The meaning of a text is clearer through punctuation. However, to fully understand the rules of punctuation, one should also understand the other elements of sentence structures such as complex sentences, contractions of words, phrases, etc.

Here are the major rules that make writing effective. Punctuation Symb Usage ol AMPERSAND Used in the names of companies or in trade names. Example: Father & Son Furniture



Used in informal writing such as in personal letters Example: My dad & I Used to show possession Example: Cara’s kitchen the men’s apartment Used to indicate contractions of words Example: wasn’t, isn’t, let’s Used to put a less formal flavor to written pieces Example: bless’d for the word blessed Used to abbreviate years e.g. Sportsfest ‘05 Used to add the missing letters and words in quotations Example: According to Mrs. Alferez, “Math may look hard but it is [relatively] easy.” Used to enclose words inserted in quotations when quoting another Example: According to comedian and television actor Bill Cosby, “Parents are not interested in justice [nor in free will]; they are interested in quiet.” Used to enclose the Latin expression sic (meaning “thus”) to show that the author of the quoted material has mispelled or mispronounced a word or phrase in it. Example:



MSA.COLON : As the playwright wrote. Used to introduce an appositive Example: There is only one thing to do: run! Used to introduce a quotations Example: This is a quotation from And More by Andy Rooney: The two biggest sellers in any bookstore are the cookbooks and the diet books. or numbers to indicate ratio Example: 8:00 a. 2005 7. John 3:16 A ratio of 1:7 Used after a salutation in friendly letters. Ph. Dear Sir: Used in a series Examples: Here are the managers: Marian.m. in dates. Cooking and gardening: are my mom’s hobbies.107 islands Used in direct quotations Example: “I can’t go with you. The cookbooks tell you how to prepare the food and the diet books tell you not to it any of it.” he said. and Mikee. in large numbers. in addresses. and between a name and a title Example: Dear Sam.D.g. Used to separate a beginning word. the chapter from the verse. (beginning word) COMMA . or clause Example: Yes. Herman. Used to separate main titles from subtitles Example: The CIA Files: Exposed Used to separate the hour from the minutes. I understand what you are trying to tell me. “Get out! Live [sic] me alone!” Used after a salutation of a business letter e. 315 Katipunan Avenue January 7. Michelle. Claire. phrase. .

that the front porch was made spotless. is a good pet to have. Example: My favorite desserts are ice cream. Michaels. or before and after a modifier expressions Example: A Labrador. (intervening words) Dr. handsome guy *do not use commas to separate adjectives that are of different categories e. had a vacation in Hawaii. and that the whole house was well-maintained.g. other young men . who is part of our staff. (appositive) Mariz. (modifier expression) Used to separate adjectives of equal category Example: A tall. and cakes (word series) I ate my breakfast fast. or subordinate clauses of the same kind. but I think you got it wrong! Used in intervening words. Andrei likes playing basketball. chocolate. Used to indicate a pause in writing just like in speaking Example: Excuse me Sir. but my mother would stay at home. my dentist. ran towards the nearest train station. (clause series) Used to separate two or more independent or main clauses in a compound sentence Example: My father prefers to eat at the restaurant. (phrase series) We saw that the garden was weeded. as I was saying. phrases. (beginning clause) Used in a series which may be make up of three or more words. (beginning phrase) What he told me what to do. I knew I’d be able to finish the project on time. in appositives. is one of my friends. dark.Just like his father. and arrived at work on time.

or with the suffix –elect Example: mid-January self-sufficient president-elect Used to combine words that. together.did you know he got married already?.3… Used after a word or phrase with a forceful tone Example: Hey! Why are you here? Used after a question with a forceful tone Example: Where did you go?! Used to separate letters of acronyms for pronunciation in broadcasting Example: Several V-I-Ps Used after a prefix that is followed by a proper noun or an adjective. ex-. or with prefixes all-. function as an adjective (this is also called a compound adjective) Example: Well-to-do family Strawberry-filled tart Used when fractions as adjectives ELLIPSIS … EXCLAMATION MARK ! HYPHEN - .DASH - Used to break up a thought especially if the purpose is to be dramatic Example: My children – all of whom are professionals – have their own families now. Used to show that something is omitted in a sentence Example: Liza hesitated…but she agreed anyway. self-. Used to start out an idea of lesser importance within a sentence Example: Carter.left for Ireland last year. Used to show uncertainty in writing dialogues Example: I think…um…I like you Used to mean “etc” or “so forth” Example: The odd numbers are 1.

or an indirect question Example: She just arrived. Jose P.Example: Three-fourths done Used to separate a part of a sentence or an explanation that is not essential. Chaucer (1340?-1400) Used to end a statement intended as a question. Example: She ate the pie? Used to enclose what a person says directly Example: “I’ll see you later. Used after an abbreviation Example: B. Used to put numbers. Asian Countries Used after a declarative sentence. a calm imperative. France B.S. and dates in a sentence. (calm imperative) I just asked you why you left. Biology Used after letters or numbers in outlines Example: A. Rizal (1861-1896) is the Philippine national hero. (declarative sentence) Come with me. signs. PARENTHESIS () PERIOD . Used to enclose a title Example: “Trees” a poem written by Joyce Kilmer QUESTION MARK ? QUOTATION MARKS Double “” . Example: The two parts of the exam are: a. letters. United Kingdom 2.) English The number is (632) 9257544. (indirect question) Used to end a question Example: Did you change your mind? Used to tell an indefinite or uncertain time Example: G. Example: It was Sunday (or maybe a Saturday) when I saw her. European Countries 1.) Math b.” she said.

but. ‘This is hard. SEMICOLON Used to enclose a quotation within a quotation Example: Sarah said.’ before he left. “I heard him say. for. for example. not.” Used to join independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction such as and.Single ‘’ . so or yet Example: Love is positive. I should work on my writing skills. or. Used to replace the word per Example: P80/kilo 17 km/hour Used to present an option Example: Single/double bedroom SLASH / . hate is negative Used to join independent clauses separated by a transitional word or a conjunctive adverb Example: He gave me a good advice.