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Afl:PLlEI[) PHYS~CS

CONTENTS

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V. V" t~f1yak et ,aiL
A r'~piltii~iro DNA!s~m!;!nti11lh~ growth ,~rrn(}n.e g~n~~ tl'1ll1!soib0i:l during pili!lill1lry d[!"'~I.Ilpl'lt~liIt ,ilPild~~MdisBn!S dlrcm<l;~in ~lru:{wm f!:lF <J,mN<lIHOri 'o! g,t!fiI~~Wlfl!(fip5ol!l, D:EVELOPMIE NT

IIlIi!It~~;llll')1rernl!!y Qnrridi!~d HlI~M<ltvyjg(]rop~~'1;11 in cnt~!l~n i~ ~'bu ndjlnt~1!IUm mmlilri:.;I](f ~llPfill1i~wi! m~®ra~.id~lItiryin!) <II dittiJ'iCl iffiIMI' reSI'!Noir ill UII!~.a~l~SCililf ~1JSt~ m. =-> ~rJpeW~ l!' p. 11.1 CLIMATE CHANGE HG~ Mue!h M(I,rl! R:a,irm W'iUIGttibii'tWarrn]l1i~ Blringl! F. J. W;e.nr2:, . Rlf:drllti'df]" K. Hilb.um, c:. M'eQff L IHumidity amllj)~jpitat~cli'l ~me::qlectedllyincreased al:lhe s<ar!fli! ~I~ ~n r.e5pon,seIII glGbal wi11lJling ,durilll!J !he past I 20 ye~,rs, yile4Jdi n'li lI!or~ r~i:mr~lIlh!;l1'!1pfE!dic:ted b:~models;,
ECOLOGY

233

(omlfii li1a~ljiria~SheA Docikil'l!)ll ~nter·a(,tio:ns ~S:lIIImQJt. ,25'1 I!iliif~r~tylV'iSiSii,l~'M!(lrplwg~f!es;i:;: h iW" R. H(J.rdy eret, {:)~gi"~lt 'ii!,lhl;~t~.01' tilt:! "','I"~ll~bt~il1tilf·<I~~;Q~ d'~m~in~ 'Of ~, ~~i1:1r:o~dingl
p,r.gt~ln'.1m~~rlJitm:llm mll~dfl'alild h~arii t~ ~lJp~rtti~6lUi~~p~dfi( d~l()pllil@iIIi:a~ pr'OgFam~.

'~()Iod'We:b-Spedfi.c Orrgilllllf:c P®llutiilillf:s 11 (. ,{I(:eJ.f.y e l at

B]olilil<lg:Il]~ij~atij():1l

(If P·er:!lij$~ern

236

Som~' lialaJ~D'U~ ol'g)ilni( COO1pOU that 0(1 not ,[I((Ulnul\ilm ~

~lnlis:hor aq II!.iUi( looa ~lbs. do a(('ulmuliltt tnll'O!!IIghr(Joo we~~ (IIr al r·!mlatlii'i FI!i mamma,l's.

IMMUNOLOGY IR!&i,p.roiCa~. T!'1,17 ,clil'ldi Fb1!Qlulatmy T (ElM. [:Ime me I1tiatio n ,2S 6 Medii!.led' by Reti noic Acid .D. l\\tucidrJ' etllL Th(l<deciii®J'! to p"omole dt;·filrlCt ~mJijn~lle eEls, W:h~cl:!leilhe r prei!'el'!~ or ji;lromotei~namifl'lJMto!'1,is fe~u'l<!led bf Ill"! ~lIillmiI1!A.lilfleUlIooI.i~e re tin()~c: ar;:,iIj "

~::. Newt ual}' p.. l82 SlRU CTLJRAlll3rOlQ GY

MechaJl"li ~ >of T~'I!o (LaiS:5~:;;: (If Cali1ICelrMildalloiiiS; ~n the Phll~:~JII:riilo,~tid~e:3 -lKinase Catalytic S;~ b~l1I~ I t
N. Miled et al, s.tfll[t~ra1 aii[JluF1.e,tiD:F1al~ S1u[JuiiiS, u9~MtJiJarlilriutatirOii~iii tw~ ~

239

ilICii'ic:aia1y!ie deJ;iTiaRl'isol' am im,j)lifl:<!,iflt ~in'ase b~re1.Ms1n;ali'i iilihjb~!!i~.
>:..1'f:rrp«r~p. lfl6

(<Iii GauSe CiiiilllE!{

MOLECULAn BtDLO GV ~QsW~plli,ci3!ti!ofe fill rrn(Jti~ 111H':(I!hii!'S~(I~s FI:!!qlifired o t for R!i!'pai~'a~dll!lfld'lloei~!by a 5~ngle DINA Brrf?.aJk l.. SrrOs1l et all.

24:2

DNA. Ooubte-Str;amllll3rlBalks 1Iiriiigger Genmne-Wiide 245 S;i~tl1!r~ChromatniIll(.o.hes]olil nrOlllgh IE.co 1 E. Oml~ t- MOl Hf!idinye'(-Pau{~.Do Ko~hl(}ru;J Th~ e loGE a,sscC!lat101'1 o.f two 5,'iIi,'~el d~~oiil'l<l'Utls O(jC,Ur' at5 a rll'5utt can 1iI1'IDNiI\ d'HI1a.g! <ll'1!ddoes Inot requir-e sinwttaneDus. DNA replicOJI~o:n" "'~ IPreviilll!tsly th01J!j hit.

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-s & NPA

HetJ"e~'s; your IUnlkto careler advan,CJem,er1l,t
[1$ at.~heforeifm'J1~ oradWll[jrng'emVo(~Jreerffis.eif!itI1lef5 -offl2:rirn!g.idb soorch,. grornllS, ~rl'il!drellowshlp$.jIdUtll!.J,~dhlg wmkshop!5. snd strdt,elilt adYite through 5i::i'ern(eCmeers..Grg and oliTGenterrbf (~Jeeir5 ifnSdef!~e' &; le.dh fliolQgy,

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m fiind out

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SCII ENCE CAR'IEER.S
\Wl.iW.sd~iI1C~[areE!rs.OI'g CARHf! RESOURCES WR SCIENTISTS

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WUU phl f'I~d ~o!.!b~irlg I()'~~11~s.1c~ls(iflQ~e I~ r(!'s~rdl ru 00 blq ~~¥@' sgm~~(:n~Mi~~ IMJ~ ~rr th1!i:!b~f;~,~? lJIS: ,0 ppo:rtlllllitllllr.-C@l1Sul.t.iing on t he Side P;: r-L5~(! liti~ru aire rlGlJi rW8~n.s for PQ6[doa; andl gr,aduat<e5tJUd~nls I>f t~~ek QIJ~.!!:QiIlsUlltilllg 'Mlr~, EUROIPE: Illustra:lilng Nature

E. P'a~'r1
milillilllllarq,oos (JQ:mbioos h,~rr pa~~ktl]i5Ior painttnl9 and bi:d~oog¥ In miNiiGirac il~U5lrillijOAl work

SCIIEN!CEjS STI(IE
1oWMI,5li!:e,,~rg SIGNAt TR.J\I\I,OUcr10 N KNOW LEDGE Ef!lVlltON'M [N , II1'EFtSPIE:Cr~\IlE: Do@~ IErVlhr~lpoj~tilrl liIa1;ll:!',~ D~r,k Sidl!!? I~~~,Sig~QILiing ~Iildl C,a Iii cer CeUls A 1. 5ylko~,i dinic.all $ti:Jdies have ra~:sed (he pGS:!:nlilililylo!a gmWltir4Prol'llolifl'iJ <loo;cm of Epo 0111 ~ ncer ceU.s:.
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51 N EfWAT(HI~ NelWo,rKll1'IJ ~'arl alg~rithm I,ool (ombillQ<S ~lXt!liz.:rtio!l.l!ld5eqll!lll'!(e iUlrl:)rDhUijolll() sloo}, 1P!'OI.ein ~'h:o:sphOny~i!if!O!l; ilnl Sio'ir:!FO'rmtt($
~Ol!Jl(es.

5G1ENCEfOIDL:ASI_'

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ILislern I(]! th llu IV Sd,!l'Il(p Pod (asl '~@I llIelElr abol!ll su p pressi IlIg lemOI]OIlll!!l~ l1fIelifloDiEl~\. M~mil ni'~kdJ~;im'l Q or dl!1iIlrlRui~ i11 lm,e; ~'ood ci1,iJiin; g;e:Ml~( ~lflstQ'~ts, jlill~O i,!!JlliSLm.
illl:d
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Cyw;$lCii.!!)e

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The srt!.'~rQ1M~$w~ls ~Qr'!'is~I!Ii<!"g WId ii!lla'ly;i:i~g moli!Cylilr !!lI~r;mi(l1il "'i,ltw~'1i;s.; inMQI!!~I[n'!JT(lQ'!s..

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Imagine ......
Plasmid DNA Purlflcation Dir:ectly_ From Culture
/&r.

Tbe ,Pe'll'et~Freeprocedure of this

Zyppy iIIM

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Sup,llier Q

Plasmid rrvUnipr,ep bypassle~s,conventional K~t
'De~lil-p,elli,e~i and resuspension steps, n9
jj

Fas~e$t(-8 :minutesfbr 1-S preps.), simplest proceduI'efor purifying ~hehighest quamy plaemliid

DNA. ·~nnova:U\llecalmed buffers\!' permit error-frae visual identi'fica~io!1of complete bacteria![ cell ~y$isand
neutraUzattio.n.
f'eoR. I di'gestiOtl'lof:a 3 [~[bp~iaSIl!1'id D:NAlsolatedlMlma 600 !-II E: coli c~~il:ure ll.lsiing] the ,Z;yppyTM PI!asmidi MiliilliFJl:'ie;p[Kit Oli a Iki~ IfrQIIH Stlpp111l'r Q. D,I)' ~liHI)l[IfrI.tof'D'NA loodoow"'$~iUln,d!lrdi~d

booed o:Jiiil cultu~,e, Yolium,e > 11l!LbotHIIA IM,;l!iker;

m.,p~~~en<ml1l'le>d P

litllItrilPi'h::a,te,. M, ,ZR,

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tflU.lULIEVANIO Pt1ll,1L SlU!'!OMI

G rajP heneT ra nsp ort Up Close'
Der,~(ts m.ay "I,ay a c !iIi cal[ ro~e in the t ra un~pon pHJperties '0r '9raJph!m'!i! (silfl9~e shee~s '0 r gr[lp:hi~e ~lJPpm~!ed on Ii! sUlb~lrat~), e:5pe{ial.~f if! POSI!~I:!~~ aIPIlHc"ti~mi(I'Q ,~le(Ua!lic dE!\I'h:e'S. liI,ut~e'r,!!'t 01. (p. 2:1l9) u~d !iLilll1l11ing tuntn.e~i~g SlJ)e,c:I.rOIS(OPY to prllb@ tl1~ kica,1 !:!t~CUQn,iiC pr,Opr erli,i:!'S o~ 'gr(!lp,hel'le bH..!:Pf,eil'~ gro!l'il,fle'1Pilaxiallly on

.UItiorn

{!ir the Hg mll'lhyt enl ~,tfu!~~[omp~exes i1'1 t!1es.olid sti:lte i!l nd ]un S(I~lJuc 1'1 Ir~ea'ls ttr~.alt 1I1~hOlJlghdill! mil~ri!U tlll'o'mmlCiinalegeomelry h favored, lfie 'I1il~al illiterijcl5 rap,idilywilili ll1,~ addiUorl;l!l !ouUuw groU:P5 in!.h@ li~;al'1a. ~\ihidl anea r to. ~r(lmOit:e r~{!H:livijtya(~ililg irHuher l

is t.h~ most ~¥[r'~fI'!@lf,() "df.l·p,h::lt@d rT!al@rn;1! n~~€!t I

is mo,t denlomtr,a'b~y i3 prli!~o~i3Ir'grai~., and may· be ;xIlmpliFlg~1 :U·~·ritdl n?'51ervoir in lhoe eall'~Y lilllar :l¥!itern.

11I1QI!~lIliU Hg c:ompo'LlIII~$..

.More Rain l.ikely

~~i~k~n c,aubide s'llh~Ua'te. Th~y show ~h,al !he
tr iin,)port !l'm perliies ,n~ (iii Wyi IIlfll!!l~flC~ by nill d
lf~l ~!I)SC(lpi( P rO\P'erUes O<~ !b e sam [pIle, IP!iH' k tic ul1l!rl.y e:l~( tro1l11L:lIUy iuti'l!"~def'el'£t) ~n

lh'~

~lr,~pll'1NH~~liUCaIJ'l 'SQ!IU€f the €[f.ldrollls"lld ~ caiUSi~ ir!l@rl~If@r'!(,@ ;1!!'u:ilo<:aliZ{!~10rt ~ ltil

Cleavinq Alkul Mereu
(1I1fld ea,c:ti val
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'.•.',. BtI(ll!! ri a havl!! eVQlv~d~1 .1
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,i\i!

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glftl'IJl!l of !!iJl'YInI!!$ UlIllIt highly to(Kic a Iky;l merwry (O:i'ilam~lf'!amits,b!.u m::i!iy of lhe llI1IoLenLar deta~lls.Illl1lderllying th~h mQdt:.(If action f'll!l!'lo1!!fll l!fi!;.l~at nlle ,a\l'gaIlQmemJda~.ly.a$eM'rt:B s.:pe(UkaIHy oi'Il!l:{omp,Ushes S'(15\~lQI1 'of

C~illlil~le J!lod@ls ,and Qbs;erv"tiOirls both :S!i.!gg~l i.h!llt!;i lo!b~ ~pre(i pibll011l ami lill'e almcnmlo'f water f iii the {limo S!phere \\1nI. rlise:with (lI"~~1Il f'S<CD~~iPi'c lD10!ll~n~~ halj'~ been 'ku'!l1d ror C lelnpe~~ll,lre. b!JIt mQd'eh pr~dkillhi;il tal nId planeh, .as.~emids. c;md wm'~t!>,. i)lJIl theh orrigln will ~i[l(rea)f onlly ~alf as ras.l as humldily. r,elTlains..:!11I OLJts~andilfl9 PJo!J.1em!n (O$U!10Wellitz et ,~l..(Il." 233. pUIb'lis:hed ,online 31 MilIV.; chemistry .. ~n t!he· IMrlly solar liyr>t.errn, two see th~ W;1er)1 01! ~!:!llvz@.d sa ~mte ,~,,,tii!on pr~l p" iSOi~(lp.'kaUy di~lif!.{~ nebula'r: r,e$ervoirs, one ri(~ itationt and rio umllhall predp:i t1ltJio~ and lO!ii'lI. in~~'O and Uim other ll1i1::hiln~'jlO d1ndltiO, <!IiJP!!!iH al!l1laSlph~r~c l;iiJlhlf C!Jfit@iflLh ~\I'e a(t ~all~y ~o ha'!o!~been fIl!ixf.ld~(lg,~th~r+ How~'!!'~r, !1!loe-as~~~ imre·a~d al ilpproxil1'l<lIE~)' lhe5,ilIrIH~ ra't.edariflg, theIr o:rigi 1I1I00l,rati 0:0; ilfl S~HI',FIda ry mi ner a I:!; ilf'ig lh lPas.t 20 year~,. flte ~::IiS'Ofi why iif10rl~l~ i~d'iHkult b~c;8iu~ ilIq'll~IHIS e.lnri,ronm~l1It~ dUO'.'!! p~edkt ~ dUllerer'i'>~ b~tween Ihe Iri:s!I! of atmosis;O'!:op e~'h1jnge bel\ve~lil \y,ilit![ a~d r(lck.-s. e ~ ~q'e,rk W<1l~er ,c'r:af1lteIQt illod rai ~faU i:s 1[1 !l(hNllr, S~~i!'ImO~Q e(' ai, htl.'he~e ni151uIUs :5Iiglgi!il~tli1lillt the !l ot·ellUa ~ rClW (p. 231. pubUsh'ed gtobal warmiUil'g to caii.lse drQught may· b~ ~e'~:S

Oxygen Reservoi r

(l!oUlfle It'I]lJfI,e;

see tile

I.h:i! iii WarS

f~~rOO.

Pe~spedivo€ bY¥C!Hillg)
~~a'l,leou ndad isti 11(r

Hg-( bends, Melnl]o'k aJnd Parkin

:~ (~'"~'25:; se.~lh<t p,(m~er:live. b~ z Omnd,ll~uk.d r'E1lxullht a hgalild
beari!1lg ~hr~~coo:rdin~j,l:i~gl SlU,lfiH :i!i: grou,[Js.arn,lo90u!i10 .a(lt!'I!l!!~S<ltE!

I

tl,1ji~ ma~@dill~ 't!'i@ in !!I1a~rr,x or a ,p.r.imiHve ,car~Qnac@ol!s ,ch~n"
drlite rrnel~Hlrull!1 (,A.{'f;er 09111) U'I!a t i!~ hi!l,l~ly ,e;fllriciliE'1d~1iI 110 ami

SIJIPpress~ng! Em otic na I.,Mem ori es
Calf11pe'Clpw' !l!.J,PIPI!'E!$:S, eUll!o(iollal !ifleJll,~:ries311],d, if so, how ~ ~'!jheydo it!' lBf exa n1linilng a (tivi~y ilf'! brainl re9fQlfi~ th::it. S'i.lIPpOn FiilEilfl'iOff precessin9r ()epm~ e(: ai..(p. 215~ provi d'~ e\1iden(~

:~ ~Y5tel n~s; ~Il llli,~eI'i2ym~. eni (nel1!Uy inl:! U(.@$ F@..aJ(liOrl of a rI!i,en::ury i~ m:el~!I'~, e~hyl.or tYOil,f1(DlneLhy~ CI~f1'tEr wi th .;I :~ lhi cll.o libE!ra.t~ ~h!! ililka ne or nnlril~. halraderi" C

:g

~elali~e re U'\f.l' c@ ~tIi!. It (Q mmed by w;~" daUolill ,of hOI'l'rnkkel metal and 5u'[rlide:s by w,alte-r in th e ,p.JO~;o,pl,a'n@%il ry disk. ThIs mel eori'te

180

thal an adhl'e ~em()r!l':S I!Jpp'~~~siQI'I11Ilie'~halllS,1'llI rea u,y txi,sts. Firlit ~;mep orlrol1l 'of ppe'~JoCIliltlll,
(ontifluM,tJfoI Prlgf J6.7

(DNA Sy· '
IJ1Itr1()duc:ingqS1(:ni:Pctm, friOl1IlI{J!.I!l!mtaB1~5cie!mlQes.lJhe new st'a:lild~iid '~OF~Q'Odllcib~~ity.spe-dncil1f. $~. aliiid sefilsntivity in d6ilNcA s,yndu!~h,fm qP(R" N0 otm,EM prodU:d de:lfrvers
I$~tmr silmpl~ f€!~resl!;rnCll~iiOnl.faSH!!r.ailldl e-asier. Iqt;O'ipltlL1 is lIMIi~able in seve,rtJll 'fiorllt1~IS~
,iI
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'la;A'I'~~Gili9 iD1j11(1O,P!l~~Imr;,

Exceptiona,1 representa,tioln from less staFtI,ng material eve'ry tiime~
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~I.n:!~

'.''qSuii~itrM Fle'l!i I~D'NAKi~; PI11mingif>:ibmty ~nd f 5lel'iSitjivi~y for TI ststlFI'U'I!iI cDNA ~Yliilthe-si:S. '.' ;qISclri~lff~OIillI!!~S1epl
]he fliI~~

qRT;;"PCR Kiiit:iMa_a(imulIl'1<RlIl-PCR

efiliden~, sen ~itivrty, it:Il1d$pe.ci~idtjt
of ()i'liiil'.iill~i~m.oos. hiLW'.ti !egilit:y ,of ~OOln9·1lilIe de-ve~op!iI1_ent p~Qf!;e'ef1:!1g reagents illnd~dil!~gISlupeOO~iPP of: 1·smpIRJ·PCiR. kits, PI1atfm.iid-!'faq. iSaipf-"'" !3lli1d ~QThlSl\P@nmi>:. qSuil)'tThli~ thE'~r lilltes1t jl~d~$'t!J·,ddL~j~9 iP'rl)dua:. 10 lesm more~bo'iin q:S'criptVMvisit guanfa,bio.,om

qScri p~'oocD NA SlUpll!!:miIlix~ neflrs:t and lOflily optll'lil1i~! lo!'!!~t!.J'be1s,'t stram:! d} NA s'IJntl1~s:isfQlf2-s,l;ejp RH'CR, qS<;fiipt.]W eDNA S)fl~tlhesis K]t~ !l:ri(H.d rl~pr'(!du(.ibility for 2·sb~p IfHO:.
i'~
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yer, .~nd 1 dOI:li "I: tUl ink we 've _glvr .i~lj the fa(;'tf>.. ,'" aLIt ulillderthe ,21007pk~tlLn:e. he g s 1",;,111ns, tor ~, i m,u Itwn~ltr,ona'~~'i~l1lcwori,: fm ~dud umggmelm}'u;lu~ g;i;"lS~ Altll,ough Ill)' ~'~w!roIliU'1.cnw] Ifti('IlJ(~s, •. will hol.cl i~.e~r al'npkmse. this is :i(mncli~S ill~.keprl\l£Jes:s. I turn an N3tUo.lli]~,[llllb~ltC R2I:dio-sam,u,: d\!l:y;. same breakilst--;;lIld Steve .~!Jia:!lkeeps imeri vi~wing M~ch,Hd ('ififfi~l. dif~ct(]r ()rft!:L~ N:aJI'il)nal Aef~li!l.c[~H!'i~", Space A,d!a.nilThi~H·.-uhm and
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[Jilrojecl. "we h<l,\~e nol: 'CU~ .-~nym ,U(lr pri.oriti~:!O~"Th<it m~y Il'-~Walse swnm;;d I!i!~~~~p. whcturned qun.c:k~y to a, <]~l:eS"tion 3,OO1:1ll g~oba I "'i;1Irllli~lg, Here is Gr.i:rf'in"s vel'bil.l~:~~, ;<Ins\'l;rer:":~ am <LW!lI:Cl: [hiM gluwlul,[lrill.dng-[ .Hl'il ~\\c(ue thai glooo~wfl:F.ml:l;ing exists. [ IilI,D1I.Q~er~mu~d the buillk of se ieml fie evldeneeaccu nmi~l:ed aiNIt ~~IPpOti!S tftle c.laiuiII tl:iJal'\l-e\f,e h!i~d abOlllOl I'" cemigmde.rise
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OllboUl 20o/~:' He .1uJdEXiI:"1 h~v(;!i!.()d(lub'llha~ ,gloli<l!i-[h1lJr~! ~Il'elldof glo~",.1 WlJ'rr:niliillg ex:i,s;~l'J" am net sUIl'e~]i1<'lli~ Hli.r to ] is ~~~~l'-!I it is a pf(lb](iiYI t"~mUSl \~,'~ii:&tl~ \\'1[11:' So 't~'1!e resident ~,S p teIHng us: lh,u '!Ive nUlsl ~!e3.JI. 08 t~u~ bij;l;Hil]jlS ~:!.)set lnng-terrugoals for eUittif:Jg ,greeilhoi~$eg,j:-l emi ssiens aud is c,d~.ing on other h igh-p oUmiin; lm,i~ti,mn; to jOih1 if! the ll~g(lt~9~io~,.M~~Ul\Wli:k. the head of Bu&h's Slcii$:un~ il,gcncy vc:;;po.f1I~!.!bI~for .~lrth observation :FIliClillill :S1):Jt.'e doubt~ lhatil\ a problem \~ ~,nusl:wre~'>!~.e~)i,li~h"Rcc,alll. f(wyeOlffi, d~<l:~: d~is Adc'!'llini sl~Uk)!'I hasbeen IL'r)'.i~lg ~fl ~lH:;:zleNA SA:" J i:~ll~k~!l&~11io.rsp~aki~,g OiiU~ J ol~g~ob~ill w·<nr.rnlilng.~[ow ~l.'ang~!Hanflell]3 on lllej)S~lge. and his, NASA boss is {)iff~llfl:ss'lge'!: Soon we are back toc.iwm~~~ d.m:un.ge. Il.UiI.d: here is Grilf:un i.lgllun:"'Hrst of!II],1 don·11btill.lkit'£ ''1li~~llnl!i:pm1,:er efhuman bei~lg.'l Rl assure d11llt ~he'r:::,~irn;;~oo: d~~!li~ dmmgl.!. ~'ln~nliml!~of )i'l\~rs, d net o.fbusl.o.vy ~UlVC' sh.own. An.d second ofrnll.llguess ~ would ask wihiclill, .lml1Il~ll b~iUil,g;s.where and when, .tir!~I:O be ~ccm;ded the Jll~vilege of dec id ins ·11ia1!l.1:his pll nic'u,1 ,If clli n1tr~e'I;\'e ltave r.~ght t ~cn;: ~OdfWY.righl Il:t'l\v"i!; t)!1C'b~S'I dinr1l!lLC:for ~II {ILitel: :b~tffi~n beiUil~. [·~l.-]~l~:hlI;;E]~il!Il's : ~ miller ~rrl.~giUi!t p05it~f1!~~fOil' r;6">Ople u'i~k~;"I!l ~he" f~r.:;! S~1itit~'r:lC~. 1 guil;'::~'"lii!~'~ ~~yinltl. thm~cau:>e cl irnal:es h3.\11:chOl:nged iilll t~u~deep past we IlilIl<ly not ha,ve:tiil.epower to p:r:evenl: such change. or

d!rm't tlmQ'l:ll' ht1li!iV ~o ~~gif1l;l~tiJ f!i;;'\tf g~(I~~i'!]'1§1;) or COf:j\left one if1l~Qth~ 1~IQkujl;l1ril.~, ut B it:~ 1.~,iail,ll!in'IDll: uln:ulig.u.il.l£, greenhoase gas emissions we miglin,l conserve dll,e compar.J:I.:~'i,'ely by 'b..t~mycl~hmLteth~:I:our species has ~iv~d im fOil' ~.OIJJOOye'U·!'. Tal!il...,!;:(,'OmllJlaft a~ks whether ~lnicll~lall g:JrI,'JL~~):~i~,di'!;'idll~ Is '\'Ollld; tl.t\'e~b,ef:I\gln to :l1.Iy dnn~lepre:::ierll: cl i~,l<,1tte is bes~ or O:Jr ,viu:~tjl:rer SO!llil~OI:~n£r ollie f s, 'IIVC! we~n~ve \\I~:ml '\W; h~l"'(l~ :~e:n it he.."II1tip 'by dO~llg basiness as, L ing
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(lwie!'lta'l.~o!1l1)f tile eel ~ dlivisil)'l1i IIJ:lane.·~ PJH

Brealk Up to Make IlJIp
lin ani mahe U~ the end~J.iI.a:smic re'tkuh.J iT! (ElI~) 'folrlTl15, l<l[~li!lf..e lleh?lmk~lml<lI91hmJt lhe (yll!'J11

l~ese hmclion~, be(,all~e olh'er jlerlJl,ubatio!fll';i ~l U cinKlly a'~W!!!t:t~Fldaqrl(l'lii~id n{lll~ad to, ~mi la r d dde(u iI'!, Ell:!'Illor~h~'l{l~y or UI nlJdear elll,1"el(l~e
bJ,~akdo';'l,ln durh~gllmitosi~. -.5.MH I. '(cl~ BffJl..118, 43: (200in.

111~~SlillI.; illl·ad1ditiQ.!l,a distincL dQllnai'iln or the [R i'5· IJi5m to surwundi fhe 111 uu:le<lr ,mate nil I te fonrn th'iil l'I~dearr eunl'ei~ope. ER ndwoMks cen be prodLJ('€d iln cellH:r,oo:5l(5tern5, and!iI1e'ir ~ornlflati(ln reqJ!lIur~ the g(liviily ,o~ ~ Pi! ir of IEI'! prOl~inl.i, jlj[n4aal1ld II)PllN~goA. AlIdhya el (If.illrth~r if?:I;.:n!'l1if!;@di tlill~ pmc:e'!ls, or ElF! Iile\t~\'ork rml1llatiio.lIllln vitro ~Dlld ~!.L!di@d IE.R: lynamic,S ij\'ititJill 'living ;Qeil[~. ~'fl d

50' yea~ ..They rind l~a[ (oas~al er:OSl011uat~ more Ihlll1 dClubled lil@lweem th@@arlyan:! !ale. pii!ftli of lillat pe~ioo, and l~a't l~e .a((Eler.afi::onJ of co~sl1!l1 elmsion ItIt~~1~5ell!!! liilllhE! ~ortg"l' warm seasons, .<1150ifi!en '~.alle.r .<I1I1I:11.i\I~'Jle~(li(m[k-S:5C1cii!l:ted wiUl '~rU~f p~(ik~c~ b~ak~p,~rfectitl~ ~OOSit - rUS l (kau,gy:3:5, s83 (2:OCm.
(11 !EM,~S'I'IR:l"

W armi illig to CO,i1,Sma II IEro,s,', O'Iilr
Hri:~~ Ilon~elrn ~alr~lldes ar,e di$p ~ay-jln,g.as pr1edkledl, e!'x{!~ptimal. ~emilijvity '1.0 re!:!e!'r1ldim!llte W>aFQ:lj ii!~~emlPli!ralIiUes l~eJ~lu!ve ~o"lred mo:re FIg, qrllkkty Ihn in ,;;lillY orull~r,p.<Irt oi~lh,~world. TilE! ened~ (If ~h£!se ris~~g t~'mper3un~ 3lre liKely to b~ dr itm~ Hit For @\l::al1lpll'?, ug:e ~):_paiI1,$e$ or ,perh 1I'bQ rro.~ are in iH'imif'lefilt daflger Oiline~lii1gi,~hii::h rwcuki haw ili h~Tl(m" dioo s iiTIPil.{~ (I~~'S~dl
OIreas as ll:i!iog;ooc;hemi· (a ~.llm(~5e~ illllVollll'lIllg glr~e.nlhCluiS~ gC!!~~s.,lh~

.Actin Op'eners (i'enU)! Clnsed
"I'~~ iejqi1l!alld~ n1!~nmfll!lr,o~'I.!(lT-~aC~ ((Impose~1 of a24'1iI1E1mber@d ring l:Ie[l~illlg a poE!p~;deI:aH-

elillbryos
e{~M!i.

Qir

th~ nel1latod~ (of!twlllaMitis

d!!apl,l?tion or I,he' hdllTlIlLogs

or Rlnilaanti

IDP'VN,tlg,llA---Rn·ll1lld YO!?-iL-jpfOO [Ked ()~"lI' la f de re(~si~the poF.!f~l)her~lEH Iln'o'IIor~. Furrtil'l2fllll.orl'" <I membeifofbl! Sn1'~U gr!,J!ilflooi~~ lrriphosphi!t(!s~ ~b

~~se<II (tln5idera'bk>s.ynthetk d1.. ~le~geJ (all~ ~ Ihe< S@'oI"~f1('" C dOll.dl~e- Dorl'lds Ilh i'Ol!IgthOl!t the ,yc~i! ill: ~Q1bili:re adijral(el'lt.dnira'l cef'l~Nl, IM.Qreoverr" ,a~ !lj FliJrs!.n~r eI QI. dI1r5(m~r,!d in pl1!~iI1l11nary e~p[Qra tili)i!'1s .•~fle 'l~osl ~p;a ~1~tJ.y5e'te<~iJoi\e ((lr dos- ~ ~ si~e
&;;:L

I
~

i

ingl

i:h~ rin~----il!l eSll'.lrIf n!k_age-pwve:5 u fU:.(I~,p-

~

ramUy, MB ·~,Ml'GI~ req:uire d~or ~R
IlN1I'lOrk ImmllrliClI1l in vi~ro.armd ln ~l?Iirnl.liQde @mbrYV!5. r,edl! eli on ,of
IRJI;!Bi"''5,

physiGi!I~ s'~ah; lily orr
stfU!W.JJ~~Ilmitl, '~rll!he

abo ca ~~edpe;ripheratHI der,ecms. FlAIEHi, R st-i, a nO' YOIP·l weue i:I~()' i!npoonaf!t in the ~i'~etk (o~trol.of liIud.f:!llf ;enl/(i!lope ,~iSias.s~llI1bly'at I~e beginnrlll9 or mitllJ.Si!>,
as tI.~p~,tin9 them n~stJUeciin tlie

previ:GLl5~VIrro~,e,n
glrou~d.

and t~e geo-

morph o[og,y 'D~ till!! regi(t)rl.lYlars ,Qllld
H[lIl~kn!:!(ht liIave

g;en~ril\imn or daugh~er ~11s~Ul a!V~h;a[dlclIJbb:: md::T, PireYiou;sty; RalliS has bt~fIl sn,olWriI ~o' beimporl:a,nt 1n lht rll1!{IJU ~lIIH<lnr r mil n1~ o br ali!~ tra fikki 1'19 du ri~geJ'ld(ii(Yl:OS~S" hseU,iKls
0111

(ombil'ioo

t!JaMi rrc~n

n. 111mplhology

tOIKlQrillPlilic 'flih~P~ ,ilIniJ~ te\lm~ ilTlag,~li to dQl;!LIm,e'nt he'l'l,i (oosi.a1 ~~FldkI~~ and theil'lfI1lQ~arsllake I1;(P@I1S,;OI1lndi dr:anml·Y@' rnJ.11iVt ilfre~t~,da li~IIIl@lI1ll

appoe']r to b~im:l~pE!llidel'lt.or

of~hre' Bealllfo,nt Soo ooa~t
VaL317

Oi~ Alaska

~'Ile~tllepast

Jrearr.angeJrllllnt m de,mmpo!5ilie:n. H!a'llillllg IPre~ pt1ired iejliilT!@ ~i~e'll3, ljij~ .r!lull1011'$dilpOOd ~~il~lrS'jFi~ ~h~I.lcMJaleg!Y to dl~1{er~ify he:!Iln.r!;~unll;lf the ~ jpejJlfd,e t~il.lih~ key wa $ 'ihe li~e(If ~ 'triineU'nIf~s.i~y~~thyk,nIIJQI~a~ll prct1lc~i IIlg 9 nmp' 0111 1'I~'tJ'Qgu. \lj;11~dl (QLJM be e~sily Jeil1O''II''edal~teil' the (ycl.i~·

e,Fa!lve:1yprone teside r'e<<lclim15.lhe ,8,l1iliors, ilil$~a<J r~lie:d Oil ole'~~'11'it@~a~hesis~(lr I.h~ ,cydf:za! lion, den1.omlm.ai~~ng IremarkaMe Seh~[livi~yror~he d@$ir,ed re.aC:llOAli si~~~n th~ :pr@s.@fl,w ofSQ rn,:my <!n.erl'la~rvedaulMe bonds. A rmtiller ild'l,!'al!Qtag~ o:r 1;lle metathesi,s P~OU::l(:i!):[ d11e enkiell~ or the wa$ (dj~<lly~t at aml:lien~.~Bmperature,.II'i'~klhprotec:tli!d Ih(! prE!(arioLJ~ Imo1ewl.ai' iframe'l\i().rk hom l~erm~l.

~

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13 JULY2007

E[),ITORS'CHOICE
t~oU!M~P' a ffild ~IP~ac.ed' by' .ii, Iralf!9~ a'f aq;l er slI;l" tlllil1yl 'wlilstihll'lml'5. like the ,I!latmal pmQu[[ it~E!'lil, t11;@'s,@ a I!l~.!l(lg Iproii@d is U[ [lrls~mg ty 1'!d~lPt;:u .a( l:il1l s d~iPotYl!neri~lti!1)11imcds, Irak~lng the gHO!;'p!I:!(.l 'o~ mlJ~tillt@ biQchemi(.i!!~ irwll~ti~.HfDflS wi'llhlhis
HllI'nllolllnd dass, - J5Y J.~ (hem. Soc; 12:9, 10.lO.21Ij;lOn 334~ HIYSI(S

10. IHTra p pled by Ma, Diets
Co!ld'inll I'l!ll
,ill lom:li

~'Ii~h<lmm~ifl~lion

o~ optical

al'Rd!lll!,1l'9n.~tkf'iehts ha$ll'ed l'Othe r(l'~;;I~jonof new stal~ Cl·~·Imi11U.eraml p.ro!{[ded a tuntll}~e

um:r'~

~e-sl bed 00 explore m3!f1.!I'",bocWt;uo!llic .Qind e~ec:"
honk [llte'r.tIdon~; hwre'!lel1r, it:,; ,~;dl1!l"IS"i~(m '~omole·
~lJt'll;Shils

(PlllUkei.1Iin tE:mtpEirahm:l:)

been :sl~v, Uluacok! ~QI~cul.es snd below) are o.r lrU~r-

Tine American Associarien fer the Advancement of Science

est fo~ a 1'I1J1ii~~er ~rldiliona~ .1;Ip pn(iltiotl~, of
A[I.D(lligm ~'tis nO[IJIlr)tDITIIII'lOI'l I)nffmqe'll(lo SliYing by til!!! 9 r'm:l1!r'~.i!Ue,rwri!: emily l<l r~lile 1il0i~.hill\(~!1gccne so aHer arrivin9 at one's J.r.o!!Qt 'oo~, 'it i~ d

irLl:J~d'in'Q s ~t1,die~ ,ofqu,i3!l'lliJ.!m phas.e transitions .i;lIllid re(i"lhm~pe'(~tlasaq)y" On~i;llp pmach to ~onliD

(AAAS), publisher of Scie,nce. is ~ni,(i8l!lingat search fer ll:,01~rtOl:":'' ~n Ch'~id:The j OtIJ1Il3 [is pu b..
I.ished week. ~y\Vi.ll.hwo,v,~d w]de

circularion to members of the
AAAS ~md irrstitutional subsc r iIbeTS,i nc I.ud j, n gl, lib rari es, S'denc;f;' serves as ,~ forum io:r the presentation and discussion

a q,l!ite d~ffil~~ent !a;!;p.erielloo,0 ha,~ f€(Wef'OO a~ 1 1 appilrl'I1~!lY ro('golten melFllory de(ade.sl.a l:er,l"SpeciaIDly 'o!1e[lletl;a~lI1in,~ (~l~ldt1oodsi!~UiI ~a !DUlSe. to G@'~,ilIe-rl:5 l' at iI1l11ve01l~t~mJll.~dto i!i~s:ess;\M1 e~lle-r e frieS!? so- ea~ledc~scol1Hn il!Ous, ImeoffillilrieS a r'~ (I,S relja ble as uIIMinLlW!> hhat f,), I'llilver Ielrgol.telil ~ ffl~","'ories or~bus.e, ~~hefe:,re ~iabilhy was, de'iill1ed Ilpll'rra:liorrla'lly [IS lhe~I.U;:(!!11i~ with rmu(h i'lIIdepeillQ' €!!1t in~~.r\l'ie-~r$ '!'il€rre abl.e to ~lidt corroborative e'llii:lenc€ fro:m another vktim 'o~ the alleged perIl'BtratQl', lrom lh~[lctuCil Qlbu5e'r, Ill:rffmm a mnOO'm:p(lr.al19'otl~ ronfidianL Inl il s;amIP~.!!,M BOo adll~t5,,(r€(lrlllited vijaad'ller[i~e!lle",fIO ('iMler with di~S{(ll1linuool!iOtnr conlin'LJ:!lUli mellu:ujes ,of a!im51~, (heyiu nd no d~UerEnCE [n the per~elll:ages (rou,ghly 4(l%~ kir w~ich COITOboUalion cO'uld be obtalu~ed, e:-;cepl ill (a~~, willJe-rethe dis(o:nHlmuous
m~fiJiI,(lr!~~'l\i~fe f'OC~\l'~~dI d iiJring~ih~ C\!lUr~ O'r ~he~p"~; for lhe5€]6 people, il Wil:> illillt l:mS'5;ubl.e kl f>UI1l5~aJilIi!i!IJ!! WEic:aHed ~li!n~li. Ihaaethers the' proplP:5e thail. exp,~ct<!~jQnli 01"su'ggiE!s~ions a ri)l 1119 dyriiilg 'ruI'lNap¥ In!(lY wf'llirlbu~e lO the ~~co\leR)ll" of f1li[5Jl'lITiIem(iir:ies. ~ G,l C Psychr;.l,. Sci. 18. SM (2mrn.

of' hnpoFtfU.'lli ssues rel.ating to the advancement ofseience, \V i'~:I) (II rt icu hi r em p,ha s isen h the [11Iitel~I!i:::lk:ms1il111o:ng 'science" techno lo gy .go vemment, an d

rinillg polar n1ole'll!des. iIli3is reU,m en il1'hornogeneaus ele,trit f'ieW!!:i. !iIlW)!l8lr el. a!. IPU1~n! an all~rn.illiv,e Inel~~d l~alluaps ffio~&~le~ n~agneti'a~l.y. 'They del'lQns'IIfiiI'~eo~lhE!'l~c::hllli(Jueon ~vi:ir'Oxyl (ott r.adk.al5, I;\lhiCJh hi!lve '~PlprK;albile IllIlagneti:c as w.t'l,tl,aseli\Wic: dip~1.eImO!TU~nl;S.~lf~~me$ in 'liI'i~ II1!8gll'l~Ill~Ledmsl;atk trap' r.anged Ir,oli1l 2010 500
1m.• d~poendi!llgMlhe b~C~rO~!lrlt! p~ S$t.!f'e.The

society, hinchn.des reviews and
repcrts ofresearch having interdi sci :pl:ina:ryiJnpa.cL ]in selecting
:'U'l

editor-in-chief

te!hnique allO'l'.i'5 HlIE!.'IiJl,ditiooat degree of freedom o:~' electrh:al i~!eLdll<J esu pelimlPosW 0111,(1 tile'!;' an h lra:pp,ed IIIDiIlG.d,-es ,aifld~hou ld f!llcil1tO'!te lurther s;tu:diesi~ the' dire~lii)fII or ,ool'ltroU.ed FIlI,o'le<rU!(l1" (QJ~li:'ijomi!llIld chemkal readions .:~ .~50 Phys. «el;'. i~U.98,. 25.3'002 {200/} ..

the Board of Dtrecrors wlll attach special weight toeviden ee o,f si gil. i. ficantac h ieveInel:lJ~ sciearific resea 1:\:11. ediin
torial experience-and erearivity,

awareness of ~e'.1!Idim1g trel!l1ds in the scientific disciplines. and 111 ~1la.geIieJ'I!1Ibilities,

-e-e Develo'pm,ental Effects

lltie balalllt!!! I.'IlI!lWl:!\l!'ns:yrillinl!!iis i!llei dil!J!i,r.3idatielll cllliltroh; mRNi!! aill!J'"'' dam.e. Ge,ere!> el' at. have IoulnJd:that the 5' ie r mRNA dl~91r':lCliI't~()11i ~a~hway ifili~ol\lle'san mIU~A de,cap'puf'lQj (~mlpLe:l; aJ~d vs uudal lor ~dlnlrlg deveilupm,8nl ~11lIlfubidGIl'Sis,ihE1 p'hen;{J~1fIPJ'sof 'l(Jrimrf' ~W"!,)

'0. 'D'e,cap'ptng'

should be aeeompanied by ~Q!';Ul~ plere curriculum vi~:ae.inc.luding refereed publleatiens, should he sentte:
f11.1d

A.pp,:!i ca~i01:115 or nomi nat ion 5

@l1Idtrider1l' (rd(~ mll~!1I~iO\'erE: slflilfl.aJr: del,~Bcthf.e.I.~f!'(I~'IiI1I.atnoliiM'lh ¥eim,
d-f'ffed5, 5~lIJr~.'roClt!>wilful swoUen [OO~ 11!8lirs"amrdr ~'lOllel1l hl~()O~ylS.,. COl1ifni:a:1micro!';(OJ)Y re1Je'aled tlWlt the' ~ho(Dtgptcalln'ef~M.em oeUs: were '~~"(!!rg!niz:edl if!l~l~e ItCS,ilIlild Wi lilcantll and thallea~ primo.!!" 1 dill wer'etlbll!!l'Ilil1 ~eed~illig~ UIli!'~~E! 3, da¥s dld.l;\Il1Ili~hi!i whm Ln!! IM~ llIIrii'l11S:fil1iii! wOIU,td mlrmfl~l.y a~pe,aJJ. rurthE!f g:liIa:~Ys~sy,glg:E!~tred (hal U~~ ~m s va~c,l!llar ~h<eI'!.OlYpe arlO!!~ als a cOIiI~equ~ncJe' of d!.e'ffed:iWl Iormtltioo, vff ~he pN~Va5CUl~[lr1:.11 U ~pedffc.a:~{ln,whiclh ~5:mntrollle'l:i Iby tllJilidl1 '5'i91i1 ~ilil,g.ilil ..

ExceuUvc
I.2Otm New

!GI~t,cll Si!l~~!e,1i el~, SeCIlCtal1l'
\{ol'lk A:"I',elIl1!IO('"N'~I

Sean:~~. Cmnln~.ttee

Wa:5lhingb!:lIlI~ DC :l1005 Sa[3Jry ~s u.eg'O't~flM,e based 01'11.

tI~, hr~i:i1iI,tyt-LQ~®ly~~tI~:Fi~faf;Uni(lIil'ZOii!e. encodes 3 P~()l~if! hcumlo-goUs,liO DC'P2~'ii~,im lv.r ~ ilil yean .and! mammals is ali'll mR~A dec(lppi'1ii9 '!iiiZ)!ltrlIl!. 'lJ(S.• whkll iI'UJefa(;l\!: witlii l:Dll. ,f!p,~eir'S 1:0 ~ imp~u~all~ '~Q~ 1~(~lil] ~g TDl tQ' '~.yl'olP~[I:>lmii~ P 'bQdm~, whkltJ a ~~i~e~ o~ mRNA, d~~appil~ ilHI:Idegra;· (f..artiQm. HrlJwmr, 'jlfl, va and .tdllfllutii:lill"$, 1iI@~ a~l mRNA:» e~hlibf'~1ldde~r~s.ed d~:aJV ~.:Hei, ~!!I!'UleS'~lllg that tbls, par~nClI,II~~ !'IlRN~,decay Il'Da~h~yw;a~ $poe(ij~kloiii ~ub!lel (lf~r(:Hl~rip~s" - NRG
Pif6'f,Jl

i~lcal[oms mnd experielilce. AilP'P'li.cation 111.atelfials shou]d] be sent by AllIg'llIISt .~. .2111'1. 5~ Equal Oppo;rttmi (]/ EI.nl'lo.l :el:

q. ual

The IJAAS i~'an

Cetl19, 1549 ~20(7).

'l!l.i'lNw,:sdencemag .•org

:SCIENoe

VOl317

~3 JULY 2007

SCIence
:l2IiKI NI!'H'itO£-:i A1mIue<, MIll' Wil~ingl)il![jllD£ :il~.li ~~ 2Ii)2·~~~5M. fA'( 2(l2·'ltI~·i562 N~~'~~~(5$'t !';I!.'(:;:~"ll'l~~r
IiilOUii~ .B2.aa: IHUlI ~CIOIC1 Co!l!Ibri!li~.Il';.IIUI (HZ J!i;Q' .• .q~ (OllZ~ 3::!~5->Co.,Ml(+~". (0) 3'.265101

.ii\I\m.sd!:!I'ICil!m~g.,,e.~g

~~IHI!l;'''N'''UI1F !)Iil'!]::!!~lIttnMd)I'
li(!lU~w.l ~~IIO!'l.MlI!mriii.M.

l1:~OO~";'Ii ~alS!I~~ m!l!!~~~'~~·

l!i\iidfm:d
1[WU:[l~OIt
RlUIIIMIJIl.&

"~~In"!.~!mlt"

D[NJI1I'r'DIT:Il!~~.

It. ImiB

H!m!l(rn•. II;J~:I
KDril:i:ll LliUltI.tf
UllIN:

R.1iii~~.'" '~O·VliI.l'JI"fmail
lpfuililip·D, ~lJrOOil;
SE~~1t Htl_

IEDlIII'_1. ~ll."'NlI!i'-"

EIMT~!

'tm!?mlmlil(p@<lJ~5c.I1lf9J IIIIJIU1111J W~~!.;III-OOU~r;'!I'UI'IrJu ~K~U!;'l'~~~ '1l.ll"q;D; 'oon~Ml'" S9i1lK!;,i_miililt ~i Ellu'if~r. inOl!ol16Ularn.a~a 1II~"Il'IW' :rJ)f].®l~ 1i.!.~1i
MlIl&EIl1IIIII' :Slllil!IlU

8at!l!m~n

t1:n

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Art that Jars
Some irnl1!1;gesdire
wrorlg
lfTl uJ:

meraUy e~or€s.

Sdenlks.b halve IOf'lg known lhat ~he'
v:r @\IIel'l

o'~ sifl.(! plls;all1d

CDtors can caliSE! d~ s(Qml~orl. iw1!d{!(I'he:s.,

seizures,

NOli'll, '!he~'r,e Sl.aftii~gl kI

P~ych(llogist

Ai'!ltlkl W~~k~"so~!Wle I.Jl'!ivers,ily rlr Es~e:(, U.K., ';'11'1(1 ,~fliM

figure ~ul \.y;I~.

Dl1!bh;e Ay:te~-\Vho (rea~f!~ paiilmtin~51 n"ip;red .by her rni911t111Iles-used' <II $ci",rt glfQ!~~~m the We~l(~:m<e h TJl!:it~o t~~~ QU~lh~ keys~o iil!lrtqy!fi!ll ,~fl. Fo(tJIs 'grn'Upsal~ <11'1 ,e-ilhilbitiol'l of Aiy(les' S'I'JOrk last year helped lden&Uy n,mow

ship~s, and juxta p~~d CQ!il1IplMq,~.nIA1!If)',o~o:rs, sindllcers a

~'IIInln~ 'thl!'r1WTIlI par.ed Ihe~tlb]ec!f¥e r <tLUJIIQiS ,11 varit'~.yof Illai~l!:f II1S1Swrrl~ eseh pktlJre'~ fill~r,gv ili!t~n~i'ly,.I.lleasured by Fourier ana!~,~ of stripes' ~pil,lio'! t ~fJreqll!eDl'bY ... III alltalk hl Calmbridge", U.K~ 19st iN~&;,. WHltiUl5~,a~d the picw~e~~he' locus glmup!'; fOlllnd unp1e'a~al'll reatlilred w;rttc1d ~lrilll:'5 allm,e widlh th1!1 we'rl~ visually most. '5!81Il~itive lo-abOl.l [3, s~ripes ,~~r cl.eglre!! of the visu:d rie:ld ({! ITrlgEl r he.1d CItamfs length COfr'EOSPQg1J.c:iUo iii) OlU ll. d'eglf@e). s~rlpe fador ilpp!li:~ 10·'type !1!lmL'5,tl};[I-leU@iI' I,e'ligth i:llld Ihid:n1!!5S nNI~.e iim;-E!'s Nil'Iv lFi:otfIlllili,ili ~lowr=r r~,iit!llhallil VE!fda DlIa,s.ay~ Willii1ls" He 5a1)1$ Ihi~ n~5<I,I'U$ be, o!lp'pl1edlW d~5i;gml,I'I"I~I:n pi(ikilngalm lI:~m Qptim~l. tyjpe si:1;!l:~!f!df~WI~,or chiklrei"!'s OOClk$ to f M,igluati llil~-i liS,] red {homing ptl b It( m liira~.l!. 1~<1Iil[1ti11{1.

~r

01' d ~(Otl'lfi)rt

me-

Wha:t':5 Current
lin E-,Chetm
What. hi) PIl@ilS wile!)
yO'll !alp a !l:h@rl1ic1!~:5;ol!Jtiollis ti1l,~

~MeduleHaIW,[lI1i~ diet. 0[29 men wiith h.~13riI. dis.ease ;jJlnd diabll't]( ((I!ldil~OIllS·, <'I~flolNoo b1(1od $u:.ga~ returning 10 ] l1ol1frlal aH<e-.r I'llstrit:tin9l1.liIerrl s.e1,\I'il!;5, to Lean m:e~l,
OrHe.r;OfiHIi1U~l')jJjed

impirOO

~'!'~ en

Itoel@i!rmdif'! lh~ 1990$ thal

~lectlflodlem~ ~t\l1aiUwii(l{.

,~ U :YOUf IITI8'I'IIIIl'Y sn'Drt-(Mwvts, W8;r IUlilhlllflil~ar l~lerm~" did: {bver 'teD ~hoe linked diui\at!'laryt [n<l,t .~ [iumf,:5h~s aoo eM; nitions;, , ..~ .~ r
,2
.::ii "l

H OIO'i'e-\I'lllf, gE!n@r a ~ r'e,adierl;;·an (liltlrge IUI~!ihe~ r c br a if! S en r~le f'ielld' s alPIl~kaUofls a li!d hjslory a't ~hie IE.le( Imtne'JllI]slry EIlI:')fCJopedi it,,· '9'dited b:f reliilred (hi2'l'I1ii~llolI1!lil Nagy ,of l~e ~r!l10nne [\Jlalional, LCiI:i(l~ii'lofY in IlIlilr'iQiSo. Thti 'Subf@cl:S '(iI~ ~he 25 e.xperl~riHelll, iLhiilpler:5 rangermm eatC~l"l;IphHill1'g 00 tll'er;;trij( l~isl1to p,ion~,erimJg elec tJrlochemi sts, :Flead a,bolUl etectr(iChem,i.Ci~1 ii! !fI~a<h]li1i:!lg,whk:h uses a (I[mellt ~Q strl,~p;e'h(llrrl· .~ !u"II'iImk OIll~.". Of esp 'lme the IlU'reo~ the U .. ll~an '~ =x::;;sci~n[ist Alles<saJildro Vo,[t.:l, wno sp~rked~he nan.ern l disdlP~~m~ Il:lorrl! lilian .200 year!; ago by .~ bill il:dll~g UUl!' n ~$~.MiU@JY. I

ij~h, kOlil's. rf!lOtveg etaliloes,. eg~~ and nuts. Who!!t'$ :mo~, their ~kicOS~~OOm1!Jfi(,~iflllj}roit>tid ~y 2:6I!YlI, as, smillwn ~l~nt 9luco~ le'!lels were
~~~ted a'~MI!h~,!" ,fl~es'Ug~l'S,Elut tl1~ 1 S menen tlirl,~Med1iilil2.rall'lealil! dM, whose lFl ~ke ililduded gralfns, and d~uny p'~Qdu:;;I:S. shQ\'liJd only ~ 7~/B ilill pm'llerrr:en't fill g:luwse ldl:er1l!1l{;e, a.. !:rordil1~ to wiiDd Ullliver:s,ity physidill1l 's<taillal1 UiiDdeberg, \'\itlOse 5~.IJdy \1.IilS,p ublishsd (lnJlirm'~ml:ris; [llllil:l'illlmin l)ja~m('},(oqi.a..lin.delM:!~ 'S,i'W'S the $MJdy~"N!rs

P~plJ;,!N~m Gl.!il'1l~·S Tn]briallrdlis.tam'fet~. l~ho Ilw..--eoo~ "pr~~ri:::lJ'lwr.1!ll'" di~I,.had 1110 heart diil!i<~a:!iE! dlabete'5. or UIld1~b~~glspec:l.ltait'e!l that a Stol'!e Ag:e diel may ,or.l"l~ 'U:5"1U:(ji1!~S with d'i.a'b~lij{S to the ,1I1ils:eru;e 0'1 "b,;oadii-t'E' snJbs~am:es," such as the ffi'!ieij,npmt~iiTI illl mi~1<;~Jir,d ~octi~ ij'mr~iiirlis. which ma,yimpalif 9

g~u(.ose to~er.aOl:~~ they do, illl s~udies 'of r.d'S. ,E:l;'olulicni~r nl.!llrfil'lQ~is;l Loren C'I;ud!1!1'n 'Il~' (!1lklrQd(lS~ate Ullliv~r~1tyinr fon ('oUll1!;;;s,"y~ the ~wdy is ~srgli1Iilrican:~:"ecause "it ~ep:re~~IiIBofie o:r b
Ua,9'Ii rs~.liI'E1'll·mn~rlol[el:l!triO! 1!5 Oi~'iI nmd~m like!c:ii@tto 'e'!;'~r have blll~n w!fId lilc:tewL~ paleo-

BEAUTY'WITHI BRAWN
LUS~JOIu!·S

I

meiher-cf-pearl

mayWe~(h

1t11ntions;, bu!~ rnsterial's lliI1igh!" not the jlts ]r~ desce nee, 15 3000

wh a t has sci er!Jtlist5 than ~.he bri~UI2 of wMch it's eorn~It '~ll6l Uflll!i,er5"]ity

I"
;;!:

sW'Qo.ni'ng .• ,MOlhe,r-or-pearl, or nan'e,u5
l1m,es stil'ong,er
Imim:~rf!lanllgon]t)@

u.edufed~l deClw~hell~,r.wrlJ,l;:dl,lfedldid.h~m

eleum::he i'll,Cwr

'i The' HelalLtlhBllnef;'t:s
,t::.. - -. . .• .~ :51'1iedlish ItJi!OO Mitt! d~~be~~s slw~'d .:1 dfamalt,i(_ :~ drop [n ~heilr !blood '~lig~<lr after 3: months on ,81 g "P(!lleQ~hhk~dii::t, (!CiCQfdin!l to r~s~an:htrs in Slilled!~n~ who found that a diet h€'e ,of !)raltl5 and dPl'fry p.rodIilU'S wcnrk,ed l'Dem~~rthan the

P'O·sool.. Nm'l, physklis~s
Oir

iOf P,alleocuis.ine

Wisconsiln~

Madjis~:H'ljh.a~:e shilJl;e~'~yn·

dUOlfOri r,3iQlij:1ll~ionon

~hin laYlE!rslornacre W reveal it'S secret: h1fegular (;o~l!l!mns 'o:f

crY:5;'t;al$,.

l~~e

c.1.lIltnsHy

,i
<)

Ir;es]st Ibrealk~,lfIg.

s.tackoo luiclk's,. Th,(!ir ~(!PQ.r~·isin[he

29' [une Physical RelViewt.e,tte:rs.

A

The definitive resource on cellular regulation

STIKIE·~ Signal Transduction
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STKIE, glv,es yo ILl.essel1t:~a~to 01.5 to power your understanding l of ce~l,signaUl1g,. It Is also a vibrant 'V~rtluaJ comml~:nmty~

where researchers fromaround the world comatogathar
to exchange ]nfolrm.aUon go to www.stke.,org and ideas. For more lnformanon

To slgn up 'today~vms~t romo.aaas.org/stkeas p S~t,e'w~de ccessls avatlabteforlrrstituttons. a To find OUJ~ more ,e.~mawllstkel k.ell1se@aaas.org

,

-

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I

I

-

'

-

'

EDITED BY VUDHIJIT

IBHATlACBAR.JIH

WEARV. \~rJ~~~ Ah~rl B~*Im$Wim!1I;'f~) ~!ilreed (

U)

I~f~d t~~~Ili!.!s\V b~ ni~~d C.a!l!ld~an m~

lustinnes of Health Rese'a:rciJl 'l.('II~R) ia 200.0. he vowed to spend a'S much as JO%·(If the .\~elrnC'Y's 'b~ld~el-{~rimes el1lt\v~H~ ~pen,diwgg ~eveis"""-Oi:llf'es,e,irch t~~[~etiI1Spopl~la,litlll.health setvic'es.<i[id Qd.~er 11nti CHlR I. needs, B eru s~ci n has si nee l'I(Ocompl i!;d~e;tll~:~'l.li g;cmt l~~'l.t e'~ soworn o!lil~frQl!iIlbmiJ~imJgoo~,mn~lnity oprpo:siti,OJ]l. ro ~he :shifl: that h he pli<l!lS 1.0 resi:!In 3 ~~il rs b{;:f{)relb~ end of bi S second ~~rI11. TIiiI,e new ern:p:h<tS~:8 V\f<JS fm'i~,c ~,intlre e<lr~y ye<l'~::::;,~,esays, w]u,c:::~, C,II~,~,Rwas

,Movers

recelviug do.uMe"di.gi~ increases "mil there 'IVi:l:s Clmtough mOJllf!Y for o~~e:rgnl:l1lt comperidons. iEhu imt the hl~T .3 }I~frrs.rhe bud:ge~.lH!sgr{)\,"'n much more ~[O\1illy.
(:iJ:~ls.ingl:~\te' conrmllll.ily [.0 compleiuabeut ho\.~ CIH.R. W!JS di.vvy.ing W1pits nll.''il1Ltl}i, A~.firesult the ,-lgeo('Y recently cn!'~lood;;~ l1(lm1i1JlIi:n"e· .....I'Lr:md.eup prinlllri])1 ' e fd,~,[lCC'lorsf Cl lillR I )rcs.'Ciu·ch insl:iUltcSr---'to deei dc :~,owto sp~ llille pie, o .it SHU. Be::!"!ll$t~i:un, sa.ys he'll bclc~~ving iunO'Clobl;!'r en a high~~o[e+ ''1GCUiI1g 611 lhiC CUrl:R go,inS iJllhe ru,ght direeliQ]~.llil1il'lk lli1afs diol'le:' he s<I)!s.

s

PIONIE,EIS
Civil erngili1'ee, RlJlSlScilenes has been Mp'p~d '~ol~!iid ~hQIlat~t e'H,on aimed ~t b-obitering PUaoS!del!lce. 'The MiiS!d'~r ~n~]e(t 1'S,111 greQ'jl dry snd alltlll!wlfJati'!,l\~ O{lJ'g¥ (~nter to O lbe 1:I1I~hll ,l!\blJllDiIlaM, (.ap;ita~ o'f the Unittld i A!r,!:'!b EOJJir::ate:s (UAE). ]~e SS I~jmoil\ e-squareIkilom.ete(, :l:,em·@miis'~ioJ1to\msh~iP \'JIlUi[)(~lJu]e Tlhel%lt~li~d~.rsUUlt,e, to b~lOOUSOO Of! '9ra.du~ II n iH~ !2<a!JjcaUon iU'Id 1',l'!S{llIr(h on ~lI:t:!rfi'lativ.l'! eoe.r!:'l,Y.s!l!ch es solar Illowel!'a~d iJ;i~f~'e'ls, Last w@er<:,.~ Olfile-s:,who will. Seflle.as: Ithe innil nn~'s Ipres~dent~ma:de On'E!'~Sto ri scijenli,~lsfr'(lm a rOlin,d: th!!1 \wril{~. Until I. the ]n~t:it~ ~e-i~bui ~tII1y 2.009-the r~~eoiilrchers wHlbe h(1l,1sed at the i!I~aS:$a(hltS!2ttS IIfisti:Ullt~ror lee Ihl'loLogy in Cambridge, 'Lmdlel"a 5-yet1r;, $.35 I!1IlIHIion a,greo~mlentM~ih~lle schooL ]QnJe~. '~\!':nQ he~ped (!re~le the ~l1derglradlllat€' H~$he~:nite ILIlrliivlers~ly rqa•.]orda Ul, ill iinu 1996, Stlys he!WfI$ energized tJy ,oll"~rem:hed Albll! Dhabfs plalJ1lSlio d~V~'FSiiryits energy ,1!1: irilv(>s(ml1!rlts. The instiilute expeCI$ tQI f:o:r'9'E!! '5 Il]nks. with some of tl~;e1500 Ill'ilif!r;gy nrms!he :~ I~AE:hop~s '10amaCl ulll~new city.
=> :r1

SMOKH~SS "llln,

"De'5~'lte not bein.g:;;! IfloiJ tu roiil eOyiJ!(l1'l f;'nl!ent;llisl dllliri n 9 til is UfI1e ~ ~ t
ilhln)lIJg~l Parlialm,[1!nt

Ibeg~,II'I; t~lke theissue off d,itm~te change' I:Q muoh m~)loosliliriloudy, "says Ma nynl Williall'lts, dim ate eha fl!J:e c)am.pa~goer for FJiie~dsof th~ EanM iill tondcn, Members (Iff B:rm,lJIn'sMmlinilstrawOH ~aw saiki they'ro (IDfmrniHed to con lil'llui Filg th~ Ilu:atthy im::reases~o the sd~nce bl,l(ig~t that OIOCU rma d1uring Sl[air' s .Mi1lini~trillli(lll. P>!'!iBr)OI1 (bl!![(Jw)fac.es [me problem S ,off poor)cIenee t:ea:c:hin,~in IIljgl~ schools ami ~.de!!:ii!l~n~ ilIUm ber of s(i@iI1(e~tllldJ!!r'it~til LIrn]versity (Science, 16 May. p. 965}, "'Iou: dJQJl't have 10 be ill 5cTIelll;lisl1!:o be

t.hl1l J!lil1virOllmei1l'~ ministry"

the

gO'l,li!ir'l'ilmQA't

A:i1te;r~In yr:.'lfsas: :1iI.ead of the N3~~omd Sciellce r
Teacllil,ern A5m,d<lt~oln~ Gl.lnl'~' Viltlrul.l~I.!ll1l' S;a1{"S,

·'wt\

\Vhee:::ler wU:~[red re from lhe 5 5,:IUJO~ra;oug

'rime

UJ .~~~.SQJI1I~OOl'Ltl

el se h.we an the ~llIll.·'

sdi1!Il('e mil1list@,r, but he \'1ill need oil broad kllowl.edge 0/] schoels a!ld bl!s,iness/' says. Peter (ot911(~av~'of
tille Ill, [{;' s (a mpa~gn for' Scf:.r:m:~'and EJ(lgi neeri ng.

OrgiUtWlhorl

in Au£,Us,\ 2008.

0: 'Wilflilll ,t!I:fie, the I<:eys~o ~mpluov~rn,g u.:s. :s~iie 111('9'IHh .. ~at~o:ll,? u Scienee, sc<lle.an:di smnd;n;ds.\!k need ro h:e~J'l' [e"ad~~n> i~Hpnl'!.l~ lhCllir (lOnt~~l i\!1tl\!JI(':dg~. A:mI.d with :2 InJiliilli:on ~ielJc:e le,~I(:i1Ie.rs the hil
da~['t}O:~~~w

need ~O' \;;,;ort.;

on II bigg~r

seale,

~. NO' :S,TRJI!!,IN'GER SCIENltE., Itilfli P~arsorl 'iIIO [be aJ b~'5i!!1es.'Hl1afllilmned po,!m:(ijalll, ~ but he's been, give'n t h~ job ·Qlf shil p,inlg .II British research ,poU(y ira Gordon IB,rown's Ii:;: ; Il€'W govemment the f1~ science hOfl(,ho, i 1:0;oint!' of rive !i1[li nlis[e rs in tile newly (re ated :~ Depa runs ntr'o r tnn ovaUo,l'I. I!Jlnliiv~rsirUes (]JOG ~ Sltills liltS) (Science, I) J II,Ily, p. 2St :r1 '~A labour [Pi!~llJ l)oliUdi~ 1m _ s]lIlce 199_4. he .~ mos,!: re-c~ntl.y~eiiVed as l'Iinn1S'~r fOlr dlmal'e :s dUlng e ~nd ,envi!'iCI'U1 ~,el1lt]n, To Il'ly 1B.!air's l~ (.fJMrne~, h@tlpiliiglto irnlrodLice th~ (lim.at~ g, ClIla.llge Bill thal~s wrnilottyW'Orkilflgl its way
.~.".'llTiilY

~ '0 L 11"'11, ~

c 5,

A, W ,A R [11 s
IGIIW BElt

We also need ~(l l1trn~!mlijJ]e the ~ll1dil:fd~ tmd s;pecity \Ii,:ftlaillQl:l:uldn::ns:llQl,dd :~ei1![[:I,.
'Q ~ Has t[h,e No ChitdllLeft, IBe:hil1d Ad ~e:~1iI ,iii] heLl!I' or a 1~lmndlfalil:,e t!ei sden()e'~edl(lilers? mi.';,;, cl:iang.CldI the 12Ii!D.d~elftpeil' a good ""Illy_ m I:h]rik, b~r pl[~il:illi! the :spoHighlt ()iml;,JOOOUI'Ii~;,t~ bi1Iil!y. BtLll\..~ ~~0~d 'Hlln~k't'l S'!!H'~ that se i~~c~ doesn't get ~IOj)1lun the emllllKtsis Cill. le.s.ti,ml.g smdellJtachIiev~m~m hl!u:e~din~ililild m~th. 'Q ~ Wh(!if~,sti;!l!1dil'!'~ 1llmltlh e '~i!ly' ~i~ dmgllf!,~e?' IIBm.i.n~s... 1.e.K1lers .get ~l,<lnd pol.itic i,nll<S it gel
~lil ~rellts don't gel i~.. 'lvt'i:s 'lil~t ~ the: Spll~jn,iik: ~li'IJeralaiO!Iil.wlu!Il. llrn.el'\e \!;1iI:!; ". ~l.uge pliIslil, f(Jr 'kjd,~t"OIe:<1IiIJi, Jil!Wre :scir:IiJ;Q~.TI~<l:lS ~IIO

and ill U,.S. ge-filomicis:tea(n halV~II'IfOnl $:500.000 from the Pe;~:erand Patllida Gmber r.oundiHion. Srnl'ge!;ada N:.1Ik1:n1i)hi,head oHh~ OSglf!:i! B~osdeme ~nstiMe,r~(~i'l,l'~S th l!1e!illrQ9~fI~S and IP:rgtll?i!l:slh~t playa rote' in brari!'1hJ!I1dian, as as pinpointing I'iIQur<:mfll mc~!pt:ors i.wohl'ed in the' biodlJemkall p:rOCe5'5ies lInderIlying [e<Qlm~ng. meMory. arnd v1!l.]Or:l.Maynard O~Q rlI" ~ prGfe:~~!J:r~Itthe Uni~rsly (If
I1II.W'.t

PRIZES, A ]aJpanese neeresel e ntns;~,

sd~nc:e ilwiln1(o,ridenlifyil'ilg

m

~ve-n

W(]ishin,gool"l in Se~ltl.e" wins t.he g.elfH~tk!i priz~

or

l~
1"i

'~ Got

!ill

lip

!QF

thi'S page? c·m'lIlpeQPI~@a~'il!~.cr:!l

j[,ow piQI"l~er~ iii tech rIllqll,l(, k! r d,Ql1~ ng QI nd 1'191 s,1rori!.~g ~ar'ge chull'lb of !DNA"\!JIhkh helped IpillVe the wiJyfor [Ihe hllman genome IP',rq~ecL

l(li.~ger the

(.'<t:::>e.

1117

ASTR OP HIYS.~CS

Enllormou:s ID1ste,ct'o'lr' F,or'ces IR,et:lhii:nk 101HighlB'S,t Enarlgy Cos,mli,c IR,ays
MEIRIDA., MII[l'!I~(O-W'!M:~n.,
11

:~I rays wiD:i1, energies £re~ner t~l<Ul ~,OOllEe'l rhy:;id~b"\Vii!l~~a~~FI~'1-R~dlliliob1! i :Fly':;E)'(i (.I~,~Res.ll elec,:~.m""llhe u..s. Anny:s D~LgW3y d rn~Vi~lg Gw~md i1l1 Ul,lh saw on:~y.<fl·C~1~lpLe. "fhe l\W deteerors m:rew.uy d:u:lilc'l7Cnnl, however. ':\!h~1l1 h igh~(,)~~~y cm:l'ndc~y sui Ii;(,)!; rhe ,1'

(II.tmosp:here .. i~ nugge:n
cade
I}f

.1 (:<15-

ooc;!lde ag,o..phy:s..~cistsill bpu, reported $~li,;ijngfar m(u"~
u~.lI.-o:l.~~.ighi"elle[gy cesnnc f<lyS than ·~!{~~c'ClOd SOI1:1.e ~H~.CQ!l"ist:!>

f partie les called an ~'K~n:l>i\l\e <lIi.r:dlO\..rt'ir.
(I

hi I'~0ns i

AliA SA used I ~I de'!I()C tors g~~~~d (Wef 1.(11.) :-;q:Wliro ki lomeleers of g:rt,}li1.~.d ~o nrU~I!I.SLJ.re the

imerpreood (he ~ce!'i.~'H; a hiJ:li~ of exotte rti~W p~.rt~eI.,tt~perh,l.IiP5 supermassive rt!·~~.cs

shewers .. 111

COIMI1I!)l •.

i-tu-B..es

~lb~edIWi1Ji!, ~or~tC'lii~:oi}f'Sj~('ci~~-

rro~ dli,¢ b.ig l1l."I'l~l~l@l~Ol!ld'be

cu:~es injhea ir!ollumoes(;c, The Al!.~er artay uses borh tecbuiques. Coverlng :3000 e4J!ergetic' p~rlides '~)m Spf!.l'e $qu~rlC kllomcters and comlms. .<1 :sun~lpier expl .. nation, prisil1g more liTh'UlI1300 surf~Ci; dett;:C'iOVl' a!1:da411UQ:r~~,. ~1l,\1K'ii'S \vllh a far hl!rg~rootwJo eence relescepes :illl fOlJ.r batror arn~y :nO\',' Soar: h dcesn ~.exu!>'L ~e.ri;~, 1[~,l~Ol~mos~-et)mpl~tf;!d ( ... Ihm \:ollldu:;.ion.ropl:lr!:!3d ~'le1'11;:'.' 1;1 week, maybe' t~,e Sot .<lrl1lyhil.s all'.e~dy eollected e mntg:~~, deta t;o ru le (I ul. Ih e ~no st ruanpo:li"tal1lt arly res ~1.h e excess, "IJ AG . A,S,j\ had been frm11i11~hf;,'i r'il:l![~ A~JgerOl!;,Wf'J,~wry. WhXC~l sprn;l,Nls. fLCI:OSS the eerreet, thefl"""~ should !niljve seen .3 0 events at (I r above P'ln~lp", Am.allril ~:<1 .i n 'we srern 100 EeV]. andwe s ee two," AI'£!enti:ul'l. [us 'llso <I. dlsapAlrUlWf!~Si~)!lof rhe U!~tpoil11Tl111.;lln:br researchers ifll [he FCllU !!!!l!'@s. I AU~llur e~ AIlI~er's~~Lmre5(I!Ill(i~ dJetl'.Q:.ors 'sll(lU:edlhis hi~h·@nI!lIlY c(l~fIlk ~,\\I~ versity of Leeds, UK.. who is ftekl oflJll!m!nligh~J;le~y ro,,'mTI.OC: ray. til!!' '9i9B!lIllk <Hl'ay s.el'~ no ~xce~ 01 niflhe$~. emm;w ray.51' rhe spokesperson fer the ~I)'!'. ·'It j~ I.;..""" ~:xy rhan oof(lf'€:. l1m:Ell:" far snre,"say:s "ll'oshj,yuk:ii Talkalmshi of~~~e ~IUllli!lllY pi<lrli.c.l,eilocel!ernu:u has: achieved. .AlIge'Ir coil Oll)or,l[ ion, The A uger d.~nl'I~~O iJni.\lieNDtyorAhil~l~, Hun~viI~e,. '~'nc.~~l~C I?h~'1licis'l1; ooUC'l<'C oos~liili:c [Iiji)'); gaun c~clID' :f~" :llhm:\I' dUll. YC!I"),few of the ~nO'&1 Stilll.p~emy ,of mystery rem.,injj;. Atlge-r ~1rney 'M.'.lrlin m1<~neliC' :fieM;;):. om.d. Ui1eyCOU]dJ,l 't S mys are ·p~.10~O:111S. s!l'l.~:lermll"':i:i ve partie les As (lindo~~.~r ~li!':r'ily~do ~~ ~1i~1~ COl'iimic ~o/~ t~'j,lh tlhlk of ~nyuhjCCI ill SJ~ij.¢e'buth bj~ ";:i~tUI~h OU.gll.t ~o d>0cayrealdily i~HO p1~ol:(ii:H;. f~~~u ~~ Ifi,dn I:Iig Ul'ldemlillU5 ,exotllc·parl:ic le illillmiIL~gs. ~he·e:llleJgY of a ~.1JI;Be Is:t:a:ITllf'. Iib<li ;mdphySliic~sts and "",ield illg as:~:lPOnse:l:fio!Llg,11. m.<J~~elic lie:l!d ;;.t~Ueau't ~y h~iiJ'~lf \viI~~'f~i!lfh~ I~~~v~n[;~ 10 CQ!lI{!i~ p1.nid~",l~~ti~ th~y r~~~h such says; G ~le[l]lI,YS1,:;:"a,rr<lr .:I theori ~~:~INe'w'Ybrk • U~.iver$.:~ly who, jaiaed dle J·OO-fflember .~rr<lggoer.illgellf::rgie,ll. SQ :';Olll~ jptiC~q'I;J:~e"llh"t ::;i:I!1.g]..: subatomic p'~.WiI'i.!,;·le miglH £<lil1, such Auger co~,I~ooratio~,l:~nS.ill;Ph\:~uoor, t:nergy. But nov.' that researchers S!e:e!!inal t~Ui~ the :ri.1ysbin 8:1 OUI of [he decays of SIJ pCir~ M.if;HIl'l'l.'hrile .. researchers wot:k~!fII,g with 11.1UII.ubergf eosmic r ...y.'ii d~\'e~.m.expected ar n,rililssi.\le pan ieles, very high energies, e:x::p]!a~at:io~],~ i]1 M'kdy w I~i-Res, '\vMch !:I,lopped tak ing data ~lflSlye:lil~" The excess aJs'O clashed with an energy Iimjl~diclted i6]J t!l1.e.~ {)60:5,.[fe:.!ch my isa pro[lIm frem e,xotic panid.es ~o d'a.e ....~trop1,ly.i!lics s,,"lY shape (I f I~u~ir fi~1~~'~pISClWm. co~.. the of ton, ~:~,n.f'nergjies above :<toout4lU EeV it <1:1 mic r:JYenergies definitely pn)I\;'C:S, the r:IYjj; of st<n.'s<lIJd g1l.llilX ies, TI'!fil1J'lUrpD"~d escess :sp<'!ir~~dO('lf!jIrO\~~'1;y s~~ould jm~f'.M.':1 withd~~rholo~ in rhe flfl'er:. OiHf~ rurmi1l"lg l~p~!~ainsl t~.;l GZ K C1HiOIT... It B< ~re<lrsago (Sc.i(!Jrce. 21 June 2002, p, 2: 134). ike glow of ~~.eb~g bllng •. DhecOI!>mire lni.croW"oIve leeks very InU eh 11 what e veryene has ~ I~(lm I'9tJO~(l2ij04, [lh)'sidfi,~sWi[~lt~nii;lAkel'Lo b;;l!e~Kgr()l!ntl it.'! ITU\,\1111' 'I~]a~ :,mpsi 1$ ~!l~gy ~n 'ool;l~r~ed !cl,~:n:;,,:: ~i!YSp. lerre Sok~ h:k~orl Gi,,~u A:u:rShowcrArray U\GASA" west of .110EeV w~th:in 01. di:Sl<Llu.:e o:f300 In illuUlrl ]i~n d1e U[i~ve~~~yof UHlh III SOllh Lake C~ty. e ".. Tokyo Sopo!.todrt1ughly ~idO~1l ·~TIitid~sC;:1i;j1, .. I.l~ ye~rs.lJf\GA:SA v,,~s~':Ci,flgmys 'with ~l1ergi~s ...t 's "t U~~G II • "'~'K" " ' ~ass.u(:' o.,J,L:.; SI~~~II~1 rc" ." '6I't I1 eD'S! flj ~ in; to e'.l:r~lrn,iiI,1; elle:r_gie::!Qr HHJ ex,I,-e~,ectrolli ~OOve I:his "GZK cUllOiIt~· l~.e~l du:}' h;,lldto o;riSaren~ so !Sure .. A."ger.:s d<!l,t;:l sug~e:m:i the ~ bigb~,~t C!1>(;l1lY my,\; 'Gom~'rij.!;~pnH.OIl~ (lild i! VQIt~ W'~V) •.aibom [00 In! I ~io.l:Iti.mt'~ h.igh~1 i~~!t~in d:.e oC'of;Jnicnei.~hbQ~hol[)d. Nkneover .. anoth~f ~prcmp $<IW nQ C'J'Il.iCess. he<Qv:uer Iil:uc:~ei. which dOIl·t fee~, lhe GZ:K. ~ Wh,e.rea.s AGASA researchers, (ji:ete,eled dmg. Wat:sml S,ill.yS. ~:Ir'iI.sl>e<lid ofbll';ling[~ ~

pm:ttlnh~ m)'lii~1;,flot~=- ~rk!1llli!!t'd rer w:~,osegr[l'VUty holds tfulc gUI',lxies [()gelhtlr; 8m [he canrroverslal excess 0.1' super-

S~,Q'!."~f Cf!IU!i~S 1fI.hr>Og,~~mole-

ized telescopes to deteet the Iig!il.t produ ced wh en d,le

r

,. [.

Ik

1'8

s h)w~~d. the
'~i]

II~~el'ci~~~~)'rn!c...C'r be

I;Iccdc~tcd

40 fie\!; h~ s.."1I>I~.

C:)ll~ed th~ Tl:]~~Cupe AJI'Imy, tvlilichwiU be threi,.,'eighlru,lhL:: size Q~:Aug"er.. Th~~ .m~.ybe jU!ilt rhe

'f.l~{:fe~v hig~~M ~m:;rr~r.~n:'~igJlue~,,[f]ying piaiitid~~wm be rCnieiil~for de~enni!llii'ig
whetlser h]g~~~(nHlili'gYcosmic reys emanate

dill,ta to trace the f3.:~~.-{)lf1· in detail, "Nm\{ we ~mdJtl:r::;t;:lnd that <loo,re ~h~ )"tIt1 di~gliiJ.-e<I:lJ.cJul:\'\iIl<~I: il i~J-dl.ell b.uDld~ng .,. GZK cutoff there are H:nmtimes less '(,':()rS,I11Iirc:: bigger detectnr h1:a'l'd~y~e:ts youaillyl~~ ~1iiIli!:," mys thallil we dmuwn I [I yea~ago..!lO we Ilmy . need a detector ten times '1S bi~ as Aug.er." Oec<lweli1el'e are so f~' lili~.erene:IYY parl:ic:lel1 T!;lsh]m!l,~nhe: M~!~ Pb!')c;1o; ~fl~~irp~tlr(;. ,~U}I~ Oordorl Tho~'n."un. ~ H[~R€=~ SOfo/S Mll~;lh~ro member fll,\o:lml .RLugers Uni.vcrsil)1 in PiSC.H:O 1.:01$1 iuue :I'o:r PbiY!l~,cs. in M ~1,I~ich. e,r~nEII.ly. G SfW,I)" Ncu' Jenrey. Memrbcn; Qi'tlu~ EI.i-R.es :uld w.~.a,\\l'orked on AGASA 911(]is ·~vork.ingou .AGA. SA~e..'Ji1.1;S .~re bllildinS ot dii.lttlCtoO' in Un~h the Tele.'H:;iQpr.l Array:
<lIII1IMISSenoll:gb

W:~<I[e"eil" its cause, the 11I.1~.ar.Teads SOiIi1l.1f· l ~('I~l~~i~ln the 11~~ l'U lmild a b.~~ Oilml)',.as the .Auger team hopes to do in the Northern H~mi~plle.J"e. ·"O'.II1C~ yOl~ ~e lbe cuwff-even if

iri.ghit

sjlze,TIKlJ~lS(H;l

sllIyS.

Oi'll~r;:;Silj'

th;~tglil,~)j~

bi~ger

;,lIrnlY ~'~11

f~m Iil<!rtic~~kjfpr)irlt::i. Qrpfl'ichr;::tlin the s~'Y. ;:o(1)"S Janm.es.CroI1J n ofdle. Uni,.~rshy Qirehic<'Igo., 1M i.neis, \'l.TIll. wil:h "\'i1t~@I1. dreamed up th~ ,I\\!£!';r ..rr~.y i11lhec'II~ly 1990s. Sw:;h ~';J ni sotropy" Iniw~t reveal the: rays' ,origun~. ;)l!ud '"i r we C:aJ1l shew 311 <'lnUwlropy,~1la.enID[JlS <I br.unl;nl[ b[e<!]k~ [hrought he ~!)'s..M~rritlg dll;) sky ~uukll:ak~ ~ dl;,lc1lde----Olh~10llg~. ronin I!I!nd W..UQ:iiI h~lirn C Lhey ~nay ~l<I!'I1'C<I~S'eadly seQI~smne:t~.~.illge~.chjul'lg
lhm~ 1lCj~)"e~. re.ru.y fur

rel~I~"

-AD:R!IA'r!J (HD
1

H~V1AIDS

rCmltrru:ylo pl)CvioHS eslinmles,

have

1n0 re

~l1di<l daes net iI-l [V~infected pre(l!p]~ ~h"'i1I ~1!1)1

coumlfyil1

I:he I;Mt~rld.S;1~yS ,.I, ~jleW;<Ifm1ysis 'by

g(.lI\!C'!"n!YIe:~t

hl."~d~]~Wnd.atI:s. ]~1pwi.)'v!.;;d ~ml o

wi!dlened ~ILI'NeyS ofli[l.e COLl~.1tlrY'Sm:m, s ive IXli.1>" ~Imi~l!l has It'd l~di~'l'sN~uiQ:lul]AU)S CO!illF!U~ Ortl,<lntizatliion {NA.('iQ ~ to .s~m;h by more t~1<I:r.!1 f tbeestimated hal

"senclnel" survelllance sires, Ifk.e d,ililli.cs for m;CUIr':aI~ as they eau he:' SBYS epidemiolagi~t Perer Ghys, who heads the UNMDS ·p;reg:~.:.'tIlil \'V!O.[[~.en.Bm :sw;:b 1!l1l!~hlS,{S ,cff.r-iltltrC Dml1c:n, rhar prod Hoesth,c of'r~ci~e;dIes:~i~n.~u;:!S more data :from urban thunnrral <IIrl!a:-.o<lll1rd for ~no~t\}i)JI!m.tri,L;;5>. c Hli!!iss n1~~~y high·q:isB;:: W011Jp$ such al>.il1j~UI1!i! .1n til.e· IJr1l!li:. lnd iil,'sl-[ ~Ve s.~i,:~:mJitc!i have dmg users or me'r.!, W:h.o Inwe sex w.~lhmen . r(l[i~d heavt]y
ClI~

a limited :~urnbe"r of

The

I~L;;Wam~ly$i$ !!1idl~dL:;~Hhu~ rnI!i1~4!O[l

~~\1I1

senrlnel sltesadded sinee

t1m1Jflb e r (If p eordeifll,~e·~;t~d. l[toml 5.im,imon to 2.;5I1rli~~jon.

2006-'nJmfl[\(! w~'re jut 764 in 2005-<118 'well .~s'\,'Olullt.u;y

Mood samples

N AGO. wh ieh ,JiilI1l0um:eu the
uewfigures
tllill:$

O:~. 6 J ~l.ly.) <lys.llIV 3 in~f~(1~ 0.36% of [li1U;: ~Xl~I!Jl;·

··n~AgR..rr.;s.~re~)j,;'Mmuch!nfJOO
realisue," sa',Y'5 N. i{". (haungju.ly. ~,chcm:1 oflhc ]l,dia:1ii01lulteil of Medical Researeh in Ne~\i Dt;~~:li l,iho e:hidr~d~ m~le~in!;l , ~hi!.tre'vi e\l'o~edtheliiew NACO !'!~!mbGrs.Ganglgl'l. who ~~ong
;i!

~ry's ",duh:s. ~'~11:he.l" 1~13.110.9%.

Ul~ken Irn)]1li~ moa:e lh<ll~l :100,000 pe:opi.ie ilL~ a 1]<I!ioma"!L~ househeld survey. NACOse. sli!b"I)~l:eS ~l If 1-111 v~ i nfected people 1iH.wU :1I"e f;1f ff(m\le:IU~~~I. m~lgj~yf~om2 mi[~ I.uon re :u lm]iil~iQu. Btu th~It'S Inm:c c~r~il1i!.:f lh~ul'portr.ayt..'d.

by UNA[DS in 2006. which
~s~i1'lIille(II.1IiI(Hi~·1O [V~i~l~~~wd H p epu ~ ~'t~onan 3. .411i11,~.U iOIl1 illo '9Amillkl!1. !\mg~!$ '~o!'n(l ind i.e'l,t ion (h<llt ;)f:ll~1~ ti~l!:\"'1;l ~.'J'·ere1l0! as ,c1OlJIndent as we <I1.'C

word ~d l~la til:prd.e:lilil.i.o~)l)giS:~.!'i

n~

~ had e:xagger.~I.~'{11tlhl.e sQ~JI,e of

~ hdi.,.s epid.em ie. add", thm he
~was. "very h:fU'PPY" th~lt a look S back <l:na~ys~s also fuund '[l\i,n H~V \~~as rtOl~"i~,ling gIIiO(lll:rl .in ~ l~!S hlm~~ cuumry.

Ceuntry

~Odil.y <~bou~ the
HWV/Ai'DS cases Adult prevalence

es~jL~1L~nes:'

I

{miUi'oli1ls}

{DID·}

p.oPu.Jlt.iiltillib1i (rnnUon:5~ oi4 '13:5,

sa~'S.UNA[ [)S'); Ollys.

The Io\"'()rodc:):'O(i.!~l~~ and 2{](1Q~mJjca:w thm .~~.e oumr~1 o hm; I1m:1 a st31b1.c t'lp.id~emil.i \Vilh f~··nll1l~~in~1 dedhllll' hi$~.ye'!!r,
the reana .. ysi:s. of data [b..;u:;k ~ to

.5,.5
Niig'!!1l1iil

1:8 6
a,

Q

The ]oinl:

Ulrnli.ted N<ltio:u

~ Prl'lS;rmnme' ,(In l~[Vlt\IOS

~ It LI NAU]IS).W~l.i.ch

advi.se·d :! 'N'·A·1"'.0' ~PL em'I"' IS!i.~l~~ tne d "~.I ::s .. ,-,. ter

I~diia Mr@J;!ial!ll1lb~if!I!JIle

.2:.9 2.5 0.2.2 1.2

3 •. 9

0.3:

1,.:1.2"

:5wa:i:iWi1in,d!
Ulilli~edlS~t,es
INI~ I!~~g!:l'r !i!1l!!mb@f

1.8

~ .••higher,e:i>~:umate:~u.~ports the i n~\\1 f:~!l:ure$. '"W~re much ~ more C;I]~'lide:mt~h;<lt estithe o !fl',Hes b€l Hlig P ~uo II~ tH~ ;.'! s

116,.:11 3~,·4 0..6

21 1.ill
.:I!Ji1

NACO

S11)fS.

t he idea th!ll

Th is c hi!~h~'ill:SJil:s lnd la ito 0 n 11n

"AI]i,'C<)I'I~jec~ory·'-wg.~h i~.e

Oi"'~ MUlch Md~usi.!lti!:plin9, ~miu:diln.g ~ lli.!tiiOl'i!i.!I.I'I~U!schold. SIUli'\!'CY \Ii~u!> ~lQVWun;g frol1l'l 'C{l:!1!C~!1thol[ g'oos well DI!.!f®n:dthe? "smti !te'l~ ~iUJr\I\em.moo :5i~~'5.~~~e lhe dil'lk ab(llVE! LillKolk<!til, ~rn'tedrisk groups sach as sex \:\IOl'ikeI'S ami tmck dl'h~lrs tD ,. has led 00 n~i Ilo;rter. leSlim·atcs. o~ si~~ II)~the AmS epideMI:C:in Ir'!di~.

179

----------------------

THE

IINSPIRED

PAST

BY

....
~ ~ii)~

What makes a first-class news story?
]ellllli1lifer ,eo Ullin
~. 2000 ;,,~I(ilese1.K1!ied for indliS!~ii frn J1iI,g~Am~~ :Sd~ Mi"ifil1'l\9 2.001 ~. 2COIj;jlllltr:dieJ~ed' (Or

Who,'s hellpil1,g bring the' _of science' to
le'v'E!!'ryone?

olf9 aa

t.i.2
8rYR
U;.l>f

{ec:c.a:. 2b~

c-wt:J;

Sri~f!(~Wffli!7g·~~5 ~, 20m EWIt ,(Jjillk/.SClih.Il:~~(lAwardl fOrYoi:lna: Sd~me!oomil'lm

ioousi:Qn in 'meBest AmelliCall

do£)

C"W

.,.18"

se

o~ &~e

".'

--Sip&,e

As ill c!mild I got\i'@iry in~rl!$l'edl inl

tMve'l. \lVheil1 ~ was si)! my

8o~ ~~~~
~ &0.,....;)

~ ,99 ~~

C"We

ctru'J

2C1~

fatneir g~ve me some books QI1I'('J,cket.s and stars. AlI1c mv IJn~el'!ie 5uddell11y ,e~p:l.od.edl f~ sfi~~ b.e(alJ'5~ I ~ealllz~dI UID91! lIight$ ~rJthe sky I was ~oorun~r .1It
~Hi

actullUy iP'~ces,

Afin;;t~dasswrUer. A.wol ~d-wifln ing .iou mal ists
wr~le for :5cienr;e -wHh 12~ ~op awa rd 50 r lflI the la:U Ife UJr

~w<I;Imt'edll0 go there, ,And I d istlo¥e re~ that $lCi'~!l!:)~and tec~lmoIQg-y wasa gij~1tthoI~ ~mad,e~his pesslble. The~h~iII off m;()$.I01nstm~s IPfES@llitS (;8Jf!iI 'CllJlid::l.ywNir o'i. But I\!:e 'rolLlnd that I)l1l1'si:c'~ is. a fIirfl: that Is AlWAYS exdtill'lg. ~\!'e beerlilmem:b~r of MAS for a 1i1IilIillIoo·rofyems.1 thimlk it's importll1lJt ~()!lo~[r'! b~caldse AAAS J"elPr~sefits selentlsts in governlillent, to 'the (;or'po.rate s.e;c;t:OJ., and! tome [public. This is wry v~l<I~be cause so much Q,f l.Qda.y·!~ sclence is I'ilQ~ wTdielly ~ II1Cie.!i~()o~. r ~ aise aJppr'eciat@ get!:i!1lg

yeaJf:S. That's winy we have
Uie, mOM. compelling s,~ofie!:5, <lrlld the big,g:e;s.t readllllrsl1i ip of al1l'llg~ne rail, sde ii'l1~ifiC bfP!1I!
l[fc<JJHorJl, o see the complete T

Illst.ofawawds

go

[O,~

scteece
',. ',..• .

sdelllu:emag.o ng/newsaw<I

uds

bec~.!J5@of~helJfi@adl~tl()'ff to,pl~ ~t ove~s. o

.

]im 'Gates is a tIiiH~o'rotilt,a~ pnyskis.t ~mld pl'Qmes$>(if at th~ ~nllver"Sit.y o,f Maryland,. ~e"s: also tal member

ol~,MAS.
St'e video cllps ,of this stc ry and
CI t ~ e rs

a l www.aaa!i.or.! /sl'Orifs

':

I II

I

I

I

I

1---------:

g,en'l;;rol popHlmin':l'II----1!! Ci:)flilrl!~'W~rsial",,\1~r~io:ra: In<ldeby epi del~TIliologi st .R:ucbm",li Feadtem, fonnerhead anile Global Flind ~o figlu AJDS. T,~Q.bercul.o!'ii~ and ['i•.f,llar:Ujl "Sci(:nc."t', 23 Apri~,2004. p, S;04,).ludia e:tperl
I~€l

and e,pidegn~loIQgggi Robert Bollillbrer of Jo~nllS HOP:ki~lS Univ~l1>i[y i~ Baihij.!n(l:J!C. Mai)'~~ml
eO-~linh(~red~ 9 n~,tQb~~ ,2(]{)4L(mC~l'afljt:le: wi~JiI,I:~djall rnUe<lgues, th:H e-xp~.idt~,y ritieized e P~a.!.'h~nl'~prnd:ictkm. ·'Fmnldy. ] \~'Q~.ldJl1.'t e b :~m!lJ.lr,ised ifdlen:: wete (j.J Illii 1:lki[l oX' 5 mi,IUo]J1 or 2,:5 II,n~~.1 i~11:«:tI.-d~Jl;1gp~le. thepuinl I::; io'n bUlt

~B!i'!g"\~,'Qr!)'ing"r,f~te:s ofpeop.le who r~illo respond totreaunent andeeed more expeasive seceud-line dn,tgs. s.!1C' ~y:s. Acc[lrclirlglo ,<It! April reponi'~~lIec.llJ'y U NAI DS.~~@j' \¥or:~d H'L':1)]lllil Orglill~i z!ltict~. .. l:dUN.ICEJ;: ..W.ndi"l,.m<ldj~LSlO'!'t1T U 55.000 people
reee i\liJ~g?I fit i-H [V d r ~g."!li.,".o fNOIv~[~lb~r 200'6.Therepert.which relied 'olm t~le 'old
ealeu

u.s. N[ltiOmla:l

The head of th e Hurri-

CilUiI~ (~I1I~r in

Miami, Fla,rida, ha~ il@i!11 pta c:e:d ,~I'I ~~av,e< a rt~r a reb ~l~ by i01'!1
~~e.[lQw r'Ore(il5~ers,
11 IIId

I<'IIltOra,s: of H IV prevale nee, esti nIiI<ltied th,lt t11~l!UIIHoor {IF p¢QP~e ilm ~~'cedQfimmed iatet re aement ran ged :frOl,u62 7.000 10

sl:a (L Wililra

IP~~l;!ilZa

~heepidemicis d~ffere[l~in

I .6 minion, l'h<t;l new nlJ!n~lb~,f:i; me<lm·'f-ew-er India," S;,;J,YS people ne:ecllre1.ulll';'~l t:od,IY and will need
treaunem in! I.~~,eIl~l:me~" GllYS" Yet 111\'1:" .says mn, c:almtiorls.lh;)I: this doesn'[ :sud.del~ly make
~ali!l!llliplrellml~!Usimple. UNAIDS'~ latest Itgll'f'eS estimate l1i1.!ll 39.5 millieu peeplc ~lI'or~.dwideil.1'C i.l:llrCe~cd

lon gU m,e IMalHollal.

nerU. ;:.

I'll

Boi~lill~~r.A k~y diSl:~ncti(m, he s~y.~. rsoutside f h!lv~moreIIm!!'lon~ s~"i~l rru:m~r ~l ~l~ same tiUil~,e.3In,d,or driver ,of epidemics, Sm:lib SoIOmQIL~.'who runsa Ilr.iW'lftecli.llIic in :Chienu,ri. YRG Care. ~neMe~ l:h~.ll~d~'~I~lm
r.l~]y
1f:.'ijCC~, a!i:lll"lJ1L~id!~ble eh~I~~en.g~ .,W .

We:aliher S'er\!ike rJmnchd. ~r!d h;)~(.a:;t€J, has p'ldJ~idy(Clmp'~ffill~ .about the 'CE!.liu:er's
bu:rtge,t si nee hOCOun1l1lg ~ire(!tnr '7 Ifn om:ils .1Igo. OJ];~ glrip;e ~\!i\!SIhaJ~i~s p,f!lrelill ag~n(y, lh~ Na'~ijoli!alO~eanj{i;lnd .AH11.05pherk Adlminis·

of eemreercial sex \Morikel·s.[ndlian \II,i{)me:~

w:~d'llilY. which the re\lu~

]~di,1in r'Illml.Jern

luu~ver.' the

IiiUll,l'iberS.

if \\IC: ure COltilphl!cel1l~ ""'" ~:hevirus

will SPN3,d faster," is<ly::> SOIOf1lOl.l, And she $~Y.~ ~l,flny i~f~cl~d [XlQple fll:irnldenot hO!~eaccess to .. nt:i~HIV dmg_.,>"'iIi11C n t:olIl~jry is also
A.WAIRDS

would ImA'CrIO 36 ..3 ~liiiion. Seuth }\fr]c~ 110\'1.' him.the ttliifolitunat,e dis6nc~:loll ofhmril'ig more HPv~infet'aedpeop:~e-S,5In]~liQJll as of
2fjO~~h;;J,~"'!!'l)r~OU~1~ryill

lfitt~on '(!NOM}. htllflfl 't pHlj).1lu!d! to n!'j)~.a ~e! the aging QlI~lkS(A~,a NI:A5Asal.eUite. P'raelU<l In ad waf:ned l~.::!'t its lO$sc:o:Ulld io'!'cws~n3 -(ilal~
h urric.ill'le track r,orer.as,ts ~. t.6(1Al.

th~ wt'lifld .•
-mONI 'COILLENI

1131!.iJ~ p:romii'iefil (€!n~~r5tarr qije~lfofi;e<l Lh~ 5oil~[ll~ite'~ imporbrn;e,.,i!!nd, ·~riIilnil!ln'lkSllI<lU.y p\Jblk leuer la$t.w.eek..,'3 o~ 50' (ente.r sta J~ c;i:I~ledfor Prollnli!i:I':5 IN1Frn!lJll.l'a\ 1IIl!llllllllglihe !a ~llIi1I'(lnll!ilate ~lJ[)lk d€hgrlJe'" (lve,r t~e ce!l1!te~'s rmec.aiStililgi "liJilily.lln MlIY. NOM chie!f(ol'naa L"llt~flbadller ,c~U(l\dPr'O~filza's b'LEfrll.iIl€SS "one reason \\llly w@·loVi! l1iilfl1l, ~ but in C! llE!tl@r this
\lU!ek to"celnler 5.laiU, Il!I~'said 'Mlf;.'H! was. "a nXl:ety and disru ptiCDFn ~~l titre center .:lInd ll'lll~ Pr,o@nza

Sdctl(,;'I;' .m,d

Nm'IN'e

be en

I1I.l.:IJiI~,ed

hJ;U\!t! j ohu I)' re e ipie nt s of

'Bioch~mi~~r)'~nd ASlnH~o~~y."., [!li:;m ()~;. the laiern iiHo~ii'!1 Co.ill~1fi~I\i1ily leameil of rhe descript.ion of tlliu,: uman ge~llome frmn rhe h pagl;'i:ijgfooth p~lblic<liitl\I1:S." l'bl s ycar'l~ff\~,a:rdeesi.1I ml:}Crc.alegoric:s ~
fb);,m,ler

w-a$ ~ealwiiIfn9. OHidals., Io\iho ~uel'l't~yifl91,1i'flY b~
Inove was liIladEl'. Ihllw ,pil!l tenter ~ep lily Edwarn R:lIppapmlilil chargili'., ....EliIIIllIINlfIIS(HI ,

tIH!' p:restig.uous]'007Prince

of

A.shl!ti;J,l'j Awm'd io~Cmlfl.ml~nk.,,· dCl:Iill n,dll~luwm~]llh les, a The award :i;5 nuclle ,IIIIIUIiIUy b:y SpJiin':'i Prince of Asturias Fonnd<'llk}~I. tbrm~d~fI i9gn undt;;r [ih~ p'~s;ide~.c;r (I r [lis: R!oy,)~I~lighne:!lii>

Vk-e Pa:e5kle:m A I Gore (illilte:m:ltiomll
BobDyiml (.ar~stdo:veloplrtenml

SIPiH!::'eIPlro b es Add S:irdIE! liri ps
N~SAh 'i£!ndin~ 'two d~mrate'd veteralno; O'llllD co~lect !n(lll(l sdef!lt~~kd.alta. Afl'~r !1ih'lilildy h,aI\1iing tr;3I'!.1'eied 3:,.2 Dillli'oni kikHilllel:er5 to pl(k Will Imn(rr09r.alul,of dust from comel WHo ,2 aoo ha:,r~rQg droppe d H. bed to Earth :~or <1I1iI,1l!ly's.1$, NASA's S'r(l~ri U~~ 'Spac;e!'((a~~ \lfi'U be visi't~ F1~ <Gomet Ti8\mp,e~.11illl 20n. NA.sK~ Oeep' IlfIp:ad S!J)(lcec.raH fired gJ flna~:si'llle '()(l!ppe~ p~~.e(tl:[e at lh~ w:me,t Oi'1 4 ] l!1~' 005, .and J~ea ~ch~~~ 2 \II;;! ntSti3,rclusl.lo i'rrllage ll1~ re:su'l[illl'g ilmp'j3(1
craft@r til ~~anll aooW!t~h~ Siri!!il:lii.!r@ oil mid,porosil!.y

,t,'OOpelf<ltion). g(;]'),erk:ists

Gi~~~ Morara onhe

Spfl!liiih

PI;;Hpe: de Borhfiu, ht!::ur lO the t h roue n,f .sp~in, W~~
Pf~IH':U

Nm ~.l1IJ<IIl Res.eru:ch Coul1ci~ rum.<i.e~:er r L aw~~n:{.~(lfOun'Ml~~ UnJvl;ll'l:\iry nthe United Ki ngdom (scieru:if:ic IIrld tl\::chl:11i~~~Ireh). ~
m

~

founcl:.u:io'mlJ honors !).ec[in'ilplj:llh~u::~n~ by i,ll11di",udtqals. !itl1cmp:!!" 01'
(I

is

rga n i;!uti'~T!1!IS in

~i~ h~

'1IldBebrev.r wri l.er,lll1d pr.ofc~or Ai~~'fil>. uf o~ tbeBen-Gnr.iQ]1 Ullilivell~ ;;;i~y i!l hnt~ 1Ue['~~~l>l.

~ ~ ~;a:I:t:,~lni}e~; ~omrniu:l!U,ica,· ... l~on and ~~,u:mmi1ities, => s.oc~,[lisc]ences. <lir~s,. t<: ..: . lei ~,~n,t':rs ;s,cielJi'lllufic ,!I.Uil,d ..

i

i\"lt<!:rns for .~,Qci ~, :;I;.~i,~ a .;llImd ,c:ml~ cord have ~ot ye;~ b eeu
ences. sports:,
ITemflO t1.l1:ced.

of ~h~rnl'lu~l's f1l11deu~. 11, ~~:s;H i~ a~way;\la
'9!IJotilidel. .. SCI)'S Gerhard
:5Q~CirS)f5:i'elill '5(lem)~ at.

I~e::~ :'I~:~
5

SdlWE:nrril liIe1fiJ

of

"VIo'e ue de.1 igMed
<lml clieeply honmealh;Jt

~:eoa;~:,~i:~:~~,

~e(l!10~rdand slX"m:. j 1.1:1 ,I :SHHe'm,~mL U\u:: ~ nntnd:uJI.~!on~,IJiI:ed! '''SO]ilMl of t~le['ll1j,m.! inl'pciOltl!:UII.l "u1d i~nm' ~ v~.tilvc \""nrik o~~lh.eI~J;! 150 ye~n;,lrll!ls.appef<l~d ~ on the p<I,ges.ofSci(!uC'l!<lIild Nllil~we.thm. Qon·

!)ur j!llu l'o",I's cOlnri b lI'li.ous bJ p'llblic disoom'S€l
O[[l 8de~l1!cil;; and ~chf1lology tm\'el:l<i,~eb1l recog··' f.I i:t~d by S pi'! in '1;, Crown. s;,j]ld SC;'fmcJ!~s Edi~Qr:"

~lh~LlrOlJ'!'!'il1n!pa(l~ E S A~ef:!(Y, i1lltl'lOllgh he ~'{l!iilS that "Stardlisf5 inardw.ue WaS ,desiigll~d Ior·[I dirfer~;nt pmposl11. ~ M€arnvhj'le, DeEp Impact also ha~ be~ffi! givelll [I neli\l a5.s.1gml1ient It pl.am In ny PI1l:5t ,comet lE!o.e'lfulifi Olil 5 lDece,rn'i:Der2008 arler
~.oo~iriQ ~or Uans;i'ling !pla ll1@ts aru:und oliher

Princeir'm.!lHdmion."

:star~. NA:5A sde rw~ (~ieJ .Ala I'! Sterll~ays the
iii E.'\V11~i,~sijOIiiS gE!t ~more

g liiib~,tiUlg ~o d~G:bird:!l ~Hl\'~e\'~~Q[l!lle:~:u nf d ~mtny~l:i",c~p~i~e:i>. i'~,dud'~n; EleClrmll!tlg~f;l~

i
o

~!l!-'Chi~fI)Oflald .Ke!lrtedy. Tlu:: aW:J'If'ds. wi~1 be pre!:>e~,lled Olt~. cer-e·
mQl~y 1111

bllf1ll 'O~JIr budg!!! ..~

~'O~IE,R'iI":5(11 LinJIN6

~$Ul:]"

Re'hH!'IIUY. QuauwU);l Tb~~ory. Oe:!mencs•.

Ovi:edo,. Sp~rull. in October: S-CI~ENCEVOL 3~713 JULY2007

\!!i\,yw.scieocem<!llg.org

1181

I
'O!ii\eil'liI~ate,llI", iFoo lll!~rI~' v()r;ild(lRJ~ pine'Mr~ 1J~~He'5 are s!lIM!;!ingl milder wf5te.rn winte~5.

[0 01. OAA press release, m N inli'w~s ccnN tri.lbul.ing to 2006's unusual \:\I'.ijlrmtb. and the s tre rlglhe:llldill~ ;re,J;: f]b~nu~je W,l ~ :pmb.\b.~)i'ilw.u~v~d WO" B,~ut NOAA C!~u~dml·l. ~:l!iY which dimiilii:
P'~~"'f.iGlm~rH]':Jm Wa~
i'il{l['if;;

:~mporil:<Inl:il1 sett:ing til'llll' new ,record.

So CHnh'lle dyrH'lmicis~~ Millitin H.oel."il:ing. ]01'1 Ei.scheid. Xiao-Wei Q1II3:11l•. and T~~:~ .X~! IJ' f N O,A,.A·~, ~~ Sy ~le:IIJ.1 Vi E r.1::i1 Research L,loo<mlory WI'! Bculder, C{JI·_
orado, dieeide.:! to find om whai was behi.nd the record. firs], to gaJWls,e the i~Jhtl.HlC'~ of last y~~r's El Nhto .. lh~y checked (Ilil 'what .~ actual E I N iIrnO '\)li2lrJi110 :i Ilig!> of the l.m'l1.uc~ I P~I i fu~ had don e [,0 e U.S. ~tln1p,er<~ture~. na~y foumI,d,1 ~~~]s:h[
fllV~[·!).U ~ooUi:!].g,. et n

Cli'lm.lalC scientists mm~~lly hes:iillte to pohlit UJ usingle ,d'un,rwtet:xlrelhe,}~td ~2Iy. "That's
the gree Ilihau seai Wdtrk." Cli mate mllli!1.r.::li 11)1

"'\"']~'i,g8 10 jUlld fro se much lb<l,t it 1C,<i1'l be toug'~l ~o pick o~ut tb~i,~n~~n~c ofth'i;l Slf~f!gJh.~lming greeahouse on u hurricaee S'("HISIfJIl, s<ly. or 011 one country's climate

last year s rc,coru-b.llea:l-:.iug W3Iril~H~'m::I'OSS, Ule c'm,n~g,'lwu~ U~li.[ed Slmes.Bylhe~r reekonleg, gl.o:bSJI arming i~ 2n06~v~ls w ,lgg n~,\' inga ~I milmnet of U. So ~xtlrenmle5: lit s;;e\'\~1i(:~ dnmgh~" the ri si~g ~O:St <0 ,. ~ir ~O:!1i-

a wa r.ij'll~~.g. o:n:ceuC tr ...ted i n [heDil,orll!iet.L~, st~lle s, Then, in t"\lilO

dit~Ql'lif!J,g.the cold-senslrive

ph~~ b~~rkbee-

cllu~m,uenm,o&:ls. they simulated the effect

nl' ,11 vi,r'lrm~~n)ri.cOl!I. Pa(,~i.fh,: U!1 U.S.

tl;:il~.~-'

ove-f rhe coursecf
HlII,t

,1 )'Mf,

pheric

rml,[" N'ltiom~.li Oeeaaie <I:mtd AnnesAdmhil,h;IUI'lkH:! lNOAAI ,CU:L1]<!I'tie

,..eiennsts Ife'l'HJrlin ~~paper in pres.s at G,f;O{J /'y:o.h·(rl fi(t,",r:m"C Ii L,t;'tters t ha [ t ~le ~reeillbom,e was behindl more lh<1~ hal r a,f
ECOTOXI COLO G Y

tic rmraging once-eeel wesliernl'oresls, <lind may beeven some m]d.,vi~l~~r dallbdi hi, Last .lmnil,:U:Y. NOAA annonaced that 2006 was the wartllll~~1 ycmr for thclewer "IS stares ,i!l.lln;c:e record ..keeping began in 1395~ tcn'ilIH~r;HUr~s C\fC~ ~CI lpsed the EI N iniD.o-fi:Leledrecord of i. 998 . Ae cO:l!d:ung

peranires. A;gain, fhey ~ollm.d: <'I, sllght OOO~f~

inS. Tb:;J~"leads usto eenclude dl,U irwas
very ull:~ikely tlm~t E~;Niiilo either caused or
~.u~lcrh!!.nyCO!l'lrib~~tcd U) the f(:0o1id 2006

warmth," they wrire, Next the NOA,/\ group ~'hcd'cd on \,,'~'u<1t£eenhouse gases m ighl have con- • r

DioN.un. :PC'Bs. 1:~liiie pesricide DDT-these p()~h.U~11It~. (\1)jj'Jsiti.;:rod ~nlilf~l'Iig~e !ifilM)~~~ are t dangerou S all the phrUil.elbecause they dOilIl.l brl;i,tkd~~ 1'1 ~'l.'il)!.are hijghly t~x~iC.,and ~Jund .... [IF' ~n the rood ,eh".ull. lIBec3us-e these ehemieals :llUI.y IHU in OlH body fat. even UIII·Y :mIl1IIOlJl'ltsin fuod CRUll, ,,.dd l~p over ti:,llil,lle.md C(l,nr~blU~ tel h~~:~th pmbl~'b'lIjjJS such a!l l.~l~lC'd; So '\vl.uitisome,ln: the risks lh~H mate tll'lIl i 40 ~ul:l~tr~~ h~l~endorsed ~.2fmJir!i~~!r-

o:r so org;:!,UiI,ic wil.h stable, r;USOI~lble chemicals rhararen't (.';}:;ily ~'!iC'i1;;I(;din u:dmte Of f~OOIO, B,k)mt!,gJl~fi:c~t,uarru was first studli.ed .illll~e hue 1.'960:sin Simo!1l! Fraser U~]hr4;lffi~ly B~~m,uby,Brili~h in ~~~:~~~~l~~~::~~=~~~l:~i~~:;~~~)~~:::; Cohllnbua., This :!],uli:iy d~.d !lOt examine \"!'h~~[lu~r[~cse dlm~!ic~~ls are 3etlU:lI1}'h!l~au~ng IhG:s.ludy. To ~en,,'CI~chc:nr1Liea.if;. sd.cl~tLsts e~n b vi,li ldl ife "I'I!1d 'iJ'6op~e.thf.jol O1Jitd (.n)~;. ~r:; ,fire q,lui.~kt'r.i P'i.'Iil~I.!,Jttl, It thi; J SI.i ~'\i'{l,rk .. ~s11ie<l.Uy m:isill1lg ill red 11110:]g One~~hi rei oflhel2.000
chemicals ,(n~1du;;:nnlilrk(;Lin Cairn!ldam this .nJew ,e;negOfY .. S<liYt]iiU~'study's authors at

::;;

~

~--~~~

I
~
~ ~ ~

ll'<~tiiOlII.d ue,Uyl~<:lit 'Ji ms lOb<m~~h !l tIllJZ'~lcg, of
1:I'n.cses,ui:lslall(;:CS, froni1111'n.eeliwi:mmmml. Ntlw on p. 236 ... C,nlutd:~ilill l'eUl'alreposrs Ihi'lt. efforts 10 crack down Oil pen,i:st.cnl organic po~]~nmil,ls. POP~,. may ~l.<l\i'e or missedan enll.:ure set ()f~~h,elll,~ .. Theproblein

~~!ld :;!i1yj!1!g \\,'~. ~ gut t:o P!lY1!Uif,;':~· ~iml [Q thus," $<i1Y;J ecoto ....culogi:>t i L<lJw[1e9l!G*l 'Bm'lkharo; oftbe U.S.

z

EnvirmlmcililHdr"oreCli(JI~, ln Dluhu:lm~Minnemta,

A£e~lcy

~ ~ ~
::;;

;

I'ing~r petential POfs hased on whetherthey bui Id upIn fU!$hlo,~dI l,:vl;!bs. l"~,H aSi>mil~.pl~Olill' theauthors $11'glH,~. based on Immdeiing
nU\lil

is that lii~k essessmeru expens

sues rises us one m{)v~ up lh~I\ooo

Biom'lgllli.l·icil~:~:om, meaas th,n l'Ille I}e:\,'e~ of <Ii HJXUn ~n .<ll~,illmn!l!l·ist

ehai rI. ifO:lf instaaoe, as; I :mV.H!' C,Il .~~y!l.!il. ~I the I!;}~""at\' and big,. fish . ge:r ifiS'b ,tt<ll s.mllHe.r ~:ls;h. I:~letoxin
pr~sCI~~. ~.~dl~ Ol.~g.~I.(: becumes

I
g
o

~ ~

;-

hecemc euncentrared
m.n:l,~m<tl.s3L~,d bir-ds,.

and fit,:~d{hU~1Ct~Mllbc~~~i~ii;ing ~~iCmi~flls ~h~.t;Wi sh remove from their bod ies 'but that r.esp ilt'tHOr)J \vhidl ~jl..ve <I, dil"ferem physio.log)l,

in rheri.ssues of

~ illcre;Js:in£Jy ecnceatrated: lOp p~dfllO:t1' lik~ S\.. ordfisl~ ;;11\(1ii;lhH r p 1tB1!!iII~2iII om.-.a_' bears el1l{~;ILlp ,,,,..ith the hl:gJ1:'es~ d~ 'maxi<: who. Tills wdll,devollring oil caril:iOIUI earcass liIlay be ~ngeitiJ"lgl ~ OO:l!1((II'galnic(h~kals l~~ lh~(anb~l!1 ~i.(.e(l up hom e-ililingi ~1(hl!'n',~ i:lm. the il" lU3s,liII,e:s .. 111"~~~5 ml h~Pllell c

'"

g

182

': ,

I I

I

I

I

I

1---------:

u·ib'u~Bd. Bec\\'lus~ th(lY bad no pri.flrr examples of the reCCI1I,l" mn~'LJP :ill greenhouse
g~~es. thcresearelrers Vliere limited to ~n!l~ ~yz.illi1g simU~;;'I~(H~:S. They looked .ttl S moddlS!lllilt included grecelmusc g:illse<~lsr ~:Iil.S, nee [be hl[e 19rh ee mury ro l~,e prel'l ~ si

for "~~HH·~ ~ han IHlIJ (I f t~~ observed warmth," tiM! researchers report, "The
record 2006wafmth \!;.'}'L:!l prinlal"ily due to. hl!l~nml hlilIuem.jil:~:· "I co~~ld CO~l!TL~' \"'I.it~lll. s]i.ghl~Y di~Ter~ up em, 't:ondu:s~on:' !mys mereorclegist David Klll"o~y of llJn~ U!lhl~r~i.~j' !VlGI~ of baurne .•AiJi$(r~li~. R a rher tl~~!:'! blame 11~<lU' efthe record ~~3rnlllb

S:~lemle'e II~ Deh a~!e' 8,eig lil it,!S 1
i

The S(o ..~rers IFlStitU t~ rm MfdiHl ~Rt'5:e>illrch n 1 KlIl'IS8S my; i!iIis5lJUri~ ha~ d'gairrs del.8yed

on the greeillhowse" b~ 'would s,1)' I:~.;n I:IH~ml wresult e s shewthat .!dded greeuheuse g,l:-;e!:i h,~\'e COIl ~ ~rncl:er,ably upped [he chances <1

or

year li.kll 2006. I~~~ ;;Igre(:s. how-

ever. that g:li'"een:~,()use ~]:ses made g .'.1) ~mb~H!!Iltia~ ,conl~ibi!tU{lnto tlH;)
warmth of 2006.'" '\lilhatcver the' pl'n.I,·3.si.l1Jg, the .\i mrn];egre~:~:~OtLSe e mlIT.~bWl~lUo:~i!i: !IJr wod< ov~r the HUlled States t:~1i.is ye.][lIs h~SL BU't. wtml,<I:lfeliilJle chances~lm.3l~~.e natural icsrl iIllS 0 f

~!olp.3ll'!i5ilOnl.p~ni5 b!w:!!.!cS~of ,oPlPomtiolfl to re~arch wHh hlulI1!<llI1 ,embryDnJic slem (e~!l~,. La,rt~aU. Mi fo~QL!lrivo:ten ~an(lliii~y rO'Y@dl app a H'!1e<!''ime [0 f'l revenllille Sl.<il~['! reglh5,I\i!lu re hom p'r(lhibillii"'~ hUll'II!aJfl [$ \':elll '~rk. B'I.i'tthiHllli fl l1ilillrgliin ,o'r ilid])',ry has prolllipteil!;Om!:! G1PPO,~ents~ot!Y ~oQV~f tom Ihe Ol~Sl.J re i~~:ooa. A propesed re'l1ollJUmli inl!he legi1:sI.aJtIJre ri:lnlled ,~diil'r tbis y-ea'f, but D()'!)f!IRubin of l~(!' Mfs~J:Jlu~i liti~IlFor lHe,sa1ling (ulres< $ij,YShil' C~I'! expeon5 mme .mempl's. ·~IYH55m..lri,Sln!Sdeslerv,e th@ OIlIPO~ttm~tyl(lVQt~ lo b.a m1'!~I.hurna n dJ).!'Il!Jltg."~ th e l'Il'is'}@1II rial'l~ ArJaj!Jl~t Hu PU>1l111
n[l:J1iFlQ said,!i" a~tat.emerll. Stowers !lays, Unit I. the oontin'IJing cOlltm·\ter~y ha~ S{;tJ!uldloU ttlP rectuit~ an.~ IPiI.dpL::!i!1'5, dli:l'ull~~ 'th~ iin~lilli.ltil'·S Ito ~iz,e on hoM for now..-!GRE1fIlllEN VOGIll.

'1lI.~; 10.,.5: ~,7

g,il' :!,~ ",,~

W\9iU1Ui!i e\!iE::ryw.here •.AIl 46 'ell llile (.OfHn,g,I!lO;lls I.at~shared $

in

~h.~gr'~l'lhiIJi!JSle"-h.!l.ll~d

wa

rmnln or 2:0'06,.
~~~iback

~:~.I;: dl'im<!.~~

~y!;~~m

\,,,,m

b.ri.ng

enough extra

em, Averaged over rhe models. llme simulat edgree n'lm,Qu:5lt::: warm ~lllg s.P<I]], e d t ~H~ n entire CQtildguous United Stl!I;'!%~Iil1Lm::tl like the 2m)6 'Ilvmml:I:I. .. w,he:lm eV\il:Ty one of

t:~'D.~ ~o\"l'\l:r 8 states was ,,,,,,,arUl'n-f;lr l~~all !In.lI)r· 4 Ina I.."f.h.emlodel avenge' il11006 acceunred

NOJ\f\ groll'!, calcnlates. hut llmot ]U,dy: Theodds are o.nl.y 16%. SIUI. d~.~past spring was the fifth \v<u:lI]me-St reeordfur ou Ih~ C!lIU i~'-1!oUS U~i wd, S1)ilI~S;. n~(;l.'hC(!I;1 is 01:1 <1g<tin'! -RI,CHARID' A. KEIRR.

-ro-back record '5'! ] l 's :P'll~;SDble, rhe

V.'<I.I~",I1IHh to

~be yea r tu

but hi,gh KO{l, w:~l.i,c;:h:S!\.lggested[~l.~:y IUlght ,~,',it~r b~omi1gJllify il1L~]~rr':b:~i~'ilmh,g<I~lim.]~~. ('mupa.rnd l,;\oith~!!lt ~di thus p:roClicts ~;lO\!;reas.ily a The measured level s o r contilimi~HIWlts fOli it wi,~ljmove frnm.~<1 fiish'"~'Momll iplOOlsinm Wiw~r various <mi Im~li:i il.l <l.qu;n·Lt;am:l ~,.md,[O()d \..~hs ",ret'€: sil1,~il!artto thDIiep:red icted IkOin (II, bicaccu~hmu£lh hs gIIU:l'.~';K.O\1!':. or mere w,lltersn,lu'· bl(:, ,chl;:lTiiC{iis don', bliiM up i!nl~~n;;;h f~)(JodI I'iIll~!~lio.!il1 :i1Il(ide'lin~o!ip{Y~tii!,g K(l@ ;.\f1:d K.J)w. suggeslillg the' madel W3b~eorrect, Chemicals Ch3i.~ and were assumed re.be &"11Ii:. ri'hvim!ll~l~~~~] i9;t.. re~il!~'l.~n\,\Jevl;)r. with~O\'Ii K¢'lw aud lm~ghKoa steed [I'~~ <'~:;; ('~(,itn Ih31lhli s .asslJ..lllm.lpl.iOnmilight nat ~~okllin food j:l()~e'liIli3Uy mi:!iky. Several of tire .oo~~t1.milmarlll:S chains ilIVOlvillg !~~~~!liI1!11UIi;and bin;lsoo(!'Hl,nf;C SHtdic;il :-;uc~, a:t;.~11~i:vnsc::clicidlc ]i:tm.d~nc+ h9v,e ~heir h.Jn.!;ls are il.l CO:l1i~acl wirh air. [tCH.V'<J:ter. \ he-enpropesed for the POPstliemy a~re.Ldy.Sur lli ~m~ln.... '[~Hn .m\1iilt)' ~h~mi~i~~lli! $'"1!~~~~. th~l li1I~~'ly otl1~:N 'Witjl~ s~mili~:rpl'tlp~:rDicS:~i2ii'll~ ili'iOt~ ~'ively m;~ub!eil1i \'o'<ller,i!lliId du:ret'01Jie·dklll'l .]ccu· been sc:rnt il'liVced GabBs st\ys. ]'Un:'boucm ~'il'le': ]()t f i!~tI~r'~c:in fjc..h !fi!li.gh~ ~",~!W!,lIiij!~~thl;; ~lS~C:$ ()f ",'lit,'r'~mi ~si~g~1 (]If I;~~~icl!l]~:"hr~tn~ b!;; i S ~ I~nd'lIlim'~~5 they .n:l;n·I:~{oi.~tile e!1gL~gh 110 buiMing up in ~1~f(")fJ(j\%reb.G(J~ saYli<. if
ns:il'lg :!I pltlperly Il\:il,~.m\'.~, ~(W;/,. \\~li.ch i.ndi.~ as
,iim,

c<U~~h;Q!>~rre.Jdilyii, ctlerni,OlI dissolves

A Ikey ~urolDe[m P"lrrlial11el~t rom lTlI~Ueeg~a¥e il:s ,~i.)ali1ied ble$:sifi~:lihi~ \Wle:k ~lJ th ~ EilJlrojO!~n Imtit.U!l-e Qr Te'hno~og,)l (IEm pNlIjXls.ed by the E!,ir(lpe~m GOll1li'll!isskml(EO. The 1m I'!'.aSII1Iei wr~h Utde elnl~u~ltl'Slm fmm sdentistsand if1,d~~l!:Y (5cir;IJIC'e. 20 Oc::~ober2'D06,~. 399), bUll :liOllte jJolitldilm ,1Ire Ians, la~t month, rele'VCllJllEumpJe"ilni minis;~Er:5 appm!!,l'ea the id!~a, and nMli!1@ Ipa.rliallti!@I1Jt'~ Industry, R!:!-s@~r(h and IEll1ergy panel has 'lIl'Idor~ea :i~,LOo,.. But tllie
~cllllmiUoo Ire1~ded the ECsplalii to l:a,k@ i? 1,i1' Llt'.$ '€30e, I1fImiQIiIl)l'IlrilillilioH ~oIth~!E.lr'~ [ €2'.iJ bmij(i~ budge I: h!Hlll e~s hilg iill [Tlo'l;'ati;~f) hJlfld~.;lIUlilllgi ,]I:so~or,1InJ piHlJt pil.aw. ( IEll Ihe lEuri(ip~aif'! P';\lrl~~m~fil will d'.eoot~ ~heIP~ali"! in S,eptembelr. -:MJmI~N IlIN:SEIRIUIIIK

I%Dflll11mes, Tmmgh S,~eddhl'g
A lreport. released II.<isl eek beY'nhe U.S .. dlllli1<1te w s('ielllC!f' pmgraul p.,.intsa IlllJll'ky IOlJltgrlmllllk1me Qff 'tlil,!?en(l~1 needed tID 'l..rt!~re@nhCIu!Se ,emh'5,iol!ll~.lhree' inrl~endenlly develnped

'gas;

~ t'!aslDly :nm.QiVef00il1l11]hl.e 11IIml,g_sinto tilt': .3 II: { pre"

c.;)Ued S~IPPO~-j~~ ~"'Or1l;inglhro~~Sh~i::'1So:rin.d:taSnll! ICh,e<JlIl:icals to iry ~ ~~~:IIS Ide<l:~~ue. o~~uuc dlc'nl~,~Cf!Is ll~!lIit Q]~ I. id~:Iil~ Ilt':w :potr:ntlill :POf:s wiIll Ilo,wun.eoo to d ~ [1I0]1JJaA4gm]y ~n h~hl]ppoear~'\J1 to be domg. so Uil revise urn.eiJr '~~P.roiWll, ys, chemist Df!Ile:k ~ Mu~ ofEm~~ml]jlllieJill C'tl.I1'l:lda.. 1me adds. how.ever:, :iI. o~~.eil' wi.~d~ufeilllld hit:l.rnWls.

~ di~l~d by

fl pw;opert)'

~~m.

ea~:~ilI.da<IIml Ci(mllitl:n~s Eluope thai: <lif'C h"~.

~

T~

(lXP~o!:'~ this

Imyp(.t"hl;il'is. Gobasfwd
<lind
USSl~~ t:O]~te .. glll.es 'HNtnl'll

~h~t till!;; mode:~I~:> ]~millmion:,;;.F(lr

O~~ m1l)1

dlin:g~ ii

:i ~~)Ih..e~\i~ pli.'!rI! amI
~ hm1!b;-i~.

; glli<ldmlte :stude:liIt Bi:"Irr~K~U.~

<I,Ssmlil.lleslhle chemicals arel1't mela.bo:~ized:

irnll'l®55~lb~e/ condua,e,d ,report .a1Ji~lmr]<ln1es: Ed r1iIOI1i ocr tht Pai:~fic: INQrUi~l, Cis ~tiOiFi~l Lab'G1r.llQI}'. $ifllllliH 'lWrk5Ul'I1llTlarizea by:thellllte<r-

rllQdels ~~.how that m1lJlhlhe d'QI]@QJ me ~p wi!h (a~u lhal~afijed,by ~ rg~t~:r,of ,8 .and ralfl!J'oo ro MSi.llbs:lantiar il~ls., @V~~ wid)rovm~ ,op~imis!k as.'5l.Jillflp,fi{lI'l~ "Te{hnic::ally, "stillbili~· .. ing a!!lfllli:lsp!terh: 9~~nhws~~a;ses''j;s, Pi!·cn.

~ ~rmll Ilc:hens,la be.luga. w~~les

kl,ued,un ]mnl.

&1!Il~pi~sr-:- ~H'ilyofthem pl:"t)bnl~y.~re"whieh
.of

thC' A~:!t.:tic.
pat:letms
Hillild

\'.v~(!:f'e, b(:cli!~~e

1\1ilemher

cQI.di:~mpemt~~I,-es. ::;:Or:g~l!ltC pool.h:ul.\'I!ll kwd.s ;lire hi.lil~l. heyt~$il:q}d T ~~:he 'S~,I.uples lillot ~lnly.:Wo:rkn~wlJil, :rops bUI: o ~Iso ~or s~cVl{,r,~l !~(l~~~cab c \\mh ·r! IO\lil KO\v

cunw~l'1: ~hem [0 ~ fi:lJill~ ~~.u i~N~<"'Isa;iy e'(C~ed. pg'OC!le!~& Gumbl.f!!· s;e~~i.;us,~Ucnia~l.A~~llie 'W~i.sl:'md agllee:s: the Km) Qfchemii,ii;all~ ""will rm~,tri'erill SOI:iiM:; C~:iCs,." s..~l.c ",ays. '"btU the ~;iiIlmbG'1! of ch!i:m icall~ [tl:i!J.'lt bi{Jacc~llJ~illlate 1 'i\!iIInol be~l
thurdoflll.lOsc ~nrommeoce:·· "')!OcrmfN lilAlRSER

'Qove(llime,illa1 Panel 0111 (Ii!'f~ait~ 'e fla!lige ::!lIg· 'glll~tedth[Jtl'lI;lklh1'g the prol:llefl1l"is aHom· ,~bbe~ ~.s:~ysocof'!Otll'li$t1Nm~aJi'i1Il"nzer~of W~h· im}lon, O..c.-lba~d R~5:O'lIr(eS,'lor thle Future.,

\llho :sa'id lilli~ r~port':5 "Ol!fI~lral.~efl;dem:ie5" ~re ~1!:1.~@r!:o til!? l.ru tii! "~ -RIIClM,ARIDA. lClEiliA:

\!!i\.yw.sciel1cem<!llg.org

SCI~ENCE VOL 3~713

JULY 2007

1183

M,aking D'irty Coall Plants 'Cleaner
A. dla IliIlliI~;irlg talsk Iw,a its, the' 11JJ~:iity iiilndJIIU;try as: iii~:SClFallil1llblies 'to cal~c.llItie I CIl!'iblO AISlpewi Ii!,g'~irl1llml~Odla.y:s: '!li,eine r,a~i'llrI of plla lilts, '
P
meclr,icPI)We'f (AEP). the biggesl: user of C()~.1 ilfll!i!til;l Ul1il:ed S~;,W~5, as .I!;mg h !jul)p~ned research ()n\C'i,ftjys~o curb c<I'mon e~uissio:~ (;'1"mrn.its .2~6g,cm;rn,t illgpl~l1iu;" Bm 'I:~~sprivng. is

rtrs !;I,UFtG H.

IP'~NNS:Y!kV'A N ~A,~AI'liIeric'i~I'l

~,therindu 5ui..:i'i'C{lllllli~~d. Addhi~lnilli)'. th~ share of ei.ectli.icity generaled by C:OEI~ :ullllile

United S~..res is '!;:x.pect:edl~oclimb from .~JJ%lod<liY to .H% by 2<[mJ" A nd the U nil:ed St=n~sis not alone, l~Sl year. Chil'l!l1l.which
hs elecl,~k':~ltyfrom the Unh~d St3h'!S as lllil.e "vormd':s. bi.gges,~: COIl,enlineii. brought on~i,~,etwo majar 'C03~ plants ill. week, "']f~x~l!: on 't ~oh..elhe di.~~.1'1~e bd PfO !mn l:bl"~t1~~, \!':e'l'I~ I1;mgoi~g!.o solve the ell~.'ilateptobh:'fiL.'~511Y'" Pr",nCel~Hl p'hysi,c~,:'ll Robcrt Wmi~I1ls;. ~ cll~d e,.o,;l'cn. ~!1i practiee, !TIilk.ing coal pi aatsc 1~;UlJ,~f
{If

$. i billion fo·r j,\ fuU:-~t~<'II,ep'LJ.bl:ic-'pifu;v,ue r~9!U c~II,(td Fm~:reGcn th~f's :llc~~'(.iI:ulcd N.l OP;$t! iill! 20] :2") OnCl;; ~Kw.li;e'k1d.~'h~ eii~bo'n d~ox.kJ:ewoukl theilm. be stoeed, most Hkely UIHJ(; ~gro tlWil,d. .]t aC~,Hlt 01! tid by an ex ac l methed that me: still unce ria h~, .. B~! lO~1.~:ya hUlild fu~!(I f s w;:l~,P~"'!Hil~!j me nUl[lillg commerc i;d ~lYwOJld\'\',idc, .• md none C'IJUrr~nl'~y Slor~& [he CO~ lbmi,dJ\\lrground. It lngp hl!'!i!.<;;.,W'(lUkl romO\!~ t'~ COl" n'fm~t'~~ flue S:llie~JI1II<If~e,U' COJi1l~.bWHli:o:l1I. i.lld~l,s~n:y TIIlD.e staedartl, in Ih)r];ited use tod!lJl, enlploy~ a
IlIiIO~~C lillie 'callecllnoXloel~<lInol~tD'l1ii ne ,~ MEAt whi,eh h9ti: been used fOll" decades ij~ ~ sol-

M ichael Momi:!>, its CEO, :suflP:ri.sedim] audiem::i(l of ~o~ ~lH):I!i:ciQmi;,;;ts. (,:Il,gin~~'rs:. :rnd s il business eseeurives pt:fuI.cJliedhere' w,lm,e.lfI, ~~e
prOllOlIIlt;cd

derives about 80%

seco:ndi <lpprmu::.m, iJ:pp]i.c':ih~e 10 1110::.1: el'(iSl~

c'[H'I1and recentlysurpassed

~hil.t tl1!Qhl~.kllWS

tDtlXlf';M;l cm,'oollJ

fro:n1, mt~e ~ses could be d~\reloped, ,~oo(li1c-if
C:Cim;um~n;, !U~

'wI,1 ~il1i,g tOI'3;Y ['Qrl,lffl.e[b1J.'·lfw~

warn d!e<lI1,i(:r ;]~'ir.if·s gOillS lo C{l,s1 somet~~~~Ii." d~dl'tr(\d. Tlh~ f[1ct th:iill .!Jl. power he

i.~d~!sty execut i\,e; i!'i eve ntal k i]1.g iathese r
tenus, is a new deparune,
:.'>l'Ii)'S

of Potomac-Hudson

El1Jgineleriog lne. ..a

SOl~h .Forbe.s

means l:cmmr~l1I,g asnsueh

of tin: CO"l ge:mt~

Bellw~d!R" Mm.'ylmm.d-,1Cti1Sed COns,ullillg firl1i1ll. Sh~seesitas ~ "bold" ~igl~~]th:u I),CCQIIU!m'l~ bus, Obic-based JUt~ •• n least, is getting i ily serieus ~bOl!I!l ~rbo~ 't.'.\!pUJJr~+ Ellin ssiens from the\?I~oiwld]; 1. HlO eaali nr!';;d po:w~rpta!1lts are respauslhle Hn i"Qli\gh~y.ilthird, ·~f (llile COl gene:r.<llecli by humslJi acll vit'y. ,liIl,~'.e lJ:~lhi!\:d S:,m~es,.:m(lg:lially 601] pl'Hilt':Spmdu~~ <1itiQm)0% of the '7 b:i:~Wilt'lili
mCI'liirC'I.O:un,s Q(g~C'nlil!l)us~ gascs. eT:lllI~II~~ b~ 1l11~ .S. :h1ll1lilll'<Uilruu;ule~JJjr",e:!>, e'.tsij~y SlJrp,nst>U i:lfI~ li~e 1lllUmml ~'roduced by cars aud all

erared fI·,o!m.~lh~egases as pos!j~bl~before they are 'l'em:ed ~,mHo lllili.e 3H1I1IIos:pln~'rc:'.Onle aiJ'pnJ.<'Ichpop l!I ;;,r\~dlh il:lid~!HryO'l !'Id tile redera~~ gove[lIlmt1'nI~ :i~c,,1]ed I:he ~nteg1l<H.ecl G~[>.wrh::l!llt~ on', .o~1b inad Cy,e ~!:l' U nc (').
",Ih~:ch t:reOlIieS

emissioas

lo biind wuth C:Ol mid 5ejJ'<Ui'ite il rllroill.~. '~l1lit,1,.In'I~ ..ga~," Plf!!mer~ htu¥~ ~Of!gng~uf(;d Illi~iitb~li,kl-, lug new fa,dhti.e:s opthuized ~'or :red~lc'ed
Vell~ \'l.fOl~~d

in pert because the brg e .. (I l!~~0 f en erg)' nee de d sm
n,tting exisrlng plants.

'be cheaper than renoll(D

O!r

hyd:mgen 10. burn alli1d aDz to

b~'!':~qlu~~t~n;~. (1'1~~US. D~p,~mu.cnil of IIEnfi.rgy[DOE] p~l'Ins; Q spend ~

eXine! the CO~. Bm!:l1Ie re:trofitopt i.o~ is; becoming "l'l'Qro Ollumctivlil, O:ne reaseu is liile :!:J;FOw,irug>l]:~~~)onTor l'J.e<!'f·~er.IMIIIeOl:,p~ ! eM1carbon d io~id~(l~~:i:s~lli~fils (St'iem:.c' •. 8 June. p. :14l2). The recent U.N. ~lImlI1l'r',gOV~:I"Il~;lein,·t3.i. W<l]]l~~. on C'limtlile Chilil,ge ,report (lrlmli[ig.nilflg, gree'nll,olfJ.:S~ wil,rlU~:miJg puts a pr~m iu In en earl}f iI,Ct ion to cu r1"cll,I,:bOln

emissiorrs, l'lim ..u llmle;rulms: ret'mfi.ni'ml~ ~xisti!lg phM:IlS rna.)' beDll1lI~rl;;impor~ taut t]n,llll IllIUi[([IU:mruf,l cleaner ones l:fin':ll , ..«rH" ~ll ('1<11lne for 2u yelllf,:;;. l T.il,e east of 1:1.l'lmf.iuin.g alse seenes
I h~ pi'lCi] ~cttld 't: 0:l':l [) f IlIl'W const ruerien, indudillil! IGCC' pIOlt~~!.i. ~h<irply risis

mtl,d~'w de.d,i~~ £eiclII:lisl~ d~vd~I" 11.\0 ~~w ~eclm~I,o: ~e$~iUll'h,e ~11Im€'l,i'I1I~:t:.

illg

In

~t'Jt:p \"'Ith pri~l;l;5. for

NEWSI'OCIJS
(ATClHIIING TIHIIEIRUIE (GAS)
'•. So[ven~ '. GO~ '. Cllker
'Ul:!ei

II

9~~S

t=,

.'
PUWI


Inl~ot;~iQrQ iliIlo g~lJInd

H'@rllla retr!IJ~i~: 'IIIomlb. ('1) M05[ ~ola!l.1p'~lIrnls. !lurn (O,[l~ iII ue,at~ste.a rn, run ni rig a~JUlrbiirl!l' thi'lt f)JiocilrU:'~5, e.leclrkil!¥. After [reatl1ll~,f'Il riOr paUuta nlS, '~ih~ fh.l)~ga,s, 11 mi:ii.tur-eQirOJ~ (blllie) a riel Q,ther' 1~:f'l1iinioi'li~(9re:i!n~, '£I0e-~ out diSll'i'loke~tai:'k, "1'0 {o1~e(tm~~O~ no:r.lllgt!, liio~lf':'oi~r,In~ rnioclure o'f 9:a:'l~ i~~~ rec:tKl l~ ::IJIIIabsClirber' (2)1" where a s~l~eIU Iik~ MEA (plnrt) b(lii!dlS With Ibe CO~ In~~I~cl!Jl~. Tl:le oofl,tI!!',d (0:2 ,I)l~eru I)(lm ~lel(,e!\ ~5eparailed l:JfIllhes;~"p~r CIi), wilic:11reqlJires ifI~,atMo~ l!lliN{WI ~ i:~ llIJ!~d~d fou (hilt !l@~ 'lltil!il {41..mkh :PJ,(ldlu(e~a pI.:! r4!.illd (!O.~ 'strt?~m lor r;Jro~!ld 5:~(Iragli!'~,sw~II,~,~ ~dl\l'QiIl!I It!oIk!(rUI~~~ha~: carn ~I! r'JJ!'u,sool. (S(I1@!fI.ii!tic not 00,$ca'[.Qo,)

indt~~ni<llll:i~aWfiab; like C(Ml,l;re'te t~Dl,d s~eeL a b~g chal:\gc,'" :my~engineer JonalhJan Gibbins, gflmper~,.~~ OoHege, LonooDlI. "'f,m' <I, I.ong time earbon c~.plUrC1! m~al'~ [m~t~.od~
"[C!!:,

36%01' mare. <wwrdl:un;,
ellims~t 1!Ii1 . ~lslinncof

~t) a

recem .M."Sii.~I- when boiled, scale,

[)tlt,,1

n.·o~,n.<J ye11'Ii'-ku'Ig !:."'pt:rli-

Tec~llii:l1l.ol:ogj~ 1lludy, Lall~

1UCl:'IHw.i[11 c]l.~I~ed I;:liJYti,r!J1iOlllijl!l In t!I.c;:' bench

Uk~] fu~u~~Ge'!'1l. \',;hcchw,,~ s(l.me;lhing derful tbat ~7iI"d:S r:5 or .20 years ahead,"

''oI()i~,-

Tillklmg

,iill

S'~p

Ne~tle;d ~Jll!()fig the gli!el.l hills Ore!);! I Q~.JtIm~1 in C!llln~,berl<lJili!lI!. Maryl.1nd,,0II."lout 1 ~au from
Ihc :Polo~n<'l~ River, th:~ 7-)i£'~:r-ol~d\\Varrior RlJl'lpl<trll bUlfn.'S 652,;m:m rneaic lUrI!!l of,ooall eseh ~illr. Th(!~ mflk\l:iO ~l (me of ~!n.e~.Q\.\;~sl and ~iml~IItt!:s~ iHlie:i1, ope,r.lt~cl by :i I:S t_l\~l1i'iei'.AES IiI(;:
~o.rpoml.~on. ut what .a~s.o sels .il ('lll"~.·l jts B is

updatedas Conesville study ~~:nJd lo~~d tI~~it t~Kt:ofhnpJj\~d MEA tGd~iVlolthe O'gy. illl;;bJ iw.g more 'C(lfl~~I1i[nl:t'l;;~ i."I:[u res, m more he..u· Sml~iI·,ung. and larger,u;ul lrL'ilfe lig~~ly pad{ed eokmms tsee d].~gra!ln). \"''Ol~ld all ow the 1)~,!Ult eaprsre 90% of CO~ w.ltlm, OJliYB 10 30% reduetios :in pO\ver output, nltlilll belter. hurjts sti~~. bi.g ~.lil. :1 R~arn'l1igillg th~ ij!l~~·~r wo:rldngs afa p~<Int':s '.leal: exehangers tilud nui:!une!i.p'r'ml1ises l'{'l make a bi~gl.;r di [['~r~!~ce,[ha!l ::;~!nply s:irph,o.liIl]ng !>leOl'mll ol.ffm 01,e'Droi:]l bohed Of1j[O r th e p lant 's eel ge, says en g:i.IiI,eerWoHg<ln g

ye.ar.DOB

french energy ,g~i~nl A lstom, suggests that the method needs ~n!.yI.5% ~srnil,J!t,;h ~tt~'MT!frflm lh~p.lil.iiU 'I~l c~~pulI:e t'hi'e Sil(,i.ne i:U1l:10UIl~ <CO, <IS all of ~~Il!i~.le['l1!'ME,/\ effon, Tfum's be,colit!s!;): the S'OI-VC:r:lrt gnllbs. CO~ less tighdy. 1.'e(lulringiess
~~Ile

run by

eneJ!I~y to
.AJstom

rel.e<li),e~'t

i\lIHJ\.\! bU~jldi.:~,g<l:m-meter-tMII H~iI to ,c.apnIW'C ~.5,000 metric tens ~ f CO,

per )iear r~om a Ple"s:!:~lPr!l~I':~e~\¥'isconsiDl: enal phHu",p~r~hidby ~IV~ E~~·rgl~~$. A[[l'
Illa:n:s to lry the teJ::hl'lique V i.rg in i,1 .m!! .0 kinhoma.
<It ~}lmn;,;;: ~Irn.West where enghl.t'!'e'D:s gas, .~;Q hdp e~\o;ltruet ildd~t:imHl~

.1bility tiO OQUil:i!:I: some ofthec.<lfbml dioxide from ~he ,eailil:iis:sioIlS gclJ:eml~d i:~itsboi Ic:r ;md :~sell it oomm~:[i(.'::i'lny to b!::N'cm£e g:mi.distribu,~ ~:~)rs" f you 've h;:n,d a Cloke today" Y0'l('Vf: ~1,] :t!i prohfibly illg~~r~cl sOil[lJi; f our pm duct," SilYS, o ;~pl :mt mal1'<1ig,er larry Cantrell, :~ C~H'lI!.r~II·!'; xperience (~r~r.iUi~lg e Wl1lrf~(IIf :~ Run gives hum some ins!Lg111t i.UlIto~:Jia.el'!'00I.10IlllI· .~ les of capturing C9rba~11., (;lind the lliilulnbcrs
:~ :illre:I1,1: Vf'fy '

Arlt ofUnive~iUH
~HIUQ:y. His

EI'.~iI~lIg~Ii1.-N!Jff]beTg" erG

hepe
ell
\\fOl:lk

~g use

the

recent su:nlillulaledretrofit wirh ,[\.II:1£A predaced it '9% loss :iin tot, .•1pknn ,eff.iciency instead of II % wirhout the reopti-

rWI'I1II

n,eOll,rby fields. The lllJailliilgOJ~ of the

"That's i,l. big di tferenee" {liver yt:<'In's 001'operarion and t~,o[L:!l:lIlds of phnu!', '~<iI,)!:i'.AiI'h. Some scientists t:mul1I,k th:.n al.'ti(!rIJIRtirvc£
I'D' izilflg tweaks.

is UHIUi1Inti y l he energy ,Jem~~n~s, 5i1)iS f A Istem's Rob~'n Hi han, but he's ,aho hOJl\i~]!;l to P~)"~'(:uthe prl)ce~sswkh h€'01!!L \'!.Ills~ed now ~:m;st-e."d precious s~eilmJ. of A Igl'~llb biag 'Illf i:lIPlproill(ihes T~~'~reason SO]vclll$ ~~'C neededat all is because Co.! makes lip only .L !j.IM~II~~IC~.iOn ofl)e n~L:e g~~created :;i~(!J. ,~t;'IjliH~d !by COil:~ p.lallts. A:ITI:ol:helli;' r,r:lrofi.uing technique

~~I;iOUf<~S Wmr.~orRlIn 1fI!IJ !i.~. illllg..

.~ J~~!~cr'J.~~ m~g1l\:vrIU$ r(lVl\;ll)r OfpQWilr' til .202 '~ Ii;leel :uts[,H:ge'~Gtse]~i~.lH I ~O MW .RJo'lQ~hly .~ 4. M \~l f tbe' M~)S!t tJ~'1t~:~ d~!(::~d~ill(;" ~!.l o pru i~ pruv ide l~~.~ ,~nt'il'"gyre,~u~.~d 1'0 rthe M ":. A .~ ~IfOClessto grab CO.:!, \~'~li,dl,,(lap'lu~'~SQi~Jy .~:;.% 'of th,e plmn'S eo" euussmns, G(ilbbm~ .~ mere lVtlUld diV(!I:1t n~.uch :1iiI~ore energy: th,e u COS[ ofrernov:il:mlg l~te carbon dio)l,i.de by _. PiPe., ,I ~m:,.'.l.~U:C. .org,(''O.. _il~~.' ilJ~eCliaiUa\'\rould '1<. ic,11 .~ d['f!~n pwH'p'; ';"ve:mlfUlnhi<lf; :~ Ai i~olJgI]'Llllrn'!'~l on~lhe~she] l:echno ItlF f :~ ;iesfor carbo]!( c~~pliJli'e: ~lreimpr{)vi.~g •. ~h~y
:~s1.i~i h3.ve <I. long \'!,~y liOgO, A 200.~DOE !)~~1.~~y :~ of~4J3 N.iW pl~J~~ Cmlle~,vme. O]n~o,~~l~ in .~ cltl3t~ th,n'lddi~mg .nill MEAWlnJ~lW'C<l;p~ure ,~ 96% ofil:!' ('O,j! (:]1'tissio]1ls \'\fOl~ldclit th¢ '~phm,fs net mnplU~: by about 40%. And m,:iln!

cl~Clnlucany s;il11~~laftoWl:[EA offc:r greater ~l(rre. One uses ,I cooled :i\treill1l.1.of aunnclniulfi t.~lfbClJUlt~ 3it>; Ihe ~~I\'i;;lM puU ~!iioo~, to d i0.1», ide from flue gas, rel eas in BI: hegas

:~I~e ~ec'h~J)logy

\\I'Q'U!

Id li'I.l!iSi~ e'Jiec1'lii,chybills by

118S

I

NEWSl'm:Us

.A.CAREER CO2 HlUNTER GO'ES .AFTER BIIG G.AMIE.
For 30 V~ani. MicN@ll rfadill~iii bllNig, araSHallking. 15,6-Y'~i! f-lO!ldlr(l.r;m@f rl;eli!ros(ij@flti$~, has ~@@!'i wolikillg ®llalFl el!l~e 'thal N~·llIln'll\es·(aribol'l d[sxide kOlrn various 'ef!l1iiJoolm~'l'Its, N~ 'IlIiith th-; co,i,!fll im.Jlu>sUV i1I,rla gO\!'Cn1mllnt nl1f~u~ klu!!sinrrQI orrn f.e'oucing grre'~f'llfr~u~i! ga~ IE!mi,ssijomJs, Tradu@l1rb@rg is h~lli n!ll ~(lilarla,y ht~e;(~elfl!ise' and !lIl)Illil~ ill! to ,g oommeJdal1 !lU!CtC)~S, :I,mprobably. lradl~iH'jber'Q be!J:afl! his Call'eE!f as an epllepsy lre~e,a~chef, ~~lJd'fif'!g] theC!oiuIKliC!!n between ~hill disorder ;md l.h bri!jfl's~biUlY to IPI'Yl~>essCiaflbQI1 dioxfde Wi~l ;alii 11I1I~yrne (ailed (<I'fblO:ni( '[!flrlydfflSE:. Whn~ \'I,I~rkioQI iU

Conesville su,ud}'.I:or e;;>;~!iinph~.sl~gg~$l~ed
lilal C iI P mr ]ng ~11~, 1:~iD.e carbcn emi ss ion:'> IIl1mn tile Ill.mrmt~VCll!ll]d eest hal f as Il1UC~il s a C'Jp'll! ring .• 1.11 the (1021 of Kcepi:rmg opt ions 0l)e~. for relat ively ~C'w ~n~"~D1~lapmrl.'el'ed IJ\I.nn~ is abiS wQll'ry of eo. II! eNp~rt~.esp~(':i:,;lllly fol' lho~e cy~illg lh(i A~~!l!mJli!ggl;ril~ijL Gibbiws :~~upes H'i sll:reaclilhe wOl1d .,bout lechil'llc311 ~!dvam;e~d~ring visit ~,Q 'hi~.jJ, a later this ye <I r, He plans 10 enc (n~~'ag Ch in ese ut:i I itjes I: (I e i neJude p'<l:n~cllhlr fe<l.lmes[l;u.c:ll~s s.pao~ for new cqluipnilJ~lu ~ and, cereun Sle:!f.IIH f~,ni:Ilf£'!S-on

r

lh'e<University
Bral'l( h

or Texas

M!:!dik.a~

he 'le~'flrTled ~I'H:!lt.0'][ GOrmpilln]@~ pump c,eflrlbolrl

~Il IGi;llve~tomi.

di(I!Xid~ inK! de'.~lelfd wel1£K) f~jo(!l!'i!d ffIlIOFe'!H1l ~!!. 11'1] 991, '~r1fiLJrrt8fi1be 19
rtllrm ed ~. ((11m pOIillY', C.dlrbo,zlIIm I!!.

wi~h UU! gl~a!~ bl~ilFlgl Ie, use tlh@
I1\fl~mt!' In ,!) r.a'l1 (arlfl~fll diimrl'CIe ~mrn
rot) I 'plant

emi~io:n~ and s~l~ tl. LtDoi ~ ri~m5,TIn!:! 'li'eli!h:m~ nQlPp'~, b~l by ~fle;]I! he wa/S h~okoo en CO:!, APSlWilllgi his krmwleligeirrr,fII'mlk funded

lh~ir pro dig~ou$!y .gnY\'Vi ng CO;)] rh~',el o thattbeyre s ready if rese m.'dlCI1l,. mC!s~~)'n l hc\Vc!>t i su ee j;N'H~ im! liif.ll:l! ~d 1'1 g c.1l]:n life el.h::a:pew over' the next decade. Ol~.ermel:hods, 10 grab eo:! ij01r1.1 flue ~s are !;rti~I ~t the b¢~ch
5t[lgl;:. Th~yindude: gi~~ilitmoleeulesthat em} pluck out CO,\~·hh

by NASA,lracht~~berg ,~Ifl(l (,ooaled lJI~ilii!gyi()li)!Iff !f!ggg~!!I.i!!UChil~~ T!'~(l'lteif)hrg' s t~clhiniQU(!~(J r <fIdevict' ~Il) Imirnlcr.l n (O~, a nd II1IICDillc~lrben (<!p~!Ulrrelil~tllVC!i an ~lilZffll~ found fill '~lhl!Irll!l!l'mnJbfaJin •. i mUlr,~ l~\!l!1.s tflsld!!l ~I'!i asnO:fi'!i!Jtl~I's SptJUl $!lIit 1hait.waHm~llelf ;lund di@ap!!rl.narm ~~h8ll!ife!lp1K@1Ig;@'I1t:ywa!llus.irlg (11tlil@'~lm!!!. rill (fIW tl1ill~e~8ryo!Jlei;l!lldlhei~ !lIl!Oilher"",glr.e suddell!iy if1lh~re5~d ill ca~U!lri!1gl!I:(I ~OI1i,lrall:h.rell!bm]l pr,tXlh:ts1lml ~lffdu~IIYHlnSIDlidlatDlln Tn wJ1~mMU'um,~wolII~t. e Imfmy or us [fu~!! g,f!I~ ~le'~l]." Bl!Il he'~ no~b ilil91Q!.rbol'flt1e. reoo!lslrtlJ'te~ in 20W. GaI1I ihold ~ls,OWI'I ag~if1Sllhe~ikes !!)I~ Mi(su bis~li a ~d1Ge~eJall. EillE!(!tri(:. A$7.i1 m!llliolf! !m fiint thif!s. yll1f r hOIll1 11iI!!Dl1!pllrtlrne:n't!lr ElIIl1!rrgy (DOS=lhl! Ibigg:~lawi'lrd ttl ollie le<OIIl1I Wrmn ~ S2t'1 mi IUDI'I p{ll-'llfii~l.all.mv the IMm111l11'Oulh f!lfldiol'll, f"J'N JI~r'>.e:Y~,()®m~al'lY'a md: } ~l'S~ndli.!m!t p"niilli!~lQ C@HY out h'!lit aline! alpp1~ed f~H.eaf(ih Q:f1p(lst-(Q:mbUi~~.iQi1 CO2 ca1ptlllf'e. KarboX]me's tec;holoQIY UI~~ lime enzyme ill melfllbr,anes to caltal~e the Ulnverr~iQtI1fI o~ COl! ID bi~1Irbc nate til ns, Ifrnnirn!l the pro!l;ess lWi~hlll~ $,ajllfUliliiif!i:yflne: by aher~119 tile p~eSi~ulre.) He saJ)'5 ~hat pr!;."if!llllina ry ,re5,~tt$~holi\l that hi S (O';;!ahsorberris do:~efll~,of times, fillfm~ 'CdCD$t eHidenl.thll'l 'Ilile (QJ m~lll.sl:al~e·~~·-Jlh.e·art tl€l(~ ifI~ioqy U~'ing 'nll,()le(uIJ~ ICi:lUe~ rmInl[)E!'tlilginO~Cll'fIi a ne', 1i:rac'hle_nbug,'s ~dlfedule <Ill r!Etn~nlearben ,1;i:lpluNl' mlllJier,eoceillJ pin:!!buI'gjlill ~llJ[lsyL\J\i:llni.di, sh~dl hiDw far he's i((JIr!M~siil!oe h,i!; d ays a~ en a;(;a(!.e;rI'rocsciefilUs I: Ilflad{ji~iQ~ to ::!!I1!ooif1.:!J PJ~!i!~talii1J:n5.,'he juggJE!d ihllsn@d sit-downs wiilh :S®l1'Ieor 'the I~i!ll,g~llli!m~ in nlrre (O\I;fl imj'lJ~try. A gJrrl2g:a.rim.ls

spi.liif.dly arms COIned dendrhners. cagelike mcleeulesrlsat Ci1pUII:e the CO,.,o:rr liliolog;ic<:Il C<lW~)fsl:s ($ele ~idebM). The in!l~ .d • b.m'rier fo:n.·..c.llir, t(3C!:lill()\~ogy i~th.e lil.~.gllOOS~of prod:lIcing th~n~fll(lctuk:s. 13m th";:!11'IIC1:thods ~I~!S'O IfiU ;",t some <I.nT ~'u~ ...erive b e nefits, One prob~L;lm with MEA is its vo:~miUt'y•. wl~h:h
rc~,u.i~res cmn~).u~ytD run <I ch]lIe:r plotnilon a site 10 I·e~m.ovc:,::' evaperated ::;o]ven!: ~L'()m the

i~,econoentff.rted

(:()~" lEI iiQ~ ic I rnq ~~jds, n a

re:~m~,vdy new class of ehem ..ca:l:ll thal ;;;Ire l

"I

self-J!)fOl'f!otn

~e'5 also

I£'ar!'ie~ how to p!'O'~ct his i"t~necUJ~~prtlpeflY. S{futil1l1:zif1.g ~Iq(feosbl:!flflFI! a

pl!l:I~i(.IIIl~lin9 "lill1 ~Ilirl?.rDOE grant!!!'], ~i!!I~~~ laflifl~: I "fiIII fllifllkilifgl d~rnmrsu rill~lait there's 1f1~lhilif91 ro" p

~Jiel:ary in those p.res.entati~fiI~.~

-[.IK.
~ri,{.;bin

liqui.d'lt R)O\~U,l tll.'~m:p~;:Hm!·wlre.l1ave ~:m;v vo'~m:u~:ity. and c he[f~~.st5o arefi nd iIlg l~ey 1~1;1 be ig~l~ ~l~f~.~ r~l(l.vi rot" c~u!1b()ndkndd~ T:Il.e se •irch for cal::bml·dutchirmg tools is .nt!!".1!~t~~g researchers Ifr(Nn .1! \iflfie~y (If ~:1 lds p.re\l.i{l.IJs~.yIlII~l:rrt"~~~ed e 10 eoal, ~ike~~l'Io1:ac:hIlO~!Og)I•. R:~~~~l"iChe'l"g l I:hc Un[ V(,':I:51ly 0 r m N ol:reD,nme. furrl;:·,.;albl[J\!e_, were tr)l iIlig 1:0 use iOllld c H q~,.id.~ to m~ I,; e i;::!l'll' j, flO !UViU~lIn.ullly f:iendly $,olv~:mtsfor llii.e chem;uclIl i:fl1.dus'tr),

',g.

\)b~!l thL;;)i'di~ov,eri,;:d ..

lh~n [h~ 00, i!1i'i"'(lI]'\I~~d

50% for M'EA-wh~UllH:'I()~Q~U;H~:llg for sl:on.,se: COSIS. Comp.~ictL[i.~,lg the elIU(llio:n. ,111llre o.:o:ygcn ~tnal1l,~)rodllci~lgCO~ilrrod ~,il~ says Ba.bc:ook ilIJml·\;V:u~.COiX 's KffipAIe.xmuh:::I" .. i:s p dee.~!iie" Alter OJl~}1 ntino:r p:rooe\'isD_m!:s.the Ilut:, ~hm "e\If;:[)'Qllie i.'i!.~J)'Jing~o co~t e!l1tim,lres !e~ on eq,~ilJ'mellt ti;r~u h<l~m'l bee~mll.Jlui:~1 yet:." ~<f.S can ~e :ilUllrilecled ~1r:llOIII,H: g:rnul1id ... Sud, ~q ~ip:~~~~[ bl;; at l<llcboo Hl e-?i iSling bt1~1c~l![d, One dra\~/b!lckco, o:o>y-Hring. say::; U!1iers. "more o.r less <IS is....5olI)1S. U:~l.·ilversi~y of \,.ersity of Texas cl.~.emit:lI~. e[lg~llf,eer G:!ll'fY U~:.thIdl~n~ii·l:.d !;1!,y,in(ler !Eric EJding;s. R()c'~l!e U~. h: l hl;;D'n~e<l,lfil m~<!.k~ p~r:mi.i!l'~ In ~ L~st yell.r. bo:illermakelfi ~abcQcl.: .l.nHll dn.o2I'1l1gelO ·the bo ilei,", t he~.e·~.I:l of ;iii. ,~o" I \Vi]co;..: ended! a 7-:f'!i:!Ir m;;y~firing tlesti~ pkl~~,t,B,y ~m~t~s.t, tri\:..tin~fllil(;l· g,IS giv~"" opl:ion ofclmmrn:girlg the c.m:bollAJli<lnol:. Ohio. USilL1g .oJ In.mlier '~Hmly 5% l~,e QiperntorcS l:Il~.e s\i!{~liPPi,!.'f!g ~(w]plml.e;nt: ~ize of t~lQi>'C ~~sedi!l a lypica.1 oo~i 11'~;il:!]t suirp.in.~1~1~~miq~jeby Prelil1ili:uni1~ry l:e~td~s.s\qgse~>I th<lil: oixy~:r.rliln! off the end of lhe pbunt. That 11 ibil i1y om~1d e:i, \'1!/Otnld IJ;flis~ ~. lyph::ml US. C~S'iO!:'D1Cr'st;li{)c'" ~,.ak~e!llissjo!)$ cUL1I·eusierHul[ i!:'DthIsrry: Thli)

The metbOO_ c~fled oxy-r.ring ..burn::; iCO.J~ :rn,

The :i!i::~mil~,g!ly~Jl,\r'ldo1\i.!';<l~.g(m~ (If pl.\clI:h.l.cil1ligl'J]ue eases lirI<lil .illlll! 1:~d'D.~'Ii CO". iml,
iaW(lh'1:::i

by 44o/-c\Omp,u~d wil:~ ~10re thOUl

k~pt d.iijM~ Ivi~lg i~,llht;; iOil'lk:~i'i~1id. '~\Vl; didn't expec: t t ~;H~'(;:21bon d iox ide 1:0 be SIOS,O!Ur ble." ~.lly::i Notre D::lil1f1.¢ chemicOiII eng~'neer! ~d:wal1d Mmgilll1t. Nm\l, DOE is fumr.dilliffg rnls<ic\;\iQtk w~.I1n1 tmr.e ChC.fll1UC<lI!:fOIr carbon c<lJ;)lme. and May;ur:uI1l'iO I("arm is (lx~mi!lbl1!g hnw 1.0 m.~·k~eheap-~~).:synthesize so]\'e~,n:s lhllt gf"oI.bCO., jma fill:if.ldy

I;l~ol!;h."~fs ~'ii!i.ii,;!")' sm~n [b~~i.] :,;:ro'INi['ig. fi,eM" ]~C .s~ys. A:~.d cvm:y Hule bi.l helps <I ~ ~o!:lun~l~rity tb~itl;ryi~g totaf;k:lie ....problem l ~..

~hm ill yin1l!t.d smrl!dil.g :>t<lrl. :S<lysl3i1bcock ~ O'Ind \VHcoxkAI.cx{lM.d~J:,"'\;V~~,(:~d 10 d~mon- ~ :strate .1, I:ul:of (hi l:fI£_s:' :n.e &iyS. ~
-lELII KJIN:1ilrS,CIH! ~

13 JULY 2007

VaL317

c:bViou~ 5o:ll~E1' SOilv'ThQ,m~@fI (l'iglld didli1:1 i'l1,venl ai'Lli'~hilii9i.

I

-

NEWSI'OCIJS
proper resources, Th(':y also eire Bong5Q<'s wOJ:k. arguunglh<lll with H Umt~emore [:ume he Wll:tdd have ~oue!l!l~l .rig,1'nt,TrollnSJolli £3yS he had '\'vo~k in progress' cuhi~r<'llillig hUmI'il<lrl E.S ccl~s atlJ'n,e time Thomsou reported his: b rea kthrougb rrro~lll son ':)1 wcrk was PllJlbI;hdt~d ~!l2(lOO).. M~ltou poi.!lil.~ o~tIMthiiSI(~m ~nlJ~;6 pm;'t f~w y~01i1> 11...s $ijcc"'?:!lfullyis(l':~ai~~d 11lInmn ES "ellis '~' simpl y foUow.HlJilg .•. :n,n~~h~
m1d
to'

II

!Jd~~,mgh~rOlf deriving mQ~1e, nl~. pig. s

sheep ES ceUs,\Vc d:~dso without recourse

Df. Thollllr.'W!nl:"

pUbl~Ct1ti.Ul.lls" •• , ..

P'romlinl'Bnll RIS,B'a reh sir's Joiinl the Att'8clk Din St1em, Clelll Patents
hilmes, iI1i11om:s~n"5 'wi(lrrk de:selrv~s plrai:se bl:llt no pO!l'tents 'f\orr do,i'lll:g wha,t. others ha\i!e a,cihi€!'vE!dlWi~~ the pr,oip,er re:SOIJIIf'(,es, critics say

Co~ji ] Ste\'~"1fil:. a :i>'l:e:iml. researchee m~h.e I cell 11l~~:nue:of Medfcl)I Biology i~~hlgaP'O~. is S the O\nly outside expert who .il\i;lS off(;:red n dec~ [~~tim~to th~ pro in !iotlppulft of WARf's position. SIe\'V3ril'. oo~d~~c:oveoor ofdl€: roleof lJFinr:lr1i:ollse' ES eelleulnne, bIDl.icaJiy mgues: Ul.H ex iStmg.l!:l.meUlod s for eu biv.u i,,~ mouse ~cH!>. did Uii.otprov i,d~e,fH~i\:qH~teu ldanee ~or ~ euhivating :~.umr.nl 011'1::; (Ste\.\,·illl\'I.'ltS. not .. !lv,[lilabl~lbr ~0I~!J!:]e.,~~, ~ Smll~ 1i)},l,IY\lf'S~""!,V4;l gl;'OO to lm f(')r\>\IARE lila bleg pasted 0:11,4 July. Chic,tg,o, lIIil1lOis •.

(m[ his d~c lnveurice was '-l~tieipi.llell bY'·prioilr W'l" .g~'i.ie·11! the ,'lcUQ'I,\I'l·, fg~llr p:mmine~.lt' ::'lell!l cell sci,elll~i stshave ~9{JIS < Scienee. 6 Nmrt"J'illb!l.lf 1998. p, 114:5)edged '~lbsel'lceof<ippmpriate stm:liulg mL~li!ri~ was "ubvleus' aJ!:ld therefcre IUnp~U~!lI:,!bk; ills"-h~u1il:a11 (;1l1br~~> '''T,I'M;lMS:.t the ~I'ii (':fluWd [lh,"t! ·'d~d~rnlio'l~" SIlJIJl1(li~'turil eltizens' lli!1 !!,'11'iOUp thaI: is lry:iJ:mlg to break the U nive !'sit)' of siaee it W<I:S the euteeme of usin~ OI.1re<ldypr-ovide is <I sugge8I.iOilrn. ,dXmlhm\' hum <In Mel1lil e~ll$ I!ligh$ '~ l~rodit!lt,.l~c[· I.~ wr.i~$. MOiI.d.i&t'lnl •. \Vi$c'(!~:~~,n'~~!d~!l pnh"un.ts 1"0'1" human I\lfno";.vn t~chllo~~),gy> h em blw,y<:!l1Ilic rem U;S I cells, s IIfhe"om: scientists elll.13)h<lSli.zeth!E~lTiI~ilmr!i()ll W.sconsiiin.Il<~IJeIn;~<Iuolilrney G"'d,dly :FrencIIL'Ck is Joi.nillig the r~'ilIy~,~e Harvard re5et'lr,cI,~.er.s. deserves <III]the aeeolades he 1.1JclS received;. But cenfident tl~e patients will held up. ·'IE,v.e.r),(Jl.,,J CO'i,\1il11<IntiDQuglas Mel~ml. MVl.l'd as they .~r~!e d!lmt he W<I!:l just lucky in h"v:~D'lg bQ~y'~Suing t{l use rTholrn~:-<o:I1I''$] Ine'ill10d ",f A~~11 'fro~;lr:liS!l'llrl'O:rAUSiro;llia'ii Mt1J:la'>h UUii;iver~ access to. abundant f~lJlding (f:ronl Geron i·s.oblli'Oil [fll!;'ad 'c~1It~'!'Jl'i!ml.n~n"sIndylhe breakSilY" A new M~]temCIlI1tWiJ~ al!'>o SUhul,1iU:ed by COI;por.,n~olll in Men]o Pln\,. C;,linm.li<'l) and tlm;n.'~~iI~'·he says. flFe.'l~~. rozen Imnmll emhl')'Os. I( l"]lam.~ f sme:]). "1 B~;I.I it is d.in'i.,cul~ to f,UIH~i a ste:l1I] cd;11 leanl'lelCJil"illil£ of~he BUI",l:ilh<llrnl :~a~stiMf: Ihl" b~h~vil: Ibfl[ h~d .<lIlYI'u:her sremeell Sid~$t)lnsr researcher other dlf~i1rSle'!iv.url or Thomson M~lC]koi'll R~~"~~rdli!l SiJli1i Oi~go. C'-lllil~)'!illifl, wlli,Q has been ,;Idvising the FOUflcl.,ui.on ~br been givenl.he ",,110()tlm.iinksWA RYs p~H':IUS <lire jlls~~r..!.xl. "] sarae starting Ullilleil"ia1 and "aNp'l}~r.md \l!1'a:Sl!mefRig~TS,. \'!~l~obmoo n~"mda] $l~pp()n,lh~ '~uu!dha\'iil nKld€: rhe km'l'L'l.'ofn(:l (~!l()ol1ter then t~.(; folks ... <!&S{ld~ same ;0:00Q]:up.~ishmelfi.t;· s.t~ncdM.e~wfl. ~:Iin.e lli!.ia~1 ~ CQ(lmlp.~3 il1l1lasl Ju~,y. ated with WARIIF and these p ..~e:llilts~",ho is in Wf\RF3rgu~ lh,n rOt, 2 decades $li1cr I:he faVOf'ofhow Lhey f~1\Ch~uld~i.ngth!j!~:'~ys Fred In A.pri]. the US. P~tcnt 3~d TI"a:deln~~k G11£;e l) f~1i1e:S:<II~Research [!:Isti n~le inS ,11''1 Off~.ce (PTa I issued 01pre'~!illli,m.'l'fJl mliul~ ti i~t:()I\fe:rry OfnmQUSle ES cells. lteopl.e ":liepe·.1t~pllii.'tl!dingtl~ 't~I~~er~)'I.liltd~~ i(l~1·S. h!'!Ik-~lg~~ ooly i:dQld mld f~i~" Iii;) C'ult.i'it,;~t~ e I ~tI$~~~.n~b'l(; D~~,l#l'~~~~ifu!'!1ua, { ]0 h [iii S Hop k i~.s. U nivers i~.y ste m c etll to tlilliee e'xis:t'inSP<!l:~ents I(Sdtwce. ~,].Apri~, .1 ines fr-om other Illorumllll:ils im;llIdiir~s sheep, p, 1821 ~'O~!!i:!lgpr.i~~~.~i~~ .mCl~um~lnESc~]'b, p~,g~ :~~m1~.te-rl',~tW"'$, r.md hU!~l~~S, Bu:~ 1'I'~nl;l r~i\f.arc~~r ]!)h!1 GI;o'iitrha!"~ g!\;"J;~, ~ with th~~h.. dwhi:ch 'lJII!:rnl~If;'d on rhe \'1/'011;;. of Uni versity (If (Jir'I~.etit.:: I:lfi)rli'i \V"o1.'i M!C~l~~r~du!rltil Thomson ~eng\lr.'oi.. "The procedure J"lme51[T:h,lJm~lJfll :~S ,~ W isen ~.:s~, JVI ~Id.1 sou, r~_ "{:h~I' J OJ me ~' It"t'iported the fi.rsl monkey ES cell line ml'l ~ 99'.5. used UJ lb.rellem~e' .fui;L1I.mi.!llli cells was omu: that n, s~~ \\V AlP elioo::; Ari rfBO:mlg..voill the N.n:iomd Uni:~ Thomlsolll ~Iml eld by the Wisemlsin Alm:nru h had.been b<1!:iill:t1lly reported [moc-k ~Jllhe'8l0~1 !Ii R~~e~rohFmllldation (WAR.f).WARf narVCr:iGly of Sing:a:ptl!IJlC' s, a researcher a 'WiH) lrIed for!:J:n~rnlingD1rumsc ES eells," S'.,11)'5 ei:lr~]i<Uil. G UIIl1.d :fu:nled ttl (.~llhiv~llehu~.l]Ln'l S (jeUspr~E Ilo'~I,ed its cJau,Li[L1sin re:iilp'on!ll~ to [he rlliJimL~. The Uf argllrnem is rt red llerri~g. hleOl.dds. Hlom.so:lm,. Bl[)ng~ d.eru.ved <I. ,~l.IIJm.m[ll}eJm.Ililne: .E\'el'l dlOUghlillOH1SOlli fom].!:! ,~t/11',.'; 1101: \ I.Ulces~ .~ excl~,dillill~iiI;uLnmiU'IES ~ellis :!~:omSQUIl'CeS other smry for ~ro\\,'i!1g Iwm~m c,ell:s. i~s pl!(!$(lnc~ ! UH~fI fertilized eggf;.. S~H~1lf~$c·~(1~~~~,g in 1994 but \V3$ tHl<lJb.I~~.om~i.l1!lo;i,irl h. \\fA RF .• BUll ;~\'VARf is: s~_<lnding; p,u in face' {)flhe 1I<Ii't.e:!>~ .a.l:so emphasizes tl~:lU:TJ~Clllln!iO:l1 ''V"ds:~]lne f:Uffit tD doe~~ Il{}~ illiite:rler-e wi~h (;~1.ltufi.ngthenl • L~llkel'l,~ia I~hibi'lory ffte~('If.lrLlF. ( G~arllm'~ [lays hlC'dgub~s ·"W"'~I~li,;;r lhe ;12 OI'llSlatlgll't. SPO~;f;~~.perMm Alldn.'\'II" ohn ~f')~g~ repuril '\!!lill ,fui<I\~ :miO re~~lse' to t~r1eii:;'tZJlmnel1i;~s,,"hici~1 l!I.lrbo'LII.gh necessaryWo.r e'Ll1~til\·<Ll.ifIJg mom"e IHHelH 0 I1lf~l~ereally u:un.derstoml Wil,H V,,'3!> :Iil (,:lmlu.!.ifl"r!Jo~bi.flt~It'\V;.'' ! ~oillig c!fl"wh~nit .i&~ued!ilVARF'~s p~lt!l;llli~ . ES ~en&' is uo~~~,xx~d \vith ~.~~allt;:~Us. .~ 1lil.e ::1CieUili~i~t$.'!>iaternems ~i,iier<11Je dle i;1L"'~ B~l~:w:uth so ' lfhe C:~I[II~eflgl:rsCQUlllite'rlh"li "lfll.ot a ::;:in!il!I:e "lirH~Y \ve<1'e ~~Ol ve.:ry ifigorouii:" :~ ]l<liJ'~rF~H~!11~lfllijfl!l:~ ';!::;I~lr,ful ~rgU':H~l~~S; that the !>CiC!lli.st i:~ fi~ld lr:i~d ~!!'ld [h~ failed to acl~i~v,e !l10l1!'iY~yi.;:S now omn~l. th~Pro iJ; pr~S\nnabWy '~ fe,lt: by Thom8{Hl-\'I,iho <Illnmu,u;ed U:1CC f~rs~ T~,lOJ.n5'Qn"s aCCQJm1illiLs:hllmem"-nol for I••ck of g]iivinlfg the i£sm: more Ihanr«lline Mtrmil1lY" :~ .5tH':l?es~~id IC~I!li'll'.u:iQ]JJ l·hlil1l~r! ES ('~U~~.~ IkJMV-bow bu(ooc;;!!1~ Lhe~ did~~{)ithtl\~ ~he o '-OONS,TAN(IE HOtDlEN

,r;o,u1Id

bi(li~ech~<J\..v)'erKe"ln NClOn'll!) poilW~s
difff'im.:llllo :nU.lintilin
d'IiM

I.

I

n~~u:

I
produd.!lg r~cQ.udiili!.gs fr'\."i~dh~gsb~ Ibmt1~ls o acters <I'II,dl actresses .. B [[I i~]1.967, say!; A 11l1l1ii.e'f~l!.U1. "curinsit~/' nwe ~limte ju mp ,ag..in. He mO'l.ieclto d ~n,gIm.Jlid and C1!iI1I.rol~cd a Ph.lll progr-il:m J!lt il~ Ihe [1'I!H:u~u~e' ofArdtn'l.eol~~g)" [10\\1 part of Uniwr.:;~ly College tOltdo11l~ "My fr~;:;:!J'DdstoM me [ "VilS craz>1 lOeOiil$id~r ooi~g it s:t~!d~I.lCj Amnlermaa:l recalls, His mnpl.oyer :m<lid.just <igr~~1 m~M~i~ll th~'~!:fIV ~dt.~Jriil ~hie:r~rf ~~],
wilh '~nmIY own office .Judlwo ~ecu:e:i'lri'!.'l."i.·'ln:;,l'e'ul. {\.Itbrnelr,mal'le:[ld.ed lip "inlmly. :se<lrching fCl:D' IJ'ile: ol'i~ins of agricuitMre, Hvinlg 01111. 0 ~ $]! day." hes.\ys. "Those were [he groin: ye;IIIS,," [rllh~ I~~~1960$. A:nli)m~mmn Sfl)lS h~f!!!1d a .IIk,e=~;llnded g:roup i i "ym.mg: turks' believed i,:~1'1 Ih~o:rjl (m~.k~d··.ind[gC:l1ism."
~IH.,;ir[m(rpeiilll operatioe,
ltlMi{JlIlI

or

\1ill ich

he,~dth,d cr>ops,\\~re:

d,o'Jlill:~Sli('~!lt~d aU

PIROFIILE: ALlBERT

AMMERMAN

ExpllDllringl the, P'1r'e,hlist:ID'lry ot: EurOipe, lin a F"ew IB,old Leaps
At'(hal'eol~oIV's: !R"enillSSilf'I(ie- liI1,all1ltake,s a flew p'lung~iimiJJ~ot~ieMph;;that. mad!!! him Le,l3IV'e,i:l! lih! 'of l i~:!1!f,~~u!'le f!OlI" a u$1Oi-a-dla,y!1 l ne

twm: EUIIO~e by rhe people li,vi.ng there, If.i1i.C' Im,e'or), was '!I~';rol1g,ArlllllnenHlIll 800,m: :1'~,I~I-,

AC(:Q~(]irlg. ~()AmJIre:w

iz~d.B~~1 in s~~Ir~hillgfor ~vidt;l'llt:~ to suppvrlit. he ~~q~li,rcd. deep ~.~d~TSI;llltding nf ,fl. the emui nent's prehisHnl1(; landscape,

Moore. an O11:rth;;;,e(l~n·

gis~'et the RocheS1:erlmr~l'l.IIte ofTcclln:~lQlogy hi!Nt:w York ~nue. A1Ill1an~nmU"! had "a mack ~orrincl.~I,g si tes irli areas that ,ot~~ers~,lad:not
l~.ou!ilht~voftl~! of !.l'.i'!iplor.M len,"

NISSI SAY; OPRIUS-!;or the o],ler.l!t(U' of ti:te rant ~d'il'jJjnCie!) <I:pilJl<lnd'lg<l,in. "He .is lruiY,1 AmUl1.emN!ln de!:Ilmnl'.o·'tII~ulied U1e ~Dil,i~l that b~Hlg~~jl~!m:lP ~~~!!"(' (it: lb~ Olymptc la~(lm~ R euai ssanee ma n of arc Iliae-,td ogy." s ay~ ~ign~ '0 r :f~~!'iel,dll.!r'L;; 'l overlap wUh ~.f!'ll;l d~d!m. hunliel""'g<.tl~.erer Sa.I'CS. and this \!,,a,, key tmidenc.'C Reso:rl. it isa S!,nilr.lge request, Tbe Cy,~riol N i co~ <I Terre nate ,3 n <I IIrC:1'n e 0 I 0,£ isr atthe a U Il~veif'!ii y of NOI.rth C<lI'{)]i,n.;I."~ Chapel Hill. l lDep(ll:tment of Ani iq lIhic'~\I!i',i!IIlts him!] to give ~br a theory mmlfary te indi~nisrn:---'til~ 'IIie~,~~ <l! ride to I:J, vi :s,it]n,g Atl!fIeri,c'1!1l m'::<liderllic. A till I ill,n ilgric~~.tWlfJ;1' 5:\,!,Jept aQliQ~ EmOJi')eiil OJ, rupJ:d A d'ecade ..go. Arnlm.l:eTD1,lil!<ln but abtllil.IU I1'lJi'Ul ill :khaki trousers, Alberl, f\nnliii;e:nn~]l, dened the ~opict:~l~Lllaliil[lC:h~dhis c"ilIr,e~.the revoll1:Jltkl'llll. i'l'IlI:pOI.jted by ~.CWOOl:!Il:ev:s. But it steps over the coiled bllllge~cord ~ml joins w()~lld be iL1e:'d~y 1dec.td~:sbeful:e Moore .md origin:->ofa,griculuu:c:. :ButaI1re.f" c1ilmn.ce discorvery ml Cyprus S shereaJew ye,11'S <IgJO. he o~h.ersproved defirli~ivdy t~ia.n E~lmpes crop ~he operatcr in rhe metal c~!:le, The CF<lne hoisN lTm~m (10 meters over 'l,h~l);)y--tbe ~~lIS eome back with ;.I. radieal IWpo'[mn~siispi ,lmS\~re dCiJ:ll~ti~)~t-d in [j)e Ne<lrEO)'lIt poim at "'~I,i!ch ~no,sl~ p;lS!!ieDlJge:fll>~!re bO~lmdl <'ll th<ll ses-geiag poop le demiasted I,he CO<lS~:S To fi[l]d evidence of.,. :rr:lrl1l1Cr massIh~ ankles and div~ ~(:re.f!milmg~mo ",ir- ~!!11.J ismands efrhe M~dioornl~;}n for mUkm!h~ ffi]groU]():n" A~~~mer!J!11."'iIl crossed disciplines allid the:~, Armneemaa 113.5the Cl::iiu,le P~IVOl l~l~ bc":ol1t: l'<'!inning was ,estJb~ ished, ... ag;li.D1I. \~,rUJ:ire~~e \'V<IiS ,unhlllly inthe late 1.960s,. f~rtb{~r, dalL'n.gling the c:sJg.~~bov(,:the' bOiIlllC1!}. 11iI.(l; teamed UI~' w il h 'Ii' ~c:C!O Ii! bellbJI hJ! Luca C<1I\lil U i-S:IDI7 ...I,. white est,llfJ?IHent n<lD1k:i,ng l:here£iiO:rt Here "AlgriclIlture didn't spread AIllIU11ii.~r'!n~rtl pulls out II camera ~Hlid. ~ll,flP'$, The fif~~. t.lme a g~ll;:;:Hcii>t now ~a smaots, aftlle land below A nunerman look a a~ongthe coasts be cause Stiln~mrdUlihlilversi'ly ·'~upi.~ ~~!lm~h,~r~ bout ... 1.2JII)[) y!l,1~~ ou i!lr.l~t'l AJ~o.C~I~~r(j,ii'I~~pi!~~) ~Inknr]!l;vn they 'we'l'le ,al:ready dlG uia, ,,,,,ho W,"' s st ady,~gu. h's one of the ~UQ5rmpuf! a~l~ulL"tltm:o· W~5 ,m~ an L!nd~r,gf~d·· ] flr,eqlUented'" bV 'v.D'vag'ing logi.c<l~, sires on Cyprus,." AIn~nerm311l. says .. u au:' at the VI:l ive'.l's.lly lng human mligr.~~ion::.. "rhe~ffl~1i.Pd,~~~e sUlipul:i!il1gdle l,IHOfM:d bm\~~e llPe:[[IWit. M(l5~ of Mi~h~g<1.m .. Ann foragers,. pcop],ecOlls,idcril awaste ~1~1.ruu ofj[aggc;dll first ('ol,;II~.bomtion Aibo:r ..in ~: 'i.H54,.w.liI.cn ~.A!l:Iert Ammerman. rocks thiMmtlnt the feel~lhe,re h~.ve been he turned <IiW"dy from between an .u:dmeol· pi .ms,lo bnlidozeitlllr <I. ho~:e~. s t~~.e A bun~ee' Inl<1l.I~Jand phys:ilcs t'o ColglGlte Unwersity O_gist'H.ld a ,!:1ieue'~ici~l openuo,f swings Lh~ ('a:g~back Ol.'Q:f t~~e \l'!)ll~f; IH~1i'ilWr~. As lh~ ~'11 PUl together hV~ he msks."fiu1e' you sure YOlll.'I'I'O'lII]dn"r likie to Viell~<lmWtlf :rea,ehod lis: ~lpex. he PUI:3side 1:o«lllliy d ist inet forms or se ie:~.l in ek 1li()·W~:~ '" ~!~Il'ii,fl ;o?~'An~~~~[fm~!'I chw,;kl~. f~mleoeks dr"~!m~ b'li!eUl'ill~ll~ "'roc'!i;,el gd,eruis.f' 'Uif iI. lIdg(;:l;' :;:.ays Mot'l!'e. Am!'1!l!e[fm~U1i1'1~i;}pped out ~.~ .. his Ime<ldto c:o:n!t;ider tjlil.,e)i.m:l~. I bee a.1J !H!,. he ,sa:y~.fuI,e re~,t it v.·(U~~d :mm,e~m IJll,e' ~.o(;atiol~ the t!;0Jrhes.r kl1l(l!W~l 1Hnl~e.u·- 2! ~ A.Illm-n:l!errn.m,64. is no strange:'.1i to wiMI ~ak.ing weapon~"h~ on~ \~y or ~11l,ot'h~r," ~i!lceSof ~gu.it;:uh.u:re acl'\oss: Ell mp~. wh ilie ~. le~p~ into l,~,e Il.mkmu;)i\~'n.lll,l.dI::'l:d. they have I'~;v<ll ~:i -:S~O:If;;;:<1 I.u:ml.y,lcd SRIllillpl es of b:lao d A. lII.e\:vly declared i1En;glilsh rm:wo:r" e scooped h ilibol1ill PC{lj;!~~ :~~vi.ng ~u.rop~mday. ga:L,Qg]fI~ 11· in ..,: de:fi~ledhis 'c~rcu, Bl!1Ithl sph~ of cha!ii!.ging up I:h~mn,ive:rsh.y~top p!i,i~s forcsS{l)' \witresearch are;fi::l-<!I,nd even fi,eid::l-<1bm~J ing <lIld :ra!: CJirigli.na~ pOC~Ty" By 1966.lI1e \\13S genetic dl tTerCilll~es 'by OOmiJilliu'Dllg nl ul<n iou::> Il! O~lC:{;~ud~efldi;l.A!ll!llefm~n h~s ~~adej~l1!por'" ;il,~. ,edi[or ~[ ~ New 'Yo!'k lit,erOllry COiVlpany. h'!ll:~(lgti!tIilS for b~ood pro~~im" ~

or

I

13 JULY2007

vaL317

NEWSI'OCIJS
\1!;1h~!~ fhey O(i!'l!.lp~red nores, f! :sui.ld~'lg p~me:l"ml.,en~rerged.Agrhm lture appeared s.~eadi]y later the f:lil'thcr west thcy!ool!:ed.

II

Yb~k.ll~T.~ :~(; as ~.~~Q!ld(itdo£!, f b r~~~u~'mio~. h ()iwrin his :~lmmd.lt \o.ro!$ a Hioll"ro!in b~lov~
Ammerman is sanguine :1IbO'Wll it. ~lric:clQlo bene," he smys--s,I'I1i1I1.is heautiflrl,

,e

l~.e

Neelithie I?eriod,."T~~f'I] I. sraeted seeing

:!lindthe d:e.gree ef g,eru:l~cd illiererntle betweea
pClp:u ~,atii,CJ.:Iu; also grew s;te~d~ly g:n:ilIte'f;''T~,c' best explat~l<l.lion forthese llo1il:tems i!\1'~,luH ~g_riCU~W~31 re!Orl~!linoOl\:0d i.ln!) Euro;p'!:: IrulU Ih~ ~"St. di$p]~ei!lg and mi~'I;iilg wh:~ ~Ulillefgathe rers <IS lful.ey we:lm,t,'" S<'Iy:s, AI,nmennHn. By cjJ'vtl~liJi~ng g,e~lgf~!p~r~h; '!IV.! g~rleth; d~.:;l<mce. tlia,eduo (;;<IIh;lll;ill,ted tlre nile' oFl:h,e spread uf.".,gri'cl~I~.u.re"cw::;:ii EurjJ~)e ,II: rl()u:!l!~ly .~ki~o~11e!e:ifper ye,u:.• '.It crested an I,l:nJlimly Il,ew Held of m.n:::hfH~o~og:y,'·' t;,ays,

N[e,o~iitlhtc Ifedul!
rill 2004, AllmbMernrmm ~pelili! a yeOl;w as .,. Fulbrig~t senier schQhif ill CYlu·U!l •. Hewas a~lr'iliIet!>dtl1 ~~, 1u'"C:t~2j!ljo~Qgi(,~l~mysle:ry OIl

them :lIU over the place," he says •.He teamed up l>\iil~.a ~e,lk}wF~!lbrigr1t :\elrn~,llllf !'jd.l0~m" en Cyp:rl(!l.s;, J3y NoHe:!",. iI. g~ologisl at Op~gon
Sl,neLhlitler~.i[y other' A\i;ollanil:e
SUftS

in Corv.lhi.-.. to m,1.1'lmn
outeraps on rhe island,

the i,:d3JI~. d

Curtis

RlIllllfids,.

ml

mcll:lfiologi:st

::lit

BO:SHm
whti,:lle p osi~

U~.iV:t::r$.ity i!ll M.as~d~u~~us.
The next leap
COl nmlc [Ull :~985 AIl:I~.m~rumlll wBls~,o~d ilm.g9!.em~~ornry

Amli1ril~r!linml ~ml C<l'!i;.dlj-Slb~i.'~nl~e (If ~ k i.h:lmC't.er ~'r year for the spread of agrip cl!.d.I:~ln::: works ""'C:U mil I~,e E~~rop'r;:;i;\111 mainIm:ltL bm ~he pirCUJlJ>e is >confusing alolll!!, the Medl~1.iC: rl"'~Jl,¢,ml (lOM~" C;Jl'prus.!!~.IIi1.e rst bi.g 1"1 .i 5~and 01:1' the Ne.ar Eastern coast, ll:uUy vi g.. fbi!!;; (rom ~U(~!'!!~~i~s Tu rt~y. ~ ~.~l shou ~cl~\I'\;

'~n(il!gh ..a simililir paft of the eoest 'I~ lm.e west is peppered with stone blOlldes, and scrapers typjeal ofthe mainland ~bO(~l
I.~,000 yeilll"S <IIgo.

tion ~I'~[he Url]ver~~I.)1 Parma in ha~.y. ,of \VhHeworki~g O.1':i1 !I di.g imJ, Ronw.Aqnm,('r~ m<ll1~eil1l1ued up w~~h ge'ophysieists to use techuiquesthen for-

edgf:l hI archaeology, modeli!]! ofland$cape

suchas
~vQI~!~~o.lil.

radar hUiIl,gi !'I.g arid com,puter

AH.::h.!eologis'tt! ,~'lNe ne\~rl],uti:ced these site s, s.ay s A ~,llme.nll1:a.IiI. "bee ause no 0 ne "','fluid ever '~:[iiI~nk 0 f~uukiml,g i11!.m.c:~.a place,' . The Aeo Ii.atlra.~,t!e seemsl ike a 1'1 till! PI e<l.S;1 n t pl~c~ 10 m.~k~.,f!hling, he ~ll)iS. But an€:r sevI beetlm co,lolJruzed by farmers rel~.~~I\~e,~y e<lr~,y. eral f.lJlnnTIlt::',ffi f:ileidwork,. ":1 nmv apprecti,~ of Tn getthere. 110WC"II.el",. they would have ate t:~l"Uit's ~l\:'1fLl,] "or a,gr~,(:ul.u.!l.I.'llI.lislS but needed bOIjjJI.!';ro uaverse '60!ki~oltlet,er~ of wondll:J!ful for h'~qm-er-£;ltherern;:' T:~eA.eo0P~!I1. \wtcr, <lnd ,ev,udeme~ far !ol.I1t:i~ln seafar~i3niu::'"s n!lnL~lpits andshelves "arc [[like :r~11(I lithic fu rn i l WI teo pe rfeeti r e yOI;l! 'v,~ ,gO!~::;ea:~oQdyo~ ''!X;: ca ph~r,ed dmvil at th~ 1;,~'t.l~$1 ndaeed a .1 sheltered place tnpl,'(Icess<md

cook it'"

hl. retrospeer, S9)fS Te:rre:I1l,3,ICJr. ··es:ti11:J1~ltDn@the salid coareurs .md the geology of 01,site 'ISil was
whC!lIUim~11

A mmerntan beljeveshe

's

fou ndI by far ttl!;: 01d\:'st ev ide'IJ:ce
of se~tf:1lrill.g in til e M.editer~ raneau, ~nd he I:~~~!lk:s~t could
shed ~:~ghl cH],I:he<lgri,c:uhmf::1l11

!JCCUj;l>iHionsto.lIr~e;:d"

is an "obvious f.~rs:l step." !lUI :~roChMolog~gt~ lu~d ri).rl;~y do~,1;) se, "aln l:l""nbeeaase of the diffi~
culty of il.oquil'ing th,e neceSISOIU'Y

u'l!m~HiQ!1 itse If. "The m h;,wke that 1 thi 11k we IUHfe a~iw,Jy!> madeabout rhe Neclithic .is '10

St~ikitlil9 shnilatU~itYi' A,mmernihll!l fO'lIIn(j ~lQlllil teels near iI mc.ky oll~cmp em assume th~.t i!.gfi:cuh.~u"'e ~11Hll have been perceived <IS [I. fu AlUllu~rnHlJm W<lSIm"t. the 01.11.1' Cyprllsth at Ile says resemble NieoUdfk t'OCI~~!'r(iUlil lll~ marunlandl. superior li,restyle aud \'o'<lS a rchaeol og i51 ex p Imi~:IiI',gtill ese [lew ml:le,du)o(b .. says Jehu Ghler:ry. <II,n i1'Ig' i,:~1,d'ile Medi H:ir;IF'f1f1e<l~riS illune{li.,~dy embraced," h,e says. '~AgdcILl~:~ scaat, C@rclmfl~r~IOli!kH Brawn U!ii\len;~('y,··b'ln ~H \\fi[hi!:lrlhre p:ids~de~.1id~. fdg~'lr ~henburg. ture C<l1ii1 sl.rpport ftir l~~g)crpopu~~t inn denhe ~~I';Js one o~·the fi rs: ,. and his ~~'lPprOi:ld~ <1.1'1. ;1.I:chil:e o~ogi Sl at tlu: Un iversi ~y or Edi.n~ sines," <Ind lTm.:n is w]~IY l11.ea£ri,cl~h:[j.[';,'llisl:S

dl!l:~"l," he s,ays.

W4n!!,;

very creative"

burgh. u.K"'~~'IS rlush!;~ t~~e: ate -ofCyp'rio! d

~~~,v~H~bly ~(!I[)kw~r" 8,m the CU<!M~l]

~111vi~

The geo~.mrch,u~o.l.og,~.Q3JI1I'I.('!thQds, p<lkl clf ~.v~H+ Fr,om~ Rome, Ammermanwcm to

~Ilicie~u At~lle~rn; <lind mJiH::w cities, pl:)'i~.l\Sllais

q UIJlui

hit ~V\l Itl(!1 h.o dj;.It~ V.~ni C"~'. SI!IY~' Mo~ne. AII.nmen1l131l p:tMm::ecll "spe·ctactlhlf

rot,;lstllt~,pu=:;hi~g 11,1(:10; t~~~dt~t:L;!' fln~wi!l~~~:~O!1of thlf: C iIy !.1;ml givin,g ~I ~1.""'" l:hu:D1Iding ~ 11.'
hfsl:oI'Y.'·' This,
work

lm.a.sal~o .

eml)J]"oil.,ed

hilirllifl debmnes. over ~he: future of co,moll

dtie~" .in tllre trilee ofclit~l]me chml§e (Sdence, ,2.5 AIl!,£I!II:Sl .2000, p. ] 301 ~. But st;ly~.ng om of the InO!lin.sta'~:i.'lml h<kS :~en (l1:~~nre'~lu AnMn(lrm~n [(I work··ils '~~i,)' 700013.''.13. Th(;j too of Italy S'~~~u~t(l~~\\~ i,~d been forei.gn to r<lrmi.tl~.g ILJ Ill:u I. '[,000 yea:1fS proverb~;:111 <!ltliln)' of one.," !!H;rS Terre:lullo, S.lf~.:im.g~~t~gcl~le!r SlYI,d ~ £,fr! inS '~t.ldo fie:]d i an,~1t U~ilL"Wh.H H~Ok ~:~~msulur:l:;~t'
eit hem" :910Jileor in SI1fI>l!I11t.'01 ]lajjor<lJions. ,~ U~llikG '-lo.llt,!1.l.g~I~S Ih.ig: resei!l!'cJ1J unh'(:rsi~ a~ ~~:ie~wit:~, tnroo:ps of gradtl<lile sludems. : .f\n~.nlcnnOll!J dr:ilh~dbelwe~1l ulmhlen;.i li~$il~ '!\j h:.dy <Iud sc:n~cd<lt a :sma~i libeml ar~ 'Col~ '~ I.ege. Colg~~r~ Uuivenihy bt HOll1l]ilt(lr1,. Ne.'\,1\l
~\!!!ork

occnp,u.iolJl bm,;:k LO 3200 H.C. E., nUlk:ill1l~ ~,t reament is not .id~1 for agriculrure, :says one onhl.t eill:licsl, arriva~)l of .!lIg:!"icuhl;i!.r·c Amunt'l't:mall. add~n~"] thhd. a.gricuh.l,lrc IFom the Near Eut ,[l~,edi:scmrery ~mp,~.ie:s did u't ::;pre<J<B. .,Iong the CiO<t~!t~b.ec<J.ulse the)' t h~t [;(:~m:~urb'l!.g'[{!C~1ologymu~:t n hi!:1J\ll; b¢ell \\f~1\l .~~.~ r~~d}l rrc~u~:m!~~d ~ s.t~Jtil~ ~ ~,ILl1\i by t avail<lb~,e b)f then" s<I:ys Amn'lermanl, mid ~,t o rvoYllgi m'ig1bxo1.sers,.'" But A~!fiI.~'t'~!:~,~l.m:'i ·'d~!iP~r.;lil~ly n~~dl'Ob~d~~ ~:b;;o C~!;I.!iCf;!I1Jl"i'@do,'l\, "'~n~.\1I''j;ldd ·(lfb~l'!lS" <lgri~;a~hme ijhOllM ~~l1ve~pre<ld:f~nJf!I~Ot~ IJende:I'Uevi;dence~o MLStu,i:1iU. the;~i!rffi}' tllnira~ qlli.c~kly amu:li1i.d tl[lle'MedJlerran~.a~;ll:hiJn mol [)f ~Ii:s :si~e:l>."·says :re l.le.lilib~J,rg.A:I:l~lUerm<lll·s : ~,~.e[L~:~ inl~H1 ~:J."ll~.lihe op p,o5i I:e i5 tnue. Ji~rr sh:oiau f!ID~t-geui'll1:g ." CiltOOfli d.ne on .1 cl[~a[IICo~I f"I'Om tlms:.Lllrface'----'was Tmvellng we51.~Jl.e .lllelii.l.lhi~~sl.a:n~!d. Crele. i:s sifLmll~e un~y d<l;Ysa.wily b)i b(}.<lt. bllll~'1rmers do U,Ol d i:s;"ppoi Il![iml~. The ::mnrnlple t nrrled OlUW be see~m.l 1:0 .1'n'I.'!~e l~Jeir ~ml[lk tiil"ere Ilu:lti I no ,older Ih<'LllIl:[iae da~j:S ()fNa:~1 eO(lll. Now he

or

phUHi. Ul
shell!!

.u I m';,'Cr'I.eve.lls.
.~.U1tlh~

~~t

cflrho~ d~t~s

ffO'!rI

~~mp'i~

('If

AnlllJl:e:IfIllUi!ll woalde

[S.

A fcw~um~h:s !Jfierm!"ruvil'~'!il,~t C'i'TPflIi;., Anmler:Il1];Mm wa.s st.ro'u illg ~,km.gthe AeoIi~f1 jt,!i; bI~If.n Ni:ils~B~' whefllhe~,;lw ~(J:rmH;;t:~mn,g lljHIi~ s,topp,ed him in his lnlC:ks"I+c: plekt.ld ~jp {~s!l'n.~~1 tchipPE-:cl1 j;,lO!l1;) fVf'!d ~UI~Ule:d

decides 10 :skip thbl :[ti]I~U:llgie. But. <loom hi:. n~wrese~.~~ din::c:ti,QIl. he ilJc"lSm) Il~S~~~ii au. ":Sur >e •. 1 CQU Id 'be 'JI,~rmlg:-:1i1.e says. "B~lt this: Sl]11'e h; Ellfl,,~' 'lh~t se~l':!I!Is b$I~~ motto of Ol to 5c1!f:IllIS,t who 1m.., :WoU.owed the beat of his qJ',MQl drum. "';JIO[H[" BO'HA~NOril

Bfack

bl'~mJljl,~~ e~lg,~, Amlm~rmil!l

1189

I

NEWSl'm:Us
... EI1.~V.~fQnmi:.!'IH.I:I~n.]s. o.'~:SP,i.I~. tine h[9h'lY9. elli~~i.C ""'" !l,alt u re !Jil' <II Us lilli, whit:h re S,~iJ rchers .. fie' nQW u dedpheli 1119 specijalb!lld school pr<I!!ilra ms he1lp.
I

J~$e2lirchcrs alre :~otl:in~in ;6une:~ res~(I;OI1:si'WJtJ.

~Itll the

rum;lividua~

Bi}C~U~~ ~Ulit>,rI~ is ~.;i;pC;~lf!UQ11 diSGirdcrs. I;titl;~i1!1 g:1;;nt;i 'lmbbla~i.ol'!& \.~iUpl"y a tele in O

or

d!L:t:1::rel:li~ i[ldi\l~du<lls.Wh<J~·s gellerd.ti:~g el'!i:.citl.'!~
I1IIWl~j:'m~'"is the

di~~~\~ryf o

ImMmi(lnS

i,l'!! sin-

gle g.e]leS[fuJa~. inrare lilnSt:illlCeS, seem ~J,b]e to Cil.US!; <1u~"i*,I~,1. These gi.'lin::::. mOlY be poirllill~,g clilieiCtlya~ ~.I!ellef",d rneclmni.sLu for the d iser{Ie]". atlilne Sy;unJlI1~

N EtJI AO SCI E N CIE

TIi1:e filfst allllii:!!im ~Q~? Zoglbbi's p;J,iO'l"OCmi,,"'e 1003 syr.U<1,p;se hypOllites!il'> re,.<;;led p,an:I,)!" 011 "'ark LI:Ill.t )I'Car'~.9 £ l\'n1.,p Icd loy 11101t1<1i' Bo~1.Jr!~efIJJll.~tt1meP~ll\ll.'1lt 1.m;1 itll~~ wn lP~ri1>.. f~niJ~. ~~~1ru:. mWLllMlom. ~n l)mID~!I\j' Iio~lnd
I:lroUwr:fl:w lth I:H.Ul:r;; In sp ec tru m d isorder, N~UfP~.i~in~ fire ~~Ir{~le.i~l'~."Ipfe::l'!>edl th~ {In :smfilce of the POIJ'l'SYl1flpt[{: neureu thai: bind lia ~ protei~~5 onthe pre~yll'o'lptic [!,eW'OI]c~IUed !iii 11.e1D~~I1t>, Sllfllllil !l'Ig~he synllpse and fornu~n!:l a ~

Aut:islm's IC,BUS,e M,B,Y Res,iide' iin Ablnorlm,8,lliti:e's at: the S,ynalpl:se
~ew g]en>e'['ii( evid!en C!e~s:eadiiing resealilch el's tl Ill,Olme in O~I the deft: sepa.r,i1Iitmngllillelt'eMtS l as the s~lt)e 'wh e~' til III di~sQlid:er mlay ~ri'gilllIDate
No cue knliJWS whm causes amism.

caUed neure I igi ns i,:ml'wopai

1'::; ofSwcd

ish

p[lysi.COl] tether, TogeU].er. ~l,eUiroHgim. and nelll~-e.x~m; IholJighi!,~o play key rilles :un!~;c iji.·.~.. .<100 ~Or!1iil~~ml :;Ifll.!!1J~l~tilJllilng.of S)'ll~pSC;;:>, _

§

wlh:rc~,l i:m11 the term ~peci;<l~:s~sp:lJie fer; i~ove'N~u,'l~m~ua,il,l)I i Sorn,e 1,'ese<lr~tI,e'r1illIOnt'esled~~,e,rnsleu:D" in <e\'(l:iY g)efl~ ic. B;L~d mtuUy on sUiJ!<iLi~l> fr..ulllma.1 of ~!lSliTiI,Ut:l: fiod:ing:s. hm~ve1!". b~e.uf~ mil) Oth~!i ~ repons e(ok", ;lId iviil,,,I' ~ .•.... I ~(lI chil.ttrenl.Tihe irnllll<Lired ~oeiLa~~nwu:;Jclial'l. •Ului :udentic<l~:I:\",.uns" Unl:i\lclrs,ity of]Uinoi,~ at Chk:ag,o ..utistn resei!:rct~er :Ed\"",il) Cook can(;omnu.mi(.".a~io~~deficits" <'Il:'Id restricied and with, a ul~.islllf:h]~m:vt:d: someeven que~tuo.l1I.ed ~ whether the S\"'l;1l!.~i:il\1Jl, brothers actually had . repetitive be~!"viorn ~~~Jl1i,ill people with lh:e clude5~~,id gJene~~,cfactors cOl1ilribuileoJbout CI conditloll have c'Ilnlhunded :>cientusts slace il 90% 10' auelsm, w[lh ~md:mnm~llt~~ factors ~uti~~,"'ln~ aJsu'~[antism].it ':\Iilliip:renydmnn w w,;n. 'r.I~t idieminl:,,J i~ll,1,,,}43" B:ec:;;m:-le o:l:Jlly ~, !;lolllh"ibl.ll.tiLl1\!!lIlO I,nO~'C:Ih;IU ~O~J,A.ll1~~m is ·'dll: d08e."~.i:'liYs Schere;]: ~ T11,e>e: Ii;ue n:elllml,igiua. mllt,l~lrons;,md, ether ~. m:llilori~' of~nn[slic p~:JrSOIlS have s.e';'lea,'i(Jimel~ IlJalDl'>t e.nulbj.e o.rnf:urodC'\ldop]1J,1Iem3~ h diso.ruers leetual disll1!JmlY. tum1 \mine 1ihmv ~"X(:~plinli1liJIl H"I(ll are ICl1fnpl~·.'!iin 'origin:' \l;~tgg~~rive e:vid~ne~~i:unling. ~ 00gll[lh,,(! UI]elltS, reidiliVle]y subtle cliil:~lnges :UUlI says. Seherer; (B:io.~og'Yis nm some neloo~igirJj·billl.d:iUilg pro- ~. U~~br~~igl pmbablyresp<m~lb~. N~lW;,'!ll]l!rry d~1:ia'Jy.gfQ(ll!~ b\;x..\u~ Il.e [[I\; i tehts 'tnami~ltl0d B'~nU'g.e:~ml j5 erntiJ,UIlI11I1.6Il[ aUiei.:1S lhe Ifll1Jn H) p(l.stu,,~<l~e "neurofigin a of 1ll'!\\1 discoveries ~Spooi~l.t:ingto one ~i'bh::' au~i,!;m pHI.~.l~.\I'!OIy"n whieh ~ i s iw of 311lns.m ':> origi~1L:Ihe llYl,aJ?t'c, ~~ly genctlc di!>ol:dC'f' Ul~cS, OlILl,dflUri:ni,t:: th~ldrelli often 'lbll():rniI"~~ ities iD:l1.lllrnl'lJ' of~he:!l\e 6 ... SYl:I,lpses [ire [unctions ucross which J ~ neuruns o~:i:~1lnunieij~,L,:. T~h.(i:y!m~essential ~kilt!:i.)n r mfiw jjHII~i!lS CfiU'~d 3 o inlrm\~if plaeed ~nt~ r!~~ht (.0. serrsory 'peTcil:'ptio:m. movem,e:1ml enord i~ .1e>lflJii'l1g p:redii,sposeDh,e'iur pcssessnrs !!i se~ti:~s.) mM ian ,. Ieurn ing. ;;i!~~,dm~.rnflry___;v i!'w~Illy to !:hl;: d is.tlroll,;:r. B(l1Jirg~!:Qn ~ Abn~lr!'!I:I'l~ iIjl,1:O;of c:~~rQl' ,,~II rain f~!rB;l~oil."Th'i; syn"lpl'ie is lik~I:h:e b [~.10~Um!;i:-;.~]Ufi!y ofdu;;m vis"' b~a:~res.~~d c"!i\lrh~.s Jan- ~ bi~ soul of 11m brain," s<l/ys Huda Zogllb~. 3, lble uuder [11,(1:Inicroscope .. lI~ry •. \1\IIl1r:'[l1 liD.!s roup' ~del1d- ~ g Ptx~ii~.lI'i:'cf1e"llJolo:g 1St' .'It rhe B ..ylor (: [lUege are ~hOllgh~ 10 account rot ned muraticns ln one of ~ of Medicine u,unHom,tmll., Te'x as, ":h'S atl~l,e ~.0 rt{1 .2:0% of auusm cases, these :protei.:un.s. Sha~~ in kJ. roOi!: [) f,~vt~yl:hia:Jig," Ul'!lee atU~i!:ili( ilJidil;,~dmds. ]n ~ The el,[h;~ of nlI~Itlipk: genes in ZoghJbii\'I,l"'dS theriJ·stliOProlJKl.-"C" !iJl 2,003. ~1i1a~ ~liCt~J1g CQJ,uiJun;ltlon probas.ll.el~.rare 'cases. mllta~iQm> :illl altered s}in~pSi(;S lli!ligln be ~$ponsib]~ for bl~ fI~C(HA'!Inn;;ftl;rl'\~ost (If th~ Ulis. s~!1gh: ge'~~ S~~lm;l~fl be ~ i1!i s.u:Wi.cI,enl to C3'IJ1!le ~lItuS~,n. ml.t',usIIU. But direct evidence' was thin. Now lliest. Two groups rece~lti:y Oltu;r Srol~pS.,,~i1,;c()]"dingtel ~ "'d:'i!~r-~ seems 10 bea l'Qf.lnueLlnIC~ ofdflm Hmvreporled t~!}'t many 'll!l~Sm il]g:' says:Stephen Sche're~.a geneticist ,011 the p'iuielll!s haw: navel deletions Sche 11m.", re a lse re'lIDr.ling a ~ ~.~klS;pitalfIJI!" Srcik ("hi Idrcn in TOm!1iO, Ollitano, ShQ:~lk3 ~1i1Jta~ioJm5;U!l aut~!ili(,: S ~nd d~r~ici'ltions~Il theif ~. Un,till the mi,c]··1'980s. expeflts o0l18idei:'ed g'el~OJ,~l~:S (~(;ii!:/I'(X .• 20 A pl;:i~i ~IHI i1~1I,J rrolig~IlH.mnlifl! gnllgetl1ler in p;uielus, "I~'s beill:il ~epn- f!5. ~lImisl1) ;,'! $~!'i,c~~y '!l,\rWi!\ln!:n,~~.u!l dli:;;;oOOl~cr •.':vil.~ :2 no 1, p.. 445)" 1)lJ"Q,ba.'b Iy (the Sylrll! pSf? tllIcr i.!!·~()ij:lsirltliJ~~c cm~d fur S'l,lro,:' hr;;s:~% [fll!il~ ~ ., ari:s ing\?iI~,lell'Cmlil1O:lIn{)~Ol1les m~)5tof~,le bl'.Il~U;11~i,~I~n£ on r.mhYl%uenling. i:!i p'r,ol@ins .coll!'~d change hQW Ul@unm5 on~ publis.ht:d stw['dy ~o foJI,I;. "" NOlI'" \'\,~ k!m'!,:\' dK~r "o:'ItLt~st1:csp~r:ron,,11 is(!rd~r.'· d cooss(wer d l~~i,~g!l'u1:ioshoo CO.mITtiUlIl"(.an ~liJ'I~ liliid to (lg~ism. Shan k3 !l'Il~UUions ~ppe.rlf ~(l ~ its broad d~fin,won 31JecI$ ~bt)utl

:.,,,,,ri~,,,. .,b., ;

8

!

g

190

NEWSI'OCIJS
~CC(lUmfor ab01I[

II

1% (If,Mi~"lll CfliSe:s,

later

b~C'I;"l!!m~~ elear

d~a"{th.€l)1 .. lsI;)p:rumo~e

dl~

rhebrain

develops,

Snid]e:$ ln <i!lJhm~ds Hl

n.cll!.. ~n Mm,.:::lia007. the Autism {icl,u)(lrn.l.e 2 P!I1ojerr:lConwrtill)1]. <Ii grOllp of over 50 .innim· lion::. ~1:1 Nlm1h Alne:rica :;;~ndEu rope, :wu:pomed results oh 5-y~a.r snlldy QI1l the gellc'l:ic 51 of autism iill, ~J~OOft.lmil:c~. ]11:1 .. ddi~i(1I~I;o seller-III u~\VchliO'~mt'l&t)!1iii!a.loc:gio$'ls i.l~p][C~i~cd :illl]~~ disorur;::f.. 11~1;;e:;~iH':ch'l.'i~fDlli:ld ~l~ .fi;~Ure.1ot .~ r ingene "lS'!Sll!CI~a~:ed autism. Since :n.euJ:~xi:l'IIs, wi~\, bimd t~)lt~!,ruIj:.gin~,!~~~e ~yllrn;p~. 1=J!I1tIing '~I'li~ boosted the ne,ulIl"O,lighll, 'lIlni!>lnp.'I:!'~,"'v<liyudeOll"

luet:nl[l:menl: ofm:nmotrdns:m.itter receptors "nul understand th.e d ifn'!l'e:11I1 'COin~l'o(J;u::nts, of the '!;'ru1m:~~,stn1:lJ!Jlulrnllnok:cn]es 10 D.~:e Yl.ll1;psc-.in S synfflpSl~ i'.md re detenninc ]'Irulmtion effects ~U:e r.iCl. on:hel'>1mti~~ga ("()J'alplelie sy~.l<lip:5e. NeiL!ro~~." j,usl oogu ri!niI1lS. ginsruIld !lCt~rex~us;"ilre ~n1;bellh~\lab1!yimporla~t M9f1J'wesearchr gro~lPl':~ll.'C :~!Q\V lioI:::l.L"il1lgon p:L'CI!e'iml':ll:' ~ SiidllOf. "They'reHe 01' ~:e-~th." rind~n,~ I:inlks between g::{lm,p:-,c ~e:me!' and 01iil~ IIi Lh(;':irpt)~i.l.ll~ ~h~in amh, ~IL are IttJ!1!J 3uthan. Cook fUl'gJUC$ fur a 'b",r.o.."Ider :fL]~'pro~~h.

ap~aril\g, On~ d~i;!ry ~slllan.~n ab!l~lm~~~~U!:1i01.igiUlI ath\\,,<\,' 1J[:l~l'Sl.he balaaee of e%Cit.,'lIIm.')f p <lil1d~nbib~t'PfY S)/ml p~~ ~.~. 11(;1~q.r0I1'" ther,eby .ulli;:cdng ]eillmi:lllg and memory. ami thus 1<111-

~!~d~mdi rtIg\Mhule g~il;ome scam::for o~h~rgl;)'~.cs lhm~ In igbl l1a'VeJ!e~ :im:liii\l~dlm I e:~ecl:btul 1lli<I:)1 "Ic~xm~t f{lr mQ~ <!I,Hi~m cases, ~SVilii1i;l such Sludk.s are ilflll:lJ:'iO',gress..)''To~oJleo]"[he'Olher
OC)

,,~hh(H!ghthe 51,~Vt:~y~ '1~llilLo:Ir8 did not loyk fur spcdf[c ne'lllre~ ~n mWIr.uiOi!~:S"Se'\'e!;<I,~groups, x (
f~rcnm\l S(\qtl~·mt.dllg th~ ~Il~_) Shllllld ;lIb:nflr~ m;ili.~i,e,s. <~I::;o turned up in some AlILtism.
(;'\,;~l(lJU~

gUi:~se;<!!lid social C()mn~lllllic,![i()~.l. Brm!dly 'l~~prntlcb , ... is, t~ r.igmt \,\..ty sl~e.ddng. S)fII1~:psescan beei:uhecf exc iI,fl~ory. lhi5 poim:t rml\1e:;;' Cook :x'ly:l, wh ew. t h~ Ilili;;~lr,ou.~rIr$.m!llt{l r .!i!1tlr:1lI1:t'l<'ilt,~ ~I:li released, or inh]bito['y.\M~~hre~.eue of tbe
n'~l!fflt!1Urn$mi[l~r

go :is. 1dl~n'k•• Il

Pl:'Oj0c~~~!Uilie~ OOpOJi!S Sch~~r. ~h~

g1l[lml~-lu~l~nobulyric;)dd

TllSh{1~]~thll~~~U1S1:,cas~"ofami~11l~~CfHU!.Wd
b)1 jLJSI. a

:SlllJdIY'l-;("o;princill2ll i:U],vest~.g;:~tor, $l!!.<L~1l~~lp.~ic:Jt~ (GAllA). The rane of e~c:i~m:o:I:'Y i ;'.IIIDinhib:ulOl'Y ~y.m!lpS!l!'S <Ii neLII.m:1l delIC:I'Il;]lll'leS whether it will OI:lJ i:~lgthe m:f~ro!ng:i~, ,I,t&n:lW)" P Bmll!emn nol,vfe~]~ vnllldicm:!."{L "Peup~iein flil'e 'ill rnly give-iii Sitlll<ltioll, In d'le: 2..1 June issue the ~Ticld am maUy ~lcCicpt:ingl:~:£I!1 ~I'nisisa p<Jlh~~r.'Iiywll]c:hil$ .. sscei~k~dw[t~ ~utiSil~l,:' hl~~lySc "Wh~u,

few

.s[I'OI1g.~Y ~~Clill,~ggel1les..,. IIF,;.~lla.eu tllil'.i'ln
l'Ol.IDen

mml)' ~~''eEI!'J!.:ger;r:;s: in

Si~ml]pl.cr.'geneues

wOldtl.tI::"t.'eIet".litelU1de~1llndil1g oftbe di~rde•.. .m;. ",wI I as fflld I hate e~n"~Yd i!lgoo6>h; and S,I;:ilctic cmlIJls!.!hng, and plrro\f~ll~~n(J1"¢ di~tc I:~a~~ for thc~-

we D~!bli~~~~,j fI~W!m:tigiu.l [roPO;JiI the ill, 2m:r.ll-llOl~dy bel~.evodl:ut:"

,"'PY,

:SOl.~~"!;.if(Jf!I)i[~l~"

th\Tht ,,.. $i~_glil;l

M1JIm~ion~in single sy]ulpdc

,..bJull1lmd g,e:'lle--o:r e'ven 3 singl.e

!;,rene C'Op)' .. fi!j· wit~l Sh"'H1!~d-C~1I!'!. in
r"WI!: I nssances •. cause :<Iuti:swilm,.Bur

gene~. inchLding neurchgins .. neusexias •.ru-ld Sh<lJltkJ .\'",i IIptoooDiy e"'!!p~:li'~,on~y a slm.li1.11 f]J[unber of IiIIm~~'l ~~5% .u:n~~ S~~'M;ln;;·r esumates, In the' ~ml{)!'>t c:ol:IVim::i~ ('!ll'~ so ffw. Sh~!lId.')llli~~,{4: ~llL;l could causethis com:plex disease !.ype,"· says Sd'a.e.reili.. "That's
~f~,neildm~:dyi'lJiIlpol:~<UU:' Sch~~r exp~iI.i~1t O~llse rt 'cmJld, pTiCri!]de O clues to celllllilr cl~lklt> lUldtldyi~,lg <IIll~1nnism.1[1 A~Z;~e.illn:r3 disease,
f(-,[

even Bonrg~oorl dOlJ,b~that mlt:ted
syll<!lJ~es by t~,lemse:~\1'l"Sali'e e~il!lll~gh 1:0 CfnlflC IOO!~ ,ca';~);.·1\wrfi!;lli:Il" !lOt

3 .\l;n~le t'l'nlit:y.;"he stresses. ~I~ sp~!C'ul$lI~StlmJta enmbi:~ 0)l i{u1I,of abnonna I syumpsc'S ~'.I~ d
altered
UH':iUf<'l1

]1,el:\1!oI0rk!!-1~le

ccmplexc ~rc ui~ry in,,():~v~ngthe billlons of niCl~m~.s; Ih ..tpcumi.ts;
~,mlg!l:l:ge tUI:d!sodal in;Me;m'C !'ioJ~could combine to eause Ilmlo:5l C.;;liS,'fi;S, ofauthni!~,Facto:-IJ"&~hflteoul d ..il;:::r neural networks include <I

example •.murariuns in fh~

U~<lmyl(lidprecursor proteia {APP) f~OCOlll~I 'Ibra Hlly fr.\c[ inml (ie~ than AIl!fism's on9)ml1ll!' Nelli roliglins and IU!UI1!:l:in:s.• prolil!l F1S ~flIld'~ il~tgl1in~ iilrld gl~lllf!~.• ~so[lpp'~$,~d 1[0neuronl'~or 0 ..1%) of ell C1I:l>t'S VlI'CfC' 'tn,ciil~ yet leve I. sll~ fit in thee X.C ~UL to r '!I~ i t:lCI.tvll~nl'lg :s~1<!p~es., ha'!.!!1nO'i/ilI:i!len ilil1;plkillled~1II alililsm, al,o'rr1gwith lliu~ Shan'k3 i n rcv~·aU :Im.g~he I.. kd.:f dii SC'~:!!:i(~ s,G1UollJing IPm~E!'TI'I.A~a:h~rM l1IaJ~~I[i'lC~li!i~mJ!1!~1lI ~.:.:citallOf}' :synl.;lP~E!:S (lett) a1nd ijliQhub~,tory balanee, increased i moc:h;mis,~~: [in!:'~~bnol1llil.l,-d depo~iiil illilhiMtoflj' (ri'gh~) ((Ill!!!! .a~rf1(t tEiami'ng ,aml rmen1()1j' dlurilllQ dewll)llImem,t. ne ureu m~llfillbe~lf.'i iii!)" <In,Itis~,~e (Hl.1 ,of ~ij~kiid III ~~I~C:ll ~mi, Ilbe b]'".~n. . 'e hll drt.:1J'i!,h ~v~ ~~:r!;!t;; ~,~ad ~~.. or "This il'iel{l OIut'iS!lll. is IPlliObllbly .atmul7 ;ieOllts of Illimrr»l ..Sftcllhof I'e'pofilfldi :1~.1k'irtilii: e?i!::pe.~illlJ:l1.1~:S high, levels of~!llae liIe~llto~:fru:lsmi.w:r $~mtDl.1ill .. ~l~i~ld~l~ AI:zI'loG:im1;:r't; ~';~fj(ry," ~I~~r, ~"f~ ~;!~C:;:~i!1! r~b~~ut~I. till~t(}r ~f~!utij$t pf~tiil;:nl,'$~ q ic in!;;I;'Us. 'fl'lf1;':n~Xpr~s;~!lg I~e~.~ul igin-ll~dsfu elfl,dt~llur}'l;rt'LIiI:S:U'l1I~ $!'ioJ!] ;J.~.!iy~lap.ses.\\~lu;:~;ea::; BI;l$~de:i:!jy~)Up:,'i;'~ 'l,bt'l;Onl1,;,'I;li~ie!j.ilHM'Qy itu:m:oligin~2 O\''e'rex:p~OC>:~. ~e-fldi; ~oillhiMt_io~. (:<'LliSCS mit iSl1lh!flivC'ooell pOSI.~tI atcd fm.l1Im. 'CilfWes1!fatmngtlile5i}Hl:a:p:5e ..hered !lemon mig:l'<lIiml dnri~.geru-Iy devdopNO\'", the:U:;lcei!'i on ~o .rigttre out h.QW n~lniio~i- S ifudlh.of ~J eculme::; ~h.1t "Jill ~~.~er~l~ioni IIIi dlher I1U::Il:t 10 ci~I'()ni.c 111WiaJillmtHUioil in the bl:ii1.in. e gill1l:l>!IIlId their b.im:i.in£ proteim, ilI:re CCU'iliH'Ilb~l~.~ 1111 ~tliO Hgi IlcG)~1.I.d dina 11 g;e t he ,~.xc hahHY~ Illig 10 <lJlI!tism. '~Whm: e,...m:ctly do ~he..'<e roteins p inhibiw:ty lJ.t1,IW.'"e.::mb'tly ch,mgillig nJ:l.e ~l~lIlIiIbN h:t~agin,s~lill1dp-a.s~-nmne.m stucIDi~ Mlggestdml "'Lnrndeli'Cm1111L-'C!iv~irly" bel\Mf;t::m, b.l,~i~lm, ri!'~iOl.lS :i!> at ofnenmDls ~hmmill ~ir,~ng:during brdin deveill0p= do.n syn3pst's7"<ls!<sThGlniiLS Sftdlhof. 01.nelJ~ th~ h~r~ ~fU~~ ,duwrd~{S,·it'J'K"'~24 June:anns •. r{lf;dl<lmist m 'Ifut~ U:Jm.i\lernhyofT~x~s Sl1W~'- ~'~!ltS'lA~h d~snJrp[jO'.Iils c..Q~ld iI,;'!\~!'lI~~ly prowestern i.111Da Has. "Til 3.f:t> • ,.. c r lUll ill ~~o:r d wl.ce lh.e ~:asti I~ g SY:IIII.l:ptOH1!l '0 f <I.mi!>:m,•. he p .. 185M. Undiel1cOIUlectivily allld ~hel'ed e:..:c'Il!~i\'~,"[[YOli tl1ndt\rsmn:di~g mni:;,m:' eKpl~ins.. boc!J:~:sesyrn~poo£ldll~Ulg,~titi~h ~!~. ~y!'!ap~s ,t!roItOIIi!lUII~l~~Uy I~ S[udhQf:S I.m discOVl.':'rndne:UE:>: in::; ij~ 992 ..~ b~,coming ~uol1e lH Ie!>:;sen!d~i,\~e to :;ritnu~,i IUI\'"~ ~,~gKnlE~~:ly dif:ferelu syn!lp~ d:rS~r1.l~IC{i!rnl. du:tf~'Iif,'Il'L'($i'l~O:~L\'!Ci:ivily :~ ~mdneumlig,h~'5 .ill 199~knq ~l~VC bf::ell s.tud· de~lIiIdil!lig oflex~dell~. Tbi,s"!;~pth::: pia..... yOl.Q.1re'golill~ io ~:a.:1V~

or

'~ied inlieU1!Se~,Yever sillJ('''e. b~<m~ they seellllied to

ticit:i'

is the b3sis on:ealilmillg 31li1d,ne:DlfiLO:ITY. I

.~ hold lhe~y 1.0 hO'l'V ~1i1I~lP~ lionu" Oln,d [~~:~:!'l Ir~ I~ b~,<l:un (~e'felopnJlc~.t. AI; fUI'Sl their rmil:ing W";iliS, :~ ~'h(ll!ght to p!'ny~~lily l'(l~[~€:r :\ly!~f~P$; i( ~hG: bUT

'lh~l~j~lst tD.e po!';~;ibi.lity. :>Y!la~ is Ci:1i:I:r.m:1FJ i~:l<ujl,~Y !:lomplex • both dlli::,lm,lic~,lly <mid sm1cwr,iiUy. ~li~d ~Iot oould go wm,!iig~l~ere {I.$

nw

bet'liYe!'''Il

different

OCdiDll~dii}Qll~:'

:says S ~ltdlh:Qf.

"ThIDIfs~!lCl~)' 'vh~t :y1.1U \"~l~ldp:rodi~." [1,1 the ellmd. it nH~:yaU come down to the $yl~P;;('.. -KIENGARIBER

11'91

I
BIODIIVEIRSIIITY CRISIS OIN lnROIPICAL ~SLAINJI[)S

I

11-13

JIUNIE, 2,0,07

I

B,RUNEI

[)'ARU'SSA,LAM

Last-Gasp IE:Hortto S,81V'8' 'lrepical R,B,io'fIOlr'e'sts,
Ome of rhe most mnbiti()~l!'! alivr1l1pt~e\'1;lr to :sa~egu.,rd toopiic..d :fbrests i.sl~kh'lig shepe iU:IlI1 SOL~lh~'a.'!'il A.~i,!. li1: Febnmry.lher~,ree IlJ.Uig,:m,s-Brlu ne i DalL':Ussala n%. r ndones:ifl. and M'i!hlysi;,\-dlmsllilar,~ Homen ;lI,~I"0~d to conserve "md jointly manage vast tracts of Ih~ \ii;,'f1.!'Jjd·~ 'th~nj·'I.~rg~s'~i1>I~U1.d ~~rot~ctit~ IQ m:l.p<lr~~IIJeied di:\ll.'~ll:silly" Atthe meet iIlg. bic :scien.lrusts; outlined li:le'i r visiou fQl.r rhe rdtmrl of Boril1.eo (f,loB. ~ ini t'~'ili'Ve-tt)
rave revlcws, "'ll's ~:iht1:nomcn.'l~1. f8in·~ A

B,OrnIB10'S

I:LI:'ISUSlj)~i['lillJ:]e d'U1l1,~)gifl£.pr~lctices, sue h Or ~S;Ck~9]'-clJnhlg 21nd ~~~~brid~ed cspansiou .of p.E~~l'tall pl'Uli:lOJiliolUi. ""We ~l~illh!O~\'eIOIlmv:ilm:

liv~lih~oois ~(J.rpeeple as \"'dlasp~tG.~li~.g
Ill,!;;biod~vei:"Sily~" s~)!$ Slc,wl. who ls not i.~iVolved,withthe initia~.~\le"

like t hQ:S~of Sl~m'll~l. B(lrn~ol:;lb~ ~~~ Seientists expect H(lBwiU :yiehl b~g" awe undeli siege. :POII,hnoil pim:lt,aliolll.£ ate a~be:ilwgue. d:Uv1!dends,in species protect.ion. :-;pret~dli!l,l.gOls,sales (lft~e biofLle.~ SQi:I:W.lfilV<!- The pnljr;:l~i!i scale "is 'i,\erypr'olfii!l\~ng. :iiifl.ce i size does matter for biodi,vers,i1ty COI1iSl:iITVas:uve acacia trees ~D'C 01'1. a rnm:l~e.. Rlildw ildf:ilres rflvFig~ th~ i!>kllld e~C'h)le~1r" lH:II,;lHeart of BorMleo has eome noae 1:00 SOOIrn,. Tbe "

proj eet already

cessfu I in dele:ni

~PP!';)1U'\SiW hav~ been SlN;:rig 0 i~ .[mJI1i1I p~ns ion in ex

I.inn in u·o:pk:al for~l' h2l:b~~(lts," $3)'l> BrUhL who studies Bonlle'o 10tI.I1Is. "[ expect that such ,U1~lmhil~O't"~ projec~ will pnJVhl~ a safeglmoo '~~~Iim>l bioolivers~.I;y loss, Bnt ho·w wi.111ll~,ll mc~asuredT'·as.;ks be MyrQn Shekelle .. 'H'I expen 0]1.lmrl'J:ier~il~'[he
N ~t iom!.llJ ~~h'CriiiI[y Sin.g~:pOl:e. of Same seiemistsworry th.ll the i:L~~.t iaJti ve cou Id b(l d~l.!!'i$1~cnt~.II, to Ii;:re.fullUre~ out:iiide pft_~(\!,;tbo~llldari~s by di.strolA;:tin:g attentlnn frcm lh.enlil."HoB looks

tastieprejecr," Si~i'!'l l:erin:s'lt:ia~ ecolegis.t N igd Stom. h~ad of tbe Sc~l.oa~ e f N;;'!tuiIi'Il R~~u.iIX'f;i Ma!1!;;,g~nl!!elu ~t the Uilm,:uv,ersi~y)fNlelbour,~.ein { Vktod a,
Australia.

Vet \,\'wth ~l~al'lrye~.'!i,ls Sl~n ro d

be worked ont, S>Oi~~e 'w,o:rry whether ~hl! partaerswi ]~,follow ~hroug_h on <In
tll.It's been pi[Omise,(~,

:sm~]e 24(J1..mm sqmm;: kli~,Q~,l1,e~ers s'tJr<ld~

U~~dt,;t"HoB. a t~ird of th.;! i:s,Ia:I'n.dBruae],

dhng

1~"do]1!~gia. aud

~h~!<liy:oJi.,,-"\iOuld be desi~mlLtedfor . \l'ilI,ryi.~g. degrees 0 if' preteeticn, frm'l conservatinn to US~5 nl:l!1IJg:ingfirm~l IOl,~r!sm to 1St! sta inab:k ~ogg~,mag. "Til iill is the Qn~y place [in :S{l~ldlea:-it .Asi~] w:~,e.rerreplcal .failliWoresl can sli~libe consesved en t'i,llfI!rgc-e !In'llUgh ~(f!~C~fl remain perm,~]n,e:lmil~y iable," says v R~~im;Hl'i.~,[l ArniiH. chieftecbnical ofl·ulce'r for BO.D'~~eo wil~h the WOlihl "!,Vide Ftlnd fur N~wn;:' (V~t\V.F) iln M <lJI.~ys~~I. F<lmecl.:~bli'itsOf~llgl~t.II1S. B[~r:miJe-Qb; ~ bk;d~v("r:ililY \von~Ik:'rl !u'~d wIdth ll,lll'ee II;U:lliI'species described each Wiiilienl'lgJ heart, Allhougih be Lmd'lries .a re net yel5el" lhe H(Ml"l !l1I0IHh. Olm 1W~I:,agoe. uv¢r~h'~ p~~~. 0,1BO~fleo ]iili~ia~ve aims lol<>eep'remillinn i1IgIOrieSIS inl:a;;;t

ld represe~HUlp~~~dhabi w~s in i'IIU ~nmesvery well, but TIr1:UC:llIi. oft~e d hi~FSily and the gr·ea:res;t eenservation t ~ rears are in th,e ~ow 1..nd s," ~[g!ill,es; Smu;ll;)ig.who points nu l th~t :S~llbsl~!1t i'll or<l!;lgul<!L1'IpOpl~ hn~o~,!i .oL11l'l:ild:e are HfIB .. ~,nth~ ~\:"I"iU'l1:lp1-: af[mllonesia's K<ll iImHiI,t;llI11p:mvi,~,u:e's.Althou.ghliloB
mOOil\,\IOU

r~m

'·Ci!.Ili'1

CQ'V!l:[·

inJI of Bor~,C:Q.'"Stn~ebig

::m.y::;;" "'i.t was
<IS,

would be- cilto",Mmphic :ifd'~mg,ll

aud gov~rn:~H~[ll onservatlou i.~,~~reSl c

d~.vt:i"~edj1~1tl:~~, lil,~g.'5h areas {l'lm,!:l'f ip
Ol[),~l1rphOl1:~1mB&S flh"~l

a result," The i!:I,iti~[iv~'s

raises eyebrows, '''Exl.!.ctly WI.l3l is eovered and w1m~![COmmimHH'HS each eoumlilry would rake be}llond PlJbl:uc~,ty :tllld tourism KC~1fIil l;ry u1l(lcn!lin v 91.l~lis :-;t<~ge." !ii<!)1 s SIIrIlI.ebig. E~"'!::lerrs1lrel,ob-

b¥i~g t:l~ii:lhire~' Bom~() gm'l;:rmn¢f1iIS 10 ~,<Ike<I [,igorous. <IPIl n)l1ch,~oslIsl<ln.lllUitble fo:ro~~m!.!!l~'IJ~iL;:m(i!~l. T~!mlber ,~;o;.t.rn.(:~.km

deoc'ldr;:. T~l=richness uflre~ diver ..i~y "is greateir [ha~,anyw:h.er{'!' else h,l the OM: WOirhl" s.ays P'ele'r Ash tQ~ !!)'I' Har\'i11id Un iversfl.ys. Arnold AiJiibfiretm,u" Ihhu:1l1 .. who h .. :ii canducted (]eld\\lor:k in BiliUIlIt"ifor 50' yeiJ,rs.c:;)~ Is HoB "spec" Ult:tt~~r." Thll inH ialiv,e. adds CaHh,-l1ll Brf~id. <III] ecol ogi S;l <It t~~e Un iVClliSil:y K.obh-l!'!t-l'H'!lh~'i:j j1m G"'I':mOi!iliY.~s~h~ onl!}' " ch".I:I~e lh~lll. is I,en U) do so:nliiclllil,ing IlH!<Ull.~ i~1gfl,!l.1to COll:>el'V~ the r(1!lmr].~li.~:ingnl~sto; of { Bmrm:o." As ;) CmgtiQilrn:,uy h~.~e,. Biriij,hl p(),i.m1ts 10 d,~lor~st;U]OIl on !l'~~iI'~' S\l~~;;Ijli!1!l. Wil~IO'UlHoB •. he: 8<IY:::;", Borneo's ec{n"ysl"'

should be highly M:~~c~iv~. USi~lg sys~h~UoB area. at I.east onpaper," S.fIys censer\ia~:~onio~og~s:~ b .M'IUhev.t Struebis oi"Queel.l MJilry, Un~Ve[S~ly of'Londou. UK" .AlfluHL,g,b the tiIDr,ee goverume I1Ii~S are sti r <Ift:i ng imp le:m1m,en,t':u(I:um:1' 1.'Ul !'J.•. ti:Mll i ~luJ~~J.I!l~il -doU~l[" HoB \1J(:Iuldi !il~i,;;grat,~ !i<oli!
terns like he l.i.cO'pHlLS0.1' c1Ib~es,say:l> BI"l1:hl, whoadds th.n such 'led,1ni(I~~eS .~i:I'!,!ebeen

~.II,c

II~l<'ltm;lgellllerlt

of

n~~lioni/lJ

l:l!lIrks

mui

mb,er

lem:s ··n;-n.iglu1:Jt'lo$~
192:

~.!Il 0 2

~e,jm,:'

'with ~dJoit'lil:1,g 1,~lldsc<'!pe:il tiO ens~lIre ,eont igltoU!. fOl'flSI t:>o'Ver. he :!!o B T COflC~!pt "is ~~ot tot,,] .lock~ifr'!iV!lY f hu.~d." n o s..,~~:hii! iml.iti<lili",es 9Jfigil~<Ilo~.WWI:;' mlviser MU:'Il;;lii! K!.'I"a~~agh.A~.tholUgh,ab(l'i!u. h;liJ of lloiB I,and wiU cOllltiuue~:o be ut:uliz.ed, the gnv,ernmf;Ji'lI~S ~r~ G:xp'e:<:,[~d (0 ctLrmil
<!rl,)'~S

Pf(ll:~cle:d

It:s:t.ed fill 80 ruee, Des-pile the iD1JJtisgi\'ings. e~ perrs ]mld x wwr: fOIF com::e:ilvill~g noB ;<Indi persuad ill]£: Ih~ IH)lhidiU1S to adOFH IL ThB ilmillii)Hv~ (lOIJ ~,dbe~co me .,<] 'mJ,l ih;::SlIiO:mI,e' ~,:~, cons,e'f'vm~ I~Qal:' s~~y~ nihl. Of, he 'li1\!'2Il"1lS. ··]f c,t)l~ld B
i:I~.S.o beOOilue <I I~i.ece of 1)<1le! Uwi I:h 01, <ll:chy ,_ I c I.itle:' Tilt;: om~); ~s.~l(l:!;'V on lIBo:rn~o'~ ~p\lemrm:n,t~ to c;ui:)f 1~iJ.eL'lII lbrwm:d: to f~JmI~ize !!j b HoB bo~~nd!l!l:i~s. ;,'lund lay Ol~t ~ mecha~isnl fbi: [Irn.l.;umging ,HiI:dfU'~.d::i,n£ it, Agmml:il: pklll is ~

i

i
~

diJJeb~ Febnn,aJY 2:0Qi::L

13 JULY2007

VaL317

NEWSI'OCIJS

II

Pa ra,diis,l Lost 'Then Regl8,ilned

~.m (l1ls~l.y m~g()rand k~:r["od!liCt:Wfmi!1J s.tQ\,taW<I.ys. S'~~:l.\"".;IYS says" Sans 1"~It:S(egg fanciers) ..erentuees Iike t~".(!res.~cr nod!dy.~

B ut Inllllpl.!!' (ievm>l:;J:t iOIn, wa sill'Dn lcted by (l~her :n:lI~ulll[JI1i""l:~bxml~bl ~(lComi.ne i'llil~m.el'~'r:s,t [s~mul.feim] piS!' dielMlded 'thelill1Y oWI~lP(}jlin I:h~ Scye~'~II~s a:rell~,pd~v~.Q.~n<ill~Iie[~, p~al!l1l.ts. Ih:;tIf ·of ~,~ 2Q<tij,c.cUl~lty.l~ 197 7. Jb.('i~yled a b;;:.~m'[0' I~~ i~.hlii'l l(lil$~eSS lts ~nda~g'-'ir~d d WiJ\ riot MM¥ t,.~"{)log~:;'~~'MIXJC~{llff~he iS~!ind. I:lil"ush vval,lder.;, They rmlr.l,C1l1io~V31'" ·,It \!-"<lIS :sodr:g.~lded, so disl~lrbed. It was iu 3. very, ve ry :i!lld c~)lIY,diI iQ[;i:' ~{ty ~M ic hH~ I blers-+and "')J;~my {If ,dk"tl pll!~~'" he says .. Subscquelill surveys 8!llUways, <HI ecol.og~:Sl at the University of

geabiru ..hUrlgOrl.

A IUllf-cel1il~l,r}1abrcl.~m}~dc""overraa Co~~sillC'

Sl<eIIe'.IfI.bon,~h ~n SOHlhA.fri~.r!. S:~um:V-dys didn 'it- give up 0[1 Ccmsine. hewever,
!~I(':

1L'f;l'l,f~led ~h.'!!I:rhe S!:}'l;hrdl~:; nmgpie

rrobin ~ioll<aJC] '1,"<lni5Jn::d. ~
O\\lm!1I"l\h~!p Cousine dm1m~~d of h~mds" aad in ~he early ~,990s.

~~;!IS sjnee

beceme the chief are1~i(~cl

of ",111<1.1 ~~pp~mrs 1iO~\le been a SlUllll1liD1~ ecoelldllm~.I.ed parli(.';i~'l<lIl1ltswitha vilvn.d de:s~rilJF !.rnolii, of 1~~C".19'lfQds,cape triage" :~l.i tean~1hass s pe:rlf[lnn~d over dle pm... ~5)le.~;rs ~Oli'e~!:ore r Ceusiue lO .. f!I,!:':silni~c ofwh~[il \.\!ijS Hh oefo['i;: tmnlijUliiS .uru:rIietlll."We c.~Uil 'f;rurddise G!'Iifl~''A;l''.', ::-m~ Saf.!i1I\!;':fi.y:ll. "If~, a, ~~~lnl'(:~lotIS, 5W~·y.~' (ly~ 'Pmd RilCI;:Y. ~ bjo'!Qg,]st at the: Uni~ ver:suty of Abc'~eel1l. U.K.

!i:lgk'a[ r~c{Jv\;)1!Y" t ~h~ 1l1~~~i!,g" A S~~m\"~;y~ Samways iIl~d P~~~r Hhehlns.

n~~

PrilTl'leV'a[~.ljIi!>i(ln•.The I2~S~lr j1,oo'dy's re'i:ov.,e-ry has he'lp~d rr!E!vUali:!E!! COIJ'5im?':s e~oS1':5lPll1ls ..

isla[lui.!i l1lilln~er. '!!ilrnli:mrike'd the restoraon don. F~n.'~I];n.eye~d~st:ed flrltuyofpeoJl.lc'" to. "~n.1

numbees ha.v,e skymll:lk.er,edlffo[l1l1
tean estlmated '90,000

n :S,l1Im<Hter:iln!;l
noddy

pa.ir£""The

hunt clowrl llrn~fe:li<J~ pi;:s" ~ll~. m'ld chickens,
tOiiJSer~fOlliQI'i." ih,e' ,e:xpb.inls.

bri['lg_shick., li[riI,Cilioning (!lCo::.ySlem" by defe~!ldllg ~U'iiddro,ping rood ~te~~1~, whiC~,!.Idd mltrient~ to i:l1i~po\'erish~ :roil~ s, S3111,1,\\I1IYS says. On.;: tlowns·]dJc: Theislasd's vira.Uly cot~ld anract PQ<i.t;:h~f~-~~ "partlcularworry," h~

Smnwa.ys ~ys •."There i.s IlC!thi.~lg s,flft sbout "'h tmsIIiI'[,,!: I..!lld~rtalc~1l with IllHit~lrY di!':.c.ipHflf: rather
~hfU'U.\vil~ pl;_)~tic \;\ioJ]\i,1;;r.'" Af~el." W1m1.~ln,:ushi:UiI:g the a~iells. SaIH\\Vays:s

In, impoiim.nJl \V<ly!t I~w as!gIjmls C{]~lL~re nl

f(} rce s Pi' amed m apouirees

s;1ij"S"as I hey eculdbe a ~omluhrQ.1'

Imel;lts"

HI

resto re the

the

~h.umit1!!'I! m.hore o

is liIO~$0 pretry.

Ceusine, ]1 Is private:ly o\vrted. iUlI.d thecunent owner b~lIlhkro[~edthe re.sI:otml.olJl. Crucially (Q irs eoology. Cousine ~ippe,ns never to have: "'u ffu:red, ~ nld!..:1Juhlf\;Sll!lilio:~~.• U,;ll is prob.:.bly oocause rhe islancl~<1~s. o jeuy. so boats l'3IJi1.~ n

c<'InoPJf i1Ui1,dreleased
tID i~.eslhl!il

il, eouple

of dozen ter-

Ceusiae's

camll. r~e:rs~~,'Cre11~"I1I:Ii[l~.eI;,ed the by

had been llel d .in c a p~"'vh)'else-

S~tlbe·girdHngble-'<!'c;!'!im.£!, e'~u 'Of ~.99'.::1,. S.~lce
then, "~helTe's been very ~Iinle recovery," Sill1i1l~vays says. T~n }tCll!1' ~~ro. tilL; ro(;'lfl;.~v~!"C .. Iuve' w:ilh O'r'::<luc::m."l~s :a~d Ilmuerl'llyll!i-l.l, H is:

\\itl.ere. lFour :Seyc~e~~,esm,]!;!pl:e wbiu,1S biulliglin tTl Co~i!!mc have s~noob0g~H410.~uld tlli;lrt;~ !l~ [lOW amu!lld 200 bmsm.,wOIrbieffi.bes.qer umdd)l

1L;;~nfolL!1.dn~ith~r011 Oll>Wlrv~y t'miiL:J!i d~isY"'~1l". Alth{mgh cru.lb:lleac:hiirn.g_\l'"ds beyond ~;leir
(;QI.~I:m~[. amille's nll!i.'l!la~ts ~iklVi.':lillllpl.ed;neL11:ed C

Timebell is oomng(Qr !)ol,lthsnt Mii!'~ bal'S. py iftiI m!l!letl! by h"bnl.at'ernlSio:1'I .. nd hili~l~l!1g,s@rnE!' 2O(I'k-o:f~.at species m.alf ileoillme mijml by thll! '~D1w1 'tlil:e WfI~!Jnv,'~~~!!'Irts ~di[~l. A "OOn~'rl~d: !tIf p e'11I~:rtr,5, lUIiii' 1I111dell\1.I\iIyto '~a'Ye 'IJi;mhmy u1~.terlJ, with: th'e estlllJ· ~r,f1ml@~l or a SoulJlf.\i1IM Asianl Bigt GoIll~~lVg'uijomRe'S~(ld [[Jl'litt, Thr~mglhout llile I'egi(!lll(, bat" ar'El! iHI .animal oJ in ffijJlI le~

~h~plE!' ~1'l'ii!'lRats b

~JE!'

scary: thtzy get sll!!ck in your Iilalrr.t~,ey

dri IIIR. y@u,r bl~od." Ij,[lYS 11gg[l ~illl!Ji~;l~m. a Il!liol(lgi~~L at T;l'ial~ Te!':h Uni'lf,~r'Sityili1 bllbbot~and1 h~1!I riI!,f 'Ih:e l'Ie\'IIr~'5Ie.!r~h unlit waril, pmple le g~ frollli '!!Ig'h' til 'a1lih.' "Sinoo :!lQOt. K'ill!g,nolli'.~ l'~i'Hnlh(!s ~ea.{~edOl!lt Uj, Mill.a,~ial'llC(illl1fllm!,JI'!~'lj,e:s llill pllll:D~kize the lillg~ e,t:ol.ogh:allll'iil~lUe g,f lhe .only 1I1illrnllJilal~ call1lal}le' Qf lPol!'r~roo nll9i~t.!'@f s!i!'fW~ W~l'!l ~O!IlS:II:[me ·as liI1~~h ail! ~h~irbody .wigihllf! 'i1l!~ecl:S,uJilaflll9llil !1Ii~ht-"h!nli!l~l!!Z per.l clllfllrnl,"" li<m:ng!ltl1l.n S<lYr., ..And mrm e spOOf'!i pQ,Uima~;e, rul't. A~li!. Tlhl!' Hors~i!l!ld's fruit b'ilt r illl durdi IiIg d uri,,", a $1. 5 ~ilU!'J.n oofirllllflOdHy. ~8i!,l OOIliSeUii!(Cll1ll'j.l'l,r;>l''Us b()rsJi,~dil) is r®U1l\d l.iiOnJiUll'Il be ll:mil:e:m dO~lm ~®: 11'10 lball>, [no dlmi.lnJ, 1i\IE!' G3'11 al1l,g:o ;aC'i'Gj;1l'500 IMan ,Aiie. hl!xm:e.~ A (fililU rig tin 0!Jgh~ ~~;r Fap_Hlr tlii! pUln~,e;lurn!!it B~i ~'e!i prea,ehi[ng t iii!! bill Qo.sJlII!I, KilTlg~Nm'~ Ir'~!i!r'!:JII 1lI,D1it, ~n'k rolled ~y Ill,!! 18rHishi America iii TOI~a-(ii:~' ~iodilll'e~sil'!i'I:l,anl!l~rsh]p. rl!Jflld sde-:l'lce ClJlld(O:I'ls!E!,f'!!ai~~()fn, OIW !.JIn~l!l!fillllleedils ~l!l wrb ;aJlIl~tUes, I~or nyil'l,~ r!»l~s,... ci~~i~d.Q' 1M.a'l.aiY~i![lFid IlItilE1r ~o u!ll~rill!!~.~nley'rl!!u Flde.r li~~,F@ hlllllt~ iIII ifll!!l ~~$Sl.H~"~ Kf!!lg~l(!lf! iilVS. A top r'E!$~arch pri@rily. m,~ ~whiLe., is ll!lJles~abl,lSIl a f\~'tOI'!;i! ~InetloWrk S of t[l}!QIII®miists, ~n1l1!rl1!' i! [il' ~n~lrie i!l'Ili!1~ ,ImON! "ryp'~k :5 Jle!ci:eosbl!flll!!l di;sn'lt.He~,~ Ii{qIIIg!liICIII'I:5ays. "YOII ~I'l'~ a:®:n~E!rllE!'wha~!{(I!.JI {,an't hfeil'lti'frY.,~' taKQI1t1mv WQrks:1lOJl' is plamll1lM lQr th~ i~I.al1d of ]av;;I1 A

~we-

rich p.ay 40n eusns and l~)I:Or <I, :lTaighfs slay: "Alii tIle ~rmser'VlUiO:mll~IT\)"&." S:mn'!;~":01yS :i>ays.. Gue;s~;s <Ire [erried in by L-aelli.coJr ~erOiD'!d\!bjG'(.':tl;111 ~osh"icT'tl~!Ummin~. ~ Cousine will serve as an ark fOlu such endc:ml le s pee i~;t;; like the Sey·e he lle s g[i,3:llm,[
db,rlll'lmfi'li).(O), ~ii1llTn

((lug:hr1iil,easun:s (0 .:mft:g~~Rrdrhe lenef>lri;lil fC'iIciva:~. !!.W00C~, migbil seem UllO!l'llhodo:x:::: The e.;.c:llliS~vevi na~where cdeb~,i~ie5.m,ld the ~\lper" x

millipei!'i.eth.u are wLllld:er threat dse~~lheTe in th~ ~1~b~p~la,go, B~L[U'l &lIInW~ly$.Ith~'dl;.~,pcr
" ..Iue ofCou:sine's rene\\1lI1 't:I.U:i1 o,l!Ily be f.illilhi.'l!V!i;ld by vi:.;ilip~gi:~C hd,fl!ld. "Th~ ~n~m~~ fW\i tlO urm [lI"o!!id of p~Oi1.~e,You ilol!tO:11 ~ he 'b!l:O~ch
next to
\V{)J] .~.

hs egg. a:ffiI,d it llhernUy eyel~d. "Mlmy people" he S;'~ys. . hmre fargmt(!fIJ1I. ",~~.a,t luke 10 truly experri~ h's
<'Ii

birdwid,ll
[U:1

b,l[

wm

~ate~thf~ ¥tGr.
~.xp'erl~ alr~'~hrilled,. "It 's~n a b5!obl i.cl_y ~~~r~ lnitiall*'{e, bilJil~~i5,l Pillul Rac.ey. \1.\110' 5hlldi~ b'll'~ !UI MtldaQlils(ilr.~R
"
S<lrys

U lII~e.r:rily 'o~Abe,rdeel1l.• U.lt, •.si"

em:;e nmure .. "Co~sil1le rescues tiS :iom~,h.d ·e'xt~llct~onofexpe:rii!em:e." Cr'l.QSineMllliY·~ "X(,.l~r~klnif!l Ad"~:im~\"'iU A belli11.e beg!:j~l{il:ge of jllSt: ~~l'U is iUII,f>10re for :1:[10 nf~mf!d sysl!)!'I~s":'~Iys Clni.~h'jp'h\;;r n~ardi ~ biodi\'a:ll:.it.ye."':jperl ;U the Ameil~cllln M~I!Selim {]If Na!l;lirill H i~t(wyiJ1i~NC'I~Ym:k C'~l:r.. But ii ~hQw;;" he Si:lys.lh~lt'·n~ ~,ve iru;.erve~l~i()g,l restornilon ... or cal'Q.rt;:i!:rve]lJt a p~.('IC~ ~h~l is r.h;:hetr !1Jlld !llO:ro rl:;:fiective ofilS, t'I'.I"J.•u:ti:c h~SAiQ.l)fdm~l wouM eXliSt if '!iV~ did fl:OiJling-" -R~ CIHlAR E1'ST'ON IE

EDUCAT,ION FO.R.UM I. PIE.RSPtECTIVES

,E:x:plerilllenlall~ D',ala fOrr StlrUtctUrliIl' Pa pie Fa
\~,'en~ \~Iriting m~ddress tIlDerotn;rr;::tt01lii oll:'live p<lpers: 011 :m.1.H::nll;<I~ stlldie'.!! of AT,P';bi,~.dill£ ~1~1:~ 'A!I3C)~m~l.~port\)~n1iro~ in S~l(ftlC:(~ (G. Chall(g ('1.t:1t.,. ;~Ret[",.dc~:icn:Ii,:' Lel:lurrs, 22 Dec. 21]1'.16. p, 1-875).. t)i!1D.e hl,~~~lc H .. tJ(.'(?t!tlhlg.~,,/t/lt!. Nwi:anlll /~c(l,I(1JI1:IJ' q{5cif.mC','~:(1). and OIle, Wil Lhe ..fnunwl dIJ~f:olecukl:r Bi~i11g!> [2't \i\i1: 11.:;LVC rIlucifl :symp.athy libr:ym.JlFre..uJfft; bUi\'Crylinle
fQrl:~e m~~Mrjll~. 'TIli:l>is ,mt tin: fifS't time il~c(J~~Ct ~1:rlUcll~re~ have heeupabllshed i~l Science (j), .UlC!ll wi II IlQ~·b::~'lm.ela::nri.ntII.e. 'We it iU'I!c1adl()!f}~ntU" readers !lmke!1:t'ilistfll£5.: crystal-

JtJHIM IMJl.IRBURG HI'S, ~Ec:Eil'lJT,SOMEWHA] CMN'KY ST)!\.]iENIIENT l~Ar U,S. IREi5IEAIlK~ERS NIHil TO I:'e~y more en pr,iv'<ue p~:ri~!'IIl[hrop:)1 inr;tuSil}' h) elli,pail1d (he scientific emerprise r'U:s. SC1'~fld ence <litl!vi!SeD't~lls researcbers to look. el:rewJI,e:r-e,."'I, Mervl:s:. Ne~'\,'so:flheWeek tl!WM.ay. p. 817~ p4f,rvi~!~~ SJobL;!ri!llg ~ r~"'~h!iiCln !h~t th~ Uu~,it@dSt~~~ has b~g~I~~ ~t~I~,b]~. .~.ii\,'grld I~.cl(:~ri~ to ~" ' science ou1d l:ec]iulO~)Ogy. Failure to correct lhis.si,nmt'iolll ,'vil~, n:::!mh in incal,etd3ibleloss.es in t~u:l~~If flU:lU!:re U~. ~'GOjl(lmh;: '1'1.'\;II-bdn,g, ( '\Ve alltese-dJC~~C{l:r:po.w.;lt[OIl,Amel,1c,IS i1l'st·flmnd a doll for sclence advancement (be~lln iill], ~912)1. "'\I'Ou:ldI iketn say Vol': stand :ready to heed Ma~hu:rgcr's, :[iJ~i!rching OJ:del's. 'We {I :11 to like boM~y M~iJ)IO;r"'\'<wd tn fund US. sc,~emific :~se<l[(:h, so thm: the Mooill iMtdliWil i(;ollkll1JJIlhnm:
to, cwu'~~~ :for Ihe rich ~md rQC~i!l!imxp~~r dfl:~~,3'1li'clS!C~'~I~lIiC.i.~cIWldi~ng reported $9 b1UiO!fil. the or so :iil :5:~"~u!:!'l every Wilmmll inIraq, AI:!!!]., liMecan't Our S 170 m~[ Hrm endowme rut. wlwn eomhiaedw i~ Oaos(lof~ur sister science h
~,dJ',~II1(:i('L~l:~~~ f(lWldmkms.

~ogtI:<Iph}' Forllllul.te ~h[ltb~ care:flUllr:t!<ltmcnl is oft.hee:;o;pt:fimeilfal<'li~,tl!ld d~riji,l"l;Id d\ir,m,]'l'WlS! seri-

isn't m.;,t\'~y~(Jm~l

''''I~:~

eus mis\akies :!re c,mgiu mud (orrettedllJefQre
Ilublli("a~uclI~, T~~ !l~.(leSSafytools ~!ld techliques<Jirewe~l. descl.1oed [foreJ!:3'i1(,npi!e. {~), ~lIl'1d rof~~gu:;e8, Il~~f~.inl ;mdwi:tieIYn.:l%i1 by 'O(Ur comm:u li1ily.ln~.61"em lin stroct'wlml <imJiysils is, <I

ilMI ~h~ m;t~d!}()f1lJ.S.

reSi!larc;h~rs ~~fi ~gh h

!.inc:!dry

by :Ii'I!I.t. i~eclernl flill ndilng. ![Il.~.o04. the 10'1'50 ~~:I:ivme U,S. rou UiI.dilLtionsI""",rd:ung science and tech!
~l!~:~~ iml c'()mr~llris(~il to dle :inlpm::land Iinportattoe offedern.l dol.lars,. I()dOlY~ UiUfudc.<m] f~Tndi~gme;I~~ i~li1tg,mr~y b(ig~l~ ymllng re~<LfCh,eu; \v:iU be fu~ed om of pn.l.lnu5imr~ science careers in l~.e comillig decadeunless SOIl':le:!~lillmg:us done, Eyenl;ua]~y. seme ~~l~y c:hooselQ go 'e~~l!,J\~le~ w do science: Cbi;~;;l!...'KO~d, and IndijJI,ar(1: gmnd e1\:~!l1pl,(tsof OOlU!ltries :mmpill,g up l~eillT' basic rese'lIrda effons, ¥Olll~g AD:I~,t:HI"ic:i.'IDl<S ..rlvaneed degrees gn wiJh, rh~iS~CS.,che'~mjslry. iiVil.cl; other 1~;;tf(1 s'd:e~lc~sd~l~b~le'$s; wmfld he r~t'ilie'iI!i.l "'iilrlugh 10 ~tdap( '[0 there ~lntri!:!!lIi,1lig ;:::~ltm,,':S they euric.hed.~~l.ei.l'oreignl cerpcrste :lDldgQ\o\emmelll sponsers, as f Th.cSJ::' dC\'eI()pn~,enl:ll:. cOl:llk~n'lhave "'ITlhID technDlllolg Ic:a ~lfli"ruits, 10" l'C~11e'MOil WOINll~iglle. ~n~(Jili.y'S~'i.ruf~tL where IUllmll'llily's k~~:flwlcdge base :sc~ent~.~G re:se:alli"chhavle never ocuninut::> to expOJnd OlD: fl'eillle~~e <1 bee 11ill ore imp ortant to eeon 0111 ic pace, l'l1,il:' lechn:ologi cal frui,I:s: of sci-

~10klgygr~~rns dasl[ribu wd JWist u n.aler $45 (1 i:1dlkUl 'l J). This sum

degree Oil' subjecti\,~~y l3 )•.whi~~. 1!>p2U,\tk'tI:lI<lr]y
(de'v·..Iimli!l~Q!i~\"·:I1e:i(),~~tkq, ~i:l:ildi~such '!iSI~f(]\,,·.e made by 'C¥~~,llig il[iJd,co'"'li·~·or.ker:s, E5fi(:1li1.~!a~]y eorreet structures Ilil7i~eeen bLI~lilt'l!t 4 ..5 Aresub
I:ltt[~l+bl,n .it

m devsloprnent and naltkmal~ .seclilrity.'" ~;ln~~ficre~a~ldllmv~:V!;;r beenmore i~Hpoua:~t to eCQJ.lllOllll.oCeveklprnlc:mu, d ~GB nti ~IEl: and m~liofm] ~'Cl!rity;

Last yeall,', the r~sk Force 011 the Funrreef AIlle'ric:'m hllm\~lionreporl:ed Siurvc¥ re.. su;~I$~;llnl:ll in~llical(;d 10% oflhc rmblic :>up~ pons ]ncre<l.si I.lg IbtJer:<J~.fu ndi n.i!,by rn0% a ye:!f for~Ji1,e nex 1 'seven years for lUI iversi ty

!:'('$c;Qn:1'l1~.ns;ck:m;~ and!
O'l.'iil.r [he 1){l:S~f~wy~~rs.

~lg;ill~~rii!l,g"

Th~

S!l!n!2

sur~y

Rhnwcd

~]~~t 49%

of the d~cw~.u~
!!,JO\\f[l\!I,{Ql'l>e

be~ii,eves the Un~~edSltIll:es'O1,bi.lI~.I:y ool1f:llpete ecOlJ:mnic~'lUy in the world has ~[l

Unless \"cequickly 'oome ~o .;l:1il ~uld~tii:t.,mhl"l,~lh,ll Ullibited
S[;lles
itS 11

II

simple-mindk,'(], scheJ~:ge lO pr:~\..,t~,;.>:~ sc~-

e~lU!dfic~~~l::'I!Iirc~~. :~ll:cremer.IiI~Uy ,~r tl~hClwi~. wi~1 1101 '\v(u:k. ~

scielud'ic.dly,deveIQpii1g"\\iO~td

rml,ioti C!m~l.d beoonte

rea,~that

it,. flf:Jt '5~Lrpri!;i~g[I~t some .f.lnh:t\!Il~ unnout lO ~\\IIrmilg tipl1lrn fl.mh~rs..:;Ji\ilillYfOil" this sc.li~uiny m take p~ace.IU)VJ.fC;\I1el:, ooad~rs~t.1!fil oopr~:wi~h;d W~l~\r the owigin;) ..] Cl'I.p1!uU.lnt'itnal. dali;t. net (l1m.!Y dcri\fed aiomie the t:lOordInaii~:;;,Only "I!'ffibxiwlth '~,tle:;e d;M~~an an c i!,,\'e.~tDgaunr J!:.tnlducl <Ill itrndependerni~ ,eV-dlwl<1t:ton tl!@I!il~~re:."~lh in ~reif!iIl;..'f!~r~'9H\iil o:Hhe p~bIlished strn.c~ure. Th~I ..st ~~!))~ this: ~~i:lppe!l~dth~ N;;rucml[:fI:1 ~g;Ji!I.llnuni.t}'.'1,dlh same JDlroo:di:L~·S (most SlI!4;.1·' (:esslllily from 1I~1i!m)fljorrlUltld~ ng f1gt':IlI:CICS)1 r improved the frequency \,vhh which oifigin11;11 eKpenime:llllll daDiI U~\i£ so-celled SinlCtmne fa~> tors are deposited .u theProtein O<ll.l Bank, lillIe response from and guidelinrn.e.s, r;e,(~r~ir-edlbjl dwrllblish~n~ ('Q~llmm)ity. hm~'~,wer. ~'ere ~ v~fy V;[~~<lb!e. Unfo.nllmltely. tl~ebig,ftB' the' inm,p<1tCl'
fl1CIOir onhe jO:lJm<!llh~ ~~ hk~lyit \\I;jS; Ul!<ll Lhe e]{~~ eri:mm.t:l~~t'-' dlalawm:e dfp'o.s,i~et!, :1 I n Sr;1~,,~'Clt. dur~n!i1lthe ~~iod frortr~ ]995 to2!OOl. onlly 38% of the depos;illOO atom~;c m,odels i!lic:~ud~d ¢'xp~ri!m.l:L:l[lI:(I1 d~Il)l..N(!liu '~and [h~ Cell ,,,ccre {)nL)n,~jgblly behiel::,

1~~C .~Iighunlll.re of lht1

,I

t:e1ility.
JAMES M, GElNiI'lLE

Presid'~nl.lle~ei'lf~n. Co~por.'itioo~,~,iO:l(, Cil!!TiPlo~ll

S1iite ;201 Tw(son. AZ as 711, USI\.

1. rb~, IFjjl;iijd'a~~ C~Ii'!l!~:9!M,~;~llrnr,l)'m~,1,ijjm' Sen<iu (!j~ IiIUp:ilf!1lWKllli~om'l!~ltr,mrgl!dmdrllild[!l'!oI'~:~lITrUl¢OO4 fun~Uulll'lIOO4t5g.JmllIl!l...:wblUwb

Reof~~m!'.e

I)

O~,pd~,

Dep(](.'ii[,~ngth~ ~xpel"i!nentfl] darm does

Iltll

194

13 JULY2007

VaL317

be used for the design
I.e;;;)] ~ri:D'm~IW!iSI' ]1'1 1.996, Hoon

0.:1" eXpIHI~iRdo]~ orbidJog~

et ,(1/. (4,) reponed one milliQI:I ;!lI10111l11l1:ie~ in!h.e PDB., anti we recen ~Iy del:ec'~ed 10 times as Irom:! :mllunmwlies 11m, :rDB a dHfI i~~.ti~l1~ us h!j~g~- ost of Ul(;l~~ l!O~l(J! M m .11ies are ofmi'mlm' im\l::tO:~l~[lIloe, a !l,"11I.10l,U lhu .. aad '" li.OfiHre .§~nai:in~ disO(l'\'l'S~I.;::~ that t"',<\ff<:i!'illlllrrg~!,~~Iti!n~ tlHd inQ~II0Nct~U'(!t,;~lqre5· will ~()i get iRle,fefeiftCe~
lOll, 3 M:e (2~7), ~, G" elill~~g,J.~" SIQI,. 5916 (.tM)Ol~" ;I. (A_ (Ir~II1!I~I'I,K ]iI!oIl ~,~tflfj$f :;J~;J, ,631 ~~Ol I\" L

~nl:b'Jii£hoo, bmit. does mean th<ll,1n] :uudepe:uad,e'lll
eVflI~t3[ion C!I:nn

It. !!o'~.1i 0I:mg ..1'tt;I:r: 1il~~U~d, 6.~:~~ S

be l1l;;1cdcof t~,'ee}i.~rimclll.:all DlISU5 fbiL~[~e der,uvedlOOliet k. the: case af'the

:36'.

ABC lr;llflISpOIit~'I" ~t.mcture..'O,lihe S..:;:1:iol1l> CI'I''OrS, .il1l, the <I.tolJllic.m.odds omuM ol:lly ~,lrwebeen cer-

4,

1),5&, 24,9 (;wOO) •

(i,I. Kl~~"Ar:ill

n

O}IM~[,

Sm. ,1.;i'IJjW, CqlilJlllrJ,9r;,

r{;ct~Jdif th~ (;Omph~H~i>~~!.lfdilTr.~~UO'_i1~l!il! d
It :~m::ll!dil'l!:l. !he: diffr.!l1iOfl dilll<\ ft(xIiI~,~11$ sil!lll!11(; he.lvy f1lmn derh~ti\l'C) had been d~~£i:led. No

PDB Impro,v'e,ment :8t:alrts

jOlarmli. ,~ [ilr 'I!SWe klul'l."~ delTIl!ulidsll1i~. We. l'a:ll (1) Sc:tet/c'l! ~Jle~fh.er jouma~:s: tt, o
ili~pk:iTIe[u srrict reqUl,illiemellbts tfur d.epositi!llg ,anginal ,e1l:.pel:inm,ental d311.<1. bo~'IiI,~Cllhres~~~: the publica:t.i(l!l gf ~rfot!4:'!~l\!~ 11!'t(Jdlii~fl in dw~!~ur~ and to gU\!>i".~'eadm'SIb::~:er to amdllCI: inde-

with [Dalta D'epositiiDDI
A SMJm SOrn~ARE, ~lJItW RECIE,NITIYUJGGERED
Ith~re'tJI':m;:tiQ~~, ~l ~ri~s fif
SID:LCilLli!eS

h."L~1 I1~pmle{ll1eSOlutiolm of 2:•.0 A and (fuJ2liIWe ~ dGpttl.ltOO <'In..·rl '992 will Ulaeuscof anesperimell;~.,1 dSitafile liO:2lilincluded an RIl!c~ set.The dtll~~il~'llfdle ru-reff'inl;'.II!I~e:nt proc~d~!re. Ule o~ilm)]9u.d re"~,"efined euerd ~IH~~e ets, s~mClur,e s '1.~iid,!Jt'ionreport~ :lor the orig,irlil~ and TlSrefi ned i:lQordimll~'es.,1111.(1 ll .R and Rr- values a

lIl.lf'l' s~:Lllcli.es. Hm\'e'!i',er.:a sll'bS't,nillia~1iI11III,m:ber 3:11e serlous !l;;f.'I:llffi, Usi Ilg tooa.y S IDQll~&,. ean earwe (~'I ~ilnlml.yof the e~:u;om::(Jt~s, :-JllIrm;nn'>e!i" provided] lha~ [hie oli"i.gin~1 ~Kperl,m{ilIlU'l1 x~l'ay data I)Ir(!: 3v.:1i.lable... Il:N'(!'fim:d~1I 1195 .PDIS mesduu:

~e

~lr¢awn lah~ o~.If:!'n~ (5}.

nf ~~.igb.;pmij~(;l x-my

['·',Retrnctio.lrn,"leIJjel:'S,

22 Dec. 20(l6.

-The c-rysl<:lll.!agraphic ,conmlll1tUl]i~y has ~(in~

p, .1875: (/.11] ..AJli1cmgh i:un, ease, I!l~e,in~C" lhi:s

~~j1JJ ad\'{lc,Uiulg ~h~ oop~llOiltkm (l( ~"p~,wim1."l1ltfd, dona, "filii s bas l'e.')n~l;ed in a deru: IP'QIit'y by the

pe!lI:iem e~i~~,u:m:iQ~:S ofplilliished models.
1.!\LW~1t'11 ]or!l'IES~ID
'GI~RI\R:1!) ], KLEWWlt,GIT :[)~piifhli1@'111l of (l!~l a!l1ld Mol~lIllar I!i!lllog)'; I~p~la !!J'n'~ l \!\EHiil./!', BIlle, lBoo: 596. Si7S1l4 UPp£a1laJ.. S"",~den"

cUn1!leprorein sm.!Cnn~5"~re \Mron,g fI~J were
~m)imllJHly re~'U::;lc~edthe: :Pm~EIIl Dilllni
1ai!:D"llk

(PDIB ~I 3)

s~

II bo'Jds

olllLe,r Ml1.!C'lU!e:s tl~<1l eimer

m:ec!llIli,~ly \\llXlflg or !l~ net eorreet e110ug~10

l~mlli(lrlll~ThQn3.1 Un[on orCrystt~]li.ogrnf1hy ,[Iller) 1·6) ;mel mmty scienti.fic :J;o!.!m'liL->tlli!Ll the depeSl~L~OIl ()fth~ dm.~ ~sn.'qu~~-db(dill\!: public~ lion. Um.rbllrru:tn~lte~.y, I I% of the mseromelecu-

CELL BIOLOGY

10··n···_.e.

B······o··o·-k·
_II I ,'.
tJp5f;o~I!\i(.9I' ,Cllemicoo£i

me "om_bii1a';ai1,,(J~
loge.her
OIl!

and M'ilJlpore brings
the most

the leadillg lools for cell b~Qlo9y-includ!ng

C1d'rolClnc~d stern cell products. All in o:ne

book.

10 ~~efor

your:self, requesl
Guide

Q

copy efour new Cell Biology Applicotion

todoy.
upsfa:fe' IOHEMICON

now pall'~ ,of MiHilPoWle

I

lETTERS
!!!QIb~~1Mil~~~~~,.!'O;'gg .sro; Q 1JirJ.. ~"Ir x~rt!lyS!Juct'l.ue:l; released .HI1I 1{100 :~ack0d lille C?"rQJl'Igt,I~~~.2 ~~. expermM!DJ.t.d dflla. and atI1olhe;rc 4% did ~JUJlhave Efli,wJ" J.:NOie; Setence seeks to enforee il pmller]y dCfim:ldR~ set. c I The nNefl~eme;nl results ~5} ~ho'\.\r H~a~ ... oeP~t'{]c:qmlmUrl~.Ey s~<i.nd"lrd!:i,W]lh t~.i!!i:IIl(lli~ Vi:tll0f.!!.~1!I!l!ih.~~vc n.'quLred ~h;:po!ii'liQ~1J ofg~:n~c~lI~e too:m:ysm:~,\M~];I'ie~:lIU ~rly ill1(lpim~'e tilL': qU:iUly d rac'ton) since 2:002, of mo~'t :nru.ctUf('$, 1'01 \(~din U'le The va,,,l Iln<lJority of owl.lr l;es;~: s.el~.learly ,~mpro\lt>d imil

''-!!;II<;

Il:'Ii~I1iS.11itel1l;[UlrTI,elr{lrIS.

CFt\. cOnll1ol. :mu:lh:s, 1II.~.e

'CFA-ill:one

~"t.

comrols <Ire pre!l.e:nu:t~r!eigAlt 1,0[;01l.iQI'I!>.inonrlmUlwlc.r1pt: Fwg. '~;[lj: Fig. Ib; Fjg.1. 'Group [t Fig. S. GfI.'J!illP B: PiS. 6,. Group D; .~'1g.7c. Gn"OWiP13: T;m,b!c I.• GrotlP D;.IiIi~t!I,Talble 2.Gmup B,
IOEINI51E In., F:AU5T1l!IAIN

~n:U~of

R~ ,ii~lttin ooml~g:frfO~~ingii;'(lm~~ry.

repre>ell.Hmr pildJ4i:s]me;,c! dat" on the pelr.il~meL~t .. rml~rsfl~1[) f' type I d im.betes ill NOD Iiii~ke(2). ~1TOll:J!!.~Y!ill,rge jcuruals and !!c.i.emi :Ms to ever Nf.shlu,f!fu/. sta~.eI(/)dmt "a fCA,!I~l~'£t'f]~ur(lil inthe report by KOO!mll:1 t!~ttl:.. nmre rigomus~y :S:~.mi.ve ;br the depnsinan ~ of O:I~.I was not ~.n;r;lm:J:ed ~·,s6eIllll:IJl0'li;l,oR.P' (gil~o!!jenlJrlllll13;1A/S60'::Itl!,;!!43C. t3). Furth~r'. in thei r fl$p(lllSe to our Tt;'C~I1I,jc,11 dm,e orU~mll e.x perimel1!tIIK·r~~y'llua 5.>. RIru·~ D],.• }, rtr", fJlvm IllS, 63 (2OOlli. IItOB'BIE Ill',]:~OSlElNA!NO'!GEJ8rI'VRI~NO Com.1l1CIll {4~.lheye Ia:illn ii~~ I1l1meroll~lo~:lI:~ "[~J:~,I;l e.",pe!wi~BI'. ~CMI:$,UMCNim~ii, lPostorfioe b911l1. 6'500 HE! (imn:" inducli ng ~~e ,~.bsl'~Je(.~~l<l:t Nijln!l!)e1il,. Nethefl~1I;l!:s... meats of Faus~nmlli ,!'!~ (If. lack adle'qll<Lt;i: t,; fm~ru]:;.."tlnd ·"w,.,;:t;(mlip~~I~ ~n Wn!~clL;lr \\ihy IR;e(elfenlCi! S P.UH'lnI'<I[I et Cli. :~ave 11m pertbrme\l~ll1e essenL (. ~ G.IGhail!g~ ~c.~~AW!:l\ 50: UlliQ<'l. 366a tial l:ro~!!ld!!;;'"Qm!"II~l\;i ~~I~!va!~l O1IIQ~e !1,;l;_ml!1]~" (zo[[l7~, 'T~)A COmMENliI"A.ND l4j. These SI:a~em,eflt.'J :~nl.heirpapers are :11I.l.i5~ I MUSil"TAKE l~cnnoNt 2: G. (bIing.j, Mort. Bi;;il. 36~. 5,t6 {2:007l'. l, 1i.M. Bem'l2IFII!'fat,N~i£A;ld~.Ii'e$. Z3,,23Sd~OOtl!,. its inliJ~k.lt:imls in R:i:d,1ard StO:L~.e·s OitheilF'!i'\~ise representatiens, These specific' Fe}\. (CFA}~ 4, 1~,W.'!l, iiiodtG.VJ[fir:t:l~CSiJII~r.E.. E'.A'bdll<.N~m. ~S'l ex.cenelli~ ~rt~.de "A 'O\1011'ldwi thom corals?" ..lone COnlro~~,\,\ere pub]~:ilJwd:UrI20Qi~.. in nur 21'.2 (].996l'. J0.!wlltd fifClflli(.',rll.lml(!sli:N,alim~ (JC~)I a~r p 'I"Ne\\'s ~O~llS, 4 May, p. 'o7!) I'. 8t()(~eimJriOCllI;ces IS;~ ~!J!!~~ ~hi;ip:ftmB.:.adbi,tun'LWl!..i.~. (5). Ni:shio ,({I al C~lie om JC~paper Ul~lll'cona I~.CIU1UIIl to]11on roe fs, by eitiug dffi'lllilgc (:;, ~IilIHIUlOOl1!1lt1hl~1!I J:!f 'Gl'!fI!iaBDiIJ'il~. COOlm~OOI 00
rHltlreim:plll'OlcmCllll'l
jill mlfilil~meru~

TiIIJ!:'se lre5u~l;s show the be'.mliefit s of slm,uumg ~perime!l!it111 x-my dl)tt; Ih~ (,:hl~'1~!lll'fii\.re~ us to ke-e.l:;l old pl:gi~elin sl:n.1Ctmwre,tt":vanl: 'b;~nliLe"d~ C!ifrc"!ro~i f~el'!1en[ \vith 'lilt;': RJSC ·of t~c I~HCS~ insigtu~:s ~Ind reclmelogies. 1:1Il, .uJ:tic:~pmt:uou 01'
reels.we

IP'I'lrma.nent R;eve~rs,allirf

Ma~sa(!hll!~etB~m::~'l 'Hoi$p~al.anlil ti",nard Me,dical.
Si;hoo'~ ;llmmm6Ii1i~lD!rI'l<IOOr.iIOrli@5. Bl.li~clill!ll ]49,13!h St~eet. 18icsto:n, 1M Oi2:129. USA. "

:Di.,abretesin NIDD Mliilce~ WIlED:ISAGR:EE WI.iI"H HQ,W J.INISHIIO er At

,(1)

RJi111WIffiI(!f:i

I. N'i~hio tH'.I •• Si;1iMa" nil, 177) flOO61. 2. ID.Fa.~!ilrrlilil'l fl' ~I.>5(i~nLC~,M, :l!2>'13"ZOOM; "1i'i\'udtlKtm~,arg;lqifcoil1lenlllulll3:1>ltUO'M24~b. 3.~. i:);Jd'am~\!I, ~!1hlreihe~ S, ~l~~wri. ILlt !),]I!.E!. I!l. lfalJi'l~rnilll" 'SelMa 31~j!, 1~23!i!O!J!3·).. ~. ]. N'iihio It 01,. ~eMe 3:Jl.1!. 124.~f2!OO6l:

:t

AD ilve~l(s Pers,p,octiV'9 onl C,ora I Dal1lage
r

1020017
13th lnternational
Rio de Jane1ro - 8roz~

uno
Conqress of
- 25. :2007

Due to the' gre,at number of last mmute registrations

the reduced registra.tlon 1:e,e deadiine was extended to

I~MIMUNOLO'GY
I AuglJsl2,1

www.i:mmun ori o2001.org.br.
l l

13 JULY2007

VaL317

LETTERS
inflk;n<1:d b:y "div,er:l; clumsily blfe'.:Il.kung niT (~IHmk:iiof eoral," ltis l!ll)~nitdJl~ lh,n reere ..
ati.O:JIl.."I1 dfr'llers \\!,iil:ll. all oecasieu, ini!.dr .... QJ,1(!l1lly j,l1Ijure cerals, .11()~.re'''re'[. havebeen ~~certified I: SCUBA d~,'\iGrsim.'C ~99!1 afld!l~uvc logged Ull'Cr 150 ocean dives all (1\~,Ih~ '!.wfld.,a~d. i~"l~;,'\l
~lirmel have seen (1111)' $[loradliic instances

I

of

dh't,."f~~mpacti~lg oor~I;s.Fg!'mHi dij'v~Ii"~i~'ll,gb~r~lAt .ImJ~d~,yeorals ~o~pklre.A;'!. p'i'{iofof il'i~! W1MMililiiOOItHi91.0f!fqJilooR\e1llJhiLlIllI"1513.]51],9'7;:. by ;)]I~,mEljor certificerioa agencies includes, thus vie~~~ ne need anly visit Bm.mi.re,. 3. pOpU'" o instruetion {>;)j1 r~erpw~~ct~tm.Olnclthe V'i:;~ h~r dtl\~'-~$timlti~ln ;Hii.di~~ ii<il~ (If smne (Jfth~ m~~or,i:tyor dive tmm O~Li'dID:~~ n:pe'.tted~y leo,"''Orld\ he<~hhl.~t"ooml reefh. Borl!lli~:e inM~I:~Lted IfI!ESPUNSE.TO elM Ml1:lNili IN "'Mlarte flilliBll cill1l1ir:il go]elrS a1liraJlIiIsi eDt luI:'(:: div~n> abmu ~v(]<id:~ngCOIll>;;lCI: \",rithcO~1'I11 Sl:rolll:;l i~i:l:d~n,h;m,ilfld,~"d~llg laws elu"~I.\')d h~ ~lxyi1:o ~,~r7'I~~atMille it iHeg<ll to bre.,k 01[sell coiE<'lI.. ~nh~Ib,~tllry Siwitth iin IGAIA j <lindother marine lire. hi~ undeni able thm om SignaUngl ~Imthe IFeltalll'fbalin 1(,,11r.;l~ ~-ef~,au:e l;hrneOl~l1edby humanaetivities, S ~l'b!;~C]H'~Il[ nbl"~$~I'1! Icoopemti on wlrlh the e b[t~ .it :iis unf;lilJ" to i.11.1IIpl)l span. divees in a~]1 WarM W~Uife FlII,r.td cslab]ished: a vas,\ m5rnilm: dUll Dru~ilm.g!iDleII iive IJ'" paptdur reets cO:~;lllil,bute: S~i£'1'1 in!cil:~,d.y tlO this P'2l.1t I_inatoa~llp:~el:e~ytl:1l.compm;ses, the: :~sl<li~.d. Rom.aJl'IlIY,llio,1 IRooa, '(iOlfl~ilJrt'•. 1~~!li!l11fIl IKhill~I'it." INOII1lMAN IKARI N AII~'ol'ls,o' R.epr~5i<ll,,¥elilezjk>el Ben4irnl,
r

'l'yzio etCII. (~porb, 15 Oocem'b!ilf 2:Mrf" ip. t7,aB) reporl:@d lilat mammal GiqrLiOC.IPI m9!JrI!rSi!I ltiin~1l!!nti!'.rolaoony"'I:oinnibiti01}!' S'lriU:h ~ i"~l'I1!iu.ilOOlYl't~ aCJid (GABA) ~i9~~~~ dunrlig &i!OOr,.tl'!UI5 ~1I)~ernfi!£It~ retEll ri'llbr.aIJli i'rom2!IfIO\lIic O1rnong [he~~{l$l e[lvir'oIlJlilJ.!;:::ll~;l.lIy C(Hl.~C;~Ulll::ii ilijul)I, ~f, a liJody of ~enc~ ~UP'poJl5lliie pes.lllillt)l i~ld:n",'r.dl:ltl!l~S J l:Il!v(;l'met (note the ·'.ann}, of S!!I.O:!"tMt. 0:t:l~ocjl'lts retM5e'd I~om th~rml pi~uil:alry eluring ke:~i.,g~l,d diviw,g "'llh~u~rs" d(;j-sefibe~llin thL;; tlliliv~ I:loDHlIll~' lrom the moltii[lf; iJ<llII:klll~Ml~mlD'@'r,ro:Iilarticle], and thri:s:pastime depends; all! h;:I\'inrg d!t1cm:~Qlll.fP'Ol'iic st~e~s, FuU,~_tat

pl~gJ~.t Ra.th.el'll~<ID.ln t~~rei:l!l;. lweuld argrl.lelhat H1:!l:,gro\\!q;h of rocreariorud dhdi!~g h. a major bel'l.eHt to the fUUH'C of our reefs: Dive'!".'!are

Padllc Nor~wte~t ~UQlllllll<ltJool'!!l.OIy,. US.!\.

mc~!anct, INA99'3S2,

Ru:;!,tem

Klh a z:ii~}@'I!'

r,~~'l (iJli\Ytocin
CO:MMIENiI" IONI

T~ill!lJerS a Tr,illns;ile'liIillllillliibiillo'ry Swiitc:hl in GAB:.I :Silglilla~iiml!llinlhe FetalllB:raiin [J111II'riilillg :D,eUvllry;';
WJ·nlQ:l

"'IMate:rlJla.11 C1IX.:fJ:'o'ci HI

c~ ~~illl.Q1iI!

W~ lMttid the hWlq,lIie:~~$Itlat (Cf!!150!'inc'LIc«i! re!i.e.a5le CiI Ill'igglilrs a pMI!I<Jtill in~i lJitDIi'IJswiloc!Jin "t <Im1frmoolrric ~tid {~IJAI s:igllli3lilfllg. Th!2 Glftij~~.illil<llo'!i melh'ylf.l~ed!lrf~~ did not modify 'GA!B!f\<I'!'Mrl'g Joml and iQII2!c:e,tILY~rchlaride,,'OocWlI.iri!lio:m in :li-d~y-dld Hit i1ipa;ocampiiI! n:etlrDM. TtlQ)etJiii1'l willi II:fvr1 ill1fli'l1'i3~urltyollfi,e lielal rat IIyPOOlil03llii1m(NleUroll~phY;~ii~ S'ij'SI.em, tlTi~e m~uU~wgg,@M UTml,~~il'lif11Ui~ rat 1'C1~IJJa~1'I ~ mainlY pr~KI I:iottlte Il1IOb'her. FuU,~xtat

\!Mw .. ttenCiemilg!;0!!1~tgVroD1:ili11I.llul!l3:17!SI335Jl9i7!! s

MILL~PORE
IMMUNODETECTrOr~

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'['he c:om:iJinat;ofi'

(JJ Up.sm~.

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logelner all the leading tools for immunodeleclion=induding

the leresl ClflHbodies

for lif'e! sdence research. All in one book.

To see fo:r youJI1ielf, ,equ@sl a copy of our new immul'lode1ection

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www ..mUli·lpcre.co:m/OneB.ook

FilllM: CLIMATE

d~l::;;. busjin~s leQd~!:'$.!lml a 'II'i:iriety ofo~h~r& ]

'Try'ing to Get Uls,to Change Course

mysd f heard h i:lmil.giliv\1il it severa I l]:IiiI~f5 in the

y~w~ bcf«'c he made the fi hml.,

IHllni:i. 'by

S

li'lcYJliw:m'cm

learn mueh fronl A,n T{lith, the wid!;~.y\~il;""Vl;jd fi lmand Co.U~,llP':Ullio:ml, book of tiu,:'same ek~qlli$[s
'C3J~

t;j~t;re~ :.;ehMI (lfn~h eh<lliilg~direC\~:on a~mo$'r
<1:1: once~JrO,nl. ;"];1 i:lld~ sli nguishable S.igll'II":' Wrnlb,~\,~qt th~ ~l~i~pln~r;ch,m.gr;:~~llieceurred. ,

la~

~rysuds to drop

t'lHt

of S(i:~mion,. Ol" I!mlayb~

:rnntr1~'r us.

V~C!? P1!'e$~I;:;IU

AI

I liml Go:re:-; sciesce ,~]id" r>.i~oreimpnrmJfC e:xllcrt .~n@a.cre:~t.tw.lllllfields: ~e~~1 that dley ~ue:,n 1e<1~1cmnfom\ble\~~ith me his (l'."~~'lana'~klu!>, [hi? seience aJlld~n same ()f eases ~dmiriij:'!g (l,ni!!; cI<lri~y f!~d ~'iJ,,':C~r,;!t:y. CeIil3,i;Iil:ly. they say. he has the gist 0 r course,
la~:n, l~~\'1~m

GOf~.
UilQ

critics will find
now

n~,liliY,t:ii~)di::;ptqte,

They

Hl'])"

lIIhey are impcrrlill1lU. 'i'ffld:.:s: Not for the selenee,
.. 1~ilg~!ShGOl;e;clk:~

i[ljm;lice flO doubt

U)

d~,n and

th rou~h lm.~ s p:rcsentmialJioo:sI:Hughl:

l>o:m~ gnod

S(!i(fnc~ to
Nor 100f

now wide~ beli,eves that elimete I;,hmlge is under w':f:)i' ..nrad th"l: it is ill,n!~lc~ by ihllln,lIlS ( 7). These <Ire two ~.1Klj{lr co:~vepu"ll shfJFt'LTbe r.lllb~ has net )''f:t eeossed the 0~)Jl~ it: cepmal barriers IJCI tlm.erecq~;liIit~oll thim the pres~!1!t~Um~uic ,dl"'!!1g~r~~~u .1 serious lh!'~1lr
publ~c

The

l~l",l he' is: w.rung \'~,'bellD, hei I'Idi.cBl~es dh~~rledocean cl!rrenl'~ l,"r.! euuse Emope 1:0 cooli-<lhm.ou£h lO 00 t'l]r; il \\1<.13. Olllyrooelill"

m

l11ode~~n)J thol.nffillJ ;l;~iM)WShe Ot)im[H~oo:.~~iI1g ~ is

runny people.

(he v lsual i,llm~:!g~'!i,al-

.mdl~ll~al oluuens ~Ire pm;sible.31t~,lQU~,1 they s ~n <rJ bC'C:.kl.!>e to cl.e:<ldngl:I~QL5C thil1i, !lInd fDUI,"lh

l:hQu~l tMaooe: m are n
\~veU (i!i1o.g.en, c'I:t:lru';
3:1iloLli

~l:ulidie:il.I!,;we,~t

~:m;slIJn;.ic.ie~~t to (lve[\!iillu:]an the' ammspbe.ric warming. Cl![)~ m<lt.e:s pjj'("'isitHlalt\t'lf!,d~lsions sound nlOre de£i,lJii~e~hOlU,lprdClic iIJ~, sl'ne:il~tisl might H~'ullk~;s :sam]c v.rm:st·ease OIiJ1,t(:ClI~nes: l sueh tiS the ,t:~I:lIMTa;IP]'jiC' mel of ~111G[eenl'~rld

,tirttm:~i~,o;e. l..~tl1er_dn:ir iJII~Jl'ort.nm:~:~icsi!:!, the'
m!~hgf'~ &~1~~~~!1 ,a~-

t'elmlp~ to dOSalVl!l:Lhin.!l

eveu l~arffer thill1mOOf"
ding cl 1l1r1!1tH::, deeiphertng eCOhJg[c01I
re~!miQ]l~lips. ai~des~gn'I· i.!.l'~]m"'-Cfarl'){):~~ C~lC!'~y

sources, "Vh.u hefuil1J.s drl!~ei~ lif.l hL;l~p br~!,g <loom <n, dlOlntge of oJ)iilJ. i0111 in a resl:st3.'I1t pu'l::!1\:-; Gore: rem:uml':l as, ~or ~,nUf1r::~:h<l1il ]1,\'0 decades .sdeumti:slS have been i:sstIJi~~ \1I,i"tUf]]ugs, Ih.u (he releaseof gr~(;i1hf:J~lse gases, prineip<l~iy,carbolL1. d.ilo;'(.ide ,((JO,) •.is probably aheri~g Ellnn!'s dil1il~jltein wdyilh:;rn wiU oo(>:xpe~ sive and even dei:ld~y (I. 2). 1I]'neA:~TIe[l(!<In publi,c ),3.\'\"l.1Jcdnd bought b:uggcr cars, ~ Sl<'J:l:tm~,CliU~, the AJI11erii,t:;!I1I, by A~,oc,i;u ion fur Ih~ Adv~!~e'~mt.llIU &:iiC~(\~ ,~3}.Am~ric~n of Oeophys:ic<111 [Jrllim~ ,~4).Alher~cm,lM,elc(){IT'CIf-' • IQgic!Ilill S,~ci~ty (5). h~'~~tl\'lrn)m~!lw] tr~!~~i ml C'lim~ll~ CmilJrog\l (61·.• md oth'i::i'~ underscored t~.H':\¥<IIrnl:ng:s, and ca~l!ed far Itewgov~ erlml,'I:IiI~:policies ttl dt:;J! \'l.'i'~l di~l.,oochilnge. Po:1hk~mms',i')]'e);C'lTh~ed \A,' it~ii, Ilofsy stat isties. sJi[FU~~~ :iiaidUlere :Vs too lJiiuu:::h dOlllbt .un{JI.l:(g sc:i:e',I,nisL'> •.and did~.Olhi.~,g. So.wllJ,1 if; il nl!;U O:lilly feoi'.'l!~dy rhe Am~riC:<I!lm.pliblic'ilrnldI lhc~,r repir:esentfu ive pn I icy~
m;)k~ffi ~~~'Vl3ibegiJJlrlli(! ,[jQ~1;;!mil)I:I'! ~iW dO!;,'$ pi~y H
II aJ

bewise

w take

lie. Scie:J!ll,list:lwmdd
some of his
]1!l~tliitJd£ to

he~rI,

Oore C3n be giV'CI13S much

credit

as M(YOI'IC

lice) and thea :p:rese:lm.l:s,the n!sr~ltl~:lilIg ,e!:11ie~~s.

1,L!avingthe !Ji~'iCr to €~PCClt)!lol>(' r~"'ln~l!l.NOl for these devdopmC'A:ns... T~clThhn (:MJiI\:1d OV('ii $24m]iI:I~!OI'I~n 'the boy,: o:n~!(;e. the bO'lk has \~13~ a .sc:.~ernw~Sit would do.pl!i['h'lps:.. but recOIn bf,li:l:11 1l. b~~!~ !!:~I~~, 6n,QOO p eepies ~H~ i~, t~~\?lIt~:>e~rc:h~!M~@doo~:~ u'Yill,~lbU' Y,:,!U'!i ttl pri~,l~)" ;nlld ~,.,~nl'i~!i()\ll1. DVDs I~avebeen sold, dro:nv ~myatte'~:~tcr~itoo the ITI!1lIUe •• S~:ud~!~!J.;: l~i[!~ ~"h~i.W!~ fibn i~!;C'hl;)pl, ~1Jre 't1~~ Ml'i~t signifiC'.<l!lt Gu~ !I[rncwr~d~h~presun~~munic~p;dities <l~ s{~lediWlli.uugiew~n,gt' in ~:lfmniuml witb o.!. :s1:lI:ewd ~cognititllii of how peav publ,i.c spaces, Word of~,noUI:i:I, andl~J~is yea:r~ plelearn and how t~l"'yI.ll::lke dlecisi,Q't'l1>,He A.c<ldemy I\"","rd for Best D()Cl:Jln1U~iIH;U)f tdl,~ steries, personal s!o:rie.\i, Scieml:~'isl:S ~ypi[:i1IUy try ~oprescn~dleir 'l\1'()iIi'k: 1:0 nOIl[sc:remisot5> FeaI:LJ1,m have also Fueh::d .ti'u .luemn'eniem Tnall"s success, by !Si~TIpi~]yillg tire: .1~Je Ollit of it S:i mplificolti:oll ~[is i~<SI'mc~iiive t(J"cou:iiider~0\~1Gore did il,. 1n<1)1 00 IJiW~:S;S<Jry,. b~1 llrn<l!l ~IS, II~QI tllle key. Ft!1oL., h~\ll'!o:rkOO.fi)r ~\~t~. yll<lJtS M the pms~ Sch~mi~s sholL1ldlilOl .l'i!'!'liply d~$IiU~:~~~ififumlly- ~_ .•. ' emal1tOIl •.m:eelingw.itful.cl:unmre ,e;X~IRl~,ener'gy
sis, lr~lrn,e)'w.mn lh;ei,:lr~rox;];: to hElve ;<In), rele~ ~

convelfltiol1J1!.1 puhl.ic Opi.~lion change?~s it

ki~d ofphusedl~ngc,'l~}(!re

set~d~'l

C3tl$it

llhe If'c'l!'ielllli!r. U.S. ~ep~~~lllll<ltive for Nel'oi Je,r~e~'s 12tRl Oislrlct. i~ ~ e U.S. H~$!l' or R~iPfesentitNes. ~lOil9 at ' lonpo:r~h Ho~ue QiHi:(i~ li3nrnd;rng". W.nlli'ngI4l!ll!, IDe 2(1515,
lJSA.

e!'l.si~(jel'1>., ~ookl£i~~" f~g11i~, a~~h'l. H~ ~rml.d: iH1.d ciol~ecled rome of Lh~ best i:1IiI1 age.s 3M'lil!lb.le' .. in~1 ud~n~ti~~lC,"lilIJl~ piJt,::lUre!). Qf~~~lti~1g~.~cie.rs. schel1l<lltic5 of ooe~1iI ci~~llmi,oJ~,. Rilid ~~~,'S~I:; of SitOn:!1l1 I.Wooding,Ami :h.cp".!'act ~d ~ ~.,.m~ij' dilr(t~m;;Iudkl"mJA'es-pa:.lililCi"H]ilc", i~'ljl~ ~

\lfln,C~oo:.'Yo~cltl1¢ir

sped,.!I~>i.(h~y ~1H.ll,r<J, ere- ~_ •.•
oOr.lnliCls.

.ne 1VI0"'fl~m:m,t+ 1~1'ese::~1.1 OfileSls :9nd C

a:~,cl,de\relop~'lCrronl(l~itic&.

8:
!l:! ~ I;i ~

lilis:talk pel,'h~I'P'5 hundreds of'I'iim~

i'mI,

from of

As, (:Jime develo,pS:i'~,e SlOilf)' of sci.erlllific un&rsl;;ilndi~g ·Qf [he ,,:&1:~t~ of iilunospl:w;:ri.e COx. he ~111:J~V.S'!JlJ:'ilphs 110Uitlly iii men1'i:onof with the !~tHY!iOO;son t1~.;;i.l:<l\.e~l~ld lDS~SMimat!ollof i

~

198

BOO KS. ETAt.
!~€l

I

gmphs

'IO'miJi\~

d\c

SWI:).

h~&.he ~1Y$.lis~ j

~C!l" Hi

as pl'ediG~0d byhi:s

wist: fo.mu:il" pl.'Ofessaf

se.;,j;;realpol icy d~;l!!l£e.,". h ls of! ~~s.\i(ln \\Ion':lef!! ln sck~noo,1t::ncourng~ readers m !~~)i~ for a~~: us 'I\'.hobelieve scielm.cemn s.e:1f\fl'lPlUIr of l~.eir views aOOLallh.e issue, fJe<ld the ess"llYS.. reflec 1 on tbeir OWiI!l beliefaand Ihenlmke .,-_n:iv<ul!.,!&e of the, edHor.s.' Qog,e'l:I&imrodltC~i('lln book are the feeus CJll e"o~jpll.~fI~al. &d(mlil·~c ~t[8jnll'G'IMS ( PhJ). ]evd) and rhe ~riIi1P~~<'l~j ~m~11 son dii~rences between males <1111d fi::IlI13.les. Ah~J.olJgh ~1!iI~PQ~'~!iI:t. di:i(.;w;~ivn.;; oV'!::r$J!l<l:dt)Wi~e these
SllmllU!lli~g ~Ilcre<ls.e;sn ]l<IIil]c.ipini~]l, Oil' women i

R.oger Revelle (c~~. hen. ina dencmemll':lcnt werT he I~oiicy.gi.'IIing us a delllr ull!dlel.':Stll.rn.di~]gof !]'uy ·(~fde~ctive a novel, he :-lhmvl' th,~l the ~f!m· ~O~~I UP e,~.gc pi&Ojlle i[I oj d~bal;e. p~r:iltilJ['Cn::C10~ over 600.000 }>e,U'£ D1rllatch.cd lReller,elltc:es al'i.d N"0i~e5 11113 llfec{.wd of CO" 't.~{ll,ll',eiIU~Jlt O\"e'1' the !i<J!1l11e ~on

" pl1'rIod, "'Ah~r' cOl~c'~ud!es LhG:vi~\vcr. CO, is ~~~1\'O~d .fl:;!~J;: e~!li:le:llf IThi,1ii d~dIY~·W"rie;;U'!-'I~lt ~:h.e ad ing disease vt"C'I:om:s,.mui t~,u~ spre \,,<Ili1lisliil,~ inS ~{lildls('~p~.~, .I.(;r.~\'·es the \lh.,~"'~r\rith G~lre \
Ih,e Ini:SIID;~nl im~ll1e~i{m tl:i'<ll

i. s~ 'rb~ 1Ili!l:lm;ple..N:UnClla'l R~~OlfidhCi:!~l1ci1. Com!.1Jl1 f)i~' lffl4 ClImalF.,jl5riifmfjk An~J!IIfm ~"'i~iII:~al ~~d:emlf 1'ln1, W~~'I!!i!1lg!~IiI, 1(!}I79l'. 11K.

":liiIdi1~Olll~~tJi1.1C:(l(llcll1U:siQ!lJlis .. MYn'liiilill.l ql~ibb.le~ withthe

of di.ltl;Jl'e dUILIIg.e in ~h,u hisl;oric record, No.!l.elheles:::.. :ut is Hue tiNll diillHltem,odd.s, iliilehH;ri;n,g~lfiieCOl; oonremlEb"luion as a coupled
~eedbm::.k pL;o\iude 1!:1!Jc.:dle[Ji~ ~iCl~pecli,ve fil:S.

ao, is till,e drive]'

2.~. f.~O~gIiMII.,G, ). JW;iII~ ).]. [jlhrauiii.~. {;d~" (lWtNI!! CIl[t.!lil~: f1it!:JPC( S€.iMtJ1;'('A$.~1!Itl OCamMd91! U:iii~. J!i1!ss, (,a moodgil!. 1990). ,~. WI!!M',;ii~a5..oITlf~ r~5 raafl'!li!;Km;abt.:d/l~~!:I&
mf!l_200Mi2l_

4. ~gJ[j.llr¥,~iJa~p!Iliq'Jdl'm~!~

ti!rm~..

iIlIa~,ng~ Jl(!silJ~n.

-

~mJil i,~ ~~~somlbl~ to ~cropll:h~ mod~ls' predi.clion lIml 01. [i02 tiQrtcenl~rio.l] :sever;:lII,~.lrl.es, gl~'Ie~ICI·[~~~.lli~Corded ~n lhm 1.'CCmd wim 1.~lI~.I. il'il,l~mpe:l<f[:u:res Si:L~li~,arl)1 !IT~l,~I~" O

Gore .id.cllJc.iEics ,CO" as lliic caliSe., though l'Iot [he c~I.lprit Gore cre.'iles :ne'Sh~n'id!~b~o(ld b~m(!:$ and villains, R.c'~G·Uc is Ilfescnl.i\;ld m; it

moJe~

dfl,Y

f'ad RJ$v~~,", •.",nng th~ alarm, soi
i

~~.vihN.iJmmcc:.or~mt{'fJ.:lMiel!mii!l~iiI~~.~tmi. 6. ~.1. Ii!c~gh1ll:~ "-1.,, Ed~~G'irmUe OI!l1~f: nve'StCirnltF< eo! .~ {(ambri(!lgHlmm. i!'i'~S. Cambrit!!I~,~OOll 7" ~_IML l!lrod~rr. .' (IJ.ilrnel~I".I'Il~ ~ rJ'm~',l7.i!pri1.2·001. M p..A2~" 8. II..~~lt,. iii. !i1.l5~,~Ijjl~9,18,1957), 9. O•.ltiie1illil[" ,l!Q,~rnKm qf fnklW ,il.,Cjfil\r;lc.ll!mricanfklU/e m"lh ~·ll~Ijj_di.J~rQ'(i'~~E-it AIilair~ ~~ 'lllQrll:, :.100])), UL R. Q\f~n.. SH~ Spmrg (jI{~gh~!\1 Mlntin. I"o~n. 1l!lli:i!). 11. s, fII.:I,(ilI~, It Stl~o~Sr;jln(f30S;, 968I].oOol}. U. F. !t C;. !!e~Ji1, !V~.~ ~'.i! i!!ll~ M

i;n sclence RUiI,d,i~.l~yrei~:dbn;e $ter\'l(II;y~ I;h,ll ..tTwt sd.ectroilil. <'Iml career decisinns .. In ~~~~I decades." Ih~ pl:!1i1idpatiol1J in scienee of women relative W men h~IS i1nc['e<lSed d!"Jm~li{:~l[~Y. ~"amrk.i~lher ~s~y .hm~l for 11ydei!r.:~lo:[u d1m.in 1966.\11/omel1 e!l,r[!l~d on]y 4.5:% oftlu!' Us, doctoJlI:~deg:ree;s in~:1".fuI:Y:llicaill

seieaees bUll1y

10

2:000 ~1is pero~m!~~e ri~JlI l1<ld ],4.6%,Fotf;" tl~.cbkilogi.L"a1 seienees, WOIY!£\I~

earaed :~2'%of:lh.e dcetoral degrees i,m. .966 ~

Fall"vi Ila~ml" Gore .i nvokes cOln~)",]·~.s.or:ls,,\filh

2007, ~.A18.

U!1!m~~~.

n'f!l~.

rhe robacco ,eo'mp~nies .. wlm by sO\1i. ing doub!1fbout the ep.udemiology of S!~l,loking caused thede"'1LllS ol·m.wnyp~opk: ~Q.),ineluding GO[f"s be~:o\~ool i.~~e~,Si~.uilar:~y. ll~e s ~ay~.
11101'(;': 'I:\I'ho

wou~d

Whl

our

Illall~~~I"{l$.o"""i!l~

doubt:abo'Lal

dim<ltJi:: clmngc·. 'I'~lefi.hl!;l .;md

book present .~.()!i)mr1,\'Hi!l~ Sl);l!~yr,~minlseent of Raehe I Cil~'.~il~. Silem Sprilllg va). which
by drnmal.i.z.illg, seience c:~<lnged 'p~lh~ic per;.

Cain Eviidence lnfnrm 'the De,bale1

cept ion ,11.ldpiJl:i.cy;
'Us~lng the com;;cpl.uaJly s:i.lflip'~C "'¥edige ml:.dei·' ofR:oben Soco;lm1l' and Steplu:llm PlIC .. la It / I), Goee :lmggesTs that <I. hal 'f:.clnv.Jll: III <lJl'" p~oil-che:.~ [() c'flcrg~ effie i€!7l.c),; ~!te l"!ilI!nivC' l enel]!Y g'Cm:~"lJliO:Dl., <Inticarbon c:~ptm:~ could cO[!iI;,;liwly puU um plil~le(l'Xicl ffl)!'O bri f~'k ofrun3ll.l!,r;!y climate: d13r1ge .. The responsc"!> he' ea.lI~ ~bl' ~,'C~otso !luncb:~II:1v~mc(-d tG'Ch.lm~t{)gy .~!; i'lliI.1medli,<1!le.,e;",teDils:ive!. eve,DiI. bal,oL <Jpp]iJt:,I.~ liCJItl~ ofll~,~c:~{}il~ e'1:JI.!J"~~!July.awi~Mt; I~lr .... n;:i1u'J;, ing 'C'<l:rbcm in ~he e~ne'rgy mi x: s~op ellen"¥Y

n.e

in science, rWJiy }~reJllli,l()n! J!J:Qmt'r~ hI SdeNlXt? ~11Tr;;n>, ~'fid,e:lIl.ce tD cnJ~lch. Sl.rengt'~en. quest i.ol1l, 0:1" CV(.':rI :re:fUTfC ecO~u~ Wll0n~y l1eMI vie'iivs. 1he ~5 ii:-S~

A
_ _

hn~5t ev~ryolle~lt!l~. ,m opinOC:Ji~l abmn the rel;,'Ilh<e deflirth flfwQmm~l'I!

a~md42%in::!OQl)'. Simihnly,. Diane I,~a~:pern f~po[)~t:i<th.u in Ih~ bjolugicni ~fef!;~~$ Uri·' cludilllginedid:rn.e. fmIn whtc~~ WQJ.uen w't:JC ilclheely c;.'Xdl~dt'd not vt'iI)'~O!1gago)tlep<1Inictp1fil:Jml ofl1lll.en andwemeu iu Ph.in ~Irn.d.mediC'~:~pmgnnms i,s now ,a1)PWoIX:illl:'ll~rny (~qual, .11owerVf:::J. as Vi['gilJi<l.ValilllnDilo~es. wemen Ilmg:~"iS 'l~mugh thcrl;I[i.~b;; I(i.. f:<li~(id'~ gel ...... and re\,\,'ff (}ft~lemru~ ,~res~i:io'llsjoll.'!: <md premeliorlll>ilf~~r 'fxJmple'~.!'Igdle:i!:" Umll degree, .I\g<li~!''1 [his !:i'lCQ~.:u:"lgiri,g btlekdnipof WQmel~l. increas]ng pa~.t[dpati!OnJ in seienee, i, t~e e~"'Y]*i~SrgCu::; 0]1. three main m,e~1$. oif ~hol.iI.U'.ship'. 'fllil.ey hll;rgt':~agrce th~1 sl:Lbtk' Jb.e~ iefs <lbOlU" who e ..n 1},Im1ici,p:i'lle iiI:! ~ciem:e-~Iia.e:ld bo~1in. by WIlVAIf'E!![J't MQ]rl!~ d~fls.e \"~Iiilo i!lK~n_ncl ~f1:d s~Lecl WJl:iJg'i~leDii iut S(:i~'d1c.~? p.t'Iftici:p!I'DltS and by these ~iII1!o
TDp Researchers [Jeilat'e- tl1e iEvlciellc e
St,~1f(!tiJ. C~i fUid

deeide \,,"h~th~ro pnnic'ipal(lt
~rRcl p1fli.licip2lllion and pers.ilst~nt~. lhey oireer dfupj:lIiUiJ.! ilu('r-

Wi!1f.11c4'M. WiHi.!J1ms,lds. .~ret,uiom of \\1e~.I..d~oclmle!rred s~y~ bri~, g 1:01iI~' !:'1."C~*1t fi:~d~ fiud1n.g:> ,abuut (':ugliil~1 iibBiivc Arne ril:::.m Psvc hoi 0 g i C 81 il'l!;l!i= on theiliJvo!,.emel1i~ of ~ies: thllt ~~light contri.bll~e '1,0 As.sac ISlmn, 1~~o'lIshn gt{]n. i W.,iSW:, ch~o~~n·iciGllt ~n!i!l~pori;atio~)~ im"t~i~t~ 'VO:!"lm~~ ~n(~nwn i.!~ s.f,.~~~t.l(:~ ~l!)J)C~S in ~i(lf!!J;~. mio~!~dk:Ol!.!!;',d Ole, 2001. :214 p,p.$59.95. IS 8 N '91'81!i<91 ~ NB52. bu,i:~ding~.1J!~ re,~"\..'tlb]e ~!~~'Yy.,.n]{1 cnpture C(H.lr:se:s and cllf!::e:rs.Edil{JJr5 by!Yl\.'lrlh~~,lmi~[l:sl ~'lIres .md and S~OIl': CO~. ,1jJ ore hils l;.inct:' gone O:W,tD p~ S~:eP~1H:D] C 00] and! 'Wendiy spil1JiiQ.1fC.'Isflr'ling S1COI:e's. l'illey pose .vn ~D'lI~;mlled'iate ftb'ezeol'l ne~'1.' emis5:~on~. Williams ..de;'\"'~lopm~Yl~;}1p~ydisclll~ ~~,e ef]l.ergillig n~:ethod~axes: on i(;:i1iruOI1l emittc:U's. ill. ball 011 itlC'fflJlid~:li' cllmologmsts a~ Cor.l1l.cU Unuvcrs]my, <rlll.koel :~9 olog:i:e51~mi I1nd.in!'ls about~. widemliii!;l,t': or le;Jdi~g relleillf(~l,c:n; on ge~ule.[ diifferences i.rI bio]ogic~~ indk.mors. i!1c]udi~g pr~!l<lwJ CClat I!igh~:s. ]m;Iiie~:sed ~!el e~r:h.::jeocy recluire" alhi~ity m cmnri bl.]te ~mi.:cli,m:I, infor:un,1<lllil\l\e hO[,lrnlollics. brJiu develop.~m,!:I,l[. bm,i:lrn ,~al!ern~,~ me:::nI:s,for AmleriC:<I!Il C<lrs.hl!IJ1.d, <lmorlgt!llc<lSSOF com rib .. ilzf![!:O'I1l•. ~\lohniJi)mary r['oce-$S~.~.,~i!lcl brain c~~n;i(ln h~lp'~l.yJii!l~!Ot\i'ni.lrsi'l'!V~ ~!~~I::gy·~.11'). ,",~Si.'!!ys~lmWl~tuiJ~m;d1:~~rslmUiJ,;S. t'o ne le]~ s' t~.e "'"'i.eweD'S.th,n they ::Ire n~' p3'11 of IlI~Ors pfeSel'll: dleill." :S~I·mlge.s;targl'Lmenl;S" :l>lIP~ ",cliV<1t~o[lrn pal't~fn:sme<U!mred willi Ie illd:ivli,du~ !~ S[OI)I, !I-[~ilu.en!clJ:;.1lJle!!\iI,;; isir~ldh~no~wld~ rnt! th~s>e: t\ig:~!:1the+i' 'h~~I: h datll. iH'l.cl'UlielU~.flt~ 2d~ 1;!!1~;J:;~iif! sci""nee·rel!il~&1 b!:\iks. ~!}e:'illibelief[.;;, <IOOutthe current pOIrti.cip.atuon of <Ii sense O(i:frl::l!IPt'lnsibi.~iity 'I'Uii,d ~mpa""'ermenl:. MiJl!IiYe:ilS~.ys S~l(lIl,"'"C'~Slil: thernle {l~':subUe bi.\\Hefs ill dCC~SJi,om; ~ollcerning t~~e P(.~·I.i!d:pjllUll &~'PJ!li.r. Th[Qug~, illi' 1Iu:;()rn;e'r.~icm n1'1l1t. 'Go]ll;!IIii<~s The reviely,e..r i~:a~ tm~ E.clliMlciliii Malh~IIi<i,ti:t::5,5[~eiJ;t:e: liQWI o.fmen ~ndwQlli1l,enill science. A ::!er~eso.f ,~1'Idiecrn.nor.ogj' Pmgfi!ID, Jljri!dl!la~~ Sdlool ,cr IEd'uCfi,tio:n.. Shldi~s of~l.ectron d~ch;iQUi!'S:i.mtustl'at~:Olll,tt-~ pe;n;;;on~Ul~d 'l~l~cI hU"l~~ "ha~g~ d'1::b~te~!ld IlJI~hllel5iiy af (a mO;rni~" 8ier~ett~. 4611 liJ:l~f1II<lni'l'iI~L mJ3db [t acces:sibl.e ill,1i:!I.\~:ry dm;~ ~,li:!l:S :mtol only ph:enomena .. These studi:es~r-O'l'iijded r-espon8:e~k>e~w. fill. 94720-1670. USA. IE-ma,il, .imId~'nn@ bf,J1;1?,I.e~J~i!ll!I re\~~d jj\jbl k: ~.~p.."I:dry 'IiM~~?iiO !llothrt!JOO chi~ b dents W~l~, ill rml:t fa Iio. <~job 1I:ppti,c~niGll. ,m

n;e

I
Ai r( raft The ),et iii!> A!rt. .~eJh,ef Milstein. A!ln!ams" [IJ'8'W Yo~, 2:007, ]'O!!l pp.,$2:9 .'95. 0.35:95, LLS.9S.I'SBN 9713:0810992856. PlhClltogll'ilp~u~r ,Mik~L'eilllpreseil1L'S ~Hed~e dig~'taL ilFlltlg~s or current IOl1g·di:li~an(l!! ,60 i!JiId r"'j!!!l'io~!il,l i!j~lil'lil;lrs. ~ir 'ri'i~ghl(lf~. arlrl;! (O~PQ.rolW.i!' ]~!~. iM~st Ol~ th~ phQl'Qgfaph~ w'~re t:alk,e;n tllaiililllg d ire!;tly I.!Ip hQillI ~he e'llId Oir ~he JUIlllil'i'(lY ~l P 11.In1:5 a bout to tllu(;h down. All~lI'e ~lriil'l~dwithout a~y ba(!kgro~~d., to empha~n~;e t~e ~~ane~' enlgfneerfng details (lnd gr aphil( designlll" M:IlIilY of ttl!!! j~ls we.1r '5l.alu~i3!rd .• H wmdl IlIl e5~tnlk~ fngt. 'l'~rli ne palill sthernes Othell'$ d hlplily CII.l~lOI11~~€<d I reaUl1lelnB-sm:ha~~'he~e Boeillg 7:H-7{]o.~ thatSo!J.!lhwes~ J\.]rlil1es ,pl!lIUemed aher ~5!lIteflags.

~ndiv]d~lk.Il. es'Say, m' ot:llet ililfonll~ni

on tha~:

\'l.WlS~uribu~~d H~1l~i~ Ot it f~m~I~.\~rhe:th~r the~llLs'k is tD admil someonetea gnldl.late

I~J,\(lg:li<un,IDSC.!CClsemeeue

fm~ '[C:lmm'C

.•

or 10

'S5sig)l'l'1grude to 'Ul. es.. \l.ay~d~e studies dellilOiml.!."ll:'~l~ that dt'lc~nne:lu~, assocHatr:li!li with II male IIfi.uiri,e ooli!si5"tem~:y gel: <Jhi~nerltllll~IiS than the S;a:!,1~!(l: dQcumm~ls !)sSiod::lbc.d with ~ f~llu~Je m~.me. :P~lr!~""fUllPI().• .Eiizflbelh S~lk.M Oimd A:rie] GrdCC fC'p'cm Oil a study ofa. ~111~n;edecl-

sion

~(lf a c''1nd'ida~~with '1!nn\I(lr<lge ooC!o~. When the db,ssie'r \/Il101.$, <li5SJ(}ci!ned wi~.1],a male [lame,,7i[)% 0']' the re\fie\~il!['S rec'f..~mmellded

eaees ~,nperlimnalll('"c of menand \"'(I~,m:nrn OJ] mm~l€:~lics ;L'i~~ml,;~t", !l\~ ~~iI'O\~~d r h ~ the ~iU;IfS. w,m:icb I.. eads II)!Ide to ..rgue fDr gel1'= der si.rtr]i~!IIri~ie;s .mtllc:r lhm,l d:illlel:ences. MallY "lLlh.O'~ fOCmHlli1tite p~Jtf(ltln~m;eQfm1lile.:.;"llld lcmales !I[ the extremes of l:rntC di.!!:uibmiCi!mI .• when: I;~,e g.1pis louse bwl.~:li:g~il~, r'il1rwm~\'illig" TI1(; eh~pl:Cr by D~vid Lub:ill:sk;i~l!1d C~~lllilhl Bl;;nb!['n,\.' is (l(mIJ.i uf sev~ro I 'Ih,u m~ntio'n5 d~!1;:i 19808 till.lc:liltt search by Ben 00w' and JWIIi~lu S~om~ey.in\'Vhich Ihey rtt"fU!h~d srudems,u'mlder 14 10 take the SAT and fO~l.Ild t~~i<ltfQ(lr St:O.IT::S
tM:f 700

and brain ~.(.J1"U\1~,ly p<'ltternS-lll.ctcm'fJfl<!l1 may phil.)' n.ll(':~i!'l. di(;~r;;~t'nlh)ing~opl~'s ~lpHtudr;;s; ~rad .in~eres!;s i~Jscienc:e'.lhe:ses~~lIiIlies are, of
necessity .. t;'Ol~d.uetedwith Il"Ci,alively £~~mill.1:Il

(two s,mud~l!rdde"'~flti~1l$Olbov,t; tlre

and lJne:~1.retLdl cO:mtf1k'~:~llg eenelnsleas, For e:'):'!1'~~~~l,~.e,. Gu~ ;and R,,~que:1 Ruben 'Gur dn~\c\f,1lu!::ll'tmor'i t~n:rnp~dly d:eveIQ,p~Ii!:! to I li)lt:~mi.qu~s; ~ndlm~tbor;lologi.es ~~ ~.Ct~~sd~[!,!~~~~ldonelude th'lt "bk)~:(lgy c caa ~)~l~Y 01\1'OJ;"I limi:~:ed 'perspective.''' i rl~:rol~ghtheir efFortS. Wilifams.., Ceci •• ]nd I~.ecOl~ml:m.tDl~otTer readers the o~~OI.IitU'~ily 1.0 explore imp(ln~l!:n issues in the O'IlgOL['I,f! clebliilles ~mr:wo!illG1id~:I:I!~ll~;~.r~ic ip;u i.o 1.1 ~md p(ln;i:Sl(l!me~' <I.l fWDmtllHl ~I!m seienec. velume ~J\I.iOV~des:t1oughl:lid 'an:d lueid vi.e\VlIDi'lmts: 1 iIl'll~H ~s~lyi&t\e;who clii;3J~J'~\;) \\'Hh each (n:~~!i a:1~.d. dun'ell: il~l.heir i'l~el~~J.~tllli.o.~iS of the same t fwide:nce.[I: a:llso d.mws, ,~ue.lI1tioll to :1I1.egi.eel:ed ""illli~~ble:lllh~1i ~l~y~l:~"'tti: ge:.l1lidl;lrdifferem".e~ in £c:t~['ICe. ~mC'h a...:; tile ho.ul:S· per ,~kdl<lt i.ndJi".idmdl~ :repon: in P'~u;~u~ng their eareers and l:mde·<ottTcs. btl'~e~;lfil:l!l;1Ilci<!1 OI~,d ~nldh::l!1~U.!tI'11 ~\,~f(Js ~ncareer d';~~~!Of1l.~l19killg

s,lmples

n.~

Desp:ulellli.e d~S::lg~",elrn:le:;mi~ rnlI.mng, the cO.mi~ t.riblUI;()floi",~llll0f a I~ eencnr th,u f>CiemiJlc l:.'Ik;iU is, deSlPCftHely needed ID address l.hlt': ehalIcn,gc~, fm~'iu~ us, l,~cy(:xprc~ in dcl~~hU1ut 1~.o~g~lf[~I. md elil.t'O[ur",:i'l1g ~~iYSlhei~1i'00111- ~. t Wiiunc~t to the g(i~d Qf &ur~ct~n~~b]~ arld ~ i~:rer-es.ted iltclividu.alls to science .. }U the same "i: 1m:t.eased li11linncipat~o:IiI.• !11I1997, !he AM'S IBo<llm oi Dire(~.Ot5 i:ndllded {le-ittkI righli) phys~ci~tand !!'~~ari· (~,ffi! ~ r:aIIINtgiifl,€er ,Mildrtd S.. Ore~s~lh01luShm~!>ideIilH~loct}.mi(:ro~i(;J!~g!is;t Rl:~aIR.,C(l~we~l{(ha1r), ilnd e(.ologis~ ti~l¢.th~y .;!tdurn~ ~l;is.<fi.~trch ~hl,;l~ul]f".:!,~,g~ ~.a:n:r:Lu'bdh Qm:o {pr'~:5iQ;\l~no.. of f"r;;tgr!'! th~il mi,ghlI;,1gmf~bLI t~ Lo success in science. J'f/J{\' Att"JI'I:r Mo.m U'Vmerr in S'c,wem:-el1 <! teaure: \~j~l.en 'W;l,S mm:ibuled m a femal e mean), the rnli,Q it 1300ys.~o ~.~iriL By 1991" raises ~mp(lmu'U 'qj~vesiion!\. The vO.~UIllel,\,jU ~ ~i1ilt:l1i:U~;, oflll), 45"~ reCOlml,~,el;lded tenure. I'~, ll.'t12 rerlohad ~ljroPPLX~ fIIbmll 4. to ;~" I); h has [0 sdnm.:II!I~e iI.U readers. lO lhh~k mm:e deeply c ~:hdr separate ehspters, Curel Dweck and mcemlli.y fa~~eJIfli[nh.e.~ 1:02.8 m .1 (.:?).These lIbO~L~: Ul.ei~" 0\'-'111 bel iefs, comm~lt1l~lelu~.ml.d I,l z J... c(~uelynn:e Ecd,(!s discuss bow subtle p iii sci= ~ ~:~II':g~ fl'elI"C'Ilt'es ~.1l0ti.V'ire some CO~.11ri.I:l:uWrs acuvities.as they OO~lE!l.ider l!lrlieip;nuoll d:~ ~

"I"·'~

i
s
'i

b~lh:lsfl[)om '11\11'10 sho\J!.ld p;)!'flicip~,t~ifl! scicnccaiI:Tbct ad mlissLon.h:irullg •.~)mn]otli.on, :u:td I"m1:di d~e isi~l!1!s"s \i\;'e~:I: !Sl~a~er I;~oi(~. ~\g f S!;%'cFo:!Il ort~lee',;!,~Y:l! t'Q~~side'r :pt'iI,'fof.il,mrmiCe

to crlHc~~

(llh(lJ1;

fot j,~orlmlg th~ evldeuee

males' sul~er~:O:L bi lUI~csin Sliel~.Cle.~llli:te a most

for

ence and hO'!'! t\~

("U!1'~!lS.UiI'C than

0lL1~ i!~dhridLU··

~Is ha.'Vethe OJ11!l<JI.uLUnJitieslh.ey deserce .. R!e're~en(e5
:1. L {II '5,llllll«1" Jolw ~opkfru MI.l.~. 9(4~. 6 (S(lpl~mlrtf 4 1.9~~; IlIW',i!1!1,Ed:IIf-ij~1l!mi~!1!'@9'!l7Mbt1~Me'fS.liiln:i~ W ,2. R, iIlIolilili!ilmly. Ch.iloJl', Hl~" EtflK, i5:1.{2:jj), Al (4 M.ilrclt!

~

01] co~~.pe ti tive ~nBl~e~~ "li~;i;I(!!Sllli •• .ill,! C~] as

the Sc!lilio.l.astic Aptiu~.de Test (SAT) ~,nd t h~ Tr'il~ds !ij [nt~~tia:~:1.'1~~~th~m~tlc;; ~.~d Science St~ldJ1. o:i1kn ()«~Ijilllg:Ii<nher d~I'I,ie:~'em vocativetlmclilllg8 iIl,]b.cml ::>ei\ dun:e,,;ellcc::i lun the n~(~rprol;ad(l!lsufsrllCh evidenf,)~, M~ difl'er~ ~~v~~ ofpr(\]i!f!!'fu[ ~'Ionl1iO.~\:s, b':.l\a~!l~·h~l~Ct~II:(".

drfll!:l~.,nh: $nl.'I~;[ill~f;lt D~OO~~l Ki!'!wm ~!rg.W3$ th,U giving s'.lJXlchd .sclm~:~II.·:;hi,p1l:or gn!l.I1II~ ~l(.cI~Kivdy to \'lil.l~1e!l! "b,ilb~$ them ~o cnter ri:e ~1ij~~.ey mll<l.y l ]iI,eithe:~,"e.x.cellin IlOili elnjoy:' A ]'l,u.~~b~(lf~~s~yi&l$ I~!:{lvidc v~ry' Pro ~ r ..

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ia
Q

200S.); I1!1lmt/'lJh!'OOld~.();J!Wt~i~lIi2:6!'2,6,a.0Qi1,02 ,~lrn.

~

Crilti,c81IAssumIIPt:i,ons iin th,e, SI,elrln Revi,ew on C,llilma:t,e C,halnlge

!ECONOMICS

Tille: SUm'! R~vi'eow':;a~aJlvsis ,l(d~~olb::lt"w'!'!rmll1i9
eco,nomics depeli1d~ 'r:I!l'I I!cCI'I'lo.mic di:SIt:QUnil ng.
30

e:dr~l!'Ilile vilew

Illr

~h~ Sl~n R~vi,~w. It ~dlillll;::d <iI! dark pi.cTi.iir~ for llln:e globe. "[l]fwe don"t act, tlse mrcr.,I1'11 costs and risks nf d~n~,Hch!I!~~ wiH be c f:CJjui.Y<lI.c'DlIt~o I,osi.,~g at :~e,lsl 5% ,of gllob.JJI o D p. [gress df,rne stie p''O~h.llel]eae h )'Ie~r, no,w.lIml fOl'eivtl'r. If .1.wi.dclr rml,se (]if risks l;]I!ld iin~cl:~ il5 ti!ik!en into account rill;:: estlm<lt~s of dilDil.Ulge could rise 1:0 .2 0% 0 f GUP O!i mare,' Thl,;: Si~nl R~,,~~\.. ~~'JOm!ll~lld~~d . iug~nl:. i~lm~di!lle.'1~1.d s!h,Ul) reducdons ing;recnihom,Oe§<lS emn:u5s,iaJI1:l>, 1000 These fi'lild i~\g~. dilTer t.n<lltked Iy from eeonerme models [Iun C~kllbl~(,! aolO least-eesr elllLl,lss:ion:s. paths to s!.~biI:UZiC c,ol1l~emr<ltio~ms or P<l~IHl ~h:H

I

'!l NO'VC'IIn]:i.eiT 2006. the :8[':~[ish. governmentpr,e5f.:l1Iled a Icompfl:hens:~\'c !'itlJ,ldy on th.e ecosomics of,cl:ilmlll'1J:edmlilge (I).

balance lI~~eosrs and bene fin: of

reduetions ...M3illstre~J1rll ceenemie mede b.• dl'; fi nB~~)~fi!'lid h: ecenemical Iy b eneflei ill ~o[<l~eSN:~J~ ~odily!n slow Wftrl!ni:!]g. but efl:"i~ielJlt po,lic-ie::! geJrn,e,mlly ,~nvolye' modest rstes of 'emissnof)J!;: ]'\CdllCli.ojll~ ;~:!11 the l1e~.v tCMi".ml.followed by sharp reductiens in the : ersissieas ml:!diu~Hm]{IIOJlg tel'ThH (2-5).

••••••• , , . ~

~

~ •..u. _ "'' •• ..

__.••. ~, ~ •~ •.••••.•• .••.••.•••

2{115

20SS. Yealr

\""<'11' of showi!ilg [he slfi'!'!,g!::llCY is 1:0 C;ilCWLlllIJI!che '~(~aJjbo:lll [,'(.• o:r t H" p(:ll;lhy (1m! c;;]rL1O'I1Iem~~.si~ln~. A ruCtl'I1!! :stmly by the author csit.inmtcs an ()pt]m~l~ t~[OOIlI ~x l~r 2:005 of arol:.md S30 I'~U' ~o~le~ibo~ ,~n too:ays prices. 1'1:::;111.£ liiJ $.~.S by the mid-2~. st ('ll;:~~t~d:ry ~~dfurl~~f ineoo(lsing fuft~'rllmiH I'j). f\ s,i~,nnii:al" carbonprice 1l<L~ been fmmd i.nl shtdies ~:lmt :.;.ti:mllt~ leust-cest Pf!t~ t~l~t~jbm;,:;~ ~ the ('O~ Cgi~ce~,t1I;'lliQma~[WO lill~.e.s rll'eil1~liI.slfi.ilj le¥e~:s (1). Thes,h'<lrply risi.~mg carbQD'lJ [ax: rerem r.1'l1illV~sl:l:lH'mIS [oda.)' are prim<lrUy hJJ new., il1i~:iany ~:ow; b~t fis~.:IIIg. e'm~,$:->ionsl" t1ulg i.ble, H:chul.olog](;IlLiIUld human c ... i tal. p redlIlCli.own.rmtes,. '\~"eMml t~l:is;Il\ie dimSlle':pL')I icy llii! the cmll:ll.~ng dCC<ilde~"" mnl'lgc-1l are pred d~l~l:edto rise relative to OlUplU. As that .r.JD:llJJ~il1 \VEl.icll policies to slow gl.obd W·tI'rIll1i" il1g i.mI.a.·e-.u;:illlg.~Y ~~ghtCJllor ~mp lip O'!lel,·li.nffi.e. Oe;:CU~fS. :ill becomes effieiem to sbJiH invest~l~ms m'lM.I!nJ~~)!\;imeosh'tl ~mI~~ssi(llns n i5! A:£JrO l~,nb,(')!~to!''\; .rru~yfl1P'JX'i:!r~o 00 a ffitltfeR\ .~ lil'rge t, bu til II; <It k:al>~HJ times the current reduetiens lind Ithe il.CCoTIr],p:<Inyingh:Ugil!fll: .~ globil .. ~y~rer<!::IJ:;dCjJroQI'Itax ]mpHdrl in dle ~~ c'lrtmn n.1JlI:t!$, ~~e I;;X,ICI imi f'I,~ ofel~lbsi,lms t KYO:~~, Pro.~oeQ~(sll~~vij ~$ SI1'!rn~S\nnpliQI1~). redueeioas d,epclI1I.d!!J '01111, detl!li~,~of eosrs, .~ WJ~<:'Ii IS; the .~ogl,cflf th~ Ql!llP'! In ~l,;;vorl'd fb~~"lg-c!;. ~(;:~r~ing. [hlil';;'Xl~l~tto wbicih ~tllild i ch<lngelll1d di<lrna.gcs<lll"e lJiCiil ~,ineHr 1\~!I]:re t<l ~ :~:s.pmd~l.cliveRDiI,d ,c<lpi d~;m,a~es. art: ~::I ~,nllite Ii: ~~!i ~ndl~ (~(;"l;l:Ch:;;~fl ;)!.tH),'I'\;:). l~~ l~.lghesl- ;ii~d ir~~fsihl~,

or pulieies

A SHl_ll:d~(d

1iII!lIitl1i,t ,o,p'thnal (,arbon tax 1I1i1011ll1' ahem :ath~le dis(,!) UIiIltln!!l a Si5ilJllmp~~0!1lIi5.Th e n) 111li3imic . 01 'C~im~te i1IfI.d~~~ :~IO(lI1Q;Jil1ly ([)ICI~ ffTlO~~O(5) ilrll~gr~~'s.~i~e 1~((I~grJ'l~( <lOW; o;Il!fId bene'fits ol'gre-enl1(;lU5c'l1i ~s: (G IfIG~lrilalJdiD!i:5 wii~ih ,ilIl :sim ~I~ d~n~mie ,repT~5elill.ojtio!1oltl'lc sdelill;iili r:: ilIlrid ewnomic links or {lUll!!llIt, ~miss~ons, (oli'i~1!9naHon~;" nel: climate ~hange. lllhiG!< IlJIelE mol!h~'I.s illIesigln,ed 10 i cMo~e Levells:011inves,tmel'll ill 'langibl.e capiM~. mindin Gt!lG re!!lijclion~ that nla~ilii'llile econOllllll~ wetra~e-, It (illcul.ate~ UU! !!:lptillfl'alGllfben [ill( iI!l~he ji.l ~i!iE~r C<I b(l.flemissi®II1S. tllal wiH b1Jlllame ·,llleln cr'9im!.mla~.(j!l'l~S o~ I) r~ha1ij:ngl ca ~1:I®111i e<mi"i~iCilm with '~Jlt~il'U:rlemeiittill elUls o,i hn'oler r!JlnlrJ~' dami'lSl es h·om dim~l~e dis ng e. ben U$in,glile- DlOE m.o~e~ to optim,i~e dill11!!~e polUicy lead$~iI ~lnl (Ip:~im'at carban tax tn 2'00'5 o~ gIFOlllnr;l$;:(I plU ton CaJrbD!1i (Si'h(l!l'l'~ he re as "0 I(E lJaseli rile~)1. Ilr '!'lIe '5U bi5ml!t~ [~ilS,·tenl Re'lliil::w'$ ~5SIJ fJlp'~,ion) ~bo lit time di3(Q'!IInt1r19snd the (onMJl'Ilplimli I!~a~;ludt~ illltolh~ DICE model, the (i1~(lJIta~eld jlUmal wbclin t~ e ~~It:]yd'i M9~IlJ ,~rldl rses fIl!J!(h !lrIO~ f~j;Ii~lly '~s~QWn ·S:te~ll.>!l$$ymptiQ!'I$"). as Com,alri
~1i1Jt(;l9Ir~tdrll©d~l

ofbeTWl?(:1l 30 I'Il'ld 70% ever D~~'n.e two denext

,I
:~
U!

r~,woo

"fhe Swm

Rcv.ie\i'I! ~U"Op{)~e5 1:0 mOlve

t~l!il::

.~ IDepai1mllJilI:,o'fE(lonoml(l, Ya~t!Iil1l.~e~'lY.~ew Ha,velil, CT if 06Sll-8;26S,. U:S.A. f~iiI'I~jl;.WiUl<lllIUiiOfn!baWl'@yate,edul.

~~~]e'wble f~f[;i~l~i(l~ffidll,clk)ns S!"!Ol!fP~Y101'\\\ilru. It S~lgg~t.ll gb.:dJOll effi]!ii:iiltJJiIS r,educllion:o;

c ades, (J,bj.,c lives (;O[ls~:Slem: lic\"i th <L C~UbOl,l tax u farmJ,lmd S)O[lper to Illtoc~ay"or .!IOO~lll0 limes the Ievel s;ug~s[ed by S<tlnl.djJ~ru CO~ O ncmic :1fl:lO de~s. G iven dlOi!l dh: S~~m R,(:;jlti~\,,' embr .•ees t trad i t iom:]~. eeenomie te c:1'm i.q nICs. such iI.S tm,o&e described In (2-5)1, Iltl\;\' tb;\'s !~Iget such d ~.lltre·rec~:t: esslts !!:lfiid !ll.rn.h:gie£·!i~:.w hlg r ~~~.1y;«:1d S~~l"$lR.c-vi~\v inl~ (whkh ~I:i(l' t~~~ 6)1 contllun:s <I linSl QfreCelll <I~m~St'-S). [ fim.d: th.1t th~ d~lrt'f'~11CI;; ~1~,O!~t ~rniroly If!'tll:ll its SWillS H,H::illluque :Wor t:<Ilc~I:I<lling dJis!Jounl mtr:sam:l only mil~il1lO'!I~,. !1l;lW sci,em~t;;: ,Of cCO"ffitO'lmlon ic~. The re:llM.lnirn1:g h ..!:!'i 'IUes(iolmabl.e $("m[l,uli1

201

I

POI..ICYFORLJM
dCl1!-~i!~~er:!nsof its eTh~c~1 ;_~~ ..sumplio!1!.s ;;'!nd
also leads w economic res~.]t.sa]]~~I"O!relnconsi s,~enilwith ma ru.;el, data, SOl'Ul,e bm;l;;grmmd Omi!gm~,;,th economics

S'[l\H:~nlre pr!!)gnuns, hlin:~Ca!l~levees, and reparations for .,;I~·\!'ery.
"fhc
SI:CI'U

Revi,e\ ..' t~kes t~.~e,plres{';riptl~\'Ie

'1 T he ~~s\"\I~r i~ Ihat, 'IlIi"iU\l, liiLe 10\\' lneereserate, the n::]tI'lbrc1y smell dwm.3ge~ iu l~l.t1:I'n.eXII.WO centuries i
iCU ~s'~!]O\\I ~iIldrbri3'\!(1:f'

,.ppnnli~C;~iill the ex~reme:.. .~rgMil1l,g th.~t h is
inde fcnsib~C:I.[l I'I1llk~inn,g-tel!'il'nl dccisinas l>v.~th11 :1\!()silivG ~~IffiC di ;,iCIOUIlII, rate, The actual ti m.e d iSJ;;QUII,l t rn~e used inthe Stern Revieil;!~r is 0.00'1 )I("~ ",Jhie:h ls v~gw::.!y jl.iis\Ulei1 bye:s~i'•. males .0 f •.le pwohabiluly of the e'x ti m:lioml of h

get o\'ef\~i~'leimedby '[lrne hug.h d<lm.lg.es over
Ihc: centuries

a.l1Id (lIIs/col,lnting concep!:S Iii neecssary to Ull:ldeT!i.lmildi the debste, hll cliloo~ins, '~1Il1iong <II,ltelf:lmaliv~ lrnjec~o:ri,es IOIi emissions redue-

.22010. h] fact i.hm,e

:.'Lnd m:~UCUi!,Ili~lh~1 follow SleUIl RI;;r'l,lie\~r·:ii. ethem

't:Jm~ key~oo~niuic wria'l'iI(l':is lh~roal Ilfiet~ll.mon ,c;n:pit'll. r; which measures lin.eriel yii;;:~dlQn ~Iwe~lw~~11s i~.capj~;,J,I, e,d~~;!Ui(l n, t • lll~ technology" I:n,j}riim::ipl.c:,. thisis ebserv~~bJ'c I~CIi1,~.~~kelp~,ac::c, c;::..... f1tnp!~.•thereal in F'or
tiOIil:;,

doi,ogy is nsed. more tiJ,.,Jill hEilf nfthe eSli~ milled d~!milg~~"ihY'!ijfDrid for~wf' y,c'eUIf aner2800.

the

~ll\I!liil~;J~ race

.
pEln1l11cle:r

Wh;;'lt di tTl;oon['\(;1

"')i,t{l~I~ld hn~i1k'l;iH·we

used

thar are' COlils;ustent \\·ith ~tillltd3rd rcl~1.iln011caplral is dIe;! comHHnprion ,e!as.tic- rerums tJf'l '~@:pU!l;I~ and J;avillgs, u:~Hm;:?Fo!l" prea.i1N,rerum on Us.. corpOr~IH!! clllpit:a,1 (elver ex:nup~ e. [:Ike the S;te:i~~UlRt:\i:~e\v:s, uear-zcre .. ity. denoted .1» '~11' Thi~,p<lnrll1l:leler represeres lh~ (I'i,,'CrskU1 1i0the e!lmlOIU lc eq iJ;;Ii i l}! ammlg lime: (UiS!CmLllt.Ii~W willln, a hig;lm im~(luflllity tIm ill~"'[ fO'Uf d~~cadL;';'>rna'Si'lIViC~gt':d ;,tbmul'~107 ~ )nf:""~ Esrim<lted real reusns on human ,capi~(!ll • :Jj\,'G'sl'(lf]repilieSell1[ed ll;V :l C0l1!!lw'Upl:ioJrl, elasdli,tierent .£!e~.le~r.Jt]mls. :~(lW igi:ll "...hue of11 A ,(h I rn!lg~ frQn~O;06yr~ Ie)::>10.20yr-~, ~p~mli.~g t!'oplh,:.s U~;l(tdG'Cisjofls!~k:e Huh:l Unw::b) ])wed I:idty Of1~ = J. This oo~~lb]ni!t~o~wlluMyk:ld cnthe ll~~umf>f hm~perilod (/). The n:lliL,qrn and ;}~ol!t~t'htlthel' (~e fwI:~l!r~ richer or poore r real re~~ut,[mt> .5~k'IIirl~ rates close' (0 th()~f;; .i:> and 0:1:1 Cil:p:~l<Ll. the "d iseeu nl ,~te" t~~,3~ is emers than the l~qi'ese,~I... Undel,' standard ()'P!.hlr1~I observed hl lod ay :S;,Ct!oillOlnY'llul dll:~.miUic.JUy d~n)'e['!;lm frm.n [hose ~hawlll in (he Stern irll.O l.~e d~~ii1:rmim.ui('lJrn offhe efficie~tb.dI!lnJ'I;\f~1m,~heoty. if li~llt: di!:i!!:ollllmirug~.3Iow "lilt! aneebetwecu ~he cost of emissions redue~o~~elycares ]:ii'ttle aboW'inJ;:ome in~ltJlulI.lily. ~(l'View. The o~''ti.I1i1,a~1e!!rl}o~~ UIX 1I~~d the tions lod"y ;Hiodllhebe~:ier:.il frerl,m:eddinl<lte o lhelllil '\'i U save ;]I, gl'l:,7,aldeal for tlile fumre .. social 'cos;~ Cil:ltom.l d~edine bya ~bclor of of _,~,o.relative to the se consisteutw ith~tIi,c Stern 3llmdthe real reuun 'i,~'.il:~ iim'>':, be Thisis the case d.um.~es ~nthelllul'I,lI;" A high rel.l~m capion tal lib~I!W~ bi'.!kH:tc:~t~nl,"'lfdL;:lld~1\inf!j5 reduc- assumed by 'llme; S.t~lftI R'e'il'~ew,A~~m;)J.ivG:ly. !Revi.l;,w's ':1:-.s~.mplh)fI~. o:.lfldi t h~~IYid"'!11 trarlens iI,l the fuune, whereas <I ~owIrelnm db [:re11:l~.er time disceent rateis high ersecithe jecwry loess ~ ikelh,e ~JoHcy1.'3JIi'lJ:) dl:scm;sed redl~cdoll!$ roward ~he present, The :S ~eB elt)" is averse '~oi,~,el]IKI'~ij.!y.t~e cm':rem savl ~~gs ebove. 11m other \\'ows" the S~emRevie~,v's RJevue\v':; ecouomie aaalysls reeommended 11Ile ]50k,\v andthe realaeturn ~,sIdg~ .. 3~:,.m~~ng lUilm:Ungs about dlFlmflg,es. 3S\ve~,~ilI5 iUln~£'(~i3~(: mi~s[O'.!I~:!l ~ reductions bCC9U!>C ~lfi 1"hi$: rd=nticm ~s; eap.tur~d by th~ "Rarnl~)I its CCo.l)lotll:Lcrmu~cm~:~~.I'lltg~on :~tsmodel ]l11ra~ assumptions, ~,OOIO very ~O\li,! ,<I:SSIJJmI,l:ed real mel:eri.zmi()~~_'d, ~iOW ti me di'f>cQlU.ll ~.ne'J~d equ.niol:f' ofofHi:mmd !i![lU\vlh Ihf'ory l'~.9}. ial ~\1i~i~h tlt~IOll1!gm~1i,:!1iI ~~Ulii~'b~umro~~ I~W rn eu IO'!.~ :~llclW~~ia'y ~V{lI'S~C]l~.-iJiL~t leadste ~~vrewrns 'on l.:(JIpil~i .• ,\<Vhere does the return 0[1 C:.'1I'~:i~<I1 come c<1pi~:a1is det:e'I'm,ill.u:d by r= p'" 11,g'. V.1iI:1f!'i'e g ilfl:W'1 rates .md IL'e<ll.1 re'~~lflfl:S: lh<l!l ;cl iIfer ~Je<l[1jy fronflllu:; Slt:r.:;r:!1iI Ite\li~w a!1~ othi3r Ol~~~Y"~s i~ Ih~ ;1\I.I;)I"'J,ge ~OOt1i;,'~h i!'l c,olilsUml~~kju~r iIl'll~H ~elUal m~rt.el d~n.!..If we CO~ri.~ltlr~~S.!;l p ~;:(pj(~ p ii;l, 1~1~ lime di~om~iiill r;,;'te, <1r'ld11 is •• oft:~im<lite eeO~,l(lmics b11::'itl O1li'iOllysh; of till!;; p~rll:iJl~J;':Ili.'li"il~11~ ions. ,.t.eg,el a carb oil ~,I;x;jll d elni'!ls~r:f.m:s.r'QdltCllimil:S that IOQ~. I.i:lke :st;I:~.di?lrd 1~3,lrelnrns 0[1 the opii.m.a.1 ~"ollomh.: growt:hl lhe uOllsmm.lption el<lsti.d:ty. Using t.he Stein. Re'\ti~wT::; .. ~mnFI~iml Qfp = 0,1[10 lyra muln eom~Q;iiillic m,gd~ls. theory $I],. ] n~h i:slr;rI!:l1i,I:\"'Q[ik.~he re.] I l',h.e Stem ~ev.icw·s rl,il:nllLm'bi.guous Cfi.[1iC'~Urellill,m an ca,,~uiLI~siiU~1 eC'o~,~dc w~r,i:ab~e tht'il ""'I, a.ICi:I~g whh itsa~s;Ulm:d. goov.Ilh nl.l£ (g'" '" U.O'i3 yr~) ~I~~ ,I :-Jt"hh:::I.KJI~'JWI]'II;;~on, yi:e.Ms ,;Ul :::iiOil:-; <lbuUI,llhe need tbr urgem <md immedli;-· is det'en,u]l1Ied by t\~'O n(,mn~Ji"e pamn1u::ttl'.r.':l. The Wirsjt :fK'lrouueter isr,l'nc lime: dliSIComn rnte. equi]Uniullll realunteoo5U role orO.O~,·41 y.,-il. far a~e <liClThOn""i II not :mrvi,,'e the subslinlli.on '[l r \ d€'n{)[~d. by p, w~licfu! ~t:efSllll~~ diKOrllln1:H):!1, belowlhe .relllm!oOlu ~.:!l1d1lrd il1ftv(':s.umBrli~. <;!ssr~!npt iO:I1:.\\thOfll @i"B cnilil:,,:js;li!i;1U ",ddl[(ld It flY's future ·'~L~jl~ly"or \:~reH~ue (not on Fm:lJu:e Vl.KlIJIJd <llso ]ead to much hiJ:lher s'~;VilligS~!H::S m<lrkelp~ia,ce re~i. ~I.nearest .r,<It'esur.td sJ\lings ru[~ go~d~,. liki!;~h~ r~wnll ~~!l".~riw~l.n'ill,;'ia~- (hml w{bny'S. Thi~ ~.u\~' ofn;:mfn t~~!~~di~l f<1l'BS. SO dl~ ~",,!ur.:!] qml'$'li!')l1~ .'1b()~iUg!.obf!!~H 1J1l1!S the fel at.i\lc'irn;port~ila.ce il~s.ociJl'!tl!l~, deci ~ the :S'~!;lr,lIn, Rev.icw wilt~~out~my refl::rem:le 10 WilII.'illliUung pO~licy-brnv ~nucl:l •. ~~O\vla"lt"Jnd 9(!ll.l~~.nnc~, of:rr.;:uu'u. (1f ~~villgs, ra:ll:"S, s~O!~s or th.;: we I fare of f~tU,lrc g{! nc r!U il:Hll' how e(lt;tl:r-'X;:lUai.~ open, lrel<'lllive: ~,orlmt. of~he 'CUllfe~l gel1enl'l~:ol!L A The 1m,,' r,et[IJ,1JiI :11$.0 lllemlS, thal finttul1e Rl!:rl[lr<l1I1;[@:;O ~ro di S!~O~Ull un~ m~IH'ii:> ~It1111 gco:e i"Jlion~, dailil~~~~~ar'C di:ll:e-Ol~flil~d~1liI"~(nVnuc. ail1dIhit; :th 1.. ~ • Silfnll fJiill'iSfonami',,~ oj Cl.ii!lla!e(fra~ Ttle.!itern into~he imlef~D:lile fiut:lIIre1Jte tU:<Jted lh,f! he~p:s e1>lp,~<I:iln~]ia,e' Slen'lRJe'l1:iew's es1i.I'ITI,<lte kMM 't(lJ.i'Ilibrill:~~ 'lJmili. flri!'~" C'lIII'lcfld'g,@,> 01007), U~. thllt t~,le cost (I f C~IilLnEl~eC'~3.ml.gecml d re[)iIJle,~ c Sa'l1ll!e~ .a POS:ili''IIe discount ral.e Ille;flilS dlJ<I~; 2. J. '1!'I':~iml. lEd,. 1fnt'l9Y Ee,,,."'! :26'(~). :Spe!:ialI55111E!' O~ ~h<Jl;the w~~t'Lf,e of ~unllre ge~;II:l.'tU]O~Hi is, ~nt till; ~(I~~iv~~hmt '''20% Cll~ ]npttf'of~! M 1:9, 'Plflc !!HJil:-:1S~, Q0®4}. recll.ilced. or "Jjjseomlt.cd" C',(:HllpaiIfOdwidnl 3, ~. II). ~Q!dlru~m, i~il'<t~ ~ifl:9' ].. die WO;rW: nlIDQmf{ c<lpita il::0I1ISUI:1I1plio!lm .• I;1IQ'\1II' .a:l1Id I:bn:::vel~"Whel.l
<IS.'>UlllptiOIlS

The second

thm determines

at

Irle"lre.l gelleili'liIIliO:I1I,l). Aml~}1S!es; i'lr,(\!sOIl1!],etu'mes divided

bct\:ve~n],

th~ '''d,~scripliY~ O1Ipproacfu.:' hl which (l,ssumed di~c:omn r;lles shou .. d cOil.dorm to ~ ~J,:n:~f!~ $"01~.lk'.r~] nd (lc(l'llomic' d~c:isigns oJ!nd m I~lri,t:,e:!i.. :!I,:nd lhe"presc:r~,p<ti,ve • approm.:h," \V~.e:rudi.:;;eoum nUI):ssllouhl (::tJll fl1Jrm ~"O 'In, e~hic~l~ ide'OiL sOlllet~me's tllk'~11 to be very
~O\V

the ~e.riI1Re~,'it:!\'\"l.lIy~dl<lt there ~;I'e sllbsl<llll"' ! dall..los1\.es "'Ilffi\f." ~I.does !Lm1~m]~n ·'lOdi!Y:' I~l f~CL~l\~St~!"!Il R~vi~w's '(;S'tir!'li!'!I~ onh~ OUJt·~ pUl :~os£"tlJd<lY" is, esse'.n,t~i[l!ly zero. \Ve't:<lU

:s

l':I~jIJ'~.r:('J1G1dfM1l~my 'I. IiI. :S.l. Tdi. Em!rg.f~.'

(Mrilli',r,~s,Cai'llibOO~E\ ,Pill!..

2000t

5"

1Jj!,

musm.'!~ this usi~g th~ Stl!n1 Revit.ws I'lighcliim::1iI:escemtl"io

iU, 2~a.q':1!.014'(20;OS), R ~Oi'd m~~,'Thil OisU~mgil gjl Glgb.;.~WM!'ni~ge Eoonomic Mooll!l!i,.;Jm~E1w1fUlillnefital flornlY~ fII\1j.h~ ~l1i\1'~ ~.~ IH;¥o'~, 0; ~001); ~iIOlb~ ~t

11,~li~I:S

or even .z,(\':I:O. I?hil.os,o:phep; E1ml eoono~ lill.we condlll!.':ted vigorm,ts deb<lles

ab(f~I,~law to @pp~y di~o\l!~1 r~L:esin 3IreflS ,M, I cli''el'se ms I:'cQllJo:lm,li.c g:lFQw[h, diim.ne dl~f1llge. llergy,~.ude~tr\"'1 5.w. nIiIl<ljor :i!llfnle

Inark!;;~ im.p~~e~~.Ftl'f ~.his c~:;e. Ih!:i linM,l,Ul ~H:e 0 .40/1) of '1vowld ,output i,lI1. 1.060 .. 2.9% ~!m. ]: ~ 00, l1:!1d.13.8,% i.~ 1100. n1,~Si~ reported.l=:! ,J, .1055 ilill '''cmmH per 'C<lpitll, 'COila Stlillpl iOIl" of 14,4%.

""uth c:lIlm>rrophic:

1!Ln:t~ ou~ n

Il'Itlp;lmordma~e!i~~.w1~"edtl!!'le(oot..stl!!lr.!l~:m~, . 6, 1lf. 1[1. NOfrli li1~u~> &M. W,. ~mIpri!!$; i!!\iiilllil'l)[e at J"

~osses

1

ht1p;Jil1l~rd~~uil.,~o~,yal.~"edUi'lfeceni_;~liIll'.hlrnl, 7.. K:-p\m.w ndl. tlJmt!!i!' (.1II~ j:;;I'95=lm.!Mrllll JOnii' 5~6\'l'l iDnroMSiw:J5 O/afm~fJ:: (J'!!'I~ge.lltlp:(lffllr(!~ilt!~. ,e.oon:~I~l!<diili'!.tem..OO0307 ,ptIi' 13. 1', ~~, n:o.l'i!, ), 3;8, SiU fi92:S:l 9. if. (" KOOlllnIJmJ, ,ilmri. Sa" '5all)fD Vafit:l 2;6. ] 1'196!l~.

How d I) d.un
1%

a£!C 5 thlOl~ ;J\fCnl!Q:e

ar'Ou n.d

ovc.D"the next t':em~Llry turn

hrilMI 14)1%

POLICY FORUM
ECONOMICS

I

Cllilm,8,ts' C,hal'ng's: Ri,:sk" Ethi,C:S"

and Ihle' ,St'e'rn Revi,e!w
~lull,ysi:s 5J'D.OWSth;;1Jl OtllW M..in oolliclusi.o],l5,-;tlml thecosts strong 1n:ld IruUty other :rdil:ll~OI.1shILp~ iI:lJid structares m~d m~1:~t have ~lh~,C's ~[ in. heart, 111!a Pel ic;y mJCiLionTha~less thfllll!lIi~ C'~)ll.tsnf I.he d a,lmla~e fonnn in this issue ofScj:ence. Nord~~m!S(/l' <I\10iided by tl:l<t~:)lel:i!1)1l~are robust to a rl.lll~e s~lgges:ts,!~li!l mur lieslIhs (IS d:ewrubed in the of <l.ssm,upl iOlm,s., hese ~s.sll~,lpti on=> eoneern T S(~,ifl!iiRevi~v (2) stem <l!i,nl!J:iil emtirely i'o:1rli,l ttl) IllH.:u.hd '!ilntC ture ~~mdu IJijJlulS '~i clud in~ n e,tMci!,I,judgnli!::nls,.1r~,is is, not eerreet, [1l<I:ddn,~ pepu I alion, srruet u:re of the' d<L:~u~gc flllum,c'tion~Q I,'evisi~irl!grhe elhiC'~.,we also ine or pornl!3d rhel !I'b!~stsci~l!~c~.',\1'hi~h tells l~!i ~h~t" for ~, W,\">emi, clN:lillgeim, ~unQsp'heric CQlII~ ~~'~f~ t~(lr!, .. d~1;:wlx~l,,~mpf.tl~ ~lZY;;'f appc,IlI'" more like~y" FUlmlCf. 'l~,C 5iCjle~l,)ealso now gh~s us ~~bener undeirStt~lLC:]imgof p:robab~ lities., jjO

An o'pmilm~l ewn ~m]( n.?~pons@to di!lllille ~hamlg,e~eq~ i~:> (QI\5:ider.;;llliol'll ilhli~((I!Jntin 9 ,a~d'Value ju dgmenu.

A

~.y Ih"rtl~~gharnl~YS~s 9fp"1 icy en c]gIlrnmte chnn,g'C must exarn

inc scien-

l:~e'Y C'lmWI~~~lb$linUe fbil the d~tilil~d risk <lind 'W5t .mOl,lY·!ii,is of'key e~Tecb;.
Our sem.i[i"~ly

(3') dev'I,;lIQlpedlh~ ",tllwf.hud8~~c'i~1",'e~.i~'ll'eJi!'i\ d count iung lb:u:nnluh'l r '" '~l!E+ p •.where r is the
dlisCO!ln.U),t n~~C.I'1 is the CI;;IJSli.eily ()f !ill.!!:we ial rene: fi IS;luaum:d (OJ Iso cal led the sodll~ margi:lil!1l1 minly), g' il"~par-capha consumpricn gr'OMI:Ii IF<lle.and p .i;'l~hc: time discount rate (also cJJller~ the pure rate ef li,iffi'tl!t'! prereren'l'~)" i1~e eqI~~~lion arises fr(lln cornl~~<IILi:D1Ig soeielvalue of ill bit of,eonsnmpthe t~on in (he fu:turJt:wlltl .~ l:lI"Ii~ now ;Hitd <i!iikimlg Ihow~l: f;l'lUs ever l~~~,e,the d!ef~!l~'li'm1Jora
ii;Ol1h"Ullllp~io~

t~f.ic,~ e'OonomJ[tC~ and l·lo.l.itiC'la:~ 'bj;S\J~s

or

d ij,~c~~!.~m ra~(l'.
lUhl.diliou,alll:y. HIe discount, n':~c:: ~,1;<'1,:li beil:'IiI, 'l.ppHl;;:d litl jilQ]i.ci.(;;ls a~d p.roj~'1;::tS h)!VQlvli~g 811mlll, ch~mgl:sWlilh diarecl benefits and costs

over less fb.iiil~ one genera don (~ay

H

16"\"

\,'i~ could

.il'l(.lorpor.:tw cxp]l~ciLrisk <lllm,lly sis. Iouge]y mrcrU,ooted lin

previous studies, ]tis riskplus eth~cslIml drive Oiliur results. Tire 1'1'1;(1$'1'd il.'~. v,::!I)' ~o I.ook. ~l tlle pl"ubiem (if cgnism~cliglg en eeeaomic respcnse 10 elimare d;l.mge is. tQ ~,Qo:kat the :indi\'il~hl:ol~ iml~a,cLs,(I r c~i,[lm~n~ chmn,g~ a~,OImgsl de d~e co ~tO f reduci f1Ig ~~~i~,., sions <'Inc~ then to ask wiI~e~][er it is '\:\i'lJl:thpll;y:i!!!,g far ~Hi~~g;;tli{iIL However. we do mn h,we the kind ofillforIliiL<'L~ tiu!l~ffil,lJt \No~~1 ,,,,,n~Ib:!efonn;!!!]), anae hi ~lg d nWln~:bcn;,to ;dll: eensequences, wei.gihting them, ::B.!1C1adklli!:1g t]!u;:m ~B up, \\",Wli al'Y ph'lUsijr bi Iit)'. 1 i1I,~q'S" eoon(Ull:U::>I'S,~uell~,pt<iggreg,ilt ~OI'lS fif impacts ~mid !l;.IO$~S ~t!li,Migvc~y $,illlplifi:cd "~H;,WJte modeling and, in the process, ~h~v a\?i,!ay nmc~,llhtal.i s of nlUll.djml1ienta~ i:tml.porl.:lm:e to a ool~nlcedjlldgmem. TlI~£ ccnt1i."a1 est inl,l'Ite of ID,u1i£lation oos;~s for sli'lbilizirl'!:! emi~;iollis belo'w 5:50ppnl CO2 eqlui\lalelill i!>~% of gross dOllu::s;~fe o fil' prm~iUc~ G D P ~ p~r .mmm~.l ,[ l:he bl.lsic I [llIle.\it'ilon Ii::!> whel:~;u.~III~I: ""um:h 'paying l.lrms: .i!i ,~_..1% of GOP' to gJ\lo~dl~he .... di'lio!'!al riS:~,t';of d ~ hig,linerelluu~.s,iQl,l!;. The li1I,10d,eimn~ the' Stem . in, I;.; Rtlvi€;1.\' is V,!ih~,lbl\' il'lJ hl~mi(y~ns $lJm~ k\iy ;, drlVt1'i'SofcQS1's ,uld bemefits ilnlenns of eoo~ m:nll1llk t~lm:!d[n~ I!:ppmm::hc;:s,. !;Ci,CllIlif:i:c;: vwi~ ,~ 1l1b1es• ulld e~hicillconside,mtions. • However ..

dec.~d'es .n mosr), '''''hicm mel.lm;~hj]lpe(lplh:: arc fCf::]i.Ili~. I.ll,~ irnpaet of their decisfolUl i~ t heilr own lives,.F.~o\"''eve:r•.c I im~te ch~~I\S'e is 3.~ ;~m.~~~~,~~ r.uilio~alpo liey issue, andthu!>. 'we must. see p as Oil 'p.i!~r""IIiI,l,e[e,r ;lpttmin£l disc e ri IIIin.dorlby date o:fbirth" ~;:Qrexample, appIY~!riS ~l 2~/~pWirerime di.sc~l~i][i~ignth;: (p:= 2) gives halftju: ~th~ca!w'eight to someQI~.e bern il'l.2!OO~ rehnive tg fiimm.~Olle born illl ~. (n3. $lIr~ly. ImmY\1i,I'(:iUkl find. tl1js; di ffi.cuh

~ojuslil)l.
described
~iion. l.I\~ersio:1iTho irreee rsible co:~:s~qluel1Jces. r <Ldd:u~[on.~he discoumiD1lg :fo:rmula ~UbO\i~ ,d('p~'lriId~fll1 Ul(~p;,llh of Iurute jjrowrh ~n eonsumption .. n.imaN~

mn

n~U!re eondirions, ~-~~~d rise i~l the p:ric~ of !lll:l!vinmme·lu.u] g:oodJs r>eI'1~i~"elocon:s'Ul1l11p!'~m~goodtl.) ~~d (H) value judiglu{:l:Its (aHt~ uld)e S,I:(! r]~1k and ~liLe(]]I~.~.1 the ex (em to it)'. whic~ fut~.r~ g~,,m~ra~~QI'ii!s !fil,lt~~r. Ilrid imillr.agen:et'dJ:icnjl~.~ i1]00:1,1.1:1: d istribulio(l:~. <.!Lndfo:, regi:0I1<l~, qu it)' \""'e.ighiD.~lng~, e

80m!: c:r.edibh:<!:i' s umpricns
di~.nHlge

~~boul lh,!!:
apprm!lch

rate at whi.chl (1il,i~:rnRle t;h~,I1i:ge wmres~Lh lill

~Jl.ange inVG."lI ~~pole:l~1!"hd I)' vl;)fyl<Jrge v cl~OllilgC:$ and ctll1.reduce~ufmcg rewth JIIiI CO~lSUI~li.o~',£0 the di~c:oul)l. nUC!lpp~ic(]l, ~ i aworldwith dinHllte dum£,e will be less ~hfll~ thatln a world without. ~I] else bci~~ equal, £\,~Io:reover. this logi C C3n be ex,te'l1Idedl . so lll;3.t lhe~mmce.U'l<l~~uy around dlimate ,imi)\<lc~:$ is l<'lkelll~l1itu u(,'Coluu.FugT e've:ITY ~)oss,ib]cscensrie of fuurre aiirnlilll:e c~fn.!mge~ [herewiU be; a specific
U\,'tlrOlge

I

\~'oliid lead

U) C~()S.~ Mim,,~leslhm e
In ode I bJg

di:5cOUIH

en

I

' ,Ii" tJ e,,~(:ss!VC ,r' ~oc~:;; '011 t I 1C I:i'SI:rro\~'M(pCC'IS O~ .~ ll~e!>c' :simp:~i~l:i" Im,ode~,sd:us1:Orts Ollll:dof'teu .iI: eX<lg,gemtes their ro~.e IIilpo~.ic:y db,::;h,uOIliS. :.9...

tr".:ttc'. dcpeltdhlg on t~l!egmwl:~. r!l~Cof COI1= hall bGc!l C~Ut ious:. Sml~t:nri!.l~d~[(lrs ~n~ '\.'¢ry su !mil'Hi()lIDi~ll~at 0l:,':!l~i!'ifl (4). ll~tls. l sp~ak S H op,timnstic ;<IbOUl cco:m1Iomic g:mw~h ;:ll.l!d of"·~j~e cl!iscmlln [LoUe'" is: mis:gruided, so'cial ~~es of rewm l1~rUu.~ ['!,ex[ ,eemHri~s. Using 11 "" I impH~s that ~. gi"'~r! $ocial ibenefh U/,uU bCV"dlm:d morelhli!il!l~.ly by ::I. IR(;Wr ~4owl2\'er. lheYllppea:w to oveilrlook ti]alsl~.ch r~!pid ~fowlh is H~ely (Q h,t~!dto ,gre~~~elr ofl~\'~ fi()r ~~llH:lon~~"'~I:~ OiU~f] ft~ ttil~ emi ssiOl'iS,IlItlj:i. ~etllc;e. lhe more t.gpid! onset lIiesol~n:e5'of sOIiifl!::t'l,I1e:els!:l.Some wltlffielitilofe ~in~~ltt;: ch~nge. tar:> :~al\'~~u~tiIJed ~h3t~.igllu;1" V'dhu;:!': ~h(mld The et:ll~i'c~,1 .1;ppro<tc h 3doptecl :iilil, OUIl be ~lsedl. U:)ing'll '" 2\1I,1"OUIdmealllill.ll .tlli exlT<I ~n~~I,ys,~s.j:QC1I,1:5e'S {WI th(\':~t.hiC$ 0 if" ~ ~I m;.fIli'!.1f1 b~ncf1l to ~h~ p~l1i!liO:~ \~:lO i:l'i p.Go~r hy ~.fuctor be'~:\,,~ell dchc:r andpOO'Iiil:l: ~op.l,e ~md be~ of fivc\l\'Ould ]~a\'e a v.:due ,2:5 lDrn.eS, d.l<ll: W a ~'iveelil hose born at dil~'e:renl~i911es. RanllcScy t tdcher I)erson. hl a~lI1'Ln:sfe:r frorn~:~l.e richer

~re m ~1.ch i,~~H:'four ~rn ~

I

POI..ICYFORLJM
iudl,ddl:i;;Ji1
~:C!

d~~ pm)f.e:r one, bo\\'
iil

!lU.3ch

would you. be prepared '1.0 ]ost: [11 '~Jrnemeess p
and !>~.~:n regmd i.'~ as beneficLlIl1 u'm~lsfer? In

eulus. ,"I:!d~hose w110 feature
3!iCbei'~g obs'~n.~ed.

h~\ii.l ~o S4;iJY~ ~h,;:c1)I,~ h ~1l1 the[JJil:,lltke~ less p:r,o:mmiJu:ntly (the young and the poor)!

(ftmxr~ generaelens]

I~r!'ll!llcn!>;~sbt~~expect

,g:refloor reduerlons ill

~he case oflfl - 2..• ~s lo~g a'S.les.s,lh~ul '96% i~ haveless
lost. H would be' seelil a:s:beneficial 31!md, for 11'- ~. Iess t~,1.U:ISijllhi. AlII,hcm;ll i lis <II, ttl1l<tble etUnic'~1 position.~:Il,ose v""h,o <I:rgm: for 11<IS highl 1;1$ 2 Sh('ill'~d!beadvge,ding v~ry Slmng rsdlstributicn pol ieies,

iufluence on the behaviors rhat

I~e futu[c <l~ dleypklCe.tl h.lrge]" 'we~~t on censumpt kllm.now Q\l\c.rthe effects: on :rut ure gel1er<lti:o~s (~hus perpet~.l~i!'I£ th.e del .1)1' ~;Olf :s.ignijftcaIHreduc Ii on s.).
We have

The issue of el.h~c~ should be tackled d~r~:cdy arn,d: cxplucitmy t~lmu~l di:S(lnssio:J:l( /')"

argued st rOIil;.~)1 for. an assess-

No di~Cli:S$i(in
perticalarvalae
Ah~flil~]ti'i.ie

t'lf

tL~e ~p'Pwplfhl[Ci~~S!'l
oonfines

l'if

rneut of POllilcy en c~il11<1te ~h~I'I~1: In be ~n;0d Oil a d i:-:~.gg;f\;;gflt~d ~ppro~dlltl eonseq uenees=--l oolk.u,:ua,g at dI::u !TeTelll: (ii.~ml!e 11-' sions, p,~:;lce:-:" mmd ti mt'5-.~t1d u bl:'OOd ethiC3~: a~~lP'roi:lcl:l, Nevertheless .. OUilJ" modeling :i'i';:1m1>hiv:uty ~:nl3]y:5.i.s dem,om;'lr(ucs tha.1til\': Ire~:nne,~.l nl:risl <mdll,ll!c::el:lain't)f i!1ndthe extern towFddn. the U11iIO(le:! res,pond,Sli~ progress .i n the scie ru~:ufic Iiiler:,nure~ are 0 r fO\q~;I:~~~' simi Iar i~lrll'r~anc~i n $:haping: (11,J~;e c~lim<llte:.; a~ ,m.IJJ~~ppma,chIQ :e(IiI~:cs ~Ild d,h,(!om'Uing. h. is these rhrce factors

judgmeras eaabe decisive'.
11

Norclhlll.M:~· ~"i~lnp~e. !)ver 991) .eculd be ~im;;;t,ul.d <I, tJrRII.lSfer\wuld SiU:~ be b~nl.~nc~aL Does he l!l,d'VOC!llEC~ h~l,gc ~m;,re~.ses in u',;II],siers fromr:h:::h, 'till poor ill the eurresu gener~lkm'! A value of u !'lily fur 111 q~lin: cO[J,TIl,1lonly is

In ~.iwcase ,t1hl

= :3 il1

ethioCil'~ <liPPf'Q[i,elle;:; should be
the
n<lO:TOIli~1

,exp.lm:ed:W[I:h:i

Oof the

lllod.e:I.h~g+ :sc::,.IiiI,sh~vi.~y anl~lysis

does ti~is"

Tihere is;lis.o' S'['"DperiJrlb~ther werk ~,mfnl1pt· ing m di se Ilt,mg~e t~~c wle S [I f ri skaversion :J!n.d .i neGl,lII.iI..II i~y a veHluo.miI, tliJ.~1l are con:m<rled

invok~,d" but h igh~r~

hi~S

of P

<lffl

so:nl'J!~- (\liill~lin

this ~~o@Hng. FUrl~(l:rl!luu(). \\~\:;

Urru:f; u ~d i 11C(lS-l"ben~mOlniJ~)'f;i$. lnci!eed, ti:lc're <IIr,e.a~mmheu:' 01' ,'CaS0I1S: \.\111)'a 5m::l~,i.C'r-

seale ~~roj:eC'[ ~l:u:ll;:L~ new ,a

[lJI},d

or r<aii\Vily

ll~}a,yriot be al> wI1ill2lb~.e-or rekv9~M !u. ~JlJin :sevel,ll.~ye,"lrs t i~:ile <l S d.:li'cun.~.s~<1Iu'aces ch!Olu:g,e., H'OWeVI::T. avoidillg the impacts of

should ~o beY>Olildthe munn.'I.1 fr:.arne:\vo:rl!;of social welfare FIl111CliOllJS 10 eousider ether ~~hic..l approaehes. um:~ud~,,~ dlt)fie il]\'l'l~.viI1S ri~ns: .ailiu!, g~'$najilmiiibilily. We 1I1.ole l:n:.~ef1:)' th.~t Nord[h,u~~I.uiiistepre· sentsthe Stern Reviee 01111 lhe S1J),bjeC:1of
to!1'lo~~.

ImlJ:rcXfllll,in~jsfuter

d'l.m''1!Se e~H imtu,e til I:~~,OS!~ the ~~l"~viou~ [n I:~tcramre.
Give.u'a. t~l~ ce:llI.tr,.. ~ily of risk,

'[hOln

seiernific

d i~ll~[)e 'ch~~n,ge; \'f! ~~!~of .~~I'f~biied i~~l~:t~. Uhl;:
[l~m,nBl~, and c>cosys'te'l1lls) .~iun:.

dnw::

U'~be

relcvam

;)1$

is :~~:ke]y (,lG'UII,~ $&5 :~C!erun'l of carbon d~()xi.de,. wbi.d,l ~o lon g <IS the p~mle~ and eq'Ui:"llte~ to $.3~, per H'Hl ofcarbl)~, 2 'ihis WoJ~

He ;;;,~gm~$tht'lt~\Vol;;prQP05~ a rax y·f

its peop:~e exist, Further, as psoplc become richer and el1ivirnmnem,.b] goods become $,carc·e:l'. :i~: seems Uk~ly that, :~ii!therth~Iil' fil~t valm1' (Ilo\ll.r
inveslig.f!it'd ~:@ 1<'I~~r Il~]liy:se~(5l And th:e ~ Ilow-sloe.k mUuU'e greel!1,hollse g;lS <1l:C:LI;~ ~,~Hlh~~io(~.", 11m,!:p(J~"erfi.dUrl!ipilc't of 'c~iph~s IlIHltc dl~l1gC, w.i~1 fCiun.d,C]" Imum)' oCO[lil;(!~ queal:ces inever:iii Me. T~U5. ~:(fI;Ve5~~::IfI,g, eh>e~ where ,n1l.i:i!1 US,illlg,d~e1:es.Q~I,rlCe:S!/Q C(Ji.i~,l:pcm"He fO:li,f~n~1 ~~~(;r e!l\dITmmel1il~1 dUM!OlgemflY be

our esti mate cost 0 Fe ac h

or t he nU'lfg inal e'lwi romlle:l1i~!l1
ClUra

cOf~rbon emlssioa

":soc.ia:~r;(h'lt of earbon," hereafter

SO:"

,t the

will rise velfY .rapidly. \!'~;li,ch \l1I'<lS Rill issue miood i!!'Qeh<lpl~1" 2 {lfl1~trr~\rie:wand has be~~

tn1.dj(;lr bl~si~l~SS~~:s-u$~al. w~~han policles to reduee eurissicns. To idenlir~" (biis witlra

advance, and e~!iJ,ics,in O(}I~r view, the question $lIn.o~ddreaUy b~~vhy., \,vt'lh some iJl~.poftil~1 exe:Jlll;l,pl:io ns, d i.d! tlrn.epl.'eY ieu s Ute:JJ;EI t~I,['oJl: 'p.i<liy i]l!~dequare oJ~re!'JJ~klll these is.~lI!C:~'!' to l'i~.ere W<lS much stmcIWI,rfl~1 cautUon in ou:1J" ~pproach.\Vc :~~ft[JiM l112m)!risks t~~atare I ilkely to be il:n poil1~[Jil, fot ex .. 1.1p~le.,~il~ pus .. n l :sibj~1 i[~I)f :stOO!lg di ~,r~tptio!l of C'~fbon C'YC~L;lS; by changes to, ocem,lsmrn.d forests, ] l is 'pt'lSSili'ii clear: howeve;li unplei:'l~<I:nl.lthe dam.agel> fromc~in1;~le
chi!1!iIge .~re Hkdy to app~ar in

or

reeonnue !1Jd:~d UlJ';: m!:lt~~ H'VO m is~,akC:1;,. First, oJil)' I;l:·ai~~iite gf tiil!: sec is p~Hh~ dependent, I u dl<lpler 1.3 of l.~e Stesu Re'lr~et~r.we j~]!)tify niilrpfQPO~ed poii,!;), gO;flI:'Ohl~bm.zillg e'nlil!,wi;shms ben:wcr;;mI4.50

'ii.~~ ~5lim~lt~i1.Bul one thins

bl~' th1l1 f~~ks ~md dJlIllo1lg:.e$3ro~ijg:h~rth!!n

lhe~hn~re.any

"Iin,d:55ll ppm -cO" equivolJ.le.mit. In tb!i5 [~n]lgc. ,\ie eStim3J,e;!he s~da~.cOSt of carbO:riI. ':0 be

disl:~:<lrd IO:,I~,e fUI:Ji.IJ:l"C. si.rtJ;]l:tly becill(l~C bis: iUil, the ful:ure. will 5lIPP:I'e:-J05'1cI'ion to ;addJre:ss d,inl3.te dlml£t:'.
R:e:hWi1DCJeij, .. full N!1l'!!S

be.tw~e!'li$:25 per tnllil ol',COlrhon d,~:oxid~(450' PIH1I1i) ~nd $3,0 per wn ~:)50 pp.mnJ •.and ,",0 the Mally uHhe' C(](1m~~1ile~'tfj (111L~:~ r~ri~w have prQfl'(ls~dp;1cl.;,!g:~ of poUci~!,'; ~:!l!~'l~ld b~ sug:gested tjmal the ,etilil i~;2Ii~.sidc:' ufLhe IrliOcil:e~.i~~ l:n'o~dly ()OI'lS~IS;le,~H'wi.thnllil~S lrnnge. Sec::oml sl~ou[ldbe ,~ml!lij;K~nlwilbflb~erv~bl£ qn~rl\:.cl ill disloncd ~mdI!!lJlc'CJurill cc;.\tl~lmnie~, ~U1)' lJehavi.o:l'. f\.S; di SC;tLSSOO by Hepbm'l} ,t 6).~:1ilere tax sh(l'lII.,~dbe diffel'\en't (I"om ,HI {8). aru: ma.l1'y re~u~Of]J!O rorth~nki Il!J lh~t!1l~a~k~m S~ab:U~.z~ti()n 'bGt\\"~~ri! 450 and 550 I~rim i~ lli<.iles ii1lid o~hc!w OiIpp:m,m:l.n!s thOlt iUU:st'l',Mll e<illliv;J,~eriJ.l to redUCl[i[ons of amu.nd 25 10 observa,~!e markC't: 'ooh3V~orcamlOt'be ~ell as. 70~!1lin .2050. Nord I1mls c~.miJ'Im,s er.oom::ous,ly lh~Ll th,t; rC\~i.ii;\~r:ijugg.e:s:n:i r~duc~:iQn:;;· tm ~hi::; ~>eni;;"Ctiml~ QiJ''''~1 ~thk.d ,~sP'UlfI~e to lh!;l i~l!~' I1Itlumtl. TItel'C is :mto re!l! ttolt'Omic mMk~t l~~<lIJ: S'Cal,e on:!" the n~,,'u l\"'~ d,eca.dJe:s.. The- Sreu:u re\i~<'lhi om elhic~d (ij~l;i~.iorl~ on hOl,M live R.eview ];ij abo cle,"lr ~h'H pr~,C'e:sshould S:~mlld mzl h'lge[ilcr all elw~rfllliil]mU::I~~al :h:,,<;,u>es i,IiiI, incr,e~:scover l~~~~~, a,llhaugh perlmp~ not a::; ~hC:) \oi~ry I:ong [~m. &h~rply oIlS; No~dh<1~Is, ~llgg{lSk~. The eth iC<l~. ,Jppro,I'(:lil illJNorti h,llIs' mod ~ Most long~~e'nn ,capital m1,]arke~s il.re ,~Un,g h,~lrs dvivl;'l 1~(;l~rliri~1 .~ow~evil!~ of very I~ ji:n ~l!'Qd I ~lPGjif~C'L '. h:o~e~fi lh~1 lLeJi1.e:c!. ur re l'1li: i:n.d iV~(~WL",.1 0I1<l1~d lo{"a~ (; :pe.rs !l.Cl.UOIlI ;ilInd the s~eepmJessof his I~olicymmp .. very co~t~inefrOCl ive.

]". "", IMOf1;J~I3~.S:deli~ Ml ROO7h :ilU, 2. f!:J •. S.l.un, :rIl,!!' tlQJlI'lm1r'~ r4 ClNnrl!'t(JllN'lg~ RewM '(Cilirnlbril11}~ 1t.J~i\I. r.r,~~ CJfI~br!d'gll',

'lilt SI~ 2(06).

sec

3. ,. 1". ~!rn~ E{{lrJI J, ~.!):.:5~:1I .?2&t U ,4. ~m 1J1 ~ [eNm'15 macl'~lill!.~,'Itlil!~' in 't:ill! di!llrollllit ,ral.e i~ s:pe<dl~to ~lI!~ t 9ro~ pailn!!], e..rn cl'tbe lil!OO~nd$ 01
ili~:I, IFyJij~~Il'iIl,e ,Mn~'~Ca~~g, ~fi,lL1~G.,ol' ~S~9al:ed·
fll1[pOCl m~t (!'!'I!ma~,

5. if.S,t~r1fier. V"M. !1llf'l,;~. "An~!1 ~t~!iIi1er ~~ ~m!t~djj~~mgl Iri!bl~ ~rI~~ 1~lti U'il~di'miJMlmg, i!~JWi!.,. Wrnikimg drilHI. ~' 0Il007; WI'iW,~ ;u.g~.U'lfiile~
millit!n~~~~l1io~!lInhOCl!a~,%2(!!j.en:l:e~Ib8B,
,{j.

pdl'

7. rH. :S~lI!Jii1o. "Vlli~~ j~r:I:g.men~~ ~11:i ~
{cunlirng;· Pilp~r

Sifl'l'l~m9001l1l, 8lnminQliliUl1.. ·tlt;; iMW~II)ii1Dm'i~,bb!imci!l '1!I~~d!ilI1lliIC~~~~o/i.mHm!mr~q~~ia~QI]',PP!'

C', 1'II!p:blnn, ilrll'! ft!COMlOC!: ,~mdl ,~II1iI~~ Stmll 'iii&. al: UIJDllg,·' !l'I~!i1I~[WI ~ ~e lI'fIiI!ik5nc~' h~ Eoc!'!ornitli t gl'Oli~~ Cl'!an9~.9 ~rdi ;;!(IIO'f. li!liii1l~i¥iI.:rg~
L.

a: ClIr ·:I!i~k!l iIfIl!! S!t,rn

\'jEigh\$

~oo cill·

1il:1'!\111M',: IR~Uoc·

HOI1$ '0 f !reS(l,'U!rc eo ~:inil~~ b~

d m"eru:m1t

rrom

coUecliv,e v.]~:lIIe:s lJji:ld fro,'li!U,\.\Ih~l'~ i.[idl.vidu~ 11I.ls!1l;;llY pl">C~er ill t~dr c~:Wli:I.d.ty m. citizens,
Imldii,vidml~,s w:il~.,llnlye .] dift.erent m]li,tJlId~ to risk 'bG'Ca.us~ t~'n,ey hav..;: ,:I, hi,ghcr p:rn~\b.iUty of demi~e d:l~:~: ye<lir t~Jan society. Tho.~e w:~,o do not fealureullJ t:~e mil.I:~!et pli:l.ce

an

As I~~u~re ,ge:!,!j,;!;r"lh.1~lt' ha'!."e ;) ~o\1lJ\~r\:\i!;ii,~1H lhcy .. re expee[.r::d to sl.lOlildeitlhe, butdeiii of g!\f,:~H~!"!~u~~!!ialinn ~O!;ts...This;co~dd be~1 ::i<O~Im:e ofdymHni,e imiconsisl:e:III,cy. hecm:lJ:ie rH~~lr'!;: ge!:l,~r~liQns ,'vm be faced \1,fi.d~ t!lii; s,mn e c~,1.alleug.e f1nrl. i(they take ~h,cS<1lii1,l!il:
<I:pprmu:::!m.

l»li!s·iI\!ld rE:IlPon:ie'~," 2: F~bn!af)' ~o{. Wa!t:~ dr~rt 1 OllPll~tf ~Ilbli!~td ~:nS1!!!1'1i1 R!!'llil!lM Wi!lb!iiI';
i;j,

m'!W.l'lernf,Me!'!'J~!!!I~~~ !i!. 'SiI:!l!il1o. "1[~.e ~5e! I~r aCiili;)!!IOi) ~~te!!'l~' ti~~ gI' dil'li'l~dii!~~;It<lperAct "A'[tf!nhe S!1lIiII i!'I'iew: R

R.!:Ue(j:j~~~ar!dr~5le'5,"¥jO!"''¥.Idr!ilfi.o! plll~.r ;Pllll~~:rn~ion S~M'lIRMf!W Web ~i1Je\ :l!2 fellruary ~O[f,ll
W\Wl.SIf,rn~I!!iI@I\\IDIifI~1I1t.

w.iU iI.hm seek to m]l1IiIn ize S.hOfil.~

204

1-;

.----=-

I

-

-

-

I I

-

-

-

I-

EUQCHEMII STR:Y

lOW'8rdIMelhyllmerculry' B:iorleme,di,atioln
1

.A.stra.te!:w fo r lad te dea vageo] (1:IIrbofll"
bond:; 1l1lCh@mtcal (Qm~(pu'!lld:$ ITi:il!Y hrellpi n dea iiilin g! up ,~,nll'nm iiiI me Iill;a l ((lntal['Jl]n~tiol"tl bV Iliuatihybller,t::i.!ry.
mCrclJI!)'

l;II:u:J~<1n i1(.~tilviti~ such ~f;,'i;1~'!1 t)ufitli:llg hmre prr.dwlced Inil~
tQll'~ ofiu.IiI,K; rnr;:g:(''l.II)'. \~Ihicll

ftRlf'!.MhI

is readily Cit1\lliVeuited to n:tel:hyln~,eira I(.':ur::t by III ierebes ~In s.~d~mef1iIi\, .I}. { "f~li:s coraamiuaricn is d~mgero:us. :Jm:~\:;[lly]m~n::~lLry ;).(l(::~umlH~ lates il~ 1100 vi:D1.&!, issues" '!ft.~II1,el1e is l i:l: high~y~:o"'ic. Sl,eci~llized bm:te'r~:ru ("I'Iil grow nfu,mlit !in methyln'leil'~
oo.COiuse ¢lII'JI-!Jo~~~IVI,~ml~~d',lIl\,i~,nilJI~1(lIiii:b;t C

,.CIH"
CYr<:I!\Ril.l

;:

ooc.tlLSe they produce

the melhy~a

~CHl~,H91

,~ m~~ury~d~m,din~ c:l'Iiii.ZY!11~I!crB N '~, (.2).. B~cr.~.~ uf ~ulkwe t~b~! to it), '~, c~:e<live ,c.::iHoolfll,~,nelJlC~lrY'~l1.ds. M;crB

~'$

,M.erA ~d:llIces Hg(111)to ,e,[ementa'l merl:lJlry' [HgfOo)o]. whiCh ~~ 1e'j{P]~,(J. M~l~~'IIfi!ei'i'l)IfY (CI.Jl~Hg) ~ir(lcUy Q>rlt~~s'!hQ>cy~oooi. whcr'Q- i,~ bind~ to lIM~ll Ml'fB·l!5.@~ lhiols~D d8'<lVE!'th~ cil1rbon·merwry bond bya nilecllalillisil'I'Isiltrlil'llf te that PliO'fU)secI b!VMe~nid.: .lind p<lf~illl. TIl Is de<l1\<!rgegeliUlr<ltl!'~ mle'lh.an~ ilnd Hlg{lIt The Ii3JHer remHl ~IIl!SbOtH'lId ~o MerS lll1m it is, transr'e~l1Id'~.Q'MerA lor redl!l(ti@111 ~o ~19((1).

I'Iil er ~iy:n~l1iIl. he p ra~eilils orl'he mer s.y~tfrn T dependl 01'11 d11iols J(If hugh"~,fIiiflIi;1ly bin!din~ .l(I met~ 'U~'I' !i:ilJliIll!lou!lds. •. iOlflic me~(:U'r~ [HgIM] ls bgu!ldi ill the ll'e,rill~i3'5mk SJla(~ I:!y ll-~erPill nd then tra 1'15r~med to M~tT 'r~r t~n$port a:C~M'5 lhefirlembf~mE!. Iln~he t:;~'!i()$()'~, H'Ei(l n is ua IiISfef'lie<llfr'l)rf(I Me rT ~o M erA.

Till,e

'i iserueiel
I~

to efforts to dle~n up m~lhyhuerollry ~lJ'fOm Om~kllll,lll;lat~ 'iii! w(J~'eIf'li,'!I'9yS. UmtlIOfll[n<I!lely. Iinle lli .~ k I1GJi,VII.1 abom~;h.ee'.tmzynli!lt:~cnfl.echa~

with eaeller mcc.~,iluojSljcstud ies o:~ MerB (1 fio\'Vt:,,·er. (he ir nl{lde] for M~riB difl:"t1:s
sl igJnly

n.

iWtOlill

ot i~er models. 1,\,'hi.d1

SllJI

ggest

th.u c.~rbon"me!ilCm;y bond ,c.le'ilJ'i.iugti requires
two thiets nnd ejrhera C;lrb(Dlyboo >(11) or jlOlSs;iblya pheunllc group (5), rather than mJ third thi.ol. PJmylo~:e~.H:~li.c mlil~ysis of M,eJr'B s.~~ M~m~~, i.!'tClic.~lC$I~iltlO!~I,y ofltlB lhroo l\VO active-sire cys:teunes are !'>1a~cll)'conserved (5). A~~three cY!ileiflt':si!:I·C·es:seml~i3.1 (imres~stam:;c ilil,'\.<i~'l;)(6).. bllt r,ep~<l!C the nenconserviIlg ed cysL~i,Ii'D.C: with a serine ~ydro;",yl gmlQp {m~y medera.dly reduces Mer',8 <!I.clivity illl vim] (j~.Hence ..cilhL:.':flllil.;: ~l~.krll ,cysteine is nOln"cq!l:li:red

~. Ili s!!u u'·;VIerB at li:l~ ~w~n~lch:w(;]. ~ I ill,11itin~its .appl ie3lioos. iIII,rumedi~:~imll clfbirl'S. ,~ On r~~,(;l flnh~~ 225 lssae, M~I!~id;, .utd ~ultin

IIJ£ ~o me['Cury cOIlm,poumds \\'ith hish'Jffini.l:Y through dliol-eu!1!U'IIini !l~. t"ysIBin'13 residues, :~ I( 3) prm~idein!l~l;m; ilne the r-eaClii:on (;~~1IIYled These I:l~~io~sare cl'itccOIll: nat allily row lln.c e~]zy~ G by MerB by demOl.~:st1Ir<ming cle<'l1vageof a C;;JJr~ n~'lricresetlans by MerA ~d M~rB (5, 6), but <1,I~otor the direct tr;ltm~l~ror ionic mercury OOI1i"~~!:.rcurybeud byol'JI1rI!]Xl\lrld:ii-,:'!,IllO.wstruo~ 11II.re5d~ly resemble th~act1iw !>:ite ,of MerB. b~!,wee:ll Vlffi!C't:Ii:libetrS the lucm of 8yMem ~--:"Yi. thus n~inim itiing ,~ MeiID'l'ayII:ti1lI:IiClIIWY to....icity \/ililsl1rM ob~if."[ved em <'I l<lifBe :sc<li~!E:un .~'<liI)il:lm.uDlI~he.~. 95~,~ dl~e to the uppormni ly for mercary C!Olllpm~f'I(ls. ~~)hiind m~u~r e Hue "" ~h,e cm:J!S'Umpt 110 of OO!'lhlml~lf'bll[(ld hllh! rem 111 .~ Mimuu;EluIB,ay loll, "fIre co~~a~n]~!lo'1llion 'VI'<l<S .131'pll'Oteil'l[s k:ading to toxlcil)', Till;: 'lCIiv(; site ef M~rB ~iltl~~ by aIDl~'-'rny (;h_(;l~l~i~OI!l f~'!o_zy diNCl.lllfy~

i

;i
i;:g

mg mugh eoneentreneus of mUOII'C mer'CIJI.'Y·, em!o(Je:.(Ij by Es:dp,t!:l'icllitj' eoli :~~,vhi.c;hW8lS ,e;:nn"l.lC!!:,rlcd~Q Ind!'uvlli!l!f:l!'Cur,V ~ ~nd ( R83 J b) ~ol1iuril~ I~.roe C:yllS: 00 ;/ lre,ill~es. UO). To emllll.l:1:etlae cml.~ bi~lttumnlll~on,ed iiil1'I~.le Wi ~:~ "

i

f~)fd~\i~ge.

tlr

rhehydln;l,">yl

gumlp nf'serine is il sU~lab]c '!mhsliHLIl.;. 13tH C'II'C'Iiii, if the

site, '~ ~ Il'ilercllIlty t:o:mpollnds~illl\(mSlt~ the ;J,cqu~s.it:~on LVleluJick iIlnd PIJ:m~n prepan ..J a • ;~ Of;fl t1!<msf.;r"hk: g~~~~~k ~~m~~t kU'I)\\!n ~IS;th~ s;~fi~~'if ~I.ky~·~.n.;:n:,;ury e~m~ .~ .ffit'ir IIp'wnJr]. The i:n~~· (llJe:rnu is ;1. dlt.ld[c..~ltld ::;jet ~JQl!Ild;~ch,n:Ctl·nulin threesul::i of nu:n,::ury"reslsl:anr !.I'('~es thoU ~re seU",;regUI;~ furs 13.). following 3, reaetlen :~ hued by l:he DNA-bindi.~g pl\ne:in Merit ~"rith .[1. secend Ibi61-.comainiQS M B3C'ted!l l:esism:~ul:O both iOllro f:c: 11l~I:cmyfind ClO[t~pou;~]d.a sUbg,ro~LP0 fl~.e i1~kyl."'l.nercl[1i)'(Ol1lj)oW[nds spon .. :~metlliY~lmefl~llry ('l(u]e for prme~i~lS thHt n:Sllbre ~ .~ merolull'Y tr:lU1spon (~\derA.M.ell~; MerT) ~Ul(1 tdliil{',{)llS~,y d!~i!.ved~heil' ,c<uibO:ljl.~ .[1: m!,;rc~ry dBgnuj~t!(ln (M~rA amidMC;'lrlH I(Sll';(), ~:n~rcw:y 'hu!~d,]n !ll~ ffi{)l}il f~t:~V~ ~~ ~:h.erru ~l figure)l, OOllpDlJl:Jdit;. ~~~r-ctlry (;dJ~1 S.iLuul~ .~ M~retUfye(l~l~p;:lu~l& .[Ire 'l1:l\:icb~~l!~ ~l~Y n~~e'01:.Q!Si:y h~lld ~t) Ith~~ Ihilll:!.>. bitrnd,'!,'el)' i.'11.IOJl,gly tC!~!~io~ group~in l~m~:eil1s. The <Il1llmms s,~ggest. that. lll.e .~ "ffi11e'~ .. S.ysi.ei!ill.~ ex:pIQlut~tJ;1is property by hilld,~ ~h1iCC cyst~i.~l~S ill the M.crB S .1icti.ve ::l.ill:: create ::f:umi lar Sl'rliC" iL g hires lhlll ~'bcil itaW~.~~l'lageor n!~ ilUiihwls irrllh~ D,epncel1llemt d~ s5od!iimif, Univerille .~ !:Ie Mo,ntrf.1lL IlkIm'irial. 0(, HlC m Camad.a,. E·maIU: l::;artKl.liI.-mel~UI)' ool),{l s. "" jg,(il'!1idhilrl$ki@ ~1I'!'10illreo'll,«I ;~ l"h'(l re.,'i~.hs are 'co!lsis~~nf
\'~ro!l!t1C'l1itiijl~is~C'~~v,~
,+ _ "" oj

.~

\'Vork by Me~ nick <lnd Pru;ki~~ db~ !lm e."!.ID;.'tly 11iID~1c:1 Mcrll t~ia.e l~ illOts pr'OVlide <Ill e lem ~m ~u(lmic-~¢\.'·~1 ~~~r.ipd

'[ion for (he fi-_lCi~ed.l:liWtl§~of
a cm:lh(:m'oIllL':I.'lGUl'ybon(j [3).

There h~weooen
siderahle
CW{JiflS 10

.con-

develop

bierensed i;[llion syslen~I$.!O deal Wli!l!h methy,~nm.elicllry (lomamif!1)~i!)n ~s~r.!g MerE MeriB-.e~ilres.si!'l!Ji p~".R~:s;,i~an~·
g;~nil( UU®ll1!woiOd ~1,"':r1~sex·

I

p~c:ss:i!'lg M~ rS (ri:g M~ 'Qrow
roots reiildHy
011
C)fI

,~onCeil'lilr!llili(lns

pl1renvlmeorrury ;I(Etate ~hat

s~~r~Ly II111lJibUw~~d-lyp~ mot

g ~owlh (lMll.

205

I

PERSPECTIVES
end MerA. Th~ oosubJ;of N~e~n~~c:k :ra~kii~ ral m ere ury, respec ~ive.~y. However, end
,b~
2. #1" 10. S~ml1M!lil;,Atl\!'!fJ, Rw.MkrobM, 40.601 m~l 3, J. G, ffl!:lPi!1k, G, r~kirr, S(i.'gffl'g ~;!!'7. ;::,5' 'tHI(l7}, .-:I. P;A, Ii)"V~i,. F. M.1J11i'~ t:tIvlmr:l,. Md~tlg, 2, 3: !~li9i'Sl'. 5. I( [, ~«S, 11_O. :~ i\n'llll\'f:t 8ibchEm'Jiltfol" ,,",,'1, ::1.02(17
'~20(12),

e~~eilmlet~1~.~m.t!I.'{mry was released :DI:IitOthe n ~~.elp saebe Iforts by p:rov~:dill g atomic-level .. n!'n~ught inlo the basic meehan i,~tu s of C!lIl"OOffil.~ annespbere .. where it lni!ly soli]! page a r.is]!; Futuresmdies mustalso eVll!lmn~ llm,e ri~:k:s ~lefcllry bond ~le'~~\I:·.l~~ thiols, hlll.a highly by al!:ld bencfib:!; of i~Hrodu;cinggcnel .. caUy ~ imlo'V~lliv~!llPpma,ch. Mc.a~ler snd eo-workers h<li~I,e engineered Me:~A.,uldM,erB im,lo mod ifl.eoC~ Me rB - e x p:ressiilr.Ji~ pl.antI>wil:h respect to (htl d~~g{)u.'S!lSSOei~III;."(] 'with Ill~lWls [0 remooi:f~W m(:'IJliylmer~~1.ry iContam~ co!li1~ [l$'n.l.i~~,itl'n. inmiol'i U 3). :~n'lI~d~~~iol~, ll!l.i!i'!g pl'Hlt~i$ me Il'uyl !u~!,l;:tli!')' COJiaSlLdel:OlMe "",'01:10;:re~,ll,a:ins to. be dioJlf!: to potentially nu:n:il!'mi:mst.than bactel1i<ll reme-

11. M. ~ Ml'.!.'lr~.M, S, D~tI!IMIl". !C!. Z!rdo~, l It l'. 'ClJm!Di~ C, V"!Hi'C!'l!i~• .4... Chtm. R~ Z3,

di.lI:i!.H1!. because piutlt:i use SQI<l:f en~rgy. have roots Ih<ltpenetmte ,cmll~lH.il.laled sedli~ll~,~t:\, •• md1Jc<;uU'l~U~"Il;e

jm;n:'l$l:: ~heemdi,;;l1cy and ~~f~ty ~mrf~~t of
bfaU'emedi<lt.io'l1l :systems :Wbr metll.ylmerc·l,i~y 1.11'I"{lh"in,g MerB. A~!l;m~lic-kwellkl,lOV\ ..ledgf:, of the Ci'!l"tJQI~-mel:"-cuili)r bond de<wilse. s'Uc~].;IS tha rc&'llils ofM~lliIick alfDdParkin. h•.essflliildal

a,I;)I\Y~ .".bo\reground:

b.iolru]~s:liltn~ll·e1".ffiI~oire .• '1 fe>v \vell~(h."IIr3Clera i7.:~d p~.;)UMspec les m~y be uSJed~od!l,;;1n'D u:r eenta rni 11!1Ii~ed Wfl~~ ~[IdecoiSys.~ems (JJ}, \~ih~!1!rhf:;ymodit1~d p[~I!!USsuch as COlh).!1l\wodl, trees {l4) eit~:le~.· e-rIB: (~e M and tobacco ( 15) toexpsess

~odlb.l,ts ~o .r-eeal.g;ineeT MerH to ~mp:r:o\'eits

~!t~":~lk ~ffic.i~:OO.(1i ~h~biarom~dIa~·t!P!1 of fflr
Inethylmeir1QlIry,
lL T. Ball'll(. 'So M:. Mi'lIeJ. A. 'Ct $~Jf:I['fJ,t!i':S,. f~S
27.

the seeond frngLJ.re) er bOl:~1 MerH .~rld1\I['e[A. t:he :pbl1~s c~nvened

t~990). "J. A, P. HlOi!:t!'.]. l. '!'6i:iwmm. ~" t 1B'fO'W!11 Mol:.MIf-&biat ~7, ~5,(i~~5~. B, fZ. iljM~i!oI !!fl., ~B5 .!tit, lD'5, 8J!l, G!OIl~), s. G. C I~e!l~o!l d .!H(jC\!reJ'ffl~r?, ~3, l133:1QQ04I, 1!!Ol 1'. Illi U!lie, !II al., Bljjd!gmliii!1IY 41, 1J13:~2''~2J(]{14), Jlj_. T', i?, BtQ~. A,E.Wall~., C. 'T:. W~~IiI,9IotIlil1l'MijI :il!i, H9Zf1996.)o. :U. E. Gap[n:!tl\,. t C. ilru~.j.AIIIl.. QlJiMI\ .St:ic, :10'il',~9m} ~1t9a;i), U. R, B, ffle~~me-(;,Cl:.la. Opm. Pk!!!'I!3iDt ;1:, ISo3,(2000). :li..:!_!>. lW'~ tl aL. i'/t!t/:'rl Bi~lIr1tJl: $, S, 2!i>l, {;mo.:n. liS, #1" rC. W,H~tI:I'" C. L Rugli1, ~d, WO!!1!j" R" EI.M.elll!lher;, WGj~ Air,. S,J.il.~I¢. l!.6'm, 137 ~.2!OOSJ. 1C1l, ~~mSU~IKII':J)i!dI!by n~INo!IlirAI ill Sdl!lt(j~ .and Emgin~i!I1ngl 'C:otI,~1li1Clf (aif)il.lb. ~ iIlhan~ R:. ~~~er :flll mil mYilil"llU"

~oa

D'.,

Ilnet'hy~.m.erctlll"Y to imm:h;: ~~1el"Cur~ ~le~~.'Ie:.!'n,~ or

"!I~

IRtdlerMCIesalll!diNo~e~
M'i{lI'wial.

1.!~:ii'lgl.d~.Ii~~ril'M..

3~~5m~3), c

BIOCHIEM ISTRY

:SW,"::~iJ rati rd(l~fIfloi!'l'i(l11a1botital'! e'n:r~!l1Ie ]mp~],ali8'd'ill Tlumerous 'can£@rs IProvkl@$ ]Ilsigillt:!< lllill,o to ho\\l' cerl:ai ~ mILJt:al~olll~prom Inte CflIlCe,(e-U 9 rew!lh .11'n : s u rvi'li'lll .. d

the p8::i, N~~m,lliUll"~~. SH2 do.lIlI.l<lin (nSil2:) Inhibih> purtfil~d p,ll(la i~ viUn(9). nis sugpl'J:!ij~l~: is <1ctilv<lteiil lI'pal1ll biadi ng to. e~,t~lfra •. ~ed I:hat bil1lding oflhe 1)85 IlSH2 dOlnl'lil1 to receptor tym.si:I~.e:klll3Se at the ce~l, sur!!u .. (rQi.r <'I. receptor O'f ad~pto]j releases po]1 'OCi: re ~ [min this i,flhib~tQlrs h.lm::k eancer t.-..e:M: grov.rt~~. sar<lnd v~.'l~~~ some g;e~ic ;d~:et;',lti,\m5., ~d1iasloss .mld ~ exml1.1pi.e. the pl<t~:ele'i-d~rulved growth Ib.cUli~ ill~ ibiHny irl!ie~.lctiOJ:1Wi~11P."J:5" '\\'it~~ul di~mptof the P TEN mmer S"upprn'SlSQr. lncrease :P[;K reccplo!;l' or tiel o;ld3p~or molecules (s~u;h as ,ing the ~SI~.J...J\'BD hl~cmc~km: (:see tile fig_u,re)(, m;:ti vity in~ eaneer oellj~ AJWi,'~:.e Sei.Hll,rm~ diiti ]1.1 ~.igM of these .'HmC'~!LU:"dl r.llil,d~ngs,. the insal ilm, rweJ~l'or ,sut');slnne- ~ 'Milich is phos.• p.hol)'i:;lteclby <It::livm:ed iIL~s'ulin recepterj. TIme Ol~llhor.; e%,lrIllined 1:\'1'0 classes of'p~, ~,OnO:JilC{)C::().Voe:ll"Y Pl K3C.~-lhe dun g~lle encod ill£, the :P[JK <:1il:fllytic' (;,\lbUllk 'I P I I.()o:}-~~.l'i1lUEfl~~di~l pS5 ooglilattiry Sllblii1ili~ !ll~di<1!I:e$ Ih(,S~ b~nc[jng g€:nic miJI.<fltU~)n~:lhe p~1ltuk~mJt heHcnl d(]Ul~ i~ ... cancers ,~4).these nUlt;)n~Il:~ mOl ProteJ11l'i> loAl'O.1Jle cve~l!ts Ihrcmgh two Sre hCIli1,l.Oklgj' 2. ~S~12l umml~l!timu; aad the less eemmon AB D ]1UI~~ 11;)l!mJ I:{):~<.:!!ve'!I';lnS'[~'!~~ive f]3]( flctivhy mld l dom..lns dKU i~t~mctwi~h pJm.o$ph~}ry~~~..,d ~±")!1S. Se\~I'<~1 nmlatiom; in rhe heli('~1 do~mtin the C..aPOIcily 10 tll;<IllsJor1n :~.(l\mmlllcells :unlD c ..n- ~yro.s.il'Leresidues .0:11 file rec:el]~o:r Offi' a,dlllllltQil" UileSUIt all amiue acid ofoppos~w dml'b~,suciru bill prOle i~m, As .3 r~.,;!>I.J1:~l.P leeallzesie UK I:~C ~~a ghllta!ll ieaeid (.ne.gillh~ d~=:I.rgellto Iysiu~ cer eclls (5). MUlalkn~~ illrlP/K3f.'"r o(:ctLr (po..'ii:il:ive c~~:i1Ir~-e~,ell.mgt: .~lprn;.~ti~1Ji 545 IhrougJlOliU 1l'11.0aI.. nn lV>1O h.ij~:s,po:tll'e'dio:~:!.- pl<ls~l.~'" l membirnl'le. whe:lre i'~pho:s:p!u:)r)'lo:lte~ the ~ll"~ic~l~ =:'illd l\:.lln~s~ d(j.ll'l~i.nS---~Ullupr:i~~ t~J,;:: m~'i!lll~ro:mi\':~ipid Il~lnl'>Jl~19!idyllill1t'1S11'ol,45~ (E545K~. nU1il:.i!Sh lbii:ic~~l ..~mie~1 $Wdics:., Itb~ more than ~O'% oftbe mlllil~tolm:S. HO\'>'e\'Cli.IThie bisph,osp.h~llie (rliP:!} lie! produce phO~~,l~.~idlyl~ Ol[llhrn:'Srbmi;dI~:n:<l!t.m.llike ,,',Iild"'l.ype p I I (la, the m~II~;H~~,h!f !ll~(::I1>;iln~!!im~'by ,vhk:h ~h~,~~ IY1JM:~ti~ :£;5451< !ll~i!.'f!~l~i$~(]I~~nh~bi~l;'(;]b}1 pS5 !~SH2. ii!m{}-"i~fI] JA5"'!!isr1~~p.~~.;;tlQ' ~J.Thjs~~~d~ (PIP liol1ls ]m,;~;em~ '1] K. .!ctiv.ity J:W:~\ie re'fII'Ji,] ~led~1 i ~u .<I'I;:~ivi!Jio!1 of dg\~'~1~tr~<'lm Mg~.~Ung po!t:l~,- Th:In:5.·~·~.is· regi.UllI orlhep~ H)QXhdicld darnailil \1!I"d:YS llun oCOI!'ntn:-01 ce]~g[1J~1II'Ihan:dl SlIr'li1 ival lU~edy bi.n:ds, to pS5 nSlili2. ilmI, ilUelj'ii'loQt~ofl '~Jma[ lll)1stery. Oi!'n,page .::l39 of this issLl.e.Milcd ei al. (6)1::1Wlil~idiltehl~\i arK: oflht: h(lt~pailUu,m kms I TIlt':p~5-p.~ :~Oot:im"'J;'LcI~on is renr'J.li:~Ii"'krn.bly !!1()iml~.l.,lIy ral;1i!IJ1'tai!l1::lwiid-'t.)1le PiI3K iiL'U~ 1.o'N~,ltCIl;-.l;se5ipnK aC'livi~y."fhe r~mling.. .. re'\I'Caln l!tro.I1~. ~ml pi lOa is sta.·blcoflly WlhlE:'UiI, it. i,s. activity :5iti,nc.lheautilol'S; hypoll'n~si>red tllfl.l. ne\M r1Wcirilllll sm fOr <I.c6J\r:.J~illg.(1'[.11:<. Md ::mg~ bound lop~5 (.'l'). This heterud~m:iJ[i:slonm.1.eclby :imponant c:lJlllr&,re"C~]ilj~-:g!e ime'm"(;~ioll j\ OClCur

T

h.,e' Pi~i?S~)hO. inOSiti.~e.'l~k~n.'.Il'>e. rp.I.J. ~. ).' S'~t;lna.h~g p~d~\~y rs OOH:::H!.~ Ih~ Vla[fl !J]lity of 1n"',l:Iiy cancers j J-J}, PI3K

p I I OC;,'Lla~,yli e .s,MbUIlDt (,/ _ i). NflvmaI1Y.PBK. \vh:ich~'sid\.;'f:, ~n th~ e:.rtf]>SIUibll

nit and

<I

a

~est l:Iewpnssiibihties for t;hempelllic d~;T~~~r:gi;,ll'~~~i~ I '~n~me.

ag;el1l~s ~lmebjllxl[L~~ Oift~.e 'pBS lilllll:e,IFSl-I2 (iS~:-[I)donm,,~in ~'O'!:~~P~ ] 001\,,~d<lpl;or.;bi!i!diug d~mf!j!l (ABD)

P[J;K (.specific<JJUy., class, ~A PI3K)is ... htltl;lrmlim~:i! eom~is:Ung 'Of;1 pKS re',l:!.u.huary
iIih@ i1l!1t~~rs a~ 1n, IJni! D@pamruml

(see the IlgJUll.'if:j.Hmve\rer.~~le s.trm::I.ll.are af'lh~.s ii!u)l;.l.~!elion ml oo!ru~i~~dun1kJIltl\\l11U!~tiIMil~d h mul ooUeHglle.!l (;1'yS1:3rM,ze:di the I~'~ ABO IOfi
hound toO t~]cr8SiSIU dm1~iJil.l.'nleY fQund ~'1il!I ~~.e AaD'!bU',n~!sll ubi{[ujlililr-mi ke dO;mJUlI.illi, I:h,ll

il'Iar!;'arnM~dkal (litool. and imille S

(iiI Sy>t!l!m,s lS'iIllo9'Y. IDiviiiDii of Signil!

itr.lrtWuclioml, B~~!lI~r:ile~ ID~~~JlIm!?~<;II,I'I~dtc;!JI0e.~~r,IB(Ii~om', 02:U5., U~A. J, A.IEirlg!i:~ilri isillls~ GilIMS5,U;!iu~,tb 'Ge~r;al, H'os~llal CilIUIocer(1!!~1.e!\, aos:~om~ 11M 10211:5, USA.

lbe~;l,'Vee,L~ p I I 00:, :lill.e'l~ct'l:ldOllli.'li I~<llmd,p8~ lhe il'!SU2 dnm~i!!l, ;,lImJa:hey mUWt(;iJ Olln nSH21i:1a"ic ll;esid~If!:S to ~c:idiLC {meso lfh.ey i(k'!:llIi~~!r.ecl l\l,iO :importilm rl;l~id~oes~!1p85 {LyS];79' ~~ndA!"£.:Ho) th.u ~re l\."'<1I~Li.re,d1iU));libj,l pi HlrJ.:.W~.eil.l lhey tn ro::\!'t&"fOOdd.l~ cha~ 011 th~bask re:~id~1~S y b nl1.lutmi!l:lg lQ g;lllLti1l1i1,l;,tles.. thelllii:l~tt<~Ili~:pS.SSH2 n
blll

m

E-i'I'I<Iil~loois.JiIIlIUer@liIJ'ns:titarvllildUet!lu

c:ofltaclS th~ ofllip@raUel (loil~d·coil ro~iol1! of iSH 2.1,~lo"\M't:"'~l:m,·. pl;cviou ~ d~t;:l ill,Up!i.ed acldi~ dm~;,d i!~n;,:rm::lkmsb0t\"''6-e:~pS.5 ami p II flo::-

(1W(\';ct!vi$;lyi uhi,bh-ed p' I I OiOl 1~54!5K. lUll \\r.illd"~)'];re p.1 I 00:. T~~ tis. t he aull,~OiL".S P'):''(Yp,}sefhif~l p 1100: E545K is OI'L(:og.e~ic
dl;J["H~l~f1S

IPERSPECTIVES

I

PI~il:

"~in~~~ 1
Adiljl~ Wlldi4yptil IPI31< Onc~!~f!ik

J-IQ ttlnalSe' ~
rn!!Jt~J'ilt P~13!K

U

IPIIP~

A !i;a'ili(ei'~liiiilk>e'i!1 iIt'j,u'ta'tf!Oniil, PI:aI(. The lfi!l1lj'i r :;:t;;i biUtii'lg ~iuea at::tnQnin ,PI3IK Ti'lw~~~s.~D1epSS is 1-12,arid p'noo:. Am dOillla~i\s!,~i'IIMltilt1)(ii1i(lif Pl3Ki~mMiiated IIY~a (harg~·cli!~r9~ illtcr:~clioWl (shown .1~ pilus olliloi mi,flus ~i'QI1i:S:)' bcl,",IilCIl~hfl' pas Ii!SH2 dom.;!i!'! ~n~lihfl' ~~~i(oll ~H} domai!'l of pUOo:. lP~31K (alil~S to~lhQolW!lilMiJraP1~ w 'l'l'J1lelr'ei1Ilf'ra Oi:iorn wilh ~UI ilc~hra I.edlr'@ceptQr 1'e~~~:O; Un!? ilnllitilJilion. In 1F'13IK. ~ wiinllt ill'I on.C!oge'i'lic pllOIl dil<l~E'·rev~i'S,i31 RlIUti3il,lCMi1I ii'l~h:~ heUi(-a1 !ilOtmalr1 (E54S'I(), t~e i ohibltl:! ryhll~er;;JC"@f1~ {J r~ ~b:rIlgf,'!~~(j(, rl'sdirJgi!l OOI1!$!Ulutive P'13K ~CU!;1ai~i(lWl.

bec~mgc at is, llmtillhib.iterli
dJolrLil:lil1 :M."C ~heIlYll're).

by the 1)35 IlS~:i2

h is IC~l!i, clc~n-:~~ow~~£ ABO ~mt!u ions: aerivalePB K. AI~tl0Ugh the ABD binds bJ'p85, ABD, .!~lMti)t.iom; ~ire;: ~oc,(M~~d thll,':'exposed '0[11
5ul'fW;,1~ Uui:L;ill~~~fl¥l'i:~Y W~l[)J1Ii!II~~ iSH2

dom<'lir1!.

P'IJlll pl:oducti'!iJILil is, alse llO!>:swbh~ that Uu!n~,lJl"lm f.131<. :~m;.dizes,'to the memD:I1'<1ne ~hl.\o~I,gi:l m~um1bl'an~bt:lI,Jl~,d Ra,s ~ro[of:ilL1~)~.! ( Ocr. ~<lLSalt1iS-biliidi Ii!dOmJiliIiIII ormilih:iom oeillOOlItiten; with iI'n~(,:m hr~m~ Ii pid :5l:!bl!;lrllt~. 1l1~ reseaech by I\.llil~ (/1 (~i.will ~.H)p!i;if\ill;yspur

be cli::pecwd nol lei i~ll~ll~.bi~.w.iicl";l)1pe PBK •. t~lU~ redll(:.il'l,~ m'n,v~~luedside .a'WilIet!';.MOfllOV~:I""Jiffercl1i,l PlK3CA Iiii~utln:~oni>majl' be Illl'iClioll1.~Uy disliUfl.,t ~tnd their effeets olil celht-

sJUm,~s.~ingth1llI.A.BD nmlatiollsdio lrot di'lrecily il'!l:~erl~re\\,,;ith pS'5-p~ U)(( i!1i~ero(;rion. llms[~;Jj~L ~~eym>:lY d[SliOfl erieatarion of" the' A B,D Wil~~, respect 10 the l~[.]~:ytic:, core, aMTeClifi,g t~e inrrmsie el1!lyn.~,,.n:k:activity of:pl~10,C( or its, i:l'nti;1mc:lion:;;w~[h, ether protci~l~. Uow does (me E545K mut<lllli~ pliiJl1U.'lte eel I ,~n'l\\I~h~!'Hl SI!J1t""iv~lin lhe ab~11CE: ,of grO\Vdl fac'rcors't Alt~,10ught~~,e II~ml<litim.1 ,.. b:rog~;les in,ternm:~ectll<IJ· :illh~bi~iQu.i.~ does 'I1.O~ t:xpillti:nl doo'ifl!ZiJin, mel)cmnhoered ~
irs 1m,11~mbrn1rn,e~QC"I]~<lltiml:. T:h,e pS:5tm,SH2 'by i:~.t~r-lLCtiollwhb the p ~,~,Oo: hel ica ~ dmrm~,;Im. llrn.l]gill;~ remain more

enrorts to 'm,ys~:aUlZC tlte ho:l!oelJ!Zyme \"':~lhOOd,l ihe \v.i~d"t)~pt' !lflld mmall[ p] ] O~ pro~e:in5. Irl'3Killlinib~~or.; <IIl'eIIO~:Vbei~~ evaluased il~

inhibitOr:!; ~ouldelsobe \'l!~lirornindl,;~~tQ't l'O neo~~fny griQlUp all C'1III11,I.;-er.s W~:t~,l PIK3C';.j 1l1iLll,t;)tions tog.ether t~fhel'! ~lillillyzi~,g cancers and ~h('l~,r res:par:lcSe to lttrgcted therapies,
to

I!~r~~SpOIl~.~

aibl~, 1l1u~,

"\,t~ ~~

(;I:~!lca ~ UiOliI s, AnOlI.ogt)Il!S to the success i

(If

~igitl~ly asseciatedw] ~t],eeepters and a,cr~lp'tn[cS. r p~ot~'Cli!i1,g (:r]tleal lymsii1e residues Irum
dephoi>,phm:y h'llli.on1Indl]iII,e1J;-eb~ pml.oJrnWllg

drugs thM bloc.k kilm1!Lse:S-l"r.I~tl!lzuIl!lJab iu U£ fQ ·<tmp~ined brt.1f~s~ '~!nJ(,l(ln.i!ll~ti~~b in C r'hi 1..,.de~,ptlia-c:I~'I{O:[I.1.mUJmedl roaic :1I1I,nyel:o~;e~(lUS l~lik~;l'I~iil. a~d g~llti!lib in BGFR'-m.~u~u~:t IUl1g cmrn<''e,rs---<;Il~lt'e,rs with ge\l,lf!'~ic <lc:t:iiv-.nioll of PIJK sign!<ll.ing eauld 'be suseeprible to p UK, ~inhibitgl1i, Thl~)I. <lll&:~ wi~h P1K.K't,1 C ~ltlt.n~~Oni> PT.!!.N' loss] wi'~I,be ca;ucMly {or in\{e~tig<ltil.'d ~rClrg.en5iJiyi~y W [l'].JK i'IIII'hilJiiH)r::>. The pi 100: E545K ~,lU1tmn]1m~ybe su~t~b1.e [0 (,lfUnpOl.iVlJ.!s [ha,l bind~{)itl' cUlVliqlt~ helical
dD1U<ljl~.Sm'f~HJe,. OCh;1 ;'5pe~jj:r.cl~.tiI.<]py S

R!1lf'~,"mllf:S: :1.. ]. :A.1Il!!9~i.fI!,!!!. J\.1lw, Ii. c, (~~U~.l'IIl!t Re!'. ,Cie!'le' 'I. ,006 (21)0'612:. L c (£irn~l'~" 5€ifIlL!!',;!''96, ill'ii~5f2002~, :3:. ;A, G. IBader. !l1,Kil.ng" L, 2ll,aa> P.I':. 'IJO!Jt, Mal. ~: CC1r([y S. '9:H ~2J)OS,~" 'l. 't: !i~rrrue!i..'lrlj," Si::ir:m'dM, ~~:Sil~2'OO~). s. R 1<.. '!!!'CJ~t5. ~~, M. A. EfSu~e'f.M. Grml1lq!!:Wc~, 1tends 6iad'l~ S!:,: 1I;O~Wl~;'ib~~0!Il7 ,J{I!lj,005020(l7h 1 6. ~. lYi~ed'f1 0/., Sd.. i!Kl.' nl!', 2:19 ~:200i'l'. 1. R.. ~!ll(J! JtI' gl. •.Amw. ~- Cell ~ Bill/. 1'. 061':1~2QO:!!)'. S. J" lfu £i'iOJ., 1M"'.Ctll.~, 18, i:m U'993i, 9. ].lii'u. C. Wj:lUII'I',],M.lallti1t;I .. liIf«, (mill. :l:73" 301:9'9

n~'~a~,

would

CUMATE

CHANGE

Sta ndardl (~ilil'l ~lodel prO'jecUOmi$, whftCih have ~te shewn lhe si;gnifkflm'i11 Oir gl.cba!. wlImi "9" ITIlJl5,l be redle~igrll~dI~oit;[hmn diili!~te ~ha[lge ,~d~pt~· tiltm 'H'l~ mHigation pQilky.

i:[,~;g,us s!i~nific<lll[in the COn:li~eXl Ofllll.'l~,llmd eliI1li1ah;.'l ~ri:H~Oli1i.s. a:!md!hoIll hum~:..!.'! ~cliv~ities v :lire \'e'!"Y ~i:ke~y 1:0 be the cause of~]~.i!> di[llulte'

T

~e l~ue~1 r~:pon ~, l~.e~_I.loorgo¥~ir,rh.~
lmi::nta~ .. .ml am C'. -~in.a. {.::3111D. ge (I'.PC. C) ~l:II ..0. .. Ie h l
IL~.lake!:l .I~

do, to prep<~re for the il'!lie~fitab'Jeli.!£~her irmu:e d
c:hm~ge Q~!'e:r~he~~CKl mv decades (adiHpladoll) ' f

'clum~l{e ch<1l:l~re '1:0jJrlf'operiy ill,lbrm n%i~lg,nkll1 pol icy under t~~eU IIired Nadon s Frame\\,!ork C(nl\'eIJil~![)1lon Cth.n.llie Clm~[Ige.(The UNFCCC' is ;I'rIl, i:lmtf'fl],utiomll tre,1uy joil1,ed by mesreeonmes: ~hl,;i K)'otoPr{l~('Ico,1 Is all

clear dun

re\."el1ll

gkib.]]

W<lmlL""

i.llld hO'!.!Vtlt'Bey

!!.':HI:D.

help lo.w(l~d dm:lg:erou$, dili-

urate ChHI1i](!;ein the longer term (mitiguti:cm). ,n.room. chim<lt~ ~'~~:~.g(l rJ'{lji~c~k'!lSrap rl uee a wide :mnge est inm.mtes of gklb<!i.1

d\ii1.fl:e, A$· a ~l(~I:. bllsi~l~~~.ln'ltil;y··m~IJ;.'en<. \'\r~nn~!n!:J:. 'by2I'O~l These projirsetani'IJs ~H~iI!!.~rl~1 [nO!"~til'e!i,.,ing the eensequences {ifdilfel1ellll :~ ~nd l'I'Iemoc:'rs 'u:Frhe ~~ubl:ic::aile seeldl],gI:~l.e :~ ''ld'!ili~ ('J!fcli~!:l~'i!e scientiSitS QI~'vh[~they :Sh:o~I.1d grl.':eflhou se !¥Is em iss.icJl1scenarlcs, but too t
III

or

addendum ~othallreaty.) Bmv,c.ln p.roject.iom, be d~~,~r'!~-d, fruit they b~t[l;.'tr~!1ftlij"UlI:~ so pocllic.)i'!

~ iJ:; :: Tme'~L:lI.lil!mim~~Ifi'i~~5dii!D~. of Elngine-erll1!![l" (~mpuling ,~ aJl'!d, athe!ll,M~c£, Uniii'e~sit~ 01beler', beter lElU,4QF; M
t:I

long-term aud unoert:,rinwgui,d.e :lfegiorl.d
ad~p[~lliQn
(0

UK E~nllaijlt~1.J'I'!"cm;@ e;!leter;.ac.u'~

cJ im.de PI,'Qj~ctUOIliS ,ne ,[ltso i,II,1l>uif:icLC ndy IOcUSiOO (1]Jl quo:mJt ifyimlg dl~ risk ~xfdtlng.'0]i'Ous

dh:n~uc

ch~UligG. Sh1::~dafd

IJriI.~el:'ltajllties.in clilMle predictions vary' wUlh~l]e ~lI'!oIt,:n'l!;;.-j.n,g period ol,llf:r w~ljd~ di.the nm~e :us. defined im,(l wit~l the le<ld!:ime ofdle pr(ldiCli.olW, '. 'o:unsidcr. :rOl" ~."';;1:!Wple:. ~lic:Ih~ I:ion of the gl:ob.a:11 metlJ.l d)ec<l:cl!a:~lempenl.t.gIIPC

'O''II'€!'

I:~e !l~:>o,1 ~!~t~ry. with Ib~"C'af.t~e~d d!n~s

I

PERSPECTIVES
m ~ OO:],!)C'~!l(f'Ol{kl!l thmfiVo,ids Wi!l£l;>i\lusimerrer-em.::ein the climate SY5IeiJ11. 'l1e oonye~tiQlJIn, ] lhe:reFcme. fDC1l!>cson ther.isk. ofditI.'DgcfOlJl 5 diC

require diO'en.':~rn mode.li,:lrngs;IDI":'.:tlegies .. Ob~er'il'ml(iOllh~of the cmnenlpornry 1Ea!lf~llil s.ystem

¢.l\ia!)g~ ~nitip~d.oi'1,m~)' nil'l'r $ig:~~'t ppeer ~o ~J a

m,n~ I.:h"u,1g.e;i S ;1 fl!I"!C~~t~1I1 oCd,le cIJrlt:emr"!'iol:!
of greenhousegases 1;]Il<!ll an the relarion between 002 erL'iI~:s~iolli:-i nd im;re"l8e~ in a ,!It~uu~phC',~ie Co., eUIiI.4.)c~:u[~uiQ~hn)~Igh '[,'Ij:~ l iU!,~~;l'l'bO!l cye~~\\l fl,"tidbf.~ks (5. 6). These' issuesare neteasily addressed with the model s,i11!i1:Ullil~:inl1~ C'l~rf'~!i1dy used by th~ lQ 4~6()' 00 .IPCC' It&.OOtllflC ~ma.d figure, ~'!1:fl pa:nel).blllhe IPf,~d~(1iol1teal!! filiTl@ ~1[j5,) iPCC approach •. ~!;.1~mui(l:S()if po~~ible~i!hu!~ Millllllfii'izffiliilgi U'lIloe:rtlll1ltie's:. (olll~ib!!ltiOI1l~ to u neer- ,eulliS.'Jio~.1S ofgiJ1ieenhol.lse £H5e8.m.d m:ro&J:!s .ne t~n!lly vn tliJe p~ed~C:lJedl diocadial n~etlf1 teml)(:f<llulr>e' g.CI~emt~.d\v~dl llIocioeoon:mnic models thar '!Idry witln the lea{! lilFl~' or the pre!ikltOJI. Here the' Ul"'e ill~o aOC:Olm.l a :rr:m:lgeof"'sl!ory ]~,n.es" ctJllrer~racti ona~ IJ ifI(eli1ta'ilillyl$ ~ efil'lled as the !p~edkl'kllil ~l:!i!glohl~p'[]pukn:io~ gro~vdl. ~cono!1l:lk:cl:..,"\l{;l~ eJn'lJ div:i:ditd byiLs Qe,f"bLr.JlIlSlilt!~[IIl. 'lim~~~ JU\\tU(epmem, em!I:!~,Yuse'. andi ill \!',31l'i OIb~.e mix of thms fo~u:;h"l~en lead tlmes (If -,30 lO''SOl{'iii~rshal\l'{l' tin f1 IO'i'iles~fra(tiOi1al~ I!In(:ena:if'liy. 111i,s. 5:(h~m<lllk is. fLm.lI,re energy OOIl1,rres. These' cluissi.ou SCemJII,"" OO!ill!dl Olil siml!lll! mod@ling.
.' I

.~n: Ihe k~y th.u Im~s! tie dle se ~:ll(lcle i~g I
:!>tnu:\Idls wgc'lh(Jli" ]:m!IO~:Ulli.Uilg t'ld~pUHion on

cleC'<ldtd time scales reqllq ires d~~I~1nMi1e slower o d:i~muue ~:yt~h::Jn cmupo1'lc:n~~ spoci~]ly l~{i ('(i w~afi) to iili(i;iU7~ high-rGtiolmi(lil (:'lim1iu~ predictiens ((~)1':~1.einleillip.l\et3Iia<.~1 of nbserva.

liQlls in U il'U10lnnr;;:,iI ootlg:i:;,t~n~: withih!:' I:1HJ·,~<::11 ,! thoougJh. ··lnodJe~lj-d'M:(1 l\i1si.o,lIl.'·or "data <l!5i1Uil;'liul'I") is 4;.'OfllllliL{lWl. in flml,l!:',iilc:a Iw~HnlerpPiiiclk~[on ,111:(1e~1.·Klmdto dec-adal prediction (Ql., s bm iSIiI.m j!G'tw.cd to ("Imlstn.'lilil, the dima[~pro-. [eerieas of I,he ] fCC.
FOil di!mHlt~
l1Jli~mil

c~!,ge mit~g.uio~" du~dflmi-

lIlloort<lini~ie •s are OI:lisoci.tte:d\vit:ba, ~:Ui.ll.~a!.e

s)'swml precesses and fee~nl<lck:>. rnJIln.er!~ian

uliI~e[t.drn ies wn i:L~,it,ll cO'J11di-· I
tia~.ll,I~!m,~vm·. the ~naJor CO!Im· strai iiI~S 011,1 these iP'ftH::e.s:s,es m~d Ii(:ed~c":.;; 1l.lso (:fin1Ji)C from o'b:se-rv~liYM; (If the hi::;t(lri.C'.[!:1 aud CQ]1J.re:mi,lIDr<'Iry clim<lllc, 'We
t;.!!1!

\,..~ryiillg betweeu I and 100 ye.'IIrs. OndG'~d li:~~e;sQ,fleJ~,:;I:h~ H) y~..rs,

,

(HrrE'n~

approach

10

climate prodiction
Soo@.tli!,tlI!O'mi~ I!lll1isoicrn:

Climi'lte prediction too inform mitiqarion po~icy

the.:

~gm!ill of

.mu:hJ!,:o~:J(lg(;fiic c~iis [ii.'l](lJii,'cly sma.!]

mate ch,mge

!G~G

c:omp,wLld [:0 namral de,ci.ld~~di·· mare v,u:iabilily. :find uncertainties in i!1ii.l~ a~ecnditions dO:1111 irume t~ overall uncenai my of t~~epJredic~ t~ml(see tlt~ fill't fi!J.~) ,~1). By ClQl'IlrOl:st., ,c.~im,a.te· :lfIoodicr~rl~~ (l n~im~ s:e~les C!f!le~!'!Jnl!'Y
are nmuc~iIess l

~ .,

s

J' •.~

,atffl.G5!J hen!:
'

(<hlboo

~YCl~a ~

1. .

l~Nr~f(lre e~\'isflge aeli-

dhl'lmU!iby

GIIIGrm'lQi!Il1IIilllClutS

.......... (liI'FNll~ Wl;OOi!~

,!aim lite d'li!IIl!F'
liiIlpac I. a~m,mNi'l
·~Ddi~ q.n'h!!'

male di agnosis and ~)oodiction sys~1;';m lhalil assimilates dOll.l.~ ~I~!Q aclinmu:: modell :lmot .only te del1ll~ the i~itjl~1I oo,ndiliClllii$ fOIi

decad ..~.pJ1ojec'~::iom;, br~talse

sensitive

W

in~.t'iall

coml:itiQ{~lS,bfX"luse the sigmd of "llIthwp(l!dJen~c climate chnl1gi:: is t),'pi.ca Uy much I~r.ge:ii at 10 flg:er
dme :5Ca1ies;}m!l11 because rnost ele-

! s(j\Bef·

torof!~~' ~slinlilat~S!;)r t h~k.ey imernal model l:l'i!lrnmel:er~" that influeeee diilna!e !Sensitivity

Model'S 'fo~ lf1lf®l1rniJilgIIPO~~CY. d,~sigr'! or climate model slociie511lllJ5t d1IiI!'Ig.~to ThE! 11lrorm c.lilllla~e dlanglf ll1IMiglilliol1"lp.olicy .. (Le~t) (lllV'elll IP'{( pM(eS,s, .. (llIiglltt)

l.lO). S\ich,l ~y.si~mWlnlld [l:~"Qvi!d)e d'i:~t.'i'~il'!slro.i:~cd esli:Wlmill~CS: of the rm.lge of pns5ibl.e nL~'lJII'e

'PBX)'J)ooed nel!'l' el!p~IiI1i'l(!lll(ll dlesi!llil

~,lleDlt:sor~he diI~li'IJ;e system have a "memory" ~f~s.t ciiiill~'~e·;fo~il'lg fHC~ors]l~~IJ:I ~fllj;flr~l~~J m dri\,'e ;)1!ltlf)_"ph£<iii,c ,che!rli!>l~ ;:I11d is :s!],l{)rler llm:m.. ,1 few decades .. The major t::ilroo:~, eyele mOOdSI.fuI~ s~.ml!l]ate dnrulgc::'s iu s~mn::4,;'i oflWln~l;lnOli[lit}i here ]~e~inll'!c f~tn!r~ rhe 'CO:l'!c(';nlr'll[h.'ln (]f gr€l~~:!~lf!ll!S~g'1..'Il~$ and
anlhroPQgell~)c; ernissiens ofgreenhollsegases, and ~emllQ~I::;:sec (he first :t.gmc) (1).. Tltis (
UlI.1iClert.lunt)'

tn. GHG,

!Jr~(l"flh(J use- 'ga,s.

'cl~~m~;[ehllllgJ::S on decadal c
l,)eI1T~lry' thn~~~~1

to

~" ,"'hieh could he iJiPd~l~d

on the basis ef'new ,ob~rv:,]li.O:rls.

canbe seen as tmrn:mlkilld':s11ree

WU:~ ~(me~rntn~ fifU,lr.e d,il'1r~j;'iE(leh11ngl$, Thep3f<limeters used to ~ped,fyc!:ilrnatll
rr'~)C~~fi; ~.~c~~m!i!~~ ~~(]d~l~ ;;tl'$
~]r.s~~ ~I S(ltaf\,~!I,)'

()il' ~am;>ert<Jimy. ·n,e;._;,;e p"!I:;:u:tllete:~ ~tl;:rmi~e. t:O:l" eXal[D.l.pl.e.lilt': beil!3vi:oli of GIQlUds <'lind lile'

stretlgth of .,nmo:l.phericconvecl:ion
t~fil)lof~lle

in the

~;nmdds. Ti~leyhi'IiVC blrgc Imlpact on1llllmse:ns.i~ aJ

aerosols, The rc.!S[lIli]JJ£Qom:enlr<Llion seenaries are put :~nlU~:un~:2IJ1cktllJ I~lio:~ ]!;mdc~t> (GeNis ), l)n~.eclill:ll;He sysliem. ~\1:}]lich~en.ernle di[J~~1,te eh.O:U11J.~'S(:;cnarki~, t1~~lin, nlftll drivl..: luod!els .pf dle :illhpa~1SOJ] liimnaJl.md 1~1ItJLlF<~1 systenm. M it~gati(in PO]~ICYiI'C~lt!i~i!i :f~d:in:eNjJ~t :~c;l~'i:; ~:immr ::'1nL~'HI~I::. begUl~li!lg \'I.'it~an .!SS~m~~.t ol"lllile VUhlC1::Ii!lbi OfIl!1IlHl,U] an1.d, himmf!Ln sys~ lily ~em5~(l cl~m~~echml£,e .01:'. ,I flU~.CliQll of the Inagn]rh.llI.de of gi~lbi!~ \:',i<IJml~Il,!:l.find c:n:cFt~llg wi,th

C Hn~"~\l ptQjec rlcns h'lv~beeu ~.ll nM me\~.t.,d illm.COIl'Viul.cing .1111~a~lyof the need ~o:Ir ' aeuen to Hmh n~wrc d.hn;lll'tc eh~ug(:"ltls
l1ow~~iill1e form.odel,e.,. (0 l'lmll thei r e:x'pertilli;: 1'l,nv~'Ii:d d~t:v~~oping!'a~c~~ti~.g ~jI~l~m~

1J.e~~ier slii~ed

for OI!Cliv.e J'm~n<lfleme~1t f the o

ctilml!W;! :;;y~'~.;:'m •.
Rie're~I!!'!!()I!S,

mOOlekxi,dimm:e

[o,J

doulJli~lg of

the

ct'Irool1,

dim,,:,i!o:e (CiO,,) CQI1Cell:ltmtUon (3'. 4).

(If aU~hG~.eu~e.ermi~il ie-s~$~l~~l th~ fl"d.etioH<lll Ha:tCt'l~rl<lilH:y i~ !>lnlllleSI W.h,eclill h~~Ldlinl'~s OiIre~t\\'Ie~!'! 30 .. d 5Ij')'~"!ffi {~ee m th~ fi,Ii....:fiJ,gu:re )... F'orII:1lJfiI,uEly. th:is: ig !11!>othe I . tim~ slb'<lieo~'erwh'uc~~ unOJ;i ~on~er~'~.ernl Ci~icy r tmd lmsiue:ss: pioulllling i,s cl!ur.ied ~mt. ~!I.il.i~f!.QTh,a:;; dcfJiflcd b.y th~ UNFCOC. is CQI1'Cc:med w~lt'n: el..'elli l,on!i:C'r~ime 5c<l),I.e:s. be T UN~~O:J <lims~os~t'lbUi~W~~l~.o'll~ga:>~
m'!ll[ i;;:~1;"C(

Th~

£cemld~s of groenho(U$cglJ:S elni~s:i,QJilI:SltillH mm,l d,uvmging [~~mpl:lct!>see ~hl:'$1...""C'~ ( t1lmd~,~lVre.rJig:ln Pfiilm~l). '. ii\1l;.1J1 Ihe llmph.~$i$ on
~ioid tbe 9.voi.dlill~g d:1llligcr-ous dum~e
~,:Ilil the

:1- if, C 1(,. I\!l~ £1 ilf, J, Gim,i'jl, S;3Ul! (200!». :Z, ,_" G', d~~~. c- I), .~~~. P.~ c~.I\f~j¥!,~ OSl :~la7 ~ ~200,.~. 3. J. M. MliIFiJ1ilt:ftl aI.. lII'~ltrl~ 430. tEiS '~;!!0041~. 4. Iil. A. S1aiml'J:f1n i."t "1~ N!liIiiM 4~O.,403: {Wll)). 5. I?; ~'rtf!dVIIlQftf!im !f1,~!., . (Nm., .19, 33,3H2006}. J 6. C. D. )!D~e!l, fI, III. c:'~, C. Hwrtil1!tlif'llli'd, !'Mtl:l5 B !:i,al6G~: 7. !01. A.. ~ib'b;Jrc!1 fj",1'i., Meoojb~ IP. . (a~~, Meili[lg~tei!'l, M Eio.s~8" 211 (:roo I;L J!L, i(ia~~ud. C.1II'1,!!i~ j. (:lJm, :lL~. 6'i!6 ~200~~_ '9. M. A. IlHm 111 rg!r, •.Mall1i~; (. ,AJlI~f!I1il.ll!r.If..l" ()6Ii~~ 1iiey6. Gt.opll.rs. iIles. U~!. 4, LiJJ4i61S~:200{), 3 U)' P. R>1l[Mt ~ nl.,.G{s!J.~f 8.i'atlNor,lliNl'1. (;lt~·tr19. Gi1l'2012<6 f.200,ij.
'~200,6).

.I:iglll of

~n:~v~tllMe u:l1oernli:Il'lY, th~ UNfCCC alsu requiJ,"es ~ relii'ltile' p~'Oh<lhilis.'tu(l risk ,wsess;men.t 1:0 inf{lnn e~~liI;s~m~-'rcd~tC'! targe~~,. h~ ion T nliliptiol1poolicy <lge:rtd.~. as defi.ned by the UNFCCC. d'ncr~fm~db'nHUild!s ~.l1!~ \I'~!rl~(lU:~ O of dl!: dcs;igJ] of,dimal:e clml~I::.'llises;sme:limi li'J. 'Clhm:;)'tl]l d)~.I~ge"•. d~pl~~tiolIla!ldcUm~lte

n.

IPERSPECTIVES
MOLEClJILAR BIOLOGY G~ll~ respcnd to !DNAl!.amag~ by :;trftngtherlli1i9 '~,e',en'!'iN~ ,gil!110m!! ]nd'E!:pe~dle I1tly o~[) N!A,r'Clplkat~ol1.
,(~ m I'I1HnSI:H11If!! C(IIn,f1'lllOIrn ,aCtrDS<S

I

How and Wlhle'n the! Genomle S,t'ick,s, 'loglet:lher
efi;lOO~. ':~lk,jjty{l!~k' di\lid~.il ~lfif" cell crate sa copy or irsgenome by DNA ikOJ;I)~~:r;;;nim'l" .,. r'~ult~ach 'ch~.lJm{)· ,A,~. some in 3, POSt1.'f'pl i:c.,:~~ cell cOnl.lii ns two v.e id~Uii,(i,efa~ DNA :nm.o~ec~des,. the sister clrllil)· m;ni.m:s. These DNA Ilm~;ec::~IB are l)hys~cajiJy (':om-:l!;;:Cl~d~Q e{~ch ether, ,~ p~©~.om(':mu~ k!l,lQIVi.':IJ1, sister- chrcmatid :IS ,aohe:S~joO:IlI,. C& heslon is es:l>enl:ia~j the' sy,umm:~nic91 ~eg~ for

B

T() add~:;~~i::ii~u~. Siroin ct !~i, lnd 011''-1'1 ~ es ~/.. atl<l]}'Zed budding yeasl [I~.ut3.m.ts~1fnl.'ll <Ire d~nciem~n ,m ~I~t:)jme(R.)d52) Ihmiij JI1,et.:!d:ed
~hr DNA ~irnlhes;lis;. :specifk:.dly d!llllri~ DNA
I'C1ipair"Boa:~!grmlps ah.oorv~dco&leS!ion e\"~'Iii,i.f
,c!7!1[i([lpQ$O!'!le'

:;~fe9Illl~~

g<a:l:iun ,of chromesomes
esl."bli.$h6d~,\ihell

d:~riDiL~ cell d iv iSL'O'ii1
~lQlli.!I!Hlny C~r~G:lm~ rtpll~al100

I~.J)" NOlsLlilrrri5ingl~. ~obtlsicm ill:

sister C:~:lfOilil.]"~ idis iJli'e SY,IiI,-

dl~:s~z~ddl~rh~g S ph~s;~ nn~e ~U di\'i~io~~1 cye It;; t:.%lii.'l the fig.~Iq:~).8l~l: eoaeslon ,.:IM~ hd:p!> to I."epa,i;r d~~maged:DNA 3i~er Sp~~.,se has ooelro oo!"l~;p;lered(2). Two :p.:)per:s in ~his,issl!e. by Strom eMt. ~~n page .242 and O:IlI~I.el,al. on i(4JI QIl! 11Iuge 245 ..~1Ji()Mi,l ~h!1l cohesion can be esla1JI~:il~ln:dilll response to DNA d,,1,Ill<lg;ein:Qie· pelld~~t~yof DNA ~pliC'.mio!l. Thi!; (l;\~.!irum~ ~~IOlm'fl,-held llid,i.eflhm cdle;sioi~l,is gtr1ic~lycm~,~ pl0d ~oDNA sym~'~.s.is.. he p~l~rs~~~ ~!llply T
tinlBlllDNJ\ d'III,n<lg~
11111<ly

[he DNA Oif~~lesem~lalll~ cellswas d;l!l[mged dt'f.ing G, phase, i~iC<lting that ctlh~~ion c,::~'lr! be fuJ~.y~~~:lmCirmpled fmllml DNA. synthesis, l18:eymul t~~is s'l:u"~risc.D:~edjsc'OV~ry c(lnM,!lI~o pN.. 00<:111'1ica ~Iy useful t:o addre~.<J l1olh,t:,r we 100~g-S:I:'IrldiJlig quesdon; Do DNA. replieatlon ~~,I''i!m;s ,'lllwll,]:Iict~OIi i~ si:Sl-er-..chro(lm.l;_l~idcnhe~i(m'!Rcp.l.i,catioll defcct!;in(;'Vj~lb~ylemJd t!o I~~ <lb."l~nc~ t::u~;~!-ii·lIn. f;; di~@'I't;;f"y th"l! of n (,;O:l~esloJJiC"dlill.~l:rl.d\cr oe~:Iai.n ,c;olu;luti:cms. occur \~~ilh!))m [JNArepllicmio!1! m~ ~rK.ble reirwesIn~niol'll o:rtbi:s quesuen ..

On~~~ {It. and Slro!llll·(jJ til. ]J:lt!1JJ~.! seoomJ ftl innexpectieddi seovery wheu t[]ey IUI<!Li)'2led y(:~St (~II s lu '\"Ibie~~ !:Ii'll)' (11m'; d~I'tl:!rn{}so!n(l had been (~f1llm~e{~ a dc:mbie-stll,.md break, by
SIJ!;']'l'ri:5il1!!~.Iy. c(JJ~L;lsi~c(ln.lpl~~~ etlu~d~Ulhlish cohesion on bo!lil! damaged 3111.cll undaml!lged, ebromoseme» dlJ["il1g OJ PIm.3~~¢. This

Im,\'e' a br-ruLcl.er impOlc~

~h3.]1i ):rrev1Q~lsly~hollgh!., lr.igg~~:I:imlg ~ geueme~ij,!idep:rQ~~C~iml 9!fctlmrll;{:l.smne: iill~gri~y. Si:ster~11OO]lm~lid Qohes:ion is dm:ugJ:u to be med:iat1ed by ri~ng-s~,1apednlteiin structures p c;ll~edco~~esi.11I1 cO]1l~ph:'xes (l.~, ~n I:tarmi'l~. eells, COheKi[1 ~"'11l~(I!1In~c[ sis~J;::rd~rO!n;]lids ollly in S ph;l:!.e'. even thmtg[] Ile",,r~y ~~ynLhesized

ilil~:rl~ es ~hm l~.ep:re&em;e of i
(!IJl~:Yduring S ph~lse.

gLra:~u!, reaks s<!D~c'h~J\!oI"~;;Lcti"'iiJl\CS meleeb the ~u:ag:m<ld,1iutlry thsr llmO~rm.,Uy iful:g~ cohesion

DNA

double-

';Vllfl~ o('~~~~d Ihi.~~~;).d~i~l~ry cf fll. be~?O~l<!.1

speau]!,uie Ihtn P'l:Ul

cehesin

Ctl:mp~;~'\\;':S COrE'!! ,~,~(Jciat~w~!hDNA

in

~:lin.e subseqll!l.elll G2phtl!l~e: (S. 61. IJ.rnu.i:~ l:ecelll~y. it wal':,g(,'!I~(l~1'I~ly ~s;lm,lli1tI:::ld thlltsi!i:I!Cr.'-Chr,pm~lid cohe:s;io!,1:1 can (d;y be gem:mM.d .u :repl iC.'I!limll f{}rk~, W:hl.;:~DiNA Is t>.Y~lth(!'si.z(ld, This V~~W

knn">m as ern)!, !I!~ e!'llz}~m~thOlt 1$ needed

or it eould be' Eeo
'Ul(]

I. ~<Llso
lfI

generate cohesion in S phase btU ~.1Qt for irs !llub.~qll(,'!:~t mlljnliCnan:c~ tlm;ll,l~lam G, phase

,~1 €I•. 1/.1. In:deecL, IX]i~~~. lJ.md (;!$al.

Snrom (.',

6rs~ clmUengedby the fil.lding ~h;.!t ohec $i,ion ,~~!~:r1:~S:(~ occurin G,.ph.~~~ if DNA is d n~uO'!g!l:d.by doub I e-:5lni"ud brea b (7. m.
\:\lfH.

ll;:':Ifi.]l~ged DN.A. ~~ijmtl~l.g new cam~.,eC'!imilsbcl:\Vt:e u the S:us;lc.r CllnlfOnl<'lltid s
~(I

hilah~s case, large <Inlom~ts

recruhed

dw

or eohesln

ttl. ftltmd lh:iiE Ec~)~ is. .r,equi.red for dI~ n~wCJ est ...bl:i,sh m.ent of cehesien in DN A-damOiged 'G)..;ph1!~ cells, lbiM:~ .~~'il9ro :>un]~i$i!~gly; [rt!(,\.1 <~i O elf ,'~i~c(wer~d dml {)i~'erl;." ressioa of :B~O' I. p
sl.un:mn of echeslon be mt:e-lil~uiJ'ing irtl.r collii~);ion in G,~'Ph:ilSiCcells, imluacs thr:::de
110/\''O es,~blli

ere

ilm.u ndam'J£edce.lli~. Eco:1 may therefore

,,7. 9,.

HO\~1'I!:'\1,t:r. ,repairofdillllfli1!!,cdDNf-\

~ypiC'a!I,~yellendison d

also DNA. syn~h;e:;~[s.I! there-

JtM~w.i!.~ ml '~I~~lij~~~~i;lh~~ti~l~l~i!'I ~ d\:lll1li1~ ilililil wnwl'II:l9i!d1 sil1!slfl DNA.

perhaps, .m;Oml~ (t{ al. speeul ... 'e.because it ~
OOCOi~ue,~, :iimlctiV<llled by ::IU unknown mec~:J= rusm ·fl[ t~.c: nd of DNA repl i~fltion i~S phase, e ~~lere<1S:13(01 m~ybe !;fleci~fie .. il~'IIleOl!Ctiv-.!ued in responseto DNA df!!!'I~f~~~soolill'; :f1igl~re~'. llrhmre reslll~g irn:pl,y dnll :~col ~,nay have ~~key m'~~if! rcgu~:~t~llg {':Oh'!i:s~oll. n~e 8U1dies, r<lii,~,. InJlllbf'D' !Df q m::s:tion .~bO!i,n Eoo.~: Ho,:y ,~!flil reg~,I;x~£,.Juril'lg S ,~ml d !V., phalfles:'l~Hm'V does iH;onlrib~ne liO ge:~e-

(!L'lh!es~IiI'IiiI. (YelP) (IHJJm.OS'(lll1lf d~lHImk' f{l!feIllV'lHlined t!;~l~tttp()s~ibl(.'l~h~l esta hi j$l~!. F~,rglf!91 during th~IQlilr phas~s, (S. G2, 1M.end G~I)at the ~QU ment 0 rCa-jilesion alb;:m:" DNA daamag.e! ~!> 31'SOO divis-ioll ''YeI.e" ~B;oU~m) Cl:lhl'~ifi Il:lrQte'il'l (Mille) is meehl.'l!nislic~~Uye(jiup'led~Q DNA S)I!1I~~~S. ~o<lidetl JQrliliO(hmlri1lo~m'H:~S berOfe' IDN#!. 1i''IC'p!iutialn :~j list a s the l~.~lO~~ffi'oees,s>esa re ~~ u~.kJeddtmi ng

:~s pht~se. III

~ iJ:; :~ ritlE a ul,~,ors aTe a'g:the ftiE~e\Elrdh r.nsjtillu~e' of ,rlitDIE(,!illar ,~ IPallTi~logyOMP),lk ~1r·GMse 1.1\.-1030 VIMm.1III511iia.
t:I IE:'lII<Iil;IP~W'$@iimlum;\iW; .. c.al:.

b~ii'l:S ill'i.s lj)hase .. lnS, pha~. l!hJeaoot)'I.lttoi'iliTi$lera:s~ E.·cal CCI\Yieirllii tohe~ifll in'!!} CO'hifflll]!J!Il1 Nl:mpl@i!:es '(g:IDeelll) thn h{l~ S~$W~clllmiif1,a:rids t(lge~n1,E!,r. ,1\ !['WI! d~!.!bhHlr;1ndllt!!r~~k kl 'Gz C~!ll ,~lso :trigg)~r (j'Wi~Sijfl lOilidli!ll9 ,and c:olleston 'estab.Hsn Iillerlt !xlIii OILthe l:ne'ak sitE!' ,l'lFldon IJll1!damc!g,M (luomo~Clme5.,

nlting

C6!H~.~io!l'!~cfl;1 is l

"m a:~ e;!lizYI1JlI(;l 1.~)l d

209

I

PERSPECTIVES
~mich~s~c~~y] re!iiid~L~Sl pr~)l:e]!L".the!:~:b'y n
[)ossih~y mod:~fyi'~g I~,fl'irproper~~cs (1.2). Otber CJilIZY.[I!itCS e f thi.s, elass lilfC' '!lUlIUlUS, for acct.y]~linlg 1l]S;ICI:~~PJiOt~·ins... btlllitc bu~nli!;ooo\N\ork. is ne(;ded ro re-~Qlvll' rh~ mys;rery S'~I.I.·lI1QiLnl.d[rn~~lli1iero~,e this, ,em:y~ of Inm~caI0tiv~Iy.f.imIl.ly •. it \.\I'i.Ubeimetcsring to den:!~rmil:1e\'ih}'ye;}!S~ cells "~rrenglhen" thei r
1lgtl:. ~. L !i!r.ilim ltlll., s!iMM~11"242 (2,007)' .. ~, E. OpaL UI. iileidlnger"f<iilli.. I). KmIliIW, 3:l1'7.

S,C]fflre

their "lbi:~by!o c::!:mn._ge ll1l1fa(L~~I.~~11I! !-iIirllC'l:~Dre- oy
physiCl~ !!Dgi(.~1 ~lIIbstf".!I[e~ ofl:c.~oI are unknewn, Nlore S:lr~~lgc~y. .il$ ,~lce'Iy.IU"ans:r~I~(:I!IcLiv.Hy is

prce.~isthlg COi:!£:SIOIlOlil chromesemes

i,:~.ii1

!:,:eil1[IIHe-\Mi:cle6li11111'1rn'I,Ulr .~fter DNA dmn<ige'_ al~dto u nd~rsl~ll!d h()!,:va si.!ligk e~:m~~~(J1>mm::~ 9" E.O~ltl~!"."'~' C~I 1.6.,. 99'11aGQ.olJI re~I~~ired de ~QVO e~l!.bli.~l~i1iI~~~u :for '![If cehe- bfl;aktrigg~r'$eahesh;l1m, seross ~h~ ~~t~.r,i.S ~lI!l1. iiI. 'Il. SllllOOns. Lilt Cl'IBM, Il~l'IlOhlilnd\. Ir. Hiltti!f. GotIU'S :{l~.r3. ~11;Ii7 (£?~Il), sial) in G", p~.l'l:se' (4), but is, nol: e.t;S'f!:nI!:i;]l,1\1I4u!'lill g.enome. 11:1.A. 'fOl~Il'i'D.'.,~.l: J!M~ i~.1l0 n.99~J. cnhesicn 1;:; g(;1mH.r..~~~d duritis S IJh~1ili~ 13), To { ~~, I[l. l~fiO'I' d ,(ll,. (!!'fIF. 8M. l~ 3;::;1 (lOOlt lRerlerMOe5 113. A.. Bf~md~., II. OJ, SIIJ'b'bHi~,CUi!' g,j(jl. '1$, ru;g ~~ooS~. expb.ln this 'roml~.d]jL!llm., n:IDli<l~, et al. speadatt 1 t:. N'a!;rnyli'l., C. H. 1i!~1Iing..AI!7n!!, ~ruwiJ\f'Il'l. 7,4,5515 ~hat ~.t~lyllrmu'!~·f.Hi.e tlcl:iyity In;;,)' ul:Jliy be (2:0051 ~~quirecl.lo oo<l,cti,\'me Eco ~ ••Iler DNA {h1J1l1 2'. E. Wil;1:rill, ]1. M. I?~!f!;.~. cen R,~ nl, :tl68? t2:0061
a

24:~ (200;). 5, f. II!J!lOO'.a1ll\, K. l~iJlIjl1Wlh. (1lI1l':.i§:iriJ. :811005 ~199"B). 6, C. H. 1H'~IMm911!t Ill" Mtll f!llll :U,9S1(2:1J!'M.1, t. l. !ilrOfr.I"It lB. lilti!roo$, K. Sll,lralli!l~ C. Sj~gJefI'. Mill. (t.I11i5, 19!1~ '(:100011 e. t. !lll1irn" c:. SjDQlti1l.. (dlQ!f-it. 4, 536, (2'OOS).

ilIgl(l,

Tile' 'nrs~ (om p,~te.rvi ru s \'las c reatilld ,25 ~e~rs b~ t ln~re' ts !'lei ei!lldill sight t~ ma,Ud OiUS

$Cifhyai'~,

me far celebrat ion, 0lI:S, v,re __ re:nect on milestones pas'Soo, lnrhe v.'Or~: OfOOlrlipnll;ri~g, \\IC have qllite ill tf~\:\1 h1lPP}, amllliversl.ui(!~;Ibt~)I(~~mp!.c.~.he fi~1 (OmpUler {aQ:'lullb~y. B<lblm:~;e~s esil!i~1 of ·~S.2.2}'IJ.I.ddnt d 11':Sl0-tlmlti~. m~~gc ~m ( 19M).
SOlJ1,l!eremenm,bnl'lmces., :~Oiwever. ,In: less

B

oll~IJI'llj

j~th.d~!}'~ fUl:d~.'lilm.;;r ~n.j\'~~~,riC.'.~ a ,~r~

card iuform>fll:ioll.-ar

~J7:Y 1;:.~plllJ!l.i',g y{l~i~- ~rlk ·"~'t;.:(llunt <I~d cn~i! ~ .3~1 tlil~e. Spy\,\'~.ro.p~lishil!lg. nJiDlkil:5 • .:nn.d bets -

ros~liw. ~ml .20(}7m~rks lh~ silver ~m~~erv !iO<l,ry ofa dmikew'so:r.t-the ge:nJe!l~!s, of:lmd icious eempuier viruses (1-.n.lnl'98:2;, 01. virus v\!:1i.it~ ten by a Ihi,!l!h~~A;hoolstudenrm r~usby~1iI ~g~1l appearing 'QIl! .!\pp.l,e U. :SYl'~elm, This \iinlS4mwi,'T1.!o1:i ·'EI~.C~onl:r"~IIl~tedl the openni~.g sySle:I~.l.copied i:I:.~t:l:rlO Ho:ppy d iscs,
i.!nd di5lpla~~~d b<ldpolJoeIl")I-Pr.ima:rByillte!1ded tv bei[·,~i~:<Uliil1£J. virus came ~uld.v,o;entwnll11 the

I~.ecUldl'lg.,.edgc1ll<lIMr~Ui:: oftoo:!ly-m:e tru~ly ruJ:~ty.• ~ndcorls;iden.,Me cHou lh!~ been im\re:Sl.ed lin I:~.eirereauon. U has become Oil ~igtlli fic[u!U cr~ mimd (l11t~rpri SIo)al1ld $.~JPpOirits; ~i ~hrivillg undel::glli'O'lillfId eCOJilOmy. St~~ly th~ ~i~nlifie ~\l_~~~u!J!~ity 1I.]mhal; ply been !iOO p:rnoci,;l~l]iied to deal 'with this IJh ...li.eng.~ 'I~d <'I good Siolutio:m, is O/lv. i~~ble. .

Sudly. 't::""1:1:I after decades, it appears th.n
c,~d is
i:un

~;lO

;sig'~;I..TJmis:s~~ms 1~111y Frmlll a subtl.e

comlJ!JIt'ltio~,ml 'hvj=:ol:: lh~:il~,dillg a c~mlpw~~e:U' programl dun can tell wil:hl absclere cenailm,ty \~le'~l~er i;![1Y other PC~}groI1111 fl!ltflins a 'i.fir\lsis C equi.'\,rcdenl, 10 ill, HU1I10U:S CO.U1m:plller science

Huh" neriee, Fe\v p~ople spcm tim~ \~i{}rryi l,g ~ about the beasue .. ami a:~IUQSlnolJod}1 predic~ed I!~~t~l w~~ ~ h~rbi.ngc-r o~~'llineCWI.rrell!l
11,~lu~tibin~,on dol]'Jtll' <l1lI1:ivirul indtl s'ta:y. s F:!JOnl such In,ilmM~' b~g~~!liillg;i;.i:om~ putelll" vi[Cuses,...-and, more broadly. "malgel!" oi1
{l

cemmdrum called the ··I~ahi~.gpl\~lM~m:"t ]
h.o9iS 1,10solutuollun the general case ~ll1d I~a no s ~p~:tro,"i:.i.'1i:I:2I1~ SiQiUlio~ :l'0:1i o~r ellJ!I"re'lmt Ciuupn:uim,s,emrir..ol1irn,enls\,,'i'~jhm~l: ,dSIO ~em:;mt'illlS ~OO !1rl~!:i)' 1:~~sere'l>lii!lt~ ("). P'I:rpuhu olJ:~nion l~oMs lh<lt Ill<lh~~.Jll!ei S <I Mi~ro£u~l~ly p!X)bl~im, Mnr;s, fbr r;:~11mpl~. .

M~!'K,:h ~. 92. t:~reatenbii~t(l 9

d~:L;ttl:y r

dal.~ oninfe1cloo
SQL.sI{!r!lil!ll~i!",
I.

machines,

Siuce thea,

ware"

pr'Q~!!'I:1i~~s--~~!1!~\f!,f

~.(I

~~gr~li.1Jooi~

9dL;':RL;':d. N'i~nd1!, CO~(:l;lp~ ..

C:l.lln!l:r:I~<lJtthe-y 'vebeceme the lnlt I of j Qk.C'1O in 3.drS <lind 11'1~,!k. ShD\'>rs •. A It~,lmlgb, the ~ll,'ID\\i,~fe pwble:[I1i g:lrtl\.\1'slowly i[l fh.e early ~: 9S0s. 1101 IliiIllICIin.l~me passed before it lea Uy ~.~.1'1de news. ]n 1.9gg,. 'the infamous the "Mo\liris \~Fo.rm"spread \\'O:mil,d~'\,'ide:, C:<L~l:s:un~
p\:lIPLl~ .•U

"~ld Mel its:J'!Oll.11 ~~.d l1~ei lIS: miiI:l\100::; offIlLlil1:L:: ~. ! !IIDild in the process. t'ol:~~cdvely caused bll..

dlurl··~i51..oem lQ "'l~~)re:rlil{l!fi Ull;\Vdi-e as nmc~l ~ n Wim:lnws, so pel'hnp~ el1eryonc' sllccml.d:s.wU:lch
1:0 M,Le::>' Liaux

liml!'! of dellars in d<l!lill<u£,e.
The most talkcd~bout:

and Un~ X.~(JO •• we {I:~~IJ;i.n. ~(llUit.'d

utU'f!ges ilcro~ fhe 1t1i('dglin,g [m\,;'n1(lL Th",m
"i!\,>:01S,3Iso 1I1~ medi<l, slonn ,tlI!ll.!1l.·DUli1d:Dl1igIh,e'
[0

Mkhe~al'lgelo v~!"u~.,;vhid~ ! \V"ol.8 $~l

ttl:g-

tit FGJid~ n tln~ (oL1i?g@ Engilil~rin!l "mill C!Ilmllu~@r or s:.cieii~K, ~~orida I!!stlti:.lile 01 Te,dhnolog[y. Mi!llbourm~, FL 329101=il9:7S,USA. E'rr!~j~ rfllnd .~~.~ H. Sp~rf:Qrd
15iillh~ (finler l~rEdlJl;aliQI1I A5SUiliilimGe nd)Ei'url'!~" IFIIii!'duet!ll'll~e~'lY. a

. iliiDIII We~1 Lara~lte,

~N419,0'1"-Lj)86" 'llI5.A IE-mail: :spM@ (flrii1is.pmd.uC'.~du . ..

risks 11:0111l'Od3y~" :'ISO hvfom. !:ill lut ~ons .. However, IlIO system 15> mlll~V'Ji.[e have <'lI distinctly finrJ[Jcial l1<w()t. ~f ~idl.yimmune. the viruses .md \J,,'ornm!S of~:~e [paSI: decade \';'e:l,iiI;l Will:ulow.s.1I:i,3:!> ~wr~leredfor avariety of th:~ (l!l I i!1~ ~qui!,f~Ll,;nlof ~J·J.mli iJilli sts. mad- OOO!!$.oIilS; Mknl~On Ji1I:n~~~;f!b SiO~~~ n~'SI~urH.;d! "!<lire is [I(:}W l~ike t:.~i.I[IHU[lRls\\~.loW ish ]0 :i.lC;a] billi~yWor the l'll'ubh:::tlrnl. They ]1%ade :some Y~)l!r;,:~',d~e~ ~mdi;~.lrCSeyour e:~e-,cks. IhL~ hilS ~!n:;'h]~~ct'l!r<!dCie i:s i{UlS ~h'lJ.i n r·~'1 ~Ct, I H)g~ ~.e.cl;to nmch qlli.eloClI" Immlk:lO. OO('HlIs>e mUC~il I.eii ~'[i,c~l.)Si()f'tprodllcl;s; more vlIlnen:!,b.le. O too vij.sibUily 'ii\"o~ld, C~1~down o:~ p!.'Of~t!i'. ~:nt>I.e~ul ~a~k\wfd;~ CQJ~1p~t~bility .~.!l;lmU [b~.~];;IlC!i ~. of dis,p:lliIyiUilg a :In'ilessa:~e or e'rn~illi1g your :~<'Lrd re~emi.es kepll: Qld ""fe'<lkmu;:sse:8, And Mi:cro- ~ ~ dr1v·e• .modern m~~'\:v~~ is mor~i!l.fii.d:io~s. ~oft produGIt\ h~v~ l~~de:r;go!l~ .i!Ui$1l ~ ill: :scrul:iny,:h isrhe obv:umqs gOiwmi'e to ;tIUOIck Il! tumlin!:!!. )I'g\lll.' :n~<!l,ch~r1e iuto a ILoclay[OIL'sp.llIn.'l ~~ging gf'fll!l!ld ~(l an1l!ck olhe:f' syS:l~ms,. o~a ~s iti's the d,ol'!1~!~~!'!~~pi<'l)'C]"' ~h~ deskwp h~ ~

IPERSPECTIVES
m'lt.'ikJ(it

I

MOl!;cs. :;;~I'I,d U!~:i1!l,

S)1$~Cms\:vnlii~d

Tbt:r>e is one basle fact i!'ll $';~l~rity: Tb~
Iml0:refU~.Cl ionaMlty. the ruore OPPorluli1I,i tiesa

secure. "l~d humans are

O!i(lll

(:f~~'!c~'·();l!.k.;;l'i~

muioubtedly be Incn'e rreGlue:I~.t~y auaeked if ~he'Y\:ve:re dorni uanr, ahlwMgh theilrl!llr'ldc:rly~ ing .~rt::hi~~~nnemld InO':lituri~y m igln resu ~l:~:[l : less (olll.umlzc'm ~ suc,ce.~s fioratUH.::1I:crs. it is del1~:~u:lyrnCl:1 theeasethat m.III\\i<lre is ., p~!;.'Ib.I~'~ml b('\c~:~:j,~ eQI1~l~!m1C~' chok~~ on~y ·of

Ilink. lFo:rexa~np!e, i.n o:lll.e ho~:.i users ",'ere
e I1C Oll.rlilgcdlo delete a p~l!tieular fUie fmn~

developer has to make mm:i!;tllkc', Tlse sim-

ph: rrurh j,s dl~~l edem cernpurers are f!ny~ (~eircm,l1p~~~erN. m M!my users did ex,.~c(ly ~h:;ll t.h ing but srun'ilp l.f;'-'Ii.l'C:~!I' ~nc:re:5si ng coI1r11~ "lilt! caJrcl~J~y f:ollm1vcd the i ustrueiiensto 1:'0,'1'p~:exily is clri'l,'en by eonsumers thirst fOIF lunet ion~ IilJl. Fli'u'iI.'hll;rtnOri,l. cnMptM~rs ~1.r·L;; alm~t ubklUi tous: :Foi' m.o~~ p~oph~, h~(:I;lU ~ pbones in the ir pockets are as urueh cornWlInI. Hl~'!i!,l';.lming mC$,sage frie~ld.!l. The fU{.: th~y del~t:(~ miuds, There is
~IO obvious

~() ...Ulhei.r
\.WIi~

erjtici;l~ N.'I
iUlIll<'ln

'of opt'r'itil1g
truth

~yli:t,e!Ti (t~iS" "'Ph'!!l:Ci1tm til. Th~ f is mueh mono:' ,co:nmlpli>c1Iled3Ud f;lr
ill,

I~~ sy:;.~~m:.ht; ··\'in~~'" M~ ",Xi:;"Cmi~gif! Ihdr t
"f:ux" for
n;;jm~-th<l:~: ~1<i;j c~h.~~,g(;ldinfl!ilulfilY mit ht~f1dreds of years. Be'ilI~,~(!l of this, it seems

more worrisome.
I)~.vershy of p]flt :Wmmis doubl e-edged

puters as are t~~eir1!illP'~tJP~.Vinl~em C~U""~{l:
cepr' e:ffons. Personal d~g~t'll assisianrs,
music players,
more

sohnimlin
W{~Walll

SQfile pJoble:L1.15 Ilieal~.y bun C.lreOll:es uew ones. Fair ex<lmp~e. if
~f)\:!,Ii.p~ om all ~vaiLiaMll c{1mpm~f&-~o!n\): 1lJI3.dl]nes'lI'e alw<lY.s imnraae. The n~p~!ilde is
~Jmt divcrsh)1 may I!lcl.wl.i!.lIy]ncr·e'<1Jse~ liu::'

l h~l~ i~solves

cell In~~,ware is.Ilot far off:; resea n:;~e.rsh~¥e al ready seen :>Ollfil~ lim]litld '''prl}(lf of coa·"s~n~u"~lppl~('tnces.
~liIld

I,ikel)' ~h'll in n!n(fthil:i: 25 )'e,l~, !li,I1,~e. we\Nil:1 ..ll~ be Ufl"il1ll£ (Ill,!:" glasses to (or because 01)
mai,\.'arn onloe a,g.ai~l. R!elieiiieftl~e5i:
1iJ" f,~hlf.!th~•.AP,f:l~~alD9.1"{jlr~~~ 'WM@${Sptii1g~f, 8Jf~lin.• ::I.'9'~. Z, E, 1fI,S;paf~Cir'd, in liIlt .~~top~~' W Sq{r.!!1Cte E..1I/;rne;ering, J. Mi!r.ti;niak. Elil. fWlle<j. New ¥D~. 1"4~ 3:. 11', Sror, nii!'AirI 0/ CtMlJlul(''''~_!: ,l'l's'MM'll (Mdi~om. \!teSizy. BaMon, M 2005), "I. IF.e..Coil i!fI\ AISII.ot.t· (00ij"~ M (MI,!!li.i~f' Vlrti'.!i!'~Wll!,)"
]I..

SO~n~mlHlc!1Jill~S;alw,;lys, runnin.~. diversity Imt'k.e:sit very cl:ifficrLh: r<J:r one ..u~)~l

are all lil:i1Icremlilliglyml::lking use of available '~!J nnect iV$T}" Co r!su~~ rsOl nd producers alike need to urtderstaud that
~UQiri.:' um::~i.on9~.ily ll1eil.Il~. more' risk, lJ:mI,[

··~~ul.td su rlltce ": A ~l:lIi1J.)ugl1, Slll1illf!i mm::~l[1lC'.il ~re ~af(~, secure, divers.ity .~m!lyill>Cl:cl'I~e sud ~11.e chsaees tll,it otb;er ri1<1CI1 ines lIire vulnerable to some ('I'~J~C'r atl~c~.,Diversityis a hann
f{lf

l'orI:M.uely.

!:H) c'bi'.HlIg:e

]S

m~elt i11~ he

ne<l1F

term •. and vendors will (:ontl~:ffii,u!ilto ~dd l;i'ol.J~~yl~.oughl~C:m~ to tm;ei.r prmIIL!:~'~ eede ..

[)~s.pitc the best ~frorl$. of~s,£~rche~s"

~~~rviv'-'jhi~i,lybUl

,f~

p~u'e!ui,,!W fi~~kinl_:(':rm~

rua h".u1;' i~ IH)t g(lin~ to

V,'Ul h:ll. .fll'ly

Mewyg~, ]\l!911lt

tirl~~

of net.vork penerraticn,

soon, Computers an: eJHH;::nllu::ly .ifr.~cllh1:0 d

G EOCIH E M ISlFlV
.Aniillysi,s ef
[I

pr imiti!ol\!i! 1l!I!1'l'e®rite' !l)tfe:r~ (~Ul'.li,

about the @1iI'IS]~()nm~Jlt; whiCh, ~:hs:olalr ~f!
f>y5~!~mIOfmed!.

:~WtGPi; ratios to unde rS:I.fI.lldthe stel lar env ironlllcwnt i'~l hich our solar ~yste:mli~m%ed .. w The most p:~l:):miQull!ced and ]1l1.yste:ri.01J5 of these [,;ldos, ilro','ol'!.le the three ~~~bl~ isotnpes ofoxy,gen. 1,60. l'O,.~Ul{I. :1:80. NO['ltlmUy.. 1"0 !l~HI I~o ~e:ll;JrJm;l .mhdly fnun t~,~ p ~uore
..lbm~dal1ll 'lillO mcoord:iillg ~o lhe.~r relative mass

C

o,s~~l>l;)ch~misi:S use

pl[~y~r

~.~~ d.ecOl~~ a)·,Wm~. it seems, '\1<15 a key ill~.he OIlLgi.11iofl:hc If() 'll'l.o.n~aly.3Jmd on t p.,~e ,2 31 ofi'hj::; i~sue:., Sak<lllfl()~o(tt al. (J) repO]1 ev~deUD.cetror the or~!il~ml~usmopic COrl~l" po~Hi(!.!'!J (If\.'iI',f![err in the e a !:.~~~ toflbr syst,~m.

ti,QI'I!:l imvvef:lie t()~heir rel ative ilbmldml'ce:s.,'l
~)roCiesill r(l!d'eu:red. to as '·sClr~'.lihi'ck~iJiI!~"

d~.ili1icn,mee'l':., Varj,atitlns,~n~lle 170/li60 ratloare
tllU!\ ~~bOl!1t ~:: hal these

of

I:lI'D) I(In.Bm. iliilHmy

wck:f~~~u~[~~I,~in the ~o~;~rl)'st!,;1tl vitlifute l

Ihis, e'xJil'6c~"I;i.on,.C'xll~ib:uliI'Itg \'O<Lr~at~ons.i'llI.ioo· l~)pe lP;'tk)~·ilm~l illd~iP~1.1dL;1mt a~~ ~}L!~~- Hli:.' ~.~mo::.J"pplm;e~[ i~l c'itolldri,te ~nelil;.'i[l:riu::::i,. wlli.ch .:Ire r·Cilummts ofprinnhive I.TlG~S;'U:~ cre~~ddudng Ihe <I;lOll~ie::;l; StOlge5 of .'iioIOlJ ::')1:5.
llf:m fml1f1i1tion. nlis, <illitornj~dou:s di:5tJrib'Ut~!!][11uf oxygen. ~sotQpe5IJJ,i:oclnce.~ a di:Sl:llllCthltl !I'~ne~witjlm slop:

~:['On~dis d isclQ\Iiery come illeSiglintsi.ml:othe OIi~ gin ~ffh~ I!'iOi~.(]Hlp~.,nnn\iJa!y~mldl!e~ ~othe l]',;Illlre o:hhe S!ieIllar lUil'l>eryliil~n!:l~IVe birth to .~~(:S~U1'~4l Mallll)' medmtrais.m s Ill.tve ~Je.en :lfImposed.!h:w ~uodu~j~g 160 !I~~.onla~Ji' th~ so~~rsy~~ lh(l ~.!I! ~:em.flerh'IJ)S we h~.ve Silll~:Y ~nheri~:ed the iootn~ ~bu!ldI;l11~~!:>l'i t[l~y~vol",~d~!l ~
(Jl.iJ

i:s~~e mmlt ... bundmlt nf dW!51l: [S{l~Op~Yt~ru:'eti.es,. d1e Ol'lLy£.eDl, ~.ibe:r.Jt-ed by COpJ~oDudi[;;5m~i.uio:!roJ is 170 @ndll~O ric~ "Ultll ~~Opoor. CI~1y;ton(10')1 sugges.~ed d.l'J.t CO s~lf-~t~eld~!1g m Ih~i!lm~fMm!!~U:SOrllh!;i ~.ot ar
Be\:iUl5e 'CI(iO

Gal~y

~qul.I.i'~o i on ;)!P~l1(of $,110 v~ !'Sus S!!!;Q 't /ll rat~u.'w th<lll~ iI. sl:o;P'C of·", % tY:I;}i:c.,,1 o,-'::!"flil'lU !\It,;eJ:"i,;oir.s.cm Gdl (~tl dl(;; n~tlIreJ.The (1'lu\,:e ofthis. "!110 31Imil1fli.l<l.ly'" h<l£ menl a my.stelY for

or

,t5~',Or p() ...:J:b1y~1~ei:S~lt{IP~ f"olJti{lljM-em from chcllli.C:<I~,ly .1 miut'ed Ill<lSliiei.D1l:de'pe:mI.dclll fmc:~ ~iO!101~il:on.tll'l"~~1g;mI5 to Wht'll hi.'lppen!:i dWlrJ,ng prol;oplan,(;lt ..ry d~!i~mig11t h,i\il;l ~en dle cm!~(;l ozone pmilm:li.onrin Ean~~I'SilIlmo~,p!h£.rc~(6. 7). (sec lin.C f~gure]r. A ke'ypred k:Hcm ~f tile (;0 sel f~sJliek]il1l,g Res:ean:hers h'i'll€ recently 1.0000al~o ~:ig!J:~;i:lfI.dLJIoed de,'>trJ:1LJ1c'[iml oraD ii1s,~illle ",:au:!>!!:. AbDUl 1IJ1}()(iels i!ilh.u 0 liberated by CO pho~;ode= half .,nIH;:(CIt.fd oX),g(;llmi!'l oJ! rro~ltlpbH~e'Ii!Lry slr~ci~o~ro<lc[~d with H wllibltl!1~ "'Q-poor dlisk ILukie o.rn.ellin<'llproduced om wl!31'" :S::'I~ lile H,O (.ii-I!!.). '\iVeknm!V UUIl ''''<I~e:1l'in lhe ~OI;H' :$ys~~m "I!V~!S: ep!,ewd iill! I!lOre~~!d lem :residesin CO, A!lmh~r third t'lX~St~ ~h~ C'.~r]~f i~, furm ofH10 witl'n. ti:1C."I',~m .. illder <Jij; ,a.'(.id~ rt:~\'Itlto :li'OCks. own I.~.eext.rellilit! dlep~!elU!CI~:i> I~a:~~

~)ml.opll1f1:et ...ry d].st .l1IiIllughtbe' IJbl,'." 3LJ1.Si!!'of the C s~ope" l ~iml'(; on th~ §PO versus Sa~'Opl.OI:(sec the figp.ltfe I. YurlmoliO o,,:ndKIlIll<lmoto l.l i) !lugg!;:sl~d ~h~u CO phOE(ldi~~i.'l~~~[.~\)1ij1 ::!Iud ~!;;~f:' :shi:eld illg in ~leliiii;olet.1IJ1<rr doud precursono ~h!;':;;o,h:lr Sji$t~!J1!cou~d h~iV~ C'.~u~~~~~ .~6Q : d.le aoon~~~y. Lyom; <Jlld YOU!,!:: M!ggested ~hal ('0 '~Im,o[ooiissoci"lkm at the sndaccs of the

{J.n

~lr

fitl! .ill!l~M~ i~ illl lin!!' DlI!p~ n'l11~!!!nl

S1;iem:es <md Ih~' In~1ilu'be of 'Cj ~~;ph'l'~k~ and P!illJlltary 11'\1i)'~liCS,IiJnl1!iel:>i'~or(allfoillia, Lo~I!i!'lge<tes,~os Ancgelles,
(11\ 9\)09'5 •.USA. E-imai~ e~ou~!I@es~.li!(il.a.e!dUl

or

Enllh . .illmd SP;!(@

otbe:r il;:1,~~m.,.elli:t;. ~'}. C~I~ibnn m:QIlOX id~ (r'U. abwrbs ulrnwiQlet ( IJV) Ii:y!M ell1l]l:1l1ating from :l;t!}fS and is d!i~igll~idl to C ~ml 0,. I:nr~~ons of'~'tme righi~~as density, UV Hb:ooa:ptlUQn c,~c::a\ -e~.

CI~o. CI'O •.flnd CI~OIVlul~c~des pmpnrin

di>t;:tC!!d by IJ1~ CO i;cH:'shiddi]1~ ~~1ndc]is ·~M';l'Ie lIlolobserved" EsI;imme::. o:hhe origin<ll o'xy:gCIll i'sQ!t{IPCnu:i.os of :;ol~lr ~y$~c;m V,"~U.cr Irelied em, inferelJilce:; froml the gne'<H:llQwed(}xyg!;lll! iSfl:tope ro~kls of "se~01mdalry millei!'1il.ls"

I

PERSPECTIVES
lik~ C'.ubnn~f¢,ir{'ln
lil'''1k~~~

almd

claymkl1ler<lls, in choadrhes (see the figun:} U "l. 16).

These n\liineir'.'d~ gfel\' i,)'j' reaettons belYVt~,en~V3~~,~ reeksjn ;:;Iud ~lydfOlogic.~[lyactive p]:Olnen~,!'j;~-

~uuh"\iil:sligc:> uf\:\"hieh are I:huud wdio/ ~,1llIl(jng IIt'}r~mid~ ~f.idwril(j
parent bodies 'were .~,ydro!q~it'am~y

.~.clive, uidjlke t he .<l:;.te!1l·id~ of
wd,ay, because heat IJ,OIu short-

l:i\'edfmJ~:(!i:-;tll{)P~:S melted ice \,,'i~hil~ the bodies, ,le!I(Jiu~~n the
[o:tfl1l~tl~l:C)n carbonate •. imn of
O)(~

ide ..,Hidl day ~lli,rtem~iS. B~l[ li'le:r(; ]:$ (;l! pl!"()bl~1Il'iwhh
us~in£ i.IJIf!:I.':J.lsp-mdJwLCed by reaemll dOlls between reekssud watc'!i'S U)

inlerlffil.e ori!:];in"I~'0.x )I~elra isotopic
~mUr)(l!;'~I,io!rn. of

sa.~ar' s)i':st"Cm

H:20: Tlaese seoc,o:r'idm:ymil'ier<als tak~ Hnl~ tn' ~~\',wher,~.m; isat1.lPI;i ~1';;,C'hO'!!'IIil:~ b~lw~!i;;f!w,ll:(lr

androek c~n be IL':;li)i.d..As.a resah;

ne:\v ~d!'Iera'~s g:t;ll1fi:raH}1 J}liet\! frornweters Ihlfllt had al ~~dy es-

cchanged o.liI.ygerl isu~opes.wi~h
mek, d~I'Lning or even erm;;ing the origj n!f~~i$!otopk: :eomposilio!l [I f the \'1'.tler, Se'c;ondJEJry minerals O:tjl!Jenl '~isortope illlililnililaLiie'£. O!i:f!I eil'l iwtope I7B1H!:IS waler may record pIrlCl~®dl!2unical rNdicmsil1l t01l2sA}ta r pr'C!lol~lal1leof ~h~r~lore g(;Il,e:r.d]y dn run h!Iw~ tal)' ~il~k. 1Ilue,e pos.siMesol!lrC!5IO<f HO-"oor <lind 110·· al1ldl1iSO-ricn Hp a~~ pr®d'ui,[!edlby p~,ottl)c:hernie .. ldi~'Soc:i.lliUGI'I or co the: otri~i nal isotopic com:~)Q,sili.QJ~ mQ~eO,li~~S(~i1i(~~L)l1iS :ll~l)' ); m lh~ ij FmE\r ~fi!iI1rl!lllJ~ (If !he SI1Ii.a1' 3 prl)~.o ~ln,G!:t~1)' di~k(!:1),;(~1) lM 1'11.0 lecular d[)Lldoo~1 I'h1i!(O~
01' pristine

W3:~e:r.lassead, t~IH:Y 'la:ps@dt(!, h~l!1iIll till!! dli!5k (lO); i!lltd Hiii~ ~h.Q'S!i!tri)(~S oll~ihQ' r;lr'a~opLi!:rlil!'~.i!1)'dis~ Ul).iI1h€!&nQ·6tB'Q p~l)t oom~~r'll$~he 1'!!!!l'I in herii: .1 mix urre of rock and eSlima[e~, ofprn~liln;e< ~®~!3iUS!l"~:t~11I11H~.o ~HII'I1I S!lIKaInl,oto,ef (lI, 'OI;!~ue drd~s) wi~h p:rnviolJJs(fJllinml@:'i (bll1~ Ifti:mgles)'. (11:alllge \"t.lI~er i:soh'lpic cmrUlmshi:ons. r!il wawr i5.lJlogl~~~~ios hPec:~~ ~sa ~csl!l[ (JIf ~~Clioi"S lolliU~ !:'O(k,;!r't slilowolby Ul~ rool ~ mrow.A~o sho~:.m~ r~ r~pre:s~nl,)li'!l~ The di£t.'overy by S<lkillYlowl eff md~"rite OiIullR.!!'l<lrs®il, diata (wh'ite dl'tle~,Ih!l!i slape-·llil1e •• mdlhe "'mmnal,"~liOpe'"!Jl m<l~·d,epl1lf1dem 1i11.~. (,j/" Cl"il'Oiids th:is, problem, They :Wi~.d :I. rtL5ak;IW'iOlo- ~ ul.. )(i~e' U7,2 n t2:007~; p\!b!liIDed Il'lllll'S or <JHe;;:~,,~li(];!1 of,;u primirive !'!1e~J;l[)iUt~ ~u:ly s.ol<M:' g:y.~~iTI!" ~~ UV so~~rc>e0ni,~kll h(iV,e T (iloliiil ~ [,1 r~n~ ~111H)7 na U~~d~.:];llit!lQ;l!U, reck by reaetions OOt\!;'iCell1l.wmrr and [i()Cil~llil<'ll been neOImy gi.::Illt :sl.:1InlOr the S(un itself The 'ii, ).~.I'[i!'SIl!;r, S.), DMdl, K IItH!i!I/;" t, A, D1!1h~m,~Nm(~ 3Q4., H16, ~<!~. <'I!!lon'lfdy occurred OCr(]'r~~xd~~ng~ ~1!!1:ygil;;!lchmlgoo U~Vn~~xru~poli!~iM(;for the ~)I!.O of 5. [l. 0...~)1(i:!1, MliOp~I1.,j. ~nl!, 91 ~l!9'?!l)I. ( 1 the ('O]].1.pos~:licIilJl.of li:te wa~er. I~.1:~.Cseearliest l.nighil.t~}e'mI. ilndiGtle whether the Sunfcnned iu ,6, M. IfLthi'ern!!~~,,H,IE, H~dl!rn'erdi UII.Sdl:'.t.ICi! l~~, l·o"n reaetlon products, S:1lk!l~Im.~f~[O (ltn~d 160 f:T II 'C~I,.a"'~~lr oi.·,ytl'lmg !>~arsor in :lPChnh,,~iSCI'~llti(1L~, U:(83)" t, r;I,it" MilI~tY~J. (hO\fl!'. ~. :!.ii!:!. 32.U ~;t!(l04L cl.eplel.iO!ns ,Ippl1olli:hi ng 20%. b:r f<1T the leOitSi.~ Tile ~.1eXt SAiep'\'>~II be to .se.lIoch!h:fSi.S;uS\ of 1;1, l!;,iIIild~~ 1"1, Gr,~~,,~g1:'bjffl, CQ~~m ...Il~!l ~~. li(l() :;~'GcL1i.i!n ~U1y~ol~ ~yst¢mr 1~I(lfi~l: ~od~w" CO S(':U~~i~~dillg gQi~g ~Jnt~]da:r'in etber L97 (1'189). Moreover. the Oll:YS,elI1eeservei r :~dei~l.ti fied ~Opi<lnell1l:)' d~,S.~;S,Om: observation S[I~es~;S 9. B;, F~gle<J.llpare .Scr: Rf'II. ~.2, 117 ~20QQ!. (iml)lyi~,g 1tiO (~i,;)p~tk)!l): 'Jlill R. H. cta.y!iDi'I"NaluR4~!5. ~ U!OO2J. by Sl:'!k~'Hn(l~Qr:f cd. li~;;;g;)!lth~ ~"'tl;!l~io!l ~f C~!lO ~)\I,~r"bi,~ndfljmb~ n. Hi. 'lIIl1rimlllJ!!" ,;, 1G!J1~~mm!o,. :S'dM~ ai~5i. 1763: ~helinif; ohlupoel on th!::gmp.l~ y,f S,!'.l,Q verBrit~inr).l (Iff. ( 17~pre5en:I'6-duli1:l'r.u~d:SjJeiC~roof ~20tN)" SiLlS 8,1~, This :l:Une pn.'ilU~i:14Cd 1Peprrn;~I11[ ~s to du; d 11>11,; sm·,liUll11ilDng dle yQm~g :Suu .1~.11. 11l<l! '[flU '],2. J.!t lyoo~ ~" e, Ye~l1q.Norlff" 435, ~:rr G!1)ID5~. l!3, !Ii, Y;Ylri:mol'i!, t:. ~lramo~O; II11~per ~A~ ~e-l~ 5 ~,~ UI~ e'~ric~riI]emuf :l1e~'e:r;;I]tell,"of perthe primirive o.l\y£.eure~.rV()it ~]nhew:I;,lr kllply ~i "~'60 ,,s:)1nMI!i~.!!l ,rMtt!oiilk:;l, Sli~i!!'~ Ml!!l!tlfi!i, 1M Amg~~, SYSIC:U1ffii. These e."llfel1lu:ly depleted liliO oxycent, Uili]1;]lillie:ty. obserwtions 011 S'C3~.es rnng~ leA..011111 tltillllyo002, [n,g r:mm(~le w.id~.l {Dh lllun,nl hair in metegen abml1.do:.'liI.ce:s .'ILornl,g the slope-] ~li[Jle are 'l!~. E. !),.'!'tJ!f~ J. It ~ pi!!l~r 1(2) ~,e~ni~d i1it!!,e )4th ILulII!!r'and P!ajJ!!~1iY Soiemc~ COi1f!!!pl!li1~i!', HiJU!!~Dn, (;IQII.1SIISlenl \!;'il~~. the pred ic::t:~om; CO sel f;. O:I~.~e.1i to I[;lfQw.lll3mnary d:isks many IHi II lou of of 1I'x, 17 II:!n Marm 2003. s~h}~dj n,g!11il(li.i~ls. IdiiO~1J'I"l~rs0'!,\;\/;)}1 ,\Mi]~'~~;Ql,~itred ~(l seale th~

rro~

S akamota et al. do 110l j)rovel~,a:1 selfO:I.rigi:~1.ofthe sol~u:'!\'JI~tenmll6QI:.nrll'!lnlllly. 8t1 ~~~!;n!l,gwm:I:i~~r:igirn yf rhe 111;0 ~!!l~ml.'!iy. o lRef,efen't!~ .il1'i,di,til@Ms 1100000/f:Vi:r. lhe:r al)[~emr to veri fy a ~ey IP'red~c~ 1 DHlerfflf:esill D~;fn ~~OI!tJl~Ir:lilier!olm~ Ig~vell i8 61~Dlik t~OI'i of anc models. thfl~ II,0. .ill th~ ei1rly so~ar !jom 'IIfI1!iI\~ .0/1,0 amd ;1i!~O ~rer I.a'per UU!iU~nd!tllllnrfl!r!l!1J(~S IlIIJOJl~, ~'ni3 :1;10111'0 hewlli 'tlile\lif'!'dIu!!!, 'ill~~n· ~!;r->~eln dep,h;~~-edyteilS OIfpercemin I~I. '~~:8 b d'~ IifIl!'an 'DOeanmiter" :Ii. ~l(fpec~ 1 iii ~!1() "'er~lI~ 51~O II CO :.<;e-tl:f;"ghidd,~f!,g ~~ vermcdas w ~b~ Qri~ I!~~i~~~ dhllmQ~5I'll ili,Q f~alM 10110 ,_ ~I(I. gill .of !~O 3111.o:m,m,1 i~s. it \vould shm... tllju: UV 2. It NL Clili!l'!lOI1.l. Gf,o~ml!lt W:, It Ma)fe!!iI. XFfRGe :1:8:2, oilSIlU'}7]t H.ghJ~was i~'pO],T;)I,!~~ilm the c~.C!'I1islry of the

Ti. t::. M3~eda. EMf! PI/mil. S'ci.!.eN. '~.7, lI5~, u:~a.:!t :lil., 1::.1), YlJu:ng,l'hilD$.. rrtlnJ. {/, SoOt~. fl'lt:tdClf.l'AiI!S9 .• N19~
fl., H. ~on.

ss,

].] .S;,

Il', lB:!'in:airl. 1'.. WI R$mg, T. Sf!1'!O~. c. !K~i~;, • .4t!~JJ, ,; 6~j6.lIl3 ~~(I!il5l

~20t)1)"

~
z 11:

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ne ;(!!f ~hQ' Il~{If;~ ~(J!!1lro"''(!I;:;,i:J~ i~!liCl'iil1 p.~y.choloID" ever Iltn: pa.'HWO years is:

cxp;:r.ulTI~llm~ph~liSiC~nt:,~lIdQd '~x<i!~lou~ i~(i!TI~lhul :JlC1(ltl <]S .SJkl\'I .. IL::'!{{:~ baseline or l1'fi'dil1l Deli", il~ 'to ~DlelP"rlmenl: ,o'f iPsychlll.olml'. Un~tfs!~ of Colorado. Bogl-d~;r;..(OS0(309; U)A. ~(ie-m1)e~tor IMetdffl5cje~ce, 'LMll'o\~~i~01 CGi.ol<ld.c,hul(l~r, CO S030!}" IUlSiI.~ll15ijilllfiie c~ (ogmm~,e S<:i~nOlI. Unlvarsity 01 (o'o~.:l~o> 8olUMe~, (0
60309, USA. ""or(p>ili'tl!ll@nl of 1P$),chi<IJtfili'. L!liIIii'llI!\r>11'1' 01 Dffi'llillf H~~1iIII £denlJe~, Il'tMElf, ffiOOI2C1S, Ul5/1" "T,I:j, 'ldlOlI1' mn1!Sil'IlIiiOOnlil~ soo-uld bi!! addressl!d. 11..Jli1!iiiii;:

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or lhe

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IPiig". :It. (I) Expernme'filtal. pr~((ldllre. ~l'Idij,vndtlaLs; ""el1e '!nr~tUa'in,ed ilIliJlring str:lHtlil r~ll SC!1!Oflf'llg t~ .1S!\Od!1!t~ oi1iQ' (l.!c,·t(!lrg.@t pa]r!!, DI.!'!"i ~!ll the E!',;(/pe-ri Ifi~ I 1iIii@ P~",se, b:rtl~'niu.t!:i'l!'ily ,vas recerded US]n.g fM~111~~hUeim~~i\!'~dllJill50 ~e\'led Gmlly' the v

¥a~ tJ,,6 ~'ac~s:poil:.~ (oliildiliij)f!, :ll2rel~~tit!,gf!s~.~r f~(e: 3,5, s pe-rracrt). 011 SI(!lnllt trni3!15 t;hey Wle;re: iilliS~rlictedtJJ' tlillink £If th~ previ'DUiS!~y ~rlil,i!'dI pic;~urE!'; £lml clth'~r triaLsthe:y \ve.re 'in~trilJ)rliE1d 110~ 't:o lfit. tili,!! IIJ.rmol;ldy ilk5.:r.ocii'ali~!llI 1liic:~ul~E! ef!t'~r c(ln's,c'io l!SIiI ~ Th@ p'r@~i!ntc! ti~ iii, O'r olilly 'the ClII@ n'fl:'j.~l1e f:a!(@'} @,1iI~<ur@s. tn,at l'ndi!!lidu,als 1lil1iln~JlILl~a.tletliil,e l1l!e'lnotry of th ",tar.ge:t pil(lu reo 1rh:e .:!dld~tiolil .,l laces (8 . ~1:e 1'1I1l1~ ~hmlffl d'llu]~g~tli5; phi!~e ai~]edl a~ .~ 'behavioral b.~!~l[Fle'" lD~rnng th~ lilltl1)
test plnlas~,. th!iliiild~\lidlJ!al'S. ~Je ShOoi\lfl th@ 410' r~N:i~S ~l1idliils;l:!edlt~, d~s(1fib~ th~ prewiolil~Ly iilS:5~)oI~~:al'!:1'!:i plc~liI,re. '~IEI)~;eh<lvio,r.[1IlIresu ~h:err::e'lIrta,ge lIecaU for 'N eh p palrliJid!p~ll'!It. IIItrna~ I~g~een) aPiid NT 'tri!llb (red~. \1.!itn 'the dotted lilile h1dk~llijl~ :~'I)!!,

~'s.EliJile I"'~"'U for ~t.!.liil1~Q~;Yilm'e:dlnlh~ n ,~;(p~rlIiil1!mu!llPh(,!s~.IFtE!''''U dlrfel'iltd f~:F T ilnd: NiI'ih!IlilSO [,tUS) ~ -4.2'9, P ~. O.'OOM~ 1~!!Cil U5!1!of ~ ~re'mnclf'@r 'g reillt:ef reG;lI[tilfl '~he T I(GlIUI~itiiDln [t(l5) ~ 1.49, ,p ~ (M)7j ilndl il fiiglnIi~ki1ln'l r,oom:t1:0fl i,lf! l1ii!caU~f!~he NT conditioliil [[t(1S) ."" "':Z.:28;P "" O.02],~alCl!ll,gt@d MI"1:lI!j,!i~to ba,s!f~im!ii!.

I

RESEARCH ARTICLE
also a ]lcS'''ui'le sign<l1 chJtl!'lgc ~'orNT tr'I:J~$!II_na. Q.~Il.\'m~ly.I~vli~c ~iwm! ch,mge f(lr T trials, ~. ~!~ii\'l;lf.I b"!'i()l~ni;t, ~]rni~ ,~~ !':!1~l~~y.i~~ .h~ ,nt'ilF~o:ry. \VI;: 1I?X,II!J':~llCd 'tllis :i!l!~~ 'PDI~i.CJI:s.t Ol~~y Sii,~!!~m)' .~pJ:\t,,~:!:r~!tio~. n Or!~1¢['10~)'~h!ll sho\\f'''''J::!, rm Nl friul~il1l \"ihk~nh~ richi~ \Va"" 1~}:rgo~liX:ri :;J:l(:h ~fI ~fI~ci \\'!"1'C d1.G'Io'iMa,,1 colfic~.il~dlildli[lg (NT~l OI~d on T !ti~~~ \.lI'tDidl il W~~n1~P11· i~ billnr:r.d 8oA17, BA Uil,and BAH nll,~itbnn gyrus ;1111; rHld~u~ Gi: !Ii~tti~<lII~~]tu~ ~port.i!1g Iha~iGn b<llS!.):I:~m.,; cm~~~'<l~ !~akU!1g i~ ~~[(;d (T1f)I, Broi~'I ;irc,~~ dit;cu,~~d ;.lJ;:orndil.J:!£ WG) II, ,um;! !~~ IlU~.\'~~.Ui( [{I ~hdr lPul3:li'fi\C' rLl!'1cljt:!l'iildrolc$;~ (i.1 I;:(i.~t~~.i\l'e 't [lui, Fig_ 2U}. Slii'i!p.~~l>i:on 1J11~.iOl'i~.l11~Cll[Oil:!f d inl:CUl~l to ..~t;ociflt~ 3~ •.i... ~.. il.1'I " s~'X: ific ilY COlliL~jll. (~iJ' ~'IIi."~ I'CPIT'~e:Il1b'[[t{llti ·p:fn'i~~'igl)', I'il~n1i~IN inVoh!(,j d~rn.'1i5to,d, ~cl.iV'ilY ill M;n ..ory Ctlticl1tio~ (c_g,. T 'Dr "1\11). 9i~d liii) meil],loi)'prooe& ... .~ nndl ~i'illOlkH!,:d c OOl'lltct'-l) d'lial :lie ~lOfjnlH]I~'aetjivc WhCi1. l'iiii:11IiIo:rie..;: Seco~ld,.~I'I'nl:'i!(~ -xpe:ltiltl~nI8~~)h~~\ e CachU8~ (lomU)u~il'nt~f mt!li'noty. o W~~:~h(iWf'l,12 lit~nes~",il:lilIh~pn.~n~al~ol~ tJifmhc: ru"C beirl!rt:If'ic\(i:"tI, as we:! ~as in i\..l,liOflS,'~Le, • Pu ~I 50u r(.e$ ,tlllildls1ites: of' 'c.1egll1iiv,1I! OOflti~O[. ProIlml, IllHYarele ill.!!.mill~ :mildln1(xlulmi!li'Ig, 11I.!I:~mtol'l, li1CC$p'.o;olld>O-'~mlknnly ~Ill~mln.xt.'ti" AJ1.'IilokJI\!:hin l"ro!~~m~l'egioJl!!. ri&ht-<sid!."'d aud ::'i'i,m n:in:g .BA. ~, !~Iif:ll'd or mw)' rrom v~uf~1 !lIiilm:Hltlli Uii, our Im::viom, stud}' (6) I1tICill'LOl)~il)C'f!i."<lSeti ll n9/4()", 4 7 .m~d BA ~O,c}>hUbi edNT ,. T oontli.!lii~. ~ Ilmin :[I;re.1I.<;' ~Iwolv'oo i~1111e~mJ~')i ·!H\1ICeSSc...; ca rJ:y \10' itll the Imnl~l: nill~es OOSH o itive control w'ld cmotima.al~onlpol'lC'mS ,of m.emo!lryrep:rc'" \'\;'<1;;) C'.'I,!erlodi for 1 t~a L~,thi!1. Wrui: l1oll:he ClJIi!C' rol' A IC'Ow~~meli(ln a 'mi)l~i$ ]11.dOC'l~ed timl. lil~ diITClt!!'l()IC~ r~l:,d~~1 fm!H .11:11! im::P;. se i~ ,tC'~ivilJ! .... ilo"1!'nlation lilt",. e.... li~j"~ ~,i~lil·~,C<'!nl~m!(~ilim~· l NT 'l'I,1<1is. UC'~l(:~. we d iviotioo our dilt'" inao 'ilUll['" in .<lC1:i\.'.~ioa speei fie "~(;I~~\ ~lJlw~rc!~~~ hippOc,n~ll);j.l: C(li!l1~l!Jm •. lili,)~ ('.ilr-ce n.wclitiau1!fl 'pet ~W!~ duri~g e.ach qu~!!''" Ihr·N:'f lfitlL" I<!.h~ ~~~Ul,1 (i~tt~C; I~.f:~~ 2A)\ Whl:eh ,U-']ip) .ul(! dw ;i!.1!I)lgd3~".IU\·Il~Y:· ig_ let. \l;!h~(;h F lil~l!o ,~I(;I~r'i!lliPl~w1in~uhC'IfUD(;. 11el~LI!T!."I;(;hanij~~tk" lor T l!riM~ T:li.:U(Uivc w bfL~~~il1\: are SOOl1.giy ]nvoh~oo illl l11ll0limml Icami~l~ :mld invg~\",->d in mt'\lnGI1I~U~~plCl>.'Kmdliilngc: with !'i.ll!g~""l' t~'Mm[ Ih;;:sc F..:giC!']$'~ro ~pccifkal~)' rn~~110r}ij! 1$.1 9) ... ~ \\"Ol!~d Itl~n.'ql!.i~~ du: bji in\lo:lvcd ~u CQwroW!1~ .he f;lI!·PPL'CSl'Iuo:n (If emorepcmoo a1n,l.:m~~b~. ij~~~·picullru,~'OSociutilln in o~r p'lmdig!l!1. W'I(llnc~. 60n':1,1 1w.:I~ofUes" Ill!.!! i,];OhOlvtoml re~lUl!." ~hl;.'i'l'~'n F~~ l B in Nc',\!. woe li(l!WI!:lhi~. to I;Mcmlin~ wbi~l :BL;'gi,[}l]K mh(l St!'PJ1~(;-.;s;~UO:!I of l~[l!')i~iml;,t~, !~lL;n~my ;J~:l'O il1d;iem:ti,;d l:b.n il1di vidt~~_f; ~fR\c~ht(J.~}' 8'l.1ptllfl';llSl:;"(i diCW'm1gm:: ..",hci;hocr <Jclivlt}' ~n Ihe Ngim~:ii inl~"ics~ (ROM ;:wtm(J~ decreased {jJ. AinhQl.gh A!)I;I~~ "!1d ooi!~~'1Ik'lJl;~ d~:!~lOll"l<;n~cl:il]~ (2) ... i~lvol~rlll,,'l'Il of jliilJfm.rmd. ~,~iH!fI~il~ i;lOgllli~i\r1,) co:rlirol. oVg" m.cmui)~c~:ib'Y~"",nllillc;·d i:I1l: CQll_tr'l!ll~ b:e'lwOOn,t~!~~imi'1.'l'il 'O:!l~rr ,ui,o T k~b wil.holJl

or

NT Ir!;:J,I,,~h<!il~ Ttrl<lls ·im:llll!l;;'C!i \H~ ol'~lil Ih:, acc~m!cJ¥ l.~1 Adcl.i!i(lIl;J~~y. 1~i1~!S!ll WC\"'l.:N' ~p;;ci ti~1!!~Y~I~t~p;~,i1,1d~l~ ~rrJJ~li\'·~ ~o:r!':rol Q\ICf

In

li[U:.·1It10r.1"

To inn L'Siti,g:lle the !l,C'ulll) .i£¥.;TIxi" oft.his;

:;'Uppo-tl OtliUIJ.OIlL::ttU$ 0.1' [he

!'Dl~Ui1Q!)~

['Cp~:;~nlfl'

ilwol~oL.-cl Mlp'pti.":\&ia~1of l.tIlJ:11Ti!OIJ,rpr~'ID(~5~ (mlld!

cffeet, we first anuly-mdi the i'iimelkll'lallt'l!'~WWlk~ resouance ~11I1agnl!lg (llVUU) dma. forim'tsi:rlre~ of . _11: '> T-'I~:ill ,i s, ~"igillifiQUllly£li\e.ffi,tcrfLc:tivi~ far

iC,!;lI:OJriSshn'lJ!'C,j MlldhJou,.spt;-ci1:ic dmng.~ w.~jch \!II(! defunoo as yicldiil£mn oilly 9. slg~~iJirnm d~nefl.!ilOC rm lite' NT '> l' ronu::rIiS!. U1 b

ti:O:I1. These

L1'irul iOl:lll~,aspeeis of[bc: lln(.'f'i'liOi'j" I1)piieS'C.I'II::liHfll~. Two .1J:h.8lsl!s of niUm~l!Iry' SIlJIl~lI\@ssi,ofl. \lVe I~~""lexa:~nill,oo J,I~1 bruin i1clh II.y Chilllg~>d whh

F'iig. 2. FIJlilcli!ll:na1~nt1jla" tikm of Ilrain .:!lr,~.asinllll'l!ied hill (A) OCI9!l'iiidve [@!il~ro~, ~B)

:s,-Mro~' f@preS@liItflt'ionlS Qf me IiIIIllry, aad ~C~me:mory
~Hl);C:e'Sse;'l

"Qrnponel1ts

(rSFG, rig M.sl.Ipe.rim fr{mta~.

and eI1l1D~lion[1I~ of lifIemcory

I,,~rl!.l~; 'MI~G.~ijglrlt Imiddle fre:nli:! I '£WfL!IS; rillFG" rn9lht ·iJilif'ern.or-ffro:nlall mm!lll; Pll~ IPIJIMJl!aG~,l\jiSiro~ gyrIUs,; tiI'ip. ~ipp(J(il'lII1if)lI~; AIfTIY~ ,alli!1}'gdalatfMRI darla ~ aJn~~~ IiIm!l1 a h~liIlIcdf' lilIillI'Ilk r,espoliI~~ Iul'tctio:n-

Iconloi'01ved'~poc~; ~lali~ial~ p~ri:unetll~ map's (SPM5)
Wl1re th]'eril,ulilcied en a va~,-

~o1>lliv,e !e\rmrs: Ion ani <I real(lh1!(lwaliwl b.1!$ls" we ~~ta dll!sWl'I!lisl:lllilresh*i .at P ~ 0,05 (ilifiSt~f t!t~ UiOI} ,giS· (If iClebi,mmiltw by An~~$li5 I(lf Fl!lnJ::jnclliltl~ NletIIl1Ji~liIiI\ilges pmg,amA.lj:lI\,;iSim. Red !lilatCik<l.t~ 'gre.ater a,clivii~r,or NIT 'trials than Il).r Tlrii:lilS; blue 'indicates 'lIiIe r~>€m'. (IOIfIBIUiflfClloi!l o:ll!lal}'s~. re\'~k:d 'Url:1lt areM' seeli!l i!'1 bLv~ af'~ 't~e (1l!1!1!l~!f!ar1<JFI 0.:1' inc,msedi i!d.Mty~l)r m trials
1

!e\lw'is,e· asis ,~~l = 2.81, P = b 0.005. To i!~jui.~ 1m fa~

·~oo

,ab(!ve OOs~l'il'l~- as weU as
l(i,e;cr!!a~~ .cu;lMt)" (IfffllJ1' lnl":!15 be~O'I'Il bi!~lin;e.,

RESEARCH ART~CLE
BA 10. am! cnC:h Qf ..he r-rerrom.d r~gi9rns """<IS Q~~cO ln ~hC"\!Ii! <li1'!:~I~-'p:~~>di I"Ig the nmJ'ii,inwl, l;o~I<Bltim~lb'l,. ..tw~~n.rlfO ~m! ~'~\lIFG~ul i!I!~M' ~li!c h~ror~I~~~iv~ ~!.'l;l~9r ~~~ri9f ~Q~X {$~Il-"(l!)' areas, AIt1J1~'~nr '~OJI)pl~l'i;)1, Th~,:i;W~i:;' nctl,;";ir.h;1~!n'ldy <I:>S(U;:!llt'L;'d IJrnin·~ro~~ (Fig, 4, ~ in n;'!.'(_'T:i\~:11lI ~Iu; fi:lNf q~!Uln'iik" <lOi;:livityw;I:> sigl~ili:~!lllly iibo¥~ b~5dill~, b~a~ Ii. tl~rca,'OOd ~t) 0,), Tlris p,l!km slUgg:~~~ih~:i :Icii"'ii:y il~ conlp~!i;Sj1:ic-dby di,viding lite 12~~UJ.;lnfipts ~!t~ogflilh,c CQI1[!'O] into q~l~ltilbi::, ,('tiu·CC!l.'[1!C'ttlirms er p !i.leOldi1)1 rwc.h$i.gul~lk.m'O~ bdp\v ~l;;!!ic~i!tcby BAW nlooW!'I",~c~ to ,1~i:;thri'~yTil rlFG i!!lcl~·MFG. JB).I~!m"""I50~<'It;lliv~ty ""ihid! in IlllnlI11!odL~I"h.'S "Icliv~ty iiI:! pO:!ii~~!'ior GI~a~~rli~'i;l). C~h~ll plouc;d ~mc~il !'ii,!llmd I,;h'{~'!g.L; ~hc:; ~:bU!1hqll~.rI.iJC W !\':gio,"~. Th~~~;!i;!III'~ is ()~II],~i~tcnl~ii'JIUi ~¢",Ill ifi rMt"'G did nO~ pl\."'-di:C~;'lit.i", il}, i~'i ~-Iir ~lid 'l~S~ ;HUmIN. Ihe qlJ~unl.~I~of IC!H,;h hmiu ar't'ttttii,u~ j;hO""k~, Jitl1:'cn;illi!]1 f~li\!fll~oil1 ;.,,tT l~ri3~t>iCl!ii- AIfiI~!;' illl[ht fi[:;l or ~e~~lil;1 'C1Ili~l1ik';.~,.bul did so 1I'C!i,"~llH eh 8Wigge:;:~nl1.g r dtr:ru. ,~c::tiivilY ilfi J3A.UJ signmealt~~y in. the tl~iru ~iilt! laufUh t]jlijji'lik~ inCiIC"ili&.'S wilh !atoll<: l\O'J'llip~e,odl)! and .il; i~I'\Iol\!cd; tivcto T ~Iftlll~::>(5~ (I::'.ig. 3q, This, eO\l9rillliol~IillU~riil SU~~j.,'Sl~ th!lT Two pmlCli'llS, olf'h:n1pornl dml]~.c iii 9cliwliml ill, i]lh~r ,f~"'jklf;.'1;S or h.i.~hi!L..o:rcl~f '~nilio.n. :>iie~1 :il> ~U:"G :Inti rI\II fa SUlI)I)Iie.~:> d iITc.r,elllt aspeets of InOni!o.rill,L; of il1Leit'llt'll1stlltJ!.';,. mem{)ry relriC'vSlI. were ob.~eM'd. each a:!. oci~II!.."dwi~) d~!1:n.'iJcr1I, s grolil'lliflg.~ of·llre~I.'(iI~UiIrun! j)OllIe-rio:r' b.r.lin areas, mCl11lorY~~'L'OOcS5il~s. d uril'lg di ITcrem. ~C'nl~Ol'3J CI'I~oti(in<llp~lOesses.coord ilmlin~~,"'f hig.hC'rc.'J.e\,ll!l gools. :md mMllblials, milcr a:OOM of PF'C lOE~~mi." The tlU ,SJI)!)l~l~iI~g,.,;; ",,",cre OOIl1JlO:';oo I) r (U I~Sh~ I~~m)ics. i'nJ:e!I'Dor rro,~II<I~ gym,~ (r{FG~. ~I!I~, ,m~d alIli.d (iH FG. lb1!!.."-"C'S;";: dw HI1:k.."lgc ~~\\IIooll~hp atti ...mion Ihe~ ~ornl~(1.1. 221\ (iolldll!ls;i(l!1!. Our I.indilltg of l:tld!a~~O\.bm:;ciinc and mClllUJ'J),. w~ pc-,rn.JTned ,"' ~Ulll~I;.'Gl!".nlflR'lIll" rlglr!l1liddl't1 fmrHtl1 r;)TI!~ (rl\1FG}. HJ[Ji.. nd . OlI'(;livmiO!!lin b;,.ain ,<lI:t;'~~~ ooI,u!o(l,o ~~1'I501)" Amy. Uniql!C 11.)'111\1]01'<11 p.;qlu(:rn~ ,pf Il~tfmm,d Orj' a.md>'5,ir.<; I~ 1't\Iti:lt1li.~!) ..'.d \ ~Wlt; rl{'lrg~u~n ~Ioa I~ :leli\lfulio~~ dilJrti~lg ~h~ fOI.l!1!h'q""un:iile:. \\'lt~~l ~,)r:~'£Cm;ui'l;ll]1~W\ll fG)1 ,Ul{l ~11JC1Jlml1' (Hip .• i~ C'(U1(1'X WfC'~ i!lnWl~nL1i;oJl p~mriL'lf bmiu ~~iml~ were olJl'.C~vOO fOT"C'3ch ,group, ~~FG :;:'ho\'\I11."<.! CMI~j [he cfK~~!'I: 'If cO,l;lni~ ~\'C control 'wc<reb~~sI.Wc ( AIrIl:Y' 1'0:1:' cmmkm,!I sl'inu.!1i dming NT 111m:> i':l ooIl8:i~l'¢mw~th !hi.:l Op;,,\fll!klll a!lliel ive 11L'~~~B .!J;:liv.l~~OV~ [he lime OOl!!};Cof !i!l,pp3'(,~ion. iu fO'I.!~ld,.~ eru.f decrease nr:;JJcl~.vi!}' in ~-li~;Tr > li.. Tf'> b,lfii,;~ inc:> NTr ::- Nll~f (j). \\Ivrh onJ}'!hi!i.t of wh~ch I'~I{-d b;-L'll,lg~ U!1;'ioo(.·(ln~~ Ql!i!W!.Uc of~!.Ipprt'.'.ii1iol].furdli~mlor-(;. ollr~~u~l~I1fl.\1kss ~ro .rnpcai.lic!:!.1:;" ~J:idIJcu:)n OJ dccrt';!!Lsed l(lvcl of NT Iri.d~ I.Jclr.lw~'l s~3illl~+Fl,Illh~r ;Jnfd}IS(~:\ rol!$!~~fU wil~l tWtlS(l~:> or~h(;'1I111!lj[i\~ ~jh;:':PI"";I«i1" &hm v cdnh~I~lic,tiviIY of ~rG .anid 13,iI:I()o.r.re!atl:,id iioris ·of IfeSpo,VIS('$ lInbchll\.inr Wid brain .~~<Li,\\'iiil" ~lCli\r.ll~O~1 dl.lriillguhl~ last 1.\'\10 qU::lQlilili'i rflg. liOTi I.h~l. \,\1C olJs.(:~II\IC mi NT trials, On:C9JI~:Cill1lmn\lc JiA). ACllIVlrt}' of Bl,.lImnJ PG l:on{!'1v~d a 1>~mtiJflr \l,.'il1l,lJe:h~wk:IF.~1SIlCOCs.s; at :>uPJ:ttre,o;;sioni (5). T9kcUl tilm! cousse ofM~, whit"h lagged be&!lmldm for Itog,m.lJ!C'1" wi!.hI11cp'l'evicms dlll:lII. 1.~lesc flald in!::!';, CXP!lllll.i.llio1il is repll'LCernel1!,.iul\vhic.~lpani k~prult., ill.Iggesl dmj, rlVIfGmoouIRK'Sa(.'livil:)lin I [ill, !hillk ofa n.tw cllc"mrng'C~ .[Jssoci:mion orsu'b.:>lllute r,IFG. 'ro CXPD..""'S.'l. qml1!lIiml i~'e~y~hc IlCOI:1l1iollShip in M a:ltcl'mlitC' memory 10 Cif)CUledh11l1'Lctioll ~romIh'! ,.\\'hich is djr.tlc~ Iy re~ated 10 bchaviom.~ $~ICCl:\"'S. ~.cl:i\'atiou Ix:t"Me\."iI,llhe.".>l!' b.m'i n aile..!!> as ~ n.lIl1.Ctimil lrurgC"~ mcumoo:y 1(2.;H. WI[l\~ C\'CI':, IItc' gcneJ:;nl ono I' a ThC'.'<C' cbm .l!t!lllkaled dJIC' hdillg .of Au,dclNOll ohirl'lc,. 'w'e llltiHool~ll! cmrelati{nm;;, r m.c:liv;nim~ o and ~OnC.l~g\!~. so [he rulalimlNhilp bCI:W\.'l:lB pre~ rlCW :m....""OCi:ltc \11;'Qldd be <!:'NX:imcrl \I1,':illl :OCJti~'4\= of :r~FG wi~11 f~~,1.1!!u!!]fG. re,\ll~CCli"c~y,:~"f1 flu~IC'~ ,{lIlof >!i]!.!:ir!i I!;:tFig,. 3et GromiJr ;Jeli""!I}' in L rm:ntdtmd h~I)J'i!OC.aun~d !)~.!!lij'1111.'" nmy w~11 Ihe !ion,. nol dl,;~Jc!iV<!liml llC'~oW ~lIa.~lirlJ;;! of~l.'iiol}' aad ml!~l1Ol}' represemauens '[0 represent fmcli dFG ,in the SCC011d qlro:nHc was .signli flrnnll~i im O~\fCl:Iilrl su PlJress)iJ~£ nne.IHOI}' rcc!lll. l1Iiglil~r~~dju (llr,c~_'@·Sl:!'il'~lfl !l1I@rn~!yS!Il!I" of :[lI_!l$iOCimcd W,~dl dt:C~d acliivLt)' in P~1:mid FG ClJ.oodel~lc ~lC\'1assocli!!lioll. ln '~JIOI!. l'Cploccdari ng the sc()ond ql.l!iLrtiL'c,bw showed no ~g~ IP,~~ssiil)f!. ]I~Y one l1in:fm:n!OIJ reg.io~, 9A ~O, mllCIH would ~]_mniR'$~ fWlClio!LmJmy in brain O c)o;hihioc.>d aC'~i\'ily m:m:w.s ~he !!:nlnre c!o1p(':ri"..C'~tI.I <'It'~i~';Jliolls OJ!\; in T Iri~lls.. nliUic,lI11 ['Cliltioml tor!.Ji\I;:!' ~lIIu"'ikcS (1m ..Th~ om'" A Slo"(:Ond .. h"'r:muli\:~ MI~("I'i!s,lhm 1i(,',(iIuc(,;d ~bli(]l] rl.!litu:m ili c(mSil'i'OC'1Il! wilh lilt,: '~~~lPOI~il rhm",e IFi~" ,iI,A), B(;CZill:l.£ lhii~ r~Jill{)i11I'"1;;~U\1'CS pimu(!m of lh'Y: n~ fuppm~m. .!iFG inhibiuiolli of i~s min Dnn~,t :iil~nso:ry ~IlPLn. i.ind ~:\. P'.rcdQn.l~nflli!t~}' n::.tt1in on 't\~~ti2l11~ iuvolvCll disl;I1:!j!;"'J:l.cm~m "vi 111, Ihe :Slnlt'illili leg., ltI.mm::i:1lfiry mi:l1d.;wfl:mk:ring ur O(lItllCCI.oo wilJ~ 01~cr prc'.~ro~llii.ll ar.e;ii&.W(; hl· <lI&'iil.":!Cimcd bmln regions bc.!J;illli ('ldy. in the lirsl imT'05ijh.~I:Uml):"bo(;;)!JLi$C: some Slul.u:lic:s BA I 0 in \, ([I ilmrl lI'C""dChcs IlilIfiX imtnun .un lite seefmcl Qt1flrtil.c. spcrl.ocl ~.IS1'!::;I3I.i.Ol\'~hip. itl! rI:F1G 300rMFC~ror c~ch ql.larliilc. Th~ l'l'nfLl.;:hnlil orrcllatioll b~I:w(,,(;1l OO'!U\1.fU1tOlJI has bC1i!1l1 roruclMoo W.i~l hncmlil~y ~.Q,. c <'iltld is gm."8[~~n:ducoo. d'LC~llcr.
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as oov;;llfi~!](ln Qrpr~rroJri:m1 actuv,mi0H<In>t;!

~n c"mmsl,wrlfG, n'YIP <!JC"'II",i~~im~ h1" cwos~od Mer ,md remained m;:bvt'. I\clivil}' in I:! ip gmi Alv~.y~W~~d1!.p folk)'!,'\/" !:!ml Qt ~f(i
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val,ro ,a;clmily durin~i '!.ihe1 ~econd,till~r,ciI,tll1Iclf(lllllflh quartiLl!sl~~i!J". 48) IqU'al'l!n~,2,. '(15)::: -4.42:, p."" n.OOOSi; II1lJ\aiflil~E! t(15·) "". 2.mO, p"" 0.05; 'qU'illrlite 4.. t(lS):;;; tl~.08.P ",. on!)], \me<~ea~.Hip .3" o'lInd .Illmy inii~ilally e<xhiIlH iinneas-ed j!(livii~yn 111 'qu'a rlile 1 but. shew sf:gniiliiGmtly d!l!(lreasedlac;tivil),' ~,yqlll;artj:~~ 4 ~llfIip f1ll1artife, 1" Ul'5) 3.11, ,:: 0.007; Hlp, q,lI.artHl2' .!l!. r(1'l) = -:U~6, p ()1.0i~,; Aillilr, Iq~i1Ir~U,e 1, ml!a '" 3.11, .P OIJOoo': .Amyq!lIartil~e 4, ~tlS,)= -2.15,. P '" OJ)4). ~c:} (lor:re~lI'lflOnl 'w~effidewns,b' rlFG .a!nd r\M,FG guolupedl m~h n~'spc(lwe a5is.OO~uc.~ p('l5te(i~iF 'bro'lfn ~Egh!lns: !IS gJ h!l nc~o111 Qf ql.!j3:fll(e."'P ;5 0'"015,, +P .;s; O.OcL, ~\P'~. '11).001. -

d.,os; VG,.f(15~ '" -411,96, p' '" O.'~,n {B)irMFG di~lltayS signrneantly ~I!-

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I

RESEARCH ARTICLE
0!'1SC<.!

m!.emkm, ~:!ol'Vl:'l'er~ 'We r(l~[lld ~hm BA 10 ~J;:li"t!~pt\lNd~ <Illid c{lv,;;[lie~;;; "\'~,th <m;li\.'~t:r of lilc ~\\'O ,>1ql<lr.lt~ p~n-O¥!~"!, ~tt~l"S t~~l "[{;"nvtia~~
at din,c~!fIt iA,;I"I'i!p'~J!r;i~ I:ilo~nb: ~J~ ~h~ p~~~l5S of "'l[IIpprt~:;;liJ:llg ,~'C:'~i\'3~imi il~i.\l,,'.,) dnlT~ttlri s.cls of

PO(iiWriofI:m!i~~ rogi:ons. Tljis !jj~pl1li.I~!I;ld. !,~'g!O~.a s~ein:c ;;IIJ;:l~vi~.y palt~m .orBA 1I] i~nlmil;: 'Ofi!upkc\
ni~LniIIha:1~"'P('tl.\.'t! r{'l.r giri'lplc ~Hi~id·\v"dli.cl~flial,!!,l

d ~Iriiig' TlririL .., ~lIul ili i11~~n;rniii,isb;l~twjtlii B:ll. HD'sproposedrole of 'ODel~~IGXtifiiilor nUi~~ lip1,e 1PrefIDI~L'I~rwoo~se.'l ii1l'!1'oh.!.i~ in .~iJklii1.!l COH1Ijpl,,::.:, m~b. 21• .11~ 1 Our Iind~l1itlS:s;t~'CSI, dml, the stllPpre)lS ton or C1no~roiu:;Jj1 m~mouy itln'o~:vcj; :11. h.'iilti1! two I"llh\'\;'a!)':t1 \"'ilh sn.~rod ph'1SC$ Oflilcir mooll~a~Ol)i int~uc!1>C'~. The n It'~Il;nhway ~mllOl"'Ii.'5 eo~m il ive c'(l~nrol by dl"G DV>C'f~~'ll'i(lry OOt11~'XII1i.'J~b'l f o
mJ'IL:'UllL'l1)1 rcU'l"",~CUt<lIijtl~l. ,~~~~\I;de~lc~ld. by r¢di!,llOi.'d OLClivi[yin ro and Pllt Tilil'! ~I'incliing. L~ oolUi~wm w idl cmn~)l!mtillnil!.~ mocl~~~ ~1liI!lt~l!O~il~I!<I~ aClilvu~ ~irm ,md i~lh~bi~L'(l!~f !he [lw1~UJ~U~ <l c~iiliet!1 o !:.l !'Il~n!i. (lfgoilil]g

f;l.ll)pre&~iOri ~s most !liC{l!di~ya.coomD1lisheC! by pro" rro]~l'l~moo~.!lm ion of ,0lC~'~I.y in ~'11.~on' conices h ~!1J1IJt .it<o li."'.e!y io ro~!\,;!.I'C: ~Il© :Sl,,':I~f,(lry p~~~rt Thi~, rruc~"l>, hOWr:,W~f,. do<;:;: II!~ ]ll\:"d i~;ru~QI¥l~nt bdlill\fi[]!rn.~~'C1IU midnna}~ 11(.; ,S! "1:[ut~om,;diml'" m~h,~~i~n {Jin, ~oSUPi)~'ill>I~rermlol!ill~ct~vilY in a ~~l;';':OI) CQ.rtiJ;:~ M(;!I~r"Q.cdl ;Il'i,~ I"l;iiilu!l of vi¢\'I'iii£ t~h~ eli!;, In] COIJI~~. ,t~t.i\iil}' Olf rMJF"G ,'(;!i!,i~i' ~U qIll8.r:o~I\:"~,,) alid Hip lduti:ng the Im>~ fli,Jm1.ul~),pIX:. d[(:l'> oohav.k!rnlt ~U,ppi'l's.sir.Ju lS} Th~ s.uppi:il!:>.

c;n~n,g thlltt Hip aCI.it\'il,.v has b©C:rgc~l~ci,i\'el)'
:O;W!llJ)![l:t~;8§d.

At .~ ilm.;u;Ii."!" 1i,t\~I. our n!~di~g,'ii~!!;,\!ld
st.'l!uml

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"um~iill1lM; t~"! p:n;:fn:mn.'1I1 bniill1law~'" asso~i::lll~d witlll illhihi~[jry Ilii~~ru~~!isms {BA 10 ~l!irld, :io\!pCric)!'; .infi.;ri[lf,~ndl iliii(kU>e fG} tire 19l1C'rJl~(id pffL;-doo~il'!.m!.I}'W thcri.gl~!hcmisplwn;' p 7, :IN,t mhe !>up;prei>!>ian.
\11,.1(; ~l!'l¥~Sliu\'\II]ulic i~nl(lh'¢~lii':!iI~ (If dtt;i'>C a(6"'L~. in ,or C'.i'ntiI.iQ.i'ia~. i'i1l~iiI~o.ric,.'t. \V~i~eh
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(J.fh }o\ ~ollacl:prl!hw:l)\' .in""O~'IIC:;;cogirl~live cenI,ml 11)1 rMl.FG O\ler ~lC·n'J.{iiry pl'OCCSilCSriilnl(~ emeI iomd {.'OI11IJl'CIll.clI:lSofrii~emory "-i'Prcsellllll.~m1 \f~ 8i ~nodulmrlm. f rn I i~):r~nldAllnY (1.15 I, The ov~1I o ~inling Onll,CSC' St~pplC'S. ion ,~necBsn:ppcars ~D bC' s Qin::Ub!.~tm~~ n m~xh.!U;iI.ory iflf]UCllCC or B/\ I (I" b)1 jl~ (lover rlFG. ~l(:n over fI\lIFG.Fl!I_nhcr Il!.·llc:loc'h i!'l~~\,;l;;'d",'d ~o dt.~~·iFrninc IllC il:i)'lltC!~t[{D wh!c~~hc

ru-e'ii.'> are active iil'l Ihe :s!lIpp:r,eJ;:SjDI'I of cma~imUl:l. iL~lrr. by bl(}c'~il'k~,I.liip and Amy <ICI~\iit)'n\L""Cdcd It';3Cli\"~ly (J~. JO'). Activity in lbcse hroil] m:tc.:1ii • for relJ~>C\I,lIl iflh,c cnb!."'ll.io:m)~ mCl110l)l. ~lowe\'~if'; o ruOI1£. '>\lith il\hibiiti.m~over Ili(l and Al1my. ~.MSL . this: m!::chm~~~~nceomes c'~TcC'li o.n~Y'~ltcr I'Cb \!~ ~!I.'j. lili1~slvJ~lwe$s:i.l:mofcl1imti0l1.io1'li I1i1iCnlo:I1,e;;,~.uIY usc' l'I1ICCh,lfli)\1fi<; sim]hlr 10 ~~osc used in cnUl~ ton I~(!'U~ ,IIlt!nlI1b\ :m '00111001, as ,~hawn l~>' lilt, h1" ~'gu~ll!io!1.Thus. vanou$ ,'1gh~.~:~l!(lrn.~i~oo.PFC creased oorroJ\lt[:(Iin~~l"~I.!vhy OO!"'\oIoo;JlI1l'\l'FG·I.l~ll ..m~ rMFG·.Amy (,n".r qU;3:rlill'iii. (fig.. 3(", 'Dnti.)' ~R" nll!l)'OO~n\lohl('tI in (w:udi.na!illg i:lU,l]P~~uccefi(ilb~ SI,!ilppr~~o:ri ,ofhill]~'lll~p.;!.~ .t(:!ivily ~!i. ~iilm rooce."Se;.; :'i~-rQ>;$ nm~mj'ool~"'ior.,lJI ,dm!lllin,l;. m:1lie" ~cl. I he needte in\lo~ lh~~"J mL'"'oo~reclion" inc~Llding mem{1!~ Ile"~rii.:'\lal. :trnowl" p~iii~. ~oo~" ,md B!me procC,\lj; <.lal~!ml[ly d~c!1l."""\.C$•. as f:iClkrel:()d,~n [J)1i:l !ugs (If .'OlJCj,d rojC!l::I;klin~~U mQli\'~ dCC!1."W\I.ld r~FG·Pul .tnd rlffi·fG corn:;lm:ti'(.l!!. ... (lln'O!.iol1.dn..-aL:'~i\' ii, U i J.n Our nnid~i]!!l,su~ayhml(: .il~'ipi~e~u~icl!t... rOt 11Ji~rf) ur d:n~ alsu r:ro\Ptd~ ,Ill ijnlrigluinJ!l.h:ullt ~11I:J~, US SUggeS!L1d. in dil~ic!iJ1 prii.clil~(!. it ~~ O(:(:t'lSSf8II}i ~P{,'iu~,ca,rpm..'lCIilCSIO~liSC!ru~[5 ~m t}~vil1g lill: to 'Ii:ii:\i'i:sirf'~nlIlilflmionaHy distK';SSi:lJ'ig ~n(lmor:y iil3bml)!to :s~ppress l,1110101KlU~' i [ljis~n.~ll~ mt:Jil1;.. berm\! il canbe ('omrnlkd. We lbu!nd~],m MD"ly ooe~8Jn~d! tt1:mMglrllis.Dl'lctucl iilg PTSD.pho.hifll.~,
i1'ii1lY
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to lhe

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ud OC 11 Illl::Y

I and.2), greater! lip, I1cl.ivhy was o'~!>~rvcd~br NTr trl ~1:;;!h1l1n Nn" Irimb.,. as, ~~111S.a L..o rQ~md by

at: in non~mpoml mmly:;~ U. 5).

~~voIlJthwuys i1CI ind';,:Jl'I!lldl'liI~Jy or intcmctiw,.":'iOt. Our :fi'IKiiul!gS alsc p:~o"'OCicl1sigln illlol.he i poCl~C'JilI!~11 nelll!'lJoo,gnulivc nm'(hall!.i:m~ by ''\!h!d~
cln~l~ml,1I noc:nl(1!~~ m:-i)' Sl\pprt'8:iledL OYI" ,d:II.[I .11:1\: OtIn~~s'r(;1lt, ...ith (he id~>;liI~!(U~ ~nili'lfmlmllor;y

\'Vo Spi:lCI!I~HW that memo!,ij,c:-;~~~;~~ ~tli\'mc .Ii~.p H'I U gI.'CI1lc:r degree are IlK}lX!' unl:en~Me 10 CO.~lit hie

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A.~'ingll~ 5heet o~ carbon, gr:a,phelile. !e.xtuib~'ls!JIllie~pe(i!JM e~.edrolilk properties that arise hom IquilIlnhlllilil stOlte siyrnmetries. ",.hic~N~s~ricl t~,e :5c<I'Iie!riflgl !Or Ibi ,c:n1l!rgeic;inr~en. Utnder:st.am::ling ~~e r(l,le Oir ,d~rreds, ~In the lrans:porl propelrtJes 'o~ gW'1I1!lI'ne'fle 15 e erl~r.. ltCl rea Uzing rutJL.I~e' el.cdro.nks b:al~d ollilti.!rbolli. SC.:Jlnlil]n.g tYlr'ln~iiftl91 ~~,mOiS'lIl)py WM, IlIS~d (!\II IIfIf.:!I~lJlr~ q!l.!aSiparl~de frnefrfr@I1I[~ ~~n~ms lilfl @pritallialt graph@!'I!? 'grXIWn en S!;(i((J!OOllJ. IE[:,h~I1!JY"I1e'SoliJ,i"i!'d mal~s of the t~(jii'!~, ~e~sit¥~,ff SUlit~S !:~v~ll !f!1!od'ld.all.iO'ftS (lfI!tw~' d~'H~'~f!I~t~ngl!h scal!!~, ren~(ti Plgi b(lthifltra~ll.e-, artldi m!~~{¥a Iley S'L'daUerilil.g.A!l~h(lligh sud~ :s:ca~t~ril'llgl iii! g ~a!J,hell'!€' ~fI ,be5.\Jlp~re.5Sed "~C.i!l use om fie S¥iI'!i1 !l1Je'tries ()Ir the I~ira( {lua s.~par~h:ile$" Wl;' sho'\lI~hat" Vriihen its source ~$ ~'I))li'Iilh:"'S'Cale l:altil(e deJe(ts;. 'llo1lve fUlI1'II::ltolil~ of dHf'Nlent SYlIlHTle'~rie:5 [!'I11l mll!(.,.

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us

lromlhe ~yrmne'try gf dlC gJ:;lt1henc B,loch s•ales

W~,~, \IC'Oi~ 'Q.2 'OIlnecl ~] ooj"!;4'1.}] K *' and! '!)C_ }'i~ldi!l~ ~,ntlJ'ri"~ QI;;:!1!!~!N. OWf :~ml~h of ~1(;' ~ll.1llf1.·Ynanw:: f'~II.J~:il;di, JI)fIi!l!I-~. (inw;rv~!!~ :\I;:mbr;lrinJ;l), I;f.l;)~ in k:l1-£:lh ~. i1il~~ior K.±., ~K+ ~hl,;":1~ ~tnn~~~~jl; '~C~~l';: h,IV~ ::!I ~.~~ Ii;lc~il1<!ll \',;1IV~~~[l}n. i!'~1~1jl,lcl til(: [m::i~111 ku~llla~~ to vectOT:;;, {~ dcl'h....i~y Q1:':.t:il!c.~:iJtllli'fll,mcltldb'y a :~in;ln.~ ~"t!~,diori IIEL) ~:;. in Un, [OOS. .h,n,\p~,~rn to pin ~1i;!' Il~~'!!st" orth~ by a m!:ittian 0" J(P ( 30P)"'~ld ..I'cnglh 'til,ill is :;.!lorlev by ! I i~l !1'.Iciiwn;t.. ~ ~a(;e. llhi~ relaM;,IUICD:!ng 1~;U~,1,I;m~!c:amy. ~1!>'l!lIlpl1;.the 'typ~~EI for d(:t~'"('l'" :11i~1~~ 'b~!lC~J;IS h.~' ~] F~.g.. ~. ~'il)w ;II mJrnNl~.Il gJ;~~ri~!olh: t J'j >t ,(3 }R3O"'~~k~t: ~~p-CiflolnClll1"e.s tl~P!tol-Jij] the ~fi~gh-.r'bW~~I~ ttll'i bril.gJn &:'ilnrn~ Sjl(jj cll(:irl'ekt!~.y ~.d1l~~giO:ii. fiiid a b,rig&ur:ii'ig (!Pig.. :;!, B to E) .. ~n co:nliil:j:st l11'h.ll,U/d~# I'naj:ii>[F'il1l. Jt B to a vcchl~q1 wm dbII<C'.it rI'IilIi)S £h(lwnhm tYIJe' A. ,d~ncelS. 0\,(:1' whi,(!ll [1iI~ ~:rom 'I_h~,exHctK,t W'!I,\IC v~"Ctrr,becam~' 0 r du: ~ll'lile size of~he ,oonn:mnHI'~el!Y cirenL'5, The glffiphcl1.c' is aml~mJOUS (red arrow~ in :ri~, 2). oon,bi!lUuton {if ditlcn:!m ~cl1~lhs c;O:I1~riblll,il1!l- !O · have cir.u'lmmjcJ III)! la.,; ill n~llcncc Oill Ih!::L:OOS. (her lillie Icng!!] ~C<l'lcs,'Ille dllrW nlil~, C.'(- 'fib:.leadsje therm:idul!l.tioll (he Jj x .,jj
lVl;

Inmgcs.

Ilnd that
{11'C

glf,;1phl,1~c~,.uict'

1:)1le B dl;r~c.!8 il!1 the the dQmi!1~nl ~!m.mll:g

'\,';:i}\'e~,~l

?>lI~~Ilf\,

001l;St;Ll1!~~cr1.'1'reiecles

Ii

nc

hihil lo:n~,:,w'lvck!l18.h n~~ell.llo.'lltoll$ IIml .eimn,c li.\lilh S,U1Jllc~}ia~volt3~(; (rig ..1. B to EJ,l\[:;.lhe
~mJlilc
Ithf;

~.m;n,"~~ns l~m!C1I'1.;;' Fi,g. 3. ~Ul To 'qL!m:I~li1)' ob:5Cf"'~·.d illl"'ifr(;'re!1o~ t!le
;)JJld

or

vol't:;J,gc

i!~t're"d.~~ [mlr.l

I!OO ~1 I 1,00 uN,

dOIilJh1:!1I~I~\.~.vcl~lgd~(,'(;It,'a~.);.: d oL;i.'J~1li1::!lld·

iI~y~rmn l) W :5nn1l,FJ1uotumio:rL'l ofml!.JC'h shoner w.~\'!:.~h.'lgrU.1 aL"o p'J~~nt in dl~--e flll(l,1 ..nl1!,f'lfl. a;n::

bJijJI Ih't.>1" ~ noo "1J,!]~utQ!~t1[1o\1~iI' $ud~ ;l ~'Ul!"'; di~ pl<l),oo. ~JI't<I.. FigWlIfl,! J :oililr}w:; U~ shOrl'"\""JV~k'<nglh Itwro~d8:liol'l}; in dMW Jml:l~1> 'Hllkcr~ w~th ,UOGl!:iOe. scale sp.:lln9! m:.roh.llIOil. TIl!!' inte~i!l1Cnlrel!rtk1tIlS in ~J~!..'SC :J:n~p;, ,displ~,Y n .&leal (V3 x V3}R3J(f StJ'iUctllililC (Fig. 3" B liD .E) 'whl'~~"C! to jhe :QIffiIJhcne ~:miOC', ~"'.itl~ a sUJpcr:i,Il'Dp!.1Il"ai .~Q1'Ig\\[i[\idi,cnydl mooll~;ulmn. B01~1 .lkmg-\~'Jvch::nglh the Stllllcl!illg··wml'C'~n('lt!llll~~!liml$, <lmllhe fj x Jj r()rind~dily a ~ dlJC '~o q,uWl~rm!'!ide scm~c~.~ ng

dctJliJI~'" ~h~~oc,dI~nd ~~IlIICI~~iL:), w~ Qbl,I~B~r ~)11(lL;', ij.11I1Ifig~ ,of !ill(:' ~(:'<.!!U~.rijug V!CCljoTl;l (.F~~"481 ~~rom FOl.!fItll: ~rnl1."lbmll flOwer !l.[!x.'C1trn 0[' du: :qll.'JC •.m~fI'je dlldlllTilll!l.'l U9. 2(J~ In F~J,l" 4B'~h ~m~~r~ng ,1i!I)r~OUS asa hu-igllt.riug I,;'lin~¢~d at
;~ = O. H!.;!

p.lJ!UIC!cI!:ii

ri~g is ,1 CO!~scqiJI~JlC(; rhe ~~n. of . hallC(d ph3i:\C~p~ce· l"or Se:IJ~lcrril1g lie. the sp'l1tmi.n~g\'~;cm['s. ofthe ro.iJ1S~aI.~~..c:iilcrgJllcirctc'. Ci rrulru:' dio;k. III~pcarcell~elCd at dicK + and :K_ s lPOinrl~bC'C~lIisc of lhe' disuibiJIt~onl (if q]:;twave' Voct\OfS, We dl.!~.crnllillcd rJ IIg rodi.i I:or !hCOO1Il"'Ll:1 ri~~g (I.~ig.4C) and~he K~, l)Qhll d,i~k~ U~i~l!!ru~gubx ,:l\I~mg~!o m:l",imi!1~'lhc'iiwm~.:to.:noi:;:e !

rmm~~fpe B de reelS '~hlf)()tlgh wavc veetoes determined 'by lire elceuenic suucnee or cpila.X~
]l)~gl<l!phC'lI!c.

The 2])
rB~,iul

C'OI!llmn~~n~!],l:'y

:\p~()~ U':i~-

4!A)rurc
ihml

ii.C!IUc:rillg'lol!::'.Clt1-Dl'.

(;on~~rH!,Jri1.im! I)('(:il]· 1I1U1i;;11'immi l:iilC ,dCtlill1Ci U:ll' :irnn(i;:n:n:lCC
:U:ii(;.cllt)

r"~~IOBOlh fe;uur~ eh"~lg~~nlli;liu",,~ aril!~C'~ion .. , ()if j)ja,,,vo!Ik\!iC because of dh,penoion in Ille gmphcnc ,c]'C(uonic :s!~ta.;,Mlrl forthcscc,'I'"tremal '1.1 values, the sc;~t[crjns goooncuy ,h::tcrmiJ1CS ~.~=,2", or ~I ± [(j = 21\- 11111.:resll:~I~Jl!g 1'0;' \I;I~W1CS; ",,~!)I'lir!();lrly wi~h C:1rnr;<rgy ~Fi~- " .. ).. Wilhl'r D = 1[9" i t 0.6' :.; lOS 111iJ/:I\ U lllUI) K = Ocru~!]gj'
iu~erccpt gi,\·cslhc Dirac '(:!racrgy, E~ ED
= .:nO

p9l.I.CI"II1l'i observed iI]~ltcSTS maps offi!!.''>, :2 and

±

IFii,. I' -- .J N,ll j"''''!!l'''r'~'I Ikij.. l""'~~.: of_ d",r",c'" 1'1'1 "h__~ ...., _ -!J, . " I;'TU '.....c'-1:I .. ... f V'I'-'" _"·....91",, _ _~,_" I., _'" • t: bn..aye~ ,epitaxial grra pheHf15<1mlp!te,. (A) ~afge ~neW ,C!!f\lil'e~~5ih()wiIi!9'~llIaIriely~dderl(!(jt$, T~ A d~rli!(lt$ ~r~da rlr,OIv) ,arf! sul1$iida(t irm~Iii'lalriti@~ b~nloo~d by graphel'!,i'!'. lIilh~der!ed il'ldi~al~d bV tJil:l~,edlli!H\O!'lY'
~a"S, g h~ght ,of2 A. fy;pl'.l' B diM'~(ts,~~~atiJmk,,5(~w :cieb?oclSilli lhegrap!;le.l!I!! l.iI~til[Je. Hnglul!f·ml'!gHi~lc.mielll im:a'!lIe~rmm W.e' Im!ed r,eg~(msin W .aT'e~h;nll'.I1:! i dErre<;t·hee r'Cgl~o!ll~B) and '(~miJ1>e\(K,at~erlng j)a!tc lifilil"lIlS amund In,elB dEfEl'ctl, [(e), anel (Ill!)]. 1ril.gl se~C!~nl: 1 ~ 100 IPA, V .. 3'00 mV.

munnel~

cpimxi!ll £Itlpilcl'tc .(7)1, and tbe Illnl'lllunell!l'Srul'C clesete d~osc reponed li'om U:'lttlsp!lrl S~Lldies on. cpim:ti:iill g'mph.cnc ,gl'CJlli~',Ul m~ SiiC'(LlOOT), (9). Simu,~!lir fCSll~ts.are found ror 3 sin,gI'ctllOllo,lm.y-cr ()irgrnfl~lene {fig, S I ) OO.lllO'Urs I[Fi:£!. 4,A), 'n:ro donnil1l'1J11,fmnil:Lcs oj;' In addil ion 1'0 SJlal.c.s loctllizcd m~ defcci. ::;i~C'.'l. :1.catl1.'l:ing 'UiJ.'Orn:. I;!/~x:looqw <mel '~Il, give' l,~~ 1.0 Sh:ll'P C{md~LCI;al1cc ll!C3ks;. =::,;5, IMeV ~n widlh. ilJC ~he ptltrttU15 dh~ervcdl in lhc ;;.pe;IJiOOcOj]ic con· ~bll!mlsevern! mmmn ..1cn;, from Ihe m!'llI~ Wile B ' 0l!~'C dilllcl;ung(.~nmpti'" ,iV;'!\,c '",,'Claro (II conm,'C1 lXai 1IlU'i, dcil"Ct {f'l:g. 31 The fl!i~;lll;s. c]~;lr]tf ,L\lsoclatccl, x on ,I. ~"Tn~l!;l ~vn~~'itIJ1;~·!;;nl,.'1J!!lY ,d!1C1f;. ~int!'<J\"I:I.~~y wiij~lh~ '~~riudtlf.'l."{Iv'3 ,fj' :WOS ~~U1!l;Ild,.1.~

For gmp-llCa'rc .. IihC:OOl't'ilfUI1L.enc:rgy eonWIll'S :ncnr £F clUl~hmlJ:.lgh th.{; cleeeon or hole o0I1IK'81sheets •. :resultingin :im~ancilt.ilc.s or md~~S' K:. eemercd at the wave YCCltOli'S K-I- and :1:\_. ~llItt em:ih lncme three symnwtry~,lIIivalcl1.t COI1llC1'3 or ~he2:DBrriliQuil1 mll~c. 1ll'C:SMllcrillg ' ...;lIVC · Vl100ffi q C\l1l11e{'l~ diilr~l, ~inls on Ihe CO~'U.'ik"U11~neigY
(/l{J"

3

20 meV, This
well with

~:oodfillms![II"CI'lJ'll(,:Ii[ ,off!..:)

pl'i:oIDCmis.'liolnl

::i\U~]ics

or

tIi,!:l.Ji\lc,,;;

bi:ll!li)'cr

ann

M;'''ilt,~rirrgj'.md

d(,il~'ll!ni:~i~~ th~

If~PIH,;d

kmg.

linn.

;,ilS (:,111: bi;i'i!:.i'!:;'U in

lite

,diM ~'Ul~~)l'i

~ F~ig, .3,

B

Fli'g. ,2, ~ef~(~ 'Si~ii.!tte,rg!il~in bl~.i!iV'~r,~pi~",,~iC!ll91'@plh.~f1e. (A) :STM ltJ'pe!)ralphy alil~ (B 'lo E)' s:imu'Ui1IliIeiuLislyaJ:qllliredl spedrostGl;pit: dMffll niI,aps. Typl~:A ,de'r~ c~ (mliudls) arl!l~ type B d!E!'f'ell:i.J are·l.a ile:ted wit~ r,el:! ':linIdl

bw!! ,;m'QWt,~esplocli\l'~I,y. S:!i!mpl~ b'i1!!:I~s;i,Hti (B)-9'O mV', ~C) -6'0 mV. (0) -30 mY"ami (E) )0 mY. !~ 1pJi.,. V ~lO{): mV, AV~. :!l!. nNffW~ 500 lo'iIiiI,~reAVis Ui@ mOIL1u'latiicm voltage.

REPORTS
fi!ll!, :3~.Bilaye~ g rap!tten~ tlllPll9ril!:PitJy W and :s.i'mb!!~tafl~iS, dMdV miilp05 <1!~s;amf;l~ bil'i!~ \!iolU!g:es of (B) -3:'1Il mV, (() -13 mV. (I!)r) 1,llr mV" arid (£I :21 mrV. The 'l)i'pe IEl, s;c,atbann{l [@IiIIt€,~ ~@ O'I:!~cie th@ ]iillIal1j@ region bee, InweJr!en ~'o~nerr'llf(A)l. (If to-II) ,rlVdl! fcolof' ~le,) verWiS ~i3Im pte bia') (ino(M!l~iI'It~~a):il'S}allld rdfrst~!iu:e (vertkal.wds) along mnespond~lllgl red lines in to (I~.

I

The b~~e~ll\lM"-ed

'oot~~~te

un

~~r!'lS

!he

(l!J:r!dI.lCtilIFlOOVi,lhg@:; 9!;!$~rwci

(~ 00 M~ linlhlVe1r:ilg;oo ~~~ili!eliil :rr~mlli'@gfiO)1~ilfIawked by [,00 t1mJ@~
in {B)r to ([I. nlle~@clral

'in 0)00, (M). dVdV5POENi:lr.1l1

ar,iI! a\I'@iI1!~!l'S ,of

~iIlet€119t~ mOCh!!tattofll

i![q/llimdill fl!O~iti®lils lef tlile ,j3 )! \1"3' i~ter'f~Ii!(~ m~xima in Ute' r,~ gign, o~ the red lilfl'~ ~e-ilk) ilm lihe dJldll ~Pt'£.jl'al mr~e_:lale wi~' .m,aOCirrnolin the .l.m,ll,r!iJ!:_ f...
(!1I1'!l!e:'!l

nl'r1!!

~Ci~:!i.'I

<0 :!(i <I.(i ~o ~ (I ::lao il~ --<ICI, 4(:1. 0 H 040 --<'i~ -3:! CI ® .4(1 Sa:(fJ;lpfeIBlas (mV~ S8ftllp~.e Bias (mV) 5ampl'e, rBe:s: (mV) Sample llIias~)nfilV)

iflil£!rr'eI'lm(!epaU;e'm. IB~uearnrrnvs~mlk.a:rn the biM h~li!e~!lV)posiliolii (if dt~ Illlme~peoorlg !lon.ductaltoo 'image-.s ]1fI (8)1:0 {IE~. ,l .~ 500r !lA, v~ IDiOOmV, .&V~· ,0.7 IfIIVm;t5.

,C'-flhe' Jjx V3

10 ,E) and the SllCl:md line profiles ~I::tg,3. F!o FmthC!rmo:rc. Ihc' dma. show Ihal these CO.lfl(;)UCI,.m:IlCC r~k. aI1CSIl.1li:I~'ly loc:lli zed. wlt,h mm.:inTLIm s iHl.C'n!i.i~\I:un [~giom;, of O()Il!lHx!.c:~i",e~nu:rl;;'reI'lClC I( i,IJ., I(}\(~'f lJlfO<td m;!()Ii~1.! I'I1IOclLd~u:iJ,g~~·13 Jj ;>1 P'.m,t~CJiill in .Fig. 3. II 10 :f), \'Vc ~tl.i,b.u[IC .'hesc cendsctance IlC.iks W NCiJucuiingresOIm,Ilccs, which lt1C,-.~~ qlllilSJjllill1j,C'~ because or ICmJ~ ,~tnl,cli\"c ~!llcrfcfl:.~UIICC ~it"Mwring 'iff! from Ib~
rimdninn .1Lro01I~!l,t~I]lCIlI I) f cl~ll"(:ls (tl1,ulid Wltli!~ It ,;]

n,

lfi.g. 4. ~.A) Sme'ffiiltit aftne ;2 D B1iiU.o~~iIlI.mn€' (blUE! ~ine-s), c.omliELrlllen.e~ ((lnUll!lr~ '(gillen rimg$) a~ Iih~ ;~. ~f~l5, and iWl1e lWl!ll!looiUl:aili~ cila~ (If ~alten'i~gr cvect()~, ih~l (i~OO l~ ij~~fetil~~ ~ti!f!il~, 1t-1

.

fit

• IK~'.'
ReCii;~1 fi;i~t:ice

and kz la£fl~ In:dliil·eilita!'!d

the

wi!!l'e

S(~.t~1i~

v«tm"S ,cd !l:a~ri:E!fS..

pbfliS~ coherence k~!!glh(.!i'ill In SHrppori. oftfule;sc conelssiens, ,fig, J,Fu(J ]. (:omect poillls: 001 romtal1~-.etill't'gy cl i$pr~ys S~qt&'."llCCll, of d!kl V :>;pt"Ctm 'L.,"LKOO fl~.Qll!l, c~J OO~~ ,adjacenit K+ aoo K... Illcn::rll~m!s shoo~n iUliFig, J, B 10 E (the: rodlh iCS ~oIDts, ,fr\1~ m~.ioo~~wg~@pfi1oo~
l

S((jttEirii~gl wave lji~rs q!l ~ort Ired .amf'ill~ iU'e Sige'.n tor (OflirlIl!c;I poirlts Olil a :!iijfllgteOOl"l.stant~~rgy rcird~. and wave vecl.ers,rq~ (loll!ll rnd an&l~

<'lrcmn ~gtoIlS, or Inm,'lLim:um i1illclls.illy modut<lliulfl

Ilulllll!l,. dlltlirned WWIiIiI Itlll Fouri~r :tr.1!n~f~!Tf!p.t)i'II(!',r :spect!ll!m of 1lJii,~ dikN upifl Frg. 2[)r. 'ql s~arleriin'lilr rmms thee sRiiall ~nlllgi at rl(l = 0, O',Q!i ,tI.!)!; O,G4 'tlM ""heI"NlI$ q2 e~mJt$ ~rea~f tliles:h: 10.: (Jq.;~ t!: (AJ-1 c:i[~u1.ar disks, at K: paims. ~OAng~lar a~r,a9ies of the- H~l:IiW·at q1 rii'iij ff'o'iln .Ill'i~ 'iiI':'SpgCE! ma!iit at b".as Wi~ta~es 'h<Cifil -:100 t~ -20 mV :shai;iln till l(H'i'ii.\II iiii(~m~J'!ts, arb." C!rlilii~)f"ill)i'liJllii'J:s.. ~D) Ener'Qy di~p~I'5i(i)1!I .~ iii! 'rllm:tiQlrl !Il:~K' frDr Ilil..:!yer g~ph@liI@ eterlillirnoo lro.mlifte' Iq~sparo W,I\'C 1~~LTtl,'mJ'L'i an;; ';:l~~i;,[{,~-d1 w,~11h'l",mdWlt:I'ur~~'lI\i (0 the' ~adiiI@t'lbe (:el'l'~illl!Il~S(;gJ~t-erii1:!) 1r1'ngs~r~ .po:;';;lk~ dil1(;n:m J;;n~~'[gpc,"S. flf ;.\crol'iS !tar; series ur' l)~ofi1e$ ~:n ~nd 5iijnbr datal. !jJg~ues sho\VIl ill!~ d~ri~drr(im S~U'fl:~s.)!r!~rlFom Ul@;l!Ln;gl@·av@:n!!Je~ !!l~'!he sl1:~tte--.filnt;lr~iskS K+ a!l~ IlL r(lmlll~lr~~g'~~). ~~I:!~ llin@ i ~i!dii m nlI:mpsand ~,,:clr[u, resenances decreese in iI1K~I~~ sti.a~llSaJ line1lif Illl 'lo the d~ti1l wii~h VIF~. (9 .1 ;I;; 0,6) x lOli roo'S"me am eliluH~wil1ll8'l"u!pI: (If -:-33 (I ± 20 ml!V. s hy as new GIIICS acqu ire increased ~i)OCtrnl S:imilar resulBlI~e foun;drm a ~'in!lle Irmmolcryer of '9i:al!lhme ff~. 52111))(8).1I1Ile emlf bars 1r'ejl'rf5ienil: lh~ ::;tiiCl1Ig:I;!J. ca.ch. corresj:Kll"ldiJll,g to a pal1icular tYrPkolL wmbinw :stllltti5,llkailand ~telilil\lllk LI'Kerttlr]~IffIl!i estimoa~1iJ1 ~Qr Ill'lil:hl d1l!li'l ~l ~lj8i1 looal ion o:!" \:mlSlnKliv,c imcrlcflClflcc .iu p'~rn!.!b; B to. E. (;tC:';O:liIruftcC:;, I'm! seen at ...,31. n,V Ourm,e~lSllreI1lD(lrlts. o.f lJoth lim nnd q:l: sentO~:i.g, .3,. I? and at -1,JU~1V lF~.l, and K)I, propcr!ies fir ephu]Jida~ gmphcnc. Forp.::rflXt leringpfOt.;-"""S.'lCl> shm\i \,Icry diucc~l~ dml. illl.pJ\tlm: moxlOllaycr g.f<!ip~'IC11e. the !;lItuoc i\A~ site syun· ,,>1r,uWi illS th~ lFerrni cncq;,~ ,II .!: I Ill:V I( Fig. ~l. IH me,try and 1111: Kj_ va]:lc)' s)'mlll~il'Y ghe rise 10 ato!tllic defeets OII:C'a dOl1ilill,L'mt :-;OUlt:C of bQlhr and U. and ai, scli'Cr.d !O"iIlcrgi!.:s .ttmvc'nlJr~ Penni of in:l,rnviillley (psel.ldospi 11-11 ip) and ~r:tlerv,<Ilh:y Ic'vel (PiS. J.I alld M. ~ Many IJIDI'e :SJll.~~rn~p.cik:li wlIve IilllCtiom, wilh distinct ",<II~~$ pselld'o~phl ami ,dlirn:~~l)l .1. ll. 22). B.gd~ qlll"mthics. ( '!!Joe om(:n,'w IOf different $Q~!ti.d:1~C"dl.iol1!1 il:lnh.c c.hi1;<l1it)'"l:c'\lel"~<lI) b'Lcksc,nt~u:il1g. Tilf sreslil~l, nl1l¥ fol.'l;llklin dtt: Qb<,9;;F'lt~itiml V!f \\~k h:1iI,;'"U)';a~1an clalillse! in .Fig. J, wi~h ~'<i'!.mll}' :n.~~ow lin(.'; ".re lk-cl dijoocU~'~o ~hc grOl\P ~dodlY orl:h~ qru!,1.~!!;pm:tic~c;:Wof\'C lum;~ior1. ~ndIEi~i.n~!'~'\I~dth::i. in. ~inDi~~'I_I; ~"!]lpk"" (."1'., ll1iC'roh"l;".(i ~hC'"~Jlilk l'lO~Cliif:i;ds ('rirlll. or w~,k ,(ljjtiIOt:;'lli:a.ai'oll '~l,i11L~f~~lU!" 0[' :lIYOBl!tuellil~II' iliaC'",,-~~ i~ the ~nrn.~I~liQ~f milL;: COIl-"'\)O''IIlinlll il] 'Ilhcpw,"~~cc o ob"C[\l{1t1 8C3IH~,[jI'i~ C~:<J'i'i.ci'S Ci~.'i llit: '1t.::Ii:'i~pOd h;, C"qlit..r.i.lt"Ii.t hi ~ :I\~ppJ\_"£,~Ol'i of h~1.t'kst:1U~l'il!g. COrifin:m"tl i:iJi Gpi.Eiixial ~J['i.i'pheiJi.e grow~ by Ii

~hfilhe rm.gr dilTcrcllt cnelt~!cs of the dlld'YrlU~p5 ilm~)ru1.C:ls through E). Em:h of the ngm:c-s s~o\V$ B 111, \!euypromilt~l~t rllch mooLlIa~im~ akmg Llt~ VCil:~ I k;a:i. t'G iiSlOltCC) axis a~ Ihc energy or the eonespomJhag (_liltN' l'l'Qap {,I3: to< ,E). ',11C Im.'I,~' :let of .p."!J1CI5 ~~ 1.0 M ~ ::!h()w.~dVd"· spcctm oblalncdm p{)srtim~~o,flhc Jj x .fj ma)l,hn~, in nllcgcnCl~d areas of cO!:l.';;lnlC'~i iulcrl:'el1:~:!I;c li.L::., ~}C;i_I!:~h,e ¥C R"d Iint:l5,~ ('k'oWly, d~t,:~JlI.'!.!'ID"--clI/;~udr:m.:sr.a!~d.!:ng~

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ditl~m nmCdlOO 0:0 c;yfool1"!mninmedSiC(OOOT} Slllb:'i~.!r"">i;,~4). indk~~ ...V>CfY~Q'\\.' ~~'nsil)' gl'ill~ ( i~g p!;l!f!~"~!~liiC ~~t~ring OO~!~Pl i~~ .~gtl,ll~'\,'S, lh~ Th\l~. ~1~ il1li!~:;pmtp.np~i e ~:I ·~lPiu-u);[in1. g~.~ ~ p.h~,al';;:1fi,: ,crli.ic-.dly i~ihl~,~Oi.;-db}'uh~ .Ink·lta~p1 ic properties Qr !ligeSOlHi;Plc. dC'Lc'nl1intd t<1~ fim.~.~ b}'!]~c ~I~lr.;(t~ ;,lIl!O. gm'wlh 'COIiditio!15. for
.{I!!Jyi. ~J!,[ftl. 91, ll!lli901 ~~Ol}., s, N~~~ .... n,r~r_Muw:. 'til, ies '(iliOO7)_ ~ IE. iWtfiM, V. I. ~~'llo,~. ~ ls!'t. 96" 006,it~. (2!OO6J. t. T. 'Olii.", ifl al., 5trem,e In, 9S11120(l(ij'. It C, BrIi'!!IiMN If},., ,. ,My!- (h£m, !l lDI3< j[g'9U!' l:!GlQ\!Ij. ~I. (, Se1!l1!l'~ W" SlLiell{ll'l!i~lZ, 1191 (~M)" ~. 1!l), [E:, RfiU~ ~~r.,J, Ph.p_ C~~_ ~ ~7. U7:i! ~Q,
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~ 1M,. ;e~, 500:9 (19~·~,~. ,2.;). Ii'!'eW!I!l~ M, S~ie5, E. .1i!liVi!> W. !I~lH'ee~.;It ~w, (. B!eP.l'~r. .22. II:, L. 1I.\I:,ElIItJl tc~' aL, ~ ~ F, GJ"JlI:!~ fQf Y<!l~~ ~p;il 1;i!j;(11!~~ ~Ii!g[ $, I!;IwMm!p, [F'. ffI~ A. Bard, ~nd N, Ii!iftIMI 'fllr tl'll!ir ledtinliml.imtlll1llc.t, TIii~ 1i!ICld: ~ 'iU~e!B in pilJll>ylhti O~l::e III ~;J/!\II ~a;rdl, b)' ~!1IeI Reo;;e.aJtli!, am!I '" ~!iF 91illlt rn'O'l04~,

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lliie i1rod Cor fUllhe:rmkrr'o .... Ct'iph~ :li1.i.Jdk"::. th1Ulare

C'o:rrelmcd ,~lo;''iC'ly with
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miiero~eiOi)h~ tii.l'Ul'Ii>ped

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t, ~ S, tt(Mll~iIw §. D.t, Nf:l!u.ri"1IU, 19; ~ODn. ,2', '1'. 9. Zhal1@. V. W. T<I'Il. ~~" L StCflmff. F.~ijm. ritljfJ,ff ,4391;10[1 ~2C!'D5t ;I., E. I.l'!(Qrilm« !Il.. fi'¥ ~~ Uti. ?l. :U1l3~ jl0!l6l

rnad~ 'Iran (w~ling 1hI~ nuiTblf 01<ltcmK:SI€'p~ 'rrom Iliie S~ ~~~ '~)'eii '~Dliedll!'!'itb 5rS n:i~5U~81I~ ~~ il~il' ~15o ,d~I~IiI~tJ,1Mby'~h~j!J~~r~lX!! Ci~ ~r <!cl~~ l!11~!lfMe ~Ii!'~'!'~Ie I!'~ m:!rn~f '~r.!j;!~~~ Uro, ~ [F,IO'l\lt1~ 1', ~lTlern~n, SHtf, :Sci 36?, i~ U'il9~. 113. 'II;, ,M. F.I!1,I!ii~ai!\r' tl'!. ,~y~ ~. ,~l1rj;96 .• 11:316801 troIllQ, ::Il~. T. o. Weblilll.~ ft 11'1,. my;; Rw. B ':5. :ll2.$~2 S '[2!007).
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IE,Hicii'snt, Tandem Pol"ym'8'r' Sollar C,ells Falbriicate·dI b'y AII-·S:o'IUllion Pro,c,essing
]lffinYQ'ul~g Ki[IiIl"l.<l Kwalnglhe<E!! le.~,:!'·!l,. fIiJ~el!l(l11lE:, {o .. t:e$~~·D<lIlWi(1l.M(lse$,.~ I fhl!Jltl:-'QUrlillll NglUl!lJlen"i! • rk Dante,:lL Amlll'l ]1. HI>e<eger:lL

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scmi~l.'lnMlJ}.. !'C'nllfm,'I<!1

(.'\'~pnrnlL'fI meta I I~Lyer I:;' IJ_~ flf: a t"h~wgj.}~eorl"l!.N.lHuiQI1I II'f~,~lcr~IJdas :JpOOllC(Ik:!I~. JI,~y;(w {to lln::vcl1til~tc~rlillly~r m:iJ.V..lmg) uringlhe d spin.,
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T'aJil,!li@mSQlalF (@'iL~,in wilii!lJIIM.i(ll SQla[F (.HIs Wilth diHer@'rilt~I:I,Si~r,pUolli dht'llr~(t'e:risti(~ ~r@' ~ln~,(j 'lO use a 'io'!ildllf fang!? or t~!l! ~ili3!r SIP~ctl'iL!m. \V@r@ ~"Iblnil!l:al@.c:iwii't.h ~.il!cl1laY@f pr~!l:Il's;s.e,drl1~m 'S!~lli!U~n wVth th!lo 'l!~!!!!Orfb~~k het:elro]!lll'l(ttll~ ma'l!~~a'l5 wrnprisilil91 semh:~m:I!l!(ll!lg poll~rn~rs afld rl,Jll~e1\li!'ne' d~rijv.alti~es., A ~rafls:pii!l'rt'lillt tit~!'Iill,lm !Oxide ([i~) laye.r sepi;!~a'l11~,~lIld '[~l1neo(ts, th~ mrOlilt CreU all1idl the b:3lckceU. lilenO;( !.arrer $erves ilS ;!I01 e~e(U'!(Inl tlrall"l1S~tH~ ~nd '!1)olle<JiUD'iJlayer f'or 'l~e first 'c~U alf1d as i!!$t~bh~ 'r(llilii'!{la~(I!l t~~t'~f1"M~s llil~ fg,bri(glll~n ,~ftil ~ sewfld 'u~Uoo ((ImpL@I@' th~ talil~!l'il1! (e~l af(Ml~N::tl!,m~.We use an 'iii1l\l\~fle(j :s;~n,J1('11U1~ \~th~l1e low ib~rlii:n·gaPr olj'if'llltl".!rullerooe p
,c(lll'!pos.i~e al~ the dhaw.g'~$e!,,g.ri1ltnl'lg ~~ye~iln tliu~h!O'nt 'celJl alndrh,~ hi!l)h Ii:laln.d-Imap I~ol,yme~ ,colll'1pos;i~e Ci,5thCilt i'n th,e Da(lk cell, p(J~eNotnveusi:g1il dfidenl(fe5 of mro.rE.'~nan ,6:o/.~~'IIerle ,1I11:h~le\I'.ed all iiUiLImililii!ltio.lils orf 200 fIi1il~i\Valts per :linillUarre 1I:E.'lIItimete[f.

lta~d ooldeiJn o::JIScxhibi~ a high I~ d}.'l'C w~h'! cx(X'C1l!d sam Of~lC YOI: .~~ of~helwo ~ld'nCCUs.~I, ~1'e ,~I1!1I1J"Cip:!!il("1Irrc!1I V~l t.;. 10\\ 1f.'f111<1I1~1'H ![If

l'i.hcr :sin,g:i()cr!lt Wh(;TI ~he ggl~J;;! p'i~ym\''f \V:'.t" ~ ~iJrnl~fmn! "tml ~)~ ooll~ !l~ ''il!11<ln J.r: \\~~.. :rollribuwd ro~h.(i ~rp.l~ol1 ~~Jl being id!;,111i~I, ~dml ulc:oock ('"e~lall,iiOil'Is 1~:5, i!rncj(_!en~l I.iWII mil tlllls; ~~mil:'i !il'C' IlhO!flC\O~llit (lJCC;JI.L~C tl,11.'!E~~ro'cells
:;Ill,;

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S'Ol~~~;t;."CmJsc ~lCY can be 1~b<riCtl~oo Hl C;ll!t'1l\ld

P

,OIynnCr solar rolls based anI eol~l~moo pol~Hnl!' m~d fn.ncrenc COl1rnIl(}$i~e... OIT!!f 5pccl;;11 ~pp01:tlllnities as 1'Cl1c\1!'3blc t'1llCr.gy

withil:llhc s.oklf cmillsiffil ~c~Rnw:lhc l\1IfO' ceUs t)'piC3~:ly liSC ill wide hffilll(Jj.gap scmOColldMctor r:or t~le tirst cc~iland a sIl1lllDerbill:id-lFlj~ )JCli~lk'Om;lltIc!Or

de" ice ;11.tkrcrrlfl~!100 by il~lU ~:ro!l.l [lill'! back 0011), lVIaoc'Ovcr;,becfltlltC Ihe il1rorlfl~fl! I1bt::1fI1,!lIyer is only SCll,l~tlmllliPflI1enU,Ihe 3(ki~~ioJ\~.~ <tbsorp.ocm. elso tOOUCCSIIu,~'h~trll$i.y or ~hc lig~lt niitOid;~1lI1 on
the back 001.
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C\l'Cin \vll:!II, t\l,'O di Ill!rotll po1Y= the plu:mKlIrrelltis cOJ'n::spol~d-

over Im:ge areas; ll:y 1l1CID1S ~ow"c:o.)~prinlin,g .md !!;;omin,g ~C'Clmo!ogiCl'i d~.n ·Cilll ~imulta~ ~lcm.""ly 1l.'1It>t.TIIl the &C'!iive mal:criJls on.~igJ1,t\'\icl~1Ii, 1;1~'oj,i'blc Sllootru~ 1/ ·n. A[lthm.ugl~ ellC{lum-,g;lng ~'ro,gII~, has, l~lvmtdC' '\'\/ 1tll P(!i"\"Cf~OOUI\'CP.Jio:n cmcicntic:l. l!\b) (lfS% Imving b!1.J~1 Ntl(lrtLXi ,(J 9), b;l limil,~d drtcil;;'Htj' ~m.~ himH~~rodJ~I~~
p\'1t~!lm~u;d o~}mlll..;·~~..,:lii';lJ~!i(n! _ "hlll!dc,n~:r '.ell" al!t'hi.u:lC~1I!I ~, .IJ~IJ:~li:l'3ytir ( 1\:. "'1.f>lIC'lIJJi\.~ Llru~ ~s eq!,li'v.t],!cutw t.WO 1.:diOIO,'o~lilk: (;'C]I~S in :series. offer.> il. 1iI111!.T1ocr olf m:ivllil1U~6'(S' Bec>l~sC l'he h~ «.Ms :liit: in serics. the Olpel]~ drciJirI. voll<l~ (l~J is; in.mnsc(j to d1'C ~1J11l of ~hC' ~~.~ o·f d~ h:lJclil~'kh!lil1,e~ls. 11K: ~~ Orl~~'Q' t sC'.miC'9:n~IDlfl~\V:~llh dincrcilt l.l>!:ndg<!l)SenllMes <1Ifu;lin~IfiOlil 0\1 ""I' a bn.:J.'KIlil.ll,gc .of photon cllf'it'Sie::

or

Ihr~'IC 9XOlld cc]11(IO~ :Becmlse~l..::: di;.'Clron~~u:"e ']"lr!!,gencra~d l), ph.oiOOlllS ,.vil h ct~l'~iC'l'i gremer [hw~~IJ<n lhe ea'!1C'~ID"g<ql ropldl}' re&l...~o lllv ~CCI h'Cballd edges, thl: Im\\'CHm~ vcr.;ion

or

ill.gly rodMCed. 'Iw"i!;rerepo~t htre 'l~lm \\le have .~ll(ices:srL!lIy

c'lfIdcllIc)'

OfDhc tW'Q ,i;;l:lls in M,":i.c::;,s i~lhll:IiC:~II:ly i

bcttc:r~han Ihi!l~ (If!ll single cell mooc Rom ~hv !\'IH;,~!i:!-b<~1.d~!}]3l ¥!l;;J.t'C'd~I, Mo!\.'Q'IIcf, 11t.~lL"c of .. ~h¢ 100V~~loiJililJ' !hl! ~1:w1~~ C<lrriL;lUl\. h~ !h~
IX}lyqn.;:!--~i1~:Ii:;m;Ml) "'lnJllJ:l!t;k\i~.

or

n~.,;

O~mc Sctld'~. urolfa!fty !(If B<I~~ CI!. 9U06.-\5000, U~. ~p;ut· m~ml {II MlIt!;fiats Sdretrtw <iOO [liilil!]r~!'ftng. Gw<tngju IlnsfilMle
lC'iiLllcrniO!,
!)ilDl;Jj

~1Cerne!l'r,o~ PQljlfl\el~all!t

thiclmtiSi.'i at !:hi): fJCI,~wby~r ~nca'l['fi.~('l>K: ink'~'Ulm:l d ~is!ll1fl.m OfaliC a:c,,.iu:, w~~kh leduce:;, ooth Lhe I~riln.d I~H l1K<liQf trP) ,!,tJ}, l11:US,II.lClflriiKtCI'I'n, (len .m\:hilC'C.tLJllC carl ~lm,V\:11MgIJcr op:l:l'1,;a~ dCfl~ily O'l'Q1;' ;[1 wider ~inc!ion of the solltT' emission ~J.'l«trufnl ~a:n tl1Ql of a s~lIIgJc ocll\'!.' itho\!t inclw:;;:ing~hc imcfl!ml~,ist.'lII~.oc. "nlem:n,-lbm. od~ .ruli'thi!lXl~l Ie calli lil:CfCfofC itI1.wo,\lC t~lc~ight ba:rve>tiIlS in poIYI1J1JCI'~b<lSedj'jillltrn't]llaic ocl~s., Tandem stru,~ure-; ,~mv~' been invcs1~ga1led lOr !lim<lII"'.rlmil~cW!k:hch.'mjl~~lcli~'1 oirg..1:nk !'lO~"r ~1d!s (.IJ l:,) mild fot hybrid ~;u'g.uiJic&l~,!r ~Jb,

,In

in~R;;'U~in

~t..,

drum;l,ll.'iIr..tlJd the !lL~~pJjk<J!~ionf 'po~ytlK'f'"bm_'OCld o IDtlllk h:CI!e:rojLllJ.c~iol1, ]3lldclfll ,cHIs. whh each: layer pfL"l!Oei!:ilCd fi:um ~1~I1if1n. A!'I,'3ll."P;];l~lJt1ii.o" l<JijiC,r 1..'1; l!!;W\J 10 :SCPllroltC' ;md COItn!X:t Ihe front o;;U ,u~d1I.he l};Jck ccU. 111!~liO~. ~ayer .~n~~'. ;i~ .. !.'IJl 1;~lrOUU<II"·'purl OlJ1C, co!h.'(;lun]l luy ..!.· filr Ihe '1 ~,!rl'i~~"4;111 <1IId: <11:' ,I. sl:;,tMr;.~11~I.IIl(,ktt!:cm~h('f[ (.'ill,ibk'l' ~hc r:uhr;c~licll~of ~:IC' S!;.'<;QI:td ocll ~tj\Jl}Il~Pkot~ Ihe 'mmadcm. ccn,~rehi:tccllllre. Ill, (;.U'l~·cr woa:k On landCIi~ rell~ labric-ai1.cd whhoxganl!l: :seunic{)fldw:;· tors. t~lc1li.nOl'IOf,,{)lIs intcmcdiatc :Iayct" w;a,~ .fO:fil1ll00 .by the evapor.l.dve d:cpo.~ilkl" !,)~' a :SCl]]iilL<lI6.~ lfXlNIll ll1Iet;llla},(f :in :hi~h \c71'C1LliUI:ll. l'ihis :i~lC':re~ Ihe 001.11p~c1\ltyor dcvice rahficatiCll1 and c.m~cs IlIIlMo13Jl,1cd los.'> or ligh~ i~~I.el:lsi[y ~dHe 1:0 a'bsOJllliQ:II)~Q tl,lC' '~lck. ocU (M~ I~or thcl,IIUICll.l cdls re,pOrlcG II~L'!!.l!hc 11.0." ~ulh:l'1inedi,!le' I;~· 'W:)S oeposiltil .rro!1!~ so~!!.io:n (b)'m~ans or ooH~i.:l, d~e'l.l~s!.y)wi!,h !In, t;lulbS!m:!~i,,1 i!1ltcil'uycr mi!'l:ing.
lliC P'<'rilOITl'iU!1tX of 1!J1C' ~~Y!l!l~T!;i!id~i '''!lhw O;.ill ill ~!.Ii!li!lll;;JIri;a;,1 a.-; roIlG'!o\'s~.1.,. 7.8mNOi:f', =

a~:5(ie!\l(~
'"To

~mh'IT!~.

G,o,ot!l~illl

~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e IkJ[(!j1@gt!rt~c.1ilr

SOO-7l:t tic.@, ~!!O~_dI'be <!ddlr·e5.1ied,[:"~ait

if I ~ihicb~hc li~!. (:(;~IJ I!.I!S;t.',\1iiln 'L;:'mp!!lIiiU~~'d
tl1tik'culc !1l!lB'k~i,~1 and.
C[II~liIgf~h_-d !ID1~jlN:i!';
~1C:

sLllaU-

s.;_'~ol1dcd I UM.";S, iI IIIG' 1\7>'(11 t:1Ig iiI'C l>(paGHJoc:cl C

r~ = :1.14 v, FF = (l6?

,mi~]

q~= 63%,

222

REPORTS

I

~,:u,YI
~l'~\i'l
~'A

~~1':~~I~~~~
QV~~~~_'.J
1..:1 '1\Ii

[8

fig~ a, (A) ,MnleC!U~"u~tm(~ure:s, olf the Hdive l!I1IilIteria ~.~: IP'CIPI)TBlr, P'31~11i. P(BIM, and P(liJIBM, (B;~ Th@ d@vioo Mnu:tll!r'C' bight} ~fild li'EIM,(JQSs'se',ctl0n,!:Il ima'ge (~em of fUll' j:I(ltYl!l1le,rlalnde lin sO~<llr 'Cielt Sc:a!e bars, 11)0 IIII!111 '(lmller ima'ge) and ::10 IlII1fl (upper im<agj,e)",ITO, imdhlllil!l tilll oxide" {C) ~1lI,ergy-tev;el diagrii!!i!iI.showing~hlll! IItI(l~~O ~f!dWi\,~O '~fI;~Jgjies (If ~ch@f th~ 'CQf!1PQ!i!~nt materiah,.

~lnlC') lIelS.asan optical spacer thm l:cdislribl.ll.C$ [heiiglll intcrl<;.ity 1)(1 al~limi~ the C'IfICLcncy of [h~ l~a:c'k I (9), tid ~h!:'~~~~1l1ic~1 :'In.C!l!fl'e (l fit... Co.mpollent)i. The ('ms·%().;"lJ,lmml .ilflll'l~C'S of Ihc pO:~yU't\;1: tandl;j]'!,l::~Sep()!rnlion 1[-I~C'rfoJ' I,he lrnnn eel i is HI dem solm_r<cc'lillstmtcn \\¥ilil.hig1~-I~O:~ul!ion transbujkhc!.crojUli~cliol~ co'.rnpo.~iw,o[pob! [2JH4·.,4 bri8"(1'·cthyl hex)'1 ).t.:Il'·cydopcnlaij.2. ~·!b:3.LI·b·~ mis."<io!] clccuon nrl~C'm~oopy nEl\l~)show ~hc . d ithitW1:!c!lC )0(;1/1:..4, 7·(2,,] .,3·,bc!l~o!.il i.. ~]~,~o]\.:~] i!1:di\,'idlli.ll~ b)'c~ de,~r1-y (Fig. llBJ' !.2l). Pcuhaps life t(JPC'[p'IDTBn 'lnd ~6.6~.p~l~Jlyl~('61 hll~rit; nt;OCJ lI1tOI~ iIllllIXlri1.lnl. Ihc V~iTi[}~~.UI1li;tlh!;(':ii '!!(.'it}'
lFi,gulre I shows Ihe' ~"II1l!C'I~ oif 111&':' ~ nlLl~I,ilaycr lX'llymcr t;U1.dI;n1soll;n:!!l~1 ro'~uhcr wilJil mlG~ltill l['J>1:cr ~.fCBM '" Uw:: (:htil:l:g~_,.tp!Umliml 100yc>r :toruhc bflCK cd~,is, 3 bulk ht'lemj ~nc{io.ul cOl:l~Pffii~.t':of poly(3-hcxyllhiDP~H~ir~~J (f'JUt) shal'll:~here is allO .iriterr~!lycr niil~xi~lg:. The cm;~y~Ie'!,'d diflgllilt'ii (fiig:. K~ lioo~.cares tire hi~~C'S1 occllPJ~d inok:clIJl!ar orbital ~I.!OMO I

-'i-'~nT
• POS"'I

~ pm
~ 'C,.J~1iII

in :SCJ,i:e.~ ,t J l'~i. The ab,sQlplion bands Orl~le :P(,PDTB·T and .P 31 rr (fig. 2:A i' rnl1~p~Cl1mCnl 'C1II,ch other and makethese l",'O :~Ilil!:tcri<llsapl~liOl~limc rOI: use in nc TIO!,. b)'er b (ir."a'KJsJ1Xldlbyuncm~:5 gFMl~.~ the: I:WO ,;:;uilcelb· orl~ 'UJCUllluu~p!Ji!~lng l"!lth::nil g~d d:~~,u!.liRtfY •. ,LS d'i."l'io·ibot.:d hI (9~, Uw110 ... 11I:l'l.:f cd I di,,;~'ioc.TIl,\: ,lb~ml)ti[;l'a~.~I)I.:"-Cl!l:nli!Or ,01 ~Hn~ m;~,'t~ I.i'llt Sl;p;iJI!""AI;rl.IIU;~!:OIJ~ •. Fir:>l,h}'dr(lphil~:c of ~:n;lndk IlI;.'t~l1(lii!.nlCtioJl !i.iflJllJ:K:»;il~ of ~1'Ch :;Jum-clll 3m;1 Lhat o.f 0'1 'wibyc-:r tibu or f· 'PDIfBT; TiCl!(~,"~.parl1ik'S~:tCPEIJOr;P5iS Il:l('l,~ '('~~I (m il iii:> .Pl'5Mruud P3HT::PC;oIJ:M are ;shown in Fi!(j, ~fonra IlqU(;OLl~t)\l~UI iOll, ~~h:lJu the ulJ,d:tnyia1~. 2B. TIle abool1)tkm or Ih~ IJCPDirIIT;'PCUM ~'lydmphobk: PCPD'TST:f '8iJ\I~:<C}lfllgC~mliflg 100YIX ·orthe fro:~l cell; the IryafOJ)imbic 1:l'O.~pre,. fil[ nil liS weakin t~lc"i:s:ib.lc s~cn~ [111'Lll,gcbt'ilt has C'lIIrn.OI' L1iCCO.1TteS hj'd~')hnic after coflversiOll, 00, t1,\'O sl10ng iba~Cls:one il1~be llC'af=il!l[i:'ill\.xi {n-cnrTiO:>J,' ScwJIld. I.he TLO:,! ~1IY~f b:rmli~:;. i.!11.l s;ym~ I R} 1Ji..'twci.!1iI700 mltl S50nm dlat. arises from pn~DT.!3T :In(!~ilYin ih[; front e<;.Ili and ih\."ljjdb~'·c~I.t'i;; mh~ dreint'!."1~oontl n·r,:"~r'.m5ilh:m of il'OC,' orpeaH::it'Cliit \'OI~c. Tbird, tbe n()~ :nmctiO:I~s (22) ;llld one iIII t~leI!iIliJ<!.violcl{U\q, t1ml.;(Jr.is.cs p:rifl1a1'ily fix'lm lite' I ~101\,\iO_:UJMO lJ:';msitim~ of 3$ an cleclron lrnnsp,ml laltjcr. FmU1i~I. ~'IC' IiO,~ j;ilim::~~l1s as ,il :lm.l!e blocking la)li:!1I'b;:::C,ltllS<: nhc the I:lCBM. The absofJPliml or~,IC: PJUiT:PC;i\fIBM mm l'ldL~In Ihe "ilOlc~' iu~dK.' 1'1 PDTBT:f ~. ~op of 11'I.ev"~~IIC1e and (I r TIO .. is !:iii!! nktenlly b dect!1Oncw.!h,'~, ~.I ¢V ildQ\'~' d]~ nlCuu~n. kl' ~-clllUl1 "nrd oo~/;j,;'fS Ii1tc vi~illlb :>pt.."C1r.!1 <I!~lgc. 1 hlock hoJ~ (91.finull.~y. ,:hc lo,r TiO" l<ly~;:di,c-•• Th", ,dL;(:~ro~i¢11hf.Q!lI11iO!1 s;)Cc!nun of!J:n;~~d~ll z.;;i:il,I:c!1!D1'l;: ("ill be d~'iSi::rilX.ld,a\l ~ $mat'!Jlk: Sl!l!~~ k!1-'r\""~1\;JI the ~1'3!m.pc iloJlM ~h~~o-);Cfr!!IW'Jlial,!!,l la)'t.~ .of I:fiieb;lek 'l~U ad'id ihc(~i!il'ii!~~im:ilck.'C~ s.i~i!.lfi IOfnhc iIWorp,trCm, S(fXiCll".!I afnlic I.\VO coirn.'iCiOI'I!1.lC'!C~'Cd

and [6.61·phc.nI)!~'t.;' Ibtutyl"l.C aeid methyl ester ,CPCj\gU;M), The 1\:VO 1)o~Yl'l1cr=lilllcre~Dc ~il.r~rs are sep;m:1tc(J by 81U3Iil>pm';:Il~ liOjl !layer and a ~l sh.~yceaduetlve 110 fe· h.'all:~pon i ~~lyer. oly,' 3.4p ct~'1}i.!C'lu::di(Yxy~cnclhiC!phcne}-po~ystylcltc su~IG~~~:(, ~L{:id 'QPEDOT:PSS} (~yM:on 'H5LiOri:l:un II. c S1ru'd:, Newton. t\,11:n.'lsa.chll&C1lS., Us',"\). tIE'[~II'011o'" ~fom lhc i~rst cc1ill C(]!n:iMm::wJ~~hol:es jlom~JJC' seeead cell at Dh'l:liJ.o_._':',EOOT:PS.S imC:l;,fii!C'C~

energies

and

~lC

IrrwcsD

tlliDQCClilpifi~

IllO~ocu.~flr

omil.'all lLUMO) enlergics Oflhf indi.\lidlm~ COhn· POJrnI!I1InmlC'.rila:lls. As, noied, the ~,~ of~he Ulll= dem Cdl! is: eC~tL{lIIIO the SlillTIi oflhc V~ of each Ml~.111 bceaase lh:c from rl'~l(1back o;:[lls ore

!!!OQI

IS04,

~

710J!!

8ft

tcQl

W,~v'dQnl~1I1! 1(lil!m,~ E:I:
'I' ~iJlCg ~ ~1li';pcrJjj:!Ii
• ~mwr;K~Ji'lfr-_l!OC,iolB\ll!

;J!OOI

15001

600

7!QJ!I

000

'90~

W!!!Iv~~eli1JiJliI1Il(~IifI~ Fiig'. 2.. (A) Absl:l:rptiiOr:!1 ~pe{~r,a of ij~n1S of e:aJl;hl iillgt~n!Clil. nl~ !1lll~FP'li(!nl 1~i3iIfl~ or th@ P31HT OO!lr'll~ p~m'E!nlslillie <Iibm~ptl(m P(~[)UU i~ vi~~le of I'al'lg]e-•. a.Ui., 'i!trbitrary !,ilnits. (IO) A!~5()iiliPti~i'I s!)ecua: ,or (Jj P(IIflDiI1B:m~CBM bLl~k helerojll!licliolr! (omIlO!S--ite ~1;1m, II IP31ff: PC'f,oBIM, bllllk lIletlMlIJILlIl ctiionJ '~~mpC!~iterflm. C! rid @! b~la'{er Qr~Il-l.'.w as relevant to the!:o'l ndeil'VI dev~i!;:e·stmc.tI.i!rl! . 0.10., • op1fiical. (jem,:>iily.

I

REPORTS
the series cQlm~liloin 01' ~hc :S\lbccn,. and ttl 1:....Q\!$ .~Iw.cttei\(9" ":2~lhc IDlCI~I)TBT:PC.13Msingle f'"", = O.M v. Ff'= tend i:h~ ~~i!n. QVW 'nh~rull ~PQc~rn~'oo\!cm.\l).i wH ¥i~lds JM =9,2nu\lcm!. (Fig. 3A) {Ill. iN. ,;J~~~ll!\)'!ll~l~1;;'I;.11! ~owj'O the Q,3-<l, ~n1\l 11~ = 3.00~ :J!+!dt~9 rJHT!PC~M kl1l"",VT:! 8~tLlIt~';_';'pOll,"":;: of i~bi,djk h.l;:~IftIj],l~~· s~~~~ wU y~11;is .J'f.i!! = WJ1. l:I"~m;\!. I~ = O-ll3 .'f, .. fF = OJ)'!;},. and l]J~ = 4,7t'Jm, ~i(u~ ~uJtlJX»'i1\:. wJiiiC'hi~ il~, ¢'l,ldk!li :tIg['(;"~I!OC:I!it WilJI Ilwo suucells ~!a'C'~":din series, (he C\lfwith tli~~oibsOlv!ion ~p«::'r.! lhi: two OOHliIDsil!.l.~, ~-'Ullll'l1lli~ e,'l::tr.lCl{;-d f!'Ol1Jl !hi; Iliintil!,.'~'i C'c~1 ill S~r~~IfiJ(i(ml'l~·er ,1! thf~'U~L;r \\,i!h fro~l,oell !Jll<J:r.i~h{; (Fig. 2B}: TIw 1P']IU::lPC70!lBM OL"'lJ1l'iJ'i!Cl~I1.e ,gi\~~ n"llllXin1!.11uIlPCE Gi:r -1R%~1l 5UO Illn, 111')(1 ~h~ (,k:~emlir.icd b)l' !1i~ (:um:tiI. M~~IIL:~.iltdill dlhct !he lmI-ck 'PL;II so d:t;,Ilt'uhe IlfhmC!¢~!1('m.I~, ~Ji~[';u.cdiu~ each ~'l,.ioodl ,mire 1.J"~9IW~cl. li1 Cltllr ,t'l;].,,~,OOta!li.i(: pCPDmT!PCHM 'OOilrnpo.&~I.i; I~ I~!O"O d:Oun.~iljUlj.l ~ro~i h~iIC'kc~lll. i;.\!hLdlCKl' i~SlTIiliIlL"i' 'l23). Attor of the il,rnt-oiPah~u!lm phase Il~O'llil\O!~ of nile peaks 1(<'6% ~~.750 KI! 800 m~' and (iVCii Jl'~ rerdii1lgly. w&~~~Illl!;;~ is g~"Iiler Cill'ri~ii ~~ICU"J~k.;il, in, ,eii~lCJi :>~ioceili. d~~e c..xcr~&-.;chill':!'.'i;."S;esunot PCr)DmT:I?C[3\~1 roi.1~;~te... ii.tc;reaslng the: film b;Joi!;\ Mil ilin), \.Vh~ Cflfi)liniilotU 1Jr1e1:I~l.'a"Liron'IiC1ni~ Q:l1nhc I3ndeil~ 0011. \I,\\C Filld d'lmll.ba!lSfnglhe !hick;t'lcs. .. o:r~]i~ 1<1),";:'·aoo\'c IJiO~nu leads t:o, rollllr:iIb~Jle!o h~ fjl~o.toc.lii'I'Cm and se cmnpcnsate ~()r dle ~Ii!~-im Il!OliO.'111nal~"ITl."'>$ dml l\UOOtU 'This: Ii~JlJl.:cd\i,~hJlC$ for bQl~l.)~ and .FF i~l sjl~~e eci,1h; de\licc \~~~h .530-:uI'l1l blue 'lii~1t run~ w~l.h 7J;0-1t1n ,[11}. Wlo~Vl::";'cr. tile J~ of a !PII ~.1'::pIC7{)lnll~~TlI'I.s.le ~'d '~~1t Sl~lccthcl)' e,,"':,C{tI.S dw from OIl1:d back oomJl!C'Il'Slliml llJil'C.!s.ltl<lnt:dllCl.."d i~ .in Ihe tm~j ct!l~ ~1~cmlS~ a,..;m1lC rilm ~lickl1.e$i' im::I\.'a."i.CS ill to o!o!lb. ~1f'\.;""Clivc'~.y. W :JlOwII1~ d~1 (i) ~1~ dc'\!ice~l!ilr- d~n C1i~1 19), 200 ~lll11,b:.1.o\IJ~K1 ",Ihjc,h ih!<l FF i.~ !\.'tIlQ~""'d. .!k~ V4."l'iISplli;l\OII.'" fmnl1nh~UV Wi~l'C: !~lf""~R, aad (iiI To ollli~ni~1I!!l" bl'!l:u!ool~l~ Cw!!T(!]tin ~ ch ... C:"'ll~ of lh,(~ nmt..:lrllll c.h;mlC,,,,ris!:i(;~ w~ h.w,~ I.l,tdl sW!bedl 1l11lClit':i!:l\lu~ldUvid\mI~.)· ~lbcfl:~l \''''C lric:'d .. u. IPtO~8~blo\mr~[i{u~ t!f !Il(l C:il1l:.1fi~;:n ··:~L1\.'('rtoo !<I!l.dl!)illl c()lr S1]u"t~IJf(~ '\I[11i! .m UIL~ eun:('l~a tf.!;no;i.ly \1~n;U!ii\!OhHg~ tM1 chOU'· Ili;lind~l:b1!~lGU fut~ll i~'(;lt!.llre: lJ)ICil<1Il!!llng UlC: (Jrrd~r Ihe ,Oll::ti'vc :una:!~'lI:i'il~. \!'II)' ing the ~'(I~lCCI1r 1I11 ~hc ~rtW bandil<!r' 11ll~k 11I".l!Clf-.ojll!!1Clionc-om,p{]il1~ ;IC!cri~lics oJ singk~ )'()~!~rcell'): an.d d'I'C:mndl.":Ill .at~!cl r3~IT: ~r.lIil:onand :mt~o of eaeh rompol!I!):I1I,in 'tl~~ 11.l00JTI" ire ~PC'PDmT:~P('B~'\J[l' I8. Ih~' fmnt ,cti~~ 1 :a1~CI, ~h~ :;.01011'ICdl \viljl Po' -PD'lIBT:P("B4M PC,oBM (;(Ul.1PQ:~i~lQ!1.(k~r i, M.I,'iii\ t5 filobm.1 A ~i~\.l~olu!iCl!l~ and by V<lryiJl!il !he ttlilidkll~j;!..$ .~iMht:;Fb;If!d~~p bl!J~k ~'!l"l;('rojW!n(;~ioDl. ~'i;lmpQ.lliw It :rIIH;P(' iIIJHM) ... lih!l.~Dn:OkC()~.~ ~ (Fig. .~ ,[11 ~'. (AM 15G) UilUllilllnJnOll rlPttl ~L~lii1fl:ur.:dr.alar ~~nn) the hVfi bu Ik 1'ji]I()rojlIIH;:titl~'1 n~~~Il;'ri;l[.'" IS!'"" lJ~tur wmlirl"adkllion ill~l\lIsrty of ~iOO mWkn~;l cause ufllilc high. C';di:UK~~iol] ML;fHc'lc;tu of Ihl: \VcM"'11; m!;a~lII['I[,d~hL::nc~d(ml pilmmH.{)i J PCI?:nJfBT:PCBM M1i~IC, d 1(; p.:rHT~peroBM ClLlil'rCfHCOn~Cillon ,emciebllel' UI?C El' sIJC'CLrn or- an: SJIOWll in Fb.!;l. E. Ih(; singJl': devkes sJlCtW:), 1il;Qlh~h(; si~!lllc' cclL.,aml of the tni:KiC'I~~ eel I. typi.mlpllol_Q.vol'i:m,icre!;!}L)!IDSCWllih deviceperbeck c-ciMhruslllC: ~'iiilM]llfr Jg the two subceRs aad i~!l~i!lS~lC limiiiil!): ,cell (13), Uc FF of lile' IlIsill1g a bins liigln Qil tIle mm:lcm cell to a:mlim:1 rOl':linfmCC cnlJ11pllirnb~ to~ha1repouutcdlinFCvi. TIlI:![·efm~, dtc IP'EDOT: ~.()~~ !~}'~ have n~~~~ibTc <!b5Q!IiI)lign~ in ~1~ !~lw':'!"n dc\"ip; ",t!1\!ctIJn;.. T!lll~:t~ ,C'.dls ~"'jjl~~Uy .!Ii~~ !I widitJ h:JIl"td•gnp . ~1.1SJ~Cri~l~ !he fir:>i chnrgc·oc,lmm~~)llI It'lJCII mK! as a IW'ItI\V bmid·w~.r nmWril!1 ,i:l.'l dIe ~(!ooJ1d 'd~,~ ...
pk~'l!1e!lltm)'OOm~~tl',;~

rss· and

or

,J

lln

or

or

or

Fiig. 3. ,iN 1III!'CIE,SIlil!~ra,cd single! ,(j~lh and al tandeiFn (eil ~vilh lJiII~ ~ig~t.We ,ci31n~;e(l,oiJtthe IP'(E!me~'
:rolr@m~rn-s IUS;lI'llQI flf!ocIulili!Jf~n :S~(~ ~roX:lOJlY '1llilh .~ Ind:·inl amp:lilier flDrr

-.

;8lnglll 'Ctfl!l~ - !I~f;i';~n'T':pCl:iii!1 ~ P'HlT,P¢",e:.l!I1

5ir'!!1!~ (eUs ii!rildl fOfth!! '~!ld(ffl"l IQ~lllWill1Q!irI: ~lgli1l bi1ks, FO\l'~1l ~1I1'(he

:ii'

~!!'m,'Oj,'IIi!1
'"
'"

~~ 11mIljflflllol.l.i
L'~jllr.!m1l1l~llb~I'

d~~1 ,ooU f!"!eg~tI!lrem~ts i!1l1lrl~wilt! bJas~i9fit lJ!'mi1ed'lIil,a~dlffiuJ,riedlr1l1111hi!titI~ht: ilh w

l~iI11soo of singleQelis and tmdem ,oe~ \Yi~ f'(POTBT:PCiBMi:lrld li"3IHT: P("7~M (ompooit~li undew AJM1.56 iIll!lT!ilrl..:Jtiofi from C! Gllibri3!led' :so~ar $imu:tatQr \7fith ill"~,dia~~iQI!1 'irlt~n' :~ity Qlr 100' i'J\lW/nfl2 -{f! !bo!!il~ O:I!~
:SlJ

~WlMl

al'l frrll!lI1isily of -2 wa~ lU~tI. (IB~' cjh;;l~ali' J-V

°IL-~~~~~======~
",
10 -

,401)1

150<0

EltlOI

1100

13001

900

Way,e~e'l,gtfh ~11iJi\I:~

:solar cell 'Is 'gnveI'l1l's, I'h. ::::; (lsc ,Voc,fF)'.100lPiIll:) w'h8in2' Pro: ]s; 'till!!! intenstly of lli1ddent: ligiflt The deVioo' ~rf(lrIm!i!n(1a'i~ MJrmmariizerla:s ~®UmllS:Th~PCPI),TBiI":POBMsi'ng~E! !CElli.'f>~O'Il[:!iiJ~::: 9.2: mW(fIiI2,
(!®I'It1l',11;rs10n

I'd

,ilI~1!

pr'IlS'!1!'I1ted.ilhe

jl(1il,l'l!!l'-

l'fti~enry

of

11

VOC• ::::;• .0.66 V,.Ff = '0.50, dmill1~::::; 3:,(r)I~;' the P3HlIl~PC,~M. ~lligJe (j~WshmJ."S }~."" mOBI!iW(fIff, v~."" 0163 V', FF"", 0.$9', arildll'l~ '" 4:7c/o; an:d~h@l t.'!ncieml (:I!!ll sno\\IS JJii. == 7.8 I'I~ITI111!, VO~.:: 1.24 V, F.F:: 0.67" and 1~~ :: 6 ..5,%. ,

Ot,~tn!i'f;!ked~F!de"lI'! ooU llOOi1I· S\ilf:'l.ldl wll:hW!IHief'~l1t f nddent light: i'lilt.e,,-sll~~ '[rom a,ro .200 mWklrn2

thi

IFiig. ~.

.fA) }V

ch!il!'adtri5li~s

@ff

.,_~.

'1:~1 111
I~

tl!~ ,optimiloo
il5lili!~xii1lll!l

WJlL'5<G, sola r ~eCltn.m1il '~IB) 19;, \:(~ Ff. and lilt (IIr lhe' limd!!m (err are pI®liI:ed allhmctiolils ,of lihe i!i!ci~fli n!J'htil1~.r!~d€!i, l1Th~11~()~
t{lUU~f!1I
I'll

i

"I

,"

Gent r,oodl~

LmWl~:i!,.

of

Ill!! ;;;:

·6,]11-/,0at 20

REPORTS
Ik"'lu (I to 200 m·W/cl1a • il!ng ,cqn, Th~L~.\~ usejhc P3NI;P('ro~M as ere shewn III fig,. 4A. ~!11 fig. 'lB. the l'l!qr.r~m.l· ~li!coock l;:l,1r~ .~... Qhuli~ {I :~ig!UJi!' Fr, ,m~ 1l~!1fi!~'J,,':rs (If!h~ t:;!I:!l~~m ~dl.(.J~ if"", FF. M:On;i1h,n~ 200 ;~l1di\l'icl!,Jld "1uncl~tl ~]I:o; \:~r~'L:l "I~cl Ik) .an; pIQUA;.1;!.\lIii fi!ln~ii!P1~s, of I.k".: il~cidl;;ltt UgI11~ini~'Il~;ib'.· Blje-~milj .JY.f; ~I~ li.m.crur with ~Il'icl.;in ori:l't:rto Clptirflizc i.iu~ Ihbrit~.tiol~promUlrni!1iiU;ld light ..in~i;;':r!si~y. hCN is no ~l!oo.1l!lll'l~ial ~ ctldure and device ;n:f;hil~i!~lre {2'i1tUi$ ~!hni~ ~'C' ":41.io(T! I~. ~o ~Ile i~vcrliL;d tml0~mOt;;'II d~w~OL:l ~p~~ ch.... 'bu,il'dup ill !ile Uilu;!cufi ~~\"icc, l'Jiie Vo; ~uLo iuen","ill'~"'ii IlIlO:i1C!lm~~3~JIY \vilh: mi i~:I.. d(-pit'ttdiin Fi!;l. JR U:>i~~ 'h~" inv¢rn:;d stn.il,:;~ Illite. W~ riil]!rit:'~[crl, llllo:rel~~mi 20 !;;uiidk:ITI, ocll~ e1't.{"~C in] IJjC li.~lllh'iI.i,~i'iI~.il.)' fU'id aplfro3~h~~ ,rut whh c'!:l1:ci\:itei;!!:..':!~oov~~ b.l%.. Pcf.fCinmlJJlre pD.~ I.. j; V Mitder AM~.,;SCi OOiJ1~]i~kiji,~ 100 mWIc''lr, r:1;11I1~tCi'S for II ly PJI~.\i.~ device fin:: 9:;. fCiI~otlffi: IJiIC :.'>1iti1t1i 0:1:' r", of [1'Icl.wa :>ilibrelk The FF approaches 1I.:bS 31: 10 nl·W/cm2.11I:\.mluc~lCRf' Ill!! .J~ 7.f: ml<\Jci1fl2. ~~. ~ L~ V. FF .... IU~7..mtd back ceU. I\: - 6.Y'/:'-!. The .Jf!; i~~he ImKlcm eel I iii: eon~ F.F ·o.f I.hc iimfrling I'JIIT!PC',oBM <Inc! tCXCt-ed: O.63m 200' m~\I';1em~. 'the 11(I\v·cr~ siSl!C'nI. whll~hc [P'C'EtnellS\lre:I~lenl$. occmJselhic ~Iho~oc!Jrr~n in the back cell .Wl;iom ]I~CE is CO!lvcl's~oOn eMk:itC'r:lc>' (I r~lle op·~imi~d t,mdcnlcell n.... ch~ it>1 n!i.lXinUUH Qr al~ = li.1i1fR on 72% ·~):rlim~o:r li~c1?3~IT:r..'inB~i f:i!.lg~ cell, ~o:nnrmin:g time 'he bm:l ee~~i~!1:!c lir!1ti~inA: 110 !l1Wf.e~r, \\,'hCI:ClIi,'!\io = 35 OJ! 2 mWh::n~;!
inddcmlligJrn
~l1wmil.)'
R

~;:i_Il>d~lln can be very near liIw FF G~'the liraeell

l

11.. I..1ti1ld~1.'iI.
(2_OO~l.

I))'a~~a~.,.

Ph:rs.

StalolJL5SrJlidiA

2!(I:!I..

n~,

I

1I.2. M. Iflir.lH1l\o M..~uJ!!ld~ M.. Ydko~~, CMm" ~t11" {Jpn:Jli.9', 327 ~:llmo. 13. A. '!'\l!~mQ'!'. :ii, f'... I\glrejt:, Apjd, Php. Lf.tt, l!:(I,U61' 1.ojJ, l.. )';w~. 5. Iklilidil\. 6, P. IR~II!liI., It I<cHf5t,."'W.I. tPhyo. S. ~t!; ~'5, 57S7 (~O@ll:}, B. ].. Dr«h~~. i' !l'L.~t. ~ PlIyt li!l!l'. II~, Z4UDIl 120051" U. Go 0!ffl~1~ 1fI'I'lI •• ~t ~ '~/; is:9, IDBM2 {t!:OO6}, 11, iii. :5!i!rO'l!ri~,iI,L "'-.IE. Wl!. G. ILi, Y. ·Yi:li;I,I'I'. ,!,;iif;~'•. AppL if!l'J1f. ltl.t8;fJ. 'Oli4!il:O'·~~OO~). ( 113. K. t:.Mi!Jl1o. NI. IW. 11', ~~ilif!!Qfi' •. 1. S<!w~~, ~ ~~.
88,. 07351A (~lM.l\

(200:n.

[9. A. H.!di!lOOr il!t al., A~ furjrt

Mtl'jr,r,

16., 18:\17

OOOiU .. .20l j. Gila., ,Pot

I\t

Wi~[(1!:, R. A"

l

)1'I~~m. AtIp-l il'lI'ys, WI:

90, '14~~kl2 (~O'i),

~d~ Ibr
illilinl

j .. as ~

w~1 :JI~ for FP, ~ mca.·iil!rem~nu.: ef ihC'~mb~ ~ily of tihc

~;mJf 11 ye,ur l~onflnlilS 1.1 U: robunaess (I r the Mill)· d.cll1 oelillrehi~OCIil!Ire .. MoroOVC',r,.~h~ I.ruJOOn so.lllr
ce.l~ slmv.;cl!! re..."l'!lOl'laIl:dcS!F~lfllh~ lJIlllier cmuim.!l~ ous HhJ!l:nil1311on. When exposed ool1flillUously to, IIrmdi<llOCmw~lh nil inll:!i1l.~ily[).f~nc~'1.m. I\.M I.SCi},. { ~11~t!Jlld{'ilnoo~'I! rolniIJOO ~ 7(:i''4. ofub" {lIlgi~ml cflkii(1!1.cy ~lIicr 40 hQI!I!~and owr MI'~X!even afk!r

~Olmll:!~n ·ool~ ~icW l1f1;'mb~l~gn.>:>!.d!j.\;.Hh.:r j1l'~I~ i il'!.g dl\:,,,.n(f.(;"1!n llL.;I1 in N2 ~or .3500 i'lOw'S Ulj@l. S2A).~[s ~ffid,,~~~y d(.-cnr,l!>!,Id 6'OIt] .,~ = 65 00' 5.5~ .. lhis .rc~alj\'dy .i>rr~lI~t dlecll1,',."!.SL': u.n.cr m:~lidy

;.~ 200 1~,'Vf~m2+ i'l1rm Il~K~ P(;1fW fbmml1~(.':r<!r.ml1Q'OOiI'I1. u~. i.; I;widem th,ul~hc:iil!l~ Ct:lU~ 1111 I!!!Fmnuc.lTu cd~ O <l!:!'!!) c(luU1l;,1C!l::d i~ ",-erliCsrnld I'lrovi~ (:nhalflC\.'d OOI\H;"'~L:! ,ofihe :;ol~rs~ru!l~.
:il. IN.~. SnlCifltl,

;mcl.~~= 6J%

2:1. M.otmins; ~m!meltwds: .a~ ~~illi!!ilt~ .il55W~~ ma.!~Iiia'l~ S(ie~t: (Inllm~. .22. 0. !WilI1~d-lA!f il!1oJ .• Adi!!; .,wai'.tf. :tel, ~ 8M ·~2MlIi. 2~. l. Burdid!:. T. Gla!tl!l~t!ll'; So!. C~ ::liS, 30'1. '(19Ml .2~. All ~m~ S~<I~ liell deY.i~~~ W!!,r~ r~ib(1GlI1,e;iI y·l',!,'K,. MI,Q b
ollio ffl!M!'olIrH lhei:! p!!d~lI1IIllilr:irl!. ']t'i~ IPeE !'!lINWr'I:!iM:Jf!Ui~e pe:riD~me'!! fly ].':(.1::' i!!iId NlH. T!:!~

z.
3.
~,

S. ~

100 hours lfl:g. S2B) (2.n Cl'a.f1y. l.nmc cx~cn~

slve measeremeuts omt l,iJC dcgl1lJd~li!oll of 7. p<"lC!-m~cd de ....ces ,Ire roqwrcd in fY~UfC work, i s.. Ih~ .J;'V Ch:;lU~~Clcri:iil~CS 111e op~iU1lli~'d i~,~ 9. ]0VCJ~OO [lll1dcl1l11 cell, m~~l>illll'!.:;cl \Vi~ll di!iJltt'Om

or

R@'r~r~DU::~~ andi INot@!i L. SfiIlll.Mtlll" til.. :r. IfI~J!i'. ~!.Wudl, Salome .25:8.14174 U:9921. Go ¥I!!. ]I, G<~JljI J. C. 1iI~!R'IlIIifl... F. WWI, !t. ].,~g~, 'ideme :2~O,\ 17,89 '[19951 c T. IBf~~~ SC!I.. fMf9Y~' Sill: ('~ :e3. :i!73 ~OlQO'4)\ ~.PI!, (M~i!1.,Ill" 1):" ~he~, (~ M!NtJ"l~. 4)3i~ (2O!m. W. Mil,. C" 'I'~ ¥l!~g\ l(, (i.gng, ~t~~,Ji" ]', 11I~'!l'ger,. MI". f!l'!!N'r. ~~et, ~, 101\7 120!llS.h mRe)'1!:~IL~. t:. 1!JNi, [), L CarMlJ.,Appl; Pl'ilys. ti!'U~81, CB3~6 (:!OOi~. G. 11!Jii!'1 ct,. not. }'f.!t/l!l" •. 4,. ~. tm~, 1(, t:m !l't ~i:., lIf~& Mi:ltfl. 5.• 1.97 ~~QO\~}. }. 'II. Ktrni e! .el:, Mr.•. 'mv-. 18., S. 72 ~:2.00Q ~ .. M, W.. w-~n~~tt oJ., (i!'/l!l ~";II'•. I'll U989}.

lTEM ii1iili!9~ were ooialmedi I!.)o I'o'JOt .25. 1Ill1!!Ir~ilrrn 'Iii!'l .~~porWd lIij Km1I~iullll!d'!nit'llg1!!i ~U. Mi!iJ. b'i'!l1e U,S, t'!I!W~I1'I!!r:'!1gJ' ~~ ~d~r gf.ilit DE~FOOil-06'1lR-~~32!!l). tII~dlby III! MDiruyor SdiMlll 8. 'l'ffhl'llltJgr 01 i{ore,a !!IOOB!'Illt rll1:~!I1iJliooilllOOiDrN\J~OOI ~r~h P~!J!'il!J! 'fG'!oba! l'le'.5lilil'ldl ~~!i!10l¥ .li'JQgr~; K.~ anl!ll!LJ,lHI~ I'!ii~~ !n~!;l2i1J~lllt~ i(iP,IJIlI'I!. ~m ~1iIT!, ~mdi K~BIll mlileri~~ iI'Iflr! :I!iIpplied IIX OOr' 1I1e' !:!~ 1Vl.a~~,l!1:(~~. Wf:·~a!1~. W.. Mli fflr ~m1l'ioo11.on~ ,r!mil'l!lllllt! '~rl'i' p'ltllM! oj' ~hi~rrII!II'l.). ;MwMl:iM[(!i'i'i.lI.g,a~rJLIl:1ii'ilili'ill'f~l.I8l11SSJ5.!i::12'2:tOCll llialtrualli .iD! M\e,llilad:!i. IFI9l'- 51 ~~~ S;,
IRef!rmoi!'.!

:5i1,!1PPOl'tin!:ll1 Orn'I~!llil M .. t~in'i. 1 .

.s~.

.2:1:1~ebi;II~1lj!' .~OO'7;il!II~ejl.1Jed :1:6 ,Mao), ,2007
ro.lJ2~ie~~e. 1];1$ l11U

'CIe'81'vin'g Merclulry~'A.llkyl Bon,d:s,: A F'UDctioOl,a'l M1old,el "Ior' Mercury Deloxifii,cat:ii,o,n by ,Ma.rB'
1

mllse t~)elj bk~C! ~ ~t~ly to pronein, liCSidue,,;; ~mdfilre etillilb:ll:.': cl'(i1;~;[ilg~he bloOO"b:r.t~hl h,~r~ rkr.. ~.ndi!C'd.m~hyl!=mcrel!lJry compDunt!srurc respol15ible[or ~Vlil1amam df5t."Olsc. so--cai~.cd: bt.,.,,_

or

«mse h tC.ltl.!SOOII~ee-J!l.h of almost 20(10 people d

]IO!'lOlthiilliil G,. M.eln~(~;!lind 'Ge,~·al~d P,iill'ki!i!'"
llhi(l' '~ue!ill!e t~)fiC1it:y(If ~'r~F!Jf'!;Oln1err'l!!ry !l:OJl'lp~l!Jnds tihatare fou'F!d ]Ii! th'!l: ~P11!'iiFOi!'!m'lli!lthas fO(UiS'Ild ,~ue!'1lliO'fll,~I'I t~e' mre(ha!li~!iIl:S of a'C:lloJ'!1 'Olfb~ld~rial fI~li1'Ie-dj~llin8l'Il'm-yUllre$.W·e·di!sl);riooradh: nH~m" temJpoe~atl~re p:r~~J:l,lyti~ (le~lva~e byatil'liol (If dl'~ Hg-( I~olild 11'1rIlIerc~ry-.aU;y1 ~~'mpQlJlnd~ ~hilt ,e-mUl~ate~he$trrlldl!ln,~ <iII1d hi !iI(dof11 of the ,org.aII).OIll1l er( ~riall lya~e Me;S, Sple(.]~ic.~~Ily, t!he 'irls(2~ ..en::a.IP.to-l-.lto-btll.lVihlfl~d.aZ.Oly~,~m~bo'r. ato, 1"i9.·· ITm~~. \~hk.' h ~eatlDres.,i.ihlre~ s.l.IiUur ,do,:"r:!], has ,rnd.·•. b,ooml UrSIOO ~o SyYlthfrfilZe lim . ]ltiI~IIi!.<llky~. mmpe:unds (I': = meth~ iJir e'l~Y:U lfui.alt r'El'iul mth ph,e:ny~th~o~. (PhS Ii) tie y'i:eld rllrn6lJ-~ H,~SPh illlldRH. A!ltllo'LJ~h [im 'lHg·R.(orn:pelJlllids e'Xi:5.t oil fi limi'ed r lwe·(iOIHdiml~e c.ornlp'le~je-sfn the siolidl stiiltlil.lHi liIude<lr maglleU, re~erlillil~'~ spe-dru5iCollyindkllt'es thalt t he 'QomlP~el'lese'xistirl ;ra~'it!il!!lqll.!J~~]br'iuIIIiIM~'h lI,eir 'Mg neIF"{oordil1l.at:e U 1[~~'TmB~Jll-IlgIR ilI!fId [:t.3-·Ttm!!I~~ iso m.e·rsi nl ~ohllti O'll. f<lcile iHiC!BS 1\0 il' high err-coo rdinate ~Ilcie~ ~!!i p:r'oposrolo H,g~

,aJ((oulnl [,or title eXiC!e;ptl.omlil rlla:(thl'i'ly of [lImIBU'lIHgliFl. re~illi!jlie '1:0that of 'J:lther~wo·c.{lo'r,dinllte m efC JliI)"iIlllkyl. cl:llmp~:nll1ds.

··hC' eNl:Iie~nelox:ico~(ligica] ~roble[ns .~ c~at'i.>dwidl m!'!rc\l~.~ and. ils o~npoo~!;d~ . . !I) ar'C bll~g!;b' <II. co,~cqlli.1'.r!~ 011 the .h!£jg allill1il},of 1'i'!,Ct:t;~ry Ibr ~~m,lI:' A~ ~lH;:h, ~lU;:f:C~ry binds 1i!.".:,1di foti~c ~;liC!l ~(ri~p:. pf eysldltert,~~ Iy idlli~,5 il'i prntC:~li'"31td (':IllZYITi,C;, iii'i~)i' i:!ll'ilaoc 3i.liJl d

T

z~~ rro\~n cys!eim:-tkh 11.1

:;;I,rnctm.:d nnd ,catlJilytk zinc s~les (1)1. Fo:U'c:lmmlll~, ~I~~.~" in~ib:tt~. [he Frs DNAropJir p(rol,e.in O}'" l~li.'Ch'J;ni~mtili.lJt ~~. b~ijit-"~,id inv(lh'~ ~pinn'!ti;CI1!1: ol.'Z!i{m~ni]u; '0
Cy.s..:.. zi"c 1]ll~J,,:-:r hUl1ding M[~ (J-~.,~,lle~w}' il)kyl~, il'ipal1icl;.i~i1r, :ru"C' po1.CtllliJiC'i:'IIY.ill:l~~i:'i~ ~-

l 7, i~~. Thlc :i-lg.tl.:~l ~;md: :~~kUIII(;1.<itiU:~ly :l'[f~Mc!Q\I,larru proll1;1ly!:it: clcavlIgc~rl aqucous :>Qil:utio~l.whh l!he l\;.,:>~]jl d1ia1 m~RlhyJ -l'nlC'ii'C'1IIi1)' oomp!}1iI ~~dil;acc~nlnu:IQlC ~i1 pi:Cdiiil.Oi)' U:;;II iJ:lild llI'13y be 'OOr:lSlf1!1J1OO b~ 111ll1l1aJ1S (.t. 7). DC!(Jxille[~lioil,of O:~n1m~:l~ucuryem~llJ'Ol.[t1d:.; i~Ih.~rcfo:~e of crilit'9II ;iln~l)t]rimlCc .. ~n~~f~il1rc, tili ~ i~oc'hicved by the oomhhled action oflwQ ~i~ ~}'me.'l.~peci meally. b;x:liCti;)~ ('Irfl,mom~n::'lIrja:l, lyase (j~,jt~'m.",chie\f~ prolo~.ytk clca:vage OrdlC
~1~,rj:r{U~~IlC'J11 D!1'jJi3Ii1JIIl@mtto~ OJIl'IOil'lf)" (]!Jlumbi.a U~'II~rs~~ll', ~~W' l((ffk,

lllroul1;C1MinlU118ln ~iIl.y (Jiliprul, ~ :il1lh~'lal\;; ] 950" 'when .he i~e.idents Cioilsmncd I1slll ~hiUW3S .. ooIllllmiim:m:(1 wilh 1':l.lcuhyl-mcn:my compound" II.n.. Ahhm~gh the infit.fill: ollltil.u:e<lk of~hC:'£~:ilc Wili> a l\,~LuI~ of [Ol'dl; liCle.1!._"iCf!\f.Jrn a. m!tut:y ,h~l1r iC<ll:~ p~;<i:I.U. gncthyl'"1:!'l~:CI1!!)! oompolmd!S u~J;:;uloo iUI!,!i)(Xluci;'d tn'tl;l Ole cllvim!~~!ll.'.!ll ~:Y bi1::1111Clhyl,'L", linn ()f Iml.ul<Llly U'CcWlmng rn~l!llIH iu,u~ '(~~I...~it:

Ny 1002:1, ~SA,

"1'0' wllOll1 (Ofl'eSI)O!l!.oonu' _Ihlrlkin@()c[ufllibii'!l.@'d~

should! be ~~dre5sedi. Eof!l1ai1i:

I

REPORfS
ot:dilmtronl1l,l'J!dc TlS IOO~ prcwl\;:nl. iiJr Bl1:IlWl}'~ Ol!k~1 oon1Jl'Ql,lm!5,tEl. JJ};;-II ~:'l~l9~~ll ~-I~i;.r

I~J4). :l~R;.~N{CH~! !~~lr~l~hJ, • 1,!!;~1~1 (,;) ),~ml _ ~w?-'fp i:11~-.lgEt !II¥ ~~I~h~trnH\I~~ ~h~ I~w lJ'6) Qf p.;;i;ud~i.(,1r:R.ll~drn II IIiI~n;: Iiiry-;llky! cmn;PQ'I,Ind~ Iilfcvvo~ly Ch11rtli;:teri~ed eli, 28)1. Prio, cj:'ll~1.~ ~m~d'lt1;; M~'j'B ~~~IV~X~U1iil1(;d [0 ~ protP!JrYIIc clt,"3w1.!:l,c \\'ilh l!i(: u~ or~!mi:lg Bntuit<1!"t!i 0;\:.0 iicicl~ ~loch .lli;; CF'j.SOl'~· 2'4,. Ilowc\,P~It. 1Jeeause ,MeAJ i1I:;~~ a e'ystcj'lt~ S-I~.groiJplO Ci'J~l dcaYll.~ tJ [[he I ~1.g.!C oo~(I, we Cl1ilS,tdcit,'\cl d1;!1l .. Deller medel fnll q',:§lcin.~ ~'>'Ouh:l be 5i,~nill)le "b io~:;;
I

:>'1,;'(ou~cli enycYilll'i;.m£.:fClQri<:iOf! r«h.!~Ml",¢ IM~I .. 11. ll\.'4UCi..~ 1.~~Jnl' O less ~o:;:,ic'C~l1rnC'llm~ ~m:oclll:y. U£({)) L I~I. 9" ~lere, WCl'liffiV ide cv fdcl'lC'1!i r-clc\lam W the 1l1cclMIiP~i~m <!lfa"Clllion M~~'8by i~','~li:g<llion

Od,ef\.\iisi;

~nOrl U,g~ bond \,\lhi C!! ~

.,,¥!~d1.Cllil':C [n1."fCW!ry·fdkiJllomITJ'IOulld.~, 1;.'\l11I.lh."c ~pct:"~ of ~~~
li.~lhi:cil di;}l'l'Onl.

ft...ru\!~ liru;mc sll!lful'

ru

or

of .. .i1~mh~lic ;l.u,dog S}';'~'('llil.

Ml1rlJ obminoo, rR:ln'~E.~'(.'h~9'i(,."ilkj (R:i!3tb~ ,vii

~IleSlrucllH'!i:' <Ind I1mct:km, or MerB OJ •. 14). 11 Ie mC~l!'Y"'alkrl romp;o~mcns ~TnPu! II m~Mc aad i'TnlBu'UlgEl are roHtiib' :;:ymhcsi ... Vi,l xd [h~~c.U;t~IJH rrllillllu'JK wi'~J! I\1~cU;J;ll ;lilt!

or

't29). h is. Ihe~fore~lot.:::"\~rn1hylhfi:1 eaeh or Ihe anyl ot.::OI1ilPO~Ul~ ITm~ II.~£R (R Me. EI. 'U~N ~ ro:1C!S \'I'i'~h r~l'Srn1 mp'id~>' at OOCim !!:'n11~l.:rawre urn LQ yidd ~!JeudlllcarOJht.ldr.l1, [Fm ·r.1.U-Il!gSfh (31) and 1~r.IIJJ.: RH', rhcJiCiby d~JlrjtfJl,lilr;II:~!'!il.~f;l~i~~ boP!d d~"'''L\'.fLg,.;iJ.y !I W-I~-C' mlliol in a ~\lnL!' coordin.uion clwirommml I(Sch~mtl :n.
I

EIHgCI. l!"\,~lt,IC'~i\~L;!I)' (SdlJ..;n,1~ Jj)t. Th~ utoII'~

mh~

\,Vil~! m:;spoc~ 'l)!]~~ !f!.l!."Ch.tlli:sn~of cr~1<~""lg~of .!.~gl.l(' lllo:ud~t isw~ll~ kUOWI] til:.... ILMI-

Iili:ular SI.I'i,K·~lIJrt'S of I[Trnl9\!lll[ IgMtl qF.ig. I) lind IITl1it'BY]UgEt IH'M~ been 00lCil1ii1~ltcdl~)' )(-my di:F: i'mclio.n, Ihl..'\l)b'ily d.I..'1:nmlSl:li1uling d'lfclti'le lTllliiDo'I iig.t'lrld c'OOroillmre·s, Ill.1marily iln:t tel ~.11lllmlCr tl.e .• (iOnmil1>lliolll via, .<1 sin~'C' :ijullilr atmu), !;.\iilb 3, lieved 10 scrve' lire combined 11Q.~csorbjndil'lgille I~nc!lr S-I mg~C ~"1IUl!lry ~md Ug~S !!!!lIKi lC'llglhs oQb1nmm:lit:lIit)' s.ubi!!rn!C lind ~~mtO:lrliCii~ly de:;!ving ~h",~lllGUny--c:mbtJ'l} bmu:.l (9 111, Olller [11Io'U'1 nf 2396(2" rIIld 2.4f.15{U A. w..1'~~\1C1}' t/61. I This to;:'lcOl.ooil13l.ion mode isq~l.~tc d.ilslinci. rmm, ~his y,cn.el:r,]J1dt.~'l'liI}lion o[lhe fC<t'C.tion ScqUO::I1CC. the !(:l modi:: (l.e., coolrdiimlltOn vla !!Iu\CCslIl:fur im~~revcr, Ihe ooo.mhnmion n1X.lc of du: organa.. alOlm) Ihm is observed 1'0'1" !]lcr o 1[1'~nUl:U IgX .mlCrttlii:}." SlJb,'\.lJlTI!c in,H~riJ. and t~IC illtimtllic ",k:millil; ('If 1J1e tl.""_LC~iof]'l~OC11~!I1""m 0!It': u!lkJl~o,,\'!t l'hetl::"" ! derivaaves inlilC SJOlicli '117.181:. nonetheless, slllW it dO!1:,j1ca!·~"S~'i!Oll.dclosely to the H'!C<lnl'> wh~'Ch b)' Ib:!;l:';:,m pm\~jdl~ OJ !'110m Iho!iOU,gJh lIJ1d~,lIldi!J:g of ..~~"" to l.t!,,~ Ili1C;:1:m,l in! Iliac ~h~ 1ll(;"(;hll~L"ln nrn>c~iOln ,(>ILI\i!{,'~-B, il. :i!'i :tXll,i~~~n 00, [he prn1f;'in (;'Q(~rd~n im1(';S1:Ug1Ij(: II"" bioDQ!£.1nhilllk1ilnic chcl1mi'O'ln)' (If un1it... mCtl·c·llry-di~hi.otJ1~'IX,':~ml co.l:Ilplk~ of M~'rlJ {19" In comr.wsl kl,~hc; K~ coerdinetion '!lfi~t\'dJ f(~r C1[l11)' [11 3. sui nUf-rich cC(IDlidiltl9l:liCJfI I(;nl"~mlll:ncm, For .his ~1t[rprllSC" wchavc !llis...'CI the lirI:;(l~tucap!Q.. IIT' m B!it']'!'M c amd~' Till BIII'''1 e, I eyaneI.~gj. : 11~Jr:~.i1:c l:4'''blllylimkllozO~yl.)h,ydrolOOr;,~n ngand [Tinlj~l. mcthryl. oomp.l.cx ~Ti1," Ii '( i:!iCN (2.0), adopts I(l oonruill<lltOIli ,ol'~hc:[l'n 111~gru~dI nlilg:fI fo,tll"~ •.g)\' ~lns 'fh~r cyJl;I(~~rl~ [(".!ii:dill(~~Ihll[ .m:: ~i!:ii:l$ tL::it C'Jllymatii:: ::1I!!QJvir.y. "tese. ene eJ'SI~ine(t'r.>IU7) Of is c{m&idcl\::tilo plav ml~~ Il s;lruc~!ijrnl role. wttca~ Ill!!:' mher~Um",'C 'l Cy.~96. ysl~. arid e~s:U«i:iore L'IC,. C

ooardimue [i'OClltoldk}'I'ltlil((lll~ '"{)a~){)li.lltds of Ihe: [YIPe X-ng~R (15) arc'alol!oriQIlliS~.y iaeu IQWW ekilvllgc oOflh~ .1 ~.g-C ~m~d UiltOOr I}~y£~ ioi:@gic.1iJ ,!.;(mdjt~{ms l31-J4~ As SHell. the high rcactivil.},' .of ~Tm~!!I"I,[,lgM.c "Il,d Inl1~LIII!I,y.EI
IU1l:}'

be mlU·ibu~.cdtCl ~hc ability

10

acC(.. s t.::~. or ....

(35, J6l, ~~l~hil:>1 l'1;:~;lrd. ~,~!liablC'-" !C'n\l~c':<JJtUir~i ~I nuck'all' m,~g!lf~;t OC: l'J;.'SO!larlCec l3oJ1 (N~i[R) spcctI'mIDpk siudies on IUgR 1([( Me, E~) il]di,c;[litc ]Jml.m]~c molccll~'CS are hlg:il 1)/ ~llIJ!(~oll<ll.Al (lfl'°C, d'lC' slJoCclrum isoon·
ttl i~rnll.Cnl,

rrm

:>1iS!'i:ntwjtl~.<I T~lDu"lngF; ~lI:dntCll1lbcdL'UI; ~.ntll;'uure. w l:U~1'C'11!S !It. in~c!l'~n()di!,il(:~cm,pL;'r;a~ IIlI'Di, ootl~ K' ~ <lnld!l~ i"'tlH'lCI:8flre ()'b:\("lf\"Od,A 1\'I'O",cliim~n sienal C1i:e&uI11g.e Sp~H'()lliC:0P'Y c!liper-

~I!:'' -

eoordi ~l:ate~lLdOl.Citrnll(:(£llrd

·~nC'UC:M

ry eemer

hl~enl (:ol1l~lrms.~~nn these' isomers !ure inlTurid ~ilibrrilnnn at -2~C and :1 :th~oo>!.1rdimiiJtc ~lC ~TmlE!li]~llgR innen'l'nccii:[illlC is; implied ill t~I~S process {37)., _,
The observ,cd IhJlxi{m.lIilji of [Tma:l!!'11 ~gR

tFig, ~,).o.rlhcsc two gcoflilC,1ri~., .he Ilh~c..'ti00"

provIdes ~'irelk:m cvi&i'ICC th:.. tile :rQI:c OfOllC. 'lLt of the .,;yslCin~e li~fLll,d."i[n~hc activlC site oI"Allt'/;S
is 10 ;fie!ivn!lc ,iJI l\\~CH':oordinal.e ~llCll'C'lu.·)i-:altky:l, oomrl'l:nn~cluO\vmtl pww~ylllc C:l~e.1I;V~C: by alii

------:

~IJSH

j

PnS!i'~'C
,

'I . r.pwm,~

~'c

...

RH

-I~:FI

PllSH -------I~ RH 25"0

I!tIX i5G!iI'ied

:Sclhjll!!:n~e :11.

5dill!~lMI,e :3.•.

REPORTS
.u.!dilioll;lJ cyslcil1c 5"1 ~:gro~!p.1'0 Olddmss n!rthcr n~c i~nD<l'c1i f ~ooirni ~miQn lrumbor 'O<U the :!billit:y o ~o i;;1f,,~~v~ ~hi;'Hg-Cho~!~" Wf; ~~~~~im thc oor~ .. xI! fl,;'JOpmldiDlg ~:!i;a~lti",ity f ='iI,ri~~)" l""9-~Ot;ln;liI13L1,) .r.!' ~1.lc~i!JIry 'hIli;.y~, ol;l'In.'1POlm~l:S Ii!Ilrti bear a dr15(!; rellil..
~i[JIWl]P 1{lI",J;·TmBill~'lgR.~p!.~i~!c.dI}'. ~ml~~ \~~ '~i£t1L~Ld-di'~~1~i.. ~~h\D~y].ilT.idWj,11c·2·~hijQ~!Il .. tili;n,.~ ,cl..;:ri\"'
::IiA G. lilaltin. (hem., Ikv. :lJ~I!. 6:~'iI '~2004t ]5- !l.b:br.~"~iQf1Il,; M~ = Im~th~ [1; = dll)t. Ph = Iplien~ IBJ=I t-l!:iwl'l'l, lit = .:I'I1r\ 01' :!Ill io! = D»l!!m~:i.@I!IIIM~'I!Ii'c

36,

tJ7)i~I\,"'l~i~h [-h'i1ii~jiW 1iI)c I igllltd '~1~lila1~';S11\(; Pi ~ ~'ot'Iitlil1~lIiDii! 'iJ!'i~ t,'if 1Ih~ ~Tfl~wlli~ltd, as d~i1'i'lijitOOb:), :":.m.y d1iITlil:d~ml .
:.njd~;,;,0111 UI~n~im'E!"']II!;!Eq~llf4ly3.19).

H[~Ii'I'ili~'iD<l~H\gR. r

liaalldIHrnilll'~~ ill :lH~bl1lylimILiilld.~·2~~nilJon~. 1!~ The~ i~ ~J.!lo ill 'lQn9".r~!illll!I~I·":I ~OfII;j~')'imeJ<!¢:1iL1l G .3: A) "hll~ ~~IJ'I!fll:ll1Mlm~nD 'lJlfdl!M:ll!;IiillIl\lll)l' :H;.C: ,amc It!rS, !Jo!'!d~. :1l7. i II.. Wi1l~~, ], II!!. ll~!i1~!:l, 0 .. ~b[~(:h,.,I; ,r:Ji1gm, :S"(;!(,
~Ir,rlrl' l]l,rl.t:I[I: ,~COl; 2~J1 16. Ii. 'r.:.n~jd'l' a 1'11", EMJr.J,~, (2100[2).

37. ~e, 3~.

(2mm,

cODlili'nirtiOl1! number .~ ii' mlllseq!il~JK~' 01 an ili!Wc:i\l~~1 irngr,e',m ~m ~jlN-t' ~Jgll! ~ th~~bgn 061 it M~ J. it Kratl'l!l!G it A.. G~~ t!i. iii. ~rrtru}:.J. Ph~ Cfrr!'n'I, A, :lW. 9>l.51 '(2m.,~. See ~~!!f!'!!IiIiil'!g ,~~~<!I Oil 5mt:t.e Onlm~. 1IIii1! fi!lliliM lI'I!I!thrmlllril@ tIlIl1I~l~ OOflmlm"'}~d~nD~ I!~ Ibeep repone<~ (39)'. ~ Fl, Ir.I~rri~5" ~. TijI!~, ~, !l!!~L ~. :~fi;! 1iI~~-"Garit1''''Y.

I

(hem. 2eO.2.

12~S

A. L Bi!~m!l'. ,cd~\ ). (hEm, 61, 1~36 fl'M3). ,4;0'. VIiIeIllrllllf~ o~II1f' llil!la~ merllll)' !lrod~11I ~<Li ~~I; I>fl:II

,~nHicres~ill1:£ly.whereas liim~} tllgZvle and ~Tm~]] I£Elli~acl, rapid ~y with PhS I.~.M mom ~cmpcmuU'C'. thC:I'\.\lo-coordi aare compoul'lds HI'hnillllu'IHgMe ::... ilnd ]-hnimr[!"'III~I:gEll' arc swhlc- III!nckr cGnl:~J~~l4!,blero~~dil i(),~IS: ('1«1~o~)'1i(; ~~~,;;W[IJ~ and I~rmio~:! orRH ~ron{l!11.}~]It::ir(l~f;, n~r\ll.ld.~~ '~~I(~\',,~[(;d ~('lJfl"~1."I';iJ~l!'('~ I(SChC'Iuac: 3) j.,l'O). The lower !rem:li'i':~lY ~[I W!'Vlifl~~Ii-lllgR ~.,;.1'('!0l1.~\1C' W ITmBiiIHgR' !iIiJ IJ'I'~Of1~ liho pw,p~ ..~ !h~] Ji!teL.~ In cO('!rdi!1I!.l~i{lv~ flwllil}\,.'JS; grCliJ{iif 11:i:!,Lll2 pVU1'l10~ pmlOly lie (:I~IV.' age ofll:t.e lIg-CoomI Hn _r.ul ~pporl of this ~iligg.l'SIiQll, mldili'cnl HJ:i1Jiliill3l!il' ~Q a llII~x~~re 11~:lmm1B!J~ig6t:f I[.BF4] 311.1 ,fiMHii. esuscs climhm .. I lion Qifc[lmlbc m 1O!11~1Icn~I)('IaI~fiC.,.m!l.~~tioli1 Cl1n.~stCl!1\~'ilhthc iQrmlIruOJ~or" hfgh,,-Y<OOf:llialiiI[c species : rll ~Ilim~~~illig El ~+- dlmt i~ .I~lOIlC ~l.l~ep~i~iJe 110 Hg~C IlIOrulkl~:f:c clblV<~~'C I:~m!l i.. l\'II'Ci"'c'Onruinillli.:' 111~milllllki ~ll,gErr" ('In In vi.C'\.v of ',hc' ~ow r,CiTI,!l:tivirty or lW(l~ C{)ordhmle ~1J[1]11imfBu]IJ!,!:Rrr w,vnfdl PhSU. we llttllL]blUC 'the" :Il!jgh [l,,";<l,Cili\' i!y ITnf'lulU ]g['II.lc a!!1.'d

n

20. 1[1rn"'1 ~,(J!.,t;iN jj; oii1li!!rn~1 flOOll lih~ ffi\li(jjQnr;:J!" I~rn"'b:.. I~, <!~dl ~!il4 i~Me(JN, 211. (, ~. m~rilQa1¥', M,. ~~!lIi'IJk.J. OlgDJ)OJiIIllt', fJiMt . .q')~, t'!1'9~S). 22'_ TINO'm:lnlimatl'iln .:li~rnl!Ktf~ .t>s. aiso, llll'ElfTiM ror ~hr~ tompoollih !llJ:'. 23. IL IG, w~ •.M. ), N'a~~" F. M" MiI,~oorre11 O. M. lRillsloo, T,'~. aIilMlor~!1,.l't(Jg rfI'Iaf9. ~. ;Ja, 3~3;n;.99()~
2'1. M. 'IIfliD}~rml otI'
D~,

119. G. (. IBfJli!om' ~l' 01" 8ll'lcJ\i~'rll!j' 43;, 83:~3: {roM)"

i!l~'fi~ed\ ,~t.1IIii1! ~O'tmo~,dMf!1~ Mille '~!~a!1Ai:I il15I.'lf1tll1lit 1l~~"L~\M!I~.llllhlH~W!J, the ci;(,!~di!!gl ~c1fClfli o[ II.\!!!jr~!Im.'lmiw']HgR~1I R\'51f1 '!\laS ~~ i~g~~,. i!l~~
lliil!! rNCtillfl ~i!l1fJd I'hSlH'!j(;l ~~ 1! n!lIillI oIlPftf.l!fI!l'I'liil~ PJDtolInillooll1 CIIlJrie lI1ilro!leo at'llm oJ ~~ 1ntm"'1 n~amdL Moii~~. uW!' IWa'CIilQli!'lii'i~ 1II~1JIrl\t'OIiIipocnd ftlDilgR i~ iller! ttl f)[~e!!, i?1tl1it ~I rromr tt!'l~rill!ll'~. ,f!,d4!!'Ii«! oll!!u~ 1llI'IlH!'IIm""1H!lI!!J~ ~!'!te ,Ill if! tli!e I'IJiSti d~ Il!Ii rew'!! in d~~a~~ gf lIft~ I~;-( ~(J(iId.~e't. Ihi!! ~IiIIMM~ o;:pi!l'lf~m '!I1aWl!t~irI HiiTlitl'l~ lII'Iillfl!1oj b'ruts.

42.

t:tJr.,

or
or

(2004). zs, Ii'. llaJ1ilalFO r!'~IlII;• .!r:i.::!1IW- .CiJr!'m. ::13, 6:1:H U"~~>l!'. 26. Go ~Qf.l l!G:b'bra, c. Swim, f. 6*113110.. i? (~Mi, It:. C!l«<i, J', OfS!trmn!'l~. ~ 5.'52;. 31 fl?llID. 21_ Iflii!e~i!iIt.'!it1tr1le-~ooJd'in~ ~~,pedi· g~meh1i~~ ;!i~ 011&0 ~Jl10m1. f:or u:lmpl~, '~h@ a,ppr«til'lil!!ltl)o mmf.1lr'
(WrdillilJ!!iJlirot;trred f~ rlMTPl i'!9M~1l69!zi"',15 ruJlpll!i]Ulllti!>!llby ~ ~Hot)i'Iii1~ii!J HgrN Im!Er;l;!:~Oili, tl3. It I" C<il'l~, IB, W. '5iiIlillDn, A" IH. Whilt,:, AIls!' 1. 1~,4~.

J,

11'J1'J@. (,hl!!llil,

:zmo.;, 2301

'ind'i::aMdlb!! Ih~ OOll1l'\l',llioo Ihi1I1he' meriffil'f" m!lI"ril~mat relf ,~tlfmlli~If~I~ 5Ilifll! 'rl'lillifl oS 0.>18~Il! 0.62 ~mlflu! ~~J'iiOO II~ Hmiaf". '
rM]:!ii!tt)I:, ,ili'l

,0.

or

12m.

2~, ,[~",~.rH(}!~HIP!i'hJ.Jl!ilg:l'til~ ~,~~
~~iKIlQrI hO!~Ibilfll!! p;q»sN

lOO9U'IlBn

MIflI AfSH, rut ,tI!~ '1.1'1' frw·olw· tnitl~~ ili~adilitlQm

o!lO!IiI~1i!~r'OO1[ (R13ll!!ll' Iho.:; LIl~' ;!iil!!fI.~ $il~,. oo&, tWll! gf ~ <!i1l ~~ c.cm!Mdln .~fe Irrllm oilltr ~~ III.iii, liIm!!lo:fi! IKM!1)1e1ba1. ~ ~. other ~rn wrtei!!i~ wutil ,iIbQ I~~~I@ UE jM:Il~lii:: tli!M~" rti'tlil~·~~;r.dl Slliill~ ililll,'li md'tl ~l!'lI~ it;1~KiIl.eU1;rtc~re lr.aill!,'1iIlliW ~I!o, ~Mft !D ~!m'~ ~wil1ftii~dI~~ !TIl HJ:jcC ~OO~5 W'4), ~..:J. E oo,pi~!t11 t C IBruT.oo, t ~ (h~ SPc. l'~f!I.l\!1[l~

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45. SIl,I'i.~Dn~d !ill ~SF Igr~!1t(I!UE·CU9lti38, 1iIt1.;~h~11!aII4ed lin!' ~atUililioJlin Idl ilImlx·r~~ di~lraaamt!I!i', and h:t Ni!i grilfll GIII,o.461)02. pl~e ~ ~lal~9~k dalil !la/Wi

ill· N((1fI2CI!.lW"lWj ~rnd Sy'~~!!ien'! Igini"tioo g! I[HIM~(I'bGil,l',"Jil.iI!ilI", ""hkh i5fl1i1!! ri:'1.'rt' flfli!lQtllltim a 30.

~,l~c ITl1!lIllOil ~ig.ruml& Thu~, I.h~IJClll}C 110U.~EUflIC[UIr.:fll C:YSl!cill~ Ut";lii,uducsor J~.tr!l:8~hm. ~lrlC "'r~1C~HI ~i'lili IIlzymll[[c fL:C! 1\',111),.11. liS, cvtdci'l~.thm. C on~~cy:.-trC,lnc is roqlliro~t to ooorrliuml,(:: ~ngllll"lll a Ih~e."lr mm1JlCT;. 3.scwnd c.y5il.cnlfl(! iSI\.'quin::d to

~TI~18IfmgE~ Ihe ;,qo~ .. ib<J.~it)' or ."h~ght.':r'" 10 (o(DDdin'II~;U!'I(..'I'i!::UlI)I :!I~ky~ ~.l 0"1 W£~. ~indinUig by of

or

or

411!. lil IRa i:Rrn:Niidlli"SltJ,ICiI, fJi¥ldin~ no. lH ~2@IM.ll 3::l~ M, Ill" :Kffiil:liC~ I, Am. ('liM'. 79., 5:92j1'U9~n. 3:3- 1tt~ ~~~~ Me.iHg r~c~~i~lwll' Willn ~rt3in I1r~Qg3t:,[j11y fi@nalM 'Ihr~ niOdl!aY!I! (jjj~ af 'Iht!! Ifg·( OOIld~. dI&"l.v.a!)e f!~ll!eie(_wd HgrrCHI Iiiood '[eu~ mlll; IJ~ i!Oiii~(I U4}. 3!1l. lit ~lii!ilillrit, A. ~·rmliIaI~Ei'iI, w.. ~i!ik,. M,.Wdlil~~ AirI~. (1Nlm. {I'll:. Er1,3i9.7t¢ {~). ;Ii~ Q~llJl,!ii~'~9S!!~iltat~~~i~llr~~id l~d~i:r@1

thti!' prOlo1:t1K d.e\ll(,)ge. ra1'~er lbiirnlne lI1io'l (231" 1~!Hife "', 15 mi!'! 'fl;f lTmB'!lit!iE~Wi~h ~!'Ii15Hll= OJ, U1, '

been !te~o5il~edf!ll~eCil!f!l'f)rjdg~ (~I~~O!:lril~!'!i~ S!!!!p;po.rlingl (l!l!llfillE! Ma~ellflal,
lfIm'f~ri~1JI,;!9,orq,rc9l!'c.(ltil!el'l~rlltllB11;r5;~3)J'~~JOC:1l

:s~~

~Ia:ba~i!' (~Illre {K(oel'sio:n ~~Ji'l'll!:ief$'6~e~~~ !II r$<1aa~,:1!I,

!lCfM r~)jj fli)~51 t'!! S'!I To1ibll! iSI 'ReJtFffi~~:

p~l!IlI!l1y1kcl~i'lW~1!! ~I 1M ~.(

IMnlii liir;!.'ln in(l~~in.~

U Apnl~OO7;~epied l:li .Ma)' 2000 10,ljJ2Usdl1m'.~ ll<l4,~14

activatc' the ~~g,=01k)11 I
cle<l\i~.

gI\QlIJ)

t'Owarcl pl:orolylk

:il:nd~hc thim! cy;~eillc is llCqu~fLxi to cr:l~lllhc d~vagci~ttoilil rt41 :;.'/1" •.
L [.w,. I~~~n. L ,Ma!]~, (ritfm:I@Jd.:oJ, ;1,6, '6@1l(~OI!!6)" ~, H. C. fi.!Jt c. UfO,./. PiI\~ Col'rt-om.,oil i:ilJiifo, il$2 ~2~l. j, A. HinlMg el 01., {lQarJ (;I)Ml. nM:M'oJ', 4(1, U79 (;t)QQ.in. 4" fgr' g!Jl(:J ,~~~~~; gl HgULI ~i!i!~~ w ii~~rq~g~r pf.Dileirn~, '~eE ~, 6), ii, Ill" RMlli~rsi1.!!IiI.J. ~Q, Pi. d'A\I~1i\, IN. H:, Zarrnil, rox;1101,AfjpI: .Ph(lr'mr:l~'.112, 1 ~:2(1Oij, " A, WbUl!lmiU·t:i:.icl'i:liIDYk. W. 1la1, ,~rll. liNt :1~, 29
R~riiiifelil(£lS ,UlI!di

NOi~es

~CiI1I'6.~. '!. 'IN. f. !'ii~ge'f~:Wi. (_ H. ~~lK!!'9< c. R~H~ !mil!lI'i.(~mit;Ji. GlMt. Hili; 1iOO', G<l,1. Rtmn. 8, l Barkil:!'. $, ,M. M!i1J~, A. 0, MImffil~~t~~ MIm\hlai
~. 1,7 ,;I~) (~I:n. 9., 111.]. ,~QI'~, M. D. D:1~tdilmal L Dr"fjldD\tIJl,~ Ii\. T. wmmr~ C. 1: Wi!!!!, ~c; CMlIl. !!if'll. 2], ~iG:~, t!.~'1l01 10., K.. £, fil~ A. O. )UfDi'il\~ ~!rJl' 4:i, 11m'S] (liiOO).

Ii P. m I!f,1tll ,f'/ DII" e.!~~ifN'.mi$tJy43". &~:n(il(l!l)4). U, (y?, ~Sl!l], ,ani 2Il\~ 1Ii'~h1:l'[OOJ!I!fi!ed ill, ~/1ef8 fmm

S;tromiboll.il1l1'4)11l1! 1e'IUIlHfhIIE!adiill1ity, mrmmol'l al. rmil'lfljl'~(aillOOS, mnsi~~ Vir regUlta'r e-XiP~e!;iom drilielfl b,y the< Ib!lu!>1ijng or g::alii~ugs tniilt. ristl 'rilSiterlhalli :5urr'IJlilnd~l1~ magmiil. IExP~osi!l1l1 '~I.I\i!'kes il~>;odat@d ,of;ith ~hi5 ;acti;vijty .are liiiSlJhj! lly 1~IlGl.Ii~ed i3'l ShaUll!i'lt d'E!~Uh; tlow.e!iwr, 'where and 11M sIU~:!l ,a[t!lla~ly Iorffil W~rIiI"]1fI ~OOIr!y' (Ol('ISilf(!trl!l'!d. W,e IJ!SOOsp@dJ(I!S(oP~(: m:@llS!l.!r@m:@r1ts: p~rfQrlTli!';!:i du!'ing q~ij@roa"l d~g:ass:iWl~ ~!ild v;ploSii(lns iiJm Strorrl'bClt] \l'O~Glnll (lta!l~) t(l d@monl~~faOO't~M: g~s;S!k!~s o!n;gifMlte b"Wfl as d~ep ,QiS, the \t()~Gi!rn!()r(IFIAS~i!1:~~rf~!(,~ (-3, lk"il~!1il~oor:s), where bOlm S'M1J)C~l!raJl rd~~ooJ'lfiJiilAm~ ,,,~dl diU~iI1~tlti~L blJbbt~ti~' speoo ~11 prorn'~~ sllJ.r!g (oa1~~~I'!iOO'., r(lbs~r~d d:.ecO!1.J,plh"lg) belMtll'11 d~~Pr The slltri~1'gelii.elis, .;!lli!d .$hi1lUIO'i\!,( ... 250·Iii1eter)' ex!p~®$io!il q,ual~s m~.y lu~;1, 'c)oli!'l!ill!QnF~1J~un~ of sI!l'O!!mOO~iOlIii 0' (ll(tivUy, delefll!1~l1ed by !he g:rotm!etry IO~ !ptL~(lI1I bii,Flg sr->(,ems.

rot'"

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u.

,rMl!f :!llIW.ifCH ,:wi ~re m€'l"llilol, 'rill!' ~!lIMt(, ~]JiII io!; IQI'I~ M~,1!f anseM:!il GIll ~; 001 ei8~D~ UO). Ir~ ~ig~nd~ ~Q!1glr !!oeefl ~~~~~~t:i' 11!S~ ~I;l ~a~ 'pr~~ 'Mmf,;OOmi:l~. rnlifl1i~ ,:1'!Il«lf:~01 Ul;!!~.tI~miSIl':r Ihn ,FIi.e:'I'oot 'lei 'I~~ IIcli,'I\~:silts Qf s~tif!lm·lIi(h lim '~mlYfllts, ,mel 'P~JJlJeim~, See, flllrr i!;r1lI1ll~-e-, ~1.4.1"

Itm~lb.(I li!1.1l cl'!:plosht~ .;ttl:]\~i'ly.ni'l~ll00a.Iler .. Strornlmh 'iioka:llo. lS ~lll~ll1!1(ln I)-Io!m't\'w '~~m vor.c ..noeo;,fu<! by bfv h;l n~ooGr.~I.;j 'vi~· oo~i[.Y Illa..'il,ljig~, It (:om;lu~ts. .or ~rit.xl;c j~b;o:r
C:N.pkii!ii.Olilj, llIiID\\'~~'ig ii'i.tl~ Ic~ l~,va ,r~lgnti~i'iU;S
~(,"i]~,

S

om;:

~'i<\glll,Hln!XJ !;lorrdUlil" U 5). Il ~ \V~~ly O!I:gn.-ed mha. :!lI['h" :-.li:Jgt> ifa~u lJy COO~t~~~~ ·of ~ril1llkt lJiihbtQ;!it d(':r[~~iiJ'id ke!;;pMlnl:~i.~ml. Q\'~'ipn:8.';!LI~

!O~~lll;;dreds of :rncttel1l' above 'OjliC'J1 vCnlS. wia~ch d:~-jvcn b}'~iC [,,"'<:1l!lJli4is~ (I g:;JI'" slugs lhDth1.ig,h

r

I

REPORTS
,J~runn Ihei!' skin "mel the 1!])f1(T btl,r.st m the :;;~r!'''C(,1'. tC~O\\~v~!r, oo!h~h~ d~~l,1f~\\'"hid~ ~:hl1}'i! Ib1~! IIgt,g d~~ n,~~h,mi~".l o~'s,1~M~:~k~~IlJ;:~ L~ ~~~ii;' fCn..'ll!.ial b!,il)bl~-d5": l:;Ih: ~I~cml~~uit:;. 3j, CIt tl, b~bblc rrnulli ,~~rtulm,1! 1<Ii~i{l!~ $lnu;!lJJr",i t~i'OC(mlij~ ai, r!U~lt~~,j\ H. jl----'~Ill!"i!~ pCInl'ly oonSi~min~d+ Sh:d IGi\'v~t'iii~ ,dCPII~'i. I~rslrtl'JllOOli<ll:i ~xp:~o;;imi's, are (-;s;[ij!i~1ii::d [min at..."oci~:tI.'d lli;i..n~,ic 1~.(J-.I0) juRi ;lII.coiJ:>~ie ~J]J ,~~,gi131s..bLiI wlt~thcr these eelnl elde will'! dt~ :!Sh~ :i:iOOrre d~W'Ih.~s liIt1J,mOWH. Wcptl)\'.i)de q ~<ll1tilalivC' oonsu:mi ~us. [O"I,"C
~)poJl~~ll!t!O

11I1~gnm,ooIJ~IT!.n\'I.~!e:n d.W}'

dl!]lrn~~ctrnl allowed shl!lt~l~ml&m!~ rctni;\'ll~ !Jfthc 1~;i!lh"m~l!1ffiSliJil Ing~~il.!~I,,~cnt~) 9~' nmjof 'in:l!~1il;.g>1~ ;'1lli1;l~k~ f!-bO. ,("O~,so.~ "m~ '!-ICI,
"1~cl~ij~)Or VOI~!I'li{; WIh'i spt.:'l;:)C;;
\\I~b11 ml

vealed ihe r(l~:IQW~l1igtL'{1ij)1;nes; (D Qli!i~~'H
~C<l~C lW~WQ';.11Ihc

g,1S

e','\lllm;irnllf' IW:il,"\'\Ie!h!-cf~m>d.
a~p,

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a

d\.'U~ahof' ~.~~~genesis 11r,od!LId~lg '''iIIDllfIlloi;lli.alil IlC~ ~hfll.)'.based Oil .~pcclro."''roplic nmC'a'illreJi~lC'm~ of

ITcl;:m:;mt::'yrungia~gFiutbl :t4 In 6% for tlJic SO:.!'I ~("~nll~M -~,and 1.0. to ] ,,5, rL"S~\C'livlC'l,y~ or r~mi~y,"ok.mic !'ii"'iXictl I~_I.K'"5~~i¥dy, 10% and 1!i~ot'(iiFl,g l.oil~ CO/C02 t.l!io. il hL~l and ;20 '10125 0 fft)' C~ ~1!1dl ~'zO,~Iu; m'J~o~n~"~, ~l~i~ibmtes ;It 630P 10 'i,6i~C cv cn~]~r1'!,lgli1 i[ of \lo'hieh ~IHd ~~. Ix' .~1O[!'t"'cI~'clft'Jt .. it 15t~c.k:groUljd ;"'J;.II:~ <,11 dO!OI;:.-I:O"l~m~1.]it;'fE ~'11irpc~W:(!!;: (.17~ to (21'1. D~n.."ii.fl;;; or!he o~i(flli.lj!!l COrid~Li[Uh' ~Uiicl d~u~a )wq wht .. lfii\fl$llmcl. (~i) &.ch t;i'''l],1c[';1011 i~ n.lf1rkt.'iI 1J:r !>.~I9ii[pifiCi:\,[II.'>L'S in the ~R seuree renri.cva'il J1i":OOlXl[~~ are ~v''lilin (14).. 1.11~' o~cd v!ii:i"im~Jrn~ rOOillt~i1~ seuree i~ lennpcClitliln:: and (he 'lol!::iIIlaJk: ,i;i.asleili'p;:(:fU~lriIC~Mild tCI'lBlloCrn!m\:'., vokan~ gJL'J amounts (Fi~. I,. and ffi"OllJ1ls., AI;Ih.e 'Vcry OJ\!>CJl o:r ,m CXP!:OSoIDt1I, lilc' derived molrur ~i1i." ,ooln1i'it1.~iliul'li.;;: ,(Tab:!,.:: I) I'C~l~ il,o;.a,<: hota.o: lite' rndimill~\.jccm hd~) 1.0 97~ ).
~-IHCII ~1:+2.2:'

;uw COS),

q~II'!~ s~~dy
~~10:~ ~JtfI

or W<llJ1,;Y \!1.1por.; il. Ims: 1l1.Q.l?lI~ COlSO~

!H~1i!~ (Q~~!rOWijTi(lQ, l~ I;:ol~!;;li~:;;;-:f.!J:

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g<l!\

I\lm~ driving 'eI>:l~llI;s:iom;m

SIJr>i:lmb{l~i ishmd. in ~he A!;".'{:F 1m! ;Irt;;hi~d<,l~'.i~~hc(~1~(,"d lill'lilJi;.'L' of a IliJJi! -J.i]:,;llII-hi~h i.lr~~;1,tl'""nltUl1o L'lUpiling ,~~ \'OI,1IUk,'-rid~ ~i~'F'!polll:'<F:~l!Im 'W~K.) OI!'C basi!l~ l/3 Ij),. [~:-: Sla~ldmd ,a-C'livily C(illlf'\i~'" ,o~f qui't.'Ii(!CIl[ m,~glfm~
SI:ii"'Jl'li]!t;)]i 'Volcano.

--_........I.__~Io....._-r--n..._-"'._._,~~-IIo.~.002:
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d.C'J;_Ia~u:g IbmuMi~.~r.IQ~!''\I{')ntf>

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ooo~Gl -300

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COinlfioolC' huh~ 01." dlC' bulk

Gi1

is

voJJ<!Ii~e di[olch:MWJ!I.C,nlQSI or Mlilit'h is !'i!!Pl'!!~ied by d~J',Ia."" s i!1!i!: (.16, !7), ~~~i~(jic'll~~y.!hc VO~.C.'IlIIKl also pltlCll1ces .IIlOf:C 1)O\\'Crful, dcql!CiI:~ dceu'!Icd !l:)lplo.si(ms a·l. 1~) ihm hl1iv,e no clear War~!iIl,g :sig!'!iid [<111<1-''1 fitun recent ob:iic!"\!miiJlliS of il(~~I:r._"Oly ch~II1,J;,';C'S il!! iIPl~ (."Onla){ll5i1ior~11V~I an-d (on:;:liw:~ al~lilIJl[llf h""jlJro I.h!;~ 'fB~(:)u!S,fUn~of \I i)iiuOTh .1Ijl~l \,'()~e.1.nu)~og ~~ N ~ll:~kc:"TI~i~iTCjilre., in1l-

200(1

1"1:45

1:2:00

t2:Hit2:30

1245

1$:{l0

13:1.5

13:;80

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'!l,t volttlimc g~,samo!!!n.ts: (mof{l(/Jr~, tJilil-'O!) and l1idilllingl :sCiurm tE!IiIiIpE!JaUII~1!! liIiIei3iSU red durirlgl 'IllIlJ!ie3l::t!fIIlllnd ei!ip~OllWede~!Il~Bifi9 (11m Slrtlm:l~mli (9 Apn12002l'. Quie8.t'elfll el!l1il!lf>l!ms p.NxllII~l:1<II 1l!lid<!l!l'(l~1"\doon1iPO~~O'1'! OiIe~~~i::h sharp IlUfSl'tS I(!I~ gi3i5,'~rlrkhed l!Jil{rO~,SO~ CO, ,aJns COS~(lrleiiTi!e~l!Iroo durmgl ,~~!.oonmlls. The~ birsts c.ol'm:ide Wii~'h plila~ill racll:atiofll s.'OUlrr(~ t!!!III~Plerrillme dlJl:E!' Un,e'E!'jll(liolil ,of tn ImO~~11i IIIWlr d(l~. iliihe tnin:ll'j(pto:5~Qr'I, wtbCI!l'e '9<15 c:om,llID!SitiOfil 1150 reportfll 'il1l Talbl'e Lis boxed a mit! showlil inl

1Fi!ll.1. Tilrt'e series,

p.ro\'J(:d lilniIDr.:.tflnding of ihcrmCL."S£~ ro.L1IrQ~I in1!1;~hcdiirf'eucm Iypes 0[' e.~pl!uiOIl"'mil. Slmmbo.li is alsoa hi,!lh IImio:rii~)' roo:ci \'il def:cu\Se, .Bc~\vcen. m irl~2tlOOam:! Septeulkr 2001" we repCiilitooly mea.s ured Ilhc dlemk.[[loompOS~lio.liQ ofSul{Hnlboli magm[!_Jlk:gruses OOI,\\1\CeU d!.!rin~ ,md ~xa)losimls, tlsing op.::ll,.palh f!'ouricr [ffl]DSrOml illllhlrcd IO~~fT]R.) s>pcctroSldOpy. W:iilh this rcmot'C scm.itl.g ~ool,reccn;lly used 'by volcuamlogisl~ (1.0 l.n, nlagtllillic ,g;!!.~s is.'l!Llin:g~lol'l1l,nhJC' CI,',m~r '!IoC111:.'i l:d be ;malyz.od rro:nl ;;_l~<l[~ disem! 100HCC .rndwhh high!!:~~lpO!,d ~>;'~Hlillu~ion-4~fi ~ pC').iod ,. lllcI:';"wII;: Pl\\....~~U :,U!l1~~di.vcu..;:s QJle ~pfl:ii!i;III"~" vc d,I!~1,~~I 'r:!bmill'l,i-d~m 9 April 2002, (hili !lg 3...2 ~'[JI.II'lS of I~::;"";\'t, UI:d ~"..plosi\'~ dt...
g,aH:.si [~I. the :\Qut~'w..,'8~YCtil dlill wa.~ l,nofilllI.C~ n~

grea~r ,demfr~ in~~,51.

r,:ab~ 1. .Mo\ar'!!Ias ~i)'iriiipoositiOi'liSdl!lrfn~ q,ule!)(il!i'iit (ii'i,d ~p~~~i~ c~ate~ deg~~ii'lif)att SU,ombi)U ¥,dlGlIi'i.<i. 11!I!e'<l!1L1redi OI?~FirI~Rs.$!Iertroo.mpy. "TY!I11eal expln~,'{lIi1" £hO'lll!;tne 'gas {Dmp{l~Jtn{l1m du ring Ihe e.~.p~i{!n Mlh sho~\lii! ~!lFig~ :2 ,i;I!ild the' (I'!lie.rage'~as raMo:!:~11J) fb:rsilifi!~l.ail'S!Uld'le»:pl>O$tol1s.'~S!i!i!a'lte,r ~plooi~:ns" ~h(l'>~s Ull~~\nH~,~,e' ,o~m~lJ~iI3QIiI s!l!llaJlh~~;,002"il!l~(lf@f ~xphnioniS. lih~ (!~;yjlijl:!~'~ill1I.~(!S 'limP@['gUi!IFeS '~as 'b ~Eq,lJIiL temp.) ~Wfe[QnJilpIlIte~ (rlom fIilE!<l.S!!!r,!<i (MOl, rt!l:il\:l.'iatnillll~emmodyntJlfl!lill: di!tfl fo:r~he rea(:~on 2,1(0+ O,~'" 2.I(JJ!; .~i)llfll!in9 joo~~ galS beh~~L'l!" rlIdOili bl.1n'@riJ:!~ by $lOOm'bo'['i~ah l[logfO,~ - ,~NO -!- 0.3 (34); and Ir:H;JO.Ili(~,,",idk.e~, O:{Id!e bLllr~rt :5wn.e Pfesslllill!:~w~'inr"e",ed from ~e fIiIwdecl dl:9a,-s~ing cd S~rwIibcti ~at\an ,alllriirl!ll det~:mpre~'.i~OIlI ~~ig,3~. [bod., beloW' de~ed'iion Ilimit.

ai,ie m,thclllnic. Oll1."s:J:IC('A1"OJll~r overlooked Ihi:> vom. rrom~a s)ant dislnnccof240 m. \,rc <l'Cqtliil\,"lI:! doublc-si.ded i~lCrrcro,gID~m. w~lich. '\II"C :mooc~ q ~~a~f~y F'ollrt<;'firual:o~ilmtcd. ~qiSi~I\I;! die: inaJron.'li mdiiltiml c.lniiCoo I~Qfn ~le hotcmtcr fIloor and/or ~n('llh~11J a\'a eject;), The' obm.~ftlcd FT,IR :ahs~ ~
d11G~ofis;itil e- VUlcanologia, (al~a. Ilta~. ~Growpe (fes·')cla'lC6 de, I!<! "err!!, lLaIl«,atol~ Pierre SU~. C~F.l:)·~m, Ciir'SHI'.'i'~I~, !'raI'1C~. ~Dip;'!rUnu,'fi!.Qdi (hilDiLiI ~, lFi!iica delL:! T'En.~ i!d Apr;ll.karionl, IjI'iliL!!fmo IUililijllllrr.1W.IP.alerrno. lil~ly. '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloorfl\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI 'be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait
llslj~",!O Namroale

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1

82.9
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6.1,

0.33 0.44
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11..5;1;2.3 l~U; ±l1.9

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Co/C02

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1

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70(1
.:50.~_'

-Z~'-50

22.8

REPORTS
whieh WD;l'l.'CmS rt~,<bn;;!l}'si:\l.Sudden e'Nn)O!inS~onor eruptl.v~ cloud pro~hn,~ ,m ~Pr<'Wili dwp in ~~Mn;)~I1f.! ~!'> "Iwo~m~ 'IF,i.r,;~!). ~~ !,g 1'ih.o~r '~m 11'~h1~ ~I!g~h- AJ~ra few ~~~QM&..hm~~'~.!. ~ il'K~ cll;,pkJtilvg .BJ,m. 1li~c.1IPidly p c)[IDb l.hI'P1l3~ ex,~~~mJio:n a:nd<lit diihJ!i,on,wlwfI:',j,1I!'iuhe r;ldJ~liun SLJU!t"c (r'l1;~hl\lva d()t~ oolI!L:l Cl1ut~[t f1(l111f) oool~ ~'iOI\:" ~,L\]~dr, p'fovidiilg~1 ~ Il;!ii]~rdlu~ 'l:OI1~ h'ii~l ant! ,~;Iti;pfC' ah;,urp:liofi spG"CC,m. SLIb'lC.'lClini.!!l 111~'OO~k~rotII11:d gal'! !I1],'OiJnl, IJ~~ru;iircd ifilit!edi. aTC!~Ybefore each cxp~~,j.oin [F.tIU1 1,&1e: amount p'roel~ICied !by lite cXp-IOS.r&'!;lil IIIO'",,!~'1'ius I,('i d>C!l:ctt'~ a nnine ~l~ ,eilenlical ~lJll1,1~O$ilio:n f lile pure $Il~ o gms. Once cOO~cclt'tlClugh, the hmer ~li~phu)'sll stable COIn~.aSrtiml '~F~S,2} lJ\mt can be ohscn. ed ~'b, mJ,!lW~ or ~'ln bclb!'C~he~!'I.Ipl~"'Ct:'J(1M'd a ,!_!)·Jdu.d,ly u.i~i<f~~h.'5. WI..~A!l.d l!Il<'l~'lhe-~hlg Zl,<JS!. • mrKL~MtIIl)' ,clvn~.PO fm~l !i1'11C' q'l,li~eQ'~lIl.)rni.'i!o1iO:~~i>;]~ I:;' ~~li. hydro!il\1, '00111.:1'~IlCOL' SO;!,. CO, and '05,. and il... (i0:21SO;:!,. S01.!I~n, and ('0 1 :z

n~c

JllOwe~d by smal ~CiI: <Ina h~FlC'C 1>:r.Q\\rer~!llgs!lml; ~rtN ~'fei1l!1:r 'l'limlllimldg~ by ,g<i:oi 11~1l!! in w 114WCll;;:lo,,'~~!jI!lQ.l[l:t~h~~,~I~l Q!f ahl\,l:~!ml!~H bOl~Jt !he <lh"lImv I;lon~hllit ~<h! il" p;l~f if! C04,,,SMGl (l~lb!~ U, Ub\,.~~filn;;, t1h~.~:;; IPh;;L~ driving ~h~ rit.;hq il~ r~·'I~~40, M~lt iil.chll:;;lml studie;-; of vi[jl~'iil~ ,Ji~~ol\l(ld, ~r!t3IS'ioJ]_li 1ln,,';S~1V'~ dU;:ilIilc,'U'iOl)1 ori~~tlJt 'Ib~i:t .!lso diCt.'J'l~ sou roo cond:itimlS .... g, :t110\V11Oy tn~, in Sfi«ml00li I-~K-bmmll ~n !J) rm_'ll\,'~(_&: lite' key ~mic:hU1c~i' ill I..... ~.y ..?\,fd.lV~~1gV'~llgn~k;: !iP~;;tii,;~. inlbm~1~,i~n to i!.]rl.l!~jlf~ our It''Su~l~ PlCiUlq~.!ivc ' ir)~llIl5i(Ul~, ofuh'(: b.lliililie In~n ~Ii~pp()d in olio sueh,,~ COz. SipjJli~~u' O~(n'~ilj,Ol]S iiiiad~ ibl' ,~-"p~fi ioii~ ojit .. '1~1I]t lii aboi.i[ 280 MPfl t -I o.&:~'fi'i deptl~) ctiiu1~il'i JilTC'rci~t ~Jcrio(b, !>ii~!:jI.~! Ii rcp:rod~jeib~e source (ll~ .m~ro.~ 3,0 we-iglu '~WI) % UlO~ OJ.] WI. Ii/" C1J:::. jUtd (U 7 \!;'] jy~of S w,t] CI, (JJ- 15). At t1'i1fL1: precess, I [0\""""'1('" II.I~c~::q)losi(m." £e~<l.mltld by pre..~LIf:C. the b.,11iLIDllaln.,'ady co!"'1(j$l.<;w:itll,..,2.5 WI. '}~ "5i4,ru~dltlJ:d:"re:posc iim.ct'wds of- ~:5 to 20'I1m'iI1 (~uch as Ihe $~'C0I1.d to I'ilt~pcruks ii'lF~S,1 ) \WI'C or('~,-richS;ns lonlcd by early cxsolmiml of II~e abund,nn (,Ol! contnined ~n Simmiudi gcl1.emll~ rOLmd~o (ji~~I,aYI.lmre !ta)lmll.lcib~,c and 1'I,lrcul;al m1l,g~m .(15}. 'SI,U~ UllIstmm I hc:;c dam h ~~tcr 002f O~.("0[£02, und 'So':!.!~IClrnlio!J, and ru:o:ing :rlle Volmik'C ..h-: !i.ol'l.\\,'mc (ltij, we bMI .(1 lewer Ij]:!:Q!OO~ r.lIt10 !h<.!n!W~1.11~1' e."!lhJi" :;.io~ :.1!!!C~'>f.X'diJ'l!!!l <rl $hO'l'1!!.;T ijmorvo.l)1 rrablr;. I~. cOliltrm'JJd ~h~1 r!'CiSiilW!r'C-.ro~aroi;;"tI C\'o!J !!!Ilion of H~O j\,~Urdi~.lgJ;)', 'nil,,' ~.,~IIi;t I,)(.'I,;;phx-;,itlll!(; haVL.\;l and C02UI~ l~U"n~~h ruld [h~ ~:o: ph,Lc\\C''cl'!iiti"~ rm~)' mt'l'.i:t!' ,hall:o~~1mhi!:~n,C'oll~i!1.tcm wilh thc:~,higl~cr cioll1oo.".sy.~cln m:cC'nl m~d dillThftntim:titnn ~I1'dckoC], ~ r!\'~IUl}llC~i :,~~~d riJ'W~'f C'I!O!'g)I', or[he~' mtly be lhyK,iO) Q.r I,he ~IK·l .. f~~Jn li'«l' MP~~1(1 Ihe . ~aU
~l!1;lC ton

W:;!i~io~ aIi'C

vc times as ,h .gh. ~hmll)V~.

I

iill. 'OOIllPlrtOO oq~il ~1~dmliltemVCil"I1i!~ (~'ooO"" 1.0

11E:+22-rr-A--------------------------~11'6.'1IE+2'111 E~plosicn Cl'lset f.•... . ~.~: • :- :

~Ufr.t;C~. The ilJlI'!OU~ll~ of S ~~!ldC~. .a:~,g;,,~d du.lingnhi:> p~('$li \'1l{,'t!.',) dum ~.$I:ll(I!t!:,ld. l'n;:v~lli:m IDt';.i!l ,fit of IlIroir,clisNJllw,d OOI!ICilil \.",il1.In.."l>~JCCI 'to

,r.

=: ::._H~O
COo:!)

r:::::

· .. -~; '1
IHCII
1
1

1.4 I '1.2

,l:;>
'11i'J

IJ,lO and Kt) iin, nn~I;~. uilcluo;iol'is OJ H}, The ~mlil1l somt:esof IiInet'l13~ll:t~' in. ,otur: 111moddililg arose rroml~~1i: Sp<ili'SC Ilunl'iher of mC~l iltclus;iiL1J~s 1"C100l1(l'ing hH~~l1.Cdino::'rpl\."'S.~Llres; !l!lldi, 1,1) a lesser

c

1'0\8 '~
'(lEi!
;Q

'.'1

III

8

::Ii

!tl2

ro~()gicOhSCJI'V3lto!tlS and tlilC FTm.-mc~~m::dgas 3 8;llOiwsl:~~~\,I:lria~iIo!l1S· !b01C'Oz, ('02IS, !Iud S/CI I'nO:~lIir 'm"{l~ in Ihe l IXiIWlU)r:i~nng.1s ph;m,....:;: .(I."i !I f~n(;~iol!l of r~'l\!>!urc IDcIWCCI1I100 IIItd O. ~ MPtI IS and ell ]~eru llI:'!h 'In mhe c:tso.~vcd amu'UliU, on· 1iJlillk elemental l'iuU.i~r ruu.cl chlorine whit'ih. in StUffi,CC e~nil'$kms, predQmillii:lill~y occuras S02 and ~ICI. 3:'l,:sh.oW'Il~~ere aad in (16, fi)l.

degree, rmllH illlri~s:ic lim~lal~[1n!'of \IQ~<I.tikC~lc in !i.ium~]ming I~~CdCl'~;lstiing of w.~r(;,ll1'~ridh Ims:dt (2tH. NO~'\\I'iIJ1~lnnd~!lg:liwi.·~' i"~l!!~, the moockld dcg'lssing tIlCJ:IO<SeprodllCcdl .r.1ir~y\'\JC~] ~(lJdl ll!Ctr ool'!lrru;hio:ns. fjgll[C

or

[8

We highlighll,V'o'O cOJlch.lsinns.

(i)

The chcm-

:00

ka~ cnn.lpo$hioll. of qlolic.sacn~c~nis:i!I:Olls .liS\",dl ~pl"Od~~-d by 'OO'll,li}l\;:u~ d(g.tISSIDlg of tile ~I)' riSit11g b;asal!.wi~lh I), Imnl>il.iQJl :~rom cllooed· ~o

()J);!I'lI-SY:ll~:'m ocmClilWI!5 ill ihc :'itmllow \'Okfllliic ooluluil;;;;. This 15 COlnl~i$tli:11fI whh 11 stcady-:>t.'lIiC ~C'~ of miiLgum!! 3:5CC'~U. d'cga:llsing.alld con" ¥~'~i".c O~~'L'tLwn dml, CQ~I~ri1.:ml!.C5,~hc ~'ulkof dlC WJ!I;;u~ic w~:;; (H."PlLi!, U6" I: " Th~ end1!(i,~ go.:;: ~nl.Y ~~i\lL';~'l\,rrnm,hcu[l~ldcd cm]ll'Kl"",'~im~illl
ils~'migh\1f w~t~Of}Jf[~nlillld

:li.1:i!!!i1fltly l'o\~if SiCI

3 J- \Vc flUri:blllJlOi! ll>:;~ odi'i:id !depilfid.cs to l'!O~~l~'lli'Cscopjc iiJIlcrfCfCllCC,'!i. ~rom~i[lw.t!c'mpcmmliC, W<l,tcr~ i'lnd Cl,Lich cm:tt>t;1"
nun ~.~nrmroles 0(27, ]~} and probO!ib\I~''Cltlmimnenl; oi'm'!..'Ii:..:oo!c stcfill.'i I."m.illl 't!I,.;~Ul'lrftl,.'!.'\'~ytlrottile.Fll1il:I, ;:,'Yl'I~ll, {iii)' The g.'1r;'; ,sh~@>driving SirrmnIXIJ!~ailJ C)olpl'n.~io,nsr--alllH:lj, lliUiC a s.:lmllow origin,. [n.!ead, Iheir mC'OJIstl1n:xi cmllpol'ili,ml!.'" corresllOrl(llnlllo~c' aChieved by the cqLlilibl'imn gas ,~hase under oonlinil'lg pl~Sl~re.$ of -70 to 00 M[D,'il'tllIDst

r.l[io {T8b:~~1 3lJdFig.

Q +, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

(I

·~2:50:30

12:51:,00'

Tlim~{GMn pure: 's,~lIIg p,has'e dr1v~n9 ,00ne UhJrs:r,~ti\l'e Al the iIlxp!lmloll OIllf1et, marrbd IJ.Y"I!leak sOt! W;l, 1P1"~\ll !f!ll!lIIg d'!I;!'l1el;lio'fjJ, As th>e g;l!S (mo~tel'l lava dOlls) and H~e 911:5:in't:reases

lF~g. 2. (I) G<'lrSo1ImOUl!il'S Cllrld (81 mOlla!' g:a,s Irado5 ,[)~ the Strolll1l.bolilan exptosn'oln {whridl o{c~med ,It ltl:~1J:41 GMn. 1,111 f~,c:if!rll\le 1f1i~~nslty. the ~o\l$ i~a,s ll!1l oi!i~lJhe f~df~tio!11 ulois" the lherllflil't ,olfl~rasl hel\ll,oorn,~he rildia~TI,1l1i SQurce IlHIi'tl~. ii~ stable CQ'1iI1i PlllSit~j}1!!I ~~~bs'~I'VIe<!!!I,.

m(;'J(gc'icc~xpkv"ku~}~o -20 MP" lS~l]!!llll;'$l cxpln.'liI:lJl."" To ~r-'(;Iht~i,': (.'{m.l~i.i~'lS <It ah~ Jlllir[ac~, ~lC ~.I:ll.g,-, Il1!INIIffi~l:;1l r~ s.t1.~u:;lIel)' ~iul'll'dlC ~'ingri1l!l from ,depths IJcl\"""''t'n -2"7 mid

I

REPORTS
F'iig. 3. ~rl'5~ure-rel.ol~ed rnool'ledev()!~II~!Oliliofllj!:OJ(dOz, mz}S, Sl(l mCilalr raU~ in t~e liI1\a!liiliiatkg(l5IPh(l~~ d'llriiiilgi do~d5~teml !:I~celilt, 1l:I1irfer€lli~l1itiQn, .and de!lla5~illlgl o,f S:IlrQfrnooin Jj!K;-ili~5.!l ~t'~lQ [} it(! 0'.:1".1\IfPat)~1iI,difderre~$oQ~""c:e depUns: !ill~ ~a~ :~llI!9S dl!'jj:vin9S~j'!;)m'b~U'i!lil e:.:pIMloi1iS. G~;!: m(jdi~Ungl \jjg$ pe1rm!lJnlfIed l!l!Sil1l!!]1 the cih!!rn~str)!'snd ,~i!sro~wd villliati!l·eoOIlil.ent
all1d

Deplh
+-

be:low ,craJwrr V€\i'I'ls 'kIn)
3,8;

1.52.3 0.8 50 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~"'50

,(If olMf!e~~~5l'{ld mett j!'ldli!5iolii'~ Ire~r~ll'~tative o:J ·1.h·E!p,ririliv~
~nd @lIO~iof@cI blI~lI~t (j3"":1S); (ijl~ Ilh~ o:niginl1 ~ CO~ (ooOO~t o,{ S:tmlillbl1)~i IpareDltil~riIiI<!grnCi~;5); ami (iii) V'()~8it]:~e(i!k ~OH\'li!N' (2li~.iIIe- V!ililatilf!'Calc >ortw.;! ~ wa'5 used tD, oompute the S~ejllby~s~!!p eVl)~uti®1'l 0'. i~l~ lIUld! CrJl!:il'l ~he: riIiIell.alild tile g'I1Ill pha,se [rem iniiitil rbolJll'ld:ary (ofild~tiOIlI.l. ,of 'P ;:::;2tH) M~.a\ r=~MOP(, ~ S' •
30 00

m

(J'

o
mIloirl

aJf!d !'ndt SiO~ - 4~.5M

r @~S~ e:l::pWs~(J11iS reqt!iif@ 11i1~r!;@p(lfal!! as(~nt hOOl I' .. glr'e9£1.1!re~f ...801to 10' MlPa to 2:0 MIP~\ er .. ,3:- to O.a~kn~deptb o ~ ~e~~~'(h:e' 'llel1ilS (,ji,~.,. 'hi'!'! bet:I'~,Il\FI~i1~ l.I'Ol(!)IFlO·(Flist ~J'U\il',rf~K~ O+-~~--'_--~--~--~---r---+~-+--~---+ ,~nd the Tyrmeniiillli S'e-a leve~l Th,i,~.~5 mud.. ~Ee~er than the 1/00 40 '60 5ioun::e' d!Ip~h h2!)Q IFn) Q,f l!;J;p1050ion ailiUalkes (6-,8), 1~~~GfC02 IPl~e5sllJre'(IMPa): rrali®~ '$ugiQe~t $(IIi'I1l!l;~li',hatlo\'ler lbut more· !1I1f!.c;e,tooInWi,lrl)e d'~:pIh,s, 'tilwing W llarg,E1rarnll~call'inc;E!rli!irnty ell emitted HIO!;O alld! pf'olMlil~ entrainment o'{ hydrO'~h!l'm1alllfli!!l:eD.r1t slil1\1lm duringl si1l1l~llJ.w ~l!1lg ils.t:eniL

'£ll!n,e:sis of StrombO:~i HK~b8l~ll~{tn !has be~liI!akellllilntoa(~ ,count. The ime.a~~r:ed(ij~ .a!i'ld' Sl(l ~ti()$ of gas :5lui9~ d1rirmlil.g

~~, P·~rI;i~lsl;!lf~r e~.~(I'l!i!t~Q!il dllring

:5w)m~()r!an

..

1(1

so

d~~ool1il.im.J~t~cs(.t, 51 or ]1.'Om!lhe coalcscenee ofbubbk"" wi!1l d~lrerellt sizes mKi ,i~ i'i1JJ!"X'ld s {2., .n. Di!i!(;rin1un~~ i~ghi;l.\\'~n thc_,"C' ~wo pl'!nll)t·,..~ i ci1l!n~I1.,gin!il,. (;,\I~'I]~IH;}!,lll!hlh(;' ... fOI'ilTICI.· ~limllld be Irml()OO bJ, ~ IlCI«lf.!(-d ~.r.n.vmL(;' of gas-rich nnflJ!;!,'uml :and eOllllld thus li:xpklinl imcren:>cs ill m::mo.ii ~JO). e;.;plooi.on.qllflk.c f~ .. '!Ilileilc.y. and gas liil.l)t (3 III thtlirr fIIC obsm'ed dmiln,g p'eI".iOOs; oJr dc\m!oo m:::il:ivily. Increasing Il'l!8!lUil~ pernv .. "abilil)' in the slml'tow volcanic oonduils would m:thcr inih ibit sillg ccalcscenee, ']ihCJ:!CTorc" tHaks::1 mrolhcr J!l.oolilli::lrictd di~oontiJllIl[}' cx'5t\131 -1: "mbelo~1{ ~lC vcnlS, the moat :s~mn()W £011 ... 'Omll!!l:i!i]ion.~ (Q:5S.ooim,tcd w~~h \:v-eakcst c'XIP·lo-~llC ~iol1~ lImy ~:e:~h,-..;:~ greater incO"rpouution ofs~'mnow b~!bbl~s into $I(}\..:~yrisi!~.~I1Ji!lI~l: sl~JgS. \'vhic'h ., tb~ln~d .il ~lC \'"Ol.c;J~KI"'Cnl81 iu~~1i3OC.
SUilLC!l!r.1:11

OJ:kntlJ below IlIID \1';11i1!:S (ITO( :TI. rock l~rt~ilY 2700 kg. m-:i) I~m~. rml~between 3001,illlhe IJ)2ISC() nhe VO:tCrulik:piU~~ :.'lJld, the Tyrrhel~i::lill Sc."I Icvcl '(Fiig. 3), [tl Lhill dcpah hllCrlIlru, dlC ~ndl. v~icMlm;~.yil1.'CreA'lCS I:m;pkllly ~ro:l!ll-ft351(l; ~O.7. promotil1g a tmllsLtioll jIDm cb~>d- 'to oPCI1sy:;h!!m (kga~sing (lfJ). A~I~!c voic:!nQ=cn..!SI il~t\.\~b:OC'. ~ru:g gCllll.'l'iis 'ootl~d ~hlJi,<i: resu II '~illl(:)r fiOm blJbhlC "ool,lmu!hi!io~ and to",n g!fmv!h,~1

or

dl~muinuiny. find I.ht:rni,l[.(;: pmc('·S$ ,or slug .!!liJm~sis, Such :1Il obs(:rvadmi I~~f~~.' ::iPtfJ1y 1,0 ·sc\'liJr.d other VOle:lHUlCS !(s.l!Ic.h as Vmarica. Erebl:ls. Masil),il •. Y9Sli1r. lind Arenali) di5p~i:'lyillg cOlnP'lmb~e l'lCiSilSll::1lt explnslve llii."::ljiViIly.ek:lloCoo IIl!jl 'On tl'lc+rmi.ll.QHliiI volllluk crmtC':JIt~ind tlilr:: gco:mcollj' {af systc'nl!. Rcocm FnR meilSIl!I:C~ J3 I d'c~cclcd 'wi,!ak COl! 'C:li1ric'h~ mt'H~ ()f g,.Ii. dlr.iJ\'iHg CXl'l!t.!~ifi~l,~. li!;(l ll;u;k of bl!u oonMrnims. [mlu .sciismLc or l~ehdosk:a]1 d~!a IU"Cw':!1itcd qll;,]!lni~1!~i\~C assessmenr or dtc ~Il!!g
lP~lumtlil~g me!llll.'i OIi1 Ya'iuf

[hc~r

P.!N., rram.;l$., M. 8~floo.. c_ Op!ilJ;iflheim~. lVl!f/~ .'I!?6, S&7 (1'993), 22. P:. J!lllud. iii. BcJfliDI'\,. F, "'lIIrti:, If,~tiflli ·4~3.<l()7 ~:200sl ,23. C. ()1ll~fim'liIl!ifil'l.~r;. P', a..m~ i, (lI[hllil~ ~,. ilrn1!~, ill. M. :~r, . .ilpjl. P/!yr. .19IS, 4·5) (200~)·. ~o:J. (Q1il \'je,fI~ c~me'1!ll~ftI wilh ii' ~rl.lker 'OI'\f!6·" mill: ftl'I!dlMomIe<ter, ~tiI'lIiimg, at ,~,~ ~Iil!r~~~IJ!iillll, ~Ingl~.~ft, d~b1i!!-!:iilildllnlf.rII!KI!Ir~lI'I'I~ w!l\~ '~DLlmM m!)" -11 '5 ~nd \\le~~ "cun~ tfltll!5brm{l!j ,,1i11rr1e mLh HI_Il' IlSl!' c! MlI:rmn·B~r. ifI~dl~iI'Il ~i1Icdi:!.1lljon. ~~,pN.lri!l~ ~!l)'!;~ l!<I'iIl!i. poeri'armed iM~niI ~OIl!~n~iI!' 1e.l~·I!ilUilff!5 fi~il.l~9II!i'r'Q~r~I1'!i!~dl .~cl~~1 !f.;,!Wi! rclliOOd~ b;l!l~ .all"! ~.rlUliid··th~ R!ri!lr~ IFcMaiitll MlI&t 0.3),. fbi! dil'f(!~lit

tL

dc~lll. In~proVl,;-d w](rcrsMID1clj~~~ of ~'hc lnt~hml~s.1tliS cmnmlll~n~!IU.nnboli.(ln c<xplM-ive s
SO'lute

pl'l.)!;irlIl ClOOidittDn'lO of illm(j!u)h~i(

~ nril Ioro'IGl!fIic gDlleS

I'lel.i\~.ly ck;;uly

If(~ll~~

IlfIuIII.itii\ltip:linary

in'!,l(.".i-

we«i'I~~m in iI(~r!~ U5~ .~I~-liI<)'.ef al~ll~nt rrnil!iftl. llolorllnlc '!I~~~iiI1pilfall.l~ \W\M n!ll'fI:!wd b.~ :~il!llR!I Ihiili. 11la;r,arlill~~1If urlDll aniil)'Si5 dlJli!:l S02 Vj, '*' ~'J d

t;lgmrfmi:;..As,sliownheru. ));pt1e~m~copijc measureIl1.CilU oi"ihc driviug rm!lfjmmi:cg:asphfJse..'l is :I. po'Wcr,rlll[(}o.~ iill :SUd~$tlli(~iell,.
:!I.. lit S. J. Sjl~~~• .t t:IJIl,II'Illi.Gil'.o"~M1I. k~, :~,:ll ~'li'fi8h 2. IL Wi15!:Hl1,. }. IN. IH~iHii~U,J ~ k :86, 29'H ~9i'1~, 3, IE.,A. I~irmt J. vur,onw, 6'er;J!!'Ii!'i!ffl. ~ ;!,~~, n flOOA}, ~,(. l"'~l!n. . vergnict~. ,Nl1l~Jf! 3U, !ill (19,1l1e),. S ~. C, }Mlp:lil'l,. s. ~gn!oU~, ). Fl:u.itl ~dJ •. 2.o~, 3~;I' (19.r!l91, :5c Ill, C~OIl~~.~@I" J- G~fl· Rff. i02~ lS,U'Il (l';!'17i. r. lil. Cilouet. ,i!'/ D1., J. ~f$.. Ht!.1. :108, 2ui'90 (ZOO]), S. M, Ri,pe!]1I" s.. Di1lbelillfl, M" 1il,)ff1r.w,a.,}.', ~. Fte>. ::1,'06"StU a:ooU. 9, C, A. l'iawl2, '" (. I\~il, !'. Iil IIWte) It It I[)i~~.

,Rll'r{!m~u::e~ IN@te~ ·i;lno,

al~ UOO aoo4i4&! om.. l. alItIlittlng MI .. QuI!:!(!l!flt di!g>l~lli1g' CcmliJ1li~1i!I,IiI~ Ibill!1M!@m iJ'1Ieu: ~)errni'lu;d wilJ\ilhe Uie 01 ~i~l!'at 'H1!l d !~(OOrela.~iOf! 1~'l· gI w1@niC 9~~,~o~~g~ P :25. P. Ji.L1.anl,~h!lrad ,GIl'IM.;SDM.. ~~llliI ~1.1fI~ Plinid: Wnl~. !hI!' e~e;!:iDlu

ob~!iVoed.~na~

cO!i!!!:!ili!~li!!II,!i!~dI it 2500 cm-il., w)}1I'5e J(!·ta.i~n!!ll~ne ~!ll~is l1i~bL)iI~nnpefo!l~re d\i!l)~mdl!rn~.So~r~ 1~1!I1~I'MIKf!~ 'IWft dil'II!Jilllln~ fram lilt tlli~!l d tn~

£1II'op~I\IGEq!Ili.~lciil. ~illion Gen@i'at :I!5!itIlill.Ii'. Vi:tnool .26. $, ~ I. it Illiwi1i:'i!i1ii!l'i'I, ~t.iI. GJ!d~. :l.s, ~9' t200~. 2i!. M. Ohaj~~!liMJ, C. R. A.tU!, .Sii Por!~' :l!611.,l!24h n965). ;!s. !'It t C~rO!l'lec~a,:C. !ied'erko, J. !lWw~ Gew.!l\ies-m, ~, 9.5,llr (ZOOIIlI}, ,,9. MI. IBurlQll1 iii. Mader, M. NiaGci" P; MardI Ea~ lIS (F.1!1 ~!iii!i :5Iljijjl1J, S:2 (a'bili', 1oI'J3{;·IIU (MO.)). ~O, H~1M!iI!J; S,. ~'I!i.1~rl::l, tf'tfi'!.,w'. 6r,oplIo~ ~.4;;. S7U99!5). ~l. M. :ltipe,pe .~ (ill" Geo/OW 27~ @OO!U. ;I~. Me K .I-aIFl1~, 5-l !,;;in~, IB, A. ~1!e!. J ~~ ~. In. IfOS20lL ~:2006~. .B. It 'D\JilDl'ia, IlIltMm(1)i !!i~'O;dQI'd\'l'ifI!Ni'..aUI!l1'CQ:,ac.IiI~M.
~~Iti.a. :!I6··~ ~ ~1~'7,

'!f,"k~1\':IVi!m1L"I~t1l;:h~n:-I~!OIII SIll'tl!1l1Axlli'iii
~llln-'~~~~1

.n". ...

C'xpl;o!'ii~m!ii h,~,"j;) ~ll~lch ·d:'i1;,fllif ~:Qi[lID:-; Itlan I:lru",io~l.Oly :~l]r(JncdJ[iPllill gCtlphy:;,~c,,!~d.:tl~ (6-i'li, II. 12). slnln.oW :(-25:0-.:111) SoulfCC
<I.CI11:11

acoll:>lic ~iigrli1lls do not si§l:il)! <L :shil~letW originl of t!t¢ rising gas ~lll1gs. hlStcad. th~ :i!J,g~mI8 i1~C ~he 1:CS!J11l of <lI!)CITI1QI1'Cm :S111llwu,!mll dl:>CO,l,ll inui,ty at dleb.~lsc 0:1:"dloi:~Ilpcr c(mctLlil:>, whe1't:: decJl!ciI~ ck:ci'l'ctl ~1i.~ sl~l8~ IJI'KierJo all. ahrlllli'~ Iklw-pauem e'hallgc 13'2) bcfo:~c bllU'S1ing at tile SUl"tru::c'. This crmdus:ion is slJJ~JXDI1L~d 'by 'Ih~ ~mcl'l!Jnged~rnlroc locOJlliOI;1or c,,,,plosi~1fI q L.mk~'$ duril1g Ihe 20fl2~ 20031 ..va !low ¢Ifi!.'p:lion V despill.e lo1JU!ml d.r"Ul.. g~ the Mp~rnl,lgIVQf! on.~lUlm~.;I{c IhLl!'O \
~,,'~ii ;.o;J(on;g ... ~I clcon~~rliJ~~~l\~I!L'"CI]g(\ojlhJisk~1 sigajalt;. Gft~ieL;Xph.lSii}~::;,'MIiI[o.1.1:~. by $,i:ttiClu~.<I1

or

n~

1\ W ..Sd1I~~, J. V1l/bailiM. Gi!tli!i'I,~m, rre~ :I:~l, 10.5 {21iIIlI(ll ~n,~. r. I'ij;.~~ .M. ~ni' 5, Y.Sd~~; '4. Ii. ~f<E~ J, ~mM.l,. (lm~fIl\I. ~!1. lOll, 2!l ~200ru.
l!Ji. :!i.'!Ifrgllli.'i:lUe, '(I. atramll~j~,. F.-C. Min{\{m~l. J, G~~ !!!'n.~Q:t :;!~49! U 'W,n 1!2. M, It;ijlI!!~~.ii. ]1, L lH!ani;;, It (lIl111iei, j. ViliG"tUli!l'l GtM.[hYlIJ, k"i!!l.. li8, ,;!e~~ '(200'2)..

l',

explosion

q\l;lkcsrlm:lrils."iiJoL":iill~~-..d

3>'l,

NI. IIIH!ltridi,R. OOMh~l'ti, 4.B:Il(1W~,

GwrhJ'ill. (OSffltlCMm, AClI!l'

fi~'.

18. 1M.metr~Ch, A.

or

n

SlI!!p;partingl O!ii~n!i'le Ma~e\~lal. 17. IP. AlJJafd .~ !il'L. ~phJli, ~~ Mit 2:7. 120!j' ~200(1). G uNr.it:fiMceJru9·!J(9f~gilcOlfllefilIirI.lIlB11·f5:B35J22.7tOCl 1)f. [f: ,~ri" M.. ~~ .~ ~L~Qf~ V!!.tw~ ~, H;I ~1,}~)). IFig, Si 1l9. It. AitJ.p.p~ (. fl!dl!:lo, GMphp,. ~; MU:. till, UII1lCl7 (.2,I)(Ii1). ,~8 IFtbJua11i\!' ,~oaii;iiHeJl:lJed iUI""W ,:roo':;!' 2!). t MDri lit ill. , ,r,il~ flklil ..~ U!iI.134-, 2119 {l?9'5}. lO.-n2g.r~ii!jjj~e. HilUM

:~~. 111, .AI~rd,. , (;!fbilIUI~Ile, I'll, ~\6ilir;~, IH. 1O~, ~ IjI. Zf!lffiD~ lIitl'ru~ 311it 3:2& U~~)i..

I!e;rt~,.irn~ P. Loil1d5,. M.Ito!i. j, ~ 4"~ 14;71 ,[200:0, l!.4. A. IIIlflDgl!lil1li, M. i!MJl11cl!. ". lLilI1Id!i, M. I!a~~J. ,~~ liIes.U~{I, :tl]~6 W)I!OO. jJ5. Iii. ~ndl. N,. iMlArkh" A i'il!iitagmi~~,M. Iikl~l MDTb, ( ~1i~eiQJ. PiIl1I.~I. ;l!,1'!'jI'. 21!.l {;;!'OOO.

35. We: ~iI~elfillllv .i!~"~~I.e!!!le:lhe' 1)~p'i!ftiJ!il""I!1I (;Ii
jiKiiitid M'!MII.'!iI.

I'ir~L'.!Iiglfl~ 0iIri1~of li~l~ lor lI~ilj@W :~~ppll"' \JIlll

I'~~ OP.IFTIlI

l'I'ii!o!~i.n~ifii!i'i~ om

S.i'iliJ1.Wli

",ha pr'o.tedI~2: Stromb~i., We' 1hiil!fi'l:, A. .8(ln~co~, S. I)L... ~M [.e~liii 1'01 lIih~r atl COIl~nlf!lm ~uJlip!ln lImd N. !I.II!1.n~ (WPS, Sa~l~y,FfoiIru:lI fcr !helj;jI~1 dnQJ~!il1oIi15 CPlI ~~t~ i!KIu~i'w! '~iJli!', imilkir ~PDr1

REPORTS

IR'B'm.nan 01:tha Ear'ly S,oll,ar Syslelm W!I'ter IEnr'ichl8,d in Hes'vv OXylgen lsntnpes
N<loY,[I 5;a!kan~®ito, 1, Yus u k111Se'to., ~ Sh,~iic~~m1'I!®h,:iI liy(jSI~] KIL!lI~.amiOt!~,Ol lKiyos!h] Flilljliin.<I,:!. Kafl!IL!lI~ide NOlJgl[I:!llnliml'[l,~Ale:X<lmijJe:~ N •. Kro,~:iI lliis.aJ.~o~IM ¥uri'rlmt®i~i4",

!In~. e!mrnClem!k x,~my '-:fICC'U<'i From inct~Yid~ .. l, ~!.11~ .. ~~{I\'\,'!hm~h\l}lOCln:iiiij.t fthc :s~nc eleo ~m:1l!1-~ ,~I'(:~I~rmi!i~y ~h!i;: E·S~M~rg;Ds ~t",dy. ~ F Ul\,.¥ ob"~ct'!.I.;libi~n!s i~l~:i~h; 'nlHII d~c clY\ltlll:;; h~w~." i!:ll!~girn~li.~~Ii'k.,,;o :s~.~l,Uro ~~!fId 11i!11y 1['(,1i'IiI;·
~'ia

I

~ilctlll,;i:~acuc,i!,;OJt.~ijin is :ni;)'C~~~fy to id,.;~!~ry it. AII:l'nO~i£h ..his 11IiXI'h::ml 'tGmsl"m~ of Ihe ;:';~jilll: 'L,.;iL-..
itr'i~1S
m;

a nt\.v Fe-(}·S be.. fmr\g~ni!l~ml 11IU}~jCde1 ~~i"I~ C:h~~nJ~r'reriz,,;,'lI~ll!1;e (PePl

O~!lefl iSil).tu'piic 'Ciom~o5~tiGl:n 'D~ our Slola, :s¥~~emis: beilievild to Ihav@ resulted hOIllil mixiing 'iJlJ lW(I,is(lrl.opkaUy di:s.till1ct nebular rese!f'IIIoirs, ~!!O·ri(Ih~lIld H,:!!i1IO',rill:h rre-l!a!fi'~~00 Earlh. li'n,~ lI1~hl!r,e a!ild 'CiDmiPOsilti~n ,of' th' l:)',:1!~O-rir::lillre<:iel'\!'oir are· p,o~:ri¥'Caiil5~ra~r1e~ W@ r@portillll'lil'l sHill •. di~CiD~@,ry (If a dl!!mricalllll' and fiSotop~(a~llyn~qt!'~ m;:Jten~l di~tr~!bl!lit!'~ llbiquiitoll!dV ]]iI fil'!l!-glf."~iiled u ~nil1et:OJII!~ a ~lCW=PC'P: ~,"tfi:< '~f' ,g pfim~lt!hl@ 'iCQll'b~f!~·~~(lYS;hol'!:dui~· AdeiF 094. rh~s: n'iI(lMf](ll fo:rn'!,ed by !(!):i~atlOifq i)lr ( The chtnlii::aUy m~kil!~ ~li!di~I(!lPicajl:y m~om~ Fe.Nii·:llU~W~. an,ds.1,IU!d~'S: ~y ~~atew .e~the~i!iilihe 5!Oi[o;UIi!~bl;lla ~r i(l1'!1 a Iplai'let~illl'n,gIL. O~ygleli! i:S~'lI(lp1I( ru(lUg;.,u::-\:v-rcr~. ,~re !Jlliql)l~IDIJ$ Ol!X!cl ~'1(;,~lt~J1(;c] ,coll1;PQsitiQI'1I this m.ai~e~ia~iil1dtc.at~$ that the ~~a~J6r of ~~'ashigih~y Imricin'ooif1l :11'0 all1d :li80 "uJdCind)'!~.lroughol,.lllhi.:Ader 0911 nUllri"," (3'1'1,~ilO$MOW = +1:801%0 IX!r!lniU. prol\l~dlng tinE! r'irs't l!f\!id'e~o~ror ~!lJ ~)(U~!II1I!!!lV :U·,l:BO=rklli T~"'C!lltJ·~WO:nC~'I=IP(,P:.; UhI: 13r~~ TiSI t",o jJlff) ~es@~ir iliI.th~ ell!'~V sdtgr$y.Sit~tm, ~~.~jf1l.;' i~!(:llnj ~\d~n,~ro!.!t n ;~nIt =rnrn:! .wC-<J! of dlC ~l,I1nX lu:-:in.\l !(,\~~m~nI"~ m"'nlP);u!J 'W~dl ,~ 7·~.~i2
I

oon.ui'nillni.)1 ebservcd in o\'I.qliJl~o.jj:;ly li~l!ei'Ctl eM dnrnttiru~~ and ~rIi'~ly co:nlp.i)sc(ltlr IliDt!lil~illte or I.ochillini~c.eronstmli~i!imc'll.\~o'\!llh:; (] 1. 12). hs 0 SilfOmrntio.fl:aru abrnn ~. tin;li!;~ as im~e ,k$ IhOM: in, ·tochmnit~ .• ~kirl\<Iltcr.\\'c ru:l~r.·to this:

gin and C'ilrly c\loiu:tiull C1f"he sfiobil' Sjl.s~ lean tI). Oxygen isn:LUf!C i:1l1l1'osin chmidri~C'!l; (:hoogc IlQt o:u~I.)'b~ rnass-dell'fl'l.'h::n~ ~so~j]pe ~ffi<;ti.O~1:11 hlW (i~otOJ'C ~hLCtionmio!1 dependion illS on mass cliiITC'I'C!l!OCo" aurong imlope:::) bLJ! mliiO by ~,rn-'§C' Hl<Il1!lcimJlC\rncfldcnl i:;;owpo;:' ~~tiol1= atiIm (M~.F)~h,n kilOCp ].'JiOlSOmlio m:m1y (GIla .. ~ S!.mH. II; is gcm:ml~y accepted 1111<'1[t ~.\OO,jlruoo Mlf by meteorites 1lI."Sl!~too rmlu mJi;o;.in.g of~wo lsow;ptc:!lly d i~liinCI. ncbubr rcserveies, ~"o"ruli:]i~ :(!Ind n.I~1ch (,,?j. Tho c(J1lml1t'}Sij6m! or II'C ~!iQ.
r;1(;i] [\.",..;,ewv(air
SliLT('S

O

X:yg()!fl i~lOf,l~C \,;1I1~LlioJlS in diUl~driit~ ~lro\'irlL.:ilTlpcra~nL OO'l~t.ruiIJUS !l1U111111:

oo~

pos.i~io.!f!

o['lhi" primordial ,~rmerllrlm {,~aimrt'Sp;o:nid~LOan ~"I.I O.ric~lnC[)u ~ If~r i\.~nICl:j r i.iJt the carly sollflf systcln+in 1l.g1.ilX!mCIH with the sc:~~:.s;h.ieMillg

~rLhi,~

fll"b,.~t1j~~

f{:;'C.ord!Jd tOIl1:~:1iili['m

'!o)piOJi.'> per min ion IPpm, 'by

~!~!I~ 1','\S,(]h..rt~nn.ni~ '~~m~:l(l'1dlla, 94 ± l

20

\,!I)h.n:l~C.. B!CCrllllsl!:

has

~"(:n

.~C{:tllit~y ~tlll :.ilr.)iim,;"{j

Imrll'il 1~I.op~C OOllilPl"llSiliL"JiJl!i f !lilltJwll11r nadeno c (31 ani! .of fI uni,qll:c dm.illdnllc (4). The nl;)llLJI'C 1II1d cmnposilicJIl (I r m1111I i,HI,:O.,rieblllCblJllnr resCfooilrm'C :lim poorly (lon~'rojllcd l5. 6}. fl!..cw C'Oruingto Ihc CnlT!..·iU~y GWOI::i.tc sci r~5}lich::ling models (i 1J). lliCb'Ll~ar ~V'al.CI' i$~IY:rK!th.c$~z.,."!i .. W~ ililVC ~. ,woe-en'1 ..~I '1 ·cnr.lc i~cd· m n .I:~'Ol;/ to IUg.~.y _... - " ~ 20"/0) l)elilIl~vc W [ .. nil. which is. IlOiwcv~r. y~1 1.0 be veri ned by iSOiWpCmeasurcmenrs, Here \""'C rqum: an iu s ill!! d~soo\iclY of 1[1 chem ic.lIl1.y and i::1:9Wpkalmy !!Iliq~IC ml[lLc~iill inli~c pl.1mi= cllrl'IQUmCc~lls. citonorhe Acler iJ'lJ4.1hi::. 111<l~r;'rral ~.sm,.inlyw!~.lp(ll5cdl of i'lUl. ~Y.ilN:n. ~!1d ;;,u lfin!f, ,lH~~ 11 lli' ·~!f!~k:hL;-".dh! I '0 ..nod li~ i~h ~:Ib (llptt) +~. ~·%}rcI4u:i""" [0 Em'lh·.~(M;:~,:;m~. l\lfiu· ~[al:ogic,~~ ob:stin'<lit:iOJI:-i mud IhL:."mlOJYJJl!unic 21J.Ii:dy:>i::; !j,U~!~pi\l dlr~l.thi.~ m"lfc'f.iii;~ R:~\Ilttil r.UGI'Il o1'i.ldm,I.or! 0:1"i.mlliillleti\l.m'l~/on- irofll. sLl~l'idc by :WaI.cr in~hc OOllar IlDcbllllaor OJl ;rn. p~<llil~hmll,

nw:

Ihc' esti~uiJlu:. Thre r.Jcw=·PCf oncn WC'X~Sl~. wi!~l noilire ..~ di~ovcr'4;,'{J il'lo:l,'{nl"l1.cr!l~ymmlnlill{l!!iI!!i. rcgiOl"" (Df [ oxygen ill m,urix nf"[llC ~mgrou:~x;d ·c;;wbom.~'(IIw!~ (PeS) (Fig. 2). wh~ch i,s oon~idI)t1l.:x! 0 be:1 redrom:mle ,,'\icfi::u' 01,')4 in ~ddi[jOll 10 isotor.i\:3~lly :lCI.iron !O.rOOuctbetweenFe; Ni-Il~I!~Il~ and U;!S mIDm~lous Sf)(llS CQfVC::1iPOltdil191 to pl'l!;~lI)JiIL gmi 11:5. g<lS ~2J, 1·/). (Fig" .~). TIle' oXY,gcn i~n:'topicoomllQsi6mlS of ~hl; regions ..rc lUJllirQm~ '1!1.<1c'H!'lcMdI]1] 1':0 ,1!1d ~ ~lmtiv~ to· '1'6c) (A~ .. itO The da •a ~'tatll 1.0 be cn!J tdopa.~ 1111l'C:US) mllier IIwn rrcn.[l>d ililtni.!l.ll the ("t1IOOrl.'lCCOl~ ch.ol]dri~e rUllhydmus ri~~lIcre.l mixing tC'[,AN1) Hne (2) (Fig. 3). th~II~pJ'cs;cm. ative v[~lncsof SII'7,OS,VlOW '" o~~O~tOW ore abml! IISO per mH (%.)): SMOW is 51.aml.'U'd mean occ<lin W3~CfI~J9l', Thesearc (he hL"avbt oxygen ]soitQpic COIJl1llOSil.iOllS of the roj1!i1l' sy,~~em 11ili<lilt'J.fl.lls repoilrlcd so rx 'Thcle&> PO= and ~~rilCh {loll~posiaa,ItlS {;!)I;.I£oi'.,".i!O\:';.I .. i :'500ila) or Lmknawn Ctfig;l n hm.'i,..c~n l'!Xel1t~yn::lro~d in .he s\!rl1!:C'e la.y~J,'S. of mend ,gmill;'l fmm I~m<lr ~.iCgo:~flh 1111:ch~mk,~1 c~nlPQ~hi<Ul;ii. "rlhc i,~![)to!)k<!l· .~}',~mlf!)(!Ikn ..~~gKm."d.i;.~ro.IH:!iin~by ,I!~ \;,L1~n.!IY·

or p:rCSlrli:lr :grain." or pri 1l1i!ivc'

mmf;c;lls.( Du~iJlg our on!!\,cin~

r-tn.

~Il s.i~1lI IJ riley S

UJ Nn mc!cori!e<; t /71.

mhe Itt:ijltbc~uoj' thcrltlw...P{',P !If'Jlru; lnereases c;>;panlemi~ny w:ildl dec:rcas~n[!. si2:e. 11~c g1t:!lin, ~~UI:nbers ::::low 7 ~itlr dQl~in8tH ami drea:cb are I!.ml 1l~~mclru1;Ccof m:w-·pep must L1(!'largCir'~lmnj .

:n

~]m.

d.~"'f~rl\i~ N-I".l.y
II fi\;"!d·(lll'h[...... ion

:lpl,;(:lmnm~lJl,ir

l EDS) .,U!{o.,'\dtl;ld

Il,l

\''lc

nl'lwr !.'hat lite

cx~rcm~ oo.ygen

;iOOI.iOl)ic

com~

lHlaWai'~ h'l&Mme ,01 Gec;p~it3 and "~neqclo!W. StJh~. ~f 0re~!!I <!lid EaiU'! Sdemoe .aM T'~hooC'liJ9ll'. U!'IIvefslt)! !(If IHli!II'1Ii'jat ~0IfI~, ~dlllll!l, !HI 9&a22, USA ~I~~ 111In' ;1;!iii~1 IIBblM'iIIol)'. (IfjMtive lRi!soordl lrnifi<lliw· "~a!1ls~~ ~ IH~~ i.liwi'!'i:~it)'. S~p~ O@:i:-GCl2i, j,apam.
'"To ~~!t'Oi:'Il oor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!Jjl 'be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait mri@l!~hc~~dI~i.ocie.

lD1!iJi<IdffiMt 01 tliil!lJral Hi5ful}oSOOfKl!S, Hdi:t.afdo Un!· vemjlj. S3lilfJOm OMHJ61D" )ail',m,2[lepali1rn~lilt (!of Cos~~ S4ll!:m(e;, HQM:a~ llirIrre,rii~, S«RPIIJ>O 060-Q:3liQ, j'.upaII.

(f'tt:>SENl) ,!M} [lCOLL~ am:I ~mlilll:ycofnrlpo.'>J;.>d ()I.r :r-,c, Nil, 0 .aJlld S lq)J:e::::CHI.aI~VC~Y. :in, W'C'ighl pero;:m, Pc., (; U),; Ni. ::;.4; 0, ~.9.J; S. 9.6; Mg, o.J: ' ii, O,2~,In aticlii.~()[Ii,. HiTl:j'~'ylk=il:~ ·1""It."tnii>$~on \!k"dmn mi· crosoopy (ATEf!,,~~ll rev~~b; j,imi. lh~ rcgiom; (161 l\OIlSii>! of agglrCgiule:I olf l·t]nocry.>~aL~ ~'VUdl a s.1.ze mrlg~of ~. 00 200'mn Ilii,g, 51I ).. n~ deiC~mn 0' diffr.JlCluo:n pililtC'J:m. rrom -W(hnl-sizcd indi:vid" ui1l. cry .. ~l;Jls sho~'" ~~lilathe nlil~11 spots g:r [~Ie c!),..'ll<ds ,~re)1imil<ll, l~h~!\: or m'l!g!1tl~lt(r~04; U sp~(:g!fOllP F(/Jm):, .h~ O~Jli.~po!idi~!g cdl P~!·
~aJi!'iL;~t OJ'l:311~'t In dis

~l]lfIil]!!l d~~lma ~nicl;oM;O;pC SelIn"" l:I'IiIlt dlc:yme hUIl1.ogc:.

11m IUn'grol.Ql€d (;aroomu;e®m;; ,(hollld~riite A.d~r 094 l!Pea5!lrEdl \1II11t! hotolKlgra.phy (16),. l\Jn ~."ioll(lp1l~ IG~llyaflOillila~!I]!.ls;10 ~~lrn"Si~d Ir~iOf! (liu O~W ."" ~18rO%o)all1dl ill spat ~O:I70!iMCW ."" "li',rfOO%o) are

flit', 1. Spa·tial di$tribuUo'!iI

I)lf :l/0l1.60

il'l maui~ 'of'

add ~Ii{lil. ~1Cr'L;'art

~~Il.'i;il;;

C:>:Lra spnt5 ii~il~t"'lliljg

a d1i~'L".Cfoklj;iJJPt:rntl!ti~·

$\Jlf'U'I~i,lli!ded: b-y Ihe iSQll)p~m~lY!i'i~m:ral llili1Jtri)1 nlaterf~ Is, 'WIhe $pc!t oofres~nd~ to il! PF!~S(I~Jf Sm(ate: 'graiin, wlileile1l5 ~he is:oLiOpi~ilIU~' o1n:olif1ii1I.ous ~egl!r.m('!)Ffi~po!f1ds til)' a n:~lMFi(P.

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REPORTS

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Ihe I1mdor IJx]dm:u, In tile oohrr nCbl].Io
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'Jiempem'lYr!!
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il!IMglf~in ~h!J.ru::lirjit@ m.utni'>t 0;17 Qls,Mnw (A, 81m:! D!), t),:Ji8~O!;'ll (8: <I n ~ lEt '~liId b\ad:;~uU!red !~lc(t~o;n(( and IF}]mages [,er 11~~\I·IPCP' lI:m4 [(A) lQ(IC)J alldilf2m [{IOfte
(nil!

IFig" 2. Oxyg!l!JUiS:()~(lpi( di~tnb~nt(;l!11 sll1alll! lor new"P('P 1@IirIIJI~ddlldlilli

Ad~r 109111· nli~nrb::.Arr()w In, (A) iiildh:'al'il'~ SiiilIllU. tlF(I~HUi ~.r,a~n:s atMc:h-e'a

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1]11r:r.!t!{lllro1'IlnO'lai ;I!'!d~mil iH: G!l dUl A'I;;f~t 094 1~~Jlt ~od}l, h~J,): '[ochu~illi~~i~ Ih~ aqWi~IOtlly :.H:t~t:t'd ('11.11 dilllndri!L;.'O (L2). To K"sl .. mh.iiS;hypoulh.~i~, we ~1.jU~Y~~ ox,yg~n L~Glopie: : eii:lu.i;JCI~II i~:til:i of [t,(!h bt~iljIIJC~llI I.hl~ C 11,1.1 ebendri~c MiiJj;,e'hl IS£iJ~.I:tiI e-o:rll.rm..>tco, the Ae:fer 094 ~~ew.r)('~; '~)I£.Ci11 i::IDl<lfik co!~np'~iIID~l ~he of Mmdlh;m~ ~ochi:lirli~c i::>p(ljJ~tcdl1'ctli ihe terresInill frnclijmmlion line'. ""Ions ihe " 'M wm:~." linc 11{j~ 1(.r:if,6:. J I. ~hnlis cmlsklcirod to bea l\:;;tc:~ !iOH lI'~~hbt.:l~,~'~'Cn aq!J.co~~.~ohl!'uorg and m'~l!i:l>. ~i,licmJJS !,t)>liI;"'W ~1~ i!i~l'OpC ~qllilibJ~tUll t(]!t1). Ull~ ,ob.~J:'!ifO!!tim~8<1J~mdlthe Iwe);;: of ~l~iq}oJ"'~,~'_ ic-a~ and l)CiI!L\Ogm!'l~ic<Jil !I.lvUdblbCC of" "'l1l00'!J.'l aloomlion of }\;clllf 1194(17) exefude ror'mmiol1t or !l:(1'w~~lCll by [h!;'! Olqw;l!O'lI:> .d~~ .!Ll~[f)l previ• C1t,11!>ly otJ."i;lU·"('(I i" C]l(/!ll,dri~~"lf ni.:\~""~CP resllllll",,-d Irom exidaiien of lroilhe or 1~!('[3~ in 0 ,W]iill.el!l.!ii~mrrll scuil1g. ~. phi.t[i.~iMe O",[druH would 'be wm.CI" vapor ormquoous oo1u~imll tl~m oo.g~ iiilll\":d [rmn m:crotcd l'Lebuiar iec imd d1id itO! C""'i"" periencl::' rm:y!C~l iso.t0lllC C\l!.dlliln~'C wi'~II, lit'!
;KIUf.;,\)~:;;,

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I"lli1ll1:X

~~COlJl5. :SoIUlion.<; \v]lh the dlOltdJl1tC' HmIrL':t si]ica"!!C"&

We omlC~lI:dC'lhm
lionz.; ,of 1l(;l\V' fC[I in ..

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1I"&;j;{I\I

(MI.gnelll~~,
oiSGl ",,' """"" ............

Acf{;!r 1004 .P.ipf!;,~'l(~m (lOnt· po&i~iClI] of Ih(~ 'p:ri~l1o:rd~f1~ ilier of ~hc: :;olar W :»<SI~1ti1 ;lltd [\'Ie prucvlollllsli.¥ ICI~lpolh)cs.brud ~'b. ruu.clll~O.riehn:.'ScF'\ol(Ji.r~n I:hc '(;;jtdy sol!!!a: S1;Y5I,em. l11C wide p~r,g_cniso[~pic "'!lrUIl~i(jmi of ill. least Fim&.-::S _M~O -< I ~ 80%1i' rmmd from hot ,fiilild
~5 .~
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l000tiViif (K·i~:~ lFig. 4. CtliLCjUl.ait~dl eqllliill:b riulm te rnpera·tL:l re.~ror .~,e.·mel.:i!lII. t~l!)]lii~@ (F'e'S)r ,ilIfU:i m(l.£!Inellt.e: (l~e:30~) as; ~ (Iulildion of P~slP~ r.fJllio. Trn!! 11l1lgJllelil@ ~ilIi!l.l5e OOI.ln.d.IrY i~c<llmdal-ei:l asslllilillllg (cLIlOl1ii:c,al solil r 1iI~l;ll(lr IlfIzOtH;!! ratfio o:f 5 x 10~ (30). MagnJel"i'lle ns mnsiderro ,15 <I pmil\Y Orf 11 f1ew·ilJl(P'. ·Whe.ilI1IodYftaiit!1C datal ~'~om ]A!f\1AFt,(lbiles o(ll) were
IIJS.~

eold ~rigill 11'Wl.Cli;::tL~ ~nLlSI, provki.c :nlC'l\o' guidelines ~'brthe orlgfln of o.... YSeillbOitope Jitl:lCfma:Ue.. .. ill, lhe SQlt~.r. ~stem.
1~@:'I'e[ll!il'lllif,~,~ liid N(Jt~s,

F'jig. ~, c.»tyg~t! 1iS@lqitt. (!(;ImP«'idg~s I(;I~: !1~~ rib;: PCP hm tile ,Ade-or 094 mat(l!(, Oxygcl'liSDt.Qp,il:; mnr:nposilicms of liIiIiltm: 8ililld, amoei'lOi~ OIMIiIl1! agIfJ~~le (AOtA)foo,m A!:;f@1"094 and ~Ddnililiii~ hom Mw,t:hlWIiI !1ne also< pl.olit.lld. lrne' new-PCPs are plotkld Q~ rexlJ<lpma.rkm of!r>lO"p~l llirt~ orr earbOil1l(toi,.l~ (i1~~drl11'~e gl'll1~dr!Dl;l$ nniller~1 mmlilg {((AM) lin.e'.TIlIe c:om.poo~ttom of" the M.ulr(hl·:\lolll llXhij]iidte a~~~Ql!!edI\~r the reffl!sUia~rr,g:c~ra:n,~'t:iQ!l! (1m UPi1~, ii!lOn{l1 @!11ollijiJ~,1J~ ,;!l~mtUio!i1 ll!illi [eM iWaL"(!\I"S U6)~. Imropogr.llphy: i'!1'I1l [lI'zeti lily

1. R. M. ,(jl!!)t~fI, ~.~ 3H, i.14~~2'~~, 2. It. Nl, a~!i1~~\ Atwu" i!!~f~f{hr Plriwfot Sci, 2:1" ill

s.

fof' 'ca~1i:!J!l@tio'f!!!.

A. NlIKro;t K. ill IMii:K~~rn.. 16A ~Ii!n, (j, l, ~EI?Iii!l'~r. e, It 0\, SaM!; Scitr.n', ~5. m51.l200~ II_ $, ll;.iy:a~~, ilL rii]~,", ytJ!liIf!.illlD, ~diil.'ll'l, J~{, 615;1

flmm,

s,

aoo:n

11" '\1i1.l!imo~c" IlL

j,l&.

H'.fr!iJ,!JiI:1i3"Wl1, Sri'MCl' 2~Z, 1~1.q,

IPrOOse :iSOl'OiPk 'i~glng wtth aniOOl;~IP~ mroO"~soope {l;6). P!J.jrl~ SIMS: .a!lla\)"leci by (ooivl'Il,tifonal poInt <In[lllj!5i~1Jy~(OIill:l:.atry lon ~il')5 ~p'!djr®liIiI~lry (16',
The di3rtal are !tiMed! in tabl)E!SL

Ox,iootion of l1)oiilftc ol"u-n,let."ll!o fO:iilu riC'\.\i·ll P wO~lll QCctllf below j CJ(! :K. jinch"~p::Dldj;nt or WWI! pressU!1:\:of the oo~ar It{':bullJl,(Fig. 4). If i.lilc l'u::Lm~.iillr P!-!~c/Pm.r.Hio ill.Creru,~elS Innn a rd~ail''acteri$lli:c value
[C!~ljXlroll'tLl~.

t- 6ll, 11):3 l20MJ. 7. R. 'M.'Cla)'tn1l, Naroff! 4:it 860 (:!OO:!~" B, H~YU1im~o. t;, ~-!\It~g,,Mtffi:im: fl'~~Sti 31,
A~3 (~OO2:), 9. H. Ywi"mDlo, t:. !<wi! m:olc. !i.ciMa! ]IO(S. :1iI6~

U?~B)< 6, A. ~, t(i'C'~ ,tt Df" Aall!rlplJyt

flOOi'll.

:ror a

BlI,S,

of sel aw C>Oll1lllOSitli on

Bec>llJlse Ilew-P( 'PhOl5~l..'lgll.cI ib."-Ilike c1illracaima p'al~!;,':m~, :m..'~nel:ile' c<JI.n 'be l!s~d <IS ~iI:~ p,rnx~, ,

(2 St, fOrH};l[ion ornlew~PCI? occurs at higher
AI~h{lughll'l.e wmplete c:/f!CI!lliG!1 I.'lquilibrium Mt('luld ~i{J~be I~""'C~~~. in dl'l!'oool KOlow ®'b~I.,~ (11}, ~l~ nev..... .'I) \\'QW!ld !be Rm'll(,;~i I~

1I!IJl ], it ILrmn~ I~:,. , lroLJrn~. ~!UJ!i!' 4!1.!i.~il7 '(2Qti~~. D 1.1. H. '\1'!IIIWOIo ,i!'!!' m," III ,Prt!lrl:!l!M m;jl i!111~ V. 8. ~~\ O-_ )iMl~ K. ~ IEt!i~ {WOfli. Ilf Amoila 1lfe'5~]LJ~m. 112

M<!;g!lclilr; C,~I llC' fml1li.'l1 b)' ,i;),xidiltioli of Fe,
N~·mcn;;~ll·lJ 25), or t!'IJ:il~i:h;" •..

or
232.

im,uci1;: Ihe W!lltw ;:';l!ib~i~Tl.IiliOl'l 1~C!ill (s!1C1w]iliJcl
dt~ ~D]:~~q: nt.liilil!l.bi:CilliIII.'>f;;i;\!fitcr 'r,~\pGiiJf ~:I.

::!OOi)I1P, 1l:49-:B.6;!,. 12" Eo I)'. rau.~g,. ~1I!iI_arPr.rJro~l; S"d )(_l(_~!!, aero"" 1110.1790 taOO6), U. H~YIl1imoM, It N~ga!lrilili~ f. lurriliiro, A;pp1.. s."tJtf. 5d. .• ~3'-2jO'll. 79.~(~06ID. . lit $, tiJdl,lfI. VlIJiirlt(lll:!, N(jrl#~ 1l,za.728 tW0 3).
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REPORTS
lS" t K£I!lll:ilta;. K. INiI!giI~hirnil\ Ii. Villril1li:ll~ ~dHm, f>1l.~·im_ A!'flrr t,!" Jl'6) ROOS~, 16, M:l1l1!lli~'~ Imel~od~ .~rll! ~,."aila~lf!'I.~ ~p~CilJli'Igl .~M o '1!lIo'!INii~l. CIII.s:~~ OnRim~. 11, K. fh!)Mima\;<, ~. ~ilI~, H. 'I'!lI'im..t!~" !I!'~Q!re.i!~a, 92:1 I (2004·~. 18, t !l ~~s.,S. l!h!51!~llS!'~I'lm\' 2R. ~iS" U W3)\ , I?, ,~Oll.lf'Hlo~ III!, I("QJI"'Ql""'PI,,~l)J1uO~~IIo!I'":tl x :l(lQl!!. Mt!~f!! f =, 1'.l ~1 ia, ~,t II. tftlialflltt. IP., HlilflI~n, M, e, rr4c.rma1n" J. (Ilil1Iil~.,~{lljJl(! ,4-401 7'!6 't2(1<06t 2L L. It f'lKh!, E:. OI!!t.1l(, K. j, J~m~M,Srnflru:on. CrmMlJ. cQ!l1i1 SQ. 10', 1 U,913~. ~ it ]'gf!Ul1Qt~f.'. It EIi~. Ge.p,c8im._ CO<!iln"d;lII1l,. A)Cr{l '4'~, 2:11>'l9 19&'S~. ~ 23:. s:. r'lfS!l~ 1r., .Spaa' S,d, ~. 92,,17'7 t~OO}, 81;, D:, ~ '11IiIlrl!\tt:i, III f. t!.ir~m~~, 18, ~l\i!l' Jr,. ll'otuf U~.
'1(. H\on~. 9:. Fegl~ If,,~.r: Planf~. ~~ 33, Hill U!lSln 2~ lit Ne C:b~t)I"\ •. r, Itt ,Mlrti!d~,G'ilMhim.,. ("o.w«him\ Aria ,631. ,ro''&9 U;99'9). 27'. A. Gr'~~~"'~, ~him 'i:lilm~@rm, Ai[fCl! 61. '~H n9~7). 2.8. I~~0. YOOl!Ig',PmIDi. l~a,ljL ~SL>t tOJldffi'l_A 3,59', 20195

25.

~2. Wi:. ~itt!a k '1(, ,MaI:!W!i~il! rcr ~ra'oidi!1!l1 a niaglle.ile n ~~md~rd..r. K<!irg amd 11_N~h:[;ani r(lr~~il<1i!m~~Mljlll loru!1ed ion b~tii'I ~amlll~ IlIl\P~I'i!llM. K.'i'o~~ for irn!!i!'A~ifi!l Mlilrfhi:!mIOl:i1iL~ni1t, Eo 0. St:.GII: ,iUlilI.(;, R. i'lnd "'u~~f~ diim!~"Ii~!J,ilihri~~rk 1Wil1l. !NI!'Il)' aI!mVIIed b't MoI1IkM~(J, (Ii.V,l ~md NMA. (A.tU:,)..

I

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:5111J1iI'j)o'lft'ingl Clll'lriil~ Mat'~",ill,
1IMW_51~~l'fIiIlUrW(gil'l:IIIlIl\BWl.!IllJl1Al.o2'lIDCl. wu~ri~l$agdllY.le~Ii1'~

'Fig, Sl Tallll!s $1 .ammiSl
1~~ItJ!!iI~~,

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PA 1!:ail~l..:l.O~. 111. ]1 I'.lt. W,Gh1l:5~• .lW5r~.AJ!'lf1M'1.tDdlmrnl ill~ll!'S;, F.rJ.~flh etffliDll,~cl ~ Pltj;s.i~j aM CIlMJit~' fI£~! 111lfit MMtl!li"OPh 9', PoM1S ~ tl)!1l!]1' 'I'D~J!n.'I!II'i'an
Ilmil'jllJ~l!t Qf PI!(I'l!K!I. New. Y~IiI:., 199m"

2 MOir~1l201:il7;. im~ :If .Ma!f .~1XI17 iPu~li$m~ om'l~1l:lIA~L.m~2007';' 2 1G.TL2&!'!lCi~m(l1, !lz,o;!l n IlllC~IIII~I:hI~lnflllm'lil!Iia1' c~~n ('fling IM~ il~er'.

Ho,wMluch More Raiin Wiil~1 GIII,o,b81~ Warlmilng Br'ling'?
'(']]rn! alle modeil:!; illililJ £atellliil-e' db!5!!1I'V1I1ti em, blJ~lhiflml kate that~he [Qti!.~.a lilUl,U nt ,efll'l\ill~!!r ill the altmlD!!llp1h err!! wi~l .~ n.!!:r'el'!se ,1I!t t!: r~le. 'o~ 7%, p@r ~)lItvil1 (I,f su r~a('e wanniin9. rHow!!l;I'er~ tfui,E! [~ilillil'l@' Hi! edillLs; predict ~1h!lH ~eb1!l pf'e(ipill;flt~oll1l wi~l 11l'l(J@als:@ ,f! II'IlI!l~h sW-I?Illr fllte 'of 1.10 31)/~ pllir ~@lvilll. A 9 at r@C@'nt analysllS QJ,f s.~t!!~llitll' oD's,@rvfiiltiolitS, dQ!.!!i r10't su iJPOirl tlliis 1Jf'@'~ictio(n ~f ;'l mIl.!OOll'rfs;poml~ of 1P~@ciPJt~ti!)l!:!t(! ~lOl b',illl ii'Ii,jHmifil.~. ~:t~'l[!o,r" th.! o!b,s!!rv;1!ti~ns s.!.Jlg:g~st~llal pr~cfpiLi!:LiQ!li. Ii! nd: wtc!~

f!l)MiI.i~ib~y glll~UU :!01.'~mg~ ~L:"ItIl. nl;~ = P ef:hl'l'E ~Iim piro""id't~ a lIi~dllll cO(rlJ,ibmlt:cy chc·d~ w.illl ~"ihic.1:!~o1I.\'!,'.1!JIl.!'U~C OW!f~.fiuh:>. ~lowc\'cr. Ih~ con:>1. .. .l!.i~1 ill !',.. Iid (J!1ly for !il]oo.d "\'I,;"r:lU!l.~•. i\('Cow.. iugl)'_ the i:il'Kl."i!lI.:p in O~lfo.al"''Lly*,,!li\?'/''',!iIO ~Il!iii!nl.~!. gJ'obfll !ntlll~il.lly mops of? ~'Llld, :11 :1150 $pmj~.:I: E

romlilltiml ~ilr

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•. IDle IrunG

The SSM:tl.IDlri,ev,rilL~ used here;[t1)'C 9.v3h:lnMe only over 1!1'C' OCC3IL To S11J)picmc.m the SSNlII
OYeHIO!1l1t

:linin n:lfie\i~ls,

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used

a1tmi!l:s:ph.~!Tij!i: wat~.r l:ia'll~

in p:1!Ct:ipiw:rirmw:lillbc' !'iC\itim~ timt';i; ]m'!,\er Ihi~l that k!r'~01<11 W~:rCit, 'l1il~,:O; "lJ,p~tUl!;;'lll iIilOOlk iSl~.llCy ~l\ .... rc .... fll~'cd in. Ihe: l11:(ad~~ by a lJl:(itlt:liol] i~~ tlilc vapor mass Iilux, prun'!iculll:r~y will'! l:'(;:$iX~!i:'11.0 tliic ml'l~cs rron~tbceeeans l/6). OCC1l11l C\liipOrm km. \volker drculmCoIlI, \\1'hkhrcilnlOrees. the Imdc wi 11d's ,(3. 7). \Vhcth~r it decrease in .~Iobfl:l winds \WS our 'prlln~rilry [OOll:>. We COllllPll,l:cd cvapom· .~~e !lise Oiflhc~llk lrm~ r is 0, necessmy COil SCiC!UCI1CC or giI.ooo~ W1lilitnitl,g, ~s, lio]1 o.\er~he O~lls,wlith Duula fi:o.mlhc N.ujmIDI ('cillcr for A~l1fIospheric a complex qnc...:;tionnlmt is yc~,ID ~ reso~\'(:d 'l~). iOIimiol1t ~<llancc inlhe troPOSjPlTCI'C, i\...01 ~:G con., ~st."aoch Commlllni~y AU1m.OOIJlU!~ic Modc~ 3:0 Usi~g srutelli~c o:b.serva!ims fro:m Ihe Special t(1~. Ev,<!ipormkm O'v,cr :I~.n\la:mnol, be dca'ivett cel1ilmlions inc~e'asc. the CHtn.iJt~e n1{'I(jcL~ fJ.r(;;>dk:~ SeD'lsm' M:OC:I'O'Ii~"J.vcIm,.g.er ~SS:WI). we a:::;$esscd ~'romS51~Cnib; ObSCll'\iaJInOHS, on'l'd wcrcsm1icdl ~o IDl '!:U~hillIlCoCdm;dimi\'c cooi.~ingI.lhmL., l:n.l~llmJoo hy th1:GCMs' Ilrctlki:iion '01:"£1 mmcd r~pmlse of using a cnnSial1li, v,lIuc 01'52; n:Ul1I )leal;-Ilar ,8111 f o ~i11rnU ,md e~lal)Ornlioll 1.0 g;1obal w,rumning. all hwu'Casc in I;:mmthe.."lt Fro,tH jltt:cilP'ltmion I! • 2)" Ihe ,oontfnC'J~ls. ex.c:ludill.g AnnulCtl.l;l.l (16). Por The ('(It~~~ Modb'1 :~n:lcrwn]J:p<Jirism~Projec't (4) T.hc SSM].I is ,;\"e~~SyilCd ~:OJs!'ud}'lngllle l1i ~nd fiimibr modX::',Ilin:!;l Ilnalym..~ f/ ~~i ~~~"dh;:~ g looo~ hydrol(lgtcc)fcle ~ 1hilllil shllu~m!1oo·lII!s· AJl~'Clk,~ :m<.l~ tce.\'\lc !~ a 'rolL!c' or::Uoi nnn ~ f!l.:1;~li~!ely s!mdll r!ll;!\'''<l~e i!1.i»·C-clllit:;BJtio.n ~tmd ~}'me.'liSl~~ IlfC'C~ pi~"li{ln (P~. loQ1<l1 w,ner '\I;I~)O'r )'~O!:r-n {(iii'. 16). 1l'Ic C;C'M:;:undici'ltc ~'mlf $11{lu~d: inc!1:<Uic ~I!d ,II~ :;,urn~Q~.,·w~d Mn;::;.... ('G),J'. \~Ihijc'h ~!> I i~..e\'\i.~f,Qill 1,)'\'apor.l1:ku!) <al iI t;;rtc Or .. b£I'~U Ilo~% I;3br:!!.u[ :~~o::l% .K.--ll ~\urt~<lC(.'iwml!~.lirlg..1;~(lWr;;::'!;'(l[. ~hi;:P[ill~'i!.l"~, ,{;Llll! .~ntlil~i ,;o:t:IlI)~rl<n;:'nl f I;: ,I,llm o K-~Or~~lrr~A,;(,i \""'~Pll1:~ug, 1111 cmU£;)Iz.;t, b(j~jl ~li;llmL'I\i <lIt'Coirdlinlg ({) ~.~ b~l~k romlllllla t...tl. S 1 J' I( /'oJ). C\'IIP' ~-nmJ~~~m~d·obt>(~!fY" .. :1(lml~~,udic~e dlfll~he 'trtlfll u Irm.ion (.fl' (S, 9). ~uwf~lC~ TIn, SSMJ~ din.ta sct CM(;~~:ll from 1981 to oralie)!] ill.cfCilse~ lii,millarl,}, to C-C 21':>(1'1(.': wm('f ~'~L'podl]'~i.Cf1illnosphcre i~lCroa:;es by f~'OOU~ 7'-Y~ .K-~(1-3,3,.6), 1~~ljllC'.I<iI~l!Irewam.II;, IlSS\nUillg Ihillit th.e O~hC:L 2006.DIII!filltbl IIIL~limc Eaflb's :;Uir~e teiu~rlel'lllS rcm<liIll co.l1Slilrlt. FoOr ,e:!i:flIl:I~p~.,,:,a £10001 M:Oi~ ,'hajJI ~gtX, of !I.e tQi~fLlmo.is\\U'c if! nhc a;liJliC w.iJlUilnedt by (!I',,:II'(j' ± U.04, ,K d~dc-I, aoc:ordil1l,g ro~be Ghib(ll UiS1()fK:all, C~ln1oool()gy il:l.cr~m,c'of I [« .I'1f1 the surfaoec ~ir lcnlJlii:lillurc ~tm~91'1~ is hi! the' r()m~ or' \\,'ai.cr \JI[Xlr. The lars!::' ill~re1k~ in '\V,ner is dlilc to line WiTIili'illl'C'ii: air N~~wrnk (,m •. ll}. Smem~e :nlCilSU~11I1emiIS or the lWL"IdtIoCCS a 5, 7% ~nCl,'CiiSC :in I! {I'II'), To o'bi>linlhe ~mln.cdn."Sp<lm;c·of tw 3% K-~• oti~cr\·i}fi:ablcs.in. ~ower iroposp.hcre ::;how II simil!tlr w~l'mil'lg of ~duig ~ibleto ~iO.r.d more wat~' vapor. 'It; d:i;ciilit~ [orml!illanCl.'"<iI:o cltiill1i£.(.': with 'IiinC'. The 0.20.t O.IOo:K(kcade-' (11).111f'Cli1I!.'lf bm3 are at lhe ~~ilk ~y the f.:bllslus.('ilapeyron (C..c) r.~lation Ilma:cf the 95% conlkiciloc h::vd., Jilis \\f<J;tTlliIlS ~$. ai'-SC'I.~ClllJDef'3!IJ11re d:i!l~cllCn!:c amI 1,lIe' near~he 'CCllldi~iol1l 11131, ti~e relative Immid:ily ilJilhc :iur~1;ucc rc~<J!iVI!;! hlUmidi~y ,~re e.'>;.pecred W renrmil1l lowerl:ro'POSP]~erc S'lll}'S const:ml. 'So a«:o.OOiillI:! I.1m,.~i8!enl \\~ttil2!Olh-,cent~I'Y dUrl~-modcl runs nC<!.~~i)iCOlL~I,~lll .md ~lis ic;l\'t~ 'to as lite' one U~), (1.1) provi'-ks a r>C<!oo(~mib~c l~i~ srhor!. [(.'St ru.1d ... bed for .~Ii;~'l~"&1ing inlrmCI (l! r g~oool wamling ~Jhc 'mria'bli: th~:t c.<!!lreducc e""'JpOl'iI •.ion 'W dl~ mllg"" ,R1!nl:mi;!Sffi5tmg~1l!1iII5" .IBB Firsl Ji~mBl:. SalUJ!I R>o~. rn ~il!i~ldL;l~"(IU Hl' b<lJ~I!l(;C the t.'tdi,~UliO!~ hudget in in;'d on the~j'd:rDlogUc >cycle. '~$<1,(ll, 'uSA. mhc ltiodd~ Till btill£ I.~~e f¢[]1'iui;1 bulk illl.o~I~'\MiL.'~ '1\,'Cr.;l§l."d ~ohlllly (jiVer n~D~]tM)' ~ir.lj:l; '"To \~!t'Oi:'Il oor1l\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait mOOl \vI,lhni~(: rmJio1l:tivc ,~iilig ~OJl....irni~'i't JitQ frank.WI!iIIItz@fOOIll~~.,mrn S.CfI~{',:&. P midi .Em llIl'il bf~IHUilci,': GX~!lt Itlir a

addhion w .w.,~.-'ml(;in,g.. Em'l.·.]~\;. Sl1rj~., ee.. mw .. lower Lmf'l\)~h(;Jc. (hc: i1l!cUl!asc iii! groCIJ~ _ l!o!..l..W .g1l:<:. ~ GW [(1 } tttm;l'lllLmli'urkS il" ~ik£i)' ro ~]oorlhe p!;III,cI"!i h)'dTul~k cyck II Jllrlh(;' C~t3Ilg~:i11 IheuiJn:e.n~~ry.m:lrid !o,'Pmi;j1diSftribul.iolli of mi!~r!lll re sUltJe;.BrtrillfIL l.he}1 m1uy pose one o.!' a I~IC IVIlffil serious risk<!; ;lJ&<;;O()imm:l w.n~helhm.lLc c:hMge. There-spollsc ()r[l~c hy<lrologic eyc~e to glohll'~\\.'.aumitngdependsto <II ~3rgCdegree o:nlhc WIl)1 in W:~lkh dre CI.l~l.l[m:ed GllGsflilicr l!he Iin-

I

'~.~'

in.~r~l~ ~t .1! bO<!;!i~ S3rl11i1;)r,at'e i!lV!l:iIFthil' ~st t,wo decades, th~

W Ihe current :se~ or gkllHd eoupled neeanalm~phcre medcls ,tGOvL<;). ~1'lC or increase rate

lromlhc Glob.l ~Prodp~ I~!i,[}n immology C~ Pmjl.--(:l (_Im:rtl ~t,. whiclll ill a bl~l!lcl of ~il:Cl~i'(e RllITiJ;;'v i~ .. .m~[j min gul!lge r!'I'C'''')1l~~~!'llIe!]t~ ll.J, i 5). Silu;',ml.'iJ nlV~l!'i.:lri!",'i¥.d~ over I~.illd \~ro 1\J,.'il<L'C',.... o.g_mJl~' Ih:J.1l lhcill[' ocean oo.mnet'j'!!mlls" bl.1I illn s dmwbl!ck, W<Ji.~ 'OOHlIJ!C'i!lSmcri by the ~l.cllhm tl~cre 0!!fC' ,_hm~dJ[l]~l[ui!~ ~:UJ~";ji over ID~!c.]OJ COHi&Lmin" F in1illDI~ ~m~1Ii~!;i f(;:ll"iC:'!.I~~k L ir.:l;;'\'\I.~!'iC" glnb.lllil ~V"...p .. (lffilirllllMs ~oflllPlll.i.X'l,:.,.-.c:parn~dyrtDr ooem~!l~lI~d Irlnldl.Baell~w;Ht1i% of Ihe \V(,r~d's C'!.IfUp:nRtD[(lIll
Vr.lIUCSi

rn.

(n.

o

~Jr

I

REPORTS
D wm!ldl need 11(l~~scb}' <lb<O\J1i 4% K- " T1im$.11 rlnUOOre~9!~l;' '('Ir I'n;ldl~iw.kmw ~,CJl);,!]\¥ill1]'q~ h'l.g !fl;-q'~irt,.~ ~Cfl',"'~~ 1111 a .![l:kbti)'i!W~l1d~ ],' 7), {J, To
¢\'I1II!)!Ii";;

t';i;'ClH~ i.ll

lh~ (iCMs' r~clktiol1 ot ~ ~, W~.lld", w~ ~{IDko(;-d~M d.1c 19 }'\1:3rl1 of SSM/I wlnd "~!ricva]l$. These winds "!'eCN~ pi~~d i!i ~'<tJ!,1$ Gr~!l i.;"qlll~\,<i]'$!i't !1L;'Lllruktid.'l:ilii1,y
w:~lid

~ijXXii O~~al~
[O\1f:ii"

IO-$n dC\'atiO:ili, iNhit:'ni~

q.~.M). F.ig,lltC I. :.hO\ll'li ,:;i I:k'l.'3d9~ lJi\O:ildiiil!'iP 0 r U: .For caeh 2:. SO.!;l'd[] eell, <i 1~"'-5tjllllre.s Ihl~fLi fl.t to 'mii! 19,.~eali'lilill\eseries Wll~ COl~Cl~ IMOO after rel'l'llIWilll,& the ge.ruSi')lm~ \1Ijf~ iabilily. Ti'l'C wind 'U'cilld~ ltro.lnlhc ,~nlerna~iol'ml ollnpreh!:nJsivc Occ;m"AlJnOl1ll~hel'C lJ)a[<l SCI, UCOA[JIS) <we 'I~D' $ihl)wl'~. 1mlj!!l!st :libr cc:map;_u:c. i:-;Oll!. Tht,\y '\'w.;'!te 1l(1~ u.~d~n olJr 'ilm~y[:1j\-'. ~~ A ~lk"1,Ig1~lIe L' O!l\DS~re!1d m..p i~\1;1\lyr!O:b.), ! [),LJC'.IUfC ,pf' ~Ql\r~!~ I!:g~~nd ~J:l(';;k~!l.r~I!~)i';jJ1l 1k~l]ei~I~eies, ]t ~h<Jw:>l!i:~nd~ ~inihu'lo these rrom tihc I SS[I;/M in ~h!o!no.r1lmm Alb!l~~cand IlP'm:il1e, \"'~lC'J'C
I

p'roprntioi"ial

~]IL;l ICOADS (i[lIll.

.~hip db~w"'i!.io:"-~ <l~ !tHoro

OllbliH~~

IGOAID!S WII'H!!I1ii'e1ild iMaJP

P'~'11

TIle NO:!4h A'U;)Jrn~i~ [)osciU.mlio:ll fNAO) ,iN ~~~ ill ~Xl~hl:llilnd !~11IPS::lS (1tn,pole rl'muruwidil
3~}ON find 40c. Ulm

i:Ile:UC$tUlg whlL'bbcL\iII'(;"(1]

doct'Cu.'>il11]! wi ~lclSwlh{'! nonh and Sm]~l U 301 This J. 1'C3lulfC is a:ms~ist(111w illt the oIYsc:M.:d decrease in ~]~e ,~!O il:lcl~1'! since 19f1.7. \1Vh~1iI nvcrniged over !11c IfIll]iQ'; frmn .3WS 10 )!l"N. the wind~ 111Ct~11!S1.i'dll}' O!M rn s-', {O.6%) dcc<id.c-', and (')o\'Cf aU oo~n\" lihlJ' jl!ltrea'l~ wa.'i. OllS m s -'I (I JI%) i dOCiUSC- . l1~c SS[v.III wInd rel:1Iic~'2.1s Welle \,'.~Iidtf!.l.OO ~:}' comparisons \'\f.Ltill :1:tKlOlW ocean ~U!,oys ~lId SJIJ.:nite ~mlCrom.Clcr w:iml rotlic\<!.I!s (l1ig, s: I). Oll!1J¢ 1:r.;I:iiiri!!'i()f~hl;;. ;)!nilll)lS~, 'dlc CfWlf bar O:U~ ~M SS.Mfl wi nd 1n:;11[~ ~~. (.,~~tll'l1~l!",d ~.(lbl,)-U105 mn :;;-1 d0'C~d:c:-l m. l'l1(_! 95% ~nri(tcutt Ie-vel t,"). Th~s Q'b£c:r\ ud iliclfC'!!~c in Ille SS~1I1 '!NUnd$.s i nppo::;;ite 10 Ihe o(jCJ\il n.'S!Jlhs, whk-ll pmt'liUathm.
fhcll987·.to.2l£106w!iflil1Iiulg s~bOtiMh[web~n ac-

IFig., ll. Sutr!:i!(!!·wind ~emd~ lor ~e perioo JIU~,~19S7 thr,oUigm ,AllI.g!llr.t .2006!!;®llilpulledl at BSiptltiii:ll ~~5-l1lttlticm ,sr .l:.s,~'.'111.) SSiMlU ~\liill'td ~endSl. (8) ICOA!D.S \,"~mldlI,ends. ln lliDe Nlllrlth P.adfia: and No.n'I!hAlllillntk ~~he~€ IC-oADS sh~;p I)b~Ngtn(lml!l !1I1'e' li1i!or~'~bl!,ll1dan·~.~e' l\Y(I data :sets; shoo $ill1ii~grtrel1d$. Th>e 'lii'lipcd.e reahHllin the NOfth A~l[ln~ij,hi (O,nfliffiteillt \'iiith fu!i1 feGe:nt de<:roll\ll~e1111 fl.iM ~'nde~ t~e ..

con~pfljn~iJd it. decrease i,ll. wiatds on the order of ~lY (0,19 K dec..clc;-~U4%K-v) -1),8% decadc:",l"
'\Ve Iht~l looke(~ 311he va1.'l<lhin:rt)' or gh:lliJ(ll

P'~~I)i'IDtl(mand cV3por..lI:rm~,dL.rb'lg [hi.':'I8I511WO decades IfigtJ£C2~As~lo\Ms the Inllilc series for}) and Ii. ,AII::lo shownis the over-ooeiln SSM!! n;:~rieva~. :f Efo geIlICflU.c' the lUtnC series, the SC'd~ o ~ona~ \'llr:klbi lily \'\,f<!~, n rf']rcmowd. and lh,C'llIhe ~!.'!.l1 bl~.fiWCN . ~W-IJ,iJ:ii;ii, ii,~~c~-dby C{l!l\'(}1~14Im~ .. W]dl,;;~ mil~~i'lndii;~'ib'l,I~ion Ih ..~l"nd ~ *:mtl!lth G w~dLn,ul Im~r11!t;i.ak lID\,!"'~~'~ lliu;um1jclf ftr:&I~ll:l.?i ~~]~'i1'i[\;IJ;[ ~~Ie ~n til1K: !;,1]ric..,,~n\~ Ib(,';I99,' -1.998 EI NUllo mu:l ~1i1e 19,a:6-IQ~" E~ Nil'i.O, Ih!.Ij~owOO b)1 1:I~e~trolfl,g 1.91':;:';-1939 La Nh1a. h:iis M~.i,;;w'Onhy
111mE. ,p,. end Viilil ~,'flib~t(;d simil<lli fii~fIgI~~tllldes ~:OJi in~crni1lfm v.al'labi!ltt"l' and ~ada~ t~mr... a'l {Tnbl;: ~.l', A:l'l.c'f ap:p~yj:ng~tiK': ±4-I'I'Ifmih smoothing~.ih~ cou:r,elmioll.of E VC't'SliSP l;!,lru;.. O.6K Be. cause gl;oomJ !pile'(; liP,inattalli and CVl.IllOOr.Jti,Qll mitIS!. ba !JHCC:, ~hc' oilserved differeltces i~ Ihe o!!leriv,iZd
\,'.1hll:.'S of
~'W':'

11988

11990

1006

I.

'1008

Year

2002

I

P and E ~~ro"lkkdan error eslin~<lle th:Jil. used to esli ~~<ltche' LmOOJ,1arl1~}i inlhc (_lIec1).I:i>.l1 t lrelid.lhc estinw~cd cnor Llilll' at the 95% conM~nc~ k':Vd ~filr E .u'td p~~+o.m dL;l;:mrc-i (,~~ AI~o ~1'i'I,1~1JITI in f~l!l.lJ\. :~ I:hL;cua~~lb~t: m~ml ... ofUil~ I:I~ ,~Ii 1~lii m .. ~tndd ~i':illula~:Ltllil~ i!il'li.oolh~cl in

IFi!iJ. 2. AlnDm3Jly~,]ml!~ii~ ~,f'lhe-lhydr,olo<Qic '!j!'.aria~Le~.W Gl(lhtii n!~!.dt~ ~h~ oIJIbs~rwd ~recipi!:atiotll fDr a mI~ !e'ilapo,raUon- a na®wr-omt.alfl lrl1!!lul13rO'r total ~~al!3r p@w .ihe iI~.rag!l mftllel prEMip~italtiolrn p1ed'il::te~ w Ily AM~~ SifilHJla,tiQil'it~ filiallsosholll,n. 0:1) iFlf"~.~kal ",,(!ea~ f~llIt't!;rQr levaporaticl!I'l,li)1al 'water 'W'Ilp(II'.$!l1i1a~~· \If!!l!dlsplled\. and 55J. n~SST tirn~ ~f[f.lli 1iI~~Ib~enl:S(i:1~!\(iby' 9.1% rl. IOurirl~ ·Uii.~ Et N~fuJs;. @ii.all~J.a~~ool aliil'll ~\liliil~ ~\leren®t in phase' ~"i'ilh v';lPClt" andl SSiF. At the end (If 1996, SSIli aii1idl'I!',a~o:rbegi!l!il toiI1J(Jl~~ whUe th~ w1r1Jd'!S ~!lalnIOO d~~r~~'., w~1hiIll(i iiU~t.I~fifil!CNU1lI~ap'i1lratij(lmL A!b()!,Iita: il'tClI1t.hstaooiF (mijd·19~7). the 1Mn.~~irllihe~r(lailc:) began to reoowr afldl~hefl~n(JFeasedlsha rpf:r, r,e-a,c:ifll ng a lTI-alimllifH 1j"tlhileitnlat!? :i!998. A.~Lm'l!I 'II'[lJi.:ib~'~re-millillm at elevated! VaIU!il'5tine reilRer" (C) Same as (8), e'Kupt thal the 'lI'i',"it~r r valPCif ;l!liIdi SST (ILwl,I"ei,I1~!II~ br.ltm sih!fl~ f'~lfI~Jd kl time I1V 6 m~!I1~'h~,o!!nd theilVlndl ~UW~ h~ Ib'lleJf! shifted: back\ll,n,d Iby 2: IliIQll!lilu.ihe' s!:aliS!t:ics onlh,e 9!v~l:mLl~mes.eries"intl!lldJillg enr,or 001'5, an:!' gfMmil'l
bible 1.

234

REPORTS
crease ~n \'I1(KW by 6montils,;!inc! the increase in wi~&ll<:1gggJ ~y fl: rl1(l'l1~h~(fig,2U). W~CPl ,>!Ill" mQrf!~~ ![l~,,\'tI!!\r1Pf)~i()d,. Ih~ Q~.'I\}'.~~~{l~ b\.'i',\'\;"A;;<.I~ t; AMllO!'\PI!,;.·ric Mod~d Iltt~om~ri1iiQJI PmN::t, U III~cl VW~ {l,M, il'l i.lil~ t~P[f,;:;' aud (.I,Rl't gl[]~Uy. PigJI:r~J :;:lilQ~\';S,[J t~l1d tilIHP .off' E, 11~i: {AMIP-U} {.J9, 2lJ). UlI,:iru it> ~11l~ni'i11I1.('Ccl diA:l"r~ erICC k-'!'1I.'i,;;Uj ~~~ p~ipd:.J!ltj(ln time ~ri~ frol1!l [J'!~ most slrikiltJ,l le,~!lUm l$.in 11ilc;l~rol]ic.dW"'-~tC'Hl P,Hd~1c;'.W<nu:nPool. \",h'i.;'!X'tJJ..P E~' is 1~&i(IlU~4tJfl C'lirilHh,; 1'i1!.odd~ ,1l'td!I~t ti:t1:!11 ~'~cn;ncQt1~~Ih~ n~lTIl ~a("1 dtcadrL,rI, and .6 rel"lJi',".$;cJ:il!.~ thangc_ ~il1j1.'ol. orn'iJiliHxk Dr 1il1C~111J;,,'mml!iU!:'llvl.'!firll;:!;l~ty. Ihcre~~ro 111,", NMlfj~. iiicllilk>dl;'{~!idli,~ EI ! lreil~ This i.~ arre~jfJirn of:ltiUlXiiiilllil'iil p-el..l500 'lt~2.rn:JO l!LIie [~I, :'il'r'illtlle.i: by a ill~t(jron te 1 in 'thle clifb'nare. m~n year:-!). SiiT'ljJIl! hydoologtl! mfM:!els :~n::diet !li1eKkl l:t"sullS. II::. ro~npr~, '\\' ilh 11'Ll.~ 1il<;I!i'V,rtU:H1i;" du~ h.(P -8) should \/'11) ~~ilili1iI18i'ly!o P £ (JJ. o Thrfe;ch!lrntCliCi".iSlk: or thc~I100cI:; In mtOOttl~clil:l Thm, is 1,0~'l<ly.w~l. llegkm.<;:shou],d gel 'i!'.,'CHer ,md IliIC !l1111J)liLUde ('!.r~)D,~dl)jml~ml eI"II~'; w EI Nino d~yregroll," ~1,ICH!lM .~c~d!ricr. This sceras '10 be' (he Soli:(hel!:I1 Oscm'aIT:om C\'il'11~ ha'i been 1,\.1KlrlOO puccase (lilver:lhc W:mnPooI. hlll d"il.""\'itcre Ihis di~'I~ $iI[IllC W<.l\Y os in~hesl!i!~luteot~"""T\I;]jlkms, dim;t!~ rans,tor ')i/hkhdl~ ...,;:""~!rJ'occ ~11~rn!t!'!!le {SST'- ~!. ptt.,""Crioo~ r!1;ll~ ~w.;lti~~, ,1!N' li:o~~ ~hL;;

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VUOLJi1:ly(2J},ru1d Iherl:;1ul~:IPI\,"Semcd hlJl'lcS1.l~m;I ~1'!:)1 lC c~hu<llc 1]~(I(k~!'i<UTe a1~o lundCfCl1~hllalinI; ~

!l~ d(",,(,"'ld~l]i "'~hil~lly. !"J:irllil~:~.. atd fl C.o(' in(:h.;;1;')C h'1!S.l,)llflf~10l1ifl iUIlPHIi:;I• . 6Th~ :li:i Illil:lrit)' il] (~~(;fO,ll(;~l~wtk!'i"cd 'ii~~1" sJ~oll.~~IO ~h~I.'OjMnEI Nii1!o;;. t:,3«J!('u'[ from .~~ .. ~'",tth rc.)1I~lC'~10 dliC'OOnSi!qll,~m::e!l of ~JOb.a], ,~-e~ic;~ 1x"i::;lIne~noro fII'OllOII.! eed ..vheulhc: ,lll"~~m'(;'l!ndl .lIlIgl, ,..;im:1~'lr~m~n~tucles orinw~rumual n vnri,!bi~:~lY (Ln 10 I.J%), and sim~lar d~lcadd ~'lrJ!I"I1~ing. am !hL.:~o'~1 Y'''i,s 'w,~~~illli~oolei Ihl!.: ~ropi~ ecems OO!;lS t:o. ..~ \'I,I',;;U~CV t~IC 'lIum:lo!ip~~!.,;'.ru in m,;nd~ i 1.2 tC'l ~.A)lh~ d'O~~td~:-I). 1~!1!h) ii!urll1~ if!c!\,,"1ii~' IJ}' l 5% winl~ CO;:! dnlllt];.ling lilut p!ll'lE jClPN J. \;~'Ii1\'!~ :~na~l or ~Itc '~Vf~IJl>OI'!i~.~I~fK.\C'II!I'K. during ,tbq~ po:::ric:d. ci:pil~U~ioJ] only lin(;tr'(';Il'(: by 4% tn'!' "Mi~ ... A~dl£rl..lgh cOl1d~tioflE = P wf..~nokll]ger v .dtlf;i \~!~Mrm:i~ !by 0_2 K 1ill~\('·0I1k-1 th{i IWflnl'liiUl.!!l liL":lIIIYbrillig ~. clct~JC.:]s.c in gJ~b<l~ c~l,J~~lds'! ebThe !lIlt! liL::1lIl"t: 1lJi1L!t!bs.e[\I,~!d Chfnlg~ UIl1IE ::and P for tn is rugiorl('ll 3:1.1;1lysh£,lhe oour~! iug orr ~\!~p.kluhc Ilr}''drog~k cyc:~~uf &~n:JI.liOIlS lI'~t(!d hlO!res,"I!!;L~-SI,!}thcr'\visc. billl o!Ullf.m wilh lite oillil'f "ruiZib:l:es was more ,up.. ~'llggt!S;I. arI [Lecc~erm:km Ilbmll 6"-.4 K:-~. eloseto the C-C v:duc,. In addi· d(.'iI~Y lihesc q~~'ClII.iO:llsMe rill" Frol1i'Di:!eung senled, p'MI:.'::Il1. :Pigure 2.B Sibo\VS 'the Iropi:C-a~lil1n1c eries s of E. r~SSX and JI~ l1~c vari3Mcs. !I' ~Il]d SST t:il]II1I, OCC3f:1 ",~!iml~e:;;hibitl.-d ~SI'l1l3U inereasc of RefI'Wililllt:!~:;, ,1I1i1dNc.tt',i; I J]% dccarae-I., Tbere is;~m evidence ~Illh€' 01'1.. c:l!hibi ~.cd ;]I h~.!:!h C'o;l1!!;J mioUl Iloonrclatiou CQ,1. M. IR,Jl!1M" W•.1, ~r'ilm.. Nature 4U, 224 (:lMjl~. .2. ~,If.IlL MlldteLI. (,.~ W,i&!«i, W. M, (wnrunglom, Q. t R. clticlclll (r), 0,961. <l!Uldlhcir ~a~il1g l'eimicm of ~ca'~'.milmli."~hiltuOOiim~ve·rm\:'ia18in !ill€' tropoMe.!ffirQ.l, SD'{. 1;B, 293 (1937), 9.1% K-'! was !.'q~!;~. ~:oIhe '~.~ ((1.5% IoC') S!phcole i$ini~!ili].j~il'lg!h.c· \1;lrililitiD!~~:;;.~n . l~ I.IIml ~r: E 3 ... ~. He.ldl, s•. . :5IJde!!.. f. (,lim-lUI., S~B6 (;!OO6}. 1 lin,ll;'$ ,[lI11(lii~ .,ndiahmic: ~~~~~f'JIC (MAL1~) r,lClm'Or Rmh~r. Ii and P .'lI;,'I(JU11lO ~~i!1lf'1!·~Y ill unison 'V;U), ..;, (. (~ £t af,. ,61aOOl Ploflel, ClirJl'r!lW 31, 1.00 (2000}. al1l10ll{JliJerk ~\I'mcr contcet, 1.'1"5}. The Ml'\lR litctor is the .rrutio of ch:l1Il!~ in 'IMinh Ihe ~C)11l11 5. F., I, 1Il\i!1'I1:r.Y,L SdmlH!6 lIl"w,,~40~" 4'1~ f}O!llilU, i Thereasen [0.1' Ihe di:iOcrq~al'lcy l:JCl\VCell I1lc 6. K. !L Tre<1lbe!Ul, .1. ~<!rullo.., l S!ThiIJl, aim. .O"".2!4,7'~1. ~I'tc kl'~IJ'CI'"rrolJi!l'ilP]~cr.K: ICI11JJ!CIUJture to the dmngc iII~, Q:orm. SST., l1~is ~I1J!!.g C01!plilll!il, bcIW~'QIl ]" i.!nd SSl":iis O~SC'.t"VillJro!J<!~ d,n"," ~llJd tiro GCl\Il.~ i.~~mt clear; ,'i!" G. A. Vc<:d"ii '1' D,r", NaWiJl'4A!I., 73 '~lOO6J• .,rmJ~lI.'f !!;mlfir~I'II.!~im!lhm. nh~ ~ow] ;:Irul1lQ!5pil(.lric aue IliOss;iblc; C'x:p~,mna~iOJ] i:;;l~liJIt two dccm:k'...s is 6. See 5~JIf!!!!!i:~n~ I~~~O!I 0" ,S!W:i.e (ilnlimt'. [or), :.lhmll. of ';;llim'(- p¢riD!!'~, <IIlli;~. (hm w~ ~"i;; 1'11WiUC,'f in1;lm'ot;oS wilh nx;;m~r.l~~11t;: :jn.lh~C·['mLR 9. 1'.1, ~ifIlt, t G~fl, ke$. ][JO~. ~,Q3 (19'97). lDlJri~g 'ihl!' lwO m; N:i.no.s, ~vm'p(H:mli:01l mt-d H::nml cli;ltl~lI.cvMjnbu~i.lY .hiU. 1'IIII1ukf.i Ihe Hlnil.ing ])'0, ]'. i!t 'Smllh" R. W. ~ollk. ),' mm. 18.. 2001 (21l00~, B. 0iI1il1 ~re ~edl <I~ w!\!!'!',fi'lid',OOiIiJ~JWi'Q~~ilill!J!i!~~ w:illi.d ~'d \\Ierc nf~1iln lph"t\~with vnpor an<d clli1el~ o~· l:i"L.rniifUliv·c: loreiirn!l IHo\>'C,\'C'(, we \'IoI'oIlllM f@mKIVJlml/ghUi~ri1l,IiImI,. SSl'.nc increase in ,evfll~ulioll. hlgod tile im~ ilrg.~I.c 'th~:[~ilmu~h two .clQC'lu:L~ nil!]), ~ ~oo £!i1Orr:r
1

I)UO;IKiflioml~'lly ~ 11()\ <I.'" a:I'p~!relll" DlJring~hi;l P'!flll\\'O detncl~~"U~~ hydl'Olo~i(; lli"r:i'ml~~~.~ P. Ol!ld It ei'i111ihi~oo simil~r roft..
IJC(~

![II~im4" win ~!l~imll; 9H ;iI.!'OI~lli~f ti!1~ 1'i~·~l!L;.An· t.!~~-r~iI01'!) ~xpl~~~'lIi.'rmtlil::JI~ ilJb,,;;r¢ .mJf(;:~f!nr:;; ."" iQ. ih~ ~aIfdlii~~ fi_'.i:tiC\71~='. bu!ihL.: Clnl~i~IJJIK:y ~lu'mg d'!e i!1dl.'1l]cntlc~~I.re.riC'~,01!Is OI_l'ld'11,,1id;;1~1a1l (lof th~~ wi~~~~:;;wiilh (1!:U~;:;r d~fu,~~ S;1!I.~ll'5~~ 'O~l'Cnvi~~_l;Jsuly. nh~1it.~~ ~!;,i'bi lit)' '[hllln Ijn~ the eliilIi111C'rriI'iodclii: liavc ill] Cni1iUiliOi'i a t'>J.jli1ijj~~'iS;;t~ iiJ'ig m'Oi' ill dhnRlcterizii'lg the' rndimi\lebol~l~re fo.r ill!! '[OOjI~Ui>pl'iL"'fC ruuIEmth's.:.lin:l9.Qe. FQi'C'x~m'ip.~e. \,'mim i.ol1S in m.otle~illg eload ~'adiMi\,1;! Iht'C~il~ Ill: Ihe surface can h!l\!c a re~,fLtivdy la~ cfti"i.:cl,an, Ihe [~J,tlcipillmk'lll 1'Cl1~~}I1.<l.C whcrea.", Ihe t(.'1IU4). '~roJtil!lt! response it' lnOI'C dl!~\'Cn ll)' 1KI\'I.' elauds ruloc~'thc~tdh ..uon <1lt~hcI{lJ~ [he ~r'OJ1iO."Ili'l'i':re. 1l1i'l diffu"'!!t() bca\\o!I,;'Cll a 5W!hdu:~,illC!\j;;)!~ in
I~

~;'-;'rcl'l.tr.!P!iJI.. i~nglf~ds. [t 11l!rn.Y in.cl'cC(! be kmg ~9~~.r,;h ru~ll.dicatc ~m ~W' QbillCf'\1~cl. ~wH!~g !>I,"'"

I

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12. C. A. Me.iI~ ~. ~, '1i'I\~~I1.:)(jffi{t )!1J9. 1'5418 12005); !RIbl~!;;~!!! ~1rne'n ~~~iOi :;!@(!;5 U.o.,U,26t g 91.ref]~'llU7i 2],_ U. G, A. h'h!t'Jdi!ol 01", :5i:iM'a' ,:1101,. l'i(;9 ~:li~, 1,~. It 'F.Mler if at, ,. Hr4ffm1~1NraJ, 4. 11~j!''C:!oo:n. 15. ~m!.' satilllijt!..g[lw~' cMllllnil'd pt«Hl!'lil1!J!i>lln prodlJ[~Jrl2' _, ccmnlmded Irl'(lmf:tp:li'J!!lidFl,9~krn~,'~aI'llPu'bI

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F'iig. 3. Trencb ]n s;ateUite-dernr€dI P- E ~llortliIe pe,[1iocilMVm9B7 IhnnJlght A:!J~lJist 2Mfi 1fhe ltarge'li~ (han[ije was over tlile warm pool. iln '~'hew~~lem IPadfflC;,ill illet ar~ tlnat Ib~me \veu~r. wlIter Viil!lllf (or ~hll per~llJd ,JILlI,),198;7 thrtlugh AIJIQI:IS.t 2006. ne eITQ~ balrs. Illn~h~ trend's alri~ 91iVIlI1Ii1t Ut~ 95% mmlfiden(~ lINt!l.1rhe '!o!'ililules~n[par~n;the:lieS,aINl~]1'I1er1l'lls Qir pe'r()el'ltage Clhilntg~', rait~,er~hal'l
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I

REPORTS
d~!Qti.1lOC!m;11~ O!J~,J lim~nq),~.\'ith,"mil -c ~OS :;;uq(!! \\'i~l~ B(,F"v~ ~'~l-!xa~~i llf;>!;~lIl;lri!I'!f;I]!~' tx:!l!iw mh¢ IfIJg~~<I!~ry I,;rir~riiml.o~· 5(100', w.¢~ fOll~:Idlo '~iim~.ll'lgl~;Jy ~ltl ti,cl'iCIt-C;B:l'ibta!ll,,;wolf f~1 ~hfUi!iJ~ in !1Qnih,(;rn Can<i.d,u {J5, ltij. A]~o. pcrfluorinolod S\I! lb;r,1ic m;:i~" ~L~h ~~ ~Tnll!Qmoc!1Hi'L;' !;i!,.MO!i"~~, w]ii'l;h (\'vil1J!J!i ~.<tkul<J!t~ Kow<1 fr'l) do ~1[]1 SIlIIMt;a IlIU:'e;s tli! a/~ .a Cl!!:.liI mulate to l'Ial!;ar!Iiom Levelsifl tiv1f'u] O~~Ii'lIi!,i"lIiiU PIl!S,e ,enVil;ro Ii!meflMl anti I:hhl~~]agii.ill~' ~I'i!aoornw~ [{.'sts with Ii.. b af). .. iii 1!I1!1i1\l! 1iI,~he\lilJth wisks. ~~'hicill ~ ovemml11l1iU> seek to r·ed'um o:r ,~timilli,i1Ifl)e.R:e'~lIta,liOliJ <lllIlhoriillie~ ~,d'e~tH1J :\llu,\\,'~ high tI~l!J.'re,oribl()magWli:Ukmjm~ib1. !bird:;: s'LIbf>tam:lfi~ as I!JjliliIwpholllit, fat'·~ollllble' (lheml~alLs liIaIViilil!ll liri~1'I 'D(l'alnol~:ter liimll ,unlllm~nfLL.. (9, UJJ, J9).. These flridii'll..lfl.~in· pl~rtiltiioln (oeHi:clie-n:ts (KQW) (;:;;;l!O>O,:OOO). IHe-re WI! Shll\ll '~hat poody irrI'etllb,DLiilllM@, mod~ro'lit!![y d~c!lJle tl~m v\:ay hydlrolPito!)ic chcmic a ls 'Witl,1 a l!Jydrop nobiie s!!Im'!:.] m1e!!s~ilIJ'h a [{QIII biHw@l@ifl 100 ii1li1d :llOO,OOO',.whid do riot bio ma,S!Ilil[y Ko~'!{~ ]US m~ not Ihe ~ml)' chi.."iInica:i!': wilb bki{tho\!'ti~,ilfl'Wao'l~@ in Ch@iI11ll'i(all [1()!'Ic@nitratilt!!'1 ]1'1 Mtiliilnclr!'al~iI19 tr'Op'h~(' 1~~'ilf!1)in :IIqll! af~c ~n;~gniltcal:iionpo'lIC.I1Iial amil tlUlt lipidJv,,\;I~er :fj<l!rrOQ~ ~~!Ils:~calli, biomiljgl1~fytCi a high deg!!"E@ inr(lll~ w!bs oontahl~n.g ,!l!iIHlrEl.c!tMng 3JMmaJl.'S lilOCnning cmlnol, serve <IS :1 uni\\mril mood foL" (~,jldl!dh'!lgi h!1i!nr!g,1lI5) ber::a!.!!l~ 'OIl their h~glh~(I!;"!i'!l)l~lif pg rtij'litlf! (,(I~Ukjle!1!t (K:g,rJ aJ!1d (.~l!'res;p(l~d~!i!.~ iclcmilyin~ bkllvc(Wll11~ml\'~ :il\!h8!m1CC$ in wl~(~· !if~,~nd hllUl1m'!S. ~1)'ljI ral~ ~f ~5:pcfro;lt~r)l eililmil'l(l'liiO'fl t(!!! [h~5!e tOi!'!! K'~wrh'i~h KrJA dlemkaL5'. 1!'ep,r~~!Ill'iill,g a To '[~~l lil~ ;lllJ:.lie nbi li~)! .of Clurmr)l rtgu:tl1~rd of '~I'galnk chemn~al:5 iln 'C!omm~fldal l)I~e.. CIH'5ti~uh~ a~ 1J11II]d'Mt1fi~dda5i~ (If pl:Il~!!Itialny blhJaoC:llu'illli!~li\lE! sll!bst,aJ'lc~~ that ,,~q,l!]~@reglu'i.alill 'Y g~~~S:~Iin'~f!~OO p,r,~w !i'!'l pC$~ibl.€ ~(l:~ys;~~iiiiI Imcn), 'cflt~ria fO'J: id!}nt~fying bkl;lcclmn!:lla~ivc

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~I~ !1Il!t)n~J[:dyn,m~~!!!J".. !;!r{;~'U~ Iillll:e III r[)()(! dij:!¥-~ ticn 'Lntd'lbMf'l'Jai'an.. \~'h~eil 'OOll~I1iIil".m:: illig;:£IOO dtcmicals in the: NIS1.i:Uill~~inll~ I1l"Je~.{i2. 13). P,oorly m~lzloolizabl(!. hydrophobIc SlIL~~, \\,'duh Row ~ lOS ~m'\ill: PlrOVCll ~dl1.iCIJIlnrl)1 'sus. ocp.tubl:C to bionl1lgllilkHlilm in Ii'ih ~,M), \",,~IK'l"caS chcmki.!lll.>l '!,:\~lih h:m"""r Kow do not gr_'l£rnliy bin-

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or for Snlped!}«l:iiOj)~1iObic <Ol]Im~k

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,I

,llCI~\I:uion~ PI3Ks of

arc 'I\w SIJ2 domeins (rlSI!12 and cSli[,i) ~lm,t mlu31.ocms; fl.mocti(m, \VC erencd 8 series of s~t.cd~tt1,SiJi!!l\CS.1 tha~ fLI I~s[ 50% ~)rillHnlful brerliSl. I1mdt: an, ~lnkrvcl1:il'lg domain liSI12), and coun· ~ sped fie mlll~liO:l~i> I~~ us.! 12 oonm~ i~. ill, r.dl~~[i~g cancers; inlvol\,'e nnu~lUJ.on$iil1i chher PI3Ka Of ill, an tII.d~lor subuilit tillm~cmCi.ll~cotll11t~ets IlWIl. 1.0 mU cam.1,Ylic :;tlibml~ls are jhe N"Jtcn'l'llin2l.l I:hc p~~ Ohd iad oo~l[!liul hOls:1)OlE545:K lliI.w.'l:m. PTEN l4. 51, BroOOr:sI}~,(:~UlLJm ~[;K inhibitors a&l)tm-billlctfng dOJ1-miH(ASrn, ~le' 1't1s-biindill£ 'We delcl'1!uincd the Cl)fSllnl SDnlC!tJ1'C of a oomsueh as lY2''iMiO()2: or wortnmliln~r1 ,re...'1.!.ltl~~1 indomal n (RED).. ~le Illltmlvc m!Cmb:rmu!Cb~nding creased .f\pojJi{ill;~S, dCCU£.il.500 l)mlili:l1lltOml. and domruil tC2l, and the h.c:llk:iI~ and ealilj~~k dopk..... between Ihe txwjnc: IP~IQa ABD OCllldlllcs I toW~), and tile hUltnall pl'lSa iSH2 drmnin: rcd!oc~c1mcl&~cflil'lis ln ,dllill ~f:l:l1Id 1~llnor models in maUI'I5 (lng, IAt ThciS-II.2 oomain L ~lliSi. .. [rc\ricwcd i~1,(6- .&)~"tJlldcrstllll(~ing lite :SU'IIC~t!lml b,tel:o:I: Ili:gjllblndhlg to~he AIU) ,~/4,1 !lSI.:~2: !:rcsWm:t'l 4J·~, to i600~iTII, 2.4 A ~~OOltJt~IlUl ,{1.",}. The IiilC'clu'Lnisms of PI3,K 1'Cgl.lllatTm~ mlly nldli!<Ji[c amI cSHI2 domailll~ 'l~llld phospho:tyllilt~~ tyro-mlc."1lins the bltc.'tactiO:I1I or ~he smail,. gl,ob1.Mr :'>incs in Tyr~X~X h:~ .. N mQti~I;!!.found ~n ~ltivalt~d AUU US by 25 by ~.S A I wIth QIW cnd or Ihe d~rclldf:!Jmm of isO'...:yanC'-.spco.;:]fic ~lemrlolm~k:s.. nc cb5..S ~:t\m3K5 :I.!~ O'blig,;jJt1ll he~t':!'«iim~'fti ~~Cp'!\[lfl' ,<L~d <1I;;r.lptorp!{l~:i~s., 'lIm.1 Ihi~ in~cr' k:mg.~udlik..c:iSHI2. (115 Akll1i.!il~ ~fi~,~B). The ,['!l1J.L';')[~ua!'ii~!i.n,gi ,I. 11 0 c;~la~Ylicnllhu~l'h ,1I!nd ,IClinn .aCl.i'll,~I( Ih~ hCh.'Jwil11cric Pt~K.. The U .. ':'i ABU is ~in~i h~r III nnall)" llhiq.iil]~!-.~i~c dmm~i~!~; ;,iI,n.;g:~lhll.{~1)I ;>ub'l,Illi~+ Any pf t~ac; lhn;;c ch.l5::oi 1:/\ \ nSH2:-iSI:I.:! I!.IPli~ t10Jl.'f'I:i~lI,lt'~ I.h.e min~n:liIl:rr.~~n'tl,;m. ]~ ~lpo::;riunPQ;~'"ou !ilbitIWl:il,!~] "i~h,1R,ml nlot,;,lIlJ '"~ll,Itlrt; di:viatim] (~:I:' .4 A. ib:r 60 oul. of 76 ~.~~i:1 ('''ilI,~~IJtici.'i~rb~I]~'l';; I GJrz, pi I O~ 311.dpl, lOiS) c~lp,abk~ urr('!luk~l.i~pg di;CPB K ;1~lilviity VS)i lit. (pi bmh gll,hibiiS 111'Icbil!i3! fj;C'l~vily ilnd lf~ciljh~ll::S JlICS (Fifb ~t·,.nIt': il·gn:~'iip ro,~d oolh '[h~AllD rilmjLlbi:qgni.tilll :is II, OOI1~nmnl [aiM,and m~ilhcr 00acl iVil!.ioJl by b.i:ndifilg p-ho:;ph.t}lyroslne PQplidcs. llYll!\d~eal RelW:aftll C'oliiiie~. WblK~tory ii'I ~,e;:.i.dlir Bial· '1UCt1.(;C nor l."tunC'! OClfl, ~ljggcstS. a ~OrlllI'lJOfll CDrirgifil 111Ct.')nII";'ISI, Ihe i~QIan.cdiS.II.2. on~~y mi~~Il1!i1:1 ya~: ~ (9)1, Hill!;~d, C.annlnldge' (132:.20H, Ut:_~OIl;pantrnenl. !OO' ;Jcii"'.ily,. a.lnh.oligh ]tligJ1Jtly bill,cl:-; .~rl~le ,\UD and IIJbiq-I,Ii~,ill. The ABD Ii'llnks m; MolooJ~F fharlllill~~.oqv. lUbert !~il1S1iera (.ol~e 01 Ml;:di· 1Ci;1s iJtcPl3K (!me. IBl'OOJ'..N'l' Ul461 USA. J~ ~!'IStil!iA;e<fof Can(;r' therl .~ !lUh'Lmit. I] Ol'l!: or~hc lca~tcoru;.Clvcd. d\:inIDi:rI;~iII:rnong C~1!iSS ,~,ao:!h,. Umiv,~~it~ OlIlege l.oi'Idi;JlIl<, l.!aOOQIIWIW 7SS, UK ,I ~al:aIlyiie .:;tIbun~ks,. CQnvC'l'sc~y, tltl.': is 11Il1 tlo.A mlll,1b!:r of ,s;11J1t1it..~ ,~Im,·!.': id(!1iI iiikd ~I high ~StOOol. of (OOi~IEr 5d~IfKe. llil!' Rayrnood ,aM 'Be~d~ II\.."'qu~ncy of somalic jilQll1t mllllll£mlli: iu~ tille: m.iilin b hi,!'Jhiy ~o:nscrved hl vcl1c'i:!rnJcs, :shar~ Sadl:_~rf.aru~W,01 &aa S(ijeMe~ Te!A1Ii~ Ugn.~tY, Tel~ SCI1;ecncodifJ,g the pUOC] COlL'til~)~tic LIIYLlU~il. S iln illg :>0'0% ~c:qllcnre ::>imillll:r11.y rmln immm~~CI ,6,997$,. i:ll'<lel diIFcrcnth!1lIl],U\ C<l110CUl> U6. n,. I\n 1l1.creaged l!cbrn~TI:sh ,~fig. S I ~ DC:S.pile a bek. of :seqt~C:JfII;;c! '·1111~ ~'II!hmrs (l)mlribu'h~dl 'I!QIU'.~~li' l'Oth.is MI'liI::, tPrf5elil~ addreS5: l.a'OOral.~irll! de' lIlilxhirrrili'! iii' di! Cieni~ Hpidkill~I.."c aClu,'h)l~11l vilm ~md[11£' ,lbHily 1.0 $inmiku'ily. !l.ccGnrcl'!!,}iill1;c:1~C'li.'I:I:Y sl'WI.!chu:t'! preIEl~$~~ i!I~~ IJpa~. [(de N!atlom~e dl~mgePiel.l!s.5"!a__CI;, dklta'r!5lor the c]I~l!SsIB pHO'rl' J\B~) .ne conindl!!;tlc O:f!tg~nk lIDllsf~::IIl!ml~tollill vivo were :R~ S~~ B-II'W •. 3Q3i!1sril:li. r~i~~ r(ll~d.sirQii I<:IF 00 ~hi,; !;,l~G\\'Ul oo!h for Uw;: niQ...! f~q'te:ntlif Jil~l;fiiacd, ~i~l<L;~~wiuh 01 ~biqlJ.~l~n·~.il<'IC . It.T{l, wh~m (i~1T1i:!5palld~,[@! ~htll!lrd 00 <lcldr~li!d. 'E.f1Iili~ "hniNpol'" n;~iclwl~,'; 116. n~-.!(J',mid foo'" 14 ~..t(: ~~.i;i:<1 A 'P llO ABD. Hm,VrC'I\1~r,. l1iu;grc~uueF ~"" fc-lmb,c,am.aC.1Jk ~JtLWJ; ba(,~er@ae(iolTl,\\l!!.edu '1!1,i:<:nCc Ji\fc~ncl: d or tltt r I.my AHnm:mk'C'~ ~I. C1i1lleC'lf.spo;.:ei fit· muJi1iItiO!fi~.II1J pi lOr.!: 12'1). Uie

or Illffillgh imtC'li\I[UIIOI'I of lip,id phospllfltrll'it': PTEN. occur Iroqlui~mlYlnl flli.mnClnMS, [OJ"umoreoalCCr.i for c:xa!ll1(pk. roooru

;ll1d ~~wli:;;nti3~ ndiv!llnOI!~ by lylll'l§;in!C' i.:iml!;('S and RilS ~!{,I-Ij} (ion:u:nrm. !o ~n rt'glllalOI'Y ~lIIblmills I

IliSH2 demain 11iiI1.gil"ll Oal1EalCt 11ll; l1"lie.:n~domailL To Hrtder.:;I[lIm~~ how hdiL"llil dti'rill!l~li Qi:'bOOgClllk:

or

or

I

REPORTS
i ~n;lbllc to bind ~~e~SI:i]2oonmin. C'Ql!1s1Sltcm '\~,'illi g!Cn~ m~m:m;1I1i njhe Iwll1;~I,!kmmi:n. 'liVe fim!ld ~ZK. ~!);lJl t!D1;,p"';':'S:ng.f~~'1!IT~CIIY [1;;1c~Jllltm~ ,~n~t in· pur.>Yim;~s~~di","f!i 1~>.!h~ pRS(1 iS~ll ,Q{I11~in { ~tm (:9!l<'list-; l\:\~ 11~~icc.$" <BH~ q2, ~<!!~. ('l! ,iii h~~it p! !(l~ l1r;'!~,,~. ,QI,lHl.. in ~~~W.ll.l:;:!l.~¢L~~I!.U;lnt~inc~~~ ICiI!~, m~tipmit.ll~11 ~.j~ccl ,~oill foUrn,rOO lJ,y~lil,) ",hun. nJ h~lilx tPi1:l" ~B), Thco 1\ !lDJi SU:,! inlcrlhce is I.~~~. ~ll!~nJ!l 22fW A~';';;lIt~o:; ;ufl.>a. \'Vi(h .he co~'tt:;".\r( f.!tt 1127 I:h~AP>D Il ~h~1 ij.l'lltr.JCli1'i~\vilh lhe ~i k~-mil ~lc.lit(,'lI, ofuh~ ijSH2: ,~P.ilg. I. B, M.d, E),. MO:;!t. of

,,,r

ror~~~ or
or

E:54SK. gr' 'QS<!!6K il~'''Ilm (Pig, 31\). <I!! Qf these hel ~'C,,~d"m"i[n lliI~bHnk:O~1S •.hePQ,'iiiti... ~h>L'!1I~~ .~~~~ld'1~~r~.l~ e a

I

!Jij~ inl.cmeli'l'llR.wilh t~'i.c ASJi) are rOnt~~dbyhhc iSI-iIl2 i~el~)o!CiL whi~;h 'OOI~m(;~ 'I]~e A[B[) w.i.tJil
seven

{'Ifi1....

tllrnm:.w~l'!..'tl:e,'I:>OI~]~

three

tlH1I1S

iSI ~12 helix i:l!2 il1itcrac~'>\'illl the ABD. ('e~m'a! to

~he ABDfiS:112 intcr:I:1Icc is;: 'the- ~mr.'lCc elflOOIWp'.iL'\Sinl; UlC slJi'aml.-t ~ I to P2 of Ihe AUD.whid~
c(1J:nn<!in (he s
'OOl'li.~~ld

.25·L~~l!·.L~u·.Pill-X~G~}'~

B
canc8tl-Un~
mrulatiolllS

UbiqlJJlittin

O)!:!nJANnS2i• ,one on ~;lch~O:ll!g hdu~ of ~i!~ do<ml<~i[l.AD:tIm~!!:l~ull f.\'$idul,$m Ul~ int"''I'f:(lc~~.mh(! ~ided~fli!!:; of 1l1.~ 'I.WO jWltlt iSB2 residues C'Jl:W~J,: in ttlC gllCalcs.~ :iIllJinnhCIi uf ii]I!L::r&IJiJ.iJInil C'OXlBrL:C~. Ov emU. 3boUl~.lh~LlliUlCrs ormhe AU.DIiSIJ2 iI;1.ICiil(liQ:rl~rure vIm dcr \~J~ corn,. ~ru::I~iiltnd mnst 01" Ihem. hnolvc c;o;;pose[l hyd~plml~k side d13 um; It 11£.511..~I Ihe:pe~.hCl)i 01 d~c !llwlfOlOC ru:c !wo s<!llhnk~. G!!~-' ~ M j' ~ :t~ .A ~. ~''Mj __tnl II,Wl I'" ~'~!'g!!!!t! <liLY I\~' AJ!!)!l>'''I.l'i!lii~~; _ID\"'':'\~~'!.,

'P.rp..a In~o~il:\"'hi;."l'e ~ denorl;;'S Ol. 11!)!droJl~~obiC'I~'" idl!!{; (fig. I. D ,~i!d1 E], llli~ mtl.if i(mt'!!i; :1. I~I~' ~hm!hmll!gh both iI.~side ch<!in.~ aud baekbenc 400 CQm'l'C'1l.~ twu c{lH;.wr\'lld iSH2 .m"~dlK\". Ghl '

p8i5 ~ iSH2:

E

c

SiIC"'$flCCUficmllmgcncsis on.hc imlivid!l!'cl, dlll1l'goo .rcskllIL'S tQ A~a did trot dimi~l.iitte ~incHIl'S i111. vilro. This is (;(DI!S,is~cm wilh tire \ICI:y hilgh u"r~ I~]lit)' of tl~C'is!-[! (Imltrllifl fOf Ute ABD (/4" 2?h
OJti1(:r iSI-llll"t{!Il1~cl.ir1g sim.s, int;l!lI.d(; the n ]J)B. ~,1IDc P.3/]M', ~rld t~Kl lf~6IMP~ ~ (If j,\Bn Amm!g:ro1lC cai11ec'1i'~pc1~I1tImlt'luiOlf~$ in p~ W. ihere ere I.hrcc rcskllllcSi I!mi. 'unmp '[0 t&l~ AIB.ll A~, A~~~.find ~~,ro~@'!.rtW~ll~Y., itwfls S,~cMj.WUI 11~cIt3S.I.~. (28) Il1JLnmio:n imlluce;;; OI1.()ogc;,nic ImJi~S> Iblll'iml~on of a\ii~11 cells, il~nh!JlIgh \vidlWeak el1lkicncy (:21), None orthcsc rcs,killes llL'l:allhic

~ .ASI)

...t'..,'1 00"
.

I:

IFi:!lI"l. StJUcwre Qr el, da~ IPI.PI3K h~fW~!Il1~mmiOIfl W[,eo. ll!) DDi1Jalil Qr,~"iutlrOrl Q'I' IPI3K w~lyH, (da5SE!;5. I~. aM 100dOO: r~'lalu.ry (c:!a1;'!i, !fI, onJly) ~bllili1lits. Nandi C, N· and (.Ilerminil lobes 'oflhe lkiliia~ domain" Iielp.ec'tivt'iy; 'Gl.\P', I1Illioi-GAP ,domlPilili. (18) Ribool'l 1rt>plilemliil:a~.Mof A!![)J!i$H2: l1:~md~~er'. Th~thr~ A'S D residues idelm~jfEcii as;5(lm!atic; ImlJltllli0mifl [:olein! 'Ct!fI!lllrs '~Dli'lfIliFl $~e'rl'l~1 .in not ifil the ABOOSH2 ]l'Ilerra;(j~. (C) Th.e' .Ali1!IDhOI" a uiIJiqLliiti~~l&@'f,rdd. ~I)}A, (UlS5l'!ilertiorn thIij)~liIlhe .A!J;[)JiSH2:fnterf,af'e ~01Mn,'£I

imerlacc be~wcelJ,ilhc AIJDffiJ"Uldil.hciS:U.l doInflill. i\,Il,dysis wi~ ('oa~Starl' It29l' :lihows ihm

!:he~ :Is a bjgh:~yoonll.~n;oo, AB.D surface 'P>Ii!c'h CDTllmbulie £1iID:illi:mtial1!i' to !tie bindin!lj. Co arom of resldue!> forming prorniirR'fI.'I: irIter",~tion"i~..mh thei5!1H2 mU;:;,[dC'Ih~ oCOIJS~IV<Cd ABDtiSHl imC'.lf,nhcc ,(,PJS, I~C{lntnbutiflg llilore'IDiiln Il~!llein,te;ralmnh::: 'OOfiIUI~ ~)iJh,jf\1bl'lk dislarnce< 3,~6 A} aro ~h~W1 00 large ~ph~. Smaller s,p,hIl'CFeS ~lPr~M ftridues fnvolm::dl in ~ e~_«:nishre' in't.eraUlJOfIiS Hour ((I [_I!r; 'iNoor@tomk oOJuac!S), 21\). nl:iO !:I3!t:h. fmHllcd by lite INIti~3 g:egioJllul'd ~]DC~" G:~~QP' in lite ABD (f~.2 ~~!ldrig. SH'. i;:'Qn'li!'l!}i pL"Jdo:mi!l<!IiC'ly QF ~~l!,lr~'~;,clI\~'i;."S. Um;:IILlcH il:lg !\VO (l:~lhl.>lhL1!.,il;ABD u,:i,liicl\Lt,'ll' ,,~&~tl:;C ~lll11~l~ A, ~iol] l~ lin'klC"(! w:1t'l'I C'IlI1C(,[, o.lnd Aa:g'8t. ~l repn:;,"~nns 11 pbll.l~l\lJk: docldlii~ :;itlCrof other dlQmilifl~, if! the rest or~~.c p ~.IO}p'~:5 ,oomplcA, M IiitalioJ1s in thi...S':1lI rfaoc Hm,y 11 f[();;t ~1~ NImI1i(m~ ,~, :shIp ob' !the i\BD 'w~lh ~1,,"(;tIQ nh:c cOIImlylk core.Thii> ooliiM roOrib'ili] 1]1';: ~di~liDr slubilUil. w.iidlrcSPCN IOlh~p'IIO S\lbUllrUI or ('h~l;lg.Clhl! alrie;nti!tim~ Glf tlte cnzYil11.eon I~ae mcmb:mm:.
a

~he- ;!lI~f.a(t1! OO1fI~h1if11l~.tarrty.', m !J'[wj~r~mle~w ~

of 'hlme heoo~ooinrl~r ~!ilt~fa~e ~~iO'Iiin!J ~du:~

Ih:at

tm1'

...t....,.

ii,S oFnS[11and iSH2 (r~9 Sn1i) reactulyiu~h ubi~5 .LClh'i~yof !he wi~d4ype p~.I(~ t fig. lA~ ~!,g~
,!l}.~.il!g
~O!.cl

A rn ~nii1lml res~ b[ory IJ:~S rmg~m::nl,!:ollsisl,-

an mwcJined .i!~~ibJitm:yr:RS"r~10' conIfl'!!!. 2., A, rnodel't. of thfl' 1II1I~ll1im<l~. pl1O/p'8') (mnp'l'11'K,. smHMring th~~Or<lltiOIill> ef rarl1!' 'GaIllOllr-~pel'clfic: {Jl}J •. 1·1}'11o[l'th~i~iflg~w~ hdic<!l! dl)~l\ai~! mll!~tloflS ijn~hij! fl!,!Ji!.).(A) 1:'W(I AeD' rts,!d'l.!~ ttt~lt i,rt mlJ.!tatedl lrti (rClkN'I ~1iI(~ts mill) ~.~ ~ m!'1i$e:md. !c1'~' mli~l1[ bt:i ~ :good C<Jnbd id11l~ for thii; il!llhthi~ory lliOAl~SH:2~bimjiing :Slirface ~alb:lh (purp~!!'). (B~ A vi!!'l~ cd tlile ,AlBD!iSI1I:2: cDllIIplex Nttaleod 90" amum:1 dl . vertiic;[Iil a"'~' .~'ho!i'liii'ig(olil~~Md ~~ir:h!l.es '01'1 U,e·~BDsurf:[liJ~n,d: ';[In(jer-s~cilrii( mJlJ'!a.tiOiil :~'te~(ooxed). a mSH2 bincl~.I~g.w~ IOo.'kiL'cl ~n ,~~r~tl 'Ih~ '01't'.iili.OO-

REPORTS
Among !hC:l1Cnlm1:t~l!s. ~J.~~)'Ihe ~~Sn ~~R1,4():E i1mlp~;$l:li.··K~iH.N~MOIllitS did 11r.t1~!1ih!111l ilw n !J!11d th~ wi We:IJ'P~ h~!il;;ll~ ~~!l~,li~~~I1J\'O!V~Bg ,iii \\I'!!~IYr~ p!. Hlf~ "Fig. J!3:).li!l~ b. .. PI' ~~hibi· .~ t"h9!M'~~;Jmr~il1it~1Ini~!i:UTl 1tl1..'li.1j,\i!.l";I~ !li1:::i~;:c ~1il~nWr R3'10~ ~V!clllI<J79E ~tU1!M\;-;lI:,~dNll tht,,~ an pi:Jl:i'Ch 0],1 [li£ ~h;::liC'.'iJ1,~mnrni~~,Iud .~I ht!:i,t:c~'j.;;i:dlJj1.'l n,-sidu~ :.~ i.11Vohl~\clin alii i,llhibi!.01)' coli.oct an lhe surli.~ QX',lic nSU2 dk'lm"in.\!k~ 8i.~gly wi uh the cOIlIll}, l,icsl~'Ln.mtt" G;m:5:i5!tC'H~ \",'ith~h is, ~lWI!,!~~"d ~~h nfnh<c 1~'~'~!1C "~linil1L;"",,~ idli,q1,.'?i [11" p.."l5~i-KJ19.E !J1iu,..~:tilil1;~ibi'b.. lhepl Ul'g· II, [II] iii);: :'lhQaoG' Of~1[;~SH2. d{:Ilt)ujn:i ilit\l'~!uUctiatl:~ E545K OIjO~J1Lc 1'ili\UU.tlll \vh.eIlC-.ii~ Uw \vild· tlcli~ ~ ,rorll>liJl. \,\"C sp.eQultlJred ~I~;J,~ilcrc m~gln t 1~~ .m g!1ihil'li~{IJ:yqn11:1~i&{)1l 1~t\l!.'I;1I:n Ih~nSIHl WfJ'C 1~~511idoo~ m:!I:"s{f;g~C'I!I!!1g~hm lh~ 'Ch~.1,ge ~ffii"~ has r~~1<11:ili~llW1i1!\:cr:iiicSlI g.nhi~il,ofY

I

Th~ r~!)!:1.";:.;id~~;i Afg1'lO and lL;rs:'l7'J :m:: IltlInt of ih~pltot;phlJ~';!t;;:pi~d!; ...bil1dim~g sLlrlfnx m~ Ihe nSHl dO!l1I ain. Ba~h,,~ in di.n:cl COl1"~>c1 widl INlund rhrn;~~ho~p'lidL; in f,;ryljll'1~. !'i~!Iillc!lu©l DI'
I!S~·!2fphtl,-,p1R)lJm:;;inlC:-'po:;:plidt;: co~~]p.h;),C$ ,131 Siliggb."'>Inliguhiil dl~ rhosph~i'X'P'Lid~~i\'IiIc,~ ~ nbe ,e~zyl1n(; IJjl (!omp:iti~:l~ wi~~ Ihcni'1hihitfif)' MlllliCI. A.~mcl:emTy.'.X.~X.M.ot ~:lIt:llip&lOPCP'IWO

im.l,.ln~J;:!:!lln!Fig. JC). (

I I
, I
-

~11~I"'Wir

lide :rmln lite T~'~/ryf'1iI

re~io.n of inSl.llin.

i-'

, , ,
-

It
'I

I

- ...

I

I'CjJeplm'~d,,'>lrmc I cntS,i) rm.il£h I)' ,iikiU'b~Cid Ihe act u\'~~ m of the wildcl.ypc p i.~ Sni&ac!cr&K Ik~~~ clmef' bUI ,dh1 not ;j)J,Ctl\'UilCliM:!' ~~' 11 O(~-E ).:15K} :IfIR5ni cmnp,llc1\ IfF:ig. Fig~!r-c 4 ~1I~fJ."":"; how biu~d~r!!lof 'U1!.Jtl,ll.2 dl1l!~ain !(j,the pJ [:Cia ! hdic,:;~1 dOi~lW~I~anliclliLI ~:wIllk~~l!l!,t¥l'nkk~wt!iuld lx~ m:L!nmll~ c."c~m1ivc, (\lm:\I1U~. il. ~i,s elear '!lot how Il:lt: 1!5~12 inhibtt~ the '\,\'~lld·tyl'tt':~.mzYI~!~. 11!0 he]ie..u! dom"i!] iUWnl!J:::l" wilh~h~ (:,,"·d.y~k:

3m.

-- ~~!,t:a7SE~'OO, ~Ji"!I!j:tiI-

dom~li.~lOl(:~a IJn·~ld. slUJ[!(:~.11'11: C(I~n,ICIof mile: nSH:J: dOl1n~Lin!;.~ti~bnK~hc~itill do:rrl::lilll ~~.l~!l\hl I.r.i,g~r 3. COr:ifOillt:lilmi.(I;lbrilil chm!gc in the ClllZlI~lie dmmlin 'to aflect them::l.ivilY allnsicricSIIlly •. or it I1I1{'lY inl1lu:enec line orii!:!lTlI;atioil1 of Ihe C<lmly l:ic dQnlJin. on the ~'llhslrn!iXlOllttrill1iin.!
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~hc;:lI'd~~IICC!U,<!!!C(;mmt Oir IIl'Cw~d,i,! p!IO :

The ABDJiSI]!

(;1)'!j;!.J! ~~f!!C~'llI~ C~J~llr~!l:I.e. ..

Fiig•. :3:. 1~~ljk·a~domain om;::o~,emic mlJlanffi Oil IP1.l[l~ !]~ilmijn<!lei!l'lI au~oill1h~hii~ory (Oll'ltt!~'lh:'i'Hh fhe IPS,S fl5H12~omi31~n. (A) .PllK ~c'liivhy of th~ thre'e lPiUijo; heiJeal d(lU'li!(ri~ !'!1I1Ai:alfit:S was 'if!ot fnhilbtoodi by th:e 1~:e:5nuifragment E(JIlilall,lIm~Lllntl> of protein '~'fi?re 'lISS<l)H~d1 oil nd~he: '<ll.al.ytic5l1J'tlllL.Jlmil:5 :na,ciI ~im~taf spe(;iUi(:adivitie:s (fi.g.. :5,3) (25). WT, wlkl tYJre. {B) (harge-rev<e;rsa~. lII1I,ut.agel'lesis: $cr~E1ii rig Qi[ bl~l$i( Sl,lrrfa(~ irJe~idil!!(,'~ '~~e i~ 1:l)!H.~, $k!ll!,d~mte(l~5:!ch~~g'e·!'leve(l"5i3~ pllO'q. ilIlild lPe5'fli~~w>ed {C) jio il'lli1iibitioll'l, !iL:lU~'liljlmgld1~r'~t.ijnt.e,r,actnon b~l~1.I!aeE1ithe IfDJlJLO~he<~(ia~. dO'lifIi!Ilil'lilind UII'~ pB5r.i IlSH2 dmnaimt. A titraUQiIi! sene;;: \V,ilIS ,caniedl ~'Ld 'h):r IlJoLh tine ~viL~·:~ype (lerO and ES45K Ffi!lItaint (rf:!1~U Jt),UO '~lI!l::u.!~its,oo a,s:c€rta~!I1 'mat the' iIi!Mb1I~io",! was art satt.lf~til1igr l!:l~ls; !)If pBSIF!]. (D) IB1!i!.~]n9 of IIR.S= 1 Ill'loill,ph®tyro:sin.e pe:pHde adil,l'a~es 'Iliiild~lype pUOrup851lli Ibut !!iI®it ~110·IE54.5KJp!a5nri (2.5'). UM U)! '~[n] U pJd kilila:s~ a~sa!i'~ ~lffllr~IP'lNkm;n:ll'd wi~1iI MV'~·IP11rOu j)lf,t,'Id!UCfld in '1jr.QIl1sfectedl humi1ln le:mbrlJilln~( ktdlliey 293: ceHs.'A) er b(lcuhwfifll5'lIlJected Sr9 cells UBi) to mHo mn'uh,,~@d wit~ or \liith:o;ut ~Ul~1i pa:~E1iii [expre~ed tn Es.meri'(Jl1a (oj] (,?,,)]. Basaa.u::1,i:vnly ~~fers to pi,j.O!r.! .utivityil1

the alb~~c'~@f

re,prll'.5eil'ltat.w~

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lw~ 1E!:qil!rim(i'f1'ts,

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in d1C J\BI!) are not .inl.lhc ht1.C'l:fu.ccwi~lI dlC ~L!I!!S also $\Il!,g!~l ;:un l!Il1CXI·J!ct;lg,)(j fl!lnCliml fm I.h!.': l!dtc,-I~ dmnmi!J" Aml:~ml,llI)' d(;.!\,iigJl,~-d ~2 nnumua COLm!~!1I(.1.ll nSI 111(; g;lI UI1;·o1~:I~LU]C:liol1i Olloogl.;~'1i:c rP,~ I (In..;E 5451< mn.lillnm.ufiI1, ~lIipporl.iDl~ dK~prop(~Jial [~<1Im ~1C: I:lRS ifillililli.IOll orp~ IOf.l. ,OOCllHS I.hmllg&l .;11 clt~D'[t,(). dD<"i;t'g(!: ill.t~Il1I.Cl~o:n bctV!'CCI~ the he]i:Cli~ do IlI'Ifl ill, mild thcp85:ni. lllc cry.~mllog'l<liphlic suuctures ooll}bunoo Wilhl~!c Ulultatiom:1I alla~,yses have cIJ,1I.b~!Nlus to I~mposc' a roll,gih 1~.uti;J1 modc~ [or lhcpll ~01pS5 cmnpJ:ex (25), b~t 'OJlg.o!l'Ig,studiies by n mill car' DUa.gJ1,Clic ~S().i]mlCC. elect:roJilp3mm~K~l1ct~c~:~a:mmIO;:," ClYSlilltlllSrnt1hy w;iI~11 be end rcqL!i IW te ~fil1c any such mooc:ll,
1i0llS j)<~ !:1;.'gI!ll]tI~Ol'}'"'I!!bw~jtOur

~sitli! (jlf l~e helkai dopllOCII: c.allallytic was rnod.e!ed tin '1ihE! pl::ll.Oy c.altalvtil: ,oore
'~Of\e'

th~ inhiibitory' crnnact betwe~ Ut~ filS112 ,dO" rnail1 ,ilUI'!JUII@~@~h;:!:!I.del1l'i ariD1 oj ~pUOi1 Imear HI,e [The

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1. i.c C~il". 5dttK! O'!~ll~ 16'5) (200l). 2. B. v.a'!'ihill!l~broe!d: tit m.•. AtltltJ', ~. 8j(KI!tm. 7~ 's,.~5, Pl'iulfflll!<Cli. &i. 24, 300 ffi6O:9~·. ,~, ~. lUi:), 11.1.!'l\ ,M<i~~i!i!\l,. t, C. C~!e)i', (M<tf Cdl,4, ,51' (2003). 5. l!-!\' 5i!!!iI. !i:f~, (!i)!'1W ~ 65, 2554 (;wot5l. 6, R:."'~l1tM~ C. IInIT!rrel. Cr..rt. I'~ n~ 10'. ll9'li5, ~OO'l~. 7. M!. P. ~~n~, R. Marone. CW:r; apiI'!, ,CrlI8i'oi1,'. 1111, R'005). S. p, llrorl'irna.n, Biamf'm, Sa•• ,f6JU ,3:2:, :J:9.:I ~aoo'4), 9. 8. tGIe~I1i!llg,. f1', R, (Vl:il~~ G. N'u. 5, l (i'halbi,
II., lI,a,nilil!l'!$ebFO~

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1li!1'!1!'QOOn" liO'. l. '!'Ill fl '!It, ~k11. (!tit. Dial. 'la,U79 (1'998), U, ti" Ji)~~~13!!9j' 1l1i",,~h~~b[Q~, Sri. $JKE!!Q(l16 pel. '!200]). U. C. ,P!!1ene.t C. !iler!l~~deo:, II. !!\ime~te~ A.. c.. C<!n~~ lBfoJ, o,!l'ffl.. 27'1" 1115'5& f200:2~',

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REPORTS
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l. 'C::iI~flI~ fr'C\t"j. Bitllt. CfrMr. 2i!l8.. ~!.4<iS ~1~'3:~14., ~ ilmandl..!'a!, f1t1(J(),J. :H, 5til {199~)'. rs;, c. Wjtr!!li,\\" J. M.. B:il~'i!r;/. Stcl (1't.M!I. 273. !liOl'99 ~;]J,~9i~. 16, 'to $ami.jm otl fl,. 5(fl.IJ~ 304, ~,54 j;:!OO4). 11. Ii. Go. I!.iidlif. S. 1K.a1l!J,. L ~<lIlI, 1;'.. l. ~~I. Nat. ~ 2"1. IE. H. Wol1bf; (l,P,emc:, C. ~
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2~~ M:iI@lRaioI ,~~d l1l1~illlmd~Mi! ,~ItlI,iWlli!iU s~Jltili1i~g IIm~~fia~ Smnff' O~J[Jl.iI!' lin .. 26. Z. ~'-!'.11:. A!'t!nI;l""Sp~If"~; ], lit, l6iidi~. Go. J, Gl:1[~1!t P(.(Jr;, IiDtL JWrJ: 5~J,U.S.A mO, 3275 'i2'llmJ, 27. W. Eli5, ,E, lIll:ism~m~.M. Oelg~jJ~e'r:" M. HU~e\f; i!!WL (hI!:m" ;181', 1!S67 ~QOO); 2&. 5iJtg'1!-ll!1:lI!r ~'bb~!jmn,~!i!l1 1l!1.~~mimD:x:kI r'ffsLd~1lS 35 Icllmi: A AI~; (, art 0, Ail!> Eo GIU; IF, .~m~;~,I(i~r.M. li!i~ !, Ufo[ t:;, t~ l" leu;' M. ~~; IN.,. Am.: fI, Pm; Q, GlD.; R,lllg: $, :)@f;T;, liItur; V, \l'a~ 'W, lqll; .i!OO ~, T),!", :i!~" I!! i,al!d~u # ot.'MIP:/ei(Aw5 .fIe$. ~~. W~99

3lJ n:~991.

IL

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M. ~.. ~d:.~, s:c1ti1lel;5UIi1.!~r" S. E. 5oOOe~:n. l'Il~t 5rl~:~'~1 ]64. U~'%l'32. W~ ~iI1~ M. 1ihtl!llfi~dl anti Iii.,. \!'a~~!et\~d: nk 1IJ.r 1lle plll!ltlJ: ~[ilwidl A.~Canhj for' Ihlll!, i'IllEmQ~l'<Im ~d.!i!.t~O~1 ~~Ji'l& lleamliin~I!.'!:~·"". <lmll M.Gll'I'rn ~mlt GI,&lIflm {Dr l';I!q~rIjL dls~Ij~, 1iI'I,~""r:uk ~. ~~PJ!'!ll!i1e!lb~ As!J.iM:!lnl;1!l;~ ~~"!.WJ, lM!e'Jdf~ H~e'ilr·dJlI (oon~ii '(R,ll ..wJ•.~~ MIHJ G!'!'I515-t>?.?; 0 ,flts:.l
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Tabl\i!

$1.

(2000). :::0. !ii. c. SIle~r

:It!!re.r~~I!'!!, 21 Sep1iBmb!1f~OOO;<I~ph:dU 1Q.T126isci~m~e,IH~SJ9<t 1M!a:r ~OOi'

fJ ,cl•• )', rBiai.

them,. :l:!!lIO, 2;19.5'0

QIIJtlS).

IP,o':S,lre!p lic8Iive for:mati'on of IC,o,h,e',s,ii,o'iO lSI R,e'qlllllilred fO'lr IRep,a'if' Bind lnduced by ,as,inlgl. DNIA, Brsak
l
Lelmi!J Str09il~ '1 ( Illial"~,OUe l<a~~S:lOIll.::!lHarmtl BeUS Li l!u;hoO!i,:i!. S.iliril;W,!!dil.iH,.::!l VII kgl IK;ir~~'u.z: Ka~:51.! !nil",~, SlllIllra llii,g:Q,~: (;lmillaS~OiQlrelil·l.o 5~~Ii!,F,,.lhf(l!ilil~tQdI,a~he:siollm I~l:ablislt!l~ ,(lv,Hing ~lic;!!U(ln

i(i'4. J6~\ A'~f:dingl)'. da!t~~g¢·illdlltedi ~m-lte.s.itln '1~SOLJl'l:!prot:ni~d ill. 1.lil'l.'ilb. a;U,., (Fig. ICl I( §' i). Oth~T p;f,ll.ll.lI~~J.~·ofl~!c DNA diml .. ge re-

:i{x1I].re U~liP1f1~~~oo !}'1~~chisil.Qill:'2A

C'(I!h-~~n"g;.ThI1(" .. k~.;.i!lit.!.lltkm

m l~~ Tdlll 2illcl M(;c~. kin1~r1;;." ~~rlllilCbphllS~ho-

,! f 4. 13:i j.

U~~U~hU!I113:1II1>. H2AX) ~.nna

r?(~lM~)~iO:ty.l~:m:l~ (y.;1 ~2J\}'i;IJlIlrks 1.I2:A

:~V tli!!l! ~rot@1n ,C(lm;p~~ (!J!h~sfF!.is

,ch mflil,(l$I'JiJ:'!1!@s:~g 1iiI!!'~alil)iI! alF!~ d!(U.l!bb;~"sU:'i'!l1d bt\~ k '~[l5IB,) r~pgir. N~IFn1'.:1! ~ty, ,C(lh'esi()l1if;or~at~(I!'I 'i~ strktly Umi~,d t~ the 5 pha,~~(If me' JI:~M c.y'CI~!l', but 1~'5!Br~ (a~ t,liggef[oh,esi!1ln
~lro altfl'f ElNI_j\ !,,@pltc.ilJti~'!l1 II1"sbesn ,(j~mp~@t!d.n@h.!!il(t'iotl of this '~~m~'~@-~Ifldu('oo ~(Jl1@~l(ln

'!l's;'S~nt'l ~lflHb!!)~h

~@mii!ii~ts u nlkn(J~vliI. ~1IiI LhtisililV@S't~g!1itll) liD. ~'I.l@shQo\v that daliTftii!g@"llfloCi!i!J(@d ((I1i1il'sl(l~ ~s ~s.$,,@ !I1ti~llf!1lr r(l.!(I~~rllli p!1lSlr'ilI'pllk!:l~~v~ l 'cellls in ye~$t rllll'th~l'm(lr(l, ~It,1~ es;lQIM~sh~dIg~~,om(l'llo!id(l aherilnd lJl(lt:i~1'I d;e~[!."N [Ib\l[ Rill l1u{j/or l'vroc 1 ri;lol!IIdinf]'UC!1(;C I)!'lh~irfin inn way otliu~'t(hun 1Il1mu~1 y.HI2A ,(!If a $fngh~ D6E1,amid 'it 'is; ,()ol'l~r(lH~tI bylhe DNA d~magle iie:;p®liIse and ,oohe$in-'i:e'!IlUllatil'l[JfaCti:llrs;. w~ tlil.us d!fril'lt' a ooliu~sionl ,e:s:taillishillil'~nt palilu'tay tho:l. 'i~indepenr!,em olF UNA d'uIP~k~ati(l!Iila!il,d ,acts dcpr:::;Il(~m K;(:'illitnm::llu nf cohc:;s;ilL 1iltDt\\,',O ki:IIlfi:>C5irtlSD flelh'm..: Rll!d9, whkh i~l ~um 11fl}~'lSffillh$i lllgether \,i~h mltcu~slrOlii~Il,rmled dilllring repl]ca~ion iii! s~llterl1:~mm!a tid-based IIDSBIr,epalir. Ihl! soi!J:uDflI to dOWn~SIn:'C'4UJIl events ill ihe DNA dm:mligc respo:nlsc lI9-2l}. Dmil~,~gc.ind!ijDOO eohctClhcrtiUll!. sl~r dmm'k'lilido> b:), the il.ji that ehromatid-baseel 0513 t'iCllai;r requkcs he.~icm was. however. lm;m,f}ootw in tad!JA cells both eeheslontorrned dlu:~ngreplkatio;n and c~hes~1iIOO~l~P~~. ~, caned sistcr~ltro~~m~ eoheslen, .IS es.'5e1UJa~ for dlrol11Ol'!OJ~lC sc:g~ postiI'CiP1ic.mh'c dam~lSe.indllll:ed ro:~lcs;ion h 'Wig. I G). slm'wi 1:1£ II~[ if Mcc~ a:tldJOl' 'l'c:H [Ifro~,<IlJ.[lJl (1). Coilcsim COI1SJSlts of Smcl, S:mc3. a lso dIDI ~lgo p.I'I!SCI][ c,moc:pt~~hm; cO:~lC'Sioll ~J:c •.d<lnmg,I;.'"lndl!ocd eeneslon h~dc~l1deml}' inMcrU (.iiI!loo called &d), .;;mel SeC:; ;anCi is.llo~oo c!:lmblis!uJl:cnu is 1,lghl.ly oomlccwd W ChJl'oO'lI1lO" oo.h.esin recrul[l11.em.lhisp;llh~II'iJI.~1 deesnet ducl'e!hC:<llClh1'<!~hl!l of Rml9, o~no 'ch:mmsom'l!!5. bCrQfC replic ..I!,lon by Soc-2 ~mc dU1}1 ic<ntu!Il1. llH..'rcfo!1l.1'. 'li1VC' in.\'CS,tl:g;JilCd To dl;,'II,CiI1l1in~ \:V.~le~hcrlCptlicmion lnduoo:l hy I and C\:4. (2). establiilincill cohesion how dlllnlll~~nd~oOO collCsion IS UCgLl~3Kd and Ihe l'CpDir pJ:OOCSS in~btellCf.:S, wile.'!'io:n. \\,'oC in.reguil-es Ecol (;11:50 c~lIcd en"?) ;~liICI, OCJ;ilJr.l iu resolved ins Ii.IIMtOiUI h~ DS:I~ ~,'C'p<lir nd Chlio:JIID-a ve$,!~(grn~ii.lcl. <'lJI11liJg.I.~ii!1dliJlo~COh~]OJl in 1'($"'2,,\ d ~11C: p'h;~ o;r-~'I~c S ~!nclm~~,c~lgedcel! 'cycle (3 &", wme scga:oe~mign, CQ~!~im! !hell~r8a:s!.'ii ~m!il a~mllh:;!!~., when i~ ('C'!'!lro]lw nur i!~,,'(;'Sttg;uiQn.s c''''iJCr~~n~!l' o;;liJIi, RmJ.s.2!bcilh!:.i.l!t~ll~r.: di~'Cgl ]n1.'C'~·<lCtklrn bt;_.. :llie the i:'i t'~":oIQh","d pl.·cth;·(lly!,iccl~.v:,~g'C' gf M:cd I. ~!.~,ygtl..:~n whkh d<lJn'~~!ldll['"A;;iI C~l!1~ion 1.\'I'(l!i,'!1 DNA n,llT!kjn~ ,ID~B iundm~ !J! u{bmby ~ ....in ;l~)(;-d !ttmruJ~log<lU!:'i~J;.~r!1phul~.. wh.id~ i~"'$"""I]I!lll w h1ch:i!'i~!!"ig~n;db~vthe dcgr.1.~I!a!.ij[lll or I'd .... l C~IU k di!Olin~ui~hl.i'd fruuu c{~l~im~Ibu!lIi"dul" d ~r~r clliciiul1!:l, DNA l'i:yn~h(;.';\~s Il:h:; lIm.!... }2,JJ'). u~ ~ (9 In. h~ udclilDl:mIO ill> C"~lltI1~1role Iii'! eI]]'~l- .ing ~~p~i.emiol~ (fig. S I, At!) C~'.llJ, mn; or~hl..~ miOi>()~ft(; egregation, repli.cmiOI].esl~d)~,i~hoo (~ s :;;ySlern.... smd-259 ICIiI'III)Cre.tI,l~"SclI~:ill:1I~'C cc:I·~s 11hi:J~[\i:)0C'.hhc llrnpCf\tLlrnoo.rnn~llti OJ] I;:flhctiitou. i11, n:If/J2tJ ,C\.~ls (,rriig. II~i :i~"m¥.'St~lru.,h~ ,o."lJ~ ~'l.CSJioQl] is mecdcd l'Or dou'bk;..strnuld bfi.'"'iIktDSU) are ~.irst 8~ICd kl Gi,M .at ~J:'fwi&"'k~ temn'.~r10 line cstablisl~mcm, pi'lxess iiil ..mdaOlllc,llIgQd repak ~n pOOUt"j)I'~illivc (ellis U2),. Cohcsimn ~ ioo, alufe. lltcreanCl:, LtmIl!C;l'fLl~<.f!\..""i~;mll,. damage" ~l<lSIO~e l\,"!Crui~CC]tOII~ she o~' dmllll,gc rOf induced coillC'Si{l!1l l~ gctbCr<Ul:!d bydl,C C1\:pre~- cclk dmnage-il'ldlllJ:led co'l~esioo ~s ~jtdepo;:OOclnl: cf1j1cil;,~l: 11Cplj)~r (/3,. 14), ;jJi.ndde novo iCQ~esioJ!l ~OOI]OI'Wli~dhtyl'C ("\fT) SMCJ ruN ~llne~I., ,~'glll (if ol'l,e..oil'lg DN/\ dlllpllk:alio:n (./i',.. WI! cl_'I.~;d chllm~ai~d S!;."'UJJ1I:Uliilm ii~ ~iim· II is ~t,II_'l~,ishcd~1'I G2t~Jf ccoll.. eXjIDscd, tQioniz.. y-ilXiillcflrilllitUl (I:ig. I" A. and B. and ~l:ig:. 81.1\.) (Hi. r(c~u. \'1 ~'m !!~.~ i ng irrad inl ion IB}, This raiiscst he Il()SS~bil~ We lil'sl 3)lCel1a:inedlh~!, olllr results \vcre imt ilOO regii,Oll of duutuQsmwc\! periC'1il~ a:OL!8hJ~1 om: nSBpe.r cc~l; :II. I,he inn.tII'C'lIlccdil'ly the ahscnce o:r<l milotk-: spindle in nooocb:roICk<lITC:ii!ted cclL~ (Fig. L A and B). il'U3dialioll db~e1!!ppllc:d (J Ji ~I, &c.oJlJIse cdln:sill is ~1DreiP~fiI!!De'"001(tUi!lU!;!'I Mol«w~r Blalo!Jl!, ~~!l!1.inskal There,O!i[il.~J'; e ill\Ie8li.galcd ~h~ IhnlC'lion Or-cell" ~mi~ 10 ml~Y .50 ~, I no kh m-guM 1111C SB D w IlnlStilliW, :1'.1 1. n St'OCkhm!m1, ~doo. 2GI!IU! Ih~SBO!Jrdl1 (J'J,.t4~ [he y.r.lL}' fndut:cod co1'ies.io:n !'iI.!m';.'ll\! " ~rnl DNA dal~li.~g~'"-t-.e:;;~KIl'L"i; pt;jJl.dm~.In dzlnl~,e· rCmnre, T8~[!' IIMtinnll! of !edllDlllogy. 4,259 Nilg~msul!l, ~'iom !§'Ca1'{.'f:i!l11~~lli\l1t~io!l (;lOl:tCS<in {Fiji} L i\ (if ~~clA~ coh~i{ljn. M!(;!1;II i:'i~J~ o..!]~~ jJfUooins ~!J>1 M~wrijJ.k.u,22i6;·aS,oo.¥~ha:m" l.a;pa!'!. ;,u~.dB). To, in'itoL,~1ig1U~tJ'",vhtllitr a ~;il1g:J,~ gJ..'t'iOltuit ~hallo~~liz~~ iii a DSB (J 5) al~d ii~ 'L;"~!;t.::l1li~.1 '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1l1(:~l)Jlden~e ~!!O~_dIbe <!ddlr,e5.1ied_[:"~ait ci!mi[ta.sj2!&l!o@!kic!;@ for tht: ~CIiiJ:illlil.crii. of celie""i" to 'i,h~~dai'iil,a,gc OS}] i:lilggCll> c::alic',,olltlll, '~\1cILis.4::rl an !,i~iCli:ilii'Vl1l~ic

mhc DSB ,riililclis l1cqui.rod for DSB ree:r.uiiullC.lll ()if cohesi:n (!£) .. CmreslloOlldh~g~y.. Illc' for.nuf1~ion or dlnH1flgc-indll~clroh~i on was dcJt:C:lh'e' in oclls I~king Tc~I or Mcr I or in eells ,exl)l.lll~ing mJ.nrho.'iph(l!)'I~!.I:wie IH2A (H,g. t D 11['1 .F). I'low~v(;'[, in the !lil!:'!(:11(:!(: Tc~I or MI);;1. ~~b~l'.i.lll!i,,1 ,mIlDtUl\?1. or,!,'".! 12A ,~d ~~I1t-~:ill :.;!iU ; :J!:I.."':Cl!ll1l!lmc: at u DSB bccm.i!sc' or the o\'C'~,'lapp.illlg dUm':lion Q r tile alher k m01'W (N. /lih TIl.US in-

or

T

or

or

no

or

or

242.

REPORTS
v~i:i!l_nt ofM,ccU {Mcd II:;rN(:I.." th;;]!1bloeb chrofll.uid sqJ;'!rnliQn ~~ ,O!L~[Uph;l!l1\l wh~nil is prewm.
m cl,l~I"\,,ion"!h:rn'!in.\l l,)o~~trr'i:I'>~~un, 24)

Hh,;..

. M_'ulJi:'{Cil \"'1~cn .' ',.!I,! ~ - __ \~IM C'''\pflC\'i,,~ jJ~mle ~fl U2IM"1ll'IT'swd ~~I~ oChre \l :S~11;]Jrnw(1 !lQnl1!<l~b' d~lri!1,g a rG!I,i<l"l():1~it;l1i:JJth~ :!il:n;J.~~, ~novniim~t, ch~;
• S Ie ~.,,!<,
~,_,ii ~ ,

15

e

10

50,

i;}\'Crexpfll.."'S.<:;kmdkl net ge:IIlCt<ltiC Dsa.. !II. mt· ::.pecilfie s.i~cs ill the gc~lO~lc,. OOC3Ul1elhc ,e~lU'& ~miiIM:> :M:p3rn~oon('llJinal~)' aller 1.11.1: illldlllc~iol'li of UO and ~kdj ~'NQ_in M~f 1:1 cells 'l.Fig:. 2. D a:m.l IS~"A:;: <l comm)~ {If Mcd 1!;rNCL n.mctLm~.its chmlv~l[Ioo'nl!J;1 ~«i'lli;tc;Mltli~l;'!~'h::rNI)R~"'\lio.n in e ',~JM was oc'lliil'!t1inw 'l!1d !S.h~~,v~! 00 idc'Ul~ic.d !o to~~o:rl'\~'iUrCJoi:ll~'ii;,~o.d. Nlcd~. (I.Tig:..S4!l ~~l '[hi:!! Wft1 Ihe fimvml!ion or cohr.'.\;i{.n1. oemdu:, \I, tl!cn!l.":ln~ :>1.r.l!.'~i~!g ,I sir.!lillic DSB roa-ctivOiLT~ CdJl\'$;~!l Ihw 1"11
80
in a g(;ll(ml,l,;..."vid'l.;' l~fIlUtt~; We: lf~X[UI'lV('Stigol!ill ~~m\1cncnl~wid(l eeheg "Qd52~
1.-.· ...... •.·
'

V :i!C~~l!I1!!~iQfI d~ uot OO;:\!f \:vhcmJ Med I UNO~p~~ion\'I.'ru1 i;(II!'llll~!1~!!I\'i'illl~ the i:ll!d\ilC!tli9~{If ~.hQI,~oU~!~'i~ s~'",i:.chijnM (HO}-~~ldrl~l~ld~"SiI\l n1mt ~I ]DIS]3 at~hg,: Miff ~,P<,::!;l~ CIl~ ,~,]iJ[, HI (f'~g,2. A !ill C~ Thi:. i~'II~ibi~tu;u1 l:lo,t ,cl~IC \;'!f"~ ![')f,~ ~i krc!c dci~}l eaused by I:he b:reak. b ecall~ f'ili1l k:",~b dcdil1R;d qJ!TlC'Omija~~!lt~)'in ~tI'!~:U pGiJ]~!1~Eion!l [Fig, 2:9). aUld! JH] exPfC'fu ...iOUi IIloi1~ jd::l ,~&lrmti11Iid !O'("P~Lt.iillj(lIl1 ~it· jl{"i1i~n rbt..~ ,t F~.g.2. D <iJIIcl, E), MOlt~V~f,. ~: 0 1

I

~"''3~~

~'i~lchnsCl\l:iitdbhcs

t~lilI!t <JI

~re,lk

Ollb

d~r. lTii!!l~ U~'

~

"''lI'1C~~

40~.-

-.,_
". '.'

smc~"~
8MC~I.liII·

""'. ~ e~
<ill
.0
'0 0'

.'j ,-,.'

",--.'

_

,
O'Q
II!:

'

-_,

00,
"@

U
~, ,

(:!l'

__ ,

Q ,~

ss :~. ~'.'
._ ... .

[tl!;Ll~fL1(~t1s:in,!!, Ci,jlM-a!l:i'tSA.OOuc'f.l1Ipt:l!"JU,i1ffi1. u ~llsi1ive,:.mL'.I-]59,tx'~L s in which \lVU-:-' S}\4Clrum:l: a DSB on clu. U[ was lnduecd befbre an lip· sbi,~\ ill!Cill,pCr~[me ,(mg. SI :B}, l'his expenIHetll ~11O\'>'CclI4113l "gil'ob:lIJ' OOI15~'i~l dcpcll.d'l 011 tvkd ;ru'ld p.mly OJ] TeH .anEi y~1 ~21\.~~l!![mJ~ on ~:t.td9 (!Fig. 3. A mld B. m:nd S3A).~n cells lrucldll,g y.[ ]2,1.\. no cohesilJ is IlC'Cn~~~edtodrul1i-

SlOtt! h.

ng,

Time (min)

aged ehromosemcs, bJ~l cO]lcsion

Ii!i

onl)1 InuJ)'

Med" 'I1e:lt, andl 'l'H2:A, but lI'lot. RBd9 a~dl Rild52, .in!:!' requiredl for 1!'"nl'y--'indlKed ,~ohe~io\n. {A to tI') (Iuolli!a[i:d ~ell'.!arailiio'nat UW !l,n chr, '1jJ in G~M"a'lres~~ C:E!,lb i1Iroorl'"1irrad:iali!i)rI

lFiig. :11. flilIrell,

aJ!lldl th~S'I"l!(~i'lln (I~:Sphas~l:3ib1is~lld

,cooesio!1, as dleS(:ribed 'ililrtg. 511\. (A} 0l~~m3tid! se~~atiilln

iln (d(:20·tl:e'p~eted 6\2i.M·\lIlriI~sledlsmr']\·15·9, GtU:SMO·'13Mr(.

Ma:mCoW' c:eU~ ~CIl:4'96).
A

(B~o IHJ

(hromatid~'p~!'nii(ll'l ~n !il~~()d~Mle tG2rM·1'!f~'S<t~~~B"smr1,·259. GA,t5N!Cl 1JMY!C ('~l~ ((!B469). iC(1Qf!ilirn,il!ld wii~h,(C) mre.ll6, {CB47,a~l, (10) mecl.6, {(IB784t (E) t!!il£l ((6,693), (A htal"5,129~mp, htYJ~ 129st,D'P' {ClB742j', '~GJ r'{Jd~tJ. (CB,o,%), nr (H~ rtJd5111 ((85,711. Gi:I~ gllhut®siE! ildd'i~iCln; IFI, in .. cl~i1ti(lll!.
F'iig•. 2. p., sifl:g~e IIi)'S!B, lii O

ddoctivc \\~1eiIl OOI~liXI_n.>d~\lu'h fff,~'CJIlcells V 4). This offie!'\I;I!~OI!! ~n()iC<lI,c.; 1~1liJ~Mo:::] i!!'i reqai tioct lIhr !lunI\;Glimr! Coll(;'!\,in i<)C."L1 U:i..1lU ,lIldl cOllllld UOI'I IDe II h,)1 Ih'C:IGrln 1:Im!} Inll'lsmdsliiioill ol a s lign~d fml'l1l d~Mnfhgcd ~CJ IiIm'tllllifu]1'l"il du·on'lQ.some,,,~~f so, 1:11L~I.rnm!rl[isiS,iml D~ achieved In m. Um19ill!d~pe"derH nmmm~.ii. The IlIlIfikdroqiJiiircm,cul.

III l[ead'ts to 'e5tailliis~ liIiI,~l11t ,ar ,c®he~l001on ehr, V. MOlin I!!!lU w.1Isindll(d inl GfJ\!l,.oarffls.te~
lo~l~s;,Wilth @rlNit~!llut ,iii (ionr
'O(if:\litilflt

,[hii'.

A

e
CM!I 'OUII

we're there.l!n~r r,~lei!~d lnlJj
'lJie mil!);,t

051[1

0111'C~f',

!II, ()ell~
Q

'Q@l~. cyd!!

U1l1de;r 110111-

illl ~u:ciflg ~Illi!d~tio~ ~tngl. SHJ. . (~roJliIlIti~ S:~,plarattti(!JrI~l U~3 en dlr. V. ~hE! p€ra:l'!nltlll{l'!l ,ar

90 '00 l2{l Hm ,Gall I G1~

P~!Sl'lPotSili~ c:elt,ilIlild chr,

1111

i:'ig:2i~~'~:
IE
,~

TilI1l!Q (III![~

ilm~[lk<Lge'were d'~E!rmfmNi.
{A) Sii~WN:i'hmnild S~~ rratl{ll'l lJi1! GAt~CDlrJNG.. ?l,)~j:"l8M~

1!

,o~U5 \'liUlllu~. ((13:69'9) or~mlfl IGAL:N'Q' I~CIBi50i)'+ {B;} Pd~:l~

p,os'ilw~

(@~ls

]11 (A). ~() Sou~hF

Cllrilll

ern ib~.o~ ~hr ...III is.o!lat.edl kOllll ,of ,~ells'E.'J:amiFleci lliii 00,. ~D)Sist,e!i'" (CBS,a:n, ,G)4l:;HQ KB52~), ():F MCOl!\lIi'(.~ G)U,:HO m(Jt~ \ .. (C~5S8). U9 An~~ys.i~ (hir.1I11 ,af
iJilI

lc:hrlQl'IliIttidi 'irA @ll:!Mi:l)1 (( ii:6fil'~'), ,W1,tMCDl GAt:#()

~"n

Q'

,G:a.l!

so

Q iJ.O' '!a!! lWl

I)

00

0 ,00 '~mIOO

GlIIXIm

Gal ~
,

~

.

.c:h~,111I
I)

GliliC!il>Sa

I

~I' I

13.0 II

..

Ii!]

6lIiJ!X!SS'

'120 ·100
j

(I

,Gal II

eo

I()

,.

'EIII ~2!) '100

-C~d

G!u~

001$ '~3.mi!:'!~ in "ID).

REPORTS
Fi'!iI.
iCle~ r~lli!le

ai.

~!ii~(me"\-tid~ '~Qlhli$kI!1! bolt! otillie DNA dlm'dlJl!
dlil~ 0fI p!lC'ltl!!il1'l

,fA.

00

~

M1C'14l59

=-==i!!l!-SII'1(::~-259+

regu'la'tirng 'OOOOSlI1 fli!mman. ,(A, il!OO B), On; V d'lmmatidl~ratimll ~'mI {i2flll\,a:mestet:i ,oelbl ,a[teu' ~relill1)val 01 S, phll~

,lB't~tllislW (o:i1esioTl\if'l ~,
er
plE5ff!re

g~OO ~1iliI(l1id

d~CfiOOdil1 ~g" S1JB, W
:~p.lrooolilir!
,1:,3)!WIY( n:Ji!~d

illf

i1I ~~

en ehr, i~lCiS,

:i'
'ii,

o -I--~-r--r--"'-....."

2:
~smc~..2~

SJWC:·tW!'

......... - ""mecl,~ ---0--" .f" HfM. f2!!1SWJp'
~'"
~ ..

+t6J~~
+r.l~

SIDct.·259. GAL.1lIO (00158,311 gJijd smd":2$"!9'~·

15, ~
~ !i!' :;:

Q'

'" hraZ-129Jl'op ((El7"lO). er "r!fd96. ,~ (OO;€l13),D:S!Br~~tibn 00 (~r; III i5: ShmMllilil~g, S3lt (C ~ EJ; (itroMa'1id ~p.;i~~Hjl!iillof ,cihr.V' i!1! ,oel"lS ,oo'~taj!il~ngl G,4I..MrLM~ iilOO ,CiA.t:'HO. ' iI'Ihe ,e.xperlmM~ \WI'e perrorJmd a;s,fPil fi~. 2: ~d~g. 51(, With ilie !I!~n(mlti".l tile' t@rIIlp1M,Il,tlllrf VrMS, lJ~rtltmi 30 rillIilil al1t~r ~ne'1.cl'ditIDn of ~~. (0 W~cd 'typeQ:007) ami ,~,2l.4 (CB573), (0) wild 'bPe Md smr6-$ti {(lB~~-n, i!l11!d (E) \\Ii\d 'lVP~ ~rXI f!.iO:l"l ~C97l2l (A Ofip-ol:!r(impar!a~~ [iifSct2: 'lIltal'iml"f!@!'! ch r. In lJil Iih~ ,aib~nce {....oSiB) or p.re~oo {"!'iDS&) !Dr .ill 050 ait ·~he·WlT b)l;U8. ,Arro\JI'I indkaliE13 a i DS~L(ENlllt (hr. III~I ,omrom:ere,
-

GtlL'H,(:l' (CB<179)~ I)(ht~ se~ratfun il'l ,~.1-2S9. Gtlt .5MC1-Hmr;;, G4t'HQ ,ffiIIs {CiB4XI), Ullllhll'!edM'~'h r'€il.t)., (C88i15), Jlj,ocJtl., ((8;]53), htal-S12'9'sffJfJ,

'i 'ill'

C
--0-- '$(i(J24 $(;,C1!

D ---c.
-0-- !O.iM~li - '..- - $ilf~

IE

00

a

~·~OO'l·~ ,iii E(;Ot

~

@~g~~~~:~~~~
"I'1'nl!e 111'!1 !!llueose

,~m.,,)

IF

.lA

IFiig... 4.. p~sjr:eplh:<I:ti;v.e ~'l1lr1otijonl

of

[(01

iis r'e<JiJlired ftlf DSB

repalr

l!Jut d;iBp~.Il!l<lb!e lOI.r eh rOIil1lO'IliIilili!!
S~9iI~O!,,"

o
.2'l·C

E1~·;;!·c
if
'0
()

G:tM.·ariresled and ,~rol"l (B720) oeill5.Nter anesl Tn GiM il!t 21G(. half ,or [he {utlllJlil'~,'we,relralllsf~fTed 00 3~2",( Fe~ )0 Im~lil..ami [hIUI ,fI~l.eUlsnrJljolre.1il;e!:l ( \~lh .200 !Dlr.ay~ 'o~ l"-in;ad;:aU.olii {lIR)
tn(lfll a,t URA3ini

pall.

(A and B~ DNA r,~· ,iliifl~ S!liSlieIr·oorOO1!C!tijdl ~palr:a!°

wr (tBl167)

1)~'


I_~"
.Q

ioSl S2~ ~t~srnB:8!! 1l
0

_*__, _

_

Ii»n~l'Ol

loo' o

(] ~ra.y ~. 100 rad'lS). Alilfulli'c;~!ilI!l tnlilile If,mimlts: i! 1lId' t€mpelrahlfes., ~m,p~!!: wer~ \llilhdrg.\vn~l)r 1I1i!a~ ses or DNA If'@Pfjfr Ib'y ~!l!i@dl4i~W '!1ie~t"te(~rl)ph[ll"e:si!;' '~PFGIUilllild !'1S1~H~r~ma'~d separ~doml. (21,1), (L~ S'Q!illoorl'l I~ W ~1i1 PFGE

§
:1:

~c
'ID

00

.'5

'E!

40
::lD IJi

Ipr;ebe detecting ,etir. XVI and a, wadil'l{l (j@Ili~a1." b'lll.lddle) ()u\i!nrtili1 nne aI~r IR '(IT!i~~ (,ai~SIi'l of dll.)(.VI siglllats IiiQrmaluerloo,bi! [Oll'ltr1oL (RigM ChOC!f1rl<ilti:dse:p!llrr<ll:li~n. (C) OhrQffiCm:lm@ ~gfegaoolll ~n lh@ a b~lIloo (--) and p,rese:nce (.T) ,of ,gl'fllOrnMVide 'Mmage-irtriooed rmeSioo. G~.,j!Irrr€~tedWl ((1:I52.g,~ or telililpe rri!lture-Sf misnt~Ii',~ ecoJ-1. (( 8:75,5,) (el~s \lreue 1 ~reoilte(! sud, IlhaJt d!:li'!lloil'ge-~I1.dII,.l~~d (J(ihe~io!l ~liIa[$ ililhib~~dlrl ~(l1-1c~Ms (29~. PI OSB, '01'1 ch~, III \val$ ird.lood 1111 hal~ of the i:LJI!iUfJe':S .Af~er r'ele:alS'e into iii (;1 alnr~st~h~pew,~ell1~ g~ Iilff CifliLlswith ilIs;1In91~~~'hr.'1J'. ~fle,t:tiJng (orr'!l'ct. ' 'ch ~~rI1l'~~ iiI1!e ~'!Jr~JgatiQIi'I, ~'I,!\lS de'~rlr!ilililed, . -

~1!Mlh the!' use of

<l

rnrliOi3id:iv~

~O~fila~~

I
~

:B

244

REPORTS
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anda DSB 'rill chr.. m in t.l!ml)c~'alu~~llsiti\'e sc.t:,J-4., ,oilJjt'6,56. or~'.(~d-,Ioells. These expo.~il~lC'nl~ showed [Iult Scc2. Smell. <lind !Em I are requimd ror ~ob.1li ~ohes:iOlI'~F~g.. J, CIO E. .mod
ITIg:.S3C). 'Th~Ulrero¢~ui::lil.C &le2 ro'll~I!; IhlJl!l,tlL10l'!'1Cof w kl~ fhm~,lli(ll~ tli f 'e!lhc'.'lionrt:'1] iii il1,;,". thcll~~~tdlug of:'rohelli~!~ochrom~lmCf>.. loadin~ in G~M (j>C(ll!~'l\... 1~oulIl!hc u llNC\llCC ,or DNA W!Jn.!C~\..mlCi ~]IL;l coh!l,,'.'lin~ rn;-l\c.n~ CUI ch m!1mO[lOU!l~ ~n !!bi~ cel:l-cyeie 1'!i~'-UiL'l (ffl d'll!l:> .-1 nu:~~u~' f co1'b~i\',L;! g o and l1£!!J'lt~(Jh~1>!~~;Co:ullp1,L'lYJ(';!l;lll')\ O!!.lr[inldirllgs e i:uldiieslc tl\:ll. a DiSBlri~elS an ii]t~f2ltim~or cohC'!>iIJOJ' ill>effccmrs t~'k"lt 3CI.iv3IeDJ:lc coh~i\ e j;lIItJlClocm ·or~~I~(.' Ilontmll,y IUll.proQJLJcth~cecmplc:x,es. Wc~n\'Csli~mctl \vhc[her tl~i,~i$. I"Cneelcd L~}'lCh:l!I'I,!!lC ~nll~C' !IOCidi,latton ofSoe1 I O~~lmdlI11,.g;cd. chmm,OOloJH!:l$. ~tn looml til::!!! I H) '~X'P'I\.'\'l:-l ion onl}, in~hJ;\).>d i~sOt(;cli!l'l~lI~,m in~~
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IO{!.'liJi:auio:n orfcohesin lol~'iAbreak s ill hm~.lfliil c-d,~s (16.27J. '~liI ye.'list. howcYeiJ:. Ihe chrmno= s,omal~lislsocimioll 01" Mcd lwas UI~~tt'iliCd3If:lcr

fhe dl::Sltl1.~Clkm ,oF .wm:tl-J6 1i~1'lC~io.nin O:efM-

IILtn.."SlW a:~~s(lig;. S3 D}. TIl is suggeStS th:31tnh!c wqllil:'Cl]1JCIl~ ofSn:lOtJ,rOI" gem;mu}"'N~,d~cchesiO:nI rc:llo;:~s, <IF.1l0fC diltCCl i1~11 lcnce IOn ,ooiu:.sin FUllcU ~ioll!,whioh is in :!,CC!I)N;tInCC ,'dlh~hc simi:lor i:mQ!1 lilll1l!i!I~.l.!!TIliiUM. H!ei:diinge,r~l".alllll~ii.U Do,u.'gia s Kos~l~iI Vldl~ ciJu:onmoonlil1 ~oc;IliZ!ll!trol1 '}:l!.U~I1~S oohl.~in :f~~thfllll(~roml~·S(lme ~~~!f\~~ii!,ti~!li ~fid f\~lJi!h ,of ON.A dOLibl~straiiid Im~aks .rOSBs) r~'i.life' (o~,~.in,. Ol:nd ~h~ SIlHCSI6 ~mnp\lcJ\ (1m. ( ' {(ih~ioi'i b~b~e~i1~~$~J lhl.: .r.!~t~~~!gIl~l I i~1il;1;!!.I'~l.I'~lh,rg1.~~OlTll;.'" Ithe p.~~~I~i"i gmiPt~:iltha,t media'oos; SiS~~NhF!):m;;itid (ih~:ii(l~. ! Eco wide CQh~~~JI1'ihm\$ !11i>Ilita;illH'lit .ilild:~~l1d":~11.~ d'lof~m;;ilid$is, thought ttl [be >gei'ler;;irtedl fll'l~ dl;lrin:~ !)i'I!jQiji:i9 DNA repli~at!i(in bV ;;if! (ibU~a~ l Iy of (;hrull1lJl...;oI]'OC;ncplit:~J[io[!4 ]laj'~o ia:tdi("~~[e:;; CIlUpUl'IlfJl mii~:t~'II~enmhesfon e~l[ll)~fu:~meliiit fa.cto~ SI!H:h a~ ~c:o,m «U7~ ~1f1dthe rlepln~oom!l'!. 'Jlj$in,~! HI!hesliolf1 i~'gelll'Em:it!eti by am 16m1Ifam.~lc:~r.mllg;(; :r'~po:nsc N;:[IlQ!'o"CS an i!LIdi:~bito<ry I:IllIil!c!~n9! ye\'l~t we dlallli!!n'£Ie tM~ moa:le~ by~hwiilliglthat m mn~hilll i."m nud!/f;1. rea"tiv~u>cs ECiO I. Ihel\.1J'y 3~~ d!l11pel1ld,!mtbUlt rl11plijt .. t~mil-ind'~:fJemlel1llt mechanlism ~:nre51p![)iIli!>e D.5S:s 1m G2.IlM .• Fl!lrf&l,~.rmo~e. Ilrur s~dlies re'IjI\8'.athalt EC1o,l!hallhllo, fl!m(Ucms: i1I mheslv,e a:divily .dind a (onrs:erved il{)!at,~Hr1mr;r~rase ~ IO'Nill~whcsk'!fI lorrn."Itiofl ill, pamcp.lkatrv'C odls, ad1;v~ty, ~'IIliIid'l '~rigge~slh~ '£I,e;neraUoI11of il:Ciihe'5<ii(l'ninl l~e~PQI!'lSe t(l the [)SB 31f1d~~!! DINA BO;:j]lJ.'>C~lC ~~/-l m1nJl~mi)'}1:I 1(.'jJl,'e,s ~lC dUClfllO"dam.!!,£!!! ,el1i,ecikpll']Iil't. Fl1nalRy, ~he IIil:5B-l1nduced m~H~~i{llili~ file,t Ilimiited 10 ror®~en chmmlli!l{lme.~ ~omal ~'L\"Jit'IC~[klnfooh<5ill. lUliln;.;UOO ~fig. S'I) o IblUt iDemr'li: aliso Olll nbm~~11i dUOImO~OIllil,e:~, sU~'!lIest]lil'g ~hi!'ltliHl[lNA di3illflagle [hll!{!<i~oil1it {.J). we: C;:';:Illlliilredwhcthcr Ihe ,e,:;i:ib:llishmenl. of d.nlllklgc.indlllDo.-d ,ooi~e:sio:n illJ1d 1]01 m~11 cilJ'>l:!- Unrol\l,g'h Eml. pro'll'id'eli, g,eru)lmE!-'I!lide :p,retec~)o,1'iI 0] tinrll'I'I1'[loo'l'Iu!illl~!!g!rity. y

IDNA IDoUl!bII'B!-Strand Bre,ak.s Tlrigger GlenIOlme,,,,'Wlide Sisler-C,hlro'lmat:iild Cohes,i'onl 'T.hr'ollugh Eco1 t,C·d1)

Qr

~m)oomillll'oadhlg orwh~rll. ~s l1.Ccd~dFor repair ,(12. 2'9), neL1:~ll~ts ~howcd timl I5col. altd ''(1)1~lndJI1.1Cllt.tl Ilroper1y (lIit Ih:e'cubl'}'otic "''Cqllle~uJ,y (km1<lgc·imillICJi;lc:ll."(lh~51clJl. :is 1\."q1ll111l;.~ c~ug.l1msg;J!~ is :,\1i~t.Cf"ChLiOll1~tid CQi~~. IbIfPQ:'i~!tplicO!t~\'C'DSB repair ,(Fig. 4, A.lt:!d B~i,. .Sll1l1. Coh~~tollpli'!!)1.~ 'C.R!CUl~, role ~n ,11 ~n Cll~lll'~t. ~hcal:ifil:.!lI~Cf dmi'i'i.1!~illd~Ql;;xI~ o d~mmj]~m~ ~.gR"IDJ!~io!t(l)'lrs wc~I,lrs p~~.h,~.L'm did 110t iliklrli.;rc WU~l ;!Ol;gmg:<JlI:OC1JI il:imhL;: ~'~p~i~<HJti\i¢ltip.!ir (1 r dOl~b~tI'<U!I[~ bn::-~!k~(DSB..~I p!\"'i'l~I'ireof IllnlCtim!.1'I1 n: pi1ie~{tL{l!ii""'--;:.;t3bH~1~c1:! ~2) mw is tll'!iCdilf!!~oo b)' ,1 ~"!"'.JC ~lin,'":'ih"'~ooC0I!11"

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ph9SC' •..Eeo·1 (.~~S'Q known !liS' 'n7) acts: on the dH'Om!:rutiii~l-bOli.m.d cuhesin eomplex •.0 goucrate C'ohC'::;.im~by an !l!I1l.kno'wn mcdmn:~:Snl ,t (j" 7). 111e Jl/cnembon of ~o~~C~UOUl is liinlitcd w S phi!.:-;:~ in ~m(l,lm""g,cdooli~ (l; lOb" Uis limitmioll C.l!IH~()i1 e c}q}~ilinlt.>d b}' regt~~,ming b ~I~c~s..">'Oc.~mion. or,ooi~lc:sins \\'i]h ehremoscmes l'lC£,~llM:~h~}' 'OOLD!lim.!J:: ~o lead OJ]~O d~J'omo~ SOIl:U.. at CA_Rs vn u2fM ~ by nn Stt2:iS(04~ d~llcntl(·IlI. l'Ilc:ch!llli1ol1l1 ~<~" 1b Ci>;.pll,-~ I~~ il11l is limitalioll, one :uriornd ~)m.i~s di.u. col:ic-siin Cml generuie eohesion ,on.!iy by fll"Crl icfUl i('IJ -dr:1.vc.na m11ccIHII1Is;rrn. ftll.ciliuueli by EOr.ll1 (8) (herei1Jb

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replit:8I:i:QJl

is

bUil 'i~r!I@~I1:d~rll ~h@ IONA. WllfI.iIg;~ ani Ir'l'Spom~e p.i!Ul.way .. [)SB·~ ndui(J!'!d (oihesio:n aSS1l!Y']1i1 (A) IEU3:2B6, (C) IE~329::1!.,i3l1il1lli (E) IE.lJ8:3:21 En:r bars ]lIIdi[ilitl' SilO (,n ::: 9.). Chromo50I!I11.1!!biinaling of 6~.-loaded (~lle:5il'1l lll'l fll' m~291, 'roJ')' EU329'Th,. .i!llIId WI332L (F) DSB'irndil.lced C!:Ine-s~on<l~ed Il:f nll:!lrle~em::e!il1 :5~tUi ,hvbridi!lat:itmi~ JH~l12; .lIHI4U6 •. ]1'1:4115, .!lInd 11~4tm7. See S.aM ~Il,rdf,taiil~
~ J!domur; ~n.liC uader lh~ COX!! rol, t] I~,mindu:cibll) p:rtlimflwr fl[)d by i~.1~r{ldlteing h"'~) llf) ck'{l\1 ~Ige SI,liC'S (m:ln-e~) (I~'C'1~:mflll'()SL"!ll1le U I: (,e-hr. UI),. On'h~ hr,O-es is UllI$ltreml., u r !HlD.! ial'ltl I'lile seeoad siw is 6IJ kb :lj\1{;3.Y3t A1A'T locus, After I hGUJf o:~ no il1d~lclion. QI~r:, m: (:>90%) iis broken ~ three pieces: the (,.(I-k~ Ino 1~!l,lAT

Fig •.2. D.s:B.!ifldl!(@~ ooh@s~onis irll:l~peilld@~t ONlt!. rep~i~ltioln 'Ilf

t1,It~d IDSB:..;(fig.IA),

01'1 d'umlM>SJQ.1nCS iil~ I'\':S1PO<~SC10

Thi:;;a;~~lI.y

hm.

de-

'fLac:I.lCiFrr~.A

~ijnglQl GF~) ~~ll

il]

aile C'C:U in~

dlOC,,{;

W!'Mpefii],ii::-;: F'ilrs;t.rom'~l.tj:on of DSBs. "'i~the ebreruoscmcs i::>~£nlpOi';;tilly and SPi~t~18.Uy ccml.rol:l.ed b}lp~ilI.ci~lg, the she-specific no

'01 Eml.J;ryoliO!J~; 3:5 2{J1Sal'! Marlin Oili,i',e, fro'l:!::lncl'H <l1l.dIWO 1000r;cr~hJgnwm~ (Fi~. I B l. 'B:~ltimGr!l!,Il\D 2:12~[.:e. USA. 2!l!IIm~ Hopkllu UI~'J{~my, S(.'Cond. COh~Nioll (If!lpcdfic !\.it!.~"l'i~1 Ihc'gcllllme DI1JlilTlm~fIlt 01' Elil1to!)V. 3~ml ~()flh (UnllJ!n)u·~~~, i~dC'tl;.,(,~~..a bY.ilLc{lh~ii;)n l'IL~pOlti".'.r ron"if':I~Il'Ji,l o~';:q B;~l't1m9re. MD 212:13, u5Ii.. De.p!!lf!rrnenl
~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)llden~e ~!!Ou!.dI .lbo!Jlldam:dt@:dwi?l'll'I:i~r;ld'u

~callfl~Qie II1~mwtroo, IHowllrn HWjJh~ l!Il~dit3~rI'l5Iiti:J~e.

snv

'"To

'be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait

mlloon mny nf'Lac opoern~j]ffi(Lrn::O}lhm ean Ibe VbUlIl~i:;;J(;ld by la.dg;l!CCill l:lw.'II"(.'l;.O!ml ~nmejn

d~e~~~iJ:iO mh(~io.!l1 IJ(l \"'t'(nlh~~' br·ukcrl ~1]©J~w~id I'llil iI'S, wh("n;"fi.~I.wo (:IF!?' ~pciiEsu~lIJic~nc oo.h.c.skll] lass (Fig. LA, righl.p.:,u~cljl Third. dCirlti:\io DSB·nn.dlJe~d cohC!>i;on IS distinguISllhcd :I:I"orl1l the o!:}l'bl.~iol~csm~llish('tI d~Ir:illg S phase. Sphase mllcskm is Cl<tabUshod by ihe usc of a ~lC'rl'l1{)!\el~,~t~\'c' cO:lu,'~ini'!ld.fl.lll ii" mod I" I (reICIir.l1dto as S<Qlil~ill),. h~'lJM, ~\'ild""Yi!X':J'!;.IJnll (:JiI $(I known asSccl I i..;, C,"llfQ.."'li,d ool1,1;ornil<ml \~fill~ jmilut:li~n of DS:&, mtd sliLlSI.'q~1.cntly S-roi'!(.}Jin :isillll'cli,~r.ttc" (F~g. l, A mmlC~

REPORTS
Fig. 3. ~ill itS ri!€(es~ry 'G2iM, and lts a~e'tyt~rilru;W gener,i!I~~i((l:h~lln ]11

A
~
,!, 19CI.?$~, ahr

la,
IIIV em:I1'~·. Chii' IY
GO

C
no !D8B, Gh~ IV

I

110
~I' ,Q..U."llfCI!I' +0.,+
~f'Ci.liL_r~

rlCme .1!c!Mty ls r,eqwiiidlilfi

j

60
<4i@

ril!lipGllseto DSBs. CdheSiol1 ,a~in 1(Aj ru33,~6, CB)

GAL

E~3:B~,ant] ~OIEU33\J17~ EU3325, ~l'Idl EI!lI.H2 S.

Am:m in {O ~1lrl~(~It'~ 10000.eil""' I(Uc;lIt.eSI[I

Modll'iW\ ++, (n ~ 3). (El') ~14QJB II room1-1 II!! I <II ~i I If! !1'HI ftj,Q blQ~s'h Oii\! ~fiilg M.::dl,l>iG ii m:IIEm13W! ~itifll or wlilhD!lIt g'a~a!!::t(;JiSi! {GAL} imilu:'!:liClIli ~!Il EU3:30';I' a nd EUB2:8 .

~rodiJJ(tiOIll•.ErlF~r Ib1l!rs ifl~

...

+0

~mcd~._._1-_.1_.:...._:.....___;_....;.~

lJ:sing lh'i~, Oi.f1S.Ol¥. ~,~re a:sked~ ..'hcthcr ca!!i;~~(ln(:.anl~~ ~em::c<l~~ld~m GJ:fM ill pro.'\.im~ i!~' of [h~ DSB by Ih~.iolwiP1g lhl!!ctlilil.~ion or ~llo SJ?DI·MAT ~gi{m<. Wi'~~'lou~ DSB .... wh~w! .s:.qlllll;o>i:~1 isaetive 3~C.r~n1i!.iiSf.: uv~ k·Ii'lI~.cil'1II,ture), -.:HJI!I.. of Ihe chr;. UJ ~isu~r chrol'mattd& O'!.rtil scp;ur.~iCd, A'io "'"'lJ(,(.~\d. W1f'O!'I]I][lcli ~I<l!fi(lv~ of S-oo;h(;.:,li!~(37,5"C'. nonpcn1:1issi\l(, It~n!l1i,)rI~

.A,

.

jIo

'CSII

a
'[.' ,oolll~sa'o!l!'l1I.iiit~Hon

:li.lll[\1),

>6W,. of chr.

m I Ki~[e.f ct:1I:',tl'Jnruli{Js

sep-

ar:J!c (~g. :~ D).Wil.~1 DSBs.. wi Id-l:mC ro~lc~inl is Iloo{!ic.d to the SN.D.I-MAT fmgm.Ciill lFi!\l, 10, ,m~d!hi:s .~~I'IfK·nt l)C'tnins oohcsioll liIpOIil ~he h:mcl,~\'miOil or S-cohcsin {Fly. ~0). i30lJil D!SBs,mrn 'W'J.Ii!ll""ypc cehesin allL' mx:~. bLJ! IfICili'lCl' is ~ullkicaJ~.to g~~C'!I'atc cehesion on .he

innhlb-IU'lai

IB DSB

SRD/~M/li region in G_ M (.F~g, I.E)I,. These n,;\\H.:!!~l~ r-how th.,,[ DSB~ !1,:f~IfI. ~!lduc\) ~Dh~$i!~d,l~lld~~~
ool'l~~~onill] fj4.1M. t1O'Jlfi,D!'I Ul~ d!,u~

cohesion can be gencrnrucd mJ!~sfclc Splm .. se 1('9), In ,u.kli~ioml,. [i'!(-r;e re."'lul.~~~hrn\.'nl~,u~,,"'il:b:\,~f
~wo [)SB!'i mil:' suOiC'ioru ~o~nduCIl:oohc;,~indi.'lIlIC!~d~lmD Oflli,ei\ion in, GllNL Thc:flrM pu:dictiou IrOl'!!'llhc ~)tpll~cmi[m lorl<.~1f.i

or

~,1

tfli2~
~F1

&.fol1

d nVl!U oohcsion ~:nQdclis
~I.csl,on ShOUiM

lfililit

DSB·imtuccd·eo..

CQ:I:\II!I!IIf!llu<!dlf!1 1Inl!!l.li!uil~trlD DS!B

CQIri,~lilin 'O.l'u!uf!J!iu!i!1
(DISB lind gif.l1ome'wl!!ul'

l\Xl]ukc :n\lOC!;]ubfi~lmim".depclU:ID.nl. replliCllI,ion. Totesl. til Ps P]X,.."jiclioll. \1!'C deleted

Rfi ,,~n'~:S~ 1)"''Q(J'Hl~S, D 'CQh~~h'C ~hm!i.!~h1I~~c~~¥~ (~f.~ criliC"o,Ilfuc'1A.~r.h'L1I~pilll.\h;, t~)l-dl c}~d(:',ll1dDNA oam,Lg(', I;;IUL.'\'i. h~ W111\bn· il~-d cdl~ Ihis ibClor i:ti m:li\l~ (mly during S phillsc. 1~lcl]C(,. COh~:Ui!l5.oodcd ill.CAR£ i11 (~~: l lC8t C(t~'iI;:;;SLoiUl0[1 1I1llhrok.CilI Chro:IfI1o."oille~, we mI'lovcdlhe oohesiO:fl OC1POrlC[to chr..n'or chr. :~ cam~OI &~ilC!rnIC ~dllCSiofil" I~1,()\,V(yCf. ~[I ~flOO to Ds-as,. th is F:a\:hXf:' is, I:'eactj",~~.ooby UPSireru:ll :whil~1! ~;j)C'CI)Tfl!fl he nO"1.1s, on che, :IU. We rOlm..:i l ~hm. the loss C\lhe..~ion. Oil chr; lV and ,dar.. ~ On1jllpcl;'!ll~liii;,i O! f lite DJ.\I A dtiJI'ill!l~ R:"sptlrl~pa.ih. \\t,~~yiOgcUCi1'il!(! oo~.I~lom~ 1]oih proximal to the UJ!Oll inaC:llvali:o.n ef' S-phooc cohesi n ispn;:'l'CiiJlOO by the il1dm:liQi~~of D'SB!j: on chr:. m (F:ig. ,2 . nss andm CARs. ~'IOnnc.\\!i~. "[:00 idcn!il"y the IlIpStit'C<'1IlfI ,o,lmllmleral:S. we C'..... <lm~figs. S I :md. S.2. A and E3:)I' "h~s gencml.ioml am [tux! dmlll'\ge-hui~JOo"dCQh~()1l in cells nll.~I.l1cd of gcnomc-'~,'.i,de cehcsion C311.11.01 ocollrby <I IrCplk'a[im~"dellGuk<Jll, m~ch.o1!~iSln because the~e 10J'MRfi 11. M!£ 1/f\n~~'Ltm."i<Ii ~'Ialtgiec~asi:Ji .00ml R .. c~3 rel'M~~-d).TE:I.11Al·~"!.A'(,,~.~ iOll.ld.uj;SJ~ru~l~l ... is no ~;mgoing [liNl\ NpH,c'II.imi {lIn lUll1lroken ml!'J.'!~oo.~. or 112~n:1Me \\'l,;'.11: ~imf~d ' lO'l!w~)~i~ or d'!rnlmW']I~s IX!GiM. 'HQlO,~' does ii DiSB ill (i~tM i!1duet~i~oot~ .g~no!11~-"vid~ coh~",,~~boccml5C: (ll~~y Olh!l!-!'i~n dlWirnlllttd01li£siiml oolh [im'nk.im,~1 ttl nl;~ ~t~io:n .Ioadil'i.g :!I.t CAA~ or;:cUThi.Plt(!!.,'J"K;'lidL".I1l11y of ~ll~ <1I:ridgt:li()[Ji~,-,\'"icl.c:'? .ll'i GzfrM. in di;i;'!lbiI.CII]ci(:of 1~lc[ot:> n~. rig, 2r.n .~f~ ~ ( l,m'd/A OrmL'dA CJdl~,
fQ:l'k.-dri'lt'Q]! CQ~~ioi~~ ,m;lde~ i::; d],Jl OSB· ilf~d:lI!{lJ;ld coh~:\:i:ml ~h.o·u!d QI;;(:l~r (l.lfdy '1:[,rJ!,lIt.u DoSE:;; ,~ncl not. On iIII~blnk!lln cil!roOll1!,o:;orw ..:;.. To, li(l!U

.l'Mill.:!. Rad..52 is 8p:l'cl'Ol.1lui~JIe ro:rl;~mnlbiml~k'lI"Ddepclb[iem [)iNA rcullicmron I ;)).In n:wt51t. ocll::t. !hc e,,-'{IC1'll or DS&<ln:1~JCOO oohesio~ SImI-MAT 011 Imgnl(.''H~ is ~,ndi&tfnguJ~hHblc rlil)!~l of 1M D52' Ilhi:'lJ tF:igs. II) and 2A). inclicaIT,Il,g lhatrecoJnbinaliolndOJ'X!Il(lell~ IlC'JJlicalklll iEll'1d/or :DNA suucrures alii: dispcll:ila'Mc 1:'0,(: [)SIB"indl~cd cQiliCl'iion. The second prcdicUon fn.llm the replie ...~
I~

«(I~e~ji'! ~iS. ~ep'Je~~~oollii' 115li!o~il:o!l'l~hl'~ {orde) Q:r !C)D'nesi~ (oval) oo~€s~ong~.n~r.all(1lflinlGJM. S,~, 'I€XII. 'r(lr~€ta!!~~. DSBs.. oohesim.loadarr CARslnlJt Cilttl:no,l ,mooimc U)). Upo.n D'SB~dJ,e DNA dtl.n.la,gc Iie'SPO:I'LW pmh\\'<l')' Il'ld'LI~ [iISIl1UilA .... hllllll 'Coinc~in .lb~dillg We rMl,,"ll h~;~~ t .S'!.!b:\'lI;quC'nl~y.cohe(lOllCS[OIl (8 !'ii~~8 T.o;Ldcd CA a~

Gi2ftMI IFi'I., 41,. (A, ,m~ IB) A mCKllel. r'Clr ,,,e:W-qd.e and d\am8igl~iWldlllc:e(j ~R9u!.atlo\1l of si~tf!r·eh(lm<iitidi mne~iolll. •

:state. (D r.t'lP~~~liits !he lliiMhito\r 'cn~

on

c'ohesr:01J illi:ls jjolb.r.m 0111 chr.IVor 'C»l chI'. XV~: ill: m;ponse!o DSBs on chir. III (,Pig.:2., E ml(l .f'J. In: coatm'l't:, Ilci~hcr Tc~~mJ.1::r~112AX is :~'W1L!hctlr(1(; d<l:!m~gc·indlllc~.dohesion (fig, 2.F nnd 11[g. S2C). c
!i;Vhi:wo.!;'i 4'!il !11!!..:'icr~t(!l~ mTC'L~ijLd!l(;"d .f:bf' DS& pf'Jxi!l1<!l 'COil~:~!1 Irn!dtl'lg, ~mly Mlr.;:~ I. ,lI1d NI~iCI ,m; 1~1>OI~'t~]yiof OSB·iDld~IC\;-d ~oi1~.'ii!m. 1'1h1>l5;. dle d]ff)J]NI[~III·llQllJ:id IC'{lhL'iiin (;OUn.~cN. is .C{)l]~1!.:~(;"tI~O l;ohcsi~'C:>laiC bydtt'; DNA dilm[l.~ a f{sPOJlSC 1:l3lhwa)' [;'lloo fq)c,1I1W in (/41]. proi:fUlillal:ily !hroMgh'l :U-LlrnlJS4Clil'lgWai:Wr.
ACtttld,l[hnc

or

lilt

d1~ir'Jll",",aDti]'18

rfiH(:i;[};[

i;fO

Ecal ,~CUf) becaase i is cs..~I.t1L1JIor f

I(::uh!.!siol],

c:s.~MishrI'D!.!filJ ill S W'~m,~C'(,6, 7). To dei.0J:11~~m: whc1i'll;,"y 1300'~.isJils(il, ~k'!!CIe.'l1:!ary :libr .[)SB·i Indu('ca cehes ion. we fIrst subjt..""(;~c.-d G,~/M cells can)' ~~Ig 1\'101.11 ~(."('Jo i -201 and ml'r:iJ -I c(lmIHio:nl~~:JillclC's 10 a lemp:;:rnlUlic shm (34 C}. which laactivates I;miy &01, Aflcr DSB i!iductit'HI, eel Is ~,v~'f'C' Sl~t.. j;,l:1W to a ~loo:nd, higl'iCf",,1).~l~~I~ ~\1'hift l375'QC)
Q

~n. i!li,LI;:ti'il';3:1.'¢S..(10~'i(~in, We fOl!1I1d II~li~'L'I:;ti~,.;;t.. lin!] oj' Eoo I in G1fM f('S1II11Si~:iiJ l'ililliiliC' li'igtlt·

I

REPORTS
crotcDSn~i~d"wd COhC',sL9m1 (Fig, 3l\ and fig, Sil. A!:!:ng, H). In <1{.tdili(lll1, il.liill[!_ifl~!i:~l(lrE~~in
7, M). \:Vc t'!t'iO ~ID\'" Ul."lt Ih~ Qoh~h'ertl!n"clign <If ~Q(I! 1iQq;JJ!!\'''S its 1!:~t)'rU;"!k"" !~~ d[l!_i~in G~~ D!ilt rt9! il~ S p1i!<L'lIg, \'Vtj (iM .!iI~Qot;(lr!l!)JfOmi'll,."?'pQotitrl;p!.ic:;u!i\11; n;p"if. fi\Dtc.t~mll of Ecol i:. i~t. ~ [pb"UQI;,":l',,, ¢~~!dG!~l m~ p,.~B.k1iaW(1 'i,X'!Irti~",i~~ s'U~'X'S~ il~.u d1~l;:oh~i\'I; a.;;:tivl('trl;:t1 aller :s p!1JlI~t;; 1.,~il.t1¢rby i~!I.~ibitil'lgEm:1l (Jig. S)C ),11I11,L", t~[d b;~~IC"o;;~nry ~o g.clk~rnl{l ~ d:i~t~}" m~~, acces .. ;;ibi~ilYlooon-11esin(Fig. 4A~, sis:~ef:.chr'C!mi1!1tid eehesien i,~ G1j,Vlin ~J-nS\,; D C'hl~'(:klJli[l~·!la.i~i. ~oDSBf;i ,~~ \l!{>i;I~'L'S ill S phO)l~~"81,:1~~~lin.~ Ih,~~ UprY.!l &lh.tIic DNA ,d~ul1.~g~ DSB-:~lldlLlC'¢d. al~d S-p.h ..~~ t.l~l~~~iOll O~l!;biJPlby ,:;i Iti,~r~~ ~. z;,~gli.1i~ tl1,ul i'lidU~1$ CO~Ii\,'Sill l~Ht{3iI1M n.'J!il~rd.s g~e
IR~:t'(!r'f.lifl~1!'5'<llild

1.. O. E, Kal#\'l~ndl

v,

N\iiJt!!,5
GI.'lil«T. CUfl'; Of;iin. 'flj'~,

'[.2. 297

~, c. E.

(2J!I!il!U, 2. L. !ltlifm, (.

$Jl\iJrti'l" Cull.

(}pirr, (~Il Birll. ~.:2ll!lrn.
[I.

~, So," ~6ii), 531' 1200~U, ~, P, ~.~h(, :l!cllf, :i!fu!'lilIit)()V,

HU'~m!i, 1\1. ,MfI~linoijfl!'h..

t1m1llL.1nd, PM/os" 1.t11\lOli~ :ll6?~3!'J 0'

il'w. J ~~~

I.h(-:>~ rCNLihs 3fGii;ilidl]1('; ][)SB ~]'id !i;Li8ifi,""i'iI:~ li:I1(; acC:IJi.l:Ir..n~· GI1'm'S tlE'v.. n. 307 U9'l1"t I.cm,,,e !Letilvity or Ecel F'~~, ~IH) .. Ecol. in tum E:oo:~ is the cohesion raellOT''that ill e, A. 'lI:n~~tMe ~ 0.1.. MQ~ eel! 2;!.1a1 ~;;:GOg~. rem::li!\',mi':d in i:,'el>~OilltlC 'to IJS.B.~. accly~[~ i~lC. rol~C':>~n:uIDnitl>. ,00' r\l&5 ( 15~ .'iI1J s 9, L !l1m, H. B. ~ml'!'ol!l$" K :5!iTlir.l!i1i!l~" 5,;5~~f\, C ~~us O\1~{iIll'ICS:~he G",{hl~ inhibil~OJ1. Titus. :nkc ChlC 'WII)' or i~g!,ulkl~in.i:, oo I. l1I;polln [)iSHs is E M~I:(eli l~. 1I!003 f.20(llClh cehes i(i~~ dis~olllllit'ill, cOhesion c~m b:1 ish~nciLt jJ!Jl C. Iii, H~llim~ ,,1' 6l" hi!)!. Ci!'ll l:5, 9'.$1 '~loooi~, Ihroti~ln il'> {' -<1.crmiluJ ooCI,yhr.u1';:tL'rn.'>e lAetkl deu, E.. Om~1 et ,~l. Mvr. C~I 1115. 9$11. 1(2(104.1. lH<lirJ U5l Umiln.aw.lhc in \i~"'O ~~~:V'llnocon;h~ c:l(hib~1:S'00I1'll~~CNspmial lind lOl11JKl-ml ~\llmion U. l- S, ~i!TI.., T. B, t::~il!~"'!@",V, l~(Iflf:, fl.. !III. T~~J!r. . Eoo I ,'lret>'~ lJ.msl~!:oL'\C' aOL11.."Iihlha.'i.ooc~adusivc. 1:1 thrm.ll~hOl!l theccll c;!cle. m~c1Goo I t<;,'~hc huh ibr tt "li'Qkoii'i.~ri,". Bj'il~ Clitm~ '2n.,!J5~>'I9 ~200(2). is dij:i~)I.'1I~ f(;)f' ~c!1I.:rn!i!'!ig (:oil@:i(m ul~ring S Ithis ro,gll!n..~!{!IIl. .. bl'c ill. ~.:5l~r.a,K W.al'lg',].E.H.a~~,Mti (e!l' ~,2:09{lro3L ~:h,~c 1I6) Uiil,. S4A~ ~\I~t;:.iliu!;; ~f!lI!~ dl~~i~~cl Th,"~nB(:l"I,ulirmor ~1~Eool m~\)'lmi!:!s~r· ~"iL I,. 5~IiQm' ,~ oJ, ~~~i!l~ :;!r7, 24l (~I;um. B. 0. IMamoJ.!' I!!' ~l..,('HfI', BiDl. 12:,~l~ (2002) .. P!~!1!· oI'E{:tIi,l i~fcqluin,d for c(ih~irU! (~~ih~i~~- aB('::dllm:mill ~Igg(;'~,"~ ~~"I~i~ ~ erilicai l.bT DS!B· 16. A. ,~rndl;." R.\I. S~!b:bern;. (II"" 8lc1: :1.51.II!SCI 120011)'. inch.:!ClI.'ld~h:~kfll~11 lII:n !'\1'lt;."ci~":1,. [lc!:e:l.:IS fn (he ~li:~11. \!'fc' :a:dto~1 \:vi;U;:lhCll' (he aooly~tr.l;i1!;"fl'ri!i.'.e n, G.I!. ~~O".m, B. fIOlr:!de;r, 5, let!I5ti!i!" .~ft!1l. 'tlI~'3.72:1 DSB,.1tnd~O(.'d cohe~i@n !lIlahw,,~)o' ]'c,ed w w,mo~n!(: O!£t~\"ilyor Ecel i'-;IllI.'Ccs..~~~ rOt, DSS.i~d\.!I::<xi Roo~t cohcgi(ln. \llte- gllltCm:tt.:'d ~!l." in whtd~ 'rh~ :;ol~ in,,,n,"lbilily in h\IDllm:n!:> (/9\lh~~ ~rclt'<.'1l!;; have la. M. ffl!M!n(!<'!i!cl't~. E, Ul'i![IC. ~ !!. 'I,I,s&;tl!4!ii'!'l\, cop)' of BCOI 1$, n;l'll~n'd 1,]~,,~'{.'(!J1R22]G:. K~jjG D, ~~ ~ ~tt;!, ,~12 (loon. b(i!"~l!rnltribl!llI~-d i~:I~opot:r R)l,flflir of(ile b:r~n IlO 19. E.,IlI\olIIii~h), ~tf'1\~~r.:. ~ (tJI ,~~;. l'I~Ol. 268·j ~:i!Olnil. chmJltosomt.;!.'> :TISuri;f;1.I11 ot'a 1[~ihll1l,:: IOgCll\il:fnle "Lt'Vl~1 OlmJ!ual()niton.'lod tl'K·(~i.cs:iQJ:I orthu.~,~[ or 20, 1I'I'e- ~fhiInk C. 1Iie(I'oo!, 11\. ILi,hl~lII. IE.(ilIWIlClI1. iI~dl coltc~km. :U II]!.': IJre~llk site. Tim dL900I\H~J)i ~.1.\1.t chr. IV in I:fL'Sj:K'!IL.\c m DSBs.. SimUlao: 10 {Jr.vl.2fH. P. (i!lIIiIrn~n &Jr ~l!'~hfl~l ~1,!1!~rt (.5ja!j~en '~~r (!t'V.i 00.. ccll~ are ,oon'Pron,j~d for DSB-inrlucx.d .. DNA dalll\l!lge It'SpoosepalhW':1t)/ acLn\1'i9~scoile· cIZmITiiLlnil:ii'LiIi'i91 r~:Ui1l: IJI!'~~ lill!I~Ii'~ltQn;tt::.4it f~n, rohcsiolfl ~Fig, JB:<J:uodi Ilg. S4. Ii!; to I!)} ilmi faT slnn 011 t1,llbJ.'Okcll. 3S ",,"'eU:is book!Cil ebreY•. Z~~fI!L M.. IffD<!!19o \I. 6I!!\mi r~r O!Imrnen~ tln.hE Iili'!n!lii~ri,p~;~nd f. UMlil\ilon, h Yi!lmm~lZ,11t,·(i, 'l'lJ1 ror ~oMrepli~1i\le rc,pair in G2IM llig. S4E), n!!.~C' Ilromme~ SlJJ~1S lih;u,uhc m.!:e or dlb;: piltth\VllY d1S~ili5!lcm. rut i~ ~1j),p,pM.i!!C by tb~ HDi'flIrc Hu~li~ reSlJ~IS s!mv.' ]h~l Eool JC~t)'ltliliIlsfC'm~cnetivc';«lcn.d~ beyond dlc I'C'jll'l.irof I hc l.ue"'lk. lndecd, in Mei:licall'lll1lijUllI!!<. G2l'M, ab.!.;cIlOC' of ])SB~T.llduceci g~I1{1nl~\'I,:OC!e ity is sJ~OCUnCOl,nyroq,~~rcrl in G,2,fM!o gcllt'r.W:: [)SB·illduoo[! co~~c~i(ll1. FL!n~ICrn]orc, [h'~!)i co1!C,\'i.!onIn!l;;U'l1.·<L;'<;(,.~ 'orlmhrok~l IQ~ 'ch!Um~Jnt~, S!!4!piPJ!!:~lin!l1O!l1'~ij!ilE! ilt,e:~~l M 1M!Nf,~q~m.a9,·Iil~!illi'cCli'llefi!Vf(i1lil17151l3~2!l5/iOCll abm.l.llilll ..'cfold (rag. SS), st.!s.ges~iIl§l1l1l!lh!'.Ilh:m'OC'Cd !m"C'l>~,dlJ,l Eico1 ~msm icru;;! ]\\1'0 distinct blaN!r!lhoil~ coheslcn during dlocl'l'MlJ m dclm:y Pp:':\"C'lI1:S prcoolo~ie~!lI~m"""tuol1!,"': .rY~lctiOll 'crul .... Ool1e' CfL~ the hJI> 51 ~ S4: eiaus $~.cr~~I!i()rnmid ~C':~ll:mj~J:l. Ii!11hC'~' F studit".!l dlJ)orn~~i~l';booml odi.lc:ilin eomplex toa coheT~blil! S'1 ,~i\/C' S~:;:)IC,(InlcJ the <.ctlyl~f"ol !~tit;r.lllC ("WI um~ nC'~ £I f ~n~~l'Il~u"!dc i;oJi!Cl'iio!l ~]10li..}1 revefli tlddilinnm.l 11W1e.rmrne-s .1ICI~ ""~ln:;.:.; irecdy ,Of indi[~l~y U]S C06l(;?iivC fi.ll:l(;~ cl liIllllt~~Olrt... Sl,lL;'~! :t>ilhe 11:ln;;\'(:LI~itlll. .oW .'I"J;,"'!lT'O!ll,~~I· n jJ!I!<!!')I' 2001; iI(i~~!'IUld 2:5M~ aOOf m{;"'I]l!l'> llilffiu!!!!l1 (~I:opic il'co:"liualninmTm:t ·~i(ijn d~lrnfll:,t;lG2lM. lO.UII~ielil~~.llIlOHjl ,II~.ving esmbHlOlimdEcQ ~;:~ t~cril.i,em.l fm10:r fnii (he !il~llcmd.on, of IJoSB·lmluecd COllCSioll" ,"~e <'!i~ed w~mthlertl~e lilihlilDC to gCI1.cmlC' collesiQ.lliUl !lInoomaged (hIM cells ['CS!ll]~S ~1rQ:rn I~mntin,g, Eool a.cl:i.vuty. To lesllhis hYl}!'li~hi!sus. 'we O\'Cirp'uocImcoo Ecol durinS fh/M in Ihcabsol1oc or I ,~O·.i:tldllc<""'!dDS.Bs •. ,~Ildec(l. oVCrprodU.Cl~O:noOf 5001 b~t :not ceo Ia&bypasscs Il~c 1'C'q!ll:i l:eITtC;m, fOil I)S:13:8 tOo g;cllc:t<lle c{}hcs~'On hl G:lM lFiS• .3C )', 80111Ecol~nd ccol:li~' m:rc 11resent aJ sh'l:lilor le'Vcr,;. ,~r,i:~. aud :I">rof.tt~.,, C.JJlcOOt:S 11jilncliOln~ Vi:~tO!rrial V. il.uI1YiilIk,.l,,;z,., Gra!ti:ell'l ,G. Pll'i@f'ol1ilt:a!i,ne,,,tt Espoerafl211 Nlin:erz,it Th,~rstE!'1111 Criilm,er,iSt 01.1 ,fJi'Dleh~oo~~L~ h cfml.ll}len~cn l~ ~h~ (.;'{,.'fJ'1 ~,l(J'j IBong·61UIiIIJu} K@f1Il1l!tlil A. Ohgii,l Il:<ilsley Hun~l R.oiSaRoy/! AliIg!l!~ Gdif'tlil·OlilZ;4 X.iilIOYilIIflZhllll~~' o\1.t ~ltmpt:!1'lli~iv" ~Jll{lx.~~il!'u)lj lg. S4F~ T~!!"',lI~ H 4 ¥11lI11II¥1lI ng~:1 Urll.ll~ MOllflh!.illlJ., (h,ll1isUl'pliler 11(. 'Gil~ss. iii· Micl~a.el G. R.OSi@rl:fe:Wh f(;'i'ill:~1lli .~ugg.~ 1111(11n (111M, E{;Q:~ .. ~;~~ylll~unNre~.·· ...... i siua'ii
lat~:k'C;liijliJi~'I'i'I.ri:itl.h(~nti,r:tre, S.iJ~'~.I.hal

5, R.. i(i~ i!l1 ill" M'ot (~~. 243 {~{!lI]IIlI}, (;, A. 1'6Ui, ,N o.f,. Gt!'IM!l .D'a ]1, 3201 ~Jl~91, ,. It l/..5'l:i'bMm, l 'EI.c.«!lCI!, Iii" ~511li1nd, IP"H I~ter.

Goola'U.

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IDle!v,e!loIP'menta 11, R.e'gull,8te!d ,Acti'valtion oil a SIINE 82, Rapler..t lilS; Iii Domaiin BlolUllndaryin OrlgalnolgBlnasi:s,

~S(~ ~1(,'li\'~ly

~h.'Jld.elJt 13!1:;0 R:1Xlr!\.'t! hi (/4)1. JhiiS cOilimdicls IJibe: ·cl~m:~~i. m.oCld. \Vihicih f!01',it~ilNaIrohesi(m g(!ln,. cml:itm call only oo;;ur~n ~tC' OOIlle;."I. {3j" DNA replk<llifiol:l. and. 'E«l ~jC!U7 j m~ly a1IOV1~s (Iile repli'f.Onre 10 slid'c 1Jr1flOl~Sh !lIe cohesilliciilll,g iUI S pl\ilL')lC 1(8'. R:"'!!~h"",, ~\~~d11ilA '~v,c E~ol ,di,Ll;ld~y OOIWCL'i15 ~he diITlll~! iu~~~xm!1:d c-ohC'll:i!l ,ool~I~k:~ i~'l ro100 he' gm~111: IltJl"mmr~.'{C!HJ g~~ ij~m .. ~i~~... a hr.·$~~"C s'"!!tl;;'. DWlring S. p1M1H.'«;,Ew· I ...~fl:ICial.J;,)'i·\\I'tth \VlS'n~lll.ld!1;-d tla!~CIlp'tn"m !!In!!~I~~ ~!iO, h!£~~)i' rqili);O!l'C oolt:!~'Kln01L~11. I ~dl I:!rli~ '11!1{~.;;v:o; !>lllli~Gd Ihi'd~l:l~~ ~'t(;IM;'sptoci fl~ dtm'~'tIIUIl I1Iil &.0 i. lO ('iiibIMi~l1 co:l~iO:n IEron.: dJt: ~~1i1l" e~iro- n;lXUficalk)'Ji'.~ (I-6) mig6il .b,:: li[-SpDilb;iibk ,rbr the

i.n Il,Il])UaIlH1g>1.'iI cd Is ;Jl1d,. DS[t.~.llli:;; llCI.h'i.I)' is c:~c",med I:irlrough lit.:: IlYNA dilmll.gc .c~lccklPoill:l. :~Ielre '\¥csh«w tl14l.uh.c ~~iFL'Ci.lljOll Qfoobesio.l1l in 'Cb/M is Eco I dcr"cmc~1 om I\.,'P~irution ind:c~
ilib [(;'5p!lJli:iCIO

~;s Iirilliliu~g

mhe t!ElImpo:ral am:! ~p'ltia!. IregL!lIc81tiolrlof g;e<M e~!pire5is:1Dlrlilli mtammaillan devel.opmelllt. is Innked t.o the e5I:atbl~I>'hmtenl of ~lUln.diona,l d'lro:lllIa:tin d(milain~. H,e:re, \''i1eIr'il'p!JrtI: that ti5!SUIN,p'Kiiriic
banlscripthm o~ al retrotralllSpOsoFi l"e;p!!mlint(lIH~ lIIlulfiine glfOwtill 'hormone Ilocu~hi req~rredlfftlr gelli~ ildlilla·liiDI1I:. n.l~; repeat ~~IVe'!> ,[15al Ibol,llnc!.alryto boo(r,; '~tle ilnnuel1lce {I'r ~epressive chnomaliml modifi,ei3itions •. Tille repeat elelil1len'lis al1~e to ge!nera;~e '5i'hmt, OV!~rI..aPlfling Piot U- <lInd Po'lllill-dnl!lll!nl ~rillil!'j;{Jip~:!j:., ItmtJh o~ \llhkha~,e ne(:e5Sil~ andl slUHidmlt '~'O ,elllalblle il res~rl!l,cl!llriin.9 o'v '~he r'egILl~ated lC{llIs il1to ntllll:!leitIW comp'a rtml!mll:S:.irhe5<! dla~iI f>L1g9,es:l ti'a.1lit tralnsClriptiolli of nl1ter~pei:s,m repetitij,ve se\~u;~IiIa:~~ Ili'iay I",epres~n!l , d!e<V!~lQ,pmellltaJl5~rilitcgy f~HUl!!l'~s~b~ishm~ll!~elf hHlctielilll!~l.y' d~:5~nct a d(lliTiallr'i~ witMIiI Uue mamrnalitilfi g.cfl(lm~ to ,(iontrol. gefif(lcililvaJtiicr'i.

n

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~a~i ami I~TIfo!or.d o!1cll;,~r oni!i~gc ~illa~i{lll ill I(I:!~dcvd(npil~ p:itl.lit'lI)I :I,lh~~~~1. Th~ hl.i:ltl;~!1 Gll~OOlk':li~ It,.'J'ItffiL;iiil~.·by Oil. dl~R!L'."t of!; vt: G}f~rd~1'[Cd g(;li('~ I!~t ~I~ ~.iII!fL~cd1 by .:iiI Pi[·I-

REPORTS
d~lHlem kK'1l!:ii ''QIDIlWlwgion (LCR) t; !OJ. 'f:lle rln~ri!l~ Olf ~':'IIlQmK: IOOL~ts. rgr~m~9H mouse ~h~IT~Q,'\O!Jg~ !! ~m!ll,1'nWf!~"'~ !l;\~~f!~. ff.~g .. IA~ h~ ·~lltr.;~"1 to d1t;: hl[lll!ll,Uri!!rl,p],I,<l, t~~ n!1m~1;) 10000ll~J(~ ~KJli.t~OIliWiH!fIl!uldmlil.d\uplicfltiml:a ofi.h~ UN gem!. <!:ndthere .fuj; no km)w!l ml!r!ne LCR

lh(.':GN~~,," ~.:;. ini~i1~ny 8il\ta\Wd ;l'Giirly~';ll:,'l,." of nmrili~pHtl,iijl~lJ)'g~aid dG:\:d~lPl]ltrii b~it !~Iij~ \\;hil:h the >C'-"e}mbiW::On~r.rlltited I:i'iMc K91U (~r diMt:: IK9h~3 'OO~ilIrs~eI1~panJntibeiWclt~lj Ii; 125 \i~IG"!:1 ~.I: ~1~m~Ol'ii~ ~mge n.5 ,((',1 73) bJr the POU·· ~mI'ltCtlclou'~lin. fiiCloi'". Pil.··t in. G[cI1lirodu~iil~ el!!ll~ 311c1 e 1.4.5 jii~pi'tiimft)' t!i!.!V("klPI'l1ieJil[ (Fig. I,D and ~
I( ;SOiWfirolffij~)

mJiP11icvlila:v,d revc,!i'l.:'d .. ~~ifk; region wilta~n ~hC' 0'11 !OC~I~(bt;,1,.\Voi;'t;;'f!pril1m!;\r p.1ir:s 4 ~lI1d b) ;)ft

gM~side ~lIC' DAPI. I:egl.QJlS l.Fig. I C anJ~ig. SI B). This i:s t~mp;lm~I~¥eeinc i(lli."!¥1 \Iil il~~he observed cx~ha!lW himllc!~dlriM~ K ~H'; or ,~t~~I~t; K:9H~11fl~d~y.Ila[~tlf!'~lru~:;. 91~ ~t~ .fiN prv~l(lll;'f (.Fi.!!J~ IB), ('h]r ail1l1ly:>i:;;'l11)1 !I~'rn~~~ 30:1.::1:1gc,:.

Qr

oo~md,,1)' iwird",\)"J)c (f:<l"1!!nd~mllmm {.f6) IbrlTh<:11 {t~, :!I) \'I.~~ used, E..chclelfg~HI (fig, ~.A)","'"Sl l;;IiI;l!~d1b~\.w,;'(l!'!~l.lQ 1;:}'tom!ll~~P\' inlCS (C'MV) I;.'I~ h1nlQr;l(r ~L~d: 1~~iniUl1ialeMv pn;m.lO,l\)j· V';;"J~(J.I ~iro), or at the 5' '~~Id,or dll.: eM '~ilhull.t'oJr (P~tJ siw), ~,,;itlll~nlml1l;l~~";b~QCki!!g OC(:uni.u~g only wi~ell dl~

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TIte litlili.;.;:inti:jj.1 (lJji

(fi.g.. 21\) I(}."I, 19," ~Sa~1' lJI.f54.7) rC(h.~ion ill

.he ~hrmmllin $na~c onhe aff loeus d~l'ing dC!(>Cllo~mell" luomm hl inummoplil.'C ~pitltim~ {C'hl.P)1!!l<I~;'~~ (5. JJ M) iroC\'e,~cd high ~'tIfi; of ~riK9 .~aK'Ihy!~!ioJ1 ,ofhiStQl);;' HJ.. i!1dica:ri!1~~ con0I...sess

(fig. 5:1 A). Ii :t\1iiU!!ilni> 8ctuvelyre.pl'L~,.orsjl'can'{(, in LltcClln1Ci"p1~uillllY tYIk~.. cell Amllysi<: or hiisM:ne 1l1.O[1i'l:k-atton.-t W~ ILI:-;:c;:J to

cl~I~~-d JCIL;1~!'t~iu'O:rr1<L~ie .",f!ltt; Gfr~no :pro.s!m~ rlm'Lcr~m 1.5, wi~h iii ~:<ldu",! dcctinc m~wk:vc:~ c~

Mn.vhyl;\r.J~. (i~'!Ill1 t~ee~ Qr~lC CD~lou or alXY OOiWli:tiCldmt inc~ud:cd tilli: cn e.k'!lweull. md E, :!rntfll:i~. S r, c mw D'~. B~auisc ~lC regioH Qir diM~ K91 [j. lind ·nr:Hl,"~c ~1i~ regi!ln coincided \\\'ii~~ lJj~e~illli1 of ItlfIC Imlt" KQU3Im~:.,;il.io.~1 :us IOC311cd 14 1.0 10 kb :.itiol1 ~\\,,~1 tk.'\'cl~mCil1! ..lI~Y reSJll~at;;:d diMe K4~j13 ruR~ Ihc b:I<IIlCh~'d111Me KO.I [) IF,lg. ~I::). U~lSll'C:illnof dlC Gfl Irnlkwriplimulll !!1m1 !li!c (H;S. L .i\, D. rultJ E~. we tm ....iclercd tlml. OJ. OOi1.1X1]~Wn)' c\!iIl!.'i.isitcm \.\,it~l ti~(l di!"rnplioll (If run.'!!li'\l~ OOll!~llh!_!LY ,clc~H~n~(;;:lmigh~ !!l1'!~~ wi!i1in bm,lu!dHL)' <.!Orivi~)'.FlU'lhi:.\r e.x"lnlijn.~dlJ!n oJ' lite CD rr;'~n 1't;,\'~';J'1ctI dlC ~)n...~'Il~ ol'~. fii-.:m m!""1'lI'll;~'1;ll [h~ (;11 1O;Cl!",Il<Ii ~Ldi.sh!h'~r~gtul!1t0r.l' (kii·

br ~i45

and

CllD1l11J!ctc

ill .000lJilpi~~~:1<Iry (Fig.

disaPJ~Ir.nlCC .~ ..CC!lw,,~~y. B)

b}1

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Of

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dL~

C1f~in1\ClIbykl~inn of[(g~13 OJ~(il:! w""rt:loh.~~r'\l!,;cl ~l c~ 23.bitll htL,.~5CtI by (:·13.:5 ~oc~45. d~din(-dal ],1.5. :lnd dis,tpJ:ilCiirefl in 1I.~.eLdull.gl3I1d. BlEed Oni ~ call,p~lo..."" of l:he CGI~cleIt!\ied hetCl'rehrom~ltinl ~nmiks. we sligg,esJlllml. d'l('SC d'ulOJ11I:uin 1:l\'e.il~Socoom::d <md\\'CiIt: ~lIS'lained. mn ruUlinc3eec'So .in dll'/dw nl~oo. ,ooflhlinlll8.an Il1aCI~\'aIug ijKliint ~nutcmi(}ll iu i ~lit!: Pil~~ [llOU dom;cin mt1fW, ~he aN ilrol~r bekOO 1111Mc9UJ bl!l cmllrli!l,;xJ~T~VOfrcrJ K duM~

Developml'liltal !!lff lh:e' (iN Ih~ m.l'Jly",is of ~.f;lIl~cripl.io:I!!",~ly :,cli\,(; or ~(Ul!.ls:. (A) Sctl@tmJtic d~reprciiiSitx! ril.~1 hiGlIrin~ chlt(Jmmin :;,u~"''t s ·tl~a~ graIn !1'lf fiH gen.(I1mk 1[(1· r.t2I1il:llOCinir:ll!; of[hc:\c; .~I~:>In:FlC: li:c~ll.iomH'lOel:lrs .1fI1ooi (JUS; rnll!j[~~~ "hromQSo!me ~nHi:Jm~~y inlh~p'ituiemy cell I)OpU;~mnoll in, cm'ly 11, ::;hQwlnlg the Iive pilt]dl.3l}l de\rek)pi~tc1]L tfaPii~iiiiP~(imi -lIliijl;s. in the L.....II ,lFhLO.rCSCCIlCC i~1 situ h~il:lliJd~ ion ,[:r-ISlil) zm ,tI's_· ~Qru~ ..Arrow5;indiic(lw the analysis Wrui IJsod to I~oc<lli:relile 01:1 g:cne \\iilhin~ d~Jti~rI 01 ,~dillr:i:lnwipil~lertlh;!iSe~~udei HI dli ri:CiI.'Cnl.:5tages. of IJitMU!.IIY ~ian IlIlili\. ~d bar~ repre. C'mhUYOillc (h~'\fCI(),pinm:lU r fig, I C) Ul, /6). Bot]1 seilll peR .3mplHif:'i1litiOI1 a;~~clcs the G!:l gene 1i('!{;3Iizcd 1:0 4·.6'~ l~eg1.oMimi ChiP 1~'Xfleri· lEIi d iiliI1ll1iciin;o-2-IIheulyl:i mla,le (1)J\J'r) :i>'tllinli:d hClr :melilts:. lime r~io!ilS: Ia,t.er G:{'Klh1'On:lalT.n ill virilil!aUy all ortl~e dc-.I~y sla ~J~ed el.1!miilllm f~r fll!H(llolii (Jre 1(:>90%) ellS .nudei Wig. ~.. ,md iig:, 51 .13.1. I·~~ ~b~l.ed f!1 I~et.~r~ ~('.si", G"Fl. UJ) ChiI' anabisis of B!,~ cllnlmhl. m clll.5. of !hcu:m.df1'(lJJul.m.li[m nr dc,lfl), ~t..iI1.\ld ~~Ud"ii olil!l of UJlJnliJl~kii).nI~~ ]solat@a lPil:ulita!l)l l!i!Sing (U},2 ~ (iN !l.~'[ICh,rd !·(;~1iIttd 1\)' i:.'I..U;&In:u:mulilC[L:Hil{m~" ill I1IliiHDd~~s.!jpe~iri~ fOf Ib ~.i311 (111,~d t ri 1111 !.!t hty ~
::1l..
!'Iep!)5~ti0i11·I'!!lI

K91]3, w'hich SlU£2,CSlS.dwliJrll:.'S'C events OCClJf i11[:l P~1·1indc(lClldC'nI 1:Il1lllfieil' (Fig. 1B~ TWM~ ('Itt]!? \\~ !1!OL'r(1lJJ'I.'tl.Id I:!sillg {'~,pijt.<!!~ldci l]a!;;'r (lP1o] I ~ or n:N('oR i~1111111l11l0~'Dhll!unG '[!g(i)_ 'f:~.Clhcr"

'n.till;~. W(; u,~. ~I!l ;L!l~y WJ lwc,~~~ [)NA~~· ral.lC:l~~lt l~",n~(lrn (SINI~ H2 r:(;1WiJ:1UliS~l~~Ll qUI)IlCCl"> ~ll!iI[ mT.gln :l~<:.CNS ~~I:,mnivc· 1t!S\!lawr (fig;'l IA •wJ 2B~. lk:U~~'Cd11mn die lRNA gl'l"ll. . pm,pl.'iltk~$ by '1li.'i.l.'N'i.in.g ~.!fIh"!lCer~b!odi!l~ l'Ol~i"'~~lg a 19f}!b1ll 'OO:rliil:.'ll.~~'" !he· •. of ~qlJcnoo .. i~!Cl'ud· .u::!i\r]ly of ,(.".a(;hDNA ~'q~~nLX'!. \:\"e Idac~ld u'u:.~ ~1J',l ID1RNA p11!ynlCllL"C U[ PQ1~O~r""~~:li~ Iwn !j:.",p'IJriI:!1~n!::)ll 1:l~'u!'1d~~.)' c~li;rt~;i)m bet W(;CUl 01. (lI;J!l,'iiU'Ij,'OO~lhlo~' d~lll)nM" /'IAIiUX wid B.IJUlii 1[1.1. 24), R(,(~illy, .iit \'\I:!b~ flCpt1!1!,:d nh:lit SiN E 112c:li:kulO\V!i, euhancer and ;arcf~rem:::c 'pnln~.oll~r clU1Jolfnng 3. lre,p!M.lcr !,IC'Jlt: Wi). This Si~ICID' has pllcsfikm can be dri\'lI:iiJ ir~~'lJJ{)IIJitl::~lrsulJ:1s by hi!lhbeen used far liI. IUJi1Tnbcr of ika!.ow.UI inisulators I.~I(;(Ul.'SCI\'OO Po! I:rl IT, :Pool Upm:iltoni.'n: (JS, 16"1. Asses\"~I:nem (I flhc :p'tl:scnoe or~he Pol .~ :rmd 1(19-2/). 1I"Iw enhill1.ccr-b!Dclin£ 3SSIIY {EllA I \\iru.~ cam1~d01.lt wilh ~inc'lrirl.l:ldool1stnLcts in r::'O~. IH gCII.crII.tcdl u:::tll!scril}!S fi:om I he Off SIN E ~mll:iiI.CI]I~) 1!r1l1nsfectoo ~ IEK 3.9~ cc·li!i,.(Fig. 2/\). B;2 OOJIDD'llCroC\"1ilflf'!:ruCL\lilI:;~lfQml.~[j \ It'liltlg As cOL'Blr{lh.., .11 L2-kb DNA FragJI1~~n comilhling ~.mnd~lXIC'ifw; IU""'I~.· 'R, <l!1:~~lys~ Wi!~l !>tlql!em:~ [he- 5·US4·1al.~u!1~~rorohhc chicken ~~gltJl!"hl ~(I~,~~. :ql(lcinc !l~imef)1 !il11.'>~1C1 CX~L\D'lsion IQ!1lC!I~\r.l!te fOl (21'1. and.hc IF.irnfF.m co:~ede~ncniSoflhis 5'[184 :5iIII1SI.C'"SIJ.'illHWd DNA for PCR :!imp.~ifJ.cmk'lll all

IFig..


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IN

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3~S, La JaUa. CJ\ 92iOO'3-964:8, ilJi)'!\_ ?Oepar~lllel'lt !OO' Mlldi~n~. l!Jivi5ioo 01 &ld'O(lrlloo1.Qgr., IUlllIirer>iiy of C.l.,rilrrW, :£ani O:1ego.l.a ]alb., a 9:2003". USA. ~Oepaflment 01 (et!lii!N ~nd fl!ld!et:ul .. ~il;i~. ,D~rlimeJlt OIJiId 5'<1ttooI Of .~djcine" l!!lrri¥~rii1y of EilnifOliril3, Siin ID~o,.1L:i1 tulia, (A 92093. USA.
~(he~rllTll!.nt

lHllMliIm HIII~ Mooil:il11 IImiru~, SrllOoi. !l¥I' Mwicill~, l!i\ifll!.i~rilly 01 (alHlimia. san D:i~0:. 9:500 Gi(i1.a;1lIOrt¥e .• Rwm,

:K9H3 '~B.r·4I1'ilM.etHHB), and diJlAie,1t:9HI3. mt.:mSl!~

CIhIPl> Wii!ih o:pit-i ~he\n uN<O:R,. o.r all?iH then !;;~N!l ·~·(lr rri~jg~l f ~~t'OC~!()!1! of :Pit-l Uooag(E!o cells. {(;)
of

1~l'IiimliJi'IO·FlSH ana.~~

INooQ~1 d'e 1!i~~CPQOOogr!!! ~OUHSiO. (~pt.i~ de C!1!!~· l1!1!dei [rom II'IUJriine j)irui· Illilr!oo, CIOa.l'Wiri 3.• .2iBO~9 Ma'lilrid..Spai m. ~[)epaIitI'llEiru: ~.f ~ariE5 'usin{l i!I (it! p~d~l'. Hepal~om' aM Ga~lr"GePtefiO., (11a!'H~~ I.[I~Wersitiit~f~edj· ~D ,aJn~ E) (Qn'llentienfll~ zim ~diI\ClIIn~ 1(1i(~.K~ini:IIII1I".Aug~!(iIUJf9l!ir:~la~ 1, Clhlit' alillalysis acr~£~ the 13353 Belililn. 'G!!n<ln'j',. GH tQCU$ I;Isnmgl n·B,r· ··lf~'whom (fllmJIWldellOO ~awLdi beinrdl~li!d. E-mai: ~riMe I~B·K9 (iI·!l!IiM~ 1913-K91IgG,1D111il12.5 aru:l eU.S, 11I~L1rilil!!~~il.ul~aams: 'Dr • .mrooeJ!l _ dl.OOU OO.GJU; \!L\!!wa"@~d..e:I~ WJJJ,J :PCIR prilmiers diagralml'luld ~11~~. tTn~ ilU 'CiC!n1lrlbutQ~ !!qually tQlhi!; Io!IOrlk.

'of Mctecmar

!illld CeUlII'LiIf l8;iq, CEfltro

ii12 .51 '~1l4}S.,and ,e17.5

I

REPORTS
!dJe~lifi~ti~~ of RNA ~<lmpm rcOO'l,~ frollm tr.Jmf;bc~ool ~~eL" IFig,. a S~NE IB2: re~t in the ~-el:~:i'i· 2B}. S~NE U2 W1l~ cmt:;'icrnly i,mJQ~ (Fif.l.. uH lXllI!Ildary ft~io",fA) ~~ribi;d (fig· 2U) fmmn b;11hP(I! !! ,.nd. P9~ ~u
P(~11J191~~
tJi,!'''~CI~O

z.

A
I~

~i'lg the' 't.e:u"ed elMl~!iit this pl,llBlivc either IfJP$~ftaP.1il, (Pst'" or IiitOttil~1Lry Clc:tltt(~i~~. vi'!.'"",. 8 220·ldJIiiru:cl\cti!il lit dO~~rii~U'e.'ii~ t'(:h~ of th~ ilLflmeill,1dtrom.o~DJt'i,1:: (BAC) ea~ron~l}ilssnifl~ ~ elllhlaJilCilr' (m!1!IP of the ccntmlly IDctI~oo, 1~'{Gfl ~cnc was I~mdifl.~~ t:o, (Olilsh'l!Jd ~5 glN~n f n1li9l. r~p~ciC the Gllooclill'li: S!.'q!lleuce,,\iilh II 11I;.'A:.! i'lUl}. 5020. (8) :5(h@!ri..g,tic dija" re,'ilccm ~,eun (IM~P, ,diin'ler COCI~ll,y, sequenee 9r~m of the-58 SINIE 8;2 B Itn,;' S3."- and B~ Uis Il'<lJlSgellc ~,f'a5d~.:.;wi)~ e;q:lrf'SSion W1~i~~h'il'l'lling c:-;cr~I'i~'Cd in ~l!)OO tmn~~~,mietb!,mdCl:mlee llomiQ!il of p:rim~.r~ lIIS00 ,gC'HI:,.'\!""~L.!'i;l r('C""lli!ul'~lin~ 'n!i.;' 'I'lhy;..;in~,~icaJ: 'II.:nl~ for reverse ir.anf>Unptil~.e 'If;2' p(ll'(ll :uld ;:';JilfUI1:;,H]~]l[u~m offiH l~lH~ 1I),,,,p'.[('*flim~ ~~(ti(m ·fV· Q:r :2 ku i~(ll!II -1(5), (Fi~. 2D'). [)Cledo~1 [he l6~b~~ ~ion t'll~ a~dl .3: ,~!, 4r'O\~ Poll!!l! of -~---~~ ... --.,_--, :XJanert L...... ...... ~, '--_ -,3 ;4: CQmlla. ...~nJ,l lil()' mGR S!NE 132 tt'J'M,)'Illin 'l!1~!'iBi\, • 'ltaP1lsc;rnpliio~, re~pKti!l'~ P(1R. 'i (w"lI~'d ci~~~r OOlI1Jlk~ k~ of RFP ~'":!!f1U(,~m~ M'~u~d (If, 2~,ll. :;1:, 4). Ass.e~"Smcfill Olr Pol. II and !(two !l;anlS,gl)'!lk: ~hur~dI('r lliiIJ;l)Of loos of RfP I,;._~,~ Pml!! Pmllmp~li1b1ii~~11 IJ~I fl IC'\:v ~tdl!i~: rell:> '~m~~mll""'" ,P,ol 1II'"1l)el'leratlad: '~r"'n' 1b'e.liU!~rlp'I~, sc:rip'lShom tine IrepOJiil:'fir D gl~Uj_C WilIiWcrili1OlL.ote). Cflnyinf! [his B.AC rnUIii~Ctil: cOliIsIJllllr::l I.(lsing mi~Il'(R !(fj~, lOll n~fl1l:'li!. (!he S1NE B2 lm:1sm;pl~q)11I 3'1~ I::lmh can be suggcsli'd!o be roClli~re[l lor d:e\'ell~ a illlalysis With j:h1'fi'mefll ]Iil· :; apluenmn,y qu!;nwd Gf:! :Q,cnc :lclhlmiol1 in dka~d abov~." De5i!gn,,· tiIlm;; ,cd +ill allld' TAlA vivo, U{l!\1i"Cvcr,li1is as:!my does not G1~1l~~::;hlm H ]liIdka~ll!' the tra,it5()rijIP~ill,n 111i,~ro,nO::IS its b.Pu~ld<!!r}i 1'u!llcti(iUlil~ \i'iy{), 5 Sl:a!1tSJ1l~!'!~dl TAlA 100x. F]',.I'CR W!lii!,lys~~ RN A n.'n'wl.."I'!:.\drmn~ d~ of w,~pe(lfure.~f' m~!ll;!' A Ire· \fclOjlltlS l~iluin~t1l ;M Cmhll)l()lllC my d,45 rt\IC3~ I rerst@ oil strelth ,af A. res, ~llIu Ixlth Poo[ I] mid .Po~ H[ tU"dII!scrip:lS ~em were td l!rs]r:l the s~lI!e 1i11:@ ill \fi\~o (fig. J, A '10 E) (2(j;~ Po! lll n._I1JIJliicrip~ '~Hg.S2AlJ.(() icHec;( ill'" d~I,e!:iJ!:m trnillSIINt: B2 ,eilemlmt on h.lm~i!l)1'I -of ~hll ClIO GH ,eLelilillHluin the cd' origili1,u~ing in the smllS B2 K'~II. \VI,;'re d~[of,,'CKldiu~ eilll !ili!lln(el'·bLod:~ng il3:5aY" ,All lIilLeI ,lire' ;:!:SIEl!.~"(E!~'I'lflP e:xp're~~Qilil in [rralnsg eiilk h~Ullild,er i~e \llith wi Itll· m ijh~ piH)iJ, of ~llC'Ifl~~[limr)l.;'i;~;~C; RNA un <1111 nJ'I~ typ~ mGHIRFP IBA( (foill[idlll'r!lJl •.2,3) Or ,rith dde.'l!llll:J:n the SINE 82 ~Iellii!!nt (IDuruJiers . .4,S,,6~ o( .. ~imeSi d~ucirrigcnnb:ryonk; d,;;:vdllipu]clJl, i!ldu-tiinJ!l, c t2_5 (f~g. .. ~] an-Id E), bUD.IDle m~l£cfiipl, gctlCrulOO J from~he Po~ U p:n;m~01cr llminilia~l,y 3PfXJfIII'C.d Ol~IJI !II e UdlO 14,5, ~JU.'iC ~lwas tIQ1 pllt"'SCil~liUl IFi'!!j.:1I:. ~n vN(i~!<~f'es, ,A Ihc pooJ:ed c9.5 10 e .~ sannpk lf~g, .3(' ~bLJI.\~S 2.5 SiDII1I ·ofllhfl' G~ SilNEB2 preSoL'f~l indH: poo~ed cl2,510 ciS,:; sample (fig, itta!liis(:r.i~ts durin!) p,~rui· .3C~, III th~ p.Il!!lllillll)' g:I,~u~d(Fig" 3, B ru~d q, il~y d@1;r@l()ipm,~illt fA) corrclflling ooth with ~hc liming and c:stilbHlsh~ Scin,~m1litk dijegrall'l of mcnt oj' di I'I:'crcm~_II1 ,Qilllainls, of chronuu,in 111100,.. IPrimer'> me~ for Ireverlle1 d ilioMiOllS withilllh,c Gli 100\lS <md 1l,!!IIcicar IT.cJHSJ;ll1lllilCln, IP'<:P;, i1nd a .repa<;il.iOll:ll'l,g detected by f,ISI ~] fig. .~, aad El', Iprimer ,exIJelns,1orl na1YS:ls { C Qf U1O? SI~E B2 tr.i;!il5(lip,!.Ie 1IC.'1l laserted d1'CS~NE Bj, fwm theG!-I' II;JIC~~ iV!!O~ i.2.j.,1\l codi v,g~l;,lqucnce r!'l'lm,~h,e t~oo uw!t~. ,riUillers used lidam J I tfllU!icriptiun unil ~1;1lalGu~ 'I;.~",hibi,~ !'l'rl rOl" rnwrse rtl'an~!!:ripliill,1'I and S~~!ltl in ~.~Ihiil)'~!Il ~h~ i,;!'llb<ln~iL;r-Mo~;k~;n!l,~~~lY_W~ :SSION,A,~~e y!:1llow:.~heir PCR IP~!1IJi@i'" C'V,:lIuil.lIL-,J deh:IDonmad :';1)I_w;~ihll!tiOilI o:m;ilnICl.~ iL'l c linQ prii mer~ <lnd '!!,l(PIKiI,· lIB 1:~ICe.lilhillloc-r-hiockill:lg i1~say(F'~g, -'lA' ;lIiti fOIIUl'd C'!~ I:hm inscniofl or S]NE, :Bl ImuM']],ptiollb !,Iw)il ]",g, PCRhgmUiIS srnawn in :b1ad,,, (CJ2 ~~ ~ C-O:ri!<liilin,_g jhe minliinltlil dclin.Cl:1 Pol :II ~i'Q<]n~tcf' a n·bp ~eqJlIelilre,wn· {,l'6). ill ,IJfil:md,r COll.'Ur~CI:S;resulted un clear selV~\ti ]Ifi hUlm"m and ''1l~:lrli:aC(;.... ~~ockitJg .activ iiy f~IH.g1ME B.~) ,~,PiE:;, 1m0l.1iS!1'), (8 and ;() Idiemi4!A~ l]ow,;:vc." in~'tl.'iiion o:r 3 slrofllcf \'\:fSi.OJl of !ijr:::i1tili~1'I of l!f'oll!lb'a1'l:5(rijpt. Ihe S:~NE .B2 in W~I~!c]11 Pol II (lIDll1.0a W1L'i !:iy RH"CRal d4,'S. but t~le dcklcd ill. the :!!;;milepo."'ilioll~dthin Adcw'dl 1110 net ·derec:ld 'Olil eJ!1.s., E:1_li 1E'~t!!i longer c.xcMd the' cn~mnool:"b1{lck:ing ,ac~:j;vil~', MID g(tll'l.·~~(m(p.rum" IProIIII~ IPclII~lt S~lhsf~11Jnirll1l oifl1uc[icQ~ide~0'lL!CIlICC'S rcpi:'escn~in,g el'S used as. ill poo1ti'llt ~]!C i!lIt'~!,g~'mic IlrnHi.GU:rs for I~~~ III: ]1100 i<l!ti:"d (m~ml '~J;ee ACltnlm llane). ~''''!I'''"stqi pl!p~ (2.1 i dinl!]lliUs:ht;\cl cnh!l!!:tr;(;!';,lblockin,lll G H IPfQiilIIOWr---s~d~(; pnJfillI'~FS I;,!~,das @ neg'a[we: CQnUQ~.(P~ DmlQJilS~F~l]On olf .~~ IPQllllllll~r.<'!~s(ript 0 f! o1i.t;li'",i~y OrC~!(;melll [,D ,(f~.g.4l\J n~~['(~Lill~s e14$ by R'I'·~CR m;ilig prim~r!> '5.tUWM. (IE) OnloQiElllY of e.xprecsskm or the P'elllill trall!ic:ripts, shoWing e!Kpr~nill'n Ihrlill~in~llIt p1tlllil;ary ,de'ildop"lin,1f1h~ !.iii ilI'iil! RNA $.[IIFI1P1.@s iUs,edror R1il4P-CFl lliii (in lo ~IO). ~~@re !'I~ revt'-fuk-d tfil1U~ a h~diil"(':CtiOrifil IPd In/Pml U-cld\.lL;.Ui

O~~i,g.2B) or~l:!e ~nh!l'llcer"Lr~CI dd~!ioll! ofnh-c ,~uc ((MVIE1'I1'~,Lu.d wdw S!NE E3:2 rtpcal i4Si!1~ B2. CD) ,~~boli~I:iL;;x!~h{; ]1'1 tILlman '~mIYJ)i"lirilk kf:d" ney Uil~i<) ,29'3:{I1~ls.pla~· cn~j~]fitX"(~Mocki:i1M H<:tivil}' W~g.2.C). To
,ooi]I~lTI'ifuff'lilg'i{'illiOUfi:iil.~ ['oli':for

iltdl;lr~'1:td¢,~·,~· 'o"~'lsiIH";:rii(ll~ Sih;:wifh l\PSin.,;,,~ W~.!) or ~fm\,l]~r~L'!Ii:i (Xhol)

E,l1Ih~fl'lle!l'"b!lmu::I!:.]l1g .i'liSWV

Ill"ci"mrlled m.iIlg Ih~ pIE,

.:XhI!lI

_P'W

N.~.

REPORTS
16. l. Iltrce'. Ili. Ag)js.,M11fR ,~'1~, 25$ tHIOl'I, 17. ~erii,,~ ~ m!:!lliTleU1.@,!Jlo ,,[,e. ",,!!'ifia~t~.~~ ~~~ing m~U!Ili1I'l M SdMCi!' Onliii'l~., 113. F., IIf.tiLI;u':Tilf9il, A. c Irlt (l, felliel'l!l1td, PitJ.(, Nail,
,l!CliJd\ S.ti;

c.

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19.
;!iJ

1435,4~1999~. FlI!Jrnitlr, lB. ~.w£iIQilI, 1]W,!remiglY 40, 6731 (lOOU, f. Gir~~g, ~r r#., ~~ir~~'~ ~~ no 6!l~n

'I'.!.

,!i,:S:,A,

~t'IB"

s, J. Nl!lmd.u, R~IE"

91$,

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