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Life

Life

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Page 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...............1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........

1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The root word ³morph´ means form. 1 The etymology of ³syntax´ shows it meanings ³putting together´. 2

GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH

I INTRODUCTION This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read, write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things (vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted . A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology ), their arrangement in phrases and 1 sentences (syntax ), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). 2 Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it

really is. Look at this picture, and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. Page 10 2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. 1. The man is throwing the ball. 2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word that meant a man. You certainly didn¶t write Ball throwing man the the is. That wouldn¶t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Here¶s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You see you really do know lots about grammar!

B. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? Although you do write ³good sentences´ most of the time, you may make a few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use

the language. For example, some people say ³He sure done good!´ or ³He should of went to the dance´ or ³Hunters didn¶t shoot a big amount of deer this year.´ While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn¶t have much ³schooling´ or else isn¶t very good at expressing him/herself. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.

everyone can be Placed into at least one of eight groups...verb) Their fast lasted for three days. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech).adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF.. (tells about an action.C. For example. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? Although English has hundreds of thousands of words.noun) Page 12 4 . He ran fast so he wouldn¶t be late. look at these sentences. (describes how he ran. (names a thing. The eight parts of speech are Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the Grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to Correct them. The system of classifying word based on their function is known as the parts of speech. or classifications. Because some words can be used in several different ways....

places and things are called nouns. The following table lists a variety of nouns.The word ³fast´ is spelled the same. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH A. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE Cashier Carol Boys PLACES: Province New Brunswick Lake THINGS: ANIMALS: Cat Dalmatian Bug OBJECTS: Fork Television car SUBSTANCES: iron air gold ACTIONS: (a) race (the) dance (the) hits MEASURES: kilogram . but it functions differently in each sentence. NOUNS Words that name people.

. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. Can you find 10? Children name people Nouns in this Continent names a thing Picture? Africa names a place lions names a thing.Centimeter Day QUALITIES: Happiness honesty Beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. The naming Word that comes after them is probably a noun. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of The sentence. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. the. and most sentences contain several Nouns. Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. Page 13 Write a sentence about this picture. Paul is a noun that names a person. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. Use pronouns instead of nouns. an. Sometimes nouns appear without These little words.

´ The words I. For each pronoun printed in bold type. (e. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. PRONOUNS Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. The candy that we gave them was made last year. and sentence) because the writer¶s/speaker¶s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. think of a noun it could replace.g. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. and this are pronouns. If you made more than one or two mistakes. places. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. In this sample sentence. Everybody was glad when it was over. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. What did you buy from them? . Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. She saw it when they bought it. it isn¶t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. and things) that have already been mentioned. B. ³I want you to read this again. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. you. you should do more exercises from other textbooks.The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. reader. For example.

Page 14 6 Phrase. Verb phrases may have up to five words. VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. For example. 11.. C. please. 13. but few were chosen. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. Verbs may consist of one word. therefore. We will walk to the store tomorrow. never. . 3 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. Verbs usually tell about an action. 12.a group of words that belong together.. 10. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. We planted them. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. 15. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. one of the main parts of every sentence. always. they are verbs. but the birds ate everything. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. 9. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. If you need more practice. Many signed up. 14. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. The word walked became will walk. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself.

Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. was. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until . is. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. I have never seen anything like that before. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. are. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. They were always honest. our father was a millwright. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present. I am a teacher. Complete Exercises 5. The dog was chasing its tail. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The farmer used all the water in his pond. My sister is a nurse. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. When you find the words am. I have finished the laundry. 6. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. The runner flew down the race track. Page 15 7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. Paul can do anything. She is beautiful and talented.

ADJECTIVES To talk or write about a person place or thing. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said ³the tall woman´. rich. ³Give this piece of paper to the woman´. house. changes. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. you add ³detail´ words in front of the noun like little. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. blue. Your boss tell you. puffy clouds a happy. the white. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. you use nouns like girl.you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. carefree child some tall. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. Page 16 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. A modifier is a word that limits. changes. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a . Therefore. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. blond woman with the red dress´. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. or alters the meaning of another word. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here¶s another way of thinking of adjectives. old. ³the tall. D. or tree. as only six of the women are tall. an adjective limits.

The group of words ³with the red dress´ is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. and those. and four children. The third sentence adds even more details. Adjectives also tell how many. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. that. as in many people. these. Other adjectives like shiny. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. that coat. only that I have one. these. these boots. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader ³see´ your car in his/her mind¶s eye. The second adds the adjective blue. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. I have a blue car. These are demonstrative adjectives. Such adjectives include this. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives.large group. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use . This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. I have a small dark blue car. as in this car. This book belongs to Pete. that. I have a car. In other words. The words this.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind¶s eye. and those houses. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. cool. several candies. Page 17 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). those pencils are Ted¶s. new.

this modifies the proper noun Ford. that building. as in those books. as in many days. new clothes. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. and two cities. Either is correct. L an adjective tells which one or ones. and an. and Ted bought that Chevy. Page 18 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. I have the blue car. and cold day. In the second sentence. L an adjective tells what kind. those are Ted¶s. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. these computers. the. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. L articles are also adjectives .a. an) and definite articles (the). This belongs to Pete. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. . L an adjective tells how many.as adjectives and pronouns. couple of dollars. this restaurant. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. bad taste. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. as in old man. few hours. others called them adjectives. The nouns they ³stand for´ or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. I have a blue car.

kitchen. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. A good ³trick´ to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass.Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. Underline all the adjectives you used. Used in the following ways. kitchen. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. Glass. Page 20 12 . however. Page 19 11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. and school are usually nouns. or school. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye.

When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. Adverbs limit. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. you can add something in front of the adjective. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. What part of speech is the word beautiful. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. where he is driving. . Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. 1. Where is he driving? He is driving away. How is he driving? He is driving quickly. When is he driving? He is driving now. you will find out how he is driving.dE. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. or when he is driving. ADVERBS You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. that word is called an adverb. change. 2. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS He is driving. or to what extent it was beautiful. If an adverb is added. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. or alter the words they modify. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. The campers saw a beautiful sunset.

we can find out how quickly the dog ate. change y to i easily soft softly . ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. By adding another adverb.Page 21 13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. The dog ate quickly. ADJECTIVE ADD -LY ADVERB bright brightly easy *first. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. WORDS ENDING IN ³LY´ Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective.

can be an adjective to describe a person's health 4 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS Some words can only be used as adverbs. well often 4 quite surely very not almost never always so (He was so happy. you learned that some small words can be . and learn to recognize them in sentences. Page 22 14 usually an adverb . The only way to remember these words is to memorize them.full *first. A list of these words follows.) usually In the section on verb phrases. change ll to l fully careful carefully quick quickly * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word. never as adjectives.

or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. (adjective) A student is late. but they are not verbs. He will never tell another lie. The train arrived early. which are used to show a time. PREPOSITIONS Preposition are joining words. called prepositional phrases. place. and late.found in the middle of verb phrases. Eric will not shop on Sundays. (adverb) It was an early train. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. fast. sometimes called connectives. (adverb) There is a late student. Page 23 15 F. He was always asking questions. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. . Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. (adjective) Penny drives fast. Three examples of such words are early. I have often wondered about the moon. (adverb) Penny is a fast driver. Those words are adverbs.

Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. Adverb phrases can also be . The girl walked behind the building. In each sentence above. The girl walked near the building. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. The girl walked through the building. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. The girl walked to the building. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb ³walked´ by telling where she walked.preposition + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Time: after + the party = (after the party) Place: under + the table = (under the table) Ownership: of + our town = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. The girl walked into the building. The girl walked beside the building.

are called prepositional adverb phrases. telling where she walked. Page 24 16 about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on . these prepositional phrases. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb.used to tell how. when. in what way. therefore.

Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. Because these phrases function as adjectives. they are called prepositional adjective phrases. The colour of that paint is just right. In each example above. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. Here are some common prepositions: Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. They rented the house on the corner.out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. . The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. The books in that bag are yours.

An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling.Page 25 17 Clauses are ³mini-sentences stuck into µreal¶ sentences´ and which need special joining 5 words (conjunctions) to attach them. no! Ouch! Never! Fabulous! Fantastic! Ah! No! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. Unlike all the other parts of speech. It can be an actual word. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions. are also joining words or connectives. or clauses . H. Conjunctions are used to join words. G. phrases.. like prepositions. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh! Oh. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. Conjunctions can be 5 . INTERJECTIONS Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection.

What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. but they could not catch it. but does it tell you at what time? No. the word itself doesn¶t add any new information. Page 26 18 Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? Joe and Mike followed the young cub. When lightning struck the old barn. you will need to work through Module 6.found in any position in a sentence except the very end. Part of the Sentence. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. ùùùùùùùùùùùùù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. but joins two complete ideas. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. Before you can really understand clauses. µ . those that are left over are probably conjunctions. it burned quickly ùùùùùùù ùù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. And joins two nouns. I understand parts of speech. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. For the purpose of this module. Look at these examples.

member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. dog. Examples: waiter. Proper nouns are always capitalized. province. When a word names a particular. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning.I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. place or thing in general is called a common noun. or thing in a sentence. A. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? Page 27 19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. or the only. car. girl. place. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS A word which names a person. and city. . µ I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. µ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. house. 1. µ I am a little confused about parts of speech. µ I am totally lost.

friendship. Examples: team. panel. car. heard or touched. cloud. house. beauty. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. flock. it is called a concrete noun. Examples: honesty. faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. speed. 2. tasted. Nouns like table. height. pride. swiftness. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. sky are concrete nouns. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). places and things. 3. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. jury. herd. six committees. they are categorized as abstract nouns. On the other hand. Here are two . New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people.Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). brain. crowd. committee. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. seen. Page 28 20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). audience. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city).

timber. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. clothing. steaks. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. gold. the jury is acting as a single unit. each juror is acting as an individual. In the first sentence. In the second set of examples. The team is buying new uniforms. chairs. food. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. Do Exercise 19. The team are buying new uniforms. The jury are stating their opinions. Examples: meat. Mass nouns. The jury is announcing its decision. 4. money. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. land. furniture. equipment.examples that illustrate this point. miles. therefore called count nouns. however. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. everyone agreed on one decision. dollars. and there are many different opinions. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) . In the second case. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. and are. bracelets. are similar to collective nouns. jewellery.

The farmer bought a large number of cows. or plural. Page 29 21 Libby¶s front teeth Eva¶s big smile Greg¶s tiny nose His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. However. so he needed a huge amount of grain. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. B.and exceptions for the exceptions. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. SINGULAR AND PLURAL Nouns may be singular referring to one. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. Most nouns change their form by adding ³s´ when they are plural. 1. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. referring to more than one. 2. Spelling. there are exceptions to every rule . Module 4. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. POSSESSIVE NOUNS .some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage.

Page 30 22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions Possessive Form Examples If a noun is add an apostrophe (') . be guided by pronunciation of the . or that something is part of something else.New Brunswick's art If a noun is . add an . They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (¶).Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. A possessive noun shows ownership. belonging.the child's toys not end in ³s´ .Dennis's car the way you say the word possessive.Gloria's career plus s to the noun .Doris's store singular and ends formed in the .if a new syllable is .my boss's approval in ³s´.the neighbour's car singular and does .

add only an apostrophe .the ladies¶ room If a noun is plural add apostrophe (') s .Jesus' parables .children's toys Now examine the following phrases: the boy¶s bicycles the boys¶ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.the Jones' party .oxen's hooves and does not end .Mary Parsons' garden If a noun is plural.Phillips' farm .witnesses' story s at the end .women's wear .if adding an extra ³s´ .librarians' club . it indicates that one .John Hastings' store would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce. add only an .men's choir in ³s´ .students' lounge and already has an apostrophe (') .witness's description apostrophe plus ³s´ ..

it shows that several Page 31 23 people own it. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends¶ house. If it follows the plural form of the noun. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. Look at the word with the apostrophe.person owns the item. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Now examine these phrases: the lady¶s room the ladies¶ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. The book¶s covers are different colours. Examine these phrases. Babies¶ grandfather is correct The books¶ covers is correct Page 32 24 . Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies¶ grandfather the baby¶s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books¶ covers are different colours.

Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). create a rule to explain what you found. Only one is acceptable.´ 5. Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. For example. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. Examine the following sentence. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1." 2. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. However. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time 3. You should have written something like this: ³When two or more people ³own´ something together. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. . Then. 4. Mary and Susan¶s mother arrived yesterday. Here¶s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement.

Our cat is black and white. Spot likes to play. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. We call our cat Spot. What¶s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. Our cat likes to play. It has a long black tail. it sounds more natural and interesting. each one owns a separate thing. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. and 24 in the Practice Booklet.If both nouns are possessive. Our cat¶s body is mostly white. Our cat purrs a lot. My mother. and less repetitive. using pronouns to replace some nouns. It is black and white. Our cat never scratches. Page 33 25 It is for you! IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Mary¶s and Susan¶s houses are on the same street. 23. PERSONAL PRONOUNS . Page 34 26 A. my father. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Our cat has four black paws. Do Exercises 22. Our cat has a long black tail. It purrs a lot. two brothers. and it never scratches. and three sisters love our cat. Everyone in our family loves the cat. TYPES OF PRONOUNS Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence.

its. his boy. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. it are singular forms. her. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. the words we. you. theirs. me. my. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" they. These Personal Pronouns CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: I. obviously the ³most important person(s)´ in the message. hers girl. them. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. your. He. gender. their. they are plural. man. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. your name and the names of other people you. he. male she. she.Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. female it. person. she. you. theirs plants. and case. objects. Pronouns are also grouped by person. mine your name we. actions. us. it. our. The grammar term number means singular or plural. they. The pronouns I. woman. their people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. Person Singular . them. substances. yours the name of someone else you are addressing he. him. ours.

regardless of gender. animals. me. them. hers show feminine gender. his they. you. your. .Plural 1 person I. actress. their.) If. our. In English. theirs rd she. are used to replace plural nouns. we. my. actor. her. plural pronouns. ours st 2 person you. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. aviator. (I want you to close the door. your. on the other hand. yours you. its Page 35 27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. mine we. it is considered plural (Class. The pronouns he. hers it.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. I want you to be on time. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. his. they. him. and she. aviatrix. him. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. etc. and inanimate objects which are singular. his show masculine gender. us. yours nd 3 person he. you is used to designate a group of people. then it is considered singular. her.

That coat belongs to Mary. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. . OR Mary is standing by the door. hers. Mary is standing by the door. theirs whose. That is her coat. my. and they are. its. Grammar: Part 2.Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. mine your. The sentence could be rewritten. his her. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. they are contractions of it is. you are. you¶re. yours his. explains case in greater detail. The words it¶s. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. --our. ours their. Mary is standing by the door. That coat is hers. Module 6. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to. and they¶re are not possessive pronouns. Page 36 28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive.

we/us. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. Of course. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. It should read I rushed into the house. (I/me. . a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. You¶re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. do not match. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. using only the pronoun. PRONOUN SELECTION What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. not present at the time of speaking. she/her. therefore. The sentence should be corrected. however. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. My mother and me rushed into the house. but they must be present. Here¶s another common error in pronoun selection. The pronouns. 1. You know that does not look right or sound right. Me rushed into the house.It¶s always funny when the dog chases its tail. they/them is to test the pronoun alone. Both pronouns replace People. The people referred to in this sentence are . but they should match. you can test the sentence above by reading it. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. Their apartment will be for rent when they¶re transferred to Saint John. For instance. he/him.

Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Mr. Smith gave I three letters to mail.Page 37 29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is ³I´. make. Mr. you can hear and see that this is not correct. heard often in speech. Page 38 30 . but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. Many people make this mistake. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. Smith gave to letter to only one person. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. Just as in the example above. Mr. Yous is not a word. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. 31. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. and the sentence should be corrected like this. This sentence may look and sound correct. the pronoun you is the correct choice. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. 32. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. Do Exercises 30. The pronoun me is the correct form. Look at this sentence. even well-educated ones. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The next two examples show a very common error. but be careful when you are speaking. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them.

An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun ³Margaret´ is the antecedent of the pronoun ³her´. 2. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or make them both singular. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. OR

An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student, teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Page 39 31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent, the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn¶t know who his refers to because the writer hasn¶t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark¶s apartment yesterday. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al¶s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.

The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS In the following sentence, Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing, it is an called an indefinite pronoun. The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to Page 40 32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound ³right´ because you have heard it so often, it is NOT correct. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any everything anybody everyone anything each anyone nobody

everyone no one everything none everybody nothing either somebody neither someone another something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several few all some both many Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Page 41 33 C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. Singular Plural this these

that those such such Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book. Give her this. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat that. Pie is the antecedent of that. Give her the books. Give her these. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Eat those. Pies is the antecedent of those. Take his coat and hat. Take them. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are not demonstrative pronouns. I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)

but if it refers to a group. there is no such word as ³themself´. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. himself. yourself. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the ³receiver´ of the action is the same person as the ³doer´. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. Can you find the word ³themself´? Can you explain why not? E. yourselves. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. Page 42 34 Some grammar texts call this group ³intensive pronouns´. Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used 6 . use the plural form yourselves. In other words. Check the dictionary. watch yourselves out there on the field today. Andy. herself. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. but I gave those to Mary. 6 D. Although it may sound and look correct. use the singular form yourself. if someone does something to himself or herself.I sold some cakes. If the sentence is directed to one person. Players.

yourselves. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. Interrogative pronouns: who . G. 7 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS When you ask a question about someone or something. She taught her children to help one another. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. I fixed the car myself. himself. themselves Examples: You. which. are better able to answer that question. what 7 8 Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. 8 F. one another. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. yourself. For example. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. wouldn¶t pass judgement on him. myself. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. or I. yourself. herself.to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. Page 43 35 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. CDs or tapes? . whom whose. you might say. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself.

We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale. Do Review Exercises 40... H.... that in many sentences..... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail. which. The driver who didn¶t stop got a ticket....What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who.. Page 45 37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb....to refer to things that..to refer to people which.. whoever.. The term ³clause´ really means extra bits of Page 44 36 information in a sentence............ We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock.to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank... I saw the television program which was banned in the States. The driver that stopped didn¶t get a ticket.. Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi... I almost forgot that it was your birthday.. they are not interrogative pronouns........ 41.. whom... If they are not used to ask a question......... Relative pronouns: who................... one of the main .... and 42 in the Practice Booklet. expressed in a special way....... whom... The teacher whom you met trained in France............. Module 6. whomever......

They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. The rose grew very quickly. That accounted for his absence. The horse jumped the fence. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. David decided to move to Woodstock. TYPES OF VERBS A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. ACTION VERBS Most verbs are action verbs.parts of every sentence. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. Underline the verbs you used. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. A. STATE OF BEING VERBS A very small number of verbs express a state of being. In fact. These nonaction . Page 46 38 2. They realized their mistake. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. He caught the ball easily. 1. She drives very carefully when it¶s snowing. She thought about what she had done. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. such as The children ran after the dog.

Sherri is an accountant. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am was being is were be are has been had been have been will be will have been are become (all forms) seem (all forms) Compare these sentences. They were unhappy. You will be successful. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer¶s state of being and ³happy´ . The dog was friendly. John is tired. I am happy. You are hungry. I ate the apple. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. They show that something or somebody exists. He was a good friend. We were scared. I am a student.verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs.

Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. On the other hand. the writer¶s state of being is as a student. This is one way to use a ³state of being´ or ³linking verb. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. Module 6. something that can really happen or that is observable. not a linking verb. He felt the water before he jumped in. In the second sentence. As well. The verb ate is an action verb. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. Martha tasted the chili.describes how the writer is feeling. and the sentence means that ³I´ = ³a student´. Here are the most common ones. Tom grew 3 inches last year. they are considered to be action verbs. This is the second use of the ³state of being´ or ³linking verb´. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. In other words. Page 47 39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. .

A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. B. FORMS OF VERBS 1. 46. called a verb phrase. He walked to school every day. The sculpture felt smooth. and 47 in the Practice Booklet. Page 48 40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. The music sounded perfect in the arena. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. therefore. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. Within a verb phrase. or the fact that something has certain qualities. AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS In the previous section. . they are consider to be linking verbs. The evidence looks convincing in this case.The engineer sounded the locomotive¶s horn at the crossing. 45.) The smoke smelled stronger now. The chili tastes good. Do Exercise 44. The sky grew dark before the storm.

and did are helping or auxiliary verb. I am eating my dinner now. We have thought about a vacation this winter. will can be a main verb. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o¶clock. I will eat all the cookies before the sale.I will travel to Halifax on the train. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below. and write are the main verbs.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. I had eaten my dinner. Travel. have. thought. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were . When will comes before a main verb. Sometimes. as in I willed all my property to my children. however. will. When you called. were. finishing. Before calling. it is a helping or auxiliary verb. I was eating my dinner. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating.

not . had been am being. The main verb is saved. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. but which are never part of the verb phrase. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. Saved is the main verb. is being. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. Although rare. Here tested is the main verb. was being. were being Page 49 41 As you have just seen. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other ³non-verb´words.has have had shall will do does did have been.. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. In some sentences. are being. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. has been. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. At 5:00 p. I have never driven in a big city before. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs.m. I will have saved enough money by Christmas.

before today. VERB TENSES Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. ³brings´. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. In order to talk about the present. in the present. Every verb has FOUR main forms. ³carries´. as well as what will happen after today. we need to use different forms of verbs. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. 2.never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. In fact. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. in the past. and future. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. past. in the third person singular. in the future. Page 50 42 This form becomes ³walks´. 9 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I II III . etc.

is was.IV PRESENT PAST PAST PRESENT PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE walk walked walked walking 9 carry carried carried carrying bring brought brought bringing sing sang sung singing hit hit hit hitting do did done doing am. were been being . are.

2. The children will be hearing the story.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. have had had having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past.has. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. present and future. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses Page 51 43 a.. this module explains four common tenses. How can you tell? 1. 1. Present 3. The children had heard the story. Simple present He walks to school. Simple Verb Tenses These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. the present or the future. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. present. Simple past I walked to the store today. Past 2. 3.. and future. . from Column II. Future. The children are reading the story.

To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. You (plural) will write that test. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL EXAMPLE PART Simple past none Column II . will in the second and third person. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. I and we. from Column I. I shall walk to the store. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. but the correct written form uses ³shall´ in the first person. She will make the cake.To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. he walks Simple future .past I walked Simple present none Column I . It will be here. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. Today.present I walk. ³will´ is almost always used when speaking about the future.

had. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past.Past Perfect . Present perfect .Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine.) Past perfect .I had answered your letter before you called me. . The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. He has finished his work. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. completed. it uses had. have. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. Despite its name. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. . the past form of to have as its auxiliary.present They will publish b. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past. Because this is the past perfect. or is about to be.I have completed my assignment. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. It is built using Page 52 44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has.will or shall Column I .

Progressive Tenses . have Column III. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. I shall have showered before you arrive. Column III.past participle We had walked Present perfect has.past participle I shall have done shall have c. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other.Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. Future perfect . Page 53 45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past perfect had Column III. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future.past participle He has sung Future perfect will have. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have).He will have launched the boat before the storm hits.

Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. are. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. Future progressive: Eventually.The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. present and future. the action of ³watching´ takes place over a period of time. are. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. In this case. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). you use one of the progressive tenses. is. Page 54 46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE . they will be selling only new computers. The future form of to be (will be. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. Here. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. too. was. at sometime in the future. were. shall be. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am.

RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses. the present participle. He has been saving his money to buy a car. Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately. 1... are.. Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions.AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past Progressive was. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV.. Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase. Sheila had answered all their questions.... Identify the auxiliary. is Column IV-present participle You are eating Future Progressive will be. Column IV-present participle We will be shall be doing d. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have .. were Column IV-present participle He was eating Present Progressive am..... Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries... They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive.....had answered 2. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then.

.. .. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense... Is the auxiliary in the past....3. As a final check... but you learn them later. Then.. and choose the correct form when writing.. present or future.....the perfect tenses 4.. Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. There are other tenses........... Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes. The students will be walking to school from now on. look at the main verb...... Try this one yourself. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses. this is truly an example of a past perfect tense.... Page 55 47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence...had is in the past form...

are Column IV You are finding Future Progressive shall/will be Column IV She will be fitting Past Perfect Progressive had been Column IV I had been sitting . were Column IV He was hearing Present Progressive am.SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Simple Past none Column II I walked Simple Present none Column I He sings Simple Future shall or will Column I They will sing Past Perfect had Column III We had hit Present Perfect has. is. have Column III She has carried Future Perfect shall/will have Column III I shall have rung Past Progressive was.

just use the dictionary. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add ³s´.´ing´ or ³ed´ to form its principal parts. These verbs are called irregular verbs. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the ³entry word´. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb.Present Perfect Progressive has/have been Column IV He has been filling Future Perfect Progressive will have been Column IV We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. Look up the verb. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown feel felt felt spring . If there are no words written in bold type. If it is an irregular verb. Page 56 48 IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed.

.sprang sprung ring rang rung drink drank drunk bring brought brought burst burst burst eat ate eaten rise rose risen raised raised raised swim swam swum cut cut cut lie (to recline) lay lain lay (to place) laid laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet.

When you hear or read a sentence. One of them is to reduce someone¶s or something¶s responsibility for an action. The truck was hit on a stormy night.M. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. In this case. For example. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. ³Good writing´ generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. the VIA train has the strongest focus. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. In sentences using active voice. based on s sentence structure and meaning. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. on a stormy night. so in this example. On the other hand. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which ³downplays´ .Page 57 49 3. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. The effect of using a passive voice is to ³downplay´ the ³doer´ of the action.

I had an accident and the fender was crumpled. That house was designed by a famous architect. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. Here¶s an easy way to find passive verbs. A vicious dog bit Mark. The candles were melted. At the party.. CDs were played and local news discussed.. If you can¶t find a ³by´ phrase. (by me). Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with ³by. try to insert one of your own.by the heat. the guests played CDs and discussed local news.someone/something´. restructure the sentences to place the ³doer´ of the action at the beginning of the sentence.(by me). you should rewrite it. putting the ³doer´ at the beginning. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog.the railway¶s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night.. you should always read it through just looking for passives. For example. Think about how you report bad news. .. (by whom? by what?.. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. If you can. My report card got lost. the verb is probably passive. Often it is phrased in the passive.) Page 58 50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing.. When you find them. When you proofread your work. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice. At the party..

The clouds. Make sure your story uses only active verbs.. 59. she still grabbed Clark¶s arm and . A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately.. and 60 in the Practice Booklet. sailed across the autumn sky. The clouds were white and puffy. is the best thing a mother can think of.Do Exercises 52. puffy and white.. Page 59 51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. pale and fearful.. 57.. huddled in the ambulance. The survivors. 56. However. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. Complete Review Exercises 55.. lined the driveway. I am happy about winning the lottery. A child. . 58. The trees. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. The counsellors were very angry. 53. tall and leafy. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. busy and happy. Although Lois could barely keep up.. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. and 54 in the Practice Booklet.

He wrote a good answer. happy. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. . Page 60 52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. stately. The boys will be hungry. angry are all adjectives. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. adjectives. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing.The words tall. The book is heavy. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. The tourists are American. puffy. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6. white. and other adverbs. Adverbs often end in ³ly´. Max was late again today. It seems to be injured.

quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. To use them properly. Using the ³wrong´ modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. either adjective or adverb. He answered the question well. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. . nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. 64. add ³er´ to most modifiers.In this sentence. Or I feel well. If the sentence sounds awkward. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. How are you? I am well. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. When comparing two things. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding ³er´. bright: This light is brighter than that one. In the sentence below. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. Well is usually an adverb. Do Exercises 63.

and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. DO NOT add ³er´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. the suffix ³er´ is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. beautiful: Today¶s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. Usually. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things.Page 61 53 fast: He walked faster than I did. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. sickly: . fast: He always drives fastest at night. finely: Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. more than two things are compared. soon: They left sooner than we did. When comparing two things. add ³est´. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. Often. Instead of adding ³er´. Do not add ³est´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´.

peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding ³er´. this car's motor runs most quietly. strawberry tastes better. some More Most Well Better . quietly: Of the four. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. It is not correct to say gooder.Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. or by using more or most. goodest. These words actually change their form. or more good. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. Page 62 54 SINGLE FORM COMPARING TWO COMPARING THREE OR MORE Little Less Least Many More Most Much. ³est´. but chocolate tastes the best of all.

or not correct. or correcter. If something is dead. It cannot be more correct. because of their meaning. These words are called absolute adjectives . An answer on a test is either correct. badly Worst Worst Far Farther. correct and dead. it is dead. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons.words such as. It cannot be less dead or more dead. Page 63 55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square .Best Bad. further Farthest.

how the action in a verb took place. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. or another adverb. an adjective. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. an adjective is necessary. He is real happy is incorrect. in the middle of is the preposition . use an adverb. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing.supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER When making comparisons. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. Page 64 56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. Compound prepositions. The correct adverb is really. sometimes called complex prepositions. If the word modifies a verb. some writers make mistakes because they can¶t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. where.

There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. us. at Superior School. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. him. her. to the library. Always use the personal pronouns me. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. . it. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. them after a preposition. you.in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions.

they peeled vegetables and told stories. or you can make a speech. but I can¶t find the time. for she had no money. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. (2 complete ideas) I want to go. (2 ideas) She couldn¶t attend school. an adjective with an adjective. (2 ideas) You can write a report. and the boys danced. phrases or clauses. 2 adverbs) The girls sang.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. (2 ideas) I can¶t finish this dessert. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS A. (2 adjectives. A conjunction may join words. nor* can I drink my coffee. (2 ideas) .Page 65 57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. yet he never carries a map. and so on. (2 prepositional phrases. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns.

or lost. nor at the right address. Page 66 58 neither/nor Example: Harold was neither on time. but they are always used in pairs. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. whether/or Example: I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. therefore.It rained. in this case. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. but also at the wrong address. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. both/and Example: Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. B. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. so they cancelled the outing. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. Although these could be two unconnected events. it burned to the ground. . either/or Example: Harold was either late. C.

consequently. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. We did. it burned to the ground. we didn¶t go. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. . they are adverbs. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. Page 67 59 D. Compare It snowed last night.Lightning struck the old farmhouse. call them to explain. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. These are called subordinate conjunctions. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. therefore. however. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Another group of words are often used as conjunctions.

Although she was confused. The road was slippery. Since she got that job. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. I am not sure when I will be able to come. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. The truck drivers stopped carefully. make sure Mark is alright.She was confused. You won¶t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. As soon as you can. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. She didn¶t ask any questions. Module 6 explains this in more detail. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if . I would start studying now. If I were you. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. she hasn¶t been able to go to school. I will be able to come sometime. I am not sure when that time will be. she didn¶t ask any questions.

You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. whichever. Before the game. she was unable to afford the plane ticket. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. which you learned in the pronoun section.if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. Page 68 60 Before the party started. whomever. . I decided to buy a new car. These words are relative pronouns: who. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns. Because she lost her wallet. that. used to start a question or pronouns. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. Since the election. they bought popcorn and a drink. Because of her loss. which. she couldn¶t go to the concert. E. we went to the store. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. Module 6. the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. are also used as conjunctions. Since I won the lottery. whom. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns.

You can write your own or trade with a class mate. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet.Example: That club always has good entertainment. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. It is the student¶s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. Page 69 61 Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery! X INTERJECTIONS Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. As well. any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. They . You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off.

not the past form from Column II. Boy. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III. it is some cold today! Boy. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. Use very cold. it is real cold today! Boy. it is really cold today. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. I did well on that test. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Use had gone. did you see The Grateful Dead concert. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. Boy. If he had went home sooner. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. If he had gone home sooner. .are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Page 70 62 XI SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Boy. it is very cold today. I done well on that test. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow.

The verb phrase is incorrect. There is no such word as ain¶t anymore. English does not include the phrase very best. Use a phrase like Of course. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. The pictures should of been ready by now. I¶ll go with you next week. Use did. Use the simple past form did. ³Of course. Bob said. I¶m not finished yet. This sentence . Polly was really pleased with her new dress. Page 71 63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective.The form of the verb tense is incorrect. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. I¶ll go with you next week´. Fran did her best on that test. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. Fran had did her best on that test. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. The pictures should have been ready by now. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. I ain¶t finished yet. ³Very best. Bob said. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed.

The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. the correct form of the word is taller. Parts of the Sentence. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. If you understand parts of speech . A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. He is the taller of my two boys. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. ³Unlearning´ something you have said all your life is not easy. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. The officer is obviously a person. In this sentence. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. therefore. He is sure late with his payment this month. really late. Use really pleased. so the correct pronoun is either who or that. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. He is the tallest of my two boys. or very late. Use certainly late. only two things are being compared.needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was.

: 506-325-4866 Fax.well. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? Page 72 64 FEEDBACK PROCESS For feedback. * For feedback regarding the following items. spelling. punctuation or any proofreading errors.. relevancy of the provided examples. please use the enclosed page to make the proposed correction using red ink and send it to us. please forward your comments to: New Brunswick Community College . Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution .. ambiguity or wordiness of text. others. insufficient examples. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. NB E7M 5C5 Attention: Kay Curtis Tel.: 506-328-8426 * In case of errors due to typing.Woodstock 100 Broadway Street Woodstock. please use the form below: insufficient explanations.

The dog chased the cat under the porch. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. 3. 1. Check your answers in the answer key.number (include your text if possible) Page 73 65 FEEDBACK PROCESS Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution number (include your text if possible) Comments: Page 74 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 75 1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. 2. . 4.

Then. and lobster. 7. . The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. the little boats began to appear. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. The ocean was calm. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns.Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. 5. scallops. 4. 6. From the top of a small hill. 6. The Titanic sank in a few hours. 7. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. 5. Exercise 2: Nouns A. 9. In small villages. 10. Penguins live near the South Pole. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. 3. clams. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. we saw the Northumberland Strait. and the clouds were beautiful. Local markets are full of mussels. 8. 2. 1. So much snow covered the roads. When their boats are full. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. many husbands and wives were separated. 8. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. but these birds aren¶t bothered by the cold.

but these are pink. . Exercise 4: Pronouns A. What did you bring with you? 4. Underline all the nouns you used. Many of them came. their catch is usually large. but few stayed long. After she cut herself. 7. 2. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. 1. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. 3. 10. None of us was frightened by that. If the weather is good. The stones on the beach were green. Write 10 sentences of your own. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. Storms make life on the water dangerous. Page 76 2 6. 9. B. 1. All of those are expensive. Who likes chocolate? 8. 10. He gave her several bottles of this. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5.9. she went for a tetanus shot.

10. Many told about the kindness of strangers. 8. Write 10 sentences of your own. 5. 2. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 7. This belongs to her. She often rode the bus home at night. Underline all the pronouns you used. Give me some! 9. 3. 4. Mine was destroyed by the flood. The robin perched on a lower branch. We always welcome suggestions. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. 5. They told about the hardships we survived. Phillip called to tell them about that. but the insurance covered it. 6. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. B. 7. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. 3. 4. She never gave them any of it. The pitcher threw the ball. 1. He dreamed about his recent accident. .Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2.

6. Lucy will send you her new address. 9. 2. Finally. You will never guess the answer. 1. or have you finished it? 8. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. we decided on a movie. 1. Exercise 7: Verbs A. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. 10. 2. 9. Since his accident. . John ate his lunch slowly. After work. 7.8. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. 4. Page 77 3 3. 10. the dealer agreed to our price. he has been driving more carefully. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. His parents thought about him every day. Are you reading that magazine. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. The lions slept in the sun for hours. 5.

2. 10. life was returning to normal. they arrived at the train station. 4. 8. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. nine miles from Minto. 9. 3. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. The old curtains were torn and faded. 6. food became scarce. 3.Many branches had been broken by the wind. and they flapped in the light breeze. 7. They are calling it the storm of the century. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. After a few hours. 4. 5. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. 5. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. 6. . Soon. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. After three days. B. The little girl ran along the dusty road. Underline all the verbs you used. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden.

Kate is a truly courageous woman. You cannot drive there! 5. Yesterday. B. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. 2. 6. Underline the adjectives you used. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. . The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill.7. Can you come soon? 3. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. 8. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 9. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. 8. 4. 9. 10. These apples are juicy and red. They arrived early for class. 1. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. Rewrite it using enough adjectives Page 78 4 to make your reader see the scene clearly.

4. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. she wrote the very last sentence correctly. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. Many people have never used a computer. 7. 1. . Today. 9. 4. The baby has been very cranky lately. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. 10. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 2. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 8. 3. 6. 1. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 3. The colour of her dress was really flattering. 5. they are quite easy to use. Generally. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. Computers are relatively new devices.10. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. 2. Politely. Many businesses use them daily. he asked for a second helping. Finally. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. very fast computers are needed.

The time of day doesn¶t matter. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. 10. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. 3. 4. 6. 7. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. Since the crash. 9. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. In his new movie. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. Page 79 5 6. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Underline the prepositions. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John¶s brother.5. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. 7. 1. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. 5. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie¶s. The chairs on the porch were painted white. Guests with tickets entered first. 8. 2. .

did you see that jet! 2. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 5. 1. In 1992. Yuck. or complete ideas (clauses). 4. I hate boiled cabbage. . It was a life and death situation. 10. Look under the table and in the closet.8. 9. Oh no! He lost the puck. Then indicate whether they are joining words. None of the items on that page are available until July. or groups of words (phrases). 3. Ouch! That hurts. 2. 3. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. most of the money disappeared. 1. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. Wow. No! Don¶t touch the brake. Apples and oranges are good for you. Page 80 6 4. Underline the conjunctions.

2. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. Before he gets sicker. 10. we will have to stay home. 7. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. we can leave so we will be on time. but I couldn¶t get a ride. 5. If you are ready. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. 9. we won¶t believe it. we drove to Doaktown. 6. 8. 5. 4. Until the snow melts. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. 9. they gave it to the teacher. Exercise 16: Review . Although she missed the bus. After we saw a deer. 1. so we went to the concert. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. Until we see it. We ran home because it was raining. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. 6. When they had finished. 8. she and Lily still arrived on time. We bought the tickets. he should go to the doctor. 10.I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. 3. 7.

Their house was built in 1990. c. 12. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. Underline all the nouns. . She was giving a short but interesting lecture. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. 11. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 14. 2. 10. Eric and they learned very quickly. The wind was cold. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 4. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. This book cost six dollars. 13. No. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. The tall. b. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. but the sun was really warm. 3. 5.Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. Page 81 7 15. 8. Most of the students listened politely. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. 9. 7. 1. 6.

2. 8. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. Your instructor will correct your work. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. 5. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. 7. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 1. 9. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? 6. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. 4.Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. rose justice . 10. 3. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar.

A large amount of deer were shot this season. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. write two sentences.happiness cow school truth computer grace skiing stars bubbles fear Page 82 8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. 2. . Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. 3. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. 1. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals. Write the corrected form in your notebook.

Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook.4. He received three months¶ back pay yesterday. 2. Mary¶s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. Ann receives too many junk mail. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where . B Reword each of the following phrases. 5. Have you seen the dog¶s leash? 3. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. 1. Each of the boy¶s bicycles was locked. 4. 5. Sue¶s friends bought her a sweater in the men¶s department. They bought several rings at the auction. using apostrophes.

Mr. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. 7. 1. (two uncles) . Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary.necessary. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. 6. Charles company owed him two days pay. (two sons) 5. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. 8. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. and the familys name is Boudreau. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. 9. 1. read the section on apostrophes again. Marks mother lives at my sisters. 3. (one son) 4. Page 83 9 2. Then try these sentences. 10. The childs name is Nora. Smith was worried about her sons health. Mr.

4. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 10. (one girl. his wifes income was reduced. As you work through the test. 6. When you have completed the test. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. you should review the parts of this section that gave you . two twins) 3. If you had any mistakes. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. Page 84 10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module.2. and do not peek at the answer key. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winters last lament´. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. (one client) 9. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. 7. do not look back at the material in the module. mark your own work. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. Because of the accident.

There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. Read the following sentence. Chatham. That is my neighbours' new car. connects. accidents. That is my neighbour's new car.³trouble´ thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. 2. Ferry. 4. Centennial Bridge. D. C. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. Bridge. Chatham. The new car is my neighbours'. Chatham. 3. Centennial Bridge. B. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. D. try this test again. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. B. . C. That new car is my neighbour. A. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. Road. accidents. Centennial Bridge. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. B. Chatham. Read the following sentence. Ferry Road. accidents. 1. This is the store belonging to Doris. When you are satisfied that you really understand. Ferry Road.

Nova Scotia. The nouns in the sentence are A. What is a noun? Page 85 11 6. B. before they moved to this town. Halifax. this. soda pop B. Halifax. Nova Scotia. they. this. A. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. city C. Nova Scotia. A. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. Those toys belong to the children. Our friends lived in Halifax. Halifax. river D. town. Nova Scotia. 7. friends. E. D.C. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. friends. Nova Scotia. January . 5. town. C. friends. Read the following sentence. magazine 8. holiday E. D. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. town. Halifax.

There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. concrete. Page 86 12 The first one is done for you. B. singular. count church mice mob beauty . Parker 9. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. D. 11. A. There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. Canada C. Saint John D. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. C. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. Patricks Day. Church: common. correcting the errors.B. Jupiter E. I had a great time last St. The flower's petals fell to the floor. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. Dr.

My sister.Person. 4. 5. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . I saw them eating their lunch myself. Number.Canada¶s news armies meat equipment boys¶ loyalty jury grammar March fragrance men¶s company surprise trouble English horn sunrise boy¶s Lions¶ Club broccoli Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. her husband and their children visited your mother. Gender . 1. but mine is on the desk. He may have taken her coat. 3. Did you give him his book? 2. Cheryl gave her cold to them.

your. You should take yours. herself 5. 1.A. yours. ours. her. 1. your. my. First person plural A. She. they took my jacket and your camera. your. The pronouns mine. Page 87 13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. our. Try not to look at the chart above. When I went to the club last night. 3. me. us. myself 2. ourselves 4. its. Third person singular B. hers. your. theirs. whose are always followed by a noun. yours. Beside each. They say that we should always mind our own business. We. They. . Notice that the pronouns my. mine. First person singular E. The first set is done for you. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. yourselves B. Where are you going with her tapes. them. write its person and number . yourself F. his. her. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. Second person plural C. his. You. their. hers. yours. themselves 3. 4. They didn¶t know it was theirs until they saw its label. their. our. You. I. Third person plural D. 2. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender.

theirs are used alone. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn¶t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. they) will fail. Jerry took his brother and (she. me) could go to the game? 7. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. check the answers in the answer key. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. yours. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. using the correct pronoun. they) have to keep trying. 8. 5. her) to town. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. him) went to a meeting 2. 3. him) and (I.ours. They were sure that Lisa and (he. but (you. . me)! 6. him) were going to Miramichi. Do you think that (he. 3 person singular). Give the pencil to Martha or (I. 4. rd Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. John and (he.e. 1. (You. Students often think that (you. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. After finishing all the sentences.

Page 88 14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. her. using the right pronoun - . Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Your) hard work means that (you¶re. 11. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. they¶re) ugly colour. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. 12. leave it as it is. I). A student must try to find (his. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. your) going to pass. Rewrite the sentence. (It¶s. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. their) own learning modality.I do not want (those. them) sneakers because of (their. its) not likely to return. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. its) nest was destroyed and (it¶s. (You¶re. 9. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. 10. If a sentence is CORRECT. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. REWRITE the sentence. using the correct pronoun. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me.

10. We sent her some flowers. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. 4. 9. 3. 3. 7. 5. 1. 12. 1. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. The man standing outside in the rain is him. 2. 6. . Jane¶s best friend is me. They kept the secret from Jack and I. The boys tried out for the football team. Could him and me could go to the game? 8. 2. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. 11.Mary gave her the keys. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! Page 89 15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. Al met John and she at the movies.

A student should always be on time for his or her class. 1. B. 1. 2. The instructor will give them those. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. We ourselves were happy to participate. 6. 4. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces.The dog belonging to you has run away again. 7. Some managers write their business letters themselves. The merchants gave donations. . Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. Philip gave her her present. Our family is not large. 5. The dog's ears are pointed. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. It gathers once a year for a reunion. 9. My family are always ready to support their relatives. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. 4. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. The jury were presenting their opinions. 10. 2. 3. 8. The students asked for new books. 5. The president should take his office seriously.

their) supervisors. Several of the men have paid (his. Each of those buyers should consult (his. his. 5. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. The deer hurt (her. Max and Helen sang at (her. Does anybody know (his or her. 5. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. their) lunches. her. their) report later than tomorrow. A few forgot (his. and he should pay it. The audience clapped for their performance. his or her. his or her. her.Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. 3. No one should submit (his or her. Page 90 16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. None of the boys has paid for (his. 1. his. . their) pen. 4. 7. 8. their) dues. Many hens have escaped from (her. their) mutual friends' wedding. her. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. 4. 3. its) leg when it jumped the fence. 6. their) own bus ticket. 9. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. his or her.

2. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. 5. e. . 1. that. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. her or his. her. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. Then tell which is which. A few of us have received (his. 5. our) marks. Give me all of these and some of those. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. 2. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. Did he really say that? 3. Emphatic. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. You will learn about the use of this. This is the one I want to buy. 6.10. 4. Write This is mine. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. Whose book is that on the floor? B.g. and those as describing words later. their. 3. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. these. Wash the car yourself this time. Such cannot be true! 4. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. 1.

Ian is the one who knows that. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns . Page 91 17 7. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. 5. 9. He said many things which I didn¶t understand. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. 1. What have you done with the keys? 10. He hasn¶t decided what he wants to do next. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. 10. 8.I myself won¶t put up with that. 4. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. Whom should we reward? 6. Who stole the money? 2. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. The man who won is my friend Steve. 8. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. What did you bring for lunch? 3.

She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. but the house itself was undamaged. Which is right? There are two choices. The furniture was destroyed. but later I had learned from it. it always gives me the shivers. both of them look correct. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. 6. B. My first attempt was a failure. 10. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. 1. 9.A. . He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. 2. When you talk about that accident. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. 5. 7. Page 92 18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. What would anyone do with that? 4. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. The children themselves saw it. 3. 8. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. making notes as you go.

Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. its 5. 6. 1. interrogative pronoun B. You didn¶t give that to them. our 4. 9. but he took mine. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. relative pronoun D. each other 3. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. Always ask yourselves. everybody 6. but the contractor poured the cement. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. ³What can I do to help those less fortunate?´ 10. Something is missing from this recipe. We did most of the work ourselves.1. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. 7. these st 2. 1 person plural A. demonstrative pronoun . reciprocal pronoun C. Sherri took your boots. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. 2. did you? 5.

F. d. there) too expensive. c. i. He cut (himself. which 10. their. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. themself 8. e. possessive pronoun H. j. she) went to the automatic teller. . a. b. Page 93 19 f. reflexive pronoun I. which) is barking lives next door. (they¶re. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. h. what 7. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. a word that doesn¶t exist J. its) tail. them) shoes. him). Hutchins bought (their. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. its K. few 2. me). Sheila and (her. The dog (who. g. Be sure and tell her where (your. there. you¶re) house is. they¶re) old car. himself 9. hisself) on that rusty can. Don¶t buy (those. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. Mr. The cat often chases (it¶s.

the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. themself) 4. Volunteers. Those are mine. Which sentence below is correct? A. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. Few of them knew the right answer. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Page 94 20 8. Underline every pronoun you have used. bonus is the antecedent of it 6. Do you think there house is big enough? D. he told them to spend it wisely. 7. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. D.She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. us and the kids returned to Rexton. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. A. 5. Which statement below is not correct. Bill is the antecedent of he C. we and the kids returned to Rexton. For each underlined pronoun. B. B. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. C. C. B. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. employees is the antecedent of them D. A. The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. After the holidays. Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. . it is the antecedent of bonus. C. B. A.

Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. Buy yourself something expensive. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. 2. 1. 6. 7. Use each one in a sentence. For each verb that you identify. My sister¶s name is Paula. Who knows anything about this? E. We watched a movie last night. Then underline the verbs. . B. His car smashed into a bridge. 4. 5. Ask your instructor to review your work. The baseball hit the boy in the face. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. The students were happy about their marks. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. The dog jumped over the fence. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. it is classed as an action verb. D. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A.The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. 3.

Mr. 10. 11. We were afraid of the storm. 6. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. 15. we coughed all day. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. 4. 8. . 3. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. 12. 1. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. 7. 13. Because of the dust. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. please. The pie smells good. There were fourteen people in that class last year. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. 9. the bookkeeper at Colpitt¶s. 5. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. Close the door to the garage. The children became excited before the snow storm. You know my aunt. 2. He looks taller than Mario. We feared the storm. Smyth was my uncle. 8. Page 95 21 14. The little mouse squeaked loudly.

he slammed the door and drove down the lane. grow. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. 10. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. feel. Would you please flip the hamburgers? . 2. We played ball against their team Saturday. Madonna sings and dances well. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. 11. 13. 12. 15. Page 96 22 SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). the other with a linking or copula verb. 14. Suddenly. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. if any. This stew tastes good on a cold winter¶s night. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. 4. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. taste. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. sound. That would have confused anyone! 5. 3. I felt sick after the party.9. Wolves always howl at the moon.

2. 7. 5. He had been learning Chinese at school. Tomorrow. I will not be going. 9. I shall never agree to his proposal. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. There was a good show on TV last night. won¶t you? 9. Carl will kick the ball across the field. 13. Mitchell has lived here all his life. 10.6. 4. 10. 15. My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. 11. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. Yesterday. The washing machine has broken down. 6. 8. Today. not after the last trip. Today. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. Carl kicks the ball across the field. A child can easily learn this song. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Tomorrow. 1. Page 97 23 8. Today. . Carl had kicked the ball across the field. 7. Sue may never have been given that letter. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. He might have consulted a doctor. Have you ever heard such nonsense. 3. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. The men should have eaten that supper by now. 14. 12.

By the time they arrived. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. When they arrive. 4. 2. I have completed my income tax return. we had already served dinner. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. B. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. They have lived here for two months. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. B. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. D. . C. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. I am completing my income tax return early this year. D. 3. B. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa.Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. C. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. C. B. we will serve dinner.

C. D. B. 9. C.They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. 5. He will finish painting my house soon. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. 10. Page 98 24 6. C. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. She has designed a logo for the company. She is designing a logo for the company. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. She will design a logo for the company. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. D. 8. 11. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. D. They lived in Halifax before moving here. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. 7. He has finished painting my house. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. He is finished painting my house. She designed a logo for the company. B. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. .

2. 3 Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. Page 99 25 4. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. Barry threw the ball to first base. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. D.12. By the time you get to school. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. SENTENCE TENSE? A. Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice . the bell will already have rung. B. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. I am feeling better already. My son did his homework last night. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. E. G. The butcher had already delivered our order. Write your answers in your notebook. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. C. The train will be making three stops before Montreal F.

We have been searching for answers to our questions. After the elections. 3. 5. Stephen King has written many best sellers. 8.Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. the votes were recounted several times. I was frightened by the storm. Sandra¶s writing is improving daily. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. Page 100 26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. 4. 13. 1. I have just been thinking about you. 7. . My heart was broken. 11. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. The child was struck by a stray bullet. 10. 14. 12. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. 9. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. 6. 15. 2. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list.

Once they have been placed in a sentence. words cannot have a part of speech. Now look up each word in the dictionary. All by themselves. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. they start to function by carrying the writer¶s meaning to the reader. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. Look at the words below.Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. Change the passive verbs to active ones. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. This was a ³trick´ exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. It is at this point that a .

C. Have you eaten here before? 4. Number: 3 person singular rd Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Lunch will be served at twelve o¶clock sharp. 2. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. 6. . The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. He has never drunk stout before. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee.word develops into a part of speech. 3. 1. 7. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. Page 101 27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. The first one is done for you. write everything you can about it. For each one you identified. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. 5.

but old ones are gold. 13. 9. 15. My sister was teaching herself Spanish.8. 7. What were you thinking? 10. 10. Pronouns. so the dog was destroyed. 14. The music will have been playing for several hours. 5. 8. New friends are silver. Page 102 28 . The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. The men were unhappy with both of those. He is dating a beautiful doctor. 2. 11. pronouns. Everything that Tom says about them is true. The couple usually walks to the office. they will announce the results. They might not find each other at the airport. I shall be seeing you again next week. The child was severely bitten. 1. and verbs in each sentence. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. The houses had just been repainted. 6. When everyone is finished. Something should be done about each of these problems. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. I am doing my homework now. and Verbs List the nouns. 4. 9. 3. 12. My sister always rides her bike to the office.

The jury is discussing its decision. 5. I am happy about your decision. 9. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. Why haven¶t you written that letter yet? 6. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother¶s now. If you have too many mistakes. Oprah has changed people¶s attitudes towards honesty. All of these will sell well. 3. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. and Verbs List the nouns. 2. 4. 1. Your choices seem logical. Then give as much information as you can about each. 1. How much money will you need next week? 7. 4.Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. 2. Kevin gave me Marion¶s card. . Pronouns. Pronouns. Where was he going? 5. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. Tony will have finished his course by next June. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. 3. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. He had watched TV for more than an hour. 8.

Those were made in China. The storm grew worse as night approached. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. 5. Don't forget articles. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. 7. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. 1. 3. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. Write your answers in your notebook. 4. 8. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. Will you complete that survey? Page 103 29 10. If you find you are still confused about some points. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. What has anyone seen lately. 9. Pronouns. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. and his mouth watered. 2. SENTENCE . these come from Sackville. 6. He smelled the fresh bread. study it.10. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba.

These parcels are heavy. Invite those six people. depressing day. sweet and lovable. 12. An old rusty car is parked in my space. The road was rough and uneven. 7. I have had a boring. 3. We bought Shelley and Tim¶s house. sparkling blue eyes. 11. 2. Do you like spicy. Karl¶s hockey skates are dull. juicy apples. The little girl had big. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. 5. Mexican food? 9. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. 13. Page 104 30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. sat on the dining room table. This trip takes several days 8. 15.Adjectives Nouns 1. 4. 6. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. A few boys knew that they were lost. 14. Our cousins were eating huge. Give them some light summer clothes. Two cats. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and . 10.

The weather was warm. and the hills were gentle. They set up their canvas tents. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. piercing the inky darkness. Bob read the material carefully. After two long hours. they saw a beam of light. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. Jensen¶s chicken farm. Where is the grocery store now? . 2. bright and narrow. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. lit a huge crackling fire. Yesterday. With relief. 3.autumn leaves that littered the ground. and ate their supper.

4. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 6. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. 7. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 8. The circus was really exciting. 9. Simon is not a very good driver. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Page 105 31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. For each adverb, tell whether it modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. 1. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 2. Thoughtfully, the old man chewed his dinner. 3. Make sure that you review daily. 4. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 5. Tim was very happy about his success. 6. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun.

8. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 9. The soldiers were really tired after their training. 10. She strolled leisurely down the mall. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Indicate the type of modifier, i.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. Write an explanation of your choice. Example: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage.( ) Answer: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage. (adverb) 1. Leah behaves (good, well). ( ) 2. Sheila feels (sad, sadly) about the death of her dog. ( ) 3. I am not (really, real) sure if I will have a party. ( ) 4. The directions were (simple, simply) to follow. ( ) 5. I don't feel (good, well). ( ) 6.

The repairs went (slowly, slow). ( ) 7. The change in speed was (gradually, gradual). ( ) 8. You work too (serious, seriously) sometimes. ( ) 9. We feel (awful, awfully) about what happened. ( ) 10. These chocolates taste (good, well). ( ) 11. Firefighters must respond very (quick, quickly). ( ) 12. Lynn spoke in a (calm, calmly) voice after the accident. ( ) 13. Tiger Woods putted (bad, badly) on that last hole! ( ) 14. The lights shone (brightly, bright) in my eyes. ( ) 15. Paul did (good, well) on his second driver¶s test. ( )

Page 106 32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 1. Who is the (smaller, smallest, most small), Cathy or Diane? 2. My heart beat (rapidlier, more rapidly, more rapid) with each step. 3. It snowed (most, more) in January than in February. 4. The damage to the other car looked (worse, more badly, worser) than the damage to mine. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter, more difficult) than grammar exercises. 6. He is the (elder, eldest) of the candidates. 7. This idea is (more unique, unique, most unique). Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. Answer: Carl drove to, from, around, near, beside, etc. the bank. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 2. Earl worked him.

3. I will meet you the front entrance. 4. The horse galloped the field. 5. Smoking is not allowed the building. B In the next part of this exercise, find and underline the prepositions. 1. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day.. 2. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. 5. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 8. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. 9. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. C

. During the night...... If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun.. 1. with the red dress...prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ at 5:00 p..... The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p.m.. why or how the action of the verb took place... After each one.... Page 107 33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence... Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb.. If it is telling where. it is a prepositional adjective phrase.. when.......where:.. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook. it is an prepositional adverb phrase. Here¶s an example. the rest of the water drained from the basement.prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise.Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition...when.....prepositional adjective phrase modifying ³woman´ on the bench............m... The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat..... tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb.. 2... ..

Because of the storm. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. 1. 2. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill. In the middle of a big spacious lawn. 4. I asked her to wait for me. 7. 9. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. but she went home on the bus. 8. 6. the designer placed a beautiful statue. 6. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. Since his return. but also steaming hot. Either Anna and I will go.3. On Fridays. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. The chili was not only spicy hot. Correlative.Coordinate. 5. 5. Exercise 70: Conjunctions . 3. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store. 10. After his graduation in 1992. .

14. 7. 2. meanwhile. 5. yet he decided to drive anyway. The weather was snowy. 4. the team returned home. 11. so he just drank pop all night. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. however. Since I first met Sheila and her.Page 108 34 7. I wonder why they are leaving so early. 15. I made supper. . Mark knows more than I do about that case. He organized his study time. I know where they have hidden the treasure. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. 1. the children swam in the pool. I won¶t be able to go even though I have the money. 12. 8. After the whale beached itself. 8. he felt prepared. we will not pay our own fare. but also I will perform. but I don¶t have a map. Not only will I attend. 6. they will be cut down. 3. some local citizens rescued it. Tired but happy. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. as a result. We will go. 13. 10. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. He was the designated driver. she has always been very polite. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. 9.

Because you were late.9. It isn¶t certain whether they will come or not. You just answered my questions before I asked them. the students asked if they could stay. 11. you can¶t reach that cupboard. Before they read the instructions. Les is five inches taller than I am. 2. 23. 14. He reported that he had seen the incident. 19. 17. Are you sure that you are right? . 24. 1. Unless the Leafs win this game. After the lecture. For each sentence above. Although he is stronger. 20. they couldn¶t fix it themselves. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). Page 109 35 B. The first one is done for you. he couldn¶t turn it. 16. Although it was quite sunny. 22. Thieves broke in while we were away. you missed it. he turned pro. the wind was cool. 21. 15. He always talks as if he were an expert. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. 25. 10. 13. 12. they are out of the playoffs. If you are short. I don¶t know how I will get there. Underline all the relative pronouns. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. After he won the gold medal. 18. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. Copy these sentences into your notebook. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it.

Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported.3. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. (10) 4. 1. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. Your ancestors lived beside the sea. 9. Page 110 36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday.(7) 2. Cars that cost more than $20. 8. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. 5. came for a visit. I know who bought the Fuller¶s house. 4.000 aren¶t worth the money. who lives in Utah. 7. . Dogs make good pets for young children. mine lived near Moncton. My sister. (10) 3. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. 6. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. 10.

(12) 8. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. The frail. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. I do not think about their problems now because I don¶t have time. (11) There are a total of 150 words in this review. Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. She believes in his ability. Count the number of correct answers. (6) 10. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. (12) 14. The students in this program are very hard workers. but today they are in a circle. Usually. .Those big. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors¶ home. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. Identify the parts of speech of each word. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. (9) 15. (9) 11. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (5) 13. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. Casually. (9) 12. Page 111 37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. 1. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. so you can buy several of them. (15) 2. If you have less than a 120. (11) 9. (14) 7. the chairs were placed near the windows.(15) 6.

did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18. Sue often seeks my advice. Hey Eric. (6) 19.(9) 7. they finished their work. Ouch. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. (6) 5. Although the storm was very intense. (12) 14. Very quickly. Finally. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. the victims have recovered quite well. (13) Page 112 38 17.(14) 3. If you correctly identified 160 of them. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. they have some money. Miles¶ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can¶t pass those provincial exams. they bought lunch . (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. Because they have cashed their cheques. (10) 9. (11) 16. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12. and I still don¶t know it.(10) 6. (14) 4. (9) 10. I had been studying for three hours. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. Because of her problems. After they had mowed the lawn. his clever tricks have failed. Since the accident. the damage was minor. (13) 13. (8) 11. They had been writing their essays before they went there . you can . Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15. (10) 8.

fruit. Page 113 39 BAU ENGLISH . Collective noun . Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Read this paragraph. Count noun b. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Proper noun h. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Non-count noun c. In the paragraph above. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made. find one example of each of the following: (11) a.continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. Concrete noun i. Common noun g. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. and meat. Possessive noun d. Abstract noun j. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Singular noun e.PRETEST 1. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech.

Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. indefinite pronoun F. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Someone 2. possessive noun.(9) a. We 3. The horses hooves needed new shoes. 1 person plural st G. e. means ³it is´ E. Sallys covered a whole month of work. possessive noun. d. Noun used as an adjective 2. non-count noun 9. It¶s 6. 3 person singular rd B. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. 3. g. What 1. Paul¶s 7. Plural noun f. interrogative pronoun D. Their 4.(8) A. singular . The six workers complaints were very reasonable. 3 person plural rd H. Its 5. c. Sisters¶ 8. b. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. plural C. using apostrophes correctly. f.k. Rewrite these sentences.

6. 5. 3. . 2. The crows flew toward the swamp.Page 114 40 4. 2. He always uses a cane since his accident. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. 6. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4.(11) 1. 7. Linton. 3. They were afraid of bears. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. we work for Mr. During the week. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. (2) 7. Charles. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5.(10) 1.

9. 12. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. His Ford has always run well. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 9.John is always talking to his boss lately. . Next summer. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. I was the first one there! 8. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Page 115 41 11. They ate six lobsters each. 7. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Paula will rent a car in Boston. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Write a sentence comparing two things. 4. Write a sentence comparing two people. 10. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 10. 8. Use the correct form of the adverb early. we will go to Disneyland. 5.

What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. In the paragraph above. 4. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.(41) 1. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Her 1. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. 2. Our new neighbours have three young children.13. fruit. she and them 2. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. 14. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Proper noun . 3. 1. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Count noun b. 5. Common noun g. and meat. Read this paragraph. her) were the first to arrive.

The workers complaints were very reasonable. c. Someone 2. not a personal pronoun E. Collective noun k. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Their 4. e. The horses hooves needed new shoes. plural C.(8) A. Plural noun f. d. 3. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. Singular noun e. What 1. possessive noun. Its 5. f. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Possessive noun d. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Sallys covered a whole month of work. indefinite pronoun F. interrogative pronoun D. Concrete noun i. Abstract noun j.h. g. We 3. Page 116 42 b. Noun used as an adjective 2. using apostrophes correctly. Rewrite these sentences. Non-count noun c. 3 person singular rd B.(9) a. It¶s .

possessive noun.(10) . The teacher with the beard is Mr. Linton. 5. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 6. 3 person plural rd H. 7. During the week. we work for Mr. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. Charles. 6. Sisters¶ 8. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. 3.(11) 1. 1 person plural st G. Paul¶s 7. singular 4. non-count noun 9. 2.6. (2) 7. He always uses a cane since his accident.

9. Page 117 43 5. Write a sentence comparing two actions. 10. Paula will rent a car in Boston. The crows flew toward the swamp. 8. 2. John is always talking to his boss lately. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 10. Use the correct form of the adjective good. They ate six lobsters each. 7. 9.1. we will go to Disneyland. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. I was the first one there! 8. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. Write a sentence comparing two things. They were afraid of bears. 4. . His Ford has always run well. Write a sentence comparing two people. Next summer. 3.

That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. 13.Page 118 44 11. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.(44) 1. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. she and them D. How many nouns does this sentence contain? . 2. her and they C. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. A. 5. she and they B. 12. them) were the first to leave. her) were the first to arrive. and (they. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. her and them 15. 14. Use the correct form of the adverb early. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. 4. Write a sentence comparing two actions. 3.

are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. including ponds. join groups of words or sentences. describe substances. Five B. and swamps. Seven D. marshes. and qualities. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. be playing C. Six C. C. and people. 18. places. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. animals. Six 17. Eight Page 119 45 16.Wetlands. Three C. Two D. Five B. . include the names of persons. are used to take the place of pronouns. things. B. The complete verb in this sentence is A. D. playing Florenceville B. Nouns are words that A.

hungry D. homeless. dirty. 22.has played D. playing 19. ragged. have lost B. They have never lost a game against that team. Which one? A. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. The complete verb in this sentence is A. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. ragged and dirty. lost D. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. never lost C. . D. dirty C. The homeless man. was very hungry. hungry Page 120 46 21. Which donut is the biggest. The following sentences make comparisons. The adjectives in this sentence are A. the. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. the. very B. lost against 20. homeless. This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. very. dirty. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. B. They are moving to Moncton. the chocolate covered. ragged. ragged. or the glazed? B. homeless. C. ragged. was. dirty.

23. Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. Molly¶s. lady¶s. Them skates are real good. 2. weeks¶ 2. Sally¶s 3. Molly and Sally¶s 4. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. Them sneakers are really great! C. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. Duncan¶s 5. TOTAL: 133 Page 121 47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . Answers will vary. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. I bought a pair of sneakers. .PRETEST 1.(9) A. week¶s 6. D. The dogs blanket wasn¶t in it¶s house when the storm hit. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. E. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. a. C. D.Yesterday. B.

horse¶s or horses¶ Explain the meaning of your choice. Its 3 person singular rd 6. A. Their 3 person plural rd 5. It¶s means ³it is´ 7. plural 4. walk walked walked walking . What Interrogative pronoun 2. sisters¶ possessive noun. We 1 person plural st 4.workers¶ 7. 3. Paul¶s possessive noun. Someone Indefinite pronoun 3. singular 8.

Answers will vary. Page 122 48 7.cut cut cut cutting sing sang sung singing think thought thought thinking drive drove driven driving 5. . of the cereal in the cupboard during the week for Mr. Linton after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees in the light breeze with the red wheels beside the general store 6.

verb going. has run. Many...... 9..pronoun of... possessive friend.preposition Mount Carleton.... ate........noun...verb three........ Answers will vary. 12.... Answers will vary... 11.noun have..... 10... 13......preposition these..noun 2..verb to....preposition Jeb¶s.....noun soon. was....noun is. were. Answers will vary. Answers will vary...................adverb 4.... Hey.. Answers will vary.noun belonged.....pronoun/adjective new.noun and.conjunction a.adjective disks....adjective young. have sold.. will go.. Our...verb to... 1.. is talking....adjective neighbours. are cutting....interjection ....noun 3.flew. will rent 8...adjective children....... That..adjective dog....adjective team.

............. A.... A 20. ...adjective bad...pronoun of...pronoun cooking...verb always..preposition the. Several.....adjective men..preposition the.adverb discussing. Those skates are really good..verb the.noun 5.....noun from.verb you..What.. C 19.... D 16. C 21.adjective weather......noun Page 123 49 14............preposition supper.noun were........ C 22.. 2... A 15..pronoun are..adjective camp.. A 17...........verb for. B 18... A 23..

An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. Cheryl¶s ideas are better than mine are. 5.(11) E. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Identify the part of speech of each word. Page 124 50 IAUENG . John will loan the maps to Erin' husband.(51) A. C. Each of these would have been correct. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D.(16) 2. The dog¶s blanket wasn¶t in its house when the storm hit. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband.(6) B. D. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. B. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock.PRETEST 1.He and I went to Ashley¶s house.(9) C. In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. 4. . 3. Oh no.

3. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. B. Sheilas mother lives next door. (7) A. What b. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. Beth handled the dog very well today. 4. A month from now. The Sullivans have a new boat. A. I will call you. Myself c. D. E. Page 125 51 5. E. B. Personal pronoun . Name the tense of each verb. C. D. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. I bought those pants in the childrens department. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. C. F. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. (8) a. Indefinite pronoun 1. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. Relative pronoun 2. The bosses letters are always long and dull. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years.

B. Themself 9. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. Reciprocal pronoun 4. left. Interrogative pronoun 8. Christmas. Jim. These h. for. plural 6. C. 8. and. Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. to. Emphatic pronoun. D. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. families. spend. C. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. We watched the ships come in that night. Yourselves e. Someone d. Cape Breton. Which f. with. . Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. Anne. 7. today. Us g. D. singular 5. Read the following sentence.3. Each other 6. B. Reflexive pronoun. Demonstrative pronoun 7.

C. D. the cameras' strap. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A. C.(6) early quite almost . Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. my neighbours' car. my neighbours car. B. university's women club. university women's club. B. my neighbour's car. the cameras strap¶s 11. D. the camera strap. the camera's strap. Page 126 52 9. C. 10. B. D. car belonging to my neighbour. university's women's club. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. university womens' club.Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A.

Page 127 53 14.(3) A. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. 13. using pronouns as you think are necessary. Write the tense of the verb. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. Rewrite the paragraph. The ferret belonging to Shirley was . A. D.fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. Ron was late he stopped for me. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph.) 12. Rewrite the sentence. C. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? C.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. B. B. I shovel snow mow lawns. Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs).

B.(5) B. As far as I can see. I heard a great new song on the radio.(6) 4. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs).(5) 18. red and expensive. Write the tense of the verb. looked abandonned. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Monica¶s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. Their sporty new car. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies.(3) . Monford¶s old barn.(4) 5. Rewrite the sentence. A.named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. large and unpainted.(6) 17. C.(3) 3. 1. cold water. In the following sentences. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. A. List five (5) linking verbs. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. Use each in a sentence. 16. changing the verb to the present perfect tense.(5) 2. 15. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. D. Our children don¶t like the icy. is too flashy. Write three (3) sentences with interjections.

Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb. B. really) (well. C. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following). good). Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). A. A. D.VERB . Cindy writes letters. badly). Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs. C. E. changing the verb to the past perfect tense.NOUN writes . Ted damaged his car (bad. privately) meeting. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow. B.Page 128 54 19. 22. D.(10) A. good) after the meal. Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. B. The entire team did not feel (well. 20.(5) 21. He answered those questions (real. Rewrite the sentence. B. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech.(8) Example: A. Write the tense of the verb. Choose the correct modifier. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. slowly). Cindy . The managers had a (private.

F. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. D. E. 2. He had went there several times before. While they were away. 6. 8. Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. we cancelled our trip. Your work is good.(5) Page 129 55 24.(12) 1. He sure done good on his last test. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim.letters . G. therefore. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. 3. Could him and me rent a movie? 7. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course. they visited Len and Jennifer. 5. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. Total 192 Page 130 . 25.(10) A. Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences.NOUN 23. 4. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. B. They completed the report which we requested. but it still needs more work. C. yet we never received it. A storm was forecast. The man who wrote that book is in town today.

.noun will.......adverb loud.....noun............adjective clap.verb you.verb better.. Are...pronoun are....pronoun are......... A.......56 ANSWER KEY ........adverb have. Oh no.IAU ENGLISH ......verb coming. B.adverb happy..conjunction/pronoun they...verb not. possessive ideas.......PRETEST 1...noun rattled.verb the..noun of..interjection Matt.....adjective windows......... Cheryl¶s...verb .....adjective that.verb here........noun C.....adverb D..noun are.....verb...pronoun really..preposition thunder...adjective extremely..........adjective than. An.....conjunction mine........

.preposition these...pronoun changed.....noun E... C Page 131 57 3.verb been.adjective answers..adjective money..conjunction the... Simple past B.conjunction the.adjective tour..... Simple present ..........pronoun of........noun that...pronoun would.the...verb have.......adjective but.......noun leaves....verb correct.... Simple future D...adverb wrong...........adjective 2....verb Woodstock...noun before..conjunction/pronoun you...verb are.................... Each..verb now. A...... Past progressive C.....

B 10. 1 6. A. h. b. 6. . Answers will vary. Jones¶ weeks¶ 5. a. A 8. B 11. 4 g. B 7. C 9. Sheila¶s B. d. 3. bosses¶ E. Nicole¶s D. children¶s C. f. mother¶s F. 9: e. 7. 5. 2. c.E. Present perfect progressive 4.

water their. badly.. great..12.past perfect 22....... 23. feel simple present had felt. new..... old.song the... will have completed 13.. 18. Answers may vary.. Answers may vary. Answers may vary. 14....children the.adverb well.. Page 132 58 15.radio Monica¶s.. flashy. Answers may vary.adverb 20.... dusty. Answers may vary.adjective slowly. lived Simple past have lived..... cold.adverb well.. Answers will vary...adjective (after a linking verb) private... icy. a. sporty. will complete 2.barn Our..... 21... abandonned.. unpainted. A.. Answers will vary.. large...... new... expensive....... dirty..adverb really.... 19. Simple future 3.....car 17. red......sneakers Monford¶s.present perfect 16.... ...

..relative pronoun who. Page 134 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 135 1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns .co-ordinate conjunction..... Page 133 59 25......relative pronoun but...co-ordinate conjunction either/or. Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course.........co-ordinate conjunction yet..... The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport.conjunctive adverb that.correlative conjunction while. I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. The lawyer will do the work himself......subordinate conjunction and.co-ordinate conjunction therefore... The driver could have finished this if he had had the time. He had gone there several times before.24... and...

mussels. Saint John. people. area. South Pole. clams. boats 4. something. 1. boats. storms. collision. us. wives 8. husbands. Japan 9. cold 9. top. roads. lobster 5. they 3. couples. Who 8. motels 6. muffins. themselves 5. birds. scallops. these 9. sea 6. markets. She. daughter. fishermen. truck 5. traps. Florida.1. Stones. Northumberland Strait 2. Answers will vary. weather. passengers. clouds 3. them. herself. she 6. weather 10. villages. night shipment. What. iceberg 7. that . Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. hours. cat. porch 2. lives. All. Shediac. Many. fishermen. water B. those 7. catch 10. harbours. few 2. Confederation Bridge. hill. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. canneries seafood. you 4. car. snow. None. dog. ocean. friend 4. lobster 7. life. Everybody. drivers. penguins. you. Titantic. 8. Robert. ship. computer. blueberries 3. They.

some 9. no one 2. Dreamed 6. them. Them. This. her 3. him. that 5. Answers will vary. Thought 9. 1. were jogging 2. Many B. Cost 5. She. Mine. Perched 3. us. Threw 2. Rides 8. We 7. her. Page 136 2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. Flew 4. Looked 10. Sat. They. we 10.10. Was enjoying . you. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. any. it 4. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. Walks 7. Me. What. He. Who. his 6. Ate 3. it 8.

six flower the. hot dry Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. The. A. the steel 8. Arrived 7. brown. long. dusty 2. juicy. the. Little. light 7. Will send 9. The.4. Decided 5. Are calling 10. train. Brought 8. Six. hockey. torn. Are reading. the. have finished 8. faded 6. Agreed 10. old. that. new. Was returning 9. The. quiet. Could stay 5. the. Carefully . Paper. Will guess 7. summer. delicious 3. A. few. Became 6. Was bringing 4. beautiful. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. These. Soon 3. dark. Has been driving 6. The. annual 9. red 10. Learned 2. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. Had been broken 3. Hope. white 4. Early 2. 5.

on trains . tomorrow 6. Not . really Note: for class. 5. Truly 9. On the bed. there 5. why. beside those. Of her dress. towards home 3. Today. Very. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. at noon. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. in the guest room 2. Daily 3. Really. Through the park. very. Relatively 2. lately 8. quite 6. very 4. at the beach. Generally. Quickly. Politely. On airplanes. Finally. Yesterday. Never 7. Behind the desk. Surprisingly. effectively 7.4. Brightly 10. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. quickly 10. Here. Page 137 3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. under the stairs 4. late 8. correctly 9. where. If you identified them as adverbs. accurately 5. on the table. you are really thinking. Not.

6. to Stanley 10. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared . Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. From maple trees. With tickets 8. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. into a syrup 9. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John¶s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. in the mall Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. On the porch 7. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. On the road. With the long scarf. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie¶s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2.

Ouch 4. Oh no 3. And prepositional phrases 4. No 5.Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most Page 138 4 10. Wow 2. And adverbs But ideas 5. Before ideas 8. And words (2 nouns) 2. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. So ideas 6. Yuck Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. And words (2 nouns) 3. After ideas 7. And adjectives When .

Who but 5. Carol noun 2. And 10. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1.ideas 9. Because Exercise 15: Review 1.and 6. Or which 4. Because yet 3.. When 9. Our pronoun/adjective and conjunction friends noun I pronoun in preposition . Until 7.. Because ideas 10. If so 8. Although and 2. That both.

The adjective (article) 4.Page 139 5 travelled verb Calgary noun to preposition were verb Alberta noun surprised adjective last adjective when conjunction year noun we pronoun arrived verb 3. Their pronoun/adjective tall adjective house noun majestic .

We pronoun you pronoun jogged verb should verb quickly .adjective was verb Rocky Mountains noun built verb majestic adjective in preposition are verb 1990 noun a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun 5. No interjection 6.

adverb not adverb through preposition take verb the adjective (article) your pronoun/adjective dark adjective camera noun woods noun on preposition your pronoun/adjective trip noun 7. Most pronoun 8. She pronoun of preposition was verb the adjective (article) .

The adjective (article) bought verb wind noun a adjective (article) was verb very . We pronoun 10.giving verb students noun a adjective (article) listened verb short adjective politely adverb but conjunction interesting adjective lecture noun Page 140 6 9.

Sheila noun book noun and conjunction cost verb he .adverb cold adjective small adjective but conjunction quantity noun the adjective (article) of preposition sun noun food noun was verb yesterday adverb really adverb warm adjective 11. This adjective 12.

The adjective 14. Turn verb American adjective at preposition fishermen noun the adjective (article) caught verb lights noun two adjective and .pronoun six adjective were verb dollars noun talking verb to preposition her pronoun when conjunction it pronoun happened verb 13.

Eric noun and conjunction they pronoun learned verb very adverb quickly adverb Page 141 7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1. .conjunction salmon noun go verb for preposition two adjective lunch noun blocks noun west adverb 15.

city Bathurst. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. carnival. people. hockey*. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. mill Robin. cow. Regina 3. weekend Italy 6. sale. settlers Gaspé. grammar English 7. France. areas North America 8. bubbles . parcel. computer. family. arena. newspaper. syrup. England 10. exceptions. maple*.moonlight. sister. leaves. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. language. Bay of Chaleur 4. stars. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. path Black Lake 2. rules. street Beresford 9. stores. Marsha. Alberta 5. school.

men¶s 5. a large amount of. Martha¶s sister was worried about her son¶s health. the children¶s book Elvis¶s biggest fans the secretaries¶ meeting the bosses¶ memos my oldest son¶s car the men¶s department Page 142 8 the buses¶ schedule the cats¶ paws the coyote¶s barking two weeks¶ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. grace. skiing. 4. Charles¶ company owed him two days¶ pay. (Many. Mary¶s 2. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. Sue¶s. Ann receives (too much.) deer were shot this season. Owen has (many. many pieces of. a large number of. dog¶s 3. happiness. several. truth. etc. 1. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. etc. several. Bob¶s uncle lives near Sharon¶s farm. . a few. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. (one son) 4. 3. boy¶s B. etc. a lot of. 2.) assignments to do this week.Abstract nouns: justice.) junk mail. months¶ 4. 3.

The child¶s name is Nora. The students¶ cafeteria will be closed after next week¶s graduation. Mr. 10. (two sons) 5. City Council¶s regular meetings are held on Mondays. 7. My uncles¶ farmhouse was struck by during last summer¶s storm. Have you seen Mel Gibson¶s last three movies? 5. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. The sun¶s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. 10. and the family¶s name is Boudreau. 4. (two uncles) 2. Frank and James¶ mail order business is making them a rich man¶s fortune.Mrs. 3. 6. 9. Childs¶ car was being serviced at Eaton¶s. The women¶s resumés were sent to the companies¶ head offices by the bosses¶ secretary. (one client) 9. Finish your client¶s reports before you go to Smith¶s tonight. The skateboarders¶ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. The girl¶s hair had been cut short for the twins¶ wedding. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. . Because of the accident. Mark¶s mother lives at my sister¶s. 7. either would be correct. but the company¶s salesman went to my cousin¶s (cousins¶)* place. Smith was worried about their sons¶ health. his wife¶s income was reduced. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. 8. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winter¶s last lament´. * Depending on the meaning. 6.

verbs 4. The proper nouns in the sentence are B. Page 143 9 2. pronouns 3. Chatham. 4.A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. nouns 2. B. Ferry Road. conjunctions 8. C. . The eight parts of speech are: 1. Centennial Bridge. This is Doris's store. prepositions 7. A. adverbs 6. That is my neighbour's new car. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. adjectives 5. interjections 3. Laura is Pam's oldest sister.

Sports Page 144 10 Illustrated. Little River. Inside Sports. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. city Moncton. Halifax. Nova Scotia. Easter. Coca-Cola. Thanksgiving. place. Truro. Entertainment. Labour Day. Orange Crush. Miramichi River. Answers will vary.Canadian Living. Canada Day E. . magazine . Campbellton. 5. The nouns in the sentence are C. Boxing Day. Edmundston. John River. Check your answer with your instructor. A. 6.I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. Chatelaine. A noun is a word which names a person. Salmon River. river St. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. thing. holiday Christmas. Ottawa C. Bathurst. town. Saint John. Halifax. Parents 8. Those are the children's toys. 7. New River D. soda pop . D. Discover. E. Consumer Reports. Fredericton.Pepsi. Sprite B. 7-Up. New Brunswick Day. friends. or quality.

Dr.proper.province) A. B. Canada country C. concrete. abstract*. Jupiter planet E. The petals of the flower fell to the floor. A. abstract. count**. singular Canada¶s . Saint John city D. January month B. I had a great time last St. There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. concrete. concrete. count.Write a common noun for each proper noun given below.common. plural mob . no corrections D.common. Parker doctor 9. collective. C. count. church . Patrick's Day. singular mice .common. Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? E. non-count.common. possessive . singular. (Example: New Brunswick . 10. count. singular beauty .

concrete. count.common. but mine is on the desk. singular armies .common. count. count. concrete.common. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1.proper. plural food . abstract*. count.common.common. singular men¶s . ³Lions¶ possessive broccoli . abstract*. singular fragrance . singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one. . singular boy¶s . non-count. non-count. Did you give him his book? 2. abstract. abstract.common. He may have taken her coat. singular gold . count.common.common. concrete. singular. concrete. abstract. singular March . possessive loyalty .common. collective.common. possessive company . count. singular surprise . abstract.common. count. singular/plural grammar . concrete. plural. singular jury . count. singular. non-count. count.g. Upper /Lower Canada. e.common. singular English horn . collective.common. etc. singular trouble . possessive Lions¶ Club . count. count. plural. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. concrete.news . count. count. singular boys¶ . concrete.common. count**. singular Page 145 11 sunrise . French/English Canada. concrete.common. concrete. concrete. abstract.common. count. collective.common. abstract*. collective. abstract.proper. count.

3 person plural its . your. herself 3. her. Cheryl gave her cold to them. hers. Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . They.3 person singular rd rd 3. myself B.2 person singular/plural her . ours.3 person singular theirs . Number.3 person plural it . mine. yourselves 4. I .1 person singular st rd st your . They .3 person singular feminine . 1. ourselves 2. She. yours. Gender A. their. my. We.3 person plural my . theirs. our. us. I. First person plural C. themselves 5.Person. You. you .1 person singular they . Second person singular F. Third person singular D. Third person plural B.3 person plural rd rd rd they . 1. 5.2 person singular nd 2. First person singular A.4. My sister. me. her husband and their children visited your mother. them.

those. The following is an . you¶re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary.3 person plural we . I 7. You 5. he 2. Your.2 person singular/plural yours . her 11.2 person singular/plural nd nd 4. They . Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection Page 146 12 1.nd rd you . me 6. their 9. Its. he 3. her 4. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. it¶s 10. they 8. his. he. they.1 person plural our -1st person plural rd st Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. me 12. Have your instructor check your answer.

. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. Al met she at the movies. The word yous does not exist. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. 4. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. Although his car is not a new one. 7. 2. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Mary drove I to the mall. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. so try Al met her at the movies. Her is the right choice. Your other choice is her.. 3.. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. To find the right choice. Read the sentence without John . 6.example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his.. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. We sent her some flowers.. His car is just like a new one. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. That doesn¶t sound right. Her gave. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. 5. Al met John and her at the movies. Now it¶s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select.

and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? Page 147 13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. 10. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11.) 8. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance. They kept the secret from Jack and me. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. the second sentence sounds better.) 11. In this sentence. I was . two people should be preparing themselves. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. The man standing outside is he.but try switching the sentence around. Therefore. The pronoun yourself is singular. (This is tricky and may not sound right. They kept the secret from I. He is the man outside. Him is the man outside. The second choice makes more sense. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Page 148 14 9. Jane's best friend was I. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. Now the other pronoun choice. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret.Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. Me was Jane's best friend.

.... Them..... themselves.) 7.president 2. Their.one (Girls is not the antecedent. Their. . Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech.. The obvious choice is the pronoun I..Jane's best friend............. 12..we 9. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1.... those. Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe. 1... It. They 2... Mine 5.. His. Decide which sentence sounds the best.family (used as a single unit) 6.. The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun.. Your instructor will check your answer...jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5.students.... Your 4. B.. Ourselves... Her 3.... It¶s means ³it is´...family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8..managers 3. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A.......books 4. Only one person received a trophy. Their. Her....

Norm and Al filled Jim¶s basket with apples from Fredericton. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. Philip gave her a present. .donations 10. Norm and Al filled Al¶s (or Norm¶s) basket with apples from Fredericton.These..) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn..student (3rd person singular. The police officer told the driver. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. 3. His or her.. 2. and you should pay it. (Donna bought the present. As well. (Philip bought the present.. the gender is not clear) Page 149 15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary.) Philip gave her Donna¶s present... 4.. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2.. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors.. 3..´ 5. ³You deserved this ticket. The audience clapped for the actors¶ performance. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear..

Yourself . Such 4.an action he did to himself 2.. Exercise 38: Reflexive. These. Many hens have escaped from their pen. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. 10. 9. 8.. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. Answers will vary. 6. This 2. Each other reciprocal 3. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket..... That B. 4. That 3. A few of us have received our marks. Yourself emphatic... those 5.. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. 7.Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. A few forgot their lunches. 5. Several of the men have paid their dues. Emphatic.no one else washed it 4. One another reciprocal 5. 1. Himself reflexive.

What 3. ---8. ----4. Herself reflexive 9. What 10.reflexive 6. Which 7. Himself. Ourselves reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. Which 9. herself reflexive 10. ---Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. Myself emphatic Page 150 16 7. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. (To) whom 6. ---5. Themselves emphatic 8. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal . Who 2.

. feminine ..indefinite pronoun.. singular or plural...personal pronoun. 2 person..interrogative pronoun anyone. 3 person singular. She..... singular it. you.. refers to person(s) nd who are present that.personal pronoun..personal pronoun. 1.. What...personal pronoun. replaces the rd noun accident me... 3 person...... 3 person plural. refers to person who is speaking st 2...demonstrative pronoun....... themselves.demonstrative pronoun 4. neuter (no gender).. singular that..R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B... refers to the noun rd children it...emphatic pronoun..personal pronoun..... singular. 3 person singular rd 3. 1 person singular..

rd herself.personal pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you.. 3 person...personal pronoun. 3 person. singular.. modifies the noun bill them. shows possession.. plural... plural. 3 person...... masculine and/or feminine........ singular or plural nd 7. feminine rd any...personal pronoun........ singular or plural nd 6.... singular. plural..relative pronoun..relative pronoun... 2 person.personal pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those. used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone...personal pronoun.. He.personal pronoun. singular that.. masculine and/or feminine rd .. rd shows possession.. masculine rd Page 151 17 his. feminine rd 5... singular. rd modifies the noun boss that. 3 person. 3 person.. their. That.indefinite pronoun you......personal pronoun. 2 person..... 3 person.reflexive pronoun......relative pronoun..... singular.demonstrative pronoun...demonstrative pronoun..indefinite pronoun her. masculine... refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which...

they.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, masculine and/or feminine, refers rd to a plural noun mentioned previously it......personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, no gender, refers to a singular rd noun mentioned previously. 8. My.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession, modifies the st noun attempt, refers to the person speaking I.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, refers to the person speaking st I.....(as above) it.....personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, neuter, refers to a ³whole´ idea rd (the first attempt was a failure) 9. Which.....interrogative pronoun both......indefinite pronoun, plural, refers to the noun choices them.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to pronoun both which rd refers to the noun choices 10. itself......emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1. all.....indefinite pronoun my.....personal pronoun 2. who.....interrogative pronoun 3. they.....personal pronoun themselves......reflexive pronoun

4. You.....personal pronoun Page 152 18 that.....demonstrative pronoun them.....personal pronoun you......personal pronoun 5. who......relative pronoun each other......reciprocal pronoun 6. your......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he......personal pronoun mine......personal pronoun, possessive 7. We......personal pronoun you.....personal pronoun who.....relative pronoun that......demonstrative pronoun 8. We.....personal pronoun ourselves......emphatic pronoun 9. yourselves......reflexive pronoun what.....interrogative pronoun I.......personal pronoun those.......demonstrative pronoun 10. Something.......indefinite pronoun Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1. 1 person plural C. st

interrogative pronoun F. or I. reciprocal pronoun B relative pronoun F. or I. indefinite pronoun (plural) K. demonstrative pronoun A. indefinite pronoun (singular) E. possessive pronoun J. reflexive pronoun H. a word that doesn¶t exist G 2. Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive. Page 153 19 3. a. she b. himself c. me d. which e. its f. your g. their h. those i. him

j. themselves 4. Answers will vary. 5. A. is incorrect 6. D. is correct 7. B. correctly completes the sentence. 8. A. Few.....indefinite pronoun, plural B. Those.....demonstrative pronoun, plural mine.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession st C. which.....relative pronoun themselves.....reflexive pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to companies rd D. Who.....interrogative pronoun anything......indefinite pronoun, singular this......demonstrative pronoun, singular E. yourself......reflexive pronoun, singular something......indefinite pronoun Exercise 43: Action Verbs A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. jumped.....action 2.

hit.....action 3. smashed.....action 4. watched.....action 5. were.....linking 6. is.....linking 7. was.....linking 8. will be.....linking 9. were.....linking 10. feared.....action Page 154 20 11. squeaked.....action 12. were.....linking 13. drove.....action 14. believed.....action 15. tasted.....action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. smells.....linking 2. looks.....linking 3. looked.....action 4. became......linking 5.

.... dances. felt.action 12.action 6..coughed.action 11... Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. felt...action 9. tastes... howl.. publishes. Close..linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary.action 8...action 15. slammed. We played ball against their team Saturday. drive will 2.. He must have taken my jacket by mistake.. taken must have 3.......linking 10...action 13......... broke.. played ---------4.. fell...action 7..... That would have confused anyone! confused would have 5. know. sings.... Would you please flip the hamburgers? . drove.action 14.. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter..

not after the last trip. I shall never agree to his proposal. lived has 8. eaten should have Page 155 21 10. Have you ever heard such nonsense. going will be 9. agree shall 15. I will not be going. Mitchell has lived here all his life. The men should have eaten that by now. given may have been 14. was ------7. Sue may never have been given that letter. heard have 12. learn can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses . consulted might have 13. He might have consulted a doctor. The washing machine has broken down. There was a good show on TV last night. A child can easily learn this song.flip would 6. broken has 11.

..... has been kicking. had been learning..past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1..future progressive I. Answers may vary.. C.. 2.. He has talked to the Lions¶ Club before..... will kick... 6.... A... Answers may vary.present progressive C..present perfect F.. Answers may vary... will have kicked.. They will have washed the laundry by then. is kicking.. has kicked. B...future perfect G.. kicks. had kicked... A. 4. 5.A. 9.... 7.simple present B.. will be leaving....past perfect H.past progressive J.. .....simple future D. 3.. 8. D.present perfect progressive E. was giving. Vanessa was signing her lease... B..

Simple past C. Future progressive F. Past perfect G. Answers may vary. Simple past Page 157 23 Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. 12. It had been snowing for three days. Future perfect E.10. We have been thinking about you lately. 11. Present perfect D. Passive 2. Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs Page 156 22 1-3. Answers may vary. Passive . Active 3. Present progressive B. The couple will be needing even more room soon. Passive 5. A. Active 4. Answers may vary. 4.

Active 14. Active 12. Passive 8. Will show 3. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Have eaten 3 person plural 2 person (singular or plural) rd nd simple future present perfect active voice active voice . Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word¶s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Active 13. Passive 11. Active 7. Passive 10. Passive 15.6. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Passive 9.

Spoke 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd simple future simple past passive voice active voice ³The waiter´ will serve 8. Has been asking 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd past perfect present perfect progressive passive voice active voice Page 158 24 The committee had asked Page 159 25 6. Had been asked 5. Shall be seeing . Will be served 7.4.

Am doing 13. st rd future progressive simple past active voice passive voice The dog bit the boy 9 b) Was destroyed 10 a) Are 3 person singular (neuter) 3 person plural (m or f) rd rd simple past simple present passive voice active voice ³The vet´ destroyed 10 b) Are 11. Will have been playing 1 person singular 3 person singular .9 a). Walks 3 person plural 3 person singular rd rd simple present simple present active voice active voice 12. Was bitten 1 person singular 3 person singular.

is . office my. Gander. them says. wings its landed 2. Is dating 15. Tom everything. sister. bike. her rides 3. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1.st rd present progressive future perfect progressive active voice active voice 14. that. ice. Pronouns. neuter rd rd present progressive past perfect active voice passive voice ³The painter´ had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. planes. Had been repainted 3 person singular 3 person plural.

proper.Page 160 26 4.. herself was teaching 7.verb. sister. simple past. they is finished. singular gave.. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. and Verbs 1.noun. company.. parts us buys 6. men both. Kevin. ---you were thinking 10. each other might find 9. Spanish my. active voice .. those were 5. each should be done 8... concrete. results everyone. problems something. singular. Pronouns. airport they. 3 person...

concrete.verb. common.... 3 person.pronoun.. ...noun.. personal. plural. singular... present progressive..... common......verb. collective is discussing. 1 person....... plural... jury.pronoun. proper. possessive... simple future. active voice rd my. singular. 1 person singular st Marion¶s.rd me. plural. concrete.. singular are being asked....pronoun.... active voice rd Exercise 59:Nouns.. 3 person. possessive rd recipes. singular.. common. chefs.noun. common. plural these.... concrete. 3 person. common. singular 3..noun..noun.. common. indefinite..pronoun. present progressive.. demonstrative.... all..... Pronouns.. 3 person..verb. proper... concrete.. st mother¶s.. singular card.pronoun. singular..noun. plural 5... plural will sell...pronoun. simple present. 3 person. possessive.. singular... concrete. personal.. passive voice rd their. Aunt Gladys. possessive... and Verbs 1. concrete.noun.noun. personal.... singular 2. singular 4.. concrete lives.verb... 3 person.. personal.noun.. possessive rd decision. active voice rd its... concrete...

.. You. 3 person.... singular.verb.noun... present progressive. plural Page 161 27 seem. singular/plural. 3 person. common.. possessive rd girlfriend. concrete.. masculine.. personal.. Luke..pronoun. active voice .. concrete. singular or plural. personal..I....... simple present st decision... active voice rd his..verb. Your... possessive nd choices.. singular.. concrete... past progressive. action 3 person... linking. 3 person.noun. concrete... singular is talking.. 2 person. singular phone.. 2 person.verb. singular. He.. 2 person.noun.pronoun.. common. common.noun. personal. singular 4... linking... simple present rd 3. personal. 1 person singular... singular/plural nd have written. 1 person singular st am.........verb..pronoun... common. proper.pronoun.. plural.... 3 person singular rd was going.pronoun........verb.noun. active voice rd 5. action. personal.. singular 2. present perfect..

.pronoun. non-count. singular 6...noun. singular. We... concrete. common. past progressive.noun... singular/plural nd will need. singular hour. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns ........ singular 9.. singular/plural.. He. future perfect.pronoun.. active voice nd 7.. concrete. active voice rd TV.. singular 8.noun.... 3 person. common. active voice rd course... common. singular June.... concrete.noun. Tony... singular you....nd letter.. singular. 3 person.pronoun. money.... masculine rd had watched. common. common. singular accident.. simple future. singular. common... personal..... singular has changed...... plural honesty.....verb. concrete..noun....... common.. 1 person.. singular. 1 person.... Oprah. singular.... plural. concrete..noun.verb.noun...noun... common. past perfect.. active voice people¶s. proper.noun. personal.... 3 person. concrete. common.verb..... concrete. 3rd person. concrete. proper 10. 2 person..noun.. personal. abstract..noun.. plural st were walking.. concrete.. 2 person. concrete...verb. present perfect. proper will have finished.noun.verb. plural. possessive attitudes.noun... active voice st beach... common..

. common.. singular 4. plural rd were. They. non-count. plural Cuba.verb. used as an adjective rd Page 162 28 mouth... singular. common. simple past. concrete. common.. masculine rd smelled... simple past rd reservations.. singular..noun.noun... 3 .. common. It. plural . concrete..verb...... Many. action.pronoun. simple past. 3 ... 3 . concrete.. personal. singular watered.. concrete.verb. concrete. singular.... active voice rd 2. 3 . 3 person. rd night...... simple past.1.. count. 3 singular rd afternoon.. linking... personal...pronoun.. personal.. He....... storm.. 3 ...noun..pronoun. linking verb.pronoun... singular grew. active voice rd bread. 3 ..verb. proper 5. action. masculine. count.noun.. common..noun.. count. singular. action..noun.. singular approached..... count. active voice rd 3. simple past.. singular... plural... common... singular...verb..noun... personal.. 3 .. indefinite. concrete..pronoun. his..

noun. singular/plural.. common. Her.colours... common.. concrete... simple past. possessive rd relatives. simple future... singular heat. plural...pronoun... singular.verb. feminine drove... Those. concrete..verb. present perfect. 3 . plural... proper. passive rd decorator... concrete. Will complete.. singular...verb.....noun. singular 7.verb..noun.. active voice rd 9... Liz. personal.pronoun.. action. past perfect... active voice nd survey. common... present progressive... common. simple present. 8. 3 person. singular/plural..... concrete. What... plural..pronoun... plural were made.... 3 person. common... proper. action. plural. past progressive. singular. 2 . concrete. action. demonstrative. 3 person. 3 ..noun.pronoun.....noun. plural come. 3 ... 3 . interrogative has seen....noun. demonstrative....verb.. active voice rd their...... concrete. singular 6. count.. concrete.pronoun. common.. plural are being changed.. action...verb.verb...noun.. active voice rd Sackville. possessive rd lunch. singular porch... personal. active voice rd . plural were eating. concrete.. singular 10.noun.. plural. count.. concrete... action.. count.. non-count. 3 . passive voice rd these..noun... common.

light* bulb 5.. an.. ragged string dusty. old. 3 . a..noun. rusty car my space 3. sugary. boring. the child the. a. rough.. depressing day 6.. six .pronoun. singular. sweet icing the. those.herself. proper. concrete Page 163 29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1. reflexive. The.. feminine rd Central Hospital. uneven road 2.. big spoon 4..

two. Shelley. spicy. hockey*. Karl¶s*. Mexican food 9. juicy apples 13. Tim¶s* house 10.people 7. The. our cousins huge. lovable cats the. dull skates 15. sweet. summer* clothes 14. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. this trip several days 8. sparkling. these parcels 12. light. Exercise 62: Adjectives . little girl big. they can be identified as adjectives. some. blue eyes 11.

The young hikers walked through the dark woods. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. and one older Page 164 30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1. A few boys knew that they were lost. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. bright and narrow. and ate their supper. They set up their canvas tents. piercing the inky darkness. . The weather was warm. Jensen¶s chicken farm. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. they saw a beam of light. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. With relief. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. and the hills were gentle. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. lit a huge crackling fire. After two long hours. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler.

.. never.....where later..when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs.when extremely. Why.how good 10..... . Adjectives..when carefully..how casually 3.interrogative adverb now...how important 7.how 2.negative very........ almost. politely modifies the verb asked 2. daily modifies the verb review 4.how useful efficiently..when 4....interrogative adverb very..yesterday...... there.... where.... thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3..... quite.when 8......when never...how more....how efficiently 6......how exciting 9.how quickly 5.. and Adverbs 1.. not....how too............ really. casually............

Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. An adverb is needed to Page 165 31 modify the verb behaves. an adverb. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7.tightly modifies the verb packed 5. Well. very modifies the adjective happy 6. so well. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. real is an adjective. Simple. 2. The sentence describes how she behaves. 3. sadly is an adverb. Good is an adjective. fast modifies the verb travel. . Really is an adverb. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8. is the best choice. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. very modifies the adverb fast 9. 5. Sad. really modifies the adjective tired 10. Really. simply is an adverb. 4. Sad is an adjective. Simple is an adjective.

Although well is usually an adverb. 14. Gradual is an adjective. Quickly is an adverb. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. More rapidly . An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. 7. Seriously is an adverb. Use the adjective good to complete it. 11. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone¶s health. Good. Brightly. Smaller. Seriously. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. Comparing two people 2. serious is an adjective. Badly. Well. 9. 15. Slowly. Taste is a linking verb. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. 12. Calm is an adjective. An adverb modifies a verb. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. 6. 8. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Calm. gradually is an adverb. Awful. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond.Well. 13. awfully is an adverb. Awful is an adjective. Badly is an adverb. 10. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Gradual. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. quick is an adjective. calmly is an adverb. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver¶s test. Quickly. bad is an adjective.

Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. Page 166 32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. at 8. of (at the end of) 2. Eldest. Among. along. with. by (on top of) 9. down. beside. to. For. for. Answers will vary. Comparing more than two 7. in. on. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. 1. in. for . around 7. Unique. in 4. of.3. under 5. at. with 6. Worse (comparing two things) 5. near. B. in. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. More. of 3.

With the sore ear. by my son (on top of the hill) 9... at the end. at noon 8. for pictures.. along the beach. among the rubble. for the conference 10... 1.. For shells and pebbles... in this store 4.. on top. 1.... for the best costume. to..why along the beach. .. near the trees.where at the end. for.modifies the noun end 2.. of the hill.adverb.. with the hornets¶ nest 6. of the day (at the end of the day) 2... in 1960. with Page 167 33 C...10..adverb. for shells and pebbles.......when of the day. under my son¶s bed 5.. in your group. with the funny hat D... to the clown... to the door. around the corner 7..adverb. down the hill.adjective. beside the store.. in the world. of her mother and father 3.

modifies the noun theme 10...among the rubble......modifies the noun top on top of the hill. near the trees..........modifies the noun women for the conference...modifies the noun prize to the clown.........adverb..where around the corner.. how ......where 7... in the world...adverb..adjective....when by my son...... with the sore ear....... down the hill.adjective......adjective...adjective...where 4............modifies the noun socks under my son¶s bed.adverb.adverb..adverb....modifies the noun trees 6...adjective...... in this store.......adverb..why of her mother and father..adverb...........adverb......when 8..adverb. beside the store.where at noon...... in 1960......where with the hornets¶ nest.adverb. for the best costume.... in your group..adjective..how Page 168 34 9..........................adjective....modifies the noun cat to the door..modifies the noun houses on top.modifies the noun houses of the hill.....adjective........adverb.adverb....modifies the noun pictures 3....can be considered as one prepositional phrase.... Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition..................adjective..where for pictures....adjective.........where...where 5...

... where 2.......where 6...adverb..modifying the noun men for two hours...where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store........adverb.. ..adjective.. In the middle...how long in the heat...............where of me..adverb...adverb......adjective.. in the kitchen....adjective.where 5......modifying the noun north 4.modifying the noun front in front of me.......adverb....where to the north..... on the roof.............where 7.adverb..adjective.......adjective................adverb.........where in the closets. near the mall.......adverb.adjective...modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn.......adverb..adverb.........adjective..modifying the noun station at the old mill...adverb...when of the staff.....where 3....when of the water.modifying the noun lady into the line..where of a big spacious lawn...how.......adverb................... with big hat..adverb....adverb.adjective. On Fridays..modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1..........modifying the pronoun all at the radio station...adjective...with the funny hat........modifying the noun rest from the basement.......adverb...modifying the noun women under the tables.......adverb....where in front. during the night....where 8....where of the city limits.........adjective..

.. but 2... however 8.....adjective. and 5..adjective. not only.. but also 10. and... neither..... After his graduation...... neither.modifying the noun day care around the block.adverb. so .... but 13.....adverb.... yet 14.... not only.where 10.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1... or 4..modifying the noun graduation for a job...Because of the storm. and 12...... nor 9... nor 7.why from the day care..when Page 169 35 in 1992..modifying the noun children at the church.adverb... both. and 6.. either.adjective.....modifying the noun ad in Manitoba.... meanwhile 11.......... but also 3..adjective. or.....adjective..

15. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. because 2. since 3. even though 4. after 5. where 6. since 7. why 8. than 9. whether 10. how 11. before 12. if 13. although 14. because 15. while 16. because 17. although 18. how 19. if 20. why 21. as if 22. unless 23. than 24. after 25. before B.

1. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 2. (Since I first met Sheila and her), she has always been very polite. 3. I won¶t be able to go (even though I have the money). 4. After the whale beach itself, local citizens rescued it. 5. I know (where they have hidden the treasure), but I don¶t have a map. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 6. (After the maple trees were damaged), they were cut down. 7. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 8. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 9. It isn¶t certain (whether they will come or not). 10. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). Page 170 36 11. (Before they read the book), they fixed it themselves 12. After the lecture, the students asked (if they could stay). Compare the use of after. In sentence 12, after is a preposition. Why? 13. (Although he is stronger), he couldn¶t turn it. 14. (Because you were late), you missed it 15. Thieves broke in (while we were away). 16. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare this with, The roads were slippery because of the snow. 17. (Although it was quite sunny), the wind was cool.

18. I don¶t know (how I will get there). 19. (If you are short), you can¶t reach that cupboard. 20. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 21. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 22. (Unless the Leafs win this game), they are out of the playoffs. 23. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 24. (After he won the gold medal), he turned pro. 25. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. that 2. that 3. who 4. which 5. who 6. whom 7. who 8. that 9. that 10. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. Exercise 74: Review A 1. dogs noun 2.

The adjective (article) make verb pioneers noun good adjective settle verb pets noun quickly adverb for preposition on preposition young adjective the adjective (article) children noun small adjective farms noun around preposition Page 171 37 Gloucester noun 3. your adjective (pronoun) 4. Does verb (auxiliary) ancestors noun

he pronoun lived verb often adverb beside preposition go verb (main) the adjective to preposition sea noun the adjective mine preposition beach noun lived verb during preposition near preposition the adjective Moncton noun summer noun 5.

Those adjective/pronoun 6. I pronoun big adjective do verb (aux) chunky adjective not adverb pots noun think verb (main) sell verb their adjective/pronoun for preposition problems noun nine adjective now adverb dollars noun because conjunction so conjunction I pronoun .

Everyone pronoun the adjective recognized verb thieves noun his adjective/pronoun surveyed verb courage .you pronoun do verb (aux) can verb (aux) not adverb buy verb (main) have verb (main) several pronoun time noun of preposition them pronoun 7. Casually adverb 8.

Lilacs noun .noun the adjective and conjunction neighbourhood noun strength noun until conjunction even if conjunction they pronoun he pronoun Page 172 38 spotted verb did verb (aux) the adjective not adverb right adjective house noun 9.

Mark noun always adverb smelled verb smell verb the adjective wonderful adjective skunk noun in preposition and conjunction spring noun left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb 11.10. The adjective 12. She pronoun students noun believes verb in .

He pronoun frail adjective has verb (aux) old adjective always adverb lady noun been verb (main) . The adjective 14.preposition in preposition this adjective/pronoun his adjective/pronoun program noun ability noun are verb very adverb hard adjective workers noun 13.

You pronoun must verb (aux) never adverb .is verb a adjective safe adjective really adverb but conjunction excellent adjective unhappy adjective hockey adjective/noun at preposition coach noun the adjective seniors¶ adjective/noun home noun Page 173 39 15.

show verb (main) your adjective/pronoun fear noun of preposition snakes noun to preposition your adjective/pronoun children noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Fred noun 2. Usually adverb sat verb the adjective on preposition chairs noun the adjective were verb (aux) .

fence noun placed verb (main) and conjunction near preposition ate verb the adjective his adjective/pronoun windows noun lunch noun but conjunction while conjunction today adverb the adjective they pronoun others noun are verb went verb in .

Very adverb had verb (aux) quickly adverb been verb (aux) they pronoun studying verb (main) finished verb for preposition their adjective/pronoun three adjective work noun hours . I pronoun 4.preposition into preposition a adjective town noun circle noun 3.

They pronoun 6. After conjunction had verb they pronoun been verb had verb writing verb mowed .noun and conjunction Page 174 40 I pronoun still adverb do verb (aux) not adverb know verb (main) it pronoun 5.

Although conjunction they pronoun the adjective have verb storm . Because conjunction 8.verb their adjective/pronoun the adjective essays noun lawn noun before conjunction they pronoun they pronoun bought verb went verb lunch noun there adverb 7.

Since preposition 10.noun cashed verb was verb their pronoun very adverb cheques noun intense adjective they pronoun the adjective have verb damage adjective some adjective was verb money noun minor adjective 9. Because of preposition the adjective her .

Have verb 12. The adjective you pronoun .adjective/pronoun accident noun problems noun the adjective Sue noun victims noun often adverb have verb seeks verbs recovered verb my adjective/pronoun Page 175 41 quite adverb advice noun well adverb 11.

elderly adjective ever adverb waiter noun seen verb who conjunction those adjective served verb boats noun us pronoun in preposition beer noun the adjective is verb harbour noun an adjective before adverb old adjective of .

Where adverb thinks verb did verb that conjunction you pronoun these adjective hide verb train adjective/noun the adjective tickets noun candy noun are verb which conjunction ours pronoun I pronoun . Who pronoun 14.preposition hers pronoun 13.

Ouch interjection 16. Miles¶ noun/adjective that adjective brother noun knife noun is verb is verb extremely adverb so adverb intelligent adjective sharp adjective even if conjunction that conjunction he .and conjunction bought verb those pronoun are verb theirs pronoun 15.

Finally adverb Eric noun his adjective/pronoun did verb clever . Hey interjection 18.pronoun Page 176 42 I pronoun can verb cut verb not adverb myself pronoun pass verb badly adverb those adjective provincial adjective exams noun 17.

adjective you pronoun tricks noun complete verb failed verb that adjective work noun on preposition those adjective cars noun during preposition the adjective weekend noun 19. The adjective Canadian adjective economy noun is verb becoming verb worse .

adjective very adverb quickly adverb .

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