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Plant and Animal Nutrition

Organisms require nutrients for their daily survival particularly for their cell growth and repair. Nutrients are chiefly procured from the environment.

2 Types of Organisms based on their process of acquiring foods:
1. Autotrophic Organisms ± those that manufacture their own foods (example: Plants) 2. Heterotrophic Organisms ± those that require foods from other sources (bacteria, fungi and other animals since these organisms do not manufacture organic substances.

Plant Nutrition
Raw materials for photosynthesis that produce carbohydrate and oxygen: a) Carbon Dioxide b) Water c) Sunlight But these are not enough, plants also need:

It Also Need«

Minerals Required by Higher Forms of Plants
Major Elements Functions Nitrogen (N) An important element in the formation of amino acids, nucleic acids hormones and enzymes. Phosphorus (N) An important component in nucleic acid phospholipids, ATP and coenzymes. Potassium (K) Important in cells¶ ionic balance, protein synthesis, CHO Metabolism.

Minerals Required by Higher Forms of Plants
Major Elements Sulfur (S) Functions A major component in cystine and methionine (amino acids) and other vitamins. (Mg) An important component in chlorophyll and an important factor in enzymes. (Ca) Influence permeability of membrane
peptic salts in the middle lamellae and is important in wall formation and it activates a lot of enzymes.

Magnesium

Calcium

Minerals Required by Higher Forms of Plants
Minor Elements Iron (Fe) Functions An important component in heme groups (hemoglobin) present in cytochromes, peroxides, catalase, and other enzymes. (Mn) Present in many enzymes involve in cellular metabolism, photosynthesis and N metabolism.

Manganese

Minerals Required by Higher Forms of Plants
Minor Elements

Boron

Sodium Chorine Zink

Functions (B) No definite function but is believe to be involve in the utilization of Calcium in wall formation. (Na) Unknown function (Cl) Unknown function (Zn) A component of enzymes that activates decomposition of carbonic acid to Carbon Dioxide and Water

Minerals Required by Higher Forms of Plants
Minor Elements Functions Copper (Cu) An important component of many enzymes, catalyze oxidation reaction. Molybdenum (Mo) An important component of enzymes that reduces nitrates to nitrites; in formation nitrogen fixation of bacteria. 

The plant roots play an important role in procuring nutrients and they also serve as energy storage (carrots and radish) and anchor themselves itself to the sail. sail. Other types of plants like the fly trap, Venus traps ± supplement their inorganic nutrients with organics nutrients from small animals and insects which they trap. trap. 

Animal Nutrition
Groups of Heterotrophic Organisms: 1. Bacteria 2. Fungi 3. Animals  Bacteria and Fungi ± are either saprophytic (Feed on dean animals)  Parasites ± survive in other organisms and procure food from their host.  Animals ± maybe Herbivores (feed on green plants), carnivores (feed on meat), and omnivores (feed on both plants and animals)

Heterothrophs require:   

Carbohydrate ± chief energy source in animals Proteins ± also needed to build muscles and are source of energy Fats ± serves as energy storage.

Vitamins
Are substances which are organic in nature and are needed in small amounts. These substances are not manufactures by animals, thus they are obtained from other food source. Group of vitamins:  Fat Soluble Vitamins  Water Soluble Vitamins

Fat Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name A Functions Sources Liver, egg yolk, milk, cream, butter, cheese and green and yellow vegetables

Retinol or Maintains the Antixeroph integrity of thalmic Epithelial tissue; Contains the visual purple of the retina

Fat Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name D Functions Sources

Margarine, Calciferol or Promotes AntiAnti-rachitic groth of bones butter milk, cheese, liver and teeth sardines, egg yolk

Fat Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name E Tocopherol (Greek: ³to bear a child´) Functions Relates the cellular respiration Prevents hemolysis in RBC Sources Oil from wheat and corn, soybeans (mayonnaise, salad dressing and margarine)

Fat Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name K Functions Sources Liver, dark green leaves, wheat, beans, vegetable oils, tomatoes, tubeless seeds, legumes and egg yolk

Anti Maintains the hemorrhagic prothrombin level in blood plasma

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name Functions K Ascorbic Holds cell intact. Acid Converts folic acid to active form. Heals wounds and bone fractures. Prevents megaloblastic anemia. Resistance against infection. Produces steroid hormones. Influence Fe absorption. Brain metabolism Sources Liver, dark green leaves, wheat, beans, vegetable oils, tomatoes, tubeless seeds, legumes and egg yolk

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name Function B1 Thiamine Needed for CHO metabolism, maintains good appetite and for normal functioning of nerves Sources Lean pork, liver, glandular organs of pork and some shellfish, egg yolk, unpolished rice, whole grains, legumes and nuts

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name Function B2 Riboflavin Essential
component of coenzymes flavin, monocleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinocleotide (FAD). Essential in CHO. Protein and fat metabolism maintains healthy skin, tongue, mouth, proper growth and diet.

Sources Lean pork, liver, glandular organs of pork and some shellfish, egg yolk, unpolished rice, whole grains, legumes and nuts

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name

B6

Function Pyridoxine Involved in amino acid metabolism

Sources Vegetable oil of corn, cotton seed , linseed, olives, peanuts, wheat and rice grain, large soybean and nuts.

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name

B12

Function Sources Cobalamin Related to protein Animal metabolism. proteins Essential for the normal function of nerve, bone marrow and GIT. Prevent pernicious anemia

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol

Function

Niacin

Act as H+ and e- acceptors. ePhotosynthesis in plants, Name CO2 fixation of animals. Important composition of Nicotinic Acid coenzyme. A metabolism of Nicotinamide CHO, protein, and fats. Pantothenic acid Maintains normal growth healthy skin and nervous Folic Acid or Pterolyglutamic system coenzyme factor in reaction involving single C acid (PGA) fragments and synthesis of heme. Important in Erythropoiesis.

Sources Same as protein sources in plants and animals Liver, glandular organs, legumes cereals Green leafy vegetables, liver, glandular organs, legumes, cereals

Water Soluble Vitamins
Symbol Name

H

Biotin

Function Coenzyme factor in CO2 fixation. With active acetate (COH) helps synthesis purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids

Sources Liver glandular organs, meat, egg yolk, milk, molasses, whole grain and nuts.

VitaminVitamin-like Factors
Taurine ± is similar to amino acid. It regulates the brain and heart functions. Carmitine or Vitamin B ± strengthens heart muscles (heart vitamins).

Hypervitaminosis
- is an excessive intake or accumulation of vitamins in the body.

Water Soluble involve in hypervitaminosis are:   

Vitamin C ± causes diarrhea, nausea, cramps, acidification of urine, feces with therapeutic drugs, false+urine sugar test. Niacine ± skin burning, flushing, itching, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and damage of the hairs and eyes. Vitamin B12 ± allergy, shock.

Fat Soluble involve in hypervitaminosis are:    

Vitamin A ± causes hair loss, potential birth defect Vitamin D ± increases blood, brain and heart damage and potential birth defect Vitamin E - causes diarrhea, cramps, dizziness, blurred vision, headaches increase; serume triglycerides in women and decrease thyroid hormone in both sexes Vitamin K ± Causes blood clot formation and infant jaundice.

Minerals Required by Animals
A mineral is defined as inorganic element containing no carbon that remains as ash when food is burned. Minerals maybe group into two (2): Macrominerals and Microminerals - These minerals are used by animals in their inorganic state.

Macrominerals
Mineral Calcium Function Strengthens bones and teeth; involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, blood clotting, water balance, nerve function Sources Milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables, legumes, fortified foods, almonds, fish (with bones), tofu

Macrominerals
Mineral Function Sources Meat, poultry, fish, milk, soft drinks, processed foods, whole grains, eggs Phosphorus Involved in calcification of teeth and bones, acidacidbase balance, energy metabolism

Macrominerals
Mineral Potassium Function Sources Facilitates many Meats, milk, fruits, reactions, especially vegetables, grains, protein synthesis, legumes water balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction

Macrominerals
Mineral Sulfur Function Component of protein; part of biotin, thiamin, insulin Sources All proteinproteincontaining foods

Macrominerals
Mineral Sodium Function Promotes acid-base acidbalance, water balance, nerve impulse transmission, muscle activity Sources Salt, soy sauce, processed foods: cured, canned, pickled, and many prepackaged foods

Macrominerals
Mineral Chloride Function Sources Table salt, soy sauce; processed foods Part of stomach acid, acid base balance, water balance Magnesium Involved in protein synthesis, muscle contraction, nerve transmission

Whole grains, nuts, legumes, chocolate, meat, dark green leafy vegetables, seafood, cocoa

Macrominerals
Mineral Iron Function Hemoglobin formation, part of myoglobin in muscles; used in energy utilization Sources Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits, fortified cereals and grains

Macrominerals
Mineral Zinc Function Part of insulin and enzymes; vitamin A transport; wound healing; fetus and sperm development; immunity; promotes enzyme activity and metabolism Sources ProteinProtein-containing foods: red meat, seafood, oysters, clams, poultry, eggs, dairy, grains

Microminerals
Mineral Selenium Function Antioxidant; works with vitamin E; immune system response Sources Seafood, meats, grains

Microminerals
Mineral Function Sources Manganese Essential for normal Whole grains, bone development; legumes, nuts, green activates enzymes leafy vegetables, meat, tea, coffee

Microminerals
Mineral Copper Function Necessary for formation of hemoglobin; part of energy metabolism enzymes Sources Organ meats, shellfish, nuts, seeds, legumes, peanut butter, chocolate

Microminerals
Mineral Iodine Function Sources Iodized salt, seafood, bread Part of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone that influences growth and metabolism Molybdenum Needed by some enzymes

Dairy foods, meats, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes

Microminerals
Mineral Cobalt Function Aids in oxidation reactions As part of vitamin B12, aids in nerve function and blood formation Sources Legumes, cereals, grains, organ meats, Meats, milk, and milk products

Microminerals
Mineral Function Sources Mushrooms, dark chocolate, prunes, nuts, asparagus, brewer's yeast, whole grains, vegetable oils Chromium Enhances effect of insulin; aids in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids

Microminerals
Mineral Fluoride Function Formation of bones and teeth; provides resistance to dental caries Involved in the tooth enamel formation Sources Drinking water (naturally occurring or fluoridated), tea, seafood Not stated

Vanedium

Microminerals
Mineral Nickel Function Associated with Fe function Sources Not stated

Silicon

Tin

Not Stated Enhances bone calcification and present in human cartilage Not stated Maintains protein structure or oxidation reduction

Toxicity to Trace Elements
Lead ± ingestion from air and water causes toxicity. Ingestion of bad ceramics is common incidence. Lead poisoning affects the mental development of the child which end up in mental retardation and causes cardiovascular disorder in adults.

Cadmium ± is associated with hypertension. Its major source are foods and smoke Mercury ± poisoning from contaminated water near a gold panning area results to a permanent etiologic change (known in Japan s Minamata disease. Arsenic ± commonly found in seafood as a result of industrial contamination using arsenic insecticide. It can be toxic in minute amount.

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