EHV SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS, SWITCHING SCHMES & LAYOUTS

Switchyard Type 
 

Conventional Air Insulated Type. Gas Insulated type. Outdoor Gas Insulated type.

Selection of Bus Switching Scheme 

PRE-REQUISITES
1)System security 2)Operational flexibility 3)Simplicity of protection arrangements 4)Ability to limit short circuit levels (ease of sectionalizing) 5)Maintenance ± Its effect on system security 6)Ease of extension 7)Total land area 8)cost

double breaker .DESIGN GUIDELINES CONTD«  OPTIONS/ALTERNATIVES 1)Single sectionalised bus 2)Main and transfer bus 3)Sectionalised Main bus with transfer bus 4)Sectionalised double main and transfer bus 5)Double Bus Scheme 6)Ring bus 7)One and a half breaker 8)Double bus.

CONTD«  DESIGN PRACTICES/PHYLOSOPHY 1) Consideration in Selection of Bus Switching Scheme 2) Comparison of Schemes a) Sectionalized main bus with transfer bus (Scheme-I) b) Sectionalized double main and transfer bus (Scheme-II) c) One and a half breaker (SchemeIII) .

DISCUSSIONS OF SCHEMES  SCHEME 1 Main and Transfer Bus Scheme .

SCHEMES CONTD«  SCHEME 2 Sectionalised Double Main and Transfer Bus Scheme .

SCHEMES CONTD« SCHEME 3 One and Half Breaker Bus Scheme .

System Security (Reliability Main & Transfer Double Main & Transfer i) require operation of one breaker ii) supply would be interrupted until all the feeders are transferred to the healthy bus iii) No alternate path (Offline redundancy available) One & Half Breaker i)require operation of two breakers ii) continuity of supply is maintained because each circuit gets fed through two paths iii) Alternate path is available (Online redundancy available) i) feeder fault ii) Bus fault iii) Redundancy in design i) require operation of one breaker ii) supply would be interrupted until all the feeders are transferred to the healthy bus iii) No alternate path (Offline redundancy available) .

Ability to limit Short Circuit Levels (Ease of Sectionalizing) Sectionalising of bus bars or introduction of reactors in buses with a view to limit short circuit level is adoptable. Sectionalising of bus bars or introduction of reactors in buses with a view to limit short circuit level is adoptable. Protection arrangement involves AC & DC switching & bus differential protection is complicated as it involves CT switching.Operational Flexibility: Switching operation to take out the breaker from the bay more extensive Switching operation to take out the breaker from the bay more extensive A breaker can be taken out of service without the need for additional switching Protection arrangement is simplified as no AC & DC switching involve and Bus differential protection is simple. Sectionalising of bus bars or introduction of reactors in buses with a view to limit short circuit level is adoptable. Simplicity of Protection Arrangements Protection arrangement involves AC & DC switching . .

Three breaker per 2 feeder is required Cost . one breaker per feeder is required This scheme occupy more or less the same land area as of the other two schemes. one breaker per feeder is required This scheme occupy more or less the same land area as of the other two schemes. This scheme is flexible for such future additions Switchyard shall be suitable for future extension without loss of feeders. This scheme is flexible for such future additions Total land area This scheme occupy more or less the same land area as of the other two schemes. This scheme is flexible for such future additions Switchyard shall be suitable for future extension without loss of feeders.Ease of extension Switchyard shall be suitable for future extension without loss of feeders.

Pre-requisites: 1) single line diagram 2) general layout plan of power plant 3) orientation of line evacuation 4) control room building .Switchyard layout Objective: Substation layout consists essentially in arranging a number of switchgear components in an orderly pattern governed by their function and rules of spatial separation as described in electrical single line diagram.

.Air Insulated/Gas Insulated.LAYOUT CONTD«  1) 2) Options / Alternatives The layout will vary for the following: Switching schemes Type of insulation .

4) Clearance. i) phase to earth clearance ii) phase to phase clearance iii) section clearance iv) ground clearance .LAYOUT CONTD«  Design Philosophy / Practice 1) Space around the switchyard 2) Switchyard location 3) Switchyard fencing.

5 145 245 420 800 320 630 1300 2100 3500 6400 320 630 1300 2100 4000 9400 3700 4000 4600 5500 8000 -- 2800 3000 3500 4300 6500 10300 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 .TABLE I: INSULATION LEVELS & CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS AT DIFFERENT VOLTAGE LEVELS INSULATION LEVELS NOMINA L SYSTEM VOLTAG E KV LIGHTNING IMPULSE LEVEL (kVp) SWITCHING SURGE LEVEL (kVp) POWER FREQUEN CY IMPULSE LEVEL (kVrms) HIGHEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE KV MINIMUM CLEARANCE BETWEEN PHASE AND EARTH (MM) BETWE EN PHASES (MM) GROUND CLEARA NCE (MM) SECTION AL CLEARA NCE (MM) HEIGHT OF SUPPOR TS (mm) 33 66 132 220 400 765 170 325 650 1050 1425 2100 1050 1550 70 140 275 460 630 830 36 72.

.Clearance contd« 5) Equipment spacing a) Ease of maintenance/removal of equipment. c) Distance between LA and equipment based on the protection reach of LA. d) The spacings are generally kept in order to achieve various clearances specified at Table-I. b) Equipment foundation & their cable trenches.

7) Equipment Interconnection 8) Spacer spans and locations 9) Connection Level 10) Land & Road Layout 11) Sequence and mounting of line traps .Clearance contd« 6) Bus bars: The bus bars of 400 kV switchyard are generally made up 4 ³IPS aluminum tube or Quad Moose rated for 3000 A´. The bus bars of 220/132kV switchyard are generally made up of 3 ³IPS aluminum tube or quad/ twin moose conductor´. Bus bars are placed at right angles to the feeders for tapping the power.

Clearance contd«. 12) Control Room Layout 13) Lighting System 14) Cabling Philosophy 15) Gravel Filling 16) Earthing System 17) Lightning Protection System .

.EVOLVING A SUBSTATION LAYOUT LAYING OUT A SUBSTATION INVOLVES STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE. THE SITE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. AND SWITCHING OVER-VOLTAGE CONDITIONS.E. THE NUMBER OF CIRCUITS AND THEIR PURPOSE I. 2) THE BUS BAR SYSTEM DIAGRAM. FEEDERS. TRANSFORMERS. THE CONTROL OF GENERATORS. MOST IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE BRIEFLY DESCRIBED BELOW: THE IMPORTANT ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS ARE ESTABLISHED BY THE SYSTEM DESIGN. THE DIAGRAM SHOULD INCLUDE DETAILS OF EXTENSIONS AND FUTURE CONVERSION TO A DIFFERENT BUS BAR SYSTEM. THE MAIN PARAMETERS ARE: 1) THE VOLTAGE AND BASIC INSULATION LEVEL OR SWITCHING SURGE LEVEL. ETC. IF INTENDED. . THE METHOD OF CIRCUIT CONNECTION.

METHOD OF CONNECTION OF CIRCUITS.EVOLVING A SUBSTATION LAYOUT 1) 2) 3) THE CONTINUOUS CURRENT RATING OF THE BUS BARS AND CIRCUITS. Interconnecting Transformers REQUIRED. 4) 5) 6) . THE SHORT CIRCUIT RATING OF BUS BARS AND EQUIPMENTS. NEUTRAL EARTHING EQUIPMENT AND REACTING. DETAILS OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. CARRIER CURRENT EQUIPMENT ETC. DETERMINING THE INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS REQUIREMENTS. PARTICULARS OF REACTORS. DETAILS OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION EQUIPMENT. WHETHER BY OVERHEAD LINES OR BY CABLES.

SITE AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS.EVOLVING A SUBSTATION LAYOUT THE EXTENT TO WHICH CIRCUIT AND BUSBAR OUTAGES FOR MAINTENANCE WILL BE POSSIBLE. 2) 3) 4) . THESE ARE: 1) THE AVAILABLE LAND AREA. ETC. LOCATION OF TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS. PLANNING AUTHORITY REQUIREMENTS AND AESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS DETERMINE THE TYPE OF SUBSTATION. THE CAPABILITY AND SKILL OF THE MAINTENANCE STAFF DETERMINES THE IMPORTANCE OF CLARITY OF LAYOUT AND SIMPLICITY OF MAINTENANCE ZONING. THE DIRECTION OF OVERHEAD LINE ENTIRES POSITION AVAILABLE FOR TERMINAL TOWERS. THE AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND THE TRANSPORT AND ACCESS FACILITIES. SOME PARAMETERS WHICH INFLUENCE THE FORM OF THE LAYOUT ARE DETERMINED BY THE LOCAL CONDITIONS.

     . ESPECIALLY IN THE BUS BAR ZONE. TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CIRCUIT. MINIMUM GROUND AREA MINIMUM QUANTITIES OF CONDUCTOR.PREPARATION OF BASIC LAYOUT  WHILE MEETING ALL THE NEEDS ESTABLISHED THE FOLLOWING IDEALS SHOULD BE AIMED AT IN MAKING THE BASIC CIRCUIT LAYOUT. JOINTS AND STRUCTURE MINIMUM NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT INSULATORS. THESE HELD IN DECIDING THE MOST OPTIMUM DIMENSIONS. INSULATORS AND STRUCTURES. AFTER HAVING DETERMINED THE ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE BE USED A ROUGH CIRCUIT LAYOUT IS MADE. SEVERAL POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES ARE PREPARED FROM WHICH THE MOST SUITABLE ONE WILL BE SELECTED. IT IS ALSO NECESSARY TO CALCULATE SHORT CIRCUIT AND ATMOSPHERIC FORCES TO DETERMINE THE STRESSES IN CONDUCTORS. SOME VARIATION IS NEEDED.

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PURPOSE OF EARTHING  THE OBJECT OF EARTHING IS TO MAINTAIN A LOW POTENTIAL ON ANY OBJECT. SAFE FOR THE WORKING PERSONNEL.  . THE PURPOSE OF A EARTHING SYSTEM IN A SUBSTATION AREA IS TO LIMIT THE POTENTIAL GRADIENT WITHIN AND IMMEDIATELY OUTSIDE THE AREA IS A VALUE. SAFETY IS TO BE ENSURED UNDER NORMAL AS WELL AS ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITION.

2) . THE MAXIMUM FAULT LEVEL IN THE 400 KV SYSTEM HAS BEEN ESTIMATED TO BE 40 KA AND THIS VALUE OF FAULT CURRENT TO USED IS THE DESIGN OF EARTH MAT FOR THE 400 KV SUBSTATION.REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD EARTHING SYSTEM FOLLOWING BASIC REQUIREMENTS ARE TO BE SATISFIED SO AS TO ENSURE A PROPER AND SOUND EARTHING SYSTEM. FOR MAJOR SWITCHYARDS AND SUBSTATIONS IN INDIA. THIS LIMITING VALUE OF EARTH RESISTANCE (RA) IS TAKEN TO BE LESS THAN 0. 1) THE EARTH RESISTANCE FOR THE SWITCHYARD AREA SHOULD BE LOWER THAN A CERTAIN LIMITING VALUE ³RA´ IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT A SAFE POTENTIAL GRADIENT IS MAINTAINED IN THE SWITCHYARD AREA AND PROTECTIVE RELAY EQUIPMENT OPERATE SATISFACTORILY.5 OHM. THE GROUNDING CONDUCTOR MATERIAL SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF CARRYING THE MAXIMUM EARTH FAULT CURRENT WITHOUT-OVERHEATING AND MECHANICAL DAMAGE.

ARMOURING AND SHEATHS OF THE LOW VOLTAGE POWER AND CONTROL CABLES SHOULD BE CONNECTED TO THE EARTHING ELECTRODE SYSTEM.REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD EARTHING SYSTEM  ALL METALLIC OBJECTS WHICH DO NOT CARRY CURRENT AND INSTALLED THE SUBSTATION SUCH AS STRUCTURES. .  . PARTS OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS. THE DESIGN OF THE GROUND CONDUCTOR SHOULD TAKE CARE OF THE EFFECT OF CORROSION FOR THE TOTAL LIFE SPAN OF THE PLANT. FENCES.

Lightning Arrestors. Post Insulators.        Circuit Breaker. Wave Traps . Disconnectors (Isolators) Current Transformers.Switchyard Equipments. Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT).

Corona Extinction Voltage.General Parameters  - Dielectric Parameters . . RIV Level. Lightning Impulse Voltage.(IEC 694) Power Frequency Voltage. Switching Impulse Voltage.

Short Time Current. Creepage Distance. .General Parameters (Contd.)    Rated Current.

1425 kVp between live terminals and earth.5 z n 2.0 z equipm ent.1425 kVp im pu se n ne te m in n 240 kVp p e equen pp site p it n t e te m in ss is tin ist n e +/.400kV Equipments te t e te equen te s t tim e it st n u ent p it nsu ti n e e s 420kV i uit e ke s n is nne tin it es i te ne m inute p e equen it st n t e 420 kV 50 z 40 k ms ne 1 se n e 520 kV m s et een i e te m in s n e t 610 kV m s ss is tin ist n e a) +/.900 kVp im pu se n ne te m in n 345 kVp p e equen pp site p it n t e te m in ss is tin ist n e 1000 m i ts equen et een 0. Corona extinction voltage . Not less than 32 kV rms ii te i it st n tnin im pu se t e iii te s it it st n t in e im pu se i inte e en e t 266kV m s t e g. e e insu t st in s t e m e su em ent u e t 305 kV . +/.1050 kVp et een i e te m in s n e t +/.

Circuit Breakers Type (IEC: 62271-100) MOCB. ABCB.3 secCO-3 min. SF6 Rated operating duty cycle.O-0.-CO Operating mechanism Total Break Time Pre Insertion Resistor ±( 300-450 )        .

Gang operated/Single pole type. Motor / manual operated. Pantograph type.Disconnectors        HCB Type. . Double Break Type. Vertical Break type. Provision of Earth Switches.

rated primary current Rated burden for metering Knee Point voltage .Current Transformer ( IEC 0044. Ratio. IS 2705)          Dead tank/Live tank type. Accuracy. No. Ring Type. of Cores. Bar Primary type.

Of Cores. Output Burden Rated Secondary Voltage . No. Accuracy. IS 56)       Capacitance.Capacitor Voltage Transformer (IEC 0044. Voltage Ratio.

. Monitoring. Location. Nominal Discharge Current. Voltage Rating.Lightning Arrestor ( IEC 60099)       Gap Type / Gapless Type. Energy Capability.

.Post Insulators    Voltage Rating. Cantilever Strength. Fixing Details.

Coupling (Phase to Phase).0 mH). Rated current. Band Width. .5/1.Wave Trap (IEC 60353)     Rated Inductance(0.

SWITCHYARD AUXILIARY SYSTEMS        CONTROL ROOM HVAC FOR CONTROL ROOM A RELIABLE 415V AC SUPPLY ( LT SWGR) 220 V & 48 V DC SUPPLY( BATTERY & BATTERY CHARGER) POWER & CONTROL CABLE LIGHTING ( Yard lighting & indoor lighting of control room) Other items-Clamps. connectors . Insulator strings . . BMK etc.

COMPARASON BETWEEN AIS AND GIS SUBSTATION FOOTPRINT FOR HECTOR 192 400kV AIS 400kV GIS Trfr 275kV GIS 275kV AIS Trfr 2 Trfr 3 Trfr 4 SVC Trfrs 69 ~10%   .

INDOOR GIS .

OUTDOOR GIS .SEISMIC AREAS .

PHASE SPACING Conductor Phase Spacing .

OVERHEAD STRUNG BUSBARS .

mi.T fs = maximum conductor sag (m) mi = mass of conductor (kg/m) Lc = conductor span length (m) T = tension per conductor (N) .Lc2 8.SAG DUE TO CONDUCTOR Lc T 9.81.mi fs fs = 9.81.

LOW PROFILE SUPPORTED TUBULAR BUSBAR SUBSTATIONS .

TUBE SAG EXCESSIVE INCORRECTLY SELECTED .

TYPICAL TUBULAR BB BUS SECTION BAY .

CANTILEVER FORCES DUE TO FAULT CURRENT COMBINATION SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR 3 PHASES Attraction Repulsion M M M .

TUBULAR BUSBAR EXPANSION CLAMP TUBE F S .

TRANSFORMER FIRE AT MINERVA .

Advantages: Step up from generation voltage to 765kV. . High Capacity Transmission to the order of 2500MW per line with lower right of way requirement. 765kV Transmission system is techno economically better option whenever power transmission system requires multi point tapping at various location for catering the load requirement of high growth area.Upgradation of transmission voltage from 400kV AC to 765kV AC. 765kV system offers low transmission losses. resulting in higher utilisation of generating capacity and optimises the resource required for capacity addition. NTPC is fully geared up for implementing next AC voltage of 765kV.       Presently the highest AC Transmission voltage is 400kV only.

Radio Interference Voltage : 2500 micro volts.) : : : 800 kV rms s2100 kVp s1550 kVp : 830kV(rms) 40 kA : Minimum creepage distance : 20000 mm Max. (rms) : Max. fault level (1 sec.765kV Major Parameters                    Highest system voltage Lightning Impulse voltage Switching impulse voltage Power frequency withstand for 1 min.8 m from ground 10kV/m Average magnetic field 500 micro tesla . Corona extinction voltage : 508kV (rms minimum) Phase to earth clearance : 4900 mm Conductor to Structure : 6400 mm Rod to Structure Phase to phase clearance : 7600 mm Conductor to Conductor : 9400 mm Rod to Conductor Section clearance : 10300 mm Average electric field at 1. level at 508kV (rms).

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ADOPTION OF CONTROLLED SWITCHING OF TRANSFORMER AND REACTORS. This results in high inrush currents or switching surges causing undue repercussions to switchgear equipment and networks system. For overcoming this the switching in and out is done at desired point on wave so that the overvoltages are reduced. The actual circuit closing or opening instant is left up to chance. where all three phases are switched simultaneously. Switching of transformer. . capacitors and uncharged overhead lines is normally a 'three phase' process. shunt reactors.

765KV CIRCUIT BREAKER .

765KV DISCONNECTOR WITH E S .

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