ilil.,and!Ll[mi ..r:!I.O:~Som:~, a:nIk-wil:ll of B PBl. ~Ili;.'ic;:e.~lcr ••• ~ cml·t :!;ee ""Illy it'i; ~lot create a "br,;tn~" tlm~1t will hOOIit 1.':nmll:~Cr.lil. ob\l.ious. ~o eve~y~;uil,e:' "Om vision is fhat ~JI :sc~eml,ce sludem:s 'lo<iay. ;'4:R.er7 y~ffi 'o:f"\l\rorlk. fllXYi;1t. 2.5%pf $i:frno:l.I ~~Ij]!.ili~Uy OOfii~~iQl siudy i.~g.I~x~grm~d llc]ceslielFl. p:h,y:s~c:s COllrl'ie:!! ,me t<lught: m.ing Sde~;Q~:' Rrune s;,~y.l:l, "Not ~.'very!l)l1I.e is gcrung

w

~
~. ~

8
:::1

~

P\loo~ma~ point sh'lO~199&. m J .7%,

PBL !lI!td (hn.'(;·qu~[~IjS,of&l:(!trme:~b.;;rs .6 JIULY 2007 VOl3f7

!l~

t~) 0 U strit'lg 0

lhoori:;;!~"

9M~IIEb(UiH;,!! ~

:SCII~NC[!!!: 'WVffl,so1em:ema:g.OFg

B:ORDEAU)(, FMNICE-U'S the d~jyof reekoaWlil re erlgi liilf'el' •md .1 bioi Illio:lf:nill .•.•t icistar tbi.! B iJIl gin;!:Allto~w de DaruV':lr ~. bioi.llifo:rlll~tic.." d~1~~" Eurcpean MO~C~i~l"lr iolQgY It]l:u]nJh1ry in .~u Uf!h(;6h~Viclui Si;i~~~~f! iI~ BONOOlul'>. 2:- H!;':~dl~~b~rg.G!$;fm~ny, bi.;l'Iiu.feni~,ing" biY!inj rime :ibm"hiis s~:lI1d:enls.w show WftJ2II1: t!liu:y ]ffi;illve Ihrma:~,wc:ssmu't"up compaJ~y there, :i-lle fol~ learned dil.eP;)!Sl semester. lheir ~S:$igll.lmem lo\ved his nel!f(}Sc"iemiffi\\lifu\,'hl:!in~he g()~'a was to WIf~lC .1 >CJOJ,npute:r <'Iiflplucadolli ID Itt!ilp job in Bmrl~amL v.~l.lerehe "'<I!S asked to. set up Dlo](lyisls search genetic da~OlJb,!ses .. UILl.d b[ol!rrfofID1l,l.~n t:rtlhd~g \\1' ithin U:-t'eb io]ogy ics Dm.lI.l'\iar ,is e'lgew ~o ~e!fl~drivr:: [he results, c·I1H.ic:u lum, Th,ll\lI,'Ol.'k led 10,1 Ilroliessor:si:lip •.• "H~n!nm ..• is thmin:!i.l~~ ffl1!~ of >copy- \v~id:! I'~prt;'f:(mleda 50% sa.l!l:ry Ct~[ but lili::ri~ht~!" he asks;1 duo who have enm,bemsh.ed timejeb security <IS: a civil servant, !h~;d~ St~lIrt pag~ \:v~tha pie ~:u.oof ~ 1~~!l!Ji fyo With a do~(,);~('l~lp]O}'i~e:.".CaU3 pftwid~$ i ng gIOlls:.'l. "M issionaccomptished," he !!oflware !l.UPI)OIil to the uoi "~I.'S.ity"s~ife seienbeamsat the authers of,) lliea~I;,ly flawless dSI;'i, CQI~duIi::'Dsoint u:'sea.ch-.lhrulls!allilre. in j pieoe pf:;lQft,""afe. o(llrnlpRr'lti,reg;~11Qlnk~ studi,e,s of bar;;t·elii~.D~1:mvar. director oft he O~lltrc for B~oi:UI,~' !lind does smncil:u:lepend~:Ii1l,t. WtJ'rn ..in lnfonuat(orm;OIlic.'5 efBordeaux lC'BIBJ., isa new ies, 13m: if::'lhe toe<lt'hi~,l,g [);lnlV,lf love,:.; t~nu k.ind of professor ,(um,1111! F:~enct1"I(;:a{~emic llmlosr.especiodly \\ih!en he carl, infect his sru1000i1il,dl"c.l!pe"\;lliT~1mets tlIml ("llIHirt:!ui!~g ties l~) d~!i!.ts hh his OW»l lb.sdn'(1Iti(lIi for th~ O'm ul" w the business worl.d-'":;uliI auomaly" on writiL~;g solitwme. lJlII.diging from a fev.r glazed Fr'~lldl campuses, f;,ly:;;mk rebi {l~og~M'<l rid looks, no~aU of h~~r~pi I~ lli,;)\~ l~f!UsJut~ll;; [llli!g co.II~t::!I.gue Alain Bla~ch,Jrd-he:'s wetlyeL) ~le s perplexedl by other aspeets of aeae(II~Lipp~d to pr.mna1C l~)ehnoO!.agyl.r~ns.fcr'. a d~f111i~~ hewever, in 1'!'II:iLnCl,.I.l!l:r the laek of :~~:r~. we~k Hnk illil the Fre.l1ic~,ec'onomy. "T.I1I.eul'lri~ in!i:ti'~a.t~OJ,1'11~illltl~lmlly. V'~,:s.Uly J{)C4':~'[h!.Q.w cn.o~t.~l~oill!t; Ii'~l;: llilim," lForins;U-I¥iie.~. 'poot\jl!;;(:tiv.t;,': ~acllUy 1b'li;:lri~1:';i; s <If'S Beat:li"l.t:: e (' hassai I'Ig of l be Res iom<l~l must be "'(nuaiif.i'ed'· 1J;y pee:L' ~)I...nels <lit the C~)Wi~(:il Aquijhl;in~. w~khil'i supp-orting of N ~H i.Q.fI!,ll Ceuncil (if Ull iversit iss i 11 r~ris.. C;8Ul Ch;,u;:mi~.l£ say::;; she's <I,IM)ia:np~ii:;~~tld Those Iill:~nel:-; eet OI!II.ly eucea y~,n-.CJlet~lillg m with Di!I1I.lJ\Ii!:r:S''dynamf.sm snd Cillltll,uJ1>iillsm," d~lays,. D!lrmr~I"s c~ccr !)<llh!U1:dl shorterpublic<U~Qn list did ~.lJrb{li!~erthe l!11]¥er:sily: bm D.nnQVtlT,44 . .s!ron~~y <'IJ!f,ee-sthat Fre;~h they raised qlUtsdo~'\i for the l)all~cL DIC'I.rlIv:m: m~ivcrshies s1inou:l!d open ullIn the [;'CSt orlh£: world. He ,e:~c[ntln.,ses his srudents ~o do S,l}r~ Ute sYlllte:rLliI is '"abSlllri(lI"mld "~rll;;ornprei:l1Itl'!mshi ps. 01: projecrs ::!Ihrood. :11I:td he hopes to (;reat e a III aster's I.!~g f~(; ~.Im 1:\H1I ~~ ofml C gen{lm~I.l!>. ll'lughl entirt::ly in lIEnr!l;lish. Optl&
'~i'1l';IUS, Sf!)' !i<l~l:~, pn1gn'11m~

ilffil~.pos;si.blefor
UliliVlilrsities to :i<~t f!e;\Vpq:"i~l:!iri es .. '[)ill"lIV.U·

al (Lilm;lp~:s btl dget rec e mJy. m:lrTI, Tseseissues.hnve been delml:ed lin France for nl<1ny years, and several govenlmelHs h~u'!.I¢ '~!l'il,:dr~l(lIr!'n~Si-of:lilytu PI)!.U bllck iI~l~(l
ue got late
'~I

says. {Borde<1ux 2.WiI$ one of the finn w

face of p'~mes;~:s~~olft lUl'li,o:IIiI,~ <lndstuderas,
T!~,() !'!~w
[)am''I,IiU

~o\l{;r~!11~!lL ree,

h~~rr!."lpo:>f;!d

g.i \' :ij:~,gu~,~irV'ersil ies :~uor,e a lito IliOIliiICI, <lnd
bel :ueves i.1 Imy :~l<1ve:better ehanee a m succeedas dl:e groundswell lor refoul
grows, To wit, he says Ollpos!dfl~llo bls p~ll!)n rorl:~mc~;linga mm'l:er:S In'OS~lnl in E~.lg~ is ish softlea]~.fIiIg. he tln~versitY~~lnd the 1li1:uilr:u5U:y T

understand 11ll;)1 Fnlnl{,.l~needsmare
students,

fore igll

be :lmy:s,.mll.d f:rench studems u.·e<li~;" ~le~h~t EngU$l~is (~f~ci.'i'!~ ror~h~~r career perspectives, Besides. he airgues. "'ut'!s too
1';;IiI!t!"

to I;e~euc se ie'Ul:ldi~f~nch.
1,l(WI,I-

A fewlhi n;-s, '!lre 'l!ImI.li~e~.yIJO ,ch.mtge.
~ver; OJ?'G11 "'riirt'l~hnLmk"" !:11~d low Widons: l.~alll'rl<l.lliYs.~~ldel]l'S. nter the ul'liV'e:ltsilty e
fl~i~ k!.~m\'.i~g\Mh!!f

1lii1~~il

with-

dl~Y

\Ma!~tiiO

d~l ~lIld It'l{,:':~dn!li

mOTiv"1:I;iumI, A'S OJws~llt. mo~'~ thml 25:% drop QUI in l~~.e first .1 years, ''11l<ufs a bigwaste," .Duruv:allf.)jays. ~U!ld .1 ~:nom~izil:@ experience

for

Ih(! dropmu.s, Daruvar d,ooS[l't m.lvoc<1:te dmtl~ing those 10

!helJrsibh:: 10 fore'i!:l:1l

seieunsrs"

who are

I)oii.ci,e:,"j,"-."~:he universities :~:ilvetoremain

repelh.ld by sl.,d:l s~!l1if:lgly ~:ib~:I;~.,1" ht!fdh~. Par,is. ';S. pewe r e.x .t:eI1cl)s1.0 nUlny other ;Bi1ie3:S

\villlde .. .he d

C(lUP

de

Offu.:.~dl;;mh: [ife aJlld"H!Cuniin,g

[H

D.!l'lw<'!f'

:~ gl:iii~e to EM.1cl'nl~~ iiIscienti fie ~.m]gull,ge •. ~His O\\IiIl .H~.YIP.ic2l~.~c:kt&olund ~ldpedtihtlre' his conv~,>i;I:iorldl.u Pre'l1.JIru,.hisheredm;."t~olil ~ n~~d',; ~o :un.~,flk~ SlCl~~~ dn:L~U~ C'halligc5 .• Ah~1i '~ obtaill,ling" m:l:!iter:' dcgwe i~.lmnfornm~iics :iin :~ ] 9187, D.flWVtlr "!jIork~d i1:5 a:!m,ifIJdl]SlfUlfl] fiofl-

:1

Il.lld (llhel:"~. !>'lui i:~IIiIO\,~lii)o~l. 11!E:s "fhe:: ,edUtc.Elli.on ~1.i.!lI.is;[ryrc.qui.ru:> eVCl::ry PIfQIC-&''i!or~nd ;;t~i s". taJrn.l prOfeS:ilOili to teach ~r92,hour=:> <] year,. rreg~.V'dl,e~!l> of Ol:h,ii;:r. ~uli~s. At lVil~ny ~tJlli\l(':r5id de::;:, mun~:str}~.;ilnposed [md:g;ets ftllr e·',,-c'.lFytlirrillg

:lilt" he says, and i~dleed. t~ll;;n\;;w goverulIm:llu!1!<1s S<IIi.d ]I:\?!.forl't IDuell I:~le twin ho~-bmm!1 issues. But he wouldl~le tosee SI.lu:le:I1I,l:;rece~v.e nn1.ch MOI~e gllidallce ~.'I,I'hen ~bo~i.iiil1g~ rid~, ~d"'. ~ ~I~live[};.ily.Oll('e ;oluderu;:; re<'lti~~:h3.li:heivoryi:0'I",'er is;Un."l ~he~,r
ofl~Y c«oo[" ilYP~Q!n! re('iSQ~s. p~i1.1(JpJ; it win •.~.c

(lp~n

r~m.~.QI:.f!;.'d!l!1:l'O ]'l~ai~te:!'1!flm.:(; !l1o:1k~it

be easier to 'keep them

011

c,unpus ..
~iRnN IE]NiJEllfUNIK

f!tmo~~

BIRA.ZU.

"'1DID Nlot Make, a Distinction IB,etwe,enIeachinq and Research'
Am~.alflllio(arl[os.IPav,a,Qmmbhl,es UM!' rude'ClII[ iU~1 the Pm"CJ(,ticClII[ brllrnlg: w to sdence to the masses alll1ldi ,u~am,ethe ne.x,m ~leneraJti,on 0:1':s,cielr1lrt~Sts:
IRE'l':IIIFIE,8,RAZll-LeQmI, Tmtsk_y peers dn",v U~, OJ~.visitors tD th,e' lilJiY J·iby"5"~ntltt:T sp;uleu1ia<a:~: I1U!l;~fl the offi~ tlfA!u6!1!io Car]~~P3!'!(IW;) f{l~ ar the Federal Un,:i\'ersily oWr,errJlaulbm:o ( UF PE) :~cn~Iu aertheast ern BI~<]:Z L T~,e' i ten t~r,ed ,p~,\)fe:ssi(JIliof l~eon::!'t iJC1I]c~e~,li Stry
r~lilds:!bc ,cmw~ pl. olrpcnn9.l1~~llreVO Imj,(i:~l, espCI'Lqged by (he bearded Bobheviik to bean ~IH ~nei~plmr hi:i>dlorts llO rt:~arQl1 ~i(:nc~ for
~'dI~L1; ..

i.lIlg vn.oiencc. The .res~.lt[lfIg tCllcitel" shortage is rmrlic!llh)r~.y serious in science, lec;l:ulIology •. I..~gillecrill£. ~~d IDml~liBClmllics.;room 1990 te .200 I .1b:1i' eX;)J.!Jnpl:e •. urdy 12:00 slwld:eun~ eml1l.6d a d:cgJI!ee;: It] t~.fLC'hphy.sie~, de.>;,pltc th~ Cil,~thnm(;:~t1 55,.'OC~Oj,~b; .a'I]jHabl(ii~lll1.e: !Il~liCln sehcels, 1. W.ulh the comer dnl~sl ronlil.et~mesle."d~

ii,g ph'Y~~t;;S~~lmLd!i;).r~tal1!ed ~!blic ~igig'~.:;.chtltlls., p
i(s IJIO ::mrpd:se tbat Bra zi Iia 11 15 -year-olds r,mked :I!~I.~I; "L~~YlJlg41wlJl:liilr:i,~in n~~\I:hJ;:lllmit1i ml<B 40th in science iIli 2QQ~ (U'I all ]lllem3IiO'tla:11 abiS!e,<;s;mmltin'llO!lv iI'll!!: 1:5.,}!~~]r~o~d slmk~lll'S lt ..
<l~'i!lOhelps

hilg~ science t~_'I(tbooks.liI.e Ifirst ;ll.rguedl:l~at none deserved a seal of appwv'lll from, th,e

e~",pl.,illUiwhy

lJIJ~~'Q4Wh!

oh~lldel1fS

dgf!, "The revolut ion does riot:proceed

Edu,cfltion Mi['!i~~ry- "AU [~~ bouks have !laws," he' e;q)~atiilled. :funl.h,e,eml,. he ~lgl'Cl"'i!l, ..1 j, Qft~len se,ri:e.s that l;wmlfl~ed,l place Orll:!ielrn.lI:injj~l~i's ;uvillg list [h~ij'ila ~ull !It ,iI $335 minh,mm.3rlretre~d'nitlg j, I mill ionpupi 15. lEIul: be had 1111.:td~ his poirll~: n~O&<;'y pic'tiU~'Ii~S ~nd hauds-cn d~m(l!lS[!1!liO:!1J; il~ no ij,l~1:J-"titl~leI()r t!;;ach~fN,likl;;;bimsell:
\'Iiibo are devoted to nlrn:~ng:stUdil:ilil!:8 imo p.llIC~ lic~if!g re$eil.rc:~16~1i! who knm'li ~~!\V t'O rind ami y,III;'Lnc :[rmu the most IHlln:dmle reseu rces, ·'\iVh<ill school in Brazil has uo ams ~I] the ymtl'!" <!.-..ki'> tI;\'50,. whe ;[J!'l 01, g-r·dd.L.ml.e studear P rmoo S~il~,tSao Pa J:.U II) ;S(leQndar~1 smdL;~t~spin-

~m:~['i!mg UF'E'~ C~l1inl3:rfor [.:};,'IC·~ and NaT~,J!;f!~ Sc ieaee s, wbere :r3\ril.o!e';l.d.u~ S" d mp OlU'
aUc.U"the filr!!:t :sellrn~!e!ltel,".: in othc.r Brnt!:lulhu,

illd.efll~ m'livelrl'itie:-;., the numberis
75%. "'M~'thcnuHic~

.!J:';

high

,I!)

it> the kner,' p~~v~o e....pl!a ins, <lll:hmL~l he :my:-; $:~'lJI.delus are alse r~L~ off·hy I:hl;: cnrr~ni1!II!luv'~iI"Si practice 0 f ly lump.unS together .. l M::il;lf!L'~~, ~:~gi[)Jeil;if~]lg., d
and ma~1ia.em<iJ:~j{;:Sslu(lJenl'£ jin ceurses deV<:liLd of!Qbs anCi aerua•.1 research, T,\yO yem:s. ilgO, Pavao and :hJs colleagues 1J)eg.,U1.ml e~...peri mearto ei rc ~lm\!'e;,IlU lie sui-

stage"'wisc' bld PC;:]".blUllIllc:l,nly."he points out. "The seme apr I ies to teaching." Equally gmy~n!lall(l bearded, the :56-')'\ei:l.r~ old POlV~,O manages 'to j~c,orpor<]le the iLltopian view offlle m~ny:wed Marxis!t Wil]tl!~ am hJ$hlg tauch with rc:.ll~ily+ H~fs I~~~only IJxufes:sorulli file dep:1lfrnm.e:un \Ji,iho shales i~.~iS onrh:~spaeewith ~ ,ql~;;trW~ o,f gr,~dUiln:re $Iudems, :fu:r eX<IJ,upl.e-bwu he deesrr't :~eIJd (m~ i,I,llJ,Y ofhis dleai'is.l~;edbooks. And 1,)11 larger issues, l~e1,; a:dep,t a:~:he art 01' Ihe p~~5~ab~ t ~.A$. ehal r ora. Ilat iOIl~~ IJ,MUd to eval uate jrLl ior n

de~;Hs' ~;<'I.c,k p IlTep,mll .. o~:L of ~ They

add ed

Oil

mird pil~s~tClllih~ ~r:~.(hliollall\w·sl~p (l(b~'n.h;.· ning in opposite dillectiom~ lo~,d'pi:hem sica precess, \\'hi.eh~D:ld:mjes, a ma;s!>ive'rJful~i-· u!ld~r$mndt1in.~ ~U'UCh,llre Oflh~m(lm, t~p:~~ho]c~ t,L;;~~fo]II)\v~dby ha~d\1!'~iu~u c MoSil s,dem:e~:e,}(;h,e'l's: a:I"C 111:1i from beiug e....almls. UFP.E nov.! <ltiCr;!:pts; Ihree limesrnlilre Clllldi.dale:s lJ~liI:rJ: has rOO.lV:li for and offers ~,t that rmooooelhi. The~He of''11IBr(lZili~11econds <III)' schou.1 teaeher ]~ liI,(J<t e.l~'y.thmlks~Q :~~~W im~m .1 series of'ene-semester, pre-erary SiC~wag.,es. pm.'):ite<lc!l'a,i~g o('mdi!im~s,. ~1l:C1moulU~ ence courses, Those who pass lhcc~osi~lg

I r1fla S lJI:kovamalyai~aps~ntJlls OfMaJ1e

and '~h,e'reSOI~IIl"CeS, of ·a,new meglaJ'ljlnivers.ity~o hel" physks students
KRA:S~iU)iVARSlt RI!JI5SIA-1n ~ :Hfla~llal:!ora," ~0Iy.1~rst.·ye-il f physh:~ s;~lI~entsare fUlllmi'lIlg elerln1i!: (iJlf iiEllt tbrough al dlioci!. Altho jJ~h lhl! ~~tual. diooe l,s in i!neth@r~oom; n:;
mmpl!l~er '5UIe£!n iii ~IOW5 stl!lde-rill'S,to'lI'Im'l( at 'Dheii 'O~~IIIp.al(t', r ~PIlUl$ ~t~@~~l1Jilpm@~t.i@Jtililllifli1!leS i'lIXi[iJ@!ilt$,il!lIId ,oU'~r:sb~~h $11l!d~1'!~ alnd learli1eIl!i.glreat!1l nell:! bJI.iily in whl'! l1'S IYlPi[;a1lllr til hS1M\I'V 'IIKlrk schedll!l!!. 8;0.~I~dst lri!ll'a StJlkwataya devijsed lh~s ::t!1!di~~rta:rsoltwaJr,~ !~O:i'her Iplhysks s da5se.~ OIl ~Siib~rialll F'Eld\;!J<ll Uillli\!'er~ily (S1FU)-;aml !poOOll1tij.1l fCllf U'mu5.i! Iilds nV of Ol:h ~~ Isuild.e:nIS ~rilmal!:f.OSs~he.va$~iiEgio!l\~hocai.! .• lrra.ll~~ heN~. "nUl SliJ):~t" ~ W.i!Jl! allows rman ;lIIdividliallraJedill:ry off s'~JU:dy.A "ilrtldMt ,c;an begin at allY 5tag~ he li ~e~;w'5~!S SU~Q'ilil'<.l'il. IIIn th,is cou Ilhy ClI( 'n HIiIII e lOIt'leS, a IUll1iivl! ~sit,y~h.alt ]s e,asl IiJir th,ii!: Ul',~t MolJll1ltai ~u (i!~ be. ~sily f(lrgQUen '!.il'le iIII~~m~s't a l~e peQ;p~e a Illdl l1l1(I1'1 ey are tollh~ J,i'i\~t Sr-u. le~fI; thalli 1 ye.:J1[{IlltJI, T~ oHIl@fllile wUlllrr's fmlm nl1!l/II'
0111 iii

m~!J.!!I1J;;v~rS'ili"es. liOlJellller with: I;h(l~' illl, ,1ll~O"'WI;'l', ~!er~~mg. ,and lllo~\ov· n St. Orl-Oon,-..:i.llldl .1 fihh jiI!lulIle'iliIffor VI,adhtQstok-lhl! Im~ga'i!liI,iv,(!Hilie·~ !,>e'p:~e~~r1t, g'(D~rI1'll1llermt'sl.ate.sl a~,tell'!pt KI :re'l'ii! Ifd il1ilil(i!jra~io~ ~ne Qlnd r~t.ore G:j1uaU'ly In hlgheIT education 1IC'F05cSi naliclIII. '!hE1

~ha't if!.ini,p~hre is paf~. of iii! stew of Weslil;UO·5ly!f rer(l~~s.kI ~i,I~~;;!1'Ihnghrtr e~I.!(i!li!J;n tha'~.1Jru:Luclil! ,reall!i1giw~e:l1't~ b!!lsiiil~ sd~@oIsami rep~ilI(ii1g th~ mm:!fil'~·year dieglree wurh ,ill more (fllll1lp\ilcI4.;year s.y:s;l:ernilll nne with the
BoloQ!'la.precess, S!FUis due to rec~i¥e H8,6 JilQ1l11iOfli by ,2010. about ,~ght limes the (jomliilll eel bllldlg;e.t'Q~ the ~o:urr111l~~nJUtiol'l"i that W'e re' mer~,oonilio SfU. RE: [u r~ish~JliglLaoor at®!ie,s ~s.!3i htgh IMiorilly,almgl wi'lh oHe!ri!'lQ hij9h~.r
~ILarlestlnd s'!ipem;i$ ~o .1IUlliid i!nd retain' '~iI(uHy lIIiIelillloor5.,

depkti~:n

S(I rar', U~e 35·y.ea~"Qld Su~t~ is ahead ,of the tll!V'e'. A ,gua(i1uate !(If kra';lno.l/'"i!f5k StatE Univenily, InoJl'illParl or sm, Su'kovattIY"i! didl gr.aJdua~.ewd: al the Russiai'! Ac~,~eif!il,Y'o~ Scf~ftCel (RAS) 1!,!1S~'ttJlteof Bt(llphysfc:s he,re'. Iii! 2001, she join&! Ha,~liiKllIlty ll:[ 'Klra5I'1o~r5k :5'tal.ll'ire(ilnkal Univer5i~y,. ,alID IlOW ~ ~Brrl or SWill,
:S'U~~~Clvllllhas l'lli1Clli\WIiI,.arl aI1lI1iL:lahchQ~~fSlmplrt!.r,~)!;.QeIlI~Il,e: ~!'iIli;ljdir!'l~

n

alnd feiean:h, along,

lj'IliUll ~

:stipend '~I~a~ ~~~eed~ Iite~rn(mih~ s~dary. He<r ~ar
1IT~'eI'oo~'Clfin~l~'L:ldilj)llaINHllllh!il mOle

new :~e<arnill1g 111.ililiE!lnlab. ~ut~mall£ld and

70

.6 JIULY 2007

VOL

an

:SCII~NCI!!!:

'WVffl,so1em:ema:g.mg

S,de:n(!I!' 'fonlll. AinHiniu PO,9,!.i'a,o,(ilf'llOranlJil? r·§!hirl) p!l.ays

with'l'isitIlF) ,all~he s:ci:em:e IflilUSi2'1J1llI in RecUe. ~mltl?rests;' l><Iys Nobe~,i:st R02IJ~d Ho.IThhmnn or

Cornell Uni~"er~i~y.,w~o:.;;e picture b.lrlg:-i
alongside the Tf.[nskypo~.~:er.ravi"m'st;olll" m.md of~iloorel~t:jJ.I fermalism .~ml Ol,!telll~ion to ~»!"pocr~m(:nf,fuld(:jr~il" H!~lmm~J1IIl1 cx:pl~il!in~. make s for "!ll:l app~aJing c;()mhin~:litl.n.:· W:liu:n not <'II: 'lIfPE lC'<Iching '1'1l,ddoi~Jg r~~e'lfCh,P,r\!i,~~l d:ir,r;H;I::;;:!!p .. ~~ Cie~ci<!, <Jl nation of chemical bond s, "Be tter .1Il d
s.~:<iIle-{M1m:d, OI)~ftl,'iiI.il" science IIliu:se'lIil.nmlocJiIlil<lil: led in it :l!i::mi;_lh~L:lilclum:d exh ibi li,mll Ilav i~, ion b erween t11.e!ei. tie 5 0 f Reci re: au d 01i nd<J.. Some of its yeady 801000 visiwl'S-'mlmoslilly

more experienced
prof:t;,:;.~ro'rs~;:l~.Oll~.l!,e b
te:.u:;lliin~ undergrad I;;'o~n,~sto rr~shmc;ln

teachers ilJlld :pupi~s-l:lm::T~lw::nd

summer

hands-on courses ~'l UFP'E. anether of
.PavJlo's multiple "",cli\lit~!es,. Those t.. k~,lm,g <I 2-wiCek ceurse Oll~ •• K.ilehclm, Chemistry," for 'f,!Z'ulmp,I!l:.migill employ iii $301l000 speetromceer trying to solve the sluclur~] rnys:~eryohl<lLe buner. l',h.eillhi.(lliv~ b; iP~lr~ ~ network set up of by fi.'!C:llltyrn.e:u1~be:r~ .~I ~-&IT!llu!l1~\'~n:;i-, 10 lies on a slim budget. and his C',rer~<'ic~:iuve mind sees it U fI model, "UFPE has abaur 50 deparunents,' he says, ":1fanl Cllg~ge in,:pi ~Ol projec~:5 such as OUI1> •. 'Ii,v:e co!.dd do 50 ~ilfiLl,!l:S more," lurhe mea'nil:ime. rWlsl.;y:S looming preserree remtuds PaV;U(l, f~a~rrflvidi!lg everyc~~~:h!n nrnz,il\'l.'ith aceess W the woni ders of sc i(!lle~ requires a b]~~d of utopia!l dre'l'nrns. and, the~.uiel1ce and \'igi~I01Inoeof<l d isci pl: ilu:d ''L'Cl st. ivi

and sophomo res," be argues, aware dl,at

hi,:)

,1ldvi'i::t'l is !fl(H

U1>U3.1

Hj s so,.. l , h~

iyWo 110\\,00.

dcdl'llr~,. is L'O'f;':,~r]~i.n '~,~'structure Qfn~fltter, "1 din not mske ,eI

exams are allowedto enter ~he regular
~:I,nd,ergmdm'lle

d~$liIDI_£t:ion between
There: is ,ill

(e~d~~]1J{!: ~uuJresearch.

1~lscin~l.io~,:lImong studenrs for advaaeed subjects" ]~tlke adi!,1UI:li['ig~ ef it," Br-.tZ~ii'H1.P~lbJfc universities.fs lree, SOl)",! ,P~I\1,iiOl, "At the' ead of I:ile da}!. 1thi~~ik1 .1 his general dlenJiI,is,lry c I.JSi.grIQOm. n Pav~,[Jputs on quite a show, FhfU place a end lUP h(l]lli~g~~~~~llW(:n'::Qi~Hl I~~i r shortlonmlO Oil the table aml :;Is&''l,vl~ ifs red. Of com illt!S'J:I~dlill nde rs,f:'..'I~~,d need to ~tud)l the he'U ~n:!h!l seeeer ball fro,!]) his b:iif,lfeas,1:)' and ~e.lf!ll!mnre !~ltH)li!tthos~'b!)ring th~~gll:'in ' luuEllheilmlOltic:iS, :phys.i,cs. tc," e andpoiar om: how~'Ven it:s;pent<l,gonsan~d bexago.r:IiS fit. i,:ua, rouad su rface, 11. seamless :.I, IHi.s(;nUe<lgues. Si!,y t~l<lthis work l~lboth realms istop-notch, ",P;;jsIlQ, is an Qdgimd i~n:lfodm:b,Qn~Q il Fullerene moh.'lcule made up of'(]I() c.(i,ibQ!1·iiI~O~lSandaa e;.:.pla~ t.hec!I.'~1ic~~ehem lsr.w ith v~:ri}'w:i:de~~llgi,~g
program, 'Wh.ic:~,. ~Ii.kc ::III

~ s,~~den!'s wi., ttl ~ \leuy hf9h.llf'.'lfet ,(If i!bjtity, ~try ·~~.,o dhed. t.h:ellll to s~.LJdy,Olm their ml'~I1.<lIt

I
Ii

~eml1)r~ah'le' oo(a!JIs~ they a:rooe ifi an gald~i'Ili( enlollil'(liiUTnel'lt nill dominaled .bySo'llillil-e'J<! Ihilllkjlll.g. "We s!l!velIDpEN:I thes.'e Imaterials bel:n~ 'tJiI,8Y c[F<e(01'1v~f!iif!1t a~d he:~phd,l1C!tb~L!:!i!! thm wal! sO!lle kff!dl o! di~cnr';l~hom 'Ih~ EdlU:Gi3Iti(JJ1 S(~!!!nr:e Mi'lIlislllJ." '5h~, says. i3il'ld beg!i3lrn"~:r~ie~; rnluil !!!.amer,,"" The d'i~de '~Jo:rl'INare, develJ)iped ,a~ the 1'!llll.dUmedi;;l1 lab Wilby Ill!!'r hus~.fillild,. Alil!iksE!i, aspect II H$~nn tJilli:t,IfI'!JUI11!I !~f;!(HQlrlfe!l.• gliv.es ~,~udl€!nts: ~ne opli!l)'111of 5.la.udlyin.g whelll a ~d ~herr~ th ey W.!'Iililt. ih,~~'s QI r-adiCQIloom::epl ror' . lhos!! USee lo .1dhl!'ri rig to ,ill rf:.ghll p.llh ~aid dil~1m by r;ede~\\llQnidi;l!~""'I!II f~(tt. ~Ile~,lsee

"we

.~ ~Qme.." says

Sli'k~;i!!iJ.yal.

Bm that's

easier

said

lhi.aln dene,

:~ Al@ks a rH.:ilr i! ALtuk~ ov;al,

'9

i;\IIilO:!i@'r!l!

th !!ilt is a

pny~idsl, !illy!;;lihiltill~I.liIougl1l1 mmpul:er Qlll :~ ~ep,licuif.l' a piece (iif ~"beq:llIipliJ1iwt, it G!!il!lOl rllplkiilt:e i! tea(hll!!r. 8eside), 1>rn'El (J~ni~'I!!:5"e!>.,I I I~i:s 1'I1Ui~ dmku~t 'lei ~~olrk jiildep'~l'!di!!f!~lly.alJ'lld .~ 5ukO'\I.i3Jta1ya [,m 'b.iI2' permilded to' ,gh.!\e'h~nit~ :~ !flat ror~h(I,Hrnin,g fll'Q~: Ule< 'j;l)ir~~'ilare. Th~'~li'I.Io, :g 1iI.a1VE ii'II~rlWd O'!!!t ill oorn;~:rtllIJiI'I~t.,S;UI~il)VG [G,ya i~ 5,g,y~~ ooL~1heriillat 5h~ (.Q!~I~i (,(IiJTI.e' il'!ll)'!Il~e:He~plirl!lllh~l1!ld$. "II Irim] Suko'll,~t;j!li'i.! h~15 Iysedl mOril~ hOIlli! :Sp'Etr Rmlil:l~, nol ,e:vtry w~~k:' tll!ilc:h~l1ig .aw'i1rd5 to d'l'1.WWp l1iew~l!ls~rud.i"l~almate<rrlals.

!

:5imi~r' sofh\ialrei!O at5J(] useful for di!ltg)nce' leaJrltlunngl. SMldi(lMS at ted~· ~dlJjob; 1!(],m'~ Si[)erilll hi!lve 1Ji51E1dl to perlerm ,exj:u!I.rrimlllnt5 Glnlinl:! it and ~w;n 1,0di!'lect rob©tt al!i!~ th~ ~Ji!i'!l',~rs;ily '~v~lIltlliaUlY lllQPe:soo '(lUer i~s proglFam15, to ~~l!Idlen~ho IITI! (hi 1lI.a~~ndial, M~l"Iglo~itl,and ~he rmm~r 50,vijel ~plll:lli.($, a!['j'lrnrdilllgll~' Se~9El~ Vedil~ovets, I'lead or imteJ'liIIaition,al rel.atieI'l5,. TIl~!SSII!lIliI'I2'£~!ar; h ew@lIer;. alII 70 of Su~o'\JIa!~l!I'a.'~student!: are ~hys~c:a il1l her d1li~'Srol)!rlt n~a'[ ,['I1'et!i II! 5- slhili! slP~l1IdcS30 hOlm QJ ~\leek,in.d~din9 SalulrdaiY:S, te.achinQI in hlbs al1d l:edu!~1! h3 Wls,. '"thelle is: \iiery le li~e 'fOof Ire5~ r(h,'~ ~he says. '''SliU. II h,,\1'~ ulQb:lropp~dl my :sciemHic: r'e)e8lrch UHn p ~etelly" on Mo 11IIrllilllll1'5ICE!'I1CE'. l,iiihkh she ctlrrie'sOIlilt.aJt Un:! IRPIS !!'!I:)~.it!!!'le'. ';It\ne r alU" a LE!'.llcli!e;f idealll;y~h Qlu&d be IU~ III Sp@e:dlCDO r'~@'il!Jr(h allldl nol jlf~[ VihiJIlis 'rllriltell iIII l(1xl~mlk).~ Edl.0,iflgl hil'~:sllude!U. !she adds thi:l[ the Ilimy ~Il:rl'l!!l'illri!! i~ a !iIllMijt!JIte ror iill t:eiilcher. nol
In ica[

ny

m~

"'s.o!Q'teI~chers; thln:k.':M'01\i' L~e 'S~!aw.arE! ~M 'ilIPpll'tlred, l.am not l1eeded imymOrl'.' Bu~, ~f1 r~~iLy, it is: l~e opp~ilJe. Wh.e t~ild1,eui5 stW
the ,c;E!'IlIUall,

rfiQ IlIf'eo."

-41!R:w:N MPiCWtIIiUi,IArMS Sl'ij'On"\a(Wilnam~is, a miltl' 'In Mo~(ffl.

...i111116lob:arn

.... Leslie l~la

In'~a,(ilil. (i!lrmplis sig npost slil,oIN§ h O'i'li If.<i1J" willi 910 kl~eOl:ch ~h}''Si~.

"l'aO:lrnH: experimeunkit!-:" for fi[l'I1.;year p.1l!ysics. Mal!})!, oour~-$~~~o·!i);'l;lu~rc.a 2~'wocl;:i~u",;~,siw

I~bor,.mry eeurse.

Ti!lik~!1J

ejl~~t'f ~u UNIS.Aol!

<lilm.ot~u::,r <Ip~nm''ed site,

F'(lr lnill)Y fina .. ';l.~r students, rhe lackof y
I:<m,~j]~ari;ly wi.ti~ ]ab work isa Ilegacy orthc .~p,!rlheid n,'egiifll.l~ whj~h il1!\'e8l\'id :~i,Ule .• Il~O;Ime)r;00(1" '~:e'd.dli,11l£c.ie'Ul.re i[IJ mOMly s blm::k s:cllDoo!~" The \\''ea~m~:'U of disad-

,',II W'islh ••,. I Could Gliv'E! [IhernAll] Computers'
Les~i,eLekal[!a teaehes physllcs ~o U~o!I~lsa'lilOis f studelnut:swlflom hle'lm m1leVelr ,O' meet, 1~S,TI:ng distalrilce ~ealill1ingl to help oV'len:ome lhe Ileg,aqf (iiI' apertheid
to-lace sessions, Lek(!hl'S II1WiSlpotent mot for L'ek<ll"lwalked 2, hourseach W,lIy~'Q ~lig,h, the .r1!l:<lti,veJysm<llIpe:rcenl<~ge of student" ~\1i~f) t;(,'tlkhe~p.is Ihe ill;l:i.(lphU!u;" "Ifs so much ~hool" T~n,;~ deeades ~m~r.hJis ti~~hw~lvGd s in distanee ,ed'McOltiolll.But~his time, he's ea~i.eli'\,\~le,lD.you are .un from ef a 'Ch~l~kbo<ll'd" t~3c~i:~g,ph>,$,icsw~hou~~llIds, of smrJl;ll!l:t~, ~lyS. ~h~$On-$pol:;(;11 Le~l],~. "By phO!lL;. :y(l~1 sclillitered ;i1lCrossAfnc<I. must be "lei)' c:rle.u' in :yourexpbrn!Elti.om,:LelkalOls high seheol ,in remeie lil1~popo AllthoL1gh Lekaia :spe'ilks: seven of South PnNince QiI,Jered r1op~ysi,cs or hlg;~er marth, Afric,j"s .~I offici;]1 J~ml£,m,~;e5.he \vreslle',) to snd l~lh;fi.VS\ lab oourse ''vaS (It the LI:n iW:liSley 0 r trail slate sQnlepl~.:rs]cs 'concepts ..Faroe and the Wit"\i~h:::~;::>nr~d ('V!.Jj,t:;,I. where he 1l:'~:U'iW~1 IX}WIl:'f. b,·,c.1>i:<II~.lp:I'e","-e~J"JJi~~.od by the ssme degrees in physic:; and IliiIl<llhe:L~,l'Hks. ~,h.e·s, N ,,~urd illmSO.mfl Aflrit:'~.I~ ~"'liD~Ufige:;. '·Yb~I.:Iln<l\n;lIlO .1 Si((;~lirar 16t.::lt)~~r tthe Univ(:F&ity ofSouf~! a explain the d;~$'tim.:tillns:' b~ Stlys_ UNI8A ArriC3 (UN]SA), t~.leco:mtincnts ~.i:1Jr~st isd :~,d mi.llus't raters ;1Q.'e OI~U:;ide'ri:Ulg mallie "extra O ~f!L"e~le~lm~!,~ in~~t~Qri(]~ and ~11l!;.l (lnJ~.ew(Jr~d'~ learner MJl:PPtlrf' pr~)£m1llJ~$ \Vt_mJd bril'lg lh,al II,ne.~~mlJi\iersi!.ie5. But ,,,~~,ere<~seine of these .ll::'klll~a ami. his ,co~~,mlgu!:!sloser te s~.1lII.cl~ent.s. c ifll(;:llIdh~g9ddilkma~ s:at(l:llilt;: c'h,t~SCll, Jaee-tag,i~un un lversitl esa re s;wnitcll\i~g (0 l~h~I'ncl kmming. Dl1(J~tofUN]SAs,.tssigmnt'iJ~ts<Jjre!a;I~1 rn~"ewl;orim,g!, iI'~.denline discussion ,!;P"~~IIPS, S\.'11t iu~dr<l;"Cd\~'t1 ~ ~n1iiil~1m~i~""1 \\.'is:~~ h~d ~. hl.lfiny S'!ltcl~9U~\:"'Qu~d likl;> n'Ul~~ ,eonUIC'lwith [ Ilmlgicwan.d .nul COlI M C(jJllputern !.o each: lhe;~rleCI~lreirn. ":It is oftelil d~ff;~clllll,o outllim: of o~r :liwd~iIl,ts,".\W!}"S, L~hhl ~b~lV~bi~ fiil"l0~j"~'Urprobl"'m t~} ~~~il,II:\l;'fow.:r~e PI~I,l!~'"$i;t;il'i' of! y\ii.u(~,lu~ ~.{JOQISb.UJ!:IU:;.·'.Bt~l rt~ly oflll:iIl IJ'f m ~)i'llhm'i!: Fnu'l::i.MCI!si~. \\'~w etlJn~d both hi~ simply don'[ ~lilive ready llIQCe.",,, to '11K':nterfl:l!:1.:'· [ 'BISc, lind m~'tl:U"sd~"lIIl':Cs,inlp~;,!ysl:(;S at UNlSA UN~S}\~s t:l'lfOUrnel'lt ofnefldy 210.000 !.nid phrlti 'to s~,u1;w{lllk dn:re soon om.bis PtI~.D. IPFlEJOFlJrA,. SOU'Fmil AfRICA-As.~ boy, Leslie

\!""'IIl~ap,ed~chools l-"OJilti]]Ues: Last ~m. o~bt[[bt]!j,q~ 15% oftlwi '95JlOO SG'~'(I~.d~ry !>'C hoe I se [Iiol's lun,Sout h A fr1ilc<I passed the '1IU~I~.i:I'Y~ng, ex.,.~n in the p~)')1.ic.~~'J(il:'niL"es.lh~~spr:iin:.lhl': eJ!JI.! eatio:~, ~~1n islcr-c:m.b2lrr~H;;sedl:~1.~H i South AI1'.icl1ull SI:IJI,d:eJlt~rlInked .1m'1!e8l Cli~ l:~]elast TrJ!1:Jlids in IJJ1,l.cr~.~Hi.Q;~1'1] puUed, out of the
Sd(l~.\.'lI.'l St udy ~fU~l., :~uuml C'<liI]1'~~:lule, M ti1Le mll'llis~lyhr'$ ~rd)1i ~h0d a !1;mi(!n,vid~~f!,M(J,ffi <CLIITel1ll

M:a't!hc;:m<!LIlI;.'s .,r!d

ofl 02 ··[)r.l~.dedi ~'>C!I~.ool:ll'·-s:tmiIfill.'to science-

!'I'mLJJle;~ig1il sehoelsin ~he Unil£>d Slal~~W h rooM t~,1e ~"'tlldyOfl1l1!i:l!tll plil.ysic<:l:1 seience. iilnd P'Oor 1)f',~~r;Hio(!Jli!>llt)l ~in~i~t;ld t~ SI'~lOO.llits; ~il .i~mooc~d'ul~<LI:ioll universities d Geology prol~ssor Nk'.Ol~ Be:lU~~ Qflhe Dn.i\lQrsily of Johmmesbllrg S<!,ys some Sitmlemll1are, a]IIO\\it'id 10 :spre<J:d thei:, Olte.lem~ ;unlrocl:~l.clim:y giJol.ogy course ever a :ruUye.~r i:1:I h~~\'~ mere tin,'lI,e;:: tig master bil~~.ic CQ.~,C:CplS. Simil.ar "in':idging'" progrmm. are beins, cm\S~de'wec~ UN ISA. ;J:~ Ewm iflhe ,qua][ly of new science S;1[ld~llltS
be Iim~pmi!,~d,he n~til1~b~r Sl;lId~]illmli,inl('~t of ested in scien.oe-esped~1jJly the :phiy:si.c::dsciences=has b~I;lWl,shrhllking. A~mlm.~~d, the South Afrli,cllll Agt::'llcy fDr Science and lII"cc.~·l',,'H'I

gu,~

Ad\.'aIliC"cI1lCmI'! is wor,k~~gwk~hbQilh seclOlL'llliilry sci1ilools, 0111p:R~'t"!LUS 10 ~nl{;~r~i>l mll3:l11i.,;;J stiUdC:!'iils imi ~d!;::IIC~. Gi~1 iiifl Arendse. a plia.y:s;UC5 leerurerat S!e~,le'liIl:ios.ch
p~iilhal)l<lllm.d

00 logy

Uni\l'~rl'i~lY \~)o k"@.dl':i~l~~~!c'tiv~s~l\.S,hJ!l~\~ti~h highschotl] ~tmk:~Ul'ias WeU~I!'i\'\"llfk:ihllP~ for
l:eaci:ter:s., ~my:s.'·1:1:'5 a c.~3JIC::CI1I,gJl illtn:i'I!til lfu.e to bl1jghl!eSl srudearsiuro .'iicie!i:'!.c'e,'" 1]le goal oO:n:.£cp~ngtalemcd students in

indud\es about 1,4JIO[l screncc OJ; engineer~ng ~nJjlors.M,,,,[Iy ~'lllcl);:litlS c.~mtl <lfCOlid, or clan'l; qm:1.lufy fQlt,l:II:1miss.iiO~m o!iilIc:'D' nivee~o u

A:mI.othel'pi(j:Ob~m. he sa.ys., b;I.~at"'t!lcre

31fie ,,'t"'ll')I

sules, O{lS'pU", 1.(lsi!'lM[he c reaf~ f~fhe: l~mp t to l1l.e nlll1i,Q.Irn,i:; ,e~li.t:e rdidenli:d univers,ities, Le.k~~~! s.f~llaWl~l20%gnl~$ fifS(~)t~llr S:11:1Ide~1t~ w:iU m3J,or III phiy!;ic S" l:I~d some '\1!,1' iII
go
O!lJ

fo]" advil.~H,::ed degrees.

Thatl~~v:es

~i~l1 resources" for hib\'VOfk. i!~, ited UN] SA. requ iwi ng r~pper=kvelll stude Ilits, t,o~rd\f~d 10 J!:lhl'!ll!lCsburg reuse hilis 2!it Wits Univl?(t.hy. (SuLdC::nI:s,u:-ilI\rel tD ![)I~e .of !:,;ellern~, NISA. te~l~ U ~r!ljl.~':ilU~1'S ( <!rollnd til"" ,tXluntry ftn'fiim<;!~."l~m~.) e h~,deed, ltl<leili91g ~i:I,bs,c:ue~},c,es po!;eS51 Illflj Q~" Inrobh,~Il1i fnr~~]y d iSl~ IlBe= iei)m i~g
a

seboolis one .retI::;,()11 Lekula spends t\,\\\)'"I1il,irds
ol"his llime 'mlle~.c.li1i I:Igand 3dminasn!i,ve' work, ~,V€:n SOl. h~Mml<:l~~ OCI !l.::OmIU~l !i;~~~ i1m h~ Il!leid of fe~,~~bodyh)'!lics.9I~eud c;olilferem:es, p

LekZl~". 4,6,. 'l"';~th the ~no:r,J:1nm~s !Ch.d lelllg:e of unn?l"er:5!UI:ies. actin!;! de::ln of UN ISA;s s,ci. nu; giv]nglb~n:1: ~ good fOMdat.ian. (,l!1iC~1nd~llg~!1ooring COne,~g. m.,.~b~>lDi{;ia!l i One oh~lade ii:se1>i:,plolill~,n! difficu~lt COiml,~ hm Alde,U'wllI. =:><IIy5 studc,IIHS hiil'~c'"lC'ce::;s 1;0' C'ePlS \'Vi~ll(}m 'ool~~filof (:'IOILs;sr:Qo,ms. (If r~t~~ &On\~ for k;)f!'!i~.gbO$,ic~b rmcedi]~s ,f"ld

.;;~~~~~:~~I:·:~;;;~e ;.
'&,lilIl:S kno'!il!ldlt! b<lsi.lC\""O~'lQep!\lmil.d ~tl.c'l'

~!!'!ds~,yin

~()M'h\,~lItbo~le:llSuesarlll!mll~e c

rJ

leUfl~1o :~~ve iii ~ ~o~s..,! ~nll'a,c[!~le:l1~it.'~ ~ysWb~fl, ·'8m ~ ~ il:"s 01. chal~llIge to tem;liI then~,,¥e]~,:' .stiU ~ ~

72

.6 JIULY 2007

VOl3f7

:SCII~NCI!!!: 'WVffl,so1em:ema.g.OFg

AU:STRLA,

thleir teaching

]'Jm~!I1eriiilLGrl'lllll:me.r Fa'll.'ors a

"Can"tHlav'E! a Career .'. '. With,out EnIQILi'shl'
Katri,n S(h~Uer helps students a,('q'~lilrethe' skiUs ~hey need to (lv,e and work in a. 'gllobal. sidl'en'tifi C ,'omm unity
'\lUNINA, AUSTR.IA~··D(mkG. sell,. g1:lt.'~stlys K,ur[~ Sd'n.1if~r. nndldi!lg~o Christopher Schmied lh,1[ hf!'"s npr:lf'xt Selnnied '\'Y".. Jks ~I[l !~.e [nlu~ or lhe elass and takes; a deep brcal:~1 before Il1u~chin,S; :il1l~o a deseripiion ofhiil n nlilem.'.:gfl!l,d lI~'~t:l:re!HHI h, p mjl eet, ,n lM)~la I re psyc:~,o~!qgy eJ ..per,intJ,~l:liit '~e!';l eop le 'sP~~H:'~o p (,::Crflio!~ of f~ci:~ihak. :BUl the ~Ii:r 5e~!J1;U;to ddcke!1 Iikl;l ~~(],~,U5S~~,"<l~hl;l ~\~dl)C'hl;l~t~J! 'l~i~ A'L!£t r,uan-.ux.)C'!un,ledEngli 8:1:1. Th~PJe ....,ous presemnrion had cr.flclded i along il~l ue:ammn. with Hg;htnl~,lg-filL:st qw::Sf' tt[lIlS<. olrls\vers,<!nd even ,OJ lew jllk~ idngil,£ rn:l\'\'U1l &~h~ifeU' bl:o~,ogj:c~~, •.~1 ~lllhropo'logi.s •. ~!ld her L.t~,d~r:gr.;ldu~ili:' !;;nrud~I1iL't;"Bm t~c: ~<ll~y flWII::~lll.:yr."Jls.1M,'<l.1I the elm.s, w,lJiesth:s with il, <IS ftlr'~ign ~~li!lg~"Yg~ ~h'L;poly~lo~ disc'Ui~')ipn ..~~.
~h.a.lfono'l\'s. Schafe:1i switches between

.il\"f<l;~"sink o.r swim," Students were ~'espoJlsi~ ble tor nnd[l1ga r~tcttl't)'meurer ~,!ldd\;,:vt\!l1ping
;3

research

project

l~,1 ...twould

lead toa

P'b.D.. ·'Wi;:' ~~'e'reall ~ em1fll~'{[Il and m:my of us d:1,'OPf1iild OIJ[ or thikld."l'od,vy's :S~'lqdem~ h~ve "\\~(l~dcd'u]advantages," she say:'>. illcludinggmll:"<'Iil'tteeci meril't:mlll.g<lnd ex;pml'LulI: toi Illrernational st'l,ld~~t ~ ~nd visitll1~ scientists, '''T~H}yf!~:;U hUVl.;;!1Ii!flf>l;; choices. Onl)' <1,botn:I 0% go on 1:0 do ill, ·Ph.D". and th .. ~sl'ine"
UDlId,erg irtl i11!!l these new resources ,i ::;,<1 shifung landscape !!Jnallig~HI!i!.e. Only a f~w gener.,lions <I~o\" ..,,'!:len clIu:itlg-edg.e research

bac he lor's ~)ri(lgroun in 'G erman l:\i hill. an opliolll,,'iJil s,.\I'ilrel~ re E~,gl i£b {It tilL: m1L'l;leJ;''s Ic\rct Geor'SW~m:ldeilf. aneeenemist and rector ofUV. wo:uld like ~h~ f!le1,l~lyIfl ~l1':!!bl'~~whal he e~~b:<muilili~gJjjalisill"~ ' eourses I<'!!l~ghlin Gel"mllln,. W~Li:Ivisiting professors l.ec::tu:lI"illag tun Englii:lh. '<The slml'lllnt;:; eeu ask qj~l~:;;~ii[ln$in Cie'HIK'In," ~~e says" "and Ute IPmfe.sS'l:Hi'Illm,~. be able ~(l~~:Jrudie<J;l:i'lRIiI.d: call ~~Il~\',"er EUlg:li:iih," lml in BWI~~.: the IlI1{l\m1],elJi~.the df\<';~5ioEllis ie'll toeach departmeat. Some., such filS [~'!IC'mcleeular bi.o]ogy pm!;,:r,am. have .already switched tOo E·nglh,h flIt' lh~ir I~mr~& AltIlmngbr Scharer <1gree5, tll~1t a m.eili.l:Iig~pOl ilp~~rrcmeh~II,I'(Juid ludl" auril~t. 1.n:teml!lioni2h1 SlUdears, sIDlesees 01 deeper prOib!el1'i \.\I:idl ~101Id],,~ on to the 1:u:J:Ot~~d' tongH~. :By l'OqU'urh.lg Oerm\8in l'm:'igl.Jase<Jbil~ty. cmldidiib::5f;mnew mlu\.reJ'sity
posjl~i.o~5, ·Uffl· '''~~rnitt;i'dal:~1;: ~ G~~13.~."sp~.ak~n~

The: rWld~f§rt!dUQ~e]degr~e is !:lIm V<j,II;I_~~b!e:'

was Il~b.lish~din juurnals ''IJVilh Il~,n~slike
AI.!~t'!mudf(!{'ilI!IJd(!'.

proficiency

ill~Gemsan

wo~ld:" Thm. far.:~tO:]F h~I])Sie:xpkl~n \'\,~lYA!ulltrio;li!1 1IIlh'c:mities ;fIr-c Fi.lli.nrg w~:lhGermaa sd~~.tif>ts;, "1 linave lIlorldng ~j:MT Germans, iIl~refait I'lil~ one of til em," ~~.e S2LYS, "btul i I\\re'!regoill~glo be il,competilhl,i,:!: research llllive:rsily, we need people from .dl<l!liOlIIlJlld. the \!;uli'lld:' The MOiIx P~~f!lck ]n~titm!;; for E\iolmi.o.~ary AnthrnpoiQ'JY ~lliaLeipzig. GerlllOilIl)l:il:asrecnliled <I "'\\I'O~ld-e.~~ ftICtd.ly." $~J;: ~ly$" by
"dbilrngeveL'ytJ,1im~ in HJgi:ilsh:' 1fhiis I:illiglti stk: b..u le is til:kigg pl,,\t,>!;<l::itrV alil,J ~1th~f mlitil~'fs~!t~,illS 'o:un the CO]U.inenl. struggletn re~lmr:.1'1ln'e their degree prO'~I~<mMi. The ell rrenr lIlJJdeligrlu~;lIate s.y$~ L~t~~" d~ntdcal'IO [hal ofGefl'l'1l;Jny ~ to 1he uorthwes t, is 5 years of f!tudy <]nd a reil\\illllJd\J.:b ased rhesis cul:u:l~,iootingin <I, deg~.'ee ealled t&iJ.c

Germen

fluent E:~,gli~~~l.as needed to bep~ht: co~wer,\j<il.I;imlgoing.
Schafer usa
S.1n:l1l£

31111d ~}If:1" crisply

propom:~tlJ)rlieilllch]ng

science under,1l-nl~~~'lle:!ihe.re in E~gl~s~, asa way teprcduce better p.~~~).tredgrndmHes ~nd h~lp Ih(:~a[lliv~:rrs~ly ;)UraC'1 [he b:dgiu"(;[\;~ studenl-s.lruJIIl a(;lCOSli>E!m:mpe." "YUlI sin~p]yc:allirl:Ol have a Cilree:r lu fh.e sciences ~Mhhc)~~l n~v()m E~lgllish;' ays SchiiJ"er .. who greW! lip in s
Ocrln~'Y' but movedlD V~crlilUli.n1988, "ami

Djp~om" fhtt In nne

W[l~

the

~liI.e I.DIn!'f JI(iiUI~I<lirl. the beuer," W 'ValjkiPli~ dU!I,\I'u tilt;! :~~U~n~r cla s ~\.Seh~'I1:r dl,lydre3nlS1IbtTU[ s:pendnl'lg some tilnie! on he,r '[J\1!I'~, r~~c;:~rci1l. ~h~~v(ll uti·(l'ili!·,.fY forces dHl~ • slulfled the iliUl:od~JIl uma!l! ~bm,Thi ~ .~~.4 b ·':IIUXllry'" for whi.clin. ~b,ec<lrves Ollt ".I'QilNI o,lidlf' we~:k:'1~ffil<~ffiI.l(.mm!)'pic,d ~~t~~ semeone p<~51 rhe gll1:~eI habi Iitalkuli IxrIoo but ::;;ville'ru:ly ill h~r illg caree:r. But· stude'.l1Ills 8udd.eJlI~}1descend .~ike i:J;,uwlbtiom every diur't'CtiOi~l, despe'U"dleiy ~k~ iliig nn~d tW\,<lk", to pOSl~ffi IlIlO;itIrhe:ym.uS'!: !I'lrlh:h :~ be fore accmn p.• rn,)\'iiJ~lgh:e'r I .UII II PCO:I11l inl:: u H ,~ ~!'IJ~h:IiOPf}lo,~y,c!.:H'IIt!tf.;;!'Iee in P'hihMjl;l:~p~lh! . • S~le S by lin:e.ir sude IJmi~ ; :p.m .. IQoki:lmgover the ~ '~ E~glish.:Ji!.n£UH~{: c'(plml~,.ioIUllQfthJ(:~il' work., "rllin Ilmappy to do this: lJe.c,mse I: V\'~liu~IWem '~ 10 ha~ .a di:fliL;:re:~1 ~x~rh~11C~ fro~n 'what \'\1'¢ '~ h."d,'· ~be ~ly$. As <I:un. umlersmdm~l'e ill tl~is, :~ dep~m.I1rU~I)[ !:1:~a~~v 2QIy~lrsil.§O. :!'firs S.dlill-;";f~

I

19~"9,gll.lheri ng of ~dm:,<!'~:ion iSt{~I:S:ill BO~,QgiI1I.t•. Italy-the U~I!Iti ~t a d,isadvo1liitagc. D:ip.iolT!\'l.'i Iiooredtl.cedl:O al 3,~ye<lr UK.~sty~.c bachelor's degree ..1100 file ga:p bet\,\t,eem'a, the b<lc~u:.lor·stlnd the \\'<]:1> <'I.n1IliLS~· fm s~:~ous.,~~en'l.le:ii.:~ufem:i\ <Jroillild the \!I,'oT~,d,Times !lin.:UiC cll:i!hlmled., Now nmlosl: PihD.. ul1u~f$ibIfo:SOl!J:'ie ~,l]lrodm:illg;<t b~.ffetof d~1toc~, rese~rdle!'S 1Ii.c~nowl~dg~t~~l Eflglis.his f;Ci- 2-~~f!rm.f~;;;~i,O:r's entie"s~i~ngml, ~:<IIu:<l. A ithm.tgh tTh.at tmnsi ti,Ollll. InOl)!' be ~ roc!':y But S\'Vi~cI~i!'!go'!.ierl:c]m'l E~glish-bo,~sl;!-d On!;;. ~v~ry~n~1.g!'tt~5. ~h;[~tl:h~ stau~~ ,quu nel ~tm~i!r.'iN'Or,ks.lfs<I. wrem:ll:ung cOuncesl-liOll tor CtUllir.tcul,lI:UiI.~'win ilmCill (;omc e'<IsY•. sajls, fellow a~ :~nslitllti,~n et;t~IM~sh~d ~n .1 J65~~]>!Il ~I'pcd h lJ~ivernityafV~el!illllllllV) ~klmtlll:'IJ~~og~SI Kffli.1 5P<l.\~'1111rn.e currem AIIiI~1lo-Am;eDlilc,ul ~ys,tellfl. Gr.,mmer." '''TI.l!e opp9s~.ti,OIll ...• 'wiJlbe very No\:~!th~ tOllbl~5 a,reM,I.rIl~d •. SchUe .. f~d.m]t:S. lh.igil,:· '~~ t>~V,%.".~nai.VilIyb~~'I:~1e it ''''CI\lld m~!:l s "hut .i~ far tbe: be;:.,1;:' is gilvill~ up Ger,~,1alli <Is. (!I ::;.demific :~<IIlg.U'lgC',," F;i1.~U]lY!l'l~.embGrs.\1\I'01Jld 1l1s(l h;;~~~ ~!)redo ;;,11
mill

.A,uj f"'(J!isd~$bitte. K<ltrillli Scl"a,fer (hrjr) bel.ieves th .. t~e'atlllin9 I.mdergra:dllat~ III ~r,11i\!l111 pllt.$

"Elologl1~\ p:wcess:·~I:Ii1. evera!'~ll~~ngrMun I[OI~I.\OI'1Iii,Q~ aca~JclUie mobil ily~n Eu['O,pe by stilmcl~ud iz.i."".gd~g!i~Cfl ~h1H~.~'~'i,I (l'ut !)hll

rm

[I N' EH A

NlI,1!i,li1Id.l!Il[t!:

RaJg[ hura m's:
gllve:s

h1tIIllld:S-Oil1

~~orkEd Ifor 1i11(h~S'lfYberore
~o:r S( iell1lr()E1' tnvimmne-nt all1d

ooc:of-ni'!m[Ji cal

scienCE!

policy

alma1lyst.at the Ceii!,lt.r

ap'pmaCll1 L'

. ...!I Ii·..!! stlJl!i.illents,13! SO'~h.ill

founda~TIio'n, fo:r a Ib~oite,~hca'lreetr
INEW DEIlIH~, IINIIDMlt"""filo:(JS;ed In the
Ilianll~\'

by I.:!oos or!ihe IlM walll~d dty(lr De~i1ilt~here Ihe
mooemM~~If,(]I train .a,nd Ih~ hm~'iJr8Wfil'[;1I!rl (om,pete ('Or SIM~~•. Ni3IndllJla R3g~~r.am'$ tea~h]!l!gl ~br!)ral~lrY ~rO'll'id'esa ha'!le!1r~r three d:melf! bl.!d~i!1g .bi,(lIte(jhrmLoQ/i~t~.~b!11'IIpewed by ~flo'!~!!Ql.late s!llppl~e s. and e~llI~jTIlITle-:.rU.the >1,2-yeaNdd mo'l~lJlar lJi(ll.t{l!l~sl BI~,GlJlru 'Giobil'ld'S:i flgh lndr:aJpro):5lho1 Uflro~rsi~V {GGiS! fIJI) her,e m'41! dQ. A~g,efU~he' larg,e.~~~emivi! las'S (O~UffUil:; iiilO,[1m , g !!llh!!,ll)llll~Bd I[:@r}~l flHr.all'lioml, shld'enls SiE!par~~!!' ! pr~t~ini!l using ,ornii!llary ~l!Irgicarl syrl'il1~~i,ii'Ili~iS~ 'INld~ hlliille< b~fi p~l!gg;ed wi:lih ~Ilij( tu~::'liid tied 'iJ~~: ,vi!1l ~i1in O.I~b'er band~, ~I~'~ >!'I, Ilo1lt'·(Il~t,low-~et~ ':i(lh,lll;onl Il~l i~ t~O\!f5 6l~h ~ll!la 011 d~rnl ~~"!1Iethis, ha Iild:S l,iwtL ~ h'e says, l'i:ij,ghur.alllil: i'5, .1111lIllYlIlka[lleil(i'ler i in ill' 'typlG1ll iIi:ICHam IJniw.r~ily. Borin inl~®'

lure. 111 has at~.{l'~(liled as <l15(ienJ(!l l,'!,In ~.EHii'! (:Jill e is a:~ti\f~ln~h~ 5li!(ii~lyfo~Sciem,iiri( \lawei,. QI Jilo.flgrJ~~mm'~rIltil ,~chdol1i w body th:alif1l,'II"t'5:ligill'~E) sdem l:iirfc mi:SiQOlldu(( in India .. 11112~OO2,he !Jrecillli!1e!' <I, R~liId€:f (th~ ,~qlui'll'il!Wllltilir cHiia5:SQc[t,,~~n;I,rl~~'S~r)ill GIGSIPU, !l:f~t€~ in p . :Jl999 as lhl! ),Ol!liIg:e'S.t o'r :S1)!IUJllhl\e:r5<j'~i in~llli:s ,capHlal d~y" n,l:I~l<r~'ed:hfUJflI es to, rel,I,Un '1.(iI1o'r,I1~i;lt (~Ih ~my Hrr~l,r(ilve: d@lr1g ,md u~a(hi ng ~ence" <, he He dll!l{l~e!S 1n,1Iil~ his ,(j"dI!Y', 6S"h,om w,®r'kweek ttD t~.amll11g bi!dil.l!~tir'!i or ail1~ .iili!>1!ster's;dleg r~' st!ll de iflt~!n l~e lIWfivrE!f~~ty'~ 5(lho(ll] o( Bloledlll!'ol.ogy, rwillkh dlm!p~ olm~Y 1'0/0'o~th.!lillp,~li~ilIl1l.!if~:r i~ 35 sLQI!;. 1Fhlill~tUf mliTlp!lln~ fkN'1reUecits the popu1larily or Ith~ ulnnljier5iily'~ ,aJPi~'lioo 's,dem~Bs (1!JrlriUllmn
iilli'ld

~hl! SIJ'C(I9'~$ oi~~raidllcm!!S tmi rinclill19 glDOC j~ln,~all'$ PlFakash Chaine

,al miiddl@~dilSiS I'.(limilly hom a sm,aU

tO~\IJ!!

ILiI southern Ilnd~il, 1R.~ghuil'am

~(hoot llin 2~004" Rag!till!U(!Im ~~ ~te,ci the unl'Vrersily'!J, be~t 11i!!.:ii:her~iu!dI'Cfl wil.n he be ~ili!\ie's ~, !;uCCei'S iiii (l1il$~\i@riIi9 a 'sl~mi h~s illg~~ '(ilbviQI,I!> ql,l!~!jlOl:!' 'th(!l'~ r:e~~ Ird!1J11i pmre~!>Qrs ~1I:tl,l~llly'!15k: Whalt ~I) we fAlilnt,il!lilf s'~,ud~f!llso leam i~ this dass, aJiild ~'\Ihat,sklll'S ~~ they !1Ioo,d to t 'l{qlJlirerm~ha,llMmillig I:Il! tllke pl<l'Cje? R:aghtHil!l11 pr~fll!rs using c,haLIk and 'bla(,kboard rathe~ thaI!'! PO'!\lewfoiot
SJ~i;lrl!lil\'!. de.(!1n of the

~.mliellli!lPh. I[) .i1'1199Sil'"lOIn li!lwa~l[lirtall Neiml UlI1iv,erliily in New D~·~hi <lind

prl'5ien~atiI(lIlS, e;l;j9lil1]llling lIimt hi sjo

b is ~nol t05,how oH mly ~I!chi€'5,kiU5, bu l

c ~ IIINIA

"'Iit"s Important to Ask Students To 0,0 :S,'o'me,Workon Their OW'ln'
'{un Vilng has lPioFJree;re~a rourse ~ha~fOIr(::esphys~(s: students to, 'lake the ilrlffitiathfe and teadrnlf~'S;tJhem tJ~,eIEmllgtish ~hat they wH~meed
in tlm~ mid:);~of of the .~'1JilOSrt:remarkahle expausious of [I~i.gh.;ll:~d~C::Jilio~ ever attempted, A~~d .dd.l0ugh Yun Vi r1S, .01. semi r.e{~,redlp m:I'essof of rhy:>ici; ~di.n~miul) ~t Sfirmhea~t Uni.\~!');ily iJ~ N.~nj im,~, Il101li)f be on!y a birl 1~layc::r.si:Jre S pasS;i~l~~1!t~ boutre furrni !~g ience Gdw;:<i!tio!~. a s.'C AllUd ::li'lll:: hOI::' 01 life! i:l!1i:ilef el'l.JiWr~~'Ji]4;.~ o .. III ~~.cr Il~~,r]y decades as a teacher, she's 6
Gl:B!'

INArUI,NG_(HIIN'A-Chil!1i'tli!'

\"l(:jJ~~eli!;ld the Gn;~m l~mp FOr\","lrdi:i~~d C~LInlrn~. Re'vo.lud(Hll tl.l1dbencfhed :Wi'tll,ll Ch:lJna 's op!cni,mlg to tbe We:llL Now.tlre S:2-yem-o]d! YUll ii!s ~,eOl.diing her O'WIll. Inin~revollJti.o:IJ, :~:er

iU[lfOduc'((lr.yphysics
~t''()Mtth by

COUfSll addresses ~.

abro~t'I needed ro learn .Eng]i:sl'Jil.atillo.red to those seadcmle subj\!Ch:,. She a Iso real i,lled~1:HI~., it is very i!11P'lUt('i~U teask the S~lII.d:enl:s lu d'o some w(l~k o~ ~bt;liroWi!m~ni~ liCllive:' Those [WO pr inc [; pies underl ie her "I3i~ Uml!):lI<II1 Physics With Mu h:~~]ledi'l" text and CD~ROM.Ii flit!shm<llJl course she :h.u,. beeu < dll'vdopiJn.g since Ilh~ $llid-19S,O$ lh~~l has The
00t~:n;re ~'!(Honly

Hi$10i~~ I~E'!'IS'0I15., ¥UiI1l"fling naJ~

SP~!ilt60 '~~!!rs w~.r'tin9I~ iirnp.ro'Vf! I)hysk) <l:!dil!!co1ticm. hk", this for physics"
~1iiI:

Chlna, says cl)gtIi!

IIJa~iQJud prim"uty. ~]""rn.eiy. to ros~er economic

been adopted b~ U) Ch,'im:,'selU:UiI,:uversides. neer Xue J ing1l!, <til~ of the: .i.ll!>litlJ1tief [I igh U o

pr()dud~g [ifO(juSJ: m(JI~.bllit ~lgre CI"C:<iilive. ~c:.ie]1.t.is.ts: j!fJl'ld e~lgi ueers; Yllll~!i1S been wil\'lst~,i.~lg~,,,ni:b ch.d~ellgc lh~ of rev<lllrnrp:ing phYSii:c:i! tetu::hi fig since sbe r~UI:W!led from ,11 ':}SO tOl,lf of !l1<'1}or US," u,'esem:ci:l'L1IL~,iii'l,iet1liti.es,. w]'lic:~, cQI~Yinc:e",lj

1E:~erg)1 r~ysi.cs ~.[([ij. 13ei~ing. \-'vllois earned about seieaee ed,lIC;!lili,o:Uili sl.ude:UiI,t:s eed 10 di.sc;msp~,ly!!.ic~ blilll also n Icachers requ.ire~ s;tude:iffiltsICi r~c~~~rclr~, physics ~or·ics Xue sflys f¢\'v~tllh,ersity mld 'e I'forti~HiO dev,e~opi Ilg 'eml r::;e ,Ill d pn::)if;n,n the iIi fi n din gsio the ,eI a :ls" 1:I;)'~te~l¢s~!lle En:glh;:~I~~ ,u:

al ~ eon- ~
bl China, ;:!. put thll';: ~. n,llilt!e.ial s:. ~
:::1

Thf~I'S iI.
S!cfe~l,ce

dr;;lmat!c cha]1lg~ froIl:! I:~,C Ill~I1Wl~ r1UZti on d,cn.na n(]ed iutyp i c.~ I iIJI~roduclo:ry a
oolUr~!es. "Thl.;;re~re
~lO

~'1e'r h~T'. l~in~s~ SH~(~!lU;\,l,/!r1l0 ~Qlped to S~lI!dry ~

o C'r~~II.i:!'Q.g co~!,s,re m,,!y ~C{,;nl li,!)sip.Hkflfl! ,;i !.J carnp<I,red tio the ch<lUenge of rein¥enti~,lg ~

O'the!!" ~x;lXIS

!Chi!10{>e .hrighGr GdLncc.miO@. U~,ivcrsi~)'(lllro]l-

~

74

.6 JIULY 2007

VOl3f7

~SCII~NCI!!!: 'WVffl,so1em:ema:g.mg

hijs

lililU!i

S jj!ll~QI~

te' adiililinis lIf.:niviHfl'!li@s.,
i

h@ saY&,il1l dudi 1i1~ aU@f!dil1lg lQ

:studernl:5 and mU~a!Jl1I~ 11'1'1110 dl!lste,falHl'l!Illd hilS Sllilii'i;I~[ office :SClll'ld!o'M'j,c:hed bll!~We!l'J1lih~ registr~r'~ aml !:! vIce' d~n(ElIlDl;~ OHiiO~. ~R,plg.hl,lral!fl!: ,'~ boUt ,pI ,good c~mn~llIl!'Ii~,gltQf and reSei!~C~ler.~ ~ay'\l Sha:riill-l. B~,nhis iif13ny re'Sil(U15,i~illi'ties, Shal~m,aJadids. mti!!II'!,S; tha'[ "'~'i:s
le'ildililng

,d GillS suUiE1r a[ ~il:lirle'S".~

ThE :Si!:h~Qllolr ~~o~'li;hlilology olm~'~r5 s~lJd!l,lnt5 iilO 'rQrma I calFoor (O'l! nseling, so R<:i.ghmam also tries to gli\l'e~helllil guld<lln1l:e.. Shi!llrma says; abou'l. iii lh'inl or the I:!io~~(h gr,,,diJIal~~s ~em~il'! io Khool, (IClf a lI4i!s~er of IB'usiITles:s
Adlli!l~r1is'[raliol1 (MM) dil?gule'l!!, oilJllId a third ,go O'!~r(lad for adv,i3!III~ed deglreies in the iih~ ~,de;m:.e~" neo r<em.i;llinld:ergo, to, ~~()rk fiOr com~anne·~or T .ilInothel' nmti lllti,tm. IIHlllikarHy, IRaglllJl"alTl has l'IeV@I[ ~tlUdWsd ovel'sea~. alJth@tlqh h~ has. tr~veLf!:d ~'!Iide'ly" ~[I(liliJlg 'Sc:ienc,e diner~!illilv iVlllfldiai:s what I b'll\E1 strived fm W:hUIl l!lI1ls,lHirngl lhi1ll my stud'!i1.rU5 also gmlo'll il!lliId bll'!ss®m\.'~h~ siilys. 'G,G'SlPIJ is, pail'llClf tile giJ~eril1n11,@\lfgfs ,~I::m tI)l d'Qu~le 1),\I'@:ri! detad~ the : 9'.2 miml:i:rllflaclhE!lor's def.lr-ei~,1IMl,arded eadh yt';!n.,AI'!,~ ilI<lghurralll'!,is l'IlIo:~iwt~tI by lh~ rad.I:I1:n 'GGSl Pt~ s ~iJd'e-rJt!ldClI'I'tlii~w [hI! ~!eUar ~:fiJCk91~~L!11I d or l&m~e 'JI,Ih@vie :iQ,r'~he ~OQ(I ~r SiO'c~ted' sWJo~?ea(ih yeiil~at U~e$~ven elite 11'!1~lalli! h'l:SI~hfle~s ~il'1I'edl~QI~9Ya(ro~5 tlt~ (!JI:J,!'ury,. Hti! hQpes t~l~t. his wo~k ,1111 !l:i,GSI!P~'wm ht!~pl!he ~IOUfitry !:IuUd a 5oy5<tl~m ar Ilf,Q~!il;r educo'ltilo~ 'Ilhilt 'shiltlJersthe (lU!1~i'!t!pi!!n~rf!1 of "f:s~andso:~l!~ceU~n()@ in a n ecesn of me~i m:riLy." Syringe by ~ril'lg;~. 1'I~'s d®~ln[i eXaJ([I.y thaI. ,-{PAIIJlAVA BAIGU,
&

lO(!,:Kpl.aQW! r(j!!;).~~pts throyg,1iI diS(!4!!~~i~0I." IHisrim :l"iUl. sUldel!1t. .R.alA R:illlne~h P'i!~~li1lk,(:aUl; him ill 11"UlllImll'll\!!n!iol:J,a~!Jluide whtn gi'ie'Ji hlisstl.:lderll$ IOi~:alrlre'OOOIll1l ror iil hlDlil learl!in,~ ex.~eriBIiI~~." Bllll1laghu ralll1l~tlml1llit~ ~~l[ ~Ule ded;~nul1lg poputa'fity I)f ~ea(hin,~ as a prorle'5SiDiil~ 31111101119: pi!lers, a!fIi~ his ~![I~ety a~ a ~hrl~e. Iii ad,diti~:ri '~o'~.ea(ll1ifi'Q, lRa'gtillF,fiil1ll spends a quan!~o:r hIs Itijlmi!doliilQ ~i;l1Si!c5~ien;Qe reSe!;lr('ll >(In how p'l9lm~ t<l,~e upaUild use !1!Hmgelm•. Wi'Ul help
rlfiOl1'l histh~e (1~lrfen~. grl!lduil~~ studt(!lltt his l~b Ihas ~ll,Ib1i!l~,ed (l:n~l~all1l m 2(j'IIl<lpe;rs.. The I.:1l1i'll'emily Ilay~ hi~511IjHY. and Ilit> Iresean;h b hllnded by

g~aIM~ [hom l!'av'ioll5 SOLJlf(€S. ioc,b,r,dililgl ihe CO'lllllcil, of Sd@~tHkalld IrldiJs& Ilrii!lllllt.esearch i!lrld the li)epElrtl1llern. (If Sderme ami TechnoroQ!V. 1ih~ liesl Oil

'1i'II~mit. I:mve j:m'l'ilp(:-d se.vc~~fQld since ~998. to s P'h.D$.J S.~'iilhad! l<ilkf;lU~Ef1IgUsh s~,m.:eprimary 2~, milmioDiLi mil .2100:;'),. aoconlinl:! m the M illl,~iJst~ sC~Clol mild thou~ln i't 'Ip.p:wopria~e' for se ience of Ed ltcmio!l. N (l~ surp~is~!ritglly. classes ar¢ cour1i~~, BtLt ~ncrlh~ Com:murlist R~\loluclrov..d:'ed, te ach~,:~.g leads me heavy • ."UH~: tUOJll, she says. "we all learned Russi;i1lI'l." YnlliS:coarse deviaies :rro~~]he tll"<l:d~.tio.mml t bui.ldJ:ung sprees h<lvelefil: l1lilmy universities

"\!hfl

\IIr.!i,S

req'l;.!_ilUd to

mke Y~~~'$ CQUf~ as a

rre:slunarl.. says il '!Ic~"d:.s comll~elely diff'erelm.l fru·~~ hit> lIid,!.iliH:choo~ physicsco~~rE:~'$. wh ich were "j'liII;!lt thea l1ues and equ.ni ens <II] d
fonmdils-aald berlsg," D~IYmIn, ~D!I,o~he,1! onors ~tmll::~H h [eqjUiled

~""ii'h$t~gse;drlg

deb~ 1,0,]1;1::;, And .,hhml,gh

UPPlfO<kCh

in ('~~!nl::~ :.;chooho".nQ~e:s Xue, in

fu~di,:Ulg has risen, i.tllnfLSU·t:qllilekept. pace \:'\!ith the 1:.isi~lg mllfillbers. I!;mdin;£, ~o:lmu:univer:S]~'i,e to increasem it inn s "11m.d rry ot~.cr s i1I:Ii~t~n~ raisi ~lgIb~imds, .nf Bul m<lilliy oITi~irl~s S,IYd~!ll the bigger Ch'l~!~!lg~lles in rl;iff)rn~~ngluk!rl~~dcurrie(
[Ll331!i1dle.m:1'n.i~lg :!i1mf!I:~l.ods. p3:1rlicWLlar~.}1 in sci(':IlICC.

\villl~ch ·'I.i:lC!S!e wh~ call :I1~;elmlori:i!:Cgel beuer £C{J\LCC::> [Ql1ll~t$.] than those wi!~ole;lI:',n the te:\ r

w('b~ology, euglnccring, and

~n:f1lh.

li'eacbing ~lueUlOds1n1d
~,~!j.(G; m""tnor~2.~.ti()!1"

CUlF.wi.cul<1 !'tincmph,l.~

~~p~c:i.~Hy:!II thl; fr~~:~~ 1li10l11,:<lindsoplilmno!Jlle .le'\If!~s. OJ~,dlhe' ~l~! ii,s.~o ~of;t~r~r~ftfiv~ro~~~rd~~rs ~[ir~bk !mikin,g 0("
i'm bllih

texthook 'Gon!~.ills standard lii~s~, m3.1fb-!!~\I{;~.ess 11['1;;; in m(l!1'lG'!'Iln]ltil~ .~!,!!d l e[lcr~y •. hannonie :Im.~m iOIm_, <llm.d VI1lIve'"p~111i.cl:e du..I~ty.AI~ explumni(l~S f!;ffi :gi\l~,~~ndepth in EugUsh ~!lillilhl e~~.illeseuanslauons of key pass~lg~s. The el)'~~DM ineludas video cl.ip~ illlt'itl"<'ltinS. ~.lI1LOUS prDnc~.ples. 1h£ v.ideo~ ":g~w a d~~fI(;;T' 1,nmid~~~~I,di~g of .h,(Jwlh,e 1.00,'1';.'s ofphysics appl,y 10 daily
ciliieat~,y.e~y,·" nle

to lake the course, SilY:S the Op:porlWl.ll~I.y t)O i'm1d.epe~.lde:llId~~ research "I topiC~:lis W,<J:i. the '·ye:..tf'lit~ay.. Today. and Tomoerew of Space
fl~gln.·'-'I:~',['s f~~'~ ~ro[lt~[)ra fre_~hm~m, ;\l1d H u says lfui.e vo(mlbu.!al",Y ~e'Hned in Bilingu[d
r~lYSlCS~!~~{WIf~ lm,~l'n re'Ldf!h(ll~1 dl~ f~~~n~ "to ries ofNobe:~ Prize wn:lm:lleli'll:.which ~~avcll'l

bcel1J t1!i'al1~~~tcd into

n~jne~:· reaction

"fun i~pleased 'with the positive

te h~r course, T~\,!o .y~atn> agl)•.~h~ off~r~d ~ te<lclleH mi nirlH oc:mrse fair SiClmol s con:..id-

d i~u"'e~-ies

the bm..ic ~IJldl.. pp',~i.ed ~J!::v-

mUi:edng ::!ULdel1!~wllO

lif~:' ti<",y~FI~i T~.ill S(lu~h~ St1:rf~""ll~~$1gi..~.;~ look YWLl'ltS,C{JiUrsi:. :Eve~l
l:lIn.iU st'~,-

el:s. "~'vleh<l,'\re to hi'l'il'eo~lr mMtl inteUe{:tnal. propeny." exp.~.~~::~::;R;fll(l Zihe. il~W!;JJC'~uml hio:~ogijslt'~\ihiois 'presi.dcnl ofN<ln!;;ai Uni.vcr~ .'l~ty .i n T.imlj] n .. Rao .Ii~';us th<lit: [I deunb 1(1 f hOJ.llegl1owll cl1e:H::il\,~.~Y '\\\'il~1fblfev,ell" reJega!:e' ChhHl ((') thG ~trlnts ,ofreflnh~g ~'f!t'lrlvati(ln~
"t;l...

~1On:: ul:llus~a] is the lrequin::nlllcIH

~
i!(1

tl

;~

• ~
'~

:~

Iinore <lJlliClltim~i hc('-ause ,di!d hohh:s di.c hilltl :.UfLtII\£! llIll\,'eJfSa,ty pro~:esstu::-;;.u\'h.o l:\te S3}1s OtheJi stlll.d.erllS, 'C<l1li as:'k ques;~:ions. mak.e CUl.11= <I:refOClL~dol1l:heil,·,re~dfCh. IBm ~~e i:lflCreas;iing ~Hlm~.or (':l~all~~~tllh~ ICVI'!ICIUS!<t'l!ls-numootoffa'Cltlty ffi~!mb~fS\Vl~ow~re'lrni~d in ma.de e'l~e~'I'he[e. 11J1l'~rec'ede:lrntied conduct for Chi:litese 'lJnder~ the lh~it~d :Sll!l~esO:I'EIll_mpeh<l5 :sp.uted ilm:eJlJeSt ir'irefgnm~~ns I:tll.i!.dli[lgm Chi~le'se l~t'liversili.r;;s. YUI1 :is: ~tiipp~dlo ~,":I;;~~nl~iI;Lleh:.lI-, Sn1dl~!M:eS.. fl.~rys X'l!!I;,'!. lenge. A~'947 physi.C5 :g)l<lduOl.te offlU-C1l Unli~ l[)m'~l,~.N.':~lu:~1.~e :Engllish. Ylln has~~·t of A m,l!t'l-Seme:sN! r '~O'~I,II:Si!t:EI ken pU.'.i 1'IiIla.u."i~:y by ~n;uly. she' s:pocnt l year i~~, f111:1astl,;I"S pmgpuu 'WI!le~d d(JlI'v~~, 1I;:00Jm.Dcnt. l:~e S:m~1~ onh~lt:~~uly c~gi!~eriug !l1~lde!~L" 1J.s1.'e a1.lil~l~l>OO,~mpaci ~~~!JY be due lQ Smuhe<lsfs. ntrllkillg ~:s one oft~.le on Ch~ne.~ OOUC<ltOCJ.;Ui!. he :adim,1iiS. B\Jtlbr tI],ose before joining 'IIvbr.ulateM bec,lffiUle SOUliw;J$l U~.iwrshy. fT~achcrs wil'~ only ~ 'hadl~lor's country ~ top HI ~om.~.pli'~hell llliil~\,(;:rsi- cL'l]I.i:~g tf!.lr' ,all ~~icatior~d ~VQlmion if! Chi!!mOll. t>iv~ . d e,g n;M::were no t u~:co :un,ulm,o .1tl: he t:~ n me, tie:s!. w:~~1ia,apanicllIl ..r slrocusl:h in, ,cRllli,neer= ill:~ 11 ,b."Oodpkwe~o ::>~ru:t ~ith{l~jgh !l'IiOl;t u:ni'\rer,;;i~Yl'fll"of~~"$(]~ hoTd if:'lg, U Xin. a i'iQP:~f)mOfe hO]1,U'fS :\lnDd,e~H !lmV !lttrncliCd

d~I]t'S:l1elec': <1 wp~.c. rle!,£,.in~.h (lim lh~ir O\''''~,l or ~.IfIi!l s.mil.lll g:u:~nlp. and [helm. pr,ti:sell~ 1he.II:'

~ring ~dflr~inn nfth~ fl;l.~[ ~ifldCD-ROM., <Inti n{n,,,,.!)he'~ wtlrk.il~g O~1<I u~<Jchi~lg u~ld Ileaa,'lni,ng gu Mel:lO 01 •.

.Xue ::.pecuhues ~~HJt ~:hecourse hOls:n.'l

fhocliings lin fI dass se.m1.1.i[ll[ir-,d~ :in Erlglisl'n .

''''en

re 1~:O:nll[UWCI1H:!l!H sweeping ]

across South
.~ J,;'I1J .• ~"'II'I.c;l'"

" A Stlrlolnlg VO'ic.e'" For Course Reform
Lee l)uckliilw!3I[liIrrughts: to keep science in the fo[reflfiQn'~o.f wh at stud ,ent's a r,e' asked to lea min
hi gll~1srh '1)0 l and (oUe g'e'
:5 lEOut, SOllnH frliOREI.- A professor at a pr,esligiol!s (lngin{;~'riog ~(ll]~g~ ~{;ribhli~g is Olm a ch...kbcard, !liO the s;~ory goes .. when a l ~~lIZ2]c\[llD'esl1ml:um looks a I.lite i:rntcgral.ionl, signl f in !Que QnliBe ~1~1"~liolls .. cl.,s~~ "Wrult is~11.1U m was added to "repair' W~l:.:Jit hrldbeell dropp0d frontthe I 997 c:mrkul'l)J]l'!lIl,~~ldl:~<lr l.flu.'!'Inini stry's st~~:i,:Sl.ics; "tl0 IIlIOt correcr i~( refleet" seienee ell~t.llnm.lls. lee i'!il:Jio,Joh~n~.y-Otln~e-hd~ly scieaee t,t! llreraey .. H.I:' @!arned~lrh.D. :UfI t~HN.'I:rie][eal d~.el'lilislry.1l COit1l1.ell Unli:v!:rsity in ~9:83,<lI'id S;~llt .2 Y~!:lirs ~l Pri:nt,.~(;ltmlbe~ur~ .landi.!1I,g a.t:

it" ~ •..,I)I,'_" "~ ~jIU·

'-1-1""':(!-1~'~{'n['" 1'1';'" """1",91"" i,'!!;:J. ,1lt.1' ;:t!I' 10 de away 'wi~l~he~vy I'b':!cmoriza~:toll,. Sat!aw~
"·1''''1 '1'1'''.1 j""'111'1'"U~ ~ '" ; ""~I:.!'.
~L~ ~ ""'"

11j,lj~,~

&~yclasses, and u [IbeniCffi,~n; caurse Iteq'tqirem~nK n~!i)mco!11~.~l!L~'S~>e.~11Shri!1~s fl¥(i l e:~O'iCl;:11S;,f!liOtlh: foj:' lmv c'relitivjly-eOO'~li!lg ~
new problem
10 WW1l0LJl~

s,Qlvi~lgille o~d one.
,,!C~(J{l]

Not~lIlly ~.~.high

,.;twJ~,~tsQP~ing

<I re also fCl,i\i(l]' sU.ldel1l~~to gu .utl~m,t he number lilOW!liLkT img the ,coUe,ge eatraace exam is, Ile~r~ly h1~~jf Il~.e level i1'1 the I '9S0.s. when apoS1: ~w.r 'I)... "lby

take less ~c:ielil.re,. b[LI, there

clII'ly :;yl]libol?'"

boonI fill led c.m.1p(Lo:!!CS,. nd t~~!e A rr1~io of sci~m:e: [0 Ub~~l trr!s !n<1j ers has ~lipp~<ilfrom 6:4 to 3:7 in,the P<J:Si decade, :S3)iS K~,m [[)OhaJI1. p:re!>kllcnl: of the Ko.reilllil Matllcm9l1ueal Sm: ie~J' ;H!l.di.1 P:luli~~~r.,l SNU "['~,voe le aeeuu ivers uie s--t~u: KorC2I s
.J'\dvru'iCOOhiSlil;l~[e ofSc~eri;t:ellI,ndTechli;olqgj~

,dle'miIIIlist~l~ SogiJm'ig UJu.li~ ~lmy.\,v1~icl~(;l .%\~~ h ~s tn~~,i ~lusnares lh~ .I~.~geI'nl.mber of Sout h Ko:~(m,n ~lwldlelJjls:who <lr r,~ve~ll-prepa r~d i1;)r

Lee Dm::lklm.'''''-I'Ifb:, a

'!.>\':r:s~ly I~~~re, my,\;the ~

eollege-level m;;,th(,':!'IIl!~uics. He blames the
"auprecedeered crisis"
01'1 ill

~lIld~QhflngU'pi.~:rsily ofSdCfl(.'lC ~ml Tech.oolflID"'~POSTE ' Fil--ar,e bulf~r@d tO~1 ~;b:gfG<I;l 'by dll:<LIwilJlg he(l,\fi1Y frm1l:1 the COUI1~I'·Y:S19 eU.te
science high schools. rlamd S'NUfds(lge~s more IIIrI.a:~, share of these sc ieuee-sav vy l'C:i€:lm~. its

1[997 usrienal

(:~ln~k:uh.Jm ]Hted rL'iCluircmems UD1IiIiil~iU'J:y til<lt m,d~, CQUlLSes. With, two.thirds; of ~;Il,.IlJ~n'isnow ;'lvoidillg sc:ien~~
hi.£h ,'>'Chool scienee ;Jrld
~.I[Q~~~]].er:Unl! ~.~.th<lil~.d

IIE\'~I'I 011 ~ys.. [me lnlh.re SNU scienceend ~O. eL'1gillellj,i~, freshmen needs; relhedJ;11 <l1~ebl'<Ji ~fnre
w:l;:i~l,gool~~gc;:-k'VC~. CO~ll'Sl:l$,

1.2till grades. Lee s..ys unh,oers.ily seience d~pOlrt!11il!~mshav~ he~~ ~b:~ed liO oller' :remedi<'ll~. eurses before S:1:l~.~ e
dents C<lU l<tckk:~:~.e regu:~OIr curriculum, The state cl!nic~llh~m leaves little 1;0lh:e Itrlll.g,i.natioll, SJy.s :tee, who was asked to write ., hig~l sehoul c'tieIHls,u:y m~;\tbook. "1fbey cli'C:HI~edwhat topnt i:ua. the I:e.~~:book.

Lee <lind ()~hers~~~orr)' th.1t tU1e rev ised eurriculu~, 'wil] nUfU~er diLute: science lil;!ieli~g: ~'brmost stadenes, <'Ilnd: theheads of six science ol'g}lIl'lIi2.<Ili.o:nn:s :1ln2L ve delll>llmlecl revisieas inthe r1I;W\1' curriculum .. '.By nH."k:~!l!g these [science am.;dDlr]:atb] OO~IfS:eS; QP[iOfl~I., i,('s a b<ild::;igillal tosmdeats l~:l.l.'~,mnrh.lIld science n are !lot impertaur," says malbemali.cimlM::in
~l'IJ.if'l.g

down to the s~mll;te:;;t it" SlJ:)iS Lee, \\i~m~ d~n! ~n:upbi 1lI1:!> \~{CI.n un heetl~d. Lasi YC'ii1r:.whe:mJ, th~ (,-duc.m~,n!i!miniMry eendueteda f<i;;vi(;"\vof the c urrieulu mi. lee' penaed [!m.lH'I1It:'Ilt:lllrli:es, and ImUi(ld col~~l;'I.gn~-sin hCll~C'S sl:re~lgth(!UiI,~ of ing 'I~e se ienee ,oornlpone.L~t He <il's:o ~f\'ed all, a "c~~e!t p~.ll~~OIlC of noo experts en ~. b!~~~ill'!~ tlii,!,l dl~lrl9'~,. 1I.e'~ D~I(;khlj'Nl!1l I",~,ui(l'd[ has d~zzyins :nlOreview gr{)l~]I)s. ··[)'m;lkhw.]~: (a,~IBa9ul!~ i1'I<1~ ,(ti'lort.tv bolster :sde-nll:l!in KiarEl'<l'~ ~~~I~d find @. ~t~mg~)l~,:' ~jjtJN phy~ij:c~s~l'ilatiou'l ,Climndi.i iii1. us Qi~ Sejung, de'O!1in f nfllL!I'~~ o sciences 'I~ Se~Jld So gilIIg. Noacol1tent tol inth h:~:nmls.e]lf 10 his N~liCim.<I1Un~,vl::'rsil)' {SNU~. But i1'1 Fe'brlulfy. ,\.'~.e·lIi lmernll.ini:Hry field of:~.oll!~i[gem eprics, Lee IllO:!1"~, ~m~.'l];lt,ed m~veikd.DlI.ew sll'Illdards ~o L.likc elfect .1111009. sevcm I popular sd.cnDe books i~IW K:o:rc!I:rn. the n,~~lIireclli1lellits ooen soHened further: TIlJree }re.lli'8 '.lgO, he founded the 'COll[lUy 'S1]Jnl,t had gr;1Lclmlte: pm~["<tm ill sdence 'c(lJnnmnic3t:iol1, FOil"ill~"'1,1.ce.. IIUNIIII1{II2:lh"-:yem.,.~tlldel~ts W'iIU be abl~Hl op~ for a C(1U~ ~nl~o1m:~~·,~~o!1omic.~ blSI ~ar. :~~led preparntions fOil ~h~~!u~r· ane~ CI:r bUSlltm:s. .. 'nm!mlfllg,e.mI,]l!'ni~ ill:JiSICII:l of seiem::e or mni(JiliIill Ch:emi:s:rry U.ympiOlrlin Seoul Fe\V (lOl!mri:~s (l~.tdl1 S>Oi,IHh Korea h'l niqe$~ rtI1OU[l. The l'e\~i{;iW"\·ili'!$. ll;i'(l fi.!mes. T he ~:l:it ,e; is rnl i. S lJl'lw::!.~~r3lHed. s.a:yil <I1~1 O]YMpi~ds i or on :llll.n,dalf'{hzed :sci.c:lIIi.ce~b1I,d cdJ~Lc~~.ion .~i.flJ.is;iry.offidill ,who ~loicslhi;l:t ~ m~lh t(l,!;I:s,~mdI!lJ~tJ~ decade ago! '''(:v.e'ry slu~ it the me'!;Y ::>I:<]ndilrdswlilll ildd I hour~, ,'\reek of denlh~:clIlo ,le'irnTI evel~)' bnlllich of ~c:iem;e,:' ~1Ys, Kinl ~'i!l .s~~H'lg.a ~~hy!;,ic!>pM~;eS;S.or at ~. hh-g.r¥lde s;cieuc~, A!ld she OlI:sscns Ih~~ { ~,n~lSI: I illtlll.- <Ind 12 ~1IiI,·ye;~II~ s~lqdc,mtst11le mat i~, Ciil,m~,bl1l,k N,uion.,,1 Unive:r.sity i.b1I: Jeo:llju, But S!ci(f~:c¢ g:fI~ 'C.fl~lg~tup i~l.a bro,ader t'ic~,nol aod Sicie!l~(.'" Lee n:pUes ~,~~ift w ~X;lra horUl[ d

Chan ofYo~lsei Unliwrsity hi Seeul,
coincide w.u~:h <I
011

~l1onn,i.c:~]I.[y. these chaages

d~~~~bli~lg gflvernm{;!U spending of

re,~e'Elreh over the hast:; YC.llIr!!:.. "['l~.cSWUIS quo • Lee prOOiCI:ll,.wi II lead to. a

~n;t<}.dyerosion or science ~:i.t"em(.~)' S.o'U'lh .in
Kor~~. ir~!al could h'i'i:~!I'Ih~ I,~\I'~Ififp~Lbiie diS'Course on m<l]m,yimporl:.<lnt issm,es-fiirom mA.dG~1Jr \l,c~l~~ di;;;PQ~.1 th~ n1Ulii!!g (}rhig~,to s'Per:d~~ln ~il'l!e5~wilhl a ~Ci'~M11ific' I;.~Ol~l,pOnenr, in..ee ~~,SQ fC'dU'S mila! the gmwt1m.~11 SOllth

Ko;re.I·So OOM':<Irch c<llpacily,.\~,~~ be M illeed.
hili the mcsntlme, lln~vers~th~sare i;cmlll~

hl:ing ~tldrum up .imerest iDli science. POS1ECH
hmnu:.rn;ed <111. [Lncter~r.old l'eseO:lfCh program that ~~tw";H'ds m ~Jch ul'30 sMjc~nrs.\)I,Iho ~~a~1 $4000 ~ Q1fnC!ose' tIlcir 1J'I'~'ntopic and iiLdlvi:ser from m~;y~~ .•. 'I~l'liD"l;lin f~le·wllrld .• "'T~ :sWdeDllt$ et!n~l"tlnd i'5
I.~,e' nu)ll~y

~:t~~:'

hOVlle'ver t:~.ey '~I;,\'mll. ']IilI.ey deciude

~

c\,lCrythi.llrg." says POSl'iIEC~.~'~ of !;t~d~'\ll~ d~~f1i ,tlIJ'lirs. Kmtg .hi! Sl:!oik." '1,\1]0dies:iigned the prO" grml,~.B1.lit !Ouch cflorts !rIo:fY nOI be~ll(lugh to o~Tse~ lrising :brels Or<tpal~.y t.oward sc,iem;e mmngth~ young. ... :liCHARD 5,')ION~ R

:!i. ~
:::1

8

~ ~

76

.6 JIULY 2007

VOl3f7

:SCII~NCI!!!: 'W\'ffl,so1em:emi1l!g.OFg

..

ON'A

feiu aill.

To}'obJ

i\~yall1li.! dlill!11P~O!l~ !ilb.Qf~IAl.ry

.... (Oulrses fo r I1ICI'I1ScielKe' maiOfs,.

"DNA

i!i i~n news, [he
~t is 1lI9-yeo\llf-O

<lil'ldl~ll~~ hetpsus ~deIm.C(i

H~de!nlWi~dwh:n
Yilma!'laka.
In ajar

all I!IboUl.'" .say~ T~lrt'l
IdpoHticill
ror the

\\l'~:'oW3.s: baud I ~D1I,ga plii'peue

fjn.:;t~jme. AkiY<Jilmln~'lYl' ~~~.~e ~lmj:t:l)~~'I!\f~~tching studeuts discover a ]1J.ew h1Ile.re.s.1 andnart uri rig o"gl,! III idOl!; to' ,OJ ,gmp\~-

ig,l~al :ien3:~]Onfrom [he n1mLa:'al sc iences among ~'ap.,"I:n's youth. O;D1I.eof l he ciTh.dI t':ll,ges i\ki

Spreading IKnowLe,dge of Science and Iechnoloqy
iOiyoko ,A.kiya,mafo,sters a mQiv,ement to O)'l~ll1IJtew spe'claM.zaUon by gmvll11'g alJ[students a. real tast'e o'~heir bh:>logy tab
Y'OlWlitAM_.A,jA_fArf-Toyoko Ak:iy".un,,] oc'"'giUiI her recej~Jtbj;oh)£y,c.~S-li.~t Keio UD1i\'ersi~ bere by ~"\p~,~ini!lg DNt\ ~ul[l!iyS:i&'im::~IWi~h't1i !:f~ how :;:ump~li::iY:<I DNA ff"<tglln~lllt s in!;1:t~le 'iJ'0lyn1eJ.'.lse ~l dmi~ ro;:ae~~flf'i lrC[iU.n~!1she i;k>mO!1c~I:~lt~d 110\\' touse <I ]1J,l.i,cm,pil:le!te. Ne1(~ step was the: l<!Ib,. la'e".n 5:8 s!tmlenl:s(1):~~oci~,(It:.ll\; trom ~ ilbou:~, ~den~e edw:tllm,olJi. ll~t "Ullh"erslli~ ~I:I'Il: recanid.ering~11o\'le iliieftmnari:mls;' ]].e:saY5. A'S both sUtd~ll[S~ull.l ~du~ai~m'~~~in~ th~~l~lte of a \1,"eU -reunded eduC<llll,on. they cOUl,ldIO'Il,oe a,gai.~ ~!mbrneel 'th~ typr;;; of t.:null'OOS Ith[![ Ke-io

f~~si~ a w id~r~!m.g~ th~ in ;)!~~{]U rn ,of hi~~ sehool prei)~r'Hion her slm:lc[I[S

y<l:Im.~;<Ji

have ba.d.. MioI.IlY S tudents devote a 1:11 I:heii,:~li~lli:: m, the sllbji;.'\c~st1rney needta

n\,;'1"I~'1" paS'~ spec i~~i!z\~d u nivcrs.ity 'to entrance exams, Scwhenthey enter A!dY~!lla. 's c:1~ssroo~]", ~~ml![~ ~tud.;'nb; have ~nly ju.ni!lH' high science eourses l~1 l~,~dr c:n:dil ""i.lliu::re;flS others have :1 ,:fe.u~l! :f o high school biology, "Some students find
llill.cmaterlal too b~s!ic.
~lII'i~e~rJii!itS others

3tnug~

gle," :5.he says,
Ol:llilli:s day,. everyone seems to be ket.1)]n:g, II1Ib\.'I!u!t Us <I'lrref'reshi~

~h,eir(I1<Vg) cheeb

~1Il.d

p;repan:.d ~mp'le~lbr the
sl~d~'1MS met

peR Ihenn!i'l~ ~yclcr.'!;~1:1C;D'II the

:,~gilin,. they\\'tm.ld leilm \\i~K:th.:rthey 'a~IlI~.ed, ~ p<l.1."licu lair ~}Olym 0 rp:~,~s III wirh i11 <I ce rta m iii, regiulll or[J'n~i]"O'MIl g(':llD!;nle:"
AIk.iY:I:ImTI<1's: elassweuld not be 1I1ll1stlJ<1!1 fur budding bifl[ogi.$~s. Bll( her students are m.ajor.ilng in !Il'C:QiIlilQiIlil~]CS, lit~I,'3lUl:c.~rketiing, ~nd ]XIlhiea~ l'U1dsO(;'i.a~seienees; smnC' h:ivt: ~Ilke.mlno seienee eourses simrejunior hi,S~' seheel, "W~ think ~U ~dUCil:lcd ~duUs !-:hou'Mi have SOl~H::' Ull.1deDSI<Jml~,ns of science iI!I~dsci-

emilie

P~\,':~ltffl:,".'· (>~y~Ak~.y~r~~~.,!. ~xpl~ini:~

au edm;~~iom"~pl1.i~o.sQp.~y gm:!j, 'b;;u;l,to ihat 1;1111': :s'Ciluol.'sround.ing in l :~5& by Vnki.c:'JIiI.i Fukul.01I\..... ~ t.•~~i1.ding inJ~e]l,e(;n~,il! n:clem~preu
l1e~LI:who recogelzed (he hmportill.ooe ofl~l,e

nmm':'oll sc]ellces~o j[lPal~:s mmJeliTlliz~lr.iOlt,
1:1111.UlI era of" inC:feOising <Ic:1ldem~:c spec:i<!l.I~ il~U~,oUi!. K~~.ois ~. r~n;l ~Ht;plio[!lanJi!J,lltl;g.

plriv.nte U'1'II:iversi[ies i:l1,ol.Ter:unlg ,~<Ib !l{ln~eilm1ee maJcJ!lfg,. Aml!1il(lst of .~~.I'n:eountry ,3 1',?~I,ghily~. O mlliarml. uni.ve::IIS~,ties c ~
~~ 'C~l~Cffie:-;ftlr'

Japan's

up ~Mith the DNf\ anill:r.::i,'~.Y~man.~bQ1Y1' t~~ change Irtlln stlLdly:un~ k!w ~U Ith~ li~l~:' C~asSllmH~ K~ul.ak(J Ami, an ~:<1S been o;filferi;llig rt'ill' 50 JlCOIr:S. economics rn~1jor~tn.opes to meld .1iII.ei illm:.re~s J Aldyan13. <:I lllio;pl,l.ysici:st. isnet <Ill Qh\'i.m~~'!; by slr~dyinglleerollom~!c aspects of eJ,l\/iiL'OIlchoice to 00 le<JJilmg ch~ttge. Silfi(n~ the ider-~ igh megllli'li issues, A 2005 ~tqrvey dQIll.tb}¥ dle unieven 10 mClo~1f~.~r 1tf:1H~!l,e o .st\ldelflu;·.wil:~, .~ v~mi1y of ~11iilnni.5 and ~0 yc,ars, ~ncr ~.dUilfe'd.dly smile and "Iuiel ~tellli:::inl,o!f. she and her tion found Lhlllr ~W%dlm.g1,1h~e mltJIuiiI.1science col! f:'<Igwl.es,here on Ke~o sH [yoshic(llml pus Il:OLH.'.alThOn was Vl.iDf~;lliIwhile.and '90% fell that [.ec.h~je!Jlliy~]o~g tathe rueu]~y (In<'l\'V ,JJ:ld Ih~ i~b'L;;xpoe:riiJ1Jreilts\"''0~mie.fifiJiil1!g_~lt not llle science r<lCu~t}(, .IO(;;M;eda!. ,m.other OrU!S Artdllhe eourses eeuld ge:t even better. ]n n"'tl ca mplvse:s t:h n'll!ghom~:h~ l~):kyo:ar~~, 21105, J~~.f'l"!nMini ~!tyof Edw.:~tion iIi\~uded S (C()iJm!>~Ld~D"{~, ofh:p;ffiJ;I"S tep privMe univerone l:fuI,e Kein gmu:p .~ 4... y,einl", $900,OOn gr.!lnts~li£s, K~io eeunts I1UU1Ypromin.~nllrJWL~im~1> S;t~p~l,Ie:~l11l;:l:1ilCddlf! uuiwrsi.ty-lo hy d"''''!l~dop people <lInd pol,i~·it:~"m~ ~1mtms its alumni, ~She newexperiments <ll1d to !'>m'veyaamral sei~!dmit;>.tO~iUii, o~cW;ifimd~[ing~l'iJg ~u"Ial~ 1'0 S'['Uenec ~-dlu'l."~ni.CI~~!:I(l~l~i~nae ~.ltf~Or.S for both ~fI den!:s who are science majors," which she Jap;:111 allld lwetse<lS. "Om: ofdn.~ objecl~ivf::S i nd~l,g~:-; by gi\"~:~~g ~~!lli~"1!fi> ;;md c f)UfS~::;; ii1 f~~ ~r.:H~~i~~o serve ~~,~ I'l(l..si.bl.~n~a~hd$~lr ~er spec;j<Jhy ofpi.gnwru "...:II~ .nul their d~vl;'\i- other universities." ~,l:y!'i Mi:l!U.on~ O~1.'U.O'N''::, <l Q;p~nelillal.lm.wesses. And she tr ]es, to C<liITVC out :KeiQ physi:c:is.t v!,'!:Lo 1:£~eildi.lil,g~:be:projoot, A mooe~:mighi~ n;o~00 5l!liciJealt. IlO\..~ve<J: a fe,.' d'IY~ a week to pursue herresearch. alt;h.ougJ~l ~hc oom;:c~rc.;; dun ·'toL" of moet ing. s" Stlidelmtl!!IQ~!ilreql~tire beaehas, p~nmb]ng" and .i~.lH::rn~plthim !iic:h.l1:lu~e .. ~illilty deviees Ilo~m.>e'(i~d i~,~ecl:l!II:re halls, .And for e.x.;JnJ.lpJ!e. relu~!'! on 8~.n te;tchnng b~o,~O'JY :IlIQL~:scie:nce'm!i!ljors tlt1.e DNAe:l!,per.umel1l. to il': hl;:i" p.a~s~o!'!.'Pli\~ thill s.he'spurl'u.~d lor Ci;1r!tri,lffi.!g!;l!'.l~o't-wm~rbr.lhs. feR cyc~rs. <lIml ;) 0 ye<l:I:'S. She 'pUIS: co~ s.ide r ..Ib~.et~,ilrn,l,e to i.n I) illenes. :3S ""reU <IS CO[lst~lmlb]e:!! stich i:I.!> d~''!,I~1 :ii]'ir!g ~~ssQn pi il~:S. ]-[i;lf ·e~ntriclu ~ ~l'~11iI~is pip~ut;: !lip~ a~dI f'~ag~ln~. AkiY<liinlil." al~,(l

or

'ii!

ifig,) decad~ o;tgo ~hll~ 'elos~d d\epanIlll-el1l" of geiH::~:<!I1 swdi~e1\. exph"in~ TOS~,1i,o !H2f'o<lo" (I, :~ Uni ~~,it)l ofTtlk_yo P~Nsidsl.lo~g conC1(l!:'~led
ci
I~

IforI1;omcie]i~Iliil\1ljors
VI!'~UQ

Uy elllnllmiLl~d

SCIC~Ol':C;:01,l~

oncr~ngs,

lin a \\'<lve orreS:mI1~CUlr~

I~UQre topk:"~ than ~y~tem5ldi!. nd t!1(.pe,ru.llfI,ent!l1 s thcm~s ~OJ1.,~e 'l;l{,'ithC~ln'(:nt is!'met:: .. [0 ~tl.i'lg up thi: DiNA e.1JiI)er~mem, :il,~,e ltleilniOIil,ed how DNA fUl.;{IlYsis d~K;rn~:illetl~blt r~(fjU~}lrocovcred lmumtlill rem>ttim. w~re poob;:ablbt nat~limse ;i\ f~lll!)l~skid:llijppi!l~ Vi;C'tUll"

depe1l1.ds "t'l.ke

0:111

t~u''I:leteaching a!lsi:!llt<lIiU~ hell' 10 or lIiI,l,Qlley.md :::;p .•H;e:' says:

s.t~penlise the Sht&~ts."~ab~tl:riQl"l:S, Ld'lo~I~... ~ ~
:I 1,«1'[

or

Aki.y~!.l1a, 'Giv"!~11 S'C!lU:C~ res(r~1.!:celi"it m~;y '00 h:ud ~():5})I,'eOU:i Ke:rio's,e::\.amp~e.
~IEN fit! 1:5.N10iIllMIU~

dO\~~D:I the SlcielJlCle. At 8a~lrna:wd. tlUlii"C ~r~ fi:li);l-yit::l1l' seminars dm( ~HldIniditiomll]j~ been .00IIer~d by ~h~ lE~l~lis!lm~d Il~u~~.l~Il~li~$d~p1!~tm~nls \~i~ •.and 'Ge~~ing your hands diirty lis one IOf many keys '~IOa s'l!m(ce.s:dulUlll1ldelfgraduate deeidedte OrrCll" one iUI:~.c:· soleducatio n in the' sdences, sa.ys tlh']S pa li1e~ U. S,. ,educators ences (linl.'lJ sneaks in ihesc lence .ilaUil.gwith the resr of the ~mbjt'l()l ' S(IIH\1ITISTS fR'OM AVIENIIE.RAB1E WOMEIN'5, ('OUIEG,!1:t AN IIEUTE marrer, Ancr the class, the sludems reoJP'OJi'~.~dthey Ii;:h a greiltier een1:~belt"<lL1 schecl with ~I foem; 0[1 science <lll!ld eU1llg;~neerilJJg.:!:1:I.d ;;u~ neetiento science and !5<~V a !;lre~~te,r for science inli.1ei:r lives, ans' : ro!e ~xp;amji:~]~lIrbll~ uni\K:I'$~[y mig;~t seem to ~1il:~i!!Ibit diff~r,~nt \il!orJds, BUI whell~ SCiltrw(! lil1vi~:edenvimlll:nm.enr;!l.1 seientist Ste'phl:llli;e Pr.m%3'1~ How iIlIalrd 1:5;, U:ti!l' felliise an~ntr,o, ,co~useJ' iUlld wha,t ,are the of Bar~~rd CoU(;;£,:€' il~ N~\;VVori;; ·i,ty.!!1~.!lthe~'!l~h:ifl!1! Di<'lni~1(lu:mff ~i:lmitii '!:iIfa (;t~r~? m 01' Har\'ey Mndd CoUege tun (:lm:emO:lu, Cali fom ia.. <llld bio che'm,is~ S'l!Imlllrlers: Part ori r i.s.l<nov.rin,g\"~ml to do. NSF rN;u~Jm]:ilI,1Science ifOlundlal.iOJ:lr] i'lnd: :i9lHJ\,i11[Hmv~ud 1.~lughesMedD(,'!3~ [llistitutt::]iTh3ve Mth::h3.el.SlJnrur:lers of the Univeli"Sity of M,"'uylan:cli, :B'"I~~in,no~e' County (UM Be "" w p;,qrtic~,p~t.e irrn.'l Hlnrrn.dt<lb~.e discuss ion. the th ree d is- :~"-Im:t'edpi I()~'proj,~t~.that are, in ~ITect.eKpe~imem~ desigDil.ed tQnblJ~ify t inlguu~~ educarors had no t roub le n!ld iug C(}nl~l{)Jm.gro~ll1d i.~l the eurrleufum, for exam.l)~c.IIQ Ilull:'c biol.ogy more tll,ilalluhat]rif(.'. Wbats hed needed m.IW<lWe li1!ae d.,l<llh)[ll sli1.ovl,~ iruipacto:r1~,1~progvmll:i. the deseribi 11£ I:ml.eir eiTmrt5 to ii,IIl1pnnre lqlilde'l;'~mdmnic ~C:~i:ilil.ce. techaology. enguneerillmg. and I'Illllldl (:S-TEM).ed~l.C,niol'l. FI.eL'e is ~n e,.XCe\I,'pl. ofd~u C(lnw~s@~ior:u_ The 1i.IUlll?~~ is <1Iv.fHi~abl1;; Iflllilin.'(;l ~.~.www_s.'C:ii8:n.c~m11g,o!:'gJ "'~~ll!IliHl~ 'FO),cuhy re;jjU~1 \"~ii1iD.tO be ~ff~':C[j\le. ]['10 ~1I1I.mjust \~1;J] (\!JI'li:eUll ~iexthmde~rg,r.l.d~t\dIJC'lt~cm07.. ";)EIF1F1I1!:ElI' .M.EIR:WIIS is.t~pp.roprj,ltl! but also how to ddive]" i~ lIn.OWI:O.'IS5el>!> it, so t~l:J1. you ilInd can do a bener jOib ~.lex~. .. ". \;o..fh.il \~l!ld 00 aUy h~:lp ls a \\f.!y HI rime Whlall .arr@'Ilile' dflaUe'Iil'ges, f.j)ldlil,giln:stil'l!lt]'OIIil:!itll'lr~m,g~o hu:~@ase' nnd OI.H ,",'hOlts om~lm.ere thai. has. ·\.~fOl:ked ' ""'ell!. ~ \"'-IS just l:ookiulg for 1lI IPiUl;!I;.~pati:ol1l~n 5;JEMfiie~d,? ~81bn~odu togo \!'!'itl1.a unh on lhcocoo:n.''l> 00](1: in ~he C~'bOll ~)ld.l: .. I~'s I~~ Surn~mers:~ We have ~. .0UO S'1~~,clit"'.lltS UMBC •.imdlh,ere emil.be }OO or .11 2 .IJ fairly ll:msi!C:' cUlwepl .• BUll c()ukln·~.find ~\rI)"lhimlg mil; lJ~e\:veh. 40n sludC:l:Ii!s [['I II~~,!.~ifimi, (If fres;h!n~n ~1(':111~,~tJry. But \'\,·I.lt;:Uij, swd.enl~ Wiiliart: 'would 'y,QIUJ Irecom mill! nd 'for a f,laJ(:uUy melii1,liJletrwhQ wa nits come to coHege with .1,1] il'litereS'~. science '[U1I.dl<'lkie·illese b.ig CQl!.!I:rs.es. iml. t S(~!ll~ ofll~.Q'm g~,tUU!"~it~ld oFfvG!i)' qtih~kly+ n,~y ~~!!\\i~~.·t fig~Lred~}u~ to' d'Q ~~~,d~i!l!,gb~l~ do,e~iii!tt ~!lir~w wli1l~t,';~~ t~o'~? \..+m~:it bl~.e~ to excelat th~ cQI]~g(;lleveL <1ndil ~.1II1IJe di5h~'Ht~n~"g ~f .S'~mme!,5:~ W1he£1we decidf;!:dli~;rt \,V~ \\'uDred to tf)' W rel<:liil m01f1;l yott come lImn !l pop~'tIi'lliQml d~<:1.ti::mOt '!\'e.1I1 represented i:~.~:~lc s.d~r:toe:s students in Ghen~!i:s;lry.• \1I'\eloeked m brfdg~ prngnulillrs-a SmtMlu::rr and you I.oo.k .;!J'uul:l1d111.11 " ~eOlher~I:~dems. pe·~r('):mling \\<e~L progr;]~.l ft:l:r ]incormingl"re!'ihmtm-i~.ldud[lilg h~YW to SIJ.ild;yill roup's. g 1~~la IWhi.·~c ::It the UI~ irw:rs.ity Della\wl"C has been doh~.ggood lhi Ilg~ Whta:t::s, till!@fre:sihrna 1111 I@!)!!p@~'~@n(:@k~ at Ilta rl!1~JM:l!!dd? li \~1n,(b ;ii,Il'1lOJI] grolDp$.. Eh.u these~Jt1in!:l!s. cm~lllnun.ey~ and you need teaebGOli'o·ff~ ()if our students [lome hen!' expeCting~D de sometlring i.:lm in! assistants, So \\iC had m go ~Ol]im.e AU ".dmill'~:dral~i!JIm get~umey H! to a STEM n~Id(1);nd curcore p.ro~rn:m .fubn~sull'ooll<uro them ~na.ddro&s lii4isi ~hh;e.'I(I!\I.·.J{f~m~n1t B~[ Btl\V fh~:t\"I'(l'v~ d~Jil!e'il ~md~mlh~ rc~uIH; fr'~~. the big p:rob~ems in rhe world .. ~n <l!tldmliol'l,!I'lm),lhinl(l: we 1::<111 do to {1Il1lln.e\\Icb •. ~.wou~~dJ~.()J.le~lunmlin.erfaclIlt:ycolll,d take d~e d'Elili:!l.illld erase th~myt h of ;l.I(m~ gi;;n~i.I!$ s dl¢ e..~l'll'ilphrr of \.v~m .~.~. a [~uk~~~ ;liho\~J t(!I:~!!d~~!!"! nd !>'~}'.;'This is tillhat '\'{lr~~d ~h,~oo. !nd ]!li!1 k to i~ a ~ su t:rec:d1:in seieuee ,nld show them l~;EUl science is dam: .i n ·cQnnec~~d we can m.o the samel~'ni~n.ghe I!!:::'

~f:teUl! dll:IiII1bed

ov'

...

~

or

8 ,e.

'i
'8

~~

ift .~
~

.2~

C'ol~~~uU!1iities r~ther than b'y smnoone holed I!I\:\~Y h~. il;Jiffice feai.ly ~.~ ~,l.dps: '",~ithi~.e~te:l1Iti:OU1l. pr-oblem ..

Iff

I
i~

';0 Mff~ i.ll,

'eillICQ~It;<lg'e

filClllly

1:0

gel i11lIVQlve-{1·with. l!iIil:ti(]llJla~Jgrrmps<.

10.0, ][ dbc&l~ 't ]!.1akc ~~~l5¢ mf!e~I.)'iI~n~.[~lC cwh~1,.~]uch less

th~ nat ~

Pfi I'm oil I'll: Fer III,tillY I:u'bel,'"tl dins studeuts, thei r olil::~Y posureis ex dlrm;l!.gh a sclence n~~:u]!"em~!rn,t t~l{ln~I.~,lau;:]y.~l~se 'CkiS$.~_~<)w~ U t h
.6 JIULY2007 VOl3f7

lire.r'rojecl OC<l~c'ido~ope :[pkal.oml is a network of }"Ol.mg :fm;~'Lll}! ~ wilt! are S~~twiun.g i dGo:Ji~.r~oj~et N~:."\t t[ ]'m:i!~,or.~]is tl!'tQ~h~rr sl~h eff(lr~ • §

:SCII~NCI!!!: 'WVffl.501em:ema:g.mg

li'~l!'Iilllg lh,i~rh. Wppo~"ill:' ag1!')' HI" fV€y ,NUltI'AlI 5tl.lgel11S te1t. c,arbilm Iih!!rJ!MlI@~andll.he Oill!Pl.lt. ,cd Lim Ifgl~t:s in <II ~oj,en 'Ilif lih~ F~defdl~ p ~ A!llialiol'll Adl1l1il'ltr.lratiClfl, (Abo!tl', J)r!Ji) MeYErhoff gr(ltkj~l~' IeillClWStal~e.p bn~,~k fl'Olilll Ul~l~b If(iUai'il (l~Uiilg to l'ialr~us: IFenryll1ilW~~ Virgrlil~(I. '(M)cV(', ~ghf) ~rlllilrd'~ M,JIMi~ C~.3I1Il (ol!e,r;ts.and (hl:'llra(~~riz.es S~dij!iJU~"!s.l!l!lplllJs,rrom.lh~ H ucis{)J1 R~r 00d ,!'!~ir IWl'nhi!l!Ian.

IPie!opb~ haive a'c(I!lI:!!if!d the plr~lglra!i'l11 JO!fcherr.r !p'~ddlng by' Q'n~, takilrllg t)be m:cll5!t abl@, sttld!eil1lt:s. What":; youllr 1f1!!:5lPons e? S u mmet5; \Ve iI.re rnld~lg slluclJentswho me ilmlostlikely to. sueeeed based harge' pe,r:celli~i'lgeof whom 11~3,ve gone on 10 gelgJ.'ac'lt?lle degrees .... Airnd ''''<e\.'e uiedjo 'l~m!l1tify d~e !:,N,petimeill.l with commls,We br~rl!,g on bigh~dlOQ] perfl(llntlO1ilcl;t Burwe are Qn~y~ttkiirng ~.$:tmlllf-.~iiQ:Il of @bOUl .J.OQ:5~JLu:h~f]JE:S C~lmp~;s ~ml Ifl~Joe abmu ~. 0 of1"e:rs--;flllld tbese LO 0 tllat.por,I.-we gel :::1000 lloniill~ljo~iS a year ~nd abom 8[10~pp~icalions; are li.~11$c~:m~,[lr~hips_'lklilJ,OWillflg that ol1lly <1,OOW(~ 5:0 wi I:~.[Jcmmlly jo~,[lm [for <Mp]:»O:N.i n:mteliy:50 ~IO'~]!.So in;], ~'\r..'Iy.,"\ie,ne dl~,I·'U'Y~Plckilliag,.I3~u:'!!Ie . \ fh,e pltlg;rJun, And before 'i'I:e m<l~e an oli1er. we diOil,l.'I,pologiz:c for:ut And 'i\'1l:oil:1IY~<Lkeasmall i1':I!~~~ p~reiUs sigf'll ,,~wuil¥~r lh~u Si!L_).i·~, !;;'\,i~CIl1l if '"I see the environ rnent as ~rc~!l(~Lg~. P,~(lrJle should be C'hf;i[!Y-Jlicking, YO[L tJlJIr',Dl!JlS down, \'!.}l.'!'~~~Uli~, be ~~b]e track W to the 'liberal science field of !'.~m. S~~ l'llv \,o"r,,;:h~'!i"~ d;;!tall~'1. lt '~~'!liS (:JU[ m ii this century. It brings I:lin.al if lhe:ll' goe.lse\\~u::~re-al~ld thesekudsgct Alre! @'I!lI:V~I"O;lilmlel'ltaIW, IPI'·oglr>all'lsa ,good 'w>a" to att!,a~:f :!O!lliIdellfll!i;illfl~O' S,1"EM nehll!;? lOners rrm~llvy Leagucschoels and everytC'Qlether all the diiscipHnes .... where el se-loo:r <Ire l.l.,II'<ts. ~i to gmdlmne kel,y PifiI' m:aJI'!':: Isee the em!~lroln:liI.el'lt as lt1.e WJer<l11 with ,!j selenee Orl'l.~~I~, d~gre~ ~nd~~~uru lh~'l sno g~vesstudents a lillk to ~"(:euee fidd oW'tltl:o; c~~wry> Itbrillg~ i five times less l,ikely to go to sradu .. ~.eSoChmJ)~1. thai r own !ives, 'to!!;!iet'her ,<III rhe di:sc~pl~lne:s .... nd you liIave <I ,~ p~ihle!v~~$().1rvinglbc'ilI!:ii tlm[miitk~ t'h~m !1:t'ilt~~ephan~ e Pfirman. .~ Ha'IIe yo!:!. idel!iltjn~d e!h~I!I!I!:entst:l\l,jJlt mla~e U!JtJil.iy work t{J'g~~'~.eor.,. ,lbio gi\'c~ studesrs <l :~t Barnard College I.Ink lO dl£1 I.' 0'\),0111 ] hiles, ~~I f\ellil~~'? . •. . .. ,'.'. .to S Y !l!'IIII!1I'I;!'rs:: We haven't Ide III II ~e..c] wll~i'lr lN~p-' lfiI!ow c;ililreel"·orh~lilt,etd Bite lIlfo101l11if stlllldeFllt'5~ .~pt':ns rothem on o:~he~cflll~np,uses,. But 1M !~ UM.BC. 'the loplhm:g rs 11l~~uliIgsure ~hOl~ ciJl!ildi how 1m uch slt!'I!I,yl~dl tib@!.~'be? PifiiMalil': '\I¥e~'r)!o give tbem the skilm is th~l wi~:l1 t .~ lhoey are academically successful in the iii: frt;l>hman !I;:(la;!"'S~S. It starts 'l,vilh 0liI surnmer <'!il~mv ~h!;mt~ sm.~~~~·ul im! ml!ythi 1~i!.GJ'(h). robe wherherthey're b!E~]m1:mtcil:lg3 eheckbeok or bridge. and it includes getting studeats 'tlll!il1ing.IQ be en l"llVilil.lnm£,L'l~,d,ec~m;lIni$t !. invQ]\I~d rugln ~l<V;ly wUh oose..reh P:l"OJiiC'l~. :~ A lotof'them h;ave taken AP classes snd I:;:: co~ld 'p]i1ce out ofc~l.elnlh;t ry. BtU ~h~y take 'Golr,on~ N~ulrc d(u~sl~'~g.~!J';: u~the!il:rc=u p.rQbleillil1S1 of thewerkllabeled <1'Sphy~i,cs or .~ Ihe: fte$h~~13~, c~mr":ie~,: <1uyw"lY, Andth: key ~~, ,E dOII!l e '\V~.~~ ]11 til:losellli$t ~O~I rses, B~~!IJ se ~~. ch~mis~ry, So \'\Ie W~"Iln Sh.l.{jlC]l~S:to h.fl\!~ that i~~:hc)'~n:' ::;'Lloces~:iiul.lhen tbe reseatch f:u:lIlty hro;!,d b<lckglrnmLd., :Ehn h3'!;'ung an in-depth :~ ~[~ \'\ilger ~o g-el~l-l~!l"! nl(]:lved in [h~~,rlab~. b ~xperi~uno~i~McrU LlOO.
Over thep<lst 20 yea!'!> .. we've ~r:<lt.iI:~I, Inore,llil~ln 5:(10 !>lmfems.3 •ned
1

I!JMBC 1:5 ilJ'ne'of :!!i'e:Yer,ilJl~~sli~IUJt10n~that ,~~!e:'trying t'Oil!l!'Cirease' l"ehHl'U iIllil Ifa Ie s a ,m,Qng InTli fIoo,rirty stUld II!'lillt:S: it n dl Dalli"f 01"" 'Ih e' ,~(hi:e!fement 'gap. IHow hi: 'tli!~lt wO'l'lkin.gl ,S;Umlmeil',S:~ Ou:r presldent, Fl1e,enl(!l~~ Hrabewsk], be'gan with t1rn.12 premise~lmt [here mit: ~..1<lICge [mmlJ~r ofhigINI'(;hi~""m.gmt~,iI1!Oiiity suxlears, in pm:u:i.c!iJ.l!:JrAfwic<1l.1'1 Allrn,l,erk:;m$:.\~'ho are justnor beillig retained (ll~C~ th..zyenter college to ~wdy seleuce, H~ gees :;I:l~!'l~~m in high scinool.He bri n~s t'h.em 1;0 'C"'Dlm.Pll~wi thi (hei r famii~es:. "llltiVl e start ~!dki.!li.,g ~bmbl ~~~UJl[!~~ ~~Ph>D. d~,goo~+
j

Wll1!a~ii' tbe,tn=

!'i!1~it :!Ill I1!c;e~~~~(l

:u:ml, l]n.eir :rirsl semesterwhc keep rraek of every pop qU~l:and resr [hat srudems take, If dfn.ey have problems, they are il1lv.lm.edhuc::',~y ~j!lired up 'with other classmates whc are do ing wel i ina pm:'!icl! 1<lIU' :i<ubjeC't And t\ -eP;}y Sii;:<nilhH'J\; 1:0 be: InenJ~()rs. Wel!"'~$Io COiIiU the pmem,l)1,.and there's a ])1lrelll:S' associa~ion th:u provl de s !nonC,,':~ ill!!ld ~i~Hl. This is a l!I'OlUP CffOQ1.

S"l!Imn'Jl!~'l's:: There are ecunselers

II
u:i

II

!lnne

c

.

I

'W1I11,illt,can tllIIlIm'\li'@I1:siti:e:s; 110,1,0 malk.@' fe'lilchillllgi .al IiIlIO,l'1l!iaUl'acliilil@ '0 pt.1<Oll1lf'oirtlhi~~ f'S1iI&lM :lj,tillde:llts? Gior,MI[: In.!LlJli~lW STE1vI Slndcnt~ ~nthe ~~mCI;uthe best iwn:stltlJllio!ls wlrno .'life l}llssii:ol1ill[e "[,Oll~the:ilL:'ilibiec!~ ~undwhawould hwetn~~;;"ke ,I sehool lOr bu~~~e&"t:~(lCl[ if \'!.I'~ hawn'l~fdau~l'Dt.ion W f~ndi!lg.~vay$ 'e~reerom i:l:fH~3.'l'1'li'!1~" But th~y have lr(ulbh:.figuri~gout Wh1U a ~arc~!J' S Of~l,[lk~"gii M: iei'iO~ career ful f~~ and ~"\vurding~;;!ndl'm r.i!nj l~~~ Ukc th~u '!;\'lJu~d~()~)k~i Sn 1 think \..~ H",~dloI1iJ~;ii:!i(j1Jft1l~ 1itl,g ke, resf.i~'i:n~ibi1tal k illll,g aboutmoney-w ithcm~ fi rst hOI\'ing to spend i(I YCt<lU'S.;IS3 hy .n~d~']'linli:alKm~ lmwtheselabor nla.mets: \";,urk <limlun particul ar d\i.e type of cU:I'I'iI~lunilie~dlcill e;>li~~il;) !i\~~pptlrt gQ<iI,I, ,liI1 Itl;t!t1t)t C{lU!il~ilrilli:l:;", dl,lt gtr<1i~bl~~nuJ~jIU il1ild a p9~tdbC', ~ EVCIi1i.if studems aren't tliniki ng abou l cm;lee.I"S,~u)~:v,evcr. 'IV'C need [l~,m:e ,IUe~uio!:lIQlhem. because the o~rtllni.ty C()M'S~O go i~Il~u science !(::a~er are' muchdi :ffilercrll I:IWIl fur semeene ilml O~in~ ~ 0:1' ,llllld~1. We ,~~10U!{]1]It be surprised if students ;J'I'e' 't~linkill1lg 1' ' olbolH law

m bepayi:ng

beiJng a teacher is 3,Vill:ry honorable

<lind coml:l'llmlruly~bilse{il3Cit Ivi!y. <lind

How (!ii!ftH~:lr·(I,!'i:ent!l~dI,jIlr~ UMB,e stud'~nb;~ aln,d d!O~sthat p~lsh til1l@1IliI il'lt)o Qlr Qlut OIf S,u:MIU'@ilds,? :5'U1rnrll;e'r.5~ We have S01l1ll.G' siudelilrs '~m have knewn SllltC£ Idjldc~n,elil lh,,'Il til.ley \\~<Ull to be ,<I ilmledi.(",jI doctor. mild thms iiln,e. UlliU i'lrn!i!~ner.a]I, ] ~hjnk \I!;~ !1i~ljdlo be 'ca:~M o;Lbu~!~ t~f;hh'lg S~1Jdl,;!~t.si~ltfleereers ~l[(10 p ea~y ~lna~e. l know from 1<llking to some oil:'mygmdml[I!' SUtdelllil!! froml aiilDer (·;Olil.~~riC!ll:h<l1 t!teyare ~t!stc::d i!l.ltdl (;lmllJllt:~oo 91 iI "'Cry Ci:!r.I)" iI.g.e i.t:liID eitheJi ~ ienee or l1.o:nscie~,lCeMtck::t1 thiink i~ g,tlod :fur $tmf~l1ilr!'Jlo hllve 1:> the oppot1rumilylu gel e'X,C'~led ~ roU:I'SC or' a b~ pmr.essor ,mldh!iill~iea drn.llilcelo ,~oi['iW science. liiI(tw 'W~~[ a!re ii!lll:stiit~;tffionill;d.c)lil!l!!llin tr,a;dkiin.g stli.l:d~;lilt iu:l!lrwe'Jem@llIrtillllId 'wililat: h01IPPl!illliSj.to ~li!ei!l!1! ,aft~lr g!"i!!d'~al;iI!Il!l!? :5'UlmnUH'S~1don't klilJ!l!i!,i:Urdu:,Ir:e"S,fUlY:lreal tracking of OI!lI g!::~I1ILI.pUPtllulion oncelhey let!:vo(:. \lYe c(lnail1l.~y trackthese ~jl1lj ourM,ey,erhoff Seitol~rs Ptngramt'. \\i1e knmv \\!~,,·r.;: mill du').y ~~d scllillool am:ld:te:ur po5.tdm:s and when .~~ey il:PP~Yf(H"i1.eu hy j ebs, b~(:,l;lt~s~\M~ \~~U 1:(1 IklliJOWif we are being sw:m~liil>rU~. 1 don't th i.lJJik we t ake the same scienlil1c

l;eat:her~ g:et to~!t:thil:i:" <J.IIttle~im~ to in~(p\I\Jve their I!;.~rn!tlh~ ha]l<thl.!'t pel1s\very li ule in the IJniu~d Sl'lte.'l.;md lh",n S~QOhad. 111(;!:n~ some are pmgmm:~, ~Iike M@lh fO!IiAm(;ric:!1. orTeach forAI11:~ric~., whe:ro yon ClIll see that pWg,lJieSsiO:I~, :I'Im.deehow to make ~l a C'U'eelL; s

Is 'te',iu:hiillillg! :!ile@'" as
$I!.!!mm.i! rs:

,ill :S1!l1(ice:s:sfliJl~'OliJlu:ome ~f the M@'!I@,rlh'lllff prroglram. ,Olr ~s iii IIfNl:rel,(H"t.:!lIiItedib:lward r>e.5eal'!l:h C,;H'@@~S?

]Ulirlk [IMl t~l<i\l[ei!\ SOim.lle eDl~iorl dlelle. We're nyin,gI:O set ~
our studenes t{i f"c~ l~iI;l;)l~f'lmiaJle al:M)lIl~eit:n~ee •. \'I.'hic:hilii\IOhres doilng experi nlfl;e.!iU~. We 1Jt~l!:! ~bout our &tud!cnb;\;vho ~fl te g~\!I.dJ~l'<'1t~~1;~lQO] ~d Harvard, S·(l if a sh!dl,ml "i.W~ijif!t~~ klb the <lJ1U~:gets, excited abQut doi.~~g research, wil]1 'tUtey have ~hm opporwnhyif [htly d:edde lit) go inte te adirl.~:Im.g·!Pro b3bly not. T~~,ey wu Iill 'probably htl:vli.:: huge r~aclilting leads, <llld jC~ mI~t a gl~~morous (]if we]I.~p'l:id profess:~mill. li'be (Unll(: IP"Qglr,cunat IfIlarv,eyM,udd Isa 9 o'od Ql(Oi Innl~~'e iof p,r~..-i d ii n!ll !i~:!!e:,!'I1 !!"(11l! oPIP,o:rt,uiilllUes 'foil' I:lniiil'e:rgra,duCI'te's. IH,ow d~l"'!:Si;tWOifk~' 'Gonlff~ It's "I ~~,snat~~i!fe p:rogrmn that~,~~ bc;:c]l,goh~g for more thsn 40 years, ;fund it .~Uews student:> to panuer "",th iImc.1immryOJ" a i fede'D'.!,1 h.lb or venrure cjJ:p.i~iJ,:~i5ts-pe'op]le

approach to otlr teachiugreepnnsibilaies

<1::, \wdo too~l!rre5ooU''Ch. In resemch. \\;\f: f!JfCeval.mned ba~d Olill OU'!]"1)l;1irllm.ml'lllce. ] f we v"'l'\~le

an NSF '~lrNUl [Nmi>orn]111m';~'inl~es ofHe<lld:l] Ii gr~ 1'i1,.W~ h;J\'€: CCifW 11m!(~ltij(lC I iv es. ii[l,d our who l~ave real problems l~~lll thc;':)'need t[D -Mu::hael Summers, U nIVE!r"Slty of peers l.ook,J[ tll.Dsf: metricswhen they judge fund .:m al!l:!l~,'erto. Thei mpOrlm:lce or iUIVilll.!;! Maryland, Baltimore County cur prnpos<llr;. [!nd~~trt ('~J:l1:11~Y ifw~h<:~~~ ~l~l Oil dfenl Uk~lhal real~}j iro~r!k!;;~11l1'~g diff~rl beeu suecesstul, WeU. amajar part of our job ence ..... W:e've even turned the ]pimgl.'l'ulU i:nl.lO ,~Iglob~:~ at'lhr[t)' .. I,Isi.l].g. v~udCQoa~ferenc~ng 8n~.d e-mail, h not Q~I]y is tflle-ac~ :!Ild l:duc!!w ••~dan 't think it sllOtllld bC~lilrtdl~ted f~~ the top. But [ [hililk,\JI,le should <lppM!lthlJe~u:,ilin; <is '>ve tllJ!,IJ(WOOlCll mU:IFseigets: them ready ro work in \,\i<lys dUll elml~ployers and graduare !;:i1ec~[1d th~fiJkabout \vl~afs ~llnporl;;unL ~f'!lVl);'~ ~1Ci[ w~n~,ng :l!:M.~{i.enl~ ~ehog~:;: ,app'l"t\cial~. ,i~.ah'o ,!IUm.vs:;t~d~nt~ \:\lho m;f~y Mi.OI ~!.IVC ~ ~ lh(l hi,g~lest ,!;lrade poi 1lI~:1.ve:'(I,ge ~o e",ce I .1S '11'3,;1; <I le;1lI11. . of in o:u!to\\~ml, reas. ~helrn\"re"re [lot dOlnl:jl,om:"jobs. a Whalt does a.(!t'OI1II!1ltabi:l.ity mlean ,jilt BanlianU' How do, 1'101111ma'k,e:!j!!.!Ifietlitl:atthey don't bei!i;'ome: jIUlS~. ,i!lnothell" ,!!Ii!l ,of hliflmuils'~ Pifilnlmililm: o'n.11l lhiml.g we do is lmc:k onr 1l'l1!ljOr.;" i'lnd we i.mlvhelhcm b,l,ck lO l.lllk i.l;)Ollllhe]r c<~reern.l3.m\'\,re .b~~·l,itMl'l<l8ked~hle.m,1iO~ef1,ec~ GioMff~We gi\i€: [IW,(IY the; in tdl.t'ic m,i~ propeny r~,ghn;."lI]d \!,fC ·r~~.~l· Ol~ 'whm wacS :ilthal.Ill<'lde t~iDe:11J'I choose:it p,u·~.h;:uian::or.;:c:r piuh. We do lryillgto 'll'lJol\;c 1:IIIIoileyflU {~'li:i>.'We spcilmti !1.lol of dlne~:vtll:kullg with 011:1..", il !SUrv{;:ywhen 'lhley l,el1Ve B..rn<l rd. bm I lhi nk UHul.hdr per e spOnso[sl:o ~Ijick pmbl.enra.:sH111~\vil~ workweU for llndepd,mdu'l~es.
E

"If we're not retainingl the students that we're train irlg . then we're in trouble.

~peclive

We're .dlso nyhlg lUI l!m..k1~:rrtid,~l~(;rr '\Mh:u:;~OO!ltsarort..~miliil~iill \l-'Ot~ earl b~fll:l'oI,;!!m~ndlous1~ ~hl.ol!bh:((xperi~~C'{;--find V ~ toomeJ1.dous th.eil' cl3:s~s:,~Ve're v,\Ulrk.nlrng 'I,~iLh Comoniulll O:lll.~: I:igh Achie\,'ellle~;t he]p 110 Ihe comp<uny .•~:oo, the' <lind S1J!.(N~~s~oli!.nd~rstmtcl t'\.11Y_~i(]r ~mi"l,p;le. I~~im)ri'ry lml~m:;,!'nig~t S QOllle f.nwi~Th. I'igh SATsDI!.1,t the:~l.te:~l(!. o mldeD"per[o:nn. especi~t]ly i:l~ lliM~:ll'e is 'C'Oll!llt:lnuiinlg IP'I'e:ss:ure Ollil '1iIIilIl't1'!Hs.1tl@stol ,!!!Um~nClt:@ u ~ t ~.arg'C i~lr:oduc~ory ~1,lrses, Gnu;: intJ;;resti.rrg ::Ipproa~his; 110 !ll':k:S~lIJdc;nts.to II'i<rogli!'1i'Diisiitimedlillt5pt:ic~ail. IPIOIPlid.at~oIJil!i Oil1l~he gtiO jj rndslllilat I.':mne~lp wi~~,<l How !,;;mJll1: or .<I~i md:ilne~o depict\1i,fh~,l d.ley aK s<tudyirlg. 'Ihe, dliscr'imi Iill:ate ,i!lga!i!lll:st t:he maj (l1!ri t" IPO p'!IIlllalt:~olil.. tilltat ~ II's or [0 :re:nlect 0'1lli \l;,'him t~~ .~~W(:cal'llled. \:lk Ir:e doi.I),git: in a:1'D I t!fIV]OO(Rrn.{:llh,jJliWllmga ~rDIIP8.(:t !l!!If!IUU:l I';IIll'og liaml'lllIla~ yOIJ rUin'? III ~ t;:1~,me<IM1~:eL~,lC:1iI13 clm>£. ill\'1~.lkbr Mmlenls. totke ~'lm,lples.ITo:I,U 'dlC Hrud5'Oil11 ,S'IJlIRflm'~f:S: t UM,(l:C. W~· bave hadl10 wurry ""bmlt l~il,rl a~il:~:lle ~ A RUvl.>r dO$nl;ltVll) IhL;;.!m:l. il h~Ip.~ tnt;; to benef €,"\r~d~l;,lte~!ten!i ~ aud \\iOrl\, bi[. '\1V~~!ldl(l Mey~rbo{f rJfmgf~ln b~g'".'1!~. \'VtlS spec.ificaUy KJJi ~ it

<ll,m~ple

of years om '1'>'O'wl,ld. !;'ery V".!IhJ<lhle. be

:rrIl.1d\\li€:e·xifJ~!.. un thral :SQJ.11eti~,ue's lfindi,(Ig

om the orig:um~l. idea d:idJl:I't

i.

·BiO

.6 JIULY2007

VOl3f7

:SCII~NCI!!!: 'WVffl,so1em:ema:g.OFg

black males,

and then ",olnen. and

thc:mI.ll1Iillor~tie:s

ingc:mu:::l'a].
l~P

A f~'if!r(i~e Banaeker ru I~ng p~ugrams ~H Illile' lUuh}{:I'sily

[~mJ 1994] :;;11 [ dmli'lll mi no:ri ty sci e·l!l.ce U
of Marr}tia!l1l.d,.w.t: dlc·cide~ to opel)

ilnnU::l :W:l.OI.'e lll!3.1l the usual suspects to sessions 011 d~.'\,'Cr');i.ty o.r education, .~f~here\\rdiS ~'OmI~e 'l.V"oiI)l t~ey could elevate the issue. 1i:lI,H wou III bcg're~l.

rheprcgeam tiO .1lU sruelems who have an l~nu;:Te~l in diversiry issues in th~ seij~l1ec'$, •.. ]:h 'whi[~ :student qlw.]i.n~s,. they havi;; Why ii:!iIQtt. ttfHl!'iQ! slUJnide~it rJ',artiQ!Plijl[tead!e'II".~lili[p IlU)W'~ ii!l!!IrdWlllral ~i] dee id~i nh~Y\~'il bl' do ,~II [he '![i1.,l!t!'lI:~eb in awd !!c~ivil]~~ rare thr! (.!'IJI'! p>llil!liplh~dQ t)o ~n~k:e'it: ha:pp~I'li?' pa,rt Qf~]I.e' eye rho !l"pnlgr,UH-:l>ud.l as !!erv~ngas.tutors to innerM Go ~off! I. th illlk it 'sa hV<lYs 1.1Is.~.1iOilmablei:mI.\r~]s.~:li n~ti().Ul to coneen\ ~i[y m inorlr y studentsi ~,~h~ K- 12 '-' ~~li;lmtlnd~l~herm(')I'It My y n,fHem]I~\: dbU..r ~i,gJil;:'; 4:lndh]' think 1:~ll<lt jh",~ just spend W!lli;;l~ activit ue s-or i rli'n,ey 'l/V01.il1 rm he r lake 3 ge'l1lc:r<l~,llil.erit :;oChol.3]'sll~ d l i.p nnoney .. ~he leaders will appea!U' and t'ful:e: [p,rogr,am:s wiUa,.lpc<lr;[3.m (iIiOUl l~.e uiII:hre.rs-ity.. The p.mg rum ~.:-; new" about '~2r~ C'l Wl,c.~Si:<'lI,~ H' you :~ook.n ,,,,,,1:1<.1 l h <lpp·ened to N lH .d:ter~he dUll bting of its and 12% Hl I 5,% A~i.m. budget-which W;JS.\ lIMllnderifulthi,Ul,£ ~hO'L~: is;Jb~olmely wonhyof fll~1i Uprorl-W~~a[ you seeis II..!ilrreatdeal of tll[s winner-take-all S 'Whii:lrt:aliJolilt at [BiJlll'li1Iirrd? kiud of fu:ntd:urtlg schemes and the same Ileop,le gcHil~g Ilion: ~,mms. 'fmrma!i!I~Wf};f!n:: ,aw(]n~(,)n''s college, J'o~p(lni!,g.i'[ ~~p ~U onr ('lLU- I'd rather (>C;):(): ~!S~ndi!lg J1).'n.un~yo p~urpl~ wl~u,'M~:nt~()imp'i~nl'l~~1 tn t del:ltsjus! means :U~,1iore womea.Bur :I'm .!i.lS/owolfki[l~ Oil;! prcject sO'l1m.e oftnese good ideas at lhieirinslliruniorl .. ~:o,ldv3nce ",",mm:n faclLIl.ty. illlJd one thing we've discover,~d I:S:ha!'t l prog.rams 10 hetp \\,'O'I1'!1erl !lIrtl,lIs.o hel pful for men. So we've SIll!mIl1H~rS~ When weinterview ~Jeople lor.] flo~i.l~on. some POS,ldocs: tell ~tS that their adviser Iilas~,~~~u~md themnot to get h10 OP'C'lUNj[ ~L~~' 'tile' I"mgnun~ to both meWl and 'WO~l~i;::mi, although we tend to g.et morewomen. .~tI!\'o~\l~d \""'ilb unc]erg:Ii',iu:hmt.e:;;bee,JUs€: ~h,il.·Y '\'1i.'i~1ud up sp~~Rli~!:!: e ~QO mU~~l i.m~on t~~chi~.g. and ~J~nt t could ruin lh~ir. ~iIIr~~r.fii~lIlty • HI~W d~ "Ol~ ~xt!e!l!da p:r~glraPi!.tlh!a.t'~ tl,l!ii~t~d defiilide:\i >!lrtone' f~~ ;d ..~,~{It~~ .re~,f!f'Ch, b~st]l U!.li.of!~"roe ~v a i~!;u~dlt:II!lI f~!1;; ba sis of P~!IH~f<i puMis[Uu::d <I:mI.dr,esellrt<i~:uoIlS <It Ine~:l:~lJigs ,mdi service on I.'~\·iew p ml'liSt:itJlllt:mOlillbl' tlhe' Ituill'ld~ed:s· ,all' ev!(!'Iil tho'lJIsalilds 'lllfS(:hools dNtlrt panels, There's a tef!;ching c(lmpo~.e!1Lbm it's 110't weighted The mlhll hill ibe!l1efiitho'mrit? .SumIilfl1e'ts::: Wc'.re lryillmg so (~{JIlhillt Wb~l a program fLm.dcd by "NUl same, And there's :mi,Ocompenent .<It all lhill~C1ddn%~ses m:eniD:ori~~g and Hl-]Ml [(I increase reteution rates 'U1LHl]iI.g~nderr,er'fe~ellleti studems in yG~lf lUl;b. m:illmit ies, We 've hadl three meeti illS:", Im.!'.!'te!C!li ''lfHe.lild.ed by i~ $.l iane] Whilrt (.'Ill;I! o:r '~wo,thillilgISWioUtdl !ilJlIUI ~ik'Q!~os:e,e h.lIl[pple~ ·~!i!rhe t U,nio!ls Uuu we 1~ltw~ropr.i!1l~d tor ~$~~~l~ed, paruelpare, each 'To imil ilmioOrI fi rsl l1~clHJ do <I. q lmu,u;i{3t i\'e'l!:>~es.il:lm.len~.of how 'l'\,umelli IIH!!X.t 5, t:o 10 :yeail':s to. iimlPli'o:v:e Uil'lde f'9 radii! ate :Sn:M (!;dl!ll(at~olilit :~!l~ IT!i~m,pt les ;,'I!,~ dbi ng ll~l ~h~]r C@!T![YU T~M ill nun~~tio ~ '\:\I'!lS!,'t ~S. :and IiIr~w woultd )'~I.I 1Ri!,~as:!!ue~I? em;)' to gel. RI:LO[ numy S<I,idlheywere surprised at ho\:\~~JQor~ t1'n,eill; [PIi NiI'I :1111:: [ l:~lnk ifs eri ti COlli w ifhr'inea,chi .0 f milli ~,:~1st ~lla.ti,Oil,~l:I~<l.twe i s inSlhl,l'I~IOIIm.:swere doing with h..ve academic Icad ears Olll camrespect to the- 1]chieve~~le~i of pm~'I~J'h-ounderstand dl I::V,alue of "We [need] to erase
mil'l.orhk's OlIWid \VQllIl:en 0[1(;(: tllilcC'Y
S,l,,"'

the aumbers,

In January,

tile myth of a lone
gel1ius , .. and show

rhere WD~ be ilm.other[lffi.ee~ing fOll" I ~h~ irn:S;lhH~i(lf!~ to P[~Si~!H th~ ourcomes 0 r things that da.ey

[suudents] that
science is done in connected communities ...
-0 aniel Gornff ,

~lU h and wi~i!II rescurees com make ,OJ .Ji tferenee, 11' more science !f';UaI hy !lr~\.;,tmillg 10 step up to those leadership positions, li:l:n cm~ld

science and

have P~!t·ln p~m;::tl"... Wt'!' ca] I ~'~lU,:S·'I;:ru.ki the .s~.ow ' ng OIUhIH·~d:· :~ yeu gnw uyp~ f ic,.11 sci e B l ifie :n~.eet: II g ,the re i
migh[ bt': ]5.000 i;l!t th~ tn~ting. Bul onlyabo~1:I: 30 'i,\'QuMI ..u:em:1 fi ,,~~s~ono:~ d iv,~ ity..Affi!d l~WY rs

make

;l.

need to

big. d~ffen,;;~e~.We .ds·~ til i~d{Q f om inst it [l~::UOmiS
11m

.s.e~ !ll\·e:f)fbody in\'o:~vedi

as lea r 11ins eom'n1I'~1nil. ie sa IIId
I.he

~,~~n!1hlg iU{I~SS.
iIi(l'l!"off~ \\~~ ''Ve
IYHI~1~o/ m.my 'lime~. ,A~:ld I

Ha riley Mudd Co liege

;1 ..'
,1;1

w

SUlIiiilmen:: [[n scie:~oe • .sometimes makiIIJg~!h.e· big d~iSicovery Im.H~'U.lS; i ;~ P'fm I'm:a m O[,!e' criHc~~I :need is I:ll'~fi'!11 i~I'he reSl~tu!'C'~S ~ndI'lMj'kr.:; bei~:g, ii!b therig~t p~!!et'i~' I~~lriSihnil'll'~. t!t"Nh~1li~'eQnl!esto (llV!"t)\Vn e i~be.lv.ll iI,,,,,ces!>i'b]e. M,ll'll' of~ts .rcal i.ze 111<1 Ihe'I"c ,He \'.nys to t. d isr:i'~~.~i.l1le~ OUl' S4wl{]~e •.'~ve"re a]~.un 1~;lf' :riglhl :pl.<Ice ,It [:I~e l"ig1].l .. .,.nd ~I:; ti:~me ~o do smut:'IJ1.ing, \i\,l'le<~. ~ mif}orhy sHlden~ m:l!likes HIC.r~l)er i~ll'PI'~ll'11ele:lc.~iug.but ifs. ~~~mJ :lind lh~t iu$o:rlll:fltio~ .. I kllow tiO ;z 1:10\,>' to finJi ~mt w~mt\; hra,ppr;niI1g) wii~, A[!;~ic SCiiI i.ce. for C)I;<II1l- ~hml d1inkiDilg "nmf:s £,Qod. lhetve done <Iii IlfiSht:' ,">'eceouM[ b~-i[J.!il •. I~ p.l.c. 'bl~t J dml'l.k.I'IQW hm,,,,i!l) f~nd f~.e r~S(I~1.Q:C~~ r.m I,ookiml.g for in [ilGIl1 i.un. as:k tb~!U. "'\lVhy did!l"t~you nl~h a B'r Haw 'can )'CYr.I1 do o;a:l:ld !~ i:he e:ducalional .uemt"Wc <lh.o need 1:0enga,!;re the pro~e.s,~iDn<li~, b euel:'!" ]:f w-e're not [et(Q.i~,:uIlS ~h!:' stlqd:elU:S th.t~ we're: trai niirn!. lln:n :~ s0ci(lTies. Tlle.y 'I~~v~ t'he:se b~.gil!lU)Jual !1l~~~i!1il£$. but h's IMrd to \iiffl're hl u'uul:ik

g

IH:O 1)1'e " Art,eT spcndDmg so much mOIll"ey for :l];QliIJ1Ij<li.IliYyea.rs uyi.ng u> im:;re"l~t'l 'the rW[il1.ber ofminorilY sck:m:isl:s ,'ll.ld seei.llgfht: Ilmnbe1!' incfC'8Ise fmm l1l~ybc I: i% to 2'YII ~:~~, 5'd.cm::es., fedcniilR!,);,end.es trlme .know fhey h.uw::: to di(lt~lirlgs d~lJereJJa.tiy.... They h,,\Il;: bl~r1ilMe to bU.~I.d c:a.~.mlP:r. ... :~res ,It Wllrne i.nslitllt:iollls. and l'lm.e question .l:IrQIW h().~"11 i; do ~O~~ ~~n'~h~ n!)m~t'.
.m::U!.::>UlII. ~ :'lOlIil!lii:

:~yfhe

lml~nti~)!~~dC(]~~~hi(gk

[hriU bC'1ng P~)rio f sorn,etM~.lg bigger t~,liIUlOimle!;e:![fis ve ry iI.pp eilJ~:mlg. If \!,;~ ,C"Ul d isp e.~dll::lli,1:yth (J f the lone ge:Llg,lU\'l \\I'Ol:k i.liig on ·~tui r OWrl e iMld clUJ')ilasize thl1: ~oci~1 c3ph~~. Ihal \!','Quid be 11 SI.Cp inl:he r~:.Ill:~ll direction. A second conni.bmion 'I.""(Jl4,ld1tH.: m()[if! data ,lb[m~ ~e<lrl'l-

:1

CP!'Il!ll{l:ll

,eH:oot":;;!<lcn~clri~ (C(l]~I;:Jll'",d = OJJI').

Ariel WOlman Really ,M'(J,ra Ialkative 'Thain Men?
M,ilIttl'l~;jJsR, MeIM,~" S:illlHlllile V,azire', 2; N,a~r~n' l~hlmli~~z-IE'sptlrz.1,:3' Rlc:i'l('Jml B. Sl{l~)r.:IfI,i!I} ]!tllrn,e<s . Pe:flflil!lil~ki@I~:I; W -

{~() ~lf'IH;l,u'~:f:ll;)d \nn-i:;thiliiy :1]11CIIlg Wmllilt~U ~lld -um;.I1.F'll.Imtltl.o'lT; ihe dl rl;;:w;e.ll>o: docs, !wl mo~! OO!ivt'll~ 1[11\>']' d1!l:-Csh· Q]ds fQr Slilli-'lti~,,11 i.g~mi::"UlC(: (P = O,l..lI:f.l, ~J1D~ sid~(1 ~~~). ThwI~. 1111:dl;lJl;li Ihil to,n;~'I,,'>J~ R;:~inbk ;1 sex di.lli:>,reilre il~ ~flil,yworclli~. \Vp.lliieii. ,midi I'nlet'L Mth ll-'>C' Iliil ~"iei:i:l!l.C 300~i.l. word:;:
\'\l'{l.n;L~l

!h~j; ~

is ~q~l':II~t~

~hr!br.-,;n!;:~

:~Il d;'l!!}'wo:rn!!l~

W~Iy

'rl:'tI of~h~

~~O .\1(1(;iooC'~nog!'<Iiphk:dmr.!tc~crl."lil..~ !l1!"Y wlf;.'C{ln;1 i!flg~!liJ~a.~b'i gr"'~nb\icnl~Olll'!~. ~!'!cll.ldi!lg I1ml~~mffoc:(oo (llif ($1:im'QI!.1.'t', [If d~li~y Wi'll!!d l!!~~~'. C(i!w'L;'!'",\'O,IaiOlils. wltlM p"lrtid~~l~ gtl<l!ooUl!!l~cir H'llw~'.'~r~ f~O!.1L;' Ih!l.~ z;l;;tJIllp]("S ~]It}\~dcd i>UIPpoJ'l .~f cl~ij.~y~iV(:~Uf.i~~ll!I~\i. elf ,m:ll,i:01.'0"'1.:1'[ clig~.""ilreeerd~br li~cil:k~1!(lim~wQ~lQll i'mvc :-<ul'll'tm:illially ~[!i~>C'1:' illig, it ii> il~l)o."'~i.hI'c.~br 'llmJ.eirmi.ts tll Cifiln~1or . ~ ~iI:lumpKi'chimni~t Bli!ii:mdilll!C' ~.IXJtk-d. "A \'o'(jl'l'l!.1c....i(:'<llbud~),.~!4:~Ih,mrncn. Full'lhoc. In [h~ ~'!.'cnl aa iIilS~l> aoolJli 20,000' 'W[1\I'ds liICr da~ ,,,,hUIi::,~ even I:n !l!,m~ wht:'tl '~m .EAR Ii> un or 'O:~[ Fur ~h~IJlU~'fI{l.~ of lihi:-lf;'!udy. [11{l lEAR (',UU be l!~d ~KWI WI~ .(b"u[ '7Joorr' (}). llK~ nUJ:llb(:rsh<l\"L,'l ~h"l ::>ox dilli"~'l'.:11(:~~U!lld;Jiuy word u~ alre asW tr",JIek I1fllliJiHUII},:ipokcn wom .. lInd 1,0 (~tiI:l1~U~(l SUltl'lt"d 1'0 00 bioIOg.i.t!ln.)'bm;l/"ld~ ~"'O~!,II~-d ~inb~ (;.~~C~~~I)('d Iim.:lu'.\lhou;u ~1lr\!~iOl~,. t<1dio. :.utI!:! m.d"p«!I1"" ~ri!!'lnnc'tli.:], h~.g:.. CBS. ('NN. N;:ui'Qn[uIPulJl~c: ho'l"v 111i;11:~)' '\¥orus \\llrnWll an[j meu use (.In,,'l,lr [Ille lim1c" t?l, They shO'l.I1d be clm{\cru:tbk ;:IIJ~o:n!!l

l,bm;~lc It,Umli ,\!!.;'ll~$S is d~~,I,I~Y '~P1gf'.!il'!cdin \;l,Ji~K!r!l 1b1~lore ,md {l~l(!n(;(I~'l~ick~rod aseienWIt: ii~C'I, h~ ~h~ 11"'l ~]~cirlting of ¥1L.!v l~k.

-S
0,

im\'c 1011£ been a 'Itlptc o,~ l~ub,l'~c ,lnd

'clm;.~~cnces.:' ..ill

1.10.

n.!\~'Sa.I~~l<L1

,~.~.,I~U:.\fi(jr

. _ '.'ill:ICnIHk imellii.'Sl (I.. 2), TIle S:1CI'eOt)1'I!C of

witl;1 vcty Ilarge i,'Kihddilml tlillerei'lce5 MlUl1.dlltis,~ue8n. A I)Oleru.inl IHilil'it:Miml (if our m:J'U1I}"::1i i Ilmi. ss EAR ~ 8. diS~td VQlcC :recorder [~'lml!lltol~" tI:tlsh'C'~y Inu::k!i~')t.'(Jpk:·s, real-,\'('ifld nu:m.1C~H-Wa! I ~l1l:rl:idp;lnts wel,le lm~ \'Cl'Sil.y Slll{lcl~~" The \~li'lh m<li'nl~nIimc~aCil:ions. [I o'~j~ncs b)' pcri('ldi('<l~~,)1 rei\u~tung homl~.l1,encil:)l ~n I.h.c ::1<l~H~~I~

per

w.y.

to,mao

[~.3di{i, NL~IXWt'l."k..lhL: Afel~; }(m~' TimL"s, a:iIld,~he "h'.-lIi.1l'gitl'U AlI!!I). r.1~(]eed.lh~ 20.0~\I~aslils~ 7{]OO word eSI:i1t'l.:lllC£ 3«)~lr!Q ~\9.\lC achieved ~]~csmlm" ofa Cl.11;turnJI mylh ill~hm c.clm~)arnblJe d i11elUllccs hm,'C beenehed in ~IC l'Ilc,dia ror~he pa.... 15 )'em~ (4).

oou;rse o:f tu dlly.

~n 1~a!lily,110 !ilJud)ll~""s S)l.'i4:(lTtaljc;~I,ly!l.'(:oru~'\i
UK' nmlur~uI~~v~.lN;njpn,~ .kaJrg~' I!l,_ro!!lpf;of or p1.!OP'J(; for ~'~~l~I!di.,.d Il'ti!icd;; oftil1ID., Gorl"~W1¢I1I.•. Iy. UllC!iC ~lil;VC wn been the :m:x:cssa!}' d<!!n.l rm ~li~Lb~y ~1i\inrttil,g di~Ii~'fC!1.tCS i!~ d"ill}" woro ~15o:l1!l!~~nll[m1l WQ11lC'Jlan(~ !1lJ.:H (J~Ex!11IPoll,uing Imrll'll ;J l1't1nnIY.'ii:ii I] f mpc-n:;o(JJ.',I;kid d;]~ly eon\'Cir::<nI:iO:rlS .~:mn~l p!un1.icirpllltrrs lrom,~h(; ~5] I3rilf,":II~ NlUionfl~ '('iO~U'" q6~,libclliI:l\ITl~.1 It.'Ccmil~ estimilmCl{i '~hm. Q1'I1h::n speak ~g05 \Voms W am1u~.1L:UI (,m) ~'rord~per dfllY,. iilowcvcr. be ncka1ow.l£tlg~'d 11~m~hcl!CC:-.thlt<ltcS. may l1C'pl.ubk:ntilltk:bec.luse

bl lh~ d~~'mlt prurtd:igm.pOtirlilc:iiP;[U~~ wear dre :EA:ll flu several d!a;ys during l~eir w.mk.in!;l hears, U'ac t1ev.i~e is I)rogmmmedlo recorufor 30 S I!\'m)' 13:,$ min, J\J~ca;plmcd words SIjI{}~n ~l}' the ')~1J1i.cipmn are' lm.n~cri111Cd.Tile' nmall~r of :8pokcll \li.'(1Ird s 1"'\"''1: ~b.y~mldlt'll be cS!:im~,1Jl~d by (\1\~_..t~bh!l:lil fll~~n ,,) ~:ir!bp~1C \\fom ~~f!t ~I!c
[lUJ11~rOr ~UI]:.pk'tI soend fir~':;,. <lnd Ul~ !!'tIITJrd·

ilIllii\K'I1::J1:~1 S'I.l:ldcJlIsas much as im more (ji'li'm~ ~i1l'l1)lcs. "i,VC:~,l~rcforc (lom::]i[l!IJc, ml th.c basls of IILV.fLiI;oblc Cll1piriCffiiI cvidcaee, Hllm Lhe wide!\1JllCad ~md .Iilig:h Iy IniblHdZll."'d $'leI'CO~.Y1JC allot]!, ~bl"l:Ic:' mlka[j""''J1C'SS is lIInl"mmdc(t l~il'm'li!iI'l!C!i!S, ,<I rilIl ND~@iS; 1. It liolllidrr, l,~l'lg~ ,I!!l':ld IM:Jm.M'~ ~t! ~rk~ 19ird .

{IiIMp!!r.

"l'W

ing time per

SOl!!f!Q

file.

qUQition !'IDoLII. SoCN, din-crdana ~mlrn:l ~~~1pl~ :;;ax 00&00 em 39li pilnie~~tlllL~ (210 \.\,oll1.i;1l ,md ~~6 men] Ihlllit V!I'CIC oo.nd~~:cd bctv.:eell t 998 and 2ilJ04" f'~vc of 'tb'le Sfnp1cs Wtttoompooo~1 of
tti!C CllCCS ill! cl~cillywmtl LI~(l \'\It'lill

''Ilc i1ddresllCd

~mi\''Cil:"SHry :!I1Jlj(jellb,in Ihe UnJitol;.-,j SUiles" an.d lite sixth. Ullii\ICrsity stu:k:nt:> iu~ Me.,xnco. lillble I pro· yidc;sb.1JckgrollIW inlol"1lmL~iOJl m~~hc s.aIDI,lpl'cs, almag wra:h l'Slimat~ ~br the mllaltoor of'wmrlslll<l,t ~lO ~nlb:nnlmiorl W1!I5. avan:l!<l~k: l'C'~mdillg \\iJ;IC'n lemaill::mrd ln~c ~);ar;!idl)3!1It'll spoke r:CL" 00)1 {("I). rlllU,ticip.1lms decided tolum (l!iflhcir ~llmuJ!a~ !<Ire l:hec~ua ,"l!!~$1 i.hm WOI11(l1l 15~'i!tJlre Jl .. vcr~ O roOOroC'tb (4). O':Cf Ihe r~s:~ ~. y~~r:;_""w~h~vc d~velOl)()tl .,1 <I![!:C 1().,215 (S D = 130 iJ ~,\(ords <lIl'lcl m~ml :5.(i(fl Zi6j:3l' w'on.is over ;,!U a:l1l>~n1nedP'C',ci:od oi: liile~hod :rbl: :I.'eooruin,g ni1Wl.'3~ Iml.g\l3gc lU$;~F.lg nlJIC' {S[) on ;tvcrn:,g.C, I., wa'kh~g ~1(lt~I'S, E~)rc~1 ill a eiCClI1{mk;]lIy a~~Y~M~d I'Ctlo.!'>der (EI\RI ~7l. 11M;:
1iillb'loe 1., £Sti:IlllilJ~edlm,lrn! be r ,af \!IOlrlh SIiD~'~nl per day fnll"fema~e a!!lor! mai.eSU!lid¥ pa rtidp:ul'ts, a ml.ss '~b:.s;arnpl~s, N '" :196,. Y~ar r~fE!rs ~(I t~~ YE!~r wllel:! thil di1!M co~~~t!OF!~talrt~~,~ d!.ll~,nlioIFlr~(I~rsoo th~ ,~ppr(;lillim(!~ !ll!mb!M ©~ dil'!Y~ p~rtid~i.lll!t!l wr,etll@ EAIR; the ."@i,gh~@d~'!I'!~g@' '~~i!;l:hs tlile !'@StPiM:tiv@ '$-i)lmple gr(lIJlP~NUilr byllhe '5.;!:rm,p'~e si:re orr the groll,p.. _. A~e
$~mp~e Y!Iii!!lrr L!IIcatian l[luW,iillii:ol1l H!Ill!:!1l: {Y~ilW~

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:All1ldl~e Kms, 1"., :A!n~tcidis: Kalr,~H!i,:O!IR,~bl!wt Md:li"~n, lit ]1 ID. :l~l~rlrlCIlOllLil!IiS.~· •. P,~~~r FislfHlif;3 Mtinllil :5,olj!'j,W::1 U1~in9 s:eU~re5(J'iiiaWl~:coils i~ g ~UOim,gly C(l:li.!pl~d !I~g~~'~, !il~p,~imll:F!l3U:v we' d~m(lliiiS;Ua'le,d erric~nt !I'Hu'!Iradtalive powerlir;al'l~r~r ,o~e!' d~s:talli!::::~ Up, t,~ 8 ti~es ~he r;;l,d]uiS-I)I~'~he coilts.. W,e \~e'ealbl!! to, tra!il~h~r 60 wa'~l$ \rith -40% eUid~l1.cy over ~ii~tali!~,es 11'11 ~~~~~ 2: m>e1t:!~.r~. ~re$e!ilt ,i!! e of We 'CIualn'~'I;~liv@!Irnod~i d'~c~i~~ng~'hll! pIl)Welrtlr<lllil~reY",which fi!'I.1ll~ch es the ,e:l!perimeni[OIl res ults lifJ \llIithiin 5'%~.W'e dii~.{u~st ne pradiUll <lpplic<l'hlILity o~~h]5. SjI:!lt'll l1l1I' andl ~uiJg:~~tdiri1,~lioll'!' rorfmlh e~ s!mly,.

is, 21~w~l!.'l(tl, Mm...im!:1lin,g the ~nki~cy I'I, {If !hC~r;;ll~:;;r~wilh ~,'V~'!i;:~ lh~ ~o.~di'l~ w, Jjli\"I,.,;T! 10 &!. I. ill ~~wiv:d~:I~ 10 ~~vi~l~ ilb'i!~¢lI1C1J" "I~

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~1~l1jr. in

wh~h

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= [(.~+ ~) U"i~'"il + [(.I. + I'; )1!] .~.] I'll-I ~.
11m Om~i(,\f~e!l'i', :nlUillil~~~'ItI wh,,~n r w/rl) = ~I + i sf I[))J If.l, I:~ is C<1"Y!O ~how dwu the kcylo l'fTieoomC!111.:fgy Ir.J!ll~llfur is ru !'loUie ~.2/rsl-I)'::" I. This i,s ("'l~ml1lo:)llyre~cun,'d~o ~. tlI~ :>~rol!!:,gcoup~
(~Jr

u:u~clllt'"~rie;l~.- ntH nr~I.:.r.lelWilb mllgli~rie I1d~. ~u hjM~111:~it}u~ ' ~vure~ridi, N~koln T~19, {1) dC''I''O.mntl~dl wich ciwimmti.cI1T9~ C!bj(!Cn,~ lllle!>ti~l!prc~(-d eVIL'] _ ~~lTorttl",\~·.ard ~(llu;l!n'lol'~Cl !J!.,UllilllOrl pow>!.;')."\'I.'.VJi().. r'w!rnh!l.1f. W~ were ubli!' 00 id~I~!Hy Mnu~.g:I)' Ih~ I(.%I,)~ m IO'!i~'i(l\,Lj_f. I.YII11t,;,iJ cl1lbod:H!lil!;'IlI$·ll'l_g .• R~'.dOl oO!,ipk~ I['(:gjmcin tl~~S~'liI~II.)'~n '[WI) '~lJlpr.od ur CQi~s)unlvol",l]d ul1d~r.:ib~}' iarg~ ~l~t'lrie'~id~l&. llN1gaIDtic l'C$O,filllMt."S by c~ltar~ng lH.1urJdi:nive The past doc!ld~ hm; witnessed II :surge in tl~c; use (l1e~,r-lic:l:dll' 1l1l:l!!1:1l~1.e I'CSO.IUUU ililllll!N iOoI:1. at i of ammH)mOIllS, c~!!..'Clmni(!dc'!. lees (lap.toll1s, ecll 1l'lC:i!il3hcttt ~:reqtlcltdc.'i. AI. firs!. g~mmC', such pho.i1C'S. rebois. ,PDA!!.. etc, )!, As ~ tiOl'L~i]!e~cc" pewer tram.ret :is; reJlliHisCCifllOr [he IiiSUil~tmL&!' inl~rest ill wi rc!I'css po '!>\'C I" h<l~ I\."CIUCI],'OO (l-.,q" netic irniucl.km (.1m; however, 1l0K' 111m tlilc Radiative trJmfcr'~ 5). ~1~I~ol!lglll)cr!lbcl.ly SLli!"b~,e usual tl(mn'SOn:lll~ Induction is ,,\C~ inc~kicltt
fur tmllsfem Ill;! in 1i.1I1lnW!iD~,p'n$I.\;~, mm~bcr of 3 dm~.c!.lh~\'~Ihr pnW~1r [fr.!1]:<if""f ~~)plic.'!li'<m~:The t'f'ficicm::y of PQw~'r m~n~!L.J~~,\i~'!)'b\,v~rMK~ i mdi~uiOJ1 i,,\lJ]tUlidilfl;."Cllinnat undl mlidul'l~~io:md nlcii,:nio:n rcql!i'relt ilIJ:l 1II!l1!!tf.'11'l!ll'lCd I inc or ::l~~1n :(!Ind~OJ'i!histil:nood '_r.u;:kuUIg 1'I1!~dml1i~ms. ~oon A ~liIOOri:li:C l)f~lli(;1'{M pr~lIluL:.'d fl demil,;,"d mm~y~is ..~ of~M lr:a:;i:bi Iii.)' of U';r1~ rei>OU~mal Objrc'C'1:;; COWl~ ~Iedihm!:~gll tll~ mills orthdrr .11101111l61imovc foc:Ms ~nii Ilt~dlFdI'IJ.gt ~nei]y 1ir<'Li1stcr ;(-:', Innuil.i'lldy, l\,~O

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mitis power I:t'dill£lbr 11iludElDlisIi1, ~"ll:Le 'cITLt'iJ1Jltcy is

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m.ypiC'lllpam:rl'cteus) rellliivcmo the ease of induemi~ly 'CouploolmiUL'SOi1311~objccK Tlliu~>Ii! r@Ut:i!JI. IIifIO~@~ f.o r :!iell~~re!ie'lil!iill1~ cml~5.
ill"

c1>!pcrimcnrml re,lIiz.'l:liclIloHhc ~hcm'c C'Q!J~of IWOSc:It~""''Olmn~ c!!.'lil~ One oo:~~.(Ihe ~lWI;C (:(lin~ coup.~oo jnd!iN;:livc~.y 10 an p,'i.\:,ill .. ~~ Ov~rvi~ (lif U~!'!fQWlI1!,!'!USIlfl!I, !lEl1fiei~!~~mid· ' ilJgciP;L!h: the o~hC'J"Uhc' device coil!.) is couplkrl r;;L~lg~ p(I!;;\l;;'!" 1f<n:!'lsl'f !!I(,"cWlP,; in p!1lr!iC'!Jlar rogirm!', or lhll) pm:tlIl1~~()1r ~'p~rI;;C ~~~cribi~,,~ fl:.~~!!'InUI~L im:ll!cti\rcly~o aresistiveload (ill (F~g. I). Self~omlJll coils liCI)' mn tirlf:: i!'rll'l:pl'alf bc~.\",'Cel1 o~lj~"CiJ:j, !I.troL,g:I:y c!!:mpkx!lw !!JI~C: :1nOdlcr. US!Jlg d~l'i'rriblltctl in'tiucti;l,r!cc tU~Jd d~[ribl~rcdC'm;p;J.Cp.. C(I!.Ipkx!l·!~lOdc th~'Ory to d('~:\ic!il;lIt;.~Ihi!'!, ph}"1"i~1

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!iJICili' (;qllltlllm~!l:

{~J'fIV}

= (i~

( I, resonam objoo't5 of the :>f~ine resollant ~roq;umIC'Y l~rJ.l tenld ~o cxchilll!!Je 'CltCI:gy cillkijCll~ly. w~'Inl£ dis\\ihere the iHdiCCl> denote Ihe dJirthenH OC'SlOnmtt ~~il)<"[l'Igre:lrLli,\lcly Hule CllOillY ill e.xllMlncO<ti.', olf~ I re:;on,mloojecls. III SYS!ClllS,ofcOtll)kd re;~~l<mCC'il olbjoots., The' vm;ra~b:I.~'SClflJtO ;fWC deHnoo so lh;:u ~he Ciu':il~,Yrollt!llilt~c:Iill (i!bjl.~l, mis, 1(/~r)2, OOm ;(c.t:•. ucousie, CtcttLiDll'!.qgJ1~d:c. H1agJlCILC. Dmclb~ is, the :res:maHI ru'lgulor Ircql!l,ennc), ,oflhatiioolaJrcd <!XI. thcro i50 (I~cn ,~ li,\C'nC'l'i!~. '\~!ro!l!,giy C'OlI!llloo" ollject. ::mcl r",is lis ilm:il1sic decay rele (e.g., ~i,n~ oril)~mtia-ll «~J;. IJ,one ~!1o,l'i!C'!i,,'(l!HtVm~ rt,,,£in~ in a givelJ, S),SlCI'l1l" Ihe CI]:CI:gy~f;lIJl;'\lfa- :15 dILle to aiJ.sollll'ion aud mdi;]!~c:d .~sse.s l'. Inlhi:5, ~ci C'.'\~d to be \~ eflkicm. Miw:;_mg;;:IX"''Cf n".ljnc"w'{fJi~, an 1II ncoupll.Xl<lulCi ILJlldrU\'C11 n;~" ~f<ljl..,R.'fhnp'rl';'i!nel!~l_ccl, in Ih~!> \'!I'<.j' c;;rn l1e u-c~ly [OJ w~lhp"r.)I:ll1f.'t~~ffi ~ ;~!!dr(I, \m~d,1:c\'ol w;~ ~n

n;~nco 1,0 ilChi~\'~ [1L"S()lll1n.t;(.~_ The oo~l!s. l,:; ~llltlde m o.fmll ck;cnricnUy OOlldlllC'lin,g 'livire ,oJ t'C!I.[LII~lglh 11!il1,d ,c:m$s~$';;"C!timml mdiuus; II \¥o~llld itilLOriJhdiN o~'rI tlUlll'i,IifLtlim iI", :Il.l1d l~dgh[ 11.lrh~lne best of

kUllowlcdg.e. l!here ii,!'; tic c;:.:,[tel solu~i(m lor II nllrnile~lcn... in jhe IiI.ClilIUI"e. <mel evce in the' case or hnfiUlliteiy Im,g coil,s. the whnuons rely on, :JI;'''Slln~I),tiom,l:hm ,'~UC',~I1':[lii;_lcqum:c rOI" OL!r SystCUl UJ). 'fIVc· ha"l'C fO'!.n~cl.110\lifc''I't'1r; ~I"irn!t~he:sin~l'k: qtlasi;..s,tm1c nloo.c~ desa11~(J ~IOVI.· j", in ,good
()tfL

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g~~lH!t;1:ny d:tC 1'i~11.mt,/llllJill~!ij)<J.l1;:. w 1tlll ~aw iu .. 'ur [1,."1fI('~Il.ceam,! kKS:'5I.'-'iUD') \.'n\li:ro.ll-u.~'f!lfll obj:cct:> (6J.

lhe llIroQ,VC c.oosidenu.io.us ~ppJtr iJi[~poc~iv'~ oflhc ph)'s.~~. f1illlJiiiC orlhe It:;:;OlnfllU;{S. ~ I.cn;:., :we 1000usOm! Of:lC IXlatlcti!im!l: ph:ys:i.cal c.l1flooa:im,cnl: IDI1~lleDic ~m:m,cc:;; {~). M~gll.~'ic ~l1il~nocs <lI;JIe !I)>!1rtT:ctllarly :>lI hrJib~c fDr cYel)'dllY <lPllllic-a~ H(ll~ bl;c,,'l1!SC moM {lor dl'Cwmmf.ll'l Imlenah:. do
M!k!~!i!iJ~tI$ ~1ti!1le ~f Tedfi!!t.ol· OW. (amlril~~. WI, 01i!D9. USA. lQ~paJlmart eI medrlG'l~ fing'~eerhlg oodl (!)!fI~' SrieRce,~1~1~lnstitli!(t !(If VI:!~J!J~, (Olilltbllidg ~ 1l'4l. 0'2U9, USA. 'L'il!I!II':lIUoom of IP,h~K~~d Laoordtm]j'f'or N~ ~dmte. Mil!QCmJjs~L'5 :in~t"'~1 or~ecm!j~~ C<!!'!'!~n~, Mil 02139., '1,!i'5';f\, '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI 'be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait
1!)e~~

C{J~~p,Jil~g ~'n~niCi~il'II:S 'bI,;I'!V!I\I;~i~~ hhl\.l :1'!;:'~m~,,1]H olbjl\"C.t.'>ir.u:i.i:cm{x1by ~'1C ~lIb~ri'pI.'i, illld Fjn~l~ .m:: dri\lingICll]l:\. \1\I'c~imil. lhc- t~fi:tfl~ernl, to th~ Cii.,,,,,, (I r b",'Q O~)jC'!;;ts_, dCllotedi by ~OiJI'(C ,and de\' icc. s\tlCh dl~,t dl'C SOli roc {OC!'CI~llfied'b:ylhl:! StlbscrUl~t S} r..; dri, el] ,e;\I.!:;1:i\!9_Hy ~i II rnii:i:;lallii two ,obj:CClti Im\'c II ~cxup~in!:)

r()I').lhl,!: "'.1m

~gn:cmcnt (wi!hrlfl":S%~ willi. "''''p'Criit.lllo.'tlt We S!;lr! by gbllcr'l'ins ~bm.I~~e 'C'Llm:nt m~.ISI, IX: owm ,m, ~hc ends of dlC CO:~I"nd w~ nudw Ihe a Qt1W!cm~ I,lW;;~ Iljg~ Uti;: ~Q~m!llU!m"k.';5. 0 dlC

= Krill! .. rc

wil,~~ \",'(;1'1: appro.x,~~n~~ by sil~~!~id'~dc'um;.:nl l1mfi!U'ii .~:t{l'~lg k~lg,h I]flh~ «md~L'C~:inM wir(,~. th~ \1I,t- !I~ iU:I';;Po,"l>t,.,j i:1II Ih(;row\~~ ~nil;dC', :Ml! ir wt: dCm)l~;' by ~ lit,; 11!Ifn~1.'ie~cri:£Lltl'm OOO:I,:d~;)l~.TC mOllg dlC' l.cng:Lh of Ih~ C{mdL)C'tQ<[, Stl~h lllll!. il: 1'i.1Il::',rrofl1l in. 1:0 "'2,1'~leil ~hcli n~c-dcpo;:n(flenl
Q.II1"IrCI~lpronl~c ~\i~ the ~;;lIiInlUI ,o~ll: ..JI). cXP(~(o)l).
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dll:~li~,wesislmlcc oOllnootlXl 10 Ihe device. ,md has, the d~Ccl (If ,oollt'rlJbl1!~ing,m mkii~iOJml,~eli'll1l rw 10 aJi!c' l~rlklltd'l;'d dc\ ..Qe objecfs d~ ..y l.,u~e i r.~. u~'tmUd~"OlY 1(:;111;'; IhcdC'I.' ict· i~ti!.'Ore· llie ~Il r~ r'o = r [;I + rw lihc-work ~~[~ o~. t:. ~ h,..tIli'iht~YI by I:l1~pt:li.Vl;if di~;litIi,t(xI iti lhe: J'oad. allot .

100ii d~ 1ltt'C' lImi: Ihe li]I~ru: ,c&I1!I!;'CciCllt<:ity f'ilro1:1I!c i~ or [he I.o:rnn;'1] ii,n(r.:o:tl) ~\p(i,iti)\ ~ tllJiI m~e.I'Ii! Ilf of the ,oon (,,"..hen s;~j,ced pC'llCndkii.tlill'ily 10 il:s a...s) COIlItains an osdll.hllh]g!nta~ l clmrgl3 (or ampHtudc ~hl - Auf/ro) I im~ is cqu<ll ill ll1<1gn i~lI!de !Jut OPflOl'iir~ in sign Il<i! 'd'l.e ch;!!1'g1.l ~!l [Iw Q~hC'" h1df. A~ tl~e ooil il;!\..·"~:!ll:iUilt. nile~i,lim'1llLm!d cha~c dt:li~1ly p:r.ofik";); ru!C 'Stf2 Old ,tlrlll~~ 1~0lti. -.3eli C
(I('l!Il,tinluhy

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
o~her.
ml:~11 ~~lg~h<!J~h·c ![1I,,'J.~rml1, G:[;'orte i:il~I!ll1\g~ ~in~m\'\,~lI.mI'll!!') 1:e.1J1 P.11'l (If ~c oth",,'f is ~t;'mT ~q!;!.i.\'''~iJ'mlly.~!!c: ~'~~""Il,!;y QI)I~!!I.i'~I\;-d th~ (,;{lH in is at Qqtla.inpii;liu!s iri! ~ia~wI,;'O:I111)11;l'~Jlydll~~ i~ il1c ,!;:~att:~li.• ~m.d !~i. 'Oi.imJ.:i!pnnni:~ul i.~t'UJiilll1k"idy

due

Ih~ chaqg~. U~in:r,; d~lrom,lg!l(;)ttc !1~(;Q1)" w~c a n dcl1:!Ji(;l an "d"f~.;<;lij\e ~:!i,clw;I;;'!:I1(;'~ l. ~{J:id al~ 1;:1f",\C'~i"'~ ¢1rp.nc~L~~P1t;c for. C'iith eOl i C
[(I

as foIJio\vs:

tI"(;C; Ih~! iie:I'n~ror QIiJ! r e..... n~'nm I 'parnm:e«."TIi. peri Th>e ~~!pled·rno4~!J1Jl!QfY ,gorny t;Q:(fk~iaru~hT ~!w~i! i~1I1~ror(lro r = tR'1;> + R.) 'U" ;r~i1 tt~ ql\l,,'1lhyrM~or is Q = tnl? \:\'.~ ~inld dl.~ ~"O'lJp:~in~ Q~!Tl~i!,il]i K,OS. by ~ook~ng,lit [he p!l\ver!'m!~I~n:lOcI f~mlJle source < ~o dw cl~vicc coil ,Il....'llllmi~g ...~~.",,ady-s.,~ •.c w~u· itT![fipi i[i~\Jltich r:'!1I,m,::ull'; ;Inti chi1f'g,~ dcrI~ii~:i; "ifat)l bl'i 1:iII1liC 0'1~ti~l: ;I~

r.

oWO\JI S,% ,on' fmm !'he [!lII.,"a$l,n'l;~resonance aI: 9,9Q'MI!";'!:. Th,;; ~hl,mfi"k~1 Q rOf i!!w !Ci~ ~'l ,~ijgmn9G1, .. to lJ,q -:~jOO' t~~"~Il~:~II~f,lG = ,:.9' x. 1.0.1 ~nl~hm), '~li:t the nrn~"'[I~ilrucl\i;[llI'lJ!J :~ Q = 9~~ St:I.\1\!'c bdii;'vc~hl.l' di)1cn.Vm:nc}, is nl0~t1 dae W dl~ clr~t Qr '~he~"y(;raf pt!)fI.~ly o:mduCliu!TIg 'rop"~;I1;'[t O''iL-d~ (n'i nl:le ~mfa'\,'¢ or 'nh,c cop,lx:!t~,\fill'lil, to w:hit'!l Ihe c~itrotU i.:-:: OOI1l61i~t1'Dr [Iii~ 5i1Urt skill t:leplill 't-:2U ~uml :It thi.~ fil."fJIliCflC'y, e 1iIh.'1,elhre W use ~hc cexpe.r.iJ1me:nI3],[iy observed Q' and rs .. rp ...f" ....,m,l'2Qcfcl'i\'oo ~ro~n ii, i~l StIbsi."'ql!CUI, !III
:t:

ooll'fJl.r!81 ton:;:,

\lVe ~ ~~~llhc
~11~~I'lny

OOUI)~i uS

,C'OCI'licicul

K

cxlX~r~-

b)'~lm:hl,s. [he h'liO ~~t.!I;):::~omLin 'Oib: C UinNIII!!'!'ed. b~l ~Iii~hl] <1!.llj l!~tun.!;l fl. ['0 Ihe :-:lUble j'

where!hc spmi!ll current ,~(1I"1end ChlU'8t C~ell:l;it~i IP{r) me oll~aincd 1lCS~"eth,'C.I)' !I'rom thc C:lIImn .,mJdlu~c dCI1 ...i~tc:;: mlbl'l,g the i~olml;.ldi (,;"O:iL in cQJ'!jli!ncl!(ln~~~th [he ,g)!JoHlclry ,onhof) objl,:-cl.. .M:.. dl)[i.ncdi. f. ,Iud C i~,~\1~Itl~c pro'~~yUWlt ~h~ Q'~l(,-rgy U ~olll.:lill!,)cl il] Ih~ t\o:~~is gi",I:.~~. by

when ijso~.i!:tcdl~ di~~,me('l Ol t~~~ fr('''' Ql~i!nciei1 or lh~ hVOIfC.~om.mllllod:C,~. A(c(lrd~ i!log 1:0 -l"(l'uplcd"llQlodc [hc(l!ry.l~ I:;' :iiplUuin.g
!U"flOU.UU f~L;':q!.K'ijlej'

D '11::!m1.,I!'ld

.I1I.1';I;~!.Iring Iill~ splui:l~ltg iu

~i~ouk1 b~ ~
\W.!'d<:, \\L;':

=

211{."J - r.l)IP-ll ~n dw 1)~Ul

• ~ ..I U="2!../o, . Ii! = lChr~l!
I
2

(8) Wh.erc i~l~s ~lC dt"C1ClivC' mutMml incl'ljCimlc~. $<

:1U ~YII:S

fo.cu~oJl .D~ ~I$(: wl:l~rt.: th~~ (oils t~~I~ <ili_gJlIlId eOll2i,JaUIY {fig. 2: ).~hhOlJgh &Uirl1ilar
fife:

us

o'bl::Jliirk~ 'liir other onml.1:.:-ni(ms Uig.~.

8J. 300 S2.).
IU~llIl

dre scalar piJ~.el~tif~l. , is the \/ootor po.1callilll~, A ilnd lfllli: Stlb."9!::riJJ~ S i.m]icmc.s Ihm thc electri .c licldis, due' 10 ttlc ''''QUL'CC. We' lhcn cOIldll'lie that ~D~ "" ~S!!:l "" K ... (.ii"Ml!2J{1.8L~.}IJ~J 'l:Vhcn the disjanec 1) between the centers of the cells is much 1<lI:scr~l:la.n ~tlC'fr C~I:l['ac~erTislks ize. !(' sc:~Ic~, w i~J~I]~CV-l ,d'cpcmle.L1Cecim.L<l!ClCrUSlk
£I

Me\1!1!:1lr,@m'tliilt UI:!!eflli(;i!l!m1~. The n~f.li'!:.iof thcollClictlll emdcl~c~ dCpCUldsouly Oil:

Given this reImion ,md l'~lc!;;iq~alU.tionor con~ ~i~mi~}',the ~il'i-il!h~ng r"Jl,,~'!mll~ l:roq!!!Je'J1lC}' is 10' = 11[21i!(Lqll2]. \~ can ]~OWI:i~iI~ ninis oo.iti asa sl<md~lm os.dJlla1:o.l"i~l c01.IpiJ.cd·mo(_~ tlJloo~ h)~
defiHililS m,1') - ~(m)In:~l~n

rm:~11!i<~n(.brd 'oo~~plk·d·modC'lilloo~l~rgl~men.ti1,grca~C'r[him lcecn

dUiSSil"<lI'1.Cd b}i of the CliITUm di~lribll.L"01:1 int~p1:ic.s t]I<!I~ Iht" spMirrd t~vCrd~ of ~lile pt1lkCblJrreUlil ~ll.!!lll'()(1i1O Ilia. For t~ coil \Vil~l Ii 1.l1m:;, and made of amateriel \'\Iml condu.ctilvity !Ui. we ItiI;OO~ly the 5E8mb,1id :funtil,i:I:im. for ohl'l1l1.c U?o) ilnd radlauon (Rr} reS~SI~I'LCe aCl.--o:rdingly:
C,UI!

We

'1".'S~il1rnmC' power U!!C

r d ilfl[}Ic-~

ipoko:

WVI p]i n:t;l:-

BOIb

'r.::"~~ld

[-

are

rlmiill'-'i.tI.~;UE the :ii:iny~oid.itll!lmjjil~

lh~ 1~~1I:t'11~1, lind ..:Jr ;lIld Iliac . elrrl~ic!I¢Y OII[C mirx~flililz.cd rtlr a ran:uc~lll1I!I' vflhu:: 0('; which is ~n Ihcmngc I to 50 MHz for typkal pf~mullClc~, f intcrcs~. Thus, picking o

n.~nC'~im!snf

an 3PIlroprifLlC i'OO'llLCncy wr a given ceil size. as \VC do in thi::o c:xpcrim,cnlmJI dC:lli'Ionslrolt~on. phiYS ill IliIr~or l:ok in opti l~lizin£~hc power tmnsfcl", ,C:clnp;arifi@lIl witI'! ,expe'ri'men.t<ll~y ,deoormi nm IPIlllHlme1ers. 11lc 1'3i11l111Clcrn(oiu Ilhc two idcn· ~Ji(;al hc~i:ClliI ,coils "'IIi ID CQr dIe: c.xperilru:llICm.i va:1 fdaHl;)1J of Ihc 1)()\'~:~mn:i>l:er ,,,d~cn,lc ;11~ If ... 10 'enl. a = :3 I!1UlIQ. 1· - 30 cJl1.O!!nCli ,,-5.25, B{llh

Ihcltm::~nnCleJi" 1I."/NLsLD},,f-l - 'Kfr"whic.i! is fOil!" = 1.4 1'111. ,tilt lin~c:;. the I) r.l,d~l.l~ f tlt~c o c(li~s) (Fijg,. 3). 111US, \\'C (!r!t:~rateill~:IiI.c' SllfOJlg iy 'co!JjpLcd I)cgin1'C1 ~lml.li!:lhol!J the CJ1[1I\C mf.lgc Q r d liSm ~ces, p.robc1cL As om d rhl iug Cll1Cltlil, we ase a SI,!mJ!J.m Gl!'Ilpi~t'; (l~c~b[l'lr whose ~ldlleti\f'~ c11c!11Cm om~ si~S!s(af :<i.iriglc:: ln.p of COIJjX'f wir~ 2:5 em ill! k IlIdim (FI,g. II:: [~!is loop of \\!irc ceuples hl"dllJ::Livc~y to 'U~1C: sosrce fi~l1.:[Tilid dri\l(.'Suhe cmire 'Wire~.es.s(l(lwcr ~ml1lsfeu :JppornMls. The ~,o."'}d o::ms\i~L"> or a C3TilMiU'G-d~igh( :b11~b (M) and is a~.wu::hcd ta, its OWI1I 1001) of .rn~l.~moo wire. w.!lkh ls placed inl pITh'\j,i~nily o.t'lh.c dev tee col II HlJld im:luc<tiw;.iy (\ouploo w' it By va:~~lfl.g ~1e: ,df,~ mncc oolwccn ihc li8Jll, bulb and !.Ii!!, dC'!.icc con. we arc aMe 1.0 a:djU.'iDD~hcpaliilm,cler ~,'"'wll" ::>I) thal iI 111ill~he::;,.it'> ~ltimiill \'i)[luc. gQ \ '"en rl;u:orctlj;a~ Iy .by [I ; ~~/r2}J1J1. muo! 1:001' COlulccled to dlC

,I

.jOOpti of !lJi;:; 111,)1 iNil!<i !!,rn(.l:uli fo:nll!. ;.JInKil w{,O Thelin-i! Ii;ml in :Eq. ., i:-. ,~ n1,~gll!:':l~i~~P(1~!L: enc:IllSl,lI\i!tl;nhi;; unCl:;!1,liuu,y,~'OO~llt !!I(,·i,· 1~lIli'rr'liruu· d U md:i~uipil mnia:! ~01:;:\lu!fninlg "~< 2rrd,[tl, \vhl'R: £' ilY hi)" <lI.U~llbUID~IIl'lHY'A ,[2 >cm) lllllCcr!:ilinlytO h. is ~hi:: :;PC1,oo of Ught)~ 11'1c~~cQlI.dl~eil'f:lii>d.~lc m T.h..: (;.\~:ilCCK~d IJ\'~lruil~ rretTIlllli:IIC'Y g~\'Cil ~bcilc l:irl(.'C:J:CClrU.C <!ii,pole"oflhe oon ilIfi,j iii:;.:;,n'l1l.n~r tl~ml dn~nc!l$i'Qm. iI',fa, =10,56 ± OJ MI:~z. whnchis :

cotl?> ~~!;: n1...d~~f ,oppel:. o

ne

i1ip..ld!~

bch\'fC(H

0'-2 ;--~-..,---.---..,,---...,.---..,,---...,--, (I,Hll O,~6j O"~41

Fiig. 1" Sdl:ernMKof Ul!e-.xpe'f··
'im!llfltia~. se~up" ,tJ, 115 al '!lingle 'OO,l!)pe,r loop of r-ad~l!I$::!5,(liI'I~l1at is part or tlhe d'n1viIl1lQI drcrn~ whiclh 'CDUlpll'tSaI :siii'lie \lYCIve~v,11!h r'FOCI~€f!!cy9,'5l MHl. :s ,~i'lJ!I D allll!

11·

Q ,'\;
,

A

KS',
......
1_

t~1
Q'~l
(I,~.

'0'o,m{

0.00·
(I

L._~""______::.....:::!:::::::!::=.td
751>(11(1 12$150 175 2W O:!S1MC'e (0iIrl')

~5

adjuSikidl to l'rnllIrelhat. the"ir dimt 00 llIplirnglis zero, C~ins :5 11111:1 Din!! aliglnild b~ti.1~t! B aiM A and OOt\Vft!fill B !lnd S are lti€g~!Wblii'.

resIPCCI:i'lfe~flheSi:u.l!r(e and de~i~(~~ lrei~m'1d 00' i~ frI~l~t. IE! i~~ tooill1 ~f wiFe ilt~d100 ooihe' lood' (ljgfult ~lIb), The Y-ari()i;l$ 1!:."'5 rep.~nit 'c!~re(t~lDlI!~gf!gs OOMm the '~!:r:ieCil::s Indlc(lU;(i ,by ,tIl~ir~.ilihll!!i!~~e ~~fl I:oil 0 ii!fld th~ ~~p A is m.i'!X11il~y. 1I'he direct mup'lings

Fi,. ,j!:. C:om,piilriSOI"l ~f e);"P'flMrnef!1tiil~lIldt~eClfflJ. '!coll~, l,1~II!!Il:!rQJ K @s a fl!!Wltli~n 00 thll' :J~p.;jfg~iQf! lbel.Mi\E1enc:a!i'!);:ia~l.y alignedls:ourc:e an ill d!evke 'CiO"i~5
O:iIlle \1l1i'rete:g,~ pmI'i'.e:r lrraln8rie:r ~i!S:~lnibo£1).

RESEARCH ARTICLES
lighl. bulb adds OlS'!Il.dl: !1Cj!(:i.i\'c CQlIlpoJ1CJn W' r\1,I. \,'hictri i ~mHl'I!I;n~~~. s for by :ii!iyh~IC'I' 1'C'~~m~ h'l.g t!!~ ~'OiU \1I,/'r,;:p1fll;'a",U!'\';n!1~ w~lk 'Ci'i,!f<11ctI.id! by ~.dj~j~til\g~h~pow~r ~~I~1l ~I~i.()ilh~ 'Col'rvlb" Q;ilt'i Iblor UI1,ii~ the .Iigll.'I.lJJulb ai dl(: Iml.d ~ow~ !U! i'ts 1l.~1~1l,00TI!ilma! b:righlll~. \'k (~'t;!lTnil!l.lnhc ~nkicnc)' of lh~ 1r.i!~ler
!a]king
~]"~tiC

001 "ill.'1;I'iI]~e ~OUi!i1C coi~ and mh~

load by iU\:fL5lltilltglhc rum::"'I'Q~. 1.lIi~ ~nid;poinl. of ~I eaeh of lite sel r.!t\'surrar~n'~ ooih. wil.h 3, Cli.rretli. probe IW~lkh cloc~ Iml lo.wC', (~IC' '0' or lilt: coil!> ~Q~j:ccably). Tillis C;1\'\i!SI1In~e.1I~uremcnt ofll:i,c OOilfi,-'''HIlli'I'anmcl~ Isru~~(] tD used i~l thce. our on:lical .nooel" Wot::'thCH cOlnru~elhe 1;x:I\'VCr dissipmcd in each ooi~ nUllil P8'J1:I - rL is;pl:!, and tlih!'!Ja~n 'eflidenc}, froln 'l = PwIW~ • ~hc Pb ~ Pw). T!:I~.m$.!JI!,c lh~ cxpi.1rim~!lw! [h,I' ,~I,)Wp ~:~ w~H (k~~r~bt.'tl. bl' 't.\'!I'O-objcct COllr'1r.'d moolOl [h~m')' modeL W!J po:;itima ~I~c:de"~'icc. ooUI ~w;li1 li~m ~~ di~~c( COIJI)Iing 'W~h~

lcr at th;n distance and ~;hclew ~nkiency of the ("!;I~Pl~ts scillamr; o CO'!1I:dtl!dii!!g I~em~~ks, H~1i ~s(,".I1~i~1 th~ ;]m~ c~liL~ P<~QJI~m~~1I1QL;': ~or 1'Iin~ ~w~r [!'.lllS!i:.'(· ~p be 1l111C,iefll {I"i}, \\{; lind ¢Xp(-ri~rr~illily ilIflt lite rO~"'1;-:Ft~nsl~l~ucd W tiho h1.d dtIlJll!5 sll,~Ib' as C:itllCf O~IC (If !hi;; (:oilR i:::: ,o.(ilUROO [n;l!!li ~11i!'t[;C. FO:I' ,I Iku::[imi~~kl~u~ij~lg 4/lJ'O ~ ~l (i:;:'V lijllie< ~Ii~
ill\'~

J\rJ2tdt'd {J,lhcinnclutcd

or

~;),lIit we c.u.;t~~ill;ldl~ m"",~ nnml v"~~1.'Cl' (l!nhc l~c!d5lQ ·~gl'lMi'O = 1.4 kVlm. f l-lRMS, = ~ j! !T!. S'RMS = IQ.i\v km,2, Th~ rowc;:rr..ldi:rtt~ for d~~pn,,~nl1~~ i.~ ~ W. '!.\ihicb is ~otlgh:lly 31:1 {]OOi,.Tof lifilljgnl~HltID hi~K'T !han eel I :pl'lOlI~ ~~l dlC j:liJJrliOld"f ,f,l.!;.'(lH!cliy lh<l1 ~ :;4!;!di~ ,h~' (I"'(;rwl:il"in~ijinl.,g oo.!1Er~b~lxi(jn(by ..~ , one W r.~'\iO on'd~~ C!f !1iI:iI~I~ijrulld,c)to Ihc ~t~itnc:

~~~f:;[I;C ofdli: device

I

"!~

c~liitiTiliii

Iliie (f\;¥i~

,I

COIJgJ<L).r l,~~~,':Ut!'K~~"''d, 110 dli1lCo~ri'l.~ o."~i].~.uiDrig.;.

hs 0.I~'1;l :-<)I~Wllill thc't're,il'3.1 pm.'(iil~ ifltl for !11uximi:llli'n ('I1ITir,icilmji.gh'cl'iJ~y Eq. 1. We; were :lble to Ilum.fcr s.cvcrnJI~L'nls of W~~l~ wil~llhe use of this SCI.Llp,. I1JII~! liglll.hl£, up I) 'W-W liSh~ bulb rmm dk;_;tmu:cs,IHO!'e!:hIUl 2. mnw<liji
~1tI!.

Th(' "'''iX'rimii1i:M~!>u
\-'\Ii~~llh~

ooil i~ iiJdil>ll~l.!!l.ui~~urib~c neise. IMI:1~ A clemil.ro and ,qLlJjntilaJti\lc mmljisi~ ,of the i!:1T~cl or CX~eli'll~.I o[)jOC1."> on our se&iC1n'IC i~00)lcild 'the ~{i~ 'Oflhis \\~Qrlt.bUI,wesete here th,lJt Ihe '~~{}WCil' trnu:l:fcr is ~ilClt \'i$l~lIy a'ffilCc~oo as hll.!D1.nm!5 :O!:lrld \'nriOlJs c\'cl)'iday objttl:ii. t;~t'Ch as I1wmlt.1.wood. "wad d~ool1ic ,Q.A.'l!.' ices Im~c ;md NI:!l:!.1ll w;c ,rl,~1t'Cd l1il:'t\~~~~!h~~\"'(Ji (:oil50 even in C'II>{;'::S. WJ1(;fe !lu.;y ~ompk~!(:ly {Iob~ll1uel I]II:~ ~~ni;l f silllh[ 'bctwC'~\Usousee and device (f~g. o s, 33 10 S5t b[crm'!~ ,m:lj('Il'~slig~v!i.:" n~lIijot'"b!c c:~TII;;,(;:lQI~~Y \vhi.:'11 l.I~iI;.!~' are w~lhil] :<I R~\\'0(;11·· UI'UDC'U,crsrl'f:ll1il i;inJ~lL\! Oll(): II r dt~ eon b. SO:[Jl~

nefir-fu¢M. Mid h(.~Ij{1c IQlhei'k~1f-11d(~.P«y.liltin'ig \!ee~or; eerucs Imun Ihe ,t::Icc'~r.icJ i,p{}lc i1iiOm~.ill; of I.he coils .. ~:f iill:.I.c,ld ene USCS~ eaflll!C'iti:vcly Io.adcd :=;;iII1~h~"~um ~Cielfl des ig,n 16)- which has Iheoo\i~IlIll.~e of C\on.:tinin~ nearly 8.111 the dccu'ic l'icki ins:ide the ldl}<lc.~I.o1' :lI1dmilm.'S Ihe sy:;tcm to 01"1ii::'rntc OIl ku'vcr rreg;ucneie:ol. our C3]!r:;~!~~om~ •• shew {l7) lhm i~~hmdd be 11Gii<sible to rodu:cc 'Ml~\!<QIUI~~evu~d 1lbO'l'erO!I ~h('l d()(;!Jri,t; Md 11I~;lgn'tC'LicIkld:;:. Ill!.!' POyl~,.i.llg \rQewr,

or

Pug:. 'I, [Ilong

,(figs, S3i !lIld 54). A~;~ cm~::1~hcck. \\'C':d~o 1'I1C>l."llurcd~hc~o!~!I ~~[lII'.vl.".· ,gQi~\grn'ml~hl;;' "nlU ~l!O\w.'1."owh.a iJl~!hc driving C'.fu:cu~tThe C]lic'.i;CIlC)' or Illcwirc!i::ss ~1;m~lTcD'i~clf is IUII'd 'W ~~irn1l!ie IHuhis w,~y. ]!O~\fC"liC'il." as ~1'lC' errtc!'C111C}1 or d'lC ('Q!pg~~ escillbwr i"",!:~II' ~ nOl PI'tt;i'l)clV Io:.J](n:v~,"!t!!o1!!ilh il is ~xp¢cl(\d kl .~ Ibr rrn'ln,ll f.If.1o/i1,~ Lf~l, I.!rII"hi';' S

~hfQlh"J;d.'il ~1)!.1(;i bygcn~r.d ~"il!Jcl.y.regt!!aljo'Jil'ii r:~>d 11;.!il,.~11~~i Ml,(CW Slm!,ufuds for g{,lj~~rE~ ~lll!bl:t{: !lEE l>;>;~t."U~ (it'll)]. A~[h!llln!!lh [h~ two ttlil~ fL~eur:n;:lil~Yofid'cli:mfll{'ri~.Is ~s;u'C'h 1l1'Ul!ilillwlIlil fo,il. Styrofollu'Il, as 11m:! hum>l.lls~, :~nfi.~dy shin [he resonam [re- lieal,dumen""kms. il.:i1;;possible; 10 liI.lal,;)C ill!/: oc"vice jlJ!i:t mil Slim'll~ 'C'i1Iml@h 10 Jill. il1mponablc devices qillcney,. '\Mhrk:h 'C8Il in pr:ill1ciple be c'~sily correeled with a fCiOObUiCk ,cjlrotlit~ al~'aci' mfl.l.cria~:ii, wit~lout di..'CilC.'liiOhlg the' c~1.c:ici1cy. One ro!lil~I:d.for {c.lurlbo.aru. wooiJi. nnd polyvinyl chbrnlc) ~owr:r itlS'lmlCe'. maintain the 11UOo{hJCI. of th.e elnmcfcnslic s~~~ of the' SOlllJ'C'Cm~[j devlec (;oil~ OOHQ when pk-ICed doscr '~iI:Jn<I IC\\' oC'mh1i1CI~rS rm:~Il~h,.;: coil. tli!~rWY.IHW~\ring Ihe cnk;i~~C')'{Df f'tmll, as l!r:gIDCldin (6). '\M~~1cll~,)i\'C'!!1'lnill!.:C'fb~~m:y of [~i:' ~hem~ [he Imnl sfur.
\WJIICJ!lI,mJlISfemng. (i(l\1I.fOC1'OSS

aad the. !'KJ,wcr rnd:f<ni:.ld

~{I

[1~,li~ ti~c:y ral ~ 001'0\\1

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aadihc power trrr!mfc.1" lstanccs could be app!\,.... d
d:nblyimIlOOrl<'Cii by Vl!r-Illill] ill1g Illic taiL. s , wlmiidt :¥houJIdl illlCJIC[I.~C their 0'. O:L~Y w('IJ'ikjng \""i~!more d<i!oot,ucgc~rnoj.'1r!~fQdh(': J\;.·"fln!iln~ objoc~ VV). bX\'lI1~I~'t{;l'(;~,1&~C't](;'l1h:rlllill'lC¢ dlln;,LCtcrn:iiiALi(N ol'lhc ~..s;~L1t~pr~C'nll(,-d liei!C.rue .(~Ir(,;}(Jy n~levcls W~lL:re Ilil:,y couM be: Ui>(:!'LI~il~ Pl1lClit3~, f!p,plk'miorK
1~~,f(![l1i!11lJ~1!'5<!!lldNDtll'.5 lL N, i1M~.\, jlIiII!U'II 1.l:1I:9, 3'2' U914i~, 7 'l. ~.Il!;f;e~nd~ ]'-f.l B~S. U5. palen! ,~;W4i65:1.aOOilJl 3. A. i1S~r. H,,·C 5!k~d'tIity, m:E ,1'.i'tms. {nil. Apftl. ;Z:l', :Bl~

rnl~o or power c"lrnc~lid 1.0 POWoClt IGiil[!..~~~1glh!\' d ri,' ing oi rcuiu. gj \IL:£ tl r,{'IiW(~r ound em I.he cl:' b
~TIdency.Wh£n liill~tI>~em~ 60 Vi.' m Ihef,oad

o"er ~ dil>tltrll.:.'C'or:! !'Ib, For C;<3IliIlli:c'.lhe l)Ower 11nw.ilnl,g irinG thc driving ciOCllil. is 400 W'" TIllis )1 ield~~1ii owmll w::lli-mt}..IDacl cflkocncy 01" 15%" which i~,easmmble sJl:eIJ.lh.c C')j,I:ncclcdeflkl:el~r \ry .:tOm 5tf.1m IQJ:'lh£ wirelcs.." pO'\lI'Cf mms ..

ut ~lC point imlfwny between tile coiils;,the root 1'!~C'<l!'fl square (RMS) ~nmgfJjtu.dcof ~ht' ~1t'C[ric:nddl is E:f)lMS = 11 (I V/unl,IJ1<lt oHhc 1[Jl;j!!;!'M)t~ IIl,)'ld i~ Ri,,",,1s = .~ l:i Allin, ilmtd lim, oHlire P,oynliltg vcclor ics .:~i~Ml!> = 3_2Iml\;ll k.lnl (f6J TIK'SC Vll~ueJ1lirilerrnl!\c df:lllcr to Ihe coiL~.whcrc tire Ikkls m. S!UI['QC 3M device arc coillprurrable. For C'X."U11pk. 3~ dislanccs 2.'0 em a\:oroy [roD]l the cll]atcl]ml

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~. ].. H~~oli> 1.4'1. i(jm" A. ~.a!lT!!I!r!1i,I[£f liQnj, ~f a~ri~ 15',. 21 (.2Jl1OO~ •. 5. 11'. A. v;}~dt.,j',i2Ita,l. &, Stmm;.~. Ji:" :5hll\loor. U,S,. jlIi!ilil'nl 1,{I~ 7,;J:]rl. eOO6l, 6. A. 'Ka,rilll!, ,~.Il. lIZl!MfI,PIlllJIQ~ m ';;oI~lil~, liM. Mj4 • A b)o ",i!!fiilmg~. ~ m~'illhi~~tlfl~ ~i~·Q'f!h~'drn~ Una/I p.;.Flio1jlali! i~ Uil~ ~ooet iii'ander ~i'i! ml~~~f Ui~j] l1i!eo irnllce !:!!e~we.en d d~~ tJy <! I~br d' ,jl lie:nt 2:~ 3, Fc~ ~rn;p1?,if '~~~ !I'~"n'Q~ l!J~i~gl ~~~, ~ 011 !~~~~ (Sil~ -~ ar:i~ aM ~m!~!I ~m\:.@ {si~~ -.!iO un" i~~iI Ih~ 5arn~ rwm, j!~, liJe Iapl~I'., .~~ dirutf1H: (If '!'OWBf Ir~!is&:~ ~,~ ~ ~niir:! !i Iroom til· ~ "~iil)' ~~'fi!iQ!iJ jjiIe om ~m~ordl!<~ of <li I!l\! 1ifi~i!Fs}. e. V. /'Wi! t1f fJ/" !V{j'l@ll' l!~:3J, 6,,1 (;a006)., 9. tL O'KfIi~ G, 56h!!illleo. H. GUl!rdrni1f,iIiI If(OfiI'Ql 2911i Atlmr61 r:~{!fJ.r(! oj th~ lil
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IFi~. ~,. (ClIliIP',a ri:~r'i ~~''e!'X!l(! rim~llital ,iftl'ld~hl!" orrelii(a~. 11!:rri!c:~el'lri.e.~as JiUm::it10!n!i of tn,!! \li;i 1lEl1E.311

"O'I!I~r tr a!il~r'~rdis.tan;(j~. ne ~naded ,a.~ea~eiPIr~sefilts ~h~ th@~r'Elti(alJJ!redjlni~nr(lf ffiI'i'J.:dmrl!!ir'! en'idt!'Ii!.q~ :!I1!ld ~s ®~taiimu~d by ]liIserlirngthe' thelFiig. 3. Colllilptliris.om off eJ:gJeriirn@mta~o1llHdmlheoret~ i~~l V!llWes.!or the P{I ra iifle~~r dr .o::!~ ~ il.! ncti@!l (If o~~tkall va~~srroml rf[g.,.3int(l Eq,. 2~ with rwlf'ill "" T b~(k 5t!!uar:e:s tnf 1fJI~," .are' the 'wh~li.ess IPI!)\'Iluttarnf,tlr dislo'lnw. 'irWle t~e(IIJ ~1Il (1(~II~]I~' va~LJe1'1i! re ,dbt.:rIDll.m by u!lling theli;r,e[lJe1.iir.:rl .. and a ]l'IlIllllln 'ff~ficlen.fY' ootained fr:om~:q. :2 <lind t'h!:1 e!;.;p@fim~'liIt~l,v~lllI!e.~ orr ~jrhQ!ir'! Flig •. 3:, TI:i.~ ~d ~!1~'~jJ~jiq~,~rU:~Uv ~w[e~ m Th~ s~,ad!l'd @IW dD~ preSililfll: thil dffirl!cHy liIi;~i1I5li red I!ffidie1'1 II: y, a's rep'I'~!!'IiIt5th~ sp'I'~i'l;clin,~~ ~e-on!ti~a~ ~r du~ ~ d~KIiiIIb@d in ·Iih~t9-xt '[he5!l'1o nm(il!Tl.Clin~y ilili ,Q'.

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I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
lA, We ~~pefime'l'It~dwilh
75 VI"
Vol!riDU5 IpIiIIiiIlr Ir.llij~1iI5

~ltIm Sla' llim York,

El'fll1roI'1WO.~f'Ji' Fi~
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:I r.!dfilti\11!!

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M_ (irWi'lQlil iii IidIIL IGeUnQ\1ic. fl;lr~e-!llIIi~l :S4Jl\'P1lfIied Ill! I~Sf "ldl:trlom ~~~ Scienct ~ffld ~!ll'l~mg (I!fire~gU!m'liJ.W! o.z,·U:2i!1:2'. ntis" I~PillilJ'I~!Ili:,Ii [.Dler,!iI'J '!lr.Jm'I!.'I:!i·HiO'Nl?l~517~, a~~ .~ ~e'iOn~~ <I~iml!lre. ~

lIl1, ttfE SId 0l5.1~200:S: IUt 5!mdlkll Jot 5rlfi'if ,~lliiffs ~l'itl'll I'ef;p~l tD #t!'rlm.an ,iF~Q.lurf till' RQdhJrrifjllfncr f

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lO.n2:&s;:i~m~l!. U!ll2:)~,

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'll1diJdl!thli fl1;i~~~ool cl'fh~m c.'~lng lhl'5 ~p~r.

S:lei81 Anemone Ge!nolll'l' R,ev,e'81Is AnC'B':s,lral ElUlmelaz'O'Bln Giens IR,e'p'B,rtoilre and Genoml1c: Olrg,llni'z:atii:,o,n
Ni!c!h(l'l<lli~ H., 'PiL!l~n,arn,,1 ,Mams1 Slilll!'a1>til'!;!'a:,,~ UiIUe "IlUfi!t~m~l IB:iII~. ID1Irrks,,~ JlllnClJ~ CllilaJpmaln,,:i!! .A~lIf s,a la ml~'. ill A~tlrid Trenry,,]1 iHarris,SliIIalIl]ro, 1. E riil!Oi Ul1I:d!!1lllllli:fit,I·lJi!a.dlimlw V,, KBipHoll'ltlv,~ l llillu:y ]1L!llrrl~iI, 'iSlrngory IGellillkjhowch~ ~ ~~!liIOr!J • Grigorie'll', 1. S'UISillllI,M., l~llIICilS.,1. Robert, E., SteleLe,!Ii ~I ' ~(I1l11 It Fillllm:er~,y.,6Ullrkhi iI"e(hnilul.~' M<lI~k 0 •. MitI!ITUmdillie.7' (l!,anie:l :$, RQI~hsjJlI'1.2'i a re !iiE"~n1!inl!!Jty r~'mitive a liI'iDml~SUila'~ a'lQ,ng ~'II.'ilh cmElIs" ,~lelt!fri~liI, and lilydr .. s, ~ nlEil~tjlutellhe oMe:st. 111me t.allC<!lI'll plillyllllm, tile f:Ei1 ida rri:a. llie~e, WE' re'pmt a !CiOl!IiIpar<!Livi!ariliil~ysi;5 !)Ir III tilE! drilrit: g;el1ol'lle ,tlf a iii emler!jling [nlldia r~\an 'l!IiI'Cldlei. thE!~1ii!lrLl1lt ssa a rn,I,N'n'OrlE! Ne:matmte:iia vedel"l!lls. irnhe:sea' ~nellll.Ol1e '~!I!(;lom!! is 'COIllIl~X, Wirth al~iIllile repeRol'r'e, ll'l!ioril·i~tr'oll stflUdJuu!" iiU1!lJ ~tlJ9'~.SiL~ll@ '~IF!ne' ~i nka~le more' si nil1llilrtCl v@rt@b r.1!l@S ~lMirl to flijll~ or 1iI@;m,~edes: •. im;pllyin9 thflt~h!! Ig,enmne olr 'HIe: ,elllm'e<tIR\(},UI <lfliCi9'fitor was ~imHi3ir~ymrnptl':l: •. Ne a r~.yo:ne'-rmh cd Ullein~err'!3I~. 'Si'Ellnes '(!II till,e .al1ce~m ,iilIT!!elJllililml)O<ln nove~ties,~'\Ihidli1lrle emi:(hea ~or a.mim.al flJiutijom like ,oeUl s:i'llI:J'<'l~il!!'~,<lidlh.e's.i'OIl,illld syn:1! ptk t r<llill~mi~s;i~:n, .An'iI[ysil5 Oir diV\e:(~e pa'l.hwtlY!islllgg;efi1~s thOlil t.i1es@ '9'~1'le- "iIl!WlilllIlI'JJS"' ;j!WI'IQI till! lil'l@t!ge ~@adlil'l91~e t!lfIima~ WI![[!! lik!!l:Ly a.lro1l!d)" W@n~rlt@9ro1!l:ed with Pf@~:dS'l~!flg Se.aanem!1mes

.Amhoooof1l eittdlmi11E1~ the slalict M,"i) b: lin ,e~lle~ ili'lg ~nOOc:~ :I)'s'1elll1 (12. IJlJ'his ,csHlIari~eblilarowitl~ ru]CL1lOlll: i... Rl'lmd o~lllle Atlmuic andP,LCUic OO.21Sl~~n.r N04lh Am.i.~e::l!.as \\cI:lllli:> t]DC (Oa1>t or !>oLlthC<lS~. En!\,:lmll:! j 14). .'V{~1UJtv .. 'i.tI.!,N{j c:t.I~l;ures are t'3sHy ml1.i~11iIJi.h~cd ill the IIlllIDmILOJ:'1; wilh ~parnlc'~e."c.", :ill1d!iJcibl!]e s!'ID\'\'1IliII~ and cx]em>ll ~cr~mzutiOJl 0'2. 15l !.!!l1!lbryo!\: are .w:II!ub.lblc
AiYilml!j, ru]C'tl\CII'~ N{>;r1l~I{j,'l:ltdftj l'e,~'lel,I:,i8 l.hnll~gjqOlVt. Ul~ ~a!r~

A~lhClll!!lh

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it.:!.1~ ;lfi. ~ill:l1!ph;! m f,lr.Uat]lll~"'Iil.ciClWT SlWldy of N~!IJmf{}'_"iU!!lu m~.d ijli; rcj1rul,h'es has OO\rtl':lI]cdl

eonslderable

Iilmk."Cu~fur (16-! 9~ and :i'ilCi'.rp!1i1-

l,ogica:l: complc-xnll.y

03). Ba!loo 0," ~1(prcssed

~""iIIU':ItCl~ l~lg (EST) :wnll~.)'.i>~:$ 7. '~J

targeted SUI!:!)' spceifie !ilC:IlC fluni];cs [reviewed in lB., M·, 10'-22~']. signflU!l!(l pmh. \W,ys :ilf1d lran1>Criptio:n. facDO"r£ i~l\Iolvmin .he Ci.'tr~y pmtcrll:[ng .llmd dc:vclopnH.:nt of bilruclliJ11lS

or

Un a:!1r;1 the

I]ot!lh~y. !(?nc:s I.hm. (:::iit!lh~Jl\h Ih~ln~.in body COlliJP1lriiOon~ ~X($, .un billmiC'I]~1Il cmtlIY()_~ 31(; 1II1s:oC'Xl).I:e.'lii(ld; il] N.(~I!a~h~reJla ciliC...clo~I1~I!J:IIlI. WOmiS, smfli~s" IIml~li]nall:'j, cntdru:1:iins, !(fII:1Cruli.{4-6 j ibc'l:i).,loon .~nlit Uly, :rl~i1"ul(i!dc, fInd '\((~I1IJ;bJJU~C rrl:;,yI1JU'biICIr:lCfIUy .;,!!!\' (.10n \le.~f&ol!i!a.~ty o.n~jd~yrnh, fttldilydrn), ::mdl Clmop:hoJ'cs ~ool'liib gclton~e.~ rcVCfl~ g,rei1l:lt'r!JJo!11.0Illltc, ~Om,lJIe,;.;:.ily ~n ('v en Ihoug]1 (;nh~m']~I!!'~ 'Ii~w~ ,(k'irnoIOJlI ~!tullr:lIEl!b Ifor a cri[;t;~1 diNjellies), O. i1Dis Clm'IiCtfillX'li~Jl fmOCSliOr the vmehmlcs 18m~ other clCliIlerosramcs (7.8l'.1 perlrl1~pfi 100 lll1~'illimliJ'i.-ari'i Allhr}ug.~1 il. ~!\, no~ u:-;,~ni;]'l:;lI]:t:l'~ hy gene COlrU~TU and &;Irm:::tun:" 'but ;)II C·Us.si('Hl, IS(II.:' (91), ,~Lgn<. l1h::re. \!',rc r:t<11011. '~hc: clmlt gt:m~.,ne ,gf IhG prc."K"l'\lt:dirrllh~ Ib~~~ n~oro 0). "VI': call ~~'lll::r d1.¢ same lime show 111m I'I1IflIltY f,r.,.;:I'IG'i and aet!llfl:fly of lts ChrHf~Clcn:>laGs-l1iagcll~u(.-..d sperm, de- \!o~ort;s, are s,h~ ;:il;:IU..'\S,bli,~m~r.i~lI1£>" :Prohing ~111;': ~!ulirIDt SC,8 anelnOJ't{; Datil !LIsehsgenc rqll!elitoire ruD.clgeino:m;c JQl;gan~zmiOili 10 l\,'I.)OJ,lSlru~~rcalUl'CS \'clOplnetalll~roJ:l!'IJhiill'!rm)c.$s ol·gfL.~ru~illjml. mll~.~ ilI~oesua] Ctll me~fl!:ro~jl g(mcm,1C I\X1liiirtl:s scql~llC(;S ",rille IUl.Oc.'>lrn]1 et~m.ct~iromn gCillml~c. AI'I.,'lJ.lysis I ip1c ,gcnlfD la~feil'S,!rnC ~'hhcHa l,yiJl,g !Ii1IJoOIl HI l'ro!~nC\l'cn dC'(ID branches of theml11hl1il~ Ircc. of tile IV.rtmmaifj.t(-,UrlgCltmm: lll: Lihc ,00]11.l::.1, of .... (l(m.par:ing bihllerian and nmlbHa~criffilr,hy.lill, ba;~IVilCHI nnl~liW1:C. a lined gill (CI'ItCI'OI~).~ Ilall"O-Im!~ll~arsys~cnl.~,mJ~lip,l1:: $e,U!:ilory sy:il~~m:>. ~uCOnlJ~3ri~ml ith bi!il!t~J·i;]~s.cnki;w13l1s <lJ)- ~'WillCCS w :~:ro~u otl~cr C!.d,lU)'UI!.""i> :~'VC:1r.sDh!!.: g.c-n.. body<!!.",cs bct~nll~cthf;.~' i;:Ql!Iscn"CdtC1.~ ~)e;]rl.nOl'ijlh(lJII,gjC1llJ I), .s! mp:tc. n,e: Illlyimn is de" nOJ.l~'c'QUl1I}l'l.';\i~y '01't~lt... IOJ.S! oo-nUIIDII cnidL1!_lian~ ,;,ed ~'LI!\''''' l'Ctain~ by i~!\:IU{lticrn d~!'!'d,lnl$, :JI'C ihwd (J) by ~ "'lC~likc ~oOy pl"ll wi~h,~ <"i!ngle fuJU~'l~e1.~'lnU\'CCb1ar, The ~·me!Wn.\!lpkt\Ut\:' [1iI'.Y!ll ! !hCgC!lO!'!IlI: ,Iud EST $1J,!d;~~ U , N;}i~ {l!!~ of Si,HQilli.i!.'Iy, WC~a!l Clh~:ral;:l(d(iL;l gonlm~(,l thi; Gr.~ Q1'X;'!l,lUl]l., tWQ cpid:tCI.!"'!is~u~ huy~!)'i. ~hr;V!1.'-'S· 11'Ii1'ih,mg~.x:I.inCI. ('\I;II1~'~!~bwMprug(,\nilor f;."<mu- Iill:u,;~'of I1\nni::'Ul~U~'tl,"I~I!~t~~. ~, n!;;n'~ nf.)'1. '1Itd ~h.., "'''illl;ll ...iv~ (:o'I:';~"I'v,L!im in g,I;IllOl'CO'QI.(,~l!. NlI'I"IC'I~I"'. b)1 ~1i'11'i:l]g :~~lo<d(~m DNA rundptQl'i.:; Ul ~Lli(!nJ[\L';,I; and ChiUHL{:!lllTj~1 ir; M:illgi~lg cdl1-i (t~rIidQo:_;yl~s" 1.~OC'l:a~~.y m~~ Qr:[!;!!1iii!';<tlj~1ll bf;.'tWi;lcn Nmlatp'<t(t.1I'a and! ,\,Ier= trn!1~I<LtOO....,· "nr,;'lll\;l o~n::r")~~~t~h'~ ll'l'!)'phJ'~~lm ii$ 1id;I~~",. \1J,'l;:- slrow ~~t 'L.':\'l;!!l Ch1l'QJIIDf:Qm'C"f,I;:"~~ mrrn~ 'l S I.,~ 0). 'fhc r;:I[L"1l1 .AI~~O:JJOO ("n(¥'i~'!;.'f !!nloi;~~ h~ ~~'A;.'!:I~\.-"~l.~-d 1~~w«:1IlNfi!IJ~'Q~!A. [lIlJd"'~~irnb~N_ llI~~~ <HIli; ~I,:a.;a~los~ ;!nci(ll~t ¢Qat"ni~~.laL~·)ill~Il!~~ ~blllel~~rlq;;.~mL'ii, ·dJiVo¢~'; ~],~ 10e~melll; d f)n~ Joint GEJlcme Iliili5lj[I!I'~, Wal!mJi! CIlI!Ii:, t>CI"l~~d lillkllo,g,;:.... nllW!:l o~l ...[d!.l of probryotir: k (ti, 94$!99, U~A.. l'Coomr fll:!1 n~.f!4jrfi,1i1o'f! ~IIIlH~IliC$ OInd St.~ pctLo;.'llI of \\'hid~ kcck 31~:I~(.1.~&\ :.lfIWo,;. TIle .[)epaw.ment0'1 ~r aR<J1 l~ BI_" Q IiJn~!'Sit)i' Qf O~Ol.1j:'" :~II,oo:rlirns~bh~' fruil, I:ly {lnd [fu'tl'l[li{}d~ oi.llk'l" t~tIi1dflf.~m:l d~ l1L1XliUliitoo .by i:ltdrpek~lc (<i0!mnii!, l:ileIl~f;\t('j', GI 9\117200.tUl$.il ~'6eI!l£!~( IlIformamn ~11~1lI[,;~ anti chalITl:ct>C'f.islknlly linear mi:toc!m:11· mlJodcl sySi,",i~~S ]llru\,(! c;;.;pei.1Cn{;c-dcxtelilsu~:,;: gem: I~h In5Oli~!lJI.e: 1~5 L<iOO5ngllOI)rLW', Mmnta&n Vii~, GI dl"i .. il. gc;rol'l1le.'> {9) illtn illle!\';~a!t:I:iorni:1. iu~dlltlillg 1,00;Ub'~ introll. Ilo.~ l3r}~<Uldg,(.'IDOJ'fI.e l:'i.'!<Iil:t'illtgc.9'404 3, U5.l\"~5aTS 1:1I1~.em&iOM~IG~~~i1!''rat ~!lie MooEl!!!Ilar room OJ gellmnic ~~tive. I,he flor~fJII .am'luc:l'alfdhydmkls, jc~l~nsh, :aad lKX.,\; m-ellt 1B.1Q~, U~ll ~J ~~geo, lh~~'I~~~nsgt S~. 500~ B:l!r9lln!. IN61'1't~ •. ,D~pildJ'I!flIII~ d l!i1lm1mgical COOInI¥-'IIil! 0100 jd~~" The diSJ:l!m;ml.cbi~:IlCl'.iillIl pl1Jyl>l ol·dlc auiJy ~lIIl1i1.cla;ro~m al]Ollslor IMfC' ch).~~y ~t11b!Jed ~he IDe1!eI~n:tal IB-lology ~~f; Uf)I'I\ef~.o1 ULifcrnla, l'I1iooem vcrtcbl,,)I,es <lI1d &.'01 aJlC'l!101l~ Cll!l1b~11l1.n ~L~, :! PP!C~'I1Ih~i<.1I1 c:Jhjeigl;.'fJ~e 0:1:' Ill'!iine, (1\. 9~6'?, ~5il ~~l1llnem cf EIl!iIo-g\i', IB:os~n ~h~ cnid.1ri';;Ullir!~ t'mllillhc 1b~lml..eri.m ~~n. mid Uliii'llEf!iity, BoilOO, MA. 02:11:1.5. U~ ~II1eW.il'lO MilfllIl!i! liIb(f;3.· N'i!!'~ta.''Ost,l'lJo 'Ge,noIIIIU!.A:S'!)!eml)~.y .i1Ii1:dl 6e'n!e :Sell ifl'tll;)l;'XiI !1.i;I!liC' ofliliG old~l uuim"d bond}' ;I,~d ~1· t>O!iY. Ui1li~~1ty'01HiM'.al~, ~~~!o!t!ll" iii 968:»,. lu£il. liIlC ,arnj,( so'lu:ente of Ihe Nt:W/a/{jSfd/tl ~)~wloml! bl)'(} rO:i'SiL" ;l~ 1~~.1llll$ihl:r rulies of~ln C-lIk~lri,m!\ '"To whDr:n OO~II'~~pOflden~e .~dI lilt ilddir'E~. :E:'ITIai~ ~,~'<lSI)md~ccd with Ihe l!ilC rnn:dg~l Silot£,lUlo dncl;'!ls,u@IJJLg"", Lro\·ie~"!:.'tI in I~W.nIl. .
m~mmllls, .:Inc; ,d~O~!ld~dliJ~m t~~~._ ;b"l ~ .ao:rmR1l:'ln fIllOCSfr:JiJ (]If b~ lomemllls (llh~
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~i\~ing IU~l.Iu!:'ilmci.C' .'L!1ilnr~,II~,'orl;;W1~

rC'3!~aK';!iilhii" have

are prcscm in clliciliuillU SCltOllllCSand are 1l!Clive in dcvelopmcrs (H. 2J~2~). hldlicmi.Dlg lll1ll these 1)~"lj}W~:!i. .rnKi rc,gullmOf}! mcd~,11Iisms prcrhlitc Ihe' CllJ:!'tCi'lazt'l~1lI md~minH.Perl1ap __:r'1O(51 ~

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
~rolc.iIH;;,oding trnnj;cripl\\ in dlC genome (J.n ern genes 'in oo~h c.llidari~nfi. ~mJ b~l;jn~rilJn~. Mcnr.: ~~112,OOO ef thcl'!.c- ;I!Ie rQ~I!1tl In rol~u.""t U~~ !bmil ~ m;\:mmt IhlT,i!! l5ilJb,.t'Hl{~;I1 rooi~n Cl[llm~l~..olln ]_l)Jw'; r"m~'~i~ ..n~11 iJ11-.;r-;fi)fl? Qr ~1~lO h~!1fi!oo.~I"H ,~r~g!~",Ii'l:\~ '~"l5l~i~.~~k:'d \lI~ ~"""~r,I! .fih.Q;t,w.i!~)!!l):rori~ £if ". ~~w; or insert ! ll~t s,lI~po:rr1li,lclI 11:;< orti:h~I~gs ,(I~'~n(l~il) odw:r ;~,~i.l.1I11b1:!'i. nc.a[~uwo-'Ihi~ s of h~Ili!!lI~~It'l,;'S (B.~)O) ,~~ c.iZl,.';S; d¢!'ivc:d rr(lujl~!~il~~ . n~i:i~~~;P1lir",ifh '3~ -01..&% ."Udic ',1nriiltiu,L IFoi' ~ {lc;'~Lil~d di:;;t"I!!~~ WhlJn.. -12.000 of :H.np«--diC:~~!l.l~n.t':;i hm,~ IJ ~l·iiitlC'md,,",.d&on~ i.h~~~p:r(JgCl1Jii.'cirs I.hrl;mg~ s~bsien ofrolrnl('1!]lhi~~TIl,. see :SlJ!pp{ll1i.n~ online ~q~!~nt ,g.~Il~ Ih!'ni~}~~1ilpi1mliO!~ !!loltS ~:!Ohl~ :;;ig~iHC'Ol!!:I~. "]'i~n!r!li:lil [Bluk: locall Aligmnent S~~li;:h TQa~ (BtAS1') ~ .... Wic <: ! 0-1 oJ kl·lkllQwn d ~l.,u~cri,d(SOM) t~",[~.32'~'I"'fho lOla~<l:"ilii;:mbly ~l,ln tiuo~goC,!I"d <II. oomJ1amlilkr!lU~lbcr I ~ .~l 2J 9 sw~:s~rto'ifrroJtiJh~.nK! 1&~emfit:!1'C 'lulV!'; orprcdicced J\l~!JJi(tl'(lrldllj' !¥-·n~ @[D~ l'iy ~ltdDS~Il.~ -],57 f,i~ga1_j~8.tl;. (MIi),. wiH~ 1i1M of !.!his j:lttJucin<: i,~ lO'L"qlli~iJittilillSI :>CSJIToJa.., l!cii:i'l~j' I.linljJ -.:j70 J:J1J. SGtilt hOlm}r,ti.~y ~ujJiJOitL aHfllliysts or a r:;;l:iclfitn ik'ifI,dt~lll. divet!>i(ijC-fllliOb1Sflloii,g the' '~iliiduitUill'i MI!ti2i!~hase .i:ip:r.~;.'o il~.dlicm.c II. t1i,~IOiid C'1'in.'HI'IU- snmJll iil~ of g~it~S ~li~~l" ~19~ some (i:r .~~1L~ brunch. bilill .o!~1y7j{l9 , -.5~..f., and 7.261 (~.u:r/ol \\\:ii:C iO'Lii'ld iiilDm'iopl,Ua ml(] Otl'jif}thtlbtJi~l.,: 1I11f1C3r 1A.~,'~ ~IC IWi~nKii!il>, pos:.;ibllep~lI.dt'!. :KlU.C: itLli1llb!:[Ilr2:r.i == 30 (fI!l:l. :82 A" .. Ctlm::~111)'.• gli:l1&:s•. relics, e nrnnspoll:nble ele~~le~lI~~.or !.IlIelic there are no ~)hy:; ic-[il or .&'C,nclk 1'I1111'f.... of dtgtm.~" :r'e'!ipOCli'Vcl1y. G~VC!fItflutt we cmul{j!~ cap' N(.NIJ.tjk.~fMh~. () \\11::: cOlllL:! 1101. n.'\OOI1~tn.l.cllhle variml:ls. !ea~i~~~ S l.o~ di$Qolllllin!l: oflh.l!!ll,Ue ~en!:) IUn': ~nes ~l.n \VCfC peesem in Ihe ClI111'ci1.3Z001'1t gCinrn1l.C as ,dlrcm~o:1ome:>. N~vcl1h~les.~.~Call.L'W COlml~O ~Ui.OOO l32}. Mo:rc~hilill 25% of (he ~"'n~~or bl:nbeoJmc hiSIlI:)' divCI\'Cd or lost in ont l'if~mretlC<]lla'tC~~~ ,d~o~Jj~d1!!rnii~ ur 1\,'" o gCI1!Jltl~ I.~ 'C'Ol1mpo.~. or rc~tirl1i\!e ,eIC'l'l1e111'S ~liLt ilalfof dlCrn.--dic[~>d g.CIlCl\ are im scaIWM~ 0011; 1.<-. niI;Cc:;~rily OlfC ml!!!~:~d i~\iJ!ct~Vf!' lm~!SPO!'.1bile dcnl~m.'{.. 'i~1· OOIl~l!lll!l.:!r;,Id!!l()~Ir..J g~l(; ~<!tni.n.g 4;Q; ,or more gC'nc~ ~hc pre:;;t,.'\Ill clir.<lll asii:-C'L'Ilbly ~s ~I ffil;ii.."lu !yllm.g·r ..n~~o j1ICUll1!Ll I(IImful . cl:udin.g DN A lr.l~:t'i~'H;i!'i~!'I,~ bot~ ItI!~!~~C'mlirl!l1 i!~crl'Unp!¢'!~. b'lJl it !l>cw.:nhck~l' p:rmli:d~'S ,I a nei ",qp~:.il (tTR) ;i1H:l lltm·lTR I\'lfntrnUSrlitl£tl\ll~ <lIXI;J1I>l"f!>i~of !>yIlILJ!!Y 'w ilhoxli;()r N'I(;ci~".S.l1l:L:l · ~~urti~lgjjl'l~n'iu. ·i1!Il1Jhct.m,~lygi". lllr (k'1i~h;: 2.3). 5 ~}'pkal ~cu, i~~ dm~~ g(.>;J10JnC: ".~~n <I con(he Of~hcnM a110l.~~1 ClU'I1'CruzDilI:Il g(!n~ r.'1m~" ~iglLm~s g"ll'·tkl~ Nlro'leh of 1'K r~.)1 2() kb, Olll~ ... h~ ou!)' 72% I~S(,.z6'I! are !1I.I~~~~I!r;,Idin the i'tr.'l,tcgy (3'J}, from
ilp1llm",im<lt~h'

,rl,S"loi<!
from

I

rocl!;~~u!mlip;J!.~L'«!~lU~ ~~1)crll;C

C0'\1~~~

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®<!irll.!!l frdl1i!e'> (k;.u] ""cd ~.Oln ESTh &1;10\\1'$ Lh;)~mh(! ::!5&.~l~My car~UR~i' -95"/~of.lll: "r~uwrliprol,dI~.~ coding t!{im~m (31). A]tllou!jlh !Ippmxiuilt'n'cly Q!lc~~hirdof l11c !>.hoigurl ~Llel~OC'S were 110'1 ~s.'>C1n'b~ed,,!hey,ooul!! typ.ies,lIy 'be dw.'I.lr;!~crizoo as derivc'\.l fmm~:mg , :> 100 kb) mrl!km~K'titiv,e ~l in~ s.1I!tc-l iHrnys suggestive ~itc ofh~l.cl:oclll)(}mm~in.inlp~)I.i.l'Ig ,[I ID':!~w.~IlQ~lC: :;.iz-cof ~450Mh !(32}. We es~iml'ltcd Ihal dilc NemalQfi.lelllj £CiJKl.~HC c'Olll."lins .,.~.i'i,oon bena l"idc pxoldll-cOO~~lg SC11t.'S,
COI!l!pw!mb!c~o l!,~I'lC(Oll!l~tsilll other animals, ("mlilhinin,g hmn'O~ogy·b;H!i.Cd <Jlld.,QJinilio ~n~~i]~ ods wilh ~(;q,lL('1IbC~ fmrn I1!~OI'l".;',1.1rLlrni46JJOI]I ESI:~, wcp.n::dicled -:rfiOOO 'oompla;lc .or pllrliflll

~~n

of

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1Jc.~~ooi~~l W

qp(l.ll!

n,il! Al'lc:estnd,

EUlme'tazoClJI1II (jeme Slet

~lu~.1Xrirlgd!J..: W;'Jlt' COII1pb¥l~'lI. of N!..'flmftJ.,*1~, \ViDh Qlht::r mcltlJ'£1(HI!f;, \'\Ie 2i.t~~I'I1Ptoo~.o I\,~O:!1· SI.iiUCI. '~lu~g!:.uie[',cp[~n(]i.~reofthe C·umnm.atOitlil

B~

OOn1~)!~~~i!!OnK* of ,d~ a.hr-oo !tmjor ~1lOd'i.:rn ~ l'1i1Ilt!{lIfli;l!.~llu~rt!:~IM.1;'S:cnir;J:'al1l;tns!~ i.e, N(,'1J.'/fJ.rm;'~lll(.j)' 'pmt~l'tinnC$li.l':., DJTMlIJf}llilt}riIIJ!(lfo~ C d(;'gj1,n••). ~Ujd(IciU1CfO..~~UI~'i~ (m~lJiri,ngp])('SCIiCC of :lll~'-ISI

(i.e.,clilidnri9J1:l.bilmcrirul.)'m~~b'S[Qr 81t11 U) ~Dl rcr dre !l~iUlS, Itoss.es. altdl du;p!i(;lnh:ms ti"l:[!lt oce~iI'l\:d bmh before ,rund 3 ncr f~u~ eljm~t~i!m rnlIim i(m. To :lPflmx ~~nilltc!hl!'l'!lle l:epc:tli.oiro of dlC' C'U! m(!''''1~rol ru~lX~OJ:;,WCOO~"'>lfl!Cl~<O 7U1P 'pU[:!1~ivc~

IWO ,or plIlTcd'isht. ~i:.Q;.g,"~liIdihlil.Mr;JiUii)\ We i:'OIUIIld 1;:192 c:tUl1.C"lnZOOI~ gr.!i1C fill1m ilii.cs tlULt had dC'l!cctabl~ deSlCclrumu£ in .mlemonc'
Ihclhrec
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m. ia s ~.~wo of '

b' Mld,i'igou

\lel'il.Cb~tC'S. bu~!hal appe,m::tlm be Mscm in bD~iI rruuil ny and snil 1000illiillOOC. Jilis
illdica!\.\'l !!~!l dwy \\~ru ,"i.h~r!n"'l
!Jf

gem: Emnili~

nJi!a! :ill'(:

an~hoP.ld

highly

byU'O!:i.pl.'Oa.L1 k'J.,:-sl-sco.ril'lg Bll'\ST ali:glUu'1.:nts (.)'J) between g:C"l1.CS, rrom[]~Cluo:nc :md mac or mose 0 r ny.n-ac!lmtodc·, hum ... f!il'l,g, or !]l!lrcr~ n1,.
:1~J:I11i!ylh~ls l'Cp,n;:$Cnl.l\; ~~"'Jil!c ~.(;IlJ;: il!!~hr; 'G'1!IJtiil(~m'II1':o!1I:11 ,mo~~r)t 'whost.~ d~· ii.CCIl.dnnl" !\U'l'\I.U\i'e kl lIl:-,:;ogu~~zfJJfuj,~ 1T0J1IiI1.':i>i IlIilOO·
lish tJ,2').f.ach

divCIr!!,Cd in oolil of~be...<;Je model r:rolOS'wlJ~es. o;~c~lc.uillgl.lte list or such genes round .i,Ui EST
Hi}. 111~Rlfll1(lflmji~g :b'CI'lOme f (:111S!!lo.'rulS. unlre1itJ1ii. end mn[llu!i.1.;;s; willl~~1l .. ddre:;;l\wlliOh of oh.il;.':l.'iC gt;'!l~ MIFI'i""(.ld ill.he IPR)tffit.r.ntlC lim::nMt:buJ \''1eCH.~ COIll~\l~U'!,~('lluly 1000t inm(~s: m'ld r:1I:;t~l~lO(tc:;,. In COil1~R1Ist,.only 33 gene... wen::: rOIJi nd :I,nl 1\~t:'/~!uw .. "i.f1!II(;j :In.d lJoih .Dw,;wjilr{hl ami C. t'iegrms., bUI 1'L'Cl'~ jn rCilI,!!, v,zrllcbnllc. These l'C.'iilliilS,replt!seuu. fJlnfL~ive d'ct~
scq~I~!10~
(I

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s~~Ldiics

117.

Fiig. '1. lBa,l(Mian Iflh¢ogr

,ellY of MW~('!,g, Ba.yeSik! ['i

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11----------ChMno:!llagen~te

>lln"lysis: nnf@r!;
~lInirl(), a[id

I1f!fY~OCl.r1

WJh~gen.y and ra:re OIf

Sl!bs.tiWlli(),!l frOfil'l seqU:eill!:m gelilOlilileoi bi!l~ 00 337 single-ropy I~elitesin ,('[0fU! lfl1atilwii~ {seillfi!L1!.1]rl),fakifu£I'u

...... -------

S!XI:nge

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rjjbript:5 {fish),,}i{~l'OP~
t/iQpkoJ.iS' {ffDg), Drosopl!if(}
hliml!.'!ri,

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+:1~4a it 1470
N:77'6S 002 d ~O' I'!J'~ 87'48

F1ly

,(ottio gig,an.r!l'll' bliiiQ,iilJ,

IOVVCIi dCSI'eC gCIl!! ~o.'>.~ imlhe vleu:tlinmes~hrul ill, till:: COd~OOilJ model sys~cl11s.\VC Immel 6iJ gene italUil i~ tlml. \1I'Cil'Cl'qlreSeUnlCcli in Il:ltOO.c:I, protostoll1leS m'ld VCl"1cbrnl[csbut fun jnlJ".l.rtmITIQsudla.. Th~ m'e crulididmes fO:I: 'bii.lmerl"an IJQve~lic.'l.l.nJ~ some \~vill no (roli!bt liI.!Fn !JIlUtIII lbe ~QS~C~ (lr d[ VClge!l~ .~Q'IIlll;l!l.cr:;'~in 1W:1~/'~tla",(·fI(l.

or

vCI1.Ci'hriMe

loss. in~]k:at~ni£Hi mm::h

oode}, ~. m~· lata ~ra}~ Nematr.mf!lftJ;
AmpI!im,r!diiJn

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me&mog.(].>t;er
e,{~WJJ

Mo~e(u!<u

IE'1IIl!~U~jOIIll ,elf ~be Eil!llil1eta'i!iO'"

{n,~~,.'!.

To fJddR~ t>"\vh.JII:iPlNlry' .uel'a~io.l]:;:!I~p... bclw"Cl!..u
a~.lntllli, we ~.l]fern .. nhcphylo-gc'1ll)" 01." 1V.lcl~O!I 'Xl try OQln'bill;~F1g lV(.'umUJ:!!ldla daM ,vil.h avtlilflb~e ,gclt1.)mi.c s;equCllOCt'i il~rom,dk~:r.sc ilf1,~IJl'i<"lIS. ullin£; il SUb-SCI, f .33"7 :i!iilglc-oopy gam suimble ror deep o p.hyJ:O~~lkt1c rumlysi~ (121. lu, Rg..~, rel:iL]ivc
..................................................... Sea.squTri

hrrul.Chr.0If1glh.~ f!JpR.~lii. i~~ ilru:::UJ:I1.1!i:I~ll:it:m,OraJl1~· lID ...d(1 substill1tiol1S ill, ,eachlill~ge across dlis r@sQl'oi'€,d C! s sI1Q'o'i!il! fn sd oWpt~ilfls. Our \\'hdl~o-g;CIlOlfIlC ruml;lSis gmtl:pS 10lJ%, of S<lmpllld lopth:e nill i~ ~'V:udl the soi~ l'lCll1<1iDd.c, in s\~pp'm:t (II' l1y ,l)wgj~ 'illl IBQ~1.a1l!1g~lr .,h~ slJ!pe<JTIlwi~mllEcdy&O'tlO<I. "lllfmjor deniH;,'1ll (If 'S1S,lihc scare bar itJdiYI:les ( ~hEl' ei!:pectll!cil number of <lrnintl <ldci5l..l00tn~LJtkms Ip!Ilf .a~'gn,'Ild .. mulD add positW.FI. ~ 'ltill' 'eliLlFllNI1!0<311 the "hcw<ll"llnml pii}'klgCHY·· J4).~rl c:l;Ill~~l wi[il ·r.dwr \V~lIiJe'Ji!j;lnOm~b,I,"'IOd !S'tl;.!di~s !hlll {(nli~iria!l-bla~ria!l~ @!l!ldQr; B., tle ~~il!~.Ji!mn (lPf'~~mtQrm~"\k:li!t~l'Wtoof!e-) ~!fl!1~;Qf. 'The !!1lJ!mber @'r F!~ ,geliles (4')~geMs '!J'e,1Ii~ by g:e'Jle diup1.irn.titm (d~.,lnd thL:!totl~ nLJmser'IJr r~cmW1Lldledl ali1u~s!Jall g:efie!S of the l'i~~,P·,por.lm'l l"~,ly I.mllldx~l.tg aoOtl;,~,olt!al.c chdc: i C ; ~t!()Bntommon,alill~lDr{N).alre r ~ai~led fGl~51 and 52, th~t'I!ImlL'i.MDan and hilaiterial1J sl~m~ 1~~~dNel~ (2). lh:U :ill.cl!11<iC!:; f.4egm,"~ ~35,. J6~.\:!l ,~i{pc(~I("ltl,

vicolBI (d'lWilD'Rl\t~OO), andl ioc~es ~

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11'

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
rI.~Pll'OphYkiic group thai branehed ijl!ffl' ilIm !l!lC1t.,~ ~;t!~ ~~~~~l~~~R: ~hc ~~~\'I,1:~or! !li~;'ti~~~'l'l,ThL;; of d~'_pQl~of n~ Nf!II~(I'(J,~tr;jJI€J-Nrdm ~plit ~~llIiI~1ISJbk: [0 dE ,.Wio~toall.D-rlutii,i!.;,ro:;tonu; ,di"'~~I~~lCC) ~mplm;~sdl'" disl~l!. rel ..~k:lri.sll~p' bil;1~"'i;:I'.'l!'i'lldom1!li\l ;uw 11)ldmr£l'~!1~"nli~ NUp~t:ld~~1L: li<llk"£!Ii.1C! !qgL~lllcv[d~~~til~11 Ihe radij~
iliTit:m ofnht clii:dnd'mip!iP;iih.if.U i~ (juil.c HliCiciil (37)
l!U1~ tm~1:>

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Ilived ~6'70 to 820 minioo \f!:!!)' rou.!ilh.~,'1i~mot!;lID::: l
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!!l~"1I~'_~iO~ !ill~~ihl;:'r.ll~ tl!fP'l:oi~i~~ (:'\fohlition\V;I:> (lOIl",~U1i Qllth(~- t::1;i:rtl£'l1a:t!!rnm ,:>i"~llIl-l!ii[liprrw_id\}s u mlj,q~11 ~-cod~ ~he ~Wlm~lar.om~ lim~ lor rndi~t:in!i. CQIII,~i!nl\iU:i'~rl Am:-l!':!rllIEuHlf!tDJillU! l'n'Ili'OI1!i '(l~
COitjJ':laFiI:9]ln of Nermlla'1fdll~ gcijt'~ '[0 I!l.ti~

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by .. eig~!(:-d ~jlt1Qltjl v ml;~ly8is of trdrnn ipOOitN~i tim; I~ \'\ii~li!1 highly CUll:~1\.'d rrooc::i!!l~"!il!rIOO~l ~:h:c1\;1'I1t."iI;Il.1~(d~'C'l!l~· ~'i;I~!h~n()v.'I;l!.i!]~ 'pb~.io\ ~.lrC!bid€fJI.i'f. 'I!Jd~h~ n;.~l1ii(¢lyin1ll!;ln-riil!l IUi:ig!il~'CiJ7:fbCfI.bat'f I#;,oial'mom! (J2"AhIrI0'i,~1 liiffigi al"tl, i)11i1:f.i~t>, ~ure pl.tyltl~~etJtIllI'y do;ef te c~h t)II1!,';1' cm~r.~I1jp·ill 110 ~1tul.
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whcHllle IUt~mmli;! ~11.U~.1i! j~ COI~lpared \.vilh thm. of '~hchydoo.oo:LU !~I'lJm. Fol' oom"e~~ieltoe. h.ciiC' \VC :f:\c-Icr 'to. the I~ COI~UI.lO~~OlIlC~WI" of cll'id'7i'I'm\~ and b~ illtl;,l'i'_ln~,!iS the' cumclOlzoall auoC'Sl.'O!r. O!!-hhol.gh d'lC I'I'It:'Cis~ 1~~~ ..yr,O,g_illlCljt I1'b~rgll.'Iu of
C'H~'nL'lflhn~ii,.~~~l'i)' lhi..~ l'e'l-'ilM d~:~gml!ijo~l. !Al.~g ]JF.Llr!eI~re"1:!ll.'" il1.di~~~i!}!l ill~f(~

bCt'illilll~roliHicht. widl plrutlli., fii1:lj(!;i tlire ~li;)I. hyllK"1m~I\ii:S ~q :.iIlII nkk1'11, rcscmbli:ng these of 111100·· OOltfOLlp lor eh!lmcli!:'.ri!t'j~~lhclllist~IY oJ ~'tJi.. CI'~l \'i!f[c,br.Ul! m~dI !mcmanc S:>ClI1CS.~:nl~n'Hls· lhlll.t ~~.1i.'it!lm<win!l:IDI1.... £h-'C1fI ~l'Ulh;!uc' are ~~llIlati\'e m:c ~I'I:1irod bc.ltu"C'CIfl M.tmdlfHMlu m~dI~'!e~rn~cs rux;:ic_rh1.,eu:k."II)fOlic ituml1~8h:m.'d by nllDdml anil1l!i1ls: \ .mel'or olher bj~mi:'rim\" '.•re a'l)O'.'i.t 'p;~rsi:~noni(llJs~)1 mnd 1~loutt\i~I[jj_uhave c\lidcm~' been Io.'iil ill rlllllSU Hn.
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('Is of ~C!lQ~'lCC dl~~~noo, WCI:e nd a 10l~ nJ~~ f1~.~~L.ul'-!uxlc·. ;~lCiI jii(r.l ~U,UL;J;lincol¥!,i(..'!{.oolsi:.n:vm wii:l1 Sjffil!'orn.uie W::11'<h O~1'l, ~'din BlAS:r..:oo&OO ~ll'~ _y~ of ES11lo (/1. IN), The ~,,<!. ~JIL)l1.~mllil ~ $
qjliiCltfi.~ hOWG"\,'(li';flpJJCill" 1.0bcevl1lw!gal :I. ru[L': cOIlilp,irub~' to, IX' even sfllwewh~l. sro~.vcunli;II_11.

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d~!ltlly of Ol~lC~'1!l!~lIIk'll).otie 'rnigill (4 for Cl!11Ulln,l~k.~!~'url!l' 16% of l'!Jiu~;m,[]ld !'\/{ww$f:Ji,1l,;1J"

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\!L':n;cbr.1l~~"', llhoillig;b fi\Ccc;J'el'aI.cdl A raw!; of moleea1:11"crro~tutiQll have I.lccn 00c1iDl1il!l;1.1ti:dln me:;;. ,!lid cchinooemls (3<"1) re~mlve 10 \ ertobrnles. Olliff m;ll:il~Yl>fis docs m)i~ SLI PIXlI:t !h:!i: c~~m--~!l'o!J;(J! of MlI1I ~11CSCigll~r m~ w mil im~e.l1'cl~mllc-.'!\.. ~I!hIlltl use h W ,(}f om ~Rmlch !oJl.Wl'l'" ,,\"C!)'c~,dc nID~\i'l(::l!Il~r docl :imi!Ui~Jation. based ('IJl the cUlkruyoti!::; lil'HC

(If [he ~Iioo !'li.iCl'i. rol;'u:ivc- to c£Jdon bQlim&ric~)t Qf imwHN ;II'(; "lko hi.~hb'cO!:J;.'i'C'~d bc'tw~('I'Il!h,,-, ;lni;ln1Cl.!~~~ h~Il1!!II~'~ Fig" 2A), \\f~it11. Uil(1 in ali!!!lJb~b~(lOO!!\L~Ils.Il{:mly 1%,oFhlHliill11l ~.rnn.lt)lJlil is lI:re ~olll'lcl hi I.hu: S~f:i.'H! prlS;ii kJl] ilftd~'ifIilC ~il Nl'malmtt,J/tl: cm,vcrsd)i. :;:2% of [he 3I1lCI11I.mll.:: intmnsrure !wund inl m;(lim~ogou5 ')D8~tions in po:->ilioni:lllg
humaagenes timl hetween

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~l:raIC'-S n.lp~ic:'1 n4ilrrl~~iIU·rrorosro!ll!.1"IDcL!lC'I~rnlKl i

;nn"lilil1f wa,~ ~an!l{lrN'ich t(30ll,~h(l all:d}'Si.. of NttJ!tflloJStl-'lla C'x!cll.m lhi> :f:'ICsult!o the leUfl1l.CIn>:;](I:Ji1l ·mlc\''SIiOf.

scales of ,lJ"

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:rule out dl;_~IlICIl\.sibm!y,. Ilm\'C";,I(;"I':, rthHI. SlJICh,!p;J)i'lrelt~ly fIIlj'rn:l~· S(X!cH1c hUIDns v.'e~ indeed pUC~l~ in Ihe 1r1i.."4 OOlllll'Mrnl rul,l1cstor oFlllwl1S.I'UIlSi. mtd ll11hl~lls.b~l. \"'C're 'OOIH!ergeln~y ~OM in !Xlllh plams Jll:d .n.llngi. \1IfIthi~1i)nilmls,inlmIl2iJlin~ mil£(!' 1i.'OI!Dl 9, to .22% p.::la!i\~ fD tlt~!iJ'oonlcmof!ll1-C cwnCl!~~Oi!ll,~!t!i;'5l!Or. Thus, 3ss!J]mullg '">'~iIUtroIIS per 1l1loc5;~ml gene. ~I .m~o~d illl!!UJil lil[l~ bCl!ltwnrodu.cw itl <!!~}tpQcrll
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Fig. 2:. IlfItliU!!I'Ii~ of intrQiiI e'liIllhi.t~'lJliin 'e'ukary.et.es. (I\) E';;iill!IIIple~ of rd'iffer-t!lilit !lI<I,Ue-nl~ lliHntron g!ailil and ~,o'>S.B.mof 'the·!i.aI!l1l!l m!.~Jtr ~ellummt UlliIS-E!lI'II@d F@gions ii!(:r(J~s ~U sP8d,~. (Jh@'U'roril~ind1i(ilOO lnlrv.FIS C!rfl;di th~ rll!lml:ul!r b!l:~olo'ilth dl!l'll'rol'lr :5.hol~'iic~the ~Ihi!se or Ih,e i.nlmn. (I) IB:r.tlllich ~e:n~~h~ pmp!lmional t:o the nlililllile,r ,of llnfel'U'ed iinillriU 'g,aim (leU), alild il'llron wS!se.$ b~ghl) lIInder the [llJ1ll.ol!lalrs.iimlll'liY <lIssllIl!I1Ipti(ln that in'~rol'l$ with ,(lol1i~er\i'ed po8itl:olli and Ipha~e 'lO'i!ere ga':rled 1)1il~)!' Olilic::'e j'n ewll!l,tio,n." The bo:~wm :s~alle ilf'ldli(~te5 'the' 'l!:h'~l'I:gle- in li'ltl'C!1'I 1'I~i1iibef '~i@r 'ga~!iI$ (t~ftJo

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,~nl[e5tor .• Ela'50edl als.~d'1IIp,le,of 5115 inU\onl5:at ,highly cfl!i'l~eriled prOl\~in ,Oil!, S!~qll.!~n.Ci! pCl:sUiolil'Srr~lm ArotlUi'Wsij: rh\Gir~1U!I (lP~alnrt)ll. Cryp.roC'a«usaeoformo1J's (~IiI'n:gILlS:),. C. eJe~(J1is (nll!lIIiIalodl!!), D. meiaoogfJster my), c. illfe!lHflo/is {seiIl5~lJ!ilrU,. HomrJ' .jj(}pims (l'IIumOlln},aml lIiemat,Dsl:'el$rJ' (32).

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
modern
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arate (lIf "PiProl'i~I!nlJ,tdy

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Yl;11f. wh.k:h i.<;oom~<IiJi!\l; ~, ~~~.rm!t~ of !:t,,~r~(,; GllJ'IIIk-{IIioll ~T Ing~,~ }~'flr , 42," II~ t1tlllimst. l,O b'liR;.1ill ~F~ilJ""'\~.lic.'h ~~J,,:I~ ~, QCour 'li1~ (I, ~ !.milorvnly ;jlJ':!1lJS~animll~ pbyb,
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RC'.. !'.O~in!!l Ilhal th-c p:~\';dL."~!L;:C of in~!d!r{!· li~~~!!!,c~ ,1(I~w~o h,I\'C' ~P~CJ!O~"d ~.x'C!la .. (461 !iivtif:illil1ll I~~ 1\{.iliihi1y lite I~y,"Ci1ij'LI!rnlt:"'II~d ~~',('~ t'i'iJl]~l'iI~lnra\',e~io.~~ ;;tm.l :t(~~Urn~".g"rt~e-'il:,~ mig~l ~cnIU~'iblL': loc.$il g.t~lj(: O'iclc.r JI~I p:rt;l>cI'Ve ~liirt. whi:~1:i .~1Wt: ench discam'tllXl 501 to 00% of in:li~, 3iltcC;~rn.~ wl,~CI~ZOi1U i~llmJ'l':;. It :rell~!Iijj_", !i.il!.:.llI~C'.we S!;;arel~oo fht· ~a~~c!ll~ eOilS(~ It} be seen \v'hc1.~erthe :iillro~~!~bt>li.'11t ii'll both l1y S;Yilh:':bliy---'l.hill.is" ~ts .o:fol:m:ilolo.WlI:ll'J genes On [1iI~ sal1t1! cI1'l'1Qn:iooo~ni1lll>cg.menl.iil~ Ilhcili 1'C~~"Cli\'c and l1i:nmlooc: lire tlleroSiI h. of mu.::i!:fl! los.'> iIlfllhe C'Cdyso<@.ll1:1 :;!;C'~111Ii~lel'igC (~}C IWlSI, [)J:l':>hnmliow. gCI1bmi!;;;;.n:~Jr.d less or "cne mtlcli:. To :relllOVC conmmlctil'lY ~,iYl"~mlsI'mlll recCIl~ l'e.'tIrnngl!l1fflcllls. : C'x~ll.U1mr;Oll, ~~owJ], ~n :FiS. 2:8.) or 3J'e oolwcrg.om li.\ C u'lcd romnlpmisom;, 'w[lh the g;CI1.olll1es o~·I,Hhc.r I~ hldc.IX'lI'tde~ll~1~C5 ~n ~liC's <ll1dnClll<llooe&.'WC
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tCU1~r~l~das iCo.~lccliny. 1l'i!S.CIl11~ s,c,£IfI'lC'I'll<: of Ihc
'1::111c·:rem-dl'l.)1 Ni"fk!tt~~tf.1i11mI a

c..u MIl:! OllllmlCi,Cl1[ loss OJ~ Ithe IlmtO!m:g~ni: !'I.1.trn ChMhnc)1 to idc'Hlif~ 98 h~!'l1!tUl!:'ic.!~.!ncmsdlm dQ nol OlIppc~,1(li~<l~"I;'LUld(:rgOll!i:ro~Jll ~!X.'<lb or ~h(): (!~s ,pf dl~ !li..~~d~ b ofR:liML! (!f d/. ~Jm fell' ~11L;:;UUK~ id P/(J!)H(tlr,:i<;. Whl'Ch ~tl~Jt'l'!;.-,cl.th~~!IJ!~ fWi~:~O:!l,~ (1F~~" 3;\ ~n'lid Ii,!} S1_1) U2~,. 'nll,;$ scglnl.}l11" Sp\7lJll ~9% 111.~hmmm :gc~mm(l'. The <lI:Ilctl$lrnlll~ml(}l1[Omc w-n-OI'11C w<!l1.imron-rich.
I(l!~

'Ul,rn'fil!n!'ilItlo 1111 (I~ .Aradel'lt: 'lEumel-aZDOl.n Lll1lkag'el ~IfOIJlPIf>

Cfllll.~ ~.li ~~np'wn ~[) ... !lliC!~I1i!'"

~'11!.!D111!J~1gl.1!1g!l~\.': \\P'''~ ~"OIi.'Cllo,d as OJ rtlft.:lifCI1OCOt:,1'

or

eC!llii;;cn',,-xH lij.ukagc:grul,l~}l> I'("p~nlin!l ::lJ;'u~e~ml (-Iii) rclatise ro '[dcru:! lis!! (.13)!. To seflil'cil for mu::lcm \lcncb,:futc Chto~ll;OSOJll:eS can. be defin.ed 1.'1)" comp'M.ing fish lind f1~ml1I1i13Ijan gl!i1IOi111CS, :lilldge~ OOl1l«:ilVcd linkages 'IClUsS; CLIIlllCI.a2113. we jhen oomp.:1!l'Cd!hes;(!~IUll'aall. ~m:mtC' sc,gm!i!iilll> UJ [Illc ~li.1.ic 1'I'D<q)S, (ksi:piw (111ep~C'!'£IlI!:lC m!~.y llIIod~!SI. assembled N('fUtUrJ.~I(tlhl :scalfoIJd~. usinga slnti$,'>'Cgllracnl:S air Oml.·..CfvOO ~cnl:! orner (43 .•4"~ SinnililI;r.~y. iilniled OOllscrI!<ll.ion of ~yntcilly h:; 1'1XOg- ~1:c,-lIleslrDr d~ ~iJlg~l~shil~gsignincJm cllricilm":ltt glO'll!J." Hnkcdin i1!O'iJl :S.pccics. ~I i~dc wi1h~n 'rlsco'!." r~nch as bClW(''JC11 Ilies. and F,'o-r v~ry ~<lnbl:d~'gmC'm pili~'.\~\,",e.1hlll!.nl:)d c bo1.;'e''!4j'.~'.I. Be!!\\/GC'll ;1!]ilI1<dp.bylm~ h~)\'\I'(!v~r. Il'O l:ql!~sc.'l.k: ,oo~1.'1.CI'\'Cci syn~cl!Y has been kkm ilied, the .~uJJmbcr Imdktcd mlCcs~I,~I~ CIJl!lll.e1llZOO!l £ene.~ \\fjllh desC!l:J'ldan'l:S fOllnd ~n bQ~h I'~IC aad dlC usc o,f oOnSCJiValU\iC SW~iMic;;]] ('ril!Cria ,~lIISgC'illlhlg th~1 sigrID.!s. ofl'he illlCC!i'~ eumciaNt'Jjl()(r:t~fl!iM llC<!.llblclland ~~(~!mi;!lsc.gaTICn~. Tbis Ii!'l"l'it ml.fm!"~)'$iS. It 1]101iC :5e!~i~i\'e~Dp:!'!(}<td! can roan ,g:C!lOJJ1.'C OU]l,<l_fg izatiru~ WCl:l.:: 'Cl<ll!C(i ~1l' M.!b-

h~~!.\~il :;;10\\' ro.¢ O ('llm~10I1~ '~o o:t]:tL;'" [1tJ~nJl\;]~!' i~l~ fund ~U;lS pre~l(xJ d~romost1ll~K~1 s~gml1Jnts
~"V,oll,l~ii!lll

or

Ilmi. d~bd rro~n ~l(: f,mmc dliullbO~nlc of Ihi!! CII.I!'l1cn.~n.al1 ml£~);lor. and ~lc!'Clill'!(: d~fll11."';S .. '~lU[i;)l!t~~'C mlC~$lr.I!~ CW11!Oit;l;.!<mPl ~i]lb1:~ group WAl)i. 111.Ct':O.unrJel~ 01!1roR;l. grid ~h~wijng rd1. lJ ~umct.l7.o;mPAb I." shown 'In table: 81.2. The OOI1.';'Cll\"C'd Unkagi;l i'l ~",l!,!;ln(i;i\1'~. and it
~"C(lU~Ui
t'1.llr:tl~~~l.l

ref ..

]t.!:g;L,!

1t:c!,{:'li(l'J~

or

Ih~~ o'iU'let'SlJ' l ....

or

ror

or

Of Ilw 4402 uncc"..;(I.,ul !.l\lmllL,.~f.il~.i:l .w::nc ffL1Thiliit:;"S m;prut>IL'lred in 1J~~Il::u'gCfA ~m(,iilltil1..e:~~llI,IT{lIId.~ hlJ''I!Im~segmems lL'l~. in rmd mile !!1C~lL'll~:iC re.g~nns l~xge cooiln.!l!ih '10 IWn1il !ltm i.s!k'UIm}1 sigu iHc~in mm~2i'sils ~lIad daere[ore· d is,i:bl'e ro:r co:nsiidcmti.{)Ulin our :lJl!:! ~y.'>h;;), more limn 30% t B3(\) pm'lLt'~Il.a~cin :1 OClJlSCI:\'cd lin'k ..lge g:J:Ol~p'. 11:~1-1i is a lower l'x"lulld on the uue .. t~~C~l .he rl''lmmm .m~ci~r~ li nJ!:ugc !il'lILI11~ lDccausc l.he ,i.CIlgl1ao~'lhe Nt'mtJir~'Cfdi(J scarl.blds
~~(l,.

or

A
1

II:

:2:

3:

4

[Ili

-

I

I

5

6

'7

-

a:

~

A

I

-

v

J

~I

IF!ig. ~. 'C~~m.lJwd syn~~~y ~tl!'!\~fl 'W~~ h!i!m~1i'l a!1d .('j1!illltn,'Qne gil.lnQm.~~ W Tih!! hlllfllli!!lil 'genlillli'i!!'. wgJliIIIllnted illlt.o, 98 rogwllJ'iS whose ljnkagl! h~s not ~en i:lril~,n .ril!llrin:g clii (mliate ew1lutio:n. G®~oreds:e!gmerns. iindi'r.at:e statij~lica ~y :S:igllifici! If'It CiO'n!l(!\rv~l'illlfl l]nkag,@ l:i@l'l'l@@1'1 ilumaltl a no l1iematoste,llrJ. R@~ cd ~egmelli!s are IlIUHllIber.li 'of Hill! ]2. ('ompe(t PAIL~ labek1d A lot Grl!!!!111 $iegm.eni~!l '~llinlliBto the diifhllse 13th PAl '(3:2). ·Wbiile' ~!IIi11!.ef'll3 do ~ot ~illlY\lI S'igllil1i(gfilt oon~ll'rviuiol'l ~r UnJk_~ge. (8) C~I'I'S!~i'II'ed ~11I~gge' Ib~t\\it~n hUR'li1ll! !cnmm!los.ml1lal seglll1!il'fl1s and ,Nemat(}steUrJS(:a~f,old~ifl tliu~firs.1 p,P\i (,llhicill indlucle:s 'ih~ Ihul'!ll~11iHIQ~ (~uME:~~'. ~airJ$Ii€II:a' :~(.iilH!(IL~, 26, 61,S:;!, 46, J, ~nd 5 hed ·il!~r@ws) hlllmani dnnll~~me<5 ~~dI 12, 1.0. 7, @l'Idl2 'tbltlll ~HQM) ,ilre show," Wilth lI.!ngi~ l~fQPQr[ion!ill'~~ lh~ I'Illmiref Q!f .g~JiIe-s:d~S(;I,lfid~ homl the ]nf.enoo .a n~e!iIJi!l set ,L]Iil!es" ~()N'oded 'by l!kma',O£telt(l m K.airfo~d.ipin fie pD~~liil:ms 01 ortho~ogollJ!~ 111'e:fOOtiriJ:!jte:l1aind lhumtlfl 9lE!'JU¥.5. l Thefivl! :5!!QI1I1~Jlt!i 'o~ '[he hl!l mall!! giillltollll..el'hat are 'gmuped il1i~O' P\!!!ILA <Ire ]lilirlflC.ated by l:i~a)(1(ilOi~.li!e(j 1I;lrI~!iindkal>e tille potriitiion:'l i[iIf ifile f~llI~ htllllil,[lIlIHo~ dlJiS~ers,

n.

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
::lIssign nml'C than twice ,>¥s~llan>, :t'LllC'e:ll'1;ml. geses
~Q1:l"C'~-d 1'}"nll;;I]}' with Nf]I!ur!!lSff!!lf,J
OfQ]K~ h~I!i!.l"!l!il~~I!mlte.
~gJlIb~!~.~,.

w .. PAL {l,n The 40

1-1:('1011\,(' (l2qI3

..~I, and lI~xD :n.

(2 q;3
J

t.n

whkh

hWlHl<m .~!l:gmlllnif!

lhm
~'(l\~f

::;ho\:v

h:.~r

\\\iith il~ ,,~~~~ hi,lnmt!l~

QU~iJ)I~1f fJl !he ~m"!C C\m.1C'!l.'W.WH rAJ .., ~,i!1k;.iX!il t Cigi11! N~wwt'&~u3l.(1s~nbM~ (fig. 3.~),d!c'h~i!11il ~h~ ~.11~'I,;~,~1 .~noL'i!}i(;~!lll,~l'>!t lor I~IIO)( ~euc, s,

man ste~n. The 'liI~h<ln15m r9lF~hc 'Xt;.;]I~ion ~r ''wl;\\l' ~~~si~ (lh~c1Jre ,(_j 7) bU]IlHm,y ,invdh'c gr,;f!!I,~ ,d~II)li~ti~!1. trQII~\\~ hyh1;I~~ of r..«~iGl
sgq~~ll0~
ilY
d~"l~~1l~I1(l(.~

lWiC'~II~! 40 in :5.iD% ti,f c~alttt':illi':C{]~u~-r\t~wr<J$(Jl~ldla lJIag;;8(:\c~'~il dtl~i.ill'!.> of hom co box d>t;'ti\f~d gi.U~~':S have COLU1ICiJ:pml!:o;, in :;i>'li~cn~c gent'S (5:: 54 ~ ~'L!l 'rIlll)" .hruro on SC-;;1ff'Dl'ds .3 auid N~·m'~.'I,r?J!f/td!~j;iL;J!l,!l~(jI~h~, 'Ind "'ioc 'IL;;!'N.!I. Th~ i~ 61 O1It~ I.;'mih;:'Mcd with~l~ tl'li;l .ui~.5'nd ~W!,. it li,01'.;HM¢!m11~,.g~\i(;I'i Il:ial ,~~u~y1Itn:iiiOS(nlIi~11 d t'ilt~a7c08JuQ IlnX CG~I)t;, ...~.jJ!ll\;!dun~~!rid(lpL;.nekl~t flli..io.tit;; [riclNli~Q~~I~rit gt"ilc orde.r s;cnlii~b~hig un ~ :-l!llrpoifl [o3'I.h(;' fl&....i.~.'!illiit:lit of these hO~11.fi~~1\1oX dillie, lite htiunml or NI:'JjgJfu ...u.dia 1'~lt'Cage durin.!!! g~i!iC~, 1.l!O bona :Ui~e N(!m~III:J:!'iella Uox ~e:ile~

willdl

~rui,lnlC!n

ili~ j~u~cciO!l"':~ r.I!~ript:ia!1. 1
mhCl'lc
()<I,ui'i('~~~~lIl

:>!i'lii!!:!1 ;;~~~~nc .. l' !il'lc!tof de ;iJi9i;10 ~ org~l~caXldlot !1m1CQclI~lg fr.lgrl1e~il:$ I
u!~i!:5.\;Jj,~

(~h~<;;m,~"~lgi!1~¢ "il~1i l\IIr-

d11,'!,;,i.i~(ld

n()~I~iL;~hjJto,

'~hn."C O'i~¢go:d¢$

mi.'1Cd] uiilcheir Origiti (F~g.4Ali,
M.Mpri~et;

I]~eii' - 700 miilli:cm ~aif'l'ii of ~ifid!."'PC'ndiCIu C"!.-'Ohlltiulil

'WOlIlclmtcm.mte~hC' Sigflll~ ,forlitl!mg.c. The dl~~",,'mktl:l of 'ctil1!!('>liVOO Ili~k;~ ~'ul)S is mo.m e.9.;;;i:!.y c1(pl:Li~~oo ~le ren1l1'.mtil> on'arac as
o.tI1CCi1rtm~ chl'Onl<nsil}nm:~ SCi'J,mcnt~ ron:t.1il1~ns lum-

j5'~,ncre is lin cxti:i1I:sive bla.cl,: of 22:5 ,mlC'C:i>trn~ £'CfICS (tflible S7.3.) Ihn wore Iillkcrl to ~l(lJxil1lhC'e!tlI'l1i~Ii'mliln:mCC!'itor!lind hare
(50', 52. 53, rellBLilloo~lllt l in!k~c U 1100tl1 dl'C' mr:xk'rnhulHim

<lml auemone

gel!lol1lh",s'
la,

dred~ {If gl..'lI1I.-:; .hat
c'(ln~illt

OU,gIi;;1',L;

of~h~ lIPJ\L~~iJ:lk ;1I"(:11Ii!OI~~ ~1~llo1tl~l ml~lti.jJ~~ \i\lh~ did !illC: '~UIWi;;~itl:o.;,m U g~Il;;~~pi,,,~1)ili!l(~~Pl11:e regilm~, of dw :hUlll>iln gtll'lm~g~ in .:Ii IlllllnnL1' ccnfh'Jllli!' N~rui.:r :>ro'*' ((jIm: m,lI[ of nM,~ dltl ,~i:;;oo~nw i~h mut! uple~'~~L~.-ic,d.<: dl~pl~~,'tll~iolll "!lo.l~11<L1 Cl~I~l;l',l1OO'<lll g(ll1~ :I:mvc dC<1fl)'oct~mil1mr ble",,'1~nh es ~i-'I,.\. Il~i~l.~ \\fl1;h $ig!liifi:a:aItl. :;,('qUC!]~ CiVoO!1!:." ;I~o:ng~~~~'e!u;tl!l'~~ Ii~!!:,;'agl;'i .. Im:\'~wooi~~ hCltil:ology .modc(l~U\~rt;,d wn~~~il'l .~m:;hiK'(:hJIfCI !(.JJ'll. Th~~ M,)c\~. 'AL;. r(:pre..\(;;!.1thh~!Il]~lrol !(prud:lIpli~a1iQJ.1}~il1hug.c ofi.l'bl:,.'fill cgio[~s. Theexr out.~id~ or Ihe :JUirllll~s; indlid~ng rU:i1gU, pJIl111)" W~i. ef !his 'OOIl&Ct"!.~i1 liUikngc S'l1~S~~ dnher 111131. di~irnolds. dli~c(S. o.l"01lJl..'r species trv~i~3hlc;from Ihe ne\!il;'ul rnuc !i}nlll(!rclUglltl~ll~11 tl!ruls~{I{--u.tirn'li!> public da13 s~ ,{31t TI~ rue evidently l.l:Cil1i.'!effi .. is :I~O'IV~QlldlC' oroc::r or 3 rew breaks o.r IilsiOllsp::r of .mcicflt e~km.YUli~ gC'~le r.1fJililics tl~Hi! were C'h:roHlJJ!rome since the !:um;cla:ZO,Ln :m,CG;to'r. a:liready u;;mbli~hoo,ill lite' Ulli;cenll~;U ~mccSl\Qrs of

a~*~' (':1tr;hb!Qc~. Si~w~.n! 'willhitl

~'I!.l'~1ot.~ volved e

wi~hout

,ol')\'kl!.!!.~

Ol~ig~ml of EuunetOllloa

Gelile~

[or I!5% t.~I~(l ~ 0 r <llloe.·i,u ..d cume~~(}:ang.enll!:5. ll~~m:Jujjc iml)o~'ll1~ ,"igml~jng rOJl..c'OrR. saeh as 'du: s()cn:l(ld wingiL'M-J(\tVm i ".!'KiffilrQlll<l.~l ~VI:~!r.~tnf {~~,[jn lil!'IiI~Ii(.~ wnd lr.tn.il~r'ip~iQ!l •.

larg('st grol,lp ql~~' ~.i1ovc:l;tyl m~im;fj'11~l::~li..~ I.hm.l'mv~ ,~Io ~di..)lltij.1abh:: n;::lnli,>!!s, ~.'i.lh BLAST) ,eJ,tul>ide of anil11n~:;, illl Ihe fi:vaillablc: sequence daia sets•. ml(] aOCiJOUUlt-;:
,fii~t Bitt!

The

or

~~.cUl~1>. iu!dwLdi~lgdl~ T-0011;;JJ'~d11~(IUlil;~gtI~m~'t,. d~':!;a!loma:plC'gjc (SMAlDlli!JllIil~C'$ (Tab~~2),. Not onl), were Il!~c..,,'l' ~no:;: WlFl';SQi1I. in ~le Cl!.rn~'I7.«!I1J OiUl(:'(;."\!Of. bl,l! ~ley l!('Q, ...~ro~dy durlica~~d1wld. divt'P!iJioo 0]11 1.I:1~ ~u;ra~ZOUI] ~~~~~'i (~~!Ibliz;h H.l mite S>'lllJf:t!Juil lhail, 1:iL}ill'ly 100 IlnilliQll )~l\:3:1:S ius ImC'r. f~re :SIH~l1'1ilh.lnainc-d~J] fl1l00c.m \!i!liI.clnfuD~.
~Sce lou eIo:~If1~plC' Wn~ nl1~ni~y.58~) the (

(,"xcl~dhlg imm!:'I:u.'OfllD~m:J1llream.ul~'Om(::]l~"" '0; ~l~m~lCCli()Jl has actl!d~I}~mlin'~<I!i~linlk,~~;c of
lurge

~~!C' c!:lZOO m'rl [lire hl\O~~'\Lod M iJJlcore l'[d'.ruyoti:c
ceillubr ft!l);;!aons. i\~1I11DU;gI~Il'CSC1!.'~ll~L1rz.tXm 1 ~ne f,-.u1l1~~i~ are OCO~Sl."'!I\',!.,'dwilil Nh~ cuk~ryote.'i. anin~la~~h3\t\e .~ 'I..UliqllC OOll1j)~fIlIICII~ dtttc 10, :i1lmily C~la!lSion amI OOIinrncliol~ (!IrJ~llC ,ellllmCilazoonMCllII. T]~c CUJnl1:L:m~l!] ge!1e~ ;)IllC~ll clllbJ!')'O'~ic
"1'!tl.'l'i~1)' 'If'CDhl!.1!l1.'iI;.~h;l~

tCl;lro1no.ro'nml ol!Jilin iZ~li.0I1 ~"'8) m.ndltor :lor~g·:r~llge gene ,ref!l~!hll lOin h~'9 ~'" A~ OlllCC'SlI1l]I:illk'lgc groWlI) of [Jm1icular in~l;::t'C:'iI: illC·h'ld!L.'S IhehunK~'~ Ho'x ChJlS!C'ilN or
.11 ighC'r~ie\'d

group." of

J~c!l1.~

Itl(:~!aJ~\Sc(J.[l"'rJinoo b)i

deseended

or

T)lpe 1.1 IHwc.llti:cs (.2% Ci~ the CU11'LC,tIlZOOIl. ooll.~pl'emCl1rl., ,or 15,~ g.el1.e51.) h lool1)()rnlC ;minml only domail]S~n co:mbiuamion wiltl ancient cuk<.!l)lmic s~q,ucr!!r. The m~CCl'(U)Ior Ih!}.~C' gcw...... can be uaced bllck ~l !'Il!!:' ouk~!).'O~icmdirr~[011 11111.'Gtlgil,Dheir 8Ittl.cnt oo!nai~IS, bUD tI'ae ~lCI\re:l CO:I1'111lttlS tllCY COnt:llill WC])\! c\t~rlem 1)1 iu \lC~l'.C(l '[or e'voh"L'd imolhcu; ,~'Oo.gninl.blcUilJ!inml [u:Iiln)
:)jJ],dcoup~ed
(1(IIII:I~~nflo.illll~I~ntFolI' .

rWIl1~ .. 514.;;':

11'l1ll:r;(;rij1i~iom~ f~LCloI'S~hO!L1 rc~LUl;nr; ~nif.'Ciri.or.~1i:',rio:t idi:.rn~ty in hl~!lt~ri.ms"PI,II.mtivi:: I.~ox g~n('S jn l\'eIJ[~f(.~\·(t.'lltr fUrld ,Qt1'lc:rcnidfiriWls >3iJie:m.ho e"'llucssccI in S:PllIll:fUl pillteWIS OO(IlsiSlMI
Wil~l I.m 8flci'C.Ull role
nifD

!wm~lhox

Ct~knlJjmie p~''Ili~m by ni;tHily BXmg('iltG' duo rl~C'!ljlioll1~f1I:Onl;'; Ihe C1l1l!1(taZl.l:,m~I('ill1: :,c .• ciHlL'r
11:1(;

('ilr1y rndim.tturi of CUhll)'fl~Clli ... 1] OOVD .~500 mmicn yalH:s tJg.o (56), 11m bdnre th!;! dir'o''tllel.tt'l:: of

CI'ikiflri!lll:> ood ~ji~mcrif.il"~ ,(j.?). ,eauhryo:nic de".c~opmenl. nc rem~inil1ig 20'% ,(~584,) or dlCml~r.lI.I dlusiers, t~'Dm aro.;;c by dJup!lirnlikm 0Ii1 the veudtrnte s~em-~ h:L",t\ cum.cUlZO&n W!IlC' se! comprise.'l anil'l1lai fJovcl:tics, din<l~ '\..,'CI;C apl)tll'Cntly "um'Cl1tW" aJ(m,g,~hc CllIH'IC't.'I," I(hlmmftl. du:omosoll1.c' 7p I.S.~J. II:o..xB l i7q2 1.32)1.

1(5.0-52). TClrop'odb>

.~l~.VC CDIJDrUo.,.,.

OO~]'i<lli:rI~ Ihe m~ ~Nm1rllple,. No~(;h :prm(.~iliN ]a"m~two Notch dfnnfli~IS launt] 01]1)1 ilr!rlil!JiIl."Ii. mitllsin .1d(~:i.i.ionlo 3Ilc:i,cfn.cli:km:yol~' i:mkyrirll ruu.cl ep:ilQ£miilflI gmW'lJ~f3C1!or {EnF) dmmtirll>; ~0c::H.~adhesion Ith~flse (IFAK) is tafgCtOO 10 lOcal, adhes,ic:ms. irl Ct~m;ela.zc8nslx:ca!ilse the addi.ti!:m ofm~ animld...spcd:tic to,cru adh.cskm ~lrgC'tUns dom••il]~o lhciilir!cietn kina"iC dOrlll'!.iUl.
10 !!lOll:!! .(UI~tiC'I~!

or

lIaib'le 1. D'etail. o~ the "O.:dord grill:!" whkh tillnj'lat(!s~h~· rlLlrnber C!!f <llnlu!!stra'l. gllm,e du:~t:e,m :!;m<lred belw~~nI the 22 N'~l1u'Jt;nslellll :liJalUlold's h:ot~H'fins) ,and lll4~~UIi!f;i,i'l'I$, fllf th~ ~umaii'l geTiQnlie bi)~\1'~ t1Wit ,are
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
~""5!fj!r. V""n'm!8 :rnld:CI~~ C}'w .. sollc pJ:t'.It.;!.in:s"~.Iin, ( P-a.",i~ Glihi2., SQ~ ;:;!'!f.Id lin. 'Cit) have been bID~ghl 'I!m@gr 'he ,oo!l1!~rol or~w", !19tr~1.R.Wpwn;. i'W;~n!aN~ ~~l~ illi:~~ril'~'fI oI'~lrnc li;mtl.(Jf l~ill~ 11 inl~rm~iiom'l o:fiJ'lc:o;t;: !ll~n~'i';.~fI tl~c mlt"P..';Sitr,ji.l m,yp; I alm,\~lty ,lI]dbh~ bUi~'rj} t)1!C U 11twdiy). 0ull:l(;!azoo.~1!bi.~'!if~ hamvl1Immm1:i!lttlll ~!II~ {3?) i.o clU!1~el;oo;!ml i5, 'U'~eDi.lfu!\1' ~:~iU,~nm~It;T ot d",b~u~e FAR is a CY[OMl~r,c: cmnpmi.C1~~ th.-.t OllIT]i""l.aw8, ,'!4.~ .. because f;l!."WiC' fU\l.LQ!lll' ,;;md!Gf d£m.1::l!Il·shlJ!.fI'Iin,l',l (26, 27, 59 (1).. E."\po,:rim~nl:ll i!n oJ'iidm'i;Ul!:l, !ytle U !'KlKlly .~ra'~l:.IIlJlct~~U.'l. mid 'co).iPc!ili!i~ C'~rvti5 of.! di~ ~m!~l;:!;;Ii)'J,')~ln s~t,'J~" For '1;";"1!IT!p~e, IiotM~ \ I:h~ LIM lIill~1 i. iskl. !h~c.J) rm~~,u~1ilWtl;iua htw.i~\'CI'.iin OPji~'bil]~llk)IJv,ililililfQntluli:o:n oilnPi.i:t p~'~'.[i~ I:Fa~UIIt:glJIi,1'k..":oI t~c "~R\~~imi 0.1' bdil~. n;Jbi~C'.ifiiil.]l lJC<t.work1'iiui h~1I1krin'i:,li. Qou!M, ~aj ink~l;ilcldall liTIcl hOUilltiolXh'l DNA bir'iorrlgd:ai~iflili" ~l"';,~l~jj. aabd EAKawi,lIiJ Ihe It''(jcp3:Q.t-aPI~t<ll;(~ l!LIie found ij,ll, iloirn~~njimilill,eili!wi'Yo.'I.C..,. ~liit (lllily priHdl)le, canlilfi"diil1l.he 9Il.oC' •.;1nI1g.l:!'liIaienCllo'.1'OJk ~s a novel .ciIolfilli~n t10mbllmlkiu of ~r'Ic~eill:!lifi.. I ~fliiw!l:I~hill/e lille U M~~mn~'.L~n,ainoojt1bkw[icn, an{l It(fl(jli~~ 'IAlilclher 'OJ" 11011.lt.: 8i1.CC!\"tOil dejp'IQ)'1i:d IiiIlr~ils. e~I:\o\1..'Olil:1.lIi liI,lcbillbmn.~,a.da.~~t:".hm. eeuI p'les ~l!:' inlcgriliHl! :mblllnlt 10, fyn i."Pfl.~IH in Al:t~m'll~hsuch clomr~n"S:~l~lmiia'lt l~j7) 1."\JCIl1.~ e these !Ci1CS to !:;'Ctl!!~e tlilL~ k.ey geit:ll1 !!lI)'er. w huiiv:idtml "n~cw" ~c:nt'S arc b)! Ihemsclvi.'!s, Ihe i\.lftiJItift.J:!'illlill &,"i!nonaeml(1 he: Ii type I nI()I\,rc:~l)'. rela'l i""c~.y rare, I:hey lilllie d i~«M\('ipCii'll~('i11 ;Jiwl)1 of fi'CO'It!tlJ"Cs Fyn il$elf :islI mo~erocalt IIWC;llIioll dcri'iioo ~JI1, involved ill chm::'l.-c~cri:rod blocl1Clinicllli path~\"llf.'. unli ~el>' 110 hrilli;l :~01.nlhcst!,ile m::edecllO i:l\1'{'ijl'vc a:nhml~ Chiill<lC1Clfislic-s fmm. Ihe- ~tmpo~1 .':h:'Hl ~y ~CillC' .cJ\~J1Iicathm. pcrlml'l~ b)i Dl'inSillg 1iO;Cllh-C'f' !C!l'!'i,o;;til1g ca:!:il~ylk •. Rmhll!'. weC~I1(l(:lrl'lllLt to c"I't<.d_)m,~'i\. ~~I!~ii!r.llft:Jn,. and regula-ttl!)1 d(ml<!~!!;s' lnliooHlllru' orog.'1!:!1i~n1~ CcH~'Ci] "d hcsion~nooia"""d by eeU·ECM gcnt!,y,~ (}~m1 i.-;m,ul !U.lVcJ"t}1. ~1.u;:,h ,~~w1il(:!1,{~ i!1KlI:rl~li'Cl~ i~ ;'l h,IUi!lruak ·of m!im;l~mll~riccli. il~wUl~ ~U1~ Firot~i~l (whlc SfU ~ 't'lll~ j'l~C'g!:'1[~cdwill'll.1ll:liJf !lowl ;.nu;l(:xi~il1!i: hil\nily ,t,6Jl ]3:(L~""liQI'lt~:1L)lilbt:i~w l\_roll:;"iI1"~ S'lJch Eumle~alll)[l1!I Ne~wCJi~b [I,m!1l1 1fi' .. ~:ln'll"Ys gr..:ne.s!o '~\iQlvCl C.\~<llldJccl ornno<lHilXi blnas cobgl'lll and 1E!!~ni!1lvn runvc as·tyllC n IKI'~I'Chi!!S p'!lhw<il},smldtol" 1'I;;'~I,!I(u'Y nClWO'J:~f1. o:lj~J!g !I1C~'I~[,;',P11 ~c.l.d~n.g 10 Ihc ElJ!m~t,l!'~" ~vh~I!Ci~'l I~o\\' <ire'~h!o!,g~ne!\ llml W~'ro~!WII;;'!l!iI,,>d a~ol~g~h~ ch~m~~~(!1 (lWn(1!~IlOilU1 (oO~(:lmr-(lhf!~ld ~o 1110 o~~~~i~""!l~~1 Gi v~n ti~(l !1.iCOl:\.~~rucwdL,;'l!Imc!<iI1:~n .g~llome <llih"T1-i ~\lCh Ol." nido~! <1m uO\i,(\1 ~~Ii!i~!ll~ of JI{:J.\lchics ~.oCi;II-"lcl wilh E!I!.urK·U~·? :S~Ull5Iy~ !!nd ~IS. \'.~,~i!lU~ ~}'iP~ of III~nld gA.:::l.lt;'l'. we :(iIJJ1ckm~ don~aili" (TiI'b~~ I.). 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'd~c 'I;CIII Wnt mmJlrnn~fofming g!\"l~~rJ;h. I~.clm' ~ (TGFIU ~:n't{!'n.g it~ ~l(I,:g)lli(;'"~'~TiJbll:: ]l i~:J![ Ilr.-I g~:~~oC' S1ll1)ri~iIlg dmt gell.'1!S 'klID\'\,ln to be :Im!o~,ved in cycle (61). .1\ detajled kun. til: inlC"d,rill jJ,ii£ml~ing gigm!iling Iml.llw~yj\inlheStl'lOlllle or l\~mNlIfJSft'ila .ml~ (_k:\'C'.lopmcm in billilil(:ri:l!:M arc, also (Table 3G'!!.Uld f~g, 4B~ [\c'l,.\c.[ljIl!;:Dh~D IlIUISD. of tile .~!K1\'!I.: ml b I\.,lXlltOO {M, 17.. JR.. It'i. f'll\". 1n bodt jl11H:1W<JYS, the ~u:l.':lcd t~.§;;I~lclS <!,wcl d1ti:r rul!W!,g_1[F C'~Hjchoo "mlOuag Cil!fl1C~im !]O\I'C'I~ il.'1i<.givC'.Ii~ core comll~ll.'1!lb of the FAK~I!!d F}'l!!tS:Ji!c r,JUW,I;,YS \V(:J1C; pr1,."<C'~nm Ihi.:' Cfllm~~<l:t!t:t:m ~m· ~1~~~lh~; 1.cli:~bQok l(~iCllll'C of CI,id~ri;IDlsii~ 'th,ul m~~ ~"I.n:h~ Wnl, SfRP, ~l!(lH~ 1'~O:rll]~~C!]CI~C

'lFll'll:lJ Iy. WI'!!C'm ngv,cll~~ U% QJ" l4f! g,r:l~ dl:CY lack !l!Ic:;tQ!!knn. Yet we k!l1O\x' thrnt nl!ilflji ot" jihmilic:5) CQJ.1:-<~] 91' illl!in~lge!~ whose domain,.,. these ~e"S<ure "~~(III;i,rted citlw;r Wg'dl basic r.. ~nlin~ fbl11;;~i9t~~~i;Uior ~hcn;;g!l1!I~!i9!~tool! M 9 ;J!·pc ,[l!l!i;:im~ li,~, ~~1t! !h11~~~1!~ <BIll i Qd~Q1~"!'}'Q~~s) ~~it 1mt I,lIOOlJ[ ;I.~ a ~rppmfC:'~!]y!;illiq~N;,~mIi!hirlHli~lt i~~ ~:ni~r.ltiOL~,md r.'1t~,T~~c p:!\l¢i:li!l;l ~'P!~yll1l.cI1![ ~1!ld

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
into p';!I1:ilWtl}'S Ihm ceuld 'be fegl:llalca, by fleWll)' pnlltein {SI\ll'.P';. and Ch\)OOlnl ~11I9'!C~l~, (fig,· imcm,~~i:bo.;md'5' ;;mel l'\,"'JC(..ll~(lr,;: •. f,or e:.... rnnplc" in 4!S). Sgm;:;,~u~h ~ Wnt ~~l~! rri:rc7J~·ro~ioo f(iF ~iw.'1~~i!]~. !l~~ iI11~J:r!ttio~~f.i Q1f p!iL'l\l;;:i~.~ (SfRr) •. D 111pl!31MP.~!~~'i!1!, ~ (llOl~i~~ ~!w ~~ m ;,w:;:' typ;; .! Ilm "hi(i":!O Wi!ll Ill!) .jl.0I.1Uljo1'Y to I~m![;il)." 1II~t::i~lqi cyt'Pt;olic C0i!l1Ipo:i1L;',n,S ~.t;~l1;;ohI~(ir~1;l.(l(';, ' S
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ooluhilcl:mce cakillil~Hldli'>laled d'l:iiJlllcll' 011' l.)IIlC I'll mnehics {SlIch a,.. vohage<!cp!!.'ilKlc:nl. ~<lkilUln c!mmlC:.~ (.1l2l@8il!btmiU. '!f.II'lOU$~TIpo:!lC1m, !:If ~hed)":'lf:Qphi!1·'Il,'l\i{J!Ci.uaoo p!OlL.:in ~0l11Ph.'x (DPe) iJl.l1i!l~~II~okml'ili!,Q Sl:lch :;JsclY1illIOphir~. s.~'I~llt!rhU.l.
~y!lJtIi('lhJe\11Jl. <llId fh«OLIitIJ.g.I.)I'C'lm
n(ll~'il.~li~.>O:l:hcr ~!!coI1~~m :p~cjn;"

:m::~)'pc I '~~~Ylltl Il nn\\\t.~li~ :>Wlcha~ !'!Cbulijn ,Iud uU~Jn<:!I:i1!.di!~). 011'1. Ot.'>:. ..lind ,lthOOb!~!iL1C~ cO)n l:J;.:U.I';''('d III uuci(;1lt '~lb~lofiie g'M~ wilh Ill",,&(! $i.~mnillre Tillis div~r.>ily o.faJigiL'i$ Or.~lWS \~,mll\l!ll:;:; uilihe do;u'W~m;;. Sma;le UliG !1iO'IIc1puirijrilgS of ~mden:[ lIi~limJiil]S£IJIl:lr syiVl.e!ti MmSe,q; llIiat m-~inig U~C
d[)m>.i~!'Ill;(such
:IS Ill.~irup'.~lin and

UM.:hDll1lClohoN.

(;'\'ollJtki:u of nerves ~md muscle wil~lliiCqllire

leiUmeil:afll.C!l1!nElfll::e8tm ..

of df.y8l!Jlprnl81nlil~.s.1gnali'ng pi1llhw~y tilmpOO.Gflts:'iI'dE\rmI~nh BF.lK, e.:dr;a:celMar ~g"<ll~,u!a~oo! ~na&ll!;MEK, .MtAPK
.3; APe, am:l:p~~proIill1lM!I (0f'!11~~):; lirl!n~rnpti,OIlI lacoo r; II; A!O.MltffiO\,<I dirilllt'egrilili!llil~1 melEi~ropmf&:lse

lDFI1!.Elr, T ,celil f.. rt{ll'ilylllilph.akli !!fI!liIaluer factor; :An, l!~llRg
Ai('u!R2" i!lcliil,i\il'l l\elf'lPto'~lype

kfn\l;re; G5K3., g1_y.mgelil ~,)!i1IU1a~lki~~

dlo.llI'IaJiI110; PEN!2, presi!mlmn Ilnl11JrKef 2';SYK, .lli1!fl!JjI'O:Sioo kil'lat5~; IGF,.lns~linF likE!! '~m.llIIIfa:cmr; PflEN" plm~philtl~ anat'en:ill11 &UHI»l'a£l:' 61Pa£El'" 9111illlillsilill!! itri..ph(t&llh;3ta~ :5IiIp'pr~~1' !Olf .:yI!olrim!e .s1i!Ji'lQ1in.'!Ji tIUIUN~1dB. rd(llk!i;fi;· dlothel!ia@i~~ril~ OmO!,l,el'l@fll1ludel1[raw KB; NEAIIi,mldBl:lr Iracltor of adillatedl I (el1S;S1AT5, signal transirll!lCfU amla!tiitila.tms of nalliocnptiCln 5.

socs,

~l1!tl!~~i!li..1lphc!l; !!:ily~(!I,lrl
'~'Ifil~ :li{!cre~erl r.riZl~d ull.nelll

(orl~ag!e>1'I.: nt~egriiiil·p.; Fak: ~
]:1.1111

Talfii'l,~ Viiilcu'lin; pa :tiUlill; lias: Grb2; 50S,; Rap; 1[R!I(;MIlK" {;~.k:
~~~~f!!ni,i'I;

r.. c::~ms;friz.derl;

stI'ilbl;Sffi'UiW<lfII

,gogh liype

Oidk~~Il'~ (Hrr~ (n;~lileio!l!Ued;i31'!:ijtl

GSKl: APt; TCfIlEIF;
gmm:l1o

DppfRMP; ~diYin; ~1F@mlin; Ic:hordlil'!;kll~'i:stii!iffrli!; R:~SMlAlI:

I~

r~ooiPl~r~~.rG~i1Rl"

!-SIMD; ~~SMAO

IIJMIP'R.1A;A.lFIJll!lilBi; ~i'lClIN

fyp,f II Imcepum.: AOfR2, llMPR.2

]!g99~d: d~tt~:«;~niil1,~~; IPr,~~f)lllilil'll;
AJDAM1(l; IIIiea sti1ll1~ fu~i'in.; A!ph'1; PEN2; ma~l:erm~i:'Id

,i'i'I~:iJlilneooIPtor S'L1bslraile~ r phQ>5p:h:C)in,(i!~'tiltdll'·,l-k'iiila£e,

ImlJl:l'in ~e(epl~rIU:J'F;' pil'loo,phrQ~n,(io~tliiCIe·,3,-

,.atal)l1tic

k~n'ase. dass2 FG,r:R; IFtI!!S,pMt~i!'ll iI;(:Ii"'Qt~r.: ph()lOph(l'~ipase (--y.
pl1JM pl1JoJn,o<~lilll£le·.3:~ Iklil'lia1S~', cl.a~s .2; lPM~e'iiil ik~,i'ba:se CI.

pnmphMiilQ!5lt~d'~3,..mi'la~, d:!l51ii 3; pilloliiphol iilO~]Ii:de·;~Hidl1iitile., mgulat:il!.ry :!ill~ui'lfil; ~pillollptHlino:5itide-aep.endieillt pr(lte1iil

killlo1:iJe·l,; P1i'EN
R~f Ihom{l'logl 5~.rrii1,~/~I1i~o'ii'lil1.e~p.r(l~~lli'l ~ina~e: Rlas 1G1i!~$e aniviM:iii'lQ pm!~fi'l II!'!!o~tkll, J!.4.5·tlilO'nosph<lte !"'@(~lPtr,m50C:S~ '~~lrQ:s~i!'l~
'g!JI!!I1~~e f1l,11d~gijg'i.l !;ii~[!g~flg

MAPK.: pho~llho,inl)sitide-3·kirl!:!se. (il\il!o'S 3; Grb2'; I~roooi.!'l ki!1li1sQ' (; $ioS; .Jltac

f,!!rgtl;lill! y;
Plgl~~iiI

~g!!lI~~g.F .g~ 'G-

Ad~i!1~~t~ (¥d~rS!!'5f6; 5i:A:T5; ATf!J!JI'!l

(0(42
pr(lt~ijl1l

bill <lh'!91

l:i1l1!a~

tiiigM~~~9;

IFtI~lJJN ~&:::~;I~FA"1i

92.

RESEARCH ARTICLES
demnedl
(}m:"H~~I!;~ Ihe 11:1

$I\!dics Qf'~hc :1,l:!I1,c([:on;:,. of~h~(gc!1,es: in base or the 111l;l~<w..wn ~~e.

as ,,~d, as the: 'Q~ geI1IC sct 1lI.~~t'N to C1>l~Utl;;' ~ph!:>.iicmw '1OOr.Jl.~ "lid nw~wl!ilr f~!~irlll, TIll:
,m~~t~r!md
blgc;:l{s

'Ce,rndiliding Rel!l1l'ari~ ~o~II]~'r .~ I~.lt; n~~xkn~ hl,lI~~'~'~ .;;II1~, ~i~¢:~m}lt~ ~ltJlltt~'lS,-iJ'li,': ,nlll~i I!;JlfWili.]~Oj'l"¢I'I,¢.d, syllt(ll,y Mt,d~~l .u~UI1 .... tlgt'I:lt)lth~::i rQt:.rJ.iU'l fd!l!'~~, illhi,:-n;IJ(I Gll!!lsOCie pm~Olic: ~~mn.<;" \Vh~i!'C'/lS rl'll!!~tn i:cs ffnm :tti1~ Cl!irllil~!!1mui;;ui~!;;'sl,Gr I41mt ha\!L;; ~I cl!!bomt1:.iJ GUT~U~d~O~l~i'iii~' OVCl!iI.",ri~,t~1 b)l~ .u:!d !>!'Iii trlL;T'lli!.1!~~ Iw\'C pmw;11 nXll be ("'l\qLli~~1.I.i (i;UIm:;qUi"iU. !r..'f\Ioll)I~imUIIY dilhom~if.i'JiIi,~jd si~]iPlilij~ tlbtll;ld $~cem~, fi:!:r d:i'-'."iiL,r(:lil1gthe gl1iCiic WlI."pilii'iin,:g:> of 111it'ill~0i1ti de,!~lopi~'ib1ital]d p~I)1~iQI!J;. C'tllliOil:>" I !~. \\'to COi~~Jf(1I1 '~he !5~'I'IGim'i~ o~1'LIte ~'.[u anenone Wil~ldiiJ,l'(;'i'M! lJJallll~i911~.~t~ ro ii~rer Ithc g),. ~lcir.~i:iOl'i'l!..':S1Lre relmivdJ' [pilOi'l'li'i kieli> for the eOi~~i11. r~l.d ~i z;ulaon Oflhc g~ml1nC' or lIJ'iC IliteCSiUflll wI1lllClr~i1, !;i,cilo~ne. hll,vii:il;; Irn;~ illlID~i>, C111f];i~azo.1n !lI)Cc~{)r and jo lraoe rt~~c:j)rigi~t~or g~e:;. IUtd ~11J;! .~hiikil!L\~. l11C Ci.Ul11c!nzoonjijjl~iOl'PO~"'rod, 1n()i'C Illan !tmiquely!mimal fc<um~':iL ~~llmUilnyw'l:r.>, Ihe OInl.;'CSIr.'i,lsammc: wa~ IIDI, lID dilfcrclllt rmm, Ol1L'S; 150111 gem~l ~hat a:tt:' <lPl'l<lrel1n:~y 11.0'\.el I'clmivc 10 ii, '\'li'O!lS il~tron-rich and rolmil1l~1 .. 'l!), cOlnl~le[e oIlier '-'li~krnyotic!;:il~CJmns, So!IDI);l,~re iti!~ I'c u I\;"SLl~l of don~in :J~uming. bri~,ghlg 1(!Jll!!~lll!r,on!il!o!nl1tulinai ~ooLki~ fbr omin1"~bioC:he~uim:ry rule] dC\lcIOl,'l!1l1cnl!.. i>[¢!1li nc,'I;\ ctut'!h~l1rr!ionsof d()J11<tius !li!<il aK'~Iru'('d 'whidhcM 1m\\! be rttog!~~-da~ P'lll:l-('!!.lrIIll;,;'1'~II:],

Qf UI~k1,;'d ~I~

Ul!U

ri;n~~!1

,or

,vilh OIhr::r !i!UK;.1zyQie.'), B'liIIt !lImn}' .<Iul~m"T~~inc cQ;nmin~~lJe.~~C1.~wh1il :vlo~'dg.~ n.,"OOg'" ~ili!nl)~ o;:'!~n~l,;!p~:i'iCitu~~it:,1~9f,[t~li!I~ .. I~ !i1~ ~l~y h~w ari...!,,1;~ by :'i,l"lqll\)ll~~ dh~n~~ fnu~l @.11~~iI;.1Ul l".'1!IIkaJ~inc!WI1.t.'l'.. hLli.nhc i.mi~, 'rJl~roj by d~1I,;1l io,; lime. Ai d11l'l1l:!;;1l.'~w ean (;nWl;llyilc<;,>l~~~ o:rig~ns lire Qr 'thooL.: ~'i!lt,,";\i to Ihl;:' '~llm~"IO'_Q~J:UI ~t~Ju. 'tlli:~
W'm
1'(;:j]i]1Ii!t~ ~OI1l1cwL1fU! i;.!li~ui~!Yilltg. gCitQiiiilt.... 'l

I

of ~~,~ fl!.1~d~.r~t'.,,,will IIIJow

rlat'J.'lZ.illni~,. Liiid (hC!m~[)< nUll\'! ~n:~i;'IC timing O'FI.he

n~~OrlJI«IJ1~~lTig

ori~ilili> and divCl'l>ifical:i.ol'lof ilmoch:1ill1 I.ru11lliCi!l!ilOOi], gt..,terruni~,ii~" lun 'this, win nm dirc.cl:~'y rov~j~~he ~n~dmni::llim Cor 1'L<i.."'I~ 1b'Ol1C <crcmlio~l. Pi'Csmnllbly. ~nim:y of 111 umvchic... wIn llIIltirmll.~y be tr.:u:,ecl esc ~,!Ck" dmH.a~h doep ''ieC],ltcYl'CC or !l.tli!.l~'lliraI ,oon\~(!jr~
i\\{i~~S. II ,i!llcj~n:t ,!:!,en~ ~hil~ I l!Jlde"'\I!OI1~ c!!'Itteme

·li!~k c'Ving··

VI J'.

liillb le .3:. Ovijg~lrlS;1lfl'~Ll!!nedl me:tazoan pm()~!l.@$inrIM'@d 'in the ,~,[Jllnel:a:loan ! ,ilIn(es!or .CREB. cydi!: <!d:@nooml@ 3: ',~S. =lhOfliOplwsph<!!tl! response @b:lrill@l'It'= i:l~n;dirlg piroil~ii~; I4I~F.hypoxia-illld'lIu:1.~e Iadio.r; CIE5.~ arn~®)i,~l€Srems:e;iMP, ( '!Jl!I'anl(l~ine .;rS-iifi(lIilO'lfho~~half; T'N.If,.~lJm(lf IIlOO'oois; ~'aot.or; OOK, II!! ceU ~~~~m.r~Ylilllplflo~g 2~-:r,~latedov~lril!p'Q :k,j'lL~r.G,UIWP.ef!9~lrmt~U ;l!dI~plwr PTI3 ,dQ:maillil 'CCI!il!a~rong; C'RA,IJ[IiJ .• 'ca~jla~~ 2 amid reQ~p!D~inltNadif19 :5.er1~e·lhll~llliil~ k~ria~ d~maiill~n,t(iiFiif1~ adaptQf ~'th dil'ath d(im~~lft FMR, fr(i!giJt~X mMtal

r~taindatilll'li ~yndrom~ aWJ!), '~aspaSle! r@J:mihelilt oolffilail'l ~"nI11,ly;SRGJ'l,P;Slfit-, IRooo Rho G1'Pas.E!1tcDhratirlgl Iprot!il1~ ilTlNfRS r, "l'NlF If'@(!!ptor sapE!ilflllmJ~lly;"l'AAf, 1rNFr~(:epl!®f-i!l500daterl ri!t(l®r;5M,rrm.,5I1Iii!l~L IiIb~lJitil'll-reldtm modiftfr.; IJMB1~ l~eUi!. l(3)m~Ugn~!'It biraml UilI'n(JI~ prroWIiI,l1om()Io~; St{~ sa~m~ 'ti~alOfl(og.e'li!e .
hOOftQ!o~,

Ap·2, .a(iUj"'~ljIil~

IPr@!I~:hilr!2;

Mr',

IlIiIlJiS~l.d.oI1!P'O'fiI,liL!wd·( br!illS;m;:OfirnII ~

O!lu:ogell!i;! hQIllQlo.g; CEIP',OtE!l!-tbill!ding mYE!m~duanslocatkl~Fi gi!i'l~ 8,

pr'@~~Ill; OWMT'GS, e~l1lY ~\velilty Q~ef

H!!S;; Gem.; Ephrin;

M~!n1n; SE!rIIl.. ~h.D'illg; dil~hs9I1id; skii 'Olllc:og,ene

N.l:lllCh: tIIGFR; Dsh:

.1'i[:I:; (REEJ::~.lF; neura'limd

fhleu~(lpilf.rl;U'l~ ep~H'ii1il ue(~p'tDr

su Qtidfhox;

Sirl9l1e-rnhlldedlIflIIF.; acll1ia.ete-1l(:Uu~; ey'!l'; En1!!:;mp~ Jag/get Il)eU~ Ir.x.;
s:tG.Ila.'li'nelilroWII1G!iLlrllG,

r,a-'1kuwn GtUlamaile'rrece,~o,r;~ynap~:atalglfil~n:

N,itric midl' $lJiI1~h1j;se b~@!J!QnI!i!!Ui!doi!pt~r r proteIn,; [lOPA-1l !IIlonOOC~~,~li!iliSl'!; Sivr'!(!p~i)c
~ral~~i'I'iis'Shli'iII

(,g'ldufiT1l dillpUJ~l '~Q~I;1g(Hj'(!P~l'!d~El'JU p; sY,i1t~pl1lin: syl1laptG:Jpih/!jsilil; i!~uoptJii": ~otill$.$iuml ~rge !C!OJ1IdU(~alil(ea:~ciu~ c adf,va~e(! dli!llmll~l, :subfamily oM 11 INelirlin~ d)errll1latopo nlil1l; :5l!Il1I<llP.holnirt; gllypTica iii: st.e,~ood tii'l

CIlQliru~;rgiic 1lI~~.p~or,
I:lic®tin~(; !lI~liire\'!;iil!

1(·~'01M9~g~(ii cliiail!ru~!; di~('!; 1.a119li!

inter.s,eclin;svrnapsin';

neu mUI!ll~rMCiES; :5,ynita:r.ilil; g~ut .. matE! n:aJlill.Oplllrter

.MidogE!1~; stalbUin:; b:tra(:e~lul..r mnatiffix
Ciolii31gle;n;5,pondjn; IiIl:lumpilirt;
lIli'IilIliri!l!

ii31mil'lilil

metallll,prote.ai5e; tliUombospo.lildili'l

lJe:p~e(a:n~IiIlrkro{ibriUam-l:lissodateo pro~e,liil

lig ~Ui'UI9cticm
prolle~lll

'V'()~ta!9:e·d'elle,ndel1lt
v()ttag,e-d',miPMi:lel1lt (a~dulil1l (ilISlilUild j}. prsiilK!og!~yGan.~"dysJtrobr~"mn

Ch(llin~tgf:c rel;)~:~n~r, 9~(otinl:G I1:e\DuLiI'l; trn:pClifil,)!,Minl;
(aipolllinll:ramlgelil1l

c.aldliJm ehan ne~ 112m subil!ri!l'~;if!~lll)l

'~cl;l)hQ,PIf!,Ui? J'OO~I~WG (al,dlllli Oi!cti'l!'~t~d
POl~$Slullm dl~IM1Ie~ r>tOIfi'(iQt..<e

f'!I'I(lspMfy~i;liS'~ kiogs.e,; lfIlyo$if]1 Ilig",t <c1fl~il1l (yiiop'[aslIlIi<; ca !dum, dlalnln~i alilP~~ SUinjf1I~I; c.GMP"depend:ent protein, kirna5~~ ,(:a:h::iuliiIlcail1lmdlulind'eiPe-ndeliit k:imatll~ III~ myCilsin

re.gltdatory li;ght. chainl
dilii$·$

iN 1=5'1011.1; IBd2., E!O~; 'GULf';
CIlkA.[llO; '~a,spl1se 'grrowtharR'st and IDNA& da mdig,~rll1;dl!JdMe; [H\lArra'gfiil~lilt~lil(llii fa.ctor 40~~I[l SUbLllillt; illlt.erieillkilli ~fiha!IilCer-b]liUii r1~fa(tor :3; F,M!!:
IJtl'IIBi; 'r"~(I~;N'l,I~!~~~ l~o~Ill!,~n,~ ;~~c,~pN)r,~ SI'lU"1D;d~ch$und,~ 91Cil1l~

Mo,

rl4eurn,na:t il,poc,~~oois:
'il1lh~I~I.O,rylP~o~e-11il;'CJI~[l9rJl:lt.

1rNFRS,F;irmilIFt ~ca'ifelilger Ire~e:pt(llr e:.~ .~IJW!ll~liIgtff'n~,I1i~iral'til\1gp:.~,Wij·!'I,; pr~grarilllimed ,I;)~U.,de,al~ Us.; !Bd2" i3iS$ociiltedl aUlilIl1i091iflileJ AIkt; SILIM:O; de~eliliil'tCiI' g..a~iut Cle,Ud,eath 1; a

a ~,p~osi5-llitdlldiil!!i f.a(tor~like' mi~ocil;oi'll1riofh1ss'\Q,datlld 'iIlO"L1cer 0" Q:e\llh; deEliI;n,as:oo-c:iaJtlliQ p:ro~eill'l kina~

JI~iril'llssi mi!de-<l!"pr~~e'i" (iBPl'p300,,;
gf'Qi!!!I(~@:

r'~~p~ri3il'Ol)' fad!or,; SK~famil:r. 'SIPmut.y; AP-t!; ®lite(!Ult;
l!IW-re~Ili~:ed

rI4 F~AT;Iil ocj~ea[

IEll)tM1iGam~p!'Y; .lluf!~ Ilit)'itt; Ifilj!il1J $Tt\.'!'

95~ !.11Mh~H!jl<e~!bQ:l!; CiCAA'!iil'~Il,;!!~!I;~r
bh14i1'!9~ .;I!)'~ liiy!lilF(iC'~,rIb<(l1il ~(~ptgr r,~Latll:d

Zl(; GI.'i; hQm~Qbg~

WUIIfI,; a(jll~illt~"

~~jlh~J ~ox:; f,~liill~IbUat$~Dm'!;I1ndnltg b, pro~e:ilil 5/8; NFKil"ireiUated; ti'JrueppeU. Gl.lfI:i! type zinc ringe;r; Irx; Deit~.e)J;

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
'fheamll.'!1lo7;;o>!ll. ~~ro,gcnil,or\1i.';!iS !I11\lP;: Ibmjt1~ ~ OO~.I~l&9nOr~fr~~' Howdid ~tt:~~!lW nmljl(;llr~ ~~"1;1_~CT\"ii.hi~l ~1~ ,~1J;l\;c.~(! u~!rptiW!.ut'G"}'. \\·;c ~'I]!f1r~~d ~l~~"':!:l~nc'hl,il1m~ll\\,nril" W~il? and I)UQr~j.ll"~II1t~rlryillli~I".M;-,j:i[)ll" ru'id !I1~IWorks., This is pmiCIl,d,1r1}, \'c.." ...i!1l!l :IS il is ~~"'OOnli!!g d~N~cia'll:r giv~l] !ilJi;' "Pip!M;;.~UWlI~i¥m(IIl'ilY of Irh~ i:.'l.Iit'i(1a;.fo,[u'i ~l:I:i,-d1.~ll gtille""l~Jllml:l!)" e~~1I1i,J¥,.~
~4. A. Al:laut~~ 29 (2,oo'ifJ.

'~l

f'~,a1., i'ffx.~: ~coJi1!'J. m U SJt!l!l",1!4 $~ 12'0000. ]~~ W. r, wolf, r, ~. Rl1'gclin,. it V, lK"aoofn, ,GM"m.~.rittS, 1~.

,6::1.
,6~. ,6<1. ,65. '66,

em'i .m!liO

1:'i~!Iy3

ctlt~I!"JJlrole ii] g;::~rtI1lillgliO\l~]tiic;:;..

36-. IF.D. OOl;i!rel~ d .uI., SriMf,~3:1:.1l... lG83 tNM}, I, 'lI'. OIM t\lilL.~ .. 1!liM. ;248,. :l!~ (~Zl. 33. lIt J. Ftlt'llilliion ft aL, Pro e, ~ll. .~m.t xl. CJ.U. ~.oil" ~)3q(~OO4), 3~. I~l ~~. Eo.Pc S~l~ E..1lii!Jiii.SI:!!,IF. DeI~~ lit f':IiIep~,. fmc; M~iI,. AoorI.. US.A.1Cl, LH86 (;l0041, 40. ]L It :~ltiir~!'I, . lit ~iug!, J. lit ~I'mem)';Gfnatne A

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n~lat(' t:u~~ "illiI1I1WI\.;, 1(](;',lIioll in lhL:l

relili()lm~, lh is;:mady did ~l'DotdiY1CCll}i test the ~flk of '~heIEC=ilnG=>C.A3 cilfClliliu inooil~I'\iinE1u1

.1i,nd ~l~'1y~ioIDg;ell~, Si~pim.l'O!lniorl, [!lor propose n rnncchrubliSirIl liJrlhc precess. Geliteratilllg dell'ltrllte gYl1l!1S 9 ra.l'lulle ,ceml5poci~( IfilJlMDAI~e{:ept®'r knockout ~iiQe. II~ cee of ~\1'Ctil1 mouse lines tlsing :I pr.oo;pklrnda1lO= ontin (POMC)-I;mcJl~J1~SiI 1tifidllJI chroll1l.o..i){)!~ne 8
C",~O& s

1'C'000JI1ibimL'\I1! ,(27)., iiJlg \!'1i~h IlacZrqxm:cr mlcc ~Rom26'I'l,l.j)l rcvc<lk-d robust Cre·loKPI'CCol11b imll~ ian itl[mhc DG .Simnule eell {Gel 13,~r ]hn::m2hrnud~lc

w drive C'xpression or~hc ere

dOl::'.mlt\!cIJl~1 ...",[s

(rig. ~.A. HI Dj. 'wIth

summer

reoombjmn~on iIII ~IC a~~IlUC :ml!C leus oflh:c !~Ylm1h;1l:~;nln!~,!he I<!ll;m~ 11!"bf:n~dOlfm..\:k.'\I~"
liL'i'!' ~o,'I,~r IlMihllE 'fM' 1Le3lil1ing aiiKIl MelIOOIY, RlKENFMJV IN«!FO'<ii;l~e ~~ptlil Gro~r:. l~elilQ!'tme!!'ilt aio~ <lim! ,or
D~1lIm1Oftt !!If IB!'l!1ln0I1~dCogm~iI!l! S';rr~U!Jii ~d1w~'!;l; !I!!&ioo'logr, CambridgE;. MJln2i~. U~ ~HDfi1lrd 1h1i1i!JIii.'~ eCI(;!i! &irnUute, Ma,~OO!>en~ In~ihil:e 011T;ecmllld· M (9)'; Camibifi., M!l\!i)ZH9,I.:ISI\. ![l~r~'n~nto~ ii'~yr!lItd!ogy" '
,lnSti:rutf"gf

1!.!il1li~ef.iwof c~~ifllf1ni>3e9Lo~iIlQ~les" ILos ~l.er.. 1 ClI 910005" ILI~. 1DMIStoo,af Er:u:l!lalno~. iHOlMFd;,~I~I.ScIioo!., IBeeh 1!~1ael~c:oo~~ Mt'di~ Cill~r, B~~ MA. 02:2 1:5, USA '·Th~ Ol'i!lhi1llS cQ:m!tibu~~dleq(!.r.l!lIy tltls ~t. W tPI1l5e!lI; .iIlIclI~~~$~ iJ;~;a!itmJ~m 01' Physio'ki<W. Ufllorersity tlIf 8;~~IIlI, a:ri~tolIS$8 11[10, UK. tPre:lEmJl ~ddfess: rnvii~iamlof 1M@['l'ud,u Psydlia~~: 'l'lile Uni·

~fmi.)';N~lNli!lillfm, a

96;S{lS,

§P!1l~~[ ,1!d'dIr,e~ 'uelilrer

Itrpoll.alrml( Re!e~Fm,U~· ~·~i~~ gf T~$ SOO1!1I1i'l~~~U1!!! M~~~L (enter. ~~~, 'Jr.!: lSl90. U5.!\ IilJo whom CO!lespoflde!'tce' 5ho~td be <!d'dre~ed[:"~ait
t~lIW ..@m'IAM:I1l

rov

~SA.

~e((Ji!!l1!bi:"aU(lil1 iill! GAI)·67"'1Pos.ilthl'e ii'lhi'~ittlry i!H~l!IrrlI'lS,I~I'Ith,S! bQlt~m rig~lt ooriru~r o~ eac~lrig~r~ii~ m!agli1lifiedli:l'I1ii1g.e'ClI~ sel!!',~rillc.l!ll:sinl the I!Ipp!l!'r b~ad!! of the lOG shcmrii'ng thl! separail:ion of th~ gl!'BellIlillli1ld red S'i~ub. ~L .~() m) Mter illl.j;e:cliol'!l ®f brmift()deoxyUlridiim~ (BrdLa)<into a i~-week·o~d Imaiw PCU"I:C·(ln~'flOSA_26 ,I!lIQl;Illl!le'"traiils;gemi~~ m(ll.l~. brailfll :s~(ti,~l'Is were'im(llgedby (()lfljr(lcal Il!llcWSC'OPY. To the "'l1!ht ,of I~ac:hl l,Ox image (Ire tthr,ee :s~nglle (Iellsiimage:dl ell 6i3K <'I'l the: :i!leSlllion:s1111 It~e lOx imag~ ~~bel~d ithlihe {(lrrre~(iPiidil"l91 ill! umb~r. .s~iilgt~ :5tafl'!ling ·~i:l.h(L) a tllHHia,1 (Cy3. w I"ed~ ,,,fld (~~)!!n~~~BlrI!ilU (m~rk~f Qr nemy Ib@fPl C!.lUs: :1~~Fl~liJIF4~Ul, A !ilr,~eirt). (~) The QijJi::rl.:!lp~f' tl1~ glr',een i1Imi reid! siglrl<llI,]1'1 ,oe/lls.lil1lllgecl ]l1dktl~e~ tlhllt ret:Il'mbimaJtion ,tH;t:ursin nffivly bill:rm nelll[OIm' the i ahil!r~he~y rt!<I{1iI th GC !ayer ..
ill

IFig., 1.. B:a~5~ ~e...t.liUe'5: or POMC·Cr<e'~ran~S!'Bnf:(liI1Ike. c (A) imil'ge (IX m<llgnllr]call:"n) Q,f I}g~ ~a(,~id.!;I$r: (I}-fj~n ~..'!;l:Dr~s~i(ln iIi! ill :m,2-'1O'!1eek·,J)k1 POM~·Cne/IRO~A~~, dlllllb!~·ha I1ISgel'!~C fIiIOlJl're sit:rirrl.E!1:I \'Ii~R' X-Gall am:!1 l'IIu![~.el1lrfiut red, (8 to li)ij' A.ni~i-~'Gii!t ]mI m UiflCI1~ i stodtemk,a ~ {lx,imagles viSiualile~ \!IithCy]" Iredl' !It.,iiliiin:gsjli[l\yjn:~1 eXl!)rl'''Is,liclll11in <I]!6~~e~·;oldll~OMC·(re/RCtSA26 ,dOlllbl,eUa!llsg:~J1Ik ~ouseiJilI ~hree (o~o!'!al $Ill(tnQ~Stake!i! ;lh)f!I~ thj~ rosuo",~ail.!daJl.;!1)l1jS ~.~. lhef~:[1~bro:liln, (I ibe K) Il!li1m:I.!InQn~H~resoolll(@! Mi.!lnin ~ ef (Qron.ililS!oct~om~ 'cnf a 2C)'·we!!k,otdl POMC·Cr,@JIRQs'A26 dOliJ ble·tral'lsgi~nll(. mouse. :5:ifllg1e (>ta:in'ill!g wiith (l;) ,i1IflilH\I~e~ INI (11'I~UrOllaI lillUllrk~r; AtexalW ~m!lIr 555. I'I~dI.4>d, '~r.~' ,(!!'!tJirfi"'GI;::d hniuker lJi~ {in~ r@w!lr!lbiPil,alio,ll; ,arniPilorrll~ti~ft(OU!l'h;Hi:r1;. blule, ,bl and (G) 'Hlli-dOOI~ (.gnat ~eIIIII'llIHkelr; f1l11Cl1re:!looirll~Q'tmioc;y>Cinare, ~lr'eel1l:. 4x),. (~O' A 4x mlerge off (E). (Ft OInd U]~ im:lkaitilll,g that. t~,e ()f!'-lo~IP ~ec.QIlil1lbjRiltiolili!> re~tri1cte!li to~he n.e'llImn,s inl the M;.~n~et is a :&:0;:.; ]rnagl!! IClf~he OG. (I ~oIKI Sfngl.e $~tt]nililg 'Wi~h 1(111) iililliF{3·Gail (Alle~flliJ'iJf4:E18, 9ree~, 20x)an,(:I ij) an <lmlli·GA.D6i (lmaril€'r Qlriiflhibl1lmy lIiIeUr®IlS; Cy3, red, 2:0",,), (I{) A merge Oir (1)1 ilrHi (J), illl,dlkat~llg no

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
DG·Nlil:ll IK(JI mi(e. (Ale, F} ~l'ir'Ia,ges 'l'If !l:()'~~:fIal S@C~OfIiS afiler ilfl siLu hlt'

IF'lg. ~.

a~~c f~hm~s ,~r
..mill
a

bridizaOOlil1

~i3ibeled N n dJI)!JIA probe,. {A) D,uk.;Held fmOlge (1x IiIli1gmric:altol'l')of 0:

~~p..

!l1iIi'dbralJi!

,Cj!kIjNIlI,], c~I~~r(i1 male,; {B) Ix ~m~~!!OIf a :mi~

'~@rof1aI sec" lion! (rQIlfI,il! 20·1!'I'~i'k-

brai n! u:m:mill, ~dion rlrOfil1a ~lI@!Il!~o!dlll:)l3i· NRJIl m m~~'@. ~ft'!g:e (0 (4x: magn~~kaH®n) of !he ~~Il,p@Calrnpu~ rrmm 'Qontrut liIliOUl!ilil'; ~D} 4>:: im~geo '(ilf the 1m I1Itanlt

m:e

NllfI:1, wllS~np~is ~e~~ ~~difk03,~lVi" the DGI 'lJ~nLf&< (ell ~@I" ]1fI 1It~ lIIiIutmtt mUi~. Lk.JIl~4iie\lciI imag,e !l)f (E) ili~,tNIIU, hl:PPOC<lllf1lplIIsan!1!l(f) lihe DG·IN in 11<0M~p®(ampIM' reve'o'll no cihall.'ges,in ~hll 'Qro~50tfL!!dllll',e- of ~h~ h]pp'Ot;;o'lmplJl~" ~G and 1iiI) IlllIlml1lnohi~t:o(~emka[ taoo,lirug (Ffill Il 1M protein (viiSIII.a ~ize!l!l\¥ii~'h ,AI.exalrlol1lr R:l!, ,48@,4x)if:l th'e hlip,p~(!ilmWltl!!SQ:~'(1';),) af~'U,~liililf!al a~ l:~4.lj~e:k!$I)'f~gr: ,and '(i~) aJ D'Gr!Nl Rll<Oi lijllt~~m~t~. There is o(ntrl,~leteo ali'!dSlp~:{Uic w$:~li)fl~'he receptor fn lh~ deli!late g)llfUl$ Qif the 1(0 mOI1l~. '~Ialnd J Timrrliil~ l~tainiirug of th@ mo~ r'ib~lr F,)athwa.V~!fq '~I~~ 2~1!'!'~@k"!)~~/NRl m(l~~ ~F!d al ~!,lJtali!t lit.t~~M~U~

UiliOWe~p'~mptls.

1h~

m

n!l) dhangl',~ nil theS-!ructurll 'CDf the DG o!lltp'llllsasa r'f5.'lIlt of the (II( to IN} In 5,]1111 l1~br~diol1ltiOI1w,~h the NRipr:obe dJilii nlltirlidh;;",~e- 0111 r,edu'!lied NRm mRNIA ~~evel. ,e~!rewl'l'e'Nl'~1l tlile brains Clf tliH1 kIDlO,clt::olUtlil1lke. 1~~~lli!1i~~'li(l!i!1 d!ark·ri~ld liiflage5 (If t~~h~ habelil!,lll~r n~de~,;@'fi1l ~(I. ~~111>:; w\E!ek-o!ldl flN!tI.. 'i:iolll~r,ol ill1Ilimat a IIIdl(ft.} ,[I DG·NU 11<.0iitl)e'rl!l1\i1~'e,illil~ (MI)th~ l a~~uat~ flu:del!l~ of !l;Q1ntmll al1l,d (NI) DG· N Rm K'D motltlle,r'O!,llllld 11'1(1 diffl:!'rEil'lce'i iii ~he a'b~ ~d~fI(e ,C!f th~ tiiaf!S(lript fF! (lither lfl'lgiolF!il1! the nilUt;!lilt n11:m. rl~ealetl
rJIIIL!tat~'(II11.,

,A,

i,~ ,~ ,o,~------':j!

f~, ..
g,

~'!.I:I ,Ii ~(H,IJi.'i

m

'':;~IO
p:;
"ii,

_al

=~ :iIIO'

;,lJfC~!alC

,-'IDO .
~ ,~.I--"":"'':::::::::~~o!l
g

ID:Y'I",l'I'ddJDcells (fi,g. 2. C I\tl, H. <lndi Ii.!!, 81 ~. dlC uuelcus (lflh~ l1ypothaJlil1lUls. IJCOC(ll1c.."l. or lh~~mbC'11W111,~r !1utllcl!II~ (Fi~- 2, K II[) N) . FUIF1:i~~;rnitam.w~ did nII)l dC~i;(~1 :Ill}' ch>1li1gJ,."S ill! octuvory, tt'(:di~:lg.~p:~odlJc~Vl:,o:r P<lrenl,l~hchll\'i

:~

'0 :B' ~mwlti~~fij U'iillili'ili!i~ (~

..

'MI' 1IT!1~~J!!:ni!J!~!!; ~n!!!'r~V

'lliIii!'

'~ms')

iersin ant ]]{j·N R I. KClank:c, orufIDOOy\vcighl. ilIltdc:.r fruc.I'(."edill,g or rood·re..'\trllC'liC'd eOi[Qd~ltGUI> 52}, P'en'fonllnit p.iI'~'Il-delltatie 9)truiS, sYIiI!apilic: tli\OlllllSIIl1lsslolilland' plasil'lcirty., We examined i'nl \"i\~o sYlmrptit U<ll~sll,is;sk}.n lind, ~)I<lt'~;:~ in the' h I)' h~~pC!C.\'lJtl'IiPtlSirrulCSthcti:u;:d DQ·M,tl~O mice o :,mclOOn;l;l'l)~ lim:mmalcs C1r20 ~o 24· weeks age. Wilen lJ'ofC s\im.uI<ll~cdl~lC perl<:u:mnp<Ulh I PP) H~ld

Im~,

or

rc:COl,Xl!Xl, "'~15 II
'1~ T!iIU!~m!'n)

:~!I

.~~;

II

'JI1'i:!!! (mIra

'~15i

~,

h~ til:)', we round

Fr1iig J. IIiiI vivo ~Yl'!<lp,ti( transm~ssim'l nd pla,stnility ,of tl1e Dij·N'li!l ,KO mli(e. Pilfl·G(ililpLU.tI!l)lJtPll~ •. ,elL!rves; offlNRl c:ontr(l'l (ollen ,e:hcles;} ami muli'lmt (lfiUed drdll's.) mkie; shoJO'ilingSiirll~l<u fEifilSP'soIJJ,I:JE!s (.iii) a nd -polltl~atiorl 5pilke ,~iPS) 0 Ii1lptiludiEl's Ui~[It a;ll fltllmu latl; 011 ~ntn",itie~,. {t.) P'<lilr.erlll~~~e fill~iiitg,ti~!l at PP-GC :s~nalps,e'~ allSiI)!alppllii!r,~d m)Cl~·i;IIl ]~ llli'e m~j'lal1t mice'. (10')' nu~ta-bl,ll~$t stimruiati@il !Clr~heif'P'irlpLit m UH~ D G lind aead po,ttmtiali(l,n of fEIPSP il'l fr"J'Rl (,ope'n dirdes) ilrldl PiQlYlr:~~r~(Dllltml alnima ~ '~sqlla~es~, but Mt in 0 G,·NlFllIKO !iI1iitre (fl n~cI,drdl:!'sj .jn ,~~ liit rra!~1:"l'1iifJjh.. fr-eqllJli!!Iii'CY ~timill~.ati~n ,(If S(i~aifr'e'J' c~mr,ri~~LJ~~~il'lp!J:~ ]!i1dl!!(eti ('E) (Al UP 111! both DG·l!iJiR] mjCl~ ~njdlfNIRl (j(),!'ItrQl;s, ~.rr(U KeD Ib~rs; ill1~ the SEMis:..
'{.,Vc gcneml.cd DO-NItI lknockou~ (K:O) miee by cross1ng these PO~IIC~ Ire Ill!ice will~ !1a.... :i a NR I UNRI) IIllice (,29,. in ~ill! hybridiZi..~io:n

INn

(.lUlPIJI,

I HU(1!"11W1lC !Conru!:~J':-;I.r1 = 4~'(Pi!il- 3. A.md . . B~i.1jl~lil\ir;lJ.p~~L;;I,~ i[j.c:il~itll~J.:nl-,~r~i01d~\;" of l}llil;'
.11 0HPlllCilrl.;"'t1 mJJ.lt1<1.ilill Ihe ..

POf}!J~:atiolJ:rr:;:srl!!m~es ill the ·,fellltrntc no di f1brcl1.Oii.':S ~~wcell inpu~~ ,clJl'l"\.":I5in Da';N~~] OrniI;C (I.' = 5)~tUlcl, K

~yliUJI)lIC I LI.OICUCII

nile PP evoked :rrohllist polcnthllOCllll 0,1' [ll!.': ,p'·Ge :zyilltl~ ;L1IS !Cai!>lux:dby an lncrease i.. m thc slope or ~lC ~;i:dd e;xc~tum)' POSIS)'I1<1pl ic potentIa'l, , I'JEP:S:P).,n,lI. bothi.h.;; .POMC.cr.~ t:Gl]tro~ mici!: {/.~ "'"3~ 311± ~.I %} nml the fNRt cOniM:olnm~!ec: {r' 4; 3~ - 7.,1%, P '~lOOS) (,Fig, 3D) .. !1l1
OO,IIID:1'll1. idcnti:Cal proi(l~ofu; I;)i led 10 evoke pbs-

ml'illqilJlJtlli"lllOC 'i Fig.

3e"

11I'c1ll~lrur:l>1 fila,I:t1~1 "ilJt~o.nlof

sho~..'~d Ih;;(~NIH RNA bog ins to decrease sonl~lin~c b~"w'O~li 1.5 1~~cl \111'\.~'5 <llkr [)irtll~ ,4 <!Il1!;lu~ :iJI~lIIlJty,~Lbt'il.:.~!1lby 1.1\ Wll!ek." ,of ~~,.;: hi ',ilL;: DG GO. (F;g. 2. A to F, ~Iiid rig. $1).

Ilt1n~lmocyIDchll:m:istry \\!utia ant i,bcid:i.cslll) NlR I ("nul.";\\lR I ~ slw'>\,'oo<lhJlI<l1 a.il;sencc (If DO ,ac Nl)U pmlein,b}'~6 wl;.'11!ks nf'age (F~ .. 2•. (i and 1-1 ~'. wl1;Clt'~ '[he hippot;:.un~1 c}'IDm,;chiitoctw!l~ arpC<u~;;"d l1on~laII {'Fig. 2. .~ ..n'tl J~. \~~~\vt;r~ uo",,,l::tk: to' d:t1.L'Cl~U!~)'lfJ;,'dUt1~ru:I iii th¢ levd'! of Nil I ~l'i.R~A Or prot ei I] ill C A~. tit C A3

Ikily in DG~NR.I KJO mic~ III .5: cll.m,g.c' ill! [EPSt!> slope - 2,6 + Cl.6%. P' - tl~8~ DG~N R~ 1(0 :-::rNRII.~t~~m!.lItes,P = U,m)4'1 (Fig. 3D).
lo~g-4:001.1 110I0i.I~il!~O~~ (UPI ~~l;;IW,U '(,A~,~flt'lf

hQg~'fi·1it"iilll'tlbl,;jl ~l~liillil,al ,lliOJi ,ofbh~ CAl Sclw.n~t COi'i:U'iilL'ililliml brlpufh~ w&~ ~1011iIi!11/NR I: 6r:i + (

RESEARCH ARTICLES
Filg. 4, 1[16I~Rs ,~~ im!:POrtilril h)rlihe! dis~rimimatiol'l of S!lIFli!ilarCll'll>e~tts, tA a~dl OJ, ~ tCiDnil@xtu!i!L rwrwai$ m~aF wirei'll 48 mOlur:s arter ~GlI1l·'

,A,
~-

I

d~tion~l'lg wit~ a singte 2·~ O.75-mA llOotstunk. Both fNIiUl mice (Il =: ]L~} and D<H~RIi i'il,Q 1 ~t~t~i!U~ (fl. "" l,:n~hoil\ied! (A), 'e:le'l,l'.aJt~d ootalrrei;O,riIii{j1 in I~he (Oiiiditi~n!!'d (O!i!t@Jil;. as w@n a.s (8)
identacaJ1IK,inl'tics olr hlemliJ{I th.e' 5·ImIfJiJ~st. ~C;)I GIlMRllimdh'eEzimgl b@ho'!~ lor to a ~Hlnd~ v9J dlirffeir·, INlt (olilte:d ·~WI~ ii'll borth hmr ,~elilo'tylPe-s,S~par<lt:egrouPIii ,of rnI~ wer~ ~ubjet:tOO tll' a ~il)too~'~(Iil') dill~,i11!1d t~ ll6t
aJO'(I.S$

rnmrn-rn
r~R11

~ CD rn-·,·,~

IE 100

!i;bambti Ai

Q-t-b!:l Ii

IG

II

'1

I

J

,..

'COO~i!)!II

Da,lI

i.

'1- ,I

IColll~extu~'~, ~~cl'ilmilllation. d !'"OJ '~i1efi!'5't 3: d~~ (If COIi!,~ ,(iitroflti'!g. liTI~(@ visit,@!!j If)fl~ly
'cham'b~r A and eBdii day uece~V€dl III sm!Jle 'roo~:shock {2s., (Ui!i mAt). Free:liil1~ WillS lII'IeastiTedl cnee ln mal'llDef

,e

~o

IGi
-

100

00

Pi, ali1d~fl:o~il:!l

'ow'" llheMJb!;~IJ!ll!n:'l: 2 dia,ys,. aJf1ldl(E!, (,l]f1Itr(l~ ali'Ddl1f1ilI,Jt1ilnil mke ~Ii$p~~ed e:qllal amUiUl1I1$ ilif heeiil;lng in bot~1 (hamb~~. DllIrlflg days 6, b)l 11, m~(e l1ijsh~dl~ch ,ch'~fIl!b~!' d~tly {r@c:@r'!ling a ~ho!!::k iil'l IDIli!! oftlil'e! tweL~l1ci Jret:'zling 'W~IS a:s.ws.secl d~Hil1.~Ul@ r'~IF$t.:;I ilIiI'inlinl earh d"~l'IIlbe,r. (If)tNIRl ilIiI'i~e h:);p~1'I dn:te:s,; J'l- 12) :sm,owedl :s'ig!rliir~~ndy grt.iltliN' diiS~rintli!l!(jlioo lhu theDG-NR1. KOmice (~i~d drdc:;;;

dw mb~r t:I

~'A

~9

Cof1i!eid
.111 '"

12) a,~rn5i~ !iI1IQiJ]~ oil' th~[liC:qlJi~iticm. ~G a iildl 110 F~ee~.ilngi:n elha mher4 aii1d ,ch QIlmber EI r(l~' ((IIllHo1 {:~peofll bars)alf!d mu:tail!'l (fined ba!'s;~ (lJiI (6) th,e day' 10 (mlidld~e .~f dis(rill11imi'lHo:l'l) and day H h!'ndi of dii~C:lrimil1il!tilord demo,ns;tr.i3it@d ~hi!t tJile ~Hitiall. I[H'ir,NRl KO disclfimiln8ltiml ,deri;d~ was

on

l1eS(U1edM~ll a~ di!l;iorlo1ll, t~a]l'Iilll'g. iElFro~b.i! rs ill '~8)ro

'~f,n(i remc'S:EMs.

1iiJlble :1[,. EIil~t pfIOJ)e,rtle5 ,()f p:vu;::rmid~l. IOOlIse~!!)~~ i~ (A] ai'l~CA3; dllring 'e'l(~I,olf'a~iOimof the ,mire r (h{lIJ~Cl!r ,(!jfE:n'.l! 'nUilI 1) ,01'1therirst dwy ~f .he p..lUiem S~pCl~;illdonl lir.il!l@~rim~flt. V;ilW!!'$ (l.re· IITLCalilS::I: SU\ 111, IiUllTIlJ.er of mk~; 11, IiIIJIrnOOr f ce~ls" o

m:moon(! iliol'Il:1:J, P' <: OJl5: DG·NR I KD ~li;. d~[lonc;d »Ii 11O!IOOlIldil.i:rnlicd, P< OJIDIJ T(l iltl\l( ... ~tigillcwhcill~cL 'lite; NRs ~rI the: iCKi

{llNlRl1l (IV ;; 5, .rl ;; 32)
~'{I!iI~hij'r1gr~~

I[lGe-NRl1l1(0
(N ;;.5. n ;; 46)

flNR] (tIl ;; ~5.Jl ;:; 26} 0.37 B; ± QI~169 ~54.2 ;t :].~.:a:
2·DI.2'9 ~ :2'.2(1

'ow :;;

D'G~N KO Rill 6,. n= :i\!:6) ± Q"t049'

(Hr)

0,3:13.4 ± Q,(l47

S,pi ~Ii' witUh "14)}
IClilf11ip~e·x ~pii~~iru!l:ex (1m r s ring) F'i1li3:k ~a!ll!1' (Jil.iI'

S9a;

:t

7.65

(I.7;:!a: S6Q

;!; ;1::.

(1,]419' ~4.[1

(I,H~

5~Q.5 .t:~1.9'
2 2.0.5 .~:Il. 9'6, ljl.07 ~ :11.2.0

'18 ,26 ~ ::t.'76, :2:01.53: ~ 1...25

20.31' ~ 1.,,62 1B:,11)i!l· ~. 1,.. 17

'1!2.'53

:t:

1.815

Fl:e!dI size (%, ilFsamlP!lld

:!lJ)ac:e')

15o/ff, P

=

0.04; DCi...j'\llll KO; :-IS

:t

1.1 'Y... P

=

0.(4), (Fl~. )E).

lHipl~{almp,liI, nllelilfftJry and ,di:5rtnminal!lioIl1. \:llc UtI'SI, S'ubj~l.cd~h.c ,l)u~N~ 1i 1;(0 and cOIlI:rol .INRI 1~~teru,lfLl.~ dt{':hl,dtk"':ll plmJwm \'er::;.ioll of to ~lll(; M:m.it; wM~l"nml2C and :I!btmd 1'110 dcij'cciri!b~:c dc:Hc.it ifll the mulmll~\V it!~the :standard PJ\Ol:ocoI I(~g" S3). !DG"~mI KO mice O'I~OO acquit'C(] and reIJillodoonte;d'l.lilll fwr condi'lioll ing as eHiciclI~lj" as con;lrll~~i;tteml'uct. ,<llkr ;! s,ingJ~ 'oonU:1>:I~ loolshoek pili~ng ~.micc Ol.god ~.f:I 1,024 wce'ks; INRI co.m:t..pl:; ~ t b.9%. DG~NR~ 1(;0, 36.1 ~ 2ft ,6,b%. p = (til,~.~. t'iNO-\/:l1Uji aU';ltJ'sil'i '\I';,i:ri~uloe Itl\.N:OVA):gci][ll~ " liiI'iiliu[~FU.,91 = O.M. ?=

or

0.S.2.;gcllffiype M; L9) = 0,70, P = 0.41; nlin:ul,e = "loll. P 0::: UOOlj (F-'.ig. 4, Ailfld BJ. \Vc c;.romlnlOO the Qo,rm;';"i:l .spcc:frllclir.:v ohhe cofldilioll' IfII£,by>b~~o;:sing ··I~rlg··i:!ch.wr:(j!r in 3 second offilic~KI iu.whnchtihc c~lmnlb..T. I]oor \'!IfliS d\l'L1.1g,t'tJ I«m~ iij,mcurl goo Ito Nl'Ilooi]il pbslk: and the ambielnl,~ighti:ng W~ ~hill.1~d rrotn while m red t.~lJ'). This, d~.illct ,oonlcxl t.·!,{o~"'dsigllincal1tJ~' lower k"\'C~~ f~ing of (similariu~lhe lW<l gCI1:G~}'pes~ dli1l!~iJ!le to:lldl.tioll~1 ''lluWx.l (Fig, 4(,) I fNL'U cOl1lr'Ol: '1 J -I- :;!,{;Wu: DG·N~U KO: 8:9 =- 2.4%: ANOVA. g~!1QIYI]IG :.: d:Jg!'i1!bt;;r f1~I.) = 0.31. p= .• 055, ~'!'i(j~y~ 11'~.~. U•. .2,. P = 0,311,; chg!l'lher ~= 9 F{ I, i)= .222!l,. P < 1),001) I~),NR.] 'oolwiliul\OO, ~
fi(I.I!»

lual Year,oolliliitionilllS ~lsii'l,£. a less distinct p8iir or (A ancl B) Ihill sh8[Cdm~id'cntical m.cudl wiel :1'100r (0), bill, ]~,Ld~n~qlleodors. roo:r.".rl!rld Iightin.!J. l~~I).l1llh~:; ~mwco~. I rom:lni{millg lOOk ,lilcc iIU\rt'!llt~m3JJiy over seycrn~ dfljls. allmvi~lg Ihe etli::cl:s or flC.~n>cd experience-oS to be :inVC'Slig.1~cd 31) (:Fig,. 4D). On 11'11:lir:i!t 3 '-18.y:>of dlC C1Ilper~l1l1o.'11l d\'e Lnicc w~:.c: rl a ced OJll)i hl~O chmnl}Cr A where, l i}J ... an'C\r bc-:tng p~a(;\ld.~11CY .~Qci'\lcd ~ $in~J~ r~ho~t. 011. da!~ 4i!hc ~nic~ (Jr (inch Ji~I~n{J[)lP;C; W~I\i div~~k:d ial~o~.\,,'~) !!l1~J!.IP.~. .. with Oil:::, _gn:mp ·of (''1lch, gemnyp<; vi~i:tiJ'lg dl!lm· ber A mId lihL: oiher v.:iisil.irlg chamber 13~:ffiO group ret1ervcd: a t()OlSlhac:k in either chllm~f,alfld Il'I;:c:c:iflg was ~'>Cd. 0.111 d<i~ 5. each ,nrlO<!IISC ,dsDtcdlhc chamber OiP~itclQ the one visi~cdIon d!J)' 4\ lIilld l'ilCOC2in.g in il1i(; ab::;'ClfiCil: {)~·nJtli.'{llock W3S3SS~Sloo(] l!I;gail~. A 1I<i:1t I,lti~llOlltC::dlJI'L1 c'-{!lldill(mi l~glhere\\'Creim :rNc:d~lg,di Ifct'Cllcc.s beI,ween gCilctypt.."S in dllln~her A. COllil~'1TItlijl£Ihe aoil'illy o:f lI1.C'~mnant~nic.e 10 :lcquire conlc1>lIUliI:I. ~carcnnclinjoning. ~:I!']wc'l,!~r.OOC;)ILJSI;: Sp:'atcr 0:1'n siflli~l'il.JOOIW(;(;U chmVlbcl" J\ ;md d:!Ol<!I11Ocr B OO!l1P;I!iL.;-d~p tha\'i~ u~cdill db!; C';ql'£;J~me!lt 01' Fig. 2,. ADo C. tI1e~ ~ii'a:>. C'Jo;iA;oL"li;,,'e g:;::!ier.dl~liOl'l l~'" I.wceii Cioijl~ik~ in OOI:~i gt"llotyp(."'; 111 ~.,201' =
oonlc\t!S,
I~

{:res plaji ,a r.ole in bchil\"M-Jm.llllllttcm scparOl.i.olL we si.J.bj~eloo lihe DO~Nt'tl KO mk:-c' to OQJl1!C:i:.~

I

RESEARCH ARTICLES
Ollfl. ,r'~0.431 Hl:f;,!;l, 4:EJ.. I)ming lhe Stqb:i;O'IJ1!eJ1i. di8criq:nin<Uliolll'll'm,_~ Of!:~lel<L'*. mice ,,~i~oonhi;l ~\\if)Ch"l!lb~fS~~~b' '~2(laYi'ld.'!Y li 19 d;t!jI !"] h for ~JwaJ';~ I\~~~;.\j ... fQot!511~:k19.l ~ .:'IJWiI;'l: b.;in~; ing plr:t(,~~ irrl ch.\'IIlJib~r . ~Ltl ~IC\'\)lt in C:hmnb¢r 13, A CriI1l.1i~mlm'l I~k). ~N D I~N~:~ mieeeoeld '1(0 d~rlm:rrm~ the ~\':Q clmmllCi!'l.l~ll ~. ~nlmn~r ind.~~il~gJi,li:;;hab~~h~~l U~~b! orool1i!1!D1 ~n~ !~\\'9'
W<IY

'/\~ Il~<rnmid;d ~:I'ls.and 26 CAJ'p}'W!mllid:,,1 cells ~il)m Ihrc_hJ'~ I cmnmlm~oo Oi~tl,'llln<li~~ OnIfQ!~. O (r~-H~ aV~n;I~ !1Till~rnt~~i~1 ,~~:~~'3~ or 111~ I,Jn~ '.'1W ~x~~:; t2K'-J2', 11} M,!g. 54 and ~[lk S3). ~1.!1l1 ~p!j~"" i.",'idl.~l~,ool~l'lle ... ~]ikc i~dlio~. l)Oak ij'iring nll.!..".'Jmd .. \'~ra~ liri.ng !'<II<;:~'\I~n,; urnil;,tt •• ~ ~ :!I!.'tmiS.gL.l1OfypC"i]}bo~h CA~ ~mlld C)'\J ~Tiibk 1~ :1·lo;,!!'.:;;.\:[., IDG·N.l11 &(.0' mice cli~pI.tY'"t1 ~1L¥.e.!l jiJaee 1.1eMsiul CA~, ,p <: ,0.(5). Pigu:i\~ 5A !!ItOW,1> Ci!!,mnWfJI! te nmps or [(I C"A3 aeuruns from eaeh m ~rthe two !l.e~o1~'Sil'l both lL'ClUd~l~ eon!e~to:
i(sec ;11.'10 tabl~c S2.), \'\f:e 83SEl)'led r.:lle~111al)J}iniA :in l'l(llh CAl mid I '/\,3 by ii;.'{lllllpmins~he Oll"l;lC~ liI~ng: l:atCI> (If CiilCh uni! dWiriog ~.p:I!CIirmin\llof dte h\'iIl ~m1lii1.'$ I;l~ingij ) lhe n{lnll[lJl ~d ch..n~~ i V!,i\'l'r-lge fir.~Ulg i II;)J\eOOlwfX'!U 1lI~ l~WO 116:\'e.~~"'It(; iinbrnncc} ~u~ld d (ii) i! ro:~0Cl· (lffiring rmes In~hi.~I.\'I.'O cml~o""l~ uare C o\'CI~<J~~'l pO 2':'). In eemml mK:c. ~h~If<!ltl dil'~bf!'moo iI1!}!~ CA3 l101:io!] ,~O.J:s.2~ O;lJ43i ~"";lS ~i;gllliCic;nnl.Y~!l1:![~~(rr U~,uunhwi~U~t' CAl re.~[Q1l '1!],,"2]8 ± OJ))7; BanJerroll,1 post,-te.'>It P ,OC o..O~). ~:ilJ:.',{JllilB'iI.,:IIX:i-NJU KO mim:: $how(~d shrnilar: ' mille d~fIcrei1ees Inl C A3 and CAl {G.!S4, ±.O.021, VCrsill~, Q.I~) ~ 1~1037.rcsl.l!C{;livdl¥: P £1'.971 'Itt~re S I and fig. S6). The m.ut::l!lion l1!iulJ :si.SIl~ Ik.'lm
:;;l~if,;.

H'l ]o~4\~l.,'lks)

!H~I 9t~f ~1re~h~M~

r

;I

ANOVA. dl3~11bt:f .... Mi;,\I~o:tyPi!i,~nJ;~c;I.iorl f'l1I)O) = RS4. P = .0371 (Fig. 4~:1)_ H~ppi)('aJmp'a~. I~~l!a!~e (ells: iill!Jld (ii)['!t'e){tl,la'~ F~~jr:!g d.U!ri~ig Hn;13 rain hl cachc.Ii;I!:noor !he w~ u~«I~L1C'al{;\IIa~(:~1 dlli I.>, ~fli...c:ril!'ii!irlatinn r:dlL'O discri!liidlil!atli(l!ii',~V~ l~f,l,;-d!l~UII~i·I~lmdc!l;ICordi!ig5 fR~, 4f), Ccnnwl ITiiLl;:C ~ll~:k~y ~\''ii[J1J;d w dii;1~ ItO l'ilUii~hlt h~PJ~rLlm.lpal I;llsl:'i111blc <'I.clivily a~ li~,grui..~ [Iii!: ~&~~Imbcrs: h{~wcv('I':.tl~,L;' D[j-Nit ~ DG-N.R I 1(£1 rilibc:~ CJi:plo:oc"il 1\'\10 cl~ lii~CI oO:il· .. ~~Xn1>, IVln~e fomgod for se~l~red :~00clreward:> ~~1 KO i11lioec1I:hil:iil,CtI It tml~~~eilA." elvci)' si!!;itild. ~ cant. dc.liici;1dLLdft~ ~1C :!tcqliisil.km ·of ~1~ tlb:~ en open, while. ckail!iil' IQ,\.v~wijlll.'tI 001( fOI:" 11. c:t'imilnm[on Ia:>k IIF ( 1,20), ~ ~S. III. P <. U.OOlI ~ IO~~ni~1~13hil.limlion.eSS:jOI1. TWClnly.foLl,r' hours s ,(.F.i,. 4Ft Tllis dcfic:i~in the mUlanl ~iIlicc\UL.'l: hiler. CJ\ I mtdfo:r C AJ plnee ,celli ilC~ i\l~laCi'i\WI"C C'.o,;:hihiteC] as ckv<uc(1 fn.v,dn,y. in Ihe !ilt~k-:f:lrol;1' ~'ColfCb::dinl:he ::1ame~o1>!lill~~}:mb~.nml). Mice I { chmllbcr B r two"way A NOVA. dlmnbcr :s;, li.~ere then I'~'~ood a sn.lllll'IS~I;.~I)'· OOX (or 20 il'l ,gc,m.'IlYlliC int\1'~:aclllQ~l Fl ~.20} = RJO. P e; OJ)f1.~; mill '~\11~1r;1lI~ wh~jlC' Cirt~!1l1lf 00x \\Iru1 1lC;1~~ao.:d b ~u.ir.\·i~ comp;lri ..t'lH til' dwnl~, B f~e~i!!g., < M'i!h1~n Q~lif;.'n, 'Jt1ek.. ~'lmro ~ow.Jw,dkld 00,.... ;l!ld P 0,0$1 (Fig. 4G,\ 111. O:!I!.rn~~ riJI,1pr:Iii~!l d~fi!!!llmh(l IthtU'1 ~:I~Ubli!Ll~ffllu:rl1~d tf) t~!i~ e oU u~~,~ bo~ rtlr 011 ~01sk dru~hc mutmt aJilim"L~I.:HlPllNif"dlC" delki~ d !iC(dondl ~mill rum ~"1ii'Cln h'lml t .F'Olt),eSi1;i, CAl in 1h,~cliVnJ,l ~hc (:mH!...'l.lwn~i~d with $h<nck rrrnmidi!~ iCCJ~~,!nell6 CA3 !'YU'!lli1!i.~bd o",lj~:i' from to !~rt:1.lumbl:lr .A). nl'di~~y 1j' nil!.: r2li1 d,I}1 (l f[llat'! dis:;.iXnl'1.I11Ult mi~ (0I!l,(l1!l\ 1(1 24~..!"I~k.~) ' ,JLml32

cJm;bc~ml rl~e' ml!!' di:fr~rence, \",,~thdle

20Hz

~~.~,-('.I.,
~~-M-!'IIW~

-Nita.

S:Hz I

~'II'~~I~,

,mines:.rnc1!.~!l!rcdi~l the Ct\.3 orthe mu~am~llice :-<i"gnilk:mul~' low~r theu [ho.."IC,':in ~hcCA3 Clf dle OOIlIro~ miec [tW~\\I3y ANOVA, gcu~olY:l)C )( :mtgio.n FU ,I ) 352. P 0.00; genotype RI.I ) 9.1:'1, p'CO 0.00(3 ~ region R I.~.l' - 1.Q~,P = {uS~ BI'II1ifer1l'fmi pnN;[",tc%t.INR ICA I ~ [l{i·NR I KO C/d., P > 0,05: lNR.~ CAJ :.;,I)[j~NR I KO «'/\J. P -c 0.01) (fi!} 5B}, To assess ifllte:;c r.JiIC d~lrcITno(:s .rclkctcd ~ignlili~"unn ne rullilfippirig:. n '1'.'(; cnrnpfllrud m:;tll'll~.lJIC di n~r,el'lre valilje.~ wilh [ iiue dum.. '1'CIl~~~rOI' caeh region c:l(p.!Ctediif ~'iC ~lrl.ng rnl;1e5ill lite two boses w,ere im:icpol'laenl of one iUtot~lel"(Fig. 513,_red I i~e..,). R:aledi fferenees .

·~oHz
'rrti- "c t~!1Ing fa'l,e

'WCJ!esign~mcrul!i)' 10\\'C1" dmn C:\'l~ediOO under ~LIUy h~dcpclu:k::tn (;omfl!itkms .iill OO~'I CAl ,;mlflel A3 ofille lnum.IlIS 'leAl ,2'"" 5.44.1j<. O.(I(U; 1.·A3%3.12. P < O.OOI,}.,fI.s wen&~ in CAl of Ihc cOH~n.'Ols(CA~ Z - 2.99 .. P'< IH.102). Only dlC I 1X~1I"1)ol AJ. dam s hOli/!'cd cyi(.icm-c ]nd~ 1X)!ur.cmtM!~y "-~Qe;,<; III !Iu;~~wnbo};,,,-,, s {C'A3 Z = OiA~. P = 10••nI'. Fi,gW!!'!;.i 3C~howSDhc ~iLlm~IIII~lh'c

or

~ 5' 1H],;z

]wt}lmh~Hr:y h~"'[{lgRiiuntt¥fih~ r'lW (~'\!!i,~dc;lp CA3 in! <lud CA 1u.:§lolib:i.I:n. eA.3 Or,t!l;lirUIIJ1~ 1'I1I.i:t;.c, t~~(~ro
wt~:; :\i:g~~niC'l.ll.111. a ~5hilnof'the his,t~mmn 1:0!he .!eli roli~.paR.xI oolhe e'All(MMlnI \Vhrtm:.'',)' Vle:sl~ ,'';:' 0.04]1> imlkatlii1l£l ;il 9'Ca~~r propolttolUi of CAl (CII~ Undeli'SOiing ..Me ~ll1!ilPlJing. ~l1lh~' KO Inice.

Iriig. 5., [Nli lfi4R:5, <lreim,~Qrtant: (or CIl.llt:e:!i.t-spedfi, m@diul.<II11'on of ~itn1li1gtlte ln CAS. (A) EMlillpleS o,r r m !:Ips S. _Wlngl'L e _(~.. h.Y.I' 'Ii!'If·NR1 (_:I'M _,~n~r'\'\ll'".. !.! 111'1, 11f'~,.N!I'I 11,0 \r~g .. 1\1 '-""'"' th--.ill "iv-',:: of .~", .... "", (:r'r:iD,~ '~ll'.vg ... -,h,II:r "","" "''"' •. I'!'!' "' ... i"'r-I1"~ r,~.~: I~ P~(~. '~IlUSas mke $uc.()~si\l"I!i[~·l'xp,lbred ~ wh]l~ dr'l:I!i~ar b@iii:Hid ~ black sqlliare ~Q:!( hi th,~ silm~ ~JXatii:llli. I i (~ol~m;iii re stalled ~e IiIl!8lximlJllll tirimi~1 ra~.e~~~l.I'en,by the !ill!!m ben; ~r!ed.IIl'haximl!!l1'I; b~ue. !ri1.eWlO. ~IB~he i ~a~ diH\efen:Cl~i~ ,aJvE!!~a!J~~lri~!!J ~a~ei II! tl1~ tWQ OO:lle;5~as(aklilki ~ed frJ:r ~ai::II1,c:ell [~i1i[Jthr,;Ii~e tow ~ ~ rate)!(hig'h rate + low r.1li~~nNR1 'mntml rillte diH€ir,enl::e's~",e;relLaIJ11,e;rhu 1CA.3titJilll fOIF CAl, 'wn!!lI',eali J DG·f\UitJll KiD rate dlir$erences \\lE!:I'Ie sil!llljl'Iir' illl CA3alil'l1 CA.!. MnJtElIiI~ eM rate' dlifJr.erellH]~!5 We!f!!1!' :s;igli'lVH(glntiysmiilll.er th(lill~l1ooe ,(I~ OOf!Uo~. mk~ (~P .,;: ,(t05, ~~P'.::: OJ(1), R!~d Hii'les indkillOO riil~ ditrel',elnc.es ~e(tedgrve:lilindcipefldellit~iri ngllil th~ two b,(ll€:S. (() C!illmlilaitllllil prtlilablilily hl~~ogJ(iiliIS I I(!!f~h~ Qillerkip m~~v ~at~U(Mgh ,~.at:e)1\l'iI!lJie~f(!!f I~otbl gleli!(ltrPe~ iillld s:t!ib!"eg~QM$hC!\vi.['l~s:iglillm~aJl'Iilt.Y ~@l~r r~~~ ~m.:! pp'iIi1!~m~fbv~ rnSlhli(d llill CQIilI'IrQ~m]~~, (!i)~Wheflth~ two bOx!~!ill.:: if@QiilIl e);;p!I.lrlriilll!l.lIU '"'filS repearted 2:4, f'iOlllll"S:k/'t!!;r. II!)G·NIF.!!I!. ilM :5nmwd ~igl'li~ij(i! rat rate remi!ppili1g!~11 0.3 {"'ild~y 1 P< 0.01; KO day 2P "" iQ.5,n Eirror Il~rs,inl (0) aJ!'!d arE' tliltl! SEilII\s;,
L i~

th~ d~;:;mlnnlltlils ormtc O¥C~'IP ".nll.u~sill ~o!h: eA. ~ rtIIu]the C A3. were sigilillde.mllly s,hiJlw!o ~herighi onlte con:lrol Aj, :lllisl:o~uo.unmJ "-,'core a sifl1l1i1arto tll<n of dlC control A I lIisliotgmm '(C{ml.ro~ CAJ >! mu~mll. CA3. P <:: 110t: crmlmil. '1\.3 x Ilm~~nl. CAl. p..;: ~}J)I]3l.
I

Plae1! Cd~5 C"I~ show' oonle~~~-O:~.pcndeul ch;;u~gcs ~J'i fuin,!,l ioc;.!!:rit'l!) ...~ \111,[';1I,i,'" I:irir.!~ 1'0.111,.;
n!,lnmll Vi;Jirnapj'im!!t (.:.JtJ)J'i,V.c; IhCliClil[]t !;lOm· piliL-d 'th~~QerLiiolt." aifCA.1 !ind CA3rlfLtt lidd~

'~~n

98

RESEARCH ARTICLES
Mnnlng <lVCf~ge<!rmrijng rm~s moo PQ.~i!Jonii!~piMls "gld n~ca.~ningnh~ ~ i"m!!Qc ~x,~h~'-'~p~ ~h'i!l:g ~w I}j~~~\li~~l~ bl\'l~ i"~cl hi~~ w bo.."'-1,.~,P~Ii~i(1iIl~~ rel!l1l11pp~~lM w~... ...iU~:li~'lr!H,"itQ&";; SlJbrq~'iiOl1s. (,leIriailio:li .., and gll'l1.O~:ypc:s(:nilcan i!'lru~roon~~ shirl of3.0 t- (1'.3 and
i'nlhel\li,'O
CQn~e1>lIS ~y

J.7 -!- >o•.4l?i~!:,lb in C;:Q~uwl('AI ,~~~d ('/\3: 2.7 ~ OJ ~l1d :3,4 -±: 0.4, :in [lG·!NR I I(D Ci'l.] aml C J\) ~ I(S01l.(1TCK~ '1Ilt! liig. 11l.i1iS. ~j~ lI1"il,'fup;p1nlg

t!,rfld,lS. in DG-NR.I: :&(0 miec were etmliii~d tIQ, 1:I~c l<~tc rouappoirrlt d~it~,'CIiIS;ig,iiI lIn(lcr~hcs.c: conditilllil!>. The delleil, 1:'CV,e;~IO:! by Ih\!' COr:ib!:l.:!tuid ll"ar diillcrilnimll,ion 1':lLmclr!gll~\\/~. ~imr~d to the ~1;rlji dm)'sol'lJ<lillilli£ ~F'f:. 4, F und GI.W~lhl!rcrOJ:C h,!'i;'c:;~:i:!!l'u)cti whelher the ,lik)ik:il~nom!W'!l:t~ rll~i.auxl !i:ci~lg·I'<L1L! Jl!OOi!l h~uiOllinnhc CA3 :~ ...
girnl o1'IIUbC' ~1lUlmlt mi~ ,t,"(Ju,1d .~ tll\.'Croo~l~ '\I[11i! rlR'lru !;.\.... ')CriCJ1C'.C. \Vh~~ntt:hemio~ Wl."ru alku~I~~d 1.'0 reuunte ~h!.! .roet}l'dlng IiOOm 24 h01Jrl\. I,~~~f.mlCi
IIW(OOI:)] ~Iif.j,!!." n.::r'l'.aw."d. \'\lCrOlllll1'IJ di O:l'tQm:;~ i.~!~lfl!.;' CA 1 lC{lio~1S [.\.1lh gCll.o.tY!K'S l~.5CAJ cells in 1i\'~fN~th1miec. 0.3&2 ± {U172~20 CAl odLs ini rmll' DQ·NRJ KG mice, 0.322 t O.M7.; pa[l5R}. A.llli1lOllI,gh we C-OUlrl~ol detect ,r~s~glflilirnnl genotype diliY i:nti:rnC:l,ion, JIID$H.cS!S I'CvC'alC'[jI~lmlhe raw remnflPing dr:!tki~wm; not Ilr!!scnt on d~y 2: iu ~11~ IHL!lma mice r~\~'O'\ .'"y ANOVA. gCIIDI.),'p::!' x . d:my R I , ~) = ~ 45. P = 0.23: ~~rlOlYiPC' F( I. ~l = .. 6.531, P - OJJk d~y En, I) - 354. P - 0.00: BOlflfcr.roni 'post·'IC~Hd:;Jjy~ fNR [ x DO·NIl K!O, r« O.O~ ; d~!jy 2. (Nltl :-: DCi·N[t K:O. r» O.OS~ ff~g.:5D), ~]IL;l "'1t.~rdil1g; ",illlli lar 1il~!:C

s:n

th~ ~"ld{~iI!,1 un !h~p~m;:~ cI~nrooo~dili.g:s. ~d;Jlivclo ~h~ b~h~~viL'}tal !:3:!k" oC'!i'1;I~~",I~.i [lcq~i~!i.liOfi 0 r I.he .cl,i~cr.~ll~j.l.l;I~.il]gpaW(~j' by DG·

levels, Thew d~rrefCl1IC'Cs m~y relleet d!lTcoon~ ~~C~\\i\~!] the C~!C~ used ~Q dli;!'in~ Uw O~!!~Cl\Qs. ~Iw\100 Q.f" C;:{I!Ki !!.iO~~qJl1il I~O\t:;lmc;:l'l~I~ dl.e bd~,~\'imll~~xl1c.inil~1Itl tJ6), ~h(,': ~(II:li:n1b~l!F.o.n Ori!!Oll-hippru;:mlIlp~1 S:inUC!Li:n,;!'i inllC;~ c{llidi~i(lP1illg, Or!hO:~kl, ~,~ic~ili\iily
I!I;,"Q'i'~'lrlC(lnU:'Q1

5. 0. ~!J; Pflws. Tkm~ 11'., Sec. ll:i~ II Bie1. Sci. 2&2', :il3 (':1?11t ~. j. L ~Clt!llrutd; rfjc IH. GixId~~~,Hipp~~ 6, ,6;;~ (199.6h. 1. !l 'I.. MtMilwgbM, Il•.M~c~. ~n Nf;~ffJf>r:ieme QJJd C~j!ffflldlMI~t l~MlY, 11"A. Gludt,a E. Irlilme'lbi!n,E.d~.

I

or

e.

~Eflbaw!TI~ H'!ll5d\i!leo, NJ.li.~90l',
It,

n~

NR~ Kn

lfiih~&,:iln:n:~ L'Ie due 1.0 th~git!1~i~!}1 SYi'iiD,p1~C

de.

{l99~}. 9. t:. f!l3tilMIYiilI ,r:lI7/,." S'd~,f' ,2.97" ,211 QOOi1~, ~(I'. K. HatiJtiM.a. (j' 01."~~rM :;113,l05 '(200D. H. P. tl. 'Ciilbm, R. II. ~~m~f, ~~ elMo Ili!'!l. 169', jj,~2

c, O·~U:f

• .i. l .~O!!:a~~dl, l:!ip/J<IX~'lJ5

IPP.:t-.1i3.

4. ,6'6:1,

'!I'1I!1opm.tnL of

p!i:!sti;eil~! 9:[ liitcs down:Slreai.t1i of tit.:: P:P-GC!;~lmpse.,>. For' C'~mp,le, thcrecmrenl. colla~crnl,J('A3· SYIl!i1P~~!ima.y 1~3:<wi:dc cOlwl~]cnle~naLy~iliC <II \\Ihidl. srnmlll :il

U.

(ZOO!u" P. 1;- 'Gilbel1T!,
(2001).

Ii!;, 1'.

t;~I1~r~ I. lee-, 1{lPP(K!l1tr'j)l1$U 6;M

·n. 1. O'~~~.I.

dHlcl'Cr~
sl~pporwd

in, PP inplIlt:,m be mnrJJ,iric€l: Ih:~s.~)';,
b)' n ",~OClIl~~ll!d)' fcpolili,n:; a

c,o!wrilu,!!'l~onof CA3 NUs.,(_!, ,,(,!~Mr! ~<:p;ur; u.Oll ..
(3 I). AlIhuu:gh thll.! ]:,lfgM uunnl'l!eT (:If C(lU:;; ;il1d !'i.!m~ l;.lonm.lclil,'~1y of [Iw DGwl)1.llkJ p.ovOCic

li:lMIIlMIi.y, BRlif:lfm. 34, 17.1 U97 11>'1" $:,:Il I1!llluiP, .,_ N~n,. l- Gc 1Jo~ltell, M. It IWMI!I, Eo I, Mo:!i!tl. j.. IilWlOSCt, 13, u91 (;tOOl) .. 'l5. ~ 1II11i~, M. A w.ioon, Nf,rm:m ~,lAi5, <:!OOD. l16- ]. Shem'. iii, K~dliirnt(lij~ It t, Ml:1'bl~~"'~1)t (A., ~rn~, )'. SlN!f' ~I!':t 'T. " [i!. 1j\I.. IE" stilQ'iJ!' B, L Mii::Noo.~l1!IO~1 S,c'en" 2:1'1. 1:97'01 tl99i!l~,

n.

eu:.

s.

m~~.

the lJ~~~rnmc !'i.'l!b~U'He few the

!,"~W;.'fU .scpm'illi.ol].

or

~ym!.lI~it: )1<L"i~i.cil.j\' 1 m..y he !h~ l.Qoi lh,Ufll!o~~!:-: r.i\pid ;m~~ ~flicil;lfll ~~]"r.llti(l~~ r ~p~tij(~IUfl· (I
t~OJ1$.

)J:

GC,,{'}\3 COn!lCClh'III.~'. Loss IJr N1\'t:sin d'l'C"OC$, n!l:J.~' docro<!!~ drive fwtlldre DCiro CAl. ~l1li!i 'IMotlrd .inlc.re<lSel'l~e .utlOJ.ivc PoopOllocm {I rEC
ihe ('1\3 enscrnblc'sabilil)1 to dclc'Ot, ~'Il~p~i:fy Mld rdk.'lC'l •. !i:L1ul] d~llitIll.:Il.eCS inEe mCliviQ1 gL'I~C'r.:u~'(Jl.in similar ctn1k~NI:\,,1 n(~ild r.::H~ l:J:;:rll!r1pp:irl,g U~! A3 C (i!ldmJcd by cimllgt'$i in IiG'CDI'd~ll~ chmt~b('r s,hopc Or Mlor) can oceilln' irl Ihe flbs;cnoc of dcroe!fLbk ,ehflllt\'l'..."iiJ1 l'n~dihJl E(" fi[J]lgmllCS or locm:i;oll$ ~l.l.2tl).}. Ilo'l",'cvcr. t1t!:ll)iitc ullV!U)'ing il~Ptl~ m:m~ IheEl'. DO {:ies di:c1 respoolld. 1:0 OOlllCXlm.l1 change:> robustly and rnpidly under these cmldhions. OLJr ,dii!ln."Is\!,ggeSl~hm NT;l:.m~dt:m!d 3C'li'vily or plosth;;ilY hll:hc OCs. m~y umled~ethcsc ~hlll"l£.cs. S1JbsC(l]u~mly Shllijlitl§ C'l\.3 cncooinlg. ~:~if; p~lhlgdlill!t l;II1tel'~::lm!irping in: CA j diid
lillIS, VOOtlcl111@,

CA] receives C'xe9m~ruy itiput I'IfQm~wo extcnml mllroe.'l;, b:.- Dr;. and the .EC. ]upu~. from dre IJO i:s mOSl Hkc:lty [0 tiOlltl".ijJute 1.0 [Iilc mllhogOl~];i7;;i;l:~ion C A~ IiCprescnm~.km!> by v.i~ue or Ihc high GC nLlmber and! thesparse

or

];8. Ml. A. '1Ii'IMm, ~. l. M!:iNiM.IlVIilM" SdtmG~ .j!~,t" 1.6515: fl9!l3}. 11:\,," 1.ILee. 0, Y~!ili!ifa~ii11ba!, '" Ii:~[!),.J" l" t.'niMilil, 1Il1l~ ~Q, 4Si'i f2UG4}. ,,0'. $, l!e\itljeb ,N 01", SWm~ 3'a9, 619 (~I)s.), 2:1. S.. ~tgi!~~ n.IK. ltliilg~, (. l Mo:l~,.M. It MMi!t; flfppo(;rJmp~~ :1,6, 765 12006)'. :22. S. ~\,!!~b,. J. It le~i~eb, J!. TID"tS, ,M. a 1!!~ier. l I, 1IIO!i!f', Sdl,!J.iCl"30~. 1l29S 1~@O,n_ 2~. C. l.e¥tr, T. Will~ F. C,miC(~ N. IBu~!1l~~,' O'liNf~, ]', 1'Iq~l'e 4.'16, 90' m~ZI, 2011. 11'.]. wms, C'. ILI!'I'~; It. (,armc",- M. Il!ll~ ]. O·tJiJlo~~
~f\lKe

108., "3

(J~O.s.}.
.!;IgieJ, '11,:,

d[~\'ic to C A 3.

s:;.iiM{e 3'1~ '161 WMrn .26. M. :l1!f'in, 1'. IH3iftl~g, :A. lU\I~

~5. ~. ~ IlAlulge:b, 5. ~eL!!g""b, .!!l ~,

t M.Ql1er, 1[. I, MOl{j~,

"oMe U6, 19(0 27. f~.ii~lh~M« al, ;(ttJ"OfJl 9&~: (~4). :le. P. Sofi.ulI!l, NtIS; 6e\Irfr~ 2:1. 1(11 'tl~9fl

aoo'n

M.. It fflit~r,

~z..

:;nvd~,'

'~(.II'1dhimlill g.t;nlL~li{:~ ~11@imlccri!!l~ [~lil'l~iG1lli:S" we j'lIn<c pifCvitJ.tlsly ~ho\;\"I] t~m. NRs in "];11:: Al iP~iiY C'ruc:iful m~!c C [I illl !;fi;pid Icaming and lP'1[~~mcQmpk~~ifm ~ncdblw~ ree-j~I. whereas CAl N Rs are lII..'qiJiilllC"ii for. the tOIi1l11'.a~illl~ ofoolh $p;lIn9~ am:llw.nspall!:ll ~~leull()ly (9, JO. 19.. .v j5~ 111:1!DG-N:R.I KO ~ukcde&:r.il~ h~iC~IOtvtxl m loe.l'lIie~d~hic
l[l'I'$(USIS,ffi!ul1'.

Ihill1l!)l

,9. ~."

i[~~I1\

p, T. Il:!umil',

(l'il'9.6}. ~O, Wil' 1i1m1~ ~llIliIllim~ nalUre af th~ IlclOl"IPro'lidll ~ <II fl$t!i~1)! ~r,mrn'n~t ~9Il'~J;'L!~1~l,ll!:, c .U. I\!Atl!fil~&!; J mill iTI'I~lhilllkmil! :II'-I1I!ilIil~~ '~~~1Ag ,~~

s. T1!lne~~~,

(ell ~U:"DOll

to

the roles of

dCJ)cI~clcnll)llas~icit)".Om dmfl: :!l!1,pj}On i~ll!t;lo,liun , !:hm DG OC N I~s ~)Iay :JEll innpQI'I:ruaroloelnl .mpJd 1)1 fo:mli~lg a '!.!I1'r;qlllc~~lcnuJI:)' <I 'Qm:e.x~ of ~md dis'1:im~mlling ~l rroJll s~lnili!J: '(QmC'.,,~s lUll !l!IW'l'I)'S ;llr~ 5J~at.f.o:!~O]'r.:!ll': ooding dOWll· pfCdm.. ~)'~\!IaC\)m~~(;1'I."dpluwm ~p1n<l]i{m}, a~.~ !'i.t'r:"'-~n in CAl (frJ,;.5BI ~ t I~ i.~po$llilllc ~l~.t

on

NRs

fVll.d

NR~

millfria'l 00 Saw)!' Qil'!l]rn~., 3;!. I\\. S. F~~eli:)w,. !:rnm. Malii'. 12. 3'n1 U?lIV. n. p, 1. HUi!nill,. L..IIl .. Sum.. ~ A. 'I\Ilison, 5. li'om!ga,wa, mUHJIJ ,;!:S,4~~ (;roOO). 3.'t l.. Rt!Jitli.Aieig, I\t t~b-~, IjL Eichl'ib~ul11l, $, Tonegil~~. PtO('. l!Mrl. A:cod, So. USA 98,. ~i5,1!3f2l1Cilj. 35- ll- M('~ r. II. l~t~i1I1I. T~i~m,.~ T'~ll~\ j.~_ M. A, Jiiii~m. (tJl 81. H~,9 (19'i"G). .~6. I'!.io. A. .MoiIJ" S. R.ooi!. Y. llmu.. ]1. E. l~Dc~i!i, H.. 11 Bla,l'r. ..

~hO'l.I!lh they ,'~uv dl~~'x;m)lltbl~ rm:~h~ ;lICqlJi~.lim!
of ""i[lI1tlt;.\~~IL~1 1l1J:llliKl'ry IJ>I)'f ~~,.

~U1~cr d~~~l~n.'inl. condi]icJllU5. ~u::h a... iu thoc bIJ.. ~m\'icr'''] di~rijlll!in;,lItVrlua !~~k, MlmU di:lTcI1;.IlO;::;.~n
cmllte:i\:'t.-l>pt~ifi.c
oooiulM.

um.

[)G·N.R.I KG !lui tiC ~;:>l bit,OO inlp!l il;,f;.'\! hi cont'Cx~ d iSCmillli lJ3Ikm ~f{r.ly during 'trai 1l~;Il;giDl 1:I~cincl':o;;;J:nc:n.tfI~~';},r~~xmdi~ioni'lllg fH11ild.i(g:m and : h~l.l".Fii~cd w'nne""I";TIll(Kh,]l~mc~ plBi.cc (;c~1activity in ('/l3 {Ill the iin~tu31 d~y liI'."o.l!d~ng. Bmh
dcl1crts \wre O\'CfCornc wi[~1tl1liil~llg or clollX""

~iI::Jn')U~l\,i't'Clr:;, im:'hJ~l:IJ!:l

J. ~~d.l!A. i(llS '~200.1~. ~,. c.]. ~M'~" 'lt1!~~S·Pllllto. tt M. ~r&'!dJ11111. ~ H~ilM'!!Iil, w; 1. NWfO;f,t 2141 1771 {ZlIOO). 3i;1. iiV~ tih~ tliO: 5, ~r1)', [!,!I, ~~~!i1, (.l.Q'I\~!~ F. 1!!~~1l!i, ~1liI~ L l!iter '!r:r ~M:l\lI'Ilai. a'!!kI!~1I0~ WI! IIti!W;ilI. Bu"I~.JIlII
~~i5!~!1(e!fIIth.he' ~Meef 'quality ~~pe!11~n~ ~11t! W11! jijj~bm. oIlhl! liDjj~~1 i!fild 1IiIi~ IiljlJ~ fot' ~~i! Mil di!lr[;l~itIl'I, ~'p,PDl1I!d 1ti.!I Millil!lool. Im~~!J11I! o:r Me!rt'~~ H~W~ 9~t ""'1-162:1 1(M.~i.f1 ZZ ,iIlmd ~IH ~:r.!!!I' P'5!H~H~~fJaO ~S;U. :S:L!!pponingl Clllllfiile

or

tr.UliSfCITC".d (,0 Cf\J lliJld.:r ~1:ICQ!i)jld~iion.~ oJIb.:::·

!iring ['IIt.'S, Ci!l!.~ld ·bc fll1'lp.I~licd by 'OOlltcxrual s.aH~ll!cC lS'lIcJn rus roolshoc~) m:ad mfl)' be m~n~fcsliCd in CAt. It L'Cfl1a~flSi,obc~~een whretincr til'!: 'OIllICl'iA .spccilidl)' Qr ('.",,",3co(liing will be

r.i.encC'. TogctiK!'J', "h~sedaHI !>I:lggcstt thill:1 Nil lim.clion a~ PP~GC syll~\l"scs. is impQlrt:linl rOf Ihc ;mim,ii1ls'~bi'li!,y 1.0. diiscdminlO].lc ~hllilar COJ1W'.xlS :w.q~id~y w~lh :Hmiti;'(1 C'xperic;nCC', bll~.
~(ll

hilvwrn'll di:.JC.riminl1do1Jl.
Rerl.'lt'e'DlCe$ am:tl' INo~e$

Ma~'~~al

If,!oWf'il::n~liI\OIg,fl.w,,gilr;(IIl'E!l~L!lllillA!Il63JD~l.

r~5.Slll!i ~6
Tablies $1 'Ill IR~IlI!rM~~,
.~;I ~Il!!<!ry

MilieriOll5 'ilPdl [I,ljeIIJt!lxl~,

rOJ~:'iIOWl!f

.. cq ~~~Siti(lll of

this abmly

O\'Cf

~lOrc' In<lb. '\V~ s~gge.stlh~~~ cml~Lmm m~I,..~ rli ~m~ llH~dii;tl~~ DG·NR.l KO deficil~!' the a~t'l!l'tvi3i1<Jl1 lXl!uh '!~lC bth~u\rj~mJ,uld ph)isiclloM~ icii~ k ...;is. dc:spitc IliGd.iilCrCi'il ttm(~~:i.ljl::S of .

12, m~(l0}.li7). 2~ IL [. ]ii!rr<lrJ!J,.~v .. Nflllfol mol: 60, 9 U:99.J'I.. ~. Ii,. R,~~l1!i~~. C, 1[;, S.~rlk,.g. IE:, (1;!4,Aqnr.r. ~.-:. I'J;W,l)5{~. :2:1, ,;!70) (:;lOO~~. 4. IN. eurg5~, Eo A. I!.~.~u[r,~".. O'~ef~. NWlW! ~,S, i!l25 ] 1200~).

]l.

W.,B, Scm!i[t~; 8;, hlitlie-r. t ~p~,tdNIl~i}'Oil':t.IIl00.r()$Ci

sa

11'w~1i!l!1M

~OO1; ~Q~l;\p~d,l;l '!1~ :i':OO7 :20017; 10,1:li2{i1ociBlil~e. U.4o.iltB Ilmdllili!ihi$ rl1lf!OOfi]a'~Gi11 wnl!n drlll9 i/liJ pa;Pi!~"

1lI'I~",~ llJllrn~

Ild'B~nt.ificatiii,o'n of ActivB Edgi'B' Sliit:8S I:olr' IE,I'B'ctrochemic8111 H2 IEvolluti,o'lDi from IMI,oS:zINanocatallyst:s,
Thomi!!S f,.
~ilrii1l11~m®:,l!IKriis~illli!, If[I. hllrg'!i!RI!i!l!ilil,l

!io~~ it~~~~ I, ~9l~g (M Top:ro\'id~ "ll'¢-",p<::ril~li;rI'!l1 '~~!lici{lliJtiOll orih~ :!H;'tUI,llr;:;;lit¢ lOr ihe l:mER. W>t;:: pt'l;pm:~ : MoS2 S::!!1!lP~f._'5,i in UUV IJf ,cl~~ibcf'd~Ib'~]iO!'!l;.~lm~n!r p;1!1lk\d.,u~cnl[}.!phclr{lgiL.~ 5~1\;11 !J~~dd11;;' Ir.a.c.i:o:ns

tem to

~;H,,~.~

lie' 1!ctl,v.ity mWI:!' S1t;:md'[I!Il:~ reac-

.o:r d,(~ t1)tu;l(lt; :Inld edgJ.; si~p; w(,~rt$}'l;1¢i'i'i~U~t;ally

Wlrkd, ltIritil ch"'~~~lCri~..J lily STM. AU Ill:!' lilt MO'S2 stint1j]1~ in Ih~:>sDucl~ were :;;)'1:lt~~e:;izcd em
a CJ:eiJ[i~ Au( III) :llldliOlmlc Il~phr.>ka~ \I rupor dl;!~il.ion Qlf :l'li~:o,in a bac'k~r:tYmltl of i~ (/9). IlS ~i1J~il&')'\.\~ed mlnC3~h~. accmrli n~~o t~ICal)f1'OOJch Il~

]iii1cdb, B0l1d,e.1

lane

H. Nil!!:lselil~ 1

5'ebtlstiiall Irh!lHh,Z ~b Cllju)rke,lIldorffl.~ Ihe idlentnfricilitiolll, OfUll!! a:OOivesi~eli in he~e.rogefileotJili catail~sis requires a c:mlllllJiriialion ,af sutrlla(!E!~elil8ilive IIIiI d!odls ami re<lld];vijtys<tudie!i-. 'We determinedllhe actiw ~i['E!'[{lr b.ydmgllrrl e'vo~lItio,llI, a reactiion ,elll:alY:N!d b~ pradeus IFlUftalb"OI1 filt! i'lolP<!rH(u~1lJte rnolybdl"llum dirilllfi:d@ fMIDS~) by at.o.mittlilly rerolving '!h,e su rI'.u@ '(Jf Ulis Qlit~~)'S'tb@,filliF! rnJ@asll!rimgl,Q;L@ch1odhcmi~a~. atl:v.il~f ]l1ro~utiol'l'. IBy P1@ptll1lllgMm..: !iii! I'Ispm'tic1es ,(\If ,di~f@r@M: slZ@S, w@ :s.ysl@rnt!tic€!lIy \I',i.!!ri@1!ilIl@ ,('j~51ri~!lIti,on S~fr~OO s]~s (I!Ii l!t\tJS:2; 11!Ci! If!aip.~J'tid@s, (1111 t o:f

in, ttJ~'.lU1L"C samples were mll1,C';l!edat 4or~C. l 1.\"'0 ~"C-I'Cill1ne1illeci m. SSWC" and OJ. "blank ,. S::1!1I!1'l~C ·W.'Il.<; :<)ml;hc!:'Ii O, W~[hrlUl~h~ d'cJl>l)!':~I~{I!l ... ..l.;' of
Mo .md
;:11)!]~~t~ld ~Mo

400"'(', The .Au( ~I ~. )

d i,,,pe~ d'!.~ Mo.~ 1~!ln(lI'lm'licl'ci':. 'by il'ii hct:l'll1:gbm!C' rciCgn,~tfllCI h;m ,md Au(llU, \~hidIJ \v@qU;i!Fltir'ied WilthS(.i!IlFlli'l!llJtlUl:)'l@lnflg !1Ili!ilr'©solllpy.IE.~~(l!'()iCMal.yti( aCltiviry;mells,'i.!I~€imil'lnts ii,; nOI. Il"r!,~ell!.lm1y .1!l;;~i'l,lc Ihe UIER (JOI'. 'ffl lOr r(lr IliIydr'llig;'ll!ti iI'lv,~ludon (ioi'fl'll~t·~ timl~rly iNit~time il!iJmber of ~d~e sit~s; en th~ Mo6.O! !I:;'[g!l~s[. ~11li[11Wi!l di:f;C@cb' ~cp~rnllf;ld si~,g~~ U%U)b1':f
:lO\1b."~nn~ ~tV~ 1.0

~urra~ shes, i_UI ~Io~ :~u £cdindllilri::aU)i IiS:1 '~~l~[ ,01' hd.. .,og",",u< i;oll. ~mfljrsis O~icljJ Illlmpcre(l by the di~l]cll.~~ bydrodesl,ul FlJlri:tl:'l·[ (I [[1S;)1 cflL.:TI,I~!Sl (1 (1, 11). . . .' / EYo:rw:Cl~t~rytng (I~c 3e!:i\~(! ,[tc OfiJ.ffiJ s ,!.;m9]~1 Deulit~d ins i~11l has been g,al nux] rr.Oflll, sDm:li~. sMrfh.oc (I. 2), ]~l hm'l1iogem~oos CilHil'yli,is.,~he nn simpH,rioo~n(;dcl sy:stenras. ifl u~l~t.. igh \f~CLl h .. ~'clh,<e ,WnlCI" is 8;c,'ll;cmli}1 more cleariy dr:!f~rloo um (UI JV)mld by It'lii Ilg c:ollllpmm:imll1 i U1;CilhO'ds. (/2 i:J), as lO'I,'Cll as l'i:rnll! 'l1~n~binillg n::fC'~ivily and qllanllu,fied. with ~po.~IfOli,({J~'k:and mecha~liSlic s\Illdie,,, ~\,[ding diretl .~Il~ighlin!o reae- ~TlC':Ii'1lU'~~KWIl~~U~ldI ,.. ~U! cllJiInJlCIIi:!1zmilm Oir i~l" es du ..u·ill~ c;m:1a~.}r~! lImplc:<i, UO. 11, Mb, Slm!.'~'Ulal ; $ tive ~noom~cdim~" S(l~id·~ .. ie c;~nO!!I)I.~~ .ho\vc\~C!. CO:rIll~lOllly c1(h:ihh a \rariol)1 or di ffereru sl,dlOC studi.c>s M the Mo.'Sz cam~ySll have :i!hClW.~1 h us lh,,'lt sltes that are di fficul! to WcmDf)i l'11le!quam ~ry:l.hie Co.mlpo.sc:d~lmos! cl1lirel.y or !l.u polygons 0.1' ~l:il.D;io ill. tiiHniJ!Cf CQ!llphcmc''(i whC'~~ nU!1hipLc s"rvl'Ci""S~U1!i~l)re~ lOl,: dependi nlg on the s}~JJ1ti~o· ,t sill< c~mdi'lionN, ihese l!-i!m.}'\.'1~linay ""~~Bcl.:,U[! <!, sites wOlk~o.g'Cli'!« im n'llmiJ1 .. over Ol, re:;~lio.ll" g hknuif)'ili!g~hctm:l()l\~ 1I~~i\l('!i.iu~(:;;.) c;r1li:c."L1ro is !illl.~lph:ii~!~k~ :In;!Hl!l~rOf I'Crnni!lIlS"il1~l~ ~r:il~YC]j1,,

P

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wil:lJl

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low :(!J:r.,(':;]J cO\llern.g~,* of MoSJ• less tMu one~b~trnll Mt (i ..e •• (l25 nlii.lf!!\ibS:l(bH~l~UP'!rl;II.'Wii!:J, Imtttoo.iilltc.Ji}1 allcr .dcpru;il.i!ilil. C1lch sflIl1Ipie \WS '!,i~ LlJilm !IT[!lS[etll'd to :I s\looml UII.V dWl1f. bcr fcr STM imashl£, (Fig. I)_ The cl)'sUJllliliOO, :;:h~glc--klycred MOS2. 111l.110IK~I"!iclc·s ean be de.'TI!:ril'lC'!:l ill" fllul rmlyg(!~s ~\ril~l J rnmlL!c~ing oogc ~!rur~, een as iJlI~gh~~i~llI.~ s :il.~ru,gthe r;l!ilicle pcriludCf". COlllJmiism~ or ~:ep:r.'Cs:Clll~Hi\1\cimil:£c~ or smll.p~cS 3unetdcd I:l!t 4000(' ~Fig., .1 ~ mIdi A :55ff1 ,!'Fi.g. m) shm",'s ht",vP<!Lfi tc1c ~iiitc intrer!f."OO' <JI1l~r "int~~i!lg "llhehii.~lC'r (i,;rnllp<;'fllllW!,,"!"
TIl!;; p;.Ialick'S ;mlllC'.lt(;-d 0Cl· 40WC art;; ~olb"isli:;'!lI 'l,vi~ii sinIllH,uly pro,pmcra:1 MoSl mmopmll.clcs (Jill Auf! II~.1~131[, Bescl]bm~'hcrt'lt:d.II!<l.\l'C5h(fwn Ihfil. Ih~ dOl'l'ni,m:mt t"i!.~ SI.'lIlIClure of M!oS:2. Illlno· lR'1f1ictcs is l.IulI of 3. SlUllffidCld Mo t~gc ilftd ihfll. liris cd,g,c is piill1iCcLII~rlLY favolt:d by IOl],'er..:;,i!Z(ldt p<lr1itdb. Vl. .l~). We 0]::;0 tl~e pl\''do:rn~ ilmncc orthc ,~umdcd Mo,."d,ge in our srullpl~s.

d~i1!J,l]~ng and ,cll:v~lopi;I'g imlrm.~\OO Cf~!lIlyl.ic: IliIlff~Cri~I~~" Many useful in SJ,IU find ex. situes-

poe.rillt'cmllllaoolmICltl,c£, !IS wd~ as ceOllllpllllilltimml ~ne~hods. 1\[I.ve boc'itl dcvc:lr]jltt-'ti (J -j~,~o address Ibis 1)I:t1b~l1t.~u idcn~iiYinlgIhe m:ctivc sill! re~1.mil1s [I ch"I,II~l1igi~lgtask, ~Il~hlis slmiy we uW'd sl~ch~net~odh1:to dct'C;r~ lliI.line lhe ilr,I~VC silc orn3nop.1'l'Iticu~[c Mo:S2 For I:i.le hydlrogClll cv.o:llution I'CaClioll d UiHtj, 21:r ~ .2c- - ~:b- 'li'1., 7).. whh;:h :~:s.f1I11Kimncl1itHLlly i~~ll)o;J:-

g(;l~cr;l].I 1k il1Els of Snt'lace s:I,lcs !l:xisl-lC:ml,cC' sites w hiirl1 111'(: thQl\c 0:11 ~le basal pkl1imc, 3n~t1Il>.dgc s:iil!(;s, whieh lie ""1 the edge ofld'ic nanepanieles, D~:::,[, SI:Lldi.!..'5> ~llg'· ges:1 nllail the J!lCIi vc )1ite lor U.DSh;;. 011 the C'd£c or the MoS:J.umrolp~u1 icles, This result us' SLIp" l~ol1ed by adS>O'l'ptucm siudics ohhiophc·nc lLsing ~~[mnhlg IILlIlnclhlg~nk[o..'l1ooiP~' (SIM) (Ii). DCSllitc n:lInH::rou~ slli.d~es onlh~s 111iillel'lkl~,
I m1 ~flyi:'rs. I.Wo

For ~~Ilglc

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or cle\:tt>cw;;:hcmk[llrroct,"S.~.

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~hcrc is a C!~~, for sl.IIJ{~i,cstil m. lIIidqlL'cl;1 '~lillk ~hc wcll-cllc~~;l1cd Slnlcl.un.:s of~hC' nwd'd sy.'i"

(.{'IIIIPO\I~cdsil1~crr~l'Ig allows LIS 10 clml1g~ me rol.io o~'bas~:dr:lanc ::lit~ In cdge si~~~swhhoLlt chan.gin,g Ihe Il.l~tme oflhe cdg.c, Jillis SLI~~im-d (l (i t!J)

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!iWl,,~h.~ Pt (;r.ll'), .llllil"l 'bI,Jilk rt1n:n. ~lQS2 ~.:;; . ;.I.I)oo:r Imn. ciIIlllysl (9}. NantJpill1i()ub.1:C' iM:oS2.< however, ~5 a mor.c Plf:!;uni:t;i:lill;lc :sySIt':lU; d~nsil:y flnillC~iol1il~. t~leo.i)' (DiF"fj (;ilku,lm~nifiS Irld ic--~M(," dun Ihc edges of [\,Iio 'll IlIIlf~lnlflkl:~s. iilfIC ac!.~vc· For
~!yili'rl@L~l~ ...oluiiDI~ nll~ulll:. h[lvl! :;I]~'n

.~lrodlll~;.ion h'l,'<lLl1;lr ::lVI Iniul;~,J ,w!,I;cl~I~:L'!.)' \'\Ih~J)t,;' ~h~'LIl; ~I,~~.CI;'d ~)i;,'p~,t~ 1~f(;ckJoU' n~~!,dc-.l'ti'~)~I" ,~f,;- . '!n

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lNI. but. lilJPfC\'~O'll'; CXllt1.;'rij· ,hi); roIH!lutic~vcJ~. N:!I.tlofliirtiClL1 hiice Mo:Sl hos. h.."11;11 studied pin> \dOotlsl), rn ,~n a~1~ll;pth) link 'LC~ivily 1lo t\Pccirnc
~Qntetrfer Uildi'!'idu!il.IN.1llqnmlre Foor~",n.ality, De~runent o~ Physk'5:, NlYio·OTU, if«hllk<!l Ur!'Ii!'t!SI\y.of Oe!1r!'i1ark. OK~ 2~(IiiJ l~, IDl1DIRijnl 2~l!f ·far MoJmlii!'"'K'l~ Ma1i11fi~U1l D~sign. ~mi!11ot (If lPil!rysh INit~IU]l!'t!hniCil~ IJnw~nY~!f O'~ Det:i!fJ1Ja!~~ ,[It;-2600 ~yiJg.~ IDlelilmilft . '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait 10t:hclk@lmik.:dl!ll!.d~

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IFi,!). I.. A seriies ,effiSiMI. fma:!lIes of M0(5.2 ntlI'lO,f}-arlicile!; em Al!I(l tU. lihe pi~rti'(les ex ltIi b~t~he lyp'ica.l. IP(l~~g,onl mor,~'Il~,h)gy with (OiliU:ilJ!uilmgl e~ge~clre$ ~iild al~1l'~ispe·rs~~ ,~nl th~AIJI sUilffa\:e ~fl'espll'c~~:Wll! ' .~F u'lIefa,~e (JJrr:d'i'!nlir~lirr:gt~Hilperatlire {~OOOCor SSO~(). tA) Low (:(Iveragl@(U)<6 I1rmiO!:r.IOs2lInml<l~mrn,t ilml~,~~.ledto'4'Q[)~C {470 ~.by 4·/0 ~~. 1..2 _1'1#1, ,4 ~V).. (B) Hi~h~ m~~ra,glll m.g3' __I1Imtz,M_o~~lnmlz'ftl(_mJ. iHi[~'INlI.edto' SSO~C (47'0.A by 470 A. l.2: !1A. 1l,9 V). {C) Ato;rm(j~Ry r~~o~l,IedMOtS;!'~it!rlld~.fr!l;ll'!il al sample .aJr:Jllu:!'<Illed~I1 5!S~C~ ~hD~"riil9 thE! pred'omiinall~e or the s\iUitied M~N!dg~ (:1:9;.2,0) (60 A !by 60 A.
lLQ l!!IA, 3(l0. !II1iV).

REPORTS
MQ"edgc ~SI!~C ~_m~;;;II'I!~t(LT-.c l');fl.,-,a;ic~cd lry DfT c,!lc(!I~(i,gns.w be lhl; .;;!;C,tl,\'!i;; site fl.1R' ~12
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i;lxl;:h~u]~~c~II:r~irll

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llr' w::U '-: It'f"lV'm~~:~~M:!ri''' for <InMo$,l! WI; Ilkll lhe
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A.~h;:r i~I~;gi~IM,.., .-.;:Lr.1~:tili)-:r ll,]~lllP.l~l'i fro~~ • d UJIV lllhl! ,i:ji! ,~k'C!lr,i::_l![':h~lli!iC111~')C"1I mt;-1Is~i:r,~ i~ HER m:!i~'ily tln. Po~m'l.ion 'Clln'\~~ (i - 11) W]dlil1 .<1 e'IQ.hMi.elfiO!~~ll1illl. \'II'i~ld:G""!' ~~~d ~Jtm~ (:;jJPnd~[Jg l'.itfd p~C!l~ (~og i - E}. m't ShOWlliul

d~I!:;.i~y,.lJ i M. 7,.n, 231, wbich Ls ddcnni,ll!Jd by :[iiiillg i - E dfl'tH ru ~:le Tof~1 1L1QUiltio!l (6~, yid~.il1g T,~rc'~sIIr1~ of 5S hi 60 n.1V/di;)-c1~dc mid (_~;;,.. ch1llig;~ CU(It:"Iit dtllis,ili~s il~ d~ t;;~nMC of iJ x

:s;mn.~rlll; par!ilJl~~~!~.tll,. l\'loS] ~~ ¢ov~rthe ~lg~t.Fig.. 3A), :uld db~ MCDS:2.LId,gc,: :;t!IIJiJ k::~.lg~~ (Fig. 3.B). The dill;;!'p-oims tlili '~m.. .slrnigh~lln~·
Q!]~YiN~l~ll ~p,~~I~'d VC",UN (,;d!l!~lj~!ig_~h-}\Tthough mhc poillil:ll s~m.v ~i'iifi.~ 1>c!d[~r.1IrPl,i]ld 'th:~.. Ilfl."j'id,

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mh':-y !In: clestrH:!II::d by :. b~l.lii !~I1C.li1( rc~3]iai1 \v.i:th:l ~I(:i~ of 1.. 7 '" W-~I Ni1mM~S:k.d.~~ 6 Because the Rite of i:\."'ii~ti(lln is dleec tl:y pm-pciUlli,o~al tlt'i [~c: nlJ!1110er of ,ooJW! silh.~$for S;1I1111)~CS, oo~",ru1!5.<: ('if 1)1IJlick: size. we crmclude Ilmi. the ed~ slte b hKlC\."d liae "'Clive si~e (2,n. Bemril1iglill s iJl~ni!lcL,. 'weno~in Fig. 3A 111<:U Ihi!! cx.chm~~~ Cl!rreillt d~m;.~lile!:'i. I,_].f the .s'!.In~'·le::-;; ~in!,1)fctl ,II 550gC u~ $iJigl~iftt.mtl)' ~{l\\'er~h'-'!l mho.~ 'pr(;lJ;,m,;cl: at 4«I(I"1C, pt;!~. M(lS<! tiL')\t1,;:r"~~', C!.!lru;~I~ias ,(}UC wcull.~dC:li!]!l'Cl c<t'l:Jt'lidcril!lg 111m dl(: ~illW~'Cd s.·U'J1~~k'" h,m;:I~ J:,;1cl'gc k;f!,!!,dl1 p~wre.<!

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,all'lMitlaled '~(I 5 5 O~( ~i'ght. illul!!. (Al' IPto~ariz ..liollil curve $~,(l~'i'ilil~ tiI';t! e!jlo~uti~n DJI aU :s.lH11II'lles..(8) Tar1e!!l p~et (lo9(l!Ilrlrlllllll 'i!!ieirSIilSpOllBmli~U. All ,~r tlil@ ~,QS~~al1flpl!es llilVl!' Taf@l !jlopel~Qr S,s, to 60 11'11'\1 per 1Ci'~ilde irlliE!1i.pectnvl! ®f alm,e<3lln.n:g~e1mpe;<ltl_grieil.li1a iCiOW'i3lge'. S\lffi,ep rate: 5 mV/s,.

~hfll CIi.lfu~ymmh!l:' HI ER. on 0 IF~g.2. 1P6~ari~~t~on (Jljr\l'~i\ andT.ar~l. plots iii 31 c.aJthodlc ptl1tM'l1ial \itill'ld!o-w for~he fiijl\~ r!l1~ff~ii'eliit .pcr :JtCli ve site 00 si s ,t J), POI'~his direct S;i[C'·lOsite OOr.I~pilllri!>ml. \¥C I.IJ"OOI dle 1.:5 x 1O~5 :sik-"S/CUIl·l! MoSz sam~~.e:s illS weill .1IS a bt.llank sialllilpLE. Sam,ples iHII'Il!i!led ti~ ·400>:l( are dltulk. Illh.!IIJ!!', samp~.es

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Filg. 3. Ex(;Irli!ln.~~~I!!rIr'~rll dlen,S'ity W["SlI!S (A)MoS;~ .il!J@1!I1 WV!M!i!9!!ii!JQ'ci (B,) Mwz 'oog!f! ~n,~th" In both rnguue~, O~iIl cir(h~5 afe5(llTtlpLi!5 <lliIlile<lll.ed ·to, 40(l"'{, JiUed drcles <lre"~l1ilp,~e'!l <ll'Iln.e<lII.edttl 51~m°(, Tihe i[l;ciha.lil-;]e '!:UfUIMU d~flsity does net oorlF~ta'l~ '1M'Ilh~he ,::m;~(j (1)IIj'ei~~ge (!If MC!S;a:; wherE!laJs $t shQw$ a ~.ili1,~,jHdepen'aenl'e ~:n!he Mo:S2 ed~ e ~.mgllh:. Ibdhangi~ ~!.JlrlreIi11 d'e'mlil'h~s iI,re ,extrilc'ledl from the TaI!e<l plot ]r! :fig •. 2. The edlg;e ~.el'lgth ~lIa:s measured on .aWlimaglea palrndes and I'IQi~milUZed by l'he

mnm;pmtlctl:liucMoS::! tOrii l'I:X"'Cnl verslon of Ihe "'Q!cmm~YIflC rela~ion:s OOsc1i\iCd fori iER eata1)':''1$(Fig .. 4). hl Ihis case rOJ the Gi.hibs rrcc cncL'g)' for O:lIom.lk hydrog.en .u~rpli(Jn (llG\liU' 1~12'. 23). T.lil~£· v()llcnflO< relations tlldm:3tcl.j' Ild~.iC(lt ,IeSabat~cr Ilrin".1i;pIC'~whi:ch acro~ulls fo.L ~ cptimld suli:a'C'es as Ol~S dlat ,e..",hlbh~uodcr.lItc ~l]KliIJS cnc.rsics or 1'C:)Ctkm JmC'l.'nllccl,fIil~e. ... hydoog~n ;Ul'>QfIJlu'on in: ItJ~Ccase oi'~hc :11ER.. In Fig.
4, !Il~ !.::1'l~h~Ul.g~ "I~entdC'n!:lhy

i1rnagedi ar'~!li. Fi>g.4. Vol[calflo pl()lt ,of t~h~ 'E!'flcill::lll!lge cmrellIt. die'Ill~I'lY <1:11 ill hJI!'I(tion (If ~he DH"calwlaoo~ 'Glibbs, h-C'e~lfler,gy of Cld:s.orbed ,~It@ mffic: 11~~~g;en;rlor i'la'f'I(I~alflf,.. ,cuIM.eI%'lOS2 ,~fldl UII~pl!!!i~iiflletats; {23). A:s seerl,.IM~,5<l: feUows~he ~,[lm~ tJlemd .[l1S tine plJrie1 me~..1Is.. Tlh@, MillS? 'e'-lu:h~lflgi! i~l_!rU![llt d'~n~ilyis norrma ~iz!ld to till e a.lomlc $i~~ dl'i!li~il;y ~:~Pt ~~:rCOlt! p~rrnS:Q~. , Si;lIf1!~I.@S. aim !J ~ly( !)ina l~ii!M~ I!! FI~ ~~s®ther~~15e 10'1

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OFf-c-'oItcldab,id! fn.1;.~ ~li~L';V1lY01' ~NOlptr)()!U of h:ydrogllu,. which W,I!,:<; Iil,~'·m.lydel<:,u-mimx! hl'~ Hl@ ,~V rilr the MoS2: cd_g<:(8). To add MoSl. I:u this ligl;lro,. we CiDIW(;f)l!ilidih~ i TOP ofmln.op:ru1kwil\;nc MoS.", ~:o ~t:s 'CJi:Cimnge Q1irreil~ dcJ:isUt)' ':K:'.i:" 1.5 ;.; Wn5 sil~cmr, ':\"~l~ch yields 7.0 10-6 t\!.;;.rn'l(l~b~e S2}. l'hisVl)~ue mrpilSiieil those of iibe coUIT.ll:mm rlwmJI:; timid. :i:ie.'i Just ~kJ'wl:1~ili!c ofdtc IlrocimJZ: p[-groU;iJ mCilll!>. When pl{milll!!. (his expcrimi:".IIInydct.cn:niflcd oct~vily of the ~gc' s [te\'CI"Su.1i: :ills DFr..cal'cu:lal.cd l\.Gu {4~j,.we seelh:ll. h rotl~IJws ~1C' \1l.YJcJm)~.IlC.~ld (23}. 1M:;. <JgI:ctm!1!l1[ v;Jlida~e:; tile I~l.l;ldiclive ct!pllbih~j' oE [irIIS DFf mood mi. weil ~I!i; ilS ~il!l":lion
>(

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~uring ii~'\!i.lh

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REPORTS
\:QJlsid'cr h.()'\.'~ W, ~111J~ro\.ClIS. ~cli".i~y, The I)n~ COlllC{III"ltXl,C!,G1! Qf the MoS,I! ~'dg~ ~!t1;;: is sl ighlb,l pr.tfi;iti\l\i;11Ji. ·l n,o~ !;vi!h (:<I!I~t:!~~!q~l~l:.~ CV, ~\IM~~in.r,:: :n:rI [~I~'ID'I,I~mgi; of OI~ly·mW.... l!,l,m\,'1" i(l!J1 [~~ ~-dg'li,~
~.u~d(;r opemting
8. IB.lilmlllmilfl~',~la.l. ,j. Am. them. Sec. :ll2:7. '5~OO ~OO5~. 9_ J~gelTIi;lmlil, 1ft TtibU1'5(Il, mg. SwJ~9.

w-

rDtJJldi~imt (8," Thl,k'i. on~y ~UI~4 ..

(.>d~~,~~OI1!'U'i >e\d\'Cs. Ifi~~CIl:~br ~:h1l!!a givl.ln lime, lln~ukJ:~(l11 ) \,'o"]!ich (l~mlJl,."" ~II~I H-oo... cm~ or -I Mt P'. J6, 271"Jf;iU MoS,;! C1;1g.c~i«i~,ruuld:b~~ mMi.clc'['0. ~d:\O:rblt 8crivil)l co,~j~cllEiiiicliCfllk'd by lit UllCIj}j' 4.lltlll'l jj~~~linIJc au::omj,')~:iil.1-I~c1 by a4J~]rupri_11y lUI'! in:g I.hJ: clk:elruf:li;e :;nruc~i.ireor ~hcctll~eto i~lcre.a.">'C~heooncll :::;;1irCl\,g,tl~ ofdtc: 00,. sD-rb.. [I (lJj.. Such a modi!icatiml coM~I:diml.l~~ -"'d s !m'trol.!s:iiy [ml~rnvc Il u: inhcrenllu.tUlm\,cr oi:' cadI cda~~d,lt"1~II'~ih~l~i~npro!!dn.s,IJlC,o\'cmll ,tcli\'lly of dn.~I'M~I~:"I~IJ\:~'a_$dI'!1il~ r [)l~groIii!P mt.:t<lk 1 {I

or

1lO. It TIlI;IlI!IJ!l'",8. S. (blJ~elt F.. E. MauoUI, rn (Dr,tll. Sci'ffl(fOM 1~~,W,,]. R. Ander50P11 oM. eQUil!~n~&;h;. GlIlIlmgu·'lhrllilg. ~I!\T 'Ii'«ko 19~~·~. vdI. ti, nit!!:. Oii~elli f~ ai. (;otc!{ Rw.I!:€I,\ '1 f:t!OO6}. ~, ~ v, I!lla~li~g~.r !l'.i., W1",,~ ... t~!t.~',!('J! ~Q(lm. ~ 18; S. HI!~;g iN fll.. ~1J!'l.~.~~r.r; 84" y~~(lD). , 11.4.], Krmgilali~ ,~ ai!., J;. Aim. 'Ci'iI'm, ,SQ.r. 128, H950 {20ii!6t liS. ~ I,!!. BO~f.nger. K.. w. ~~tl~~. l. tt ~\:lr:l~O~ :f1tI~ ~, 8 61. 08~~10(~mn}. ll.6. lR. f~!1i, V, H. J. de ~; G, fJ;.:Ml:mQ!j'~~, (Il'tl;Il. f4!~i &i. ]if. ]1 'Il. ~illll;it~m~I oJ.", J. (a,fe', ~l4;'.lll(lOO"I. 1l6. ]I,. 'IJ. lilLlrnJi!lm fl (11.,NrJt. NrJrlate:M. ~,'5~ 1~:!OO"t
1[9. il,Nate!i'a:ll!; ,;lii'l.O 1IlB1irn(ld~,:lI!! diifiljibllli! ~s s~p!llniill!i rni:l1iBna~ on SmJilr::f' O~IfI1t" 20. ]!. ~~, E'. R Gilnlaie-l.. HI. i'!l llIiUwl!as, .1. .P';hys. aJMI'. Ii :m:Z.:!.OO3X (I?~m, 2'1 1t!Jl! (till, ~~lit:ll'LIy JMrg:Md '!4n ~jjd~ !:I1l1 tlIW· iJri!!rnil~m~d ~.iil1l1Jl!leo:!. 'L!; ~~l~d UPOII ~~ lm~edl {UU IraQ! cl1.lie sam.;p1e Mth di ioi1!lo1'1o·nn!1!. !l!ll;;po~i~g , -0.10 'M1'~' !:CllhEH.lSO:~~~ftlOI!jl~ ~~H 0.24. 2~·(t ,~nd

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~t1 ~lIta.tij~~·al ~!lMIi~~ ~e M10wn neilligibl.ie imtliil'i!,lii(Irn Ibetwl!'!li!n'm~ ~1 oilmdlt!le~~~w~t U)4, .IS}, !l!'adifl9 us 1:0 corntil~d'e· fh~.t ~uth si~ M1wttll!!@ ~~ irnadive as 'fh~ of thE1 b1i'1~k !!i.illl'll;iltit!:!; IflJePilrM ";t~oul MQ5~ d'f:!,!oii~g" ,2!;. 11'1 oor c:om.palll~oonil~1 PtUlij, WI!' ,3n~~CI U}1lI '~'t' Ob.ill~' HIE.R1!Cllll1l5 iurr~, 11 d'l!Immal.l'II Iby' le",iiI.e ~~~ ~gt !ieJw~ IN::! g~!~~ 9\I~,mM in ~M~
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,26. N.. M. M~r~Iri(. 8.. Nl. GrglJr, P. N. RoI~ J, P/rys. Gl.em. i!I ::!l.Ol. 54[15 ~199"ll ,27. E.Slll~~m r!1 oCl'.. Ph}'! .. {h!!Jlll.. GlmtMys. 9, lMl. (100:7).; lG.1lO391S100!!!99Ql ;Ill ll1fii:$ pt~~ w..a.~ ~~_ed .!)y ~rne ~i$Ili SUitegic ~~rdl, CbunriL f.f,l. ~naSled!ii!'!' ~n f;I, (. ~1'!.Ed J!'wldlXlcril~ F~llcMnip fl'Clmille' Tiemrnc.a~ 'IiJmii1e[iilll' 'Qr ~li1mjl.li1h~ (M~er fm~[OOiMII:I:l N~noiJai'lid!! fiumrltiot'hill1l!j'i!i, ~~lJIl'lItlltd Iby ~~~ Dam ~ Irtalfil:!m!1 ~\n'i1. f(!.u!l'!lalnoo. WIlEil.:ienler foiN' M~it-~I:iI~~ Mrterio!~liI~i~D ill ~PQiiled br the- lJ~db~ FGLI'Idm:iM. Sl!ippo:rtingl Ornll~'IfI~ Ma~~,nIial
","wMl:fi~!'!'!i!g.a@"!litcQn.e!'lVrU!!.II317l5'B3~l!OOJIOC.~ Mall!lrlal$ aaW ~1Iio~

CltfmI~tfJ' ,~.~d rnlil!ltl'. IN~'tonk. ]~"4~. 1.. T~zarnbtll~ ]. Wi!'!UerLll1, JI. Tlr~l, 'Y. {!liil. SGem:f 2:73. [1'i~ t1l996t s c.r. (.:!Impb~L Sr::i~' ~;911, Mlll {;!IiOi]J, 4. ~.!. Jite~~r. S'g;f!i!~29'3. 160 1 (200l}. ~. :~ ~h1 ~·ClI • Php. Hw. .~lt as, 1.In~ {t999). • &. J. (I. Ill..lBodI:ri\i. 5. I). ~\ iiiI'l~illl SuIFJrt: Elmf«lJt\!l'lfsflY: .A Ma&:mkft~ ApfNOIl'h. fJ!!'et1'!J!I1,. ,Mew 'Y\:f'_ U9J~. T. B,.l, It'li'.1i!;!k,EI«,~m,~"". ~51'l WD{@Somi:llJjliJ~ (1iItr1Od[i\ctJOl) ,f,ll Sitlltlal
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ii;(IfIf,eI~ltiom ~~e~ ihgim~ :MS2 1iI~J1.Clpolfiiirl~OlM th~ 1LI!!a!ILU!!!iI :!CIJ"I~!I'~r ilyd'.fI1I~m evQ1!l1lij~l!I. 2::!~'!l.ff~!:Ii'l~, J.~n:ftHtW. l1!i!lit.itl9, 1~~ '[1l.9lZ}, il3. IL [, itol~nkoD!'!6'r.iI.,)t fl'N:lnml'!t1rl1. Sln:. 152'. J23

!::OMJ ]'~iI '!'IIJ. Sl T~b~$ $!( ~gi 52
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24. We 'f1O'!ell!:at.Au <!i01115 alOOIgI the I"i!.rridie oed!:ilii~D ~~~~ iM!b !lie '~9~ 1eJi!l~I:i; III)lIl!1.iEf. ~OO$ ~lIim~!

aoos~.

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IUnd'B'rstfllndin'g RS8ctiv'ity at, Ve'ry Low Tempetatures: Thls' IRuIBI'C'lii,olnsf: o IO'XYDIIBHIA.toms wiil:h .Allkan'B':S,
till.. SSlIUI :5allllll!Ji1!Ilhl"l I.!L!Id(l!il'~cB~;e"rUlli,er ,I lan R. :5ilm~ :4 Yurii Ge!o:rrg]Ei'lililll(;ii,.! 5tep,he-11I l- Klippeflstei 1iI,,~"la miW. M. :SlTlillof!~
iii. re-m.alrloi:alblleii1uJmb~r o~ rt!<luj,om, beil\1ffi'~1'!1 ~'e\utir<ll free ,adi~all:s, allid rile;lItr.alllil1lollenlle~IiI.aI\!"e bem !ihOi;\lfl! ttl, Ireli1llaJill Falpitl down to t~m,l:Derallures illl ~.®'l!Jlas20 ke!.vi:n. The ra,~e ,werficllemis, g)eI1lEl',rallly

~. m~!nyK'ac~iQns.lhul

co.l~lrl(.'['~. Tbcre lSC!"., .~~ch 3;'!;!il.OSC LlClWOOl !lltil'S. of ul..~~abk species. ror w:111 IO~"-il~mlpcm~!Jreklnclic k]~ ,(j ma rteilllc.l' C.XiSl ~~orare Iilkdy 10 be (llua~m:lI lU~ the f()fC8eeabJe
YmlllUl
Hmy Ocr;UIf' in

1l10(rc~ing (6) is !'<lill I~r

Ifllllll!1C_ Tll'l>(lrel~ll"a~Of :tii.:!lfiI j,.C'~nDiric<ll1 n~'l'LiI{~, or ~liI1lB,~!iq~IIl!\"~ rotc coolf[{:i:{;"UlnNm1; lill1;J\r;fi~rc

de.s:i'mb~.c. Sev~1 cr~llIiipk:TllC1il~illl)' thooroticf~l, tIT'.,.1!UIJ1l::!II.S It 7- '9) hfl ve IJcC.1iD adv eneed 10 explain dtc ()m~n'C[1 n.cgl1tiV'c ICil,pcrohire d!..1JC.ndCi:ll'CSor
rn~e coefii,ciel1lt~ fur mdic31,Ii.1I:Jkall n:!ilcth:ms.
0

'ii~l!e~~!E!red We' ~xilll'l1il'led '~he: n.li[lS'On~m this tenlll~riltme .. r dep;!l'mldenGe [ombhlled E!'x(perimelilla.l am,d~heoretkilll study or UUl! r@IlI!:!tiomi ·e,~O(.o;I~J'o'ltiOIm 1Wi'~h ,ill r!iliIflQ@ ~,f.Ililk@iI1!ilS. Tn ef,a!:mlOr'S 11111 (Dm~r('J,t u~,@ ralie 'tie@r~(~@ ~IS. W@I',(! ~howrl~o Ibe rilitlil,e;r su bUf!,. bll~ 'E!'~ilJ~~I~nt a:~we@ml@l1t 1,'!'.a1$ ~lbta]IfI,ed b'HW@@fll title '!)XIl@ nm~fltall W,@!S~ ,iUiltll lilll!i(rotfllrlOn'i!i:~ll ~ts Ira n'Snil:i~1l ~U!I~~run@o!y (ai~(Il!L~ti~r[t5:s@d (In aiti i!li~t~r@p'r@~(lliltaJti,gm ®f thi! p!Jlt@nt]~l'~f!.ergrJs,!.QffaJl:@!s ~ ~ r(J~c:r!b~f1gth~if1lt~factiq)in b~lWi~'~ U)~ !1eo·ai::~aUlts"
im:reaS'E1 <ISfue ~:empera~urlii
i!

pri~~cipaliy0:111 Ihe ba:l\i~ Oflhc' nmh.-m

r a.dialt.atk:

thr'~:n.lglil

C<I"~H~n'e oflil.c l-eruc:tilnli5 via ~mlg-'mll~\'e ,~uurnc!J1Yc' ~nrres. Aldl(l1Ugh 'l~lCY(Ii;n'c:rnt~lhc1 r dCli!il.ils. ~hcsc U\:l1Iilm:n~s f111p:rcdi.cl :ilarge m~c' lCoclli.dcllIs at \:Cl)i r~Wtcmpcnllurc.s ~b:rmdic,~!-md~3~ ;1:'C1I'C-

iJFl~ ication, 01' !.he ell. E;;.~tJtL;.'1;h!li~ll~~(!~ :;.onw ~,,~ .~I l(,·'lIIll(rnl!~In;.~'b~l~ow lJ K 'l4). ~. aI29~, K l~(lg.~ ~I~t h~lS. :oihnw,~! 111.. 1 u. ~~IJlri!;;ing~!~I:I1IUbJ,,;"f ~]r A~I 11'1.W r.1!:t1l;; c~ffic L'I;Jl11:. bl!rrn(J1~cu~,Lr [(.,1(,11011.'> bL"lW~1 l1.(;lLt~1 ;}~ 1;,"Ql!lil~.ttl or ("..;lL(x;tr(]'-i o-j I Cillr" 1111Ok'\;~de - li-I, Moroo,,·t'J~, dlC !!l.c!lcn':~ trend with 1'(;J11IpcmnJIXl i:.;, g,.;lI:S-iJ~m5e SJ%~les 3a:\: m.p;id 3l yel:".)! If.lWI.('1Ialperu.~ Illires. 'ilio dale. !'ate ux:nk:icuJI:!; ~:i.r80~~~45 nCiJLTIl~~ lor lite 1l'I,tc' coomciC:rilslo :i:Jl(;,realllC llIS!I.1C!CiU~r~lIcJ.nrn'lll:'ea'th:m:5i. 1'klI,YC boon me<'JruRXi l,.t~ iUI alilfC ill low'Crecli. l:h~ o'bsCf'loa~ioil.,> ,halve ~oCdu);)I recV<lih.llill,ion ofdte dtCil1lbt~ tBI;ili.ttJOCLlifS dlc ClO:i'dcOu(~~pO in llm!!tilut de lJI'ln~ilfl!l! de lRemne$, !.iIbor~WiJl!' ~ruJI.I8, U~R: to .20 K) or dcillt;e, dflrk iaU.ersl.dlar cloud::; (mes,). ,662',1' au (NIP5-UirIiwcitl'i de RIelrnne5 ~. liqmi?f! .I\rnMmre where dtc ul!rnJo,riityofilah:rsI.dlill:r mfllcclJllk:s. h,uvc l~p.!rI~",~a1.e. sa. 1 U. rCoamPt!ili.lile, a,~~~. 3S1O\IIilIR~nlllei becil ideill~i~l.cd. lthol!lgh scq~l,eu~C\.-"'S of :~onA !(f!d@if, ff·aoo@. ~'(iol1looSliDn Rtl!i@ilfdl rildl~llJ.5andl\l Nit' tiooal Labor.alt!)~, ~.ID!Ire. tCA 945.,)'1(,. USA. ~CJiJfilDi.i!~ mol~ulC'rem::~~ms i~ilialW bydle'oo~mk: my .D'tmiolfl, I\r'f).oom.e INaHonal lab«at\)f)i' •. Argonne. I~ 6O!1Ii39" in1;hl!;;;lca IOIlrt.llion of:1 ~'1clC'al'iy pi",), i. cer~11<!1 Ul9\.~lImho"E!6il)' Coomk.;illL2ibn1r:rtiJly, "l!Osrli!!lllllilGild, Cailn'

A

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on dlC I~mil.:~~l]~lC C~ or !"',.ulit'<l:~"rl!ujIQP;Yl~ !'\;'..t(;l~o;n.~,,j,klc), i.... r:;wh1;l~ht;u" "li.!!:c !)I P<'[~!,11 i<lll 'L;UII.,,\~y b.lni~;r c:..... ;ilml~ ~:!C Illln~ i.'il." I!l\ml l;n\-~)i .p'uh Jmm It'OO!~II~""~. 1}J:(xi:lU)I:S; 'illh~~' ,are,-~II ;lIri~r {i.!C•• ru n'l~~Nin]JJnIl:~v<~ the b
whcrc~hl:N
~nin~~mml CJ1C'.l,£Y~ie<l~trOIJ (1JC~

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barrier corre;sPQi'i.d~ng, to ill'n~m\iiil1Ui~l;LlI,tloll£tile luii1lillmnn Cf:lICfg)' pilth bct~liCelllhe sha~kl'w n,hll-

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"To \'Il1;om (:oriJl~,~plN1~i!Ge .~.d' add~H's:e'lt['ITI~i~ IJe llan"s:lgll!ili1(-~lIf'!!ileslJr ~!"R5J;.:Sk@ ..~l),a01l(SJKJo; Lw!!:_
YIliIIh@tln.;JIln..1lt.ul! (I~W.M.S;J

r..oJ!c i~ [hlis c.henlL<;I~, m,'l~If01J.!!1(.;1.!'''''~rc,llction:i1, ~rt' .I1Q~'!i' ,~;';;'Pt;,c~-d~p bt: niOro .i~up'ofl;;;lnl. Ii]:;!lUl r:nt.\~kjIL~!)'lho~b!!l!'h1(5). U.1l1~l[l!l,Iml!L;'ly~ klriL;'~ic d~ d;1labjjll~~retlllli[l..-d .UO:r ditbllj:~(-cl flllll.rnch~I'i'ilh::.(!J.I

imunn assooi,ued w:illh .~ 1)~Ii'C;.'ilClioI1 ,omJ~lcJ(. ~md the IJrr:(H]lICil; (:;(;c bdloo' ,. FliHtl1.i::·rlln,~'tIi;t'ielical\vm'k, pru:l.iclIlal'ly by (lcoj'gktv~kii ,md KlippC'l1lsl.elin UD, In hfL'! s!roW!llh<llI;1 :i>~bmm:rg«l 'b<lttTier Clin sca:ve as a. ~'CCml(l illucrlll3n~i,tilJn :sm~c 'lol,!, ~Ollll'!lteck, j, LICc.alL.<;C: thc' :il1~cm<.:I, ~<!i~c.s <II. this S;U)'1UOI·UrI'tCOJt'C'o.!cl,ml !ICIi"arnlkllllllC mfimc~\I~dc~y :spaced 'nn,Jll a~ Ihe GlII~cr,C'Ollllure
tm:!:I~'~iO!l ~l;!lcln '~~~ (;:i[Ol!l~t;.V!tt'5. •.hi! :~ lO PI' ..
Wdtliou UI1LiotiQ;,

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