SOLID MECHANICS
This is a textbook for courses in departments of Mechanical, Civil and
Aeronautical Engineering commonly called strength of materials or
mechanics of materials. The intent of this book is to provide a back
ground in the mechanics of solids for students of mechanical engineering
while limiting the information on why materials behave as they do. It is
assumed that the students have already had courses covering materials
science and basic statics. Much of the material is drawn from another
book by the author, Mechanical Behavior of Materials. To make the text
suitable for Mechanical Engineers, the chapters on slip, dislocations,
twinning, residual stresses, and hardening mechanisms have been elimi
nated and the treatments in other chapters about ductility, viscoelastic
ity, creep, ceramics, and polymers have been simpliﬁed.
WilliamHosford is a Professor Emeritus of Materials Science at the Uni
versity of Michigan. He is the author of numerous research and publi
cations books, including Materials for Engineers; Metal Forming third
edition (with Robert M. Caddell); Materials Science: An Intermediate
Text; Reporting Results (with David C. Van Aken); Mechanics of Crys
tals and Textured Polycrystals; Mechanical Metallurgy; and Wilderness
Canoe Tripping.
Solid Mechanics
William Hosford
University of Michigan, Emeritus
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,
São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
First published in print format
ISBN13 9780521192293
ISBN13 9780511712470
© William Hosford 2010
2010
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Contents
Preface page x
1 Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction 1
Stress 2
Sign Convention 3
Transformation of Axes 4
Principal Stresses 6
Mohr’s Stress Circles 6
Strains 9
Small Strains 11
Transformation of Axes 12
Mohr’s Strain Circles 14
Force and Moment Balances 15
Common Boundary Conditions 17
Note 18
Problems 18
2 Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Introduction 21
Isotropic Elasticity 21
Variation of Young’s Modulus 24
Isotropic Thermal Expansion 26
Notes 27
Problems 29
3 Mechanical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Introduction 31
Tensile Testing 31
Ductility 35
True Stress and Strain 37
v
vi Contents
Temperature Rise 38
Compression Test 38
PlaneStrain Compression and Tension 42
Biaxial Tension (Hydraulic Bulge Test) 43
Torsion Test 45
Bend Tests 47
Hardness Tests 49
Notes 52
Problems 53
4 Strain Hardening of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Introduction 57
Mathematical Approximations 57
PowerLaw Approximation 59
Necking 59
Work per Volume 62
Localization of Strain at Defects 62
Notes 64
Problems 64
5 Plasticity Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Introduction 67
Yield Criteria 67
Tresca (maximum shear stress criterion) 68
Von Mises Criterion 69
Flow Rules 71
Principle of Normality 73
Effective Stress and Effective Strain 74
Other Isotropic Yield Criteria 77
Effect of Strain Hardening on the Yield Locus 78
Notes 78
Problems 80
6 StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress . . . . . . 84
Introduction 84
StrainRate Dependence of Flow Stress 84
Superplasticity 87
Combined Strain and StrainRate Effects 92
Temperature Dependence 93
Combined Temperature and StrainRate Effects 93
Hot Working 97
Notes 98
Problems 99
Contents vii
7 Viscoelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Introduction 102
Rheological Models 102
Series Combination of a Spring and Dashpot 103
Parallel Combination of Spring and Dashpot 104
Combined ParallelSeries Model 105
More Complex Models 107
Damping 107
Natural Decay 108
Elastic Modulus – Relaxed vs. Unrelaxed 109
Thermoelastic Effect 110
Other Damping Mechanisms 112
Notes 113
Problems 114
8 Creep and Stress Rupture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Introduction 117
Creep Mechanisms 117
Cavitation 121
Rupture vs. Creep 122
Extrapolation Schemes 123
Notes 126
Problems 126
9 Ductility and Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Introduction 130
Ductile Fracture 132
Void Failure Criterion 136
Brittle Fracture 136
Impact Energy 137
Notes 141
Problems 142
10 Fracture Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Introduction 143
Theoretical Fracture Strength 143
Stress Concentration 145
Grifﬁth and Orowan Theories 146
Fracture Modes 147
Irwin’s Fracture Analysis 148
Plastic Zone Size 150
Thin Sheets 152
Metallurgical Variables 153
viii Contents
Fracture Mechanics in Design 154
Compact Tensile Specimens 155
The JIntegral 156
Notes 158
Problems 158
11 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Introduction 161
Surface Observations 161
Nomenclature 163
SN Curves 164
Effect of Mean Stress 166
The PalmgrenMiner Rule 168
Stress Concentration 169
Surface Conditions 171
Design Estimates 173
Metallurgical Variables 174
Strains to Failure 175
Crack Propagation 177
Cyclic StressStrain Behavior 180
Temperature and Cycling Rate Effects 181
Fatigue Testing 182
Design Considerations 182
Notes 183
Problems 184
12 Polymers and Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Introduction 187
Elasticity of Polymers 187
Glass Transition 187
Time Dependence of Properties 189
Rubber Elasticity 190
Yielding 191
Effect of Pressure 194
Crazing 194
Fracture 195
Ceramics 195
Weibull Analysis 195
Porosity 196
Fracture Toughness 198
Toughening of Ceramics 199
Glasses 199
Thermally Induced Stresses 199
Glassy Metals 201
Contents ix
Notes 201
Problems 202
13 Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Introduction 203
FiberReinforced Composites 203
Elastic Properties of FiberReinforced Composites 203
Strength of FiberReinforced Composites 207
Volume Fraction of Fibers 209
Orientation Dependence of Strength 209
Fiber Length 211
Failures with Discontinuous Fibers 213
Failure Under Compression 214
Typical Properties 215
Particulate Composites 216
Lamellar Composites 219
Foams 220
Notes 222
Problems 222
14 Mechanical Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Introduction 224
Bulk Forming Energy Balance 224
Deformation Zone Geometry 229
Friction in Bulk Forming 230
Formability 233
Deep Drawing 234
Stamping 236
Notes 241
Problems 242
15 Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Introduction 246
Elastic Anisotropy 246
Thermal Expansion 250
Anisotropic Plasticity 251
Anisotropy of Fracture 256
Anisotropy in Polymers 257
Notes 257
Problems 258
Index 260
Preface
The intent of this book is to provide a background in the mechanics of solids
for students of mechanical engineering without confusing them with too much
detail on why materials behave as they do. The topics of this book are similar
to those in Deformation and Fracture of Solids by R. M. Caddell. Much of the
material is drawn from another book by the author, Mechanical Behavior of
Materials. To make the text suitable for Mechanical Engineers, the chapters
on slip, dislocations, twinning, residual stresses, and hardening mechanisms
have been eliminated and the treatments in other chapters about ductility, vis
coelasticity, creep, ceramics, and polymers have been simpliﬁed. If there is
insufﬁcient time or interest, the last two chapters, “Mechanical Working” and
“Anisotropy,” may be omitted. It is assumed that the students have already
had courses covering materials science and basic statics.
I want to thank Professor Robert Caddell for the inspiration to write texts.
Discussions with Professor Jwo Pan about what to include were helpful.
Conversions
To convert from To Multiply by
inch, in. meter, m 0.0254
pound force, lb
f
newton, N 0.3048
pounds/inch
2
pascal, Pa 6.895 × 10
3
kilopound/inch
2
megapascal, MPa 6.895 × 10
3
kilograms/mm
2
pascals 9.807 × 10
6
horsepower watts, W 7.457 × 10
2
horsepower ftlb/min 33 × 10
3
footpound joule, J 1.356
calorie joule, J 4.187
SI Preﬁxes
tera T 10
12
pico p 10
−12
giga G 10
9
nano n 10
−9
mega M 10
6
micro µ 10
−6
kilo k 10
3
milli m 10
−3
x
1 Stress and Strain
Introduction
This book is concerned with the mechanical behavior of materials. The term
mechanical behavior refers to the response of materials to forces. Under load,
materials may either deform or break. The factors that govern a material’s
resistance to deforming are very different than those governing its resistance
to fracture. The word strength may refer either to the stress required to deform
a material or to the stress required to cause fracture; therefore, care must be
used with the term strength.
When a material deforms under a small stress, the deformation may be
elastic. In this case when the stress is removed, the material will revert to its
original shape. Most of the elastic deformation will recover immediately. How
ever, there may be some timedependent shape recovery. This timedependent
elastic behavior is called anelasticity or viscoelasticity.
A larger stress may cause plastic deformation. After a material undergoes
plastic deformation, it will not revert to its original shape when the stress is
removed. Usually, a high resistance to deformation is desirable so that a part
will maintain its shape in service when stressed. On the other hand, it is desir
able to have materials deform easily when forming them into useful parts by
rolling, extrusion, and so on. Plastic deformation usually occurs as soon as
the stress is applied. At high temperatures, however, timedependent plastic
deformation called creep may occur.
Fracture is the breaking of a material into two or more pieces. If fracture
occurs before much plastic deformation occurs, we say the material is brittle.
In contrast, if there has been extensive plastic deformation preceding fracture,
the material is considered ductile. Fracture usually occurs as soon as a critical
fracture stress has been reached; however, repeated applications of a some
what lower stress may cause fracture. This is called fatigue.
The amount of deformation that a material undergoes is described by
strain. The forces acting on a body are described by stress. Although the reader
1
2 Solid Mechanics
x
y
z
σ
yz
σ
zy
σ
zz
σ
yx
σ
zx
σ
yy
σ
xy
σ
xz
σ
xx
Figure 1.1. The nine components of stress acting on
an inﬁnitesimal element. The normal stress components
are σ
xx
, σ
yy
, and σ
zz
. The shear stress components are
σ
yz
, σ
zx
, σ
xy
, σ
zy
, σ
xz
, and σ
yx
.
should already be familiar with these terms, they will be reviewed in this
chapter.
Stress
Stress, σ, is deﬁned as the intensity of force at a point,
σ = ∂F/∂A as ∂A →0. (1.1a)
If the state of stress is the same everywhere in a body,
σ = F/A. (1.1b)
A normal stress (compressive or tensile) is one in which the force is normal to
the area on which it acts. With a shear stress, the force is parallel to the area
on which it acts.
Two subscripts are required to deﬁne a stress. The ﬁrst subscript denotes
the normal to the plane on which the force acts, and the second subscript iden
tiﬁes the direction of the force.
∗
For example, a tensile stress in the xdirection
is denoted by σ
xx
, indicating that the force is in the xdirection and it acts on
a plane normal to x. For a shear stress, σ
xy
, a force in the ydirection acts on a
plane normal to x.
Because stresses involve both forces and areas, they are tensor rather than
vector quantities. Nine components of stress are needed to describe fully a
state of stress at a point, as shown in Figure 1.1. The stress component σ
yy
=
F
y
/A
y
describes the tensile stress in the ydirection. The stress component
σ
zy
= F
y
/A
z
is the shear stress caused by a shear force in the y direction acting
on a plane normal to z.
Repeated subscripts denote normal stresses (e.g. σ
xx
, σ
yy
, . . . ), whereas
mixed subscripts denote shear stresses (e.g. σ
xy
, σ
zx
. . . . .) . In tensor notation,
∗
Use of the opposite convention should cause no confusion as σ
i j
= σ
j i
.
Stress and Strain 3
x
y
y
F
y
x
A
F
x
′
F
y
θ
′
′
y
′
′
Figure 1.2. Stresses acting on an area, A
, under a normal force,
F
y
. The normal stress is σ
y
y
= F
y
/A
y
= F
y
cos θ/(A
y
/ cos θ) =
σ
yy
cos
2
θ. The shear stress is τ
y
x
= F
x
/A
y
= F
y
sinθ/(A
yx
/
cos θ) = σ
yy
cos θ sinθ.
the state of stress is expressed as
σ
i j
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
xx
σ
xy
σ
xz
σ
yx
σ
yy
σ
yz
σ
zx
σ
zy
σ
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (1.2)
where i and j are iterated over x, y, and z. Except where tensor notation is
required, it is often simpler to use a single subscript for a normal stress and to
denote a shear stress by τ,
σ
x
= σ
xx
, and τ
xy
= σ
xy
. (1.3)
A stress component, expressed along one set of axes, may be expressed
along another set of axes. Consider the case in Figure 1.2. The body is sub
jected to a stress σ
yy
= F
y
/A
y
. It is possible to calculate the stress acting on a
plane whose normal, y
, is at an angle θ to y. The normal force acting on the
plane is F
y
= F
y
cosθ and the area normal to y
is A
y
/cosθ, so
σ
y
= σ
y
y
= F
y
/A
y
= (F
y
cosθ)/(A
y
/cosθ) = σ
y
cos
2
θ. (1.4a)
Similarly, the shear stress on this plane acting in the x
direction, τ
y
x
(= σ
y
x
),
is given by
τ
y
x
= σ
y
x
= F
x
/A
y
= (F
y
sinθ)/(A
y
/cosθ) = σ
y
cosθsinθ. (1.4b)
Note that the transformation equations involve the product of two cosine
and/or sine terms.
Sign Convention
When we write σ
i j
= F
i
/A
j
, the term σ
i j
is positive if i and j are either both
positive or both negative. On the other hand, the stress component is negative
for a combination of i and j in which one is positive and the other is negative.
For example, in Figure 1.3 the term σ
xx
is positive on both sides of the element
because both the force and normal to the area are negative on the left and
positive on the right. The stress τ
yx
is negative because on the top surface y is
4 Solid Mechanics
τ
yx
< 0
τ
xy
< 0
σ
xx
> 0
y
x
Figure 1.3. The normal stress, σ
xx
, is positive because the direction of the force F
x
and
the plane A
x
are either both positive (right) or both negative (left). The shear stress,
τ
xy
and τ
yx
, are negative because the direction of the force and the normal to the plane
have opposite signs.
positive and the xdirection force is negative, and on the bottom surface the
xdirection force is positive and the normal to the area, y is negative. Similarly,
τ
xy
is negative.
Pairs of shear stress terms with reversed subscripts are always equal. A
moment balance requires that τ
i j
= τ
j i
. If they were not, the element would
rotate (Figure 1.4). For example, τ
yx
= τ
xy
. Therefore, we can write in general
that M
A
= τ
yx
= τ
xy
= 0, so
σ
i j
= σ
j i
, or τ
i j
= τ
j i
. (1.5)
This makes the stress tensor matrix symmetric about the diagonal.
Transformation of Axes
Frequently, it is useful to change the axis system on which a stress state is
expressed. For example, we may want to ﬁnd the shear stress on a inclined
plane from the external stresses. Another example is ﬁnding the normal stress
across a glued joint in a tube subjected to tension and torsion. In general,
a stress state expressed along one set of orthogonal axes (e.g., m, n, and p)
may be expressed along a different set of orthogonal axes (e.g., i, j, and k).
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
A
Figure 1.4. An inﬁnitesimal element under shear stresses,
τ
xy
and τ
yx
. A moment balance about A requires that τ
xy
= τ
yx
.
Stress and Strain 5
x
y
z
x′
y′
z′
Figure 1.5. Two orthogonal coordinate systems, (x, y, z) and (x
, y
, z
).
The stress state may be expressed in terms of either.
The general form of the transformation is
σ
i j
=
3
n=1
3
m=1
i m
j n
σ
mn
. (1.6)
The term
i m
is the cosine of the angle between the i and m axes, and
j n
is
the cosine of the angle between the j and n axes. The summations are over the
three possible values of m and n, namely m, n, and p. This is often written as
σ
i j
=
i m
j n
σ
mn
(1.7)
with the summation implied. The stresses in the (x, y, z) coordinate system in
Figure 1.5 may be transformed onto the (x
, y
, z
) coordinate system by
σ
x
x
=
x
x
x
x
σ
xx
+
x
y
x
x
σ
yx
+
x
z
x
x
σ
zx
+
x
x
x
y
σ
xy
+
x
y
x
y
σ
yy
+
x
z
x
y
σ
zy
+
x
x
x
z
σ
xz
+
x
y
x
z
σ
yz
+
x
z
x
z
σ
zz
(1.8a)
and
σ
y
y
=
x
x
y
x
σ
xx
+
x
y
y
x
σ
yx
+
x
z
y
x
σ
zx
+
x
x
y
y
σ
xy
+
x
y
y
y
σ
yy
+
x
z
y
y
σ
zy
+
x
x
y
z
σ
xz
+
x
y
y
z
σ
yz
+
x
z
y
z
σ
zz
.
(1.8b)
These equations may be simpliﬁed with the notation in Equation 1.3 using
Equation 1.5,
σ
x
=
2
x
x
σ
x
+
2
x
y
σ
y
+
2
x
z
σ
z
+2
x
y
x
z
τ
yz
+2
x
z
x
x
τ
zx
+2
x
x
x
y
τ
xy
(1.9a)
and
τ
x
z
=
x
x
y
x
σ
xx
+
x
y
y
y
σ
yy
+
x
z
y
z
σ
zz
+(
x
y
1
y
z
+
x
z
y
y
)τ
yz
+(
x
z
y
x
+
x
x
y
z
)τ
zx
+(
x
x
y
y
+
x
y
y
x
)τ
xy
.
(1.9b)
Now reconsider the transformation in Figure 1.2. Using equations 1.9a and 19b
with σ
yy
as the only ﬁnite term on the (x, y, z) axis system,
σ
y
=
2
y
y
σ
yy
= σ
y
cos
2
θ and τ
x
y
=
x
y
y
y
σ
yy
= σ
y
cosθsinθ (1.10)
in agreement with Equations 1.4a and 1.4b.
6 Solid Mechanics
Principal Stresses
It is always possible to ﬁnd a set of axes (1, 2, 3) along which the shear stress
components vanish. In this case the normal stresses, σ
1
, σ
2
, and σ
3
, are called
principal stresses and the 1, 2, and 3 axes are the principal stress axes. The
magnitudes of the principal stresses, σ
p
, are the three roots of
σ
3
p
− I
1
σ
2
p
− I
2
σ
p
− I
3
= 0, (1.11)
where
I
1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
,
I
2
= σ
2
yz
+σ
2
zx
+σ
2
xy
−σ
yy
σ
zz
−σ
zz
σ
xx
−σ
xx
σ
yy
I
3
= σ
xx
σ
yy
σ
zz
+2σ
yz
σ
zx
σ
xy
−σ
xx
σ
2
yz
−σ
yy
σ
2
zx
−σ
zz
σ
2
xy
.
(1.12)
The ﬁrst invariant is I
1
= −p/3, where p is the pressure. I
1
, I
2
, and I
3
are inde
pendent of the orientation of the axes and are therefore called stress invariants.
In terms of the principal stresses, the invariants are
I
1
= σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
I
2
= −σ
22
σ
33
−σ
33
σ
11
−σ
11
σ
22
I
3
= σ
11
σ
22
σ
33
.
(1.13)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.1: Find the principal stresses in a body under the
stress state, σ
x
= 10, σ
y
= 8, σ
z
= −5, τ
yz
= τ
zy
= 5, τ
zx
= τ
xz
= −4, and
τ
xy
= τ
yx
= −8, where all stresses are in MPa.
Solution: Using Equation 1.13, I
1
= 10 +8 −5 = 13, I
2
= 5
2
+(−4)
2
+
(−8)
2
−8(−5) −(−5)10−10.8 = 115, I
3
= 10.8(−5) +2.5(−4)(−8) −10.5
2
−
8(−4)
2
−(−5)(−8)
2
= −138 MPa.
Solving Equation 1.11, σ
3
p
−13σ
2
p
−115σ
p
+138 = 0, σ
p
= 1.079, 18.72,
−6.82 MPa.
Mohr’s Stress Circles
In the special case where there are no shear stresses acting on one of the
reference planes (e.g., τ
zy
= τ
zx
= 0), the normal to that plane, z, is a prin
cipal stress direction and the other two principal stress directions lie in the
plane. This is illustrated in Figure 1.6. For these conditions,
x
z
=
y
z
=
0, τ
zy
= τ
zx
= 0,
x
x
=
y
y
= cosφ, and
x
y
= −
y
x
= sinφ. The variation of
the shear stress component τ
x
y
can be found by substituting these conditions
into the stress transformation Equation (1.8b). Substituting
x
z
=
y
z
= 0,
τ
x
y
= cos φsinφ(−σ
xx
+σ
yy
) +(cos
2
φ −sin
2
φ)τ
xy
. (1.14a)
Stress and Strain 7
σ
y
σ
σ
x
τ
yx
τ
xy
x′
y
x
y′
φ
yx
y
x
xy y
x
z
τ
τ
σ
Figure 1.6. Stress state to which Mohr’s circle treatment applies. Two shear stresses,
τ
yz
and τ
zx
, are zero.
Similar substitution into the expressions for σ
x
and σ
y
results in
σ
x
= cos
2
φσ
x
+sin
2
φσ
y
+2 cos φ sinφτ
xy
(1.14b)
and
σ
y
= sin
2
φσ
x
+cos
2
φσ
y
+2 cos φ sinφτ
xy
. (1.14c)
These can be simpliﬁed by substituting the trigonometric identities sin2φ =
2 sinφ cos φ and cos 2φ = cos
2
φ −sinφ,
τ
x
y
= −[(σ
x
−σ
y
)/2]sin2φ +τ
xy
cos2φ (1.15a)
σ
x
= (σ
x
+σ
y
)/2 +[σ
x
−σ
y
)/2]cos2φτ
xy
sin2φ (1.15b)
and
σ
y
= (σ
x
+σ
y
)/2 −[(σ
x
−σ
y
)/2]cos2φ +τ
xy
sin2φ. (1.15c)
Setting τ
x
y
= 0 in Equation 1.15a, φ becomes the angle, θ, between the prin
cipal stresses axes and the x and y axes (see Figure 1.7):
τ
x
y
= 0 = sin2θ(σ
x
−σ
y
)/2 +cos2θτ
xy
or tan 2θ = τ
xy
/[(σ
x
−σ
y
)/2].
(1.16)
The principal stresses σ
1
and σ
2
are the values of σ
x
and σ
y
for this value of
φ,
σ
1,2
= (σ
x
+σ
y
)/2 ±[σ
x
−σ
y
)/2]cos2θ +τ
xy
sin2θ or
σ
1,2
= (σ
x
+σ
y
)/2 ±(1/2)
_
(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
+4τ
2
xy
_
1/2
(1.17)
A Mohr’s circle diagram is a graphical representation of Equations 1.16 and
1.17. It plots as a circle with a radius (σ
1
−σ
2
)/2 centered at
(σ
1
+σ
2
)/2 = (σ
x
+σ
y
)/2 (1.17a)
as shown in Figure 1.7. The normal stress components, σ, are represented on
the ordinate and the shear stress components, τ, on the abscissa. Consider the
8 Solid Mechanics
(
σ
1
+
σ
2
)
/
2
τ
xy
σ
x
(σ
x
− σ
y
)/2
2θ
σ
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
y
(σ
x
+ σ
y
)/2
y
x
1
θ
a b
Figure 1.7. Mohr’s circles for stresses showing the stresses in the xy plane. Note that
the 1axis is rotated clockwise from the xaxis in real space (a), whereas in the Mohr’s
circle diagram (b) the 1axis is rotated counterclockwise from the xaxis.
triangle in Figure 1.7b. Using the Pythagorean theorem, the hypotenuse is
(σ
1
−σ
2
)/2 =
_
[(σ
x
+σ
y
)/2]
2
+τ
2
xy
_
1/2
(1.17b)
and
tan(2θ) = [τ
xy
/[(σ
x
+σ
y
)/2]. (1.17c)
The full threedimensional stress state may be represented by three Mohr’s
circles (Figure 1.7).
The three principal stresses, σ
1
, σ
2
, and σ
3
, are plotted on the horizontal
axis. The circles connecting these represent the stresses in the 1–2, 2–3 and
1–3 planes. The largest shear stress may be either (σ
1
−σ
2
)/2, (σ
2
−σ
3
)/2 or
(9σ
1
−σ
3
)/2.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.2: A body is loaded under stresses σ
x
= 150 MPa,
σ
y
= 60 MPa, τ
xy
= 20 MPa, σ
z
= τ
yz
= τ
zx
= 0. Find the three principal
stresses, sketch the threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagram for this stress
state, and ﬁnd the largest shear stress in the body.
τ
σ
3
σ
1
σ
2θ
τ
xy
σ
2
σ
y
σ
x
Figure 1.8. Three Mohr’s circles representing a stress
state in three dimensions. The three circles represent the
stress states in the 2–3, 3–1, and 1–2 planes.
Stress and Strain 9
τ
σ
3
σ
y
σ
x
σ
σ
2
=
56
σ
1
= 154
τ
xy
Figure 1.9. Mohr’s circles for Example #1.2.
Solution: σ
1
, σ
2
=(σ
x
+σ
y
)/2±{[(σ
x
−σ
y
)/2]
2
+τ
2
xy
}
1/2
=154.2, 55.8 MPa,
σ
3
= σ
z
= 0. Figure 1.9 is the Mohr’s circle diagram. Note that the largest
shear stress, τ
max
= (σ
1
−σ
3
)/2 = 77.1 MPa, is not in the 1–2 plane.
Strains
An inﬁnitesimal normal strain is deﬁned by the change of length, L, of a line:
dε = dL/L. (1.18)
Integrating from the initial length, L
o
, to the current length, L,
ε =
_
dL/L= ln(L/L
o
) (1.19)
This ﬁnite form is called true strain (or natural strain, logarithmic strain). Alter
natively, engineering or nominal strain, e, is deﬁned as
e = L/L
o
. (1.20)
If the strains are small, then the engineering and true strains are nearly equal.
Expressing ε = ln(L/L
o
) = ln(1 +e) as a series expansion, ε = e −e
2
/2 +
e
3
/3!. . . . . . . so as e →0, ε →e. This is illustrated in the following example.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.3: Calculate the ratio of e/ε for several values of e.
Solution: e/ε = e/ln(1 +e). Evaluating:
for e = 0.001, e/ε = 1.0005;
for e = 0.01, e/ε = 1.005;
for e = 0.02, e/ε = 1.010;
for e = 0.05, e/ε = 1.025;
for e = 0.10, e/ε = 1.049;
for e = 0.20, e/ε = 1.097;
for e = 0.50, e/ε = 1.233.
10 Solid Mechanics
Note that the difference e and ε between is less than 1% for e < 0.02
There are several reasons that true strains are more convenient than engi
neering strains:
1. True strains for equivalent amounts of deformation in tension and com
pression are equal except for sign.
2. True strains are additive. For a deformation consisting of several steps,
the overall strain is the sum of the strains in each step.
3. The volume change is related to the sum of the three normal strains. For
constant volume, ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
= 0.
These statements are not true for engineering strains, as illustrated in the
following examples.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.4: An element 1 cm long is extended to twice its
initial length (2 cm) and then compressed to its initial length (1 cm).
a. Find the true strains for the extension and compression.
b. Find the engineering strains for the extension and compression.
Solution: a. During the extension, ε = ln(L/L
o
) = ln2 = 0.693, and during
the compression ε = ln(L/L
o
) = ln(1/2) = −0.693.
b. During the extension, e = L/L
o
= 1/1 = 1.0, and during the comp
ression e = L/L
o
= −1/2 = −0.5.
Note that with engineering strains, the magnitude of strain to reverse the
shape change is different.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.5: A bar 10 cm long is elongated by (1) drawing to
15 cm, and then (2) drawing to 20 cm.
a) Calculate the engineering strains for the two steps and compare the
sum of these with the engineering strain calculated for the overall
deformation.
b) Repeat the calculation with true strains.
Solution: (a) For step 1, e
1
= 5/10 = 0.5; for step 2, e
2
= 5/15 = 0.333.
The sum of these is 0.833, which is less than the overall strain, e
tot
=
10/10 = 1.00
(b) For step 1, ε
1
= ln(15/10) = 0.4055; for step 2, ε
1
= ln(20/15) =
0.2877. The sum is 0.6931, and the overall strain is ε
tot
= ln(15/10) +
ln(20/15) = ln(20/10) = 0.6931.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.6: A block of initial dimensions L
xo
, L
yo
, L
zo
is
deformed so that the new dimensions are L
x
, L
y
, L
z
. Express the volume
strain, ln(V/V
o
), in terms of the three true strains, ε
x
, ε
y
, ε
z
.
Stress and Strain 11
y
X
A
B
C
D
D
′
A
′
B
′
C
′
u
v
dx
dy
u + (∂u/∂x)dx
v + (∂v/∂y)dy
Figure 1.10. Translation, rotation, and distortion of a
twodimensional body.
Solution: (a) V/V
o
= L
x
L
y
L
z
/(L
xo
L
yo
L
zo
), so ln(V/V
o
) = ln(L
x
/L
xo
) +
ln(L
y
/L
yo
) +ln(L
z
/L
zo
) = ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
.
Note that if there is no volume change, ln(V/V
o
) = 0, and the sum of
the normal strains is
ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
= 0.
Small Strains
As bodies deform, they often undergo translations and rotations as well as
deformation. Strain must be deﬁned in such a way as to exclude the effects
of translation and rotation. Consider a twodimensional body in Figure 1.10.
Normal strains are deﬁned as the fractional extensions (tensile) or contrac
tions (compressive), L/L
o
, so ε
xx
= (A
D
− AD)/AD= A
D
/AD−1.
For a small strain, this reduces to
ε
xx
= (∂u/∂x)dx/dx = ∂u/∂x. (1.21)
Similarly,
ε
yy
= (∂v/∂y)/dy/dy = ∂v/∂y. (1.22)
Shear strains are similarly deﬁned in terms of the angles between AD and
A
D
and between AB and A
B
, which are respectively
(∂v/∂x)dx/dx = ∂v/∂x and (∂u/∂y)dy/dy = ∂u/∂y.
The total engineering shear strain, γ
yx
, is the sum of these angles,
γ
yx
= ∂v/∂x +∂u/∂y = γ
xy
. (1.23)
Figure 1.11 shows that this deﬁnition excludes the effects of rotation for small
strains.
12 Solid Mechanics
+ =
a b c
Figure 1.11. Illustration of shear and rotation. With small deformations, (a) differs
from (c) only by a rotation, (b).
For a threedimensional body with displacements w in the zdirection,
ε
yy
= ∂v/∂ y, γ
yz
= γ
zy
= ∂w/∂y +∂v/∂z, and γ
yx
= γ
xy
= ∂v/∂x +∂u/∂y
Small strains can be treated as tensors,
ε
i j
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ε
xx
ε
yx
ε
zx
ε
xy
ε
yy
ε
yz
ε
xz
ε
yz
ε
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (1.24)
where the mathematical shear strains, ε
i j
, are one half of the engineering shear
strains, γ
i j
:
ε
yz
= ε
zy
= (1/2)γ
yz
= (1/2)(∂v/∂z +∂w/dy)
ε
zx
= ε
xz
= (1/2)γ
zx
= (1/2)(∂w/∂x +∂u/dz
ε
xy
= ε
yx
= (1/2)γ
xy
= (1/2)(∂u/∂y +∂v/∂x).
(1.25)
Transformation of Axes
Small strains may be transformed from one set of axes to another in a manner
completely analogous to the transformation of stresses (see Equation 1.9),
ε
i j
=
i m
j n
ε
mn
, (1.26)
where double summation is implied. For example,
ε
x
x
=
x
x
x
x
ε
xx
+
x
y
x
x
ε
yx
+
x
z
x
x
ε
zx
+
x
x
x
y
ε
xy
+
x
y
x
y
ε
yy
+
x
z
x
y
ε
zy
+
x
x
x
z
ε
xz
+
x
y
x
z
ε
yz
+
x
z
x
z
ε
zz
(1.27a)
and
ε
x
y
=
x
x
y
x
ε
xx
+
x
y
y
x
ε
yx
+
x
z
y
x
ε
zx
+
x
x
y
y
ε
xy
+
x
y
y
y
ε
yy
+
x
z
y
y
ε
zy
+
x
x
y
z
ε
xz
+
x
y
y
z
ε
yz
+
x
z
y
z
ε
zz
.
(1.27b)
Stress and Strain 13
1
x
x′
1
or
1.10
2
0.95
y
0.5
Figure 1.12. Small and large deformations of a body.
These can be written more simply in terms of the usual shear strains,
ε
x
=
2
x
x
ε
x
+
2
x
y
ε
y
+
2
x
z
ε
z
+
x
y
x
z
γ
yz
+
x
z
x
x
γ
zx
+
x
x
x
y
γ
xy
(1.28a)
and
γ
x
y
= 2(
x
x
y
x
ε
x
+
x
y
y
y
ε
y
+
x
z
y
z
ε
z
)
+(
x
y
y
z
+
x
z
y
y
)γ
yz
+(
x
z
y
x
+
x
x
y
z
)γ
zx
+(
x
x
y
y
+
x
y
y
x
)γ
xy
.
(1.28b)
Large strains are not tensors and cannot be transformed from one axis
system to another by a tensor transformation. The reason is that the angles
between material directions are altered by deformation. With small strains,
changes of angle are small and can be neglected. The following example illus
trates this point.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.7: A twodimensional square body initially 1.000 cm
by 1.000 cm was deformed into a rectangle 0.95 cm by 1.10 cm as shown in
Figure 1.12.
a. Calculate the strain, e
x
, along the diagonal from its initial and ﬁnal
dimensions. Then calculate the strains, e
x
and e
y
, along the edges and
use the transformation equation, e
i j
=
i m
j n
e
mn
, to ﬁnd the strain
along the diagonal and compare with the two values of e
x
.
b. Repeat (a) for a 1.000 cm by 1.000 cm square deformed into a 0.50 cm
by 2.0 cm rectangle.
Solution: (a) The initial diagonal is
√
2 = 1.414214, and for the small defor
mation the ﬁnal diagonal becomes
√
(0.95
2
+1.1
2
) = 1.4534, soe
x
=
(L− L
o
)/L
o
= L/L
o
−1 = 1.4534/1.414214 −1 = 0.0277.
Taking the angle, θ, between the x
and x (or y) axes as 45
◦
, e
x
=
2
x
x
e
x
+
2
x
y
e
y
= 0.1/2 −0.05/2 = 0.025, which is very close to 0.0277.
(b) For the large deformation, the diagonal becomes
_
(2
2
+0.5
2
) = 2.062
so calculating the strain from this, e
x
= 2.062/1.414214 −1 = 0.4577.
14 Solid Mechanics
ε
ε
1
ε
2
ε
y
ε
x
γ
xy
/2
γ
xy
/2
γ/2
Figure 1.13. Mohr’s circle for strain. This is similar to
the Mohr’s stress circle except that the normal strain,
ε (or e), is plotted on the horizontal axis (instead of σ)
and γ /2 is plotted vertically (instead of τ).
The strains on the edges are e
x
= 1 and e
y
= −0.5, so e
x
=
2
x
x
e
x
+
x
y
2 e
y
= (1/2)(1) +(1/2)(−.5) = 0.0250, which does not agree with e
x
=
0.4577 calculated from the specimen dimensions. With true strains, the
agreement is not much better. Direct calculation of e
x
from the diagonal
gives e
x
= ln(2.062/1.414) = 0.377, and calculation from the strains along
the sides gives e
x
= (1/2)ln(2) +(1/2)ln(.5) = 0. The reason is that with
large strains, the angle θ changes with deformation.
Mohr’s Strain Circles
Because small strains are tensor quantities, Mohr’s circle diagrams apply if the
strains e
x
, e
y
, and γ
xy
are known along two axes and the third axis, z, is a prin
cipal strain axis (γ
yz
= γ
zx
= 0). The strains may be either engineering, e, or
true, ε, because they are equal when small. Care must be taken to remember
that the tensor shearstrain terms are only one half of the conventional shear
strains. A plot of γ /2 vs. e (or ε) is a circle, as shown in Figure 1.13. The equa
tions, analogous to those for stresses, are
(e
1
+e
2
)/2 = (e
x
+e
y
)/2 (1.29)
(e
1
−e
2
)/2 = {[(e
x
−e
y
)/2]
2
+(γ
xy
/2)}
1/2
(1.30)
e
1
,e
2
= (e
x
+e
y
)/2 ±{[(e
x
−e
y
)/2]
2
+(γ
xy
/2)
2
}
1/2
(1.31)
tan(2θ) = (γ
xy
/2)/[(e
x
−e
y
)/2] = γ
xy
/(e
x
−e
y
) (1.32)
As with Mohr’s stress circles, a threedimensional strain state can be repre
sented by three Mohr’s circles. It is emphasized that the strain transformation
equations, including the Mohr’s circle equations, apply to small strains. Errors
increase when the strains are large enough to cause rotation of the axes.
Stress and Strain 15
e e
e
y
= e
z e
y
= e
z
e
y
e
z e
x
e
x
e
γ/2 γ/2 γ/2
e
x
a b c
Figure 1.14. Threedimensional Mohr’s strain circles for (A) tension, (B) plane strain,
(C) compression. In A and C, the circles between e
y
and e
z
reduce to a point and the
circles between e
x
and e
y
coincide with the circles between e
x
and e
z
.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.8: Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s circle dia
gramfor an xdirection tension test (assume e
y
= e
z
= −e
x
/3), plane strain
(e
y
= 0), and an xdirection compression test (assume e
y
= e
z
= −e
x
/3).
In each case, determine γ
max
.
Solution: The threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagrams are shown in
Figure 1.14.
Force and Moment Balances
The solutions of many mechanics problems require force and moment bal
ances. The external forces acting on one half of the body must balance those
acting across the cut. Consider force balances to ﬁnd the stresses in the walls
of a capped thinwall tube loaded by internal pressure.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.9: A capped thinwall tube having a length, L, a
diameter, D, and a wall thickness, t, is loaded by an internal pressure P.
Find the stresses in the wall assuming that t is much smaller than D and
that D is much less than L.
Solution: First make a cut perpendicular to the axis of the tube (Fig
ure 1.15a), and consider the vertical (ydirection) forces. The force from
the pressurization is the pressure, P, acting on the end area of the tube,
PπD
2
/4. The force in the wall is the stress, σ
y
, acting on the crosssection
of the wall, σ
y
πDt . Balancing the forces, PπD
2
/4 = σ
y
πDt , and solving
for σ
y
,
σ
y
= PD/(4t ) (1.33)
The hoop stress, σ
x
, can be found from a force balance across a vertical cut
(Figure 15b). The force acting to separate the tube is the pressure, P, act
ing on the internal area, DL, where L is the tube length. This is balanced
16 Solid Mechanics
P
σ
y
σ
y
t
D D
P
σ
x
σ
x
t
a b
Figure 1.15. Cuts through a thinwall tube
loaded under internal pressure.
by the hoop stress in the two walls, σ
x
, acting on the crosssectional area
of the two walls, 2Lt. (The force in the capped ends is neglected because
the tube is long and we are interested in the stress in regions remote from
the ends.) Equating these two forces, PDL = σ
x
2t,
σ
x
= PD/(2t ) = 2σ
y
. (1.34)
The stress in the radial direction though the wall thickness, σ
z
, is negligible
relative to σ
x
and σ
y
if Dt . On the inside surface, σ
z
= −P, and on the
outside surface, σ
z
= 0. The average, −P/2, is much less than PD/(2t ), so
for engineering purposes we can take σ
z
= 0.
A moment balance may be made about any axis in a body under equilib
rium. The moment caused by external forces must equal the moment caused
by internal stresses. An example is the torsion of a circular rod.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.10: Relate the internal shear stress, τ
xy
, in a rod of
radius, R, to the torque, T, acting on the rod.
Solution: Consider a differential element of dimensions (2πr)(dr) in a
tubular element at a radius, r, from the axis and of thickness dr (Fig
ure 1.16). The shear force acting on this element is the shear stress multi
plied by the area, τ
xy
(2πr)(dr). The torque about the central axis caused
by this element is the shear force multiplied by the distance from the axis,
r, dT = τ
xy
(2πr)(r)dr, so
T = 2π
_
R
0
τ
xy
r
2
dr (1.35)
An explicit solution requires knowledge of how τ
xy
varies with r.
R
r
dr
τ
xy
x
y
z
Figure 1.16. A differential element of area 2πrdr
in a rod loaded under torsion. The shear stress,
τ
xy
, on this element causes a differential moment,
2πτ
xy
r2dr.
Stress and Strain 17
A
x
y
z
B
Figure 1.17. Grooved plate. The material out
side the groove affects the xdirection ﬂowinside
the groove, so ε
xA
= ε
xB
.
Common Boundary Conditions
It is important in analyzing mechanical problems to recognize simple, often
unstated, boundary conditions and use them to make simplifying assumptions.
1) Free surfaces: On a free surface, the two shear stress components in the
surface vanish, that is, if z is the normal to a free surface, τ
yz
= τ
zx
= 0.
Unless there is a pressure acting on a free surface, the stress normal to it
also vanishes, that is, σ
zz
= 0. Likewise, there are no shear stresses, τ
yz
=
τ
zx
, acting on surfaces that are assumed to be frictionless.
2) Constraints from neighboring regions: The deformation in a particular
region is often controlled by the deformation in a neighboring region.
Consider the deformation in a long narrow groove in a plate as shown in
Figure 1.17. The long narrow groove (B) is in close contact with a thicker
region (A). As the plate deforms, the deformation in the groove must be
compatible with the deformation outside the groove. Its elongation or con
traction must be the same as that in the material outside so that ε
xA
= ε
xB
.
The y and zdirection strains in the two regions need not be the same.
3) St. Venant’s principle states that the restraint from any end or edge
effect will disappear within one characteristic distance. As an example, the
enlarged end of a tensile bar (Figure 1.18) tends to suppress lateral con
traction of the gauge section next to it. Here the characteristic distance
is the diameter of the gauge section, so the constraint is almost gone at a
distance from the enlarged end equal to the diameter.
Another example of St. Venant’s principle is a thin, wide sheet bent to
a constant radius of curvature (Figure 1.20). The condition of plane strain
(ε
y
= 0) prevails over most of the material. This is because the top and bot
tom surfaces are so close that they restrain one another from contracting or
expanding. Appreciable deviation from plane strain occurs only within a dis
tance from the edges of the sheet equal to the sheet thickness. At the edge,
σ
y
= 0.
d
d d Figure 1.18. In the gauge section of a tensile bar, the
effect of the ends almost disappears at a distance, d, from
the shoulder.
18 Solid Mechanics
z
x
y
Figure 1.19. Bending of a thin sheet. Plane strain (ε
y
=
0) prevails except near the edges, where there is a condi
tion of plane stress (σ
V
= 0).
Note
The simpliﬁcation of the notation for tensor transformation of σ
i j
=
3
n=1
3
m=1
i m
j n
σ
mn
to σ
i j
=
i m
j n
σ
mn
has been attributed to Albert Ein
stein.
Problems
1. A body is loaded under a stress state, σ
x
= 400, σ
y
= 100, τ
xy
= 120, τ
yz
=
τ
zx
= σ
z
= 0.
a. Sketch the Mohr’s circle diagram.
b. Calculate the principal stresses.
c. What is the largest shear stress in the body? (Do not neglect the z direc
tion.)
2. Three strain gauges have been pasted on the surface of a piece of steel
in the pattern shown in Figure 1.20. While the steel is under load, these
gauges indicate the strains parallel to their axes:
Gauge A = 450 ×10
−6
: Gauge B = 300 ×10
−6
: Gauge C = 150 ×
10
−6
a. Calculate the principal strains ε
1
and ε
2
.
b. Find the angle between the 1axis and the xaxis, where 1 is the axis
of the largest principal strain. [Hint: Let the direction of Gauge B be
x
, write the strain transformation equation expressing the strain e
x
in
terms of the strains along the xy axes, solve for γ
xy
, and ﬁnally use the
Mohr’s circle equations.]
3. Consider a thinwall tube that is 1 in. in diameter and has a 0.010 in. wall
thickness. Let x, y, and z be the axial, tangential (hoop), and radial direc
tions, respectively.
G
a
u
g
e
C
Gauge A
G
a
u
g
e
B
40°
y
x
Figure 1.20. Arrangement of strain gauges.
Stress and Strain 19
y
x
y
x
34°
Figure 1.21. Circle grids printed on a metal sheet.
a. The tube is subjected to an axial tensile force of 80 lbs and a torque of
100 in.lbs.
i. Sketch the Mohr’s stress circle diagram showing stresses in the xy
plane.
ii. What is the magnitude of the largest principal stress?
iii. At what angles are the principal stress axes, 1 and 2, to the x and y
directions?
b. Now let the tube be capped and let it be subject to an internal pressure
of 120 psi and a torque of 100 in.lbs.
i. Sketch the Mohr’s stress circle diagram showing stresses in the xy
plane.
ii. What is the magnitude of the largest principal stress?
iii. At what angles are the principal stress axes, 1 and 2, to the x and y
directions?
4. A solid is deformed under planestrain conditions (ε
z
= 0). The strains in
the xy plane are ε
x
= 0.010, ε
y
= 0.005, and γ
xy
= 0.007.
a. Sketch the Mohr’s strain circle diagram.
b. Find the magnitude of ε
1
and ε
2
.
c. What is the angle between the 1 and xaxes?
d. What is the largest shear strain in the body? (Do not neglect the z direc
tion.)
5. A grid of circles, each 10.00 mm in diameter, was etched on the surface
of a sheet of steel (Figure 1.21). When the sheet was deformed, the grid
circles were distorted into ellipses. Measurement of one indicated that the
major and minor diameters were 11.54 mm and 10.70 mm, respectively.
a. What are the principal strains, ε
1
and ε
2
?
b. If the axis of the major diameter of the ellipse makes an angle of 34
◦
with the xdirection, what is the shear strain, γ
xy
?
c. Draw the Mohr’s strain circle showing ε
1
, ε
2
, ε
x
, and ε
y
.
7. Consider the torsion of a rod that is 1 m long and 50 mm in diameter.
a. If one end of the rod is twisted by 1.2
◦
relative to the other end, what
would be the largest principal strain on the surface?
x
θ
Figure 1.22. Glued rod.
20 Solid Mechanics
b. If the rod were extended by 1.2%and its diameter decreased by 0.4%at
the same time it was being twisted, what would be the largest principal
strain?
8. Two pieces of rod are glued together along a joint whose normal makes
an angle, θ, with the rod axis, x, as shown in Figure 1.22. The joint will fail
if the shear stress on the joint exceeds its shear strength, τ
max
. It will also
fail if the normal stress across the joint exceeds its normal strength, σ
max
.
The shear strength, τ
max
, is 80% of the normal strength, σ
max
. The rod will
be loaded in uniaxial tension along its axis, and it is desired that the rod
carry as high a tensile force, F
x
, as possible. The angle, θ, cannot exceed
65
◦
.
a. At what angle, θ, should the joint be made so that a maximum force
can be carried?
b. If θ
max
were limited to 45
◦
instead of 65
◦
, how would your answer be
altered? [Hint: Plot σ
x
/σ
max
vs. θ for both failure modes.]
9. Consider a tube made by coiling and gluing a strip as show in Figure 1.23.
The diameter is 1.5 in., the length is 6 in., and the wall thickness is 0.030 in.
If a tensile force of 80 lbs and a torque of 30 in.lbs are applied in the
direction shown, what is the stress normal to the glued joint? [Hint: Set up
a coordinate system.]
Torque
Tension
0.030 in
68
°
1.5 in
Figure 1.23. Tube formed from a coiled and glued strip.
2 Elasticity
Introduction
Elastic deformation is reversible. When a body deforms elastically under a
load, it will revert to its original shape as soon as the load is removed. A rubber
band is a familiar example. However, most materials can undergo very much
less elastic deformation than rubber. In crystalline materials elastic strains are
small, usually less than 0.5%. For most materials other than rubber, it is safe
to assume that the amount of deformation is proportional to the stress. This
assumption is the basis of the following treatment. Because elastic strains are
small, it does not matter whether the relations are expressed in terms of engi
neering strains, e, or true strains, ε. The treatment in this chapter covers elastic
behavior of isotropic materials, the temperature dependence of elasticity, and
thermal expansion. Anisotropic elastic behavior is covered in Chapter 15.
Isotropic Elasticity
An isotropic material is one that has the same properties in all directions. If
uniaxial tension is applied in the xdirection, the tensile strain is ε
x
= σ
x
/E,
where E is Young’s modulus. Uniaxial tension also causes lateral strains ε
y
=
ε
z
= −υε
x
, where υ is Poisson’s ratio. Consider the strain, ε
x
, produced by a
general stress state, σ
x
, σ
y
, σ
z
. The stress, σ
x
, causes a contribution ε
x
= σ
x
/E.
The stresses σ
y
, σ
z
cause Poisson contractions ε
x
= −υσ
y
/Eand ε
x
= −υσ
z
/E.
Taking into account these Poisson contractions, the general statement of
Hooke’s law is
ε
x
= (1/E)[σ
x
−υ(σ
y
+σ
z
)]. (2.1a)
Shear strains are affected only by the corresponding shear stress, so
γ
yz
= τ
yz
/G = 2ε
yz
, (2.1b)
21
22 Solid Mechanics
y
x
1
2
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
σ
σ
1
σ
2
γ
xy
/2
γ/2
e
e
2
e
1
Figure 2.1. Mohr’s stress and strain circles for shear.
where G is the shear modulus. Similar expressions apply for all directions:
ε
x
= (1/E)[σ
x
−υ(σ
y
+σ
z
)] γ
yz
= τ
yz
/G
ε
y
= (1/E)[σ
y
−υ(σ
z
+σ
x
)] γ
zx
= τ
zx
/G
ε
z
= (1/E)[σ
z
−υ(σ
x
+σ
y
)] γ
xy
= τ
xy
/G.
(2.2)
Equations 2.1 and 2.2 hold whether or not the x, y, and z directions are direc
tions of principal stress.
For an isotropic material, the shear modulus, G, is not independent of E
and υ. This can be demonstrated by considering a state of pure shear, τ
xy
, with
σ
x
= σ
y
= σ
z
= τ
yz
= τ
zx
= 0. The Mohr’s circle diagram, Figure 2.1, shows
that the principal stresses are σ
1
= τ
xy
, σ
2
= −τ
xy
, and σ
3
= 0.
From Hooke’s law, ε
1
= (1/E)[σ
1
−υ(σ
2
+σ
3
)] = (1/E)[τ
xy
−υ(−τ
xy
+
0)] = [(1 +υ)/E]τ. The Mohr’s strain circle diagram (Figure 2.1) shows that
γ
xy
/2 = ε
1
. Substituting for σ
1
, γ
xy
/2 = [(1 +υ)/E]τ
xy
. Now comparing with
γ
xy
= τ
xy
/G,
G= E/[2(1 +υ)]. (2.3)
The bulk modulus, B, is deﬁned by the relation between the volume strain
and the mean stress,
V/V = (1/B)σ
m
, (2.4)
where σ
m
= (σ
x
+σ
y
+σ
z
)/3. Like the shear modulus, the bulk modulus is not
independent of E and υ. This can be demonstrated by considering the vol
ume strain produced by a state of hydrostatic stress, σ
x
= σ
y
= σ
z
= σ
m
. It was
shown in Example Problem 1.7 that for small deformations, the vol
ume strain V/V = ε
x
+ε
y
+ε
z
. Substituting ε
x
= (1/E)[σ
x
−υ(σ
y
+σ
z
)] =
(1/E)[σ
m
−υ(σ
m
+σ
m
)] = [(1 −2υ)/E]σ
m
. Then V/V = 3σ
m
(1 −2υ)/E.
Comparing with V/V = (1/B)σ
m
,
B = E/[3(1 −2υ)]. (2.5)
For most materials, Poisson’s ratio is between 0.2 and 0.4. The value
of υ for an isotropic material cannot exceed 0.5; if υ were larger than 0.5,
B would be negative, which would imply an increase of pressure would cause
an increase of volume.
Elasticity 23
ρ
θ
z
x
y
t
Figure 2.2. Bent sheet. The strain e
y
and the stress σ
z
are zero.
Any of the four elastic constants, E, υ, G, or B can be expressed in terms
of two others:
E = 2G(1 +υ) = 3B(1 −2υ) = 9BG/(G+3B) (2.6a)
υ = E/2G−1 = 1/2 − E/6B) = 1/2 −(3/2)G/(3B+ G) (2.6b)
G= E/[2(1 +υ)] = 3EB/(9B −E) = (3/2)E(1 −2υ)/(1 +υ) (2.6c)
B = E/[3(1 −2υ)] = EG/[3(3G−E)] = (2/3)G(1 +υ)/(1 −2υ). (2.6d)
Only three of the six normal stresses and strain components, e
x
, e
y
, e
z
,
σ
x
, σ
y
, or σ
z
, need be known to ﬁnd the other three. This is illustrated in the
following examples.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.1: A wide sheet (1 mm thick) of steel is bent elasti
cally to a constant radius of curvature, ρ = 50 cm, measured from the axis
of bending to the center of the sheet, as shown in Figure 2.2. Knowing that
E = 208 GPa and υ = 0.29 for steel, ﬁnd the stress in the surface. Assume
that there is no net force in the plane of the sheet.
Solution: Designate the directions as shown in Figure 2.2. Inspection
shows that σ
z
= 0 because the stress normal to a free surface is zero. Also
e
y
= 0 because the sheet is wide relative to its thickness and e
y
must be
the same on top and bottom surfaces, therefore it equals zero. Finally,
the strain e
x
at the outer surface can be found geometrically as e
x
=
(t /2)/r = (1/2)/500 = 0.001. Now substituting into Hooke’s laws (Equa
tion 2.2), e
y
= (1/E)[σ
y
−v(σ
x
−0)], so σ
y
= vσ
x
. Substituting again,
e
x
= t /(2r) = (1/E)[σ
x
−v(σ
y
−0)] = (1/E)(σ
x
−v
2
σ
x
) = σ
x
(1 −v
2
)/E.
σ
x
= [t /(2r)]E/(1 −v
2
)] = (0.001)(208 ×10
9
)/(1 −0.29
2
) = 227 MPa.
σ
y
= vσ
x
= 0.29 · 227 = 65.8 MPa.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.2: A body is loaded elastically so that e
y
= 0
and σ
z
= 0. Both σ
x
and σ
y
are ﬁnite. Derive an expression for e
z
in terms
of σ
x
, E, and υ only.
24 Solid Mechanics
γ/2
e
e
2
= e
1
e
3
= −(2/3)e
1
(γ/2)
max
= (5/6)e
1
Figure 2.3. Mohr’s strain circles for an elastic body
under biaxial tension. Because the (σ
1
− σ
2
) circle
reduces to a point, the (σ
1
− σ
3
) and (σ
2
− σ
3
) circles
are superimposed as a single circle.
Solution: Substituting e
y
= 0 and σ
z
= 0 into Hooke’s law (Equation 2.2),
0 = (1/E)[σ
y
−υ(0 +σ
x
)], so σ
y
= υσ
x
.
Substituting into Hooke’s law again,
e
z
= (1/E)[0 −υ(σ
x
+σ
x
)] = −σ
x
υ(1 +υ)/E.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.3: Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s strain cir
cle diagram for a body loaded elastically under balanced biaxial tension,
σ
1
= σ
2
. Assume υ = 0.25. What is the largest shear strain, γ ?
Solution: With σ
1
= σ
2
and σ
3
= 0, from symmetry, e
1
= e
2
, so using
Hooke’s laws, e
1
= (1/E)(σ
1
−vσ
1
) = 0.75σ
1
/E, e
3
= (1/E)[0 −υ(σ
1
+
σ
1
)] = −0.5σ
1
. The maximum shear strain, γ
max
= (e
1
−e
3
) = 1.25σ
1
/E.
In Figure 2.3, e
1
, e
2
, and e
3
are plotted on the horizontal axis. The circle
has a radius of 0.625σ
1
/E = (5/6)e
1
with e
2
= e
1
and e
3
= (−2/3)e
1
.
Variation of Young’s Modulus
The binding energy between two neighboring atoms or ions can be represented
by a potential well. Figure 2.4 is a schematic plot showing how the binding
energy varies with the separation of atoms. At absolute zero, the equilibrium
separation corresponds to the lowest energy. The Young’s modulus and the
melting point are both related to the potential well; the modulus depends
on the curvature at the bottom of the well, and the melting point depends
on the depth of the well. The curvature and the depth tend to be related, so
the elastic moduli of different elements roughly correlate with their melting
points (Figure 2.5). The modulus also correlates with the heat of fusion and the
latent heat of melting, which are related to the depth of the potential well. For
a given metal, the elastic modulus decreases as the temperature is increased
Elasticity 25
atomic separation
equilibrium separation
e
n
e
r
g
y
Figure 2.4. Schematic plot of the variation of binding energy
with atomic separation at absolute zero.
from absolute zero to the melting point. This is illustrated for several metals in
Figure 2.6. The value of the elastic modulus at the melting point is in the range
of onethird and oneﬁfth its value at absolute zero.
For crystalline materials, the elastic modulus is generally regarded as
being relatively structureinsensitive to changes of microstructure. Young’s
moduli of bodycentered cubic (bcc) and facecentered cubic (fcc) forms of
iron differ by a relatively small amount. Heat treatments that have large effects
on hardness and yield strength, have little effect on the elastic properties. Cold
working and small alloy additions also have relatively small effects because
only a small fraction of the nearneighbor bonds are affected by these changes.
The elastic behavior of polymers is very different from that of metals. The
elastic strains are largely a result of straightening polymer chains by rotation of
600
400
200
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Cd
Sn
Al
Mg
Ag
Au
Cu
Mn
V
Zr
Fe
Co
Ni
Be
Rh
Cr
Mo
Re
W
Ir
Melting temperature, K
Y
o
u
n
g
’
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
G
P
a
Figure 2.5. Correlation between elastic modulus at room temperature and melting
point. Elements with higher melting points have greater elastic moduli.
26 Solid Mechanics
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature, K
Y
o
u
n
g
’
s
M
o
d
u
l
u
s
G
P
a
aluminum
copper
iron
Figure 2.6. Variation of Young’s modulus with temperature. Young’s moduli decrease
with increasing temperature. However, the moduli at the melting point are less than
ﬁve times that at 0 K. Data from W. Koster, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde, v. 39 (1948).
bonds rather than by bond stretching. Consequently, Young’s moduli of typi
cal polymers of are orders of magnitudes lower that those of metals and ceram
ics. Only in highly oriented polymers is the stretching of covalent bonds the
primary source of elastic strains and the elastic moduli of highly oriented poly
mers are comparable with metals and ceramics. For polymers, the magnitude
of elastic strain is often much greater than in metals and ceramics. Hooke’s
law does not describe the elasticity of rubber very well. This is treated in
Chapter 12.
Isotropic Thermal Expansion
When the temperature of an isotropic material is changed, its fractional change
in length is
L/L= αT. (2.7)
Such dimension changes can be considered strains, and Hooke’s law can be
generalized to include thermal strains:
e
x
= (1/E)[σ
x
−υ(σ
y
+σ
z
)] +αL. (2.8)
This generalization is useful for ﬁnding the stresses that arise when constrained
bodies are heated or cooled.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.4: A glaze is applied on a ceramic body by heating
above it 600
◦
C, which allows it to ﬂow over the surface. On cooling,
Elasticity 27
Body
Glaze
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
= 0
Figure 2.7. Stresses in a glaze.
the glaze becomes rigid at 500
◦
C (see Figure 2.7). The coefﬁcients of
thermal expansion of the glaze and the body are α
g
= 4.0 ×10
−6
/
◦
C and
α
b
= 5.5 ×10
−6
/
◦
C. The elastic constants for the glaze are E
g
=70 GPa and
υ
g
= 0.3. Calculate the stresses in the glaze when it has cooled to 20
◦
C.
Solution: Let the direction normal to the surface be z so the x and y direc
tions lie in the surface. The strains in the x and y directions must be the
same in the glaze and the body,
e
xg
= (1/E
g
)[σ
xg
−υ
g
(σ
yg
+σ
zg
)] +α
g
T
= (1/E
b
)[σ
xb
−υ
b
(σ
yb
+σ
zb
)] +α
b
T.
Taking σ
zg
= σ
zb
= 0 (free surface) and σ
xg
= σ
yg
(symmetry), σ
xb
=
σ
yb
= 0. Because the glaze is very thin, the stress in the ceramic body,
σ
xb
= σ
yb
, required for force a balance, t
b
σ
xb
+t
g
σ
xg
= 0, is negligible.
Hence,
(1/E
g
)[σ
xg
(1 −υ
g
)] +α
g
T = α
b
T,
σ
xg
= [E
g
/(1 −υ
g
)](α
b
−α
g
)T
= [(70 ×10
9
Pa)/(1 −0.3)]](4 −5.5)(10
−6
/
◦
C)(−480
◦
C)
= −72MPa (compression) on cooling
The elastic constants and thermal expansion coefﬁcients for various mate
rials are given in Table 2.1.
Notes
Robert Hooke (1635–1703) was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal
Society on the recommendation of Robert Boyle. In that post, he devised
apparati to clarify points of discussion as well as to demonstrate his ideas. He
28 Solid Mechanics
Table 2.1. Elastic constants and thermal expansion coefﬁcient for
various materials
Thermal expansion
Material E (GPa) Poisson’s ratio coefﬁcient (×10
−6
/
◦
C)
aluminum 62 0.24 23.6
iron 208.2 0.291 11.8
copper 128 0.35 16.5
magnesium 44 – 27.1
nickel 207 0.31 13.3
MgO 205 – 9
Al
3
O
3
350 – 9
glass 70 – 9
polystyrene 2.8 – 63
PVC 0.35 – 190
nylon 2.8 – 100
noted that when he put weights on a string or a spring, its deﬂection was pro
portional to the weight. Hooke was a contemporary of Isaac Newton, whom
he envied. Several times he claimed to have discovered things attributed to
Newton but was never able to substantiate these claims.
Thomas Young (1773–1829) studied medicine but because of his interest
in science, he took a post as lecturer at the Royal Institution. In his lectures,
he was the ﬁrst to deﬁne the concept of a modulus of elasticity, although he
deﬁned it quite differently than we do today. He described the modulus of
elasticity in terms of the deformation at the base of a column due to its own
weight.
Louis Navier (1785–1836) wrote a book on the strength of materials in
1826, in which he deﬁned the elastic modulus as the load per unit cross
sectional area and determined E for iron.
Because his family was poor, S. D. Poisson (1781–1840) did not have a
chance to learn to read or write until he was 15. After two years of visiting
mathematics classes, he passed the exams for admission to
´
Ecole Polytech
nique with distinction. He realized that axial elongation, e, must be accompa
nied by lateral contraction, which he took as (−1/4)e, not realizing that the
ratio of contractile strain to elongation strain is a property that varies from
material to material.
REFERENCES
H. B. Huntington, The Elastic Constants of Crystals, Academic Press (1964).
Simons & Wang, Single Crystal Elastic Constants and Calculated Properties – A Hand
book, MIT Press (1971).
W. K¨ oster and H. Franz, Metals Review, v. 6 (1961) pp. 1–55.
Elasticity 29
Problems
1. Reconsider Problem 2 in Chapter 1 and assume that E = 205 GPa and
υ = 0.29.
A. Calculate the principal stresses under load.
B. Calculate the strain, ε
z
.
2. Consider a thinwalled tube, capped at each end and loaded under internal
pressure. Calculate the ratio of the axial strain to the hoop strain, assuming
that the deformation is elastic. Assume E = 10
7
psi and υ = 1/3. Does the
length of the tube increase, decrease, or remain constant?
3. A sheet of metal was deformed elastically under balanced biaxial tension
(σ
x
= σ
y
, σ
z
= 0).
A. Derive an expression for the ratio of elastic strains, e
z
/e
x
, in terms of
the elastic constants.
B. If E = 70 GPa and υ = 0.30, and e
y
is measured as 1.00 ×10
−3
, what is
the value of e
z
?
4. A cylindrical plug of a gumite
∗
is placed in a cylindrical hole in a rigid
block of stifﬁte.
∗
Then the plug is compressed axially (parallel to the axis
of the hole). Assume that plug exactly ﬁts the hole and that the stifﬁte
does not deform at all. Assume elastic deformation and that Hooke’s law
holds. Derive an expression for the ratio of the axial strain to the axial
stress, ε
a
/σ
a
, in the gummite in terms of the Young’s modulus, E, and
Poisson’s ratio, υ, of the gummite.
5. Strain gauges mounted on a free surface of a piece of steel (E =
205 GPa, υ = 0.29) indicate strains of e
x
= −0.00042, e
y
= 0.00071, and
γ
xy
= 0.00037.
A. Calculate the principal strains.
B. Use Hooke’s laws to ﬁnd the principal stresses from the principal
strains.
C. Calculate σ
x
, σ
y
, and τ
xy
directly from e
x
, e
y
, and γ
xy
.
D. Calculate the principal stresses directly from σ
x
, σ
y
, and τ
xy
, and com
pare your answers with the answers to B.
6. A steel block (E = 30 ×10
6
psi and υ = 0.29) is loaded under uniaxial
compression along x.
A. Draw the Mohr’s strain circle diagram.
B. There is an axis, x
, along which the strain ε
x
= 0. Find the angle
between x and x
.
7. Poisson’s ratio for rubber is 0.5. What does this imply about the bulk
modulus?
∗
“Gummite” and “stifﬁte” are ﬁctitious names.
30 Solid Mechanics
Table 2.2. Properties of Glass and PMMA
Glass PMMA
thermal expansion coefﬁcient (K
−1
) 9. ×10
−6
90. ×10
−6
Young’s modulus (GPa) 69. 3.45
Poisson’s ratio 0.28 .38
8. A plate of glass is sandwiched by two plates of polymethylmethacrylate,
as shown in Figure 2.8. Assume that the composite is free of stresses at
40
◦
C. Find the stresses when the assembly is cooled to 20
◦
C. The proper
ties of the glass and the polymethylmethacrylate are given here. The total
thicknesses of the glass and the PMMA are equal. Assume each to be
isotropic, and assume that creep is negligible. Properties of glass and
PMMA are given in Table 2.2.
9. A bronze sleeve, 0.040 in thick, was mounted on a 2.000in diameter steel
shaft by heating it to 100
◦
C while the temperature of the shaft was main
tained at 20
◦
C. Under these conditions, the sleeve just ﬁt on the shaft with
zero clearance. Find the principal stresses in the sleeve after it cools to
20
◦
C. Assume that friction between the shaft and the sleeve prevented
any sliding at the interface during cooling, and assume that the shaft is so
massive and stiff that strains in the shaft itself are negligible. For bronze,
E = 16 × 10
6
psi, υ = 0.30, and α = 18.4 × 10
−6
(
◦
C)
−1
.
PMMA
PMMA
glass
z
x
y
Figure 2.8. Laminated sheets of PMMA and
glass.
3 Mechanical Testing
Introduction
Tensile properties are used in the selection of materials for various appli
cations. Material speciﬁcations often include minimum tensile properties to
assure quality, so tests must be made to insure that materials meet these speci
ﬁcations. Tensile properties are also used in research and development to com
pare new materials or processes. With plasticity theory (Chapter 5), tensile
data can be used to predict a material’s behavior under forms of loading other
than uniaxial tension.
Often the primary concern is strength. The level of stress that causes
appreciable plastic deformation is called its yield stress. The maximum tensile
stress that a material carries is called its tensile strength (or ultimate strength
or ultimate tensile strength). Both of these measures are used, with appropri
ate caution, in engineering design. A material’s ductility may also be of inter
est. Ductility describes how much the material can deform before it fractures.
Rarely, if ever, is the ductility incorporated directly into design. Rather, it is
included in speciﬁcations only to assure quality and toughness. Elastic proper
ties may be of interest but these usually are measured ultrasonically.
Tensile Testing
Figure 3.1 shows a typical tensile specimen. It has enlarged ends or shoulders
for gripping. The important part of the specimen is the gauge section. The
crosssectional area of the gauge section is less than that of the shoulders and
grip region so the deformation will occur here. The gauge section should be
long compared to the diameter (typically four times). The transition between
the gauge section and the shoulders should be gradual to prevent the larger
ends from constraining deformation in the gauge section.
There are several ways of gripping specimens, as shown in Figure 3.2. The
ends may be screwed into threaded grips, pinned, or held between wedges.
31
32 Solid Mechanics
Shoulder Diameter, d
Gauge length
x ≥ d
Figure 3.1. Typical tensile specimen with a reduced gauge section and larger shoulders.
Special grips are used for specimens with butt ends. The gripping system
should assure that the slippage and deformation in the grip region is mini
mized. They should also prevent bending.
Figure 3.3 is a typical engineering stressstrain curve for a ductile mate
rial. For small strains the deformation is elastic and reverses if the load is
removed. At higher stresses, plastic deformation occurs. This is not recovered
when the load is removed. Bending a wire or paper clip with the ﬁngers (Fig
ure 3.4) illustrates the difference. If the wire is bent a small amount, it will snap
back when released. However, if the bend is more severe it will only partly
split
collar
serrated
wedges
pin
threaded
grip
serrated
wedges
a b c d e
Figure 3.2. Systems for gripping tensile specimens. For round specimens these include
(a) threaded grips, (b) serrated wedges, and (c) split collars for buttend specimens.
Sheet specimens may be gripped by (d) pins or by (e) serrated wedges. From W. F.
Hosford in Tensile Testing, ASM Int. (1992).
Mechanical Testing 33
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Engineering Strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
p
s
i
)
Figure 3.3. Typical engineering stressstrain curve for a ductile material.
recover, leaving a permanent bend. The onset of plastic deformation is usually
associated with the ﬁrst deviation of the stressstrain curve from linearity.
∗
It is tempting to deﬁne an elastic limit as the stress that causes the ﬁrst plas
tic deformation and to deﬁne a proportional limit as the ﬁrst departure from
linearity. However, neither deﬁnition is very useful because they both depend
on how accurately strain is measured. The more accurate the strain measure
ment is, the lower is the stress at which plastic deformation and nonlinearity
can be detected.
To avoid this problem, the onset of plasticity is usually described by an off
set yield strength. It is found by constructing a straight line parallel to the initial
linear portion of the stressstrain curve but offset from it by e = 0.002 (0.2%.)
The offset yield strength is taken as the stress level at which this straight line
Figure 3.4. Using the ﬁngers to sense the elastic and
plastic responses of a wire. With a small force (top),
all bending is elastic and disappears when the force is
released. With a greater force (below), the elastic part
of the bending is recoverable but the plastic part is not.
From Hosford, ibid.
∗
For some materials, there may be nonlinear elastic deformation.
34 Solid Mechanics
200
150
100
50
0.2% offset
yield strength
0.002 = 0.2%
0
0 0.01 0.02
Engineering Strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Figure 3.5. The low strain region of the stress
strain curve for a ductile material. From Hos
ford, ibid.
intersects the stressstrain curve (Figure 3.5). The rationale is that if the mate
rial had been loaded to this stress and then unloaded, the unloading path
would have been along this offset line, resulting in a plastic strain of e = 0.002
(0.2%). The advantage of this way of deﬁning yielding is that it is easily repro
duced. Occasionally, other offset strains are used and or yielding is deﬁned
in terms of the stress necessary to achieve a speciﬁed total strain (e.g., 0.5%)
instead of a speciﬁed plastic strain. In all cases, the criterion should be made
clear to the user of the data.
Yield points: The stress–strain curves of some materials (e.g., low carbon
steels and linear polymers) have an initial maximum followed by lower stress,
as shown in Figures 3.6a and 3.6b. At any given instant after the initial max
imum, all of the deformation occurs within a relatively small region of the
specimen. For steels, this deforming region is called a L¨ uder’s band. Continued
elongation occurs by movement of the L¨ uder’s band along the gauge section
rather than by continued deformation within the band. Only after the band
has traversed the entire gauge section does the stress rise again.
In the case of linear polymers, the yield strength is usually deﬁned as the
initial maximum stress. For steels, the subsequent lower yield strength is used
to describe yielding. Because the initial maximum stress is extremely sensi
tive to the alignment of the specimen, it is not useful in describing yielding.
Even so, the lower yield strength is sensitive to the strain rate. ASTM stan
dards should be followed. The stress level during L¨ uder’s band propagation
ﬂuctuates. Some laboratories report the minimum level as the yield strength
and other use the average level.
Mechanical Testing 35
2000
1000
0
0 2 4 6
Engineering strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
p
s
i
Engineering strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
1
0
0
0
p
s
i
30
20
10
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03
lower yield strength
upper yield strength
Figure 3.6. Inhomogeneous yielding of lowcarbon steel (left) and a linear polymer
(right). After the initial stress maximum, the deformation in both materials occurs
within a narrow band that propagates the length of the gauge section before the stress
rises again.
As long as the engineering stressstrain curve rises, the deformation will
occur uniformly along the gauge length. For a ductile material, the stress will
reach a maximum well before fracture. When the maximum is reached, the
deformation localizes forming a neck as shown in Figure 3.7.
The tensile strength (or ultimate strength) is deﬁned as the highest value of
the engineering stress (Figure 3.8). For ductile materials, the tensile strength
corresponds to the point at which necking starts. Less ductile materials frac
ture before they neck. In this case, the fracture stress is the tensile strength.
Very brittle materials (e.g., glass) fracture before they yield. Such materials
have tensile strengths but no yield stresses.
Ductility
Two common parameters are used to describe the ductility of a material. One
is the percent elongation, which is simply deﬁned as
%El = (L
f
− L
o
)/L
o
×100%, (3.1)
Engineering strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
Figure 3.7. After a maximum of the stress strain
curve, deformation localizes to form a neck.
36 Solid Mechanics
Engineering strain Engineering strain
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
Engineering strain
Tensile
strength
Tensile
strength
Tensile
strength
Figure 3.8. The tensile strength is the maximum engineering stress, regardless of
whether the specimen necks or it fractures before necking. From Hosford, ibid.
where L
o
is the initial gauge length and L
f
is the length of the gauge section at
fracture. Measurements may be made on the broken pieces or under load. For
most materials, the elastic elongation is so small compared to the plastic elon
gation that it can be neglected. When this is not so, as with brittle materials or
with rubberlike materials, it should be made clear whether or not the percent
elongation includes the elastic portion.
The other common measure of ductility is the percent reduction of area at
fracture, deﬁned as
%RA = (A
o
− A
f
)/A
o
×100%, (3.2)
where A
o
is the initial crosssectional area and A
f
is the crosssectional area of
the fracture. If the failure occurs before the necking, the %El can be calculated
from the %RA by assuming constant volume. In this case,
%El = %RA/(100 −%RA) ×100% (3.3)
The %El and %RA are no longer directly related after a neck has formed.
As a measure of ductility, percent elongation has the disadvantage that
it combines the uniform elongation that occurs before necking and the local
ized elongation that occurs during necking. The uniform elongation depends
how the material strain hardens rather than the fracture behavior. The neck
ing elongation is sensitive to the specimen shape. With a gauge section that is
very long compared to the diameter, the contribution of necking to the total
elongation is very small. On the other hand, if the gauge section is very short
the necking elongation accounts for most of the elongation. For round bars,
this problem has been remedied by standardizing the ratio of the gauge length
to diameter at 4:1. However, there is no simple relation between the percent
elongation of such standardized round bars and the percent elongation mea
sured on sheet specimens or wires.
Mechanical Testing 37
True Stress and Strain
If the tensile tests are used to predict how the material will behave under other
forms of loading, true stresstrue strain curves are useful. The true stress, σ, is
deﬁned as
σ = F/A, (3.4)
where A is the instantaneous crosssectional area corresponding to the force,
F. Before necking begins, the true strain, ε, is given by
ε = ln(L/L
o
). (3.5)
The engineering stress, s, is deﬁned as the force divided by the original area,
s = F/A
o
, and the engineering strain, e, as the change in length divided by
the original length, e = L/L
o
. As long as the deformation is uniform along
the gauge length, the true stress and true strain can be calculated from the
engineering quantities. With constant volume, LA = L
o
A
o
,
A
o
/A = L/L
o
, (3.6)
so A
o
/A = 1 +e. Rewriting Equation 3.4 as σ = (F/A
o
)(A
o
/A) and substitut
ing A
o
/A= 1 +e and s = F/A
o
,
σ = s(1 +e) (3.7)
Substitution of L/L
o
= 1 +e into Equation 3.5 gives
ε = ln(1 +e). (3.8)
These expressions are valid only if the deformation is uniformly dis
tributed along the gauge section. After necking starts, Equation 3.4 is still valid
for true stress but the crosssectional area at the base of the neck must be mea
sured independently. Equation 3.5 could still be used if L and L
o
were known
for a gauge section centered on the middle of the neck and so short that the
variations of area along its length are negligible. Then Equation 3.6 would be
valid over such a gauge section, so the true strain can be calculated as
ε = ln(A
o
/A), (3.9)
where A is the area at the base of the neck. Figure 3.9 shows the comparison
of engineering and true stressstrain curves for the same material.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.1: In a tensile test, a material fractured before neck
ing. The true stress and strain at fracture were 630 MPa and 0.18, respec
tively. What is the tensile strength of the material?
Solution: The engineering strain at fracture was e =exp(0.18) − 1 =0.197.
Because s = σ/(1 +e), the tensile strength = 630/1.197 = 526 MPa.
38 Solid Mechanics
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
1000
800
600
400
200
0
s–e
σ – ε
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
σ = s(1+e)
ε = n(1 + e)
Figure 3.9. Comparison of engineering and true stressstrain curves. Before necking,
a point on the true stressstrain curve (σ −ε) can be constructed from a point on the
engineering stressstrain curve (s −e) with Equations 3.7 and 3.8. After necking, the
crosssectional area at the neck must be measured to ﬁnd the true stress and strain.
Temperature Rise
Most of the mechanical energy expended by the tensile machine is liberated
as heat in the tensile specimen. If the testing is rapid, little heat is lost to the
surroundings and the temperature rise can be surprisingly high. With very slow
testing, most of the heat is dissipated to the surroundings so the temperature
rise is much less.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.2: Calculate the temperature rise in a tension test
of a lowcarbon steel after a tensile elongation of 22%. Assume that 95%
of the energy goes to heat and remains in the specimen. Also assume that
Figure 3.3 represents the stress strain curve of the material. For steel, the
heat capacity is 447 J/kgK and the density is 7.88 ×10
6
g/m
3
.
Solution: The heat released equals 0.95
_
sde. From Figure 3.3,
_
sde =
s
av
e equal to about 34 ×0.22 ksi = 51.6 MPa = 61.6 MJ/m
3
. T = Q/C
were Q= 0.95(61.6 ×10
6
J/m
3
) and C is heat capacity per volume =
(78 ×10
3
kg/m
3
)(447 J/kg/K). Substituting, T = 0.95(61.6 ×10
6
J/m
3
)/
[(7.8 ×10
3
kg/m
3
)(447 J/kg/K)] = 17
◦
C. This is a moderate temperature
rise. For highstrength materials, the rise can be much greater.
Compression Test
Because necking limits the uniform elongation in tension, tension tests are
not useful for studying the plastic stressstrain relationships at high strains.
Much greater strains can be reached in compression, torsion, and bulge tests.
The results from these tests can be used, together with the theory of plasticity
(Chapter 5), to predict the stressstrain behavior under other forms of loading.
Mechanical Testing 39
Figure 3.10. Unless the ends of a compression specimen are well
lubricated, there will be a conical region of undeforming material
(dead metal) at each end of the specimen. As a consequence, the mid
section will bulge out or barrel.
Much greater strains are achievable in compression tests than in tensile
tests. However, two problems limit the usefulness of compression tests: friction
and buckling. Friction on the ends of the specimen tends to suppress the lateral
spreading of material near the ends (Figure 3.10). A coneshaped region of
dead metal (undeforming material) can form at each end with the result that
the specimen becomes barrelshaped. Friction can be reduced by lubrication,
and the effect of friction can be lessened by increasing the heighttodiameter
ratio, h/d, of the specimen.
If the coefﬁcient of friction, µ, between the specimen and platens is con
stant, the average pressure to cause deformation is
P
av
= Y(1 +(µd/h)/3 +(µd/h)
2
/12 +· · ·), (3.12)
where Y is the true ﬂow stress of the material. On the other hand, if there is a
constant shear stress at the interface, such as would be obtained by inserting
a thin ﬁlm of a soft material (e.g., lead, polyethylene, or Teﬂon), the average
pressure is
P
av
= Y+(1/3)k(d/h), (3.13)
where k is the shear strength of the soft material. However, these equations
usually do not accurately describe the effect of friction because neither the
coefﬁcient of friction nor the interface shear stress is constant. Friction is usu
ally greatest at the edges where liquid lubricants are lost and thin ﬁlms may be
cut during the test by sharp edges of the specimens. Severe barreling caused
by friction may cause the sidewalls to fold up and become part of the ends, as
40 Solid Mechanics
Figure 3.11. Photograph of the end of a compression
specimen. The darker central region was the original end.
The lighter region outside was originally part of the cylin
drical wall that folded up with the severe barreling. From
G. W. Pearsall and W. A. Backofen, Journal of Engineer
ing for Industry, Trans ASME v. 85B (1963) pp. 68–76.
shown in Figure 3.11. Periodic unloading to replace or relubricate the ﬁlm will
help reduce these effects.
Although increasing h/d reduces the effect of friction, the specimen will
buckle if it is too long and slender. Buckling is likely if the heighttodiameter
ratio is greater than about 3. If the test is so well lubricated that the ends of the
specimen can slide relative to the platens, buckling can occur for h/d greater
than equal to 1.5 (Figure 3.12).
One way to circumvent the effects of friction is to test specimens with dif
ferent diameter/height ratios. The strains at several levels of stress are plotted
against d/h. By the extrapolating the stresses to d/h = 0, the stress levels can
be found for an inﬁnitely long specimen in which the friction effects would be
negligible (Figure 3.13).
During compression, the loadcarrying crosssectional area increases.
Therefore, in contrast to the tension test the absolute value of engineering
stress is greater than the true stress (Figure 3.14). The area increase, together
Figure 3.12. Problems with compression testing. (a) Friction at the ends prevents
spreading, which results in barreling; (b) buckling of poorly lubricated specimens can
occur if the heighttodiameter ratio, h/d, exceeds about 3. Without any friction at the
ends (c), buckling can occur if h/d is greater than about 1.5.
Mechanical Testing 41
S
t
r
a
i
n
d/h
0 0.5 1.0 2.0
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
Figure 3.13. Extrapolation scheme for eliminating fric
tional effects in compression testing. Strains at different
levels of stress (σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
) are plotted for specimens of
differing heights. The strain for “frictionless” conditions is
obtained by extrapolating d/h to 0.
with work hardening, can lead to very high forces during compression tests
unless the specimens are very small.
The shape of the engineering stressstrain curve in compression can be
predicted from the true stressstrain curve in tension, assuming that absolute
values of true stress in tension and compression are the same at the same abso
lute strainvalues. Equations 3.7 and 3.8 apply, but it must be remembered that
both the stress and strain are negative in compression,
e
comp
= exp(ε) −1, (3.14)
and
s
comp
= σ/(1 +e). (3.15)
400
300
200
100
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Strain, e and ε
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
s
a
n
d
σ
Engineering
stress–strain
s vs. e
True
stressstrain
σ–ε
Figure 3.14. Stressstrain relations in
compression for a ductile material. Each
point, σ, ε, on the true stresstrue strain
curve corresponds to a point, s, e, on
the engineering stressstrain curve. The
arrows connect these points.
42 Solid Mechanics
a b
z
y
x
z
y
x
w
t
b
Figure 3.15. Planestrain compression tests. (a) Compression in a channel with the side
walls preventing spreading, and (b) planestrain compression of a wide sheet with a
narrow indenter. Lateral constraint forcing ε
y
= 0 is provided by the adjacent material
that is not under the indenter
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.3: In a tensile test, the engineering stress s =
100 MPa at an engineering strain of e = 0.20. Find the corresponding val
ues of σ and ε. At what engineering stress and strain in compression would
the values of σ and ε equal those values of σ and ε?
Solution: In the tensile test, σ = s(1 +e) = 100(1.2) = 120 MPa, ε =
ln(1 +e) = ln(1.2) = 0.182. At a true strain of −0.182 in compres
sion, the engineering strain would be e
comp
= exp(−0.18) −1 = −0.1667
and the engineering stress would be s
comp
= σ/(1 +e) = −120 MPa/(1 −
0.1667) = −144 MPa.
Compression failures of brittle materials occur by shear fractures on
planes at 45
◦
to the compression axis. In materials of high ductility, cracks may
occur on the barreled surface, either at 45
◦
to the compression axis or perpen
dicular to the hoop direction. In the latter case, secondary tensile stresses are
responsible. These occur because the frictional constraint on the ends causes
the sidewalls to bow outward. Because of this barreling, the axial compres
sive stress in the bowed walls is lower than in the center. Therefore, a hoop
direction tension must develop to aid in the circumferential expansion.
PlaneStrain Compression and Tension
There are two simple ways of making planestrain compression tests. Small
samples can be compressed in a channel that prevents spreading (Fig
ure 3.15a). In this case, there is friction on the sidewalls of the channel as
well as on the platens, so the effect of friction is even greater than in uni
axial compression. An alternative way of producing planestrain compression
is to use a specimen that is very wide relative to the breadth of the indenter
(Figure 3.15b). This eliminates the sidewall friction but the deformation at and
Mechanical Testing 43
a b
c
Figure 3.16. Several ways of making planestrain tension tests on sheet specimens. All
have a gauge section that is very short relative to its width: (a) Enlarged grips produced
by welding to additional material, (b) reduced gage section cut into edge (c) very short
gage section achieved by friction on the cylindrical grips.
near the edges deviates from plane strain. This departure from plane strain
extends inward for a distance approximately equal to the indenter width. To
minimize this effect, it is recommended that the ratio of the specimen width to
indenter width, w/b, be about 8:1. It is also recommended that the ratio of the
indenter width to sheet thickness, b/t, be about 2:1. Increasing b/t increases
the effect of friction. Both of these tests simulate the plastic conditions that
prevail during ﬂat rolling of sheet and plate. They ﬁnd their greatest useful
ness in exploring the plastic anisotropy of materials.
Planestrain can be achieved in tension with specimens having gauge sec
tions that are very much wider than they are long. Figure 3.16 shows several
possible specimens and specimen gripping arrangements. Such tests avoid all
the frictional complications of planestrain compression. However, the regions
near the edges lack the constraint necessary to impose plane strain. At the very
edge, the stress preventing contraction disappears so the stress state is uniaxial
tension. Corrections must be made for departure from plane strain ﬂow near
the edges.
Biaxial Tension (Hydraulic Bulge Test)
Much greater strains can be reached in bulge tests than in uniaxial tension
tests. This allows evaluation of the stressstrain relationships at high strains. A
setup for bulge testing is sketched in Figure 3.17. A sheet specimen is placed
P P
t
ρ
Figure 3.17. Schematic of a hydraulic bulge
test of a sheet specimen. Hydraulic pres
sure causes biaxial stretching of the clamped
sheet.
44 Solid Mechanics
2σπtρ∆θ
∆θ
∆θ
ρ∆θ
2σπtρ(∆θ)
2
t
Pπ(ρ∆θ)
2
ρ
Figure 3.18. Force balance on a small circu
lar region near the dome. The force acting
upward is the pressure multiplied by the cir
cular area. The total tangential force equals
the thickness multiplied by the tangential
stress. The downward force is the vertical
component of this.
over a circular hole, clamped, and bulged outward by oil pressure acting on
one side.
Consider a force balance on a small circular element of radius ρ near the
pole when θ is small (Figure 3.18). Using the small angle approximation, the
radius of this element is ρθ,where ρ is the radius of curvature. The stress, σ,
on this circular region acts on an area 2πρθt and creates a tangential force
equal to 2πσρθt . The vertical component of the tangential force is 2πσρθt
multiplied by θ, or 2πσρ(θ)
2
t . This is balanced by the pressure, P, acting
on an area π(ρθ)
2
and creating an upward force of Pπ(ρθ)
2
. Equating the
vertical forces,
σ = Pr/(2t ). (3.16)
To ﬁnd the stress, the pressure, the radius of curvature, and the radial
strain must be measured simultaneously. The thickness, t, is then deduced from
the original thickness, t
o
, and the radial strain, ε
r
,
t = t
o
exp(−2ε
r
). (3.17)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.4: Assume that in a hydraulic bulge test, the bulged
surface is a portion of a sphere and that at every point on the thickness
of the bulged surface the thickness is the same. (Note: This is not strictly
true.) Express the radius of curvature, ρ, in terms of the die radius, r, and
h
ρ  h
r
ρ
θ
Figure 3.19. Geometry of a bulged surface.
Mechanical Testing 45
Figure 3.20. Equivalence of biaxial tension and throughthickness compression.
the bulged height, h. Also express the thickness strain at the dome in terms
of r and h (see Figure 3.19).
Solution: Using the Pythagorean theorem, (ρ −h)
2
+r
2
= ρ
2
, so2ρh =
h
2
+r
2
or ρ = (r
2
+ h
2
)/(2h) where ρ is radius of the sphere and θ is
the internal angle.
The area of the curved surface of a spherical segment is A = 2πeh.
The original area of the circle was A
o
= πr
2
, so the average thickness
strain is ε
t
≈ ln[(2πrh)/(2hr)] = ln(2h/r)].
Hydrostatic compression superimposed on the state of biaxial tension at
the dome of a bulge is equivalent to a state of throughthickness compression,
as shown schematically in Figure 3.20. The hydrostatic part of the stress state
has no effect on plastic ﬂow. Therefore, the plastic stressstrain behavior of
biaxial tension (in the plane of the sheet) and throughthickness compression
are equivalent.
Torsion Test
Very large strains can be reached in torsion. The specimen shape remains
constant, so there is no necking instability or barreling. There is no friction
on the gage section. Therefore, torsion testing can be used to study plastic
stressstrain relations to large strains. In a torsion test, each element of the
material deforms in pure shear, as shown in Figure 3.21. The shear strain, γ ,
dr
r
R
τ
dT = r τ
yz
2πr dr
x
y
z
γ
yz
= r θ/L
r
R
L
θ
Figure 3.21. Schematic of test?
46 Solid Mechanics
in an element is given by
γ = rθ/L, (3.18)
where r is the radial position of the element, θ is the twist angle, and L is
the specimen length. The shear stress, τ, cannot be measured directly or even
determined unequivocally from the torque. This is because the shear stress, τ,
depends on γ , which varies with radial position. Therefore, τ depends on r.
Consider an annular element of radius r and width dr having an area 2πrdr.
The contribution of this element to the total torque, T, is the product of the
shear force on it, τ · 2πrdr, and the lever arm, r,
dT = 2πτr
2
dr and
T = 2π
R
_
0
τr
2
dr (3.19)
Equation 3.19 cannot be integrated directly because τ depends on r. Inte
gration requires substitution of the stressstrain (τ −γ ) relation. Handbook
equations for torque are usually based on assuming elasticity. In this case,
τ = Gγ. Substituting this and Equation 3.18 into Equation 3.19,
T = 2π(θ/L)
R
_
0
r
3
dr = (π/2)(θ/L)Gr
4
. (3.20)
Because τ
yz
= Gγ
yz
and γ
yz
= rθ/L, the shear stress varies linearly with
the radial position and can be expressed as τ
yz
= τ
s
(r/R), where τ
s
is the shear
stress at the surface. The value of τ
s
for elastic deformation can be found from
the measured torque by substituting τ
yz
= τ
s
(r/R) into Equation 3.20,
T = 2π
r
_
0
τ
s
(r/R)r
2
dr = (π/2)τ
s
R
3
, or τ
s
= 2T/(π R
3
). (3.21)
If the bar is not elastic, Hooke’s law cannot be assumed. The other
extreme is when the entire bar is plastic and the material does not work
harden. In this case, τ is a constant.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.5: Consider a torsion test in which the twist is great
enough that the entire cross section is plastic. Assume that the shear yield
stress, τ, is a constant. Express the torque, T, in terms of the bar radius, R,
and τ.
Mechanical Testing 47
Solution: The shear force on a differential annular element at a radius
r is τ · 2πrdr. This causes a differential torque of dT = r(τ · 2πrdr).
Integrating,
= 2πτ
R
_
0
r
2
dr = (2/3)π R
3
τ. (3.22)
If the torsion test is being used to determine the stressstrain relationship,
the form of the stressstrain relationship cannot be assumed, so one does not
know how the stress varies with radial position. One way around this prob
lem might be to test a thinwalled tube in which the variation of stress and
strain across the wall would be small enough that the variation of τ with r
could be neglected. In this case, the integral (Equation 3.22) could be approxi
mated as
T = 2πr
2
rτ, (3.23)
where r is the wall thickness. However thinwalled tubes tend to buckle
and collapse when subjected to torsion. The buckling problem can be circum
vented by making separate torsion tests on two bars of slightly different diam
eter. The difference between the two curves is the torquetwist curve for a
cylinder whose wall thickness is half the diameter difference.
The advantage of torsion tests is that very large strains can be reached,
even at elevated temperatures. Because of this, torsion tests have been used
to simulate the deformation in metal during hot rolling so that the effects of
simultaneous hot deformation and recrystallization can be studied. It should
be realized that in a torsion test, the material rotates relative to the princi
pal stress axes. Because of this, the strain path in the material is constantly
changing.
Bend Tests
Bend tests are used chieﬂy for materials that are very brittle and difﬁcult to
machine into tensile bars. In bending, as in torsion, the stress and strain vary
with location. The engineering strain, e, varies linearly with distance, z, from
the neutral plane,
e = z/ρ, (3.24)
where ρ is the radius of curvature at the neutral plane, as shown in Figure 3.22.
Consider bending a plate of width w. The bending moment, dM, caused by the
stress on a differential element at z is the force σwdz multiplied by the lever
48 Solid Mechanics
w
z
t
dz
y
Neutral plane
ρ
Figure 3.22. Bending moment caused by a
differential element of width, w, thickness,
dz, at a distance, z, from the neutral plane.
arm, z, dM= σwzdz. The total bending moment is twice the integral of dM
from the neutral plane to the outside surface,
M= 2
t/2
_
0
σwzdz. (3.25)
To integrate, σ must be expressed in terms of z. If the entire section
is elastic and w t, σ = eE (or if w t, σ = eE/(1 −v
2
). Substituting for
e, σ = (z/ρ)E. Integrating M= 2w(E/ρ)
_
t/2
0
z
2
dz,
M= 2w(E/ρ)(t /2)
3
/3 = w(E/ρ)t
3
/12. (3.26)
The surface stress is σ
s
= E(t /2)/ρ. Substituting ρ = wEt
3
/(12M) from Equa
tion 3.26,
σ
s
= 6M/(wt
2
). (3.27)
In threepoint bending, M= FL/4, and in fourpoint bending, M= FL/2, as
shown in Figure 3.23. The relation between the moment and the stress is dif
ferent if plastic deformation occurs.
F
F/2
F/2
L
L
Figure 3.23. Threepoint bending test (left) and fourpoint bending (right). Note that
L is deﬁned differently for each test.
Mechanical Testing 49
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.6: Consider a fourpoint bend test on a ﬂat sheet of
width, w, of a material for which the stress to cause plastic deformation is
a constant, Y. Assume also that the bend is sharp enough so that the entire
thickness is plastic. Derive an expression that can be used to determine Y
from the force, F.
Solution: The differential force on an element of thickness, dz, at a dis
tance zfrom the center is Y(wdz). This force causes a differential moment,
dM= wYzdz. The net moment is twice the integral of dM from the center
to the surface (z = t /2). Then M= 2wY(t /2)
2
/2 = wt
2
Y/4. Substituting
M= FL/2 for fourpoint bending, Y = 2FL/wt
2
.
Measurements of fracture strengths of brittle materials are usually char
acterized by a large amount of scatter because of preexisting ﬂaws, so many
duplicate tests are usually required. The fracture stress is taken as the value of
the surface stress, σ
s
, at fracture. This assumes that no plastic deformation has
occurred (see Chapters 11 and 12).
Hardness Tests
Hardness tests are very simple to conduct, and they can be performed on
production parts as quality control checks without destroying the part. They
depend on measuring the amount of deformation caused when a hard indenter
is pressed into the surface with a ﬁxed force. The disadvantage is that although
hardness of a material depends on the plastic properties, the stressstrain rela
tion cannot be obtained. Figure 3.24 shows the indenters used for various tests.
The Rockwell tests involve measuring the depth of indentation. There are sev
eral different Rockwell scales, each of which uses different shapes and sizes of
indenters and different loads. Conversion from one scale to another is approx
imate and empirical.
Brinell hardness is determined by pressing a ball, 1 cm in diameter, into
the surface under a ﬁxed load (500 or 3000 kg). The diameter of the impression
is measured with an eyepiece and converted to hardness. The scale is such that
the Brinell hardness number, H
B
, is given by
H
B
= F/A
s
, (3.25)
where F is the force expressed in kg and A
s
is the spherical surface area of the
impression in mm
2
. This area can be calculated from
A
s
= πD[D−(D
2
−d
2
)
1/2
]/2, (3.26)
where D is the ball diameter and d is the diameter of the impression, but it is
more commonly found from tables.
50 Solid Mechanics
Shape of
Indentation
Side
View
Top
View
Formula for
Hardness Number Load Indenter Test
Brinell
Vickers
Knoop
microhardness
10mm sphere
of steel or
tungsten carbide
Diamond
pyramid
Diamond
pyramid
Diamond
pyramid
Diameter
steel sphere
1
16
Rockwell
A
C
D
B
F
G
E
in.
Diameter
steel sphere
1
8
in.
BHN =
2P
πD(D − D
2
− d
2
)
VHN = 1.72 P/d
1
2
KHN = 14.2 P/l
2
R
A
=
R
C
=
R
D
=
R
B
=
R
F
=
R
G
=
R
E
=
100 − 500t
60 kg
150 kg
100 kg
100 kg
60 kg
150 kg
100 kg
130 − 500t
P
d d
136°
120°
D
d
l
d
l
b
l
P
P
t
t
t
l/b = 7.11
b/t = 4.00
Figure 3.24. Various hardness tests. From H. W. Hayden, William G. Moffat and
John Wulff, Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. III Mechanical Behavior, Wiley
(1965).
Brinell data can be used to determine the Meyer hardness, H
M
, which is
deﬁned as the force divided by the projected area of the indentation, πd
2
/4.
The Meyer hardness has greater fundamental signiﬁcance because it is rela
tively insensitive to load. Vickers and Knoop hardnesses are also deﬁned as
the indentation load divided by the projected area. They are very nearly equal
for the same material. Indentations under different loads are geometrically
similar unless the indentation is so shallow that the indenter tip radius is not
negligible compared to the indentation size. For this reason, the hardness does
not depend on the load. For Brinell, Knoop, and Vickers hardnesses, a rule
of thumb is that the hardness is about three times the yield strength when
expressed in the same units. (Note that hardness is conventionally expressed
in kg/mm
2
and strength in MPa. To convert kg/mm
2
to MPa, multiply by
9.807. Figure 3.25 shows approximate conversions between several hardness
scales).
Mineralogists frequently classify minerals by the Moh’s scratch hardness.
The system is based on ranking minerals on a scale of 1 to 10. The scale is such
that a mineral higher on the scale will scratch a mineral lower on the scale.
The scale is arbitrary and not wellsuited to metals as most metals tend to fall
in the range between 4 and 8. Actual values vary somewhat with how the test
Mechanical Testing 51
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Vickers Hardness No.
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
(
K
n
o
o
p
,
B
r
i
n
e
l
l
)
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
(
R
o
c
k
w
e
l
l
A
,
B
,
&
C
)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Knoop
Brinell
Rockwell C
Rockwell C
Rockwell A
Rockwell B
Figure 3.25. Approximate relations between several hardness scales. For Brinell
(3000 kg) and Knoop, read left. For Rockwell A, B, and C scales, read right. Data
from Metals Handbook, vol. 8, 9th ed, American Society for Metals (1985).
is made (e.g., the angle of inclination of the scratching edge). Figure 3.26 gives
the approximate relationship between Moh’s and Vickers hardnesses.
Hardness tests are normally made with indenters that do not deform.
However, it is possible to measure hardness when the indenters do deform.
This is useful at very high temperatures where it is impossible to ﬁnd a suit
able material for the indenter. Deﬁning the hardness as the indentation force
10,000
1,000
100
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Moh’s hardness number
V
i
c
k
e
r
s
h
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
Diamond
Corundum
Topaz
Quartz
Apatite
Fluorite
Calcite
Gypsum
Orthoclase
Talc
Figure 3.26. Relation between Knoop and
Moh’s hardness scales.
52 Solid Mechanics
Figure 3.27. Mutual indentation of two wedges.
The hardness is the force per unit area.
divided by the area of indentation, the hardness, H, of a material is propor
tional to its yield strength,
H = cY, (3.27)
where c depends mainly on the geometry of the test. For example, in a Brinell
test where the indenting ball is very much harder than the test material,
c ≈ 2.8. For mutual indentation of cross wedges, c ≈ 3.4, (Figure 3.27) and
for crossed cylinders, c ≈ 2.4. The constant c has been determined for other
geometries and for cases where the indenters have different hardnesses. The
forces in automobile accidents have been estimated fromexamining the depths
of mutual indentations.
Notes
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) described a tensile test of a wire. Fine sand
was fed through a small hole into a basket attached to the lower end of the
wire until the wire broke. Figure 3.28 shows his sketch of the apparatus.
The yield point effect in linear polymers may be experienced by pulling
the piece of plastic sheet that holds a sixpack of carbonated beverage cans
together. When one pulls hard enough, the plastic will yield and the force
Figure 3.28. Leonardo’s sketch of a system for tensile testing wire. The
load was applied by pouring sand into a basket suspended from the wire.
Mechanical Testing 53
Figure 3.29. Galileo’s sketch of a bending test.
drop. A small thinned region develops. As the force is continued, this region
will grow. The yield point effect in lowcarbon steel may be experienced by
bending a lowcarbon steel wire (ﬂorist’s wire works well). First, heat the wire
in a ﬂame to anneal it. Then bend a 6in. length by holding it only at the ends.
Instead of bending uniformly, the deformation localizes to form several sharp
kinks. Why? Bend an annealed copper wire for comparison.
Galileo Galilel (1564–1642) stated that the strength of a bar in tension
was proportional to its crosssectional area and independent of its length. The
apparatus suggested by Galileo for bending tests is illustrated in Figure 3.29.
REFERENCES
Tensile Testing, ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1992).
Percy Bridgman, Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture, McGrawHill, NY (1952).
Metals Handbook, 9th ed. vol. 8, Mechanical Testing, ASM (1985).
D. K. Felbeck and A. G. Atkins, Strength and Fracture of Engineering Solids, Prentice
Hall (1984).
Problems
1. The results of a tensile test on a steel test bar are given in Table 3.1. The
initial gauge length was 25.0 mm and the initial diameter was 5.00 mm. The
diameter at the fracture was 2.6 mm. The engineering strains and stresses
are given in Table 3.1.
A. Plot the engineering stressstrain curve.
B. Determine Young’s modulus, the 0.2% offset yield strength, the tensile
strength, the percent elongation, and the percent reduction of area.
2. Construct the true stress/true strain curve for the material in Problem 1.
Note that necking starts at maximum load, so the construction should be
stopped at this point.
54 Solid Mechanics
Table 3.1. Results of a tension test
Strain Stress (MPa) Strain Stress (MPa) Strain Stress (MPa)
0.0 0.0 0.06 319.8 0.32 388.4
0.0002 42. 0.08 337.9 0.34 388.0.
0.0004 83. 0.10 351.1 0.38 386.5
0.0006 125. 0.15 371.7 0.40 384.5
0.0015 155. 0.20 382.2 0.42 382.5
0.005 185. 0.22 384.7 0.44 378.
0.02 249.7 0.24 386.4 0.46 362.
0.03 274.9 0.26 387.6 0.47 250
0.04 293.5 0.28 388.3
0.05 308.0 0.30 388.9
3. Determine the engineering strains, e, and the true strains, ε for each of the
following:
A. Extension from L = 1.0 to L = 1.1
B. Compression from h = 1 to h = 0.9
C. Extension from L = 1 to L = 2
D. Compression from h = 1 to h = 1/2.
4. The ASM Metals Handbook (Vol. 1, 8th ed., p 1008) gives the percent
elongation in a 2in. gauge section for annealed electrolytic toughpitch
copper as
r
55% for a 0.505 in. diameter bar
r
45% for a 0.030 in. thick sheet and
r
38.5% for a 0.010 in diameter wire.
Suggest a reason for the differences.
5. The area under an engineering stressstrain curve up to fracture is the
energy per unit volume. The area under a true stressstrain curve up to
fracture is also the energy per unit volume. If the specimen necks, these
two areas are not equal. What is the difference? Explain.
6. Suppose it is impossible to use an extensometer on the gauge section of a
test specimen. Instead, a buttonhead specimen (Figure 3.2c) is used and
the strain is computed from the crosshead movement. There are two pos
sible sources of error with this procedure. One is that the gripping system
may deform elastically and the other is that the button head may be drawn
partly through the collar. How would each of these errors affect the calcu
lated true stress and true strain?
7. Two strain gauges were mounted on opposite sides of a tensile specimen.
Strains measured as the bar was pulled in tension were used to compute
Young’s modulus. Readings from one gauge gave a modulus much greater
than those from the other gauge. What was the probable cause of this
discrepancy?
Mechanical Testing 55
Figure 3.30. Engineering stressstrain curve for a lowcarbon steel.
8. Discuss the how friction and inhomogeneous deformation affect the re
sults from:
A. The two types of planestrain compression tests illustrated in Figure
3.19.
B. The planestrain tension tests illustrated in Figure 3.20.
9. Sketch the threedimensional Mohr’s stress and strain diagrams for a
planestrain compression test.
10. Draw a Mohr’s circle diagram for the surface stresses in a torsion test,
showing all three principal stresses. At what angle to the axis of the bar
are the tensile stresses the greatest?
11. For a torsion test, derive equations relating the angle, ψ, between the
axis of the largest principal stress and the axial direction and the angle,
ψ, between the axis of the largest principal strain and the axial direction
in terms of L, r, and the twist angle, θ. Note that for ﬁnite strains, these
two angles are not the same.
12. The engineering stressstrain curve from a tension test on a lowcarbon
steel is plotted in Figure 3.30. From this construct the engineering stress
strain curve in compression, neglecting friction.
13. Derive an expression relating the torque, T, in a tension test to the shear
stress at the surface, τ
s
, in terms of the bar diameter, D, assuming that the
bar is:
A. Entirely elastic so τ varies linearly with the shear strain, γ .
B. Entirely plastic and does not workharden so the shear stress, τ, is
constant.
56 Solid Mechanics
14. The principal strains in a circular bulge test are the thickness strain, ε
t
, the
circumferential (hoop) strain, ε
c
, and the radial strain, ε
r
. Describe how
the ratio, ε
c
/ε
r
, varies over the surface of the bulge. Assume that the sheet
is locked at the opening.
15. Derive an expression for the fracture strength, S
f
, in bending as a function
of F
f
, L, w, and t for the threepoint bending of a specimen having a rect
angular crosssection, where F
f
is the force at fracture, L is the distance
between supports, w is the specimen width, and t is the specimen thick
ness. Assume the deformation is elastic and the deﬂection, y, in bending is
given by y = αFL
3
/(EI), where a is a constant and E is Young’s modulus.
How would you expect the value of A to depend on the ratio of t /w?
16. Equation 3.24 gives the stresses at the surface of bend specimens. The
derivation of this equation is based on the assumption of elastic behavior.
If there is plastic deformation during the bend test, will the stress predicted
by this equation be too low, too high, either too high or too low depending
on where the plastic deformation occurs, or correct?
17. By convention, Brinell, Meyer, Vickers, and Knoop hardness numbers are
stresses expressed in units of kg/mm
2
, which is not an SI unit. To what
stress, in MPa, does a Vickers hardness of 100 correspond?
18. In making Rockwell hardness tests, it is important that the bottom of the
specimen is ﬂat so that the load does not cause any bending of the speci
men. On the other hand, this is not important in making Vickers or Brinell
hardness tests. Explain.
4 Strain Hardening of Metals
Introduction
With elastic deformation, the strains are proportional to the stress so every
level of stress causes some elastic deformation. On the other hand, a deﬁnite
level of stress must be applied before any plastic deformation occurs. As the
stress is further increased, the amount of deformation increases but not lin
early. After plastic deformation starts, the total strain is the sum of the elastic
strain (which still obeys Hooke’s law) and the plastic strain. Because the elastic
part of the strain is usually much less than the plastic part, it will be neglected
in this chapter, and the symbol ε will signify the true plastic strain.
The terms strain hardening and work hardening are used interchangeably
to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic defor
mation. The term ﬂow stress is used to describe the stress necessary to con
tinue deformation at any stage of plastic strain. Mathematical descriptions of
true stressstrain curves are needed in engineering analyses that involve plas
tic deformation such as predicting energy absorption in automobile crashes,
designing of dies for stamping parts, and analyzing the stresses around cracks.
Various approximations are possible. Which approximation is best depends
on the material, the nature of the problem, and the need for accuracy. This
chapter will consider several approximations and their applications.
Mathematical Approximations
The simplest model is one with no workhardening. The ﬂow stress, σ, is inde
pendent of strain, so
σ = Y, (4.1)
where Y is the tensile yield strength (see Figure 4.1a). For linear work
hardening (Figure 4.1b),
σ = Y+Aε. (4.2)
57
58 Solid Mechanics
ε ε ε
ε
o
ε ε
σ σ σ σ σ
σ
o Y Y
σ = σ
o
[1 − exp(−Aε)] σ = K(ε + ε
o
)
n
σ = Kε
n
σ = Y + Aε σ = Y
a b c d e
Figure 4.1. Mathematical approximations of the true stressstrain curve.
It is more common for materials to workharden with a hardening rate
that decreases with strain. For many metals, a loglog plot of true stress vs.
true strain is nearly linear. In this case, a power law,
σ = Kε
n
, (4.3)
is a reasonable approximation (Figure 4.1c). Abetter ﬁt is often obtained with
σ = K(ε +ε
o
)
n
(4.4)
(see Figure 4.1d). This expression is useful where the material has undergone
a prestrain of ε
o
.
Still another model is a saturation model suggested by Voce (Figure 4.1e)
is
σ = σ
o
[1 −exp(−Aε)]. (4.5)
Equation 4.5 predicts that the ﬂow stress approaches an asymptote, σ
o
, at large
strains. This model seems to be reasonable for a number of aluminum alloys.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.1: Two points on a true stressstrain curve are σ =
222 MPa at ε = 0.05 and σ = 303 MPa at ε = 0.15.
A. Find the values of K and n in Equation 4.3 that best ﬁt the data. Then
using these values of K and n, predict the true stress at a strain of
ε = 0.30.
B. Find the values of σ
o
and A in Equation 4.5 that best ﬁt the data. Then
using these values of K and n, predict the true stress at a strain of
ε = 0.30.
Solution: A. Apply the power law at two levels of stress, σ
2
and σ
1
.
Then taking the ratios σ
2
/σ
1
= (ε
2
/ε
1
)
n
and ﬁnally taking the natural
logs of both sides, n = ln(σ
2
/σ
1
)/ln(ε
2
/ε
1
) = ln(303/222)/ln(0.15/0.05) =
0.283. K = σ/ε
n
= 303/0.15
0.283
= 518.5 MPa.
At e = 0.30, σ = 518.4(0.30)
0.283
= 368.8 MPa.
B. Appling the saturation model to two levels of stress, σ
2
and σ
1
, σ
1
=
σ
o
[1 −exp(−Aε
1
)] and σ
2
= σ
o
[1 −exp(Aε
2
)]. Then taking the ratios,
σ
2
/σ
1
= [1 −exp(−Aε
2
)]/[1 −exp(−Aε
1
)]. Substituting σ
2
/σ
1
= 303/222
Strain Hardening of Metals 59
= 1.365, ε
1
= 0.05 and ε
2
= 0.15 and, solving by trial and error, A = 25.2.
σ
o
= 303[1 −exp(−25.2 ×0.15)] = 296 MPa. At e = 0.30, s = 310[1 −
exp(−25.2 ×0.30)] = 309.8 MPa.
PowerLaw Approximation
The most commonly used expression is the simple power law (Equation 4.3).
Typical values of the exponent n are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Table 4.1 lists
K and n for various materials. As a rule, highstrength materials have lower
nvalues than lowstrength materials. Figure 4.2 shows that the exponent, n, is
a measure of the persistence of hardening. If n is low, the workhardening rate
is initially high but the rate decreases rapidly with strain. On the other hand,
with a large n, the initial workhardening is less rapid but continues to high
strains. If σ = Kε
n
, lnσ = lnK+nlnε so the true stressstrain relation plots as
a straight line on loglog coordinates as shown in Figure 4.3. The exponent, n,
is the slope of the line. The preexponential, K, can be found by extrapolating
to ε = 1.0. K is the value of σ at this point.
The level of n is particularly signiﬁcant in stretch forming because it indi
cates the ability of a metal to distribute the strain over a wide region. Often
a loglog plot of the true stressstrain curve deviates from linearity at low or
high strains. In such cases, it is still convenient to use Equation 4.3 over the
strain range of concern. The value of n is then taken as the slope of the linear
portion of the curve,
n = d(lnσ)/d(lnε) = (ε/σ)dσ/dε. (4.6)
Necking
As a tensile specimen is extended, the level of true stress, σ, rises but the
crosssectional area carrying the load decreases. The maximum loadcarrying
Table 4.1. Typical values of n and K
∗
Strength Strain hardening
Material coefﬁcient, K (MPa) exponent, n
lowcarbon steels 525 to 575 0.20 to 0.23
HSLA steels 650 to 900 0.15 to 0.18
austenitic stainless 400 to 500 0.40 to 0.55
copper 420 to 480 0.35 to 0.50
70/30 brass 525 to 750 0.45 to 0.60
aluminum alloys 400 to 550 0.20 to 0.30
∗
From various sources including Hosford and Caddell, Metal
Forming; Mechanics and Metallurgy, Prentice Hall (1983).
60 Solid Mechanics
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
True strain
T
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
n = 0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.05
Figure 4.2. True stress–strain curves for σ = Kε
n
with several values of n. To make the
effect of n on the shape of the curves apparent, the value of K for each curve has been
adjusted so that it passes through σ = 1 at ε = 0.3.
capacity is reached when dF =0. The force equals the true stress multiplied by
the actual area, F = σA. Differentiating gives
Adσ +σdA = 0. (4.7)
Because the volume, AL, is constant, dA/A = −dL/L= −dε. Rearranging
terms, dσ = −σdA/A = σdε, or
dσ/dε = σ. (4.8)
1,000
100
T
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
0.01 0.1
True strain
1
K
Figure 4.3. A plot of the true stressstrain
curve on logarithmic scales. Because σ =
Kε
n
, lnσ = lnK + nlnε. The straight line
indicates that σ = Kε
n
holds. The slope is
equal to n, and K equals the intercept at
ε = 1.
Strain Hardening of Metals 61
T
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
σ
a
n
d
s
l
o
p
e
,
d
σ
/
d
ε
Strain, ε
Slope, dσ/dε
True stress, σ
Start of necking
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Figure 4.4. The condition for necking in a
tension test is met when the true stress, σ,
equals the slope, dσ/dε, of the true stress
strain curve.
Equation 4.8 simply states that the maximum load is reached when the rate of
workhardening is numerically equal to the stress level.
As long as dσ/dε > σ, deformation will occur uniformly along the test bar.
However, once the maximum load is reached (dσ/dε = σ), the deformation
will localize. Any region that deforms even slightly more than the others will
have a lower loadcarrying capacity and the load will drop to that level. Other
regions will cease to deform, so deformation will localize into a neck. Figure
4.4 is a graphical illustration.
If a mathematical expression is assumed for the stressstrain relationship,
the limit of uniform elongation can be found analytically. For example, with
powerlaw hardening, Equation 4.3, σ = Kε
n
, and dσ/dε = nKε
n−1
. Substitut
ing into Equation 4.8 gives Kε
n
= nKε
n−1
, which simpliﬁes to
ε = n, (4.9)
so the strain at the start of necking equals the strainhardening exponent, n.
Uniform elongation in a tension test occurs before necking. Therefore, mate
rials with a large nvalue have large uniform elongations.
Because the ultimate tensile strength is simply the engineering stress at
maximum load, the powerlaw hardening rule can be used to predict it. First,
ﬁnd the true stress at maximum load by substituting the strain, n, into Equa
tion 4.3,
σ
max load
= Kn
n
. (4.10)
62 Solid Mechanics
a b a
Figure 4.5. Stepped tensile specimen. The
initial crosssectional area of region b is f
multiplied by the crosssectional area of A.
Then substitute σ = σ/(1 +ε) = σexp(−ε) = σexp(−n) into Equation 4.10;
the tensile strength is expressed as
σ
max
= Kn
n
exp(−n) = K(n/e)
n
, (4.11)
where e is the base of natural logarithms.
Similarly, the uniform elongation and tensile strength may be found for
other approximations to the true stressstrain curve.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.2: A material has a true stressstrain curve that can
be approximated by σ = Y+ Aε. Express the uniform elongation, ε, in
terms of the constants, A and Y.
Solution: The maximum load is reached when dσ/dε = σ. Equating
dσ/dε = Aand σ = Y+ Aε, the maximum load is reached when A=Y+
Aε or ε = 1 −Y/A. The engineering strain is e = exp(ε) −1 = exp(1 −
Y/A) −1.
Work per Volume
The area under the true stressstrain curve is the work per volume, w,
expended in the deforming a material, that is, w =
_
σdε. With powerlaw
hardening,
w = Kε
n+1
/(n +1). (4.12)
This is sometimes called the tensile toughness.
Localization of Strain at Defects
If the stresses that cause deformation in a body are not uniform, the defor
mation will be greatest where the stress is highest and least where the stress
is lowest. The differences between the strains in the different regions depend
on the value of n. If n is large, the difference will be less than if n is low. For
example, consider a tensile bar in which the crosssectional area of one region
is a little less than in the rest of the bar (Figure 4.5). Let these areas be A
ao
and
A
bo
.
The tensile force, F, is the same in both regions, F
a
= F
b
, so
σ
a
A
a
= σ
b
A
b
. (4.13)
Strain Hardening of Metals 63
Figure 4.6. The relative strains in two regions of a tensile bar having different initial
crosssectional areas.
Because ε = ln(L/L
o
) and (L/L
o
) = (A
o
/A), the instantaneous area, A, may
be expressed as A= A
o
exp(−ε), so A
a
= A
ao
exp(−ε
a
), A
b
= A
bo
exp(−ε
b
).
Assuming powerlaw hardening (Equation 5.3), σ
a
= Kε
n
a
, and σ
b
= Kε
n
b
.
Substituting into Equation 4.13,
Kε
n
a
A
ao
exp(−ε
a
) = Kε
n
b
A
bo
exp(−ε
b
). (4.14)
Now simplify by substituting f = A
bo
/A
ao
,
ε
n
a
exp(−ε
a
) =f ε
n
b
exp(−ε
b
). (4.15)
Equation 4.15 can be numerically evaluated to ﬁnd ε
a
as a function of ε
b
.
Figure 4.6 shows that with low values of n, the region with the larger cross
section deforms very little. On the other hand, if n is large, there is appre
ciable deformation in the thicker region, so more overall stretching will have
occurred when the thinner region fails. This leads to greater formability.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.3: To ensure that the neck in a tensile bar will occur
at the middle of the gauge section, the machinist made the bar with a 0.500
in. diameter in the middle of the gauge section and machined the rest of
it to a diameter of 0.505 in. After testing, it was found that the diameter
away from the neck was 0.470 in. Assume that the stressstrain relation
follows the power law, Equation 5.3. What is the value of n?
64 Solid Mechanics
Solution: Let the regions with the larger and smaller diameters be desig
nated a and b. When the maximum load is reached, the strain in b is ε
b
=n
and the strain in region a is ε
a
= ln(A
o
/A) = ln(d
o
/d)
2
= 2ln(0.505/
0.470) = 0.1473. f = (0.500/0.505)
2
= 0.9803. Substituting ε
b
= n,
e
a
= 0.1473 and f = 0.98 into Equation 5.15, 0.1437
n
exp(−0.1437) =
0.9803n
n
exp(−n). Solving by trial and error, n = 0.238. Note that there
would have been a large error if the effect of the different initial cross
sections had been ignored and n had been taken as 2ln(0.505/0.470) =
0.1473.
Notes
Professor Zdzislaw Marciniak of the Technical University of Warsaw was the
ﬁrst to analyze the effect of a small defect or inhomogeneity on the localiza
tion of plastic ﬂow.
∗
His analysis of necking forms the basis for understand
ing superplastic elongations (Chapter 6) and for calculating forming limit dia
grams (Chapter 22). He was the Acting Rector, Senior Professor, and Director
of the Institute of Metal Forming at the Technical University of Warsaw and
has published a number of books in Polish on metal forming and many papers
in the international literature.
One can experience workhardening by holding the ends of a wire in one’s
ﬁngers and bending it, straightening it, and bending it again. The second time
the bend will occur in a different spot than the ﬁrst bend. Why?
Problems
1. What are the values of K and n in Figure 4.3?
2. True stresstrue strain data from a tension test are given in Table 4.2:
A. Plot true stress vs. true strain on a logarithmic plot.
B. What does your plot suggest about n in Equation 4.3?
C. What does your plot suggest about a better approximation?
3. The true stressstrain curve of a material obeys the power hardening law
with n =0.18. A piece of this material was given a tensile strain of ε =0.03
Table 4.2. Results of a tension test
Strain Stress (MPa) Strain Stress (MPa)
0.00 0.00 0.10 250.7
0.01 188.8 0.15 270.6
0.02 199.9 0.20 286.5
0.05 223.5
∗
Z. Marciniak and K. Kuczynski, Int. J. Mech. Sci. v. 9, (1967) p. 609.
Strain Hardening of Metals 65
before being sent to a laboratory for tension testing. The lab workers were
unaware of the prestrain and tried to ﬁt their data to Equation 4.3.
A. What value of n would they report if they determined n from the elon
gation at maximum load?
B. What value of n would they report if they determined n from the loads
at ε = 0.05 and 0.15?
4. In a tension test, the following values of engineering stress and strain were
found: s = 133.3 MPa at e = 0.05, s = 155.2 MPa at e = 0.10 and s = 166.3
MPa at e = 0.15.
A. Determine whether the data ﬁt Equation 4.3.
B. Predict the strain at necking.
5. Two points on a stressstrain curve for a material are σ = 278 MPa at ε =
0.08 and σ = 322 MPa at ε = 0.16.
A. Find K and n in the powerlaw approximation and predict σ at ε =0.20.
B. For the approximation σ = K(ε
o
+ε)
n
(Equation 4.4) with ε
o
= 0.01,
ﬁnd K and n and predict ε at ε = 0.20.
6. The tensile stress–strain curve of a certain material is best represented by
a saturation model, σ = σ
o
[1 −exp(−Aε)].
A. Derive an expression for the true strain at maximum load in terms of
the constants A and σ
o
.
B. In a tension test, the maximum load occurred at an engineering strain
of e = 21%, and the tensile strength was 350 MPa. Determine the val
ues of the constants A and σ
o
for the material. (Remember that the
tensile strength is the maximum engineering stress.)
7. A material has a stressstrain relation that can be approximated by σ =
150 + 185ε.
A. What percent uniform elongation should be expected in a tension test?
B. What is the material’s tensile strength?
8. A. Derive expressions for the true strain at the onset of necking if the
stressstrain curve is given by σ = K(ε
o
+ε)
n
(Equation 4.4).
B. Write an expression for the tensile strength.
9. Consider a tensile specimen made from a material that obeys the power
hardening law with K = 400 MPa and n = 0.20. Assume K is not sensitive
to strain rate. One part of the gauge section has an initial crosssectional
area that is 0.99 times that of the rest of the gauge section. What will be
the true strain in the larger area after the smaller area necks and reduces
to 50% of its original area?
10. Consider a tensile bar that was machined so that most of the gauge sec
tion was 1.00 cm in diameter. One short region in the gauge section has
a diameter 0.5% smaller (0.995 cm). Assume the stressstrain curve of
the material is described by the power law with K = 330 MPa and n =
0.23, and the ﬂow stress is not sensitive to the strain rate. The bar was
66 Solid Mechanics
pulled in tension well beyond maximum load and it necked in the reduced
section.
A. Calculate the diameter away from the reduced section.
B. Suppose that an investigator had not known that the bar initially had
a reduced section and had assumed that the bar had a uniform initial
diameter of 1.00 cm. Suppose that she measured the diameter away
from the neck and had used that to calculate n. What value of n would
she have calculated?
11. A tensile bar was machined so that most of the gauge section had a diam
eter of 0.500 cm. One small part of the gauge section had a diameter 1%
smaller (0.495 cm). Assume powerlaw hardening with n = 0.17. The bar
was pulled until necking occurred.
A. Calculate the uniform elongation (percent) away from the neck.
B. Compare this with the uniform elongation that would have been found
if there were no initial reduced section.
12. Repeated cycles of freezing of water and thawing of ice will cause copper
pipes to burst. Water expands about 8.3% when it freezes.
A. Consider a copper tube as a capped cylinder that cannot lengthen or
shorten. If it were ﬁlled with water, what would be the circumferential
strain in the wall when the water freezes?
B. How many cycles of freezing/thawing would it take to cause the tube
walls to neck? Assume the tube is ﬁlled after each thawing. Assume
n = 0.55.
5 Plasticity Theory
Introduction
Plasticity theory deals with yielding of materials under complex states of stress.
A yield criteria allows one to decide whether or not a material will yield under
a stress state. Flow rules predict the shape changes that will occur if it does
yield. With plasticity theory, tensile test data can be used to predict the work
hardening during deformation under such complex stress states. These rela
tions are a vital part of computer codes for predicting crashworthiness of auto
mobiles and codes for designing forming dies.
Yield Criteria
The concern here is to describe mathematically the conditions for yielding
under complex stresses. A yield criterion is a mathematical expression of the
stress states that will cause yielding or plastic ﬂow. The most general form of a
yield criterion is
f (σ
x
, σ
y
, σ
z
, τ
yz
, τ
zx
, τ
xy
) = C, (5.1)
where C is a material constant. For an isotropic material this can be expressed
in terms of principal stresses,
f (σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
) = C. (5.2)
The yielding of most solids is independent of the sign of the stress state.
Reversing the signs of all the stresses has no effect on whether a material
yields. This is consistent with the observation that for most materials, the yield
strengths in tension and compression are equal.
∗
Also, for most solid materials
∗
This may not be true when the loading path is changed during deformation. Directional
differences in yielding behavior after prior straining are called a Bauschinger effect. It is also
not true if mechanical twinning is an important deformation mechanism. The compressive
yield strengths of polymers are generally greater than the tensile yield strengths (see Chap
ter 12).
67
68 Solid Mechanics
σ
1
σ
3
σ
2
σ
1
=
σ
2
= σ
3
Figure 5.1. A yield locus is the surface of a body in three
dimensional stress space. Stress states on the locus will cause
yielding. Those inside the locus will not cause yielding.
yielding is independent of the level of mean normal stress, σ
m
,
σ
m
= (σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
)/3. (5.3)
It will be shown later that this is equivalent to assuming that plastic defor
mation causes no volume change. This assumption of constancy of volume is
certainly reasonable for crystalline materials that deform by slip and twinning
because these mechanisms involve only shear. With slip and twinning, only the
shear stresses are important. With this simpliﬁcation, the yield criteria must be
of the form
f [(σ
2
−σ
3
),(σ
3
−σ
1
),(σ
1
−σ
2
)] = C. (5.4)
In terms of the Mohr’s stress circle diagrams, only the sizes of the circles (not
their positions) are of importance in determining whether yielding will occur.
In threedimensional stress space (σ
1
vs. σ
2
vs. σ
3
), the locus can be represented
by a cylinder parallel to the line σ
1
= σ
2
= σ
3
, as shown in Figure 5.1.
Tresca (maximum shear stress criterion)
The simplest yield criterion is one ﬁrst proposed by Tresca. It states that yield
ing will occur when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value. The largest
shear stress is τ
max
= (σ
max
−σ
min
)/2, so the Tresca criterion can be expres
sed as
σ
max
−σ
min
= C. (5.5)
If the convention is maintained that σ
1
≥ σ
2
≥ σ
3
, this can be written as
σ
1
−σ
3
= C. (5.6)
The constant, C, can be found by considering uniaxial tension. In a tension test,
σ
2
= σ
3
= 0 and at yielding, σ
1
= Y where Y is the yield strength. Substituting
into Equation 5.6, C = Y. Therefore, the Tresca criterion may be expressed
as
σ
1
−σ
3
= Y. (5.7)
Plasticity Theory 69
Figure 5.2. Plot of the yield locus for the
Tresca criterion for σ
z
= 0. The Tresca crite
rion predicts that the intermediate principal
stress has no effect on yielding. For example,
in sector I the value of σ
y
has no effect on the
value of σ
x
required for yielding. Only if σ
y
is
negative or if it is greater than σ
x
does it has
an inﬂuence. In these cases, it is no longer the
intermediate principal stress.
For pure shear, σ
1
= −σ
3
= k, where k is the shear yield strength. Substituting
in Equation 5.7, k = Y/2 so
σ
1
−σ
3
= 2k = C. (5.8)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.1: Consider an isotropic material loaded so that the
principal stresses coincide with the x, y, and z axes of the material. Assume
that the Tresca yield criterion applies. Make a plot of the combinations of
σ
y
vs. σ
x
that will cause yielding with σ
z
= 0.
Solution: Divide the σ
y
vs. σ
x
stress space into six sectors, as shown in
Figure 5.2. The following conditions are appropriate:
I σ
x
> σ
y
> σ
z
= 0, so σ
1
= σ
x
, σ
3
= σ
z
= 0, so σ
x
= Y
II σ
y
> σ
x
> σ
z
= 0, so σ
1
= σ
y
, σ
3
= σ
z
= 0, so σ
y
= Y
III σ
y
> σ
z
= 0 > σ
x
, so σ
1
= σ
y
, σ
3
= σ
x
, so σ
y
−σ
x
= Y
VI σ
x
> σ
z
= 0 > σ
y
, so σ
1
= σ
x
, σ
3
= σ
y
, so σ
x
−σ
y
= Y
These are plotted in Figure 5.2.
It seems reasonable to incorporate the effect of the intermediate princi
pal stress into the yield criterion. One might try this by assuming that yielding
depends on the average of the diameters of the three Mohr’s circles, [(σ
1
−
σ
2
) +(σ
2
−σ
3
) +(σ
1
−σ
3
)]/3, but the intermediate stress term, σ
2
, drops out
of the average, [(σ
1
−σ
2
) +(σ
2
−σ
3
) +(σ
1
−σ
3
)]/3 = (2/3)(σ
1
−σ
3
). There
fore, an average diameter criterion reduces to the Tresca criterion.
Von Mises Criterion
The effect of the intermediate principal stress can be included by assuming
that yielding depends on the rootmeansquare diameter of the three Mohr’s
70 Solid Mechanics
circles.
∗
This is the von Mises criterion, which can be expressed as
{[(σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
]/3}
1/2
= C. (5.9)
Note that each term is squared, so the convention σ
1
≥ σ
2
≥ σ
3
is not
necessary. Again, the material constant, C, can be evaluated by consider
ing a uniaxial tension test. At yielding, σ
1
= Y and σ
2
= σ
3
= 0. Substituting,
[0
2
+(−Y)
2
+Y
2
]/3 = C
2
, or C = (2/3)
1/3
Y, so the equation is usually written
as
(σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
= 2Y
2
. (5.10)
For a state of pure shear, σ
1
= −σ
3
= k and σ
2
= 0. Substituting into Equa
tion 5.10, (−k)
2
+[(−k) −k]
2
+k
2
= 2Y
2
, so
k = Y/
√
3. (5.11)
Equation 5.10 can be simpliﬁed if one of the principal stresses is zero
(planestress conditions). Substituting σ
3
= 0, σ
2
1
+σ
2
2
−σ
1
σ
2
= Y
2
, which is
an ellipse. With further substitution of a = σ
2
/σ
1
,
σ
1
= Y/(1 −α +α
2
)
1/2
. (5.12)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.2: Consider an isotropic material loaded so that the
principal stresses coincide with the x, y, and z axes. Assuming the von
Mises yield criterion applies, make a plot of σ
y
vs. σ
x
yield locus with
σ
z
= 0.
Solution: Let σ
y
= σ
1
, σ
y
= σ
2
, and σ
z
= 0. Now α = σ
2
/σ
1
. Figure 5.3
results from substituting several values of a into Equation 6.12, solving
for σ
x
/Y and σ
y
/Y = ασ
x
/Y, and then plotting.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.3: For plane stress (σ
3
= 0), what is the largest
possible ratio of σ
1
/Y at yielding and at what stress ratio, α, does this
occur?
Solution: Inspecting Equation 5.12, it is clear that maximum ratio of σ
1
/Y
corresponds to the minimum value 1 −α +α
2
. Differentiating and setting
to zero, d(1 −α +α
2
)/dα = −1 +2α; α = −1/2. Substituting into Equa
tion 5.12,
σ
1
/Y = [1 −1/2 +(1/2)
2
]
−1/2
=
√
(4/3) = 1.155.
∗
This is equivalent to assuming that yielding occurs when the elastic distortional strain energy
reaches a critical value.
Plasticity Theory 71
Figure 5.3. The von Mises criterion with
σ
z
= 0 plots as an ellipse.
The von Mises yield criterion can also be expressed in terms of stresses that
are not principal stresses. In this case, it is necessary to include shear terms,
(σ
y
−σ
z
)
2
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
2
+(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
+6
_
τ
2
yz
+τ
2
zx
+τ
2
xy
_
= 2Y
2
, (5.13)
Flow Rules
When a material yields, the ratio of the resulting strains depends on the stress
state that causes yielding. The general relations between plastic strains and the
stress states are called the ﬂow rules. They may be expressed as
dε
i j
= dλ(∂ f/∂σ
i j
), (5.14)
where f is the yield function corresponding to the yield criterion of concern
and dλ is a constant that depends on the shape of the stress strain curve.
∗
For the von Mises criterion, we can write f = [(σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+
(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
]/4. In this case, Equation 5.14 results in
dε
1
= dλ[2(σ
1
−σ
2
) −2(σ
1
−σ
1
)]/4 = dλ·[σ
1
−(σ
2
+σ
3
)/2]
dε
2
= dλ[σ
2
−(σ
3
+σ
1
)/2]
dε
3
= dλ[ε
3
−(σ
1
+σ
2
)/2].
∗∗
(5.15)
∗
The constant, dλ, can be expressed as dλ = dε/dσ, which is the inverse slope of the effective
stressstrain curve at the point where the strains are being evaluated.
∗∗
Equations 5.15 parallel Hooke’s law equations (Equation 2.2) where dλ = dε/dσ replaces
1/E and 1/2 replaces Poisson’s ratio, υ. For this reason, it is sometimes said that the “plastic
Poisson’s ratio” is 1/2.
72 Solid Mechanics
These are known as the LevyMises equations. Even though dλ is not usually
known, these equations are useful for ﬁnding the ratio of strains that result
from a known stress state or the ratio of stresses that correspond to a known
strain state.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.4: Find the ratio of the principal strains that result
from yielding if the principal stresses are σ
y
= σ
x
/4, σ
z
= 0. Assume the
von Mises criterion.
Solution: (a) According to Equation 5.15, dε
1
: dε
2
: dε
3
= [σ
1
−(σ
2
+σ
3
)/
2] : [σ
2
−(σ
3
+σ
1
)/2] : [σ
3
−(σ
1
+σ
2
)/2] =(7/8)σ
1
: (−1/4)σ
1
: (−5/8)σ
1
=
7 : −2 : −5.
The ﬂow rules for the Tresca criterion can be found by applying Equation 5.14
with f = σ
1
−σ
3
. Then dε
1
= dλ, dε
2
= 0, and dε
3
= −dλ, or
dε
1
: dε
2
: dε
3
= 1 : 0 : −1. (5.16)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.5: Find the ratio of the principal strains that result
from yielding if the principal stresses are σ
y
= σ
x
/4, σ
z
= 0, assuming the
Tresca criterion.
Solution: Here dε
1
= dε
x
, dε
2
= dε
y
, and dε
3
= dε
z
, so dε
x
: dε
y
: dε
z
=
1 : 0 : −1.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.6: Circles were printed on the surface of a part
before it was deformed. Examination after deformation revealed that the
principal strains in the sheet are ε
1
= 0.18 and ε
2
= 0.078. Assume that
the tools did not touch the surface of concern and that the ratio of stresses
remained constant during the deformation. Using the von Mises criterion,
ﬁnd the ratio of the principal stresses.
Solution: First, realize that with a constant ratio of stresses, dε
2
: dε
1
=
ε
2
: ε
1
. Also, if the tools did not touch the surface, it can be assumed
that σ
3
= 0. Then according to Equation 5.15, ε
2
/ε
1
= dε
2
/dε
1
= (σ
2
−
σ
1
/2)/(σ
1
−σ
2
/2). Substituting, α = σ
2
/σ
1
, and ρ = ε
2
/ε
1
, (α
.
−1/2)/(1 −
α/2) = ρ. Solving for α,
α = (ρ +1/2)/(ρ/2 +1). (5.17)
Now substituting ρ = 0.078/0.18 = 0.4333, α = 0.7671.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.7: Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s circle dia
grams for the stresses and plastic strains in a body loaded under plane
strain tension, ε
y
= 0, with σ
z
= 0. Assume the von Mises yield cri
terion.
Plasticity Theory 73
γ/2
ε
ε
x
ε
y
ε
z
τ
σ
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
Figure 5.4. Mohr’s strain and stress circles for plane
strain.
Solution: From the ﬂow rules, ε
y
= 0 = λ[σ
y
−(1/2)(σ
x
+σ
z
)] with e
y
= 0
and σ
z
= 0, σ
y
= 1/2(σ
x
). The Mohr’s stress circles are determined by the
principal stresses, σ
x
, σ
y
= 1/2(σ
x
) and σ
z
= 0. For plastic ﬂow, ε
x
+ε
y
+
ε
z
= 0, so with ε
y
= 0, ε
z
= −ε
x
. The Mohr’s strain circles (Figure 5.4) are
determined by the principal strains, ε
x
, ε
y
= 0, and ε
z
= −ε
x
.
Principle of Normality
The ﬂow rules may be represented by the principle of normality. According
to this principle, if a normal is constructed to the yield locus at the point of
yielding, the strains that result from yielding are in the same ratio as the stress
components of the normal. This is illustrated in Figure 5.5. A corollary is that
for a σ
1
vs. σ
2
yield locus with σ
3
= 0,
dε
1
/dε
2
= −∂σ
2
/∂σ
1
, (5.18)
where ∂σ
2
/∂σ
1
is the slope of the yield locus at the point of yielding. It should
be noted that Equations 5.14 and 5.17 are general and can be used with other
yield criteria, including ones formulated to account for anisotropy and for
pressuredependent yielding.
Figure 5.6 shows how different shape changes result from different load
ing paths. The components of the normal at A are dσ
y
/dσ
x
= 1, so ε
y
= ε
x
. At
B, the normal has a slope of dσ
y
= 0, so ε
y
= 0. For uniaxial tension at C, the
slope of the normal is dσ
y
/dσ
x
= −1/2 which corresponds to ε
y
= (−1/2)ε
x
.
σ
y
σ
z
= 0
σ
x
dε
dε
x
dε
y
Figure 5.5. The ratios of the strains resulting from yielding
are in the same proportion as the components of a vector
normal to the yield surface at the point of yielding.
74 Solid Mechanics
σ
y
σ
z
= 0
σ
x
A
B
C
D
Figure 5.6. The ratio of strains resulting from yielding along sev
eral loading paths. At A, ε
y
= ε
x
; at B, ε
y
= 0; at C (uniaxial ten
sion) ε
y
= −1/2e
x
; and at D, ε
y
= −ε
x
.
At D, dσ
y
/dσ
x
= −1, so ε
y
= −ε
x
. Figure 5.7 is a representation of the normal
ity principle applied to the Tresca criterion. All stress states along a straight
edge cause the same ratio of plastic strains. The shape changes corresponding
to the corners are ambiguous because it is ambiguous which stress component
is σ
max
and which stress component is σ
min
. For example, with yielding under
biaxial tension, σ
x
= σ
y
, 0 ≤ ε
y
/ε
x
≤ ∞.
Effective Stress and Effective Strain
The concepts of effective stress and effective strain are necessary for analyzing
the strain hardening that occurs on loading paths other than uniaxial tension.
Effective stress, σ, and effective strain, ε, are deﬁned so that:
1) σ and ε reduce to σ
x
and ε
x
in an xdirection tension test.
2) The incremental work per volume done in deforming a material plastically
is dw = σ d ε.
3) Furthermore it is usually assumed that the σ vs. ε curve describes the strain
hardening for loading under a constant stress ratio, α, regardless of α.
∗
These orientation changes (texture development) depend on the loading path.
However, the dependence of strain hardening on the loading path is signiﬁcant
only at large strains.
The effective stress, σ, is the function of the applied stresses that deter
mine whether yielding occurs. When σ reaches the current ﬂow stress, plastic
deformation will occur. For the von Mises criterion,
σ = (1/
√
2)[(σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
]
1/2
, (5.19)
and for the Tresca criterion,
σ = (σ
1
−σ
3
). (5.20)
∗
It should be understood that for large strains, the σ vs. ε curves do depend on the loading
path because of orientation changes within the material.
Plasticity Theory 75
σ
y
σ
x
ε
x
= 0
ε
y
= 0
ε
y
= −ε
x
Figure 5.7. The normality principle applied to the Tresca yield
criterion. All stress states on the same side of the locus cause
the same shape change. The shape changes at the corners are
ambiguous. Biaxial tension can produce any shape change from
ε
y
= 0 to ε
x
= 0.
Note that in a tension test, the effective stress reduces to the tensile stress so
both criteria predict yielding when σ equals the current ﬂow stress.
The effective strain, ε, is a mathematical function of the strain compo
nents, deﬁned in such a way that ε reduces to the tensile strain in a tension test
and that the plastic work per volume is
dw = σdε = σ
1
dε
1
+σ
2
dε
2
+σ
3
dε
3
. (5.21)
For the von Mises criterion, d ε, can be expressed as
dε = (
√
2/3)[(dε
2
−dε
3
)
2
+(dε
3
−dε
1
)
2
+(dε
1
−dε
2
)
2
]
1/2
, (5.22)
or as
dε = (2/3)
1/3
_
dε
2
1
+dε
2
2
+dε
2
3
_
1/2
, (5.23)
which is completely equivalent.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.8: Show that dε in Equations 5.22 and 5. 23 reduce
to dε
1
in a onedirection tension test.
Solution: In a onedirection tension test, dε
2
= dε
3
= −(1/2)dε
1
. Substi
tuting into Equation 5.22, dε =(
√
2/3){(0)
2
+[−(1/2)dε
1
−dε
1
]
2
+[dε
1
−
(−1/2)dε
1
]
2
}
1/2
,=(
√
2/3)[(9/4)de
2
1
+(9/4)de
2
1
]
1/2
=dε
1
Substituting dε
2
=
dε
3
= −(1/2)dε
1
into Equation 5.22, dε = (2/3)[dε
2
1
+(−1/2dε
1
)
2
+
(−1/2dε
1
)
2
]
1/2
=
√
(2/3)[dε
2
1
+dε
2
1
/4 +dε
2
1
/4]
1/2
d = ε
1
.
If the straining is proportional (constant ratios of dε
1
: dε
2
: dε
3
), the total
effective strain can be expressed as
ε =
_
(2/3)
_
ε
2
1
+ε
2
2
+ε
2
3
__
1/2
. (5.24)
If the straining is not proportional, ε must be found by integrating dε along the
strain path.
76 Solid Mechanics
The effective strain (and stress) may also be expressed in terms of non
principal strains (and stresses). For von Mises,
ε =
_
(2/3)
_
e
2
x
+ε
2
y
+ε
2
z
_
+(1/3)
_
γ
2
yz
+γ
2
zx
+γ
2
xy
__
1/2
, (5.25)
and
σ = (1/
√
2)
_
(σ
y
−σ
z
)
2
+
_
σ
z
−σ
2
x
+(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
+6
_
τ
2
yz
+τ
2
zx
+τ
2
xy
__
1/2
.
(5.26)
For the Tresca criterion, the effective strain is the absolutely largest principal
strain,
dε = dε
i

max
. (5.27)
Although the Tresca effective strain is not widely used, it is of value because
it is so extremely simple to ﬁnd. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the value
of the von Mises effective strain can never differ from it by more than 15%.
Always,
dε
i

max
≤ dε
mises
≤ 1.15dε
i

max
. (5.28)
Equation 5.28 provides a simple check when calculating the von Mises effec
tive strain. If one calculates a value of dε for von Mises that does not fall within
the limits of Equation 5.28, a mistake has been made.
As a material deforms plastically, the level of stress necessary to continue
deformation increases. It is postulated that the strain hardening depends only
on ε. In that case, there is a unique relation,
σ = f (ε). (5.29)
Because for a tension test ε is the tensile strain and σ is the tensile stress, the
σ −ε curve in a tension test is the σ − ε curve. Therefore, the stressstrain
curve in a tension test can be used to predict the stressstrain behavior under
other forms of loading.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.9: The strains measured on the surface of a piece of
sheet metal after deformation are ε
1
= 0.182 and ε
2
= −0.035. The stress
strain curve in tension can be approximated by σ = 30 +40ε. Assume the
von Mises criterion and assume that the loading was such that the ratio
of ε
2
/ε
1
was constant. Calculate the levels of σ
1
and σ
2
reached before
unloading.
Solution: First, ﬁnd the effective strain. With constant volume, ε
3
=
−ε
1
−ε
2
= −0.182 +0.035 = −0.147. The von Mises effective strain is ε =
[(2/3)(ε
2
1
+ ε
2
2
+ ε
2
3
)]
1/2
= [(2/3)(0.182
2
+0.035
2
+ 0.147
2
)]
1/2
= 0.193.
(Note that this is larger than the largest principal strain, 0.182, and smaller
than 1.15 × 0.182). Because the tensile stressstrain curve is the effective
Plasticity Theory 77
σ
y
σ
z
= 0
σ
x
1
Tresca
1
0
−1
a = 2 (von Mises)
a = 8
a = 6
Figure 5.8. Yield loci for (σ
2
−σ
3
)
a
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
a
+(σ
1
−
σ
2
)
a
= 2Y
a
with several values of a. Note that the von Mises
criterion corresponds to a = 2 and the Tresca criterion to
a = 1.
stresseffective strain relation, σ = 30 +40ε = 30 +40 ×0.193 = 37.7.
At the surface σ
z
= 0, so the effective stress function can be written
as σ/σ
1
= (1/
√
2)[α
2
+1 +(1 −α)
2
]
1/2
= (1 −α +α
2
)
1/2
. From the
ﬂow rules with σ
z
= 0, ρ = dε
2
/dε
1
= (α −1/2)/(1 −α/2). Solving for
α, ε = (ρ +1/2)/(1 +ρ/2). Substituting ρ = −0.035/0.182 = −0.192,
α = (−0.192 +1/2)/(1 −0.192/2) = +0.341, σ/σ
1
= [1 −α +α
2
]1/2 =
[1 −0.341 +0.341
2
]
1/2
= 0.881. σ
1
= 0.881/σ = 37.7/0.881 = 42.8 and
σ
2
= ασ
1
= 0.341 ×42.8 = 14.6
Other Isotropic Yield Criteria
von Mises and Tresca are not the only possible isotropic criteria. Both exper
imental data and theoretical analysis based on a crystallographic model tend
to lie between the two and can be represented by
∗
σ
2
−σ
3

a
+σ
3
−σ
1

a
+σ
1
−σ
2

a
= 2Y
a
. (5.30)
This criterion reduces to von Mises for a = 2 and a = 4, and to Tresca for
a = 1 and a → ∞. For values of the exponent greater than 4, this criterion
predicts yield loci between Tresca and von Mises, as shown in Figure 5.8. If
the exponent, a, is an even integer, this criterion can be written without the
absolute magnitude signs as
(σ
2
−σ
3
)
a
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
a
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
a
= 2Y
a
. (5.31)
∗
W. F. Hosford, J. Appl. Mech. (Trans. ASME ser E.) v. 39E (1972).
78 Solid Mechanics
Theoretical calculations based on {111} <110> slip suggest an exponent of
a = 8 for fcc metals. Similar calculations suggest that a = 6 for bcc. These
values ﬁt experimental data as well.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5.10: Derive the ﬂow rules for the high exponent yield
criterion, Equation, 5.29.
Solution: Expressing the yield function as f = (σ
y
−σ
z
)
a
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a
+
(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a
, the ﬂow rules can be found from dε
i j
= dλ(d f/dσ
i j
). dε
x
=
dλ[a(σ
x
−σ
z
)
a−1
+a(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a−1
], dε
y
=dλ[a(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a−1
+a(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a−1
],
and dε
z
= dλ[a(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a−1
+a(σ
z
−σ
y
)
a−1
]. These can be expressed as
dε
x
: dε
y
: dε
z
= [(σ
x
−σ
z
)
a−1
+(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a−1
] :
[(σ
y
−σ
x
)
a−1
+(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a−1
] : [(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a−1
+(σ
z
−σ
y
)
a−1
]
(5.32)
Effect of Strain Hardening on the Yield Locus
According to the isotropic hardening model, the effect of strain hardening
is simply to expand the yield locus without changing its shape. The stresses
for yielding are increased by the same factor along all loading paths. This
is the basic assumption that σ = f (ε). The isotropic hardening model can
be applied to anisotropic materials. It does not imply that the material is
isotropic.
An alternative model is kinematic hardening. According to this model,
plastic deformation simply shifts the yield locus in the direction of the loading
path without changing its shape or size. If the shift is large enough, unload
ing may actually cause plastic deformation. The kinematic model is probably
better for describing small strains after a change in load path. However, the
isotropic model is better for describing behavior during large strains after a
change of strain path. Figure 5.9 illustrates both models.
Notes
Otto Z. Mohr (1835–1918) worked as a civil engineer, designing bridges.
At 32, he was appointed a professor of engineering mechanics at Stuttgart
Polytecknium. Among other contributions, he here devised the graphical
method of analyzing the stress at a point.
He then extended Coulomb’s idea that failure is caused by shear stresses
into a failure criterion based on maximum shear stress, or diameter of the
largest circle.
∗
For cast iron, he proposed the different fracture stresses in
tension, shear, and compression could be combined into a single diagram
in which the tangents form an envelope of safe stress combinations. This is
essentially the Tresca yield criterion. It may be noted that early workers used
Plasticity Theory 79
σ
x
σ
x
Isotropic hardening
Kinematic hardening
σ
y
σ
y
a b
Figure 5.9. The effect of strain hardening on the yield locus. The isotropic model
(a) predicts an expansion of the locus. The kinematic hardening model predicts a trans
lation of the locus in the direction of the loading path.
the term “failure criteria,” which failed to distinguish between fracture and
yielding.
Lam´ e assumed a maximum stress theory of failure. However, later a max
imum strain theory of which Poncelet and SaintVenant were proponents
became generally accepted. They proposed that failure would occur when a
critical strain was reached, regardless of the stress state.
In letters to William Thompson, John Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) pro
posed that “strain energy of distortion” was critical but he never published this
idea, and it was forgotten. In 1904, M. T. Huber ﬁrst formulated the expression
for “distortional strain energy,”
U = [1/(12G)][(σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
] where U = σ
2
yp
/(6G).
The same idea was independently developed by von Mises (G¨ ottinger. Nachr.
p. 582,1913), for whom the criterion is generally called. It is also referred to by
the names of several people who independently proposed it: Huber, Hencky,
as well as Maxwell. It is also known as the “maximum distortional energy”
theory and the “octahedral shear stress” theory. The ﬁrst name reﬂects that
the elastic energy in an isotropic material associated with shear (in contrast to
dilatation) is proportional to the left side of Equation 5.10. The second name
reﬂects that the shear terms, (σ
2
−σ
3
), (σ
3
−σ
1
), and (σ
1
−σ
2
), can be repre
sented as the edges of an octahedron in principal stress space.
In 1868, Tresca presented two notes to the French Academy. From these,
SaintVenant established the ﬁrst theory of plasticity based on the assumptions
that:
1) Plastic deformation does not change the volume of a material,
2) Directions of principal stresses and principal strains coincide,
3) The maximum shear stress at a point is a constant.
80 Solid Mechanics
σ
x
z
Grip section
Gauge section
y
Figure 5.10. Planestrain tensile specimen. Lateral
contraction of material in the groove is constrained
by material outside the groove.
The Tresca criterion is also called the Guest or the “maximum shear stress”
criterion.
REFERENCES
W. F. Hosford and R. M. Caddell, Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed.,
Cambridge U. Press, 2007.
R. Hill, The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford (1950).
W. A. Backofen, Deformation Processing, AddisonWesley (1972).
W. F. Hosford, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Cambridge U. Press, (2005).
Problems
1. For the von Mises yield criterion with σ
z
= 0, calculate the values of σ
x
/Y
at yielding if
a. α = 1/2 b. α = 1 c. α = −1 d. α = 0 where α = σ
y
/σ
x
.
2. For each of the values of α in Problem 1, calculate the ratio ρ = dε
y
dε
x
.
3. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 assuming the Tresca criterion instead of the von
Mises criterion.
4. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 assuming the following yield criterion:
(σ
2
−σ
3
)
a
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
a
+(σ
1
−σ
2
)
a
= 2Y
a
where a = 8.
5. Consider a planestrain tension test (Figure 5.10) in which the tensile stress
is applied along the xdirection. The strain, ε
y
, is zero along the trans
verse direction, and the stress in the zdirection vanishes. Assuming the
von Mises criterion, write expressions for:
A. σ as a function of σ
x
, and
B. dε as a function of dε
x
.
C. Using the results of parts A and B, write an expression for the incre
mental work per volume, dw, in terms of σ
x
and dε
x
.
D. Derive an expression for σ
x
as a function of ε
x
in such a test, assuming
that the strain hardening can be expressed by σ = Kε
n
.
6. A 1.00cm diameter circle was printed onto the surface of a sheet of steel
before forming. After forming, the circle was found to be an ellipse with
major and minor diameters of 1.18 cm and 1.03 cm, respectively. Assume
Plasticity Theory 81
500
400
300
200
T
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
100
0
0 0.1 0.2
True strain
0.3 0.4
Figure 5.11. True tensile stressstrain curve for the steel in Problem 6.
that both sets of measurements were made when the sheet was unloaded,
that during forming the stress perpendicular to the sheet surface was zero,
and that the ratio, α, of the stresses in the plane of the sheet remained
constant during forming. The tensile stressstrain curve for this steel is
shown in Figure 5.11. Assume the von Mises yield criterion.
A. What were the principal strains, ε
1
, ε
2
, and ε
3
?
B. What was the effective strain, ε?
C. What was the effective stress, σ?
D. Calculate the ratio, ρ = ε
2
/ε
1
and use this to ﬁnd the ratio, α = σ
2
/σ
1
.
(Take σ
1
and σ
2
respectively as the larger and smaller of the principal
stresses in the plane of the sheet.)
E. What was the level of σ
1
?
7. Measurements on the surface of a deformed sheet after unloading indi
cate that e
1
= 0.154 and e
2
= 0.070. Assume that the von Mises
criterion is appropriate and that the loading was proportional (i.e., the
ratio α = σ
y
/σ
x
remained constant during loading). It has been found that
the tensile stress–strain relationship for this alloy can be approximated by
σ = 150 +185ε (Figure 5.12), where σ is the true stress in MPa and ε is
the true strain.
σ = (150 + 185ε)MPa
σ
ε
Figure 5.12. True tensile stressstrain curve for the steel in Prob
lem 7.
82 Solid Mechanics
A. What was the effective strain?
B. What was the effective stress?
C. What was the value of the largest principal stress?
8. The following yield criterion has been proposed for an isotropic material:
“Yielding will occur when the sum of the diameters of the largest
and second largest Mohr’s circles reaches a critical value. Deﬁning
σ
1
≥ σ
2
≥ σ
3
, this can be expressed mathematically as: If (σ
1
−σ
2
) ≥
(σ
2
−σ
3
), (σ
1
−σ
2
) +(σ
1
−σ
3
) =C or 2σ
1
−σ
2
−σ
3
=C, but if (σ
2
−σ
3
) ≥
(σ
1
−σ
2
), (σ
1
−σ
3
) +(σ
2
−σ
3
) = Cor σ
1
+σ
2
−2σ
3
= C.
A. Evaluate C in terms of the yield strength, Y, in uniaxial tension or the
yield strength, −Y, in compression
Plot the yield locus as σ
x
vs. σ
y
for σ
z
= 0 where σ
x
, σ
y
, and σ
z
are principal
stresses. [Hint: For each region in σ
x
vs. σ
y
stress space, determine whether
Equations applies.]
9. Consider a long thinwalled tube, capped at both ends. It is made from a
steel with a yield strength of 40,000 psi. Its length is 60 in., its diameter
is 2.0 in. and the wall thickness is 0.015 in. The tube is loaded under an
internal pressure, P, and a torque of 1500 in. lbs is applied.
A. What internal pressure can it withstand without yielding according to
Tresca?
B. What internal pressure can it withstand without yielding according to
von Mises?
10. In the ﬂat rolling of a sheet or plate, the width does not appreciably
change. A sheet of aluminum is rolled from 0.050 in. to 0.025 in. thick
ness. Assume the von Mises criterion.
A. What is the effective strain, ε, caused by the rolling?
B. What strain in a tension test (if it were possible) would cause the same
amount of strain hardening?
11. A piece of ontarium (which has a tensile yield strength of Y = 700 MPa)
was loaded in such away that the principal stresses, σ
x
, σ
y
, and σ
z
, were in
the ratio of 1:0:−0.25. The stresses were increased until plastic deforma
tion occurred.
A. Predict the ratio of the principal strains, ρ = ε
y
/ε
x
, resulting from
yielding according to von Mises.
B. Predict the value of ρ = ε
y
/ε
x
esulting from yielding according to
Tresca.
C. Predict the value of σ
x
when yielding occurred according to von Mises.
D. Predict the value of σ
x
when yielding occurred according to Tresca.
12. A new yield criterion has been proposed for isotropic materials. It states
that yielding will occur when the diameter of Mohr’s largest circle plus
half of the diameter of Mohr’s second largest circle equals a critical value.
Plasticity Theory 83
This criterion can be expressed mathematically, following the convention
that σ
1
≥ σ
2
≥ σ
3
, as
(σ
1
−σ
3
) +1/2(σ
1
−σ
2
) = C if (σ
1
−σ
2
) ≥ (σ
2
−σ
3
)
and
(σ
1
−σ
3
) +1/2(σ
2
−σ
3
) = C if (σ
2
−σ
3
) ≥ (σ
1
−σ
2
).
A. Evaluate C in terms of the tensile (or compressive) yield strength, Y.
B. Let x, y, and z be directions of principal stress, and let σ
z
= 0.
Plot the σ
y
vs. σ
x
yield locus, that is, plot the values of σ
y
/Y and σ
x
/Y that
will lead to yielding according to this criterion.
[Hint: Consider different loading paths (ratios of σ
y
/σ
x
), and for each
decide which stress (σ
1
, σ
2
, or σ
3
) corresponds to (σ
x
, σ
y
or σ
z
= 0), then
determine whether (σ
1
−σ
2
) ≥ (σ
2
−σ
3
), substitute s
X
, s
y
, and 0 into the
appropriate expression, solve and, ﬁnally, plot.]
13. The tensile yield strength of an aluminum alloy is 14,500 psi. A sheet of
this alloy is loaded under planestress conditions (σ
3
= 0) until it yields.
On unloading, it is observed that ε
1
= 2ε
2
and both ε
1
and ε
2
are positive.
A. Assuming the von Mises yield criterion, determine the values of σ
1
and
σ
2
at yielding.
B. Sketch the yield locus and show where the stress state is located on the
locus.
14. In a tension test of an anisotropic sheet, the ratio of the width strain to the
thickness strain, ε
w
/ε
t
, is R.
A. Express the ratio ε
2
/ε
1
of the strains in the plane of the sheet in terms
of R. Take the 1direction as the rolling direction, the 2direction as the
width direction in the tension test, and the 3direction as the thickness
direction.
B. There is a direction, x, in the plane of the sheet along which ε
x
= 0.
Find the angle, θ, between x and the tensile axis.
15. Redo Problem 6 assuming the Tresca criterion instead of the, von Mises
criterion.
16. The total volume of a foamed material decreases when it plastically
deforms in tension.
A. What does this imply about the effect of σ
H
= σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
)/3 on the
shape of the yield surface in σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
space?
B. Would the absolute magnitude of the yield stress in compression be
greater, smaller, or the same as the yield strength in tension?
C. When it yields in compression, would the volume increase, decrease,
or remain constant?
6 StrainRate and Temperature Dependence
of Flow Stress
Introduction
An increase of strain rate raises the ﬂow stress of most materials. The amount
of the effect depends on the material and the temperature. In most metallic
materials, the effect near room temperature is small and is often neglected. A
factor of ten increase in strain rate may raise the level of the stressstrain curve
by only 1% or 2%. On the other hand, at elevated temperatures the effect of
strain rate on ﬂow stress is much greater. Increasing the strain rate by a factor
of ten may raise the stressstrain curve by 50% or more.
Strain localization occurs very slowly in materials that have a high strain
rate dependence because lessstrained regions continue to deform. Under cer
tain conditions, the rate dependence is large enough for materials to behave
superplastically. Tensile elongations of 1000% are possible.
There is a close coupling of the effects of temperature and strain rate on
the ﬂow stress. Increased temperatures have the same effects as deceased tem
peratures. This coupling can be understood in terms of the Arrhenius rate
equation.
StrainRate Dependence of Flow Stress
The average strain rate during most tensile tests is in the range of 10
−3
to
10
−2
/s. If it takes 5 min during the tensile test to reach a strain of 0.3, the
average strain rate is ˙ ε = 0.3/(5 ×60) = 10
−3
/s. At a strain rate of ˙ ε = 10
−2
/s a
strain of 0.3 will occur in 30 seconds. For many materials, the effect of the
strain rate on the ﬂow stress, σ, at a ﬁxed strain and temperature can be
described by a powerlaw expression,
σ = C˙ ε
m
, (6.1)
where the exponent, m, is called the strainrate sensitivity. The relative levels
of stress at two strain rates (measured at the same total strain) is given by
σ
2
/σ
1
= (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
)
m
, (6.2)
84
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 85
or ln(σ
2
/σ
1
) = mln(˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
). If σ
2
is not much greater than σ
1
,
ln(σ
2
/σ
1
) ≈ σ/σ. (6.3)
Equation 6.2 can be simpliﬁed to
σ/σ ≈ mln(˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
) = 2.3mlog(˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
). (6.4)
At room temperature, the values of m for most engineering metals are
between −0.005 and +0.015, as shown in Table 6.1.
Consider the effect of a tenfold increase in strain rate, (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= 10) with
m = 0.01. Equation 6.4 predicts that the level of the stress increases by only
σ/σ = 2.3(0.01)(1) = 2.3%. This increase is typical of roomtemperature
tensile testing. It is so small that the effect of strain rate is often ignored. A
plot of Equation 6.2 in Figure 6.1 shows how the relative ﬂow stress depends
on the strain rate for several levels of m. The increase of ﬂow stress, σ/σ, is
small unless either m or (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
) is large.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.1: The strainrate dependence of a zinc alloy can be
represented by Equation 6.1 with m = 0.07. What is the ratio of the ﬂow
stress at ε = 0.10 for a strain rate of 10
3
/s to that at ε = 0.10 for a strain
rate of 10
−3
/s? Repeat for a lowcarbon steel with m = 0.01.
Solution: For zinc (m = 0.07), σ
2
/σ
1
= (C˙ ε
m
2
)/(C˙ ε
m
) = (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
)m =
(10
3
/10
−3
)
0.07
= (10
6
)
0.07
= 2.63. For steel (m = 0.01), σ
2
/σ
1
= (10
6
)
0.01
=
1.15.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.2: The tensile stress in one region of an HSLA steel
sheet (m = 0.005) is 1% greater than in another region. What is the ratio
of the strain rates in the two regions? Neglect strain hardening. What
would be the ratio of the strain rates in the two regions for a titanium alloy
(m = 0.02)?
Table 6.1. Typical values of the strainrate
exponent, m, at room temperature
Material m
lowcarbon steels 0.010 to 0.015
HSLA steels 0.005 to 0.010
austenitic stainless steels −0.005 to +0.005
ferritic stainless steels 0.010 to 0.015
copper 0.005
70/30 brass −0.005 to 0
aluminum alloys −0.005 to +0.005
αtitanium alloys 0.01 to 0.02
zinc alloys 0.05 to 0.08
86 Solid Mechanics
σ
2
/
σ
1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
.5 .3 .2 .15 .10
.08
.06
.04
.02
.01
.005
1 2 5 10 20 50 100 1,000 10,000
ε
2
/ε
1
. .
Figure 6.1. The dependence of ﬂow stress on strain rate for several values of the strain
rate sensitivity, m, according to Equation 6.2. From W. F. Hosford and R. M. Caddell,
Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed. Cambridge U. Press (2007).
Solution: Using Equation 6.2, ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= (σ
2
/σ
1
)
1/m
= (1.01)
1/0.005
= 7.3. If
m = 0.02, ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= 1.64. The difference between the strain rates differently
stressed locations decreases with increasing values of m.
Figure 6.2 illustrates two ways of determining the value of m. One method
is to run two continuous tensile tests at different strain rates and compare the
levels of stress at the some ﬁxed strain. The other way is to change the strain
rate suddenly during a test and compare the levels of stress immediately before
and after the change. The latter method is easier and therefore more common.
The two methods may give somewhat different values for m. In both cases,
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
σ
σ
1
2
1
2
ε
.
ε
.
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
2
ε
.
1
ε
.
1
ε
.
σ
2
σ
1
Figure 6.2. Two methods of determining the strainrate sensitivity. Either continuous
stressstrain curves at different strain rates can be compared at the same strain (left)
or sudden changes of strain rate can be made and the stress levels just before and just
after the change compared (right). In both cases, Equation 6.4 can be used to ﬁnd m.
In ratechange tests, (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
) is typically 10 or 100.
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 87
T/T
m
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
S
t
r
a
i
n
r
a
t
e
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
,
m
Copper
Steel
Aluminum
Titanium
Rene 41
Mo–T2C
304 Stainless
Figure 6.3. Variation of the strainrate sen
sitivity, m, with temperature for several
metals. Above about half of the melting
point, mrises rapidly with temperature. From
Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Equation 6.4 can be used to ﬁnd m. In ratechange tests, (˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
) is typically 10
or 100.
For most metals, the value of the rate sensitivity, m, is low near room tem
perature but increases with increasing temperature. The increase of m with
temperature is quite rapid above half the melting point (T > T
m
/2) on an
absolute temperature scale. In some cases, m may be 0.5 or greater. Figure 6.3
shows the temperature dependence of m for several metals. For some alloys,
there is a minimum between 0.2T
m
and 0.3T
m
. For aluminum alloy 2024
(Figure 6.4), the rate sensitivity is slightly negative in this temperature range.
Superplasticity
If the rate sensitivity, m, of a material is 0.5 or greater, the material will behave
superplastically, exhibiting very large tensile elongations. The large elon
gations occur because the necks are extremely gradual (like those that one
observes when chewing gum is stretched). Superplasticity permits forming of
parts that require very large strains. The conditions for superplasticity are:
1. Temperatures equal to or above half the absolute melting point (T ≥
0.5T
m
)
2. Slow strain rates
∗
(usually 10
−3
/s or slower)
3. Very ﬁne grain size (grain diameters of a few micrometers or less).
∗
Note that m is somewhat ratedependent, so Equation 6.1 is not a complete description of the
rate dependence. Nevertheless, m, deﬁned by m = ∂lnσ/∂ln˙ ε, is a useful index for describing
the rate sensitivity of a material and analyzing rate effects.
88 Solid Mechanics
T°C
S
t
r
a
i
n
r
a
t
e
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
,
m
−200
200 400
0
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
20240
Aluminum
0.16
Figure 6.4. Temperature dependence of m for pure aluminum and aluminum alloy
2024. Note that at room temperature, m is negative for 2024. From Fields and Back
ofen, Trans ASM, v.51 (1959).
Long times are needed to form useful shapes at low strain rates. With long
times and high temperatures grain growth may occur, negating an initially
ﬁne grain size. For this reason, most superplastic alloys either have twophase
structures or have a very ﬁne dispersion of insoluble particles. Both minimize
grain growth.
Under superplastic conditions, ﬂow stresses are very low and extremely
large elongations (1000% or more) are observed in tension tests. Both the low
ﬂow stress and large elongations can be useful in metal forming. The very low
ﬂow stresses permits slow forging of large, intricate parts with ﬁne detail. The
very large tensile elongation makes it possible to form very deep parts with
simple tooling. Examples are shown in Figures 6.5 and 6.6.
The reason that very large tensile elongations are possible can be under
stood in terms of the behavior of a tensile bar having a region with a slightly
reduced crosssectional area (Figure 6.7). The following treatment is simi
lar to the treatment in Chapter 4 of strain localization at defects. However,
assume now that workhardening can be neglected at high temperatures and
that Equation 6.1 describes the strainrate dependence. Let A
a
and A
b
be the
crosssectional areas of the thicker and thinner regions. The force carried by
both sections is the same, so
F
b
= σ
b
A
b
= F
a
= σ
a
A
a
. (6.6)
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 89
Figure 6.5. A titaniumalloy aircraft panel made by diffusion bonding and superplastic
deformation. Three sheets were diffusionbonded at a few locations and then internal
pressurization of the unbonded channels caused the middle sheet to stretch. Superplas
tic behavior is required because of the very large uniform extension required in the
middle sheet. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Figure 6.6. Complex part made from a sheet of a Zn22%Al alloy. The very large
strains in the walls require superplasticity. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
a b
a
Figure 6.7. Schematic of a tensile bar with one region (b) slightly smaller in cross
section than the other (a). Both must carry the same tensile force.
90 Solid Mechanics
Strainrate exponent, m
E
l
o
n
g
a
t
i
o
n
,
%
0
0
1
2
Ti5 Al2.5 Sn
Zircaloy4
Ti6 Al4V
PbSn Eutectic
3
0.1
f
=
0
.
9
9
8
0
.
9
9
5
0
.
9
9
0
.
9
8
0
.
9
5
0
.
9
0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
50
100
200
400
600
1,000
1,500
2,000
ε
a
*
Figure 6.8. Limiting strain, ε
∗
a
, in the unnecked portion of a tensile specimen as a func
tion of f and m. Reported values of total elongations are also shown as a function of
m. These are plotted with the elongation converted to true strain. From Hosford and
Caddell, ibid.
Substituting, σ
a
= C˙ ε
m
a
, σ
b
= C˙ ε
m
b
, A
a
= A
ao
exp(−ε
a
), andA
b
= A
bo
exp(−ε
b
),
and Equation 6.6 becomes
A
bo
exp(−ε
b
)C˙ ε
m
b
= A
ao
exp(−ε
a
)C˙ ε
m
a
. (6.7)
Designating the ratio of areas of the initial crosssectional areas by A
bo
/A
ao
=
f, f exp(−ε
b
)˙ ε
m
b
= exp(−ε
a
)˙ ε
m
a
. Now raising to the (1/m)th power and rec
ognizing that ˙ ε = dε/dt, f
1/m
exp(−ε
b
/m)dε
b
= exp(−ε
a
/m)dε
a
. Integration
from zero to their current values, ε
b
and e
a
, results in
exp(−ε
a
/m) −1 = f
1/m
[exp(−ε
b
/m) −1]. (6.8)
Under superplastic conditions, the reduction in area is often quite large.
The deformation in the unnecked region can be approximated by letting
ε
b
→∞in Equation 6.8. In this case, the limiting strain in the unnecked region
ε
∗
a
is
ε
∗
a
= −mln(1 − f
1/m
). (6.9)
Figure 6.8 shows how ε
∗
a
varies with m and f. Also shown are measured tensile
elongations, plotted assuming that ε
∗
a
= ln(%El/100 + 1). This plot suggests
that values of f in the range from 0.99 to 0.995 are not unreasonable.
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 91
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
m = 0.10
m = 0.20
m = 0.30
m = 0.40
m = 0.60
f = 0.99
m = 0.50
ε
a
ε
b
Figure 6.9. Relative strains in unnecked and necked regions for several values of rate
sensitivity, m.
The large values of m are a result of the contribution of diffusional pro
cesses to the deformation. Two possible mechanisms are possible. One is a
net diffusional ﬂux under stress of atoms from grain boundaries parallel to the
tensile axis to grain boundaries normal to the tensile axis, causing a tensile
elongation. This amounts to a net diffusion of vacancies from grain bound
aries normal to the tensile axis to boundaries parallel to it. The other possible
mechanism is grain boundary sliding. With grain boundary sliding, compati
bility where three grains meet must be accommodated by another mechanism.
Such accommodation could occur either by slip or by diffusion, but in both
cases the overall m would be below 1. Both diffusional creep and grain bound
ary sliding need a very ﬁne grain size, high temperatures, and low strain rates.
These mechanisms are discussed in more detail in Chapter 8.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.3: A tensile bar is machined so that the diameter at
one location is 1% smaller than the rest of the bar. The bar is tested at high
temperature so strain hardening is negligible but the strainrate exponent
is 0.25. When the strain in the reduced region is 0.20, what is the strain in
the larger region?
Solution: f =(πD
2
1
/4)/(πD
2
2
/4) =(D
1
/D
2
)
2
=(0.99/1)
2
=0.98. Substitu
ting ε
b
= 0.20 and f = 0.98 into Equation 6.8, exp(−ε
a
/m) −1 =
f
1/m
[exp(−ε
a
/m) −1], exp(−ε
a
/0.25) = (0.98)
1/0.25
[exp(−0.2/0.25) −1]
+1 = 00.492.ε
a
= −0.25ln(0.492) = 0.177.
Figure 6.9 shows that for large values of m, the strain, ε
a
, in the region
outside of the neck continues to grow even when the neck strain, ε
b
, is large.
With low values of m, deformation outside of the neck ceases early.
92 Solid Mechanics
0 0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.01
0.025
0.05
f = 0.98
n = 0.20
m = 0.1
ε
a
ε
b
Figure 6.10. Comparison of the strains in the reduced and unreduced sections of a ten
sile bar for a material that strain hardens and is strainrate sensitive. From Hosford and
Caddell, ibid.
Combined Strain and StrainRate Effects
Rate sensitivity may have appreciable effects at low temperatures, even when
m is relatively small. If both strain and strainrate hardening are considered,
the true stress may be approximated by
σ = C
ε
n
˙ ε
m
. (6.10)
Reconsider the tension test on an inhomogeneous tensile bar, with initial
crosssections of A
ao
and A
bo
= fA
oa
. Substituting A
a
= A
ao
exp(−ε
a
), A
b
=
A
bo
exp(−ε
b
), σ
a
= Cε
n
a
e
a
˙ ε
m
and σ
b
= Cε
n
b
˙ ε
b
e
m
into a force balance (Equa
tion 6.6) F
a
= A
a
σ
a
= F
b
= A
b
σ
b
,
A
ao
exp(−ε
a
)C
ε
n
a
˙ ε
m
a
= A
bo
exp(−ε
b
)C
ε
n
b
˙ ε
m
b
. (6.11)
Following the procedure leading to Equation 6.8,
_
εa
o
exp(−ε
a
/m)ε
n/m
a
dε
a
= f
1/m
_
εb
o
exp(−ε
b
/m)ε
n/m
b
dε
b
. (6.12)
This equation must be integrated numerically. The results are shown in Fig
ure 6.10 for n = 0.2, f = 0.98, and several levels of m.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.4: Reconsider the tension test in example Pro
blem #5.3. Let n = 0.226 and m = 0.012 (typical values for lowcarbon
steel) and let f = 0.98 as in the previous problem. Calculate the strain, ε
a
,
in the region with the larger diameter if the bar necks to a 25% reduction
of area, ε
b
= ln(4/3) = 0.288.
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 93
0
1,000
100
10
1
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Aluminum
Copper
T/T
M
T
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,
M
P
a
Figure 6.11. Tensile strengths decrease with
increasing temperatures. Data from R. P. Car
recker and W. R. Hibbard Jr., Trans. TMSAIME,
v. 209 (1957).
Solution: Substituting into Equation 6.12,
_
ε
a
o
exp(−ε
a
/m)ε
n/m
a
dε
a
= f
1/m
_
ε
b
o
exp(−ε
b
/m)ε
n/m
b
dε
b
or
_
ε
a
o
exp(−83.33ε
a
)ε
18.83
a
dε
a
= 0.1587
_
ε
b
o
exp(−83.33ε
b
ε
18.83
b
dε
b
Numerical integration of the righthand side gives 0.02185. The lefthand
side has the same value when ε
a
= 0.2625. The loss of elongation in the
thicker section is much less than in example Problem 6.3 where it was
found that ε
a
= 0.195 with n = 0.226 and m = 0.
Temperature Dependence
As temperature increases, the whole level of the stressstrain curve gener
ally drops. Figure 6.11 shows the decrease of tensile strengths of copper and
aluminum. Usually, the rate of workhardening also decreases at high
temperatures.
Combined Temperature and StrainRate Effects
The effects of temperature and strain rate are interrelated. Decreasing temper
ature has the same effect as an increasing strain rate, as shown schematically
in Figure 6.12. This effect occurs even in temperature regimes where the rate
sensitivity is negative.
94 Solid Mechanics
S
t
r
e
s
s
Temperature
2
>
1
⋅
⋅
⋅
1
∋
∋
∋
Figure 6.12. Schematic plot showing the tem
perature dependence of ﬂow stress at two
different strain rates. Note that an increased
strain rate has the same effects as a decreased
temperature. From Hosford and Caddell,
ibid.
The simplest treatment of temperature dependence of strain rate is that of
Zener and Hollomon,
∗
who treated plastic straining as a thermally activated
rate process. They assumed that strain rate follows an Arrhenius rate law, rate
α exp(−Q/RT), that is widely used in analyzing many temperaturedependent
rate processes. They proposed
˙ ε = Aexp(−Q/RT), (6.13)
where Q is the activation energy, T is absolute temperature, and R is the gas
constant. At a ﬁxed strain, Ais a function only of stress, A=A(σ), so Equation
6.13 can be written as
A(σ) = ˙ εexp(+Q/RT) (6.14)
or
A(σ) = Z, (6.15)
where Z= ˙ εexp(+Q/RT) is called the ZenerHollomon parameter.
Equation 6.20 predicts that a plot of strain at constant stress on a loga
rithmic scale vs. 1/T should be linear. Figure 6.13 shows that such a plot for
aluminum alloy 2024 is linear for a wide range of strain rates although the
relation fails at large strain rates.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.6: For an aluminum alloy under constant load,
the creep rate increased by a factor of two when the temperature was
increased from 71
◦
C to 77
◦
C. Find the activation energy.
Solution: Because ˙ ε = Aexp(−Q/RT), the ratio of the creep rates at two
temperatures is ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= exp[(−Q/R)(1/T
2
−1/T
1
)] so Q= Rln(˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
)/
(1/T
1
−1/T
2
). Substituting T
1
=273 + 71 = 344K, T
2
=273 +77 = 350K,
R = 8.314 J/mole/K and ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= 2 and solving, Q = 116 kJ/mol. Compare
this with Figure 6.14.
∗
C. Zener and H. Hollomon, J. Appl. Phys. 15 (1944).
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 95
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
500
°
C
4,000 psi
2,500 psi
1,500 psi
6,000 psi 10,000 psi 15,000 psi
400
°
C 300
°
C 200
°
C
1,000/T (1/K)
S
t
r
a
i
n
r
a
t
e
(
1
/
s
)
Figure 6.13. Combinations of strain rate and temperature for several stresses in alu
minum alloy 2024. The data are taken at an effective strain of 1.0. Data from Fields and
Backofen, ibid.
The ZenerHollomon development is useful if the temperature and strain
rate ranges are not too large. Dorn and coworkers measured the activation
energy, Q, for pure aluminum over a very large temperature range. They did
this by observing the change of creep rate under ﬁxed load when the tempera
ture was suddenly changed. Because the stress is constant,
˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
= exp[(−Q/R)(1/T
2
−1/T
1
)] (6.16)
160
148
117
120
80
40
0
0 200 400
Temperature, K
Q
,
k
J
/
m
o
l
e
600 800 1,000
Figure 6.14. Measured activation energies for creep of aluminum as a function of tem
perature. The change of Q with temperature indicates that Equation 6.20 will lead to
errors if it is applied over a temperature range in which Q changes. Data from O. D.
Sherby, J.L. Lytton and J.E. Dorn, AIME Trans. v. 212 (1958).
96 Solid Mechanics
Q + σV
Q Q
Q − σV
σV
σV
Figure 6.15. Schematic illustration of the skewing of an activation barrier by an applied
stress. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
or
Q= Rln(˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
)/(1/T
1
−1/T
2
). (6.17)
Their results (Figure 6.14) indicated that Q was independent of tempera
ture above 500K but very temperaturedependent at lower temperatures. This
observation was later explained by Z. S. Basinski and others. The basic argu
ment is that the stress helps thermal ﬂuctuations overcome activation barriers.
This is illustrated in Figure 6.15. If there is no stress, the activation barrier has
a height of Q with random ﬂuctuations. The rate of overcoming the barrier
is proportional to exp(−Q/RT). An applied stress skews the barrier so that
the effective height of the barrier is reduced to Q − σv, where v is a param
eter with the units of volume. Now the rate of overcoming the barrier is pro
portional to exp[−(Q − σv)/RT]. The ﬁnding of lower activation energies at
lower temperatures was explained by the fact that in the experiments, greater
stresses were applied at lower temperatures to achieve measurable creep rates.
In Figure 6.16, the rate of the overcoming the barrier from left to
right is proportional to exp[−(Q − σv)/RT], whereas the rate from right to
left is proportional to exp[−(Q + σv)/RT]. Thus, the net reaction rate is
C{exp[−(Q − σv)/RT] –exp[−(Q + σv)/RT]} = Cexp(−Q/RT){exp[(σv)/
RT] – exp[−(σv)/RT]}. This simpliﬁes to
˙ ε = 2Cexp(−Q/RT)sinh[(σv)/RT]. (6.18)
This expression has been modiﬁed based on some theoretical arguments to
provide a better ﬁt with experimental data,
˙ ε = Aexp(−Q/RT)[sinh(ασ)]
1/m
, (6.19)
where a is an empirical constant and the exponent 1/m is consistent with
Equation 6.1. Figure 6.16 shows that Equation 6.19 can be used to correlate
the combined effects of temperature, stress, and strain rate over an extremely
large range of strain rates.
If ασ 1, sinh(ασ) ≈ ασ, Equation 6.19 simpliﬁes to
˙ ε = Aexp(+Q/RT)(ασ)
1/m
(6.20)
σ = ˙ ε
m
A
exp(−mQ/RT) (6.21)
σ = A
Z
m
(6.22)
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 97
10,000,000
Creep (204–593°C)
Torsion (195–550°C)
Compression (250–550°C)
Slope = 4.7
α = 43 Pa
−1
sinh(ασ)
Z
/
A
1
=
(
ε
/
A
1
)
e
x
p
[
Q
/
R
T
)
]
Q = 157 kJ/mole
10,000
10
0.01
0.00001
0.00000001
.
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Figure 6.16. Plot of the ZenerHollomon
parameter vs. ﬂowstress data for alu
minum over a very wide range of strain
rates. Data are from J. J. Jonas, Trans.
Q. ASM, v. 62 (1969).
where A
= (αA
m
)
•1
. Equation 6.22 is consistent with the ZenerHollomon
development. At low temperatures and large stresses, (ασ) 1, so sinh(ασ)
→exp(ασ)/2 and Equation 6.20 reduces to
˙ ε = Cexp(α
σ−Q/RT). (6.23)
Under these conditions, both C and α
depend on strain and temperature.
For a constant temperature and strain,
σ = C +m
ln˙ ε (6.24)
Note that this equation differs from Equation 6.1.
Hot Working
Metallurgists make a distinction between cold working and hot working. It is
often said that hot working is done above the recrystallization temperature,
and the work material recrystallizes as it is deformed. This is an oversimpli
ﬁcation. The strain rates during hot working are often so large that there is
not enough time for recrystallization during the deformation. It is more mean
ingful to think of hot working as a process in which recrystallization occurs in
the period between repeated operations as in forging, rolling, and so on, or at
98 Solid Mechanics
least before the work material cools from the working temperature to room
temperature.
Tool forces during hot working are lowered not only by the recrystalliza
tion itself but also because of the inherently lower ﬂow stresses at high temper
atures. A second advantage of hot working is that the resulting product is in
an annealed state. However, there are disadvantages of hot working. Among
these are:
1. The tendency of the work metal to oxidize. In the case of steel and copper
base alloys, this results in scale formation and a consequent loss of metal.
Titanium alloys must be hot worked under an inert atmosphere to avoid
dissolving oxygen.
2. Lubrication is much more difﬁcult, and consequently friction much higher.
This effect somewhat negates the effect of lower ﬂow stress.
3. The scaling and high friction result in tool wear and shortened tool life.
4. The resulting product surface is rough because of the scale, tool wear, and
poor lubrication. There is also a loss of precise gauge control.
5. In some cases, the lack of strain hardening in hot working is undesi
rable.
Usually, ingot breakdown and subsequent working are done hot until the
section size becomes small enough that high friction and the loss of material
by oxidation become important. Hot rolling of steel sheet is continued to a
thickness of 0.050 in. to 0.200 in. Then the product is pickled in acid to remove
the scale and ﬁnished by cold working to obtain a good surface.
Most coldrolled sheet is sold in an annealed condition. With steels, the
term cold rolled refers to the surface quality rather than the state of work
hardening. The term warm working is used to refer to working of metals above
room temperature but at a low enough temperature that recrystallization does
not occur.
REFERENCES
Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy: 2nd ed., W. F. Hosford and R. M. Caddell,
Cambridge U. Press (2007).
Ferrous Metallurgical Design, John H. Hollomon and Leonard Jaffe, John Wiley &
Sons (1947).
W. F. Hosford, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Cambridge U. Press, (2005).
Notes
Svante August Arrhenius (1859–1927) was a Swedish physical chemist. He
studied at Uppsala, where he obtained his doctorate in 1884. It is noteworthy
that his thesis on electrolytes was given a fourth (lowest) level pass because
his committee was skeptical of its validity. From 1886 to 1890, he worked with
several noted scientists in Germany who did appreciate his work. In 1887, he
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 99
suggested that a very wide range of rate processes follow what is now known
as the Arrhenius equation. For years, his work was recognized throughout the
world except in his native Sweden.
Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) was the ﬁrst person to measure
the mechanical equivalent of heat. He was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, in
1753, studied at Harvard and taught in Concord, New Hampshire, where he
married a wealthy woman. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, hav
ing been denied a commission by Washington, he approached the British who
did commission him. When the British evacuated Boston in 1776 he left for
England, where he made a number of experiments on heat. However, he was
forced to depart quickly for Bavaria after being suspected of selling British
naval secrets to the French. In the Bavarian army, he rose rapidly to become
Minister of War and eventually Prime Minister. While inspecting a canon
factory, he observed a large increase in temperature during the machining
of bronze canons. He measured the temperature rise and with the known
heat capacity of the bronze, he calculated the heat generated by machining.
By equating this to the mechanical work done in machining, he was able to
deduce the mechanical equivalent of heat. His value was a little too low, in
part due to the fact some of the plastic work done in machining is stored as
dislocations in the chips.
Thompson was knighted in 1791, choosing the title Count Rumford after
the original name of Concord. During his rapid rise to power in Bavaria
he made many enemies, so that when the winds of politics changed, he had
to leave. He returned to Britain as an ambassador from Bavaria, but the
British refused to recognize him. During this period, he established the Royal
Institute. At this time, the United States was establishing the U.S. Military
Academy at West Point, and Rumford applied for and was selected to be its
ﬁrst commandant. However, during the negotiations about his title, it was
realized that he had deserted the American cause during the Revolution and
the offer was withdrawn. He ﬁnally moved to Paris where he married the
widow of the famous French chemist, Lavousier, who had been beheaded
during the French revolution.
Problems
1. During a tension test, the rate of straining was suddenly doubled. This
caused the load (force) to rise by 1.2%. Assuming that the strainrate
dependence can be described by σ = C˙ ε
m
, what is the value of m?
2. Two tension tests were made on the same alloy but at different strain rates.
Both curves were ﬁtted to a powerlaw strain hardening expression of the
form, σ =Kε
n
. The results are summarized in Table 6.2. Assuming that the
ﬂow stress at constant strain can be approximated by σ = C˙ ε
m
, determine
the value of m.
100 Solid Mechanics
Table 6.2. Results of two tension tests
Test A Test B
strain rate (s
−1
) 2 ×10
−3
10
−1
strainhardening exponent, n 0.22 0.22
constant, K (MPa) 402 412
3. To achieve a weightsaving in an automobile, replacement of a lowcarbon
steel with an HSLA steel is considered. In laboratory tension tests at a
strain rate of 10
−3
/s, the yield strengths of the HSLA steel and the low
carbon steel were measured to be 400 MPa and 220 MPa, respectively. The
strainrate exponents are m= 0.005 for the HSLA steel and m= 0.015 for
the lowcarbon steel. What percent of weightsaving could be achieved if
the substitution was made so that the forces were the same at the strain
rates of 10
+3
, typical of crash conditions?
4. The thickness of a coldrolled sheet varies from 0.0322 in. to 0.0318 in.,
depending on where the measurement is made, so strip tensile specimens
cut from the sheet show similar variation in crosssection.
A. For a material with n = 0.20 and m = 0, what will be the thickness of
the thickest regions when the thinnest region necks?
B. Find the strains in the thicker region if m = 0.50 and n = 0 when the
strain in the thinnest region reaches
i. 0.5, ii. ∞
5. Estimate the total elongation of a superplastic material if
A. n = 0, m = 0.5, and f = 0.98, B. n = 0, f = 0.75, and m = 0.8.
6. In superplastic forming, it is often necessary to control the strain rate. Con
sider the forming of a hemispherical dome by clamping a sheet over a cir
cular hole and bulging it with gas pressure.
A. Compare gas pressure needed to form a 2.0in. dome with that needed
to form a 20in. dome if both are formed from sheets of the same thick
ness and at the same strain rate.
B. Describe (qualitatively) how the gas pressure should be varied during
the forming to maintain a constant strain rate.
7. During a constantload creep experiment on a polymer, the tempera
ture was suddenly increased from 100
◦
C to 105
◦
C. It was found that this
increase of temperature caused the strain rate to increase by a factor of
1.8. What is the apparent activation energy for creep of the plastic?
8. Figure 6.17 gives some data for the effect of stress and temperature on the
strain rate of a nickelbased superalloy single crystal. The strain rate is
independent of strain in the region of this data. Determine as accurately
as possible:
A. The activation energy, Q, in the temperature range 700
◦
C to 810
◦
C.
B. The exponent, m, for 780
◦
C.
StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 101
10
−5
15
1000 °C
(1830 °F) 925 °C (1700 °F)
20 25 30 35 40 4550
10
−6
10
−7
10
−8
10
−9
10
−10
10
−11
100 150
Stress, MPa
S
t
e
a
d
y

s
t
a
t
e
c
r
e
e
p
r
a
t
e
(
s
s
)
,
s
−
1
200 250 300350
Stress, ksi
∋
Figure 6.17. The effects of stress and temperature on the strain rate of nickel–based
superalloy single crystals under stress. From Metals Hanbdbook, 9th ed., v.8, ASM
(1985).
9. The stressstrain curve of a steel is represented by σ = (1600 MPa)ε
0.1
.
The steel is deformed to a strain of ε = 0.1 under adiabatic conditions.
Estimate the temperature rise in the sample. For iron, ρ = 7.87 kg/m
2
,
C = 0.46J/g
◦
C, and E = 205 GPa.
10. Evaluate m for copper at room temperature from Figure 6.13.
11. The stressstrain curves for silver at several temperatures and strain rates
are shown in Figure 6.18. Determine the strainrate exponent, m, for silver
at 25
◦
C
400 °C, 3800 s
−1
25 °C, 0.001 s
−1
600 °C, 3500 s
−1
25 °C, 2800 s
−1
−196 °C, 0.001 s
−1
25 °C, 0.1 s
−1
200 °C, 3700 s
−1
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
True strain
T
r
u
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Figure 6.18. Stressstrain curves for silver (fcc). Note that at 25
◦
C the difference, σ,
between the stressstrain curves at different rates is proportional to the stress level.
From G. T. Gray in ASM Metals Handbook, v. 8 (2000).
7 Viscoelasticity
Introduction
In classic elasticity, there is no time delay between application of a force and
the deformation that it causes. However, for many materials there is additional
timedependent deformation that is recoverable. This is called viscoelastic or
anelastic deformation. When a load is applied to a material, there is an instan
taneous elastic response but the deformation also increases with time. This
viscoelasticity should not be confused with creep (Chapter 8), which is time
dependent plastic deformation. Anelastic strains in metals and ceramics are
usually so small that they are ignored. However, in many polymers viscoelas
tic strains can be very signiﬁcant.
Anelasticity is responsible for the damping of vibrations. A large damp
ing capacity is desirable where vibrations might interfere with the precision of
instruments or machinery and for controlling unwanted noise. A low damping
capacity is desirable in materials used for frequency standards, such as in bells
and in many musical instruments. Viscoelastic strains are often undesirable.
They cause the sagging of wooden beams, denting of vinyl ﬂooring by heavy
furniture, and loss of dimensional stability in gauging equipment. The energy
associated with damping is released as heat, which often causes an unwanted
temperature increase. The study of damping peaks and how they are affected
by processing has been useful in identifying mechanisms. The mathematical
descriptions of viscoelasticity and damping will be developed in the ﬁrst part
of this chapter, then several damping mechanisms will be described.
Rheological Models
Anelastic behavior can be modeled mathematically with structures con
structed from idealized elements representing elastic and viscous behavior, as
shown in Figure 7.1.
102
Viscoelasticity 103
Dashpot Spring
Figure 7.1. Rheological elements.
A spring models a perfectly elastic solid. The behavior is described by
e
e
= F
e
/K
e
, (7.1)
where e
e
is the change of length of the spring, F
e
is the force on the spring, and
K
e
is the spring constant. A dashpot models a perfectly viscous material. Its
behavior is described by
˙ e
v
= de
v
/dt = F
v
/K
v
, (7.2)
where e
v
is the change in length of the dashpot, F
v
is the force on it, and K
v
is
the dashpot constant.
Series Combination of a Spring and Dashpot
The Maxwell model consists of a spring and dashpot in series as shown in
Figure 7.2. Here and in the following, e and F, without subscripts, will refer
to the overall elongation and the external force. Consider how this model
behaves in two simple experiments. First, let there be a sudden application of
a force, F, at time, t =0, with the force being maintained constant (Figure 7.3).
The immediate response from the spring is e
e
= F/K
e
. This is followed by a
timedependent response from the dashpot, e
v
= Ft /K
v
. The overall response
will be
E = e
e
+e
v
= F/K
e
+ Ft /K
v
, (7.3)
so the strain rate would be constant. The viscous strain would not be recovered
on unloading.
e
v
Figure 7.2. Spring and dashpot in series (Maxwell model).
104 Solid Mechanics
If:
F
t
then:
e
t
Figure 7.3. Strain relaxation predicted by the series model. The strain
increases linearly with time.
Now consider a second experiment. Assume that the material is forced
to undergo a sudden elongation, e, at time t = 0, and that this elongation is
maintained for period of time as sketched in Figure 7.4. Initially, the elon
gation must be accommodated entirely by the spring (e = e
e
), so the force
initially jumps to a level, F
o
= K
e
e. This force causes the dashpot to oper
ate, gradually increasing the strain e
v
. The force in the spring, F = K
e
e
e
=
(e −e
v
)K
e
, equals the force in the dashpot, F = K
v
de
v
/dt, (e −e
v
)
−1
de
v
=
−(K
e
/K
v
)dt . Integrating, ln[(e−e
v
)/e] =−(K
e
/K
v
)t . Substituting, (e−e
v
)=F/
K
e
and K
e
e = F
o
, ln(F/F
o
) = t /(K
v
/K
e
). Now deﬁning a relaxation time,
τ = K
v
/K
e
,
F = F
o
exp(−t /τ). (7.4)
Parallel Combination of Spring and Dashpot
The Voight model consists of a spring and dashpot in parallel, as sketched in
Figure 7.5. For this model, F = F
e
+ F
v
and e = e
e
= e
v
.
Now consider the behavior of the Voight model in the same two exper
iments. In the ﬁrst, there is sudden application at time, t = 0, of a force, F,
which is then maintained at that level (Figure 7.6). Initially, the dashpot must
carry the entire force because the spring can carry a force only when it is
extended. At an inﬁnite time, the spring carries all the force, so e
∞
= F/K
e
.
Substituting de
v
= de and F
v
= F − F
e
into de
v
/dt = F
v
/K, de/dt = (F −
F
e
)/K
v
. Now substituting F
e
= e
e
K
e
= eK
e
, de/dt = (F −eK
e
)/K
v
= (K
e
/K
v
)
(F/K
e
−e). Denoting F/K
e
by e
∞
, deﬁning the relaxation time as
t
If:
e
F
t
then:
F
o
Figure 7.4. Stress relaxation predicted by
the series model. The stress decays to zero.
Viscoelasticity 105
e v
Figure 7.5. Spring and dashpot in parallel (Voight model).
τ = K
v
/K
e
and rearranging,
_
(e
∞
−e)
−1
de =
_
dt /t . Integrating, ln[(e −
e
∞
)/ −e
∞
] = t /τ. Rearranging, (e
∞
−e)/e
∞
= exp(−t /t ) or
e = e
∞
[1 −exp(−t /τ)]. (7.5)
Note that e = 0 at t = 0, and e →e
∞
as t →∞.
The experiment in which an extension is suddenly applied to the sys
tem (Figure 7.7) is impossible because the dashpot cannot undergo an sudden
extension without an inﬁnite force.
Combined ParallelSeries Model
Neither the series nor the parallel model adequately describes both stress and
strain relaxation. Acombined seriesparallel or VoightMaxwell model is much
better. In Figure 7.8, spring #2 is in parallel with a dashpot and spring #1 is in
series with the combination. The basic equations of this model are F = F
1
=
F
2
+ F
v
, e
v
= e
2
, and e = e
1
= e
2
.
Consider ﬁrst the sudden application of a force, F, at time t =0
(Figure 7.9). One can write de
v
/dt = F
v
/K
v
= (F − F
2
)/K
v
= (F − K
2
e
2
)/
K
v
=(F/K
2
−e
v
)(K
2
/K
v
). Rearranging,
_
(F/K
2
−e
v
)
−1
de
v
=(1/τ
e
)
_
dt , where
τ
e
= K
v
/K
2
is the relaxation time for strain relaxation. Integration gives
ln[(F/K
2
−e
v
)/F/K
2
)] = −t /τ
e
or e
v
= (1/K
2
)F[1 −exp(−t /τ
e
)]. Substitut
ing F/K
2
= e
∞
−e
o
where e
∞
and e
o
are the relaxed and initial (unrelaxed)
elongations, e
v
= (e
∞
−e
o
)(1 −exp(−t /τ
e
). The total strain is e = e
v
+e
1
, so
e = e
∞
−(e
∞
−e
o
)exp(−t /τ
e
). (7.6)
Note that e = e
o
at t = 0 and e →e
∞
as t →∞.
Now consider the experiment in which an elongation, e, is suddenly
imposed on the material. Immediately after stretching, all of the strain occurs
in spring #1, so e = F/K
1
, so the initial force, F
o
= eK
1
(Figure 7.10). After an
inﬁnite time, the dashpot carries no load, so e = (1/K
1
+1/K
2
)F, or
F
∞
= [K
1
K
2
/(K
1
+K
2
)]e. (7.7)
e
∞
e
t
then:
F
t
If:
Figure 7.6. Strain relaxation predicted by the
parallel model. The strain saturates at e
∞
.
106 Solid Mechanics
t
If:
e
t
e
i
m
p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
Figure 7.7. An instantaneous strain can
not be imposed on the parallel model.
v
2
1
Figure 7.8. Combined seriesparallel model (VoightMaxwell model).
F
t
If:
e
t
then:
e
e
o
∞
Figure 7.9. Strain relaxation predicted
by the seriesparallel model. The strain
saturates at e
∞
.
F
t
then:
F
o
F
t
If:
e
∞
Figure 7.10. Stress relaxation with the series
parallel model. The stress decays to F
∞
.
Viscoelasticity 107
The force decaying from F
o
to F
∞
is given by
F = F
o
−(F
o
−F
∞
)exp(−t /τ
σ
), (7.8)
where the relaxation time, τ
σ
, is given by
τ
σ
= K
v
/(K
1
+ K
2
). (7.9)
Note that the relaxation time for stress relaxation is shorter than the relaxation
time for strain relaxation,
τ
e
= K
v
/K
2
. (7.10)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM#7.1: For a given material, F
o
/F
∞
= 1.02. Find the ratio
of τ
e
/τ
σ
for this material.
Solution: Combining Equations 15.9 and 15.10, τ
e
/τ
σ
= (K
1
+ K
2
)/K
2
,
For strain relaxation, e = F
o
/K
1
= F
∞
(1/K
1
+1/K
2
), so F
o
/F
∞
=
K
1
(1/K
1
+1/K
2
) = (K
1
+ K
2
)/K
2
. Therefore τ
e
/τ
σ
= F
o
/F
∞
= 1.02.
More Complex Models
More complicated models may be constructed using more spring and dash
pot elements or elements with nonlinear behavior. Nonlinear elasticity can be
modeled by a nonlinear spring for which F = K
e
f(e). NonNewtonian viscous
behavior can be modeled by a nonlinear dashpot for which F = K
v
f(˙ e).
Damping
Viscoelastic straining causes damping. Consider the cyclic loading of a vis
coelastic material,
σ = σ
o
sin(wt ). (7.11)
The strain,
e = e
o
sin(wt −δ), (7.12)
lags the stress by δ, as shown in Figure 7.11. A plot of stress vs. strain is an
ellipse. The rate of energy loss per volume is given by dU/dt = σde/dt , so the
energy loss per cycle per volume, U, is
U =
_
σdε, (7.13)
or U =
_
σ[dε/d(ωt )]d(ωt ), where the integration limits are 0 and 2π. Sub
stituting σ = σ
o
sin(ωt ) and dε/d(ωt ) = ε
o
cos(ωt −δ), ε = ε
o
sin(ωt −δ) U =
σ
o
ε
o
∫ sin(ωt )cos(ωt −δ)d(ωt ). But cos(ωt−δ) = cos(ωt )cosδ +sin(ωt )sinδ, so
108 Solid Mechanics
σ
σ = σ
o
sin (ωt )
e = e
o
sin(ωt − δ)
σ
o
σ
π
π
σ
o
e
o
e
o
e
2π
2π
ωt
ωt
δ
ε
Figure 7.11. Cyclic loading of a viscoelastic material. The strain lags the stress (left).
The plot of stress vs. strain is an ellipse (right).
U/(σ
o
ε
o
) = ∫ cosδcos(ωt )sin(wt )d(ωt ) +∫ sinδsin
2
(ωt )d(ωt ) = πsinδ, or
U = π(σ
o
ε
o
)sinδ. (7.14)
Because the elastic energy per volume required to load the material to
σ
o
and ε
o
is u = (1/2)σ
o
ε
o
, this can be expressed as
U/U = 2πsinδ. (7.15)
If δ is small,
U/U = 2πδ. (7.16)
Natural Decay
During free oscillation, the amplitude will gradually decrease, as shown in
Figure 7.12. It is usually assumed that the decrease between two successive
cycles is proportional to the amplitude, e. A commonly used measure of damp
ing is the logarithmic decrement, , deﬁned as
Λ = ln(e
n
/e
n
+
1
). (7.17)
Λ can be related to δ by recalling that U
n
= σ
n
e
n
/2 = Ee
2
n
/2, so e
n
=
[2u
n
/E]
1/2
and e
n+1
= [2U
n+1
/E]
1/2
. Substituting, Λ = ln{[2U
n+1
/E]/[2U
n
/
E]}
1/2
= ln(U
n+1
/U
n
)
1/2
= ln(1+U/U)
1/2
, or
Λ = (1/2)ln(1+U/U). (7.18)
Viscoelasticity 109
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,
e
Time
n
n+1
n+2
n+3
Figure 7.12. Decay of a natural vibration.
Using the series expansion, Λ = (1/2)[U/U −(U/U)
2
/2 +(U/U)
3
/3 −
. . .
For small values of U/U, δ ≈ (U/U)/2, or
Λ ≈ πδ. (7.19)
Sometimes the extent of damping is denoted by Q
−1
, where Q
−1
= tan ≈
πδ.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #7.2: The amplitude of a vibrating member decreases
so that the amplitude on the 100th cycle is 13% of the amplitude on the
ﬁrst cycle. Determine Λ.
Solution: Λ = ln(e
n
/e
n+1
). Because (e
m
/e
m+1
) = (e
n
/e
n+1
) = (e
n+1
/e
n+2
)
and so on and (e
n
/e
n+m
) = (e
n
/e
n+1
)(e
n+1
/e
n+2
)(e
n+2
/e
n+3
). . . (e
n+m−1
/
e
n+m
) = m(e
n
/e
n+m
).
Therefore, (e
n
/e
n+1
)=(e
n
/e
n+m
)
1/m
. Λ=ln(e
n
/e
n+1
)=ln(e
n
/e
n+m
)
1/m
=
(1/m)ln(e
n
/e
n+m
). Substituting m = 100 and (e
n
/e
n+m
) = 1/0.13, Λ =
0.0204.
Elastic Modulus – Relaxed vs. Unrelaxed
If the frequency is large enough, there is no relaxation and therefore no damp
ing and the modulus, E = σ/e, is high. At low frequencies, there is complete
relaxation with the result that there is no damping but the modulus will be
lower. At intermediate frequencies, there is partial relaxation with high damp
ing and a frequencydependent modulus. The frequency dependence of the
modulus is given by
E/E
r
= ω
2
(τ
e
−τ
σ
)/
_
1 +ω
2
τ
2
e
_
. (7.20)
110 Solid Mechanics
σ
ε
High frequency
Low frequency
Figure 7.13. Hysteresis curves at a high,
low, and intermediate frequency. The
damping is low at both high and low
frequencies.
The hysteresis curves for high, low, and intermediate frequencies are illus
trated in Figure 7.13 and Figure 7.14 illustrates the corresponding interdepen
dence of damping and modulus.
Thermoelastic Effect
When a material is elastically deformed rapidly (adiabatically), it undergoes a
temperature change,
T = −σαT/C
v
, (7.21)
where T is the absolute temperature, α is the linear coefﬁcient of thermal
expansion, and C
v
is the volume heat capacity. For most materials, elastic
1.2
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
0
0.01
1
1 10 100
Frequency
Phase angle, δ
E /E
r
0.8
Figure 7.14. Dependence of damping and elastic modulus on frequency. The peak
damping occurs at the frequency that the modulus is rapidly changing. E/E
r
was
calculated from Equation 7.20 with τ
e
= 1.2τ
σ
and δ was calculated from tanδ =
ω(τ
e
−τ
σ
)/(1 +ω
2
τ
e
τ
σ
).
Viscoelasticity 111
Adiabatic
loading
Isothermal
unloading
Thermal strain =
σ α∆T
ε
a
ε
ε
i
Figure 7.15. Schematic of loading adiabatically, holding
until thermal equilibrium is reached, and then unloading
isothermally.
stretching leads to a cooling because all the terms are positive. Rubber is an
exception because α is negative when it is under tension.
Consider a simple experiment illustrated by Figure 7.15. Let the material
be elastically loaded in tension adiabatically. It undergoes an elastic strain,
e
a
= σ/E
a
, where E
a
is the Young’s modulus under adiabatic conditions. At
the same time, it will experience a cooling, T = −σαT/C
v
. Now let it warm
back up to ambient temperature while still under the stress, σ, changing its
temperature by T = +σTα/C
v
, so it will undergo a further thermal strain,
e
therm
= αT = σTα
2
/C
v
. (7.22)
At room temperature, the total strain will be
e
tot
= σ(1/E
a
+ Tα
2
/C
v
). (7.23)
This must be the same as the strain that would have resulted from stressing
the material isothermally (so slowly that it remained at room temperature), so
e
iso
= σ/E
i
, where E
i
is the isothermal modulus. Equating e
iso
= e
tot
, 1/E
i
=
1/E
a
+ Tα
2
/C
p
, or
E/E = (E
a
− E
i
)/E
a
= E
i
Tα
2
/C
p
. (7.24)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #7.3: A piece of metal is subjected to a cyclic stress
of 80 MPa. If the phase angle δ = 0.1
◦
and no heat is transferred to the
surroundings, what will be the temperature rise after 100,000 cycles? Data:
E = 80 GPa, C = 800 J/kgK and ρ = 4.2 Mg/m
3
.
Solution: U = (1/2)σ
2
/E. U/U = 2πsinδ.U = 2π sinδ[(1/2)σ
2
/E] =
sin(0.1
◦
)(80 ×10
6
J/m
3
)
2
/(80 ×10
9
J/m
3
) = 219 J/m
3
per cycle. The heat
released in 100,000 cycles would be 2.19 ×10
7
J/m
3
. This would cause
a temperature increase of Q/(ρC) = 2.19 ×10
7
J/m
3
/[(4200 kg/m
3
)
(800 J/kgK)] = 6.5
◦
C.
112 Solid Mechanics
Frequency, hertz
Grain
boundaries
Twin
boundaries
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
Snoek
effect
Substi
tutional
atom
pairs
1E14 1E11 1E08 0.00001 0.01 10 10,000
Transverse
thermal
currents
Inter
granular
thermal
currents
Figure 7.16. Schematic illustration of different damping mechanisms in metals as a
function of frequency.
The thermoelastic effect causes damping. The frequencies of the peaks depend
on the time for thermal diffusion. The relaxation time, τ, is given by
τ ≈ x
2
/D, (7.25)
where x is the thermal diffusion distance and D is the thermal diffusivity. The
relaxation time, τ, and therefore the frequencies of the damping peaks depend
strongly on the diffusion distance, x. There are thermal currents in a polycrys
tal between grains of different orientations because of their different elastic
responses. In this case the diffusion distance, x, is comparable to the grain size,
d. For specimens in bending, there are also thermal currents from one side of
the specimen to the other. These cause damping peaks with a diffusion dis
tance, x, comparable to the specimen size.
Other Damping Mechanisms
Many other mechanisms contribute to damping in metals. These include
the Snoek effect, which involves carbon atoms jumping from one interstitial
site to another, the bowing and unbowing of pinned dislocations, increased
and decreased dislocation density in pileups, viscous grainboundary sliding,
opening and closing of microcracks, and possibly movement of twin bound
aries and magnetic domain boundaries. Figure 7.16 shows very schematically
the frequency range of different mechanisms in metals.
In thermoplastic polymers, the largest damping peak (α) is associated with
the glass transition temperature, which is sensitive to the ﬂexibility of the main
backbone chain. Bulky side groups increase the stiffness of the backbone,
which increases the glass transition temperature. With many polymers there
are more than one damping peak, as indicated in Figure 7.17.
Viscoelasticity 113
Temperature (°C)
−100 100
LPE
BPE
0.5
0
δ
0
β
γ
α
Figure 7.17. Damping peaks in lin
ear polyethylene, LPE, and branched
polyethylene, BPE. The αpeak is asso
ciated with motions of the backbone,
and the βpeak with branches. Linear PE
has no branches and hence no bpeak.
From N. G. McCrum, C. P. Buckley and
C. B. Bucknell, Principles of Polymer
Engineering, Oxford Science Pub. (1988).
Notes
Rubber is unlike most other materials. On elastic stretching, it undergoes an
adiabatic heating, T = −σαT/C
v
, because under tension α is negative. If
one stretches a rubber band and holds it long enough for its temperature to
come to equilibrium with the surroundings and then releases it, the cooling
on contraction can be sensed by holding it to the lips. The negative of rub
ber under tension is the basis for an interesting demonstration. A wheel can
be built with spokes of stretched rubber bands extending form hub to rim.
When a heat lamp is placed so that it heats half of the spokes, those spokes
will shorten, unbalancing the wheel so that it rotates. The direction of rota
tion is just opposite of the direction that a wheel with metal spokes would
rotate.
Bells should have a very low damping. They are traditionally made from
bronze that has been heattreated to form a microstructure consisting of hard
intermetallic compounds.
One of the useful characteristics of gray cast iron is the large damping
capacity that results from the ﬂake structure of graphite. Acoustic vibrations
are absorbed by the graphite ﬂakes. The widespread use of gray cast iron for
bases of tool machines (e.g., beds of lathes, drill presses, and milling machines)
makes use of this damping capacity.
Coulomb (1736–1806) invented a machine for measuring damping with a
torsion pendulum (Figure 7.18).
REFERENCES
C. M. Zener, Elasticity and Anelasticity of Metals, U. of Chicago Press, Chicago (1948).
N. G. McCrum, C. P. Buckley and C. B. Bucknell, Principles of Polymer Engineering,
Oxford Science Pub. (1988).
114 Solid Mechanics
Figure 7.18. Coulomb’s torsion pendulum for measuring damping.
It is very similar in principle to modern torsion pendulums used
for damping studies today. From S. Timoshenko, History of the
Strength of Materials, McGrawHill (1953).
Problems
1. Consider a viscoelastic material whose behavior is adequately described
by the combined seriesparallel model. Let it be subjected to the force vs.
time history shown in Figure 7.19. There is a period of tension followed
by compression and tension again. After that, the stress is 0. Let the time
interval t = K
v
/K
e2
= τ
e
, and assume K
e1
= K
e2
. Sketch as carefully as
possible the corresponding variation of strain with time.
2. Consider a viscoelastic material whose behavior is adequately described
by the combined seriesparallel model. Let it be subjected to the strain vs.
time history shown in Figure 7.20. There is a period of tension followed
by compression and tension again. After that, the stress is returns to zero.
Let the time interval t = K
v
/K
e2
= τ
e
, and assume K
e1
= K
e2
. Sketch as
carefully as possible the corresponding variation of force with time.
3. An elastomer was suddenly stretched in tension and the elongation was
held constant. After 10 minutes, the tensile stress in the polymer dropped
∆t
v
Time
e
2
e
1
F
F
Figure 7.19. Loading of a viscoelastic material.
Viscoelasticity 115
Table 7.1. Data for aluminum
Misc. data for aluminum:
crystal structure fcc lattice parameter 0.4050 nm
density: 2.70 Mg/m
3
Young’s modulus 62 GPa
heat capacity 900 J/kg·K melting point 660
◦
C
Table 7.2. Amplitudes of vibration
Cycle Amplitude
0 250
25 206
50 170
100 115
200 53
by 12%. After an extremely long time, the stress dropped to 48% of its
original value.
A. Find the relaxation time, τ, for stress relaxation.
B. How long will it take the stress to drop to 75% of its initial value?
[Hint: U can be found from the temperature rise, and U can be found
from the applied stress and Young’s modulus.]
4. A certain bronze bell is tuned to middle C (256 Hz). It is noted that the
intensity of the sound drops by one decibel (i.e., 20.56%) every 5 seconds.
What is the phase angle δ in degrees?
5. A piece of aluminum is subjected to a cyclic stress of ±120 MPa. After
5000 cycles, it is noted that the temperature of the aluminum has risen by
1.8
◦
C. Calculate Λ and the phase angle δ, assuming that there has been no
transfer of heat to the surroundings and all the energy loss/cycle is con
verted to heat. Data for aluminum are given in Table 7.1.
6. Measurements of the amplitude of vibration of a freely vibrating beam are
given in Table 7.2.
A. Calculate the log decrement, Λ.
B. Is Λ dependent on the amplitude for this material in the amplitude
range studied? (Justify your answer.)
∆t
e
Time
Figure 7.20. Strain cycles imposed on a vis
coelastic material.
116 Solid Mechanics
C. What is the phase angle δ?
[Hint: Assume Λ is constant so e
n
/e
n+1
= e
n+1
/e
n+2
= and so on. Then
e
n
/e
n+m
= [e
n
/e
n+1
]
m
].
7 A. A highstrength steel can be loaded up to 100,000 psi in tension before
any plastic deformation occurs. What is the largest amount of thermoelas
tic cooling that can be observed in this steel at 20
◦
C?
B. Find the ratio of adiabatic Young’s modulus to isothermal Young’s
modulus for this steel at 20
◦
C.
C. A piece of this steel is adiabatically strained elastically to 10
−3
and then
allowed to reach thermal equilibrium with the surroundings (20
◦
C) at
constant stress. It is then unloaded adiabatically, and again allowed
to reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. What fraction
of the initial mechanical energy is lost in this cycle? [Hint: Sketch
the σ−ε path.] For iron, α = 11.76 ×10
−6
/
◦
C, E = 29 ×10
6
psi, C
v
=
0.46 J/g
◦
C, and ρ = 7.1 g/cm
3
.
8. For iron, the adiabatic Young’s modulus is (1 +2.3 ×10
−3
) multiplied by
the isothermal modulus at room temperature. If the anelastic behavior of
iron is modeled by a seriesparallel model, what is the ratio of K
1
to K
2
?
9. Damping experiments on iron were made using a torsion pendulum with a
natural frequency of 0.65 cycles/sec. The experiments were run at various
temperatures and the maximum log decrement was found at 35
◦
C. The
activation energy for diffusion of carbon in αiron is 78.5 kJ/mol. At what
temperature would you expect the damping peak to occur if the pendulum
were redesigned so that it had a natural frequency of 10 Hertz?
10. A polymer is subjected to a cyclic stress of 5 MPa at a frequency of 1
Hz for 1 minute. The phase angle is 0.05
◦
. Calculate the temperature rise
assuming no loss to the surroundings. E = 2GPa, C = 1.0 J/kg · K and ρ =
1.0 Mg/m
3
.
8 Creep and Stress Rupture
Introduction
Creep is timedependent plastic deformation that is usually signiﬁcant only
at high temperatures. Figure 8.1 illustrates typical creep behavior. As soon
as the load is applied, there is an instantaneous elastic response, followed by
period of transient creep (Stage I). Initially the rate is high, but it gradually
decreases to a steady state (Stage II). Finally the strain rate may increase again
(Stage III), accelerating until failure occurs.
Creep rates increase with higher stresses and temperatures. With lower
stresses and temperatures, creep rates decrease but failure usually occurs at
lower overall strains (Figure 8.2).
The acceleration of the creep rate in Stage III occurs because the true
stress increases during the test. Most creep tests are conducted under constant
load (constant engineering stress). As creep proceeds, the crosssectional area
decreases so the true stress increases. Porosity develops in the later stages of
creep, further decreasing the loadbearing cross section.
Creep Mechanisms
Viscous ﬂow: Several mechanisms may contribute to creep. These include vis
cous ﬂow, diffusional ﬂow, and dislocation movement. Viscous ﬂowis the dom
inant mechanism in amorphous materials
In polycrystalline materials, grainboundary sliding is viscous in nature.
The sliding velocity on the boundary is proportional to the stress and inversely
proportional to the viscosity, η. The rate of extension depends on the amount
of grain boundary area per volume and is therefore inversely proportional
to the grain size, d, so ˙ ε = C(σ/η)/d. Viscous ﬂow is thermally activated, so
η = η
o
exp(Q
V
/RT]. The strainrate attributable to grainboundary sliding can
be written as
˙ ε
V
= A
V
(σ/d)exp(−Q
V
/RT]. (8.1)
117
118 Solid Mechanics
Time
Stage I,
transient
creep
S
t
r
a
i
n
X
Stage III
creep
Stage II,
steadystate
creep
Figure 8.1. Typical creep curve showing three stages of creep.
If grain boundary sliding were the only active mechanism, there would be an
accumulation of material at one end of each boundary on which sliding occurs
and a deﬁcit at the other end, as sketched in Figure 8.3. This incompatibility
must be relieved by another deformation mechanism, one involving disloca
tion motion or diffusion.
Diffusioncontrolled creep: A tensile stress increases the separation of
atoms on grain boundaries that are normal to the stress axis, and the Poisson
contraction decreases the separation of atoms on grain boundaries that are
parallel to the stress axis. The result is a driving force for the diffusional trans
port of atoms from grain boundaries parallel to the tensile stress to bound
aries normal to the tensile stress. Such diffusion produces a plastic elongation,
as shown in Figure 8.4. The specimen elongates as atoms are added to grain
boundaries perpendicular to the stress.
S
t
r
a
i
n
Time
Increasing stress
or temperature
x
x
x
Figure 8.2. Decreasing temperatures and
stresses lead to slower creep rates, with
failures often occurring at a lower strains.
Creep and Stress Rupture 119
A
B
Figure 8.3. Grain boundary sliding causes incompati
bilities at both ends of the planes, A and B, on which
sliding occurs. This must be relieved by another mech
anism for sliding to continue.
If the creep occurs by diffusion through the lattice, it is called Nabarro
Herring creep. The diffusional ﬂux, J, between the boundaries parallel and
perpendicular to the stress axis is proportional to the stress, σ, and the lat
tice diffusivity, D
L
, and is inversely proportional to the diffusion distance, d/2,
between the diffusion source and sink. Therefore J = CD
L
σ/(d/2), where C is
a constant. The velocity, v, at which the diffusion source and sink move apart
is proportional to the diffusion ﬂux, so v = CD
L
σ/(d/2). Because the strain
rate equals v/(d/2),
˙ ε
N−H
= A
L
(σ/d
2
)D
L
(8.2)
where A
L
is a constant.
On the other hand, if creep occurs by diffusion along the grain boundaries
it is called Coble creep. The driving force for Coble creep is the same as for
NabarroHerring creep. The total number of grainboundary diffusion paths
is inversely proportional to the grain size, so now J is proportional to d
−1/3
and
Figure 8.4. Creep by diffusion between grain bound
aries. As atoms diffuse from lateral boundaries to
boundaries normal to the tensile stress, the grain elon
gates and contracts laterally.
120 Solid Mechanics
Figure 8.5. Climbcontrolled creep. An edge dislocation
can climb by diffusion of atoms away from the disloca
tion (vacancies to the dislocation), thereby avoiding an
obstacle.
the creep rate is given by
˙ ε
C
= A
G
(σ/d
3
)D
gb
, (8.3)
where D
gb
is the diffusivity along grain boundaries and A
G
is a constant.
Dislocation motion: Slip is another mechanism of creep. In this case, the
creep rate is controlled by how rapidly the dislocations can overcome obsta
cles that obstruct their motion. At high temperatures, the predominant mech
anism for overcoming obstacles is dislocation climb (Figure 8.5). With climb,
the creep rate is not dependent on grain size but the rate of climb does depend
very strongly on the stress,
˙ ε = A
s
σ
m
. (8.4)
The value of m is approximately 5 for climbcontrolled creep.
∗
As climb de
pends on diffusion, the constant A
s
has the same temperature dependence as
lattice diffusion. At lower temperatures, creep is not entirely climbcontrolled
and larger exponents are observed.
Equations 8.1 through 8.4 predict creep rates that depend only on stress
and temperature and not on strain. Thus, they apply only to Stage II or steady
state creep.
Multiple mechanisms: More than one creep mechanism may be operating.
There are two possibilities; either the mechanisms operate independently or
they act cooperatively. If they operate independently, the overall creep rate,
ε, is the sum of the rates due to each mechanism,
˙ ε = ˙ ε
A
+ ˙ ε
B
+· · · (8.5)
on the most rapid mechanism.
On the other hand, two mechanisms may be required to operate simulta
neously, as in the case grainboundary sliding requiring another mechanism.
∗
This notation widely used in the creep literature is the inverse of that used in Chapter 6,
where we wrote σ ∝ ˙ ε
m
or, equivalently, ˙ ε ∝ ˙ ε
1/m
. The m used in the creep literature is the
reciprocal of the m used earlier. The value of m = 5 here corresponds to a value of m = 0.2
in the notation of Chapter 6.
Creep and Stress Rupture 121
Parallel processes
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
l
o
g
s
c
a
l
e
)
Strain rate (log scale)
Process B
Process A
Series processes
A
A
B
B
Figure 8.6. Creep by two mechanisms, A
and B. If the mechanisms operate inde
pendently (series), the overall creep rate
is largely determined by the faster mech
anism. If creep depends on the operation
of both mechanisms (parallel), the poten
tially slower mechanism will control the
overall creep rate.
Where two parallel mechanisms are required, both must operate at the same
rate,
˙ ε = ˙ ε
A
= ˙ ε
B
. (8.6)
The overall rate is determined by the potentially slower mechanism. These
two possibilities (Equations 8.5 and 8.6) are illustrated in Figure 8.6.
Cavitation
Cavitation can lead to fracture during creep. Cavitation occurs by nucleation
and growth of voids, particularly at grain boundaries and secondphase parti
cles. A void will grow if its growth lowers the energy of the system. Consider
the growth of a spherical void in a cubic element with dimensions x, as illus
trated in Figure 8.7. Let the radius be r and the stress σ. The surface energy
of the void is E
S
= 4πγr
2
. If the radius increases by dr, the increase of the
surface energy is
dU
s
= 8πγrdr. (8.7)
The volume of the void is (4/3)πr
3
. Growth by dr will change the volume
of the sphere by 4πr
2
dr. If all of the atoms diffuse to positions that cause
lengthening, the element will lengthen by dx so that its volume increase is
x
2
dx = 4πr
2
dr. The strain, de, associated with the growth will be de = dx/x =
4πr
2
dr/x
3
. The energy per volume expended by the applied stress, σ, is dU
s
=
σdε = 4σπr
2
dr/x
3
. The total energy associated with the element is
dU
s
= x
3
4σπr
2
dr/x
3
= 4σπr
2
dr. (8.8)
122 Solid Mechanics
σ
dx
x
x
x
r
dr
Figure 8.7. Spherical void in a cubic cell. Growth of the void by dr causes an elongation
of the cell by dx.
Equating 8.7 and 8.8, the critical condition for void growth is
r
∗
= 2γ/σ. (8.9)
Voids with radii less than r
∗
should shrink. Ones larger than r
∗
should grow.
Failure may also occur by grain boundary fracture. Unless grain boundary
sliding is accompanied by another mechanism, grain boundary cracks must
form as illustrated in Figure 8.8.
Rupture vs. Creep
The term rupture is used in the creep literature to mean fracture. Up to this
point, the discussion has centered on creep deformation. Creep may cause
component parts to fail in service by excessive deformation, so they no longer
can function satisfactorily. However, after long times under load at high tem
perature, it is more common that parts fail by rupture than by excessive defor
mation. As the service temperatures and stress level are lowered to achieve
lower rates of creep, rupture usually occurs at lower strains. Figure 8.9 shows
this for a NiCrCoFe alloy. Successful design for hightemperature service
must ensure against both creep excessive deformation and against fracture
(creeprupture).
Figure 8.8. Schematic views of grain boundary
cracks caused by grain boundary sliding.
Creep and Stress Rupture 123
Transition.
start of 3rd
stage creep
Creep test data
Rupture test data
S
tre
s
s
ru
p
tu
re
tim
e
S
t
r
e
s
s

1
,
0
0
0
p
s
i
70
60
50
40
30
1%
x
x
x
x
x
0.5%
0.2%
0.1%
20
10
0
1 5 10 50 100
Time  hours
500 1,000
2
8
%
e
l
o
n
g
.
1
3
%
e
l
o
n
g
.
3
1
%
3
2
%
1
9
%
1
8
%
5,000
Figure 8.9. Stress dependence of stressrupture life and time to reach several creep
strains for a NiCrCoFe alloy tested at 650
◦
C. Note that as the stress level is reduced
to increase the time to a given strain, rupture occurs at lower strains. From N. J. Grant
in High Temperature Properties of Metals, ASM (1950).
Extrapolation Schemes
For many applications such as powergenerating turbines, boilers, engines
for commercial jets, and furnace elements, components must be designed for
long service at high temperatures. Some parts are designed to last 20 years
(175,000 hrs) or more. In such cases, it is not feasible to test alloys under
creep conditions for times as long as the design life. Often tests are limited to
1000 hrs (42 days). To ensure that neither rupture nor excessive creep strain
occurs, results from shorter time tests at higher temperatures and/or higher
stresses must be extrapolated to the service conditions. Several schemes have
been proposed for such extrapolation.
SherbyDorn: Sherby and Dorn proposed plotting creep strain as a func
tion of a temperaturecompensated time,
θ = t exp(−Q/RT). (8.10)
In creep studies, log
10
θ is often referred to as the SherbyDorn parameter,
P
SD
. Note that θ is the same as the ZenerHollomon parameter discussed in
Chapter 6. The basic idea is that the creep strain is plotted against the value
of θ for a given stress, as shown in Figure 8.10. For a given material and
stress, the creep strain depends only on θ. Alternatively, the stress to rup
ture or to achieve a given amount of creep strain is plotted against the value
of P
SD
, as shown in Figure 8.11. From such plots, one can predict longtime
behavior.
124 Solid Mechanics
AI
+
1.6 At. % Mg
Solid solution
alloy
AI
+
1.1 At. % Cu
Dispersion
alloy
AI
+
0.1 At. % Cu
Solid solution
alloy
σ
c
= 4,000 psi
528 K
517 K
464 K
422 K
99.987 % AI
477 K
8
6
4
2
8
6
4
2
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8 2 4
6
4
2
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
10
–21
10
–20
10
–19
10
–18
10
–17
10
–16
10
–15
10
–14
,
T
o
t
a
l
c
r
e
e
p
s
t
r
a
i
n
∋
θ = te
−36,000
/
RT (t in hr. T in K)
Figure 8.10. Creep strain vs. θ for several aluminum alloys tested at 27.6 MPa. Note
that the test data for several temperatures fall nearly on the same line. From R. L. Orr,
O. D. Sherby and J. E. Dorn, Trans ASM, v. 96 (1954).
Figure 8.11. Stress to cause creep rupture of S590 alloy as a function of PSD= log
10
θ.
The value of Q was taken as 357 J/mol. Note that the test data for several temperatures
fall on the same line. Data taken from R. M. Goldoff, Materials in Engineering Design,
v. 49 (1961).
EXAMPLE #8.2: The chief engineer needs to know the permissible stress on
the alloy in Figure 8.13 to achieve a rupture life of 20 years at 500
◦
C.
Solution: For these conditions, θ = (20 ×365 ×24 hrs)exp{−85,000/
[1.987(500 +273)]} = 1.62 ×10
−19
, so log
10
(1.62 ×10
−19
) = −18.8. Fig
ure 8.11 indicates that the permissible stress would be about 400 MPa.
Creep and Stress Rupture 125
Figure 8.12. Stress to cause creep rupture of alloy S590 as a function of the Larson
Miller parameter P. This ﬁgure was constructed with the same data as used in Fig
ure 8.13 with C = 17 and temperature in Kelvin. Note that the test data for several
temperatures fall on the same line.
LarsonMiller parameter: A different extrapolation parameter was pro
posed by Larson and Miller,
∗
P
LM
= T(log
10
t
r
+C). (8.11)
As they originally formulated this parameter, the temperature, T, was ex
pressed as T + 460, where T is in degrees Fahrenheit and the rupture time,
t
r
, in hours. They found agreement for most hightemperature alloys with val
ues of C of about 20. However, the parameter can be expressed with tempera
ture in Kelvin, keeping t
r
in hours. Figure 8.12 is a LarsonMiller plot of stress
for rupture vs. P. Again, one can use such plots for prediction of longterm
behavior from shorter time tests at higher temperatures.
EXAMPLE #8.3: The chief engineer needs to know the permissible stress
that can be applied to the S590 alloy for a life of 20 years at 500
◦
C.
Solution: The LarsonMiller parameter with C = 17 is P = 773[17 +log
10
(20 ×365 ×24 hrs)] = 17,190. From Figure 8.14, P = 17,190 corresponds
to σ ≈ 400 MPa.
REFERENCES
N. E. Dowling, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd Ed, PrenticeHall (1999).
M. A. Meyers and K. K. Chawla, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, PrenticeHall
(1999).
∗
F. R. Larson and J. Miller, Trans ASME, v. 74 (1952), pp. 765–771.
126 Solid Mechanics
Figure 8.13. Andrade’s constant truestress creep apparatus. As the
specimen elongates, the buoyancy of the water lowers the force on the
specimen.
T. H. Courtney, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd Ed, McGrawHill, 2000.
R. W. Hertzberg, Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials,
4th Ed, John Wiley (1995).
Notes
In the paper that proposed their extrapolation scheme, Larson and Mil
ler
∗
rationalized the value of about 20 for the constant, C, in their parameter.
They noted that if T were inﬁnite, P would be inﬁnite unless log
10
t
r
+C = 0,
so C = −log
10
t
r
. Furthermore, they assumed that at an inﬁnite temperature
the pieces of a breaking specimen should ﬂy apart with the speed of light,
c. Taking the fracture to occur when the pieces are separated by an atomic
diameter, d, the time, t, for fracture is d/c. Assuming d = 0.25 nm as a
typical value, t = (0.25 ×10
−9
m/3 ×10
8
m/s)(3600s/hr) = 2.3 ×10
−22
hr. C =
−log
10
t
r
= 21.6, or approximately 20.
In 1910, E. M. daC. Andrade
∗
proposed a scheme for maintaining con
stant true stress during a creep experiment by using deadweight loading with
a shaped weight partially suspended in water (Figure 8.13). As the speci
men elongates, more of the weight is immersed, decreasing the force on the
specimen.
Problems
1. Stress vs. rupture life data for a super alloy are listed in Table 8.1. The
stresses are given in MPa and rupture life is given in hours.
A. Make a plot of stress (log scale) vs. P
LM
where P
LM
= (T)(C +log
10
t ).
T is the temperature in Kelvin, t is in hours, and C = 20.
∗
E. M. daC. Andrade, Proc.Roy. Soc. A London, v. 84 (1910), pp. 1–12.
Creep and Stress Rupture 127
Table 8.1. Stressrupture data
Stress rupture time (hrs)
MPa 500
◦
C 600
◦
C 700
◦
C 800
◦
C
600 2.8 0.018 0.0005 –
500 250. 0.72 0.004 –
400 – 12.1 0.082 0.00205
300 – 180 0.87 0.011
200 – 2412 11.0 0.198
100 – – 98.0 1.10
B. Predict from that plot what stress would cause rupture in 100,000 hrs
at 450
◦
C.
2. A. Using the data in Problem 1, plot the SherbyDorn parameter, P
SD
=
logθ where θ = t exp(−Q/RT) and Q= 340 kJ/mole.
B. Using this plot, predict what stress would cause rupture in 100,000 hrs
at 450
◦
C.
3. For many materials, the constant C in the LarsonMiller parameter, P =
(T +460)(C +log
10
t ) (where Tis in Fahrenheit, and t in hours), is equal to
20. However, the LarsonMiller parameter can also be expressed as P
=
T(C
+lnt ) with t in seconds and T in Kelvin, using the natural logarithm
of time. In these cases, what is the value of C
?
4. Stress rupture data is sometimes correlated with the Dorn parameter,
θ = t exp[−Q/(RT)], where t is the rupture time, T is absolute tempera
ture, and θ is assumed to depend only on stress. If this parameter correctly
describes a set of data, then a plot of log(t) vs. 1/T for data at a single level
Figure 8.14. Creep data for a carbon steel. Data from P. N. Randall, Proc, ASTM, v. 57
(1957).
128 Solid Mechanics
Table 8.2. Creep for stress data
at 650
◦
C stress (ksi) 80 65 60 40
rupture life (hrs) 0.08 8.5 28 483
at 730
◦
C stress (ksi) 60 50 30 25
rupture life (hrs) 0.20 1.8 127 1023
at 815
◦
C stress (ksi 50 30 20
rupture life (hrs) 0.30 3.1 332
at 925
◦
C stress (ksi) 30 20 15 10
rupture life (hrs) 0.08 1.3 71 123
at 1040
◦
C stress (ksi) 20 10 5
rupture life (hrs) 0.03 1.0 28 211
of stress would be a straight line. If the LarsonMiller parameter correctly
correlates data, a plot of data at constant stress (therefore constant P) of
log(t) vs. 1/T also would be a straight line.
A. If both parameters predict straight lines on log(t) vs. 1/T plots, are they
really the same thing?
B. If not, how do they differ? How could you tell from a plot of log(t) vs.
(1/T) which parameter better correlates a set of stress rupture data?
5. Data for the steadystate creep of a carbon steel are plotted in Figure 8.14.
A. Using the linear portions of the plot, determine the exponent min ˙ ε
sc
=
Bσ
m
at 538
◦
C and 649
◦
C. Determine the activation energy, Q, in the
equation ˙ ε = f (σ)exp[−Q/(RT).
Figure 8.15. Steady state creep rate of an aluminum alloy at several temperatures. Data
from O. D. Sherby and P. M. Burke, in Prog. Mater. Sci. v. 13 (1968).
Creep and Stress Rupture 129
6. The data in Table 8.2 were obtained in a series of stress rupture tests on a
material being considered for high temperature service.
A. Make a LarsonMiller plot of the data.
B. Predict the life for an applied stress of 30 ksi at 600
◦
C.
7. Consider the creep rate vs. stress curves for an aluminum alloy plotted in
Figure 8.15. Calculate the stress exponent, m, at 755 K.
9 Ductility and Fracture
Introduction
Throughout history, there has been a neverending effort to develop materi
als with greater yield strengths. However, a greater yield strength is gener
ally accompanied by a lower ductility and a lower toughness. Toughness is
the energy absorbed in fracturing. A highstrength material has low toughness
because it can be subjected to greater stresses. The stress necessary to cause
fracture may be reached before there has been much plastic deformation to
absorb energy. Ductility and toughness are lowered by factors that inhibit
plastic ﬂow. As schematically indicated in Figure 9.1, these factors include
decreased temperatures, increased strain rates, and the presence of notches.
Developments that increase yield strength usually result in lower toughness.
In many ways, the fracture behavior of steel is like that of taffy candy. It is
difﬁcult to break a warm bar of taffy candy to share with a friend. Even chil
dren know that warm taffy tends to bend rather than break. However, there
are three ways to promote its fracture. A knife may be used to notch the candy
bar, producing a stress concentration. The candy may be refrigerated to raise
its resistance to deformation. Finally, rapping it against a hard surface raises
the loading rate, increasing the likelihood of fracture. Notches, low tempera
tures, and high rates of loading also embrittle steel.
There are two important reasons for engineers to be interested in ductility
and fracture. The ﬁrst is that a reasonable amount of ductility is required to
form metals into useful parts by forging, rolling, extrusion, or other plastic
working processes. The second is that a certain degree of toughness is required
to prevent failure in service. Some plastic deformation is necessary to absorb
energy.
This chapter treats the mechanisms and general observations of failure
under a single application of load at low and moderate temperatures. Chapter
8 covers failure under creep conditions at high temperatures, and fatigue fail
ure under cyclic loading is covered in Chapter 11.
130
Ductility and Fracture 131
Figure 9.1. Lowered temperatures, increa
sed loading rates, and the presence of
notches all reduce ductility. These three
factors raise the stress level required for
plastic ﬂow so the stress required for frac
ture is reached at lower strains.
Fractures can be classiﬁed several ways. A fracture is described as ductile
or brittle depending on the amount of deformation that precedes it. Failures
may also be described as intergranular or transgranular, depending on the frac
ture path. The terms cleavage, shear, void coalescence, and so on are used to
identify failure mechanisms. These descriptions are not mutually exclusive. A
brittle fracture may be intergranular or it may occur by cleavage.
The ductility of a material describes the amount of deformation that pre
cedes fracture. Ductility may be expressed as percent elongation or as the per
cent reduction of area in a tension test. Failures in tension tests may be classi
ﬁed several ways (Figure 9.2). At one extreme, a material may fail by necking
down to a vanishing crosssection. At the other extreme, fracture may occur
A B C
Figure 9.2. Several failure modes. (A)
Rupture by necking down to a zero cross
section. (B) Fracture on a surface that
is normal to the tensile axis. (C) Shear
fracture.
132 Solid Mechanics
Figure 9.3. Development of a cup and
cone fracture. (A) Internal porosity grow
ing and linking up. (B) Formation of a
shear lip.
on a surface that is moreorless normal to the maximum tensile stress with
little or no deformation. Failures may also occur by shear.
Ductile Fracture
Failure in a tensile test of a ductile material occurs well after the maximum
load is reached and a neck has formed. In this case, fracture usually starts by
nucleation of voids at inclusions in the center of the neck where the hydrostatic
tension is the greatest. As deformation continues, these internal voids grow
and eventually link up by necking of the ligaments between them (Figures
9.3, 9.4, and 9.5). Such a fracture starts in the center of the bar, where the
hydrostatic tension is greatest. With continued elongation, this internal frac
ture grows outward until the outer rim can no longer support the load and the
edges fail by sudden shear. The ﬁnal shear failure at the outside also occurs by
void formation and growth (Figures 9.6 and 9.7). This overall failure is often
called a cup and cone fracture. If the entire shear lip is on the same broken
piece, it forms a cup. The other piece is the cone (Figure 9.8). More often, part
of the shear lip is on one half of the specimen and part on the other half.
Figure 9.4. Section through a necked tensile specimen of cop
per, showing an internal crack formed by linking voids. From
K. E. Puttick, Phil Mag. v. 4 (1959).
Ductility and Fracture 133
d
Figure 9.5. Schematic drawing showing the formation and growth of voids during ten
sion, and their linking up by necking of the ligaments between them. From W. F. Hos
ford and R. M. Caddell, Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed., Cambridge
(2007).
Figure 9.6. Schematic drawing illustrating the formation of and growth of voids during
shear, their growth, and linking up by necking of the ligaments between them. From
Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
10µ
Figure 9.7. Large voids in a localized shear band in
OFHC copper. From H. C. Rogers, Trans. TMS
AIME v. 218 (1960).
134 Solid Mechanics
Figure 9.8. A typical cup and cone fracture in
a tension test of a ductile manganese bronze.
From Elements of Physical Metallurgy, A. Guy,
AddisonWesley (1959).
In ductile materials voids form at inclusions because either the inclusion
matrix interface or the inclusion itself is weak. Figure 9.9 shows the fracture
surface formed by coalescence of voids. The inclusions can be seen in some of
the voids. Ductility is strongly dependent on the inclusion content of the mat
erial. With increasing numbers of inclusions, the distance between the voids
decreases, so it is easier for them to link together and lower the ductility.
Figure 9.10 shows the decrease of ductility of copper with volume fraction
inclusions. Ductile fracture by void coalescence can occur in shear as well as
in tension testing.
The level of hydrostatic stress plays a dominant role in determining the
fracture strains. Hydrostatic tension promotes the formation and growth of
voids, whereas hydrostatic compression tends to suppress void formation and
growth. Photographs of specimens tested in tension under hydrostatic pressure
(Figure 9.11) show that the reduction of area increases with pressure. Figure
9.12 shows how the level of hydrostatic stress affects ductility.
Figure 9.9. Dimpled ductile fracture surface in
steel. Note the inclusions associated with about
half the dimples. The rest of the inclusions are
on the mating surface. Courtesy of J. W. Jones.
From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Figure 9.10. Effect of secondphase
particles on the tensile ductility of
copper. Data include alumina, silica,
molybdenum, chromium, iron, and
ironmolybdenum inclusions as well as
holes. From B. I. Edelson and W. M.
Baldwin Trans. Q. ASM. v. 55 (1962).
Figure 9.11. Effect of pressure on the area reduction in tension tests of steel. (a) atmo
spheric pressure, (b) 234 kPa, (c) 1 MPa, (d) 1.3 MPa, (e) 185 MPa, and (f) 267 MPa.
From P. W. Bridgman in Fracture of Metals, ASTM (1947).
Figure 9.12. The effective fracture strain,
¯ ε
f
, increases as the ratio of the mean stress,
σ
m
, to the effective stress, ¯ σ, becomes more
negative (compressive) for two of the steels
tested by Bridgman. Data from A. L. Hoff
manner, Interim report, Air Force contract
33615–67C (1967).
136 Solid Mechanics
Figure 9.13. Intergranular fracture in pure
iron under impact. From Metals Hand
book, 8th ed., v. 9, ASM (1974).
Void Failure Criterion
To explain the role of voids in failure, Gurson
∗
proposed an upperbound dam
age for a porous material that contains voids and obeys the von Mises yield
criterion. His yield criterion is of the form
F =
_
¯ σ
σ
f
_
2
+2 f cosh
_
3
2
σ
H
σ
f
_
−(1 + f
2
) = 0, (9.1)
where f is the volume fraction voids, s
o
is the yield strength, ¯ σ is the yield
strength, and σ
H
is the hydrostatic stress. Failure occurs when f is so large that
F = 0.
Later, Tvergaard
†
suggested that a good ﬁt with experimental data could
be obtained by with three ﬁtting parameters c
1
, c
2
and c
3
:
F ==
_
¯ σ
σ
f
_
2
+2c
1
f cosh
_
c
2
2
σ
H
σ
f
_
−(1 +c
3
f
2
) = 0. (9.2)
Brittle Fracture
In some materials, fracture may occur by cleavage. Cleavage fractures occur
on certain crystallographic planes (cleavage planes) that are characteristic of
the crystal structure. It is signiﬁcant that fcc metals do not undergo cleavage.
Some polycrystals have brittle grain boundaries, which form easy fracture
paths. Figure 9.13 shows such an intergranular fracture surface. The brittle
ness of grain boundaries may be inherent to the material, or may be caused
by segregation of impurities to the grain boundary, or even by a ﬁlm of a
brittle second phase. Commercially pure tungsten and molybdenum fail by
∗
A. L. Gurson, PhD thesis, Brown University, 1975.
†
V. Tvergaard, in Advances in Applied Mechanics, v 27, (1990) pp. 83–152.
Ductility and Fracture 137
grain boundary fracture. These metals are ductile only when all the grain
boundaries are aligned with the direction of elongation, as in tension test
ing of colddrawn wire. Copper and copper alloys are severely embrittled
by a very small amount of bismuth, which segregates to and wets the grain
boundaries. Molten FeS in the grain boundaries of steels at hot working tem
peratures would cause failure along grain boundaries. Such loss of ductility
at high temperatures is called hot shortness. Hot shortness is prevented in
steels by adding manganese, which reacts with the sulfur to form MnS. Man
ganese sulﬁde is not molten at hotworking temperatures and does not wet
the grain boundaries. Stress corrosion is responsible for some grain boundary
fractures.
With brittle fracture, toughness depends on grain size. Decreasing the
grain size increases the toughness and ductility. Perhaps this is because cleav
age fractures must reinitiate at each grain boundary, and with smaller grain
sizes there are more grain boundaries. Decreasing grain size, unlike most
material changes, increases both yield strength and toughness.
Impact Energy
A material is regarded as being tough if it absorbs a large amount of energy in
breaking. In a tension test, the energy per volume to cause failure is the area
under the stressstrain curve and is the toughness in a tension test. However,
the toughness under other forms of loading may be very different because
toughness depends also on the degree to which deformation localizes. The
total energy to cause failure depends on the deforming volume as well as on
energy per volume.
Impact tests are often used to assess the toughness of materials. The most
common of these is the Charpy test. Anotched bar is broken by a swinging pen
dulum. The energy absorbed in the fracture is measured by recording by how
high the pendulum swings after the bar breaks. Figure 9.14 gives the details
of the test geometry. The standard specimen has a crosssection of 10 mm by
10 mm. There is a 2mm deep Vnotch with a radius of 0.25 mm. The pendu
lum’s mass and height are standardized. Sometimes bars with U or keyhole
notches are employed instead. Occasionally, subsized bars are tested.
One of the principal advantages of the Charpy test is that the toughness
can easily be measured over a range of temperatures. A specimen can be
heated or cooled to the speciﬁed temperature, and then transferred to the
Charpy machine and broken quickly enough so that its temperature change
is negligible. For many materials, there is a narrow temperature range over
which there is a large change of energy absorption and fracture appearance.
It is common to deﬁne a transition temperature in this range. At tempera
tures below the transition temperature, the fracture is brittle and absorbs lit
tle energy in a Charpy test. Above the transition temperature, the fracture is
138 Solid Mechanics
Pointer
End of swing
Anvil
Specimen
h
h
′
Scale
Starting position
Hammer
Figure 9.14. Charpy testing machine and test bar. A hammer on the pendulum breaks
the bar. The height the pendulum swings after breaking the bar indicates the energy
absorbed. From H. W. Hayden, W. G. Moffatt and J. Wulff, Structure and Properties of
Materials, vol. III Mechanical Behavior, Wiley (1965).
ductile and absorbs a large amount of energy. Figure 9.15 shows typical results
for steel.
The transition temperature does not indicate a structural change of the
material. The ductilebrittle transition temperature depends greatly on the
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
E
n
e
r
g
y
,
f
t

l
b
−80 −40 0 40 80 120 160
Temperature, F
200
Figure 9.15. Ductilebrittle transition in a
Charpy Vnotch specimen of a lowcarbon,
lowalloy hotrolled steel. From R. W.
Vanderbeck and M. Gensamer, Welding J.
Res. Suppl. (Jan. 1950).
Ductility and Fracture 139
0 40 −40 −80 80 100 120
60
40
20
0
Temperature °F
E
n
e
r
g
y
,
f
t

l
b
Vnotch Charpy
Keyhole Charpy
Figure 9.16. Charpy test results for one steel with two different notch geometries (stan
dard Vnotch and keyhole notch) depends on the mode of testing. Data from Pellini,
Spec. Tech. Publ. 158, (1954).
type of test being conducted. With less severe notches, as in keyhole or U
notched Charpy test bars, lower transition temperatures are measured (Figure
9.16). With decreased specimen width, there is less triaxiality so the transition
temperatures are lowered. With slow bend tests and unnotched tensile tests,
even lower ductilebrittle transitions are observed. In discussing the ductile
brittle transition temperature of a material, one should specify not only the
type of test but also the criterion used. Speciﬁcations for ship steels area often
require a certain Charpy Vnotch 15 ftlb transition temperature (the tempera
ture at which the energy absorption in a Vnotch Charpy test is 15 ftlbs).
There are two principal uses for Charpy data. One is in the development
of tougher materials. For example, it has been learned through Charpy testing
that the transition temperature of hotrolled carbon steels can be lowered by
decreasing the carbon content (Figure 9.17).
The other main use of Charpy data is for documenting and correlating
service behavior. This information can then be used in the design and speciﬁ
cations of new structures. For example, a large number of ships failed by brit
tle fracture during World War II. Tests were conducted on steel from plates
in which cracks initiated, plates through which cracks propagated, and a few
plates in which cracks stopped. The results were used to establish speciﬁca
tions for the 15 ftlb Charpy Vnotch transition temperature for plates used in
various parts of a ship.
In general, bcc metals and many hcp metals exhibit a ductilebrittle tran
sition but it is signiﬁcant that fcc metals do not. For fcc metals, changes of
impact energy with temperature are small, as shown for aluminum in Figure
9.18. Because of this, austenitic stainless steels or copper are frequently used
in equipment for cryogenic applications.
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
250
200
150
100
50
0
200
−100 0 100
300 400
C
h
a
r
p
y
V
–
n
o
t
c
h
i
m
p
a
c
t
e
n
e
r
g
y
(
J
)
C
h
a
r
p
y
V
–
n
o
t
c
h
i
m
p
a
c
t
e
n
e
r
g
y
(
f
t
–
l
b
)
Test temperature (°C)
Test temperature (K)
0.63% C
0.31% C
0.22% C
0.11% C
0.01% C
0.43% C
0.53% C
Figure 9.17. Effect of carbon content on Charpy Vnotch impact energy. Decreasing
carbon content lowers the ductilebrittle transition temperature and raises the shelf
energy. From J. A. Rinebilt and W. J. Harris, Trans. ASM, v. 43 (1951).
Figure 9.18. A natural gas pipeline that failed during ﬁeld testing. From E. Parker, Brit
tle Fracture of Engineering Structures, Wiley (1957).
Ductility and Fracture 141
Figure 9.19. A ship that fractured while in port.
From C. F. Tipper, The Brittle Fracture Story,
Cambridge University Press (1963).
Notes
In the period 1948 to 1951, there were many fractures of natural gas pipelines.
Most occurred during testing and most started at welding defects but propa
gated through sound metal. One of the longest cracks was 3200 feet long. Once
started, cracks run at speeds greater than the velocity of sound in the pressur
ized gas. Therefore, there is no release of the gas pressure to reduce the stress
at the tip of the crack. Figure 9.18 shows one of the cracked lines.
During World War II, there was a rapid increase of shipbuilding. Produc
tion of ships by welding of steel plates together (in contrast to the earlier pro
cedure of joining them by riveting) became common. As a result, a large num
ber of ships, particularly Liberty Ships and T2 Tankers, failed at sea. More
ships sunk as the result of brittle fractures than by German Uboat activity.
Recovery of some ships and halfships allowed the cause of the failures to be
investigated. There were three main factors: poor welds, ship design (cracks
often started at sharp cornered hatchways that created stress concentrations),
and high transition temperatures of the steels. Figure 9.19 is a photograph of a
ship that failed in harbor.
Percy W. Bridgman (1882–1961) was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
and attended Harvard, where he graduated in 1904 and received his Ph.D. in
1908. He discovered the highpressure forms of ice, and is reputed to have
discovered “dry ice” and wrote a classic book, Physics of High Pressures, in
1931. In 1946, he was awarded the Nobel prize in physics for his work at high
pressures. Another book, Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture (1952),
summarizes his work with the mechanics of solids.
142 Solid Mechanics
REFERENCES
Ductility, ASM, Metals Park (1967).
Fracture of Engineering Materials, ASM, Metals Park (1964).
E. Parker, Brittle Fracture of Engineering Structures, Wiley (1957).
F. McClintock and A. Argon, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, AddisonWesley
(1966).
W. Hosford and R. Caddell, Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy 3rd ed. Cam
bridge (2007)
Problems
1. Derive the relation between % El and % RA for a material that fractures
before it necks. (Assume constant volume and uniform deformation.)
2. Consider a very ductile material that begins to neck in tension at a true
strain of 0.20. Necking causes an additional elongation that is approxi
mately equal to the bar diameter. Calculate the percent elongation of this
material if the ratio of the gauge length to bar diameter is 2, 4, 10, and 100.
Plot percent elongation vs. L
o
/D
o
.
3. For a material with a tensile yield strength, Y, determine the ratio of the
mean stress σ
m
= to Y at yielding in a
A. Tension test,
B. Torsion test, and
C. Compression test.
4. Cleavage in bcc metals occurs more frequently as the temperature is low
ered and as the strain rate is increased. Explain this observation.
5. It has been argued that the growth of internal voids in a material while it is
being deformed is given by dr = f(σ
H
)d¯ ε, where r is the radius of the void
and f(σ
H
) is a function of the hydrostatic stress. Using this hypothesis,
explain why ductile fracture occurs at greater effective strains in torsion
than in tension.
6. Explain why voids often form at or near hard inclusions, both in tension
and in compression.
7. Is it safe to say that brittle fracture can be avoided in steel structures if the
steel is chosen so that its Charpy Vnotch transition temperature is below
the service temperature? If not, what is the value of specifying Charpy
Vnotch test data in engineering design?
8. Hold a piece of newspaper by the upper left corner with one hand and the
upper right corner with the other, and tear it. Take another piece of news
paper, rotate it 90
◦
and repeat. One of the tears will be much straighter
than the other. Why?
10 Fracture Mechanics
Introduction
The treatment of fracture in Chapter 9 was descriptive and qualitative. In
contrast, fracture mechanics provides a quantitative treatment of fracture. It
allows measurements of the toughness of materials and provides a basis for
predicting the loads that structures can withstand without failure. Fracture
mechanics is useful in evaluating materials, in the design of structures, and
in failure analysis.
Early calculations of strength for crystals predicted strengths far in excess
of those measured experimentally. The development of modern fracture
mechanics started when it was realized that strength calculations based on
assuming perfect crystals were far too high because they ignored preexisting
ﬂaws. Grifﬁth
∗
reasoned that a preexisting crack could propagate under stress
only if the release of elastic energy exceeded the work required to form the
new fracture surfaces. However, his theory based on energy release predicted
fracture strengths that were much lower than those measured experimentally.
Orowan
†
realized that plastic work should be included in the term for the
energy required to form a new fracture surface. With this correction, exper
iment and theory were ﬁnally brought into agreement. Irwin
‡
offered a new
and entirely equivalent approach by concentrating on the stress states around
the tip of a crack.
Theoretical Fracture Strength
Early estimates of the theoretical fracture strength of a crystal were made by
considering the stress required to separate two planes of atoms. Figure 10.1
shows schematically how the stress might vary with separation. The attractive
∗
A. A. Grifﬁth, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser A, v. 221 (1920).
†
E. Orowan, Fracture and Strength of Crystals, Rep. Prog. Phys., v. 12 (1949).
‡
G. R. Irwin, in Fracturing of Metals, ASM (1949).
143
144 Solid Mechanics
Initial slope = dσ/dx
σ = σ
t
sin(πx/x*)
x*
x
x
a
o
σ
t
σ
Figure 10.1. Schematic of the variation of normal stress with atomic separation and a
sine wave approximation to the ﬁrst part of the curve.
stress between two planes increases as they are separated, reaching a maxi
mum that is the theoretical strength, σ
t
, and then decaying to zero. The ﬁrst
part of the curve can be approximated by a sine wave of half wavelength, x
∗
,
σ = σ
t
sin(πx/x
∗
), (10.1)
where x is the separation of the planes. Differentiating, dσ/dx = σ
t
(π/x
∗
)
cos(πx/x
∗
). At low values of x, cos(πx/x
∗
) →1, so dσ/dx →σ
t
(π/x
∗
). The
engineering strain is e = x/a
o
. Young’s modulus, E, is the slope of the stress
strain curve, dσ/dε, as ε →0:
E = dσ/dε = (a
o
/x
∗
)πσ
t
. (10.2)
Solving for the theoretical strength,
σ
t
= Ex
∗
/(πa
o
). (10.3)
If it is assumed that x
∗
= a
o
,
σ
t
≈ E/π (10.4)
Equation 10.4 predicts theoretical strengths that are very much higher than
those that are observed (65 GPa vs. about 3 GPa for steel and 20 GPa vs.
about 0.7 GPa for aluminum).
The assumption that x
∗
= a
o
can be avoided by equating the work per area
to create two fracture surfaces to twice the speciﬁc surface energy (surface
tension), γ . The work is the area under the curve in Figure 10.1,
2γ =
x
∗
_
0
σdx =
x
∗
_
0
σ
t
sin(πx/x
∗
)dx =−(x
∗
/π)σ
t
[cos π −cos 0] = (2x
∗
/π)σ
t
,
(10.5)
so
x
∗
= πγ/σ
t
. (10.6)
Fracture Mechanics 145
2a
2b ρ
Figure 10.2. Internal crack in a plate approxi
mated by an ellipse with major and minor radii of
a and b.
Substituting Equation 10.6 into Equation 10.3,
σ
t
= [(πγ/σ
t
)/a
o
]E/π, (10.7)
σ
t
=
√
(γ E/a
o
). (10.8)
The predictions of Equations 10.8 and 10.4 are similar and much too large.
Stress Concentration
The reason that the theoretical predictions are high is that they ignore ﬂaws,
and all materials contain ﬂaws. In the presence of a ﬂaw, an externally applied
stress is not uniformly distributed within the material. Discontinuities such as
internal cracks and notches are stress concentrators. For example, the stress at
the tip of the crack, σ
max
, in a plate containing an elliptical crack (Figure 10.2)
is given by
σ
max
= σ
a
(1 +2a/b), (10.9)
where σ
a
is the externally applied stress. The term (1 +2a/b) is called the
stress concentration factor. The radius of curvature, ρ, at the end of an ellipse
is given by
ρ = b
2
/a, (10.10)
so a/b =
√
(a/ρ). Substitution of Equation 10.10 into Equation 10.9 results in
σ
max
= σ
a
(1 +2
√
(a/ρ). (10.11)
Because a/ρ is usually very large (a/ρ 1), Equation 10.11 can be approxi
mated by
σ
max
= 2σ
a
√
(a/ρ). (10.12)
146 Solid Mechanics
Total
−πa
2
tσ
2
/E
Critical crack
E
n
e
r
g
y
,
U
4at γ
Crack length
Figure 10.3. The effect of a crack’s length on
its energy. The elastic energy decreases and
the surface energy increases. There is a criti
cal crack length at which growth of the crack
lowers the total energy.
It is possible to rationalize the difference between theoretical and measured
fracture stresses in terms of Equation 10.12. Fracture will occur when the level
of σ
max
reaches the theoretical fracture strength, so the average stress, σ
a
, at
fracture is much lower than the theoretical value.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.1: Calculate the stress concentration at the tip of
an elliptical crack having major and minor radii of a = 100 nm and b =
1 nm.
Solution: ρ = b
2
/a = 10
−18
/10
−7
= 10
−11
. σ
max
/σ
a
= 1 +2
√
(a/ρ) = 1 +
2
√
(10
−7
/10
−11
) = 201.
Grifﬁth and Orowan Theories
Grifﬁth approached the subject of fracture by assuming that materials always
have preexisting cracks. He considered a large plate with a central crack under
a remote stress, σ, and calculated the change of energy, U, with crack size
(Figure 10.3). There are two terms: One is the surface energy associated with
the crack,
U
surf
= 4at γ , (10.13)
where t is the plate thickness and 2a is the length of an internal crack. The
other term is the decrease of stored elastic energy due to the presence of the
crack,
U
elast
= −πα
2
t σ
2
/E. (10.14)
This term will not be derived here. However, to check its magnitude one
can simplify the problem by assuming all the strain energy is lost inside a
circle of diameter 2a, and none outside. The energy/volume is (1/2)σε =
(1/2)σ
2
/E and the volume is πa
2
t, so the total elastic strain energy would be
U
elast
= −(1/2)πa
2
t σ
2
/E. The correct solution is just twice this. Note that
Fracture Mechanics 147
the derivation of this assumes that plate width, w, is very large compared to
a (w a), and that the plate thickness, t, is small compared to a (t a).
For thick plates (t a), planestrain prevails and Equation 10.14 becomes
U
elast
= −πa
2
t σ
2
(1 −υ
2
)/E.
Combining Equations 10.13 and 10.14,
U
total
= 4at γ −πa
2
t (σ
2
/E). (10.15)
This equation predicts that the energy of the system ﬁrst increases with crack
length and then decreases, as shown in Figure 10.3. Under a ﬁxed stress, there
is a critical crack size above which crack growth lowers the energy. This critical
crack size can be found by differentiating Equation 10.15 with respect to a and
setting it to zero, dU
total
/da = 4t γ −2πat (σ
2
/E) = 0, so
σ =
√
(2Eγ /πa). (10.16)
This is known as the Grifﬁth criterion. A preexisting crack of length greater
than 2a will grow spontaneously when Equation 10.16 is satisﬁed. Grifﬁth
found reasonable agreement between this theory and experimental results on
glass. However, the predicted stresses were very much too low for metals.
In this development, the plate is assumed to be thin enough relative to
the crack length that there is no stress relaxation in the thickness direction,
for example, planestress conditions prevail. On the other hand, if the plate is
thick enough that there is complete strain relaxation in the thickness direction
(planestrain conditions), Equation 10.16 should be modiﬁed to
σ =
√
2Eγ /[(1 −υ
2
)πa]. (10.17)
Orowan proposed that the reason that the predictions of Equations 10.16 and
10.17 were too low for metals is because the energy expended in producing a
new surface by fracture is not just the true surface energy. There is a thin layer
of plastically deformed material at the fracture surface and the energy to cause
this plastic deformation is much greater than the surface energy, γ . To account
for this, Equation 10.16 is modiﬁed to
σ =
√
(EG
c
/πa), (10.18)
where G
c
replaces 2γ and includes the plastic work in generating the fracture
surface.
Fracture Modes
There are three different modes of fracture, each having a different value of
G
c
. These modes are designated I, II, and III, as illustrated in Figure 10.4.
148 Solid Mechanics
Mode I
Mode II Mode III
Figure 10.4. The three modes of cracking.
In mode I fracture, the fracture plane is perpendicular to the normal force.
This is what is occurs in tension tests of brittle materials. Mode II fractures
occur under the action of a shear stress with the fracture propagating in the
direction of shear. An example is the punching of a hole. Mode III fractures
are also shear separations but here the fracture propagates perpendicular to
the direction of shear. An example is cutting of paper with scissors.
Irwin’s Fracture Analysis
Irwin noted that in a body under tension, the stress state around an inﬁnitely
sharp crack in a semiinﬁnite elastic solid is entirely described by
∗
σ
x
= K
I
/(2πr)
1/2
cos(θ/2)[1 −sin(θ/2) sin(3θ/2)] (10.19a)
σ
y
= K
I
/(2πr)
1/2
cos(θ/2)[1 +sin(θ/2) sin(3θ/2)] (10.19b)
τ
xy
= K
I
/(2πr)
1/2
cos(θ/2) sin(θ/2) cos(3θ/2) (10.19c)
σ
z
= υ(σ
x
+σ
y
) for plane strain(ε
z
= 0) and σ
z
= 0 for plane stress
(10.19d)
τ
yz
= τ
zx
= 0, (10.19e)
where θ and r are the coordinates relative to the crack tip (Figure 10.5) and K
I
is the stress intensity factor,
†
which in a semiinﬁnite body is given by
K
I
= σ(πa)
1/2
. (10.20)
Here σ is the applied stress. For ﬁnite specimens, K
I
= f σ(πa)
1/2
, where
f depends on the specimen geometry and is usually a little greater than 1 for
small cracks. Figure 10.5 shows how f varies with the ratio of crack length, a,
to the specimen width, w.
The Westergaard equations predict that the local stresses, σ
x
and σ
y
, are
inﬁnite at the crack tip and decrease with distance from the crack, as shown in
Figure 10.6. Of course, the inﬁnite stress prediction is unrealistic. The mate
rial will yield wherever σ
y
is predicted to be greater than the material’s yield
strength, so yielding limits the actual stress near the crack tip (σ
y
≤ Y).
∗
These equations are attributed to Westergaard, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. v. 61 (1939).
†
The stress intensity factor should not be confused with the stress concentration factor.
Fracture Mechanics 149
Edge crack
Center crack
3
2
1
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
0
1
2
3
f
(
a
/
w
)
f
(
a
/
w
)
a
w
w
2a
a/w a/w
a
b
Figure 10.5. Variation of f with a/w for edge and center cracks. The three lines for the
center crack are from three different mathematical approximations.
In Irwin’s analysis, fracture occurs when K
I
reaches a critical value, K
Ic
, which
is a material property. This predicts that the fracture stress, σ
f
, is
σ
f
= K
Ic
/[ f (πa)
1/2
]. (10.21)
Comparison with Equation 10.18 shows that for f = 1,
K
Ic
=
√
(EG
C
). (10.22)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.2: A 6 ft long steel strut, 2.0 in. wide and 0.25 in.
thick, is designed to carry an 80,000 lb tension load. Assume that the steel
has a toughness of 40 ksi
√
in. What is the longest edge crack that will not
cause failure?
Yield strength
Distance from crack tip
σ
y
Figure 10.6. Stress distribution ahead of a crack. The Westergaard equations predict
an inﬁnite stress at the crack tip, but the stress there can be no greater than the yield
strength.
150 Solid Mechanics
Plastic zone
Mode I
Shear lip
Mode II
Shear lip
Mode II
Direction of crack growth
Figure 10.7. A threedimensional sketch showing the shape of the plastic zone and the
shear lip formed at the edge of the plate.
Solution: According to Equation 10.21, failure will occur if a = (K
Ic
/
f σ)
2
/π. To solve this problem, we must ﬁrst guess a value for f. As a ﬁrst
guess let f = 1.2. Substituting f =1.2, K
Ic
=40 ksi
√
in. and σ = 80,000 lb/
(2.0 ×0.25 in.
2
) = 160 ksi, a = 0.014 in. Now checking to see whether the
guess of f = 1.2 was reasonable, a/w = 0.08/2 = 0.04. From Figure 10.5a,
f = 1.12. Repeating the calculation with f = 1.12, a = 0.016. The value
f = 1.12 is reasonable for a = 0.016.
Plastic Zone Size
The plastic work involved in the yielding of material near the crack tip as the
crack advances is responsible for the energy absorption. Figure 10.7 is a three
dimensional sketch of the plastic zone shape. Planestrain (ε
z
= 0) is charac
teristic of the interior where adjacent material prevents lateral contraction. At
the surface where plane stress (σ
z
= 0) prevails, the fracture corresponds to
mode II rather than mode I. The energy absorption per area is greater here
because of the larger volume of deforming material in the plane stress region.
The sizes and shapes of the plastic zones calculated for plane strain
(ε
z
= 0) and plane stress (σ
z
= 0) conditions are shown in Figure 10.8. It is
customary to characterize the size of the plastic zone by a radius, r
p
. For plane
stress,
r
p
= (K
Ic
/Y)
2
/(2π). (10.23)
For plane strain,
r
p
= (K
Ic
/Y)
2
/(6π). (10.25)
There is no stress, σ
z
, normal to the surface of the specimen, so plane stress
prevails at the surface with a characteristic toughness K
I Ic
that is greater than
K
Ic
. There is a transition from plane stress to plane strain with increasing dis
tance from the surface. To obtain valid K
Ic
data, the thickness of the specimen
Fracture Mechanics 151
Plane stress
Plane strain
y
x
0.2
0.1
0.1
−0.1
−0.1
0.2
−0.2
Figure 10.8. Plots of the plastic zones associated
with plane stress and plane strain. Dimensions
are in units of (K
I
/Y)
2
. The curve for plane
strain was calculated for υ = 0.3. Note that the
“radii” of the planestress and planestrain zones
are conventionally taken as (K
I
/Y)
2
/(2π) = 0.159
and (K
I
/Y)
2
/(6π) = 0.053, respectively.
should be much greater than the radius of the plastic zone for plane stress.
Speciﬁcations require that
t ≥ 2.5(K
Ic
/Y)
2
. (10.24)
This assures that the fraction of the fracture surface failing under planestress
conditions, 2r
p
/t , equals or is less than [2(K
Ic
/Y)
2
/(2π)]/[2.5(K
Ic
/Y)
2
] =
12.7%.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.3: Using stress ﬁeld in Equations 10.19 for plane
stress (σ
z
= 0), calculate the values of r at θ = 0
◦
and 90
◦
at which the
von Mises yield criterion is satisﬁed. Express the values of r in terms of
(K
Ic
/Y).
Solution: According to Equations 10.19, for θ = 0, σ
x
= σ
y
= K
Ic
/
√
(2πr), σ
z
= 0, τ
yz
= τ
zx
= τ
xy
= 0. Substituting into the von Mises crite
rion, σ
x
= σ
y
= Yso Y = K
Ic
/
√
(2πr). Solving for r, r = (K
Ic
/Y)
2
/(2π) =
0.159(K
Ic
/Y)
2
.
For θ =90
◦
, θ/2 =45
◦
, cos(θ/2) =sin(θ/2) =sin(3θ/2) =−cos(3θ/2) =
1/
√
2. According to Equations 10.19, σ
x
= K
Ic
/
√
(2πr)[1/(2
√
2)], σ
y
=
K
Ic
/
√
(2πr)[3/(2
√
2)] = 3σ
x
, σ
z
= 0, τ
xy
= K
Ic
/
√
(2πr)[−1/(2
√
2)] =
−σ
x
, τ
yz
= τ
zx
= 0. Substituting into the von Mises criterion,
2Y
2
= (3σ
x
−0)
2
+(0 −σ
x
)
2
+(σ
x
−3σ
x
)
2
+6(σ
x
)
2
= 20σ
2
x
so σ
2
x
=
2Y
2
/20 = Y
2
/10. Now substituting σ
2
x
= K
2
Ic
/(2πr)[1/(2
√
2)]
2
= Y
2
/10,
152 Solid Mechanics
Figure 10.9. The dependence of K
c
on thickness. For very thick plates, the effect
of mode II in the surface region is negligible, so K
c
approaches K
Ic
. For thinner
sheets, more of the fracture surface is characterized by planestress conditions, so K
c
approaches K
IIc
. For even thinner sheets, K
c
decreases with thickness because the plas
tic volume decreases.
r = [10/(16π)](K
Ic
/Y)
2
= 0.199(K
Ic
/Y)
2
. Compare these values with
Figure 10.9 fo θ = 0
◦
and θ = 90
◦
for plane stress conditions.
The overall fracture toughness (critical stress intensity), K
c
, depends on
the relative sizes of the planestress and planestrain zones, and therefore
depends on the specimen thickness, as sketched in Figure 10.9.
Thin Sheets
For thick sheets, K
c
decreases with thickness because a lower fraction of the
fracture surface is in mode II. However, if the sheet thickness is less than
twice r
p
for plane stress, the entire fracture surface fails in mode II. In this
case, the failure is by throughthickness necking (Figure 10.10). The volume
of the plastic region equals t
2
L, where t is the specimen thickness and L is the
length of the crack. Because the area of the fracture is tL, the plastic work per
area is proportional to the thickness, t. Therefore, K
c
is proportional to
√
t.
Very thin sheets tear at surprisingly low stresses. Plates made of laminating
sheets have lower toughness than monolithic ones (see Figure 10.11).
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.4: Derive expressions that show how K
c
and G
c
depend on thickness for thin sheets that fail by planestress fracture.
Solution: The fracture energy per area is G
c
= U/A = U/(t L), where U is
the plastic work and L is the length of the fracture. Assume that necks in
different thickness specimens are geometrically similar. Then the necked
volume = Ct
2
L so U = C
Lt
2
, where C and C
are constants. Substitut
ing, G
c
= U/(t L) = C
Lt
2
/(t L) = C
t , so G
c
is inversely proportional to
t. K
c
=
√
(G
c
E) =
√
(C
t E), so K
c
is inversely proportional to the square
root of thickness.
Fracture Mechanics 153
Figure 10.10. Sketch of a sheet failure by throughthickness
necking.
Metallurgical Variables
Most metallurgical variations responsible for increasing strength, such as
increased carbon content of steels, alloying elements in solid solution, cold
working, and martensitic hardening, tend to decrease toughness. The sole
exception seems to be decreased grain size, which increases both strength and
toughness. Figure 10.12 shows the decrease of toughness with strength for 4140
steels that had been tempered to different yield strengths. There is a similar
correlation between strength and toughness for aluminum alloys. Other fac
tors such as the presence of inclusions also affect K
Ic
.
a b c d
Figure 10.11. The volume of the plastic zone is proportional to t
2
, so the energy
absorbed per area of fracture surface decreases as t decreases. The toughness of a lam
inate (D) is less than that of a monolithic sheet of the same total thickness (A) because
the plastic volume is smaller.
154 Solid Mechanics
Yield strength, MPa
K
l
c
M
P
a
√
m
1,100 1,300 1,500 1,700
50
75
100
125
150
4340 steel
Figure 10.12. The inverse correlation of K
Ic
with yield strength for 4340 steel.
Fracture Mechanics in Design
Engineering design depends on the size of the largest possible crack that might
exist in a stressed part or component. Various techniques are used to inspect
for preexisting cracks. These include ultrasonics, xrays, magnetic inspection,
and dye penetrants. For each technique, there is a limit to how small a crack
can be reliably detected. Safe design is based on assuming the presence of
cracks of the largest size that cannot be detected with 100% certainty. For
example, if that inspection technique cannot assure detection of edge cracks
smaller than 1 mm, the designer must assume a = 1 mm. Then the permissible
stress is calculated using Equation 10.21 and applying an appropriate safety
factor. The design should also assure that the component does not yield plasti
cally, so the permissible stress should not exceed the yield strength multiplied
by the safety factor. If the stress calculated from Equation 10.21 exceeds the
yield strength, failure from accidental overload will occur by plastic yielding
rather than fracture. However, yielding is usually regarded as less dangerous
than fracture.
Even if there are no preexisting cracks larger than those assumed in the
design, “safe failure” is still not assured because smaller cracks may grow by
fatigue during service. In critical applications, such as cyclically loaded aircraft
components, periodic inspection during the life of a part is required.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.5: A support is to be made from 4340 steel. The
steel may be tempered to different yield strengths. The correlation
between strength and toughness was shown in Figure 10.13. Assume that
f = 1.1 for the support geometry and that nondestructive inspection can
detect all edge cracks of size a = 2 mm or larger.
A. If a 4340 steel of K
Ic
= 120 MPa
√
m is used, what is the largest
stress that will not cause either yielding or fracture? If the support is over
loaded, will it fail by yielding or by fracture?
Fracture Mechanics 155
1,700
1,600
1,500
1,400
1,300
1,200
1,100
50 75
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
100 125 150
K
lc
, MPa√m
yield
fracture
Figure 10.13. The greatest possible load is reached when σ
f
= Y = 1305 MPa.
B. By selecting a 4340 steel of a different yield strength, ﬁnd the yield
strength that will allow the largest stress without either yielding or frac
ture.
Solution: A. From Figure 10.13, for K
Ic
= 120 MPa
√
m. Y = 1275 MPa.
Using Equation 10.21, σ
f
= K
Ic
/[ f
√
(πa)] =120 MPa/[1.1
√
(0.002m.π) =
1376 MPa. This is greater than the yield strength, so it will fail by yielding
when σ = 1275 MPa.
B. For the greatest load carrying capacity, yielding and fracture should
occur at the same stress level. Figure 10.13 is a plot of calculated values of
σ
f
for several different levels of K
Ic
. The yield strength vs. K
Ic
data from
Figure 10.13 is replotted on the same axes. The intersection of two curves
indicates that the optimum value of Y is about 1305 MPa.
Compact Tensile Specimens
The compact tensile specimen (Figure 10.14) is often used for measuring K
Ic
.
The specimen is loaded by pins inserted into the holes. The dimensions are
selected so that loading of the specimen will be entirely elastic except for the
plastic zone at the crack tip. With the requirement that a ≥ 2.5(K
Ic
/Y)
2
, the
radius of the planestress plastic zone at the surface r
p
= (K
Ic
/Y)
2
/(2π) is ≤
156 Solid Mechanics
h
w
a
t
A
B
B
f
a ≥ 2.5(K
Ic
/Y)
2
t = a
h = 1.2a
w = 2a
f = 1.1
Figure 10.14. Compact tensile specimen used
to measure K
Ic
.
a/5π. Mode II extends inward from each surface a distance of r
p
, so mode II
will prevail over less than a/(2.5π). If the thickness is equal to a, this amounts
to 1/(2.5π)= 12.7% of the fracture surface. The requirement that w/a = 2
insures that a plastic hinge will not develop at the back of the specimen (region
A). Similarly, if h were less than 1.2a, regions B would yield in bending.
The initial crack is made by machining. Then cyclic loading is applied to
cause the crack grow and sharpen by fatigue. Finally, the fracture toughness
is measured by loading the specimen until the crack grows. The load at this
point is noted and K
Ic
is calculated from Equation 10.19, taking σ as the load
divided by w and t.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.6: A mediumcarbon steel has a yield strength of
250 MPa and a fracture toughness of 80 MPa
√
m. How thick would a com
pact tensile specimen have to be for valid planestrain fracture testing?
Solution: The specimen thickness should be at least 2.5(K
Ic
/Y)
2
=
2.5(80/250)
2
= 0.26 m, or about 10 inches. (This would be impossible
unless a very thick plate and a very large testing machine were available.)
The JIntegral
Linear elastic behavior was been assumed in the development of Equa
tions 10.19 that form the basis for the treatment up to this point. For relatively
tough materials, very large specimens are required to assure elastic behavior.
Often materials are not available in the thicknesses needed. The Jintegral
offers a method of evaluating the toughness of a material that undergoes a
nonlinear behavior during loading. Strictly, it should be applied only for non
linear elastic behavior, but it has been shown that the errors caused by a lim
ited amount of plastic deformation are not large.
J is the work done on a material per area of fracture. It is the area between
the loading path and the unloading path after the fracture area divided by the
increase of fracture area, a. If there has been no plastic deformation, the
unloading will return to the origin as shown in Figure 10.15A. This area can
Fracture Mechanics 157
Loading, crack
length = a
Loading, crack
length = a
Unloading, crack
length = a + ∆a
Unloading, crack
length = a + ∆a
Displacement Displacement
L
o
a
d
,
P
L
o
a
d
,
P
a
b
Figure 10.15. J is taken as the area between the loading and unloading curves. (A) For
fully elastic behavior, the unloading curve returns to the origin. (B) If some plasticity
accompanies the crack propagation, the unloading curve will not return to the origin.
be measured by unloading or by testing a specimen with a longer initial crack.
The value of J is equal to G
c
,
J
Ic
= G
Ic
= K
2
Ic
/[E/(1 −υ
2
)]. (10.31)
However, if there has been plastic deformation accompanying the crack prop
agation, the unloading curve will not return to the origin, as shown in Fig
ure 10.15b. In this case, J is still taken as the area between the loading and
unloading curves, and J should be somewhat larger than G
c
. Figure 10.16 is a
comparison of experimentally determined values of J
Ic
and K
Ic
.
200
150
100
50
50
[J
Ic
E/(1 − υ)]
1/2
, MPa√
m
K
I
c
,
M
P
a
√
m
100 150 200
0
0
Figure 10.16. Comparison of experimentally determined values of J
Ic
and K
Ic
for sev
eral steels. Adapted from R. W. Hertzberg, Deformation and Fracture and Fracture
Mechanics of Engineering Materials, 4th Ed., John Wiley (1995).
158 Solid Mechanics
There are other approaches to measuring the fracture toughness of tough
materials, including measurements based on the crack opening displacement
(COD). These methods will not be treated here.
Notes
Alan A. Grifﬁth is considered to be the father of fracture mechanics. He
received his B. Eng., M. Eng. and D. Eng. degrees from the University of Liv
erpool. In 1915, he was employed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (then
the Royal Aircraft Factory), where he had a brilliant career. He did pioneer
ing work on turbines that led to the early development of the jet engine. In
his work on aircraft structures, he became interested in the stress concentra
tions caused by notches and scratches. He realized that if the curvature at the
end of a crack were of molecular dimensions, the stress concentration would
reduce strengths far below those that were actually observed. Grifﬁth mea
sured the fracture strength of glass ﬁbers that naturally contained small cracks.
He found reasonable agreement with his theory. Such agreement would not
have been found had he worked with metals or other materials in which there
is energy absorbed by the plastic zone associated with crack propagation. His
classic paper, in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc London, Ser. A, v. 221A (1923), has
been reprinted with commentary in Trans. ASM v. 61 (1968).
REFERENCES
R. W. Hertzberg, Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials, 4th
ed., John Wiley (1996).
T. H. Courtney, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, McGrawHill (1990).
G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, 3rd ed. McGrawHill (1986).
N. E. Dowling, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Prentice Hall (1993).
Problems
1. Class 20 and class 60 gray cast irons have tensile strengths of about 20 ksi
and 60 ksi, respectively. Assuming that the fractures start from graphite
ﬂakes and that the ﬂakes act as preexisting cracks, use the concepts of the
Grifﬁth analysis to predict the ratio of the average graphite ﬂake sizes of
the two cast irons.
2. A wing panel of a supersonic aircraft is made from a titanium alloy that
has a yield strength 1035 MPa and toughness of K
Ic
= 55MPa
√
m. It is
3.0 mm thick, 2.40 m long, and 2.40 m wide. In service, it is subjected to a
cyclic stress of ±700 MPa, which is not enough to cause yielding but does
cause gradual crack growth of a preexisting crack normal to the loading
direction at the edge of the panel. Assume that the crack is initially 0.5 mm
Fracture Mechanics 159
F
a/w
a
w
L
t
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
f
(
a
/
w
)
a b
Figure 10.17. (A) Support shape. (B) Variation of f with a/w.
long and grows at a constant rate of da/dN = 120. Calculate the number
of cycles to failure.
3. The support in Figure 10.17a is to be constructed from a 4340 steel plate
tempered at 800F. The yield strength of the steel is 228 ksi and its value
of K
Ic
is 51 ksi
√
(in). The width of the support, w, is 4 in., the length, L,
is 36 in. and the thickness, t, is 0.25 in. Figure 10.17b gives f (a/w) in the
equation σ = K
Ic
/[ f (a/w)
√
(πa)].
A. If the crack length, a, is small enough, will the support yield before it
fractures? What is the size of the largest crack for which this is true (i.e.,
what is the largest value of a for which general yielding will precede
fracture)? Assume that any fracture would be in mode I (plane strain).
Discuss critically the assumption of mode I.
B. If it is guaranteed that there are no cracks longer than a length equal
to 80% of that in A, does this assure that failure will occur by yielding
rather than fracture? Explain brieﬂy.
4. For 4340 steel, the fracture toughness and yield strength depend on
the prior heat treatment, as shown in Figure 10.13. As yield strength is
increased, the fracture toughness decreases. A pipeline is to be built of
this steel and to minimize the wall thickness of the pipe, the stress in the
walls should be as large as possible without either fracture or yielding.
Inspection techniques ensure that there are no cracks longer than 2 mm
(a = 1 mm). What level of yield strength should be speciﬁed? Assume a
geometric constant of f = 1.15.
5. A steel plate, 10 ft long, 0.25 in. thick, and 6 in. wide, is loaded under
a stress of 50 ksi. The steel has a yield strength of 95 ksi and a fracture
toughness of 112 ksi
√
(in). There is a central crack perpendicular to the
10ft dimension.
A. How long would the crack have to be for failure of the plate under the
stress?
160 Solid Mechanics
B. If there is an accidental overload (i.e., the stress rises above the spec
iﬁed 50 ksi), the plate might fail by either yielding or by fracture
depending on the crack size. If the designer wants to be sure that an
accidental overload would result in yielding rather than fracture, what
limitations must be placed on the crack size?
6. A structural member is made from a steel that has a K
Ic
= 180MP
√
m
and a yield strength of 1050 MPa. In service, it should neither break nor
deform plastically as either would be considered a failure. Assume f =1.0.
If there is a preexisting surface crack of a = 4 mm, at what stress will the
structural member fail? Will they fail by yielding or fracture?
7. An estimate of the effective strain, ε, in a planestrain fracture surface
can be made in the following way. Assume that the material is not work
hardened and the effective strain is constant throughout the plastic zone,
so the plastic work per volume is Yε. Assume the depth of the plastic zone
is given by the equation r
p
= (K
I
/Y)
2
/(6π) and the strained volume is
2r
p
A. Derive an expression for the plastic strain, ε, associated with run
ning of a planestrain fracture. (Realize that G
c
is the plastic work per
crack area, and that K
Ic
and G
c
are related by Equation 10.22.)
11 Fatigue
Introduction
It has been estimated that 90% of all service failures of metal parts are caused
by fatigue. A fatigue failure is one that occurs under a cyclic or alternating
stress of an amplitude that would not cause failure if applied only once. Air
craft are particularly sensitive to fatigue. Automobile parts such as axles, trans
mission parts, and suspension systems may fail by fatigue. Turbine blades,
bridges, and ships are other examples. Fatigue requires cyclic loading, tensile
stresses, and plastic strain on each cycle. If any of these are missing, there will
be no failure. The fact that a material fails after a number of cycles indicates
that some permanent change must occur on every cycle. Each cycle must pro
duce some plastic deformation, even though it may be very small. Metals and
polymers fail by fatigue. Fatigue failures of ceramics are rare because there
seldom is plastic deformation.
There are three stages of fatigue. The ﬁrst is nucleation of a crack by small
amounts of inhomogeneous plastic deformation at a microscopic level. The
second is the slow growth of these cracks by cyclic stressing. Finally, sudden
fracture occurs when the cracks reach a critical size.
Surface Observations
Often visual examination of a fatigue fracture surface will reveal clamshell or
beach markings, as shown in Figure 11.1. These marks indicate the position of
the crack front at some stage during the fatigue life. The initiation site of the
crack can easily be located by examining these marks. The distance between
these markings does not represent the distance that the crack propagated in
one cycle. Rather, each mark corresponds to some change during the cyclic
loading history, a period of time that allowed corrosion or a change in the
stress amplitude. When the crack has progressed far enough, the remaining
portion of the crosssection may fail in one last cycle by either brittle or ductile
161
162 Solid Mechanics
Figure 11.1. Typical clamshell markings
on a fatigue fracture surface of a shaft.
The fracture started at the left side of the
bar and progressed to the right, where
ﬁnal failure occurred in a single cycle.
Courtesy of W.H. Durrant.
fracture. The ﬁnal fracture surface may represent the major part or only a
very small portion of the total fracture surface depending on the material, its
toughness, and the loading conditions.
Microscopic examination of a fracture surface often reveals markings on a
much ﬁner scale. These are called striations and they do represent the position
of the crack front at each cycle (Figure 11.2). The distance between striations
is the distance advanced by the crack during one cycle. Sometimes striations
cannot be observed because they are damaged when the crack closes.
A careful microscopic examination of the exterior surface of the specimen
after cyclic stressing will usually reveal a roughening even before any cracks
have formed. Under high magniﬁcation, intrusions and extrusions are often
apparent, as shown in Figure 11.3. These intrusions and extrusions are the
result of the slip of one set of planes during the compression halfcycle and
12 µm
Figure 11.2. SEM picture of fatigue striations
on a fracture surface of type 304 stainless steel.
From Metals Handbook, v. 9, 8th ed., ASM
(1974).
Fatigue 163
Figure 11.3. Intrusions and extrusions at the sur
face formed by cyclic deformation. These corre
spond to persistent slip bands beneath the surface.
From A. Cottrell and D. Hull, Proc. Roy. Soc.
(London) v. A242 (1957).
the slip on a different set of planes during the tensile halfcycle (Figure 11.4).
Persistent slip bands beneath the surface are associated with these intrusions
and extrusions. Fatigue cracks initiate at the intrusions and grow inward along
the persistent slip bands.
Nomenclature
Most fatigue experiments involve alternate tensile and compressive stresses,
often applied by cyclic bending. In this case, the mean stress is zero. However,
in service materials may be subjected to cyclic stresses that are superimposed
on a steadystate stress. Figure 11.5 shows this together with various terms
Active slip
planes in
tension
Intrusion
Extrusion
Active slip
planes in
compression
Figure 11.4. Sketch showing how intrusions and extrusions can develop if slip occurs
on different planes during the tension and compression portions of the loading.
164 Solid Mechanics
Time
σ
min
σ
max
S
t
r
e
s
s
σ
a
∆σ
σ
m
Figure 11.5. Schematic of cyclic stresses, illus
trating several terms.
used to deﬁne the stresses. The mean stress, σ
m
, is deﬁned as
σ
m
= (σ
max
+σ
min
)/2. (11.1)
The amplitude, σ
a
, is
σ
a
= (σ
max
−σ
min
)/2, (11.2)
and the range, σ, is
σ = (σ
max
−σ
min
) = 2σ
a
. (11.3)
Also, the ratio of maximum and minimum stresses is
R= σ
min
/σ
max
, (11.4)
which can be expressed as
R= (σ
m
−σ/2)/(σ
m
+σ/2). (11.5)
For completely reversed loading, R=−1, and for tensionrelease, R=0. Static
tensile loading corresponds to R = 1.
Although Figure 11.5 is drawn with sinusoidal stress waves, the actual
wave shape is of little or no importance. Frequency is also unimportant unless
it is so high that heat cannot be dissipated and the specimen heats up or so low
that creep occurs during each cycle.
SN Curves
Most fatigue data are presented in the form as SN curves, which are plots
of the cyclic stress amplitude (S = σ
a
) vs. the number of cycles to failure (N),
with N conventionally plotted on a logarithmic scale. Usually, SN curves are
for tests in which the mean stress (σ
m
) is zero. Figures 11.6 and 11.7 show the
SN curves for a 4340 steel and a 7075 aluminum alloy. The number of cycles
to cause failure decreases as the stress amplitude increases.
For lowcarbon steels and other materials that strain age, there is a stress
amplitude (endurance limit or fatigue limit) below which failure will never
Fatigue 165
1,000
100
N, cycles to failure
10
3
10
6
10
9
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Figure 11.6. The SN curve for annealed 4340 steel. Typically, the break in the curve
for a material with an fatigue limit occurs at about 10
6
cycles. The points with arrows
are for tests stopped before failure.
occur. The break in the SN curve occurs at about 10
6
cycles, as shown in
Figure 11.6. However, many materials, such as aluminum alloys (Figure 11.7),
have no true fatigue limit. The stress amplitude for failure continues to
decrease, even at a very large number of cycles. In this case, the fatigue strength
is often deﬁned as the stress amplitude at which failure will occur in 10
7
cycles.
If the SN curve is plotted as log(S) against log(N), as in Figures 11.6 and
11.7, a straight line often results for N < 10
6
. In this case, the relation may be
1,000
100
N, cycles to failure
10
3
10
6
10
9
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Figure 11.7. The SN curve for an aluminum alloy 7075 T6. Note that there is no true
fatigue limit.
166 Solid Mechanics
expressed as
S = AN
−b
, (11.6)
where N is the number of cycles to failure. The constant, A, is approximately
equal to the tensile strength.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.1: Use the initial linear portion of the SN curve
for aluminum alloy 7075 T6 in Figure 11.7 to ﬁnd the values of A and b in
Equation 11.6.
Solution: For two points on the linear section, S
1
/S
2
= (N
1
/N
2
)
−b
, so
−b = ln(S
1
/S
2
)/ln(N
1
/(N
2
). Substituting S
1
= 600 MPa at N
1
= 10
4
and
S
2
= 200 MPa at N
2
= 10
6
, −b = ln(3)/ln(10
−2
) = 0.24
A = (S)/(N)
−b
. Substituting S
2
= 200 MPa at N
2
= 10
6
and b = 0.24, A =
5400 MPa.
Effect of Mean Stress
Most SN curves are from experiments in which the mean stress was zero.
However, under service conditions the mean stress usually is not zero. Sev
eral simple engineering approaches to predicting fatigue behavior when the
stress cycles about a mean stress have been proposed. Goodman suggested
that
σ
a
= σ
e
[1 −σ
m
/UTS], (11.7)
where σ
a
is stress amplitude corresponding to a certain life, σ
m
is the mean
stress, and σ
e
is the stress amplitude that would give the same life if σ
m
were
zero. UTS is the ultimate tensile strength.
Soderberg proposed a more conservative relation,
σ
a
= σ
e
[1 −σ
m
/YS]. (11.8)
where YS is the yield strength.
Gerber proposed a less conservative relation,
σ
a
= σ
e
[1 −(σ
m
/UTS)
2
]. (11.9)
These are plotted in Figure 11.8. Any combination of σ
m
and σ
a
outside this
region will result in fatigue failure.
Fatigue 167
Gerber
Goodman
Soderberg
YS UTS 0
0
S
t
r
e
s
s
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,
σ
a
σ
e
Mean stress, σ
m
Figure 11.8. A plot representing the Goodman, Soderberg, and Gerber relations for
the effect of mean stress on the stress amplitude for fatigue failure.
These relations may also be represented as plots of σ
min
and σ
max
vs. σ
m
.
Figure 11.9 is such a representation for the Goodman relation. In this plot,
cycling between the σ
min
and σ
max
will not result in fatigue. Note that the per
missible cyclic stress amplitude, σ
a
, decreases as the mean stress, σ
m
, increases,
reaching zero at the tensile strength.
The conditions leading to yielding may be added to the Goodman dia
gram, as in Figure 11.10.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.2: A bar of steel having a yield strength of 40 ksi,
a tensile strength of 65 ksi, and an endurance limit of 30 ksi is subjected
to a cyclic loading. Using a modiﬁed Goodman diagram, predict whether
the material has an inﬁnite fatigue life or whether it will fail by yielding
UTS
UTS
Mean stress, σ
m
Y
Y
σ
min
σ
max
S
t
r
e
s
s
σ
e
−σ
e
−Y
Figure 11.9. An alternative representation of the
Goodman relation. Cycling outside of the lines
σ
min
and σ
max
will result in failure.
168 Solid Mechanics
Stress amplitude, σ
a
Mean stress, σ
m
Y
Fatigue failure
Y −Y UTS Tension Compression
Yielding
0
σ
e
Yielding
Figure 11.10. Modiﬁed Goodman diagram
showing the effect of mean stress on failure
by fatigue and yielding. Combinations of σ
a
and σ
m
above the lines –YS to YS and YS to
YS will result in yielding, whereas combina
tions of σ
a
and σ
m
above the line σ
e
to UTS
will result in eventual fatigue failure.
or fatigue for the following cases. The cyclic stress is (A) between 0 and
36 ksi, (B) between –27 ksi and +37, and (C) between 14 ksi ± 32 ksi.
Solution: Draw a Goodman diagram and plot each case on the diagram.
For A, σ
m
= 18, σ
a
= 18, predict an inﬁnite life; for B, σ
m
= 5, σ
a
= 32,
predict fatigue failure without yielding; for C, σ
m
= 14, σ
a
= 32, predict
yielding and fatigue failure (see Figure 11.11).
The PalmgrenMiner Rule
The SN curve describes fatigue behavior at a constant stress amplitude, but
often in service the cyclic amplitude varies during the life of a part. There may
be periods of high stress amplitude followed by periods of low amplitude, or
vice versa. This is certainly true of the springs of an automobile that some
times drives on smooth roads and sometimes over potholes. Palmgren
∗
and
Miner
†
suggested a simple approximate rule for analyzing fatigue life under
these conditions. The rule is that fatigue failure will occur when (n
i
/N
i
) = 1,
or
n
1
/N
1
+n
2
/N
2
+n
3
/N
3
+· · · = 1, (11.10)
where n
i
is the number of cycles applied at an amplitude, σ
ai
, and N
i
is the num
ber of cycles that would cause failure at that amplitude. The term n
i
/N
i
repre
sents the fraction of the life consumed by n
i
cycles at σ
ai
. When (n
i
/N
i
) = 1,
the entire life is consumed. This rule predicts that the fraction of the fatigue
life consumed by n
i
cycles at a given stress amplitude depends on the total life,
N
i
, at that stress amplitude.
According to this approximate rule, the order of cycling is of no impor
tance. Yet experiments have shown that the life is shorter than predicted by
Equation 11.10 if the amplitudes of the initial cycles are larger than the later
ones. Likewise, if the initial cycles are of lower amplitude than the later ones,
the life will exceed the predictions of the PalmgrenMiner rule. For steels,
∗
A. Palmgren, Z.Verien Deutscher Ingenieur, v. 68 (1924).
†
M. A. Miner, Trans. ASME., J. Appl. Mech. v. 67 (1945).
Fatigue 169
Stress amplitude, σ
a
40
30
20
10
0
A
B
C
−40 −20 0 20 40 60
Mean stress, σ
m
Figure 11.11. Modiﬁed Goodman diagram for example Problem 18.2.
cycling at stresses below the endurance limit will promote longer lives. This
practice is called coaxing.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.3: A part made from the 7075T4 aluminum alloy
in Figure 11.7 has been subjected to 200,000 cycles of 250 MPa and 40,000
cycles of 300 MPa stress amplitude. According to Miner’s rule, how many
additional cycles of at 200 MPa can it withstand before failing?
Solution: Using the results of Example #11.1, N = (S/5400)
−1/0.24
N
250
=
3.63 ×10
5
, N
300
= 1.70 ×10
5
, N
200
= 10
6
. The remaining life at 200 MPa
is n = N
200
(1 −n
250
/N
250
−n
300
/N
300
) =10
6
[1−(2×10
5
/3.63×10
5
) −(4×
10
4
/1.70 ×10
5
)] =0.21 ×10
6
cycles.
Stress Concentration
At an abrupt change in crosssection, the local stress can be much greater than
the nominal stress. The theoretical stress concentration factor, K
t
, is the ratio of
the maximum local stress to the nominal stress, calculated by assuming elas
tic behavior. In Chapter 10, the stress concentration factors for elliptical holes
were given by Equations 10.11 and 10.12 in semiinﬁnite plates. Figure 11.12
shows calculated values of K
t
for circular holes and round notches in ﬁnite
plates. Stress concentrators reduce fatigue strengths. Therefore, avoidance of
such stress risers greatly lowers the likelihood of fatigue failure. However, the
effect of notches on fatigue strength is not as great as would be expected by
assuming that the actual stress was K
t
times the nominal stress. Plastic defor
mation at the base of a notch reduces the actual stress there. How much the
stress is reduced varies from material to material. The role of the material can
be accounted for by a notch sensitivity factor, q, deﬁned as
q = (K
f
−1)/(K
t
−1), (11.11)
where K
f
is the notch fatigue factor, deﬁned as the unnotched fatigue strength
divided by the notched fatigue strength. If a notch causes no reduction
170 Solid Mechanics
a b
Figure 11.12. Theoretical stress concentration factors. Adapted from G. Neugebauer,
Production Engineering, v.14 (1943).
in fatigue strength, K
f
= 1, q = 0. The value of q increases with strength level
and notch radius, ρ. Several empirical equations for calculating have been pro
posed. Neuber
∗
suggested for steels that
q = 1/[1 +
√
(β/ρ)], (11.12)
where (in mm) is given by
logβ = −(σ
u
−134 MPa)/586. (11.13)
Here σ
u
is the tensile strength. Figure 11.13 shows values of the notch sensitiv
ity factor, q, calculated from Equations 11.12 and 11.13. The notch sensitivity
increases with strength level and decreases with increasing notch sharpness.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.4: Calculate the stress concentration factor for
fatigue, K
f
, for a plate of steel 2 in. wide and 0.25 in. thick with a hole
0.5 in. diameter in the center. The steel has a tensile strength of 600 MPa.
Solution: d/w = 0.125. From Figure 11.12a, K
t
= 2.6. The notch radius
is 0.125 in. = 3.18 mm. From Figure 11.13 for 600 MPa, q = 0.96, K
f
=
0.96 ×2.6 = 2.5.
∗
H. Neuber, Theory of Notch Stresses, J. W. Edwards (1946).
Fatigue 171
1,400
1
0.8
0 1 2
Notch radius, mm
3 4
0.6
0.4
N
o
t
c
h
s
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
i
t
y
,
q
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
Figure 11.13. Values of notch sensitivity, q, for steels calculated from Equations 11.12
and 11.13. The numbers are the tensile strengths in MPA. Note that q increases with
tensile strength and larger notch radii.
Surface Conditions
Fatigue cracks usually start on the surface.
∗
This is because most forms of
loading involve some bending or torsion, so the stresses are greatest at the
surface. Surface defects also play a role. Therefore, the nature of the surface
strongly affects fatigue behavior. There are three important aspects of the sur
face: hardness, roughness, and residual stresses.
In general, increased surface hardness increases fatigue limits. Carburiz
ing, nitriding, ﬂame, and induction hardening are used to harden surfaces and
increase the fatigue strengths. Different ﬁnishing operations inﬂuence surface
topography. Valleys of rough surfaces act as stress concentrators, so fatigue
strength decreases with surface roughness. Surfaces produced by machining
are generally smoother than cast or forged surfaces. Grinding and polish
ing further increase smoothness. The use of polished surfaces to improve
fatigue behavior is not warranted where exposure to dirt and corrosion dur
ing service may deteriorate the polished surface. Figure 11.14 shows the
effects of surface condition. The effects of a corrosive environment are also
clear. Indeed, laboratory studies have shown considerable improvement in
fatigue behavior when the cyclic stressing was done under vacuum instead of
dry air.
∗
The most common exception is where the cyclic loading is from contact with a ball or a
cylinder. In this case, the highest stress occurs some distance below the surface. This sort of
loading occurs in ball and roller bearings.
172 Solid Mechanics
Brinell hardness
80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
Polished
Ground
Machined
Hot rolled
As forged
Corroded in
tap water
Corroded in
salt water
440 480 520
1.0 100
90
80
70
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
o
f
e
n
d
u
r
a
n
c
e
l
i
m
i
t
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Tensile strength (ksi)
180 200 220 240 260
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
S
u
r
f
a
c
e
f
a
c
t
o
r
C
s
u
r
f
0
Figure 11.14. Effect of surface ﬁnish on fatigue. From C. Lipson and R. C. Juvinall,
Application of Stress, Analysis to Design and Metallurgy, The University of Michigan
Summer Conference, Ann Arbor MI (1961).
Residual stresses play an important role in fatigue. When a part is sub
jected a load, as in fatigue, the stress at any location is the sum of the
residual stress at that point and the stress resulting from the external load
(Figure 11.15). Because failures are tensile in nature and start at the surface,
residual tension at the surface lowers the resistance to fatigue, whereas resid
ual compression raises the fatigue strength. Note that this effect is in accord
with the prediction of the Goodman diagram. Sometimes critical parts are shot
peened to produce residual compression in the surface. In this process, the sur
face is indented with balls that produce local plastic deformation that does not
penetrate into the interior of the part. The indentation would expand the sur
face laterally but the undeformed interior prevents this leaving the surface
under lateral compression.
Some investigators have found that the fatigue strength of a material
decreases as the specimen size increases. However, the effect is not large
(10% decrease for a diameter increase from 0.1 to 2 in.). The size effect is
probably related to the increased amount of surface area where fatigue cracks
initiate.
Fatigue 173
200
100
0
−100
−200
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
T
e
n
s
i
o
n
Inside
surface
Outside
surface
Stress from bending
Resultant stress
Residual stress
Figure 11.15. Schematic drawing showing
the effect of residual stresses. With resid
ual compression in the surface, a larger
tensile stress can be applied by bending
before there is tension in the surface.
Design Estimates
Shigley
∗
suggested that the endurance limit can be estimated by taking into
account the various factors as
σ
e
= σ
eb
C
s
C
d
(1−σ
m
/UTS)/K
f
, (11.14)
where σ
eb
is the base endurance limit (polished unnotched specimen of small
diameter cycled about a mean stress of zero), C
s
is the correction factor for the
surface condition (Figure 11.14), and C
d
is the correction factor for specimen
size (C
d
= 1 for d < 7.6 mm and 0.85 for d > 7.6 mm). The term (1 – σ
m
/UTS)
accounts for the effect of mean stress, σ
m
, and K
f
= 1 +q(K
t
−1). Equa
tion 11.12 can be used to obtain a ﬁrst estimate of the endurance limit, but
it is always better to use data for the real conditions than to apply corrections
to data for another condition.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.5: A round bar of a steel has a yield strength of
40 ksi, a tensile strength of 60 ksi, and an endurance limit of 30 ksi. An
elastic analysis indicates that K
t
= 2. It is estimated that q = 0.75. The
bar is to be loaded under bending such that a cyclic bending moment of
1500 inlbs is superimposed on a steady bending moment of 1000 inlbs.
∗
J. E. Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd ed., McGrawHill (1977).
174 Solid Mechanics
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
E
n
d
u
r
a
n
c
e
l
i
m
i
t
,
1
,
0
0
0
p
s
i
70
60
50
40
20 30 40
Rockwell C hardness
50
– SAE 4063
– SAE 5150
– SAE 4052
– SAE 4140
– SAE 4340
– SAE 2340
60
Figure 11.16. Correlation of the endu
rance limit with hardness for quenched
and tempered steels. The endurance gen
erally rises with hardness. From Gar
wood, Zurburg and Erickson in Interpre
tation of Tests and Correlation with Ser
vice, ASM (1951).
The surface has a ground ﬁnish. What is the minimum diameter bar that
would give an inﬁnite life?
Solution: For a round bar under elastic loading, the stress at the surface is
given by σ = Mc/I, where c = d/2 and I = πd
4
/64, so σ = 32M/(πd
3
).
σ
m
= 10,186/d
3
ksi and σ
a
= 15,279/d
3
ksi, where M is the bending
moment and d is the bar diameter. K
f
= 1 +q(K
t
−1) = 1.75. As
suming that d < 7.6 mm, C
d
= 1. From Figure 11.14, C
s
= 0.89, so
the endurance limit is estimated as σ
e
= C
s
C
d
σ
eb
(1−σ
m
/UTS)/K
f
=
(0.89)(1)(30)[1 −10.86/(60d
3
)/1.75 = 15.25(1−0.181/d
3
). Now equating
this to the stress amplitude, 15.279/d
3
= 15.25(1 −0.181/d
3
). d
3
=
1.182, d = 1.058 in. Because this is larger than 7.6 mm, we should
use C
d
= 0.85. Recalculation with C
d
= 0.85 instead of 1 results in d =
1.11 in.
Metallurgical Variables
Because fatigue damage occurs by plastic deformation, increasing the yield
strength and hardness generally raises the endurance limit. For steels and tita
nium alloys, there is a rough rule of thumb that the fatigue limit is about half of
the ultimate tensile strength. Figure 11.16 shows the correlation of fatigue lim
its with hardness in steels. For aluminum alloys, the ratio of the fatigue limit
at 10
7
cycles to the tensile strength is between 0.25 and 0.35.
Nonmetallic inclusions lower fatigue behavior by acting as internal
notches. Alignment of inclusions during mechanical working causes an
Fatigue 175
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
Exponent = slope = c = −0.57
10
0
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
−0
= ′
f
(2N
f
)
c
= 0.58(2N
f
)
−0.57
′
f
=
f
= 0.58
∆
p
2
∆
p
2
,
P
l
a
s
t
i
c
s
t
r
a
i
n
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Reversals to failure, 2N
f
∋
∋
∋
∋
∋
Figure 11.17. Aplot of fatigue life, 2N
f
, of an annealed 4340 steel as a function of plastic
strain per cycle. The slope is −c and the intercept at one cycle is ε
f
. From Metals
Handbook, v. I, 9th ed., ASM (1978).
anisotropy of fatigue properties. Fatigue strength for loading in the trans
verse direction (normal to the rolling or extrusion direction) is usually much
poorer that for loading in the rolling direction. The number of inclusions can
be greatly reduced by vacuum melting or electroslag melting.
Strains to Failure
Cyclic loading in service sometimes subjects materials to imposed forces or
stresses. Just as often, materials are subjected to imposed deﬂections or strains.
These are not equivalent if the material strain hardens or strain softens during
cycling.
Fatigue could not occur if the deformation during cyclic loading were
entirely elastic. Some plastic deformation, albeit very little, must occur dur
ing each cycle. This probably accounts for the difference between steel and
aluminum alloys. For steels there seems to be a stress below which no plastic
deformation occurs. If fatigue data are analyzed by plotting the plastic strain
amplitude, ε
p
/2, vs. the number of reversals to failure, 2N
f
, a straight line
results. This was ﬁrst noted by Cofﬁn
∗
and indicates a relationship of the form
ε
p
/2 = ε
f
(2N
f
)
−c
, (11.15)
where ε
f
is the true strain at fracture in a tension test (N = 1) and −c is the
slope. Figure 11.17 is such a plot.
∗
L. F. Cofﬁn, Trans ASME, v. 76 (1954).
176 Solid Mechanics
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
−0
Reversals to failure, 2N
f
∆
p
2
,
T
o
t
a
l
s
t
r
a
i
n
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
= 0.58(2N
f
)
−0.57
+ 0.0062(2N
f
)
−0.09
∆
2
p
2
σ
p
E
=
=
+
2
2
σ
s
E
∋ ∆ ∋
p
∆ ∋
e
∆ ∋
∋
Figure 11.18. The fatigue life, 2N
f
, of an annealed 4340 steel as a function of total strain
per cycle. The relation is no longer linear. From Metals Handbook, v. I, 9th ed. ASM
(1978).
The total strain, including the elastic portion, is ε/2 = ε
p
/2 +ε
e
/2.
The elastic term can be expressed as
ε
e
/2 = σ
p
/E = (B/E)(2N
f
)
−b
, (11.16)
where Bis a constant that increases with the tensile strength and the exponent,
b, is related to the stain hardening exponent. Combining Equations 11.15 and
11.16,
ε/2 = ε
f
(2N
f
)
−c
+(B/E)(2N
f
)
−b
. (11.17)
Figure 11.18 is a plot of the total strain, ε/2, as well as the elastic and
plastic strains vs. 2N
f
. Although ln(ε
e
/2) and ln(ε
p
/2) vary linearly with
ln(2N
f
), ln(ε/2) = ln(ε
e
/2 +ε
p
/2) does not.
The term lowcycle fatigue is commonly applied to conditions in which
the life, N
f
, is less than 10
3
cycles. The term highcycle fatigue is applied to
conditions in which the life, N
f
, is greater than 10
4
cycles. Note that the range
10
3
to 10
4
cycles corresponds to the range where ε
p
> ε
e
. For lowcycle
fatigue ε
p
> ε
e
, whereas for highcycle fatigue ε
e
> ε
p
. The total life,
N
f
, can be divided into the period necessary for crack initiation, N
i
, and that
necessary for the crack to propagate to failure, N
p
.
N
f
= N
i
+ N
p
. (11.18)
Fatigue 177
Ductile material
I
n
(
∆
ε
/
2
)
In(N
f
)
N
f
≈
10
3
Highstrength
material
Figure 11.19. Fatigue life as a function of strain
amplitude. At large strain amplitudes (low cycle
fatigue), the softer, more ductile material will have
the longer life while at low strain amplitudes (high
cycle fatigue), the stronger, less ductile material will
have the longer life.
For low cycle fatigue, crack initiation is rapid and crack propagation accounts
for most of the life (N
p
> N
i
), whereas for high cycle fatigue most of the life is
spent in crack initiation (N
i
> N
p
).
This leads to the conclusion that under constant strainamplitude cycling,
a ductile material is desirable for lowcycle fatigue and a highstrength mate
rial is desirable for highcycle fatigue. Highstrength materials generally have
low ductility (low value of ε
f
in Equation 11.17) and ductile materials gen
erally have low strength (low value of B in Equation 11.17). This is shown
schematically in Figure 11.19.
Crack Propagation
In the laboratory, crack growth rates may be determined during testing
either optically with a microscope or by measuring the electrical resistance.
It has been found that the crack growth rate depends on the range of
stress intensity factor, K, K = K
max
− K
min
= σ
max
√
(πa) −σ
min
√
(πa) =
(σ
max
−σ
min
)f
√
(πa), or more simply,
K = f σ
√
(πa), (11.19)
where σ = (σ
max
−σ
min
).
Figure 11.20 shows schematically the variation of da/dNwith K. Below a
threshold, K
th
, cracks do not grow. There are three regimes of crack growth.
One is a region where da/dN increases rapidly with K. Then there is large
region where log(da/dN) is proportional to log(K), and ﬁnally at large values
of K
I
the crack growth rate accelerates more rapidly. Failure occurs when
K
I
= K
Ic
. In viewing this ﬁgure, one should remember K
I
increases with the
growth of the crack, so that under constant load a crack will progress up the
curve to the right.
In stage II,
da/dN = C(K
I
)
m
, (11.20)
178 Solid Mechanics
0.1
Kc
III II I
1 10
∆K, MPa√m
∆K
th
100 1,000
0.01
0.001
0.0001
d
a
/
d
N
,
m
m
/
c
y
c
l
e
0.00001
0.000001
Figure 11.20. A schematic plot of the dependence of crack growth rate, da/dN, on the
stress intensity factor, K
I
. Because K
I
increases with crack length, a, crack growth
will progress up the curve. Below the threshold stress, cracks do not grow. In general
there are three regions: An initial period (region I), a linear region (II) in which the
rate of crack growth is given by Equation 11.19, and a ﬁnal region (III) of acceleration
to failure. The slope of the linear region on the loglog plot equals m.
where C is a material constant that increases with the stress ratio, R=
σ
min
/σ
max
(i.e. with the mean stress). The exponent, m, is also material
dependent and is usually in the range of 2 to 7. Equation 11.20 is often called
the Paris
∗
law.
Note that the crack length at any stage can be found by substituting
(K
I
)
m
= [ f σ
√
(πa)]
m
into Equation 11.20 and rearranging,
da/a
m/2
= C( f σ
√
π)
m
dN. (11.21)
Integration, neglecting the dependence of f on a, gives
a
(1−m/2)
−a
(1−m/2)
o
= (1 −m/2)C( f σ
√
π)
m
N. (11.22)
∗
P. Paris and F. Erdogan, Trans. ASME, J. Basic Engr. v. D 85 (1963).
Fatigue 179
1,000
100
10
1
0.1
∆K, MPa√m
d
a
/
d
N
,
µ
m
/
c
y
c
l
e
0 10 20 30 40
R = 0.7
R = 0.5
R = 0.33
R = 0.2
R = 0
Figure 11.21. Crack growth rate in aluminum alloy 7076T6 as a function of K for
several levels of R. Note that da/dN increases with R. Data from C. A. Martin, NASA
TN D5390 (1969).
The number of cycles to reach a crack size a is then
N =
_
a
(1−m/2)
−a
(1−m/2)
o
__
[(1 −m/2)C( f σ
√
π)
m
]. (11.23)
The constant, C, in Equations 11.20 through 11.23, depends on the stress
ratio, R= (σ
m
−σ/2)/(σ
m
+σ/2), as shown in Figure 11.21. This depen
dence is in accord with the effect of σ
m
, predicted by the Goodman diagram.
Figure 11.22 shows how a crack length, a, depends on N for two different
values of the initial crack length, a
o
, and two different values of σ.
C
r
a
c
k
l
e
n
g
t
h
,
a
C
r
a
c
k
l
e
n
g
t
h
,
a
a
a
°
(2)
a
°
(1)
Number of cycles, N Number of cycles, N
b
da
dN
da
∆K
1
> ∆K
2
∆K
2
dN
da
dN
1
)
da
dN
2
)
) )
Figure 11.22. Crack growth during cycling. (a) The effect of the initial crack length
with constant K. Note that da/dN is the same at the same current crack length, a.
(b) The effect of K on crack growth. Note that da/dN increases with K.
180 Solid Mechanics
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.6: Find the exponent, m, and the constant C in
Equation 11.20 for aluminum alloy 7076T6 using the data for R = 0 in
Figure 11.21.
Solution: m=ln[(da/dN)
2
/[(da/dN)
1
]/[ln(K
2
/(K
1
)]. Substituting (da/
dN)
1
= 7 ×10
−7
mat K
1
= 10 MPa
√
mand(da/dN)
2
= 6 ×10
−5
m at
K
1
= 30MPa
√
m, m = ln85.7/ln3 = 4.05. C = (da/dN)
1
/(K
1
)
m
= 7 ×
10
−7
/10
4.05
= 6.2 ×10
−11
.
For lowcycle fatigue, the life can be found by assuming the initial crack
size and knowing σ, which gives an initial value of K. Integration under the
da/dN vs. K curve allows life prediction.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.7: Consider crack growth in 7076T6 aluminum.
a. Determine the crack growth rate, da/dN, if σ = 200 MPa and the
crack is initially 1 mm in length. Assume R = 0 and f = 1.
b. Calculate the number of cycles needed for the crack to grow from 1 mm
to 10 mm if σ = 200 MPa.
Solution:
a. K = f σ
√
(πa) = 2 MPa
√
(0.001π) = 11.2 MPa
√
m. From Figure
11.21, da/dN ≈ 10
−3
mm.
b. Using Equation 11.22 with m = 4.05 and C = 6.2 × 10
11
from
example Problem #11.6, N = [(10
−5
)
−1.025
−(10
−2
)
−1.025
]/[(−1.0250)
(6.2 ×10
−8
)(200
√
π)
4.05
] = 99 cycles.
Cyclic StressStrain Behavior
Materials subjected to cyclic loading in the plastic range may undergo strain
hardening or strain softening in the case of heavily coldworked material. If
the cycling is done at constant strain amplitude, strain hardening causes an
increase of stress amplitude during testing. On the other hand, for a material
that strain softens, σ decreases during cycling. Figure 11.23 illustrates both
of these possibilities for constant plasticstrain amplitude cycling. Cyclic strain
hardening can be measured by cycling at one strain amplitude until the stress
level saturates and then repeating this at increasing strain amplitudes.
For a material that workhardens, the strain amplitude will decrease dur
ing constant stress amplitude cycling. On the other hand, for material that
worksoftens, the strain amplitude will decrease during constant stress ampli
tude cycling. In contrast, if a material is cycled under constant stain amplitude,
the stresses will increase in a material that workhardens and decrease in a
material that worksoftens. These behaviors are illustrated in Figures 11.24a
and b.
Fatigue 181
COPPER
23% RED.DIA
300°K
COPPER
ANNEALED
300°K
10,000
PSI
10,000
PSI
N =
510
45
8
1
N = 1
4
20
270
σ
σ
∋
∋
∋ ∆
p
= 0.014
∋ ∆
p
= 0.012
b a
Figure 11.23. Cyclic hardening of (a) annealed copper and cyclic softening of a (b) cold
worked copper tested under constant plastic strain cycling. From C. E. Feltner and
C. Laird, Acta Met, v. 15 (1967).
Temperature and Cycling Rate Effects
Increased temperatures lower ﬂow stresses, and therefore there is more plas
tic ﬂow per cycle in constant stress amplitude cycling. Near room temperature,
this effect is more pronounced in polymers than in metals. With higher fre
quencies, there is less plastic deformation per cycle so the crack growth rate
is lower. On the other hand, with high cycling rates the material’s tempera
ture may rise unless the heat generated by the mechanical hysteresis is dissi
pated. This is much more important with polymers than with metals because
a b
Figure 11.24. (a) Change of strain amplitude during constant stress amplitude cycling.
The strain amplitude should decrease for a strainhardening material and increase for
a strain softening material. (b) Change of stress range during constant strain ampli
tude cycling. The stress amplitude should increase for a strainhardening material and
decrease for a strainsoftening material.
182 Solid Mechanics
they tend to have larger hysteresis losses and lower thermal conductivities.
With higher temperatures, there is more plastic strain per cycle under con
stant stress cycling, so cracks grow more rapidly and the life will decrease.
Thus, increased frequency may either shorten or lengthen fatigue life. The net
effect of frequency for constant stress amplitude, if any, will depend on which
effect predominates.
The effects of frequency at constant strain amplitude cycling are different.
Heating of the material and lower frequencies both cause lower stress ampli
tudes. However, the cumulative strain to failure should remain unaffected.
Unless the mean stress is zero (R = 0), creep during cyclic loading will cause
the material to permanently elongate because the stress on the tensile half
cycle will be larger than on the compressive halfcycle.
Thermal effects are much more important in polymers than in metals. For
most polymers, room temperature is about half the absolute melting point,
T
M
, and thermal softening becomes important at (0.4 to 0.5)T
M
. Likewise, the
effect of cyclic frequency is more important.
Fatigue Testing
Fatigue tests are often made using round bars rotated under a bending load
so that the entire surface is subjected to alternating tension and compression.
Flat specimens from sheet or plate may be tested in fatigue by bending. In
either case, the testing machine may be made to impose a constant deﬂec
tion or a constant bending force. Fatigue testing with axial loading is normally
much slower and requires great care. In this case, tensionrelease is often used
instead of tensioncompression.
Design Considerations
There are two methods of designing to prevent fatigue failure: designing for an
inﬁnite life without inspection or designing for periodic inspection. For many
parts, inspection is not a possibility. An automobile axle is an example. It must
be designed with enough of a safety factor so that it will not fail within the life
of the car. In these cases, it is usual to assume initiationcontrolled fatigue life
where endurance limit and life are improved by increased hardness.
The other possibility is to design for periodic inspection. This is done in
the aircraft industry where safety factors must be lower to minimize weight.
The interval between inspections must be short enough in terms of service so
that a crack of the largest undetectable length cannot grow to failure before
the next inspection. In this case, the design and the inspection schedule are
based on crack growth rate, da/dN. Fatigue cracks can be arrested by drilling
holes at their tips. This requires the crack to reinitiate.
Fatigue 183
Notes
Railroad accidents in the middle of the nineteenth century stimulated the ﬁrst
research on the nature of fatigue. Poncelet ﬁrst used the term “fatigue” in
lectures as early as 1839. Inspection of railroad cars for fatigue cracks was
recommended in France as early as 1853. About 1850, a number of papers on
fatigue were written in England. A. Wohler (1819–1914), a German railroad
engineer, did the ﬁrst systematic research on fatigue. He recognized the effects
of sharp corners. He also noted that the maximum stress allowable depended
on the stress range, and that the maximum allowable stress increased as the
minimum stress increased.
Built by de Haviland the Comet was the ﬁrst commercial passenger jet air
liner. It was put into service in May 1952 after years of design, production, and
testing. Almost two years later, in January and May 1954, two Comets crashed
into the Mediterranean near Naples after taking off from Rome. The cause
of the failures was discovered only after parts of one plane that crashed into
the Mediterranean were retrieved by the British navy from a depth of over
300 ft. It was found that fatigue was responsible. Cracks originated from rivet
holes near the windows. This conclusion was conﬁrmed by tests on a fuselage
that was repeatedly pressurized and depressurized. The sharp radii of curva
ture at the corners acted as stress concentrators. Apparently, the engineers
had overlooked the stresses to the fuselage caused by cycles of pressurization
and depressurization during takeoff and landing. Up to this time, the main
fatigue concern of aircraft designers was with engine parts that experience a
very large number of stress cycles, and low cycle fatigue of the fuselage had
not been seriously considered. As a result of the investigations, the Comets
were modiﬁed and returned to service a year later.
Resistance to fatigue can be improved by autofretage. The idea is that if
a part is overstressed once in tension so that a small amount of plastic defor
mation occurs, it will be left in residual compression. In the past, cast bronze
cannons were overpressurized so that the internal surface of the bore would
be left in compression. It has been suggested (with tongue in cheek) that the
underside of aircraft wings could be overstressed by having the plane sharply
pull out of a steep dive, causing the wing tips to bend upward.
REFERENCES
S. Suresh, Fatigue of Materials, Cambridge U. Press (1991).
L. F. Cofﬁn Jr., Trans ASME, v76 (1954).
P. C. Paris, Fatigue An Interdisciplinary Approach, Proc. 10th Sagamore Conf., Syra
cuse U. Press (1964).
R. W. Hertzberg, Deformation and fracture of Engineering Materials, 4th Ed., Wiley
(1995).
184 Solid Mechanics
T. H. Courtney, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill (2000).
J. E. Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd Ed., McGrawHill (1977).
R. O. Ritchie Mater. Sci & Engrg., v. 103 (1988).
R. W. Hertzberg & J. A. Manson, Fatigue of Engineering Plastics, Academic Press
(1980).
Problems
1. For steels, the endurance limit is approximately half the tensile strength,
and the fatigue strength at 10
3
cycles is approximately 90% of the tensile
strength. The SN curves can be approximated by a straight lines between
10
3
and 10
6
cycles when plotted as log(S) vs. log(N). Beyond 10
6
cycles,
the curves are horizontal.
A. Write a mathematical expression for S as a function of Nfor the sloping
part of the SN curve, evaluating the constants in terms of the approxi
mations given.
B. A steel part fails in 12,000 cycles. Use the given expression to ﬁnd
what percent decrease of applied (cyclic) stress would be necessary to
increase in the life of the part by a factor of 2.5 (to 30,000 cycles).
C. Alternatively, what percent increase in tensile strength would achieve
the same increase in life without decreasing the stress?
2. A. Derive an expression relating the stress ratio, R, to the ratio of cyclic
stress amplitude, σ
a
, to the mean stress, σ
m
.
B. For σ
a
= 100 MPa, plot R as a function of σ
m
over the range 0 ≤ σ
m
≤ 100 MPa.
3. The properties of a certain steel are given in Table 11.1.
A. Plot a modiﬁed Goodman diagram for this steel showing the lines for
yielding as well as fatigue failure.
B. For each of the cyclic loadings given, determine whether yielding, inﬁ
nite fatigue life, or ﬁnite fatigue life is expected.
i. σ
max
= 250 MPa, σ
min
= 0 ii. σ
max
= 280 MPa, σ
min
= −200 MPa
iii. σ
mean
=280 MPa, σ
a
=−70 MPa iv. σ
mean
=−70 MPa, σ
a
=140 MPa
4. The notch sensitivity factor, q, for gray cast iron is very low. Offer an
explanation in terms of the microstructure.
5. A 1040 steel has been heattreated to a yield stress of 900 MPa and a ten
sile yield strength of 1330 MPa. The endurance limit (at 10
6
cycles for
cyclical loading about a zero mean stress) is quoted as 620 MPa. Your
Table 11.1. Properties of a steel
Tensile strength 460 MPa
Yield strength 300 MPa
Endurance limit 230 MPa
Fatigue 185
700
600
500
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
400
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
N, cycles to failure
10
6
10
7
300
4140 steel
Figure 11.25. SN curve for a SAE 4140 steel.
company is considering using this steel with the same heat treatment
for an application in which fatigue may occur during cyclic loading with
R = 0. Your boss is considering shot peening the steel to induce resid
ual compressive stresses in the surface. Can the endurance limit be raised
this way? If so, by how much? Discuss this problem with reference to the
Goodman diagram using any relevant calculations.
6. Low cycle fatigue was the cause of the Comet failures. Estimate how many
pressurizationdepressurization cycles the planes may have experienced in
the two years of operations. An exact answer is not possible, but by mak
ing a reasonable guess of the number of landings per day and the number
of days of service, a rough estimate is possible.
7. Frequently, the SNcurves for steel can be approximated by a straight line
between N = 10
2
and N = 10
6
cycles when the data are plotted on a log
log scale, as shown in the ﬁgure for SAE 4140 steel. This implies S =AN
b
,
where A and b are constants.
A. Find b for the 4140 steel for a certain part made from 4140 steel
(Figure 11.25).
B. Fatigue failures occur after ﬁve years. By what factor would the cyclic
stress amplitude have to be reduced to increase the life to ten years?
Assume the number of cycles of importance is proportional to the time
of service.
8. Figure 11.26 shows the crack growth rate in aluminum alloy 7075T6 as
a function of K for R = 0. Find the values of the constants C and m
in Equation 12.19 that describe the straightline portion of the data. Give
units.
9. Find the number of cycles required for a crack to grow from 1 mm to
1 cm in 7075T6 (Problem 8) if f = 1 and σ = 10 MPa. Remember that
K = f σ
√
(πa).
10. The fatigue life of a certain steel was found to be 10
4
cycles at ±70 MPa
was and 10
5
cycles at ±50 MPa. A part made from this steel was given 10
4
186 Solid Mechanics
Figure 11.26. Crack growth rate of 7075T6 aluminum for K = 0. Data from C. M.
Hudson, NASA TN D5300 (1969).
cycles at ±61 MPa. If the part were then cycled at ±54 MPa, what would
be its expected life?
11. For another steel, the fatigue limits are 10,000 cycles at 100 ksi, 50,000
cycles at 75 ksi, and 200,000 cycles at 62 ksi. If a component of this steel
had been subjected to 5000 cycles at 100 ksi and 10,000 cycles at 75 ksi,
how many additional cycles at 62 ksi would cause failure?
12. In fatigue tests on a certain steel, the endurance limit was found to be
1000 MPa for R = 0 (tensilerelease) (σ
a
= σ
m
= 500 MPa) and 1000 MPa
for R = −1 (fully reversed cycling). Calculate whether a bar of this steel
would fail by fatigue if it were subjected to a steady stress of 600 MPa and
a cyclic stress of 500 MPa.
12 Polymers and Ceramics
Introduction
Up to this point, the treatment has emphasized metallic materials because met
als are most widely used for their mechanical properties. This chapter covers
the differences between the properties of polymers and ceramics on the one
hand and metals on the other.
Elasticity of Polymers
Elastic moduli of thermoplastic polymers are much lower and much more
temperature sensitive than those of metals. Figure 12.1 illustrates schemat
ically the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli of several types of
polymers. The temperature dependence is greatest near the glasstransition
temperature and near the melting point. The crosslinked polymer cannot melt
without breaking the covalent bonds in the crosslinks. The stiffness of a poly
mer at room temperature depends on whether its glasstransition temperature
is above or below the room temperature. Below the glasstransition temper
ature, the elastic moduli are much higher than above it. Figure 12.2 indicates
that the modulus of polystyrene changes by a factor of more than 10
3
between
85
◦
C and 115
◦
C.
Glass Transition
If a random linear polymer is cooled very slowly, it may crystallize. Otherwise,
it will transform to a rigid glass at its glasstransition temperature, T
g
. Fig
ure 12.3 is a plot of how the volume may change. If it crystallizes, there is an
abrupt volume change. If it does not crystallize, there is a change of slope at T
g
.
Other properties change as the polymer is cooled below T
g
. It toughness and
ductility sharply decrease and its Young’s modulus greatly increases. Below
T
g
, a polymer is in a glassy state. Its molecules are virtually frozen in place.
187
188 Solid Mechanics
Figure 12.1. Temperature dependence of E for several types of polymers. Crystalliza
tion, crosslinking, and increased molecular weight increase stiffness at higher temper
atures. Data from A. V. Tobolsky, J. Polymer Sci., Part C, Polymer Symposia No. 9
(1965).
The glass transition is a secondorder transition: There is no transfer of
heat, but the heat capacity does change. The volume changes to accommodate
the increased motion of the wiggling chains, but it does not change disconti
nuously.
Figure 12.2. Temperature dependence of Young’s modulus of polystyrene. As the tem
perature is increased form 80
◦
to 120
◦
C through the glass transition, the modulus drops
by more than a factor of three. Data from A. V. Tobolsky, ibid.
Polymers and Ceramics 189
Table 12.1. Glass transition temperatures of several
common polymers
Polymer T
g
(
◦
C)
Polyethylene (LDPE) −125
Polypropylene (atactic) −20
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) 28
Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) 69
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) 85
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) 81
Polypropylene (isotactic) 100
Polystyrene 100
Poly(methylmethacrylate) (atactic) 105
The glass phase is not at equilibrium, so the value of T
g
is not unique. It
depends on the molecular weight and cooling rate. Approximate glass transi
tion temperatures of a few polymers are listed in Table 12.1.
Time Dependence of Properties
A strong time (and therefore strainrate) dependence of the elastic modu
lus accompanies the large temperature dependence, as shown in Figure 12.4.
This is because the polymers undergo timedependent viscoelastic deforma
tion when stressed. If a stress is suddenly applied, there is an immediate elastic
response. More deformation occurs with increasing time. The effect is so large
near the glasstransition temperature that it is customary to deﬁne the modulus
in terms of the time of loading.
Figure 12.5 illustrates the time dependence of Young’s modulus. Under
constant load the strain increases with time, so E = s/e decreases with time.
Figure 12.4 suggests that the timedependence of Young’s modulus above T
g
Figure 12.3. Changes in speciﬁc volume as a
random linear polymer is cooled.
190 Solid Mechanics
10
0.1
0.01
0.001
1.0
81
°
C
84
87
90
106
122
24
°
C
43
63
70
75
77
79
10
−1
10
1
10
0
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
t (s : log scale)
E
(
t
)
(
G
P
a
:
l
o
g
s
c
a
l
e
)
Figure 12.4. Timedependence of Young’s modulus of PVC between 24
◦
C and 122
◦
C.
From N. G. McCrum, C. P. Buckley, and C. B. Bucknall, Principles of Polymer Engi
neering, Oxford (1988).
depends on the temperature, and that the dependence at one temperature is
related to that at another temperature by a translation along the time scale.
Williams, Landel, and Ferry
∗
suggested that the translation, a
T
, is given by
log(a
T
) = C
1
(T − T
g
)/(C
2
+ T − T
g
) (12.1)
where C
1
and C
2
are constants. It was suggested that C
1
= 14.7 and C
2
=
51.6 K for most polymers. This equation (which is known as the WLF equa
tion) can be used to predict longtime behavior from shortertime tests at a
higher temperature.
Rubber Elasticity
The elastic behavior of rubber is very different from that of crystalline materi
als. Rubber is a ﬂexible polymer in which the molecular chains are crosslinked.
The number of crosslinks is controlled by the amount of crosslinking agent
compounded with the rubber. Elastic extension occurs by straightening of the
chain segments between the crosslinks. With more crosslinking, the chain seg
ments are shorter and have less freedom of motion, so the rubber is stiffer.
Originally, only sulfur was used for crosslinking, but today other crosslink
ing agents are used. Under a tensile stress, the endtoend lengths of the seg
ments increase but thermal vibrations of the free segments tend to pull the
ends together, just as the tension in violin strings is increased by their vibra
tion. A mathematical model that describes the elastic response under uniaxial
∗
M. L. Williams, R. F. Landel and J. D. Ferry, J. Amer. Chem Soc. v77 (1955) p. 3701.
Polymers and Ceramics 191
A
B
10 min
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Figure 12.5. Schematic drawing showing why E is
timedependent. After loading, the specimen under
goes an instantaneous elastic strain to point A.
After 10 minutes under constant stress, the specimen
undergoes additional viscoelastic (anelastic) strain
to point B. For the same stress, the strain is greater
so the modulus is lower.
tension or compression predicts
σ = G(λ −1/λ
2
), (12.2)
where λ is the extension ratio, λ = L/L
o
= 1 +e, and e is the engineering
strain. The shear modulus, G, depends on the temperature and on the length
of the free segments,
G= NkT, (12.3)
where N is the number of chain segments/volume and k is Boltzmann’s con
stant. Figure 12.6 shows the theoretical predictions of the equation with σ nor
malized by G. Agreement with experiment is very good for λ < 1.5, but is
poorer at larger values of λ.
Yielding
Figure 12.7 shows typical tensile stressstrain curves for a thermoplastic. The
lower strengths at higher temperatures are obvious. At low temperatures (e.g.,
−25
◦
C), PMMA is brittle. At higher temperatures, the initial elastic region is
followed by a drop in load that accompanies yielding. A strained region or
neck forms and propagates the length of the tensile specimen (Figures 12.8
and 12.9). Only after the whole gauge section is strained does the stress again
−2
−1
0
1
2
3
0 2 4 6
Theory
Experiment
Extension, λ
Figure 12.6. Stress–extension (λ) curve of vulcanized natu
ral rubber with G= 0.39 MPa. The continuous curve is the
prediction of Equation 12.1. The dashed curve is from data
of L. R.G. Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, 3rd
Ed. Oxford (1975). Theory and experiment agree closely for
λ < 1.5.
192 Solid Mechanics
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
% strain
25
°
C
−25
°
C
0
°
C
50
°
C
65
°
C
80
°
C
T
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
p
s
i
)
Figure 12.7. Tensile stressstrain curves for poly
methyl methacrylate (PMMA) at several temper
atures. Note that the strength decreases and the
elongation increases with higher temperatures.
From Carswell and H. K. Nason, ASTM Sympo
sium on Plastics, Philadelphia (1944).
rise. Superﬁcially, this is similar to the upper and lower yield points and propa
gation of L¨ uder’s bands in lowcarbon steel after strain aging. However, there
are several notable differences.
The engineering strain in the necked region of a polymer is several hun
dred percent, in contrast to 1% or 2% in a L¨ uder’s band in steel. Also, the
mechanism is different. The yield point of steels is associated with the seg
regation of carbon to dislocations. In polymers, the necking deformation is
associated with the reorientation of the polymer chains in the deformed mate
rial, so that after the deformation the chains are aligned with the extension
axis (see Figure 12.10.) This causes a very large increase in the elastic modu
lus. Continued stretching after the necked region has propagated the length
0
1 2 3
20
40
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
S
t
r
e
s
s
σ
(
M
P
a
)
PS
PE
Stress ε
Figure 12.8. Stages of neck formation in a linear polymer. The deformation is uniform
up to the maximum load, then it is localized into a band that gradually spreads through
the gauge section. After it consumes the whole gauge section, all the molecules are
aligned with the tensile axis and the load rises sharply. Note the much larger elastic
modulus at the end.
Polymers and Ceramics 193
Figure 12.9. Stressstrain curve for polyethylene.
Note the formation and propagation of a necked
region along the gauge section.
of the gauge section can be achieved only by continued elastic deformation.
This now involves the opening of the bond angle of the CC bonds. The stress
rises rapidly until the specimen fractures. If the specimen is unloaded before
fracture and a stress is applied perpendicular to the axis of prior extension, the
material will fail at very low loads because only van der Waals bonds need be
broken.
Although large molecular weights tend to result in stronger and more duc
tile polymers, they also raise the viscosity of the molten polymer, which is often
undesirable in injection molding.
Random
Transition
Highly
aligned
Figure 12.10. Schematic illustration of alignment of mole
cules during neck formation.
194 Solid Mechanics
Compression
Tension
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Strain, %
50
100
10 20
X
Figure 12.11. Stressstrain curves of an epoxy measured in tension and compression
tests. Data from P. A. Young and R. J. Lovell, Introduction to Polymers, 2nd Ed.
Chapman and Hall (1991).
Effect of Pressure
For polymers, the stressstrain curves in compression and tension can be quite
different. Figure 12.11 is the stress strain curve for epoxy in tension and com
pression. The stressstrain curve in compression is considerably higher.
Crazing
Many thermoplastics undergo a phenomenon known as crazing when loaded
in tension. Sometimes the term craze yielding is used to distinguish this from
the usual shear yielding. A craze is an opening resembling a crack. However, a
craze is not a crack in the usual sense. Voids form and elongate in the direction
of extension. As a craze advances, ﬁbers span the opening, linking the two
halves. Figure 12.12 is a schematic drawing of a craze, and Figure 12.13 shows
crazes in polystyrene.
Direction of
propagation
of craze
Figure 12.12. Schematic drawing of a craze. Note the ﬁbrils connecting both sides of
the craze.
Polymers and Ceramics 195
0.5µm
Figure 12.13. Typical microstructure of a thin
craze in polystyrene. Note the ﬁbrils that span the
crack. From P. Behan, M. Bevis and D. Hull, Phil.
Mag., v. 24 (1971).
Fracture
Polymers like most metals are embrittled at low temperatures. The ductile
brittle transition is associated with the glasstransition temperature. Consider
able effort has gone into developing polymers that are both strong and tough.
Polycarbonate is useful in this respect. Rubber particles in polymers such as
polystyrene add greatly to the toughness with some decrease of strength. The
ductility of PMMA and the toughness of epoxy are increased by additions of
rubber.
Ceramics
Most ceramics are very hard and have very limited ductility at room tempera
ture. Their tensile strengths are limited by brittle fracture but their compres
sive strengths are much greater. Ceramics tend to retain high hardnesses at
elevated temperatures, so they are useful as refractories such as furnace linings
and as tools for highspeed machining of metals. Most refractories are oxides,
so unlike refractory metals oxidation at high temperature is not a problem.
The high hardness of ceramics at room temperature leads to their use as abra
sives, either as loose powder or bonded into grinding tools. The low ductility of
ceramics limits the structural use of ceramics mainly to applications in which
the loading is primarily compressive.
Weibull Analysis
Data on fracture strength typically have a very large amount of scatter. In
Chapter 10, it was shown that the fracture strength, σ
f
, of a brittle material is
196 Solid Mechanics
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
m = 8
m = 10
0.8 1.0
σ/σ
o
1.2
0
P
S
m = 5
m = 15
m = 20
Figure 12.14. Probability of survival at a stress, σ, as a function of σ/σ
o
.
proportional to K
Ic
/
√
(πa), where a is the length of a preexisting crack. The
scatter of fracture strength data is caused mainly by statistical variations in the
length of preexisting cracks. For engineering use, it is important to determine
not only the average strength but also the amount of its scatter. If the scatter
is small, one can safely apply a stress only slightly below the average strength.
On the other hand, if the scatter is large the stress in service must be kept
far below the average strength. Weibull
∗
suggested that in a large number of
samples, the fracture data could be described by
P
s
= exp[−(σ/σ
o
)
m
], (12.4)
where P
s
is the probability that a given sample will survive a stress of σ with
out failing. The terms σ
o
and m are constants characteristic of the mate
rial. The constant σ
o
is the stress level at which the survival probability is
1/e = 0.368, or 36.8%. A large value of m in Equation 12.4 indicates very lit
tle scatter, and conversely a low value of m corresponds to a large amount of
scatter. This is shown in Figure 12.14.
The relative scatter depends on the “modulus,” m.
Because
ln(−ln P
s
) = mln(σ/σ
o
), (12.5)
a plot of P
σ
on a log(log) scale vs. σ/σ
o
on a log scale is a straight line with the
slope is m as shown in Figure 12.15.
Porosity
Most ceramic objects are made from powder by pressing and sintering, so
they contain some porosity. Although porosity is desirable in materials used
∗
W. Weibull, J. Appl. Mech., v. 18 1951, p. 293. and J. Mech. Phys. Solids, v. 8 (1960).
Polymers and Ceramics 197
0.95
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.4
m = 10
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 2
σ/σ
o
0.2
0.05
0.01
P
S
m = 5 m = 8
m = 20
m = 15
Figure 12.15. Probability of survival at a stress, σ,
as a function of σ/σ
o
. Note that this is the same as
Figure 12.14, except here Ps is plotted on a log(log)
scale and σ/σ
o
on a log scale. The slopes of the
curves are the values of m.
for insulation and ﬁlters, porosity is usually undesirable because it adversely
affects the mechanical properties. The elastic modulus decreases with poros
ity. This is shown in Figure 12.16 for the case of alumina. It can be seen that a
10% porosity causes a decrease of the modulus of about 20%. The effects of
porosity on strength and on creep rate at elevated temperatures are even more
pronounced. The solid line in Figure 12.17 is the prediction of the equation
σ = σ
o
exp(−bP), (12.6)
where Pis the volume fraction porosity and the constant, b, is about 7. Fracture
toughness also falls precipitously with porosity.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #12.3: When the porosity of a certain ceramic is re
duced from 2.3% to 0.5%, the fracture stress drops by 12%. Assuming
Equation 12.6 applies, how much would the fracture stress increase above
the level for 0.5% porosity if all porosity were removed?
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Porous
alumina
Volume fraction voids
F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
l
e
l
a
s
t
i
c
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
Figure 12.16. Decrease of the elastic modulus
with porosity. The fractional modulus is ratio of
the modulus of porous alumina to that of 100%
dense alumina. Data from R. L. Coble and W. D.
Kingery, J. Amer. Cer. Soc., v. 29 (1956).
198 Solid Mechanics
Table 12.2. Fracture toughness of some cramics
Material K
Ic
(MPa
√
m)
Al
2
O
3
(single crystal) 2.2
Al
2
O
3
(polycrystal) 4
mullite (fully dense) 2.0–4.0
ZrO
2
(cubic) 3–3.6
ZrO
2
(partially stabilized) 3–15
MgO 2.5
SiC (hot pressed) 3–6
TiC 3–6
WC 6–20
silica (fused) 0.8
sodalime glass 0.82
glass ceramics 2.5
Solution: σ
2
/σ
1
=exp(−bP
2
)/exp(−bP
1
) =exp[b(P
1
−P
2
)], b =ln(σ
2
/σ
1
)/
(P
1
− P
2
). Substituting σ
2
/σ
1
= 1/0.88 and P
1
− P
2
= 0.023 −0.005 =
0.018, b = ln(1/.88)/0.018 = 7.1. σ
3
/σ
2
= exp[−b(P
3
− P
2
)] = exp[−7.1
(0 −0.005)]) =1.036, or a 3.6% increase.
Fracture Toughness
Although all ceramics are brittle, there are signiﬁcant differences in toughness
among ceramics. Typical values of K
Ic
given in Table 12.2 range from less than
1 to about 7 MPa
√
m. If K
Ic
is less than about 2, extreme care must be exercised
in handling the ceramics. They will break if they fall on the ﬂoor. This limits
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Porosity, P
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
Stainless steel
Iron
Plaster of Paris
Figure 12.17. Decrease of fracture strength of
ceramics and metals with porosity. The solid line
represents Equation 12.6 with b = 6. From R. L.
Coble and W. D. Kingery, J. Amer. Cer. Soc., v. 29
(1956).
Polymers and Ceramics 199
severely the use of ceramics under tensile loading. Ceramics having K
Ic
greater
than about 4 are quite robust. For example, partially stabilized zirconia is used
for metalworking tools.
Toughening of Ceramics
Energy absorbing mechanisms can toughen ceramics. There are three basic
mechanisms: crack deﬂection, use of ﬁbers to bridge cracks, and phase trans
formations. Polycrystalline ceramics are usually tougher than single crystals
because grain boundaries deﬂect cracks due to the orientation of the cleav
age planes, which change from grain to grain. Fibers of a second phase bridge
across an open crack and continue to carry part of the load. (This is discussed
in Chapter 13.) A martensitic transformation that increases volume toughens
zirconia that contains CaO or MgO.
Glasses
Glasses are brittle at room temperature. Their fracture toughness can be
increased by inducing a residual stress pattern with the surface under compres
sion. This can be done either by a process called tempering that cools the sur
face rapidly or by causing large K
+
ions to diffuse into the surface and replace
smaller Na
+
ions. Because tempered glass is tougher than untempered glass
and breaks into smaller and less dangerous pieces, it is used for side and rear
windows of cars. Windshields are made safety glass composed of two pieces
of glass laminated with a polymer that keeps the broken shards from causing
injury. These forms of glass are illustrated in Figure 12.18.
Thermally Induced Stresses
Like most ceramics, glass is susceptible to stresses caused by thermal gradients.
When a material under stress changes temperature, the total stain is given by
ε
x
= αT +(1/E)[σ
x
−υ(σ
y
+σ
z
)]. (12.7)
If two regions, A and B, of a piece of material are in intimate contact, they
must undergo the same strains. If there is a temperature difference, T =
T
A
− T
B
, between the two regions,
ε = α
A
T +(1/E)[σ
x A
−υ
A
(σ
y
A
+σ
zA
)]
= α
B
T +(1/E)[σ
x B
−υ
AB
(σ
y
B
+σ
zB
)] (12.8)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #12.4: The temperature of the inside wall of a tube is
200
◦
C and the outside wall temperature is 40
◦
C. Calculate the stresses at
200 Solid Mechanics
Figure 12.18. Typical fracture patterns of three grades of glass: (a) annealed, (b) lam
inated, (c) tempered. From Engineering Materials Handbook IV Ceramics and Glass,
ASM (1991).
the outside of the wall if the tube is made from a glass having a coefﬁ
cient of thermal expansion of α = 8 ×10
−6
/
◦
C, an elastic modulus of 10 ×
10
6
psi, and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3.
Solution: Let x, y, and z be the axial, hoop, and radial directions. The
stress normal to the tube wall, σ
z
= 0, and symmetry requires that σ
y
=
σ
x
. Let the reference position be the midwall where T = 120
◦
C. T
at the outside is 40
◦
−120
◦
= −80
◦
C. The strains ε
x
and ε
y
must be zero
relative to the midwall. Substituting in equation 12.9, 0 = αT +(1/E)
(σ
x
+υ(σ
y
+σ
z
), αT +(1 −υ)σ
x
/E=0, so σ
x
=αET/(1−υ). σ
x
=
(8 ×10
−6
/
◦
C)(80
◦
C)(10 ×10
6
psi)/0.7 = 9,140 psi.
A parameter, R
1
, describing the sensitivity of a material to fracturing
under thermal shock is given by
R
1
= σ
f
(1 −υ)/(Eα), (12.9)
where σ
f
is the fracture strength of the material. An alternative parameter is
R
1
= K
Ic
(1 −υ)/(Eα). (12.10)
The elastic properties of most glass are similar, so their resistance to
thermal shock is related primarily to their coefﬁcients of thermal expansion,
which range from about 10 ×10
−6
/
◦
C for ordinary bottle or window glass to
3 ×10
−6
/
◦
C for Pyrex
R
and 0.5 ×10
−6
/
◦
C for vycor.
Polymers and Ceramics 201
Glassy Metals
Special compositions of alloys have very low liquidus temperatures. Under
rapid cooling, these may freeze to an amorphous glass rather than a crystal. For
many compositions, the required cooling rates are so great that glass formation
is limited to very thin sections. However, several alloys have been developed
that form glasses at moderate cooling rates. Relatively large samples of these
can be frozen to a glass. Metal glasses have extremely high elastic limits. The
elastic strains at yielding may be as large as 2.5%. This permits storage of a
very large amount of elastic energy because the elastic energy per volume, E
v
,
is proportional to the square of the strain.
Notes
One interesting application of metal glass is as plates in the heads of golf clubs.
The energy of impact of the club and the ball is absorbed elastically in both
the ball and the head of the club. Because there are large losses in the ball,
it is advantageous to have as much of the energy as possible absorbed elasti
cally by the head of the club. Glassy metal plates are used to absorb energy
as they bend. A large amount of energy can be stored because the metal glass
can undergo large elastic strains. There is very little loss of this energy, being
almost completely imparted to the ball as it leaves the face of the club.
Before the discovery of vulcanization, natural rubber obtained from the
sap of tropical trees became a sticky mass in the heat of summer and hard
and brittle in the cold of winter. It was the dream of Charles Goodyear to
ﬁnd a way to make rubber more useful. Without any training in chemistry, he
started his experiments in a debtor’s prison. In a kitchen of a cottage on the
prison grounds, he blended rubber with anything he could ﬁnd. He found that
nitric acid made the rubber less sticky, but when he treated mailbags for the
U.S. Post Ofﬁce and left them for a time in a hot room, they became a sticky
mess. In 1839, he accidentally dropped a lump of rubber mixed with sulfur
on a hot stove. After scraping the hard mess from the stove, he found that it
remained ﬂexible when it cooled. This process of vulcanization was improved
and patented a few years later. However, his patent was pirated and he landed
in debtor’s prison again.
REFERENCES
N. G. McCrum, C. P. Buckley, and C. B. Bucknall, Principles of Polymer Engineering,
Oxford (1988).
R. J. Young and P. A. Lovell, Introduction to Polymers, 2nd Ed., Chapman and Hall
(1991).
I. M. Ward and D. W. Hadley, Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, Wiley (1993).
202 Solid Mechanics
Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics, ASM International
(1988).
S. B. Warner, Fiber Science, Prentice Hall (1995).
M. W. Barsoum, Fundamentals of Ceramics, McGrawHill (1997).
W. D. Kingery, K. Bowen and Uhlman, Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed. Wiley (1960).
Y.M. Chiang, D. Birney and W. D. Kingery. Physical Ceramics, 2nd ed. Wiley (1997).
Engineered Materials Handbook, vol 4, Ceramics and Glasses, ASM International
(1991).
Problems
1. What stress would be required to stretch a piece of PVC by 1% at 75
◦
C
(see Figure 12.4). If it were held in the stretched position, what would the
stress be after a minute? After an hour? After a day?
2. Evaluate the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion, α, for rubber under an
extension of 100% at 20
◦
C. A rubber band was stretched from 6 inches
to 12 inches. While being held under a constant stress, it was heated from
20
◦
C to 40
◦
C. What change in length, L, would the heating cause?
3. From a large number of tests on a certain material, it has been learned
that 50% of them will break when loaded in tension at stress equal to or
less than 520 MPa, and that 30% will break at stress equal to or less than
500 MPa. Assume that the fracture statistics follow a Weibull distribution.
A. What are the values of σ
o
and m in the equation P
s
= exp[−(σ/σ
o
)
m
]?
B. What is the maximum permissible stress if the probability of failure is
to be kept less than 0.001% (i.e., one failure in 100,000)?
4. Twenty ceramic specimens were tested to fracture. The measured fracture
loads in N were 279, 195, 246, 302, 255, 262, 164, 242, 197, 224, 255, 269,
213, 172, 179, 143, 206, 233, 246, and 295.
a. Determine the Weibull modulus, m.
b. Find the load for which the probability of survival is 99%.
5. What percent reduction of the elastic modulus of alumina would be caused
by 1% porosity? See Figure 12.7.
13 Composites
Introduction
Throughout history, mankind has used composite materials to achieve combi
nations of properties that could not be achieved with individual materials. The
Bible describes mixing of straw with clay to make tougher bricks. Concrete is a
composite of cement paste, sand, and gravel. Today, poured concrete is almost
always reinforced with steel rods. Other examples of composites include steel
belted tires, asphalt blended with gravel for roads, plywood with alternating
directions of ﬁbers, as well as ﬁberglassreinforced polyester used for furni
ture, boats, and sporting goods. Composite materials offer combinations of
properties otherwise unavailable. The reinforcing material may be in the form
of ﬁbers, particles, or laminated sheets.
FiberReinforced Composites
Fiber composites may also be classiﬁed according to the nature of the matrix
and the ﬁber. Examples of a number of possibilities are listed in Table 13.1.
Various geometric arrangements of the ﬁbers are possible. In two
dimensional products, the ﬁbers may be unidirectionally aligned, at 90
◦
to one
another in a woven fabric or crossply, or randomly oriented (Figure 13.1.) The
ﬁbers may be very long or chopped into short segments. In thick objects, short
ﬁbers may be random in three dimensions. The most common use of ﬁber rein
forcement is to impart stiffness (increased modulus) or strength to the matrix.
Toughness may also be of concern.
Elastic Properties of FiberReinforced Composites
The simplest arrangement is long parallel ﬁbers. The strain parallel to the
ﬁbers must be the same in both the matrix and the ﬁber, ε
f
= ε
m
= ε. For load
ing parallel to the ﬁbers, the total load, F, is the sum of the forces on the ﬁbers,
203
204 Solid Mechanics
Table 13.1. Various combinations of ﬁbers and matrices
Fiber Metal matrix Ceramic matrix Polymer matrix
metal W/Al concrete/steel rubber/steel (tires)
ceramic B/Al C/glass ﬁber glass/polyester
C/Al SiC/SiAlON ﬁber glass/epoxy
Al
2
O
3
/Al
SiC/Al
polymer straw/clay kevlar/epoxy
F
f
, and the matrix, F
m
. In terms of the stresses, F
f
= σ
f
A
f
and F
m
= σ
m
A
m
,
where σ
f
and σ
m
are the stresses in the ﬁber and matrix and where A
f
and A
m
are the crosssectional areas of the ﬁber and matrix. The total force, F, is the
sum of F
f
+ F
m
,
σ A = σ
f
A
f
+σ
m
A
m
(13.1)
where A is the overall area, A = A
f
+ A
m
and σ is the stress, F/A. For elastic
loading, ε = Eε, σ
f
= E
f
ε
f
, and σ
m
= E
m
ε
m
, so EεA = E
f
ε
f
A
f
+ E
m
ε
m
A
m
.
Realizing that ε
f
= ε
m
= ε and expressing A
f
/A = V
f
and A
m
/A = V
m
,
E = E
f
V
f
+ E
m
V
m
. (13.2)
This is often called the rule of mixtures. It is an upper bound to the elastic
modulus of a composite.
Consider the behavior of the same composite under tension perpendicular
to the ﬁbers. It is no longer reasonable to assume that ε
f
= ε
m
= ε. An alter
native, though extreme, assumption is that the stresses in the matrix and the
ﬁbers are the same, σ
f
= σ
m
= σ. In this case, ε = σ/E, ε
f
= σ
f
/E
f
, and ε
m
=
σ
m
/E
m
and the overall (average) strain is ε = ε
f
V
f
+ε
m
V
m
. Combining,
σ/E = V
f
σ
f
/E
f
+ V
m
σ
m
E
m
. Finally realizing that σ
f
= σ
m
= σ,
1/E = V
f
/E
f
+ V
m
/E
m
. (13.3)
Figure 13.1. Several geometric arrangements of ﬁber reinforcements.
Composites 205
Figure 13.2. Upper and lower bounds to
Young’s modulus for composites. The
upper bound is appropriate for loading
parallel to the ﬁbers. Loading perpen
dicular to the ﬁbers lies between these
two extremes. The lines are dashed
above V
f
= 60% because this is a practi
cal upper limit to the volume fraction of
ﬁbers.
Equation 13.3 is a lower bound for the modulus. Figure 13.2 shows the predic
tions of equations 13.2 and 13.3. The actual behavior for loading perpendicular
to the ﬁbers is between these two extremes.
Now consider the orientation dependence of the elastic modulus of a com
posite with unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers. Let 1 be the axis parallel to the
ﬁbers and let the 2 and 3 axes be perpendicular to the ﬁbers. If a uniaxial
stress applied along a direction, x, at an angle, θ, from 1axis and 90 – θ from
2axis, the stresses on the 1, 2, 3 axis system may be expressed as
σ
1
= cos
2
θσ
x
,
σ
2
= σ
3
= sin
2
θσ
x
, (13.4)
τ
12
= sinθcosθσ
x
.
σ
3
= τ
23
= τ
31
= 0.
Hooke’s laws give the strains along the 1 and 2axes,
e
1
= (1/E
1
)[σ
1
−υ
12
σ
2
],
e
2
= (1/E
2
)[σ
2
−υ
12
σ
1
] (13.5)
γ
12
= (τ
12
/G
12
).
The strain in the xdirection can be written as
e
x
= e
1
cos
2
θ +e
2
sin
2
θ +2γ
12
cosθsinθ
= (σ
x
/E
1
)[cos
4
θ −υ
12
cos
2
θsin
2
θ] +(σ
x
/E
2
)[sin
4
θ −υ
12
cos
2
θsin
2
θ]
+(2σ
x
/G
12
)cos
2
θsin
2
θ. (13.6)
206 Solid Mechanics
100
50
0
0 30 60 90
Y
o
u
n
g
’
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
G
P
a
Angle of stress axis
Figure 13.3. The orientation dependence of the elastic modulus in a composite with
unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers. Here it is assumed that E
1
= 75 MPa, E
2
= 5 MPa, G=
10 MPa, and υ
12
= 0.3. Note that most of the stiffening is lost if the loading axis is
misoriented from the ﬁber axis by as little as 15
◦
.
The elastic modulus in the x direction, E
x
, can be found from Equation 13.6.
E
x
= σ
x
/e
x
. (13.7)
Figure 13.3 shows that the modulus drops rapidly for offaxis loading. The
average for all orientations in this ﬁgure is about 18% of E
1
.
A crude estimate of the effect of a crossply can be made from an average
of the stiffnesses due to ﬁbers at 0
◦
and 90
◦
, as shown in Figure 13.4. Although
the crossply stiffens the composite for loading near 90
◦
, it has no effect on the
45
◦
stiffness. Figure 13.5 illustrates why this is so. For loading at 45
◦
, extension
can be accommodated by rotation of the ﬁbers without any extension.
The simple averaging used to calculate Figure 13.4 underestimates the
stiffness for most angles of loading, θ. It assumes equal strains in both plies
in the loading direction but neglects the fact that the strains perpendicular to
the loading direction in both plies must also be equal. When this constraint is
accounted for, a somewhat larger modulus is predicted. However, this effect
disappears at θ = 45
◦
because composites with both sets of ﬁbers have the
same lateral strain.
With randomly oriented ﬁbers, the orientation dependence disappears.
One might expect the modulus would be the average of the moduli for all
directions of uniaxially aligned ﬁbers. However, this again would be an under
estimate because it neglects the fact that the lateral strains must be the same
for all ﬁber alignments. A useful engineering approximation for randomly
Composites 207
0
°
Fibers
Crossply
90
°
Fibers
Angle of stress axis
Y
o
u
n
g
’
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
G
P
a
100
50
0
0 30 60 90
Figure 13.4. Calculated orientation dependence of Young’s modulus in composites
with singly and biaxially oriented ﬁbers. For this calculation, it was assumed that E
para
=
75 GPa and E
perp
= 75 GPa. Note that even with biaxially oriented ﬁbers, the modulus
at 45
◦
is very low.
aligned ﬁbers is
E ≈ (3/8)E
para
+(5/8)E
perp
, (13.8)
where E
para
and E
perp
are the Emoduli parallel and perpendicular to uniaxially
aligned ﬁbers.
Strength of FiberReinforced Composites
The rule of mixtures cannot be used to predict the strengths of composites with
uniaxially aligned ﬁbers. The reason can be appreciated by considering the
Figure 13.5. Rotation of ﬁbers in a woven cloth.
Stress in at 45
◦
to the ﬁbers allows deformation
with little or no stretching of the ﬁbers.
208 Solid Mechanics
Fibers
Composite
Matrix
S
t
r
e
s
s
0 5 10 15 20
Strain (%)
Figure 13.6. Stressstrain curves for the
matrix, the ﬁbers, and the composite.
stressstrain behavior of both materials, as shown schematically in Figure 13.6.
The strains in the matrix and ﬁbers are equal, so the ﬁbers reach their breaking
strengths long before the matrix reaches its tensile strength. Thus, the strength
of the composite UTS < V
m
UTS
m
+ V
f
UTS
f
.
If the load carried by the ﬁbers is greater than the breaking load of the
matrix, both will fail when the ﬁbers break,
UTS = V
m
σ
m
+ V
f
(UTS)
f
, (13.9)
where σ
m
= (E
m
/E
f
)(UTS)
f
is the stress carried by the matrix when the ﬁber
fractures.
For composites with low volume fraction ﬁbers, the ﬁbers may break at a
load less than the failure load of the matrix. In this case, after the ﬁbers break
the whole load must be carried by the matrix, so the predicted strength is
UTS = V
m
(UTS)
m
. (13.10)
Figure 13.7 shows schematically how the strength in tension parallel to the
ﬁbers varies with volume fraction ﬁbers. Equation 13.10 applies at low volume
fraction ﬁbers and Equation 13.9 applies for higher volume fractions of ﬁbers.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13.1: A metal composite composed of metal M rein
forced by parallel wires of metal W. The volume fraction W is 50% and
W has a yield stress of 200 MPa and a modulus of 210 GPa. Metal M has
a yield stress of 50 MPa and a modulus of 30 GPa. What is the maximum
stress that the composite can carry without yielding?
Solution: At yielding, the strains will be the same in the wire and
matrix. σ
w
/E
w
= σ
m
/E
m
. The wire will yield at a strain of σ
w
/E
w
=
200 MPa/210 GPa = 0.001 and the matrix will yield at a strain of
Composites 209
100
80
60
40
20
0
C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
0 50 100
Volume fraction fibers
Figure 13.7. Dependence of strength on the volume fraction ﬁbers. It is assumed that
the ﬁber strength, UTS
f
= 80, UTS
m
= 10 andσ
m
= 5. Note that the ﬁbers lower the
composite strength to less than the tensile strength of the matrix for very low volume
fraction ﬁbers.
50 MPa/30 GPa = 0.0017. The composite will yield at the lower strain,
that is, when ε = 0.001. At this point, the stress in the wire would be
200 MPa and the stress in the matrix would be 0.001 ×30 GPa = 30 MPa.
The average stress would be 0.50 ×200 +0.50 ×30 = 115 MPa.
Volume Fraction of Fibers
Although the stiffness and strength of reinforced composites should increase
with the volume fraction of ﬁbers, there are practical limitations on the vol
ume fraction. Fibers must be separated from one another. Fibers are often
precoated to ensure this separation and to control bonding between ﬁbers
and matrix. Techniques of inﬁltrating ﬁber arrangements with liquid resins
lead to variability in ﬁber spacing, as shown in Figure 13.8. The maximum
possible packing density is greater for unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers than for
woven or crossply reinforcement. A practical upper limit for volume fraction
seems to be about 55% to 60%. This is the reason is why the calculated lines
in Figures 13.2 and 13.7 are dashed above V
f
= 60%.
Orientation Dependence of Strength
For unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers, the strength varies with orientation. There
are three possible modes of failure. For tension parallel or nearly parallel
210 Solid Mechanics
Figure 13.8. Glass ﬁbers in a polyester matrix.
Note the variability in ﬁber spacing. From Engi
neered Materials Handbook, v. I, Composites,
ASM International (1987).
to the ﬁbers, failure occurs when the stress in the ﬁber exceeds the fracture
strength, S
f
, of the ﬁbers. Neglecting the stress in the matrix, the axial stress,
σ, at this point is
σ = S
f
/cos
2
θ. (13.11)
For loading at a greater angle to the ﬁbers, failure can occur by shear in
the matrix. The axial stress, σ, is
σ = τ
f m
/sinθcosθ, (13.12)
where τ
f m
is the shear strength of the ﬁbermatrix interface. For loading per
pendicular or nearly perpendicular to the ﬁbers, failure is governed by the
strength, S
f m
, of the ﬁbermatrix interface.
σ = S
f m
/sin
2
θ. (13.13)
These three possibilities are shown in Figure 13.9. The three fracture modes
are treated separately. However, the slight increase of failure stress, σ, with θ
for low angles is not realized experimentally. This fact suggests an interaction
0
0
30 60 90
Angle between fibers and stress axis
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
S
f
/cos
2
θ
τ
f
/sinθcosθ
S
m
/sin
2
θ
Figure 13.9. Failure strength of a unidirection
ally aligned ﬁber composite as a function of
orientation. There are three possible fracture
modes: tensile fracture of the ﬁbers, shear fail
ure parallel to the ﬁbers, and tensile failure nor
mal to the ﬁbers.
Composites 211
x
dx
D
τ(2πDdx)
(σ
x
+ dσ
x
)A
σ
x
A
Figure 13.10. Force balance on a differential length
of ﬁber. The difference in the normal forces must be
balanced by the shear force.
of the longitudinal and shear fracture modes. Also, for angles near 45
◦
, experi
mental values of fracture strength tend to fall somewhat below the predictions
in Figure 13.9, which indicates an interaction between shear and transverse
fracture modes.
Fiber Length
Fabrication is much simpliﬁed if the reinforcement is in the form of chopped
ﬁbers. Chopped ﬁbers can be blown onto a surface to form a mat. Composites
with chopped ﬁbers can be fabricated by processes that are impossible with
continuous ﬁbers, such as extrusion, injection molding, and transfer molding.
The disadvantage of chopped ﬁbers is that some of the reinforcing effect of
the ﬁbers is sacriﬁced because the average axial stress carried by ﬁbers is less
for short ones than for long ones. The reason is that at the end of the ﬁber,
the stress carried by the ﬁber is vanishingly low. Stress is transferred from the
matrix to the ﬁbers primarily by shear stresses at their interfaces. The average
axial stress in a ﬁber depends on its aspect ratio, D/L, where D and L are the
ﬁber’s diameter and length.
The following development is based on the assumption that the shear
stress between the matrix and the ﬁber, τ, is constant and that no load is
transferred across the end of the ﬁber. Figure 13.10 shows a force balance
on a differential length of ﬁber, dx, which results in (σ
x
+dσ
x
)A = σ
x
A+
τ(πDdx) or (D
2
/4)dσ
x
= τ(Ddx). Integrating,
σ
x
= 4τ(x/D). (13.14)
This solution is valid only for σ
x
≤ σ
∞
where σ
∞
is the stress that would be
carried by an inﬁnitely long ﬁber. Figure 13.11 illustrates three possible con
ditions depending on x
∗
/L, where x
∗
= (D/4)(σ
∞
/τ) is the distance at which
σ
x
= σ
∞
. The length, L
∗
= 2x
∗
is called the critical length.
If L> L
∗
(Figure 13.11a),
σ
av.
= (1 − x
∗
/L)σ
∞
. (13.15)
212 Solid Mechanics
x*
σ
f
σ
x
x
L
L
D
x*
σ
f
σ
x
x
L
L
x*
σ
f
σ
x
x
L
L
a b c
Figure 13.11. The distribution of ﬁber stress for three cases: L> L
∗
, L= L
∗
, and L<
L
∗
.
If L= L
∗
(Figure 13.11b),
σ
av.
= (1/2)σ
∞
. (13.16)
If L< L
∗
(Figure 13.11c), σ
x
never reaches σ
∞
, and the average value of axial
stress is
σ
av.
= L/(2L
∗
)σ
∞
. (13.17)
The composite modulus and strength can be calculated by substituting σ
av
for
σ
f
in Equation 13.1.
The problem with this analysis is that the shear stress, τ, between matrix
and ﬁber is not constant from x = 0 to x = x
∗
along the length of the ﬁber. The
shear stress, τ, between the ﬁber and the matrix decreases with x as the stress
(and therefore the elastic elongation) of the ﬁber increases. It is reasonable to
assume that τ increases as the difference between the strains in the ﬁber and
matrix increases. In turn, this difference is proportional to σ
∞
– σ
x
because the
ﬁber strain at x is σ
x
/E
f
and the matrix strain is σ
∞
/E
f
. If it is assumed that
τ = C(σ
f
−σ
x
), where C is a constant, in Equation 13.10 and integrating,
σ
x
= σ
∞
[1 −exp(−2Cx/D)]. (13.18)
This leads to the stress distribution sketched in Figure 13.12 near the end of
the ﬁber. For long ﬁbers (L> 2x
∗
), the average load carried by the ﬁber is not
much different from that calculated with the simpler analysis.
A still more rigorous analysis results in an expression for the shear stress,
τ = E
f
(D/4)exp(β)sinh[β(L/2 − x)]/cosh[β(L/2)], (13.19)
where β is given by
β = (1/4)(G
m
/E
f
)/ln(φ/V
f
). (13.20)
Here φ is the ideal packing factor for the arrangements of ﬁbers. For a square
array, φ = π/4 = 0.785, and for a hexagonal array φ = π/(2
√
3) = 0.907. As
Composites 213
0 1
0
0.5
1
2 3 4
S
t
r
e
s
s
Distance, x/x*, from end
Fiber stress, σ
x
,
eq. 13.14
Fiber stress, σ
x
, eq. 13.18
Shear stress, τ
Figure 13.12. A more realistic stress distribution near the end of a ﬁber.
the ratio of the matrix shear modulus to the ﬁber tensile modulus increases,
the load is transferred from the matrix to the ﬁbers over a shorter distance.
Failures with Discontinuous Fibers
Failure may occur either by fracture of ﬁbers or by the ﬁbers pulling out of
the matrix. Both possibilities are shown in Figure 13.13. If as a crack in the
matrix approaches the ﬁber the plane of the crack is near the end of the ﬁber,
pullout will occur. If it is not near the end, the ﬁber will fracture. Figure 13.14
is a picture showing the pullout of boron ﬁbers in an aluminum matrix. To
fracture a ﬁber of diameter, D, the force, F, must be
F = σ
∗
πD
2
/4, (13.21)
where σ
∗
is the fracture strength of the ﬁber.
Pull out
Fiber break
Figure 13.13. Sketch showing some ﬁbers fracturing at
the crack and others pulling out.
214 Solid Mechanics
Figure 13.14. Photograph of SiC ﬁbers pulling
out of a titanium matrix. From T. W. Clyne and
P. J. Withers, An introduction to Metal Matrix
Composites, Cambridge U. Press (1993).
Much more energy is absorbed if the ﬁbers pull out. The ﬁber pullout
force is
F = τ
∗
πDx, (13.22)
where τ
∗
is the shear strength of the ﬁber–matrix interface. Fibers will pull
out if τ
∗
πDx is less than the force to break the ﬁbers, σ
∗
πD
2
/4. The critical
pullout distance, x
∗
, corresponds to the two forces being equal,
x
∗
= (σ
∗
/τ
∗
)D/4. (13.23)
Fibers of length L less than 2x
∗
will pull out, and the average pullout
distance will be L/4. Therefore, the energy, U
po
, to pull out the ﬁber is the
integral of τ
∗
πD
_
xdx between limits of 0 and L/4,
U
po
= τ
∗
πDL
2
/32. (13.24)
However, if the ﬁber length is greater than 2x
∗
, the probability that it will pull
out is 2x
∗
/L and the average pullout distance is x
∗
/2, so the average energy
expended in pullout is
U
po
= τ
∗
πD(x
∗
/2)
2
(2x
∗
/L) = t
∗
πDx
∗3
/(2L). (13.25)
Comparison of Equations 13.24 and 13.25 show that the pullout energy,
and hence the toughness, increase with L up to a critical length, L= 2x
∗
=
(σ
∗
/τ
∗
)D/2 . Further increase of L decreases the fracture toughness, as shown
in Figure 13.15. Because the composite stiffness and strength continue to
increase with increasing ﬁber length, it is often desirable to decrease the ﬁber
matrix shear strength, τ
∗
, and thereby increase x
∗
so longer ﬁbers can be used
without decreasing toughness.
Failure Under Compression
In compression parallel to aligned ﬁbers, failures can occur by ﬁber buckling.
This involves lateral shearing of the matrix between ﬁbers, and therefore the
compressive strength of the composite depends on the shear moduli. Yielding
of composites with polymeric ﬁbers is sensitive to buckling under compression
Composites 215
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.5 1
Fiber length (arbitrary units)
E
n
e
r
g
y
(
a
r
b
i
t
r
a
r
y
u
n
i
t
s
)
1.5 2
Figure 13.15. The energy expended in ﬁber pullout increases with ﬁber length up to a
critical length and then decreases with further length increase.
because of the low compressive strengths of the ﬁbers themselves. Figure 13.16
shows inphase buckling of a Kevlar ﬁberreinforced composite in compres
sion. The low strength of some polymer ﬁbers in compression was discussed in
Chapter 12.
Typical Properties
Two types of polymer matrixes are common: epoxy and polyester. Most of
the polymers used for matrix materials have moduli of 2 to 3 GPa and ten
sile strengths in the range of 35 to 70 MPa. Fiber reinforcements include
glass, boron, Kevlar, and carbon. Properties of some epoxy matrix compos
ite systems are given in Table 13.2 and some of the commonly used ﬁbers in
Table 13.3.
Figure 13.16. Buckling of Kevlar ﬁbers in an epoxy
matrix under compression. From Engineered Mate
rials Handbook, v.1, Composites, ASM International
(1987).
216 Solid Mechanics
Table 13.2. Properties of epoxy matrix composites
Young’s modulus (GPa) Tensile strength (MPa)
Fiber Vol % ﬁber Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse
Eglass 60
unidirectional 40 10 780 28
Eglass 35
bidirectional 16.5 16.5 280 280
Eglass 20
chopped matte 7 7 100 100
Boron 60
unidirectional 215 24 1400 65
Kevlar29 60
unidirectional 50 5 1350 –
Kevlar49 60
unidirectional 76 6 1350 30
Carbon 62 145 1850
Other ﬁber composites include ceramics reinforced with metal or ceramic
ﬁbers. Metals such as aluminumbase alloys may be reinforced with ceramic
ﬁbers to increase their stiffness. In some eutectic systems, directional solidiﬁ
cation can lead to rods of one phase reinforcing the matrix.
Particulate Composites
Composites reinforced by particles rather than long ﬁbers include such diverse
materials as concrete (cementpaste matrix with sand and gravel particles),
polymers ﬁlled with wood ﬂour, and “carbide tools” with a cobaltbase matrix
alloy hardened by tungsten carbide particles. Sometimes the purpose is simply
economics, for example, wood ﬂour is cheaper than plastics. Another objective
Table 13.3. Typical ﬁber properties
Young’s modulus Tensile strength Elongation
Fiber (GPa) (GPa) (%)
carbon (PAN HS) 250 2.7 1
carbon (PAN HM) 390 2.2 0.5
SiC 70
steel 210 2.5
Eglass 70 1.75
B 390 2 to 6
Kevlar 29 65 2.8 4
Kevlar 49 125 2.8 2.3
Al
2
O
3
379 1.4
βSiC 430 3.5
Composites 217
E
B
E
A
0 0.2 0.4
V
B
0.6 0.8 1
C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
E
n = 1
1/2
0
−1/2
−1
Figure 13.17. Dependence of Young’s
modulus on volume fraction according
to Equation 13.26 for several values of
n. The subscripts A and B represent the
lower and higher modulus phases. The
isostrain and isostress models correspond
to n = +1 and −1. Here the ratio of
E
B
/E
A
= 10.
may be increased hardness, such as carbide tools. The isostrain and isostress
models (Equations 13.2 and 13.3) are upper and lower bounds for the depen
dence of Young’s modulus on volume fraction. The behavior of particulate
composites is intermediate and can be represented by a generalized rule of
mixtures of the form
E
n
= V
A
E
n
A
+ V
B
E
n
B
, (13.26)
where A and B refer to the two phases. The exponent, n, lies between the
extremes of n =+1 for the isostrain model and n =−1 for the isostress model.
Figure 13.17 shows the dependence of E on volume fraction for several values
of n. If the modulus of the continuous phase is much greater than that of the
particles, n =0.5 is a reasonable approximation. For highmodulus particles in
a lowmodulus matrix, n < 0 is a better approximation.
A simple model for a particulate composite with a large fraction of the
harder phase is illustrated in Figure 13.18. The harder phase, A, is a series of
cubes. Let the distance between cube centers be 1 and the thickness of the
softer phase, B, be t. Then the volume fraction of A is V
A
= (1 −t )
3
. The com
posite can be considered as a series of columns of alternating A and B loaded
in parallel with columns of B.
If the behavior of the columns of alternating A and B is described by the
lowerbound Equation 13.3, the modulus, E
, of these columns is
1/E
= (1 −t )/E
A
+t/E
B
(13.27)
so a lower bound to the modulus of the overall composite can be found using
Equation 13.2 as
E
av
= (1 −t )
2
E
+[1 −(1 −t )
2
]E
B
. (13.28)
218 Solid Mechanics
1
2
3
t
1 − t
A
B
1
A
t
B
Figure 13.18. Brickwall model of a composite. Hard particles in the shape of cubes are
separated by a soft matrix of thickness, t.
An upper bound for the composite modulus, E
ave
, can be found by treating
these columns and the material between them with the isostrain model,
E
av
= t (2 −t )E
B
+(1 −t )
2
E
. (13.29)
This is for this geometric arrangement and very much better solution
than Equation 13.28. Figure 13.19 shows the results of calculations for E
A
=
3E
B
and υ
A
= υ
B
= 0.3 using Equations 13.28 and 13.29. Also shown for com
parison are the upperbound and lowerbound equations.
0
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Volume fraction of A, V
A
E
a
v
/
E
B
eq. 13.2
eq. 13.29
eq. 13.28
eq. 13.3
Figure 13.19. Predictions of brickwall model for the elastic modulus of a partic
ulate composite with E
A
= 3E
B
and υ
A
= υ
B
= 0.3. Note that the predictions of
Equations 13.28 and 13.29 are not very different.
Composites 219
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13.2: Estimate the modulus for a composite consisting
of 60% WC particles in a matrix of cobalt using the brickwall model. The
Young’s moduli for WC and Co are 700 GPa and 210 GPa, respectively.
WC is the discontinuous phase, A.
Solution: t = 1 −0.6
1/3
= 0.156. From Equation 13.29, σ
2B
/σ
1
= 0.615
From Equation 13.30, ε
1B
/σ
1
= 2.81 ×10
−3
GPa
−1
,
From Equation 13.31, ε
1A
/σ
1
= 1.32 ×10
−3
GPa
−1
,
From Equation 13.32, E
= 644 GPa,
From Equation 13.28, E
av
= 519 GPa.
Lamellar Composites
Two or more sheets of materials bonded together can be considered as lamel
lar composites. Examples include safety glass, plywood, plated metals, and
glazed ceramics. Consider sheets of two materials, A and B, bonded together
in the xy plane and loaded in this plane. The basic equations governing the
strain are
ε
x A
= ε
x B
ε
y
A
= ε
y
B
. (13.30)
If both materials are isotropic and the loading is elastic, Equations 13.30
become
ε
x A
= (1/E
A
)(σ
xA
−υ
A
σ
yA
) = ε
xB
= (1/E
B
)(σ
xB
−υ
B
σ
yB
)
ε
y
A
= (1/E
A
)(σ
yA
−υ
A
σ
xA
) = ε
yB
= (1/E
B
)(σ
yB
−υ
B
σ
xB
). (13.31)
The stresses are
σ
x A
t
A
+σ
x B
t
B
= σ
xav
,
σ
y
A
t
A
+σ
y
B
t
B
= σ
yav
,
σ
zA
= σ
z
= 0, (13.32)
where t
A
and t
B
are the fractional thicknesses of A and B.
Now consider loading under uniaxial tension applied in the xdirection.
Substituting σ
yav
= 0, σ
yB
= −(t
A
/t
B
)σ
yA
and σ
xB
= (σ
xav
−t
A
σ
xA
)/t
B
into
Equations 13.31,
σ
xA
−υ
A
σ
yA
= (E
A
/E
B
)[(σ
xav
−t
A
σ
xA
)/t
B
+υ
B
(t
A
/t
B
)σ
yA
] and
σ
yA
−υ
A
σ
xA
= (E
A
/E
B
)[(V
A
/V
B
)σ
yA
+υ
B
(σ
xav
−t
A
σ
xA
)/t
B
]. (13.33)
220 Solid Mechanics
Young’s modulus according to an upperbound isostrain model for loading in
the plane of the sheet can be expressed as E = N/D, where
N = E
2
B
t
2
B
_
1 −υ
A
2
_
+2E
A
E
B
t
A
t
B
(1 −υ
A
υ
B
) + E
A
2
t
2
A
_
1 −υ
2
B
_
and
D= E
B
t
B
_
1 −υ
2
A
_
+ E
A
t
A
_
1 −υ
B
2
_
. (13.34)
For the special case in which υ
B
= υ
A
, these expressions reduce to the upper
bound model,
E = E
B
t
B
+ E
A
t
A
. (13.35)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13.3: Calculate the composite modulus for a sand
wich of two sheets of ﬁberreinforced polyester (each 0.5 mm thick) sur
rounding rubber (4 mm thick). For the ﬁberreinforced polyester, E
B
=
7 GPa and υ
B
= 0.3. For the rubber, E
A
= 0.25 GPa andυ
A
= 0.5.
Solution: Substituting t
A
= 0.8 and t
B
= 0.2 into Equation 13.35
N = (7 ×0.2)
2
(0.75) +2(7)(0.25)(0.2)(0.8)(0.85) +(0.25)(0.8)
2
(0.91) = 2.21
D= (7 ×0.2)(0.75) +(0.25 ×0.8)(0.91) = 1.232
E = N/D = 2.21/1.232 = 1.79 GPa
Foams
There are two types of foams: closed cell foams and open cell (or reticulated)
foams. In open foams, air or other ﬂuids are free to circulate. These are used
for ﬁlters and as skeletons. They are often made by collapsing the walls of
closed cell foams. Closed cell foams are much stiffer and stronger than open
cell foams because compression is partially resisted by increased air pressure
inside the cells. Figure 13.20 shows that the geometry of open and closed cell
foams can modeled by Kelvin tetrakaidecahedra.
The elastic stiffness depends on the relative density. In general, the depen
dence of relative stiffness, E
∗
/E, where E
∗
is the elastic modulus of the struc
ture and E is the modulus of the solid material on relative density, is of the
form
E
∗
/E = (ρ
∗
/ρ
s
)
n
. (13.36)
Experimental results shown in Figure 13.21 indicate that for open cells n = 2,
so
E
∗
/E = (ρ
∗
/ρ
s
)
2
. (13.37)
Composites 221
Figure 13.20. Open and closed cell foams modeled by tetrakaidecahedra. From W. F.
Hosford, Materials for Engineers, Cambridge U. Press (2008).
For closed cell foams, E
∗
/E is much greater and n < 2. Although defor
mation under compression of open cell foams is primarily by ligament bend
ing, compression of closed cell wall foams involves gas compression and wall
stretching in addition to wall bending.
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
0.01 0.1 1
Relative density, ρ∗/ρ
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
Y
o
u
n
g
’
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
E
*
/
E
Open cells
Closed cells
Figure 13.21. Dependence of elastic moduli on the density of open and closed cell
foams.
222 Solid Mechanics
Metal foams are useful in many engineering applications because of their
extremely light weight, good energy absorption, high ratios of strength and
stiffness to weight, and outstanding damping capability.
Notes
The engineering use of composites dates back to antiquity. The Bible, in
Exodus, cites the use of straw in clay bricks (presumably to prevent cracking
during fast drying under the hot sun in Egypt. The Mayans and Incas incor
porated vegetable ﬁbers into their pottery. English builders used sticks in the
“wattle and daub” construction of timber frame buildings. In colonial days,
hair was used to strengthen plaster, the hair content being limited to 2% or
3% to insure workability.
Saracens made composite bows composed of a central core of wood with
animal tendons glued on the tension side and horn on the compression side.
These animal products are able to store more elastic energy in tension and
compression respectively than wood.
Shortly after Leo Baekelund (1863–1944) developed phenolformaldehyde
(“Bakelite”) in 1906, he found that adding ﬁbers to the resin greatly increased
its toughness. The ﬁrst use of this molding compound was for the gearshift
knob of the 1916 Rolls Royce.
Widespread commercial use of glassreinforced polymers began soon after
World War II. Freshly formed glass ﬁbers of 0.005 mm to 0.008 mm diameter
have strengths up to 4 GPa, but the strength is greatly reduced if the ﬁbers con
tact one another. For that reason, they are coated with an organic compound
before being bundled together.
REFERENCES
K. K. Chawla, Composite Materials, Science and Engineering, SpringerVerlag (1978).
P. K. Mallick, Fiberreinforced Composites, Materials, Manufacturing & Design,
Dekker (1988).
Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol I, Composites, ASM International (1987).
N. C. Hilyard, Mechanics of Cellular Plastics, MacMillan (1982).
E. Andrew, W. Sanders and L. J. Gibson, Compressive and tensile behaviour of alu
minium foams, Mater Sci Eng A 270 (1999).
L. J. Gibson & M. F. Ashby Cellular Foams, Cambridge (1999).
A. Kim, M. A. Hasan, S. H. Nahm and S. S. Cho, Composite Structures, v. 71 (2005).
Problems
1. What would be the critical length, L
∗
, for maximum load in a 10µm diam
eter ﬁber with a fracture strength of 2 GPa embedded in a matrix such that
the shear strength of the matrixﬁber interface is 100 MPa?
Composites 223
Table 13.4. Properties of steel wire and aluminum
Young’s Yield Poisson’s Linear coef.
modulus strength ratio of thermal
(GPa) (MPa) expans (K
−1
)
aluminum 70 65 0.3 24 × 10
−6
steel 210 280 0.3 12 × 10
−6
2. Estimate the greatest value of the elastic modulus that can be obtained by
long randomly oriented ﬁbers of Eglass embedded in an epoxy resin if the
volume fraction is 40%. Assume the modulus of the epoxy is 5 GPa.
3. Carbide cutting tools are composites of very hard tungsten carbide parti
cles in a cobalt matrix. The elastic moduli of tungsten carbide and cobalt
are 102 × 106 and 30 × 106 psi, respectively. It was experimentally found
that the elastic modulus of a composite containing 52 volume percent car
bide was 60 × 106 psi. What value of the exponent, n, in Equation 13.26
would this measurement suggest? A trialanderror solution is necessary
to solve this. (Note that n = 0 is a trivial solution.)
4. A steel wire (1.0 mm diameter) is coated with aluminum, 0.20 mm thick.
(See Table 13.4)
A. Will the steel or the aluminum yield ﬁrst as tension is applied to the
wire?
B. What tensile load can the wire withstand without yielding
C. What is the composite elastic modulus?
D. Calculate the composite thermal expansion coefﬁcient.
5. Consider a carbonreinforced epoxy composite containing 45 volume per
cent unidirectionally aligned carbon ﬁbers (see Table 13.5). A. Calcu
late the composite modulus. B. Calculate the composite tensile strength.
Assume both the epoxy and carbon are elastic to fracture.
Table 13.5. Properties of epoxy and
carbon ﬁbers
Young’s Tensile
modulus strength
epoxy 3 GPa 55 MPa
carbon 250 GPa 2.5 GPa
14 Mechanical Working
Introduction
The shapes of most metallic products are achieved by mechanical working.
The exceptions are those produced by casting and by powder processing.
Mechanical shaping processes are conveniently divided into two groups, bulk
forming and sheet forming. Bulk forming processes include rolling, extru
sion, rod and wire drawing, and forging. In these processes, the stresses that
deform the material are largely compressive. One engineering concern is to
ensure that the forming forces are not excessive. Another is ensuring that the
deformation is as uniform as possible so as to minimize internal and residual
stresses. Forming limits of the material are set by the ductility of the work
piece and by the imposed stress state.
Products as diverse as cartridge cases, beverage cans, automobile bodies,
and canoe hulls are formed from ﬂat sheets by drawing or stamping. In sheet
forming, the stresses are usually tensile and the forming limits usually corre
spond to local necking of the material. If the stresses become compressive,
buckling or wrinkling will limit the process.
Bulk Forming Energy Balance
An energy balance is a simple way of estimating the forces required in many
bulkforming processes. As a rod or wire is drawn through a die, the total work,
W
t
, equals the drawing force, F
d
, multiplied by the length of wire drawn, L,
W
t
= F
d
L. Expressing the drawing force as F
d
= σ
d
A, where A is the area
of the drawn wire and σ
d
is the stress on the drawn wire, W
t
= σ
d
AL(Figure
14.1). As ALis the drawn volume, the actual work per volume, w
t
, is
w
t
= σ
d
. (14.1)
The total work per volume can also be expressed as the sum of the indi
vidual work terms,
w
t
= w
i
+w
f
+w
r
. (14.2)
224
Mechanical Working 225
F
d A
α
∆L
Figure 14.1. Drawing of a wire. The force, F
d
work
ing through a distance of L deforms a volume
AL.
The ideal work, w
i
, is the work that would be required by an ideal process
to create the same shape change as the real process. The ideal process is an
imaginary process in which there is no friction and no redundancy. It does not
matter whether such a process is possible or not. For example, the ideal work
to draw a wire from 10 mm to 7 mm diameter can be found by considering
uniform stretching in tension, even though in reality the wire would neck. In
this case, the ideal work/volume is
w
i
=
_
σdε. (14.3)
For a material that does not work harden, this reduces to
w
i
= σε. (14.4)
The work of friction between the wiredrawing die and the wire can also
be expressed on a pervolume basis, w
f
. In general, the total frictional work,
w
f
, is roughly proportional to the ﬂow stress, σ, of the wire and to the area
of contact, A
c
, between the wire and the die. This is because the normal
force between the wire and die is F
n
= σ
n
A
c
, where the contact pressure
between tool and die, σ
n
, depends on the ﬂow stress, σ. The frictional force
is F
f
= µFn, where µ is the coefﬁcient of friction. For a constant reduction,
the contact area, A
c
, increases as the die angle, α, decreases so w
f
increases as
the die angle, α, decreases. A simple approximation for low die angles is
w
f
= w
i
(1 +ε/2)µcot α. (14.5)
This predicts that the frictional work increases with increasing reduction and
decreasing die angle.
The redundant work is the energy expended in plastic straining that is not
required by the ideal process. During drawing, streamlines are bent as they
enter the die and again as they leave the die. This involves plastic deforma
tion that is not required in the ideal process of pure stretching. It also causes
shearing of the surface relative to the interior, as schematically illustrated in
Figure 14.2. The redundant work per volume, w
r
, increases with die angle, α.
A simple approximation for relatively low die angles is
w
r
= (2/3)σtan α. (14.6)
226 Solid Mechanics
Homogeneous
deformation
Redundant
deformation
Figure 14.2. Redundant deformation involves shearing of surface relative to the
interior.
This equation predicts that w
r
increases with increasing die angle but does
not depend on the total strain, ε. Therefore, the ratio w
r
/w
i
decreases with
increasing reduction.
A mechanical efﬁciency, η, can be deﬁned such that
η = w
i
/w
t
. (14.7)
Note that η is always less than 1. For wire drawing, typical drawing efﬁciencies
are in the range of 50% to 65%.
Figure 14.3 shows how each of the work terms and the efﬁciency depend
on die angle for a ﬁxed reduction. There is an optimum die angle, α
∗
, for
which the efﬁciency is a maximum. Figure 14.4 shows that in general, with
increased reduction the efﬁciency increases and that the optimum die angle
also increases. The reduction is deﬁned as r = (A
o
− A)/A
o
.
W
o
r
k
p
e
r
v
o
l
u
m
e
,
w
0.5
0
0 10 20 30 40
w
r
w
i
w
a
w
r
Die angle, α, degrees
α*
1
Figure 14.3. Dependence of w
a
, w
i
, w
r
, and w
f
on die angle, α. Note that there is an
optimum die angle, α
∗
, for which the total work per volume is a minimum.
Mechanical Working 227
Locus of α*
D
e
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,
η
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 4 8 12 16
r
0.45
0.35
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
Semidie angle, α, in degrees
Figure 14.4. Variation of efﬁciency with die
angle and reduction. Note that the efﬁciency
and the optimum die angle, α
∗
, increase with
reduction. From W. F. Hosford and R. M.
Caddell, Metal Forming: Mechanics and Met
allurgy 3rd Ed., Cambridge U. Press (2007).
Adapted from data of J. Wistreich, Metals
Rev., v. 3 (1958).
For wire drawing, there is a maximum reduction that can be made in
a single drawing pass. If a greater reduction is attempted, the stress on the
drawn section will exceed its tensile strength and the wire will break instead
of drawing through the die. Therefore, multiple passes are required to make
wire. After the ﬁrst few dies, little additional workhardening occurs so the
ﬂow stress, σ, becomes the tensile strength. The limit then can be expressed
as σ = σ
d
= w
t
. Substituting Equation 14.7 (w
a
= w
i
/h) and Equation 14.4
(w
i
= σε), the drawing limit corresponds to
ε = η. (14.8)
The diameter reduction, (D
o
− D
f
)/D
o
= 1 − D
f
/D
o
, can be expressed as
D/D
o
= 1 −exp(−ε/2). The maximum diameter reduction for an efﬁciency
of 50% is then D/D
o
= 1 −exp(0.5/2) = 22%, and for an efﬁciency of 65%
it is 28%. Because the reductions per pass are low in wire drawing, the opti
mum die angles are also very low, as suggested by Figure 14.4.
A work balance for extrusion is very similar, except now W
t
= F
ext
L
o
where F
ext
is the extrusion force and A
o
and L
o
are the crosssectional area
and length of billet extruded (Figure 14.5). The actual work per volume is
w
t
= W
t
/(A
o
L
o
) = F
ext
/A
o
. This can be expressed as
w
t
= P
ext
, (14.9)
where P
ext
is the extrusion pressure. Because material is being pushed through
the die instead of being pulled, there is no inherent limit to the possible reduc
tion per pass as there is in drawing. Therefore, extrusions are made in a single
operation with extrusion ratios, A
o
/A
f
, as large as 16 or more. Because of the
large reductions, large die angles are common. Often dies with 90
◦
die angles
228 Solid Mechanics
F
ext
∆L
o
A
o
A
f
α
Figure 14.5. Direct extrusion. The extrusion
force, F
ext
, working through a distance, L,
deforms a volume, A
o
L.
are used because they permit more of the billet to be extruded before the die
is opened. Similar work balances can be made for rolling and forging.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM#14.1: Consider the 16:1 extrusion of a round aluminum
billet from a diameter of 24 cm to a diameter of 6 cm. Assume that the
ﬂow stress is 15 MPa at the appropriate temperature and extrusion rate.
Estimate the extrusion force, assuming an efﬁciency of 0.50. Calculate the
lateral pressure on the side of the extrusion chamber.
Solution: P
ext
= (1/η)σε. Substituting η = 0.50, σ = 15 MPa and ε =
ln(16) = 2.77, P
ext
= (1/.5)(15)(2.77) = 83.2 MPa. F
ext
= (πD
2
/4)P
ext
=
3.76 MN.
For axially symmetric ﬂow, the radial stress on the billet, σ
r
, and the hoop
stress, σ
c
, must be equal and they must be large enough so the material in the
chamber is at its yield stress. Using von Mises, (σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+(σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
+(σ
1
−
σ
2
)
2
= 2Y
2
. With σ
2
= σ
3
= σ
r
, σ
r
−σ
1
= −Y, σ
r
= −Y+σ
1
. Substituting σ
1
=
−P
ext
= −83.2 MN, and Y = 15 MPa, σ
r
= −98.2 MPa.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14.2: Find the horsepower that would be required to
cold roll a 48in. wide sheet from a thickness of 0.030 in. to 0.025 in. if the
exit speed is 80 ft/s and the ﬂow stress is 10,000 psi. Assume a deformation
efﬁciency of 80% and neglect workhardening.
Solution: The rate of doing work is (work/volume)(volume rolled/time) =
[(1/η)σε](vwt )=(1/0.80)(10 ×10
3
lb/in.
2
) [ln(0.030/0.025)](80 ×12in./s)
(48 in.)(0.025 in.)=5.8×10
6
in.lbs/s=(5.8×10
6
/12 ft.lbs/s)[1.8×10
−3
hp/
(ft.lbs/s)] = 876 hp. This is the horsepower that must be delivered by the
rolls to the metal. (This solution neglects energy losses between the motor
and the rolls.)
Mechanical Working 229
R
L
∆h/2
R − ∆h/2
h
o
h R
L
h
o
h
∆h/2
Figure 14.6. Deformation zones in rolling (left) and extrusion and drawing (right). The
parameter, , is deﬁned as the ratio of the mean height or thickness to the contact
length.
Deformation Zone Geometry
One of the chief concerns with mechanical working is the homogeneity of the
deformation. Inhomogeneity affects the hardness distribution, residual stress
patterns, and internal porosity in the ﬁnal product and the tendency to crack
during forming. In turn, the inhomogeneity is dependent on the geometry of
the deformation zone, which can be characterized in various processes by a
parameter, , deﬁned as
= h/L. (14.10)
Here h is the height or thickness or diameter at the middle of the deforma
tion zone and L is the length of contact between tools and work piece. Sev
eral examples are shown in Figure 14.6. For rolling, R
2
= L
2
+(R−h/2)
2
=
L
2
+ R
2
−2Rh +h
2
/4 and L≈
_
(R
2
h), so
≈ h/
√
(R
2
h), (14.11)
and for extrusion and drawing,
= h/L= htan α/(h/2). (14.12)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14.3: In rolling of a sheet of 2.0 mm thickness with
15 cm diameter rolls, how large a reduction (percent reduction of thick
ness) would be necessary to insure ≥ 1?
Solution: Take = h/(Rh)
1/2
= h/(Rrh
o
)
1/2
and assume for the pur
pose of calculation that h = h
o
. Then r = (h
o
/R)/
2
= (2.0/75)/
2
, so for
= 1, r = 0.027 or 2.7%. (The reduction is small enough that the assump
tion that h = h
o
is justiﬁed.)
One way of describing the inhomogeneity is by a redundant work factor,
Φ, deﬁned as
Φ = 1 +w
r
/w
i
. (14.13)
230 Solid Mechanics
∆
0 2 4 6 8 10
1
2
3
Φ
Strip
Strip
r = 0.08
r = 0.16
r = 0.16 (unlubricated)
Wire
Wire
r = 0.08
r = 0.16
r = 0.32
Figure 14.7. The increase of the redundancy
factor, Φ, with for both strip and wire
drawing. Note that friction has little effect on
Φ. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Figure 14.7 shows the increase of Φ with for both strip drawing (plane
strain) and wire drawing (axially symmetric ﬂow). Friction has little effect on
redundant strain.
Another way of characterizing inhomogeneity is by an inhomogeneity
factor, deﬁned as
IF = H
s
/H
c
. (14.14)
where H
s
and H
c
refer to the hardnesses at the surface and at the center.
The inhomogeneity factor increases with increased die angle, α as shown in
Figure 14.8. With large die angles, shearing at the surface causes more work
hardening, therefore increasing IF.
As increases, forming processes leave the surface under increasing
residual tension, as shown in Figure 14.9. Under high conditions, a state
of hydrostatic tension develops near the centerline, and this may cause pores
to open around inclusions (Figure 14.10). If the conditions are extreme, these
pores may grow to form macroscopic cavities at the centerline, as shown in
Figure 14.11.
Friction in Bulk Forming
In forging, friction can play a very important role when the length of con
tact, L, between tools and workpiece is large compared with the workpiece
thickness, h. During compression of a slab between two parallel platens, the
Mechanical Working 231
α, Degrees
IF
0.30
0.20
0.10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Strip
r = 0.08
r = 0.16
r = 0.16 (unlubricated)
Wire
r = 0.08
r = 0.16
r = 0.32
r = 0.08
r = 0.16
r = 0.32
Figure 14.8. The increase of the inhomo
geneity factor, I F = 1 + H
surf
/H
center
with
die angle. From Hosford and Caddell.
Data from J. J. Burke, ScD Thesis, MIT
(1968).
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
2 Pct red./pass
5.5
9
12
16
Actual
stress
Apparent
residual
stress
σ
r
e
s
.
—
y
,
%
t
(
100 − R
)
=
(
t
)
2
–
r
R
–
l
residual
Figure 14.9. Residual stresses at the surface of coldrolled brass strips increase with
= t /l. From W. M. Baldwin, Proc. ASTM, v. 49 (1949).
232 Solid Mechanics
Figure 14.10. Voids opening at inclusions near the
centerline during drawing under highD condi
tions. With high, the center is under hydrostatic
tension. From H. C. Rogers, R. C. Leach and L. F.
Cofﬁn Jr., Final Report Contract Now65–00976,
Bur. Naval Weapons (1965).
friction tends to suppress lateral ﬂowof the work material. Higher compressive
stresses are necessary to overcome this restraint. The greater the L/h is, the
greater the average compressive stress needs to be.
For compression in planestrain with a constant coefﬁcient of friction, the
ratio of the average pressure to the planestrain ﬂow strength P
av
/σ
o
, is
P
av
/σ
o
= (h/µL)[exp(µL/h) −1], (14.15)
Figure 14.11. Centerline cracks in extruded steel bars. Note that the reductions were
very small, so was very large. From D. J. Blickwede, Metals Progress, v. 97, (May
1970).
Mechanical Working 233
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
o
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
e
d
g
e
c
r
a
c
k
i
n
g
i
n
c
o
l
d
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
,
I
n
t
o
t
1
3.6
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8
Squareedge
strip
Roundedge strip
1 Cu10 Al
2 Z W3 (Mg3 Zn0.8 Zr)
3 AlSi
4 Mild steel
5 Duralumin (annealed)
6 Al5 Mg
7 6337 brass
8 5842 brass
7
5
6
4
6
7
5
4
8
3
3
1
1
2
2
Reduction in area after tensile test, In —
A
0
A
Figure 14.12. Correlation of the strain at
which edge cracking occurs in ﬂat rolling
with the reduction of area in a tension
test. The greater fracture strains of the
“squareedge” strips reﬂects a greater
state of compression at the edge during
rolling. From M. G. Cockcroft and D. J.
Latham, J. Inst. Metals, v. 96 (1968).
which can be approximated by P
av
/σ
o
≈ 1 +µL/h for small values of µL/h.
For compression of circular discs of diameter, D, the ratio of the average pres
sure to the ﬂow strength P
av
/Y, is
P
av
/Y = 2(h/µD)
2
[exp(µD/h) −µD/h −1]. (14.16)
For small values of µL/D, this can be approximated by
P
av
/Y = 1 +(1/3)µD/h +(1/12)(µD/h)
2
. (14.17)
In the rolling of thin sheets, the pressure between the rolls and workpiece
can become so large that the rolls bend. Such bending would produce a sheet
that is thicker in the middle than at the edges. To prevent this, the rolls may
be backed up with larger rolls or ground to a barrelshape to compensate for
bending.
Formability
In bulk forming processes other than wire drawing, formability is limited by
fracture. Whether fracture occurs or not depends on both the material and
the process. The formability of a material is related to its reduction of area
in a tension test. A material with large fracture strain is likely to have a large
formability. Figure 14.12 shows the correlation of edge cracking during rolling
with tensile ductility for a number of materials. The factors governing a mate
rial’s fracture strain were discussed in Chapter 9. Large inclusion content and
high strength tend to decrease ductility and formability.
234 Solid Mechanics
Hold
down
d
0
d
1
x
x
y
y
z
z
Wall
Flange
Punch
Die
Figure 14.13. Schematic illustration of cup drawing showing the coordinate axes. As
the punch descends, the outer circumference must undergo compression so that it will
be small enough to ﬂow over the die lip. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Formability also depends on the level of hydrostatic stress in the process.
The difference in Figure 14.12 between the fracture strains in “square edge”
and “round edge” strips reﬂect this. If the edge of a rolled strip is allowed
to become round during rolling, the throughthickness compressive stress is
less at the edge. Therefore, a greater tensile stress in the rolling direction is
needed to cause the same elongation as in the middle of the strip. With the
greater level of hydrostatic tension, the strain to fracture is lower.
Deep Drawing
A major concern in sheet forming is tensile failure by necking. Sheet forming
operations may be divided into drawing, where one of the principal strains in
the plane of the sheet is compressive, and stretching where both of the principal
strains in the plane of the sheet are tensile. Compressive stresses normal to the
sheet are usually negligible in both cases.
A typical drawing process is the making of cylindrical, ﬂatbottom cups. It
starts with a circular disc blanked from a sheet. The blank is placed over a die
with a circular hole and a punch forces the blank to ﬂow into the die cavity,
as sketched in Figure 14.13. A holddown force is necessary to keep the ﬂange
from wrinkling. As the punch descends, the blank is deformed into a hat shape
and ﬁnally into a cup. Deforming the ﬂange consumes most of the energy. The
energy expended in friction and some in bending and unbending as material
ﬂows over the die lip is much less. The stresses in the ﬂange are compressive
in the hoop direction and tensile in the radial direction. The tension is a maxi
mum at the inner lip and the compression a maximum at the outer periphery.
Mechanical Working 235
Figure 14.14. Direct redrawing. A sleeve
around the punch acts as a holddown while
the punch descends.
As with wire drawing, there is a limit to the amount of reduction that can
be achieved. If the ratio of the initial blank diameter, d
o
, to the punch diameter,
d
1
, is too large, the tensile stress required to draw the material into the die will
exceed the tensile strength of the wall, and the wall will fail by necking. It can
be shown that for an isotropic material, the largest ratio of d
o
/d
1
that can be
drawn (limiting drawing ratio or LDR) is
(d
o
/d
1
)
max
= exp(η), (14.18)
where η is the deformation efﬁciency. For an efﬁciency of 70%, (d
o
/d
1
)
max
=
2.01. There is very little thickening or thinning of the sheet during drawing, so
this corresponds to cup with a heighttodiameter ratio of 3/4. Materials with
Rvalues greater than unity have somewhat greater limiting drawing ratios.
This is because with a large Rvalue, the increased thinning resistance permits
larger wall stresses before necking and as well as easier ﬂow in the plane of
the sheet, which decreases the forces required. Forming cylindrical cups with a
greater heighttodiameter ratio requires redrawing, as shown in Figure 14.14.
In can making, an additional operation called ironing thins and elongates the
walls, as illustrated in Figure 14.15.
Punch
C
u
p
w
a
l
l
Ironing
ring
N'
N
µN'
µN
α
Figure 14.15. Section of a cup wall and ironing ring during ironing. The die ring causes
wall thinning. Friction on opposite sides of the wall acts in opposing directions. From
Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
236 Solid Mechanics
Punch
Die
ring
Die
Blank
Draw
bead
Blank
holder
Figure 14.16. Sketch of a sheet stamping operation by Duncan. The sheet is stretched
to conform to the tools rather than being squeezed between them. In this case, the
lower die contacts the sheet and causes a reverse bending only after it has been
stretched by the upper die. For many parts, there is not a bottom die.
Stamping
Operations variously called stamping, pressing, or even drawing involve
clamping the edges of the sheet and forcing it into a die cavity by a punch,
as shown in Figure 14.16. The metal is not squeezed between tools. Rather, it
is made to conform to the shape of the tools by stretching. Failures occur by
either wrinkling or by localized necking. Wrinkling will occur if the restraint
at the edges is not great enough to prevent excessive material being drawn
into the die cavity. Blankholder pressure and draw beads are often used to
control the ﬂow of material into the die. If there is too much restraint, more
stretching may be required to form the part than the material can withstand.
The result is that there is a window of permissible restraint for any part, as
illustrated in Figure 14.17. With too little blankholder force, the depth of draw
Blankholder force, kN
0 50 100 150
D
e
p
t
h
o
f
d
r
a
w
,
m
m
20
40
60
Increasing R
Wrinkling
Wall fracture
Figure 14.17. The effect of blankholder force on the possible depth of draw. If the
blankholder force is too low, wrinkling will result from too much material being drawn
into the die cavity. Too great a blankholder force will require too much stretching of
the sheet and result in a necking failure. For deep draws, there may be only a narrow
window of permissible blankholder forces. Large Rvalues widen this window.
Mechanical Working 237
a b c
Figure 14.18. Development of (a) a diffuse neck and (b) a localized neck. The coordi
nate axes used in the analysis are shown in (c). The characteristic angle, θ, of the local
neck must be such that ε
2
= 0. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
is limited by wrinkling. On the other hand, if the blankholder force is too
large, too little material is drawn into the die cavity to form the part and the
part fails by localized necking. The size of this window depends on properties
of the sheet. Materials with greater strainhardening exponents, n, can stretch
more before necking failure so the righthand limit is raised and shifted to the
left. There will be more lateral contraction in materials having a large Rvalue,
thus decreasing the wrinkling tendency. Therefore, large Rvalues increase the
wrinkling limit and shifts it to the left.
In a tension test of a ductile material, the maximum load and diffuse neck
ing occur when σ = dσ/dε. For a material that follows a powerlaw (σ = Kε
n
)
stressstrain curve, this is when ε = n. This diffuse necking occurs by local con
traction in both the width and thickness directions and is generally not a lim
itation in practical sheet forming. If the specimen is wide (as a sheet is), such
localization must be very gradual. Eventually, a point is reached where lateral
contraction in the plane of the sheet ceases. At this point, a localized neck
forms in which there is only thinning. In uniaxial tension, the conditions for
localized necking are σ = 2dσ/dε, or ε = 2n. Figure 14.18 illustrates general
and localized necking in a tensile specimen. The characteristic angle at which
the neck forms must be such that the incremental strain in that direction, dε
θ
,
becomes zero.
Because dε
2
= dε
1
cos
2
θ +dε
2
sin
2
θ and dε
2
= 0,
tan θ = (−dε
1
/dε
2
)
1/2
. (14.19)
For uniaxial tension of an isotropic material, dε
2
= −dε
1
/2 so tanθ =
√
2 and
θ = 54.7
◦
.
238 Solid Mechanics
inside the
groove
outside the
groove
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Minor strain, ε
2
M
a
j
o
r
s
t
r
a
i
n
,
ε
1
dε
2
/dε
1
→ 0
Figure 14.19. Calculated strain paths inside and out
side of a preexisting groove for a material with n =
0.22, m = 0.012, and R = 1.5. The initial thickness in
the groove was assumed to be 0.5% less than outside.
A strain path of ε
2
= 0.75ε
1
was imposed outside the
groove. As dε
2
/dε
1
→0 inside the groove, a local neck
develops and deformation outside the groove virtually
ceases, ﬁxing a limit strain of ε
1
= 0.4 and ε
2
= 0.3.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14.4: Find the angle between the tensile axis and the
local neck form in a tension test on material with a strain ratio R= 2.
Solution: R= ε
3
/ε
2
=−(ε
1
+ε
2
)/ε
2
=−ε
1
/ε
2
−1 so −ε
1
/ε
2
=1 + R. Subs
tituting into Equation 14.19, tanθ = (1 + R)
1/2
=
√
3 θ = 60
◦
.
In sheet forming, ε
2
will be less negative if there is a tensile stress, σ
2
. This in
turn will increase the characteristic angle. For planestrain conditions, dε
2
= 0,
θ = 90
◦
.
If dε
2
is positive, there is no angle at which a local neck can form. However,
under conditions of biaxial stretching a small preexisting groove perpendicu
lar to the largest principal stress can grow gradually into a localized neck. The
strain ε
2
must be the same inside and outside the groove. However, the stress
σ
1
within the groove will be greater than outside the groove, so the strain ε
1
will
be also be larger in the groove. As the strain rate ˙ ε
1
inside the groove acceler
ates, the ratio of ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
within the groove approaches zero, which is the condi
tion necessary for local necking. Figure 14.19 shows how the strain path inside
and outside a groove can diverge. Straining outside the groove will virtually
cease once ˙ ε
2
/˙ ε
1
becomes very large. The terminal strain outside the groove is
the limit strain. Very shallow grooves are sufﬁcient to cause such localization.
How rapidly this happens depends largely on the strainhardening exponent,
n, and to a lesser extent the strainrate exponent, m.
A plot of the combinations of strains that lead to necking failure is called
a forming limit diagram or (FLD). Figure 14.20 is such a plot for low car
bon steels. Combinations of strains below the forming limits are safe, whereas
Mechanical Working 239
20
40
60
80
100
120
–20 0 –40 20 40 60
Constant
thickness
Success
Neck
Fracture
Minor strain, e
2
(%)
Major strain
e
1
(%)
Figure 14.20. Forming limit diagram for
lowcarbon steel. The strain combi
nations below the curve are accept
able, whereas those above it will cause
local necking. The limiting strains here
are expressed as engineering strains,
although true strains could have been
plotted. Data from S. S. Hecker, Sheet
Metal Ind., v. 52 (1975).
those above the limits will cause local necking. Note that the lowest failure
strains correspond to plane strain, ε
2
= 0.
Some materials, when stretched in biaxial tension, may fail by shear frac
ture instead of local necking. Shear failures are also possible before necking
under large strains in the lefthand side of the diagram. It should be noted that
if the minor strain, ε
2
, is less than −ε
1
/2, the minor stress, σ
2
, must be compres
sive. Under these conditions, wrinkling or buckling of the sheet may occur.
Because wrinkled parts are usually rejected, this too should be regarded as a
failure mode. The possibilities of both shear fracture and wrinkling are shown
in Figure 14.21.
The strains vary from one place to another in a given part. A pan being
formed is sketched in Figure 14.22. The strain paths at several different loca
tions are indicated schematically on a forming limit diagram.
Spinning (Figure 14.23) is a sheet forming process that is suitable for form
ing axially symmetric parts. A tool forces a disc that is spinning parallel to
it axis of rotation to conform to a mandrel. For pure shear, the deformation
is restricted to just under the tool, so no deformation occurs elsewhere. This
eliminates danger wrinkling. Because tooling costs are low and the process is
relatively slow, spinning is suited to producing low production parts.
0
+ −
Uniaxial
tension
Fracture
ε
1
ε
2
ε
2
= ε
1
Wrinkling
Figure 14.21. Schematic forming limit dia
gram showing regions where wrinkling
may occur and a possible fracture limit in
biaxial tension.
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
ε
1
ε
2
Figure 14.22. Sketch showing the strain paths in several locations during the drawing
of a pan. At A, the strain state is nearly balanced biaxial tension. The deformation at
point B is in plane strain. At C, there is drawing with contraction in the minor strain
direction. At D, the there may be enough compression in the 2direction to cause wrin
kling. Courtesy of J. L. Duncan.
tool
sheet
mandrel
Figure 14.23. Sketch of a spinning opera
tion. If the tool causes only shearing par
allel to the axis of rotation, no deforma
tion occurs in the ﬂange.
240
Mechanical Working 241
Notes
The ﬁrst aluminum twopiece beverage cans were produced in 1963. They
replaced the earlier steel cans made from three separate pieces: a bottom, the
wall (which was bent into a cylinder and welded), and a top. The typical bev
erage can is made from a circular blank, 5.5 in. in diameter, by drawing it into
a 3.5in. diameter cup, redrawing to 2.625 in. diameter, and then ironing the
walls to achieve the desired height. There are about 200 billion made in the
United States each year. Beverage cans account for about oneﬁfth of the total
usage of aluminum.
In ﬂat rolling of thin sheets or foils, the L/h ratio can become very large.
This raises the average roll pressure to the extent that rolls elastically ﬂat
ten where they are in contact with the work material. This ﬂattening prevents
further thinning. One way of overcoming this difﬁculty is to roll two foils at
the same time, effectively doubling h. One side of commercial aluminum foil
has a matte ﬁnish, whereas the other side is shiny. The sides with the matte
ﬁnish were in contact during rolling. Another method of circumventing the
rollﬂattening problem is to use a cluster mill (Figure 14.24), developed by
Sendzimer. The work roll has a very small diameter to keep L/h low. To pre
vent bending of the work rolls, both are backed up by two rolls of somewhat
Backing bearing
Bearing shaft
2nd Intermediate roll
Work roll
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Housing
Driven
roll
Driven
roll
Driven
roll
Driven
roll
1st Intermediate roll
Figure 14.24. A Sendzimer mill. Smalldiameter work rolls are used keep the ratio of
L/h low. A cluster of larger backup rolls prevent bending of the work rolls. Courtesy
of T. Sendizimer.
242 Solid Mechanics
larger diameter. These are, in turn, backed up by three still larger diameter
rolls, and so on.
REFERENCES
W. F. Hosford and R. M. Caddell, Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd Ed.
Cambridge U. Press, (2007).
W. A. Backofen, Deformation Processing, Addison Wesley (1972).
E. M. Mielnick, Metalworking Science and Engineering, McGrawHill (1991).
Z. Marciniak and J. L. Duncan, Mechanics of Sheet Forming, Edward Arnold (1992).
G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, 2nd Ed. McGrawHill (1976).
Problems
1. A small special alloy shop received an order for slabs 4 inches wide and
1/2 inch thick of an experimental superalloy. The shop cast ingots 4 in. ×
4 in. × 12 in. and hot rolled them in a 12 in. diameter mill, making reduc
tions of about 5% per pass. On the ﬁfth pass, the ﬁrst slab split longitudi
nally parallel to the rolling plane. The project engineer, the shop foreman,
and a consultant met to discuss the problem. The consultant proposed
applying forward and back tension during rolling, the project engineer
suggested reducing the reduction per pass, and the shop foreman favors
greater reductions per pass. With whom would you agree? Explain your
reasoning.
2. A highstrength steel bar must be cold reduced from a diameter of 1.00
in. to 0.65 in. A number of schedules have been proposed. Which of the
schedules would you choose to avoid drawing failure and minimize the
likelihood of centerline bursts? Explain. Assume η = 0.50.
A. A single reduction in a die having a die angle of 8
◦
.
B. Two passes (1.00 to 0.81 in. and 0.81 to 0.65 in.) using dies with angles
of α = 8
◦
.
C. Three passes (1.00 to 0.87 in. and 0.87 to 0.75 in, and 0.75 to 0.65 in.)
using dies with angles of 8
◦
.
D., E., and F. Same schedules as A, B, and C, except using dies with
α = 15
◦
.
3. Your company is planning to produce niobium wire and you have been
asked to decide how many passes would be required to reduce the wire
from 0.125 to 0.010 inches in diameter. In laboratory experiments with
dies having the same angle as will be used in the operation, it was found
that the efﬁciency increased with reduction, η = 0.65 +ε/3, where ε is
the strain in the pass. Assume that in practice the efﬁciency will be only
75% of that found in the laboratory experiments. To insure no failures,
stress on the drawn section of wire must never exceed 80% of its strength.
Neglect work hardening.
Mechanical Working 243
z
y
x
Figure 14.25. The difference between the
stress states at the edges of square
edge and roundedge strips during rolling.
From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
4. One stand of a hotrolling mill is being designed. It will reduce 60in. wide
sheet from 0.150 to 0.120 in. thickness at an exit speed of 20 feet per sec
ond. Assume that the ﬂow stress of the steel at the temperature and strain
rate in the rolling mill is 1500 psi. If the deformation efﬁciency is 82% and
the efﬁciency of transferring energy from the motor to the mill is 85%,
what horsepower motor should be used?
5. A typical aluminum beverage can is 2.6 in. in diameter and 4.8 in. tall. The
thickness of the bottomis 0.010 in. and the wall thickness is 0.004. The cans
are produced from circular blanks 0.010 in. thick by drawing, redrawing,
and ironing to a height of 5.25 in. before trimming.
A. Calculate the diameter of the initial circular blank.
B. Calculate the total effective strain at the top of the cup from rolling,
drawing, redrawing and ironing.
6. Figure 14.12 shows that large reductions in rolling can be achieved before
edge cracking occurs if the edges are maintained square instead of being
allowed become rounded. Figure 14.25 shows the edge elements. Explain
in terms of the stress state at the edge why the greater strains are possible
with square edges.
7. When aluminum alloy 6061T6 is cold drawn through a series of dies with
a 25% reduction per pass, a loss of density is noted, as shown in Figure
14.26. Explain why the density loss increases with larger angle dies.
8. Assuming that in the drawing of cups, the thickness of the cup bottom and
wall is the same as that of the original sheet, and ﬁnd an expression for
the ratio of the cup height to diameter, h/d
1
, in terms of the ratio of blank
diameter to cup diameter, d
o
/d
1
. Evaluate h/d
1
for d
o
/d
1
= 1.5, 1.75, 2.0,
and 2.25 and plot h/d
1
vs. d
o
/d
1
.
9. In the drawing of cups with a conical wall, the elements between the
punch and the die must deform in such a way that their circumference
shrinks, otherwise they will buckle or wrinkle. The tendency to wrinkle
can be decreased by applying a greater blankholder force, as shown in
244 Solid Mechanics
2.706
2.704
2.702
2.700
2.698
2.696
2.694
2.692
2.690
2.688
2.686
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
i
n
g
r
a
m
s
p
e
r
c
c
Percent total reduction
Aluminum 6061T6
Die semiangle
10*
20*
30*
Figure 14.26. Density changes in aluminum
alloy 6161T6 during drawing. From H. C.
Rogers, General Electric Co. Report No. 69C
260 (1969).
Figure 14.27. This increases the radial tension between the punch and die.
Howwould the Rvalue of the material affect howmuch blankholder force
is necessary to prevent wrinkling?
10. Figure 14.28 is a forming limit diagram for a lowcarbon steel. This curve
represents the combinations of strains that would lead to failure under
plane stress (σ
3
= 0) loading.
A
A
′
Die
Die
Punch
Blankholder
force
Unsupported
wall
Figure 14.27. Drawing of a conical cup. As element A is drawn into the die cavity, its
circumference must shrink. This requires enough tensile stretching in the radial direc
tion. From Hosford and Caddell, ibid.
Mechanical Working 245
ε
2
ε
1
+
− 0
N
Figure 14.28. Forming limit diagram for a lowcarbon
steel.
A. Show the straining path inside a Marciniak defect under biaxial tension
that would lead to necking at point N.
B. Plot carefully on the diagram the strain path that corresponds to uni
axial tension (σ
3
= 0).
C. Describe how this path would be changed for a material with a value
of R> 1.
11. Consider drawing a copper wire from 0.125 to 0.100 in. diameter. Assume
that σ = (55MPa)ε
0.36
in a die for which α = 6
◦
.
A. Calculate the drawing strain.
B. Calculate the reduction of area.
C. Use Figure 14.4 to determine η and calculate the drawing stress.
Calculate the yield strength of the drawn wire. Can this reduction be made?
15 Anisotropy
Introduction
Although it is frequently assumed that materials are isotropic (i.e., have the
same properties in all directions) they rarely are. In single crystals elastic prop
erties vary with crystallographic direction. There are two principal causes of
anisotropic mechanical behavior of crystalline materials. The anisotropy of
elastic and plastic properties are caused by crystallographic texture (preferred
crystallographic orientation of grains.) Anisotropic plastic behavior is princi
pally a result of alignment of grain boundaries or secondphase inclusions by
prior mechanical working. Alignment of molecules in polymers causes elastic,
plastic, and fracture behavior.
Elastic Anisotropy
Hooke’s law for anistropic materials can be expressed in terms of compli
ances, s
ijmn
, which relate the contributions of individual stress components to
individual strain components. In the most general case, Hooke’s law may be
written as
e
i j
= s
ijmn
σ
mn
, (15.1)
where summation is implied. The individual compliances, s
ijmn
, form a fourth
order tensor. However, this relation is greatly simpliﬁed by taking advantage
of the relations σ
i j
= σ
j i
and γ
i j
= 2e
i j
= 2e
j i
and by adopting a new subscript
convention for the compliances: Two subscripts, i and j, are used to identify
the location (row and column of the compliance in the matrix) rather than the
axes of the stress and strain components. Because the subscripts identify the
location of the compliances, the order of the stress and strain components is
246
Anisotropy 247
critical. With this new convention, Hooke’s law becomes
e
11
= s
11
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
13
σ
33
+s
14
σ
23
+s
15
σ
31
+s
16
σ
12
e
22
= s
21
σ
11
+s
22
σ
22
+s
23
σ
33
+s
24
σ
23
+s
25
σ
31
+s
26
σ
12
e
33
= s
31
σ
11
+s
32
σ
22
+s
33
σ
33
+s
34
σ
23
+s
35
σ
31
+s
36
σ
12
γ
23
= s
41
σ
11
+s
42
σ
22
+s
43
σ
33
+s
44
σ
23
+s
45
σ
31
+s
46
σ
12
γ
31
= s
51
σ
11
+s
52
σ
22
+s
53
σ
33
+s
54
σ
23
+s
55
σ
31
+s
56
σ
12
γ
12
= s
61
σ
11
+s
62
σ
22
+s
63
σ
33
+s
64
σ
23
+s
65
σ
31
+s
66
σ
12
.
(15.2)
Note that the subscripts 1, 2, and 3 on the stress and strain terms refer to crys
tallographic axes. It can be shown for all combinations of i and j that s
i j
= s
j i
,
This simpliﬁes the matrix to
e
11
= s
11
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
13
σ
33
+s
14
σ
23
+s
15
σ
31
+s
16
σ
12
e
22
= s
12
σ
11
+s
22
σ
22
+s
23
σ
33
+s
24
σ
23
+s
25
σ
31
+s
26
σ
12
e
33
= s
13
σ
11
+s
23
σ
22
+s
33
σ
33
+s
34
σ
23
+s
35
σ
31
+s
36
σ
12
γ
23
= s
14
σ
11
+s
24
σ
22
+s
34
σ
33
+s
44
σ
23
+s
45
σ
31
+s
46
σ
12
γ
31
= s
15
σ
11
+s
25
σ
22
+s
35
σ
33
+s
45
σ
23
+s
55
σ
31
+s
56
σ
12
γ
12
= s
16
σ
11
+s
26
σ
22
+s
36
σ
33
+s
46
σ
23
+s
56
σ
31
+s
66
σ
12
.
(15.3)
Thus, in the most general case there are 21 independent elastic constants. Sym
metry about the x, y, and z axes of most materials causes many of the constants
to be equal or disappear. With orthotropic symmetry, the 23, 31, and 12 planes
are planes of mirror symmetry so that the 1, 2, and 3 axes are axes of twofold
rotational symmetry. Paper, wood, and rolled sheets of metal have such sym
metry. In this case, Hooke’s law simpliﬁes to
e
11
= s
11
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
13
σ
33
e
22
= s
12
σ
11
+s
22
σ
22
+s
23
σ
33
e
33
= s
13
σ
11
+s
23
σ
22
+s
33
σ
33
γ
23
= s
44
σ
23
γ
31
= s
55
σ
31
γ
12
= s
66
σ
12
.
(15.4)
For cubic crystals, the 1, 2, and 3 axes are equivalent <100> directions so
s
11
= s
12
= s
13
, s
12
= s
13
= s
14
, and so s
44
= s
55
= s
66
and the matrix further
simpliﬁes to
e
11
= s
11
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
12
σ
33
e
22
= s
12
σ
11
+s
11
σ
22
+s
12
σ
33
e
33
= s
12
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
11
σ
33
γ
23
= s
44
σ
23
γ
31
= s
44
σ
31
γ
12
= s
44
σ
12
.
(15.5)
248 Solid Mechanics
Table 15.1. Elastic compliances (TPa)
−1
for various
cubic crystals
∗
Material s
11
s
12
s
44
Cr 3.10 −0.46 10.10
Fe 7.56 −2.78 8.59
Mo 2.90 −0.816 8.21
Nb 6.50 −2.23 35.44
Ta 6.89 −2.57 12.11
W 2.45 −0.69 6.22
Ag 22.26 −9.48 22.03
Al 15.82 −5.73 35.34
Cu 15.25 −6.39 8.05
Ni 7.75 −2.98 8.05
Pb 94.57 −43.56 67.11
Pd 13.63 −5.95 13.94
MgO 4.05 −0.94 6.60
MnO 7.19 −2.52 12.66
NaCl 22.80 −4.66 78.62
∗
From W. Boas and J. M. MacKenzie, Progress in Metal
Physics, v.2, 1950
For hexagonal and cylindrical symmetry, z is the hexagonal (or cylindrical)
axis. The 1 and 2 axes are any pair of axes perpendicular to zz. In this case
s
13
= s
23
, s
22
= s
33
, and s
66
= 2(s
11
−s
12
), which simpliﬁes the matrix to
e
11
= s
11
σ
11
+s
12
σ
22
+s
13
σ
33
e
22
= s
12
σ
11
+s
11
σ
22
+s
13
σ
33
e
33
= s
13
σ
11
+s
13
σ
22
+s
33
σ
33
γ
23
= s
44
σ
23
γ
31
= s
44
σ
31
γ
12
= 2(s
11
−s
12
)σ
12
.
(15.6)
The elastic compliances for several cubic crystals are listed in Table 15.1.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #15.1: Derive expressions for Young’s modulus and
Poison’s ratio for a cubic crystal stresses in uniaxial tension along the [112]
direction.
Solution: Let x = [112]. The y and z axes must be normal to each
other and to x. Let them be y = [11
¯
1] and z = [1
¯
10]. The direction
cosines between these axes and the cubic axes of the crystal can be
found by dot products; for example,
1x
= [100] · [112] = (1 · 1 +0 · 1 +0 ·
2)/[(1
2
+0
2
+0
2
)(1
2
+1
2
+2
2
)] = 1/
√
6. Forming Table 15.2 of direction
cosines,
Anisotropy 249
Table 15.2. Direction cosines
x = [112] y = [11
¯
1] z = [1
¯
10]
1 = [100] 1/
√
6 1/
√
3 1/
√
2
2 = [010] 1/
√
6 1/
√
3 –1/
√
2
3 = [001] 2/
√
6 −1/
√
3 0
For uniaxial tension along [112], σ
y
= σ
z
= σ
yz
= σ
zx
= σ
yxy
= 0, so
σ
1
= (1/6)σ
x
, σ
2
= (1/6)σ
x
, σ
3
= (2/3)σ
x
, σ
23
= (1/3)σ
x
, σ
31
= (1/3)σ
x
,
σ
12
= (1/6)σ
x
.
Using Equations 15.5,
e
1
/σ
x
= (1/6)s
11
+(1/6)s
12
+(2/3)s
12
+(1/6)s
11
= (1/6)s
11
+(5/6)s
12
,
e
2
/σ
x
= (1/6)s
11
+(1/6)s
12
+(2/3)s
12
+(1/6)s
11
= (1/6)s
11
+(5/6)s
12
,
e
3
/σ
x
= (1/6)s
11
+(1/6)s
12
+(2/3)s
12
+(1/6)s
11
= (2/3)s
11
+(1/3)s
12
,
γ
23
/σ
x
= γ
31
/σ
x
= (1/3)s
44
,γ
12
/σ
x
= (1/6)s
44
,
Transforming these strains back onto the x, y, and z axes,
e
x
= (1/6)e
1
+(1/6)e
2
+(2/3)e
3
+(1/3)γ
23
+(1/3)γ
31
+(1/6)γ
12
= [(1/6)s
11
+(1/2)s
12
+(1/4)s
44
]/σ
x
e
y
= (1/3)e
1
+(1/3)e
2
+(1/3)e
3
+(1/3)γ
23
+(1/3)γ
31
+(1/3)γ
12
= [(1/3)s
11
+(2/3)s
12
+(1/6)s
44
]/σ
x
e
z
= (1/2)e
1
+(1/2)e
2
−(1/2)γ
23
= [(1/6)s
11
+(5/6)s
12
+(1/6)s
44
]/σ
x
.
Young’s modulus is E
112
= (e
x
/σ
x
)
−1
= [(1/6)s
11
+ (1/2)s
12
+ (1/4)s
44
]
−1
.
There are two Poison’s ratios, υ
y
= −e
y
/e
x
and υ
z
= −e
z
/e
x
υ
y
=−e
y
/e
x
=−[(1/3)s
11
+(2/3)s
12
+(1/6)s
44
]/[(1/6)s
11
+(1/2)s
12
+(1/4)s
44
]
=−(s
11
+8s
12
+2s
44
)/(2s
11
+6s
12
+3s
44
)
υ
z
=−e
z
/e
x
=−[(1/6)s
11
+(5/6)s
12
+(1/6)s
44
]/[(1/6)s
11
+(1/2)s
12
+(1/4)s
44
]
=−(2s
11
+10s
12
−2s
44
)/(2s
11
+6s
12
+3s
44
)
For fcc and bcc metals the extremes of E are in the [100] and [111] directions.
Table 15.3 shows this variation for some metals.
The basic forms of the elastic constant matrix can be used for materials
that are not single crystals but which have similar symmetries of structure
and properties. Such materials may be either natural or artiﬁcial composites.
Examples include:
1. Orthotropic (same as orthorhombic) symmetry (three axes of twofold
symmetry):
250 Solid Mechanics
Table 15.3. Values of E
[111]
/E
[100]
for several cubic crystals
Material E
[111]
/E
[100]
Material E
[111]
/E
[100]
Cr 0.76 Fe 2.14
Mo 0.92 Nb 0.52
W 1.01 Al 1.20
Cu 2.91 Ni 2.36
Si 1.44 MgO 1.39
KCl 0.44 NaCl 0.74
ZnS 2.17 GaAs 1.66
a. Rolled sheets or plates, both before and after recrystallization. The
anisotropy is caused by crystallographic texture. The axes are the
rolling, transverse, and thickness directions.
b. Tubes and swaged wire or rod having cylindrical crystallographic tex
tures. The axes are the radial, tangential (hoop), and axial directions.
c. Wood. The axes are the radial, tangential and axial directions.
2. Tetragonal symmetry (one axis of fourfold symmetry, two axes of two
fold symmetry):
a. Plywood with equal number of plies at 0
◦
and 90
◦
. The fourfold axis is
normal to the sheet and the two twofold axes are parallel to the wood
grain in the two plies. The anisotropy is from oriented ﬁbers.
b. Woven cloth, window screens and composites reinforced with woven
material if the cloth or screen has the same weft and warp (the two
directions of thread in a woven cloth). The fourfold axis is normal to
the cloth and the two twofold axes are parallel to the threads of the
weft and warp
3. Axial symmetry (same as hexagonal symmetry):
a. Drawn or extruded wire and rod. The anisotropy is caused by a ﬁber
texture, all directions normal to the wire axis being equivalent.
b. Electroplates and portions of ingots with columnar grains. All direc
tions normal to the growth direction are equivalent.
c. Uniaxially aligned composites. The axis of symmetry is parallel to the
ﬁbers.
In principle, it should be possible to obtain the elastic moduli for a poly
crystal from a weighted average of the elastic behavior of all orientations of
crystals present in the polycrystal. However, the appropriate way to average is
not obvious.
Thermal Expansion
The coefﬁcients of thermal expansion in bcc and fcc crystals do not depend
on crystallographic direction. However, in materials that do not have a cubic
Anisotropy 251
Table 15.4. Coefﬁcients of thermal expansion for some noncubic crystals
Temp. range α
11
α
22
α
33
Material Struct. (
◦
C) (mm/m)/K (mm/m)/K (mm/m)/K
zirconium hcp 300 to 900 5.7 α
22
= α
11
11.4
zinc hcp 0 to 100 15.0 α
22
= α
11
61.5
magnesium hcp 0 to 35 24.3 α
22
= α
11
27.1
cadmium hcp at 0 19.1 α
22
= α
11
54.3
titanium hcp 0 to 700 11.0 α
22
= α
11
12.8
tin tetr at 50 16.6 α
22
= α
11
32.9
calcite hex 0 to 85 −5.6 α
22
= α
11
25.1
uranium ortho at 75 20.3 −1.4 22.2
crystal structure the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion does depend on crystal
lographic direction. Table 15.4 lists the thermal expansion coefﬁcients of some
noncubic crystals.
Anisotropic Plasticity
The angular variation of yield strength in many sheet materials is not large.
However, such a lack of variation does not indicate that the material is
isotropic. The parameter that is commonly used to characterize the anisotropy
is the strain ratio or Rvalue
∗
(Figure 15.1). This is deﬁned as the ratio, R, of
the contractile strain in the width direction to that in the thickness direction
during a tension test,
R= ε
w
/ε
t
. (15.7)
If a material is isotropic, the width and thickness strains, ε
w
and ε
t
, are
equal, so for an isotropic material R = 1. However, for most materials R is
usually either greater or less than 1 in real sheet materials. Direct measure
ment of the thickness strain in thin sheets is inaccurate. Instead, ε
t
is usually
deduced from the width and length strains, ε
w
and ε
l
, assuming constancy of
volume, ε
t
= −ε
w
−ε
l
.
R= −ε
w
/(ε
w
+ε
l
). (15.8)
To avoid constraint from the shoulders, strains should be measured well
away from the ends of the gauge section. Some workers suggest that the strains
be measured when the total elongation is 15%, if this is less than the necking
strain. The change of R during a tensile test is usually quite small, and the lat
eral strains at 15% elongation are great enough to be measured with accuracy.
∗
Some authors use the symbol, r, instead of R.
252 Solid Mechanics
rolling
direction
ε
w θ
ε
t
Figure 15.1. Tensile specimen cut from A sheet
(left). The Rvalue is the ratio of the lateral strains,
ε
w
/ε
t
, during the extension (right).
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #15.2: Consider the accuracy of R measurement for a
material having an R of about 1.00. Assume the width is about 0.5 in and
can be measured to an accuracy of ±0.001 in., which corresponds to an
uncertainty of strain of ±0.001/0.5 = ±0.002. The errors in measuring the
length strain are much smaller. Estimate the error in ﬁnding R if the total
strain were 5%. How would this be reduced if the total strain were 15%?
Solution: At an elongation of 5%, the lateral strain would be about 0.025,
so the error in ε
w
would be ±0.002/0.025 = 8%. If the Rvalue were 1,
this would cause an error in R of approximately 0.08 ×0.5/(1 −0.5), or
8%. At 15% elongation, the percent error should be about one third of
this, or roughly ±3%.
The value of R usually depends on the direction of testing. An average Rvalue
is conventionally taken as
¯
R= (R
0
+ R
90
+2R
45
)/4. (15.9)
The angular variation of R is characterized by R, deﬁned as
R= (R
0
+ R
90
−2R
45
)/2. (15.10)
Both of these are important in analyzing what happens during sheet metal
forming.
Although it is frequently assumed that materials are isotropic (have the
same properties in all directions), they rarely are. There are two main causes
of anisotropy. One cause is preferred orientations of grains or crystallographic
texture. The second is mechanical ﬁbering, which is the elongation and align
ment of microstructural features such as inclusions and grain boundaries.
Anisotropy of plastic behavior is almost entirely caused by the presence of
preferred orientations.
Anisotropy 253
The ﬁrst complete quantitative treatment of plastic anisotropy was in 1948
by Hill,
∗
who proposed an anisotropic yield criterion to accommodate such
materials. It is a generalization of the von Mises criterion:
F(σ
y
−σ
z
)
2
+G(σ
z
−σ
x
)
2
+H(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
+2Lτ
yz
2
+2Mτ
2
zx
+2Nτ
2
xy
= 1,
(15.11)
where the axes x, y, and z are the symmetry axes of the material (e.g., the
rolling, transverse, and throughthickness directions of a rolled sheet).
If the loading is such that the directions of principal stress coincide with
the symmetry axes and if there is planar isotropy (properties do not vary with
direction in the xy plane), Equation 15.11 can be simpliﬁed to
(σ
y
−σ
z
)
2
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
2
+ R(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
= (R+1)X
2
, (15.12)
where X is the yield strength in uniaxial tension.
For planestress (σ
z
= 0), Equation 15.8 plots as an ellipse, as shown in
Figure 15.2. The larger the value of R, the more the ellipse extends into the
ﬁrst quadrant. Thus, the strength under biaxial tension increases with R, as
suggested earlier.
The corresponding ﬂow rules are obtained by applying the general equa
tion, dε
i j
= dλ(∂f/∂σ
i j
) (Equation 5.14), where nowf(σ
i j
) is given by Equation
15.12:
dε
x
: dε
y
: dε
z
= [(R+1)σ
x
− Rσ
y
−σ
z
] : [(R+1)σ
y
−Rσ
x
−σ
z
] :
[2σ
z
−σ
y
−σ
x
]. (15.13)
This means that ρ = ε
y
/ε
x
for σ
z
= 0 and α = σ
y
/σ
x
for σ
z
= 0, are related by
ρ = [(R+1)α − R]/[(R+1) −Rα] (15.14)
and
α = [(R+1)ρ + R]/[(R+1)+Rρ]. (15.15)
Note that if R = 1, these reduce to Equation 5.15, and the effective stress is
¯ σ = {[(σ
y
−σ
z
)
2
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
2
+ R(σ
x
−σ
y
)
2
]/(R+1}
1/2
. (15.16)
For σ
z
= 0,
¯ σ/σ
x
= {[α
2
+1 + R(1 −α)
2
]/(R+1}
1/2
. (15.17)
The effective strain function is given by
¯ ε/ε
x
= (σ
1
/ ¯ σ)(1 +αρ). (15.18)
∗
R. Hill, Proc Roy. Soc. v.193A (1948).
254 Solid Mechanics
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−0.5
−1
σ
x
σ
y
R = 0
R = .5
R = 1
R = 2
R = 3
R = 5
Plane strain
ε
y
= 0
Figure 15.2. Plane stress (σ
z
= 0) yield locus predicted by the Hill 1948 yield criterion
for planar isotropy (Equation 5.34) with several values of R. The dashed line is the
locus of stress states that produce plane strain (ε
y
= 0). Note that the strength under
biaxial tension increases with R. A large R indicates a resistance to thinning in a tension
test, which is consistent with high strength under biaxial tension where thinning must
occur. From W. F. Hosford, The Mechanics of Crystals and Textured Polycrystals. Used
by permission of Oxford University Press (1993).
The Hill criterion often overestimates the effect of Rvalue on the ﬂow
stress. A modiﬁcation of Equation 15.12, referred to as the highexponent cri
terion, was suggested to overcome this difﬁculty,
∗
(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a
+ R(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a
= (R+1)X
a
, (15.19)
where a is an even exponent much larger than 2. Calculations based on crystal
lographic slip have suggested that a = 6 is appropriate for bcc metals and a =
8 for fcc metals. Figure 15.3 compares the yield loci predicted by this criterion
and the Hill criterion for several levels of R.
With this criterion, the ﬂow rules are
dε
x
: dε
y
: dε
z
=[R(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a−1
+(σ
x
−σ
z
)
a−1
] : [(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a−1
+R(σ
y
−σ
x
)
a−1
] :
[(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a−1
+(σ
z
−σ
y
)
a−1
]. (15.20)
∗ ∗
W. F. Hosford, 7th North Amer. Metalworking Conf., SME, Dearborn MI (1979) and R. W.
Logan and W. F. Hosford, Int. J. Mech. Sci., v.22, (1980).
Anisotropy 255
R = 2 R = 0.5
σ = 6
σ = 6
σ = 2
σ = 2 Tresca
Tresca
1 1
6 6
2 2
0 0
1 1 σ
x
/Y σ
x
/Y
σ
y
/Y
σ
y
/Y
−1 −1
Figure 15.3. Yield loci predicted by the highexponent criterion for planar isotropy.
The loci for the 1948 Hill criterion correspond to a =2. Note that with a large exponent,
there is much less effect of R on strength under biaxial tension. From Hosford, ibid.
The effective stress function corresponding to Equation 15.19 is
¯ σ = [(σ
y
−σ
z
)
a
+(σ
z
−σ
x
)
a
+ R(σ
x
−σ
y
)
a
]/(R+1)}
1/a
. (15.21)
The effective strain function is
¯ ε = (σ
x
/ ¯ σ)(1 +αρ), (15.22)
where α = (σ
y
−σ
z
)/(σ
x
−σ
y
) and ρ = ε
y
/ε
x
.
Although the nonlinear ﬂow rules for the high exponent criterion
(Equation 15.20) cannot be explicitly solved for the stresses, iterative solu
tions with calculators or personal computers are simple. The nonquadratic
yield criterion and accompanying ﬂow rules (Equations 15.19 and 15.20 have
been shown to give better ﬁt to experimental data than the quadratic form
(Equations 15.12 and 15.13).
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #15.3: A steel sheet, which has an Rvalue of 1.75 in all
directions in the sheet, was stretched in biaxial tension with σ
z
= 0. Strain
measurements indicate that throughout the deformation, ε
y
= 0. Find the
stress ratio, α = σ
y
/σ
x
, that prevailed according to the Hill yield crite
rion (Equation 15.8) and according to the nonquadratic yield criterion
(Equation 15.15) with a = 8.
Solution: For the Hill criterion, Equation 15.8 gives α = [(R+1)ρ +
R]/[R+1 + Rρ]. With ρ = 0, α = R/(R+1) = 1.75/2.75 = 0.636.
For the nonquadratic criterion, the ﬂow rules (Equation 15.8)
with σ
z
= 0 and ρ = 0 can be expressed as 0 = dε
y
/dε
x
= [α
a−1
+ R(α −
1)
a−1
]/[R(1 −α)
a−1
+1]. = [α
7
−1.75(1 −α)
7
]/[1.75(1 −α)
7
+1]. Trial
and error solution gives α = 0.520.
256 Solid Mechanics
Figure 15.4. Directional features in the
microstructure of 2024T6 aluminum
sheet include grain boundaries, aligned
and elongated inclusions. From Metals
Handbook, v.7, 8th Ed. ASM (1972).
Anisotropy of Fracture
Mechanical working tends to produce directional microstructures, as shown
in Figures 15.4 to 15.6. Grain boundaries and weak interfaces are aligned by
the working. Inclusions are elongated and sometimes broken up into strings of
smaller inclusions. Often loading in service is parallel to the direction along
which the interfaces and inclusions are aligned, so the alignment has little
effect on the ductility. For example, wires and rods are normally stressed par
allel to their axes and the stresses in rolled plates are normally in the plane of
the plate. In these cases, weak interfaces parallel to the wire or rod axis and
inclusions parallel to the rolling plane are not very important. For this reason,
2% nital 100×
Figure 15.5. Microstructure of a steel plate
consisting of bands of pearlite (dark regions)
and ferrite (light regions). From Metals
Handbook, v.7, 8th ed. ASM (1972).
Anisotropy 257
4% picral 500×
Figure 15.6. Greater magniﬁcation of the
microstructure of the steel plate in Figure
15.4 showing elongated sulﬁde inclusions.
These inclusions are the major cause of
directionality of fracture in steel. From Met
als Handbook, v. 7 8th ed. ASM (1972).
the anisotropy of fracture properties caused by mechanical ﬁbering is often
ignored.
Sometimes, the largest stresses are normal to the aligned ﬁbers, and in
these cases failures may occur by delamination parallel to the ﬁber axis.
Welded Tjoints of plates may fail this way by delamination. With severe bend
ing, rods may splinter parallel to directions of prior working. Forged parts may
fail along ﬂow lines formed by the alignment of inclusions and weak inter
faces. Annealing of worked parts does not remove such directionality. Even
if recrystallization produces equiaxed grains, inclusion alignment is usually
unaffected.
Anisotropy in Polymers
In linear polymers, the stresses required for yielding and crazing depend on
the direction of applied tension. Crazing predominates if tension is applied
perpendicular to the ﬁber alignment, as shown by Figure 15.7.
Notes
Rodney Hill (born 1921 in Leeds) earned his MA (1946), PhD (1948), and ScD
(1959) from Cambridge University. He worked in the Armarment Research
Department, Kent, Bitish Iron & Steel Research Association, Bristol Univer
sity and Nottingham University before becoming a Professor of Mechanics of
Solids at Cambridge University. His book, Mathematical Theory of Plasticity
(Oxford University Press, 1950) is a classic. It contains original work on appli
cations of slip line ﬁelds in addition to introducing the ﬁrst complete theory of
plastic anisotropy.
258 Solid Mechanics
80
60
40
20
0
0 30 60 90
Angle between tensile axis and draw direction, degrees
yielding
crazing and
fracture
fracture
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
M
P
a
Figure 15.7. Effect of testing direction on the stresses necessary for yielding and for
crazing at 20
◦
C in polystyrene that has been oriented by stretching 260%. Data from L.
Cramwell and D. Hull, Int. Symp. on Macromolecules (1977).
REFERENCES
R. Hill, Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford U. Press, 1950.
W. F. Hosford, Mechanics of Single Crystals and Textured Polycrystals, Oxford U.
Press, 1992.
W. F. Hosford, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005.
Problems
1. Calculate Young’s modulus for an iron crystal when tension is applied
along a <122> direction.
2. Zinc has the following elastic constants:
s
11
=0.84×10
−11
Pa
−1
; s
33
=2.87 ×10
−11
Pa
−11
; s
12
= 0.11 ×10
−11
Pa
−1
s
13
= −0.78 ×10
−11
Pa
−1
; s
44
= 2.64 ×10
−11
Pa
−11
; s
66
= 2(s
11
−s
12
)
Find the bulk modulus of zinc.
3. Calculate the effective Young’s modulus for a cubic crystal loaded in the
[110] direction in terms of the constants, s
11
s
12
, and s
44
. Do this by assum
ing uniaxial tension along [110] and expressing σ
1
, σ
2
,. . . . σ
12
in terms of
σ
[110]
. Then use the matrix of elastic constants to ﬁnd e
1
, e
2
, . . . γ
12
, and
ﬁnally resolve theses strains onto the [110] axis to ﬁnd e
[110]
.
4. When a polycrystal is elastically strained in tension, it is reasonable to
assume that the strains in all grains are the same. Using this assumption,
Anisotropy 259
calculate for iron the ratio of the stress in grains oriented with <111> par
allel to the tensile axis to the average stress, σ
111
/σ
av
=E
111
/E
av
. Calculate
σ
100
/σ
av
.
5. Using the 1948 Hill criterion for a sheet with planar isotropy,
a) Derive an expression for α = σ
y
/σ
x
for plane strain (ε
y
= 0) and plane
stress (σ
z
= 0).
b) Find the stress for yielding under this form of loading in terms of X and
R.
c) For a material loaded such that dε
z
= 0 and σ
z
= 0, calculate σ
x
and σ
y
at yielding.
d) For a material loaded such that dε
x
= dε
y
and σ
z
= 0, calculate σ
x
and
σ
y
at yielding.
6. Consider a sheet with planar isotropy (equal properties in all directions in
the sheet) loaded under plane stress (σ
z
= 0).
a) Express the ratio, ρ = ε
y
/ε
x
, as a function of the stress ratio, α = σ
y
/σ
x
.
b) Write an expression for ¯ σ in terms of α, R, and σ
x
.
c) Write an expression for d¯ ε in terms of α, R, and dε
x
. Remember that
¯ σ d¯ ε = σ
x
dε
x
+σ
y
dε
y
+σ
z
dε
z
.
7. Take the cardboard back of a pad of paper and cut it into a square. Then
support the cardboard horizontally with blocks at each end and apply a
weight in the middle. Measure the deﬂection. Next, rotate the cardboard
90
◦
and repeat the experiment using the same weight. By what factor do
the two deﬂections differ? By what factor does the elastic modulus, E,
vary with direction? Why was the cardboard used for the backing of the
pad placed in the orientation that it was?
8. Consider the matrix of elastic constants for a composite consisting of an
elastically soft matrix reinforced by a 90
◦
crossply of stiff ﬁbers. The gen
eral form of the matrix of elastic constants is
s
11
s
12
s
13
0 0 0
s
12
s
11
s
13
0 0 0
s
13
s
13
s
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 s
44
0
0 0 0 0 0 s
66
Young’s modulus for the composite when loaded parallel to one of the
sets of ﬁbers is 100 GPa, so s
11
= 10 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
. Of the values listed
here, which is most likely for s
12
? For s
66
? a. 10 ×10
−10
Pa
−1
; b. 30 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; c. 10 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; d. 3 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; e. 100 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; f. −10 ×
10
−10
Pa
−1
; g. −30 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; h. −10 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; i. −3 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
; j. −100 ×10
−12
Pa
−1
.
Index
activation energy, 94
anelasticity, 102–113
anisotropy, 246–257
elasticity, 246
fracture, 256
plasticity, 251
thermal expansion, 250
Arrhenius rate law, 94
beach marks, 161
bending, 47
biaxial tension, 42
boundary conditions, 17
bulk forming, 220
cavitation, 121
ceramics, 195–199
porosity, 196
toughness, 198
Charpy testing, 137
clamshell marks, 161
Coble creep, 119
compact tensile specimens, 155
composites, 203–220
composites
compression failure, 214
discontinuous ﬁbers, 213
elastic properties, 203
effect of ﬁber length, 211
ﬁber reinforcement, 203
lamellar, 219
particulate, 216
strength, 207
typical properties, 215
volume fraction ﬁber, 209
compression testing, 38
crazing, 194
creep, 117–122
diffusioncontrolled, 118
mechanisms, 117
creeprupture, 122
cyclic stressstrain behavior, 180
damping, 107
mechanisms, 112
dashpot, 103
dead metal, 39
deep drawing, 234
defect analysis, 62, 88, 92
deformation zone geometry, 229
ductility, 35, 130
effective strain, 74
effective stress, 74
efﬁciency, mechanical, 226
elastic limit, 33
elasticity, 21–28
anisotropic, 257
isotropic, 21
endurance limit, 164
engineering strain, 9
extrusion, 227
fatigue, 161–182
crack propagation, 177
cycling rate effect, 181
design considerations, 182
effect of mean stress, 1656
fatigue limit, 164
intrusions and extrusions, 163
metallurgical variables, 174
nomenclature, 163
strain to failure, 176
strength, 165
striations, 162
SN curves, 164
surface conditions, 171
surface observations, 161
temperatureeffets, 181
testing, 182
ﬂow rules, 71
260
Index 261
foams, 220
force balance, 165
formability, 233
forming limit diagrams, 238
fracture
brittle, 136
design for, 154
ductile, 132
mechanics, 149
mechanisms, 131
metallurgical variables, 153
modes, 147
friction in forming, 230
glass, 199
glass transition, 185
glassy metals, 201
Grifﬁth theory, 146
hardness tests, 19
Hill’s anisotropic yield criterion, 253
hot working, 97
hydraulic bilge testing, 42
hydrostatic tension, 134
impact energy, 137
ironing, 235
Irwin analysis, 148
isptropic hardening, 78
Jintegral, 156
kinematic hardening, 78
LarsonMiller extrapolation, 125
LevyMises equations, 72
limiting drawing ratio, 235
L¨ uder’s band, 34
mathematical approximation, 54
Maxwell model, 103
mechanical working, 224–240
Mohr’s circles, 6, 14
moment balance, 16
NabarroHerring creep, 119
natural decay, 108
necking, 59
localized, 237
normality principle, 73
notch sensitivity, 169
Orowan theory, 147
PalmgrenMiner rule, 168
Paris law, 178
percent elongation, 36
percent reduction of area, 36
plane strain tension, 42
planestrain compression, 42
plastic zone size, 150
polymers, 185–195
elasticity, 195
frature, 195
glass transition, 195
pressure effect on yielding, 191
timedependence of properties, 189
yielding, 191
powerlaw hardening, 58, 59
principal stress, 6
redrawing, 235
relaxed vs unrelaxed modulus, 109
rheological models, 102
rubber elasticity, 190
Rvalue, 251
SheryDorn extrapolation, 123
sign convention, 3
SN curves
spinning, 239
sress, effective, 74
St. Venant’s principle, 17
stampimg, 236
strain, 9
effective, 74
engineering, 9
localization, 62, 88, 92
ratio, 251
small, 11
true, 11
strain hardening, 57–64
strainrate dependence, 84
strengh, tensile, 35
strength, 1
theoretical, 143
yield, 33
stress, 2
concentration, 145, 169
principle, 5
thermally activated, 199
superplasticity, 87
temperature dependence, 93
temperature rise, 38
tensile testing, 31
thermal expansion, 26
anisotropic, 250
thermally induced stresses, 199
thermoelastic effect, 110
thin sheets, fracture of, 152
torsion, 45
transformation of axes, 4, 12
262 Index
Tresca, 68
true strain, 9, 37
viscoelasticity, 102–113
void failure criterion, 13, 65
Voight model, 104
VoightMaxwell model, 105
von Mises, 69
Weibull analysis, 195
Westergaard equations 148
wire drawing, 224
work per volume, 62
yield criteria, 67
anisotropic, 252
yield point, 33
yield strength, offset, 33
yield criteria, 77
Young’s modulus, variation, 25
ZenerHollomon parameter, 94
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SOLID MECHANICS
This is a textbook for courses in departments of Mechanical, Civil and Aeronautical Engineering commonly called strength of materials or mechanics of materials. The intent of this book is to provide a background in the mechanics of solids for students of mechanical engineering while limiting the information on why materials behave as they do. It is assumed that the students have already had courses covering materials science and basic statics. Much of the material is drawn from another book by the author, Mechanical Behavior of Materials. To make the text suitable for Mechanical Engineers, the chapters on slip, dislocations, twinning, residual stresses, and hardening mechanisms have been eliminated and the treatments in other chapters about ductility, viscoelasticity, creep, ceramics, and polymers have been simpliﬁed. William Hosford is a Professor Emeritus of Materials Science at the University of Michigan. He is the author of numerous research and publications books, including Materials for Engineers; Metal Forming third edition (with Robert M. Caddell); Materials Science: An Intermediate Text; Reporting Results (with David C. Van Aken); Mechanics of Crystals and Textured Polycrystals; Mechanical Metallurgy; and Wilderness Canoe Tripping.
Solid Mechanics
William Hosford
University of Michigan, Emeritus
org Information on this title: www.org/9780521192293 © William Hosford 2010 This publication is in copyright. Singapore. and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is. Melbourne. UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge. Cape Town. New York www. Delhi. Dubai. accurate or appropriate. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. New York. São Paulo. Madrid. . Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements. First published in print format 2010 ISBN13 ISBN13 9780511712470 9780521192293 eBook (NetLibrary) Hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or thirdparty internet websites referred to in this publication. Tokyo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building.cambridge. Cambridge CB2 8RU. or will remain.cambridge.
. 31 Introduction Tensile Testing Ductility True Stress and Strain 31 31 35 37 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction Stress Sign Convention Transformation of Axes Principal Stresses Mohr’s Stress Circles Strains Small Strains Transformation of Axes Mohr’s Strain Circles Force and Moment Balances Common Boundary Conditions Note Problems 1 2 3 4 6 6 9 11 12 14 15 17 18 18 2 Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Preface page x 1 Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Introduction Isotropic Elasticity Variation of Young’s Modulus Isotropic Thermal Expansion Notes Problems 21 21 24 26 27 29 3 Mechanical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 67 Introduction Yield Criteria Tresca (maximum shear stress criterion) Von Mises Criterion Flow Rules Principle of Normality Effective Stress and Effective Strain Other Isotropic Yield Criteria Effect of Strain Hardening on the Yield Locus Notes Problems 67 67 68 69 71 73 74 77 78 78 80 6 StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi Contents Temperature Rise Compression Test PlaneStrain Compression and Tension Biaxial Tension (Hydraulic Bulge Test) Torsion Test Bend Tests Hardness Tests Notes Problems 38 38 42 43 45 47 49 52 53 4 Strain Hardening of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Introduction StrainRate Dependence of Flow Stress Superplasticity Combined Strain and StrainRate Effects Temperature Dependence Combined Temperature and StrainRate Effects Hot Working Notes Problems 84 84 87 92 93 93 97 98 99 . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Introduction Mathematical Approximations PowerLaw Approximation Necking Work per Volume Localization of Strain at Defects Notes Problems 57 57 59 59 62 62 64 64 5 Plasticity Theory . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 130 Introduction Ductile Fracture Void Failure Criterion Brittle Fracture Impact Energy Notes Problems 130 132 136 136 137 141 142 10 Fracture Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unrelaxed Thermoelastic Effect Other Damping Mechanisms Notes Problems 102 102 103 104 105 107 107 108 109 110 112 113 114 8 Creep and Stress Rupture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Introduction Creep Mechanisms Cavitation Rupture vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents vii 7 Viscoelasticity . . . . 143 Introduction Theoretical Fracture Strength Stress Concentration Grifﬁth and Orowan Theories Fracture Modes Irwin’s Fracture Analysis Plastic Zone Size Thin Sheets Metallurgical Variables 143 143 145 146 147 148 150 152 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . Creep Extrapolation Schemes Notes Problems 117 117 121 122 123 126 126 9 Ductility and Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Introduction Rheological Models Series Combination of a Spring and Dashpot Parallel Combination of Spring and Dashpot Combined ParallelSeries Model More Complex Models Damping Natural Decay Elastic Modulus – Relaxed vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii Contents Fracture Mechanics in Design Compact Tensile Specimens The JIntegral Notes Problems 154 155 156 158 158 11 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Introduction Surface Observations Nomenclature SN Curves Effect of Mean Stress The PalmgrenMiner Rule Stress Concentration Surface Conditions Design Estimates Metallurgical Variables Strains to Failure Crack Propagation Cyclic StressStrain Behavior Temperature and Cycling Rate Effects Fatigue Testing Design Considerations Notes Problems 161 161 163 164 166 168 169 171 173 174 175 177 180 181 182 182 183 184 12 Polymers and Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Introduction Elasticity of Polymers Glass Transition Time Dependence of Properties Rubber Elasticity Yielding Effect of Pressure Crazing Fracture Ceramics Weibull Analysis Porosity Fracture Toughness Toughening of Ceramics Glasses Thermally Induced Stresses Glassy Metals 187 187 187 189 190 191 194 194 195 195 195 196 198 199 199 199 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Introduction Bulk Forming Energy Balance Deformation Zone Geometry Friction in Bulk Forming Formability Deep Drawing Stamping Notes Problems 224 224 229 230 233 234 236 241 242 15 Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Introduction Elastic Anisotropy Thermal Expansion Anisotropic Plasticity Anisotropy of Fracture Anisotropy in Polymers Notes Problems Index 246 246 250 251 256 257 257 258 260 . . 203 Introduction FiberReinforced Composites Elastic Properties of FiberReinforced Composites Strength of FiberReinforced Composites Volume Fraction of Fibers Orientation Dependence of Strength Fiber Length Failures with Discontinuous Fibers Failure Under Compression Typical Properties Particulate Composites Lamellar Composites Foams Notes Problems 203 203 203 207 209 209 211 213 214 215 216 219 220 222 222 14 Mechanical Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix Notes Problems 201 202 13 Composites .
895 × 103 6. “Mechanical Working” and “Anisotropy.356 4. MPa pascals watts. and hardening mechanisms have been eliminated and the treatments in other chapters about ductility. Much of the material is drawn from another book by the author. creep.” may be omitted. in. lbf pounds/inch2 kilopound/inch2 kilograms/mm2 horsepower horsepower footpound calorie To meter. N pascal.457 × 102 33 × 103 1. It is assumed that the students have already had courses covering materials science and basic statics. Pa megapascal. J Multiply by 0. the chapters on slip. m newton.895 × 103 9. The topics of this book are similar to those in Deformation and Fracture of Solids by R.3048 6.807 × 106 7. Discussions with Professor Jwo Pan about what to include were helpful.187 SI Preﬁxes tera giga mega kilo T G M k 1012 109 106 103 pico nano micro milli p n µ m 10−12 10−9 10−6 10−3 x . M. viscoelasticity. pound force. Caddell.Preface The intent of this book is to provide a background in the mechanics of solids for students of mechanical engineering without confusing them with too much detail on why materials behave as they do. I want to thank Professor Robert Caddell for the inspiration to write texts. If there is insufﬁcient time or interest. and polymers have been simpliﬁed.0254 0. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. To make the text suitable for Mechanical Engineers. Conversions To convert from inch. J joule. twinning. residual stresses. the last two chapters. W ftlb/min joule. ceramics. dislocations.
Usually. However. and so on. repeated applications of a somewhat lower stress may cause fracture. therefore. When a material deforms under a small stress. Under load. materials may either deform or break. In contrast. however. extrusion. The term mechanical behavior refers to the response of materials to forces. Fracture is the breaking of a material into two or more pieces. Most of the elastic deformation will recover immediately. The forces acting on a body are described by stress. it is desirable to have materials deform easily when forming them into useful parts by rolling. At high temperatures. there may be some timedependent shape recovery.1 Stress and Strain Introduction This book is concerned with the mechanical behavior of materials. The amount of deformation that a material undergoes is described by strain. however. Plastic deformation usually occurs as soon as the stress is applied. If fracture occurs before much plastic deformation occurs. In this case when the stress is removed. After a material undergoes plastic deformation. a high resistance to deformation is desirable so that a part will maintain its shape in service when stressed. The word strength may refer either to the stress required to deform a material or to the stress required to cause fracture. the material will revert to its original shape. On the other hand. the deformation may be elastic. if there has been extensive plastic deformation preceding fracture. we say the material is brittle. Fracture usually occurs as soon as a critical fracture stress has been reached. Although the reader 1 . The factors that govern a material’s resistance to deforming are very different than those governing its resistance to fracture. This timedependent elastic behavior is called anelasticity or viscoelasticity. timedependent plastic deformation called creep may occur. care must be used with the term strength. the material is considered ductile. A larger stress may cause plastic deformation. it will not revert to its original shape when the stress is removed. This is called fatigue.
.1a) A normal stress (compressive or tensile) is one in which the force is normal to the area on which it acts.1. σ = F/A. a force in the ydirection acts on a plane normal to x.g.2 Solid Mechanics z σzz σzy σzx σxz σxx σxy σyx σyz σyy y Figure 1. σzx . and σ yx . ∗ Use of the opposite convention should cause no confusion as σi j = σ ji . ). . The stress component σ yy = Fy /A y describes the tensile stress in the ydirection. a tensile stress in the xdirection is denoted by σxx . they are tensor rather than vector quantities. σzx . If the state of stress is the same everywhere in a body. and σzz. . x should already be familiar with these terms. Repeated subscripts denote normal stresses (e. is deﬁned as the intensity of force at a point. and the second subscript identiﬁes the direction of the force. The shear stress components are σ yz.1b) (1. indicating that the force is in the xdirection and it acts on a plane normal to x. .∗ For example. (1. With a shear stress. Nine components of stress are needed to describe fully a state of stress at a point. whereas mixed subscripts denote shear stresses (e. the force is parallel to the area on which it acts. as shown in Figure 1. The nine components of stress acting on an inﬁnitesimal element. σ = ∂F/∂A as ∂A → 0. they will be reviewed in this chapter. Because stresses involve both forces and areas. . Two subscripts are required to deﬁne a stress. . σzy . The stress component σzy = Fy /Az is the shear stress caused by a shear force in the y direction acting on a plane normal to z. σxz. In tensor notation. σ . Stress Stress. σxx . σ yy . . σxy . σ yy . For a shear stress. σ xy . .) .g. The ﬁrst subscript denotes the normal to the plane on which the force acts. The normal stress components are σxx . σxy .1.
τ y x (= σ y x ). expressed along one set of axes. σx = σxx . The body is subjected to a stress σ yy = Fy /A y . Fy . Stresses acting on an area. may be expressed along another set of axes. in Figure 1. the term σi j is positive if i and j are either both positive or both negative. A y′ Fy′ Fx′ θ x x′ the state of stress is expressed as σxx σi j = σ yx σzx σxy σ yy σzy σxz σ yz . On the other hand. is given by τ y x = σ y x = Fx /A y = (Fy sinθ)/(A y /cosθ ) = σ y cosθ sinθ. (1. Sign Convention When we write σi j = Fi /A j . y .2) where i and j are iterated over x. Except where tensor notation is required. (1.4a) Similarly.2. It is possible to calculate the stress acting on a plane whose normal.2. the stress component is negative for a combination of i and j in which one is positive and the other is negative. The shear stress is τ y x = Fx /A y = Fy sin θ/(A yx / cos θ ) = σ yy cos θ sin θ.Stress and Strain 3 y Fy y′ Figure 1. The stress τ yx is negative because on the top surface y is . For example.3 the term σxx is positive on both sides of the element because both the force and normal to the area are negative on the left and positive on the right. under a normal force.3) A stress component. it is often simpler to use a single subscript for a normal stress and to denote a shear stress by τ . Consider the case in Figure 1.4b) Note that the transformation equations involve the product of two cosine and/or sine terms. the shear stress on this plane acting in the x direction. so σ y = σ y y = Fy /A y = (F y cosθ)/(A y /cosθ) = σ y cos2 θ. The normal force acting on the plane is Fy = Fy cosθ and the area normal to y is A y /cosθ . (1. is at an angle θ to y. A . and τxy = σxy . σzz (1. and z. The normal stress is σ y y = Fy /A y = Fy cos θ/(A y / cos θ) = σ yy cos2 θ . y.
we can write in general that MA = τ yx = τxy = 0. and k). τ yx = τxy . Transformation of Axes Frequently. τxy and τ yx .4). so σi j = σ ji . m. is positive because the direction of the force Fx and the plane Ax are either both positive (right) or both negative (left). Another example is ﬁnding the normal stress across a glued joint in a tube subjected to tension and torsion. If they were not. In general. A moment balance about A requires that τxy = τ yx .5) This makes the stress tensor matrix symmetric about the diagonal. τxy and τ yx . we may want to ﬁnd the shear stress on a inclined plane from the external stresses. a stress state expressed along one set of orthogonal axes (e. n. A moment balance requires that τi j = τ ji .4 Solid Mechanics τ yx < 0 y σxx > 0 τ xy < 0 x Figure 1. j. i.. Pairs of shear stress terms with reversed subscripts are always equal. (1. The normal stress. For example. and p) may be expressed along a different set of orthogonal axes (e. Similarly. A τxy .3. y is negative. Therefore. τxy τyx τyx Figure 1.4. it is useful to change the axis system on which a stress state is expressed. σxx .g. An inﬁnitesimal element under shear stresses. For example. the element would rotate (Figure 1. are negative because the direction of the force and the normal to the plane have opposite signs. τxy is negative. positive and the xdirection force is negative.g. or τi j = τ ji .. and on the bottom surface the xdirection force is positive and the normal to the area. The shear stress.
Stress and Strain 5 z′ z y′ Figure 1. n. . namely m.4a and 1.8b) These equations may be simpliﬁed with the notation in Equation 1. σx = and τx z = x x y x σxx 2 x x σx + +2 xy + x zτ yz + 2 2 x yσy 2 x zσ z x z x x τzx +2 x x x y τxy (1. x x y z)τzx (1.5.8a) x x y x σxx + + xx xx + x y y x σ yx + x z y x σzx σxy + x y y y σ yy + x z y y σzy yy y zσxz + x y y zσ yz + x z y zσzz.10) in agreement with Equations 1. y.5 may be transformed onto the (x . The stresses in the (x. z) coordinate system in Figure 1. n=1 m=1 σi j = (1. and jn is the cosine of the angle between the j and n axes. Using equations 1. y. (x. z ).4b. and p. y . The stress state may be expressed in terms of either. y.6) The term im is the cosine of the angle between the i and m axes. σy = 2 y y σ yy = σ y cos2 θ and τx y = x y y y σ yy = σ y cosθ sinθ (1. y .3 using Equation 1. z) axis system.5. y x′ x The general form of the transformation is 3 3 im jn σmn . This is often written as σi j = im jn σmn (1. z) and (x . The summations are over the three possible values of m and n. Two orthogonal coordinate systems.2. z ) coordinate system by σx x = x x x x σxx + + and σy y = xx xx + x y x x σ yx + x z x x σzx x y σxy + x y x y σ yy + x z x y σzy x zσxz + x y x zσ yz + x z x zσzz (1.9a) +( +( xy xx + x y y y σ yy + x z y zσzz 1 y z + x z y y )τ yz + ( x z y x + y y + x y y x )τxy . (1.9b) Now reconsider the transformation in Figure 1.9a and 19b with σ yy as the only ﬁnite term on the (x.7) with the summation implied.
and x y = − y x = sinφ. is a principal stress direction and the other two principal stress directions lie in the plane.5(−4)(−8) − 10. 18. and σ 3 . are the three roots of 3 2 σ p − I1 σ p − I2 σ p − I3 = 0.52 − 8(−4)2 − (−5)(−8)2 = −138 MPa. x x = y y = cosφ. and τxy = τ yx = −8. (1. τzy = τzx = 0). the normal to that plane. Solution: Using Equation 1. σ p . τx y = cos φsinφ(−σxx + σ yy ) + (cos2 φ − sin2 φ)τxy . Mohr’s Stress Circles In the special case where there are no shear stresses acting on one of the reference planes (e. (1.6 Solid Mechanics Principal Stresses It is always possible to ﬁnd a set of axes (1. τzy = τzx = 0. This is illustrated in Figure 1.8 = 115. σ p = 1. τzx = τxz = −4. −6..82 MPa. I1 .12) The ﬁrst invariant is I1 = − p/3. 2. 3 2 Solving Equation 1. I2 = 52 + (−4)2 + (−8)2 − 8(−5) − (−5)10 − 10. σ y = 8. the invariants are I1 = σ1 + σ2 + σ3 I2 = −σ22 σ33 − σ33 σ11 − σ11 σ22 I3 = σ11 σ22 σ33 . where p is the pressure. (1. σz = −5. σ 2 .1: Find the principal stresses in a body under the stress state.13.11. 2 2 2 I2 = σ yz + σzx + σxy − σ yy σzz − σzzσxx − σxx σ yy 2 2 2 I3 = σxx σ yy σzz + 2σ yzσzx σxy − σxx σ yz − σ yy σzx − σzzσxy . x z = y z = 0. and 3 axes are the principal stress axes.8(−5) + 2. are called principal stresses and the 1. z.11) where I1 = σxx + σ yy + σzz. σ p − 13σ p − 115σ p + 138 = 0.8b).g.13) EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. τ yz = τzy = 5. 2. 3) along which the shear stress components vanish. (1. I1 = 10 + 8 − 5 = 13. I3 = 10.079. In this case the normal stresses. In terms of the principal stresses.14a) .72. Substituting x z = y z = 0. The magnitudes of the principal stresses. For these conditions. σx = 10. where all stresses are in MPa. and I3 are independent of the orientation of the axes and are therefore called stress invariants. σ 1 . I2 .6. The variation of the shear stress component τx y can be found by substituting these conditions into the stress transformation Equation (1.
are represented on the ordinate and the shear stress components. θ. τ . Similar substitution into the expressions for σ x and σ y results in σx = cos2 φσx + sin2 φσ y + 2 cos φ sin φτxy and σ y = sin2 φσx + cos2 φσ y + 2 cos φ sin φτxy . The normal stress components. (1.17a) as shown in Figure 1. Consider the .14c) (1.2 = (σx + σ y )/2 ± [σx − σ y )/2]cos2θ + τxy sin2θ 2 σ1.16 and 1.15a) (1.17. are zero. Stress state to which Mohr’s circle treatment applies. σ1. on the abscissa. τx y = −[(σx − σ y )/2]sin2φ + τxy cos2φ σx = (σx + σ y )/2 + [σx − σ y )/2]cos2φτxy sin2φ and σ y = (σx + σ y )/2 − [(σx − σ y )/2]cos2φ + τxy sin2φ.6. Two shear stresses.14b) These can be simpliﬁed by substituting the trigonometric identities sin 2φ = 2 sin φ cos φ and cos 2φ = cos2 φ − sin φ.15c) (1.2 = (σx + σ y )/2 ± (1/2) (σx − σ y )2 + 4τxy 1/2 or (1.17) A Mohr’s circle diagram is a graphical representation of Equations 1.Stress and Strain 7 z y′ y σy τ yx x′ σx τxy τ yx σy y τxy φ σx x x Figure 1.15b) Setting τx y = 0 in Equation 1. between the principal stresses axes and the x and y axes (see Figure 1.16) The principal stresses σ 1 and σ 2 are the values of σ x and σ y for this value of φ.7): τx y = 0 = sin2θ (σx − σ y )/2 + cos2θ τxy or tan 2θ = τxy /[(σx − σ y )/2]. It plots as a circle with a radius (σ1 − σ2 )/2 centered at (σ1 + σ2 )/2 = (σx + σ y )/2 (1.15a. σ . (1. φ becomes the angle. τ yz and τzx . (1.7.
σ y = 60 MPa. 3–1. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. the hypotenuse is 2 (σ1 − σ2 )/2 = [(σx + σ y )/2]2 + τxy 1/2 (1.17c) The full threedimensional stress state may be represented by three Mohr’s circles (Figure 1. 2–3 and 1–3 planes. The largest shear stress may be either (σ1 − σ2 )/2. and σ 3 . Using the Pythagorean theorem. sketch the threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagram for this stress state. (σ2 − σ3 )/2 or (9σ1 − σ3 )/2. σ 1 . The circles connecting these represent the stresses in the 1–2. Three Mohr’s circles representing a stress state in three dimensions. whereas in the Mohr’s circle diagram (b) the 1axis is rotated counterclockwise from the xaxis.8.2: A body is loaded under stresses σx = 150 MPa.7). are plotted on the horizontal axis. Note that the 1axis is rotated clockwise from the xaxis in real space (a). τ σx τxy 2θ σ3 σ2 σ1 σ Figure 1. Mohr’s circles for stresses showing the stresses in the xy plane. The three principal stresses. σy . and 1–2 planes. τxy = 20 MPa.8 Solid Mechanics τ y 1 θ x σx 2 )/ +σ (σ 1 2 τxy σ1 σ2 2θ (σx − σy)/2 σ (σx + σy)/2 a b σy Figure 1.7b.17b) and tan(2θ ) = [τxy /[(σx + σ y )/2]. and ﬁnd the largest shear stress in the body. Find the three principal stresses. The three circles represent the stress states in the 2–3. σz = τ yz = τzx = 0. triangle in Figure 1. (1.7. σ 2 .
σ2 = (σx + σ y )/2 ± {[(σx − σ y )/2]2 + τxy }1/2 = 154. e/ε = 1.049. e/ε = 1. of a line: dε = dL/L. Evaluating: for e = 0. so as e → 0.010. .18) This ﬁnite form is called true strain (or natural strain.01. τmax = (σ1 − σ3 )/2 = 77. Mohr’s circles for Example #1.20. for e = 0. e/ε = 1.05. e/ε = 1.8 MPa.19) (1. for e = 0. e/ε = 1.0005. This is illustrated in the following example.005. logarithmic strain). Solution: e/ε = e/ln(1 + e).1 MPa.025.02.3: Calculate the ratio of e/ε for several values of e. for e = 0.50. e. σ3 = σz = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. . is deﬁned as e= L/Lo. . ε = e − e2 /2 + e3 /3!.097.2. Strains An inﬁnitesimal normal strain is deﬁned by the change of length.10. .9 is the Mohr’s circle diagram. to the current length.20) If the strains are small. Alternatively. ε → e. for e = 0. for e = 0.2. engineering or nominal strain. Figure 1.233. (1. Note that the largest shear stress. e/ε = 1. is not in the 1–2 plane. e/ε = 1. then the engineering and true strains are nearly equal. L.001. Lo .9. L. . for e = 0. 55. .Stress and Strain 9 τ σx Figure 1. Integrating from the initial length. . Expressing ε = ln(L/Lo) = ln(1 + e) as a series expansion. ε= dL/L = ln(L/Lo) (1. σ3 σ2 = 56 τxy σ1 = 154 σ σy 2 Solution: σ1 .
Ly . εx + ε y + εz = 0. Lz. .5.693. the magnitude of strain to reverse the shape change is different.5: A bar 10 cm long is elongated by (1) drawing to 15 cm. e = L/Lo = 1/1 = 1. The sum is 0. as illustrated in the following examples. a. ε = ln(L/Lo) = ln2 = 0. b) Repeat the calculation with true strains. ε y . ε1 = ln(20/15) = 0. The volume change is related to the sum of the three normal strains. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. 3. and during the compression ε = ln(L/Lo) = ln(1/2) = −0. b.4: An element 1 cm long is extended to twice its initial length (2 cm) and then compressed to its initial length (1 cm).5. ln(V/Vo). For constant volume. and the overall strain is εtot = ln(15/10) + ln(20/15) = ln(20/10) = 0. the overall strain is the sum of the strains in each step. True strains are additive. Lyo. ε1 = ln(15/10) = 0.693. which is less than the overall strain.4055. and then (2) drawing to 20 cm.0.6: A block of initial dimensions Lxo.6931.10 Solid Mechanics Note that the difference e and ε between is less than 1% for e < 0. εz. During the extension. for step 2. 2. True strains for equivalent amounts of deformation in tension and compression are equal except for sign.833.02 There are several reasons that true strains are more convenient than engineering strains: 1. etot = 10/10 = 1. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. e1 = 5/10 = 0. b. Find the true strains for the extension and compression.2877. Note that with engineering strains. Solution: (a) For step 1. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. Express the volume strain. For a deformation consisting of several steps. Find the engineering strains for the extension and compression. a) Calculate the engineering strains for the two steps and compare the sum of these with the engineering strain calculated for the overall deformation. These statements are not true for engineering strains. The sum of these is 0.6931.333. e2 = 5/15 = 0.00 (b) For step 1. and during the compression e = L/Lo = −1/2 = −0. During the extension. in terms of the three true strains. Lzo is deformed so that the new dimensions are Lx . Solution: a. for step 2. εx .
is the sum of these angles. ln(V/Vo) = 0. which are respectively (∂v/∂ x)dx/dx = ∂v/∂ x and (∂u/∂ y)dy/dy = ∂u/∂ y. . dy u A A′ v dx D′ u + (∂u/∂x)dx D X Solution: (a) V/Vo = Lx Ly Lz/(Lxo Lyo Lzo). The total engineering shear strain. rotation.10. Note that if there is no volume change. so ln(V/Vo) = ln(Lx /Lxo) + ln(Ly /Lyo) + ln(Lz/Lzo) = εx + ε y + εz. Consider a twodimensional body in Figure 1. γ yx = ∂v/∂ x + ∂u/∂ y = γxy . this reduces to εxx = (∂u/∂ x)dx/dx = ∂u/∂ x. and the sum of the normal strains is εx + ε y + εz = 0. Similarly.11 shows that this deﬁnition excludes the effects of rotation for small strains. Normal strains are deﬁned as the fractional extensions (tensile) or contractions (compressive). γ yx .22) (1. and distortion of a twodimensional body.10. Strain must be deﬁned in such a way as to exclude the effects of translation and rotation.Stress and Strain 11 y B B′ v + (∂v/∂y)dy C C′ Figure 1.23) Figure 1.21) Shear strains are similarly deﬁned in terms of the angles between AD and A D and between AB and A B . (1. so ε xx = (A D − AD)/AD = A D /AD − 1. L/Lo. they often undergo translations and rotations as well as deformation. For a small strain. Small Strains As bodies deform. (1. Translation. ε yy = (∂v/∂ y)/dy/dy = ∂v/∂ y.
εxx εi j = εxy εxz ε yx ε yy ε yz εzx ε yz . are one half of the engineering shear strains. Illustration of shear and rotation. (1. For a threedimensional body with displacements w in the zdirection. For example. (b). γ i j : ε yz = εzy = (1/2)γ yz = (1/2)(∂v/∂z + ∂w/dy) εzx = εxz = (1/2)γzx = (1/2)(∂w/∂ x + ∂u/dz εxy = ε yx = (1/2)γxy = (1/2)(∂u/∂ y + ∂v/∂ x).12 Solid Mechanics + = a b c Figure 1. (1.9).25) Transformation of Axes Small strains may be transformed from one set of axes to another in a manner completely analogous to the transformation of stresses (see Equation 1. εi j . εi j = im jn εmn .26) where double summation is implied.24) where the mathematical shear strains. + + y y εxy + εxz + yz x y y y ε yy xy + ε yz + yz (1. With small deformations. εx x = xx xx εxx + x y εxy x y x x ε yx + xz xx εzx (1. and γ yx = γxy = ∂v/∂ x + ∂u/∂ y Small strains can be treated as tensors.27a) + + and εx y = xx xx + x zεxz + x y x y ε yy xy + x zε yz + x z x y εzy x z x zεzz xx y x εxx xx xx + x y y x ε yx + x z y x εzx x z y y εzy xz y zεzz. ε yy = ∂v/∂ y. (a) differs from (c) only by a rotation. γ yz = γzy = ∂w/∂ y + ∂v/∂z.11.27b) . εzz (1.
12 ) = 1.000 cm by 1. Then calculate the strains.0 cm rectangle. b.000 cm was deformed into a rectangle 0.062 so calculating the strain from this.28a) x x y x εx x y yz xx yy + x y y yεy x z y y )γ yz + x z y zε z) xz yx + + +( + x x y z)γzx (1. ex = 2. ex = 2 2 x x ex + x y e y = 0. With small strains. ex .000 cm square deformed into a 0. (b) For the large deformation.414214 − 1 = 0.5 Figure 1. The reason is that the angles between material directions are altered by deformation. along the edges and use the transformation equation. Large strains are not tensors and cannot be transformed from one axis system to another by a tensor transformation. Taking the angle. ei j = im jn emn .7: A twodimensional square body initially 1. Small and large deformations of a body. which is very close to 0. along the diagonal from its initial and ﬁnal dimensions. a.12. Calculate the strain. The following example illustrates this point.10 2 1 x 1 0.28b) x y y x )γxy . and for the small defor√ mation the ﬁnal diagonal becomes (0. changes of angle are small and can be neglected. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1.1/2 − 0.062/1. εx = 2 x x εx + 2 x yεy + 2 x zε z + and γx y = 2( +( +( x y x zγ yz + x z x x γzx + x x x y γxy (1.0277.025.4534/1.4577.05/2 = 0.95 cm by 1.52 ) = 2.414214.0277.10 cm as shown in Figure 1.50 cm by 2. Repeat (a) for a 1.414214 − 1 = 0. ex and ey . . θ .000 cm by 1.952 + 1.95 or 0. the diagonal becomes (22 + 0. between the x and x (or y) axes as 45◦ .12.Stress and Strain 13 y x′ 1.4534. These can be written more simply in terms of the usual shear strains. so ex = (L − Lo)/Lo = L/Lo − 1 = 1. √ Solution: (a) The initial diagonal is 2 = 1. to ﬁnd the strain along the diagonal and compare with the two values of ex .
e. Care must be taken to remember that the tensor shearstrain terms are only one half of the conventional shear strains. the angle θ changes with deformation. which does not agree with e x = xy 0. Mohr’s circle for strain. so ex = 2 x ex + x 2 e y = (1/2)(1) + (1/2)(−.13. the agreement is not much better. because they are equal when small. The reason is that with large strains.5) = 0. as shown in Figure 1. ey . e (or ε) is a circle.31) (1. ε (or e). or true.5. A plot of γ /2 vs. Errors increase when the strains are large enough to cause rotation of the axes. analogous to those for stresses. are (e1 + e2 )/2 = (ex + e y )/2 (e1 − e2 )/2 = {[(ex − e y )/2] + (γxy /2)} 2 2 1/2 2 1/2 (1. The strains may be either engineering.13.5) = 0.062/1.14 Solid Mechanics γ/2 εx γxy /2 ε2 γxy /2 ε1 ε Figure 1.32) e1 . The equations. Mohr’s circle diagrams apply if the strains ex . With true strains. a threedimensional strain state can be represented by three Mohr’s circles.377. is a principal strain axis (γ yz = γzx = 0).30) (1. apply to small strains. εy The strains on the edges are ex = 1 and e y = −0.e2 = (ex + e y )/2 ± {[(ex − e y )/2] + (γxy /2) } tan(2θ) = (γxy /2)/[(ex − e y )/2] = γxy /(ex − e y ) As with Mohr’s stress circles.29) (1. Mohr’s Strain Circles Because small strains are tensor quantities. including the Mohr’s circle equations.4577 calculated from the specimen dimensions.0250. ε. Direct calculation of ex from the diagonal gives ex = ln(2. This is similar to the Mohr’s stress circle except that the normal strain. It is emphasized that the strain transformation equations. and calculation from the strains along the sides gives ex = (1/2)ln(2) + (1/2)ln(. and γ xy are known along two axes and the third axis.414) = 0. is plotted on the horizontal axis (instead of σ ) and γ /2 is plotted vertically (instead of τ ). . z.
Balancing the forces. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. acting on the crosssection of the wall. and a wall thickness. In each case. Find the stresses in the wall assuming that t is much smaller than D and that D is much less than L. P. The force in the wall is the stress. σ x . The force from the pressurization is the pressure. D. Pπ D 2 /4 = σ y π Dt. is loaded by an internal pressure P. the circles between e y and ez reduce to a point and the circles between ex and e y coincide with the circles between ex and ez. L. plane strain (e y = 0). acting on the end area of the tube. σ y = PD/(4t) (1.33) The hoop stress. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. In A and C. Solution: First make a cut perpendicular to the axis of the tube (Figure 1. Force and Moment Balances The solutions of many mechanics problems require force and moment balances. determine γmax . and solving for σ y . This is balanced . The force acting to separate the tube is the pressure.15a). acting on the internal area. t.14. σ y π Dt.9: A capped thinwall tube having a length. Threedimensional Mohr’s strain circles for (A) tension.14. and an xdirection compression test (assume e y = ez = −ex /3). (C) compression. P. Pπ D 2 /4. Consider force balances to ﬁnd the stresses in the walls of a capped thinwall tube loaded by internal pressure. DL.8: Solution: The threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagrams are shown in Figure 1. a diameter. and consider the vertical (ydirection) forces. σ y . Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagram for an xdirection tension test (assume e y = ez = −ex /3).Stress and Strain 15 γ/2 γ/2 γ/2 ey = ez ex e ez ey ex e ex ey = ez e a b c Figure 1. where L is the tube length. can be found from a force balance across a vertical cut (Figure 15b). (B) plane strain. The external forces acting on one half of the body must balance those acting across the cut.
σ x . Solution: Consider a differential element of dimensions (2π r)(dr) in a tubular element at a radius. and on the outside surface. τxy . (The force in the capped ends is neglected because the tube is long and we are interested in the stress in regions remote from the ends. τxy (2πr )(dr ).16. is much less than P D/(2t). A differential element of area 2πr dr in a rod loaded under torsion. in a rod of radius.15. . dr R r τxy z y x Figure 1.16 Solid Mechanics P σy σy σx t D P σx D t Figure 1. The average. On the inside surface. r. The shear stress.35) An explicit solution requires knowledge of how τ xy varies with r. 2Lt. R. The moment caused by external forces must equal the moment caused by internal stresses. a b by the hoop stress in the two walls. An example is the torsion of a circular rod. The torque about the central axis caused by this element is the shear force multiplied by the distance from the axis. so for engineering purposes we can take σz = 0. from the axis and of thickness dr (Figure 1. −P/2. T. τxy .10: Relate the internal shear stress. on this element causes a differential moment. PDL = σ x 2t. σz = −P. A moment balance may be made about any axis in a body under equilibrium. (1. σ z .16). EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1. acting on the crosssectional area of the two walls. dT = τxy (2πr )(r )dr . so T = 2π 0 R τxyr 2 dr (1. to the torque. r. Cuts through a thinwall tube loaded under internal pressure. The shear force acting on this element is the shear stress multiplied by the area. σz = 0. acting on the rod. is negligible relative to σx and σ y if D t.34) The stress in the radial direction though the wall thickness. 2π τxy r 2dr .) Equating these two forces. σx = P D/(2t) = 2σ y .
there are no shear stresses. the enlarged end of a tensile bar (Figure 1. acting on surfaces that are assumed to be frictionless. At the edge. Consider the deformation in a long narrow groove in a plate as shown in Figure 1. The long narrow groove (B) is in close contact with a thicker region (A). the two shear stress components in the surface vanish. that is. d. τ yz = τzx = 0. d d d . Grooved plate. boundary conditions and use them to make simplifying assumptions. Likewise.17. Venant’s principle states that the restraint from any end or edge effect will disappear within one characteristic distance. Unless there is a pressure acting on a free surface. the effect of the ends almost disappears at a distance. The y.18. As the plate deforms.17. Figure 1. Venant’s principle is a thin. The material outside the groove affects the xdirection ﬂow inside the groove. if z is the normal to a free surface. 3) St. so εx A = εx B. The condition of plane strain (ε y = 0) prevails over most of the material. 1) Free surfaces: On a free surface. Appreciable deviation from plane strain occurs only within a distance from the edges of the sheet equal to the sheet thickness. Here the characteristic distance is the diameter of the gauge section. the stress normal to it also vanishes. Its elongation or contraction must be the same as that in the material outside so that εx A = εx B. σ y = 0.18) tends to suppress lateral contraction of the gauge section next to it. σzz = 0. τ yz = τzx . wide sheet bent to a constant radius of curvature (Figure 1. so the constraint is almost gone at a distance from the enlarged end equal to the diameter. A B y x Common Boundary Conditions It is important in analyzing mechanical problems to recognize simple. In the gauge section of a tensile bar. the deformation in the groove must be compatible with the deformation outside the groove. from the shoulder. that is. This is because the top and bottom surfaces are so close that they restrain one another from contracting or expanding. 2) Constraints from neighboring regions: The deformation in a particular region is often controlled by the deformation in a neighboring region.and zdirection strains in the two regions need not be the same. often unstated.Stress and Strain 17 z Figure 1.20). Another example of St. As an example.
and ﬁnally use the Mohr’s circle equations. write the strain transformation equation expressing the strain ex in terms of the strains along the xy axes. Bending of a thin sheet. Problems 1.010 in.19. respectively. wall thickness. A body is loaded under a stress state.18 Solid Mechanics z x y Figure 1.] 3.20. Let x. While the steel is under load. [Hint: Let the direction of Gauge B be x .20. Calculate the principal strains ε1 and ε2 . y. What is the largest shear stress in the body? (Do not neglect the z direction. Sketch the Mohr’s circle diagram. b. c. Calculate the principal stresses. where there is a condition of plane stress (σV = 0). Note The simpliﬁcation of the notation for tensor transformation of σi j = 3 3 n=1 m=1 im jn σmn to σi j = im jn σmn has been attributed to Albert Einstein. a. y Gauge C u Ga ge B Figure 1. tangential (hoop). 40° x Gauge A . Plane strain (ε y = 0) prevails except near the edges. these gauges indicate the strains parallel to their axes: Gauge A = 450 × 10−6 : Gauge B = 300 × 10−6 : Gauge C = 150 × 10−6 a. in diameter and has a 0. and radial directions. and z be the axial. Arrangement of strain gauges. Three strain gauges have been pasted on the surface of a piece of steel in the pattern shown in Figure 1. τxy = 120. solve for γ xy . τ yz = τzx = σz = 0. σ y = 100. where 1 is the axis of the largest principal strain. b. Consider a thinwall tube that is 1 in. Find the angle between the 1axis and the xaxis.) 2. σx = 400.
A grid of circles. εx . a.54 mm and 10. 1 and 2.70 mm.21. When the sheet was deformed.21). 1 and 2. b.010. a. γxy ? c. ε y = 0. The strains in the xy plane are εx = 0. What is the largest shear strain in the body? (Do not neglect the z direction.005. c. ii. At what angles are the principal stress axes. Measurement of one indicated that the major and minor diameters were 11.lbs. Sketch the Mohr’s stress circle diagram showing stresses in the xy plane. If the axis of the major diameter of the ellipse makes an angle of 34◦ with the xdirection. Find the magnitude of ε1 and ε2 . to the x and y directions? 4. and γxy = 0. Draw the Mohr’s strain circle showing ε1 . was etched on the surface of a sheet of steel (Figure 1. 7. ε 1 and ε2 ? b.00 mm in diameter. i. Circle grids printed on a metal sheet. a. y 34° x x a. ε2 . What is the magnitude of the largest principal stress? iii. each 10.) 5.2◦ relative to the other end.22. i.and xaxes? d. What is the angle between the 1. What are the principal strains. and ε y . what would be the largest principal strain on the surface? Figure 1. A solid is deformed under planestrain conditions (εz = 0). respectively. Now let the tube be capped and let it be subject to an internal pressure of 120 psi and a torque of 100 in. If one end of the rod is twisted by 1. the grid circles were distorted into ellipses.Stress and Strain 19 y Figure 1. x θ . Sketch the Mohr’s stress circle diagram showing stresses in the xy plane. Glued rod. Consider the torsion of a rod that is 1 m long and 50 mm in diameter. At what angles are the principal stress axes.lbs. The tube is subjected to an axial tensile force of 80 lbs and a torque of 100 in. what is the shear strain.007. What is the magnitude of the largest principal stress? iii. to the x and y directions? b. Sketch the Mohr’s strain circle diagram. ii.
what would be the largest principal strain? 8.22. τmax . It will also fail if the normal stress across the joint exceeds its normal strength.20 Solid Mechanics b.lbs are applied in the direction shown. and it is desired that the rod carry as high a tensile force.5 in Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1.] 9. The rod will be loaded in uniaxial tension along its axis. should the joint be made so that a maximum force can be carried? b. θ . Fx .2% and its diameter decreased by 0. The diameter is 1. Consider a tube made by coiling and gluing a strip as show in Figure 1.] Tension 0. and the wall thickness is 0. τmax . If θmax were limited to 45◦ instead of 65◦ . θ . a. If a tensile force of 80 lbs and a torque of 30 in. Tube formed from a coiled and glued strip.. 68° Torque . cannot exceed 65◦ .030 in 1.030 in. is 80% of the normal strength. with the rod axis. σmax . x.5 in. how would your answer be altered? [Hint: Plot σx /σmax vs. the length is 6 in. σmax .23. what is the stress normal to the glued joint? [Hint: Set up a coordinate system. The joint will fail if the shear stress on the joint exceeds its shear strength. The angle. θ. as possible.4% at the same time it was being twisted. The shear strength. θ for both failure modes.. At what angle.23. Two pieces of rod are glued together along a joint whose normal makes an angle. If the rod were extended by 1.
The stresses σ y .1a) 21 . Uniaxial tension also causes lateral strains ε y = εz = −υεx . the general statement of Hooke’s law is εx = (1/E)[σx − υ(σ y + σz)]. most materials can undergo very much less elastic deformation than rubber. usually less than 0. it is safe to assume that the amount of deformation is proportional to the stress. e. it will revert to its original shape as soon as the load is removed. σ y .2 Elasticity Introduction Elastic deformation is reversible. This assumption is the basis of the following treatment. causes a contribution εx = σx /E. Taking into account these Poisson contractions. Consider the strain. The treatment in this chapter covers elastic behavior of isotropic materials. σx . A rubber band is a familiar example. For most materials other than rubber. When a body deforms elastically under a load. ε.5%. σx . and thermal expansion. Isotropic Elasticity An isotropic material is one that has the same properties in all directions. (2. where υ is Poisson’s ratio. produced by a general stress state. it does not matter whether the relations are expressed in terms of engineering strains. the tensile strain is εx = σx /E. The stress. However. σz. σz cause Poisson contractions εx = −υσ y /E and εx = −υσz/E. so γ yz = τ yz/G = 2ε yz. the temperature dependence of elasticity.1b) (2. If uniaxial tension is applied in the xdirection. or true strains. In crystalline materials elastic strains are small. εx . Anisotropic elastic behavior is covered in Chapter 15. Shear strains are affected only by the corresponding shear stress. Because elastic strains are small. where E is Young’s modulus.
Similar expressions apply for all directions: εx = (1/E)[σx − υ(σ y + σz)] ε y = (1/E)[σ y − υ(σz + σx )] εz = (1/E)[σz − υ(σx + σ y )] γ yz = τ yz/G γzx = τzx /G γxy = τxy /G. the volume strain V/V = εx + ε y + εz. The value of υ for an isotropic material cannot exceed 0. (2. (2. τ xy . V/V = (1/B)σm . From Hooke’s law. γxy /2 = [(1 + υ)/E]τxy . B = E/[3(1 − 2υ)]. For an isotropic material. is not independent of E and υ. where G is the shear modulus. if υ were larger than 0. shows that the principal stresses are σ 1 = τ xy . This can be demonstrated by considering a state of pure shear. and σ 3 = 0. The Mohr’s circle diagram. ε1 = (1/E)[σ1 − υ(σ2 + σ3 )] = (1/E)[τxy − υ(−τxy + 0)] = [(1 + υ)/E]τ. (2. Figure 2.1.2 hold whether or not the x. This can be demonstrated by considering the volume strain produced by a state of hydrostatic stress.1. Substituting for σ1 .1) shows that γxy /2 = ε1 . (2. σ 2 = −τ xy . y.5.7 that for small deformations. Then V/V = 3σm (1 − 2υ)/E.4) where σm = (σx + σ y + σz)/3. The Mohr’s strain circle diagram (Figure 2. σx = σ y = σz = σm . It was shown in Example Problem 1. Poisson’s ratio is between 0. the bulk modulus is not independent of E and υ. the shear modulus.2 and 0. Like the shear modulus. which would imply an increase of pressure would cause an increase of volume. is deﬁned by the relation between the volume strain and the mean stress.22 Solid Mechanics y τxy 1 τ τxy γ/2 γxy /2 τxy 2 x σ2 σ1 σ e2 e1 e Figure 2. Now comparing with γxy = τxy /G. G. Substituting εx = (1/E)[σx − υ(σ y + σz)] = (1/E)[σm − υ(σm + σm )] = [(1 − 2υ)/E]σm .1 and 2.4. and z directions are directions of principal stress. with σ x = σ y = σ z = τ yz = τ zx = 0. G = E/[2(1 + υ)]. . Mohr’s stress and strain circles for shear.3) The bulk modulus. Comparing with V/V = (1/B)σm .5) For most materials. B. B would be negative.2) Equations 2.5.
Also e y = 0 because the sheet is wide relative to its thickness and ey must be the same on top and bottom surfaces. as shown in Figure 2. E. σ y . ex = t/(2r ) = (1/E)[σx − v(σ y − 0)] = (1/E)(σx − v 2 σx ) = σx (1 − v 2 )/E. measured from the axis of bending to the center of the sheet. Solution: Designate the directions as shown in Figure 2. e y .2). Derive an expression for ez in terms of σ x .8 MPa. E. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2. Bent sheet.29 for steel. need be known to ﬁnd the other three. σx .2.29 · 227 = 65. Substituting again.1: A wide sheet (1 mm thick) of steel is bent elastically to a constant radius of curvature.6b) G = E/[2(1 + υ)] = 3EB/(9B − E) = (3/2)E(1 − 2υ)/(1 + υ) (2. This is illustrated in the following examples. Assume that there is no net force in the plane of the sheet. therefore it equals zero.6a) (2. G. Knowing that E = 208 GPa and υ = 0. . and υ only.2: A body is loaded elastically so that e y = 0 and σz = 0.001. Both σ x and σ y are ﬁnite. (2. σx = [t/(2r )]E/(1 − v 2 )] = (0. σ y = vσx = 0. Finally.6c) B = E/[3(1 − 2υ)] = EG/[3(3G − E)] = (2/3)G(1 + υ)/(1 − 2υ). υ. The strain ey and the stress σ z are zero. ey = (1/E)[σ y − v(σx − 0)]. or B can be expressed in terms of two others: E = 2G(1 + υ) = 3B(1 − 2υ) = 9BG/(G + 3B) υ = E/2G − 1 = 1/2 − E/6B) = 1/2 − (3/2)G/(3B + G) (2. the strain ex at the outer surface can be found geometrically as ex = (t/2)/r = (1/2)/500 = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.Elasticity 23 z t Figure 2. y x ρ θ Any of the four elastic constants.6d) Only three of the six normal stresses and strain components. ﬁnd the stress in the surface.001)(208 × 109 )/(1 − 0. ex .2.2. so σ y = vσx . Inspection shows that σz = 0 because the stress normal to a free surface is zero. Now substituting into Hooke’s laws (Equation 2.292 ) = 227 MPa. or σz. ez. ρ = 50 cm.
from symmetry. e3 = (1/E)[0 − υ(σ1 + σ1 )] = −0.3. The circle has a radius of 0. γmax = (e1 − e3 ) = 1. ez = (1/E)[0 − υ(σx + σx )] = −σx υ(1 + υ)/E. 0 = (1/E)[σ y − υ(0 + σx )].25.3.5σ1 . and e3 are plotted on the horizontal axis. The maximum shear strain. e1 = (1/E)(σ1 − vσ1 ) = 0.25σ1 /E. the elastic modulus decreases as the temperature is increased . Assume υ = 0. Variation of Young’s Modulus The binding energy between two neighboring atoms or ions can be represented by a potential well. Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s strain circle diagram for a body loaded elastically under balanced biaxial tension. γ ? EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2.3: so σ y = υσx . e2 . The Young’s modulus and the melting point are both related to the potential well. Because the (σ 1 − σ 2 ) circle reduces to a point. the equilibrium separation corresponds to the lowest energy. The curvature and the depth tend to be related.2). Mohr’s strain circles for an elastic body under biaxial tension.4 is a schematic plot showing how the binding energy varies with the separation of atoms. In Figure 2. σ1 = σ2 . Solution: Substituting e y = 0 and σz = 0 into Hooke’s law (Equation 2.75σ1 /E. the (σ 1 − σ 3 ) and (σ 2 − σ 3 ) circles are superimposed as a single circle. e1 . and the melting point depends on the depth of the well. At absolute zero. Figure 2. Solution: With σ1 = σ2 and σ3 = 0. so the elastic moduli of different elements roughly correlate with their melting points (Figure 2.5).625σ1 /E = (5/6)e1 with e2 = e1 and e3 = (−2/3)e1 . Substituting into Hooke’s law again. the modulus depends on the curvature at the bottom of the well. What is the largest shear strain. The modulus also correlates with the heat of fusion and the latent heat of melting. so using Hooke’s laws. e1 = e2 . For a given metal. which are related to the depth of the potential well.24 Solid Mechanics γ/2 (γ/2)max = (5/6)e1 e3 = − (2/3)e1 e e2 = e1 Figure 2.
6. equilibrium separation from absolute zero to the melting point. Schematic plot of the variation of binding energy with atomic separation at absolute zero.4. . Heat treatments that have large effects on hardness and yield strength. GPa 400 Mo Be Ni Co Fe Mn Cd Sn 0 0 1000 2000 3000 Al Ag Mg Cu Au V Zr Rh Cr W 200 4000 Melting temperature. The value of the elastic modulus at the melting point is in the range of onethird and oneﬁfth its value at absolute zero. K Figure 2.Elasticity 25 energy atomic separation Figure 2. have little effect on the elastic properties. This is illustrated for several metals in Figure 2. The elastic strains are largely a result of straightening polymer chains by rotation of 600 Ir Re Young’s modulus. the elastic modulus is generally regarded as being relatively structureinsensitive to changes of microstructure. Correlation between elastic modulus at room temperature and melting point. Young’s moduli of bodycentered cubic (bcc) and facecentered cubic (fcc) forms of iron differ by a relatively small amount. Elements with higher melting points have greater elastic moduli. The elastic behavior of polymers is very different from that of metals. Cold working and small alloy additions also have relatively small effects because only a small fraction of the nearneighbor bonds are affected by these changes.5. For crystalline materials.
its fractional change in length is L/L = α T. (2. Koster. Isotropic Thermal Expansion When the temperature of an isotropic material is changed. which allows it to ﬂow over the surface. Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde. Data from W. the magnitude of elastic strain is often much greater than in metals and ceramics. Consequently. bonds rather than by bond stretching. However. K Figure 2. v. and Hooke’s law can be generalized to include thermal strains: ex = (1/E)[σx − υ(σ y + σz)] + α L. Only in highly oriented polymers is the stretching of covalent bonds the primary source of elastic strains and the elastic moduli of highly oriented polymers are comparable with metals and ceramics. Young’s moduli of typical polymers of are orders of magnitudes lower that those of metals and ceramics. For polymers.4: ◦ A glaze is applied on a ceramic body by heating above it 600 C. Hooke’s law does not describe the elasticity of rubber very well. Young’s moduli decrease with increasing temperature. This is treated in Chapter 12. .8) This generalization is useful for ﬁnding the stresses that arise when constrained bodies are heated or cooled. 39 (1948). On cooling. (2. Variation of Young’s modulus with temperature.6.7) Such dimension changes can be considered strains.26 Solid Mechanics 250 200 Young’s Modulus GPa iron 150 copper 100 aluminum 50 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Temperature. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2. the moduli at the melting point are less than ﬁve times that at 0 K.
Because the glaze is very thin.7).3)]](4 − 5. The coefﬁcients of thermal expansion of the glaze and the body are αg = 4. Notes Robert Hooke (1635–1703) was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal Society on the recommendation of Robert Boyle. Body σz = 0 σx Glaze the glaze becomes rigid at 500◦ C (see Figure 2.3. (1/Eg )[σxg (1 − υg )] + αg T = αb T.0 × 10−6 /◦ C and αb = 5.5 × 10−6 /◦ C. he devised apparati to clarify points of discussion as well as to demonstrate his ideas. required for force a balance. σxb = σ yb = 0.7. The elastic constants for the glaze are Eg = 70 GPa and υg = 0. Taking σzg = σzb = 0 (free surface) and σxg = σ yg (symmetry). Calculate the stresses in the glaze when it has cooled to 20◦ C. He .1.Elasticity 27 σy Figure 2. the stress in the ceramic body. tbσxb + tg σxg = 0. is negligible. Solution: Let the direction normal to the surface be z so the x and y directions lie in the surface. exg = (1/Eg )[σxg − υg (σ yg + σzg )] + αg T = (1/Eb)[σxb − υb(σ yb + σzb)] + αb T.5)(10−6 /◦ C)(−480◦ C) = −72MPa (compression) on cooling The elastic constants and thermal expansion coefﬁcients for various materials are given in Table 2. In that post. Stresses in a glaze. The strains in the x and y directions must be the same in the glaze and the body. σxg = [Eg /(1 − υg )](αb − αg ) T = [(70 × 109 Pa)/(1 − 0. σxb = σ yb. Hence.
Academic Press (1964). in which he deﬁned the elastic modulus as the load per unit crosssectional area and determined E for iron. Simons & Wang. Single Crystal Elastic Constants and Calculated Properties – A Handbook. although he deﬁned it quite differently than we do today. Poisson (1781–1840) did not have a chance to learn to read or write until he was 15.31 – – – – – – noted that when he put weights on a string or a spring. Koster and H. 6 (1961) pp. Huntington. In his lectures.5 27. S. B. Franz.6 11. He described the modulus of elasticity in terms of the deformation at the base of a column due to its own weight.1.8 16. he was the ﬁrst to deﬁne the concept of a modulus of elasticity. v.291 0.8 0. 1–55. Louis Navier (1785–1836) wrote a book on the strength of materials in 1826. must be accompanied by lateral contraction. . which he took as (−1/4)e. MIT Press (1971). he passed the exams for admission to Ecole Polytechnique with distinction.2 128 44 207 205 350 70 2.8 Poisson’s ratio 0.35 2. After two years of visiting ´ mathematics classes. Elastic constants and thermal expansion coefﬁcient for various materials Thermal expansion coefﬁcient (×10−6 /◦ C) 23. Metals Review.28 Solid Mechanics Table 2. Because his family was poor. e. he took a post as lecturer at the Royal Institution. Thomas Young (1773–1829) studied medicine but because of his interest in science. He realized that axial elongation. Hooke was a contemporary of Isaac Newton. REFERENCES H.1 13.3 9 9 9 63 190 100 Material aluminum iron copper magnesium nickel MgO Al3 O3 glass polystyrene PVC nylon E (GPa) 62 208.35 – 0. The Elastic Constants of Crystals. Several times he claimed to have discovered things attributed to Newton but was never able to substantiate these claims. D. whom he envied. ¨ W.24 0. its deﬂection was proportional to the weight. not realizing that the ratio of contractile strain to elongation strain is a property that varies from material to material.
e y . decrease.29. assuming that the deformation is elastic. Consider a thinwalled tube. B. in terms of the elastic constants. e y = 0. B. Reconsider Problem 2 in Chapter 1 and assume that E = 205 GPa and υ = 0.00037. A sheet of metal was deformed elastically under balanced biaxial tension (σx = σ y . Assume elastic deformation and that Hooke’s law holds. capped at each end and loaded under internal pressure. 5. Calculate the principal strains. Poisson’s ratio for rubber is 0. A. 7. and γxy . x .00071. 2. Strain gauges mounted on a free surface of a piece of steel (E = 205 GPa. along which the strain εx = 0. Use Hooke’s laws to ﬁnd the principal stresses from the principal strains. ez/ex . σ y . or remain constant? 3.29) indicate strains of ex = −0. εz . and τ xy . εa /σ a . A. Calculate σx . Calculate the principal stresses under load. Derive an expression for the ratio of elastic strains. what is the value of ez ? 4. Does the length of the tube increase. There is an axis. . σz = 0). Calculate the ratio of the axial strain to the hoop strain. 6. A cylindrical plug of a gumite∗ is placed in a cylindrical hole in a rigid block of stifﬁte. and τxy directly from ex . in the gummite in terms of the Young’s modulus. B. υ = 0. C. A. Calculate the strain. D. Find the angle between x and x . Draw the Mohr’s strain circle diagram. Assume E = 107 psi and υ = 1/3.5. What does this imply about the bulk modulus? ∗ “Gummite” and “stifﬁte” are ﬁctitious names. Calculate the principal stresses directly from σx . and γxy = 0. and ey is measured as 1.30. A steel block (E = 30 × 106 psi and υ = 0.∗ Then the plug is compressed axially (parallel to the axis of the hole). of the gummite.00042. σ y . and Poisson’s ratio.29) is loaded under uniaxial compression along x. Assume that plug exactly ﬁts the hole and that the stifﬁte does not deform at all.00 × 10−3 . Derive an expression for the ratio of the axial strain to the axial stress. If E = 70 GPa and υ = 0. A. and compare your answers with the answers to B. E. B. υ.Elasticity 29 Problems 1.
and α = 18. υ = 0. × 10−6 69. The total thicknesses of the glass and the PMMA are equal.2.45 .040 in thick.30. For bronze.8. as shown in Figure 2. was mounted on a 2.000in diameter steel shaft by heating it to 100◦ C while the temperature of the shaft was maintained at 20◦ C. E = 16 × 106 psi. 0. Properties of Glass and PMMA Glass thermal expansion coefﬁcient (K ) Young’s modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio −1 PMMA 9.4 × 10−6 (◦ C)−1 . Assume each to be isotropic. .28 90. Laminated sheets of PMMA and glass. × 10−6 3. The properties of the glass and the polymethylmethacrylate are given here. Find the stresses when the assembly is cooled to 20◦ C.38 8. Under these conditions. PMMA glass PMMA z y x Figure 2. Properties of glass and PMMA are given in Table 2. A plate of glass is sandwiched by two plates of polymethylmethacrylate. Find the principal stresses in the sleeve after it cools to 20◦ C.30 Solid Mechanics Table 2. 0. and assume that creep is negligible. Assume that the composite is free of stresses at 40◦ C.8.2. A bronze sleeve. 9. Assume that friction between the shaft and the sleeve prevented any sliding at the interface during cooling. the sleeve just ﬁt on the shaft with zero clearance. and assume that the shaft is so massive and stiff that strains in the shaft itself are negligible.
With plasticity theory (Chapter 5). The ends may be screwed into threaded grips.2. There are several ways of gripping specimens. with appropriate caution. Tensile Testing Figure 3. pinned. so tests must be made to insure that materials meet these speciﬁcations. The maximum tensile stress that a material carries is called its tensile strength (or ultimate strength or ultimate tensile strength). 31 . Rather. The important part of the specimen is the gauge section. It has enlarged ends or shoulders for gripping. Tensile properties are also used in research and development to compare new materials or processes. Ductility describes how much the material can deform before it fractures. is the ductility incorporated directly into design. Rarely. The crosssectional area of the gauge section is less than that of the shoulders and grip region so the deformation will occur here. or held between wedges. tensile data can be used to predict a material’s behavior under forms of loading other than uniaxial tension.3 Mechanical Testing Introduction Tensile properties are used in the selection of materials for various applications. in engineering design. it is included in speciﬁcations only to assure quality and toughness. if ever. Elastic properties may be of interest but these usually are measured ultrasonically. as shown in Figure 3. The transition between the gauge section and the shoulders should be gradual to prevent the larger ends from constraining deformation in the gauge section. Both of these measures are used.1 shows a typical tensile specimen. Material speciﬁcations often include minimum tensile properties to assure quality. The level of stress that causes appreciable plastic deformation is called its yield stress. A material’s ductility may also be of interest. The gauge section should be long compared to the diameter (typically four times). Often the primary concern is strength.
This is not recovered when the load is removed. Figure 3. . if the bend is more severe it will only partly a b c d e split collar threaded grip serrated wedges serrated wedges pin Figure 3. From W. For small strains the deformation is elastic and reverses if the load is removed.32 Solid Mechanics Shoulder Diameter. plastic deformation occurs. it will snap back when released. If the wire is bent a small amount. ASM Int. Bending a wire or paper clip with the ﬁngers (Figure 3. The gripping system should assure that the slippage and deformation in the grip region is minimized. For round specimens these include (a) threaded grips. Sheet specimens may be gripped by (d) pins or by (e) serrated wedges. d Gauge length x≥d Figure 3.1.3 is a typical engineering stressstrain curve for a ductile material. (1992). At higher stresses. Special grips are used for specimens with butt ends.4) illustrates the difference. (b) serrated wedges. and (c) split collars for buttend specimens. Hosford in Tensile Testing. They should also prevent bending. However. Systems for gripping tensile specimens. Typical tensile specimen with a reduced gauge section and larger shoulders. F.2.
It is found by constructing a straight line parallel to the initial linear portion of the stressstrain curve but offset from it by e = 0.4.000 0 0.002 (0. ibid. neither deﬁnition is very useful because they both depend on how accurately strain is measured.3 0. there may be nonlinear elastic deformation. The more accurate the strain measurement is. With a small force (top). Typical engineering stressstrain curve for a ductile material.2%. the elastic part of the bending is recoverable but the plastic part is not. From Hosford.000 Engineering Stress (psi) 30. . The onset of plastic deformation is usually associated with the ﬁrst deviation of the stressstrain curve from linearity. leaving a permanent bend.3.) The offset yield strength is taken as the stress level at which this straight line Figure 3. With a greater force (below).000 20. To avoid this problem.∗ It is tempting to deﬁne an elastic limit as the stress that causes the ﬁrst plastic deformation and to deﬁne a proportional limit as the ﬁrst departure from linearity. However. ∗ For some materials.5 Engineering Strain Figure 3.Mechanical Testing 33 40.000 10. all bending is elastic and disappears when the force is released. Using the ﬁngers to sense the elastic and plastic responses of a wire. the lower is the stress at which plastic deformation and nonlinearity can be detected.2 0. the onset of plasticity is usually described by an offset yield strength.4 0.1 0.0 0. recover.
5%) instead of a speciﬁed plastic strain.34 Solid Mechanics 200 150 Engineering Stress.5). the lower yield strength is sensitive to the strain rate. the criterion should be made clear to the user of the data. Continued ¨ ¨ elongation occurs by movement of the Luder’s band along the gauge section rather than by continued deformation within the band. this deforming region is called a Luder’s band. Occasionally. ibid.002 (0. The rationale is that if the material had been loaded to this stress and then unloaded. the subsequent lower yield strength is used to describe yielding. ASTM stan¨ dards should be followed. as shown in Figures 3.2%). Only after the band has traversed the entire gauge section does the stress rise again. In all cases. MPa 0. 50 0.. the yield strength is usually deﬁned as the initial maximum stress. . From Hosford.2% 0 0 0. In the case of linear polymers. low carbon steels and linear polymers) have an initial maximum followed by lower stress.2% offset yield strength 100 Figure 3.5. Some laboratories report the minimum level as the yield strength and other use the average level.6a and 3. For steels.02 Engineering Strain intersects the stressstrain curve (Figure 3. Yield points: The stress–strain curves of some materials (e. At any given instant after the initial maximum.002 = 0.. The low strain region of the stressstrain curve for a ductile material.01 0. The advantage of this way of deﬁning yielding is that it is easily reproduced. For steels.g.g. other offset strains are used and or yielding is deﬁned in terms of the stress necessary to achieve a speciﬁed total strain (e.6b. The stress level during Luder’s band propagation ﬂuctuates. Because the initial maximum stress is extremely sensitive to the alignment of the specimen. 0. resulting in a plastic strain of e = 0. the unloading path would have been along this offset line. Even so. all of the deformation occurs within a relatively small region of the specimen. it is not useful in describing yielding.
the stress will reach a maximum well before fracture. which is simply deﬁned as %El = (L f − Lo)/Lo × 100%.8). the deformation in both materials occurs within a narrow band that propagates the length of the gauge section before the stress rises again. 1000 psi 30 Engineering stress. One is the percent elongation.1) Figure 3. Such materials have tensile strengths but no yield stresses.g. the deformation will occur uniformly along the gauge length. For ductile materials. For a ductile material.01 0.7. Engineering stress Engineering strain .02 Engineering strain 0. Inhomogeneous yielding of lowcarbon steel (left) and a linear polymer (right).6. The tensile strength (or ultimate strength) is deﬁned as the highest value of the engineering stress (Figure 3. the tensile strength corresponds to the point at which necking starts. the deformation localizes forming a neck as shown in Figure 3.Mechanical Testing 35 upper yield strength Engineering stress. After a maximum of the stress strain curve.. glass) fracture before they yield. When the maximum is reached.03 0 0 2 4 Engineering strain 6 Figure 3. As long as the engineering stressstrain curve rises.7. In this case. Less ductile materials fracture before they neck. After the initial stress maximum. Ductility Two common parameters are used to describe the ductility of a material. (3. Very brittle materials (e. deformation localizes to form a neck. the fracture stress is the tensile strength. psi lower yield strength 2000 20 1000 10 0 0 0.
With a gauge section that is very long compared to the diameter.3) The %El and %RA are no longer directly related after a neck has formed. there is no simple relation between the percent elongation of such standardized round bars and the percent elongation measured on sheet specimens or wires. %El = %RA/(100 − %RA) × 100% (3. this problem has been remedied by standardizing the ratio of the gauge length to diameter at 4:1. If the failure occurs before the necking. if the gauge section is very short the necking elongation accounts for most of the elongation. When this is not so. as with brittle materials or with rubberlike materials. In this case.2) where Ao is the initial crosssectional area and Af is the crosssectional area of the fracture. regardless of whether the specimen necks or it fractures before necking. the elastic elongation is so small compared to the plastic elongation that it can be neglected. The other common measure of ductility is the percent reduction of area at fracture. However.36 Solid Mechanics Engineering stress Tensile strength Engineering stress Tensile strength Engineering stress Tensile strength Engineering strain Engineering strain Engineering strain Figure 3. percent elongation has the disadvantage that it combines the uniform elongation that occurs before necking and the localized elongation that occurs during necking. On the other hand. As a measure of ductility. the contribution of necking to the total elongation is very small. it should be made clear whether or not the percent elongation includes the elastic portion. deﬁned as %RA = ( Ao − A f )/Ao × 100%. The uniform elongation depends how the material strain hardens rather than the fracture behavior. The necking elongation is sensitive to the specimen shape. ibid. For round bars. Measurements may be made on the broken pieces or under load. . For most materials. From Hosford. where Lo is the initial gauge length and Lf is the length of the gauge section at fracture.8. the %El can be calculated from the %RA by assuming constant volume. The tensile strength is the maximum engineering stress. (3.
Ao/A = L/Lo.Mechanical Testing 37 True Stress and Strain If the tensile tests are used to predict how the material will behave under other forms of loading. as the change in length divided by the original length. The true stress and strain at fracture were 630 MPa and 0. Because s = σ/(1 + e). e. What is the tensile strength of the material? Solution: The engineering strain at fracture was e = exp(0. Equation 3.4 as σ = (F/Ao)(Ao/A) and substituting Ao/A = 1 + e and s = F/Ao. the true stress and true strain can be calculated from the engineering quantities.197 = 526 MPa. F.6 would be valid over such a gauge section.4) where A is the instantaneous crosssectional area corresponding to the force. respectively.4 is still valid for true stress but the crosssectional area at the base of the neck must be measured independently. and the engineering strain. s. true stresstrue strain curves are useful.9) where A is the area at the base of the neck.18. LA = Lo Ao. σ . a material fractured before necking. e = L/Lo .8) (3. Then Equation 3. . is deﬁned as σ = F/A. so the true strain can be calculated as ε = ln( Ao/A). (3. the true strain. After necking starts. The true stress.9 shows the comparison of engineering and true stressstrain curves for the same material. is deﬁned as the force divided by the original area. Before necking begins. (3.1: In a tensile test. Figure 3. (3.197.6) so Ao/A = 1 + e.18) − 1 = 0. (3. With constant volume.5 could still be used if L and Lo were known for a gauge section centered on the middle of the neck and so short that the variations of area along its length are negligible. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.5 gives ε = ln(1 + e). As long as the deformation is uniform along the gauge length. the tensile strength = 630/1. σ = s(1 + e) Substitution of L/Lo = 1 + e into Equation 3. is given by ε = ln(L/Lo).5) The engineering stress. Rewriting Equation 3. s = F/Ao . (3.7) These expressions are valid only if the deformation is uniformly distributed along the gauge section. ε. Equation 3.
The results from these tests can be used.2: Calculate the temperature rise in a tension test of a lowcarbon steel after a tensile elongation of 22%.6 × 106 J/m3 )/ [(7. For highstrength materials.95(61.3 0. Before necking. Much greater strains can be reached in compression. tension tests are not useful for studying the plastic stressstrain relationships at high strains. the crosssectional area at the neck must be measured to ﬁnd the true stress and strain.5 0. sde = sav e equal to about 34 × 0.3 represents the stress strain curve of the material.8 × 103 kg/m3 )(447 J/kg/K)] = 17◦ C.2 0.1 0. a point on the true stressstrain curve (σ − ε) can be constructed from a point on the engineering stressstrain curve (s − e) with Equations 3.7 Figure 3.95(61. the rise can be much greater. . For steel. After necking. If the testing is rapid. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.6 0. Also assume that Figure 3.95 sde. Assume that 95% of the energy goes to heat and remains in the specimen. This is a moderate temperature rise.38 Solid Mechanics 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0. Temperature Rise Most of the mechanical energy expended by the tensile machine is liberated as heat in the tensile specimen.88 × 106 g/m3 . little heat is lost to the surroundings and the temperature rise can be surprisingly high. and bulge tests. Comparison of engineering and true stressstrain curves. to predict the stressstrain behavior under other forms of loading.6 × 106 J/m3 ) and C is heat capacity per volume = (78 × 103 kg/m3 )(447 J/kg/K).6 MPa = 61.0 σ– ε ε = n(1 + e) σ = s(1+ e) s –e Stress 0.22 ksi = 51. Substituting. most of the heat is dissipated to the surroundings so the temperature rise is much less.7 and 3. together with the theory of plasticity (Chapter 5). T = 0.4 Strain 0. Solution: The heat released equals 0. Compression Test Because necking limits the uniform elongation in tension.3. T = Q/C were Q = 0. From Figure 3.9. the heat capacity is 447 J/kgK and the density is 7. torsion.8. With very slow testing.6 MJ/m3 .
13) where k is the shear strength of the soft material. polyethylene. the midsection will bulge out or barrel. such as would be obtained by inserting a thin ﬁlm of a soft material (e. as . and the effect of friction can be lessened by increasing the heighttodiameter ratio. the average pressure is Pav = Y + (1/3)k(d/ h). of the specimen. µ.10. (3.. If the coefﬁcient of friction. lead. two problems limit the usefulness of compression tests: friction and buckling. h/d. Friction on the ends of the specimen tends to suppress the lateral spreading of material near the ends (Figure 3. or Teﬂon). Friction can be reduced by lubrication. between the specimen and platens is constant. Friction is usually greatest at the edges where liquid lubricants are lost and thin ﬁlms may be cut during the test by sharp edges of the specimens. A coneshaped region of dead metal (undeforming material) can form at each end with the result that the specimen becomes barrelshaped. However.g.12) where Y is the true ﬂow stress of the material. Much greater strains are achievable in compression tests than in tensile tests. On the other hand. However. these equations usually do not accurately describe the effect of friction because neither the coefﬁcient of friction nor the interface shear stress is constant. Severe barreling caused by friction may cause the sidewalls to fold up and become part of the ends. (3. Unless the ends of a compression specimen are well lubricated.Mechanical Testing 39 Figure 3.10). the average pressure to cause deformation is Pav = Y(1 + (µd/ h)/3 + (µd/ h)2 /12 + · · ·). As a consequence. if there is a constant shear stress at the interface. there will be a conical region of undeforming material (dead metal) at each end of the specimen.
Trans ASME v. the loadcarrying crosssectional area increases. From G.40 Solid Mechanics Figure 3.13). buckling can occur for h/d greater than equal to 1. (a) Friction at the ends prevents spreading. The lighter region outside was originally part of the cylindrical wall that folded up with the severe barreling. One way to circumvent the effects of friction is to test specimens with different diameter/height ratios. 68–76. W. Journal of Engineering for Industry. the stress levels can be found for an inﬁnitely long specimen in which the friction effects would be negligible (Figure 3. A. which results in barreling. (b) buckling of poorly lubricated specimens can occur if the heighttodiameter ratio. Although increasing h/d reduces the effect of friction. together Figure 3. . The strains at several levels of stress are plotted against d/h. If the test is so well lubricated that the ends of the specimen can slide relative to the platens.11. Without any friction at the ends (c). Backofen. Pearsall and W. By the extrapolating the stresses to d/h = 0. the specimen will buckle if it is too long and slender. in contrast to the tension test the absolute value of engineering stress is greater than the true stress (Figure 3. 85B (1963) pp. Buckling is likely if the heighttodiameter ratio is greater than about 3.11. h/d. Problems with compression testing.12). exceeds about 3.5 (Figure 3. buckling can occur if h/d is greater than about 1. Therefore. The darker central region was the original end. Photograph of the end of a compression specimen. The area increase.14).12. Periodic unloading to replace or relubricate the ﬁlm will help reduce these effects. During compression.5. shown in Figure 3.
e 200 True stressstrain σ–ε 100 0 0 0.3 0. The strain for “frictionless” conditions is obtained by extrapolating d/h to 0.1 0. on the true stresstrue strain curve corresponds to a point. The shape of the engineering stressstrain curve in compression can be predicted from the true stressstrain curve in tension.13. Extrapolation scheme for eliminating frictional effects in compression testing.5 Strain. Equations 3.14. Strain σ1 σ2 σ1 > σ2 > σ3 0 0. The arrows connect these points.15) 300 Figure 3. σ .0 σ3 d/h with work hardening. Each point. can lead to very high forces during compression tests unless the specimens are very small. but it must be remembered that both the stress and strain are negative in compression.2 0. and scomp = σ/(1 + e). assuming that absolute values of true stress in tension and compression are the same at the same absolute strainvalues. Strains at different levels of stress (σ 1 .7 and 3.Mechanical Testing 41 Figure 3. Stress (MPa) s and σ Engineering stress–strain s vs. on the engineering stressstrain curve. Stressstrain relations in compression for a ductile material. σ 3 ) are plotted for specimens of differing heights.8 apply.0 2. ecomp = exp(ε) − 1. s. σ 2 . e and ε .5 1. 400 (3. ε.14) (3. e.4 0.
Small samples can be compressed in a channel that prevents spreading (Figure 3. Because of this barreling. the engineering stress s = 100 MPa at an engineering strain of e = 0. and (b) planestrain compression of a wide sheet with a narrow indenter.15b). PlaneStrain Compression and Tension There are two simple ways of making planestrain compression tests. This eliminates the sidewall friction but the deformation at and . there is friction on the sidewalls of the channel as well as on the platens. σ = s(1 + e) = 100(1. An alternative way of producing planestrain compression is to use a specimen that is very wide relative to the breadth of the indenter (Figure 3.42 Solid Mechanics z y x x y z w t b a b Figure 3.3: In a tensile test. a hoopdirection tension must develop to aid in the circumferential expansion.20.2) = 0. Find the corresponding values of σ and ε. the engineering strain would be ecomp = exp(−0. Therefore. In this case.182 in compression. (a) Compression in a channel with the side walls preventing spreading. Planestrain compression tests.1667) = −144 MPa. In materials of high ductility.18) − 1 = −0. At what engineering stress and strain in compression would the values of σ  and ε equal those values of σ and ε? Solution: In the tensile test. the axial compressive stress in the bowed walls is lower than in the center. ε = ln(1 + e) = ln(1. secondary tensile stresses are responsible.2) = 120 MPa.15. In the latter case. At a true strain of −0.15a).1667 and the engineering stress would be scomp = σ/(1 + e) = −120 MPa/(1 − 0. Compression failures of brittle materials occur by shear fractures on planes at 45◦ to the compression axis.182. so the effect of friction is even greater than in uniaxial compression. Lateral constraint forcing ε y = 0 is provided by the adjacent material that is not under the indenter EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3. cracks may occur on the barreled surface. These occur because the frictional constraint on the ends causes the sidewalls to bow outward. either at 45◦ to the compression axis or perpendicular to the hoop direction.
A sheet specimen is placed t Figure 3. This allows evaluation of the stressstrain relationships at high strains. w/b.17. Such tests avoid all the frictional complications of planestrain compression. near the edges deviates from plane strain. To minimize this effect. All have a gauge section that is very short relative to its width: (a) Enlarged grips produced by welding to additional material. (b) reduced gage section cut into edge (c) very short gage section achieved by friction on the cylindrical grips. Schematic of a hydraulic bulge test of a sheet specimen. Several ways of making planestrain tension tests on sheet specimens. P P ρ . Corrections must be made for departure from plane strain ﬂow near the edges.16. be about 2:1.16 shows several possible specimens and specimen gripping arrangements. Hydraulic pressure causes biaxial stretching of the clamped sheet. At the very edge. However. Biaxial Tension (Hydraulic Bulge Test) Much greater strains can be reached in bulge tests than in uniaxial tension tests. Planestrain can be achieved in tension with specimens having gauge sections that are very much wider than they are long.Mechanical Testing 43 a b c Figure 3. Increasing b/t increases the effect of friction. it is recommended that the ratio of the specimen width to indenter width. the stress preventing contraction disappears so the stress state is uniaxial tension. b/t. This departure from plane strain extends inward for a distance approximately equal to the indenter width. They ﬁnd their greatest usefulness in exploring the plastic anisotropy of materials. A setup for bulge testing is sketched in Figure 3. It is also recommended that the ratio of the indenter width to sheet thickness. Figure 3. be about 8:1. the regions near the edges lack the constraint necessary to impose plane strain. Both of these tests simulate the plastic conditions that prevail during ﬂat rolling of sheet and plate.17.
Force balance on a small circular region near the dome.18. the pressure.18). εr . or 2π σρ( θ )2 t. and h r ρh θ Figure 3. σ . The stress. over a circular hole. σ = Pr/(2t).4: (3. Consider a force balance on a small circular element of radius ρ near the pole when θ is small (Figure 3. t = toexp(−2εr ).16) To ﬁnd the stress. and bulged outward by oil pressure acting on one side. The force acting upward is the pressure multiplied by the circular area.where ρ is the radius of curvature. in terms of the die radius.19. Equating the vertical forces. Geometry of a bulged surface. (3. to . ρ. the radius of curvature. and the radial strain must be measured simultaneously. and the radial strain. The downward force is the vertical component of this. ρ . on this circular region acts on an area 2π ρ θ t and creates a tangential force equal to 2π σρ θ t. P. This is balanced by the pressure. The total tangential force equals the thickness multiplied by the tangential stress. The thickness. the radius of this element is ρ θ. t. acting on an area π (ρ θ )2 and creating an upward force of Pπ (ρ θ )2 .17) Assume that in a hydraulic bulge test.44 Solid Mechanics ρ∆θ Pπ(ρ∆θ)2 ∆θ 2σπtρ∆θ 2σπtρ(∆θ)2 ρ ∆θ t Figure 3.) Express the radius of curvature. Using the small angle approximation. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3. (Note: This is not strictly true. clamped. the bulged surface is a portion of a sphere and that at every point on the thickness of the bulged surface the thickness is the same. is then deduced from the original thickness. The vertical component of the tangential force is 2π σρ θ t multiplied by θ . r.
21. Hydrostatic compression superimposed on the state of biaxial tension at the dome of a bulge is equivalent to a state of throughthickness compression. Equivalence of biaxial tension and throughthickness compression. h.Mechanical Testing 45 Figure 3. γ .20.20. The specimen shape remains constant. so there is no necking instability or barreling.21. The area of the curved surface of a spherical segment is A = 2π eh. the bulged height. Schematic of test? . the plastic stressstrain behavior of biaxial tension (in the plane of the sheet) and throughthickness compression are equivalent. torsion testing can be used to study plastic stressstrain relations to large strains. The hydrostatic part of the stress state has no effect on plastic ﬂow. There is no friction on the gage section. r R θ γ yz = r θ/L z R τ r dr L y x dT = r τyz2πr dr Figure 3. as shown schematically in Figure 3. so 2ρh = h2 + r 2 or ρ = (r2 + h2 )/(2h) where ρ is radius of the sphere and θ is the internal angle. so the average thickness strain is εt ≈ ln[(2πr h)/(2hr )] = ln(2h/r )]. (ρ − h)2 + r 2 = ρ 2 . Therefore.19). In a torsion test. Therefore. as shown in Figure 3. The shear strain. each element of the material deforms in pure shear. The original area of the circle was Ao = πr 2 . Also express the thickness strain at the dome in terms of r and h (see Figure 3. Solution: Using the Pythagorean theorem. Torsion Test Very large strains can be reached in torsion.
r.20) Because τ yz = Gγ yz and γ yz = r θ/L.18 into Equation 3. the shear stress varies linearly with the radial position and can be expressed as τ yz = τs (r/R). θ is the twist angle. and L is the specimen length. Integration requires substitution of the stressstrain (τ − γ ) relation. r T = 2π 0 τs (r/R)r 2 dr = (π/2)τs R3 . Assume that the shear yield stress. cannot be measured directly or even determined unequivocally from the torque. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3. Handbook equations for torque are usually based on assuming elasticity. which varies with radial position. The shear stress. Hooke’s law cannot be assumed. depends on γ . τ is a constant. where τ s is the shear stress at the surface.46 Solid Mechanics in an element is given by γ = r θ/L. τ . In this case. in terms of the bar radius. is the product of the shear force on it. The contribution of this element to the total torque. dT = 2π τr 2 dr R and τr 2 dr (3. T. Substituting this and Equation 3. Consider an annular element of radius r and width dr having an area 2π rdr. Therefore. or τs = 2T/(π R3 ). is a constant.5: Consider a torsion test in which the twist is great enough that the entire cross section is plastic. τ = Gγ .20. (3. (3. τ . T. This is because the shear stress.19) T = 2π 0 Equation 3.21) If the bar is not elastic. (3. Express the torque. τ depends on r. R. τ . R T = 2π(θ/L) 0 r 3 dr = (π/2)(θ/L)Gr 4 .19 cannot be integrated directly because τ depends on r. . In this case. and τ . The value of τs for elastic deformation can be found from the measured torque by substituting τ yz = τs (r/R) into Equation 3.18) where r is the radial position of the element.19. τ · 2πrdr. and the lever arm. The other extreme is when the entire bar is plastic and the material does not workharden.
(3. The buckling problem can be circumvented by making separate torsion tests on two bars of slightly different diameter. as shown in Figure 3. (3. Because of this. In this case. The engineering strain. the integral (Equation 3. In bending. Because of this. caused by the stress on a differential element at z is the force σ wdz multiplied by the lever . the strain path in the material is constantly changing. It should be realized that in a torsion test. e. as in torsion. Bend Tests Bend tests are used chieﬂy for materials that are very brittle and difﬁcult to machine into tensile bars.Mechanical Testing 47 Solution: The shear force on a differential annular element at a radius r is τ · 2πr dr . so one does not know how the stress varies with radial position. (3. torsion tests have been used to simulate the deformation in metal during hot rolling so that the effects of simultaneous hot deformation and recrystallization can be studied. The bending moment. dM. z.22.23) where r is the wall thickness.24) where ρ is the radius of curvature at the neutral plane. the form of the stressstrain relationship cannot be assumed. even at elevated temperatures. The advantage of torsion tests is that very large strains can be reached. Integrating. the material rotates relative to the principal stress axes. from the neutral plane. Consider bending a plate of width w. the stress and strain vary with location. However thinwalled tubes tend to buckle and collapse when subjected to torsion. The difference between the two curves is the torquetwist curve for a cylinder whose wall thickness is half the diameter difference.22) could be approximated as T = 2πr 2 r τ. R = 2π τ 0 r 2 dr = (2/3)π R 3 τ. e = z/ρ. This causes a differential torque of dT = r (τ · 2πr dr ). varies linearly with distance.22) If the torsion test is being used to determine the stressstrain relationship. One way around this problem might be to test a thinwalled tube in which the variation of stress and strain across the wall would be small enough that the variation of τ with r could be neglected.
at a distance.26. w. σ must be expressed in terms of z. The relation between the moment and the stress is different if plastic deformation occurs. Bending moment caused by a differential element of width. Substituting ρ = wEt 3 /(12M) from Equation 3.23. σ = eE/(1 − v 2 ).48 Solid Mechanics w t y dz z Neutral plane Figure 3. M = F L/2. Note that L is deﬁned differently for each test.25) To integrate. F F/2 F/2 L L Figure 3. and in fourpoint bending. z. σ = (z/ρ)E. thickness.27) In threepoint bending. M = F L/4. If the entire section is elastic and w t. . Threepoint bending test (left) and fourpoint bending (right). as shown in Figure 3. (3.23.26) The surface stress is σs = E(t/2)/ρ.22. from the neutral plane. (3. σs = 6M/(wt 2 ). dM = σ wzdz. t/2 M=2 0 σ wzdz. z. Substituting for t/2 e. ρ arm. dz. Integrating M = 2w(E/ρ) 0 z2 dz. The total bending moment is twice the integral of dM from the neutral plane to the outside surface. (3. σ = eE (or if w t. M = 2w(E/ρ)(t/2)3 /3 = w(E/ρ)t 3 /12.
Mechanical Testing
49
Consider a fourpoint bend test on a ﬂat sheet of width, w, of a material for which the stress to cause plastic deformation is a constant, Y. Assume also that the bend is sharp enough so that the entire thickness is plastic. Derive an expression that can be used to determine Y from the force, F.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3.6:
Solution: The differential force on an element of thickness, dz, at a distance z from the center is Y(wdz). This force causes a differential moment, dM = wYzdz. The net moment is twice the integral of dM from the center to the surface (z = t/2). Then M = 2wY(t/2)2 /2 = wt 2 Y/4. Substituting M = F L/2 for fourpoint bending, Y = 2F L/wt 2 . Measurements of fracture strengths of brittle materials are usually characterized by a large amount of scatter because of preexisting ﬂaws, so many duplicate tests are usually required. The fracture stress is taken as the value of the surface stress, σs , at fracture. This assumes that no plastic deformation has occurred (see Chapters 11 and 12).
Hardness Tests
Hardness tests are very simple to conduct, and they can be performed on production parts as quality control checks without destroying the part. They depend on measuring the amount of deformation caused when a hard indenter is pressed into the surface with a ﬁxed force. The disadvantage is that although hardness of a material depends on the plastic properties, the stressstrain relation cannot be obtained. Figure 3.24 shows the indenters used for various tests. The Rockwell tests involve measuring the depth of indentation. There are several different Rockwell scales, each of which uses different shapes and sizes of indenters and different loads. Conversion from one scale to another is approximate and empirical. Brinell hardness is determined by pressing a ball, 1 cm in diameter, into the surface under a ﬁxed load (500 or 3000 kg). The diameter of the impression is measured with an eyepiece and converted to hardness. The scale is such that the Brinell hardness number, HB , is given by HB = F/As , (3.25)
where F is the force expressed in kg and As is the spherical surface area of the impression in mm2 . This area can be calculated from As = π D[D − (D2 −d 2 )1/2 ]/2, (3.26)
where D is the ball diameter and d is the diameter of the impression, but it is more commonly found from tables.
50
Solid Mechanics
Shape of Indentation
Test Indenter 10mm sphere of steel or tungsten carbide Diamond pyramid Side View D P d 136°
d
l
Top View
Load
Formula for Hardness Number BHN = 2P πD(D − D 2 − d 2)
Brinell
d
Vickers
d
l
P
2 VHN = 1.72 P/d 1
Knoop microhardness Rockwell A C D B F G E
t Diamond pyramid l/b = 7.11 b/t = 4.00 120° t
1 in.16
b P l 60 kg 150 kg 100 kg 100 kg 60 kg 150 kg RA = RC = RD = RB = RF = RG = RE = KHN = 14.2 P/l 2
Diamond pyramid
100 − 500t
Diameter steel sphere
1 in.8
t 100 kg
130 − 500t
Diameter steel sphere
Figure 3.24. Various hardness tests. From H. W. Hayden, William G. Moffat and John Wulff, Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. III Mechanical Behavior, Wiley (1965).
Brinell data can be used to determine the Meyer hardness, HM , which is deﬁned as the force divided by the projected area of the indentation, π d2 /4. The Meyer hardness has greater fundamental signiﬁcance because it is relatively insensitive to load. Vickers and Knoop hardnesses are also deﬁned as the indentation load divided by the projected area. They are very nearly equal for the same material. Indentations under different loads are geometrically similar unless the indentation is so shallow that the indenter tip radius is not negligible compared to the indentation size. For this reason, the hardness does not depend on the load. For Brinell, Knoop, and Vickers hardnesses, a rule of thumb is that the hardness is about three times the yield strength when expressed in the same units. (Note that hardness is conventionally expressed in kg/mm2 and strength in MPa. To convert kg/mm2 to MPa, multiply by 9.807. Figure 3.25 shows approximate conversions between several hardness scales). Mineralogists frequently classify minerals by the Moh’s scratch hardness. The system is based on ranking minerals on a scale of 1 to 10. The scale is such that a mineral higher on the scale will scratch a mineral lower on the scale. The scale is arbitrary and not wellsuited to metals as most metals tend to fall in the range between 4 and 8. Actual values vary somewhat with how the test
Mechanical Testing
51
1000
Rockwell B Knoop
100
Hardness (Knoop, Brinell)
Brinell Rockwell A
600
Rockwell C
60
400
40
200
Rockwell C
20
0 0 200 400 600 800 Vickers Hardness No.
0 1000
Figure 3.25. Approximate relations between several hardness scales. For Brinell (3000 kg) and Knoop, read left. For Rockwell A, B, and C scales, read right. Data from Metals Handbook, vol. 8, 9th ed, American Society for Metals (1985).
is made (e.g., the angle of inclination of the scratching edge). Figure 3.26 gives the approximate relationship between Moh’s and Vickers hardnesses. Hardness tests are normally made with indenters that do not deform. However, it is possible to measure hardness when the indenters do deform. This is useful at very high temperatures where it is impossible to ﬁnd a suitable material for the indenter. Deﬁning the hardness as the indentation force
10,000
Diamond
Hardness (Rockwell A, B, & C)
800
80
Vickers hardness
1,000
Topaz Quartz Orthoclase Apatite
Corundum
Figure 3.26. Relation between Knoop and Moh’s hardness scales.
Fluorite
100
Calcite Gypsum Talc
10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Moh’s hardness number
52
Solid Mechanics
Figure 3.27. Mutual indentation of two wedges. The hardness is the force per unit area.
divided by the area of indentation, the hardness, H, of a material is proportional to its yield strength, H = cY, (3.27)
where c depends mainly on the geometry of the test. For example, in a Brinell test where the indenting ball is very much harder than the test material, c ≈ 2.8. For mutual indentation of cross wedges, c ≈ 3.4, (Figure 3.27) and for crossed cylinders, c ≈ 2.4. The constant c has been determined for other geometries and for cases where the indenters have different hardnesses. The forces in automobile accidents have been estimated from examining the depths of mutual indentations.
Notes
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) described a tensile test of a wire. Fine sand was fed through a small hole into a basket attached to the lower end of the wire until the wire broke. Figure 3.28 shows his sketch of the apparatus. The yield point effect in linear polymers may be experienced by pulling the piece of plastic sheet that holds a sixpack of carbonated beverage cans together. When one pulls hard enough, the plastic will yield and the force
Figure 3.28. Leonardo’s sketch of a system for tensile testing wire. The load was applied by pouring sand into a basket suspended from the wire.
Mechanical Testing
53
Figure 3.29. Galileo’s sketch of a bending test.
drop. A small thinned region develops. As the force is continued, this region will grow. The yield point effect in lowcarbon steel may be experienced by bending a lowcarbon steel wire (ﬂorist’s wire works well). First, heat the wire in a ﬂame to anneal it. Then bend a 6in. length by holding it only at the ends. Instead of bending uniformly, the deformation localizes to form several sharp kinks. Why? Bend an annealed copper wire for comparison. Galileo Galilel (1564–1642) stated that the strength of a bar in tension was proportional to its crosssectional area and independent of its length. The apparatus suggested by Galileo for bending tests is illustrated in Figure 3.29.
REFERENCES
Tensile Testing, ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1992). Percy Bridgman, Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture, McGrawHill, NY (1952). Metals Handbook, 9th ed. vol. 8, Mechanical Testing, ASM (1985). D. K. Felbeck and A. G. Atkins, Strength and Fracture of Engineering Solids, PrenticeHall (1984).
Problems
1. The results of a tensile test on a steel test bar are given in Table 3.1. The initial gauge length was 25.0 mm and the initial diameter was 5.00 mm. The diameter at the fracture was 2.6 mm. The engineering strains and stresses are given in Table 3.1. A. Plot the engineering stressstrain curve. B. Determine Young’s modulus, the 0.2% offset yield strength, the tensile strength, the percent elongation, and the percent reduction of area. 2. Construct the true stress/true strain curve for the material in Problem 1. Note that necking starts at maximum load, so the construction should be stopped at this point.
Extension from L = 1 to L = 2 D. 8th ed.15 0. 386.22 0. The area under an engineering stressstrain curve up to fracture is the energy per unit volume. Two strain gauges were mounted on opposite sides of a tensile specimen. Compression from h = 1 to h = 0. 250 3. 185.54 Solid Mechanics Table 3.10 0.6 388.9 351. e.0 to L = 1. The ASM Metals Handbook (Vol.34 0.0 0. 6.5 384. 249. What is the difference? Explain.08 0. thick sheet and r 38.7 382.42 0. There are two possible sources of error with this procedure.04 0.030 in. p 1008) gives the percent elongation in a 2in. 4. Suggest a reason for the differences.9 C. 83.0004 0.28 0.47 Stress (MPa) 388.505 in. diameter bar r 45% for a 0. If the specimen necks. What was the probable cause of this discrepancy? .30 Stress (MPa) 319. these two areas are not equal. Instead.5 378.1 B.0006 0.0 Strain 0.7 274.0.1 371.. Compression from h = 1 to h = 1/2.2 384.24 0.2c) is used and the strain is computed from the crosshead movement.38 0. 155.4 387.5 308.0 42. ε for each of the following: A.4 388. One is that the gripping system may deform elastically and the other is that the button head may be drawn partly through the collar.40 0.32 0. and the true strains. Extension from L = 1. 125.5% for a 0. Suppose it is impossible to use an extensometer on the gauge section of a test specimen. How would each of these errors affect the calculated true stress and true strain? 7. Readings from one gauge gave a modulus much greater than those from the other gauge.0015 0. 1.9 293. Strains measured as the bar was pulled in tension were used to compute Young’s modulus.46 0. Determine the engineering strains. a buttonhead specimen (Figure 3.5 382.0002 0. 362.05 Stress (MPa) 0.20 0.26 0. gauge section for annealed electrolytic toughpitch copper as r 55% for a 0.3 388.1. Results of a tension test Strain 0.010 in diameter wire.8 337.03 0.9 Strain 0. The area under a true stressstrain curve up to fracture is also the energy per unit volume.44 0.06 0.02 0. 5.005 0.7 386.
τ . Derive an expression relating the torque. ψ. 13.20. between the axis of the largest principal stress and the axial direction and the angle. From this construct the engineering stressstrain curve in compression. derive equations relating the angle.30. is constant. γ . assuming that the bar is: A. B. At what angle to the axis of the bar are the tensile stresses the greatest? 11. these two angles are not the same. 12. between the axis of the largest principal strain and the axial direction in terms of L. showing all three principal stresses. The two types of planestrain compression tests illustrated in Figure 3. Sketch the threedimensional Mohr’s stress and strain diagrams for a planestrain compression test. 9. Entirely plastic and does not workharden so the shear stress. in a tension test to the shear stress at the surface. T. r. 10. neglecting friction.30.19. Entirely elastic so τ varies linearly with the shear strain. B. Engineering stressstrain curve for a lowcarbon steel. Note that for ﬁnite strains. The engineering stressstrain curve from a tension test on a lowcarbon steel is plotted in Figure 3. ψ. 8. τ s .Mechanical Testing 55 Figure 3. θ. For a torsion test. and the twist angle. D. . Draw a Mohr’s circle diagram for the surface stresses in a torsion test. The planestrain tension tests illustrated in Figure 3. Discuss the how friction and inhomogeneous deformation affect the results from: A. in terms of the bar diameter.
15. How would you expect the value of A to depend on the ratio of t/w? 16. Assume that the sheet is locked at the opening. εc . By convention. εt . and t is the specimen thickness.56 Solid Mechanics 14. and the radial strain. too high. and t for the threepoint bending of a specimen having a rectangular crosssection. Vickers.24 gives the stresses at the surface of bend specimens. The principal strains in a circular bulge test are the thickness strain. varies over the surface of the bulge. or correct? 17. the circumferential (hoop) strain. w. . Equation 3. Sf . In making Rockwell hardness tests. which is not an SI unit. it is important that the bottom of the specimen is ﬂat so that the load does not cause any bending of the specimen. Describe how the ratio. If there is plastic deformation during the bend test. To what stress. in MPa. where a is a constant and E is Young’s modulus. εc /εr . in bending as a function of Ff . Assume the deformation is elastic and the deﬂection. w is the specimen width. L. either too high or too low depending on where the plastic deformation occurs. and Knoop hardness numbers are stresses expressed in units of kg/mm2 . L is the distance between supports. where Ff is the force at fracture. Derive an expression for the fracture strength. Explain. On the other hand. will the stress predicted by this equation be too low. in bending is given by y = αFL3 /(EI). this is not important in making Vickers or Brinell hardness tests. Brinell. does a Vickers hardness of 100 correspond? 18. Meyer. y. The derivation of this equation is based on the assumption of elastic behavior. εr .
The term ﬂow stress is used to describe the stress necessary to continue deformation at any stage of plastic strain. Which approximation is best depends on the material. The ﬂow stress. and the symbol ε will signify the true plastic strain. so σ = Y.4 Strain Hardening of Metals Introduction With elastic deformation. and the need for accuracy. (4. the nature of the problem. σ = Y + Aε. the strains are proportional to the stress so every level of stress causes some elastic deformation. This chapter will consider several approximations and their applications. Various approximations are possible. designing of dies for stamping parts. As the stress is further increased. the total strain is the sum of the elastic strain (which still obeys Hooke’s law) and the plastic strain. is independent of strain. Mathematical descriptions of true stressstrain curves are needed in engineering analyses that involve plastic deformation such as predicting energy absorption in automobile crashes.1b). (4. Mathematical Approximations The simplest model is one with no workhardening. After plastic deformation starts. a deﬁnite level of stress must be applied before any plastic deformation occurs. it will be neglected in this chapter. and analyzing the stresses around cracks. σ .1a). For linear workhardening (Figure 4. The terms strain hardening and work hardening are used interchangeably to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation.1) where Y is the tensile yield strength (see Figure 4. On the other hand.2) 57 . Because the elastic part of the strain is usually much less than the plastic part. the amount of deformation increases but not linearly.
1: A. at large strains. true strain is nearly linear.58 Solid Mechanics σ Y ε σ=Y σ Y ε σ = Y + Aε σ σ σ σo ε σ = Kεn εo σ = K(ε + εo)n ε ε σ = σo[1 − exp(−Aε)] a b c d e Figure 4.4) (see Figure 4. Then taking the ratios σ2 /σ1 = (ε2 /ε1 )n and ﬁnally taking the natural logs of both sides. σ2 and σ1 . Then taking the ratios.283 = 368. Find the values of K and n in Equation 4. σ2 /σ1 = [1 − exp(−Aε2 )]/[1 − exp(−Aε1 )].1.30. a power law.283. n = ln(σ2 /σ1 )/ln(ε2 /ε1 ) = ln(303/222)/ln(0. B. σ1 = σo[1 − exp(−Aε1 )] and σ2 = σo[1 − exp(Aε2 )]. σ2 and σ1 .30.8 MPa. a loglog plot of true stress vs.5 MPa. Appling the saturation model to two levels of stress. predict the true stress at a strain of ε = 0. Still another model is a saturation model suggested by Voce (Figure 4. K = σ/εn = 303/0. In this case. σ o . Two points on a true stressstrain curve are σ = 222 MPa at ε = 0. Then using these values of K and n. Substituting σ2 /σ1 = 303/222 .1c). Solution: A. B. (4.30)0. Then using these values of K and n.5) Equation 4. σ = Kεn .283 = 518.3 that best ﬁt the data. This model seems to be reasonable for a number of aluminum alloys. σ = 518. (4.1d).5 that best ﬁt the data. A better ﬁt is often obtained with σ = K(ε + εo)n (4.30. It is more common for materials to workharden with a hardening rate that decreases with strain. Mathematical approximations of the true stressstrain curve.5 predicts that the ﬂow stress approaches an asymptote. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.1e) is σ = σo[1 − exp(−Aε)].3) is a reasonable approximation (Figure 4. At e = 0.150.05) = 0.15.4(0.05 and σ = 303 MPa at ε = 0. Apply the power law at two levels of stress. Find the values of σo and A in Equation 4. This expression is useful where the material has undergone a prestrain of εo.15/0. For many metals. predict the true stress at a strain of ε = 0.
8 MPa.3). the workhardening rate is initially high but the rate decreases rapidly with strain.365. with a large n.23 0.6) Necking As a tensile specimen is extended. At e = 0. lnσ = lnK + nlnε so the true stressstrain relation plots as a straight line on loglog coordinates as shown in Figure 4. Prentice Hall (1983). The maximum loadcarrying Table 4.15 and.20 to 0. the initial workhardening is less rapid but continues to high strains. s = 310[1 − exp(−25. the level of true stress.15)] = 296 MPa.1. On the other hand. K (MPa) 525 to 575 650 to 900 400 to 500 420 to 480 525 to 750 400 to 550 Strain hardening exponent. (4. A = 25.35 to 0. ε1 = 0.0.40 to 0.2 × 0.20 to 0.Strain Hardening of Metals 59 = 1.15 to 0. K is the value of σ at this point. is a measure of the persistence of hardening.2.2 × 0. . Figure 4. solving by trial and error. The level of n is particularly signiﬁcant in stretch forming because it indicates the ability of a metal to distribute the strain over a wide region.1 lists K and n for various materials. The exponent. In such cases. If n is low. If σ = Kεn . Table 4.30)] = 309. K. Typical values of the exponent n are in the range of 0. σo = 303[1 − exp(−25.30.18 0.2 shows that the exponent.55 0. The value of n is then taken as the slope of the linear portion of the curve.6.1 to 0. Metal Forming.05 and ε2 = 0. As a rule.3 over the strain range of concern. n. it is still convenient to use Equation 4. PowerLaw Approximation The most commonly used expression is the simple power law (Equation 4. highstrength materials have lower nvalues than lowstrength materials. is the slope of the line. n. σ . n 0. n = d(lnσ )/d(lnε) = (ε/σ )dσ/dε. can be found by extrapolating to ε = 1. Typical values of n and K∗ Strength coefﬁcient.3.30 Material lowcarbon steels HSLA steels austenitic stainless copper 70/30 brass aluminum alloys ∗ From various sources including Hosford and Caddell. The preexponential.50 0.45 to 0. rises but the crosssectional area carrying the load decreases.60 0. Often a loglog plot of the true stressstrain curve deviates from linearity at low or high strains. Mechanics and Metallurgy.
60
Solid Mechanics
n = 0.6 1.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 1 0.1 0.05
True stress
0.5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
True strain
Figure 4.2. True stress–strain curves for σ = Kεn with several values of n. To make the effect of n on the shape of the curves apparent, the value of K for each curve has been adjusted so that it passes through σ = 1 at ε = 0.3.
capacity is reached when dF = 0. The force equals the true stress multiplied by the actual area, F = σ A. Differentiating gives Adσ + σ dA = 0. (4.7)
Because the volume, AL, is constant, dA/A = −dL/L = −dε. Rearranging terms, dσ = −σ dA/A = σ dε, or dσ/dε = σ.
1,000
(4.8)
True stress
K
100 0.01
0.1
1
Figure 4.3. A plot of the true stressstrain curve on logarithmic scales. Because σ = Kεn , lnσ = lnK + nlnε. The straight line indicates that σ = Kε n holds. The slope is equal to n, and K equals the intercept at ε = 1.
True strain
Strain Hardening of Metals
61
True stress, σ and slope, dσ/dε
Slope, dσ/dε
Figure 4.4. The condition for necking in a tension test is met when the true stress, σ , equals the slope, dσ /dε, of the true stressstrain curve.
True stress, σ
Start of necking
0
0.1
0.2
0.3 Strain, ε
0.4
0.5
Equation 4.8 simply states that the maximum load is reached when the rate of workhardening is numerically equal to the stress level. As long as dσ/dε > σ, deformation will occur uniformly along the test bar. However, once the maximum load is reached (dσ/dε = σ ), the deformation will localize. Any region that deforms even slightly more than the others will have a lower loadcarrying capacity and the load will drop to that level. Other regions will cease to deform, so deformation will localize into a neck. Figure 4.4 is a graphical illustration. If a mathematical expression is assumed for the stressstrain relationship, the limit of uniform elongation can be found analytically. For example, with powerlaw hardening, Equation 4.3, σ = Kεn , and dσ/dε = nKεn−1 . Substituting into Equation 4.8 gives Kεn = nKεn−1 , which simpliﬁes to ε = n, (4.9)
so the strain at the start of necking equals the strainhardening exponent, n. Uniform elongation in a tension test occurs before necking. Therefore, materials with a large nvalue have large uniform elongations. Because the ultimate tensile strength is simply the engineering stress at maximum load, the powerlaw hardening rule can be used to predict it. First, ﬁnd the true stress at maximum load by substituting the strain, n, into Equation 4.3, σmax load = Knn . (4.10)
62
Solid Mechanics
a
b
a
Figure 4.5. Stepped tensile specimen. The initial crosssectional area of region b is f multiplied by the crosssectional area of A.
Then substitute σ = σ/(1 + ε) = σ exp(−ε) = σ exp(−n) into Equation 4.10; the tensile strength is expressed as σmax = Knn exp(−n) = K(n/e)n , (4.11)
where e is the base of natural logarithms. Similarly, the uniform elongation and tensile strength may be found for other approximations to the true stressstrain curve.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.2:
A material has a true stressstrain curve that can be approximated by σ = Y + Aε. Express the uniform elongation, ε, in terms of the constants, A and Y. Solution: The maximum load is reached when dσ/dε = σ. Equating dσ/dε = A and σ = Y + Aε, the maximum load is reached when A = Y + Aε or ε = 1 − Y/A. The engineering strain is e = exp(ε) − 1 = exp(1 − Y/A) − 1.
Work per Volume
The area under the true stressstrain curve is the work per volume, w, expended in the deforming a material, that is, w = σ dε. With powerlaw hardening, w = Kεn+1 /(n + 1). This is sometimes called the tensile toughness. (4.12)
Localization of Strain at Defects
If the stresses that cause deformation in a body are not uniform, the deformation will be greatest where the stress is highest and least where the stress is lowest. The differences between the strains in the different regions depend on the value of n. If n is large, the difference will be less than if n is low. For example, consider a tensile bar in which the crosssectional area of one region is a little less than in the rest of the bar (Figure 4.5). Let these areas be Aao and Abo . The tensile force, F, is the same in both regions, Fa = Fb , so σa Aa = σb Ab. (4.13)
Strain Hardening of Metals
63
Figure 4.6. The relative strains in two regions of a tensile bar having different initial crosssectional areas.
Because ε = ln(L/Lo) and (L/Lo) = (Ao/A), the instantaneous area, A, may be expressed as A = Ao exp(−ε), so Aa = Aao exp(−εa ), Ab = Abo exp(−εb). n n Assuming powerlaw hardening (Equation 5.3), σa = Kεa , and σb = Kεb . Substituting into Equation 4.13,
n n Kεa Aaoexp(−εa ) = Kεb Aboexp(−εb).
(4.14)
Now simplify by substituting f = Abo /Aao ,
n n εa exp(−εa ) = f εb exp(−εb).
(4.15)
Equation 4.15 can be numerically evaluated to ﬁnd εa as a function of εb. Figure 4.6 shows that with low values of n, the region with the larger crosssection deforms very little. On the other hand, if n is large, there is appreciable deformation in the thicker region, so more overall stretching will have occurred when the thinner region fails. This leads to greater formability.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4.3:
To ensure that the neck in a tensile bar will occur at the middle of the gauge section, the machinist made the bar with a 0.500in. diameter in the middle of the gauge section and machined the rest of it to a diameter of 0.505 in. After testing, it was found that the diameter away from the neck was 0.470 in. Assume that the stressstrain relation follows the power law, Equation 5.3. What is the value of n?
64
Solid Mechanics
Solution: Let the regions with the larger and smaller diameters be designated a and b. When the maximum load is reached, the strain in b is εb = n and the strain in region a is εa = ln(Ao /A) = ln(do /d)2 = 2ln(0.505/ 0.470) = 0.1473. f = (0.500/0.505)2 = 0.9803. Substituting εb = n, ea = 0.1473 and f = 0.98 into Equation 5.15, 0.1437n exp(−0.1437) = 0.9803nn exp(−n). Solving by trial and error, n = 0.238. Note that there would have been a large error if the effect of the different initial crosssections had been ignored and n had been taken as 2ln(0.505/0.470) = 0.1473.
Notes
Professor Zdzislaw Marciniak of the Technical University of Warsaw was the ﬁrst to analyze the effect of a small defect or inhomogeneity on the localization of plastic ﬂow.∗ His analysis of necking forms the basis for understanding superplastic elongations (Chapter 6) and for calculating forming limit diagrams (Chapter 22). He was the Acting Rector, Senior Professor, and Director of the Institute of Metal Forming at the Technical University of Warsaw and has published a number of books in Polish on metal forming and many papers in the international literature. One can experience workhardening by holding the ends of a wire in one’s ﬁngers and bending it, straightening it, and bending it again. The second time the bend will occur in a different spot than the ﬁrst bend. Why?
Problems
1. What are the values of K and n in Figure 4.3? 2. True stresstrue strain data from a tension test are given in Table 4.2: A. Plot true stress vs. true strain on a logarithmic plot. B. What does your plot suggest about n in Equation 4.3? C. What does your plot suggest about a better approximation? 3. The true stressstrain curve of a material obeys the power hardening law with n = 0.18. A piece of this material was given a tensile strain of ε = 0.03
Table 4.2. Results of a tension test
Strain 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.05 Stress (MPa) 0.00 188.8 199.9 223.5 Strain 0.10 0.15 0.20 Stress (MPa) 250.7 270.6 286.5
∗
Z. Marciniak and K. Kuczynski, Int. J. Mech. Sci. v. 9, (1967) p. 609.
5% smaller (0. A. The bar was . B. What value of n would they report if they determined n from the loads at ε = 0. One short region in the gauge section has a diameter 0.20. A. Find K and n in the powerlaw approximation and predict σ at ε = 0. 9.16.15? In a tension test. What is the material’s tensile strength? A. σ = σo[1 − exp(−Aε)]. Consider a tensile specimen made from a material that obeys the powerhardening law with K = 400 MPa and n = 0. s = 155. Determine whether the data ﬁt Equation 4. What percent uniform elongation should be expected in a tension test? B. ﬁnd K and n and predict ε at ε = 0. Predict the strain at necking.20.4).Strain Hardening of Metals 65 4. 8.99 times that of the rest of the gauge section. Assume the stressstrain curve of the material is described by the power law with K = 330 MPa and n = 0.995 cm).3. Derive expressions for the true strain at the onset of necking if the stressstrain curve is given by σ = K(εo + ε)n (Equation 4. the following values of engineering stress and strain were found: s = 133. A.23. The lab workers were unaware of the prestrain and tried to ﬁt their data to Equation 4.08 and σ = 322 MPa at ε = 0.10 and s = 166.2 MPa at e = 0.00 cm in diameter.15. Two points on a stressstrain curve for a material are σ = 278 MPa at ε = 0.05. The tensile stress–strain curve of a certain material is best represented by a saturation model.) A material has a stressstrain relation that can be approximated by σ = 150 + 185ε.3 MPa at e = 0. For the approximation σ = K(εo + ε)n (Equation 4. the maximum load occurred at an engineering strain of e = 21%. A. Write an expression for the tensile strength.3 MPa at e = 0. B. 6. A. Derive an expression for the true strain at maximum load in terms of the constants A and σ o . What value of n would they report if they determined n from the elongation at maximum load? B. 10. B.4) with εo = 0. (Remember that the tensile strength is the maximum engineering stress. One part of the gauge section has an initial crosssectional area that is 0. 7. In a tension test.01. before being sent to a laboratory for tension testing. Assume K is not sensitive to strain rate. and the tensile strength was 350 MPa.20. and the ﬂow stress is not sensitive to the strain rate. What will be the true strain in the larger area after the smaller area necks and reduces to 50% of its original area? Consider a tensile bar that was machined so that most of the gauge section was 1. Determine the values of the constants A and σ o for the material.3. 5.05 and 0. B.
What value of n would she have calculated? 11. A tensile bar was machined so that most of the gauge section had a diameter of 0. Compare this with the uniform elongation that would have been found if there were no initial reduced section. If it were ﬁlled with water.17. Consider a copper tube as a capped cylinder that cannot lengthen or shorten. A. The bar was pulled until necking occurred. Repeated cycles of freezing of water and thawing of ice will cause copper pipes to burst. Suppose that an investigator had not known that the bar initially had a reduced section and had assumed that the bar had a uniform initial diameter of 1. what would be the circumferential strain in the wall when the water freezes? B. One small part of the gauge section had a diameter 1% smaller (0. Water expands about 8. A. B. B.66 Solid Mechanics pulled in tension well beyond maximum load and it necked in the reduced section.00 cm.3% when it freezes.500 cm. Calculate the uniform elongation (percent) away from the neck. 12. Suppose that she measured the diameter away from the neck and had used that to calculate n. Calculate the diameter away from the reduced section.55. A. Assume powerlaw hardening with n = 0.495 cm). How many cycles of freezing/thawing would it take to cause the tube walls to neck? Assume the tube is ﬁlled after each thawing. . Assume n = 0.
5 Plasticity Theory Introduction Plasticity theory deals with yielding of materials under complex states of stress. The most general form of a yield criterion is f (σx .2) The yielding of most solids is independent of the sign of the stress state. With plasticity theory. σ y . σ3 ) = C. A yield criteria allows one to decide whether or not a material will yield under a stress state. τ yz. σ2 . σz.1) where C is a material constant. τzx . the yield strengths in tension and compression are equal. Yield Criteria The concern here is to describe mathematically the conditions for yielding under complex stresses. (5. This is consistent with the observation that for most materials. Flow rules predict the shape changes that will occur if it does yield. for most solid materials ∗ This may not be true when the loading path is changed during deformation. (5. The compressive yield strengths of polymers are generally greater than the tensile yield strengths (see Chapter 12). Reversing the signs of all the stresses has no effect on whether a material yields.∗ Also. 67 . tensile test data can be used to predict the workhardening during deformation under such complex stress states. These relations are a vital part of computer codes for predicting crashworthiness of automobiles and codes for designing forming dies. Directional differences in yielding behavior after prior straining are called a Bauschinger effect. It is also not true if mechanical twinning is an important deformation mechanism. f (σ1 . For an isotropic material this can be expressed in terms of principal stresses. τxy ) = C. A yield criterion is a mathematical expression of the stress states that will cause yielding or plastic ﬂow.
σm = (σ1 + σ2 + σ3 )/3.6) (5.(σ3 − σ1 ). If the convention is maintained that σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 . With this simpliﬁcation. σ1 σ2 yielding is independent of the level of mean normal stress. Therefore. (5. C = Y.4) In terms of the Mohr’s stress circle diagrams. σ1 = Y where Y is the yield strength. It states that yielding will occur when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value. σ3 ). The largest shear stress is τmax = (σmax − σmin )/2. With slip and twinning. σ2 vs. (5. (5. C. the yield criteria must be of the form f [(σ2 − σ3 ). Substituting into Equation 5. Those inside the locus will not cause yielding. as shown in Figure 5.3) It will be shown later that this is equivalent to assuming that plastic deformation causes no volume change.5) The constant. This assumption of constancy of volume is certainly reasonable for crystalline materials that deform by slip and twinning because these mechanisms involve only shear. In threedimensional stress space (σ1 vs. this can be written as σ1 − σ3 = C. σm .(σ1 − σ2 )] = C. the Tresca criterion may be expressed as σ1 − σ3 = Y.68 Solid Mechanics σ3 σ1 = σ2 = σ3 Figure 5. In a tension test. A yield locus is the surface of a body in threedimensional stress space.7) . only the sizes of the circles (not their positions) are of importance in determining whether yielding will occur.6. Tresca (maximum shear stress criterion) The simplest yield criterion is one ﬁrst proposed by Tresca. so the Tresca criterion can be expressed as σmax − σmin = C. only the shear stresses are important.1. can be found by considering uniaxial tension. the locus can be represented by a cylinder parallel to the line σ1 = σ2 = σ3 . Stress states on the locus will cause yielding. σ2 = σ3 = 0 and at yielding.1. (5.
= σx .1: (5.8) Consider an isotropic material loaded so that the principal stresses coincide with the x. Von Mises Criterion The effect of the intermediate principal stress can be included by assuming that yielding depends on the rootmeansquare diameter of the three Mohr’s . σx that will cause yielding with σz = 0. The following conditions are appropriate: I II III VI σx σy σy σx > σ y > σz = 0. y. Plot of the yield locus for the Tresca criterion for σz = 0.7.2. > σz = 0 > σ y . [(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ1 − σ3 )]/3. but the intermediate stress term. in sector I the value of σ y has no effect on the value of σx required for yielding. so σ y = Y = σx . Make a plot of the combinations of σ y vs. so σx − σ y = Y These are plotted in Figure 5. drops out of the average. = σy. > σx > σz = 0. σ3 σ3 σ3 σ3 = σz = 0. so σx = Y = σz = 0. = σy. and z axes of the material. Assume that the Tresca yield criterion applies. where k is the shear yield strength. it is no longer the intermediate principal stress. so so so so σ1 σ1 σ1 σ1 = σx . Only if σ y is negative or if it is greater than σx does it has an inﬂuence. In these cases. σ1 = −σ3 = k. as shown in Figure 5.2. an average diameter criterion reduces to the Tresca criterion. σ2 . Substituting in Equation 5. Therefore. For example. The Tresca criterion predicts that the intermediate principal stress has no effect on yielding. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. It seems reasonable to incorporate the effect of the intermediate principal stress into the yield criterion. One might try this by assuming that yielding depends on the average of the diameters of the three Mohr’s circles. [(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ1 − σ3 )]/3 = (2/3)(σ1 − σ3 ).Plasticity Theory 69 Figure 5. k = Y/2 so σ1 − σ3 = 2k = C. so σ y − σx = Y = σ y . > σz = 0 > σ x . Solution: Divide the σ y vs. σx stress space into six sectors.2. For pure shear.
. y. Substituting into Equation 5. Substituting. σ y = σ2 . and σz = 0.10. ∗ This is equivalent to assuming that yielding occurs when the elastic distortional strain energy reaches a critical value. Again.12.70 Solid Mechanics circles. the material constant.2: (5.3: For plane stress (σ3 = 0). solving for σx /Y and σ y /Y = ασx /Y. Differentiating and setting to zero. σ1 /Y = [1 − 1/2 + (1/2)2 ]−1/2 = √ (4/3) = 1. and then plotting. d(1 − α + α 2 )/dα = −1 + 2α. what is the largest possible ratio of σ1 /Y at yielding and at what stress ratio.12. (5. which is an ellipse. so the convention σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 is not necessary. Substituting into Equation 5.11) Equation 5. At yielding. Now α = σ2 /σ1 . (5. With further substitution of a = σ2 /σ1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. and z axes. α = −1/2. σ1 + σ2 − σ1 σ2 = Y2 . it is clear that maximum ratio of σ1 /Y corresponds to the minimum value 1 − α + α 2 .12. make a plot of σ y vs. which can be expressed as {[(σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 ]/3}1/2 = C. (−k)2 + [(−k) − k]2 + k 2 = 2Y2 .10 can be simpliﬁed if one of the principal stresses is zero 2 2 (planestress conditions).9) Note that each term is squared.155. can be evaluated by considering a uniaxial tension test. (5. Solution: Let σ y = σ1 . σ1 = −σ3 = k and σ2 = 0. σx yield locus with σz = 0. C. α. or C = (2/3)1/3 Y. [02 + (−Y)2 + Y2 ]/3 = C 2 .∗ This is the von Mises criterion. so √ k = Y/ 3.10) For a state of pure shear. Figure 5. so the equation is usually written as (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 = 2Y2 . Substituting σ3 = 0.12) Consider an isotropic material loaded so that the principal stresses coincide with the x. σ1 = Y/(1 − α + α 2 )1/2 .3 results from substituting several values of a into Equation 6. does this occur? Solution: Inspecting Equation 5. σ1 = Y and σ2 = σ3 = 0. Assuming the von Mises yield criterion applies.
Equation 5.∗∗ (5. (5. dλ. In this case. For this reason. which is the inverse slope of the effective stressstrain curve at the point where the strains are being evaluated.14) where f is the yield function corresponding to the yield criterion of concern and dλ is a constant that depends on the shape of the stress strain curve. it is sometimes said that the “plastic Poisson’s ratio” is 1/2. Equations 5. The general relations between plastic strains and the stress states are called the ﬂow rules. the ratio of the resulting strains depends on the stress state that causes yielding. we can write f = [(σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 ]/4.13) Flow Rules When a material yields.15) ∗ ∗∗ The constant.15 parallel Hooke’s law equations (Equation 2. . (5. υ.3. In this case. The von Mises criterion with σz = 0 plots as an ellipse.14 results in dε1 = dλ[2(σ1 − σ2 ) − 2(σ1 − σ1 )]/4 = dλ·[σ1 − (σ2 + σ3 )/2] dε2 = dλ[σ2 − (σ3 + σ1 )/2] dε3 = dλ[ε3 − (σ1 + σ2 )/2]. 2 2 2 (σ y − σz)2 + (σz − σx )2 + (σx − σ y )2 + 6 τ yz + τzx + τxy = 2Y2 .∗ For the von Mises criterion.2) where dλ = dε/dσ replaces 1/E and 1/2 replaces Poisson’s ratio. it is necessary to include shear terms.Plasticity Theory 71 Figure 5. can be expressed as dλ = dε/dσ . The von Mises yield criterion can also be expressed in terms of stresses that are not principal stresses. They may be expressed as dεi j = dλ(∂ f/∂σi j ).
7: Draw the threedimensional Mohr’s circle diagrams for the stresses and plastic strains in a body loaded under planestrain tension. or dε1 : dε2 : dε3 = 1 : 0 : −1. (α −1/2)/(1 − α/2) = ρ.72 Solid Mechanics These are known as the LevyMises equations. with σz = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. so dεx : dε y : dεz = 1 : 0 : −1. σz = 0. Circles were printed on the surface of a part before it was deformed. α = (ρ + 1/2)/(ρ/2 + 1). Substituting. . Even though dλ is not usually known. Solution: (a) According to Equation 5.18 and ε2 = 0. dε1 : dε2 : dε3 = [σ1 − (σ2 + σ3 )/ 2] : [σ2 − (σ3 +σ1 )/2] : [σ3 − (σ1 + σ2 )/2] = (7/8)σ1 : (−1/4)σ1 : (−5/8)σ1 = 7 : −2 : −5.078/0. Also.6: Solution: First.4: Find the ratio of the principal strains that result from yielding if the principal stresses are σ y = σx /4.078. Assume that the tools did not touch the surface of concern and that the ratio of stresses remained constant during the deformation. Examination after deformation revealed that the principal strains in the sheet are ε1 = 0. The ﬂow rules for the Tresca criterion can be found by applying Equation 5. ε2 /ε1 = dε2 /dε1 = (σ2 − σ1 /2)/(σ1 − σ2 /2). assuming the Tresca criterion. these equations are useful for ﬁnding the ratio of strains that result from a known stress state or the ratio of stresses that correspond to a known strain state. α = σ2 /σ1 .15. dε2 = dε y . Now substituting ρ = 0. Solving for α. (5.7671. ﬁnd the ratio of the principal stresses. if the tools did not touch the surface. ε y = 0. Assume the von Mises yield criterion.14 with f = σ1 − σ3 . Solution: Here dε1 = dεx .17) .4333.16) Find the ratio of the principal strains that result from yielding if the principal stresses are σ y = σx /4. and dε3 = dεz. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. Assume the von Mises criterion. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. Then dε1 = dλ. Using the von Mises criterion.18 = 0. and dε3 = −dλ. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. σz = 0.15. Then according to Equation 5. it can be assumed that σ3 = 0. dε2 : dε1 = ε2 : ε1 . dε2 = 0. α = 0.5: (5. realize that with a constant ratio of stresses. and ρ = ε2 /ε1 .
σ y = 1/2(σx ) and σz = 0. Principle of Normality The ﬂow rules may be represented by the principle of normality. ε y = 0.5. For plastic ﬂow. εx . Mohr’s strain and stress circles for plane strain. For uniaxial tension at C.Plasticity Theory 73 γ/2 τ ε σz σx σ Figure 5. (5. σy σz = 0 dε dεy Figure 5. σx . ε y = 0 = λ[σ y − (1/2)(σx + σz)] with e y = 0 and σz = 0.5. The components of the normal at A are dσ y /dσx = 1. It should be noted that Equations 5. This is illustrated in Figure 5. A corollary is that for a σ1 vs. The Mohr’s strain circles (Figure 5. εz εy εx σy Solution: From the ﬂow rules. εx + ε y + εz = 0. the slope of the normal is dσ y /dσx = −1/2 which corresponds to ε y = (−1/2)εx . the strains that result from yielding are in the same ratio as the stress components of the normal. σ2 yield locus with σ3 = 0. if a normal is constructed to the yield locus at the point of yielding. Figure 5. and εz = −εx . so with ε y = 0. dεx σx . The Mohr’s stress circles are determined by the principal stresses. so ε y = 0.18) where ∂σ2 /∂σ1 is the slope of the yield locus at the point of yielding. σ y = 1/2(σx ).6 shows how different shape changes result from different loading paths.14 and 5. dε1 /dε2 = −∂σ2 /∂σ1 . including ones formulated to account for anisotropy and for pressuredependent yielding. At B. the normal has a slope of dσ y = 0. so ε y = εx . The ratios of the strains resulting from yielding are in the same proportion as the components of a vector normal to the yield surface at the point of yielding.4) are determined by the principal strains.17 are general and can be used with other yield criteria. εz = −εx . According to this principle.4.
dσ y /dσx = −1. ε y = −εx . so ε y = −εx . ε y = 0. However. with yielding under biaxial tension. regardless of α.∗ These orientation changes (texture development) depend on the loading path. Effective Stress and Effective Strain The concepts of effective stress and effective strain are necessary for analyzing the strain hardening that occurs on loading paths other than uniaxial tension. ∗ (5. When σ reaches the current ﬂow stress. For example.19) (5. At D. For the von Mises criterion. ε. the dependence of strain hardening on the loading path is signiﬁcant only at large strains. The ratio of strains resulting from yielding along several loading paths.6.7 is a representation of the normality principle applied to the Tresca criterion. . plastic deformation will occur. All stress states along a straight edge cause the same ratio of plastic strains. √ σ = (1/ 2)[(σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 ]1/2 . 0 ≤ ε y /εx ≤ ∞. The shape changes corresponding to the corners are ambiguous because it is ambiguous which stress component is σmax and which stress component is σmin . are deﬁned so that: 1) σ and ε reduce to σx and εx in an xdirection tension test. σ . α. ε curves do depend on the loading path because of orientation changes within the material.74 Solid Mechanics σy σz = 0 A B C D σx Figure 5. σ = (σ1 − σ3 ). and for the Tresca criterion. σx = σ y . and at D. σ . is the function of the applied stresses that determine whether yielding occurs. ε curve describes the strain hardening for loading under a constant stress ratio.20) It should be understood that for large strains. the σ vs. The effective stress. at B. 2) The incremental work per volume done in deforming a material plastically is dw = σ d ε. Figure 5. At A. at C (uniaxial tension) ε y = −1/2ex . ε y = εx . and effective strain. 3) Furthermore it is usually assumed that the σ vs. Effective stress.
Plasticity Theory σy 75 εx = 0 εy = 0 σx εy = −εx Figure 5.22. or as 2 2 2 dε = (2/3)1/3 dε1 + dε2 + dε3 1/2 (5.22 and 5. All stress states on the same side of the locus cause the same shape change. the effective stress reduces to the tensile stress so both criteria predict yielding when σ equals the current ﬂow stress. ε. dε2 = dε3 = −(1/2)dε1 . The shape changes at the corners are ambiguous. If the straining is proportional (constant ratios of dε1 : dε2 : dε3 ).= ( 2/3)[(9/4)de1 + (9/4)de1 ]1/2 = dε1 Substituting dε2 = 2 dε3 = −(1/2)dε1 into Equation 5. can be expressed as √ dε = ( 2/3)[(dε2 − dε3 )2 + (dε3 − dε1 )2 + (dε1 − dε2 )2 ]1/2 .7. The normality principle applied to the Tresca yield criterion. (5. is a mathematical function of the strain components. dε = (2/3)[dε1 + (−1/2dε1 )2 + √ 2 2 2 2 1/2 1/2 (−1/2dε1 ) ] = (2/3)[dε1 + dε1 /4 + dε1 /4] d = ε1 .23) which is completely equivalent. Substi√ tuting into Equation 5. The effective strain. Note that in a tension test. 23 reduce to dε1 in a onedirection tension test. dε = ( 2/3){(0)2 + [−(1/2)dε1 − dε1 ]2 + [dε1 − √ 2 2 (−1/2)dε1 ]2 }1/2 .24) If the straining is not proportional.22) . .8: Solution: In a onedirection tension test. Biaxial tension can produce any shape change from ε y = 0 to εx = 0.21) (5. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. d ε. deﬁned in such a way that ε reduces to the tensile strain in a tension test and that the plastic work per volume is dw = σ dε = σ1 dε1 + σ2 dε2 + σ3 dε3 . For the von Mises criterion. Show that dε in Equations 5. the total effective strain can be expressed as 2 2 2 ε = (2/3) ε1 + ε2 + ε3 1/2 .22. (5. ε must be found by integrating dε along the strain path.
As a material deforms plastically.035.15dεi max .182 + 0. The von Mises effective strain is ε = 2 2 2 [(2/3)(ε1 + ε2 + ε3 )]1/2 = [(2/3)(0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. it is of value because it is so extremely simple to ﬁnd. (5. Assume the von Mises criterion and assume that the loading was such that the ratio of ε2 /ε1 was constant. Calculate the levels of σ1 and σ2 reached before unloading. (Note that this is larger than the largest principal strain. the level of stress necessary to continue deformation increases.25) and . For von Mises.28 provides a simple check when calculating the von Mises effective strain. ﬁnd the effective strain. there is a unique relation. dε = dεi max . Because the tensile stressstrain curve is the effective .28) Equation 5. The strains measured on the surface of a piece of sheet metal after deformation are ε1 = 0. (5. the stressstrain curve in a tension test can be used to predict the stressstrain behavior under other forms of loading.182.29) Because for a tension test ε is the tensile strain and σ is the tensile stress.0352 + 0. 2 2 2 2 2 ε = (2/3) ex + ε2 + εz + (1/3) γyz + γzx + γxy y 1/2 .193.76 Solid Mechanics The effective strain (and stress) may also be expressed in terms of nonprincipal strains (and stresses). the σ − ε curve in a tension test is the σ − ε curve.15 × 0.147. Therefore. In that case.182 and ε2 = −0.26) For the Tresca criterion. 0.1472 )]1/2 = 0. ε3 = −ε1 − ε2 = −0. (5. With constant volume.28. The stressstrain curve in tension can be approximated by σ = 30 + 40ε.035 = −0.182). σ = f (ε). dεi max ≤ dε mises ≤ 1. it is worth noting that the value of the von Mises effective strain can never differ from it by more than 15%.1822 + 0. Furthermore.27) √ 2 2 2 2 σ = (1/ 2) (σ y − σz)2 + σz − σx + (σx − σ y )2 + 6 τ yz + τzx + τxy 1/2 Although the Tresca effective strain is not widely used.9: Solution: First. Always. the effective strain is the absolutely largest principal strain. (5. a mistake has been made. and smaller than 1. If one calculates a value of dε for von Mises that does not fall within the limits of Equation 5. It is postulated that the strain hardening depends only on ε. (5.
035/0.7/0. Note that the von Mises criterion corresponds to a = 2 and the Tresca criterion to a = 1. At the surface σz = 0. J.31) W. ∗ (5. α = (−0.6 Other Isotropic Yield Criteria von Mises and Tresca are not the only possible isotropic criteria.3412 ]1/2 = 0. Mech. Solving for α. Both experimental data and theoretical analysis based on a crystallographic model tend to lie between the two and can be represented by∗ σ2 − σ3 a + σ3 − σ1 a + σ1 − σ2 a = 2Ya .881 = 42.8. (Trans.) v. this criterion predicts yield loci between Tresca and von Mises. Hosford. is an even integer. F.8 and σ2 = ασ1 = 0. From the ﬂow rules with σz = 0.881/σ = 37. Substituting ρ = −0.193 = 37. so the effective stress function can be written √ as σ /σ1 = (1/ 2)[α 2 + 1 + (1 − α)2 ]1/2 = (1 − α + α 2 )1/2 . ASME ser E.7.192 + 1/2)/(1 − 0.192/2) = +0. σ = 30 + 40ε = 30 + 40 × 0.182 = −0. . Yield loci for (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) + (σ1 − σ2 )a = 2Ya with several values of a. For values of the exponent greater than 4. and to Tresca for a = 1 and a → ∞.881.192. σ1 = 0.Plasticity Theory 77 σy a = 2 (von Mises) 1 Tresca a=8 Figure 5. Appl. a a σz = 0 a=6 0 1 σx −1 stresseffective strain relation.8. a.8 = 14.341 × 42. (5. 39E (1972).341 + 0. ρ = dε2 /dε1 = (α − 1/2)/(1 − α/2). ε = (ρ + 1/2)/(1 + ρ/2). σ /σ1 = [1 − α + α 2 ]1/2 = [1 − 0. If the exponent. this criterion can be written without the absolute magnitude signs as (σ2 − σ3 )a + (σ3 − σ1 )a + (σ1 − σ2 )a = 2Y a .30) This criterion reduces to von Mises for a = 2 and a = 4. as shown in Figure 5.341.
and compression could be combined into a single diagram in which the tangents form an envelope of safe stress combinations. An alternative model is kinematic hardening. Similar calculations suggest that a = 6 for bcc. Equation.∗ For cast iron. At 32. Notes Otto Z. he was appointed a professor of engineering mechanics at Stuttgart Polytecknium. plastic deformation simply shifts the yield locus in the direction of the loading path without changing its shape or size. Figure 5. The isotropic hardening model can be applied to anisotropic materials. shear. unloading may actually cause plastic deformation. he proposed the different fracture stresses in tension. Among other contributions. The kinematic model is probably better for describing small strains after a change in load path. However. the effect of strain hardening is simply to expand the yield locus without changing its shape. the isotropic model is better for describing behavior during large strains after a change of strain path.32) Effect of Strain Hardening on the Yield Locus According to the isotropic hardening model. 5. he here devised the graphical method of analyzing the stress at a point. and dεz = dλ[a(σz − σx )a−1 + a(σz − σ y )a−1 ]. It does not imply that the material is isotropic. If the shift is large enough.10: Derive the ﬂow rules for the high exponent yield criterion. According to this model. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5. These can be expressed as dεx : dε y : dεz = [(σx − σz)a−1 + (σx − σ y )a−1 ] : [(σ y − σx )a−1 + (σ y − σz)a−1 ] : [(σz − σx )a−1 + (σz − σ y )a−1 ] (5. Solution: Expressing the yield function as f = (σ y − σz)a + (σz − σx )a + (σx − σ y )a .29. dε y = dλ[a(σ y − σz)a−1 + a(σ y − σz)a−1 ]. or diameter of the largest circle. dεx = dλ[a(σx −σz)a−1 + a(σx −σ y )a−1 ]. He then extended Coulomb’s idea that failure is caused by shear stresses into a failure criterion based on maximum shear stress. the ﬂow rules can be found from dεi j = dλ(d f/dσi j ).78 Solid Mechanics Theoretical calculations based on {111} <110> slip suggest an exponent of a = 8 for fcc metals. This is essentially the Tresca yield criterion. Mohr (1835–1918) worked as a civil engineer. designing bridges. It may be noted that early workers used . The stresses for yielding are increased by the same factor along all loading paths.9 illustrates both models. This is the basic assumption that σ = f (ε). These values ﬁt experimental data as well.
” which failed to distinguish between fracture and yielding. It is also referred to by the names of several people who independently proposed it: Huber. and (σ1 − σ2 ). From these. T. 2) Directions of principal stresses and principal strains coincide.9. In letters to William Thompson. ¨ p.Plasticity Theory 79 σy σy σx σx Kinematic hardening Isotropic hardening a b Figure 5. Tresca presented two notes to the French Academy. They proposed that failure would occur when a critical strain was reached. The kinematic hardening model predicts a translation of the locus in the direction of the loading path. In 1904. 582. 3) The maximum shear stress at a point is a constant. It is also known as the “maximum distortional energy” theory and the “octahedral shear stress” theory. However.1913). . ´ Lame assumed a maximum stress theory of failure. (σ2 − σ3 ). The isotropic model (a) predicts an expansion of the locus. later a maximum strain theory of which Poncelet and SaintVenant were proponents became generally accepted. The ﬁrst name reﬂects that the elastic energy in an isotropic material associated with shear (in contrast to dilatation) is proportional to the left side of Equation 5. John Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) proposed that “strain energy of distortion” was critical but he never published this idea. can be represented as the edges of an octahedron in principal stress space. Hencky. the term “failure criteria. (σ3 − σ1 ). SaintVenant established the ﬁrst theory of plasticity based on the assumptions that: 1) Plastic deformation does not change the volume of a material. The second name reﬂects that the shear terms. Huber ﬁrst formulated the expression for “distortional strain energy. Nachr. M. and it was forgotten.” 2 U = [1/(12G)][(σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 ] where U = σ yp /(6G). In 1868. regardless of the stress state. The same idea was independently developed by von Mises (Gottinger.10. The effect of strain hardening on the yield locus. as well as Maxwell. for whom the criterion is generally called.
is zero along the transverse direction. Assume . Consider a planestrain tension test (Figure 5. dw. α = 0 where α = σ y /σx . Press. Cambridge U. Deformation Processing. Oxford (1950). R. α = 1/2 b. For the von Mises yield criterion with σz = 0. (2005). σ as a function of σx . 5. the circle was found to be an ellipse with major and minor diameters of 1. Lateral contraction of material in the groove is constrained by material outside the groove. Backofen. Caddell. Derive an expression for σx as a function of εx in such a test. dε as a function of dεx . Hosford and R.80 Solid Mechanics σx Grip section y Gauge section Figure 5. M. and the stress in the zdirection vanishes. Cambridge U. and B. REFERENCES W. 3. Hill. A. Problems 1. Press.10) in which the tensile stress is applied along the xdirection. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Hosford. 2007. AddisonWesley (1972). After forming. Planestrain tensile specimen. F. assuming that the strain hardening can be expressed by σ = Kεn . 6. calculate the ratio ρ = dε y dεx . A 1. D. Using the results of parts A and B. in terms of σx and dεx . W. α = −1 d. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 assuming the following yield criterion: (σ2 − σ3 )a + (σ3 − σ1 )a + (σ1 − σ2 )a = 2Ya where a = 8.. ε y .03 cm. α = 1 c.10.00cm diameter circle was printed onto the surface of a sheet of steel before forming. The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. The strain. F. z The Tresca criterion is also called the Guest or the “maximum shear stress” criterion. respectively. write expressions for: A. write an expression for the incremental work per volume. 4. calculate the values of σx /Y at yielding if a. 2. For each of the values of α in Problem 1.18 cm and 1. W. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. Assuming the von Mises criterion. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 assuming the Tresca criterion instead of the von Mises criterion. C. 3rd Ed.
Assume that the von Mises criterion is appropriate and that the loading was proportional (i. that during forming the stress perpendicular to the sheet surface was zero. σ ? D. σ Figure 5. The tensile stressstrain curve for this steel is shown in Figure 5. (Take σ1 and σ2 respectively as the larger and smaller of the principal stresses in the plane of the sheet. and that the ratio.Plasticity Theory 81 500 400 True stress. It has been found that the tensile stress–strain relationship for this alloy can be approximated by σ = 150 + 185ε (Figure 5. ε? C. What was the effective strain. α. σ = (150 + 185ε)MPa ε .070.11. and ε3 ? B.12). Measurements on the surface of a deformed sheet after unloading indicate that e1 = 0. Assume the von Mises yield criterion. α = σ2 /σ1 .) E. What were the principal strains. Calculate the ratio. MPa 300 200 100 0 0 0. True tensile stressstrain curve for the steel in Problem 7.3 0. the ratio α = σ y /σx remained constant during loading). ρ = ε2 /ε1 and use this to ﬁnd the ratio. True tensile stressstrain curve for the steel in Problem 6.e..4 Figure 5. ε1 .12. where σ is the true stress in MPa and ε is the true strain. What was the level of σ1 ? 7. A. What was the effective stress. ε2 .11. of the stresses in the plane of the sheet remained constant during forming.1 0. that both sets of measurements were made when the sheet was unloaded.154 and e2 = 0.2 True strain 0.
Predict the ratio of the principal strains. its diameter is 2. capped at both ends.0 in.015 in. D. in uniaxial tension or the yield strength. A. P.000 psi. What was the effective stress? C. were in the ratio of 1:0:−0.025 in. thickness. It states that yielding will occur when the diameter of Mohr’s largest circle plus half of the diameter of Mohr’s second largest circle equals a critical value. Predict the value of σx when yielding occurred according to von Mises. 10. A. It is made from a steel with a yield strength of 40. and σz are principal stresses. and the wall thickness is 0. 12. ε. σ y . Predict the value of σx when yielding occurred according to Tresca. [Hint: For each region in σx vs. The tube is loaded under an internal pressure. Y. B. Predict the value of ρ = ε y /εx esulting from yielding according to Tresca. in compression Plot the yield locus as σx vs. Evaluate C in terms of the yield strength. What internal pressure can it withstand without yielding according to von Mises? In the ﬂat rolling of a sheet or plate. Deﬁning σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 . Its length is 60 in. (σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ1 − σ3 ) = C or 2σ1 − σ2 − σ3 = C.25. What is the effective strain. and σz. the width does not appreciably change. (σ1 − σ3 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) = C or σ1 + σ2 − 2σ3 = C.. σ y stress space. Assume the von Mises criterion. 9.] Consider a long thinwalled tube. A. What internal pressure can it withstand without yielding according to Tresca? B. What was the value of the largest principal stress? The following yield criterion has been proposed for an isotropic material: “Yielding will occur when the sum of the diameters of the largest and second largest Mohr’s circles reaches a critical value. The stresses were increased until plastic deformation occurred. this can be expressed mathematically as: If (σ1 − σ2 ) ≥ (σ2 − σ3 ). lbs is applied. A sheet of aluminum is rolled from 0. −Y. σ y . What was the effective strain? B. A new yield criterion has been proposed for isotropic materials. to 0. 11. ρ = ε y /εx . A. determine whether Equations applies. C. resulting from yielding according to von Mises. σ y for σz = 0 where σx . What strain in a tension test (if it were possible) would cause the same amount of strain hardening? A piece of ontarium (which has a tensile yield strength of Y = 700 MPa) was loaded in such away that the principal stresses. . and a torque of 1500 in. but if (σ2 − σ3 ) ≥ (σ1 − σ2 ). σx .050 in.82 Solid Mechanics 8. caused by the rolling? B. A.
B. in the plane of the sheet along which εx = 0. following the convention that σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 . Assuming the von Mises yield criterion. x. There is a direction.500 psi. εw /εt . σ y or σz = 0). determine the values of σ1 and σ2 at yielding. 14. Take the 1direction as the rolling direction. A. A. plot. A sheet of this alloy is loaded under planestress conditions (σ3 = 0) until it yields. s y . θ . What does this imply about the effect of σ H = σ1 + σ2 + σ3 )/3 on the shape of the yield surface in σ1 . In a tension test of an anisotropic sheet. Redo Problem 6 assuming the Tresca criterion instead of the. or σ3 ) corresponds to (σx . between x and the tensile axis. and 0 into the appropriate expression. the ratio of the width strain to the thickness strain. the 2direction as the width direction in the tension test. The total volume of a foamed material decreases when it plastically deforms in tension. and let σz = 0.] The tensile yield strength of an aluminum alloy is 14. substitute s X. or remain constant? . decrease.Plasticity Theory 83 This criterion can be expressed mathematically. y. [Hint: Consider different loading paths (ratios of σ y /σx ). Would the absolute magnitude of the yield stress in compression be greater. Let x. is R. Y. A. and z be directions of principal stress. if (σ1 − σ2 ) ≥ (σ2 − σ3 ) 13. On unloading. plot the values of σ y /Y and σx /Y that will lead to yielding according to this criterion. A. σ3 space? B. ﬁnally. and the 3direction as the thickness direction. or the same as the yield strength in tension? C. smaller. Find the angle. σ2 . Evaluate C in terms of the tensile (or compressive) yield strength. solve and. that is. would the volume increase. Sketch the yield locus and show where the stress state is located on the locus. B. von Mises criterion. and for each decide which stress (σ1 . as (σ1 − σ3 ) + 1/2(σ1 − σ2 ) = C and (σ1 − σ3 ) + 1/2(σ2 − σ3 ) = C if (σ2 − σ3 ) ≥ (σ1 − σ2 ). Express the ratio ε2 /ε1 of the strains in the plane of the sheet in terms of R. it is observed that ε1 = 2ε2 and both ε1 and ε2 are positive. 16. Plot the σ y vs. σ2 . 15. B. When it yields in compression. then determine whether (σ1 − σ2 ) ≥ (σ2 − σ3 ). σx yield locus.
6 StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress Introduction An increase of strain rate raises the ﬂow stress of most materials. If it takes 5 min during the tensile test to reach a strain of 0. m. Under certain conditions. at elevated temperatures the effect of strain rate on ﬂow stress is much greater. the effect of the strain rate on the ﬂow stress.3. ˙ ˙ 84 (6. Tensile elongations of 1000% are possible. σ . This coupling can be understood in terms of the Arrhenius rate equation. the rate dependence is large enough for materials to behave superplastically. ˙ (6. the effect near room temperature is small and is often neglected. At a strain rate of ε = 10−2 /s a ˙ ˙ strain of 0. On the other hand.3 will occur in 30 seconds.2) . σ = Cεm . In most metallic materials. StrainRate Dependence of Flow Stress The average strain rate during most tensile tests is in the range of 10−3 to 10−2 /s.3/(5 × 60) = 10−3 /s. For many materials.1) where the exponent. Strain localization occurs very slowly in materials that have a high strainrate dependence because lessstrained regions continue to deform. A factor of ten increase in strain rate may raise the level of the stressstrain curve by only 1% or 2%. Increasing the strain rate by a factor of ten may raise the stressstrain curve by 50% or more. The amount of the effect depends on the material and the temperature. The relative levels of stress at two strain rates (measured at the same total strain) is given by σ2 /σ1 = (ε2 /ε1 )m . at a ﬁxed strain and temperature can be described by a powerlaw expression. the average strain rate is ε = 0. is called the strainrate sensitivity. There is a close coupling of the effects of temperature and strain rate on the ﬂow stress. Increased temperatures have the same effects as deceased temperatures.
10 for a strain rate of 103 /s to that at ε = 0. ˙ ˙ (6.010 to 0. ˙ ˙ ln(σ2 /σ1 ) ≈ Equation 6. (ε2 /ε1 = 10) with ˙ ˙ m = 0.01.1. What is the ratio of the ﬂow stress at ε = 0.005 and +0.3mlog(ε2 /ε1 ). Equation 6.015 0.07.010 to 0.01 = 1. (6.01). σ2 /σ1 = (Cε2 )/(Cεm ) = (ε2 /ε1 )m = ˙m ˙ ˙ ˙ 6 0.015 0.2: The tensile stress in one region of an HSLA steel sheet (m = 0.4) σ/σ. A plot of Equation 6.1.07 (103 /10 ) = (10 ) = 2. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.07).005 0. ˙ ˙ The strainrate dependence of a zinc alloy can be represented by Equation 6.15.005 −0.63. For steel (m = 0. m.01)(1) = 2. It is so small that the effect of strain rate is often ignored.3%. σ2 /σ1 = (106 )0. the values of m for most engineering metals are between −0. The increase of ﬂow stress.02 0.2 can be simpliﬁed to ˙ ˙ σ/σ ≈ mln(ε2 /ε1 ) = 2.005 to +0. Consider the effect of a tenfold increase in strain rate. What would be the ratio of the strain rates in the two regions for a titanium alloy (m = 0.01.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 85 or ln(σ2 /σ1 ) = mln(ε2 /ε1 ).01 to 0.2 in Figure 6. Typical values of the strainrate exponent.005 to 0 −0.005 0. This increase is typical of roomtemperature tensile testing.02)? Table 6.3(0.1 with m = 0.07 −3 0.08 .3) At room temperature.005 to +0. is small unless either m or (ε2 /ε1 ) is large. as shown in Table 6.010 −0.1 shows how the relative ﬂow stress depends on the strain rate for several levels of m.005 to 0.005) is 1% greater than in another region. at room temperature Material lowcarbon steels HSLA steels austenitic stainless steels ferritic stainless steels copper 70/30 brass aluminum alloys αtitanium alloys zinc alloys m 0.015.10 for a strain rate of 10−3 /s? Repeat for a lowcarbon steel with m = 0.1: Solution: For zinc (m = 0.05 to 0. σ /σ . EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6. What is the ratio of the strain rates in the two regions? Neglect strain hardening.4 predicts that the level of the stress increases by only σ/σ = 2. If σ 2 is not much greater than σ 1 .
2 1.64. 3rd Ed.4 . In both cases.3.5 .5 .4 can be used to ﬁnd m.1.000 Solution: Using Equation 6. ε1 Strain Figure 6.10 1. Cambridge U. M. 1.01 . m.2.04 1. ε1 .2. ε2 σ1 .06 1.02 .3 . . Hosford and R. One method is to run two continuous tensile tests at different strain rates and compare the levels of stress at the some ﬁxed strain.005 = 7. . Two methods of determining the strainrate sensitivity. If ˙ ˙ m = 0.000 10.02.0 ε2/ε1 Figure 6. ε1 σ2 . σ2 Stress Strain Stress σ1 .15 . according to Equation 6. The dependence of ﬂow stress on strain rate for several values of the strainrate sensitivity.01)1/0. Either continuous stressstrain curves at different strain rates can be compared at the same strain (left) or sudden changes of strain rate can be made and the stress levels just before and just after the change compared (right).2 . ε2 . ˙ ˙ .1 . In ratechange tests.08 .2 illustrates two ways of determining the value of m. (ε2 /ε1 ) is typically 10 or 100. ε2 /ε1 = (σ2 /σ1 )1/m = (1. The other way is to change the strain rate suddenly during a test and compare the levels of stress immediately before and after the change.3 σ2/σ1 . Caddell. The difference between the strain rates differently ˙ ˙ stressed locations decreases with increasing values of m.86 Solid Mechanics 1.2. ε2 /ε1 = 1. The latter method is easier and therefore more common. From W.005 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 1. Figure 6. Press (2007). In both cases. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. Equation 6. F. The two methods may give somewhat different values for m.
The large elongations occur because the necks are extremely gradual (like those that one observes when chewing gum is stretched). the value of the rate sensitivity. Very ﬁne grain size (grain diameters of a few micrometers or less). 0. m.2 Strain rate exponent. Nevertheless.0 T/Tm Equation 6. m. m.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 87 0. the material will behave superplastically. is a useful index for describing ˙ the rate sensitivity of a material and analyzing rate effects. Slow strain rates∗ (usually 10−3 /s or slower) 3. ∗ Note that m is somewhat ratedependent. . is low near room temperature but increases with increasing temperature.3Tm .1 0 0 0.2Tm and 0. m rises rapidly with temperature.4 0. The increase of m with temperature is quite rapid above half the melting point (T > Tm /2) on an absolute temperature scale. In ratechange tests. exhibiting very large tensile elongations.6 0. Above about half of the melting point. m may be 0. deﬁned by m = ∂lnσ/∂lnε.3 shows the temperature dependence of m for several metals. From Hosford and Caddell.2 0. For most metals. the rate sensitivity is slightly negative in this temperature range.5 or greater. The conditions for superplasticity are: 1.1 is not a complete description of the rate dependence. m. In some cases.4 can be used to ﬁnd m. Figure 6. (ε2 /ε1 ) is typically 10 ˙ ˙ or 100.8 1. For aluminum alloy 2024 (Figure 6. ibid. Superplasticity permits forming of parts that require very large strains. so Equation 6. Variation of the strainrate sensitivity. of a material is 0. m Copper Steel Aluminum 304 Stainless Titanium Rene 41 Mo–T2C Figure 6. with temperature for several metals. Superplasticity If the rate sensitivity.5Tm ) 2. For some alloys. Temperatures equal to or above half the absolute melting point (T ≥ 0. there is a minimum between 0.3.4).5 or greater.
assume now that workhardening can be neglected at high temperatures and that Equation 6. The very low ﬂow stresses permits slow forging of large. Trans ASM. m is negative for 2024.16 0. The very large tensile elongation makes it possible to form very deep parts with simple tooling. negating an initially ﬁne grain size. Examples are shown in Figures 6.5 and 6.08 Aluminum 0. (6.6) . Under superplastic conditions. so Fb = σb Ab = Fa = σa Aa .04 0 −200 0 200 400 T°C Figure 6. Temperature dependence of m for pure aluminum and aluminum alloy 2024. Long times are needed to form useful shapes at low strain rates. Both minimize grain growth.7). Both the low ﬂow stress and large elongations can be useful in metal forming.1 describes the strainrate dependence. For this reason. Note that at room temperature. From Fields and Backofen. intricate parts with ﬁne detail. The following treatment is similar to the treatment in Chapter 4 of strain localization at defects. Let Aa and Ab be the crosssectional areas of the thicker and thinner regions. However. The force carried by both sections is the same.88 Solid Mechanics 0.6. With long times and high temperatures grain growth may occur. v.4. m 20240 0.12 Strain rate exponent. ﬂow stresses are very low and extremely large elongations (1000% or more) are observed in tension tests. The reason that very large tensile elongations are possible can be understood in terms of the behavior of a tensile bar having a region with a slightly reduced crosssectional area (Figure 6.51 (1959). most superplastic alloys either have twophase structures or have a very ﬁne dispersion of insoluble particles.
From Hosford and Caddell. . Schematic of a tensile bar with one region (b) slightly smaller in crosssection than the other (a).StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 89 Figure 6. ibid.5. Complex part made from a sheet of a Zn22%Al alloy.7. The very large strains in the walls require superplasticity. Figure 6.6. a b a Figure 6. ibid. Three sheets were diffusionbonded at a few locations and then internal pressurization of the unbonded channels caused the middle sheet to stretch. Both must carry the same tensile force. Superplastic behavior is required because of the very large uniform extension required in the middle sheet. From Hosford and Caddell. A titaniumalloy aircraft panel made by diffusion bonding and superplastic deformation.
9) ∗ Figure 6.9 0.9 98 0. Limiting strain. in the unnecked portion of a tensile specimen as a function of f and m. % 600 f= (6. ˙m ˙m (6. This plot suggests that values of f in the range from 0. .8) Under superplastic conditions. the limiting strain in the unnecked region ∗ εa is ∗ εa = −mln(1 − f 1/m ). These are plotted with the elongation converted to true strain.500 1.8. f 1/m exp(−εb/m)dεb = exp(−εa /m)dεa . σb = C εb .90 Solid Mechanics 3 2.7 Strainrate exponent.99 to 0. 200 100 50 0 0 0. Elongation. Aa = Aaoexp(−εa ). Reported values of total elongations are also shown as a function of m. From Hosford and Caddell. f exp(−εb)εb = exp(−εa )εa .000 Ti5 Al2. the reduction in area is often quite large. plotted assuming that εa = ln(%El/100 + 1). 99 98 1.5 0.8 shows how εa varies with m and f.8. Now raising to the (1/m)th power and rec˙m ˙m ognizing that ε = dε/dt.6 becomes Aboexp(−εb)C εb = Aaoexp(−εa )C εa . σa = C εa . m ∗ Figure 6.2 0.3 0. εa . ibid. (6.7) Designating the ratio of areas of the initial crosssectional areas by Abo/Aao = f. ˙m ˙m and Equation 6. The deformation in the unnecked region can be approximated by letting εb → ∞ in Equation 6.4 0. Integration ˙ from zero to their current values. results in exp(−εa /m) − 1 = f 1/m [exp(−εb/m) − 1].6 0.5 Sn Zircaloy4 Ti6 Al4V PbSn Eutectic 2 0.1 0. and Ab = Abo exp(−εb). Substituting.995 are not unreasonable. In this case. 95 0. εb and ea . Also shown are measured tensile ∗ elongations. 95 90 0.000 * εa 1 400 0.
and low strain rates.8. Such accommodation could occur either by slip or by diffusion.25. The other possible mechanism is grain boundary sliding. compatibility where three grains meet must be accommodated by another mechanism.4 0.8 1 εb Figure 6.98. m.99/1)2 = 0.492.40 f = 0.177.εa = −0. what is the strain in the larger region? EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6. Substituting εb = 0.4 0. One is a net diffusional ﬂux under stress of atoms from grain boundaries parallel to the tensile axis to grain boundaries normal to the tensile axis.99 m = 0.6 0. With low values of m. Relative strains in unnecked and necked regions for several values of rate sensitivity.25 [exp(−0.25ln(0. The large values of m are a result of the contribution of diffusional processes to the deformation.98)1/0. exp(−εa /0. This amounts to a net diffusion of vacancies from grain boundaries normal to the tensile axis to boundaries parallel to it. . deformation outside of the neck ceases early. in the region outside of the neck continues to grow even when the neck strain.492) = 0. εa .3: 2 2 Solution: f = (π D1 /4)/(π D2 /4) = (D1 /D2 )2 = (0.9.9 shows that for large values of m. Two possible mechanisms are possible. causing a tensile elongation. When the strain in the reduced region is 0.50 0.30 0.98 into Equation 6.25) = (0.2/0. but in both cases the overall m would be below 1. The bar is tested at high temperature so strain hardening is negligible but the strainrate exponent is 0. the strain.25) − 1] + 1 = 00.60 m = 0.20.2 m = 0. exp(−εa /m) − 1 = f 1/m [exp(−εa /m) − 1]. εb. Both diffusional creep and grain boundary sliding need a very ﬁne grain size.20 0.20 and f = 0. Figure 6. high temperatures.8 m = 0.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 91 1 m = 0. With grain boundary sliding.10 0 0 0.2 0. A tensile bar is machined so that the diameter at one location is 1% smaller than the rest of the bar. These mechanisms are discussed in more detail in Chapter 8.6 εa m = 0. is large.
From Hosford and Caddell. Reconsider the tension test in example Problem #5.98. The results are shown in Figure 6.288. Ab = n n Aboexp(−εb). EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6.3.10. εb = ln(4/3) = 0.12) This equation must be integrated numerically.8.2 0.2 0. (6. σa = Cεa ea εm and σb = Cεb εbem into a force balance (Equa˙ ˙ tion 6.1 0 0.1 f = 0.6) Fa = Aa σa = Fb = Abσb. n m n m ˙ ˙ Aaoexp(−εa )C εa εa = Aboexp(−εb)C εb εb .20 0.11) Following the procedure leading to Equation 6. f = 0.10) Reconsider the tension test on an inhomogeneous tensile bar. Substituting Aa = Aaoexp(−εa ). (6.4: .92 Solid Mechanics 0.01 0.05 0.98 as in the previous problem.2.025 0.3 0.98 n = 0.3 m = 0. εa .4 εb Figure 6. the true stress may be approximated by σ = C εn εm .0 εa 0.226 and m = 0. in the region with the larger diameter if the bar necks to a 25% reduction of area. Comparison of the strains in the reduced and unreduced sections of a tensile bar for a material that strain hardens and is strainrate sensitive. If both strain and strainrate hardening are considered. Let n = 0. Calculate the strain. ˙ (6. εa o n/m exp(−εa /m)εa dεa = f 1/m εb o exp(−εb/m)εb n/m dεb. even when m is relatively small.1 0. ibid. Combined Strain and StrainRate Effects Rate sensitivity may have appreciable effects at low temperatures. and several levels of m.10 for n = 0. with initial crosssections of Aao and Abo = fAoa .012 (typical values for lowcarbon steel) and let f = 0.
8 1 Solution: Substituting into Equation 6. MPa Copper 100 Aluminum Figure 6.3 where it was found that εa = 0.12. . P.6 T/TM 0. Trans. Data from R. Decreasing temperature has the same effect as an increasing strain rate.4 0. Carrecker and W. Combined Temperature and StrainRate Effects The effects of temperature and strain rate are interrelated.1587 εb o 18. 10 1 0 0. the rate of workhardening also decreases at high temperatures. Tensile strengths decrease with increasing temperatures.2 0. R. The loss of elongation in the thicker section is much less than in example Problem 6. TMSAIME.83 exp(−83. Hibbard Jr.000 Tensile strength.02185.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 93 1.33εbεb dεb Numerical integration of the righthand side gives 0.226 and m = 0. Temperature Dependence As temperature increases. v.11.33εa )εa dεa = 0.2625. 209 (1957). The lefthand side has the same value when εa = 0. εa o n/m exp(−εa /m)εa dεa = f 1/m εb o exp(−εb/m)εb n/m dεb or εa o 18. Usually. as shown schematically in Figure 6.11 shows the decrease of tensile strengths of copper and aluminum.195 with n = 0.83 exp(−83. Figure 6.. the whole level of the stressstrain curve generally drops. This effect occurs even in temperature regimes where the rate sensitivity is negative.12.
Find the activation energy. Note that an increased strain rate has the same effects as a decreased temperature. They proposed ε = Aexp(−Q/RT). ibid. 15 (1944). Temperature The simplest treatment of temperature dependence of strain rate is that of Zener and Hollomon. the creep rate increased by a factor of two when the temperature was increased from 71◦ C to 77◦ C. A is a function only of stress. A = A(σ ). .∗ who treated plastic straining as a thermally activated rate process. Figure 6.12. Substituting T1 = 273 + 71 = 344K. (6. ˙ (6. R = 8. that is widely used in analyzing many temperaturedependent rate processes. ∗ C. Compare ˙ ˙ this with Figure 6. Q = 116 kJ/mol. From Hosford and Caddell. so Equation 6. They assumed that strain rate follows an Arrhenius rate law. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6. Phys.14) where Z = εexp(+Q/RT) is called the ZenerHollomon parameter.6: Solution: Because ε = Aexp(−Q/RT). Hollomon.13 shows that such a plot for aluminum alloy 2024 is linear for a wide range of strain rates although the relation fails at large strain rates. rate α exp(−Q/RT). and R is the gas constant.14. Appl.15) (6.94 Solid Mechanics ⋅ ⋅ ∋2 > ∋1 Stress ⋅ ∋1 Figure 6. 1/T should be linear. For an aluminum alloy under constant load. At a ﬁxed strain. ˙ Equation 6. J. Schematic plot showing the temperature dependence of ﬂow stress at two different strain rates.13) where Q is the activation energy. T is absolute temperature.13 can be written as A(σ ) = εexp(+Q/RT) ˙ or A(σ ) = Z. Zener and H. T2 = 273 + 77 = 350K.314 J/mole/K and ε2 /ε1 = 2 and solving.20 predicts that a plot of strain at constant stress on a logarithmic scale vs. the ratio of the creep rates at two ˙ temperatures is ε2 /ε1 = exp[(−Q/R)(1/T2 − 1/T1 )] so Q = Rln(ε2 /ε1 )/ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (1/T1 − 1/T2 ).
8 2 2. ε2 /ε1 = exp[(−Q/R)(1/T2 − 1/T1 )] ˙ ˙ 160 120 80 40 0 0 200 600 400 Temperature. 212 (1958).14. AIME Trans. The data are taken at an effective strain of 1.500 psi Strain rate (1/s) 1 1.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 95 100 500°C 4.000 psi 10 2. Measured activation energies for creep of aluminum as a function of temperature. D. Lytton and J. kJ/mole .E. v. Data from O. Dorn and coworkers measured the activation energy.L. Q.20 will lead to errors if it is applied over a temperature range in which Q changes.000 psi 400°C 6.13. J.000 psi 300°C 10. Combinations of strain rate and temperature for several stresses in aluminum alloy 2024. Dorn.1 0.6 1.000 148 117 (6. Because the stress is constant. Sherby.0.16) Figure 6. The change of Q with temperature indicates that Equation 6.2 1. Q. The ZenerHollomon development is useful if the temperature and strainrate ranges are not too large.01 1. for pure aluminum over a very large temperature range.2 1. ibid. K 800 1. They did this by observing the change of creep rate under ﬁxed load when the temperature was suddenly changed. Data from Fields and Backofen.000/T (1/K) Figure 6.4 1.500 psi 0.000 psi 200°C 15.
ibid. Thus.19 simpliﬁes to ε = Aexp(+Q/RT)(ασ )1/m ˙ σ = ε A exp(−mQ/RT) ˙ m (6.16 shows that Equation 6. ˙ (6. ˙ ˙ (6. ε = Aexp(−Q/RT)[sinh(ασ )]1/m . Now the rate of overcoming the barrier is proportional to exp[−(Q − σ v)/RT]. ˙ (6. The rate of overcoming the barrier is proportional to exp(−Q/RT). If ασ 1.96 Solid Mechanics Q Q − σV σV Q Q + σV σV Figure 6.14) indicated that Q was independent of temperature above 500K but very temperaturedependent at lower temperatures. This observation was later explained by Z. the net reaction rate is C{exp[−(Q − σ v)/RT] –exp[−(Q + σ v)/RT]} = Cexp(−Q/RT){exp[(σ v)/ RT] – exp[−(σ v)/RT]}.17) Their results (Figure 6. greater stresses were applied at lower temperatures to achieve measurable creep rates. In Figure 6. whereas the rate from right to left is proportional to exp[−(Q + σ v)/RT].18) This expression has been modiﬁed based on some theoretical arguments to provide a better ﬁt with experimental data. sinh(ασ ) ≈ ασ . This is illustrated in Figure 6.21) (6.19) where a is an empirical constant and the exponent 1/m is consistent with Equation 6. and strain rate over an extremely large range of strain rates. If there is no stress. The ﬁnding of lower activation energies at lower temperatures was explained by the fact that in the experiments. Basinski and others.22) σ =AZ m . From Hosford and Caddell. S. where v is a parameter with the units of volume. the activation barrier has a height of Q with random ﬂuctuations.15.19 can be used to correlate the combined effects of temperature. stress. An applied stress skews the barrier so that the effective height of the barrier is reduced to Q − σ v. Equation 6.20) (6.16. The basic argument is that the stress helps thermal ﬂuctuations overcome activation barriers. the rate of the overcoming the barrier from left to right is proportional to exp[−(Q − σ v)/RT]. Schematic illustration of the skewing of an activation barrier by an applied stress. This simpliﬁes to ε = 2Cexp(−Q/RT)sinh[(σ v)/RT].1. or Q = Rln(ε2 /ε1 )/(1/T1 − 1/T2 ). Figure 6.15.
v. The strain rates during hot working are often so large that there is not enough time for recrystallization during the deformation.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 97 10. Trans. (6. and so on. ˙ (6. This is an oversimpliﬁcation.000 Compression (250–550°C) Z/A1 = (ε/A1)exp[Q/RT)] 10 Figure 6. so sinh(ασ ) → exp(ασ )/2 and Equation 6.000. both C and α depend on strain and temperature. Data are from J.7 α = 43 Pa−1 0. and the work material recrystallizes as it is deformed. J.22 is consistent with the ZenerHollomon development. or at . Equation 6. 0.01 Slope = 4.01 0. ﬂowstress data for aluminum over a very wide range of strain rates.1 1 10 100 sinh(ασ) where A = (αAm )•1 . For a constant temperature and strain.1. At low temperatures and large stresses. rolling. It is often said that hot working is done above the recrystallization temperature. σ = C + m lnε ˙ Note that this equation differs from Equation 6.000 Creep (204–593°C) Torsion (195–550°C) 10. (ασ ) 1. Plot of the ZenerHollomon parameter vs.00001 Q = 157 kJ/mole 0.00000001 0.16. 62 (1969).23) Under these conditions. ASM.20 reduces to ε = Cexp(α σ −Q/RT). Q.24) Hot Working Metallurgists make a distinction between cold working and hot working. It is more meaningful to think of hot working as a process in which recrystallization occurs in the period between repeated operations as in forging. . Jonas.
the lack of strain hardening in hot working is undesirable. and consequently friction much higher. W. ingot breakdown and subsequent working are done hot until the section size becomes small enough that high friction and the loss of material by oxidation become important. This effect somewhat negates the effect of lower ﬂow stress. tool wear. Hosford. Notes Svante August Arrhenius (1859–1927) was a Swedish physical chemist. Press (2007). and poor lubrication. From 1886 to 1890. 3. The resulting product surface is rough because of the scale. A second advantage of hot working is that the resulting product is in an annealed state.. Hollomon and Leonard Jaffe. this results in scale formation and a consequent loss of metal. to 0. M. Lubrication is much more difﬁcult. The scaling and high friction result in tool wear and shortened tool life. Hot rolling of steel sheet is continued to a thickness of 0. In 1887. Usually. Titanium alloys must be hot worked under an inert atmosphere to avoid dissolving oxygen. Most coldrolled sheet is sold in an annealed condition. However.98 Solid Mechanics least before the work material cools from the working temperature to room temperature. Press. the term cold rolled refers to the surface quality rather than the state of workhardening. He studied at Uppsala. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Among these are: 1. It is noteworthy that his thesis on electrolytes was given a fourth (lowest) level pass because his committee was skeptical of its validity.050 in. Hosford and R. John H. F. (2005). 5. Caddell. Ferrous Metallurgical Design. W. Tool forces during hot working are lowered not only by the recrystallization itself but also because of the inherently lower ﬂow stresses at high temperatures.200 in. In some cases. he . John Wiley & Sons (1947). F. where he obtained his doctorate in 1884. REFERENCES Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy: 2nd ed. he worked with several noted scientists in Germany who did appreciate his work. Cambridge U. The term warm working is used to refer to working of metals above room temperature but at a low enough temperature that recrystallization does not occur. there are disadvantages of hot working. There is also a loss of precise gauge control. 4. In the case of steel and copperbase alloys. 2. With steels. The tendency of the work metal to oxidize. Cambridge U. Then the product is pickled in acid to remove the scale and ﬁnished by cold working to obtain a good surface.
it was realized that he had deserted the American cause during the Revolution and the offer was withdrawn. Thompson was knighted in 1791. he calculated the heat generated by machining. in part due to the fact some of the plastic work done in machining is stored as dislocations in the chips. he rose rapidly to become Minister of War and eventually Prime Minister. his work was recognized throughout the world except in his native Sweden. Assuming that the strainrate dependence can be described by σ = C εm . who had been beheaded during the French revolution. He measured the temperature rise and with the known heat capacity of the bronze. Lavousier. he established the Royal Institute.2. he approached the British who did commission him. At the outbreak of the American Revolution. choosing the title Count Rumford after the original name of Concord. When the British evacuated Boston in 1776 he left for England. the United States was establishing the U. Two tension tests were made on the same alloy but at different strain rates. studied at Harvard and taught in Concord. he was forced to depart quickly for Bavaria after being suspected of selling British naval secrets to the French. However. During this period. Military Academy at West Point.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 99 suggested that a very wide range of rate processes follow what is now known as the Arrhenius equation. While inspecting a canon factory. At this time. he had to leave. and Rumford applied for and was selected to be its ﬁrst commandant. determine ˙ the value of m.S. During a tension test. However.2%. Massachusetts. so that when the winds of politics changed. His value was a little too low. having been denied a commission by Washington. By equating this to the mechanical work done in machining. In the Bavarian army. For years. where he married a wealthy woman. where he made a number of experiments on heat. the rate of straining was suddenly doubled. Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) was the ﬁrst person to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat. He ﬁnally moved to Paris where he married the widow of the famous French chemist. He returned to Britain as an ambassador from Bavaria. σ = Kεn . Both curves were ﬁtted to a powerlaw strain hardening expression of the form. he was able to deduce the mechanical equivalent of heat. New Hampshire. He was born in Woburn. what is the value of m? ˙ 2. Assuming that the ﬂow stress at constant strain can be approximated by σ = C εm . he observed a large increase in temperature during the machining of bronze canons. . The results are summarized in Table 6. but the British refused to recognize him. in 1753. Problems 1. during the negotiations about his title. During his rapid rise to power in Bavaria he made many enemies. This caused the load (force) to rise by 1.
In laboratory tension tests at a strain rate of 10−3 /s.0322 in. The strainrate exponents are m = 0. The strain rate is independent of strain in the region of this data. A. B. In superplastic forming.5. replacement of a lowcarbon steel with an HSLA steel is considered. n constant. Consider the forming of a hemispherical dome by clamping a sheet over a circular hole and bulging it with gas pressure.0318 in. During a constantload creep experiment on a polymer. depending on where the measurement is made. Find the strains in the thicker region if m = 0. 6. it is often necessary to control the strain rate. and f = 0. Q.98.22 402 Test B 10−1 0. 0. A. for 780◦ C.50 and n = 0 when the strain in the thinnest region reaches i. what will be the thickness of the thickest regions when the thinnest region necks? B. Results of two tension tests Test A strain rate (s−1 ) strainhardening exponent.22 412 Solid Mechanics 3.2. the yield strengths of the HSLA steel and the lowcarbon steel were measured to be 400 MPa and 220 MPa. n = 0. m. Determine as accurately as possible: A. and m = 0. The exponent. The thickness of a coldrolled sheet varies from 0.. dome with that needed to form a 20in. Figure 6. so strip tensile specimens cut from the sheet show similar variation in crosssection. To achieve a weightsaving in an automobile. The activation energy. ii. Estimate the total elongation of a superplastic material if A.015 for the lowcarbon steel. in the temperature range 700◦ C to 810◦ C.5. dome if both are formed from sheets of the same thickness and at the same strain rate.0in. 7.17 gives some data for the effect of stress and temperature on the strain rate of a nickelbased superalloy single crystal. to 0. What percent of weightsaving could be achieved if the substitution was made so that the forces were the same at the strain rates of 10+3 . Compare gas pressure needed to form a 2. B. m = 0.8. What is the apparent activation energy for creep of the plastic? 8. respectively.8. typical of crash conditions? 4. . For a material with n = 0.005 for the HSLA steel and m = 0. It was found that this increase of temperature caused the strain rate to increase by a factor of 1. B.75. f = 0. the temperature was suddenly increased from 100◦ C to 105◦ C.20 and m = 0. ∞ 5. Describe (qualitatively) how the gas pressure should be varied during the forming to maintain a constant strain rate. n = 0.100 Table 6. K (MPa) 2 × 10−3 0.
3800 s−1 150 25 °C. 0. v. and E = 205 GPa. From Metals Hanbdbook. Note that at 25◦ C the difference.17. 0. MPa 200 25 °C. Stressstrain curves for silver (fcc).18. 9th ed.1 0.001 s−1 100 600 °C.46J/g◦ C. The effects of stress and temperature on the strain rate of nickel–based superalloy single crystals under stress..05 0. between the stressstrain curves at different rates is proportional to the stress level. 0.StrainRate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress 101 10−5 Steadystate creep rate (∋ ss).8. 3700 s−1 True stress. Evaluate m for copper at room temperature from Figure 6. The steel is deformed to a strain of ε = 0. 2800 s−1 −196 °C. The stressstrain curves for silver at several temperatures and strain rates are shown in Figure 6. From G.001 s−1 200 °C. v. .1 s−1 400 °C.2 0.1 under adiabatic conditions.15 0. ρ = 7.35 0. 9. 3500 s−1 50 0 0 0.18. 10. σ .25 0.3 0. Gray in ASM Metals Handbook.1 . m.13. Estimate the temperature rise in the sample. 8 (2000). Determine the strainrate exponent. For iron.4 True strain Figure 6. The stressstrain curve of a steel is represented by σ = (1600 MPa)ε0. T. for silver at 25◦ C 300 250 25 °C. 11. s−1 10−6 10−7 10−8 10−9 10−10 10−11 15 Stress. C = 0. ASM (1985). ksi 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1000 °C (1830 °F) 925 °C (1700 °F) 100 150 200 250 300 350 Stress.87 kg/m2 . MPa Figure 6.
The energy associated with damping is released as heat. They cause the sagging of wooden beams. denting of vinyl ﬂooring by heavy furniture. such as in bells and in many musical instruments. Anelastic strains in metals and ceramics are usually so small that they are ignored. as shown in Figure 7. which often causes an unwanted temperature increase. Viscoelastic strains are often undesirable. there is no time delay between application of a force and the deformation that it causes. 102 . then several damping mechanisms will be described. for many materials there is additional timedependent deformation that is recoverable. Anelasticity is responsible for the damping of vibrations. The study of damping peaks and how they are affected by processing has been useful in identifying mechanisms. in many polymers viscoelastic strains can be very signiﬁcant.7 Viscoelasticity Introduction In classic elasticity. The mathematical descriptions of viscoelasticity and damping will be developed in the ﬁrst part of this chapter. A large damping capacity is desirable where vibrations might interfere with the precision of instruments or machinery and for controlling unwanted noise. and loss of dimensional stability in gauging equipment. However. which is timedependent plastic deformation. When a load is applied to a material. This viscoelasticity should not be confused with creep (Chapter 8). This is called viscoelastic or anelastic deformation. A low damping capacity is desirable in materials used for frequency standards. However. Rheological Models Anelastic behavior can be modeled mathematically with structures constructed from idealized elements representing elastic and viscous behavior.1. there is an instantaneous elastic response but the deformation also increases with time.
(7.3) so the strain rate would be constant. Consider how this model behaves in two simple experiments.1) where ee is the change of length of the spring. ev = Ft/Kv .2. Here and in the following. at time. Fe is the force on the spring. will refer to the overall elongation and the external force. and Kv is the dashpot constant. let there be a sudden application of a force. First. This is followed by a timedependent response from the dashpot. (7. e v . Series Combination of a Spring and Dashpot The Maxwell model consists of a spring and dashpot in series as shown in Figure 7. Its behavior is described by ev = dev /dt = Fv /Kv . e and F. and Ke is the spring constant.2. Rheological elements. Figure 7.3). A dashpot models a perfectly viscous material. The behavior is described by ee = Fe /Ke .2) where ev is the change in length of the dashpot. without subscripts. The viscous strain would not be recovered on unloading. The immediate response from the spring is ee = F/Ke . t = 0. The overall response will be E = ee + ev = F/Ke + Ft/Kv . Spring Dashpot A spring models a perfectly elastic solid. F. Spring and dashpot in series (Maxwell model). ˙ (7. Fv is the force on it.1.Viscoelasticity 103 Figure 7. with the force being maintained constant (Figure 7.
In the ﬁrst. The strain increases linearly with time. For this model. This force causes the dashpot to operate. F o t t .4) Parallel Combination of Spring and Dashpot The Voight model consists of a spring and dashpot in parallel.5. de/dt = (F − Fe )/Kv . Now consider the behavior of the Voight model in the same two experiments. F = Kv dev /dt. the spring carries all the force. Denoting F/Ke by e∞ . Stress relaxation predicted by the series model. F = Ke ee = (e − ev )Ke . Initially. which is then maintained at that level (Figure 7. Now substituting Fe = ee Ke = eKe . e. The force in the spring. Fo = Ke e. Integrating. at time t = 0. ln(F/Fo) = t/(Kv /Ke ). Now deﬁning a relaxation time. de/dt = (F − eKe )/Kv = (Ke /Kv ) (F/Ke − e).4.3. ln[(e−ev )/e] = −(Ke /Kv )t.104 Solid Mechanics F If: t e then: Figure 7. t = 0.6). F = Foexp(−t/τ ). Assume that the material is forced to undergo a sudden elongation. the elongation must be accommodated entirely by the spring (e = ee ). Strain relaxation predicted by the series model.4. At an inﬁnite time. and that this elongation is maintained for period of time as sketched in Figure 7. so e∞ = F/Ke . (e − ev )−1 dev = −(Ke /Kv )dt. equals the force in the dashpot. F = Fe + Fv and e = ee = ev . gradually increasing the strain ev . (e−ev ) = F/ Ke and Ke e = Fo. (7. τ = Kv /Ke . Substituting dev = de and Fv = F − Fe into dev /dt = Fv /K. so the force initially jumps to a level. F. The stress decays to zero. there is sudden application at time. as sketched in Figure 7. of a force. the dashpot must carry the entire force because the spring can carry a force only when it is extended. t Now consider a second experiment. Initially. deﬁning the relaxation time as F e If: then: Figure 7. Substituting.
In Figure 7. Rearranging.6. Strain relaxation predicted by the parallel model. The strain saturates at e∞ . Rearranging. Integration gives ln[(F/K2 − ev )/F/K2 )] = −t/τe or ev = (1/K2 )F[1 − exp(−t/τe )].8. e. The total strain is e = ev + e1 . After an inﬁnite time.6) Note that e = eo at t = 0 and e → e∞ as t → ∞. Fo = eK1 (Figure 7. F. so e = (1/K1 + 1/K2 )F. so the initial force. (7. The experiment in which an extension is suddenly applied to the system (Figure 7. Integrating. so e = F/K1 .7) F Figure 7. the dashpot carries no load. is suddenly imposed on the material. (e∞ − e)−1 de = dt/t. Spring and dashpot in parallel (Voight model). (F/K2 −ev )−1 dev = (1/τe ) dt. and e → e∞ as t → ∞. A combined seriesparallel or VoightMaxwell model is much better.Viscoelasticity 105 Figure 7. at time t = 0 (Figure 7. spring #2 is in parallel with a dashpot and spring #1 is in series with the combination. t e∞ t . ev = (e∞ − eo)(1 − exp(−t/τe ). or F∞ = [K1 K2 /(K1 +K2 )]e. so e = e∞ − (e∞ − eo)exp(−t/τe ).9). (e∞ − e)/e∞ = exp(−t/t) or e = e∞ [1 − exp(−t/τ )]. ev = e2 . Substituting F/K2 = e∞ − eo where e∞ and eo are the relaxed and initial (unrelaxed) elongations.5. and e = e1 = e2 .10). where τe = Kv /K2 is the relaxation time for strain relaxation. One can write dev /dt = Fv /Kv = (F − F2 )/Kv = (F − K2 e2 )/ Kv = (F/K2 −ev )(K2 /Kv ). e v τ = Kv /Ke and rearranging. Now consider the experiment in which an elongation. Combined ParallelSeries Model Neither the series nor the parallel model adequately describes both stress and strain relaxation.7) is impossible because the dashpot cannot undergo an sudden extension without an inﬁnite force. e If: then: (7. Consider ﬁrst the sudden application of a force. The basic equations of this model are F = F1 = F2 + Fv . all of the strain occurs in spring #1. ln[(e − e∞ )/ − e∞ ] = t/τ . Immediately after stretching.5) Note that e = 0 at t = 0. (7.
7.106 Solid Mechanics e If: e s po sib le Figure 7. The strain saturates at e∞ . Stress relaxation with the seriesparallel model. Strain relaxation predicted by the seriesparallel model. im t t 2 v Figure 7. t . e∞ t eo t e F If: F o t F ∞ then: Figure 7. Combined seriesparallel model (VoightMaxwell model). The stress decays to F∞ . An instantaneous strain cannot be imposed on the parallel model.10. 1 F e If: then: Figure 7.9.8.
Find the ratio of τe /τσ for this material.13) or U = σ [dε/d(ωt)]d(ωt). where the relaxation time.11. But cos(ωt−δ) = cos(ωt)cosδ + sin(ωt)sinδ. Therefore τe /τσ = Fo/F∞ = 1.11) lags the stress by δ.02. More Complex Models More complicated models may be constructed using more spring and dashpot elements or elements with nonlinear behavior.12) (7.9 and 15. e = eosin(wt − δ). The rate of energy loss per volume is given by dU/dt = σ de/dt. so Fo/F∞ = K1 (1/K1 + 1/K2 ) = (K1 + K2 )/K2 . τ σ . ε = εosin(ωt − δ) U = σoεo ∫ sin(ωt)cos(ωt − δ)d(ωt). so the energy loss per cycle per volume. e = Fo/K1 = F∞ (1/K1 + 1/K2 ). NonNewtonian viscous behavior can be modeled by a nonlinear dashpot for which F = Kv f(˙ ).8) Note that the relaxation time for stress relaxation is shorter than the relaxation time for strain relaxation. A plot of stress vs. as shown in Figure 7.10) For a given material. is given by τσ = Kv /(K1 + K2 ). e Damping Viscoelastic straining causes damping. Nonlinear elasticity can be modeled by a nonlinear spring for which F = Ke f(e). Fo/F∞ = 1. is U= σ dε. (7.1: (7. (7. For strain relaxation. Solution: Combining Equations 15.Viscoelasticity 107 The force decaying from Fo to F∞ is given by F = Fo − (Fo − F∞ )exp(−t/τσ ). U. τe = Kv /K2 .10.02. σ = σosin(wt). The strain. strain is an ellipse. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #7. (7. so . where the integration limits are 0 and 2π . Consider the cyclic loading of a viscoelastic material.9) (7. Substituting σ = σosin(ωt) and dε/d(ωt) = εocos(ωt − δ). τe /τσ = (K1 + K2 )/K2 .
108
Solid Mechanics
σ σ = σosin (ωt) σo π ωt σ σo 2π
e e = eosin(ωt − δ) eo ωt eo
ε
δ
π
2π
Figure 7.11. Cyclic loading of a viscoelastic material. The strain lags the stress (left). The plot of stress vs. strain is an ellipse (right).
U/(σoεo) = ∫ cosδcos(ωt)sin(wt)d(ωt) + ∫ sinδsin2 (ωt)d(ωt) = π sinδ, or U = π(σoεo)sinδ. (7.14)
Because the elastic energy per volume required to load the material to σo and εo is u = (1/2)σoεo, this can be expressed as U/U = 2π sinδ. If δ is small, U/U = 2π δ. (7.16) (7.15)
Natural Decay
During free oscillation, the amplitude will gradually decrease, as shown in Figure 7.12. It is usually assumed that the decrease between two successive cycles is proportional to the amplitude, e. A commonly used measure of damping is the logarithmic decrement, , deﬁned as Λ = ln(en /en +1 ). (7.17)
2 Λ can be related to δ by recalling that Un = σn en /2 = Een /2, so en = [2un /E]1/2 and en+1 = [2Un+1 /E]1/2 . Substituting, Λ = ln{[2Un+1 /E]/[2Un / E]}1/2 = ln(Un+1 /Un )1/2 = ln(1+ U/U)1/2 , or
Λ = (1/2)ln(1+ U/U).
(7.18)
Viscoelasticity
109
n
n+1
n+2
n+3
Amplitude, e
Time
Figure 7.12. Decay of a natural vibration.
Using the series expansion, Λ = (1/2)[ U/U − ( U/U)2 /2 + ( U/U)3 /3 − ... For small values of U/U, δ ≈ ( U/U)/2, or Λ ≈ π δ. (7.19) ≈
Sometimes the extent of damping is denoted by Q−1 , where Q−1 = tan π δ.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #7.2:
The amplitude of a vibrating member decreases so that the amplitude on the 100th cycle is 13% of the amplitude on the ﬁrst cycle. Determine Λ. Solution: Λ = ln(en /en+1 ). Because (em /em+1 ) = (en /en+1 ) = (en+1 /en+2 ) and so on and (en /en+m ) = (en /en+1 )(en+1 /en+2 )(en+2 /en+3 ). . . (en+m−1 / en+m ) = m(en /en+m ). Therefore, (en /en+1 ) = (en /en+m )1/m . Λ = ln(en /en+1 ) = ln(en /en+m )1/m = (1/m)ln(en /en+m ). Substituting m = 100 and (en /en+m ) = 1/0.13, Λ = 0.0204.
Elastic Modulus – Relaxed vs. Unrelaxed
If the frequency is large enough, there is no relaxation and therefore no damping and the modulus, E = σ/e, is high. At low frequencies, there is complete relaxation with the result that there is no damping but the modulus will be lower. At intermediate frequencies, there is partial relaxation with high damping and a frequencydependent modulus. The frequency dependence of the modulus is given by E/Er = ω2 (τe − τσ )/ 1 + ω2 τe2 . (7.20)
110
Solid Mechanics
σ
High frequency
Low frequency
ε
Figure 7.13. Hysteresis curves at a high, low, and intermediate frequency. The damping is low at both high and low frequencies.
The hysteresis curves for high, low, and intermediate frequencies are illustrated in Figure 7.13 and Figure 7.14 illustrates the corresponding interdependence of damping and modulus.
Thermoelastic Effect
When a material is elastically deformed rapidly (adiabatically), it undergoes a temperature change, T = −σ αT/Cv , (7.21)
where T is the absolute temperature, α is the linear coefﬁcient of thermal expansion, and Cv is the volume heat capacity. For most materials, elastic
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.01 Phase angle, δ 0.1 E /Er
1 Frequency
10
100
Figure 7.14. Dependence of damping and elastic modulus on frequency. The peak damping occurs at the frequency that the modulus is rapidly changing. E/Er was calculated from Equation 7.20 with τe = 1.2τσ and δ was calculated from tanδ = ω(τe − τσ )/(1 + ω2 τe τσ ).
Viscoelasticity
111
σ
Figure 7.15. Schematic of loading adiabatically, holding until thermal equilibrium is reached, and then unloading isothermally.
Adiabatic loading
Thermal strain =
α∆T
Isothermal unloading
εa
εi
ε
stretching leads to a cooling because all the terms are positive. Rubber is an exception because α is negative when it is under tension. Consider a simple experiment illustrated by Figure 7.15. Let the material be elastically loaded in tension adiabatically. It undergoes an elastic strain, ea = σ/Ea , where Ea is the Young’s modulus under adiabatic conditions. At the same time, it will experience a cooling, T = −σ αT/Cv . Now let it warm back up to ambient temperature while still under the stress, σ , changing its temperature by T = +σ Tα/Cv , so it will undergo a further thermal strain, etherm = α T = σ Tα 2 /Cv . At room temperature, the total strain will be etot = σ (1/Ea + Tα 2 /Cv ). (7.23) (7.22)
This must be the same as the strain that would have resulted from stressing the material isothermally (so slowly that it remained at room temperature), so eiso = σ/Ei , where Ei is the isothermal modulus. Equating eiso = etot , 1/Ei = 1/Ea + Tα 2 /C p , or E/E = (Ea − Ei )/Ea = Ei Tα 2 /C p .
EXAMPLE PROBLEM #7.3:
(7.24)
A piece of metal is subjected to a cyclic stress of 80 MPa. If the phase angle δ = 0.1◦ and no heat is transferred to the surroundings, what will be the temperature rise after 100,000 cycles? Data: E = 80 GPa, C = 800 J/kgK and ρ = 4.2 Mg/m3 .
Solution: U = (1/2)σ 2 /E. U/U = 2πsin δ. U = 2π sin δ[(1/2)σ 2 /E] = sin(0.1◦ )(80 × 106 J/m3 )2 /(80 × 109 J/m3 ) = 219 J/m3 per cycle. The heat released in 100,000 cycles would be 2.19 × 107 J/m3 . This would cause a temperature increase of Q/(ρC) = 2.19 × 107 J/m3 /[(4200 kg/m3 ) (800 J/kgK)] = 6.5◦ C.
112
Solid Mechanics
Twin boundaries Transverse thermal Inter currents granular thermal currents Damping
Substitutional atom pairs
Grain boundaries Snoek effect
1E14
1E11
1E08
0.00001
0.01
10
10,000
Frequency, hertz
Figure 7.16. Schematic illustration of different damping mechanisms in metals as a function of frequency.
The thermoelastic effect causes damping. The frequencies of the peaks depend on the time for thermal diffusion. The relaxation time, τ , is given by τ ≈ x 2 /D, (7.25)
where x is the thermal diffusion distance and D is the thermal diffusivity. The relaxation time, τ , and therefore the frequencies of the damping peaks depend strongly on the diffusion distance, x. There are thermal currents in a polycrystal between grains of different orientations because of their different elastic responses. In this case the diffusion distance, x, is comparable to the grain size, d. For specimens in bending, there are also thermal currents from one side of the specimen to the other. These cause damping peaks with a diffusion distance, x, comparable to the specimen size.
Other Damping Mechanisms
Many other mechanisms contribute to damping in metals. These include the Snoek effect, which involves carbon atoms jumping from one interstitial site to another, the bowing and unbowing of pinned dislocations, increased and decreased dislocation density in pileups, viscous grainboundary sliding, opening and closing of microcracks, and possibly movement of twin boundaries and magnetic domain boundaries. Figure 7.16 shows very schematically the frequency range of different mechanisms in metals. In thermoplastic polymers, the largest damping peak (α) is associated with the glass transition temperature, which is sensitive to the ﬂexibility of the main backbone chain. Bulky side groups increase the stiffness of the backbone, which increases the glass transition temperature. With many polymers there are more than one damping peak, as indicated in Figure 7.17.
18). The αpeak is associated with motions of the backbone. T = −σ αT/Cv . The direction of rotation is just opposite of the direction that a wheel with metal spokes would rotate. Principles of Polymer Engineering. M. On elastic stretching. and branched polyethylene.. G. B. Damping peaks in linear polyethylene.Viscoelasticity 113 BPE α Figure 7. Oxford Science Pub. C. One of the useful characteristics of gray cast iron is the large damping capacity that results from the ﬂake structure of graphite. the cooling on contraction can be sensed by holding it to the lips. (1988). those spokes will shorten. They are traditionally made from bronze that has been heattreated to form a microstructure consisting of hard intermetallic compounds. A wheel can be built with spokes of stretched rubber bands extending form hub to rim. and the βpeak with branches. (1988). Zener. and milling machines) makes use of this damping capacity. Elasticity and Anelasticity of Metals. Bucknell. Buckley and C. Acoustic vibrations are absorbed by the graphite ﬂakes. The widespread use of gray cast iron for bases of tool machines (e. N. P. McCrum. Buckley and C.5 β γ LPE −100 0 Temperature (°C) 100 0 δ Notes Rubber is unlike most other materials. REFERENCES C. U. Chicago (1948). From N. Linear PE has no branches and hence no bpeak. C. drill presses. B. Coulomb (1736–1806) invented a machine for measuring damping with a torsion pendulum (Figure 7. Oxford Science Pub. When a heat lamp is placed so that it heats half of the spokes. it undergoes an adiabatic heating. Bucknell. of Chicago Press. If one stretches a rubber band and holds it long enough for its temperature to come to equilibrium with the surroundings and then releases it. G.17. P. Bells should have a very low damping. LPE. Principles of Polymer Engineering. unbalancing the wheel so that it rotates. BPE.g. because under tension α is negative. The negative of rubber under tension is the basis for an interesting demonstration. McCrum. beds of lathes. . 0.
Let the time interval t = Kv /Ke2 = τe . After 10 minutes. the stress is 0. the stress is returns to zero. and assume Ke1 = Ke2 . McGrawHill (1953). After that. 2. Coulomb’s torsion pendulum for measuring damping. Timoshenko. Sketch as carefully as possible the corresponding variation of force with time. Consider a viscoelastic material whose behavior is adequately described by the combined seriesparallel model.114 Solid Mechanics Figure 7. Consider a viscoelastic material whose behavior is adequately described by the combined seriesparallel model. 3. There is a period of tension followed by compression and tension again. e1 . time history shown in Figure 7. Let it be subjected to the strain vs. Sketch as carefully as possible the corresponding variation of strain with time. Let it be subjected to the force vs. time history shown in Figure 7. Problems 1.19. There is a period of tension followed by compression and tension again. After that. and assume Ke1 = Ke2 .20. From S.18. History of the Strength of Materials. Let the time interval t = Kv /Ke2 = τe . It is very similar in principle to modern torsion pendulums used for damping studies today. An elastomer was suddenly stretched in tension and the elongation was held constant.19. the tensile stress in the polymer dropped F ∆t v e2 Time F Figure 7. Loading of a viscoelastic material.
20. After an extremely long time. A.4050 nm 62 GPa 660 ◦ C Table 7.) e ∆t Figure 7. Time . Data for aluminum are given in Table 7.70 Mg/m3 900 J/kg·K lattice parameter Young’s modulus melting point 0. A. 6.1. Strain cycles imposed on a viscoelastic material. assuming that there has been no transfer of heat to the surroundings and all the energy loss/cycle is converted to heat. Is Λ dependent on the amplitude for this material in the amplitude range studied? (Justify your answer. data for aluminum: crystal structure density: heat capacity fcc 2. for stress relaxation. A piece of aluminum is subjected to a cyclic stress of ±120 MPa.56%) every 5 seconds. Find the relaxation time.2.] 4. B. and U can be found from the applied stress and Young’s modulus. After 5000 cycles. Λ. How long will it take the stress to drop to 75% of its initial value? [Hint: U can be found from the temperature rise.. τ .20. it is noted that the temperature of the aluminum has risen by 1.1.2. Amplitudes of vibration Cycle 0 25 50 100 200 Amplitude 250 206 170 115 53 by 12%. It is noted that the intensity of the sound drops by one decibel (i. What is the phase angle δ in degrees? 5. Measurements of the amplitude of vibration of a freely vibrating beam are given in Table 7. B. Data for aluminum Misc. Calculate Λ and the phase angle δ.8◦ C. the stress dropped to 48% of its original value. A certain bronze bell is tuned to middle C (256 Hz).Viscoelasticity 115 Table 7. Calculate the log decrement.e.
0 Mg/m3 .116 Solid Mechanics 7 8.] For iron.3 × 10−3 ) multiplied by the isothermal modulus at room temperature.05◦ . What fraction of the initial mechanical energy is lost in this cycle? [Hint: Sketch the σ −ε path. For iron.0 J/kg · K and ρ = 1. what is the ratio of K1 to K2 ? Damping experiments on iron were made using a torsion pendulum with a natural frequency of 0. A highstrength steel can be loaded up to 100.5 kJ/mol. Find the ratio of adiabatic Young’s modulus to isothermal Young’s modulus for this steel at 20◦ C.1 g/cm3 . At what temperature would you expect the damping peak to occur if the pendulum were redesigned so that it had a natural frequency of 10 Hertz? A polymer is subjected to a cyclic stress of 5 MPa at a frequency of 1 Hz for 1 minute. If the anelastic behavior of iron is modeled by a seriesparallel model. C.46 J/g◦ C. The activation energy for diffusion of carbon in αiron is 78. and ρ = 7. The experiments were run at various temperatures and the maximum log decrement was found at 35◦ C. 10. α = 11. A. C. E = 2GPa.65 cycles/sec. What is the largest amount of thermoelastic cooling that can be observed in this steel at 20◦ C? B. A piece of this steel is adiabatically strained elastically to 10−3 and then allowed to reach thermal equilibrium with the surroundings (20◦ C) at constant stress. and again allowed to reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. What is the phase angle δ? [Hint: Assume Λ is constant so en /en+1 = en+1 /en+2 = and so on. It is then unloaded adiabatically. the adiabatic Young’s modulus is (1 + 2. . 9. Then en /en+m = [en /en+1 ]m ]. C = 1. The phase angle is 0.76 × 10−6 /◦ C. Calculate the temperature rise assuming no loss to the surroundings. E = 29 × 106 psi. Cv = 0.000 psi in tension before any plastic deformation occurs.
Most creep tests are conducted under constant load (constant engineering stress). With lower stresses and temperatures. creep rates decrease but failure usually occurs at lower overall strains (Figure 8.2). but it gradually decreases to a steady state (Stage II). As creep proceeds. As soon as the load is applied. there is an instantaneous elastic response. so ε = C(σ/η)/d. η. further decreasing the loadbearing cross section. Porosity develops in the later stages of creep. Viscous ﬂow is thermally activated.1) 117 . diffusional ﬂow. followed by period of transient creep (Stage I). Creep Mechanisms Viscous ﬂow: Several mechanisms may contribute to creep. The strainrate attributable to grainboundary sliding can be written as εV = AV (σ/d)exp(−QV /RT]. so ˙ η = ηoexp(QV /RT].1 illustrates typical creep behavior. grainboundary sliding is viscous in nature. d. Finally the strain rate may increase again (Stage III). The sliding velocity on the boundary is proportional to the stress and inversely proportional to the viscosity. The rate of extension depends on the amount of grain boundary area per volume and is therefore inversely proportional to the grain size. Figure 8. Viscous ﬂow is the dominant mechanism in amorphous materials In polycrystalline materials. accelerating until failure occurs. ˙ (8. Initially the rate is high. and dislocation movement. The acceleration of the creep rate in Stage III occurs because the true stress increases during the test. Creep rates increase with higher stresses and temperatures. the crosssectional area decreases so the true stress increases. These include viscous ﬂow.8 Creep and Stress Rupture Introduction Creep is timedependent plastic deformation that is usually signiﬁcant only at high temperatures.
3. x x x Figure 8.4.118 Solid Mechanics X Stage I. Diffusioncontrolled creep: A tensile stress increases the separation of atoms on grain boundaries that are normal to the stress axis. as sketched in Figure 8. The specimen elongates as atoms are added to grain boundaries perpendicular to the stress. transient creep Stage II. one involving dislocation motion or diffusion. as shown in Figure 8. If grain boundary sliding were the only active mechanism. This incompatibility must be relieved by another deformation mechanism. and the Poisson contraction decreases the separation of atoms on grain boundaries that are parallel to the stress axis.2. Typical creep curve showing three stages of creep. Such diffusion produces a plastic elongation. Increasing stress or temperature Strain Time . The result is a driving force for the diffusional transport of atoms from grain boundaries parallel to the tensile stress to boundaries normal to the tensile stress. with failures often occurring at a lower strains.1. there would be an accumulation of material at one end of each boundary on which sliding occurs and a deﬁcit at the other end. Decreasing temperatures and stresses lead to slower creep rates. steadystate creep Stage III creep Strain Time Figure 8.
Because the strain rate equals v/(d/2). On the other hand. Creep by diffusion between grain boundaries. so v = CDLσ/(d/2).Creep and Stress Rupture 119 B Figure 8. d/2. The velocity. The driving force for Coble creep is the same as for NabarroHerring creep. The total number of grainboundary diffusion paths is inversely proportional to the grain size. σ . it is called NabarroHerring creep. v. between the boundaries parallel and perpendicular to the stress axis is proportional to the stress. . ε N−H = A L(σ/d2 )DL ˙ (8.4.2) where AL is a constant. where C is a constant. on which sliding occurs. at which the diffusion source and sink move apart is proportional to the diffusion ﬂux. so now J is proportional to d−1/3 and Figure 8. DL . Grain boundary sliding causes incompatibilities at both ends of the planes. Therefore J = CDLσ/(d/2). The diffusional ﬂux. J. A and B. and is inversely proportional to the diffusion distance. This must be relieved by another mechanism for sliding to continue.3. the grain elongates and contracts laterally. A If the creep occurs by diffusion through the lattice. and the lattice diffusivity. As atoms diffuse from lateral boundaries to boundaries normal to the tensile stress. if creep occurs by diffusion along the grain boundaries it is called Coble creep. between the diffusion source and sink.
At lower temperatures. The value of m = 5 here corresponds to a value of m = 0. . The m used in the creep literature is the ˙ ˙ ˙ reciprocal of the m used earlier.5). With climb. thereby avoiding an obstacle. ˙ (8.4 predict creep rates that depend only on stress and temperature and not on strain. the creep rate is not dependent on grain size but the rate of climb does depend very strongly on the stress. as in the case grainboundary sliding requiring another mechanism. Climbcontrolled creep. ε. On the other hand.4) The value of m is approximately 5 for climbcontrolled creep. ε ∝ ε1/m . is the sum of the rates due to each mechanism. In this case. ∗ This notation widely used in the creep literature is the inverse of that used in Chapter 6. creep is not entirely climbcontrolled and larger exponents are observed.1 through 8.∗ As climb depends on diffusion. the creep rate is controlled by how rapidly the dislocations can overcome obstacles that obstruct their motion. either the mechanisms operate independently or they act cooperatively.5. Multiple mechanisms: More than one creep mechanism may be operating. the creep rate is given by εC = AG(σ/d3 )Dgb. the constant As has the same temperature dependence as lattice diffusion. There are two possibilities. If they operate independently. ˙ ε = εA + εB + · · · ˙ ˙ (8. the overall creep rate. An edge dislocation can climb by diffusion of atoms away from the dislocation (vacancies to the dislocation). Thus. ˙ (8. Equations 8. where we wrote σ ∝ εm or.5) on the most rapid mechanism. they apply only to Stage II or steadystate creep. equivalently.120 Solid Mechanics Figure 8. Dislocation motion: Slip is another mechanism of creep.2 in the notation of Chapter 6. ε = As σ m . At high temperatures. the predominant mechanism for overcoming obstacles is dislocation climb (Figure 8.3) where Dgb is the diffusivity along grain boundaries and AG is a constant. two mechanisms may be required to operate simultaneously.
A and B. These two possibilities (Equations 8. Creep by two mechanisms.Creep and Stress Rupture 121 A B A Figure 8. ε = ε A = ε B.6) are illustrated in Figure 8. particularly at grain boundaries and secondphase particles. (8. Consider the growth of a spherical void in a cubic element with dimensions x. If all of the atoms diffuse to positions that cause lengthening. A void will grow if its growth lowers the energy of the system. If the radius increases by dr. (8. The total energy associated with the element is dUs = x 3 4σ πr 2 dr/x 3 = 4σ πr 2 dr. the potentially slower mechanism will control the overall creep rate. as illustrated in Figure 8. If the mechanisms operate independently (series).8) . Cavitation Cavitation can lead to fracture during creep. The energy per volume expended by the applied stress. the overall creep rate is largely determined by the faster mechanism. de. Cavitation occurs by nucleation and growth of voids.6. The surface energy of the void is ES = 4π γ r 2 . both must operate at the same rate. Let the radius be r and the stress σ .6. If creep depends on the operation of both mechanisms (parallel).5 and 8.7. is dUs = σ dε = 4σ πr 2 dr/x 3 .6) The overall rate is determined by the potentially slower mechanism. σ . associated with the growth will be de = dx/x = 4πr 2 dr/x 3 . ˙ ˙ ˙ (8. Stress (log scale) B Parallel processes Process A Process B Series processes Strain rate (log scale) Where two parallel mechanisms are required.7) The volume of the void is (4/3)πr 3 . Growth by dr will change the volume of the sphere by 4πr 2 dr . the element will lengthen by dx so that its volume increase is x 2 dx = 4πr 2 dr . The strain. the increase of the surface energy is dUs = 8π γ r dr.
9 shows this for a NiCrCoFe alloy. As the service temperatures and stress level are lowered to achieve lower rates of creep. Creep may cause component parts to fail in service by excessive deformation. rupture usually occurs at lower strains.9) Voids with radii less than r∗ should shrink. it is more common that parts fail by rupture than by excessive deformation. Schematic views of grain boundary cracks caused by grain boundary sliding. so they no longer can function satisfactorily. Creep The term rupture is used in the creep literature to mean fracture. (8.122 Solid Mechanics σ dx r x dr x x Figure 8. . Rupture vs. Ones larger than r∗ should grow.8. Failure may also occur by grain boundary fracture.8. Figure 8. Equating 8.7. after long times under load at high temperature. the discussion has centered on creep deformation. However. Up to this point. Unless grain boundary sliding is accompanied by another mechanism.8. Spherical void in a cubic cell. Figure 8. the critical condition for void growth is r ∗ = 2γ/σ. Growth of the void by dr causes an elongation of the cell by dx. grain boundary cracks must form as illustrated in Figure 8.7 and 8. Successful design for hightemperature service must ensure against both creep excessive deformation and against fracture (creeprupture).
For a given material and stress. boilers. the creep strain depends only on θ. To ensure that neither rupture nor excessive creep strain occurs.000 Figure 8.000 psi 31% 19% 40 time x 32% Stres s rup ture 30 x 1% 0. log10 θ is often referred to as the SherbyDorn parameter. Some parts are designed to last 20 years (175. as shown in Figure 8. engines for commercial jets. Alternatively. (8.000 hrs) or more.11. it is not feasible to test alloys under creep conditions for times as long as the design life. Stress dependence of stressrupture life and time to reach several creep strains for a NiCrCoFe alloy tested at 650◦ C.10) In creep studies.1. θ = texp(−Q/RT). Extrapolation Schemes For many applications such as powergenerating turbines. From N. Note that as the stress level is reduced to increase the time to a given strain. the stress to rupture or to achieve a given amount of creep strain is plotted against the value of PSD .hours 500 1.10. 5.2% 20 0. Creep test data Rupture test data Transition. 18% . start of 3rd stage creep 13% elong. rupture occurs at lower strains. SherbyDorn: Sherby and Dorn proposed plotting creep strain as a function of a temperaturecompensated time.5% x x x 0. PSD . ASM (1950). Often tests are limited to 1000 hrs (42 days). Grant in High Temperature Properties of Metals. results from shorter time tests at higher temperatures and/or higher stresses must be extrapolated to the service conditions.Creep and Stress Rupture 123 70 60 28% elong. Several schemes have been proposed for such extrapolation. The basic idea is that the creep strain is plotted against the value of θ for a given stress.9. and furnace elements.1% 10 0 1 5 10 50 100 Time .000 50 Stress . From such plots. one can predict longtime behavior. components must be designed for long service at high temperatures. Note that θ is the same as the ZenerHollomon parameter discussed in Chapter 6. In such cases. as shown in Figure 8. J.
θ = (20 × 365 × 24 hrs)exp{−85. L. % Cu Solid solution alloy AI+1. so log10 (1. Solution: For these conditions. Materials in Engineering Design.8. Creep strain vs. Trans ASM. Note that the test data for several temperatures fall nearly on the same line.987 % AI . E. Stress to cause creep rupture of S590 alloy as a function of PSD = log10 θ.62 × 10−19 . Figure 8.000 psi 528 K 464 K 517 K 422 K 477 K 99. θ for several aluminum alloys tested at 27.000/RT (t in hr. The value of Q was taken as 357 J/mol. % Mg Solid solution alloy 2 4 68 2 4 ∋ 0. EXAMPLE #8.6 MPa.11 indicates that the permissible stress would be about 400 MPa. Sherby and J. v. Orr.62 × 10−19 ) = −18. 96 (1954).001 2 10–21 10–20 10–19 10–18 10–17 10–16 10–15 10–14 θ = te−36. D.000/ [1.2: The chief engineer needs to know the permissible stress on the alloy in Figure 8. v. Goldoff. Figure 8. Data taken from R.10.1 6 4 2 0.01 8 6 4 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 AI+1.124 Solid Mechanics 1 8 6 4 2 σc = 4. T in K) Figure 8.13 to achieve a rupture life of 20 years at 500◦ C.1 At. O.1 At.6 At.11.987(500 + 273)]} = 1. Dorn. . % Cu Dispersion alloy 0. M. Note that the test data for several temperatures fall on the same line. Total creep strain AI+0. 49 (1961). From R.
EXAMPLE #8. Note that the test data for several temperatures fall on the same line. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. was expressed as T + 460.14. Trans ASME. the temperature. LarsonMiller parameter: A different extrapolation parameter was proposed by Larson and Miller. Figure 8.12. in hours. T. They found agreement for most hightemperature alloys with values of C of about 20. E. Again. However. 74 (1952). one can use such plots for prediction of longterm behavior from shorter time tests at higher temperatures.12 is a LarsonMiller plot of stress for rupture vs. ∗ F. The chief engineer needs to know the permissible stress that can be applied to the S590 alloy for a life of 20 years at 500◦ C. REFERENCES N. Dowling.3: Solution: The LarsonMiller parameter with C = 17 is P = 773[17 + log10 (20 × 365 × 24 hrs)] = 17. A. R. P. 765–771.13 with C = 17 and temperature in Kelvin.190. P = 17.∗ PLM = T(log10 t r + C). v. M. From Figure 8. pp. the parameter can be expressed with temperature in Kelvin. This ﬁgure was constructed with the same data as used in Figure 8. tr . Stress to cause creep rupture of alloy S590 as a function of the LarsonMiller parameter P. 2nd Ed.190 corresponds to σ ≈ 400 MPa. (8. PrenticeHall (1999).Creep and Stress Rupture 125 Figure 8. Meyers and K. Mechanical Behavior of Materials.11) As they originally formulated this parameter. Larson and J. . PrenticeHall (1999). where T is in degrees Fahrenheit and the rupture time. keeping tr in hours. Miller. Chawla. K.
daC.3 × 10−22 hr. for fracture is d/c.6. c. Problems 1. pp. the time. the buoyancy of the water lowers the force on the specimen. Mechanical Behavior of Materials.25 nm as a typical value. t is in hours. Taking the fracture to occur when the pieces are separated by an atomic diameter. in their parameter. 1–12. Stress vs. C = −log10 tr = 21. Hertzberg. 84 (1910). Larson and Miller∗ rationalized the value of about 20 for the constant. A London. Andrade. T. Notes In the paper that proposed their extrapolation scheme.Roy. t. Assuming d = 0. v. R. Furthermore. Soc. . In 1910. H. 4th Ed. Andrade’s constant truestress creep apparatus. John Wiley (1995). daC. A. Proc. The stresses are given in MPa and rupture life is given in hours. rupture life data for a super alloy are listed in Table 8.126 Solid Mechanics Figure 8.25 × 10−9 m/3 × 108 m/s)(3600s/hr) = 2. W. t = (0. so C = −log10 tr . ∗ E. Andrade∗ proposed a scheme for maintaining constant true stress during a creep experiment by using deadweight loading with a shaped weight partially suspended in water (Figure 8. They noted that if T were inﬁnite.13. Courtney. 2nd Ed. As the specimen elongates. and C = 20. E. C. more of the weight is immersed. 2000. Make a plot of stress (log scale) vs. they assumed that at an inﬁnite temperature the pieces of a breaking specimen should ﬂy apart with the speed of light. M. decreasing the force on the specimen.1. Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials.13). M. d. T is the temperature in Kelvin. McGrawHill. P would be inﬁnite unless log10 tr + C = 0. or approximately 20. As the specimen elongates. PLM where PLM = (T)(C + log10 t).
0 98.14.8 250. where t is the rupture time. A. Creep data for a carbon steel.1.0 800◦ C – – 0. what is the value of C ? 4. B. 3. θ = texp[−Q/(RT)]. and θ is assumed to depend only on stress. N.011 0.004 0. Using this plot. the constant C in the LarsonMiller parameter. In these cases. For many materials. 1/T for data at a single level Figure 8. Randall.Creep and Stress Rupture 127 Table 8. Proc. PSD = logθ where θ = texp(−Q/RT) and Q = 340 kJ/mole.00205 0.198 1. is equal to 20.10 B. . 57 (1957). using the natural logarithm of time. the LarsonMiller parameter can also be expressed as P = T(C + lnt) with t in seconds and T in Kelvin. – – – – rupture time (hrs) 600◦ C 0. and t in hours). T is absolute temperature. Stressrupture data Stress MPa 600 500 400 300 200 100 500◦ C 2.082 0. Data from P.1 180 2412 – 700◦ C 0. plot the SherbyDorn parameter. Using the data in Problem 1. P = (T + 460)(C + log10 t) (where T is in Fahrenheit. Stress rupture data is sometimes correlated with the Dorn parameter.018 0.0005 0. Predict from that plot what stress would cause rupture in 100. If this parameter correctly describes a set of data. However. ASTM. then a plot of log(t) vs. v.000 hrs at 450◦ C. predict what stress would cause rupture in 100. 2.87 11.000 hrs at 450◦ C.72 12.
Using the linear portions of the plot. (1/T) which parameter better correlates a set of stress rupture data? 5. Data for the steadystate creep of a carbon steel are plotted in Figure 8.20 50 0.5 50 1. determine the exponent m in εsc = ˙ Bσ m at 538◦ C and 649◦ C.0 60 28 30 127 20 332 15 71 5 28 10 123 211 40 483 25 1023 of stress would be a straight line. ˙ Figure 8. 13 (1968). . 1/T also would be a straight line. in Prog. If the LarsonMiller parameter correctly correlates data.1 20 1.08 60 0.2. Mater. M.15. Sherby and P.3 10 1.08 20 0. 1/T plots. Burke. If both parameters predict straight lines on log(t) vs.14. a plot of data at constant stress (therefore constant P) of log(t) vs. D. Determine the activation energy. are they really the same thing? B.8 30 3. Q. A. v. Steady state creep rate of an aluminum alloy at several temperatures.03 65 8. how do they differ? How could you tell from a plot of log(t) vs.128 Solid Mechanics Table 8. in the equation ε = f (σ )exp[−Q/(RT). Data from O.30 30 0. If not. Creep for stress data at 650◦ C at 730◦ C at 815◦ C at 925◦ C at 1040◦ C stress (ksi) rupture life (hrs) stress (ksi) rupture life (hrs) stress (ksi rupture life (hrs) stress (ksi) rupture life (hrs) stress (ksi) rupture life (hrs) 80 0. A. Sci.
Make a LarsonMiller plot of the data. Consider the creep rate vs.15. at 755 K. Predict the life for an applied stress of 30 ksi at 600◦ C. B.Creep and Stress Rupture 129 6. The data in Table 8. Calculate the stress exponent. A. stress curves for an aluminum alloy plotted in Figure 8. . 7. m.2 were obtained in a series of stress rupture tests on a material being considered for high temperature service.
This chapter treats the mechanisms and general observations of failure under a single application of load at low and moderate temperatures. Developments that increase yield strength usually result in lower toughness. rolling. Notches. Finally.1. Some plastic deformation is necessary to absorb energy. It is difﬁcult to break a warm bar of taffy candy to share with a friend. these factors include decreased temperatures. a greater yield strength is generally accompanied by a lower ductility and a lower toughness. In many ways. Toughness is the energy absorbed in fracturing. A highstrength material has low toughness because it can be subjected to greater stresses. the fracture behavior of steel is like that of taffy candy. extrusion. and high rates of loading also embrittle steel. There are two important reasons for engineers to be interested in ductility and fracture. increasing the likelihood of fracture. 130 . The second is that a certain degree of toughness is required to prevent failure in service. there are three ways to promote its fracture.9 Ductility and Fracture Introduction Throughout history. there has been a neverending effort to develop materials with greater yield strengths. and the presence of notches. low temperatures. rapping it against a hard surface raises the loading rate. producing a stress concentration. However. As schematically indicated in Figure 9. The stress necessary to cause fracture may be reached before there has been much plastic deformation to absorb energy. A knife may be used to notch the candy bar. or other plastic working processes. and fatigue failure under cyclic loading is covered in Chapter 11. However. Even children know that warm taffy tends to bend rather than break. increased strain rates. The candy may be refrigerated to raise its resistance to deformation. Chapter 8 covers failure under creep conditions at high temperatures. The ﬁrst is that a reasonable amount of ductility is required to form metals into useful parts by forging. Ductility and toughness are lowered by factors that inhibit plastic ﬂow.
A B C . At one extreme. fracture may occur Figure 9. increased loading rates. (B) Fracture on a surface that is normal to the tensile axis. Ductility may be expressed as percent elongation or as the percent reduction of area in a tension test. depending on the fracture path. Failures may also be described as intergranular or transgranular. The terms cleavage. Fractures can be classiﬁed several ways. Failures in tension tests may be classiﬁed several ways (Figure 9. shear. A brittle fracture may be intergranular or it may occur by cleavage.Ductility and Fracture 131 Figure 9. These three factors raise the stress level required for plastic ﬂow so the stress required for fracture is reached at lower strains. Several failure modes. A fracture is described as ductile or brittle depending on the amount of deformation that precedes it. (A) Rupture by necking down to a zero cross section. void coalescence. Lowered temperatures. and the presence of notches all reduce ductility. and so on are used to identify failure mechanisms. a material may fail by necking down to a vanishing crosssection.2).2. At the other extreme. These descriptions are not mutually exclusive. (C) Shear fracture.1. The ductility of a material describes the amount of deformation that precedes fracture.
Puttick. Figure 9. Phil Mag. The other piece is the cone (Figure 9.4.6 and 9. 4 (1959).132 Solid Mechanics Figure 9.7). This overall failure is often called a cup and cone fracture. Such a fracture starts in the center of the bar.4. Failures may also occur by shear. Development of a cup and cone fracture. From K. If the entire shear lip is on the same broken piece.8). As deformation continues.5). The ﬁnal shear failure at the outside also occurs by void formation and growth (Figures 9. v. fracture usually starts by nucleation of voids at inclusions in the center of the neck where the hydrostatic tension is the greatest. With continued elongation. this internal fracture grows outward until the outer rim can no longer support the load and the edges fail by sudden shear. Section through a necked tensile specimen of copper.3. . Ductile Fracture Failure in a tensile test of a ductile material occurs well after the maximum load is reached and a neck has formed. In this case. these internal voids grow and eventually link up by necking of the ligaments between them (Figures 9. and 9. 9. More often. where the hydrostatic tension is greatest. it forms a cup. E. (A) Internal porosity growing and linking up. part of the shear lip is on one half of the specimen and part on the other half.3. (B) Formation of a shear lip. on a surface that is moreorless normal to the maximum tensile stress with little or no deformation. showing an internal crack formed by linking voids.
Rogers.5. 10 µ . ibid. From H. From W. TMSAIME v. Figure 9. Figure 9. From Hosford and Caddell. C. 218 (1960). Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. F. and their linking up by necking of the ligaments between them. Trans.7. Cambridge (2007). 3rd Ed..Ductility and Fracture 133 d Figure 9. Schematic drawing showing the formation and growth of voids during tension.6. their growth. Large voids in a localized shear band in OFHC copper. Schematic drawing illustrating the formation of and growth of voids during shear. M. and linking up by necking of the ligaments between them. Hosford and R. Caddell.
W. . The rest of the inclusions are on the mating surface. Photographs of specimens tested in tension under hydrostatic pressure (Figure 9. whereas hydrostatic compression tends to suppress void formation and growth.134 Solid Mechanics Figure 9.11) show that the reduction of area increases with pressure. Figure 9. Ductility is strongly dependent on the inclusion content of the material. Figure 9.9.9 shows the fracture surface formed by coalescence of voids. A typical cup and cone fracture in a tension test of a ductile manganese bronze. From Elements of Physical Metallurgy. the distance between the voids decreases. so it is easier for them to link together and lower the ductility.10 shows the decrease of ductility of copper with volume fraction inclusions.12 shows how the level of hydrostatic stress affects ductility. Note the inclusions associated with about half the dimples. Hydrostatic tension promotes the formation and growth of voids. A. ibid. Guy.8. Dimpled ductile fracture surface in steel. The level of hydrostatic stress plays a dominant role in determining the fracture strains. Courtesy of J. AddisonWesley (1959). With increasing numbers of inclusions. Figure 9. From Hosford and Caddell. Figure 9. The inclusions can be seen in some of the voids. In ductile materials voids form at inclusions because either the inclusionmatrix interface or the inclusion itself is weak. Jones. Ductile fracture by void coalescence can occur in shear as well as in tension testing.
Figure 9. Edelson and W. silica. to the effective stress. (e) 185 MPa. σ . Data include alumina. chromium. Air Force contract 33615–67C (1967). From P. Data from A. ASM. (b) 234 kPa. Figure 9. L. and (f) 267 MPa.3 MPa. ε f . Q. and ironmolybdenum inclusions as well as holes. (c) 1 MPa. W.Figure 9. (a) atmospheric pressure. Effect of secondphase particles on the tensile ductility of copper. Baldwin Trans. The effective fracture strain. ASTM (1947).10. Interim report. Hoffmanner. Bridgman in Fracture of Metals. increases as the ratio of the mean stress. 55 (1962). becomes more negative (compressive) for two of the steels tested by Bridgman. M.11. Effect of pressure on the area reduction in tension tests of steel.12. From B. (d) 1. . v. iron. I. ¯ ¯ σm . molybdenum.
13. which form easy fracture paths. . σ is the yield strength. Commercially pure tungsten and molybdenum fail by ∗ † A. Figure 9. Failure occurs when f is so large that F = 0. (9. Gurson. Tvergaard. fracture may occur by cleavage. so is the yield strength.136 Solid Mechanics Figure 9. PhD thesis. ASM (1974). From Metals Handbook. 8th ed. Void Failure Criterion To explain the role of voids in failure. Later. His yield criterion is of the form F= σ ¯ σf 2 + 2 f cosh 3 σH 2 σf − (1 + f 2 ) = 0. It is signiﬁcant that fcc metals do not undergo cleavage. (9.2) Brittle Fracture In some materials. Intergranular fracture in pure iron under impact. L. The brittleness of grain boundaries may be inherent to the material. V. v. v 27. or may be caused by segregation of impurities to the grain boundary.. 83–152.1) ¯ where f is the volume fraction voids. Brown University. Gurson∗ proposed an upperbound damage for a porous material that contains voids and obeys the von Mises yield criterion. and σ H is the hydrostatic stress. Tvergaard† suggested that a good ﬁt with experimental data could be obtained by with three ﬁtting parameters c1 . 9. or even by a ﬁlm of a brittle second phase. (1990) pp. c2 and c3 : F == σ ¯ σf 2 + 2c1 f cosh c2 σ H 2 σf − (1 + c3 f 2 ) = 0. in Advances in Applied Mechanics. Cleavage fractures occur on certain crystallographic planes (cleavage planes) that are characteristic of the crystal structure.13 shows such an intergranular fracture surface. 1975. Some polycrystals have brittle grain boundaries.
The energy absorbed in the fracture is measured by recording by how high the pendulum swings after the bar breaks. Perhaps this is because cleavage fractures must reinitiate at each grain boundary. Copper and copper alloys are severely embrittled by a very small amount of bismuth. Occasionally. which segregates to and wets the grain boundaries. These metals are ductile only when all the grain boundaries are aligned with the direction of elongation. The pendulum’s mass and height are standardized. toughness depends on grain size. and with smaller grain sizes there are more grain boundaries. Molten FeS in the grain boundaries of steels at hot working temperatures would cause failure along grain boundaries. Above the transition temperature. The total energy to cause failure depends on the deforming volume as well as on energy per volume. Impact Energy A material is regarded as being tough if it absorbs a large amount of energy in breaking. unlike most material changes.or keyhole notches are employed instead. For many materials. The standard specimen has a crosssection of 10 mm by 10 mm. The most common of these is the Charpy test. However. as in tension testing of colddrawn wire. Such loss of ductility at high temperatures is called hot shortness. In a tension test. Sometimes bars with U. there is a narrow temperature range over which there is a large change of energy absorption and fracture appearance. which reacts with the sulfur to form MnS. A notched bar is broken by a swinging pendulum. Decreasing the grain size increases the toughness and ductility.25 mm. A specimen can be heated or cooled to the speciﬁed temperature. the fracture is brittle and absorbs little energy in a Charpy test. Impact tests are often used to assess the toughness of materials.14 gives the details of the test geometry. Hot shortness is prevented in steels by adding manganese.Ductility and Fracture 137 grain boundary fracture. Stress corrosion is responsible for some grain boundary fractures. One of the principal advantages of the Charpy test is that the toughness can easily be measured over a range of temperatures. subsized bars are tested. Figure 9. Decreasing grain size. the energy per volume to cause failure is the area under the stressstrain curve and is the toughness in a tension test. increases both yield strength and toughness. It is common to deﬁne a transition temperature in this range. Manganese sulﬁde is not molten at hotworking temperatures and does not wet the grain boundaries. There is a 2mm deep Vnotch with a radius of 0. the toughness under other forms of loading may be very different because toughness depends also on the degree to which deformation localizes. At temperatures below the transition temperature. and then transferred to the Charpy machine and broken quickly enough so that its temperature change is negligible. the fracture is . With brittle fracture.
15 shows typical results for steel. Structure and Properties of Materials. vol. ductile and absorbs a large amount of energy. W. G. From H. Moffatt and J. Welding J. From R. Figure 9. The transition temperature does not indicate a structural change of the material. The ductilebrittle transition temperature depends greatly on the 140 120 100 Energy. 1950). Gensamer. F 200 . Vanderbeck and M. ftlb 80 60 40 20 0 −80 −40 Figure 9.14. A hammer on the pendulum breaks the bar. Wiley (1965). Charpy testing machine and test bar. 0 40 80 120 160 Temperature.15. Wulff. Res. W. Suppl. III Mechanical Behavior. W.138 Solid Mechanics Scale Pointer Starting position Hammer End of swing h Specimen h′ Anvil Figure 9. lowalloy hotrolled steel. Ductilebrittle transition in a Charpy Vnotch specimen of a lowcarbon. The height the pendulum swings after breaking the bar indicates the energy absorbed. Hayden. (Jan.
With less severe notches. plates through which cracks propagated. as in keyhole or Unotched Charpy test bars. With decreased specimen width. even lower ductilebrittle transitions are observed. For example.17). For example. Tech. Speciﬁcations for ship steels area often require a certain Charpy Vnotch 15 ftlb transition temperature (the temperature at which the energy absorption in a Vnotch Charpy test is 15 ftlbs). 158.16). ftlb 40 Keyhole Charpy 20 0 − 80 − 40 0 40 80 100 120 Temperature °F Figure 9. One is in the development of tougher materials. The other main use of Charpy data is for documenting and correlating service behavior. In general. one should specify not only the type of test but also the criterion used. . bcc metals and many hcp metals exhibit a ductilebrittle transition but it is signiﬁcant that fcc metals do not.18. (1954). Publ. Because of this. as shown for aluminum in Figure 9.16. lower transition temperatures are measured (Figure 9. In discussing the ductilebrittle transition temperature of a material. This information can then be used in the design and speciﬁcations of new structures. austenitic stainless steels or copper are frequently used in equipment for cryogenic applications. type of test being conducted. Data from Pellini. With slow bend tests and unnotched tensile tests. Charpy test results for one steel with two different notch geometries (standard Vnotch and keyhole notch) depends on the mode of testing. it has been learned through Charpy testing that the transition temperature of hotrolled carbon steels can be lowered by decreasing the carbon content (Figure 9.Ductility and Fracture 139 60 Vnotch Charpy Energy. there is less triaxiality so the transition temperatures are lowered. Spec. changes of impact energy with temperature are small. Tests were conducted on steel from plates in which cracks initiated. The results were used to establish speciﬁcations for the 15 ftlb Charpy Vnotch transition temperature for plates used in various parts of a ship. a large number of ships failed by brittle fracture during World War II. For fcc metals. There are two principal uses for Charpy data. and a few plates in which cracks stopped.
43 (1951). A natural gas pipeline that failed during ﬁeld testing. Rinebilt and W.53% C 0.18. Charpy V–notch impact energy (ft–lb) .63% C 50 0 200 300 Test temperature (K) 400 Figure 9. Brittle Fracture of Engineering Structures. Effect of carbon content on Charpy Vnotch impact energy. v. From E.17. Wiley (1957). Decreasing carbon content lowers the ductilebrittle transition temperature and raises the shelf energy. Figure 9.22% C 150 100 100 50 0 0.43% C 0. Trans. A.Test temperature (°C) 350 −100 0 0. ASM.31% C 0. From J. Parker.11% C 100 250 300 Charpy V–notch impact energy (J) 0. Harris. J.01% C 200 250 200 150 0.
Cambridge University Press (1963). particularly Liberty Ships and T2 Tankers. he was awarded the Nobel prize in physics for his work at high pressures. ship design (cracks often started at sharp cornered hatchways that created stress concentrations). cracks run at speeds greater than the velocity of sound in the pressurized gas. Figure 9.D. Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture (1952). .18 shows one of the cracked lines.19. there is no release of the gas pressure to reduce the stress at the tip of the crack. From C. Figure 9. and high transition temperatures of the steels. Tipper. There were three main factors: poor welds. and is reputed to have discovered “dry ice” and wrote a classic book. Recovery of some ships and halfships allowed the cause of the failures to be investigated. in 1931.Ductility and Fracture 141 Figure 9. Massachusetts. there were many fractures of natural gas pipelines. summarizes his work with the mechanics of solids. One of the longest cracks was 3200 feet long. Therefore. He discovered the highpressure forms of ice.19 is a photograph of a ship that failed in harbor. and attended Harvard. Bridgman (1882–1961) was born in Cambridge. a large number of ships. As a result. Production of ships by welding of steel plates together (in contrast to the earlier procedure of joining them by riveting) became common. Physics of High Pressures. in 1908. there was a rapid increase of shipbuilding. The Brittle Fracture Story. Notes In the period 1948 to 1951. In 1946. Once started. F. More ships sunk as the result of brittle fractures than by German Uboat activity. A ship that fractured while in port. failed at sea. Percy W. During World War II. where he graduated in 1904 and received his Ph. Another book. Most occurred during testing and most started at welding defects but propagated through sound metal.
Y. ASM. Is it safe to say that brittle fracture can be avoided in steel structures if the steel is chosen so that its Charpy Vnotch transition temperature is below the service temperature? If not. where r is the radius of the void ¯ and f(σ H ) is a function of the hydrostatic stress. Derive the relation between % El and % RA for a material that fractures before it necks. Tension test. what is the value of specifying Charpy Vnotch test data in engineering design? 8. Parker. Brittle Fracture of Engineering Structures. Hold a piece of newspaper by the upper left corner with one hand and the upper right corner with the other. 10. For a material with a tensile yield strength. Metals Park (1967). 5. AddisonWesley (1966). Calculate the percent elongation of this material if the ratio of the gauge length to bar diameter is 2. ASM. determine the ratio of the mean stress σ m = to Y at yielding in a A. Necking causes an additional elongation that is approximately equal to the bar diameter. Wiley (1957). E. It has been argued that the growth of internal voids in a material while it is being deformed is given by dr = f(σ H )dε. rotate it 90◦ and repeat. Metals Park (1964). Fracture of Engineering Materials. Take another piece of newspaper. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy 3rd ed. Caddell. 7. Using this hypothesis. 3. Compression test. Argon. and tear it. Cleavage in bcc metals occurs more frequently as the temperature is lowered and as the strain rate is increased. Cambridge (2007) Problems 1. One of the tears will be much straighter than the other. 4. 6. Explain why voids often form at or near hard inclusions. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. F. B. Why? . W. Torsion test. 4. Plot percent elongation vs. explain why ductile fracture occurs at greater effective strains in torsion than in tension. and C. Consider a very ductile material that begins to neck in tension at a true strain of 0. Lo/Do.) 2. and 100. Hosford and R.142 Solid Mechanics REFERENCES Ductility. (Assume constant volume and uniform deformation. Explain this observation.20. both in tension and in compression. McClintock and A.
London. The development of modern fracture mechanics started when it was realized that strength calculations based on assuming perfect crystals were far too high because they ignored preexisting ﬂaws.10 Fracture Mechanics Introduction The treatment of fracture in Chapter 9 was descriptive and qualitative. Soc. Grifﬁth∗ reasoned that a preexisting crack could propagate under stress only if the release of elastic energy exceeded the work required to form the new fracture surfaces. his theory based on energy release predicted fracture strengths that were much lower than those measured experimentally. Theoretical Fracture Strength Early estimates of the theoretical fracture strength of a crystal were made by considering the stress required to separate two planes of atoms. v. It allows measurements of the toughness of materials and provides a basis for predicting the loads that structures can withstand without failure. ASM (1949). Fracture mechanics is useful in evaluating materials. Fracture and Strength of Crystals. and in failure analysis. Orowan. However. In contrast. 221 (1920).. fracture mechanics provides a quantitative treatment of fracture. A. The attractive ∗ † ‡ A. E. Grifﬁth. Prog. Early calculations of strength for crystals predicted strengths far in excess of those measured experimentally. R. Irwin. With this correction. v. in the design of structures. Figure 10. 12 (1949). Ser A. Rep. Phil. Irwin‡ offered a new and entirely equivalent approach by concentrating on the stress states around the tip of a crack. 143 .1 shows schematically how the stress might vary with separation. experiment and theory were ﬁnally brought into agreement. Phys. G. in Fracturing of Metals. Trans. Orowan† realized that plastic work should be included in the term for the energy required to form a new fracture surface. Roy.
The work is the area under the curve in Figure 10.1) where x is the separation of the planes. is the slope of the stressstrain curve. If it is assumed that x ∗ = ao.7 GPa for aluminum).6) .1. The engineering strain is e = x/ao. Solving for the theoretical strength. stress between two planes increases as they are separated. and then decaying to zero.4) (10. about 0. (10. Differentiating.144 Solid Mechanics Initial slope = dσ/dx ao σt x σ σ = σtsin(πx/x*) x* x Figure 10. dσ/dε. Young’s modulus.3) (10. The assumption that x ∗ = ao can be avoided by equating the work per area to create two fracture surfaces to twice the speciﬁc surface energy (surface tension). reaching a maximum that is the theoretical strength. (10. σt . so dσ/dx → σt (π/x ∗ ). cos(π x/x ∗ ) → 1. as ε → 0: E = dσ/dε = (ao/x ∗ )π σt . (10. x∗ .5) so x ∗ = π γ /σt . x∗ x∗ 2γ = 0 σ dx = 0 σt sin(π x/x ∗ )dx = − (x ∗ /π )σt [cos π − cos 0] = (2x ∗ /π )σt . Schematic of the variation of normal stress with atomic separation and a sine wave approximation to the ﬁrst part of the curve. At low values of x. σt ≈ E/π (10.4 predicts theoretical strengths that are very much higher than those that are observed (65 GPa vs. dσ/dx = σt (π/x ∗ ) cos(π x/x ∗ ).2) Equation 10. The ﬁrst part of the curve can be approximated by a sine wave of half wavelength. E.1. about 3 GPa for steel and 20 GPa vs. σt = Ex ∗ /(πao). γ . σ = σt sin(π x/x ∗ ).
The term (1 + 2a/b) is called the stress concentration factor. Stress Concentration The reason that the theoretical predictions are high is that they ignore ﬂaws.10 into Equation 10. Discontinuities such as internal cracks and notches are stress concentrators.9 results in √ σmax = σa (1 + 2 (a/ρ). 2a 2b ρ Substituting Equation 10.7) (10. at the end of an ellipse is given by ρ = b2/a.Fracture Mechanics 145 Figure 10. (10. (10.2.3. an externally applied stress is not uniformly distributed within the material. ρ. Equation 10.12) .11 can be approxi √ σmax = 2σa (a/ρ).10) (a/ρ).9) where σa is the externally applied stress. σt = [(π γ /σt )/ao]E/π. in a plate containing an elliptical crack (Figure 10.8) The predictions of Equations 10. Substitution of Equation 10. The radius of curvature. σmax .8 and 10. For example. and all materials contain ﬂaws. √ σt = (γ E/ao). (10. Internal crack in a plate approximated by an ellipse with major and minor radii of a and b.4 are similar and much too large.6 into Equation 10. the stress at the tip of the crack. (10. In the presence of a ﬂaw.11) Because a/ρ is usually very large (a/ρ mated by 1).2) is given by σmax = σa (1 + 2a/b). so a/b = √ (10.
Usurf = 4atγ . He considered a large plate with a central crack under a remote stress. σ . U Crack length Figure 10. There is a critical crack length at which growth of the crack lowers the total energy. There are two terms: One is the surface energy associated with the crack.12. The effect of a crack’s length on its energy. Fracture will occur when the level of σmax reaches the theoretical fracture strength. (10. so the total elastic strain energy would be Uelast = −(1/2)πa 2 tσ 2 /E. The elastic energy decreases and the surface energy increases.146 4at γ Solid Mechanics Critical crack Energy. The correct solution is just twice this.3). Uelast = −π α 2 tσ 2 /E. Grifﬁth and Orowan Theories Grifﬁth approached the subject of fracture by assuming that materials always have preexisting cracks. so the average stress. However.14) This term will not be derived here.3. σa . and none outside. σmax /σa = 1 + 2 (a/ρ) = 1 + √ 2 (10−7 /10−11 ) = 201. and calculated the change of energy. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10. (10. The other term is the decrease of stored elastic energy due to the presence of the crack. with crack size (Figure 10.1: Calculate the stress concentration at the tip of an elliptical crack having major and minor radii of a = 100 nm and b = 1 nm. U. Note that . The energy/volume is (1/2)σ ε = (1/2)σ 2 /E and the volume is πa2 t. −πa 2tσ2/E Total It is possible to rationalize the difference between theoretical and measured fracture stresses in terms of Equation 10. √ Solution: ρ = b2 /a = 10−18 /10−7 = 10−11 . at fracture is much lower than the theoretical value. to check its magnitude one can simplify the problem by assuming all the strain energy is lost inside a circle of diameter 2a.13) where t is the plate thickness and 2a is the length of an internal crack.
15) This equation predicts that the energy of the system ﬁrst increases with crack length and then decreases. as shown in Figure 10.14. there is a critical crack size above which crack growth lowers the energy. planestrain prevails and Equation 10.18) where Gc replaces 2γ and includes the plastic work in generating the fracture surface. (10. This critical crack size can be found by differentiating Equation 10. .4.15 with respect to a and setting it to zero. as illustrated in Figure 10. II. d Utotal /da = 4tγ − 2πat(σ 2 /E) = 0. and III. For thick plates (t a). the plate is assumed to be thin enough relative to the crack length that there is no stress relaxation in the thickness direction. w. To account for this.17 were too low for metals is because the energy expended in producing a new surface by fracture is not just the true surface energy. (10. Equation 10.16 is modiﬁed to σ = √ (EGc /πa).16) This is known as the Grifﬁth criterion. In this development.16 should be modiﬁed to σ = √ 2Eγ /[(1 − υ 2 )πa]. Fracture Modes There are three different modes of fracture. These modes are designated I. each having a different value of Gc . planestress conditions prevail. Utotal = 4atγ − πa 2 t(σ 2 /E).3. Under a ﬁxed stress. is small compared to a (t a). Equation 10. However.14 becomes Uelast = −πa 2 tσ 2 (1 − υ 2 )/E.13 and 10.16 is satisﬁed. (10. the predicted stresses were very much too low for metals. so σ = √ (2Eγ /πa). (10. Grifﬁth found reasonable agreement between this theory and experimental results on glass. t. There is a thin layer of plastically deformed material at the fracture surface and the energy to cause this plastic deformation is much greater than the surface energy. On the other hand. if the plate is thick enough that there is complete strain relaxation in the thickness direction (planestrain conditions). and that the plate thickness.Fracture Mechanics 147 the derivation of this assumes that plate width. for example. γ . is very large compared to a (w a).17) Orowan proposed that the reason that the predictions of Equations 10. Combining Equations 10. A preexisting crack of length greater than 2a will grow spontaneously when Equation 10.16 and 10.
6. 61 (1939).5 shows how f varies with the ratio of crack length. a.148 Solid Mechanics Figure 10. . v. as shown in Figure 10. are inﬁnite at the crack tip and decrease with distance from the crack. The stress intensity factor should not be confused with the stress concentration factor. (10. KI = f σ (πa)1/2 .19a) (10. An example is the punching of a hole. The Westergaard equations predict that the local stresses. the fracture plane is perpendicular to the normal force.19c) (10.† which in a semiinﬁnite body is given by KI = σ (πa)1/2 . Trans. The material will yield wherever σ y is predicted to be greater than the material’s yield strength. Of course. where f depends on the specimen geometry and is usually a little greater than 1 for small cracks.5) and KI is the stress intensity factor. Figure 10. σx and σ y . to the specimen width. Irwin’s Fracture Analysis Irwin noted that in a body under tension.19b) (10. Mode III fractures are also shear separations but here the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of shear. Mode I Mode II Mode III In mode I fracture. ASME.20) Here σ is the applied stress. This is what is occurs in tension tests of brittle materials. J. the stress state around an inﬁnitely sharp crack in a semiinﬁnite elastic solid is entirely described by∗ σx = KI /(2πr )1/2 cos(θ/2)[1 − sin(θ/2) sin(3θ /2)] σ y = KI /(2πr ) 1/2 (10. For ﬁnite specimens. Appl.4. ∗ † These equations are attributed to Westergaard. (10. Mode II fractures occur under the action of a shear stress with the fracture propagating in the direction of shear.19d) cos(θ/2)[1 + sin(θ/2) sin(3θ /2)] τxy = KI /(2πr )1/2 cos(θ/2) sin(θ/2) cos(3θ /2) σz = υ(σx + σ y ) for plane strain (εz = 0) and σz = 0 for plane stress τ yz = τzx = 0. Mech.19e) where θ and r are the coordinates relative to the crack tip (Figure 10. so yielding limits the actual stress near the crack tip (σ y ≤ Y). the inﬁnite stress prediction is unrealistic. The three modes of cracking. An example is cutting of paper with scissors. w.
4 0.4 0. In Irwin’s analysis.Fracture Mechanics 149 3 3 w 2a Center crack 2 Edge crack 2 f(a/w) w 1 a f(a/w) 1 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.2: (10.0 in. is designed to carry an 80.3 0.18 shows that for f = 1.22) A 6 ft long steel strut.21) √ (EGC ).5 0. What is the longest edge crack that will not cause failure? Yield strength σy Distance from crack tip Figure 10. is σ f = KIc /[ f (πa)1/2 ]. 2. Variation of f with a/w for edge and center cracks.1 0. fracture occurs when KI reaches a critical value.25 in.3 0.6. The three lines for the center crack are from three different mathematical approximations.5.1 0. This predicts that the fracture stress. KIc = EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10. KIc . thick.5 a/w a a/w b Figure 10.000 lb tension load. which is a material property. Stress distribution ahead of a crack. . wide and 0. Assume that the steel √ has a toughness of 40 ksi in. (10.2 0. Comparison with Equation 10. The Westergaard equations predict an inﬁnite stress at the crack tip. σ f . but the stress there can be no greater than the yield strength.
It is customary to characterize the size of the plastic zone by a radius. To solve this problem. KIc = 40 ksi in.04.5a. Now checking to see whether the guess of f = 1. The value f = 1. r p = (KIc /Y )2 /(2π ). The energy absorption per area is greater here because of the larger volume of deforming material in the plane stress region. Substituting f = 1. r p = (KIc /Y )2 /(6π ). A threedimensional sketch showing the shape of the plastic zone and the shear lip formed at the edge of the plate.8. a = 0. At the surface where plane stress (σz = 0) prevails. a/w = 0. Plastic Zone Size The plastic work involved in the yielding of material near the crack tip as the crack advances is responsible for the energy absorption.12.21.2 was reasonable. Figure 10. we must ﬁrst guess a value for f. (10. The sizes and shapes of the plastic zones calculated for plane strain (εz = 0) and plane stress (σz = 0) conditions are shown in Figure 10. the thickness of the specimen .2. the fracture corresponds to mode II rather than mode I. Planestrain (εz = 0) is characteristic of the interior where adjacent material prevents lateral contraction. a = 0. σz.7 is a threedimensional sketch of the plastic zone shape. Solution: According to Equation 10. and σ = 80.23) There is no stress.2 ) = 160 ksi. As a ﬁrst √ guess let f = 1. so plane stress prevails at the surface with a characteristic toughness KI Ic that is greater than KIc .25) (10. normal to the surface of the specimen.2.12.25 in. For plane stress. rp . Repeating the calculation with f = 1.150 Solid Mechanics Direction of crack growth Plastic zone Mode I Shear lip Mode II Shear lip Mode II Figure 10.12 is reasonable for a = 0. From Figure 10.016. f = 1.000 lb/ (2. failure will occur if a = (KIc / f σ )2 /π . To obtain valid KIc data. There is a transition from plane stress to plane strain with increasing distance from the surface. For plane strain.08/2 = 0.014 in.7.016.0 × 0.
159 and (KI /Y)2 /(6π ) = 0.3: Using stress ﬁeld in Equations 10.5(KIc /Y )2 .053.2 should be much greater than the radius of the plastic zone for plane stress. (10. σx = KIc / (2π r)[1/(2 2)]. Substituting into the von Mises crite√ rion. τ yz = τzx = τxy = 0.1 0. Now substituting σx = KIc /(2πr )[1/(2 2)] = Y /10. σx = σ y = Y so Y = KIc / (2πr ). τxy = KIc / (2πr )[−1/(2 2)] = −σx .5(KIc /Y )2 ] = 12.8.19.1 Figure 10.1 x 0. Dimensions are in units of (KI /Y)2 . Express the values of r in terms of (K Ic /Y).24) This assures that the fraction of the fracture surface failing under planestress conditions. σz = 0. 2 2 2Y2 = (3σx − 0)2 + (0 − σx )2 + (σx − 3σx )2 + 6(σx )2 = 20σx so σx = √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2Y /20 = Y /10.1 −0. σz = 0. τ yz = τzx = 0. calculate the values of r at θ = 0◦ and 90◦ at which the von Mises yield criterion is satisﬁed. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10.19 for planestress (σz = 0).159(KIc /Y)2 .19. For θ = 90◦ . equals or is less than [2(KIc /Y )2 /(2π )]/[2. θ/2 = 45◦ . respectively.2 −0. cos(θ/2) = sin(θ/2) = sin(3θ/2) = −cos(3θ/2) = √ √ √ 1/ 2. 2r p /t. . r = (KIc /Y)2 /(2π ) = 0. for θ = 0. Solution: According to Equations 10. Substituting into the von Mises criterion. Solving for r. According to Equations 10. σ y = √ √ √ √ KIc / (2πr )[3/(2 2)] = 3σx . Note that the “radii” of the planestress and planestrain zones are conventionally taken as (KI /Y)2 /(2π ) = 0. The curve for plane strain was calculated for υ = 0. Plots of the plastic zones associated with plane stress and plane strain. σx = σ y = KIc / √ (2πr ).Fracture Mechanics 151 y 0.2 Plane stress 0.3. Speciﬁcations require that t ≥ 2.7%. Plane strain −0.
10). Assume that necks in different thickness specimens are geometrically similar. Gc = U/(t L) = C Lt 2 /(t L) = C t. where C and C are constants. where U is the plastic work and L is the length of the fracture. depends on the relative sizes of the planestress and planestrain zones. and therefore depends on the specimen thickness. Kc . Kc = (Gc E) = (C t E). For very thick plates. Kc decreases with thickness because the plastic volume decreases. if the sheet thickness is less than twice rp for plane stress.9. For thinner sheets. Because the area of the fracture is tL. Kc is proportional to t. For even thinner sheets. The dependence of Kc on thickness. However. as sketched in Figure 10. the effect of mode II in the surface region is negligible. the failure is by throughthickness necking (Figure 10. t.11). Substituting.9. so Kc approaches KIIc . the entire fracture surface fails in mode II. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10. so Kc is inversely proportional to the square root of thickness. Compare these values with Figure 10. Kc decreases with thickness because a lower fraction of the fracture surface is in mode II. The volume of the plastic region equals t2 L. Plates made of laminating sheets have lower toughness than monolithic ones (see Figure 10. . where t is the specimen thickness and L is the length of the crack.4: Solution: The fracture energy per area is Gc = U/A = U/(t L). Very thin sheets tear at surprisingly low stresses. Thin Sheets For thick sheets. so Gc is inversely proportional to √ √ t. The overall fracture toughness (critical stress intensity).199(KIc /Y)2 . Derive expressions that show how Kc and Gc depend on thickness for thin sheets that fail by planestress fracture. Then the necked volume = Ct2 L so U = C Lt2 . the plastic work per √ area is proportional to the thickness.152 Solid Mechanics Figure 10. more of the fracture surface is characterized by planestress conditions.9 fo θ = 0◦ and θ = 90◦ for plane stress conditions. so Kc approaches KIc . Therefore. r = [10/(16π )](KIc /Y)2 = 0. In this case.
cold working. so the energy absorbed per area of fracture surface decreases as t decreases. There is a similar correlation between strength and toughness for aluminum alloys. tend to decrease toughness. such as increased carbon content of steels.11. which increases both strength and toughness. . Other factors such as the presence of inclusions also affect KIc . Figure 10.10. The toughness of a laminate (D) is less than that of a monolithic sheet of the same total thickness (A) because the plastic volume is smaller. The volume of the plastic zone is proportional to t 2 .Fracture Mechanics 153 Figure 10. Sketch of a sheet failure by throughthickness necking. a b c d Figure 10. and martensitic hardening. The sole exception seems to be decreased grain size. Metallurgical Variables Most metallurgical variations responsible for increasing strength. alloying elements in solid solution.12 shows the decrease of toughness with strength for 4140 steels that had been tempered to different yield strengths.
These include ultrasonics. For example. Safe design is based on assuming the presence of cracks of the largest size that cannot be detected with 100% certainty.21 and applying an appropriate safety factor. and dye penetrants.1 for the support geometry and that nondestructive inspection can detect all edge cracks of size a = 2 mm or √ larger. However.300 1. Various techniques are used to inspect for preexisting cracks. periodic inspection during the life of a part is required. so the permissible stress should not exceed the yield strength multiplied by the safety factor. failure from accidental overload will occur by plastic yielding rather than fracture. In critical applications.700 Yield strength. Even if there are no preexisting cracks larger than those assumed in the design. Fracture Mechanics in Design Engineering design depends on the size of the largest possible crack that might exist in a stressed part or component. will it fail by yielding or by fracture? EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10. A support is to be made from 4340 steel. Assume that f = 1.13. the designer must assume a = 1 mm. yielding is usually regarded as less dangerous than fracture.154 Solid Mechanics 150 4340 steel 125 Klc MPa√m 100 75 50 1. The steel may be tempered to different yield strengths. “safe failure” is still not assured because smaller cracks may grow by fatigue during service.100 1.5: . The design should also assure that the component does not yield plastically.12. xrays.21 exceeds the yield strength. For each technique. there is a limit to how small a crack can be reliably detected. If a 4340 steel of KIc = 120 MPa m is used. If the stress calculated from Equation 10. The inverse correlation of KIc with yield strength for 4340 steel. what is the largest stress that will not cause either yielding or fracture? If the support is overloaded. A. if that inspection technique cannot assure detection of edge cracks smaller than 1 mm. magnetic inspection. The correlation between strength and toughness was shown in Figure 10. MPa Figure 10.500 1. Then the permissible stress is calculated using Equation 10. such as cyclically loaded aircraft components.
Y = 1275 MPa. By selecting a 4340 steel of a different yield strength. so it will fail by yielding when σ = 1275 MPa.100 50 75 100 125 150 Klc. KIc data from Figure 10. B. The dimensions are selected so that loading of the specimen will be entirely elastic except for the plastic zone at the crack tip.Fracture Mechanics 155 1. The greatest possible load is reached when σ f = Y = 1305 MPa. Figure 10. σ f = KIc /[ f (πa)] = 120 MPa/[1.13 is replotted on the same axes. From Figure 10. Compact Tensile Specimens The compact tensile specimen (Figure 10. For the greatest load carrying capacity. yielding and fracture should occur at the same stress level.500 fracture yield Stress. The intersection of two curves indicates that the optimum value of Y is about 1305 MPa.002m. MPa 1. This is greater than the yield strength.π ) = 1376 MPa. The yield strength vs.5(KIc /Y)2 . With the requirement that a ≥ 2.700 1.300 1. the radius of the planestress plastic zone at the surface r p = (KIc /Y)2 /(2π ) is ≤ .13 is a plot of calculated values of σ f for several different levels of KIc . MPa√m Figure 10.13.1 (0.14) is often used for measuring KIc . for KIc = 120 MPa m. The specimen is loaded by pins inserted into the holes.400 1. √ Solution: A.21. √ √ Using Equation 10.200 1.600 1.13. ﬁnd the yield strength that will allow the largest stress without either yielding or fracture. B.
J is the work done on a material per area of fracture. Strictly.6: A mediumcarbon steel has a yield strength of √ 250 MPa and a fracture toughness of 80 MPa m. so mode II will prevail over less than a/(2. but it has been shown that the errors caused by a limited amount of plastic deformation are not large. Similarly.19 that form the basis for the treatment up to this point.19. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #10. Often materials are not available in the thicknesses needed. Finally. If there has been no plastic deformation. How thick would a compact tensile specimen have to be for valid planestrain fracture testing? Solution: The specimen thickness should be at least 2.14. This area can . the fracture toughness is measured by loading the specimen until the crack grows. Then cyclic loading is applied to cause the crack grow and sharpen by fatigue.2a w = 2a f = 1. The requirement that w/a = 2 insures that a plastic hinge will not develop at the back of the specimen (region A).7% of the fracture surface.2a. very large specimens are required to assure elastic behavior. The initial crack is made by machining. a. if h were less than 1. If the thickness is equal to a. or about 10 inches.15A.5(KIc /Y) 2 t=a h = 1. B a/5π . (This would be impossible unless a very thick plate and a very large testing machine were available.5π )= 12. it should be applied only for nonlinear elastic behavior.1 Figure 10. Mode II extends inward from each surface a distance of rp . For relatively tough materials.5π ). It is the area between the loading path and the unloading path after the fracture area divided by the increase of fracture area.26 m. The Jintegral offers a method of evaluating the toughness of a material that undergoes a nonlinear behavior during loading.) The JIntegral Linear elastic behavior was been assumed in the development of Equations 10. the unloading will return to the origin as shown in Figure 10.5(KIc /Y)2 = 2. this amounts to 1/(2. Compact tensile specimen used to measure KIc . regions B would yield in bending.156 Solid Mechanics B t h A w a f a ≥ 2. The load at this point is noted and KIc is calculated from Equation 10.5(80/250)2 = 0. taking σ as the load divided by w and t.
Hertzberg. as shown in Figure 10. The value of J is equal to Gc . Deformation and Fracture and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials. crack length = a Load.31) However. Adapted from R. . P Load. crack length = a + ∆a Displacement Displacement a b Figure 10. J is still taken as the area between the loading and unloading curves. 200 150 KIc. John Wiley (1995).16.Fracture Mechanics 157 Loading.15. MPa√ m 100 150 200 Figure 10. the unloading curve will not return to the origin.16 is a comparison of experimentally determined values of JIc and KIc . (10. and J should be somewhat larger than Gc . J is taken as the area between the loading and unloading curves. In this case.. if there has been plastic deformation accompanying the crack propagation. 4th Ed. 2 JIc = GIc = KIc /[E/(1 − υ 2 )].15b. (A) For fully elastic behavior. P Loading. W. (B) If some plasticity accompanies the crack propagation. the unloading curve will not return to the origin. MPa√ m 100 50 0 0 50 [JIcE/(1 − υ)]1/2. be measured by unloading or by testing a specimen with a longer initial crack. crack length = a Unloading. Figure 10. crack length = a + ∆a Unloading. the unloading curve returns to the origin. Comparison of experimentally determined values of JIc and KIc for several steels.
221A (1923). E. Such agreement would not have been found had he worked with metals or other materials in which there is energy absorbed by the plastic zone associated with crack propagation. Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials. G. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. 2. Soc London. A. Mechanical Metallurgy. he was employed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (then the Royal Aircraft Factory). has been reprinted with commentary in Trans.. A wing panel of a supersonic aircraft is made from a titanium alloy that √ has a yield strength 1035 MPa and toughness of KIc = 55MPa m. In 1915. the stress concentration would reduce strengths far below those that were actually observed. It is 3. Grifﬁth measured the fracture strength of glass ﬁbers that naturally contained small cracks. degrees from the University of Liverpool. McGrawHill (1990). Grifﬁth is considered to be the father of fracture mechanics. In service. use the concepts of the Grifﬁth analysis to predict the ratio of the average graphite ﬂake sizes of the two cast irons. v. He received his B. Class 20 and class 60 gray cast irons have tensile strengths of about 20 ksi and 60 ksi. M. Dieter.158 Solid Mechanics There are other approaches to measuring the fracture toughness of tough materials. and 2. Assuming that the fractures start from graphite ﬂakes and that the ﬂakes act as preexisting cracks.. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. T. These methods will not be treated here. ASM v. Ser. including measurements based on the crack opening displacement (COD). W. H. 61 (1968). 4th ed. he became interested in the stress concentrations caused by notches and scratches. 2. Eng. Dowling. In his work on aircraft structures.5 mm . Notes Alan A. and D.40 m long.40 m wide. respectively. Problems 1. Assume that the crack is initially 0. where he had a brilliant career. which is not enough to cause yielding but does cause gradual crack growth of a preexisting crack normal to the loading direction at the edge of the panel. Prentice Hall (1993). Courtney. Hertzberg. REFERENCES R.0 mm thick. He found reasonable agreement with his theory. He realized that if the curvature at the end of a crack were of molecular dimensions. Eng. it is subjected to a cyclic stress of ±700 MPa. Roy. John Wiley (1996). He did pioneering work on turbines that led to the early development of the jet engine. Trans. E. 3rd ed. His classic paper. Eng. N. in Phil. McGrawHill (1986).
(B) Variation of f with a/w. wide. How long would the crack have to be for failure of the plate under the stress? . long and grows at a constant rate of da/dN = 120. A pipeline is to be built of this steel and to minimize the wall thickness of the pipe. 10 ft long.1 0. (A) Support shape.3 0. thick. If the crack length. a. 3. is 0. the stress in the walls should be as large as possible without either fracture or yielding.17b gives f (a/w) in the √ equation σ = KIc /[ f (a/w) (πa)]. as shown in Figure 10. If it is guaranteed that there are no cracks longer than a length equal to 80% of that in A.. A steel plate. does this assure that failure will occur by yielding rather than fracture? Explain brieﬂy. is loaded under a stress of 50 ksi. Inspection techniques ensure that there are no cracks longer than 2 mm (a = 1 mm). and 6 in. will the support yield before it fractures? What is the size of the largest crack for which this is true (i. A. is small enough. the length. The support in Figure 10. t. what is the largest value of a for which general yielding will precede fracture)? Assume that any fracture would be in mode I (plane strain). Calculate the number of cycles to failure. There is a central crack perpendicular to the 10ft dimension. 5. w.0 f(a/w) 1.0 0 0. A. The width of the support.2 a/w 0. L.4 a b Figure 10.25 in. and the thickness.15.Fracture Mechanics 159 F 2.25 in.e.17a is to be constructed from a 4340 steel plate tempered at 800F.17. the fracture toughness decreases. 4.. As yield strength is increased. B. Discuss critically the assumption of mode I. 0. The steel has a yield strength of 95 ksi and a fracture √ toughness of 112 ksi (in). the fracture toughness and yield strength depend on the prior heat treatment.13. The yield strength of the steel is 228 ksi and its value √ of KIc is 51 ksi (in). For 4340 steel. What level of yield strength should be speciﬁed? Assume a geometric constant of f = 1.5 a t w L 1. is 4 in. is 36 in. Figure 10.
Assume the depth of the plastic zone is given by the equation r p = (KI /Y)2 /(6π ) and the strained volume is 2r p A. so the plastic work per volume is Yε.160 Solid Mechanics B. and that KIc and Gc are related by Equation 10.e. An estimate of the effective strain..22. If there is an accidental overload (i. the stress rises above the speciﬁed 50 ksi). If there is a preexisting surface crack of a = 4 mm. A structural member is made from a steel that has a KIc = 180MP m and a yield strength of 1050 MPa.0.) . what limitations must be placed on the crack size? √ 6. In service. Assume f = 1. it should neither break nor deform plastically as either would be considered a failure. in a planestrain fracture surface can be made in the following way. associated with running of a planestrain fracture. If the designer wants to be sure that an accidental overload would result in yielding rather than fracture. (Realize that Gc is the plastic work per crack area. Assume that the material is not workhardened and the effective strain is constant throughout the plastic zone. Derive an expression for the plastic strain. the plate might fail by either yielding or by fracture depending on the crack size. ε. ε. at what stress will the structural member fail? Will they fail by yielding or fracture? 7.
even though it may be very small. The fact that a material fails after a number of cycles indicates that some permanent change must occur on every cycle. These marks indicate the position of the crack front at some stage during the fatigue life. Each cycle must produce some plastic deformation. tensile stresses. and ships are other examples. There are three stages of fatigue. Surface Observations Often visual examination of a fatigue fracture surface will reveal clamshell or beach markings. there will be no failure. Fatigue failures of ceramics are rare because there seldom is plastic deformation. a period of time that allowed corrosion or a change in the stress amplitude. each mark corresponds to some change during the cyclic loading history. The initiation site of the crack can easily be located by examining these marks. Turbine blades. transmission parts. Automobile parts such as axles. as shown in Figure 11. bridges. sudden fracture occurs when the cracks reach a critical size. The ﬁrst is nucleation of a crack by small amounts of inhomogeneous plastic deformation at a microscopic level. the remaining portion of the crosssection may fail in one last cycle by either brittle or ductile 161 . When the crack has progressed far enough. A fatigue failure is one that occurs under a cyclic or alternating stress of an amplitude that would not cause failure if applied only once. Finally. and plastic strain on each cycle.1. The second is the slow growth of these cracks by cyclic stressing. Aircraft are particularly sensitive to fatigue. and suspension systems may fail by fatigue. Rather. Fatigue requires cyclic loading. If any of these are missing. The distance between these markings does not represent the distance that the crack propagated in one cycle.11 Fatigue Introduction It has been estimated that 90% of all service failures of metal parts are caused by fatigue. Metals and polymers fail by fatigue.
H. These intrusions and extrusions are the result of the slip of one set of planes during the compression halfcycle and Figure 11.3. ASM (1974).. Typical clamshell markings on a fatigue fracture surface of a shaft. its toughness. where ﬁnal failure occurred in a single cycle. fracture. The fracture started at the left side of the bar and progressed to the right. SEM picture of fatigue striations on a fracture surface of type 304 stainless steel.2. From Metals Handbook. Courtesy of W.162 Solid Mechanics Figure 11. Under high magniﬁcation. Durrant. intrusions and extrusions are often apparent. 9. The ﬁnal fracture surface may represent the major part or only a very small portion of the total fracture surface depending on the material. v. Sometimes striations cannot be observed because they are damaged when the crack closes. The distance between striations is the distance advanced by the crack during one cycle. 8th ed. These are called striations and they do represent the position of the crack front at each cycle (Figure 11. A careful microscopic examination of the exterior surface of the specimen after cyclic stressing will usually reveal a roughening even before any cracks have formed. Microscopic examination of a fracture surface often reveals markings on a much ﬁner scale.1. 12 µm .2). and the loading conditions. as shown in Figure 11.
Roy. A242 (1957). These correspond to persistent slip bands beneath the surface. Intrusions and extrusions at the surface formed by cyclic deformation.3. in service materials may be subjected to cyclic stresses that are superimposed on a steadystate stress. However. . the mean stress is zero. Fatigue cracks initiate at the intrusions and grow inward along the persistent slip bands. Soc.4. Proc. the slip on a different set of planes during the tensile halfcycle (Figure 11.4). Nomenclature Most fatigue experiments involve alternate tensile and compressive stresses. (London) v. Hull.Fatigue 163 Figure 11. From A. Sketch showing how intrusions and extrusions can develop if slip occurs on different planes during the tension and compression portions of the loading. Figure 11.5 shows this together with various terms Intrusion Active slip planes in compression Active slip planes in tension Extrusion Figure 11. In this case. Cottrell and D. often applied by cyclic bending. Persistent slip bands beneath the surface are associated with these intrusions and extrusions.
the actual wave shape is of little or no importance.5 is drawn with sinusoidal stress waves. SN Curves Most fatigue data are presented in the form as SN curves. the ratio of maximum and minimum stresses is R = σmin /σmax .5.1) For completely reversed loading. the number of cycles to failure (N). Static tensile loading corresponds to R = 1. Frequency is also unimportant unless it is so high that heat cannot be dissipated and the specimen heats up or so low that creep occurs during each cycle. σ m .5) (11.7 show the SN curves for a 4340 steel and a 7075 aluminum alloy.6 and 11. with N conventionally plotted on a logarithmic scale. R = 0. which can be expressed as R = (σm − σ/2)/(σm + σ/2). illustrating several terms.3) (11. The mean stress. there is a stress amplitude (endurance limit or fatigue limit) below which failure will never . used to deﬁne the stresses. R = −1. is σ = (σmax − σmin ) = 2σa .2) (11.4) (11. Schematic of cyclic stresses.164 Solid Mechanics σa Stress ∆σ σm σmin Time σmax Figure 11. For lowcarbon steels and other materials that strain age. and for tensionrelease. which are plots of the cyclic stress amplitude (S = σa ) vs. The amplitude. σ a . The number of cycles to cause failure decreases as the stress amplitude increases. Also. is σa = (σmax − σmin )/2. σ . and the range. SN curves are for tests in which the mean stress (σ m ) is zero. Although Figure 11. is deﬁned as σm = (σmax + σmin )/2. (11. Usually. Figures 11.
many materials. the break in the curve for a material with an fatigue limit occurs at about 106 cycles. such as aluminum alloys (Figure 11.6.000 Stress.Fatigue 165 1. cycles to failure 109 Figure 11.6.7.7). Typically. the fatigue strength is often deﬁned as the stress amplitude at which failure will occur in 107 cycles.7. In this case. If the SN curve is plotted as log(S) against log(N). The break in the SN curve occurs at about 106 cycles. In this case. . The stress amplitude for failure continues to decrease. Note that there is no true fatigue limit. cycles to failure 109 Figure 11. The SN curve for annealed 4340 steel. The points with arrows are for tests stopped before failure. occur. the relation may be 1. MPa 100 103 106 N. as in Figures 11. as shown in Figure 11. have no true fatigue limit.000 Stress. MPa 100 103 106 N. a straight line often results for N < 106 . The SN curve for an aluminum alloy 7075 T6. even at a very large number of cycles. However.6 and 11.
8) These are plotted in Figure 11. (11.24 A = (S)/(N)−b.7) where σ a is stress amplitude corresponding to a certain life.6) where N is the number of cycles to failure. σ m is the mean stress. UTS is the ultimate tensile strength. Effect of Mean Stress Most SN curves are from experiments in which the mean stress was zero.166 Solid Mechanics expressed as S = AN−b. is approximately equal to the tensile strength. The constant. Goodman suggested that σa = σe [1 − σm /UTS]. Several simple engineering approaches to predicting fatigue behavior when the stress cycles about a mean stress have been proposed.7 to ﬁnd the values of A and b in Equation 11.8. Solution: For two points on the linear section. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11. . Substituting S2 = 200 MPa at N2 = 106 and b = 0.1: Use the initial linear portion of the SN curve for aluminum alloy 7075 T6 in Figure 11. σa = σe [1 − σm /YS]. However. Gerber proposed a less conservative relation. S1 /S2 = (N1 /N2 )−b. under service conditions the mean stress usually is not zero. −b = ln(3)/ln(10−2 ) = 0. (11. σa = σe [1 − (σm /UTS)2 ]. (11. Any combination of σ m and σ a outside this region will result in fatigue failure.24. Substituting S1 = 600 MPa at N1 = 104 and S2 = 200 MPa at N2 = 106 . so −b = ln(S1 /S2 )/ln(N1 /(N2 ).6.9) (11. A. where YS is the yield strength. and σ e is the stress amplitude that would give the same life if σ m were zero. Soderberg proposed a more conservative relation. A = 5400 MPa.
Using a modiﬁed Goodman diagram. predict whether the material has an inﬁnite fatigue life or whether it will fail by yielding UTS Y σe σmax Figure 11. Soderberg. A plot representing the Goodman.9. σ a .Fatigue 167 σe Stress amplitude.10. Note that the permissible cyclic stress amplitude. Cycling outside of the lines σmin and σmax will result in failure. and an endurance limit of 30 ksi is subjected to a cyclic loading. Stress σmin Y Mean stress. cycling between the σmin and σmax will not result in fatigue.8. as in Figure 11. σ m . reaching zero at the tensile strength. These relations may also be represented as plots of σmin and σmax vs. increases.2: A bar of steel having a yield strength of 40 ksi. Figure 11. The conditions leading to yielding may be added to the Goodman diagram. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11. An alternative representation of the Goodman relation. σa Gerber Goodman Soderberg 0 0 YS Mean stress.9 is such a representation for the Goodman relation. σm UTS Figure 11. σm UTS −σe −Y . and Gerber relations for the effect of mean stress on the stress amplitude for fatigue failure. decreases as the mean stress. a tensile strength of 65 ksi. σm . In this plot.
There may be periods of high stress amplitude followed by periods of low amplitude.. According to this approximate rule. Yet experiments have shown that the life is shorter than predicted by Equation 11. for B. Ni .168 Solid Mechanics Stress amplitude.10. Trans. M. σm = 18. for C. A. Combinations of σ a and σ m above the lines –YS to YS and YS to YS will result in yielding.10) where ni is the number of cycles applied at an amplitude. Likewise. When (ni /Ni ) = 1. For steels. Palmgren. . σa = 18. the entire life is consumed. Modiﬁed Goodman diagram showing the effect of mean stress on failure by fatigue and yielding. For A. Palmgren∗ and Miner† suggested a simple approximate rule for analyzing fatigue life under these conditions. This rule predicts that the fraction of the fatigue life consumed by ni cycles at a given stress amplitude depends on the total life. or vice versa. Solution: Draw a Goodman diagram and plot each case on the diagram. This is certainly true of the springs of an automobile that sometimes drives on smooth roads and sometimes over potholes.11). (B) between –27 ksi and +37. predict an inﬁnite life. The term ni /Ni represents the fraction of the life consumed by ni cycles at σai . but often in service the cyclic amplitude varies during the life of a part. 67 (1945). predict fatigue failure without yielding. σm = 14. The rule is that fatigue failure will occur when (ni /Ni ) = 1.Verien Deutscher Ingenieur. at that stress amplitude. or n1 /N1 + n2 /N2 + n3 /N3 + · · · = 1. the order of cycling is of no importance. σm = 5. or fatigue for the following cases. J. Z. whereas combinations of σ a and σ m above the line σ e to UTS will result in eventual fatigue failure. Miner. and (C) between 14 ksi ± 32 ksi. σai . if the initial cycles are of lower amplitude than the later ones. σm Y UTS Figure 11. v.10 if the amplitudes of the initial cycles are larger than the later ones. Mech. Appl. 68 (1924). predict yielding and fatigue failure (see Figure 11. (11. σa = 32. The cyclic stress is (A) between 0 and 36 ksi. The PalmgrenMiner Rule The SN curve describes fatigue behavior at a constant stress amplitude. and Ni is the number of cycles that would cause failure at that amplitude. ∗ † A. the life will exceed the predictions of the PalmgrenMiner rule. σa Y σe Yielding Fatigue failure Yielding Tension −Y Compression 0 Mean stress. ASME. σa = 32. v.
12 shows calculated values of Kt for circular holes and round notches in ﬁnite plates.63 × 105 . is the ratio of the maximum local stress to the nominal stress.11) where Kf is the notch fatigue factor. The theoretical stress concentration factor. avoidance of such stress risers greatly lowers the likelihood of fatigue failure. Stress concentrators reduce fatigue strengths. According to Miner’s rule. Stress Concentration At an abrupt change in crosssection. the stress concentration factors for elliptical holes were given by Equations 10.Fatigue 169 Stress amplitude. the effect of notches on fatigue strength is not as great as would be expected by assuming that the actual stress was Kt times the nominal stress.24 N250 = 3. This practice is called coaxing. How much the stress is reduced varies from material to material. N = (S/5400)−1/0.21 × 106 cycles.3: Solution: Using the results of Example #11. Modiﬁed Goodman diagram for example Problem 18.2.12 in semiinﬁnite plates. In Chapter 10. q. σm 40 60 C A Figure 11. A part made from the 7075T4 aluminum alloy in Figure 11. However.11 and 10. deﬁned as q = (K f − 1)/(Kt − 1). The role of the material can be accounted for by a notch sensitivity factor.70 × 105 )] = 0.11. Plastic deformation at the base of a notch reduces the actual stress there. σa 40 30 B 20 10 −40 −20 0 0 20 Mean stress. (11.1. deﬁned as the unnotched fatigue strength divided by the notched fatigue strength.63 × 105 ) − (4 × 104 /1. the local stress can be much greater than the nominal stress. Therefore. Kt . calculated by assuming elastic behavior. how many additional cycles of at 200 MPa can it withstand before failing? EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11. Figure 11. N200 = 106 . N300 = 1.7 has been subjected to 200. The remaining life at 200 MPa is n = N200 (1 − n250 /N250 − n300 /N300 ) = 106 [1 − (2 × 105 /3. cycling at stresses below the endurance limit will promote longer lives.000 cycles of 250 MPa and 40.70 × 105 .000 cycles of 300 MPa stress amplitude. If a notch causes no reduction .
Theory of Notch Stresses.25 in. Theoretical stress concentration factors. W. calculated from Equations 11. Edwards (1946). Kt = 2. From Figure 11. K f = 0. The notch sensitivity increases with strength level and decreases with increasing notch sharpness. diameter in the center. in fatigue strength. q = 0. Calculate the stress concentration factor for fatigue. Neugebauer. (11. for a plate of steel 2 in. Neuber∗ suggested for steels that q = 1/[1 + where (in mm) is given by logβ = −(σu − 134 MPa)/586.5 in.5.125.96. = 3.12a. ∗ H. J.18 mm. Figure 11.13 for 600 MPa. v. . From Figure 11.96 × 2.13. q.170 Solid Mechanics a b Figure 11.14 (1943). (11. ρ. wide and 0.4: Solution: d/w = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.12.13) √ (β/ρ)]. Several empirical equations for calculating have been proposed.12) Here σ u is the tensile strength.12 and 11. thick with a hole 0.125 in. The notch radius is 0.6 = 2. The steel has a tensile strength of 600 MPa. Kf .13 shows values of the notch sensitivity factor. q = 0.6. K f = 1. Adapted from G. Production Engineering. Neuber. The value of q increases with strength level and notch radius.
so fatigue strength decreases with surface roughness. the highest stress occurs some distance below the surface.8 0. Note that q increases with tensile strength and larger notch radii. laboratory studies have shown considerable improvement in fatigue behavior when the cyclic stressing was done under vacuum instead of dry air. This sort of loading occurs in ball and roller bearings. Values of notch sensitivity. roughness. ﬂame. The use of polished surfaces to improve fatigue behavior is not warranted where exposure to dirt and corrosion during service may deteriorate the polished surface. In this case. The effects of a corrosive environment are also clear. Carburizing.12 and 11.13. Different ﬁnishing operations inﬂuence surface topography. . The numbers are the tensile strengths in MPA.13. Figure 11. Indeed. nitriding. q. Surfaces produced by machining are generally smoother than cast or forged surfaces. increased surface hardness increases fatigue limits. Valleys of rough surfaces act as stress concentrators.200 1.6 0. the nature of the surface strongly affects fatigue behavior.400 1.Fatigue 171 1 1. Surface Conditions Fatigue cracks usually start on the surface. Therefore. for steels calculated from Equations 11.4 0 1 2 Notch radius. Surface defects also play a role. ∗ The most common exception is where the cyclic loading is from contact with a ball or a cylinder. In general. so the stresses are greatest at the surface.∗ This is because most forms of loading involve some bending or torsion. There are three important aspects of the surface: hardness. and induction hardening are used to harden surfaces and increase the fatigue strengths. mm 3 4 Figure 11. Grinding and polishing further increase smoothness. and residual stresses.14 shows the effects of surface condition.000 800 600 400 Notch sensitivity. q 0.
7 0. Juvinall. From C.5 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 1.14. Lipson and R. Note that this effect is in accord with the prediction of the Goodman diagram. In this process. whereas residual compression raises the fatigue strength. The indentation would expand the surface laterally but the undeformed interior prevents this leaving the surface under lateral compression. The University of Michigan Summer Conference.6 0. as in fatigue. Application of Stress. Effect of surface ﬁnish on fatigue. the stress at any location is the sum of the residual stress at that point and the stress resulting from the external load (Figure 11. the surface is indented with balls that produce local plastic deformation that does not penetrate into the interior of the part. Analysis to Design and Metallurgy. the effect is not large (10% decrease for a diameter increase from 0.15).8 0. residual tension at the surface lowers the resistance to fatigue. Because failures are tensile in nature and start at the surface.). Ann Arbor MI (1961). The size effect is probably related to the increased amount of surface area where fatigue cracks initiate. Residual stresses play an important role in fatigue.1 to 2 in.3 0. C.2 0. Some investigators have found that the fatigue strength of a material decreases as the specimen size increases. Surface factor Csurf .1 0 260 Machined Ground 0. Sometimes critical parts are shot peened to produce residual compression in the surface.172 Solid Mechanics Brinell hardness 80 100 Polished 90 80 Percent of endurance limit 70 60 50 Hot rolled 40 30 20 10 0 40 Corroded in tap water Corroded in salt water 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 As forged 0.0 Tensile strength (ksi) Figure 11. When a part is subjected a load.4 0.9 0. However.
14) where σ eb is the base endurance limit (polished unnotched specimen of small diameter cycled about a mean stress of zero).Fatigue 173 200 Tension Stress from bending 100 Resultant stress Residual stress Stress. and K f = 1 + q(Kt − 1). but it is always better to use data for the real conditions than to apply corrections to data for another condition. A round bar of a steel has a yield strength of 40 ksi. σ m . E. An elastic analysis indicates that Kt = 2.5: ∗ J. and an endurance limit of 30 ksi. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11. .. With residual compression in the surface.14). Equation 11. Mechanical Engineering Design.6 mm). and Cd is the correction factor for specimen size (Cd = 1 for d < 7. 0 −100 −200 Inside surface Outside surface Design Estimates Shigley∗ suggested that the endurance limit can be estimated by taking into account the various factors as σe = σebCs Cd (1−σm /UTS)/K f .85 for d > 7. McGrawHill (1977). 3rd ed. It is estimated that q = 0.6 mm and 0. a larger tensile stress can be applied by bending before there is tension in the surface. (11. a tensile strength of 60 ksi. MPa Compression Figure 11. Cs is the correction factor for the surface condition (Figure 11. The bar is to be loaded under bending such that a cyclic bending moment of 1500 inlbs is superimposed on a steady bending moment of 1000 inlbs. Shigley.75.12 can be used to obtain a ﬁrst estimate of the endurance limit.15. Schematic drawing showing the effect of residual stresses. The term (1 – σ m /UTS) accounts for the effect of mean stress.
89)(1)(30)[1 − 10. K f = 1 + q(Kt − 1) = 1. What is the minimum diameter bar that would give an inﬁnite life? Solution: For a round bar under elastic loading. Zurburg and Erickson in Interpretation of Tests and Correlation with Service.174 Solid Mechanics 150 140 130 Endurance limit.89. The surface has a ground ﬁnish. Cd = 1. there is a rough rule of thumb that the fatigue limit is about half of the ultimate tensile strength. 15. Assuming that d < 7.6 mm. Correlation of the endurance limit with hardness for quenched and tempered steels. Metallurgical Variables Because fatigue damage occurs by plastic deformation. Figure 11. d = 1. From Figure 11. Because this is larger than 7.182.279/d3 = 15. 1.85.279/d3 ksi.16 shows the correlation of fatigue limits with hardness in steels.75.181/d3 ). where c = d/2 and I = π d4 /64.25(1−0. The endurance generally rises with hardness.6 mm. Now equating this to the stress amplitude. so σ = 32M/(π d3 ).25 and 0.000 psi 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20 30 40 50 Rockwell C hardness 60 – SAE 4063 – SAE 5150 – SAE 4052 – SAE 4140 – SAE 4340 – SAE 2340 Figure 11. the stress at the surface is given by σ = Mc/I.35. increasing the yield strength and hardness generally raises the endurance limit. For aluminum alloys.16. From Garwood. so the endurance limit is estimated as σe = Cs Cd σeb(1−σm /UTS)/K f = (0. we should use Cd = 0.11 in. ASM (1951).14.181/d3 ). Alignment of inclusions during mechanical working causes an . where M is the bending moment and d is the bar diameter.85 instead of 1 results in d = 1. Recalculation with Cd = 0. d3 = 1.058 in. σm = 10.25(1 − 0. For steels and titanium alloys.86/(60d3 )/1. the ratio of the fatigue limit at 107 cycles to the tensile strength is between 0.75 = 15. Cs = 0. Nonmetallic inclusions lower fatigue behavior by acting as internal notches.186/d3 ksi and σa = 15.
If fatigue data are analyzed by plotting the plastic strain amplitude.17 is such a plot. ∗ L. a straight line results. vs.57 f 2 10−2 Exponent = slope = c = −0. This probably accounts for the difference between steel and aluminum alloys. This was ﬁrst noted by Cofﬁn∗ and indicates a relationship of the form ε p /2 = ε f (2N f )−c . εp /2. anisotropy of fatigue properties. Just as often. These are not equivalent if the material strain hardens or strain softens during cycling. 76 (1954). 9th ed. For steels there seems to be a stress below which no plastic deformation occurs. Cofﬁn. (11. the number of reversals to failure. . of an annealed 4340 steel as a function of plastic strain per cycle. albeit very little. Fatigue strength for loading in the transverse direction (normal to the rolling or extrusion direction) is usually much poorer that for loading in the rolling direction. materials are subjected to imposed deﬂections or strains. From Metals Handbook. v. Strains to Failure Cyclic loading in service sometimes subjects materials to imposed forces or stresses. 2Nf . Trans ASME. Figure 11.58(2Nf )−0. Some plastic deformation. 2Nf Figure 11. I. ASM (1978). must occur during each cycle.Fatigue 175 10−0 ∋ ′f = ∋f = 0. Fatigue could not occur if the deformation during cyclic loading were entirely elastic. 2Nf .57 10 −3 10−4 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 Reversals to failure.15) where εf is the true strain at fracture in a tension test (N = 1) and −c is the slope. Plastic strain amplitude 2 10−1 ∆∋p = ∋′ (2Nf )c = 0.17. A plot of fatigue life. F. The number of inclusions can be greatly reduced by vacuum melting or electroslag melting.58 ∆∋p .. v. The slope is −c and the intercept at one cycle is εf .
The total strain. ε/2. 2Nf . Nf . is related to the stain hardening exponent. ε/2 = ε p /2 + εe /2. v. ln( ε/2) = ln( εe /2 + ε p /2) does not. Although ln( εe /2) and ln( ε p /2) vary linearly with ln(2N f ).16.15 and 11. (11. From Metals Handbook. The total life. ASM (1978). ε/2 = ε f (2N f )−c + (B/E)(2N f )−b.17) Figure 11. For lowcycle fatigue ε p > εe . Note that the range 103 to 104 cycles corresponds to the range where ε p > εe . as well as the elastic and plastic strains vs. is greater than 104 cycles. Nf . The relation is no longer linear.18.18 is a plot of the total strain.58(2Nf )−0. The fatigue life. Nf . is The elastic term can be expressed as εe /2 = σ p /E = (B/E)(2N f )−b. and that necessary for the crack to propagate to failure. N f = Ni + Np . (11. of an annealed 4340 steel as a function of total strain per cycle. Np . 2Nf Figure 11. Total strain amplitude 2 10−1 ∆ ∋p 2 σp ∆ ∋ ∆ ∋p = 0. including the elastic portion. I. is less than 103 cycles.18) . The term highcycle fatigue is applied to conditions in which the life. 9th ed. whereas for highcycle fatigue εe > ε p .57 + 0.0062(2Nf )−0. b. 2Nf .09 = + 2 2 E 10 −2 10−3 σs ∆ ∋e = E 2 10−4 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 Reversals to failure. The term lowcycle fatigue is commonly applied to conditions in which the life. Ni . Combining Equations 11.16) where B is a constant that increases with the tensile strength and the exponent. can be divided into the period necessary for crack initiation. (11.176 Solid Mechanics 10−0 ∆ ∋p .
20 shows schematically the variation of da/dN with K. cracks do not grow. whereas for high cycle fatigue most of the life is spent in crack initiation (Ni > Np ). more ductile material will have the longer life while at low strain amplitudes (high cycle fatigue).19) where σ = (σmax − σmin ). One is a region where da/dN increases rapidly with K. Fatigue life as a function of strain amplitude.19. Highstrength materials generally have low ductility (low value of εf in Equation 11. Failure occurs when KI = KIc . There are three regimes of crack growth. Then there is large region where log(da/dN) is proportional to log( K). This is shown schematically in Figure 11. In stage II. In viewing this ﬁgure. K = Kmax − Kmin = σmax (πa) − σmin (πa) = √ (σmax − σmin )f (πa). At large strain amplitudes (low cycle fatigue). Below a threshold.19. da/dN = C( KI )m . or more simply. K. crack growth rates may be determined during testing either optically with a microscope or by measuring the electrical resistance. the softer. √ K = f σ (πa). the stronger.17). and ﬁnally at large values of KI the crack growth rate accelerates more rapidly. crack initiation is rapid and crack propagation accounts for most of the life (Np > Ni ). Figure 11. (11.Fatigue 177 Ductile material Figure 11. less ductile material will have the longer life.17) and ductile materials generally have low strength (low value of B in Equation 11. This leads to the conclusion that under constant strainamplitude cycling.20) . so that under constant load a crack will progress up the curve to the right. Kth . In(∆ε/2) Highstrength material N f ≈ 103 In(N f) For low cycle fatigue. It has been found that the crack growth rate depends on the range of √ √ stress intensity factor. (11. one should remember KI increases with the growth of the crack. Crack Propagation In the laboratory. a ductile material is desirable for lowcycle fatigue and a highstrength material is desirable for highcycle fatigue.
20 and rearranging. a. Trans. J.0001 ∆Kth 0.000001 1 10 ∆K. is also materialdependent and is usually in the range of 2 to 7. √ da/a m/2 = C( f σ π )m dN. ∗ (11. da/dN. The slope of the linear region on the loglog plot equals m. gives √ (1−m/2) a (1−m/2) − ao = (1 − m/2)C( f σ π )m N.19. and a ﬁnal region (III) of acceleration to failure. .e.22) P.001 I II III 0.20. MPa√m 100 1. D 85 (1963).00001 0. Integration. Below the threshold stress. Erdogan.178 Solid Mechanics 0. Paris and F. v. In general there are three regions: An initial period (region I). with the mean stress).20 is often called the Paris∗ law. Equation 11. Basic Engr. R = σmin /σmax (i. where C is a material constant that increases with the stress ratio. Because KI increases with crack length. a linear region (II) in which the rate of crack growth is given by Equation 11. cracks do not grow. The exponent. mm/cycle 0.000 Figure 11. A schematic plot of the dependence of crack growth rate. on the stress intensity factor. crack growth will progress up the curve. neglecting the dependence of f on a. ASME. Note that the crack length at any stage can be found by substituting √ ( KI )m = [ f σ (πa)]m into Equation 11.01 Kc da/dN. KI .1 0. m.21) (11.
Note that da/dN is the same at the same current crack length. Note that da/dN increases with R. Figure 11. N a b Figure 11. The number of cycles to reach a crack size a is then (1−m/2) N = a (1−m/2) − ao √ [(1 − m/2)C( f σ π )m ]. predicted by the Goodman diagram. C. This dependence is in accord with the effect of σ m . Crack growth during cycling.7 1 0.23.20 through 11. NASA TN D5390 (1969). ∆K1 > ∆K2 Crack length. depends on N for two different values of the initial crack length. a. Data from C. N Number of cycles.33 R = 0.22 shows how a crack length.21. a Crack length. ) ) )2 . a.2 R = 0.23) The constant. (a) The effect of the initial crack length with constant K. and two different values of σ .22. µm/cycle 10 R = 0. (11. ao . MPa√m 30 40 Figure 11.Fatigue 179 1. Martin.21.000 R=0 R = 0. R = (σm − σ /2)/(σm + σ /2). a da dN ∆K2 da dN da dN da dN )1 a a °(1) °(2) Number of cycles. depends on the stress ratio.5 100 da/dN.1 0 10 20 ∆K. in Equations 11. Crack growth rate in aluminum alloy 7076T6 as a function of K for several levels of R. Note that da/dN increases with K. A. as shown in Figure 11. (b) The effect of K on crack growth.
001π ) = 11. On the other hand. If the cycling is done at constant strain amplitude. da/dN. Solution: √ √ √ K = f σ (πa) = 2 MPa (0. For lowcycle fatigue. Assume R = 0 and f = 1. Figure 11. da/dN ≈ 10−3 mm. C = (da/dN)1 /( K1 )m = 7 × 10−7 /104. if σ = 200 MPa and the crack is initially 1 mm in length. Using Equation 11. a. for a material that strain softens. From Figure 11. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11. a. strain hardening causes an increase of stress amplitude during testing.025 ]/[(−1. for material that worksoftens.21. m. the life can be found by assuming the initial crack size and knowing σ . σ decreases during cycling. b.05 = 6. and the constant C in Equation 11.2 × 1011 from example Problem #11. For a material that workhardens.23 illustrates both of these possibilities for constant plasticstrain amplitude cycling.21. the stresses will increase in a material that workhardens and decrease in a material that worksoftens. On the other hand. . N = [(10−5 )−1. m = ln85. the strain amplitude will decrease during constant stress amplitude cycling. These behaviors are illustrated in Figures 11. if a material is cycled under constant stain amplitude. Calculate the number of cycles needed for the crack to grow from 1 mm to 10 mm if σ = 200 MPa.7/ln3 = 4. Substituting (da/ √ dN)1 = 7 × 10−7 m at K1 = 10 MPa m and (da/dN)2 = 6 × 10−5 m at √ K1 = 30MPa m. b.6: Find the exponent. Determine the crack growth rate. Cyclic StressStrain Behavior Materials subjected to cyclic loading in the plastic range may undergo strain hardening or strain softening in the case of heavily coldworked material.22 with m = 4.6.2 MPa m. In contrast. the strain amplitude will decrease during constant stress amplitude cycling.2 × 10−8 )(200 π)4.0250) √ (6. which gives an initial value of K.180 Solid Mechanics EXAMPLE PROBLEM #11.05 ] = 99 cycles.7: Consider crack growth in 7076T6 aluminum. K curve allows life prediction.05. Cyclic strain hardening can be measured by cycling at one strain amplitude until the stress level saturates and then repeating this at increasing strain amplitudes.05 and C = 6.2 × 10−11 .20 for aluminum alloy 7076T6 using the data for R = 0 in Figure 11. Solution: m = ln[(da/dN)2 /[(da/dN)1 ]/[ln( K2 /( K1 )].025 − (10−2 )−1.24a and b. Integration under the da/dN vs.
23. v. with high cycling rates the material’s temperature may rise unless the heat generated by the mechanical hysteresis is dissipated. This is much more important with polymers than with metals because a b Figure 11.012 ∆ ∋p = 0. With higher frequencies. and therefore there is more plastic ﬂow per cycle in constant stress amplitude cycling. On the other hand.000 PSI ∋ ∆ ∋p = 0. Near room temperature. 15 (1967).014 b a Figure 11. (a) Change of strain amplitude during constant stress amplitude cycling. Temperature and Cycling Rate Effects Increased temperatures lower ﬂow stresses. Acta Met. Laird. . The strain amplitude should decrease for a strainhardening material and increase for a strain softening material. The stress amplitude should increase for a strainhardening material and decrease for a strainsoftening material. (b) Change of stress range during constant strain amplitude cycling. there is less plastic deformation per cycle so the crack growth rate is lower.Fatigue 181 COPPER ANNEALED 300°K σ COPPER 23% RED.24. this effect is more pronounced in polymers than in metals. Feltner and C. Cyclic hardening of (a) annealed copper and cyclic softening of a (b) coldworked copper tested under constant plastic strain cycling. E.000 PSI N= 510 45 8 1 10.DIA 300°K σ ∋ N=1 4 20 270 10. From C.
da/dN. Design Considerations There are two methods of designing to prevent fatigue failure: designing for an inﬁnite life without inspection or designing for periodic inspection. so cracks grow more rapidly and the life will decrease. Thus. Fatigue Testing Fatigue tests are often made using round bars rotated under a bending load so that the entire surface is subjected to alternating tension and compression. For many parts.182 Solid Mechanics they tend to have larger hysteresis losses and lower thermal conductivities. An automobile axle is an example. Heating of the material and lower frequencies both cause lower stress amplitudes. the design and the inspection schedule are based on crack growth rate. The effects of frequency at constant strain amplitude cycling are different. Likewise. the effect of cyclic frequency is more important. This is done in the aircraft industry where safety factors must be lower to minimize weight. Fatigue cracks can be arrested by drilling holes at their tips. The other possibility is to design for periodic inspection. Thermal effects are much more important in polymers than in metals. the testing machine may be made to impose a constant deﬂection or a constant bending force. it is usual to assume initiationcontrolled fatigue life where endurance limit and life are improved by increased hardness. However. For most polymers. In this case. if any. With higher temperatures. This requires the crack to reinitiate. Unless the mean stress is zero (R = 0). tensionrelease is often used instead of tensioncompression. TM . It must be designed with enough of a safety factor so that it will not fail within the life of the car. will depend on which effect predominates. creep during cyclic loading will cause the material to permanently elongate because the stress on the tensile halfcycle will be larger than on the compressive halfcycle. The net effect of frequency for constant stress amplitude. .5)TM . and thermal softening becomes important at (0. Fatigue testing with axial loading is normally much slower and requires great care. room temperature is about half the absolute melting point. there is more plastic strain per cycle under constant stress cycling. In either case. the cumulative strain to failure should remain unaffected. Flat specimens from sheet or plate may be tested in fatigue by bending. increased frequency may either shorten or lengthen fatigue life. In these cases.4 to 0. inspection is not a possibility. The interval between inspections must be short enough in terms of service so that a crack of the largest undetectable length cannot grow to failure before the next inspection. In this case.
Fatigue 183 Notes Railroad accidents in the middle of the nineteenth century stimulated the ﬁrst research on the nature of fatigue. 4th Ed. L. the Comets were modiﬁed and returned to service a year later. Cracks originated from rivet holes near the windows. REFERENCES S. The cause of the failures was discovered only after parts of one plane that crashed into the Mediterranean were retrieved by the British navy from a depth of over 300 ft. About 1850. v76 (1954). Poncelet ﬁrst used the term “fatigue” in lectures as early as 1839. Press (1964). The sharp radii of curvature at the corners acted as stress concentrators. A.An Interdisciplinary Approach. Paris. Almost two years later.. P. and low cycle fatigue of the fuselage had not been seriously considered. and that the maximum allowable stress increased as the minimum stress increased. He recognized the effects of sharp corners. 10th Sagamore Conf. the main fatigue concern of aircraft designers was with engine parts that experience a very large number of stress cycles. This conclusion was conﬁrmed by tests on a fuselage that was repeatedly pressurized and depressurized. Inspection of railroad cars for fatigue cracks was recommended in France as early as 1853. Resistance to fatigue can be improved by autofretage. Syracuse U. It has been suggested (with tongue in cheek) that the underside of aircraft wings could be overstressed by having the plane sharply pull out of a steep dive. Cofﬁn Jr. in January and May 1954. He also noted that the maximum stress allowable depended on the stress range. cast bronze cannons were overpressurized so that the internal surface of the bore would be left in compression. a number of papers on fatigue were written in England. Apparently. a German railroad engineer. Up to this time. In the past. the engineers had overlooked the stresses to the fuselage caused by cycles of pressurization and depressurization during takeoff and landing.. production. Wiley (1995). R. The idea is that if a part is overstressed once in tension so that a small amount of plastic deformation occurs. did the ﬁrst systematic research on fatigue. Hertzberg. Proc. As a result of the investigations. F. It was found that fatigue was responsible. Fatigue.. Cambridge U. It was put into service in May 1952 after years of design. C. it will be left in residual compression. Fatigue of Materials. and testing. W. Deformation and fracture of Engineering Materials. Suresh. Press (1991). . Built by de Haviland the Comet was the ﬁrst commercial passenger jet airliner. Trans ASME. two Comets crashed into the Mediterranean near Naples after taking off from Rome. causing the wing tips to bend upward. Wohler (1819–1914).
B. Hertzberg & J. the endurance limit is approximately half the tensile strength. Academic Press (1980). Offer an explanation in terms of the microstructure. The properties of a certain steel are given in Table 11. σmin = 0 ii. Mechanical Engineering Design. E. Fatigue of Engineering Plastics. 103 (1988). The SN curves can be approximated by a straight lines between 103 and 106 cycles when plotted as log(S) vs. σmax = 250 MPa. or ﬁnite fatigue life is expected. B. R.000 cycles). σmax = 280 MPa. For each of the cyclic loadings given.1. what percent increase in tensile strength would achieve the same increase in life without decreasing the stress? 2. σ m . σmean = 280 MPa. O. Derive an expression relating the stress ratio. C. McGrawHill (1977). for gray cast iron is very low. A 1040 steel has been heattreated to a yield stress of 900 MPa and a tensile yield strength of 1330 MPa. plot R as a function of σ m over the range 0 ≤ σ m ≤ 100 MPa. to the ratio of cyclic stress amplitude. H. log(N). Manson. Properties of a steel Tensile strength Yield strength Endurance limit 460 MPa 300 MPa 230 MPa . evaluating the constants in terms of the approximations given. inﬁnite fatigue life. Ritchie Mater. Sci & Engrg. determine whether yielding. Write a mathematical expression for S as a function of N for the sloping part of the SN curve.. σmin = −200 MPa iii. to the mean stress. W. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. 5. McGraw Hill (2000). Alternatively. A. 2nd ed. σmean = −70 MPa.184 Solid Mechanics T.000 cycles.. For steels. A. Your Table 11. 3. v. J. Use the given expression to ﬁnd what percent decrease of applied (cyclic) stress would be necessary to increase in the life of the part by a factor of 2. i. A steel part fails in 12. For σ a = 100 MPa. 3rd Ed. Courtney. σ a . q. R. Shigley. R. σa = −70 MPa iv.5 (to 30. and the fatigue strength at 103 cycles is approximately 90% of the tensile strength. Problems 1. B. A. The notch sensitivity factor. Plot a modiﬁed Goodman diagram for this steel showing the lines for yielding as well as fatigue failure.1. The endurance limit (at 106 cycles for cyclical loading about a zero mean stress) is quoted as 620 MPa. A. σa = 140 MPa 4. Beyond 106 cycles. the curves are horizontal.
by how much? Discuss this problem with reference to the Goodman diagram using any relevant calculations. cycles to failure Figure 11. company is considering using this steel with the same heat treatment for an application in which fatigue may occur during cyclic loading with R = 0.19 that describe the straightline portion of the data. A part made from this steel was given 104 . A. Figure 11. Can the endurance limit be raised this way? If so.Fatigue 185 700 600 Stress. Find the values of the constants C and m in Equation 12. By what factor would the cyclic stress amplitude have to be reduced to increase the life to ten years? Assume the number of cycles of importance is proportional to the time of service. the SN curves for steel can be approximated by a straight line between N = 102 and N = 106 cycles when the data are plotted on a loglog scale. Remember that √ K = f σ (πa).25). Find b for the 4140 steel for a certain part made from 4140 steel (Figure 11. a rough estimate is possible. An exact answer is not possible. 7. where A and b are constants. 10. This implies S = AN b . 6. Estimate how many pressurizationdepressurization cycles the planes may have experienced in the two years of operations. as shown in the ﬁgure for SAE 4140 steel. Low cycle fatigue was the cause of the Comet failures. Give units. MPa 500 400 300 102 4140 steel 103 104 105 106 107 N. The fatigue life of a certain steel was found to be 104 cycles at ±70 MPa was and 105 cycles at ±50 MPa. SN curve for a SAE 4140 steel. Find the number of cycles required for a crack to grow from 1 mm to 1 cm in 7075T6 (Problem 8) if f = 1 and σ = 10 MPa. Your boss is considering shot peening the steel to induce residual compressive stresses in the surface. Fatigue failures occur after ﬁve years. 9. but by making a reasonable guess of the number of landings per day and the number of days of service.26 shows the crack growth rate in aluminum alloy 7075T6 as a function of K for R = 0. B. 8. Frequently.25.
50.26. how many additional cycles at 62 ksi would cause failure? 12. the fatigue limits are 10. K = 0. If a component of this steel had been subjected to 5000 cycles at 100 ksi and 10. In fatigue tests on a certain steel.000 cycles at 75 ksi. Calculate whether a bar of this steel would fail by fatigue if it were subjected to a steady stress of 600 MPa and a cyclic stress of 500 MPa. Data from C. For another steel.186 Solid Mechanics Figure 11. cycles at ±61 MPa.000 cycles at 62 ksi. and 200. NASA TN D5300 (1969). the endurance limit was found to be 1000 MPa for R = 0 (tensilerelease) (σ a = σ m = 500 MPa) and 1000 MPa for R = −1 (fully reversed cycling). what would be its expected life? 11. Crack growth rate of 7075T6 aluminum for Hudson. If the part were then cycled at ±54 MPa. M. .000 cycles at 100 ksi.000 cycles at 75 ksi.
Figure 12. The crosslinked polymer cannot melt without breaking the covalent bonds in the crosslinks.2 indicates that the modulus of polystyrene changes by a factor of more than 103 between 85◦ C and 115◦ C. It toughness and ductility sharply decrease and its Young’s modulus greatly increases. Other properties change as the polymer is cooled below Tg .3 is a plot of how the volume may change. Below Tg . This chapter covers the differences between the properties of polymers and ceramics on the one hand and metals on the other. there is a change of slope at Tg . the elastic moduli are much higher than above it. there is an abrupt volume change. 187 . If it crystallizes. The stiffness of a polymer at room temperature depends on whether its glasstransition temperature is above or below the room temperature.12 Polymers and Ceramics Introduction Up to this point. Otherwise. If it does not crystallize. Glass Transition If a random linear polymer is cooled very slowly. Figure 12. The temperature dependence is greatest near the glasstransition temperature and near the melting point. Below the glasstransition temperature. Elasticity of Polymers Elastic moduli of thermoplastic polymers are much lower and much more temperature sensitive than those of metals. the treatment has emphasized metallic materials because metals are most widely used for their mechanical properties. Figure 12. Its molecules are virtually frozen in place. a polymer is in a glassy state. Tg . it may crystallize.1 illustrates schematically the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli of several types of polymers. it will transform to a rigid glass at its glasstransition temperature.
ibid. Tobolsky. Tobolsky. and increased molecular weight increase stiffness at higher temperatures. 9 (1965). Temperature dependence of E for several types of polymers. the modulus drops by more than a factor of three. Part C. crosslinking. V. Polymer Symposia No.. Data from A.2. Figure 12. Data from A. The glass transition is a secondorder transition: There is no transfer of heat.1. Polymer Sci. but the heat capacity does change. As the temperature is increased form 80◦ to 120◦ C through the glass transition. but it does not change discontinuously. Temperature dependence of Young’s modulus of polystyrene. J. . V. Crystallization. The volume changes to accommodate the increased motion of the wiggling chains.188 Solid Mechanics Figure 12.
Glass transition temperatures of several common polymers Polymer Polyethylene (LDPE) Polypropylene (atactic) Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Polypropylene (isotactic) Polystyrene Poly(methylmethacrylate) (atactic) Tg (◦ C) −125 −20 28 69 85 81 100 100 105 The glass phase is not at equilibrium. so the value of Tg is not unique. Figure 12. This is because the polymers undergo timedependent viscoelastic deformation when stressed. More deformation occurs with increasing time. If a stress is suddenly applied. Changes in speciﬁc volume as a random linear polymer is cooled.3.4 suggests that the timedependence of Young’s modulus above Tg Figure 12. .4.1. Approximate glass transition temperatures of a few polymers are listed in Table 12. The effect is so large near the glasstransition temperature that it is customary to deﬁne the modulus in terms of the time of loading. Figure 12. there is an immediate elastic response. so E = s/e decreases with time. It depends on the molecular weight and cooling rate. Under constant load the strain increases with time.1.5 illustrates the time dependence of Young’s modulus. Time Dependence of Properties A strong time (and therefore strainrate) dependence of the elastic modulus accompanies the large temperature dependence. as shown in Figure 12.Polymers and Ceramics 189 Table 12.
only sulfur was used for crosslinking. the chain segments are shorter and have less freedom of motion. Ferry. Elastic extension occurs by straightening of the chain segments between the crosslinks. L.7 and C2 = 51. Landel. Williams. R.1) where C1 and C2 are constants. and that the dependence at one temperature is related to that at another temperature by a translation along the time scale. A mathematical model that describes the elastic response under uniaxial ∗ M. Amer. Under a tensile stress. F.1 0. Buckley. J. Oxford (1988).001 10−1 100 101 102 103 t (s : log scale) 104 105 Figure 12. Williams. Principles of Polymer Engineering. Rubber is a ﬂexible polymer in which the molecular chains are crosslinked. Timedependence of Young’s modulus of PVC between 24◦ C and 122◦ C. G. depends on the temperature. B. but today other crosslinking agents are used. This equation (which is known as the WLF equation) can be used to predict longtime behavior from shortertime tests at a higher temperature. P.190 Solid Mechanics 10 °C 81 84 87 90 0. McCrum. C. the endtoend lengths of the segments increase but thermal vibrations of the free segments tend to pull the ends together. is given by log(aT ) = C1 (T − Tg )/(C2 + T − Tg ) (12. just as the tension in violin strings is increased by their vibration. 3701. aT .6 K for most polymers. Chem Soc. and C. . Originally. With more crosslinking. and Ferry∗ suggested that the translation. The number of crosslinks is controlled by the amount of crosslinking agent compounded with the rubber. so the rubber is stiffer.0 0. From N.01 106 122 75 77 79 °C 24 43 63 70 E (t ) (GPa : log scale) 1.4. It was suggested that C1 = 14. Landel and J. v77 (1955) p. Rubber Elasticity The elastic behavior of rubber is very different from that of crystalline materials. Bucknall. D.
A strained region or neck forms and propagates the length of the tensile specimen (Figures 12. For the same stress.8 and 12. B Stress Strain tension or compression predicts σ = G(λ − 1/λ2 ). and e is the engineering strain.. Yielding Figure 12.39 MPa. PMMA is brittle. (12. Agreement with experiment is very good for λ < 1. 3rd Ed. At higher temperatures. (12. G = NkT. Figure 12. The lower strengths at higher temperatures are obvious. depends on the temperature and on the length of the free segments. Oxford (1975). λ = L/Lo = 1 + e. Treloar.1. After 10 minutes under constant stress.6. the initial elastic region is followed by a drop in load that accompanies yielding. λ 6 . The shear modulus.2) where λ is the extension ratio. the strain is greater so the modulus is lower.5. G.5.Polymers and Ceramics 191 A 10 min Figure 12.g.9). Only after the whole gauge section is strained does the stress again 3 2 Figure 12. the specimen undergoes an instantaneous elastic strain to point A. The dashed curve is from data of L. the specimen undergoes additional viscoelastic (anelastic) strain to point B. The Physics of Rubber Elasticity.3) where N is the number of chain segments/volume and k is Boltzmann’s constant. Theory 1 Experiment 0 0 −1 −2 2 4 Extension. but is poorer at larger values of λ. Theory and experiment agree closely for λ < 1.7 shows typical tensile stressstrain curves for a thermoplastic.5.G. At low temperatures (e.6 shows the theoretical predictions of the equation with σ normalized by G. Schematic drawing showing why E is timedependent. The continuous curve is the prediction of Equation 12. Stress–extension (λ) curve of vulcanized natural rubber with G = 0. R. −25◦ C). After loading.
000 Tensile stress (psi) 10. this is similar to the upper and lower yield points and propa¨ gation of Luder’s bands in lowcarbon steel after strain aging.000 4.7. In polymers. the necking deformation is associated with the reorientation of the polymer chains in the deformed material. The engineering strain in the necked region of a polymer is several hun¨ dred percent. Stages of neck formation in a linear polymer. all the molecules are aligned with the tensile axis and the load rises sharply. Note the much larger elastic modulus at the end. From Carswell and H. the mechanism is different. then it is localized into a band that gradually spreads through the gauge section. Continued stretching after the necked region has propagated the length PS 40 Engineering Stress σ (MPa) 20 PE 0 1 Stress ε 2 3 Figure 12. However. Superﬁcially. in contrast to 1% or 2% in a Luder’s band in steel. rise. .000 8. Also. Note that the strength decreases and the elongation increases with higher temperatures.192 Solid Mechanics 12. Philadelphia (1944).) This causes a very large increase in the elastic modulus.10. Nason.000 2.000 6.8. The yield point of steels is associated with the segregation of carbon to dislocations. After it consumes the whole gauge section. so that after the deformation the chains are aligned with the extension axis (see Figure 12. ASTM Symposium on Plastics. K. The deformation is uniform up to the maximum load. Tensile stressstrain curves for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at several temperatures.000 0 5 −25°C 0°C 25°C 50°C 65°C 80°C 10 15 20 % strain 25 30 35 Figure 12. there are several notable differences.
of the gauge section can be achieved only by continued elastic deformation. The stress rises rapidly until the specimen fractures. Stressstrain curve for polyethylene. Schematic illustration of alignment of molecules during neck formation.10. which is often undesirable in injection molding. they also raise the viscosity of the molten polymer. This now involves the opening of the bond angle of the CC bonds. Highly aligned .Polymers and Ceramics 193 Figure 12. Random Transition Figure 12. Note the formation and propagation of a necked region along the gauge section. the material will fail at very low loads because only van der Waals bonds need be broken.9. Although large molecular weights tend to result in stronger and more ductile polymers. If the specimen is unloaded before fracture and a stress is applied perpendicular to the axis of prior extension.
Lovell. Crazing Many thermoplastics undergo a phenomenon known as crazing when loaded in tension. Sometimes the term craze yielding is used to distinguish this from the usual shear yielding. Figure 12.12. MPa X Tension 50 Compression 10 Strain.11. Note the ﬁbrils connecting both sides of the craze. linking the two halves. Schematic drawing of a craze. the stressstrain curves in compression and tension can be quite different. Stressstrain curves of an epoxy measured in tension and compression tests. A craze is an opening resembling a crack. a craze is not a crack in the usual sense. Direction of propagation of craze Figure 12. However.13 shows crazes in polystyrene. ﬁbers span the opening. Figure 12. . Chapman and Hall (1991). and Figure 12. Young and R.11 is the stress strain curve for epoxy in tension and compression. The stressstrain curve in compression is considerably higher. 2nd Ed. A. Voids form and elongate in the direction of extension. % 20 Figure 12. Effect of Pressure For polymers. As a craze advances. J.194 Solid Mechanics 100 Stress. Introduction to Polymers. Data from P.12 is a schematic drawing of a craze.
it was shown that the fracture strength. Bevis and D. Typical microstructure of a thin craze in polystyrene.Polymers and Ceramics 195 Figure 12. Ceramics tend to retain high hardnesses at elevated temperatures. The low ductility of ceramics limits the structural use of ceramics mainly to applications in which the loading is primarily compressive. Their tensile strengths are limited by brittle fracture but their compressive strengths are much greater.5µm Fracture Polymers like most metals are embrittled at low temperatures. Note the ﬁbrils that span the crack. Behan. Phil. v. The ductilebrittle transition is associated with the glasstransition temperature. The high hardness of ceramics at room temperature leads to their use as abrasives. M. The ductility of PMMA and the toughness of epoxy are increased by additions of rubber. Weibull Analysis Data on fracture strength typically have a very large amount of scatter. σ f . Rubber particles in polymers such as polystyrene add greatly to the toughness with some decrease of strength. Considerable effort has gone into developing polymers that are both strong and tough. of a brittle material is . In Chapter 10. either as loose powder or bonded into grinding tools. 0. Most refractories are oxides.13.. so unlike refractory metals oxidation at high temperature is not a problem. Ceramics Most ceramics are very hard and have very limited ductility at room temperature. Hull. Mag. Polycarbonate is useful in this respect. From P. 24 (1971). so they are useful as refractories such as furnace linings and as tools for highspeed machining of metals.
The relative scatter depends on the “modulus. so they contain some porosity. √ proportional to KIc / (πa).196 Solid Mechanics 1. J. 293. For engineering use. If the scatter is small.2 σ/σo Figure 12..4 indicates very little scatter. if the scatter is large the stress in service must be kept far below the average strength. . 18 1951. Mech.14.0 0.5) a plot of Pσ on a log(log) scale vs.6 m=8 m=5 m = 20 m = 15 m = 10 PS 0. where a is the length of a preexisting crack. Although porosity is desirable in materials used ∗ W. 8 (1960). σ . and conversely a low value of m corresponds to a large amount of scatter. σ /σ o on a log scale is a straight line with the slope is m as shown in Figure 12. Weibull∗ suggested that in a large number of samples.8 1. v. Appl. (12. The scatter of fracture strength data is caused mainly by statistical variations in the length of preexisting cracks. one can safely apply a stress only slightly below the average strength.2 0 0.14. On the other hand. it is important to determine not only the average strength but also the amount of its scatter. This is shown in Figure 12. Because ln(− ln Ps ) = m ln(σ/σo). A large value of m in Equation 12. Weibull.0 1. Phys.8%. as a function of σ /σ o . The constant σ o is the stress level at which the survival probability is 1/e = 0. p.368. or 36. (12. Mech.8 0. Porosity Most ceramic objects are made from powder by pressing and sintering.” m. Probability of survival at a stress. Solids. the fracture data could be described by Ps = exp[−(σ/σo)m ]. and J.15.4 0. v.4) where Ps is the probability that a given sample will survive a stress of σ without failing. The terms σ o and m are constants characteristic of the material.
3: When the porosity of a certain ceramic is reduced from 2.4 Volume fraction voids 0.4 0.6 0. Probability of survival at a stress. (12.4 2 σ/σo for insulation and ﬁlters. is about 7.05 0.16 for the case of alumina.4 0.5% porosity if all porosity were removed? 1. 0.17 is the prediction of the equation σ = σoexp(−bP). b.5%.9 m=5 m = 10 m=8 m = 20 m = 15 Figure 12. porosity is usually undesirable because it adversely affects the mechanical properties.14.95 0.15.16. The elastic modulus decreases with porosity. J.2 1.Polymers and Ceramics 197 0.8 PS 0.2 0.3% to 0.6 0. Coble and W. Soc. except here Ps is plotted on a log(log) scale and σ /σ o on a log scale. D. The effects of porosity on strength and on creep rate at elevated temperatures are even more pronounced.2 0 0 0.6 applies. This is shown in Figure 12. The slopes of the curves are the values of m. 29 (1956). v. 0. Fracture toughness also falls precipitously with porosity. the fracture stress drops by 12%. Cer. Kingery. Assuming Equation 12.. The fractional modulus is ratio of the modulus of porous alumina to that of 100% dense alumina.4 0.2 0.6) where P is the volume fraction porosity and the constant. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #12.8 Porous alumina Figure 12. how much would the fracture stress increase above the level for 0. σ . as a function of σ /σ o . Amer.6 0.0 Fractional elastic modulus 0. L.8 1 1. The solid line in Figure 12. Decrease of the elastic modulus with porosity.01 0.6 . Data from R. It can be seen that a 10% porosity causes a decrease of the modulus of about 20%. Note that this is the same as Figure 12.
8 0.2 0. Kingery.6 with b = 6.018 = 7. extreme care must be exercised in handling the ceramics.5 3–6 3–6 6–20 0.6 3–15 2. Cer.88)/0.036.6 Iron Plaster of Paris 0. The solid line represents Equation 12. v.005)]) = 1.023 − 0.2 4 2.0 3–3.17.2 0 0 0. or a 3.4 Figure 12.2 range from less than 1 to about 7 MPa m. Fracture toughness of some cramics Material Al2 O3 (single crystal) Al2 O3 (polycrystal) mullite (fully dense) ZrO2 (cubic) ZrO2 (partially stabilized) MgO SiC (hot pressed) TiC WC silica (fused) sodalime glass glass ceramics √ KIc (MPa m) 2.88 and P1 − P2 = 0. Fracture Toughness Although all ceramics are brittle. Coble and W. 29 (1956).198 Solid Mechanics Table 12. Soc.018.1 (0 − 0. b = ln(σ2 /σ1 )/ (P1 − P2 ). Amer.6% increase.4 Porosity.0 0. Decrease of fracture strength of ceramics and metals with porosity.5 Solution: σ2 /σ1 = exp(−bP2 )/exp(−bP1 ) = exp[b(P1 − P2 )].1. If KIc is less than about 2. L.0–4. From R.8 Relative strength Stainless steel 0.. They will break if they fall on the ﬂoor. This limits 1. σ3 /σ2 = exp[−b(P3 − P2 )] = exp[−7. there are signiﬁcant differences in toughness among ceramics. 0. J. D.005 = 0.82 2.6 . P 0.2.√ Typical values of KIc given in Table 12. Substituting σ2 /σ1 = 1/0. b = ln(1/.
of a piece of material are in intimate contact. Glasses Glasses are brittle at room temperature.18.Polymers and Ceramics 199 severely the use of ceramics under tensile loading. use of ﬁbers to bridge cracks.4: (12. it is used for side and rear windows of cars. T = TA − TB. Windshields are made safety glass composed of two pieces of glass laminated with a polymer that keeps the broken shards from causing injury. Thermally Induced Stresses Like most ceramics.) A martensitic transformation that increases volume toughens zirconia that contains CaO or MgO. and phase transformations. which change from grain to grain. partially stabilized zirconia is used for metalworking tools. ε = α A T + (1/E)[σx A − υ A (σ y A + σz A )] = α B T + (1/E)[σx B − υ AB(σ y B + σzB)] EXAMPLE PROBLEM #12. the total stain is given by εx = α T + (1/E)[σx − υ(σ y + σz)]. There are three basic mechanisms: crack deﬂection. A and B. Toughening of Ceramics Energy absorbing mechanisms can toughen ceramics. These forms of glass are illustrated in Figure 12. Their fracture toughness can be increased by inducing a residual stress pattern with the surface under compression.7) If two regions. Fibers of a second phase bridge across an open crack and continue to carry part of the load. (This is discussed in Chapter 13. (12. This can be done either by a process called tempering that cools the surface rapidly or by causing large K+ ions to diffuse into the surface and replace smaller Na+ ions. Ceramics having KIc greater than about 4 are quite robust. between the two regions. glass is susceptible to stresses caused by thermal gradients. For example. Polycrystalline ceramics are usually tougher than single crystals because grain boundaries deﬂect cracks due to the orientation of the cleavage planes. If there is a temperature difference. Calculate the stresses at . Because tempered glass is tougher than untempered glass and breaks into smaller and less dangerous pieces.8) The temperature of the inside wall of a tube is 200◦ C and the outside wall temperature is 40◦ C. When a material under stress changes temperature. they must undergo the same strains.
and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. The strains εx and εy must be zero relative to the midwall. The stress normal to the tube wall. the outside of the wall if the tube is made from a glass having a coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of α = 8 × 10−6 /◦ C.200 Solid Mechanics Figure 12.140 psi. Let the reference position be the midwall where T = 120◦ C.9. From Engineering Materials Handbook IV Ceramics and Glass. (12. and z be the axial.3. 0 = α T + (1/E) (σx + υ(σ y + σz). T at the outside is 40◦ − 120◦ = −80◦ C. σz = 0. Typical fracture patterns of three grades of glass: (a) annealed. (b) laminated.9) where σ f is the fracture strength of the material. α T + (1 − υ)σx /E = 0. ASM (1991). which range from about 10 × 10−6 /◦ C for ordinary bottle or window glass to 3 × 10−6 /◦ C for Pyrex R and 0.10) The elastic properties of most glass are similar. R1 .7 = 9. σx = (8 × 10−6 /◦ C)(80◦ C)(10 × 106 psi)/0. Solution: Let x. (12. hoop. an elastic modulus of 10 × 106 psi. . A parameter.18. so σx = α E T/(1−υ). so their resistance to thermal shock is related primarily to their coefﬁcients of thermal expansion. and symmetry requires that σ y = σx . Substituting in equation 12. y.5 × 10−6 /◦ C for vycor. and radial directions. An alternative parameter is R1 = KIc (1 − υ)/(Eα). (c) tempered. describing the sensitivity of a material to fracturing under thermal shock is given by R1 = σ f (1 − υ)/(Eα).
Because there are large losses in the ball. He found that nitric acid made the rubber less sticky. Oxford (1988). Under rapid cooling. it is advantageous to have as much of the energy as possible absorbed elastically by the head of the club. The elastic strains at yielding may be as large as 2. A large amount of energy can be stored because the metal glass can undergo large elastic strains. A. In 1839. The energy of impact of the club and the ball is absorbed elastically in both the ball and the head of the club. natural rubber obtained from the sap of tropical trees became a sticky mass in the heat of summer and hard and brittle in the cold of winter. they became a sticky mess. It was the dream of Charles Goodyear to ﬁnd a way to make rubber more useful.5%. For many compositions. is proportional to the square of the strain. I. . Chapman and Hall (1991).S. W. Principles of Polymer Engineering. Bucknall. After scraping the hard mess from the stove. but when he treated mailbags for the U. his patent was pirated and he landed in debtor’s prison again. M. Introduction to Polymers. Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers. and C. Notes One interesting application of metal glass is as plates in the heads of golf clubs. Ev . McCrum. J. these may freeze to an amorphous glass rather than a crystal. B. he found that it remained ﬂexible when it cooled. There is very little loss of this energy. he started his experiments in a debtor’s prison. Hadley. G. REFERENCES N. P. Buckley.. R. Ward and D. Before the discovery of vulcanization. Post Ofﬁce and left them for a time in a hot room. Young and P. This permits storage of a very large amount of elastic energy because the elastic energy per volume. C. This process of vulcanization was improved and patented a few years later. he accidentally dropped a lump of rubber mixed with sulfur on a hot stove. Wiley (1993). several alloys have been developed that form glasses at moderate cooling rates. However. being almost completely imparted to the ball as it leaves the face of the club. the required cooling rates are so great that glass formation is limited to very thin sections. Lovell. Metal glasses have extremely high elastic limits. Without any training in chemistry.Polymers and Ceramics 201 Glassy Metals Special compositions of alloys have very low liquidus temperatures. 2nd Ed. Relatively large samples of these can be frozen to a glass. Glassy metal plates are used to absorb energy as they bend. However. he blended rubber with anything he could ﬁnd. In a kitchen of a cottage on the prison grounds.
L. K. Engineered Materials Handbook. Birney and W. 233. Wiley (1997). 262. Fundamentals of Ceramics. 2. 269. W. A. Find the load for which the probability of survival is 99%. 172. . it was heated from 20◦ C to 40◦ C. vol 4. m. 197. one failure in 100.e. 2nd ed. Vol. 2nd ed. Fiber Science. 143. A rubber band was stretched from 6 inches to 12 inches.7. 246. and 295. If it were held in the stretched position. The measured fracture loads in N were 279.000)? 4. Assume that the fracture statistics follow a Weibull distribution. 213. Twenty ceramic specimens were tested to fracture. McGrawHill (1997). Ceramics and Glasses. B. Y. From a large number of tests on a certain material. a. Introduction to Ceramics. 179. what would the stress be after a minute? After an hour? After a day? 2. 195. W. 206. 255.. 255. S. 246. Wiley (1960). Problems 1. would the heating cause? 3. it has been learned that 50% of them will break when loaded in tension at stress equal to or less than 520 MPa. 242. Physical Ceramics.M. While being held under a constant stress. Barsoum. 224. What change in length. b. Bowen and Uhlman. Engineering Plastics.202 Solid Mechanics Engineered Materials Handbook. What is the maximum permissible stress if the probability of failure is to be kept less than 0. α.4). D. D. ASM International (1988). and that 30% will break at stress equal to or less than 500 MPa. Warner. Determine the Weibull modulus. for rubber under an extension of 100% at 20◦ C. 302. Prentice Hall (1995). What stress would be required to stretch a piece of PVC by 1% at 75◦ C (see Figure 12. D. M. 164.001% (i. 5. What percent reduction of the elastic modulus of alumina would be caused by 1% porosity? See Figure 12. What are the values of σ o and m in the equation Ps = exp[−(σ/σo)m ]? B. Evaluate the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion. Kingery. Chiang. Kingery. ASM International (1991).
The Bible describes mixing of straw with clay to make tougher bricks. Other examples of composites include steelbelted tires. Composite materials offer combinations of properties otherwise unavailable. particles. the total load. F. asphalt blended with gravel for roads. The strain parallel to the ﬁbers must be the same in both the matrix and the ﬁber. Examples of a number of possibilities are listed in Table 13.1.) The ﬁbers may be very long or chopped into short segments. Concrete is a composite of cement paste. the ﬁbers may be unidirectionally aligned. Elastic Properties of FiberReinforced Composites The simplest arrangement is long parallel ﬁbers. and gravel. ε f = εm = ε. In thick objects. or laminated sheets. short ﬁbers may be random in three dimensions. In twodimensional products. plywood with alternating directions of ﬁbers. mankind has used composite materials to achieve combinations of properties that could not be achieved with individual materials. at 90◦ to one another in a woven fabric or crossply.1. Various geometric arrangements of the ﬁbers are possible.13 Composites Introduction Throughout history. is the sum of the forces on the ﬁbers. The reinforcing material may be in the form of ﬁbers. FiberReinforced Composites Fiber composites may also be classiﬁed according to the nature of the matrix and the ﬁber. or randomly oriented (Figure 13. Toughness may also be of concern. 203 . boats. The most common use of ﬁber reinforcement is to impart stiffness (increased modulus) or strength to the matrix. Today. sand. and sporting goods. poured concrete is almost always reinforced with steel rods. For loading parallel to the ﬁbers. as well as ﬁberglassreinforced polyester used for furniture.
σ A = σ f A f + σm Am (13. F f = σ f A f and Fm = σm Am . so Eε A = E f ε f A f + Em εm Am . (13. For elastic loading. F/A. and σm = Em εm . σ /E = Vf σ f /E f + Vm σm Em . In this case. A = A f + Am and σ is the stress.1. It is no longer reasonable to assume that ε f = εm = ε. Finally realizing that σ f = σm = σ . An alternative. (13. though extreme.1. assumption is that the stresses in the matrix and the ﬁbers are the same. Realizing that ε f = εm = ε and expressing A f /A = Vf and Am /A = Vm . E = E f Vf + Em Vm . and εm = σm /Em and the overall (average) strain is ε = ε f Vf + εm Vm . Consider the behavior of the same composite under tension perpendicular to the ﬁbers. is the sum of F f + Fm . F.1) where A is the overall area. σ f = σm = σ . Several geometric arrangements of ﬁber reinforcements. Fm . σ f = E f ε f . where σ f and σm are the stresses in the ﬁber and matrix and where A f and Am are the crosssectional areas of the ﬁber and matrix.204 Solid Mechanics Table 13. Combining. ε f = σ f /E f . It is an upper bound to the elastic modulus of a composite. In terms of the stresses.3) Figure 13. Various combinations of ﬁbers and matrices Fiber metal ceramic Metal matrix W/Al B/Al C/Al Al2 O3 /Al SiC/Al Ceramic matrix concrete/steel C/glass SiC/SiAlON Polymer matrix rubber/steel (tires) ﬁber glass/polyester ﬁber glass/epoxy polymer straw/clay kevlar/epoxy Ff . ε = σ/E.2) This is often called the rule of mixtures. and the matrix. The total force. ε = Eε. . 1/E = Vf /E f + Vm /Em .
2.3 is a lower bound for the modulus. The upper bound is appropriate for loading parallel to the ﬁbers. Let 1 be the axis parallel to the ﬁbers and let the 2 and 3 axes be perpendicular to the ﬁbers. If a uniaxial stress applied along a direction. Figure 13. at an angle. the stresses on the 1. Loading perpendicular to the ﬁbers lies between these two extremes. from 1axis and 90 – θ from 2axis.Composites 205 Figure 13.and 2axes. e2 = (1/E2 )[σ2 − υ12 σ1 ] γ12 = (τ12 /G12 ). e1 = (1/E1 )[σ1 − υ12 σ2 ]. Hooke’s laws give the strains along the 1. The strain in the xdirection can be written as ex = e1 cos2 θ + e2 sin2 θ + 2γ12 cosθsinθ = (σx /E1 )[cos4 θ − υ12 cos2 θsin2 θ] + (σx /E2 )[sin4 θ − υ12 cos2 θ sin2 θ] + (2σx /G12 )cos2 θ sin2 θ. Equation 13. 3 axis system may be expressed as σ1 = cos2 θ σx . x. The lines are dashed above Vf = 60% because this is a practical upper limit to the volume fraction of ﬁbers. Upper and lower bounds to Young’s modulus for composites.2.3.6) (13. The actual behavior for loading perpendicular to the ﬁbers is between these two extremes.2 and 13.4) . σ3 = τ23 = τ31 = 0. τ12 = sinθ cosθ σx . (13. Now consider the orientation dependence of the elastic modulus of a composite with unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers.2 shows the predictions of equations 13. σ2 = σ3 = sin2 θ σx . θ .5) (13.
the orientation dependence disappears. Ex = σx /ex .6. G = 10 MPa. The average for all orientations in this ﬁgure is about 18% of E1 . θ. The orientation dependence of the elastic modulus in a composite with unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers.5 illustrates why this is so.3. Here it is assumed that E1 = 75 MPa. The simple averaging used to calculate Figure 13. When this constraint is accounted for. GPa 50 0 0 30 60 Angle of stress axis 90 Figure 13. this effect disappears at θ = 45◦ because composites with both sets of ﬁbers have the same lateral strain. extension can be accommodated by rotation of the ﬁbers without any extension. E2 = 5 MPa. can be found from Equation 13. Figure 13. it has no effect on the 45◦ stiffness. A crude estimate of the effect of a crossply can be made from an average of the stiffnesses due to ﬁbers at 0◦ and 90◦ . One might expect the modulus would be the average of the moduli for all directions of uniaxially aligned ﬁbers.3 shows that the modulus drops rapidly for offaxis loading. A useful engineering approximation for randomly . a somewhat larger modulus is predicted. The elastic modulus in the x direction. With randomly oriented ﬁbers.4. However.206 Solid Mechanics 100 Young’s modulus. as shown in Figure 13. Ex . Note that most of the stiffening is lost if the loading axis is misoriented from the ﬁber axis by as little as 15◦ . (13.3. Although the crossply stiffens the composite for loading near 90◦ . For loading at 45◦ . However. and υ12 = 0. this again would be an underestimate because it neglects the fact that the lateral strains must be the same for all ﬁber alignments. It assumes equal strains in both plies in the loading direction but neglects the fact that the strains perpendicular to the loading direction in both plies must also be equal.4 underestimates the stiffness for most angles of loading.7) Figure 13.
. The reason can be appreciated by considering the Figure 13.8) where Epara and Eperp are the E moduli parallel and perpendicular to uniaxially aligned ﬁbers. the modulus at 45◦ is very low. For this calculation. Calculated orientation dependence of Young’s modulus in composites with singly and biaxially oriented ﬁbers. aligned ﬁbers is E ≈ (3/8)Epara + (5/8)Eperp . it was assumed that Epara = 75 GPa and Eperp = 75 GPa. Note that even with biaxially oriented ﬁbers. (13. Rotation of ﬁbers in a woven cloth. Strength of FiberReinforced Composites The rule of mixtures cannot be used to predict the strengths of composites with uniaxially aligned ﬁbers.Composites 207 100 Young’s modulus.4.5. GPa 0° Fibers 90° Fibers 50 Crossply 0 0 30 60 Angle of stress axis 90 Figure 13. Stress in at 45◦ to the ﬁbers allows deformation with little or no stretching of the ﬁbers.
Stressstrain curves for the matrix. UTS = Vm σm + Vf (UTS) f . σw /Ew = σm /Em . If the load carried by the ﬁbers is greater than the breaking load of the matrix. the strength of the composite UTS < Vm UTSm + Vf UTS f . Composite Matrix 0 5 10 Strain (%) 15 20 stressstrain behavior of both materials. (13. The wire will yield at a strain of σw /Ew = 200 MPa/210 GPa = 0.1: A . The strains in the matrix and ﬁbers are equal. For composites with low volume fraction ﬁbers. after the ﬁbers break the whole load must be carried by the matrix. and the composite. so the ﬁbers reach their breaking strengths long before the matrix reaches its tensile strength. In this case. the ﬁbers may break at a load less than the failure load of the matrix. What is the maximum stress that the composite can carry without yielding? Solution: At yielding.9) where σm = (Em /E f )(UTS) f is the stress carried by the matrix when the ﬁber fractures. Thus. both will fail when the ﬁbers break.6. the strains will be the same in the wire and matrix. as shown schematically in Figure 13.9 applies for higher volume fractions of ﬁbers.6.7 shows schematically how the strength in tension parallel to the ﬁbers varies with volume fraction ﬁbers. the ﬁbers.10) Figure 13. metal composite composed of metal M reinforced by parallel wires of metal W. (13. Metal M has a yield stress of 50 MPa and a modulus of 30 GPa.10 applies at low volume fraction ﬁbers and Equation 13. The volume fraction W is 50% and W has a yield stress of 200 MPa and a modulus of 210 GPa. Equation 13.208 Solid Mechanics Fibers Stress Figure 13.001 and the matrix will yield at a strain of EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13. so the predicted strength is UTS = Vm (UTS)m .
A practical upper limit for volume fraction seems to be about 55% to 60%. UTSm = 10 and σm = 5.50 × 200 + 0.7. At this point.001 × 30 GPa = 30 MPa. Orientation Dependence of Strength For unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers. The composite will yield at the lower strain.2 and 13. there are practical limitations on the volume fraction. the stress in the wire would be 200 MPa and the stress in the matrix would be 0. Volume Fraction of Fibers Although the stiffness and strength of reinforced composites should increase with the volume fraction of ﬁbers. when ε = 0. as shown in Figure 13. Fibers must be separated from one another. For tension parallel or nearly parallel . It is assumed that the ﬁber strength.50 × 30 = 115 MPa. This is the reason is why the calculated lines in Figures 13. 50 MPa/30 GPa = 0. The maximum possible packing density is greater for unidirectionally aligned ﬁbers than for woven or crossply reinforcement.8. There are three possible modes of failure.7 are dashed above Vf = 60%. The average stress would be 0. Fibers are often precoated to ensure this separation and to control bonding between ﬁbers and matrix. Techniques of inﬁltrating ﬁber arrangements with liquid resins lead to variability in ﬁber spacing. UTS f = 80. the strength varies with orientation. Dependence of strength on the volume fraction ﬁbers.0017. Note that the ﬁbers lower the composite strength to less than the tensile strength of the matrix for very low volume fraction ﬁbers.Composites 209 100 80 Composite strength 60 40 20 0 0 50 Volume fraction fibers 100 Figure 13. that is.001.
ASM International (1987). the axial stress. The three fracture modes are treated separately. Glass ﬁbers in a polyester matrix. at this point is σ = S f /cos2 θ. I. Failure strength of a unidirectionally aligned ﬁber composite as a function of orientation. σ . of the ﬁbers. Sf .12) where τ f m is the shear strength of the ﬁbermatrix interface. and tensile failure normal to the ﬁbers. failure can occur by shear in the matrix. S f m . v. Failure stress 0 0 30 60 Angle between fibers and stress axis 90 . (13. There are three possible fracture modes: tensile fracture of the ﬁbers. of the ﬁbermatrix interface. failure is governed by the strength.9. From Engineered Materials Handbook. However. is σ = τ f m /sinθ cosθ.8. Neglecting the stress in the matrix. to the ﬁbers. Note the variability in ﬁber spacing. with θ for low angles is not realized experimentally. shear failure parallel to the ﬁbers.11) For loading at a greater angle to the ﬁbers. (13. σ . σ . The axial stress. For loading perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the ﬁbers. σ = S f m /sin2 θ. This fact suggests an interaction Sf /cos2θ τf /sinθcosθ Sm /sin2θ Figure 13. the slight increase of failure stress. Composites.13) These three possibilities are shown in Figure 13. (13. failure occurs when the stress in the ﬁber exceeds the fracture strength.210 Solid Mechanics Figure 13.9.
D σxA (σx + dσx)A dx x of the longitudinal and shear fracture modes. The difference in the normal forces must be balanced by the shear force. τ . such as extrusion. The reason is that at the end of the ﬁber.11 illustrates three possible conditions depending on x ∗ /L. and transfer molding.10. which indicates an interaction between shear and transverse fracture modes. σav.14) This solution is valid only for σx ≤ σ∞ where σ∞ is the stress that would be carried by an inﬁnitely long ﬁber. where x ∗ = (D/4)(σ∞ /τ ) is the distance at which σx = σ∞ . where D and L are the ﬁber’s diameter and length. Stress is transferred from the matrix to the ﬁbers primarily by shear stresses at their interfaces. Integrating. Figure 13.Composites 211 τ(2πDdx) Figure 13. injection molding. which results in (σx + dσx ) A = σx A + τ (π Ddx) or (D2 /4)dσx = τ (Ddx).11a). The following development is based on the assumption that the shear stress between the matrix and the ﬁber. Chopped ﬁbers can be blown onto a surface to form a mat.15) . Force balance on a differential length of ﬁber.9. Figure 13. (13. The average axial stress in a ﬁber depends on its aspect ratio. Also. The disadvantage of chopped ﬁbers is that some of the reinforcing effect of the ﬁbers is sacriﬁced because the average axial stress carried by ﬁbers is less for short ones than for long ones. Fiber Length Fabrication is much simpliﬁed if the reinforcement is in the form of chopped ﬁbers. If L > L∗ (Figure 13. Composites with chopped ﬁbers can be fabricated by processes that are impossible with continuous ﬁbers. D/L. experimental values of fracture strength tend to fall somewhat below the predictions in Figure 13. = (1 − x ∗ /L)σ∞ . for angles near 45◦ . L∗ = 2x ∗ is called the critical length. (13. σx = 4τ (x/D).10 shows a force balance on a differential length of ﬁber. dx. is constant and that no load is transferred across the end of the ﬁber. the stress carried by the ﬁber is vanishingly low. The length.
If it is assumed that τ = C(σ f − σx ). (13.11. σ x never reaches σ ∞ .10 and integrating.17) The composite modulus and strength can be calculated by substituting σ av for σ f in Equation 13. σav. τ . In turn. = L/(2L∗ )σ∞ . L = L∗ . As . The shear stress. between the ﬁber and the matrix decreases with x as the stress (and therefore the elastic elongation) of the ﬁber increases.11c).16) If L < L∗ (Figure 13. τ = E f (D/4)exp(β)sinh[β(L/2 − x)]/cosh[β(L/2)]. For a square √ array. σx = σ∞ [1 − exp(−2Cx/D)]. where C is a constant. (13. = (1/2)σ∞ .212 Solid Mechanics L D σx x* x σf L L L σx x* x L σf σx x* σf x L a b c Figure 13. and L < L∗ . The problem with this analysis is that the shear stress. A still more rigorous analysis results in an expression for the shear stress. (13.1. φ = π/4 = 0. For long ﬁbers (L > 2x ∗ ). the average load carried by the ﬁber is not much different from that calculated with the simpler analysis. where β is given by β = (1/4)(Gm /E f )/ln(φ/V f ).785.11b). in Equation 13.20) (13. this difference is proportional to σ∞ – σ x because the ﬁber strain at x is σx /E f and the matrix strain is σ∞ /E f . It is reasonable to assume that τ increases as the difference between the strains in the ﬁber and matrix increases. and for a hexagonal array φ = π/(2 3) = 0. (13. If L = L∗ (Figure 13.907. τ .12 near the end of the ﬁber. between matrix and ﬁber is not constant from x = 0 to x = x∗ along the length of the ﬁber. and the average value of axial stress is σav. The distribution of ﬁber stress for three cases: L > L∗ .19) Here φ is the ideal packing factor for the arrangements of ﬁbers.18) This leads to the stress distribution sketched in Figure 13.
13. eq. If as a crack in the matrix approaches the ﬁber the plane of the crack is near the end of the ﬁber. Failures with Discontinuous Fibers Failure may occur either by fracture of ﬁbers or by the ﬁbers pulling out of the matrix.14 is a picture showing the pullout of boron ﬁbers in an aluminum matrix. the ﬁber will fracture.18 0. D.21) Pull out Figure 13. where σ ∗ is the fracture strength of the ﬁber. eq. the ratio of the matrix shear modulus to the ﬁber tensile modulus increases. pullout will occur.Composites 213 1 Stress Fiber stress. the load is transferred from the matrix to the ﬁbers over a shorter distance.5 Shear stress.13. To fracture a ﬁber of diameter. F. Figure 13. Both possibilities are shown in Figure 13. 13. from end 4 Figure 13. Sketch showing some ﬁbers fracturing at the crack and others pulling out. If it is not near the end. must be F = σ ∗ π D2 /4. σx.14 Fiber stress. the force.13.12. σx. A more realistic stress distribution near the end of a ﬁber. τ 0 0 1 2 3 Distance. Fiber break . (13. x /x *.
x ∗ = (σ ∗ /τ ∗ )D/4. An introduction to Metal Matrix Composites. (13. the energy. Because the composite stiffness and strength continue to increase with increasing ﬁber length.214 Solid Mechanics Figure 13.24 and 13.23) Fibers of length L less than 2x∗ will pull out. W. Much more energy is absorbed if the ﬁbers pull out. the probability that it will pull out is 2x∗ /L and the average pullout distance is x∗ /2. L = 2x ∗ = (σ ∗ /τ ∗ )D/2 . σ ∗ π D2 /4. x∗ . Upo . corresponds to the two forces being equal. as shown in Figure 13. Yielding of composites with polymeric ﬁbers is sensitive to buckling under compression .25 show that the pullout energy.14. Cambridge U. Withers. if the ﬁber length is greater than 2x∗ . τ ∗ . From T. (13. increase with L up to a critical length. Therefore. Upo = τ ∗ π DL2 /32. The ﬁber pullout force is F = τ ∗ π Dx. to pull out the ﬁber is the integral of τ ∗ π D xdx between limits of 0 and L/4. J. and hence the toughness. This involves lateral shearing of the matrix between ﬁbers. so the average energy expended in pullout is Upo = τ ∗ π D(x ∗ /2)2 (2x ∗ /L) = t ∗ π Dx ∗ 3 /(2L).22) where τ ∗ is the shear strength of the ﬁber–matrix interface.24) However. and the average pullout distance will be L/4. Clyne and P. Fibers will pull out if τ ∗ π Dx is less than the force to break the ﬁbers. and therefore the compressive strength of the composite depends on the shear moduli.25) Comparison of Equations 13.15. Further increase of L decreases the fracture toughness. failures can occur by ﬁber buckling. and thereby increase x∗ so longer ﬁbers can be used without decreasing toughness. Failure Under Compression In compression parallel to aligned ﬁbers. The critical pullout distance. it is often desirable to decrease the ﬁbermatrix shear strength. Photograph of SiC ﬁbers pulling out of a titanium matrix. Press (1993). (13. (13.
16.5 1 1. Fiber reinforcements include glass. The low strength of some polymer ﬁbers in compression was discussed in Chapter 12. Figure 13.2 and some of the commonly used ﬁbers in Table 13. The energy expended in ﬁber pullout increases with ﬁber length up to a critical length and then decreases with further length increase.5 Energy (arbitrary units) 1 0.3. From Engineered Materials Handbook. and carbon. Composites. Figure 13.1.5 Fiber length (arbitrary units) 2 Figure 13. Most of the polymers used for matrix materials have moduli of 2 to 3 GPa and tensile strengths in the range of 35 to 70 MPa. v. ASM International (1987).15. because of the low compressive strengths of the ﬁbers themselves. Kevlar. boron. .Composites 215 1.16 shows inphase buckling of a Kevlar ﬁberreinforced composite in compression. Properties of some epoxy matrix composite systems are given in Table 13.5 0 0 0. Typical Properties Two types of polymer matrixes are common: epoxy and polyester. Buckling of Kevlar ﬁbers in an epoxy matrix under compression.
5 Elongation (%) 1 0. Another objective Table 13.3.8 2.7 2. Properties of epoxy matrix composites Young’s modulus (GPa) Fiber Eglass unidirectional Eglass bidirectional Eglass chopped matte Boron unidirectional Kevlar29 unidirectional Kevlar49 unidirectional Carbon Vol % ﬁber 60 40 35 16.2 2. Particulate Composites Composites reinforced by particles rather than long ﬁbers include such diverse materials as concrete (cementpaste matrix with sand and gravel particles).2.75 2 to 6 2.5 Fiber carbon (PAN HS) carbon (PAN HM) SiC steel Eglass B Kevlar 29 Kevlar 49 Al2 O3 βSiC 4 2.3 .5 1.5 20 7 60 215 60 50 60 62 76 145 6 1350 1850 30 5 1350 – 24 1400 65 7 100 100 16. for example.216 Solid Mechanics Table 13. directional solidiﬁcation can lead to rods of one phase reinforcing the matrix. Metals such as aluminumbase alloys may be reinforced with ceramic ﬁbers to increase their stiffness.5 280 280 10 780 28 Longitudinal Transverse Tensile strength (MPa) Longitudinal Transverse Other ﬁber composites include ceramics reinforced with metal or ceramic ﬁbers. and “carbide tools” with a cobaltbase matrix alloy hardened by tungsten carbide particles. Sometimes the purpose is simply economics. Typical ﬁber properties Young’s modulus (GPa) 250 390 70 210 70 390 65 125 379 430 Tensile strength (GPa) 2.4 3. polymers ﬁlled with wood ﬂour.8 1. wood ﬂour is cheaper than plastics. In some eutectic systems.
such as carbide tools. n. Then the volume fraction of A is VA = (1 − t)3 . Let the distance between cube centers be 1 and the thickness of the softer phase.2 and 13.26) where A and B refer to the two phases. E n=1 1/2 0 −1/2 −1 EA 0 0. of these columns is 1/E = (1 − t)/EA + t/EB (13. lies between the extremes of n = +1 for the isostrain model and n = −1 for the isostress model.5 is a reasonable approximation. Here the ratio of EB/EA = 10. E .18. Dependence of Young’s modulus on volume fraction according to Equation 13. If the behavior of the columns of alternating A and B is described by the lowerbound Equation 13.17 shows the dependence of E on volume fraction for several values of n. be t. A (13.27) so a lower bound to the modulus of the overall composite can be found using Equation 13.3.8 1 may be increased hardness. The isostrain and isostress models correspond to n = +1 and −1. The harder phase. The behavior of particulate composites is intermediate and can be represented by a generalized rule of mixtures of the form n En = VA En + VB EB. The composite can be considered as a series of columns of alternating A and B loaded in parallel with columns of B.2 as Eav = (1 − t)2 E + [1 − (1 − t)2 ]EB.6 0. A. If the modulus of the continuous phase is much greater than that of the particles.Composites 217 EB Figure 13.28) .3) are upper and lower bounds for the dependence of Young’s modulus on volume fraction. The exponent. the modulus. n < 0 is a better approximation. is a series of cubes.2 0. (13. Composite modulus.26 for several values of n.4 VB 0. For highmodulus particles in a lowmodulus matrix. Figure 13. The subscripts A and B represent the lower and higher modulus phases. A simple model for a particulate composite with a large fraction of the harder phase is illustrated in Figure 13. B. The isostrain and isostress models (Equations 13.17. n = 0.
Brickwall model of a composite.28 and 13. 13. t.29 are not very different.29) This is for this geometric arrangement and very much better solution than Equation 13.6 Volume fraction of A.5 eq. can be found by treating these columns and the material between them with the isostrain model. 3 eq. An upper bound for the composite modulus. Hard particles in the shape of cubes are separated by a soft matrix of thickness.19.18.28 and 13. . Figure 13.19 shows the results of calculations for EA = 3EB and υ A = υ B = 0. Also shown for comparison are the upperbound and lowerbound equations.218 Solid Mechanics A 1−t B t A B 1 t 2 1 3 Figure 13.28 eq. 13. (13.28.5 1 0 0.3 using Equations 13.2 0.3 Eav /EB 2 1.3. VA 0. Eave .2 eq.29 2. Note that the predictions of Equations 13.8 1 Figure 13. 13. 13.29.4 0. Eav = t(2 − t)EB + (1 − t)2 E . Predictions of brickwall model for the elastic modulus of a particulate composite with EA = 3EB and υ A = υ B = 0.
(13. E = 644 GPa. Now consider loading under uniaxial tension applied in the xdirection. plywood. From Equation 13. The Young’s moduli for WC and Co are 700 GPa and 210 GPa. WC is the discontinuous phase. The stresses are σx A t A + σx Bt B = σxav . σx A − υ A σ yA = (EA /EB)[(σxav − t A σx A )/t B + υ B(t A /t B)σ yA ] and σ yA − υ A σx A = (EA /EB)[(VA /VB)σ yA + υ B(σxav − t A σx A )/t B]. (13.33) . A and B. From Equation 13. Examples include safety glass.61/3 = 0. Substituting σ yav = 0.31. A. σ y A t A + σ y Bt B = σ yav .31) where tA and tB are the fractional thicknesses of A and B.30 become εx A = (1/EA )(σx A − υ A σ yA ) = εx B = (1/EB)(σx B − υ Bσ yB) ε y A = (1/EA )(σ yA − υ A σx A ) = ε yB = (1/EB)(σ yB − υ Bσx B).32.Composites 219 Estimate the modulus for a composite consisting of 60% WC particles in a matrix of cobalt using the brickwall model.32) (13. ε1B/σ1 = 2. ε1A /σ1 = 1. respectively. Lamellar Composites Two or more sheets of materials bonded together can be considered as lamellar composites. The basic equations governing the strain are εx A = εx B ε y A = ε y B. and glazed ceramics.30.156. σ yB = −(t A /t B)σ yA and σx B = (σxav − t A σx A )/t B into Equations 13.29.81 × 10−3 GPa−1 .2: Solution: t = 1 − 0. From Equation 13. σz A = σz = 0. From Equation 13.30) If both materials are isotropic and the loading is elastic. bonded together in the xy plane and loaded in this plane.31. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13.615 From Equation 13. (13.32 × 10−3 GPa−1 .28. Eav = 519 GPa. plated metals. Equations 13. σ2B/σ1 = 0. Consider sheets of two materials.
Solution: Substituting tA = 0.75) + 2(7)(0.37) .91) = 1. EB = 7 GPa and υ B = 0.232 E = N/D = 2.3.5 mm thick) surrounding rubber (4 mm thick). In general. (13. where 2 2 2 N = E2 t B 1 − υ A 2 + 2EA EBt A t B(1 − υ A υ B) + EA 2 t A 1 − υ B B and (13. these expressions reduce to the upperbound model.25 GPa and υ A = 0.220 Solid Mechanics Young’s modulus according to an upperbound isostrain model for loading in the plane of the sheet can be expressed as E = N/D. These are used for ﬁlters and as skeletons.8)2 (0. For the ﬁberreinforced polyester. Closed cell foams are much stiffer and stronger than open cell foams because compression is partially resisted by increased air pressure inside the cells. where E∗ is the elastic modulus of the structure and E is the modulus of the solid material on relative density.21 D = (7 × 0.20 shows that the geometry of open and closed cell foams can modeled by Kelvin tetrakaidecahedra.8 and tB = 0.79 GPa Foams There are two types of foams: closed cell foams and open cell (or reticulated) foams.3: (13.8)(0. so E∗/E = (ρ ∗ /ρs )2 .34) D = EBt B 1 − υ2 A + EA t A 1 − υ B . For the rubber.35 N = (7 × 0.35) Calculate the composite modulus for a sandwich of two sheets of ﬁberreinforced polyester (each 0.8)(0.21/1.5. EA = 0. E∗ /E.232 = 1. the dependence of relative stiffness. The elastic stiffness depends on the relative density.2)(0.25)(0.36) Experimental results shown in Figure 13.2)(0.25 × 0. is of the form E∗/E = (ρ ∗ /ρs )n .21 indicate that for open cells n = 2. Figure 13. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #13.75) + (0.2)2 (0.25)(0.85) + (0. They are often made by collapsing the walls of closed cell foams.2 into Equation 13.91) = 2. 2 For the special case in which υ B = υ A . E = EBt B + EA t A . In open foams. (13. air or other ﬂuids are free to circulate.
Materials for Engineers. E∗ /E is much greater and n < 2. Dependence of elastic moduli on the density of open and closed cell foams. E */E 0.1 1 Relative density. compression of closed cell wall foams involves gas compression and wall stretching in addition to wall bending.1 0. .20. 1 Relative Young’s modulus. Open and closed cell foams modeled by tetrakaidecahedra. Although deformation under compression of open cell foams is primarily by ligament bending.21.01 Open cells Closed cells 0. For closed cell foams. Hosford.0001 0. F. Cambridge U.01 0. Press (2008).001 0. ρ∗/ρ Figure 13. From W.Composites 221 Figure 13.
Shortly after Leo Baekelund (1863–1944) developed phenolformaldehyde (“Bakelite”) in 1906. Vol I. Ashby Cellular Foams. A. he found that adding ﬁbers to the resin greatly increased its toughness. Problems 1. K. These animal products are able to store more elastic energy in tension and compression respectively than wood. J. Mallick. and outstanding damping capability. Gibson. Engineered Materials Handbook. 71 (2005). Saracens made composite bows composed of a central core of wood with animal tendons glued on the tension side and horn on the compression side. Fiberreinforced Composites. Notes The engineering use of composites dates back to antiquity. Nahm and S. hair was used to strengthen plaster. W. the hair content being limited to 2% or 3% to insure workability. S. The ﬁrst use of this molding compound was for the gearshift knob of the 1916 Rolls Royce. S. SpringerVerlag (1978). N. The Bible. Hilyard. F. good energy absorption. A. but the strength is greatly reduced if the ﬁbers contact one another. Sanders and L. Composites. Kim. MacMillan (1982). ASM International (1987). Widespread commercial use of glassreinforced polymers began soon after World War II. What would be the critical length. Science and Engineering. Mechanics of Cellular Plastics. For that reason. high ratios of strength and stiffness to weight.005 mm to 0. M.008 mm diameter have strengths up to 4 GPa. Cho. v. C. English builders used sticks in the “wattle and daub” construction of timber frame buildings. Chawla. H. P. for maximum load in a 10µm diameter ﬁber with a fracture strength of 2 GPa embedded in a matrix such that the shear strength of the matrixﬁber interface is 100 MPa? . L. Compressive and tensile behaviour of aluminium foams. Hasan. Andrew. L∗ . Manufacturing & Design. REFERENCES K. Composite Materials. Materials. The Mayans and Incas incorporated vegetable ﬁbers into their pottery. cites the use of straw in clay bricks (presumably to prevent cracking during fast drying under the hot sun in Egypt. Cambridge (1999). K. E. Composite Structures. In colonial days. Dekker (1988). in Exodus. Freshly formed glass ﬁbers of 0. J. Mater Sci Eng A 270 (1999). they are coated with an organic compound before being bundled together.222 Solid Mechanics Metal foams are useful in many engineering applications because of their extremely light weight. Gibson & M.
26 would this measurement suggest? A trialanderror solution is necessary to solve this. Estimate the greatest value of the elastic modulus that can be obtained by long randomly oriented ﬁbers of Eglass embedded in an epoxy resin if the volume fraction is 40%. respectively.3 0. Assume both the epoxy and carbon are elastic to fracture. Calculate the composite tensile strength. 5.Composites 223 Table 13.20 mm thick.5 GPa . Calculate the composite thermal expansion coefﬁcient. Calculate the composite modulus. in Equation 13.3 Linear coef. Will the steel or the aluminum yield ﬁrst as tension is applied to the wire? B. What is the composite elastic modulus? D. Properties of epoxy and carbon ﬁbers Young’s modulus epoxy carbon 3 GPa 250 GPa Tensile strength 55 MPa 2.0 mm diameter) is coated with aluminum. What value of the exponent. It was experimentally found that the elastic modulus of a composite containing 52 volume percent carbide was 60 × 106 psi. (See Table 13. A. What tensile load can the wire withstand without yielding C. 3. 0. Table 13. The elastic moduli of tungsten carbide and cobalt are 102 × 106 and 30 × 106 psi. A steel wire (1.) 4. of thermal expans (K−1 ) 24 × 10−6 12 × 10−6 2. Properties of steel wire and aluminum Young’s modulus aluminum steel 70 210 Yield strength (GPa) 65 280 Poisson’s ratio (MPa) 0. Consider a carbonreinforced epoxy composite containing 45 volume percent unidirectionally aligned carbon ﬁbers (see Table 13.5). B.5.4) A.4. n. Carbide cutting tools are composites of very hard tungsten carbide particles in a cobalt matrix. (Note that n = 0 is a trivial solution. Assume the modulus of the epoxy is 5 GPa.
the actual work per volume. where A is the area of the drawn wire and σd is the stress on the drawn wire. Products as diverse as cartridge cases. 224 (14. wt = wi + w f + wr . equals the drawing force.2) . In these processes. In sheet forming. bulk forming and sheet forming. Wt = σd A L (Figure 14. Bulk forming processes include rolling. L. is wt = σd . Wt = Fd L. One engineering concern is to ensure that the forming forces are not excessive. Forming limits of the material are set by the ductility of the work piece and by the imposed stress state. and canoe hulls are formed from ﬂat sheets by drawing or stamping. rod and wire drawing. Fd .1) The total work per volume can also be expressed as the sum of the individual work terms. automobile bodies.1). wt . Expressing the drawing force as Fd = σd A. buckling or wrinkling will limit the process. beverage cans. (14. the stresses are usually tensile and the forming limits usually correspond to local necking of the material. As A L is the drawn volume. Wt . The exceptions are those produced by casting and by powder processing. Bulk Forming Energy Balance An energy balance is a simple way of estimating the forces required in many bulkforming processes. multiplied by the length of wire drawn.14 Mechanical Working Introduction The shapes of most metallic products are achieved by mechanical working. and forging. If the stresses become compressive. the total work. As a rod or wire is drawn through a die. the stresses that deform the material are largely compressive. extrusion. Another is ensuring that the deformation is as uniform as possible so as to minimize internal and residual stresses. Mechanical shaping processes are conveniently divided into two groups.
increases with die angle.4) The work of friction between the wiredrawing die and the wire can also be expressed on a pervolume basis. In general. The ideal process is an imaginary process in which there is no friction and no redundancy. is roughly proportional to the ﬂow stress. even though in reality the wire would neck. wi . is the work that would be required by an ideal process to create the same shape change as the real process. α. The force. the contact area. decreases so w f increases as the die angle. This involves plastic deformation that is not required in the ideal process of pure stretching. σ .6) . decreases.5) This predicts that the frictional work increases with increasing reduction and decreasing die angle. this reduces to wi = σ ε. the ideal work to draw a wire from 10 mm to 7 mm diameter can be found by considering uniform stretching in tension. α. the ideal work/volume is wi = σ dε.2. The frictional force is F f = µFn. (14. of the wire and to the area of contact. where µ is the coefﬁcient of friction. as schematically illustrated in Figure 14. σn . α. wr . (14. depends on the ﬂow stress. the total frictional work. Ac . For example. The redundant work is the energy expended in plastic straining that is not required by the ideal process. The redundant work per volume. Ac . A simple approximation for relatively low die angles is wr = (2/3)σ tan α. Drawing of a wire. w f . It also causes shearing of the surface relative to the interior. streamlines are bent as they enter the die and again as they leave the die. For a constant reduction. This is because the normal force between the wire and die is Fn = σn Ac . between the wire and the die. (14. In this case. A simple approximation for low die angles is w f = wi (1 + ε/2)µcot α. It does not matter whether such a process is possible or not.3) For a material that does not work harden.1. where the contact pressure between tool and die. w f . σ . A Fd ∆L The ideal work. Fd working through a distance of L deforms a volume A L. During drawing. (14. increases as the die angle.Mechanical Working 225 α Figure 14.
5 α* wi wr 0 0 10 20 30 Die angle. wr . can be deﬁned such that η = wi /wt . This equation predicts that wr increases with increasing die angle but does not depend on the total strain. Dependence of wa . ε. w wr 0.3 shows how each of the work terms and the efﬁciency depend on die angle for a ﬁxed reduction. A mechanical efﬁciency. Note that there is an optimum die angle. with increased reduction the efﬁciency increases and that the optimum die angle also increases. degrees 40 Figure 14. η. wi . There is an optimum die angle.4 shows that in general. . and w f on die angle. 1 wa Work per volume. the ratio wr /wi decreases with increasing reduction.2. for which the total work per volume is a minimum. Redundant deformation involves shearing of surface relative to the interior. typical drawing efﬁciencies are in the range of 50% to 65%.226 Solid Mechanics Homogeneous deformation Redundant deformation Figure 14. α ∗ . α. Figure 14. Therefore. The reduction is deﬁned as r = ( Ao − A)/Ao. For wire drawing.7) Note that η is always less than 1. α ∗ . Figure 14. α. for which the efﬁciency is a maximum.3. (14.
Substituting Equation 14. Because of the large reductions. Cambridge U. 0. and for an efﬁciency of 65% it is 28%. Press (2007). Variation of efﬁciency with die angle and reduction.9) where Pext is the extrusion pressure. η 0. Note that the efﬁciency and the optimum die angle. extrusions are made in a single operation with extrusion ratios. M.20 0.8) The diameter reduction. If a greater reduction is attempted.10 0. in degrees For wire drawing. Caddell. After the ﬁrst few dies. the optimum die angles are also very low. σ . This can be expressed as wt = Pext . increase with reduction. The actual work per volume is wt = Wt /(Ao Lo) = Fext /Ao.Mechanical Working 227 Locus of α* r 0. there is a maximum reduction that can be made in a single drawing pass.25 0. the drawing limit corresponds to ε = η.4 0. The limit then can be expressed as σ = σd = wt . 3 (1958).4.5/2) = 22%. The maximum diameter reduction for an efﬁciency of 50% is then D/Do = 1 − exp(0. Often dies with 90◦ die angles . Because material is being pushed through the die instead of being pulled. Metals Rev. little additional workhardening occurs so the ﬂow stress. Ao/A f . (14. A work balance for extrusion is very similar.15 0.6 0.7 (wa = wi / h) and Equation 14. (Do − D f )/Do = 1 − D f /Do. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy 3rd Ed..4.4 (wi = σ ε). v.5). as large as 16 or more.2 Figure 14. large die angles are common. Therefore. F. as suggested by Figure 14. the stress on the drawn section will exceed its tensile strength and the wire will break instead of drawing through the die. α. becomes the tensile strength. Therefore.35 0. can be expressed as D/Do = 1 − exp(−ε/2). except now Wt = Fext Lo where Fext is the extrusion force and Ao and Lo are the crosssectional area and length of billet extruded (Figure 14.. Adapted from data of J. (14. Hosford and R. α ∗ . Because the reductions per pass are low in wire drawing. From W. multiple passes are required to make wire. Wistreich. there is no inherent limit to the possible reduction per pass as there is in drawing.05 0 0 4 8 12 16 Semidie angle.45 0.8 Deformation efficiency.
)(0. σc . wide sheet from a thickness of 0.lbs/s = (5.80)(10 × 103 lb/in. Calculate the lateral pressure on the side of the extrusion chamber. Fext = (π D2 /4)Pext = 3.030/0. Substituting η = 0.5)(15)(2. σ = 15 MPa and ε = ln(16) = 2. With σ2 = σ3 = σr .lbs/s)[1. Solution: Pext = (1/η)σ ε.030 in. Pext = (1/. σr = −98.8×10−3 hp/ (ft.lbs/s)] = 876 hp. assuming an efﬁciency of 0. The extrusion force.2: Solution: The rate of doing work is (work/volume)(volume rolled/time) = [(1/η)σ ε](vwt) = (1/0. to 0.2 ) [ln(0. σr − σ1 = −Y.50. Direct extrusion. Ao L.1: Consider the 16:1 extrusion of a round aluminum billet from a diameter of 24 cm to a diameter of 6 cm.8×106 /12 ft. are used because they permit more of the billet to be extruded before the die is opened. This is the horsepower that must be delivered by the rolls to the metal. must be equal and they must be large enough so the material in the chamber is at its yield stress.228 Solid Mechanics Fext ∆L o Ao α Af Figure 14. the radial stress on the billet. Using von Mises. Find the horsepower that would be required to cold roll a 48in.) = 5.2 MPa.76 MN.2 MPa. and Y = 15 MPa. L.025)](80 × 12in. (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 + (σ1 − σ2 )2 = 2Y2 . Estimate the extrusion force. Assume that the ﬂow stress is 15 MPa at the appropriate temperature and extrusion rate. Fext .025 in.000 psi.5. Similar work balances can be made for rolling and forging. (This solution neglects energy losses between the motor and the rolls. working through a distance.77. and the hoop stress.2 MN.77) = 83.025 in. deforms a volume.8×106 in. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14. Substituting σ1 = −Pext = −83. For axially symmetric ﬂow.50./s) (48 in. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14. σr = −Y + σ1 . if the exit speed is 80 ft/s and the ﬂow stress is 10. σr . Assume a deformation efﬁciency of 80% and neglect workhardening.) .
Deformation zones in rolling (left) and extrusion and drawing (right). . For rolling. The parameter.Mechanical Working 229 L R ho h ∆h/2 R R − ∆h/2 L ho ∆h/2 h Figure 14. is deﬁned as the ratio of the mean height or thickness to the contact length. and for extrusion and drawing. Inhomogeneity affects the hardness distribution. = h/L = h tan α/( h/2).027 or 2. and internal porosity in the ﬁnal product and the tendency to crack during forming. (The reduction is small enough that the assumption that h = ho is justiﬁed. r = 0.0 mm thickness with 15 cm diameter rolls. the inhomogeneity is dependent on the geometry of the deformation zone. deﬁned as = h/L. In turn.) One way of describing the inhomogeneity is by a redundant work factor. Several examples are shown in Figure 14. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14. Deformation Zone Geometry One of the chief concerns with mechanical working is the homogeneity of the deformation.7%. so for = 1.11) (14. R2 = L2 + (R − h/2)2 = L2 + R2 − 2R h + h2 /4 and L ≈ (R2 h). deﬁned as Φ = 1 + wr /wi . . Then r = (ho/R)/ 2 = (2. how large a reduction (percent reduction of thickness) would be necessary to insure ≥ 1? Solution: Take = h/(R h)1/2 = h/(Rr ho)1/2 and assume for the purpose of calculation that h = ho.3: (14.10) Here h is the height or thickness or diameter at the middle of the deformation zone and L is the length of contact between tools and work piece. (14. which can be characterized in various processes by a parameter.6. (14. so √ ≈ h/ (R2 h). residual stress patterns.0/75)/ 2 .6.12) In rolling of a sheet of 2. Φ.13) .
From Hosford and Caddell. Under high conditions. 1 0 2 4 ∆ 6 8 10 Figure 14.11. (14. Φ. as shown in Figure 14. The increase of the redundancy factor. α as shown in Figure 14. with for both strip and wire drawing. forming processes leave the surface under increasing residual tension.230 Solid Mechanics 3 Strip r = 0.08 r = 0. L. a state of hydrostatic tension develops near the centerline.16 (unlubricated) Wire r = 0.32 Φ 2 Strip Wire Figure 14. If the conditions are extreme.8.7.08 r = 0. Note that friction has little effect on Φ. between tools and workpiece is large compared with the workpiece thickness. h. With large die angles. therefore increasing IF. ibid.16 r = 0. the .10). The inhomogeneity factor increases with increased die angle. As increases. During compression of a slab between two parallel platens. Friction has little effect on redundant strain.14) where Hs and Hc refer to the hardnesses at the surface and at the center. shearing at the surface causes more workhardening. Another way of characterizing inhomogeneity is by an inhomogeneity factor.16 r = 0. these pores may grow to form macroscopic cavities at the centerline. friction can play a very important role when the length of contact. deﬁned as IF = Hs /Hc .9. as shown in Figure 14. Friction in Bulk Forming In forging. and this may cause pores to open around inclusions (Figure 14.7 shows the increase of Φ with for both strip drawing (planestrain) and wire drawing (axially symmetric ﬂow).
ScD Thesis. 0./pass 5.16 r = 0. From W.8.0 7.08 r = 0.0 Figure 14. ASTM. From Hosford and Caddell. Baldwin.0 4.5 9 12 16 0 0 1. Burke. Data from J.0 2.16 (unlubricated) Wire r = 0.16 r = 0. Residual stresses at the surface of coldrolled brass strips increase with = t/l.9. J. —.08 r = 0.Mechanical Working 231 0. .30 Figure 14. M. I F = 1 + Hsurf /Hcenter with die angle. % y 60 Apparent residual stress 40 20 2 Pct red.32 0.08 r = 0.10 0 0 5 10 15 α. v.0 t ( 100 − R ) = ( t )2 – – r R l 5. MIT (1968).0 6. The increase of the inhomogeneity factor.20 IF Strip r = 0.16 r = 0. 49 (1949). Degrees 20 25 100 Actual residual stress 80 σres.32 r = 0. Proc.0 3.
From D. Metals Progress. The greater the L/h is. the greater the average compressive stress needs to be. Note that the reductions were very small. Leach and L.15) Figure 14. Bur. Cofﬁn Jr. Final Report Contract Now65–00976.11.10. C.. . J. C. With high. (14. Rogers. the ratio of the average pressure to the planestrain ﬂow strength Pav /σo. so was very large. Naval Weapons (1965). 97.232 Solid Mechanics Figure 14. the center is under hydrostatic tension. From H. v. F. Blickwede. For compression in planestrain with a constant coefﬁcient of friction. is Pav /σo = (h/µL)[exp(µL/ h) − 1]. Centerline cracks in extruded steel bars. (May 1970). Voids opening at inclusions near the centerline during drawing under highD conditions.. friction tends to suppress lateral ﬂow of the work material. Higher compressive stresses are necessary to overcome this restraint. R.
Large inclusion content and high strength tend to decrease ductility and formability. Whether fracture occurs or not depends on both the material and the process.6 1. The greater fracture strains of the “squareedge” strips reﬂects a greater state of compression at the edge during rolling. (14. Metals. For compression of circular discs of diameter. To prevent this. Latham.12 shows the correlation of edge cracking during rolling with tensile ductility for a number of materials. The formability of a material is related to its reduction of area in a tension test.2 1. G.8 2. Correlation of the strain at which edge cracking occurs in ﬂat rolling with the reduction of area in a tension test. From M. The factors governing a material’s fracture strain were discussed in Chapter 9. Such bending would produce a sheet that is thicker in the middle than at the edges. v. 1. the rolls may be backed up with larger rolls or ground to a barrelshape to compensate for bending.0 5 6 7 Squareedge strip 1 Cu10 Al 2 Z W3 (Mg3 Zn0. 96 (1968).17) (14. is Pav /Y = 2(h/µD)2 [exp(µD/ h) − µD/ h − 1]. Cockcroft and D. Formability In bulk forming processes other than wire drawing.8 A0 Reduction in area after tensile test.2 Thickness strain to produce edge t cracking in cold rolling. the pressure between the rolls and workpiece can become so large that the rolls bend.4 2 4 Roundedge strip 3 1 12 0 0 0.0 2. In — A which can be approximated by Pav /σo ≈ 1 + µL/ h for small values of µL/ h.2 0. A material with large fracture strain is likely to have a large formability.8 Zr) 3 AlSi 4 Mild steel 5 Duralumin (annealed) 6 Al5 Mg 7 6337 brass 8 5842 brass 7 3 6 4 8 5 Figure 14. this can be approximated by Pav /Y = 1 + (1/3)µD / h + (1/12)(µD / h)2 .4 2. Inst.4 2.16) In the rolling of thin sheets. J.Mechanical Working 233 3. J.6 2. .8 0. the ratio of the average pressure to the ﬂow strength Pav /Y.4 0.6 3.8 1. For small values of µL/D. Figure 14. In o t1 2. D. formability is limited by fracture.12.
the strain to fracture is lower. where one of the principal strains in the plane of the sheet is compressive. The blank is placed over a die with a circular hole and a punch forces the blank to ﬂow into the die cavity. As the punch descends. Deforming the ﬂange consumes most of the energy. The difference in Figure 14. the blank is deformed into a hat shape and ﬁnally into a cup. ibid. Compressive stresses normal to the sheet are usually negligible in both cases. Deep Drawing A major concern in sheet forming is tensile failure by necking. If the edge of a rolled strip is allowed to become round during rolling. Formability also depends on the level of hydrostatic stress in the process. as sketched in Figure 14. As the punch descends. the throughthickness compressive stress is less at the edge.234 Solid Mechanics z Hold down d0 Punch Die x y y d1 z x Flange Wall Figure 14.12 between the fracture strains in “square edge” and “round edge” strips reﬂect this. ﬂatbottom cups. Therefore.13. From Hosford and Caddell. The stresses in the ﬂange are compressive in the hoop direction and tensile in the radial direction.13. . With the greater level of hydrostatic tension. a greater tensile stress in the rolling direction is needed to cause the same elongation as in the middle of the strip. Sheet forming operations may be divided into drawing. A typical drawing process is the making of cylindrical. The tension is a maximum at the inner lip and the compression a maximum at the outer periphery. A holddown force is necessary to keep the ﬂange from wrinkling. It starts with a circular disc blanked from a sheet. the outer circumference must undergo compression so that it will be small enough to ﬂow over the die lip. Schematic illustration of cup drawing showing the coordinate axes. and stretching where both of the principal strains in the plane of the sheet are tensile. The energy expended in friction and some in bending and unbending as material ﬂows over the die lip is much less.
14. . so this corresponds to cup with a heighttodiameter ratio of 3/4. which decreases the forces required. there is a limit to the amount of reduction that can be achieved. d1 . From Hosford and Caddell. Materials with Rvalues greater than unity have somewhat greater limiting drawing ratios.01.15. as shown in Figure 14.Mechanical Working 235 Figure 14.18) where η is the deformation efﬁciency. If the ratio of the initial blank diameter. It can be shown that for an isotropic material. For an efﬁciency of 70%. The die ring causes wall thinning.14. to the punch diameter. α Ironing ring Punch Cup wall N' µN' µN N Figure 14. the increased thinning resistance permits larger wall stresses before necking and as well as easier ﬂow in the plane of the sheet. Forming cylindrical cups with a greater heighttodiameter ratio requires redrawing. the tensile stress required to draw the material into the die will exceed the tensile strength of the wall. In can making. As with wire drawing. is too large. Section of a cup wall and ironing ring during ironing.15. Direct redrawing. Friction on opposite sides of the wall acts in opposing directions. an additional operation called ironing thins and elongates the walls. A sleeve around the punch acts as a holddown while the punch descends. This is because with a large Rvalue. ibid. the largest ratio of do/d1 that can be drawn (limiting drawing ratio or LDR) is (do/d1 )max = exp(η). as illustrated in Figure 14. and the wall will fail by necking. (do/d1 )max = 2. do. (14. There is very little thickening or thinning of the sheet during drawing.
Rather. the depth of draw 60 Increasing R Depth of draw. Wrinkling will occur if the restraint at the edges is not great enough to prevent excessive material being drawn into the die cavity. it is made to conform to the shape of the tools by stretching. the lower die contacts the sheet and causes a reverse bending only after it has been stretched by the upper die.17. For deep draws. or even drawing involve clamping the edges of the sheet and forcing it into a die cavity by a punch. For many parts. Sketch of a sheet stamping operation by Duncan. Too great a blankholder force will require too much stretching of the sheet and result in a necking failure. there may be only a narrow window of permissible blankholder forces. as illustrated in Figure 14. The metal is not squeezed between tools. The result is that there is a window of permissible restraint for any part. Large Rvalues widen this window. pressing. The sheet is stretched to conform to the tools rather than being squeezed between them. Failures occur by either wrinkling or by localized necking. wrinkling will result from too much material being drawn into the die cavity.16. there is not a bottom die. Blankholder pressure and draw beads are often used to control the ﬂow of material into the die. Stamping Operations variously called stamping.16. If there is too much restraint.17. kN 150 Figure 14. If the blankholder force is too low. as shown in Figure 14. With too little blankholder force. The effect of blankholder force on the possible depth of draw. . more stretching may be required to form the part than the material can withstand. mm Wall fracture Wrinkling 40 20 0 50 100 Blankholder force. In this case.236 Solid Mechanics Blankholder Punch Draw bead Die ring Blank Die Figure 14.
the conditions for localized necking are σ = 2dσ /dε. This diffuse necking occurs by local contraction in both the width and thickness directions and is generally not a limitation in practical sheet forming. the maximum load and diffuse necking occur when σ = dσ /dε. (14. a localized neck forms in which there is only thinning. tan θ = (−dε1 /dε2 )1/2 .19) √ 2 and . dεθ . The size of this window depends on properties of the sheet. n.18 illustrates general and localized necking in a tensile specimen. is limited by wrinkling. The coordinate axes used in the analysis are shown in (c).7◦ . dε2 = −dε1 /2 so tan θ = θ = 54. For uniaxial tension of an isotropic material. Because dε2 = dε1 cos2 θ + dε2 sin2 θ and dε2 = 0. From Hosford and Caddell. or ε = 2n. ibid. In a tension test of a ductile material. Eventually. too little material is drawn into the die cavity to form the part and the part fails by localized necking. There will be more lateral contraction in materials having a large Rvalue. can stretch more before necking failure so the righthand limit is raised and shifted to the left. At this point. On the other hand.Mechanical Working 237 a b c Figure 14. such localization must be very gradual. Therefore. Figure 14. large Rvalues increase the wrinkling limit and shifts it to the left. The characteristic angle at which the neck forms must be such that the incremental strain in that direction. this is when ε = n. becomes zero.18. of the local neck must be such that ε2 = 0. For a material that follows a powerlaw (σ = Kε n ) stressstrain curve. thus decreasing the wrinkling tendency. Development of (a) a diffuse neck and (b) a localized neck. if the blankholder force is too large. Materials with greater strainhardening exponents. If the specimen is wide (as a sheet is). In uniaxial tension. a point is reached where lateral contraction in the plane of the sheet ceases. The characteristic angle. θ.
19. n. θ = 90◦ .012. ε1 outside the groove 0. Subs√ tituting into Equation 14.2 0. tan θ = (1 + R)1/2 = 3 θ = 60◦ .6 dε2/dε1→ 0 inside the groove 0.5. If dε2 is positive. A plot of the combinations of strains that lead to necking failure is called a forming limit diagram or (FLD). and to a lesser extent the strainrate exponent. The initial thickness in the groove was assumed to be 0. whereas . How rapidly this happens depends largely on the strainhardening exponent. m. This in turn will increase the characteristic angle. 0 0 0.2 Figure 14.75ε1 was imposed outside the groove. which is the condi˙ ˙ tion necessary for local necking.19 shows how the strain path inside and outside a groove can diverge. As the strain rate ε1 inside the groove acceler˙ ates. For planestrain conditions. ε2 will be less negative if there is a tensile stress. Figure 14.20 is such a plot for low carbon steels. there is no angle at which a local neck can form. m = 0.4 Major strain. ε2 Find the angle between the tensile axis and the local neck form in a tension test on material with a strain ratio R = 2. The terminal strain outside the groove is ˙ ˙ the limit strain. Figure 14. Very shallow grooves are sufﬁcient to cause such localization.4 and ε2 = 0. and R = 1. However.4: Solution: R = ε3 /ε2 = −(ε1 + ε2 )/ε2 = −ε1 /ε2 − 1 so −ε1 /ε2 = 1 + R. dε2 = 0.3 Minor strain.1 0. under conditions of biaxial stretching a small preexisting groove perpendicular to the largest principal stress can grow gradually into a localized neck.22. A strain path of ε2 = 0. σ2 . As dε2 /dε1 → 0 inside the groove.19. Straining outside the groove will virtually cease once ε2 /ε1 becomes very large.238 Solid Mechanics 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #14.3. The strain ε2 must be the same inside and outside the groove. However. the stress σ1 within the groove will be greater than outside the groove. Combinations of strains below the forming limits are safe. so the strain ε1 will be also be larger in the groove.5% less than outside. Calculated strain paths inside and outside of a preexisting groove for a material with n = 0. ﬁxing a limit strain of ε1 = 0. In sheet forming. the ratio of ε2 /ε1 within the groove approaches zero. a local neck develops and deformation outside the groove virtually ceases.
Shear failures are also possible before necking under large strains in the lefthand side of the diagram. the minor stress. S. whereas those above it will cause local necking. may fail by shear fracture instead of local necking. Note that the lowest failure strains correspond to plane strain. Forming limit diagram for lowcarbon steel.23) is a sheet forming process that is suitable for forming axially symmetric parts. must be compressive. The strain combinations below the curve are acceptable. Under these conditions. The possibilities of both shear fracture and wrinkling are shown in Figure 14. This eliminates danger wrinkling. A pan being formed is sketched in Figure 14. is less than −ε1 /2. so no deformation occurs elsewhere. The strains vary from one place to another in a given part. .21. It should be noted that if the minor strain. The limiting strains here are expressed as engineering strains. A tool forces a disc that is spinning parallel to it axis of rotation to conform to a mandrel.22. although true strains could have been plotted. v. Because tooling costs are low and the process is relatively slow. Data from S. wrinkling or buckling of the sheet may occur. For pure shear. The strain paths at several different locations are indicated schematically on a forming limit diagram.20. Hecker. Spinning (Figure 14. e2(%) 40 60 those above the limits will cause local necking. the deformation is restricted to just under the tool. Because wrinkled parts are usually rejected. when stretched in biaxial tension. spinning is suited to producing low production parts. Some materials. this too should be regarded as a failure mode. 80 60 40 20 Constant thickness –40 –20 20 0 Minor strain. Sheet Metal Ind. ε2 = 0. ε2 .Mechanical Working 239 Major strain e1(%) 120 Success 100 Neck Fracture Figure 14. 52 (1975).. σ2 .
Duncan. ε 2 = ε1 Wrinkling − 0 ε1 + D C B A ε1 A C D B ε2 Figure 14. The deformation at point B is in plane strain.23. L. If the tool causes only shearing parallel to the axis of rotation. the strain state is nearly balanced biaxial tension. Courtesy of J. Sketch of a spinning operation. the there may be enough compression in the 2direction to cause wrinkling. no deformation occurs in the ﬂange. Sketch showing the strain paths in several locations during the drawing of a pan. At A.21.ε2 Fracture Uniaxial tension Figure 14. At C.22. 240 . Schematic forming limit diagram showing regions where wrinkling may occur and a possible fracture limit in biaxial tension. sheet tool mandrel Figure 14. At D. there is drawing with contraction in the minor strain direction.
Another method of circumventing the rollﬂattening problem is to use a cluster mill (Figure 14.5 in. They replaced the earlier steel cans made from three separate pieces: a bottom.625 in. Sendizimer. . and a top.24. by drawing it into a 3. both are backed up by two rolls of somewhat Backing bearing Housing Bearing shaft B C A Driven roll 2nd Intermediate roll Driven roll D 1st Intermediate roll Work roll Driven roll H Driven roll E G F Figure 14. diameter cup. In ﬂat rolling of thin sheets or foils. One side of commercial aluminum foil has a matte ﬁnish. and then ironing the walls to achieve the desired height. 5. Courtesy of T. developed by Sendzimer. The sides with the matte ﬁnish were in contact during rolling. diameter. There are about 200 billion made in the United States each year. redrawing to 2. Smalldiameter work rolls are used keep the ratio of L/h low. effectively doubling h. the L/h ratio can become very large.5in. One way of overcoming this difﬁculty is to roll two foils at the same time. A Sendzimer mill.24).Mechanical Working 241 Notes The ﬁrst aluminum twopiece beverage cans were produced in 1963. The work roll has a very small diameter to keep L/h low. whereas the other side is shiny. This raises the average roll pressure to the extent that rolls elastically ﬂatten where they are in contact with the work material. Beverage cans account for about oneﬁfth of the total usage of aluminum. in diameter. A cluster of larger backup rolls prevent bending of the work rolls. The typical beverage can is made from a circular blank. To prevent bending of the work rolls. This ﬂattening prevents further thinning. the wall (which was bent into a cylinder and welded).
. Deformation Processing. These are.00 in.. Addison Wesley (1972). E. . A number of schedules have been proposed. E.81 to 0.65 in. × 4 in. to 0. Cambridge U. × 12 in. M. making reductions of about 5% per pass. The shop cast ingots 4 in. Same schedules as A. In laboratory experiments with dies having the same angle as will be used in the operation. E. Marciniak and J. where ε is the strain in the pass. A single reduction in a die having a die angle of 8◦ . 3. it was found that the efﬁciency increased with reduction. Problems 1. except using dies with α = 15◦ . and C. 3rd Ed. B. Mielnick. the ﬁrst slab split longitudinally parallel to the rolling plane.242 Solid Mechanics larger diameter. Mechanical Metallurgy. Dieter. To insure no failures. C. M. Z. Edward Arnold (1992). and F. G. McGrawHill (1976). With whom would you agree? Explain your reasoning. 2. and 0. and 0. D. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. A highstrength steel bar must be cold reduced from a diameter of 1. Metalworking Science and Engineering.65 in. the project engineer suggested reducing the reduction per pass. L.81 in. Backofen. Hosford and R. Press.) using dies with angles of α = 8◦ . W. and a consultant met to discuss the problem.65 + ε/3. and 0. A. Which of the schedules would you choose to avoid drawing failure and minimize the likelihood of centerline bursts? Explain.) using dies with angles of 8◦ .75 to 0. the shop foreman. Caddell. η = 0. Neglect work hardening.00 to 0. 2nd Ed.75 in. Mechanics of Sheet Forming. Three passes (1. backed up by three still larger diameter rolls.87 in. McGrawHill (1991). (2007).87 to 0. Assume that in practice the efﬁciency will be only 75% of that found in the laboratory experiments. diameter mill. On the ﬁfth pass. and so on.125 to 0. Your company is planning to produce niobium wire and you have been asked to decide how many passes would be required to reduce the wire from 0. B.00 to 0. A. and the shop foreman favors greater reductions per pass. Duncan. Two passes (1. F. and hot rolled them in a 12 in. The project engineer.65 in. in turn. A small special alloy shop received an order for slabs 4 inches wide and 1/2 inch thick of an experimental superalloy. The consultant proposed applying forward and back tension during rolling.010 inches in diameter. stress on the drawn section of wire must never exceed 80% of its strength.50. REFERENCES W. Assume η = 0.
thick by drawing. wide sheet from 0. do/d1 .0. Figure 14.6 in. as shown in . otherwise they will buckle or wrinkle. a loss of density is noted. When aluminum alloy 6061T6 is cold drawn through a series of dies with a 25% reduction per pass. as shown in Figure 14. The thickness of the bottom is 0.8 in. thickness at an exit speed of 20 feet per second. From Hosford and Caddell. the elements between the punch and the die must deform in such a way that their circumference shrinks.150 to 0.26. Explain why the density loss increases with larger angle dies.25 and plot h/d1 vs. and ironing to a height of 5. Calculate the total effective strain at the top of the cup from rolling. 9. The cans are produced from circular blanks 0. A. A typical aluminum beverage can is 2.25 in. It will reduce 60in.004. 7. Figure 14.120 in. The difference between the stress states at the edges of squareedge and roundedge strips during rolling. 8. before trimming. If the deformation efﬁciency is 82% and the efﬁciency of transferring energy from the motor to the mill is 85%.25. Evaluate h/d1 for do/d1 = 1.5.Mechanical Working 243 Figure 14.010 in. redrawing and ironing. ibid. do/d1 . what horsepower motor should be used? 5. in terms of the ratio of blank diameter to cup diameter. Calculate the diameter of the initial circular blank. Assume that the ﬂow stress of the steel at the temperature and strain rate in the rolling mill is 1500 psi. the thickness of the cup bottom and wall is the same as that of the original sheet. h/d1 . B.25 shows the edge elements. 1. One stand of a hotrolling mill is being designed.12 shows that large reductions in rolling can be achieved before edge cracking occurs if the edges are maintained square instead of being allowed become rounded. tall. redrawing. In the drawing of cups with a conical wall. and 2. and the wall thickness is 0. 6. drawing. z y x 4. The tendency to wrinkle can be decreased by applying a greater blankholder force. Explain in terms of the stress state at the edge why the greater strains are possible with square edges. 2.75. and ﬁnd an expression for the ratio of the cup height to diameter.010 in. in diameter and 4. Assuming that in the drawing of cups.
690 2.692 2. Density changes in aluminum alloy 6161T6 during drawing. General Electric Co. Report No.702 2.244 Solid Mechanics 2.686 0 Aluminum 6061T6 Die semiangle 10* 20* 30* 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percent total reduction 70 80 Figure 14. Figure 14.28 is a forming limit diagram for a lowcarbon steel. Rogers.698 2.27. C. ibid. This requires enough tensile stretching in the radial direction. This curve represents the combinations of strains that would lead to failure under plane stress (σ 3 = 0) loading. From Hosford and Caddell.700 2. . 69C260 (1969). This increases the radial tension between the punch and die. Drawing of a conical cup.696 2. How would the Rvalue of the material affect how much blankholder force is necessary to prevent wrinkling? 10. its circumference must shrink.706 2.688 2. Figure 14.26.27. As element A is drawn into the die cavity. Blankholder force A Die Punch Die Unsupported wall A′ Figure 14.694 2.704 Density in grams per cc 2. From H.
100 in. Use Figure 14. Plot carefully on the diagram the strain path that corresponds to uniaxial tension (σ3 = 0). Calculate the reduction of area. Describe how this path would be changed for a material with a value of R > 1. Assume that σ = (55MPa)ε0. C. 11.125 to 0. A. diameter. Forming limit diagram for a lowcarbon steel. B.4 to determine η and calculate the drawing stress. − 0 ε1 + A.36 in a die for which α = 6◦ . B.Mechanical Working 245 ε2 N Figure 14. Consider drawing a copper wire from 0. Calculate the yield strength of the drawn wire. C. Can this reduction be made? . Calculate the drawing strain. Show the straining path inside a Marciniak defect under biaxial tension that would lead to necking at point N.28.
the order of the stress and strain components is 246 . sijmn . The anisotropy of elastic and plastic properties are caused by crystallographic texture (preferred crystallographic orientation of grains. sijmn . There are two principal causes of anisotropic mechanical behavior of crystalline materials.e. Hooke’s law may be written as ei j = sijmn σmn .1) where summation is implied.. (15. form a fourthorder tensor. have the same properties in all directions) they rarely are. In single crystals elastic properties vary with crystallographic direction. Because the subscripts id