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ANNA UNIVERSITY

Chennai-25.
Syllabus for
B.Arch. Architecture

AR131 Art Appreciation 2 0 0 2

1 UNDERSTANDING ARTS 6

The definition of art - the needs and meanings of the work ofart - Technical language of the art - Technique of
lookinand appreciation of art form.
2 THE TECHNIQUES OF ART 6

Drawing - architecture - sculpture - painting - printing minor arts


(glassware, stain glass, lithographic prints, etc.) - Industrial art (Art Nouveau,Bauhaus)
3 ART HISTORY OF WESTERN WORLD 10

Cave art: Egyptian, Mesopotomian, Greek, Roman Art, Renaissance.


WORKS OF WESTERN ARTIST
20 cent: Birth of modern art, Cubism, Impressionism, Post impressionism and others. Introduction to art
movement of 1920-modern: abstract art, constructivism action painting, use of modern materials and
technique.
4 ART HISTORY OF ASIAN WORLD 8

Cave art,Indus valley civilization, vedic civilization, buddhist, Hindu (Indo aryan and Dravidian),rock-cut art.
Islamic art form, Imperial style, Post-independent, Mughal. Recent developments in Indian Art and
Architecture.
Total No of periods: 30

Reference :

1. Art though Ages,Cardver, Harcourt,Brace&World.


2. Art and Nature appreciation, Opdyke, H.G.-Macmillan, 1993.
3. College out time serious - History of Art -Jean annevincent,-Ames &Nobel inc-Newyork.
4. How to appreciate prints - Weilenkampf, New editon, rev.scribner,1932.
5. Techniques of Modern Artist - Judith Collins, John Welchman 1987.
6. The Penguin Dictionary of Art and Artists - Peter and Linda Murray - Penguin books 1989.

AR132 History of Architecture-I 2 0 0 2

Page 1
1 PREHISTORIC AGE AND EGYPT 6

Old Stone Age - the Agricultural revolution - The New Stone Age-Development of Shelter. Nature of Art and
Architecture - Factors influencing Architecture - Outline of Architectural Character - Great Pyramid of
Cheops, Gizeh, Great temple of Ammon, Karnak.
2 WEST ASIA 4

Urban evolution of Sumerian, Babylonian and Persian cultures - Factors influencing architecture - Outline of
arachitectural character - Ziggurat, Urnammu, Palace of Sargon, Khorsabad - Palace at Persepolics.
3 GREECE 8

Evolution of city states - Development of art, sculpture, architecture in the archaic and classic periods -
Factors influencing architecture -Outline of architectural character - Orders in architecture - Doric, lonic,
Corinthian: Parthenon, Athens: Erecthion, Athens, Theatre Epidaurous: Tower of Winds.
4 ROME 8

Evolution of Republican states - Factors influencing architecture - outline of architectural Character Forum
Romanum Rome; Thermae of Caraculla; Colloseum, Rome; Pantheon,Rome; Circus Maximus, Rome.
5 EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE 4

Birth and spread of Christianity - Evolution of church forms - Factors influencing architecture - Outline of
Architectural character - St.Clement,Rome; St.Sophia, Constantinople; st. Marks, Venice; St. Vitale,Ravenna.
Total No of periods: 30

Reference :

1. Sir Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture, University of London, The Antholone Press,1986.
2. Pier Liugi Nervi, General Editor - History of World Architecture- Series, Harry N.Abrams, Inc.Pub.,New
York,1972.
3. S.Lloyd and H.W.Muller, History of World Architecture-Series,Faber and Faber Ltd.,London,1986.
4. Spiro Kostof - A History of Architecture - Setting and Rituals, Oxford University Press,London,1985.
5. Gosta, E.Sandsform, Man the Builder, Mc.Graw Hill Book Company, New York, 1970.

WEBSITES :
http://library.advanced.org/10098
http://www.encylopedia.com/articles/05371.html
http://www.cup.org/Titles/09/0521094526.html

AR133 Materials and Construction I 2 0 3 4

1 INTRODUCTION 12

Functional requirements of a building and its components - Drawings of foundations, plinth, superstructure,
roofings. Soils - Formation - grainsize distribution - soil classification systems. Lime - fat/hydraulic limes -
Their uses and properties - Manufacturing process -Mortar,functions - requirements - mix proportions.
2 RURAL - MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 30

Mud as a building material - Soil stabilisation, soil blocks-Drawings of foundations - types, S.S. Block -
S.S.Castinsitu walls - flooring - roofing - plastering. Bamboo, casuarina coconut, palam, hay coir,jute-
properties-uses-fire retardent treatment insection proofing. Types of foundations - walls - simple rooftrusses
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floors for rural structures.

3 STONE 25

Classification of rocks - Building stones - their uses - physical properties - brief study of tests for stone -
deterioration - preservation of stone - various stone finishes - cutting and polishing of granites. Drawings of
foundations - types of masonry - random rubble/Ashlar, etc.-cavity walls - flooring copings, sills,
lintels,corbels, arches.
4 BRICKS AND CLAY PRODUCTS 8

Bricks - brief study on manufacture of bricks - properties - uses - suitability - types of bricks - uses in
buildings, structural titles, ceramics, terracotta - uses.
Total No of periods: 75

Reference :

1. R.J.S.Spencke and D.J.Cook, Building Materials in Developing Countries, John Wiley and Sons,1983.
2. HUDCO -All you want to know about soil stabilized mud blocks, HUDCO Pub., New Delhi, 1989.
3. UNO - Use of bamboo and reeds in construction - UNO Publications.
4. Rural Construction - NBO,New Delhi.
5. S.C.Rangwala, Engineering Materials, Charotar Publishing House,Anand,1997.

WEBSITES :
http://www.baboo-Flooring.com
http:// ag.avizona.edu/SWES
http://www/angelfite.com/in
http://www.idrc.ca/libary/documents/104800/chapz-e.html
http://www/angelfite.com/inz/granite

AR134 Computer Studio-I 1 0 4 3

1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER 4

Technology of small computer system,computer terminology operation principles of P.C.,introduction to


application software, and graphic system, and use of printers, scanner, plotter, File 'management,etc.
2 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AIDED 2D DRAFTING 28

Understanding the use of drawing tools,object editing,drawing objects,filling and setting drawing
units,scales,limits that size and dimensioning, texting. Setting up of drawings of various simple architectural
objects with complete text and dimensioning.
3 ADVANCE COMPUTER AIDED 2D DRAFTING 28

Advance command programming - transparent overlays hatching utilities,assigned colour and line type,use of
multiline, style,block,symbol Library manipulation for accurate drawings,incorporting the above said utilities.
4 TUTORIAL 15

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Total No of periods: 75

Reference:

1. V.Rajaraman,Principles of Computer Programming - Prentice Hall of India.


2. Byron S.Gottfried, Theory and problems of Programming with C.Schaum's outline series,McGraw Hill
Publishing Co.
3. Auto CAD reference mannual - Autodesk UNC,1998.
4 Auto CAD architectural users guide - Autodesk Inc.,1998.
5. Sham Tickoo, Advance Technique in Auto CAD Re.14 - 1977.
6. Sham Tickoo,Understanding Auto CAD - 14 (Windows) - 1977.

WEBSITES :
http://www.sin.fi.edu/-Computer drafing
http://www.ccollege.hccs.cc.tx.us/-Comp.graphic

MA141 Mathematics 3 0 0 3

1 PLANE AND LINES 9

Direction ratios and cosines of a line - Equations of a plane and intersecting planes - Symmetric form of a
straight line - Angle between lines and planes - Coplanar lines - skew lines - shortest distance.
2 CURVED SURFACES 8

Equations of sphere - section by a plane - Tangent plane - standard eqations of cone,cylinder and conoid -
properties.
3 MATRICES 8

Characteristic equation,Eigen values and Elgenvectors of a real Matric, Cayley - Hamilton Theorem without
proof: Reduction of a real symmetric matrix to diagonal form.
4 INTEGRATION 5

Integration of rational, trigonometric and irrational functions, properties of definite integrals, Reduction
formulae for trigonometric functions.
5 ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 6

Linear second order and higher order Different equations with constant coefficients. Differential equations
with variable coefficients of Euler type.
6 FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 9

Partial differentiation, total derivative, approximations, Taylor's


Theorem with remainder Maxima and Minima, envelope.
Total No of periods: 45

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Reference :

1. B.S.Grewal,Higher Engineering Mathematics, Khanna Publishers, Delhi,1998.


2. P.kandasamy, K.Thilagavathy and k.Gunavathy,Engineering Mathematics Vol-I&II,S.Chandan Publishers
- 1998.
3. Narayanan S,Manikavachagam Pillai T.K.&Ramanaiah G-Advanced Mathematics for Engineering
Students - Vol I&II S.Viswanathan Printers 1993.

AR135 Architectural Drawing-I 0 0 6 3

1 FREE HAND DRAWING 45

Free hand drawing of object and natural elements-part of building environment,plants,trees,flowers,etc.


Outdoor sketching of simple building forms and relations,simple three dimensional compositions. Study of
colour,compositions,colour rendering of object,plants,interior and exterior spaces. Rendering of objects,built
and natural environment with advance presentation skill,surface finishes (human figures,street
furnitures,etc.)to communicate meaningfully and effectively.
2 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING 30

Plane Geometry-scales and angle construction of planes,curves,circules tangent and regular polygon area
construction. Solid geometry-simple projections,projection and development of the solid,section of
solids,interpenetration of solids and true shape of sections.
3 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 15

Introduction to orthographic projections - isometric and axenometric projection. Drawing of lines,basic shapes
in different positions. Orthographic projections of planar surface - geometrical shapes like square, circle,
hexagon, etc.and combination of shapes. Orthographic projection of 3D objections - constuction of
plan,elevation and section of 3Dobjects and projections in various positons.
Total No of periods: 90

References:

I. GEOMETRICAL DRAWING
1. IH.Morris,Geometrical Drawing for Art Students - Orient Longman,Madras,1982.
2. George K.Stegman,Harry J.Stegman, Architectural Drafting Printed in USA by American Technical
Society,1966.
3. Francis Ching, Architectural Graphics, Van Nostrand Rein Hold Company, New York,1964.
4. C.Leslie Martin, Architectural Graphics,The Macmillan Company, New York,1964.

II. FREE HAND DRAWING


5. Alwyn Cranshaw, Learn to paint with Water colours, Acrylic Colours, Boats and Harbours, Sketch, Still
life, landscapes,
William Collins Sons and Co.Ltd.,London,1981.
6. Tokyo Musashino Academy of Art - Introduction to Pencil Drawing, Graphic - Shaw Publishing

Page 5
AR136 Architectural Design I 0 0 12 6

1 BASIC DESIGN I 10

Introduction to Architectural Design through Basic Design.Introduction to elements of design. Properties,


qualites, and characteristics of (i)line,(ii)direction,(iii)shape,(iv)size,(v)texture,(vi)value and (vii)colour
exercises involving the same including use of the computer.The principles of design relationships -
Repetition,Harmony,Contrast - Exercises involving the same. The analysis of design elements - Exercises
involving the same.
2 WORKSHOP 80

Use of hand tools and materials in carpentry, masonry and model making. Making mount board mobiles
employing cubes cuboids, square pyramid,cylinder and cones. Space frame models using match sticks
straw,steel wires,bamboo splits. Texture applicability to murals and interior decoration.
Total No of periods: 90

References:

I. BASIC DESIGN I
1. Maitland Graves,The Art of Colour and Design,McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.,1951(2nd Edn.)
2. Edward D.Mills - Planning the Architects Hand Book - Bitterworth, London,1985.
3. V.S.Pramar,Design fundamentals in Architecture, Somaiya Publications Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi,1973.
4. Francis D.K.Ching - Architecture - Form Space and Order Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., (Canada),1979.
5. John W.Mills - The Technique of Sculpture,B.T.Batsford Limited, New York - Reinhold Publishing
Corporation, London,1966.
6. Elda Fezei, Henny Moore, Hamlyn, London, New York, Sydney, Toronto,1972.
7. C.Lawrence Bunchy - Acrylic for Sculpture and Design, 450,West 33rd Street,New York,N.Y.10001,1972.
8. Orbid Publishing Ltd., Know how the complete course in Dit and Home Improvements NO.22,Bed
Fordbury,London,W.C.2,1981.
WEBSITES
Http://www infinit.net - elements of design
http://www.Okino.com - design,visualization,rendering system
http://www.interface - signage.com
http://www.design community.com - arch rendering,3D design

AR141 Mechanics of Structure-I 3 0 0 3

1 FORCES AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 5

Types of force systems - Resultant of parallel forces - principle of moments - principle of equilibrium - simple
problems.
2 ANALYSIS OF PLANE TRUSSES 12

Introduction to determinate and Indeterminate plane trusses - Analysis of simply supported and cantilevered
trusses by method of joints and method of sections.
3 PROPERTIES OF SECTION 10

Centroid - Moment of Inertia - Section modulus - Radius of gyration - Theorem of perpendicular axis -
Theorem of parallel axis.

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4 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 10

Stress strain diagram for mild steel, High tensile steel and concerte - Concept of axial and volumetric stresses
and strains.
5 ELASTIC CONSTANTS 8

Elastic constants - Relation between elastic constants - Application to problem

Total No of periods: 45

References:

1. P.C. Punmia, Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures; Vol I,Laxmi Publications, Delhi 1994.
2. S.Ramamurtham, Strength of Materials - Dhanpatrai & Sons,Delhi,1990.
3. W.A.Nash,Strength of Materials - Schaums Series - McGraw Hill Book Company,1989.
4. R.K.Bansal - engineering Mechanics and Strength of Materials - Lakshmi Publications,Delhi,1990.
5. R.K.Rajput - Strength of Materials,S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi 1996.

AR142 Theory of Architecture-I 2 0 0 2

1 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE 4

Definition of Architecture - Elements of Architecture backed by need and followed by fulfillment of need.

2 SCOPE OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN 4

Architectural design - An analysis - Integration of aesthetic and function.

3 ARCHITECTURAL SPACE AND MASS 5

Mass and Space, Visual and Emotional effects of geometric froms and their derivatives - The sphere, the cube,
the pyramid, the cylinder and cone.
4 AESTHETIC COMPONENTS OF DESIGN 15

Proportion,scale,balance,rhythm,symmetry,hierarchy,pattern and axis with building examples.

5 APPLICATION OF COLOUR IN ARCHITECTURE 2

Effect of colour in architecture - Colour symbolism.

Total No of periods: 30

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References:

1. Paul Alan Johnson - The Theory of Architecture - Concepts and themes, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New
York,1994.
2. V.S.Pramar, Design Fundamentals in Architecture, Somaiya Publications Private Ltd.,New Delhi,1973.
3. Francis D.K.Ching,Architecture - Form, Space and Order, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New
York,1979.
4. Helm Marie Evans and Caria David Dunneshil,An initiation to design, Macmillan Publishing Co.Inc.,New
York,1982.

AR143 History of Architecture-II 2 0 0 2

1 ANCIENT INDIA 4

Indus Valley Civilization - Culture and pattern of settlement. Impact of Aryan culture - Vedic village and the
rudimentary forms of bamboo and wood Wooden construction under the Mauryan rule.
2 BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 8

Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism - Interaction of Hellenic & Indian Ideas in Northern India - Architectural
Production during Ashoka's rule - Ashokan Pillar, Sarnath, Rock cut caves at Barabar,Sanchi Stupa.
Salient features of a Chaitya hall and Vihara, Rock cut architecture in the western and Eastern ghats - Karli,
Viharas at Nasik, Rani gumpha, Udaigiri. Takti Bhai, Gandhara.
3 HINDU ARCHITECTURE 6

Evolution of Hindu Temple - Early shrines of the Gupta and Chalukyan periods - Tigawa Temple, Ladh Khan
and Durga Temple, Aihold, Papanatha and Virupaksha Temples,Pattadakal.
4 DRAVIDIAN ARCHITECTURE 6

Dravidian culture - Rock cut productions under Pallavas - Shore Temple, Mahaballipuram - Dravidian Order -
Brihadeeswara Temple, Tanjore - Evolution and form of Gopuram - Complexity in temple plan due to
complexity in Ritual - Minakshi Temple, Madurai.
5 INDO ARYAN STYLE 6

Salient features of an Indo Aryan Temple - Lingaraja Temple, Bhuvaneswar - Sun Temple, Konarak. Kunds
and Vavs - Sabali Kund Vav - Adalaj - Surya Kund,Modhera.
Total No of periods: 30

Page 8
References:

1. Percy Brown, Indian Architecture ( Buddhist and Hindu Period),Taraporevala and Sons, Bombay,1983.
2. Atish Grover,The Architecture of India (Buddhist and Hindu Period),Vikas Publishing Housing
Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi,1981.
3. A.Volwahsen, Living Architecture - India (Buddhist and Hindu),Oxford and IBM,London,1969.
4. Christoper Tadgelli, The History of Architecture in India from the Dawn of Civilization to the end of
Raj,Longman Group,U.K.Ltd.,London, 1990.
5. Carmen Kagal,Vistara: The Architecture of India, Published by Festival of India, 1986.
6. Electa Moniteur, Architecture in India,M/s.Electa France,Milan,1985.
7. George Mitchell, The Hindu Temple, BI Pub., Bombay, 1977.
WEBSITES
http://www. greatbuildings.com/gbc-types/styles/hindu.html
http://indianculture.tqn.com/msub19.htm
http://web1.arch.hawaii.edu/courses/courses/300/arch371/09_04/9-4htm
http://www.hindunet.org/alt_hindu/1995_Apt_1/msg00069.html
http://bishop.calpoly.edu/libarts/jwetzel/study Hindu Art Of later Dynasties.htm
AR144 Materials and Construction II 2 0 3 4

1 BRICKS AND CLAY PRODUCTS 12

Drawings of brick foundations - buildings in brickwork, bonds columns,corners - structrual members in


brickwork. Reinforced brick masonry - Arches - Lintels - Corbels - copings. Hollow clay blocks - for walls -
patritions -roofs. Roofings - Flats Roofs - or Terrace roofs - Sloping roofs. Detailing includes for physically
handicapped.
2 TIMBER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS 8

Softwood and Hardwood - Secondary Timber - Physical properties and uses - Defects, Conversion, Seasoning,
Decay and preservation of timber - Fire retardent treatment, anti-termite treatment. Industrial timbers -
plywood,blockboard,particle board, fibre boards. Manufacture and uses - current developments.
3 TIMBER 35

Drawings of timber joinery for Windows, doors, ventilators. Timber partitions, panelling, false ceiling, fixed
ceiling - wall panelling. Timber staircases - Designed staircase -timber trusses - Lean to - close couple -
Kingpost - Queen pot - Trusses. Timber floors - timber built-in-furniture - Detailing and fittings for physically
handicapped.
4 LOW COST BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 10

Drawings of foundations - walling - Roofs - Partitions - Ceiling panel - Doors and Windows. Miscellaneous -
Drawing of Brick Jails, Screen Walls - Pavement blocks - Ferrocement water tanks. Detailing and
specifications for physically handicapped.
5 GLASS 10

Composition of glass - brief study on manufacture, treatment, properties and uses of glass - special types of
glass, sheet glass, plate glass, safety glass, tinte coated glass - Glass blocks - properties and applications in the
building Industry -current developments.
Total No of periods: 75

Page 9
References:

1. Don A.Watson, Construction Materials and Processes, McGraw Hill Co.,1972.


2. W.B.Mckay,'Building Construction',Vol.1,2,3Longmans,U.K.1981.
3. Alanwerth, Materials, The Mitchell Pub.Co.Ltd., London,1986.
4. R.Chudleu,'Building Construction Handbook',British Library Cataloguing in Publication
Data,London,1990.
5. S.C.Rangwala, Engineering Materials, Charotar Pub.House, Anand,1997.
WEBSITES
http://www.ibex-ibex-intl.com
http://www.inika.com/chitra
http://www.routbdge.com
http://www.ventura india.com

AR145 Computer Studio-II 1 0 4 3

1 PRODUCTIVITY TOOLS 12

Introduction to tools of productivity - blocks,slide facilities, scriptfiles,attributes Understanding concepts of


V.port,concept of object linking,and editing session.
2 INTRODUCTION TO 3D DRAFTING 24

Introduction to 3D modelling technique and construction planes,drawing object,3D surfaces setting up


elevation and thickness,and use of dynamic projections. Solid modelling, with driving primitive command
and boolean operation. Use of region modelling solid modife.
3 3D RENDERING AND SETTING 24

Rendering and scene setting to create a photo realistic picture understanding material mapping,environment
setting and image filing. Construction of any object or building using above said utilities.
4 TUTORIAL 15

Total No of periods: 75

References:

1. V.Rajaraman,Principles of Computer Programming - Prentice Hall of India.


2. Byron S.Gottfried, Theory and problems of programming with C.Schaum's outline series,McGraw Hill
Publishing Co.
3. Auto CAD reference manual - Autodesk UNC,1998.
4. Auto CAD architectural users guide - Autodesk Inc., 1998.
5. Sham Tickoo,Advance Technique in AutoCAD Re.14 -1997.
6. Sham Tickko,Understanding Auto CAD -14 (Windows)1997.
WEBSITES
http://ccollege.hccs.cc.tx.us/
http://www.ciips.ee.uwa.edu.an/

Page 10
AR146 Architectural Drawing-II 0 0 6 3

1 MEASURED DRAWING 45

Principle of basic architectural drafting - line value lettering basic,multiview projections and sections -
presentation formats. Measured drawing of simple objects (like furniture, entrance gates,etc.) and building
components (like columns,cornice,door,window, etc.) Detailed measured drawing/documentation of historic
and architectural monument or building.
2 PERSPECTIVE 30

Characteristics of Perspective Drawings, Perspective systems and methods. Two point perspective of simple
objects,outdoor and indoor view of building,etc. One point and three point perspective of interiors Perspective
theory and practice.
3 SCIOGRAPHY 15

Principles of shades and shadows - Shadows of lines and circles Shadows of Architectural elements, etc.
Shadows of circular solids Shadows on buildings,etc.

Total No of periods: 90

References:

I.MEASURED DRAWING
1. Clande Batley,Indian Architecture, D.B,Taraporevale Sons and Co.,Ltd.,Bombay.
2. William Kirby Lockard, Drawing as a Means to Architecture, Van Nostrand,Reinhold Company, New
York.
3.George A.Dinsmore, Analytical Graphics - D.Van Nostrand, Company Inc., Canada.
II PERSPECTIVE
4. John M.Holmes, Applied Perspective, Sir Isaac,Piotman and Sons Ltd.,London 1954.
5. Robert W.Gill, Basic Perspective, Thames and Hudson,London,1974.
6. Interiors: Perspective in Architectural Design Graphic - SMA Publishing Co.Ltd.,Japan, 1967.
III SCIOGRAPHY
7. C.Leslie Martin, Architectural Graphics, The Macmillan Company, New York,1964.
8. Francis Ching, Architectural Graphics, Van Nostrand and Reinhold Company, New York,1975.
9. Emest Norling, Perspective drawing,Walter Fostor Art Books,California, 1986.
10. Bernard Alkins - 147,Architectural Rendering, Walter Foster Art Books,1986.
11. Rober W.Gill, Advanced Perspective, Thames and Hudson,London,1974.
WEBSITES
http://www.cs.brown.edu
http://www.dtcc.edu/-document,project info - Arch.dwg.
AR147 Architectural Design-II 0 0 12 6

1 DESIGN STUDIO 100

The problems involve simple space organisation starting with single space single use - small span Horizontal
movement - single bay-passive energy type spaces. The study of space standards and anthropometrics related
to each problems is stressed upon. Anthropometry as related to physically handicapped and elderly persons are
required to be studied.
Examples of exercises include
a) Toilet for a physically handicapped person. Hostel room,bedroom,kitchen
Page 11
b) Shop, Workshop, pavillions, snack bar
c) Residence, petrol bunk,fire station, police station,cottage for an elderly couple.,
2 WORKSHOP II 80

Elementary models indicating wall surfaces floral designs, ceilings,glass areas,lawn water,bodies,etc. Block
models of small campuses using wood,the ramacol mount broad,soap,corkboard,etc. Detailed model of a small
building like branch bank,small residences,bus shelter,snackbar,including landscape details.
Total No of periods: 180

References:

DESIGN STUDIO
1. E and O.E.Planning, Lliffe Books Ltd.,London,1973.
2. De.Chiara and Callender, Time-saver Standards for Building Types, McGraw Hill Co.,New York,1973.
Sid Del Mar Leach, Techniquesw of Interior Design Rendering and presentation, McGraw Hill Co., New
York,1973.
WORKSHOP II
4. Wenninger (Magrus.J.) Spherical Models, Cambridge University Press, 1979.
5. Arundell (Jan),Exploring sculpture, Mills and Boon, London/Charles T.Branford Company,USA,1972.
6. John W.Mills, The Technique of Sculpture, B.T.Batsford Ltd., New York Reinhold Publishing
Corpn.,London,1966.
7. Eida Fezei,Henry Moore,Hamlyn,London,New York,sydney,Toronto,1972.
WEBSITES
www.design basic.com/-(on house type - Americans)
http://www.geosytems.gatech.edu/-(on detail design method)
http://www.c.s.berkely.edu/- (on bubble diagram builder with interaction)
http://www.plannet.com/resources.htme -(on resource info)
AR231 Mechanics of Structures - II 3 0 0 3

1 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT 10

Concept of shearing forces and Bending Moments-shear force and bending Moment diagrams for cantilever
and simply supported beams subjected to point load,uniformly distributed loads and their combinations.
2 STRESSES IN BEAMS 10

Theory of simple bending - bending stresses in beams,shear stresses in beams - examples on simple sections.
Stress distribution diagrams.
3 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS 10

Slope and deflection at a section - Double Integration and Macaulay's method for simply supported and
cantilever beams .
4 THEORY OF COLUMNS 10

Short and long columns - Euler's method and its limitation . Derivations of Eluer's fromula (for different end
conditions) - Rankine's formula for colums,examples,effect of eccentric loading.
5 INTRODUCTION TO INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 5

Page 12
Concept in Analysis of continuous beams,fixed beams,cantilevers,and partial frames (No problems).

Total No of periods: 45

References:

1. M.M.Ratwani,&V.N.Vazirani, Analysis of Structures, Vol.I,Khanna Publishers - Delhi,1987.


2. Timoshenko,S.P..and D.H. Young, Elements of Strength of Materials, Fifth Edition, East West Press,1993.
3. A.R.Jain and B.K.Jain,Theory and Analysis of Structures,Vol.I,Nemchand and Bros,Roorkee,1987.
4. B.C.Punmia,'Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures,Vol.I Laxmi publications, New Delhi,1994.
5. R.K. Rajput "Strength of Materials ",S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi 1996.

AR232 Theory of Architecture - II 2 0 0 2

1 ORGANISATION OF FORMS AND SPACES 5

a) Spatial Relationship
i) Space within space
ii) Interlocking spaces
iii)Adjacent spaces
iv)Space linked by a common space.
b) Spatial Organisation - influencing factors and their types
i) Centralised
ii) Linear
iii)Radial
iv)Clustered
v) Grid
c) Articulation of forms and spaces types
i ) Edges and corners
ii) Surface

2 CHARCTER AND STYLE IN BUILDINGS. 9

Factors influencing the character and style of buildings. Study of examples from Buddhist, Hindu and Islamic
Architecture in India - Greek,Roman,Cothic Renaissance,Modern and Post Modern Movement.
3 PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION 3

Unity,Harmony and specific qualities of design to include Dominance, Punctuating Effect,Dramatic


Effect,Fludity,Climax,Accentuation and Contrast with building examples.
4 CIRCULATION 4

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Function of building circulation components of building circulation - The building approach,The building
entrance,configuration of the path,path space relationship,form of circulation space with examples. Simple
circulation diagram for buildings.
5 WORKS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTS 9

Works of modern and post modern architects and their ideologies and philosophies towards architecture -
Louis Sullivan,F.L.Wright,Louis Khan,LeCorbusier,Philip Johnson,Charles Correa, and Michael Graves.
Total No of periods: 30

References:

1. Sir Bannister Fletcher - A History of Architecture,Butterworths, London,1987.


2. Francis D.K.Ching,Architecture - Forms, Space and Order, Van Nostrand Publications,New York,1979.
3. Ernest Burden - Elements of Architectural Design - A visual resource, Van Nostrand Reinhold,1994.

AR233 History of Architecture - III 2 0 0 2

1 ROMANESQUE 6

The medieval ages - learning in the monasteries, evolution of the guilds - Factors influencing architecture -
outline of architectural character in Italy,France and England - Examples: Pisa group,Italy; Abbay Aux
Hommes, Caen; Tower of London.
2 FRENCH GOTHIC 4

Religious and social influence - evolution of vaulting and development of structural systems - outline of
Architectural character - Examples: Notre Dame,Paris.
3 ENGLISH AND ITALIAN GOTHIC 4

Development of English gothic vaulting -outline of Architectural character in England and Italy - Examples:
Westminister Abbey Hampton Court Palace,London; Doges Palace,Venice ;Milan Cathedral.
4 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 8

The idea of rebirth and revival of art - sociological influences in art and architecture - Development of
thought,emergence of merchant communities and their patronage. Outline of the Architecture during the early
Renaissance, High Renaissance and Baroque Periods - Features of a typical Renaissance Palace, eg.Palazzo
Ricardi, Studty of life History,Philosophy,contribution of the following architects: Brunelleschi,
Mischaelangelo,Andrea Palladio.
5 FRENCH & ENGLISH RENAISSANCE 8

Outline of the architectural character of French and English Renaissance - Domestic Architecture in England -
Study of the life,Philosophy and works of the following architects: Sir Christopher Wren,Inigo Jones.

Page 14
Total No of periods: 30

References:

1. Sir Bannister Fletcher,A History of Architecture, University of London,The Antholone Press,1986.


2. Pier Luigi Nervi, History of World Architecture Series. Harry N.Abrame Inc.Publication, New York,1972.
3. S.Lloyd/H.W.Muller, History of World Architecture - Series Faber Ltd., London, 1986.
4. Spiro Kostof, A History of Architecture - Settings and Rituals, Oxford University Press,London,1985.
WEBSITES
http://www.clr.tornoto.edu - virtual lib.
http://www.lib.virginia.edu/-Renaissance and baroque
http2.siis.umich.edu/-Image browser

AR234 Materials and Construction - III 2 0 3 4

1 CEMENT 6

Varities of cement,compostion,properties and uses - brief study on manufacture of portland cement - tests for
cement - mortar for various works.
2 CONCRETE,ITS INGREDIENTS MANUFACTURE & PROPERTIES 16

Ingredients - suitability requirementsd for aggregates, grading of aggregates - role of water in concrete -
reinforcement - admixtures - properties of concrete. Manufacture of concrete and concreting - mix
proportioning - batching, mixing, transporting, placing, compaction, curing formwork - quality control -
outline of tests for concrete - joints in concrete - concrete finishes.
3 SPECIAL CONCRETE AND CONCRETING METHODS 8

Lightweight, highdensity, fibre reinforced, polymer concrete - outline of manufacture,properties and uses of
the above - ready mixed concrete - guniting - cold weather and underwater concreting - current developments
in concrete products and methods of concreting.
4 CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 27

Introduction to frames structures.


Concrete in foundations - types of footings - isolated, combines, continious,strip. Concrete floors, walls and
partitions. Concrete Lintels, arches, sunshades Concrete slabs - types - concrete beams and columns.
5 CONCRETE STAIRCASES 18

Factors involving staircase design - types of staircases like straightflight, doglegged, quarterturn,
bifurcated,spiral,helical, etc. - different support conditions like inclined slab,cranked
slab,continuous,cantilever - foundations, finishes for staircases- detailing out of handrails and balusters.
Designing and detailing for physically handicapped.
Total No of periods: 75

Page 15
References:

1. M.S.Shetty, Concrete Technology, S.Chand & Co.ltd,New Delhi,1986.


2. S.C.Rangwala, Engineering Materials, Charotar Publishing House, India, 1997.
3. Dr.B.C.Punmia, Building Construction, Laxmi Publications Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi, 1993.
4. Arthur Lyons - Meterials for Architects and Builders - An introduction Arnold, London,1997.
5. Don A.Watson, Construction Materials and Process, McGraw Hill Co.,1972.
6. Jack M.Launders, Construction Materials and Methods Careers, South Holland, Illinois, Wilcox
Co.Ltd.,1986.
7. W.B.Mckay Building Construction, Longmans, UK,1981.
8. Francis D.K.Ching, Building Construction Illustrated VNR.1975.
9. Alan Banc, Stairs, Steps and Ramps, Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.,1996.
WEBSITES
http://dir.yahoo.com/Business-and -Economy/companies/construction/concrete/materials
http://www.easyads.co.2a/yellow/india/construct
http://www.concrete.t.v-tokyo.ac.ip
www.larsentoubro.com
www.dalmiacement.com/index.html

AR235 Building Services - I 3 0 0 3

1 FUNDAMENTALS, SEWAGE TREATMENT AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS 12

a)Environmental sanitation - Sanitation in buildings. Primary and secondary treatment Activated sludge -
Intermittent and tickling sand filters - Arrangement of sewerage systems in Housing, large factories, towns and
cities - seweage pumping station - Rainwater disposal and storm water drainage from buildings.
b) Refuse Disposal: Collection,conveyance and disposal of town refuse systems.
2 PLUMBING 6

Materials and construction details of sewers and connections testing for water tightness plumbing system for
building types.
3 RURAL SANITATION - STORM WATER DRAIN - REFUSE DISPOSAL 6

Sanitation in unanswered areas,fairs, alignment of strom water drains in housing, layout and cities, collection,
conveyance and disposal of town refuse.
4 WATER QUALITY, PURIFICATION AND TREATMENT 12

Surface and ground water sources - quality/quantity - nature of impurities - treatments - water supply systems -
sedimentation - water supply project. Sand filtration - sandfilters - rapid sand filters - pressure filters -
sterilisation and disinfection.
5 WATER DISTRIBUTION 9

Distribution systems in small towns - Types ofpipes used - Laying jointing, testing - prevention of water
wastage and reuse of water - Internal water supply in buildings - Municipal byelaws and regulations.
Total No of periods: 45

Page 16
References:

1. G.M.Fair,J.C.Geyer and D.Okun,Water and Waste Water Engineering,Vol.II,John Wiley & Sons,Inc.,New
York,1968.
2. Manual of Water supply and Treatment, Second Editions,CPHEEO,Ministry of Works and Housing, New
Delhi,1977.
3. Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment,CPHEEO,Ministry of Works and Housing, New Delhi,1980.
4. S.C.Rangwala,Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering, Charotar Publishing House, Anand 388 601,1989.

AR236 Climatology 2 0 0 2

1 CLIMATE AND THERMAL SENSATION 6

Factors that determine climate - Components of climate - Characteristics of climate types - Body heat balance
- Effective temperature - Comfort zone.
2 SOLAR CONTROL 6

Solar geomety - Solar chart - Sun angles and shadow angles - Design of solar shading devices.

3 HEAT FLOW THROUGH MATERIALS 4

Basic principles of Heat Transfer - Performance of different materials 'U'value - Time lag and decrement of
building elements.
4 AIR MOVEMENT 6

Wind rose - Wind shadows - Air movement around and through buildings - Stack effect - Thermally induced
Air currents.

5 SHELTER DESIGN IN TROPICS 8

Design considerations,for warm humid,hodry,composite and upland climates - Heavy rainfall regions -
Landscape and climatic design.
Total No of periods: 30

Page 17
References:

1. O.H.Koenigsberger and others,Manual of Tropical Housing and Building - PartI - Climatic


Design,Longmans,London,1980.
2. M.Evans - Housing, Climate and Comfort - Architectural Press, London,1980.
3. B.Givoni,Man, Climate and Architecture,Applied Science,Banking, Essex,1982.
4. Donald Watson and Kenneth Labs., Climatic Design - McGraw Hill Book Company - New York -1983.
WEBSITES
http://www.envinst.conu.edu/~envinst/research/built.html
www.terin.org/
http://www.pge.com/pec/archives/w98passi.html
http://solstice.crest.org/efficiency/index.shtml

AR237 Architectural Design - III 0 0 14 7

1 DESIGN STUDIO 120

Single level planning in small scale, small span, horizontal movement and simple vertical movement,data
collection,case studies, analysis and presentation of studies - Data collection with respect to design and
detailing for physically handicapped persons - Concepts and presentation of design with scales models -
Examples: Residential buildings, Institutional buildings: banks,nursery or primary schools, primary health
center,school for children with learning disabilites,neighbourhood market,etc.
2 COMPUTER LAB STUDIO 90

Introduction to computer aided drafting system,concepts of real dimensions, colours,symbols,repeatebility


modification,layers.Exercises related to design projects above.
Total No of periods: 210

References:

1. De Chiara and Callender,Time Saver Standards Building Types, McGraw Hill Co.,2nd Edition,1980.
2. Edward D.Mills, Planning - The Architects Handbook - 10th Edition,British Library C Taloguing in
Publishing Data,1985.
3. Wakita/Linde,The Professional practice of Architectural working, drawing John Wiley &Sons,1984.
4. Andrew Alpern,Handbook of Speciality Elements in Architecture, McGraw Hill Book Co.,1982.
5. Julius Panero & Martin Zelnik,Human Dimension and Interior Space,Whitney Library of Design
Publication,1979.
6. Neufet Architect's Data,Rudoll Herg,Crosby Lockwood and Sons Ltd.,1970.
WEBSITES
http://www.hamptons.com/freshair
http://www.columbiamedical.com/
http://www.mgarchitects.com/
AR241 Design of Structures - I 3 0 0 3

1 TIMBER 5

Design requirements from National Building Code,Design of Madras Terrace roof.

Page 18
2 STEEL SLECTIONS AND RIVETED JOINTS 10

Properties of rolled steel sections, riveted joints, Analysis and Design of riveted joints (Excluding eccentric
connections)
3 WELDED JOINTS 10

Types of welding, permissible stresses, Design of fillet welds (excluding eccentric connections)

4 STEEL BEAMS 10

Allowable stresses, General specifications, Design of laterally supported beams.

5 STEAL COLUMNS 10

Allowable stresses,various shapes, built-up sections,Design of columns (excluding lacing,battening and other
connections).
Total No of periods: 45

References:

1. Ramachandra S.,Design of Steel Structures, Standard Book House,Delhi,1984.


2. A.S.Arya,Structural Design in Steel, Masonry and Timber,Nemchand and Bros,Roorkee,1971.
3. National Building Code of India,1983,Part VI,Structural Design.
4. Gurucharan Singh, Design of Steel Structures, Standard Publishers, New Delhi,1982.
5. Negi "Design of Steel Structures" - Tata McGraw Hill Book Company,New Delhi,1997.

AR242 Site Planning 2 0 0 2

1 INTRODUCTION 6

Definition of plot,site,land and region,units of measurements.reconnaissance,and need for surveying - chain


survey and campass survey - Plane Table and Theodolite surveys - various equipments used -theory only.
2 SITE ANALYSIS 8

Importante of site analysis - factors - involved - accessibililty and size and shape of sites,conforming and non-
conforming uses,climate and topography,infrastructures available,sources of water supply and means of
disposal system,architectural and visual aspects - preparation of site analysis diagram.
3 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES 4

Lie of the land,contours,water shed,surface drainage,ayacuts and irrigation lands.

4 DETAILED ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES 8

Page 19
Water, Vegetation,soils,climate,landforms,or categories,sewage disposal,irrigation system and ecology -
preparation of maps of matrix analysis,composite analysis,locality plans,topographical analysis.
5 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 4

Man-made structures,sensuous qualities,cultural data,images and data correlation - vegetation - plant


associations,types and distribution - preparation of ecological profile for an area.
Total No of periods: 30

References:

1. Kevin Lyunch - Site Planning - MIT Press,Cambridge,MA-1967.


2. B.C. Punmia - Surveying Vol.I - Standard Book House,New Delhi -1983.
3. P.B.Shahani - Text of surveying Vol.I Oxford and IBH Publishing Co - 1980.
4. Joseph De.Chiarra and Lee Coppleman - Planning Design Criteria - Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,New
York - 1968.

AR243 History of Architecture - IV 2 0 0 2

1 INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE 6

Brief History of Islam in terms of birth,spread across countries and principles - Influences on Islamic
Architecture - Evolution of building types in terms of forms and functions - the mosque,the tomb,and
minaret,the madarasa, the palace, the caravanserai,vernacular architecture,the market - important
principles,elements and character of Islamic architecture in terms of structure materials and methods of
construction, elements of decoration,colour,geometry,light - important examples to illustrate development of
Islaamic architecture.
2 ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA 2

Advent of Islam into the Indian subcontinent and its impact - sources of Islamic Architecture in India and
influences on them - Brief history of development and classification, different styles and regions.
3 DELHI OR IMPERIAL STYLE 5

Development of architectural style during the rule of the Slave,Khalji,Tuqlaq Sayyid and Lodhi Dynasties -
important examples for each period.
4 PROVINCIAL STYLE 9

Development of the provincial styles in different regions - Punjab,Jaipur, Bengal,Gujarat,Malwa,the


Deccan(Bijapur,Golconda,Bidar and Gulbarga) - important examples for each style.
5 MUGHAL STYLE 8

Development of the Mughal style under the different rulers - Babur, Shershah,Humayun,Akbar,Jahangir,
Shahjahan,Aurangazeb - important examples - development of the Mughal garden - important examples.

Page 20
Total No of periods: 30

References:

1. Architecture of the Islamic World - George Michell - (its history and social meaning),Thames and
Hudson,London,1978.
2. Islamic Architecture, Form,Function and Meaning, Robbert Hillenbrand, Edinburgh University
Press,1994.
3. Brown Percy, Indian Architecture (Islamic Period) Taraporevala and Sons, Bombay,1983.
4. Satish Grover, The Architecture of India (Islamic)Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi,1981.
5. Christopher Tadgell - The History of Architecture in India - Penguin Books (India) Ltd., New Delhi,1990.
6. R.Nath - History of Mughal Architecture - Abhinav Publications - New Delhi,1985.
WEBSITES
http://www.islamic art.com/pages/archcrea/index.htm
http://libraries.mit.edu/rvc/aka/agakhan/index.html
http://www.greatbuildings.com//types/styles/islamic.html
http://www.ets.uidaho.edu/arch499/nonwest/islam1.html
http://indiagateway.com/culture/architecture.html

AR244 Materials and Construction - IV 2 0 3 4

1 FERROUS METALS 7

Brief study on manufacture,properties and uses of cast iron,wrought iron,pig iron and steel - anticorrosive
measures for steel - mechanical and heat treatment of steel - market forms of steel - structural steel, stainless
steel, steel alloys - properties and uses - current developments.
2 STEEL CONSTRUCTION 15

Structural steel sections - types of connections in steel - steel in foundations, columns and beams - different
types of steel roof trusses including northlight truss - space frames - materials for roofcovering. Steel
staircases and handrails,balusters. Steel doors and windows - openable, sliding - collapsible gates - rolling
shutters. Steel in furniture and other interior uses. Detailing and specification for physically handicapped.
3 NON FERROUS METALS 8

Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys - brief study on manufacture,properties and uses - Aluminium products -
extrusions,foils,castings,sheets,etc.-tin and lead,properties and uses - current developments.
4 CONSTRUCTION USING NON-FERROUS METALS 20

Aluminium doors - openable, sliding, pivoted.


Aluminium windows - openable,sliding,fixed,pivoted.
Aluminium ventilators - top hung,bottom hung,pivoted,louvred,fixed.
Aluminium partitions,false ceiling,shopfront handrails,curtainwalling.
Aluminium roofing - northlight glazing bar ,Aluminium roofing sheets.
Use of other nonferrous metals like copper,bronze,brass,etc.,in architectural construction. Detailing and
specification for physically handicapped.
5 PLASTICS 10

Thermoplastics and thermosets - properties and architectural uses of plastics - structural plastics - reinforced
plastics and decorative laminates - plastic coatings,adhesives and seatants - modifiers and plasticzers - fillers
and stablizers - fabrications of plastics. Primary plastic building products for walls,roof and partitions -

Page 21
secondary building products for rooms,windows,roof lights, domes,gullers handrails.

Total No of periods: 60

References:

1. S.C.Rangwala,Engineering Materials, Charotar Publishing House,India,1997.


2. B.C.Punmia,Building Construction,laxmi Publications Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi,1993.
3. Arthur Lyons - Materials for Architects and Builders - An Introduction - Arnold,London,1997.
4. Don A.Watson,Construction Materials and processes,McGraw Hill Co.,1972.
5. Harold B.Olin,Construction Principles materials and Method, The Institute of Financial Education,
Chicago,1980.
6. W.B.Mckay Building Construction ,Longmans,U.K.1981.
7. Time Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data,Callendar JH,McGraw Hill,1974.
WEBSITES
http://www.britmetfed.org.uk/frmedu.html
http://www.indiabussiness online.com
http://www.nrwas.com
http://www.arcadia products.com
http://www.sail.com.in
AR245 Building Services - II 3 0 0 3

1 PUMPS AND MACHINERIES 9

Reciprocating,Centrigugal,Deepwell,submersible automatic pumps,sewerage pump,compressors vaccum


pump - their selection,installation and maintenance - Hot Water Boilers - Lifts and Escalators - special
features required for physically handicapped and elderly - Conveyors - Vibrators - Concrete mixers - DC/AC
motors - generators - Laboratory Service - gas,water,air and Electricty.
2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 6

Basic of electricty - Single/Three phase supply - Protective devices in electrical installations - Earthing for
saftey - Types of earthing - ISI specifications.
3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN BUILDINGS 12

Types of wires,wiring systems and their choice - Planning electrical wiring for building - Main and
distribution boards - transformers and switch gears -Layout of substations.
4 PRINCIPLES OF ILLUMINATION 9

Visual tasks - factors affecting visual tasks - Modern theory of light and colour - Synthesis of light - Additive
and subtractive synthesis of colour - Luminous flux - Candela - Solid angle illumination - Utilisation factor -
Depreciation factor - MSCP - MHCP - Lans of illumination.
5 LIGHTING DESIGN 9

Classification of lighting -Artificial light sources - spectral energy distribution - luminous efficiency - colour
temperature - colour rendering. Design of modern lighting - Lighting for stores,offices,schools,hospitals and
house lighting. Elementary idea of special features required and minimum level of illumination required for
physically handicapped and elderly in building types.
Total No of periods: 45

Page 22
References

1. E.R.Ambrose,Heat Pumps and Electric Heating, John and Wiley and Sons,Inc., New York, 1968.
2. Handbook for Building Engineers in Metric Systems, NBC,New Delhi,1968.
3. Philips Lighting in Architectural Design,McGraw Hill,New York,1964.
4. R.G.Hopkinson and J.D.Kay, The Lighting of Buildings, Faber and Faber,London,1969.

AR246 Architectural Design - IV 0 0 14 7

1 DESIGN STUDIO 70

Problem related to multi room, single use,small span - Multiplestroy, Horizontal and Vertical
movement,Active cum passsive energy, Masonry and Frame type Buildings.
Eg: Department store,Library, Higher Secondary School, Campus Students Centre,etc. The Projects will
consciously provide for movement and use by the Physically Handicapped and Elderly.
2 DESIGN STUDIO - RURAL PROJECT 105

Problems related to Rural Housing - Visits to selected Village - Surveys on Socio-Economic,


Physical,Housing and Surveys,etc. To study existing conditions - analysis of survey data - preparation of
report and presentation in a seminar - preparation of design brief solutions for housing and community
facilities.
3 COMPUTER LAB.STUDIO 35

Documentation of rural project using computer of Housing typology - Introduction to 3D Modelling and
Rendering 3D Images.
Total No of periods: 210

References:

1. De Chiara and Callendar,Time Saver Standard for Building Types, McGraw Hill Co.,2nd Edition,1980.
2. Edward D.Mills,Planning - The Architects Handbook - 10th Edition,British Library Catologuing in
Publication Data,1985.
3. Wakita/Linde,The Professional Practice of Architectural Working,Drawing John Wiley & Sons,1984.
4. Andrew Alpern, Handbook of Specialilty Elements in Architecture, McGraw Hill Book Co.,1982.
5. Julius Panero & Martin Zelnik,Human Dimension and Interior Space, Whitney Library of Design
Publication,1979.
6. Neufert Architect's Data,Rudolf Herg,Crosby Lockwood and Sons Ltd.,1970.
WEBSITES
http://www.focusnet.co.uk/cib/library/physdishous94.htm
http://www.ourvirtualmall.com/cloth.htm
http://www.ddimagazine.com/
http://www.atlasmagazine.com/photo/lande6/

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