Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 1 NOTES

PHILIPPINE GEOGRAPHY A. Origin of the Philippines 1. Legends • The story of the bird, the sky, and the sea 2. Theories i. Part of a lost continent • It was believed that the Philippines was a remnant of a vast continent in the pacific which had sunk during pre- historic times like the fabled Atlantis lost somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. • This lost pacific continent was called “Lemuria” or “Mu”. • Its remnants aside from Philippines were Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the pacific. ii. Volcanic Origin • It was proposed by Dr. Bailey Willis. • According to this theory, Philippines was born due to the eruptions of sea volcanoes in remote epochs. iii. Land Bridge Theory

This theory suggests that Philippines was once a landmass bridging China and the Asian Mainland, to Borneo, Indonesia, New Guinea, and even Australia. The present China Sea was an exposed dry land known as the Sunda Shelf which covered an area of 1, 800, 000 square kilometers. During the post glacial age, about 250, 000 years ago, the world’s ice melted, causing the sea level to rise. Consequently, the lower land regions including the land bridges linking Asia and the Philippines were submerged, thus, Philippines archipelago was formed. • This theory is supplied by the following plausible reasons; a. Similarity of fauna and flora in Asia and the Philippines b. Similarity of rock structure c. Existence of the shallow China Sea between the Asia Mainland and the Philippines d. The presence of a fore deep at the eastern margin of the Philippines indicating the archipelago was once the edge of the Asia continental Platform B. Archipelago’s Name 1. Filipinas

2. 3. 4.

The name given to Philippines in 1543 by the ill- starred Spanish explorer, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in honor of Prince Felipe of Austria who later became Philip II, the greatest king of Spain. • This name first appeared on a rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. Philippine Islands • The anglicized name of Filipinas during the American colonial regime. Republic of the Philippines • The name given to Philippines after the decolonization in 1946. Ma-yi/ ma-i • The name given to Philippines by the early Chinese traders such as Chau Ju Kua and Wang Ta- Yuan. • Same names such as Mintolang for Mindanao, Makilu for Manila, and Pishoye for Visayas were also dubbed to Philippines by the Chinese.

5. 6. 7.

Ma- i is generally accepted to refer to the island of Mindoro in Luzon because of its gold and proximity in the Chinese mainland. Rizaline Republic • The name proposed by the Katipunan General Artemio Ricarte in honor of Dr. Jose Rizal. Maharlika • It was proposed by former President Ferdinand Marcos after his dream of making the Philippines great again. Pearl of the Orient Seas • The most romantic name of the Philippines. • It was originally given in 1751 by father Juan J. Delgado as a name of Manila (Pearl of the Orient) and was also mentioned by Manuel De Azcarraga y Palmero. • It was also grunted by Dr. Jose P. Rizal in his published article in the Hong Kong Telegraph.

773 are named.Ilocos Region • Region 2. • The two distinct seasons are dry season and wet season. • Luzon has an area of 40. Christian Scholars commented that Luzon is like a Helmet.000 varieties of orchids.Cagayan Valley • Region 3. It lies at the crossroad of international air and sea routes. Filipinos are fortunate of having a highly fertile land. and Palawan is Spirit Sword. • The coldest month is January and the Hottest is May. and scenic volcanoes. Shape • Philippines is an inverted Y. Area • The Philippines is an archipelago of 7.shaped archipelago of numerous islands.Eastern Visayas Region 9. and 3.CARAGA CAR. 5. miles or 299. • Philippines has a very strategic location due to the following. .Central Visayas • Region 8.000 species of fish are found in the waters of the Philippine archipelago. • The country has rich plant life. Geography and Resources 1. • The temperature varies from 21 degree Celsius to 32 degree Celsius. miles while Mindanao has 36. • Philippine forest lands have a total area of 16.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 2 NOTES C.Zamboanga Peninsula Region 10. • 4. c. km. cool plateaus. abundant rivers. coral reefs. Hence. Natural Resources • Soil is the most important natural resources in the Philippines primarily of most people earn a living from tiling the land.Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao 6. • 3. 681 sq. It looms as bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian Nations. • Philippines is one of Asia’s great gold producing regions.MIMAROPA • Region 5.000 hectares which represents 55 percent of the total land area. Regions • 2.Western Visayas • Region 7. The Philippines rank third in forest reserves. 906 sq. b.Bicol Region • Region 6. Climate • The Philippine climate is tropical and monsoonal in character.000 species of trees. 1. Agricultural experts believed that 8.Davao Region Region 12. It serves as a bridge between the cultures of the East and the West.Central Luzon • Region 4A.Northern Mindanao Region 11. about 1. • Y’ Ami Isle is the northernmost point of the Philippines.120 species of plants grow in the country. that is. • 850 species of birds are found in the Philippines. its role as “Christian Light of the World”. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian west and largely nonChristian east. miles. 814 sq. It has a total land area of 115.000 species of rice. mountains and valleys.CALABARZON • Region 4B. a. Location The Philippine Archipelago sprawls a little above the equator in Southeast Asia between latitude 4 degree 23” and 21 degree 25” north and longitude 116 degree and 127 degree east. • • • • • • • • Region 1. lakes and bays. Visayas and Mindanao is the Arms and Legs. 707 sq.Cordillera Administrative Region NCR.633. d.National Capital Region • ARMM. 107 islands of which 2. Carabao is the most useful animal for it serves as farmer’s best friend.SOCCSKSARGEN Region 13. islets. • At least 2.

for whom the Spaniards and the Jews came from.0003. • • • • Luneta Park. Dr. 3. Jose P. Antonio Estavillo.It was here where Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain on June 12.000 1. Otley Beyer. It was used to be the seat of colonial powers of both Spain and the United States of America. who settled in the Philippines after the great flood.000 years BC • . Theories Migration Theory. • Filipinos were created by the sun. too. hungry. Intramuros (Fort Santiago).000 25.It was a beautiful setting built in honor of the Philippines greatest hero. Such made it the symbol of the determined resistance of its Filipino and American defenders. Aguinaldo Shrine. and sick Filipino and American soldiers in regaing our freedom during world war II.500. Cavite Shrine. Rizal.000. The Religious Sources(Friar. • Filipinos descended from the Adam of Asia.000 years ago by hardy Ifugaos using only their bare hands and crude stone tools. 8. Origin of the Filipinos 1. Barasoain Church. • Manila Bay is one of the Enchanting Wonders of the Country. Beauty Spots • The Banaue Rice Terraces was built more than 2.It was in this place where Emilio Aguinaldo was declared the first president of the Philippine republic. this constitution was also known as the Malolos Constitution because the church is located in Malolos. Bulacan. • Filipinos were descendants of Tarshish. It is in this mountain that the gigantic cross named as “Dambana ng Kagitingan” (Altar of Valor) was erected on April 1942. 1896. the cross symbolizes the heroic and courageous defense made by fatigue. Jose Rizal spent his last hours before his execution at Bagumbayan. Here. This was where the Philippine flag first raised.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 3 NOTES • Energy in the Philippines is used to supply electricity and fuel to run factories.It was built in 1694 commissioned by the Augustinian friars led by Fr. Historical Places 7. THE FILIPINO PEOPLE • • • • A. It was also a dreaded prison under the Spanish regime and the scene of countless military police atrocities during the Japanese occupation. Paoay Church. • Filipinos were produced from base metals by the magic act of the ancient alchemist or termed as herbolarios. light homes.It is a national shrine nicknamed as “The Rock”. Dr. Legends • The first Filipino couple sprang out from bamboo nodules. the other Adam being European Adam. It is used to be called Bagumbayan Field where Rizal was executed by a Spanish military firing squad at early dawn of December 30. Beyer believed that Filipinos came from to the Philippines in different waves of migration. 2. 1898. The republic of which the first in Asia. Bataan.It was the old capital of Manila which was built in 1571. They were named Lalake and Babae or Malakas and Maganda. Mount Samat.It was proposed by Professor H. It was declared as one of the national treasures by former president Ferdinand Marcos. 1898. • The Mount Mayon is the Crowning Glory of the Philippine Natural Wonders.Historians Ideas) • The ancestors of the Filipinos sprung out of the soil like wild plants. This was the vlast bastion to fall to the invading Japanese in 1942.500 BC 20 BC Migration years ago 30.It is situated at Pilar. • Other beauty spots are being rediscovered. Corregidor.It was here where the constitution of the republican government was drafted on September 15. and offices.4. one of Noah’s great grandsons. • The second legend claims a racial superiority in the brown complexion of the Filipinos that is Filipinos were baked by God named Bathala. Such is explained in the table: Dawn Man Negritos Indonesian Indonesian Malays sA sB Date of 250.

includes not only the father. 1962. The empirical archaeological data for this theory was based on surface finds and mere conjecture. Strengths of the Filipino Character • Family Orientation. the . and hunting    • Critiques a. They have crudest religion. as the basic social institution. which have now been proven to be too simple and unreliable to explain such theory. according to the old theory. The migration theory does not agree with the real character of Filipinos. Prof. racially or culturally. foraging for mining. wild plants. the uncles. The differences. their brothers and sisters. and jewelry making. smiting.. the similarities found among them are due to the adjustment to their environment.000 years ago which was excavated by Dr. who are adaptive and highly creative people because it suggests that the Filipinos were only passive receptors of outside culture. Fox inside Tabon Cave in Palawan on May 28. presumed to be those of a human being. There are no evidences of the existence of the Dawn Man. Ways of Life  He lived by  means of  gathering wild plants. B. and  They knew agriculture. shows conclusively that man came earlier to the Philippines than to the Malay Peninsula where.The discovery in a Tabon cave in Palawan in 1962 of a skull cap and a portion of a jaw. For the Filipinos. So far. the Filipinos came from. They stand coequal as ethnic groups. Jocano maintains that they are the “end results of both the long process of evolution and the later. movements of people. by fishing. Robert B. but also the grandparents. Undue credit is given to the Malays as the original settlers of the lowland regions and the dominant cultural transmitters. On the other hand. Beyer used the 19th century scientific methods of progressive evolution and migratory diffusion as the basis for his hypotheses. pottery making. are due to the differences in their responses to their environment. They lived through  They wore clothing and hunting. As to the present Filipino. They wore little clothing. They were among the world’s best archers and herbalists  medium height  slim but well built  brown skin  black hair  dark brown eyes  They introduced iron metal. e. the aunts. the family. cloth weaving. and copper tools. the mother.. personal ornaments. • Evolution Theory. Indonesians. without any one being the dominant group.It refers to a genuine and deep love for the family. b.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 4 NOTES Characteristi cs  Thickly Haired  Brawny ago  Black skin  5 ft tall  dark kinky hair  round black eyes  flat noses  tall  shorter  slender  bulky body  light  dark complexion complexion  thin lips  thick lips  high  large nose aquiline nose Nomadic  They had permanent dwellings. d. which lot of imagination and unproven data included. c. fishing. and Malays of Malaysia. Filipino Traits 1. according to Jocano.. the oldest human fossil in the Philippines is the skull cap of a stone aged Filipino about 22.

One evident manifestation of kanya. both physical and social. Lack of Discipline. Adaptability. In several instances.The Filipinos have a tendency to be superficial and sometimes even somewhat flighty. • • • 2. poor service. They start their projects with full enthusiasm and interest. which abruptly die down.lack of patriotism and national integration and the strong preference for imported goods. in the care given to children.The extreme excessiveness of family centeredness becomes detrimental to the welfare of a larger community. they are generally passive and lacking in initiative. The use of one’s office and power to promote the interest of one’s family results in the utter lack of concern for the common good. in the Filipino vocabulary.It refers to a selfish and self.cogon” tendency.Filipinos have the capacity to adjust and to adapt to conditions and circumstances in a given environment. Filipinos live very intimately with religion and prayers have been important part of their lives.It refers to one’s willingness to risk taking jobs in a foreign land with a different culture. Colonial Mentality. particularly when one’s peer has gained honor or prestige because of hard work.While it is true that Filipinos can adjust to circumstances in a given environment and posses some creative talents.It refers to the extent to which one is able to relate personally to things and people determines the recognition of their existence and the value attached to them. and Creativity. One has to be told what has to be done. Laughing at themselves and the mess they are in is an important coping mechanism. “nakalamang”. This is manifested in a basic regard for justice and fairness to others. Filipinos are guilty of the “ningas. foreign ideas and ways. easily resigned to one’s fate. leaving things unfinished. Confronted with serious problems. Weaknesses of Filipino Character • Extreme Personalism. not to mention the social cost. They demonstrate some hostile attitudes and feelings by recoursing to unfounded and malicious criticism “tsismis” and “intriga” to bring others down.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 5 NOTES cousins. both personal and social.It refers to propensity to cheer and laugh and have a fun loving approach to the ups and downs of life.kanya Syndrome. it can be said that Filipinos are too patient for long suffering (“matiisin”). Extreme Family Centeredness. and in the great sacrifices one endures for the welfare of the family. Pakikipagkapwa. words loaded with implied values.These conditions are attributed to two dimensions. Passivity and Lack of Initiative. and even violation of human rights. Joy and Humor. “nakaisa”.tao. Faith and Religiosity. They can tolerate inefficiency.“pakikiramdam” and “pagtitiwala” are bonds that promote feelings of closeness to one another and become the foundation of unity. What a waste! Lack of National Consciousness. Their innate religiosity enables them to comprehend and genuinely accept reality in the context of God’s will and plan. They have the ability to improvise and make use of whatever is on hand in order to create and produce new things out of discarded scraps. Concern for the family is eloquently manifested in the honor and respect given to parents and the elders.A proper understanding of one’s history is a very important factor in the development of national consciousness because it will serve to demonstrate how the present is influence by the past. This crab mentality that characterizes many Filipinos is counter productive. there seems to be no deliberate and intelligent alternative • • • • • • • . “Pakikiramay”. This extreme personalism often leads to graft and corruption and other malpractices in our government institutions. Kanya. the generosity extended to a kin in need. Lack of Exhaustive Study and Self-analysis.It refers to a deep sense of concern for one’s dignity and respect. It often results in the non cooperation of members of the community.serving attitude that generates a feeling of envy towards others. and “nakadaya”. • • Hard Work and Industry. In many ways. Flexibility.This results in the use of shortcuts or the “palusot” syndrome. and even the ceremonial relatives.Filipinos have a deep faith in God. for survival. even if they are oppressed or exploited. the sensitivity to people’s feelings.kanya syndrome is one’s personal ambition and the drive for power and status that is completely insensitive to the common good.

Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 6 NOTES plan to solve the problem. Negarakertagama. These Southeast Asians. these problems are not mine alone. they joke and laugh about serious problem affecting them. they are only panacea. If there are strategies to solve these problems. Anyway. • Their main interest is to have trade with Buranuns People of Sulu). that is. INDIANIZATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA • Indianization refers to the propagation of the Indian Civilization. the Lucoes (People of Luzon) annually sent trading . Sung. massacred some Orang Dampuans. • This propagation was a two-way process. • Having superior weapons. there is no mentioned about Philippines being a vassal state of the Sri Vijaya Empire. that ninety. Most likely. were bold navigators. Borneo settled in Sulu and engaged actively in the rich pearl trade.  Contemporary authorities on the history of Southeast Asia never claimed that Philippines was a vassal state of the Sri Vijaya Empire.  The claim of Prapanca in his eulogistic poem. Evidences: 3. sailed to their homeland. They easily accept and are even satisfied with the superficial explanations and hasty solutions to the problems. 2. ASIAN HERITAGE A. they have a tendency to be satisfied with rhetoric and substitute this for reality.D. Hence. “maporma” rather than on the substance.  Chau-ju-kua in his chronicles. In most cases. listed fifteen vassal states of the Sri Vijaya and the Philippines is not one of them. particularly the Malays.  An evidence of the Philippine intercourse with the Indianized countries of southeast Asian nations is found in the manuscript entitled. Another factor related to this issue is that Filipinos give too much emphasis on form. the propagation of the Indian Civilization was effected not only by the Indian Colonists and colonizers. they took their bloody revenge on the Buranuns and having leveled the enemy’s village to the ground. • They established a trading post in Sulu that resulted in a flourishing trade between Sulu and Southern Annam. • They introduced the Indian influences in Sulu in which made Buranuns possessing Hindu customs and worshipping vedic gods. • Their increasing prosperity aroused jealousy of the Buranuns who in fit of anger. Suma Oriental. Solots are the tiny island in the lesser Sundas which still bears the name Solot and the northeastern part of Borneo. 1. According to this Pire Codex. Of those materials.1200 A. In most cases.four vassal states of Majapahit Empire includes Solot which he referred as Sulu of the Philippines is not real. visiting the parts of India let them acquire Indian culture and brought them to their native countries. but also by the Southeast Asians themselves. Relations with the Orang Dampuans • The Orang Dampuans or Men of Champa are group of immigrants who came in the Philippines from Southern Annam (Modern Vietnam) between 900. Relations with Bandjarmasin • The Orang Bandjar (Men of Bandjarmasin) were immigrants from Bandjarmasin. and Ming Dynasty. which was written by Tome Pires. The Sri Vijaya and Majapahit Empire Sri Vijaya Other names Nationality Culture Capital Capital Palembang Mahayana Buddhist Sin-fo-tsi(Chinese) Zabagin(Arabian) Malayan Indianized Majapahit Brahmanistic Hindu Majapahit The Philippines was never ruled by the Sri Vijayan and Majapahit Empire due to ff:  There are plenty of historical materials on Sri Vijaya as a maritime power and its relation with China in the annals of Tang. Yuan.

Siamese Art (Francisco) Mythical bird which served as a vehicle of Hindu god Vishnu Point. Cebu Calatagan. the Lam-ang of Ilokandia. and Siam Mactan. Laguna. the legendary savior of the Bontoc are identified with Indra of Hindu mythology. Cebu 1843 Hindu God Siva (Beyer) Lokesvara (Francisco) Copper Image of Ganesha Clay Medallion of Calatagan Gd Garuda Pendant of Palawan Ceramics from Cambodia. Relics Gold Image of Agusan Bronze Image of Mactan Place Year Specifics Tara (Beyer) Wawa River near 1917 Esperanza. through whom all good and evil are done in this world.  The Darangan of Lanao. . Mindoro.great lord. the mythological hero of the Maranaos and Lumawig. Sorsogon and palawan 4. and the Ibalon of Bicolandia and the Ilim and the Hudhud of the Muontain Province were inspired by the Mahabharata and other Hindu epics.Chief God of the Tagalogs who was derived from Bhattara.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 7 NOTES vessels to Borneo and Malacca and the Bornean traders used to sail to Luzon to buy gold or food stuffs. Batangas. • Indian Influences in the Philippines Religious Beliefs  Bathala. Agusan Province Mactan. 1961 Rizal province. good spirits and evil spirits or demons. Annam. Mythology and Folk Literature  Bantugan. Batangas Brooke’s Palawan 1843 1958 Elephant God of Hindus Buddho. Creator of the Universe Protector of Men Destroyer of Men •  Also of Hindu origin was the belief of the ancient Filipinos that the universe is alive with devas and hantus.

Philippine in 982 A.  The Muslim men in Mindanao and Sulu wear tight.Lin in his monumental work entitled.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 8 NOTES • Fables  The Tagalog story of the monkey and the turtle. the tale of the race between the deer and the snail.  A comet is a bad omen. whose deity is believed to have the power to grant the virtue of fertility to those not blessed with children.  After the wedding ceremony. during the Sung Dynasty.  A childless couple goes on pilgrimage to a holy shrine. was recorded by a Chinese chronicler. the guests throw rice upon the bride and the groom.Philippine intercourse begun in 10th century A.  The hilarious adventures of Juan Tamad reveal traces of Hindu influences. a visitor is coming to the house. ikmo leaf. Industries  Quicklime mining in Masbate  Boat building  Weaving of cotton clothes  Metal works Musical Instruments  Kudyapi (Guitar) Language Filipino Ama Asawa Raha Saksi Maharlika B. D. Superstitious Beliefs  A maiden who sings merrily before a stove while cooking will marry an old widower.fitting trousers which resemble the Indian putees and their women use embroidered shawls which are suggestive of the Indian sari. Mode of Dressing  Of Indian origin were putong (turban) of the men and sarong (lower garment) of the women in pre-Spanish Philippines. Ma. Wen Shiann Tung Kao (General Investigation on the Chinese Cultural Sources) The following are the Chinese influences in the Philippines: • Manufacturing/ occupations/ games . somebody close to him will die.  A pregnant woman who eats twin bananas will give birth twins.  When a cat wipes off its face with paws. for it is a harbinger of famine. symbolic of hospitality and Customs and Traditions  Placing of a fresh flower garland around the neck of the visitor upon his arrival or departure.  Before marriage. a groom gives dowry to bride’s parents and renders personal services in the house of his future parents.  If a sleeping person dreams that one of his teeth falls or some other calamity. and lime) to a guest as an expression of hospitality. The earliest known authentic data of the Sino. EARLY CONTACT WITH CHINA Sanskrit Ama Atawa Raha Saksi Mahardlika English Father Spouse King Witness Noble • • • • • • • • • Sino. war.  The offering of a buyo (a mixture of betel nut.Tuan. and the Visayan anecdote of the hawk and the hen.D.

and the wearing of white clothes for mourning. the Muslim Filipinos of Sulu and Mindanao. and upo Social Customs  Fixed marriage  Hiring of go-between in marital negotiations  Employment of professional mourners during the funeral and the veneration of departed ancestor. • The following are the Japanese influences: • Industries  Manufacture of arms and tools  The tanning of deer skins  Artificial breeding of ducks and fishes which is Japan’s greatest legacy to our ancestors. and Manila.  Of Chinese introduction was the yellow garb of native nobility.  The haggling between the merchant and customer to arrive at the final fix price of commodity  The beating of gongs to celebrate a feast among pagan Filipinos of northern Luzon. Culinary Art and Diet  Roasting of pigs for a delicious meat  Brewing of tea for drinking  Cooking of such dishes as lumpiya. parents and elders. • The town of Agoo in Lingayen Gulf was busy center of trade with Japan which was later called by the Spaniards as Puerto de Japon. silver.  The explosion of firecrackers on the advent of new year and other festivals  The collection of tong (percentage fee) by the owner of a gambling joint. the blue dress of the commoners.  The use of slippers.  The filial respect accorded by children to their older brothers and sisters. the Lingayen Gulf Region.tai Kan. fans and umbrellas.jueteng. EARLY FILIPINO ANCESTORS . kuwaho.ting English Wooden Shoes Sentinel Pair of scissors Door Key • • • • C. and ukoy  Appetizers such as tahuri. heko.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 9 NOTES  Gunpowder  The method of placer gold mining  The art of metallurgy  The use of porcelain. gold. bakya(wooden Shoes). mami. petsay.Spanish times were the delta of Cagayan River. toyo  Edible vegetables including bataw. Language Filipino Bakya Bantay Gunting Pinto Susi Chinese Bak. So. EARLY RELATIONS WITH JAPAN • The regions settled by the Japanese during the pre.kiah Bang. the loose trousers of the Muslim and the dresses of women of Sulu and Minadanao. tin and other metals  Blacksmithing  Goldsmithing  Kite flying  Gambling. tsapsoy. pangginggi Manner of Dressing  The sleeved jackets (kangan) of the pre-Spanish Filipino males.

Ilocano. • Some lived in tree houses which were built on the top of trees for better protection against the enemy. which is equivalent to “sir”. It had a gallery called batalan where big water jars were kept for bathing and washing purposes. Under the house were kept the rice. a Malayan word meaning “sailboat”.where food are being placed for cooking.staple food Earthen Jars/ bamboo tubes (Ilocano/Itawes.Itawes (gold between teeth). firewood. Children were not tattooed at all.Visayan wine made from rice Lambanog.Banga) . NATURAL COURTESY AND POLITENESS • When two persons of equal rank met on the road.100 families while some having a population of more than 2. THE BARANGAYS • Well organized independent villages. Boho. It serve two purposes To enhance their bodily beauty To show their war record Men were more tattooed than women. TATTOES • • a. dusaru. • When a person addressed his superior.used to store drinking waters Wines were also drank by early Filipinos such are the following:      D. He addressed his superior with the word “po”.wine taken from coconut sports Basi. Ilocano wine brewed from sugarcane Pangasi.sustaining community ruled by a datu. aritutItawes (earrings). produced a tiny flame.Ilocano. HOUSES AND DWELLINGS • Bahay kubo (nipa hut).Tagalog) which. Balitok.Itawes). purselas.houses which were made of wood and bamboo. he took off his putong. It had a bamboo ladder that could be drawn up at night or when the family was out. • • • • • • • • The badjaos (sea gypsies) of Sulu Sea still live in boat houses.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 10 NOTES A. and animals. b. Balitok.serves as plates Coconut Shells (tahuk. The Visayans are the most tattooed Filipinos. roofed by nipa palm leaves. • F.Itawes (bracelet) Footwear E.used as drinking cups Makkammat(Itawes)/ Agkammet(Ilocano).Itawes (necklace). MODE OF DRESSING Tuba.000.Itawes (gold between teeth) Barefooted Women Baro Patadyong Ipit (Itawes). Angang (Itawes)/ Burnay (Ilocano)/ huge bamboo tubes. • • • It originated from balangay. . C. bulu. FOOD AND DRINKS Rice. Banana Leaves (don bahat.Itawes. Such were produced by rubbing two pieces of dry woods (hulu. It is a self.Tagalog wine taken from coconut palm Tapuy. They were called pintados or painted people. punggos (Ilocano) Samul.Ilocano. they removed their putong as a sign of courtesy.Itawes).eating with the use of fingers • Fire was used to cook food.Igorot wine taken from rice Men Upper Garment Lower Garment Head Dress Accessories Kangan Bahag Putong Kolombigas (gold armlets) Samul. when heated. and bowed low. put it over his left shoulder like a towel. It consisted of from 30.

English was used to clean their teeth) upon waking up in the morning. to love their parents and to obey the datu and barangay rules. might emancipate his slave for saving his life in the war or for having served his family faithfully for many years. the highest social class. b. They owned their property. They chewed buyo which made their teeth colored but strong. upon entering.they belonged to the lowest social classes. CLEANLINESS AND NEATNESS • They bathed daily. A slave man could become free by paying his master a certain sum of gold. a noble could become slave. They anointed it with coconut oil (denuItawes.Ilocano) and other lotions. Their favorite hour for bathing in the river was at sunset when they had finished their daily toil. A slave. according to customary laws. G. as they are today. and every person. Timawas.they owned no property. while fathers and sons walk behind. Maharlikas. and a slave could become a freeman.slaves.Spanish society was divided into three social classes: a.freemen. They lived in their master’s house. Whenever the entire family went out. They could not be sold.Itawes) and cleaned their teeth (ginat. J. H. c. I. • The children were given considerable attention. take water from this vessel and wash his feet. She enjoyed the sole privilege of naming the children. family ties. FAMILY LIFE • It is the basis of the society. They could be sold anytime. thus. They formed the majority among the inhabitants of every barangay. a slave woman who married a freeman or a noble automatically becomes free. especially during rainy season. his words were law to children. They were trained to be loyal to the ancestral god. the man was always behind the woman. They could not marry without their master’s consent.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 11 NOTES • When a man and a woman walked together. Hence.born persons and emancipated slaves. the mothers and daughters walk ahead.owning families.nobles.they constituted the middle class in the barangays. a freeman could rise to nobility. They filed their teeth to make it even.they constituted the barangay aristocracy. They were free. • They washed their hair regularly with gugo and water. Lana. They could marry without their master’s consent. SOCIETY AND SOCIAL CLASSES • The pre. was close and strong. • The father was the head of the family.Itawes: sand. his family and relatives and the rich people. affection and discipline by their parents. including the datu. Slaves could emancipate themselves and become a freeman in various ways of emancipation as follows: 1) 2) 3) Marriage Purchase Voluntary action of the master Hence. WOMENS’ POSITION . This class was composed of the affluent slave. hence. Aliping Saguiguilid. The causes of slavery were the following:  Birth  Captivity in war  Purchase  Failure to pay debts  Penalty for crimes committed Kinds of Slaves 1) 2) Aliping Namamahay. whether belonging to the house or not. to respect the elders. • The mother was the housekeeper. Alipin.owner.they lived in their houses. • There was no caste system unlike in India. • They kept a vessel full of water at the door of every house. • They washed their mouths (makkulumummug. It was considered impolite for a man to walk ahead of his woman companion.

boat races and stone-throwing contests. Such are celebrated with much eating.the legendary first woman in the world Lubluban.Ilocano ant’s dance Panjalay. a wedding. • Many women were famous in songs and stories as follows:     K.Visayan bamboo drum Silbay. land. AMUSEMENTS Sibabae. • They had the exclusive privilege of naming their children.Agusan harvest song M. they could inherit the chieftaincy and rule barangays.Ilocano ballad song Kuilay.the sultana of the Pasig and Lakandula’s grandmother • They held banquets to celebrate a good harvest.Subanun cymbal They had plenty of folk dances such as: Kumintang. they will only become talkative and livelier. this does not mean losing their senses rather.Tagalog courtship dance Dandansoy. fencing.Muslim xylophone Tultogan.Ilocano reed flute Suracan.Tinggian love dance Their songs expressed all aspects of life. drinking. • If they were daughters of datus who had no sons.Tagalog love dance Mahinhin. a religious sacrifice and a victory in war. The groom had to work in the house of his bride for a certain period of time to do the following:  Carrying water and firewood to the house . slaves or anything else of value.Igorot serenade song Bactal. MARRIAGE CUSTOMS • Before marriage. • They could engage in trade and industry. • They could own and inherent property.Muslim wedding dance Tadek.Tagalog guitar Kalaleng.Tinggian wine song Tudob.the Visayan goddess of fire and volcanoes Kalangitan.Tagalog song of victory Dallu.kuilay.klu. the groom gave a dowry to the family of the bride (bigaykaya). • They had games such as carabao races.Tagbanua death song Dal-lot. L. MUSIC • • They were lovers of music. singing and dancing.flute Kulintamg.Negrito religious song Ayeg.Visayan tuba dance Kinnoton. Though they drink too much.the legendary lawgiver of the Visayans Lalahon. Among these are the following: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) • 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Tagumpay.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 12 NOTES • Tribal Laws and Customs recognized them as equal to men. It consisted of gold. wrestling.Tinggian nose. They had various musical instruments as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) • Kudyapi.

the amount given to the bride’s parents as reimbursement for the amount spent in feeding the bride during infancy. Sambon. sealed by a traditional ceremony of the blood compact called sandugo (one blood). The causes of these emergence were the following:  For better protection against enemies  The marriage of a lakan of a barangay with the lakambini of another barangay O. the mother for the nocturnal efforts in rearing the girl to womanhood. being a son or daughter of a datu.  Making new laws for the barangay. Despite his great powers. he was not an absolute ruler.the amount given to the bride’s relatives. • Datu. Such according to Captain Miguel Loarca were caused by the following:  When one goes to another village and was put to death without any reason  When one’s wives were stolen from them  When one went to any village and he was badly treated or aggrieved . BARANGANIC RELATIONS • Barangays concluded treaties of alliance and friendship with each other. executive. In case the datu died without any legitimate son or daughter. • The barangay elders also took part in judicial trials of persons accused of certain crimes and the datu’s decision could not be binding without their approval. The state of courtship immediately before marriage is called Pamumulungan or Pamamalae. legislator. The datu should consult the barangay elders in their approval of the following matters:  Declaration of war with the enemy barangay  The marriage of the barangay lakan (prince) or lakambini (princess)  The negotiation of a political alliance with another barangay.marriage ceremony They also practiced divorce with the aforementioned grounds: Adultery on the part of the wife Desertion on the part of the husband Loss of affection Cruelty Insanity Childlessness N.settlement of dowry Pegkawing.kingdoms. The rulers of bigger barangay kingdoms assumed the title of raha. He obtained his position by inheritance. he was the commander of the barangay warriors. Humaraw. the people of barangay choose their new datu who should be the strongest.the payment given to the girl wet. Bigay.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 13 NOTES  Assisting the bride’s father in plowing the field  Assisting in the planting and harvesting of rice Other dowries were in the form of the following: •     • • Panghimuyat: the amount of money given to the bride’s parent. • Sometimes wars broke up between barangays.betrothal or engagement Pedsungud. and judge of the barangay and in time of war.suso. For Muslims (Mindanao):    • 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Panalanguni. hari or lakan. or wisest man in the barangay.nurse who fed the bride during infancy with milk from her breast. BARANGAY GOVERNMENT • Barangays were virtually independent village.he was the chief. richest. • There were also confederations of barangays. • Each barangay was ruled by a chieftain called Datu.

Pangasinan war god Kidul. Hence.Kalinga god of thunder Dal’lang.  • According to legend.Tagalog god of harvest Sidapa. They believed in the magical power of amulets and charms such as. larao. arms. The written laws were promulgated by datus with the help of the barangay elders and announced to the people by a barangay crier known as umalohokan. The ritual was performed by a priest or priestess called katalona or babaylan. sometimes slaves were buried with the dead. kasamaan (Tagalog) or Solad (Visayan). • They also believed in life after death. SUPERSTITIONS • Early Filipinos believed in witches as follows. • Take note that the much known Kalantiaw Code of the Philippines has been proven to be suspect of origin and contents.Tagbanua god of sea Kolyog.appeared in a form of a dog. called kaluwalhatian (Tagalog) or Ologan (Visayan).Ilocano goddess of beauty Malyari. When a datu died.sucked the baby’s entrails by means of his elongated proboscis • Tigbalang. and legs. R. in a cave or on headlands overlooking the sea. • The oral laws were their customs (ugali) which had been handed down orally from generation to generation. weapons and. or any animal and devoured human Mangkukulam. it should be believed in. The following were their gods and goddesses:           • Bathala. The good soul would go to heaven.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 14 NOTES P.supreme god and the creator of heaven and earth Idianale.believed to make its possessors invulnerable . were offered. LAWS • The early Filipinos had both oral and written laws. used white garments. foods. a herald announced the event and the larao were then observed. the lawgiver of the pre. a bird. and abstained from eating meat and drinking wine during the period of mourning. for a dead woman it was termed morotal. Clothes. Singing in boats returning from sea was prohibited.assumed the form of a dog.Zambal god of power and strength Poko. S.Ifugao god of earthquakes They worshipped ancestral spirits called anitos (Tagalog) or diwatas (Visayan).Tagalog goddess of agriculture Lakampati. • Mourning for a dead man is called maglahe.Spanish Philippines was a woman named Lubluban. Q. BURIAL AND MOURNING CUSTOMS • The corpse was embalmed and was buried near his home. All warriors carried their spears with points downward and their daggers with hilts reversed.     Anting.anting. To these anitos the sacrifices called.Visayan god of death Apolaki. and for a datu. • They also worshipped nature in the belief that such natural objects were the habitats of the spirits. while the bad soul would go to hell called. All wars and quarrels were suspended. • The relatives of the dead wore rattan bands around their neck.caused people to die or be sick by pricking a toy with his magic pin Tianak. No colored clothes were worn by the grieving people. a horse or an old man to deceive his victims. maganito.  flesh Asuang. RELIGION • • The early Filipinos were pagans except that of Moros in Minadanao and Sulu. the great granddaughter of the first man and the first woman of the world.

usually an old man. SCIENCES • Filipinos had knowledge of medicine since they knew the curative power of many medicinal plants. and other household chores. EDUCATION • Early Filipino education was both academic and vocational. miners. V. and shipbuilders. • Y. pestilence or calamity. 3R’s were taught in this school.Visayan charm which enables any man to cross a river without getting wet They also had superstitious beliefs which until now are surviving as follows:  The appearance of a comet is an ill omen. The mother. hunters. LITERATURE • Early Filipino literature consisted of bugtong (riddles).  If a pregnant woman cuts her hair. There were herbalists.  When a cat wipes its face with its paws. reading. WRITING • • The ancient Filipinos had their own writing system following their alphabet called baybayin which was originated from the asokan alphabet of India. wooden boards. sewing. trained her daughters in cooking. gardening. • The father trained his sons to be warriors. U. salawikain (proverbs). the Malayo.pointed iron instrument called sipol was used as pen. she will give birth to a hairless child.kubo style of dwelling.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 15 NOTES    • Gayuma. lumbermen. • There was some crude knowledge of astronomy such as:  Tala (morning star) by the Tagalog  Poyo poyo (Pleiades) by the Bagobos  Monbunkol (Dipper) by the Ifugaos  Mamacta (astrologer) by the Ilokanos . a visitor is coming to house.  A girl who sings before the stove while cooking will marry an old widower.Bicol magic herb which makes its possessor invisible to the human eye Uiga. • Tagalog was regarded by the early Spanish writers as the best. T. • The following folk epic have been preserved:  Ifugao Alim and Hudhud  Ilocano Lam-ang  Bicol Handiong  Kalinga Ullalim  Maranao Bantigan  Maguinadanao Indarapatra and Sulayman  Illanon Agyu  Taosug Parang Sabil W. Sculpture was manifested in their anitos. myths. A sharp. and writing X. for it is harbinger of war. on the other hand. legends and poetry. fishermen. LANGUAGES • The early Filipinos had different languages and dialects which were originated from a common linguistic form. • The ancient writing is still preserved by the Mangyans of Mindoro and the Tagbanuas of Palawan. awit (songs). otherwise she will give birth to twins. ARTS • • Architecture was expressed in the bahay. or leaves of plants which were used as paper.arithmetic.  A pregnant woman should not eat twin bananas. • There was an ancient barangay school in Panay termed as Bothoan under the charge of a teacher.a love potion which can arouse an adamant woman’s affection Odom. • They engraved words in a bamboo tubes. They early painting was that of tattoo.Polynesian language.

one half ganta  Gating.the length between the tip of the thumb and that of the forefinger when extended.  Sandamak. Isa. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES • Early Filipinos had their own weights and measures.hundred ganta  chupa • Their measures for length were the ff.  hundred thousand hundred million million Kati.thousand Yuta.25 gantas  Salop.Introduction and Pre-Colonial Philippines 16 NOTES • • They They         also knew Mathematics had native terms for numericals.  Puo. • Their measure of capacities were the ff. They used talaro a kind of balance with scales.ten million Bahala.the width of the hand with the five fingers pressed together  Sandali.the length of the outstretched arms  Tumuro.the width of one finger .ten Daan.

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