Natural Resource Management
People are the stake holders NRM is for people or to maintain resources in spite of people or because of people. Natural Resources can be managed. NR are the raw materials used to satisfy human needs. groups. agencies and government NR Management the planning and active manipulation of ecosystems and processes for human benefit.
. owned. NR are those materials derived from the earth that exist completely independent of human activity.Definitions
Resources are things that have utility. maintained or not maintained by different people.
. fossil fuels. water etc.)
Non-renewable (land. minerals.Natural Resources
What is NRM???????
land. with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. soil. plants and animals.
Major natural Resources:-- Water Forest Soil Fossil fuel Sunlight Air
distributing. management of water resources management of digesting protection management of irrigation management of the water table
. managing. and optimum use of water resources under defined water polices and regulations. industrial water. It may mean: management of water treatment of drinking water. sewage or wastewater. developing.Water Management
Water management is the activity of planning.
Water Resource management in India
Definition: Soil management concerns all operations. practices and treatments used to protect soil and enhance its performance.
Soil management practices that affect soil quality: Controlled traffic Cover crops Crop rotations for row crops Nutrient management Tillage Maintenance of organic matter Pesticides residues Soil acidity adjustment Maintenance of Organic matter Soil Pollution
and provides a bed of soil that holds sufficient moisture to permit the planted seeds to germinate. This removes or kills any weeds growing in the area. loosens and breaks up the surface layers of the soil.
. This preparation is traditionally accomplished by using a plow that cuts into the ground and turns over the soil.Tillage:
The purpose of tillage is to prepare the soil for growing crops.
agriculture accounts for 28 percent of the nearly 2 billion hectares (5 billion acres) of soil that have been degraded by human activities.
. or disease-causing agents. salts. Globally. chemicals.Soil Pollution:
Soil pollution is the buildup in soils of persistent toxic compounds. radioactive materials. and deforestation is responsible for 29 percent. overgrazing is responsible for 34 percent. which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.
Soil Pollution Control Measures:
and environmental benefits. economic. Forest management is the branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative. economic. legal.Forest Management:
Forests provide many social. and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects
fish. Based on a five-year study. titled Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. an area equivalent in size to Panama or Sierra Leone.3 million hectares (18 million acres) per year. urban values. water. recreation. the report found that forested areas throughout the world were continuing to decline at a rate of about 7. forest genetic resources and other forest resource values. wildlife. wilderness.
. In 2005 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations issued a major report. on the status of the world s forests. wood products.Methods:
This includes management for aesthetics.
Clear Cutting aforestation Method:
Companies that search for new natural resources determine cost using one of two approaches: the successful-efforts approach or the full-cost approach. fossil.
. mineral. If resources must be restored after the natural resources are removed. the restoration costs are also considered to be part of the cost. and other natural resources are different from depreciable assets because they are physically extracted during company operations and they are replaceable only through natural processes Cost of natural resources.NATURAL RESOURCE ACCOUNTING
Timber. The cost of natural resources includes all costs necessary to acquire the resource and prepare it for extraction.
exploration costs are considered part of the cost of natural resources only when a productive natural resource is found. Unsuccessful exploration costs are treated as expenses in the period during which they occur.
.The successful-efforts approach Under the successful-efforts approach.
The approach that a company selects should be disclosed in the notes that accompany the financial statements.
.The full-cost approach
All exploration costs are included in the cost of natural resources.
There are various aspects of accounting our natural resources in our day to day activities by adopting certain measures by ourselfs. And officially they are examined in few of these parameters Automobile ( emmision of gases) Agriculture ( water Logging ) Factories and industries ( emmision of gases and deforestation) Electricity generation ( SO2 NO )
Household ( thermal insulation and indoor cooking )