STRESS: Stress of a material is the internal resistance per unit area to the deformation caused by applied load. STRAIN: Strain is unit deformation under applied load.

and point A is known proportional limit. WHAT IS STRESS ANALYSIS? Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations. technically known as strain. ❁ Point E is the stress at failure known as rupture strength. ❁ Point C is called yield point and is the point at which there is an appreciable elongation or yielding of the material without any corresponding increases of load. Piping deflections are within the limits.STRESS –STRAIN CURVE: It is a curve in which unit load or stress is plotted against unit elongation. ❁ Point D is ultimate stress or ultimate strength of material. Safety of connected equipment and supporting structure. temperature changes. internal and external pressures. ❁ Point B represents elastic limit beyond which the material will not return to its original shape when unloaded but will retain a permanent deformation called permanent set. changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity. . which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity. PURPOSE OF PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Purpose of piping stress analysis is to ensure: Safety of piping and piping components. Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of stress analysis. ❁ O– A represents the stress is directly proportional to strain.

Brittle fracture: Occurs in brittle materials. which could affect a piping system. Yielding at Sub Elevated temperature: Body undergoes plastic deformation under slip action of grains. Fatigue: Due to cyclic loading initially a small crack is developed which grows after each cycle and results in sudden failure. material re-crystallizes and hence yielding continues without increasing load. FAILURE BY GERNRAL YIELDING: Failure is due to excessive plastic deformation. This phenomenon is known as creep.HOW PIPING AND COMPONENTS FAIL (MODES OF FAILURES) There are various failure modes. . FAILURE BY FRACTURE: Body fails without undergoing yielding. The piping engineers can provide protection against some of these failure modes by performing stress analysis according to piping codes. their purpose being to establish the point at which failure will occur under any type of combined loading. WHEN PIPING AND COMPONENTS FAIL (THEORIES OF FAILURE) Various theories of failure have been proposed. Yielding at Elevated temperature: After slippage. The failure theories most commonly used in describing the strength of piping systems are: Maximum principal stress theory This theory states that yielding in a piping component occurs when the magnitude of any of the three mutually perpendicular principle stresses exceeds the yield point strength of the material.

PRIMARY STRESSES: These are developed by the imposed loading and are necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments of the piping system. . These loads are present at infrequent intervals during plant operation. SECONDARY STRESSES: These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a structure. e. Note: maximum or minimum normal stress is called principal stress. Sustained loads These loads are expected to be present through out the plant operation. Primary stresses are not self-limiting. S1=Sy (yield stress). PEAK STRESSES: Unlike loading condition of secondary stress which cause distortion.thermal expansion. e. e. etc. seismic anchor movements. wind. Secondary and peak. Expansion loads: These are loads due to displacements of piping. peak stresses cause no significant distortion. and building settlement.g. CLASSCIFICATION OF LOADS Primary loads: These can be divided into two categories based on the duration of loading. Occasional loads.g. earthquake.g . In the tensile test. Secondary stresses are self-limiting. Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure. at yield. S2=S3=0. These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements.Maximum shear stress theory This theory states that failure of a piping component occurs when the maximum shear stress exceeds the shear stress at the yield point in a tensile test. pressure and weight.So yielding in the components occurs when Maximum Shear stress =τmax=S1-S2 / 2=Sy / 2 The maximum principal stress theory forms the basis for piping systems governed by ASME B31. STRESS CATEGORIES The major stress categories are primary.3.

lb SA = Allowable displacement stress range: (Allowable stress) cold = Sc = (2 / 3) Syc ⇒ Syc = (3/2)Sc (Allowable stress) hot = Sh = (2 / 3) Syh ⇒ Syh = (3/2) Sh .plane stress intensification factor obtained from appendix of B31. wind. in. weight and other sustained loads and of stresses produced by occasional loads such as earthquake or wind shall not exceed 1.Stresses due to occasional Ii = in. 2. earthquake-induced horizontal forces.3 (PROCESS PIPING CODE) This code governs all piping within the property limits of facilities engaged in the processing or handling of chemical. and erosion allowance. bulk plant. 3. petroleum or related products.plane stress intensification factor obtained from appendix of B31. natural gas processing plant. The loadings required to be considered are pressure.psi = Mt / (2Z) Mt = Torsional moment. anchor movements. petroleum refinery. in. corrosion. weight (live and dead loads). The governing equations are as follows: 1.psi = [(IiMi)2 + (IoMo)2] / Z Mi = in-plane bending moment.3 Io = out. vibration discharge reactions. The displacement stress range SE shall not exceed SA: S E < SA WHERE SE = (Sb2 + 4St2) ½ Sb = resultant bending stress. loading terminal.Stress range due to expansion loads.REQUIRMENTS OF ASME Mo = out-plane bending moment. impact. in.Stresses due to sustained loads. SL < Sh SL = (PD/4t) + Sb Sh = Basic allowable stress at maximum metal temperature. compounding plant and tank farm. thermal expansion and contraction. temperature gradients.3 St = Torsional stress . Examples are a chemical plant. The thickness of the pipe used in calculating SL shall be the nominal thickness minus mechanical. The sum of the longitudinal loads due pressure.

Phone: 92-042-5812263-5. LTD.2.3 Author: HANAN AZEEM PIPING ENGINEER J-TECH PVT.after dividing with F.S Final allowable stress = [(1.25(Sc + Sh )---.25(Sc + Sh) – SL] SA = f [( Sep 10.Syc = yield point stress at cold temperature Syh = yield point stress at hot temperature Allowable stress =Syc + Syh =3/2 (Sc + Sh ) = 1.5 (Sc + Sh ) = 1. hananazeem@hotmail. .O. ( PAKISTAN.25(Sc + Sh) – SL] Sc = basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature f = stress range reduction factor from table 302. 2001.5824203-04 E-mail: hazeem@j-tech.5 of 18 KM FEROZPUR ROAD LAHORE.

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