Contents

s About The Human Body

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Pre-Viewing Teaching Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1 Name That Part . Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 s Activity 2. Pumping for Life Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 s Activity 3. Be a Brain Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 s Activity 4. The Brain Team Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
s Activity

Dear Teacher:
iscovery Pictures and the British Broadcasting Corporation have partnered to bring you The Human Body, a remarkable large-format film that brings a fascinating new dimension to the exploration of the miracle of life in its most personal of settings—our own bodies. For the first time ever, students will view their intimate, everyday world from some amazingly intricate and novel perspectives. The film uses ground-breaking photographic techniques and state-of-the-art technology to transport viewers on an incredible voyage into the workings of the human body. This Teacher’s Resource Guide, which was prepared with the help of professional educators like yourself, will further your students’ understanding of the body’s organ systems and how they work together, and the relationship between a healthy lifestyle and a healthy body. The material is designed for use with students between ages 8 and 14. Activity 1 includes space for a Body Heart strings Maintenance Plan for student selfassessment and for tracking information learned as students work on the various activity masters. Be sure to send copies of the letter on page 24 home with your students so they can share it, as well as their Body Maintenance Plans, with their parents, guardians or caregivers. The material is designed to be flexible. Please feel free to modify and duplicate the copyrighted materials to suit your students’ needs. And, please share these materials with other teachers in your school. I hope you and your students enjoy viewing The Human Body as much as we enjoyed making the film and bringing it to you! Sincerely,

D

Post-Viewing Teaching Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. It’s a Cell Call Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 s Activity 6. A World of Sense Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 s Activity 7. Tasty Aromas Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 s Activity 8. Bone Basics Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 s Activity 9. On the Other Hand Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 s Activity 10. The Living System Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 s Activity 11. My Personal Body
s Activity

Inventory and Health Profile
Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Activity Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
s Letter to Parents

Jana Bennett Executive-in-Charge Discovery Pictures

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 s Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
© 2001 DCI/BBC

About

“The film explores the complexities of the human body by investigating, in great detail, the functions the body performs routinely every day,” notes executive producer Jana Bennett. “We investigated and portrayed the human body in ways never seen before. This film brings images to the audience on a scale never before captured in the history of cinema.” To make The Human Body come alive took not only the marriage of the latest developments in medical imaging with cutting-edge cinematic techniques and cameras, but also a good measure of ingenuity as well. As a result, The Human Body is an incredible technological achievement for Discovery Pictures and the BBC. The film’s opening sequence—a close tracking shot over the body—is just one instance where Play at monitor-image of “ingenuity” played a major role. Luke's eye “You had to light the body with an enormous number of big film lamps to accomplish that [tracking shot over the body],” explains writerproducer Richard Dale. “The lights gave off tremendous heat and ultraviolet light, which could have been very damaging to the skin. The commercially available UV filters were not adequate to stop that much light, so our photographers developed little aquariums that could fit in front of the lamps. They had cold water, which is quite a good absorber of UV constantly running through them.” , Ultimately, The Human Body shows us more than a biological wonder at its best; the film also shares the emotions of life. From the joy of learning and the anxiety of puberty, to the potential wonder of pregnancy and birth, The Human Body tells us the amazing story of our own lives—through our own bodies. “Large format has traditionally climbed mountains and gone to the bottom of the ocean, but we have turned the camera on ourselves and looked to our own bodies as a place for exploration,” observes Dale. “Technology makes it possible to think about our lives differently and to suddenly realize how marvelous the human body is.” The Human Body is a presentation of The Learning Channel and BBC Worldwide of a Discovery Pictures / BBC co-production in association with the Maryland Science Center and the Science Museum, London with major funding provided by the National Science Foundation and distributed by nWave Pictures Distribution.
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hree years in the making, The Human Body reveals the incredible story of life. In astonishing detail, this large-format film presents a look at the biological processes that go on without our control and often without our notice. Throughout the film we follow a family from dawn to dusk as they go about their daily routines. But this is no ordinary story. This is the tale of what takes place beneath the skin—a tale that allows us to see the extraordinary accomplishments of our everyday lives. The everyday biological processes that keep us ticking are all in a day’s work for the human body Finding a . way to film and illustrate those activities for a screen seven stories tall required a cinematic inventiveness that was anything but routine. Co-produced by Discovery Pictures and the BBC, The Human Body incorporates ground-breaking computer graphics with stunning real-life images to create a day in the life of a human body. “This film is one of the most technically complex large-format films ever made,” states directorproducer Peter Georgi. “To get the subject matter on the large screen, we’ve pushed the boundaries, taken advantage of the most advanced scanning electron microscopes, the latest thermal imaging and highdefinition digital video cameras, the cutting edge in medical computer graphics…whatever we thought could provide the best possible images.” And provide images it does! The Human Body will provide a glimpse of: s the 100 billion new red blood cells the body generates each morning; s the 40 yards of new hair that sprouts every day; s a human egg nestling into the folds of a fallopian tube; s a thermal image of a child riding a bicycle; s a trip on a tomato from mouth to stomach; s babies able to hold their breath under water, and s the inside of an ear as cells actually dance to music.

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Review with students the words appearing in italics on the teaching strategies pages in this guide (the left-hand pages) and the activity masters (the right-hand pages). s Younger students could use fabric paint to draw “body shirts” showing major organs. by Philip Whitfield Obin (Turner Publishing. the team with the most points wins. Explain that these are just some of the things they will learn more about during the film and from the activities they will do after viewing the film. a computer as the brain. Reproduce and distribute the Letter to Parent/Guardian on page 24 for students to take home. avoiding smoking.. divide your students into “teams” of 3 to 5 students each. with the team that first responds correctly winning a point. Review with them the major body parts and their functions. 3. etc. they could link Digestion their parts together to form a machine that works like parts of the human body. Add-on Activities s Students might work in their original groups to identify and demonstrate a “mechanical body part”—something that performs the same function as the part they studied (i. First talk with your students about the importance of living a healthy lifestyle—proper diet and exercise. Each student should find at least 5 interesting facts about his or her team’s chosen body part. When all teams have asked their questions.Pre-Viewing Teaching Strategies 1.. Teams take turns quizzing other teams. Use the synopsis of The Human Body on page 1 to give students a brief summary of the film. 2. on white T-shirts. drugs and alcohol. then teams should combine facts into a master list and develop true/false and fill-in-the-blank questions based on them. You might want to share The Robot Zoo: A Mechanical Guide to the Way Animals Work. s Activity 1 Name That Part Pre-viewing Activity Student Objectives: To develop an understanding of where the various body parts are located in relation to one another and to consider what it takes to create—and maintain—a healthy body. tongue-in-cheek illustrations that transform 16 different creatures into complex machines. The book contains detailed. lungs take in oxygen (O 2) and expel carbon dioxide (C02) diaphragm muscle that helps us breathe in and out kidney helps filter waste from the blood brain the body’s “control center” liver secretes bile that helps digestion heart pumps blood through the body stomach breaks down the food that we eat large intestine removes the liquid and “leftovers” from digested food small intestine absorbs the nutrients from digested food Part B. To play Body Trivia. Have students research any needed information about the functions of body parts in preparation for the diagram matching activity below. You might want to have students add to their Body Maintenance Plan as the unit progresses and as they learn more about different aspects of their bodies. Materials: None Teaching Tips Part A. the circulatory system. a pump as the heart). etc. 2 © 2001 DCI/BBC .e. the skeletal system. 1994) with students. As a class.

and although we may live very different lives. build a class exhibit that shows how the body is put together. Then. Like any complex machine. Draw a line from the name of the part to its correct location. You’ll go inside a cell—the body’s basic building block. But first. (Your teacher will explain the rules. let’s find out what you already know! Part A. begin your own Body Maintenance Plan. As the “body mechanic. their teenage nephew Luke. 15. The human body below is like a car that is made up of different kinds of parts—together they make the body “hum” at top speed. (An example has been given. Each member of your team will do some research and develop a list of interesting facts about your part. 8. before we begin this journey. 3 . will take you on the most fantastic trip you’ve ever experienced—inside an actual human body. You’ll meet a family—parents-to-be Heather and Buster.)You can finish it on another page. combine your lists and try to stump your classmates in a game of Body Trivia. In the space below. The Human Body.” it’s your job to identify where those parts are located. your body needs proper care and maintenance to work well.he new large-format film. You’ll learn that regardless of the differences in how we look on the outside.) My team’s body part is: ______________________________ Use the back of this sheet for your list of interesting facts. we all share the same basic structure. In this film. Part B. T Name That ow you’re going to become a specialist! You Reproducible Master and your team will pick one of the body parts you’ve identified. You’ll see the many miracles we live through each day as—hidden from us and often unnoticed—our bodies are achieving incredible things. you will see how all of those parts you have work together as a remarkable interdependent system. My Body Maintenance Plan New Facts New Facts New Facts Diet N Part Activity 1 Eat 5 fruits and vegetables a day. and write on the line below each what that part does. lungs ____________________________ ____________________________ diaphragm ____________________________ ____________________________ kidney __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ brain ____________________ ____________________ ________________ ________________ liver _____________________ ____________________ ________ ______________________ _____________________ _____ heart ____________________________ ____________________________ stomach ____________________________ ____________________________ large intestine ____________________________ ____________________________ small intestine ____________________________ ____________________________ © 2001 DCI/BBC Exercise I will also do this: I won’t do this: Add-on Using your choice of building materials Activity (anything from toothpicks to bricks!). and his sister Zannah.

exchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen.html. Demonstrate for your students the correct ways to take a pulse—by placing their index and middle fingers together at the pulse point on the neck or wrists. A word of caution: Students’ physical abilities may vary widely. The symptoms of this condition—known as altitude sickness—include headaches.” NOVA Online. s Older students might check out the American Heart Association Web site (www.000 to 8. The average pulse rate for an adult (the rate they approximated in their tennis ball experiment) is about 72 beats per minute. The higher you go.) Tell your students that the average pulse rate for a young person can range from 90 to 120 Blood in vein beats per minute. which causes us to breathe faster in an effort to eliminate it. Materials: Tennis balls. Along with a shortage of oxygen. Part B. s Students might research and report on the pioneers of heart surgery and the technological advances that have occurred in this field.s Activity 2 Pumping Teaching Tips for Life Student Objectives: To learn about the respiratory system and how the heart works. via the arteries. They generally go away within a few days. and some may not be able to safely undertake even limited exercise. Blood carries the oxygen and nutrients through the left side of the heart and from there. for example). That means you take in less oxygen each time you breathe. have students discuss the results. as carbon dioxide and other waste products are returned to the blood. Another method is to use a metal thumb tack placed on the wrist with the pointed end up. s Students might interview someone they know who has asthma to learn what can trigger an asthma attack. The lungs release the carbon dioxide and waste products and pick up oxygen— repeating the cycle. and plan a week’s worth of hearthealthy meals. They could compare the early model to the one used today to see how similar or different they are. what it feels like to have an asthma attack and what doctors can do to help. Most people begin to notice the effects of higher altitudes at 7. after your body has adjusted. After doing the tennis ball experiment. toothpicks or tacks Part A. (To make it easier for your students to see and count their pulse. www. When you change altitudes too quickly your body isn’t able to adjust fast enough to the change in the air pressure. there is a simultaneous increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. which was invented almost 200 years ago. modeling clay. shortness of breath and nausea.000 feet Heart above sea level (at a ski resort in the Colorado Rockies or the Swiss Alps. Then talk with them about the effects of changes in altitude on how the respiratory system works. s Students can do some research to learn about the stethoscope.pbs. to all of the body’s cells. As a starting point. This blood flows through the body’s veins to the right side of the heart and from there to the lungs.americanheart. the “thinner” the air becomes and the less oxygen there is. 4 © 2001 DCI/BBC . students might want to review “Pioneers of Heart Surgery. Pre-viewing Activity Add-on Activities s Students might learn more about the diaphragm and investigate the causes and various “cures” for hiccups.org) to research heart-healthy nutrition. you might have them use a toothpick inserted into a small lump of clay and have them rest the clay on their wrist pulse point with the toothpick pointing up.org/wgbh/nova/heart/ pioneers. Anoxia (meaning “no oxygen”) is one of the most common problems mountain climbers face. All students should be monitored carefully during any kind of physical activity. Review with students the following background: The diaphragm—the muscle that separates the chest and the abdominal cavity—helps us to breathe in and out as it expands and contracts.

your doctor or another local health professional to learn about high blood pressure and how a healthy lifestyle can help to prevent or manage it. Part A. What is your resting pulse rate?__________________________ Now raise your arms over your head 10 times. What is your active pulse rate?________________________________________ Red blood cells N ow that you know how to take your pulse. Use the space below to keep a record of your pulse rate during various activities. The respiratory system causes oxygen to be inhaled into the body and removes waste such as carbon dioxide as air is exhaled. Put a tennis ball in your hand and squeeze it as hard and as quickly as you can. Your goal will be to compress it 70 times in one minute— that’s close to the number of times your heart contracts in one minute. which are part of the respiratory system. It works together with the lungs and diaphragm. it looks more like an upside-down pear. The average resting pulse rate for a young person ranges from 90 to 110 beats per minute. © 2001 DCI/BBC 5 . keep a log of the different activities you do for one full day and take your pulse at six different points during the day. Part B. Try this experiment. Use what Activity you learn to add to your Body Maintenance Plan. 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 Activity Add-on Interview the school nurse. the pulse rate slows to an average of 72 beats per minute. The heart is part of the circulatory system. As you get older.Activity he human heart really doesn’t look much like the heart on a Valentine’s Day card. 24 hours a day. you’ll see Luke’s heart and lungs working together to keep his body moving on the basketball court. The pulse you feel when you put your fingers on the pulse points in your neck or on your wrist is the blood being pumped through your body—kind of like water being pumped through a hose and a garden sprinkler. Pumping T for Life 2 How many times did you open and close your hand? __________________________________________________ What did your hand feel like at the end?__________________ Reproducible Master ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ What you just did for one minute. your heart does all day long! Imagine how strong your heart must be to pump constantly without stopping. Actually. make a bar graph of the changes in your pulse rate as you went through the day. In the film The Human Body. Your pulse rate changes as you become more active and your heart beats harder to increase the flow of oxygen throughout the body. In bed on awakening____________ Brushing your teeth ________________Walking ________________________________ Playing sports__________________ After eating________________________ Just before going to sleep______________________ Other ________________________ __________________________________ ____________________________________________ Now. Some examples are listed.

pressure. Although the two sides of the brain share many functions. That idea was introduced 200 years ago by an Austrian doctor named Franz Joseph Gall. 6 © 2001 DCI/BBC .] Now review this information with students before they do the lobe quiz: The biggest part of your brain is divided into two equal parts—the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. touch. the left eye is dominant. or why we need sleep. 4. B] Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Part B. students might pick one disease or condition that affects the brain. they also have unique specialties. [Answer key to the brain matching quiz: 1. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes. With both eyes open. A rightbrain-dominant person tends to be creative and holistic in thought. Check out the site at http://faculty. they should close the left eye—if everything is still lined up. 4. The two hemispheres work together and share information through a thick band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Brain Structure. Scientists today are learning more about brain dominance. 3. who also believed he could diagnose what was happening in the brain by “reading” the different bumps on the head. which divides them. A. Students can determine dominance according to which ear heard the phrase more clearly. D. Left-braindominant people are good at logic and word problems and generally not so good at creative. A left-braindominant person is analytical. treatments available. [Answer key to the lobe function quiz: 2–vision. To determine which ear is dominant.or left-brained. nonlinear thought. Explain to your students that the right side of the brain controls the muscles on the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body. [Answer key to the brain dominance quiz: Students who answered “true” for questions 1. Pre-viewing students should cut a one-inch circle in a sheet of Activity paper and hold it about one foot in front of their eyes. For example. each responsible for certain functions and senses.html for more information. symptoms. and how the disease might affect other body parts. The right side controls spatial ability and intuitive thought. we know a great deal about how the brain works.washington. affects. . memory. Be sure to stress to students that. Since many people exhibit some of both tendencies. 2. how we understand language.s Activity 3 Be a Brain Student Objectives: To identify the major parts of the brain and their functions and to learn about brain preference. we know that different parts of the brain control different abilities and functions—but that wasn’t always the case. inside the skull and see the brain as it works. s Working in small groups. E. while they may tend to be right. Provide this background: Today. they should focus on a distant object and hold the index finger in line with the center of the hole and the distant object. Students who answered “true” for questions 3. then cup the right ear and listen as you whisper from the same location. they should close the right eye—if everything is still lined up. students should cup the left ear and listen as you whisper a phrase. the right eye is dominant. today we know that Gall’s theory has no true scientific basis. 7 and 8 tend to be rightbrained. First. they need to develop both their analytical and creative sides to be a well-rounded individual. 4–pain. 5 and 6 tend to be left-brained. 5. quickly became very popular.edu/chudler/neurok. 3–hearing. Materials: None Teaching Tips Part A. Brain Dominance. C. Then. Gall’s theory phrenology. Right-brain-dominant people tend to see the whole picture but may miss the details. With the help of today’s technology we can actually look . student scores could be inconclusive. Each group could prepare a class report on the disease’s causes. To determine which eye is dominant. the left side controls verbal language and analytical ability. sensation of temperature] Frontal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Parietal Lobe Add-on Activities s Students can research why we yawn or laugh. verbal and logical. 2. However. They may need help with expressive language and logic.

To do so. Don’t tell my teacher. In a debate. E. I need music to get my brain in gear because silence is too “quiet. When I’m studying for a test. There are several ways to test which side of your body is dominant. The first one has been done for you. I’d rather think of a theme for a party than actually plan one. Each part of your brain has a very distinct and important role to play. Parietal Lobe—Ouch! That’s hot and it hurts! This controls: ____________________________________________________ © 2001 DCI/BBC 3. I usually can tell what people are thinking. This controls: planning. but those hormones it makes are sure a big deal. but I do better on multiple-choice tests than writing essays. When I lose something. Frontal Lobe—You need this to make things happen and to react to them when they do. 8. ˜ 4.Activity Be Y a Brain 3 our brain is faster and more powerful than the most powerful computer you’ve ever seen. problem-solving. I try to “see” where I was when I lost it. Cerebellum 2.” ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ 5. ˜ 6. Occipital Lobe—It may be 20/20 or 20/200. label the parts in the drawing. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Now see if you can fill in the correct functions of the lobes from the clues provided below. movement.__ Are you too cold? Too hot? Should you shiver or sweat? This “body thermometer” will let you know what to do! B. True False 1. Cerebrum Reproducible Master Part B. 1. it starts in this part of the brain. If I get lost.__ This connects the brain and the spinal cord so you won’t lose your mind! D. emotions. ˜ ˜ ˜ Remember that—even though some things may be easier for you depending on which side of the brain you favor—you couldn’t function as a “whole person” without both sides! Add-on What if your brain were a computer? Activity Do some research to construct a display that shows the parts of the brain that correspond to functions of the computer. This controls: ____________________________________________________ 4. it controls everything your body does. Hypothalamus 5. it uses nearly a fifth of all the calories you eat or drink—more than any other part of your body! Part A. Then. 2. C.__ If you think it or say it. This controls: ____________________________________________________ 3. Brain Stem 3. Temporal Lobe—Listen and you’ll remember. See how much you already know by matching the name of the part to its description below. Pituitary Gland 4. 1. it’s hard for me to accept the side of the issue I don’t agree with. speech. I like to do my homework right away instead of waiting until it’s almost due. Try the exercises suggested by your teacher to see how you measure up: Which hand do you normally write with? ________ Which foot do you use to kick a ball? ___________ Which eye is dominant? ________Which ear did you use to hear better? ___________ Have you ever heard someone say they are rightbrained or left-brained? What do you think that means? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Test yourself to see which side of your brain you would tend to use by answering true or false to these questions. As you learn in The Human Body.__ It may be tiny. 7. 7 .__ Got rhythm? You’ve got this! A. 2. I’d rather have a map than a list of directions.

then have them label the parts on the drawing: The brain only weighs three or four pounds—about the weight of an average textbook—but it is the most complex object in the world.washington. s Students might do some research to learn about the “natural high” exercise can induce because of the body’s release into the brain of endorphins. neurons also have dendrites and axons.html. You can find directions for this activity at http://faculty.html. In preparation for the activity. process and relay all the specialized information needed to go about your daily life. Materials: None Teaching Tips First. But unlike other cells. they all have a cell body with a nucleus that contains the cell’s genes. The axon of one neuron is connected to the dendrites of the next neuron by a synaptic terminal. But it isn’t the number of neurons alone that makes this complex system work—it’s the way they are organized and connected. Each time the students view the box.s Activity 4 The Brain Team Pre-viewing Activity Student Objectives: To consider how learning happens and to encourage students to consider how they learn best. You can find additional information on this topic at http://faculty. Profile of a neuron nucleus cytoplasm Add-on Activities s Students might research the axon synaptic terminal There are many different kinds of neurons.edu/ chudler/chmodel. Part B. Neurons receive.washington. Set a time for three subsequent viewings to test students’ recall—the first time at the end of the same class. 8 damage that can be done to the brain and various other organs— such as the liver. s Students might create their own Brain cell dying neuron models using pipe cleaners or some other material of their choice. the second time at either the beginning or end of class the following day. Like other cells. put 12 small objects in a box on your desk. which then are broken down to create a short-lived feeling of euphoria. The nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm—a liquid that contains all the materials the neuron needs to function. © 2001 DCI/BBC . they should write their new list on a new sheet of paper without referring to previous lists (have them keep their lists for later comparison). and the third time two days later. Dendrites are like an antenna system that receives signals from other neurons. Lead a class discussion about learning styles (see activity sheet) and preferences before your students complete the learning preference survey.edu/chudler/neurok. provide your students with this background information about the brain. but they all have some things in common. Structure of a neuron dendrites Part A. An axon is the channel that sends signals from one neuron to another. kidneys or lungs— by smoking cigarettes or using alcohol or illegal substances to achieve a chemical high.

© 2001 DCI/BBC Add-on Work in groups to create other exercises that Activity demonstrate how repetition increases memory. Learning Style Visual (if you read about it in a manual) Auditory (if you listened to a lecture about it) Kinesthetic (if you performed tasks using it) How I Learned Them Things I Learned dendrites Part B. We’ve given you one example to help you get started. In the nervous system these cells are called neurons. How many items did you list? ________ Look at the objects again at the end of class. Try this exercise to see what happens as your neurons go to work. Then take a new sheet of paper and make a new list. Some people (auditory learners) learn best by hearing about things. The more links the neurons in your brain create. And some people (kinesthetic learners) learn best by actually doing things. The more you practice what you have learned. the better your memory becomes. How many objects are on your list? ________ Look at the objects the following day and make another new list. and they connect to other neurons through branch-like structures called dendrites. Every time you learn something new—a new word. the stronger these connections (dendrites) become. 9 . describe how you learned each. your brain eventually will form trillions of connections—that’s more connections than there are stars in the entire universe! Review with your teacher these terms about neurons: s Cytoplasm—a liquid that surrounds the cell nucleus s Axon—a channel that allows signals to pass between neurons s Synaptic terminal—allows the axon of one neuron to connect to the dendrites of another See if you can label the parts of a neuron on the drawing below. how to ride a bike or play the flute—your neurons develop new connections to other neurons. Look at the objects your teacher has placed in the box. T 4 Reproducible Master In the space below. How many objects did you list? ________ nucleus cytoplasm axon synaptic terminal Part A. And the connections you form at this time in your life are the most important ones because they become the platforms you will build on to make even more complex connections later on. Next to the item. list 10 things you have learned in your classes during the last two days. Have you ever stopped to think about how you learn? Some people (visual learners) learn best by looking at things. or reading about them. They are specialized to carry “messages” to the brain. Brain cell Then return to your seat and list as many of them as you can on the back of this paper. In fact. Then create graphs that illustrate what the exercises demonstrate. How many objects are on your list? ________ Now look at them one final time.The Brain Team Example A new computer program Activity he body is made up of billions of cells.

Add-on Activities s Many people have concerns about the possibility of manipulating Egg 1 –Corn Syrup Egg 2–Distilled Water DNA as a way to genetically engineer humans. unbreakable containers. Gauge how much your students already know about genetics and how much background information they will need. After soaking. Caution your students to handle the eggs carefully and to keep a tray underneath them to contain spills. Each person’s DNA is unique to him or herself.) Information on building DNA models can be found here: http://biology. Older students might develop position papers on genetic engineering or hold a debate on the ethics and/or possible consequences of such practices. 3. the liquid inside the egg passes through the membrane into the solution and the egg looks like a flabby bag. because the strands twist to the right. For example.htm. rather firm and easily broken. Everyone’s DNA has the same basic chemical structure. s Students might research news articles about the use of DNA to solve crimes to learn the arguments for and against this technology. and the egg becomes larger and firmer. Alternating deoxyribose sugar and Red blood cells phosphate molecules link together to form something like the side supports on a ladder. should there be limits on how and where it is collected. the water tries to reach equilibrium by passing through the membrane into the egg. in the process called osmosis. students also should wear eyeprotection glasses. but the way its components are arranged differs from person to person. have identical DNA. however. Materials: Uncooked eggs. Note: Have students wear inexpensive plastic food-handling gloves so they do not touch the raw eggs directly. When the egg is soaked in a solution in which the concentration of water is lower than that inside the egg (corn syrup). vinegar. Refer to Resources on page 24 for additional information and ideas. Because vinegar is an acid. or how it is used? 10 © 2001 DCI/BBC . s Activity 5 It’s a Cell Call Post-viewing Activity Student Objectives: To learn how cells function and to understand the structure of DNA. Tell students that water is one substance that can permeate the egg’s membrane. a phosphate group and one of four nitrogen bases: adenine (A). 2. thymine (T). Adenine is always paired with thymine and guanine is always paired with cytosine. Complementary pairs of nitrogen bases form the rungs of the ladder. until the shell dissolves completely. You might discuss Gregor Mendel’s research with dominant and recessive genes in pea plants and explain that researchers have known about DNA since Mendel’s time. guanine (G) and cytosine (C). DNA is composed of building blocks called nucleotides. plastic food-handling gloves. Nucleotides are made up of deoxyribose sugar. Results of Experiment Part B. the eggs will be very swollen. Have your students work in groups of 3-4 students each for this activity.about. then develop their own positions on this issue. (golden) corn syrup. but it wasn’t until 1953 that two English scientists—James Watson and Francis Crick—discovered how DNA is actually put together. although their fingerprints are different.com/science/biology/library/ howto/htcandydna. encouraging them to share their impressions of both its content and the impact of the large-screen format on the presentation of the content. distilled water. The technical term for the DNA ladder (see diagram on activity sheet) is a right-handed double helix. When an egg is soaked in a solution where the concentration of water outside the egg is higher (distilled water). (Identical twins.Post-Viewing Teaching Strategies 1. Each group should deshell two uncooked eggs by soaking them in household vinegar for a day or two. Ask students if what they think and know about having a healthy lifestyle has changed since viewing the film. safety glasses Teaching Tips Part A. Lead students in a discussion of the film.

s Human Genome Project: A project that identified every gene present in human DNA. It looks something like this: C T C A C A G C G T A C C G A G T G T C G C A T G G Names and Words to Know s Adenine. Describe the egg at the beginning of the experiment. but they play a big role in the human body! In fact. eyes. The DNA strands join together as follows: A on one strand will always pair with T on the other. A double helix looks something like a twisted ladder. and cytosine (C). in The Human Body. took out the DNA. Every person’s DNA is unique. Just like other living things. Why do you think each egg changed the way it did? Activity 5 Reproducible Master Part A. It’s a Cell Call Use the chart below to record what happens to your eggs during a 24-hour period. thymine (T). s DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The genetic material that is contained in every cell in the human body. and G will always pair with C. and gently stretched it out. that are found in DNA. cytosine: The chemicals. Cover egg 2 with distilled water. or nitrogen bases. Healthy cells are essential for a healthy body. but they’re everywhere. Inside the nucleus we will find DNA. and genes are responsible for how similar you look to your parents in some ways or like your grandparents in others and even like your brothers and sisters. guanine (G). Cover egg 1 with corn syrup.Y ou can’t see them. Scientists call that a double helix. and so on. The membrane on your de-shelled eggs is very similar to the membrane that surrounds a human cell. skin type. © 2001 DCI/BBC Add-on learn about the Human Activity Genome Project. starting with the nucleus. named adenine (A). we would find that it is shaped like a spiral. DNA is the reason you look the way you do—your hair. There are two strands of DNA wound around and attached to each other by units called bases. In fact. skin color. Do an Internet search to The bases form the ladder. An entire world exists inside the cell: s power houses to create energy s places to store energy s places where energy is used s a place where things (like proteins) are made s a place where our physical characteristics are stored (genes) s a place where all of these processes are controlled (the nucleus) Let’s build a model to help explain what is going on. Cells may be tiny. we see the cells of the mother’s unborn baby grow and change. s Mendel: The Augustinian monk whose work formed the foundation for the science of genetics. s Double helix: The structure of DNA. Follow your teacher’s progress it has made and why it is so important. Part B. instructions to make your own DNA strand. and has a language and structure all its own. DNA is found in genes. thymine. s Watson & Crick: The English scientists who discovered how DNA is put together. cells need to take in oxygen and nutrients and get rid of waste products. height. guanine. the 11 . Egg 1 (corn syrup) Egg 2 (distilled water) Describe the egg at the end of the experiment. What’s really amazing is that it allows in and out only the things it’s supposed to! Be sure to handle the de-shelled eggs carefully (the membrane can tear easily). If we opened up a gene. every single living thing on this planet is made up of them. and the sugar-phosphate molecules form the outside spiral form. The cell is the smallest living unit in our bodies. except for that of identical twins. The strands are made up of a sugar (deoxyribose) and a phosphate molecule. Every human cell is surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what the cell takes in and what it lets out.

The brain has to flip the image over so it’s the right way up and makes sense. Here are some Web sites that contain additional examples of optical illusions: http://www. where they strike the eardrum. Finally.html.washington. Part A. Students should be able to detect the direction of the sound with their ears uncovered. the area on the retina that has no receptors. and how the ear controls balance. The optic nerve in the back of the eye sends what the eye sees to the brain.) Have students Ear cochlea describe the sounds the bands made and rate their comparative pitch (highness or lowness of the sound). and listen to the sound. When the light passes through the eye’s lens and the image hits the retina. Now have students pluck one rubber band. The vibrating fork sets up little waves in the water. Therefore.exploratorium.justriddlesandmore. s Students might work in teams to research and report back to class the causes of earaches and ear wax. It will be more difficult to determine the direction when the sound is muffled by the earmuffs. causing them to have a higher pitch. Putting the cardboard tube over one ear causes the sound to travel a greater distance to reach that ear. For directions on how to conduct this activity. go to http://www. (Be sure that they protect their eyes in case the band snaps. empty shoe boxes or other similar containers. Teaching Tips Talk with your students about the different parts of the eye and how they work together. The eardrum begins to vibrate. s Students can try this experiment to experience the direction of sound: One student stands at arm’s length behind a blindfolded classmate and snaps his or her fingers in various directions.s Activity 6 A of World Sense Student Objectives: To consider how the eye and ear work and to learn about visual perspective and sound waves. They will see that the thinner rubber bands vibrate faster than the thick ones.com/illusion.edu/chudler/chvision. visit http://faculty. You might want to have your students make a pinhole camera (camera obscura)—showing what an image looks like when it reaches the retina of the eye—then sketch the images they see through it. immediately touch it with their finger.kodak. and the vibrations pass through three tiny bones—the hammer. various sizes and widths of rubber bands Part B.shtml. with the blindfold still in place. The blindfolded student points in the direction the sound is coming from. s Students might work in teams to prepare presentations about vision— beginning with the eye patterns of a newborn who is learning how to see. Next. how cold germs can be spread to the ear. Tuning-fork experiment: Strike a tuning fork so the students can hear the sound. in the order of thickness. have students take turns dipping the tuning fork in a broad plastic dish or bowl or other unbreakable container of water. Materials: Tuning The human eye fork. Explain that the sound was caused by vibrations. then pluck each one with their finger. The sound waves Activity travel through the outer ear canal to the middle ear. For information about making an actual pinhole camera that can take pictures. the student removes the earmuffs and places a cardboard tube from a roll of paper towels over one ear before the finger-snapping exercise is repeated.aoanet.com/global/ en/consumer/education/lessonPlans/ pinholeCamera/pinholeCanBox. go to http://www. just as it sets up waves of molecules in the air. the image that travels through the optic nerve to the brain also is upside down. the vibrations stop and the sound stops. There they enter a small curled tube known as the cochlea. Talk with your students about the three different parts of the ear. For directions on how to make a very simple pinhole viewer. the experiment is repeated with the blindfolded student wearing a pair of earmuffs.html. Rubber-band experiment: Have students stretch several different widths of rubber bands over an empty box. the anvil and the stirrup— which transfer the vibrations to the inner ear.org/jfk-optical-illusions. the image is upside down. so the student will perceive the sound as coming from the opposite direction. where they are turned into nerve signals that allow the brain to understand the sound. Explain that the outer ear is the part you Post-viewing can see.html Add-on Activities s Students could do a simple experiment that allows them to “find” their blind spot. When they touch the vibrating rubber bands. © 2001 DCI/BBC 12 . It collects the sound waves. Then. broad plastic bowl or other unbreakable container. edu/IFI/activities/pinholeinquiry/viewer.html http://www.

Part A. anvil and stirrup Part B. and how it can fool you— because seeing isn’t as simple as it looks. the anvil and the stirrup. This is because of perspective— the way two objects appear in relation to each other. Your ears contain the three tiniest and most delicate bones in your entire body They’re located . Without your © 2001 DCI/BBC Add-on Look at this illustration at right. your brain wouldn’t have anything to interpret and you wouldn’t be able to hear or dance to music! Next time you’re enjoying your favorite CD. If your eyeball is too long or your cornea is too curved. Their job is to transfer sound vibrations that reach your outer ear into your inner ear. you’re wrong! Actually. Your eyes may fool you. Sound is produced by vibration. Your Ears. (Measure them with a ruler to make sure. When you first open your eyes. the sides of the road seem to come together in the distance. they allow you to see a friend’s face or hear your favorite music. your brain makes you see things that aren’t really there. If your eyeball is too short or your cornea isn’t curved enough. Your cornea focuses light. and the iris controls just how much light passes through the pupil. Your ears are in charge of collecting sounds and turning them into nerve signals that your brain interprets for you.Activity A World of Sense 6 Reproducible Master he eyes may be the windows to your soul. Which flower has the bigger center? T ears. you may have experienced a ringing in your ears afterward.) You can fool your brain into thinking that an object is bigger or smaller by placing it next to objects of different sizes. Sometimes. beneath them. both centers are the same size. Your Eyes. They are part of a built-in amplifying system that’s better than anything you can find in your local electronics store. Your ears are sensitive to sound and can be easily—and permanently—damaged if you expose them to loud noises like this without protection. if you look down a long straight roadway. For example. setting up sound waves. follow your teacher’s instructions as you experiment with a tuning fork. This means you can see distant objects clearly but things that are close are blurry. Try this optical illusion. but you can’t fool your ears—if you damage them when you are young. Let’s learn how your eye works. to see what a sound wave looks like and why some sounds are high and some low. Research the harmful effects of loud sounds and where you might find them in your everyday life. Now.” Do you feel the vibrations? Vibrations that come from the sources of sound cause air molecules to move. and they’re called the hammer. you will be nearsighted (objects that are close to you are clear but those in the distance are blurry). a bowl of water. If you picked the flower on the left. a fresh layer is revealed—new sensors with which you’ll see the new day. Together. Activity What do you think you see? Take a class poll on the results. your top layer of sense cells is actually scorched away by the bright light. but it takes both your eyes and ears for you to sense your world each day. your hearing will get worse as you get older. take a moment to thank those hairs in your ears. If you’ve ever been to a very loud rock concert. Try this: Feel your throat as you place your fingers lightly on it and say. which contains a layer of lightsensitive cells. 13 . right behind your eardrum. But. “My name is _______. and some rubber bands. The lens helps focus this light on the retina. you will be farsighted. happily. Hammer.

s Heat and climate affect the diffusion of gas molecules that cause odors. mouthwash. Students could do some research water between each test. odorants such as cinnamon. onions. small containers such as empty film canisters.) Teaching Tips Part A. Put of food out of magazines and organizing them according to several crushed jelly beans in each of the “smell” bags. #2 taste. Each papillae contains between 1 and 15 taste buds.” that illustrate the results of the smell test. They also may want to nibble a piece of bread in between the taste tests. what we know same flavor jelly beans are placed in the bags with the same about taste changes as researchers make new discoveries (for number (i. Each of the taste buds is made up of a cluster of between 80 and 100 cells. rosemary. toothpicks. and the “taste centers” on the tongue. they should lightly touch different parts of the tongue and record what they taste on their chart. and categorizing them by type (sweet. grape and cherry mini-jelly beans. Be sure to have students use a clean toothpick each time they dip and take a drink of water each time they change taste categories.). This taste occurs when foods that contain Students should close their eyes. work in groups. #3 smell. Have students dip clean toothpicks into each solution. remainder of the jelly beans in the “taste” bags. example. lemon. Note: Be The nose identifying as many different kinds of odors as sure to ask about allergies before having your they can. and (4) tonic Activity water or onion juice (bitter). Then. grape and cherry mini-jelly beans. chocolate. have them s Students might construct a model of repeat the taste test. Discuss the findings as a class. the relationship between taste and smell. have students close their eyes and sniff each of the “smell” is used predominantly in certain cuisines.). vanilla extract. Keep a log of what is in each container. and why odors are scoops of lemon. but this time without holding their noses. small cups of water. based on student findings in researching the USDA food pyramid Students should pick up each container and sniff recommendations. lemon juice. (This experiment also could be done as a take-home activity. bags. water Part B. What odors were most easily identified? Most s As people age their sense of smell gets difficult to identify? How many students identified worse. the little bumps they can feel on their tongue. #1 bags contain the lemon jelly beans. hold their noses and chew a glutamate—like the MSG used in much Oriental food—are jelly bean from each taste bag. Add-on Activities s Lead a discussion on eating disorders and poor nutrition. sugar. it. etc.) Label the bags: s Younger students might create taste charts by cutting pictures #1 taste. ginger. recording their findings on the chart. including receptor cells that are attached to nerves. Be sure that the s Just as in other areas of biological science. students participate in this activity. in this unit after they have been used in classroom testing. etc). etc. etc. Students might conduct “smell tests” to all the odors? How many were able to match all identify differences in the ability to smell four odors and identify the two that did not have a among family members. (2) lemon Post-viewing juice (sour). girls? You might ask your students to create graphs s Students might create their own “odor charts.e. sour. Put some of two additional odorants in one container each. #3 taste. older neighbors and pair? How well did the boys do compared to the friends. the digestive system. garlic. Discard all foods assembled minty. Explain to your students that their taste buds are located on the papillae. (3) salty water (salty). use one set of bags per group. Part B—small glass containers.s Activity 7 Tasty Aromas Student Objectives: To learn about the sense of smell. Containers should be numbered from 1 to 10. Finally. The materials to be smelled (see list above) should be placed in containers that students can’t see through (35mm film canisters with holes in the lids or clear containers that have been covered with tape. to learn more about glutamate and why it Next. Put the taste categories. Prepare small glasses that contain solutions of (1) sugary water (sweet). Different receptors are sensitive to different tastes. salt. #2 smell. Materials: Part A—small paper bags. Tell them to take a small sip of eaten). researchers recently discovered a fifth basic taste called Umami. 14 © 2001 DCI/BBC . (If students so readily associated with tropical climates. #1 smell.. orange peel. then record the tastes on the chart. tonic water or onion juice. Students could research why odors are different in Smell-taste activity: You will need six small paper bags and intensity in the summer than in the winter. Select four odorants and put some of each in two different containers.

All tastes come from different Activity combinations of four basic tastes: sweet. or “1” if it is weak. using a different color for each type of taste and shading to show how strong the tastes are in each area. is one thing. What happens next is not quite as tidy. of course! Everything you need to smell with is inside your nose. Hold the container in front of your face and waft your hand over it toward your nose to get the best whiff. Although the average person can identify between 3. Record your findings below as “3” if it is a strong taste. When you have a bad cold.hat do the aroma of pizza when you enter the school cafeteria and the stench of sweaty socks in the locker room have in common? It’s your nose. There. odor molecules in the air enter through your nostrils. pass into the nasal cavity. sour. your muscles squeeze it down your esophagus and into your stomach. salty and bitter. chemicals in your saliva begin to break down the pizza as your tongue pushes it to the back of your throat. Like squeezing a tube of toothpaste. which is a kind of drying chamber. and then go to the olfactory bulb. It alerts you to those socks and tempts you with that aroma— then it even helps you enjoy the taste of the pizza! W Tasty Aromas As you breathe in. Some people have a better sense of smell than others. which move into the small intestine. Different taste buds interpret these tastes. All that’s left now is the stuff you don’t need. Part A. Where can you improve your diet? Which containers are not the same? Identify them below: # ____ is ___________________________________ and # ____ is ____________________________________. The nerve cells send signals to the brain. does everything “taste the same”? That’s because you’ve lost the ability to smell what you’re eating! Use the chart below to record the results of a test that will show you how important that smell/taste partnership is. After your molars grind it up. The final stage of your pizza’s journey takes place in the large intestine. The mushy stuff that used to look like pizza is mixed with acid and digestive chemicals until it is broken down into tiny bits. Which containers are the same? Identify them on the third line below each pair: # ____ # ____ # ____ # ____ _______________________ # ____ # ____ _______________________ ________________________ # ____ # ____ ________________________ Part B. use the information above to draw a “taste map” of your tongue. as we see in The Human Body. “2” if it is neither strong nor weak. 7 Part of Tongue Tip Middle Left side Right side Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Now.000 different odors. That’s where some serious action takes place. How does your taste map compare with those of your classmates? Add-on Everything our body does for us takes fuel. Biting into that great-tasting pizza is the first step on an amazing journey through your digestive system.000 and 10. The liquid is removed from the leftovers and absorbed back into the body. chemicals and liquids continue the process. That’s where special nerve cells (receptors) determine just what the odor is. which lets you know what you’re smelling. Getting the food to fuel our bodies into our Activity mouths. Follow your teacher’s directions to find the Reproducible Master different “taste centers” on your tongue. Follow your teacher’s directions to identify the odorants in the containers prepared for you. Use resources to check out the USDA’s food pyramid and compare what you usually eat with what it recommends. some people who have a condition called anosmia have no sense of smell at all. Smell Only Taste Only Smell & Taste Bag 1 Bag 2 Bag 3 © 2001 DCI/BBC 15 . until all the nutrients are absorbed. And you know what happens to it! Your body’s “team” approach to this process should make it a little easier to understand the problems that can occur when you don’t get enough to eat or eat the wrong kind of food.

s Students might explore how the shapes of different bones relate to the amount of force they must withstand. Materials: None Add-on Activities Post-viewing s Just as good nutrition is important to good health. helmets for riding scooters. you might want to provide them with a few examples. Why are high heels so bad for the female foot? s Students can make a “rubber bone” by soaking a chicken bone in vinegar for several days. s Students might do observational research to see how different types of shoes affect posture and balance. they might experiment with a ball of modeling clay and four X-ray of a skeleton coffee-stirrer straws placed vertically to see how the head sits on the little vertebrae in the neck. Students might investigate environmental hazards such as smoking and discuss solutions to deal with them. too—even that of unborn babies. many swivel desk lamps have ball-and-socket joints. knee and elbow pads for inline skating. Can students think of how this technology might be medically useful? Teaching Tips Part A. leaving the bone thinner and vulnerable to breaking.) Part B.200 mg daily. The spine is what allows us to stand upright and to be flexible—to twist and turn and bend. Students might relate best to the example of a computer joystick. and skateboarding. while people over 50 should have 1. the technology that showed Luke’s image in the film (for example. To extend the discussion. s Students might do research to see how the skeletal systems of other animals are designed to provide different kinds of mobility.com/homepage/ bio/rubbone. If students are having difficulty finding examples of hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints. the National Academy of Sciences recommends that adults under age 50 should have 1. it dissolves the calcium. This activity provides an excellent introduction to a discussion of sports safety in general.s Activity 8 Bone Basics Student Objectives: To learn about bones—how to build healthy bones and how to protect our bones. too. Moving joints allow for flexibility. Examples of protective equipment used in sports include: bicycle helmets. you might want to have students plan a week’s worth of lunches that are well balanced and supply significant amounts of calcium. s Have students investigate Hand bones other uses for thermal imaging. batting helmets for baseball and softball. Because vinegar is an acid. The spine also provides protection for the spinal cord—the group of nerves that helps to send information from the brain to other parts of the body.html. Activity environmental factors can affect our health. Use the activity about calcium in food as the basis for a discussion about good nutrition. For example. s Students might explore the amazing “engineering” that allows the spine to support the human body. fire fighters can locate victims overcome by smoke who have hidden in a burning house by pointing a thermal imaging camera at the house). For example. much as it would be if it were diseased from osteoporosis due to a loss of calcium. Explain that the body’s need for calcium changes with age. Refer to www. 16 © 2001 DCI/BBC . (Hinge joints could include the hinges on a door or a lift-top desk.000 mg of calcium daily.flinnsci. Provide this background information for students: The spine (also known as the spinal column or backbone) is a collection of 33 bones known as vertebrae that are stacked up and held together by connective tissues called ligaments.

don’t you think!) 8 Reproducible Master What would Luke look like if all you saw were his bones? Skeletons or fossils in a museum are dry and brittle. a disease that causes bones to fracture easily. tennis. but Luke’s bones. running. So. What are some other good food sources of calcium? List them below and add them to your Body Maintenance Plan. while many joints move. One kind of moving joint. your body will actually steal it from your bones. however—it’s also important to eat a diet rich in calcium. more specifically. (He’s a pretty colorful guy. because the round end of one bone fits into a cuplike area on another bone. Living bones contain marrow. allow you to move and protect your internal organs. Hinge Joints Ball-and-Socket Joints Part B. Your elbows contain hinge joints. some—like those in your skull—are fixed. You need more than equipment to protect your bones. Add-on Build a model spine by stringing Activity spools or other circular objects © 2001 DCI/BBC 17 . wear equipment to protect their bones. If you don’t get enough. like those in your body. Your risk of developing osteoporosis depends in large part on how much bone mass you attain between the ages of 25 and 35. Thermal imagers are instruments that create pictures of heat. you could be at risk for osteoporosis. it’s the thermal image of Luke. Another kind is called a balland-socket joint. are very much alive. Compare what you ate to the calcium sources you listed above. etc. The place where two bones meet is called a joint. allows the bones to bend and straighten. too. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Move It or Lose It! Weight-bearing exercise done on your feet— walking. we see Luke pedaling his bike—or. And. Ball-and-socket joints allow the bones to swivel and turn in all directions. They’re growing and changing just like other parts of your body. skiing. such as hockey and football players. How many examples of hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints can you find in things you might encounter every day? Make your lists in the space below. we’re looking at the heat Luke’s body is generating. Did you eat any foods yesterday that had calcium in them? Did you exercise? Fill in the information below. Bone mass is determined by: s your genes (the bone strength you inherit from your parents) s the amount of calcium in your diet s the amount of exercise you get Dairy products such as milk. how long did it take to heal? Professional athletes.—also can help to build strong bones as well as muscles. the soft tissue that manufactures red and white blood cells and produces nutrients vital to your body. Calcium is a mineral that helps bones harden and become strong. And if you don’t have enough calcium. Do you need to improve in any areas? Yesterday I ate: ________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Yesterday I did this exercise: ____________________________ Here’s where I could improve my diet and exercise plan: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ together to represent the different vertebrae. surrounded by thermal images of people walking thermal images of pets. Part A. Your hips have ball-and-socket joints. If you have ever broken a bone. cheese and yogurt are high in calcium.Activity Bone Basics I n The Human Body. What are other examples of protective equipment in sports? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Calcium Clues. People who build things use joints. The 206 bones in your body hold you up. a hinge joint.

Provide students with this background: Fingerprints are ridges on our skin that make it easier for Post-viewing us to hold onto things. Have students work in pairs. his or her partner will carefully “lift” the fingerprint onto a piece of transparent tape and attach the tape to a blank The hand index card. What other purposes can fingerprinting serve (for example. Just as everyone’s DNA is different. loops and whorls—by the size of the patterns. and try to pick out the paper clips.) Note: As a safeguard of their identity. Activity no two people have the same fingerprints. s Ask if students have footprints from their birth in the hospital. Add several small paper clips and mix well. small paper clips. Students should close their eyes. or invite someone from the local Braille association to speak to the class about Braille. when the British journal Nature published letters by Henry Faulds and William James Herschel that described the uniqueness of fingerprints. Fingerprints can be classified by patterns— arches. and have students place their cards on the appropriate desk. The second print should be placed next to the first print.. Teaching Tips Part A. Paper clip/bag activity: Partially fill the bags (enough so that each small group of students has one bag) with rice. sand Part B. Which is the most common pattern? (Use a magnifying glass if needed to see better. sugar. and even let students experience touching the letters in the Braille alphabet. identification of missing children)? s Students might do some research to find out how hands sweat and what triggers that response. have students destroy the fingerprints after they have created them. Each student should take a #2 pencil and make an “ink pad” by coating a small area (about 1 inch square) of the card with pencil lead. Have students do research to learn more about fingerprint classification as a crime-solving technique. and by the position of the patterns on the finger. Materials: Small paper bags. Designate one desk for loops. Add-on Activities s Modern fingerprint identification techniques date from 1880. Students should label each print (e. rice. After the student rolls one finger over the pencil lead. unpopped popcorn. Each student should then take an impression of the pad of their index finger and pinky finger of the hand they write with. Identification activity: Coat the index cards with glue and cover each card with one of the materials. Have students ever used their hands to feel their way down a dark hall? To pick an object from a drawer without looking? Have they ever noticed the Braille “bumps” next to the buttons in an elevator? You also might include a discussion of Braille. Even identical twins have different fingerprints. You can use this activity as a springboard to a discussion of the role of the hand as a sensory organ.g. Place each coated card in a numbered bag. They could call the hospital to ask why Arch fingerprints aren’t taken instead. index cards. reach into the bag. one for whorls and one for arches. could a footprint really identify a baby? Loop Whorl 18 © 2001 DCI/BBC . Students should reach into the bag and try to identify the material they are feeling.s Activity 9 On the Other Hand Student Objectives: To experiment with the sense of touch and to learn how fingerprints are classified. seeds. left index finger) and write their name on the reverse side of the card.

They help you throw a baseball. Open your eyes. Were you successful? ____________ What did you feel? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Now reach into each of the bags and try to identify what it contains. Imagine trying to pick up a pen with paddle-shaped hands! Part A. Your sense of touch originates in the dermis. As you saw in The Human Body. After you are untaped. comb your hair and button a shirt. First write your name on the first line below. answer the following questions: What kinds of patterns do you see in your index fingerprint? ______________________________________________ In your pinky fingerprint? ______________ How different are your prints from the prints of your partner’s hand? __________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Add-on Create a display that shows how our hands are different from the Activity paws of animals. write a description on the back of this paper of how you felt and what happened. Close your eyes and pick it up. Part B. comb your hair and do so much more. How did you do? Bag 1.On Y the Other Hand Activity 9 Reproducible Master our hands are truly amazing things. Reach into the bag prepared by your teacher and try to pick out a paper clip. What does your signature look like this time? Signature #1 ____________________________________________ Signature #2 ____________________________________________ While taped. or bottom layer of your skin. Loop © 2001 DCI/BBC Whorl Arch 19 . they were formed when cells died off from the original paddle-shaped structures you had as an embryo. try the following: Pick up a penny. I guessed: ____________________________________________________ It really was:____________________________________________________ Bag 2. Follow your teacher’s directions as you take your fingerprints. Did you guess correctly?___________ Describe what you felt: ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Close your eyes again. Some areas of your body—like your fingertips— are more sensitive than others because they have more of the nerve endings that send signals to the brain. and how those differences reflect our varied needs. Then have your partner tape the thumb to the index finger on the hand you write with. Is the side on the top heads or tails? Now open your eyes. I guessed: ____________________________________________________ It really was:____________________________________________________ Bag 4. Place a penny on your desk. all by itself? Try this experiment to find out. I guessed: ____________________________________________________ It really was:____________________________________________________ Surface of a fingertip Have you ever wondered why your thumb is stuck down there on the side. They help you pick up a pen and write. Write your name on the second line. I guessed: ____________________________________________________ It really was:____________________________________________________ Bag 3. Then.

s Students might do online research and compile an annotated directory of Web sites about the human body. or the person who has the most to contribute to society. How would students feel if the choice for a transplant were between a close relative they loved. they number 75. How different do they think the athlete’s chances for recovery are today compared to that of a past era or decade? s Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Materials: Advertising brochures for new cars (optional) Teaching Tips Part A. use radiation waves to form images of organs and other objects Post-viewing Activity inside the body that show bones as white and softer tissues as different shades of gray Ultrasound.S. MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging). developed in 1974.000 in the U. use a highly sensitive X-ray beam that passes through the body and feeds information into a computer. to see how ad agencies promote the features of the various automobile systems in their sales brochures. Today’s medical technology can provide high-resolution pictures of any organ or area of the body. s Medical science has made tremendous progress in the field of organ transplants. and a brilliant scientist whose work could potentially change the world? They could form a position panel to debate how transplant recipients should be selected—the person who needs it the most. avoiding exploratory surgery in many cases. Alternatively. wire and other small objects to construct small models of the human skeleton—the backbone. a celebrity they greatly admired. In preparation for this activity you might want to have students review ads and flyers for new cars. they could use the following as a sample: You may choose to share the following with students: X-rays. etc. intermittent wipers function like eyelashes. preferring instead that the world benefit from his research. hidden in our bodies. healthy heart. if students were to visualize the human body as if it were a new car with “loaded” features. but remind them that their copy must contain factual information. They might use the classroom computer to create their brochure’s layout and design. which keep our eyes clear of irritants. Our ears give us stereo sound like the car’s sound system. use computer-controlled radio waves and a magnetic field to create three-dimensional pictures of the inside of the body. and the medical treatment he or she received. the person who can pay the most. each team might focus on one aspect as they work together to develop an actual class Web site. CT (or CAT) scans (computerized axial tomography). but waiting lists for donors are long (as of spring 2001.s Activity 10 The Living System Student Objective: To consider how the different body systems work together.). developed in 1967. Have students write a plan for their Web site and create drawings to show what it would look like. for example. Part B. creating a picture. Systems of Imaging The Human Body gives us a remarkable glimpse of the amazing things that go on. developed in . Or should there be some other way to choose? Redesigned for 2001! 10-year/100. developed in 1895. alone). For example. You might have students discuss the ethics involved in profiting from medical research. s Students might research and report on an athlete of their choice who has been in the news because of an injury. for example. a German physicist who discovered the X-ray. and difficult choices sometimes must be made. pipe cleaners. 1957. 20 © 2001 DCI/BBC . Encourage students to have fun and engage their imaginations as they write their brochures. Add-on Activities s Students might use dry pasta shapes. and a V8 engine might equate to a strong. collected from dealer showrooms. uses high-frequency sounds to create images of internal tissues. CT scan. Not every patient who needs a transplant will get one. how the injury was diagnosed (MRI. refused to patent his Lung cells discovery or realize any financial gain from it.000-mile powertrain warranty! Look What You Get! Automatic Power Windows Power Locks Air Conditioning Power Steering Power Disc Brakes CD Player Power Mirrors Rear Defroster Tinted Glass Intermittent Wipers Tilt Wheel The various features can be equated to those of the human body.

use the information you gathered in Part A of this activity as the foundation for the Beautiful Bodyworks Web site. s Create a body-parts puzzle that has an outlined body and major parts that Web users must put in the right places. But. What parts will you need to “hire” so that your body can eat. Work with your team to develop sales copy or a slogan of 50 words or less to promote each of the following body systems. Get those neurons going! 10 ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ s The Skeletal System ( ________________________________________ ________________________________________) ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ s The Respiratory System (______________________________________________________ ) ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ s The Circulatory System ( _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ) ____________________________ ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ s The Nervous System ( __________________________________________________________________) ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ s The Endocrine System (_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ) ________________________________ Add-on Work in groups to develop model mini-ecosystems that Activity show how humans and other living things are linked in a web of life. water. Next to the system. ______ _____ ______ _____ ______ _____ Now. Now. Show how the sun. play sports and so on? List as many body parts below as you can and name their functions (see first example): Heart—pumps blood throughout the body. pull it all together in brochure copy that will make every reader want to own a genuine human body. write the name of an object you think best represents it (see first example): s The Digestive System (wastebasket) our brand new human Reproducible Master body will need the best body parts to make it zoom along in top form. Imagine that you’ve just been named as a member of the lead copywriting team at the Beautiful Bodyworks Agency. oxygen and other factors are part of how we function as people in our environment. you have one pretty incredible organism! Part A.The Living System Y Activity A n eyeball or a big toe by itself wouldn’t be worth very much. s Develop an interactive display that shows how the parts of a disposable camera work like a human eye. How will you tie all the body parts and systems together? This is your chance to show how creative you can be. to promote the human body. too. the engine that keeps me going ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Part B. © 2001 DCI/BBC 21 . when you put them together with other body parts in a complete human body. Your job is to write the copy for a new brochure that’s designed to sell the human body as a first-class system. There are lots of other things you might do.

s s s s s s s s s s s s 3. and distribute it to students. they can have the tests done the next time they visit their doctor or at a free community screening. You’ll grow an average of 35 yards of hair today. Did You Know That? Interesting Facts About the Human Body The Human Body is full of amazing information about the human body! Test your knowledge by answering true or false to each of these statements. s 1 When your ears “pop. s 1 When your nose is at its best you can tell the 5. After you’ve checked your answers. 1 The longest bone in your body is the femur. 11. Animals can hear better than humans. Your students should take this activity master home along with the “Dear Parent” letter on page 24 of this guide.” it’s actually the eustachian 4. One-fourth of your body’s bones are in the hands and feet. 7. The average person has about 10. in one day. The bone marrow manufactures red and white blood cells. Post-viewing Activity Teaching Tips This is a personal profile. s s 6. and so on). the average person grows over five inches of fingernails. calories you eat or drink each day. if your students do not know some of the information (for example. and complete it with their parents. Over half the body’s bones are found in the hands and feet.000 and 10. take another copy of the quiz home and test your family and friends. difference between 1. and dolphins have the best hearing of all. clip the quiz along the dotted line. Suggest that. blood pressure. 6. You’ll make over 200 billion new red blood cells today. s 8. The aorta is the largest artery in your body. Dolphins can hear 14 times better than humans. Your heart will pump about one million barrels of blood during your lifetime—enough blood to fill more than three supertankers. Photocopy this page. s 1 Your brain uses up nearly a fifth of all the 3. Taste is the strongest of the five senses. It’s almost as big as a garden hose. it would be more than 10 billion miles long. white blood cells. 1 If you laid all the DNA in your body end to 2. blood type. Materials: None Add-On Activity s Now that students have completed the unit activities and have seen the film of The Human Body. so everyone can see who is the smartest “brain” of all! Answers: The statements are all true with the exception of: 2. s 18.000 different odors. end. etc. tube opening to make sure the air pressure is the same on both sides of your eardrum. They can hear five times better than we can.000 different odors. you may wish to have them take copies home to family and friends. Who is the smartest “brain” of all? True False True False 1. s 22 © 2001 DCI/BBC . 7. Taste is the weakest of the senses. s s s s 9. After they have tested themselves. 8. The brain of an average adult weighs 9 ounces. 15.000 taste buds in his or her mouth. You get dizzy after spinning around fast because the liquid in the semi-circular canals in your ears is still moving after you stop. s 4. 2. The brain weighs roughly three pounds. s s s s s s s s s s 10. Your nose can tell the difference between 3. 1 Your pancreas manufactures red and 1. you may wish to have fun with the quiz below. 1 Your heart beats about 100.000 times | 6. In three months. s 5. 7.000 and 5.s Activity 11 My Personal Body Inventory and Health Profile Student Objective: To create a personal health profile.

My resting pulse is ______ and my active pulse is ______. When you complete it. Check one of each choice: s I think I am ___ left-brained ___ right-brained. © 2001 DCI/BBC 23 . s I still have my (check if yes) ___ tonsils ___ appendix. You may want to ask family members for help with some of this information. My hair color is ______________________________. My skin color is ______________________________.fter seeing The Human Body. My eye color is ______________________________. To help keep your future body in top physical and mental form. My blood pressure is ______. Left thumb print Right thumb print Allergies I am allergic to: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Physical Activities I participate in the following sports or activities: My blood type is ______. fill in the chart below. My name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________________________ My birth date:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________________________ My Personal Body Inventory and Health Profile A Activity 11 Reproducible Master Vaccination Record I have been vaccinated against the following diseases: Type of vaccination Date of vaccination __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Injuries/Illnesses I have had the following injuries or illnesses (other than common colds): Injury/Illness Date __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Physical Characteristics I am _____________ tall and I weigh _______________. I am _____________ -handed. put it in a safe place and add to it from time to time to keep it current. you have a better appreciation for the daily miracles that make you who you are today and who you can be tomorrow. next year and for the next eight or nine decades. s I am a ___ visual ___ auditory ___ kinesthetic learner. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ I have (number) ______ wisdom teeth. s I am ___ nearsighted ___ farsighted ___ neither.

Travel Channel.html Olfactory System http://faculty. __________________________________________ 24 © 2001 DCI/BBC .edu/chudler/chems. by Philip Whitfield Obin. educational entertainment they are known for worldwide.edu/chudler/chmodel.html http://faculty.edu/brain_explorer/index.mdsci.washington.com s Exploratorium: Brain Explorer: www.com The Brain http://faculty.washington. Students will journey down the ear canal and into the caverns of the middle ear.thehumanbodyfilm. Be sure to take this special opportunity to review your child’s Personal Body Inventory and Health Profile. which includes The Learning Channel (TLC).Dear Parent/Guardian: A s a special addition to this year’s classroom curriculum. so he or she begins now to track important medical records and information needed in the years ahead. Resources Web Sites s The Human Body: www.com s Discovery Communications: www. Kendall/Hunt. Etc. Etc. Discovery Channel..washington. discovery.cellsalive. Inc. your child will be encouraged to talk with you about it and to share the activities and experiments he or she will have conducted in class.washington.tlc.nmsi.edu/chudler/lobe.omsi. 1994. Animal Planet.school.smm. Taste Buds. Synapses. Discovery The trachea Pictures is a unit of Discovery Communications. As coproducers of the film.washington. After viewing the film. 2000.edu/chudler/tasty.html Mouth. and Discovery Health Channel. where they will learn how our brains make sense of the sounds around us. s Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.com s Discovery School: www. http://faculty. by Karen Kalumuck and the Exploratorium Teacher Institute.uk s Science Museum of Minnesota: Science of Sound and Sight: www.edu/explore/life s Science Museum of London: www.html http://faculty. http://faculty.kids.com s Yucky Gross & Cool Body: http://yucky.discovery.html s Maryland Science Center: www. Sincerely.org/sound/nocss/ activity/top.washington.html Nerve Cells.edu/chudler/cells. your child’s class is planning a visit to the ___________________ Theater to view The Human Body.html http://faculty.html s The Learning Channel (TLC): www. Discovery Pictures and the BBC are extending their commitment to providing the quality. The Human Body large-format film is co-produced by Discovery Pictures and the BBC. They will follow a pizza lunch on its journey to the stomach and beyond.edu/chudler/what. They will travel through the bloodstream and into the most spectacular muscle in our body—the heart.edu/chudler/split. Turner Publishing.html Books s The Robot Zoo: A Mechanical Guide to the Way Animals Work.org s Oregon Museum of Science and Technology: Life Science Lab: www.com s Cells Alive: www.exploratorium.discovery.html http://faculty.ac. They will learn how the body’s systems and organs work together.washington.edu/chudler/nosek. These activities are designed to help students understand how the body works and—perhaps most important—how essential a healthy diet and lifestyle are to creating and maintaining a healthy body. The film uses state-of-the-art photographic techniques and the largeformat landscape to present an incredible journey into the body. X-ray image Pre-viewing and follow-up activities reinforce the concepts presented in the film.washington.

Box 305. London with major funding provided by the National Science Foundation and distributed by nWave Pictures Distribution. Health Sciences Director. Easton. Publisher Writer: Carol A. Bethesda. RMC Research Corporation. Fieberts Production Manager: Beth E. CT 06612 (203) 459-1562 www.Credits Teacher’s Resource Guide for The Human Body was created by Youth Media International. Greenwich. St.O. Portsmouth. Baltimore. Maryland Science Center. Charlotte. Marketing Manager. MD The Human Body is a presentation of The Learning Channel and BBC Worldwide of a Discovery Pictures / BBC co-production in association with the Maryland Science Center and the Science Museum.. P. Discovery Place. MD Jim Heintzman. Ralph Adler. Science Museum of Minnesota. Paul. Director. President. London Pete Yancone. NH Mary Rebecca Bures. Education Officer. CT Alex Patrick. McNeal Art Director: Kathleen Giarrano Cover Design: Aspect Ratio Design Reviewers C. CT Roberta Nusim. Katz.com Youth Media International Ltd. Easton. BFI London IMAX Cinema and Science Museum. Education.youthmedia. . Discovery Pictures. Bruce Editor: Jane E. Educational Resources Manager. nWave Pictures Distribution. MN Mark E. NC Dianne Koval Butler. Ltd.

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