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Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 ± 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. The scientific community and much of the general public came to accept evolution as a fact in his lifetime. However, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ (French pronunciation: [pj teja d a d ]; May 1, 1881 ± April 10, 1955) was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of both Piltdown Man and Peking Man. Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of Noosphere. Some of his ideas came into conflict with the Magisterium of the Catholic Church, and several of his books were censured.
Teilhard's primary book, The Phenomenon of Man, set forth a sweeping account of the unfolding of the cosmos. He abandoned traditional interpretations of creation in the Book of Genesis in favor of a less strict interpretation. This displeased certain officials in the Roman Curia and in his own order who thought that it undermined the doctrine of original sin developed by Saint Augustine. Teilhard's position was opposed by his Church superiors, and some of his work was denied publication during his lifetime by the Roman Holy Office. The 1950 encyclical Humani generis condemned several of Teilhard's opinions, while leaving other questions open. More recently, Pope John Paul II indicated a positive attitude towards some of de Chardin's ideas. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI praised Teilhard's idea of the universe as a "living host" although the ecclesiastical warnings attached to his works remain.
situation. A ³Parmenidean life´ was proverbial among the Greeks. what a thing is. Parmenides wrote after Heraclitus. Little more is known of his biography than that he stopped at Athens on a journey in his sixty-fifth year. quality. and all things travel in opposite directions´ (fr. and is is the chief representative of the Eleatic philosophy. The Categories of Aristotle are classifications of individual words (as opposed to sentences or propositions). and include the following ten: substance. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object. Substances are further divided into first and second: first substances are individual objects. given the evident allusion to Hericlitus: ³for whom it is and is not. then how great it is. or shortly after it. passion. 510. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism. intellectual reformer. was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on empirical methods. Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. he proposed an entirely new system based . humanism. He was also admired for his exemplary life. born of an illustrious family about BCE. logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. statesman. He is commonly represented as a disciple of Xenophanes. 8). and champion of modern science. That must have been in the middle of the fifth century BCE. at Elea in Lower Italy. philosopher. the same and not the same. relation. and there became acquainted with the youthful Socrates. place. however. or instrument.. time. historian. 1220±1292). second substances are the species in which first substances or individuals inhere. O. and in conscious opposition to him. next of what kind it is. first. He was held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens for his excellent legislation. and natural magic). (c. Substance is always regarded as the most important of these. to which they ascribed the prosperity and wealth of the town. Friar Roger Bacon Roger Bacon. Aristotle Aristotle¶s writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon.F. action. Aristotle himself. He is sometimes credited as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by the works of Plato and Aristotle. essayist. uses the term ³logic´ as equivalent to verbal reasoning.Parmenides Parmenides was a Greek philosopher and poet. For example. From their perspective. Albans) was an English lawyer. condition. we ask. Early in his career he claimed all knowledge as his province and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. 6.M. quantity. also known as Doctor Mirabilis (Latin: "wonderful teacher").
1646 . psychology. and information science. and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in biology. Petersburg. He wrote works on politics. and astronomy. In philosophy.[3 Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler (German pronunciation: [ l ]. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. particularly for mathematical analysis. optics. was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals. he is our . history. his collected works fill 60±80 quarto volumes. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation. and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. in tens of thousands of letters. Leibniz also developed the binary number system. Russia and in Berlin. theology. Leibniz occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. fluid dynamics. and philology. He wrote primarily in Latin and French. e. read Euler. there is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz. 1716) was a German mathematician and philosopher. Euler spent most of his adult life in St. such as the notion of a mathematical function. and arguably one of the greatest of all time.on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions. As of 2010. in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a priori definitions rather than to empirical evidence. the best possible one that God could have created. a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for the use and benefit of men and the relief of the human condition. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology. law. in a restricted sense.g. which is at the foundation of virtually all digital computers. his conclusion that our Universe is.November 14. philosophy. medicine. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (sometimes von Leibniz) (German pronunciation: [ tf i t v lh lm f n la bn ts] (July 1. probability theory. and in unpublished manuscripts. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians ever. linguistics. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy. He is considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century. geology. "Oiler" 15 April 1707 ± 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. The collection of manuscript papers of Leibniz at the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek Niedersächische Landesbibliothek were inscribed on UNESCO¶s Memory of the World Register in 2007. along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza. Leibniz is mostly noted for his optimism. English approximation. Leibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton. Prussia. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler. Leibniz. but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition. ethics.
He is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church on their Calendar of Saints on 24 May ± he was a devout Christian (and believer in biblical inerrancy) who wrote apologetics and argued forcefully against the prominent atheists of his time." which has also been translated as "Read Euler. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768). The asteroid 2002 Euler was named in his honor.teacher in all things. read Euler. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768). he is the master of us all. and Russian postage stamps." Euler was featured on the sixth series of the Swiss 10-franc banknote and on numerous Swiss. These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams. These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams. . German. These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768).
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