RJ2 pmfilel~1peR Anays ,31J9pow,elnu~ m:ew 100:lls fOf' m,omiilOring

ltile ,exlpre;ssion of focused ,gene, Ipane:~s;.WitIl1IPCI Anays, ,IDllIl (;;8nl ,acclillrately IPlrGUle! Igenle exp,r-essliiOII flor 81 bio,logical palthway' !lilr' dlilsea,se usiiingi ~ie re,alli-t~m,eqlllJalnliim~i'lle 'CI~: ins,llmll:1llelnt in Jourillab.

j:) 'SUI p'erAr'ray
moscienre Corporil[io,ri1

A

The deflnitlve resource on cellular regulation

STKE- Signal Transductlon Knowledge Envlron rnent offers:
,. A weekly electronlc journal. • Info rm at iion 1Iil1.a n"age mien t to ots

.' A lab manual to help y,ou organize
yo u r resea rch

• An hrteractive database of smgnaliing pathways
'IIIUIIIIlI~

mUM

STIKE: lv,es you essentlal tools to power your understandtng g of celHslgnallng.lt Is alsoa vibrant vkt.lUa~cQmmun~ty~ where rese archers from around the world come together to exchange information andideas, for moreinformatlon go to www,.,:stke.,org: To slgn uptodaj, visit pfomo.aa.as"org!stkeas Swte'w~de accessls avails blefo ri nstltutlons, To,find out more e-mail stke Ii,cense@aa,(ls.org

GE Heo.thcore

lllustro'

for foster nucleic ccid scrnple prelpl.,
New II1i.J,t Fa" !'l1.1l;'leic oed somple prep kits from GE Heehhccre give yOI.J opnrnol s Vleld end punty_ Whm's more.they do ths Ir'I as httJe: as hair the lime It. tokes the best (ornpe:mg products. Whelher you're PJnfying nucletc eods In plnsrnld,
blood, tissue. cells er bncteno. you II filld thnt supencr results. and outstanding

reproduC:lblhty come eoslly with dlusu'c min! and mJd. kits. With more (han 20 )li?or.;' e~enf!nt!? In nuci'2lc ocid rssecrch. we're bnnglng SClenc.eto life cl!ld l1elpll'"lg troiisform he(llmcore. We COUlt Ufe SCience Re-Imoglned,
1J\IWIN_gelbfes.c len [e'S_((I m 11111..1 5tro

Speed is cfuclCI,1to tne 5~,m,dll!wplalllt's suceess, It ,reac:t:s mp,ldly. bending i~s tentades 1.0 bind its prey. Some' :!lP!!!d'~5ean de this iU"lljust tenth5 oh SeOOI"IC:I"

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,

,

,

irncqinotion at work

~ ~!Ii1m~I~~!III1Ol~M.,1I
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]D,r5J.6l! 1#1~(l11I, ~IL O:l'OO1r!de"-ll Be!l!K Com!ll'l"l/' .r.:!! riif!l!i, te~11 GE~.
rll:51; Il'!Wllt'd 05l20l1'7.

IDIEPAiRllM.IEINll:S
~Ili $UiP~lrbf~]ry-\li!r'~Ii~

(M'ai!/tusCjl'1lleli$),

he~p@r m:alies C~11 d~~s'l 're.maLes lJy pmViidfng '~tta 'fooo to lrn~~F(h~cks" Wh~n th1Si& th~ case,f~ma~~ lay s:malte-r I!ggs: that: give Ii~'ll:l n,ght~;r dllicil:::s" fmTIal~El!l oolle'fH:[rorn increased :survival.
See R!Qe 941~ PluItr£ BIOS: !!\IU~'Q (,t'iilP,e,t'ef Af~lOfd 1m:.

867
86B 87.2

814 877 879
965 966

S,leRliJ~OnHl1~ lihi!i:weiFiAl Sci~II(;lf! Eal~()IfS' (lh@lll:e Contact 5,ril1/l,(Jll' ~:al1aD,!iI1! S,am~ N\e:";vsma~~rs
Nle'IV Iiflrudiucts 'Srdenrt:,r? Career5,

871'

by [)(;1JIo{d Kennedy

Pedli and Punishment

NEWS 'O'F lHIEWEIEK
f1II15f S:uN~Yof A:1l11l~i(al1~~ Finds a S~~errn rl!!l'~er~JnQ lffii,e: rink on B ~idli1gl QfAIIO$, PQ~i(V C~1ilml~iQf!1 Seen ;as Sella~k Emyl1'lE! 1<E!~iiJ'S Old lYIem[)r~~$Alive
::.~I?~IP.

IL.Ii.nE.RS
860 SS1
8B3

!'l'.51

5'CI E NC'E5C'O'PIE
(on'lraveny Conlin
1I1lS Artl:1r

BS:>
Pa~,e:l Ru le~
011

BS4 894

Bicdm!ls ami] the EHVi rOrillinlm'l M. tW. PtJlmf!I,' D. Pirm~1i,tfll and R: Lfjl RllSPOllS!E!' (;)'• .f(fam{!dy llille 1i~Il,a;WlIlIIdUlS~'1illil,ti titlE! D~t.ll'O I!!.al~ty d A s:. F" SeJ;ick_ t. A Befo,. o: M. Caak' E)lplonlF XII]~ Spinfling Fa,~t~r T,han E~IP~('tJedi o. N. 5dwefew Resj:I(lIPilsE! S. J. Poddadc fJnd o. P. Rubim:am
,All! Update (Ill all!l'ii~!l:l:I:nd!,l(~11n1i~'.~ligaU~ II! R .M. ,(mln(1u:ollf! Life

Bis~m'Em(ll.A R>e~urll\eiCl:ed IP'rrllt:eil'l'5: R!t'Veal 'l'i1H~lrrS I!Iriprhrll1lg IHhtOlry
~;>

In SCience: :s.t~P'"-l.:oolk

JI!lIiIiIP

,898

5{iemll!El:prf'~~ S~IW

by I:. A OrilJJlla et ill

>COR'R:lEnlJ!)~'S; AlfIlIIl!l ClllARIIIFI~CATlOlfilJIS:

SUPllon I:s,D~:fif'!g ~p '~or NO!ah':$ IFt(llOO Fillh'L9 the Blaelk Seil

886
887
The HOrlest Blwrter Moll kIn9 Selfl!ii~ or Sdeno~ in Polky and P()[j'~k'S. A.Pf(tlk~ Jf~ R" revlC'Vled by N •. E.rlWrml(J~ NI!IIlIIiOIlCll:eI1l.te<a 1l1~IfifrIi IOliophiV Brai n\ ,Ill'l nd. ,1Inrlli,mglll~e- lit 8e'tm'!1U et <It (,e'vi'ev.wd.~y 8" DalnrofJ

899

A~an Kre!1i.~ky hMerview: Draw! 1119 Malp r,orlhe ,a,

rwel'llY'-Sev~!1I D~lis!o:ns in Nllfs Arlf!'!Y

90.0

G~!iI~bUng

an ill Gh!}:s·l B]rd

ess
892
H94

901

r'uildlic:ting CI:i!ll'!lion: f\r,e hiningMad~~~
Upl'[) ~h~ ~sk!

900
90.2.

Jumpingl

GellUl5.

H(Dp

~llll<l

the EW~lJlion'lry ILlrn,~lughl

'ClIrrb(lrl.llJUl:ig1litiOrl 'fur Biaflll!!:ls or by 'Sai!l'iJil~andlIRe$tonn~ fOWI!s:ts?

R. RiDh~lar.oami D. V; Spwd/t!tl

IPERSPIEC1~VES
Gia'ttlllQ Il'nto end nr(IlI!~11 th~ Orl!l~r W!'t~!tr1b!'ai:J1!! J. ro.rJl'J!i'w:ss~tl >>- f;/~fJcxI1 pp. ')51llfrd .<)61
AIiI.~I:Il'lI.o~d!iilll tlill:: 8allam:e. Po V. j(l{tepou. m~dD. /'e,/"{IU(m
_:,.~ R~$etu(h Articlt
,r;I. '"

903
904

6

l11u~Neetlto Swt!Y Spe!ed 5~lJ~s
I). M.

905 907
90.8
9J5 and 9~8

SYI1(!p~e~ He~1'!Ind Nl:It 'E'!,!"El')'\\!he~e MUler ~,. .flP,_"_,r 7

.PI. Clh<lfl5l:e'III

Cir'(!ullfJtisn?'

J. A (huf(h :.:. R~pcm'P!J.

SCI~NC:!!: VOl317

17 AUGUST .2007

I',n''Vivo Relevance, In Vitro' Hesults.
As lh€) leadiB'~ ~1!1 pri'I!!i1liil1f'Y (:ell CUlture. Lon~a primiil'fYI stern celts, including:;

IOn~rs;;I varietYI of

1~u:mal1l St€1iI1I1 Celills - New! P'Onialcs~ Mipose,·II],erived Stem Celli's IPure Iy ena r3C1e1b:ed with reh;~vam s~romiil:1and stem markers, and a med~ill!ki't for groW11lh o;ul!dl!f)!p8!ns,~on - MIlJI11~pot:el1lt 1M'liHli'~Ii,chym~1 S1e:rn C~lIs i$(jII~tJ~[J from bCHilfl rna now, a n d mll~dll;a kits, fo [ g;rillrlNtha m:ll d ~f~en~l1itiiniIDT'I of 'sw~rralll ~ilFleag~5 1~llIImlar:iJ Bone, Ad~'PQ!lN~'u, <In(i INeur~11 P'lrrijge'lrrlit()lr ILeUs ,and I~h;d Kits ia CrYlop reser v,ed OSU,'iQ,C Ia,st preeu rsers, prea d ip oCYI~es. 3liid neural progenitoll's with medi~ kits fo~ growth and di Here ntiCi~io 1"11

I~IUrna n IlHIlem altOiP'Qietit~ P',~io:li::en[J~olrr Is [ie~ - V,;;ari'e~y Q,iF hemOiltopoietic pHI:gerniwrs ~!1dlJdi1i1g [11J3:4... , CO:133: iF, liIlind mlon oru.JIc:lea r c elillsit\s.oll,;.1 ed from pew" pherall bloo,d" bone marraw" :and umbilicall cord bl'olOd Visil
0 UI~ webs:~te

to ~Iece~ve a

at wW'WJonl S!!bi nseie nee.co m/paletles FI~ EE LOIi'iIZa ICeII M u:e:.

lociila W<llkm5viIJil',loc., SSlO iJ:ig,g,!> hl;ml ROOdI,Wrn!!':Jl'!'S",j!le.!>to .21793 Poie'(ics is·.. megistereti 1r00000em~11!: loo:;:;~ Grrw,p, 'O~lilS 5i,1~dil,lIries> @ 2000r' loflZOI \%'lterS\ll[J~. of

M'i'W.ic:miz,a .com

.

1f1.t.

Lonza

Science
feVOUJillON (~la~. 'Sitrm::hJlre of .linl Al'loerH Prol€'in: Evoi[uliolll b!~ COIllImrnatlol1l:i!ll E:~i~hllsis E. A. Orltum;ll. t BridgllfJw, M. R. ,Rf'dllJbo. j. W,flJomr,(ln ftI:e 'itrtl(tillreol a 45fHl!I~~:i(ln·yea r-.old CilIftkofl:! ,re()eiltor:, reSlmecll'd C(lIi'lil~lOlliOl'lal~~ al1ld bftlcnefnkally, 5iltSl,!ie~ts!trow modem h.or~ne re(E:~larS e'l'OtYed.

CONTENTS

,I

CIELL IBlOLO(W

Se,g men'tatiOJi( (t~(k I. fl. Riede.{-Krusr. r, Mailev, A (. (It'lte-J 1\ il:r'u~d~t fl h:!lsegfill!.~!lJtJtkm d dock, oou,led '!JlI!ril!2tic ~!i(iltJitOIS th~l seQuerdi~!ly g~nero1!dhll!tMld,y slil!)melnl5 @I anCrn~t, ~llt~~~I'ull~ p;redkl~ th!i!~ulls, 01 S1f~~~rrn
p~r~u riia:~on~.

C:eVEIOPM ENITAL B~{JLOGY' Syindhi'Q1lYDYI;Hilm~csDurling I,nitiation, fanl!ir~ • .l!~d IR:i!S'ctii!:

S'!JIPE!r-FlesQllJlt~ol'llllm!tl9il!il'Q with 'Ph,llt.o-S,mtJ:hallli.e Pln~bes, w. M. Bores.. B. HlJ(lIJr/, G. I Dempsey" X. IhufJllf) A SU~Nf!lOI!l!~iO!Jl! iiil'!'~9Jirlg ffit<tha.d thlat U:5ie5 a ri!I!Il~Y01' li!ul,ti:c!l~or IliUlllf,eS(ient probe'.i yil:!:tds. im~!:ies ~if fi;':cOOl (ells with <!J Sj)il~i'l'llr~5.Q~UliolIIQi 20 t{l< 30 rn~nomeM5,
FklllreS'Cerlil:

,Muttic:o[oJ

lO,112Ms..:rem:e,1146596
PWVSICS: Si'glnla[!,nres, oif E~ec'llrel'lfrnl~~iClIm,8i~'ljI)ilHon illl uttraqlllli!llnh,lIfiIiI 8i~muthl K. Behnia, . .tfj,rJliWJi, Y.. Kopefevi:(h .At \Ill ry hi9n mtiogfi,e!iil:(ieldl5. !(harg~ tran5pOi~t. in lli5mu~ht (ny~t.ati ~h [Wes lijl(e <i ''IU,Ul~i[Jm Uulcl,.iln eHeU prevlO'usly SIl:eI1lonl¥ 'I" l1.!.ii'N:iliiFl;eil'lsf@nal, ma~erials.

or the

10.1'1261S(.i~he:~.'1U6509'

REV~EW
F'WNT SCIENCE
ASTRONOMY

P'~ant S~>edaliol'!l L. H. fNeseberg and}.

910
H.

Wi/Ils

IOetll1(tio m of C~f( lIMste!lla r Mateir'iait ~11a IM~fm!i!ll Tytpili la Sl!tii,~j'IiI,ov,;j1 f. ~(JUJl elat
r~'f!;lr,[llllW, irripli!l!s~t~lil~ pr'Ogl)!nit~Twhit~

924

I)e~llil';~ii()rn 9~5; lJfoum:1 ;;(1 ~V.peIl~ SIllP~rlIIW~.,ii! sl~rld;l!rd d;i,~~:nce of

GiENETICS

dw~r:r ~.:ql~od~;lHilr

Human GENflolme Ullna!(i~lf'!Se'f\l·oo El~mi1!~ts AIF,e utt~as.elemd 5. KoUtnon et

at

.A PP LIIED PHYSiCS

UI~r.l(OrI5Qn'(!d [mA!5~IUenus" ulllch(lllllg~din \feri!ll'br",,~~sl\o:r 3,00 milliol1 ~tfS" (I11! rnaufV!.ijinoo IJ~sel!1dion IOllJlrlrnms··a!;. 5tnmg as Ii:h at fvr oodil1lg g(!neS<.

IR,adiial1oUII ~!!SSE~eC~fl!lm>ll~JiI,~~ic~rlt@rr!~roJil(:!!: lEVi! l1'il'SCil ii!Hicl~1 Le,ns@sand p.~rr~,~t FOCIl!s]ii!'g
(?M~fUn A ne~'1 melhodi5

927

""r'llpgl!.edhu S!ub~'JlI'eten.g~hilllili!lr:li~ iflwnr,ch

~ESEARCIHARillClE
CEUI310LOGY
Efre'(t~ ,~f Ali! ell Pr~'idivon (eU~tar Phy$fology afl~ (en I[)ivis~!ll:n ill! Ha:~I!oidlYean E. MI, fOff,es et all. ~~[ ~~I&l; .Ql'ltiIi ni ng "'lillY e.x~!rildhmntiJ~llr:ne all iI!'miblt ,a§i rnil.ill c poMi1I(JI)'P~' ~e5:pl~ Uu!' presefMle 01 ru~HnWlrr.efaay g~lm.

i~te~k~ !'!()~ pl{ldl[l()l;1d Ir(!ilif:!pl~ni!J :wblm!\fcl!~rI9'lh Slr\l'i:.tllr~~ i:! ill! plir;t~roO(J ~~!ili!iillM thl! pt[l~~'.s surl'<rcl!'_ PH"EiH::S

((lhereli!t
QUIi)liltl)ll'l1l

X. X!Jet

at

Optk,aJL Sp eUr(lS(!(lPY Dot

I')!' .!l

.sUl)(ngly Dr1iv-el!'1

929

TIn~<r!b'sorptioo sp@tlrum 01 <I q,IlI<r,t:I'tUirn col conmif'lin,g mu~lipINi'mrnS ha~ tM splittnng dlili:l<1(m:ri1IiitSl!IlfId Sigll[lbJiI'f' ol'ilI s.impli:! l\lf(H~'i'tI. systMl. as 1m " ~1Inglle'D'tom.
M AJiE RiAlS SCI ENCE ID~lI!PUtuaVilot~t ljgh.t~EmiUijilg He~a9rl'!1a~. Bown

932

IN~nn~rOe~;i~E:d ,;i,t Atli'llj(D$ph~ric: ~lrE~5:~liIf\e y~Kubo~(l., K. wc.ro,'llGbe, o. TSlJ.da. 1: lo.nitJ!;u:;M It ni~1-tno~Menu lilf!sii!vtinl yi~I.d$ l'ii9ic1-!'iurity 1iI~;;3 9:oma l jjooo.n nllrfdii (~I1Its: tha:l emit. in!l.eiiie 'iJltraYi:fi'l1!tli9htrnat may Ii~us@iul Jow m~d~e.<il.'u,eatJj;j,~nlS <indI iiil eletliOrilcS"

pHASE,'1
Feder'll, Grant

Onlly Kentucky matches fed e Ira. I SB,IR-"S,TTIR, Phase 1 + Phase 2 awards
nd srm ~w'a rds to OUI!' h~gl.':He<:h small b!:l:S'~Il!~S~~~ - no ,other £'t.a~ehas ~ progr.";H1J"lJ dlesig~oo to do ~1i:I~tthat If you~re looking for ~pla(:>e~o ]'oca11~or st~rt .1! I:ligh.:f:e!:<i'loorunp(!,ny,. K~nt!L~c kyJ:s SBm-STrJ!l:,M.uch~ng f'lUl:dJ3pOOg11J1mi,s ]llst one of mauy lieaSOI:l!l· te gi:ve OUII
0;1

sru 11

~iIlh:~C'ky wi,U match

beth [P!l1liillse]1'1 nd Pha~

:2: red~~~tI

sIma 1.1

buslaesses, i,nd~ld~ngg:rr.al:nt1i, [;IX incentives,iMld
OUI!'

other form,s of ea~rny.'S~1g~funding. 'biJ(I$i~e'~s marmg~U1!~TIt.afld he~iJhll,g fil1dflm,anc.ing. The c;abinet .ro:!' E;QOIlOI'lrlic

:statewldener\>Mork

o:f[ I1I'liO'lln]on and c.o!nmleL!:ci.;)i izatton Cenr,ig'!i'S: (:an 'OIffe'r' e!1t!}~p:reneu~~a[ u~in~flg, w]d[e

De'll(,'lo,p~::nrel:lIt ,C:a!:I1UUI ke

nate a ~ook,
W(l1,fUiI! r1owlIttept:in,g
in K!?n~lJcky
(O['

gr'rn'lI!ng
,1Ippl.:kaHo.liIsfrann companies
I~h)["lJi'te

til

busloess in Kentilck-y :~ast 11I1JdeaS)~, lO!;rv Oltf
\l\ll1lyKt'lJitutity
<I

cost o~ liv~[~, :~ow-S:t[i~SSl· comerrutes, and 11i,~a'l qualruty'
of nrc amid unrllival.ed nanrralbeautyare CIJI1i:luulIJn:ities,aee eated i1lilloillg the best ])'l<1~s. to start

\~lIh"llg to

to .K~iIl~ucky) state (rClif

funds to match mdcul S~Ij,aU.nusiness lnnovation. r{ese~,II'C'h tSBnt)r and SIuaU B!J~in~s£ Tochno.ir[>gy Tra n~f~lrResea flch (mR~ grams, Iil'h:ase lawaidsare matched u'p to 5100/000 land Pha~e 2; ,:;u,\"~:ud:\>~lp~1!) S500,CWO per yearf:I!)~' 'r<'!.I'Q year:;;.
K.enbu::£y otfers
1I

b~l$ine''!>s a~d

raJise ,;I ~an~Hy.

r-or 11(10 re ~!1fQrllH!t]onabo1;;lt our

snm.·s.111~.Mal:<::h~.ng

f!Jj]d~~ and other bus~Jne£s S1i;!p~::U)rrr. p~ogr~un:S:l\!'t~~Ir.
·\l\'Iw\~!• .

wjde

flTIlltge

of

$U])iI)D.rtfo~h~gh;·ttech

Th:irnlkKeiJ:ltlKkv .com Idci/SlbiI'2.

Science
OCEAN SCiENCE

CONTENTS

,I

1"~mp(!,aiVa rialb·Uity (If th@Alli!!1!fic Me~ijd[of!al r Oii~n ~m~n9 CirwlalioUl1:lt 26,SgN .
S,. A. C!JfI'J.!JngJUlm' eli3iL

93S

Th~ clilf~mrlll t(JOIIirI~QIIli!!nt~ hmmingl dC!'eJ)ii'I.lI:tll'iin!h~ t.:iol1J'I1 JUliln~iI:. ItlhiCht ~~~,d~~o~rmooa1hl~ ,dll(ui.al!im'l illl 1Jhi1' OOO<lins.,. tfjl'!, VIi ry ill ijlllerHil~111alOi,cl.Of or e~g:nll<llI1!nuZllly •. =->
~rJpeW~'f'

p. IJOY

OCEAN SCIENCE ObIDenedl [FI~QW(.omlpelllfo1'lti,ol'l Assoda~ecl w~till UH~~ 938 Moe a126,!)o[Mililllh~ AUal1lk r. ,Kam~ow et <lit 1[lntm-anni:lal.lIlIctUlatian5in line i!irfe1ell~ ~iLlr(M forli'lJl.liilg ~"I'lfi.P' wa1i11!t' i
~'nl'hf: rtorlill.A!j~l1ljc
H~jm!l!te~, ollhe

9'04 &, 9'1,6

ia1g~ (jClmpefl5aL~ o:me-iln,,~htr,

aUo.wfnij robuM

l1lolH. cnl9~OLOGV 1[I~t(!(tio ~ o~~ [N~af"NmoiSp netic C~rl(eug~rat~erl$ of (02 biJi' ~f'i (lQ~ac~tD:ryS;lllbSYMI~minUi'~ MoliiSii!' M,;u~!CiiJl~151lf!'5e f1.e~'i!tmCl5fihefK
~ Sill~l;lt !lIf !lI~~o}I;liO(rfIIil:lIQlns Iih\(ll l

EVOllJTlION Red U(,eJ[J EglQI Inw r;ln'Umt Calil (OI'lCI!!.a~ [HeiperEffl'ed~ 1'1'1 '(,o'!'lperati\!e~y8,nledin'!!I [Birds, A. F. RU$seU III ,a~. IFtmare lail'fwJei'ls lay smaller ~~~ ~M '·'ilIilIi'!I!'Y" iDiI!K are availab!.e ki l:ielp,ieed the- young> ~educ:lrt~ 'I'he moU~el'S'

941

953

J. Nl,je'~, at

COI1!Cenlf;~tli(ln.'5 ro~ rUj or usi m~y ~~lli1:e '1hi~(.;!lo1Jboolk ~n,~)!Iii1;~

rii!p~(lduc,live ilwe~:lm(!!'I'ti!nd
GENE'nCS

'fr!(INlOKinQ their sur'l'ii'i,l\1ll. [BlOCH IEM I STIR ....

l- Fflll.ay !IllillL

III W~~,le~G8'r1~m~ A!irS!QI(iiUilerl Sil!!!dy of Major ~)~~rli1llh'l!!l!lll!i fo~ lHos;t C~'l'ItrohJf Hllli-I,

944

1\ S!!!!'\I\I!lfor ~h.e' wi'! ow I1lull~n 'gl!lfll(Wl.e id,emmes; VilNllIiS itI:!immu!'l!!! il]eIH!5~IiI.n ,jI~e ,~wocii!ted with djUeren(~ il1i 'llir;j!l dUlnir'l9 thi!l' INIrly ~Hlg~ @r IIiIIV ~n~e(tion,

8. aomi~ aL et

SH'udJuf'!! '()jf the< MemBrane' IPr'Clu!rn F:haC:A. M@mller o~ t ~@ OmlpSS,-lpsB "I'ri!lli~pOn:ef SIllP@ rfam]~y

957

woo

Sp,-aJtia~IRe,g~lta~~(l11 ,~fal"l [[3 Ubiqu!dn [~iga2e D'irl1!C5 S~led~'IIeS,Ulapse' ~[imillaIHcm M', [}illf]; [); aMl(), 6, Wang, K. Slj(~ll
M dl@Ycltlpin [J~(lrmiS, 'nJil~ pru l:Ii I1t1I i1J:~'~~(M5' s:yn<J:p~~ roqllIi res p~M@f.!SOm~iilIilrn iollNI prO!l'tlinoogratiiil1:i;[1Ri an til is ~ll!ctiy@iy p~e~en~ !)ya 1iIi21Jr.ilarlhe§tiJnIIiil'liMeml[e.. ~> Pfr1fJfitilO'e III- '!Ol

NEUA DSCIIENeE

947

S:ll1uduwe ,1IIntt:ilifu nlltt~()r1 an f:5Sil?nilli1lt c.olfl:p<mefltt 961 (I~ t.ne Ou ter Meirl!ibrC!'IiJ~PrO:le'i fI.k;seli1llbly Ma chine 1 S. Kfm et ad. Tw,o,5!n!ctu~e5,O'i bi!!C.lffiai. outfl membrane pn~lein5 reve<!l nQ'l\l the' poly~Jllide ~rOiI'!5por!"""s:ood~t-edd'omaili!c:alr'l bind ~m:II:r"i'I<S~rl

or

dwerse ~.ellu~ r prQ~in5<

NEUROSCIIE NeE Ra p.~~ iElr,aslil ~e !O,f I.cii~rJJ·Toeri1i1I\~~'n'1:l):ry ~~~da't~oMirjl A thE! 'GDn~ by' aiij~flhi'bill\Q:r ~,f P>KM:4 R. SIIFma..r. C Sack-tor;. Y. D/Jri(Ji It'i@ii oo:mgani!J" 00lilso!itEliHtin (i:f a sg:a~!~mli'!m'itlryin Ir.!l1:s, lih:E! aeti!Jity 01 a ~ai'l:icl!il'IIFii'FOlein, lei niise i~h:Xml .~ reGiiJirOO in 'Iihe' !lortle\!:. fOr Il'l: jJeFSi~!ei1i:e.,
,.=0.

SPECIAL FEATURE
951

Careers in Translational Res,ealrch
966
jl'l Pe~iiI

caMrn ~ a (11 ~l,N~'F Trans ~~~iO:Iil~l i~ ~@a rd'l
Wl'i!m;!li'!tig:nilllnslii~i!I'~.e' Ulilit'~!i UrMK~I.yPilr~ners
ElJIfVpeitn Pir~Qr,allliF~ tQfle[l'r~Ili~~,tiel1ill lri!hliing m

Nf'WS sl'ClI)'

p, SIi]

968

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~N C:!:!: VO l 317

17 AUG UST .2007

Whl,a,t makes la, first-class news story?

(:Olils'la noo l'iIotdel'ill
:200li ~IMiion~~ ~nml M ~a:tLh A£soolatio!il: Med!ii!Aw<mJ

2006 G'OOlngiCOII ociety S ,ofAme~icai:Public Sem~e A'llVard

RkhaJlrrd Kerr

(olin N:orm:al1l,
NeW'S Edlrh:J~, S,d~r:e m~lli:i!ine

]ermIDfer(ouzin

.Al'tidfes ir>~~eciledl rc'rr iFli!!:lliIS'1~(J1'I ~liIflifli;!J lBeM,Am€rUC~iil :S[ieli!~ Writing:1OO7 iI'OCI1005 200.3 EVErtQlarkIS~!ih I~ay'ne Awardl ~or¥cl!llilgSc:ileI1lCle .~'oumi3iIli$1:s

A nr,st..class E!'diiflll,rialteam.,

AW8JW!(il·

jourrrnaUs.1:s wr'~'tte Science-with IBor il'l the :~a!i:tfour yea 1'.5. llhat'swhry we haVE! t.he most

'Wilnnin g 12 top awards

compelllngstnrles, ,i:lIlI1di the bi:ggestreadership of al1iyge'nera~ sdentillic pubUcaUor1!.To see lh,e
tQnn,ple~e list of ,awaln:l:sgott~):

science ma,g.org/newsa:wards

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Il'iwlII'.sciellcerno'l'll,.org DAILY NEWS(OVERIIGE

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itrl !l)~1;'.1 g~!1!(! FiI'tiOf)

fh:E1 181il,ils 1IliUghH~r 'Tihan th e 1P,;!!Ilng Squirl1f~~ heat laillO %il re ql~ ratli[e.mB kes. Theil\Wi)< S'oh)ltiolll (jene-re.g;ulat[n'91 i'E!glOi1s,
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SCIIENCE CARI~~RS
\"Mlw.sden'C~(aU~~~s_Ofg ((IREER RESOUltU5 FOR S(I'ENnm
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SCIIENCEIS STKIE:
"""l"(I'Ij,~,I.ke.llrg Sl<iNIIL TMNSOUCIION KNOWI.EOGE ffl.IVIII:ON'MENI

GU:i,B,Al: SlPed.a'lf;e-ailllJre-:'fr,1IInISlaliorralll Resea rch (klre.ers K. 'rmvhi lil'illlls~tJiollal reseanlhi ls p~~hi!n9 al'utndal1ll!l'l1lal ch.mge1 in lhe'w<lllI' Sdel'liL~ tiIlHiil<ltes... t;';l1iitegi:virl'KI1nlse to oil nw·type· ~r r,e;sNK_llcr.; th~ lril1~la!IJQn •.d ~r1l~~,ls,t

l. f. Fo.(,ey lJfrO

E DilTORI.Al G:U mE: Fetus 1~51J e-'Cil!US en f~e MOll,iie N. R" Goo,gil

J. Aus-till

US~ Frollil the ,t!.rCM\le~M,D.-Pih.D.

Carreers., F~lIInJtr'e' Illf'ltl~

New tres.earnll (hal!~enge-.~ some e:~lab~hhed 1il1Od'e~!or' mll~liple
aspecoI:Jsof d'itll'!C!t>ed

l!I\.D.-Pil\.tI)., re~Mrdiers are alii iri1;jlCii'l!<lf'it an of I~e p 'laall1slallD MI-r'~&lr~h fMlr~,fcm:e..

~enfDlvemelill..

PE!:tSI~IE:CnVI~,i S~~!1~I$ (lit! th@ M~¥e----(h@mJ!I;)kim~ !\1,l'IJ;~p~!I;)n, illn:di O:~gian(lg~!l~s~In Zeb ~{ir~$h s J. R, Perlili (1m) W. S" TijUNJ.r
A$'1iI91~'s.f9)1'oa~ e~dliSdi~iIliO! ~~on~$ in dllllf'efetil~ ~p'u!a!iiQns ol OE!~15 iiil~liIe zebrali~n 1~I.err.al pni iTIlird~i!Jm. ~fIile

RIEVI.[Wi Pil~Opii)d~~nil Firlgle~s 'l'hgllJ~ 5" L. G(JpUm ami.f. 8. ,Gerlter
:~

me Wa~krllg

N~w an(il ol~

playet.s.,a~ein~~t"'~ il'l 'tJ1e ll(l~ma~io:nl or filop;odfa.

:Ii! fROTOeD L: ,M.eflilo(ifls for Pse~.a!oporliCl ~lIIi'Hic.alliollJ ·!IIl1d

Y. Wl1l\'g !!I ,atL ~ Cds u.!U:u~d on miuo,P!ili!iOUS mroF)~I[OW'~ tw. .J11:al.~Sis.O!r ((!l~i1! r ':~ el1en~io:n& ~pa,r:a~1¥ fr,o[1lltl!te' bulk: of l~e cell booliIy. Ii!! 5

I

i fwteomr( AniJ'l}lsis

li $lIi!J~Iia! th,~17 Au,guist '5ckrfCfJ lPoCkatSl Ul In>9IT {II'bout ooeiill!1 !!:irC!!Jklll1QI1!I dla!l!,~e's il1! the N ~u~h ,Atis!lnth:, Ul!.~ l!.atl;esl 0111 [he ]\!'@:ry-bHlled 1!'I'oJI),d:pec iDelr, h~lpelr eUed'5 1m c(JIll'peraIHv>~ly tneedlillg I~hd:!lir ,amllrml'r'e.
IMWI.sde~€m~g.or$!boo!!!wdora~~dd

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BY STEllA

HURnEY AND PIHIIl. S,ZUIRONU

Overt:urn'iingl As:sIU m ptions»
wa ~~ rs

now ntOr~:hwaJrrd ,and eastwa rd Irern the FtOIl'ldoiJlS~;r a ~:t,.f!'lIild

Iliillthe l1or~h.A:tloiJli'lJtlC,Wilfllrl Slin,tildf!

'~I~'e no rt~willrd flows retern as :5IOUltluvam",oflowilrilg deep wiilite,r;, Tinfu;: Mtd>Ail~ti( mJerid]on!;llt o!iJler~lIrn;ng ,drClilatlOIm Itrd'~ fIll).«ill;i I~'MO() na.mlspoDll'S hug;~ql!lfll'lititl:eli; of Ih!!t ~1Pi]:!lllI !,o,w to Mgh. flortliHlrn~atitl!.! des. G!oba[di rnllt:@ Ilm)d~1s iii tive' suggested ma:t t!le~lu)l olf wilt~r tl~al1siPoll1J!'ld mig~tt be' dea,eilsiiildi by 9 Loba[ WalUll1]ng, whkh ('OIL!MI hai~.fi! n iimpowtamlt ~f]'I.lc~: n difllla~(i!. IPillrticu~J'lyli~tt a e of IEiI:!lrop~•. IHow~~r, there has im!O,t beena s~md~f!tly lOf'!g o:r deitailJed ;~,b~eNaliiona[ r~ciOrd to eva1lualoo w~ethersi!alnificain'~ we'ah:rrnlililg hiilSOC(Urlle:d (see tile Peorstf,.1~di\l'eby Ch!l!'rch). ,(j~lrlrli!'illg~am et of. (p •. 935)1 a.r1d K!!I~Ii!1oW,et IrJl. (p,. '9'38) Inrn,!il prtIV~de, a nr!ll,II,al records Qif the' Siwengtll'n oif the' MOe ,using an alffilY of moore<d illS:trlJm~l1its, deploy,ed aernss tine: Atlantic bas~n a't a llltiitllldie of 26.'5 C N.ihe s:~ren:glt~ .~~e wmO( vawie:d by olf Inio,~€tl~~I'l~ f.a(w!" 'Q$" 8 d!,llri~:gal .!ye'9lr I~erioo(j~ol:!il i!!Illolllf(]if4,,(I~~erd~l[I:p$ (l:$v €ql~~lis '11!T!llHiQIl ie1ubi(: l!iIlJe~:ers per5'e(Qlmd) ma h~gh of 34.,9 Sv \IIIH~,an awera:ge'~~OVII o,'f 18.,7 :t 5.6, :5'\1.IFltMcrn;a tilons: cithe ,diiff,er,ent.tra l'I,s:~clt~olilflpone:nts I,)if 'Ilh eMOC mtlrgei(y lcompenstlt.e e<ild~other. \liIhid'n me~lniS that robust estlllfiillte~ ofthie {1011V be milld~ Oll'er llflWthllli1lllUlillL peri,o,dis. can Thus an @ilrilcetr dal'l'l1ithet the' Mo.e has deereased by ,8:9\1 dl!r~lI1g the past dl~cade.made 011 the bli!$~~of QIiilI~y a ~~w nsta n'i tilffiLMUI) m easUlrem,E!nts dlJdliilg that pe:ni,od, '~!l,ji) prematull'earld re'ne(t~dl 'shorl:4enl!l niilhud~~ r1i1lIJt~My. va
I j. j.

1

I

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I[aslefll !~mI~

Giant Simokwngi Gun
Wipe, lla 5111P'~rJ'!oll/a,(l! Ioialtiable as (o:s~ooogh:a~ cane
dist.ilme probe'> IDe!illi!i1!! theur ~lffiitr'l1sk IlJrigillll.-

ness can be ~1iIroi.iil'~'d. H c'i\ieV~'H,we- Iki'iO'lv IHuae
flb,out. hillW l~'ey
OQCI.H~f

tlile l'laUJr~ 'of their prQ-

genit~:r 5.tar sysi,ieIil1~. It ls wideLy th\lugh~~la l lYIJ~ lal ;s,upernO'ifae ms rk the C;iUa,fltrQp;hlc. ,d~a,Ull o~ a whilie dwar!' aher it h~$ (,iU'lo~lbaliz,e,da CO,i1llpi! niIl115~!:IW J,'!,I'vlhi n a bill1ary)t,u syste!rn. By
de~edil'lgli3i I,'I,IhHIT or 'gas .blrnm on during il type U rulP'~fIlIOViJ ,(glnJbllmi~.• Pa!t~t ,et QI. I( 1).92<1'1. pub ~i!Ohed olldim!!' ]1.2: )1,I~.!f)de,teul1'Ii 1Il,1?d s b:!~!la,r [h,e lYiHHlt it~ (.Qmpaniorl hom Ms ~bsCiFpUOrl ~i n@ dha rracteristi($, 111!H'x~alnsi(ln vel(ldtnes of tile g(!~ a ppoi'liQ.rClfaWlf' a red •gll'an/1.c(IIlnpa Ji!iO~al t thl! li line o'r the e"'~l,osr:tm.

~ or use inl!~he e~em~ni(''5.indIU\i.l''Y or 'ror fifi!oo· h;i! llrea! m'~Jll'5·. Ku b ~Ha et at. (p. 93;2) have d~'lJie'lor;led3 n1el~lod t05,Yf1,thesile hi{lh "'purity cry.stals .a't atrTllo~~heric ,p ressmE! IJIS] 1'I!!llIlif{;ke,lIill:oi.ybd en IIIrn ilS a sel W! nt.The (f}'!>lalls~hrn'l'erl i!llt!;lIl1SIl ~tl1 i:;l~Ofl (It ill woii!v'~l'J:ngth of 2::115, n.a nm:me.ters <l1I'"IDO I'll temp'erall1 re,

Ihey e.xflibi[ di~s.creteefier.gy levets l~.in a rnse
1'h,rQu9h q,uanIJUiI1IN:'1Il11l nne
qU31llURl
IiI1II!!

III

,!!r'~,~!Jj,

H'mllil1V1E!iF,

d re as ir lI1Iottho(J:;.a ilia!; ori ndi~vid Uil~ .tItoms, ~[I Iha l nl~~y~b(idy,or b"lllk·li~, l~rr!K'tsere ~15o
~~~iiU

dot~are lni(a~ly fonl~edhO~li! tU.lmJ-

l!nd~r inteJ1lst O,P'li'..1lh~citanQ.r!. Th~s!.l

effeds; have been used by Kill d' til..,('p •. '~29) ~o I!L.!'nJ:'th~ oil bSOfp·t~orilall1ld Qlalirl or QU i1I~tt!In dol'S

lnto Sharper Focus
11'1 h·'Et,l1d optic .. ~.~ysl'e'IiIll5, .lO:rI~ pT1IlE!!5ut on lill~g c

lh~ ~l.It·(!f·pl'nas@' con"1lp{l!l1!e'ru:s,of tight

S(I

tllalt a

d rrive!li by lWO dffferem (lp,tk~llHelrl5,.nley Qb~lVegj Au~:leir-To\Yne~ Sp1uWIi19 O'!rI~the M:olliQW :5pe(~trUfil illl ~he abI5(1lfptioll1,>p€d~um Oir a )fngle q!!!C!lfiIUQl dot, .andth~ deili![Jn~~lr~IE!'~ !lalin with}·
out pepulation rll1l".eor~ioFi. The5e ml1'~lJllts "ihoul.d ena bl@ r!!!nh@r w~Il',aonu~llled ~·I!u:di~ ~'i.!vlh q:ll~PiIIHI1Il ~oli$ ami {I!lH!;n~hE! Io\layfm aippiiic;ations "ii1J.(h ';;1 al~q lIanl,i,l1l1 kigic g:QIe\) and !l'liPli:cal s,vl't:che~. Ib

~hillrp focus is il!l:hie'lloo rur'ther dOi,\lH!'the optic aii'S. H ~~"~~f~ ~h~s,~ Ilaitt~medz.oll~ iJ,!ate's '5!m, m'!:illL~a f(l(IL!s thal ~.!Jjners[[rom d(liS'S~cal.[mha('-

live w(!v,el.en,gth Iflil'ii t~~f{in.s..M'~~I,~n~. n -;, (

The h'llxtligolll~l (m,rn ~rboron n~llidi!l(hBN) r~>erlit!~I~ g r,alliljill;!' j liD Ihat it is U!iedJ ~$ <!I lubrirGa~H tmd h1l.5 g(lod~jherm1! l wll1d1ud~1;Iity" bu[ IIIllli ~.eg!ral~!nHeo,.it i'!>

Bright Boron Nitride [rysta ls

p'lIib ~ish~~ onl,ine 12 ]liJ~.y) P fe~I'IL~ 'theill:r,~ti~ilil. ~f~ ~\lhk~5hO\'15 that i~.h01,lld be P05~lb~ 'to s difl~iglRi gllni:lr filll'lIId!llr'es lIm<lt force ('OIli\flH9~.nU1 of ~he Illeelr-~~eld {orIl:pollle III of the oIlI'fGClI.~lelds.

One Too Ma ny
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which
oome

'1,Il:)u~d.pr~vide pOi~1ml down the

a Sillb'Wi1t'~le!)g:thff(lcl!s
axis. l1hi,~o1Il!lprOil(~

C!~

might

ii!n~lE!'cuital iIllSUlator . ThE'! hug,€' t!li:r~l b:a rid goaIP Dr h'I3JM m a~.4:l·~. ,]f, H

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('or emission of

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L@!i!dilo ill 9 @ra'~ral routs for .a1(h~l?vi!lgs;ul:!i!1.\~@leo gUll fOl[u~ing and imagingl tl1i:1l m.lmp1en1;e!IQt~ the !l1!eq,aJthre !leha:C:li():!1 !!'(I~He' t(l 5111c;Ih~ulPl!!ri~E1Jl5ingeUiIilds., l·...J ..· .r~ 1-; .

,\to'

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AUlle,~pt~ld ()e:l~s ofte i'l o'b:se:~\I'ed if! cane ~~, have ,.,. .• at l,tiastofl~ ~~t!"aJ or liIlIissillig eh IiUffilOSO!T!@. Ibut ;~ l'iitle' 1:5rtl'lOWn a[~ou t 'the eHem olr aneu p~oid'y Offii-", c@ll p~y.sijQ~Q9V., lorur@)€t,~i. (p. 9:1l6; :5@@ ithl: ,~ Pew~peocti'V,E.'bYJ<lIH~paJUi Qllnd P'.eUffi!ilIliIl)I~~l'e!'ll- 'ij' .aJtic;all~yIcmat@tJi:5~ri!fll1'~ yEa~tI~Mlt.(Qnt~in~an or ~~
I~

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~e€p !;ihra-Vti O~€~ liglh'!~wni'ch may

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'

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Q lJa ntu m Dots
CIt! aim tUlri dQt~ (if r~ oirtllH referred

~:dra mp,y o'r Olll,e or l'TIIorE!!yeii!it (hra'mosonle:s, 31!'1,d!est~dhow th~s i!'l~IV:~f!(Ed c@lI.h.H'!ctlof!. Some I2H,e(~s, Uke-ill (ooraiCteri5tk pattern or gOOE!' e~.pfoi.i-ss;i~i'i•. :5eeiTilil!dil.o iil!Si.i~t hlOrll the imre\il:5E1' iiii 0 f'\I#i, mlilten~ irl~~U, hereas ol:i1er'5, w

'g.I•.•
'~

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like In,r~ased

oglt.J(05 e
I

upt~ke.. depended

!t

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• /At ~ Jt::.-

l(l as ~mlifkia l ah:l!l'lI!O bean,dse

il1'rE!\'I:5~dllra 1~'5clripti~11 trill l1I5!al~lll'llof lhl.!H~ltHl !.]r gelfle5. SO!Jl1le ~~I)!NUe$I;\O'ereshared' ~gQlrdl.e~s ,ioI

:1

:g

or 'whi:ch ch rcllll1.oSrgmewas d Uiplk<lled, indllLdi mg! ,[I! Sillrprisilllg oll1le-inhibi~ion 1Ji[ Cellllll.<lif p:ro11i[e ra Ihm. This r~su It cal ls flllO q~~~tijoli! w~@:thi1:fafl@!.Ilplloid¥ l1I'Iioght b€!' €I ,cauS€l or an ~noct ,ot !i:iI,!'IOOf.

Plant Speciatiian
,BeC31,115'e planl~ are se~sill~ o:rggl1lis~Tls. lh ey oJ'ffeniome adl;!.tllnt:ages trlofelrallimall!;in 5atmpti 1'191,rad:in,g. a I'Id mE!lISU~1,fl9. as W!E1il,as !!Xlended 11(115~ sibiU lies f'Of luatlli jpu la!j(lu~fI 'e:!:lPeri iiUenta I g 3rrlel'il~ a,l1d g,ro'Ll/!~ (ihiHI1bers. Ri E!:5~bE!!1I and Willis, (p. 9W) review 'the lTu~(m S'rn~ or replI'Odtlldivll iso~tI&,f n ill platnL<j il nd theur tllmdierill'ijng ge lile't]{5" as: 111 o \Vl'i! U as ~~(JlIS. OJil ~he fO~ or i1J~~lYlP in speda!~foJh wh~ch ~((,I:,u~Ji!1l1dl' ml;lf~ in pLiii'flts l~~1f'l if! .Q'flnlf:IlI,a1ls. t~~dy

Much lheory olf sped atiolil, li1as!ows,ed' 0111an ima L ~ystem~.,

Mom IS A,ntidp,atrung Some Help
\!'en,~tD rates is ~hill onsplring rec:eiv,!!' more hJO~in ~h!:! pr€,}@I111'()~ orli1elp!:lrs~ha.1:I in h~irrb.sefl(:e.1Ne~r~het8'5:5" a heilp'll'[ eMe<.ts en GUspring mN,lSS and Sill rvival ~<IiV,~ 1I:IE~e~ surpri S:~l'Ig~Y'd iUku IUo d~te[t lliI:uISl5e'lt~.Il"t (d. (p" 941; nDlIer) shoml'l' , ~h.al.it!l tih~ llil'e:seflC:~o~ h ~~lper$.AuiS ~traU!3! f€ma~~ fairy-w~!l>s laY' SI1i1i1 tliIi!iI' ~91,JS.",of liiJ~~~wnut riti IJtlal n ibOmte;n[, lh at gl~\!'e ~ise t!o li glh ~er thi:ch. HIe~per ,e~ried!5em {l1kt!: pnl'lll:sf:mmi ngl tra[e:s atre who'lly ICi b~CUlred b~ this Qii,iU,ema ~ f@·dU'il:tiCirl in ,e~9 '~IiI¥e:::tme I1t whi(hu~ l~ rn l1elps '!he IlIIother :SIlIJ\I~\,Ii~itnl'O
Alli!llfilliO:5t lmi'rl!!'r'S gil obse rr'rl,i;I~ioof1in M I!,u.:lies ,(D~ coopeil'ative

ih:E!' nt@xt Ib,r~dingI51!!'~SOtn.

Eludd ali ng~lhf' ge lIIetijc vlItrialbilily 1njhe response ilrumdivud ua I!>to hurnan imilllDlH1:odefiil:iemy vin.lHl U1IJIJ-U ]~r:edklf11 ~~iUpli!yalf1t il1(,r!!'asingIIP.arl ln devetQpi!1Jg' efl'ecliv@ ueatUI1€~t'S. f~iby et ai, {p.. 9~,~, pllblish@d (dill'.@:l.9 JlIl~)1 UlP'OU il whol.@-'Q~!I1011!)@ .c!!Ssociatio(f!Sludy of hQSU,~[l,'Io",s@ Uti
~ 1'1·1, roc'lls,ing (i.!!l 'lfr~atlload ~oadl bel1.lle'E!O d.lIwing l he i:!l[IrtV5tage'5 01 iI1!red~o~. Tw,olmmlll'l e-rslated pllllYIiIl:O rph-

isms ~~!I',~id@,lllifi 00 l~.alt IQQ'~lhl! r (Dill ~cI account fo[ lS%. QJ!!Il@' :ttl~all 'I,!'a r~aliolll seen In ~.h@' vira~.

fl'aJtk·n~s.

, Smell the CO2

tilth ollQ:h inllj!\Brlebra tes an~ k ~Nllo\'i'lil to .s.e Im'se<lml show b~h@vrQ F@~ ~ ~pClllS~~ !;o <Jell'!( ~f!l~ifa~iCJin:s ~f , CO~"im~llilr~Q' 'tlllO,s·ein the earih'5 ,ahl'10splil'Bre, iit. has been unclear wh'etheu the !fI~atmiilHdian oU'act,rgry sysle'flll O1l5,0 1m sense such OImtO'lltnlsor (,02" ca IiiIJ e,tnt {p.9 53) descdbe gt :i€l (lr (l1~,,(tory -

~hos~ ill1 ait Til@ I1Ie<UfCIiS 1il'l'!~p~i!"S!S cCll'bcmic ~@q!llired a5, parrt 'o~ U'D!! ~e,luifllg medn,1(II'Iistllil.

nnmn~ lh.ati!,ppeilr~o allow dielfl( Ho In ohotll" (.e~!rat~(I~~ o'r (Oil abOln 7()'%gr.eat~r tl1:aifl a,rithiydraS:il ll, wnj'clh (alt"ooliz~!l (oOl' a~d anJ!a~s 'to b~

,App1ied GtBn~CI CC!lII'IIletHIlt1l: H:CS

~p~S$ion

G. nsties .:Ileal'Ptoduru

Un d ersta ndi n g Selective s.ynapse lEUrni nati 0 n
Sym<llP51il ,elinllil'lal.iont 15 11h'i:lUlIIlIatrkof I'lwrnll ,dn:!JJi~liIlill.lJriltion du rin 9 de'!,l'e~opm~nil, Many syria p~) ~Ir~ Iiln;ilI~ii!~lt:d an ililili~l ,phas'~ or ~Y!1i\i1ps,e d~E:r II'orlflall011l. JI'Cl~vevE:r. l,iU~!l: is klli~~lIf11 aboul th'~ iI!lI OW(Ut~,[fr Rlo"Knn nell! th81l eJ(emle5 sYI'I<ltpti( elimi'natnmn, nm whiy c.errlain sylllltp1ies are :5ele(tivel~y eli rnl in ate d Wh~l[,e c:~he-f syna ps.f.!~ IPE:r:sis~ a!1ld 9 row, Di:r'l!31 li'l ,(:l',t. (p. 94, 7; see it hE! Per5p~(~jve by Mj ~j~E!:de);_aliliIi ned Sj'lmIP§~ elimimllioifl itn~h~ 1TI,e;JJli!tod~ ~1Jonn ,md!'ollnd thala !l.!biqlllrl:lITlIE3 ~iga~@,wIl'lIP~ej( plays ill il::ey rr!!l!~~.lfle a~tilo!ily(lf the IIbiqlld itil1l·p'rol-ea5<(!)m~ S}I:'ll,em w~ s tiqhUy regula l>ed by aS~l:!a plic sd ~lesiol1 i lIIIIoI!2n~le, IWfutkh j:l[Q~.ed!ro (!! f'iI,t(jf Iilsyn<1 pses hiGlHl s!!!lletth/e ",U lIIIIinl'!HGlI].

ExtnalilllOZymMI
,GUlllC:-O IlkIm •

MiCfoamYIi line.

Nektar Jherapauti'es
rrtIIew tCe",~!)' ~ll!!m'IlI~~ti'~l:', Open li:osptems

Opet"On Biole~hnolo!iliel S.ri~ Jh."ii1p.'wties :Sou!'9CF

He:etingl Memori,es
HO~\l pe'r:si~~erUis; ol!!f iilIIl!!iTtiDfY. hO\'t f,S.l~; rn.allitained, allld h()w can il be! tiliflFUlj;UttH Itt has; ~e:e:fiMy beenl ~h~~ ~h!ll Pt{M,~ a pr,otei,!1 k:ina~~ C is:Qrmlnm.i~ (Jri~kil~ 1m maililtaini~g h~ppOGltIil1pll~·dep~nde'JlL5pa'~ U.:il, tfl!le~l~Qrvand! iQng-te!r1ln IPotle:nli'~licirl" Usi'Pil'9 G ,~~rnlUir;miIlQ t;alite !ilwrsiclljpatradigm,. Shema d at. 111: (p, 9'51.; see LIM:: i'le·~'!1$ si.ory by.Mr~iUtr)r'ol,lnd lha't.IQ!mg-l~rm memory could be erased Ill., iflrlJ~ion: or a .~ F'K~'~ inh~'bhor. ZIIp, into '~hei!ls,ula ~CM!€:!;.T'ile .ilCltv'r~yor rrKIVI~ ~'li~ssped nG~lly i~\i\ol'!t'ed i!1I,h~s.OOr:~ ,alge air memories bu l net in lheirll((IIlI~5.Hion.

are aiso p"oud ~aM;

are h'u_n.A~pIl9

,of

tfil51itJJt'e
1:18.0

Who's working'

to mcrease support
forsci e'n1cEl'?

T~)pqltmlity research depends on com prehenslee support AAAS ~5 present at le\!ery stage o~ the process - from advi sif1llg (Hi! fund irig paUty in iUa (iv,es to traekl n g '~he ~JS Federal R&.IO budgeting' process" As theexperts .• 'W,e

governments around the wOid)]. And on~yAl4._A5 FULnd~ng lJilPda1:es~ sen t out mcm:th:~y~ prcv~d e ,cont~nllLiliIlCitlve'ra.,ge (l,f R& D app ro pr~ati ens, By active IV wowik!i!ng to increase support fur research, MJJS adv,alnces sdence.

bri'ef Cong;~essional. staHe,rs and i"e'pi'€SentatiV1es lrem

los,ee how. go to 'Www.aaa,s.!Qrg/s,IlJPIll,ort

ADVANCII

NlG SCliENCIE.

SIEIFt,VING SOCI! EiY

~.D

1-

,

_

THE (oClr'IJGRE$S OF TIHIE IlJliNIHD S]ATIES DOES 50MIE

WIN NY

:>om~ ~iecr:ilific pwj""CK II ~ith~r I.ik~{ollh~nl e-n{'1lij,gh scnnp dl~l:llo~1 QhO'l~le priority li~~~ (tl and give them sped,,}1 S·I~lt~!S. ~t :fi~~l\1 them,. \'I.reU.~,id,le"r dumb Qlr di,'jg~nt~ng~~,ddecljnes to gi.ve Of ~;hf'm !:1lOm::ytlK~1 thd r e:x~ut!,,,,~ iilgcncy bas $kcdrQ]".I:mI.~Jm,e first iD1l.tSt:iflce.,h funds ~r:ious 'mys : of funnel:~llS fed~'i:"dl:iitLppm~ l~em. ul1:en goill£ OlilSide\'(I,l:iomi to e5.t'IQ:):I~~hedproce>di~~.re:8lb~ ~Q1]lpetitive~vlcw. ln rhe SI!,:,-'C'om] h mrn~~d.E;:!Iutimri ... tiiO'!'IJ er aplll'alllriatii,on bIh, ~o ,~qui~ (\<!IS,>r. ~ d,1Ji:emeval ofpaniclll.up:rojeets r dl.u members dis! ike lUffsomeeeasou m:' ,;1I1otheJ.
We have IOrnlg>:%pe~ie;l:l.ce with b01h hahits. ..The rilrs;~ :h~'1Sbecome so familiuf' Uml .it: has ,I pe! name: p~]rl ..... t]fl for "p~lrk·!bl1rrel furul~ng:" ~ ~~n1I'Ithat Hn:;t r~..:ei'w:id pl~hlh:I1:mh.::~~nM~<lH); b I :~ CeJiltYl.y. \~I~;1Jen 9th i~mrli\'id~tal, members woul!d colnpete'lor r.ivoJ: <l11l.d :lin.ar"bol" proj:octs. The process J.g,Y\,~lk:h. pork iii' O1ict!lll'~Uy l~~:ri.b~lt~d$·'e.,ilrnnililrl\~n1:t:' ~frei! dite practice OfmJ!01lth~~I1me ,em'S of d ~ I.i\r'ell'lock In cl:ai:n1i~.oIi'l.Fflearshi.p. [I} the die\,\l!:ro;p~ne'~nor a n.·e!>earol~. iI£~llq:S: budget, a member ~Mli!U $pec i11'~.!!:i,.IPI~[l1:'1 fof ~llbiUi~di.i~g,pr(~~e~. er rt's~![rel~ :P.il.di~l:y ,al'i~llr:.:;l.it'ijliQn th~ IfLt"!,~,b\;(~ U~~ ::II iml, distn.idt becIIllse~11e lJudg:el is ~Ii milte(l~hi:s meaas tlin<Jl Ilmids. win: be d~.verted, fr'O:nl]: pmjecl's A1 cue liltnelh,i:s was J US~ <:I oottag:e Iimhlslry. perfected by a ~loJle tt"'l%'" lnjhe NOflh\1\I'e'.st. for cxa'I1~p'le, Sena.t:o:ni,~vnl.Tt.'n M;agnuson ami Milrk :i~atficdd ~'l()rkilld\~lQll!ltern rOi~ l~~ir ,ooic~~11 m st::ho()];S,Il'lIIl ~.1eg.<~mech,'1ogJ3d when GerrnM C~S&i.dIY ami Kennelh ScMosslx:rg PUI to,gotlmr a~j~lY ol'g.."Iltmi;r;"'1t:ion ~lia<1!·mt1L~cle po.ftl";b'[f.rul slnnegiz:i'Ul,g a ]olJibyis~ ':;;game. Thei r bre<IUhrt1(~gh ~V!l$: ~ ~ped;;(~aprpropr.illtion for "funs Ulli.vG:rsi.ly~nce tlmt h~rpem~d o C~]umbi~. C~thuUl: Un~''Ie-JfSity•. aad (l!tl~~fS fu,umJPOI'!!:", 1'1w sub~tr!.Q(,:.1it ... llirismzy of thus: malildy was chrnl~icllf!d: by BobKa:i6~er iuan exeelleru seues
il~.lh~ niISh;1'I~N'l!!'IPt~~·t ler !~i:-l )MW'; earl Whi le I, ~'''!IS. ~llheAS:.._~i.uion of Amerieaa

n

I NIGS WHH IUS.PECf

ro

~!~~ h~.d~'i;::!lI01:)!~'i!ll~lit~VGiy

ilP)O'fl,r'!;\ld.

...

'!I ••

'_.""

1I1r1ivers~.t1Les:. made eXI~I'es.:s ahjocli.0I.1:ll to "Ie ]PQrk-bllifrel fUi'id inS of <~c,ldemk 5'C.ieli1~ fild I ili~e~,i~HI uto~edln~mb~r pre~id4'tU~ [(IR;si!!l tt!n~p'~~ltli,ol1i. SOilrnle<iRk Cornell 'WilS II,heroic example, Ot!W'I'$.. alas, dicllD1lI'~.alld~h.e syMi::1IiITI. continues to be bro.kcll •.lmJd~~d\ d~sphen:~!lt ~:9iQ~t~ (lol1lrollobbyi.rlrg mnd ot~~~·sins, s~I-~ i)dCc"~ro :;~iU to s ill~,mrUl,~ro\'l,iiing,and br.1:~ggcd~lb{)mby",m::ce.i:isfJiillm.oemoors. JU&t as &l:lm-e ~n~(!1Ilb~ffiof COIli_gm.~s ~:rr:e'\"'fOrk hlg ~o support pmjeel'S dlm pmb~:bly '!Nl)u~dul'l . ~i'live ~'.mn·ive(~the rCompel:i't'ic:mofpeer revif!,w.~1m.e.irtiJUe<1lgm:s, <I'~lf! busi Iy l~.)lillg~Q de~'~mJC!lI olhers ~Th.<lt i.'l~.remlyhm1e! TIn is, 100. is <11.1 ~mci.elll raenee, One th;ilDg~uellmbers don 'I like is s~Hdyi.llig sex; p 'llloth~ris .mly~.lrn.i~ !!im~nd$ W(l··'M)~i<I~ Ih,l~' ... 'iCiwlCY~·'· lll!if: yeJlr. .<1 m~!~lt1e~r O ollijtlC!f:rl S'tool'lumlslyto a Nut~mm~ Seience Fm.md:ation luojiccl wluth t~~{.':wenl "ATM" ~Il the lide. wo.~clcriug\""!I:!y \\H~ \~'()uld~pendta.. nlOney Mlldy:iin~ .ml:omrm;oCl teUe:~ it liLlnlOO mil: ~.~.e \ :!liw.1nu\¥tI:S ~ibn;syndllft.wt()lH~ t~!n:S riC, :n'Qd~,!;.IJ~'d '~Ql1illn~l,u,h':I!IIiEOI\S i~~ tl!lC~llli1tol.ogi.es,.\~.~eonl>in SCl'amll"w:m.~~m PwOXlnirc lI~d b) b~ ftllHi ~fg(lli!lgf!H~r p!:ojijet[olite Lhol~ghl !>illy .1mdG'W~ ef~med 3il a/!i.'V~ml or pOO1Pt1~!.d~ he f

found. especni,dly r.idl~cwl.louscalled dll.eGolden Fleece A'MIr;clL The most WIl:~!U a~hlilmlrUS~m'!.d1\ld~l"w.:r.f!:~ :P'roj~l:sth~u'lM"m;)icl~mifh;)d asihe N.!tion<'11 Sci euee Fouadatien ALln:hor:i zlll~ionACI: of 1007 was DeJI:ng considered .Rep:re:se:~l,tatiilves John (',11!11,P'boeU r~ It"CA) aud Sc~tt G ..uTelt' (R·NJ) cited a t!JlI;;;~l ofnine gnuilb between them 1\).I" din~rimlilion" oR'er:ill.g ,[lmem:lme.ms tharweukl h ave b..rr-ed :rn.mdi,lIIg .low ·~ml.em"\iifhm 'I,\'ere~~.e ~ubjecls 111m u:ol:~b :'000 led I.hem? If,v,c~t (l1rn.(lstudy \\I~~.S10 :anlilll~'Zt: mnpflrat ive fel!UlI res e r c

dJefd.d:i:l1Ig lhepl:Oces;s h~ (lPJll"i'$~ Shi'(~yin,g i1me:tmOp3.u~e'. His res.polmse' is ILJIII111~'6Conle'd, both mnel'ldlfllU~I.nS fHil.ed ",ndf-;u least l~br~:h.e' but b1il.Omenl-~~e'Cr n.'evh!w muilllhe conl'pelidve j)11rt:loe~s,es, survived. 1]1,!buIll! ofthe:ijeI!l1.~d",s .. Congress is Il.(~lir:l: to sl~bsl~nIU!l.it~ oWUiljm~B'mer'li~s fgr prriurhieg derived lhrt'lugllr1 l.\olnpe[~li.ol:l il'lJwhLcll C'X1~C,[judg)tu;:'ru~ met:;lken ~.nlO aecouot, There ~S~I C~l!,i;e [0 be 1I11,lde-lbr legisb.l~ive'Ulthm!i1Y ~o redress distrilblll'~iotm] 001'o~h,er]ss'LIesin lfial'iag.nin,g the f¢de!ro! ~ieltcebud~el.B~l!: Con~!!"(:~;!; s~al,dd:s~~le de~:rly 'wha~ His doh~g O[nd why. no1 ta~a~

m:e~~.opi.lHJre ,nlUJ~lg six CT()ISSJ·Cllhu.f"iI~. grolll;:tS of\'VDmen.

A member

asked na:r!il;llt l~nwh~ \l,lOuld e:~:plainH) the ·\Vt1nl~ni~hi$Cflustimc!lcy

that

;;~d heeblres (J,,~ (]ft1pr~loo~l> thHt:\'Vor.ks [~jfl)'f!~d \".~It

EDlUOBY

GIILBERT CHIIN ,AINCI]AKE YE5TON

APPlll

ED

MA1Ii1IEIllOAtl

CS

O~umand Shut
Oludn:!!:J1p,notQfi:tn'l:hes;i~~ ptillil'ms ~\olled. til rbCl:l'i,!llIli'O\li.id,~ tlhlrollgh 'Dpeln]ng~ (.a[~ed s~omfllta: bu~ also ~QM!II'II!illl!!r pm ! Vi! PQ!i'~ ,af!~ Q'~'iNI. T1h~s"t"!I,l plam ml!l~t (i!)nti~I!!~Llv l'iIiPtim~!!!I,l flii,li~,~fjUi!f'~ d~~m:~~I~r;!Ii! lJlQ'Ort:ss thol!!g.~t to bE:'liIlttlb.:ilI~ (coordl natad O<\I'·~r e: nlglolllS: illff th,~ lea~ surf ioe). To bettef l!.lnd er$t@11II dl t'h~ QPitimiz:aII~i(l11ilIifle!c:~i" !!1!lr'g1 ni ~m, r~~ealr:oh!ll'rs 'iirnjec.t dyei ntoa ptallilt LrLliilfflilllidthelillluse tlil1llle-l<t~:s:e vnirle'egrapllliy b'l 'tnurk n~~!UeSJienCe' eila ilIges as ~h~stom:CItai'0 p eruCirld d.ose. H O'l\l~!!Ii~r, pro'e~siilll;gl the vi~'eo seq !!IC'IiI:[eis :1ifg~tl~emCl.~kaU)!IU1( ky. Slit! IfldaJrdi liril:l;~tinlO!rl:~ tOo ~delini~y Uli:f~'~YllldnrOonilzed dymlmics o'Wfllume'Sdlng pai:chiel ]111 Il\1l0 sp a ~,tll diml@1'i5l:Il,IiISi.!I!ld O'JfI@ ~:irilil!!l diim@liIfij,[11li (a III m!QI~e(.t:m.polrrtarlt (hii!Ifl'~eI i or o've'l"e'IfII~~ilsiize!!lInjimrpo:rlilfit ~I!!t,a,ll. ILIlJUmillninl.dIIBa:nb~!!J ili!V!! di@v!Stl.d .!:ill! atg~'rithrn bJi'!:s:e~lil!il~ariaJt~~'I\N'!l (alulus t.O exn~(~lhl!! thre~~~lim e iii si,o u ~ eva ~.1It'iOf! 0'1 :5i~Olm,[Wta~.pat!:!'11 dYlihil:rIlll'ic~ hom 'E!:.'!::p:eri :elllt.1ll dlalta. A:rte-w p'f\eprOCiessliii gl \I i~Ieo of; a ffil~!Uolre·Si( gl m illil ccd:LebllJ ~ lea~; tlO r'e I!JiitiVE!! l'Iol$ie .Iin dII'lOlr,![I11li1,1izE!',~h'ange-s~lnl l~ghtin!.!, '~h~yiden~:ir'i~d:th e l}~liC~e5 lly I~Q(iIIjngffor :~g !l!i!~I'!i~{I®i:I1I:ns or the' darta th:alyi'eM'ed nile o!Jptima:l divhii'on of ti~,hil !lInd

whll~ ~hlls~

as al

d!l ~k :~egiQ.!i!r5•. Pro!l:e'Ssing of Uil~ s:~i:'!Ua,l,~I1{i ~.ii!iI ~ @rall~I!:!~a whoie IPI'"ICllv:e,d ~~eIilt1li1i~; ~.Y,ili e!ilIc!hh ,jIIIII1LIil ~ ,1I11il Ill!) ]rade.-

p@!Ild'~nHy :r@:Sllll~~~ilil, mean~fl9LeSis. s:egm:J!I'!Mti!l)ifl a. ·~ DV .:S:~A_M't sa. Cam,rmt 2.'9, 15S® t2:0CI7~1.

MOL EC U LI\ R 810 LO Gl'

lslands of Si~elfll~e
lin e;ul(a~oles~ DINA i~ ~d:;lIg,~d i' IiltCII dJ romaHn,

illltllr-spers'l!d,. even to Ul@ pooillit whi:!re hi!!t@roeh rO!il1!,Qllijn pe~iks 'C;311 f';!,:dst ~~ilhil!'llh'e U (!l'!rS(ri b,ed r'E!g:ion: r a IlIl1ig:hlboringl a:cl1vllgen~. IIn col1lrro'lst, o

dy~almifl,

Tc5 r@Qulfe:<i fer thl!' millini~en:i'lm;e: {D~

~'!Ihkhs~r~'s, ss ·ilI p~!:!t~'(fFfil1Qf~~I!il!1!t~11l9~CI;i~~ r

gue~ in U'!9iOM thai show U5~ue-spe!(:Hk r.epre~· ~fQnr C! ~~ ma~ed i;-\iith IblWld~w~th'S Oir 1i31<2:7:m~ 3.
whkh :derlim~ate~,a ~e(.ond and! perhaps l,ong-ie'rm r~pres~~1'~ (hrQlillartin sl:MEi. - GR
M!lJf. CeU,a. 35,3 (200'7~.
II I Ol'.tE DI': n.I E

to~i1t' genome and mrodul~HlIllg tra:nscrfiplio.l1, n::,llill~w,.and r<eiJl~h;;!i!'tf(ln. H e~.erQdh~omatf n nla!rks; regiom.w~e~~r g:.~nera~ly. ge~t~.ne sulen,C!ed; it h Iiirgelly re'$lriclOO to (el1i~lro.f'ljHt.re5.the ilill;!J(live X chm.rrnol5ome, and liBtomerif3s. ,[lInd is llimught to sp~~adunless (Otlls:ti'an~edby mcdecylar'b~~fi~r$. IEllJ(hrolllil,a&; n.en I.he olhrerr malnd, d~rin!i!s l'egio~s. wlle~' ge!'l1~sare "dive. 'Yel~i len(.e!'d genes call be '11iJ'ulilcI al1l10rngtl,ctiw glUi!$. 100 rthe-y exist als. mkmodOoIlIiI,afli1i~of heteilioch I'(i!ifjalf~, cu ar>e 'Ii~ S'tll1l1t o'!h~.rf'cmlllf repressivl? c:nrorlll"lI!'in! ~9h:;l :!!lol. ha'IJ~ e:l;!;lminoo the IgriF!2 fmpf!!llted regi~QfH!nfIII(U.!ISIHhl1CimCl$,QI!lI~ U •. Here h~o\l'e rlalPilli ng Air and I.gf.l!.' g;e,lles" Wiith

A Kick

ill1l

the Kidneys

pwm~tfrs a m~re28 ~ib"pan, "r@roc:ipr()(aHy
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P:lall1ielillry111iI$~iM!!', and NASA are p050ling hilJh·r'fM)llu~io FI SCflM or lh~ 35,,000 photos hom Ih e Ap oll.o IIIlli)s~OIil~~ I~roil~filII) tha l has been ,chin, n Ql ,~ eat illl a h;e;e,i')er in Hml'~kln,Te,il:iilS, [or mme than ,3Q yeilllr$. '~ lIIiIe digitized'hllfl'"J:~''' WiH elnal}le re~e.ut:l1e-r!i .r (9 draH OlOn;! IPrE:(l:5etnIJQgl1l~hk, m.aI)S (If ~he I~ Iml(ll[ su rral(~. for eJ:alllij}~~,alnd to ,evawah~

I

:1
'~

Ardl~I;lIj)![Q!ib~iJillHi.m9ary

arlntllllJilu!,~ ~hicsD1Q~th thli~~ih~y lhi:l'l,l'e unearthed

it

7-,mimQm!"ve'(lT-Q~d

Ma rk Fiol:lil'l~n~ or ASU. ~ l1l€ a r(iI1,~€ i:s jUI$~,gelil ~i1g lip blJ t ~\iillhave ~. ~€r€! l h u~d ii@,d im~9@s Iby fIJ€~l mo:nl.h" ::>:. i~ ape ~l.o.sese.asu.e au
',~ !;'~
.

'!i;!

~ ~irs g,~otO!:i~

pos.slble landin.g sites I'Q~filltufe

11'I!(I@!fI

mi:>$ioM,

"1

U~lng f'illlite·~lem'~nt .a~allys:~s., ,[I mImPlJl'~,r·

s~rny!,alhmt.echnlq'iJe ~mlP~~r~in ilngliJile:erjng.
Aust.ralian :s(ieiFIliisls have plJll(lgethe r a 5lJ.p'll,-reri Fled vilrlt!.]l :5 ~!]~lthai: Fe nee ts l~,~ prape rues (If d iHe'rlel'lt types of hone inl measulr~RIIgsuesiSes. P~lt:lOIUOtOgl~S't VIIroe o,f tille IIJ rl'~vers:i'ly0:1 N'illw So~th WalEs, il'l SYc!iITI,e-y
"iily:S

:s,ooph€mJ

fme!!t~hc,t has W'~1iistm f'ossilizal:L~m. the I.ugll:'i!t (If it'S kinclilil: the wor~.d. StrIp mfllllers stU!ll1! bbHi a,cross· SiluflillPS;l\ihiLe digging (ior cCI!at Sde~ut~l'$rlllm EOfllO:S Uillli~(m.il·y ' in Budapes,t hilve ~denll.med the rerll:."3,inl\! onto raxmfjm~ ~rees, :sumil;ar 1:0 Fllmlda c.Yllrre~s. sl.cilnd· iIilgIl as 1mI!u::h as 6 !fif!OOf:S talRand3.5 m@~~rs illil d i(!lrlil~U.!I';ll1e:y w@'re plri@~!V~dl ~!1ia lYIi:lmr!fl~ s~~amll' iiI~telr sCllul'e<nglii if,m lhem,. ~hteklill'lg Ithem 'rmllll wInd. fili'n, and degr<ldflilg ~l.llI1gi,.:5,i!~ p.;! ~Mr1IliOl· ~gisll!!'l,]rCJl6s;II(iI[.!meJ. The: '~811lilltow~na,l rDalkes niP' [h'li! um wal~s ,~f l~'e [rllili! !lilS l.o,ng s"im::e brolkein dOlNn, ht~nli2 r'll!f1'l!1lil1il1g igl1ffnhas ~elpl 'the trees sliandl!1'!!D ,gjl~flQuglh very ul!IllTi!bly .• !itif,lsealr(hers~re wr;illppillg ~ thill ~h.lllfll~!s p~a!>ti~ !il.lbme.,ing,l:tilllJrl in Willer tCl,~re&I!!n.!e'~hl!R11 \!jhile!hey r,arii!i1!1lJr1tDne:r ~~:r ~lfI im~ a cos.tly SiE!ViM al-year po~ymer !lath, l~er,~~~tt!):~~~f~ a raf'~ "hiig~-.r~o!liUl:iiOfi pi1QOOgJ!:lWlIiihoml th'll' Pi st... s,avs ~iiliIl~r. who ntl~;.s, that alillilost, aU Clm:iellll'llo:nllo<~s,~Uzed wood ~orarr fond bs been driHwoodi. Po1le.o~col.oglbl C:hristo'phelr Wmiams cd F~lI1liflijifl "lila Marsh~ n C'oll!igl~~IIIILalllcaSl~r. ,I?r~nn:syl,;!,ilnnl'.!.saJy~ SCier1l1Sl'S, ~alFllean'n a Ilol h(llliltlil~e ~ree'S,including the Lhicllme.5:~:lf' (he (a mlOi~and Ilow much (iI rben 'they 'c soeqlllf:sterced. K~zrlllil~.r1I!d'd~'lhiU b.lologj:s'~s i1lre< , i!!id9fr 10 oollell:~ DNA sal1'llJ~es jim! h~lles .0.1fimllil1g
!l!lndet,n~mgal1fsm~.

msdels sUich as tillis

(h~11lflp

'skruH. b<a:S,E!:c
'IO!fll'!!gf';;II·

(o~p'lited
pl'IY

be u~d for ~~:itil1gl aIPp'lkaUom>u chi as .o;lJrgi(,[!~ prmedurres, (ralst! h,ell11et5.• and d ellililllllm~lhelic.'s. His leal1lliillJio
SC>i!I!H;., GUll

h:rvisllJarl',~f'fed$· ~realOrs.. IiEnderifil~ ob,jed~ like Ih! rni!i~-emilting Pel'lsi:e<~
in f/(r.rry P'oi,!1(;f is ~.~ lf1ileO!lfilE;l1!I[, f
Evl!1!iI1

(reartl ng a re.a:l~slk g;ta~1i,(If

Imii~k(till Lake cmnplLIleor artb;15 'holUlr5,

or !)~~ma ilk ~Ili l~ilgby t~ broadeo!'l ilI100-Y'~.iH-iClldllfll0d!e:l·of lO,p'tkal, ~ean~ring (,aUed iLI:i~n:1;·Mi~'theory. The team e~le!'ldoo it lhJ!~ndude' lrri.!gulady :i!1l~ped l[lar~jde<s li~ 'the< ((I~]5tiWI;: ~~5 iI)I~ n~i~kj e~Vj)i let, iii ~d QiMler li~~lt· s Cl'b:mrilingl '5,l.ill,>l.:a ces, n 'JIh~le{hl'li{jl!le am
1UJ'i.i\l'~fstlY a.1~'CIbe !FUI'l f IfQ revl!~SE! III derive' iii 5'l1iJstl!lme's
<Otlmpos.t~.fO!~hUml diglital. ph(j~Qglrcap~5.

hllll,W,'$ lo mode:l skull~ off a ~ci!MU h ~milVl! an(estms~o see' how th~iw Il:!Il,omechanic.a,1

IChrifi!'l!p'~JlJllsl1~ii'filflg 1JIlil dis!:ri'bl!!ti'Qnl of s'tlr~s dlllr:]ilil.gilllIitlit~: ~Uh,~ :S@ooradIm@~Olr.

of t.:::di eus ~ork. Billie. ,n~~\'frlillgei gel'ler<ll~lng technique rn8i~ ac(u ral'ely r-apUcf.!OO' !1lillfly ~lJ.bslillfl~@~ Qilr1,'@!1 oualV th~ lY1IJe
snd
<lI1fIO!JII1[

of theiir j'F1gredients •.

·'11'r

we bi(lww~tat it's made ot we ,c~m5.aly

C~;mnne,rdaUy. ~h~s
{:,ou~d m.1l!t~ 1~pO!;sible
lO :s'pot Spc!lil~d O~ l(j!lni~;a [I1Inlnated rood. A IDCiifi1sh C()mpamiy, iD-a ninQ" is~~teres~ed in I,ii~ifllg f.ll(l dte\!::k lihehtshl1t~~ Qr mntk

wlhi3ilII ~ook!i.li!te'," ~i!I!(.5 mmpule:F ~rl?,nH~t

~eal'lJrl!!!>dl~ffered am~ illuFl1iin;:l~e th e~wdietary I.eilni fig:!: and! iffIl'JiUlali(i!lu. 11.'$ a ~novel a i'1d usefIJI appr;iJitch/' s.~ys ~i:lle'llafilUHQPClI.Q~h;tD~aln F[I~kor IFI~rkI1il S)~ateUl)~llersii:y fl!1TaUalla ssee. ''I'd l{l'lllt?to'5~'IIInilt they(on:llllp Ii\IU~ for
P()rojld~j'I){XJs"~

~Iieved

~'eilvyset allls<ua ~oiPl~he,df!ie lo, ha'!leravored pi[.[mts andl gJ~ubs,.

Hell1lrik]:~ilSelliof tl~e Uf!iVt~silY ·of (atiikullia. San Diego, 1Ii'limGUmmed the tlldllliqut!, ~~~ M1!e.lk. ,~t a (!OJ!1;Pl!l\il'IT-9f~phic$oon~~f~i1lC~ i!'iSaPilIOie~ij. J~mJ5£i n, ii\I h~ '1\110'11 (112004 .k<l!~'ef'liryAl~anl rQr al nQ\1"e~!lI:! ~ilhQd Qr r~'ll!dleril'lg ~ki I1i ~hatlli'~s ~s,ed l~ crealt.e 'Rlf! LOfti of the Rrfl!lli' GoIlUl"ll. w(l~ked willh ((Illeilgt:l e5 f'rl)rnll~lle' ifedliiDi:c~l

GI.I!s.s oJ siCjmlmilk !Ji!!,neramJ from its (lptkid pulprfHti~,

Who·s helping bring

"

Ar;;. a chUa, I go~yery ~InUerestedirn,~IP,B(e ttnlveL

the' ,gift of science
to lev1eryone?

When I was 51.;0::. myratli1er gave me some bo 0 ks on rocket:sa.nd. sta rs, ADlld m Y u n]verse
suddsrrlv exp lodsd ilia size because ~

reatlzed those Htglhi:sin the sky II was taok~ll1:gi were a,ctual~lypl~ac:es., at I wa nreed to go th erie And II di scovered
a.

that science and teehno'~ogywas a gift that made this possible" The thtrHIof mos~ Christmas presents can q~,id:lly wear off. 18ut I~ve f'Olum:l that physics, i~agif:t 'Uilat I~S ALWAYS exc~ttiilng:, I've been a member of AAASfoiF Eli nlllJIm!b,e-r f 'Y@ars. o

Ith~n!klt's :~mIPortantto loin because .MAS re;plresents, sti'@ntis,ts ifa gOV'€ rnme: nt, to t h € (:10 rpo ra,t:e se'ttor;a ['Ie
to the publle. Tin!!) is V'€llry vital becauseso much of

today':s science is. not W~d8ly IJJnde'fstooa.
I aIl50
,1] ppredate

gettl PI g Sd~nce hecause of the

bread th of topics it covers, lit giVES, mea gr,e at gron.mding for many {1ctiviti,es ln my lP,r,ofess,uonal, I~~e.
SU.Ch as a.dViSin"ggo'Venilmlel1l~ Pili y,at.ecorporations ..

agencies and ,..••..• • , ••..••.•

jim Gates is a '~'heoretiica;~phys~dst and professcrat the Unive~'5Uyof Mary~alild, He's also a member orMA5.. See video clips of this story w:ww. a aa s.o r-g/ s tori es. and others at

s. ~i~me5 Ga!tes. Jr"

Ph.D.. TI1ec!re~tc<lIIl'hysh:.i5l a.n:IJAAA$ m~IiIII~~r

,

-

,

I I

_

'

-

'

EDITED BY VUDHIJIT MACH I!~EM,IIN I!)i. nl(li~ are Illl ga ndlok.so or \'e:I1I.elian masks in (';1)'lml (loser Jlul:iMlm,w.,,gsI~]If'N
fir!>l ~pcrl'l, whieh premiered

IBHATlACBARJIH

UK., lbi.s week,

~I:ISl!;41d, T1i'(J TUliilg

in Edinbllu:g.i~,
w:~m:~lh;,

po1ystyrene egg GlrlOn and the r::.~amshetL
Big Mac:

LIve s!nry On.\lli.:l' s:{:lielltiMs ";[lm~tillg, to ere1J[e~he !IJlllilfI~le i,Wltel ~,igenlrnl uchi ae, \\f~,g;KIMf""Fa::> in~pirod InC:~~I~~the' \llQ!til~

~fl~r!l \lL~it to 'lh~ M11!'lSi)chlille:U$1 ni&'t'~~~ i gf l'elt"i~~ilOIQg,y"s mlll~emnilll,Cam hriclgl!'_,',.rilerc' he ~\t;lS l,mrk~~d h>'~~f1exh ib~l t'lbout 'i!~,c: IEDgl is~'nlnmthelmlalicj,lI]li A&aJ~ Turillllg''i;te;st for human iflit(e]~,ige'IiLQ~ iin :OJ. 'COllllJllUle'-§. He ~lope:ii thaI the OI)cr3 willi oo.nvey '~mte eln •. ~engef'l, ~ in'\i,[lii\1~~ imlcr,eatim1g,a OOmmptlLerlha[.I1iIJ~ts the' T~ri[lS te.''iit cdte.ria~IJiI~,~ndy. that you C';uf~, ]h,~ (':ompul~r Irem it h~~uan w~.en )'Iml chat '\~!i~i~, a keybo<lin;(l. "The bi,ggest burit. viti.

th.~ SaU ILake (ity, Utahl",D.3,St!d Hunlsmailli Corp.. agreed :tl:! a $10.6 bi'llton Mkllov~r bid by INerl YOlrk-ba~d Apollo Management. "One of two' Imen and one of th~ee ~!I(ii!1liel'l [in ~h~ Unit.ed SUi~) wm oo~1op(!iinC~f.at some PQi!1~, in their lille'S; '" says. HU!'llI:sma~l•. 70, who has :il.dfcre<d hom mo~th" nOISe, ~Il;d' pfO~tate(;il!m.er:."[very famlil.yll'liUll be alHe~ted at. so me poJI1LTh~r~' s a gre3~,need for mon~y
f,or resear(h.'~

oox. last

mOIf!!h. I~i~(urm'!Iilt(Oml).llI!il~,

wu

MOYIEIR5
J!IJIOISO FAST. Sem~tim~:s Lin~ to emf'!l hom Iil im~ltlHtion GI.n ,gel ]11'1. th!!!!way of a once-m-a-

d~.e 11>, d~igrnlillil.g a C'OI:1i1iplltmi l;l~liH you e~1) i.nm,= bue with (;,1.I1~l!Jre mi1d~~la~,C:;Ul pmdUCelilJ<L1Uf;I,1 ~,1in~l,Iagct' s,~y~W~g."laA".~,~h(ll'n:lli~ \c\ilJimed ,)5 ,<I I ilil{g[~is'I~[Id ,1) '~IlJi).]OU~r p~l"'.ml~m~r. 'Forlhe poc}([LQ.(;liQfI. \~~agstf!~~"o[l~lg!lR)r.M~d\'Vhh ("ompu.ter ~cie!uiiS'is iU thee UII~ivcrs~ly ol:'f:di'lilllili!~h, '\N"!lIl::re' he n:~ine5 com~sitkm."h's a

h~gh~y lUU!811!(1~ opi:c: 1calm.'t ~hfu~'k ~J,!;{J~!wropera ITe~lIU~ri!'lS :d!,giny: ~ of ,[I t1ourpt~te.r.·· :mys Go:mOl~. DWI,c'ket[. lI.dllllllrni,stlafO(r or~~l.~ u:unlhreaiShy's S(;boo~ or ]1Iill:O~m'lu,cii.,li.I~Ohad several wS('WLSsio[l5 with \1\,r~lgs,i'!!W, \ "§lLllmJIIiI':s wai'Si [JS,;u~~m:cene~.'Js how f:l!lf cOnlp'LQ~i[JS,h~scome and q~s<~ of tdo!li~g~,~'h~tlI,~ I!'nml4~~!l \ by f~rtij,Il1Cj~ ]!ll~l~igeu~""
In 19'93, len Hutilisman Sr. ~)tabLl~hedll1e.IHlJrn'!:5m~i'i Cancer his<titIJl'e a:t ~he Unnve r~ity 'of l!llil hin S~I!t lake Cfrly ~lIHh Ms; wife, K~l'e'fIi. Sll'lCe then •.he has g"~t~ ~noro ~niJ fli '$ 22 5 lI1I1iRil(lrltQ it. ir11e' ne'l-'1 dio:niJtio n ~liill hie<lpexpand 'file institute's, IrtMI[mem. e<Ho~t.s ;;linldlresearch, ~v~ichtfQ(u~e~ Oinlli'u: gendc

Inte,~jfllle opporl.l!Il~tyto do rornefiliit'l9 bl'g.ge~:. nlarS; r,llliat l1appe,ned to o(ea,liIographel' .M.a,rk Abool~ cd 0 r~'o 111, S.'U!I[~ Ulni;v.ecr$~ty ~OSU).o:rv~lilb, ~lhQ'5(h~ng~d his r;nin,o ( about Ilead~~g I'I~ege!!J5dences dlife'C~Oira~eat.the Nat! ana t Sd:em:e rnundalt~'on .l]tef NSF's IaiWijers bJ~d him that

his cof'llinulirlg

ties to OSU posed alfl
g;o an

iflsurlflflountable ob!ltade. Ac;1ld~mks who come 10 NSF to'M! ke.
IUp '.$lJ(h ~E'nliQr p06frljionSl,ypkiJl~ly

B,I:O FAUOUT. A~op on:ic~a;~i\Hlexi1i!);,MM

Wave from thefr~rl')lituholl---'Abbotl ~~ dean of the (oUe9le 'Olf O(~nk and Ailm.osph€lric 5de:n·e:,~--al1icl~11en~us,e<~hemr s:e~. from ~Ill. pellcin.g, de,ci)"1iorl$ on ,grlll1il:s and 1!i'IIOUI!.d llaV'e heenimplf(lctical. ~s: AlbiIott giVe"l the' br~dth of NSFfundftlg going to the col[ege. "In til€' 'elld, lh~r'e \!ilQiU~.d h~ve beenso many g;e'OMnenClf! prcgrarn) ]lI1vo,lv,edU~at ~ (0 I.IIldn 't, @il@rillbe- n~ll@reom" d mif'llg disClISISiMS, he ~ sarys. Ai!ld so NSf wm r~u!ml1e~'~s seerch,

'~ .~ %I: 8
1ii3

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,iilj

;~
,ilii

.~ I~ :i!: .~

i
!ij,

University CTAMU) if! CQU,ege S:t~r~~QJli has stepped 'dOMtlltlllfida :5Qn:d~t over biogfety pnibterns Uml has shut dlowFiI biodef(tnsQ' re~e~ Fell Qit the sc'hoot. IiU;'(h~rd ElNingi, iA.M!U vfce pre;.ide:m of reseenh, res,f:gll1ed o 1'1I.:Il.Ai(Jgustrl:lll~.owing l.ap5:@!l~hil,1w@' pillt h !iiles(hoo[ under ~~fenu~ndou:s:sr.::mtiny','· ~w~ng \,lfote fr1lalen~lf'to (,oUetlg,uecs., TA,MI~'$ oreblems belfl"Il w~thits, f,aHuf'e' It>" to tell ~Ih~CE!Ilt,(!fS for lDi:s,~as:e Conmd and P're'l;l,entE(l'ril 1111 Uanta, (i,eofgiill. A thaI. on~ wo rk~Hhad ~o'rltr:ac.~(ljbr uc~Uosi) almcl '~hfee o~her) ~!lere e¥~o5ied~o Q felle'r lilist year. I~ hlt~ J~M, (['I( or,d~mcl the s<:lhoolLoo SU$pe.11I d tJillLre sea rrhon pot.enll~t1lll bio~ll\eaIPO\tUpathog:t.!fl:5, notir~g U'1ata Bru(elia aero:S(D'l e.x.perimerrU .appalr,enilly dJid i"! CniH!V(\li ClDC ,apprQY.aiL Th~ .Dallas Mo_ming fl/e,'$S has S]I1(e' reported i~htll '~he iillfe[ted lalb \ll'(:uker d~d!1'l have alpprQl,I'(lIl to wod, wHIHh~fl9Q>nt IEwing. a N~nmed plr,of~$sot. wi ~l retu rl'l. to' til e mllaillle'mailks de p~lrllrliH;!.nt
~I

oilhilr m~UersilWOlving their schooL EM tha~

callse:s

Hurd.sm,an nlilfliO~ illis fmtuflie develop']l"Ig

or itancer,

HII'L'!

rcoo

TREA:SUIIE "liIRl(.l'VE.If yo:uth~ n[kword~ Iik~ '"0\1, l:otal wfl5h~ O'f tJi me ,,+ wih~art ~galirt"orn efrem the m'arrgi!'lls of as.~l1l.1ggUng gr.!lid~(lte studenrl"s dfil'ty" think iligialn. !(onJi'll nnd ~hel:ill-i3nd sillililalr rWlilarns--ifil the ~d:boratory nOleoook5 crr a t.'Wo"lim e No bel la Ii,! f~ate alld! lOlHtd'j 1"1 9 faith~r of
ge'IlOI1lll.C.

frederick '5dinlge[~ liIst w~!llk,th~ B·rillshi .Bioch~mil!:al :Soci~ty r~~~i~d

ill

.~ Olii! 31 Au.g,lJ~t

:S

'~M 0: INIE Y ,MATf E IRS.

,fl" bimoni;lire c~n(Jer ilflo,tlhe~$700 I'Il]llli.oMl :~ 10 t'Omba1 ~he d~:sea~e,

ig

'CANCER n(iHTEIlI:.

SIJli~YiiVOris ,donating

W~UcomQ trust .]w,ud to <Ctlltalog and preSQF1,Illl thQ notaboo'k:s-3', in aU--in which Sal!lger reco,rded hi:!i 9!'(1!'l!lldbreaking :r@~~an::hfmm !1911410' 1~98L lh~ OOO'KS, \!~hri(htil€!' ' btotogist dOI1'ated to t~H!odetyil'!200S. deS(ribe Iboth 'Uu: f;irsl sequendn:g of a protein (ins!!.!lffll)r~ s \'l'n~ ch ediMt'!d Sal'lgte!f hi~ 'W ru NabeL PrliL.e ~In1958, ill rndi[he fir~:1 ~~que.nilil'lgl of DNA., fOF Wtnfl(lh h!l1! s,hilJedlhe N,o!bel Prile ",ilh PiJtJl Be rg ,(Jlltd WiJlUer G]~bert i11'1900 • "He was flg.ell~i.l:S at s;olviflg pracl:klll pmblel"rls.• 'fj i1Id~llgbi:(d:~rni(;.allricks to, g~t the anS'~'ltel" he was lOQlkin:gfQr, ·'s.av:s GeOlr'gin~ Feny,. Milll(l mt'l San~er w~ri le r'ei~ealr(hi her bi~gralphy of Ilg. Ma~ P~rlItz. And V~t. "h~ ]:5 th~ mO$! $~lhllnadng 'p~rson you ciQ·UJM hope liOmee't" Sil1rilgel" ,retiredifl 1982 and !lo~l,!~pem;b iIl1r:sl~mre,g~rdeningat IllrS Cal!:nbridgei5,I~ire home,

GFiI:ANT$ MANAGEMENT

NS,F S,ulrvey 101: AplPliic,Bllnts Fiinlds S,'yste'm TelBtlsri'lng en the' IB,ri,lnk,
A n~I'" sUr\~' by the 'NlItirmal Science
FO~Uil,·

,8

d~t~:~on (NSf) effers an inside look into Ibe rtilinds 0 f ~h(l,jI~!I<~'~ld~lg fUl1!di~g frO[i!l [he: :$6 bi,~liiiOD1l~tl1!e(lcy. It reveals 3. merit-rev ~eiw
!>yst:ellill

i1liih-ii~1[ll)pl ian Il):Ili.is ;~jectetll" H~ 's~vimved lip ro a htl~j:.dC1zell r)JDI'XlS~IS, for NSF .iDl, the p<ls,\

lImfs, beUlld.ing but nOlilre:aildng

under

.~ ml.)!ro:th~.sometimes oCm~i!~g. C(lfnJ;;rs.aml 2 ~:Iln,i~llks ii:l\v cQ(l!1t3lln j)utellli<l.~I.y tr.;UltsfmilJ.1a~· that tlve ideas. Yet he lk";~i!l'NCS oWr.ll"t'~C"dreb. ir h~~
fill1dtlcL ::;~;;I.rlds11 goodeh~rlce of shmttl;lri~.lg :the ~.xb'lj!l1g 1~r'd.~ljigm i.mJ the fi~,'~d. NSF e m.ciI!Lls say the :mrrvey resuHs and
~lC()or.ll(Nlllying report

increa"(I.cJ~rnin. The ~ur\l'·cjlt ceudueted fm:'Ns,r by Boo~ Allen H~,~nih,on,. ~I cons!LI~jl~.III1,g. headfirm quaftc~d iJ1JMcLelin~, Vir~i~li~!. '~N.p!O~S tnli;
!;lm~(;t¥i

11).% 21(jJ}k 3Q%

!'I(I%

N~II'~!!

by all irn~~rll[d COI1J!.~ij~-

Miininn,(Jm

:SUIJ(~

r.ltiIl!

lee I f!~m74S) w~, he I p t h~~~l U nddressilte INo ~ll1il,iits. #J, plural.iLy ~~ 1'11:51=pplicants wo·i)J~dI a ,\ilhi,i{;h a!,'lI':ncy boos[edlllite size ofg:rallts t~le gliO\\,!ing: burden O~,I!Ihi.e stl:llf and '~~lec;mum'LI1~ li:o'fiuid er :\l'lIbmiiUiilll g a 9Jr,ant ~mpQls.a i fl!\Jim:l te:5~ 'or b\u hehl the !ll!mb~rol·,a\1il3Jds ~leady end had I1!h;rwithom compro!nis~ng dw m~,.iHi!;wi~w ~he e'x~eCI!N!I ·~UC.O~S~rclte. m .rejeC!3:1m,~ru(!'reiil.sili1lg IlliIlmber of <Ipp~~ncalnlQrls, p:roces:s. NSF Direclo.r .Arden B e~m::lllt is pflr'=
l

gf.~~tre~sf~aIp,e[j.od l.3MO-2QQi6.)if!

The resuh has beea ~~os,e..Lose:sitmuiQJrn: .n1P
gr:nlill nlI<lmlag,e;rsand reviewers

ticularly concerned
"churn":

abnut

\,vh.!A

he calls

nmnbeJI ofm'Viwds ho:Millg stet:!dy. Jii_l'lldin,g r.u:es
rrnu,lo,,_geJS W,

have h~cllO

\wrk harder, ~1~drr~Il(,,':~p~inv~sLigiltOq~~i!f~I.I~ i fOLUl1id~t ~tHlg~ler~'() ebtaiu <I. grnn!. The good ['!~\vg. is U~;l!A mo~t~lnlm_~24.37'8 $ch,miS'ts tvho li~~~ed ut tlia.eal1lli~~e~liIIn'ey (<I !'i6% respense e rste l' ~~.i~;llkhe s:y~1emis llto:rmll.ghi ~d, f31_r. t

Sent ]m..t li.dl,~Qe~l'l;N:yQ;mJ~\"'~:ID :'mb;ll~iued a
reS!l:<Ifch propo.s~.I.I:o NSf in the past 3, yearn

(mCJIfe '~ft~.'IH tmlfwere a~l'>on.. ;~ew-en;).l'lle ~I('" w ~'ey also paintsa pi:cIDLmeof the ~ypi~~.1 app~.ic<m~"H,e1iS;Oml~~TI~:ie U~~ro(;~fo~tr[h~ me'l'iI <Ill;: 'who lUl1:den.'!iilUmnleoS ~1j$chaeees ot'success but w:r;ndd h,w~.!,!:!,O r€;g,llnn~~.. onh~ odds, H ~ needs l~:U~ IllOmLey luj[ m1m.~H'w~.y Ik.eep h is~~1h hl iml,toJ.'tand lsprepared It'll:n)' alitd lryag3inifbi,s •

il.(l $~)ls. ·'~d thf;ly're .f} buru~~ on t;:'Vl.*rynf1)L;:; PI,'{Igll<lnl olfic::ers,. [lieviewe~, .md !!cieUlJtis~s. wlrno should be dO.lug research rather than rewl'iil1lg im,eir proposals" BUll 1.!~,leflng one pan of d~t:p:roc;;C'ss has a riJ!l'ple e;['Jiec'L, lte::ipondi:L~g tn 'c(;Jmplaini~ tll,ll~F<lIn3 were wo, snm~I,. for eXalv.lipl!e. NSF l~i:~s, b(H't~ted the ,'lib;:!;; oflh~ :{!'V~r~g.e ~Wfl roll b}1
34% since 2000. ~ml.llo.."'f!I<llgCr g:mnlh,svw<'ll.~

excellent pra\p'oSiil,ls,llml.kee~l' gel~~nf,!, revised !l:nld r,(l\d'(l~v(ldbecause :ftll~ding ra~es are se 10''1,'>',. "'The)' 'J::lo!;l.up~b.e "':l!:->u::m."

p:lumll~>~

ii'ffil1~nhe mumoorof<1J.lp]i;C3tiH~irinslitul.i~lns.. .Abot~lI.t -quarter of NSf's .3 50 !ill ndi rig, one
gr,nn
UO~lSfn:lm gd~l~islloi; andllo:l"
oppm:tull:utie,:;; :Im.owimpose SOJ]lf:' restrietinas
o:IiI

~J"QiiI,1I3I]o/~~1i 2IUX)'!;o] W% Io"t.\y-.:;rur; That deel ..!lL;. j_~ lU!i~.eaused ::>.cm~~ 11'1".0i

"ppl iCtrrn:~l'.;:mlinfm"i11lL1Ct1!Vi"e er Ullilfilil.lg ini~lughit.I.lHfl,\V

t.ialivc

on:ly one l);pp~i.C3dQI1i JPCr

seheol, for example., mld s!;J\I~,1J;~ pmgrmml. solieit1llians. mig~l do IiJke\!i,':I'."le!for princ::i:p<1~ illr'r'Csligof~~Ors. IJ:~~rprogml1ii11s; h[i\~e be;gllfllo [€"(I~Jir(; O p:reiPrnposa]s.\"~.th on[y t11.o:r.eUlIi:ll mske {he
out SUlJi.iml~Uijil\g.-.~,Up.mp()s.ll. The :l>l!.u"vey :found Illn~l :lLbom oiilMhird
o:F

IOWEil!iJ!p n>l\f.r:~)i ~l~ 44.% gllfW'~;hin NSF'~ all
b~ldgel miff theperied ..At the same tium.ll:ie

11it.1Ilr11.llC~."pf!ltPll~k~tions rose by 41% .. \JVit!l thi:~

0<10.%
D1LODIo-25I!1tD

ID
• •

D INot: SJ~He
Jil,9!mmta.ge ®f pm,llosal:~ YQ~'!ii@ IJf'i!1Jie~d1th"t ff@~r@senJ~ ualil!s'r\omnlativ~ 1'1e1:!f11l ~ilil

26~AFSO~~ :51:%-75o/~ 76%~100~/o

scientists h~"'e sl,lb~niUedpre-proposals. bl,i1l lha[ t~~ejury is still QUI orl\,\lb,etlller the ~lpprt"»'l(:~ ~v~,~ ~i;cnLi$I;o.;'t!im~. ~'11'lIPI"iiWi>, ~~oJ,;l q~liIli~ty ofllll.e filJ!<II.llI10poS<!1 or CUlibs the 1U1I1l'~'f of ~:p'rl~<llti(l:W'i, ~m~~l~ dOI.;l:->mi·~ e.lo1iD~t~hoJ;l p:rm::lk"e to spre.~db~t,td:&II1Hr ircan b.: auseiill too!" <or think the direemrates have been juclici-tl!.!s in! ~Iooring~'~o$t: I ilfil.1itmio[]s dli<~t ~!re efftct:Ir'!.lC wililfmr ifi'ieSt'l"ic:{~ng access," he :stir)':;" NS.F ol.JiJe-ial:s don ll-<lLO\M the reasoafor lmw: increased dern!<lllid, 111m:! the data don't suppott u.n~ pert I~l.;:ury.lh\;'l bltdg(;;t of Itho(;; Nmion<lll [n~~ill!Jl~e.s :lo[e~'L]th of (NIl 1, has b<i.s,iad~f been Hm ~il1i~ i.'lS -yeuQ: l_J.r)tiJ~blin,gended lin 2003. ~~nd ~'llel1e \'-,'<IIS: :-;pecubnial1. It:i!£lill1lppl.ic<lIl[:; would
t.UIi~ ~Q

Plm:::.mtage of .pm~osa~
y'(l~{vlliS~ bJll'lifted that n?~ : ~'S@ ~t
tfElI'I~r(lrInrlathre rrl'5'~

NSf for h~.~p\.B~tt lluut'~~ ih\:c~s'l!~ [lot

r,ch

~o NSF's bi}ology has risen by wl,!lgl~.lyl~,;: .m~ ml~ ~ ~ ~li'amt~h thi.ck ~11.n: thin N IH tlU(~gets" lUll, OlJt:Tdiii- ~ tiOI~, only ] :~% Ofslil"liey oo£pondcms. ~)id.. ~

The

:nllNiI'liberDf sabmissiens !

di~ll~1Je

thm lhdr d!eeisim~ t(1 KC~~ NS.F!llndi~g \'\r,;Ll'i ~atly il£f~ekld b;y1:U~dii)Jg euts ~~~wh~~. The 5'LJnreY31S!o found that one in sb....scieini<it<i Jt'lc~~ne0l~linvi~,lti~1ng,review IJroP{~· ~ als, either by mail. or in persen 31 NSF's A IJ i nglon.. Vi I:g.i.~,lia, ~~limdc~~q,,~,ner~., Ne:m']Y ~\\IiO·thlii~;d::>ftl'a,Qlsewho s<~y .mLO ci.'~e :~~u::kf o til o

!liiC dC''ilOli~1g :~es$ tlmeta

each review, But

1:S% alse ,~i~~ e~liln (i·f inlJere~l~erhilp,:; ~~ iet <IS 3, potential cal ..aborator-c-despite l the iJ,gmcy'il, atlemp-l~n ~P(J1::;l!C'~ iQ~mnict~ u~,e,ld oftirme.. ln <l!ddhioll. one in S~,l\: <Idllli~ ~hat the qU:<ll ity ef [~t: ir revi ews has SfUln:err.::d .. 5 ~h~ number increases, t~l1m. SG:L~le70% who ~hi noreported ~~iml.g IBemem :\flys that b i.!~:.~er So if bUldg~tt; N asked ~C1 aillore lJieVie\~1s.. 1iIrn.d 36% s;ry they 00 .s "l'ou~d solve ~un,y o:h~lese p:~"Oh~eJJll,lS, nd thilt a SO UT'H A F R IlleA

I;I~HiS~;orPwidil.'au

h~~. ilmeou mg;e:d byeongr~~.:;ionRI SlUPP01i'1 'Itl 'G~('irge W. Bl!~h·;; propOO;Ii'1 last ye;Jlrlo double NSF'sbmlge~over I (I years, Oth~!If'\:li··j~.I,~SII)''';. th~ :-;i~¥1it~)[m t\·ill only g~t 'l/rul"Sle. '~M:yfc:ar is ge:~t.nung :nll~o <Jill, il~'Vers,ibl.c dm'l!lwfn-d ..,piml. with flLndin,g rates so I:ow Ihat people :::lI:OP SUb!lliuhl1g and we C~;[I't find eJiiinu~hrevi£!liiJern_" he S:!I)');, ··:Righil mnv \1;:e'ro on the precipice," ~l[F,PHY ,MERWI,S,

IF'iillringl'o"AII'DSP'olliicy Champiion S,ee'n as, Selb,8ck
\iiJl;:e!<

P,REJOR.IA,.SOUTHAFIRI (A-b sit ''i;cli:snl!iss~] of SO~LI}~ Africa .:5
l~,fIS

,eI'H::e.Whel'l the dep tit)! mJiuister

~earll(1!d thn~.her ]':eq~u\:'$t been had

dfiol])llty health ~ni!1:i::'I:~r

rejc:ctt\d. she U-ew b(u;:i\ l~l ,$l,n~!'ih
AI:uU.c<Iw.ithout <luendilung. explain-

.u~gel.'ied H]\I IAI DS l:reaMm:l.H

activlsrs and exacerbated cencerns a:J]uong reseercbers !I'unJj, ell[!~d;:ul$.iharihe g,oven:HnetH's eemm iunem ~o <I ne\lI,! j~ .. r pub~ i:~cheal Lh sU"~U~gJ'en A.mS~u.y be ~~,i'p;pill~g. The d~pmyn~ini~~~r. N!Jt!i~'\~ M3dM,<lFn:.omle{~e. had beell~the nlOSiI o~Il>Jde~ govemm.enl~dveJ.. 1r11te ~fili :-ilrnnge;r mV/A[OS ~,;1lIiI,1P{!j~] ifIml ae haarpion of ~~ 1:fI p un, adJO"p~ed.~hiis.5~'lrililg. that cal I~ fb~: c:n~ling:in h~i ll~eH~ V in fec-ri!IJln f IXitt: (!1.~r~~'1 glJ/w!Jlrlh-e od~dl P!JpUslIId{:le.n ,exit., DeiPut~ Health M'il'li~~~ Nozizwe II.Itad~ala·R~IJUe:dge 10511ller jc.b I ~:ltion) and {]ttl.<"ldrupl,illig the :un.1Jln~ after uaveU"f'II9lo Maall1icl '10r a meetingl on IHilViAIDS vaccines,. a,lli!il'elrmfiran, fA;[tV} lhel::apy by 20 I :t South Afl:'ic~ has tb ewarld's ] :;I.r_gcsl n ~U'l:lbCf ,(I f HI.V~.infut.~liedpelrson~ an es:tilllJ)i,lIed ,~.5 milliul'ii!. of~vhiC'h ~'lh;ilUt a qil,i~r~~r~mHliil!l ~ow lrecei.'I'e AR:Ylh.e"'IlY. ln lfi'iril1lgher, Pres.idenl: ThaboMb~~d !.::hi!ijm~d~l"~ M~.h,ll<t·R{J~loog~ ~ili1dn'l been ... t'etlfllil pblyef ,mld~tLd nl,ldl;l an uaautherized trip,

h1(glarer ~h~~: ,Mbeki mid her dun'
"hie btdijeved~.~':"'Ilpo.lil~:dru~ have s

nOlhh,lg, to ~i:Ly in <l c(l!nlerel:lce of l~clnlocrnr3OIodrese.liJI''Chel'Z'i,:'· Even so, several g.ow rmn';:l'!It t) Uid~ Is; :fimm <Iro~ln(l t'h.c\!I'lJXld <Ll:tendied the ~sstfm.I'!1! a st;U(tml,l!ll, ]AV~ ~±d
pla'miners"~~ol.]ght :~t m. ill.lllX1irn.1Ill w In include <I bigJ.l~le\lel.represil:~,lt3,"

tive {If Smith Africtl'!'> h~ald'g minu.slry •.• given the extent of the •
1l<t~iol1i'sHIVlJdDS· t'Pidelllllic.

At a fiery newsccafereaee in C;,~pe TOMl:mi lastweek, M ~d~;ilh'l~ ]t('ml~ledgeespressed hope~ihal her
dismissalweald
lm.o(\.\I\~a~~r1 rhe

iii

~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~.

i
!
;
o

I

··,Prop.!ea:re '1V"d ~.ing[0 roe .uh&1!.e D :ll1~liril of u"j~y we '~~dachieved will rensaln .23 March.p. 1(51). il'lll'LC'I.We really (Ii'o need 0\ lInil!oo f«ml,~' GO'!,l'Fon1iil'.\ob.l!Jel1tcI:' I;,\.'ho 1~~ij<!lL.~ S'l'll~c.~~rn !';fliimCIlt Rpokespe.",O\~~ 'the 'h~~~lbfl Mij:;~~!!)ld Sci~'k'" lIm~: ~le d iS1lJij;SSl.II willn,ot il'lllp.1c~,pol~ A~i,~'J:1iI HIV Clinic::uami, Sociel~. '1:<11100 the fir-· ilm.g 'tf'ilvfl,l~" b~Ci'l1JS~ M~tdl~~,fI-R~]mLlildg~I~~d i~~, ~n~i$~i1il,g ~hiUd~~ ~riI'c:rnm~l'l~"~Ilfimls Its ("(lJ:m:n~bneiU ~o the srnne,gi:C' plan ..md i5 -tl'oing cU!:ivinced "u;ttIDvis:tgfn~p;., of"',1 new era of Qooper.uiollin IklCkl.i;mg .:I d.bfnl::~LIIlssue," The e'lieryth:iung in its l'lO\wr 1.0eun.~t1.re~hal we meet its 1.~Q.rel~.-· Petli i1tlti e Ad D S rill search e ~ IILI eosen AlDS aud .R:i.glu!ii. AI~i,m1LceIUr SO'lil.'thlillJ1l: AI]i,ca. Coovadla of dllc LiniYershy {IF KW!lZulll~ B~n m~{l1iyi.'IC'I.i\,']s:~sWCI'C skeptical. Sev:I ]1l etwor k 0 If 201 AJ DS ::lJlild imnm!1Il ~iI"~g!ns, N<iltlllli[J Dmba!f1 s..]id ~le concemed <IDOlUI: \\\iIS groups in wlIl1'nemAfriCiI, Soi.!.W 'dle di$nfllisS<i~ :<1$ endg rOIlI~j<S 111~lv,e comp l<lined. lor e.:J\i:1illlpk:. Madllla~.a;'Romll,edge's remoeal becau se she ":a PQ:~~,Lica~ r"f:pfiSill~ for Ihe de,pllIt)' mim,isler's ~]m<tl <tfu:er ji Y1e.<I'rs. Sou~11iI Alr:ica '2'0 mmher-tehad ,c'~,~,'Od\:~d ~lru~s~mbl~s:hing lfU~~ and h~rd ol!:l~p!lk~!l!1.ess Iilnd!rlllhlU.I!l.(;f;S,'" child HIVpoovlilmkm pn)~r~m has Im(lbe~r! Mbeld'is effiee den iedany c~,lI.nge in oo~,lfijd.ence ",Ji~h civil SOOiel)l •. inc.irv[iing its ex paaded be,yond 30% cuver'ilIg.e. The fk!ilI.lth HIV/AIDS p(ll~cy iHiI.d m~di;; pu'b1i,1;! h~$ !.ItSI'" rtll~H!h->d!~ni.dt'id sd~nli S'! :;:.'" AIDS refie ..rtlme:ffi ! Depf! n m,e:n!: eo u ~'i'l:JI;tsl h I.'iti ~i8nlil~~i.IiI~, k [IJ1IJflg:;a~: letter to M'ld~,aI3.-Ro'U:tl.edge. ,\'.~,:Uch OIJliCitfllf: g:ov-ermJIIle:ult have o:ltelill been ,It odds pl:Qgre:ss. Activis'~ ,£.I:QUPS 211"e1P]<'Inl~~i.i~]g '1,0 (J,\l'er :iSSUflS s,~lch m;,11l,el~'L':ahl.l e~rim~nit's D -" - ~ vi C~·Vtl'n,~iH!·.s'l.r:il'!.eg.k S,. Mar ll:H eY",\lood" ~xpres-~'d, h:us -t;:O~1cer~. aoo~l~tI.cr "'i1rllJlb~~ityto -_. i!j)llg·imtlnil~g ~upponlbr 1iLQIlI,sn.Hil,d~:m iIiiI,bedi- 'l\~ork .:I~p.<1ri: ()if 3. col~ec~:ive,:"~,1epl:eiiiidem diltec~or oflhe AIDS law :rr~jecl i~,1 ,Yo:h~nf d,t~d l~!?r!lihlre to r~o~;~\'e f prior <lpprmfil.llo ic~d n:: 1l1~'i!IIi~s,C{'n1~'adi~""I and QI~crn w(,my ne'sDurg .• S1<lyS ~~or~ pr~~5S'Ll1.ref!~~dls; ~«'I b.;; ~lJm,'d:~o M<ldrid lUllJune to 31:~n(]'I~,1 :lm,l:em;J,- e~",el,'ted "to make !H.He ~he;A[DS plan is tha~ ~hedep~t:ty I~inisler's dep~nm,o;e ~ml,M dm~;.\1 AIDS \(al1chu~ [niulii!lt~\I'e HAV])co!lI~r: .. impi.~m~moo 1i:III)I;" ~OIBEM'IKOlIlflliIG e~1.d'1m g er d~{;; U1'n. pi.'L;;]'J;liilrmm OI1i!. (} ~ the:
H] VlAlDS p.~<lIa ~:Iln.eesuh of ~,elilgdlJ'·mI.e£OLi" .• r ~tions th~lt ended ~afH~ir th:i::;y~ar (Sci(.'m.'e,
Ult"!wS!rnlegy:
. . . . . ....

l]er~f infecte~ :~ffiml~reCt'i~\lif'l!:g

881

• Maximum protection agaii IIlst aer1O:S<)~.

_!Binds

bio:molooule!;i;

• ep DlL!al1iilteI'T.II.P.8 •. aV8JI~a le in ten si!Zes b

Unique two-p,ha~5e'flilter proteetlon with ep DualfUter TJ"P.S.~
The !leW Ep,pe:ndori elP [)lJIIaHij~k!r l~~ .. P.S." wwtlh theilr ~l!1iq lJ!e~o~plhas'efillterJ provide~I!h,eperleQ~.sh!:elld <iI'graln:st cOllfltaminatiol1ll" 1'1hefiltet Gonsis~s o~ two lIis~D!e phases, eachr w.rrtha. d iU'erent pore sills. 'lhis two ~phasefillt€f p.rolecl~one~nSIUfie:s uWimate absc:ulPt1i(ln 'of aerosols 8 and b:iomQlool!J~es0, outm~tdhing all COrriv~11ftiornalrulll:ers. R.ely en it For rnore linrO,ffi1,t)it:[ongo,~o
www.eppendoir!f.com/d
III iJHil~teilf .

features of I'he ep' [)lllla!fil~itiE!1i" lJ.IP:.S. D!Q~ble protec'tion prov-id,OOIby'l~e ~wo pihase Hlter • ProvIdes maxlmum prol1edtonf:or both ,pipeU.e and sampl:e • Ui~limru:eahsorptHon Or~.aerosorls. and biorrtorecul:e~. • lFf\ee~rompeA inhibitor additives • Pateli'll pen:d!ircgltwo IPhasemter~eohnQbgiY • Suppllted stel'lHe. :Eppendol"i peR clean arid pyil"0gern-,rw'ee • livID cOFllkJrm It.y • 18alch-relat:edl roerlHiicatss. tav.aHlab.le

eppendorf
Inr '·ouch wifh, life
'YOlilrllOOillldistributor: WW'lIII·.eePendDriI'.oomlwc:n'iI'IMiHI' .A\P:pllcmiofl Sl:lppan: +4S'100~ GSm 891 ~prPeooOfif Na • G~ml1'!Iny·+49 4~l'00IlI 01-0 'I' i&ppeOOMNOrlti Ame(~l'I. loc. eOIiH45-:OO00

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1---------:

NEUROSCIENCE

Olellilllilanv IPl,allils N,ew

l~iM Ru'liles:

B,ERJJ~N'9Pro!)0'S~,d Itil!r~ ful€~ gOJverlninlg M!l1lliY subs~~ru;!"es: ~nt'crfc're w~,Lhin~CtllOr!i,t.as and did not r.t~coi\ler :~'tiu the 25~da.y s:mdy .U1.y llnml~-oy,eT P!Ulygoew cau anesr, BUI peeind, Mor,emfer •.gi\,'il1i~~lhe i.lliDjec~km 1;0 up alt~j(lngl~ boeze a'~ld dnl~i; can d~l~r~ll}l I~H;: 2:5 days a F1,~rlhl.!' 1~.~UJs~{;'U:.ing I erased the luca m",kitlg uf~,e\'~ iml.;;wH:l<rit:s [such ~.. H\~ lIVli!ifS$Oill. Ve'! Wl~~~givl.;':!1pri.t'iit til ~1:t.;.e~lariiil s emlbm:mss~:~.g (]nl~,Cs,3l ]<Is1 nighCs parry], exposure, ZIII? hladillo ,ellliec'~ anllbe: abiil.il:y 10 they :~e'.\v~lder me:!1IfII:lrh;::;in~tlct NI,;~ItQ.'id- f(H~ftllI1!l;1'wlw!l;m9nle~the WoW:;, st ilI ~:~mrll'!~1 e eneiststhink this, is because, ,a:ri:cli Oil, lime, teavoid the :1'1!llvored: wat.er. ~ll.q:::llllgr~:~l:i bec[lm~willied ilUO ~hebrain ira il, Th~ hril:d in g.~ extend a 1OfD6:iin!.dy by \WI}' ~hat makes, dU:Ut11 ~Ulrdef to ,,,,ripe (mt: S.1c.ktor ,;lI'Id colle .. gues rhar showed thm Long-term mClm~or~~g. u~m g~]M;;tI"all~y h!ock]lil.g PKM~, ill (:I~e~lippocaliillprISi Ofir;;lil:;; t~~ acceptedview. <lJe 1n."Ii,I~,t<ljned :s~:rm:'~1Ur.'L~. reverses ~OIl£!·le:rllnpotenti:;;~lio:mll.;1 ch<l,nlge b}1 changes H'I H~~ s)i~;;ipHe conneetieus in n~t!r,a] sig!laliwg thaught ro lmd~fH~ be'~..reeillllD]le'lliJolillS. ,ieaJIlli.llIg ;Jm.:llllemlory •.and ~<I:~.sesthe' aniA 1M ~Irly o:~,~gc 95.1 addsje mher recent malste forg,c::'t thc.ir fe$lf efa plaee where evidence thill, m;lY t'h<l~lel1i,se.1J1' iU ~e~~:-Jt ~hey'd pr'e\'iol!!l.iy received.~ shnek (;)cjj~m;'".

'gene~jc.all,~ lirmdilied ~GM} nops in G~nnarny h~i,'!e{IisappoifFled rn.~fI¥ nls~ar(,h~rs aml~ fdlru'I1Iers. GEmn:an:v illre~dy has [! ne off E:WHll1~'S, strrCIi€!;Sllaws., and! tnec~~H~Highl agncuhl!rE! mi f1l5t~U il,ad r,alicSledope!> la~t year rlJf ill h ~p.~e\l'e (5delUe, 1 Oe(embe;r 200'8, IP" 136'9). IBlJ1l~he 1fI'~Y' prop o:5a~"issued 1!l~L ~\,Ieek.has ~11~~ii19~d: to d'l5aPiJQ~~i!t both 5!JppIO~l!m. end 'O~pOJlImt~. (iM adw{;a,l,e;s· (OriliplaiDii tha,l a lI1lew 150-nlIeter burfer zene oo,tMi'e€1I1I GM ami mll1lverl~:iQn{l ~(rotP.s, (300 m~~~~ I~o:rof~:ajnk: crops)

~0I11i11p:~kat~. v:~t1!w. Alc1un Qfmmro,sei(,:n~ d~.is tlis~lS :lteports [h,1t IUI~e(;lilii,gOil drug th.tlblock:s anenzyme caU~dlrrotein kinase M~ (P'KMt) hnulhe cerebral 't;~~lrt~xofn.'l~s, makes tin: animals fnrget a meal that made l'h,em sickweeks ~,fI:It~ier. The
l'illTIl,ding$ suggest IIUIII::~,e conthllld:Im,£ ry lOml,] ,Ie nt 'Ii 1:1 :llong.:1:efUil] memory. S;Q!ll~l:hi~glhm'~ nul pred:ictl,,'id b)' !llO$;t Cmlfiie Ill: hypmi1l:e;ses on '~irn,emedl mil iS:rL%!I Qf m~m{)f:Y~ The wn~ik!llsQ I~hi!~i' ~t t~~
!iO;J

has, 1'10 so1eflili~k bi!lsis end 'lIi'iil.~.lmakeil imp es~jlJl€t(l p~nl (1M cr,(jIp5nil w@~t@m (i,@r!l1ililtl'llls 5ro,aUl, 11!I<ll:dlwork fielrlcs .AI!ul ,[1'5beriOre', fiU!fl~ers and rtls~d'i:lrs \!i(luld h~'I,i'Eto p~y d"lm"g:~ ~r iii lI1I'e'i'ghllm find,. :5lray ge nes d l ha I1IIl~ttime'. The law ,1!,iw re~aif!iSl~~ pub!lf:c:dalabals@or aU
(jlli\pti3l'1l.ings, p~o':lidi 1'19mR1!E!,lim.e d~!ru{s

Hve Iprole<sM!i"S with a j',cCit:iImap. ~1(i!1t 9,~nIHidst r'ranlk:. '~L!di?N9 'of the Uni\,l'(?rsl~,y of (~lQ!l] ne, ~'!'hii)~pe'lilt !T11!'~re lhan .~ yea ~ mifl~ p:1lpe~lIi'or,k~ordl r1~ld!ln1al of GM potailIi'~,5i'l)fi,

<1Cl"ivhy of P-KM~

].'!i

somehow neees-

he ~ade:.;pe(~!€di biotedl'hfefldly challl !lies. ~My Hrs'! Ilho.1J'ghlVIa), 'No, lhi) {;an't be true,' ~ he 5.a~. Oppmll'e:nl~say ~~,ey hll'ilillt U~e IiJ!!IHer LCln~5~(I ,b~ at 1.I:!.alst 6<00 met@[$; w~Ul no ,exc.eptnOIil ~...A ,j:Darliall1Jlellltar:'t!O!Dte is eY.!pecled
1

in: :S,!PL!lTlb@tF.

-(l,R:E1i:CIiIIEN VOG'EL.

I~O!lisiilb:~I~,'ty fumre drugs I~.mt could of t i.r.lke r ~~1.i Ilu,:rnory-:~:o:r the:rape~1.t ic t:lIn,

uses or fgf boos;~i"g ht;limfK.n ..rer; "'na,~$is a sifJll'IIewlullllll~ml-bklwi.~lg COI1~ elusien," :iiO\ylll D~~v:id(:il(mzul<]n. a ueurosei(;!'I:MiSl iUI:be Univen s i~y of Cillii,fom[a. Las

Paul~s'ol1l':Edlt lhrrt 'CriedIt '
Beb'e's~9nin9
Melillo r~ moLEC::l!I:~.e\ PKM~ S!US~.iM to;ng-lerffl m@fno:ry i[1 th~ (~~b.~~loor~~ of IraK

a Il!s,e-arch am:!

:!ii(ij@I1iOO@O'ucalrDnJ

Auge~~s_
~ known
tiO

EnIZ)'iI1m~s sim~lfur [0

PKM~ are

beinn~Orli.!.I1.l in e~,rly :st<lge~ of ~ ~1I1I,;mtu·y fonuarlcn, 'GI<lnz!lro~<I~ ~i.i)ll'. but ~ mesr researchers llrl~d t~nlou.ghl tlsat these
~ CCimll'lltl'ttn dswcre n a:,t Iilccdcd 10
:ll 'I,J1 sta

25 Alnglust 2m16, p" ~ 14 The newwerk !>ugges~s a bmader 1.·D~!efor PKM~ as a k!ey C{)~np(lllCn~f dimol i!1;;!n [ype.~l~flong-:term o
merneeies stererl in dILIXc.fefit. P""l:S of the bral n, S~~l;:l>01" s.a~'s. Going rO:~'1"'.ul\tL, it will be important ro figllriff. out lhow s~~'~,x':i ZIP's ~nl;:~u)[)'f~e erasiDilIS e:ITt'>!:lS <1.1\1:, says Lynn N <lide:~. neua

n"

bjlllla:;l! 1,\I~,e[kS'dill'J'iof'" :110k~guS't.lJ. 736),. ( Pre~id:ef1lt Ge~r-gfe'W" IBi.Ji!lhsaid he wot.J'ld COOl· lillllJle to Push for a Ilnimily tho'lt's:nmlinil: rIlltI'k-

ifig the (,Q~~~:ra'te ~ii'I'.lsead~ d~velolP!im:mt a'fid
la(K (fedlul a permanent palmor the' tax mde." 8u~ ne~t door, Trei!!sury Se~rE~<lryHen ny ~a~l.son

U!1J

appe-,a rs 110be Ie'ss SlJlpportlve ofllhevdea. Las.t m.ownlh, 'in <II whiilie p~l!De~,l'laul~on said that ~o~'!I~r
1ii!:;lie;5 .Hild' 11~T p~r ~y.!i~l?1'I1l {oold IlIII 'Qbvii~te~Iu~' ~e>edl for b:! ~sead i(liEd~!.The CUU'€!:fIlc],ooit. h· 's.a1d. '''(re,iU~5c c)l'HiI1pl@~illf! linl.NOI15t1 rIlingl Pill perwmk, dll:-d RXhauslive audits. "n]lh~admflfli$!lrali~ '~imc:ul[!~:!: i!rool@ l~t' pMil;l;'~ ]Ilitentive~ [f'or'rt'5e~l1ih] lh~ pmvi/· S:lofi pl'ovid.es, ~ thoe p"'Jl~r :sarti" IH~5IPi1tu~s.Qfl1 ]umped sh~IP1 NQ, says ~8M Ilobbflsi. Lind~ E'II.ilns. 'lhetroasl!.lry :re(lret~ry i~ ~Gokin9IGII1I'9 .. "hill' 5i:1Y1il' wllllrM~ the White leil1i1l,

11'~1:e C. (,}l1c.e.s..yn.'LPuc ..d~:al.lg."es,-suc h as 1fII. l'r.y... .. th~ gftJ~~'~l~, Il~\:V ~.y~'ilP~S or the' 1ilrcngth~ uf enlirag (I f,e~,>;.isljmg orlei.-~~<'Id ace tIned .. .~ hl~}l~ ~~~w st~d}\:. Todd S('l~kt!f)!" !{.'If S~~tl;:

1
i

'Gol'pQrtlte

m~~iln~tist ~~ f~1:;: Univ~U'_~;it)t ofAri~~ .. in
T~lc~o:~. ·'·I,f!5- pO!'>5ible dHlt ,2[1;' ero!!~~::i all ]eanliug,. no Im~tteii how o]d;' N~del. says"

~ U:1!1I,u\f'~~'SityQfNew York

00\,\1' IlI!5t,rm:

Medical.

~ CenN~f in Broo,:kJynl and Reu t She Iniland ~ Y.1idiin Dud(li of ~hle Weiz.l.milm ]1'l5~ilUle of :l Sd!I.!Ilcc: ~'~R{,!~O'\fQt. ms,raJe::t r1r.5il!i!:fI''IIC:! r.!I.~S an mil SiEIi'!,fory :nIiLe<1.l. o reJ1f:Ien'ilbeiIT. They, <ldd:ed 01 ~
~ H~g W·~H~r", lla~!'I 40 ~m!'I~.H:~S ~ hU(ir gf!\J'\!l il

S,utiflile
eml, MOIbC!

drlug works more sel.ecuively. il:
d ay&n'fli'Ii'C
(:

!1~1Q\.fel.~~lS. ,.• s~c,c. hoiD'. i.:lm.'t).o.. lil.e. nJ. de:. 'n.ls." eIl.f. il1llk~. ~e.'
~ ll]<lusea~~nd~q,"ing injection of .Ihh~un,n. R;m:s ; nl1]"m,i~ly at/ohI ~Hl(.~e:~wrin-I<let;d W;U4:1t fOr ~ weeks 1!I.:fl:er :!>ucll all ,e:x.perienll~.Bu~. in I~~e i (h.ys t.i~~t fo~low'!l;:dwbt::1l the i!eS~a~:dlCr:s ; injec.led lhePKM~-Mocki~ dlnl,g. C<1,Ued

U.UiI,k:a~:II'ppl~ICRtiliQ!iI's, be and dilli.~ c,u~ms hHve~HN:mlookiIL1b!! fo':w co.mlpoul:lld:s
MIYS. for eXiHl1ph~. resean::he:r:.s

i
c

Z~'p. into
~,nemories

thcifllsu];;IU' cortex. \'\.'be'U'C l;;lj;!C :ine filOUgh~ tOl"esi:de. ml:slosl:
H)

(.iiimjf!l@[~ng ll~(;ll'lf!inru~. ml.;;mories Ofl1L~U~H. ;survivor!>, (.'':J~{'iellc~·. . AprH 1 200'4,·. p.14). Th~ mp sidt.i is c()gillidi;r,~ e'n~J,u'lc>elllerll. ,llIdds, Rich.~,rd MOfl'.is. ;i!, Ilell1.·(J!1>ci~~1tist'It. ihe University of Ediub~Lrgh. U.K. "'fhe ne.1r>,t step m:igJ~,t b eUJ f~,lm,d ou i: \"':~~the-raug!11j~nt.i.Jlig, 'Hn~ollof PKM~ :the
~,c'lp 5U5tOcl,i lfl,1,eilinol~ es, :ibl[ I 0:1.1 r IbtHlli 11 £Ill: (]C"~1iJr$.I1l.0!:1l'Dla!J~,y:'~H:EG, fiUIIlIUt
calli

cap;)ltIl~af

IiIOWirrehas, mD~

!l!eaH~FII¥!

tbklki~g' .. (A!ti!"@ClS~!y

5:pok~per5iorrl d~:dmit. return cd~l'5.) Wlill~d~n':5 idea!> are uflrik~ly ~o ge~ InLich lua,ct~mn ill! th~
C'@mO!!l1Iliic; COO!ilrtlSS, !i\lifler'G! ilIl "llIms ~~Q~ lTIak~ ing t~ne(i!'Edits penna~el'!t; I)als U1il~would do llillll ~a!oll!more than 100 ,[j()5pomS(I[S Ibe'tWml the >e11ilt,e ,~!1dHouse V'ef}i!OflS" blJllh'ey've ~!iJ!iten.JilCl~e,~r:if!.9s,. -EIIJI KllNililSCH

o

lh~ir

~V~fS!(lf!

s,;flcch<ldl] \\fhllif'! 2: hourn

I

NI,EW:S OF TH E WEEK
EN

ooca ~ IE IILHS FUJI PTIE N

RS:

A fu~e!1l111 advi:oo.ry panel haspeered i,lSC~ftlliu~ ~~~C' ~!!.fc d use Si}t by liruc' Elw iro~ulJi!.cil1tal P,r:l)IJKlvemi,all h a llf-;I<4.~~' of WlI!te'!',lfler d:~ge~t~ng tection A;e~lcy 'lIE PA. ~. ]n ~: .lliIo'\!>'el,'et. 9'97 I"iCp.r~)(~u eli",\: b.io~.iI)gi$,t:f.~~dC'rlck ''!.lUlU S!l~:~ (~1.c~'~ilBf>t$mdi('s l1U Ih~ hUll'l:3JU I.l~l:~lh risks of .ul 0!Oti:og~i~l~ke Ch~~liCl'iI Ul'OO ~~1' m~il-re rl~'k..;t:iCl'. ~mj 'O~.htlii"$ ~l U~elJi1iwr~ity ,grMi$~onri. n.e d:teIlJ11K:al i.ll1Idnsrry ~iI<Is:j)[I\OCl1lilln:d thal til~e CQ~~Lrnib[ rO'LI.1,ld li:l'<l[ very low levels fed to ... p;:!I.WieT~ verdictlast weekconfirms its. I;)~.n.:'" pr~gJTI<'lmIm~iceQgn~d,">fiIMg~thlll)r{l~tt.t~ of tentiaml, dun bisp~me[l;ol. A is .s<'lire.[h,~ env,imnl'" t:~.eirrnill.eom,pri.llg. [ndus~ :Sl\ld ies ClOlillldlil't ~ll~U1~lllibt~su)' ~he repon b",s been t~il~ted by~~U!.lIStlr)f.1ml dow.l1plays tl'D~ risks, .A'!.vay from lI~ fAAY. some sc.ietlnists :stl)' the p<lool:s eemmems :ili~)l!lth~ ch!;~~:iel;1Js i.>~h'ts'~Illhe devel.o:ping brdi:rJ! replI"(..'Serbi~eight~ : ened ,cm,lCiel'U COLr1l~l:lered wi,lIl p.re,,~,,· ous IlfITl~tlllleV"~e!i\il)" B i,sllhe~o] A. is found iu everyl:h i[ig tfl1on,~lsoltle bever1lge and kmhy bettles h} t~1(lli~liJ~s uf food C;l~h. SmaU ;a~~ou~US can Ie ac h mu l ~: nto food ,. and 1n0 st prop'h;:: Iikel}' have &:,;ecuIIJI e lev" elsin Ihd:r bleed, Tlin.es;,eptll.I.'ts~ !H'DW~iidd P~ly(aribllnate bi!b¥, boUle::; .ilP@' Ilrl@' $(llI.rl:e or the pe:ri,ibiUio]l leveh <1~~,v,(d[ b e~!j!i~· (lIgUI)'ofe ~~a'l dlle mi(allJi~p~h~I1(JoU\_

reiPlic:~nc th,C'l'\cs~dl;,~, buta review

lOof1:(;:b;lcd

~jlI1<L~ fes~lb \~·ere".d[d ,(Sri(:'l.iCft •. 21 Ocrthe ober 2000'. p'. 6Q5). Si!llLee:~~H'i~l •.{lI~h~r rSdemigB; h.wl;i r(:p[lf~~d lew-dose e Ifectsilll :wod'en15.Some filldiDillgs h.:ilv,eraised ,ill'lrln:>, ~Hch as an ~lmct~.!~ in ch:romJ()scnllm.a.~ aibm.ol.um~li:li.es :U'llil the eggs 0:[ mice, d~:i4~lW~;r~d olneill b.i~pllu~ll01 A I~ea.ch~d

frmn

ptflS'tic ~1I1m~~eases (Sci,e~pce. 4 Aprill c

]003., p. ] ~l Epid..;'n~,~.fllflgy s:tlldi~~ have lenked bisphenol A and human he,dlh ]lr(lbl1.;;m~~. sueh ;;u;;. bre ast caneer 1)iJOO ~!ldy p;M.lberil'Y tn dee firs:t :rorrn!El1 U.S., reeiewof .. bispllC~lDI~A. thie N<ll~:O.DlI!211 Ta!.'!:i.co~o£y P'rognulls

{NTP's)

Ce'mll'er for

the EV'.~l~,ni.Qn
fO,rnlCi(~ l!I

o~~Ris,ks to Human .Repl'ddw::ti.on
.~ 2~lrH:'I.llber

expertpanel to review more

~~~a~00 stuclks" 5 Ct.l'1m.I.ru"~r~y ."H.;c~~~.p,,,~jed thl'~I'if~! rn,eet~ng efacademic, federal, ami i:lulus'n:y sclerulsts In March; An enVilf(lli!lme!'!l~O'l:1
group po[nted our that the ecnrractur

preparing u draft report had done work ..

If:.; easy t\~,see eveluticn's h.mdiwork
la~e-jlbst 0111. ~,~'~mD .
Il,

writ

lar let''el~'' H'IWI.~Ie!lr :Kly5.
by J1iQscphThornton •• 1Il evol LJI.tiOlfKIl:Y hio:lDgi~1a~ the Unil\iiCl::8ity of OregOll. Euge'JlIe. Thermon ami his pos;~:dootOl'.111
\~l:2IS led

ll1f,odettrn,

CO[i!]lJi~rca~~arigo~d and a :l!!tul~,k li!tllew{).k. st::~ii:n~i::>ts ,,1::;0 pick C'1.ll

U1C study

tGfi'lUlcil:mdl DOC, and

MR protdn..it re"ldily oo'lncl<lid()$:~lhad.(iIlmre nlode;stse]l~

mn .subl~!ec~iITel't'uces iathepreteins of re~li]ted llrg~Hllisln~," Now researchers in Or.egon tlilld North 'C:llooli!lrl~'l have': gonea step further: renacEng rhe S~~,P$ by ,,,1]j(:h IWO, proteles d i\''erg~ f'rmnUfac~r <IillCli)enl,corn tm,1.QJl ~mjestor, I n ap.ap~:r 1~llJbljs.hcd !Il11i1.iue n St:/<.'tl('{! tbi,s ~
wee,lI;:, j w·\,\'w.,gciellleern;J,£..orrg/cg:~h:lollitenti (jbsH:,~e'tt [~14281.9). t~~re~~ai:'eh,ei:'::> repor I

.uS:lii~t~!iI[J;Html~~ rid,gham l~trnBd [0 apair B

of

closelly rdilted protein receptors for U1j,lO ~reroid.s.l~(]:I!11n!l.~l!1!t ,g'm~ll!i,atvide rnng~or n l1l1lel~bolicfUllC'lirms i.1iIi lll.u:~mans. a:~uiather vertehratcti ''fhe fir:;;ll"i..leqll:or. klU'I\VIl &l thcg[tt"'tl!~
COI'l'Lf.10id

"So i,t:~ I~e ,GR\ flUnc~;ioll ~:l~rucmemgt'ld wi~lla. evo~ltltU:OI'I:"Tholl'.[f;w!IfD :fi.<I,ys" n1i'!1 SiI;ii.~g$S~C;)d that the ~Ile lor~;I~l;i ~l'Ic:iC;)liu M.Rp]1o~e'ilirl was dup~.ici!l~ed inthe aneesrral o.r,g~llism-\..l~~rn rt.'ih\~lu~lm "~<iI,rlil;;'lgG~bll~~d '
skeletons were the on1y ve,rtehrillws o:tmjEru'~,1:;L1u!,cvohred lit) bce,Q([i!.M:: OR. T~l!lrnt('lll ~)ls. For .iH't curren[ study. the group set OU't, li@
l!iI:!!ro.vd lhl1,.'%; e,\lt1h,ltifm~ry s.1.e~f'ic~.lh~yS.WH·I~d by te,llmi ns ~LP wit~l structueal b ioloSi·st M!Mth(,."'Ii\'Redi:~boor'cl~~ U!~ji\lJ!i)~ity of Nonh Ci~:wlina, C:~!HI~Jd.[~U. ld his p0.'5ld{l~rugm.:1 l m asslstam Eri.c Onlun4 who crys~~llnzed the Am::CR p:mlJ;lin mud used ~\ jJu\lI'erfui. ~",.;r,wSy:I'achrerren to (!.eH;~'.I".IIDli ne ~ts threc,d fme:!~.si(ma:11 sm~cug;e. [he firs[ (ff.m ~1:I:lC'iC1inprllteillli. De)! ~'lmellis~ud:i:ed pmc:is:e,~y how the r.trm:rt.ure dif:.

...,itiv:~~y to cuni:rul

receptor lGR~. binds lTI ~l~e hmJIiI,l{)l:Je
~~(:l~Cits;I"i,.'gu th{l b(idy'~ late

eortiscl.whieh

thi!ll]l.ey

r-eS'1Irreered a protein
~~~~~

n\ih th:f~l \~!n fh~ 't'I~~i.'!J!l!> ~
)reOlr.'!i<.Igo timid thenwm:ke:d

11'0111 anciem 450 min~I;.)!~

response ro stress. The
~~~,~H:OrtitC(lid j,. (iVl'R

bi~ds h)

second

C' ... ~h:d:rm.l

iner-

d~(J;';.yc{)rtij:~t'I~"

(J'Lltl~,l;lprotu:ei.JfI.);

aiomlc SII.lICl~!re. By comparr:ng the pl'OleUI~ ro nlflmem,oderl11. versions.snd doi.~g some tid) detective \vo:rlk. lheycn'l:rtcd SODliilCthillg !i~e'" movie oh~e sequence o[lk.eymutatinns th,1,t e~I<I'hled t~u: anc:estf"ili. pm~ein H)~OIkiem:l
I1Ii:;W ilm:H.ldlOim

lem~e (DOC) in fi,s'l'aand to ",Idos'l~r{)l~~ in h~I,rI:lalllS al:ld ol.he.r tcl:rnpods.llu:t.\vo :rooepl:o:J1'S

lIerhied from <l0(ln~!mon ancestral protein.
known 3:0 l~~,c:m~,c:eS1I'3:11,c,o:rt",col:d reeepmr ItAilCC R), :i.<lJ.ne 450 ]l'iliill ~ru1.}'1::m:z.; (~Q.
LtlI.si[
ye'tlJ,.1IIi1IOJIl~tmsgr'QllI),}

l,epm1ed

t~leiy

fime~hjrls:..

"hTS i1Ibemnif~d, piece' of \!'1{jf1k~"s2\'Ys, David H<lu~k:.r. :fU m~llee~.lar'~\'l.lMiorn ex:rerliu~~le IJrmiY.;;":rsity ol'C~Hf{lmia, SaHli!. Cmr.i~.<lussJI,er 1!.i'Lys tlt!1,: work ~m~~cr$cores cil;m;lce: ~,mUI' :~]O\v tiion~ t~1<U se~mirlg~y add ,li,I:t:i:e \'ahw in,ili:lIllly C'llm help ~I th~ $~~~(;; for l~1jore\i!oh,u iQn~:ry

ood re$~I~C!Qldl~h~~am;i~!li1 piVotel!1J \Yy ~omP'fIrilligdu:'ge~le s.eqmmOe5 o.NjO :i>te.~id I,'a"ep!" !!)n: frolll~,pre s~m-d:<'!iY (l!:"s-a~i~i1~'SS"i(mt',f/.. ( 7 A~~I'i:~l006. 97), ,mild lIsi.!lJg e:\~oiudo:~~~ry Ip. rehl.ii<:n~.:shipt; to cOlnp~le the ~nosl tihly 'seq~enoeofthe.1.lncatr:;:1~prQ!~ulJI",Theienm ~.um :r-ymh"~'$izcd fI ~'lJle fO:il~~t fl,qleiml,. do~.cd.it h~IG
lli1LalInmal!;rullceUs
ill~ c!lilj:UUJle. ,.m.{ilI'lregealeIHteil

furod frrlm S'rn~cl~S ofMR O1i!ml GR.
TII]f' rt'Se<lifchel,"S, \\!o:fked~:1leitr w<1Y back up Ul~~oo~it~f Ufet"Orfnl AncCR. reeOnSIJ~tClil1g:, 0'~11er ..:t~c:ie'ffiill~rotei~l!: fl,um !Jn~restrdlorg,~n~

is~~~dlat ~ikely IUVed~lro~lllJdl440 J~~mon ~Ild iii

i
~ ~ ~ ~

ie:1J 1)8, "for mt'"\\ih~l; i~~oexci[illgu5~eimgtnl.e cl),!l:.mnics of C'~iQIUli0!l ploy otn'~on~{; ~l~,('Jlecu,

it.

Bi(lch~mk!;ll

[~s.ts :;hO\iiJ'(ld[ilfut ]ilk~(he

4:~ ~~iIlion ye.~rs <Igo'~11ere'(l::> the older of 0 Ihese !:'(;tairt!~dlh~ :MU1-like behavior of AnoC'R. Lh.ern.tli.1J1e :~-r:ceil,lt l10lein V'oI'<JS p found to J1i!'!\~() n ~noroGRAilkB f~l!lc'(~(y~.Cu'!rIralLtij[lg '

':

I II

I

I

I

I

1---------:

for chemical the comrae UH.
A.nrli,dilhe

cnmpanies,

S NTP rin~d Irf~is~(i; (],~~iI,1 fl!.'!!gs," $~'ys paneltst Jane

scrutiny, the panelists Jas,~ ,..reek stuck will)] ,1) prevsous decision I() ~I aslde m~:~yacademle low-dose ~nhlla~studie£ 'Ibt had in.iec~ed the chemi,c'i~l.becO'lll~e the resu Its If~~ [0 aC'CfltLrit for 'I~~ de~o;;.; I~I i~ 1}ling efT~eh1uf iiilge:~,''!i,~gisph~i\,('i~A. Th~ b p,JII,U::~,1,]:50 quest iOil,1.ed t~l!e re lev.<ll1,cf!' ,of an . .;ml"fg~d Pfi~l~t.uebecause hwm5<rI'( ;-;h{'lWl!'I' to be a p!I1~,cmf:sor of C;fI/llcer. NTP :nilf~~rs

Admns ..a r1curoloj"icol:oglus.t at the Univets ity of M:lIssadlU51e us, !IB (l 11;[0 n. T his 3.1.',(: ~ topped ,a l ist q]frest1;,.uch needs frem rhe p.alL'lcL SO~1l1~·a~11S\\l'en; !cQ'l~ld come frnn~, the ILI.pcomilll.g N<l:lio~.l.,.1 Childrerl'~ SWdy. said panel c:hfl~rRob~rl Ol~pi!l olfPfi7~1', Vom Sa!!~. ~~d eihersare i:!p.~'d Ih;;JJ~: IhL:: p;laiu~I's,co:li1.clll!>i.m15 dli 'Iler fW]II.l, a statementa weekearlier by 38 ~d.:~t ist~ i~ ihe olli iue
Re-JN'(J;r:/ru:lil'e ro~tooloftJ' ~'XPI:~5sjI'Dllg"grc::al cause fo:rrconcem" tlbmu its peterni <II hl~[ml.u:l Ihe.dth risks, [D:I contlr1liSI:." lEurore~,u ris,k, a sscssrn en ti n J iintHlli"y (:[11;1n d 1110 risk ro hlllm~nhe <11thar current exposure level s,

5l! PI)OIl"~1F$ or b'Uol11~djc~l. r(m:~ardnha'lf'~ hal~:clhedl i3I 1l~W'~dl~rnl~to :boO<:5t(iii e Hart budge.t o(!ihe' Nifti!4l:ni!!I.1 ~:slit'l.lt~ (!!f Hi'ta~l~ (NI H): 5.dlvingl~ b.ooo:s. A. bmintmdllced~11 l~,e

M ou~eo ~asl w@ek Iby R\@1.pr@~~~tati\l'E! Ste~e Pearc'e (R.-N M} .amJI.\\IIil' collea;gue!l would (FE-

The bottom Iine: O~il1 five-poi III seal e . of conce rill, rang in g ~ronl "m;:g ~ig :~b.le·'to
:-;,1),.,

"serious,"

the pam:d had ··mllliii,inmil conce:l"mI"

elfects OIllhe pmstate d'Luin:(!. R~prfldw:;~bl(tbioi!ogi~~John \il:undi1llmlx'l'gb devclepmenr Oil ~(:t:elcr"md p~~b~m'!!f!d : St<lU,~Un:~v,er!>i!y i.111 "neg Ililg:ilb:~c COil cera" th3l b :iIS~,:l1:!~elloA .i s of North C;J.l:o:~i~1<1 I 11~::Hm~ng adults. R~ld:gh. II eo-signer of the Rel"f'odJu:tiw! 01l At rhe same riMe.. Ih'e p~ll1iellmd ":i:mne: To.'!Ci'(x)./'o,gr st,I~~[~llem <1$ wen <IS memoor of eoneern" ~bmll [·isks, to fettIEC::;, and ehiJdl:~11i1 the N1P~net believes t~~ilUI:~clll~~!~r.'5>lo\liIf:f because of ab 0 ut .. half-doaen reports of C o:l1.cerlllte:nects added espertise illil epidemis~lb'!k nL;;~lro!o;M;i("a~ Ii?Wf·~"Ct);f'l'ii mdr;:nts Irum ology and h~!ml!Ul he ..II~" "1 thi~ll:he:~ isa ~lirHlI~e d(l':';'~:;yj·h.isp,h'L;;f!Qi.A, ~~~'chu.!lhl,g hum~n risk, Wb;-u \"'~ 're lryi!i!.g to do hl;:~~ is: defi m: wh<ltD'il,c risk is;' :~.e says. Ant'1~recelvd,ll!lIl~e'sin br ... :~. ~ structure ami a reduced imeresi <.'I1i'!~O~lgmalesin >eJ'l.pl.oring their iDlg. p'l]Mic comment.rhe NTP' i~f;elh\iUI envlroamenr, ·'1':h,cy·rc' Vlery scanered, No weigh i.ll~a~.I~,e dsb ofMsphcnol j\, s~lfiLgle~HII.dyhas been replicated," bllt ··i~ ''';JIO(EIIL'!I'NllItAIISIE:R
1'0], pejential
1

,a~e 5Jtl;i';:da~Treal!!ur'l '~heJQ1th re5eaN:h" OO~ ds, 'Whelillthe bond is c;ilisnedi in, the buyer WQuid (!(If rei l1O% I)f ~het~~~en~:5t,J,!iihichwl)u'ld gl!iJ li;I the NIIH i'n!;litu l,e or h1s ,or iiler dl0ke. If o:~fidals ml1llll!1lgecilo pers,uElde a ~iflh: Cliff LB. b Cl!l1d buyers til plu~(;hals.t!the ~poe(idl se(urilie~, IIH would gft s.:llsa miUl'irm iii YBillr'-a N 0.5% cI~~,P!in th~' IJIl!cbt If,or th :s:2 9' Ibmi~JoJl
NIH but f:aumoae~hal:l the $7 1!'Il~lUoli1la au ~

I~!.merltt.y raised b.~ ,aJ :s.pec'ita!l brea~lCaill('~f
re~i:lr(h :5lcirnl~. The Associal.ionr or Ameri{ill'l

Medi:cal (oU.ege'S has !:l!'1il1orsei!l the bilL \.'IJ!kh
ls OOhl'l' in the Ways a ndl Meen'i [olinmiUBe.
-]IOCIEIYli!I1U.ISEIR,

Pen.ny~P'i hjngl lilt NASA mllt:
chud S..Ala ill Sterni~ tooiking lo 011111 Illul 'Ilf his bud!~'e't Fc'r 1111:5,~io ns, ~lrkh i!> Ljkel.y to be nat r'OI",!;I ~~h~te, Belloire, l~'~Str<lltDsp ne!'JiI: Ob~en/il!~:OIyr(lr InrhalredlA;5trormm~ (SOHAl, ror ex.alll1llle'. was .~Ial.€!'dr(lr 6 y~!l!rs; ,of !l!)(t'@flS~v€!·t~ts ah~r n begins [lVing on a BJoeing 747,. Now S~li!rn \ltartlt~ SO:FIlA" ii'l1~ichllfIIad@ I~S ('1m.~@st 1fIij9~uin Aprill, LCD illl sen di ng bad:. daitaClllmo:o>t Il~g iliilmedi.alt,e'ly by staggering! lho~' tle5ts. lMA5A. 11 llio ill~:erldists!;.hmtllnr!h~ K-e'p~er
~qlJJe'eili~ 1lI1 ~I't

NASAscueme

before the (jt~~e:rlhree:ighlry l\QI'I~C'£\leCimutah ti(1~s. li:l~y g{'l~.0;) ~futej!'l th~t\.\lork." Hk~',fl modern GR. "That ill'eaUyblew OWl.f m1m,u::m,ds" l:l!nat.we were able to predict the fUllcl.iol'll<li ::kIilm1ie--<l clae thm ~~,Q,"e~l~l~i:Qru. ,lJiTe vitlill)CI m e:lfe!l;~:of these nnbwt:igl1!~ th:Olt occu wild over the ~l'Idiell~ protei I1·S (fR~~i ~~Iu ~.C'lio:ua.• \'Vh~:l'l, 40[1 In imOil ye<,lni ~gQ:'lh,omlCJ\1iii :$~.ys... 'nle re -e rear iO:UiII 5heds,1 i gh t on e:>;l,<lctly theresearehees :insened the l.m~nu:~omi nto i Allee R. 00, ::>~n£~:e :lle of the~,u trnn::;roll[Jliled i.~ how evo~,udon "i'orks •.Iit the molecul;u l!e'lleL o int~) fi (;'lR~li~.eOOC€tJmr. Blut,[)n~Pfi~ir m~lt;i1~ of H'~lI:;;s,lel:"~tU}I:~" f~)r (;x;)m'p~e.i'l. tim1lS did! tUIl'JiI.lffiu;: <TIlt'!e!!tral. rcoe~· shows lLl.at evo.lution c:m.uruter :1IiI,l.odeb of the likely snuetures of
Lht:s~ [WO rrot,~ij!'l!;. Thomlitl:!mi:;. IJft~m ffltmtd 37 amul1,Q m:::rd,c::h~l,ges;, .111.allllllHxlem {iRs., the ~uniJ~om::kl.&0\1. oftl!nose sires are ~~,\v<]ys the! .. f.u~1{': tit)! i~~n {Ul~ l:ilii)(t pr.ef~Th C(]frti!'01

Mi:;~i<1I11~O d:ell~r:t e.!(lraSQ~.r

~la~lrt'ts.,J!\iith ~I~

first m.LdA"big leap ....
hl c hOi :Iiii.gi ng l.ilI,e "\!leeR n:;C(:ptOf ~Clitll GR~lik~, SI<J.le ~ll'Idtben

'oplional exte!m~~IJIII. Stem ~ilIid ]!m a pres.sconrlE!r'el'lce-Iast ~\~eekth~ t he's IOQmid'eri!,,!gll!I~~!1~ e~ml rO~lImon boaitls(hed'ldlMl mi)Siorls-C! 'he~~e~ <lllf!na'tnve 'than buiilding larg~sp.a(e{rraft.
-ANDIRE.W Il.AWUllR.

Rl ~M.OSlerone ;[~d DOC. "It
d~d:ta'l gellu~,

there. bm, it

an onl\C\!!'a)'
\"'.JS <1.

Irllg,e

shHl:."Tllurnln'l'n. ~~, s Thomto:Ill:'s: te:un s US~

!tlud(': sW~ij~h::;rwe-~k:s: I
ilfi

t1Ile'~I'W~mteld
RUI'II'I'ill'lgCilmornial's S3 bimCln5[E~1m (eU p.ro,g J~I!n :s,luould 00 a plu I'll! j ~:b,bUlt U's p.rQlving

refining

its

bind:-

p~~i~d ll~~~ ~ddi!lg
gl:l1erl~rtI~conM;:nfl;:d (10m;. i':mlo the prol:dnl

~~.~
mlil'~l-

iwg !i!bmt'i~~" ~~~d!ill)
~ho'\,\"::i th,lI!: Im~I.~liub hB\'ilmg ~lD c!'lJe(:l 011 a p:wu::i n 'sfumI,e I:i. onl C;El1l set th.c iiUlg:e fOIl:' .kf~y mlll'l.ab.~ ns", If Ihelhlli :!lImy of life: {xmid

'N()uld~r'e

,.1'(6 ,I

IIIod,er~~ G R.

:mJ:l,ure Bu~. it

tough lo fill S,o!'lfIe or the feasonsare~mDgh Icollflk~"C!H~nere:Sl re(l'l,.liI'u~e !1t~ a ilild g hist(l~ o~ adrllil1isl~ative ~ ~lFire. B:ollrd ch1llir Robel'1l. K~ffr.sa.!fs tht,e aii'E,~t~c:n~S{ilnl't'! if\iC.~~dib1e their loa b~r~~.or~e>.."' to rm the Sa
Ig:ii~

d~l(]rl"~:h~~)penl. Im:s~eilltL lhe nmt<~tioIJiS (iQrn\ple'~e~ykiUed,

imlividuClIs w~o jj\'~rE!rno~11' repiillred to' gi'll'e up

left iby

~ nl~ r~;cI;l]1lor, 1R,~ t vi~

\\1' ing

U~~

~ ,lwmilC' stmc:ulI:es ,of the <Irtc:i:el~t

~ ;Jtid ~lod!<lnl "I)'fol!!'~!'l:L the
rese!<lJchers found .~,n(lther'pEIi:1I" ()f ~~UHllio:~s: th~n ~ikc~,yhelp ~d ~ reinforce dle pOf'li.o['as l~,e j pl"1;lllei]'! dGSl:flb~~i~cd tb~lrio N~w~ri~lks. by
!OJ

b~ fl.'liPlaye:;d] ilk~ O)! movi~'. I hl'wl.ss1 m: :s.ays. !HL ch is g:.!!Stc!>eU: i!l,g Inlimt~('I ns probabl
m;:(:'~rwh.{:n IElll!:!~ )pncl"!t~ !TliHk ~~y

~

Qr

y wo IUId IIfIi't a I W,"ys I,ec,d~ .AI~d Illal me,a~~.:s the Inovi'e
~:ik~ly
~IRO:iI!EItiJ" F. SflRWI'CE!

wO\l1]d

~ 0 f ·'ki U!l:I:··UJm.~Jlll i.on~,.

o

the)" !.'!!d,d~dlbes(.; mu[.ali!)!mJs

Wile n

ml1ltaHon'§ tht dl'l;:lIrIgd!3i!~"llic.'i~lllt p:rcnfirn"s Illliicltno'fII.

difierem tl'I1.(,l:iilll.,g.

:~~.av~ .~

Za!;.1ilHal.t, '~Ih~ C.a,lijlo-rnia I !:Istijtl.l'~.e (lOr Ri:g;e.rl'!lrative ,""ed'ki fie (ell RM) has l'Ialmed nellmS(lenHSl Rilthtud .Murp ~y. IlIlnl~1 rel:erl~l;y hlil:a.d Qr tht Salk hutiwteinl S~n Diego' 1Iifldalormer Inember of lh~ 'W,I,;MI oard, i!:5 interim p;resi· b d'~nl. Mllnlll~lY saY5 hE! pl;n~ ~o ~lILJn(h11 ProT g r311qlrOf di~e~~~·o!iem@d ~s~ari(h g rillf!!s.
"(ONiSiJ!J!I!NIC6 IOIlDiIEiIN

I

NEWS OF TI-I E WEEK
,MA,R:INE (:;iIEOLOG

v

11'1\~~ II II~ypo!).esJli ofbiblic;alpmpol'ili.o!ilJ:

[~

~,997. l\~u mari IIDe gct)logi sls I~["()p()!ied dli,l;! ;", C'a[~raetw it'~~hc pH~,'II(!r o.f 2 lUI f'H 3.g~ r,a s ftUedH~,(;lBh.lck S~~ 84100 ~a~ ~g'o, driving
'Neolithic 1,'OlIfl1ller:s into We stern ElIfOIH.~

dinJ'!Nb'lcd bca(lb dunes:. :sG:L"ml.c :pt:ob.illg ,of ihc.ll~o.11I.1 muds, Oi.",y:g.eni!iloliolleS, !IiIIl~t:'ro~opic fox~ito;•.am;! ptllktl. C'ili.llig '-'lilol1d."lla th,.,: or.ugiml.!O:i1ll oH1.~em~mdlwpothl;lsir---:~ungtiilll;j !ru!ri!lI.'i g;eollog:usts,WiH[i3n~, RY,U.l <1Ul.d W<literPitlm,l<l1l of

Bll~ek SC;::Ji suspcet, He dislmsts mach of I;lire ~rrrre,ld)arl~:~ d,u ing 01'I.lke~el>rels and i.\lb~sc 4

~~tcil by elusions

~h<CI~ldjliQ~1~1 ]j~ck 'of

9C(:C,'\S

'to pri-

mai)' d"'I~,A'l.~!
researehe rs

i\;l'ui~t. e t;;,,'ii~, h

"many eon:UIJi book the
I

of 's:!udl:ie:spresented

"tid i~5piritlgihe: story ~lfNOO1h"g flood (~)cl(~n()(\ IkbrtlOl:ry 1,99'S, p .. ~:~32). Noor, 20 I, tI yea rs later, <I tOUI:l:IiI,l of [ft);:;j,(;:'t'!lrc isstil I h arsiving. <l,~HI almost all of it comes dO\-\iD:1 lsard on !lin]" 13~ff1c]k S~~ flood,

liij,mo~t-D~lh~rt>' iE:iifth 0b:-;e-rv~n~tyinP~Iisades, Nev.' 'iorik-have
ye,!r~, ;fig,U, <Ifgllledlh,.iIt,

:lh~l~.dd c~111~kler~.M:iih'l gnlifl ef :-;;!lr"1;IIIi1ti:1 be \
b1iH~lt ess lllill.em1l:lw r ithmnre-direc
ii~,I:·~L'lIiJLrr.:::iOf~lk.~ II;,'i~id"

10,,[100

lheB~lilck

111e ~,)ll()rre~doologi,ce\ride:n.ce g

for :I, em;;...

S!:['ophic I,;-'\'f;m\'\I;;lN ~~l~~!}mrp:!'e~~d.~~"'f(;h~~
w,ci.le [iln mere th~11l I,OOQl IlXtglCS ofp.apeni. :U:LcI tile' f'<lillofd~m mU~ettl(l3round~:~'De [Mael!: Se3,

L<l.te-:lly. !i!Jeo~iOgi s:r:; <Ire' .u Il flu:.:.: :kmkul:Ilg <II: mo['(t d~r,(;lC'bea-level gttrtJgG-,., .• asw·tl~,i.nsg(lo~ s r(:1111 level, h. was cut off froliiil. the s~h.y Medirtefrnl:l.t'fliIjD. Sea, th.ey s<I:y •.because sea ~,~%'t.'i~ logic indicaters ofpn~ now~h:lioug~in the W,l!t [flolnliV Hl spiU~~~rough dl~ Bo~po!:"U$. Bo&pon!$. R ichardFI iSCQU ,lnd A~ i AkS'l.!of Wheil~ .nleh:illg gl:lC.UOIliGfl f';_'Iii~edl se..,. level. ~be Memori:J I iLlniversi l}1 of Ne\vfo~md ~,<llld<lnd B~gel;: SCIli basi.~lfiUed lIJl i~1. I gaologuc i.!ilI'lam S colk:'~g~ICS have reponed several signs dUll

lake ~y,un£ pe:[~,[lpS.

m(xiie~~-zi~~d UJOmeters belew its curSeii] ,,\i"';1.S .1

the

P~I~[

50 yeon

O'l~[ poim~ 1l.1i;", gr.,,d!lil."J~

the BI.~ck Sf'<I filled

slol\,'''~'Y and

m~in~ llW\rl:lng taulWll>!:)ud:;; (}r~;a~ ,e{'lr~ l~eJF.Pllltill!it mikl Iy. "the ~:'I1<1jOri,I:)" wis.d01illl 'IYO~~Id ~IWlU!l~f' a: flood. be says gl;l(ll!(~i$'I. Ny;ran R. Cauo nf~t~

Melmlmi,n] Un i"rershy of NCWrO'llllad~ ~ndif~ St J~lllro's, He is 'edi~or~ifi;-chill;lf
of QUrJl,f'l,/{l(N' br~e.rn((tiorJ(lI. Wilmea.'C a [ltiW Cl]]~~liO:llof P:.lPt:(S .ippe.Jrs . .B~!~ .1 small cadre of re!>ean:.~~,elcSmai.[liD~ ta instlm ~~hl.;;n(ludl hypo [he!>isis seund ,n~dh~llrntf>that defi!lli,tlve evi-

gc~mtly.[n the QU(j~f!rntnJt lnrernmiorHd issue, they describe ~I C())'!C from the ~.l.~~l~,'j.w BIHC'k Sea ~b:l f thwII;:YlU"lh~.,\j sed im~wgtI~.id

down beneath tens
\\lfl~~r\\,'h,er!

Rya!n\'\!~l!~d h~l\{e dl~n

or meters

o:f

SP(H

high and dry. nn the Bilac::k

Sea Door just north of tbe
B[!SPO~;Ills.!hey !have mapped old ~,m::~ ridl~~$~!ld I~g,o:ons fnrmcd as tiil.e ~:akie' level slm'\,'ly ~:{ise.AUld somh :on~~l3tlisponls •.tl~l,)'y Four!d ill. della b~.:il~~. OUlnO~V illg 'MIlle rs by [O.OtHJ yeil.I,"S ~-\go,wben Ryau's

denoo l" inth~fliffing.
The latest surge of':re:setl.rch cmnes ill
~j ;lpern ilm, p

the June

scenario would ~l~lvl::ihe BI,Jck
Sea IQtaHy em on: R.Y''1n and "I haU'-dQ,;::en co 1I,eay;ae s d isag ree. "I've rO~llld ~nyself l~oUowhlilg[ho~ewhacri[teise ]111e Il~.~' :say:!! RY.fHl •."ge'tlt'ung my (nVml d~~alfu,"m,rheir sites, wld in every ease [undnn_g<l \Jeil,·y di:liIe:uc n l :ll tnr~':' \\Hum:~ Hi seott an d A ksu fn::m.d a delta bu iIt by Blae k

iSS-Wi.e of Qf~~mn,ral".V lmerrUlI'iorml and

.35 p<lpers :il] i! 97 I ~
p;l!.~ book, Th(,' 1Jt(lck

Se-a Flood Qlles/iou. publ lshedeasl ierth ls
YC~{fby Springe:r,. Thee

n~w ~~,a ~gree t~'!l1 pers
the
~ord

Nill'flQQd~'Op'i mOl! is runnil1!lI;Ji.ilg~i!'l5iI.~'"l:;'!51J'opni( !llcIodUlrw~h the IBOI;POIliiS {obQve ill nd in~fd. f~bil1utS400y~~tf$ f~g,+ But i,n!j).S't of ~liI,e .EllIl1mm':s oflhe boolk C,OIl;;·id~r t~~lt :-;~~m,1!ri{'l"ta ~Ylh, "L;l'-~~a~ i~

"ul1clrna.eoh:lgic<lJ
sh~J'!i.'M ~ign 'l~l!,ijtrili;:-..op~\tl: I iV:ii'~ ~o~tlld no

~he IUack Sea. MOO yearn .ago tWied fro," .. [1'<1,,.. idly ~dv!!~u~i.!~g "Af tbi:iopoilmt. ~b~G:us.t :;:G~. j

i~l1! un)" evidesee ]ut ~mlle'~maiDil.gbig:n:nJ cawI>lrophia"
i.ml the an.'Clul(;~ol,ogi.C'lI~,recQ!I'"d,S<lys

.,.n;~o1twlogi~1 AlI;}n GilbenofFonlhmn

Unl-

.mot~e:l ed itor cf'the book" V.~~enti~.~ resuJts shew lheynre amlli1J1y mu.d brought :~Il Y~ld,o ..Ho:D1l:lhach {) f 11m 1\;\.raIOJl [n:sthute of b-y bonum waters MmnOwU.[[[i.g dlrol!gh the Ap:p,llied Science if1Winllii.peg. ('0]I1[I(J~I.Th.e
debris f<lin"mi,gln 'i\~}I;:re tire Hood
\\Ull~d have

Si;:,f~ (l:1,i1:~fI.()'i;V, J:tj"~:Iiii. mld et'l'lile~glil.t.";'> find ~ d~dl@ fa rmed by u ~l,e·arbi'D'i vel'. as ~hey wi I~.soon ~'Pf]lrt i.~M~ff:flr: GIttI/('Jg_t" A¥. far~~J;~ put~biv(l boem;hrid,ges, RY<lll :R!y5LilUilpuhli5~,e;d oorifl!::

BI~d\;.Sea" s,he: says;" '!'."as,Itever th:'l!l ~ow, ~nd vcl.'Sity .in Nf.wyo.:k City" itU:l1 edi!Tlrofth~ new it m!:ie y:rddmlH:y OW;~ir,n!ilI~ne]1mLi ..... ~ook" Oue' aplJOIrem piece 'Of .sIiJlPipuJf~i[lgevidenc,e--lhc d:i,sCIJI\iery of the ,reml<l.:irnl~ of 3, NOI :so r<l:S~'.says c!QiiIs!l:I.1 !:lieQ:~og,i:Slliviiu GiiO~naf~'Voods Hal(l OceM(lgiW_pih,h~' [nS:~l'lj!'j\!()od-!uij_d'-II!1~ud hou~~ Wlen~d ~b(~m\:,,'Hb ~iQ:1li1 in Mass,a,c!lruseus., (Hasan. ,. native !>~one ~oo~s 91, meHl~CSIbene;uh the B~ lIc.k Se3. (S"r:el.!C't". 22 . J.','lp~eMOOr2000. p. 2021 )_:h'li!s Rommrai3l'n, whofil.liLdi€;lcl ~~m!,1gn'lphy in th~l no~. pallned O'LlI.L"]t llooks p,eculiar~" :!HIJlt> B~~~~k ea crulS.13~. ounuLy. has revfev:ed liiI.e S o Gm~(lrL, bUil!iiC'o!'C l;~o¥:igi!l. it,!; ~llythi'1g !non;: J;l!f;wlOOo!k ~'a.r Q~I(UenNJI:r S;t;:i~1U:~' R(."l'iews than a [lI:lllxj;ollil,], bmllc~,cl'mcks <lrid ~1ick:il. {lnd fOLn1.d. il: w<mt;ung. ~n p<lniClI~ilf. he says. the lh~fllhcro's ~h~iWO.~ogic ~vioom,~ 1,J~'d to "vas;1 ~~'Ollilts; of dO'H1)I" 'co:~~ccted;;1m-lind Ihc B:I!m::k Se<Iiby Sm,[i:et ~ieu,ni~b itn:(I u;ef>e<lrd]ei~"S £_<Ulgc '~~iliecptlin: ~nd sal~jllilyor the B'lack Sic." d ft(ln.~lbrrru;;"f' COil'ti!n\f~jSl, (;"{)~umfi~ ~tJ~l!ld~he OWJiI~.£p(ijstl5!1.mO yt'O;L~. The: ~'OOls.i~lClud~

BOSP0111S wd!IY. He 31:;0 sope.:lks of !'Hill a."'~yCl:~ l[1iI;j}~~N.i:S111'led escJ'liplio.1iI1 Of'''~l ,e.l\~101'dii~~Lry d .~
~

di~n~J,'l~dhs gotll'la !1!gF:.Erosio)!l<1li l%>iI:tu~s tJl;~re ~ llioea.r,) s~'Iiki,liig I.'>e:&enm.bbmce. S<lys. IiO those III .. he cr~Hoo by oiH~!Slro;PI]~ie ol!tburst~ ri"l;:~mgJ~d~I:1 ~ 12Ii;::es ,~Sdlf'lk't!.20 JUlly,.I'i" .307", ~
De~l)it~ t:~lcconti'}~lhlg {l:{:i:liIIle.. (Hosa.'l.
''i,~lO'hm.

"'

v.~riked 'l!'i~~~ Ryru:J.is gtmrrcledly .op~i- ~ ~lm!i:SliC'."Thel'l1ius mO~li$.un[~'~l ~o\vaf{1 SOIV.!ll!;l ~ dli:s.'" he; SlIy~."M~lYbewe 'U ~'OI,.'e i~ mnn:my," ~
..jR;I:cmUIIRI!iI ,A.,IIilEI!t11it:
!iI .. u

NEWS OFTHE WEEK
disapp(;t!r. And~h\) ldca th;)!~ i[ :~nrnndow~s makes it cl i nel"elili~ I~om <lny thli ng else here,
Theseale of [~mny of the ,early p:rojects '''<i$;\rer}' Il;'I:r,=,re. ['m ncn .'lg<r~niS~ig proj,ec~'S. . b U'Pf!QP~C' say_ "This has beenICrdficfor Iny rehj~.;im:::~.1.:· "~I success, l'h«lll be'ing said .. 1"111111 ir~ V(~ ryi lI'Q1Cjj~gt ed in 0 l1Jn'1i ~:r,ca:) t l~.f~t he C ~ R(iil~m!ip csn do~md l~st. ~b~l~f;we t"''G!;~liHU m.ore I]ilots, l be I~.e,'ei:~,sm <I:~I. ill.gS.. tlia Ie): I~s'OIP'ASII, 1Ni~!Jl rnlS :$483: m~IIUeilil resefilf.r.:lm, fu rid. essl€nli'i) tty a :28thN Iliimnsli ~1II1~f;!? l'~al is,l real pmbleJl'l. Ol'ilirin!,dly. thecornUllf)l1 f~lnd \'IIi'lS a t~1l from ;:uUDle inst itutes ~nu:Jcenters, So irwas a l:O~(l\)lrua,ets:h:~p.Ji < CO ~op ,~~!>,~ti.d l~s[ 1Nowr .1!~d [yo ~bis~iB;rr. Cmlg~~ made il <Ii llim:ul'em so IUll1o\M lUIS, ,J n il~lOOI~~e Sll'C'flnl like ~tIly otlln.cr [ilulitul:C]. Arn.d so \~,'Jn:al:"sCCIliIr'i11 ~olhisu~.\7I.!'e:re :mo[ ~Ul[ilj~li.tlll[t1!],. it'sabout worldng ttlgelhe~:;n:i~ goes back n)1 wh~~ 1 C'...~~: 'lIjo:~il'f\g.but\!te <'tilfe C ~\l!IlIy\V\tnldn~M~[hthe il?lnin: c(l~~~n~mity~ ~~ml~h.(!t bllth i~lt(;::rn>i!I.ly and !.'(.,,,,t,,rn,,Uy--t:[1 " die'"elop these p:lrograms, and we're much Il!1l0:],{; like the 00nci~.rge dmm, '~;h.ebosses,

I

Drawlingl a Mapforllhe TW8'nty~S'B'V8n Di'viisii'D'lns in NIHI'~sIArmy
B;IHHESIDI!l. MA,R,!(lAlrtijID~AklmJ, Krens!ky should h~l'!l~packed a n~:kjacket when h~ Iinove(l here, "[",~,e'directcr afthe N.uiion'l~ 1,~.sl~UU~~ Hltaltb l" ,t NI H '11) !iii ~\:~'pl~~!1i!lg of orr:uce says he'S ,already been lm~t,el,ledwilh cri~,k,is[Dlm; he settles unilQ his job, Wll.ic~l:i,s

'Q: What i5~I~e '''fi!ilg€rl~lr~intii~g''

[of i",~ivM-

York Ci ly.. \c\~mfir.~Jtcal led fOrmt1:0re' oe ntral pla~unn~Uilg: N [H {) yii.!!lrs ~,go in Sr:i(Jllr:e. ;u .1 n an inle:rvie\\'. the 5i 51.;ye,,~r~oldumlfil.u~-· !H'dl1gh;t tark~'d ~b<t11;J1t is ~",.p~de~.,e!;)s ar h Sian n'}l:d. \\'~~ere heheaded <'I $50 [I 11~1 ion iJ~1 ell ildl,"eIlJ"s he,dt h i:~lhi<li[i e, !Fiealao OLltt~,ined v
;~dl:i,iS~Of OrAS!... which \vUI soon Oc:coU1I1Iiepal't of a djviskm under- .Kreilil:llky"s diilicct:i:o!l!l, 1:~lla~ COllgure5:-J cn:'~ied. 1;0 encomp~ ss NIH on~ ees :Su,c]](,as UlO5e O'~I 'i'li"(Hlffi.e[l's, he..uH!11 and AJI)S_ K.re:nsky is now O'~lersee:]ngm]d(:om.se f,\;views (1.[ the Roadmapprojects and cn!,hu,ng .IlI1IQre rigerous policies .. such as

l!i!al gfaml:~ by d'iS:@csE!t:opic] abautF [NIHi~1 b::i!$ic,;IUy bunding <iI t::J!fOh31l1t.~HH
\\,1III !lICOi'Im. [~n: gf".mt5'J:~.d de[e,:r~lmi the [) errne

tobriag

mere orderto

the sprawl i~rn,g some
resCf'l.rchage~cy.

$.29 OU l:ioIflMomed]C<l1

"One thill!l\£. l've ~earned is, ,111),11<1£1, you
raise, someo:ua,eV!'i~1,Iuad" II from Dale side fJ,r l~~~ other, ;)!~d $Oln(:t imes beth s;~dles ,flt the same time," s~lys K,[cllIsky. who eame to

NIH frown Stanford U~iv~rsut,y Sehoal of

folio [fer a p!;lni~u~ard.i$~a8e]. Now l~~ro <ue<l.~ I k: inds of ram i11miU:i:o:~ of thillL AnI 'I s n;~lElfl,beil' .il]'lny [disease] area will be differ-ent bee a use ~t'1i.\·IlS< gb~:~u[(jeJ I~:IDI<I diITe:relrn,l way.I·~l, expccfing ~fulecommuniry and Cengress to rC5pol'ldto the numbers ancllhe co:n,~.nnLn.k~HiollS are gomll~ to be v,ery hnpnrtam, The most impnrlfl'lU p<~nis, if semeene else came and r!I!lJl the same (hi n~. ~l~ey\Jg.~T rho $;:rml;;;~!!IImbQr.
'l): D{DeSfl't:Cofli~l~ess Wdlnt IrfiHIHto a:ddiO!e:!;s

Metii,c,une I<ls! J[I~:u,iI:I"Y. Yel Kr~~,sk)lli:c:::,e!l!l's,u~dau~,tcd. As the t~rn'le~m,i.ts. for' Ih~ !m~xlrmlilild.whic'h \\IiU effie ia] dilfe'CtQf of the l'HH Offic·e ,0 f launch [hiil'> /',u~h:~u:oj,eels in epigenetPlJ:rU'o lill AI1'i:~ysi~ ~nd :SIHul~gi~ '~nij~imJti\l'~~" ies ~lrridlh~ lu~'erobiom,~" Hi~ ~d i~~d (Of AS]} siaee 8 hdy ..he f'Jc,l;,u. t~'l.'O main rem,J'rks IbU O\V;

rau \..

responsihitities,

The n:r:.;~i~ ~o ov~rs~~ 'Q: 'Wlhill:~ l:s If.em re:sI~lonse~,~hle dahilll that tlhll@ lit 0 aid liI~aI~I t ill kles~1!J JIIPd.JiII'g a ~lIa yfrom ~ il'IV'esti:gdl~o~~iliDi;ti:flte:d ROlls? r. thinkwhen people attack ~l o,r h<L\1C 'C'OI)cerns.they really mismnden;l:ami \¥~I<I;ti.~,:s3U . ~~'oout~dbn't view l'h~ R.)~idfn'~1l<!ISlI'J:lOnOI :ill:h.ic.11<'1.1 L\iVh.u <I~~Ir<'lc~ejj.me iii:!> t~,l1Jtil: '"'<is. ~~~'Mfw\'vay~f I(~{lki~l,g 'I~dfag,'" Orle 'Iewm ;u
UUIt. Bias [Ze~.'~~QUltlrlliSied~.t;.<!. !e<lm~ng IiI'~· omtory. It,!; fI ~),~ (~CC[0 f~s.kq1J1cs.t ions, ~ pl m::.~

st<lf~~d -4 years

iJITllplem,e:I!iJOIt:iolli of tbe' RO~ld,m<!lp. the $4.&3 I:ll 1.1 set of (:!I"QI.1;1>ClIJ 1:1:lingnit 1111hres llen .1
Ol.gQ

by N!.H Dir~cror IEli~~s
as ti!~dllg

Zc:rhouni, that.has

beencriticizesl

red l!Ilmld1alllde:s:? ln :my t~ml:1: ~r'-e.0:1' aU [h~ 'w()rd~ [h~tgiv(i h m,e the grC:<1.~:es.~: fe<'lr.~~.e~wenl "red!~'lndRmilcy" ~![ln~~S ~h~ f,)f~h~ t'\'1 lap ~itol, T~~~ f~n,a p~li!ilJ .IMi1<li~~e~o :i:s dlut re:dujl!1d<!~cy i~impt)l,taU!u me ln SC~,CI]~e', :~I'j"()lI dotln G1':p!erlllllcIlIIOnOCl:mul no eue pn.wes l:~. ir's correcr, .~~'l:i .n • sort o:f worthless. So we IHIV(;'lll h~RV{~ a esrrain
amOllll111@frep,et~I.~on. I. tilmin.k redwu:ld<lincy is ~,:Im. i:')le'of the the

~.~.lloli1ey frem ill1v!!:sl].£.alOr~]l:Jiil~~ued £rmll~.

I
&1

iI.e I't::~specl ing 21 in,sdhHi<:S ~'l'ild,e~!n~rn.
II.llHm!lge :il\'vh

Seceud; o.PAS,1 \\dH, leekacross research ponfy:lio ,j!Jnd find b~U(l1"

Nu~rs
te

'l;V.l!y:s

bl.l:hold~r. FOrs,(N'lJiII<l

p~i(lP~ll~lD"~SOn~les

lh,e MI rf of irs

Illfcme:lJJdously. Ib:r a;then; i.lt: i:S3 ver)i'wofrii,~

:;om~ I:opie. One in\lesH~.uor s<~jdIU me•.
':A~~, rn. the :redt:uld ..nn one"!'" So in
mil."

m'e rorm.id!lb.~e d~a]l.engi!;:s•."A ]o~ oflhis i)i goillg to baH

Obsen/crii:

!>3Y Ihos.e

.lUll

~ d.O\'>'lffilO Ilm,,'weH :~.eg:els a~'OImgwlilt~:] im!sli ~ ~ nue dir~C'~on;," s~.ys Ibr~l,cr m d]N~IO~ N ~ Hma,'Qld: Vo:!lnmls.n,m:l,'p~,'es;ide~lt of Melll,~,oriil<1i1

~o do thi ~~£:s u.s:ide the 00' ...., o
r~llew<lbl.e rOlF, 1,0. And rllaf:' wl:i:at r ]~,ke. If poopl~· d(Jn'~ u$~i( QI! d(li~1I't Hk~ llti~ ~;~()u]d
Thcs~ a::~5'~~~r progri!n~!s. pOIi$]ui.al]y

o S]oa.n~K.c~~.eri!lg , '~wc'er Center

iU'l

N.;l,,,r

cmnnlll,lIlil.y, peapi.\; \VCiJ'Ey .abom dlilt. B1IJI;t, I:he :same time. d':peop~e ;find out ,n l~lCy'.re:do.ing llL'El s;;un~;bfng •.dl~y ~h(l~~ld, t [[\:;11"10\:1,1 a'btmt .it I'can 'I: pre~'C:ri:be ~,lO\\i Ihe,y fClSpond ~o

t~~~ 'VM~ Ih~"ydo. btu h's o(i ~,re!i;,,~. 0:1"

aS7

O~ 28 APIFlIIIL Z~)O~h JOHN fnZP'AJRICIi< told l~le;wor.ld Whlll ~,l,e had been keeping

secret for more til an a l/lilur"

f\t

q aartess of the Depa flllll1em 0 ~ lute ri'c)l.· iI~ W~~hin,gltlT!. D .... !lar.!k~d b~ l~!j,'{l [ibi:~~t C seeretsries .. Frul:zp.atri!Ck on:li1iI:lQunl,c:edI ennser< v~~tio:~, miracle ..The majf;sd.c .ivory-bUh:d

l~~' h";:fud~

seutheru QIdgmiw~h forests lh~1l 'livas ~ilslseen during \VtH~,cl,V\l."r U -:HiUper::>i .':lll"edg, n l:h e :ilig 'Woods ,ofArk<lns<ls. "l:~, the world ()fbil"d~ ing," he ~~id, ··nothing could have been w~!jdpecker,-.,n
~lllllbi,etlllof
IUtlI.l"C

!:loth 2[104 Oltld I'!t.lrly 2.005, and he sp~cllLlotres ei~:ine'r f]]llwn elsewhere or died. S:ll;.(;l'IHics lhifl:ll;. lh~' m~!'metiijd!lg ivorybW was m.'\',eUfthere to begilm wi.th Hl:lcll~<1Iil the C0r11!~Ut~am m~s~>Or;)1:.; otherw~odpeek~Hs aud everiuterpreted l-I blurry '1li.d,eo. "Why WOiLll]t! ytmmll1:QUlffi.ce ... one or the b igges.l thibill£~ eve:ltinNott[1 American omitiILo]Qgy aud:~o[ :~l.ave ecnerete, irre rm<lMc evldeuce?" asks Mark Robbi:~n Qft~,leUu ivertJ]i:1l ~,thas

clit.:ltnd their objeothrily. ,rn1d !'it!:}f ~.be!yhEw!:: no doulJb or regret s, N()1,ll,i. a~~llmeU.S. Fish a nd \Vildlif'(': Service (F'~/:S) br.;:gilm!,.!; a.1~SSI~{l N) e:IlI""I(;;u::y oflhe :s:e;;1[d,l~Si~: ,m;d5. masl: biruers n
<H~I iiVlo:rybiU

O;'!ndmilhoi.ugi~ts :>~mresig~~d U~~ I.W('!,! ~f o was in Arka~,s;<1s, in 2[104. the
ehaaee to
S~'IIle

I:he species is

p~SI,

.. [ \M;Ult'110

hQ[le 'l,g'I~l1IcSt'111 odds;' S~}y~ JMle:S B·edmrrl
o'·Arkamms S;tal'C Ul1!iiv<:rs.ity ill Jcnesbero, ·':allll mysc:~ell1;tiric lugi,c s.il)f::! if::; ti:eep inlhe ~.~.','

s[ly of

Kansas
ITII~Jl:y

illm, Lall,'>'ilJience.

vone..", of!::xdnctuon:·
1F1~e:e!~liIg Iglliimplses

To

crktk~. thi~ is, ~ story nllgorad TlmA:' lIO!~~st \l;uli<dlpG-eJoor i~ ~he Uni,h:;d Staws;.. [11e i\rQ(lryb:iIU (OUI,IP\e:pl!itU,~ p.rim::.ipaiis} ~.Q~l pn!t{H.ical~y all its o~ld~gIT1iI'Vd~~9bil'a't: ~'cu w lo£s,e·f.'; cut down '~he bouomlal'ld fbresitN .of I~~ SCimhe~~~It':~!lli Um!~li\;dStalt~, A'l. ~h~bi!'d~ beeasne scarce lill1l~e I SIIDs, orn~,dml:og;~slS<ll'ld

iil !!!
~

hoped-fbr

lhiIn I:his Ho Iy Omi]."

.~Il~eJli~ions, go.~e ,U~ir:l,r <Iud the pO\'Irer ofJh.el,iel:

,",""f~mrdintlr)1 d<U!hn,]]'111 rare tl. ~}!e\1!J'S in COD1JSenra:l ion. h '\11,,'3£ also 3 cro~\lni.liDg~tch:i;:;;vcluc~nfo:rFitt.~lricll:, d i'lTtlC::lOr reomel ~Un iversi t)'~pr-esl,i.g;toWl's e
till p ieee' of good

h was

Lab ofO.!i~irrhClI.~j'. ",;J.fuir)

~~a~:'i~ld~dr(~b11~ 1

a'1I1:p~ifioo by 5:\;;crt"lC,l', A~(]rHl(]oc:h re'lU'!1l (]f ~e.i· elllli~lS WaJSmisled by hope it seems 1.0them. ~wj hlinQ~ hy ecOnf1d~lJilt;!~b~l ~~'Ol\: t ~:rchi.~~ "''I'ltl~.d b;fi~lg '~beder.:li1il~I'I,Iephoto, Fi~pmrrick and liiib; cpU~o\t.~U(;!Oreject th~)[?£ ~:(pll!iUl~uimH,
.v .

!
...

~ ~' ..

~
~

h I~orI b iard eve f. < The .~4..;mi.'imh ~i~<~~th ission yi~.ld(;:d. Si~Vm ~l'l] eyewil.n-eM5 ijighlil1l.~., M.mml n~c{J{lilirlgs. !md <I \l'id~~o.pub:~is:~1.ed I.doll~ .~nScience that O d.lY. "We have coachrsive proe r rbat rhe ~.vo:l"y-'ltl:mc::d \\roml:peck!er has survived lnm Ute 2. i. sl cemury,.'" F itlp~mkk dI«~h'Lred iiilL~' \'~Id)eoreleased b)' CO:IF~,eU.Pnvare donees m~c1 ft;ldl;rn~ ~:s.i;lIm.Cles o]:')i;lJll!ed lI~~ir '\,~,'~I nl~ lets
SC'<I1rC

My the most intense

biro~~rs ro.l;l~d ~~ shfl(l't

~h\l $~w\liv(ln;. fQ:r tht;ir er :! c!Jl~ec'ri,ur:us.B}'Ih~ Hl60tl. most 1J~:Uli[1l()\logi~Th~ were c()!~,vil1!Cied,t~~.e ~ory·lbiUed '!;\'!l{l!i;P0C"'er ~ h W11!'i e."'lt~nClt Ye'~:eV'll:::[yle~,,' yem1S., ., :l~;1IliUeD" or ~ birder would an\~.oullce :II. s:ughtil1l.g..IE1IiJlcw. i '~:i5sm.'illed that tbey were m:i~~delll~[yhtg ~ <I pileated v.nm:lpedtl::'f iDJ:1 :ompWi p'il(,d/Ui~').<I ~

8

v,1O.rldceiebrntecl a seeond cll",l'Ioo to ssve the

a!\i!~'i[i!$pi:ri['!S bill'd.
AJ11d yet .,fier mor,e than :2 )I,e.,,!"s of herculean elIorl:s ~~HI sm~(1!tirnes; vit~,pe:rm.i'll~ deb<llte.indi5p~I:I<lb:l:e cvi:denQc gflh\:! bi rd's exi!it~fIicC'bas n01t emerged, Fi~l!Pa.trh~~stiU bc.I~"e\l'e8ili,i:i\ te<llJil,1 saw .11IIl ivoryb in. ,II thm~gi:l he never did~&~mSi(:]f.i!l the Btg\1\/oods ill!

Im~~ species ~ai]~Ol!,hij~ldwUirll~~ bou;,omIOllnd ~ ....• fom::sts. ll1l 111966,.1l;il'ld on.wl.thor John Deanis i ttlponed OO~~!'!~aa lvarybill lna S\','a:Il~f.lin ...
east Te:';:'<I.S:. He s:wa:nm, :I!!.<l ked th:rolil.gh the ~. water ,~llldm~:~1>l1,~~c1~o!§Ci c10S!~ ~'odk" ye~ :!il ::Ii
00

cae believed

Geol"geL.o"','ery Jr. oflm~isi'!liIla

Even a ~~ootoo SCi~l~i!;l c~1!.~gl1tI~C::cwr, '
i!i1Q

hilllill"

~.
f!5.

s.it)! (LSLJ)

B~wn .ROl!ge,pf~~t pre5id.e!~lOE'

St<a,teUniver-

~ ~ ~

NEWSI'OCIJS
~n!l~k.l'it~l:dyhlg end~l!lg~r0dn(Yrid~ scmb j:ays aad hel ping 10 create it mnn,on~,1 wiild]i fe

II

w~~"lso a

rc.fuge

U)

save seam

re.mIUJ~llil~un,g hSibinlt.

In

~. Sl as c m:7,nor ofli)~f(hm U'le field M nseum 9
in Ch:icago. Jm.~O]s. ~1l:: as ~1"'vl)Lrtk~d w AOU iii i:;he!il prize for lli'eSeilrclrn.

s

00nvi~l(:{;d irba[ ifh'ii; didn'~: "'C'~~ rhe Mrd '1vouM n'u~ygo extinct. l1nl're hadooe:1lI no Ill"e'Violis exhaustive sesrehes, he po.in1[S, out, Corne II had l~:e,tip, U~er~s!1lll.rc'e:S"'lI'Id the
g~mpll.OI!iD. "Nobody else h~d l~'e balls to d.o

Afi(:!:" a ~~l!oI~~h ~n ~h~' P\:!~.rI Riv(:r. Ilf!j:ith~~~ g.rou.p 1~o;!d 'k~lil!.'!da!'!Jything. ble-ilight TV comedian Jay lellio mocked the search by re,ld]!1g ;:1 n~\'I."~r"rer he'.d ine: "Researchers ("3.~II.'Ofind eXliml,Cl binI." [Ev,enllliliJly. the

it." fhzrmtrick MIi'S. H~ h~si!oi;h~!{!11 nS~rlilcy-a. d,ec':isinn Ih~l Q \\,'lJ~ldhU~f b:ri:~g!ll(i l~~m criticism fo.i being iiuu.~l!Ir<'I:un,dinsu ff"i,d,enlly skept ieal, Fitz-

p~ltr~'Ckfear,~d

l:I~~I:~f word

(If

thesearc

h got

Luui :;;i<ll:l;,' O:fr:li'~ho~:ogi;'l~, OC~~:l'Y di~m issed ( S rhe KlI~~v<ln S.ig:~,l~I:I,g" ~m.~he Cornell team S
''\!OIl

ktudo.li fmm. o[ih.€'1" esearchers r

lihr its eau-

tious ;:1Il'llys.~$ oftliil.eur sound f1!Ccm:iun.£s. whi,d:l
mm~d,omtOo hav~c,,~pnll!:1;;d ,gl~n~\flti". !!lOt th~ d is.li:mI,otruve OllbJ!e=knocks :ual.ooe by i \JQrybil Is. d Despite hei!.dhlg home C:'I1r1j'P!.y-h~l:D1dcd.lhe experience fired 'up FizIJ'U'ulCk. "The ,dllllilille re be lilt':'~ ~1> SJ dlJe2irl'i eamc tl:1i.I£,·' 11£ ~ay~, S,e,Ciret liIiIis:silOmll
f\!lQ~h£lr (lPP orh~iIilityf!~g~~jl~ 2. )I1:<ln; I;lt~f. :->1: Fitzpmri,c'kw<ls i,:n. his office at 8:30 a.m, on

mll,"'Llle :pJ1acewoul!d become ('oney :Is]!alild wih birders pmllg im Ol~ltV>'er the li)Ii1~e:··lIll~.1l1<l1ld:y; ~me ~'i,VO doz.en. IH)~i.iI..\(!:omoe:~.'S\!I,~re nmd)' to proL~Ct the habita~ a~ler [he:;,\nlto~ultce~ ment, but' there ""1<1$ao o.D1s~~mghit. 111f: N,nure CP~~CtrV~l!l(:Y. which wasinvnlved illUlh(l
searcb, had ~.h' o\!'.'tl:a,cm.1CCL".ImS,.: ~~ ~~<ldi:leCI.l blllY~ ~mlg land ~o c,on:sc'n'c bolU)~rnd9:~ld hardweed l~o:l1"e~a r~l) red 'ttl ~I.aews of t he search and ""'QIiI,llI..H:n1I~ ~~p i l~riCi1::f!. More \~ohl,lii~:een;itJrj,\~ed.<I~Isigniliig lege)'11
fllf'

t~c J\o.m::rica'll Omi~}oJog:iMS.· Unjo!JI. Or,l;)l!_ghil ~¥O 1J~,mwgIOlI!phs, f i~rQry..J1i~h:d '1 {oodpeck!:lfS, o l 10 }\.oIJ·£; ~~Illiai meet iIl~ in1911. Lowery be~:i,e\fedth ..t t~.1ephotos. taken by an iJ.c'lmli]rn,~ !:~1!10l:;. \.ver~ n~'al btu ol~~r or!litholl)g:is.lt~ ~h(lllght the b:~IX~Sleakedlike posed specim~:GlC". ~[~s ~~plUlflition was ta!l";Iil.IS:hod. "'1 wish ItlJl.W th;d .~ h,)d$;l~id nQ~~i~lg 'Ib!.mtt~!lt}:;ebirJ:s."
11

Bel''''''een 5 and II Ap.ril .• I~.ere WIIS, <I 11urryoW' si!h~il1gs,all by lone.a~mmel!rob~~f'i,ers. (JOrl'" j w;tren~!f.lI1.ed from theCache ~j';,le,1I N,<Il iO:U1!;11 cel1l1ooOlbQlIldv! lack OifcQrr~bor.nion, le:ll:re}1 WildUf(l R~fl!l!g~ ~Il Arkansas, \v'~~rc h~ ~f1:d.~ ,~r~us Cor~~H.lh~ lngisrieal ~l~na~cr. .01:" fr~end ImdJseen .m, ivorybnL Fil;Zpalri:!;: deci.ded tn doublclI,pi the obser\ICr.i., Alrer li:lillt. j gfm~d him fOif d~t~ils flrl(lI ~i'ioaHyal>kred: lh~ro~V,~iS ln$lon:en'taru ~;jgh[i!,g. O:rn25 Apr! t "Whm melim,e ell a nees t1'n31 the bird you S<'lIW Duvid LUIlE::alll---an elet:llLic3Iell~~ineer m the

l Mm:ch 2'mVI when Ti:mL~Gallflgi1ercO'l.nme i:~ .. wild-eyed. G<lU.<Igilmer. an avid birder who. ed~t~ Ct'I'r['leU's Lit'in:g Bird rmf~gi1li.fie .. h;ld

GO'lfid!ell[i~~ ..ity dflCIJnwnts. The ~ovcr ~!ory cl~d(a!~ locals was d~:(l!;1heyw~~~ doi.!1J,g t .1 biQIO'gk:<'I~ilwelJw.~·y forThe NiiI;tLrl.I,'C .c;OJ.lse~

vane)'. The birdwas code-named Elvi'$.

WlIS :Il,ot'Ull. ivor y-

billed \\'QQdpi;;lcket'!"
Grl.II.E1ghe'r repljed, "1: In i!b.sOoh~telypus..

he [!aler'lvwte.

NOl.1.eofltli::. ooded~,\rell
<11

foreslry studear i!lll.SU. ~FI!epouedwhar he s ~hflUght w~:~ l\\,'fl 'i,\'iory~hiU(id\''1,'()(uJ~c;k€'rs, whi.!eDu'l'key !ml]lill~g nearr the Pearl R:uver '(,l:I~,

:m. Davl~d Ku~:ivan.

iri ve linn this b:ird
\ViJS

au ivory-biUed

w~ipeck!er:'

.~April ] 999 Oil,Man auspicious day of ~~,e yeal: to report 'S,f!!e:ilng .i\'orybi~15),. He'
rceeunted
lili:,e: £ighting::,
CLq,~lt.()r

file~uriek ~m~llCIo'
d.iiHely sent Gal lagile'U"
b~clk to

[0 ol:"n,~I.ho,~.{lg.isl

the

i':W~lI1lP

J.lmesVan Remsen,
s uaded eueugh

by K~L.Iivan's .aCCO~Ln~ to O[PJ~!~l~;i;~11 ~-a~lih,Z;~~s~. Sport Op~h~sfM.~d!Gd ,'~well,,;plllblkit;~d !l:1]bJl~ in 2(~02.
,.,

MU~t~'fi (ifN~ulJI.i"~~, Seienee, 'who \~~

ofbin!~ .u,lSU's
p~r~

w irh a top g radu .• lte

s.mdcnt. T1h~~:i Il ~11id·,
Ll-il:<ll'chl"he eeavened

~ m~ri!1Jg 'l}hh~Sup .. :mcbr~ i!llci.~cl.le'!In
of blrders f~nlllIC!l1!IiIn.~U d:l~~ c'OIl\lpe:tes ]11 t~e '\~/O rid Series, 0 r Bi lidi 6Jig:.. $e\~e!;<d dtlys. later, they weretrorapieg and paddling ~h]"(lugh~h(; rk;Hl~~. $:\'!i.I.lilmp'. But during A tlU'll week. ll~e only ~li,IIoodp~c:::ke:rs tin.ey s.aw were pi I~<l~~ds.Th ~ [re<!mw~s rru~m"He:d. i!w~d most orthtIliU~Rdl t,orelurl:l t'o lhe'i r d<lY job!; at the ~ab. ~(It Fitt::P'Ht.ick d~ci,d,~d lOpr>e~ 3he,~d. Ih<1\i:Jr'ng ~~!ll oon~ld~!lC~ If!O~:~I.~gh~r}; sigiJl,ting. "I, I:lave 10 pul: :lml)f f::dl:lia~1l1 'thos;e ]:JeO]::Ik:

8 nne better plaeedte .~\~~Mdpecikerlh~)~, F:itzprnri,ek. who is sJw'"d, <mllbitim~s. ::l,ilm.d decisive, "Firz never goes. '~ balf~"II)'W on anylhilUl::' saYl> Fralilk 'G~ltwh!,l ~ reti.red 3.3 ch i:ef :scielln~isl of ll~,e NiII.tio:ma.1

§

led by

Come

1m, <I~

so mmnned

Fitzp<luick.

There may have been

!l small

,exp~lit km.

nil) save d:u);ilvol:jI~lhmed

i

:! Audlilbocl!~ Sm~i($ry

~!1Ne'"\l!'Vel~'k ·i'ty. ··H~ (:'I!:'! :~ m'!Jv~ :~m,ou:Gl,~.a.iu!i:in <'II way lh~t no !.:Hhe,r

.~ omithologi sl ca~l o,'" A_I~,~~rv<Lrd r~~lmt~ '~ho d g z \1\nem a\~, to .1 Ph. [),;It ,P'·.uH::c:t'On. Pnz:palTlc k

.~ b~lJ;h\vh~C'~.ed tllf!O~'.ril~' I'~~~' . AI1l~zon in the

:~ :197'o.s all? ",:80s. d,u~co''Ii,ell"iu,g 5!infe'll.Il~Wi,1 .ei s.p~c~.;:sot b!~ds. He llmiod(; all eViiln b!.~g~cu Oiible to .s('P~.rm..;: :f~c[ from

nctio:.~."h~S1l!)'S, H~

tilde Rock, wliilo P,I;IF tid pll;l~d in I'h~PeOlrl ~vtlr:;'\,'l!lle~~-f~f!d R his broll'le~illrn~I~lw fi 1:Im,led4 "'sew:r;ad~I.mm.pse.of <I 01. bird flee]!"!g ,.I tree. h~h.s bt'Com~'\jvilhoil!~ dmdn the mO(lilt' i/lJl.a.lpeiJ bild \~deo il~lhisitl:llY. Li"a~ the o~he.Ii');.fi l.~p:!llrlick\.'!I'as i.u~iti~1ty d iSi1~pp;1illiltiedb)r the viJdcc's (ffi~l~]~ A~t~lough it}1;. [~~~ tGaw~, was;'Qnfwi~l.(:~dfIi'O:~:ui!II~~~ :sj!tbti~g." l~~lt I;~U::: bll:(I'\'-d:!! dU::~'e"nui, they h:uJ: intrligu~r!groCfl!:diugi>. 011" doublL'l knO(;k$, ~[)<.ill "k,(lIU"

IllJni\lefl>~ty of" An:kl1m.,lS.

I

NEWSl'm:Us
c;Td'~!>. th~y\'v,!!r~u~d s,o~ide'\tid~r!cl;:-dc~~r
P~,lOtOS:Ol~' Y~ldeo 01: a nest hoi e ~h,It\1!'OU Id CO.IIII,~ vinee skeptics, As Luneau h3S said, "lf y{)'m have M'ImJ,~edd:m!'!i! Eke apierare er video o:r sound reeerdlag, then others are ~bl,~ to rrmlke up I,he~.r-minds based Om!, cieneemrhee s Ih~:!iDathclr Wccling~ o~, huwmluch o they believ~ sl'i:t1l\~b~'idy." ",~ilh lin~.enlnlllJi Ilg out Olm, the 200~2!Oo.S
< ..

se;;l~on-t~.l!;l; 0111 'tji,]ctrees

ie'~1;l:iowould
3:1m,d

OO~ln

be e:1l1\L~rg:~ng

,it would 00 :umpossiMe ~o see

,,~'Wlming-]~i'i~trid, ~i~eothers beg<~ii1! and plannll1ig :[0. the ne:..",~fiekl season, Fi~pfltricl
Ed itors m &iem;;{! .m~heduhe f]mtlp.rudm: .. l:iol1QHiw paper so ~~liui[~(]tdcl be: pl!Mis~~d online, along \'~lliit;lm viooo and ~I~.ereeoedthe lIiHngo.i:nlJ U) Qb'l~Ulin 3l1m:y .rm:ore video evidence mll~ytulUe seen," .s.ays Nl;tn'~jml bumneniuik, ill ings.bel'on::!' l'~c news broke' in the ulcd.ia. w~'pecket expert v.if:tojO~rled the team [h,llr ··Sr.:iI!HCVZ 'I.\,.u:I!t:Cld 10 dOI~i il\ \.'!,\'~dl Ill!!i.emib'IH'gO H~d 1~~I:'I:ke: !lp~l!is;fui:' Filzl~aui.d s!I},s,. It a !>~son< BJI :F'clmlilD1"lOO:c5.F'il·~ll"lrlekfllL'e~Us, h re'~u~il:edl th'~l·'we need ~obegii1 to '.Iel OJ::> i,"''():tked; SliOries f1.11i1 in 459 US.n.ewspllpers. ~htltUghl'~1~ L~.l:wITIuvideo fl! lus ~~ght.ing,,, pl.UI:S H4television :o~.lOWS.~!!iDd "'3u:ad~o s,i~Q\vs. wi fu. dm)flt~d mo;~tl' t(l .l5~.PPtH·II]t'l: search, sound i~.~Qingl~ b~ ~!'!i(mg,h:' A~ the p~s:> conference, h1!~~riyr arid th~ At the-same t:illle, Fitzplilta:ick was eommu·~),ep.mtl1lcnt of Agl:ic'ul ture 1U,UlO~ll11l.;-ed The ream we~:lt back to the' Luaeau vktoo" !1!k:t!Jtimig widl the [)epi'!nmem of the h100rklf; T he more 111ey ~ooked" the more co~v ineed joim livncJifl.g ufS]oJ: mi~~~o!1! fbnh~ eenserwhe:r:e Ihe iJ~SOIlimd COilil:lineCI.iollS. James Tate, scl- rheybecasne dUUl .it could 1I;U)il be <I pileated wdoll of the i'\iQry~;u~,led~/I'\lodpec:ker mm..:!its l'IuOhi.!L Fitzpatrick and iii fewothers were enee r.dv.iser ru Secretmy G",k: NorlO.ua. "\':I!S :1 woodpecker, The Wllli,gS had u "\'liaire tr"ililiJlig edge. The 'wing. bears seemed very fast And '~~l'i$.~db.ack to ('orne ~ll n, <] :privOIt£jet, o fbrme"~liSSi:S~<!I.Ilt din.1ctoJ()if~,h,e lIL..b OfOlillithol~' ogy. "We wl!lnKd tn ~t;;[ ~"~m,lIchblly'~ill'n. foolu th~' l',iz,:; ol'tbe hiJr,il!m~i4f~&\H:(ld it ,JH.m~hedan 3$ l~.esmml'mnellll: U) put llillmuey i~~iJ ,c(m.~er~ the wee. WOISmU!~1ia,OCI big. To oo.~sl:er t~~,eir Th@,powdJe'f ~(!ig !@!.x'P~!!I!!I'(!!.5; l~;le l vmion oH~,isarea as.weeould," 1::":it'Zpal:ri,c:k ! a~l!m~'l1!i~~Ih~ ~rolup mal;; cncd~ models O)~d Tille :'!Ql :'!:o~!~.e.em{l!l'[. Gj II rsea Us. pro'!lidt~d ~ :SOilys.He also decided liney ~\"Q~LI.d. <I1l1ll.UU:mlCe: l~eel1<1.dedthe escape Ili~lt oflhe bird, OII!beit :t;l::ta,:lfk that "1'1 it th,e powder keg .of ,~.opem]d not Ih.e :li1nding I,mail theyh<1d la~lgilLl~!C evidence and with 101.il1~,yUappf.llJg Willgs,. U.ey FUmed ~'l th~ e;';peclatio.lJ;s ~D11 i\\V:"Y that WOl:5 jusr unprecea paperaccepted for publk,uioi.l. exact ;;f"Qt Luneau Imd! ti!fk~"nthe videc, U:!!il.lg d~lrntoo,Once ~t got ~~u;ri~. il :~<t~llysgi:OlUt of the same C;[Il1i~],.:Ii."'l.fuI,e' ~um;tp(lrSi~lCm.kr~:s cant rot" Th.c' tow iii e f 131:n" ky,. Arkani>:lIS, pl:ooobly at theeilfld of[~,el005 I and! ~IO'diLC;d (:nJ,U;llq~io\L1 is dml: h i", Ilf{lb~,bly ,;U,] rLlll<l~-e51:~Q the !:iighf~l.g:!j, went wild \~dfh, PUf'Clfiekl ~,'liS\Jl1i. To the leanil's d is£lp'poill~t~ hK"ry·h.i~l~ed\1l,iO(Jd;pec:ker:·lmnmert~ Ill&. S~l)iS, mot ion, SO.ffine 70expens and ol1ki(l~ s, iucludFit~I1@~:rkk (:~m~i led D~)]1) l;.':f1J!'I,('I~~'y,.~di K torm~~L l!lmh~mI,g better ehan the irlg ,;~bw~g~ud~~rg~~e'rlfu ai~edlhe ~ed(lnlll I, j video turned up ........ despjte in-chie f of Seie» fir!!' ,:.tbout submini Ilig~1 recove'f'Y tt'!'ailill-j record mnn ber, Man), scipaper, [1:1 :;;~I"I (:dho(l:ria:~ptilb]i$hed whh rh~ (l~t:isl~~\.\; alse S\li.13.\""'d. At fi:~l. "1 "v.:~s.1~lmefforts including hoif;[ing ..re ! pilper. Kennedy reeslls lJma! he "responded pi ejN:!.~Y'I,cccp~.I~llg."~eC'<l.U Goolfreyl s :~.iI or ~ I ~ i~~1 N\"'WYorl!:~ seeeadl" f\u'bunl U~liv~rsi[y i~l f\lab9lm~. who beeame § Fie~d IlfllaJrk:s" IVOll)'biU~ kighl} flu::, ·nitli<J!~u:scri.pl: en!~ m.n fo:~' reviews w ll!1)Qireskeplii(;'~1 OJJi~T I~~kul:; a do~elook al,lh.e <1 s uperl1 (fally res~nlble .~Uedli1d i~c.arl.y .Ap:ri I nnd \~ 1oieil:t;:~dtdcd 10 be vid~(). "U \~~ SdC:HC:f!, iI. \\Ill.S. thl;; Lab of g WQQdp~k~~s (tel!) bJ.ll <!I~ Il.illrgl~f ;;;: puMi sll.ed illlllnill~ld':.!VI.<Jy,. O.linithoklg)i, .md it~'I."lsFil&.'· ilnd h<l\l'~distincl ptufl1ag;e. ~. B~n~th~rs ... y th~}/Itmk(;)d 1i~~'hc ~ vid~~'D BUI o~ M.o!~dJ~.y •.15 April., the f;owry wi~h di smay., "I was \,,'U(d~d fl,gl~t from lhtl Ileake::d,. :~ pioop.:JJradou n s,tl!lut:' s~ys Nmd Sllyder.,~ relire,dl f\:VS 8 I.J for ..n .]nglOIJlI1i(::em~mbylhe bio~logiM. He ~nd .~ f~\'I,' od'ncrspri.\i.uely Deper'unenl or t~u: I nl:tcriol';, Tme exp.rnsscd C!onCClrml5l ~o Fiazp~t;rick <'tbou l llhi.c [! ... q~! ~dk,ty[le'!'I.'~i(l ]=~!JridnOJrnd dn:JVie ~neng[h of tile evidellce., BUill lhey .kept ~ \. :illl ~u~r:J,ging rZi im'.lorllm, 1'0 IJ1H!:Ct (Iuiel. :1m,Ql \~"OI.nling to r<li~,lo:lrn." joyl\d ~.II~d ~ W'hfleo uolml1g ..--fitt!p~~fick lilt Uu.~Archbold Bi{lhi [!h I)' r:iJ bl.iC!i l~ld~~rf!de:. ~ ~gl~!l)rlllin:1J l:ogi<;.11 Stal~()n to e~lml.'lII~le evi~ the: j'erOlnc' Jacll::s.on W<I'lj allHl:n1Ig the emly di;;ncc "It! ~en G·~orgil;l . to\'~r)~ ,find !l:~epHes. ~(.'l~'liHh('iI~,g,isl A mFhrrida (i.u~f ~ JOIUIII Den~~ds~~, ..ve ll],eir repuu:.uio[l:!; CO<!.Sl Uilmi,v:el:sity i.~IFor[ ~Vlym"S•. $"u::k:son i!> ~ rU~ffilcdby nay~y~n;." Ta.te ~ys, "1 did not: no ~i:r~'lgcr toivorybi~I;;;. hl'Lv.iflg S&:e:~!]lOI"C ~ V'>,<]IU that to hOl]l'lD'efl toth~ seCII,\etlll:jl, orw me,," !mOl~, ]100 nmS!i:!lJi.11l ::;pecimel'ls.<uulwl~ltten <:Ji ~ Tat~. \",hOohil.d, shcdi;ed ,(I kind of '1V'(u)dp~cl\;:~ d~hl1lcd hislory 'c,a~~,~d St.'(J.n:l~of,~l.je ~ bt h·(}t~N"~Bilted WQ\()d{J~(',k,(:'r. A:I,Ujj ii.l ~,986. . c.,l~ed l~.e yellow-beJlied 5<lP5UckcJ]""C<lIiil,1!il: ;'\\\,'3..y co:~vinced.; when FWS, C(l!li\l\'l!l~d ;II fl!l.(:~(in.!Ilto diseuss !5 observers .25 meters <Jioove ~n a Cheff,Y pic,,"er. '·[[b~!.""lJ!'i!l~d~artl~Li!!lall pro~hilily,w~ \I!;~~ raised 3bo~H$4 million i~H)t1slll~nd ploogeslbr \)l1h;;Jt~\~cmJ:dbecome IiLl,e ~';;IIl!!esl: .,lIIIidm10'Jucal o search !Ill! nli)d~~ Hm~.~(]up:I'~-cl \'vith ~ ~0lIr certed e:fOrllO (.jon:serve~~~ei~~orybin·:s~,1abi~ 1~I:..As a board 'me:m,'bero:IThe Nature' CO'I1IL'«!r~ v.mcy. tltzpatri!:;k; h~d mblJed ,elbo~1i.ls\'.~~1 \ the like!> of .Henry P,~m:~!i:a~1, fOriliUe'l" CEO of t~u~ (ioiillmmn S~K:hS.~Ui;till [lOW U.S. Tr:e.IS\111iy' Seerelou-y. Pa:IiJlISiOfl is ~'1Jn v~d, birder amid. \vilb~1~.s ~

us..

e

I
I

I

NEWSI'OCIJS
de:d'lrlj~,~ the i\1ory-bin€ld weodpaeker extinct. Jaeksen argued ~g~im,1 ir and OOlIll,~
dueled
<I ~!l(lth.~it'

II

u npl'f!d u'Cd V{)~:":C;hf~!~~:

.. [t W,<lSnor

liny desire 10 prolong <lind uaderscere

Ij'ic:se],lt~ seeevidence

snm]i se<lrcl~,

JlIck~Jn ''lind th~mher

~Ciel1!listNprep;1rt1d

a ]p.'!Ipc:r fQl.!" l..,)SBiv.lngi'. 3]"gU~Jilg Il]ljIt t~~,c' P L!illm,e;I~L \ludeo shewed <11, pi,le<n:ed M;locIdJ,~(;ker~ ":1\ II !"\\~~~!li!:0i:1 U) do '~.~'8:.'>. h3V,C:cve!"ya~~ go, 'W~i~l mi!miJtef'~fo(ro ~ ;~:~,ymore mQiIi.!;;,-gul .spealll,'· says eo-auther :RobbIJ11:S:. "\Ve di.dlu~'l W<!ll1t ~o see pr,ecio\!!l' couservatien do~~<!r$' '1\!<I~t~d. 01:1OOJHlt'tll.lh.lg dun Ini~l m,ot belim,ere." Thii $"IlJ'1~h:the Comel'~Iie<'I~,~ it."> :::iJf''U~m~d sers nervous, NOI: ~QiTh£! after Tile. New ]'0,.1;

mems ami pessenal d iili!greel11,enls:" The 111lJH!Wa~, much mo:r:eres~It<l~.rted i:~..O! Tccbr.lica~ ,CQllfi!lmCIl'I:and :resp!IJll~ ptlbj.i~~!cd

i!voryl'-hil~\(id\\i'(jo(Ycl:p~kG:r urrt i~!:~~y I:~m! I'pileated could look (I~.dfliy ~ hk .. that, "1~]lOIve 'we: boxed ourselves i.n'! e h.~luyoo .~o,.llUtl don't think i.fs so uausual in
sh:m\lS'I!l

seienee," h]'il~:nlC!"~hlk .says,

i1'1 SCh"'l't'~ Oill1 ]7 M~~rdllOO!> (p, I 555 )1. L~:ke t~~ :;i'~thtH'S: f lb~' ~tiUbofflP"-(}S o p?"lpGIi.

Ti",U:'''C rr:p0rlf,ld the exi ste'~{le of ~he:s;k~pt ~cal
bUlrJ:Oil~ye~:.;pub~.is~d
p;lpeir. ]',;K':],;j)O:1m s:.Eiys.

T~I(;:c;;~U~d Jl1c!k~on 0]11a Sf!wrd~y ~~iglu;)!nd wllcl'llrnlilln to "'b~iCk all" Tate denies th,U" <In.d :s~ys he j!lJst ",'anted IJO discuss .Jaekl'lcm·s ,(;rhi~ cisms, "My concern \".'1:\:0; lWUl the skeptics would de~[Ii"'Y eur op'portuui.ly. tI.C!llroy d1l11l seeond chanceto gel the b:i:o~:ogic'll iIllib:tll,ll;llion ofwiullt th~ bil"ds 1~\I,;lded,"TaJi!i,':~~. D;;tyti b~jiOre l~ublic'l!tiQf!,<l:~d IlH'l:p' ',\idli:n~ a rebuttal, d~e Cornell team offered W.1)i[ia~ tile crirfcs .\ddiii!)n~~" ~'r!p~.~lb;hedr«~ordi[!gs ~~l<"!!:l h:fldn', been rully amlly:;.:ed 'befo:lie the sabmissica oHheSdi("lCe p,~per,The ro~o1:d1m~(.'UmL· \'i:D1'ced cIO·;:.!:~llt~lO'ts, Rictl1lrrl rrcm~. arY~le Uni-

woodpeckers (U1mtiJ they see D;wkl SibIGY. \iihol \l"rote and~Ut.l:!iitta~ed'm~ i;';11~l!:rpii"iJgf.. sueh 1.'1l~ a nl0.:it l!'~~ 'Wh-efl;';birds Sible)' Gnic/e 1:0 .ljirds, I:~,mllghlthe l wI.ne<l.1J cmmbe repe'<Lled!y oo.:senrecll.llUil.lhe abseaee vkfe(l' showed n pi km~~d\,\iQodp~c;k1;;r, [Ill :thi,ii nf more evidence. American Birding Co:rnlMlcnll, S]bl.,ey a,l:ild t:~,ree co-authors Assoeiarion in CoJIOTI":!.O Springs" Celorsde •. cen linues to li,st the bird t!i~~...prob itb.ly er O1IlY'gU ool:hnl lhe wh i l e u:~lrnu e wi I1!g:-; is the underaide ora pi le a[ed,'S"'i~IiIg;~. not the rra il- ..cnmHye:x[iru:::l OJ e:xlifp~.~ed:·The majori:ly GJIf irdc:r.s; ,appeaJ W be ,agn:m;~k. in a~ ol:ll:illl(i b ing edg.c of mlil.ivO:liyb~U':tL Mfiooov():r.5iif;lwr.l1l frames slrow .. Macik trailing edge. U:ke;l p ell by B i ,"til II g ma gin iae, p ubl is:llited i.n pii!l;;1![()(rs. ll~"" w~it~ '!l~ th(':b.1l;cik of lh~ mrso, AprIL 75% responded Un!u the ivofybiU might or ~ni~~,l not ex~s;~. whi.ci:l Filz:patri.c.k had called "elearly evi~mI, ivo~y-biUcd

S kepties,

e 1'1 the OI~e~ .rn<nm.d,. wan 'r 1':1(;::1 ieve

n~.e

versity ,~!ld RQbbj!lS;II'D~l

at

~("i,t:,;t 1\\1'0

Ivol}'bm,s,

were'~iv:un~un the B]~ \'''''bo(!i!S., They wi,tiilcl!Fi!\',~1 !~~ pa~r (l!1 .~ At~guSI .• ~l:yi!"l,gth\;)1d:idn'l \vam
ro undefilm;l:une COJiI,Sien'<itkn'l dlb:rls" (1.11 retronol H11id evidence, thl:iY n:gret tlil,e 1rI110Ve, ,." 'bli~lkoo." ',nllJIr]1 $f~r:ll.)

:s;pe(;t. nowlb2IJ[ .it'i; c~ear~lineIi'lilco.mingsafe

B~t~:bck~on. \M~IO had been G!~!f:r()iI'tm'!'I] and miUe~c ha hie .. st iUI:ilo'LJ ght dml d'ae dou brs
i'I~d~d [0 he ~li,~d- In ~llollQg. ~Imd~~d article published in Tile A'uk i,:m.J~num"y 10060. he aceu~~dutlpf!lric~.\ [~~~~lfl,f··,d..:: lving I r!I.~!!) • :rll.it~l_:llmsed'olillilho~.<ogy and doing :I. dILSSef\.';,. lee 1)0 seienee" tn a Mal'Ch lQfi6 respom,,e I~J~ rll~' /Jl~k.F:utlP<Hrick~ .group ,c:h~~r'Yed~'lt,u the J~C[1:SU!lil>flid~~ \~IS"{[~ri~s offf~enud t:rr\ln>, and pC!{1i~ y s~l:J~t~liIt.~"lled~'JP~In~;C:!I'IS,." Jackson, !:hl,;:yimp]i~d.\\iti.~ ··cnmprof'O~.~h~g M;~ic:nc'~
Aih.r!lI1mhell" round of.rebultifll.s eomII!.ltlI1I'Vltlrlem!, ~~tzP<'llll'i,(k's.teaunargll,ll;'S that Ihe' bini 'I n th~:sha me wal$ perd1edl

w.tmv€,

r.igJJt)i. r,e-1liSaIIi rig

i!~$

I.i!r~

Silt,

whil.c Sil:My ooIiltellds it M'll ~!r~.i!d~ ~n mgM(belm, ~l3I,\;: lllr" (lifJ ust b
lbe~<lU ~

fig))!'),

dC[~,t~"\!ViIi!: aetu:li,IIJI'"it vaglJi£

a fewpixels.[n
t h~

addiiion, t~,ley asserred t1i1.,u
\V~!I~

So \v'Jmat ~nadC'Came~~ se ~Uf1Z'! mew.l 't;l~il1l<s ill is~llelj:~ieigh~, (Il.e)l... lC'hed '~o~:tle m v~,deCi. "]n
fCU~flS,pL;:ct. lh(;llun~I!U,u

size ~sli!n~t.c wa~l't val id,

vidl;':o

Ina.)' im~!Iii.a~ (].:~~ ever ~.l<lppen

:i

specu lares, '~~liDc Co[~.e~1 team :p;roh<lbly \\''011.1 d h lI:ve ] Uilllli:rpre H~:d e s i,g h:l in~ s n'ilotre euu'~h threw Lh~msd:vc;!; WI\[O~ lil'ii1s{Jou .iml1'tw.r f)fO~'llilh()'~Uffr.in j:u~u:. i~so [I.OW;!Y. b~s.~eadllhey ~ IblIlIld the "Vi.detl ,mt! :!com,tic: ev~denoe 'l~ncml~ highlyilwvhred <IlJia~ys~.s ofmutky dam,. "h vi n:clllllg,'Oll'$: al,1 s,on of e\ill:pcrr.n:il1!:l.~' Srnij~cBN \\fOl:S. CJM 3S <I scienl~ il1e .u]ItIII~!iis' Qf~~ll.esep:i:'ii:~ s~ys.He Jilm:J !)th:~i'S.ar~ll'[ I~l'e'reStOO in reh~sh- ~Is;" l':~.}'S Fr.anik Oi I t"lth:ad all dli~ ~~'ia~or l!;l e~'I!:t]D1Iic:t~0I.1 the i\lory~lb,il:~edlwQodpec.ker of ' in!;llliile L U:IiIClIlll \'i.deo: Lhe~rv.ml..ld r.."llle:r :see lec~lllD](fgy" 'fhmwm; brillimu CUll F:UiZS pan •. bl;''(:"<!use'}«)u .. repfe'\i~~,Hi~gn~ from n~is]ng n~w ev'icl~rnoe~ h~~sn,'t r ~ l ,~!rri'ilti(tn\u~~cQn.d bm tl \\'<1$ !,;\,~ird UJ go to this itlng.lh." m;s:ive rem'C'lirl, dm.,.ung lhe 20115-1006 ge'ISOln., jellfl'ley Wahm's ofVirgillJia. ,ro~ylech:l!ii,ffi(; .~ moue')' ('air cOIl!Serv.u.ion:' Short:~y ~~~l.c~."ner. I~U IUS.lit~lt~and Sl~te U~.lr'llersity :in :131~ckf,;b~trg., :S Fitzp(l.I~~it:k .r;:mU@ctcd J:;Lck:son a.gain a~1d .,.1:50 Ca:l1!1C~IP &,y• • offe:red i;O~'"H.II.thors,h:ip gin a.1\q.llJl.~;e p~per ~,f ~ "~~l()' S<liys: he W3:s one ofthere""ie'l"'ets" says ,~:e g, J;)I!ct.:sml \wu~d pul.1 hi:!> hm~r. "'T1l;)lj('S not Wa.O\V :5;tiilit~m·illte' \\11.):5 &\'\r.iI~d 'by th~ ~I)lire<CaS~. i.l1d~.dillgt!il~ Ig ~ o.pe1I:ate." bt:kson told bum. fit7¥tlfJ;ck S<I.y~, F i l'q%'lIT:uc.k .u~ l..t1.n mt:'I:~ink :my they wi U multuplc :sigh;l·ill£$. He ar£Mes, th:l!t .its tmlitd)! d :~ b~ \~,',flln~d ro fOC'lUS onth(; b~rd ,illlid, ,a'i.!,Od ~em<ljl) co!wi]lced ~h~uth~ tl:i1!lO£;:fW vid~o i thm aU ~le (Jb~n'(:rs\\'~1.;e Illif,~~ken.B~u Sib!~y '~ me:rilv~tFi lzpauick conirollltt:!d J~lcbon dl!r;. ~~ iw.gilllrIAu~us;t 2006I1tee,t~ng ill~SOluh C'rllnlinil. ,~ ~]nd,lSked hi m If]O\ m rmblilsh. J<ick:~o:~, ~C'l.~~ s '~ 1F~~zpI1Ilri,ck.ilJ(~<l~e'dlyteUingi1lillfll: ·.'You i.!.l"e 'r;, go!V1I~ n'l, b~'~lOOp~l~d.:m~y f~~IilS!hl~ f(lf ~he"
,i!i!I

Iwith::soml:d bi:~e5."

Fitzp3~'lJ'ickudellllified asa pe["C:~.ed birdwil:s iB!':.~~d ~I:I'(':~y i~l "light lh~ CorneUI~mh;;l~ ~~!ckto ~I;S. gun~.

ef'the

m.os~ wI:l1Ifortunll[e'l~iai~lg;;tD

~t) :t~lCi): l~imr~t(]'i'Y

~fO.!"nitl~ology,;· h~ \,\I'rit~·~n

his book. II'OIyMIt UWllcr,'t. Wil~[lm it. he

M'II'Cn.

Sillcc thel\l. otlu~'rptli'pern,. mm 'pllllil is:luc:d iD1lI
Ii Ili IJj~,fi(.-.lJjQ/'ogy

~nd .Ilfggl:n.eri[]T1',f/

i

II

I

NEWSl'm:Us
s t ha~,h(l odds fUf(lfu ir~yh igh-~ f observers me~0'~i~,1;g see t~u;:birds, AU the to best s.ig;hting~ were Jrom ~l Ie ast .10 meters
CO~I nter

j ust a ~rH::ct red,pc for yo~l!.· rilil1~ofi~~ in the b g<1:pst Sib,~eysllys.'·Yc:rt~ gel a iJlief ;I~mp;'ie ~!ld~Ul ~np~ h;m ~uld )'tlllJ!I" bril.in HI!iI'D~il •.•. h~c{li<;Inh''Qry·biUtid ""'''U(idp~d{,t·t;'
Condl!l1.cl~r1g lll~e tll];IJlysi's

:i~~v.~y mild]m.1~dI'm mllire thml

'~()seconds, "It-s

PtI~~nd~d t b~ p rc blem,

Pl:ocess o:fsell~on'il,unco,ng look p~3oeil'l isohnim'l fflJ:UiI,TI Irli::-.h ~]l'r",rom p'iillJp]e\'r.'ho di,dll~'l f
r1l!:pO:lflU)

rt: u m ~ay<i. '''T~,H
"Frolnkly. I

in

secret cem-

~he boss:'

$.tlys,P,flll,m.

Ihimk h1;, t'lflitil~etic::liJ1 to good science." On~ solution. PHlm :SllgseS~:!>, wouk] have been to

$,(;ndi thf;l L M!Hl:~W vid~'{l, to 'w:cwdp'I.'l(,"k€:v expe rts lUId ask them to lildentu f}llheb ird
~'I']dH)m :knowing l:linete9Ilr]I·s.C:0I'H::~,usi.QIl.

F~.lzp,.tr,ick rejects dl.e chll[ge ·of !::,HIUpUli nk,
inl'1,isl.~:I~rg tll3t the team wa:> as objCl!ctJvl!:! ~s Fitlpilltric:k and S~;it'l~or;"~ KCfl~u:dy fJ,ef~lmJdhe decisiun to t
~Ully sc,ien.t~ srs !::uWlJd be. BOl~,

Lammerrlnk.je«, renaalns aprhnlsrlc, :i<llisr<l!c~ "There <life hi g .itrem; 0.1' UII~exp~:o.f1edha bil<lt rorij.l:y positive reviews," says Kenuedy. \\ilIDo where 011 rat ionsl £.m~Lftlds }.'IouC~I1I sec UUll adds Ih.![ ~.e W,l~n"t fazed by the Iack ofa -srnoJ.11 pOPl!~,.~li()(I!a$l:lIl~gh~per!\.i'SCFi.'~zpOflnck e learvi den .•. ~ t WD.OIll g III t:bt h w~!> VrC r y ~lllici:lf0u::!>iilllotllilcr yealr or tll\fO of Sl;~rd~inlg ilnpm:i['lll'n. f!'\iCml ifthere was seme iP{}s!\:ibi]i,I:~1 'IIt mest. "'If's just tao expensive," he' says., 1'lJ!!lI.iI~gth~l H's b~C;Omii;b1i'ih;~:rltl nL~S(i th~t I:hi~~ligh~ be 'Ivr'Pflg"" M~~~vhi~IL;;. ~<I~~, for tI~ bii:'d e~'i~u~U'" mtl!ley. ~vl,;!;n if ~~ll;; l~,~IWl~Wi~$ emptyth\;': ues, ,lldlOUgh it has bee'llI:!lc<I!l.ed back, 11.1 the hlClllded, lL<lmmerliillk says, itwi :~~,d ifiltlc~iJl be' third fi~ld ,,;;·eail\lJ!l. \'!.\~ich Q~mc~l!d~d~n April. ~('1p~r\I~ ~hebirdi::; n~l~ t~~re. "[1m.,)' (~h.'\."lYl:i Comili:~,1 conducted a s.rn~Ue1l'. Hlobi:le ~e3fC~, TeJ:lm.aiIl3quesrion mark:' Whether ~hm tLllc!:;:tlairil,~y wlll haant (::g;,~-. Ra~~eo;r focus QlfiU ~iilgl:e~rw.•lamfi'li~nillk than and d'ilree colh:ag U~ spem: :> months, 7 days .;1 nell remainstc be seea, ".111 somepeople's week •.search. ng 116r~!i!DOm; by rOOllll1d minds. the :~ilur~ m nnd tXtu:~u >ev]d~enc~ in canoe. In ;u!di~ion.F\VS also supported [he ~ias~c)(J[l.pl,e (!Jfye:~I~11 u~.ot.lJeen geed lib:1J' as searclses by o!h~r ~lg~nci'lil$and gn.)~!p]l;in Il~' re~u'w:tio1i!lof the L",h ef OrnHb~lugy:' Texas. 'fe~.~il,1nsee. Flo.ri.cl a, ;lnd Smlxh Car:!iays Russ.e~,~Chari f of' Cornell, Ti:I:;l~ spec~eD' eliua, A.gaiJll, nOI.hil:lg iL'iO:D1Idll1~ilveurned 'LJp., (1Joe:~m'( worry Pil:ZP<llr.Uck .••• ~ move w~t~l.tlliiC t Hjll is convinced tll,lit,he aad histeam ~I\\' 'lCtio(L'15thm .1de.eITi'1jJ!J:)K1'P~,lU~lut the possitiHily th!lt the' b~rrds.:!:~ '1:I~eru," he ::;;ays. "Al1J I ivo!ijl'bil.~~ in ::HJ05 arid 1.00<6 ~~.Omll,g th'~ Cmjoct.'lwh<l~;~hee Riv:e:lt ill Florida ..but he cltm"tlook ll;;,~ek:' ~!~hl1l~lS he can't deli\l~r Clmlll~h~'\'id~D1Iee Y,Ci.

publ,i ~l~; nO'd !~g dmt fhJ'Iilp.i:!p.er \"~~wu()d by
pee.r rev iewers, "Wegolmo:re
t hllil

h<.J'!ivm;}~y $~de~
ID'w!!i!dlinlgl dii"~~;W:. Ilil E!;i~{;l'j;l~.dilfl1;[1t~1:5 'e-;ljp'ec:~edlttl ha1l'~the b~;99e:S,ti mp'ad@1'I phmt b'iQdwersHy ill :mut:fiem, 1'f~,olilntCikIS.

will become extinct. ~el

<llolm.e which O\I~es VloU] I be pru;rtc~I~II<l~Iyat :risk.

The science !!]I'prudicring extinctions lWl!illl
~lobal\'\"ojll'Ul~ng i~on]y ... rei'\iye<Ir:sO~d .~nd l~iC

·~Sl. !nt1dd~ a:mu riR.l' ith ulloor:tai!ui)cs. 'fu.;PL,1r:tS; w ;enernii1:y <I~ree liIuul:lima ~,node~.s.m"w be m;efilll ~ifrgt'i.ling a Jtl~g~ idlJa (lfl!1.4<l pt.)'t~!u~.~liml~llCl ofg~ob<l~~.nrning .md may also aller gu i;dilillCe I'or plil:lmn~ng reserves, But same S'l::ien;l.ists Z1a.'C p \.-1;)ilill.,-emwthm pol ~CYrllij;]MIl:; wi n. be ~xped]ng
d'aelrl to' I)[ovide .more precise (j:J5~imill!~s t:hiflll Ima.eyc(tl] cl:eliv'er. "h:\wm;1Ilyiu£.~ :says Mi£u~:11 ,Ard.~j{)l.al'l e()o!~()g;j,S;1 d~.eS~.Hm,u$.hN<lt io ntl'll ~I rWs!;-'fur~h Cl1t1llCfll 11mMiudridL Mm:fu ofl~~.e currem deb,l~e over di.n1.<Jle'" ~r~!!lgerl':d ~x~inC!~n~l~ focnses on what ''1tt; Ibllowllm. as c:.li,ma~e-etliVc~lope models. SCli,CIl-

tists a'!lll]YZ~I.m dl~ places 'whcr~ a s:pl~d(,\s has Om!'! recollit!ed <Ilullook for fe<!llllreS IJflhe c:]i.BIOD~VERSIT'Y
~lIii{l:E~ th!!!:

P'ra1di1c:ti:nlg Obllivi1on: A.r'8 IExistin,g M--'. .'-- _.' ,lls-···U-I-. 1-· to the Ta.·s···k-' _ .Ord·.le- -- '. -p: ..1 ~.-j-

Lh(Ni.:; plaees sll!i.~ 'Jh~ I;;~ :~acl'O!'N nm~\ybe rni,U1f~i~.fu:1"eXl.'l,mrple. or the te1mllper<lM,r~d~ur~ng, w~nl'el'; ~h~ I:UiI, the !e.'lf~.y 2000~,. ~!,;~enti,~ti'i b!ilg9L'1.to

1_

II!

IfIluge' m.Qlmiber'S. io~~spe(ies IPlililJY be:a:t Fist of 'ecl(lt1ndio~lflrOIi11Ql~mate' (haIJil'ge, Ibul.::omii!ll,g up wiitliul pll!leds@ E!s;t:~m:at.@s~jspro,vill1llg t.!!!II!I:gl~1
says dle' ~.1lce;:Hng"s IiUi'l'cl1.si s h~,J &11~~OO$l'lkno\:'~ .~ ~h(;'iJ;;d lil'l. org1l11!l~~r.H. R!:lsil Ak~fI!kay.~,ml eeo~I().£ h'l at l~tE:[jD]dg :1IiI~,cnl.1h,.g:mup of se~,erlilis[!>w~U ec:o~logic<lil!lollw3're l!OrnJl".um:y .Appli.ed B~,o<I ~11her i~, llJil~f1:C1ln CQmiJ~~rwh~t~lClilh~rwd ,~(h~1lr1~~ics, .in S'.culukC1:1".N~,:v Yocl;;. "is th!lt E l Lsl Si1,umld be o.pelfl.ed lq:l to species~'I~'lA:.f'Or t~:u;~ 11111<'11)100 so:n~,e sp~ies dml: m.·e dll:\:!.t~en.ed by dim<m~~f1l. !ihm,,·:!'DO Srgll~ fl!l·ltml~bl'e. Many s.c](,'~~. .JlIiI;'I[Cr~U'~ m,ntr()'lkctcd Oil the R"d List" Bm li~1li!smipecld:l<It~~r: r:Jlll~ ....dec<lde::;, ol'glob<1~ n A.~<lk3:Ya m,ui ol1ia.e<I'.S cHmio:l1l~~iIl1lllh..:' nl!i~eting iif! u.fllik~lyro come t!pwitl~ ~:inn~prodi.Cltim1c5 ()~. wllf.r!lThiJft!.g 'coruld push sooo~ sp~ci.es l'tl\:VIf~nJ
COI.10CW:liI!."·

leekat what ~ulppemJ,cd to d'ilc'sec:UrtlUlle elweIQpe s iu the Sl"enmi g~ c.l~m.uie sC:.ielrntsrs i hiflV{~ ,!uojecledFtH the com ing o~ntu ry .. "A nu:mt1Lbret (If us w.ere [Ioll'cing Ul<J[ l~JeSe
el1l'1i e lope:!> se e:lml,ed 10 be wi Illki Ill!;! om
r r

llflile' :m.m~l <1!1lhoril;ruti\/e gu&de to. Indow'!i>e:-l.L~m ....

oM:il\I'IIOI1l., ''-Th,e

~nlhx~ ~Ol!!y!S Iy." l.('~ H3!1iil~!lh. d~hilf dim;u~ m: the CeclJ1uerfor Applme:d B][!d iv~rsity Sck:l1,cei!U C[l~[l:se~\~H iiOflln:~e;l'IllElli.O:fiI!EI~ nOI:l,~m.fil. i,~, .• a. Ar.lingliQnl.Vlrg~nliH. W Cont::emc;:d ~boll~ ib~' p.rO:l!:PL;:,ct or !:lU)IS)O e..... ti]j~~ion:s. iIll il1iemmi!Dm~~ te.1Hl ofsci,elrnti~s." :i5
cll<lIlge bioi.ogisl irl;~~udi!lg Hiljm~~. ,",orribin(!:d tijleiw

i

glob.a~j ;,uml:ys:is." They

~:Slilll.l,a~ed d1r: ~ile

fil~lro dhllale: ~n",,~~op$s.aSSl~l

d"H~ i:~l!o,;li of Il! ing shr.i!dd!,g ~

I

NEWSI'OCIJS
cI:~ M~ne' OC1'~~I'~'[Ope5 e
mJf:<'lIl1: ~m i nereased

II

~

rrsk of extinetiea .. Thei it sobe r~.l1.gC(Hl cl n£.:.hm •. ·pubHs.hcd in NlW~n!~:~ 2!o[M:B~ed on a mliitlrd:l:I.;e dinm[e·\\"'~fiI;l1imJ; $C',~~~riurt]ir 2050. "15~37% sl"Ccies hlolJ.r ~iMnp~e regi(]ns!Jndl~xa \M~~I~0 ·Cl,_lm!l,il~ed of 0 ~:oe... >;t;uflC!iol]: .. Thep;lp~r \.... 1i;:1lYlJfmously inrmuell~~.ll~ ornd rs

0'·

f.igures prnIIU~lle'lfnt~ flu the .1.I:uergO've:i,Ulw~~'~;tal

Pall~l: Uri C~.i ~~1:e'C~.1"U'I,ge ([PCeN) upt:llm1i· m 's. i:lrng repOrlO],l the imj)m::~ ofglo1xd \";Hntl~ng.ln <ill s1.llmnuuy I~O[' pol iCYl:iill,ilk.e.rs. the I pee
authors warn ·~lin'~I:j,p~liOx~Jlllmdy20 ..30% or •...

pl;l~l am;liUli!~[ species ex·otledlj·:.2.5°C."

~~(lS<1>~~'d so

far ~ln)'

l:ukedy~CI be' i,I!: inc:re,lsed risk of esriueticn if i nerea ses iIII g lebalaverag e lC:l:nJ')e·.r~ IlIri.::· Some ~:Xpol'~S: have crit,ient(cd the' [P.CCK1iI" implY~llg fhal: cl~li1I..te-erwe~o:pe 1:11,oc:lels re a mon;:p~d se ~~~~Il 1.]~l;:)I!I~l'M~~Iy ~~'. "·S.i~nply P~:il~!lti:~.g d~l;}s~numbl;;:fli,m~tactual, ~fly~"g lh:is. ]S :~,ow Ill<lny species. will go e1H~IlCl. [so

Sc iem~.:-;I::SIlre oob~uh1ftg,l{i~ j(~S.ThnwlQ :i'n]fik~ these mOOe~s better but ~!:so l~~,e est wily t~ey b Cl.'l1l1 e used 1:0 make ()ml~el'W1Jtiol1l d.t"C~'S,")IM.S. b Some researchers are Iryii:lg.~oesthll'I.H~ the Ilc.UtCellt~geor !>'peci'c.t; thiltg~ubill ~\"l1rqllingwiU put '11:!'i sk of e.'nincli{'l\UII aemss entire cltlluin:elmrs 'l'l:]:J.Wl1!~llh~ '~i'!itirc ·rlml~t.W~~t.~r J~lZ. . bioloI .a gi:;[ ~iI't~'!~Ul11iv,e~ilyofC~Hf[im~ a, S~n [lueglO,'I'Uld his CO~~i!'lOllg"l.es:weoeilillly pub~ li~~~d<lst~.\!1:y {lfdle c{lmbi~edim!p.tlCl~lr ., climate c:in.3nge and I a nd-use C:i:rlil.uge on bIrd:->..TilleyiLuuml thatseveral hlllliU,dred species rnay :~os.e OVe'JJ ~alfofl.heir mll1ge by .2050.u~nd use \VD~.~ ave the' big,g.esr !l'II'lipllC lOll bkds in l~(: h tropics.where ... eljmate ch~m!e wiU be s =,r:~lngQ:fru h~gh€:r Imtili!ad~s.. Af3(~o .UJd lliiS·co!leilgllil:!S ~.t!lve.amereracdC!>l g.oo~: lII:yi:n1,g to pood~Uelp,(]l.u:rm; of c:rumgc ilin d i ffferem re,:: ioml!l:. Tt~ey've been
... I~omca!il.dngwl~wel\i
P!:IrIS
<I.

. cr' ~. ~ E. m:,ope..\,~:111.be p~rl.iic1I I I'.:I.Y i

or'

!.

'!.I1,l.h~'I,:rablc ]O:\U,lg =-pcc~L;:S tD

throLl~h climare (:;It~~ng.e. for
The rem g es ot moilny b~rd Sllf(ies are expected to shril!1lkdu~ t~ !l:iiilIl@ttl' chall~e, Wo1!lillilF!;lt~ .and wi[lea:gllle:5 r~r;I!O,rt~d in 2007 ]
lR:an~I!li: C:h,<llllll!llie.

i·ll.cSl:ance. They've regiens pans
mOIie OfSO~I~~;\i\,re.s~m

tbun(lthi1l

mi~~le!i!d]ng." s<11)'s ic~ilrd P\;;fl!fSCUL a pO~iR dQC'~:o.ril~researcher .,tliir.C AJ'lliler]can J\li'[!'St'UIll ofN',HI!JJ ...llliS:~(lil11 in Net". York Ci·~.y.
Pe"~'i'IDI.l'1Illd other researchers have been ~.cSlin.gcI11~lre'-CI1J\ ~1·Of)~!nod'-~ls their :Jl~u,. for 1'3('), and co:m..i!\'te.ncy, .m.cllhe)lve fm.m.d s.oilue

for plal.'l:ts. the nUl'l!ntminous will be ll[l hard~s(.Fgl'iwlliphibi(l1:ll'i,
i:lm. 0~whem Emope 5 t~ Olrid Europe are :[llu.o~lvn]ner.J~

~nr Plo5 SioJQ§'j. 'TMiS ili'N~ Sli(i~~ 1p'i'iedl(tiOii~ to!' the P al,r'erig~ iQS!i:~!l INQrth illlld Cnlral A!!1IIHka (carlk gr1l!en e(jjwl:!> ]0%,. bml.W ;[(IU<l1560%). £cvJ(')~J)' (md B;ogtlf~gt:rJpi, ••~.Pe;<Irson'llI.ul hi~ coU~<n.gues report tlmlli:ley C<lin1.do <L ~llWI.ch better job of pl[edi;ct~ ng d1rem~lge~, of ('i\!!,..b i~1

seriO'lli' ~au~.~ fo:roor:!.~rnl.A$fI~jo :fmd~L~ ,t::of· le'<I.~ue~Simi ied the rotrl&esof Ill!>6 sped es of Dims in Engl<liml i~ndle I ~.nO\1; and l~ 990s. The

bl'c'" For !lUlV. he s.u~~ts. suc·h cst:immcs 11'IOy'b(l u~fid: for conservarion limn a rlmlisle<tdi!llg~y]'I!\'lCloo -l>~.!mt~ ~mlt': of ~"(tij~lelinnli:lr ~ of
;J

pOirtn!Cu lEIr species, IderJltifyintg these sensitive
~;l()W e;o,di~illrgpre~r-"~

regiens

may

red~·back§d ~hr~ke 1:; 111l1g,e ~:hnItlkdr.um~]lii:cid.ly
to s.aut~le.a:llt IIEnglilf.ld i~the: I.990fi, fore1':.a'l'il.~p~c, but cI~I:~:mJitoe-ei.lveJope :l1iI.1;odel~ based O~I the I cl'l!t'l predklcddml thebird's range \\'OuM SitOOl~1lu ~~111 Wf~t[I} the I'i()rtil~~m of ~h~ ~!ilp Scoll.<ulI.d .. "We~o!lu~d that there werelots of

reveal

'no:;

~tnCt;;;rl4iMial~~:es,:'he Sf!)";;;.

A.r.<I 'ij 0,. fears.on.. 3:~dother researchers L p~l:bli~t'e.d a slud)i'!!llIt.ye~r in \v'~iC'btht~y COl1ilJ' pared th~ pl1oj.e,eli,o:lIl!S ~.ura .S-"0Up of plam species ill Somh A:W'ri~a :rm~l !lI3\1,~ra~,I~~ qUf'nlly ll~ede:lm;ve~ope models. "We rOlund II

P'~.r.I~mld~flincy a~so 1:!R.I!Iliiiu W:~.ere'lvoodpccke~r:s live, OJ.::; owls makethejr nests inwoodpeeker C::<1.v:itie'.':l.,"lr~ml].y l:l'plrJ,:uon." :.mys.Pearsen, (h~ role ('If bi.o]ogit'rd int~~CI:io:iils ··is (h~ higges~ quesnoa out there ~Hd-nenm,o]!.lent bu;t \'Ve; 'rejusl nibb]i!~ en the .r"dgli.'!~{'If th1!lC Othe r reseaeehees be~,i,e'V,e tb.l ill b euer
sU2Itcgy is In (:'l~.~I)lz~,c:.d!;[ing climate-

:m~.)' dumg:e and olTeli~,iwnts about how 10 design ]1cv,' unes, A't;

t~.e temper;n~n,'e

"'~'.'Ilrnm:-;;,SlQlne lJi~;e:ser'\iie5\1I,'iI:I no 100,Ilgerhave ;!clilm.l<ne £11 it~lhl,e to the species
IhC!:y fl~ t."lIPPtlNOO Ii) pro1e(1:"

A mUllbeF'of.rese;lll'iC~ll:!'ffi~ueusing clinm.H.'!~

~ravdgpeftl~(]debI!,O S11l!d)i hewpreserves
have to be ~]~~el.'ed a.s species shi fllh:eUT

1b1il)1

ffingCS,

For ij~,~sunee,~'.'>;.[!>Ullg lu·(!'];er'lJ{!!i: ~oll~~dbe

ellilVeliO!Je IHode.ls; mere errec'livel:li:"Yoli

anim~.ls. and hOJ.\~e il:inled by corridors [0 ·eml,Ol.b.~e to Ii~ld :;tl~I.{'11Iiiill~d 'I-\~yt> [,['j ~"'lrnCl iil1rcl!!"!m~~lic~l p~~~~.l[~ d iSl~~rs..~~h1!~)'. to Q~~ habitatl() a~~.ot~'c:r, H ,m llIi,I h be.~ie\l eslh OJ.tsc ielllti :!il.s [Im.l·u.:sl .in ilm.~e.~~1 i£.en~\\HIYS fro.nml the ,::'!<Ita you!iltlve:'
mov~ lilrl>\'ard with

hug~ di'lr'{;r~:J~c(: ~~w\:~n th~m(ld·els~"

!>~¥!>.

. P~;HifM)~. Tilleirproj~~·ti.()'rl~rHng~dfrmll :~ '9.~.%mugcredLll.ctian1.~03 312% Cl!lIlp.<I113~on.

~\fl:l!1.in[l~ moo!:;!;.; h~w~ plenly of roo:l!l.'U~or fbI" c~;l'll'el.o~)e nlQdc~j:l> pl.'Ov~df!'S 01. ~.nore aC;:'c:~mlt'~ h'l~p:mwmel;l~. "The smry th~ ~llg me :is; that o I Sci.el1l:~is:t!'i c!:.!I.i:rel:ldv de1mdn~' .Il,ow to prtl.l~Cti(l1lof when: species CillTi.OO !found thinl l~e sll]ff'Ol~r model::; is s.ho'\vill!g h~pp~ni[l£ . . .m;: ..... ~ c amlY one mod.d, ..~ t~~ that's a Ilm.c.~'n, ~ml!C.r·('! decades Fro:I1J1lI110W •. \\,'C're alreildy sedn!:);;' lli.c illik • make b~n:e'.r p:redictlmls. Clirnfliw'iclwellopc mode!]] t1Je'~slnlpL]( ITt<Ipping jJ:LiognuTIs,'" (tun· llI:sefu[\,\o<lY W go:' s<~ys Aniljo. "'Thus is ~Iikely ::\'~Iys.He poi nrs.~o~he extincl:i ml of Ir,o'£$ .in :~ph!li fillS D~."nie~ :BQllkin,. ~i p:rofessor e'IJJ1l,er.iu~s, il~ h) IJe ....c]!oser nmu:l'n to lhe tru:~jliailm"'fII,my~1'g,illg O l lli1.e Andes, '\,,!lh;en~ 111:!'Se<lOC h.erl> ~mspeci th<llt <I .~ Un; lJmr.i'!,'e:r$.i~y [I r Cali fO:1f~]a. Sifml!.l l3~n"b<l!f'~. ~1'5e"'JI;; c.m produce so fur:' \ changing climate may h;:w~:fosH.'lred Ih~ One~ l~r1Qblem 'with these seN."I1IJled enseJil1~ spre3cl oh lel~,al fll ng~ls. "lllese' rn.od(!:1!>3re ~ ·'There'S. no 1l!lology i:lrn.lm<rC' t To impll.wii;I~~perllmnm,eil;,': of'!!lesem.ool" ~mJ ble !Ult"!X~IiI$I~. ~1m1l'¢V~r. ~.h~~l are~! In~!:~ l~i;;M:U 'I.....~ 'V~ g\l( a:t ·[~lenUlm~H't. 'I... 1len h they u!l~deltalki:UiI,g. IRtJ.~~~l.ing; tJ~ol!J]:S<Inds f mod Ids of o ",'e see ll.mv the 'C:Cimplexi.~yofllm!C VI,'OIiM opel.e~"". Bofki n t~rg.~s.!'Cs>ea'~he:~.~w i.l1d:lIde bi!]!· ~~m~I~lld~Qf5prx:ie$,~ft~ ~e~t[re coutin(1:'Mt !It!~ •. ii Slee:~>; th.mit. :ut l1liltY be "N'1r.;';;:1~3:ffi!.lI'~.c~.c Iii! I.ogu;a.~ dCUHls ~bQu~ ~p~'GIe:S. :,>u(i:h ac:s haw if5 quick~y dle'), dis.per~emu.l hmvl~.ey interac~: is 11:111 'IJe)"QIiI.d Ihe CH~lCity of.my exi5~'in;g s.o:rt- mooels .ne i.~radic<lltilillg:· ~ whh (lth~]"s~ ics. f~f1I"SOIll;l!ld othcr l'n~r,d~l~ w~~. '''[11 tal~ 1l.CX,t2 to.3 .y~ars" WtC \l,\~P1II'1 ab:te -(A!RL ZIIMMER b~ '~ er.> hm,~ a:llrr..td:ylmd :mme SHcr:;;e;;3;[]I:dOing so, to dioit:' Si:'l)"SAil,'<i~jO,~~~.lO' i.., mWi' d,evr::lqpill~g .~l Carl, Zimfiflerl:s latest ~C!l<~ Or1Jf. ,~fi a~r:lU!e 1'Ile'001lWilgol :~ Pe:ar~Qn ~(lJyl5.lna p.fip~r bl pr~ss fU~IG/ohed me, \Wll ~ p!!.lb4isbedl n~ IIlUy, rrog!"'.!~'I'l1he~~opes '1'1lnloo~p ~OItUli3:l<lilk,. '

:;ay~Ar;;u(~Q, HI;: ~Qld hi,~i;ol~G;;igw;.t~ h~vC!: f(J~!!1d .4 ~h~t u\'>\;ln:lg.~ng du.:: re!'il!h;j of mUHyd i.m.,lt1C-

thi~ ~~no!·p~11~.lql~!lg •. mrl.l;'

I

:1

I~

I

NEWSl'm:Us
FQ5iSU.tfhh. IDN,I\ stud~es '[J~ this ~@!.lla(;;:)ll1t",;,} g~ft lQ '!:okyeInmtuh! of Tl!dhnQlo~.ybom fu!1~a!ili(l, l~dt(),th~ ~bt1~ery IDf
i!l!l.d~t

~"e

(Qn:5~I1i!",(!<Itra n:5~0:50I'liS,.

EVOLUTION

Jlu,mp,ingl G,eDes HOIP Inltothe Evolu,tiolnar'y ILiime,lighlt:
With g:elrillomes 'Fnullll a,ndielill~:~ij:smru mo~lern 1ialllJllillans: ~:illlld~ re~eillr<lllmers to' in are g,illrulllilimililg IliU~W resp€!c:t~or the mLiIil'tnllllls:p!osabl~ eOOim~nts pbl~' '1111 1!roll!til(!ln ~
CliImi! M, me I eculsr gold ruSI1. Researchers !>~,tt i ng threu gh l he su ~)PO sed j mdc DN A bet\li.1een ~ei'l,es-~whoppi:Ji1,S. 98i1!l'j (J,f[he hiwuui!l~ g~~mn(l-lulVe ill 't:I~~ fe'w years ]p'21s'r ol'the; genollm,e's j lilUllk DNA. But recent saud= ~.C£ s.hcn'!lth!lt some tr.tn,SI10:l>OI.1S dOI1'~ {i\Dcmy.. ac~iv:iilli,es.~nd BriltJen and [)~~vi,Json SIJC= gi.'!Ett:d •.I!CI'ctil.hlC elerncnts~;1'Dl:l! Oll~cdt~lern," C sel'l'es~mo diITeF'/;lmll parts ofllil.egeno'll'le eeeasienal Iy m'.Cl~.I'jgur(!d~ht!.~ tmnlr!i)~s, iIn! ..

A fcwhlw\t: l'I:i>~edhlillildreds 01' ~~.1 ions of in ye"'li!llrul'!Itiiv,~ Iy u nebml.g:~d snd I!IfC feu n.till in
the same
p~aC'e' i11.1

hit: .. ,1l1iOlh~ti.ooe of 11JujI;CliQIiI~1~ sequeaee lhlll
of (,':ll~es~i:Iif;)UI how
ga~nedre:spccl.:so of this genomic
,!£~nQI~~S;

eh e ,!:]etio mes ofnm.<II!II)i'

operate a~H:I

species,

Ch(l~~l;thi!"l..ll~h tim~+ Amlll;~.U~llk DNA has j C'f!U,e.dlm!lSpOSom; ~:~iHare often Ihe source
dut[cli':,

have mobile: bits of DNA

"f~ b~ ~o tligbly CQn~·itlr'Vcd, ti~~y mli~t.pi",y !!!. r~ll(; ~Q ~niflpon~~tn sUfvi'llO'!I t t~in'I~ evelu lion keelJ:S '~liD.em imiil!ll,\i\~cdu Ilg

the new positions, I:bis rnobile gelieti.c 11l1lte~ialcQ:uid. for ~.~ullph:. corrul i\'I.'U .il~dL:p~'~d·
~~I gef!e.m!~l\,,;ofk:> a:l'l;dbfi:~~S t~J~n~II:'!.itcl!ef one regulatOl:Y roof, gellenHrnng IU!'\' 'GeU types

and consequeurly new struerures, "Y01!il eould have gf!llle:s thm: 1II1'e~Dt1illyunrehnedl: Mos! researchers have l~ke]iL a !'Jl!dde:.!l ly ge~;ril.gll!rlllecl on i!1tliw smill:iLeissue t s di:l!iI~view of lJ"dUIISIJQ,SOI:I,$" com,id· tt:tr.Olpod~:. ~IIK~~.!Sdescendents are' M:~~.I ~.l lite sameti me," e~"'p'lili:l~ Gill .ilej,ennn.o.~. ~ ~r~ng them mal(l~~l,.Ilar ~r~s;U~$ !'eOl)gni~ble, f;u~~Slj,ng n~~t the)' ~noICCl~i:('lifg~n~t1ic:ii;t (It Stan fo~·d'lJ~l~\t(l!l'bly thar clo:g cheomesomes with 1n(!J.Y h.ure~.el[)edsh,a:IFJe the' '(.':'110~n :r:.<IloAlto. C~I~ ilbmi:!l. !" ]uliol'! n~1 dl!f!'lparlic:ulal:' ,!;1;roIilP ~~~mingl~ useless sequence. Over th~ Y'~!'S. this. idea IOSI!'l;lfl~'{lIUU!'tt ; semet imes disrupti nl~ gClJles., .. was uaresrable,' It recalls D avidseu, 3. i '" Of,lIJ,l ~Jn3.1s" \ N'(W,' •. comP'lI~li".e !mrveys, ..Ieng dev,e~opme~lli!ll. b iol.ogi,Sl aDi'm..e: i [om iil ~ Cal ,,,idl expern"ime~t<lJi studies of IBeFOl!1!di gen!!! b1!lI1!miarn@i5 IIi1'sli~.~lic: ofTechrLQlogy iaPasadena, Btll .1~ Iii gC:;I),C' re,gul,atioll. are shm1id,M,g Ar~w res!ean:::bG;rs :su,ggcslcd rasearchees bcgam. comparlng genom,es ~. l!llal: tu:anspo:5um:s can in[lll~J,lc-e early Olli l~~l'h'.Ul:SPOSOIJiS :m.~:'ly I:omug off' the seq ~Ienc:in,!!! mach ine5. il: became c le;;:u that nor a'll[junk [JNAw,1ISjul]k ~ w1m,e:IiD .•. wTm,c:.rl':'. and how.gellu:!:'> play i:DlI1.:pO rra ill I: ev,o:ilmiomuy l!ol(;~_ Nobel hwri(:(;'!J~' Barbara are expressed, These s:o"c;}Ul;:d and D'<!vid'SiC}f1 a!lAd Briul;illl'S idea beggu.!'I1 [0 Ii M,c,C[intock c3ned them eenrrol elep"1Ir.1si~:es ":I1I1:ighl be bener v.iew'lItI.m;, leek mo.repl..U1siible. ~ ''")'!Iuhi(Jli,e:' fOay:-;, Eric l;:md~r, dir.,.;(;ments 'J\1~11;;!l she dlscuvered them ~b(]'U~' tn ]004. Bejemll1!.(l.tilell! O!!lth~ U~V~fl;ir&G ~ ly ~ ~,or ol'~mD.e B:rood [m>litli~e ofM<I.ss~ 50 ye~l:rsago. ~1IJ1.d 2: decadeslater; Ro;y flirCali fanni<t, S:anHI Cruz. ilmI.d. bis eulleagues s:; t fLC~lU~t{1> ~:nsl.inulJ,::~,on~C'hn:oi.ogy e.rW:Cl~ fund IErk D'!lvidS!OIlli:~~ggiI:.~t!cd de~Cjr]bed :mt~,tlrcban 400 ~lrcu~I'&lCS;o:fut ,Ie~sl a: ~ that they provide lortuiteus <lI1d H"f~lOflrdLJn~ver:>il:y in COIIm!5 'bridg~, M~S~!le.:~u~~tI~. D~vidl o~);P'~rll,mi[i.c$ far ~V{dUliol1~.ry ~n.oW;i:. cbie~C:l'il. dog. !'!Ile~ to a lesser el{E~~nl.~ Haussler o~ the Univers,hy of innovatien. ]~11969.lhey preI~sh. Three"fiI'LJOI.rlers offhese :!ig~~<I~~~ed uhr<li- ij5 "iI ~. outside ,g~!1~\; po~~cl d~.r! 111\;:\",' b~1'md$." ~)n ~'(l'Ils:~n~d rll9gio~~t>f¢.~.~d~d l C~ lif'O:wi:!,1..&u~l:;;'1Cn~t-" "dd~s tha~ G' ··pe0'P le ,.~re unde n:~I:~ U'L1iI,1l ing l:l~,etree of]if:e and ever-more(Sciem.ce. 28 M':iY ::Wn4. p, ]321 ). U!5'~ y~m. Ijhe impm:::t of tr~,nsp:;!s;ons," ~n ~m~lple:x: orgt~,[I;lb;ms ~II:O<SC i:tt Byr:appil. Vellkil.tes~~.C(I:rlllu~ b~stilute Qf~.iolt.'£~ ~ gem:llne evOlution. 1l~0Ji~and CeU Illi(1~o.£y ill Simg~pore and 1.:'01- ~ :~emH ilfil rmn fromch[lIlge'~ in Trauspeson s, smal ~Ipac.k.~ Ih[)w ~IlCS \!,fCrereg~LhltcdLThey ~~agJlles ,cOInp.Hret! DNA. 0.1' t:lc;pillJnlt s~lnarks ~ 9 ~]gelll ,o:U)NA 1,]],,;'lIl .l1rn.S1)~i.ce; ino c also argued th~~lthese changes ~.nd ~lurn.OlnS,,\~fhi,ch d~\'er~t:d 5.30 m:~I~jio.IiL ~ ~~~,el:e OfleJ~ eansed byrepetil:il\l\e o~]a.er seq;uenCf!iS. :seelm.l to <'Ippe~r )fe'ltll'S <Igo. Wmt:.ill:Dgwiljl~ a "(aIry Ske~C~,lY dnllll :.:! o s~H.ldef!ly inagl;lm]r!l:u~. c,oP'Ye~l;;meillls.,ma~lYI;HI~r id~~ll iuf the~l~:o!I!t g~ili]mt;"llIleylioulld.4 SOD C;[JIiiIJ" ~. illilg. cuui:ng .. RI:J:~illlm;tliing't~le:rJflr W'Wi;lJ!'!!iI~Q:S Q.n.:s ;j)~:1!'!1 Qlrk.. A fied as; tmm'posOiIilS. !lerV'e'd s>eqltlii~'llce's, :like ol~,eU'£.. t~inf!Y found ~ gelv~s thoouBJhmn hs C~t(1in~fl," l raIliSIPOS'OIl-a ctiv<lt~d millrk:e r S e't;<; (Ir get! es hlf!l M~H [h.,u!ilile~ co~sl;lnri;;d :>i~que:itl.c~s~:eiildl;;d to ~elile was tl.irnd an in 't.he ~Q\mes. Eventu!l]~,Y. I:he .g.enes p,<lI'd!Cld3tJ:' times t~:ull''''~geveld chls.ler' Ilea'r ,gem~s: fOl: proteins, that: re;g~lhne r::: ciI~'II~le Ili!'li~IlQ,Ml us 's!IIStem 01 a for ~lll!lki'lg du:::m ~11obHe O:!"e mOlJl'le ellflb.ryo'{~!!'!p)in the ~am~ orm1!!,HlIl ~,~ sp~in~ pl!~I!cct>to lr3m;criplio:~, arnd DiNA b.i!ld~ng" S Gr~g E~,gaJrQf~I~.e lJ:nive:rsity of London ~. dii:mMed.by mwm1!il~us,.and t~,e places (1:5131hy trail'l~!o'ij,plllO.n· s~~c:u!y hmSf! ins'ie'<ld gf gi~m ~,. {;flpicd ~eqll.e"ll('e~ th-em~ h~s bas f(n.~oond IlHlQ1y ~oucn'~d ~llSl:nl.~!~h:; th~t 0 f~(~or 9~!OO(b(itlwJ~). illd'i(;l!li!'lg brn.i~' il!lsl-eOld r kidQu~y.,a:nd $0 IllrL tOl.t C' IJ :1III.l i~l: h ey b ceo m.e lh.al Ule tr<!lUp,ws'CHl h@~p'~ ml, C~U<i~::~. l'(;:gulllt!Ory .DNA lmg:!>l mo the S(;elle' bet'l"''CelJl ~~e emcr"£,'em:e ~ o i:~d iSt]!,glli 5:~~oo]efrZY:J~l lilC reS!: mntro~~ihis ge,n.e'~,e'.llip~l>to.n. ~n d p.rotre I.ns c:ovund lbe s'e of I!.\mpi~'s ~U'lds'~.:'!lrns. The ~iJllil\g Sllgg.(';'Stii. ~
ein

de~er:e!liim~~

llW~.<llkulS" One: fu~:niJ}' of trau ::;:POS.o1l s, for e~"'.1J 1ll'~k.1'I I'Sl made ltsappearanee dl.rin,g the eV{lllJIli,tl~ of

I

=

.

)"

l!!

iL

i

r.,.

t

NEWSI'OCIJS
~h~H"tll€: ~\l'(ll~li(l!l

II

nf~:~~s~ slilquiem:::efl [t\1llSI

,key to the e~t3.b1.is~:'me:mll[) the
'I,Ic:rlehr~leg,e net\\,tlirkfor

r

ne~'regu]~~():ry
dtwt1I.oiJll!1fl!lI."

E]!ilar says. firnduaUy. K~,iIlI'Cht'i1ffi be,~:mI tercalize t~al ~mlitt.' ,f·~he~(:oo~ii'\~d o
e lerne nt to, were
PO~)~ 1),. C<LlUuh"0)
[111-'ltml.S;~ ..

~xi$;.( ln dds. fossil fi(o;h il.!ldi., fromrhelr seqaenee« ...kuows they are :sti.~,~1 active, Throagh gcnOIlliLe eemperisons .. he and ~lil> co nl;.~g l~e,'ifa lind LF -:$1 N 11",1r iarion si 1:1 ~HlI1Ul!l. ,chicken. diog, 3ncli a~ I dIe' ather tCi~lpod ~Iwl,ence$ ~n the pLlbll~C dI~1!tolb<J ses, 1"11.(1: cm1J~rv~n iO!IiI. tl:!i1i !O(;lq of UCMIi:~!l i tu$ iler places
~i!'I

and oth~rs has sh(l\~ !btl~f~l~lC[ion~~llransI)QSabl:e elemems are mOl"lil th3:~ 101, nuke,. Jerzy lurk:.! of [~l.e Generic InWbrmiltion Re:~\.tmrdl ~Il:iitimre ~n Momlt>lin Vie\~~ C.d ~rOif~ Ilia. wm;ki~lgwi[lliI KCffilil~ Lindbl!,]d-l'Qh~lIul

TmjeiMgkkie:~s:eIll., beth !fi:mn the 8:w(md lnstiHlIl\e. bil S fO'IiJ1.nd Il ~urpri si.!lJgl)l I~rg(:. rrdc ~or
in~'h~ ~'V()lutiOill uf pI3e'~l'u;j:1 m<l:n,unals. They eOlllillpi<ll'e<il: the newly decipht;."ood [lpQ..~U:Ilil~ g,~:Fg(~n1e th~lil.e of h~!m!!Il::; II,)
U,llil:>PO$i;i<!:1i:j,

~h~ gGilllni!:'-lS ofal!

tb~Il.'!:S

Th~ c eel a-

"living IU$l'il" spec ~e:-J~1ia.n dme~ back more loon 400 :un~~rIH.ou YC1'lr5>,kid N[)ri~l:im Okmh] of lille Tokyo lnst:UlUle ol~Tt1Ct:II'1;ob.4Y ro
transp(~Qn~ called 'sh.o.r~in!:erspe:lrsed :repe~,rul:ive elemeuts (SmEs). Ok~ll.hlal~d..lmlisc,o~J!eilglles Hrs! ro~ul:d ~;'i;\'O S]NEs ili1. 'Ime (:loel.,cOlmh whuse sequences. lookt.'iI Sl~lUilarenough [10 ea{\1~other to have ij cO:imbn.l10l'imigil'l: rlieydu!1ii searched ~bf't!t1le Si.lllm1.t1: :5Cll]U~!l<;:I;l"~ing.I;l~QlJ1i!H~ d~ll:d'.::I!'lcs. H1C'Y :mtmd dtl;im ilw. :-;~I nan. I~OUl. h~~gn:s . I h
!!;1f

specie s s lLggesled l~J.ey pblY in. key relein g~iIfIQnifLl:unction, B~]~r<.ln(l~~,t~d OI1~ (~ut f was Im:.fIH~d 5,00..000 basesfrosn a gll:ue cod-

ing fm <l~ms.c:ri,pli!);m fac~:aw active in
aeurea development.
priml!uy

mUWi:

That's

net close per-

e!lmough to bethe

C'(ffmlltmller of th~

gene's uctivity, btu Bejerano thought

~ \...I1~I(l t1t'!!)SUn,lI;l([sU!pe~·fmmil)'

h~ups t~etrf!!,!spOI$~ln could exert a g~~~atlivlaling effect frmia1 afm <II.S sa-called a euhaueer, Ji:e ]I:i~d(,ed, tlrereauspasua's

and other placental mannrrals to ~.de.nJtify l'e:g.io:f11l,~ ~h,M\'\,'t::re conserved i. n ~}~,.\Ce~l,l ,]:1 In<lullnmls but ~:I('H fouf11l,d ilil lrl is marsupial, These gell~~tc i~m~Vl!]liQI'I,~.~~k{':ly mJ~'I"IIiel!ii(: ' u de\fdopm.ellil.<l[ and other clli fite.re:f11ll:les between t'~~I'W'q]n~~mmf!~grol!ctplO. M~)rethml 95i%of

sequeace to

1'1

S'ene liml would cause teUS
.!F~~le te UI.II," 111b.IU!1: W~U~'j

placeaial mammals gCDJ.e~. alldl6% m.iitchetl up to one of more th.wrn. 11 dQze[l 't ranswe're o/l,llsi.dk:proleill~c:Jodi:~lg I~OSOIl f~liIniU~:s:. :reS:G'~I:~fu!1::if;l; the 1'~'pOl'LCd in

l:m.ese

i~mw:',Jli()ns: iJ!(, he t

ex'pre!>!>i,l1i.~ that

sl,~.inl,ed ,llldrut
~'Cltl~

dHJ.l DNA snto fe([tili~ed cgMr."~ 1"h~m~rk;~:r gen~ 11,11i]iit;)d devd-

lm.e :~0 M.<'l)f issue 0 f Nature. They

COIlC

~ltde

dogfish

Sh31:~S.,

lancelets, cat-

th:1!tlranspoo.slill:lJe elements \\'C~ lilkdy ~!lSlrt~m!;l;~.t<'llfor .f{;,gJU.~.at~ry •.nge~ ch( undei:lyi:l,lg 1e.luJI:es 'o~.11ll~I!;:teri:l>lic

fi s,h. ~brn~181m..mld~h,esea uwehitrl.
~hey reported onihil,e In GenOlm.> Rc'JfJcu':(.'h on :2 2 M1ilY 2006. Ye~

lor

~Isig,[fJifili:i!lIl11

plfICe!'l!~~'!lil~fI!I1Ilm'II,5. "]fs such Fili:m:~ion l~<'Il ItcilIu"t

anotlrer .malysis unearthed
~flpJ(;S

1000

of~ subset

of'[~('!~

("<IUedAmIlS[N81.

~HNE.\;. i'l!.h<oIh lunnmu.s

be d is'L1Il issed' Lander S<IYS. O\',em~t Be1eFJIliO <Iud his, coi~ k~~gl~(~ :~:;LV!;ljlust l"ou!~dmore 1:~iSJ!l

:~II!~dh~C'kl;:]\s."I [ f;~~gg~st~~hHf e
some ofthese [tr:<Im'i:p-o!><llIJle elem~:I]t511~'nd 3.cqu~rool funericn \'~ry a e'lr,~yPI'i inevolutien. illild those
fil,lllCliofl:l5 have been rerained," S,IY'::; John Mm:.IIl •• 1 l1i1Io,lec1lll~.r genetic~s~:.11 the Un iversity of

M ic~ig<l!~, !lIrJ Ailhmf, A '\.;V~.en Broad lut]l!lllu:

researchers KiO'lutH!~ X it; and Mii:chael .K3nml. trekked l!~ron~~ !:hch,mn::m gC[1JOI1H~ .~ooking fo,r stretches of DNA th,1I: occurred m'lLlljpl.~ times, th~y lou~d one ~hatlooked quite a bit Hkea.he
~~b!';;lJfish 't~n~J!!QJ;~bIG

I I I I
)!lJllmlllill'Siglelll,esfro:relill thJj,oYlgifil time. iraniSllooofils (,0P'Y aFtd gl0Ii5te dmmlsel.ws, pl\(l!nf,ell"~ti"!!l thlfli!'Wl]n!J~l,~ g'e,n(lm~, ll~t s!Q~lr mlllla~~b>e~'ii'ld r'Ii!~,iili~iQm, bUll M :s(J;I'!l!~timle:ihllY per5iisl. al,beit ilii ~~!.!r1'()Jtcd t fonns. TI"iC!~e ()!1~~fv~d il1i !ifNi!'!y ~

10,000 coaserved
1

lrdlrn!Sj)osOlls

in

lh~"Immar! g~l'!f'l]l~e.~l~t~.yd~ui!1g: back \\\f:lli.jjefore the spl it 'ootween pl acental and :1i1~,O p i<11111lilL~n~ rsu l m,d~. He and hi:5 ~QllceilgUle~ first i,dent ined these :s~'q uenc C~ by
~t(lokil:L1g fa r !;',O:L~IM::i:ved:::!,tH:J!dl'i:~ across <I ra:Imj1;'e of vertebrate
ge!10Im;;:;;,. ~liild~lduf!g sabrrac ling

human, H!1d

senred

genes, Tb~ypinpffiin't~d

OU~. my jhat repre~

llr.3.1H'~~Osoml,-de:rived D<NA by 11\f1tc~ling~tPlh~ sh~md £(i.lue~ces

:sp~dl!~ li~l.y :serv~~mpG),riI:'lntlul1i(t~Q;fJ:S. coreef
3.

w:iilll hil"Wl1llliobile elements in a dsrabase, TI~,~.~!Iii~tc~C'Ji: r~p:~"~~l
tissueblue ~pr:ecisely

opi,:lmgnervous

system

mare '1~;l.nli 5;.:;)% o:faU tlii.e ecaserved
i'lg $';:lqll'l,;lnG~,hl,;:

:m.a~tcO(I-

iltl';!n1;lflt !~IStlP~ft

()f

~he S]NE f<I!~.l~ly. v~,(!u~.a:I:I,y, E ~h~y ~mned up '123 nH1I"C ,aop;ucS<.S!lJlml]&~ 1ll01J':e cmnp~,elcl'h!3n o~he.rs..lIl'hey ~:buliLd this SINE's .~ :S(J~ba:ii(;l core in~:lin~ Sl'lme p~:'lJcesill olher genomes and iI. fe\\' ct)pies~1Ji the coehl,cimth. TM~:~S 'I.\fork a ppe<~red ~ fhe I A~~~u::>1 20106 :ilS:S!LU::· lh,f' n of

,v.~(;'ru B~j~nl!'1!nexpscted jt. I!!~ a.:~~dh.~o'lh .leiJ~Jiif;5 r~p(}rlied l4M,ay 2.(l(Ji6ill Nature.

a.nd :~i~ 't;'l!)~~~lglle:;:ol~prlr~!;1d
P rocrte{/l fI,gs of

m'll ine 23 Apl.-.i I. ~J!U. lhi: A~ lhi!:!poilu.
I1lno;~orthese

t1~t:

.Ntl1ionat..jC{N:t(,m~/ oj"Sc.ie:nc{!.s.

S;ig~~fica flit: fl@r~@
No mlie WillS Sium•. t1:owever'. how frcqlllenuiy

the e~iidellice~Qr.~ nde iFor

~1Irli~IMy preserved trans~m.~OJl5;

tF~rJ.spo~IIJ\I,e ·elenJile]lTIi'
'';.'<I:Y. I. n [hear)"

~XI~re

,co-opu::d

IIm.lthi:s

tliii,e~ d,d:s ~ re inl '0

lillie lfjUl:!i~

Prtu:,,~tlhlg,N alflut NaHtJlud ""],·cfd,t:':my of
Selene!!.,:, The iI" SIN Es ]Jlm\<c:d Ii) be the
Otit'~ llllJ!~Okii(hl
!I:ilLlne'

p(l~!'!Q;' :f{t\!(I.r. ··Atm~.sporoil hf~!' p«iblt!\1n ~Q
ll~.l iDl:g jO ,000 ,cap'l!es: ;fIllitll sp'~;Blueri:n:g dlem ak ~hnlll~glml.i!l ~eIH}m~:' HO!Il~~h~ir,;;XI~I~ir'l!s. fh~ i EV(;'!'11I1 il:'jlU;'t.IJI.~le oUv"u ~\iappefl to kmd \VI~lel1e they c,~mbe lIs.ef~l, they c;:oil,dd stiH ~Idd up to be OJ pO\\'e:ll'fwIJ force :~ne'!,fOlul;:~OIl. Yel "the

disc!('l\~~~~d.

\l!lhetl Balj,e~:"<'Illiotook <I ,c~oseloQ!k ~llmis ~tlll"!:1.;:t:mSier.''I!~d s~qttfl:nC{:s, hI;! loo dis!(;'fJ\~I"~d ~he ferll!i:li ~1:Sof 11 fi.lllil]i Iy of tr31Il!:lI)O'$,]ble 'ele.~ rn~lii:ts. H~ :>~.\'" I:his fiMi!lccn;:I~C:,):I'J:il~, DNA. caUing i,i LF~S:~NE."Lf" fO:U"']Ooo-f'iulUl!;l"r' nsh. Be ~.sti!1il\aH;;S th~t I 0,;000 LF~SINEEi

impl'\lil&'>i,on \W1st$1li\l d:t~~ ""'g)S a C.aSi~h~:we •.~
case· d:acre:,dmt wt'wa:s <I rc'aUy inlere:stullg nuk(;);~'Beje]';.iltlo $IiI)'S. Now \1!I'(l!:!k by Iliej~r.ano

~;'Ug£es'ts l!fley luwe "' nillctio n: ot~]enN"ise, liu.ey sifl,md d slnwly disflpp(\~r. U,1I[ !IIe'v. more p(l,\~tf1J!11 too]s far :lInll]Yz~l'I.~ W:::lllOJlles ilm. .si Iuco o:w tWor l)irnpt)imiIiiS \\:~~rulr,m~rijruion KilCiO'ffi billd I)N.A promise mpi~'I~crogl'eSs towa:rc:1 uuud,el.sl:n1.ding W~1!ll [h~s~ oc:n~C'r\.'oJ tra~ ..poson)O dQ(Sr;>i'~lce. 25 May. p. 1120}. Sa,}.'::>.l3ejemn.Q: "I\l\~ $~liOUW h;;w~ pnmy spcctaC'~lk~r J!ls\~~rs p retty S(){l\I~." -EtIIZl\IBEliiHIIPiEIN NlliSl

is c.iocUltIS:I.~mi<ll.ThelJ consen'illi!ou

The Undo ond Jack GW Center for B~orlloteculor Science

IB,ru.y AM51Sdence'

Gi~1 Award R,ecipi€u"Jlf
S'lolnfo.r,dSchool of .MG'dfcIlI'lIe. was, reoognized for his, sig!njflc'a'n~ conlrrbulioli'l:S Ihat have advcllnced Ihe u nderstandl ng oflhe human brain., Dr,
TS19:n IrecE!iv'ed

AAAS Online Store
member, !'leu:!'Y'lli COin Rfj:d C:3fll'IUU'I seled ,d qU.1lit~!f!ems 'I hOlt.\I'~n~ Il!t ¥Viii ''j'OUlr IOOlfIIool'Snip Wi~,tI prtde.. Jil!:ul" <!sanolililer Sf e2Jl bene:HI ufW6 m~m'~e!'S!l~il!l.,an!Ill~mbcl'$ r«Jeiw'iI disollul!lt Or~m'dllflllOl1 i'li'il'~!lVU.affi_l

merchandlse onliy art.the
1~'\I'i!lu'R: PitO'u:d
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R~cbcndW.T:sielnl"

be .. MAS

we,.,

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I

I PE.RSPE.CTIVES

B,iofuel:s and the! En'viil~Dnmel1l.
liN HIS EDITORIAL E B~OFUElS {J()INUNIDRUM~ {U A~R.IL, P. 51S), Donald Ke'1n~dy' describes how bio~:ile]I~ although !)II fi,rst glll:~.cc::fl .. bcou for ·t~.le emiivamlll'HeliR. :h:i!li,~e idden ccsts t~l;Jlco'Ldd p:r'iJve ,eJ:'bvilfmi~ h ~~.L~J1!llliJiJy B()ciaJ~y ~nd d~~"'!'iI:J1.UIS, HissolulliOitl

~n:J

l6"Clmiqu('$ s.. m ~ffi.(:i~~[andllnrll;lm~sing f~w ~!m~ food$mck~,. bu~ ~ not .ll:ll. Secollild, cellulesie !J.;()I]VerSiOll demands uniferm feedr-· ,SlOC·k!;, which trmtsbnesint~o hi.gh-~n~~iUt ,!mrn. clwiroliMuentaHy de:iitruc tive b~oiflnel J;l10:m.t)Cldl1Ures,. Such moneeu ltures are urtl i ke.~y to be S,~I$t!li~bl.c. ThinL .g,~v~n eV!"lIUliQtuu:.i~y onserved srruetbe c ture O'f ce·]~.walls, i.f is p03si b~e th,i'lt 1:00.1 '\'1i.' ifh ,~~.\,mllid lead (0 j,n,g ~r(Jps i!l~tare prom~ to !;:t]l'iL.QCh~r·fI.~ I!!lI"lC (lor. ml,m~ likdy. sen :-;it ivi.ty fail

to fW!!1g:,l~ p"'li1n.1g.e!l:'i •. is '''to <'Ib~ndol.I,1 MO[i;"!: research fnlo plmll phYlIu,ology Illayilleip SO~,YC' SOil1l1C' oft~.u:'Se !his el unered ,flreoo'- pf(lb~em~.hmperhilp;l seme (If our Vliloney is beuer spent -liujpp(lrting plant ecology, '\Ve a~I'j;%idyknm'!;f tluu d[ vc:::rs,eg rasslands C.111l eutperferm and 10 i'lm:vest ill re-

search in pkltlt ph:y:J-·
, ol!ogy to ave rcome

monoeulnrres in biofuds produc t!(lllli). We also know lhHl suditgrus~~Indsare be:ing los'!" del!J·;;ocied\~\u~kllw~lde eeause ofa ~.,~ckofactive or b biomai;sreiClIldW':aJ!~c~ In~n!)gl3m.{:~lt LJI.;~ul1i.ng huw muse :£uchgI""Jssill]l(!:SUstfli!lahly for l1io& far eel IUllm~:rt:·(;'\On\'e:~ fiLIelswin nul on~y 'reduce wr.eeilrn1JlOiLlsegas emissions bm also :pmmo!,C bk~iven;iIY. But\'!i\~ nU!~,[ n!'~!i"lmv~~w~!}' f~ma ~rllll-~~~d ment(ll.il~ ~iu~, Tb~~r'~'lre S,(lVeral

Ii llligh·d'~1l'~rS!ut:f,o,rcMd"rjch 1li'!~(Idi;)!j'liilill!he' Wliiitflo
(~II'~<l'tlhi~nMoun~tlilil~, which !lOllS be'~11 !irllolI'IQd alil1ll®st eveiiY yealr~ilr half a mm~nlllll1l111.

probl.e~ms "\i:i~'l~ and lre:~y on ~perrti!ie :raiCillill a m~li':'h Inm1:dem: scienl~:ifk: base~iIIliIn is eurthis v:uew. Firsr, :iit is re.Ili~lybeung oons,idel'ed. Mf,CHAnw. :PAIIiMIER, ulm~ike~ylh~lta ~il1g~oe 3ppOO,f~C:I~.will suh all nll1Pa~~mllll'!IlII~ny.lOoli t$E, o~iilbQrnii Sta!Q U·int~ity. S'tlllwal:e;r,Qij; ;\,J,l074,iUSA, eire IJI ~mmmce5"Par exam,pl:e. ~t1,si Ilcat];():lm
],D. lI_ld~re!!I'le' TiJmaliJ., , IHil~ (, ~ghmliiID.. dMU~3::1.4,mS ~:20061. J 5

DONALD KENINEDY'S WlmrUAl ~THE aoriLud~cmUllldnllli'li" < 21 April, p, i 5) is~imely and nccdc(!, H(}~Ii,\'Cvcr. \v:G: ~~(1V~~\W cm'IBCnlll':. The Ii r.ll is U1O'!ll s:~~.~ge:SH::d of canl dl.e use

s

enns

ll~le nrn.~1iil; fh,;!fI h\tk1~ ;n,m()~m~~r [hi~ fussi I fu.ei. energy e,u:~ yeil'li" '~8')I. SO]'l~e SI:Jl,ggl::S! that
[fIJI"

,eitt!<ilnol prodU0!;;d

(om .umd ,t,1iil1Ukl~i,r::bitJ~ !
:iln~m.e

stover :r;u!S,~!>.I.1UOO!:l I~r ~!~wnQ~ nl~~ l~¥~s~riol,ms enviml:llmfll1lill in~JJli.c<~~iolls', u.S.,<lgricu~IJLIJI:eis t:m~~.u Iy losi I1g ~op:sQi.i~,O ~ l],:Im:le's· fasterthan

llJ~ltl~d Sun~s (9'}.Y~t I~'; 200/0 i.1rn~~ S, O(}n1 U cmp 11O\'\' c{Jf~~e:nedinliO j billiG'll g<1~1{)J1s of ~ith~ln(l] r~r;im;:~ I % ~lf S, p'~trolG:li!mconU
smnpl:i.oBli,{6). IB:lhmm.olyie~iClrr1lfn 9~r
ter; as

mass il:olJlklrep~c:e 30% oh~e oil used

!iou~it~i.]1<l.bi~ty {./l. Rernovi !,g, com stover I and/or :~emiingthe soil ml~)limeGtcd \\1,.ulll ililiten~ sif)· sci I em:iiiolii ila-IQld Uf mose (2 ~.With(lm the ~1:rol;ocdon of c~op resl dues, soUl I~ may in~r~~ ;;IS much asl OO~fo]d ~'3).l]l,cre~si:~~ soil erosieu ah.'O iIJ[elrn:si ~:es tile' global \"'''Ir'J,n~ f iugp.!'Qbl~nr:If!;IUi oth~qlrobl~m~ (4. 5).
AnoElrn.tlllr eoneeru isthe

is bet-

dceumented in BrdZ.~~ i(KeIlIlO{]YP'llh~ts this our), bl!il~dle e.rnfiromlm(;lm~lL eoon:o:L~.lic, !I11~dsocial costs are anennnus. SO]~ ernsinn ..~oci<]led W]lil SU,g<JWl<J.ne is £,re:l!:er than <liny othc.r crtDl" g~I\".IlJ. .in :Sro.z~[ (IO'l"
IDA:VI!)' PiMIENll1~L~:ANID IRAlTA!N :LA.L.~
1

s, 10.r,i. Fl)!rNll'; ]1,~, IBilhro" fJl.M~lIQ!'li,;rg~m,f,!rlilNlli h'dllfs" P;VI. 1l!I~!.I;et; I:dL~Le'M5 fwllh5Iler5,. BliJeailliiatcln, H. l~[l~t.IPp, {-la" ~" III. ,Lat, Ge,Qd~ U'3, 1 ~:!OO<lj. ~. lit l!1, .SlIiI50". SocAm~ '!:i2(m~,500, 12 ~2QOOl 6. II). I'Iillllllilitf.!I,. ,~~i:r!reJ :SU,lM2005), 'J. 111!l!moentel.,.l: Pa~~eJ:. 8iaW~ :56.87 5 U~06.l', ,8. USlil', 51;flrirn.1I'lrJ!i!)!rIro('lI u{rl?e ,U'nrJ,il'd ~(I'l~ tV,S. lB!!rew ()rlful C~, W~bi!l19!~n, ~C, ,0011 9. R I)" fs!l~d; §ot, gilill'l1~.,~s IF~!lI!.~aC:k~Or<li BiD~1'Sli' ~md ll!opKidUiJL~. too[j~~ry:I'OOmfc:..:i]l\tlasLbllil)' ij)f~ ' IBi~ligl"lDmAI~IlIUil!Suppl)' ~U.s. [');epll!rlmErn III IEml"gii' O~iireo~Enffi;WE~ij'itM}' arnd IRefluroilb'lt !EflI~rg:t',orne.\! of Bijo~~ !¥og~m,. ~dlll!l,'~ ~ep~r;lime!i!~ fJ!,~ril:I!!!WI~, Q ()ai~llid(l~ nupti~ 20M)• ])0. G. Spara ... ffl.. 'E.Sdi1lin!jl.s.oJLS'd:. Sar..Am. ,615.14,79 o (WIHl.

tif'm:::[tilm: gl1ee:1ll1 1CA}rIlIeLlllJni!f!ll\r~r~~.II!h~'~. N:V''l~8:~3iU5:A.zl?,~d~lI1l, 5 01l Sd~It(l~ SOCi~lY of ~mli!rka. ~JlclJ Ohio5ltalt> Un~lll!l~;mlj', '" ~I~irnts(I~~liI;;'t'1 Iiu~1;'! ~ob~r e.n~I1!\I .ilIl a\"i!i'fll!.~ f!f • CI1ilU~b~, Oi'l43,210.1I!iA. :~~nlyo.J % per )'e<llr(6).Pho~;:ohaics. iiii::ml~ ~ tr.lst. ,co]~ect ] 010 ':UVl'.4, of the so~.~i)" eni1;:'rrgy or Ref·e;rremlfj, :lL N,II5, Frornlim ii'lA;griGJNuro1.~MfflI: la&t H~IJ; :~ ~,OOto 2110 li niI,I:S the rme green pI3]ii.t~ (6), blll'i,OIWlE'''''' .at:l~ 'C;"m'.ff.!i~]l]irjej ~fj~!iI!lRi!'oIti;i!demi~ ~ .c;'mps." fo~~ry. and olh~r ~~1 pla!)l~co;l~ ~rm.wamimgloo. OC,' 200~~. :i!l iect (I,iiOt''Lll oO~ 53 e......<ljOlLd.es Qf~o13:1Fel,~el'ID' per 2. 1M. Ra~n~~,.TiJlia~~.iI~dl f:lfSiMMaI\~g.emeftt; see c:~ 'I!;!! 'WM\I.~IIII;.y~l~ggUpu~~,I'a!lr/ag;r\l9f~gm Jm~1iI1 U,?\!?}, [I year (hun :SUIl ~ig:~.t( 7l,FI0''Wever. Am.erkan:s

or

I'M H#\~P¥ UiA1rPIMENlELANiO PAU.~IEIR.B:OTH see theproMems: ~vtllh hi:olhe]::;., lind I weJooll'lC l~1~'ird~p.t~Hln~ fln~ that "'d~~tf1:['!ild space," If?i.melludIliilIOl:Y be liii£l1n about com Slover: I, p..."Iired it wh]iI \1!I(lC!dchips niit~rdylloi~li,!."lrat(; II di:stilU;tio~I<I:I~d uot to athl{JoC1It"C use, By ... its 1:1
!1I'I.t'a!ls" ~'Li<1's focus

R 9S:PliQ'lillse·
I

o!1other (:x:l~l~l(x~ SOUf'Ce::;,

I

lETTERS
P~II]1I,~er illl my v.i:ew. too d:uS-OOLrmg,cd abon~: is,

~.heC ••pudly of reaewed e:mJlhm~]s(II"! plant
jj~:Jy.£i.ology 3J1:d bi~odtelll~$U'ywp:rodllQe
SUllue'

O.m-he'=, dead lright .<lDOm ~o.log}"! '\Vmk as pl.'Onl~_s.i!~lg .s T~~I1rl~nS ocra l:;1inl}'oo~~s S'URlorL
'):re.1.

:-.Dluti(lnrs inthis

!iDfjparlmem oIlY1edicine. Uil1illerslrl:l' 01 Calil:oml11<l,uSa" :~n)l:hemi .:.I:~19905. al'1er l~l~hl'lgW oblBin f'<'tW Fralll{~c,. S"<iniJira!l1lri~m, CA (li4i:1i.l.o,1JI5A, :i!Df!P;UIJlfl~f1Il 01 lliI~<1I ITI.l:Ji!tl 1000.eruJly HrntiiedresefLrc1'Dets by ask(lillici31 Rmmaf¥ u:nilteif5;Vy'l:dCa1iloJilia a~ Siain Fr<lnd~oo. ing [w ~Lor s~[i.~:g~1].cm.]>]l]!ilupMO:J."i]i~ '~,,'O~k!ed S<!RIFr<!!'Id~o, CA '9~lis. USA, ';$:choo'l or IP~~~( H'~el~h.

to chm-.ge reod-u:l!ariOlls gov,emil,g the ~~lellse of

IllIilIii"'e!si~V 01' .Ni!!'!ll!d~.R.l!m1l).INV89SS~. USA. :t
jIr"

such dmlll.Th~y drilli!it~d model ,c!ilHI a.Cl;:~S Jegi~~,~t.i~]ll 1996 ( I).~!l [91.)7.they m~it \1!i'i~ th~ i:~ Center rorltegl.l~mo:wy Eliecliveness,ro seek

Rilde~I!I1i.{)!1 ;BilDiI."DUll, (ollf:, l 0\ MtGlrll)" L ,A. 1ll!f!IiJAm. J. M!i~ .fle~1lIJ''il'.li 11,.s~O W;H;I!'i).

'The 'Tolbacc:lo ~ndll!ll.sltry and
tbe 10;olla tOua I

h1Iorris,1; $mu~gy was [0 forml~, coolhi.OI:l of im:hn SI: ry ::oupp eners iuelm.! i n:g1he' Amel'iic a u 011 the D..,~'-'l uo~hyAct r'lhrnirng Q [h~ tables Pcftm~Jeulll :~I1S.t~Mt':. Nmkmll~. R~ill1cAssocthe wi~1lru lVl:Jn'y Jram::'.::j. M:!y. 1)(,56~, ). i[ ~,simp[)rilallll: ~,uion, <I(];(I the IElec rric Powet Resenrdl. I nm, 'c~nph~!!i:it:(i~~l.U [h~ DOlm Q W![hy A~[ ls a~ stitute, 1f.~,eD"19. Access Act was passed iu iim,du~"~fy-~,"'d ini[ilim:ivt,'! li'!;U gives P;~,-V;_U,t; ]mlus199&. ~bllu;~v-ed (11,.: O,lJt~ Qm~iily Act ill by uyaeeess lorn,\:\! d<IMI!I1u]1I] fedC\l:lll,lly fli1l,lld~d 2000.Philup Morris the'~1h~tI\(!dInbby:flSI. Jim re!iemch.TI1e Dm'l Q~l~I~,il:y doe-s ~(l1 give Ac'[ Toni ro dr.tft model ;~Lidelill1.ei1. for the ngen~ ind,epG:~.de'.liitrese~lI·chel'll: .!lC:{''(;~!>S: ijl~du ~t:ry eies ,~nd meet 'Wit:l~ !n!ljm:' eOlUpal1:ue.~ ~o teaeh to d<11<1 tn e;;;;;1 ine the ClQi'lilple~er.tes.s 01' accuraey 111;1 fh~m ~.U'!,vI((l! u~G:~h!;) ~l~'wrog~llali(I~ 10 th~ir of illm.du~1IIy~genc::,rnted1Jie~'<Ir"Ch. n,e, Editorial bene III ( I). The effects that It:te tobacco illid\.ls~ cl:id~o~u~~I;l;l'li~i(lf! I~,uje:~hiprul~ th~uthe t"hl;l ny hils (:I'll gov,~mm~rU~§~h;!il\(~ry process f!rr;;, Ph~lipMon-i'S C'mnpalJiY pl~},re-d ill the gelJ.esils, still unde~:litimalted. or the Di!J:~~Qmdity A~L [IS doc unaeuted by SUZA'i'N N IFrRAN'(1N E S(I~IiJ::I(.:~ Be:M (,l (~I.. /)I, ( US.A .ANINIE.IBIERO.~I[)#!NIIELM. C:OOKl
REGAIRDB'~G, [)OJIIJIAlD KENNEI[}Y'S EDI10FlIiAl

~t,

!l!iPP~]tFl I~l!r th~ir pOO,pt~d

~e-gu;l;,ili{"Ii1ff,(Iij'il rhe

'~~~i!i~.

business c:ool:illi.o:n.s t~]<l:~~~~ere' OII[~dy tfi.gi~~illg

.Act

the US., Ent·inlllment,d

rfl:)~ec'ii!J'n Agenc)·::' oUld.{Jor,)~r :feglL.l.I:'ll~.tJiL~:ilU I.Pm:~ of rh~l.ip

EXPII',o;re.r XU:S;lpinmiingl Fals'er' lihan IExpected
TIH,~.A Rlm:U'S liN THEB APRlllllSSUe CON~ oe rn il1l,~Slllll~ig'M ehfll~lgilrlgl~~e rotat km !;'elte: or ooj ects ~l space ("Di.roc{ detecuon onile '-Ister~ ofdal YOR'P ~i~({"lR';-Pl'"lfTS. p- .2 71:"piinrm~ ofaswrddi {54:5&19)2000 'HSiD'!{~~lSi~g dMre IDl~~.C ¥lORf c-!'r"ocl:;' Reports, ~,":274:"As th'r w!l:rld:s nUil'rI:'Per~p06et~\le~. p.. :2 i. I brolllght back nU!~1,mi~s oftbe suq~lI'i:retresealit,'11~rsI~it ''i\~.lent~:~ml._~l'iol1j n~e'(JIftlle Ex:plol'el: XI[ satelr I~te 'l]~llmc::med 16 AlilW.ist 19(1) didnet decrease (lfl~r k'~I'lC:ll. hut ~!1crl;;fls~d i.r!$~et'ld. :;gi~r p<'1ddh:swere oriented in <'I pmpelic'U' IfJa:s~l.ion, and ~heen'ec~lof 50lurmdimfno was soon 11:ii~1ii]f:dllii.c 1::li1lprIDl. lmll this EiftrdHlmilhl£ sarelUU::.th~ i>pi.UII.r,u<cim::~ilIScd six ~nol!!lths and for ~cl'e<lSed~or .'Jix month:.,

'I

n~

DA1!II D' H .S[HAEFIER

G!i1Qrge Ma~ol'l Illhll'i"'~r5ily. ~a!rfol!t.'\1A22CD3tO, 1!J~1Ii, ~:'ml1ill:
S<ilna.e--f~r@gmli!i,.ad!!,l

Resp1ons;e
I~ 199"1, II attended the Win'te~ GQ<rda:n (,onWer,~m::e Olm IEledrQ.· ci1.@lJI1Iis-try. nlfe-ell~lng lhi~ was partlcl.da rly UllUlIiIiI oraMein l~'lIit thel~1 rst. rmo,rl!llllIg (Iofthe' Ic)ollierefl(e ((li~,dded Ii'l,jiUl the N!I)ftlhrridge Ell rthqulIke, 1I'I'~o\5e,tliJit!en~el.r Ii'Iltl:5 lIbo ut 50 rniLe:5, ':hW-a.y,. Llk'e ~ne-Qlltll~r i1uendees. !stiiTled my day gt ,~OOyt 4:30 lhQit ifIllC!ril1lirn~l One censeQ~!iini:rl! if! lin@' V~J1I,LJf@ .!lfe~ WIiI!! ~ loss of @hmr~(~1 p01l!\~ii for most of Inat da.y" ~ut the hotel wa~ preplQlrBd wi~l1 i!l1bad:l!p g,f!'ner<Jto:r. Give,n~he di~mpi'" ~~QJl r th@! rmai n 1101 (rrOOii-vay]11 ,iilnd OL!l ~f OOWfI. @v~rvorl~ d~(~deil~Cl go en wf~h!ihE!' ~lIlootin~I" GIZ o ,\Ie had pt)WE!t fior the shde p\~Diedorr (d'I is i~ priln~Uve' iI'If'om]~liOfl mu~sfe~ ... ah. II'I~er rrtnilldl)-. <I. 51!!dl d!edi{:aHe~l di,d IlII!. go urlrewardeodl. [lu1rulIJg, Ilhl!s@ec:ru:l or th~rd sp'~blr's il'311l:. (about 1.0 a, m.), '!h~ Ii rst <Jfte!r:shllck Iii ill~b!1iflg. dlil!mlli5~s,. we SCliITlelu!111kUlJ:ol 11n -ilIOO!!J l.i1Irt~rshm:ks). Wt!: lm~n I!1(M:iced lha~ t~e ~Ileakef WiliS d]feiJ:tl~lll1d1eflilealh one 'of l~~ w,~nderr'lll cha!i1dli:~iler~yotls<oom U)I s.ee i'n (al.ifQmfal lTi,otels <I m.d n owhflf,e e~:5e-thre ones wUh Il-ong,.lhh::khilin-gi ill! '\1 glasspfi~ill1JIiS'l.!iSp~lnded OJiJ~\lh"l :i~~I'f~'OO E£n:rOR.~S IN-crn: to be lh e tMm IDlest o~ ~hreild s, l' his si~lIath:m waiS j)oin!:ed ol!Jl 1iIn'i~\\lill b@<ll1i {)(iC~~iO ~;,]~ f@~tg~ rr.ig,l;i~i~htijnl~~ome~I tl:le dll~il\'). J to lfrle~~4;l'ker, whD 11ICDked IIlP,.~<I~~ tl1e ~winlgirilg gla~so'lle~· Iday hUll\oro~~ rea'lifie~ ~h'alliloo he-<'!d,and lheiJl proc.@ede-di to jump b~{b1.Jl!nf,:s,w@ll d8alr or l[t1Jr~Ililde r~.To pri rn~ ~h,~'pu mp. ally d.mger (~l!Id~ i!I~hlelk"";m!I5 !llQr:mallty reSJerv,ed rlor the
i!n!!fITlOOIDl'!ill~. Gmrlolll (onreren(l1!·s.). Seve'i1Il. lIHen1't:i!l!es a~~' II1C1ticoo lhaJ[lill~Y, too, we'~' ufld-ef (halfu:l-einers.,.i!1f!d[f'Irl,!!"e;j ql!~ddyaJnd apprD,prialtl[y .•A qUid. ifiJlS!peIl:Utma~tlfir the shaki~gl ~t{l~ped reljieil~.ed -ill SrrIl[lU nUlml:ler (If brokeli'l p,rlsms (Iii! the (a~pE!ted nOQr. at whi(:ti pili"!, heat!l!i $talrted~hll!kf~g in~-t.e-arl. SQ Femtl1l1!boe'[, [~rr~:!imSi sCG~il.erI1I]:Qn!!Jh,aIllI:igtht----'~hey eV'ell1 PH Il SZ!UROMI ~ 1!~~~fIIlih~ rql~wil1!g. A !J~!AI! IOI! iii; werle siUimla rOlimd liIl#er dnil'!,ks~-t~hl! AAAiSM~~tilfl,g~U" il)g' .. b!!lUllt~H! S'lr.mg~ l!'II~t~ a'l
,aHENiI!IlI~(1. The flOl· t~19g ~I$ -il germ lioorn iI '5r::ir!I1l:~ '5101U membe:r_ ('IIII1~@1!1 HIP liilvs"!' :5~bmit ~OJLlf beM. ';mrr~s. at ~ ~('~ur(!i!,~h'ad

SCHAEFER'S IUCOLlE,CnON IS QUITE C(lIRIlUa
as regardslhe lIUII.c:o.;poctedv~riat~t1~1 i.l~ s!pil'l !'lUi::of £",plort1.If:XU {C'OSPAR d~8~gll!i;nioll i96:~ V), Tle spMlcoon~ft was l~lInd.l.ed imn a

hig~ly ~"C(.\~i1Il;iie~l!ibi~ \M~d~an ;;;pogA.;"e ~hHi!li.d'(l of;lbout t2 E!I:~1.h ~uliii!<lnd n per~£ee'-llti1wI.dc of ;mqlul 7911 kin ( 1)-. AHholilg]] t~.I;lOO \'I.,~~~;00,· ( OC~'.~. 1lI00Ill.l l h.e 3crodY,!m.'l1lnk effects 011 the IIp'accC:Jrld~, the eIJCCH. ofr~dij~liol1pex:SiiSUI"C were not ami e i~}'I[ed. Wil]llihe S'liJo3'oe.::.w<lfl ~p~nd~l,g 11110.51. ol"it:-o tijm:t: '\.\!l;:U a\~ (rom U~tl atmospJ,l.el1l:. the' etTects ofrd.dia:l:i 011 pressure l.x"Cmm;; dl111ma'!:k:t!i Iy ~"lpp,lrt:~t~n th~ hli;;~~~ of~he !!P]!l In~,lI'riU!emlj<Indla'idO!mUnY'1V'01rik {1--4} ,do.mte

~'~IJe.

b)1 oD1e oflJl,~ (P~d:ct1a-c-k,l.,tl s:l!iI.ll.d I ~l;!:stmodt:~.\\,.15
nsed i~.fI V~1C~1.~Uliili chambe'r'to l'ii:l0\\'1' the: eAli::cts (If H,dhnion pre~"Sure,on .~ unifo.rmly c!olored obj f:CI:. COllSeqHe~.nly. the bdz.ileivski,i. e.rfe.cl of v.f!rhu k'lrls of (;'iO!or (5) oJiIndl:hefQ okl;ls
I"d,d:uonmet{;:!r
d~]~n.I~~

,ef:ie:cl ,(6} were:

fe'Ul,l,t}v,ed, By

l'iQlJm~e -of the eHr]y ExpllCJirerspiOl.oeclm It hddack p.:,--..n;O:~>lIllyk~~w ~Jld ~o!.'1S'u.l~ed 'nlh w

m:lO~ od!i.'l~h..u;l S'ElOmii:l1}' m

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~.
~ ilZ

:submJt~5dellll;;:~ ..OI]!.

J" '\fo fedor, who Hnfl~)'z~~ ex:plai ned iHI,d, Exph'lrcr 12 bdlfil'vior (

1'1~«ewe.re othe:rs,who cQn,tn,ib~l:t:ed to~1~is ~ ki~d of \'\cocrk_]'ll ~he ~~Iray }te'.:~rsor f~~~f!unc~,-~ i ~

n

l~,e ~

LETTERS
c i~.gof aniCidii~ ~m~i Iil~~. h1t':~:ltd~!~ EI'II';li ;!n~ dl~ bi.ndi~gol·GlLll·~ ~ffll~hl~O .$pG'1(;'ific i:~~,po.n~m. omponent (lfl~e \ii!l!dkulio~or Me ~~ sequences ]11 the :3" UTR of trG- l, l~.c work .. I led! S[OOIJg~yth<u 'I'Ve ewe h to 't lJ~,and O~mcy and M i[chelill (,9). Sil'IEP,tlIEIN JI, PADIDIAC:K fREli'IIIR,EID} AIND O~lr y~ll1!i1,g: $Cie!'lJljiK~$ i!O dJr~i\,l aU~!!IlIHont(]ol~.~ Ih~ add ~.I:io:.U!UJi kl\\1t!O:Im'.\in]"k. \",~" iiJl~derV'.~i DlA1ItID 111". RUBI N(A;rII\ v~;L'ifk.ninrt rakeu W ith support ~fmll s,~'i,i'ef',dlal1~ and
NMA. GIXIdau!~p-.a;[~ Flight (iiiJ\l~er.'Gree:~beH,
IJ')/I.;

I

MD207H,

Rerllre:n«lS
1,

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2. S,.I. Pa!!di'l(t~J. Gf.r;!p.[!)yo" Iif:& 74, 437~ U.'lI6!9l. 3. Sc.l.I!',aa~iJ~k, rh.!), dil;~er;taiffi~~,ca.U~\ie Uni'o'Je~IL:r; Wd.:lmgblln.. [Ie U9H) .. ~, 5, •. 1. r~~cl",~, &1h~, (£~ ]1, W. /!I,~. '~r, ~, 365, (l9l)h 5.. 'II. \1'. flOl!.'f.!:il!'lS'kii. ~ 1IC{1(}, lIlfllJ' .S'SS1ll. '" (no. U~9

~l.~lm~

~Up:/Jn!$Il1~,Q~ri:.~il'lI,g~la!l1~pI',l\l~i.-O.~Wl!.·

\I!,rolill,~d~lothave' been pm;s:uble wit]iLOm t~,eir c,olh:ctive. iil,de:lPerlderlll~.;elp, M05:~.aotewerthy ~!,~' t he y01;J1.~g. ~~~ntisl~ ,"~,'hu 'worked se ~'HI!l'd:0111 thepeper on earD)' slt<lgeSi of t~:H=,ir careets=-because the)! <lfe victims of this

~H~ Il!i~M. IIAN N'A,{CON E
61i!(lrg~ M. ,l1:i~enbi!!r9 Ilmf~5'Sor,
1!)~~:tJIt~

IDir,f![lor

jicr 2-43(1

R~~e'8~rl;~' (",n~~, wI;!5'1~m tJ'nilr>~lISitv fl':inil~rg,5diloc~ Q~ ,M@dkiml', NCl1h HalitE!~ S~r'~~I.CIflMago. IIL~~]A, IUSA.
~e~earch, Cill,i~dfe~'s I,{emQriall

INOf!h·

dou bb" viet imized .ifd~~conelusion the s.d·elltU,fic: QOIUWlllU~!ll'rvtt,\!mlJte ..il~~1!ti,~m ,!~d<!N

R!rie:ri!I!I1lt,~
]. O. lI1!iim fl,llIt, ,0i!P: 8ful. Il:~:l'. '9iI! ~200S~; EllUb 29

1!i1.[ty reaches 1:;;li1IliI:~ lhi::. p,~per

has :~o ml::dt,
are!:~'n.c I'lilllO,Sit

A:~{l'n.oo,ght~l.c i>Cielmlifk;

l'e5U~l:S

S;~~mtt~r ,200i5, ;l.. 0, l<!lii'.!!1 fi~L ,~, 1iIJ'q1. 3~i{,5511~,OOI1); (p~b19' ~nllilJ07.

U'~~s;4h

6. W. (~$, pnrl~.t f1!Qr:lt .IW. Sot:', lJOnitru:l :fiL!'i6,32~' (18i6~ .. 1. ]1•.\1'; fiLlt!c!l. Th~ EUed: ,Ill:Sdlar !!l!dl~'fitJ~Pre-:5~w!l:~m !tIE Spll1,QI f)~pl'ur'fI'XII~MASA'mr4ID'1a.~5.'~!:l!J~119:tm. S. It l.. iJ!n.. ~II(fuJ'dame tmd {i:onrroJ' (pm.f)re~ In M:lEt.... Ai$&~-!:I!~,g~dli!Q~y): ~gt SI, It ~ !!;OO!l~~n,. ]",). f<l'm~r, [ds:.. (Al:OM!~rrIilcf1\e"!~.• Nm'i'OOk, 'Il'Jii.l2)\ F~" 543:-5!604. 9., t 1', Qial'lq', 11. f: MilJdie[~~E:rfI!C!l~ ~fradl~~ID:n fllm!S UJlMl'm Ih~ ~il:!IRI:ild'e of an Mirrda'L ~rI!h1Silt~ljli!· ~CiIffi1I!~ {or Il!.iIdltll'lhJ5;i~5i1md~Cf ~e->e.iHdh!lljl!l!!"! ~1i!9, : ! (mnf!rn.ILJrn~~'iI:t.I~hOOl. U't, S@,;lIMll!@r :l9'62~'.

l~e~Qrt"S: Ullralow Mcli"m Qf '(~wooale rauits ~~~d b~ Ihermll~d~am;p05illQn" ~rlit !fan Iil'~'ai. ~ll M.a.)'; Ill. a78~,(o~or " !lr110!~ a"'IlI~.3mlil [liloomH~clll!!in ~ig.2.01 Fi,g.. 3., .A" (, <'Iml 1);. ilnd fig. 4. WOO 1f{I,IA1{Wd fi!!l~r'11!.5 sh~wl!l lril!rl1, afJll'

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An Updatll! Ion a
(WI, ~SIC dIU cllllDwes,til g II.lion o!n
"TRUTH AlMD "ONiSEQUIEN[~'S;" {Ne\V's ~oclls,.1 Se~~emoor 006. p, ~222}. J. 2
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IN THE AR]~nE

~..egc!ri·ood fj ndiiilg,s Imin ,.ii'i il'l1ve~lig~~· A
of WiOOOIlSi:ll, Mad.usor.l,

C:
1100

~:ioitl <tt the Uililiversity

thatraised

questions

abQ~~:i hree peett

iJ
~

revu~wcdpapel:s CO",,1:llIt~~ored by.EJi,zabet.h (;OO(I\"rhl. ];n the ea.s ~ afthe pa)Pt;~'lrt O.lOil.kila et a/,. (n the Ed]~:or~ill~~('h ie f '0 f De:velo/)mcm~/lJi{lfoJ£r S<!lid th<l!1 [h~ @1ii1[hor~ wer-e rev]ewilllg the 1.·ek:va.Uli~ dam. Tlmt srarement waseorrect, b~(1hei~d~~f'io~ r (If~n in~a!:e a of reprinr oflhep<~permayh~we len ,I neg.,~~i""t: ,0\.1 r-'l--..,...------------"""""I i:l'lI1Ip:l\css.ionill ~OlllC feI.d~r~' ni:®{k MOOOO'l'Cf. t -0JIii :M ~~,letime of the OIlilicle's Imb~ic!lli!.JIJ;1. tlm.ectlse ag!i~rtj_~1 oGtlol;)dwfill \~t>; 1mol cfunl:'l!t;H;a~1dlb~ 0." ' authors of't~,~.e three pillpe:rs \\~re i~,lno 1J000i[:~on ~ ~3 to come to OlLIJJy conclusions <lbo~n them~nell·. 11:" O. t Th~ 'l'Ullhorn of Lflki,~,~(/H ,d. received .4 dnliiTt Of!l s;t!ltc~m,C:::lrU fro:m, i:hc Ull iversily of .. I ~ :Ii .. i!IlrI'!e(!S) Wi$(lml:::;i~ report by e--rIi1i'lil thm S\liIg:g~~ed 01. Fig .. :11 ~()s1i1iblc: pl:dlllcl1l wit;lm (,\:\,'0 panels out of ni,~'e in Fig, I ((1i!iI.(; ofnina fi.g~u·e$inlhc PllPil::Ji).WI;): i~.enlif:ied or~l~i.I]!li~~ fo.r Fig. I 'Hl.d dii,d 1l1:\?i,1 da~<1 expernnems ,\:l,tiU~im~~pL::lnd'~I1~ mi3'1l~~ds~nd l'eOlgC:1J11S to ,'erify the coru::~,:us:iiO'ilIS that Ih,e' p~~pel! reached fm!i'ill dOiI<1i ~~s~medh'!~h;u fig-' ~i[\e" tl1al process is now oomp'.h::'te. 1lI1'1,~ .~fiier

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~~~~~~--------------~~
.. teuers
,'l

____J_

31!1.

010' ,~2 Time (!2-1'

1~~------------------------~

Letters to the Editor
t-3(J1) ~~'()rl:h)(!1~U~5 111.;Herldl puobviec
!II

Sri('(~(.l'

Ih~ f.tr~ ...iOIJ~

l nlonlhs

(It

L%u~~[ll

pe.ew review aud ~nll~.1liY~O~111ll~1~Ural:c \'ril]~ [he mllMer. the results ~:l<1:yeappe ..red ja .D'(:n:A;;}J.I,u:u!,rll.iJ'i{}/~,gy (2). T11ey v~ri~yl:he olfigil'lli111c:.olJlclutlio>[lSor ~:ig.~, f the paper, o i... e ...the presence ofRNIP C<lm'Il!'exC::5i in vivo

~oafod
4, '9,

,

TM~y G!J11b c svbrn Itt cd !h rot •.q h ~hl' Wen (""'N'i~,5IJOITII tl~ ier~m or "J ~ 0 r I:I~'rl2l]1JlJ i mail 0100 NeL'I'l'ork I\vc., NW, W~~ill"g1on. DC 20'00)., USIIl. U'l1(1,~ Oi't? not .1(k'lCll.,.·l£dgC>d unon
'C(elp~. nor a-e ~\Jt'~Drs ~crlera~l\1 cunsulrec belore tllJlll3lilticHl, W'l€IJL~r r~J.lli~h~[lln

C;,l?nN al In tt-rest.

(3.9 ~PSi. 1-101 lilil,I"') 0 110

lull or

III p.I!!,

1,2

'14

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lcll~f~ arc subject to {-{hLII'Hllor dJ~ljy and >!pJ{Q.

FaJiIt dG;pla;Q~!'I'MefIl(Ii!'!~

d3il~u to be <J:ii:~:i~lgfin al:l~lllli~~'lrtUS<ln wily ""hUe :5iml\.lI!,,[1eo1!~:Y seekingto Jt(»(h~oe s(lci,e[y'S scope or choices.l ]enaOle:s with onv[olls Jiegret I~<ilit "science hasccme I,{): be viewed as sir:npJly ~ resuuree fUf cilhalld 1I!1: the abiUt.y of groups im! sod~lytj) bargain... n~rui~l~.1!~d c:o.n~].'l'ro-~\ih~eh 10 :a~~\3's:.."th~PRl blC:I'II1Islhat canarise mise i n plnll~,l IhJeg.rt>pec::i<llin~e~-esl:s:'·He of ,'~rhf~ th~re '1vnll':,.j;I lil.. .~\!'i~,Q ~.'Ci ... .. n ... n. ... \:l'il].~ts f(HI'iild it t"-l1S}' til1roi!.rim:~ii'ii)}dj~p1l.~ioMte: \~i~~nbri~gi~lg,-:ei~hfic ~X;P~i'li~ ilW~n d'l.":tlHi. ~I~('i "ie:~t~1~l'~p!)li~k~~baU~~8 ii~ pIayed ~ml : s.epOlJcJ1lThonrom the bi,g j;lOI~lic'll ,que:l>~ crm ic deNtes.. f in the hmguaPi': of science. ufl.en re:m~ti.r.lglin (if ~i(jil'ls dl~'ir d"y. tt~ i~,lg (If I "IIvith u~m,(~rfhcu~ Ulll ]nfurm~ll<ltiIlS his 'l;ppw~ch. Pic:l~e ad- pplicy ,gridl eck and the di.m~!li,$'~iJi,~l;nl!i. scil:o.n1m'U~<IIliln.g am,d :il1ves[~.giltl:ung ql~tesrkms dressesvsetemisrs w:hlo ilJlcre<ls:ullgly face ence us a r-e~tm~"Ce~hr~,)o!~~CY·ITHl i IJig:' H is k ~hl;ltJre'~~:,c.dilllilp~ml!lt;e widlO~~l b~:ing..~k(;l,d: eve.Ir}'(jl',,~y deci sions <~oo~1ow to pn:5i~i(nl Int:ir h ~ppmpri~[(:: distaste fOil"s,~tc!:u"slca~l]l' lssue advocates," hewever; ,ol;:<us.:i:o:~i1I[IIY sawin s,ah.e b~ jounrnalists. pelitieians, bure(Jjl~l;ru!l~iies',.Hld careersand [-cs,e<l~..ch il'llhe cOIll:rex~: ofpo:l~cy inter~1 gn:luplO10 frl[¢rpret th(;"bmad~r ~f1ilI~ 311m.:! ~"M1;li[tc:;;"" s~lllplify his 3r!1!tl1iiIH:nt, he Irmme~'ffir~:-iil1 flile ~I,'ilmiple, Pidk:~ says that To posits foulL i.deahz.ed roles flu ,all iD'l,d:U\l'~,cl.lI.'11 a reW\'iel~':,k'.IlI.O'.\ln seiemists "served <I.~ Stet:Jilh I:l<~cl.''' I]fthe~rinUIUilrY .md d:usoovery. AltbO'W1.g:~ ~~ ~<lHl)"ormi:s~y V~Sk~lS; (]:fr~"lljm~s can b~ &CiMt~~~: th~ d~!~i~H;lr(lSI(ld pl:~rL;'i!Ocie:r!I~t~:th\;l [s;sliII,e.Advoc.a~es 'wh:e 1'1 th,cy 'C~iIimed dUll dclllJ!i;ld i~ de;;,r ~lal science .,rbite~U'.. is whopl'{wid~ expeni:seu:Il. nar[Bjol.'n I Lo:nriltmry h'!I$ ~oU~:.tmJ hi$ -Nl:Iem;t;' ID'lvly l~,efined, :sciel1liliilfi c;<lJ.ly t,e:i>tab~c fltle!5F ~.~rong, and beeause hc ~'n;as~li ·~c.ience· s lilitreseil~t-day issues of Thi: HOIiI'Elst Bro'kt,r (i,ollS: t~tl honesr bmker;whCl provides ,<l ~"lli~e wrm:1g til",,,>!] niooet:;smri~y thiJ~ewfu,o,rueeru ~li!) seieneeand societyMaking Sense of cli:mi~,!I~e (1~Url1l,ge. tan s virnvs of 'science" ,\iiiliiiouid. Jose out iinpolilica] ofs;c.ic'l1I.ti,ificaMy indbili':~~.edpelley oJl't.kII'lS, (h1 ScienCE! in Policy oe,~~,I'e:i;e~n;h,. geraeli ~ 1I1m:h lin: same '!I'i'lly ~h,ll ar,t.~\ie'.~ ,glllide proIx]ltl~:' ielk~:~$!llpllfu\>is is ~ped!lc~Uy (J'!l P and POllhCS C[l~~!y modified o:rg<l~ vides ~I]lIfol'ln<l!ti9]11, r-est<Lur:mMs: or hmel:sill m,l I~,e link between po:i:UI,ic<li,argtLlmenl and sci!liyil?tlgCf .,11 .. PifHfI(.l J:r. un'r.'lmili a:]!'~er.r,~M)'};.md th~{wl$n Old'lrn~<l~, l;if!~~. bU'l on!.;;: wi~:~~,~ more ,guidfl!l(.'(): Of! for ~i!l>'rnl~ s~,{.1~~~'11~lil, ami biofl:llcis, tn mlilne II?:Le~ke's 1~r.J'rll,e\vork pmvhles a Cillmbr~d g U n~l,I~ ily rs

SCIENCE

AND

SOCIETY

P

or

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Pies.;>, Caiilbri(j'ge. {'D~]. j'l8- pp. P<lIJ'er, S29.99. IS ElN 9JOO5211i94Bl.D.

jUiSl fI

f~'V-chal~\e~lg,e helpful f;t,fjniJmgp('li~[ for investi!;l!l['ung fm:I()iIi"S thillt compl kale the

lIiI;mnyseiemists toceutexnmlID;:~wlcirm-w~l~ iu <I w~:der !'>ol~ifl~:matrix. Yel Il~V!~JI(~!l:p'\ ;n, path of re$l~o~u;ib.l~ en.llfligemer:u: ,un a loudaad Clont:eMCdpolitucal CU!ll(t~t .ci.'!!!llry th~ i!l1Il;"gr:ilY ef'even th~ ml)Sl ~,!iSM~d l'e:;e,irt:Jhel'S! i~,d~d, ~i~f:i!~ is of eaurse sjDmelilffilf:Sused asa sl:uidd Ihr 3(~"dl1t.'" i~,ggndiv~dm~~polilh;;;,rl agceL~,Ja. even 1W sciens,

It hi:g,blig~lt'S the question of \-",'Jib.en !\lr~ ~,mJ:iv idual sci~~lt lsts !>ho~Id
play in a wi!I~-f~u:rtction,i:uag demcc-

!1.dencel.~od.t:'ly ~~::!ilionship"

ra.cy~Si~o1Jldo;l st!:i!il~tist ~l1g~S~in

e1!>.pldJ: ~ruerf:.!l;l·,grolip ~oHtk; s in i
the l(I,)(Hsomli;ila~l ttra.ditioil~.
0.11'

pre-

vkJeinrnlTrbed
science ill.1society:

illt;ellll~:~~iv'es to

tists them seh::es, MOTCO",'Cr, ~~ci,e~xJ~1!> o~u::ujustify. Sigm~[inu:1JLJlIUJer du~~.IDeiT reqw::::St::! for fhn(liug by Unkirng the:Uf ,research ~o bJ,i(Klder S(]('h;~o~ benefits, e\i~i1iI inh~ir ~$)}l!Ch has no sm::l1.gofltln Tlrefionesl .Broker:' JlitakiJlg SClI"~'C~fS{:i!jIl'c~ inIbJIc.p' (mei PfjWi,·;~. R(lg~r Pielke Jr. sllI.cccssFuUy illuminates these ehfllh;llJg~s U)sei~,~lce~~ui cieli1it~sl:l;.Fie :al,so ~

Im~,i[i.cf,allsalld dcdsiO'~.~maklll:rn'}]t ,dso :~~Iumimu~ dilIerent views of
<I.I~Ile<ir lliu:oc:lel

\"Ihe'r~by kil'll,O\.\I' I~dge ise roal!;d ill the ~~lb. ackaged by ~cue~nir~c p experts, <n!mJ~hen handed orf lO pO~,il.i,ci~[lrt [0 do ¥>11<Lllbey \II,'ill~i!I s

st~kehoh~e!:"~nod~l. w]~.ic~ in seientists-as-e ..p~ns wurk to ura!i:J.ernt,! ~: n poses ~c.wei'"o1I~rene1!iive 'IWLtl~io:lt~ th,1t enable r-.es~,@r·e:~~rs loi~np rove 'illiic:irealllfubm lens 1)0 th~ intcre~ls; C} f di n~rcn~g.rollp:; G'~'l1el~I"'!1flel~U ~d! ~I~~"
~h~pub;l,icunleres:t mtcll~,l.ellll:sers oJkl'io~'i'le~!;e lheln~
:i!I;;:]\I,~S ~:[:l:V~ $O~l~

'Pi~l;k~~l ( pr,(rr~SNllr ~n [h~En'!tiromH~!lt~i Su~(]i~ P'f{lgt.nn, UJru.iw.l1ii~)' OfC"'ll~Orudol has
(;mu;ribu~ed elltlcnstvcly to d~bail>es 011 d imatt' dHllrnge s.del!llll'e Illlidpolicy. I;.'ispeci,.II~yofl hurriC3~;1'(~ a:~d:norm da]':tm~lges,.lus pcrspeclives, I OJl the ~c.ien~"~I'icp.roces.:s and dlimiu:e ch1Ing;e' <I'l.so dl:.J\!\1 QUill hi!!! ~f'diniillg<IS a po:I~.tiC::l~ sd,elJil.~ ~,ist.h,is f'OlltniIi:uily \,,'i~l aCO)lde:nlijiC'vi~\)lll"('I!I:' ~he' Ilrtd.e o;f,sciel:ltilsl£ inl !policy. ;mud hi:s, e.... per.uem::e' c(l~I.~bClra'ii1lS b~ :f;l'~~~~r. "\I~lh RO,~"fPg~lke Sr., .'tIll <'IIlmosphm:k scic;:,~.l~st., lfhc $llJLinoU"5;bac:}k~ gJlioun:C1 Mi~ ~]im ~I b~.d Ydl1ilage j'Jfiio~ From
!he It'r.~~~ 111~~iI1iOO,T~liIQ!ogy, and S Ilntem,lIjlWilal J!inai~:s:,IGeqe~CWjl) iJJ(:1~m~~.~V.a~in~fi. IlK 211),057"ll15J\.E~m<!itlleh3@geor:geIOWillL;e.du '
n.~lr~e'l~·<!t

rlDl~in its pro-

Iby M~lg,!f!~ nillnily ~1!Udl'r!;!)d~"(I;!. 1D~!ill i (ro'llnAn~br(lg~QlQrtnle'~:t~'s AJI(l(j()'ryaj'Good Goremrnent. PalauQ i'lililillico." SienOll, IialiV (:H3.B-39),

dm.::tkm. Pi,~Lki;;hm:,~mTWI(.~u~~d h~:-;
!bur typ~, s.~1.Gb.1111.nlhe' cmn'bit]fItuons oftlin.ese
l\,\iQ

f~,cu;JIi'5

sp,r~.~he :-ip~l(,"e(lfpos6!ihl:e roles.

llh.c fll'rullC'!.Wrik alsol im::orpon!tcs; .m;;:po(,~5dun: ,e1fl.pl.l9III why stI\~lle deb,o\I;e.stend w, 'OeoOlDe V]l·· rioiic·-:for e-."i:iJlmpie. whether lhe: decisiQu .It h~lf:Itl is C~f'.:H;t~!i;':t-d by cOfJlil~ns·~$()11m v.flh~es 9111!:I~OW um::elJt:l iil~t)l,whe~;ler it i:s c>O:l:Iln,{}c!:ed tD I.. polk:)' c'hoic~ •• uiJ,d'Iii/hellier Ilhe c:h()$~rll'\1i:~~ oflhe ,Scieil.1tust !JOts.torel>lricl or {l';I~<IIlldpos.id;~ b~e choice fO\li" pol:i{,.'Y~nl~'~llk~i!'S'. IPhdkc cl.C'fdy

:soientl SiS, ~n~g~,tuwei'x:ne'r engagEd in l p~Lblc dJ!~.greel1l!em~ over 'CQIJ]lp.elill,g :!'leieni lili!!: <~Pl;JIma(hes. l~.ol~~h :SOlmB of~is;L:lN;.arn,,'~~ !>ocm lX"rip) ..
h,ov;,'

em:~ (such l:rDnl'! of

<l'S

~m e:>!te:l:D.ood

11[J!l1IiloID'o t

clieci:::;i<.u~.=
Z

m,;li!lJ!:t und~r ~lcG'f!ainty\!i.~i~lm~!'l l~ Bush d~lC- ,. U

n%i,~irolTY preempliml).

W.iellkeprovide!>

uJS:c:liJ~ ,and tho'li1g~t=~~!rovo.ki.lJ,,g :mi.~e:t.. pll~.o:r1!:Ilo!l' ~. . c~ $cllssi~lS, ho~vb~ to 'e'mJ~e ifJ1puh.~ic'deb'I~~~~. [Ild~~d, l11;: I,ll'gc~~1 Hltl~ iliubll.c: \I~ew of drlj)i 5 ~ho~",:s:I'n.mv~de'mJli:\lts' 3ellecti,ol'ls .~mongill~.ese pmc~::>s IJa;ecisely ~o iI:],~iprO\'e d~S'Cus.:l,i()ns ~ z oplio!l~'C@!l !lrl~ct OW(lO!lles. l;ltnOIl,g the Ill<lllY :;t~~~hold~rn \V~~Ohl~V~ atll iii :~n,lm<lk~JlJ!!; lis <C:J:se, I?'i:e:lke:iil~ll5tl':lltet'> •• ~ pm "1~,~ imtl:restin ;i1. bL;l~~'er \~.(lrld: ·~Th.;;; demifie COffl~ ~ $ ~ bh~ ~ni$s;t~ps. Ibcl~sh,g O!~ r~sei'lr,cIHlrs \vbo

~

BOO KS, ETAt.
Cl1nIR1;~~,jpolitk'~1 iSSH~

I

ss u;as~is~(llici1l1y rhe ease when sclesdsrs
seugbt ~n he "vahLC free' imdl removed from pm~i.c:OI~. conceras. 11 makes no sense RJ~ty .~!) return ta a byg01:u~-lliIId ~,8i~ely ~l}(tlli,i('.a]-erol '\,~il1ejnl~(:'~en:ceJ~l"..L'> lh.O~l.~llOO be' se(111f"..a:!e fmm

rarher th@.Jl

\i;'i~~d~~1\i,

I»lit'i-cK."While The /'imlrtSf lll"vk(ll' ~pe*s10 I~ !ieaiaen~l~c' it~n:!ll~ro '~f $Cj~~J;."e h~ I lioCtel}li:l1l. l<Irlicu~,all: 'rh:d·si.mNIKlki;nlg~LI1l,d'eI."WIIil(;er~ ~ on

~;_~il!l[Y ~l:lii hot!;' ::;d~mi;:,H :1l!tld th~~1Ii1Mh~s can
poli~icize :sc.~ence--.Jl.he books d~.reQt ~.3]il;gl.lnge ~lldool'l{,'Jiiere exall'1!pies cam\"Cy the 'ooneep!:s. to a wide ~udi~ll.ce. By Cllter,:!.-Orizillg difl'"er-em roles. intJ~e Onf;lllWX~d bm il:u~of;ls;sary~I@~kms. between !«:.ue:llniSts;ll'ildi'~ma.eijjr:roci<'li~wn~j(l Pi.ellke dmifij,~"chaices !1{)[Cml}i til~ ~d~m~~tlObur aI~ii.l

for I.he dl\;'effie'l"lleli!nbe~ ujrdemoctatic ~·i.,l. omp'onem. ofootrerpol icy: c

~gei(ll)1.

fOI"¥.1101ll s,cicnlifi.c persp~Cd'l.'es9re' ml ~:KSCIl"
m.112i61'$t~ena:.lliAl~7,1!l1.

N EUROSCIEIfi'iJICIE

WiiUgenstein and ,the Brain
..•.',....••... ' . . lh~I'e>O~: must: be ~uh~I~I.'· '?ne \li, ith tilu-; Ilrnv·~fi.'lmmIlS hue bldl~'i,'ig\'Vi:~l,£,ellistein broughl~.g 11 close 71rlct(ltn~.l.r,Jgi.~'()'-PI'No.'>opllfc.'u."", Ills l1r.st gDl."O.'Il work (./1'.The l~nes. d.ml: bdUII.gto a ~to::>ehis second g~al~ \'\fo:i"k,. P'hUo,~'(}pi'k."(;'" Imwtigmitf1J't3 - -'

"'W'"

r

".

··.··herL:lof

on~

1,;~!ln:Ol

speak,

are mthl;;r less \"td~known;. [hey ib1!d~udB: "TI1.e C{mltlls:rcm and bmFrel:liness or'p.sycl~.ology ls m)1.to be G:'\plf~iT!I!;)d byculmingil.~ 'y(lHlrtg sci· enoo' .... ill t)il>yC'hJ):~ogy t~J~re .9[1);: c%per.ulIu:mal me'~~lod~ mld ~i()lILoepuml cOrll~$ion:' The ~~!~eged fi.~siIOJl~1em~ can 'frum ,~rt"UJI rJl)e~f"ltel'll~ .. \!il'aYIi f I:~i~lkijng o !1l:if)l,it the m~~mll re~hnlll~l Wiug,~:ns[eun held. h) ·be· dis •.tS~mLlSI)f mn SBuudecl l'h~~ $[~m~\"..~Yt'(j<fthilmkingar~ ,,]&0 pre~ul~'~~i. ~o e-<il[liCI~,ly disastJlimJs effe.ct, ~.n con~el.nporary Ilelllmcl!ence. or :so p~mi]oS.Qflhel" ~lier :~';u:k-el" :1!Ind m:m'O~iemiM Mtl1ll.\\it:!] Bell!netULl,!!JL!~N:Ner ~hi1:450 01: 50\\Viugelffiste in~unspi red page:,~ of
1(2),

Philosophic{l!. rormdal,ivus qf Ncumsciellce "3l J"W1mJw::iltrM"tJ mtd Phtto.roph_l\ tb~PJ!1Cs:er!ll !(iumd mu(~hbrjl}~'~.r) \~'lJrk, is a l~S('lful i:~lfliJ;.)c:.b;: ..
~:io:t1 Ih.eil.·posi~i.Qn,. hcmntll.ins. to
!Se"\lml ext'l<ll::I:S.

fn1m 1«)U/~'tltfl"iIJn!f:. '[oge'~:~e:r cri~k"3.1 Sl!r~ l.vith
veys by Ja.hillJSel!lJ]e ..:~d D.miei lDeaneu-

dlerived r~n~ull "'l~~~hofll;,~!~w e:ri.~C!:i"s~ion a~

n)~ lre\lilewff

is allh~ ID'ePiirlllileliltof flr~!J5~ph~, IJlni'o'er>~I!J or ti'i'elfpoo!l • ., AberaMl'b~ :~u~re. Lhierlf!i!!ol L6-91W'f. Utl. IE'lIIOIil~biI~~~toill@~i'l!'#t:luk

mental P<:}\\l"e'1'S [0 !!m't_,r.nlbe'r&, ~l:~e'~ing~(n!d [\e~'Porlil''e~ frcm Be:J[m;:Uand T~i8 d.ugm \I\i]~~ strike m~ny as bizarre in .Flacker (1'nenaerorlilrl ·~B&H"). the extreme, Wh~n :l.nre ~hdr 11Ie'wr;:are several s:~mnd$: ~o 9 rouads f{lrlifill!lk ingit! Their :N illUlirillS.C he·i1.CIE! ami 8&11'5;; ease, i;.C1~~,e1rlOfCeonl WmlQPilng i~ri\~s from Wil.tgemF .Ph U1·(IIs.ctpdh;1{ stein, W~iC'I wllol;e:"Onlly ef a temious 1h'l:lI1. (Y~~l·ef)1. wlurin~ Q Brain, Mind. l'!cOln d],l': ~ike of B.I<I~.emQre. human beillg and what resemand: L<J:ngu,HJe Cr~(;Ii;. Edi1jlm~~i1.Fri:.;by. M:Hft,. b]e~ (btsh:rlwlt~i ke)1 flHv itlg by M"'~w.i.!'U8,e"lirwfrt an(lYolm~, Lhey .s!1iU)\\r ,t~~al eun iU1111I3'1l1 eiag C<IJ:~, .l:Ile' 'say: it b o (J·~.~.rr;:itl:i·c{i]J1~.tr.!1 tr;:f P'{ n~~c'ietl!~;i~l~ o()'~1m{)nly talk Itlf Im:ss~!io<i~·iQa~~.it ~:i,i:-; hlind~ H~ttl!.1]l',fHj.rIJrHI.r:r Sl)fJf.fU subsyslenllS:\1i,~i:l~l illl:be brai n he3.Ts..IS deaf: ~IS conscious or it::olum i:J.b:'1 U nd\!'O rsi!V F'm Sf!. UItC(lllS(li.O(JJS," Like Wi.u_g:cllslorin,g 1:Ii1!ap-s;.1.'Cpres~'un[luiC!J~s, Nflw'Q'hrk, 200],211 PP" si:e-i:II1 .• B&r,i lIoldth<liIWht:ll it· and iDl,lhrrn<1ll.on: rontlli~lS ~ily· $25. .~~m. 1£:16·_ COliil].G'~. [OI~~~ COl"ruc~ ascri pt ion porbeses: ali pU~lng":;;)'Imiools" I 58-I\! 918 on i141)1·117. and "meS8<1wes"'!:o each other; of mental states and proMuch ofthi:s mlk. th~yar:gw~.is ~1,;:s.S£~. II i~ a ::ll!bj~ct!s C;j1IP'f!(,':~" di~~Il.i~d !liOOSie-mL.'le. To to.lke JUSt ~Lfllee·.\mnphit ti~I'br publ!~d1 ehservable be:~"'Ii'i.ii~r hm ~Wi'e t forsol'lldl:ing to be <Ii mn~p illiUllC:QIJldi.l'I<lltysense Si.gplific:an1l;~,. I:1i11twhm is go~.Ilg on inside the of the term, ~lI1au.Jdi[iom. C'el"~l!~.l :ifimihuiti:eIl of ~l~bj~~ or her or his m:~l1don::ml!\CiQlnSll1e~t ~o Sll'iUCUI'IX! be'l'\·.vee~.llle 1n8iJ.Ci ~Ii!'td whruit depiets, Sim:pl if)! ing on~y .1) l,iul.e.b~~!llI~~ b:rain!!; aI"C U'Il:COIp11Lbh;:J ofdle,rereVOinil fbru.HS ofoo1.1<l.\'~.orthereaee ~.IsonI~es.~llKi otIlY'ilemi:or'lS th'll: .dkii.';' semeone ,'vil.o understands them to :knmv ,'!113t ltl.ey C<lI~'I; alk, talk, Hinch. po~lH. or run w p~!l~~lf Oll'ip~l;;l~ ~le \;\,'Orld 'lh~ map :1.:5 repre- afl)~!lH;J-it l~ senseless t1~1 aseribe 'LIi!~.ent,d of senl:illig. :BCC"dU~ oo~a~~,ed l.lCUFdl: m.<IpS<Ll'e typ3urilblue:s w~:lir.t'm. ic·~nylO[(ISSOC',~mw\:'i,iidl such QQn,;emiOn!i-.~l is 1 rl~ is,~IJooh.wi:orisrt co ncepuoa of (he wrong 10 suppose ~,ley"m,p:rre~I'1i~" ~I'Ithe w.iIY mental Is not ohdolLS.ly t.~:~·.ro(ltto ~y the T Olr o:rd~n~uy n~~P". ~ldmugJl1>mnc IlfIIef~ros.cien~ ~Ci1:f>LThe i,de!) th~ltomls;::::h)llS states pos;scss $11 tu$.ts l<~~Ik ifth,ey do ..D~Jn:le'n l1mlp~;li:n!'l thar ..S li::mm,eT. ~llbjeclive and priva~e cht1l!r: ..(;~er-<l B&lf-I ~ llOO ~u!.lS;~rv~H'v~ I~ \vlt~!Ill ~l CO!uL;;.S clln(lr~lC'wr that g_.:; e's~l1iljal llO ·~'I~.;::ir 1'1I!l: COIlby bel seieus S;[;'lIies:m.all__;,us a Vie,), nmural one. As: to r-ec~1'I izi'lm~ ~eS~li:II1IHni!:'and fI'Wl Ut:!1.I~. exten:;ian:; tc:l th~\\'3Y t~rnrn.. s·<;'Ire no!:tln8ill}11!IL~e-dfSe-~d~ !Hlt~·S in 11is eonu:~b·~lt!!'ln.Wi'H.g~n!'lllcb 1;;.'l\~erisi(j·li15,!re c(:I·mmmlpl!m:e in mi I se i.. ~1,ei!1!i~.f;i$ 1l~1pb~l~!!l,ibly C beseen ... ~oii1niuii'i,g s eum~s,. He Ill<L:r\!!~11 be rug~~[. UI. IIB&.H are B i~e e1>:u:rm:al 'l behavieral )~v]dlelloe' fO'f con<1,I~ogln~Q insist i:llilll such exl'eil$i,o"(]:; l:n~l~t d seiousness i!!\fi~hthe existence of' cOiij,sci ousnC5S,.I:~fb!lil ~I olfc:r here ()]'a I:he~ mauersis ' B& be C".;lren,d l.y cOllsi.d.e~d. (lG'Jclic'CcL :[),ClJl1en':S ing.~[~t..y ::i<ly .~ good d~~~, {l'~-e ill . m ~ OWl'll willinglle:i~ to i1~l'iJ'ibe b~liefii"II~.d :~mei.l- nor cgmpe:,~~ rieus 10 systems assimple as. thermostaes FOHllrtall'Olis .. strjke.s snrr:lw .[1:<> an i~~I-C(Jnsid·~r(ld ~XOOils<~ml of I,his mii,ch-disputed loph; ~!sid~, 8&H1;; ordinary usage.) ani.llld.ew the bfa~n is vulnerable 10 :I 1l10Ire Sf) far $~l .good ~U~'\'... a~'B&HI1~m~dw:g h ~t.misJl[Ii~f\vU!rcl bjl;\ctiofl. ] am I.'iL'ir~mLy f!bI~ o describe as their main I.unc olf m:gmml!!:lll is ~o Lhi.lllk. h. seel.llS vcry phlUs.ibl.e to till il1k d13t ] \\IO:U ~d {lOllt in~Le li('l ~avc th IS 9l~i~, ir ~wel"(: i~:r ~,o~:pl"ab~cnUlt[c:: (uldl:I~i; cdwiousl.y ofpolcl!lIr~"ll mre U;) !JIm: t'ic:i I1ig llellm~ir::~l[:il~'S. red.lIced m ·~lrg.eQIiI.d~tion of<~ he"lh~lyi~vi~l.S c b •. AhhOl~~~SI1c:rrillgtOritec·le!> •.~ucl P~i1- bra.in ( m~i ~:~ai~t:!dy ~i~e..~.U!p!p.o:Ul m!l(:h illiA.;'iY [ :imy) .. If [ <I~,1.1 f:issc:ntially 11 bu I'mu!:Ii be:un!!,. 1IS f:reM 1l1<Ly~"'e~mbscribe-d to "\l3Iiialllsofmilldbody dll:<I]i,srlm,,c.:mte~il.poraTy 'Illo;;:ums>c:uelmt~sl:S B.~H .sl~gge~t,. tlil~1113tn stUI <I btl.meal) heil1lg :un 'U~9J;:fl~t".:lJlly yf the ypi aliollitilat our!neJI1I:~<'l1 my dimil~i5hed iCollidilkm.BliIt bec<I!mw:i ] ,tlill lives illle milH~liil!ll i,tun mllnre ~Ild CQ{ltlph':'lely now indiiSl.inglliuslu.lj)l.e from ~ny imlh:l-'!Ne <I1.'C (h::pe~de~:n UjJ(l[L~l1el!r;d goingsHu1. lin our ~O.[iI.lpOSe-t~ ofprec.irely the !'l0l1:1l.1e I:l00Ill.1Sc-i10W can it besense~t':5i;sw :say tll,~~~l cmm.thlUil,k? bmins "miniS" YCI B&H chdm lh!lt (ile f~.eM 1"C'.l'lmiil.inM' c'olllmlitwd 1.0 a r~rnic:i(l!lH; form ofduali&nil!l. If ~h~r~:~mflthi.n~~!IJ di.stin.!w ish lU~ f'li'On~flly Why ro'! lBoc<llkSe Lhe!->C s.une neumsl~ie'l.ltUg~S bri!ilJi, \\10[1,,":[ mybmil'll:le' :Jble W 00 e"~I:ydltiing lhold ~h~lbr:Jil'!:;;'calil~h:illk~~~ou~~ts.ll<l\'e I C!):11IId\.)'! ~'x~ IIi".iem::es,.mJke dflCis:iolls. hold gru.d!l1'Cs. Ir-emeJml~ Relili!il'emlOt,~. l1e'r pm~r~\~mrts. ami su for~l. B,&J1 d.;;]im Ihis :1.. t 'KiUg~M1i1:in. ~clorlli" tQgirn,J!'hflrnopl'll(.~s ~t;i@gil~ P.iIN'\"']rmdl,VrriiOOef; loo dCI!!, 192t!), . ~oo i So j 'U:st nOlib;se11l:se. Forr ~liSiij,O"t brni ris!'I~llt hvt,: ·tj~.oug.!~~.s el'i.p~ri.cll(l~Ji.i1 us; ht'~:~]~l,!l •1:. t WiUgl'!n!iteom. Ph.fI·raJC)p_i!!.i<,l'ljrnW1!~.Q!iom OOtiJ(l\.wenl. ~nd ,g.;~J~,!I,?')3). beilil,g:s-ie-.,\~"J.101Ie· ~~~lImlilllil. <lnu.nm~'s.B&ll do ]1;. ,... R. Bel'lmL'.lI,.P: M. !t. H\i!~!rer, ~Pla~".fJ/1i,'Ill f-{,~fldaria.rn< ~!lt d~lIQ.y ~halaur ~l~m,Hd I.i'ii~ d.c:pcD].d (l:l'n our o.f ~e(!wro.~,g ~!!b])kwell. O;d!l!pd" ;!OO',;I).. bf"<'II.llS,. b~l:~ th~y in"~ist lh,u lO <lsc.ri.be meni~l!L1 powers 10 Iilmins is <IS :senseles.s ~]S <'Lscribinrg
I.

ihe 2>005 A!m~eii~;)In 'L~ilooop:~~ic~1A5;~)C~~rion

901

ENVIRONMENT

Carb'OIDIMii'ti'gatiio'DI by Biiolue,lls o:r b,y ISavinlg and R:est:o'lringIIFo,r,e:st:s,'1
st!'.:IJlegi.cs for ~.n:udgali.oilll of mnlil,1i().. _ IJg~el1!ic carben 'erni:-J~~on~ i:'iiu:J,{JI~; e.~y. 1"ba~are cOlllpoetiill1£ elliV;uro:L~IIiI:Qe:n;t"<'l1 prio;ri~ies.
sneia ~and ~(l!!lo.nm,ic. ~TaCI:ors.m'l.{:ll eemmereial andl;K'l.I.i!i.c<'l] i merests, One M: rut"!egy that has

TillE! Col! rl:!onSl.lq l!@stlw~ci b~ "moringro ~.$;tsi:~ glre[l~elr 11'I,1n e,mi~~iClnsavortlecl by Llm'~U!5'e! the IJlf th@ Hq'uid iJ;l~fuII!Is.

C

hoo::-oin,g; from

~rI1I~l:iJg

the hast

of

ffiod~d~)!i!J;;rI!'iv(': ocn~mio.~isthe
ItClI'nrU!llIlalio~

l!~

o['bio-

fne,~sWor millilspm:t •.partie ul <Ilrij' el.h!llmol,

trom

CUl'IIIl!latiiw a!W:l~ddll!ll!Ili;s5ioins per h~iI:;ta,fie~,'II'er3(:1v~alfsfor !I ~ange Oif bli,oh.!eb compaw,ed Ml~ l~e (!ilwbon ~'IlCillle5ierl1'd !IlVN :30 '~ea rs by cbaJlIIg~ ifil9 m~pland 'to' rCilIie$i. alf'ld the tClS~ ol c~r'OOr! l(i' th~a:~mQ~j)~~~ by ~orW~f.S~lIi1 fClfest ~o cmplillilM. ~tf~r bats of in(Jicate lI1e ~a f19~ Of IoIaltuesin the lil~ 'Q'roltl.!! JiJiOOd .I[)@lails olf'f! iw!lllh~ SON!. Fe

5ug~lr !;iI!11~ Iv e<!l!T!a!lal

.........__ ........

of c,l:rrbohydrnlc (,TtJ.J~ as a :S1JI'~ :.l,rrtu~e,forpelml o.1:nd\l-eg~mb!~ o;ih'l, hi pll,]Ce of dii:lC'OCI.f~LeIL SllC~, :'1111aw.mat:b wO'WlJd ~uia;e very Ilm:ge areas ofl<'llidi~.l order to Uilli<~kiea signif~lC~lll (:mll[fub~~[olltQ'!li~il!gatiOI~, of tfuSj;i!11
fl~e~e;;~~is$;~Q!l!S

~eeded to Illiildre !-;i!ilnILrit~.1iIU(IU,Ml~
dti~ ....of fiDel A. 1'[1% );.ub~Lilnliolli1i uf p euel and dJi esel fjlu!~.ises~.:iia 1,~.m~edliO requ ire 43% .md J8%

a!1dl""~llld, d i:~cdy

(If

ind i~

of

CI:I!J~wnt

~·foplo:!!f!d~!!!4."f.in th!:;;'

rectly. pUlihnhel" PI'eS:S[Lfe 011 Il!alllrnllb.~slS. ,flIndgm!:'i:;I~~d:-i.Thereare numerous a ssessrnems oflhere.hni,,'\! Im.lcrt!.s. ofd~nere~lliqutd biofucl !>t~<Ii~egim; (e.g., !-3).I:tUl f(!!w (lcunparc ~h.esewith other !!:J$eS onaud (4)1, T'!;VQ~S:&u],l'J; 11L!~d to Lx:adclJ~oo b~f(1\ro th~ eff,uci1IJt:y ofbio~m.lls em'! be assessed: l~e net nld:~elkmi:!mJ fC)~iI caf1ixl~, ~mi$sio!rls (f~\I(liid~d erni ~.~ml!s}~iri~ii,g rOOi!iill!~ gf ~:gricl~lwr''illy ,dJerM\loo bioflU.els and (he f!·IJec.::l of a~[el.'D131ive land-use ~tr<llegies011, Cl1mml ~k;¥te-~ i;~uhebio~~~len::. A$ liilild istll.e .Ilum:itu.~~gescueee, dJ:e r ~ppIFQln,iat:eoo,si::i for I;,'QmlJ'''I1~:->OJlis <I n~IlI,ction of i<H:Ld area (1\IIg C ha.-II yc'a..--I). We use 3 perhld of 30 yeiill:S; as Of~ basis fnr I~X]mpfur~l,g slrntegues becanse i~. hkelylomkedult is lIiiI.lm::h ~in~r;,; carbou-free fuel rechaelcgies H~ fblt'" be developed ;n~dil'lu1QcllUm:d. ESlim~tm;. (lif
~'I,Iaid~d cm~(;giQ~s \l3r)1 wlidc~y d~JKlJ:Idi!1g
IOU

UIiI.ited Stales iI~~d Enrqpe.. respe<:~

ri1iely' {5). Af. e'I~n dMS kwl.' SlLb&1;i~
nnia.m! level emmet be 'nrTI.e~ r]'fm1ml c;:dsti!D~ ~uhl€' land!.fQres~;!;~IfI.d grds,s!mrn.d:s v\,'OliJIld [teed tu be cl~~iiGiI t~ ~n~b]~prMluClkmof the en:eB¥)' coops. Clearance re:9uk.. ill~ the F'dp~
I

SOl

f};'I\id'attPnoft'<'!fibo!ll S'fc~ in dl~'~~I:ario!m,~OO soil!. Ci"ellliftig a l<lf'ge ~I~~-I'to'lil missions eggl e (6) liluH \\;uL1I.k~ .ill $)]11C<Ic~S f:1Jt<mm,illed here, out-

"\'eig~.lhe 'll,!loided'l!rl!iIi:'ii'!i()llS,
Of the 'biofuel SiOtm:::cs :shmvl;l,.,ofl~:yonvere ~iorJlof \\'o(Jdy biomass ( !..1. ". 7') m~~}'be CI0lIUP'1It~,blcwith re~;elilriml ~ore.'lt c •.nbcnll sl(!lch,\1Vondy b]ll!H(!S,s 'C;l~ be used diiwecdy for fmcl or cnaverted 1'0 .1 id rue]!>. AW10~I.gi'l iq'Ll ~amIiiI'! a d'iOi'!\l~tJp'mr.;m f'lilgl;! .• wnid.;od emisSliiomilSin temperate zenes appealr similur to :;!I$5l.i!mdlltkm by fi(}~;1;~ ~sl.I!Jr'Jt.io~1 •.MQ~owil'. U,l Wlltl.), bepossitde to <I'void euv:ilronmeDiitOl.lprob1(;j~lsa"M)oCi~lIted!.:~I~IJ1J ~l(Ii;:ru iw meneculrure

or

prmris~.Qn of fores~ pmduers, m<li nl:emUlCC of bkd.tlgk~Ii.1di\~n;i~y.. fmd rogj(l~lal J:;:~h~~m~ rog~ L!~,~lri~I['!). \\1\:ereas. cmw"'Th.~~ll gf 'Iarge [ij~;.~or ~~andto biofllJel cmpsllil~lyplace additioual :>lmt~:l1it8 OJ:'J theeuvjrunment.For the longer term, c~trboJJ-lhl;~ lra:mt5!)Ofil: luel toollno:.hJgjies; ;nne needed tn ~rep];~I;,'e t'iJ5.:Si I hydnJoCamolls.
Rt~eJI'eIil!l.~i l"~!i;H~emAm<l'yri~ oj ;!I'ul'Ule,ArJlttmolive ffQm .~irr.1 ~I\t!ftil'omm rhl' f!Jm,PMf,I(!I'l~~~ ~hfl'llOOiliiI.(olincil 1~'A!JwmQiijve IR~D iruCAA~l' EWfCI~IlICDm:mi5liijoo J!)]!i1~~~~·~h C~eJ ~UII\(~Mlg (01iI~ef'!!MiooJQ~ Ceal!1

crop .. fuel type .• ind CiOIl'l,lersiml ted~l!u')~o,gy U5~d: &Q.Il~~typiea I ~~mpl~ d~ri\l'0d IhilU li~~,cycle ;nMI~'''Ses. areshewn in I~~.e Jrugme 'l ri~ml't). [~l~h~~ ,~!~ll}i~~. !l(l ~I](r\.~l~~ ~ltiO ~~iml nm~
t~) pmClucel:ime

(8)1

by It'I<J.r;,ie'S~inJyt1'Jllili gl<lnd~rig l7ores~:s. ]llIb :

this

C~i~~,!i,>oi~ t!~d !!1bo~-grtltm(l ..

~a~lb(ln stocks

(or em issioas ari .. i,ng from dl~l1lg:ein ~u~~d.lQ:se [11,01)' be bl~iltup ~n parallel \v:ith fius'l".til!1~.ble
fmcl
COOl},.

If! ~1~[1: !\13Ses. f'Qfl'iest;l~

don 'of
sequester
~:iiI.e ~· U

,U1. eo(]~~iV·.II~iCllil area
l\:\1'0 10

of lu:ad,',QuM

30·yeolr :p.eT,iod [11,1'111.dle

nitlC tnnes m(lre[,~lrl)o.nl \l\er i:! o i\.'ilil.lil'lsiOrl!S <'Ir'i.i{)]ded by ofl:he biofuel T:1I.kill!illh~s opportunity
CaS!

~o~ i!uo O!!COO\~!IIlt. the' ~mi~iQIIiI$

,ofl~~uid
'~

biol:hels e:.xc:eeds dl<ll~ orfoss~11 r~I,eIs:.
lvh)fe('I\I~]".I~~i'ge are~~~ h~!'td iII\1Jl!~d of

~l~'l:rve;s~ing ilu::1 pmducrt.ioll, ihr ]r the pr.i~~.~ ohject of policy on biol1!1Iel$ is 11m]ul~g,,]li.on of C~I roen d klxi dl..'--dr.ivengno hal \\'iL!rmirl,g.. :pol ~Jcy-m'lke;lr'" 1DiI.~.ay be be'l,er ~ld\ri~edli.n~he' shon tt:'rllli (30 yt:"Uil or SOliD 1'oc~lIson $nC'f,~asing [Jl~ ~!Tieh:mcy ·~f fi)Ss~1 ru.el 'lJ:!>C •. tD c;o.uerve the e%~sting rores.'~s innd :-;'lV~!~.l !\ilh:1:. ~~~.d ) roi.;~tl{)re !'I;;UiliLmi~ H fooo st 'lg'ldj
gnl$fi~mld li1.<lbil~UlSon CHlp,l;ulld d1Ul is 11.01.

N1 al'lilllN<1le:r ~m'EiLaFl!l~eOOrf,lCA:W~ j;o51'1'. s~~d~. Bfws~ecI~ ( ~)I' ;:!:o(I'~; 1lt~~e-s~n:..ee.e.!{Q$I<!I..!lp~w.MmL I 2. ~ Urslln, "II rN~ Q~ [(A. !>Iuoit:! olllil!i.uid~ Ib[oIb~~ f'er '1Itiillf~n~pOilt'~l!(Ia.," St;it!i1lm~wVtdll'lialti!.dlo!1sol)' P,iIIW~.!;I! (j!kib.aU~'till!flme'l1I~ 1~iK!lil'j!~SJA:P)MlOO!R~p 'iIIe an ILiQuill 8ti:lirllJ!h, 29A11QIRI'Im lSf,plmliu!f 200$, Him liMlli,. rndio; http://li1<JJ;!gej,,umeilJ,al'l}!illlX,'5I'lOldllf;2005~"011,3153n~il5l(Mdef,'J!l05· :l1.'~."UOO5'i;I(I5/. ~. M. A EIHI.:red, ii. M.a:!ht'!W!:,~, Ili" 1W:iiii:111iI~. (~b(m ~d ElItI!lr·f1.w(f!l{,~fw RWl9~O!,lJi~~ Opria~J
~I

~l!e~:url~ R",aJF(DUVl~ml4l~. Sllldlie'1di H~Uam

R. IRighiilillQ,iNllfllil liI!I1id TnJ!~, IHalli!!iIii'Orlh. 51iJiIrolk" 'IP19' PI); ,D. V"5~Ji1d!ten. S,ohool or Ea~th iI~d IE~"'i~l!Immem~,
lkrIN1llfsily

~eocl\edf'or fi:loci .. i!11lddition ~orcdl~dng illlCl c.m:bon dio....id,e Au:\ to the 3tmosp~~eT<e. CQIl'V~rsioll of l,;i.rg~~li~~:i\ of ]al:ld back [0 s~flnd'U}' [0i1fe:::;1; pm\fid.~ other e:11iV~rmllm:],1.tjJ I :service:~~ {such ,i!lspl.'evelni.oJ) of de serlo 11lclIli.oilill.

MnM~I~)'. ~h~mi!lrl.,UK.2003), ~'. M.I1I.~.~~~.biiUI!!!, 8j~~!>£1Ji'~\I'!il'!fgy2i~. 2:~1~:il003}, !ii, fn1m'II~.liilfllil~ fK!1WI!.i!il~, ~ ,~futsll ~ tm~rr.:.Arl ftll\MlQfi~!!!I' f'M'[Jl!I':lioo' (IEJI,IPalili, IFl'aIloo" JOO4it d!~p" 6; el!i~ l 6. J~ . iutfjgt!, fMD' F~«!s.rJ)I61]ItlI\QoIlfHll1m~l]!i!l 'Pan@l:loI ([1iThlltf! cm~J!s 'G!l;(a~al :2)0011" il' 1~4,. i'. [l. T11i'IUlri,]I, 'HIIL C L1il'intlllil" 5tiMt.~ 3:1l4. ~\l:{! ~201tt~}. 8.s'il:oQluJi til al,. S'(li't'flICl'3:U, 174~ ~:il.o061'. $~!piPl!u'ilfll!l'OnlJnt' M:.Ii~ll'l'Ifol W1M'Mo\Ie!l0lmi!~ilwJJleol!l'!Ulrl31

Gf ~~.

loods, UK. (-milt Ife~l~ildllailldIJilIllSt.

"illiilClT!or r(lfIlOI~p~nce'.

il!S~Mo.;uocl.

~

1-;

.----=-

I

-

-

-

I I

-

-

-

I-

EUQCHEMII STR:Y

Ge'ttiln,g lnta and 'Th:r,o'luigh thle' D'uler Membl:ranllB
. "!IVO

rin e slrudu res. o,f two, re laitecllbi:l(~~rii:ll mcnubfi1lll@ "l!wtein~ h@~plt(ll!fld@·rs~i1.!lnd pr(lOOin t r..3I'1!l.p sr~pr(u::l',>~e", iIi! I:IH~ outer mel'll b ra iii es '01 f bil(:leri~ •. mime hd:lndria" a Ii1d c Me ropLa 5:t5•

membranes

::l~!n!pt!,lild Gram(I'MP ~[lsleiil!.h:ll'lait (IMP ~11!lSll!r~i!):!i!~t s,U'IIlIj[l,it i~lfIleil'f:a[[II!l'

'mi.eg.nive 'limcleria, as v.:ell~,<ISIntwd'namF dria and cillompl asts in ~l,Ikary(t!tcs, 1IrnUisporl of protei ns illllJo or tbimllght1iH~ Olner nf the_'OCm!el!liJJbllll~e:\i: us;l1;f1llyrequII:'($ COJIii!plex rnDIa:ll~;lr ~;mu:::hi aes, Om~)85.:nm ,e~iOl'~liom[lJ'y c~n~rv~d prrm;ji~l. ~Mh~ Qe!1tr.:'!~ ol1mpottn.,,~u of ~~,eIm.l;;'il~hi It~ reql]ired for folding ~nd i.li1~II!]I'~ OHwr membrane IllJL'}t:el.m,~ (OMPs) (I). Moree. over, ~O!I:11e OMP:;; with Se~lWll(;if;': !\:~mil.~ri[y ~o O!ll:lp,8S a ... hilVfilv(~d i.~U~lntlp{)NI'D"OCeSt;e.s e such .... protei iii secretion in b;u;;lelfi.] and pros ~.ei:1 h'll~'X')ri, i~~tochl~oropIOls~s(.2", In Ihi::; issue, 1 KiJ~) et cd. (p. Y61) ;)J1Id Cif!~.dn "'$ ~/. ($I., 9571 ~rov]d;e insighl'S ~ntQthe S[ruc~!i!I,res0 f mem-

ii.lrid!"iP~Clt!lfirlinter1,u:e

bers onhi!i protein supe;rr31~ny (3.4).
~!

U'n.e bacterial OmpS 5 eonslsts of <11 melml" 1iJ~llc~el1~beddcd barrel ~11d 1m 3.J1f'1i no It N)-~e[Umlina~.:pe!r~.pl~S!1!II1~C exteusinn encem~lss;il1ignv~·piJ~yp~pt.ide· U'''<l~:l~l't-a'''~~)(~~<lt~'d
,[rOTRAI do.liI.1.lIins.
]t

Pf@i~hll trdfich~, the outer n:llel1il~lni.'III!l,e.(Left) ,La mnll fi,m. SUmlll'S1 thalill!l·L'wQ.- alr~iIl.e,r5.eCiriltiolil,s~5.trilll'e' ~ b Ml'lldg~Lg POiRA-·l opens a oha,nne~ in the fiha( bii9$ponerr by displollcemooii. of pe~e·tDlockiIil95egli11NIIS ~o (l6). l~t~oethJlllalrfQ~~i ng 'D~~lll~:se~~l~dl rnA. pF()te~fI h,!~g.~ ~ h~Ux pi'(lbab!ty pl'ovr~~ e-f'lIltFg,y '~o1lnsp!)r~, f~f {Middte~ IBilid ing olan OMP to ll!!e 'PillR1\. dOimain:~ O'f 0'31'1 OmpEl5 ~rolieilnl, :!OlJd~~ 'ia~T sru(jied ~:rKim eofaI" a f'E!sutts ~Il Oliit~.r mlen'il i)rd,n~ in~e-rrtij'G:r!i, o~'Sib~y at ti'~· p prQIiE!~nlitupid ij'l'lit~r~ac(!.For s,impli(11y, .aC(es~1i'Y pn:u~~1'1$ ~f ~h~ OmpS S cill.mpt'll~ ,j,j ~e "(lit slh,o!,\'l!'!.(IRig:hrt) A IC~!i!l~11. nflil'l riDrmi?(Jroy Qlig:om'~l's. or OmpS;S, <;up'~,r~ 0 cil1i'! raillilv m!Nl'll~er:5 l1I]iI;!li'nIlm'l'idie'8'1iI illlenl'l!i3~l\1"!a [Qlne·lor illli5@r1n!OiIllandftlr ua tls~lQ(illien"

i,ntemci'S dil1ecdy

\\f.il:h

of ~Wl~l1jlsif!\\!hich all POTRA demains wese deleted ,one :ll atime .. all d~l(;[.i~n:-; ~'I01'!,r~r~~yill !1.g€1d fnl!lc[ion, fri Furthermore, dele'~:i(lnQifPOTRA.~2, ~3, --4. ~n]d~5 1;!Ie~1 ~tIwd i[L~ ~O~g (l f Yfgl res ~E1.e c<wooN:yl {ql:t'F.mI.];inu!t <!. hort segnilU~mlt:uf ~ rhe mr~ctrali;ne. De:l~elionofrOTRA-S, which I~k: :fin~ n~~,Ell~:~,llPIOTRA d[)!11~~il1 ~'f~~~:i~t~.of s:ho\\!:o I.i'rtt: hi.~I'~st' ~~II!1~nc.,. 0fi~1:licr"a[ifif:l llf a lhree~S!D'll'liided f3. SJrn.ee:I~ and t\.\iO a ~melice:s.. III all :rOf.RA dmm~iim;. { II. lL'leslihed ina ~OS5obU th.e C'fYS,tOll.I., fh.gm,~ll1tl forms a dimeJi as 3. ~{,)~~!i.or}"l~p(w.~t\l~ns" the ChuilJin r.:l (1.,/, ('II' ~ohr~d ~h~ structure of reseh of the; <1lll,gliiL11:t1w'ti.on uf the ~~:-ih~~lin 'mR.A~3 with ~l ps.trnnd, farmed <It the ('~ .F.hilC., iI. nu:::nmber of the: OmpS5 sliperi'amUy ~em~liml~. (If '~!bemher ::IUDllnJit. Ail:bou,gh end im'lilvt'd indle secrelit'm ofm:..m.emou:ii hem~I~Js dr-ncr is a cl':rs;~IMz..'IIdo~,m:t,ur!lctl~l,{:: gl ul.imlin (F HA), im, Bortlefe/lfl pe.r.ru;~.'iiis ~!l.a v p;ir1:h!~\llY kllm'lt~~ ~$t:\w·p~n!1(;\r &~I1):~i(l~" TilL';) ,Ii di~H'\r ,[I1iI~rllTh~~lY ~~n~llh~ .in hich \\'!l)l .~ Y1l!,:"f IIHernC:l~ '\'>'1111iS SUDs,tr<lles: ~llIIS Imer~ l SLliLu:;:tlue S.1UliW:'i .... P lJ.ancl .md an N=le'liIni:mal '~ ~ctlO:l1nilwolv€l& a Sig]~~lllf~ ~~olinh~,t "O:m1S ;1 ~xt~m;,iCl:l'I eUI1:;;~&liingof~~ Ie>! h~]i~ami two :~ ~.'!litn'lllid ;Il d:te C te, f.I1I~il1!iJ o.ftDle!.fie.,.]00.. te..uns;t.~.-). peri pl<lLSDl.1:iC POTRA dOIll'<l~ns !>lrU(m,II,.,~,ly . :i!i Thus;. Ukl;;~h~ i?OTRA-S ~J:Ii~~e~m dl~e~ys· ~~~n'ibia~ ~~(},9iil i'fl of%d~ The~,~~rreloonsi:;:l;:;: ~ ofl6 Oli!l[ipru.'<I[~ell~· Sl't.:ll.1ds oonrleO!ed by ~lijol1. :~~<:ln~;>Jed Ym~T frasmenl. [his siJg)l]arute motif UlllHl ~t tl~ pcriphu5mic s.udC!! <:tlld ~.o:ng~j]aj'!sal ill the cell ~\Id<!ce.lhe dUHiLIlei wLth~ntlte blaJ'[e~,i:8 '" :~ T1!t~ i!llI!hor'~ fir! tlw IDiIljl'\1lllili111ellAofMor.J?:rqd:ar M[(;~tJ~!!!log~ a~cloo~d by loop US'.whlG:~l.folds into th~,e arb '~ andilihe I m.~lillill~of ISrmm ~l1IlbranJ~~ l!itrecht UIIi1,lv.~lSiw, [I,;e.ll • .mni: by the N·renniimd 0: ~,l~l~., \,>'hicfui: spm~'S x Q 358<1 (HI UUElCl1t,lhe Neliq,er,lia~ds;. E~IiIl.iI!iI: JR.m, :~ • @ t:l "lIiIllfil'lOlS!i~n _uU,ln I .. the channel.ilner:um. I1lSl1.clual()l:lell~ng ofJA

h~ S,uQ~Sl!'3:~Cwrel:":;; tl) (;L!td j:;: 'p~l"t of ~l C'OM· p plex th><'ll <ihl,o O(lri!l~]jfl$.lin~f~ipop:ro~~fis.YfiO\ YWgt, N l·pB.mru:i. :S:l1l~pAt of wh]cl~. only one, YI'iO. is e8~lmtia[ ,(6" 7). n~.em,il()!l;:lliIondri.,~'11 OIup!85 110luoiog cnnealns only om: .P.OTRA. dOJna:iin., which dilwclly iuteraetswith 5l1bstrate pOOH: ills (~). "fhe aooessory Iipol,pml:eins. @f€: !mOol I:OlHfld in [he mi[od~nil1ldrifll'''}is'!eim~,, K.im. e.i ~f. (1 ~.l1epo:n the suuetuee of~.,.frd,g~ m~iI1I~or till,;: ()~~.pg5-fm!idlymember 'Ym;i;T &ml1 E.'Ii(:'i'l!ricll~1c1 cfJif" lhelr.lgineliueulc>om;· P,~&~~ fuur'cm~p'l'e'w POfRA ~1lo11il~irusan,c~;;!It

l;lilrll;teul1."" i~V~(~gll~~d!llepelSl'ibmW1},U the SlibLii~it :iinlerru.c"e is ii:'i!\,Dlved iill subsl:i'lm~~' reeeg n it 101:1, ~llut~lti.olll.s in POTRA~3 thai
IbJ'nl'li.S: ~~~U".1Ind[~tille'C l:ermuni oflh~e Oil j

iKim

(1/

(11'.

did net ii1:terifiJ I'Ictio~,but with bind i.ng of [he VlfgL subunit of the mjJ,c·hin~. Thus, PO'fRA~3 nmlay biml Yf~L by P;Il~g.[lm.e[lt11~
fere wnth VaeT
HO~l< l~,!l~series

should prevent

p IUI_gIEm.lti,ulli

is too ~fPJ.\'IDlIllnwCuJ' trnn.~pon uf'a pro!ein .. ~Wmi,in 3.~ ~xl'.!;'~dt-d.Cl1~l~~]nm.l~tio!'J:. Il(li."~v«, pOftl iiOO(li'iSlill~~OI1! ·ofFhilCimo, U l)l!millR:L" li'piC! bi.I£I}"t:il'S. <;Lpplk;<ltlClIll. of ~. tram;." an1d. men~l~Jl1IePO~ILt~'ll. muchwider !,;hm.m~lswere revealed wi·~~l.oOllidru.C'livity of l200pS (9)1. a correspomHng lochmm.d. ,>",iddl:i> of ~i;O .10 I-\. n11S. ~l.e chm:ulel <lppe~rs IObedYI'~,mic: Ulml~ himli!'ig fif 1: A~n N1TRt\·1[ l4). [he dUlI'lli1~1 H
ml!l)l opel~. b~ extrusion

oft]iDe 0: helix ~lI1dtor

n'n,"

~oop l6. fh~~s ~r~mi!'l,g: 1:ll'Oftlin [uln~I~J(';lli(ll] a patij}\\'<L}I (see the f:irgure, l.c!Ji p"lJie~1 :P'reivious JI.
\\,nl"k illd!ced :llho\'!'eicl: m l:opolqgi.(;!lJ reaJ"r~gcmeDili~in L611po:~ooe. x p~sion of nEA. {J O~, ''''hm 'r:'~ij '\~ learn fmlii~Ute fh~C Slru~W:re ..bout the C-~etIJ.niillilOlldomaiiln ofOmpSS jJilliO-

\7

~~in:.'! O!TIIJi)85 Shml;'I,{d m~.C:h :mi!.m:mv.."rc~~:;;tnm::b ]nph:tmlr I.ipid bil'I)~~[~lafl Fh"1C..Their (:o;m.{ju.clivity 0:1' .1.lOpS {.'n ilio~Lldc-or.mspom:l ~o lhe dosed d:t<lIlneb 'ObSCr'!il;,\t] in ill.e f~l'.I .. cl"ysl'.'ll~: tmcnure. Omp85 sequcllC:~l; show ~ s ~on~i"vG;d motif U~!lT cor[:'~rof1ds;~o Ihe Lo I:oop of:FhOlC, Ibut no 3e&!jL1,lemU carrres,pomdillJg l'o~:he N-l~rmi1mOll~~~~i:x. n~nJs. ~ssumi!1lg ~h~'t
O~up8~ fum,s s!imil''''1L :~()rS'lrdlllui.ed ~, balll~~] as a

FI.10lfC. ~m'lther Icmp l~sid~-; tJ6 shcndd

'COrl-

lribuLl!! mc.lasiung the

dl<l111 mu;:t

[nl~1e~lIWla:ripid bi.I'¥\I:·e,"\~IUCll~,. sub~ l

·W

n.e

:str.u.e birucllilIilg ~m;re~dh:: clli!UUn>;.1 <]ciivity of Omp85 (.n. 'Ol:Jlt thIs i!ll.cre~~oo fLClivily rdl(;cl.oo ... b~£lu:JF pmb<!.bilirly for ~he OPif;1'UilI :m~.te, r.;u'h.er thmila widcn~lllg of~he Imlr--cc:mdmltl'blll.oe dliln~

I

PERSPECTIVES
~~h;..H'-!ilC~.~~~t€liSuo indiCiuimil~ha[ Oi:l'lJp~5 ehannels Ci!:lm ope~l by displ3.Cieilnenl ofpare~ block lag :1>e~Jl!lcflil:!;. [It(:IlJCcl~ il i'O unl il;:c~Y~~l;;1l leUIlS showed PO:1re sizes or:u to "1." nmIlluc.h wider l.l1!ln the ch;nme] \\'.ithinl the FI'I1!IJC ~ b<llrreL FI:Lflherllflore. eleeuen ~~.i.cnl~e()py OM PS'Mcl'Llldrn!Sell i~~v IJlle,~,b':'l!ITwel ofOn~p:S5. has sI:!O\J\tlJllh>m.t the UMW~ B olig.Q!liil.crfOJI1l~d bre:;lltLSC ~[ is di~ncu.lttu cnv]s.age~.Qw Sl.ldil it on.) barrel eould fmbsequellily ope'lill hnemHy ~iO riulglil-;e stmC:liLIIl'ie!i. \V~lh .1 (ie~,n1'<l~1t:~i~ilY all(l~l' far OM.P' i~:[;~rli;[)ll :~!UiO t:I'D,t;:tt~~!nbroSl!l~; nm (J I). U1C pUf;:;ibl~ il""o~MCmenl of Lh~s~ Rllth~i!. OM fs'i'viU in!!:e:fi!:a[tJm~1ipid/p:!JiOh~i ~ wide chii~.n~1~, itlpoot~i!'i [!'<Jfl'k (S!;;1;l ~~ 'I1g~lre~ n~terl;u;;e (!;ell: the figure, mi,dicUe p3!mld) o:l'alllllf' righi~:p.l'I]~el )m.eedls Lo be in'i,leSligEl~edl. :."Ub"llh int~lIifilQe vI" >:IiI'! olig~lm~rg)Cc~n:~iPle..>; The m~lwn~ :;;m!,i~ld i~~p.ilt~W.~of prol>eillltrnl1:1c vk.l :mtlenm,lx;rn olhbe Ol.npS5 sUI)er:.. (,set': tlhefiguu:e. ri~upal;lf;ll~, f OmpS.5 fmil~,l~' def~m:d hO~il,lg·0:~i.gQmei:,ic fimlily is ~;~i~1~lr from l!l1d:er.,;~)o()d.Fumre complexes in vitro (3')1, Si:li1Ili~I;lrly. HMW~ B. ~nl, tt':!,peri[ments :shcmld locus on d'l.e Ch'll'<l,~rer,iza· FhaC 11OmllO:~og~m,\oh~1 in h."'(l"'pan~cr seeretion of tile (l:I~,goneri.c complexes !!ll1:d011 .he lio~l iII H(;um,!c!'pi!iJus iJfj/m,,'II=ae,. has been puride'\'l::lopluelrol ol'ln vitro sy~lt'.ns \~til~ pllr,u~,ed n~d fro.!'!,~ nmerm~mbnfn~~s aterraruer the oomrW~lC;)n!:S~o !illt~d~,t lIte.,~prflc~S~$.
(II);

ln l.ipnSO(~Hh~"~eUi ~$~}' !~g

S.

001 hpro ~

Riefam{!eli.
:l g, ~Ih!!u~ M,.IJ!. ,B~. J. Gliu!!15eon.. M.~l$, ]. ·T:om:m!'ru@n. Sc:ifJllO" 299!, ,Z62 (lea.n.
.2. ~~E. 'GI!I'ItLf, I!.. iBlmt·]i; 1:ilJ:l.gQW; 1\1~, .MJc~loi ~:~. 1216 ~:,'!O~)'.
~.~. f;;[m ~

(l1~.S'M~

.~:11., 96'll (200i7).

5. V.Rl:!llIiil1i: eI 01., n.oS 8'io,1. 4 dH (:!OOi) •. ,6. if', Wu~ll'l, (.I!'N1ll1,2'3:S ,t2Qn~n" '1, :1.64 ~1lJ~r~ at, ,~; !'l'@f~~(l14 5q. USA l~lI. ~l()1) ~200i7). 13.~. n, HOItiib l'M~~j, L('.Jl. .Bim 176, "n 12.0001. 9. f•. ~b-!)y~1!,I ~,;)Il d ~.1;~ Ci\lMi> :il:'704,177.H J tlt99'9)" 1!I1A5;. GIIMrn ,~j oj,,). .81«. C:l't!?m. :Z7S,. ~Dlz.oil (2000)" ll:l ~,K. hr~!'!Hd,~1., ~!M, ..~N •.Ar;IM, '5';, U.S;A. ];Oil, 1.4497 (2004).

4; S, IQiafl1illl~'al., :SriM~ ~::il7.'507

~~oo:n. .

CElt

'E! ~OIlO GY

An ex~ra dl romo SiOme $llm'lS, ye.a,~t u! II IPmll~f~~~tiQnl. sug 9 estii1g~hahnli;!liI p'1~ id ihuman ceU5 1liI!!I5:l'OVe,'Q(IIlim~ this ,e-rf.e{[

during' cardnQ!Je'n;e'$is •.

A

c.•e~]tn'tI.·.• pr.~:.Dl ip.J.. ..'C e ~'\Ii!l1e.dC.';!l f~. ~:I.m.a.t . . cells \\lull in a~ Ol'~lnlS~~ CO!H~un the same (1mnp~:emenl of chrommOli1l.1.es,. Ih~' pn;$~.n~coHao ~~l~U'l!y 01'1.00f~\.'!I' :hro~nfl~ ( semes, c'Jl1led 'ille'U'ploi.~y •. ~,sas,,'IDc:iated wuh

or.

dL"c;!<LO;(;. mnd ,~CCO'Q:~tsrtlrth¢ !l1~jority ·~fSPfllltllIl~m!~, nlig(:~~l'r~~I,~~ il~ hltrm;l~s. ~1~ we~i. fl,~

ilar genes, on difi:C!-enl ehmrnosemes, cdb;. in \~'J;lich one of these pi'Lrtlll,ogs. i,~ de~eted mtIi)' \.1omperls.lte; by~]~(l cha~l~' gili!i\ of an ~'XU'li! 'OOPY aft~'le dll''O{1l11O!i.Olm: bej,lfi~Jgth.e other ~rallog ,t NJ). T(l~s fll at ~!l,~!n{,-e:red
ye:ils~slrniul'Q COIDIi[al'j} l'\(I~upie:l!, !Jf :spoecific Chll)omru::mlillcs {dismm:s) 0Ii11 ml Q~'~,e:li'\1!,iis~ h"p:~{l id gefil,eti,c bOlc'k,gl'OU~ld . .By WII:y.IUg tbe i.delni~y of mh'li:: ex tlI,'l!1 'cb romasome, the illUllu.n~ generated d~5iiO[lm.dc stfains eneom-

he[1,~di.talIlY birth defeC:'~:ii:SlJci~as Bml;''Il syndru;,irlI,]It:: l/), r'ooc~ s.e~,y hO\,VOlI1e'~~pIQhly

.~m~!I;~l'

cells Is not wellnnderstced, Extra (;:hiro:lli1l10~ semes c.u~se (!IlJmpon~{)mJ.t'e ill'Cn,",I:!>ei[l,lgem::

e:~IJ:re~s:uon,:n. pott:~,ltm;,'lUy tiI,lt,erinl;l a cell's d~'ls.lge~)fpmuirin,'lji~ d~mf!gJIl:'ig'l~~Y&. On the pi;lKSing I3 of thel (1 y~!!~~ d.romo(ells (()mJi('tlMlt~ IJ~ other Immld, :unlOS;~ t:ilI!l'Ice,r cells illfle ,m.euploiud, SOUles. A s espected, genes. present • incr@asinglpf.oo~inlumov~r (li~ di~.()mic cl~IDmn~t)mtl~ \l;;~rJ[;; fflnlT !'l\gg,~~ling~Th<'!l~!1lml':ip.i]ll(l.rVl:S QfchIlJ~~(l~!)m~ • in~l?.!I~inglntetlbal~sm §~.in and less e,~l:1:bi cells ~o eseaue noU'mi31 e scribed at abeut twice their normal , Alllfpr.a1ifer.al,we etfecl1 growtll'D. ~·~s!r.ai~,ts dev.eh.'lol) ~!l;to and maJ:ign~,~t h;:\,(l:Il>,~k}w~ver, ~J~cre:ar~l~n,g .1\01:' tumors-for ,ex~llrn,p~.e. ~cqWl.i:li'i~,lS by i!X.U:21 't~.liseni'eCl. ~\"''Ogn:mps (]If gene!' \.\i'ere M@ri~gerulls b~t l~.llssfi~~ V~~iS~ ills !h~~ gaiifi' all C;l;~lri! ,h~oml~ w e,[;(lruil'il~lely up-r~g'l,ij.13~:~d 1'I"i~~y j~~ copies nf IMl (j~l~ggC~~. OJ:'o!Oi!1g ~.I~IW!Iii()r ~lll~ l 5iome <ir~ at a Flm~ifel"a'tive disad'll',af'ltage r~l.ar!:iiw~o f'I~m!ria~ d:ilferenl ;lne~lpJoid ~1!liai[l:S. One ,dLISpressoT !elle ,~1.41\, :But are the el:eds of an()E!1[s,regardlle$$ o;f th~ ~peciff~ rJi'lID(ln:loS:Q:fTlle< galinell. AI'I~~p~(IIl:dl ~uiP'·kli;rJly~Ifi.ctly ,\;F1,~dfi~ ~{l .<l.giv~n aver- or 1l1O (~II~ .~!Yto (om P~!ls"U~lor (h~' g,illlflc~ mb.':ll ~I~C~ by ij Il(rc~si ngl ter, rr~vk'lt!~ly ~hflft!c~ed~~d r~r~ fe"~p(nltie. uIK~rrepu-e~nlltld chru:.riI.~o~ome.or does allenIl'rotl'in lumo,v~r~ w:fllidh reqlu,iHli5, more energy andl slows elJll'm Qnh~li::i,1\'gn)l1m~Ira:t<~~,~~:ij· is also iltldl.lcedi.~lllinallJy:sl,0\\r~gm'1!I'ir:l,g p~oidy evoke a, gC'Ul1l'ml.i.zed ~hlysiol.og~Cf.l1 p.r()lij~erg:~i(m.Q ftr:~ ooU.~ :$(Dm.etil()w I!)foi~room~ line .]lntip.r()lif~r.aresponse [egO!lrd~t:s~) fwh.:u: cbromoseme is tive en!~d or !ilm~l!ptClb:ly. ( bUI:el~plol d s ~]tU~.li15. r-IQ'.MCver, t~e !lffect-eG,'! A.lIIlcw slli.:l.dy by 1i:lm.!S (3'[ ai.. {S) on olhe'li c:hISlcr~wI!Jolle e;"'ltJIres.s.ion i:~,= (re ..~in .~m::up]okl ::;~'I'lIi[ls ~imJepelldel:ltly ()f [nil;";: 9]6 ()fl~lis issnemlnK,(werschmklcterisli.c:s &lccliamrlt!·'('(!S ()(tJ'ftrisi(J(" •• 1 we,II[··es~ubl ished gJIiOwLhr.ltf',. i[I,1d uLcl.esgielle:s. :i,lwo.~vt~di:l,1ri'oo~ <Llm.clract3ble s.ysullm for slllJd)fillgc::JiDJ:iumu~orn;e s!mrc;;:<iI by3U <l:m.cuploid Icells," :~d:enti:UYing :II brt.md c!!';llu[arOO$pO!lLSG to, ~n~ l.!~ll1:idy~~;u ha$ ~g.re~lil;.1!!1I. e:fWOr[;;,{6).l~ g~rl~ral ;)'!i!e"~rl('lid :wml;; bio.~~n~j:>" Rit,,)s()!m~ biog:~u~e!lisC;[JIiif:,1miric"uiom, for bener ulrnderSli:!ln:(IiDl~ <!lnell~ yea .. 1 ceU:s, are :,n a s~lbsl<Hnij:<l~mnpm:ili ve dis;~ ~u:llllle:srollgJhlyl:Ialf oftbe ~lletabolicenergy of c

ph]]dy-[ink:.:d diise.f.iSe'$ h~ htlm:riil'ns.
TQlIiI.'CS al. <lUlH]Y2M thiC budd:ing yeast ef
lP. \ii, la~L~pal~i is at l~m Moill!:mLu Si,c~Glg¥ ~iliC!lfi!JIl!II' M.emorial :51!JIIII'I"Kellt€r:lCI!!j ("IIICer (ffit~r. N:~ "I'o:r~. ~'l' i lQD2~L USA. E'i'!i!aU~ ~R"e:@ilf!~.cc.lOr!i [D. PeU!'!\Iali'! 1~ alt lhE [D.arnaj"lfi~rl!ier Calilrer Im~ll!1ile, iBmlon, WI @2:1l5, IUSA, ["'Il1:atit wflrld IpelLlf!ilIm@ld!'c~,ha""aOOl.ed'~

~~dvm11~3s.e .diill.''!.Iew,e~Hs with .!l nOI'1ln.~I~ n of ~.:hrmnruCim.t:s: (ellpi.Qiids.) boeC!il~5C lhi!?y ~~ ~vC;::M.ti[.HlIly ,t}verhlkcnby :S[)'Oflt~lIliW~1 11~,s~,lg eup,~o:id revenEIIHs sly r i {7.• I~)~(J"''';ev~r. ~lW:l!ILplol.d!y 'L:"ui),·kbcfl~f:!d~~ H
comllle'l1ri'lle:lffll

;).prol ~.I~f,aliiIlg. j~eas!: ceU. mild

]!i

s USh~I)'

ooup~!ed~'D isigin.~.hn!:l :tJ"!llhw<'lY1i~hOlt. l·e'g~l.hne ~ prog~&;;IIlD~ghl~cGil, ph~l~ ufthc oeU tHvi- ~ i

ill1. IhelfllFe::>encc o·:r 5l[['l)[lmg ::=;e~e~tive p.rC:i>SiLlre ,(9. /OJ. For exanlid~" \fvk('rte y~~$1 iu~sl''':O shn-

:sion c'y(:,~e {,II ).[ndeed <I ,s1..qbs1<1l:rIl~i~.1 frul;licnlI of the ;)lilCt~plalid slr<,lins ~~;;1'1l ~ooby Torres i (1/' ,d. ei\hibiled <t de:~.LI)' i~,lcdll -cycle e~:ury i,H'Id ali!in{;rea~ itn ~~U s~zG'.d1;:!Upnswa~.il!'!g.~.

~ ~ ~ ~

IPERSPECTIVES
fhm::domll illnpacl of.sr~penllmlli1.emry ,dll.'O:m~

I

somes on ceHp:rom~r.ltion- 1demltifyi!'lig. the
rnloie()ulall' nature ofthi:s sidernblle illl~!il.

in cell c:yc:lc'pl'Ogl:ess,ia:.Ul. t lii), h:l adJClitliQlM. g~liIe:ii ]!l! ]'L1IJllli11m~U<lIJit;ellscan be transcripllJ[roM.gll meebanisms not

:!!iignl_m]~~ilm. of COml.~ ti.on3.lly silenced be

31, ,""~. r.l~~ f:flJ., N~i~ !'I@d, ,Srr. IrI.S,A 9?" t.6;ll!!6, ~lOOil), 11. Iii. HI, ~~;olli!l,a1l'. C. C. 111!~9ilti@'t Ni:lWlif4:3a" sss 5,- E- .M,Ti;f1t$ el o.r.... S~'en«, 3::U',~n,g G!Q()7}. 6. M. Mi~D:WfllJ!'j (oM SPrin!i Ilrul101.:O:;ymp. Qutthl. jjIJ'JI; i!tI., 5~6.3;S9 (U'9tl. 1'.~. ~ WiI9hm1ll(,. C•.Y.Il!!'t!~th~ lWn :zz,. g,~S{:W!ll~~. (t't, ZM!), ill!. G~n~, K. GL~~fie.C v. 1!'.r!,l~~n~i'fOSi'19., $~H tro02'). 9. M. J. I);uilllilm~ 01",PtfJc:. Nad. hod, Sci. U.S'.A, '9~'. ~~MI4 f,2Q(2)'. ~].o. r, R IiIlJgllMt,[ Q/~.lIltlt GeMlI'. 25.•3] l (~OO), n. ~:.JDCg~i1i~~m.!l!j' DI". GMM 1)(>1'. :Ji;e~491 (lOO4!l. 2 za. O. WM~l!rg, :S"ri~,Il{~In 300 U%5~. 1!.3- D_ J. .5eg<il. t. 1;:, ,~COf. J, Cell ~ IrJ, as U ,.14),. 1L<l. Ii. A. ('J~; GMJ!'1ii'$ :t~9, ~Udl U99~~, :ll!l,. :Z. SID.~~1!i~1,I'j!, D.II'e~ma I!(, NrU. Rew. Mti/, (eJll1irJi: S. ,4$ ~'(!04). 16, .l.S!Dr,~m(lya,f ~l~ !:' lII'~~ull:' sn '~2.ooQ., :ll7" M. [flfltf!f, ,M7,t R~. Gl!'l!f,t $, 286"(200'), Ill. p, v. J~U~Il<!I!j, C. l~~g:O\!l!1r.Nor:. .!'!eli: CU,Il'C'ffif 10? 1, ~2(1O\l), ]9. WGJ1~ 'ah ~lIarnlnil!1 "I 'P.VJ. :!fiI~ 1),1',i~ 'in ~U~Il(!IIl~1 Ib¥ ~11iIgrotrrllli CIIlQin4,~ M)P:'Il'J,} iIIHl CAli»e.:sn ~nd (:iMOQli] 45 W.PJ.
1

ava i~rlbfe in ye,l:st for insrance ..most cil'moelt The aut];uN'S Ibulld d\i:u :u.liCuploidyalw cell~s exh~,bi!:oca]izcd che~~uc:~1 l moo,if[calion gl(fn~,g~y a~T~et~ e(;Unm~t~ool[sm. The ;;In~fl;Jt~ (lmyp~nru~l~ylalkl!ll e f ~p(tci lle stretehes of plOl.id:-;~~lill~:S]vid~'y~.,~e: up g,lllloose. ami l!iiimn,y DNA (CpG ~s>I<lI1d:s" :lIl'rorn,oler regi ens of < ,un ~~~!lund~'rg(i, O$mpl iFiemiM uf ~il~ l,;l!lC\(:I~i:f1g g~l!!ct>t .17) .• This ~:()l~~dII,;'.\ise~~h~m_,c<haoolk glucose tr<lnspolil:el'S..l~lov,(ever;gh,u::m;.e is used inl'p3c~ of3I1il;e~lplloi.dy by .silem:ill.lggen:es ona .~c;t;\nlllll,m:e-di h~OITHl::;SJlle'I' of slIm::o::;e. Ih~ lmil 5
ls imrij,guin!!lgivcll that mall]' uunQll" cells

'~200~~"

I¢~ e'llkil;'I1d, in! these Q!,jl~:>' ..~hing ~:O\""t'r re ilm, du:' '''W,lrburg effect;' 01,j. ,in\?r.·hi.d,

exhibit

glyot1!ysi~ (amtemhic Iml.G'li'lbo! ism) .~s;emphasized a,llh:e ,el'l.pemse Orinl~~ochO'I'ldl~;,d ~<'Le:mbic ~ respiratica . Ahi;liI:nl~1 S. cerevisiae has 3,

UniGilna physf(lkl~')I' dl,l'[ em,pn~ls.iIZI;"l'I'en'l"lerna"
I.ioa rellll~i",'e tn .re£pitrnniiD.lm. ~[ wUI'b!! i:ll.tcl:esli.~~,g

e1i\,pre~i{lIl of {):th.er gellt!'.l! OOID~ c.lu:or:lull'lom~ ~haI oonifc]" f!I sclecoln \c'e 'C ~1lI1 adVaJlim~, NQiIlICrheless, if ~1l.Ileast ;J portion of the transcriptiona! find phellfltypk:mespol'lsc 1:0 :lIin~llrlo.idy persists in caneer cells, :ut .rn~li)f !)()ii>s.ible to be devise :ullh~bi~Cliffi lillilillatl'I~IJJ:!'>lor kiU suoh 3l111.Wplg~id eel I~ ~iil;'C,tiv.ely.\vi~l [i ~th;ier no iJmpm.::r (Jill liIornm] di~~,loid t.iSS'llc:." l.l ~l IRt'I'er,!l!ifIrt5 amI! N:{)j~e:5,
1. ''II.], Ha!~al~, P;A..!aro'b:$,AJ1.i'lIi.~ {l'llaAt
2. M, Ill, i,lPIliJd~~QI,. Gtn~

~t!~nnn:ql~,li<ll)' ~hrom~l~lme

'1i.rll!~h,: pfl:'-&''1Ivillg

"'!1"

~Dde'[enni ne\"~1(;:~~ler 'Ui1~~lploi,d!yel iC~J:S,I :,ja m" i19.[ 11rI~I:aoolic 'I::: n;,x:[ i~llmlilmua~i,Wii,eells, W~~is fht,;: bf~~jIS ~br fh>t,:i!lC'~f~~d ~~l~I;i;~G' req;llIiu:;eu:l~.elllt ill1i,llirI.e Ye3st <Ine!iil;plo.id5'! Torres et (,I. pftlpO~ a ~brQlI1:r~ if!i~u.i~h~ aud GXp~,fi!lil;.\linf'l!. Aldumgh llIianscu:ipts fr'Ol1llllite dismni.c cI11.~ mO!jl)me: d01;l!blwin~bu;fII~,hlilm,('e., soclfldy-s~aite
:>cr~I)lS did nOD, The all.Qu.plo.~d SU"lIli:[[ls ;;I1~so Ilru sensitive ['0 compounds lh;n :inhib]lpmteilll

:I.e;, 169

(~.~Rts,M, ~'J~:il (~ooll:).

levels of 1li1l~11l)fpfl:m::]rn_s encodedby these tw.1L%"
111ll!tsl(ltioHor

G IE0 PHlIYS ICS

blm.:lo:p~'(i[~i~l (il;:gmdatjoml by pm~eOl.'1iOiln~. Thus the geneespressionimbal<lintle Icw:S In CiOinpelll!l!lory ~~I101ieoly.!!i:s, wlmic:h dei1liili~nd;~ More efiefgy isee the figl~f,e). f'lIrl~lIernlo~. ~Ila:~ysi:s (If s1n,'OlIj~$h:<lrbodng IRrge human gem:)l,mi,c DNA fhl.gnlem~ .~~ yeast arti l'idll~ chmmescmcs, \vful:k:~l a.~ not (':X!~"Cl~d to b~ mrfUilscr~b~dor m'l.llS~a~l)) {l~~y gl[;;e'dl,extent dJirI .mOl;ex~.db~l"1 ~mwtill del<liY Cli.f dnqg s~il:'I~ilvili:~~, Olss;[)d1i,t~d wi Ih fUll henti C' i yeil~{ dis.oJJJiLes.im:liC'~.titllg lllnml these :piln.emo· ty'~~,a~e niggf;;red byim;r~~!~~ III ~~Il~ jf;}i\p:re~"
~.iol1l:I'i~.'IDel.·dlOln Ihe ,lJ}re.-<erK'tl of ei'i:JmDNA... ' Uc n::~tL]t!>, ofT(m')Cs (:wl.3ml~i!ln'liCf studies of fnbrobhlst~ obt<lined frunl D~)\,,~'1 sy.lm.dm~lle ~l~~~~S IIH) imidi,t'iil~ ~~IiHa :!;i[[l~1ce.~u~. dno:r..,ulsmin:can ,e1'>JI!rt. 3.Sl!Illl1l~ <llIlli.pmlii,WeraI:ive eRkt i:lml both yeasl <1llld'~,l:iln].tl'l (leUs.. mfthf s

iiiaillid flilptulr'l"5G!II1 cau se 1lI1Io:r'e11!1[Ir'~hqu.[lke d,lnllag'e tha m')lo~~ 0 nes, ILeS:5Jo hOlm past 'e'l!'el'l~ ms ]ndic.1! Ie i!\Ihtch r,(!lullu IillaY b ~ m~ st dan~'il'r~ us.

d.;~pcndl' 1111 'P<;lU't 011 hm1!l' tflS( rock mptlloos, I( J~, DlJril'l£~mD.e :~960,s. wil1l~ u parrbt 'l'oliU\'i!iit~d nb::;~i'lrillio~l and paii'1J}i 1'0 in;tdequ;He rheory.researehers believed t:iln1:tl
e't)'
fUptlllOOi'i C{lt!~d~lH P'jlgp~'I!W ff'S~~f [h<J1l ,1bol~1

T

he diltm~ ..g~.em'.'.tthquakei.!i ca. use, to

!'iOC.i-

rli!!<~e~rc:ht::rs,begrm to> Im;<1Sl]:re fa5l IiJil.liPHIH~

spood~ (j, 6) ln ~il~ .1~.'boIxrr:awry. Th~huprovomeur .un qmd it)! alil.cl:quolnlii:y of seismornetees

\\10['1d'Nide 11~~!l ~u led

fI~"\"" reports

nlii'sl~per~
(""tV

(!'hem:)' wave !uov.ung IJlloock, Sew!".:!1 thoo~:~j(;:aJ sUldics ill the I !}'70!'i found lth<l:r :m:mI,]e Impture:s COli Icl ~x~>L;:~d, ~~')I:;'(;~ p.~r~ur~sre~~ehh~g 5 'kl'lliil/~ this; l2). Recent'Iy; iI:h~t ~f aJ,. repm~:ed ITi,e.~d o:bser~ v.<Il:UOIlS:sbowi ng~'1il,3t a:mI, earli:lq.~~'ke i.mI, Ti,bel i;.; ti~ (.11~. ~iiLen :WKl<\,~ldu.wrne:llP'loid 1;~!Il\.~'en,;d~'~, rUJPIm!l:l;)dl~!:'iI!r.'U:i~10i1111 ~he sj11t:iJ~\\Ia\'~5peOO t3~, Ghren tlte ~)Qtelmtu3Ifor llllcl1eaood dC:SITh'LK'IICJo:[[l. !ove:renln<e I.hiis bi'lrr~m.'!TiI~t"re ~'\m ~Hlei:1st~'1¥o ~,Jilt'O<ll'COlUIU pcJssiihi:lli.li.t1:i.n.t'ire mOl:)' be a pr<nelili:vt' elfeC'~ \\1(': nlIU1.!,)\Htke :mchi~~brm~~'k~~] IOf d iproidy. i!)lTm:res C'l (~l.i'o[Hl.d dun d1;!ll::teri~ l,!,1.~~.cn l pli!lllnli~geilirthqml~e=I:cs~st.mll'Lxms;t1mcl~O!l \'-mrldwtdl;), OU~Ctl!1!li~quCilnc~ of ~~ (;l:l\l!il 'C~H'flm[)$Omt: a~ h:l;SS !>eve're'~_1J1 dI,iploid eel lis t~~<tnl :un haplouds. 'fhe :firsl e:all!tb(~LUakelh1l1 IIJ'L.lI\~}LUD'ed r~:ste[[" th[!n~l~~ she~r spl.;;i,\d \\lif~S U~~] 97'9 [mpe:ri~1 T~i~ i~~ ...i$l~t\Vith C{I!l. p.nwio:us m~l1in~miuicml V.dley. C.llifolmia. (Weill ,(4)1,. NQ otheilf e:l1:",llIn~ <IIllalyses :5'11.owing dUll in.Cre3SCS .~nthe mllnber of sets of ehro~mlO!iiDme~ tploidy) C'~1I1 Ulfer the b '\:..r.!'~ found lur ~'!.'i'\O deeadl!~. Sl!PPO[t~l'I~ those wJm.ore:sis~ed the [deOll of sl~pelffihle;H: eFfects: of h<lrnlfu~ :SOil1<11licWii.llU.ltiotis i~ll~e s'~lort liCllll (j4), SQl1lll~ C'au~crs !lUll}' arilS!t rupture spoeds;. Hrll';IIlC'\I,e!:. st~ri.i.!.lgun 1999. ~hItQ~lgiru Iletrnp:l!oildi i~1tl:nlil.~diate: (!5)1..\~\Imic'irn a
.J tl1litWlll1'e

3. li;m/g.~~~e ~~iJ'lIed of

seismegrums, few aeeepred the J;HJ:s!'ibit~.ily of sn,lllC!r&h~r rU;pll1,1tl1C :l':peeds. fheli1. un 2003. I30Llchml and \~l~l!eerepar1!ed ~QI~'i!;Vi~lCilllilg '':\'tde!:lc~of ~I"cln'l~(~r. rUI~ture
speed fer the' 200~, KUIliIIill.llsn.l.U:i.. Tibet. e'mhqua1ke (1ll<Ig'ui,n.~.dc~ iI<fw '" 7.8)1 tt'l').l'his. eOlll,'ilh~ qL!ake.. in~\~lkh dle net !iilipwIG in 1:l1edi~:;e~~'iol,l of I:lte :surf.ace p.atful, of tltef3uh (a slrike~sil.ip, r<lil~~l ~" nlpllllood 1:11~m~lI1:~ ~:olli,ge:~ ,41]0 km!. lhOl:U"l1 the IO.[[l,ges;~lrike=s~ip 11mlt l.llptnre (both m~ s ~a!1t!1i ~~ndCilr ~nd '!iVO~I~r) since~h:~ 1906 adilbmi~. earl:limq.LIDke. Robi~lSO{lm ,r!1 (It:, ( 9) 8110\''1'00 thallhe rUllwru stf!~te:d~Io\:~/~y. Oi!.{;(~el,l;;nu'(ld a su~r[(I shea:w ",...ve s,peed, ,md Ihe~l pmp!l:I!l<u:erl 0'\.11;:1" more Uml'l!100 km m ~!~d .ohe!.r~y 6 km/s. belhwe ~i,m!,1:u.'ig.Ui!d SI:OiJPUllg(sec 'che fig~Ul~i. I'e 1[W4"1n~I), The r,egion of ve:.ry hiL~h ruplur,C1! speed coi.~Il.cided \villlii. ~he region 'of hi,~l1est' ~;)lrihC]1.!ake di.S'p.lac~]l.(,:llt •. ~l~gbes;l;,1~~h ~l.ir~ f ~e. {llmd high~( sU·l;~re~'l~ ;!1m_I ;ccU!rred (l[l o
3 very slmigh;1 pOI1l.uon ofd~e r:mdt

reports \"'Br~based ,~tm!,ulOl.lysi$ ofv~ry

shear ~<upture speeds 'l i).¥et, because these

rl~

cl1u[d ~unll",JI,Cel'll.is b~llTeri!lg ,~IT~t, Thi~~l,fiY exph~i~ \'/fr~y)I~fl . ~em1(plornds ~'1:Th!bit highmreji, . ~'~ ofchoo[l,lOOOlml,e loss bm .il<Lokdtete'Otil.We dd3YS,

1ih e <lutn,~i!~ 1n Ih~ ~IlI<1rlmenlo! f.iilfih5dem~. Uniii'euil~ ar o'domd. P'arlk:s .RC!~d,O,doftll OXl lP',R, ILl . K E.-Illlail: dils@@arih.ru:.~(.ufl:

I

PERSPECTIVES
cold deserreljmare of Tib~l

had preserved the Qilf4tlldt o~n cracks f.om the 200 I eM'tlJCI~L.'1ik.c.
lUll'jj:;[1!lbj dulling dn:; \\~ n.1~rm011th~ until I!h~£.Cicm:ists '\;'is&tJ;!d~ Of eeurse, riO ~ei!\.m(J~m~mls

~.rc ~v~ilalbl>e for the I E57Forl
Tii.'ljcil

~a!1hqui!d,~~l:::~L:;hli)l~gUffi •. t
ri;g~1piill1ell),. whichwas
<I

upper

~trii:ke-~~'Hp ,i;J,~rlhqOlOlk~ with

<il

Fastblr~ab. {Leiffl Verlimll bars sl]ow !he ~Iij!l Oil the MlIill! Kunlull :ra~!l 'filltr th~ 2:00'1 Tibet le'~I~thq!.J:!lh i'!;I:lilP~l:!dl 1IFO!1Il (9)]. (IUI!;IIF,lerl!llIld 'wweJl ri~i1I'hU lIhe iauh5lip ~®Ir thrt 1906 (al~f()rlfli.. emlhqlJalke ladapld from Th~'!al)ih ~~glmIN1it ~uiJklired ls :sha'!ljll!ltIy~he th(d, r,~d1llil!ll~l~~ bl;}'kst@~ QII'I 'I!hi~Ili!ll~ nrmlrb th,e regioilli wh~\I"eI'lilpture (QlJ1Imenc;~d.The lalliU i1IIpli;lf~N:lrlllt~ !L8S:;1 CalW()mia e-MI1~l,fa~e is imili c;~tl:!dlby t~@ wed dasiflll!d1lilile, 'till ~ b~,j]d Sil~rindlj. rMtill'l£l r~l]i:ol'l ®r mpture mmrn'Lmcermeliit Ir Ilhe n~l e'olr~hqllol~e l1.e\1'e roilows th!$ I[!aluem, a :$upersllNu ru~ture IProJR!91l~ij rou~hwilrlll '~yl~ s:tool'lg ly~g!::us ccndhl on n:g she d: ~tai;leo5 on Santa Barbaral a riel Los Anilleh~$, meehaaics

usn

ruplure length greatiCf than 300 km, Trem::fudllg acmss,[ilc;: r~,~dl [f:'I;'e,ded lh.u~he .~mgest slip nccurred i.]1. ah,e C:ar.rli::1!O P lain, where the f;JlII.h is very sl:miglinl ( j 7), On~ca~ specu I;;I;WthllT lh(l I 851 ,eanh~luakem~r have lJ!ro;p3~~lICd at supershear speeds, iu l~.C C~triziD PlIdlt. mH:I :i>lm\l~d as it \VCnl ~lfOIJ~.d!i1\i.c'·Big :Bct1d"jusl (15 '1~.l,e 2[10] lib el e~~fl:h~~lllke shJv>redma b~!1l.{iI: t~re Ihl1.h slri\ke. ~n

Th~I8.5 7 and19n6 Cf!1ifomkl
Fru,cuure 5'1 [~Clies ~ho\!;: tlubt h:JI.~,g" 5lrnl~ht more likel}!1.0 reach the high [l].!pn~
rUp'llLr~.

tor v~ry f:!lst

e a:r~llil qmd~ics Itmry have

~ffi"O;P<JJ~

g..."1!redl:'as.1ei~hlln \~';;~~believed, If

.fun~LS, il:l'e I~,~ s IUllr'Jte (1~lle[re~':Jli\iC speed ,o:ft~u~~"MO igh sidct;; thiil nwlt) m~~ dmstiC'~llly :~o\:\:~rthe fricli.(1!'1 O~~[h~ 'fu~!1 t ,I/{}. 1 J ~.,d~o\:\'~ng mw,;'~ Illli.£~le.r mpl.m-c speed Ul11e:s:peed ill wlliaielil, the' t\i,'O s~de5 sA;'Pil~lrueId rhe :~eil!diiig edge of the rall~ll, [n~11.e KIJI.~]rtIr.1W"lhqn~ke. the reg:h:m of e i~rg~ d~:spl;]o~rm,;::,ugthtils been M:P,ll<l\tl:!ly CQmJ·fi rmed ft-om satelli re measuremeets {,I hll\ ;ld!dido(lJ1l. fif;)ld obs(;IltV;;l:t:iolls. !l'!~rd~ several ~\11OUlhsllm;erby Bh.n el' td'/.., ..,hOV!'ed a -2j~k:E1J1I~ \i\.'idl1~gi{tn to '[ale S,(ludl ()f~l~ sUPGffi'he~r fUp~ UII.'l;!: seetien of the[~dl \'!,.']tIrnUK]UY oIT~f'l.uh Q;pe~il cracks I~J). C3IclJI,I~~i.o~lS show 'Ih~u as

or

speeds,

The f:J.I1I.II\". srart fh.'lll:JiU :tIleM. ;illooe!ern:~:e ttl'

tI~,m~j!ll!,.l!n ~)~:nni£!>ibl~ (ld ilild OO!llitlllt~ ~ ,n this ~n:ed il'lifiiOVidled there' <Ire no obs.I .aeles ~:d(l!~,~ \,V,~ ~nd f~U~l [l'h!UO~l l~ ifl\:\i (2)!, th~ W h'll can 1:1ie200 I Tibet '~'lrl1i1'1mdke [~ilr;;h

need 1:0 .'Ippiy l:~l.Csame <LIMIIY:lcis: to etbe r grellt :!>i.rik!c.sl iiP faults around the \;\fol,rltl such as lhe . more lh,11l ~. r.OOQJ.k~],].~IOrIg ]-i. ili1~.. IOl.yan~ Q .!\~pi:vnl)l '~~l"l:tllic: b~ltW~ al:sonaed to dev~:~ap a
M)" \'it:

measure ofi:h,e ··'S11,.~i~nne;s;''''' off1l.IDI.h,~ mullh.e

.:n,

,eVCi1lSIn!lly~ead to I:m'l.'cr death::; b1!.~twi 1m, certainl.y produce gn:'<Llerfimllrn.ci~ll: C05! (Imn till: 2004 Su m~.~r>l.-·A.'Im.d ~I ear ~~~ ke and 'llil.l n q~l,lIi r1'i~)i!!,~U1mL .2;IllCHl~.trt,(1 e.ri!flhqI.lO'lk(': is \!C!)' The si ml~l.r to {be 1.906 S;Ul Franc isco eareh.

CI:]~iom ia e'.l"thqtmke::t? r

us 3,ocmt,. For esample, the :1 906 alldl the :~ 857
.AiiI)'

repeats Qif these

I~mgth of til\): slrai~t po!itkm 1i'4ii-quioodfor saeh ~:ii~1 n.plLlre spli:ed:~. Ol1<._~j'v,digi'iS of off-I:ilu It open erackscan be~lsfld a'; J d~,~gJlosl.i.ctoo:~ ~i.)r~lJI]l'etliil~l;mrilphlr'J:. "mcl it .,>'Otild 'be ~)Bet'id f 10 s!Can::hfur'lI~d docU!nlil:~!lt them.
!lflill NI~~ IlI:I;d~ti1I~~,MJI. Geop~~. :1, 17 '(i9a~l" .2. 8;, 11, Iii..a>i:ro'l'; s" ~.~. ili1 Pmrc;ipl5 uf EMhQf1~ SIlUffl!' ,IIjIff~J'jic5 0Ca!l!1l!rid9!i:' !J~j),.. P'!l::i$; r!l~w,!,g"~1!:91300. Ip.. ,<186,
R!grrn~~~
roJ ..

1.

ql!.~k~.both being veracal sldke ...... fa~.I~~ ~ip
3llHI h<lving!:;,imi:llait"
Ul$lgr.lllll!ldie,

the

[lL1pnU~ moves

fi'{lm

£Oub<- supershear to
de'vellotp

~ccds,

1:JI.rge1~~'li'peudieui,ar'~res~;!;

9l!rHI wW[b. and hence ~.iJnihlr

falll.h length ~vcr~lgc slip

3. H. S.IBli!! tJ6'"j.

~~,

R,~i.i:l:,

BOll'~i l200i),

in the off-·f'Ul~I. 'reglion~., <1,Sdl.e sheek w<lve [){U;s~~ rou~'~,. ~ic~~eould 'eC'o\~~I.lIi~~h~~e: th w C'mc,k~ T!I1(;l;;~~ff-f;;mh (Ipeil1 1~f'4CiI$ 'ln~ seen inmdytilinalponio:Irn, Oflil;l.e :i"alJildl,nw3S l{llJi!lid to have (he \~ry h~p. ruptlill~ ~pt'i~ This i.s independent Qorrobor.fltioJ,l lhal I,he'

(n.

on.

e;;~rlh~:~..,ke diid
n1:t~h.. '~:t~~ first
d.il't'{l

<lCitua~~,y

reOlch su~rshe'lr fo.rwhidil
SM.C:~

speeds ]n lilliis ~iOIlg,slMlughl sec~.lO]ii,of Ih.e
~<lrth~\tJ!4l!~

Olllil.da'I'e'rd~J~stre~drop. lh£~!9:[)6 ~~rtht~u~e nptu~~ $t8.!iI)~d~outh of San Franeiseo (see the f~gU'Ii'r::. l'lflel:rigl~l u p1)~lI;'IJ ~1!ld p!"lll)<liga!Gd ~}thl(} ~h~ n~'fiilW!,i'~st afi~~~Q ~OU~h~IM~ , a\~txl~lic mil.mur·(;IL'l'il~nil~ ~he (4) shov.'tll~.~tle :Iarg~,t dis:pla,Qcn'llenl:swcK ~Q~~iaelrnonh of S<;lI111 l:l'nJ1lJici~co", ,,,rhic:~ ]5 i~,1 a_gIl'leI.'::u:t;]CI1!1 with re!;U~I:.'i obt....l~].ed i:unl\c'eI1l,iOJl .i 'by of a\rdihlhle seiSmQg .... ",II1!S (15 i. "nJis :lilOdhenl

~. R,A!r~wl:!!,llI.J ~~, fillS,. Si9, 4:S59 ~l:98J!), 5, A, J.llo~aliil. n, s.~lT.!y~r!l!l~!).Cgi«:IT,,x,ifJlC't ~a." 13::l7 t~9\l'9). 6. t)i, Xiil, A, ). ROJllio:ls.,ifl, KiI'n1lll'lClr~ J. ft. Rim, Sciroa ::lOa:, 6Bi (lOO5j,. 7 - M, ISDlIgnoo 1.'\1(IJ~ '&111pflys, 1'1).'s, ~!t :2!!1, n~~ U!:)OD, B. lit ,6ei.l~an. M, 1ili1~, Sr:lfn,!!~~!1, i$21l(2-D.O~~. '9. C. II, J!l!lt.i~st!IlI. c, ilra~;;!ll. s, [)~.J. ~~J".I/a. :l.i.I:l. B,Qaa,{I] t2()06t :l!,r[)l 1;1.. .!il~ t Smifij~mlJliI,f,. HI~il!~. M'II. R~. J•.ArncD', i
Sa'Ma' 316, 8781:i!0Cl7).
!,!, MiI,~~Ii1~g~ •.sde!\!'fl' llii6. 842 ~20OC7~. C ,~.ter~etl ~~ J- ,~pll, ...I1.~- l:mllB~iI!.(ta 1~:i!OO~l. :H. f. IJlln.'li1l lit. J,..Ailthuf~l.!i. &fIf. Si!fsmmSDc. Am. '1.... S.2:S6{~04~,

U..

],;!.

evide'mJ'<'''e i1:! ;..",,1 il!:IlJle.

!legmenl: nmy ha\'e' rem::hed disp.licl.ce~nellliregi.on

stlpe~,"S~tr.nlF~pIU~<:

ill,

Th~nb~~~funh.QJlI!~~Sll~~S![$ t~,~!IOrl,g. ~trnilgjn:soi,ke~lip fa:~l.ltsare nCtl'eSl;:,wy for rtIp~

&p(;led~ (16). Tl~c:ff~Cl thal tb~ hi,g:hf~~,I~,~ 14l.hUp;J/~l1h'TI'!Ii~',1M~,golil':r,egj~Ii1~V,flJ;dll ~lJ,.li'
,ils ~llso ~n:I'e, where' ~he rt1l~11 ~$'II~!)' l'~d~].M..,'v{lli~.d p:rmi ~d~[_td~iri~!lal
,~I
~~i~

(.JI~"

~un:"~ tD Il'.n:lllag,lltc EIIl !>UI~e:li's:.~i.%If" );1)(l.eds,.Re~ support CO:1i" i.~Ilotkil:l. I1s.:~'lHniIl!llile 1.9;06 th ex,mni~lotlOln of ear~ i eJfre:pOltlS of si/ii,penhe<.lr i m~;YI~n'!f,; ~hm\,· thAt su~h S.p~Cd5 g~lt!'lr.'l~.ly al!rld LhclOO~ ~arthq~l.ak.es ~h~I,~d si.~i~ffl"ly. ~lls.o OC'CiU'1r Qr1J t~,~e str;oli~l~t ~>CI'iQ\L~, of faub ,( . .13). f Unf()rnunabdy. dlveliO h~<l\'y r[l]l1s a:lild II<IPid ~ ~~tb~Wj!:k~. 110 !I!,ltb,ough, nat all stro.i,gln p(l"~O~:fi f Wh:~Jts febl,]i~di,l)gI!bUQc'Wln!llll:t~,90(~ o ii.nf\)\[il\l,lat~:QrI isaV'd i~<I1Jle O~l \\1~.elh.er o:ill:~fawl.lt r.c"f!!ch sU:pe~~~l;'U:r spe!(l(Lo;;,lhus. f>\r.;tig~ne~ .. of cffteksOlIppe<!loor:iiu d~~§;.regio!l. ~.';)itunfln~ly.dlli) l~.eUnlh is 'OJl~Y a Ite(ie~ry (but nm sumde~~t)

Il~ yI',liII!lrnbl!lg,f!l, I!1lJ[ s.i:>JIll'll'l~ Slae. ,iIm,6(3. 98] U9 9:U. :1\6,). 5<!i'ilg, 'G. C l!!i~~\ P. :~~lI,~(!:o rM~s; J!:GU86 !I:an!, :].5. [J." MeB'L S'II.PIri~,)' ab~raCi S1!2J!!..05 (<!O([l)j.

I'll, ~1lI~ar!,

U. ~,~fiflhl,8u1l. St>iiM" S'«. Am', 68" 1.4,2]i.U:9'7!l\, ')lB. W.Iha;[l;h~1I. . ~B~'I. ~. U!ill\!iil~"jI', Geoph~ R~ 6
:lJ.Qi2:, 5;15~

n?~n.

IPERSPECTIVES
N lE,'LlJi Rose IIIE,N CE
,~~l(g!1lIeg I ~ai~,aJliofi O'r 'S'~l'Ia,ptic p'rOlt.e'in s det.e;rmi l1les wI11ich lI1ellmna~ (j!J IlIII'Ie!ctiol'li5. l',r~ht p a!IUdwhtclii ,al"~,~lfm~nalie,d dulFi PIIQI dE!~~l(;lI)!,!l'!E!rlt,

I

t~:at ~]I~lC~~ d i:wr.::c b; rhe m~]h~r~ititln E!lJili!.;;r\V(li~k by Shei:iJ ~i'IId .eo~I~1.gij~~ eue ill,l<1tiIOIilI:Ve!I1I!£si ~,luuh'In,le:a:u sly. ,311d llriliwe,a ~ed that i:Il,~el,'CeUul<1lr ant ..!:·! be'I:\'l'ee!l,~. c <I. il,eliltQtl:S,The >tw~~~I,I<l eh i~~ct~l ~~f t~lU~Yl!1ilP!o~ removal results ff~l1lill the r re [Jili:~of ~mIl11~!mlgl)t~blJlllill membrane prol,-,in,s .. Sya~2.d irects ;fIssemb.iy >0 1.'lhe Illest'; net "'~i'Qm'kss ddi~H:d by the 'Cf'eJill QJ:! or ~ destruction of pre:SYIlU1l-'Hi.cpoole~,":s by the SY'G-Ianld 5p~C,Lfk~~ymlp$.f;lS, ;J::lwell as by 'l]u,e:n,"lI.HQv.d.er ~LbiGluil1n~pl'O'~.~$Qme::;y::.t:eltt p.r.im.m'y 5),a:I<lpSe Nghul. (4. 5), Ri;lmtuk<lb~y. The tlb~qlli;l:i a-proteaseme syMtlU uses. tile I'll"luiling of excessccauectiens, Pruning is par:l5''iG<'! .. the instruenve si(B'mt~ sr.~ItIiLalate5 Ihat li,culmr~y dlr~umllic in~he Inm~aI;l brniml" in crnzymeEJ, ubiqll~liliilng.l~e: 1:0anach 'Ifulc:p~rl- Sjfllups;e foml~HOllirlllhu:> 10eailon .. is pre. wlm,~c~,l eslt~mated 4W4 of SYUJ alJ~es ge·ne:r~ tide ub]qJIIJ.i to s~:lecifuc protein snhstrates, an tin serued b:Y a nemlly epilhd:~:JI,ceJl (guudepma llwd duringr(K s m~u'lll gR'IwLharu ~limi!l,H,~d 'he~~ ub~q,~it.in:·]O!I,b !!)C ~lh>W" [h,tlnJ by rG~(~)inaptic \lu~v~1 ml!KCI~ ~~~dmrg.~[s~~ro di~n(;m~ by adt~~,~:homl1). Tile scope or~m,i:!lphenome( 0:1" VC motor :Il.eu~n,~. C{)[l]jp,~emenlary exboerudl in •• b<lJcrei=sl.13ped suuctu re c:il.~I~ed the pro!:e<lsome. The SCF (Slkp,.I._JCIJ.~I,illln._:F-bo)l.l! ~~iresSiOIl SYG-.~ iu the 1.1SNL :~lellroJ,lt~t1]" of ''ICI~1n'£u~ for oo!btlsllnccbm1~s'm dun seleet ; :tWn;l~e:s full' 'pr,ese:rv;.ltiorl Oil' diil!)tn.Jt"ti,m1!. but ic liO ~ypeor E3 ubi{l uit]1l ~.iwnseis C ompesed of ers ~:l:l'e!'>"}'Ul.,pl cCJ!n~po:,L'DeIl!L\j.lh~s spot 1lii!i(JIlt,ilp~,e ~~l:mijits m! aehlil.'Vcs. target. sc~~li~ g a Ihllt ~~.ollecl,Jllal: details arc ehseure. lForin~ .111alM:resKi!l.!;l tllcm!)ClumrL~.b'lii!J Ul'ldcr.lyLng st<l['ioe.how i:stliii~ eheiee re~ub.11m1 ,~na sUl1,gffie ~hil:i> precess .. DUllg el' al. disoove.red ~h;l.tl:he ity\:\l~Ji1Il 11m! imten::h<lllge'.abh:: 561 ofF·bo.",. <Id"pa nt:::,t.ro,~ lhi.llin hia]~:y ~y!U~iPS.~S\M i~h 1TI1,I.ltp~(; tor pmbeill1> (J)" i illt,;;:ra,;:UlJ.lar dm"'~I~1lofSYO-1 dir~t~y ~lll'Crpf!rl,n~fS,:.1 O~. PGS~ 1:)47 !l;lhhi:s; .i:>~\!e;, acts wil!l1.sKLl-~.• a C. eJf4JIjl.I,!i 110J11l!Y" D:itng (:,1(Jl. (2) pr-ovi.d:e an IlJIl'D'ligui,liI,g log Of3 'co~\eoo.lm;lpmlflll (S'kiP~'·~ ft~n:: Q SCI':' ("(l1i~.lp!I6.N•. This !'e5uh ~lWSlh\<lve model ()nl~h. process i~whi(;h tbe cl;leatk:m >0 r adu 11:1 sYllmillpsc.slli'iggel.r"S induced semehead-saratching at the cl:es:t1l!C'l~M of de'\,'t:loPilfaH:[!l<;~Uy f]~~. because 'COm~LC!;with Inle SCF (.:oruplexi~ lypi:<I]I,y ;J de.nh S,e:J1[I!BCe transie I'I!. S}'IiI~l'p:Se:~,forged by the saiI'D,~~ Il~lu't'n Ibv ulU'~~edpr'!l)l(li~~~. m SYG-] if; B de-.;uilbt :Imot d.egmdedL !lind thepr.i]]lnry lli'llf:S<e'fi:lm.diu,1l!S31'e' derived f~.iOm &lltdkls of ~.mOlo:r m~~I1iUn reui[ dl11t d sYr.!!~P~~ roSJlill!lii'renMlins in~<;lct, The rt;'SliMes egg h.iyingi!l lh~ i'1I.'il1~ltode key to dlis i'iiYS!ery' \i\.1I2) ~qggeswd ~v HUN,!m"lI(lr1di#,fii (!legalii~., he l:u~:Ii'nr:ll'I.~ T eN.per.irn.ellts slluH.~'l~gnilil'!ll Sy G~] i phrod~I;e",::spedfie IleUI.I:'_l,E1I (HSN l.) blocks :SOC11~ bi nJi,'.g to a ~~ciric IFI. s.ynapws 'Ij.~liffui, muscles ~wd W.iih box adaptor pro~e]ll. StEt· 1,1].Thus, V(;··Ckl~:S·motor neullon::.".djillcent: D:~llg ei a/. reasened th'll S YG· l-SKR~ 1 i111~:e:If<Jc;~ion lhei.mSNl illm. ~o lh:e vulva .. ~I~ opelliing throu!1,h wll]ch r~!i't~H7,;Bdmi1u:yn[i; are exc l'i~lLmll~1f"'Gtiv,e~vdis!illp,ts.loc~1 b~q. u pe]]cd room 'the uterus ~see I:he fig~ lI~timltion 1!lcri.'!,'.i~yby the SCF comnf'l;l), S peei"i~z,~d snuctures assamble al. these symlpses for Ihe release of neu mlri:!:Il!~'~l,]u:cr sigo~~s fm.lml the
~}t
pi\'ip(i&'I.'i

i"alin fimetiau d~p~n.d:iiO.ili, a WIst

of Sylil!i1lpSes, or connectiens,

between

<md eli

III

m

pre~yn!ll~tic membr~une to :-l~lmuhne n;;u~pl~~ ~H Pfi~[~Y·!Iii~pE th~ ic surfllc~, Dil~sel' (;IJ. expressed presynaptie pr~'~~ins n~bil;ll~d\,\··~thr~~:!Iii1'il(JI(llg rescent jJ'fOb::inJ i~l :1ft~,UIl1,'Ih)dl;l~ ;l:ilid observed thatlFISNL synnpses ncar

"

)
a~d molor 'nfUrO!li~
will! ~UU~ m!J!sctl!

S;Y.Lil.ilP!i'~ region <'Ire~(,colm]'p~mi.e.dlby a di,s,nal se1: f HSNL ecnneeuoasin the seeo Ond;Jlry :syu.~a;ll~ reg,io:ml dnri 11~ IOIf'l'31 ~I~voi,!h)'pm~m.Ho\\,l;,'\!e;r. by the ~duk
p.riifl'il:'111J)'

rhe vul\i~.ill

'the

Synilpses

r@TI'IIII

t

1

s~l1I!;e,[lrne'l>e: secOlllda'L')I' sym'lp~e:s
\\,'tlre romllil,!l"d .1:>'

the

prh11'l,!I'Y

~Y'13]:}"e Iregton m'l[lIood. The t:IWldU:lI:':; ...
1iIie alll[hQr h in tliil1lDfparlm~nt ,of Cil~anti D@~~lallm~[lt~l Bl,olag~~ Vailld'~~bi~t Un~· IDimmr'!ectio!'!~, {iQpl'TIl~' d~'~~~Pf;n9 I"i SNl m~~~ "@U~@n ~nil!l;".!l~rgr!ll!$~Y'!l~ps.eS wiUl 'I,!IU'~!;I~~ ~d~s end ml)t©r If'lW' m rer~E!JI',465 2:151 i\venue '~Ui!h. Na5iIlI'll!e,. Tltl 01' n~m-a:240\ USA.E.-mllil,davldl.mil~er@ . rens inl rwo, ~oc:alicm~.. (Bo~tOim)'lhe,protein 'S,1'(J'1 b!J.od.:'!:proleo~.~5,i:5 ~l1aptk pf.OLeil1~ at prilill'lII':l!' :~ynap!s.es !!lut allO'l\ls d~S\n.l(H(l1I11or s~Q~dal")' syni,'!ps!l$ E2';.E2 !,J biql.l~t~ (Otl]Y9tUin9 ~1"I:t)'m~'; REX, Il;i:tlgfiillg,~if'1pt'lOt!!'!'ilil, n 'IliIInderbill:.e.du

I

PERSPECTIVES
pl~.;,;.aud ~h~.roby proooc~'S pr.im-'ltry Si)~apS('s from de~trm::'~iQJiI,.This ffilffi.odelis supperted by genet ie experi nil.ems: :s}'l.owi;n].g th!llf1ri.l~lI!1ry :;.yn;I~;X'ie2Sare u!l:lM;<lh~e iI] ~mJe"mJl,uode:s ~,af;ldn,g SY(M (.~yg~.11:1ULI!2ln~s) ill1ld th:llt Syllil~~~' lBelnOV,ll :req uiroeN COITlIJClill1e'nts (SK R,., I ,uld SEL-.~ (I) of 1!l1C SCF' cn!!m.p.~x, BiUt herein lies ,H IK~nid.{'JI.'>\. [n ~dditiU[l (0 pl~ote'Clillg IIJii.eprimmiY .s.yDl>.'lpse region fmm d~ti[~!C'iion, SYG-~ also tnlgger.:; th~ demise of [he secondary syl] a p~eregloo. ~mleed, secO,l'I,d,1 ry ::;yn.~p::.;es ,Ire pre!:leil."flild. i~, '''J 'g./ ItUUUmu,s•• where'ls primary syll:lllpses are Inn.
How does SYClz~: diroc( t~~~~!1iIlfll~,desmlc~ tiO.1l1 of the selio:liI.d;u'Y SYllfiI.ilp:i>ereg~:(lIm~~ The a);uh(~rs ,sJroO\ffj,' th.<)~tl~~ ll1biq1!.1itif1J·;pr,ol~~~o!n\): sY!\,I:em is reqnlred tolremove s.eC(lnO<!l'fy s)'l:lii.I]ll>es during Itormll~, dcveiopm.enl. Thns, Sy, ll-llg.c~.lftzatl~olll ~o the pr~.IlII'iI~.[ysyllll<lpse It'!ftg:~onS!OU'1:CllfM' $~.inUillues1~~:O~~o aetlvIy~.ic' ityun tlre :sec:omkuy :-lyn<'lp:se .regiQlt, To tl'l'q~j:<l]nl~~l eWec!. D:ung. (~lal.propose that the is '5('.' cgmph~J\ is Umi:tingin~h,(il HSNL
prOH~C'f.S ~]nlil :S;6,,\KH1.dlf~!}' :Sy[l~p&t' r~gk'l!lil li:om desrruetlnn. Convc:r::l£~IY.when "U::t:Ir'lil.:: SCF is ,e:,'II:.cb.led ~h:mll]ne ~l"im;U"y :symrpsclJleg.ion{as in t~e 'wiM.:type 'WOlffi:.i)., ~.10reSCF i;...avuil,· able tu·'tnU,l.{;:k'·I':1Irgetprotcills in the secend<liry~ynl"'p~e re;;ion. Ahhollgh this model is

EiM'Ik:r swdi~s h<lV{ir1lml~yeSiwbHshoo roles ~or the IUbiiquiJin~pilroteas.{lme systeml in axon
g~Li.d~nee!lnd s:y~.aptogel1ieS;U!! in di!51l~rnle ,:-;pecies., le<lmillig and :1!J~enmf)"_;high~t-{)rdelf ~h!l~t[o.I1I$ thm. origimHc

IllC'as;ijl~g~.y 'l:~~ga.lll ~mdll:~~pp(,w~d ~ddiDy li(lj~!.I1 I;;K~ri~h~Qu:; I 2!nirne hl~ .~I~'i,ililion uf SCIIF:acl.ivit.y inbhe' n-ISNL neurcn remo,ves b~th prim~lI:Y mtd S~(ll~d;,!lry:;ym~p~::;). Clillg e:1 at. ;ac~n.lOwl.edge tli.1;o'I:D. SYG,'I could 3.100 act

lhnmsh ~~i:l.kl~mNn .~~lllermni'fe .:iiig~,l~1 pathiug ,\,.1iY:S to e,1imi.rta~e secondary s;yna:p.'5CS.
Add~ltii[~llal speci Ilc~nrOrmll~ltOn about .he Ille<.:hal:llism~ropo..~b)i D]ng ,('1al. is I];oockcl to

w~th sYf.!'~pti'Cp]~stki~l~SO de,p>end on reg;u h.uied pm~.eo~)"si!.'i 3l. ( Din~(f.~ ~!/. hfWI;: miO'iIii' pr{lv~dcda;~ ~;l(.ehin.g e."iamp~it\Jfl1\]~1iI1~~i ! .. &g:rodl!a1'intl~}i~~m ~'ai'l 00 I1lliilll.':Sh1l1ed 10 OOJl:mJi] the 'p~,aoemenl of speeific :Syfi~WSl:~ill C. e1l?gfU'I;'i!. The !:v(l;lutkH1t~ry coaservatiol1. oflhe cm.npOlle:U1l;ts ofth:i5 nmec~lld.:;m ~~~gg,e::mllh<1.'t .td:clJI:iorml \,\,twk i~~hi:-;g.e.UiI~lic~~U)'
1~"u::~'lMe model Ol'g.mi:'lill m~.yrevesl fLm,da-· 11il0l1[111ecrets ofhlIlllU'I.nl :nliin deve~opliiil.eIilL s b Rer!erencll:S
1, ~; Fl, IHul1lefl,!.O:!ler,

neumlJi. In this model, higj~l SCF a.(;tUvhy hil, the prinmfy5YI'Hl1!P~ regio~ (lOt ~xOl~~pl:e. iIII
IlilUUill:liI,l

buiid a di,;;m:i~,~d llio~h~mk;;d mfld~1 of th~ pro~'(\ss,.Forex<u:npl~. ~li.~lk:'hofl~!;l wn~)liJl!llni:c aom.ponellil;';;,.iulh\::' 1~:SNL llem,(lI1liis~llllret:'lI:lly lqll.... gered bj' 'Ihe SCFCO:illple:x,'! LiIJdl1· ... ilpha is alil ~~ur-i'!ctive c~mlid'cil~e.1I:l!: ru'~,H'l~~ i~ prei~s dieted to deslabilijil13 presYUU<lpse ~rii,My (6, I),. Allother question is whether the j)Qslsyml~):tio ilpp1~r;;l.tu!\;-th~ Q~.fli~a:mio~of prOl'f;l~.~~n th~ ooll~srea::i\'i:mg stunmi;<lli.oll by I,he HSNI. :[Q.en~
roo-if;.
Il<tpsc.

:i!. M. l!}'iqllJ, I[l.. (h;;!~. ili. \!ta~. K Sfu~.S:C~te ~J[j!'. 947 ~.200I:n;pu~~i~liledIi!nIMl~Xl J~1y ,,007 uo.n~6J '!lCiemc~"H4~7n),
;'I. JIi., ~.

nssn

c. d'~,i(Qurie1!.

M.im. Wwwb.itlL 6. :1.

Hegd~,~.

N~~~.tl.ioJ'" ;!l1 U'O!l)4~, 71,

4. iii, :)Jlii!ll, it I). i1lrtt@(, Co I.. il;arQrrn:lmm" Ci!'fIU6, 1169
~2004). 5. t{, :5Jlnm c I. fI<Irgmilmll\ G>N '112~6:il9 1100~), ~. M, IR, I?.alcl '~I!l~,. tiD,•.~ff1Sr:j, '!:I', 1'1188, 1[~O![]6}. t. Y.l:I.iIlii~ af~ Nal. ~fom;j. 9.JA'i' Ct!006t

distL"iSembkd 1]1 C{[~£en\'I.~~h~lepresj't
If SO.~I()'Marejhese
I.:,.·vent)l coof(l~nnnetll"?

wor.ms ,~,u]k[ng SYG~ I) ii~ldiu:recdy

OCIE.ANS Mr31$U r,~ment$ with .a new OilSii!'l"IIIatioll1.al3 rf.tly halloil!! Ir~ea,ledWlfp ris~in9ly la rjJl'! ~afia (ioln ~ ~fI !Ot)e-il n (In:ulilltiol'lln the Norlh AUi'!ntic.

J~h II A. Chu reh

-- 1-

arller thh Jffl~~~~[l~~llt~[go·w~~~l~n~~.1 b~jrol1;,\' it di:V'~~rg\'l&;,witb~ml>e \\"tu~r cfflltimI1Ji!llil, Panell on Cljl[lm:OIte Change (~lrCC) northward be:yomlkelam:i and the' r-ellil,llliL~.der . !'~p~)ne<Xunequieoeal ~'vid~encelh~n di~ r~Wil1'lii~l£. ~1:'1 'n~(;b::rrJ.ld !j&lUlh,.\1.11!:d no\.\! Ofll'll;
S~I.blfOp~:calID"I'C i.Elthe' 1JI!pjperki,ionJle':ler or so
j(HI

C~l;ll)~tec'hfillge!lrIodd:lll
j0C[

(S)iu whk:~l the' D.

mate ch;mge is .Il!ap:pel1ii,~,g ( .I ,. One pub]~c now i1'I'1!S11ge c~i mate c1m:mgc is a f",fp~dand {~ra~ of Ili!lltnic ooll;l~}."€l ofdte m1(j.l1i'1~'~<lI:'t11 nf'warm now water [0 bigh latltudes, \!,!:i,Lh~ ..sib]c ~lriOlJ1j; imp.~ic11~i(J!l1$ fo·.r No['tth Amer~:t:,~ .11 d Eunn ~up~iijm!, lii11~~. e $0, ~l~" norci:u\V!!:~1 J101io1!.' ti1(: af

cOnCllllU<lJioffil; qm~,cl]nlph:over 14U ye.us pro: n decreasein t'!~ meridiunal ~]\Iwnlmjlng. cireularion by ] 0 10 501'0.

of~;~c: oce~:Jm .•
TIililfOlQ

Bl)'dc.~(.'llIJ.

(6]tama.ly.zed!ive sets of:shi:!l'"

Flo\,~' 'w()~(~d kfiO";1jlif .!;~ it Ellad, "'.1'1£11 ~IDwca:~CfI'lQniwl::ul :illlhe intire'? w A re~l.",rkil~.¢ ~l~,'W' o/bmrvatiYlud progu.<IIH h ..,~ j)eg~1I1to ~H:!dlress:~lC£'C t q~tcs.tio[ls. hili lhi.s, jssue.
\'11,,1nn \'\,\;!~er (:hlmg~d'!

me),. the b.,,;:-1c.r;!. f~~n-d~plhtem,per!lwr-.e ~md !'alil'l~ty W3fl1lwmcr loses hc~u to t~~1):' I!Ill1iil.o,,~~.cl"i: and m(,~ISUl:~mcnI'S, ~cro~ t~ North At:hu1:!.ic Irll,'9]' becomes clJtmcSer. The colder. denser \""~~l3'r 25"N., COml)leu~djbetween 1951 and 2004. si~b ~H :~igh~llll~l:n,dies~[!!1dre!iI,I$n~ !\'I;)uUnvard f~ln th~~ i;hu:a.[h~'y ~SNn'ifltL:d tbl!lt~.e O'\i("f!.. t1:Jlrl~illlg.~~ in:~!I,~rti~lf! d~~~,ISI;,\d by 3~ und h;nJ ••~ d"'Pth~ l1f 2 to 5~m., Thi~· !n)r1~n'll1.1fd ~]~v~f near-:SluFOllce. v.''<II'iIl~ water 3ml :romhW3rd nm,,' ~he'U1lIQfiLhw.m:d he<'lil t[iUlIlSpOrl decreased O}I

~hcm~: irs nCliwlh\\r.,Jd

>If ~o]d. doop w.ne.1f

i8k.1l(}W!ll

til*,

dl!'~ NtH"[h

lW~f

Alli:mlk: nmli"id[(nm:~ oV!ertumin,g cil'Culalioll,

l:fuJ.C

K"'lrlw,w el ,flf. 0\11p~ge 938 (1) .md
~:1<UVJi el'ld. 011 p<ltge

Cmnling-

935

(3 l' re.polF~ ~J1ili~~, re~ll~~s

lude:-'<Ind col dtm, rU'es.h.er~denser \..v.Jt:e~::Jt mrernu"lJIill!il,ci:lrclIkllion is unuch huger liil!i'lll h~i~h(;rI,m]lw;t~& S!lnli~f!~ld 110\vs nortl~\v~Jd !!ii~Olll.gl~~ e~us~ :SiU~g.;~!\;-d tCMmf~l'~ ffi<i;(l\;li :; imu~al~(lnS orth~ by 00llst of An~,erklll ::ISlhe GlI~,f Stre".tmJ(see' the 1'\';,'0 :pmces:ses c:an ~(lrellhemn~igh~~.atit.mle2(II:b oe:l~nlry, am:! mOJiie Ol.ki,m. to the' [I,pln 50% \!,later Frmm1 ginki~g; ~urfa0e \!;!1II"OIlI~ftlg!ll1d dim::i~I!£1i': :~roJi(,!cl:edfm the end of~1lC:2 ~.~'1 '"ligure). Af:h::r ,~e~vin£I~~n.e .r;;Olma of Norl'hl !}e'.I1IAIIli,lerica, ~he 'I"l<liIT.mi~, \\I"".il~ Ilo,,,,,.\) i:'i!.:J'.l1he1Im'!,'atd decre~~ Sii.li~ily C<~WI$-edbylh~shwmflrrllllolW I;my (.5. 7~. A.re· the :~~.10deISmi,Ql res:po.fllding fro:~r~i~ ~dntf!.elt''!i'.'ater from ~13~i'Cr);:,affild:~I;: .r~I)ld~yI.mQ~lgll tflgoo~I~II!l{Jl,l~gH5i, ol~aflJge&, Oli" [ Greenlandl ke Slm,eet. Tbis "i\f{mlld dlis:rupi '\~'aslhe ob:WI.'ve(ll: Cl~,lullge-<lIs, Bryden (;:1 at. Tlttl! ~Il!lllQr ~~ 1111 tnf! (5111:0 MglriJIIiI! .and Mrmosp.1H!ri!!: C<'lI,Him'IQd-l.U1;Ctl!l1:fon~bly dps~ln th~ li!)ccr:. llil,e meritd iOlla i Qivcnu,l:u,liI1I,g d:rotl ~'<lt iOIl. !~~~alt~ andl Amilm:l( C!mrmalll' and Ei~OOjslilm'li (Rt GFO Obsefv~uiollS indi<~!He th.u Ih~rehJ;nSl ind.0!;;d 't1ii!1!d~ if! previous obfi,€'rv.-.d(l~al.e:;;1~rnm,~s'! 1B!i)'~!S.~8, ~buti T~$m~ni~ 7001, .AuSlr·O!lii)l. E·:m;jil:
j!llhiill,(ih .. ~h@l];iJe.aul

From th(; prf~gr.'!m" \V.I rm \V'.l,~.eremerges fliom t~.e Hm:idn

Thellilllfthiw·.u1.1 nO\'V ~.$.,conltrolled by 01,{.;ombi· niltion of !I'ln.taoe ~l1il1:t1S'I!I,'1d. de[l!sily gJ<uJlliems.. ofdu:\)i.tmm.er 'i.'\,'il[C'ff in thewt;pperki I.om,e~erof W~lh~mlU'n~Gr.. S<l~ti(,lr..ligh~~r '~I(1' <'ItlQW IMi~ ~h~oo(;,:.1In, Th is d~(:rcas~in th(;)!m(:ridii[I~~l]

2.0%. ~~~ :~:mIt of~n inl~n:ed d~(: re~'ii~~n <l ool.il.t~:l\"''aI:dlnmsp-a1i1 afthc' CQldest dc'msest wmer ,.!trodRflillc.rei:l.:iie in ~n~u;~'~"'ilrd ~mn:5pon

beel~

11

1:~~sheni;:Ulg f the NorIJ'iI.i'\.d3Ul.li.c (.;). o

In

i:iI,bold new ;ulilitiatuve ~ed by

l:~,f!'

UK

IPERSPECTIVES
sit iCliIi1, ~ s ve:ry '1II11ll,1 ~ke~ydm'~ hilgi]n,e ,21 S!: cenwry (6"1,. but verificllIlioll1 on.llne~ p'.[I'i(ljlec~ liens OlI.ndC(l!lliIHlli~g ~$CS'&~
,i]1IC!!lflt

I

o.fthe :iS~.~,bi!ir:y rl~;e O

!lfileridiQ:~:a~t}Merl1;J1mii!l'l!~eirclll:1Il~)OJl~enmim;:i1l prim,'ily. h r~m~~~.li lear how line muc'~ th~lneridiQmll overUlrni.l1g cireull1ll]O!:l, We-steJIiI
O!'fJii!F

v .. ries

fi;om year '~:oye<lr. UndeirsMndi.l,gafdsvfl:ri,aiJil itl' tviU becritieal to impr(wi~,l.f! models, 1~1I:S allov,ring more r€;~illb,l~pmjl..,eU()~l:;; of eli,11i:I1'Ue dlaUII~e. '111n,is :~..bil,· w

itywi ll dt\(~!1Illine IrnlM,)ltlotl~.
Ef:re(t~i!ll'!~ mD,D1~ltDrlill1llg!. RAPID/MOCHA mOil'li" '!rUle' '~oringl cil rtili~. 0 I!l@rg;~i,ufl~~ 2001'1, diirtCUy tm~S'$11'11(@

EIrecord will 'be nl'qu ired t,C)
clG'aCl!:~!fI"jinli:~~ trend i~ the ,l1fiIieridioil\i1l~, tWef'~'lQlTlliirnlg eir-

l]res the ua l1'i~orl,oflhe GlllfS:~reall1l illl the Floridl.. 'Strrant. lJi5ililg ,1'1 n ullld'fl1lei!ll ,c:;ahle (red). iJ, .spa r~e
m(l(llr~d ~lmay~to!1g 26,"N Dilea$lin~ bonom 1P'l"eS" ~!.!re ilJn~ Mlte~ CQbJroI!"! ~el'ls1ty ~~~he~$Ie~!Il ~md' e\1:;t,e'iin l:IoLiilidla1)1 and on eithers,ide of lne- Mit!" Atlal1l~ilC Rildi9~i in ~he 11~~r ,p~n~L.l1!c ,M~;1i)' ~!S t ~h!Jwlllin d@t<lJ~, r'elF 'Ihe w~tern bOllmd.n:y.TWo ilrtides in 'this. iiS~ue (2, J) r~port ii@SI,1I1ISN the rirsl r y.ear (i!11iI1.~'a!)I'a~f$ opera(ioiil.

~ubHinn,

A

~CI,::IU

~!()!i;J1.pl(:ld

ocea n <Ilmosp.liM~T1: mode:11 :5h~~~y~ll sU!gg~st~lht 'I lt

\li./guld t,dw several d€!~"ttdes
of db~el"\I'!uiom; to detect su ch <I trend, .. S imilady, il w 'Uaale d;cc~des ofn~ulli~ ~oril:lgto derermine '1\,:]][(; h

NmiO'.l'!~~E~viro~:ml1:;~~:(d R~~li!re1, C~uncil 'twbh, support ~i'Q\Ln US,. tilJ;lf!m:ies). the: RA:p[nIMOC~]A {R.~pid nh:L~llI~e C~~""llJgel Mer~di.()gl~1 OVert\!rmin;g Circn~,"t:ign <lind!Heat Flux Amy} army \vas deploytld iun, MarCh .2.004 to C:)OIll!·ill.nJmI8~ly mllit{lri'~e m~rid~mml m~r.;. n 1lJ1!iUi nr~drcu~atitlI1312.6°N, 'nle..~ obsc'rrtiiuiom,
@r(:fI (l!)!f!p{m~:i1n:of ~~rlrg~r S€:IQ!focli\l~th~$ of

~he ':Vo:r1d Clli,~u~neRe:searclli, PI1O,gmllm~e 's

CLlVAR

(I·Ji!'!'K~t~ ~i<lhil$ty

.~tnJrrodic~-

abJli.ity) Pa10jecl 10 111.1.Qni~or NO:r1~l Alla:liI&ic the

It irallY) of the medels 3'1m~1~ Iya>d b¥[Q~e .~ PCC ,(7)1'I~n~t On li:~~k'lscales ·Qf 15 dll}l!': andlenger, th~ ii1,cc:mlll.>e1y :~en~Ch,re~l~i:ty., sum of tl',rUllsporl~ i.:lro.tothe Nor~:h AtI.<ll1Ii~:k: ll~,e ~rrecliven-e:ss and the iwe;;"lJeia!l.h.'-e shoulill be about Z{!I.'O.~ndeecl,t~ineibservali.D:un.'!i nature oft~.H:RA.rl.D/MOCHA o ,<III'[1IIY s:h.t1iu.ld Rpmlt~-.J by KUn~ll\V etal. ]mlliical~ thou the ~UiO\V ~a~~.t~rm!iil:l:('mu"mria,g ~q] brupo["ta:lii,1 .of SI,IIU wU'ie:s wil.h 41.oQt';fI'l£ml~S([n~<l.re V&~UC of r c;~Jcmelll~ of t~~.e,glob<l~ el illrnl,!tie :sy $,teml. Oldy 3..4 By ~:11 v = 1'1)1' mli~J. 5liglrlt~y I<tl;~ca; Eqt~,jvalen[ obs'C.r\lat~.olla.1 l>C~l~~~l~S th(l S for Irhfln the c1>lpectcd 1l1iC'~:surcmc:m e:rror.; 01"2.7 SoU~heD',1iI1 Oi::ean ]~mb of the merid iO:II<!I,1v~:r!r~ o S V, [h~IS de~liiIl(tnfitro~i~lg the rernarka t1il~~If~c- Ilmming eireulation, \\~l~re de'C:;'ld.~1 '1:\I<l~,ertiveness ofl:he ,<I[my. The r,lCI thal tile' ohserved mass clmmtge~ h~l!\'!i:alse been observed I '~)•. sum vades !'.ligt1!l'~liI~uro thliim the expected r~'ml!i,i,llto be de."igl1.cci. Ilml!~suremenl 'e:r,~1'li presmmiolyrd]ecis defl-

ffitlridiorlOli uve'rttLming dn.'1!.I~illion. TIl.e inexpensive <lfrdj1 a~!olliS26,°1\1COIr1:S:u~I.S
Ofi~1s.lnunel1[s ~l~if~~urhlg the \.!arillt!o!l[:.;ill th~ oo~(lm pressure .. and tempeili<.llJllte tl:ncl S<lliini!)! hmcllhU$ d\;lnshYJ. th~O~gt19U~ fh~ !;.~ltOOr:l}I~ (
t1.llillll ueer tile western 31f1ldi eastern boundaries
and on e~:lh{ll' s~de

cieneie~ in the m~lhml ~!(.':l~..s dle unobserved flo'\:vdet'Pe:Ii'~~<ul the deepeslP<lIil of [he <~fI<ly
and dl~' h'ii~~)a~t qnh~ Mitdl:-Ad~'llk Ridgii:. G.J'I~],1ingh;u:l.1, {II. ff'PO" a yeali"",~ong averet t\g~ !11Ii1:rkliQr!ml():\..;:rt,1.! rnt~g 1(,': ircU~fufi(lH ~lf
~,8. r::::: 5:,(j Sv (3). bm\!"il~, 1<lIr,gev<lr~<Ibm,ly
tIl' :3:5.J

:lI,.

R!ef1e:r@I!!Il!l\Sand NOlle'S
~191~~!1I1JE:I!1:<i! f~m~~ 'Q!l
Qrlrl!i'i!' 2,007: ~~

~I.rm ~i~~ ~~~

o~~~~ (i],~,.

O~~

(M!l'ib~fPrul

r;J

W~~

Grwrp .~·Iti'~efOMl'1k~~Ji'l1f1'll'.~ oj llleo MI~~I.~D.1l amral'l'(h~llp. :5. ~IDiITI!li1 elD!,. M5. '(Ci!!iIlb!ii!lglil·!],Nw. fm~ ICimhrid9!l!'.IIJK, '!Il~ ~ew'l'~IIk, ;jl)OO7).
~. r,l!:!i!lilDwel af~ :kiMfi' 3U, '93iB~~:OOlt :3;.). A. Cliltmiil9h~ f,! ar", 5(~Cl'n1, sss (~OO7). 'l. 111, i(lLmy,(.MluntIMl\ S'~e 3 01 .• :J!?l'2 (2!J;OSj. 5. J. G~~g!)'e,~,o,.,Gf.QpIiyl.Rn. W" 3~.1.l~103 (2{105il H. L IIryde<1l(, H.1t. IL~WOlth. fl.. (umnjn~rn,affi.. MIllJfe 438, &~5 (~(!J)).
1

(see ~lefiYl!re), These
cO:11i:Iill~llt!d 10' cs,tilll~lC
ZOllla~ :j»eSMJlJ!

C)r~h~ M.kl~Al~~nti.C' IlRi.dge'
1:11e"dSUIrerl'l.(''''l1I:s ('<11:1 be VnII:ialiofis .llll~~C horl-

[he: year. T:~li!'l rungei~u;:~mJI;'5 11",~ merid.;111

irnngt Ilig foom 4.4

Sv over a:~,e eourse of

din1.::iilence betweeu thewest.~ em ~~deastern liIDWUldl:lry lhroug~OMi. th~\\i~!Il~r :~ ("~~um~. pns~IOO diffli'l'encO'!':oi!~ dir~tly Th(.'l Ip~''OPQrliOl.l31 ~o V"d;rialio],lS in tl1:1f'~.o.rimllll}li.ly iimt~r-,ued f!jo!i!h\\,<;~rdllo\:\I'. m~OO~!I-il'l!le<rlO'r T~~tl ~ mi!21S,~lremern~ <'I,reCQlil:ll)l,ennent0d1by es;l.i~ <f iii! m..lJ;i'!'l of (~]eiiQnh\Vi;\rd flIow ofll.e Gi::LIf f ::: Sire-mill through the Iflond'(I Str.,.it by .111 muler~ Ise;;l c.alb:!e~Jrld. S;lI:l'eUilC m~t!cSlILrcm('lU!I oHhe '!\J \1\!ill:ui stre::;;~ <llrnd: hence of the :smr<1C:c~ '~ wind-driive:ru In.'Hl$pOrt

!

ional ove:rllIrning cilfCulat ion \';lIllie'S esdmmed l!rolf! the s~1~ps:hots .rlllillyzed by Bryden fII' at.: rhus, t~~,e ~pparcnl h):~lg~t!2f111 decrease infuilood by lhe"~~ ;;w~hg~ IHI.1!}I In~r~ly0 f! 0 result orl<l~e i,[I!f.l'"'oI"<fIIlIUI3J\lmiabi Ii:ry. CU[Q'1i1~"gh~!m ,d. ~sHma.!:e fh,;'!)t!$~~y e<l~'
l~lU!a~~WI,re [he

o.

:s.

r.

(i. A.

~m~~m.,

t.n to'.

Cha~l!r'ro.

;Qnll;U11II1lI,vern.ge

(I'

l),veru~rni.l'lg to~

8.~. :I, IDnjj!!Oll'lJt'1'11'. !iIii'l'el'e;g~.t (Jim. 2iO,lS71 '~2001l. 9.~.1t fIlnlc~L Qopill'f3" R'lc5. uti, :~~, l~~'~O& l;;!J)01)' ]0. ni~ ~Pef i!;a tooIJibll~!l!'l to tn~C'S!ROlli!I!al~ IC!wig~ Illli':i~rm frogr~1iI1 i!liId 1iIl~ '(SII!:O ~a1ltllrmml OOtafi:5 ~lill;lhip iMdlWolS UllJPllrled !by .~~ ~JII!'Ir.lIlial1l

r~ohi:li(jtl ofl.5 Sv: ttli:!! 'Muuld be :SliIffh::i(;':n'r to detect: <lIly large abrupt t'rn[ls~llion of title
~l~ridiOi~~l& tJ,\~'rtii,ll!Tlii.ngd.ro~~hui(ml\f.! flSllCSS.. II,m:nt of fhe currem gel:llemt~,QlL~ o~ dii,mn,t:

GO'Ii~IM'IMt'~

(OQ~~ltlYl'!' 1!i!!5S~lrch(emlrH

I'ro!Ir.rlIllm~

l~rnuQllU\ff! AAim:tk. CVliIllalf 0100 kQl.)'~ffil5 <COtl~~IM!' IlIelellJr.cl:t Oe<R~.lilII~ ~~ifi04" W.:I~ f',a1!1·fllmet! ibylh!A.u~lrilli,m (~I"Ili'IIf! {]Joo.!I~ :5lri!l!nc@ProgJ~'1IIl<.

~lod~ls i!!lildiciu~sh~t sticha ~;!!rg~ l ~bWP~[~l-

A

~lf~hi~t'(lifij.:iil'ild S~~Hif!fti~i:i!atil(ii'i a~l!!~l !'t~oocl~eti();j'j, F]na~ly~p~des; rl;chnet.cs,n p~antsis ((!ne!al~d or s i w111lh m~ny bijot~9ifi:all ~n.d Ige~hi5to:ri(al faCl\ir~ m~:n of whkhii'iicileas~ iI!(oto,'Qical rJ~~!):rt!i!i1iti~s:.. l.)pll.rtuni!i.es 'I~f :>~l(IIdyi~lgp;."Ci~llioJl+ Flm ...~~ri!l1g ~ plams atTC C\.':pcc~~lIy speeiese, 1,f'Jil.ing ordy itlSOOffi in nilll1cd :species di \'~ffiil)',. M i.le~iof Lillis; d ivcrsilkmiml hss 'OCCL'lm.xll ro.,<>t'm~y. ell!..''1n~al!l
i.db. -'

L,iirretil.ef'orm.atielillef .animalspe<ies,p p!1aJllit pedatikm ~l>Ii:haraderilZ~d by' UlfINO[L1t]OnJ Oir 'barners ttl ~ "",'" Ii. Ii. .. • <~,'''' 'I". -I' 1_': I" 1.." ,cl",' Ii. • .II '!Je\n~ili('t'XtJlloil nge IO!El ~~'le~f1 l~rieV~OO"" 11ll~diJn::eJJ~"g POijJllIlG1LIOn50:" Hell,ygOd(.' !.lamers, \jjIIKlmlmpe!.ie Iimlliilil~:or fe-rtiliza,~lQJm be:l,welti1f1i spedeii, wka~liY wnh~blllim lillior,e to'~ta~, re'jJroolr(;:trlll~~solathmil1 plalilt:s ~hal1 d~ p~lti!,ygotic Iban'ten. in 'llI'~ich hy'bri~ rDflsp:riJilg ;a~ SIeW!lled ,a'9<1iniSt Maptiv,eo dJverg,~\lWe in r!!ls!porus~oo ;ecQ~ogkil!t ~i!li:t~J~ :SlIi(lhas; po\~i!lat~fS and h~~t com monl:v dlr1ilj'e~l!lie e¥Q~J.!!iiOIl! Iprei/.Y9onC of ill] rriers~ b:till~hE!IIlwi[L!ltio:nary 1w,eecs;'~poliIs1lbl.e 10'1l~e developlll1ml of irntrintSill:pootzygoti[ barriers are r viili'lli'a~ly ilIlilkli'U)'W1l1 nd rre~ liently Fe:!iiil!( fnpo'lylllflo~hi~1lii '!l~ iIilCDlillp.tltJ1liJii~tyfuJj:laIr's witmln :SPlldes., a P,D'lYiPMdI 5p ooat:iorl" hi whl~:h the elliltir'l? gi!nome i~dll!p~iciill~dI,i§ pa~tici!JI;[!.rilll'hqJu)mli~ p~n!S~ pein,lips bf(al~se pCibiptold planlS ~flclli ~'hibill e~CibJ~h::al aiffiferemltiillioi'i" wCilihji~Jlil',rs;.al, nig,hmcundlity. Ip~rfl1inrial

P

l'U.~t~. 'p;ro'll

c;o,;UlF.-.lf}r-d. unary

0.

i"diciU(l";-i !.I1i!.Il !}vcn in ~]~~i(;'$ w~'ih~ow g~'Ih.~ •.p~JJ~WI:lj<1Iliol1," flO\lf niiilY c\lohlC in m'.nCCI1l dtrOliglil the ~.JI\_".w or ~.(h':ll;j]am. gcol,lS alleles ( il

(6) <Iud II:'.Il1WiriC'.dworkrufilJl"r

Vi~!;k1111~nrII31!\':~ 9

..

1n.~ij'@g~l1i!l1It~~

A.~thQliflh

1ll~lly

Illmn speeles

l.'I:n;:

held

lO..

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w~lh the IOirmer

mimllllW" lel,'II'5iiaml m. cordirK1lfs

cm~cro.. .... ~n:l1bi~ll~LliQmi(mtml.hun rOJpidly I".ndi· " .;'I:ti:flg IUIj(!tLJg~"S i~~Jblc;.d. by ~1o()klgiCll.] banLUl1i!.) Ihi~edJll) slio\'\,' c",idcl1cc of c:~ ....n[lool.~npiju.b:illiry o!r :irll:tilnSK> [)Os'Izygol.ic iw~m.irnl (,n :~~Jlrilllsk: pO~lzyolic oorrict:S Inlflly ar:iise nrst ~il. polYllllotd ~cies, Iilun ilf(;ill1.tcr.slicrilc wh!~ Ih.c~r dipJlotd p'ro~e~'liioni b~E~tl!MI. raj I In ..::;.:bi.1.Ji'~ ('li:ologic~1 d i:l~eOC11(;cs {iLiMe S I ~liJ,;.c"d~(;, .. in~r.i[l,~ie p05i.~ zy~otic OOJTtorS ~1'Illl.y sornclJmes ari.'«!OO!.OlL'l:: ecological b!ilflrl.er.;; ()thCf Ihan~llTIil.illg system i=roblionJ if!! seHi!lS Sl:lt.""C (T<ili,le I),. i.e!; "'Ie know (O<U!!fpris:i M~;ll~; ngl:y alJ.m~1tn!!.'! ~~d (If plmn ~~'i!Cd1!lio:n. 1~lI!hough ~tudi~s Qf Co:nlCHlPO-

dom.inllrll ~vilil\lblc m~~millIJO,lIinllito-;r.s (.11)., II. is eli mC'Llii, to dc!:cnlflli Ilclhe rn;(JeI: 10 fn;:p~,uctl\'C i:l.,n·ricr evo~!III~o;n.IndkcC'1 cliicknoe from anilJl~ of 1J.1Hcm s .fCpIDCl~lcth'>C' i&l:lo~ !inn f>~~ggCll-~ Ibal. ~ll~lJ(lm:nmiQ'~ b.;!I!~'itwl'i ften o ;ui~c~rg>t, F(JJ· I~x~hrup'l~" gf .~ 19% 134 Intcrsp.. ...

.IOC311 sptx:ics,is itllllmcl'ica:11Iy but docs, X10l. rlll'~y usc d'toC ilmlly of

f.y(Qpe..rsi(,oR

hi.rs'a,rum ami l.pfm,pi'n-eJrijofium

or

lFIyiilridaiild ll'oLyproi.:i
5lpe~iiltionl

ll€ilCl1,thr,J.'S {laarnatus. ,H • df5fr.i'koio, and pl'1mrioxlJ'S

U:.

T@mo1to ~inesllli'" resils!~nc@ glihn:~ ~qo2) hmn l.. pimpiRel.I,fj'r;litlm e\li:l1ib~ll 0II1!tlJ!lleWl~fi5of lrnI!'tliJr-eteave~, but no ~II!I(l!i!e~ro~;;S Qbse,F!jle.d WhCfil oomIP~~~f!/l:;11}' !J~I'!~ 1J1(3) hom 5. pjmpiudlijr;lfum ,)lJ,S@illltn:u)I'~d. 'Th~~ liIiploiid ~iJl1'(i~ ariS~fII viiill h~iJrir:l~zatiornfiroili'lsame 'two pal~Mlat ~pMe!l. Kmlryoly,picaUy dhre:rgeoiilt h~llrid", CD ~!li'lb:ed 'e~..1reiille Ihllni~irulll '

S,pelL".iE5 ,eaCh appe:a1'1O to comprise lh.ousa I'Id!> or 'cry~tic llir.!I.ogllciill. species •. A!l~e'~ 'il1l(IN!'..asililgl ~MI c[lln!lterlOld (onc.@llltr<ltiofl r@dul:.ed ~ee visitat10n ~ 800/(1\.aU~~eill(ue,a15in~ !'tectar ~n(lducli@Wl dOll!'Ille:d :lluIiI'IWliin!!l ~ird visitoltio!ft

,~O~

(51)

,(52)

'lhrollJgn se:l:ect1o.ll 001'1 nan~grei>~i,\IIe trrail5 ~FiSl"2). '!hrcQ!lul~oll1lill re,mr1l!llgelill,eFll old1:er
polyp~@1:dli~lh;m r'!:Spon~]bl@ ftlr rLowering t~~wdiill\e!(1gef1IC!(l<8mo:n~ ~]IInttletic ~ol'\l'IP~oid tineOlilJe5i. A!;qly~siliofl Qf nect.il r Sir;lll~ il'l wide ''!I'~!r~~tf~. f:l1~f!b,(;o~~~ted wil~ ~11!cr~,}~g s:pilld~ gli!of~rst~y, ~~~t If,gpirlil ~~Cil:$ ~~(J~~UQn1!'1~1~'Ult:s, d~~~111 by ~(llo!!lii(~~glPF,iQrtul[liti~~ ~nortlli!ldby gJp1li(toJ ,I\nd'e'!:.

I~J)

IP~diCl!'S

'~41)

t!Ifi1!dl'!'!g

s~'i.:s; r~d~!'!eS(;

mry
C'II1

arise ~pidl)'.
10

cvu!~!!iO:!l illi:J1ly!J!,~~If(;ptoduC!]N~~nti~ftl

'3"")

Far~j(ml'il~k.

~~ ..~ po;f1IWI.lI'L1im'i~
tR"<tCirn'ieil1f!:i

C'xlJX'K'~d

t1i n~rt:~l1it';;_riiliu:(

or

t~'j,

9111

I

REVlEW
SU\,llflg'tIq
Q~' :l'lC~ign 'PI1I tmi~ mK! Q,'fu th;IJ~ OO!l~ ~rib\w~to hab~jt il,o!<!:~!on. StlJdfc~ h!!\ICAAO'\IH. f(l:r ~}IJ'

l,1'J;:;I!lIIpw.himt
~1!''119[!]ni~!~

:~rIl:b~a~ i.;gllt!~iml is t\lJ~~H;:~"~it.p, pti,'llJiIli~srm;ia~OI~ipi [ile p"-~I!IC!l; ofg~u..: nm'lJ. iDlliIi tI)~'bridirl\fi;qbil'~~}I ~n!l}'urise as <! Iby·pmd~l or ii1lbi~1 ~~h;,'~;;!io.fl,.'Ind d~~ ill1,(;f'\,"f!\;:-.:;itk~)i1ridi\aI.· liml can ra'Ci~ifuJ1.C t""ditilUigt elF"'&.lit~ve iiHdt\>;, !li~ !tteb;;Q;,.'tl ~~~"Ck";S '1'~lJbl~SI). Genetic stutlit'1! of ptl~lpoll irmaion. jJre-zygulk: i~o.llm ion h!i"!l'i.~focused 011 th.cre 11I.,ioo~:ship' ~iC't:weenl :sclr-iin.coJnpm.ilbtl i~~y (SI) m!!dhm~b:It1s;. which Clfllbroe oLltc"I'Os;sinj].ii! utlny Itcr~mq~hro. i d il,k 1111:mL~ and in1cITIt'iCCi 6,e lnoOJ'n~(JJdbilily Thlis: in~c~tswm~ Ii:-om !.'flril), o~sew<l!~ ocm$ t~'ml s-clf~uI1p;uiblb !>llii;(:h:,s .!!i~ nlOre~)lllp,!ti1~lci~~ il~I~~'(:iJk: C!iO'$i;~~h~H~ re sr .'ii~ei(lS, imp~.yinA: ..
lO

"'r~~mOr ~~~ct~!1I 'Q:!1<;rru.,...

sterile p~.rnnhybrids I[IfkmW\lovcl' fl;:irli!I.~lYaner chromflirolll!>'I1 dO\~bling {J'."IJ: T~i\l is CNJ'lI;'J;;1l:00. if ch!1\;lmfll~!1I!,,1 ~<tf!il]!~..g;L;'~~n~ ~'!;; ~h~ I;;,l~$~ Q1f

'li~'hc~ ~ac~. h~!~ltlWog~)r eftt:h 1m

s,k;ril iby.IJ(:I,;'II~~

,c:hrl1iljllg!5~jltll.l~

dr)~lblil~g r!il'"
lJl:lmUilI:l'SOiJtl~,

~]1~~ I may C(ii!ruribln~ 10 btl~l S

ii'll:r..·' mtdi!ll,\.)1f-

'''p¢ci 1k:~L1COllalP'~li Mllitielil.TIl is \\!1!.~conHmloo b~j d.1..~lion ef a OTL fbfilm.'r~llC(':irtc in~"Qlll·· patibj.~ilY ,hOlt ooJJM.h1i.zL;~ wilh Ihe S] Toe; ,s, ""'''' U
wt'!H <:98 (lbMjr\'1Jjliol1_" 'Eh:;tt ~1fI}S,~:- 00[\H,1.'11 ~L;df. . C:Qfl~PMib~l; $~ci~s'~il afi(~~ LliaIlIsfcmmrliort witl:1 a Sl~n~ :I:mrrn;).s.c:lif-inc(i!llIiIJa~.~bk:species (mlJ~!L: S; I t D.ivcrsiil1C'~"ltialJ. ~'CJlC'SlhM.OOllitwillnlWto S'~ of :Jj,p;pca:itSW, result room rreqju:cl~cy..dcpendelll. '9CIL"CI.io.n ,~17) hW;:I'CS'IiI~!ll[ly. oiher r1anl reproducnve fmJtcht.;: ap,rlc.u' to he uniJC'riX'lsitiv,e: selection as well, ~ndm:ril,g c<_u1.diLIl:m::-s. fhT':qJ(lci~.~ ,"pecijjii;: r'OC{),!lHi!i>CIn ~"l,'!,,'.c!l pl'llk"ll <!lui .-i!ignl1l t(mbleSIJ Dlurinsic ~m.siz)'gohc barriers offer spi!ckll ch:;.dltcng~ W J;!Ctlcnic u_fIl<llyses L'lCC'-ll.!:l1C Ill!:: phenwtypr...>sof g~~crc-s~ O'ayhri.d slcn Ii!, iln·d wwi<lllJj,~~ iUy) inIilp(\dc ~'!I'tOi'lt study <Hndt,'1d (ll)II"~mll'i (;O'lm1id.1lc MC~'lIL:S(or rlJll.{"~ioml~ ;'ll'lfllys('J\ (see ~,ckl~V.h-o\v(;;\'Crl [nfi~iJl~iiC po:IlZygmk; i:>o'lliUio.~1 mJ,lfIYhe Cf~ilS~d by chr.t'}jlltl, ..(}mf.l~iCflrrnllg.cmCiilD:li <'iltldfo:r C'hila'lg~ i;ul .gaw.... I~Fiig. ~)1, IJoptitmilIn gencl:~c thco.ry I~lillim.izcs, l~le ~m,)ortflf'iOC Sl rol1l£:l.Y lIIJrocut!o:lnimm[ dll:O:lrnlOllomal,re'~mI1~~!C~ rI.li!liIts ~those thiHit reduce the nUm!ssor ~lL~)().z-y~(m,~ti)bocau,'rel:heir Il~god\"c cni::l.1'LS, on liimess :s.hotlldpl:c\\C:r,n Ihem jroll~oooOll1ling c.sHlblishcd .• C'....ccllt in sm;)[II~,il1hredpoJll~ Imh:ms,~~1\~1i:. mn1)1 iClcr;clmninam l'C'ar.llll~gcl'l1l,elill'" m'lC m.-orc C'.,"!:>Hy Cl)ti1.hlisl~oCI 'bllt ,C'OntriLuutc ]i~t'll:w' ~)rod~Jcti\',e

wll!C'roO!:> .o:oWlblil:!g should !1ol ;lrr1;;c~ BDM unJ;:o~llpillib.~lititi'i. 1M.i.;r1':lCiutmmPW!iIl1d Wi;;iI!l!T<!ng.~· rlte:lJR,,!;l~it:h .. ~nh{i !yli1l Oltd kl'>N '01' dl,l:p~ii¢1U~t" g~lt{'li' are ilJiJD.~ ~:roq,[i~~ltt d~~'jii ~:JtViL1li,il;ly~b.· pccI",'{fl, ant(! r:luJI l:e~.d 1Q hybj'.k!incorr!lpolib~lj;ri~ wil.h uno kX-;I>l, filiK':.S ii!! t~lC' ,di,~\."rgin!:,~i"!Cf.l~~ (20'1, FHn!lilly. 11~~rid slCrilily ~iI1i (llmtt" ri\.'qb.ll.cilily map.s wchromorol'l\iTL~ i~ea.t'ral~!:p;:ll1en!::;1[11). aillhou~h ~"':Ir!~~bl!rhc C<I!Ll!lC is d~ronl000!lIlllill UI1I dcoool'l11im,lUu,:c: Oil" 13DM loci~h",~ have aCClIIal1:lIim!.ld w~t~lintil~ re.arntli!,g.~mllm:$ is {)!i\'eH u!'!cI~ .. r. ThoOD'(;dli.llc(;d ro(:(mlbill.t!.t~Otl 11~lCi;u,,"-d \\\·idl chmmm,IJiI'!ll,d [II"~m'l:n,g~ll~~u~ rO!.ci~i!Oi!~ !lIe C'll!:1 m;,'l~L!~Il~~mion of h)'brid inoo!I~''l.:J~l~li lilil;.',.,in lh~ 1.'Cgjo",~(.1 g, .12)oc ,c.",:pi..'d~a~the il•.'l\IOl!lbli$hm~nt of

CI>larnp!Jesl;l'l<lr.JI"t~cril);lc.! al; the nwIClC'!.!I<1!1' ]l;\fl;ll (26~ CMS phi;T10I;YII~~~' <iijJ)~~~c!:!cdlby r1ttc~C<lJr1.'!1!~·Qf;1~Q[. H~i!OJ;:h:O~10ri"I·!m:~ct~'d ~,,!l~ ~1iI! Il!,;" ~OT:!i,~ i''c!l.i~ilY {·l?r~r;-:~!\t"l, \1\o'ijd~ i)~ o\,.'..\Q,;'P~iorri! of 1?:12' fIDi~l IIilaij.~~~11IdrJIu;d .l?J ~.'it'S ~[tTl; It1.Cill~r~ or the 11cnt."!:!cioop;:;JI]lidii'repl;;';)fl g~~e I;Wiily

'tI'PR.lI.

;u"! li]i~l,~lIIa~'ly ,,~¢!!!C~~C 1 nunl~ly

i" ~]ku~~\l

or

(441 g~i~Jl'-' Ar(1bidi}PJii.'1~ lI'J{il cotiba!s 1i~1I~~J'i cll~ g.~UiG C'x~Ji'(';,'\~ioliJ. Ailltoligh ~11;' iil.tl~("CL1 lar CVdJ'li~kllll ofRJ'!:;"Ctl'k."'S lliiknowll!. dl(,Y are li~cl)' i.~ ttl! be iln'l!o~'J.rCdin caevohnion,oay chases \.'o'i'~j,

nilS as are:mlt

of g,eitctic:

«ll1rmCI.bel'1,ICCn,

cy!oplillsmic snd nlilc~e1l.r cnL'S"These c\'oluliOlt~ my d)'nm]1k.slllOli)i~dL!re the [lrn~-1JCiI,'111 ffiXe livcnCNl. (lit' eMS ;a.. a ~~cics limmer. bcem.l~c Ihi!!

grn..~..i~:m or CMS~I!1d
1001111

S::U!lIl.;!~\iol~~!i()!l,.!)'rOp:;e~~Jlmcause 'dle ~,1ft,;~!.d f o '~VIS \\.litli~~liill1;,;"Ci~ could fhdlil.;)Lt~ '!h"u!¥tm1

!\;1\lI.{lrun> u(;'m~
C"'l~

~!)tu~

r1l,;.'ilIl1I~'!M,('nl\;'"ts

~l d~ rir.>1 jp!J,OLtXl (11).

IBnM~.y~]d .~'~rilil)1 in pl(ll.l'-" ~:lilO!y lXl u~mer &in\plc (:!if complex ,!!l.t;lmlllrC cO:~!LIt11. rn IO~\'e\rt;-r, rcw~r loci (lOnlrilbul(~ to hJ)'lJrid srerility iil,~13ms than il], DJus(Jphilt.l, am-llIlcl"C' llfl~K'IU:S 10 'be 110 d iIT'C't'Cil,Ct! in Ehc fll.mll:tcrso.f pol len ~~11illJle)\''C~'liUS, seed t(I'C'm[llc) inQO:lllpl'ltibil~lics. pr;.'r:~mpsbecause ,~h:UII,~ ImyC'ly loclk di~J~1 i<IlC(~ ctloomn.~l1Cs sex tJ4).~n ~ddition, c},wl"llIsmic male :;;wr~!lvly

Of ;~lwiahiiil)'.I!)IM,cI, '~\Ir,;'l~ml$l\· ~OrlJf;1l qJl.... 'I'i ifC':>t{i'd :1." ne'.it~m,,,isull~!,;",(i~.{1~li~:ig ~'1i,;dlill~ or ~lI'ltp.ll~i)tDi1illl\Li:" s;im:Ui3r in Lh~p'n~nmypc of 1'I~l.h.ogc.nanacks l:m. n'iesl;! OIDs~J"\'mllirn'is; Ia'ilJJly

c1<lriC'l'. 13DM n~l.or.-J ,d~o c.m

It)'i>>~,d "\·',e<lkU~~~B

II1:u hyhrki weskness dl.vorge

may :ii(!llu~t !oom ch::mg.!:!S in, 1"<b1~IQgenii!..~is1:ili.I1{egclles; (Table I ~. 'iMhkh
il1. I'CSfIDI1SC' 10

sc'I:CIC!iol'l re~sure' cxcn.cd p

.by p:nI'l\lge.Il:;O, More' sllOCl mlC' needed IrOo dc!C'U'tel> Inine (he fro:;l~l,;'llcy oftili~ m~'C~mli~nfor hybrid

or

D,ncso.n·I)nbl.J11'1!!.'t1.;y~ ft¥~:lhc ,~t)~lUm,l!.a 1..![icHI Or~!!I'll;11'irill.;,d,1k:ill.~"oI'IlIp.i![ibilili(."" ~n gll;fli;,,, wit~mLd ~OAA of:~inm.~,'i f'ig~ I}. 13.~il.y,. ~j:>n Ili~~l'ag,c ~ d i... t'l~>cr., ~eo!!iL{~phUC3~ isolak"id, C!f ILC~hoorin~ Iy ,jiUopinric I'OflU~B:liolJs nUII)1 ilocLln1ltdalc ifHlcpefll~ d~m mLlI,i1tior:ls. l:he...e rnutIJi,ti{ms ~[C cOJnpmib~,c W~dl the ;)ncCcslml g.CF.lot)'[:)Ctml<lI"C iincQmpMib~lc when cOiinlJhll,1dL B:OMillefil",p~llib~.~ili:~"S. gl,"l1:C[~ :llJI~ involve ~wo armore klCi, ~)hhough ii~i!l ~hoorcti:cany possi bJe for :SDM. incOIVlIl<1tibil ilk'S ~n ;~sllit rnml lhc' alliop;J!ltic <ICCtlllllLllm.tion of incilep!mdcl'lillflmtaJic:ms. ;n:l singk-llocus ,(:fig, 1). ~~il~ lile<lrcl[~')~' dO:L!bi!s alXll.!l [Iwb' iU'IlptlJ'" ~".. c'Ci!~ 5p(;l;;i.ll~OJI.chro:ll'Kl~wnairo;J!TII!lgc:.rfleill~~ n ofli.l!1 ~"(lr~lfioow !.(i!hC' !l~t!'il i~y II f hybrid ph!!l~z.; i( Ul, HI). Ui~~ikc D~TJl.nt'JhiiQ (~niWhich h::.·br~d flil.t.'iJilhy L~:~i1D'l!l~Y d~i:C: o IlDl\f~ iliaol'll!p.'iJ1ibil~ t i~(~}+
MI!IIM(';r(.BDM) rmJd~l
Ol(,;~Uf!!'"

i:'l{lMtO'n.

[!.l I;Q!I!!:!~M!~.1I1~

.+++ ......

Specil1ls'1

. ........ + 'i"

SpectElS 2

,+++++

F2 hybrt'!:!l

++ +,+ ...

F2 ~iblidl

F2 hyibrid
+L""""""'!!"!"'!!!II~!!!II!!'!II'

IFi!!! •..l.G€ililetic ~a$is of~rall~fJ.res~'ve~.egre~~ti()r.n sh()wnil1:i) h,ow se!1lre~alinrgl hybn'lds, (,aililll;ombline' p~u~ iiUil'd mi!l~~ ~~I~le:i(!rom pe~!ilta[ sped~s. 1!he-rtily Igerl~ratiW!g e;(~f'l'.lf!ile ph:enolJ'P~:iior ,adciptafians 'ta extreme m:b1b!;5." .. . . (eMS}. whl,c~fi ~lllll~bl
frotH fUll

im::ofnpl'ttit]ill ily

beLW"'"'Cjli:~I;;:P.~~I1! m~deaji' 's, .~ciWnll! !lind ;~I:; cy~G-

p:llas.m, ;is frcquciIllly 1i'~OO il~ 111111'0.1= amI inter· ~C!:Hic pL.1J1t hyMds~ blilll~C!i; in. o:rnimal h;,br~d:s (25), Ci\(I'S is ~.mda' fucqLlcncy-del'~cncl~.u~l scil!!c~i~1i'lin herlnill}hmd~I~~bi>!iS'I..'dpoJ~~d"'~iC!n..<:.,whK:h pll,"d!lmiumlCin ~)llln~. limcl'crslnw£ negatiin~ b~il, ~.cI'~lion uf lh(;'~ ,tr-¢ ~~[<t;'ll'!lall! ;md furmulc z.;~x 1'Ifi.J:l'l'ih:-:. ("~JS i.~ii;:<lu~~d IYy .. he;n;::uI'il, 1n.'quC'.tul.y ,e-hijlTi~[ie.,iIii]i~L'Jdj;oJ'tdrili.1 ~"{'iJk';:.. iti 3.111 VOl317 :$CII:!lrNI:CI!!

A linal c~rl!o,'lrgbl,g dil.~ICiI'Cnl(:e between l~bu~l:!> .md [I~inml's 'lor ai, ~ii;"IIiSI.Dm~'opllUd) i~~Jmt tllOsl BDM incompalibililie.'> d~>lir.:lcl.erIii'lodun [:llmn:s are p<li.;l~morphi' \,vil,hlH !':pc.cLe:, {Ji 2'9} ,~T<.blc U This is consiislN!ltt Wi~al ,In origin of 8DM incm"llp .. (ibil i~ llunugh Jk':\llll,~~c)'·dr;.~~dr:;.nt k'i.'l 8t'lk-e~ inn. Iot:;~t :!OOpi;!lJlirUi. or dri n. l]oWC\,'II..T, it :Jl'>O ~11]rlie;,..; [!lol BDM. illl00'.~i'ip!ui~ili~ill..-;:';~~.~.

olhctt' mec~lI8ni5mS or Ilr)Ijjritl il~\'hlbilliitJ!"

"'\:'i1kltC~s;.illl

il1t~~cd

~eC'~l'Salld

to e;lllidd2lt~

912

117AUGUST :2007

WNw.ociem:emag,org

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homgp~'lJfJd hybri.d specles. rmlY be 'p"h;'Jl~~W~Qid,."bmlh~s i'll1:m!ld 11.0] be i,.'illii.ly g~<lg!]Q.."1,;-d because i.'q l~j,~od\""i!hUl~PO!YJi1~·Q'Jd ~1?'I."JCimi~n rnllil. I;lri:~~K¥m~"<j,i())I!J1~ !n"ml~f ~h!l!~~ "'~"9Ci;:li,red \\I'i~l Po!yp~(li~s ~"'~~ ;;!!.!':i,~ by ~!l1!,I!~i; d,nyb~hl~. by i~~l'I!ij:OJ:I, ~~1~~1~1J.:: l!}lIMing, ~.I(l\\~·''''O'; ~~~ !~,~~~ltI;:y (If Q mh¢ Ill'ii(ll~ i;lf !,I~n;:dll~...,,'d~;::utll,,1~~;;, ~:ud~'YI~~'l!lh: po.lyp:i.oi,cl SP(~]fli iOIl~mg,~t~ r~~ ~m~~fOv~:t5lir~:I. or~ irip~oid Inidg~ (fig, J). U~ll\dlC~cl ~3I1i1G!JJ,'i! HiV~:rid ilIIH':iPulypl'o;]di :S,~e:dil~iollll Whtn~IH;re ,,!iii I!:'iU~~.~p!c pn~ypioid specill,;" willl~n .... are' commen ~l 1~IOi.Il!8 nd ~ikd)'!l;.iPfl;'.scnl du: a 1 i\hhtll.l,~'i I~Q5[ ....lId~ 'or!ilp;'Ci,~lion fOCtL'l OJ! .. gcllu!'t II is dirliciLdlfP ,del~r'i!ni~J;; ij,,,,'hG11hCF1)'(;;!:'e ~'i~~ fu;'CilllC!Y! roll"'" ttl plOljI'po]oidy 71 HQw~"''i;r. (.~ .. mi:i('}t;,t !lIL;wl~' ari~ti potyploil&o lanl to. bL;'(iQ:IHC ~{l~...~i~Cilge.", di'!c~~ ~1t;,1I;;ii:l~icni i~~~L a~ways V.'11£S "~ ~'l1gle '~!liin",itLt!l~ to nhc li,c",vp.lo.il;l;d k"\lCi foJmO\\1e,cl. by di\ Gr~tU Slk;Ctl~ui(tJl ,or whclh~r each ¢;1~bl~1'll'icdilkl:=lB'ILw or ~1bC:LlJuiC' !d)lion'i'i!fdhk~5andJ ~!b(~I!iJ~ dlii,!oC'~CilC~.llw(:Gd~ a ~ulX<:!lIint[[lli.1 lraclio:n jlolypl\JIi(! speeieserese independt.\fIily. R~ell:L (If ~.hc ~ijtieit)i ufHp'ili'\"llniru.c lI,m[~ qJ8). The of 5p!ciat.io:i(l eVC:i'iDs in p.lal~l" i~n'oh.'e:; the of n:!Mnioili of divc~~"i'li gene::; altd~il,om~sthroill~~l model-based (;:;timfl~es (3J) ~.st\i.irjne~ :;inlii1c C>laibll:;h~ni..".tn pgl:!llioiall il> 1'il\'Il,cd by lMin:erS<CX~1fL1 lIyb:rklimlio:n, There arc two kind:; or ti'!mSilliull W ~ newp~oidffiJ le\!elwiIJ~in 11~Il,~~ ci-nii!l~nid'lCp'l'!.:fereil.!.1e. low disj1Ci'Snl.a ~m~'Ig {Iii" a«exual. mali,,! ~y:;.Iklllli, ~li&lh fCCliIltdhy, ,me!, a. ilybrid ~);."'Ci;!IDi,on: hOlIID~~I(lid and IJOiYI)~oid" and I~ro\!ide!l lower l1l{llhUU:i or 1'lllepo~W!Qlid l~omo~l!lr:d hybr~lcl:l!1~imi,ol1re[c~. 10 the o:r~~sh~ !\'l~O:~,bli(lnrote: :2 1,0 4% In !1Oi\\'l"lriltJ:!j 1':I!;mt~and PCroJUii 1111Ilifeh i>;:co:ry ~~9"m" N lche scpmati.m~. '7% .~rlrcITlS. TIl~ oo,~m~a.~\ .. witil S:lcbbil'l~·.t4~ 1M\,d~I~~I. mld sc:mny ~ncfi.~ tllep:r'Ob.1bilil~' , ofa nC1!~'" ybrld linc,l,Sc wilhout OJ !:hO!!t,g.c in h OfiiillOOe'SNtu! nmling,;; duriVlg chro~~l0.$()m£11.umbcrr. wh~ro".18 I'I'tI<l~~!oiid h)rbrLd i,r.uh' ~-,;:;,~"S [If 1'!{~I)'p]oid :>U)l'ii~:lii;,'Ci<llijo:n [Iwoh.'~\$ !lICi It1JU d~p~icati(1jn. of ,i1 eies ("l'i:1abl i~iul~Q)nt:: !(1Il1t",n'll ise .!!yb:rkl ~JrIO'Jl~e (,II~.'OI]o[lI)'p~oid)'). Polyploid!;; 11.01 fA mOliilnm~hl.g!\.'\.\'i~].i:tc. willh dl(: of hybridMg~l ure :ilImopol:y~I:o[ds. 2X di~~oid pmg~!l.ilO~. (40, 41), i!1;.'I!llIC1jillo:Ja: h~jbridl !\:l'){;"(im~on i,,1ll.r1l.:'f [llaJ!1 Stoci~Mlic~l,Icw~ d:..~ ll;l ;) ~~~d!, ~~!yplokl ~pcci,a:~.i'l)j~I(lf ~WOf(;'<k~~". Fil",~. l~Wi!nb!L,. or~~yplo.l:d (:O!(.1llJr..1,lr$ i!.om(J,p~():id hy briO, f.\I~e~i:~1'!i!l\'l1)' $11r~ng~))~dWlOL;-d d~~IJH:: d'l~mrK"\.~ ¢£mboC f1l11~s in ¢arly gcr~('rollon hybri;(ij:a.~ ~CliXliO:~1 Iis;Jlnmclll.rul I.hjsb~mcf is (~li.l11li~i!lTt.'S hICm~lPllliblli~tc& In contrust. j:Joiy. l'IlillimiZ«i by higbl fooum:lily plo.i:i:I species 1l~'!LI mH ~1l[l\I'::1000'~t'~J~il)' durifi'l!l, rnNty Ihe cause 'nf SIl!Ccim~'()nin w!l.m~"becw.!Sc n~cy C{)rre!~lI:poo;rly \\ihlh sp:!cies l)Q1!!!w"mCf; .m,,! lypk-<I!!)' I~,;L];:;~ ~~~l"]~ ~fl\!nril;l~!~19!~<; ~9W! lQ
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i:tncrmcdlitlw Sl3gcs,~mld. 6'C1llC!:nu(! dupliC'IUiolll pUOI.CCh' ~1C' W!n.elli:~ nmcgrit)' Oof newly dC.ri'l,100 poiJyp~ok!s, bll!lm such b:lL1licr ~'uw(!'nlilhomo-

e

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pc~nniril .Ilifc hisIOI)"

ploid!~).Ibrid$ fIDm l~ack=C!'rI!>sing 'wi~h [~le~r piIlron~! !l1[X,'CLCl'.In m:1diluon 1,0 ]hosc hio~o!ili~ru d:iUkultlcs. hornoplold h.V'bridspecies UJ:'IC'~I;,>chlJlicalJly dmnli!ngif;[S~o dC't>t.""C~ ecause lilCY allen lack b d i>lg,[10151ic Ibnl~lt:$, sue.]] ;:J_S ,~ ch:II'lgC'un c!nU.tllD,,<rune mUI:!'lbcf, So tIDl'" Ih(,:'W mn:' t 5; 10 :W [If;l{ld l)'x.;J:lnl[lh:,'s 11tt::I ir",r.Iume Uln, btu more:J~ in ~:i,~1y ~fl be distlovc:rodi \Vin~.ihe wliOOipliOO.d arp~rCfll~ml of gC11lo:n~c l.o(]1s to 1:w~ur.li.lpilillltMPIlll.ll'ltitliiS .1I(}um)p~oid ~lybriitl S:PCcliCS 1:'I'm,y become reprodiJC'lJhrd,!, irotMOO lry rnl)idl\;;a~ymyp.ic cvohUlOll. cco.rogical !illi'io'ergcuec .. and sp8l:i~1 bo.lo~ lID." ,or tile I'Icwh:yb:rid .I:inc,!£c. Sim.ill!alio.liQ Silldks, inciic11lC 1:11<1l<lllhougb j!~1"O'J'Ig t.x:ologk<ll sek'Clio.n pronm)les ~:r}'b:mid sp~imioll!' W.ilhotn c11romO:liQU1Il:I, orr s«)miull :uoolatiml I,he h~rfAj p'Qlnlla,tioun lQi,Il:t'!S a SLl;CP slep il1la dine ~VI'een~ ~hc 111J:L'crua~ccles {J.n. ,K;a:t)'UuYP'T:cdivci:gcnoe ~ ~nd s~plti.d iso~al:fon ooti~I'OOUl;lC the pro'oobiillhy ~1!!~H hybrid :'ipCci'c~5 ~l{,~gl;!!liCm~(ld bll1 \\'i II tnh.m~lh~ c\'O:~lvtil{l~m~}' lu~d'~~l1dC'llcc

\,,'htc~1 l![,lIm";iS ,,~mlls 1:0reprodeee at 1:rIU~t~J)~(,"lUbeS m~r I lJIu~irlilb cycle (c19),.
HOCilIll\,\: ~.nl!l"n"pocifie malt~ lUgs are tiar more CUt1iUll.Oll tlImn ill~crslJiXific !ll,II!lngs in ~~mll!m~ 11OplJj~mioJ~s pl.'lll\'s, or
.nm~[}p¢lbff'lloi{b, IllUIISI.",ri~e'mOJ

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IFi'g., ::1. Me~hltlni~ms byrwl1idl pill,Lyp!llllid~ 'Gall a rij.se. (A) So:ma,tk dot!iJLl:ng,. ~fIwl1idl I:hromo:5d:1me umber is '~~l!bti'!dI in lii@gl~l:alri'¥'@ ~iuue 'Wha'lmi'lll~s rij;~, till' felPwdlul!:lin' 1ll:r'gtlnS'. (9) Ihs-icNiI ,e~ IUlnrredul1:ecl gall'lu!les that are pmdr:l!i:ed wi;r,el'l c:eUwal~ 'f.alil tOI ferrn in~heri!i!.all stag~ (!if m'~I~.is,. (C;) A. triIP~~lidi bridlge'. if! ~hh:~ IUInredu eed a IlId ,red aeed glalmel>es riOnrn tril~~oiidll;. n tihe' trilltolf:d:5, als!ll' Ill1irociU,l(!e Ii:liilreduced gaiillld~$. the u~ptoid galiru~ll~:5:may hsse

:llillci1t hi!!;lI1'i~frt~~C[~!ilmi "lnOptb~. ypl~o~ds t3 n .~ lo\.'!fI.';\~r, nrulil(ld; ~pt-:C:[Cs more liikc~)I'~o be are 31110,po~YrloW5 ,t42'l, whk:lil hn· pl ies lltlll albpol)l p,bJds fure

more easily establis.hed .ill natUlle. e&~[crlO ~:ind.fJll.d'or u'IIOre ;
remHiy I\,"ljognized
IlYlitt'«J!t1i(l-

with PIldu;o~dJ~a !iIir~tl'.l,~rrrgm dlf,pi.oidli mrdl~lt~d!.!~lst(l 'gml'.lraJill' s.ti.!b'le
~~~lr'iJ!ploi~ s;,

~nisls.Eslllblishll:lenl of a:UopdIIYl)loid~ is favored bcCl1USC

0'· gre;1ncr

D~ ichc S'eIID MI.iOn. li\(llU lhcir diil)TClicl~nogcl~li;I~[,'S

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i~,h!'idllil]~"I!:W'" oUI~i;[h~y i.la·i~~. A~ :hypmh~i~ ••dl pb.rn ~ml,oploid hybrr<i ~jX1C'ic~ are ccolO@;icr~,~y dliy{~<rgOO [lilt:! ,e..>i:hibil ~ll.C dcgp;;c of ~\l,googlf.1llphi.>c ioohul.ou, and rou;gblly ilIaU· hm,~ dHlc,lll£ kal)'otypcs 'lJo,. Moot co.mll~.n~~.y.!ile~'ly~r:id species al"l!:<!;dja~m itli OIl~ ill' OOdlljJtl'tl\:ltln!1spc"eic;.;;. f11lihOLlWlihl't'C ::1,11(;

or

e~timatc of J;n~o .:;,% for now'crInS pl[lllS. \'r!'hk:h m:'il'i\Un~ lim! all polYlllbid ~I)CC~(;'S whhin,1 g.cn!~l'i, •• i!1dcp!.:lld~"lIy d~!~~'(,-d. B~;",.!u~~ l]}, 1)(Ilyrc nm pJ.-lid MilI.~·~(,.");:100 ~htl1~~'!i/;ilv(';.\l m!li'Eipb' d~ruvtd (l~lblC' i), St(~bbiU!f\' ~linHllCl~ III.·ooaMy ,elmer 10 dw till\: pO.~YilJ,loid ~'Cialion nUe. UQ\'I,'C'\,cr, [lc1,lher dlC8C cstirnflt,es OJ,. 3'4) irL(:lltlilcs il1ltril$peci rie ploh:l!all VfkU~alfI,on. i\t lca:<i :'-=10 9'M, (I l1<lm,cdi plant sJ:XXtes \lIn)' in p,lo:ida~, ~c\'e~,and th~., IllJ~lli be ~E iip or ille ~t1~t~l]l, l35). ,~f och c

,[43). ami ~\om~rnisI5, aPj:w.!f rc'"11!C'lant too noonc
11htln{l•ypi~d.ly cryptic ;~l!~OllO'I)lllIQid . '~P~g,~ R{".C(;nt ;.. wntk.~nII.,.,,, llJ(,il.lngiv~~ ¢lmn~~"" !~ to i !j1.11l; ~Pin;;.~;Lml"g{;l1millt..~ (:(m!~n~.andDNAr~~.h)'Jm~ml ifl:l[l.ta{;OO:ilip,lIty :~'Iybri.d ,lIid [K]ltfr.loid. ~~~cirJuo:n, !bUIll Urlcse ge.llDtlil.L'C .[ill,.;rntiou..... nlYrfliidy o :>'jSIelTlldl~t i;:a,po~vplo~d a

or

r

1lfi'!."Cbeen nnikoo~o chaf~nill CCO~OffY oo.r Il'KItirlg csta1Dlishmcm.(J;;lI.~~ l}o. ~ndeoo. Ilm~1 dCSlCrilbed. gonomnc chang'CS <1,)pear.
~o bcltml:l(lop~h~,,;
\i~IYCIII, !!JCtlnlnCS,

C'xrurn~)lcs ol·l(mg~di~i'l;tt1cc di::;p~,! a.~\!'."d I {Dcl!b~:c S I ,. Som.c hy~r.id:s (IoCICIilj::l)I h<lbiials ~hiln. 1lli1ii:: intc:ml.ed ial.e 'b;el\vcellhc r;In:ll~a ~ s:I)~cics., wher:cas, othCir.:>have colonu:.lied <J:~I cl'!:tremc :Im:bi~. by c:ombillinig QTb w~lh el'lftcls in ~hc sm1!lC di~ ;oc~irmtwm both p.·ucn!it!! giXld~ (Tabl~ ~ and F~J:,l. 1},I-kll'fl'Oploid ~l!'brid ~cie- ,Ill' '~'li!i1 .~~ cttat~-d i~Dhit .~!'tt.'l110il~,. t."flii.ll'cl ¢"'iPI8iiii:b.1~ ~ly p !1'iatiy fltCiJI'iilllhi,pl)i dttn'Vl'(! iii, Ihe \'I'ikl (i~bl\t S.I),

is "i(."Wed illS a c:typ~ic bio:ill£OCElI sln~cies, then tile conmlhtll.ion of poIYI)I'Gid}' Ie bkJ~og.k:l1ll :species divcrsi~y is, C\'(!H h~,ghcrdull previously slm:misoo, I'n .;~cldili(:jl1l. dlG:C ]mlS beell C{mU1Isi,0l1bC'tween t"Stirm!l~es or ~ht'i'lr'\lpol1uo:n (If ~pt.""JC&.~ dN!l .. re pol.}lp~oid mid
Icyl.Ql)'iPC)

pr.aid'~1 k'VCi

IJY-J!lf.I:}[~llCl ofreullii;.Il:!:j dl .. .. ~!m!>'e'J,t'G'It. n~alild'llliilvc dmngc...: I

in,gene c'-"'r:m::ssiGI~~nil'S~;.gcllernlr:otl inlclt';pccil:' ! k hybrid'"" ~1l:;1.y crod~tl::cd by gcll,om<:' dOlllb~:iug. b ,md ctimil'm~ ion of DN' A ScqLLCm:!llS, Hl!Lt)" i~dp ~'roreliL ...illil}~ hi '1:lQ~11~loi~l<dJol~'SI ). t (

F;ld®,rs. Al'ecrti~,gl Stpediati:o:ll (I,r El(til~diolll Rait~.!i ~hc t.Jk 'Or:fi<;t~.ypla,id .!!IpGti,aTiou•. /\'I1~dy,l!~ oflJiu; ii!(lc dis;tl'ibll~iori of dllll,p~i~I~:':: .!!!L:'mn:'~~I~ di\',~~ i~(''.Cl:;lill ~d'!,la!1I;:~l> in CO:nl~in(!iv.c 1T:i(:d'K1dlii ;[n1c h IlO-WCOirillfig rl"imjl~ "3~~, i'litli~a:r~ Ih1UI.l~mi;'lt.llji 3.111 mi'i1lcle il. prn!>l\ilil~ in ;.dr:[I.tiry biLl.klguelil {'ilr .gen-

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~iL1t~r ~~pn;;'tiJ;~I~ ill or 3b~'mII(:(;: ol':;!L Miii!.'!".>;Jl ~ia t(44)\ A :>'~!litllir!C'IJnt 3:"~1>ci:;ltit;ln I1l!il)' ~UJ~~ rml~' eil!i:tl,"f :i!l1C1i~J5~c18p"'ci.'l!ia!~ fllldl!~'lIlI,Cx~i!1Clion, ot Hail'll a,"'s«i .. ~.cdwi~h ijl!~!tll~(;d ~:,u;cLL.:'~ridm~ il1 pllHit'i iil1dWldt:~iili ea~~1ul~, n,cCn..'i.!f:;plim. bi(:!I~c pt)~.1[mlian. herhl!ire{liil~ groWL!] f'iil!'m~, .f~hiCllk: aUmV iiI> ·~o deK'l':iiui:l:'it' \VhL:.'[~kr I'l.C:prntllLlrtuvc i d i:opci'5!ul. ~rn:::[cIIs!"'tI b;'lhlc~J,i;ltio~. I.:iil::n'::il'ful borrl'ClThi Ihenm~:~\'(',to!lii1Crt!;"6'>C ~u::jal:io:l'I .rul~, neu :>yl"i~iWC[ry of 'l:l!t~\",'er::;,lw~!:l'CI)iplnylism, Ill.W po1,Yf)lo;i,dy(.f 51 Hnb~c St ~ M!liny of these e1(!IIW~ Rf'rf.'lt~.lfIce:;and: INo~es pies il1'!.1ol\'ebia~k n~n~llle~ h..'adiil'lg In :;'lJ.l:!.~ ions. :1 ~ l Jim'lld. Noru/~I.I'IY{lIidiM!:ii:nI (NIt! E~.luli\:lfl gC'JII ions IJmil.ooe\jd~lnioll Imy dl:hrc :;;pell:'i.atiCini~~ ro~!)'r!llIJnilo- ~.re51l, o.l1f,(lrd. :i;~~:n ~11m)' pl,lIlt grmaps, or lhat 11 icll!~ s pw:.c :IIu)' be 2. Ill. D',Mi!ihleor •. M, l. I:!ornG'!JlI!lI~. ~t,.l~l!Jl. :31:1,.q~1 . n:~a,). !Cl':S ,ttinstr..inoo~ll bi@'~ic ill!~m abimit illieroclkll~ ~_ II'_ It tI1l~ni[lil, IP. Hi, itn1m, ~'t.arl! :1161), It.ZB· n96'9J. 1(46). l1r~ nU.'lM r~nliid di\.'~n;.~n(:'~~kmro~~i~~ ~. It. H. ~reSl!lbllR.l, t E. Wil«I, IE:,], iI!~d.. ~~ 4.@o" pkLUIH, ;Jm~Lt. s~O(:i;J'~ct1 with ~cologi~id ,oppOltunij~ :~~4 1(~aC6.t ~ (1'\e.,~d ~y m'Urn,'g~.:'Iil~{I;ic.d clml1i~C'flsuch as i~ 5. C, 1,., Mar~~ !!.. H. RI~~~r,g, M'gl. f{,.:!~:U., l~:!. ~heupl!." Of~lC .A!1~ (I' iN!nlld ro:!n~ri~~(T<lbl~ II. t'lIOOl!t 6,. r,!t c:. Vlhilr~, 6e'1lf~N.1f 64. ,'61 wn@.~~. 1 wbiil:,'h iL~lpji",~ U~l :m~'C11I!.QI!vS!rnl:l. Ilbm ~s,{p.md 7. s, F. MlD:l ii1i~~ A,.]. Sh~, .!'~a.I. t«~J]1o$, !i:.121 '(2005.1. 'lit'~I~ di .... 'crxi.lyolkn ill1~t(!,.'l...~ ~rx.',Ck'Ndi'\l(ll$if~n~ S. IE:.. . ~~r s m,,, Mll~ ~1'l!lS., l!lC:li, (2006J\. G ~ill!] ~0iI: ~clLl(';(: c\'liLinctit!l],). UIl1!lhu:rLl.iJb~wly.~h'L:: 9. ]!. ill.i!m~f. H. ~. Bfil.~~i:I~" I).•w. s!:;11l!l!m.~. E~~ ,
I.!lt'uors I&;:[{.'t! abovedo
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~ion rnllCS.The :~ml'~tIi.gwm!.~ ;rptlflRlch 'OOml);'M,,-"l'i ~~i~,~~!'!lW$.." (If m"'~tiplc $i~,~'f clgdt,:-s~!>ti~

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40 Alfliles. :S:1m~el.;~mbridge'. P'NI OilD.9, us ( '5ig\er II!:'!~iml.~ rat' !l'Ile!P'at~;;e Genom[(:s, IP(i'I'lIttt~iI'I' UnlvElIsi\y. IPfili'1uto!ll; NIJ i085-44, USA. '·Pf,~~e!f!t <!d\ir~~~ Ap~1,tl!!I la!Q'~~~~, 50001 Ci!!PIII!J1i"1g~ (~nler. Bever[y. I\'ItI DI9:1..5, US!!.. fTo whom cO!lespo!1Jde!'tce' 5ho~l'd be <!d'dre~ed[:"~ait
angei:ibo®mit.J!dl!l

UltcalioH (If bo,cnc copy number [!;Il ;1~jlml1i,e~w[de ~nC!J~~~okl'y :d:so inlcrfclC whh cc~~ pro~~fC'm.~ :o:.c,ak, This; !l!n<!lly~i~~L"o l:cvc:.llw" that sO:lnc of C:.l11 the ;\[[,., ~!.~ Q~~;)ii!llJd~'(lJn~ht;:' :hm~~m~rlmc t!:;i!n~· c !i[ln, Tn .KJdfCll's how (!uilli~~pklldya:llbJ;;:~,,!lw Pl,{:i'liibmtioll ,Iud ~lhYNi{l~Ogy !l.o~m ~ Ci',lU~" 'C: Ilcf p.J1;lol;;(';dlIJ't.;c .. rd~1d Ol1L:' Or!WO ~.\lro.l I!;hnUl].{I... W ~:I'I~I~;II,"idi 011, i:'i~1 of Y\-"':>~ ~,,~i~:l~ wh~h (,;,~C':h in M1!lloL,;.,.i~:1ud~~i~ioll W dlCOIlC"\~M;k;C.h.-4 ftlr ll~gsl:mUl b('llr:-; fin ~.tn:;!. ccpy {J1.f (}nlG m: more 3~~ SlA}, A]~lOI,l.!!lh 'nIllC ~'Co.nd eh:ranmx;on:i.c C,mnOil m:iQS! IlU tJ.DI.Ii,.; YCfL~I. ch:n:nTi.o.i>OJll'c:;;, nldr dmru'c~ be ~c1~cred fO~.lhC'se :;Uilh IS \Y{.'f(;!k:myotypk:ll:lJ,y IOO~liofi rep-TC'Scnt'>f1 oo;rl1pre~cle~nii\'c ilfln~.y~J£>of' ~ll:Iblccfmugh ~f.l co!llldliWl il pheiJlQly])~.C cbnnlo· Ihe Cn'cCL~, iIlfi'CfupiJ,oi.dy 0[1, «:.illu!ali ph)i.s~'Ol:Ogy, t~r~~iofll. We found dmt ,in addhiofllw (;l:iroIl11080mC,A:fI~lIIpto'id'll' talll:s:es,i.I tJ.i':!IilS(ril~tiorl~l ~. S-1'¢~ill:c p:hCllOl,W~" .OLtlCllr~oidsu'ains :ilhll~ il SPQ~1:se, ToO Ch:alffi'Cll:lfizoC'~'he cn~:jI;u 01" ;mCl!ip,ioi:dy on gene 'e.....'P're'lsi<m. "'~~ g,Tl:W clloch 1(!E'!i1I.er for Caooe~ Re~E\imJ~, Hl)war1il 'hl'wghes Medll'i'I~ am:WlplClid ye<l.~1l>lrnin 1.0 mid':.i:o.y p:ha.~ itl ooJt<:h Clllvl..I:I,'I::· ;md meJl.'>l.lrcdgca~omc-'w[dc g~'1'lee:!>ii}fC5:In~'liunl!.Ma·~5adnll:!i@ru;l'oslftut~ "T,E'!!'h -17·2.33.

tn <Iud Dn:J;~'(jfJhitu

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[u:u!l1k:~yh:id~l'!tn~t hidl idlkaw~ ror ~h(lqLl~U1· w

or

1i1tn~ling. Bcc!iills~lhc set dQliJbIi[~glime of -6 l10urs \VM 1011g<:r'lhml the donJb,liDI'li!:l~il1nc' or eaeh 5lmiiD in baldtgJ'O'\l{~h.all ~1].'fLinsgut:w aUhe same ImJtc.\o\f,UICll cells reached steady state, smnpilcs lor ~lIeeKpr:essiOJl >!."Cre Imn~oo lor ~.nkro.1lili'llTj! ruli1IIYS~S. 51low~£rowing Sll1llll S cflln·}ling the c:tl'c2:tS4 nnd r:.dc2J-J mlll.u~O:tlS WCII'>Ctiltro gmwn: mld~rlhe ~anc OOIroiliQI1I>c,. TIle gelle C'x.prcSStol1i ch.;ttl.gf;;'~ CQI:rcI'l11.l!d with Y-OW!Jil mL~ difrcr~ dlil!it ~l~ W~I'C ~l[l~ prl;.'~;cm~n any oruhlC dW!"IlO:;I<I!!t!!l.-I'rJWU d!,~L1g(,,"i'i ~11t;~M:d-d ~t !iI:;Ul:-.(~r.ipl.;~:)JI ~:it;~~~~m .. ~hiitl:l:.id:

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of dK~

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!\im~I,d'll.ive'to the wi!d-t~'pe slrain ,:'!.'W~lliIC usc <lpprmlUnli!.tc' dOl~bllug Gr gene C'.... p!\.~iol~ \'\las ohs~f\'C"d along ihc ~r~lijre ~~ri:glh ·nr ch~ cli2'io!!l~iC chmrnn~Q!~~. irqo.ica!.iilg [iuAufitljll if Itf>l iiiII ,!!lCIl~$ ;u'C ¢1';·P!t"a"~ rrn,l?oL1r.· ~iOirn>l'lll,y 1.0 dl~ Illuii,'ibcr oJ' DNA. ool'li!..";Sjlii cite: «ill

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(.'{k,.'2J'-J ml:Hailll:s gro"~'\1n iill .he Cll(I11.0:iil:t\t under pll.Osplmtc.limiling oo:ndiilf:01lS WI£. It' 1l1K! ng. S3B~ Of die 49&3 ,genes w]~osc c.xpn..">Sioficimllgc ~\'3S .~"'3tcr (haJll Ihe 0.1i11~,1l!i11 tlue:i~loki Ir.1C!Of or 1..31 in at ll!a$1 one $ll13in. :;,97 ~'C'iIlL."S sho~,,'cd chang.cd c'",~re..o;;:sion in BJ or mOire or the' 14 Oi!I~el!pl'Gkis~rni!l,,~.~Vc!Ised~he' ~ II~mgrmnGOTmTI Fhider, available from al~ S(I(,'(.1imfJrI~'IC~,~ Gt."~P!1~ ~jtabO!:;~ H ,n ~o iclclljt~fy lite' [lunc!io!1~d ~t{;go.fi~~,c;!1riehccl ijtic>1,Cb .~ne S'l,"'l, lli~ gmup
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117AUGUST :2007

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RESEARCH ART~CLE
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exIJlD\.~ionwas dec!l....sed '~,as,cnrich-erl for gcn~ i:!1"'nl:~! in c'l!ilH;:lh,drIJ!~ m(;;!albpl~~~n)IFig. 10 and whit:' S4" \V~ COJ'icllid'J;~ 'I~:II!II_~ ~~lj~"_iplbOC!
l!Itr'djll)." W~lL:'ti Ijti!mi~:~i:li~-d gmwd'i fur

to be ~!fiIitn~ I,.<1ITylngan cxtm i;QP}' or a Im~~ ch~mfll~!1I!~ ~r ~l'\!t!1'l 'OOP!i;-S ()f~~~~r.ijr~ i;:hrngnfllSGllt'l,S (rig. S6). 'IMhti;;h :-;u~~~~",d~ltih~ ~l~l[IIlll or ~{~di[itln~d yt~il;"i. UNA ~i'm:Y~li!~iri111lJ.'iC' H.'I del-cnlili.ning U~" I~lglh or!hc'G~; ocla_y,
III~rin

in '~'] phase, Ingi:~nel1ll-~. the d~l~y <!!1Jl~

CIlc-oclLng Ihe: M~NdnllilYgh.I!,CQ~e ~1,mS«]!Q:UWI'S

I

Ther~m&;

l'llOk-cUlilf

~~1!~

~!,ndC'~yi~~~ht

,(i~ IlQ

S

Oig, S2B}m:nd n~,·2~ J in S ~~l,:r.;;tohh~ !1ItCI,JJlI!~lkl !;;1Q,irg~ w~ 3Ptlcf;i!J;ld {/~ = 4:1~ Stm~lj!'. d:wl: dj:~llIo~ :;~l£1:\V ml!]pl,iI~C'Jm:PDl~ Ihi~ O1UHiI im::!\',,-!5~c! ~1\11-~8S~~._I1 W(,JN di<_~lle~h!l![',mkd ( om Cl'>Ir.! ,pop.vnrt'hJ'OfI~~it'iC VIlli. whi~h ~~m~
~mnl;l hvghly c;"i{l.~re~ ".fi~,i
."-¥IQ

Il x t~MQJ

U",fJ' \l,\Cgl;"lllp,~ili~

rn~cil'i ~~~~lmk.~llimit.M (!;h~Jjllt\(-ilml;~ fIiie lO0iit1t:how perlurn~ wii.l.h re~~~ 1!C!rioo~()i.1\li.i biug,.elilcsis lIl.w MOist
allll!!liIptll\](lYl!iI:~~ s~r:a,irli$

C'ncrgy ~rodll:Cl.iO:ll,

lr-.Jn~~utmt :Ja:~~,vif;~l,t~~U!'lle~errizW~l~ S, t"!!}t"I\i.{~'{jt'. Iii.: ,eydiiil.-depei1i!ki'il ikilllfli.'1C ICDI(} (,de2::! ,m~1Ci!llh.':dwithille c~Hrl (In!~linh~bijts Whi5, ;tUB iHhibilor of ~1C' mLtl5ITijp'lioi~ I!cle~or Cioma)lex SHr- 05. 16,. Sill" in '~unl1~ndnre:; th~

thHl,'t .~J(:lit,;5,(,~llooding mh~r hi!!!h,.~dl~I'i~r)l gl~i:~1t'iC

@o)iIMbiit: ,ill 'Gi:il"

,tI:~l~f. 1'0

d'c'I,e.r.I1~illiC how

ctH Ilh)!:;:ioIDg)'.

auctll)I!Oid)',~I1IN~!I \II;'C eh,arnc!criz~1d lhe rro~ufelid~

tnI[ls:c::rirlim~ fir g.cIlCS enlcodinlil- ~Wi) o~hJ.:r c)'cBns. CLNI <JImJO~N2. whkh.wh:en
comQllc.",t.xi with ('de::!"':, 'Ulromo1.c entry hHO the

geilc CXi)~s,km P;:;J!al~i1i!il. ,ea.rbfil~ydi'me ifid1LOO~birn, our i\!SIult.. to ::>t1!lg.e5!~hl'iL mlebllllloicll'1 rcqu ire ~nore cH:t'bohy.di<l~C$ Of Cliw'~)' ,(or I,)o~h~ :I~r eel Ii ::1Jrvi\,lI!lfk~ld p-ro:~~Cl<nIo:n t~'mndo. wildel)' pe eel ls, r
itl

11<1I:I1:q'1Me.us. Tog(lt~.'ti:'(. .d'i ~ jX."riil~ct'!t" ij]d.i:C3L~:i!g chlln~

the

iliiicrda~

~~x-

M!~'st

'!Ji!litU

'~'1lI

Uf!.~

aJfHl:~lp'I.oid5j

e,;:~:r'aJ

~ion prop'i':l1ies of" ~<:!t:<!il'lsC<!rl)jiI~g. {Inc or ~1I;'(,:m! cell ,e:ycle (.171. 'We amil:rIAd dle abund,I!~QC (!j' erN! RNA ~nld Cln2 PJ.\OW~U i!l~lfai~s di['io~nic ~X[l"" Chmtlm.f.{0J1~~. n~oouMin.r;, '~i!v~(;filld o~1I ,~i:.x "vcr~ ~IiW~(ty iI'H;'!'~'{!~'"d ~llL1~l"IIDUi1~nl'ti lor ehfl;lllii!Qs{ll1rI('.:il rv., XUI. or VII[+X~V. A~uiu '''Irnbn:. in complete !1!1I~ldiumI~ea."tc~lr.lCt. ~r--- rnulaucu or ('[.N:! RNA. and nn2 [prmein w as ddaYlo1d1.!,ud p@!I:<d~'!.lIr;d dJ<:~,i!:yin ~he bud rommli~n wnc.• md ,de;."lm~(Y PD}: I:ig. S4A i:~r~d IWnlhCl~ ie !1Jll,,~dill!nUl~~ :«}rcC!~ tor lht1 PTi.~!lC~ 0 r~h~ ;)!]d DNA .f(;p~iC".niO!1 'WVM- 2~ D<1-c~diE~'. fJur d ii'iuJ1l{i (-Hi;;+G,fI1 &:f'i!,}S4 B ~.EV~1 ,dihl:m~k~ ~~I,JI~~. ~JldiC"oJJt(;· '1l,1I in ,hI/,; $lmi!~ 111m w~rUl~'Ii ~1~!,J'lS 111mdid:neJA ~hibil a pw1:m~lrfll;on clera~l. l!irz{\d~~n~('U1J)1'oidymcrf~l"('-S widil t~c (i I [,0 S
How 1he p~c(.'SCIl~(! of ,a:dd:i~km~1ycm.t dm:uno-. !l.o:mcs prevents 01111 aO;:llnm~JaliIool remilin.~ Dnbe dctcma~ Ili:~cl, ' l:u3-CDKs, p!I:Tmm!C Cl.N2 nceur U 01" m:Il!..'iJI'!oirls. !lIilch ,IS SlnlIirls disomlt 101" hro'~ll(}- mLllilitiml m~~ ;Ll!l)C'~I~e lI"bTC~ CVCllt~ SLId! as c-c'~1 C ,'<~nc:-;;I V, XI, or XII !I!.·;dso !!::'iIhi~'il1Xi ~,'i,,~j~~ poor g~:uwlh~hal. ttlmml ~hc G I ~o S Ilha",'Clmnsilioll it)' a!' j l!d~ by their ~nl[lb.ulity roml eo~o:nilf.~ (i8, 19). Ihwm, ~!C 'Illre-NC'!100 0:1' C:l!II2r~ ebmmoW somes might IJI~bclCIIlJ~C])K FUl1clh:m. or!.p~~~cs g. S4E). TIle proli[cmlivc' dim\!mJm AU!@Uiplomtdls e-xhrmb it ir!clr~i!s;~d 9 h.l!(os@ ~ilgc:lllrlinlC!'CiLiC in cell ~,~cwcre alsn oh~en.i'OO in dip;toid cells c..nying an exjra Chro!blOSl)UHC '~IPlab. To rlJ! rther i:~wcs~.ig<!lC: the clTocts of I( ~g_ S4, C' ,lIld DI. i~dic[L~ill!g lh!llihe gnin Or[L1l! OJI~~WlpIClidy 0111 cell rrn~ irG;;.r.niO!l, \\111;;' cx:~mim~d \)'xtlr;'l. dllIlJll(h'IDnie im)('u1b~with ,ceil l)miillii;Tll~ [he- Ikin~~ieo; \\'iilh which iIIlt;tlplrl:i dI (;l~lls 1~1~1~'r .~ of bolh h~~JloJ(]nnd ,dip!oid ,eli!1:1;_ inn llmS" con:o;;tmiomu:y p:l1a:t.l.':...MMt. flllCUploidi!ii rc!tc.lfl~'.d saDrLl10 wild;lypc eclls \'Vl~~lbll£ s~tins wet\-:: eoeul!ured (Hg. 'S~t. and G), F'unh.cnll.10llC. seme of~he •

,clillr,~,rnl<l'5~'m(!'$ a re

~~presse<dl.

\LV hy 'IMol!lcl
~\C'UIl~

~!in~fl~G".d 60 fo 90fttl-. .of IhCU1~t()j.\lhd.:.t! chc~nic..] l'lK'-L1!Y is ,o-C\rotl"1.l to Ilrowin IlJ;O{Im,::!L{.lll ~2IJ ~'. ~"'C h)'lXlill1e-$f~~lhm nlH'C'mm:ok'C'l!lc bioii}'IIII}U,,r."ill1

OlI.n~up:l'oOCL~ Olddi~io!1J(d ,~tucUi~! noc-d

all

~~m

!~,~ ,'l,1jdi!iOimdC'~!rQmO'''''1Jm\'! Pl~~l[

in

~~{.'lUprQ~

sili~h as eel kdi&Ollil~!C fQr eluemesomes 1 or U.• showed lb:i'C3scc:l pro:U:lcmlH \C~ l\~P"lcily re~,m;th!I(;'

phase tmiiis,i:rkm. UpSl_ucflum. ,of CL,~2u:aillser.iJ)i km.

;>!m.ir1~eauld b~ UJIC f(;"lL'l',Qrti1ld\;\,"tl. (Jut !c..o;~n._':>SiOillpm:~I!r.! ;l1~uIYSl~ o:l'~~m::llipl:oid~ s!tnv,Ie-.,d, I~m ( 'untH;~gcnK'.'l; prescMl enjhe ::u:Miliam:.:I:

chromoso,Ulles. were tmn!i-Griboo: 93% of genes eamed on '~~!l' dmu:l:losoflfle lhm. \va."pn::scm ill, I\VO collies were overe;~:p-rcsa,"<I by II [a.clo.r of Ill, 1i!<!S! 1.3 over the wi,~d typc. <lnd e:-;aul.~kln of .. ::13% ofg>t:I'lCil. WCUllrj] l~' a facwr or ~.5- or more . (Fi:r,:. L A Jm~ C I. To d()l;I:m1~1l~ '~,\,lh.cd]C'fIhe
UIDt"C.t"lill~S

produced fronm nbc

C1':1rn. c:'hmoI1110SQIWC!'

\"~'Cillso ]mm:;llJ!tcd,\'C IlllCrus~ \ the' a:UbQUnffi of a ",man !llJiJlll:!a' of pl'on_cit.... Tire 3!]lOlllt!.'iO of .J\:_rp5. el' l.m~C1 dc2~, ~~ro~cin \\'Cre~I1,(;!1C;J1iCd in T ~rn,im_~ cliNI1lTllit. ~b, chmrrl:()sf:l1tt(;1" GOIn .. illUIII!1!, Ih¢ Ih(;g(;nc:,,~ CIlf,OOnnlg IJ'lCsC rwmdl1S ~F'ug. 41,1'1.)" Gtllt
I'($ull~ :$~iggc:.t [~'bm111Ic.1;Sl
S,(lIiIle

.~~ '~.owh11I wc\v:(:lIld, h~l\iC (''''!,IJeCmcl IroJU i>-tLJ'lics O.n cHImer cell:", where DllcuplOii.dyb, t~Olii!:llll to. hrh~8, aboi.ll. 0 pr.ol.irem!ivc fLti'llmllfi,We I'hm~e!l!i~

muioli, ,'iLt 11 S!llli!lll!cr ll'I')pLlt{l~ioirl :oi:ze [as IIlIl~;lMJiCd lJy optlcrul dens:i!ty -m 6(10 I1:In '~OD~)I (.FIg. 3, A

of the

gCIl('$i

ploidjl' cnlliSe.~ 0 pm.1Urcrntk,edi~dV3mage in )!l..'<lSl. To dctea:lnine iu. \1",~li[;hslage or the cd IIcycle fhc m'lCtij.1~o~d L'astSlmins \\1IC'.~eelili}\oo. \1!rec1'lY d Ill_milloo cell cycle Ilmgressicm afierrcie.msc flulU ~~ phemnnQn~'11fldLlcl.':d G~. IphasCSimies! ... EI~~i)' .lInt\) !]~e cd I C)(ch:'. as judgooby bud fom.la~ton: 'Q.P.ig, ,2,1\) and DNA rc.r\llicmion (IriS .. 2B}, ,:vas, delf!l;"'C'-d
i:n 16 o:f20 ;me~II]loid
l1'1:L'lijIlS.

\-Vilh

~lC

c'i'lccrtio:n

ofcr;:Us ,]i:lo~nic Ihrchwm900m~s ~:. I. V. o~I~>(. I

<iU <lnCU~ll[)id

~~[,;.i.!!.~ ~;o;hn~itl,;".d

a

dl;'h!.)'

il:llu !D:n~¢l;;:11c~lc {I]g, S$,~rril~ mb~~Sill w trill fl1rJ!iiI. :>tn<liu." ldioo:ral~V:III.,:X, X[, )Un,KIV. V-I [.."(,Villi x'\r, [~J1d I+XV ~'iU';liJlf>} ~{}~",inl!i! fI d.eb,y r.TIIrlgkwg filJI1n 1010 20 min, Ccl:lsdfoomk: for :mub11)i:cdll:O:ln08ol1l~ {di~m.c V'i VI: I. V~,U I ,XIV~ XI XV~'.;]Ifmd '11 VH'XI:US1il:<lh~s}. as ",1\1;11 <IS c~lIs. dh:omiicror chroi~lO:mm~~;V or XV~.• cloihibited a 0, dell~~y of .25 nlia~ or itlliOre, .Am::t:I~)IQi& ..:!'.x!~ibik.---dew othC1:cdll cyclic delays, f The I]~ctaphtl~ to Jllaph~li.~ ~rmIsiti,QH was dcb.ycd ~n O-Jlly 2: of tile 20 ')I]clq)[ioi,d !II:rn-kls

x

xu,

i~l '~n!l!)' which ,m~;~pl~id~ I.,'n~~rm!io!l<l!Y I)h,~ W,L~ due ~. . tu UUl:ri~ll~ dl.:.~)k~~ irJ!1!.wc :-;i:l:nu~~,u~(,IDI,~'ily Il:U,::U~ul:tldl gll,loo:-;"
fl'l!3&-..;,
1,J~)!;J"i):

Oriel BJ! IUU:! l.M vilibiliDY :iclpIll1pLoll.'m!l,oo. cui· turing in 5~miomll)' p:hm;c !W~g. 3(' ~ In gcnemll. the ma:i:~1ll1m;1 OD,[,J[!(!wa." 1000'o'cI' hl slrnins ClUTY~l'Igtwo oOJ)ies of ~<lrge du:omo.'rollles 011"W,'1J copies of Itlftlhip.lic ch_m:nlO.'>omos (Pig, 3, A. am:! 11). 11m:>., biorlus,,') a!.1Cllllllllltil~ID~]appciliUS ~o be ilU\el"S!i!~y,orrcl8i~cdwi,thlhe flllllflOlmt orruJdit'tolla:l. )!'C'J:;.t DN A p-J.iC'!£'~~in I he aneL!11lokl S~1'3 lind in..~ ~h~ S(;.wcrity -of Ihcirp'ro~ ifi.'ll~miOl~rlcfQ;'!~, 170 (f1il~t:uni!te wh~lher!hc: ~(lW~''T OD600 at and'L<:ClUnnilalilll] of bicl-

1 of 10 ~",hl'bi!~'d t.C"'~lml1iniXI 'liJ.}' ,>] d\,1'hl_y~d ;,!!~lpi","allim~ ¢elk!;, ".... !l~!fI(',.~ph:)l"~ of i sr.i'ridl~) , F~g.2C,.~bk s I. mt~ II!} SH w... ~ cmteh.u;lc lhal mOS1 alicU.iJ'i101d snruk~ !il~ del~~b-d
I(

ng. 8.5 aI'ld l<lblb'S I ), .md only

a (.Ida}' ~l CI~~'}l:~!~1.0. trni~rn;.j~t(1i.'l

l1'1iis CQI1~pli,ri,oor.lre\'lml.cd t~Clm w.iM ..IYIK: cells !,lcn,cmtoo nmooc hio.~-mS$ .I~r inl.ciTh1.li~ g IlIao::;c i~OJ!cou Ie ~lilfl did ml.CI:lploid cel:is. WI~s wild.~~ oelLo; ~hed 'cC~1 dCl:ls·r~[es of OD~ = 9, hrW~J'l~~L~(;!l 'up 75% Ciif IJilc g'hICllt;C~llliheul!..-dium. ceilisdioomic for chro:mn· 5Yfllthc-sis (2/) . Wlil'l'C IVoilliy felld'lCd a ,cc~1d-c1lSily orOD.f11)11 of C'(msistent wil h~lIe kleJ 1lI'k"'lt im::reascd proleii11 ~css than -4 (IFig. 3D ),. 111C" im:ut:'asc' iEJ gJ!ucosc u~)~ke corucill:JI~ed with Ihe scvel'ity of lhe ,I:(!.~I degl'ndOlilion OO::UIlS h~ ,mellpk1,icil yca$~ s~rarns. dlC cyeli.! dd<l)f, w i~h s~IT!~n~ w~lh .<1 !ii1'lOrt~; dQl~bllug :pro~~remlton of a Illlinbcr of al1~'l:lplloidS~'''lrns, IV. f XU. X][I,. XIV. and XVI) 'W1L-<; hlhib~rlJd by conHme ilC'(; unn:!,lal~ng~mre biom;lL;_"ll<(;:L gJucru:.c p oon·tr.l!lm~ (lruh..: rfflUc,l,<jQnie i!ihi1.lli'fotMG 132 ill ~tiQ'iX:!.dc' (Fig, JE}. l("al'!-c"is!L'lfii""'i:th ~hcidi.,;. lh~u ;m~'1!.I~~ofdlll;.kc- wlJiicll ~l>'iM-~ypc c"ll~ gm'!M, ,1i!.'l juu!,IJ.o-d by tfii~u~ ability Infoml o6ttmi..: ... ol'ip.I:~~t('l'l Cflllfi'k~iniii;g Ihe llpiTImfc gllj~t,w~oh,li-C:vyc-J~hi'l:L t~c gCllL~lOOi

the m:ldh.ioJl3:11 chro-mosomcs ore nOlo culylrnmeif'llxldl 11tH3Iffi;()lmnsllltTcd. Intcrcslillgly. mll:,1 of 1.llcpml.cinlS (13, of lll), mimi: 'we ana~yz..:ld s!~m\jM IlQ duu18,c lll1i ab~I'I'd;]llcc. ,cvenlhough dw amomu: onrnxlScrill! \'\I<lS itlCU"JSCc:Iill 3ocordlllnre \li'ilhl~he incrcascinl gene. copy lJunliwr n:ig. 4/\ ;~rlfld S7}, \M~l dlC lig. C1o;«IJ~iol1l r LcM mQ~ F'cyl, (lllr whIch il. is UOl, o known ,,,,hcl'lll(!U'lhc>' aNoon:li1m~erll~ ofprolcil1i oomlll),:'x.~). all 13 11mtcins ~m!l)'md ~c CQ,VIlIXF ~~~!I!l'i. p'J'>rl~d!lC'OIl1ple.'Ic-8, RIIX_:~ .~ ~ ~11l~wq~nl (It ()rlilll;: f~'plic-.nt'On m'l~hi'llcJ)'•.M!1;.'I .~ (I r !he- RMX cm\lp~!i.;i,.I~~)~2 R:I~~31, ,lIld (~rlhc riiu)!;onlt;, RpU .he prot(~~~Olll":, NO!pl 0.( 11:1(;-mn::'k1J:~m,. h:l£tr}~'J~ (,r..hc nuci{1!!)i\oJn'C., \,~j'I)filll.d .EfiI~3orlh~ llllJ NuA4 hiSiW:nlc 114 ilccly:ln:ans~crnsc- ,ooDnlple.l\;, illld I::Ip3 ~hc' clon~:lor comp.l,CJoi,.li1lc:sc ~indil'l,gs indka~e d'ta~ iIl1!llflY prol.eins ~,yl1lhc:i!i:;wd ~i:!)m thcmMil101101. cllronnnlIDlUiC"... aJ~ d~l~~rIHli h'lIlSl..lc-d or, m.o:r,e I~ kdy. ,dcgrm~led &hortly afk':r
Ol~

pR.~m

or

or

9111

I

RESEARCH ARTICLE

ID

R iDOS'Ome
bi Q'genesi:s

Cawbohycl rate 1met8;bo I i'ls lin

69°k OIlBr

92% Q~he,

C~us:tero~co"regula~ed
glengg, inaneuploi(]l stratns

Yeast gertome (,BaCH)
getrU5s)

(3917 g:enes)

918

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

:SCll::lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociem:emag,org

RESEARCH ART~CLE
Filg. 1". !:HKIlS,~~: !l!n'lly.pl~id.y O'!ii 9,";:00 ~;lilifeSfiYlIil. (Po] G~PIIe'~P-f1~sigf1! Q,f ~vrld!"1tvPe a~~ ~n~ypkiid sU@ins ,~rewi1llin i!l;:.l'Ch (u'lture.s:, ordered by ,~hliJmtJwlil1il! .p!iS'lt'ton. &:p~rirml!rnJt!i (J;ieLlllmliis) are ord!redl by the IiUlimlH:!r Q~ the ,(h1OmQ~alil1i(! U't!lit lOSp:re'!.111l11linl\w, !l:Q:~e~.The (!xpressi!ll11l paUllm~ o:ll!nel!lp~id Slrillillill were 'w(lm~r>E!dto'IhQs.@ Qrwild~l)'pe(Jall$ (A1l3:1]J gr,Di.'i'n I!!l'Idl:.r til!!! :saIilW'Q(llfuliilisns. Dati.! ~@ iF@liIol'ifllMized to ,[II(mllmit forr!ihe di.mme. i1e ClI1iOWpoil1l~ tuihe g,emlTlli[ l{!;[o1oo.n ar.HXT6 afld Hm. Wile ,di!1:i31m p:ro.vidl1d a ilill tabte 55\ St~ain!Drn€r [!Il!!lre Wit tine nlUl1he'l'ar~r ei3.rn5;'Ui3Im I'Ulmberr de;n(IJ~s~he e~ij!l1ilel'!t 1'I,t1!i1~~~; ~l1esame 1II®lIIiIen{il.cl:ure- is usedin ~B)l: A113U#l,. AU3 U.lt,2,AU1U 1f3; .AlnUrM, Al2633:fJ!l, AJ26:EB 112, A6863 iiiJl, A6Sf,3 tf.2'L#!.nMI~ii\!1, A1Il26B:5 #i, A6S(;i5· "m, .AM6,5,~~•.. !''L2687 1'1'1, A12,68:7ft~~. # Al4479' tlilL A1l3:628 ""1. AH62i8 tI'2, A15615 t1't .At561S,1ii2:. A13'975 #1, A'13i?75 #~, A126:B9 fJt Al2:689' #Z"A6S6~1lI1. A6S€l9 "Z.A13?7.1~·1.AU7'71 "-2., A:l.269:1!..flIl. A121691 II,. A:Il2&99 If 1, #\'L2699 "'2,102693 1.!ll.M26,9], n~,l!i1269S, 01.11,.rL269S, tl:2.,. 1113979 I'll.. AB979 ~'2~A1289'7ijt, A](!697ifl!'2~, t A127QO i'flil. A12:mOilf2.~B) Hi~rr3rl:hkallly ~h!5t~i!'d g~r!:e<!!J:pressioon ,illata obtainoo (rom strr.i!~Il5,grO!.ljO.n hili baldil ,ruU!lIres. !Datal IrlJlffl (A) ~~elill·6I.ter'ed fDr gel!le.~ dlYangintJ by 11fador o( >l.S Dill at wast t~w' iHII1!;f£.. 'Gen.!;!'!: pres.eflit 011 dlro:rnms:tl:m~!l. 11mtI'IO (J(Ipi~~\w~edOl!i'Ii"!ME!ijgMedlalild alii data IO'Ilew;!' clD.lSt~refli !l~l'tg the pr'®9lram WC~lJI.s~El\r. Oll!!wllg witll tin 'g@liU~SmI~hil"@dl,eqU'!lU~' is stno~\!f!i!'lfig. SaA. GeIl1@eJ:p;essiol1~or 5.tr.i3Iilils,mde!redl byin:(rm~mg! dnublillg tim:€', ea mryiilil!lli!l aid.5-;;!,. crk2lJ.4, or rdc21-1 m!llt8lti®11 (ompam:!1:i till a iiIl!at.r:::!nedwlWd 'lYP~ W5:B1') grOl.'IIiiI at 23 ~;:s.~~O'IW'I a.dja~nt 00 tine mafn dl~teir. Tine ooilJl!ll1lns.labeled WT
1 '(

IbII~im~ u~foW.i;dpm~4;m.'l. i\U 5!h~in5 (;'~!Tyi!l1g of om.'¢1{It<~ ,thl'(:II)JlOOO:!liil:. i;.vit~~~'i~ ~xc.cpL~ti'.",of cd It! (iitololillie rOI: ChroliillCll'>otl'iL;' I. ~Iwwcd im,p;a:iludi jHlOll~rC'rnlion 91 iilei'(1ii!:CJdc~~ljx:ru~urt~~ J7~C:

Wlcur.lo:k.ls. because a:h284 <lim.!t-(kJJ"Jnn~llllnJ;:;<;. '\vhich ;~Il:' )"lC,\ll~J)cly in~l~ro,~ in cell diviskln even ll~ 2.J<;!"C. <did m), '~.nh~)gl in~n."<L""'xII~scll-i~ivm:y .~~ .. I;)'do11~ini!id(;' or ~."p111]'1IYdl~. ig. 4, C" :tlrl(IO J, W Pm~ifi;1r~lt~OI:i ou ~lrileillploi,~sw!Il," ait'io cl~. cre.llsod ullder cnl1dili(ll~$. ~11Ii.I~ w (hI.: aor:IJBUjj. led

I

,ilIr~b~ologkal lreplb~~. N~oo 'lhol!~ ,cddS"2 mll!~af!t5d~, 1F!li)'t show the 1[sF: ~"":ilf~i(!!l I~!~~~.~~i~h is 1C'®IWi5~!mt wilh(he (act that. cr1d5-·2 Ilrmtarll,s ~ho\lt ordy a ~llgnt pro:ij~l;fa.ti(lf)derlBd; <It ;2:3"(:. GIre!E!n m~ nod ~ bars oo!1'6jXiiild to< j:i!!lt~atNe (W~ti!i':; as50clatoo ~l!it!lJ ESR@~~f'()'I!f1h Ii',M~ that are d~~W'i· ~Uld t!;p"iNl!fJjl!lalte~.

Fig. 4El !Iud wot.!rcnnt:td:sll:y ~(:iiti:~live1.0 du: nspOO'~nhib:r:tor £~l,clm1!!un')ic-i1'l {~1(cq)[ (;'ell~:;; dismnic for' ehrol1t~OliOIWC X~Fiile 4F1. AltCI.U.~loi,(bcliid netex hiilil itlielfC3sed sensili'!;'il;Y to <lnylo~ic a£cn!~. An.clJl~kiid5 ro.l1Ined ro!o'iJliC')1.a.... wc]~ as did \vild·typor.: cdb on med~ll!!l~co.f!wi!lung !:l1c!DNA reJl~ic<l~ion i~}hibi~!f hydroxyn,l~.?J lfig_ &0;:1::1,) or !li!~ldiunl ~onm~~I~~~~ Ihe p:rol~m.,:3HilI.bg OW!i[idinc 2",earbD(iol.Y~ic acid
(}\Zc.: Si'lIED(I!' .(i";,v;.;'1t!I·OlC~1 (AZi\.:flig. S'8I). ~\ihicl! io~\Nft"n'$",'uth 1lIl'idul'li} triali!.(;!lipl~ll[l;'nV1~1. gu.o.uwl>il]~ uipM~ph;:f{1i.lbi[]l.'iYllithii;Si~, NOrl(lorlh~ ~~.cl,lpI:Qidsshewed $hctl'ld 'prol if(o.timt i~l 11ll: 1'1~J1CC or.rl1~c· {~~tGJl~l3g)i .inhibii.or eI'I!~oroql!i~Hl~ 'Ifig. S& D, or hyiliogcn percxide (fig.S3Ci). Snrn~j'll.ij, ere a:iWutSpirnl;i(ln1pmHd.cnll. as jlliidgcd w by their ~~u~ ilyW gtt'O,\' 0:11 the Iron:tbrn~~llmble' OU'bi.'!~ St'IDIiCiC' ~}'ecro·1 (fL.g, SlB, C ~ncl ,n <lnd did

r@~c:tiwly. R:@~ll<alxls r(l:r ClJchr straIn W@f@' 1I1101'e f@~~lcdlto cam o:tlii@r th:lli1l to i'llliy Qt~@fwrns .• fr!ili~c~li!lg th~t the e:i;pre~iom! alf'~a.ysw~ue higirllV rep~dtt!.c:ibh~ 9U'aifll order;i,!\.il3:11jj\4, il126,85,iIl'2', ,A1268S~i. •. A12)683 112, A126S3ftl, A12:600 11:2, M268!9 !If:i!..,M66S #2, MS65fl1l, Al2i69'9 '#2. A:l.2699 1ft A'!l.2700 Jiil.2:700 1111, :lU.2:687 #:2, AU687 Ill, .A:lZ69SII.2, :#112:6'95 tiD.,. Al2691fi2,. M21191.iIIl. AJi.2697i1t2:, AU697 J,lilL,.. I\U479 IiIl, AB9"]'9'lf2:, A]j,979 tfll. I·U56[5, ,(1'2" A:156mS if],. A;:t3,'H5, #2. AB9I'S~'L, ADi'71 112, A137'71 ill. A1:2i6'93 #2, .A12693 #1, .~1362:a:tf2'; .At:~62:a: Ifm, .Al :1.311#3, Al.li.3 U #2. 1\.6669 fl2, A6S6·9 lill, Ai5963 112, .A5863 #1, .Amnun, A2596 •. A2S194. A;755. (C) lHiefarchk.any ~lus1e;red gene '~~f!e'$~:o:n d~!(al i)!btai!ilemlh:l'Il$'t~n:s gf~wn l!iJ .!) (~ell'oo'ijat ldlrtderphQ$~~a~Mimitin.g co:ndiliofl$-:. 'll~ '~~Ii~siQ;fi ~~U!ms or aflwl,ploidi strallF!~ w·e~~!jQltrIJ::~redlii' wul.cHwe·(ells; (,I\U311) gr·~iI'!in ilind'er Ihe ~m~ ,r)Olldi~(lJI'I!ll.[),ata WEN!' IreI'lQmrna~iz-@d,fill,eriWriQf genie:'> ~al'l!!llng hy at ,Ie.;~t a fa(:tor ,!:If 1.3 ]1:1 <lit least ,~me ' '~P~~niiii!i!1:, ;mdl (il~$~oodl ~it~ 'ge!l!f.!s pFElSEn~ (I!il(hm~{)S(I!lIi!es; pf'(l~~~ t!il It\~ 1l~p'ftS oo~ghted. GU1s!ering wi)UiJ ~Il'~IlIiJ@S "I"eigmted ~llHtl~y is sh(lwflil'l t;jg .. S3B.Gene 'i2"J!pr,e-ssiien [or S"lif;1irusanyinglill c cdrlS··2 (A2'59\6~, alt2'8·4 (A2594i~, or ,11&3·1 (#1.755) lII1I!lItalion .[1:5 ro.lll'lpBred to [I mna~ched: \l.Iii~dIIIype (A2ssn ~rm7tJ;'Jat 2,3~(l$ dlhmJ (!dj:~J~BrU themailiJdl!st!r.GJ.~and~dw:rslliJdJ.nul?plJla~Ve(qJ.mm011 to, tr.mmiptli~nal re5ponse.~ tillat r[Jre down-alfldl uIP-r-eg!llll1llmdiin anoeu\pklid IDaifl5, I',~~tilfe~y. The dat1ll ar!e proVIded 'il'l!<ll:ile ss :&tirainl Q.rdeJl'; A1269'7, .A12,(;95, .Al.26.89, A]26~9. 1U37'n, AB5.29, Al4479, A12i693, t/;·1.3919, A.12'6B.7,AU9?S, Al2:700, A.12M!~S. M2.:6S3:, AJl1.3U, 11.2519.6, A2~S94, A75:s..'~IO) IPie· !chart irep:res.en.tl1tion ,cd !l:E!n;~ rn<!l'l~nlJ eoopreS'si(1nI 5iSlllifkall1ny lfIait re-il:'>tiJliOe~ 14 disomk !>~l'IIiniS'£1"0'1.111'1 ~flde~ Ph~s~h~te-limitil1:g'OO!i'ldiiti~liII~ ~~oupeclllr~ ,GO tenns. fuU GO r~I;I'lts:.fPildlld~lii!glg:NI~ .a1l~iOtail!d Ul' '~(h [wml (;Qjr!0C!' f,ClL!lIIdiilf! ta~l@ 511.

n~.

n,

not !!:!:l!hLhili~lOre<!i;v!'"'\I Clt~ilivity II! lhe F[flO S 1l!dC'11~iil:1C' lri~~h~rh~~~~ ~.y~uh;t~e~!lhi~j;I¢Kr oli.M.""" mnycin MiS. S81)r,. Aboo.n Imllf oflll1C:i1lI1lCUlllokl ~1.rm.!im~ amd)l~oo C';xhibuliOC] Im::re:!l;.<;jQd scnsil I\']ly 10 !.he rnlcl'Olll1JlIlc-ilcI1oO~ym.ii;:ri.zil~g drug bC1101ll1)l1 Iln~,s:'~F~ the li.l~'li:;; .of \\4rtth W;)im'!lfU;:ol rllf!l11e.r
ili\'~I~~[imL Our n:;::;I!IHs indic1J~c iLl~~rl'o~i~~ tilal ('Gilti(Jl1Jof ill1.cup.1!oid srrains is ;';1'K"CiFiIZ<'LlIyDn~.llfliir,ocl,

under ,oom:lillio:ms ilH.cd.:liilTlg wilh ·1.ruril'i'iC:ripgiol'l.
Il'altlillr.u.ocm, 31l.dproleh11 In!t:ih1,g. l1ne IP'heli1.oitype~ ~lhi.Ured IItlYOlIU!·l!Ip,l.oid y!e<l~1 5tlra~Il!$ .tue dlu'li! 10 thle pn!5erlOe 0"1 liJdidiiti;CHiI''''[ ye"'5~ ge'rles, Thc:p,ilcllo!yPcs :slmrcd by ~IICLlp'joiCls.nni£lil"~ l'CSult rlDm [he' merepresencc' of oo.dit:ifm.l'll DNA or lil()fI"~.llll.:: RNA:s ~nd pro!ein$

cry .. we C'iX<.qnnincdithc' tibi:l uly 0:1:'m1:ClIl)IOi~cI::m'3i us. W grow ~mdcr rolldi.tim~s. dllill fm:cu:fe.re will~ lr.rns.cri!lt~onl. ~:)(tuccil1 SYiHhcs~s. rl""~l(lpml,cin roM irng, [Jmii fCl'3111,c1ll oralll al1l::trp,IQ1.d's. wi[h 1hc e.1'Icc,pl.ioll or stmil1s disOl111kt lin cl1mmosmncs. I. :X. or X:~V. \\~0liS iIlhlbilOO b-y iail~} {lOr ~Iglanl) COJ1Cellltt:mion Gr'~'t~cRNA pd!Ymc~'l..~e hlhiMtor [hi(lru~in (fig. ,m~1'1:1 .Iow CQHCC!!tlmttonSi {1f~hc RNAIJ(I:~YtI~:;)1,4;.1I!~ whid! ;I~ COll:!p;~IllI.~~!lz;orrnWllti~l!\Jwi~~~n,.!'<lI~ki~ ibi.o:~ ,tS: ~~~ H~'lllo:~ tl.w~!ll~'.Ilroli IC,,· ~ (jIn~.y.,1 !>~~'b:-;~;I !iJI'l.iilrol:il1:-i \V<I,;; ]11:JGJJ<H:in:,d ( !!g. COIiI.lpJ~,,'S., .m;;:t1~mdcd ifd:w;y ,m; O'!~':I.."1\.P:l~...."w ... if.lF.! SSH:~, I,'IOWCVIi.T"IU. ,Mleuploi~ s!l"{LirlS shQ''!'ol-..;d l!t Ul-cilr t~il1di.lIg 1);J['I.nt::'I}; tln:.a~.li~iltg Il,'i, 26J S'J:cll th:1CICilSC(J, [)rolij~raliul] wilen exposoo ~o~h(;pro<'l, Il](."C1KL~lhiITn.1'Ij!ii~11~-glUb.t'C· (hI.: ~1Ill:)unls of lI:l:.e ~ . protCiiJ"J..'i dl~.td i:d I~I. inc.rea:;c in abLlI.lOOJlcc, iiil tein :>~mdJCS~~nhihilor,c!,lciohcKim1de i at 'oo!ncen· ~cro.roanoc 'l'.11h genc do.'KIgC in nhc illlCllp~Otd tnMI,OflS (I r 0.1 .!l:iild0.2 ~jg/rn I•.<lrrd [~ro.tlnl:Crn~~.on ~~r.l illls. Thus, I Ul.l.I1~cu:1:))t:i,Qn,1 ronsliiltkm rains " i8ill.'d (I rnlo£l ~~! '1;I'i)i..5 .hl1ll~ ~rcd loll a 'CQl1.celllml ['OIl. 0:1:' dcgrnthulQI], of p:rolc:itl~pn;'H;!I:1.c(1cl fooun I.I~(J OJJl6 ~lg!ml fFJig .. 4["), \V~ih ilu.~ ~1>.:UCpj.~o:t1 Oif stmil1l:;; diso:mic- lor chrol1'tQliOml1i.~ ~. :U. or ~X, 1'I.ddili01'1l\1 chmllmlt\OmltcSpl\.~nlt inl l!J1lC1tlplo:[cls am:lIploid :otl"ilil'l .. 'ltI5lO' .s110\\'CQ irn:l1:t~", ~cd Sii:lJs,l:tiv,> .. IJmy OQlIlrilbul~lo tilcil'LCrefl&.""d £ I:uoosc IiIpnake or itylo t'he .plulein synlhcsfu> inhihhQl'S hygnmlyclin ~he!>'CccHs. ami ~'ap.~l:llJci r(FUg.4~)~ ,cells di!';"OI]"I~c for ,eliron ~ral.i~~i'aJt$ol'i iiJif (Hi.elli!ptliilds is,mnM,M~:l!dby pr:ij,OOi.illsyrU~~.S'i:; in hwbioors aJilltil hiigh t\i!ml~~~ ni.{:Isol'nc X ~~~I:e nO'! )1~.I1!t~1 to 1"<lJ~mnycin, ~\!\c: pCrh<lp8 bec;nl:i!~ TORI i~loci'lit·oo Oil [his d~fG" ,altUlrl!,!, Tob d~~cfTninC'wheUwr Ithe 8.}'!1i!hc~fi8 ~~bt~~ of p.mwiu!$ ~~!Il ~Ile..dkH~ioi!m~ d~mr:llli!'i{ll~l]11;:~ an-d ni{l~lll~!1 Thr.::: Ilm~jl~~tilm·ini.hibillOry dltir pr(=ii,oe ill [lie ocll ['Jtp~n1U!l a:11 t!J(::'~'.;.1~x! rm~t;jll .5j'l'lLh,,~i~ iUQhibih.Hl'l 0.1:1 mi~uJl!lajtl... wa..~ b~ifd~iJi un. the c;;;1 rrot(;iii pOO(l~ci.iml liI~ib~hl~lQ~ [jOC mJ OOn.~.i:"qiIitlioc ofmhcp:l.tili Itt"dJiO:I'i ,clc~t;:;a (]If I"l;;
note 1l1l."Lt ~r.lI.in.~~.Vit~lmtillip~!c s ro~lld ,1101 be ~e5too b>C'{""1IlI8C or tl~en~ to dcrc,u: PDlt5 ~o ~'Cst~h!c "nC<:ls orMG.~32l (21. 23) ..fUrlJrlcmJ1tDi~. 11m'nf~ c~miol1l01"altt mlC~I)·t\)id strain~\vas halnpcoocl by ~hc Ill"Olei n SY'l~lCSJS inhibilnl' cydol1\:.'I:.hnidc (n.g. "Ie), whIch ;can 1.i!C;! ~ig;n 'f¥rl!lljql~ifi~ ,J,C.. pl!;.1i.m~ (14). Sc\I(;Ji.~.pro1e.rns ~Chi<J~ ~1\~11~1.1!i~ ,ilK! addi~iomll
chmTn();;'YOI~es

diil..lg (Fi,g,.~F:

nr

or

SYlfld~csi:i1Odflnnn these chromooome. ... Thus-we lestOO the el:Tect> 0::: sC"\~e~1 YC<I.~! .ru1~ licia I dlffiU~lOO!JmlCS CiArs) I;m~I,"lnlng Imnml1i or '~110iW!:i!C [)'i'.'!Ainse!il\ ranging 110m -350 kb to 1.6 ivl1.1in S~7i; (t~~c S3,. Allh{lugh we ·C.>'IIlIlO'I ~1:'J;;~\I(r.; UlC ~ibiHty Ih"t ~iKlm.c1¥,ln~cripliml~IJ~" U'31~~l\,", .. ,inn OCX;,IIJ;i IhJJ:n Uli; r~l'l~mn,~li!.!ll!. DNA in. y~·M .• ~hc YAC's d~J ~IUI prod~l.l"C y¢OOl ~):ro~d:n.., lind it is Ili!!lh~y~ ik;!~y~hm. lhe I1lIll.oWII~l Ot"IITU Iscripi.ton iJlllld. mmslmiol1 [rom the VALs is ~e.'>Sthffin 1hill: OCOLffII"Jn£, Ii"\m~. yeasl. chmilnooom.es. ,\JhkhafC dClIsc~y pac~cd with I1ilOOtly imrol"llC'Sl! gcn"l6. 1111..: el~c c"prt~":;;imi. rrofil~ :'!:h~ux.'(1 y 31tCUCg b p:loid ~miiilt; gro~MI.1 lI!ndc:,phGi'rlmic-liilni~i~lg c:hcmo~tal comliiiOlls\\':Ii> also obscrlidl illl YArC'-car.rying s~r.lim, (Fig. 5A~ \\~lich Sllggcsl:S 11mI. l.!he nlct"!: f)l"!~8cncc or I:"",tm D'N"\. is.mllillly ~poll5ible ror Ihiiii.gene eX~$:i.(il1l P!MUt'Tll. The olJ'Iie:t ~hello1:ypi<'S GtiJ~el"\<'i.:-dill m1iCUp~Oi!dswere ~(Jt s;li,~n;,~by t~lC' VAC' ':~aril]g. S~!1Iirl~. \1I;,'ilh Ih(.; Cl!Irt()p~ionof iii !I1'iiIlDO'J; (5 m~n) dehl)" .ol~'~d ill rel~ c.lI(ryiJig i!ilL: I~JatC~~ifAC fVAf_·. I; :1.61V~b). "

9119

I

RESEARCH ARTICLE
none i!lr~bc YA('~~)c;'1;I;h~g slfai~ls el'ihibili;t'] dclay~ in '~~II!)' inti) the 'CCUIcYC~!l: (Fi~.SIC), Ngr was pm!W-~~':lit;J;f! hrQ~I.gh ~ oIJ~,r,;<[IX:!I ,~~~c ~t::l.gC8 <;!I.Il\'1;:~d,. as j~d.~cl by DNA ~o~i!~~~talla~}'~is fFiIg. f'liTdtt~nmJ~. Y:AC~lM:;!Ir.iu!g s!imiu:<;. cl[d rI<ll e.ih i~ilinr,;n'c .. ~ccll .$Ol$ilivi,ly ~o '!tI~p~lI.trll, h;1g.!!I'i~lnnic;;!Jn)1gfQ\'\I:iJl,g cells, ill!l('l1!!iI\x! Ill:Q!i feration in 'tt!~ p.L'l;8e.1l0CQfprotc~o:m'C ~nhibiw;ffl. >111d iI d~!1!}"-l,ppC.'lf!Q ~'flf~lll'c w $tlri. ah)J mlf!.~b« of,t~k1iiiQ'!<l1 .ye',<'l.~i~!t1.;'& ~.. tilt; t~~ Qfo.th~·f rlllJ,;::ilmYI~ :jI;ld~ [I~i~JI:il:\\;~'>1.1;! SL\1,'l,;il:uv:iiY~Q p.mtein !liY!l!h~'~i5'ir~~~btl0Ir.o;: !1dC{'lnc~i~ ~ ions It'A\!Il!.IIwing lion is net as :miikh1g. These I·incl:ifl~. Ingdihe:r. 'iNil'll~hc QMvmioo ~mt di:\QfI1I}' dlC $m~U, tbr I;;hm!J~~~tUm~ VI is ~f;'i!11ld (Jl1'), in~it;l!~ 1~1IJ1~.lC

sn)~

to,t1d

C'y(:I'oh~/!i;.il~~id~, I!'llpill~}'C~n,. or fR~. 58). Curiti!I[Q~]y.I1l1; ~lI';,IIi~1 t

liiigli ~Ji]pcmW],\l,; ocariulM Elii~ hlrg~1 "lAC c.;,:hibiK~cl iUfien:-m;acl. :>en,~i~i\'ily to hyp Iililyeln, Ilhle OOliii~ or \\~~~h l:!i a~ jCii"C:;;C!ill liji:lc~~tr.
\.Ve ,oouleltl:th~'~\Ij!t ill Il!fist ~tro:t,,~"CI:..~ of alilit!lii~ plo.i:dJy m,l;), cimui !lute 1!l'I<tile phCHiil.Yll!!::S ",hlll\.~

uncf®~~-d :pmlc+n fold iog Ue~ii\!h>'. Il~c ,t;'{li~111-

ofrl(ldiiio:rl:;ll RNA1U!!dlPFp!,,~il~ 1P~I~~~ by mt~uplr:ijds. rl~~~lh .. !ar in:n'biilllluJ"-,,O;: caused by these e.~Jtl<l iPro~ein!'i,. nd ~pt.~il'ic gm~' a pmd~t\;'l"p:~~!:;"l oOll indli~' icll~ill~h~tu~lOif,Qn'tf,;s ~U:
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~}.Y ancu.p~oid ~tra~I1IS,~ti) The cxprcsslon sjl£na~ I ~u~c shared by m1cMpl~oid :i~'~i:I~s:lrpcarFi to be eHc~~cdby .he presence of ex •. a DN.,I\,:llld Hi) r ~hccell cycle dcr..y~.,Jlld IWo~irc'r.J!li(lB dert'Cl5 ~I~d!"'~r eomlli~~om~1~h:rl~L,;r~n1l '~T'(H~i~l~ynwiaJ~ ~]Ii.;"\'i,!t-i ~nld frddinJg,~~ itl .~fLt~~ Il;,In dl!J('; a~ )i'l"a"'1 ~'1,mi">Cl~ t~ ,lIld )Ie,,""". '!~ro;~~~illl1~",.IU.TIllLcd from p C'.'<.tt:r.l ,ci1ronlo..'WIl1(.\~. l[)is(I,!II$$~(ln. Our 'U1,p])'lii~ ,of <l!lc~!oid y·~1,\01 '''~r:,,11l!i. ..\'Oil. b~' '_'i!1;u(l ![)f C]lf.l \\181).' 'EhtJ~! W'Illn:: isos, I;'lJt~d.lilmim-d 10 Oln~l~'Pkl~dSllfliJ~ d!{ll !Ire viahlc,
Thus, most sUr;lil'l~ \.~e char.ilcr(~iiilz.c-d C(lnla.~ric-d esc 9ddfl[[OIl!l~ ~hromo.rotl1ll.!. 9 fC\\! cflm:ed ·h'\!O. and ene earrled li11.'OC. Strnins \'j~ m,my addiIh !IOflal dU\Olll'llSOlll!'!·5j. ll\'CI'C 1:tOi! O'b<1ahlcd. Ililkely b~'Crn.lse lh.e}' arc ilV\i &1blc'. nil.:!' ,dlaffiC1ori!7;;1I 1011(If ~11~ 2'0 vi:!illi'c' ;<Ilile~Q r'J\!id.. ~h<ll\1!,'iC ;[I!!I1l1ly.oodnmw'"

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~Junare chrol1iil}sonoc:'"s~cci~1c example, ([o:r ,<;;cq::rnl ancllfp~.oid ;S1I'J!IIlS. cxl1ibi~ cdlc}'C~c dcR.'C~lli in <ldldilion ~iJ t1J~cG~ ~cby ob:iic!"\.'od in mosl
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Iya:d (:~g$. 84 aU'!d 8M). nll'i reNllli. s~oo's thm IflC dl\pliea!tiioul OU1C Cmlre~l1.{)nre is 1l.01I'lCflfl.y <1iS dd.ctcrlotiS 16 '~hc dll,pllicfillio:n tl.u :I s'ubsel. of C'hmUlo.$Ol1le:s:nnoocm:er. il. im:lic3lcs I.lml, lite gc.. ~Iomi.c iIl~OO~I)Il;OC ~1l:1t1lCS!1I~!tS. frmll aJllCtlp'lo~dy IS ro.spmlsJbtc lor the 'pi!cnot}'l'X',~ \1;'C observed, The ~jnd iug I]~mdl'C seT'I'\.~ily Qrl.h~Ill~enOlW!['S shared by 811~lI,pklMs ils .g;cncmUy gl"Calcr h~ s~mill s dL'ID1'Of' lar.!.'!: ('KI' :tmJ:ltll)lc'c'!lI'Gnu:~mC's S!1IP:POfliS ~hi~ idea. OYf ,d;u;! rUl1herSl.lggesl,~hOll .•m illct'C;)!;'SC' i:n p~o:id)lb~i]'ers!he delri~ncll1l<l1 enCd.S {lr ~h:c i:fr!b.~b~~oc::;. 1C<~~!SI.1I;1J ~y !)I:rl!;uploid~! . The l~hoC!"l(J;• ~ypo:;'!,ii ~Il!u;d by <J11Cl;lplold.'i \\'I\;:!.i~ ~"!I;'r:u l1iy k.,*" .. m;\~~;Tr;;: tr i.~nl11iiclh;u~ ill di~n!t\; ~n~. in Our lllaldy.l\;s of ~1I,~iUl~earryiJlgYACs w:i:till IDnDmI1'ru:~~ilfil NA iu:.ttcs ::;JLlgg":;O;I~,lhlf~1 .osl. D m f'l.~c~eaml)'pe;sQomnOfl to ;tlftcllploimau:' caused l\J.y the .addllLt1i'1fUI YCilst £""JlC pffidlL(:l", O.ntl}' nhc gelle 'eJ,.p~'S.~iOOpaUiCliiIlof ml.clJip:!:oid::;: observed lI:i~clcr rllOtqJ.~mte.Hinitii~~ OJl.tdiittoll:> i:i [~lJ;o ::ie,;fI iiil~hc' YAC~aDTYil'S :!>imim:.w~licih !>1Ji£&~t.~ d~flIl l:hcUl:lerc PI1eS!.'lICC' of e:o;:,lm DNA eJiicit" ~li:> gene' C'.x~)D.<;.mnrespolJse. The cell cycle deby and il:np~iredipOOHfer..lliu'll ~n the presence or [~,mS'CL~P'tt~iIIlou~~I'lsonisl~.1 r<!.ns!",~ irlIl inhiblliOrs, or i'Ii~! [C'IlIIPCI.U~IUIl."S ..\~rt·ni\1lo.'b:;.crvcd i!i YJ\C ~ b'l;wUfi!!l !'i!lt.lif!.\'i. !Mo~'Or'~~L::: pllCJllitYIM.;'1'\ ~!wrtd by liilk <!Il1CIJi,p,lr:iicl; .:~c:'h Ol1-i,I.hciIEi[.¢<lll{l i:~1 gll;loo1Ol; iLlp'Olkc,ljJt~!!j'li'i~" li:N;rrc,';iS,OC~.1Ii jJjj~t~iI1]t]b;;jcr\!ccl in

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IFi,SI•. 2 .•. De-Lay' in 'Gj1®~ 'the {ell .cydtl iln aliulILl!l'~®lldl ,ee!,l!'>. 1Mld"typiE!' {ells (AUn)}, cllll~ ,iliis®:mk ]llf (hromQ~~me; I!IV {A12i687), di510mkrQr (1h~I)i1i!rIi$I:)!!iliile XU I (Al.2695}',. ~mdl diSI).mkfior ,ch I'Q !iTilo$'Omle!> VillI allll(j X~V (1!!156\1!S). ,allllcaf~!'!9 ~ CUI2'''HA(lYs1,(ln with t~,~~(@iPll01ii (If s~rafll A1l5,511Si, w@r~ arJi~s1:edill!: Gi. ~\li~n(j[-fadm ~h:l'~(lliFllll:!Il'i!lml ~ell~a~erlrir,®m the IJ'lod: a·~ de"ic]f'ib@d (10}. Safillip1e~ "NliF'il! '!:a ke'!'1I glirldii(g~ed tim~s tiC! d~il~wm]ne- the ~li'(enltaJg,e' of 'b!iJdde-dloeUs ONiA (on~ lilt (8). the per(erlltClgll! (If Qe:1ls.with metaphlit!Sie and a n.a,ph(!)1! SIPIlIlale::; (0(1 ,Clud the .alr'Ul'l!IrI~of ClN2 FlN1A. U)I) illl1ldi (In:;: p:r'ClteillnJ(E). ACTi ~\I'i:lIS used all <li ~o\a:J:Iirn~~,(lnJtmliln IfilJorllumn blets (I~). Pgki \ll'iI~ ased . @S; tOi'!!dlli'lg '(oJ'luo'l ~n We'S!te.n:tI.bkm; (E). IIF! s~r,alrl A15615, \'Al' Q~ ~V !.l'x~mliif!>edl(tNZ RNA ~~'I,i'e~li

mJ.

~liIil(;,1II1lI:5e dU'GllliHl15i(llilie XliV is lilill1t m'arl«!,eim~hii~ tlile pi~!!,!5iE!'nJc@ 'lWO (opiies o~jtlhfi:S rhmmosalme o~

s~r,a~n .flnd WE!weUl 'liheref'Clm IflOt illblll ~o ~j,lh:eli1i~ntro~u(irigl tb (111I2-11I.A all!~le.

:5el~ed.

for

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

:SCll::lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociem:emag,org

RESEARCH ART~CLE
m~ely "ontrilml~lo
1lU1~Il!O~{_~,

~h~ phc~olYl~s

Sllii.rod lry

nl!imYrr'QliCi~s are nog r l1~re~~~, 11K"decrease

Shikin.f;l: "aT!9!i!g: ~1'C Ilh~ml;\}'fl!\;'s. fi~gJif\,od by :Jl!1Q1,1j]~oi~ y~"!' :;,tmin~ ~ tht;!;l~ i]ldi("~~ti\,ot; r o
p'.ro~ilf!. d~~gt"ddtq.ti~1iI m1d.trJ.iII.ung ,~tit\~Itt""li.Th~ ...~ onsCI"!.'HliOH!l, sL,lgge{;t ~1<!i~Illtlti;,';ius 3Y.1l!~~C8i~>d f_r;'l!1ml:IT!~.!dd!li{m.d CI!f:o[jl1i!ost;lrn~~ di"JUp~, cd~ul~lr p,h~!o\iology. ililt~'r.rcring "'I'ill~ I:ulCI~~'lJ,I;jJ~t: :~~~h\vay~ lind ,oIhJ;.r~~ic CC.~kilru'pl'ICI~l:!~. \Wi: prnJ]o.:o(: dU1l~ theeell ilL~iP'iIi.d.~ IOIJli:'il, S,U!I~ I} rhnb.al~ileeinl :!i,mlUhiIFL~~ ,Uo:S:lilioHilD'1 i:SSlimilor to (h1UI ora d :ilrcS:;;,I\.~llS~; The celli':; :allem,P'l tL) 1:'C..~IO:rewild1)1~ phy,"i:o~Q~y ~ ucfleciJ.l::d by the racl lIml: 3~~

In llbQm~~proo'lICe'" per gh.!!t;)(lgcm0!J!;lCt~~~ Ihc rI~ ,m iru;lic;tl!~tr ,h;!l,t mo~ Q!'!~!:gY is lk;:~W!~,~,~~ !O dq;pdi,;:p:r,ntGi.lliS. :;:[!TId, ~11d1[ll!O!J ~"\''(;h!BtI:lisQ1!~.~l~t s.hh:ldi1Jl~~dl :!h:m'i ~h~~nl\CESOr ~Xt:t~:>
r:rQ'~ins Of 'oom~:liCn~a't!.;'[ot '!:~drOfli;Jt;!8. E¥C11 [hcd\;:~~y qn G. 1.J1.igli~b~ .. r~fkeliglT! b.~b'lic

1l!rJl<i~

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or

~hQtIs:hlfrl'OO~: ~l::I1CS. 1)1'C~em, >0111 lihC1!:dtlitimml dlm~norom~, ru:e lr.lllStu~oodl, '~llc,unOlmt~of

8i1C' III'CiJ~jlokli. sc\lOOllprot)cni!L'SwJilh ~~'a~t ells cii~ill!ii e Ot'lll:l'tl beirne ill ~ml'l.lm~ oolh. 1'101.unly ll!..'C9tllS~ {iF lltMil iamd ,~hrolfl.osorm:s. .Prol.i [cmlioll of [j{)lh Ihe !rii~l degree ~'i.r o:ll~.cn'1Uion of bruoic o,::ltIlIwr C tYlk"l> of cd~ i'> inmp:lired hl Ihe I}res:e~lcc of Ill'O~c:insynll'lCs:i::;inhibitors, (17I:1!~~~1 dlrnlblln1i~~ 'p-liOOe.~~e-5 JllImng ,ellk'~I)1(III!:;:I.ml, :~$(J b!cc<lt~se s lri:romy 21 Ihre$!dn 1ibi'!-Ob,Ia."tii PJ'OHficr.nc more cill 'UiG~. m1d bOlh C''\i~~b:il il1J.:rca;;cd gillcosc
Sihffi\~

do"""rl. e~lfiecr-~"eJlb:.,mfil~tor which

WlI.Q!. "nc!ApI9k~ YWs! ~·wi!1.."rnl~c~.~ liOSl'ibilily !!)!d SOll]All il~g~.{~rp'\;'S ~'\~i~itgd byUJJ11Qf ~C!~~'1 ~. 1,,1<lic;:iit.'l;l by [!ti,1:Ut ~.I'!L]<~pt~[d:\~<IIi.1;.r1hl!l", Ul~ 1Pheltoi.ypt~~cxhibiit~'d by 3!1~c~p:l.oid ~I;<>i ~",~i!ij~ ool~~I{Jbe the ~!,~gt~lmgpol~l~.~ (k'1.'Ctrllilte whl.\!ihc-v ;,m{_'~pII~id ~11l!!Ifi'l!n(JJli,~n odlii. ..JlfllI ~~~~f(j <II. MJt PI' phtm~lyfK;iI:, 1lI1~~1'im{-d Ilmpt.~ttIi:c;;l, ""~1llild lie id't~l~a~,"" Ibl' C'~lLi"ilClhcmlPCllli~. OlB' :Mui.I)15ii>:l:lht'l';\l'S thOI. IiI~ill.:.\tJp.lojtly Clll,&~ I) pro:~~ rCiinilv~ di:i';ijjrl'Vat'lIH~C in y~.'iiSl.. "[he :';olb'iic

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F~!JI. 3 .•.11'llcre\!l~d:ghlICOSl!!' lIpti:llke~1ilI.melllp:toidl st!rains, (A) WiI.dl.type O1Ind gl1e",p~!I)jd straiFiS~'IIt~ gfO<WiI ~11'I-H~$+G4m8 m€d~~m !,!,l'Icl OD6M W~t5m~:SlJ!lrE~ .at. tJ'heimldiic~l-edl 'tinres,. 'The FIg 5t~~in~ 1l'i\e'(e liliSOO (Pi13628) •.IX (A1397:5), ,)( (A1261B9), XII (A:B77lil), .:<n (A!2693), XIII (AU:6'~ 5)1" .Ji'jliV(AH9I79J',XV ~AJL26,91J), intl X\(,11A12 700). (Bj. Sa lillie d (
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d'lT'OrrnOl!lorn!!5IJIIIIIand XIV (lS615,), and X.\fi~(A126519). and XII<lfliri .• [)i$V'IIIIiXW XV (11112891). (C), lNnld·typeo (elkland aJ!ileup1oidi strain$ ,de5ll:ribed ilil .. [)I:; XI ,~ --~$XI+X\i~ (:PI} WCI'~ g,i'OWf'!~n-H~s+G4illl f!'!ooilill'lfi .~ :Xll~~tio!ll'. Samp!@s \¥@r@ !Dis I\!, talkei'll at nte ~'nd~(atecl (!~1I'5\\!'ere' p~[lrt.edtoll-lHis+·<l41:8 Iplates.. .iii [)i$XII~ i1!!l'ld 'the rtLfmbew ~f (lCiLoohl:5 ~va~ dirterrni!t€d. Note- that O<l'lly c.elis 6; 9 12 o df~cmi~ ~C1:r ~llllrollflo:stJ.rn~ n ,(A126a:5~a~~ 'IN (.1\12697) 11!l~liItafrh!:d T~me (tI) a high vijab]~ity d'uringl!>'l::a'li~nalry ptha~~. (11) and E) Wi!.dl-.t.:ype'c:elils ~ntl ceUs dis:omkrw eh ~L')mOSiOm!l'!I~V(A126B1) ~\ler-e'DlrtI,\W'!tQ,tog ph~$ei!liijd dih,JI~d1ilii~Q,ril\~h medium, and th~ O(~~oo and almou~n Cilrg~!,lIm~ '~in~h~ :niiedil1lm ! W@'ife d!eu~fimi!lled at 'm~ ~nd~(~U~cll'ime$."E) Sgm~ as: (O) f()irwildl"1t~ (ells: atl1l(Jc'~~~s: dironllkror (ihmft'!'los()li!iI~X!V (AB979)' 'Oir X!,r:X.VI'(A12699),

ru

cells dijSc:l!'!'lk r~lr

tnm~.

921

I

RESEARCH ARTICLE
.';h;~\""I~1' dum 1fKll1!m!!1 ,cl~ll~i~ nbrob'r~~t . (7). Is i~ I'lmlil;';mti{!n"~~rolillO;1.iflg gcnmnk ."IW'J;<llioll, Un" . ,el,,'C'nmn yt;."Mi:, eenain ~111i!."I]Oc~ibk~hm.'iilnclirp.'J9fdy g~~Dl {:QJ.nriblJll,'l der ~!ci;:lh~ ~(lIIl,l~(r{n'!,~, ~o ~md~!o.~l11Jfii!!'; bl,l! f\I!~h,q .~~!.~Ol~ir~ it'! A~~!,'l~~ "1~LJlI!p!(:I!cl,~1J.8:!i!:'Y be ,<UJV~llt~"J,l" ()' ! H·~"\'plnidy r;rQ\"i,cltli ... ll~,rr~'"of !§'Iini ~!~ad{lit~m~1d ~VL1~. Qillf dll'!l1 :,<110"'1"!111;lt ~111'1~'I,Ip!I;I[d.)'~!!l iL"i.!Jllr It;:" cnries O~.·OiIl~gcn(";S, of 105ill1,£ ~lltl1H:jr :>'I,IP'PFl"ii.'illt s.lllt:;; 'ni (II pru,~ifctl,'i.tivc ,diSild\I::,rIilUHg~ J{jr the f;d~. g~m~ ,t4.30), .mel the oeliular i!~'ib<!hl!i·~~a\l~-d c.~ooriJ,. dli.-; d!sad v t!!ll'lgenlilJ!~l be G'\I(i~gme by .~ul~~lpklicly~o~dd(.rl;'''U~~~ !\~'I''-''CI ~I~ Um~ !.I1l,ring '~unCir ~bP'ln!!ltfo~~ <l ive lhtmugh ~Iu;m;t"luisition cuuld; l~fD!I111::1~~lliq,; aQC:~IIl1!,~bM~U!'i ,or~rowU~ anld G r~nll!Uilir.l'H:;; lhill ::dlC!'~\i '1C'i,l1]';l(l~g,~~~1.I; :.'lm1U· ...

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Fiig.4. ~!1c~~seds,eiil:;il~liYilY,~ran~YIPWidMaflls to (OJlldliligns· i~t'~r~~riiF!!lJ will S pr'oL~]1fi $yIitillu.s.ilS iilndf,olding. I'A) IExarnlples of ll~f,(!)(;l'S·~f ~'ri~r,(!asdgene
Id'O£ag;e ,01'1p:r,otllil'l a'l:mn.dam:e.j1I,rpl5, T~p1ll" Cdc28, Rpa,l, Mlre1!, R:~2, and Rp132 IpnJ:t.eiiIil~ \Wfil? eXiilmin@(!Jiilitl 'M~d''1tyPIl()~~l~ in ool~ dison1trc fiJ:r the 'cnrmll1osolllulll:n!oi'l!lidcitll the elru:ooitng g:e'fUli~ Ilm;allild;iilllidlil1l c:eUsdiiMlmklmiil dine~eili!t dlrollft()~n:te by We~tem Il~ot: <lIllalY$i'j,. Boklfa(:e' 'ly1lE' imia:likaill!~hh'~ d~som~ '0111 whidfl lh~ ,Mt:(1dilU91 ~~FU~ !!1'!' 'il1i!J1!r'eS[ liS ~(l(a~oo. RNA lel;l\~ls mlfl t~e !~'BnepJiodlild of ~1FI~eresl iln1':~mO\masa logz riltioo~'\~'ld type ofl!llil il'l!\erage {lif bllO i'IIlkr~afiray analyses lb~l~1!'I''l~i: bl()t IN@pl io1!-a$ !!iiSOO a lwdiil1lQI (Qli'lltl'ol; as 501 ~]g (b:;), ,'5· ~I'1i! (4';>j). ill J.t!1i (2x)" @n\l 6 IAgl (Lx)' eJit~a,ot. \Wr!.l' l,(Iadled), Arp5 preteil'l al1ldi RNA lewis wereaI1l1l[lYUle,irn wi~d·type ('Wi!) (AU3U)" Oi~ III (Al.26,BlS), and! Dis XIV (AB979): l~pll! imtM (11.11.1311), lDi~ ~:II(.A:!l26,SIS). anldl
1

lOis IV (A:m'Z,6S7); Cdc:ze ilfl WT (A1'i!l311). Dj$lll~ (An'6:£!)), imd' Dis IV (Q~6$i); IRpail in WT f,A:IlUn.), l[)is ~I (#112:68.3), and D~iS V tl.t1i479~ Mre-n]1iI 1HT ~Al13U):. Di~~(A126S3). ami Oi~Xilill (A12,695); and IRlPQ amia:lIIRI:I~32:fn lNT (Al13:1l1). Dis; II (A:m~665,), and Diis, XV lA:I.2,697}. (Boo IF~~' p'ftDUref~~i,ve !CapaDJlily or ,d~~OIlile-s.In 'Ilhe pnl:'i@n(e oil tbio~utin un. <cyd®hexilin~de (Q, hygmrnfdrla~d ri!lptCIrnvr~rn1)),lhigh~~mpl'ra.tl1lre (37"'0 (E), and MG132i3il'lmi (

geb:larnlrnwdli!(Fl; 104cd.d dJi~~ti(miS~ shown, :sua~Ils;'Hrorn ~eOOI!)~A1BU, ..a
A]~633, A::11:l!6,65., A:l:tl!6:Sf" iII:[tl479',AU62:8,
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or

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922.

11?AUGUST :2007

VOl317

RESEARCH ART~CLE

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II:m7 394.#117397, A16851. '~B)Bt1!havklr' 00'VA,( -carlry1!'1!J Sli"g,i!'l5; alwt ii!li!e~ploid :arali'1:S ij.n th p1@S!!nC@' of Mg'~ t@mp@rat!!!rt'. (37"(" 391'0', thic~l!lil1l .• I~~pr'~.~ioi! pMtem ~ $h~wfl f,or' -tile 397 ge'l1~ iideiiltiMed a:§. ~han.ged ill (ydo'hexilll1ide, rapa.m~I;~, and hyglrl:i'I'lRvOlI!. S~ra~~u~ '~f;r:()U!'I1he tD,p);A'lIl1311, t ,~n~l!p!oidstrail11sgrO\lI,FI tIll'!d@fI)hospll~tHirrritin:g COI'lditio:n.s.G~FI~· ~:l1cr~s'fn!!l1 Alt5BSO,. A1739'.(, A:IlH9.3" A.l7394, A13,628, A113U, A:!ll7396" Al'739'J, .and t\;]15,BS,1Il. and ID}Wiltl·tY1Pi? (l~~Is,(Alll13U) illilclcells carl)'ing YAC·! (A:1685()~ •. ( in 1e!'l'!~ne'S'&ii!Jflinml1ie o1I~ulpLoi~1·~tJlIirns <Ire m.u,~ed by !he recl bar, and ~~n:~ VAC·' (A:l!6815,:il), AC-2 Utll739.2), YAC.,3 (M7l93). Y YAC·4· (Al7394):. VA-C-S, dec:~~flli!gl in ~::lij:l~ssi()n by itJil>e 'gre~;n oor, .~ata,ror ~JiL\dl{"ylP~ '~~~~l\!lildi'l:~l~ d~s~mk fer cli1r(lffiDSQ;[TJ~IX il!f1ei from Figl, lCfllmdl ,1!1fI;l shWlfl f~r (illrJlptjrlSQIt (A'1:7396), or YAC-6, (A17.~9i) we~ u:1.t,a;sedhorn ~pl1ililr~JiI'KI;n~frlJ!i!~d GJ,. i1IlireS'l as dl'c5trii~E!!dill Fig!...2. At '!!he ind,i~ilted times,) :5allilpliE1'5 we're tal~E'J1 to Da'lE!are pi'O'II'ided illil labile 55. Orde.r,of :shain!> Ummlhe ffirU: .#!lm:nt, AB975, AIEB54 Qlili$ strajUij (D~nlailii$ a~flIlii1Glkld V!emo!1'I of V.AC TI!), A1H92~ .M 7'393, tI1E!~~ri!lliirl!~~h~ per.o~!'Ila/i.l!~ hudded 'oells ~.O<lmi DNA «ilijt~nrtt~[)). of
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<Ire itl1flPIHililli1t co:'>mo~o~i:{.al,an:!il<i n"eifld~r.atorll. Ea~h m~'h~e bright fiIJP~rtnO\l"Hl :mp,pO'.i,e:d~y liE1fiUl1sfrom the~'he1'rm{lrnudMI'" e~losion of a ~~ilrti~e dillarf :sti:lr lhat. after alU:reti~'g materii:ll fUliml1 a comifJi:ll'licin s'1:'lir~ !Il~t~ed~ ~Illmemal~~Ilim~~. ool tille ~Jllle natlllnl of the Ilm9~flito1F :st1lirr y,stt IlIII s remtlin!5 c!llntn;J,vers;ia~. l4ier~ W~ r'~pcll"l ~h~ :sp~('trCli5c:@pi( lIl:electutlrl cd ,dr~lJlTIf>tell.:!r mate'ria!l j'!iI il IIlCl:rrm1l!l type la SlJl.lllerml'll',a eJ1pl!!l~fi(lIiI lh~ tJ1Pii!ll~'llfli "~wditij~t d:eiflsitie:s • .ctn~ dlmen~io:r!~ ,elf the dr'~ums~t~I~J •. 'il'f1v~!ope 'i!ldJic~tel~ilt iih'is: IIIR!lt'i!!rf~ll,was 'Il],lil!(ted from d'le PJll9~ll1i~JJ:r ~Y:lOOm, 1111, ~rlliCll!'Lillr, th! ni!li1!~~~ly' ~~W'ifJ!l(pi'!!il$io!l1veklcitill'S ~liIgge~t 'that !he 'whi~e d~!Nl:rf'was !)I(creti!i!QI illi!:~~rial,hQm (QiI!l!P'!oijoo SlQlj' 't~i!:!t gl wa~ iii! '~I1~ redl·gi~i1i~pha~e: at~he lim;e of ~1:i~~~~Ii'I. Type ia £ullemavae

crul:ing. \,;'hi~e d\mIrr UI'Ithe circulns~ell<lJ' Ilnal.CiI~r,j}1 ( 'SM}, Pre~ io~au~mf\ts have Oli]unoo at ,d:elJOC~~ ing !iii.'\! md iat [tll! that would arise fro~1l Ihe i!1tt.:I'Olt!i,{~!1 1li(,:~\'II'~n 't~~ r<ll'o!Hn{~:'ii. g SN ~jcela . :)If1>dUl~ gli~I\V-.n1mli~lg"8M iu ~I(; fn~lIu~lrn,mrt!\\ [ tmiSsUiill'l~iimc;.o (li), r.Jdicl !.)I:n~io:n {:7~1~llcl X..['ilY ,,]~i£siliill~ (S" l1:lcnml.'>i: s~Jtil1tg;::;tll ~p,iErl~ul'ni'u. Ul ~hc n~a.,,--,)-Io%r<l!lC~~ bv rud!io {lh~n'Oltiop.~ is ,IS k",,\l as J J( :1 [J::l $(Dhn~tn~~ pCf ~1C'Oir{Me;; e~-I) y ubr ~. nssllliIllt~d wind \~rocity of ~Ola:l1 s-:~ tf). Twonmmhle c;'{ccpu lens IlreRlJn.$~Hecl 111'l;['I'l'l poct~Mar SN e la, SN .:H)02k: aad SN 2005gj. whkb have sbo'\:\ n ,c;;~.lr:I.!n~,lcly IPmnoonc\'i[j ,~Iydffi..

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1'lIt5ro~~4". CaliiooIlih~ IRiIfiLui~ of fe~oology, P~enit CA 91125, USII. ~hIwt '01 Eifil1 SJ:ii!"l!~, ililktiOOi: CoIll!g,@ ILrn~on. ,Mill~ S'tH!€1t, 'Lomdon WCU: 7H;.:, UK. '"~"'~fidHIIi1S'!iwli 'Nif i\titi!p~ !:(arl 5d'I~lW:!hnd 'Str~1e :l!, 85748,. Gl,m:IMrg bei M~rd..en, GE'!'m~. '~ili1,'IIi!Il' ~aifoo. d'i .ll&irolilliaJ;~WI!~~M!1.I)n:o A!iIrOnlOrniOO .• !Ii~ i~D n" ~41n TIi1~!;1e, lIab',,~'ni~l.utlil Ntl'omOillle YiilJ!l .A>lfoph)1i ~ ~r I.Uilllwi!l"lll!a.\lm'inilIrlS" llilliM!l5ita!, 8lD6i9 llWmi[h, G@rmal\'j. '~Oe,li!<Imrnenl of ~1I~ern')'~ llimiveffii~)' olTo~ B!li_M_kl!O'~l!),lIGkyo UloiQQl3"
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REPORTS
SN ph(liO:!IplltiI'C e"'l'l;n~i(1l] (typlC<llly 10'/1 km ::;.-J ; be d~filli~liy 'l,"~ch!!d~~\. because IhcY"I!(l!\dd gr~l~ '!I'm:~~miiPn-'li!~ .. bifl!lJrpt~o!l! fli.'<I!~I[II~' .,,11 SlllT$rQdi1)y s_·.. ~IID6X (SOM~~.,'llS2). for ~lis :!e"'~r!" w~ I;:m1-l;:~I,IJ.~l11i~ dlitJ N<l! d ~i,"lll~itt\_ :;11,'1,;[1 SN 2OQ6X, ilri~;ing.u!il ..... in auumbcr rn CUlitli'<"l<t't, the mIBth'1;:~y bl[lt>",~HT!.-d :;;~WI~· s WL"!:5.Clrlh~ N" ~D liues ~how .<1 ro;~h~ oompllc'.-.:: or C\.'\j,p.~d~ngi~db ~(lIrciu!l!iI'l5). c v\]Ir;,iC beemse c\'oll,lli~H. ThiOIlU~'i]1.x;f n:rri.'ii!iUI!X'.<l. ~:h~ir in!e!~i~}", Qr i~1I!~~~ ill thl;': CSM iLini~i,l,i0!1 cO·ndUl!)O!I'1S ii.nd th1;llr \\1 idth m'C" cliffiiCl~h ~n ~u3~1 iSill _ irldl,l(;i;d by :t~~\Iiiri~lbk SN !ra~iali():ri~dd"~n .i:M i.8 nU.con~;; th1311 a R:w ~.O-'8M!J ~QIf-~Itlbt.f~ lo\.v Nt: \'crtlllCk-.5S. Ibr dTi~ :!I!iIke .of di~CLi&. .. il:.1l'i,. four MillC5I.l. rhe dUm.1'tlillJ~h:liVHJI' d1:i1.1: fJ~ ~.;:el' ~.Ii. Ihe wjll.,.d\,tl(jlooi~.)' ,orm ~~n C~~. 1]u:: SNw,1S ItOI. 111'1il!:~1~ 1 C9 liltl~ is,t!N;plniitcd in t:c'.i:m", of( i} 11l:C ,oompfinerU:t>,w1il i~h W~ wi II indk"3il1.:·lll.. "1\.... il'{:j. 1.1I!ii1cli 1.1 . \' hiblc inl Ilt~ (1".2-4:0-1 :keV :x-my ooml dQIWil ro, "13,"·"C," and .'D." ean Ix: tt)jll.l.lliv~liy iiLI~i~~ilkd lower i:oni~ljm~ potcnl~.l'Il or N~. l (S.I eV. U in lit,,;:· n~tlWO i!~~'II!> fFig,.l},. CO:l:npo:n..-:nu> 13:. oom!sptl'.ul(l~ng. to 2417 A) wi~h rc.spoc~ 10 C~ II Ill!! di:'t>!.."Clifil,' li~niL of~be Swil~l sMellilC ~N). We hU\IC dbs;crv,e,d SN lOOiiX whhlhc t111t'l.l~ C,.m'ld D ~'ilrcl~li~ell~.etweoc~1 d1"l}1 2. and cia)' ~ l! ~~.I),eV.eorire$ilRlnldin.::.llCi 1M3 A.I. (Ii) thcirdifwhile cr'll'll1poen]enl Att:nmins COI~!<I,ITUI durln$,lhbl ~i::u'C!lI. 1t,'C{llribil1,al~On '~"1Cflk:kms. and Hii) It~lc·~, ~'i~b':!l,{UV)!U~(£j ViSlt!id .Ecltel'~ Spoo~I."Osrnl}h I"ihol,Oj(lH~II:o~l C~$ scc!i{m~ooUJ)I~d to a UV~ rllOlIInh.'lI :mlllC ESO R.2"m Vcry L..u~e Tcl!:~ dille imm"l. TIle sil.!III<unon becomes mm~ emu" Il.~ic.m .. tJ\~ d:J.)' I 61·~: 'ompOnl'Jl~:> C and D id..... 'd !'~ cefkieltt F.uliatf)[ln ncld (SOLVI l~i'>:t s.:Il. R~grc~S"OOI'IC'. OL~C!"i!r.3ticm~·wl.!re c.u'I1eCi out O~lrpW!r nnhly, run J~lW!ch is km.)\,!.(!1 ,Iooul !.he::JV ~nllifu"ti'O!l l I)' i'i[i(9:rt [0 d(lel'(.'O)~ in ~!C!;I;;n~1]I. COll~I'lOnC!lt B h1.JI dii1c!\:iJ1I (;poelt.....wllicl:l ('Qr~~p(lnd tu d;.>'~ 2. or SNc lot s~lm1wO!n'd I ilOO A (S, 191. Th.,"(1uf ~tC"I~l;lil~" .;i.h~}Qill Ct'iI1-"t;Ultl,. <a!ld i(;l;lmpoa1t;n~ A + 14. I-li!·t~hncl + t:H ·wij!h 1\'lSW!>L,'(l! !o B·OOalld rll~'Cimum ~iigh~.. Addil.ic:tllany,!! lU'bh CiPoch~d'1~i becomes d~"'1!'lC'r a !W is at(,1oml",mit.>d 'l1r <II \',>,OCic n:~iC"d~ Iy. a .~\'CliC' UV lIne blocki!~g, b)' IIc..w)' ck'm.(ln~"slIch us 'f~. ego. and M:g. i~~ CNIM);(;l!;,ld .....1· HOS)I \'I[01li: oo\'~rod ~.,':hhIhe'IHgh U..cfQh,l!~iulll ab~!tl'1!i["lH d~[ c;''i,lend~ do"\,\'u 00 a 1'1,. frmne 1(1~). n C.,,~jHl~l!eortl'~~ NO).1 i'CmiO!iug n!u:o,;" Suv. A ~d~L;n.1,)ls:P{.'(;11U!11IJ!!:.1f mouruL)(Jw lh~ HD"'ll] K.t:.,1~:k hdJiuccmric \'CkK:ilY !~ ~ - 50 km ~-~ (Fig:. 1 and . Ol. )"m]'i~uie$peC!run1 of:l. SN $ fi~..S2), AJt'Ct I1llis '~J}f.ICh, aillcr,() i:flilo !.wid,.mC1: of CiL11~ dc;ril\'Cd ~cl:C:\QOl'iIC Ui'i). UIi:l OlOSI all;ltublL; l1al{li.ulg (ro1'!1 (!l,Ir dam i~ clt'..'lir !(:I.rO~l,nion.'liJb'I] in ~lcpm.lik: [he: c\'olilll.itltl. ~.lllrn CCutilPO:il(J.l:lI A re~nl'l,iu)s ihe I'I1OS~ [a fml ~w:.inlu,urn ~~.g,hl(] 1). ,~rl~i~b~Wll1Ifi'('Mit re btl: Suv- $ )( 1.0:50 ph[li~OjlS!en• aru:~·Crul \o("r1 ry I.hfll. plJa,w,ccl!\,'c:red hy our ohlm N~.] D ~:OiJb!lcl~irll:'Sl5S&9.95. 5&955'2 A}, imc.l'i:>C i'cmm'ii! lIP~U the 1a.~1 indeed. besides 9 stoongly sahlmtoo .::mdaOnSWIril. oib.servmiolls, more I.hfm. 4 rnmlD.lL~ 3Jlcr tlile mitis .Ulull( ~S 1<il11;>C~i sull:licieuD,I.Qt fully lon,ize NaJ I .1" . I" Ll(.'l oml: Ilcr 1ml1i:· 'uJ&nIli]:IC,""S~:,!· ;.: ~ .,.Ut eml. ~ u.~ _ exp!osiOll .. C"O"Jnpmlcl.lt IIrri:5iD1,g ~n lhe hos.l ga'I!W::.)\1 disk Ne\lelil.Jleles.,>.I:n!.."Cal1£\,:·~~.le flXomballill.inn lill'l1l.'! VtJiriablc imeMc:llllf tlh'ilo~i:tryn OIl COI'I1IIUffi-~Sl~PPOI1Ul1ig ollllhlC mJL1.CiI1iiiliqSm",l) !.Clo::l. S~ m1\l 't'~ bly !lbQlt~i.nuc scales imsbe.cn c~aimcd for ,';IJnl.C !\C,~IC' mtJ;.~~be or th~ ol\!cr of 10 dav~~hi;s. reIIg!. S II.;~ ln~mbcr OflCJtllruS'~rmlil tng a \'Clbc::ity l gamana=my ~lllll'Sll1S ,~G RB~}. .;ID1~ i! 11:.11S tx'(!n ~LVilfC." om ClCC~r(l~l (_tc!ll<ity rI~a,~I\ugr;.l <J.~ I OS cmml1.g~ 01 "bl}l.]l~IOOkm .<;: . "Pi'i!C1U (0 V;l!)i SUM W';d 54). Gi\f(l!l~hc !O~1Il<!bLmidmlcc ofmlY ..!~ribl:lt'\.>dby :-;mn~!Ullho~ ~() hm,l·of~.~ght ,"lUb)1Ul!l!"!iulll~iwinh time U;i);l.i u~!d S2), SN othcr clcl'I1Ic]ll. ~s.iclcs hycllmgCll., such II ]l igb gconwtIiilc.ll Crr.cCI£, l'C'Sultijn,s rrom the r3:5~ ORB .2000X lis projectoo rn]lo the I:et;-cdin,g :!<idc oflhc c....I);.m~ioll ,oot!Jjkd ro ~1C: Imtchy 1131w.e of [he: clo~l:~on dcns;uly caa bc p:11odm:edollly by 'l;]1li1j~ll gi!I_I<1'fi.Y.~:ml ihe oompom:lll. or the lI'otm.inn ~'cklcil)' ~lion,l;l 1:lli\Jli'l~c oil' s~hl m lhe I!!Pp;1It'll~ il~~CfVlC~lill~ .ab~rbilll,g (Jk)'l!i:lil> UO"I). Omi (b~a J~ydm!e~~ :ioliliz"j)ltio!1-As ;~rcslJ~l Gfdl~~ Sl.:\'CfI::: Iin'C' SN h;)!(,.-",njQ'1'i! ,d;lOl!IIl ~15 kJ!lls-I (1n. wbidr! is cl:c<'I'rl!lt sl~D\\! Ih1lil d~.$lJli1.l; [I~ Y1wu'kcd ¢\fOIUlio:n lil'loc!kul~ !'il!~~C!1l.;-d SIN!.: I"" (20t Ihr: rlll!X or by ~lh{]IOl]toi ,taIP1Ib!(;[lrr:cmiIZil1~ H i:i\ \i('ry !i!TliilIlI (-- 4·)0; (0 ulflcid~ wi~m. Ill(;: :;~ml~)' !I(!~Ul;l~L;'d I lD in lil'C ,,[]J) liill~,. o. n H&K c:mTlJ'ilm~t;,;l'It!i ,do Na uf4 jJhmmls s-~ ~[hnld 1]1~:tI, n:;quin::':O I.tml. [!t1~M'IS C"Or!1iJ1!:JJll:'11t. Ihe S<liu.rnl(\[jCf~! 111& K liui';l\. and .(1 111m. ch!ll!1gc 'l;.vil~al.iulc tf'ig_ .2, fiE} 53, tI:ndS:OM tc;o![ SJrutd 54)= liIlCreliJrc, IIIlI ~hc itfl1i(; or S . whCtr'Clhc 0 ~ ~ill'!i).(tcpclI.dMI. ,~;b~llJil~~)11S anisc we41kly ~ml(ilfL[.cd eN mO!ccllllllllt \'~htf~lic)l1iilli lmnll! !'QUist IJc conl1rn.."'iI \'\i~tllliill !I few Ull6 crn lron~. Ille I((MY) tlPig. 2:mlJ fi!(,;. lhil. ~ilill,lk lack 01' 2006X. n1'i$ \IlCitSC mODiolls in,~he ah:;;Qtbillg I1liaJtcrifll .flfild,liilO=of.;sigh~ ~flc.cf!S dUCiCi the jfffil[ :iN (SOMh!X! ~). In a SN olf ·~hi type. HIe Ii1LJX. s Ililile .C\oIOIUlioll,!ID1VC [hmlhc drX:lj fLbsorplinn in. tI~e ·~12()"':~(}.lMO bam.! decreru.'~e.l' by a ra~o.r. A of I (I ~nl]le flr:iit :2 ·wccks Idter mmdl1i1lum light Friig. ,2. EVfi!luli~Gii!l!IWUl!· 1.0 t(N. If/'J. :SCC<I:usc. at a distance of -], (I!" elll liiOUl NlCi ~.ID~ ~f!d O! ~'IIIK lin~ Ih.e SN. the iQlllilati.on liI~le :scnlc 'Ij .fur No .~is 0,.6 ~ pro~les IIl~lw8\en dilY -2: mmJl.ch: shontcr i'llIiIn 'V' I ~Ie io:nizfl.lkln: 11~tkm. tblad:), day +14 '~ed), gro>vs wiuh time :tb~k,winsthe· h~cJ:eoocorthe U V ,~nd day ·+61 ~blti~, INa I n~H"dll!rillglhc Ine~m~.,.tnnll:n phmS'C',. 'lIii~C'1;e'l!s. D2. ·0 lilly). l1he verliicilll ;;!I_ll!:l'lne mmdrlmnl ~ha:le.~hc ionT~.lIion li:ilC'~km dillllhed. ~imes mark ~e r"Our m:aifll\l'ari'ab~e t:m:J~ d~I\."!~, rollowing 'it"•• l1r! i.~rc~ull \'\I1mhjc;~.!1.~~.uI1\ ~Hll'lel1ts at. ~3 ("A ~), !hc o\II.;TI.III Jll._K)"\,"I'lb Qf!h~ bh,II",~oClma'M'J!l{)m,,,' d~1~h, +·;w ~"EI"), +JS (,'('1.• a .. :\ihr:l'l!!{UI. tl)' ol,.llr Olll," i~1 lerI1!1i'i £.).r,U] .i~aCD1;;lsuUlg '~!ld ·+45 riD1 &'Jm~-l. ~:r.:.~.io:r.! J nlCl,llr.l,lNiil,whcJ"(~~~&md~~lh·(,.t[~~\'o· o FOJ oomj)i:lIriS\(InI, th~ upllilltol] nfiJ:.d.i'\l:l-dlilfl~ ccm.'Ip<llIlcnls \wWI]'d be diclfi.l:oo; !per ~n:~,t sn!1)ws t~ R10), by di~.1.cre~~Cl,'"S Ille delll.oii.lll!..'Snd di~lnncc:s. !'roln:! in a R(:U, and p.(1J lllfll! pmrmite 5:N. Moreover. ml~ .all~ ti~c N~.1:1 h~.s P.. .... ril'es ,of the (000(})Vilna· colinbinoa ~which S~lo\ll!;l ~lil]Ywel'l hhi n a bv Vir w ti~l1at b;:mdi or~h~ CN (i.\l.. ·-lllIloliii:~H l!hen,;~ao:ulll :beUlH :r"nilhC'r , s 1.0 ~.I iIt!IIlrI'li1:lUt.:tJ. ~- X'l.t. Ue wlO!l:ity Cl.'OllltKm. wh.i:ch .i)$ in ql.lr:lil ik"lti\.e [~;ro"cIJ~eu~l:Wi~i, ~lale H~r~~ ~o I!h~ .R(O} ~he oh.se~·'iiali!.1ilil:S .. Acldi~iQlla~~y•. ~'(;atl£cmhe .~lux. (l,S L. ~ran~itiom(38711.60'8 A). or pholoJlS d'ta! com imrize (' ....11 i~nID'.i:'e ~ mill fm..I!1i orders o Fn'l101£Hltllde Icss!~mll IIml orNa~: ,~SO~II fr::'.'>I. S4).. the cOrJll.."II;polwll1g ijoni~!i~~g l'mctT:on is C1>i~C:[.I;"d ~ohe QrI~Y .. :pcrt'J(;li1. Th~rerOl](j. !he !t'¢omhi ~~,ulion ofC.u n Ito· C ... U dPl;1'; no~ pliQl(~uc(,; --50 ~lL~I!SWlr;mblc cO't;,ct:ll 011 ~11Cd"pth url111; COl!.U H&K lilit~~. a.~.ii5:iIfitk~"tIU~~r\!oL'lIl~ SUM leNt S3). ;!Iller iBl dc~~,th;m.lhe O'!.~.i\:1l:l was cl~s$lned as :>1 ~ll1n~>I1 .I~'cvcm 0t,,~Ur:rijflgllo 4: weeks ~'.!t;l(Or~ SN ~~PL'" imtlm k~hn.\"~l ~~h W,~'l <B1l~'1;:.~dI ;;.,it:.$l~"'~ by ti~1 ~I i!i!l;:lioll ,{14)" rn,J!~.l~ (l:b!ii~MI!~NlI~~ 'I.\/illlnJliIJ \.by btt1!l~ Army {VJLA) t",~i~:;(..':OJM;i:~~~v~ ;;~lP!iIir.!fI rlow,tclio sourec "I ~lC· SN 1~31im~ (/.:5). Ci·:,ll.:;~blisila i!1Mon(;: gf'~h~ d~'t~~ a~d C!.rt il,;;:,t iiuni~i'Gr mdl~ C'4iii~iCltii rrom iI SN In 11ll1~d lii1'1Ij! inl:l OJ ~]i~t>!ii-l~p&" 11 arises wilihin the disk. or NOl' 4:;21 in an inteF:Hll;!lh!frlldll~!<!Ir dm!d ('QT ,'ii}"~o(;'mofc!Q!Jd:;l ~!"",Jt ~.~p9~silJkfur ~h_,g:bulk ~f.i rl,;"1Wt,;:~~qJl1il

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:I. O. &aJl!dl.M, i1.~'d~ IL. II. 'Jru!lt1l;ellsclI!. F. 'BDtf", IE.8aWI1\, 1WJ"Al'.(I'~ro, 5QC i!'U~:i.o7,Wl? (1995), double-degenerate ::'IC!Nmr!o ~. W,. :H~tel!!r.!JI'Iilil~~, C. r.1'eFii1~~r,. A\!Mu, ,Ii.'~ Awll~, WI~L;~ the ~~I!JIp.~:~ova w~~I:I'd h,n'~~iJ~.Hi~n;d ji3ilI:G\r;l~f'I. 3:8;. 19C1l1'2(00). by dl~~lIllt,;~!l;cr of lW'n< Qlrbol'l"9ii'>}"g("l1 wtr! iU;l 5. ].Ii'II!1!~!1,. t lo~, .~~ J.i1.86" 10001 U?13i~', it S, .llIa1.tll~ .~. AIImJI:I\ Ar;lr"p/rft, 44a, &49 ~2(!0:5~, dwairlli, Inl Utii:;;. cn!'C, ~:ID;\'tlbR!!II!ii31 ~ll;ll""" 1m!>. "J. ~, ll\iI!I<!!j!!a' eI ol,. Aliu:Qp..~jIf. }" ,646, ~~6 (~O·MI. wrUi!I'd be c,qJ(Jc~l.-d iT!~he ph"'i&ei~w~~"<l i(l)t~l}' pw5, ~I'!l~t ~ ¢.. ~(~y$; j,. ~1I!!l, Ul9 Ug.), ~Qding !he ~~u~t1m\',~. hus, .. ~~~l1gl~~gtnt;lm~(; T '9. MI. i~rt'liJ\I' ~t !!l'i, NgJ'tj~. 4Z~ 65.1 (;iOO.U. tJ'bC!ddi~ Ih\lo~ Iliodt.:1 for:SN 100'~X, wl~re Ih~ 110. G. M.d~lIgl.No(Jl., A!;1rop~ J. 6S!~. 510 ~2006)1 'no dbi:' pml:l~t'ii~otf~l'tIX:;Il..J ~TO:l'i~ 3. It'111.dl~~~nt:n~lc mile 5u!!lLl!1inOU5 :5N ~iI' 200!i~ hai 'S!'!cwn a!il 1l1111f,n~~dM1!~1 x-rli.~ l'IIli~~cn 'II. lei; h~~ Iil~;m OOi'ngllHnic!ll. :sial:

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~Qiwbin:litio~. an ilIppi.'IrIliunil10 the shell lfI'illiSS can be ~ljrn:l!oo. at> MtlJ) ~:3 >0; 10-"1 AI, Ihis \!~llm:: is roclucoo bva .~acto'r' (!If .~ ~i::Jr' 'OU mllilo.:ii:i!llm m.bo!JJ1 ~.'O!!'i~I1i1. "dle nlOSI. li~c~)' d~$lm"oC' ref components C lIntl Dt Eve.n in Ihe ease of C!OIHlliclC ~I[I:!~ ;';';4)II.(I.n, s ud~ " HlmlSt'i \\I ~I.dd . •. . 3.01 -g t"Ii~.W1ec "!ll-lrjIW'.lin~~ly o~' -4:<.: 10- II;;'~ s. c, \\'hith .~ 1[~'!~I~rd("(5 ofliQlagu i!ud~ beluw lh~ J-r:r IlIpflCl' Iil-nil<;, ~ by om (lb:'lcl1i<ll~i(m~· al~ c!l;Och~ <It ,(mbh:' 52) .w!.ti b~1ml)' C1~herSN hi (lb.."~~r\"Cde iilr s

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IR,ad iatinnless iEII,e'ctromal'go,e1Ii c Ilntlerl:,e~lr'enc,e': Eva,n'B's"c:ent-Fii'8,ld Lenses and Perf:e,c't IF'D,c1usi'ngl
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leCIS ~un <JI'I:e ,elootll~tl[k~ or In"SJIlL'tOSt<l!~ic in. n~m,,,re and. ns n rollultlhc "'llo'l siec can he ~lrbil:l1".u'ily tlm<J~lAs "~ilb otl~cr nCi]r~l!eld ejf~'.C!$. our pr..~· ~i~il}' 0 {O{;'LltliIJl ~ar~ diiill'~~~"i."$is 1 ~e\'~ruly l~!ni1'{."dbY!]IL,! (!~-,;;pol!(;miu~J)~';Cay of !he neon' ~11!i.l~d hich. ~n pm.c lical<\t~'P1 L'tm~~I.~. w oolll'il,'mi n~lh~ [1!)C'.d iong!h t'O, dimcn .... iomrnllllch ~!t! ~ lll,m;'. u I~f

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r:tliull;.~" r;J:l'<~lkl l'u

Oi:,';lcll !~:I~r; ::: = '::!:i :> (lI ,If!d ;; = [

-lH~1'"-~jldl(kt'

(3 )1

{n, and

.... <l..~uc!'O us

sm •• 11 llS

!lnve bo~1rn IJI;:polfl:(ld li~r Ihe HIl.: r.U1g)\;' i'ifl SlJm~'.tli'l,!ell1]i!ilih, ~}IC(Il'\i n~!!l:nK:O~, urny illlo'olvcs ......... ~,111C' ,cv!lm.':srent compou.CJ.1tS of lh(; field, lhm is. the I1cfllr i'k:.I!dl. Because oif thi~. standard (2) iiiltcrlcrclll::c rcebniqaes 01" g,,:or:m!l:ri'Ca~ oJ)li(;5 ~lll!~hO& do n(H [\IDor,e:iJ'iCCclrlly.m:g.,'1tive WitlJ tl.1C WMIlCCS, kloC.lIod illlhelnfll I'.SPilCC .: <; o. the choio:: or sj~l~ i~~ . .2 is []kl~ued by [~IC' Eq re Irnction has ,c~nci'ged as a u~pic o:f lnterestio [t'qtl,iocm~n~slllm.lhc: hOilltOgCI~OOUili' and ill1~e·llr-~l:cld studies 19. 10), rollo\'\'i~~8proposals homogeiJlllOUS. 'Of CVfilne.'l{iCII~' mJituiC!ns to (he of pen:fect kl1Silllg (lJ 14 I and the subscCJjucm W,I,fVC cqLlatf:on: nnlm ~rnvel IlIIld decay in tlilc C'.JIIJO':ri!l!~I!ln:d, v.crilic<!~ ion of m:J;,Ia~l vc rofr.I'C ~)osilh'C : dliI\.'%:1ioll" It:Splo.'Ctii'!'cly .. ~iQIl i:'It!lI!crow.<I'1'C rreqlu,~n(;h.'S U5. Hi) ,1Lu!d Acoro:r:d ilng 10 ,Eq. I. n.h:cfldc:linl he n::glOll i~lla~ill.g bC)'Q'nd A bbc's :~IiI1~hwil h u~cgal lve,: ::: (j! ~s "ctcnnincdbyll~c bOl~mll<l:I:Y v;mhllcs, p>C\lmi~ltivil;)I ...Iab" U 7. Nit 'n~hr.s· wOJ'k"ml ;]Ip" R;l'J~Oh W-h ..UlCe,~hl; qm,~.i{m of focW!:'i111grtnr ' ( .~1ro,t\:hru "'Wlb\I~"~V(,:Jt:~l!!1h foc~l::lh~r,;i8t;;[~rn.~.J

whe<t;t; !I.'Itq) lis gi\i\Ci11 fuyEq .. 2. t...~h q~ + q~-q~ i .. for cJct~ro~nagl1,c~ieii,~a~proflf~mj;l!',l ial the: +z dkoct ron '~h liaruve fIZilli1ltlLl~!l11Syi'illli1it"I~., such as ~I Ih~ ~:xicOUl llJ) and Bcs1li~I~mm. (13h Ihe mn.gc.ttial .t:il c(!uuponcil1 uf tl~c: c~leclric Ikld,as w~~1: as ~hc ~ ~Jild.r;:Hdil!l P (:(lm~Mlllea:l!. II r 11-1 ,,·aIliis:h.whcrcm' dleli101'llXm CUI1'1f",)IlC'IUS ~ =

3.pplly.

N. or

E.~.obey

+:.0

a

~P( p.: g) =

II·r (IP '...=tIl,}. (qp'tl'D (qp j
o~l!:;iohl~l~n:;;

""'lIOi

l:lll;,1d. n~r~l[.'u~ingdiO'''.l.cl:~O:I1-]i~nit~-d ~'1l;''''l'i.) hQtj[lIm:~ ,hili;! ofidt:ncIFe~l. ~i~~rrnro is 1:'("~~]il'"lis,c~uu o.r; bUll the tily:iHg llw :;mlrcCiii IIJ!.:cdcd ltJ gcu~r31C t~li: ~:Ticld p.~~)i:;ic:s i~jl'ilJ,oo~""nll.iIlJIl:ydii'licfcm IOOll~, Ihm.of rJX.Ifi:h~ Ilt z = U dl:Jl. crmvcl]!L;'>1.0 u. spot of 11 'b{llll'l Il.eg,;(!~~ refrn.ctio!1iI ,ShlOO a!lid :r-resficl v>C prud~leiimillcd :;;iz.c a~ the :lOCill phlllC'~;;; = l A~ahough 1hl; alilg~llill'.spiXrtnlm ut:presenl!aI.iorl :6Q:l1C' 1)la~cs ' J 9). ~i~il'iItU~ll. 1~11iq\lC'lydcri:r..U:~F be 'oru:: or I'he 'CRt'ill:;$~n'c()fl1po!liIe~~.s of :;J~tIWS iha:i .fl>r\~~O}1 • mim;-d ~I iht~ Ifiro:I:';]fIbD~(! wlucs,F(:~\)·,.n (Ille ~he c~lric {E.) 01" i1Ju:,1~k1gll1C'lic {n} nclcl " ;uK! an~lcr to ~;}(! rocusing jl!rciMem i~,lo1 lIitli"ltte. I a...~"ruIlllC ~u.t~1I Ihc' licrd ~ml;:I;·~ <!I..1.\C 1ll~~Qchmrnatic:. \vhil thm: clcp,;;:n:dCllce given .by f!'~~(i;!I ;md lhe' sean:h fm~hc: oplim:1I ooh.. ui:on ls imt {ilj lis lIre 1IIIlglllml'li:cquem;y~al1d d~:JIllhey ~~,e ' w triv.ia:i•. l~""C.allse"focIII :SIXllI·· is. al.besl, at11 d.lec~he ~cll of<ljXll1lkulm: plm:ne..,den fJed <L'l. : (I, tro:JlllJ:gll'lctk:lny v3,~\1'e,collcept. 111C di m"l.lhy Ti~cll. for ,: ::: o. F g<l~isficslhc nellmho~lz here .Iis [I~a~u: \vwrlg. ,ha~oc of F(;r~\~nnlO.1Y t'q~I",,~lo!1 \/:1 F + A).F = I) "hPld car! ~lll8 hcor.Jxa ruull in a ~idd dllti[ is un~!it<lbl~lbrappiil;'I~!'QP1s..~la't di '!.I~rgt.;"S. (lf~h..l ,clOt.~:n(ilc),;;i~t (~\,,~~con"~~it.;.1l.C"Cof
U1CUC',;U

~h. .u

W!$!',.'S

1P<1!lt~~'mcd. pl;)l~l'lf:;,tn,q·C'tu~:> W

~l]d~l~

both Ihe :'illbw'~'!i"kKnlg!.h a!1d!hL:l conv~.W!ti(l'll'~]'

ditl:rfL~ti~I~~~~~'1l' rLm~ V."iiVCll~m[l, Bc"'i5d 00lUil~ 1l1.~~ :.;i:[ll.\:~s .!UHl, mure g\.Tti(.']ll~Jly, ooll:roc·frec ck:Oilfmlmsn~ctic ri.clds, with coO'nnp& l~clIls ol"ihc l(ml1d~(p}cXpr'K(qll)=l,li!I.~lere III it; a vccllJl· :[IOln1lml to '~llC a"'I$, 1).1<1.)',i.li cm,c],i.lil roic::' in, m,·a:r~tl:ic:.I'd l~~Jsiu-.g. OLl:!' ,IPl1fo<ICh to ~Ib~\'avc~.,e.~glhl:ocusi~lg
lh~W(':tli..l.m:Qv.TI

mll~ cmn.;o;;ptlnldiltlil c.\i)~,:\!'i;i:QUj :t'or E;". N(,I~J; til ... ~g.!:CXIP[iiK{qiD l:] ~md: .J.kMlJ (~l'ilJll'l(t40.)::] ;;I:re, .n:;i:ipc"Clivclly. :;ollUuorlis of bq,&'. Jml.d 4 Ib.r rutimlry '1'0. ~c~,l ~o.H1C: ,,:v.iln,CSOClll, 111100(;$fhr. 'flU. :> ft. POl: l{ltD ..:: k,. ~lC c()J:~:'IOm;lhng :t'ield:l!arc

~li!,;'PbcinJlIlu:Ik:,.~~ li~!:t:,;!km.ll ~1y,I("

=

Idi~
1:x:Sl

,on;'l Il~l1}'

loflhlC'

nC1~r

r~kIU:lal

Il:I dlC'

'Di':,a.fllllllflllof ~j(5,1i111e' t!l1Ii~ IiMidjlli~n., m No, A M! 48109-104(),. USA.. ~.m:ai1: .1~'!I@i1f1l1l:liil«llil

\VhL;!tPI]

;I.

btlililldm)'

I(pW~J'i ~u" HI Ct'II!aI:!) Ipi'I'Ll'il ... or il1 a . ),. bdjJn~.. A~~nu::[hat j~t,:1;(p [~:",(qo ~:::I i~PlIr1!:or!i ii:tl!II,.i'~imt ltl M ilN;\Vc!l's \.'tji,lilll.io]'i.~~un1d;1fl'i:U ii rmdd Ih3lil~ dimc~i,~1 'io iIrHWik~ll1iIll~nl ~Il ~~I,i~J

.of mlr kltGW.!cdgc"

ha,'l !iil~ ~!l

IODI~sidl;f:!Cd

I

REPORTS
tht:.rcF(lr'C . ;)P'pTD.'!j,~m."tc tiilq) ::; i q so ~h<lt m Qlhel"l\,~jsc) Flr •.;}::- j~ d(/,I"~·-Iql:MU"'d''I!I-'llY ~ .. 'dql~n ~irl i : = ,t), is gf ilhlC farm ~hi.'l0l1JlP'!1.1i': i!~l1'iol:l,f' i~ hn!l!H~!l !!;;', i.e., o;p. f :; 0, M (:P') =<.~ {liiI) wh~~ M i:ii ,. 1,~g(~I,I~;;t.ti(m. ~i(l1!~ '!.-vhid~ is ot;:h!lI{HJ;:k'rizcd by dID ~!~-,",:gl.h;;;~;I~!Ll .• , lor ~rhiir~ M). L~"!lt~in~po:;lr;Uffi Jar !l '!Nidi;) L :;:: t ~ 2uf,q,[] and ~[:i,:;Fi",-'l;, [he ~-qll,lircl~,'1~nE:-; '!i':lrnd)l of moOd nilnti~JJl JUDIe! iOll:>,M1tiihCl~~iit"a~I)', u sW!rrk:icnl ~wi~io!~ for rOCl!SiLl,g i~lhlll M gpccir~d lMllI~,.'\,\l" Ih~'I,.ilcanix: :sl'!O~~'1'fi;)f l(hiI, »k ~l~oWlI'd<lv,(;" on1;' (lIT lilmm IXl~'~ illl:ht.:: iI;(lII'I1P~·-'; h !11!1!~ile lidd oon~t~ t It) il, ibeO'!J ~l ,of '~~~ platte wil~ J~011iOC[(i,i1illflg;UIlI,II'y !tQl'fipoU~¢JU~.To olWl,tijon cld1!'iccl~:r' t. dcr I]m~~,g:'fti[ig Ih~llllgt! ,;;I di:r.lnli(\i!: or ol'lkir 1. thi... t:'tl(~1 ii:i. illilll~h:aJ~!XI roOf prove [Ili.,," We .fllbii>!,jl'li.e Llll.1~ .Aftl')' i:;. 3. IiCjj:~ fliid a IiitOlh I.~C IL~i!l~d.w~1Cll.~ieimil, <"I:i'ldijJjmiil:h'!~II,y :li;'yI'i1I~ even liti'i,,;~iQi:I.\\,il2hpoks m. 1: ;L ffiil'["!(,;n~.~ir!~. m1e~:ti:e ease iul ~lFii.!1;. I,. Thcbii:>1CtJOj\'C~pl" of i:K"ali'~ si,I'II'Ipile iin\!.~i1li,li(}n! We' u'b]i1~i:I. for q@ ,. O~ • f:icJJtllcmshl.£ me best UndL1r,S"lood~1'Ithe ¢)'~ imJr:ic!:I1 f-:1~,' .:)Oi: l(~·IItJ;g(.1',:) where Y,,-'C11:1(lnijl, :l:n &} 3. Ifikc Ft~·.0) =~'/{;I')i!M and .i,lltiC:srnIC 1:0 l"'3lcllhuc F~)".:'~ For » k. ~11erelevant ~!Cil!t~smoe ~\'ilI1CSOOI~l WllV"Ct;;, We can
'C'Cn1in

lie~d

cg~nPQIWJ1fl ('Ci!fl~~l

at I h~

;l.O'~IWC ~!"IlC.

r~!~~

0\~1'sQ.!dj! ~C!' :lilrh;\i8 l'll,,'Onlimg~cdlo ~in~p~'Po~~"~ 1~1!!t~ in ~'~i;n~~in<!fY"",~~,~.ron li:!t;; sh cn\lll!~lm! W rOt;~l'li!11il. ~Il "~foI;l' .~ ~~'rJJi!l~t;I, \'Vi!:l1frligl~~.'T-t1g:d(;r ~lO:t~~.(;~.)b~lod"'~~tiorl iio:tl~ widl ull.\lliip1e j!K}J'~"ti gnv,.;,a~ulh!p!c rod, mId, (iii.~nhc ~~I>!ind .i~~l.1,gimu)' jliill'l (~f l giVCIll pole' < d~'!i~[lllin~, ~-.;,ti\ld.y.,~h~ gft~", i!ol~i~iO:!l ~If mli.~ t"clICal: llpGl iiltd I]i~ com;_~rol]~lling fnC;lJ, 1!:iI~i" \Vill.1i il'i lhu:;; eOI~b j;:t. it ili. ofill1tcn:.~~1 ~o e i.Hj]~~]lyOiiif 8iUlly~i~ 1.6 a!lcg3ti\ie-rcrrn'CL~0I1 :;.1911 milm. c.xhilbib:pe.u.!CCI foe LIl'l;,n,gm. rl = -I t.I 1 ).

AI~h01..,gh

r!.l!~

For

I

I

"II <<::: I ,mn.aa seuree

ootl:;:i!;til~~

0

ra

~jo

liblC of dipoles, the e:1>!lu'C$.'l;ioll f'tif' the neld is kMwn mm~ytuc,O!lly ,~J.1. ,n). I n.plJIrlkulru'. if Ihe

ZIt = ~,7

U."'+l~+=)t""'ttJ,'+f.~~+( i.i"+,l.-t.:)]
y2

+ (;:+L)'~

(5)

.

~J:<lb [hk:lknt'$S is d:;md~he ,'101jJ~ i~ u d:Lo;IIDICil at Ii ~ frn~H ~IC' n~'.mt'$l sbt} Sllrl:;U:C :uldi. dlef~iore. i~ i!1ii!H~<: i~ u1 df2 Irmll !h~{Hh~~r :;.uria~ Un. mh~ (~'!auJi;'$tt!lllil)ki <'!. ~he,,"1';:i;, !ir.tJe urnl~iG'f'i[lnb call be wl1l1e~1as Mll')~ """here

As <l!:!:l~i(;'iJN1'l,,-d. !hCIJ"'Pft$~io~~
IJl1l¢k('lCf;

l~
I

j\
·t

I

.Zil.::;: 1
'I

L >'> f. 1/'11"..L) 10:; .le-qu'1..1S!inl(qo:~'l2)/T~ VIB\(: tl~m. Ihc s~nlgul:lrit~iet z. = l. and J' = {I us' i)c.'UllOMlble rimd 1:11I11111c ~C'Cml[lreml gives a !l:lullJII Wt:if1ecttt.a[l of on:k:1i' f It ~o tl~c n::S:CIi'Lllj,Olll. Because I;],.c~e are no phllsCSBi.",,,oci~DCd wilh
C'I'ml.C8CIO'IU

lb"ldl;

!D

f~si~,g

.1'[ _::.=

L

iu:;idlJ Ul!o:l M~hthau. for
~u~d = -Ill ~ , IIi Id 04'), As LJ.'(peek~d.. 1:\:'1. !'II) CNhi.bits fl pole m y = id12., ref'lec~illig lite lim\ll~e 10000Iial1 nmll. 1iI;'lOroo\cC'l",dl!!' Cl'Iiu)ression lill" '/fi' j~ ill, perrOCI agr'CClltcm Wl1:hlhc k IlllW n slil!bl"~.so~lJilion (JJ, /4, 14). Because Jl1 ha.;:,m in!~Il[te rlullll)CU nof addil ion"~ po~,'.;... ;tiI y = 1((;1 I 2 + 4",,1). \vhcre f) :;- [I :is: an illiicgcr.ri1 fJeill'~P"!rl:cct Si3b wiU C1.;hlbit no-t jUt'lt GIiDC, but an infinite number

~\

zIL=

Q

I~~ 't~11I o
'loP 20

dill] ~1C: IeU~Siblgproce...~ :;,!tows. ~clll:ale signs of llmlVcllticm.al. iJ1letfcrencc', p,tlrt~CllI:tilflj' ill .he \V3y the waves cOl1luihllUiuSto Gq. 3 add lip 0011staucli.vdY and dcslJ1l!c~i\~elyruD~l!c roc-a] ()I~me.

,:va'i"CS. iI. ,'!i1ll111idoomCllS

:I ''>I.If('I.~i~

or

ro.rwhk:h the iUnCJllSil}1 dccm.~l:scxllom:nBecause i~ ill'!'I,'oh"Cl" ]lO!'l'L~adialive medcs, we ~~'jlll !.i~]I~)' \\fidl p. lh~tl(,kli~ to!ml, iIlIl~~cs <'IOC .~ dae 1Il1'ulri,lIt..: [il.~n~tinllll 1Ili.1i,ul~g lfoln lite ,,,,iigill iJ11J. ~ [1I.~lhW this W~(;OI!\'(:I~[ ~Q!]'lIl !b:rn~of rni'.':lIi~ing il$
illfmg.(!S

Fiig. a, Sijb~'I!a,\I\etenl!!1IthJ foclJsing., (A.) nWD"' d~.nsiiDl!l.'!l case: 1fo/,Z);l ~~tI!i.1'\'l'rro:rm EcR. 3

r

F~,I))oq,r~§/U +~~1l.Y

rOlfl.~')

andHt

=2;5. ~8} Ali-

wooro

SY~rrJ\l~,ttric~~ r-11(P,_zJ~2 ~ Qoj] rr'~111ISq.4 Wh!lf'~ ~P'(P.I(Jt) IX l:l (q~p'}f(l.'-I" pill!;::) ii!liId Ltl= B. Th:e (~mloorr pl'ols :tJ:ow' '!he f«<ll ~ineW and

rin.'9 (SJ' at Z= to

_

n.m;c~ifiu! \\Iith po.lc:sm.y = ±{l, ne caIoLli:[li,ti(ms arc consistent whhl)q;. S and suppm1, our con~~ntiOD-!dlaI, for 1. 2;' {. Iii.;: toof~1 ~~n,g~ihllld the a rcsolm.icm tL!C dctGlimim:xt hade;pcmkildy,. 'by ~he mool.lkttio:n length. L. mtd lhe ~tC,nlg.h senl..:: of the lLIlpcrllqlbcd fie]doolillpo:ncn!. l. A...." sllO\!,U in F~g. IllthenllodLl~ru~' ;[!Ziiul~nh311j1S}'1mn::lr.t.;; lield (nngliklC ltK:u'J)' c.dlibUt'l a sinlll;]lf e<1l'cct.

I'ruji[lt irmlb;$. il1~~('CI"(;lJlC¢. PigliioC 1.1\ sh()1,.\~p:lm.R of 11.,~: .2:, obtained ':', IroJt'iI Bl3" fOlf lq", '"'"(~. t~ld J\if = l] + Il:..Tu. This fOiillil (J:f Ai is; fhc sUl:npJ.~ om; lor Ml C\'CfI

l'

f,l!.."Jf.hillO(:mi~l'i1ll1lth at ilti; ~lab~\"'.J.cu.un!l ill1(~rl30~. For 1~lC;wo-(~im~t1~io.lImlgOODnmry. 'ihL':' ~OO\lC l I'C.."\IJ~I~ (".'I!I1ociriviany cXICn&"'tI IrrmJi [he SiliflprC sinusoidal In IDle gcnernl C'1liC Q(ra 1J0J:ii,ooic .!ield IKl'},ofpcnoo t. Iti3> appml:nl. ~hltt. lor 'i'i~Ues,al. Ihe souree 1)1i]~egil\ICn by Fl~·. 0') M (y ).P:tCy,. mile flck! :will cO'J~"''C\i'geat .: - L to 3, focal spot or ~t . 'fJ~is Sll8£.C:ilI.,,> !hc IlJilJl Ibrll 1]II'UClk::;d infllPklllenml~Oi!l cylilldricn:tl f1ca:r~lktd lcJuifng;. .N. a IJoCriioo~c :I:ield ciln be :sill~ply n,'C1I'I ilzcd by IClting .;]1 Ili.1J1C W3,VC go~hf(:mgh iIIn moray or ~»rio<lkllUypitace.d :sli[:s Oil" riboons. ti'[ :8> c~e1!!r ha~ I) ~

=

sr~

or

F~g.2. ~dll!nCllilllesli 'i!li~err-eli~!1(:~. S(;i1emric s'heml1'g ;li, slJ!rbw~v~:~~ngttl r~pr'e:s!:lJ;lI~~dl ~I mlQdli!t~ted arll"~Y,~f~!neC!r I:liIrf~liiIt SQuro~:i ~ll= [I (A) pll!hl', @s, , alnJdltheplaneshQ\l,!U119 Uu: fo(.alll,lne. Ul·~ 3:; S~I!' Eq. 7. (B} Contcmr ~lotof tmiHJ. HJ' (olfllQur Iflklt ,~f I'H¥(z,y) I H,(z,:Q}liO!.•Itle dla'shed \llih]~-e Line all l ~ L d'BnoL'es;the~ocoii l IIlI[alnl1'. .. . 92.8
117AUGUST :2007 VOl317 :SCll::lrNI~C:1!! WNw.ociem:emag.org

REPORTS
iTIl;k! Qi'llw form .~:lbl)rl"J') can 00 QbmhlCd Lry inIfOO\!cln,g, <I i'tto\",~yv.mfyi!lg mooll!lmioH~l1, ,'()lilY,
~li!cw~~h 9rhh~ I)~vp""ij'd~,~ uh~'rlil<lwri .. 11 91' whit;:h ,m ";~~1~1!J~1i:>ll1a~~_ Si~ni~~ldy,. il~i~:I~ ~m._"i~ of azil!l1t:i,tIMi.l1 ~'Y!l~nlI1dry 8(";';,.'>(;-1 beam c,n~ ix: •.
ll~d l,og~1hl;. ,,\'i~! a ~ of ol:)nten,"c~j!"!g.~ properly ~loci~II;:n~-d 'widlil:i pla~cl ~.~r.W i~S<llli~,.

gil~lC.

Qr

s"cl I[Ir i!llep;;h;n~ging c'""])"'~tr"e end lndtllcIQ,\'C ~1t..'lllil;.'iJ1~. flg\~'I'C 28. :s'ho"\I'sa conby
~!:;!l1g <l
~O~lr Ilkl~

~, o. It Srnlll!i, .1, lB. f~lll1il\l'; I. C. K, MIBimre'. S'd~lKrf' ::!:(l:S.• M

I

100

(lQ(l4~,

,j

Qf !ilw J' ~lll,l1!t;lJ]~'!1t n!'~h~ din~i,I;;d m~~~l>i,itil;:rililtl (1i;}:g;lri!hlt~~'C ~I~). Th~.J;;~r~~j~~,

or

ry.i~]~ ~f/~ I = lJb The Itdil1ology for ~\~XlWi.~ .II f~Ie'~iiiri[lg p~!teJ. of [hisll:~ lid ror mkmw<'l'!,i\~ 1Il«lj'hU~l10i!~ 1iIw; OO~i~ j},\r.l~lmble. r.o.J' {"Illlile sm~le 'Iin~'K:. wh(."fC<lSimno~itbuieali{m nncdl{K1siln'\.'oh.'~ il~, fOr C:l!ru~~W~c. cloc!ron m.'tl, rocllsoo iQ-l~be,mm Ii~h~rophy" can be !tISOO ro:r the inb~Ull:d .''laW oplica! :rm~g:C'.An hI1JKilt:rnI, ctuls!idem.tion inlhc
d~,gt~
,~)t'I "

are :o;.ip~:li~a~ tolho.'"¢ ~po:ti,~JtJ rorn.cgmi'vt,;>-illdcx shlhs I t4, 15~. !herohy ro~~caii:!lgthe c~~re~~I' V. A, foodi.sYl)', 'Nt/G R.:5« .. ~ St,. AI 461 3'iii" 6n:!1.'.hi:Jil' ix:!'!IIIQJ:;li Ihf; two rhClf!Om~m,<l I~JI'li. (lOOS~, fialO!:~JIY" tohdp <'I~trlail1 !l:lc migidl ort.ld:i~l:i{lj~'i· ~4. R. M~l1fo..l!PfJt ~ .iiNl; :a~" 129:1) (()OO'4). I~:.t ~li\i.i\ltl~[C'.l:lt~;. ~~iil1~V hi Fig. 2C: :I ~ilj.Gar n. It Sbellti~, 10. Po:. SmL1l\, '5. ... we Sda'ilrJe' ;292, n ~. plot e rllt~ IkJdiiiilcn:;;uty •. 1:IQ:iiiu.ilittltilto il.~lo~£t 16" ~ Gfbk, 1(;..\1. ni!roW!~d~ M~ ~I'!.!:.ttt 9',:t n7~(lJ (200~}. va:luc 91 ;[I lll.henl;r, ]ten(lelin~ '~Pf,()f,k!rLy or [1iI~ 11, M Fan!ij,IH.Iiee. C 5w!\ X. 2tl~, 5~OO8,. s.~ twollt :I)~ro..,> or J.lJ~ the fi~~,.;: dcal'ly shows bcl'llllvior 1.8, t Ta"oo~r, II). K(!fo~!liil1. y, Ur1h~rnM'; G, !ibl{l'"" rel~linisoe~1I: (lJ'.fWthll OOWllllil,s. ;ill lhal~h~: d~,~: It !fIiUen~t.and~:5'd~i1«'3~, isss QOO6t rr..ilctkm of I]~e l~lnWirodltcecl by .Ii 1)<ll1kLl~llr ~9. E. !i!~~ O~ri(l:(Addi$g~11iW5Ie'f, S!!.~ ft\1!1tiiiW" ;;!OO;n.

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Uhe il:lcid~Jn i:~rrx:I:r,icnddiis parallel willie cy li~ldrical ,}~iis:). Such[l;~~ ,;:m:<l:)' euncms, with o:f ~h!:' ~~igi!l \,'m:lYi!L"~ fmm ~ltlC' e:lcmellil tOlllC' 11\:'X'~. ~.m be n.... illw .,~ i~ r~red ;!I;!1dop:~ical f_f(~ UIilU~ d
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III liIill@nbr~md~11,T'lI~bl!ll'il'. FlO 1!L~i1maM.N1:lWIe 41e:, rss i(~O!ln:ll. 6- M, Ie SI{i!Okmaln,. 5.. 'LI'_ !FOI1~i!!I'; Iil" lll1ietgrmn, f!t:y;.. liIe,," a;el (167<102 ,(,oon. I. G. Il;ero~~. D. !k ~O~!'T% .~ T~wi!l, ~, I'imlo;.S6eirlfi! ns. llZO[OlOO7). It :P. C. M,. nal1~m" M. c. :J. \farn dBrValk. ,Op!:tal. 29. U06'!2004:i.

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ell£Q!;y.1,i':vel 511~:rhsb,awacn Oll~ exciion, ~md two OJ more' c:x.dil:Oua suues, cunhUilg ~'iC syslcln to be considered liS fi relal ively siil1lpic ['ew~kvc:11 ilrob~crn. The s~]lg-fleld C,;'\Ci~al['On l"C,£in,lC orlhc Imali.'loilioll fmrlllinre :ground statc~o

dots ·aI~~· lYIP'i(QJRy- 'f~:r"ledrfiQm lalf'!!!r~ ~rQupkI9$ Ol( atQImiS and thl.!!"S !ii'liry bl1l e~prt(!~d t~ ~al1jJ\!;l'~lPp~eciilJljlemalfl,y-:b(J dy Ibeha1iiQr ii1f1Id!eriii! t~n5e Qptkall 'e:«.itatl ~n. N!Met~,~1~$$,.HII~Y are kitO\~1"Iro exhibit d~$'Orrerte eml,er~w(eljjel$ dl,lle tel ql:lanlldm (Qj;'Itil'lem,e'm1~ er'~'ec:'t.s.We :sh@\l1 thl~, il\lke :>if1lgle·.a~'Omlor :iil1lg1e'!'Ilolec,llIle [\Yo" al1j~ lilIuee ..level '~lJIailItUrnI, :SY5lems, s~!tlg~e ~emicolldlJ1ctor
Q~a!lt\H'Il r(J llIii1lntmlll dob oCaillalso ,exh~'biltinl~erferremo:l phel10lilllena, \";hel'l ,~ri:vell :~imuil.t:aI'leolllsly IbJy tl.~(1(I pli,c,8il r~etds" Probe all-siQripllOlll1 spec:bal ilre Qb:ldiin:ed that ,exh~lbit. Aut~er-lIIQ\Vlilll:5. ~pllUtil'l91 !''Ylhen:the IQ pUc.tllfields ,drivoe ~QU pteiJ hal'ls~Hom ilnd m,liIlIplex MoU.ow,rela,tedl strudure. iImdyd]1iI9 gal I'll witho:U~PQp;LJlatiOlili rwersionl wIlu th~1f the :I<ll!ll~ lfiHlisilthm. Our ~fll!ll~ OIP~n:the Wa!y ~o:r th~ demlils;trtitiiu (If ~!C!lirUlrQI.!S 'ti!l!!.!lntulilil wvel-basedl o:.I!JlilUGatqQm" :l1~cl1 i!:S, qiY<'lfih!11irl d!ot: ~c!:lei!S., r(;ilptiG!'lIl m.~d!l!~ii!t~f~,. ·il!i.ialF!tllJlfIiI lo~k d~Yk)I\!::I. C!ln~

a Ca.'L!:I~mnb palr. :60 llu::n dcl'in'oo h~' !~ :;;. 2,! where miteRabi li:cqucu:ICy n1t = ~. ~ > i~ a 1U3J111>iltou: IhlcwIClth (il II '1I,'i~lh a~ hal f.uaa.~i'lllm~.l. in Uz~, ~ ~ Ih~ o:~nsilion dipole ~~lOlnC!1!t.",~.ld.Eis !.he a~nrliwdc or Ih~ op~'iI;--.t1, dC(;ui,c ncld. F~r dmc ~1k;!ii.I~ Ih~u~:1. ~mroL'l~ "j'ill!! bolUl~, ckclron·hn['e

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9J!l@lIl1lklu~dul

IJooal:!'. ~Ilc~udins qu.ll1t!.nn COlI11R11ns, si ng~ci photon SOLiJr,(X'S,and '1l1:m~mn rep'~il~er:; (/-ll. QDs, are ~:;Hiiculi:iirily 'IUi<!cl.iw:: for ililcsc appHca. tio:IL~beca,lIsc' ~l!:Y 1li113'\iC :in IllElln~' ways as, simple staluo,nmY3!Om:it: i(1J'~mll~eoLlIa.isystcrn$, (4) with dJ~£oote !!!tl~~swhctIJ, lihc doc~mfll~u)le pgir c,m be l!t:t!li!.'id'!:$ a ~,\'C~I-dcf1ru:;d cmn.PO()SiIC·
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~'hc"bare" ~t.l~ I,;t lV-I> end 12. IV) i1fC (_~Il.~ ~mw, W~lf;.~)I;! }!;i' 1<l11<C~ tht;ll)hO'i\!!nl,~llI.!1I1be:r nl'the dri,ving f~~~!d,'f}!t;l glti;ln~..;nIi)1:~; iI1t~m~l.ion ]in.. !11i.'l dcg.~~~-r,,~)'mw prW.~~~ "g1r,~-..~d" st,ll~\'ii In(JV ,m,d t~{fV .I)} h:'l.ving CI1L~rgy Sl,;p!il1l'~inn 11!11lt.18 ~~ml\',\r!!. ; The dl~S:;;od !5WtC8 ;lrelhte<Jf
~ IlP::l'i~ntC1\perim~~~~11 fI."S~~ll.\!, Ihe AT of ~~.lining!i!Jildc\lmfl!~'''' Moilmv I!lboorption specmun MAS)tJ8i~g ~ ~,h'!g~g 1icHi!il;)~mdl[ll~!~f Q.O, WG ~o.h~,n.ly QUllltol iCh\,'l ~lifO~ :.h.wfP!ijm:l widl a SiR'lllfl ,optL'C;i~, Hidd, dl:~b dtc'ti{ll:liir"~U!lig ihal i1iic :;.ingh; Q!l) ooW!pk,d wil.1m~~ .$Iiro!lg, IKlmp C'OJ!1
01. laser 'with a .3'OfJ-KU;.: lin\:1widlh. slIO'Ii,\cSI!~lt n:he ~~IH<d ~C~l{m has ~wp !iI1l;<lr~y ~~,.d;rj~~,qltl"ll1~I!fIn t!1.,!!;,~t.~!!.,,,\,\'.il.!i! Qfm.h.ogQIHlj PQI~lfiZil,tionl>. Thi;b~-s~rl\.pt~l~ :l';pllit,.

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e(m~:p~ex. FtM'llhc- iJ:lrnc·I!!~oC'lV ~l',"lebi'i1(Fig. lA" wh~ ~le sU'o.n~ Illc'.ltl 1!0l11~1G;Icvch, :1 and 3, Ihoory predicts IIW":lhc' I~robe aL'iSOI1Jliou nom level ,2 ro level I is :;trunlg~y mO(Jlil~~d foom,lhic !J,'>l!<li sfJ11!j;1~,e lO~erllZ~<ln i'I\:~n~nlhe"bscnce ,o:f' ,~~rong·l.l,cldc;x(;irul!io!l.I~ ~rrobc ;lbSOT:lllio~~ sr],i~$ into hVO !1i.\VOmln~"($:. nown k ,,~"lih~ A~~~b'"
tATI .:;pliuing Wh~!l.I]~~'~,rob~ d'll'iO:~ll~~gn Ihe' ~lJiOn~ly driven u·.JIm.ition on l~lll"l,W~II)Jl I'CV~I~ 2: ;uK! .n is 1TW<1f;l!R"d. 'tl!~~«l('C:.. ~ !:i'\un i;;; l'l'uul;:h riclll\.~f. N¢~,'" ~hy:>ics 'lXlyond tfim! ~~'Cn inl du~ Munow n!$'l~t;1!{1!..i llrirp~ ill Q~ 1>{'r.'tl~ Ii 8-J'l) lind ::II]!>Cs 1:'i:tlIn Ih(~(',!JhL'fCtU co/upHill. belwcc:n [j1:C l\!,1'!l) (Jlllicall ficMls,Wh(;lf! 1,11e alli ,~roq:llCftC}'or tIllc :Slror:lgP'lilll~IJ fI!.':M is R ,'iii] nk ielJ~ly lruugc'. thc~'biSOrptioi1~lrum. S~l(l'\?i'S g..~jrm wm~IQut [population iaverslon,
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.,"P!lill~ C(H~ &~x,,(l!i!Jn1, 'W{l can

1I~!,'; h~ ~f!l~· ]

(211). QD tlp!i~;,iI1~nO(hil,l~lan;;(23}, ,fu~cl~liJI!lIlllill1l!. logic dc\,u(\(" H,. TIll: ~ySlCl11.'Ofiin1(u~I'fu;;a siI'lEli1~,iliCILnm~: r:iriAs sell'~::lsscmbledl cn1Lbil.lcl:dt-d iI:! !:l Sc'~umky dIode S>l.ruCliLIl'C at S[K. ~]J).The ~Ypii.md siUl£~c. l'le<lllil. ~inCill" rihso:rpl.totlll spoclClrum ,or~ !'iing~ QD

on

d<i~nC:JI approHc:l1 \\lllL,rfe Ilw fIe~tt" ~Ur(llUllt(;):I '~o 1Jc. ctlll&"tcOlI. .110! ls nhtl'd i[ug(1n3~.ift:\~d1~!lIli~i~[m!imjJ ~br d'iC OD :Slru~~uro {.Fig. ~. ), The !'CSU,~l" r A o calculbti!m~in~he h,il" 3Ilp:ropria.!e ro~bis work are Ilrovidoo ttl [i~f:! SilIlPQi1if~g OI]liill1e Mmc~il.:1, t(25). The' thool)' t..'l:!'i! ru c.}I~)Crim.el1,ta] dm."1 willi,

Fiig. 1. fA,) "I'Ile ei'ii';!r,~lMt
,ti~agraJlll

'QO. The a'b!'iOr~tlon of 'Wile we'aS::~H~b~ bf~m .by ~V!" 1II~11:~eilttetrh<l~mm V Of H is liI100ilied by' the slroo.g jpl!! mp ~m. wllklllis; n.e~r re:!ionarwl 'with ualWinon HI. (O) Th;~ dr~~-stal,e picb,i~ ,(]!f the S¥Slt~ show~ i~W.

,~rial sJ!iI91,e

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The 'tJrarw~Toof1S; il~~eelm ~ L~IQ~antum S'yst6fl'il, ~(~,N)9ItN»!'!!iildl I:tN+l). 'O!I!i:tsnd:~ Ih@ 'il'.n~rg!l lrange (JI( Iih~ drnagraffi, ,fjl'l.l 11~~ Si'hOiMI. III a w@f!k OOI!H11 probe'S 1ir.a,IiIr.ilioni,2:.1, as ~ho~~1iI1by the gJ'eE!n iltflrU\'II!S, ijiNl! i!b£orption~eclfil!tm ,OilffilsU of a d'Oi.!bL~t.II\g~()lrin~ 'ali!! s.taoo r,Uh~ !~missil'!r1 specll'um of U'ans1l]l'!!1 ,3',2 ~omim ,tlf~hr'~' '~'"~ (M~i~v~ll trip~; 11 Il'~k Qe\nli5ed1l~ the ,e!~et1Jl:onr(

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,.~

,.,l. \.',.J!-.k..N'>':, •.. :. ....... ...' -;oI!' ..-""
32159Z.a S;2t 500.:81

:32:1586.8

Prooe IFreqlu!II1CY (GHJz) ~M!Jfls5li.a:n '[11,. fllildll\!iQ f,:fliJ~, s5d@ b'.:!fI ~ wc.aloo~t ,m :t :UR (Si'hOlWfi ~V Ih@ l!laJS:h~ liilile~).{()S.'il'illgte-be-.allil, 1~I'I!e'araMorpl.io.n p.ra6le ,md iii single eoc(ito.nslate'.Th~ horiro~ti!~y ((If v@rti~i1!~Y) IP(i[,ani~oo tiiillM!Dlf'!~y "~dres, oor~espon~l~gl ~i!l~dy ~ tbe pDl:arilcedl exd~n trlll'illsithm.

Fi91,.2. _.!!I~Ht!i'~o\!tmi'l~i: T spliitt~ ng by lIIilE!aln!iof [I ~llngb!!' 011). .A ~lrQftlgI~IJIIi11!P

A
Fli!JIIi\P IIUlta"si~ 3(1,110

dri~5trgfliSit'I(I~H.,,~dI~
wt!<3'k pmbe

rih~ ~~ P1!~P Vs~f!

tran!Si(iom v. (PJ Prc!ll~ ah~s.ol:pl'kln 'SjPi!!Cb'.:i ~a r'Il!!lC~ ~ ~ion Q'I'the plUmp ~nlnsUly
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~ililice'. ~oequ\fj!s; :Il.2: WkmOl• tW The~irl Iin:!ls1Ire tht1!~r'~~· ~ i((I~HIS 'lo~h!! data. Wi'll! in:!itlt ~l1eWlitlhe AI spljttlngl

i

:a

-(1.,00

-0.12 '0:10 :321:591 ~1.594 P,tJoM FrtJq:L1~r'lcy(G~) 3211591 Proibe' Frequency 82H'lS;1 ,(GHlz,

(Rabl splitting) as a Jundi~on ,(IIf Ilh~sq~,hl~ ~(I!tof~h~ ~l1Il11pirwtem~ty •. #1" rnll1Nr fit (~lid ~W!.e)~~nd1.esthe d~tat ~~ry i!\i~~. (B~' The P'l,~g~
albsor]ptiiOl1sp!!l[trr.ilI .aiSlI

r'l!rtcliO~~r ·Uii.~plUT1p,r~L!~F!~ ~l~!'!i~9 w~hrl];;~dlPilJmp lnOOIi!$1ty.'Ilhe ~n~ a!~ii!~i1elhe!)~tkal, 'K! tlii~ '~ii!m. ~its
117AUGUST :2007 VOl31'l
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REPORTS
Oi~ly InC :~~n~\'\'idlh <lmplimdc and
fj !ll!l:lln1C!Cffi Ti~1C '

.~s lree is C',dj:!!C~l;d from ~li!c!~r~c,'1if dq:lIqm~"~!lQCot\~~ $p~it~~I'!,gn lhc rl1,;~ o ,dipg!1;
!1JlQI1'!§llt

1'1S'lJ.'tC ,2~sh,(l!\"'~the rm~abrorp1ifll~ as a Ilm~~~~w~ Qr]~N'lpt1n~ (_~t\lni!l;g\'\lvth " rillli;lQ I~~mr

inw'~~~!ty'Of;~JD

15/0, as an e1rlamplle.~hc ;lb:i;Q:rptiQlll,.lg"gnrn~a(l is is !~n ~i'\I~~<ll,~gl. (!h~ .c~rro:;;;pondi,~gi~~~.o~~n !hCP'~!I!~l mtd I~ro'l~ l~qt]c'i Q~.lC!'C~t~y
;IDt;'l~~O,06()%JOJ}Oi2.4% = ~7'.s. Thi~ g:<q.V.fl
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Ixl~.JIJLL'i!,,': ih~iX' i:;~IQP'UPAT,~n~c:~ wht:ru In = L2W/(;fi'r,. cUirn;~P9l1ldil~g tiD .~ Rnbi Wlil~ W~iill<J[illill'\1~~(}lim~ I( J I}. \~~ U~ [\\'0 :rroqu~m:::y':~(I(:ked b1!limh:-,pc~~ 1n.'CIUC\llCY of - ~ = 1.1 GH.:., /\gai~~.~l!.: d,~~a !i!~.. tiaJl iJl\'cr.'Iion eil!!ha in Iht'i df1.\'ls(;,'t~- 'at om\,.... ..re shi fixJiill rop' C~,,~~I}I, ,~ndl!:hL;: so~ id ~i .ml,;"~:he o!!~(ll'll p~w.\'!I;',s. !~(;"" d(.'J.ll~y ~~I~~.M~ C'W b.'ilCffii ~\iith <1!.nlll:!U"'~ ':;011,'1;(· or!h~d,aw~('i lh~U~(~nry )1Uid ~how .!!'ood 't 15 The AT ~~Ii~lii:'ig C;i:!1 ~C!\!id¢ a 11li~r~m11 to C;n~ balld\viclth of Ii Jt\'!I' Mll:G (15). \I\ot ~~l ,~ li'~ ;igrurlti:Cl~l. itrI~3SlLlre 1.1iic dilpo~.{" moiit~IiU,. h 'Ih~ R."Lbi, ~,QriID~Ui~.ly ptillaciz'b-d pi,il!l~p~~Uffill ¥C~Uil1ru1iwjtlii l1'1eU trulls,utiflil. A we_f~k. \'ef~ie~:II~j'IOllif'h~(t! hi~h!.! Mi\S. where ~lC ptltil~pm~{I 1)['Obc froqMei~.cy h. a pmdi:lcL of the U~ilit!>itIOtl cl:iipoic beai'i:H ea~'1('jj.'eilt~y cOIliP:I~ W I]~e iSUi'ijC l.mi.li>il.IDll 1lI.10i11Dei~1 \\?i!ll,~hc opli.e3~ li:t:Id. From. ~hl:' e::..:.probe bean, Il'it"'in£Cfill:li: aemss trnil~ili1J:nV. The lind lh.epull1l) field IS ~Lm~d~o 1l'C5:01l'l1l1'bCC,. W~ Imcb..'d 1~lIb:i spl IlIiln,g 'W~1~11iC' cOl're,~pemdi~lg d p'robe ab.:mJln[o:1'l SiI:I!CClrnrm: ,clHfcrent plimlp bs.::r ob.'~el:"'lc~ fClat~\d.)'we<lik nmximm~ CCill1:t.'t'ed at !Jln~cril liI:elli »trel'II:J.I'h. 'we C;l[11~nreI' a lroulsi~iol'll il~H~fiiS 1+Ci1 re p:1,ottedii;n rig. 2A '" ilh incn:asia'l,S, ~a zem I~mbe ,d\:!u.min~ a!~d ~.wo Rahis!ldcool1d)1 d~'flolic mOlUcnl, of,:Jiholil 30 D' For [~b: '~m'll.i(nJ~~; r~HNI) il1ilel1)1,~t~. WiI1I3re shilled H,"L'I!h:ally ref The Q'D. The Eln sl.cin A c'eICffi,cicm ($pOnwlIl~'OWI~ darity. In :l.!;reJ.1ment'wfth dl~\ol}'(soillid ~il1c-ll,} li.~liuhdi:SflCn;i\'~ nne :-JJU1PC.s. he iplil mp rower T {lj}. d~~ pf{l!~ "ib~of('ll:iolil ,<;P:I,i!!'!, ,u d~l!~I~1 i~H~ i.'\In~ssi{l:n !OJ!~c) ra 'QID in ,I Ilte,Ji.WlI11 i~, iven o g d~PCI1.d!.m~ or (he p'H.1bc .i!I.'lWf('ll~~~~ :;1Jx.'C11.:rn ~lt Hh~oap!ioa '!i:' where 'cadl 'I~""tl>; has !;}quid :s'~!~g!I~. Thi.~ro i ,iI :;.bOWIl'! i!~ fig.. 31\.. The .5iugk~l'<lm ... _. ~~ )( ,filt"l~~. _ 9i~ . a.., "'(:rp' - j1J!ll -I- "Qlj1 ~,... .!. t'll .~~ "I~' ~~ I. _,,,,_ 10M "QO' dOll(!"EWL,: :p~itl![(;"d ,C~I111~ ooltrntl .. n.;- sl)ljel!'al~hifl sn~~11 QU(':I!'gy silli Il:or~h~ i1;".~p'u!l5~l'(.'lif~li \!!.) lomhL;l

lb

cxp;:riIi.1~~~i..[ully d~I~1oll~lrn~t: t~~

-~

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-

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IO'l/~'"'illl1lCnsit,)''~~!.iiation Ihm i~Jlml'l.ilhly due !OOl smruU :;egt'4'ui ~Ig gr~:I:I~ appHod~\.':ki by phill,~ C....ciKld cl1i!l!'!!lcin Illli d iod~. lll~ I'lh~n ~nl'.'*.'S m
:J,PO"\/1.,.~tb.;~l\,~tl] I.~~~1:O\\l~I-il'!lt~\n!\:~1Y C\irvC
1]1(:'

.m'!:!

!,hc UCi'l1ilighiLY-pL'!!\\It"rspcC'llfU~n,

IJ!1IllI!P b~r

is ftdj ilISICt! Hi rolllJw ~'iC' shi fI of IhcP..'SQmun~re, The :l:'rogm::ll.cy :iep:arnliO-ll bc!WCCIl 'du!' z1ib.. ,~ol'pliollPC<llks Scho.w'SI) s.lm~'Ig,dcll!Ciiro.Ci1cconmhe p~mnlJ il1ili:.'Il::1~1y. We 1)1!l~ Ihc'u1:Casm,oo spliuing <IS Ill. litmc~io~l oi"llic :o<qmll'e'rool of t~c pump imJ!n:'i~l)' in Iill~ iu.">C!{lir F:~.:;:. 2 A. TII~~ ~riliuin,g ck:<M!ly d('fDcnds ~.in.cil~·Y011 dIe' :p!'n~lp fic-!d strcl1igl]a snd ,spcs,w ~'W in 1J1C'ahsc'J:lcc ofl1Lc P~IUIl. as C'x:poctec] {"Ol' the id!!pelldt.1I1Ce orlhc AT
spliuing
011

(I r the dOll'l<.!willh~hl! :higilllJ{lWCI' ,~~~ ita] field ~!1. dl!J~ to I!IlI.1' (:l,Xil~u!);!!tiJ;m th~ c~'mf¥lC" S~Ol~I.'Sin [he tMlIlcr Im;('f. TIl~~OO!l!lI)~(l!l;,linc!'i!]I;lU}fJ on~)i,."lMAS d~~~id?; .~!Hl;Ingly ,~J'i Ifu(: IlUIlIilP :i)l~\!!fI~lY. TIte &:plilling Ix:~w~m~ UiC: two skie: lJantL" is;p~OIit.,;d :1:\. a rlUl1ctiOl~[If ~I(: square 1'OOil of LIre pumprinK.'.i'·

or

~"':ht'ro u

(IIQo)

iis Ihe l'Cli7!;ct h,\c inri.tcx tlnil~~ med~·

~~ ~ilo :q'If'lm!~mc(m~c!!iI~Il"iQI1i r.!ro of (l !Wo':~ ...c~ ,qli!"Il~Ulfn *,y~wm innM ""O'Iff,;U)1111," (19, ... }ll~lkirlg. B u = I~QIl) = 3A4 <,u:JdU!l!l\~I1.~!I!g mite ~~:u~rijl11l1J11m~ ~]a~iI!K~t($ a~ld L1u: t(:_',_xll'.relild! dipole rnmn(:~i]nUlrO [liic ~t]ri3tiioTl,wlI! tlbif~hjl

IIIrn (QD') and y~

sily :in Fig.. 3B. again showing dl:ll the: s~llll.il'lg ~... 190 iltU [z. W1lich ecrrespouds eo ~ life I'illill~ or abcmt. ~4CI ps" i\SSlJiI'l!~jnt Lhcrc is 110 mhc-.r. IblC1.lrly depends on Il1epuunp l~cM slrCIl,glll ilnd decay ~mdno l)lIred~plm.~ing. this woo.l'd ~e.adto a is zero in Ihe ,~MCrtCeof dlC IJiJllillJ field. IlmU1.<l1HtlCW~dlJl ~:l!~l!I."CIC(~ Ihe' IOI\!I:'"IXW''CI· abin The dma (OIlnrun I,bml~lc ~~irobc'beam C'1o;pcricm;es ~'~ital !;!li.li II i~1 the' ~D~U E~lp=~'m)hc :'I1lrptim~Spt."'CtI'WH ,;!I~[lI..'qu;tJ W ~ = 100 MU!l!,
1

d'lC R<libi rroqUI.r'llI(Y.

datil in .Fig. .3A :sh@w dlffi I1JlIt or dlC' IlOO'iJC abS01lp!ion curve is Ix:!oorw zero, wh kh is I1le "g~il]'~ clTl(.'C.iL U.si!.1!Jil, 1l1C' Ic.bt~. cooospoJldiI~g10

ooni'igul'lIli.on

for S!Wrlg C'xc;~t.:i:OJ1. ~c:rvu\s . n

I A. to 111c 'e.x ([·fic~c1 IhlC\vrulh :tlrmn Ihe sjil1gl~l1C'illll, low-pewer lldb.sOl'ption dill;), wlmich is <LOOlII!t500 M[CIz."f~ i.~ sm,lIkr by .~ r~cwror !)Ibo(]~uL25.. lrhi", disc~r<mcy irtdjC;)!~C8Ihr,ullll'CflC' ~s;
~",JI~Cl~
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lJroadens '.he lrrrn!~ili(iJnlunc'\.'li'idnl (3'0')" nl~!li iu~erprclmiQI1 :l;g[J._1C:.'O wi.lh ,[lUll plCvi(JUiSoSaidy on, :n, single Chll~d QD. whucb 3~SO iil~~es[OO Ihe ilLb.'1!CitCl! of pure' dcplt.\'l.. hl~.
~~11! Cilil,[Ilso c)al:'ilclll~1! C>l.cjll.o:n occay
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~he lil3. \\~ lind ~ .. ld !io~'{ 17fl ;1;16) M~I~~~Ulcl, u '13S"'l ±- ~.()) M HI~ li';;'';;'l'K.lOtivdy.The- dilL;ijry :~hs Ihe d,I!,~ v(.:ay w\tlll ,md iat.{!kOlAA;;; th(1lt I!1l1deJ~ ~hi;':\e t.':1'!~ril,1bC'.I'i!~~1 oO:lldilioH.,>, ~~Ie ~!i:ngk: 00. b~h~~"(;,, lik~ <~ :i>~I:vgJClImn1 ie: :;y~tCfi]" ~V(;3100 Ii,1[ftC' MAS dmn 1.0 th.eox:-y {.2'5J' (so~idIhtcS illl Pig. JA~ 111e ~iltiilg ji~..::~ds, <l1l.dIi' of (230 ± 12) M'llz l1:llId ~ J ~.5 ~ 4.5) ivU I z. ~'spix:li VI!Iy.'fhc " .. lYe (I r~
I

dcpll'3s;ulfI,g ml.es room lID.CATspHni~g mad MAS dm<l.ne solId Hncs ill H,g. :!A .~rethe thooMic.a:l, ~:ia. f .he AT ~oIiuing dam .fIJ.'>&~mni'l.g: Ihm '/3 = o 1~ and fu '" !O,whcue Yij'" (V~ r 1i) - r!ii" Yg is I'hcto~1 dtphmi>illsmtc,fi:llId I"'gJ!S Yleoono'ii:htltton: !o~hc !lic-pimsi.ulg rn~l: oJ Il1c',f} tmll:i!,~ti;o1Jlrom OOLH"e:;; o~~~,rhillllSlUlm~m~;:m~ oemis:;;foJl. I."ro:m t

$2100:3,5

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Ii> wdlhin ~![}% of iJ,llll ~)I;i[tLctcd f!ui'Ui i.h,.; .~l~VpUllliP liek! prolil~c. The p'liIy,sk:!I1 IXli<UiiiIlL.'tCi:S lrum ~he MAS <lud AT spHn1i1i£l daMI s~mw ~h1Lt Ihc

P~be IFrequel'MlY (GHi)1 F'llg- 3. ,M~Ul(IW,[!bs~rp:lj(lm ~poctj'lJ~ \1!ih~mt~e stronlgl ~1JI1'IIl11l' ~k !:Illd prlobe 1)(:1l111l5; (OO,P~ 'lOth:~ sgm~ ~r(lnsi['i(lll!,~A)Mea5u~ed p robe a:bSiorp~100~~5!!1) I pi!!m~field ]~tel'l)frly whe.1fI 1ih>e pum,~ ~!lOil! resonam~e,
tOI

MAS dlar!.\'! hQl.?I~~t the- ~art (Irr'llile @bso:rpliiClfll !ig;n@l j~ ~In~~t~w,'" Si;flg !he dl1l,tac~IT~pl)nglr!g to, IS/ill s U tIlS ,ain !E!x.allTllpl~e!, the lIbli(llrlPti'mJ~ail1l r,atitl,is ,aJbelillll.'o66:lllaJ\DI,002!4%·~ 27.5. (B~ "I11~splitting bl!Mel!:m fnm: R.a.lJi!>1de Ila nd!>wrslis ~llIml' ri~~d ~rtr:@li!gth. n,~~o'id 'iln~'~:!O~helimitlalrfit.l\Cl,du:! ,data.

Tlhe limit's a rill :the fits

till!:!, probe aDS(lrptio.n IilJm{~iml ,obtclilliOO Ill)' sCllvlin~ o:ptka~ B~odl equatkll11i" The

decay I~ttcis .lh'nos! 1~'\Iicethe dephasung rotc, imlkOlling IlO a~~pre-ciaMc rmn: dc;ph~ug. \lllc !if!O.'Cul~<!le Ilm~ t~~e I!ea.'~,,"on !lIe discl'epmtc}, ror ~Iw~(in thc EinsH;;in A coellkitllil cil::tl$rmi!1oa
iji'Pm !lw dip<ll~~.lIJHlI~nt (aoov'~) dllC'nU:~~g ~~r.mi(,'Wrs is ;;;~::tiU1 dWic '~o J>pq;e!.!i".d h'OIIo'tdcrin_g, ?1.hi~l'i lead:. 1.0 ~I Iii. of Ihe I.hea!), Il1Y'1.t C!i,I~r-

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REPORTS
estim;ll'CSlh~ 1}!;Jlll!1iJ.1iml 'L'l;!~""... kmmil~" 1:I00v~ .m \wcr, ~h I\'1l1':'Qm, under ip~v~,'l!~gmi~~" is Th~ AT ilp~ilti1~g~!~ ~i~ WiU~I;I1U i:r.l\~~,~mli~~
d~\,':Mon~lW gb,'iii;)rp.t~O:!1l ,~pi;t;t!1,.lI!l~~]~f'l'·!y!il~t~lil,) ::li!)~!WDi,QI!I ~n~d~liirn il~:;;id~ g. Sill1ig~CQD am ~lUmib~~. dl~ ..T oo!lIlJ~.\Ir.ili!!lIll .• IlIre 'll\;!~orp.linn In \ of!11L: prohl:; bcal:l1, C!Ui be :;:~\"ilch~d lUI mid olf by a!,p~~Iy:h~g ;II sD~m~ig olluiG\~ l'idd. h~ ~lOlim~'01,Ufith(: MAS (",."P('t.iI11l~~il,l, ~Ib;.;oi'jition of'nh'L:- 1i1.i;jIllCI~, die .• cy I1X(1dillrobC' b...':3m ,eM 'be '~lJned1. 0 be'~itiv~ or ~'I'i:~tic\"C: ~:i.il) by IIcljl~liillg Ihe: p'lm1p lick! :ilt'li:l~I&n. Our l'e:>lIIitsa~ dlC :I'irst :\;toJ) ~owilrdll:i,c R~rtlr~D1ce~ ;;}Ila: INote~ 11. 111I~U:, [), P. Oi1;!I!I~em(l1 fitJ.jf.Il'>t\I, A :57. 12.0 " Z. Yu.!!m e; aJ." .xifJJa! 29'S., 102 ~(l2), 3. IHi·], IBI'ii~:d w. ilIU~,~,},I. (ita.!:. IP.m!I~, I'h~ ~; It',!tB:l, 5932 t1li~'98). ~ 4. III G!rmnom, 'rl, (':.~ff!e~~~ lMtl)' S!!l. 36, ~2002'~. s, IL 1. SI!l,aID" '1'. M. Ria:, Phy.. ~, :ti!4, 70S (1966:~. 11. 'Il, Ill. A:d; !l!. SiJiIIll, 1. ,Mrs.. ~ 93, 195, 1199~}. ". T, 1iI,~~il-~r "I ~l.w·~ ~~.~erl; 8;1" 1:1361)3 '[.200ill 6., l!l ,~rm ...di1!,.~. GO~oh" j',. I~i]'iI~,~. T; i[~:~~I1';!tOl, lit !vill:!Q. 1'I'Ip' 1fIi!~ (SI. :87, ~060!101 (:roon, 9. 11-1. lHoof! e'J 01,. My:;. !ltv" tea: 89;, IIS74U GlOO2:), l.CI. i\zt~,!il!Iiet" Ell',at NrJ~fi1 4~el 612 ~20t!12L 1L1L II. .1', SarUjrn~ •.roomDIOI9'IlII1, 1M B" ,ril::l~Fl1, ll1l,· EOe"),. .. I.'l'l~, ~ lNr, 51, :~SlCI (:!:9UI. o :E~'. I' 11', Keiil~l]1Jaierr l'tl1:. N~lu,fe'4:~;jl. :~'~i! ,0041. e 1 :113. 'f. ~~mil! ~ oJ" H6,~ 4.~2,,~IJO ~200';). :liA lit liIer.m~~l"ft ai" Nalrirl! 445, 89'6 aoon,. l!5. If), R. ~~1!M'. n]"fS.R~, !l3B.l'!l~ U'!lfl'll). l!6. ]l lilIJ,ip!llnHcc;, G, GIi)\f1!m'g, '" Cu1iem-TiaIU'IWilji,
AiWI'fI·,fI¥J~tM IJl!ltll~UiM.f:81'lJk :PfMt!t,P"fj tmd AW;iictlr:i€m$ Mir~. N'EMi York. l!9'§,6t :ill. H!. Autltr, c, iii. T'!IIfi1m~ fiIl7~.~,l!'fI':mo,i-03: (19~5). :li&. IE..V. B.atlilOOl,i;I" lP, (ha:DIlIIiI~1l.So!w;, PllY'l-J8P 3:4,490

n:~!j!a~.

22. M. T. 'Cirum!!~I!I. ~. iii, lMiil!d)ofllilli!" It. w. ~l'!l, I,· 0pI; ~Am. g. 5,'In a Wi'[l)'. 2~. $, G, C~nl!l~r ~Il., Sd~'~,i.t 651. (200S). ;!~. t,n, LI.I",IP., !t IBI!ll1lMf\,. ~ Rf\o" A. ,44, 596S (U911. 25. i'lWtetiii!t"$ i! mill !!!l~l~ are ~~lIi!~t~ as ~II!.~~ mnll!~'l M :5dMGl O'nllmt. ,~6. O. ~Ii!l!rn!'l" E. ~, 5r'!~, B, 11,. Slli!~m~_~. 10. S. r.atler. !). P¥~ Phy$-, ~; Mft,7~ 30'05'(l~~6~. 21. M. O. :5!:ully, lit S,. ~irr. (mllilli!lJ.rnl ()pr~ (~ FlllIri~'gl!
U'IlTv. fres~, (omlHiidge, :1Ign~. ZIlI. p, ,Me~~. M. Sar!ijeffl..fferoenlt ~1:!1iin!J~.ve[il;tg. H@EdllIbtlI"gI

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tl {II,•. ~

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Q,! QllI)':!wm

ClpIic5 199!e~

n;:giDl.l~. 11~~~iTh~ OHrupnn ... ,I ![IlC.'iI~ ~ul\:;~~rI1cnl(I the :l1UO~t1I1.Ct: M:rrel~numi luuc(l'."ci~li(UI I ian dHU

r-~~liZlll,tio~~ek'CU'Oma~C'ticaU~' ill1{hlC."jj trm~s~ Oir P'.ilI.1,~I1£)p,md iOisill~ Wilhoul il1l\>el;:sinl~ ill d'le spillb.m.~'d Imnbd<l )':,yMC'll1 mld !l\!_yget>t dml QD~ (liff~r dIe ,l(Il,cmi<a~ 1.0 ~(:. 1L.l'i~"d as el'cmcnl,,, in !lpliCF doc~mni01 ,~Ii~dl"'U~I~nl1!,]o!l:ic oovicc;;; t-l, 17l. q NtJrll m/(h'Ji'~ /mm.f; Sim,l!,,; lh~ ~~lbmi~Pc:~! of tM~ :I~a['lcr. 1\\'0 P"!I"CI'$ h11\IC!l!lt)l"II~d (l.11~ iHtll:fI!lr.xi \'.or~~h"l .repOf!.~wd~i,;i,~of d~,e reso'~OU1~~'I;i(:inlliOI1 of quamwu.n diJoUl i~the BIron!.:,

O:):B2~1 1.20021, 17fv. htl. '3(" 2'l74(11 f.J~04}., 3:L A, Hliilli!l'.~rll,. IIIIl1Jl~JM!:i1i'..mFg!:rtJ!lOlO'.ljJ6:~6, .~2, It. r.lIlte! 'N qt, Ihtl!#@r.O\1.!1);~mt~I:I~7~7 .~m6L H. JIlt5 'i\":n'~ iU.PlWle,~ !!l:f 1I1E. Il:,t'S. g!i' Reiliiar,h 'Ol~(~. is Alr IfI)l,Ce mf'!~e ~f :Sti~,rnUfic ~se-~1dh,. QUioe' ,~ Na;'f~~ ~i!II'cl1', IN~!, 1!JOOws,II1S:~. m
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Sl!.!!piPo~lingl Cn~i!i'leMa~~l1ial 'tMNr.j(ij~J'j(tnl1l!J,~r~girciJl'll~trnt!'r(jll!'31.1:I5:e41l1':il9J\OC1l I&ierilals .i!IOO fflIiili1adi;
SO!'-'i lf~~ IFig, 51

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1L9. 18,. It It'laUm, ,Plir~' {!I,tv. A s, :ll'17 n97.<!}. 20. s, IilUCldll!.o f, HMI!II~~II, f'hft. ~. A 6, :ll2B(HIWll', 2Jk IF. '1:. 1i'i'11I, S, EMk.iell, ~. IPI!I6Ic)" Iii,. it Ml!..1t-tm. pfJr~" Il',!!i!; l~lt 38, 1l0n tIl9n~.

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:~~ IllaJf$l.~IlIQ'!.

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D B~B U l·tr'B.vi 0 let: Li g 'ht-E"mittl n gl P Hex,aglolDl,sl BorlolrnNilrr'idie S,ynlihe:s,izad at At1m'OSIpheric Pressure
Ma~~riallslm1.tl'ing ~ig:ht fllll 'thE1,deep ~ltrc,Vi:(lLet r~ion <lmlllllld 200 nall1lll:mel-ersare !eMlentii)~ iin ,[I ..'fide· e ~o1l11;g;~ a pplk;ilmhlll~.1;Ud~ <lSin~'llirmll~.ionJfiro:r,age techn.a!llg~, em/ifQlilm~l'It .. l, ~rQ~e':l.itlTI.a II1Id! mecm.cCil of '~reaiiflilEmt liIe'l(agofhalllJocQIlI nilltni'de (heN), whidn was reoent~rmj nd '~(I be ,<I IPromrisiftl91 de£!g:IIJUra,viio~~t ~ight emitter, has ·IDri1di:m~.milallybeen sY'l~he:sizfd !lmdEl'~Ihigh pressure' artd at hiQh~eimperrallilr,El'. We ~UOC'~6fy:l~y ~ynfu,esiredl h~91il-p:lJlrity hBN '~:;lals al a~moliph!Nk: pr'~&me by UlSirlglll rncfool~ liJiI®l~bdell'LJIiJiI sol.'!I\ent nil: obtained h'BN C!~~ls emitkld il1ltense .215'll'<lllolilud;er tlJlmilillls.l;efliQe' 'lit ,rIlCll1l'l I:!;lmAleralul1e'. Tm~ :swdl)it d~mQII1IS1If,M~sal1eaisklr w.y to Qi'tiW ~~girHII!!!itiit'll'IhiBrI\Ilcrrystals. ~1'tIl!Qh their ~!qrL!id'"ph.:!seo di!'p~51tiQIfI QIIl ,!jj :Slnbs~r.t.lte ~t ~tliIilciSphe'n(lliIf·eiSll!'fll.

I~~\\c~\;cr,Ihe' cW::ui(micj1impl.'fIics. ,oF hllN n~ar ~K,:rnlnd w~r,which i!i.~lumll;:ulOCl!1f!<!~fudor~ M,l[lion ~OIU dc\'cloping DUV ]j:glll em~sskm 31)1'1icillions. ,~rc ~~.Ol..""t fully UIi~dcr.s~ood,as seen y b:f li~c Filet IJiml Ihe oligim; of 'tltC ~rnniL1L"SCeJ~CC fu~m(~ <lITIC ",Iill ro!!Uln'\'~!Ni!1I '12, 6, 7)., TW{l' (lP'
~d

F!Cukd cxC'ilfm model.

!~lr)dc~;;" a \tVUI1:11i~r.';lu:;ilf:l:ll :rl"i!ocl1:!I,If]d a ( , 11;"IVt1een :Plf(lP~(ilL TIlle b

(ol1ritcr ri,'i!xld is based Oil! ~"':oi-uhs f the ~n!rilll';IC o

:rn1l.~OJpli:Cm :;peam ItCflr dE 0000 edge I(onn. pure s:i,I1i!il1ccI}ISI.1IIs ll). and the Inlier moodus. bfUllOdi on 1:h.co:rcl.ic{II,i ,etlliculmocms anda ~mnine:J>CC.ncc
5lll.d~j

that

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ilu(!,J.lse illlplllr~ty

baads around

4,,(JrcV ,8).

J\eooro~n'!l h) wort. c~iflmh1in!l (he eomlatk,llll DcE,vccn: iIHp1.irniJcs and defects lind ~mnil~~n(lc ~)cf1ies Vi. 9}, Ill}!!: hllri~lSi!:l (ll:pli!cn~PlU1lCIlics of ::mmples m.re hll'ldel"C~, !by dtc' C%~~jnsk oue's, ]f. ~lIlperiI.1'!'1.'Jl~el1'!i'LQ~n~l have cmlCl1!~ control of Ihe .~ml1pk.'S· 1~':)')1I:d li!]I!Y ;~ndl '~lO~.y~n(;luphiclmi~y. :1111 I the <"1lmllg 5.~6~~V 1~1~]~i~!~-';;!Hce l1i~~~,n. w]~ijch ~mvi!1g ~h(,~ W,I)' rOf'~ ~ll!i!li;:r~,dl:~I"~ mcL1.'1I1~bp C Cl'>u,gom~~ ~.()!:{H~. .]~UidC'lhBN~ .!Jld.i;:~.ilJ.~.;C 1 i~a~u;ibuT~ ~o :;;I,td!:h~~1~1'UI~ (9jc, dQlb'aill~t~dilll bt;l:~m~nU1d~ (cBNJ' ;II:~ known anhli: en'lil" .dL'.:'Cp ultl·.w.io~"il (DUV) light tl •• ~X;P.I\;iS,Ci~~ltU\(C cl)!£'Ifll lilrulC'tl!lrt.'io; 0 r aN, S~llrli !.:u: '[0 ,,~IIUIl'l iUIIIIIl'l. :fl jl~lid!l:i (AIIN J (.;I) 0}.111;1 Lhe .rugiuu: nhhlo: b'.lJ:Id.g~ip.m~d 11:1';;~.nfllil ilJ[('!m\~ tl.BN i~ch(.'lllic~·n)~ one! ilI1c~mfiUi,y ~!ab:I\:::tl:nld h{IS g3Uiulill Illlf.idc (GilN) (5JI. hBN ilImy hi.i'li'c phow~ulI niJil(";$\."C11ce band 31.215 I]I]~"oD.scnlCd in bt1i..'lF.1 w~,(k:ly used os' flil, cloou::irc;;;~1iill:>u latiOlr and illlrncii'!'C f"JQ1Clilli~11.f15II widc~bflnd gap f'IilmliC'J'iaJI. a pureslngj,e cl)'£1.al, WillS no~ abserv.oo rron],d'ie pO\'\ld:Cr sample . .Put\: swnpl.es '",,-,hI"! high ~IySlj]II. ~H.'aI-rcsi=nfllJlI. ,nnl'LtW:fIIl fo.r ~e,~erall rcl~c<ldcs; dIN, T,he :1<1>' cl.'Cd :>lnnillliUC of ~!:BNmakes lh¢ Ilm· lif"lit)' must be indiiSfl'Ca~allc :fQf dcvclopigag tt1~s whi.(lh is <I high-<tflsity 11h~~.• is ahnoo! liS hmd tcria~ Ililcclmllka~:liy \VC"<lk.. lltll h has Slieater n~1!1 lt1.llwnrll rorDUV Iligl~h,;rniHillg applk·.Miol1.,;. <IS dirullCl.fJd (J ;t. chem k!ill and ~her,l1il~ll ~lI,;libilit)" thllil GaN <1 fld .13ca:ltl~ hh!lh-qllJI~ly hBNC'I]:ii;~,L~ 1m",!;! St1[(U,r. AIN. The imcr~t~ng ()iP!.ic<I!~ p.T'i')peIilIi!".;~ o~'hI];N, Prmn~si ng :;:cndoon.dlllrctor dmrncctcn:sdc:'! d.u,; to ,I dirocl tKmd £.:.11) of 5.97 cV W~;;: bee.n l~roCllIocd OIllly by higb.pfCSl>u n::prooe.'lIse.! •• sllCh as~l,s huge C'xci!on":bil1.d~n!!l cl1.C'.rgy (2'}1, arc reccl11:l:y di$om~crcd ill highrpm:ity hllN cr,~,lstJls dILlC'lo, ils, .. ni~o'tropic slruc1l.1fC. w~~as,a, single il. :is ~n~I!oOl'II<ln1to disJ.\l,\'~r:ll"alter:mIIi\'C~}'Il~hc£ls o:bi!ai~ed byi:J high'pres:sulic l:lLl", mc'llu:nd, I:: I)Isl.d'$.lb.a ...a~ r IkIm.: ill h BN is IJ:(I~ cm~I~Y scheme far OOll\'CiIl~ionall cl)l:i'>mEIl groWtll at <!l!mobm~n becZJ.l!lSC Its ~~r1)n,g inlPklne bOJUls. Thlls r,,1'; spncli:cpr1;.'S.'>lII re, ·(If DlUV·h.!!lfli!lilll!il ~,Un.gIN"U:}'~td~~lehBN hao;; ~heC'xcin."ltial1i fhllN b}' all.'L<:~dC'rntod d~CIl;t1Qll o NatkMial. IniliM~ for Milw,rilll~'Sd~~;re '~NlLM5!1 lfmlrub.3, b~"O'i cr"COll~d !l!rGI..\~'i !~"" !'C'thiCIi[}ll of 00 .. old (' b¢~Ul'i ow by I'M·UV !i~~~1"hovc lh~ haJIJd·£i'lp :1b,u')iC;1 1~l5-tO04~,lap!i!n. inlpl,uilit~ willi Ui,C I,I~C .of ii J(;ei.i~liw' :;.olw.tu Dr ~iic~y sh!tl~,\';s\N.'1tiutu~ ~1~C'iL;'UHImrnlil'Q~":S()Clice '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI 'be <!ddlr,eS1ied.[:"~ait bDI:i& [ii;m' the ooIid. ,edge. lhlt B:.l!,..B N S'y:;;lC~.'ii)i,lil:h::"~i~gh pR'!illllX '12, J..8) . .lk'uOOt~:mtt~@lI'im4lQ_~g

H

n.

~n.

932.

11?AUGUST :2007

VOl31'l

:SCll::lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociem:emag,org

REPORTS
fil!)h!b~.Uil:Y9.f N by 401 ill~Ci;~ c(lJ1Jp<!!rodw thil!!t in I!.'ii. Ih~P1I~Ni 'l24),o '~\kl:hl!l~ 'K~~ Mo 1("1~1c" Ni, ~!"",Jt ~h~~!"h ~Nc:!)'Sn\llls; 'l.v,-"rerQf!~wd !k:t:f~l OIl· SO~;''1;fn~~ ~'lt~ ~m;~ .. se N ~~u~t~.m il~ f,O~l,I~i~l. .M\II!I)' lfu;:c!lI,Id! 1)I1Lh;,~~.~k~ I~BN ~ry~!t;l]~jIM~'T~ nt~lt~~1 :>~uJ~t;~ J~,~orNi ~ub!:1lr""m-.,<llithot:!igh.I./h~ obmililcd ,qrysj..')uLo;.~ 0111] ;1 !T~\'\I miorum~;!.el';l ~I:i OOil:H~llcdon ih-= s~lrffL";Cof i.h~ oolid!ilii.;'d Ni·Mo \ 00 !von 1 IFig,1 A).n~~hkkn~ .. lite cl).I~t,~s h~!-ptl~lUIif;' ~}"S~~m~ rcqui!t:xi r:m l~ing B,~·B'N :;.iZIC :(lOt. TItey d~id '101 ci'lin:t.my i!lfOli'!!1!aliOll ..bnl,l! ~h",,oiltic<~!.C!h."[m~~~ri51tic~ ofdi:l; p!itXh,l~Ii$, &nwnW~l5 ~}'p~a~!y J.lm, ~l;;; l:m!'HC!.cri~ by :10 d as ~. ~Ivcna, b1:;"l;;m~ !Jig" B<I-B1'IJs;~[~'I1Ii~ 1,lIl !ii1:!1Ih1C'm hi~ht~~nlp¢I1!1IU~ ~Iid iZ'i ~d~o ~,"'I[:C'tilCly H~I'(: we d'~iJ'i~ the ~Ylitli~1>u~ ,pf h~~h. Qpric!i~mi,c:ru~t;'Qpy. The l;IIa~t I'iBN tu:'y:;;tf1l ob· rt"ftctivc wiub 0 mtt! ill l!1'icpt("S\;.tii':t::ol'ltllmicli,Ly HI qll,Js,li1ty h.BN ery;.;,tli~:;.iJil{!lcr UIli'iW:;pJ'jL;:fae 1;lfi.";s.SIilIi'C ~uii:l:;;!dillDhi~, }iliJ:dy\V'dS Oli [l~c:Otd~r of.3oo JaITU :;,; lJ:s:i~l~a Ni bssc ~OI'';iC.ifil.AJ,lltough the .!!!;roWfi 200 .~Ilric, W'C found 1.lml.tth'i.c ery::ou'lh! WC~ a.~!. atl'1~i>~l\.,YieCfinditLOJIl> I ."fl,. \\Jiitl, dii~,euisiiQj\ll of ~gmcd ,m~e1 fully eovered dl'C 5itirrii~ of dlC hHN i.~~~lQt'inooYiliimic~ Iysl,a'b~c at hi~~l Ci)',$i8~~ :t"(lriJn~'.d!I~~!bles sc\',::u'il1il tmui\."t! m:i,cMllme!~Ii'$,~I1it~n:llC DUV'~nis· h l.::mJ)e,rnlllll:e!>!liI]t1 s.t ~t~li1ei~!'lQI~e preasure, "fhe~". Ni..J'v~o~~Jlv~l~t. w1~kh was 20 mml in dim~~ebCr A :licm.wlls ()b-scl"\'\.'(! aDrO$~lhe C'J1D ire region of (he ,t F'i!:;l. .~B, i'l'l!~~!J, ~~~lOt~Jllh~ .~~O'.\!n cl)'~J;r~s: fo~c, il should be IliOSS~blc'lo {'1hnaitl Illi,gh-q~UIliit)1 sq,l:lwn crysmls. ~i;}~mell~dil1;lrI ,~\"ernlll'iec(!$ dllL"ing Ille .. ciel M3N o,LY::1~OJI~.m, <lImO$f~hcciclil!ro8:~\!n::-I:l>,u~i(lJ£!u~ haili<!.lIy.\!"'C' used a N~disk "liS Ihc~ol\'l.ml ;lnd Ire,ltl'l1cnL, ~he 1'Ce0'\.\f!1,1f.'<i c')'l'trnl was b,'aJl$p<lretll. a'lJ~~mpri01Jtc' ~olv,el!lil. I ~l;il MId &'1110rcp()r!cdlil:c ~rot)J,!J:a:[i~n ef hBN ~,~I~gi~ ciJY~~ul{i, )-I u.~in,g a Si dC{l,'\;.id~l!oohBN II]Gwd~L"''' .. :stmtu~~:bt b oo!o:rl~.<!ind 'll1iOtu~ 9 man );I 4 mllll in size (Fig. trn!lw.:ri1!l[or fll,\ 1!J!:1d~., .~ a nn (If N~ (i OJ. A~lllnugl'l ~Il~~y[h~ mn~0i'l:~.~~L;'rie·pr~~uX\! 1nn Th~~L) fi.';S1II1't~ ... how d~w Mo in Ih~ Ni-Mo [h~ syn!hl,,~i:."> of hBN (2 J ~. hBN. C;I!lunl.ocl.iHl!!ill~~ry:\!,:;~l. !>ii'lfY'i/!';('"(ii>l:l;'up ~1:b~rplio!IQ HI'" !1IiIfl~(·ri b W('~ ~Wlt u:u.o ~I (,'nn;ibk.~!!d l~L.'OQJ1i)cl ~ It)yU1C:1'il.~~ n!~~yi.,dd. fj r n;(I)I~t,d~~:f,!;.ld . .. 1l1."aI~ 5,,;:>! 'V, [JLJV"cmi~[h~g !,ro~lCJ.t~CS Mf~'re IW~ .n 13509 t\!i !50WC for ,11 •.;oak ~riod of 1:2 .hml~, c ~K'I~:l<II;Ii~~b)' i'nl:L'l:l~'li!~g the N !«l~ ~~billi~~ of dlC :;;olv1}In . I(lb!ii~n,'~d.Bccal!N;l'~h~~ -e~g,c '~J~i>c" ~ p'lnrc.~ in the tiIJrrla"ce.Afi!:."f· SQrLtki!l~ [he flllJ"l1,I'C¢ \Vi.llii b~m;~ u TI]I;RilI!.I!l1lI!l ~i:.\C!.ru$11of I]~C ~I)'sw! fJ10\,~r;;~l ( .~"'1'l OIIJU~lt!tll!M~Y ;J.f~llj,;'dlb}' 0 O1I~:td Ci!TI;llili.llri!k"S. oook>d d(Wl.'lIl ;JI[ ~. r.,!ll~ Qf 4 gClhol!r~L11200<;1C. US), '~ijw (inu,i£.;;it.~l ch:!m(;OO!]J,i1u.o of llteir hB1\f :ca:lork.;"fi.fuJ!l.I !ULnI:;Plrt~l~ CiYSl!01~~ wilh .fu liliill ~il1glLl p>eak~t 1365 cqn-I with II F\'VUM, or ~H) FWllrYl or(lI;Jrhig~HllIralily cry&~~l1;; pmbab.~y .~l!ftit'IM WmC' ~.I:Ilp:l,lrh~1 p~tlilllike h.abiD WCIJi; ihWlndto grow 011. the !;IurU~c('C cm-<~ (Fig. 2Aj. welie by m.lcIJUioll.ecl in II1tc1irreport. {m~ Ymm .t'l tll.re .. ol"lht: soHdifk-d Nii so.lillc.nL nil: obulju!oo ,e.rys'r.aiJ hllN SUiJ'igli.!CiJI~1l1~S:obtained by hlgl~.pb\.'&'>Jllre ru~.d :1,liglMCmpi:I::3HilIUC s'yn~'R.'t~i.~ 9.1. en~ -~ , \,\'Il5O p'ort("CI 'th~ r>ylllnhcsis orhB' . cry s !1liIs; u,,,ir.IJg a N3I !>'iJrfilcr:~ as SCg;ImK1lK"ld hy s~rilleilltQ lrimJ~lIlaL or w sllll~geslinig th~n qua~~Iy of the 'C'rysnf~.l1 fil'Oil~the' hC>i8gmUl ~ dOl1m~mi" The hq;csl crysm I was, ,~d.llvcnt !lH!ldk:r.100' :lIm o:fN,~ (lJ ~ ncy obscr\;\oo .a . a!1mOSI. C(mlpl11'l"lblc ~o a c.9:thm:ll:!!h.!lm~illcs:ccI1Q" sp~'!Ctn.unof the hBN aboul 301) um m:-l'\1I;~s.wit~l!~lielme,<;,i: or a Few Ni-Mo bi nmy sy~emwas micllJ!)Jl1C~c~. lhe Rmlmn :>~~cQCtllllll fti:le Cryl't:m.1 ~hal. he cayst;d Im:wJilQlCCdb)! lligll-pl\es:!ilIre~Uld o w.~lil a peak 1lCill" 3.~ cValld a weak ,emissi;ou nC1lr _,1: ' .k S,6eV, higl1401npem!!:!!'e symlhesi!'>, NIO~'VC(~ " ,:I SII!l!!!'I:1.: 11!C<l_~ ;~II·""': em~ll W _]OC~l ~")." ", I ' ~ A ,,·a ~jcl)1of ,'lOIV~\!1IS lnn,t(: h~'l :'ilutli\:ld ~or oo~pond~ lo!lre in·pbm: vil~tLli(lmd JllOO{l of FigllQl'(!! 8 ~h[}~"'s iln X-f'il)' dillractiO'!l (XRD) 2 eBN s),JnhC$is nl, ~Jigh,p:Ii"'C'Sstln;: and! h~gh~ hUN {12",w:lih lidl width rnt h!~lr ~'IUlLximum pI1OliicofdlcJU;l'C,gmc clYslal~ dml ~Vc"ll'C g:~otmcli (f:WUMl ofQ3 c:~n-~,The YUldcl o~'lhc reaction iI]~o iille I~ow(_k:r. A.nI the pe:!!lks CillJi be .lil;,~isnc(l tCUll}Ct:<lll!lre OOlW iliIOl....: ::tlk.alli and allk~l.rnc:c ~au:tJj~ ;)I,S!:hose or hBN (JoIDin eO!nn~iUiCC on ~l):w{_lcr ]ll!:'~ah(12, B I. Iheir BN OO!1I!!JoOII[m.~ (3" 1\, J4}, WOI,S, MlO\!I\C\ !.:r. VICI)' ~ow.. undliil:C' :I'OCJ1,f;"rui~!ized l and ,'i;OI'!W~r..llllsi~i[m n~cl,d:iO (15. 16). EI()t~l!~C:01 hHNw,lSi {lb~,·(;\d m1ily (l.!l ~,!ll(,!: !'ilrnill.Upart~ of . ,..o]!VCIlt ILISI(;J~IIfOf cE'N gmwl11 Ulll('ljl b~ ~Il\tlili~ fbI'" [h~ SU'rrfPLCC of~h~ ::-mh"i;:n~. nu:: bi;rla~' Ni ..B ;,IUld Nu·N pk~:L.:dim.gr.lllrl:\. A ilBN !!lmwn~, \V(,; IltlCu~ olllrLIu;s;il.inl"li·nfilcml ~OhfCI1L~, w~~ic;h 111m d~) d(1ool1ilposc [uD~ltllllr}!>ph:c'f. show ihm. ufllp:roximmdy 30 \\,'c:ight% (Wl%)' ~~s in II IOqlU~ p~mSe;)lI 15501"(' I(Jl)lwltciI'L"'tIS [UIC Ie pri:.sstwe.Wc rorenlly CSl!3hlishL'd .a reaclion s-olubi.l:ilyofN in~iqlJ~d N~ is om I)' Il(JUi12 ,,~·t% .1Lt d ingfllln, 0 r N i and UN under hiigh pfll,';sS~Jres orld 15S0~C at ~ml1il of Nl (14). nus; 'Ihe yi:C]~c:I of fOLmdlhlll~BN dliiSSOil,vcs ~Ili mohcl1 Ni mtd p'.rccil)i,lluc~ as l,iI])1 cBN ~!3Is. mtda1so 1jC- 1:OO.j{l>tOJ:lliizC!i:lhUN is> con4ooliled by the N solu· b:ilhy il~ the IiqilQ id ph ..~~ die :Ni f,lO~VCllt cl,}'s1J1l'lllfrres llIS hllN at high~pressnJIl:C imd hi£lnl,cmpct<lil~£C 'c'{'!udih ions {1nltll ]hc (:hem;i~fll .l{m:vailll:lflam:.I Speidel I~ d1:.u t~DCN SOl:llIl,m~y 01";::1 ~iqtlid Ni~Mo a'iroyulflC"UCl1I:lCS with an V~rKlr ~)O'Sii:i:on Ilt'OOCSS". Ni seems 10 ~"'''I'i1C .til in~'C~illg CQUlCCl1ilmlkm of Mo: the arldi~i()11ioj;' cattllyli.c :!latOIli 1.1131, ~tn1:t:iau:s the: fun:nmllOn ofd~lc , " II 100(1 1~.oOI "1400,1600 ilBN (18). A UV~lilQU~.lhml!iS hON 1~Y'C'~'Wl!s Ma 0:1"4!0 \\'1% 'lOlhc Ni whrCIll ~nhrnnCl::l!'the Raman $!iJHl: (cm~1) d~PQ,~i~r:d
WOk'S ~Qt

A]llro'l!~llhc .1:b~BN Sll)ll);m i\~OJ~!s~ful ~(lh'e~ll W' (lnlllin hi:r,;,h-]il\tril¥ hBN !C!),smlst!Jldcr high pJ:II:~.~ ~~~ro, ~,~Cs.y~.I,,"m~1'1'~ ht,;: 1iI::'IQd "tt ~1~10";'fIh",-ri~ p(!1;;'lit'i,Un;. p~b~M.y l>t.'"I,;'~!JI~~ Qrdll~ d~"1l;lOl"!ilpcnt.i;~io:n~ ofU~¢ sol~·1;.'tilul~d~Lhijgl~iloll1~pt;rui'~R~ A cll~-d r
a

(l1!li ~ N i ~\!b8I!ratC,lhQl!,gh the 1<l},CT Imrm;lgc:no"'ll~ {I Qj •. Yru~g ~I (,!lP;('IQ1~d

I

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or

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Optica~. mkrog'~\l!)'~~ of 1'1~(r}'slam:i!ed IhB:N'Cibtailil~d clo1!i~:th al Nhr!II!~'5(lbi'eli!:t. (A) ly-plc;ai. h:E!N ,clY~t~l Ql'llh'e :lol!dii~ied ~ot¥'E!'nl .~.s; gI"Oil\iPil):.,'~l~) A rlF.~~JiiI!IWlt of @~g,peg:ale hEN cfY,~~ls @ft~r al'~iliI 'lrej!'~r",~llt ~Ihe iil1!i~t ];SiJIIl opilical miuvgraph or iii re,c;o'llered sample). n.e silini)f '~'Vhitlllrli!9iioms tire
Fiig.l. r@l1lededi ~i!llin..

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20'30

40

50 60 70 2ri!, ~clegree)

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fig!. 2 .• (mracterU5tics ,~fre~l1ire~ ItIBN grQlli'1l in -:;I NHltQ iSCi!LY"ef1i~ata~m~pll~ri(; j:ireS5;;,iJre,. tA:!

Ram~!li SP~Cllll.IDl Qbtil!l:n~rJQm I',~!ysglt~oo h~NI. UJ;) X-ray dlifha.'~lkm profile IDf re,]i'ystalJ!i~d I1BN aifl.~r l::Ieirig glr~mnd to fnllIe pcn~er. arb", lIrli:iiil!J',aJlIlj .•

I

REPORTS
I,b; ~lcsymhcsis Qrhigh"'l~Lm~ItyhBN ~ <!f-ch1g11" and h'i;gh-·(ot:JflJI"gt"U~I!C ~('Ih'en1 1'lySIC'~1:;;. !Werml1;!oi;l,~iro;;lt Wl!d~tyI;:Q!11J.1\;I.rl"OJIllS ~!''t~l1J' ~ni.~· q ~li!c 1'i,H~I)~~ ~~or~l~r. Si !F'i,~I,J,n; 3, sh{i!w~ ~YI)i~,11 ~~d:lo¢~(l!mni~l1;:;;~ =-io.n cl131!'~~'ri,;i.[;c. I;}f t~!C ~!'IItl;P~ ~mwl~ illl ibi:> s cence l'i"f)j,:ciI':,1, c!irl.h~ hBN ,cry.,ia!;i grm'!;IIlI\,,;i,II]~I.(l study ~d i.hos~~ gliOw,~ ul .~Iigl~ piJ1;,~iUft~" 11~i: N~ an:d Ni·Mn solvents, The ~fX"CI!:r'.., \~re m1;1J~ bgr!(h;,l;gc '~~ni~$ionin!~.n~~'~e8f Ihe ~]oth 'CI]IS· o S~f~ ... !,opm '~llUll~f:;;fturo.fu1lf;h ~(pf;;(:QI11I,c:>;;~ ~;d~.tf(~ ar~i!lil~blf n;k,>( (Fi~.lC), \ o ~ibi.~ ~~l~lito;.C rn:;t;-iC'xdlGln. ~Wlliiil1~H!tc pC<lt !1!1 hUN l'()C~S:L'alli1;.LiG!1 l!,il:ling ".11M;~wl ~11~I~t mt .2 i. ,iflllil rli~di:o: ehIlI<LClC[i]i;l~e of a ,higl\!-<Gj,u~.ihJl .5 Ciif.i lalcl!o h~,O-Ul'Cf1 d~iiliQf.!. o:fhfigh..qiJ.rllity hUN crys;Uq.l~ 0:113. 5i.lbi>lfilli:\V'i~] the li~ Or:lB. M1N l~'slall (2~. T.he :>holiMer :;1.ruC'lUiC areund 2.ni:i.il~,. whie:h 'W~ anti'bwe to a bouad ~:<i.C~I.ml ~iqlllirl"pI'>lisc'lPjhli.":ypro!C.l.~1l llIilIcli::. 9M1IDl>p:lic-da. ' C1UISl.'tIby ~, ::>1!lckil1l.& diso.Tder. i.~rela~i\lct,)l ~O\\I. pn::.~E condii:i.m~~.ln ('I~U' 1.0 C:Jok"IJni~ Ih~ groW'lh oj;~I~BN el)'Slal Ol~!1 SlJllb,;~mlc limnn the :roli.II:i.{m. :iWl!E!:l~sti~l!!-thm d~5>C',e~1l81" ha,V\! low Siimckin,s, d i:-.oodcr {9). We al~ o'b~rvcd wesk 'bl,road bands \\ co added <'I SIl«)fihi~~lbS:lrnli.:t(1o I~ s!<lrIinl;: al;O!I.!~uiOOnnil, C$pcdaU.~ ~n the Ni ~oh"Qm marerials mw ~p'pl~otI nJ Ie S<lJIlC' ~Jl'w,'lh process J ,~)'~~~m.\~Ihieh W'i3"C p:rnb... a.bb' dl~ 00 ra;idlm! 'l)1.<!OOVo\;,\. l!!$i!~g.~hcN ~Mi() ~~\~ll, \N'e ob.wrvcd

D'i m:~ti"'l11 S;~mJ<!irt!\s card no, M-421 ~ e)oicqJ)~ 'bro:M!pe"k IN<lf ('1(1''. \;\ilil ic-ll is <li~r!OulJ;;!d tQ

n~c

Wh~n Mgw1!.~ ,.(MOO I:QII~e Ni so~",'cm, ihe
)'~cld Qr~""'!}~!.1!1 ized hBN wall Sll~~~tll!~"lIy b~'~i~y [h~ N~.MoS.y:-;l\,'l~. Th~§Towl1! h!lN il~ ~nals; v.;!:.~ of VI;.~1;)1 high q~inl,iLy•.~xh ibii:~flg i1llc:u!i !Nuld-oogot: o,p,ti:c;II. n;!luru of in~(jn!l(; :H5·liIll !l!!mi~~""!l~. C~I1~~lL~nl:~y" e;u~ c.'i~.. b!ij;h \\It,:'
om. ~1~I~m1llth\~ !;')'Ijnh~!i; I:'!.)Uil\;ror hl!~t i~l1,rnlill. C:i)'sm3.1~. ~t~ \vcll :lli

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1. 0, ItlMinD." t:. f1~.in Et~ik ,f[~f,~r1(!J1J M,.U'mrll:, y, tilLlmihiw" IEdi, (lIJie!;!!:e\f, N'~r!'j It'or,k. ::1000), tlt!~, 211. 2" K.INM"rum~" r. T,alllguclli, Iht ll:i!I~d'3" ot MOrff" 3, ~(I!~ N
~).

il~lPluituCfl ~!I~1i!m~[l, O:UldC (1. ;R). ~1 i~k m)'wu 'tI'~,'~1 Moltm~l," c ..ril~d.i:' \',,,,l.lC'!(;;l~· N i dL'J(~'" ~Ol(.2'5•. 1'6),. ~ '''!l!ggc~[i~~.g 't~muMo cm!ld~JH~i [~Iero~cof Ihe C g~~l~~, gn 'the Ni soh'lI)m.TIl(;' :rodw::!k'D:nOr C !JUI1Wiitii;,,'S i~l 'tli!(l C~)'~Hl L... Wit" Ol(:l~~,~\'(;d. r
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p're::;slJ~e Ni-N.io, S'd1.'Velu ,~yslcrn is a. effective s

U)i.!JthUN CiJy~t<l,b wilh :.;nioolh '~!.In<Jo~gl'\,';~\1 ,oa Ith~ $!Jk\iU'<I[~ IFi!!:" '\tAl liiloL;' C'lIhodrll]t!lnl~i!lll);. cenee ~pcclnllMof lhclllBN '~uymll)1 sll(}'\,\'~>d ... the :;.ivni bur domhl'!1!Jv~u i:uminC','lOOollCC bm~dI lIt:;!! 5 !lin < (Fig. 3~ fi,gtw"l(l 4B :<1'lt}\\'S tJliI.;.! in!t'!l~ 2: ~j'U!H Iwnine.'i;t\C!~C\l iIfIl,I,llJL;l~"U Rl!iI!IIt !.~n'lpi.:m:MU1il t"OH~· ~polldiilg ~.O fiig. 4tL 111(; .illitCUL'\il[)"1 oU-re 2: ~.5-1]11Il bend .i& lIibWllf'lt'll ,mt(·r 9~Il:UJ"'1 ,aU ort~!e surface, The 'Mthrxlolmninesecnoc :ili'l'il9.gc of :striae us i\uh.~rm~lo~I)'ciJh9f1.o00 by the '~c~lteIroJ .2 ~ '·mIl ilJ!nniltcsoc'f].oc h~Fig. 4ft

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~"M1~(ji",ii!;m t t1pJ:l~ .~~ l6.~',?;1 (l9517}, !S. B..lilniloUll.. S. hbegue. P. ~billf:r, 1!4 ,MC~ilfii, Pb~. fifO!', Wi. '9t", Il~02 C~~), '1. M. G.. Sil~ lilt il!L. P'hys.fmf. 8 7!5, OOS,105 mon, e. v. T~l1igl,!,h~ ~ W\!1:.¥1.a~,.I,C?'g· G~h ]03, 525
(.21lI07). 9. ~ watoow, T. T~RI9ud1i, 11.t>L!lrOO1I",H. ~lRIIal WI. P1i~ Lelf, :e9. 11119D12f2006t l!!1 11.I~tilil, r.'ii~to, I. (r~; G,rtMtJi' >61, 6®9 U:983.), 1.1. I\\. Yil~o ff Q£, jprI e ,1.. ,App,I. ~ 3<9, IJOO (2000). 12. It H.. Wenlori J~'~ 'O\!em Phy$, J4. 8(1~ ~'l!.96~'. 1. U. ]i, fn~D, 00 :FuhIl8~<I., . 1W0iI;;!, J MaiM .setH. M 137) U9i9}, 1~. It. C 11)~!liI!li, ]. ~, nw~hef.J. "l}'rt cmwV1 :l3.."1~,3B 15. H'. Silit!:i., M.. 11iJ1I110" s, tl!agiJlIO,i }':s~ ~ SIvi ;!:e~ 1( ?70} til! ]lapaooe willi en Ei!!Jlilh "bl;1!'adl+ 16. t Tajjiglicn~ WeiIi'Diam(lM .F-mtlt,. ,Cllf.1Joo 1«hrtal. 1~,

if'iig. 3" Caltlilodohunii· VlI~~~!i1(e~!l'1:;~[o!! I[)f' fir Ic~all~d hBiN] at [QOllJlli temJ)eJ:'atl.!lE:. (AI' ~BN IClibta,rrli!'d with a Nil ro1.~ \I'Iilm:. ,(8) I1BN ,ilbtafru!'til wiitlll a Ni·M" ~o'lVBTIt.(() Diired: Ii1LQ~~y1!:1J~,c. :50n aNile eIll1l1ssiofll!l:mradNistks. 'Sl'Jtid lffin,e.

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3(i10 350 4'004150 Waveilenglih {l1m)1

and :hi~hl t~!'Iii~r.1!wlre OiP.IHn.

J.. ,f!l~rf(m MDr.~t.:~'h tS!5i8{~Oo.ro. 21. MonelliilUs iI ~!ll!IlelhlMk iI re ~iI'illilbt~ 'il5~W~iag ffia~Ifia'l~n S;(ifIK!1 O!'!llm!; .22. It. fIIlid:. IiI. lfel'l), ~ ,~lI.'lI'.146., S'U (19660), ,2~. fl, K" U,ilO., ~~ E. 5!1t<1r', in ,iWffll\Ij' Al.t"Y .1!'Iill'~il!f)wtJNJfru,
V. II, ~i$illw, Ed. fA.sM !l1It~ai~Dr1~,~re"als ~~ Qf(, lIlill. .2, 19'~O), (ll. 1, 'p,p. !liltS-s.m, f :Ill. C. ~!!Ida, M, O. 5~id:el, SwiPlQ frlfl!f'f.48.\,1O?3:

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.2$. 11. lB. ~~:I~, I~ Bl~·t2li¥IWJdY J'lIli!l$l!' ~ml'. V. IS. Ma~itLIW..Ed. IASM Il!ItemilltiDn~. 1!.!!!i6ilb IPalik. OH" il!oil.2, ~'i'~O), mtl, lPP',~~J-8l6:Z, ,2i!i. I\I.i. IF. ~SirIl>;l.1n'!lCll'P., NI1~hI., 1m .BJ'~IJ\I}'Alti\¥ ,J!IiIjllfl!' 1,:If~/~~, V. a:. ~~!OiI~il ;~l:I, W:.Mo !n~IIm~IiQNI[, ~eiii!i~ ~~r!{, OH', ed, :i1, l!llS'@,1o!g1l. 'I, IPP. !!\6.H6,1. 21. ~~!! i!li1I~!.'IfS IJIu<lm f. Wadi! d NiMS fM liii~WP:IWI. in ~ m~)!fiD !itU!lI.l". ']hl~.il!Jd.V Wi!!; fU~ll<Ifledl b)' II Groot'·jn, Aiillillf ~Sti~f1tlfoi~: 1iJ~~':Iij\clii or IIR~.1:J.PaIi'l'SlXierr r~1 '~~I!! f':rOOlilliIiDn d S{ijIlO!!~ (11(15" :c.mSOO:6, ,and 18~61)3::1! J). :$lIlIp!Portingl OIll'I~I'I~ M .. t@\c].d "m'Md~ifiII9,·argrpgltc:oml@il~wllJ3:1.jllS:e";Oifj;:!:fOC::Il
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lFiig. ~, ImlfllQ)esof mBN! CJ~t:a1 'grOWi1 ,~I'I the ,a~~1l:ne sapphire :Slllb5tf~~e {Qbt",irlea \~ilb ,aJ INi..fI.i\Q slJ'lven~ p,reiJ)Q~i!dat iIl40 0'" C). (A) OiUereVl't'iall ]!ilte:ff,~.rei'l(e' iIIili(n~:s(o:pi( hgg~, (Ill) C~~h~d.{lh!mif!.~C!ei'!l;;ek!l!~~ r'Qr215'nm ballld:. W~ d'f,:rj rl~t f'i~~:arli~j' in~iNl5:1t;y Change: 'lJftliie 11It~:surd' :sp~dra ~,tlif~~rl tlh~ 9ra~11 bOLilldal)f iimd the lplane £a.ufll.ce amiilwrnen !iI1Ie.s~uil'l~1 the p!linHo-poill~ mmie or ~iE1 ~al'hOl;!(lLulm~lIles . .. ,oe!'l(e .~YS~~I'i'I, 11i1~r,elliieelecllilOl'l, bedim ~,l'Iliain,~dl ..ta!j)llilary ~1i1i,dlhemF:asur~rll1~l:I1ii!'le~l'1lioew,a~ OOiiilined w lQ~l1e expos:edl SPO'l 11[>9'11.

rH.l, Sl :Refi!Fen~~· ,2~ April 2007;itOCtll'ted ~2 .Itm~.2(l<Q(1 1~l·n2g.r$(ii!m~e.. 11114.21.&

934

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

:$CII:!lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociencemag,org

REPORTS

'T,smlp,o,r,al Valriability of the At:I,a ntic IMler'id ional 'Dverl:ulrniingl ICil:r1c:ulati,o'D at, 26i5°N:
S'tlJlad: ,#I.. '(Ulillfilii'j1!£lh<li1il1,~'~ il'Orst:e1i'l1 it<llIlnl'Ow.1 lilanrre'1lI Ra~,ne-r.~ Mony' Balirrin.9,er,,~ Wil~[iam E. l@'hm.,~ lachern M,flrotzke;"<t 1Iii<!ll!!llni'llhi1111:. 11L11m.grWCirth,:!'·IEI~j'izil'betlill M,. Gral~~.l ~oe:i.~.-M.Hilr!i!chii,:1 LisilM. Bea 1,,3 Chris'l.;o'ph:!!1' :5. Meiil"l!E!I'I,," IHarllTlI" L BI~de'I~] 111@''iflgore~ AiUallitk me ridiolil!llil o~rlumingl c:irrc"-lIla'llOali (MOC) ~:s'thQlught to b@ 1;Ilul.l'Il!iI'al)~E! 1:0 gll.obal Walm:llrlg. !:lIrt its sihQrt.cttlrirIi ti!mper.3Jl variabilitv is lI!nkl1owl'I ·so !thiClIli,g'lil'S i!'l~EIf,~dll10llrl spairs@ f

~porl .• w'!ilp:fli.~(-;ilt f\.<suli.... lrom the- !1r.;i ~!Ir. 11!cd~ig:f! afH'!e RAP~D .<lrrny lot m{milQl'i~g bm.i~N'iCOl~~CCir:CiU bllio!i, ti;~~I:;-.d in mll.m~:rk:;d. ('!!;:~lIi-C~rc!.i~ m:~Ji IlmDd~ls VI, 9), ~Ild ;1. emitp-flniorrl JIDpet (/O~ cl(;:l:)tIdiiol'Oii'"Jl<i;.':!O ~r{jltn ~l'itli~l. )1c.aU·S li~.f1i': scriesU~Hl :r.i!ce ii1ldcpejjdci1:~ly i:'L~e:c1rui1i;.,x!.lmUl5p(Yi1S, (Glii If 'Stre':illin. :Eltm1~~1. OOIlii1r&f)'

1I:1l.l.1Ul:,mr<l)'w~\li.'(nik ingiQ" ils rh15.l ~ r \X';IS 2H MlIrch2004 t(l- :H ')VI lIIrch :!OO~+\V~ ~!;[!"'I.: si ~~~¢fi;;'\Jl;jl! rr.Yl.:dth~ ~m1Y in l>pti~l~ .~{I0' l.'tl1d ~L~:~I~ i,~ :l1)n-i~g J006, ]~1 .hi:;;

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'Oib$el''I,I'at~on:~ thi! dlecadoii~, ime- scali! o~ lffi"A:ent cUma'IJe: il:hal'lg~ ai!i~ rl!IiI~~f~!'!, 'Wi:!~crnl:!i!'lli! on ~ ,c(Ul!tinlu)'tj:!j ~e'a:s~~meJilts Off t~~ MOC ~b~gl!~ui!iJ1'~1 ][:1 :2(04) I.!i$,illgthrt p~~p.o~(!fuUlii' desig!'!led tJaI'lSPIUaJ!1rlhi: RapidCUll!'!a'l~ (hal'lg'e am~y 'of m!1)o~edili!~u:UI!llii'~J'I'ts deploye<~all(ln!ll26.'SoN, ~'llitn tilme ~i~ri'~, I:)I~'GIIJU S:t~ealm '~n"ln5,pOniilM ~ulrf,i;lII;~-rlaiY'er~klli'lli'!ll'!lU'alnr~port 1.0 ~:UI1'IIIi!.lifyilsil'll~ra-a11:!11'! ual
~i!~igb.mly+ThElll@"f~long aV-E!(aJQe !,J!!'~r~l!~~~:!'Ig 18.7' ±: 5.6, s1Oi~rdrull~ (:)'01') (fa!1g~:I1.1) 1(134.9 !iv. ls wh:e~~ 1 S·;; : .;:1 rtc,~ ~~: o~a!1 fl\igt~i' (IIf ]O~ (ubk m..e'b'l;rs.p~rSill~(lr!d), IlntE!rg~'Hi!ulal Chaiii~~$ ~J'lth,~ =

,J)\ienl,llm~flgcafl be m(lfi!il.(lr~d ~vH~

iii

i'i~;ro~llUC!1'1IIf L5 S·v. (

\\.'CtIgc.. bnroo.llinie, and hJll.m~ropk !:l.cosnrophic: ~m.ru.1Jc}11S;) are i~:1 ~wi:U'~~1 ass balance ror lime m :.;c,,'1ICll: lon~~· limn In dar--.providins evkleaee Ilml.~he mtmiw·l'ill£ :S)'S:lt~m 'wmks (SOM !CNU. To ~.x."!:rf!in'Clh(! inlm',mmmi mid~~ccaH b:'lOO" d inie v,r:J.!,,~'lbil.utyin I..yc~ 'I Fig. ~ I. "vc~limmod d,lily ~~n~p(ii~"l .t1.xl\'~~00~.ml1d!..!lJllh Uh(lr."'itK;i~r!e 8 n::-ciIUllmion), bcl\V~"CH ~~ ,Mm'] ~.'~OO'"'m dli.'ljl!h (1~~~~\II1'f!.tld~li!e wmer I]O'~l,I~l.b'::h\~n ~.IOOl..mld 3(KDO.m &.~Dh '~l.!II'lperNoruil A(I~Il~i~ cl!"\CiI~ a;ter w
or

?'rn!,nn.]~,ih ,s,i-Le .Q.r... rlle_V~rillb. ~Ii~ny inl 2:65~N is d~lfh cd lrel'll. 01;1 ikSC!l:~~3w~:lil(l--bascd .~ . Moe L'> 3 ~ui:ldarn(.'nl.8il pirereqli.ll£u.e [1[.11 olb....~r\.'alno:lit~ TOnl.lL:1ulitor thc:nnid~NlIt bw, '(.l1!. or moored! illsnmems tlild~l'$firuldil1i!l. I!.QW il. 11t!ll.)' ·Iilc 'CJlru~~g~It!l, \\~L! dcp1.0)'\.'tJ :.\tl .an, a).rn1g I.!:te. 26.59 I s.u;lion lf~ 511). The b{lSic 011 clin.lfLtc.n:!c'll'3I1.t time scales, 1U,'(x:ml}t, i~ wms ~ri!ltcil)lc·Qr~i!c r~m.1y is 00 C:SIimmcnhc zolla~:ly '~lilggesiJ.Cd Uhal:llre drc:~11~ltkml~ll:.'" slowed by .3iO%or g S\' O!"rcrlhe ~t dOOl.de,b<L"ll~ 100:10011h~~c£ai;u.ed,g.l.:mt1:OJ~hk:pro;me of Irort~lwmd VI:" h:}C;~l}" ona daily bnsis Ii-"(ll'n I.iJl~.~cr~ 1l1.c<J.'iUI:c'~ ,~i~cnl "Il:l~}'~j!>of repemoo l1ydmgraphic S1.~=~i[lI1." .r~I[l·nf,l, 2!(j,.5~N ,V). COllpkd iClimm~ models me!llil'" or~(JQl1Ji!C'tl!l~ru an!:!. ~"'1di!]ily~!~n)l!!gh'Ol!t the s~sgCSllhm t1~1!I'C will be :.l dedi Ill! in l1lu::At.lnlill it: 'I.~m.cU'column mll'!c Cill>l:cm and W(.'$!CnTl boundovcrt~mut,g cIiL'!!:dll~OClI] s ,[I result of u:teflC.ilscd a aries, [nsilOl'c or the IIIIOS1V!.~tcriJ;y measureCO;!. ill the m'rl"!losplacre but I.hat jhe clmn.w.: \",gn I:rl.Cnil"i GrtC'~npcmll.!!L1C mlid :rollini!},. !.he lm..!l~O.lil!S be gmdlHI~ m'l.:f nhis (;O!lhll!,)' ~2l Is. Ihe .:iillgc;;~:OO or'~he Antill~ ,C:ll!TI;:nt "~Uld,dol;,p \\Ie8l:crm ~'iJ(llmd· s.... dmn~~ in~ ~W,;;ll'tlln1iJlg juiSl lite 1IJ:;-';SlIlt imuu~ ill)' ClIIT(,'11~ Sv 'Dr ,~n;lilmni,orcd by .diil(',C't \~30dty .1LI'lUlI'JI v',minbilily in Ihccin;:,ulmimn ~lp]~ by m{;billri~nClrlit .. 1~[liiJ~I'linl1!l o:nl~ ne mmcini nl 150M ~ C'Jch hy(~rogrflJi'hie sc'C~iO'Jf?Wllm. ~iC!r~ ,ehm~e ·01"3 lc....::ul· illl [he QVCl1l1lnnilll!:', C'.lJll be n:;lifLb~y ,dttcc~d !I00\llC \~ dcp~oycd .he mid-oecau ::nrmy from. Ihc in,rr-ii..,tblnUld \!!lriab~H:ry'! To ml1s\'\er such que£. Fcl.u\i3f)" to MOlreh 2004 [LiIldrccOVCfiCdit from. lions. we define the sir;.Je lIJld 511"1l1CiU~ofmhe h~~a.rehto May 1,1]05 (6. 7),. nCO:\I'crlapp~n£ inlm·ilmllll"~ v1l!riuJbilil.~t il:l the: MO at 26.S"'N
I )i·Cill: Im:a."Jlll'CnlCIlL,>by UJI:5inghe Rilptd i Clim:m: Cha~g,c (RAP] D) HlOOling aIm)! (J).

D

u~ to use !:RIO fill ~ :I oolm&r,Y for lihL::lhcn"l1Ocl ine l)CCi:ren~!Iln'Qnb!:C[LlISC l1hi~ iSlhc: mil:dlillM 1l.1 d~~i! o:fthc Florida 'Snmfll~:lh:u,.,. ~lll QiHI~emml'lrwaNI ImlilSJpcrl in Ihe Gulf Siream 8ndEkua.lru'!: bycr OL'CI.lt'S rMvc ~m--ual d.;.>plll. Th~~ime series 0:.[ ~aYCI'Ir.m~lOrlz;. {Fl..,. 2} g 1;,,,,, Irillvl v;~riillbili~,}' (It .1!il}t."1tJ!l J, Sv :ll'1>lU!U [Iw.:'u,
linLi/,).t(vcrngOO 1.r.Ml."~ru Habk: l)c TIre SO illl !.ItCffilOcline ro::lllC'l!ia,tla'JI ::md lNAD\V is H.7
illJlld U.S Sv. re:spe:ctii\'l;~, im.li.cmingd!!l: size or nhc \....ri~1;;!ili'y in bmtoc~il1u(; ~mICIUfC_ Sueh V(!fiHbillily ~~ :\i11l;]]~rlimn Iltt' 6 Sv plfi(',,'n(.l~.Y 1\. .... porl("iI li:rnn I~I'll (.M:k-:I study (J lJ. StiU" Tl~cr.mgc illg irl,~I<lIl]:;part.~ is 11iQ¥.': $Otlt~1\1o'frrdlhitm.fiJC~ inc I'Cdrculmioll, is 3S snH.d,~ as --6.,6 8'::\1 and aslaigc as 21.3 S\I" fmd 1.lI.cr"Jngc in lNJ\.D\VuanspQl1. is rrom. UJ te I &.1 Sv.

U NAnW).~unld b::dm .... 300O-:in (k!p~h (lO!i\\W Ncrrlil Ad:qmnc d~fl,w~r Or LNA..D\lV). W~ ];l~-

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seclion i~.l>elliJIiUiI;.'!d imo two 1'C'..;lioIllS:II \l!'Csternll bo\m.cltttj' !legion. \\'he~ (Ill: Gulf Stream f]m1l,~ lhrot!l.gh~bc n[lli~ row ,~~{l, ~m. j, d;l ~I(!!wP~~() m ~ f'klrkll.1 81 miD:5: hr.'1wcen f1JQ!i{_~'l ,I!W Ihl; B;lhanm~ :!!ncl ,I ~"~ml~ ~tl~II~t.te~nlid-()or.'a~.l ~.giQJ~,. ~~.t:nd U:OOH!(;~I~~ iu~
B:ul"'1r:!I,I!/lr:u~ <JIlbtlllit 'T1"'W I~ AJri~;,II. at ;Ioo~n I j"'W Uig. S I}. Vi:u.-i'Lbility irl G~I:~r SlrC'illlil. fl'ow!1.'i dl.... i"J,vcd rrol~'1 C.JI~J~y{lllm.~~lcIlMlreli1bell.l"W1C'.roo.'i 1:I~c 1".I\Jf.i:da Snuils '14J. ilnd vm-uabnli'ly irrl wind~ driV'C'll :sm1a~,"laya ,EklmlaJ1IMnsptJ'i:I m:.ross lHfj,1icmI.

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il'lffil"age' rlo:rln\lliilrrdl mlllrd-dlni\l'errl 't~man trampmt. <lWOl'Oti ~6 ..!)"IM p~u~ nl~ bcnmdOlfY weodge tram'p<lrt mhe~r'Qme- Off VtNllf-I.ong .:J1~,~,r,il!g)e'diil:sh~~~01~~~ '(;'lJf'lle~,~hllpf'Or'n~ OF! 2 NOIV!i::i'llIbel' 2:004 dllJ!rij!l~ th~ e'xtJr,e:m'L?(dlll!iiiled 'cm'!i~,lIli1!li1tn.! m.aximllJltir .aFld l1iIinliml.lfllll O!lle,r t.he yeaf alt. e'.1(h d!!p~h{oolid I:lilr'lles) an:! ~l1o\lIn!.

I

REPORTS
:lFr"QITINI~h 2{)04 to Mo!!Ul;h 2fU1S,I:~c :IFJo:<-- dl:C' sI~>II1I} Q~nsc in wlllni!l"~;ud vCl9CJlly in the ida 'Strni~ !mnsprn'i ~.s;m i!." m";I;,hn!J!l!u ~!1, /\llgw~~ d~1l wme!', as cmnp;:!~dlo the @\'~m,gc [noll!\:, ... O~,~,~}, !Yfli~]1 ofil'i !gng-;t~!1I!I~,'i~foQ'll1~. cy~~c In 't~~nlc.."nr w,;!!~ITn~[IL~~~ht,;: 'CQ1~lNAP\V ~rtV},. ~!l!cyt'{llr-~ong"~I'\;t""~L;:I:!;I!WPQri i.;, 3 ! ,'1' s« i:\''':¢lijv,d,}I Ji~,brpt;;',a!1l .rug dt¢ bO~:!fId~~ry, I!Ev~,;rI ~Iight~yIC:s1>thrrlfl the' .k,mg-t~!i~U~;n.'b'3U ()fJ22 S", dtC!tl:g11 'i.h~ ~ou~hw~:L~di 'ofL'1\i"ADW ~IO"P~~, !low ~hC'fC i~n.{la'l 10000ge'.mIOHw]y In ~""'~rllin'ni!~,g •. ll~i:ii, ,(12}. mid dw- d,~i~y Im!~potI \'.m ntij~J1!, h~vc OJ c\'l:nl~.Ii': Slm!i!£~y ~},.'Um;~inic l.fig..... .~~illd 2); The SD or .... , Sv ,~T~blc2). Durin~ 2004 10005. 3 ~ I:h~ liirt~~li'lUn;l \'!Iimid-clcivC:iJ'i :-;!urlii~·I~~)lqEk~'i~ l~h;OO'i~o~~iJ'iC" t(".Cilit~~hltilll~ i~d~ tiD· im~ il.... r.igc "'~h~whC'[\(.,,'L"lIh~ ~i,I,thw!ird flo;;\' or UNADW 'IDl$;pon: lill5, iui mili1l.mlf~vcl~ig(~' \"dllllic or 3.0 Sv, ~m,ulnCt Ih.'ll1 ~~(.':I~m.g4~minljneafi1 Ek.i'i'!lin U;:,~bt'i· p,ml or !libilUlt 3.~ Sv. J.IlI(! ii'l j]HH ~iIJ.~nlc!ifil8~olIS :IDUlh'W'llru lrall~p.;..lfI durilftll, Fcb~u:y m~dll'vhlllC'h IFi,!!!. 2. Yeam4mg tiilililf serte-s of IaJlliN' ~ral1l~pom. 200.s.Lon!!;-IH!U'Illl 1\'"cOroS of Ekm,m tlfiIIlSI'IiCI11l: m ,2,6SQN t'x~ib:rt small ~eaSml<!l~ V:<lri<lbiiil.~' {Lill'. li;i<lUfrouu 2004 w2f105. thc nmximum mllilhwmti Ekm .. I;I';ml.~I1(l!1!IoC(:!.!fii. in Dcce!1!1bc~'and J~I!l~ m { ~'<l!l)I" Di"!i!y \~.u'ija'(io!lS. ill Ekm,~n~!'<H!.."lJ'l!O'fl 'iI~,,1 QuikS~fLl dii!~;J1~<"I'I1~II $Dn.r -:'-4.4 Sv. Ti~ "lidClcc<llld~cmlt'lt:;l inc ]il;.'lCi~eullll~O:Il abml,c Sfl(l'm dC'~~uh i~m, ,! Ini~~i mum in hu.e S~'P~n'lII.J>c<J;)ud a ~na~ ifl1Umi.n D~~ll~U: Ih\'!! m<L!'ii!nu~n i!l",\~mlmin1~ • .,." i~~o!l!tn~,[,mly
rOf dii~f'm~dii"l~ ~d!',u~ ~tijQnI '~~' •. ~nlf.nediatl;! w'aOOif (~!rt'l~~), U!fi\lAD'!!'II' U1~'1I bweo); <:IliIdi LNADrW

is 1<1q,.wcr lmn"'I\,',crnge .. ''''hiCh cmllrcn:llales ~
llie ~ ~k ..

Q" LNADiW

ifl!J1SpgrJ;,.

Thus, the

ro.,

!!J'i.'t,;f-

!~~J~~!:!,g'fi,g,. i.hi:';'~v~~!li:,

3) .~ c!i~

~!I;I .~~!I.~!K".l1l V:;L!~1t;l dl"lr~ng

lh;iX IlOS bt..~nl~o ~jn!p:H!:;lbk~ ","\'I(:llt nhin hi5~(lIic.<l1tD<1a~l;;ultic ~c~ions i(1'4Un. lltr.rft WUf'i ,. :;.I1;1ICp' dCS!;l~~l 01' doc;p' i!o1n'!llCIH'IS 01:'118.!tm~ fmiu 'nh~wC<;l~moouJ].tImy in ~:i~~957 h~ro~iphi~ ~~iQl'i. liLi.t Ihe i~,mhcn'i15 ~~~,~i
&:;F\ied

M.irk.lbWelt ,Nega~
p~~ OOf'~If!!!lto w'illUll How.

iU'!'lli!Sr

oo~-·

i).I~\d[ry

Itloddcrs,

in ~:hcir mll'l1ltUl'lil:lg
[IS

;·UlO~~"'&.

IS defined

here

1:1~c; 'hlJIU of UOi1.hwa:n;i G'u~J

Slr.CSI11, EkI'll1ai] , ~nu:m~mliMc WIUcr.~ild smnin,. wardtl~(,lilltoellne recircluhllion trnlls~:norL~.whkh gives du:: IllILX hmJll1liil:mrunt of~~O:rlhw~rrl tr.msptllt of lltplX'rW:.ltcfS (S'OM I~XI~,n:t.1X.hl1l1!IH o".~:~
~!.!I.ninghas
W~dl a ,m

,mnm~

IllC'OlnlmnS]}t."'llt

(lf~R7

S"V

~

'--'

lp;pr'

1May

'1IJ~ffl 1Jt.i~ ·11!.Ug U3@j) 10d:

'II:'.\W 1~

1Jaii'l 1F~1IMat

1Api'

Sv. U!C (I'lfcfti!.!mil'l,gre'·.u:::hC$ ~ .~l~lIxin;nlm v3jUC of 34.9 Sv jln s.cpl.ellllbcr. \:\'~I]cJiI ~11e ,Gul r S4.l:Crnn ]l'3IlS«'n011 is rtC'M .IIS Sl!llllTlCu1ilm: ]"[1011<, inum] ami "''''Blenthe $QlI111w:JI"(i llJ~p<:r lJ:lid~
of I.H)

SD

Ttiifls,111DiEi 2:Il :Mla1r:1ii ~

1D:1i,'~IMEtreh :!tOO!l,

\'i!l~cln. ihe Gul r SIn,'m'Dl In'lum'lIDre.r,~ E"'rfliim em!:lll'JlIOi.u:!is $oluhwrun:t fmdl,]:ic S{)tulihwllru uppcr m id-occen Imn~o.rt i$. relnIivdy strong:. G 1lI~ Stremm, :Ek~l'kllil. <lL1'Id ~11)1l!C1I" m~d~ea:1lI r ITilllSpOrI (Fi£, 3) Dire neilrt)i~~ldepc.~~d'cm~im,e series, 3110, tlilcre is no signir.c<ml cofl\.ialrlJf~ anroll,Q. Ihemn. 11tc.r,; is; some !CQmpcm;o~km Inlll;:ll:min illc mid.OQCillI rc;r;il'culm.tion becausejhe n:lbi'ctltic.level ve~OC.r1}1 depends 'OJl tile size of dle GH~ f'

OC¢:!H 'bmlll\\j'Kll1 :~~.rl~M ul)S gnininllH~a \OuI~~~.The Ol>('I1lil1ltlun,g .ar:Tii!;_·\,'t;'~11 nlti."u!:n~JlIIl ,",Jlltl(; or 4JJ 5'1;'

in F(ilauarry
low"
t~'IC

te800 m (liI'IerlllodJn~ f(!c1I'(JiJl!alli:CII'l) 800 to noo itil (il1lterliYledf'au~ wa'ter:). !L 110(1 '~QI .3i©OO 1111 (UN'/U1W) IBelow' 3:000 m~~NAD1t'II)

o

S'D
-U,9

Mil'lmUI!IIlII

2.7 :3.1 3.5

~3:.3
~lL.]

---6,,6
2.,,3:

'll7' ~ll!O'.7 -7.8

~1.9.2

-iaa

~ . :i
1,,(1

IFig., li. Dl'ilily

S!lrails lrnll!l'l)',fJ!D,riI (blue'), Ekm1:lr'l tr<lr'l!'lllIl),1'11 (bI<1Idl~, Ll!lper mid«eal'l StTlC;rn,1 II<IJlSpGn, 111m. :Ekman ~mnii!llIOl,'I! oml c.."lC'li~ b:'all1lsport{rn'ilQ!ilifl!al), <Ina ~redI d<LY. bm :~nO'.sI, 01;Ihclra!~JKIJ'~ cOln.t)cI~salu:onOC~ ()IIi'(fWf1ir~~;;i~F~ 'rQi' Il!qe periodl;:!9 ,~ ~'U~1'in t~~o;,:: dC'A.'iIl~',valC'l: InM~"'polil.)'i, ~t hav>C' arger U l ~004 'Wo 3m ,lWardil ~OO5. ;U'~'IJ!", The SD~n ~upp;1.lr!"Ii!!d-DC(;;'UII'.II~"P{}rI. ,(;f:3.t S\"}~ ...,tc[IilI,~,II,y;>~'JliiI~~:!l:1L1I:I Ill" v;jll]atio:m, ilea Glililf SU:iCmTli 1;±3.3 Svj IniIn"!l'illfl. Or B:;nmLUI (±4.4 g:~,) tnmsport 1l~'clclore,.c1i~v;:Ll""iau~i':in 1:11'1(; (Wel'1l:umlfl,g is near.ly equal tQ the ~Lllm, oJ' nhe

or fwooa

t~!i1lIC s@ri~

,r~n~aSu:aits

Ib~il:ll 00 ,~'lOOronqnet[( tabte tm~ur>ia'rnenls;' ,i3J

trans!»!'!: ~

giljP ln lh~' rlm.e s~s

00 is

v<i'l:lill1i~s. 00 CllC!li COmilpol'Ltm QOntriibLllcs ,1lbOUI,

cq~IRlly W ~~SI.empornl vm'ia'bi!1 it),.
Th.cm(»;t r.lOnn'b~.c (;"V(ll.ltibl 'dt~~ill".~ol:lg 'ihnc series occur.; ill.:em:r~y NoV"cl1ld)Cr2(1Li4.whe~1th~ d~ ~lulh~rd now of L N A 1J\i\l ~s.emiailly

-,2: IOOntmfrtirnl4Sep1mtr ber tIl 38 O!I5t"Obilr 2004

d!LJe1(1 Hwricw

franQl~

\\lhich desIJ:oyedtfuie Iacili· ~' ~eoor,dirl<f.! tile' vollaiJ:J~
(lCii¥~ 'i!,!l@~ola~tillfli:; (_~ Set:!J here till' 'ffiU~e 'gap). ,Eh'nalil lHI~i'I: B ba~d
0111 QiU!ikSca1Hj'e'l'enm~e(i

ceased <l1uCllhl!fCW~~J ~r.I~rp'C'tfud of u~e"lnOJi.iJward II~ilI,nsp'OIt deep Widen;. '~Iow JOOO"nl of dCU~uh, In tile" lime series of wmJ~ea<1u.lres lltnhc
western bOI;!.rtdou)' slOlllGn (lig. SiI).. I:hi.! ::;;\g!nLllli.\~

of ~Ili~elil '~\I

i~; 700-~1 dOwn.\'!I'a~rl pl\I~1t,;'nlt;rU ~. di,..

ofi:;uHij~rl1L" klow20fID

lill. UlC' \'crliL;.:i] 'pm~~:i!: of dymtiilil'iichlL~ig~ii dijfll:~reli:tY ~Fi!!l. ni>hf.l\\o:;,

~lIiOO5.,1IIhll IiIJI'Pffi' 1iI'Ii:li"'oordralriill~ 1l1l'.lOO 0l'I ~e I~I~ l:il'llle £li1iril!5.,is the vertical illjl.~gril~. of th~ U'a!'l~ort; P'lr 1.!1iI~; de~th ~QWIl ta, the d~~~t; l1;Qrlihw<:Ird ve!Qcity(-1'100' m~ 0'111 '~!i!cht O~rhi!f!1illllg dl~. ~ran5.p<lrt:iis,Ih'~J1'I.lhe SIllIlIl or th~ Ho:riidll Sb'aits, E.km.l rn,'ilIiI!l!I I.lIpper midi'OONtni traMPQrts dine! Ireplie!'Se~!S the Imaximllllrl1 lflorl:h~vad 'lr,Ui"l~ort of I!Ipper-·I.aV!1lr\lIal~{s; 01'1 ,Mclh day (SOM le,xl;)i. VOl317 :SCIE!lrNI:CI!!
WNw.ociem:emag,org

936

117AUGUST :2007

REPORTS
mi~n tr<!lk~pmt 12), but ~ lIminWmlII[i;,'\I nlClilffi!rQl~em." W01.!ld C'11!1.1rc t~l;U: these "SIl<JpSIKlil" ,~~i 1I~;I:~Cl\. 1 Of~11id~N<I!l i;:irl,,'ll!;my seasonal cydCi;i. ,;t!1:\'l \\"C~ I defIned <Ul~~ w('Ildd hldm~ ~U~i~ wi~!rinth~mn!W~rv~."'.bi!il.y qll ~iu; Ol!:so~An~~h~ J~~WIW. 91' i!lil,.'!!~llml!1l! \'4!ri a!iDn;~. ~y I.lI;ill~ ~, ~to~ ~othg W¢.'l~~ri!:I oo'l,l,~~r.n1'\ 1~P.ii1}'~r's Rt\PUJ !In\i-;1''~!1,;'.J:I~'~n.'>,W~tho!'lu ~I~di- \~ih,,;;d]'\iT thi,:jf ,an; m~mt9~ion!s'" ~I!d~. Or ~tdi;1'L;'~ d1G~ ;:;;1]0 IDD1,1l fait.:)I ,d:("A.'PW~::si!L~ni IID1m)[kll)! ~it~~~l1l hi~jo~;d t.'Siil'!1~~~ to inclll.'tIocn~~ dcgll\,'e:<: :;hia s, of Iwoomn. r~~ll,W!nlikc~.y I.h;~ '~vcwi~1 be able to currera ta be in.~~O!iilI;l.r :rnaOrbl!;l WB2 '(SOll.i~ ~e,fer,eiFlloe-.i; ,a.lfld NClte<5, ~mid~~;i;\~!}' dJ;,'lli,Q~.j;~llc ..t:h~ngL; in the QiI.'~r~I>';d), [':0 we do li'O!! con!tl~d\;:r I.hi~NO~!Ii'bcr
;II.t

1,,'\10..)',,,I' t\lci!1;y!min,!;!j :lNAD,\:~r in Ihj,~ G~rAAo:r-.c NgiD:j1, \Viili! ]~~r;::w..~Wf.l~ :o:i~tilli:r! jhe ~l\!)!!D

the 1l;!(I!1.!I1d;gy, f>1i!~~~ng tljm!~Ile-re Wl!S

;! deep

term v"l'i<lhilily~n

I

or

2U04 ,L;:Vtlil 10 be ~Lll c~~y. "\~nhill :500kn~ orlUl~ .B'.1b'ii;j.'i1~""he ,deep \1i'L~CiltiOOu"dfl.y CUit('1II. I
liilil~i'I
,11l1

IlUf!:iili:g ~iI1t;U~fUlio:t1 o\i¢r 11k .~l"I5'[l y'''iffi.
hfi l,oti:i'i~ I.'ifnh~

Iluwl'(; d~tocrio"

'Or,t:~fi!UifigQiiill

is, :JI~~ud. 9,tlhi.~

I.im~.

a

ii.."'CCi1t frCllml

pari.!~r; d'LC ~t~1~th ornhc i\,IOC

h.ydrol£:l<ll)ll~ k'Cli~ns ~n 195i, it:: 19f:L 199'2. 199ft. ,md 2004 was fOLlnd !oh,l\',e rocluccci lronl 22:9 to 14,,~ S\,'. \..'.I~CiI'I;;:l Ihe ovc~:~um illS \\'<!S dc~llli.>d '10 be the net mllith~\1<lru H.~nU1pcii'L1I: Olbove inOO",,~~ dC~l tl). For~h~ Indeed, ~~'ccun. ~lon:r!.OI" (he YCllfli)' "\[Cla~ m;i:dlQQ1·...,:;:W{lS ~im~ ~\l~rit.~ (l'I!m)l,mliu~ :-i~!~~~O'wl.:r neean I<~j;'(lr m~~1illoOrlL", <l:i. wC'1I a.. 'ti~~Fr~Jjlrida lhe ~]l"rI '! m(l m 11m. ;1. nl!.lL.~;lIl \.' .du~ 19.0 $v "Lllld SU'OI.its Ekn~nl tr.ltf~pO:~\, U r'lUI:lIiC yt.'>lOl·' ~i~1te ,of or !'lCfiCli. C'."hi~:il !':hnil,uf~ntr.!~Ull.I!.d vm'i;!I;!i~lLt~j.~I!'e <L S:D of ±S,.6 $v. For the YC'ail"!o:v~g thm: :>0"rh:'''!-l.I:h~rom~lJ(liln d..i!1I Q'!;'~,nturHing i ~~;dw;i;(~ ;)~! sl!oll!l'd 00 OlJli~ W idL;'If!I~:ty.rea~.intcm.uml!!"~ \10),," ~!)',rro.gmphil: ~ecuio!] ($~i~ll'U.~ •. :>lI1!M(':.\1wJ:l;l tfi~>!! i<lb~nty!hm i*, hU!M(!,f U"",n L,6, S\'il]lf!lido{l~n ~r-d1n(\p"rl1! ~Ivcrd:g'-d m:er uj'(~hr. Combi!~.illg !]I~ ",.inugk h)ldro~rrr~pili(: !i~(;liOl~~, mayUi;'rrc(\!..~"I. mid-OCl\fUUEkIl'!UI]SmIO Flafrdru SItiII,il:S.ltiunspo~~ o.~]y irllr.l.mmll"'~ 'II amiubi!1iiLYr'dlthcr I.hm~ Q. IOJl8" bfll[O II, tiiJ'(! ~es oif jhe (J\'Crllill.1'lklg,. we Cfll'il csnCi:llii. lre,lild. The .:N)04 hydro~mphj:C s.c~~iuni ti:JUlItc lh~ YIo'l1rly :],\!cmgc lovoo1ll111lialg!,Wiq;!l ,a SE ~11lI't.e~III.the Wl.'SI.Ml !JcJ],lildmy on 7 AprH 2004. ~,.5 S''!I.T,I~l!Is. we can ,1:n[mi~LU theinWhClI1!:I~C'[I~enllQ<dill.C: rcdlllCiJlmiQl;1. was ~ai],c., ofa'Wtu when .lNADW tJ;UiUD'~IXlrl was ~"m!)lil i(.Filg. 1'1, tel'::mmmi vllI!ciabilil.y inlhc O\'crIUJillillSm 2:6.SeN wi!h are$ol~~ion or 1,;5 8\'. For cx:mlrlC'.~r tlile S:llrl \'I,~l'CIl~le o'~Lil!Jimi~1g \\c.l!> ,"lI11:!1I (I~ig,31,11]L1S, I( 13), or reb!hlc ~o Ihiil 2004 1005 IU!VI~ series, dlC ;,!I[104 cirol!lm inn 1l.'l::IiC'S~ll1iolJ.gh;~hi:t1n:1;':aI~on ll)'dlil)gmphi!:;~oction 'W~~" l:uk\.ta duwi!~g <I II'lCr'iPd ir~hc oWI1.IlI!!TIinJ',l ~dJLIOCS [~,J' 25% 1<Ii.~ ,oo'lJ.p~d cllinmlc nnoctcl; s\.I,g.gesl!hm ii, ,Ulli§11~ under inof :~w(}\lcnu ming Jiclmi\'C:' 10 1ll1C year.long averC1l1clillaled
<II$- Ovcroll'1l1Ug.
f!i;':-;;tl!['UI]J~

ovct'u:iJt'lling, 1I1~~i'Th1;ik'\Cblire bel~~f. ilfhc 2:00420QiS lil1l1c series d~ni1.~ ;:),Y~ht"-J~!JntaVML,gc l~1~per mid-ocean trnnsflort of Hi I 8, 'w~thn SD or S.I $",., Based OI~lhe imeyrnl Ihl1e scales of vm'ia'bi~j'l)' (SOM: I£'X:~), Ihe SE of Ihe >'e3rIy a v~r.:a_g;e !rnid~coul u'a~pon ;~ abolll (HI g".

1.. I'!'. ,L BIf)!d~Jij, H. lit iDliI~~In, '~ .A. 'l,J~JijIIngh;!1fn, ~ri"'~ 4>~B. ~SS (21)M~. .2. Ul, (utlmil1! ~ 'I'll., til Gf.r!MJf 1r1lI'l~r ZOOl; .n'If' Sdt'lltifi~ ].l.iflO!!glili;)m, e~ ,J:)1.. EdiO. I[Cani~rid~e l!I~iII'.~~~.

(aml!ridg~ 200!(h Ill.!].szs-sez, 3. 1!:P.P,ID'is a dilrtcltd FlrnOJl:r~mII'rl~e i!4ilUIrd!IEmloll1r(iIlmMt ~<I~~' (C!ln6l {NU.o. Ui~ IilrgWt !ill roo:flli~D!'II1!!! Atlootl( MOr ;!It 2,6,."i,~tirr,pal1~d n~1l! ~~~ io'lnl l!~5 colllabof,a.tiClIl< illmCll1!g Ihe l"'iltiCl~\a1 Or;:;e\OII'lD!ira~ Centlfl! ('SI;I!:!1h<!mpi_om)'.1Jl,e' IlJl1iv~il.~ ,~I Mi~m~ i?5PM5, ,;!1m!;! N:CiM IDML liIl'~ .it:in~ ,!!1fQiI; r~ lllillWfI ;!I~ !PM!i>";';iDCi MOCIt~ ~\'i'Iw,i,fiIKi~:OO,iE.ul:mllilillIfl00l'1 'i\fu:f'~,MOCHA ~.aiild~t.ar ~ffldh)n;al (i~iOO ~md He,U flu<.t M~'f" !t. f1I.orii:lo!,~1JJl1~il1't.lr~n$pon:. ,AOHIL _~amhoalll,g'~iJ

~m,

J!!!WJfila!iid~umml. QI~I00T rt)l~i(lI1I,. hUp;il'\'i11md~j~·~~',9~ iI!I~QM'tJiil&:l!t.I\1md!!:.dfm, ,6. o. !!a)'Jl~rer~, ·,R!):5 .~\I~~ (l;ui~~ ll'2n~~j!a\ II1!!Pm, lI,Iioonfi!! mII~i! f~piI~ Felilrr.[!1II)'-Maftl1, 2G10l1l,· $&lIih:lrnlllOnIO(&mo~r"l)! IG~r~ (ru1~~ R't,PDrl ~l

5, ~"YI~'~iil

SillitbiirnJ!~91'l" UK. '!~OO5:1. 1. S,:II.. W!1!'1!I1!i;!ia!l11 ~,!' ~AA'f',11l' Il'il»nr1:9 Ol!.IiS~ Itllptl't ai. ~~ay 200:~. F.:RS,000QrIl!:I OollMi'r:I ('ru1s~ (filM ~li'Idl IV ~ttff Gr~ ~i'Ue;h2, ·Ilftiil-ll!ay :2:005: N~iil;)n~. Oa~norJ~PI'W (M~~ 5b!1Jtrn;!i!lfifJM,'iI C-ruii~~ ILfipoiil 2,

e.

ereasing

~IJWU~~]~c.nc CO;! COl1'Centi.!J~im151(24)] •.

lIJc It!npoir..t~'l:tri~bi!i~}1 in the ovcrtlll_min,g \\,lC shJulcJJ also be cn,pJbk of i<kntifyiJ1J;l lire rmm j]l~l;;~lImiom ill! ~hc Florid;1 Slr.)li~:Ii d~fIg~ ~~I.~~Ii\fiC!O'lite 2!fJ04· 2005 :1'i.!'C'l<lgl:. l1i~\.;'fe
l[nllY be; i:ntC'l'",Jnllll!idv.1llcillbililyin
't~!\,C' cr[{;:I!If<r~ion

~I:)r_ 1f_ ~~';lIr ~l.S(i(!f1{t :Ji7. '~3~ !2100rJ). 13. A. ,(i;:!n.acha~d. J. AJmo.r. ,CJctaI1. 1"~tt.ol. :2lt ~W1,j[ UOO~n. :n. M. 0. B<:iIi!'!gl;1",.]' c 11.a~!'L !Jeop,~~ !i\'a u;r. ~, 11i1'!) 13. L M. Iltinc.:In, IP~'~~ :pr@!f!lI1!d: .!JI 1Ilf! fiim IWiD Mm'll~l SOi~f!t~ ~ong" ~ ~m ,~ S~!emli)er ZQQ.ol, ~~~r.i~' ~
MDllSi'I~~~~ iMm:,ilO~.!:1'i.1Qili!.ll ~wtJnp:ldfuliI

SillJlhi!rnfllDI'I. UK (;!OO)J. l. H~m;cl'Ii et uL. '!ifropll1'" R>tl'£~t. lO.14U i'2003:}. 9. ]. fI~rnf. l.· Hi~cl!li'. J,-Cfl. Bei~lf!]afln.. l ~roWt~i ): IlTQf, ~. ~Z, ,~BiJ~2tHll'I~.

O.r Hun~n~nllk,;pnrl:.t;; can \'](; pLII. inrn.~hc: COI~~I of ~al~gtime ~i~ (I f :sueh 1.r.rn:.pol1 ......bl~ flor-

ROOU.

ida

Slrui~SIRtl'i~iXlli! tin~e ~:ric;:.; ~,bael reHnbly 10 19E2, wiqh, ~Qm.e crJblclli'lilc ~cs corrDl)j1ui~~ tonhe ~,9:$0:,IDld :lfJiliIC drojliOOltdC SCCtl~ll1S; Ii!:>;~

tcnldii1lg to fl5 !.:nl'ly&'> 19M 02. 19.. dO), Sinn~ iw.~y. the Nal.iOlllll Ccntclr':!, fol' Envin:mmcJflIi:lI PmJiCliolJ, IlCrumlys.l5 l)mjOCl (11} 8I:chi\l;.'S wind
~Ires;s

mlil (wci'lmnil1g 111m\:vtl~I:Id ohscll ~ <!I, IJrcmD, ,IS IOtlnd ~iri rnupJc(~ ciliUIIVlle n~oods (25:1:~tll"'livUlh ~mi.gcr la,nm~ SMC'S o(nnid..ooeaill mmSPQrlS, from. the RAND Dim)' ICOitllbJJ'l'cd wilh~')lttii1mil1g cable 1li'IC'IlISlIICI11CalS Oir Floridm S~rniI:SIrnIlSPIlUil

values, wok 10<l!he I\!5o.... nus, OIlJ~yVIlJr~ illbi:I,ity [illl amnr..a'Uy .:WCliliged. ovcr.~~rnling. dl'lc [00
trnn~pOfli:lj

changes ihl r'loridSi S~l:71iIS or EikmlllH

of mofC limn .~ or.2 Sv, ~11Ci\!ld be ,inlmedi~tcl.y .reooginir.::=.bl'c. U{l\'".~vcr, W~ Ilitck. III C{llllil}i.mb~:e o n 1(U1g~hnc ''«:t:i(;'.-;; or n~id.gor.lnL!,~n-1l!1J~ <\g.dl~5~ QYCJi!ll.~ntng liising -onllv :5p;~r.>'C o~,t!~~~·h~ (_~!l' si~~ ;'~I.I sin~1I; hu[w:d~.~hc ob;;t:f\'~-cl W'mpo",,1 , wh~h we m]£lhl. 1.'r.Wlniiu!c dml1l;l~ in !l!lijd~~"lll! ",;ui,lbi~:iilY clclilil;').iinhl,i lilillit of tnur,~'bi~~.I.y III drtllihllio!ll Umlwo~dd .\n:'i:l>Cl~l][,;"I~)clr~g:~il or Ih~ (I\,'t!I1IiUrnil!lg.. 'llll~~t;: ~nt~isoil'ill.(,l!i] h)fdnu,grophi!l: icli;'lJlli(y ~il;turc chaugt.':>.. .F\m(i'ulfl'cnlal:ly, \'O'C m:~d 5Imiol]!;. Qrrl '1,f;IC( ..lS~frrl ~ald \\'t';:;,]Cm oo~Jn~d\l:nics h:rnlgt:rl im.ll.:se.rk=s; th~ o"Ci.ttu:ninglf.l del; Ill: jil:i Ilml proddeoolnlC addttioool in !'O'J.l'If1ill[OIl ~O:r1g. bfiltc:r:mnmaal ,!ari~hl,H1y. Ten oxkI~ti:Ona~ Y';'''Ir.> 0:1:" on

amI smcllil.c-bIJIscd wind CSl hmlitC'S 0 r 'Ekmnn tI~DlSIX).IiI).the: !ntCl,!!illmnl.d \'11rrabi~i~y lin Atlanlic OVCtiLll[[flJ:ng S.~~()ul!d ~. dc~lJloo with a rc..."tllmiOJl or L5 Sv, l'ms,flIllhrn.Jgtll he intl<l-il1UUl.l1l'l1 VllI'im:bi lily ~n dw (Ivel1\~n~itlg QlCIl1()n.'l'~ r.1l1l:S,lh.lI \">'C ,IN unl j!O;;c• .Iy to ;c~;m'hlsiyely Idemil)! PillS! ch'I!Jb~ fn [he

iIWl.u.'I~liflg200<l ,~I1p. 14. F. C. f!!SJi5Ae~ • ..witmlic Oc,r:qJJ ~ of ~emp~fltre o!J!i!d ~NnjlYfN(JftJts oo.rJ l\I!'IJl:ljrnm t~ '~mf~ ~jl!~lll :r:~!r:Jf .:195.7;']:958 (Wcoo~ If{ol~ ~rllj9Japni!: l!'firtiluli~f1, woo~ If{~i!, Il'i~ U600, ~liS. 0. re"~ft'lml~h,(, W:ijl15(~.lli'~51M flts: 3~ ,6,1:5l , ~l'J35l. 16. H. L iBI)'d'~m ai,.}:, ,r/im.. 9, .~.M.J: (1996), f! 'lril'. ~ 'Eo ''',l(J<!£Ig'af!" G. C. .ldIi!!'!w~,. (. I. n~!:m!!iI~, MI. 0', 13anllg.er, ",awol m~su~fI1~nt~ ((Ic1~1~ I)fI a (J[fIri~ ,Moll Gr~blll t~l1gj! {liil~ ~IM!I 2>li"Nl~ Iht O nll~it 'Q;;:~ln~lI'i'(ItW OOI'li11 Cir,oill,nioimf:~fl~nimern~ ~,1iDm A6,1 dulilmQljlimw:ll:r-,F'w.f~"'!i' :iL99S"' (NOAA, li)atli ~1'D1'1 IEJIlL~MEJl,~:B, U.S •. Dep.aFfmelll o:~:::amm;e~~~. NOM" EfflirQllm~rn~1 Re~r(](;) 1!.o!1!!!!~IQrii~ S~~t!e, lrIi'A. le. S, Jl. (ulll!ill!l!!l;!)aflli fr uL. .'J'l tril!l15i!'iJ~f( !l!~~r<l~ (lI!(,OOii ~I~~)M'\"': Riti;; ni,lr!:~~,(t!!j~ ~),9", @4. Apt.!!~m~ 200'1.:" $(fmhilli!1~lan IDaMlO!lrillpm~ IGMliU;~ (rni5e IR~por1; 's;4,SWlbiU1:llJW!lI, UK (il:OOS,l'. ~!l.~,c.1L<!~n,ffl~'1Q5.. fJ\'!l!l't, R, S:OG. ~ SeT•. .III .A!J!38,
11.6'(l992~.

:1l'J!99h

or

2;0'.

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1ialbl~ 2 •. (tllt!'Jl(l!il!~flt tf.ilMporb of the AUai:'l'llic Ilvertur:!ili~g! ,dn::lI~i;lHon (diilta ~~p(lrted 111 Sv)at Z6,.5~Ni fQr 'Ihe period .2.9'~~oi!u:h200~OO3:1 March 2005,Ov,~~tlllm~!1g U~lf!sPro,t 'i~ deriD'!le'dl as III .Ffigl. l. The IUpper mid "i!l~ nh ,}In:sp~:rli~ d1~fined ,~s thl;! mi ni mumilil sOil!flinWi rdl~ransp·ort Qr ILJIl'pEi r wlCihm; I()~ ead! Iday•. T,ne g\ll~i"alle d~th (If th~ m!a~!'!1'i~H!'11 't~ai'isp~rti'~ 1)Q!~1!WI (w~th g so or ±:'92 m),
I(OrnllP@l'Iemi~:

f,zoo:u.
(;lil!ii:1).

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D. Gi. Iio~!ill j, Plift, 0r0:m~9f. l'JLJ!3Q4

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. Othef~IIi1:,!!;1!1!l1.

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3·J:
4,4

Millllim!JIm:ll

Maximum ~5,S
.34.9

23. S, R!!~m~,,!!iI, lNI"'~ .3'lB. 145 U~'!I~l. N ~>'I, ]. Me Gre~ f,~al.. G~}'$. ~ l;ett~ 1((2,rl27(1l ,Z5. l, Bael1lr. t::. ~Wef, .1. MaKitillii'. aim. (]lilm9'! l(1.~O@m:ll(l:;a>l·OO6·~'l!.5~'~ ~!100Il'~. ,'6. mile<1l1loor:smuM ~lIIilba~~ lill~ tnu~~I:lins .a1~1i!trf'M 01 ltieo re~",rc~ '~L} (hQde.s ~~rr, .!N~CiI'I~, ~'WiIa&;! ~,~jj!!l ~,.amd il1~[,IK rI~lmiln~~ Marnrli! Pacl!it!El:'
(2005)..

:20,4
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'5,,6

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REPORTS
!i~lem~ I'I»I1IIingle-<!in, The ml)l:fil"lgDl!er'iIIl~~5 .aJll' NUlC ~ MSF. ill !11~t.id!il C~ttl!,m ,~~ d!!l~ ~f@ I~!!~ iOO1!lIf ~,1I31!:iM~ ~.y ,Iti~ .iW.M~, ('fMW',ootl'll~Q~. C!'I\. IlIHllm1dtlClIrf<!!I!lV).amI ilr~ roodl!d ~,!I' tl'il! NOM O~i'ui: (~ima.lI 'OIl~e'I'!'ati~~. 1Ifindl~!l!:'lo5 dalO! 1!!iO.~ '~

fvndeod br

F.i,e5e-arm.. ,atthe IflI~t~!J1 rrilo!'1~i1I, cill' IredI1MIii!lI'D~r U'!l~I.OlI~~1oQn de l!!1 mer, 11'£\I~~IfI~. f,riln~~_ S'!l@Pgf~lii,g Oli'ill,ine IMial.erial
1ifffl!'.~il;:llo~mil!il~J,!JIqJw~1!I:n!llw~Ull,iIS34~n,~~1llC1

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121u!1l! aM7

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l

hHV~ 1~O't )'\.'t

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If! d~t!;.'Cl

Da!I~fflrq R;;m¥llf!eor/ JtIJ,~~JI"<N!,,,IHillis;ch'i~lII 'Wll~~':arn J oh~s/.M(I'II~ O"Ba,~i[lf!!'Jer/~ rwY L B!)Ide:~.:1 Usal M. B~al;:! E. Ha (hll!i1SiOllhlu S.Mel!lill~lil~ . ]I:)!L,:h'~1li!1 M~ul)V;ke4!~ T(I~s:t~,Vl
K.aJIiII~Oiil!ijiii"

Stl!JliHt A,

(1~liIilif!]!,!gI'l3n1ii~:1

dqliCtld~ onlile :rU:Ciumt~ qu'l!~tif1:ealioH Cif'lhc MOC:;. ~.ctlml di8lfirni~itln. ~~d ~m iilIlt{lCf1'ltI!l~~i~~thc pl,)':::iC--.."Il1 pl'OC~~ii,;.\; iIWyh .."IO, \>V!L~ !lItlll.y~c-cl.M.OC !,'f~r:illhili~y s.'l11Jf:~1i!ro11.ilJ: em um.,:: sesles USiuig.~ 1.~t'2tr-l(m~ I1l00r1Il.g-bru:>ed. \!OIUblu).tt'lm~sprafll1im~'series fn:l!lliI March 200410
~UIUIlCMaC' dWl~"'i'

x 1006 wi~k r!i'iiiellersper s:e'oomidl,.~vithd~~~t'Y"ii'!fEmred and ~vii'lcl-dri~(i tr~~~~on~ !ionuibuliiiigi ~l!Iall_yoo ~t, efii:iid: ,eVide;!'Ic~fo~ d@~th·li'irlep~Jld~rij.t (omp~nsaliioi11 (lor' th~' W

111mAtiantic rrIilerid~orn!l11 '1.i\e'rwrr~illg cin::l!dil'~ell (MOO" \l,Ihrf:dll :prOll'iilJes O:rl~~u!aTrer (If !)he' gloha~ Q lmE:!ri:diamli~ heal lrdlnllp!lHiI,is 'mmp~ed iOf iii nl!lmber (If ~!1!'lPilIral'E1 wr:npmillmt~. fleli'il (ihl1l1ng!a'Ji [IlOIl'il iin 'the siIri!lngth cd l!'iJclhaf !ih!JM! mnpo,ne<rJt5 ([rmy aU,ocl that or thL? 'rJfuL?ffi ~a!i be~n lInG:Lear be!'rnLls.'e e~a ~a(k 'e~ tu:f~qILha:tJ! dailt!. WI!' G:i:I,r1lii1ll.i~us~y ObwN~dlhe MOe: at 2:6.5~N r:Or'1 Ye?,H u<5i1'l5lIel'l~"PDint ~!l'a~l.irernllifitsof d~ti~itv, oltClm pr,e:ss!.U~,"mi ooo<.ari (t]l11'ents,; ~i;)L~ b ml~iSl!ii~,melfit!; aCr(;JiSSlhe StrarilS ,(if 1~I'orida; and] mUidl!'il.reSSi. Th! d~nllr~iU ~r,jimport !lompjJ:r'i~fi!!5 larg!~yoomJ:)~i1s;aOOrOf' 'il'~C~1 ,(ith~~,lhi,JIS, of'i~~~mimJ~1 valid1ily D1r ~i.!iF.ililI.~ifii~rin~ appr(j~ch. Till!' MOCvaned (j,m the' o tlii~

lPe';(i~ of (looervatloo by

::!:1$,,7

\Vil!'ld~ri'lllen surrau!

nO!l~.

dislribliltiml OrliliC MOC vm'iabi:iil}l Cil'riplOO, SOlA l2H, UK. ,lRo~lIi~ftel Stliiool, 01 Ma.rlllil.e~1loiI is, lmknQw:n.l.o.ng:~tc:mn Ch3n!;'t.~ inllCm:.'d II:rom, At~aerl( Ihc :Mmosp~1Cl'c mekes the IrIflCrC.flSiflsly dense ScIen!)e,4600 lRit~eJiibatlkJefCill!~!I'. ,~m~ H .~3],49, ijSA,. ~N\aIii~m!~1!Iit; ,iIO~1Atrn~~ Mm1!il1"' nlol1h~vtm:I_;llo,wi~g SIiJI rfaoc \:va:t~f:'l si~~k at hi~ll~ these S1l;~JlShJJ~ soclrons (511lmy not OC'l:Cpl.'C:>CI!DtIsl~~on ~nti~ Oc~!'1Ograpg~~. m ~eoroWg[('.all.al!ii:!r~ a Itlti~udt:"to .tbcd the deep ll.'ltUl:iIl now ,(J J,. Tille mive, Basic MOe chaJl<tC'~C':l'isdcs"slI!ch OlSnl1l_g,1pf)',,!l3{)ll ftid:~'bai:lI::.ef 'CI~~eMliI)" Miaml; ~L HIA'9, USA n;hIIM;l!;: and time scales of'nml!ml v,lriOllbilhy ,(6). "'-I.I\;D;-Plamdl,IMliwl rilr MleUom~le. 8undbstraB.:~ ~a, \1~!ticllltC'~npcrnllHro conlUl!!l.l a13·:5(K'iilJwdw~lh l!his ~1'(I\'\I1[J(.·SI,!!I!:l ,~lrKI,l1hw"wd healu:;;J;nspQrt of .~.3 in li~~'f;ltiJn..'Wi: WlI~1 wrndooS~re{i~ (bocing.. Of d'!Clre~,~· :iilCtlA6HMlOOIg. ,G_iIly. 1rJil~~V i~~ 24"N (2). which ]1olioo.;llhly !ll~'W:(~ 6,'C imJ](:!rwrK~ ol'.'I\!~nld"""I~ (lnd bll.flYl,lllc)' rore- "T,O, mom Cllfii3pll:OOffil(f' ~hwldl OO[ld'.d'~,. E'mail:loii@ ~.1~1): Nrmh(l,iJ;i1 I\d;:u~ti~ cI:il1ilill.c (3. 4), o.m) illig em 81:.100~I!i(UJfll·'()-&~t·.adruJ; tilll~ 5('il~~ (7. m, 1'IIX,~otDn,llr.:uk fJi..ti:J; ~ilIl,mar~~~~.d'e
b)' ~ $OUnll\/lilll'!Q ~ii;!'tru'l~ ilow m dcpth.lilC'M:!io:5:il to
truqW!C!lC},
'lor

T

he .Atll!llltlC. mc.tidio.mlll o.\.",e.m.lUllhl,g c. ircl[~ :1;II~ml (MOC~, ,oomIS1il!~o"r II 11CM-lSlIrl;ICC,
w.:;ml1

!lOJ.'Ii]wmd 110w.

CmlIpCL'lli;]Jtc:d for

MOSl of Ihe obscl\'aliQ:Jl·.. ased e.~lllmmes of b AI,I~III,k l\i[OC slron,glh are: based on infp.'qlll!eJ1Illy acquired zone'lj hydro,gJ"<l!phic seetiens. BOClll1,~

Maro:h 100;," ,acrrluiro:l inl d'tC' rr.!ln1.e"w'ork of lite l'l1p'iic] el:iII'l1i3lc c1ull~dmcrid~o:rU!'lj Ci\!CI1.tI'liIlilll.g, ei n;,mim;tit'l<l1.and ~~eat Ilm~,mmy ,t RA~:~DfMO(,1iA) , Cllperi l'l1i.'UI, 19. IOJ,To com!~WlIJ!' Ihe ~m(', dlC mmd~)' i.~!~gr.u.lmImcrjdiOlm~ IlIJ'<\! ,u;ro.... 2!C~.5~ s as ;1 rilllC,ttO',n dlo1)lh l~.=) W~, observed. 111C' l~~c'k~~!C'Sfti!b; cr'ffi.m are L~lDmangs [1'li:1~ mean ~w~ f!!!111 w"M;I'~olunUl IPmm~ of dC'~.l"i'}I ~~!d OQ(.... lL1n}~!om 'l~"'Uro' <lJt~l~~ \11;1'(:,;;~m ! Imd C'O!l'!.Cm (11dl)[liJH~pr!hCl b1~ill ~a'i~crior (F~:!il. I.) ..nd 12111 lOOtlIl ~:u:k'S; onlli:l Mill ..J\'Ulun!ic Rid£iJ,.~ MARl (~.i!!,_ { S2}, TI~e eastem-ie-westeru bOlilmLiur.y-det1.',ny d~rr:crelnre aUO\\l's ro:rll1C' COlllJPUtiU~O:UI. of Ihe lc.nnpo.1<lI1 C\fO~UliOll the bosill",wkl.eintcgt'lII:cdi gcos~phiMmllSJ?Ol.l. pJ10lilierdlliivc to 'il~20dhar

or

or

[he

4N~liooid O(:tiI!n01Jrilll1~'l'j~l!Itr;@, 'E!~rus, (

I)oc~

50wit~

~·500!O~~~~'-""'""""""",.-~~~~-I
i'"j'e,w
lF~g. !,,[li~tFI'bIUtl(lJ!l liJi[ de n)~~.y (tJ015:SIe-s) ill I1dl ootl:om·~re$s!!Jlr!!: :sellisors bq!ll[ltN~li~ of thE!' 1il:t\,PUOtMOCIHA moo:rin:g1i at the ~ll'~;t~m and eastern bC!ulfl.d~ries Qr~h!l! :i~b~FrDpk@llNQrthA~.~il!mk fle~~ 2:6.5PN~@l ~Iro !M,m ro'r cDmlp·uHr'lg fhe wliI\tItUyil'lt.iegrr'llit.ee ,irIII'~r'i.ai~nlll 'g'~~!5'!.rropink 'I'IolJ,i'ii. Di recto Uilrlr@nt'-liI1i e~l!!lr riI1i,e"HlmN!I1j,@n~Sat t.h~ '~est.'il!:l'In IboUlliilia r)I' {d u:lesl (orn.plclirlcn~ the o~el¥~tio\fl~il1! the lupper [part of~ne '1Pf~lJerlll .. bolul1dalry il:olllliiliUlI1l<1llMope "TI'ihe' klUlti(lnl ,of tlh~ \w'~tem- alild ea!5't~m-bOIUIil'lliillry mO(lnngl sites @n.d~h.l!t,of th~ Slt@lrl:! (If H(I~fd~ t.ei~~tPhgfl~(~M~ (@T! Ibe S!l;!~RI in t~E!irnsL?t£,. VIrGA, \lll!:!i~~m bo·un.a,lIrY '](OLlf>tJlC d,ep,pler '(mlre'lilt prlli~)'~e'f; Wi,R!H, ~~e!i.til!m !molJllild:ny hOI1ll;~r; 'EB" e:a<!lterT1llbol!lnd,~ry.

938

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

:$CII:!lrNI:CI!!

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REPORTS
me!ll~is not ~qlJifl;'(!. ~fI OQI1i!lr;<k"lt to 1![:<'!dili,on~1 hyorQgIfO!~.~hil;"~C! ,d~!m.i'I~;dy.~~.s~\'hi:wmass l~n cQnf;~~n",~!,p;~i~ i!~1~$OO !~ wri ~~f>n!IlI!.~t; d~~~u ..ifQrhic nq,w~~ow~vL"'IJ'~i~s ~Ol,'(:~:;;. ~ as- t'"'~~:;;FK~~s(S,M I'. Uii:;: !;liv'\,';S ~liS'WQ "~'h,"~l;l~~\I'1,i r Ilpp:ruiid~~." i\C!,ool1t~p~lt~MO[, 1i'Iu(,"Mmtiolls. frun~ ... ~-d cifil:d£.~ i~1.11";: ~ saM, Z~ll1:li:~ifli;:~n~t:..~ of d b;[lUOmiflrc:~l.!rc· IlUl::,tl.!;U~ Ion\['; b~flilct'n aclj<u:.ol'!~ the ~II"1U!l~I~n:1~!!l!il.41f.cl~Wllh protil~~ Trtl<.';ft: I' t ~mu~io:l1.'l :Jjimv~!;: til~ 'tlfi"'iji{l~I:Uy 'I,!.1IJryil'lg.~0lll!!:~!y TITh."T(;) + :rW8\V~:I + ·71ffiK(:) + .:r(j.~t:),!lid t~u; iL'iI£?1llf<utLjdJ r'I,)~~"~1-tC'\rC'i CGllll'ibu!ioo Oflhc gr;_\O- Ilr..~di!lio~l!l~T1l'."a:'l::) + T\!i,'owl.:::) -+- TEK~·;J+ (.Gs(;:l + Ijlmphie :nO\\' tn. J2'~ lSDM). refcm.'tIlo ~lo es- n1ii5~-CO~1~cf\'.~1iUn] Ct]ii!l':Lr.II.~IU. O,ur Ol.iiiiClfVling Irn1al IRttli>j:itU'l {Too). TIt~ n:ii:.ritlitmoll~It!II~~I)OI1. s.~Slcm a.lmo"'I~. i:li:'l I~}!lhMlJy: (i) the ORlerofumtg_p'ro~ll,;:,!]~r I.~~(' ,oontii'K~~tali;ik,;pc' eill. I) fmoorin,!l W nicUJdemit! time ~eliltcs.of N~OC\i;ljri .. bl.~ilj13iUl !ii) \VC;.'>Ie1'1li ooll1Kim')I I (WE3:I'1 jFi~.II. ~~I1)_:hC'~". how oo:nl]'iCill.o;:ation of \'ol!1lmc' Illu~c.sis dK"ndh.. atler refC'I!i1L"Li ns west~m-bm,m'lal)' W'!.."4!J.:C' utcd vertie a ~!Ill'!I1~d a",oon,p ~i~hed 1l1'n:Oli,S (he to ~rnl1.'ipOrb1. {r~~ wm, e;;1~maw,1 Ilh:und~~ecl d'ilfcrcnt I rdH)i!l'l)rI. cO:InI'KlnCnliL As. \\le ~h('iiw bc:i!:m,l. Ui) i)t a :Iprel't'qll!i~itc: rOJ I~II. CiJ.lIrom m::ter ¥1lca.'llUJeI'l!!I01US ~SOM ~ JU If S~re:II;1l TIll: flLLtW,!lr{:i'I~S (lim~tnC'an ~ub@i<le!cdl (!j' ~l<~nspt!l!'1l." liHUlugh [he Slr.dt~of Flerid a TCiiS) [h~ I,IcnicilUy i,nt,,"g!;,H!Odl~roIM~su!] f~. 21'1. are '~l(}nirorfJd b~ N'UOCH~'U! ()({.mnie <tr!o AHno,\;ph1,lri~ AdmniniSl:I'".llio:tl (NOAAI8ulJlrmdr~e ~.~~11!h, ;,JI:Ii!tIUU!!"":'cl,ro -,.,"iJ. 12Jj, I_I. 4..11. ;,Inc! 3.3 s'!" IfIl~a..~l.!rem~.m!L" J ~ (SOJ\II ~ The: ro1l."H(I~0<,,"';~ I~.I ur: IR) ~br 7;;. 1ii.i..7"wnw, ~7;;;. and ~, ~O",'~1i'lm1f.8 d~nll:llc 1tI.·.~~ISI1;()xtuiei inh:gr<L~cd in~.r~~'(ln ~k man tf<!uS:lxm::: 'I1iEIII:. li~\~!iXlCi~~\~ld}'. l'. cQntin~ld !(I .. ~li~~1<I)I~\r ~h~~,... :;!urtl1~L.\.~ db.. !ilJraI~~d wi!1i.(:;l!~y ,o;V\l'!' !he (;ll!rur,L,!dcp·[llr.u~g)J.j u~. i\£;~u;!ui~lg Lhu~n~1~S is ''lDI,,~n,'L;"d ~I;CW~~ ,1 !.~l.~r:i~~,jrm~n ~~LC~i)(1mlJ ;f.£'<U~Klro!lll..\I.~i !!41(SOM h . ~ 'Ih'C' smn Dr TElXT (groSl:~phie [cfeJlC~iC(>.k:Vi.':1 :}[Iall[~c $l1C'~irl'l!.. onc:woul.1t C:>i;!l\."'Cl he dUT('nll1:t CQJ'lribl!ll~Onit TINiIF(rcl~thc' grosl:raphi.c ~Oll1rU~ tnlllllSj:Mll1i! COnlriiJlllicm:s S:11own inr-:i~.lA to connb<~Ujio:Jl). ~liId Twnw y~.dds~he: gool>lff.1phic "~id~ pensate for eaeh ether, J\.".:1 ~.Il:'St i~l'IdJcmk!ll. Y'iiIT' ilfld dis:p'I[[}!'tC:g'ath'C'ly correlill.tcdl Intll(}tIJm· i ocean lmulslloOl1. nUC!!ili mions ( fi..10 l li.nt~gmtoo ~.cooss the: u'ml'>a~:lalldc~tion. reliltivcto .[Ii ~.im:c- ti(m:s 0]1 monlhly tlme scrllC'S.Onl'l:le Ol.her ~mm:Ji. hwar~nm Ome! U], 15). Thus, when MOC V'JJ'- on d[lilylo \vcek],y I,imc' ''>CiI!Ics..none oflhrC' COH. ibly compcnsk!!!C' for d'tC' b~c illbilil,y is :!('kll:e:~s~ .. :i! Ilm~~'\mr:i;ilblc flow 3dju'il~ [riblUlionll. am 11(]I,'j.... ()f1:llllC Ilmleri<J.:~ {SOM.)I.

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Fiig. 2. tAo) IflucttlJjliiltl'on~ of rr;, red; '1;j, S~!Jie!'; WBW, Qfillllge; ~, t 1:5 2~mon~h galpi,rl fGS b!~-"leel'l 31 AIU!\! a.tM. a IiId 29 S!!l!'pU!IlI1I e,r 2004. AU ~Iiiflle~l4e's: W!l!'r,e ,!li b 2~d,a~, Ili(f~~·pass mtll:red amml ~y'bS!:!flIlpl!~d (ll1lalil.1)llf·daHy ,grid, l~,~ f[l]~~a~ salm,~lril'!g IF·!:!t@S· we'~e 15 I1i1lin for tl~e: lIll1derl.;r1ing density and UHfl!UU mei:!iSI!u~m:e~l'S; Glllid to Ilflinfolr the oot[OIlfle£!Sls,'lJin!. (18) ftrt~e !iI-d~y l~IW·p,il'$S-[ihe,r~d nu~t,u.pllir(ll1iS· of venne a ILy 'i lii!t~gr.al~~ mfd-~(~.a f'I ,~r,i!(I'" flNlT -!- r~iCI' "'" r~) €I!td boond~rf 1~!!lns.PQfts, ·",70. + .i!S, ,bll':!cik ~n~ 9f@Y ~Il!~~,r,e-spiecli'l,li~lv •. 1Ilh~dame-il!! p:a nI: e~ litH:! S1r.iI¥ ~]liIe de<tt!lt!!'.5 the period ""hefl iG) {)oul.dl l1Iot b~ lIJ1Iea!llJ red .. tJ.. Hnear reg,re~1j.iD:n b~t.w~ r1110alnd Tilo.wl:I wasl!~dl~o '~his: gap' '!'SOMi>.

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REPORTS
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(ir.!,m~rn'!~,I'I!l~a,¥Wp;rnI'.d1lIkrFi'dlli[Ulll'1!1ltl'!' ;tOO <In! I~un!iled 'ill~N.OM oliic~ Ql Olmat~ II!! Q:b~liWlilll1li. lI1Ei '!IIild"Sl!'O:§ dla~iJ M'(e 'D!i!liIlineD'[rOO'! Cgm~ne ~Eij drAlq~iI'.' <el; de-rrO!lI;nnen~ 'he' !mfiM : ~~iI~~ d! Rli!di@rw l'OOi 1'~Qri!H!iln 'Ib &11 MH in f~lclIl'll1r1e. friWe'"

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:5!i.!lJPoiitingi Ol!l'I~j;'IE:Ma~~1iial,
~1"wMl;ll~!'!'!iIg.arg.r'!litcC!n.e!'l~rU!!.II317l5'B>t0l'3S11OC:~ f.1ialfJilil15 ,aod ~li!,UlC!d:!; :SMr~~ :Fig!l. 51 til! f~bll!S Sll '10 Sl3 IReferMQe'l;

~oon.

s.:~

Q99S).

iii: 1~i!ht1L1~iTIfZ(i{il:l;~~~ : 10.1]2(i.f!lliE~~l!.lH U~3

12 ,ju1(f 2007

CIOIO

IRIB,due,ed :E,'gg InV'8 St:ment C:an IClololce,al Hetper IEff'IC'ls, in p erat:iv,elyBr,e'e,din g Birds
I

di~lcd

5 11.,.F, II1t:U'5Se:~I~, N, E. U,lIIgm,are.'3: .A,Go,cklbll!ln~~ 1,2!~t :3:,IIL S, A5~lh~iliIferr~ R. ,M. IIK]lne~" I

IGoIOpEratfiliE!' b.reed]r1ig SV~@lms: !',U'e' ch;;llra,cl~ri~m If1QI1!.b:rle~d'in,~ iiI,~l~r:o; tlii,ilt ~'!:",i:!it bre:ederr~ in by il:lrJs:p~n9 C:ilIre. However, t&l,e linel'le'rits, tnl ofbp ning Ilif hil'l:g ted! by pilIlrents a rntl h,~1~!I1!f$1n icmnperalw'i!~.~ Ib.rl!~diin:g Ibira:l~ can I~e dli~~kuU d:~ted. We oifelr ;e.xp!Hnrn,eiflta:L elOl'id'elllm [hart ,tiU.~lp!H to !!1'fFem (:.131111 Ibe (lb5(jlllr~d by ;;111"11 llJPi!dQIW!iliHm'l~d Imartemall t~(ltk.II.n :~!lIj:ler1b '~Qiil'Y""~\li:If1Pi!~ (M'C7.{!1r~s (,Y8I'Pe'l:Is}, 1!'IlJI[I[~,ers b'l1eedinlg~in '~he'presel1!.l!:E! Oir he'lper$ llav 5111'1aUereg;gs, ®~ Iroi,,;'er mII!lllritioln~ IC:®'liIt@in~ ti1a;t p.nndm,e IIIghte,r ehleks, as !:Ol1Ilp'slred \Yitlil '~hose laying eg,g ....1n the ab!>e'11H:!e hellpers.., Hlelper"i o~ ulm;pem'l!te hi nV 1m 5UC~trl rrl!!i[hu::ti,on~ ijll ~Il'lle~tmelill i! 1i1ll:!1 il'lI.Dli'I mot~'~,r" tQ bene~H thmuglhilil r:r'l1!di'l<l!d SUI"!Fi;Vilt to [h,e rll!:l!:it brlledilil!il! :se.1lISIll:l1. W,e!illlg;g<e5t~ha,t f;aUme to (o.lI1Isideli mat'l1!rll'lal egtgl.;illveslrmm~ ~lli1!1:@gil!s (;.1!111le~d tQ Ullldl!N,~sl'irnati'(!J!'I I of tt1eh:m::e or !iel~E!Ctivl1l1(!t:in:!iI'OI1i hl!a'lpili1'~ in a\!li alii ,coeperilliJ;!'e' bli@@dl!!Js.

W naa7!:IIIU;{C'bcncl]t~ 0', 8). COOi)ern~h'e ba.'loo on d ireet fiXiprocit}' 'i·~ inhcr~ I)nll)!, W!.n~t;~ol~(9). alld renl P"Y!l~~\nlICCUr$ ( 1.!f1C.lI:r ,oo.lnd:itlioll:ll. lh:m. will be se1\:loMl mf!l. (M). In IOO~CL~,~lj\,C IJre!!lclin,g. S':)I'j1liCms,:iiec:l!r~g O'U~d lJ]'ail1lilUl ilJa.g rlbr'l;~d1iugg po~Gion is 1~IT_lii!icl~ brly ch~lIcnlgil~!1!; ~~IIII ,olTca'l'i !iubl'il;lI1ll:ifll lit!~~!>i kll("jh,~ un. COIliS.Cquemly, mro(iclcffi~lI1iglll. be CJo1p0c't{;d 1.0 be under S'umill1g sek."C[~nn III :ucduce Ihdr im C;$lmelll in each'!. reprodllcDh~e fIIh~unp,t in, ()frdli.~rloftrie:~ea ..se the IlUmber or 3IreI11l1)~sihill. Ihey C,uli1 I1l'1:\~cirrl 11~~rC'lilltc.For ,e:"!IIl~pte. enc or mile mOSI. cO:lmuoJl~y reponed helper effix:L'> in.

l~oo!!)di Il!)l

:1vimn coOjJCl~live brecdi~g s,yste~llS fs, load lightCI~illg. \ld1C'JfC 'breooing lenmles.reducc oits,pr~l!l,g
I~mv T!Sio!]~~lg w~h inCl'('))sfng h(.~lpcr mJ!!ll001':.'1 (.!).

0'1),

I

r<;C\;i,",~ IkHJ
pa.relll'.;,

n coop~,~.!ti\'c ·1n'L;;..wh\~ ~}'Mcn~&(ltThll_rUng rril~~n h\:'l~ffii~!,Lddijli():I.1~o lh~ar
A~,lh.c~lUIyh .P'I'11UI11S
(';[UII rI,'dlt<:l'; lh(:

.noncooper.:u.i Me :lil}ccic;'i, Ihmrtilna Ie: bil:ds c,m .!td<lp(i\'~IYlml!li p.l1~'~le \'CM!nem wi·!I~i~~ i:n egg); i!~ rn:ti: <t'! \'\Ihic~1 du;y i~cd Uldr off.",rinM: i.~! the ,[J'J), ]J:d-~p'~"ibi~il)' Im'iinm~~n t~/lip:~ol"~d f ~m,!:;'i!;,'UCil; 01.' hc1'IJoI;)rIi, Ihi.... l'!;;'dll.(:I:UiIn i~ 1!JI~\;\ii1~~,Y cour~rM iv~~y b~'l;",1;,\ding ,~p!:;".C:ii:;!l. \!lIrthl)~'~[1t!n;:,
.il1~(I~np:l:(.';tI;;. aud s~) anls~ning Ii\.'~ilvj; m{)R;

lom.d lig,h~enl l.S w~lId ibl'OO h occur allhc cu.stagc I :rowl;lVCI'.'lc:'Ipi!e :gm'\'IIing e\'ide~cc from

rcmd

hypothc."1Sc:o;
cg.,g

~ilrding

:>Llchacl.ldPt:iJVi;: nrlLl.tcnll11:

l(l,e~m: ~f Aliii'mal aiild PIal'll; '5ehiOO1~ Ulil!te~~1 til' 5hellieldl, Sli!llUie~d;!i'l!!O .2m, Uil:.. ~tel'u~ lorU'Ie l!fitE9ITWtt.re

tUlSII.jjj~n 11!.l~i()MI Uillilisrsil'j, (,;ulit!em AO(Q:O~)Al!Ist:raL;~ 4J'erq Fil2patrid:: Ilis'tlMI11l1 MmanlOlllTlthollJrmr. Der;!<ldimi!nt

Study of l'Iflilllil I~~o~r. M<Kqul'Ifi~ ~lilivMi~:f,5rdm~ :N5W 2l!Ot9, !l.uM,aer.." ~dM. ref BGt;lfl!~ and ZGGilIf.Y,

of Sd~!'!Qeand JEdI!'!O~Nauoo.ili f1.5t~ili! F~tloo !(flI11rll III IEJ:~.··. ~rnu!j'llr ICiI~ iOOn., IFklncl~cll nal, SeMI! . 'cf H&!IIi! 5tiencfS" ~ tlf Woltoo~ WoI~ng WIlew S!xI!:hr W~t-es,2~)U,AlJ.!!iA.raLIa.
~~Iij~nt CS2: :3 E:J, UK.,

,cr ZixlrQilY,Ul1illl!rsi:tyof Clmb~~,

C;ambi.

wh~n hcl~lx;u" <:lin: PI!e>CIlt lhfll] ""h~ib l1hcy ~l'(; fib· 8.Ci1l1 Vi- Gh~llhlll. omjlfilb!ll, ooceivc fI1~ fOlX1: whenl abo r~rov:islo.ncd by ~e1~lrC'iI'S., ilS C'LlI1\"Il!;ly h ~mcle..'l[J"why many 10ll~g~elf'l1 ~wudics ~lmvC' ~1ih%l to de~cc~tlell:ieil:' ,d;;:cts Ol~ol'lsprillg SJO'li,'ti~and :i1.lf'l·iwl tl) or hl'l:\;\t;;d!:ilXte!l (inly wc<~k dr~ls, (3). 111[::; .ffiT~l.l!tI"e Il1tclcl'Cm~:lentnhc lllC'illi!l;ia.s to 0[1::· sprins Ims jdfill'lp!cd II)1l1Clhescs Itli\1!~ng lilat helpin,gbeimviol' is <In l.msdecl.cd ,consequenoc l~h)ffiiallogUc,d 'priming t(l rrn¥ide care' to begg~r\g

m::ro.

·lypi£aUy PJ~i.cl. l~m. I'l1IrnJ'Eit:l> :shoLiIdi in,ciiCfiSc ~1'n.~·.iJ.'· k:vel .or widlin-c,ID;; h\i"·Cif.'1fl'n!.~nt WJ.I:ICIII bii::cdJing iill ra'\!oiifib:I~' ro(iildritf:Ol1s ,1'4, Jj). Yet il. L~a ~'>9lhCQFCIC\:a~ plixusib:lclllill, ~}' l1i;lO~llm bl\.">ediing in JPiri\'ileged ch!C\llrnstanccs I.i~~ lh.i~ Ccl..'i.C'. willilhe 001l'I'ii, of~lellpcrlS) might:
l'IJ;\I\.'St~m;rrll.

or

'·Th5e ~'II!lbm tOlillrilll!n~d',eq!ll<llll' to '!!\is,".,,11,111::. .. fTo Whom oo~~o!lden()e s!I~'OIi!'kI be oi!~jh!l~e5'Sied, 1E'!'I1at1t !I1wtljs~l®IDglDl!Cd~.{.Ilik:

Gjf~prilig l~oo~~!iI~liI on fUllI!re .~iauocil)' (j~ 'o:f i.... lami (Ir"~l! paYllll\\,:':Mu" 'ifj:~ llu..""f.C' ..d.1.Cn$ll~~~. :;m.; p:rnb~CriIiill~~ 1Jt.~1L\us:elldrlri~i!la.~
~{fi ~

(-n

o.."(!d~hc' cUfl!ent I"ilness.[DiLII)1\Q'I'l's :trorn r m;:reasing C'~g il~V\I.~~mer~l. mothe""L1Cdll~ Iheir in\'C~'l~ '~f

benc'lil rron:1 :r.,~-.ducliffilS in egg in:\'Ci>tl~,le~11. i'f the l"ul~ll.'l! ~i[nes::>p.,~yolfsfl1O:1n doillg so C;.>i.\\'h~n btt;'t;'ding i~~lC iPrci."'.:nc~of b~!~dil!h'il~ui~pl..~ ~1i,gh'

h~h~~. Ih~lii'll~)<'
hmlc
Iji~L~kJ:d.

mm,m tn

'Cggll.

o.uu iO~riOipriU1g c{l!li:dLliol~

~n!,cl.~!11.,,!i\'.;ul wi;~l

1A"eli :.~O'\,\'li

cO&~y (71

mid S!nr.~~egi("!IIHy t'te

I

REPORTS
We !eslo:! ~:\~h~ll~r hel~pJ:l.~~J;c is as- IFig.. 3\.. R~~li~!fiI ~lWf.le~ ~~IPllf I,U IprH~r"e and _ dli'!:k ~roO'iiilsiorIi1l9 ~imcd wilh ['l,"dI;rcli~Pl::l,qn n~tCl:l](ll1 bnestmj;.'fl~. at ]hl";: ~~ <lilAgl;;" (ii I '''''!l1;,'j!hgf!l~~c !T\;."'\iIl;I;c!io:!.~" Iralt~;j]: or (EI~d1li::k lmi1li5S. '~II) H~~.p!rs l1adl ,a pmilw!! l!iff.oct on ~he rate ill (:Qrlilh~)d l,;':S,tinl[!IJtIt,.~ IwIJ~f~"!tlllti:ib~liion~ QI' ~, wh~:din ,d1i~ were! pmvi!;icmedi [gen· ~!"~.liug~1l'il~1U~~d ,~ui~)'!.'\Ii:~,,;:h!:j[t!latlt;.nl~Ii!(-.cl~IOera~ 6~earrlll1loo~l (Gll'Il!I)" fUll::: ~i['!n:i: are Ol!dO!(l1thlC',We hl\'1.~tigati;.>d!h~1;i quesi~~!h(;: I;oopt,;!<lli.vdy b!1i:(.;d.i.ng sU;r'h:;r'b fairY·i!\t!\lJ'i }4Q/U1'i'l1f 'J'Cm"",Io.~, ~ pa~er.titie ~i!t!
~iO!fiS

,m

At,

~{l. 1-1

'i.- ~.

,ii 1~
iii
,~~Q

~

5.82, P== (11,02:7', iO!

'He~pf[~ ~clIIllDI !['llIect.(H'! dukk liI'iIa~

=

loP/ail.

m)

O'id~iiilil~

10 ~ouIJ!C.2i~.{::in AiJilil.r"iiJiOl,.W.t~05e ~i~1

mlaJ~in~ :>ysk'lIU cornljiJ'i~cs oo~hbn..,"(',diJlgpuirs and ,ooo~rn~:i\ldy brectlil1t ~eiliP.'; (160),. Previ~
ous work on this species. I1s:: $11.0\,-111 n~,~~ tl~m in\g.<;.receivclrnw,e foodl ill ti~epl\."'llC~~eef he~pcll'S o {In. InIl dCS~)!telh~spau~m. Ju::'13l!e.l:silOl'IC ue ctll'Cl onjhc l'rns,,<;. or !jIjIIn,hl,l~ o~' ,dl~,C:k~ 8}, 0 The s,~une W'!i.~ true in our :-;tlQ~~yIl(lipl!J1Jti{l~I' J.rll (]~~Q.:;&~halwere IlWV i~irnl()d!by il.iYJ)(.~'(i.i~g p;lir widlhd:~~ruL'Ci'V'\;'clI9' .. !1'!lIf(; rn,()d~h~~l diN;! ~h('lSc Ihm \Vot're wmkdby an l1~O!i;"s iSll.;~C] llrucd~

hjll~,f'I.]A "" '0.00, ,p ."" OI97.~. :B:r(llQd :S1e w~s;fiUed as a oowrJiam ~I'I {AJ. as wa~ tars,1,ItS.ll!iIii~thil'l (En. Th~ pred'ided i:laJr ;1!r~ thE! Inumboer:s: .~.~.md~,~~iF!dll!l,t bj,~dhlQ
Ifi'g.

il'i'ijeaUilS: SEi'lI\ ~~!'d"(I\rbars) are5hCi'!j,li'll'1ITIh~ vatu~ :!!:
l!.IDil!S.

llij eaf:~~

Ih~l~r ~e.noo
volmne ,or (I

:2.. ~ilaJtiA;n:lbel\1.r~~n

ro I) egg com-

and (Al' egg

.~.o,~
III !l'l

[posi~iolil. in dt~ pre5enC'e

l'!~l~r5,. !t1others: llaid

~t;
had

,(A), IWr~ slmiHrr [WE,

~oo~
uro
of

or

~

0,'1-0

(fig. !M. N""\'el]J~~k~ ,C:hirfikfl ~)' grn~~ 'I.\III;!v (If :;;il~]I<lr J!f!,IJ;..... ~. lhQ~\'! ing
!J<l~r

re-ol!1l."'(i

X'1..~ '" 5,Q~, P '" 'O,.(lll;1],
Cil

ltJ<y r<lir$ :)ttm.:.;ItJF~g. ~.B},

nt~

ro":ol,JI"d

rewccdl HI
"'"

IrnfiSS

r~.~oo
i·~
C
Iii:

'; o;a~ ~
~. 0.00

t'l"(;T!l.'!

There 'were hYO C.'tllCidl'lllenlid~reillmenlS: (i" one I~.\~lich cl ulches: were nmv·C<!rmm nests \ of p\lin> 1)0 ness "mended b)' grolJl}S ~nld "itt 'Vcn;<l ~Uo'l~rim()m.'J.1 '~n.""'.m(!nU and (iil o~~c ~n ID1G :13% less Iw~ehl limn dld tinos~' lald hy which dwdu:;s \'\t'ro SW'ippcd bcl"'\~n !1I~tr;. aUclld(;.'d by ~hc same m.llmoor ofadulls (oon11;'01 i;'cmglo;:s, lm~cdrns in p.l1Trs (Pig. 2D~, :ll!1:~~ling ~halmottu::rn inlv~; I~ ClWJ:gy in theIr egg:_;. when ~1'C~mu:mm. .Firsl. lr nmlhcp.> l'Cdu'Cc ]hcir ~~ brc.I,ldin,)!; i !J~hc ~}~I~C'C {If hc-bx'n'. in'fC!'lulIcJU in dlepr~ncc I;IrhJ/,l~P"lIS.we "\I{lWl~d fmln ~;;; i;.)id i:n ~mlll~ aud Fl~!1hcr allOlb'si:;; of Ollif 'lbR"'r¥,u!i\l!w_lld;IL~ ~u~d~cl \:I'M (;~h~'I;;~:;; !iWl!!lgl,:~:l'" [h.u lI1:.is 1.1.\d~~~-d1 !~1'U~C:~11.d,invl.,'l\!1;!:IlI,rull ~\.\\u1.~,in p.llir5 tgrl'J-pr. fig,. 3(') WQIil1~'d be ~~. nilicciiluu:ly light(~r dlilUl .cili'l!if co:l'II.ool chich Or O'II dle egg ~wg~ c(m,-.eul1;, c~'pt.~.h ·dJt'II;'l!oi ()I~ chidk grow'ch (Ui~. fi.e>I, !;[iJ.1L~1 ~ g,avoC []i>('i 1.0 s~l:mll c those :Iilid in: ~}mic:8 ruud ,1;'Cafti:;d ill. group:> '~PJ~,gIIp. .F'ig,. 3C:~ ~:IIDS'I.Iprprn:l, of Lhi~ p:li~-dklioo, C'hr~k.s ~:hidk:s (.~nea::;ured6 10 t..; d~ys 'l~lcrhli.Mchirng~ {,r:i,g, 3,\ ),~O:l1d,fII~;k::,controllliiflg fo.r lht: di r~ arisill!g rrorn, eggs !l'ml; \"~JIC bid inl g.IOupl> and ~cl\:'n~ i:n egg ,'o~lJmllC'l> bc~w«rn g,ro!llpt; ml.'d rol!JreCi, :in pairs "{CI"C $is,~li Ikllllfly l:il~I1cr d~fl p'.rn.ins (Fig,. 2A), '\\!e rOtijJ~. d\:l[ 'JoidP;15 ~1tld [~ th9SC rrom the other j;.\i'o(I ll\."'illlll~n1S (Fig. :lC)., sigttiliC'''':;l!Ui, IJiI][;iliY~ effect em chick ma-ss U'i.g, Seo;'Iltd, omr cros."?l~cr.i~lg ~periQlwm ,,100 con" JB}, ·ntC ulr~gnjlllJdcof dt~,>lillter hdper ,eHi:icl limle<li illatrna!i.!i:lfml ;~t1m:liOJl5 in egg inv..;:sln,'lCf1:t cqmltcsio an 18% im:reasc :ill chic!.; lruls:.<;:. s!lIIg- wlu:,Uy I:nm;:C'OI~ he:lpcl' errb::'tji., We' fOllnd thl!t the g~.ive~y crose lo~he If] ~ncre~ in fhocllha~. m~1n HliilSS nestnl'lgs in Ihe' r08~~rl~l'I"j[OI:Y d~dinol;d a.. lite m.l!mlicr !!lr ~1'Iil~~"s in the m!.l:<!J . c:htcksrecci,'iXi~,:heill 11ID\1!skuli.>d b1r'helpcrs [crr.iw'Q" im;;r(',~d Ipwm!-ti!~~n'W = (II;S4 + ~.~ i(]11g.IA). To 'csl I.hil}! ~.-.r;: pOs8ibi~l!ill' !!I~:~rcduD..:-d m'ijUa fU~) {Fig. JD}. !-I'M~~"C't.Ihi~ Im~ai'~'e (;rr~'l W11h~ ~"'O!l~pl(~dy ~itf~CI by dtG pnsiit~~ iiiHiIICJ1Ct; ~(:"iI1wl:in\~IIXi~I"i~ ob~c~n:'(';8 ~lt'Jpt;t~fI:t"1;:"'", \K cm'il!.l1J{;l~ .~ Cir,fil;iS-rto)~icri Hi!!; e1>p::iJ'im~!il Qli,¥t:!hr., ofdr rruiV.n,..iol'Vimg If1!l1~,L'],rli:!t\lttl'iim~(~.I~\:iiJlll1l.
(16).

d iLfmcnccs Q]] jJrt.'Y lo~d<:; or !>~cic" i~l pairs ::u:K! groi:l.~6: (.I Q). CQm;cquciilllly.~\lCinl'lo'CSllgmcdi ,,\41C1her mod:cC'S rocll~(jlhcJr imle5uliIcnt ill ,eggs. WlilC'~l bree(ling i:n gro!l!ll).'>" Chne!]} size ,mu] mean ,c.~ voimm:s were' !l!Illeorrc:Ja~cc1 ~~~I'lcar m:i.v..oo~:~bc~ model ,(lME) ({)uIJiOUi!llg for repe,mcd measures \v~~hin ~mrilm~: Xi;!=n)U, p= O.9!,N = li~ l!;~!~tch~l. and dHlc'hcs: \\I\el't' sim:iJinr in s~c in ootlh gfO!l!Il:IS J_;lld IhII:ll'S [lME. X? 0,29. P 0.59, lV 68 C'Il!IChes].I]l OOJ.l!_ras.t mK'IilJ'!CfS bro:dmgll] gro!l!l~ l!lid C'~ 'hm were 5-)% :"Ili!;_d]cr ti![Ir1l! cm!:ol IfrorlJ ~liDDS(;'bTI:.nlillr,gi.ll p.:!ilN ,~16l' (f~~- 2.1\)~ ~ !;]Iitd b,y l;';"lil,lk~in grOIIP-~ woC.'tC also or 10"""(;'[ illl!11~ ~,tii~iQll11.l1COllilClJl [limn these ~fl~db,~ rCll'lllk51nl pflir.> 06~ .lldpeH:> were :m:~mdhltoo w.ith tic 141,% rt"dLlC'lkmiil the wetmass .of yollffi (F~:g"lB} ond <11, 9"-I~ .n::{]uClion iun ~bll! dl')!' mass yo1k:> (,r-;ilg, .20. indiCilI~ll.s, IfillJl.tlhcred!llc~km in ,egg vnl~mle was, ]10:1$illlilly due to 1,\1dw::locms in o'II'~uncll o. wII.croomcHI. Fmn:hcrmore. 11ll::dried yolks eggs: laId by Ii;mah:s iu gfi:oGli;PS had tl% less lip&d

J!O ob\liolh~ rtl~W chick."

14%), (0 ~ad a Ir'ooU:!lm d'ry Ilfl~~ 'GfyoJk (GIlII, "1.15 5.26, P 0,1)31, til '" 21%), ar (0) had redaeed m<I~'lIls of ~pid '~GlIVI,,F1.1~ :: 5.9:t P :: 0,(1:;::9" r~ '" ~1%) and ~roteil'l {G~ Fli.~ ""• .5.79" P' '"' 0,0.3·1 19~M+1liIi!e tel1rltofvid!e.rltlity (10) was (L03'9. (2

yolk (Glm, f1.j~..~ 5"24,, P .~

1M oI-J.....,.;,IiliI.;_: ....I-.,,-..L-$Ei;.;;.-_, J.!-,

:i! O,as, --lI._H~!.+_ ~

!a

........ -"I_.......i'--o

PIUili lileT,peliili

=

=

!

i)iii2

r '"

liltl:edla~ i! randolilil fiactor (1

kI ,4 dUi~(hes per te,~riitrny),
~he year 'lM!irt~ted as. <! [owl'iiate iin ~A}.,i!llld ilie lay

]111 each ba~ are tlile l'Ium'be-rs Oil~m:iepmd!mt l:nllieding ulFlib:. il'lgpemume.lllt ruciprooal Utmls:l:ocrniml of coun· pf.c,te elmches OOtweenl~C1ll1ilk:.s ocfore!mtcl1l illg

di;i~..e\lIa:s 'filtoo a~

gJ

oo\l'!I~l{:' ln

{A}

'00 (D), 1:h~ IIl!~Eldi~.,d ei!J'IS m

;:i;

S!~ (.e~r

bam

a~sh(!l\l!il1I, iIDllfi: vatl,l~

or

or

C'.lTee! :;iire = 0.,J6 ± 0.1:51 ~Fig,.3Et whiioliw:i$ ilself si,gniHc31l111y influenced by~he :nluJnber or ~hSI.Cf m .. ales cOlltribming (Fl£. 3F). Taken !og.clh.cr;. thcseresu hs C'-onl:1imn t~l<JI~ provislou-

!!1g~i'lCq lle~~cy is a I'CH<libiJeifldiemor chick C31~mici!1t"k!e and ~h:1II~IC'be!lcll~~liIJ ehicks of ro(;cu\'i~'!g food ~};nIV! hdp'C'!'l'l ,~re OOD1C'¢lJ~ed hy rcd~ICliol1,'j;ill egg lnvestment by r"cm JICll, will" hell~C'iI'S· Gh""H 1ti~a~, (l~h~r(:oo~rmi\'Cbtl!.wing 8y~ i'n I~nl~., (j!:l~priu!il £If I~w !l~,l!,q~,,1fC !JlQW!.] Tohavc
n;~h!I.tl",d ~:11llllCi;,';S
!]f ~);,-"JI:'I'iJ,li'nil~'11t 2(}} ';;i11d lmv l ~iUIJ,lIt; .1CIJJ.n1)ducthlc !;1J~~"""'i (.U~why do f"'l~jdc:;; 1b1Jl.i\."4klg .iul Ihe PIfCS~IIQC of hc1lilt"J.iS IfiI)i~.~ that

or

I}

or

yk:M :sllooptill~fli ofFllpiling'? We know ~hat Ihe durnti.o.Ils Q r iI1C-iliOO~ )f1:flli~(] ch,ic'k iiiCliIril1£, ;JJ1C' k ill rnexi:ble ill smlperbo it~1~~!;\m~::; SO arc· MI'IF <klla, in n\WiI'K.'ed by hC~fl'Cf W'lWCIllCC l M. 18), 'OnCIPOS:sill! Ii~' .lir!liIl<1t nlllJlher.; :;;)'f!; (;OJlSlmincd rrnm optilmITI ,!tllocJlion of R."SOuu.es illito, cggsberousc or cOlnpdii{m~W~~.1 hc~1iS .tbr fOod. in dlC·ur'lerlitrn:y. f\.I~C'n;mliv~~y,rC'l1lmlesb~"'\Iillgvlfl gmtQ1S ~nt,ghl C',,'i;pklil, hdpcfc'OlImm!:!i('Jas~o :n~sdilll,glllO\._~ b>' l'OOUdHg lllcif G~...'n ~n"'~'lil~nl lnre!i'ludlU;liO'.!l!.Q ~~\'~ fC)l~I.I!~ far ru~ure j)roCod~.I!:g ~~,.. !cmrt~ Tlill.:.' ~Huer t:",pl:i!1I11111ton i~ I'iHl!1;: .~oo.l1gll' ~ippPrwcl liy oLlr cviclt:'liOC.

942.

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

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WNw.ociem:emag,org

REPORTS
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a
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1100,1200 1:;1OOtol€l1l (1;'!)lg "'~!'!i!'!l!IjI,~",~1) '1:5100

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RIiJ!IiII'b9~.!liI~Inlltlllrnll~.'

Fiig. :3:. Conelat10 Iliil!~.<HId' eocper~rrn,e;n~:al evid enli:eri(lr lfI\aliem,alclrld helper 'enl!:!I::t5 Q!II ~'e5lili~'!J~,~ (Ai b~ 1~)i1I!1dmiltll'-!i!!,lIfIilbe r e~fec~, Q~ Q¥(lraU mal~ pfo~iSiof'il11i'i9 ra~~ '~F). (I\~ (1Ili(k mass ililc!F,e<(i~OOwith eggl V01LllliHi! {GLM, f1;1~ "" i~,.86, P -(1.0Il3, ,2 -20%). N -17 bf(l~d~. (OO,lM~r ('Ol:!t~I.~il'lgl fO'F ,~i ffl'.!l1~J1C€sin ~ml votl!!!Ir'!e. (lhi,iil mess wa~, <!. Ilnrll!@fl(@~Iil~iSill!1!''€lf.... by .... m'elpe;r pres.lIli1Qe (G~~" F~,],>1~ '] .66., P "" '[)I,02,0, r .~. '9J('hI). ((~ Chkk ms..~ va~,edl belween '~r,e<lhl'n.:Is,(GLM, '2..24 = 3.95., P =; (tOB. 11'4: 19o/B). ,~rp·pr, e:il!,gs IlCi!ldlll ~roll!iJ'~al1d Irf!'(lrrdin paiJrc$; pr~grp. e as i.alid fin ~(!irs ,~n;dl'nll"l'",ed iln glroIJP~. ,(b}1I'he' tmiilSIl, ef [oster cMck1> i'ne'ci with the

IF

=

!!>

~ IiiIU ilf!be rrof mil ~eSif!1 their llaltalterlfil'Ol!i)i' (G11lI'I!1i, .fl.2!! ~ '9,,1~, P "" Ci'.006, :2 :80 r2 ~. Jl50/(I). III·~ :21I1e5t:s~{U {lhi:dk rI1l~ssil1luellsedl with Hi!:!:! pr'D'I,I'isiol1~il'l'!ll Mlm'lber m'folt~r l'Ii'Ia," ~iI~e,of mll,~ilil. thlli~ fioMe~'l11!lJiilNY (GLM, f1.M :::;; ,':)9, P ;:;:; .C03, 1I'fl. :::;; 5 O lJO~/~)', '" UI ~~$I$" (F) the rat~ at wh~(i~(hkk~ ~ecet1jled :f(J{ldrijl~m iii nal:allerril'Ory (E) ~'i!~f1e:~Uoo as 00'~alri3tes. Th !He~iltted me.aIFlS± S[M (,e;rJ'Or 'b.:!Ir:s;~ air@ sill own. Title S(alJl.@r ~klt~ show '~lhe pr@di'i(t@dl ll'.l! tll@S, ;l! IfId rVlSt!!'f mO\!~ll!s]nmo1S100 W1ithl the liIumll~.r 'Clf f·@M@r~llE!s (r'@\gr,~sion, :F'li.l& '" HII!! Vi! lU'E!!Silrl e:a:c&lbsr ill (13,)and (0 <lfle till e I1I.1Ii1i1 (rril'l:lj'e'pemllmt b!!rs 12 .28, P ':::! 0.003, 11":2: ~ 40%)" N ~. :Il:B Ilests"ifh:e' tarsu~ lel1l;~thHAlillncl ( . U), E~t L~y"daUl fA), 1i1i!'~~ ,~~~(llllm~ (8J, and 1f!1Il!lf!lb~f 'lilf ma'l€!s in t~~ bf'@iiN::U!lg Ullil3. IIQ\'\,fcv,C't". \VC' fOLlI~d~~ovi[fc nee I hat brcccl~ ng c
lfite~er'eII'lIl1il'5!!_riid N.at!l'$ 1. it). :H1ikiv~l. MI, ,~j. iSli, 205 (l'ii~~. 2. Ii.. :CI!I:UIlm. Anrill'.l, ~ &:~i Sylt. 29'. ::I.4ll {199S], 3. A.:s:. GfIllnn, S, A. Wt!it .ScN!Jli~ 302., '~4 {20iBi'" 'ii. I. (j,.j!MI'I,'iI!so:lII.. Am. "IlL. '133, ~'94, U9B9t 5. l, 1)., Li9(l1il. •. $, iii. L1901l. Halutl!: ::il76" !l% U9';lBl. {i. Ii..}. Gll!iliDI\,. Am. Iil~t, :hill, 1091 W9:i!e~. '1. A.. F. ~~n. IL 1!... 'SflilIflpe. Nt, .Mo, 1!)!'Q1lt!'mV!l!, ,p, 11. I'!.. a"'Ugm·l!m;i~k, PtfJc No.t,1. Jlc",1l!, Sd U;~ l!)~IO,

.. ,

males SUII'Vi.. c beuer in~hc l}re)1~'Il:oo(ln~cl:pe·~, 1l,g;~nClfa~.~wd li~lc.l!' mixod nmdo'l {UlMM),

X~2

=

0.0:2,

feel of helpers on R:'ln~lcs, ll; csusal and opt;:l'•HCl, i'IlDP"'!I:1,lilK"lI!gh

p= OJ!,9j.. ~~!.!I~e~~ing lhl~ ~r· ~hm
pad] f'lIi!T!nrily m:tess,Lblc i!~ !hilS. ClIst'. Slt.llitr;.-gi:c R."cllltliol.l!S. in

,I

~o rlf.'H1')[cs

cg~ il]\'I>-i~:I'I~IIL

We
IPair cnlv Plilill:5 helpers, Itllodk:rs

IMIVC!1i!tfilWIII
:lICdlIC~

thM :111SiLIp(,Jib .lflhY··Wf:if.'IfII:ii,

egg iUlvcstmcllJt ",,'hclll htJocd.illg

of hclr~c[s f~!ld lhwl.thc: sulb~~· hfLte'll· in.!.!,~101!}1 eoneeals Ihe posilive CiTt"Cl ofh.dper ~nobabmly 'OrMI1M¥1I,'l~o!lh~ 'fdtl O'i1.!i1ngilreming oontl'jbu~iol1:> to I1csl~ing ma..'>$,The erH~ica~factor ~~a~~1i! ~~nef11(Dey bredl in! t&le "r~~~m,l! Ilf ~~. thlUwill scleCI for maLcn:l<l1 P;.xiuctlO'J1S~n egg [GlMM, Jl2.H., P < O,OO]~. Age i!l1Id ·~iJrilil91 im~~';Sulllcnln a ,roo,pc~mi\'C' bini i'l 3pf1(;.>dkti!blc i uainfa'll \llef,e fii~n8(1 !IS ml{ania'IEs~ <lmi lll1Ia~emi!ll workfom.:: 10 ossiS'l in pl,'(Ivisicmilil,g )1Clung., lor irnlentity ~'I\~. ~itt€d aiSa ~an.ool1il f~oti)f"Th~ Iprwkl~d ~his will anDw fCIJ:'Ialcs 10 make .i'nlhn'l1l~d de~61,1nS :il::SEM {~~ror tram areIDm:m. c:isimls ;MII,he egs~I;lyill1rg Slagc comx:'Ilui:tl,g how mLlchfuod their chil::k,:i).,,'i~1 receive a.ftc~·hm"h· ing ll.n. Thisls !ruc gr~nOiiill;O{l~!i!;lir~"'C hurr:~; :~r.5I, r(;,fI'ml~ PIl.""eJJ~~. wi!h C';,;;~rlm1,.'H!!I:liIy { Crt1n1 eu !~~'!ll~d, b.!ll!OO~ ~n~!',,""I~c,~ I!i:!ci!' pJ.·'(Ji'l.i!'lKming Th~ ~!~Im'b(:r If hclp;;;P.O ~ll1;,',iijm~ the (J)l.'>'I,;'! (If
PfL">CilbCC

Fiig. 1\1:1' ~latiOIil ItiI~itllleernhe~pe'f jlfeselil(;e and ~ernlll.!! fil!Mwl j)ro!OaWl1t]f.• F~ma~es had ,all1 if'lcriN~d
i

in rhe

q~teili. um:iCmilOilUishlllCl1.t of the yl}jjl~!1; m.

3:333 t2003.) , ill 1'. ~u~'!ell,. !I•. . H~,el'rw~lt .Pfc)(, lit SiI1,-~ J ~d 268, 2~~£9 12000U. 9. V. OIUlllll!1.-lJrod: .. 5!:',I't'n(e 2:916.) 69' t2C1(12). ];(1'. H. ~ko, !!l. A.. ~!!miiDR~, J. Wrighi"8f~~~ ~

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1lL 11.It a!;jUQm'~ck !l'l,fll:, iI'!Il'lW[(!· 44. ::II.o6·S ~ jt!OO6), 1::1. !;gold l~ten1m~ d'~Sl:ng~ lowu o~i';j~.I~~ of i~~I1I~I1I. in lilt! 1l~I!':!MCI!! ill! ~1!!11'Im., M~hm :iiMlf' il'lW'~~e dlitr:ihm' in lbe' Jlrs~~~e II'~ nel'pem 'W',\!i) Ollild Ie d'1l' iK! m~ nli!l!l!:e 'the· 'S'i~~ gl ~d! eg~, 11m 1b~ Ii !1~1 laadll~m~emmg! ~!J!,e in~f!!aI!e'S irn di:Jl<rn $il:e Win iiully Iw!. Mfl:lw!I1!di il\iilimOO!!.3$~ (MI dtt:rMl:r!:!ll'In liIila'~im~1im~iiIIllIL U. 'I'. i). WlIII'.!JI!tI..S. lJial. ,~; ~~'. ss ,(j:.\i'~:4\I. 1.~. t,I, l!ul1!1'/. Am. M~r;, 132, 611 U:'98B.'1. U. Eo J. A, (!mn1l1g~lI'!, !l!.f. !I:!!~~~L Ng!Wle~!O~, J.I! ~.:olOOiJ'),

291~on

n,

:\i:uni~;;,'If.iX~,"lll ~m;:-1J,'!I:;~trrvil.;,i ! .. ~]r wh~lheif 1~le)l W(lr~ if I gmliJ[t'i 011 pairs (J 6), ind iC;lJting that l~"'rtra ,gI'C!ll~JnIDlllJbcus do nOI. (;Ol~~ ::;tmh:l fCn11illlcs from ,iflt'I'Casing i~lvC8tl'l1l·elJn" Second, llrn!lvsis or daln. Irof1~the 19b:Yilol<Hstlli(ty of illl lIIUllmmilruhncd n.ci,ghboring PQPl1r:tlli.o.n
fl!\,~I;II!O.·llC.y 'In ..

U, 1\I,~tmar~~.rnt!jjjji!i~ ~
1'i!.
11:,

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Ornl~

C~!!l l;ly.~nJ!l.t(.1~Wlr.m;:J~, !-~dkcl:-; !:h~ m,IIIlIb-I,."r (J!f bcljk:1N iI'/1Iihib1..; If) food Ih1.'; ompr:ii~lg fui1~~hmol.·

:(UH re'r'~IlI~t1

wb(~[]J,tl:nmk,,~ bR.'£i il~ih(J p'~\!.'~el~re f hdpL:I:"S,lhcy hod! ,a :1l."B ~~!I7..:m:l o or Iillort,)1 il.y u:ntillthc rO.~I:O\'iIi~lgyear;, but wllC'1Il ~hcy blied ill lhe absell'CC (iI r ~1C'~~rs,~hi,sook incrcasoo to 33% Udpern lIIt:dl:r:~rtllle ,~
~]Ill

(JJ). Vile ~1ac.re~ort~rucllict ~ilm l(kId :l:i~htc,n. ins or nmlCi:]'I.l]] iil"rlC8trm::,mru. IlilC C,1nl smge""!~111 ~c a gCl1;crnl phC110I1IC'jD0I1 hl COOj)!;!rn.tt.,.c 'birds, as, is lh~ C~:1.C' whl~ mmc.n'i!i]~ I~.d HghtcllJflg :!Ii,t the ch[~k-pm\ris:iOIl i ng, Sl~ 'll', 2). We cmtcl~~c' th~i aU !>iIMli:cs (lOnillllcl!.:-d on ~IXlCies in. " ... hLceh hc1il!!o"'i'IUlmbcfi'ii; m~predic!j}blc' rrom dlJ.~('),j'l.~ (Df lnctXii IlS ha.ve l,h~fI'O~.cnlia~~ollllldefe.l>lilllaIJC the
.ill,\!:

,A" (ocII:lil~rn, E~licIIII SO, 2'542 U9!l1iJ<. ~I;I_ ... (I, .A, (Qd;~~rm, FL, ~, M~h!l~r, A'~ It tMdllill .li.. Bf~ .Sri. 259'. 339 n9~'li~, 19. N, A. M"oG~!)r" A. ~~~.hIim. ,4_li!fm',,1k'Ii~:!S~.923 uoo;;!). O!(]l it). IHO!!1rltweil ,f!l f:J~" BIi'-J\Ir!l~. Ern!!: 15, 1 tZOO~~, 21. A. F. ~UI>ll~U, J. 'I'·QiiiIlQI G. SpMg., ~, It. 1~1il1l" Pi.

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ill

ru.petb~ail)'-lM'eRt1

c!<lled wilil a 30%,mILlCrtion illl'li:{I~,10ll,ily 11sk ror ~ui'llhc~, (fig. 4). ~I ..!±on!io bet \~1\(.'C1l hdl!pcr

contl"~hu~jolls :rmwc by iu:::lpcl'SlG :n~l~iiIlS COil" d u~iGI1i .•mdtmn:!ll'!t'Jn<!~ slI!N:v,lI. Slil:d~ ~~~j{HC1t1,

rm~'lb~-~ ..nd ndl!li.~! s~,uviv;d c'Guld bot
bcL't;;;II,1~~mlnril,;},o

\vi n ,ovorlook
(ii'!¥:DiJp

lo.i~'l'Uri(l~l'l.

d~,ul prOmIl{J!'[e :;'LI'rviiv~~ ~r{~ lih~,1"[f} .1iooiJtiii,Jl:ille pJiail{l:r]~!ric ht'lrcr.. U, 2):.

~ta!:id k~g.,~Ul fl'OIU ~jng ~~'l('T.Ui.\'(!l.ydi.ml.l~-I kin tldcc~QniJf h.c;:lpi.TlI,Il!ijn:;:!;"rl,t.-..;! to brt~l'cn; lUI i
:.;uLlgJ'iC'l'II1~~iO:I'i

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ilkmi~ beneills thOJ,t h~'I~I1l' inlK)' a~ l)o11l51.

,z:;t P•.1:!,~ta{eJ,w. 11 1KM.!~i!'I, Cll~trll" hl~. 8~dmg .ill 8tmJ: t~l'Jf.1":rum .S!lJ~ ~J,~a'J1tJgy alliJ 8'fihwil!Jf {Uffi'bridiJ;tl· 1lI1Li1,r'. !lrm. (,amb!ii!!~Ii!, 1991]),. ;!,!l. '*'11.11:1. 1-11!~il~ J,.~!\1I:. ~ {, ],. '(1~\~41, l5. I-I~ KIl~ it A. }a1ms,10M, W. 1-1, ICIMlIC!n'IlI«k. PI(J~·, Il'. Si!l{; .!.tlid$ tt. ~w.r, 5ci. j1J68,leI' f..200(l). :26. ].lWrr.g3i'L ",;'1";00 Blot 29J, lOS U,'JIII!J.),

Uiii!W O!il~!iiP~.un, '~~~h\~ rem~ l!.Iie he~per ~f'es.eI'!O~

t!!~~~emalotl)~md\;lrn mih Ihr!! p~!!lIidiO!il tIii~t as " wer@!" <e:J!!I 'inWS!~

I

REPORTS
,27. Vl'e '11lliIn\:,E!lI.. fOOlllfille\(1j~ Au,~lfil~lijlJj C~ilil~ TeroiLDIY .a~d tll!!i'di~\10r of Imeo lrr:!!li\;ln N!!'i~:;.tI!lOl<!lnik Gamlj!~ ~ rilr 'Pl!1rni~M 10 'I'f!lI(1ii .!! (am~~1 it'ail. aiHI th~ :Bartl'lmic 'Glird'elll!l, r~ifIli~r. JiI" !!3!J~ 'fl!f I!elp~:h eggl~~,~; .L '~mnef,G.. Mmer:, M. ~~, H. O:l!IlIll~d',ornc, D. Gr\~1!fI 'rQr Iltlp, wllh :filll.cl iticd; ,mil E. (rtInlll~ghilm.. R~H~ml5O~!!I.i!!fICJ. Wfi~!'I1 rOl" IJleir ~I~ble ~D!!Il!Hl'1l1i. 1I1!.15wa~ w.u JII~d:N :I:t!f 9"m'ls fr'Dm 1~~ !laral, Sociiel:r~nNce~b' ~r(h f1i~'I!rov~ ~e (itFJt ~iId !UII!I(}. ah Am1t1l111\'11'1 ii_till ('OlImdl (tr,jA1:.L, A.('., LBJl, :lml1l liLMi.tt.~. 'fh~ ~l.!I!r~lllllllt 1I'1iI.I~ OU.l!.aoo ItM•. J. ~nd K E:1~i~ iI:~pr~~, '!'!Ii!~ gl~n II)' A~5II~liil~ ~\i~~f)ill aJinNllrsll!l' ,1!.n~rrrI!ill. ~~rilfflUl'1!l!a~rn f,lihlts (Qmnli111f!~ llI_mlleI PfO!la~d.Ui1Z.UlH. li!lllp:pDdin!!l1 On~~!'Ie M~~~'ri~l
'I\!5:~4Q!t4lf!l!(;] "'-iSiI:'l!!lllIDjlIlJLl'!J&gi.!'coolen!l\[I!IW!l

fflO!'~1;!1$ .~ ~Ull;!dll IR~I@JM~t!'!:,
~ JUi!if!

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~:O(17

A, Wholl,a~,GanomB ,ASSDc'iallion Studl'y of 1M ailor' IDet:e'lr'miDl,Blnlts lor HO':91: C:o'ntr,o,l HIIV, ...11
lOll

~la,cqrllle'SIrI@U~y;1 Ke¥io 'I, Shii()J!1!!1!:a,lo, DQlfIgl~~iilll1Ig ,Get'l,.. SaliaJ (ol(j'Ii'I'I'b!l).~'" Bn.l!1!:(1 l!;~der~l!:lIfbiil:rj4~ 11M keW'e~I~€'/~ Ku !1!llili! 2:hl~!lg~'t{i~ni~g !l1Ib~'l A!i!it:Oli!et~!l! Ca:;tg)!1Irla,§ AfI!(i!'ela 'C:{I:5:!laJrii~i~i~ G
A!~es~g'!1!dlr(l (:f.I~H,ep:ri~' Af'IIdf'(l~1[l1~ Il!ill(iiil,II Plhi~~pp~ 6a5~e~b ~(lo'kj'''' Paltlrri(ik Iltra flenii)iU. III SiD1liitl'!li1 Mdo1!!I;1'l ]~w!!:irr ,M.1lJrt]l'!ez~PiGadQ,~2:].g,S'£ Mi, .IMiro,H Niels Obe:i~,Jj~. ]~S(lll P',Srni~:h~ 2i ~(I:;]aru!e ·WYinigef. ~Pa!tdc!k II'.I€'SlC(lfllnbf.lSi, J!S Sryl,h!J!1!:~,sE. AI'!~n(.! f@!k~I:i.]'6 IN(jij[lffl:Cl!!1 L ,Le't'!fi UI.17 A!!fId~e~ ]1•. M!:~Ud!alel~,u: 11m:~!itQf! IHa("vnes.19 ArnaJliQ 1i;~l\e!'!ti.at Da:vid lB. G(lld:s;te~!'!~'U F.

IF' ,I. ~; al. r» fI ~~ ,,,-12.~·, ~nl"i<fl:1e.WhJC' . 'A '1£. l' ,I" '. LIlli» a~$looi~uio:n is ::i;!ll:Jill'icml1l. The lie?J gcll~ is loc<uecl ~00 kb ,remroU.lerk fn:ml llLiJ-lJ on Chl'OJOOSOIIaC (i Wig. 2),,0li1iId !h~' ... i.ncd ~ ""<!r~ull j_;;; kn"O~',~l lO l'lc ill high lirik .. g~,~~~~~i~i,b:ri!!un wilh [he HlA .dld~ (LD} 8"j"l{}1 (.In) (l = ~.in o~r daHl ~~m. OlInde Tl~i~
I~
f':I "".~o) :;:

phl~iQ] Wltnoot>G ~lLlIliIbr:if 11>.1395009, P = 9.36 :;,; U:r!~t A sin.!!l'e cOllY onb~ eOlftrolliii~ilH,lIclc\\!n:> ~tllllD1(l!o ~Lill. ~11I.~.I~,~uctiifinill VL of ".~ ~.~

il!~(:'lr hf~ Ihe &1ro:ng(~:ilL.·>d~s'(;lf.i~~cl ~]m~C\t'~iw i!1~P'['CI, on UIV·~ d~~!lJ'Ii."c !lrog~ ...('lonOJI~md i h'l£ bi.:cn'I!l');~im~'(I with low Vl (/:1). G~\lI,,'iI:I h~ ~nro.!!!l:IUJ](;'[iuna~ ,d~U;i. 1i,IIp,porti n~g!l I ~

lJIn.d:eF:5it!lmldil'l.g why :l101111e peo,p1l>e e$tal:i1l.i~h, <l1f!ldl1i1!<I]fllli!in efre(tiw c:Oliltrrill\ ,of IHlII-'m ,all'lldl®therr$ dCl! liI,oti~ al p'ri!Orit.yilfl~he ,eHort t.o dlewllliP file\'.! b'6'l~m'e'lltsfor IiIIIV/A,IDS. Usi iilgl a ~\!ho~€··gellorne ,clsoodatnol'l fI'IDTi:ltegy,weid~emtiriedl p'otyrno~p:h]~m~ tha~ illl'l!pil.alin nleal~ly l5!% '(lIf the v<lna,tl(llil ,among i'liI~ividllla ~s ]1iI !!Iira~. lea dI d ~Jrilll'g the as,YIIIII.ptQm<lllic set:-pollIIl pernod cl!( ]lfIlediol'l .. ODIe ofl the5iEl- is f(likllil d withri l1li an ellidlogeIliD'us: Ire~N)\I'h;al et~rn'elnt am~i~ <I,ss:Qdar~edwiitlh major nn S'liocDlIIIIlll1liibimll ,~U.e~ei,~mqrJ leuktl'cyte aRti'f}en >(I1LA~'~:Si'OJ:,w!h~r~s, ill secendls ~O(,ift.eil!!ll~iIIlr Ih~ H£A~C g,e~e:. f All il!ddit]l;Inlil!~"Il,'ll'jl:S!l:l ,@~: th~tl"rUi' ~o HIV di.~!N!S~ pro'iJ;r'~s:s:i@fl.irIilptk!l!tedl ~~, 9E!rt~~.Q!iJ.e !Of which enccdes ~!1 RNA 1)(I~Y·I'!l!~lr.~se- suibY!llit, Th~:s,ef!!I!d'ifl!liS ~mlfih@~.i,e th~impoft.:!liilOO of :;Ut!~yif!gl I
~ ![HIlIiIn g,ernetii!: lI'ariatiDIlI

ro~(: Ihr 1:I!.A-lJ·S70! qlll 1"L~:rielitlg JUV-L cur ~:irs! ;~I,!i'pouh('-sis~S.IJ~fl~dlC: associal.io:n observed
~'e~l' f;or PopYta~ion Gen(IJnfiCS <In:!! ~ilL!lrm.. oog~l1Ietics. D!I!~e IIns'iihtt~ fOIT GEifiDnJe 5d~()~~lld P,iJ~lt,.. Ol1ikle l!Ii'I'l'o\~fS~I!r. OiIIrin~fI'1', IN(2'77l'OI USA..~D,lJ~ I~mu~e~or (loom.!! Sf:i'~n~:e;..aIll1:l Nlk),., IDukeUI'l1Il1!ir$itl!'.lllllf~'iII11. HC I .unQ, U'SA. JIIiliS'liIUIl! Ilf ~j(IDIlbiefogy. U,n~!lel'iil" HtI~pulal Cie:n1Je1l; <1001 Unl1«:f5itv o:f II.al!saM~, ion lm usal'!!i!e~ SWi~rl;!~. >40i...rsi~ (If tmfKUous [i~0I<~, Un~'i'ersit)' iHo,pi.al, 1l09'lZiJ'rit-'t, S~~ev~and. sCliinlc of ~'nrecn;lOO$
Diwa~$, b,mi;l~o di l1I!ic..
o:! e Cw rj! a ~ra:tteve

.] S 111 llIicleto 9

CJllmbal]ng ]rlb;!,(;lious .ag~flt'!!~

L"C1"Il<ilrli:abW; vmri'Hio!1l iu~ '\,lLIkt1".'iJ'fIh!lhy 10 il]r~~11:(m by II-IIV~ I. ~Lll'd c,,';'I:l."'CiiliU), f:lilihc e1,~nlie.."IIl 'OLI~OOI~ IIlier iI1JOClit'JoJ'l. Ol]£: strikinlg f~l.d If~~Jy 'lllli~p'Jii~I]OO

H

UnliOla'!!S8hlilW

Grqu adi~~Ol~l!iCJ.1 S~l2l. OC'l'lul~'rl inthe ctimil]<!" linn n r 20,25 'I polynnmiphi~m~ ( i~" r,V~ ..~p,li~d m(';l]md~w i.denn.ifydclel~'rnlsami ~a[g(t(ld copy· Inilillliibot varimimll$, !lml KD as.. "{:S~WrK1hcl"lhey

Sikn ll.1fir,mt(! Ho~l!l'itj]l 2C)[11 lMibn, Itilty. ~1Dii!piIw~lD~m;1 G~ BiOOltGi«il ScrCllll[ilS, Sm'I.omlor Gm~r~l P~.~lwl~. 'llIijl'O\~I~lw ,or Modena <I!:1d Emil~. Sc~edl 01 lMld~c"m;~tl1'lOO M~n~, ~r!Jl1.en~. (If PIriIll,U~' (are and f~~tiQ:1i! S<!i~lll'~., Ro:!tal, Free ,~~HiIUfiiVelsiUy
(dl~~ Medlia'lS:(h~. U!lii!letSily (g'I,~ ~~, l~(lil ,NIlV3 .2Ip,r, U~. il!lnsHl!l!lw01 ,m~~(o!Il.nr~r1iOO!i Di'iWSI!S. I atntlrnc ILDlllirersl~,el!illl~ ~aCJ\~d' lOOil6B ~rne. 1'i:a1.y. HNlrt liA:Qdemic .Doepauw!1l1e;nt .f IH~V am.!G~~~.oo!l!i1'~iY .et:Jf.clrne.\ o M KilllgS (iD'l~ L.Qndoo.. ,ill GUlls, lii:ing's, and SI. 1I001f1i15' Hospi.al£., loMon SES9IIilJ:. Uilt :1;!I~eM~iIi of ~Ifi!ee~i~$ ,D~~s, DeiJ;llfll'l'l!l.mt of MedIcine alll!!l Sel'llio@ ollflo~.J'l~'~I" !RmlOOnl~ M@d~ln@; !!JIFlilOOl'~I'l' IHo~pllal {@liiI.1!iF,mu. 1.;l:ll~lIlf1e. Witielil.Il00I. ~I~(mlre f,or CLilrMal IlII!roonotog~' S area Bllomtd!c<ll StarlsUc5, E!o~al I'1enh IHo:lJ!ital;al'd Muid'O<n, U,riirversil~, Pa-Ih" "Nfl. 69001 :l\uMiraHa.. lIlir:siC.mt. 'J'oo!i1da~i!!;m ..._ndHo5iP5~ .. 1 GeIDli\ans OO~I iP~l O~9'1& e.;.dal!o~, .s~rn.~nd 1~~ti!~Clc, .df,1 1l~1!1~!! i ,Kswclis A'o\iIfH;!iilS.8noc'wm, 5IMi~!. 1],IiID5~ilill (Iink~ Insm'lllt 'd'lnvei~~[iMS I~Dl1u~.~iq~,et. f.ujg~iI rl .~ S~~I~ IUl'li;;o.e.iJ61~ o~ B:.a1ClE'1~ 0903,6 ,B~fCJelooa. S:pal,," ,De1P'kl'tlD!!l1It (]of InfNtillUiS Di~~~5es,. 'C::o;p!?nha~eG unwernl)"

S\1lel1il~'f1,co,

f)urC'(]lIC a.~:imioJ] a:iiJeuclltl.': is t~le IC\!l'l; of d~:elLlhll:ing virus in lI:he lUinUCItCOO 'Ihc pl~c:UlOIype ilml]~i>CS fOCli~ onsillglc;..Jururker pmypc~EllCnd p'Jasniia. during: d-c IlcJllsymptOiJnlmic phase 'pro. H;:s'l.'i oflhe qu ...~ity ooulml-pa~ SNP~ l1sing cc[Gng li1c p.TOg.III..">SlO:IfI .0 AJDS. 111i$ iskllOMl as n~'Cllr reg.re.'lt'!i(]n ~7~ "[:0 OO~I ro~ fur theposs.ibilily ~]~ \r:iJ:,b~ "o;1Jll~lld can Vmll)iamong Indi{'l'idt~1ls ~ of SJ~~ri!IJlI:->i'!s$OCirn,tiol1isre1l!.!l11ng tn-mil MP~lr.nocm by <IS f1U.lc.ir1 ~ms4 to :5 logs U 6';. \lVc aimed to strollilkmiol'l!. we l!&'d .... uuO(n lied EIGENSfRAT idcnti~)1 hlLUllrul 'Ilelk: di~rereno~,~ml. hll11mlOC ~ ml::~IJod (7~ 9'I,,\-\.!e il~sedl s:igniirnl"i:m.ce wilh 3, Ilti:' vru'im:dOll.

m.

AI 1)5 Va~inC'I~~m1U!IDlo;gy} ~7)]. ,;u,~,1 loml, (~r 1:<17 IJo<.!'!iC'!l!8 "I wi~h. ;:II.\!ai~,d)lc:mll~"diMi~ Hi.A dOl.Il:;; ~. t JQ,OOO InU!;{,'U!fi W'l.:!~ ~'l~r..'t'n~-d id'~ulily !llQIIC: ..lll:iliLt dCi[1,;~nimJtlo!l. to Un;~ ul~@l(.'iI,;-; idl,i:!nificd two :i~l~X:!'Id.1.,"I.llJy UllD!>t'l'lJ'pn:JiPli~l~: ~hr .m;llyl\;~.A.II~O:I.1g.i!!'I:d i~l,il \I im.I·~~di (\It. j, dm~u wep;;: ~Sc..".:;;.<.;\,.'CIihr{Jl,ugJ~{ll a(:l.illg growp& o:frm:~JlJrl{.lrphJSiIIli.~,,,~:;oc~~iJd. wulh (.'(IJiliplJ1.Ciriz.;;'CI1lgillilhm I!O di:linimllc VlnlOt :~~ fll.;! loci 11 1!11d c: dun lffi:: ~t~I,llil.t\:d10 ~1'ip'l~ln f 6 ~.1:oclan!lldte $Im.d~., :muc: mKI w-cre :~l'Idivklu..U)1 9.. find 6.5% or~he t{)ltal '!l1n:ifii~icm in U.IV~~set poin.~. I:CslloI'::cln,,,dy. and ~l1lhus 'be ,considcU'Qa, as. il'lspecloo by I.lrI ,c.,xpcrk111C'Cd ~Ilrccti(ms"d~s.ea~e ,rimlSCI [roin~. l\ c'l:inid!llH ([!"c:ll~y)lo cxc~~ldc suspicious Vl daMI 11UjQ.L gClne~k dCI.cn:nimIJ1IS third set ~OC;)jtct! > I Mb i)\)ltayi!fll l!lle major hi::::" tlITIdInlliefltSI~;]!! ,do ]~(ltslmw ;J clear :i£l ]j)Oinl,

10dl!lhlC ahOll:logeneous p11C1~OIYI:!'!: for~3Il0ll:)'l'iCS, 3, OOll!OO~i~UI~ or !lin!\: '0011011::;, W,ftS ibm-Icd 1[~eu:mr."(1 EL~L\O"n-IAM (('enter IUT UIVI
UIClic.

Ilont'eirl,rmi co:twCllCtH W c!.Ul:l1T - {j,3 x IO-s), Allatl~sullc(!lrpo];nHng llm~lim It.. !io,:w,tt (fUfifWl u (Nlin typJng \.\'CIC eamed (lU't 011 a sub~.p of

c.r'~~r!~

~h1OGpil~', ~lg,s!ll!O$i~~t.2
15G~llOlIif~

i(i()

~opm~~gen.

IDe~~~t

or

PL"lfllilllfl, ~t~o!l[ll cen~ol C!!lm~h Rl!warm ~lfrootiffs in ~ngairs.'; Urnv€fsil:v ~I 12:n Gthme~" 'Sffil2ierLaliid. I.tOep!lJhmeni: 01 Med~Cni1te~nd Oeve!O~ilnEfiI. Un~r~~ ol'Gelli!!v''' s..~00llI. iln G'tlflm.5wiwdandl" uDi'fl~IQII

..m~ 111
(ji?~wa.

G~iii~tl:c

miely fllCili.~urcd.ph.cIlO'lypc Pl..For p1Ltio!::nllsw.iilll at bSI. rom: CD<I ,cell-roHnl, 1'I.'SIJ~is. wcd..::fi~led"' piID,grcssiou p:.~leJmt:ype a<;:lil!Climew· l:I,icail:nKm~ inili<Jli~m or 10 Ihe r»,ii.."<.iiCI..>d or obser;,,,,,-'d drop of . !l!c CD4ccll CQW!!~t boclow 350 p. AU ~u]~,pit" g(,ol~{ll}r(W;-d "..,.idllhL:l u'''iii: \'!i\f;'.VC ntullili~l~';" [-lun.l~IJ]Hap5:l0 B~dO.1ip w~~~ :)55')52 sill:gk:..;(.lllidt,"iOlidc- polyntl::!ilPhit>.1ii'~ {s.Nrs) ..A5t'l'i~

lea'\! ~rlg <'IR6 pati~nti'i Wii~ <Ii 'OOl1si.~!cD~l ID1d 3l\Cilll~

toc'Olnp.li ib~lli:ty omnp~(.'xllll)S'l.rcfLnl lit !;'CillC lhillt ~m:Q(!...'Sn~1 .Iu\l!i\ 1'JoD~Yll1lem5C ~. sHbu.~ !lit ,e..'l:11lJai IlS

or

5.&%onhe !oolal \"1I"ia1ion il~disease progn.'S.~iof1l. To~el·heil'.~hc three In~~ymol.'!'lIhisralS e....... piain
>[)

m.

or

14"~ ,or~hc \I.,~rjal:k~J! IiII V~I ~!I;!lPQi~~I. ~ In One I)Q.iy.nmrphi<lJlnloclIIlcd in lh}~ HLA co!~plL!X PS (Her'J) gi.'I!~ l, ..... . r~i~~I1,.., 9.(fi% oflJiu; w(.:J1 v;irn,;Ilia.n ~Dl s.ct pCi,illl, d('$i~J: )1. l'lliIH)r"l:;lUde 1n.<quC'.nty f)1' O.O~ (Sili,gte N~ck"£llgdl:: p'o'~Yl1mr. VOl317

M.edic·al" ,til' vilal PaU!.ogt.f!lesls. B!lh lSr.lel IDNcOPes5 Metfrlcal ('el'Ut1; ii1i!lrv~lrd Ml?di':;iII~ Srr:ftrool 'BiCMOO, lilA @22.15, UiA. Jtli\edic.al RllSencih Eoonclt HUlIl<ln ~l!I1Iiliil.lilol.og~ lMt Wi~~fuer~U. !n~mme ,or l\!Iol!l(u~ar Medlieine. ]:e'hf! RailllcIJ'HE.' HQGp1I~1, OdOfod o:x.~~[)S, 11.11,( 19~~ K\!fI'I<!!J) iI~[\ll!J;e Im,ti:1lulre" IJWl1' Uni!lelsiLY. [Miham Ne 2:17lio., USA.. "T~.e5e authors ({Im.tnioou~dIilqll2l[Ly 10 tI~s ~rk. tiro ~ll!J.m 'Cmlre~ooei1(~ sloott(!J b~ add~e~" Eof1Il(!~~ <!!fI2I~i!(!., t~~ ~t~@~U~ ~,~h (A, Iii]; lts.d~d~t~~·~J@!lI!!~e-~d~

([l<.8:.GJ :tOn ~h<!U ollhe C~ 'fi!lt HHVJJl![i$,l,i'ooch1e rmm~ '(CIH'AVl! diOO tlil.@E!'w-C'IHJiI.1II '.Illjlilllni~.

944

117AUGUST :2007

:SCIE!lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociem:emag.org

REPORTS
region of tl~eH/~!-C gene, ;)5 kb aW<l}' ilrom, ~roJI1~fil·l!ion initill(i'CJn {fig, 2) ;;!_ml t56 kb \~I,r~ 1;!1rt!p!ji.1_~,hGwcwr, th\lll il,c;~~lI;;tk U:",\ s ..i.... ..... ~~br~~~r.k: t!l!~ lHCPj ~!1¢. 'Uis SN!? ~.;;;of Qrt~l~~ \'~r~li~l~ in ~!,;'1'i]flf;l.iu tF~~, I l .~ flO~9hll,ior~ of \lol.fuI~i1\iCl[ thiz;, ~n:~,t i~~~~!lI- r~!lir~~.. (i :;o/~ ...i\.'~]y duC'w 8*5 70f i[]!!" i r He P.i V1idMion .~il~, lu~d ~ho\~ "I '!ltcrlmltD·ij,\iide S.il'.l1li ific:rnl .[Ih"!;it)· ci..[iOIl {P = :f71 ~ I 0--9)1. De~p~le;lin!m)r LD' co:ntribll! testotlre (;IO:!lloo~• Iii fact, <1$ ~hli.Hm!.l1 m ~!Wo:g~!l.G'Usre!ro'l'~ml d~!iiicJl~ n-IERV) 'wiI'M~ ~~l\v~Ji (hc lie?; .. .1 fU ...I·-C SNf:s. ~I·:l = iG~;1 ~;Il;rlf;k:~s. ~"''qU~Il~C hon;iolP'g)l to rt:~r'C!c'!r'im~lllJI g~:i~ (I ~~ ~ OJII5. .D1 = O•.F:l4l.. I]t;',,>k'tl ~grc& .... tleI-.c:~~. due ~o the c:llbcl Qr fI{,A-B· j701.N~ ni;lCIJ;:Q ill its l~~gil!g a SoN!" \li.'!thiI1NCP.f, (llj

'I,

,fl£II-C ~..x~ifm wl~n ",ncl·~ or
~.~~ '{i~h ~
i;;;;I~.

SNP r:hO'>~'s a8$QCl!.ni(m widl (If "Uclcs 'IT;[1~~ 1 ;m:d 2). h~w'~\~~'q:-. ~1~ho~IW~ the HLt'~-C
WQW!ll

I

;lLlkI cOl:inm~d c·xprt&.,iOll'i il]IIyi!;ilph(jcylC.~ ( 14}, HCP:5 is. iISC:!J:f,1j~ood c:ll~tli.cllmcto i:uliemci. with

eli:a~lj' dt'mGiI"~![aJt(;

an iiJidc(icIIdclH Cn(;"Ct of

UW~I. pos.<;ibly tI1uou~~,:U'II anli~e~l~ mcehanism I( ltJ I. Mnt'CffiJcr. l:tCPJ i."Pl'i;.'tIie~ed w eneede IWO ~~roteil'L~. anti nheru.'5~ocim.edpolynao:l'phisl'n re.\itl~~ji.hl au amil1lo aeid slilibsliu.II.lioll i:n one of
~11~ pirolC'~ns.

the HCP5 V8f!3:1t1'I. I.hcadt!itkii~ or 1:~'1cNLA'-C var.i,mlt I.·~s.uh:> I! hi~hlJl !\i~nmC.m,nl increase ill
in eXI)liilUla~(irypower,
,IS

c.:!C'h ,o.f Ithe~~c\lar~ml[s... I iii. I} ~~lr'!<dC':l1 ~.IIC'liJdillg

~pWl,.~~iml "'aJri~llt (:ml~:>i;I)I in ~lc .;iY",-Ci ol'dl.1,~~ .. allC'~~lli iDle H IV;. ~ flKl~I1:i:. i!I:i~ R;'~,iCr:;;1i,': ~ ~[lil !!l1IC\ \iVhcrl " I hl~;,tr .re.-grt~-s~rnl ~nodd~U!dW!clm; knm'llill me.A a!lk:k~. the O1Idodli~~G~~:if ~92!'j.-4942 ( n;$u.~I!l~n ,11 !iigrl~f~eml'l ~n~[;I,,';1I5" 'nb!:. ex~11i p11~il'i~d\IMi:ll[~,Ol1.011 '~~1i:' a~~ltr It~~!l,d., none (i f nlH~fll.d ~Ileh.'!s.eOll:;idcre-d, wilth the: CXC~pl icm ofUC/">5IS- 5 7i) 1. I}dd:.; ;.\;igni~(,-kilnl~ly 0 moolli!'l'

l>~'

does Ihlc addition

01:'

A m.odei in wh:kh He? j .Ind HLI~B· '5 "lIN ]!,~~'~'~llJlic cfl~"C~ ij!cl-!l~V·l 011 ,~[~inl is oO:rlNi}ir~lIlIl wilh ~1~ (l~f\'r~~iol~ rlwul '''!lIIPI1[!l;.'S810n of viremia ean Ll!C 1l1<1~mIl1llL>d in S· 5 701 p.ru.i~"u"~ 'wiith l!Jld~!""C!<lbl\) vt., (wcn,!ller 1]1\1·1 UltldLj~o~'iS mll;Mjo.m. Iiluu <l!llQW ~$C!lP;~ ffl1l11 1(:'j1!O!ll14n,(: T~1Il1phoC)'11,! ICrL Hnoo.i<1i[~'d reslricrinll. IlJ). I ~:ml;\~\'~Y. .his, ohs~n'OlJtiof! ~CI:ilS; llt!OOIOOCttl cxpllaillCldi by a dlcC're~~ iUi vim.1 futoc'SS; ~.ssoc.iflled. "Iinl~ ·til.c escape vadmJls fM). ron ~ILddil.ion"B~51{)1 Pii!t.tC"llISPJ'CS.CiJl~ 1c"SS 1:I:tX]tiCndy . wjllh sympto.ln.~ dtlring~~OIucl UV,I. iUl~b::liolil 't J2ll. SlI,~'CSti:ng COll~J.'01 ~l!Clbill:!lhc time of {l mmx imrll T.L resp:1m~ (J n. Jh~ ~.r(:tl!!d nl(lllll ,..~gn! kml!p(I]YJl1orphi~n I \'!,'C idemifiled" rsJ):U-.4942. is .~ocaIOO in Ihe 50'
i!''j;~1¢;). ~onlbi~!cd

the l-J'CPS \'<Irhmt to 0lI. model :'lll1eacJ:yincltn,Qins the l-J/~tJ -c V" ~Imn [1'~W1rrorilJ onJ i~~c It,S: ma·
[(:rj",]
I~

SOkM) tc:-<tl.

.A
.-;.

TIli .. S'NlP ~d:;o ...';soc i<'lb.lf: ~llfOllgl)'w~~i~ ,d:if.. r¢OClle~ ill HI.A~C I;L'I.;llI:rL,,"s.!lio·.f~ k'V(;~iS,both ~~1 [he San~'Cr ]n:-;'l~~~neGcm:vm c~rre~~~on daw· C-)q,cclC1d Il..!IldCf the mll~Ih:~jIPoODhc~csshows no ,ov4Jfilli ]nnu~l,';m~}rP~i<!tL!~ I( :uncl:~caai~lg Ii~base (IIQ UOllbie 81 ) and 1nO! tr""oP·licmi(ln g)L'"OlJIll (I r 4~ 1.1.C.t~llhy VO~Ull~!"'JJn1 l;l!\wl:d!:>hcd fur tlli:.;. !i(l <OO1I~ribl~rlol]fi;-onl POP'~~,1l~ion :;trntiffu:tlvfin 1 :>Iudl' (SiOM ~!JKll Tliw 1)rl1~~~!ivl,~ ;J11~lclc!td;;; IDUll(ilcr{l' shO\·~',u~ ~''''~~ of kn.v P \lOilt~Li!l;. ·bt.,.. to ,-ulOw!;~ VLauld! is :l!\SJOekitlc-d~l,I~~l hlghl'Jr esginllll]g wi~h tilt: 35-51)1 11IlO!ii1 :li$(l;i::.u~ltccl SNP p:rcssionl tlf ]hc J!LJ·C gCl1Jc. This stililn~and '11~g. SI )1. This iiJidieilECS tht addilio.I~:a1 ron:l: im:lc pesde Ill. 9~.'~ooilU.IQn \II/Hili Ul.i.I·C c'"=p.n:.'>· clTcc:ts r~re IDkel~1 '10 oc'prescl11tmnollg the 1]10.5<1. F&od~l\!:d po~ymo'1'l'.his~m. in. Ihi,s SILldy slnn levels Sthggesl," I&~s.tgelllc[ic c<M'lilI'f)l of I(C-OllinP~IC,'WH:MI)!,r~i]l:l.bl~lnmble S2),. Pow~Hiu~CXprcSS1:0l1 k,!\lds of 11.c~ ffii,';~.icfll-lLAgJ:!f:lIC,' iut lluences viral oonqjJull. O~leL" 1J£tJ.-C .5' v:u:i:mt~ I)' :unu:n::s!.~ng ,calldidates with a lesser asalso a_'i...-.pc!a~O' wi~h I-ILA-C ~';l!~lre,,,)!i(m t:.M do sociauon w i~ hthe ~C~ pO;iI~H Uiswdin rable... MU ~rml!l'ihuw !llill'opcl1ooml)1 ~l' \'ir~ 'c!'1m~1 S3 H'I SS) WCf(!' l;11o.;;(:n l(,lH Ih~ ba$b. 0.1' !h~ir I'Jllkftng inthe study or~]ldr ~ink with mv-.~ (SOM lext}. Ahhcll1lgh~hcs,c: (],IW mJkc .[1 s!.rong C<iSC bioiogy. ror ;~CJusiill role for i:lLI-]-C 1(;';.";;P:I'CSS!O!l ]C\'eI~, ~\~e !lC~"'1 iidc.~!litied ~~ol}~.Ilmrpll~!l1J!. ."8"damt !>l[lCi:l~C'\'\1]111PT-og~s\'iion ~~~Llhcr~hall Vl; The Cltt~lSij\,~~ LD [h:roughol!!l. tli!c M~"lC :~rol] mekes
il. notXc'S.'iitM)' Lo dilLll(;'lly 'K':S:t Ibr ~.r:[~ifI1'lIll \f~ causal varianl!1" SpcdfilC111~y, we l!II;scdnested ['~g~s· sionmedels 10, f",,>SCSi\; whcll'ic:[ ihe observed i1!ilioei3~~,on oou~d be dCIii!nlJ.ul'lod by dcs.c:nbcd rlLmC'~i£UUIII .iliA doss Iflilldcs.. hl fflct I]IIC slr(p:I]~J.~:!i~: tlM'i(K:~miUlrn 1!I1I:;lILl.d~':d ~L:.i~~ of ti.C\I(::II! 1XI~.YItI.o:rphliii.mn:;,!ocrultd in tIIMl :nCllfI1'!c liug lbig~'t pW't!in J9 {RNfJfA' orad :iu.c ~ibbwl
(lo.lil~'irl-{l~IM~ild/lfI

ellDuu. !.~rc.ru:!~1 i~le'[lI'p'o-ml~l> .nL~~C orionl: the .. TnMe:: ~ and :2 I. No other slnslC UB1!iI.tcr l)C'ale:~~diIlcnomc signi tk~lJltc. mtd mme of the tdcm~rrodi(;0IJ}inumber \l",uii.<J:!klln~ (n .~ho\\r(:d an)' wt<;Qcimiol1i ,\I]dll~!f~ 11I]V· I iWt p>oi r!!. A~I .~~!!aiy,~i._~ (;Om~ '1]n1lil]g ~It:f;ob-.il"n·~d ~l or P \.'alu~ t(l~h~(
1

s

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t (ZNIW/I~elll.cs. 1'C5pc>Ctrn9l61 i 74. rs.J.S6906!l. rs2JJ744!lO.

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~

5E

B
...,...",

rilbl~e1. The i:rnp'ilc'!: of HLA,·( S' e,x:pn!'~s~m~jJoLYlililolrphii£1iI1I Ir~9264'942: Olil the se~ poilFlti~ ~n:rI~\peml~elllt lil~ of aSi'lodation 'with H~ aUeles and gmup$ of a~lele$ pjle'!l~o:lJ~lyln1!,pii(aled.in HIV-l CQ)'i'ilirCDl. Th~ a.~~lli~Ji (!if r.s9'264942 III tl1~ Unear [egress~(lmi mQ)>d~~s:ig.Fliln(~IiI!~ly~;m:~fO'lJ'I:l'S '~I:r~ rit 'F(w al!L fJ,U1 an,e:les 'or glmutps of .aUl>e<lesthat have Il:Ieen :51J5pecL€ld to hill'll,e an ~I1IUUeIiH!e'011 liiilv di3tN31st!'. I[>IJ ,ill., I"i@t. app,\l(.;I ble,
1

5

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W betweenl Irs92i6~'9~2 iI!ildl

Models witil HUll ~UI!W~S
(P' "!!',ilil.t!!l@) 0 ..:19'

Ad~iiti@ ...~ IO~
n92649~2~1l1 ll1od,eb

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ta
d

u

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H,UHJ'.'1.7 iUAhll··S.70.i
mA~B'·l5P'x

[HLA !:!~~~les: (~I
0.0; 0 .. .5 0 10'.04 '0'.09 <iO'.Ol!. 'C.Oj),

iffltllli HUI~U@:~~s
(P V~ll!!!@}

A-d!dmoilil elf HilAl ilU!li~I!!ikl!i1 1n10dlfllwilh IJ!!926o!l!9<t2
(P \i\ilIJ~I!)

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2.6 x W~
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13 x' B.'S'x :lr 8.11. x 10-'"

ur

s

H,UHl'''08

n. N""~OO
type, where T is;
rIIIinl!JfaUete;andi

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Ct,1\4",82

Fig. 1. MIIV~lVi~ a,t t~.~:i@t POll'lt is; fi'fi~nly ((I~~ rrei[ate,d ~vi~h.fA.) the tiCP'5 Irs~3·95019 g~nJ(D~
~~'~lili"';I.~(lr

HtA-B··~l Mls, I~bave B'22 se~@gWlll~
Bl ~upl!rt),ipe Bl-.'r4seriotype B~lS !ser'otype

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fI4.A. 0.213
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rs9264942 9lemGlty'pe, 'Wle re Tifl ;the mi1]or <lil. . ~e!.e ~1!iJd C iis.rhe mim!r aU~l!l,l. Mear! @11iIJ1i! S,EM
{erlf,o r balrsl alre repr'e'5e 1iI1liH~ fie ~or reSp!iN:Jive

IUA·A"Z3 A2' r;i;Jp~rt,n~ N.tAhC~~4

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REPORTS
rs77SSS t 2, ~92!(1' II ~.9" 'rs:BO 1753, and n20744'9~, This gll:>(hl,IP (lrlllO!y~mJ!lI~his'n'" CX~ p!".~!~:ii' ,H% (If ilw v!lfinlil':l!l ~I~ I]ro~r~ion. 5
wilh !:!,rul~t~v.;;: h"?",,"III1I~f (LM l~·j~. Sn::uN,i

~PiPro,r:lJCh~~ :~(;fiCll:u~.v..ii·drC' ~il!;n~,fic a:!Jl~~ (P = J.E19 '" In-'i)'. :It <!!h~IO 0,!!$8oci;!o~ wi~:h VL 1~1
!l~¢ ~l :poi ,~, (P = 7. ~~ 10:10-.3 I. These \',!~r~ i'iJU~fire > I NJblr:IQ!Jlk"cic rmm t]bt:: pt~\liO~I~

83: I. :fnjcl,~hc;:] r ~n1-e I oil lJol.~i and set ~]ol:nn IS iI1dC:jK:iid~i1II. r 0 l/CP5 - ami lILA-C -rcl miJdi poJYiY1,orphl:mlS and ,lilA !II h.:J~e.. O!'J:l;mull" 0 r almlelcs,p're\'i!JlI:s~ .. I)iimpl:i.e.\'itedin WI! V-I: cJrnllro~ (SOM~t'.xtmw !abl:c :!:H"t Li:si'ng the (icl!acvar dou,llltNL.'IC and (lUI" ,grol~D' of 4~ he;!I~h)'\'olunre(;~rs, \7i.'C' /]bfl~rved th,~1 ZNRDJ ~!J(pc'~\'t"~o:Jl i~ ~,~nin~~,m(h' a~ \X~i,~wd ...
emit!

ithilC;';

([ig.

~rogres,"'iml

S I},l\li,'o (lr them {rnl8{'I'g,O(,.,"l and rn92(1117L! l aIe located ]n <1.p~!l;nh~f('glll!!ltQlry S' reIili~!l.25 ..a1:d n: kb ~W<lY fmm !l~J;' ~~'~J,;;. rcs:po;;>t~.v~ly,. B~MIf,{; ZNl?;D/ ~'n~od~~mt RNA ro.IYJiI1t~I1!i~';~ S!iilbtlil~il.. ir lhi:li g.~p~~it;. r'¢;pCll1. ~ibl(; rnr the' l~lficHil!n I:!IV~I. t~!emechanism 1;00uld i!l\'ohi'~ illt~rlCl'Ci!lOc:.wi~h !h~ ~cs,.~ii£ of UIV-I ilnclcwrip'~:' bylli(; l"I]V- 1n;~I,l~ 1II!Oi)' ptolltil'i R.ev. Rev is know.j;ito bL:' lor-.1liz~cl ~aj d'tC l~li~l~~~lIl;. (whct'e RNA pDl)I.lli!er.ii~ [ lnrl1~ei'l~ doo.~Olflil!1 RNA I,. aM [ii'C' bkicklicll.1 of RNApo~,YI'ill~rn:K' .1ha.~ooen !'>hm~l 'Ioinn~"

dlJct~on lllal 'WOlfS auri~~!<lb!e ~('I pgii!~Il!tI:}' ceJJ... Mllrr"'\:'toL~ 'lJl}. Th,;; ~I,;~ld~~'~g, J?Nf'~'f} is wm']Y ~!~rn'\;'.: ~J;:ri~dlb~~t~j]~I~ot lu~~k;(! out <I." ,S! C<ll!]91idnt~
'l~'C'ii.l,1~g\VQ of
0i!fC'~{K:;!,!~"d

or

ill its rodi!ig rtlgitol~ i!m~~ ~~ill

illl~:118.l5ocitilt!.'d polynnOl.phisll.l~

atniup

m;id Chml!;l'l."i'i l~rn23'mi53~~d ~(n44j9). N.q, I:lUiicr gl;:l:i(ilii.l~')o'wi(~s~~rQifiC'ilJill. ;1~5cx:ill[~i:I
waS,O~d\·tidliiii dl~ Hlill:t111i~ [IiiL'j'li'figm&kll'i (~[r ~h~itt}I.YlI)C ~SOM lc')!ll). \~rc ,e:lit!lbl i:shed alii I ittl~.i'!'c:mlc.nt replleatien eOhQrl, of MO CIIHC8sillll,p'm:licnls. dl1llwn

esee Lhe di.'>tri.bl!ltiol1. {i:f REV. CJlISilli:l :I ~hm rmlw IhcnudrollL'J ~l'ldlC cylopl"'''!Il1 09" 1m. Ef· fide nc~ il~proVin~ tI~ns(:ri,~1lOin is h]~h~:r

llro,~nthe .~!Im,;:'I)Olrlkil"mil1~ohM~. FOI"this: e
lFoHow~Ll~~ $uJI,dy. we' l:ci:lxiO.'d the ~llleJ:\,.ill ~I'{lm
a dO!ClIl1lcntoo. IlC~lhrc [~\<;I10 a pos,~I,i test ..'e

wid] mh~idll;nlifli~dl SNPi;, (SOMt~,"! ;J1~l~ tilbk,

1I'•• ri n ble ,ml'\{lWlg indi'\'iduak in O!l~ sl.lIJ!cly. dif· O'br i!~fceli~n~1 from 2. .yl.:''u''S!O 4 .yca~ 10 iO!l;'Hlerenecs in !:r.m... l1c!'ip!.iOIl (1meh~\ncy <QeCOU!l~('d !ify ,ddilioP1l1i qll"diFy.~!1!il s~ud)l p~ni(ip,ul.Q.~. lor MfOS:)'% tlr the lOUd w~ri.,,).e~~ ir~ \/ inu..; :11100- W~· gC!lo.tYP(o,dll'(;'p!1;'£;Clll~~,\·~ pil'lllyll!!lli:rpi!i~11Ii!~<l

1~2 .....-----

3ii1310K

.... ------------

M:KIK,:ns.:

314451< .....------------

M400:K.

....

S~U~II(.

------1

9J1Ht1K

IMICI8:

Hog(P)) 'of all g,eD1'Clt.YFJ,et;ISNIPs i1Ilm'lCIlatim wilh th~ Ig'~nes:tJ1LJrturill ~f@ ~rnd](!l't~d, n,!! two IF!de!)@.r!denlt SNP's, lh,~t show geno!'lf!I'.!'"Wi,d1ii'
llalue~

F~g.2. p~nicll m~p Qr~n~ HLAd~S$I re9]Clfl h;:hr'OnliOiSQIJiIl!
l

6< p.2:!! .•3}.•Wthe.~

si;gIF!Utcant ~s;s,Qd~;tiJ!jnJ ith mV-lIl V~"t;~'hll w
The 'gral¢!
\Va'S

~e-t PCI'!Jilt ;;lIFe Iifli.!flk:m ifl!rea.
(WWllI."g:~nomlu:hJke.edul

(!~OOrsfRg2j~·rnd~Lhtm:l/dow.fillo~ds!AIfI n~ltatlo,nS,ltjfl1,!l··alr~)'.
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117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

REPORTS
fbrthe <l~~>C'im.i():l'ls rep('ll1e(j ailXi'\'>C

lI'1'Cf:>.

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J. ,I1(,qJllNt1d

imr:!Nm~ f)~.

I

n;ZJ9S~'19;. 1i/~I~C ~9:l!M91l!~.;.and ZNRm. ~.926! l74,. :E;".;:h '1!Ml9c;:i~tion w"h<;~p~ic!l!!~ willil ,~,r~~~s dIG s.m!ll'; .clin:;:f;!~i[](l!: HCPj. ~!]i~l P = Loll ~ UrJ~llL'J·C, ' = ,2d'l x IIO-:l'~~,iJld f J1NlUJI. P =4.8 !.: 10-::2:. . We; h~v~ s.ccl!lmly~~rc!ilt~lk.,o ..[ 1i,;';;!~11\"'10 ~'i~liOl!ji,,!~j~ nl)~ p~'tviol;L~lyknnwn 00 ~~R!!~el HlV·I: flLA-C wJ~i("~h:iil~ b('CI~~li~";F"rt'(lhul
ri.ev~i'c£ijll:ili'U!\i.'tIlo cOI~lrihi,iletol-UV- ~ COlltm!. and !HI RN A i'itl~ym~r:ri.~~ ::\lIbllilli~ Ihill. slibsmlfl~ !i3~ ehiJ.l1£lcs Ihe time course 0 r 111.1 II~e!~res~ I)i V s bo.1iI HiJt. S I). 1!;V~~ SlO sLlg~~5i,t~he possibilil.)! a:1 ~htlt a I~ERV-cl~'r:1'!1ecl g,cnl;;' m:l)' ,emnribu~c 10 ~11C \'ir.:t~ cmnmi 'Itld'~UI.1,.,'d to d1.C i-l/.,A-B~J7{N

C~roCtl:;;;. 11~!:s. "~l,f!gl,."t't~a

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in

c<'lIT}'i~!g ~I,!l j'i'ilm:~~:",~w~~i~s for 9~hI;Till!l"ll;tio~~;l

cli~~,~~·.

100ur~u~~" 1OlJIggL'l>t ~W9 J?!l:;i:\i~kdli~~io!ll:i. for lhcr.t-'pc1.l~ic iUllcH",mli,rln. Fi~t. ir HCP5 mid ZJ'VfIDI Q(mOObutc!o '~h~connrol <:k~i1l!~¢d wglh /:N..;I·.tl"')7Gl., !:fIle}! (:ouM kiid ~. i!I1~~up¢~tie 1.'IiI'i .. r,~il"Jilionii>. 0.111 nt~('Iihf~iJdI.die ~*J]li('jJlt~Oi1 l1~e of Hi;.I·€: iilJ UW-I ccnftnru.1 MlJIld pf\.,:;;cil.tib1l1.

51. ~ ,L, pr~. ~r~, ~~J, (i~, ~1%.~~ ~IQ06)'. ]:!1 P. I.,m@' e~~t~r .~lDt" Uot GMr!'.t. !te, 11M

S~d";4~~ 3011I2Q(I;SJ'. ~. G, Bl~l'ber .I!I" 01, J. ~;(II. 7?" .U674. (lOO~). 7. 1!M1imi'li:!; ~ mit rnllllwd~ 'H~1I'i!I~l!ii~t~ !WlllMflifig a~ !!'In~Iiii'llm 5<iefl{r: Oflll~~. 8. 0. rC. [lru~PI:.LI. ridk9; III A. t:c~,~ R~ lmnlun.o1. Z'1,~5 (il:~3:)'. t1llDOO;J<. S. I!. ~l!il~e\l~ e.r ,t;lI., ~;MrJl

POb1f.iiU O~po:i"lltl'li~ie:l, W,VCfI, ~1~ :mv-I {lC· ~h~~ oe.;;:soryprolieiiil Ncr £cl.l.cClivcl~/ cl~"'j.w~l.reguhli~c:;

•.,ikw. Sci. US.A 'SII'. :!7I)'1I' (l0ll!00. 12. M. lIiu'~d et~, AJlDS l5aH200[)~. ll7. ]3. ], K_ i~!ltliii, R lll!l:~ill$, !~gMf,~~ \1.9, ~~

n.

d'tC' C1<!lu:c'.'lsim of I1L4-.·.1 amJ -JJ Iml. ~IOi~(Inll 01:' fi 1.A·-C on~he ~ln'[m:c of in fce~ooccl]~ (21 I. Or:igtmlll)', lhlS ~lrn~eS)' 'W,IS clo:n~iderod ~d· O!J~e~.Oll!r li~ldi!l,gl5~ollfiLl'1l "nd cmrh,kSi~~ 'he vmn'!ilOOUS for the \'i!'ll!!$~c"~I~-<C HLr'~A "!lei -8 P1'Ci1C!~l for{';igl~ (:~~o"nbbl vi'mll Ji;..lpi!.(:i'pc~ l(l ClC!l!ml !'Ole or ·~hi'.: M He re!,1.~on iUI ]-I I'V-l ~N~:ric'[il1ill. l,.~,lijlllial"': ~:;, ~OI~~rubuiliurl ,,~(li~1S:~ u i .. em: 'if ~llk .D(1iJLliti1igin (:d~~~f;;A!nIleliorr.\\!hcf;l';:· .gc'llomc- in[lllenc'l.!:"~. and oflcn U!~ ne w !H~D"- as ,t·I1.A-(: bjm~~ sc;~r~~C'pli.ac.",<lind inl}l)tm:t~ widl s~K'cli"''i!'l innh~lmd~~.~I,mdi:ng al:-l mode ~r 1(l001l!ml kiHoi: I NK) cells ~. .w(~id NK .mack. IltH'ilI.:!VCIt:; /iJ.A·C 111.'IID l!a,,, Ilw abilijty~o r~1iC!l1 OlI,~!i(lH: It i::. ncc!I..!Sl"I!fy to (',,",IP.:.nd Hl.iJ "!]<II~~i~ ~o illcllude hli,gh ;cl(!.!I:.>i[)' g(lllutypiUlg.h .. ~$<'II~, v ~~l p(:pLidL,~ 'l:() ~.J'~o'!nxic: l'Oft T ~(lU~lind .11.{)II.cworli.1Y !.hm. ~his, gmlQ.lnc-wid~ :Sl~d~1 or OOIj_«:qlll'IU~y[l) ~""SLtriClm UV-I. (J3.14 J. 'Our ob.. ! !i.CJI.,,! :tbermin:i:lfll" hils I.hoot! elesr ,d,ns~a'l.'C~~, scr:vmkut'" S:liggc~l ~lmlfIL ...·-C-iitlCldi~tJ(~ reo suiC'~ion 1b1Ir1~1 be 3111 nmpo:rl::lLn~ ,clcnilml1 of vim] innl)l~iiUlg Illm. dctcnui'l''UIn!s u r host :t'eSp'O<I1IS!C' control in ~ccinc genie! ic w.ek,g.l) unds, lind thm lllle apl"m::nl. im.l1lllmity of NL.A'~Cw Ncr

(1999).
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:au.

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(,LlI Sa. 108,.2!1l U9!l5~. d ai, !.~'I\1l.j!'8. liOi7·~j!' {~O~~. Ci ~ rC:mllenel' .Ii!, r~!y 1!.0, "1 u'9'm. P•..1. Goo'ld'l!~ s m". AID:S :11. t8~ U:99:1J, S. Ad!l~n ef al. • 111f!w '1~8, ~.qM (:wo6) .. We; Uli!ii'll::.It. SaM~ (lJmliiMilly ,01 ~ij&li'ilrn~ Sliillln!dalitllJ. I'Ilmding 1tI'a~. JlfllVidedl II:!' the MIH,rurnded (]!n1i~f ((If ~Wm!l')5 \l'aro!1e' ~D1!!linoll!!gli" U.: 5Uppwte.t! !ijr !i5. U1ie SWiis'l; FIi~nl!i\;l~iiltnJilt' GIT,ln.t'l: iml 8iot.ogy alt(ii ~idi~~.

s

lialbl@ 2:. 1111o:ntra~t. tlJ 'l'flibte 1, ,onily' HI.A-B~51(jj [ ~<lIS an imhl:[p!£l'l1d,ent hpad a illrtakklgl~ntI.l <iIC(l)llInt tfui,f.' eff.ed of rs9:2M942~ The il1,cl'epem· d,e-m:e ,(If HL/j·Cisi1lll:s~1 'c:lear~y S)!l'~11 iill th,~ m~lIli1 \lalut!s of the HI~V-l ~t.lID'iliit rim' eaeh rs9'2M942 '~!Mot¥~e~lIih~ mlrtior ,~Ile'~ :( itS 3s~l)doil~ed!.'c{ath oil '(h~(lre~~ 1111!J1L.,il'!.jjepend'~ru of aU (:~ms1deJ@d all.ele'~ and ~~r:OI!lP$ of~bt~s:, NI!lIill!be:~uerl~r to a :SUbgIF(lI!lP ofllJ.l7 P~[l)~~lQIli~ ,avaUabl@ {o'!.!l'"dlig'it H.lA d<lss; I aile ~i( !',e-sults.
l

dOWIH\C'SLJ~lllt~on could pl'C'SCIlI !Ill OI'[:lO!r1l1n~ly

IlImlU. is ru,pptlf~ by Il1'Irm[gllln ,anc lbi!' 'S!i!.is.s Jl,a1i~f!~~ :S6enC~~til!i~UtJ)ii.

for

\"'CC~I!1C' ~'l!iliIC'@:j~5 ~I:gcli

ng .l:ILA-C m(l(ji!1It~d

~~p~n~~'S.
Re'fli!!'!ti!lC!!5 IIndl INc~:es

:l!.. A" ire!giiitl, [M.I!!. G~!.~in,

W~t.lI!e..:.""il1obiul. i!.Sg~ GiOO1'i). 2. S. 1.. O'8ri~m. G. W. iN!1I~on.,MI~ liwI.fi. 3:6,. 565

Table$< $11 'Iii S~

M<lh!i(~1.5andl ~'II!~,il!i1~. ~fe:il 'F1IIJ5:. 5J. ~ ~3

:S!i.!!P1Po.rting!OJ'il'lfii'le' Mateiillal, "!!!WMI;,i~!i!'I.!!g• .Ji!rw,giX\;QIi1.e!!!W~1lI1ua;{"rocl

IRelerMo~

rt2,~).

~. A. T~lmlj, G. IBlribl!f, FWiNI!: Vfro~ 1, ~ (~M) ..
~. M.Cam!lSlltllll1". 5 .. !. O·IBri~n. Alrnr.t'. ReI(.

MeJ.

54" ~~5

Irs92!M!942 g,~!i!IO'typ!@

INUliTii'iJer

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13: #!pM12'OO7; <l{(e~(l :2: ]1!1j1'ZDOi ,Pu~I1~l!1tJdItl1!~~ 'll'.l' h.llij 2.00'''; 1 lO.l'l2&1'5I:ie~~e.U~ ~116 '1 Ilmd~~ilii~in'fOtlltliIiOOiWli~n Ihis ~~~r" ~ij;i~

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rI.'I.37

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1.21 :ll.23 '0.8S
l.OS 1.£::5

S,palialll IReglulation oif an E3 Ubi1qui[tin L:iglia:S,8' IDi[rs1c'ts, ,Select1iviB S,YllaplSe E.lii:m'inatii,o,n
S:l>ereQ,typed sYl1lapll'ic~oillllectilolily !calf! a,r:i:se both Iby pllec,,;se ~eco9nritirol"l~etJ;.'i'eefil ilIl pm!"ria l<e p.a~tl'i.ers rduriiilgi :S~Im<llptDg)en.e~5hmi by ~el.ed:ive synap:se e.~,ililll;imitilm. 1I1he moie(.lullalr mlB!l:liI:imismls a that I.m'de~iUe :iel.ecl'iw synapse riemoval aue largely unlkJlo~1ifI•. We IQlIIl'ld fha:l st.l!r~'!J~pll'dI d!!iiivelopllJ1leiill:aJ :e·Umfnatio iii, !or r.YflaiPSll'l) ~ntlll,~ ':Qe11arha~diti'5 elggaRs h'e'[m"lJ~ rodH;e--specUi" mQtoF mi~HOI'I (IHS,Nl) MilS: !iIl!!ldijlat~ti!! b:y (In E3 !!!biqllJlitlll'l ligl::!Sie, a Skpl-clLI~lill1"':f'-bQ;I; {S,CF} 't;iomp~I:'; c~mpo:sedlolf SI<R·l::1!l'ld ~h~ 'f'"!IbQ~ IP:rQt~in SU-l!O. :SYG-l, a~ynalpti( adh~iDn fIiI~\!€:CUlle,boy nti!! to S,KR~l ~ndl 'i~hib~t~d @~s.eiilllbly of th:e 5Cf (Qmpl.eK. th:er,~by PlQt~~ti~,g :n~!i!fby SYril@pse~. lih'IJ~, s'iJbce~lll!~ar re9111~alir:m of lIIbiquitilill mediated p:ratelnl rd'~lra;d.althm 'Cill,nt.ritl:mtes 1:0 pr'i!(i~es:flilaptijc. clJ,nlr'li!(tJlvily Inr(l'ugiil !i~tecm'C syno'ipse e~im]niltiolii.
o

3.97 :3.43

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50'
th1·

4.3:2:
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0.88
1.17

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i.30 0.67 :U:2 ].28
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Y..Il;lj~'C. C.I.i.m.i!'l.. tk{lr:l. ISO! de'\.. '.c~.opn.!l~n.I". hL'l ~. ..II" lilm'k or "u;,uroll ,dl1;:'Llilftlnl1,(!lliIe!l~ (,I}. In !~c vtlb.:b.r.i!L; I1Ci.JW!11~~od;;u; uneti~H. ~h~ j ncumlir.!llillll1ii~W,i' a~lyk:h!1iim:; (AC1i,) ,clri"'~ c:lliUfil. ififll.it~iil of IPfi~I!ii:-,na~'~ic ACbt'l~'rlOf C~lil~A.en;

S

(2. 1 j. :1k)wc'I"Ct.. Iitlll:: is kn~wn ;!oollr~ li~c'm{F l~ul~r~~1.'1thiticr)' lh1!1 dJ~!l1Iim!:t~ ~}I!i!;lptic ~~i<lli~!tio~~, Of Ill!; ~liit;CI~l]i~l\1s lii"l )id~livcl.1' dil'ii:~I'i'''c Q~~ain ~~~~Pl'C~ whih.~ lUJ!-iit;liin.

illg t,IJ'i.C"tlX

I

REPORTS
\Ve inw.sti§llll.'d $y:n~ ,~lillllll<I!io:n if! t~ egg~ lP:yiflg~l(i<lOr !IlC'uro~ Qf C, (!iCg('!Jl-~"lilc USN!.. b~ ~d1!l!11'.-!li!~lI!~, HSNl l;'Qm1\;~'l~Qk~ !"!]WJ!~ 'ni!Jc d~ vl!I!.t",alI~~~I!.'S ~nld V{' In>.lWr 11AJ1)fO!1:.j" ia a v dLl$k'lf SYIIDP!il~I~..;;ll~>5,,"~ ~di!li"iv~IY~l) ~h!.l ¥l~I\',,1 re.giou. lhcprinwl)! $y.rm~ regiOJl IPSR),. Th~ sy!~~ Wil;.!t v i W!~1I~~dwiltl1 !hc¥~id~ .. did "01 QV~~<Ip~\\Ii~h SYG"~ tl!:iitd W cyrul Ill!" o~o:m ('ILFlJ!einS"I('!-LCfP) (.FpJl!~ ru KJ. 2.(' TQ ~~1d~~t:md, how :SYG·I prPl!~.o[I,'S ~th!li· Qation~r SSR sYll'I~'w~P"'irN.1n~l~ :l )l-q1Si t.. o-hylbrid ~l"n;:CI'i ~ld ~il~nd ~h:aiihe: SVG·,! :Ui· v m~:I~!L1:,~fom1lil1l.'it01.!nd lQ SKR~I I Ago. S2). l'hi~, ~~l~~~ "....li,~ Ctu!lirm~-d !.l,Y (:oi!I~lnunor:!,Q:;ip'i1!lIa~!1. (Pi!}. JA). SKR·] is !lIlC ~ ..ho!og or \"~;.'oobr.rr,te Skpl. ~ rotc OOlJ\]lL'1-ltt"i!il u:f ~E Skrli-(ill~lifi---f.. 00:;': (ocr) ~o..i'ilpil~ex. (fjJ, SiC"IP ro~np:J~l'!Cki3!f,C E3
lj~iqi.Ji!ilfl Iliga~cs Ilta!. lrullSiIi:r iJlbi~liIi~ijj, liO If~r;!t protein.,. destill!..'iI ,liOr d~gmdmiQI1I biy ~]~e pJ,I(}lCa= aesronal (k:'1'C!Qpmcn~and i'!.! nc~km. inclm~~lllg
I1Cl!!ri~c !tII~OO\~llh\, ~'-rlllps~gro"'~'I~, .md l1iP\>,.m;nd C l[Xh1l'L~!1l1p,t!.; ,~o;::p.1.Op'~rom!l;:k!:n.g UfJ-.N". TQ ,~I'Q-. tgn~'1inl'; "h... rsl1Pl~ i~1 :;'~{11i;i11,~ d~mifl1L1io~, ,.... ~ 1fl';;''f.l!1Jtt!Ii101:ld, II 1r1t\,.'i-if,lt:jim~lio:n 3J:!aIY:>L~ ~~fig ru~

or

rI'imkct ~.ybi~l(I'tohn;."i.li!~ rl!M~tO)'tU{iiW

1l\0Ci1lL~11

prulein (S'NB-I.,.::YF':r~ "Fiig. il. To d~K'linin!.l (4) whcnher ;:'~11OP:>t~ s.~cjlfi(:al.~'y r,Ciel!Jiil~lfi Ihe PSR as 1l1,rl:S1llt of ~')t)\lj~C el'ii1nitllj,tim\. W~ folklM.Ie{lIIJiC

K'l<.JA in'~-.rr~~!;,W '~RNJ~i.) "'I:IJ~!Ultt:ll,f\tOOtll du; ~n1k[!..l4 .n'L'd .u;kda !il!..,g~ 111o.~ll sk,~J RNAi1It,"iUcdi ~i!'l;~naL~~,uj CO~l!tl1 ~U'ii~'i\;lrtN di!l'If~~IJ'~di d SSRptlljiiNa Ei;g.J. H ilJtd C~, ~~\;fA& :k1]ockdo~~"'I'i
I

of CU:l.-.I/C'i.iI.~.

~mmlhcr abiigllloii)'

c.rnl~pOUI~j~1

ef the S(:r oC(~nplC'x(JH.

IIt'O{itl."Cd ~llfiPSC

dc\'ckiI'11nen,t of sY~l!lI)S('S inl ~tlcliviclml Ihe .runi~ !>Onlle (9). Ilc,£u lated uhiquit illl=~)f!Jtcasmne s)'.~IIUil:,::, AI, carly ~L~$ of de\..j,,~OJ~ll1Ci';L. \">'1: d~ tcm ,(W,)SI ,:!.tt:h i~ cOIllI.mL~ diverse aspects of :Yen '00 dw~ 3dcliiti[1J'Il1I~ SNIl~ I: :YF'P ~)l!Iru::t1 IO:l:moo immedia~~I)' :~ltel.;ior~o ~he \.'lUl"',~. ~hc :-'OOOI1~ "')'!lii~Jl.!'i~ r1,..~i{ln (SSl~a U'ig. L B <'md E". S!L;K'lCF IYIlt;"(I~~i!llill.(!itm ,or!lll~e P>t[n~'"~. e ri~ Kl·II'h~ <),Y!'!i(BJ'l!i(: p.ntt,"!'i.l pl't';';)<cnt ..dull Minl~L1!ll~fi:g.I. ill A ro n 'file :aVCI'!~Cllllmlx'T SSR ']lJInc~<l~r <l!:ni!!!1,il ld~he pe't(,'!n:i.t~ of <l!~inm~~ m wilil SSR ~1W.1L;!i);a!i!if.<!trU'llly dlo"cn:"fl$L,1O ot'l d'le omhl1l!llf..; ~1W~ ~IUI\.'d (~g. Inin ,mdDilioH !,(,l! SNB-I. Iilll,.~ SSR P'~I1CIi(H rol!l~~l1ed S)'Il;l!)~ie \,Io~iic~~ p:ro~ci!1 R,i\B·3.t r::1h3(5), neti ..,c' lO.l1cprol.cln Sy[)..y.~ipriiJ1 (6~ (:Fll!,. L :K to P). :IndpIT'SY m~pl.~[! proliC~111Ji\!e~ 1MUIVI Uig. lh:ls, SSR tMIllClaprooabl)! rep.-

it:i3tkm llcrC>t.;""l~ :::i!luilm· w· ~hl):iC ,of :"'.1"-1 RN.AjII\.~t~'\Ilmim"'b.(rig" 81),. TI'Crc·rOre.ru~ SeF ,rom~~.x lii. cs:f,Cmi,~ for~llOl~symlP='c elimhm~io:n.

;.~im·

or

sn

rel'.>C~~I,~X1ml I]ete pre>y Imp.tic

sl~;lCrfrIJMi ~Y',(.~gSF" PI1()~c'i,n SYG-I '~homo:l'C!g>Ol!"'f() NEfU~ and in'Cl i~l~no\!~ ~!fld !JJn~YJJ'''li/(:~. !'e.I.~'X..'.(ti'\l1.~>')' OUl esijs senti!)i [JelCI'm1:1i 0]' S,rumpl ic specific~!y hl nant ~]~c.1~SNL (.n. :In S)-g-1(k_1"652j mi!ll~ I1i'IlllaJt1:.o;,l.he SN£l...~. plUf!Cm allhc SS[t 'ti1lilbd00 be C1lirnir!OItoo :(!Jl(1 iM!;l~[td p¢!Ni:'lI(j(1 ~l~ "'D;.hJ~IhtKJ.d (fig. :21\)0, Whi;~""iil:S}'!IH~ ,11, lhe IPSR \V(iI.~ :gn;;;!ilIyd imil~~ ish(,j ~""l A 1;\"cUk;lilck: ,of .~I'r;.""I, 11,,2., ,dttqll!IJycti SSH. ~)ilIltClllinlOO"rfu. ofifnid.l4'nI:I~l1i1lil~ l'lu\'I"(:;1<'!.1'. OJ1I.~:'I,7J% ,of u:t':l rLti:ulls :sho~'I'Cd SSR pH1.'iCta '~Fig. :2J\.~l Thus, ~~e Icvc.1of filii:le~ionL'ILI Sy(]".,~ moy in!~ll.Cnre synapse clilJ1limlioll. 1'0 1l.'Sl Ih6> ki~a. \\'C Sctla'ilICd,minms, wi~b nll)':j]'lgd~

ne i1~111ImliloghJblllin

So1liL1Clllllre£.

a~.s oJ S~rG-I. 1,IClem!1!)'gOllS :.rS!-1 (k<'il5'~) rudI~,lfllsc;.:hibil:cd:[ll, Il:\"~ ofSSR pmnelJil immD..~iruc tOlhose (lirho:nli\1Z),I~PtIS3l~ w~ldFlype animals, 1:1'~rlhcll'l1lo:re:, OVCI'C1o;;lu'Cffikm or liuU~Cillglh S'iG-I, re:lull.lcd in, a lo\\-er f~u.cl1C)· of S'SR plmcm I;d.ative In (hew.ild I,~X: (,fi,g. :!13J.Tbus, ~hc b,'cl of SYG·~ in~hc W-ISNL di!Vmly OOlliI.~I"IA."" wi!b i!l:t1.~ ~....,,'m ·of s';';;R PI.JnCUi clli~~lill;.[i([u. I
SY(j·1 1C!!;;'I~i"",,'\\. ~:lI; "1J,II~1 r(;~O!fl !il1WUglil nL;;;~r it.,. illl:~rncU,oJ1 witb S.VG-2,. fali!jtil1\;~'~:gSf (li~t~iul (.'}\,~1\a\.""'iCdin the g,1If idcp()sI cp:i'tl~C:llro] ~lls l ()o, To ~rtdClThllllldthe rclali,OiflS~~plx:twcci!! SYG·l loc;diZllI,ioXlflliaCl SS:!t l_)iJflClfl ~,tc. we examined S·V('l-1 .S1IIKc:lmulffi" .Iioc-a b .. '1licm duuil~g syrmpsc dtmil~~'l.timLII],~in .dc\,dopm~"IIrt:liiJs,Ill~'\,-s":N;nm~ ined, SYG .. ! rOC'llilised ~diU.'.ivcly to tll1e ~PSR where SNB~ll!Rmt:'Ik"L 1~i&tOO (IF:ig. 2. c,F:. il:l'l'd i~SNB~~ 1,}Ullctil a~ tile SSR. ,U"ig. 2, D o.mdG~
lDr!iPl'Ir:I!rm!!~ ,cf :5tiJfillrO~

BiologT,,al

5rif)flUli!~

Sl~nford UI~'I{sr5ity,
F.il'Ggr,iun,

U:!'I1V!l~ity. 5t..~low., ('jj, ~<ii3'O\). ~$A. '"To ~~!t'Oi:'Iloor1i\(:~pl)Jll1len~e ~!!Ou!_dI 'be <!ddlr,e5.1ied.[:"~ait
.lkiI.D!\!!~n@5Ii!1nr(jfd&dll

Sl<i!nl'mrl, CJl900.5,

USA. zNI~ura5demf'

IFl'g. ].Syrn;lp:s,~ ,elilf1l]llIaij(mi!ltth~ .5SR ~IIIthe IIHSNlL Tltle'li'llIlval 'E!'piiHh!~li!l (:eUs are 1lI5.t!~as i! ~tagffilll~ [ (Iri~.lH4:(m(I()f earty L'~ (A to, C)" ImidHl4 m ~(I fl, and }'Olin'!) adl,llU (6100 II) al1!fm~t5, SINB"lll~inIP reve~1s SSR p!L1nWI in Ii?arfy a ~d mid·"t4al1imals 1[(8)0iUiI,d (Elli. whitch ar·e ,abs~~t ]I'ladu'lt 'MtCmlliS Uo. ASt~ri5b iFIlart: '~'h!1'W~lj1il,; ,atnO~~1> Dra{lkelsindkaLll ami SNB·l::VflP Ilfiln.cta .[It. nne SS'Frl iI~cI IPSR, r'e'l!pe(tilJrely,; @I'FrDwhJ:l~ds m@rik~hil HSN~ (~lJl body. U~, ~.:!'fl.tllf~c,~iQn, SN1B"l;~VFP p!.!nU~!rl theSS!\; ml)J b~rs. Q of s,El!Ili. (iii: to S) RAB·3 c:okl!c;a~izeswit~ SVD 2 .1i[!fntlp:5e5 in bQfh~hE! PS!Rand :5SR [en~Blr'g.ediliie~lIin (IK) ttl (P)]I. All im:a'ge~ a ~@ l:at~ra~ vi:e~~\I~, 1!Ililteinlm ·tcI~'Il!l I~~ft:,and ventrillil. tI:(I'~III.S!l:[I~e ba r;. 20"m .
s,

948

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

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REPORTS

:If~oo. llrotcil1~ providen.!!~l ~!!«imciW for .... ~Cf !CQJ:nll'~>"'~,~8,. w~ n~XJ ~1;1,,>d ,,,ndidau,.,,, ~o i~~H~.ry '!!m~ ~~1;:,vfi~ F-oox IPro,t~j~~ ~!i1[1!1 !'Cg~ ~11"Ifl,,"l\; .. p~i(:di~nilll1iiOTI ill I!lw HSNL, PSN,·l s,yll
and UN.;!lj;, two f,~b!};trJtitei!l~UI~ili hi!l,\~~~nl

::.yrmptic

i!llPli~l!.Cd ~npf1(.~)'ill.""plic d[rr~rtl!i!~i,~~iml PQS'.~ Olfld

I}" .~t-I" m1!~:;]!1m1Sl~~!!il'Yi;'I;!a 'llll'W:I1(lI¥ll1lC d s~gnilar l1\.'CqIIWJ' tllil:WIik'kin,g ~lS ./6)" did Ilot . a Ilb::l the USNl s~mQPtic: ('Q~tml tRg. S2.), '~Ve [(10 ~lm Qif .4;/1""'/ knQc&;(~\'I.'ll \"'Qrn"!S;~!ta\~"oo ~!1'im .i~·\'I;~~M~!I,)1;1, niih\.'f p,-ibt;lx p:!1I'h;ifl!, S !;:L·'~ O~ SSR~L~1~~ ~ d\,'t.~'lI;;,j_I.~I\'I.'~hbot~~ ..!. !I!~d ~.~ ~ SNU whi,d:l i~,kno\'III!:Ito bin~ to SK:!t-1 ;;tnd I\I!t(liiul!!>, ~ti\'~;!D:!Il~p-ql~q S¥D·2 ,Wi,1,} ], :P:JTidI~!}S:!). in tlrlc NQi~h :,;igl~alillg p:tlt~iwa}l 85 \\...;11 H:-;,in scp;, TI~!!>..SEL"B)~:IiIY ~~'f\,rc a :-.¥~rlc .r·beiil': m111~ p dr.'1\i:f:lnim~lirm in C, I.!tltgwls i( J 7. !81. ]n~~K';S!i!~g· t~i!i in syn~rs,;;: cJ,in~]r!",~to!liv![!i;C HSNL NCKI. \~ .SA.'allgi:i.l~. 1,0 .id~'-I1!i(y th~ ~i'lC' gf ;;I;I.;tkm U~r x{j.,I{J in :Synl~ililO~ i',lil:~l'Iiilmt1U!Il. A l~u~!>g~alc M.iiUinrd:r:ig th~ Jid~J I] !Ii',oFli(Ue:r tlm'lb.ig gn:CI1,

I

r- []'~~
IUl?~~'

QiW!1III1:i'P41

nl:j~R."'iC(!i1t. ,~oolci~1 ,Gfl?'l'

Ilml, ;o:d-ltJ is explL"S.'k'(!l. inl the USN L UI~. :l). S Thenwe cxpres~"!I Ihe ;;;et-UJ dJNA ~mdci' Ihe
OOIlIro:i,

I'nellwil:. iUleh.~,dii1t tbe ~ISNl,

I:I~I\.-d a '\vhich

SIiJ1 ~CL

or

t>l~~""

of \'3ri,ruo;: cc~lll.spccirt1: I,m'Il1IDI.cn: R'~ld

asklOd whleh 1~,\~nmCfjj, ~'lIM I'CilCiUC the Dl1lLJmnl :l'1htIIDI:y~.An Imc..... l~romrlt~'I' 'f~ dll.~\ri~g s~/", Ih~

eDNA. whiC'$! c(~~~I~ ,e."'~1luo~'! i~ I-]iSNs. .~·d·1 (J!Ill~nM~ll~~!~!~oIYPC t.Fig" 3. D.md E ~'.In ron!m;,,!, 'when we' !J:'!lcd p~

~u!~ >'f!.\~tl,,;;-.dilh.¢

m

rm>.tCl'flthm dro\l~ c'x.;prc-l1:;iouin~ns "(~~~J;!m ·~o ~hc HSNL t~l,! .<:t-l-IO d~I~Cl renmilwd (F!~.3.0:). I~imdIy, we (ix:unincd lil~ J\lI~~~!!,dOlr l~'-ilijz~H[q1l ~f SEL-Ill S:H.,"~O:i:iFP !;\'",,]i; ,dJ:ur1L';-eJ~1 Ioc:ali/m! ruM!!! the (,"ike al((JI] ~'If!}:ughollit d~'\tC~J~n::~1I1 (fig. S3)1,Thu£. SEL-IO linnelians .tx'i]:-mil.onC!mou.~ly
to ro,JiJ~alc f~lfupt~c ~ dilui.l1miclil

and isp.rosci1l

ill,

both d'L(:I~SR aad SS.R. Because SO' E3 ub iquil iUI I i£l_<I!;'<e,.:; pat1!i)J;;lp.:lI,te in U1PS"medimc-d 11'1:o1cin dcgrad1i.!tton (i'i:)"we ~"k()d whtllhcr p!~~nIi11C at,;li~'ily ~s!'1.'qui'rod fiJr S}".rm:pse ciimillmioll \Iiw'c r01mc:] tll8J SSR sy.rm~c

cl~m [Uml iOlil WIlS, d~S!killly OOlllJ'nronlisoo i11.ml~· 11~')S tn.'mI.'lI\\'i~l! l~lCL'!Cys!il1!. a PIlOttOOOI1.li:: intialbilO~ U9~, whid:! SIi.I~Cll~, .hila Upg..nlOOi,~too
IFiig. ,2:. SYG,;l. '~~.r'@'qu]red fOIf S51R S~lI1~p~ !a1;imnl1a~iDfI" {A} (,IllIoi!IlI1liNcatiu of ,SSR PUll1ct~ in 11 mllU I,,{}~1(,/(y652)iilUlJllI.eali1ld a weak syg"1("",2) ,<II~l~le"(I) s,YG·!l! dO!>a,ge eHec::t 01'1 th,e 55ft SNB"[:;VF:~ pl!!nll!:tfl. "11'(1< ,.::; O.Olll; iI1 2: 100. (('t~ K). S5ft SI'lJB~ll.::YfP pli.l~da .~r@ i[oC{!~@d,ilnt@IFi~Jo UL~ d~v,!iLQphlg t 1,IiuI11j1'il(Illi a5.n,e:d boxes) <ll1lddo not G),vedil,p ~\fith SYG·] :::CFP.A5.terisks ]l!Idica~e UU~ V'L!IlV1l. ir'iig. 3. The
S(pUJi..10 (j®I'flI~ei(.i'3 ~(Jui~dl rQ[ s;ympse ~Wlmlill~tln

I'lf'nI!d~ d(;!!-r..ldauioJ1 ~l'i[(lq)!.lllitt;O. lot ~'I1iiJlt'OC ~int· i"I<llti(Jlli 'f~i,g,.s.:I), Ik'CfRl'OC lite SCpm.-1O Q~i.lpl'cx is pilt'XlIl. at !)Jlh the IP'SR I.IJildSSIL why docs SiYIlf.tp,,'>{; dim .. ilmdofil QCt'lll" sped fk:n1I~ :u~be SSRbtn 1101m!be

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I)SR? We roJ~~gt~!!l ~"NO models, FiDl'il. jhe S 'f~ UPS W~lh'\"...y ~~I'd c;;;~ it.~ e!lt'lCt by ~~M!i:l1ing ~l~ ~~f~!1;."&'li!lI!l (If '~J'g-r SYG··] \m~W t~~,m'l p!'Q~lo,itJ sya"Pl'~ ,dilili!:irl:i!iDO:il~lro~lll:h .~. 1~'~~~~lltif~ ~(lflih.way, A~~'l:1l:i,iwly~ VG~.Iooi;JJd ocg_.tikutc sew S ctlmp!c,,> rOO:il<li~onor adj~'ily. To dislingu.~~~! e... b ~:~l,I~\L)'J!lh~"MC ni(ld~Ls, ~'\ItC'''':ai!t!Jiuaoo SY(i-I::GflP' C'Xpl\"AAiIlIi. ~n L~'~~~l.i1l';}U~, i1!i1!Jnldiit 11li:d .w.1·f.f} 1J!el'\~,i3Iccm!9\l SYG" ~ proleiJl was 5irk~}i ~~I" .~io Ih;:~l~ (ri~2,. e, E.rnld ~). \\11~~,
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~,clitl~lm! ilg'~hl;:t~~Ii!S Slil!~fo,"l'~r,;dhy~hc: model, Fi!N!. ~'r !wself i~~ ~ ..w·!imvth'lg fQ!" ~L\"!l"~~ ~1'c.~'. t'd~b,til,l!l, ~I~~~I ~!l~n.r"~i~I'!g i;h~seFcl)!~lpk""l\;:v-

d:s shlJ~~d ~rd~:JIilwe syl'la'pclt': IiJI~n~,~~lm ai. boil~ ;ol~
!hc SSRm~d PSR sil(''i'i.~!ldeoo, o¥ereX:IJ'.~~i~g SK:R~I 11wrci!l no~uh.i,)d ~Il fI.".(h,uo.;;o rSR tFig,

fMl1Q:~iOf! of mile:s:c~EL.~1i t'tlm,plLl,x, ,~~'C a;:sa)~ ~he irlil'OJ'OIClifliU (ll' SEL- m WiEh S.teRA by (.'()hlm~l!llO!tl~'(;iJ!ilmti['lfl!. l'h~ lJ~ad~n,g L'I(.'!l~"''O.'l1 SK.R"~. <l!:nd SEL.JO ~va. ~jgl.li~IC;;l!lt!y\",'C<1J.oor in~h~ I~n:.\~ .. ~'l'Jl;;~ of lI"C SYG·~ i"!I!'l(,"l;)UIiJ~ do-n~ll ifi!!:, 4. C ur ~md 00), \\'il~~l $~~l~ !i1(U~~cll1.l SYG.~ SKJt·l il~tt'rnctil:J.Jl i,jl~lb~(~dlihc' ~'uM}' or so' Cfi~l1-

SYG·.i. ::GFP ~alJe.rn was bJ.1il;1ingliit.hf~11clim~'tlil!ll of \\I M"iYiJe aninliUIb:. Pig. 4. A mul BJ.. r--Urli~M'IiIfi~ I.h;.:- EL-IO S \'V D-repent wmruifl,~i.~lich 1I!;,'el1li'l:! suh.'ilrnl~ .. ]0). did 1101.'b~ld '~bc illli'3cc J 1\1I11f oomoi~l (lJf S:y(j-~. n~.S4~ ll~lbre. it b m~likcl)'~ihal~'I!·s.cF etInn~'1le1( ou'lrolslhc IC\lel or~OC'.<iI~'~lion c " SYG~ I . Tn in~~Ii~~e ,~~il1edlcr YG·l ~g\d.uJCS 1I:h~ S
.~'ii:
I J

m.1~~1ii~~ In

Iil:it.~ WOO1~

dr:gr;d(;,d synll!G'~ic o;l!'!lij]Qn!::!]~ and t~s ;,tcl,uvity \\I',!h~ <L~~~~Il!~IIR,1t~ a ~I~PSR l:lK,"(,;m.,,~ of i!:he !'iiI\;''''' .. ';1U;:t; of SYG·] (Ii!!, SSl Furtillmh(~it:. in .\~,},:r..J mlll.mi:!Jt. :~,~t ~1i3jlt'iCl>. ~ s, :;,iwtif~'UI].tI)1 n,'.dli.ct'd 31tdSSR ~'lik~'" are ii1c:i:'t~'d ,t·t). O[l(! "'I.)I~~

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4

F~l')()'.)( dO:I1'1f~ill. iniljiiil.oo, :.)'i1iijblC elirnia~t1tli11~1Ii1d 100110 ~1'Klol'CSIRptllll0rtt ,~I::'iB. ij:r-l. S i Seoond. if SYG-I pJ10:t.ecIS !;;l'I'IifII1.""~ 1ilC:l'Il1 allhe :SSRnl1d vicevcsa, l]'I.'i.':u:eoore.n Ihe \~i~l,d degmdmliQn~hrot~gl~ i lillS iI1M!iJl~klHoJ seE a type. S\l'G"~ ~oc:I1izc~ at~h~ IPSR.and h~~C'rfcn:~, ~orm of .Y(i-'~ dml is,diflln~d)'!oca~.i~oo should ~ ~mb!)' nnd I~ltmb syn1!,pl'le c~im~ l>viuh 111e a~~lb~y (!! r lhe OCF conlJl!~ b:y b~!l.d· inhibiil SCF .•... ing lO SKR-~ .• A'!;l .3. r-~'$U~I~ Cf :(!I,Olhri}' .itt; !-ow .n S iml!h,'l'Jl ,,~QOOnl llw SSR aud I~SR. Co!!i.~i~'~nl wil1i! our Ililood.th~~·S:~'S$i~J'I (!if ,I fi'('¢]Y dil~ Ith~ fSR .:;uld high .iit dK~'SSR. !L;'fldi~!gw S~I~P.~ ~llIShlS: SYG~~ i!lllrnOclill~,lr dOlml.iul c!:ms.lruc~ !Ill" smbil~".::l~~!Oll Ih~ PSR ,<In'!:!:;')'lm~l:.J~ c~imi!la" ,n tien <lJt~h~ SSR (!ig;. 55). In dIe aW!..:'!lt:c l1r SYG·l, CP.~ !he fSB, P1UK1<l in1X,.'I.~iilvin .~1"'btIUit!lm'l1 S(,F w;:~i.\lijilY iJlcrc;I,~('S ;:Q[ th~ IP'SR. 1'c'ld~l1ilIII (Fi~. 4E,un,~ ~.g. :S6, and 'h~ SS!R g)'IIlOl[l"~ in wi 1d·!!)'pL;' f~llirtl,'ll};; ~Fig. 4F), :;,yml;p.!'~ (l].~mur!<ll~klnl. W]:Il"'fl1:~1LS SSR lh~ SCF .u l1]i!d. ir thl.': SCI' t.m~p~ ~,loo I'imC'tiQ]'i!iO ill :lel.i\l~lY ~:stowa~l~ S)llIa~rc.a};~"I .. Sj'lriapsc c~imi[lrllicn nil. tIm [,lSR, we IPredic'1 tliifLl. hihibilil1~ SCfaclJ\,ji}! slmul[] SilPpn:sS [hcd~· luinishoo PSRpl'LCilOL)'iPC of ~rg.l ml~mJI$. lndi.:ed, in :'D8-1 muDmll ;anlil1iC_~J5. oomprmnishl! S('[!i: by sfir" J RNA i or a !i,iJ-m ~mItiJiti.ol] slSHU:' natiol1l frn- litis o'b:;(;'Mia~o" b, ~aI: Ihe SC1;:' oon~.iP~c.x ma:y be .~h~'it~1i£. w.rtl~ilil IIhc I ~:SNl; !l&1~~h k:\eI of S.c r- mcti...il)' .'L1. l~~ .PSR C<il~l'1~ dq)lcliOl1or SCF
i1.~rnltl)''c."~~lilmOl.'(! .s~mp!ic i~~I!l.'!I'l.;ijt)" 4E}. I~SR (Fi.l!l. ~~1P;,'(lin~ of evido!l~ $1J11~pm'l a m~'l ! in \v.hkh SYlJ-l. !1ffItC~ dlC symllJSC ill l.he PSR by m~Ulgm]lziJlg the tlm.cl~n of SCf, end SYG·] I'lImllrh\l.';:'l. ~lf!"':l!P'5C; c~intimnLQn ll}' f1iilllkjng !lmm'C SCF av.~iJllbre di'\.UIJ1I~}'UI~hcSSR" !~ 11~f,O l'il(l~ ~ sihl~~I1!n S·Yfi.. 1 !i¢IS tliimtl~l ~llTIknm.\'11m(~h ..• m'ii"!1t'\, ~Oa'(;1l.lll!;i1lC C'f' fICR.~\(ity m. Ill£: SSR, \\~Iich S w(llild llilt l1t,"quirc SCI"' 3oth'My ~o bc Ihilinig. ·Sy.I1!lP.t!c enl1Clilil3&'IC~ntJl]1l' isa highly ~'\"lml1flk jpf!tJIDC.'iS or COJ1ClniIDClli Inn'l1lalioll lind c:liim ~notkm, of $)Iuapses during de\'e~OJnl1lcm l2 J ,. "fh:c UPS, i~widdy used iin mony ccHlllar precesses, ~llF clttdil1\g ~oJJPl\llflimlg. dcndtri!c 'Pl1lmillg, and sYlli-

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Imiolll

lion 01.' I hI;; S('f o;~~nr-JI."X .~y!~~p]ic ~~ct:UkiW by
l!ml~-cUJI.1!(;.';; ~!ilch.~ S'iG-I, -nli .. ~IlMlln1;;"i\ tlwU ~ylTilll)."i'L"" fill;; :;\filbil~i.l~. ,:cui ,IPllruJJrillID lilt""" l)~d ...

fir UfS

;,~cl.ivil.y is

~hlUllgh

klCl.!I inhib~

.~'1InQvcd :rrom. ~.liilj}Froprij)le SilC',':i. A iiC-a(;lill. SAudy :showoo IiIUll.lD~prot~ll!;OmC ,oould filJlCliotl ~o· ~lIy with_uri distall d.en,hit~ ofV\:Wll::l.mnc 1:I~lrons 27~ Our lreSLills p:ro,!kk: ;:II. 1lI,1O.I~cci.ll~rIjn~ be-. i.\1;'I(;"Cillti~,1 . n.':giJ1JiltimJ ,of tlb:iqujti[l';illl!Jd:i.[~Lld. jpID1l!'.i1l,G,,;g,adainml:Jim:1 :>clooth,'e :::;yrun~l.'Mlelim~. Fig. 4.SYG'] 'irlilibii~SC~l~Di'!S$emb~,. W :s.Y>G~l~iG~1P',~;cPf€~iOOI 1~ (fg~t: at~)'.mrd~ifl sa=1.0 1in1l1i:l1ill'S.. Amn\iS 'irldikate S;¥(l·l:lGfP: asteriS(~s !lI1<1~k m~w:~lj\"I. billr, .20 !lim. (8) Qual1!,~~iC<li~OIiI S¥:(j'1:~GH' Scale !l'lf pr'e'e:nc:e: of SYG·l. ilflnI01Cdhdar ooml'!qlll. ([I,) QII.:Ililtirka,'!TIofl off 'lh~SKR·1-5Ei~-10il'f!l@~1.!rnDrii. ~E) Effiecl5 1(lI~ SOir adm,ll~ <lll1a$V,(],.:i. 'on PSRlP/li1llptij, ~in~emnty.D~pll~ti:(l1ll ,of' S,<:ir 'or O1;1elire.xprt'~iol1i '(lIf SYG,.;li! i!lt'@!I~l~td@r d\(!~fll elilh.ilIIil(~S PSR synapses: n =201 ~f)'O'l{'e'I1~lliPt'e'SstQIiI' ~kt~l ~dlJrtn m~ SSiR, of s.yno1ps~~ WhiE!r'E1-.111l llil.!\eir,~)I~r,('l'5f>i:!:lIi1I 'Df S){!(s·111l1:lro'lu'!Ullililr ailJIDilln O[ '!he f..ibw: doni:ail1 o[ S!H.·l.O ~ml!cS <11111 inaeas@ ]1iI S$i!. $}Iinap5l!lsc; ,~ .~ l~O. '~"P< ~lml, (UKU.
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1mI.. (iIli'J &/; !lIDI.:Hi, ~~!l, U999)" C, L. lI'!\aite-:!, /j" ~. '(ifi\!J, C C fj.a~f; ~ml, R~, N.f!WOsri. 28" 15':1. (2005)<.. :5. O. S~~e.: ~,T~'IlI1~, C. K. !IWd!:>~ B. Aril\l'ilmW~!11 II( !It~di(!'. (>!!!I'I', 80l,. 13, ~~'? Wll!))). III. N. IiItgd!!" A. iJIRlL1.Itlmlo:. ,1llrX t/,a-, N!jJltJSC~, 8i~!11 {200121. M- 'GWeclllg~ ettl~. N,~t.OJiI 4!1ll', '5'i1" '(2003:~" IP.]UII,.]I, M. ~pllal!, rufr. i!ll\?l, JiA.~D5 f (<lOO'!).

'F~ S1 t:m ,ReferenOe'l·

~{i

a

2~ MIJ.~,ZOO];~~~~!d ,2£ Jum!! lOot

IMli$lii~ om'lilll .12 .~Lll)o200": l~tTL2&r!lCi~m(l1, ll~,'l,n n IlllC~IIII~I:hI~lnflllm'lilfioo' '~~n ('fling IM~ il~er'.

IRiilpid EraSUr'8! IOif Long-Term IMI,smory A,ssoc:ialtion:s, inth'B! ICID1n:ex Illy' an Inhliibitor' 10il PKMI~
LiittLei~ k!ilo·\'\ffI alblll!lt~he Ilel;lrorut IlIle(illcln,lism5,tlhillt SI,lb5e~\I'e ~ang·~rlFll 1l1l1len1l,ory [ilt'~~~em(e ]1:1 ttL"€: brai'n. Ihe (!omponeoo ,ottilie ~em{ldeled ~ympli;c lrI1ii!ldninery, and hOow they sustal:n~he m]1~'i! syrlillptk or !Qtll~mdem.lllfi~.matimD O\!lel ~imle, ar'i'l yieot to be' elluc:idlated" In l~e r.a.t tC!orliex.. Iolllgi"'~Nfll il:llsoci~thle IIIiI illilllOlrliHS \I'.Elr'li~hed rapidly ,,,her 1.oc;[I~. ,applkal;'iQll of .alnJinhibilDr m ~'he: pr,o~eim kl'na~iIl C h.tdorlilil, pr:ole]1iI IkijlnC5e oM zeta (PKIM~). 'The !Eiu,e:\] 'lM~ Glb~n.NiiclrCllr a't leasJt.sewral we-et.:5,<lIlfiterr en~odlilllg'1l!no.d 1IIiI~' be- 1mil!jl~Sil'b~.e. II'n the' lI1eooo'rt~x.., wh](ih liS,a s.s~IIIl'ed t'@ be the ~epO\Sit.ciJ)l' (If mul~~,p~tt.!fr;Je~ of ~illn~-tlmn m,~Ii!IIQfy.pe~s:lstem:e: Q1i rm::m:cryis:thus ,depende<nt on gl'lgoin~ a~1:ir'!lill' ~i~ ~ IIftlltein klrH.!:s@ ~@I'1i~i1INef t~lt ,!ffiI:~m~LIJ oonsi~ered irS [(I, bg>i~ (O!lSQ~idg~~ 11!'!tO ill lQ;.l'!g)1erml Sl:al~h!'~!TII, f

I,u~er.;mcl.am'ltMr I nt~!!l! ~,~~!'. Z~p~!,! '~il'l~ Ie bl~k~d 'CTA ~n('!If~j)r'Y ~I~bc:u.h g.1tI1!II1)$!f;lIll;..'\"my ~m.I::t'\'is tJ!I'wri3lTlcll''~ANOVA). R2 .. 6~= 7 ..6]. ~ P < CMJ05.1 {Fig. ~.i\~, f:n!'il hoc rofll!'!'li'~r~'il!lns !JI!w~iMd.llo difrC'f'LiIilCCool\!l"t,,~n ~h~ /.':I.P wuu~:
Ilm~~~\'(: C'1l.d r.

The d irtl:;renc(J persisted i" exti UO!}tlti'.!l rrepc~~~d.messi:ll't".$ l\NOVA •.grm,l1" elfcet, F(:U 6}:t: 6.17, P <: 0.1:11.~CS;\ ,elfecl, F(l.3:n '"
tCUJOI]. The ZtP glDI!lPS, d~d nol dH1.c.f." was diITcrcnl :tro;l1I COJl!ro~ (1' < 0,05). A~~hm~gh cOJl~o.lli(_llin~{lnlof ntl'lJ1ID'~' i~t!~c:Ie I is, oO!lsidi:'~('d 10 be O\'C!f wi~bin h'O'lIIN. jud!i,'(;xi.l'ly kl',M' of '\'ulni,;rubi.li!y !In ;U!!iJ~l~'\,'\ic"'!l.(;nl;~ (7),. w~ wondered whether dl'C vullilemb~~ityw Z[P rcIkclS a IOI1g<.":I"tOllSoli:dm..iol] pl{lC(.'~s ,!"~),.\iMcmJ!· Hil i.!~~~l'[,,\d <l,t \'<lIll'ioWis 6111cs 3 !n 25 ~:hll:ys noer ZIP
,{J'.::

V' < 0.!05,.

Wah d~~m;:ITl.;"~1 1i,(llltl

lh~ CUfltml

R.91.

I:rom each [llhc~.b"Hcm::h

,I

It'! crirw.d Io.t :;!OClr:<:lgc:: ,of k}rlg-rem~ 1l:J('ftlOI)I in oQ)[IIC)LW,,; n\li~"l:ill¥lk~i.mf~Jtn'rtt1iO:ry iUlhc immlmr ~ : . co:tilc'x (~["J, \'\,ihioi! oolliillinrlslhc gllsl,t1my COIi'iI.C}L 4~ ( \lV'clmi:tlt'il mESOll co.ndili,OlK'il~3S1c 1.lV!::rsion IIon (LT P) IifDh iPIXlCfllnnp'lls lind tor susra Ininl,!\l ~lipJlOCiilmp!Js~ePC~I(k:I1Jtsp.fII~iflII1J.cmory (1). It 15 l('TAJ (5) t~ingS[mdmr:i1l $I.'> .he 1l0Jldil.iol1.~,xl 1J'I'''(jJC(]lIlL~'.o\., h()\'I!tw~r,whicht is assumed IIJ~iiulJl['r:[dy &turnuhl& (CS1,m!cl j d.ay.s :ll1lO(;J1;, Dl"k:ro,iufLlS(1r.1, u:u:: s.el'ootiNc [:iK~i·~psC!llldosub;>l.rotc: inhib~~o.r ZIp 10' Si1lQ;~nmi Ilip,te lYPes 01" r"mg'I,emm mC:Uftlrnylnl l:he mrnmInmUan broil 111 (2. J). We SCI.!ffil~ m dOI1,-:iI:~ U. bihi'llcraUy inml~hc K'.tol1.tro~sroC'Ci~d Il1ht('\~~~U;:lhClIl',crsist'Clll. phoopl'l()l')'~mim~ by [IKM~ vchic~,c on ~y" We le5EOO OTIiC' ZII~ g_ll)upi \\~ik
-po

- .... p.l'Ot"'lllJ

.,.,crsiis:[?I~I .• 11'. h.JMP~I:J1}i~nt.!o:nb}'~h.C

kinase C ~sol.O:lm PKM~,IS K"QWIIIlC"li ~il,[ aintenance o r lOJ1[1;~'ICIII1'll po~cnl iam

.m.!YIP.

,i.c.rd

utlinin:g, 'tll!~ow(ld by CTA~rillg. ThcPKM., ~nhil)lloi'Jfblfldmd ml)JltDry m lII:n 1,1 nfll~jXlanli 1~I(;d

41)~~_r!ment ~I ~:E1u!'obi(!fogy,Thie' We:i~1IIiH'l Irntijrute 01 :5(lef!ct; ~~~~QI '(;]QQ. I~r~~. ~~~:mli!l1:em.UQf P.~f;!l!\. Q. PMrmnaoolq", aoo Neurolo!j~~ RODm F,. FvrrlwJtM.1 (elltel' for ~a!fal and gehiJo'1~tScte~e. SliINH' ~5iiale MlifT{a1 filntEll',. 4S0 !l]ar~A~ult ~~lym, m:' 1r1l203.
USA. '''f,fj, \'i'!10011 1!!1:1r1OO~IJiDliloon(j{1 sliKl,uld bl! ~ddK!ssool. yadin.,d1udal@~etl;malwl.acJI

m

ii=l1Illilli~

,A

,3Il1i...-~!b-----!----~-"feS:1

2 (dayll

in diGlte'5 'eqlLJi;Ji~ Ilre.f,~rt!nce ~oirthe G ,[lrud ~'ila~:er~!E1:, tin ;; L A prer~re-mle rlQf' the c:s: lillJoiIy d-e'l,iEl~~~ (l¥e-f Hrm~ ~:n~l\lt Q~ cr~.-~.'I:ti!n,gl!!.frSh-edl r~t~, !:IiJjl Aill llI~ullUly dellS; n[lt cill!ldinE1lb~loollV 20 Mn30 even in 1iI111rl.!'1!rats. For ~~lIti5Iin" seE!' 'lHI:. '~IB)ZIP ~j[a:!lmicroirdill5ed i~~o '~~e Ie at U11@'irlditatedt,me"lalflt@r tr.alinililig,

Data: a r,e 5~'O'I\Inr rlOr three 'S'uuc~sswetes'~

Fig. ]1. Er olISI!Jre lo~9i'iU~rm CWA nt~m(!'ry lJ.y a~ing~~ apJ)~kari~flo;f thi! PiKI!I\~ of ililihfbil(llrZII~ ]li1le tli:!? K, (A} ZIP ~ ..1Id'rnirlis.tIl'Ii'e'rn 3: d!iJ~s ;1new t~ifinriI1Q~ ilnd Ill'! ~!ililOlrywas, U!"st~,~ 1\!reek ,~r] n1I(I'liltlii later, CoIlU"(I~ ~lfflf,~Ul!S'l:edlat 1 m(lli!~h,

1, d~' afp.Clrt, 1ih~d\:lshed

~o(~).

ti ne:

iNli!~(ih wg~ .ill singl@ 1(!l!l1dithJ!iIIl!1lgl s;e~'S,!(lIn(3 arid 7 ,~~~ g.f'(IiJjp.:s) iJJ\F twCl silluessiw ,rolildnltiillning sessiilllil!i, i! dtiV '1l!p.i'lrt (250 '!!iIi!~ groo,p). Mellliloiry wa~ t~sl~d 2 hours (3 !1)ll1!d7 d'ays; gf'Olups)' (If 1 day '(25 ~gV$ g.f'OIup) lat~r. {() Rg·1S w~r~ tra.ined ~Il O'.A.alndl!slJed once 3 day5la~~f,ro~IDWe'~1. tD,4, min ~,ter boy mic:~o~lnfm.l:mll o~ :>:Ir ~l1t{l~'he lile. AlthlJ;l:I~1h :\IpllIlillBintlOIllS U!co'll'eny \lla~ :51lEl'.1il 'in! the nQ·teslin~erl,fi!l bl;loo~rl! d!.lys4, Cllildl12 in .~.~ wn1i!fo'l 9,r~~1ilI.~'h~ZIIPbE!.artedII'Zi srn'DWl!d I1rifhe!'rspom!aneol!ls rel:D1I'e:ry moor o1Iny'indir:::lIttonr len UCSril11'iMla~~mel!ii~ c:~,dalY 13). m

I

REPORTS
~(fig, 1.8); f<:: 'tMJOt fgrlh~dUlj'ewel!loe l~\~lcelrn CS lin Cr/\!rn~lli~g ~wd 3 d<!~l~ bJR.'T.VM: and 10. c~mIllneuh:eIJQ:I..<:it1'mlYlhm Ihc~~hibiwr rQ~lul no cfl'~ ef zl:r 'O!l;L\lqI ~~s.~h~!1(,Til. 'Of l:l~Ql;'bnwmory pt,.';rrQJ:!l~;,!!lO~ ot;l~lIYlfm1'>i~ll1lry. \\fl? Z;]P gRXYpS !ill 3 Q,iil)'S a rid "1 ~bYl' and ]t!~ ooll!trnl~, IlW gfOt!p. ~$,4 ~5J), Jl'j =~: \'l;lhic~~f;"J'_4. :,),9 .• z.~r'"'i:p~W Ifl:I~Qvq( !ijm~, !O p .::: ,(ID~ ror th.(;l di fr~!1;!l~~~twl,)!l"!:1 ~~ ~:J dpy" Q~I~til~~!I,I~!~.;ii.1nlil O gm~ll ~lId Thc,~~ i~, l< C\' ide-nm, ilr!~~'l}- ~n"'i~i~. ~~fM,lu~~tn~':O!iI'" m '1 = 1; Oll.c·,:v'"y ANOVA,/1 I.B)<LP= o_;~n I],lOO""~ry, m~ iu:;tgdiiim1J. fore, fuor cto..s ~ru tl:t" II i;:O~j:;,Olidini:iIOll wir}[~()\\1~\I!~ ar~'.tiilixlUt ]; \li'I,,"Cb, Fl,~~HWII;Ccl IIJIlJQOll!d iltl,Oi1t~d Sillr!!i!ar lfl"jo;.i.!I~:i:" W~fi~ obi."!Liiri(..d.I"l~il]g ~M~1ilmij]~$ itl,~!.: lhe CS IZ~f gIll'w!p. r9,6 3,:g:. II = 6; \'chk;~~, ruim\'!ak~nlel1l:. <J!.1~r seeeral w0r.~k!5·. TIl.(; elht Dr z~p on k¥r!g~ Mtmuh~s ,(UOH·IO cllicitp('h1~!lli~] ['\0.0. + J.~.II = :~O~ G!i{1:-\v<liY AN OVA. R ~.li,.!I} NO!1t.:: UlCM~~~l,~~i ~dat:ii;Ul~~ yiJf;;Id~. 'widt'JI~ ~¢!Jln qntQ't!fl!}' iil t-lp~d 1 ~'\lid:!il~ 2. hnllf:ll ~!lIlm05~: 1!l:J'·n,'.CG\·~d 1'i1I~lilln}ryiUi Th~~ gmw-p (Fig. Iq" Z[P ffi:!:l" iB}.1it J !I!ld ., d.liys I~u~d I~ot,~lil1l~ill~t\;,1.1 i~~ by -c 1, P = CI'.95~ S~ond,. I'OII~" dli<l~ wC!1.~ !1(;;I,iUK"icl.on efA to ~Cie.~~uriIl1I1idlni~Ci:i. [~'a1ltd \\~i!];iZIP. \;,,~erG .llcpefUl ... '.dl"iti.le~~Urt~ j/\,..I"40V'A on d@)!~ 4, :and ~2: irllt'1'ili.i(yin.!:j r'd.~jjing l(fig. H]~ !it 25 cl1~YS alkt r :;;llbjcth~(Ilil w,~ Iltt~~rcj} 3. nl."W (_IA i.ruining '~o 1'>\10 :ij,joo~~,\l(, eTA l:rnJDllntg::; w til~ :;al'ii'l~ 1:.t."le J. (lh~ ilJ:).t~1 intclVnl.nrlw:~~k1:1~"pQi'i~~lIirou.;; ~ov... Th c,"'(ehlde tl~e p~ibjl~ity Ihm 'I]~C c:ifed ofnhc: .~~YC~ite, TIlere W.11.":;fID do ff'crctlt\,"'Cben.w~eil.llile ZIP ~i)'fiI,'ight ocC'Url shews sbg%IBlcal~ti!!Jt'o1,iP' cft~'t~, fit I.., t 2) ... ~. 79. P ..:: mw m, Ill:elild I/OWard il~hibitQr iii: ~.miquC' to the Wised).WC~ ,repJac£d mn.d the cm~tml I<i~S i~l d1C.~1' :IbiHtyt~ reacquire ~U'(lLlP')< ~~t in~eum:tio:n. R ~ ,.12.) - 4.19" p- O.O(l. C'fJ·\. ~Z~P~rou.p 93.1 I 2.3. Ii .III 9; vehiele 95J) .t s.'lcclmri~1 whh glyc~ ne, 2.:1P W'a,'l;ndm Ul1Ii"tcred J. 2.9 .. It - ::;. IcsbJd 3 d<l,YS, aUer relr.l~ni ~S: On~HIf,'<ly PO:::I, :11101.: coml)<lrisoll~ n'e\fc.li nons:i~liIinCilint dl.!l.Jlsa[lor~'l:<lining. S:cm~nb:l!oo ilmc:tiv.eZ1P was d'ilfct1CIlLlC bc.tw~u groWipson rest ,clay iI I(P = ANOVA. F{ 1.~.21<I ..P> OJl2] .. ~1,~ld CQulllCil. ,~i1'.1'1. b!Sl I W)' Imer :-Ji~O\\ 00 an as ThctC slll)$i;~"J"'t.".i: dCICtli'on,~~xl cQnsol!d.nit'i11i 2 ~v"''FSiol~ ~miC:.'ll(AJ.} = 74," .;I- 6.5 ~n Ihe ~p gi;ol!J~. 021':.). htu :sigIlmC,mn diIT~rom:c ~m day .~ (P < Ot!'!d9~.2. - U15 in!hc cll~1trol = !':. I...eli, P < OAl'~ h i\J] hlOlIl th~~ iad WuI~S $l'Iml'~;Ule'ntu~ ·orlJ!Mi~c r<.3miliml}, (!3 i i),. We: used "\\'O 'Ifl~ur. igr!l'l'lI'1< d'~~~rl1J~inl()' \\!hc~ill~' di'C'.PKM~ In]1 ibj;UI, rr,~(1,·~~!)' .~U1U!C (:Ulllro! b~~n(j~ i!:lU~~~ zrr !:.mWlp. OiOO~ 1lIl{' (l1.'f'~lt i~dtll~ IlOl !;illliqllll:! U1)Hll.! (.'S dlll!llHJt:i~laSU.'l fmrni liarlay euee fll<ll'm,-d.Ihcfirlll ill The laek of ('~1\pCCI...'d c....~im::lion in ti!e control ~ ..~d <l1]0 reqlll.h~ i~lhibi~ion,or ~Kb-1~,tCli ~ily. f il]nh~ l"Xllll.~l.~l1lO'HI." .. brJVIJ. ZiP \\,,1.>1 oudrni a- bCl\'·'~n d~1f; ] 2,u~d 14 (pil~,,"'d tt."5t. P = O.S4l I,m~~n inhibilion CU~ Hn.. !l.'1;l"~:no.~W!ro the C'S P to cflbtt No evi(ic;m:ci'Or i:.;tl.\ro~OOr()r~ tl!~liu:5t ~~!, &IC<!U.~ re-.ac,ti,~·.'!:tim~~ NUgm1l.~.. r~i.llljii!<ll'\,;1l~(\ln in 01!. Llpm'!ocol ,1!~~lllnlCl' iotOO'f ("fA trJ:i'!lil~~ '~~ :m GIll~~ [nun UCSn;';1pp~icm~o.n \,~, s olt",,"I\l(:d th~ MII:uiI~ CS,~ u illduc,r,"(! n.:collf'o~id~t]on m~y rei Ilfor:ce Ih(! hL,1!!~'.,eTA ~)I{lrnmal~l1(;(r ;;,(irv~!$; '-IS a r~l~li~.~arii.y (ic:tlX'tOf ]l'IlrodurciM'Ul of ZIP in i1i!c ZIP group. rI:lCU11DI]' tll<l'CC t9-1 I). w~ WOJldct!i;.d whC'Utu;,'If rei,Il~C the .Ie ~Jlcr lhll' p:reeKposUI'C to I:~K':l:lliSIC ·iirllh~ Hiie\l;l~ uiridi1:r ,ooltd~[iUIlS I:hm. prontocc ~t1(J.ll... O!I'i~ Can Z liP d~sruJMlnQre [J~I:.t1ri t!ll.c~liSSoc.ufl!km at U IPrmoool had, flO d"cci, (lIJi II [(fig. lA}: 0!1C'" :I I:illle~' RalS Wi.!1\: trnilncdl CII], CiA W s~hruriin d.ffiliolll (.2i') l~l~gI~L reuder ihc uaee immune to PKMt iUlhiibilirnl.Wc sLlbjOCl'Cd mts to ~.·WQeTA (eSI!). mull d3ys.1!i]~c:.1"10 ,gllycinc KS2:). These ':v.!ly Jlu\'lOVA fo:i' (111eirs~.Il!·Sl, fllJ7 J' "" 7. T!. .P <: I tmmlll1S are pcoceiv·C\d dilfT'cn!:n.t],}I(11), Olte \\iIi.'C~ 0.005.]. Po.s 1 hocoolnpmisoJ~s S!lm,"i'ICd no :~iS!i.l~lliJlgsessions, ada)' 31)J.fl. rOuo,'\u.:doYI1. tcs~a nHkrun dmi:l'Cm:c bC~~'CCLlthe Zl:P-.l! ;rrud I.he 1,lIcr, 2:1P wasliIlicroinl~u"cd imo the ~iC. anda day week bIer ~berorc' ZIP, .f.\~ 94.5 1. 2.76. n -10: l~,crorevohkl:o, .I\i ...955 ± 2.24,n 8; I.~.6} < bier. ;" h:..\'il !\thedl!lcw~~illi~ii.'ltcd in which [he vehiele-L ~ gmup$~h~'I\\,·'wer. lomh ,grol!la~ were 11. W'C '~hl;;n ~lI;)lV\, rcd Z~P a day ;.In!;, ~hc ~I. and e ~1~gnifrcmHI)' diffl!I'C'!!1I fillm~bc I1Q~U g.roW!P {P <. mil:;; (Ii = R) well: '!C5Icd on OH and'S;;!, COIl" sctntihlC~y. l ,dil)' apart O\"Cci 6 da~~. Both CSi.- O.Ol}. RellCaI.oo.-mC'llSUli'Cs ANOVi\ s'htwvcCl slg.rel.r::sloofl d~y imcr .. TIle c'.~Ib;:1, ZIPW3S not clfmin.a~ r~Hcr Zi·r; S8.(~$ ± 7'.9; afteC"",dliJ::ic, U('S a!lld CS2~UCS assocJl!li!!JIIs \VCllC d ISl1lJ!plcdl: nirnJCillI~grollillem.1CI., i'l~.. m, - hS3. P <:: 0.005. : 92.1 ::!: 3Jk R 1,11,('1,)- [227, P"' OJHl51. ;m.d ;l:jgnilfi.c.ruu t~t clTcc~. R~>74) - 15.94, po <:: }\.t 011 du: n.!li'l !.Cst for eEl l ilSsocimion WiilS 94·.0 ± 0.001. J~"'in. Il~q h,oc (;O:II~PHfj!\(l!nlS'iho:woo I~P Z 3d 6 ill 'Iht OOT!~ro.~'(/~ = 1). 1OJ; ± 7,00 ilf! Ihe ZIP l;lutlUp ~,F;1~.,13) = $1041., P < [II_OSl A] tli!lill(: Ii]lIl\!t :.:i;gllli:l:itmlt d i:l~l1'CiJ1Ce lx_'t'WtlJ,,:'1l! !illL;UWO UgrnyP'~. A teo$;'!for CS:2 ns:soc~m.ir:1Jl w;U 97'.6 z [1:97 in tl~c ~l:Ildi cm:h ,n.r di£Sii~ gmlilp10 WO~, 1I.ig!!!ifinnruly IfClfe'nlroomihcno-l.Ig[lJUr (P <: (M) I J. oOI1'1:rol, 78:tJ ± S.S inlhc Z~P gffillip IR.I,BI = dI~ We rillso cX<1ln~irrl!.."drli~EeUlilmnonor l1eOlJ&~Qbio S.6t P <; O.05l. No sign:ifiCl1lrru. di:l;i:CICtf'IL'C \VIIS dClilc!oo MJ~()I1,ggn:m~iU1 cxlinel,ion mtc. ~D'idi· l U!). I.,~CI!C. t;;~rcs IrI1C ~)rcscnro,,1 wilh aJJl lUlifrnmii ilitr cmillg .lock 0 f rcco~'ery rl'i()1u Ihc 21 P cflkUl. OJl tru>~IillInillml ~m'okcs, 'I!cnr411;lhCoimeWrym;! ~h.cn, 1"q)l;.'1lIJ:lCUy iuc.scnlod wilillhc smnC!;lISuml. to'vct" ~pclilive tesli 11g: II'1\,i1)Ca~oo"l'Unca:nmL"S l\.I'JO'Vt1.. :gtl1(}\lll x~eM lmerncliO!lIs,. 1'"(2.2('1;, <:: 1., n01 I.ime.. the: nool'luJoi>l decreases. serving 3;'; a ~' mcOTh.~i'C or l:htnUn.fllrily. ,PKM~ illhlil:litiQn~m:d~lo ... si.gnli ficam.I!. c~:Tec1 ~Il a.his,pam:li,gm ,[(Fig. 2:!ii:)\, l'Cpe1];~cd.. \,:\IC!I!!sred the C!lTOO'I01" dte .Pk:M ~ inh ibi~ori)ll lliIiC~l>LlI\,'S NO:VA . .sigliliIIc:mt 3~tcmuuicm of A d't';." aM~illy IOCi10o\fe,[I;.'; oppoS\ld, ]0 .lIemill" fTA :~ ncophob[au~l!bc 1'J,,1'!'C'atiUlg fl:~.J~. - ,21 ~OI.• t~s" 2) mClm(lll:yin~hc I:C. ,FilfSl, ' ' 'C ~nicroinlh:iiCd ZII)

~(lIn.~n

or

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C"Q:! .n c![IlllcentmigQllS 'nc,w the ~.mIDSflh£rij)c level <B~ul if~, whether thls d~I&\i;;~.~m i", ~H~ i~ko-dtly " :s~i"'!!!Z9g: O!!',t.~C1ry s~ksy"t~I~, .!1r! 'th¢mO!,11S~ ~U~ct.pry~~l'lilh~~li~.Ilr! ,t OlE},
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~ri
Illl.:mp...

~hoo~2 ot"CIOi'iYll~c~h¥11 e~tl;f lAM.). a c<llclmn" ~,!,b'iiti¥c rOO tll!o:p;:~e!1lt dye. GC':D+ uelJro'ns \\'cro ~{~";l,!:j~ifiQ~ ~f.!irilj.'i;!cg.'l'\1Ill!':in!i!:O~1;-:ilOOn~ of by
(ifJl'~liffilit,;'if &;:ndri~M; k,l1rlb~,..nd s{)1li1~!tII (f!~lA tmdl ~1~~i,Jpt'lk,.,-: ,of rhod·2 AM dYli,'.'wu:<i conl'~mGd by 1\.'<.1 rnli.l!~~PlO: ,~F:~g. ).'fi'S811C' liB \\I'1!h~ com:in~lI:}lI!~,ly~!i!~Fru~cd wi!h Gi'!>.}'giCl!~tl,;'d [l:ErES:~bmi,.\cl Ril'ig~f :>td~Llim'i.(l]l~w~, clt:-liv-

C031"'jC:lit~O:irI,11 OSNs

phospllllle (cAM P ~
~'r;u.)."idlll'diol1!"

odQr;!!'!!l·c~«)kecl !l.ig~ml
rnP1,d'1:tioll. air m:;",ro!1~

'I

.3' ..:5' mmt{nphffip!m~(: eGMrl'~ 12-141. UI'ilikt ~Ol'i\r~"Li:Or~fl~OSN~ thiN mi1iiloi" por*~bti!C!;1'ior cclh; ,e)(p:re~~ p11~jf!hooi~ l~sC 2A (PDiE2A).. ~lJ,~UIY~Y~ ,e,ycli"l5t: D (,GG[»)I. ~UlclcOM P'~~~.:h"c cyclic nl:lek'f}lkL~IOO (C'. ~G) chmtilleis 0 2-M), 11I1cyprojC!Cl ,:l"lO'llS tOlhlC' ~~'!Ckace .gklnmcn.!li, a set of '1'O:J11.ro:~~lh!l:llhnillEl l ~ 'lru .. 'CklUoc'"· inti~cca!.lcll'.l~ end liCiftilC o~ factery bulb 'lOB) U3,. HI, 111(: nocklill~CC gkl.1ncruli Im"'~
~lp~itl;"Q.\il, 10 l~~~,,!u)l-1im;
I

bu~ ;1.

minm

!J)!lcrn;llOllrnJ~Ii,wcls ,tl"ig. ,2'E mHI lig. s';1A), \;l,i'hio.'u i~Qd \,Vilh (iA !Ill\ll CO,l.!l1!QM' i(,~I'eellswere ~flt {I!.c!i~~;;:L~'d 'r = ~5() o~1l ~r ~ .~.(f(.lI (25iV2!(0) h;~'<IdI]:. mId ,. r~\V iClf th~11i\ w~ m~1y ""·!.,'a'l!;ly ocli'\;m"",x! ~r~g"S4. rl =4t2!60~ To ~x"rnii]e thC'rohi of, •A i.~~ slo'n5irig by Co.;! GC'-lDt 1Il~~m~$.. \'f(l<!pp~~'d <!~'''!!O&.nilr'd~ (Ai, 1:11111\11), a CAt "'llZynl,U!Je inliiit1itfit. AZ ~on'ipk~lx'lj'
clilii'lii'i31.~,~jc C.'Q~~"'POiii:>e.~ ~F'~g.2F ~Ild ~,ig. S3Bl, Ca~dlilm, ~l.gJtk"iL :iil fi':SPOI~ lei COl~lere .. m;;cm i~~ et'l,~*-r~ Riul~r sfiluiioi'i.,in.dtlcmilil~ Ilml, ealeiuru sigt:l!}l~ we~ due I~ c;:t(ltcttn!li c~leilalii1 illilW( (Fig., 2G and I'i!.. S3iC'~I, Lilv\! C{)I1L1em,l<il.Ikms of[..~'ti."-di,~1iaz.e~l ( I00~.M ).:1 :."NO dmnulel l~Jot~.' (lj~, re\'iC:L"i1ibl), blockcdll~IC l1\;,"";Sr'Oll ..se of OC'~])· .u::l~~mlS~O co~trig.2. IW~w~d Thu.~. u
I

coc-d I:i.:.' 5U,p{;j['rU:s1JJ,l!l, {."Ol-blibl'lli.1t;! R~I'igi:~: ~olill' ~i.on il~[othe il~!Igii14ii chomhor; f.\";;l!illil'l~in IJcak Co.~ QO'n~tlul:illiQ'"J'l.~or 0,4 'to 6.-"1 m.1\i~ M C<hk.,I" lalod ~ COl so!u'bl:l:ity (.?i). )lr.:I:iL~f a~ c Ilpj)li"
cmicm. \\'IC dbscrv",,'d fJUlQ·,liCsceitee CnhllJl!.'Cmi!!iLt inootll ,d~ndU'rtic: kn:oll.<:!H~d '!.lIl.dedyil1i.{l. SO:llk"liJl~ of GC~D'-I' IlCmUJlS ~Fig. 2('. !'.' - 428 cdl:il:}. 0:= I'C~ ~~""Ill~ air G. ':D'" n~~W!mn.<; were ,d{I.'''e-·dc'lJieml~!11. wiah ~~lIIh.~t<"IIu~igl octi\'Ol1l~on :,t~l!1!ing 1.0 mM CO;l ait (Fig. 20). GC-liYI. ni,)uro~!>.\t("""nQl~li:.~!iWilOO by \

~~n

i~J~pl!e;lll;,'d. h~dJ~h;'(,tin!;l

~1Jc't;:1 in,g Illb..'l["QI

Ui!:U.1!ll!1:'~ ,~nd

I,'~~r(:' ~vc' Ol!.tmo!'lph!1.:r.ictcvc~sll'l!'Ol!Igh
~ory '1~('UI'('IJ'I$lh1L! 1Iil..'\;,llfl",'$H

rh~rl:l:rn:oml,~1 ("(l!~npi!:lUJ1~$ (16, i 7h sho'~~1 mice c.m Sl~nNC: '02 ~IL nc.:u'" thm,
'tile:';l!lbsol of o~:I:iJ!c\o

U1i"

n~... ~ci~le'!I~y..cti ...<!~~ '
;JC~~~f.;)lt!D!1

GC-D"· Il.cum!!i,,,,.;;u~d

l'G"qulin:,,"I

('1\. '~!li':11~'~Ulic ,~I.c~i'l,lt}' i

COylfcc Ri~l,gcr !\l'I~u~ion ~~I~tll <ldjl!~.cd filii or

ilUH,llhe o~"i!tmira!1lor(.i~Gdmnmlls.

~~[)E2A G(,..D, ;InC!

\Vt: :[]Q>ll1J.",;nni.!lIOOI!1w gClm:;'¢.'i;p~f:;iml profikl of Il~LiriCilL" (.,."pr'~l1g PDI:J/\. l~~'DE2A.""'lI1el!ll~ ffiflS hy sillglc'"l-x::~1 'SC[ir~1 :I!Ilill~1!>i.., ol'gcftce:>l,~ p'~"S;km of dissotii:rutcdrel~ fmlll tille c3udt'll ()IE!. of mkc l i.8). "i,Vc:bolimd ti1m po DE2A + neumns C'xpressed hi,gIJ k,lCds ofCA type II f{'AJI ,.~v.l:aeli'C~I

a.s C()l~\ilcJillioni!~ OS.N,~dkl nUl (liS. S L A 110C}, EXI)re~:;:imlof CAU ad mRNA by a subset of OE eell•; OW.1iS \il;;,rifhxl by iU1 ,~ilWi h}'b~jdi]u~io.L~ . trng. S 11), [~nmllitosminil'£l. shffi,\"'i..-dabt~lldllnl, " Ad I C'xpresslon ~:}'a S!ll'Jjj]'UpoOi)l! i!q1io.fI, of cells in, ~l~ecm:udaJ -OlE. Mml ofuJtC'sc CAll" cc]lb: clus~l;:[,:dW'i!.hb~bll;:m~S}"m~ncrzy inl]~C ClllJ-dO":-:;i~(: ~giOFlji wi~,liiil] .he c'llJdrd ro@lI';''..'l Ofl!l~ IJ;ls(d
(';Ol\'lly Oii,~, IA). ('An In.caltlz(idl wi~61 [lnIE2A~u~ ~llle OE (P~g. I, B rl) D~Iiind in -:]0 gJonrnerui I
mllo,p;lhm~ .]0 1~1tn (]lfil11II~1(i!1i' iil LheCiJl!lld<'ll DB in !(:F;il(l;, 1" E to I :II~ ond fig. Sd!. jj' = () mke~ Beesuse

wijlhr(iC~D OJ. M,. wcru1.l[l1~~ il meuse Slmh~ wllh f1imIigCICd~ll1l11'" ~aliOTl i~ lilt GC-D locl!s 11131 1)J.OOl!O::S bkislm:nic ~,lC&'Hlg>cs cruJs,~ngrormm.ola,tlOIlI ofGC-D with ~~
PDE2Anl:l tumiscoo'li:presscd

~,1I:sjiol1l wmtc~n OfM,U find ,g_i'CCll:~lI()i~'$cellt pm~~'iin (GI~PHGCD"n'G mice). ('AU ~11fI1~Ulmin;:-

;!lIJ;:li~'iI.yould (il"P il1.trUl'lS1Cnum~.eno;: ool~plctcbi overlapped in ~ht; OE (fig, I. ~.lO K);I!~,J 013 ffi',g, 1, L w N" 11= 2. .m!C'C'). H~\ul~~lbnh.,wc ~icibf lothc"'~I~1.'iC'tofCAII* f])~A~' G _'-D'" n~lll'O;I:!:'
~:;, G('•

CA (,~[fLIy:a;."a:h,,; [~Y\;Ili,~bl("re~J(.'~i!}l] oi'OO'2 ~ U:20 ""'- 1]("0]:- • I r' PO. 2(}J. Bceaasc CA is ilfllp:li:,atiCd in ',D.2 sCllsiang, ,'VC tested whether 'uC-DT rn:jj.lmifl:;~)\Jalld to (:02 ~sJng c,1~lUi'l1

rr' 1t~ll!.IIrr)I1f!>,.

hni'lging in anim.9.(;t 'E prcp21rnl1.ClJ1 from, G{,Dne mire (IN, 21}. OSNs. wereil1:Cllbf~~I.~ witill
lNciljOIll~llll!rtil\!le 'o:~tBio!.~ic~1 S~,ences., ~ji~, [l)2206, (I~M, '~I~~1'i,ite 'Cl\!~~~ ~~y ~: :)I;;~~~~ ~8iei,~ng,10011)1, IClilM. : ttf MolE!cul3f G~IfIi'lIil'S

"r.

olnd ,M1crobI01!!!91I, IDu~IUlinl'leI'Sity Mtdi~a(wer, ~~ii!irn,

N( 27110, U)A 41ih~ 'R(lCkoefi!I~.Jmlroir~llf. 12301'l"mr~ I A'I'~m!!li!. lfije~ 'iI'(d" Nlfl!OO2:l. !LISA.

1To whom CO!lespoflde!'tce' 5ho~l'd be <!ddre~ed[:"~ait
.~lJcll'lllinmin@ni'IHfL%~!!'

·111u5:e ~'II!lbm "omlriM~d'I~Q!lI<Iltl'm U\is~,

IFi,SI., 1. CAli 'immUl1Ulre\riclivily ]Ii1IG{~O" neiumns:amil Ilil11lCkI1l'(i!~ ~llomendii. ,tA) B~~i1Ik!r.arulll"S)lliI1ImellJ"k: di~riblJlli(l)1I"i I)lf (tUIII+ lie:lts: (anQlllS) in the O~, (ml H~gh;·pMer \l"i'e~\I of tA!11~ imm,luiI.Q'Feil.uMty iii!, ,pI OII!Iu· dl!~t~r, ~Ol II1'D:E:2~ ij,mmL!Jli(lF~oC~lrWilY]1fI th(lS(!m@ ~1'l(:MolIIas;(18). (Ill') O~rlo.'lV ~If(18)alll~' <0'. 1(IEl'A, mJQIl",1 sec[iof) of ~be'[lluffilil OB ~h()~'llil:!,g fAnr gt(l)ll1~nilli (,mo~w» ~\lilh ~arg~ly Ibilate\r,a~sll\rnmelry. Hrigh>o IP~Ii'i!~r~eio'!i ,~f CA!llliI1f'llFiU.!1i10rea(thliit.y wilh'ifFI t~e d'a'Sh-ed b~1<iDil If). ~G) PiJl)E2Ailf'!m!,ilil'l(l~~(tilliity, ~H~' OJ,lcrlClY of (f). and (G~. [B~L!e.D.API iCl~ellirli~l.II to K) CAB~)lilPrcS'5iQn 'Clv@rila;p:~ w'hb GFilla'be~in91nr the OE ( ~f GCD·~1I'G miic!;'1,., CAill ~tmI'l1IJnOre.aI~~i!l~ty" m GlrP nlililmlUlrmr'w,d:]I\I'~tyli'i'ilhinlh(!5olI'llle ,reg~!l!~ as '~I~"(a() 01!"(lftClY (Iif' O) .and ij~,. t~ N) CA!! f~P'~SS,fQ~ 'OWJll:a:p~MIh GFP h!~e~ifi9iJll th~ OB, of GC[l'-lT(j, rnloo. (I.) (~ (Aill" glel1il'~.IlI~i.'M)GH'+ 9~eme,rlU~1M~hil'l fie SdIIi1le< ( a~giiOliI s. (0.. (N) ~~rlay 'Ilf (L) and (M~.Scale !Mrs a ~I'I ~H!;)I, 2'01-'1111; (F),. ];00 ~1!I1i; 1'0 1-'1!I1i; and (IL), So. J.lm, .

un

m

m.

954

117AUGUST :2007

VOl317

:SCll::lrNI:CI!!

WNw.ociem:emag,org

REPORTS
To .t\:'l<l (,"'02 lNn~il'1\'.u~yfn yI'\/Q. lVI,; l;oro;rdcd I'wmblJ~l",~:~N!.IOOIllS ;J:\iSQC! \\'Qiiillthe necklace ..t~'] g!~l].tJflI!i! 1Irt« ~)/\pQ,~ill;g ;!!!'!l".,..~~lCti,,~dmice ~, CO;!. i~~ l1Iilt~mvcll;lli\'C~-d,onhi,,~J~~tci~:; ,t N/h ~,~ Out of "",,'po(D, CJd~sk'Sh;-d wiiil:l 0.5% C02 iI1,nh~ ~ pbOb~.. C~'i.cu!.mll'yrosfJ'(lnSC15, were found in 2,60 CI.lU!l. ..l!Hul51 ;In of ~,\'hi¢h \'!,'\.':[l;l nc~I!'~h{; rI~l<l;;lccgfQmen.lli. Hy jl;l:i'i:.lat"C~I~ kwl;ihetiUilg, \\i'rt; idl"tilli ~Icd liive ,~lIs wilh dcii.thiidc pr,oo~,,~~r1'!~ul were deliil1elJl.~e:kurly 311£1 c;.:teiildcd i"to~h.c ~0[iI;:l.'tCc~'i:lltilen.d~ (F'itii, 3A}. These Ih'crellb> were t~.cljl\'metl ~y c:li:tcR]al COlm. k~,,'C~s: above 0'.1% IfiS, 3. B and D).EJ.:ei~,\'l:to~1re$pon~""'!i to CO~ ~~lIIl~,s were chrn'iJI,Cl.crizecli 'by inililll bllJ~ting

fk~i~mi(ln Q~'G;('~[)+gk~J:I1C'l.'lI!~i ~'l was rl!r" by thw !\)(1nfiJutcd by imHl!l!Im~.;)I.i~i!1g ~gai~l ~·fQfl, ... Itl~lrk!"Jr or 11l,.~lmn;;!!~ ~\~11J~nn i~ij,)t;l 'Q!r~~w-}, i b~lb (.n') ~I~g,. Sd)" F'i!J1,IUy.WC ",~"t! bd1ill.viOir.JI,~iI::""i'~l>to c:O<Hm;~lc : ~he i:1(O'n!l~tivilY {,o.2dc~~~tiGai b}1 the 'l1gU~ (i 8 ).Wll'L:f-dJep:riVljd,u;hda :Uili~ \\'~~ IR1!.incdto

~em~:~j"li'Qll IFig. 3('). Omu,u], 1P'I,d~l,'.f; ('[']IJAi cn2 <lim;! .2)0'% 0':1.) wiDhuhe~_mc r!a~v mlc Imd 11'0 C'rtbcl. ool]fi rJrnin,f;!,Ih,u~ ~thcl\.~I}Ollfi.l.'l' \)iter-c e 0:.1<:1.'(1 CO:! bUI n{!t by in!!:!1.· i'O(ld aiIf11m",'. Ib~ ('oO;l .. ~m!!;(;"$,ofbl;llimir n"\Iffi1t~~"'!.)!teido~~p!::ndLiJ1l. (f~g". ), Dalila. t.). For lh~ 1HIltlOS1 &Q1l1'i,i~e cells v ICSlcd \\'Ith 3nJallgc of et':!-JlIecnlnulions Sigli,l!Jictliu.

Imene)! [[300.3 + "'.6 rns '~I11£ml :J: SE1'Vl. ~I= 24 O(.;'n'~~I~~~,{!ImlJ~ v fir~ngll~follg110ul !11~~limulll)1. ,lIld ~ridinhibilirlll an~r S'liJ~lU:tll:>
\",'~dl :slltI!rt

mmjccrl~mlio:ns ll.;;"ig. 4D, 'O.4·I.no ,3,2% tC-O~). li.",jrliQ~I~of :til~ OE ~y n'l",~!1 i~i!!ll.laiflill \7il:ich ~nc lick aport rot \vakt ddiV'('(f ol.inl'i.!!!i 0.5% ('Ol ~il r31~ ¢~ ili~il'iiJ!f.id~h," awi:dallC(- of (nl. l.Fig. r~IIi>"'"s; i)iJ\d 1.0. i10[ Ili& cl~lril.ijg 00111][01, I'llilL'i!o'S walh ~;[)', The cn~l=>, ork't'litlfl~ ofi mi~ OOtl'i m~ii:i(\dJ d'tC tiifun.,e Ilow nUt! liaR! fiKygcn ~i}jl0e.!~ln.'a.tiOils :rna i!IHI~i!lIijnlcdFor C{)~ ool.!..'Clion, in c.,on,hnnaukm (~:i~. S,(~~· IN l, Tmirlin~ O\"cr -.i {I dF~)'.:!: lu~d lin ~ Wil:hl the !fIlS! ~"OClio:lillime 10.1' (jO~delOCLiom lin.!!,. ~LIlMe ilil!Jff}n11ml(C :[t levels or~901!4 CO~Im."C1 reSt'l) .~tl1dtl,~!!~{)I!i~1 (,Oll settlSili "it), onhe lri,~e~~:1ill.1l11 sponses (Fi~, 41'\, It -I(I mice I, Duri!IlY le.~,:;:, 5)'SlCI11i ,~fdilt,.s.'\)~ demol1S'tlllUle IhiU nbc OEI'm,~ .. resFiOll~ accuracy l'CI~\ilIinoo biSih rb:rtC'S'1 s~imulli din'lC't ro~e ill, CO.2 de~edioll. Beeause ('AU i~,c;~~~~d c1!>clmhely In "viall ~.I% '(IO~ blll. flCU :'.oimlp~)'tol'Ie.:u4:iaru1a 'OC~]).j. ~rollmI1S· ,md~b ~U::lij.','~t~r t.'i'..'>lCtll!i<l!'! Iii', i~ ~e\'~~~ .l."OO~~~v~l~ d~'Ct~d.!~,1dtU!F!I~~~r 48). {Fig. [\!;,~aJ1~~ in ~hr,)~!l~lU1OJ1's (F~~,. I ~~ml2.), Thl.l ~$iPO!l,"(.;'r.Uijtl .;!l dinl.'fiC'~u (il]~ ()Ol'tC~!'IIt';I· , :o~
Iti.on1Ol~u~dI I W ';\[~ilb'llU p!:\)'d~,rnJ~(:lfic~ulleliori 11~IRlXlill~ in 'O:;! (,k'1~lion lIuil.\..J1~ki of I .•~S O.CI'7 log llnU[\l Of 0.,Q6('I% 0.2 'U:;·~g.'liB and fig, S7. il = :;::Hl:ic.'!CI' l141 \,vlrniehis jllfi! <lOO';~ Ult~ il.\'~~roll:g'\,.'l'_ 'Ol ~ll,;~I1tr:<i1ni,(ll] in 'HUe ;'I!.nr1os:rd!J.;!1:The ooh~\'i(:w.t~ Ilu,~hord p~s.o 1'I1UlIeh(lclnhc' reo ~:PQIlS~!iI!lIJ&ilivil.y ofJJIii.lIb.1tiieilm:m.!!i tFig. 3E,. Wlreniheo.E w3s~imc:d. by 1:l11lSll.!irrj@ffit:iQIiI wid] Zli.llCSl:l~ :Illiw{50 .~Jm~ cOllCelllrnlnOll 00fS%), mice \,~cre ml~!L'bIi!IO detect O.~h COl PUIils.es (Fig.~n.

,or

CO2 l'!;(l'I:!l:> l)1'r~tlf)Iif"l (4) tnn "ilmQls rueshosts (3), ]!li'I T~m<Iil.~ 8:il<lY.Wt' !iP:l:md .. !1l"1!fni~;;IJv~~~r.cd ·O~ <!t ~(m~~~!:r.iltio.~~s ;;IIS.!(DW a.. 0484-, ('l = ,:U fI~~"_. p -< 0.01, I !t';.;J The :l'vQi~ W~C'C~dJlll.c: 1Il~lbsi391l~i:l,Uy ol'\:;:m:JIltkl;,ldath:u.~K" m
qlJj!~!(jo

I

,I

~>,

:''LCI.~\'1ll~{lnl was ,~r\'ctllU

IliJnplil.~llIIdcs, I)QSC s~ce~)I~ between 0.1 runt! 0."3%

'0.1.% CO2, Respense

'TI:! and :~ullllm!cd I~e<lr 0.5% (PI.!:!.3E). Lower selil!'>i!ivi~~' C02 M.<; olb.~~Ii'!icd ~1~SOlMl:l'n;ClIIlO .rom',\,!filh .s'~~il!r.u.~(}n ~h(l\'o(;'1 B4. (n - 30 tells),

Cnnslstenr '~\'ilh OSNregcnCI::l~iml~.they ,slowly
re2l'lillled~hcir jJbi!i!,Y in I ~ 2: weeks U5li.

nli~~!10lr~ !,'If mii,'.i; lal the' OmlCm:2 ~nc~h.u~ 'was i:lIldu(;cd by chcl1il~t.!! ml.!!~lgerl'~,~ ~'vii.lt~N-~U~y~·ll;!-'.l1illilY.'i(lUml (.~g. 510) 26). TIh~\: mUitu nl. 1I1!1 ~~w\)ir,c u~lubiL,~ d~I""C1 CO.:! TO :M ~tC~mr"IiDi.()I1&bc~~),,\! 1% 'ff1g. Sl l jr. bUI dteur; 1~i!8j[ning, t'1:i:!'vc' r~I~[jdCI.c~IJfm IIt'l'(,;:;hioki .iOrderc"Ciliillg 8m.yl acclIi1tc ([I, ~.,(PAl smurnl1.:cd \!lI~)Ofl' were ilulislinguish ~ibh~ from ltiwse or \'ild-lYii!C~nice' ,tPig. 412, U - ,6, ror I1Iml:3l1.t ami. 7 for wil(l-~)'1)e Inke) UN). J\1~cr reamin.g! the bdll:1,viornl p:m:1dlgrn \:l.'i~1~lmylilc\''1:ii,1.'C. 11tilthw~ld=1)'pc;I;nd OMt
'1M) ~.xOlJ~:Ii~bL;'dth~~Ii'lv~ifird~, hO:Ill'Ci!i!',~OU" for iI. '1~lli ~mti(1Ii1 m

em,

D

1.2

O'I!Il,..",.-..""""'..-......!~-..."!",,, o 2: 4, 6 00.2: coru:tentra1~1O.1'I r(mM)

IF

Oi
12 COOl+mIUaxem
CO~+Wash ~
I

00,2

piRJI HC~oOJl!rol CO!iiil~

1\--.. [: .,._.0
I
LT' -'

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