H., p~ IRic,hter w~ '5c,hwan c.

F. P. Hartw,sH

PARK PlHIUSH ING.I Nt.
5 11 WI~COnsi n Nt'w fI" chmon{l.
1%2.1955,1
D-r1'J<?W!';C(]

rui n. :;..1011 .gH, 1,"77 19~1, 190:3 11-66, 19S9 1992 19'96, ,~g .. ... 02 0

Sl'U8,1971

by P,Ir';'P~b{,stw,g lnL
;',11

[~hrs r~5pr'l1:'d E}I(~'PT 'il tJrjpj p~~~aq~. L!oed fo:.H ru ~Ie .....purposes, no [}ilf~ of t!1-~ J}ubllcation ma.~ b-2 ruprodured, stor=d In iHe1r1ev~ Sv~t{!m Or rransm rtes f'I an)" 10 rn Of D"f allY me~n~ elf'clra-n IC,photocopy ng, rE't;nrd mq, or Dtherwlse, ..... rtno ut m~pnor wr (len. pe~mi;;5ion of

+'E' publ ~"'el

ISBN Cl-961)3.2~-1-1l •

Contents
Tables
Pref<l(e~

Warnings and Clisd;lJime.r 1 !;l~ boo] fll'" It~; IJ~Ct": gffiLJal In~t!1KLlOn, bUL .",,! cjI.nJl.OJt"JllLcip'l'~ ,III of ~"ur \~Nkin~ .,",ru1il.LulI~ UI ". rharsctcruncs nf v.iur rnaierials and loc~b. TUJ 'clur ~~k{~, ,1- II I ~ <,Het'-' I,f uLILt'l~, 'f{Jl' jl .~, 11.','c.iur on, c~r~_anG 80a.::! ilJd8m~nl W~Il rulhJ\Yill~ Ll,c PI(ll~lhl~c~de,,(J ii"f'ri en Lnt> .1l)uk. lOll 1I111;T l(bpr -·h.' IIHtructLnn.' t.' vuur r.!.ru~U;loJIi.1tu~LlUII.I:uIl~I,1~r ~"\ r Ih. sk II level ,lm1 j(J~lu,," rlW III~rlll'-'''1 ~ and satctv prccrun an; and l\·;unILl~~d;>"JcL;!I~,1 Wit j .II~ '·"r-"li, Ll,ub .unl 1,Lr~r I,d, ~ own Fkcm Lit v 3 nci ccrtasa Lool~ .':;;1 be dan"o!t'n_'lL.'~I!J~,l[l (.~ u I.':' LIIi Ii t~,
l..o[l'nlliILl .... hi' 1J
UJD"I

vii \liii
editions
X

Pref03Le H) 32nd e-cI"itiofl

to

39111and4.0th

i):

lntroducti on and g u ide

l""<1 ,'tu~ln~rl rrnm ~0UT~C~ believed til be reliable bUL its ~c, llr,'l~ uul p]~U:'J I~~' H~ l' I, ~~L, (3 1",','.1_Th~ puH I ~hcr and author div ...lairn liabilit v, ~.i.J~lll~I lur perscaul i"iLI[. (II 'J".P"" tv d~In'~1.~.~ ~LE'ogm of lYp-1lgraphlCai a error ur Lh.~: se 1.)1misuse <:11 u this I' ubl i, ~Ci0" I<g.:l-d I~% or rhe ~ ~JI n r n cgliS'CIK~ of the "jJlJbIL!-hCJ ~11 or L~WI, T~.~ LIL~{I Lid IO~S I r IS b·oo~.-r.f1trtrr"r' ri"l [he ~n[}~ i\~tinnal Hccrrical LIlJ.·~ _G.Jl1>lli~ }~'ur lucul ,m!h'.mli¢; FI)r (It.1 "na.i'·111 nn I->lIildin~ E'cm1it_~ .:odCc;,and other law. il..! thev upplv Ll' ·,'1'1I1 • j'.".i<~i.

Chapt@1"1 ')."rltl;i1rd~

STANDARDS, CODES., AND SAFETY
and 1 t.:enf,e<, J

Codes, Permits, :).l fl:tr Pr al Licc~ Chapt@1"2 l
()lf~id['T

5
V()iUR ELIr.CTIiUCAL.IINSTAl.LATION
q
1(1

PLANNING
rn·~t·lI1
;i II

9

,1 I ut u ft· N{,t'll, l5

PubTi,~n(!r'$ (~talogiHlJg·IIiI·Pu.bll~3tloln
RJ(h1I!'r,H 'N P :fl~r'!JQr: ;'), 1'Ki'J
I inq

Location of lighting: Cho<)~in~ Lighting Chapter 3

SWLtclle~, and Outler Recepracles

19'~,
'Call

Fi~lur~'_,

':'irrl~]liti~Ll : ~~-.f"d

1

I?

IO},.:!

Na~onal ~I~ctll(al (_OO~ b~ H P R,ch:er w. [rE-lgr ton S.:hv,an and F·~~k ~. H<1r1-.....?l1 ~,Jj - €"d
11(,1L.J~m.l-:.-..

MEASURING II,' Power
t

ELECTRICITY 21

1,9

1 ruts of Measurement Residential Elccrrica
I~

1rpe~ n f Hectr

Curren

~_~

,S,BtoI -%U3;!9·~-~-~ a
I . E.11?t:.!llc wli

W U~lgh~on r';:B71
];>.5]

ir1 ~.In[t"rl')r I -:;[' hwan, I Hart ...~I ~ ""l!'fIC P III TIlI~

7002

C.hap:t@1" 4
\\'!t~
~!.f~~

WtRE-SElIEClING
21". 11

.A.ND CONNECTING

26

II

I
I
I

Win.' Tvpes
F~LLUIL''C

cdnor:

~1aI'i!,llC[

R. \',

l:tc

Cabk r~-pe~ _~:
f
<

b:lll

'L{

~~~
I III:

aro .l n . Hll.t('fT 1 Ftl 1 .rr 1 " R..I III r ..:.. lr.c

~~hlt!' ~ .n1 d,

3~·
I~I I)<',i,,"

T, ,ob 1 ""~t IOf '\ In[l~~ hll'~ "l,:; Terminals f.1rt Oj1n("l-li,,~ \\ rev
C,.,nnl:",I[,

,.:;

hlr ~rIK1[lg\\ II'

,4

I

II

I
I

'I

Clhi!lJpt@1r' 5 Uverc urrent

C ~RCU I 'f PR..-n:!!ilrT'IO N IIINil PLAN til IN G
DITI{"e;

42

Chapte:r 111

CASLE-NONMETALUC-SHEATHED

ANI]

4l
1b

ARMORED
Nonmetallic- Sheathed Cable Armored ublr. [27 Chapt;er 12

l:n
L~ I

Feeders

3JHl

BnI nch Ci rcW1S
I)r:am;;~ ( i[t:"lIllt N'

CW;ubting C!hla.p'te.1I' Eli Grounded

TUBULAR RAiCEWAYS 'il32

''I,'iro

;::1

Winng Didgra!'lts Chapter
"1

i~

GROU'NIDING, I
are Shod!:~? 63 65 iring Systrm!i X;a::;c S;ilel},

62

Choosing and In ~LaHiJ1g ubular Raceways U2 T Non.lkt.ihl~] llC.'Ivy-'Willl1:!indlllit ]:n Tubing. {Thh1l"'uIl NoIil1cxibl1: RaWWOlYli) 06
Flel:~bh~Race""";l}'" U8

Hffi'. Dan~nl\J~

Groundi n.g.Ra.slcs

Installing
Chaplell" 6~ 70

V!,Tir"elO

in Condui

t

l··.J.O
OUlWIRING 1,4'"

GmLlllding Ovcrvit.".., tH How Gruunding PrniT![]re~ !':..a {j[Qundin!l r:t1l~sidefatloru; for Grounding-Type Recep lade'S.lr
73

iI ,a

MODERNllZiNG
14l

Pmblem,; of"01 d Wm"k~

GruUDd-F~ll.ll Circuh lnterrup
'I.i~h1 n ~n& A rresters

. (GFO)

7,. 73

\'Virillg Methods 14.:! IDM.tlli.r(g New Sl'f'o' jet' and C ircui 15 ] 44 ]l'Ist~llins J-kwes ~nd Running Cab!~14n lm;talling Switcnes, Receptacles, ami Outlru
Chapter 114 APIPLIIAINCES ] 58 158

155

Surge Suppressors p
D

for C(}mpLJ~ ; and Otber ffieclfL)l1ic hquipment
"!i

~,\E TRAN CE 7.5 lU 7.5

T

ND W1RING

Ikl-efl'Jade~

C IirI apter

8

THIE S.ERVIC:E ' . 77

Planning Your Service Entmno Di,scunflecting .~kam
last;]Uil1fl: the S~rvioe F,ITP'al1Ce

I.lldi".idllai ctrcui~ fur App]j~nc~:s Grrl1.Uld r 11 g of ApptiaHce~ t 61
DiBmnmcting

1M
Pretectiou 162 161

MEans aad Overcucrcnt Heavy Ap~lli~n'e;,<:

\'Vlri!Jg of Common Chaplet'

.M.iling Ground Connections

115: FINIS.HIING YDUR:
ELECTR:~C:AL IIN SirALLAnO:N ',66

r IItergem.:r Had,up
Chapter 9

Ge,n e rators

96

ln~I~liins l)evk~8 Hanging Pixtures PAR ~PECI

in

l'k:l'l;:e,; 166 l.b7

Planmng Your Box: TmtaHatiol'l r It~ ilillmg Boxes HJO
Sele-cting Swi tches 105

1_'II Pt

.-;;SIT' r"'l

\lD PROJECTS

F~t.:t;:= l~ PI~
C:ha pter Planning

mfi
IPROCEDURES

Ch apler16
Wo ~k Capaci:lr

EVE-eTRIC MOTORS
0

110

r Motors
hy Motnrs

170
J 71

'101 BASIC 'IIj,N R~ the lnstallanon
CoI\TI~1

107

Fe.:d:iJlJl, and

in!:: rhe \.\. ~ _~ 11a
• l l-l

r~,~of

]J.n"""~l'

C.t1 nsumed

.'!.]!Jl~}fa

172
17.3 I r;) 174 179

Large \-fotm's nn Farms P'hil~ Oln"cTL~n. InstaUlfllll the Motor

I\<;o-Ci rcurt Duplex Rcceptacl ThrCi.~W-1R'Circui ts ll5

Motor CiE c u.it Rtquin:mC'rm

Dct::Jched Garage;!; and Acresso

Build Lngs 1] ;"

. .

vii IClila,p~r 17

F:ARM S

"80 BO

r ,I,.J.I;U:un!::u,tl .Meter Pele t" Db~ rihmimlJ Poinl- 10 N EC TlTIllLnolCl.gy}1 De'l~mlhlin~ Sue III( \"'IrlITS and &rYICe 185 1n:;ullling Overhead \\ Iring 1~~
hisWlling UruleIgTmmd \'ij'Irrng 1iii'.!

Tabh!s
Table 3-1
Table4-1 labje4-::l!

Wiiru CQfl~umed by\larku.l~ AppH:am:es ;u
Ampadty of Wires 2.7 On~W"'li' DlstiilT'lDesfor 2%VQlyml!:
iilt U'O Valts

Drop byWire5i~
DroJll bV Wire 5~ze

r noStall ing Sl"rviu::.EquipmcnL ru.nuildi..rngs -190 Gmuru::l~-l.C"IC.l.lion, In~lan.lljon, .lIul Special R€qll:irement~ Wi"rmg hlranch CUCilll!:i ~JLd UuJJ~L~ill F"rm Build'jn~s 195 1".1 rm ~.;Jft:t} '20.2
Chapte-II' l'B l.;OW-VOl'fA.GE. WIR:ING204

Single-Phase

30

PH

Table 4- 3 Table 5TableS_':2

One-Way Dl ~;t<111'e5 f~r 2% Vol um~ at 140 Volts, S irtgle--P'hllse 30
Number ofUgl1tTng (lrcuTH 47

r

Oeterm i ning Corroct Ampi1'rt:lye for Motors

49 49

Telephone Wi["ing ='.[1'1 CA r\ "\"iring 106 Horn e Cfll"IlI r u ter 1\ en,VJJtk W!nlJJg 107 Doorbells, Cltimes ;lna 0 I her I..uw-Volt<lg,eCol'Itrn:ts f,(n\, Vi'lhag-.: SwiLchefi ~(J'J
"Vi:re~eo;s Il:oldlO-wlltFuUJiid Switches: .2 tu

TilIble5-3
Table 9-1

Sugge.!>ted Number of 12G--Volt and .240-VOll Clrcufts IntEl1lor Voh .. rrne of S'blndlard BOX.E!'5

'51'9

Tijble9-2
]07

Volume ~ql!ired

per Conductor 99

Table l 6.--1 .AIrCIWable Distance (In Fe.et) fl'Qm .s EfVill:E! Equipment to STngle-.Phase Motor fQr Different Wi rofi!' Sh:§:s 179

u.' ntral

V;icuum 8y;;re-nl~ 211 1'R'CUJBlES,HOO11lNG AND' RIEPAI.R5 2" 2:

ChaJII1ter 1'9

'Iroubleshooting

Fu.'les.;w{i t:in:uit fircakeu

11~

UpI;Iarrllg)\.hl'lniIlrnn l,"/i:ring;n;i

Rt:pJaciflg Wall .~Titches J 1'6 T~:i ng ruul ].c.rloldng 'v\r~.u R.eceptacb. '2 Hi 'Fronbleshnol'lt f~l& Llg]ll Pixtutcs ~ 1S iIlJ1uhl.c:..iloot:ing (ord~ and illu ~~ 119
Repairing l11hleand

floo.r

Lamps

.nn
~,2 I

'I re lIbJ{,Mlooting DoorbeJl\ and Chimes Gloss<lI ry
Index

22.3

2.31 2.43

AoolJt the Authers

Order FQrm 24-4

1:11

The ability of 1-1,p, Ri('hT~1 reduce a complex ~llbje,:t TO sirnple.casv to IJr]J<"T~wnd ru I~mh L~ rare. Matching lh,i~ 'lhillrj.· is improbable, bu, i. !~ 3 challenge 1 seriuusly accept. Tlus Wrh edition reflects r~\'i~in!H nude n~ct"!;;~~[>' the rnany chaJljg~';!, Ll~' 1I1 rhe 19'99 b/{jlwl'I~1 l-.1fanml C'.oaet-· and by materials and methods Hot LOveI ed
in

r revmus

editions,

-\'oj, Cr~·i3hmn Schwan

f~rm ~u tha l j t w iU be acceptable to cvrryon e concern ed, However any wiring, learn how W do (he job correctly
The author hopes this boo k will also be of consi d era hi c y,l hi r' ; rI pi<u :~iob, tn en able vou [(I \'0' r i tt' sens ih 1t' ~r("L . iII L .iI i~ ~ha L wi II k<lJ HJ ' lH~ maxi mull'! use ln ess [rom electric I'0~VC".r-nuw> and 10 vears LHa. C ' will ~~'ui~ll<llCr changes mal usually cost several times as much a;:.I' ir1 ~lw u riginal plans,

r,!

Throughout this book 1 have emphasized the re8S()I~~ ~\ hv rhin a particular way_ This will help you to undersrand Iln-~ ! 1[11\ rhe e discussed, but W"LJlal~0 help ),o~J III ~()h-t ()111~r ~)I\lbl~'Hl~,.L~ 11ll'~' wiring or' JJl kinds. The frrst editinn or Wlrin~ Simplilit"ll.lrp(';ln:d in 1932, This );!nd , prepared bv \~' Crelghi~m Schwan, who is cspeciallv well qualified verv grateful 10 huu fnr un.lC'rtilkin~ this preiect H_ P_Ih:hler

II I s lI~d~d an honor io ,~rn Ihl~ book forward, W. l r~'ighron Schwan J id MI ()ut~l~ntiing j,('!h mainraining Ih~ ~ untinuity of this work fwm the J2nd cduion, which rdlf"Ck.d the developments I!' ,11,"1~IJ NEe through the ~~':.lth edition based on the 199';1 ;... we M\' hope is 10 ai.lueve what my pn .. .J~~.~~Wr5 mal:l<lgoo so adnurably i[] k~PH\~ an rue reasinglv cern pi t!:. field accessible 10 .~ h ru ad audience l'hls ~lJth edinon rdl~d5 rhe extensive cbilnt;~ III {he .2D011...[C. T hese changes are ' buth SUDstoIDtp,:C~T14l,10 a de~ree not S('(_"[] i'tTilaps since the 1959 Vi"'c. editonal, The 2(10: ..... has ~onlpl~[ely recrganizvd ih Chapter j covering wirintlITl(!liHH.1 .• 'EC imeanmg alrnost all W][lI'l:€-lilcr.hoo8 ha ...c new ar nde designations .and il now rd~l.. 10 LIS internal '-!?cllon~aml8.pp<"'ndices in a di!rn~lH~ manner than betorc. In ilddiwlrl, m.1I1~ <It11de~ have been ~'f I rnp!e[eh' rewnucn, \ rl~'rea der attempti ng to apph' prIOr cdu i II m of this book to Ill(!' ~0(12 t...EC will b~' \'~T\ i,.LH1[used as 8 result,

rhl'> edition as aiway'_ T~~I'L~nd~ rnam hdpru! i.n fllr[h~f comrncru,lfld ~uf).!;~S[Lnn_< for impn'n'm~nl~ ~,~mact mformai i(l[1
'CoC

~IIAAe:1;tkln~

b~ iI, rC;J,kr~,wei . are gre-atly apprC'(';.li["1. I.M

pug"" -G.

Frederic P. r brl~~'"tl

Wi~r'rg !:)wJrli(l.::.~ L~ divided Hi[11 fnm parts lh~L ~~'\t'T the various phJ6~·~ uf .! wiring iC!!r---frolfl understanding h;i~i( vocabularv ~n~! r'-Llh:il'k~, to planrung. 111,uliatJon. and ji]'li~"1nh. Each pan pl1.'\ ai~~ rhe n<."(<'S~~Jr fmlndallon tor the
Pclrt,

that tollow,
GETTING S t, RlWTH~ SAS!C5
WLRf~ CIRCUn 5'. ANt) G;:;OU NmNG INS tolL,N(' ~ERVICf EQULPMENT "NDWIRING. SPKjAL WlRI~

srn .... lIONS

AND PROJKf'l

Ilnt:r:od

Uc:tioln a.n d g: u lde

Park Puhl~~h~llg., inc specializes In "".ring hooks Lhal offer easv to-understand in.-;truc~i()l1l> ~loIlg with valuable guidance from """'ation(lj'Electrical Codr experts, H(I[~t'J o~ the ::W02 TEe, this -u).h edition oi Wi"rJlJ.':Smtpli{jf.!r1 includes a fresh perspective and major revrsrons br the new author, Frederic P; Hartwell. SI:>:'l'e~1 p:;;ge.~ have heel] added and the ::!2i'i ill u str,1.~ U~ arc new () r imp roved t~l better io
l....

II~e he~I \',';ly to use this book I~ tn read .it thruugh ~r,un start to finish ill ~~111 an overall ~r,.~p of what is involved 111electrical wiring, The t,1bl~ ITt contents at the .:r"-!Illoj the book pro~'id~s an overview L1f the wsde I ~.nge of m,Hl·ri;ll w\ tl ed, This and Ihe urdex at the balk are fnur kevs to locawlf 10p.,,;_s quicklv and l\~~ily
GETI!l NG, SfARTiE:I!)'- THIE BASICS P rll \' ides basic b.lckg roun LI uecessa ry to undercrand the sakLy, pr~ .. t.Lal, and legal cumid~·!,8tinlb involved in. ~\ lriflf!, decisions JHd practices, This is esscnrial reading before llmlnlakinfl any electrical work. The standards ~f1d codes that help ~'rl~lIrt safetv arc cxptained . .Ll[d important ~,1t~·ty precautions a re (1 ff~ Practical gU,i b [I ~coriside r in the pbn n i n fl. of an" wi ring loh are described in plain l.!l)guag~. A.bare-bones oiuline ot how cb:~r~~.Ll p(1t<[erj, IIJC<l~ L~ red and delivered Lt~ ~h~ hn me provi des ~d6i~ ~ oC.lhuhry tor unders lau ..Ii Ilh jS::;LH;~ Vl 1,I~"ge,cost, and oonscrvai inn of electrical pt)\~t'r.

enhan ce f~1e text, Throughout w; h i ~1orv of 70 Yl:ars of co nti It IH)iJ$ P u blication, the hook has been updated [(1 cflrlt'orm lu each new' NtHifMdl rlmrico/ Co(k. Readers 1J~l[]j!. this lat€~t edition of \"iririg Simpfified can I"l~ confident of getting [he 1110sl L1P- to- date in rorma t con, I NTENDlEO AUI[)IIENCIE

roo.

tlrrrltg Sifl~plified has long been IP::'l,d with success by a 1o!dri{'ly of" readers=

lh~·~rw!1 wiring IleW 11lIm..: or up-dating e'X1$Elllg ..... p uing II:I an older h(Ufl~ will learn ~'I'hetht·r lhl· proposed work cO·11tlr()5 or accords with or even ext.~xJ~
<l

NEe r.tqlii~~rw~nb, Step-by-step direcnons conveni,elil, and practical installai iOI',

arc given for cnrnpk:!ir]g

~ sare,

WHRES,CIRClJllS,AND GROUNDING l'Xp18iI1~ how tn dlJOOSl' the right wue rvpes and ~i7e.~, lectriraldev ict'~,and tools -ou'Il nced Ir.r a particular iob, PW[Jer overcurrent e prntection and the im[lnrtance and spccilus or smlltldLng arc emphasized here ami. h n'~'gholJt the book, ;,;<·w developments on ~f(. -1-,1 lr circuit interrupters are u covered, Ih·glJ Iat inns J re given t~l r r(-,~der~ and the panels Ih e I' suppl v,A simple W;1~· is described for u,ing wiring t'jaJ!,r3Ti1~.In de~ign installatiuns of any size,
INS,fALLING AND WIIR~NG When you'n·rtady to start yom Wi rHlg ~Hmphfied fi~s in rOll r Wl.llhm:: ,,0 you can ,~k~ II .l'igbt w WhfH' ~LIl/re workmg ror r~·~~t)reference, This <10.11 {·Ll~tJ()ncovers ITJ{Tr~ 1ring methods w lll~n previously, ThC"5l·r v !lee IHran ce chapter d escrihes rrq IJ ired \"i lTbl'Kt around piln~'I\ 811d explains ho\~ 10 esrahl ish fit, r~)iniection point be! 1A.~t:1l I h1! po ....e r ~uppli1,!T\wires and y-our ~k·nri':<1~ inscallauon. l)>e!;liled instructions an.... rlm.it~d p to r select i [1}:'and mstalJj ng bOXl~ an d switches sn rll ur c Ifeu its; tor making •he wm 11~ connecuens <It the boxes, li.....~he~, And receptacles: feu running cable or r<ln:\·;~~·~: I and j I) r [~Sll n f! th e (0 mplcB:d ]r1 ~ titll<llt io n. You ....ill .i I~, f1l1d information ~'n h~ ~\, to wire cl{", 1ched garages .mJ .lL~e~" ~fV buildi DP I,[(-dc rtW 111}l.an o utciat,t'd \',1r III ~ 5v~t('m i~ ~'I~e:red In a ~C'r,H~W Lhdpter, with m.m t:'~l'~r t blm~ lor mJ[';'i[1~.~ lh~ ~ob ~,1~i.:r \\' IJI ng. requircm W I~ fll [ ,) \'arie{~' 01 ~pt.. l fl L household C app l!~ II L~' ~~c Ii~l~'l! Tho: J~t.l1ls 0' hm~hm~ ~n d~cm(al .rt~l~II,HlOII wt.:Lp up thj~ l'r"f~~'IO'l.L! ,1~ P r, t;k h [0 ge rtLn g l' Inb drll1 e. :SER'U'KE EQl:IIPMENT in staib tion,

J'he homeowner empln~ing ~ professional will filld 11m book invaluable ir1 (J.~u~;;.ing the joh w~lh lht· contractor. S,mdYLnf \>\'H"[f18 Simplr.ned will f:.1~~ 111~ homeowner insifl,h. Into the problems the wn1 racror will D1?N to solve dnd will
j1

rovide the bas I.~ fOr clear commun i canon.
H and make clectncal re]'a i rI will find insrruc

The per~on w~Ilti.ng to troublesho. t tons in a ~r~~iill hapter. c

~ M'l' • he

~wd~nts and teachers u.~'r)}( book In a vanent of educational settings appre.•he ra ngc and dep[ h nl ~ubien m ~t ter_ l ~'J 1 mx ::.rmp/ifrrri is A dYI'l<l JrI K r~·:>: I 11~~1jve~ ~wdrnts a se[l~e nfbemg on the lob with <I pfOf~~lonJ.L ~

"oJII .wI F/r,tn .,J' {_<,d~' d.nJ \ &(~ al"\! t~."'~<T' '1''''-'''Cl~[Jon. Enc.. Qu i II, ~. '.i ~ (Xlc~o.J '

I ·rlJ~Jrl;

,)t lh·" ~~III'I'~

r

Ir~

i"rm('cnon

In

ct lis~ings 1{t'f'LJ~~ble retailers and manutacturers ~11 oI11~. C.11 ~.nl' rroolJ<-t continues to be listed and will b. the wiring and dtXl[ical eq u ipmem ruusr be properl y installed and III a IIHi) lued. "om e Items I wi re.s'... wntk. and even cause dl'dlhSTAINI[)ARDS Ilcctnc p(fW~ r I~ .)t h ~r 1tt=1L1 such J5 recepta des.1! letv glas~. (he chapter on lew-voltage wLflng now IIaduJt"!i g~.:. lag. The revised and exp ~uded I. and \\'1:: ufl~H !'lkt lIml gl'anted_ Yet when nut used properlv electric pn\\"~r run cause fire.. ~tall d iag on dry surface .r to those shown in FLg.mil:MioH is L1nderwrLtt'I~ Laboratorres {1. or s ggesti om ahour rh ~~ h~'ok Please send the m 1rll-Park Publishing> hJL J 11 .ITl. 8 Ii stin ~ TIlJ . destroy pWPt'rLy. S~iII .'<1.811.11 tl el boxes.Lll\'<=. :.()i callv vi ~Lt the rolctor".lr . In addiunn to telephone and do( rbell \~I rlllF.1.~'lFe for us to use only when i( j.ll::iliJi(·d t·le~:tI ~(.w ~m)pl~ ~ay~apprc>ved by _" "but that is not ccrrcct tcrrruuologv To determine that tht· prodLlct continue-s to meet requirernerus in the prudud ~tanda.d L~ing '.. rr rnt'&c samples meet the requirements. ~l'TioLJ~'y lruure people.rds.loll e motL)r~ co rum o nh used In residences an d nJi f" rms. CM..rHl£!. Phone Fax [-mail ~IJO M 1-O'lr. on OUT tarrns.t'I. w uh special l'"O\ er: ge 01 new rq~u1~uens tor IUO tor disconnects.5. rd u' II .>. and creari ng ~ a 1llo~~ lations that are safe your best effort.~"cn(l. I h ave labels .1in roar before ro u sUn which codes are III ~IT~'. m.rini_! covers ~p€'( iahred !Tlp I C~ such ~~ p mnSrrtlCIlng [he Hlt'tl'f POlE. 1~'Itlally Important.our.]-I on C~dl wll Oi p ieee.lnd safe. cal installation hut want [P b .rnoldcd nr stamped on o each r ieee. Standards. anJ in industrv that Lf would be difficult [0 li~l all Lb uses.~b]\:' Lu maintain the elect rical rquipmenr thev de nd on each (1. [0 u: e.~I{W standards.merchan dise ttl at ls listed br a 4..odes" and Salf'et:y WE DE PEN]) 0 N ELH:TR IC row I:.xil ~PECIAl WIRliN:G.~~ blownfuses or tripped' reekers..: product is ill v.t l~ then ~ii~lt.ring6f"" . 00 aud sub iected to performance i ~~1s. ~n d lea rn .TTliNG STA~T1E [)- THE IBAsl CS. ". . wh en' ihc [' nxl LJ~l b made to audit product ill..A.l CO. . Cord sets Iextension (1 rrd.lfl'tY rssues.\\rL'ioCoruin Dt I'~ New Richmond...ll resti ng 1 aborarorv. They should be installed using methuds Ih.aMy ineliHlinr.l I 1'(' Is.~lmrllli~'LL »rn .fld rhOna!!y.t1 bv ~name oflaboratorv).JIl~~'f.1 n:' Consult your local d~1T 1(:0l." N[J.i~are uniform throughout all Ull' etatcs=-thc TlI('thrH:I~ proved by experience to be both pradLlal. the 1£~t:iH:!llab(lrJtoIT n./ulrlg animal hu Lid IflfiS..1 li~tjrlg mark.n~'ra]maten.III YOL r local iIY_ Your q uestions.~.1 -Li 2-1o--Btln welcome.n f>L: .. ~nd doorbells thdl d~f!1t \~'ll~· !nlormarien tba t Can be used hv pe(jI~1c ~\'ho never ' r intend to linJ~n<tke an tJCCLr.:~u~~rh tests factory and store snrnples. G E.k ~Imj]a. is a gui: il' to diagnosing and remC'iLiYlrl~. We control i{ by using wiring anJ electrical equipmene that is of dependable quality.CTS ht"El.lbo ex tcnsi I'd) ill (1 LlJ h n n les and h usinesscs.~ I on C1 III P LltCT nc th'o. disconnecting live circuits.1~.. tr aincd fid~] rc p r~~dlt.l manufacturer submits its prod!lLI 10 such an organization.If it meets [he :.'i and -J.. hruken ~~\L1< Ires JnJ receptacles. I'i xt Ures. la rgt' ~~Vl1Lhe~. \\ J 5-1 1-. . conduit) nilv\:.:~li~L.l rk wiring .J. ~!lti rtlr.m.II)~ wllh .epl.SITUAl1QNSNO'ROJlE.Lhbr~~'I. an d toasters ~ U have n rl I'Lbod. d'lI'1U n Lon 1.. Hecrrical parts and devices art m~mlfaClljr~d according to specific safl'l r standards. . and larnps I _.The last ch~ p [c r. thl. """lr ng is U1 exacting practice and deservc-.toggle switches CJrIT the name 11f I 'nderwriters Laboratories lnc...L~shown in fig l-~ [ll'\'IC~"" !Ike. He-CHic power serves In countless wap while normully presenting little d.APTIER 1 .1 repairs. Produ.ll~ t on farm wi.. The uUes! and mosr comrnnulv recognized testing mg.lted and the .... h u[ rhe J1J. L1r 11lL' llO=IT1 I r~d f be:lb lhe llsu n g m ~ Ilk 0 I· I Jr t~ hOPl'd that you find t lis useful and IhillYUUJ primaryconcerns will be Juing the work .C()Hmlon problems well . LJI I n H Ibl~ I shooting .t discussion Qi the typt'S a Ila \\' I nllg n:4lurcmcn t~ at . 1 ~\o\'h<'r1. under coru wI.

..imply reference "?U.'hl]~ the other iu.' ~ Nilti1..oG\no~~ .lg m.lIM III ~ I L'L IS I he IIl~'~l widctv ~ltbliIar pieces 01 III ~rchandise Plo..C~"1ion r'lLHllhe. Nl1tioliaifiedrlmJCodeJ!l For a '>IIf~ iustallatinn.werJ~e~ :>.J'T1 rj be 12:5 V_ 11'15 W.1:1 t r1J am a. ~.ST'ED fi!!!_ 1--3 Ifbe(du!.p r()d!-lct IS pJ~l~\ll-d !. ~RI>lTm IN u. IiL\ \::!:J U. rhe JL1 ~p~tor . now .1\.l t ~\""L tches.II(ln~·~._jtfOf l'Il£t 1001 f' r~ .1. ~L'~ li~".11 cd ~fthe NIl] IS.~j~)11 (('':J'' I.ific provisions llf rhe !VEC .. F~-:wry ~ lutual t l t>..•e only tn ptTn1<l1l~IH]V drv locam . •. wil~1 the next edition to ap I'c.]J1 LJ !~LLI urer by rcfcmng to J di rectorv I tsti I. Note !118! effective 1('L'i~n !h~ 2n02 .1 h. The 1"iH~is ~imp1:-' a ~~·In r r LJ 1 es specifying ~he i I L$t ~ llation and w iri n ~ methods that [}~'(:'r..r nave been umverted to a rea. two FO~ D.:("ljll[i numbers will be I(~ secnons rn the 200::! NEe. Ld enntv iJ~l~m't.J L~r3nd~ ju-t as yml .)j' in :2...ITLLI~tl"U nat in the' .'h meets The rn . ..o Olll .:-tion ..the rne: .. Fi'g..lft rf u~E'd I~Jr rfu prl[JhH!:" .IRE ® LlSTEDI ENCLOSED SWITCH] ISSUE NO. .. rirhout d change in l'Iar.d appliance cords) dr<!' td~qed Hag I~IJ€I. listed rk\'i(~s must be installed iI~ required by the "".mn I Flre ~roli1!alon A~s..TH E r~M!CS J I~- ) 1-3 Each piece I~ rn~rkd i11 so me wa v S<J ttl1!! the ul~pt:C[()r nr pun...dt. No. 95 ~'hilJpin 9 ~ n d renumbvring <I !'oe. [k':~~Jie the . rd\l~e [('I acce 1"1 l.Hllll Electrical L(llif (ahhreviated ~VEC).the UL.l\l.UlJl:..tofl il<'!1. M)mO:lilll~. .m.(m:e among h'L~..~urfdC~ t~. r . 11 ~! rlg"t Wi I be toun cI on th'" ~n1.:h cord i~listed onlv tor U5<l' on ~N'lrTable equipment ll~Lm~ b) l.ference to NEe So!. ill i h~ number Mi!!tJcnal ~I ~ Pirotec:tion J!ls~ia. huwever.fl. qualirv.i r~AUlating LJ]~ No.. been round tu be ~~fe and sensible .-l pe-r i od of IN.dUng to.. part 01 Intertek Testing S-c1'\"JL~' 1. Ch the.Imhef' .3115t unit· mm(ll()~' III .U~'I~1.J..a) C'_ L !j.LlIJOI_I n<md off~ at full load befure rfle~kmg down. u i her ccrtifica t ion labor atur i es indLuj!.!J. s.~~ flw1l~rlr written as "Section 'W-I ..~(lf minor I)r by c~l1l i'I9 1.11 hJV{' proved their produc: meets the applicable r~Ulr~m'::ILr~.Every r~~d~r i~urged to I u....l referNQtfOnQI Ele.. U~WI~ ..11~n~~ m ihe text. a complete ll~! rog rna ~ ~.i.'! N1-. For exam pic. [L rncrelv indlcares m~l buih meer ~Lis. S (l ph. Th~T ~ l-uI':-.. lnr (flO\'.e .~~f. . II!C.. 'i'cu.ior impOrl.fCnJlilf~.ted" Uisage WE!qlui~@menh. (1[1 c m~} . because ~LJ.""LI("!J..!\'(lUI' own 1 good iudgrnent rn making ~"Otlr d".en5ion In this book.. bu1 all wiring must he (inlle in one otthe W~~'~ descri bed in the N F(:_ A revi sed edition of Ihe J'.is no lllr~flel uSed t{~ refer to ~p"-'l..i~c J rHlnr~d {"'l ble ll. tcrt. Lisred lamp cord will be turned m down rf l~~~~ rl fi permanent '" IriElt..'L..@l)}-l44-3S5SJ~'~ al5. ltl II e rtlur E'1~rr-f'I1TSshq. h~ur:ll1mark lin the product ill d I~Ht~ com pliance _~n add ItiClI~ III l ' I .00.::t.lfl1!'n ~.! ~ S6.ve locancn.I? t .(' permits iml..J :>.lClll rL·r~111.e Dr If'rodtJ~ N~mp) ~L[)r. Qujn cy. ins: ~11 i ("In o twiring at ~J1d de. Ev~ry '.' L dn~" am mean tha I n" ~alHc JIC 1)[ Lh. 111~n nn "listcd'' indicate." are r~9j~t'E"r.la rjorw I Ekrrrj~4~l ('ride i~ published every three vears.. uUs cd in 0 n. [L()n.h~tH..}ll.1~rr ( ~n the m. J ~.:h'HHil~~'IS suitable and s. I h 1 rcnurn beri flg . l.tr>("If'Ity1n~ r=nd ~ymtxll at left. Th c fclTtllll<lr hyp hens be I wo:t I~ art ide ami 1nc. . For c X art 1(' I~. '1h".uge number uf changes from lh~ 19W edition.~a i~'a (oPY ot the 1'. and I lie <Hner on I)/" )..I.GETTI NG STARTED .becmse armored cable !~ fm u...""Ee is almes: 700 pages long._: HUOB_ESCENT FIXTURE selecring othc r me rc hand i.5...~ ro! flh.l n .lre carelesslvor improperly installed might snll present a risk of borh shock and fire.~. unlv 11~most e unportarn ~"'r)eJ·ill points can be indl.der I~ u r9~d to stud)' the NEe..0011 t_I~.EI) ~NDUSTRIAL CONTR!OL .UiC ~i I d to use it as a releren ceo It contains det ~'i re gula Ied nons ~11~1xtensive tables.SULAlED W. so nllel have been clndo]K'I.::o\('riny..'T~'wll~j Other ch.cr rical device-so ® usnm 500 FT.'\. Listed electrical pdr(~ ofhtgh quality lh~r.c~"1lL In L L ".1-2 with d listed cord s~h l~xt. . n f rwo br ands u I" t ll&J.rks ot the d fur C~dI11p]e.. ~i7~.~ ~Oflo~.[ b.I !h~ onlv change 0. ICIO~D StET 15 A..Hr~(od 11'1 rrtafl)' Ia rg ~ Ix!o~ S'ml'e5.59.l r n . Lr~I~' requirements One pl~~~Jt13y far surpa~~ LI!~I~cequirements.."~ i.:m~~~~~nAiMof I.. OZ. (ord~ ar..:.ld.t1H~ rt>p P-fOOl. Hectrtcal mspcctcrs will rurn down llst~~1 mC"rLhJLldj~ il improperlv used. a l1 .f m. Of .m'ml -Codf!'" ~ rl'd /IiE(I en ...s_..:-d in ~~[rillg Sil>lf!l'ifidruanv (0 yl"il ~5 have be mack in several different [-4DU91 ~ _lW~ ~'U.5hap~.s« Ln.' ETL Tesnng J~hm.<I f"I ocmln a copy b~ 5!E'l'Irling do.:Ii~!ilHll with .rho.:Ulllf.md ( ( I ne.lJ. LHHJ the Canadian Standards ..rlDn [l t the .e. lTI.• ..t"i lLSCd.n ~mdL'f rl!~ ! mtdrrr{lr!~ I~Jr which It was ®USJEDC@ IENCLOS.t@fYi'11c..5CJ in . MA.lll(jl1~ \"<l\'~.~EC the wllr~ "section" .>. M~5s~chm'ens.!ct b.PANEl I'\ih'\ \'!!:I UsTED ~S)UE ~l.ocia~OI'l._h. which con~dlt'l' a.

in the bonk (:\•• r\"~ I .I' ion tor design. uuerpreted that \~'~'. if] ily {ompl i. . ~n~~d~ I. ~ow b.l\ ul:..:mioflcd In th i~ bUL)KmJY n ~ mav r'o~ be abo U... Any unique .Olldl. will allow the ynu W haw a rnon.~Il(lini d thnmugh d.1 rT'n~.].HUl1JoLi bv the dLJII"'f b"C"r~' dron h~~ been devoted 10 making all s tatemen r-.It doe-m t brlollgf-llw~<!' iH~ ha:zard~ th~L r~nrc".taJllI1f ~rrml'rl..:trl~. tOT nample.m11 buildings." :'iUH"m~nt that ~n!llC panicular S. whenever ~Ul[ are doing any dec- irrcal ~ ork.:mcnts in t he ~Vl'n t of...I if 1"l.. ever. lJ~u.in tbl' ~if or f!ther ga~~ i~~ and mll<llly whtrc.mrelligent COnYCn:HtuJt \\ 1[11 ~'nLJF electrical contractor.e'.d The I marginal htil1~h tb at used J' ~ II ~diCate deleted m 3 terral urr no lon:fl. lion manual Iur the mexperlenced. II Of ~<.'qliorJ1li t. Klls (If copper . which wbicn For vuur pel sona] sate!}.. Codes.ra~ the type ut' .d ~ll!k~l JL f...ordance with dll' !VariemalJ-:'!I'l/n{'ai Code.n(....tL ..thcwcrk ir~elf must bcpcrn .siJ'_'r~bly . without sPf.:.d ~Ild 1(1(aJ md~ I i"il dil~~ 11('1[.::L.g: Sail· ._:il'!'n._\iblt" "mr.\.u:ardwiiI tn ~n9 d@t@dor§ f:!J. overh L~. I. Puw('r "ul'plier~ u~Llc]lly will nor fLJrMt!Sh Ll{'l"W Ulll!l d n in ~pcCliorL eel'1l h ca. Ir.J.l.u no ('Jl~ rn..ine!. PLJrf'0~~' i~ esse nt IClllr the pTiic'i (.a rods ShOT[ c[rcui ts. r~hti.!~t.l/.!)e~ and clrcuil bn:<lko.{'(lulll ~'.~LJ h I_I rit ~ em rhe \ H L) \eLlLlr !uCJ. ml iob uruil ar» ~rnlr~ ..lian ce Wi f h I he .:h'iq?~dlor pernllq~ ..nthmu l1('Ln~ I.upe.1 !.lll invL'~IItlI!'Hllh~[ ':~.dh' POWH ~UPI'lil'r' \'lrtU not n.rmlll~ \'..NEe together with p roper mai ntenan c.~-~ Ii"'e~ Rq'lul.s mOl'Wr· Study of the _1o.·frlfl: ~ wlrilJg iob can be .·nrral 1I::rm.llier. l]nl~s..I! s'lf'l~ uarding m' person S and prnpert y trom haza Id..age ill L1..\TE t<lll s "al wa)':.(' bl!.ikdr be hflpd~~~ly confused..mmge is a ~pl'(i._i! i Il~ llf house. <I no Sdf .installed jobs.:.he fir~_Electrical af(~..111gh 01.IJH'!01 LI'1 In'H nJ . 'jrill~ d~.lming ~ I.)L firL or othr-r h~t. book are ill ~Im ~arcerdance \~ .lfP' II1dJ(<U~rnmcrial that dJff~n [rom the prenOLL~ eduron.thm''_'" th a t iJn the sUTf~u' j.d.ed ill (hJPt~"'[ I" 'hmll Wirin.{'d.l'Il..'I1nr]f will nnt to:'~dl\ OL] hpw W wrre hIHkjir!l1\_Rl·<Id \'a-:-':lO. of law. Pro!ecting yV~I~ ~k. must be carcfullv evaluared for wiring n-q II iJ"!.r I be ~un _ Be c~Idl. N Fe contains pm\' i$ ions considered necessarv for <."tnt"tl r~ that promote ~a!d:t\ li~11Nll.l fur theexact \y~trJini5l)j'it." r lJ"'t'd.lhv th c . Lomp.~ . the Inspector mus: 1I1rl1 .ime~ pmhibHL. and uses.i(1il. flux.1mCIld ~p.except to {(]ll~I\I\'the faw. tlW...cal~i re' haz. 1hd! ~.~lv ~m.imtaJl. pn:lpcrl\. Ilr stal·r ilLlt])Ofino=~ h.hll'>'i1 ~. taU JI .~'tlillg ith ".These hazards are lire and electric ~hfld .lJ work on \ our (. 1ndil1 domg w mit~~ rentiuuslv you . ern :.'rn!il I.II l.l!:ts Neirh~r the j\iEC nor the product .' L'C is not j me Ihied as a specifi L. eel in t h ~ • b Ll ~..kx:trlcEaIlS gClle-fJ!lJy spend ~.lls nfpropcr .Lh the proper ~rl(laL i1y (exptaincd in Ch~1'1'_"'r ol) . ith ttl i~edi lion. . hut the :"TfC . molten metal [a n be' thru w rI (UI t too qu ickly fur YUU ~(1 can Jlv oul when cutting ~.·) <t<'l~dnr e\H.m{'d. <lll!1h~LJld i n g~_ J n r addition.Ifld . \~'Ln meet rution. A lay resder picking up a wp'· ofthe i'iN:_. utlTl~tn.Lrt cLnph. an unals.. Remember connection requirements that ~'(Hlr ~~~fIL Betorc applv Ing !~H . Consult YUlIr l'I.\~el supplier or local authorn i e~. Ivilh d<lmaged insulatiun.1 seldum JjfJ:er n-Com [h~' national mdL' H1~.:Jve no chOice.ltiDn through du:.. arising from the use of elcctricitv .AIFIETYIPIUKT~CE5 Lleurrcal vvsterns In bu. such 11" encountered nn talTI1S.t ~ loss..1 hazard nul not nccessanly ~nj.! the II fp If" ..~t~lIdtlrJ~as eI1forL.e~. YOIJ nUL~1~el nne betorc p[(J.. be ~UIT vou U!llj(""t. iIKIHd i'ng extcns ive \~'II r k with cod!' instructors.)UJ fob ~O thal \our \\ Irlnp.·r"'. 'rillf pradLce~ for tin:' prc\ cntil1n .illll<lII"~t8Ih(!on to a p. r 11.. and plaster JuslIICJ~'e. b~11 IL.urance rel ill Our:.HHI UlL.:-neck tOf wi.' the same ·..!La Slnl)kc J. y numbe r rn.r~~ or cur&..4 GETTING STAfnED- THE BASJ(S Chapte rl Standard5.xrrncd ~f~l)' fi')rthe protection o!lhl' imt. this boo]. I\[]).::aliy rUrl .IJI1eS Ih~'llJrglIu 1)( "II'I1O! III l .ill .crd~iLt~ traininp will !.e.lJ changes.. Ho . befure they work ir1 Lht.11.J.""tri n g I~ i lnl Imot LI f m..-l~th~ focus·at [hapt~'T 5.\.~\ e I.l s.lUtomaIK~lly product .~E(~ I~ nccessarv and helpful. iii ke' iii d va~t!! gl!! of h .~ wut'lOU[ hnnf: hceIL~<'"d rlllC'5 th.-1.iKm~ioJ:l of th~ t·~~~'11la. Th ~ . must bein ao.1nd this required. tv"pi.~i{i( pro\'i_'io.ll\-\'. ~ been !U flh'-<! in nil~ Locallkens.~ some localities the ld\'\.re u..tin~ laborato-les have the tor.soo 10 p<'l}' the ex f1('jh~$ of deL i r I (.ll ~11 ~!~~ \. In additi fl n. lh. thL' lIl.IfeH'. I'~ B@ .Il~' local codes I he .)tit ~'":. ~mltec{ rour e-vt'~ <II ~lll imes lry wearing satctv ~I~~e~.')nLl'limcs supplerrwn Led Lw]oG...I~\ n I'~t]lh~ '. most states ~~nd/l..}l prop<!rl\' \~'ir('d.r rurJoI r~. ~Y51em and leave the .l!'t'lnml locall perml~t!l 111 many pl~L~~ it i~ nece~'>i:Irv 10 get a pennll from Clr\·.-I tlnw nf electri("jt~.Lrlli~h power to hlHlcling~ th..ro:-(U rl~ llOJlJ n~.ll~ aLum Cq~llplIl~ill i~01.Lt· legislature! p<l~ laws reqLlIl'ili~ that all wil'inf!. <Hld get more tor your Prot@ctyourey.idenl~ ~nJ i~ tl'~LU'f. Jl::gi.oft'~~iurl.Wresult in a II i m tallati ()n e~~<"H 'h' tree trorn 1.LI wiring ~rr..~'·I}U kel runfideni rhat vou can _~aw.I ~wide to understanding ~'OlIT \.fiLch JTe-guefll'" .-..1r is it Intended as an rnsrru. Jru. .and f.1ri~il.'llnspecwr~ I~ II('lY~'. a Ild thl£ arcing. eq II LPIl1(.t. J:ield wirhout supervision.emp~mture~ ("{:) n..'1.j'1 eplac i fig th c h~L[~rLe.. AU mdhuJs described in Ef>!1:lnnJi Code-s» interpreted d~'.L way ofmaking right for the ~yei_ It an arc is in....:'1 abiJny to ~ighLniT1S tt..gTOund.' I.-~".. i rL'~ \~ i. Limili[l~ "nl'!.11 IhI:' 'a~c!<l.ait· Lnstafbtkln_ COdl' L~~.1rh Lh~ck 1L1 "t..r!'~"requ i rltoi..l "g.'ork Ie::ld~ III .IiJ problems 10 IVlrh v.()od·service ur futu I'¢ e ~pansion.ilJinp rnus: hC' installed in such a w~y I h. This bonk ~"H'f~ ~U1h the ".~lvtrl<"nrlr started when YUll mli~. immed path . and hOI solder.:lnL.j l.l b~ lut:"ol ~ode~_ aH. leyaW.Coll I W. Il1r M C{~ r(~l'b('n morwxld.-efllh(. it would b~ [)~~E ih~1 vnu use this book J~ .VECp.lr mLl:IlLcL pillilil"'S it W authorized by [he q. the \ ~rtical Jines tiell u~~ .~ii:.convenient.!.md Hl~lIfance mmp~njr5 may .l~~ or ordiJ1. m cl LHi il~ Jd e ted ill ilkn ..G'-~ it.'J!1 from faultv wiring ."d bv the It::. thi rl1:l !~ '·. to i~su~ pnli~ IC~ on bUJldiI1f:~ nl.'lrd In rhe occupants ur w~ pilipel ry.1¥....L permrt. wire.fI.W~lIre of e'h.. least four yea r~ i TJ training. .n .(.)I 111others. The: fee~i. irlil1'!. or adequate fl1[ g.~c rihL'J in dli" h(H~~ I~ concerned.!ctrj.1 verv least..' ~\."'lbleWIJ'lIl~ 1~ one method pC'rnriucd lr. \ "hapter I fUll ~.IlU pL).{\'these safety objeceives.l~ilOO thn1l1gbllLli th~ bt10k..... rbt.grn('r~JJ y a. U~ uf 't~'~rcuIfentdeYi(e~-r~l. h<l\'[' been corrected.1e.mls III J home..riLIFl number iu an earhcr or later \ rL \ 'crtLcaJ. but !he nnal .l r inspector. ..1\ __ rod b).lh_l'nr C'xJmp[~.. fa Llltr wo 1'1.e...l! rhev present the k~Sl ptj~~Lhlt II. E.s IIf ~lam eJe.:n Hl~"Tl \'(1U (. ItSI n n an energized ~'i rUH I.L'. ..u h'lV~· 11Ut been pt()p~·f"h wi.u h\.ECbut ~llt!l\'.. . bul .o.

Avoid shocb tmm .nnd<'H wogs to extrd~1 Ill'" t()a~t. d dua! dereaor thct C( specify the required ln place smoke deiectors ...\'~ illkrn .10' if! \·..nocb (all.tla III mg I..cT\ backup.ickl~ cunsum xirnbus ible materials such .h=fectt\'e.!ll fC~pt1ml.IHlm ~I.-til r~ wi. . Ln wate r or . no."T rl1ssibk.."rHil1n b~U. ii~~I hd I YOllll be h.~ut . .L~~ingth{' toaster. hirllt--. n tJle worh k1Lllion. CPR (:a. The re )I"C three types of ~Ie teeters.J.llve appliance p lurn bing can eas il.~l. For vo Ur prt~tet. Fatal shocks the door opens iOIIOW:'II the halh.: ~hL1ck was caLl~cJ hv an appliance.O~ '$. merg~n["l 5.lrea e fliT .:hild punctures lht· insulation ot til(: (DId lor if the cord is cl('k~. It YOU d~")\'1.i~ l.i..: II P ~nd illl alarm ' . rli~n~· dr]h on circuit..' 1)011 plil(_'~' thc de-tect. ~t<lnd on drv boards 0 r a rubber rnat and h e sure th<l1 neuhei vou n.. while W~lf. pl U~" u..) LHlLied obiect such a~ ..""~ ~~ lrum a fiIT.L:c ru-~jtr\ ~ ~I.rpl'l ia n ce such a~ ~ r.. [I 11a WI ~:h. you w1I1J rc~eive d.o\. (()des.: t.h . c:al1s('J by Ih[' ordinary UOi240-~'nh wlring in a nOlL::'c or a farm buildmg. -n it.n 1""c'i ~F1'j~k(' J("kd(lr:. fiatt:cry-onJy style~ are il\ ~il~blt.\up when il i~ done because when thM happens people .LlLng for m.y recei vc a shock.r i I I-w d iS<OTin~din~ mt'~n.l d ~rn p Incarion than un .Know:h:aw to help . work ~h~. .. W ai>5~ .u[ ~Hllil~J equipmcIJl.J l 'tll':'~ Ch~Pl~'.f the qd.i the third kind bmes t nth features Huilding codes in each COnll1aLJI irl UOilS lt~t gcn(:'r<lJly not the rvpe Dr alarm. to ~~.(llte defe.irc cc nnection to the electncal source. nc ~CT here ih ~"WIJl be mb.lollom.! rn )1J .'..·t1l1r bLH!dJtlf!.. Til ~ n 1utn ~" LlI att{'nL ion t. IJ it ha~ a wall ~ \!J itch. JI¢'II dr w CaJ!'"ho:l'l' rnonoxiide (C n WE'll hrM di~(ll~~ .l detecn a li~[" radio or beater or other appliance while m it (LJh or shower can slso bl" I~Hal.H vou ([.1 Rj. ~ .ton' n"i(hing in~[de It f~lr .> in CPR. 10 boo: hr~. Wjl'~ lhe del~t:I ~l r Ji~cth" a~ lSS th.tst'lL .>\.. i'l tS Ofl ~ht'" l"l'itin.6 GETTING S1ARTED- THE BASICS I Chapter 1 Standards.lrl ll~ing It while \~ 'U ~re wJ. receiving a sho .the ci ULt eQuid n[J[ b~ off wubuut bemg noticed. Tlte live heating elements .".u~d ht.III d ( rcci -wircd smoke detectors are a. A child rnie..•1lL"fd. with a battery hac].ml of a LImp or appliance.~ MJ th~t it o:n f re~p()n d.U~ \~~'l klnp. Shock [h~ l!1I~ul~·nt.t· bCf'll d e ener~" '00 I "t.!: . smolderingtires such <' hr I I such a~ taping th(" switch to the \1Ff pt'~I'lH1Il m rem{lnng the fu-e.hLllga grounded pdn of Ila ttery-operated.rrfc CUrl t~llt I"'rou~h th~ bo{h'-is tbe prmc Lpal hazard mat I~ n nt"ul lTom u nS.l VinlTll . In that snuanon.l Lbe pi u I-l~)LL of .~.l'h of Ihe: room.. ell i n g.ht chew on the Q.~explained on p'lg~ (13.~.n::qu!1 ~ locati.·11~ r "rcp.cl rn II1ti5<1H(Clarlmi.which i J.hlle he or she i~ 81:<. A toaster C<lI] present ~xt re me dan ger ifthe L(). i:~ deted J"5 1\·hlrlY loc(lJJ ordinanc~ al>() require I'~nll~' in:J Cil.~ ing I('TI ruparus earlv enough fL1r t he m to t"'. their W<:lsl [)()Il't do itwithosu j[r~l UIII~h.fJ [[I uching a gIl.·riI . e I".Mhl.)IHaLL"". hLlrn" and op\"n l he main ~""'n.:.pFeiJ.'ay ourside h upptr rloor.ches a heating clement .n'~ ral that qt. dangerous mmbiI1~ti[ln. djsa)lll~ect that t'qUII~rnellt. To imtaU a dLrect -\~ i r{:d ~~~I rnll choocsc-. I1 it dn('. ~'. (If rrususc Ll[" J ppha rices.el nr a ~inkl a.it~ IITl'pto(. pul.iltlj:!. turn it of!.Lred fl)T ('"ffiC~=~ i~' I t" ~ lill h. the kitchen. .1::["1.I r ild iator or plumbing.~d li~hb OIl it.h is ~lW.ctim..mr[JMXI[. bu1 in m'w construction most httjldEII~ codes .::pW kin an existingdwelllng. CO dl'L0CHlr.Ire sensed have been credued wI1h 'i.the\' . 0 bwrnTlf the.(!~ P.. .small app'ia. d aced no a I' a hath mom door will likely go mto alarm whe 11 g a sbrn 't'r.H~ gtv"e \'[lU J. f'111..:llt~ "ILs-I'Hln' roducts . 1)0 nol lilllL. stilloccur trorn the II. 5uch as the bothmnm ].d Wll h brcaktn. n. 'kH I~]I! n::l. ls ~qllipl .:.1 lv gas.revent ~alr installation pr.x.lm~1imes use Iorks tIJ [d~'~"R. or l. CT .d f. Baucrya powered models ill~}.Tr .n aT the sm oke detector:..luc:-nlh' 5m.r:. mj~ ..j d 1'\ <urtacc.'T h~~ ~~Lldem8l1y rallcn inlo the \"LfcL.If the huilding.i\.crors S. . t elecrrrcuv and walW <Ire i ctgarerte hur iuu rlame.ll would mow a.. .uh ru bs u r sh m~et"~ wh en dll . If\'t1L~ hnm.g.] rnav take hours before hllrSI'I1~ into un pru~ ction.. for example. while olh l~rl d One on each floor ~ hcl\'e" occurred in b.~O.n g camions will help .: hi~hh n:~()mm('mloo m C f·~'~n if [lot rc-quired h~~'Cll .ru)~. l'ers.:. IhI~.. Check \.. slow. OT Ihm"" [h~ main rirlllir hreaker t('ll 'l'F it . l ~~C1.lCl.md~L'dume.. h I g~ neral. t modern designs ~ red dcte ctors u~1J311v d. [.:t".nl.. PJpl'r ur gr{'il~.fdlOrtllmon~r\·~us.111Ypmp05Z'. (ne III n~[ important pninl to [I. install both types (If scle.::6t3tJon .E c<lrdu. Jnd pull it 0111.h .J~l' \-..e~'(l CJ rc lJ i f \~ 1r~'S.• exposed 1I11h~ roaster.l.t the ~~rnc I ime..jvdf-rlrrc ..ll Ihe appliancE' .HlLi W'lU are tow::h:in~ a cnmnJcd obJe"-c.!m! safe/. I.li\'~~ ". (arUlot po~~ib' YHiVe you .uenl. cont.". H11 rv. (~uch as :l w~lC"r f~~~... l~. ~ememhrr ."lEC . i!1 nom:. ("jrm i[ wLdl ()Ftet'l.ir past tl cldt'{.IU I :nu:l.Hilo or hair Jrn. .GLl nsing u Jt'i<>c..k·: tIp lLnl [Ouch the t coni because it mav b(:"j. source n f ("111'..Ll>E' t atOll uv.. that sound an alarm """h~11 \:i~ib[~ or invisible '.'I't.wit \\ h~rl~ '1.rbon rn 1m:ide. require a detector in ~~l'h bedroom.j_~ hLiI u IF1[!.h.its inEe "(("In11 ect€ci 1)\ wi p.~. h"I~ eXHC rnclv carrfu I \~heL I testing Lh.i~·m!!: man}' li ves h~ .r frlr inlllrm.l nul hi het::i.~ Il't. Remember rh. ~ll.' i~(lut 0 19ht no.II ns'll.HI.l~~ st i cks rather than popp i 111. ~~k....ce~are~mrbaMz.:.:35. I of even petrr1. ur .tT( ~~p~~ h r Jfl'ClL\'{' at det ~~L LJt~ raq . tc. Soml' lucal codes require a smoke derertor in rooms r above the 5E:airwav lead i g 10 bed rooms on an belliti...lh(.k i~more dangcru lJ~ w"~n the ~ ictim i~ Sl.~nd Safety same orne '1. t h~! ele~tric 5ho D/sOl:i:n'~e'Ul1e eir.ult . tcncd. 10m2.L ba Ltc"ry b ~ckup to aler t I I'_~ 1m lU Ill1d rho· p r~·S~·Do. tile' \ Kti m. tH!i!'l. Unplug th~ Waster bl". eVI:[] an dPP If~ II L~ that is nut de t(·'l·1'e c a 11 Gl.~I\d it appran tfl<L.s Even when a burldlng 11<1.> ern ~'lr~~lll~ b strict accordanre \\ nh [he .:l 00 from tht. but ralh~·r wasp [he plu!. k .. Y(lU must t::!.L 'I~UIlCI:'.jl1 tlo'w ot ekc.rd~~.bcl::. a fcl~~I shock can rr.1 not coruact live parts.)11 i onization de-tector .ur the 11um i~ 'lid. the dv.u~ 11"l~'.T" [n ~~ w her~ the SDur(~'~If t h~ sh Qck ~~not .ill the n~'Cdt:d i rl f\"lrm arion..1UJmrS ol moreHfecave at d~lt'~ I III!.]O [J.s cun urua Uy be fQU nd I ~11Ir~'"!. .~b~.ith ynur huild i II ~ ~~ni{:iaJ 01 dJ Or j"Lr~' arshal fC!. phonC"~}! l 11T ~h.. or on the ~~'all not mnn~ Iklrl 12 inChL'"S from [he c€i .r ~p~ t1~ rt'~~ 'r~·mC"nl~" O detectors ar. ib blc.m L' LLfLWH ~~inm m . dangcrou~ or even famJ shock. If ~~)Lllind .lr~ pmct JI. but ~I ". The.~ }TILl re.tpp..or in tbe path of \'~ntihHloll ... to make sure someone else cannot in~~h~runtlr enl~glll' Ilw LlTCUlt while vou . l-or ~'~. ~orn~ tesn ng can be done U I'll\ on energized C1T'Un~.:d lilrou~hom th~.r h::~~.W' fa:!itcr than in other PJ.. h~".:. Smoke dct"L lOr~ m homes ilf"iE'q in t d local h u Ii Jl i'8 LL)des.1mea 5{'wml ~'idim vrmrself. it the E. 1h.".. It yom fork lOll.si:lockvicr.Itl1tl~g.

YOil wi"ll b~ rna l.\'.l.\ LTf' L ~iZ~ permitted b~ th~ . the rni nirnu ITl ~IfLU It \.. eli:cep[ for door chrrnes and other l{'l". The I..J.In d fu IIJ re needs. m nsider items sn ("h il~ en III purers. L~l-l A"I. but such kCld"'llh seldom OCCur near vour heme ar .<. du not touch him or her.ta U.ll'ge '.EV10VS U IAPTi:K on sla.t fuu.I] 1 and th .wiU nol ~art v a large load :.ill he ~ ~ ..!. entertainrnen I ceru e rs. phone (.lo1rgll! s@fvi. switches. ~[O rrn ur ..ibl\ has r~:~I\t'Ll J.()\\et LI'mp.If of] .ll latLuI U . This rh<ipl~r outlines how careful pl'IWlll1g 1.~ .'A!trED- THE BASICS.end circuits latvr u~lI.lld NEe requirements fur locating light.lIld codes discussed th~' irnprirtanoe of fnll ow ing the ".u all possible.J 9 .·-'..!i1(1 related equipment.~mif vou knew the nurnber. ~·IUt.r ~l lUil!! In l'~'~h L ...Ilhe equipment YOU .'.jf the hig.. equipment. l .J[ k.Ie d Iff~re 11t ..prl~t~·~l~ bv a J 3 J..t rJ LJ ng 1~ A\. fi~e OT ~'v~·ll fifteen years from now. ~~~<l.IH\ lu p~. n the u r i ginal iob.ali~I'~H"lonl~'. B'fiml~llil1g 1.n e ~u£h e~llllplll~nL ~~ilh ruu .1·eh' ha ndle pn"5C"n r . .nninlg You r Elet:il:lrical ~nstana'tioln H-l. I m. Chapter (i."1[ help you make it .11 J f~w 'C localities It t~ T{'illHT~~l d~ a minimum. a rull d t~~ inn of the servi.ml~n_h . hu ljLlilt' poss.l. Do not skimp on lh~·Nig. sWH(he~.1: Iallcn win' oif the vicum.L~C' 4 A\\'C. il.llalshock.~·G. rb~ U~ of l.-(lU might nor h.Ill<I rna 11 times more dangerous. qf fu~~~ LI[mpping ul ing breakers. and pT~tli.£Cj st rI CII}' In order to produce ~ ". B<:'side5111e h~~K-' of electric cooki tlg. v !n .. me CHAPTER 2 Pla. rng a good investm en I . <I"d receptacles.)lh \. gh voltage tJ[1~ t hat h.b \'lljhJ~.J. .Ic~i dent... ..!~ been knocked down b) tho:'snu anon l u . A(hlii'~ nutlets.. trying to help ~n1l1ebl.. \\'lr~ 111 pL.md I~~~ Ir"'quem blo. d victi m ..:! AWl.'uh<l~~ \00 iring described in l h"ptf'r [H" Jhe re IS a trend W~\r.I convement.! IK"t th at ".i] LlI:€'j n stallotion 11"~ L" B i! nE!~t.. Theu allv vnu can u~<' ~ ~ornrkkh dry wooden pole . k"S~ powrr W~~l''l! In h~.JJ ad~~ I!.f L. \\ it I~:0 arn p prntccti n n.lul installation.J. Look ahead II.111J .hu=r 'Lght~. Ycl ~ lrttle to the (thL .1~ vc iril'~ installation. ::. and eveu appliances not y~t on the market.k~r... Keep itt in mind that ~m~11 ~r~ LC~ WLTf!. Ynw {rlighL be able 10 rig d ding Q )pe \oJll~' II" 8bo.rl. fro m 1<lJ~grd~cu it wlf...ml('1 r~il h']"'(fI I~'lJ Code' r J\'.:: ~·m f. \"j[t.te ent taJRiCie .dl'i~~mHatjon_ HUI: ~'OLl wiU hnd the characteristics ot an ~{k~qlJ.H~ goirlg rn be using.E PR.lmg ofwires.\'h ..tt'"house wiring arut~H. [ixtures.l':-~IllL 1 i 111~ ~. efficient.I~ it would ro include them .~OW(..a GETTING S..c wire I~ tllHLhmg Ih (lim. ~'(IU could become tnt' '~"l.e wiri Llg.llly costs $€\iera[ times lF10r~ Ih~. rhe ..mp fuse or circuit br~.1""::.es e For 1111I. wa ter heating. if ~'nu rlu. receptacles. principles of gooJ Ilgluing.'\ i1 the p("Mer you 1Ise comes into the bu ilding through u:w servire entrance win .~lI~h" .tJrt YOUl planning ~" a scrvi 0. C.' rrn the rescue..vLr~S ~r~d extra circuits TJVW vuu wlll have adequate Wlrlr1A in the future.~lhm'l~ drvi h) separate ~1I~ trom the \.H~c[ \~ rre mCJm orif. and ai r ~K"Idl ~ton Lng.I~I(111. (ONSJOER PRESEN!T AND FILII U FIlENElmS Planvour electrical irl~tdlbtion so ~'ou will still be pleased with it in L1w w8r~ ahead.Tlp. depen d 11r1 r'~ l'~rL~ trorn ~'nLH 1. workshop an d horne bll~lnes!'. present.

).~ sonic nH.lg~ m u!lll'lir]ill~ dlr-~ilfl(.UIT]ber' .::! f(lr s:tof.'(1 to be exp.WO-I! !11 I' ~{'f\ In~ l orul uctor ill y_ pli'l~tpr ~dJ!' onthe the ..hiTP or ~it"~1 y whl ~elini ~h. ' rus 111 12 .el1S[Ve L1r r.>(l'.'w lin thl~ ~<l. J ~ J •• and this hLlt~l [~n~{"[~ rhe iI~\~' pr. as i 11 lhe rase of an upC'n n~)0r p Ian] u f dwelling unit ~ W hf in~~ llcd \11 t hal nn point dlLJn~ [ht 11 r line in J.a~~ -U!_ :-'pcLl.I . horne is well lighted.~._..MJ to provide ~LJ fficl"rl t li~hl Whl'IC needed. Pa. and tools L~36 to .th a.-ilch It"l. parlor. is [(1 be included in lhe f." n nd i n ~ tor ~o\IT]aiGH1Wi rc G~Ul!:e" 1 instead ort he old re II rI "\ t 1..~-llch. /'o.•• .: in ·hi~~hotcl. a"e 9 r!!'efl gio~r. tam il~'room.n(}fL1:'Ontal siot~ pxtem:hng to th~ r igl'lt. lW w.3"0 iJ utdoor nu ~ !i~r mnlroJJed by . Wires above rhar ~t1t" .dt' nas two term InaI ~r~w~ on "..d l"ermi n~1~I ~f~ fil i~l1e(l .<lcb ~showll in Ft~.JI.u~ ill g r!!'Jt co..9 5' n.. !:]l'cni~ power-an abo required If! have at least o ne receptacle u 11t 1et _ Everv ho use i~n.HAll .~" ~"'~'~o)wl .rs ahrlV~ gr. Ttle cllJIlE"X r!!'cE!'~!~. I i~lh""..lblt lamps i. Lighting fixtures do not [[(\. 2. "ee rage 71 IjJr lll"alinil~ where CFCI prOlt'CI i IJ n ~'r p..lJ!.~.bhurill(·.1tL1! ~erm l"Iil~ ~T<''-.S~ Jtme upp2r righldm:l ntH ~ sibl.e TIlLH 11 w .rrn throughou t. <In.pt!1llde5 Tht'IT" is nU..: . ~t~ iT'lI's~" I ~-. iron.~n.<.~~)n.d ~n2Q <Imps 1. t hmh e 11th 1 f mmpr i~L'd of ~ t l{'. holiday lighting. h lmidc .}.dl fl. ~·tr.el'wrmd i~r~'~Il!ir".t~ 0 nlv a k'" dull.one' 0 n the fr~ljl! ()I ['he dwelling and fJ rw () It 1111'backforyaId tools.i'J"1~ and Lop ui oj ~tolir~.. In addit i [111..I"h~' mu~t be no mun' 11i..wenl eoce n rnounn rl9 tJ1o! ~.~t ~ix rj"e rs): 8 tI iI{ Ilt·d gd r~ge~..~1ILlllk'Tfl.illg areas LD have some lighting c·.111 s pa.pac~ occupied by liwd p.d. Ullt you must h<ll!€ outlets for fixtures .mIK The I~ d~nll(a I in configura! ion Rcgardle~ oll"h reqillr~'ml·nts.].n~' 'wall a uo ~pace (indll~lLng spaces behind dour sWLn~s' i.-1 Inr ~'.j wall witch: ~yery habitable rGtlm IJ I a house: bathroom ~. den. rat".plu.uptaclcs must be trom the HOM_ I he rypicalrange is -lH to 52 Irll~h~~ fur switches and 12 wll"l mche..'f. i u[illt) mllrn~.} ~ ll~h L (~Il be.md h~lhnJ"ms Lhe ~wil[h JI'LJ..-1 T'fp!c~L 10991 a ~w tch The 11 ends or I P<15l 6- the mstailatiun ~[HI \\1J1 pR'H .!ilioning..lr~d hml:-...h In '\0.:~ in I~rnh uf '<lfeIY and convenience Providing '~'11\ enient switches.~ .~II' ~ cin uits' on pJgt·s.'Ll.. qLlrflt"m~ll1~ Iur ~-Jrieus t> P""" of I.!b. m cljuipmcnt requiring "crvr." o1l11d~arc csscnti .n ~I' I E.gand :5witd'l@s.e r l feei or more in width .. 1n d remodel Or "d d il LO n match the e~'.10521 E I 10 have at [e-ast two OLllJQ(t~ reccp ra des.Irl ular rruls iwrittcn .\ I LOCATION OF' UGIiT~ N G. J~ nll\~' pfl~1l required) . ~1-'~()I'Ic:.an adequ~td.. An ~cI~li~I~'l) \\ Ired hOL1SC'h~i~ ~rll~ugb recC'pf.oor _~poce:<. a_~ III 5(HI. :amI d!?tached g~ 1'8 ges if Vo' i fr. bedroom.-lim1 sl13mbhn~ while..lSl·ml'nt~ me. dupl~J{ rlX~p(." .~ the mu re techni rallv correctterrn "A\'I'f. -. {or Ht>'ic:-r~l-u~l' receptacles.oJ.ias."[1 I'> feet 6 inch.11.r~ T'I.IJnn .hail'l.it'IWlllITIdtt'd of b~ their actual cross-sectional area..ni' se rv c ml?rgy si nee ~\t._". more than 11. P1f IUY 0 r switches and fecept~dt.l"'" W Feet or more in length HH! ~ t have at least one rccept acle outlet. hv fixed room Ji~'EJC'r~.nd no vou . .mom.2. 5 -. Tl'Ql I i re ~ for receptacles .}(le.a I'ull .are I e~~ 1ikelv W It'iln' 1rgh 1~ nn if it L~~"l~y 11l turn them ott when II". com -ement hei gfu r~'r p]llg&Lng in washer.1Ce~.I(TILt'.'all ~wil[h is t.~ .!) c~~fI1rl1ll1nr or mQre rece-ptdcie flut]eh mlo which tloor or l~ bJ c l~ mpi ca I~ b4? pl u m·d. AND OUTLiEr FiECEPTAC LIES An adequatelv wired..-..ln .is inches olbove the Hom_ In rle~~ W nstrucriou make rh t h e i ~IH ~ u ni t~.ocll S(..HH~ ~IlJ [rom perm.:ill~_ In kil'dl\"n~ .tCrrYllnals 10 the r1qht Inat y ~'bl~J ~feror the gmundM {It("L!lt COOOLlC"I{H.*nti\' 111Ma!!ed hX"In-~ in others. the usua 1 ~I~r..]~UIrJ. In the laund ry roo in .~~. l _) =- receptacle Oil Lh:h m e. t ~nJ It rro\'ldt'~ J("{. tl rL'l!:d fl n l.::e for example.lt th. Thr lighting Kin be from flour ~1\4t 1.'] IhOLJI t'n'r being in dJrkne. \' N.t 11 ll~.tu rned "tl LJ 41Urn I rll I I'~' di rtercm pla. dining room.~~" I-ih~ight from floc r fo. ~l th~ eft (ung round.11 a_~ free standing d counters or rilil~l1gs.-n<. J-JJ cu~ts moreth.t' \\'ill h1f\"C woilJ s\<"jtche~ located so VI ~u c~n '-Hm~ ] n lhn 'ugh a.. rrach ed ga:ragt's-<H'I d detached garag<?s ha Vill!'.rol pCT1nancntlvin~tdlled lljl..:ar more converml. qH..--\wall ~wltch ~illU\~'rllll FIr.1-2) so tbat~oll will ne\'er need ail Fig. Win' gaugf numbers (n(~\' expressed J:'o M\ C.i1l rl dk'ti h~' . are not needed NIECrequiremenh.~ ~t\e.Hl'J in the backsplash abn ~'e Ifit' co u at crs. In IJthcr TUom~ thr :sv.'.'I'ph r~lr Win ng up [0 1/0 _-\\\-{. <111L.. I Kitchen receptacles n re br._~ panels in exterior w~lk l'he wall space pruvid..~\ rl.-foot rrseasurcmcnt. i ncluding ."lrEC requi re rnrrrl ~Nting bow high s\". trra~5 " Or {OPPf!-f color: the 5Cf€ . dnd ha~ a ._ Iw:.Iu(".l'l.Li red 1"1\' :VEC ]...act"! s>d~. 'LL ~1(f. which ("0\ ers 'lrIllO~' all \\'"1 r]rl~ withm the :>L:UP.li ~f I t_~ .J tor converueuce <111(( s~r~..\ ~-1B.t'i 1m1~lghout ~hr ho use l-rom tloor to 11 r \'0.~tinHhf'iglm N EC r'~q ui:r~ment'5for Ii gl~~ili1l. hemHlj.:.lr~ . SWlfCI9IES..ith physicaldisabilnies w may require ~\~·jl'h~~ W be lower and receptacles hi~hn than usual. quiring l~AWG \~in: ~r~'explained under "Speclal ~lilolll-~~lpli.TlI· enH~l.s .t hi.'i~cht"~ aJLd re. v.D-l HE BASrC5 IFig..:' this beck. (lp~'!i.. for li~hlln~ ako helps to '.mow' ~.W170 I:\) requi res the foUmo..1 pull dl~ln In !hc clark ImtJI1[flg J pdLT or Ilm·['-.s L I f l~a\ I rl!:!..ce. NOl'~ that the ~TF( H.d (b t' workshop :J.U(I kcmi! i.lllh arc discussed ~tanU1g on p. t> feet m<:'. for ..."n h~~~<'n~ents re required to helve at least one rcceplscle outlet tn addition to <Lny a ou tlers forl sundry e'g uiprn ~HL . rccreauon rourn.m~1 rhe wall .IL h kitch en.s I.l .r sw~~ches and f@<0Ii!.( r.H' ! 111~t~than J ~iIlgl{' ~""lh h _~l1cl i~ well worth the dLft"errn. [h~ hOi W rlL r more CDmma 111~ -al'llp wl~ion e~c1!p'l It do~ s [l[)l na .]tit'1l1 IlbLinm ~ ..it'oking tOI . fir similar rooms ~or areas.Il I .Jd~' h'wl..1]]~ 1'0'..ll Llr'lI.. ha111\~\~..!. LKn m t miKE i nIl) th~ 11 ..he home_ herizu n i ~11 from all outlc i in •h CJ t space. sun room. tihr~~\.ncC" J rl d TIL.-\.1 good mvestrnent.!o. ~..10 GITTING STARH.2·-2 jJ.hllrlg tl~lllr~'~. 11"111)1.

. but rhev shou ld rH:~er be used to pE'mhmf'1l1k canT ]JOINer from a receptade to lam p~M oth~r eq uipmrn L ][ there are circumstances '~h~r~ yo u ungrounded TheNEC m(\"[illll:l.'oIi1I e draped over the COlllllcTCcl.:cptad.. i OJ.J~' for ternp(lrar~ usc..h.mam!i A ~~lllng IiIl. Lt~ens:i:ol1 cords are useful devices.a....lder rltner kitd.Qdo\'li. m Fixtures and l'E'C!eplades roomn by lrooml required and the recommended each ronm Living lfiml ptl.U r rep h.1~ P1e a cord to a I.rn u:mkd.J rul LilM~10l. No matt~r how . fi'voE' ooCt:l'tades based on Ih~ ~6 foot" rnlc .!n:: tJ~ for the purpO:. ciOSN iilf.Jck light ing i1f~ prnJ.'el...:! in cbes wide eequlees m'le recept:.~11KIy require tin extra receptacle Dr t""'o.: m hi$ or her own !Iln.cr::lluseth i.lng.. ll( .itdn'l:I because J\b:undant mnf\!iI.lhe di!.hm~~r aretl_ . ~nr? should be pe.t. 'iFCh<l1S ~dup me international Lt-d it tli often ~eirlll u'h. If yo u in ~t.3ILY Ihe roUowUlg ~ist d€raHs both the flghtint\..:ttd IlIIdcr I.f\I!!' be .nth circuits flreseJH at cachuu cl!:t}.lf~1'. a !i.!!5.r-ac{' n~oo fur dPpl¥1ng fii1~kellp ~r fO:l"sh-:J.'>f (Inl~'rorrcla.k. PI. tl:!_~rn should he a minimul n ul iiVI:' receptacle outlets for uses such a~ 'r-V.c.ru.gl.it.t sltd f tf~~~r tha n 11 iIIcnes.:OI 1i>!1l1i'e."it.m.f r£Iie~~. but will be lIVO'rtliI It.The "6 root" rule will probably n:quirc .t of the IJl]<pm_ The ~. ihi led irI tl.:I fire Iw ru. the 8):1 [i!~~ il:ud .De~ not h.rde. 'Thili iJi.. through serious sh L.1] ppoF! a paddle fan.l and m. ~h(:h.emat wh~FC' w.recep1a(lefi i 11tLi which tb~ lamps Me plugslffi 00 I hl·)' dO'El'l h3.1kc reqwJ:lE'5 tli'>'O <I pp1lOHI~es(induding il metul pull ch-~m enuld become eneEglzed."lu~ 011 the ceJ1ing or . do 1]0t..--brn:Iicd filrtUfE'5.'mperoUlr~ rllc gJass bulb (l f <ll' i!llce I'!dt'. H th~fUlure i~ reoesstti ~ ineil f'ld.l1'~ to w'Or].eillces.no Fe' ~cl!'I.tgt' and fin'.L1appliance that t'I.. wall switch •.a~~ H +.ecd Don't overloo.~[be provided f~r J:'l.~all nne outlet fur the ]'emgerato .c·dining morn &<Ibl!!rather than the ctnll.be.ym~(i!lIJrc.hts.cmcion cord.~.....defined.::lo.:Qrkanas that m~JlIiI.ht frmn erth?r door. far ~nmU refri~rarion equipmenr l in. Tht'~ .x receptadesi n 5}."!tnoUl an ~ L'l.lighl OlboY1:'the ~~ink I!.h in the fi_.~ i ~i:&l~dbn\'~ the m [rmt ~t the OOsHIi5.~ and place recepmcles MJ they will not be diffimb to reach.c1lJt.ire".h ite~t: &i'ke ell:'lri~ O)ffc~ milkeTkiC'lectrr ( ""Oks.:d from the ~~orai\csp~. h~ve i~ 'O)IUl\Il]l ed by a WdU S.n5.lIltld al1t!l..~ or c:!rpo:t.~~ ~bm-e the co La ater in (he b.fii fi'lOt~ rufc uSlKlll)' 'Will require at least [our l'e(el~t. If this ~~ the case. kC<llis.in.~ ~ev~nl1 of d.1:stilUing I~ ~atel'v. Pdtrul1l fiI[Utes.r 9. Some hOnlt'li depend enti rery ou fleo r .ll.t: 1f.~n !".:3-164) in the uegillming. by as at leastJ . A I mal b u Lldings..m..irhin 11 inrhes helowthe counter lOp.:r. (hem.esult in d<lm. or IJwl'Idual wid tb. and outlets ro be Lnsualltd 1]1 [l'CCl1'=ry ~cial rircutl.'f oull~b (ll1e<1fl1llg JII coume O!]tI~~~ ro. iii room enn trolled by a .J tL tj. U there will be [10 criling ..i:u. Lo~l~onc receptacle where il wiU aJ\.J..]..1nce from the ~tDr:age space may be mducro. kspl::!sh fI1if!kes reeepracle placernem at counter peni n sulas andislands ilifficu:it.h~ battnrn br CI r.ay switchc:~ lu control !he lic.illg room One [eiHl'Ig.llurc UI fin. merlt ~rnjjnllllVoiik3bh.$ . Maily fires "flaw be~n 't t'aLN:l ttl el nth ing teoo.illa (:I..i nstaUe..1. gcn:crallr ilirougj1 mNiring lh~ dn::u. Suit ynurI. l(] harrd I" on]y fl:<C'ept.1\0 ri~ 8oth.illhe much mere costly and diffi.. ro fiixt~J~ bLtl Wltillhat t:f:rm i~ in J re t1".. dock. Cons..tt~(!rv !-nli ver'\ lit Lk rn the 'Mly tlf \"~ t}".ati:t11l5 wlu:rt Gl:XJ p rOle~'t('Ill ls reg ui red. control all r!1!I:~.~rnalilhe roo.. nr..t.ches out from dul' \IYllU:. because IS "" here lIu: majority ofappllan'e:5 <Ire wnnected. aDd IT. to 6 iIldl(~.1demntft pel' counren Be :l"W'ar.rn. rur . D'in. LoC1ll~this fixtare aoow the eenier of th.:.to fel)k1ccfurrn{.ol:ttn i:nst.oIli:he 1/!o1.ithi I't 3 lifel hor. ~T.ry.Wng ~ghl.~ reg uiRiI. m rla... Closers or ~recLfi' 19~~lI'i:ns.Install ~he ITlI..!Ji.WI[rn near the doer. outlel fo:r a fixture sholl1ld he pf[wid~'(I.ecrrltal rnmlldtJ{ln on. It !r'li II COJlVl'ilil'lll 1. ..it sl1i~liM b~ \~"£ll ighted l the cenle r OfdJ..l~gh:t cause .C a pair ofthree.rmamm. wmidn the probabls srr:a[lgemenrl of the ftc! nrihlr. and trippi I'IIl): on it G(lU Id Ie'.a. .illec...fluorl'~u brn~..m]p..•valJ. tn.~d~ l!LJ ll~l1>.g. Many HVTllg M. .uplc. . lens.illn::::.switch is ~]] tial" One ~dd ition. radio. Both ~tf these required srn all-appliance brnIlidJ circuits must :appear at ID(l' ruldu:n WUIJH. fu.k wiU continue' the u. scperatc spil~.~ . dock radio.'Cf~' !i>IJ (l person iJ.oom.<tfld dcrtrickill iN~. dlning mom and br('akfu~l room l ~ nd Sill Lilll':areas.-.I'L Oth~rwi!i'(' ~"D1J GlJ11l.fuie J001 ..mnlng 'io~r EJ.J{.1. 00001..rfl. m h.) If there emranCd"1O' lhe: kiuhen.hle_ 1l cannot avoid l..~' a rea .ken tnlleal\"i!'lY.wc: m ~rflY[d. or a stLrfac~-moill1red or ~d Ili.ligln. rotld unclE'r .. lind this L.:Jr. p:mt!1. ll.i~topic in Cha ph.rudrch ('see counter sfuce 1'.bt Dlll'lrrolled bra .eJf :JIhmH \'ohelllt·r to w.:rnea r the ~d for hems :'1U ell as eeadi ng lamp. eangereceptada GIl pllge-s 16....r tu b~ turned 0'1]_ and ott i 11d ividmilly. wirh oposOO Q11Idl-lc:m~ pilns fflU I be' g.cce8~[bl'e frol ~ the ~'Ll I cIim..1. A:I!lolher ..!ll'i'e.tc]e outler_. ami plare the others b to lOmcb.Om s will he: large enough to req u ire Inure t:h.il'ity.]f thf'ff 111'10 eq iJl p- .n£on it could r. GfC 1. use the special boxes W\.':S.ln the krtchen_ fil'~t. 11 Q [ necessari 11' [. or ~imihr equipment.]i1J]g pl!ddle f:l. and heating pad.i2ontiilL}' 8Jll.n'I!T lighting..).!!:ftl'l£.s are located in the Not' (If the ea hi 1'1 er \'I.1WgmdJ:e!i'i of room size. fin ~':\t.en1.d in a do.\·vcrIun one ']Cr6!>S open ItL1()f ~~~~ppi.l. You migh~ rhonse to have ju:.d L~ injU[:~Ne\'er tack iJT 0.l'Il'lins ttH.s 00J. don't invite .'tl~pl<lcles" rl~ loca~1 !1011 carefuTI. ~tXause' d1 e ll.llt:ld others-are n~qi1ircd so ih3t [10 poim aleng the counter space is mlJ[l' than 2~ i1ll.ue ~r~l ~ m L"liI$ilfl.cksphsh. \'~rli~Uy (If I" ~ roo ft r tilt' :."el a.r 11~ ".11 ~:n~!iI~t(lI:1 GETTING 5TA !"iTED .r~dYln~n~ (discussed to pllU m.\>ID:g.0 have n ne OJ" twii) Wfl [J swi(dW._:s from a receptade outlet.it must be CP~1 tr~lJcd by 11\\'ilI1!.l!l above the' door so It 1~!>Cpllrnlol. stereo..f'ts.cming bare lamps in dos.: b pIDvid1ngxhiidIl'::t!.~ Install . IJ-l. \"1Ju.k p~ ~!\'<:.ltcr of the ce:i1U!1g r on a wall. SINre~ separated by a sink or mngB ~JP' are considered m.O]]e receptacle ~i1 Id be aJwdY.THE IBlA$1CS Cnapter 1.k of ~ b.'S be 00 mpk:rdy accessible fur the vacuum dCOlneT regardl CfiSor III ~ furni tunJrraIlgclIlt'iIl1. ~un~ some oUr Illt reeeptacles are controlled by a. te:l1ljklrJIY enrd (or ~ I. If the Oyt [head U~ 1l~1~villbe used fn .. ~ Sll ho.EllpS flil-r o Hvil1g ~'f![)fI'lll gtu. Bedrooms Thr.\'iIl I r ii1!. It ~shest t~~ I"¢<tVC e:tt~n~ion cords on.a pe!ulrun flXum: (l r i'lil irlC'!11dellten t lal'll p y.kitchen.sel.y.K.iog mmn tabl!..i fine. rnju. but mat i~ mH guod 1~. The t.ve 11fix~ure in the ~~r.·rJOi~"'ttd ra~p~i1d I:' All thlurQ:o.:.a~litional l_I_~gc. A.n-rtina.es·t:efl~ "fir].ru. aU the way to th€ ceil.-e 12 rnohet:.i:£r aoressiblc the YllCU'llm dCl1ru.OJthf''rl.l~.aed lal'llfJ5.rurC1. See page 72 fur Juc. switches.t<. ("fOil n£ fix-nJre 00111 ru]ioo by a wall mitch L InLJ.c-en~ll!I fliP is often higher U:J1In 40if' E Ln no ~ ~. the sparing requirement 1£ rd~l)Ced to require unlr (111 e re(ep'~.(.11 leas! lOll r It..o. S!:Ime pe(lpl~ \ll:aJlt a ceil il1g Hgh l in each ornr-.1\~'() tigh~on-e on Bolen side of the mirro.

Make sure [he fn'JlLre~ ~'I'U ~elt:LTafedeL"TTEc.:.ht .l ::!Ll' IJn ci cuit.. will I!Eht ~"'i:'f) ~[ep. I (HOOSI N G Il...1Fl('· with Lhr t .pldde in hg_ 2-2 that ac(ommcl<ddl~. dLl.m~rLI.nrH.':. such . requiring J.. install .il re(epudt" lOT ~ l.TWc!C' outlet.ewin~ Of other clos .]5 light bulb~" but t~IIIlI~.ll n~a i.~ light in the shade. turn itself 011 lIulOm~t:iGll~ i.mt exceptlC'lIlS.:1L!_ In Ibl~ crue.JdefJt _ l.rpicaLk round.}' t'gllipmenI:J 8. i I ~. apph to nl h ~r .:tde~ ~uPI~lving apFlihll ces t~at ~rt"r1'. .a('~'~ J l'IIJ-w.c..he:\.{)mJnCH. 14 • r i I I ETIlNG STAFlTW- Tl-iE BASICS Chd:pte'f 2 PltlJl n In 9 'l"our 1:.' hgh t is an option for ~~)1Ir ULJOl1f lightil1g.t it. I to!' detached hu II.1. the ~vmj'r)1 LL~eJ [.~llon.1I'f ..eptdc 1t.'!~'J~d mdndc outlets that are IW~ accessible.lioS(:lrily i. ie n l into two or more LHl1m ~~hcd ~ rl.:ITe stairs.O~l~! i111lmim. (!J.Tea_ il.~ r .uppli"'" onlv 0111.'~( :::IH. ~". x: Ieceptd. IGQtag.lde I IU~I bf' located in (he unFir1Fsht:d I R. . receptacle plus . M()r~ rhan one may he d~Slr. H~rc JL'Hl.~~r'i~dC's up '.ilmgedoor op~n~t.?. ~wi[cb at e.mge dl)(~r ..m the ~WLJ.sgJ le_ h rn addl'liu['l.1t1b~ i~ btl ~b.]('(e.lmp:. Tht.1l rt"6 es ~ Lhdt mit)'lJm taste and budget.Ud1 OI~~ ~l'illJ1'g outlet Ior . A.11..~ (nr I Jcm{'hoo g~rdg~. ill the Ln~rrctor whelht:t tw or 5h~ \>o. b(":. . install [l urnernu."tb lor .l~r.. .~~ wdL s bw odr a wlg)l! mntt~'~pClimfor (!IlC/J 'n 10(( _ For CXJjnpJ~.a singl~ ph Illd L.j CFCI pmte~tion the light.IR~ glHJJ ~nd ~l! l~lou... and at least one 8.base.]pair ot J. In tl ~ ~~ em.t l..:' t_.1 lhi~ book In .L I I h l' lla.I~ga' d~1T1~r~t{'l1lS ilH eKempte. outlets J.. the 2(1-~H1P I.L I'tml~ ~LJ bOUL 1'1t~' Lamps Wght bullbsl Bulbsl j-<lmp'~~ IlIffer.."quin~d tor recf.If{:' oommorJh' buugb[ and -.ellloCllt5.'hit~' n. In this ~<Jscthe one tor the appliance.~ I) cffi ru be provided fL' .r.1 t!~1 r. live rather rh .tH.U "~"e"r. ell-diffused "sh a de n 1-thi. T'UT i~ n..1 hght corurolled t.uon. " . lh~ Ji~li i all comes trorn 0]]0:PUlnt-tb.e[ de~.l._.'. .ig. mlinuJog'>· used Ln UJe _ !fC S-te I-. Ult]lik Lnil: dLlpkl{ n. ~JrJgr i.mg [oJ bel t) I} ~ach fi:>:l u r~_ l rLiod h~J. gl()~~yn n i ~h. Provide .-"iIn1 f1<111\hmh the.> fixtures with exposed lamps produce [ig].b .]l lighting but not enough fme~jlHil1g work_ \"'nen ceilllig Ii~nrft'~ ~n:. but in onlva Wr .h (nftnl.II:!"(iI.! l.I HI m~ ny I pJ.t t't t.1 single receptacle can be available without r... mu m~.('Iljilion.li. \\ ir in]..and ~a.:~..lmp can be bUrtled fflr .. ~-h tie th~ ~nllre umt i.hed .."] lin hg_ l0-1 ~ b LJ t wi[h bfltJl ~Itt~ t.uh h~ ~ light that can be controlled three . vacuum cleaner.:lb~ broken mu)_ .eI'Jfnll1G'e"S.~me[Jl:e.1~ ~ freezes.1(h' ~>t:"pIL will '.I rl ion. . nee to the home.:lrage.t}'.I.:.!d..ro.ml. .ighting where people ou W ~i. TIm L5j[Jt'xpcruj\o\~ ""R( T~'4u ircment i.-s ':HTY garage I it WIH'd I H1 h:t\-e at least onto Gn l-prutectcd rl>'_:'.fory. .~~r~~ oHl~' bJLhr.md house.: hJ be lhe pri mal")· source rtl ILglu LJl .1\- ire<. locare ~ rhree-wa. ceilings should be oj.: !n\'" lign ~by [j~ing nxtl1.llci n-ur: 11~~' iL~~in~l accidents..I.pl~ ~ (lutl{' 5 Ln unfinish~~ bil:.lr~ il\'dlJ ahle Ii I . .·i{ch<".~wi!L"h~~ to c.1C('e:<.:l )!.\-\'hel! P~'OFI(!~lpma .)fl~ .i(Jrmtr> }'OLI \viJJoften find . In the ms. If 111(. .~m~ 11"".:" athroomln b rhrs casc. Ilwun:.iun ~nJ tlthCTS .h the door lrurn outside at ulgh r.~ III iO. ~l)r .1 l-rlHll um· poim.L~'''''''..~. easier to read ill the shade of a tree than ill dlr~ .can not be the de.. re primarily decclI::ab\"e.~j l'he nunrmum iI ~wihh In I he ~ragt·.In direct sunlight. rl:ce-pt. i~ especially meld if the house -ill dues n ot have ~ n ~uach cJ g.:'a5ily moved ~il1dL!dirlg l. l.LIIlI) II! .~(] \ b III td rngs. See p.k illr me llsi.. For a long three wav .1 mn m.!:e i::ht n n...igltO~Ll the morn..j!<. .1'11 lu:!krs. recrptadc outlets that are not ref. If [hero' I ~ ~ n mtcrrnedrate 0.s5(JIl· '.IH. fcd 1:1\·.I~Je:..) JtIJL~d1~... :... Juri.)! a{Cn l rt'adil y ac~e.dl ~ receptacle for a.l' U .lI lbe d l1. causing sharp shadows andglare that make re8dillg ur :...iC'Dl light but abo proper distribution nfliglH tl11(:iI. receptacles ~~·tI tor washer <Llld drytT.iLhruom_ Thus.::Jia!c landing..Jr. fc ~ d c81bl LLHlp~ ~n ~(_L(lf'(1...k C l-Cl-protccted. take c.gl!ed lo t"H:: ~xured tu the (Over mounting ..'~' fl. I'll e [c I~ nu n:~~11 n 1I\'11! fixturl'. It i:.:-nl pe1lple .l.1 b~LLCr.he receptacles iJI Ihal n.j.i the house.11] lh<'nl hI" dillC'IT'nl rl~nws r . thrown agd!l).:'"lLpeTL~i".t.-rl'W in the midtilL" ll! . . unless the ~'JJ':-LJi~ which ~tiUmust . If . '.e uf 'In alarm system Ir~m.5@'mell f i~ "eq h~wav dese rves .C sun. :. \ollit h fe(e'~~i'!d~·~ nnam ~)L' nvntlv on. I. ~ "'(' pll g.'. ~!ll.~1ll1d ~(l( . workshop mf'torrn ~ml s rnilar uses. trot rhe light rrum either eL1[L [11~f. ~w il~'hl'~ indoors are e~~~i~ d A T lotion sensu 1\'.~ (hill J re Lumcd uf[ with the garage J ighr.':!i.1 the l[bG.lllwuy. At e:.. S~ n and MT frum both the mp J. If the fi n ish ed p·o r 1 iun divides t .llh ~ml~ t h.! J i~ht..Lg~ -1[1. Simila rl}. an be I~ bottom ill" dl~ ~l.:nJlV~·111<'lL1I~I h~Vl' r~·'.... in J. re('. IJ 11t~~ a.~L'I the I't.sc.charget .::iJ~J1gn:fkclS mml uf IS 110t CJLiI1t'a~ t!l'!(Hl (UT lhl' purpu..t l I ~ f1i:lj uircd with LJl }o m ~~ of c ou tside cdf:~ n f I:h basin. I ece..l wi Liloe i1Jlge 0 f pi ILe_' <lH. fu-.ar~ In locate .i rn.." asement hes a b tmlshed ruorn..:orative kmtl th<l1 I'Tuvidt: ~11rnC'gm~r.tiiUild'f1gs If t}~ gar~g: b .! hsve il work .. flat jini~b j~ ocner tha [l .iJ1':5 Wh!:n::' there .an addinonal swnch Inu~r be placed 8..work ditti:ruJt.Th~re are s()m e IJrtport..lG Hli N'G f~ XT'URE5 COQd lighting requires ~llli Iln1} ~uJli..Hid II I~ an ':r~ more. :5'.1 ure~ . you GLn plug in a batterv .S well as the r~..!ULI'f'd W bt:" 1 ~~IU-pn. a lamp_ [n [hl~ bnuR.s I.ightin!.. fh re~ ""a\' ~\\ II (h~~ Me pIf'ferrtd tor mrl' . on d ~H1Hbr~II.LfCUIt rnav s~rve'~ lLght'nfl.J the stairs h ave "i \ 'til i~ moo \:111re e HBllwQYS.~ lfIragc Lt l.~ f~)rn all d ircclions.. landing with an mtf'}'w'. J. l ~lHJli~lll even if rhcre i51.E' QJ. 17-1211 fu r l' roccd urcs and wiring di~~ram. I H'tjUIn..lLlod Il)llr ~nrll<lbk 1~rt1~15 pro\"idc plenty of I. O1ltdllor lights ca rttroll ed '"'. In ..lHlg I~ L 1i.I the normal rules tor habitable 1W mOH1~.)ml:.uiL j:$ where H.1.~I~ WIthin thenrlc ll. Tvo!'v Some n:.[ the iMe. l!l ( h Idi ~ ·t"Cev acles rh.d ..ll COTI. took etc r ln ~ar J. \>.ep~.g~ and . tI.J. ·~j.[IT.1 for .lln. and (1lHll. lh~ .-enti'Hl~l ~iupln['Cccplade with untv the bottom N~' -~~pl olCleen tlIu~C[~d \ .11c m wn~r'~ Ihl')' wiU pIcwide lighti ng for ent ica:i S€elnp: r~~k~_ l1u ~ t he ~[y1 L ft 11:. ".lUnd.~ ".m. All others 11l~I~i l.. b~L ~·ou would Ile€d d ~ingk [t'ceptauc (i1(X'.i<llin~onl~.he same room .:: WI i n ~t.I m rnan~ ~pli level hL'JLJ~~.ipplianccs in lblimtcd $P~('~. smgle bathroom.adl end.( ~.In the shade of a tree.. Ollh .~ verv .lhlr tor .r I prot.iIW·d-il1-place ~~Hr1p pump would be e lpl.oY:'. light co1m. U the hght . Of all lht load. hil\'e :.S in t.mother roum 'b fd r 'b llgh tmg l' LI fl"l ~ rn cJ.".:I..} g bm'k.:l'PtJdo: outlets that are ah. wplr inv or all the bathroom receptacles (in ]lO"'C~'~[ many bathroems: IH.rur~~ PJ'Lwid~ f:.''a'>.1 rm ca I lnstall a rl 0 n e 1S see PJge .luaLlIc-J t~l the house tr~8t It .iiII gs.-I!i tho\'..c ughting h.m heu"C'Cn g~ rage . There . A dedicated 2n-amp circurt I~ I ~qlllr~t {v "bH lb~ bathroom F=iO'f.:til night without ha viug (he g<lra!.l ~~ £.:.:'(.IT'S that do Imt hove expn ~ed18 tllp~.

.qlike naruralljght and emphasizes L11<" rtlLL~ and gre-en >.amps· nkr~ ar s: eue riiY.111 ~i~ I.lincande...11r.h~ n h 11'\hrl.LsQ giVE:' less llght.Joll hOUri.r. in oTJm..o. th at nave ratings o ther ih .:I g.!'rlGe-scem.m." WIl-w-..Lmfrs.llb~t.i]np~ ~uch a lamp is marked" 60 watts" but actual! v consnrn es 711l'!att~.' ill Ia SI 8bo\l1 eight times !on~e-r_ Hut there j. rneml h..l f ~ I. i..'utr lamp wi~h a 1..) tLlI1p.r i~11Ijl.lu and JU w..~.Ill' n t d hO'r cEI d "r [hI:" lamp_ I!"vou 11.lg. All othert}l't' i~ th~L w(. ~~I ·.SLeI1-h~lo~~fl !.u111 '.. . he I'>'JrHl I~I~ P' «duces ]L~ more l ike th. I~ rhai their '!rifa.u IJ l ~trd i 11 r >' ht ~ nlarneru [amps arid emphasizes fed and brown. tLlJlg$tcn panide-s h8~k 011111 Ibt' 'ir~1II1~11!..Ill.ue made with do self-contained OOJ]~~1and (Ill hil$C1n soew shell base .. w r~pl<l(x I on-Wd[[ and 15lJ ".b rLHI~<:J<tn.lct {]umeKcnt J.I((·ml:rit i~tlillicull.' most .. The l loiSL ionger and me less e!~':Hicltl i'a\'LrI~ you mpl']~\ ..ienf inctilldes(en Uamps There have been so me real ady:.) ...! provide more light than one U~HlJ:\ .:r ~11Pflhers .) 11 d L10 rt!~L" LH lamp maGe o"t Ck. .L mp based on 1he Iigh l U ut P LH an J Lbal ~d en the lowest we nage lamp tbat WI!] deliver that light.l .. and J ULJ \~'alt tftc.O~ i .:mdcsci2ll!s' lll~i T .b. If turned on J..7-w~11 I~FrlP willl"C"rl.:~IW..1.ikl~~n g~~ rd~~~it.m' I 0110.1iI tho:' lamps. to ""nn Fh. The [amp \.ngen n.-llL1LJr life.l.).n incandEsce[]t lamps- n.:! \·(l~!clr.:Ipur.~ith ~ f.Julable_1 :Some electric row. Iluorcscrnt. I.efricieur lamps and ballasts.:. 10 save t"ner~~. the ek~ i ri t Ill" n'Hl Jne~ flLlttlo\<o [h rough ..l~ ii1~.:rS a 7S-~\'.1' I1lamcm lamps..'T r ht'ir Iitt'.j rh 1.en'l[]g {"nc~y at tbe S<ln1E'" ime. 8. CLjrn['il~i fluorescent '1 ~mps as smal l as 7~"atb can replace i lI.11 d i ff~rent ~tylE'S and ~h 1" ~p~'b-N~we r type~ l. There are also several ne .0. 1.h Ld~lr~ vnur 1r.'ldnlllrl~ YOUI EI~ftrl(J.Lfl1p glH'~ l ~ ~fCCT1L rnon.h ap~." ! e IJ mr.\ ~nu hotl rs.L~lilllR . The lamrs C<lnnot bf' C~ llied dimrilL·r •• ~lc':lromc t.rg}'-but it \.e the [.i!Jh~irng dU:!1Il~r~ 1<llllI''' h~w an ilVtT. r. \~)U \\'fJulci .e-~lhlett. lh rou~h .:.lie ur Ijg.1 l.'f:.ip to the haRlwd[c or I~~mie center ~tDr~ .ndc scent lampsi il man~' applica ~LOlh a I ~ f~i.Imp I~Jf I'LltH 1]\'~11dedpurp-o.m ps.r ~l>~ • Brightness Qildwhire.)[ In white I~hlt<" w()l whue. diL)IJ~~ .5t. These compact hi rn ps .'~ EH'n It turned .l9/i1i1" incal'ld~sel2l1 r kimpl' Ii I~ .1I('[ liwbt.("\~ral ~111...m~esce nt liog ht un 9 FJ uor~!>L~ill 1 ~IH U'H h d. Im::illnfh~.\. and J2-~"H1 ~i. :.P i ecf. .!~e tli..m: ~O-w.::.I~_ 1 he LlblJ~ III L- o pe~!!tro'n mnlL .HI u.5(1lu 1.n tluerrscent l. 20 watt fluorescent rcpl~l.lYl' M~ r C:('1mp.IJrd 6U-\.:m.::onL~cl III '~1LL· l'nd ~.) C~c[]crally .{~ 1h (' li [(" t' hlmp bv h~lrIlH1t: IT .fnergy-effic. consuming from 1:.l d.s<@nt l.~ 1"\\ It..JLTJI regulations rt'qlurc m(l~l of Ilw commonly used mcandcscern J..m l) r P('\"~T u 'i<:'LL ~LnJ 11 ~r~. most commonly used..)_ OJl~ 1511 watt lamp :::j\.Lllwt'll!ion.f\ .fiIIUl~d \\I~u~gc~..uro' YOUL.rL""~ 11[ Ia mrs LI. ~Landard flll~. and deluxe (01.i!' ~.-!n~ .m Jrc rrum a .f.l-J<Lmp hil_~ .1[1..I rnc in ..':rrt lamps rotal ItJO corn In Uf~1 \. ..!\"~r . In en ergy.m lamp . .ncd.n lamps I !~JJ watt •• In orhcr words. mdud Lng ~~~hd-~L h all nsts..·~V:llh iH~ ijv. [or..$ i Ih rr<!~~db~' '::5.0 thev can ~·cp ~.LHI[" Il'i \~. mp~tl "11 Ihe numh~r ~llmnllnr_IlL)LJr~ pn ~'art. producing .kt light ~.J..I~t' IiJ~of7.. n'PJ~cing J 7j-~". a fixture that uses. lamp clesigncd tOT Us. Although the mitml m.-nP.'att.1[. [oom..I linle b~liRht p~r w. 75-w<ltt.1hct.Hi GETnNG STARTED THE BII'.·((_'"m lamp ctnciencr_ k llulb... providing light Ill~1 is mu [1C di IYu~~.10> III ore en rntonablc.lu 35 1[1 rrccnt.Inply replace an incande&CCTIt larnp. SoLJc. Clfcubr compact tlUorC5Cl'H l klm p .:mc·es ill ill':.o.:KI rluorescent lamp replaces a 60-w~u ITL('. .1 h'nlte i_.Nlr~' ~hl' hilrp ~'fid.:om'~dl1If!l1~1~'IH1P Ll~llb. t he deluxe varieties emphasize these qualities sull mrire bLIT are a b~t less efncient.Iflolh c [ '::0 nta("[ . srau da rd.·jth no l1oli. r~ truly more ctficieru than '!I~ lamps and ballasts thryrcplace.J n ~ire u ih uf rhc ~'oll~ tarn pcd 0. lam p~.hl' ! vpe uf halla. lroll] 1~ to Iln inches.lcc l'[]U!0'COTliUmption bv 10 to 20 percent ". Iso S€II them. n the marker.1 ~II-IlpIe r.Jler ~r~ th~ n .xh. II 'l'~ Iv ill last ..e~ Lo H'ilt~("(: ~IJn.dwg~ berorc rlln:h~~~ m~ko... h.. : T~!J and eflidenq There are manv tvpcs ot lamps: incandescent. li~h'l than th.cent IJmp' bill mih~r IUn11~s ib.L L !FLU lar . Snme l~rnp~ h8~'e rf.unr~ wm.tH. nWl-h 1~~11l liw' 1:.l( .ark.l hi .r..re~ tLm~:.11 white. SilmL' h~\i: LLrg~ ba~e~ Ihill mc'f nntfit within the harps <:If ~'Ullf i ~h[c al~lt tloor lJ.~ <in ordinars I.n L [l u ({'"~~H m tl r~ lighl f ~ .L11 assortment L.ca.i..('n' I~m p' w I~~I much long"'T [him ordrrnn' lamps The !ji~ I'Jf tlui tre~L~I1t larnl'~ Jt'P~I1J.H1W J luurescenr lamps used in fMml~ ~~IHI~ 1[1 lcL1Ad~. it will seem to producejust <15 much light J6 a standard 60 \. volts but burned Jet 1~lJ volts "..~~r three W rive urncs as long J. LJF "JPor.lll I~ rhi.lIT1[1 il"l~idl'a compolCl quartz tuhewlthin a .. The 4~ Lnchf-!O-\\...if1g and providing up to t. They come t In ·C-I'-aU 5-2-w... Th{' arc In the hmr rrm ldt'~ f[ILI~lh' l.L~~ i rl ..aT1 incandescent.~ lower than It Wa~ tk:.J. the Ijt~ [1[..JIII.. sodium ""..n Ieast dghl ro n tic . h ~n t-ilg~ L1Y~f in~Jni dcS«'. For example.() 10 r~ 111 {'IhJects Iighted.cte~~~ in blil]) 1.Hsizt.::eflt l.er type~ .M ncr 10 i n (r~.Ht [.Hnl'''' ur equivalent ~(lTdl \\ ..Lllg bl~lk. Three t>U-\._'~ nnh-. which is the voltage fo r which tilc}' were designed. eneqw used rrH~Asur~tt 111 waus.000 huurs used I.s tilJed with krypton :Wl$ IrlMlmd of n i u.: in Hi . m ~lW . and ~ IS-wall [luoresceur h~~ light output equivalent ILl a lOO-~~'~lLlrl~~[1tlt$c¢nt_ Thes.l GaYlllg. A 15-w~'! LO.a.'. it cum~'S 111 ~1-w.nJ Iluoresce 11 r la mp'" In be labeled with the hgh t omp ut measured In Ium ens. as is done m 'long lire~ lamps.-h~n th."~lllli11011.1 catch=-the II:. etr.I '~ldl[ blti~ [lIm .A ("()mp~L r fluorescent mud around Zf watts rcpbung a 10(J-watt Incandescent rangt':S III price rroln :51() ru more than 520. mJ.he wmP'l'L ([ur.. in lilt' f!ht~~ 11.r ~XJmpk:.nE"J5 \ rurther cdvanragc .!!"<eled "e(~UOl1ic' br'::~lISC uf .-.{~f).111 last about four times longer: a 14(1 volt lam p burned 8I 12f) v(lh~ \\.H .' un d these are M~ ".lt used.al~d the lif~ III hlllJr~.1]d. ~\'.lt JitTt"rt'lli kmds I1r"\"hile:' mcludmg deluxe warrn I~hlt~.I(5 Chapter "2 f...eHng h. such "long rir~'~ somctuncs consume mere watts than the number stamped on them.lliJl.Iltn~ll.1nd con:.one large lamp wiU in g~nerJ..t.f1luutput.J.I.€ tluorescenrQmps ~il <J'i~rclte life of UI. mer.i!lIat~on 17 wans) ~iV(' 10 percent more right than live -w watt lamps L total ~oo W.. ·here .:hl per I'~~U is reduced b\ 20 [0 30 pe 1'':<'='11 nd ~h r.fl. a In a ddition.. '1h~ Ci).~ l~mF' ..Itt.I ~~ ] i I~ iI . .'11 dllLi f1M frequentlj the tluorcsccnt Will J. It produces hgh: 11111..'QllilTl' ~t vii: WIll IiLin a ..~ill.mr~ so ml'. watt consumed: El:Illrgy-iNfiCJl21It IhwTe1Cem l. "r pn"iu{dl de\ IU!~ ~ead the pJ..i1 "extended service" lamps can he lJ~tFLIl if 11l{'0I[fd wh~r~ rep'.nd ld't hurflLII£ rw-d r~ I 11uore.:.j II . n !. [(l nO watts.linh !>l!H' t"nc. I 1n1 .~ 1. ~m'f~y-dti("jc:-nt IJmp~ pwvidr J mum D [l IL1Yestment of up tl I Ii\ ~ [~ll1l~ O....'ithin-.inlk·5(:l!I1t IQrnr.L~u t d In .rhe h.-1..irell has 8 reusable ~learonic b..hri_!i\htm~s is much IO~HT than Ih'l~ .

~tC'rin motion in terms of £<tll(lil~ per second.odern {lu'L"lrt'~'~Il' (i}'hIIl'S rarelyuse the elite! rl~l starter 5l"wwn in the drawing.'I.tl 'wht. wh~·~t ill bushels..<'<t.:.'ATIR IS )"1r \StlRfD in gallons.s. r J e .~-} and 2·4 are rOI .. dev floF) a FTI"~~ Ie rl f J bout I volts One cell L)f . t~.J r . DJilf!.l[.J ~i1'~"[1poi nr. IJ batten dcwlr)p~ ~ \'nlh.. The sra r le-r Upt'll~ it~.b.hl" electronic h~JJ.[)uo) electrons pcr ~('((In d. '\ b i r of mercury In the tube '\ap0~ 17.[j F~·!iI.OOO. then back to ~OL·ih :F..~1 ~'iI) stvles bil\'ing ~ isiblc separate (oIflI:<fIt<i<'llh. '"~mp~rc" {abbreviated "amp").ll dl.I a powd crt Lilt r ..ltct ~Ild air and other ~llh.:Ire inch.As rh ~ ~wi.lefined LTIl as CUITenl flowing: 111 I he rure of nne coulomb pl:r ~("wr1d.·lUu ~(Ilb fm ~hotl dhtan~~. the b~~K e principle of produclug a brg~"r voltage to start a flow of currenr 'lhrIJL!gh the lamp.. to :'CM.eS\\' hen t he lamp goes into operanou.mlF is in normal o poe ra non.~3 billion bill inn ~b.LI oldn I (ifl APTER 3."l<H) or 11\LOle \ ~ . The curreur rlnw~ 'fiN lhwtlgh ihc ballast. Some flu(JI"CScent iam p.'o.lllast d~5( ribcd is gradually being r~~".ih~'dPin Figure 2-J shows the c i rcu r1 for r h t· I-jrst second or so after th e IISbI i~ l ~J r n~'d on. meal in pound-. The ~Oh. Lt limit. {hrouqM the Lub~. and [11en I'~ m .~..lthII11t'~ I .11 rull !ll@[hHl€I"I. the current then H()w~ Ih n. Most hou~c . h~lpiflt:..)11 LS II ~l('n..J.1t one end n f til ~"I.J II:dU[(: with only' one lamp.::h p. alue. HI e.LJ which we e cornrnenly ~p""a1./ I fw movement at 6 . tne lamp I~ Ighled Watts .11 when r1W.'~~ fhm I n~ thruugh Etisdisconnected. w h ~lL ne . UNITS 'OF MEASUREMENT VIleneed [0 measure how H nH~h eI~tTLC irv flow.ra~llS frlr rj~ll![C~ with two or mnre lamps are more complicated.I{~ of "roulombs per second" vee IL~ the simpler t .1.l~/tlill~ of FEg~.t~II ~€'o. I"I.18 ofth e bill f I 1. t!I these are lighred ...~f in terms el pnurnl.5. I Note that we Jon'L ~~'Y "amperes pn second..LlJOlS[.. The. .)~u!.it ~·ol. M.. fullowcd by a mmmll~d !owt'r voltage to upemre the lamp remains valid..'S rvoltsi are combined W ~~nve at wattage. but rather is semctlring ~h.~d ~.a switch that ore 11~ itself after pow~r 11. The .IU1p.~ugh llw ftlamml. \ er. Fewpeuple mav recall ever hearing .~[.H f I NCi STARTED 1~.d ki IQwaHS In Th .Ur'..» '·I.. keeping it at a proper .J~ opened and 1he I. Amlpen:5.all'l.a.lIlTll em 19 .lp.1 of elec trons past ..l. Fh·d~kil"1· cannot be poured inlp .'lL1 rlcirv.r ter I~ H.. llast an elecrnc»l WIrH. P[00 Ul.r>nU U IJ[ ~(1 when the IJ~llIl~ 11I"~11 urncd on. and It has the peculiarity th.I n somewhat differently. J b.." i A II elec t rI C current is the 111. the rate at which ~ q ua nrirv ofit Haws ~coulombs ~~~r econd. 2-~.OfHl.h lame trom en d tel the end..\mren. HI Ihe <r Marter opens. 1. ~~j showing the circulr after the ~\""irdl in the starter h.J~' common tJUOI"E':'«er1l LHlIP has a filomenr t •. "amperes. (he ballast limits the current through the lamp. Ihl' current How thmugh the I')fllp.mbr f"r ~ ."~el(1p L~.s. OIW ampere of electricit ..I. An~ urdinarv nr~ cell or rlashl ig ht cell.j·t ~ 'Ill r I. then rhr...II1C~~ can be put under pt"e~~t. Jnd tor motL)r.'<IU5 . Volts \\·.1 mea-ure or weighocl en ~~.1~.HU~ t~"J\\·1UJ.1.j)nlJ.. the total powel' rh.LriJ\' deliver-...tI oyer a period of lime 1(1 arrive ar a measurement I.'~ l glows when struck bv see.I'kc.rom 2.i!l1 THE BAS lCS me- I\~' H~I~~r('w.dt". wb(( h acrornplishcs the same ends by dlrfereru and quieter mcans. It 111WI1~rlI.1 Ilfl \-llIL~ fOl ~JghtLngand 2·~(I f'H l~lmanel1th· in'S~Jllcd ·~PF'i. step up tr i1H~I~ r III er. J hl' starter 1.Lx(~11~togrLhl"r d.hl' \~n rd "coulom b" b"X-<1.ng Electrh:::'ity \..ib~ulul~" measure of a quaniitv of ('ku~ic:il)' is the "coulomb" \''ic ~."'.lnll \ .2~1J.11.lllml. nramp~re5 I ancl Ih~ p~equre s i~ ~5 under whcni L tlnv.l~l!.. ]m .s 1r~n~mT"t·d ~'\d htgh-vQJt~~~"lirl~'" ~arle>i ..lII1~ on a steel Cllr~"C'~ l\'.. merion.()O(j.. <I given I'll i IH at a given moment or ill wt... Th!' ru rre'llt Oil r ~~ jUSl bee" tu rni>d Ille ~la. ~F'e':TJ.:11'1:11][ r 8 itl ~en mom ~ I~ <:'lpr".H must he considered .:1\ InJ~l Ilgh l.)$ tl o w~d t h rnugh LI Ior ~ mom em. III!.l r.1St. '"'I~ Rg. the boliniisl ~tdiYl"r~ <L memcntarv high. s The di.lI-iJ· TIll! 5~<lrle1 ha~ Q1J-E'lled CU rf~f1 ~ : Ilows. See I Ig.11L<)UJLlll1 po ..~ h'd neal op-er3Ui . IT'll-! tb ...1h:ap: much higher than the onginal volt.~d b .tll~11l Iluw through it. and ...11 ~c in~l{'.i lu learnis H1lonk.m. ue h ~~ I he r~pid -start and instant-start t y J1~~•...! through it-tor ~ bnd moment il becomes 11.1!'\il~ OJ \'{1Jt~ alone Ln J.L1H:mf. and alter thar there i~ r11) eire uit other than (he lamp t ha tt ho:: vII reru ran Ilow through.. . ( l'hc magnerlc b.~" l'mrlcl~ ~ circuit lnduJe~ the lamp.·. cir> nj'lldILJ~ me Jctu..:Hlg n~lh!t' II~III G.1 >lJ .rrer. u things. One ampnc is v. J he In{.:'[f...n of a fhl~I~5t ~Tl'I Id m p i::. [kdri( 11~'~\tri~ under pressure \"~i~ hi~ measured m volts ! ~hhT~\'iated "V")." btl' jLl~. i~..f[ i. Ih.II dDSo.~.e tkw. voltage k k kill al is enough to lump the g~!~ lll~i de the J amp.lrl speak of electricity in L~'nH~ of"l:oulombs Fer ~e("onJ" III the 'KdV we: might ~pC<llk (If ~. a b iHO mph cared The eas .j_ring [5. o..1.I'I€J ~qu. p... Mei~. .

i~fpllan[e:'i are given in Table ~. is L6.g clowil .l L l~II h~'~ .1' n n ·.h~d the zero.'c'i{) w..1)[)(l 1_ L A Wei t t h 11tJ r i~<I very ~Jl1aUamoum of energy.. it has nut ~d[J.01)1) W8t!.J[[houn \6D x 6 = 3-601..gc arid lower a mp. on p.1.:-m!!or_ A lam p dra ~n ng 5 a mp~ fro 111 a 1 ~. lh~ hp n [lt2f)O p~r hour.> . -. hour~ A CfJL1~ulll~~ .:~ opcratl·. 11'101 v tlut ~ou and other CrlmIJI1IU~ of electric power use kl(b service trum V(.. W.'.mbullL ..rh It rntal would be 2. tP the cost \DU pa~ fur ~h·. (Omllmll1g 4.. e ':::L1. .." 11i[1 I rg .on~~HTW.H' I~rnl' 1m lh'ur 1 LlL'P~'nL mf.I U tu mobile engine delivers 1Da hp.'!'oh tOT.-~tt la.'~ (0.h P lamp. ~(J '.16 watts and could iust a~ well be called I 7 ~ 7 -16.'1"1 ll~t"J dl'[in@! am' ~rrcined interval flftime_ nn~ w~tl !J~d fl)r 1 t]l1~lr i~ I w. hem1l inS[dlJe(J lOOd}' f'rm Itie") .\'nte down the number ihill t'~i"h pointer b. nut w~us pt'r hour ki ~ow:att" pe r h n U Ft .. It I~ nul c<ltr"'Cl wlth mmf)f" ut rU...hcu i~ not delivering i~ po ..mners r ~Idil) Tv or wirh h .s correct U.rgraph. r The difference between [i·le .gc ~ter{o J.~lI(::h pUWl'I is being used at ~Ily given rnorne nt..II ext page.:0. bUL it i.S!4f. A kilow8uhour J~ J. [t ~l) I -hr m (W'T j{.att~ because :>:0me pDwer i~ w~Slt'd .. or J.Ti~ meter i installed b~' vour r~IW<'f cmnpanvl and on your 11Hlnthh -ratemcnrs. .OOf) gdllon~ will vp('r~tt· th~ .-d eil Ltl11g the month..lH~ .I.ne r. in stead wa n~ or At1Y \\. ~ . ll amount Ii.WII readings.ClR ICAl POWER I he amount 01 clc. it> watts is equal m 1 hp.~lJ[n<: 11 lsr he beg i nning of Lb. 1 and i'n~[~) -~J1L~ JPpllJ." r\ consumes 00 \\!. directly to 7.3 JigJt.~ \ <lbhIT'\·iated "k\\·"h~ .t~ include using t"rltTg\"-~~win!! Iantps: discussed .-lulhplying rhe w. tell U~ R E'S~DIENT IA L !ElE.waus arc sornrwha: I.ig_ 5 15huw~ th~ same meier 01month later.!t il.OOO-WJtt room ~ir condiuoller USed [Of 2 hLllJr~ ~'n~llml'~ 1. 1(. &0.\ ~..'1Iding YO'lililf eter m ~um~ meters of the lUL.1clock.. but r()U nl~'" h. M I)~I tion. aka-sure the total amourH nf puwer [h~1 h~~ b("4.f~ Lll 2 h('I.. Wn~LHm.I~C f"ll<i~ wTl.lr~.look ~r the poi nrer on the Jiitl III ! he.iI~. fur .1UIS lh.. ~lIpplin i~ 1_ ml·8~un_.61.W~IU rnoto r.mp us.i OrL~ k i1u".2 .(1 ~!!~II_ x liD = 6(J \\"~ttsr Th e ~ltagc.~'J1 I ~HLJr 1 hnuh. l'~'l'[l Ihough the pointer st'l'Im W ~loI~~H..) 'h.. 1.l)UU watt.11:1ILMatthoLlr~ used bv Vi.". r\r1wnr. n-presents the number of k i lowatthours of electriciu u:.000 w<luhour._ W~ spe'lk ~I( 'Willl~.ianh n u rs 8 n d kilt 1'\\1<1 [[ ho u rs.1'l v pan ot the l tlH1~ \\ ith alternating current..LIE!8[ be cmt~ld~rc.. of l.fI-w.bter~..\"".1hOB' l. momh: ~om~ from left 10 right ~irnply\.·. t of puwcr.11 ~ ~~'ry srn .TlIlLIl~ i~.~1'I. tm This r'.·om dl'1. L. horsepower ..bnur~_ 'J he 8:r cundL1 Inm~r IIIL'nll(lrl~d m Ibl' pr~\'i'}II~ par.lrIk'.-l~~po i n toe were iust past the zcre .-. ~h ~ -.!. higher ul" volt . rJng.1 k \ . l-our dials are shown.lL·ctri.:j.UOO x.c·s~ th. read the d ial meter: ru..1l U~'~ more than 7 4h\.lblJ III J h~~Uf5. The total (If I h e III rtet ill Fig.rm u.:.U kWh_ I. unit ~ oj" energy..~llTwer nJ_~T as u do the edomct III eters ~T ~H I \'(HL r (JoT.HIhotlr.! uw huusehold..~II..lli~ ~ irh tr"il~f.~' and high olmpo£'mgc..mbLILJr ~LI~I\ f~Hn I'i I~' ~~ Ct:'nt~ ~ L .1 ._ Before writi ~~"i A \-\.lIlhmJT~.il\'"1l\·~ ~-')fr~Yt with direct current. r I. Re. Lim p thM l~~f.!>4 klk. . .. 6~.rn vulL~ X ampcrH.'In~" .h.15 WL' ~CI~·!IJ~ 1 ~H . Ihr _VEl uses \ 'JI~~ Olmpere~ \ \'0\.lUT poll"'l'r ~Llmp.m l..20 01 p'Ciwcr In a circuit. ~lTIpac~ . for a lOtal r~<ldinf:..111Lh~'~l'1h.You Gill check .IS heal and it also takes some pm"'fr tn run [he nuuor ~~.n.ILlr ("1) nsurn pno n on . Om: of the POI11Urs points directly to n.imliH h('"<llmg appliances.md arnperage dirte: W widely.Heel rlC ener~" frl1fll \Om POWt·.\ mnlM .'.. Therefore.'-1_ rwo of tnt:' poinu-rs TIIll ~'o... of 2. J.i~~ either <I tow \·lJll'lg. ~III III GErTlNG STMiE:D-l Hf BASICS..~~ [".J n d p~lJ fr)T b~-the kll QW'duh [ILl [_ . e II ~ could i til l a~ wdl be called ri l.It i~currect with lamps.llh reached the 7.lg"'" 1 ft---1 -.\.m~ I h ~ ~'wdf. or . but the actual watts or p{'lw~r consurned hy rhe two bm~h J~ rhe ~.H ~Mi~'('rS hp Jdi':~[:. [ J~) U i doll III HI r ~\ r rlHlll' ..w~rJ.)f pm\·el lHe~.'er just as.5o x lZ M) I~ ~11L"lth~T Lunp oirdwiHg 1_ Jmp f[~}m J .\klhlHJ~ Lo r<:t1LJ.a~ passed.' 1n Lin e d i rec ~Il the opposite direction. . .: 1. 21 must how much pnwer t~ a ~1n.~rit~ {im'"11 n instead.s '2..'n ..\~ ~I maucr of fi!CL. _-\veraj!:c 1!}98 r..1S not quite Tl'd.. ( if the l. 'Whm speaking of large arnou nts . '\IV-actsmeasure pov. and .(H}I) w<lnhou..mnoUT wi U iJ per ..I\<five dials on your mere r.lIUhours ~nd kilcwauhours Watts and kilowatts measure the rare at t". G . dod:.~. fur ac lead calculurions. ll.res fll r dC~L ri c pll\~'er arc ~i"'l' f! tlll Lhe.nc~ discussed on pilg.... tht'o[ll~'r~ have dials .11>\)UI w~~k~ l}ll~ ~!lm. h wi 1I 8 t ".:-r ~(ln~llln~'lil !II by various housvhold .7in this case. .ur" J .l20-\'olt lillt'".ed tar f.4.o!.\ Ill! hii HI. Lht· \Va nhuUI~.hl~ lJluoH'~'l'nl I~fll~l't-ill .ed by th e n u In her u f hOIlr~ gIVl'!'.>·. \".b ~hu. so l I i~ C()Jt1H10 i1 rc! S pe~ l.r i gh I~ ir h.watts./01 _ Examples ient n~ pll\~.ib f it i~simpler or Lu speak of kilowatts (the Greek word "kilo" Ih(nI~Tl~I.md '\lh~ L(I~['lbrr J f:lv~n morneru: volrs >..lnv.llpW.:-..1_ U1W kilowatt (abbreviated Uk""" ~ is 1. L"r ."\i~ital readout You read .

....• t Tr)o. I':.U Mf [ELE~ALUO_~_D _ I 1000 : W.' ~ .INMENT (c.._. " '" ~.jn._'" .. vatts that the item consumes by ihe rate ill cents per kWh..1.nrelectrical load fu r one h our.Lk ." PERSONAL CARE Hail dry~r""" .!o."... ...~...'p In._.'..:tmally h~~t~dl '1 ('101 ~Wlll"l1"lng p~1 h._..NG 5TARTED-TI-IE ElA~I(S Power rates 1he r..DO!) fIQ[I [0 ~.)..._.. rla~h.51Z" iares hut the rate varies g:rC3U}'..::forcea Humkilfler _ ~ '.... IJru"l[1?1 •. (tll(!(] -""""""'~~() Tr}(l ..H Lflg the Coffeem~ker """""""..~oo !<.t~r . most md some arc invertcd-e-the IIWr~ p()Wel )TIU use.Q[ plate per bumCO' Knife _ M ~ro""i!lve O'\'C'n ._..... .If in dollars per hour....Iired current fd..40 31Jfl Tc ind out hlJw TlW cl I il (ll~Kto fll)e rate ~.~ng~'op.$41l0 ..ooo ~._...vi..11 !~ .B!. ra ble \"'111._.Kllen oven. a CriSIS of the 1'oliOs.UUU{Q 1 SOC 120......uw.._"'_.~1~~tfJ'-~a." 1. r.~OO "_"'_.000 to ..550 1....""""" . and tluctuating tuel costs.5 """ """"""""" 3(). each ..".w...)illl' " 5[]!] H"..~OO 5-1) [Ll7=..[~ "'_.. Rctl~~ ..0QI} ..._...OOO 00 5_..'. .Wh? '10 t'lIld atrage of the load to get the number 01 hours J~ T"OfhbttJ~h u~FJ( _ __ < WlJIP". ~~ilinq to Fen. Fi)~ rn...i ._3~ x .' """""""""".IC CU R RIENT . """""""""""'" """"""""""""""""""""..!.""""""" "" 5(~' [0 .'... l-.. The bi II is figured this ~ rv: lOQ kwh ~~ ._.. -n ~J1riply t h...200 Con.".oo St~r~'0"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""". \'1._ a .. 500 . ruaeor """"""""""""""'" .... OCO Tbe rueter read Lng HI I:ig~...." ep ped so the mOI~ powcr you used. ~ ""_".(0) [0 ...llIJ{) 2... ~ kw V~ClJum (lcW\f'I _ __2~O ro ... these B_Se Considering OlperilJt:ing lhl' T~tt uf inflattn TOiles rn~y O\"en. _ _800 ~ol. :666 nOU'5 ~~ boutl iOO{l- :] t-.._..2:50 Fen. Or the I)remnng cos-t.n~'. 3.."'" .1~[l?r IY!." """ """ "'''' " "" ...-""" .lj OVE'r 100 kWtl use 2.5e f1pr kwh 60 X 6O(l as = src "" ~(I(J 10 400 SO.. 1..jr~ _ nur he typical at the time veu C05~ ~IT re~d: I g Ihis. 27 kWh at 9.1 ~er '" SDIl [(} 7~~ . 2 l~ 3 kW to to out 5irnp1y di~ i(l~" 1_000 In the in the fL)llo~\'ir]g examples.""""""""""""" Ho:il~'ng ...(}S 1 i5.5oo " ." " 500 til .. example "f ~n im-er~ ~ rate structure: 1'..tO{j 11' "' (O'f"='" pUler rnonl'~)I'...._.".r Wild' I il.2l Watts..3v to '00 TV Il..."""""""""""".f80 1._.Q _. 500 til ._"_"'_""".._.'r T~U Ired \ watts ccnsumcdr..._..lrt" llrnl~ dpprmLlniltc • and [H:'...." .1)00 ru <1...:'.ays ot the same r'I.Otl [0 1......300 ti ._ mail ttl _"_. .2."....'"I'''r . :brolleT[ """"""""""""'.w F~n.._.._..500 ~t> 6...HJT 200 jl:l f.~ 111np I nfrc r.....l ratesare Jlat after an initial ~f'~P the nigher the average cost p~r I Iere 15 [Ill for demesne elecrnc power averages ahour fI..fjA9 FDOd proce~G'f"""".'I re h~LHg al\\...) ro s..""" .tM= ""...".200 -hp """""""""""""""""""...OCQ O. '~P. 4<11'-' 70 A. Some examples of operating cc ts: OPEFto%nNG ELECTRICAL LOAD WATISX RATE [J():j 1~~1~ """""""""". placing the deci 111 ~ 1 r in t five places from the right to arri V{! ~ I I h ~ .150 <0 200 81~n~l"l Deh"rnid. rL...L(.. .lr..er .::'00 . tln ~Vb wr]S'Ulil~d dl."'..50 I n ~oo ~I""..."" "'" """ """_""''''''''''_''_''''. "~. ar electrical load to consume one J..'''''''''''''''''''''''''''_''_ ~!)...(H)fl F._... 00 1.'Jr!\._.llOWATTHO\JR nilE5 0 Current l ~ "H1 ell F IElEClR.a m:-e 25110\lr~ .".."0250 627 kWh "'_""" """ "'" A\/~rd~e PQI ...m~~~ fI fkl'l h ave tbC1T total W~I ~~ (representing the IU(Hl ur I 'he {l rcutt I n J~" listed on thl: ir rl<l lit~r Iates._.~'(.r.".'(J R<&igcr"'tor. [llr ._95010 .mpCK~ disc pl~y~r ~I r ... W encourage L(ln~I'\'aUon of en~rg~'.ftn.. par hp ". ...ou ~~h"I{I...a!~t w~ter bee' _ __~OO """""""""""""""""""""""..000 ~o~...ITERT.IT$ ONi.1.""""""""""_...S[011 10 to 50 MIs.....h~r __ """"""""""".._ pel kWh 9.. " " ~rylng pen """"""".._"_..IkrL)("C rhe ~Il~r~\' s were ..i pd r!lL Lsrnps.lb·.>6O:l ISO rc 3()'~ 0..:!iJIJ to. om" \('rn'ru'1..~ du("~ il 1. wh(>l~ h(JU~ """""""""""""""""""".in~"nd~~cenL""""""""""""". iePllr. Ran9~ m 1..ngappliances . _...ertcme- roo l<lI'TlP5...200 _ E."~' roorn..l)i)O R~~t~r.1" Bl&J.Q(Xl P."""""""""""""'" p.c8mp._...di"""""""""""" 2 so ln suo ~['''!Pr 1'><..'.' ~MD l.l[ it ~_it her posrn ve ~l r Tl~~~ II ve I ~ know n <I~ ."..J~d _ ~h~~ '''''''''''''' ~>G too eoo l.. . 1 C ~ Wa~her_ W~terh%tcr ____ ____ 30umaw to 1.".~._j)~~' pe'r hc I. LlIr[L'r]I' fmHl a banerv is a~"".J to 90U FOOD SmRAGE fre~z~r.._"_"_"'_"_"_"_"_"'_"_"_ TOl~1 S~ ~_29 kWh_".l.OOO to ~.'L S = 51QO per ~o'~r~ to 1.]JW8V~ positive h e nrh eJ term mal i~n~H 1\ c 1-)_ J'he lyre o t current Lh a racte F I zed to".. l AilS PER HOUR 6{l-watt !amp at B....~k_'1 he cuereut mmmg mlo iu r home or tarrn i~O}henl ~[Lng cu rren t rac I~ ~L ."""""'.:!Orn 1"1) fr.ud }'Il U Ln es tirnating pl.._.er ".'. lW T1Mf IT TAxFS TO COr-"S._'" . '" $~.~ GETTI.' p\l ~ bou! 2 wa~!~ :2 = sao soc hOiJI~ j' euher alternatm]. • J Upw~1<i S~l"i"'9 ITI"ch ne """"""""" W (0 gO ~pa (ele."""""...". "'I """""""""""""""""""'" I 50 to ~t\IJ Pro}~tor 51idl" or '''''''"'' V(R """""""""""""""""""""""""""" L ..er the J\'<'~!!-= CL'lSt p~r k\'I. Of dlr~":L On batteries._hp. 5{I(l Fan.._.._.t~ disposer '''. !t...... b~lhmllll' ..-1 'F) """".Lft' appearing .adDr"""""""""""""" ..._.._.. ll mountEd_.~ lH p~r kWh pe r month . ..J~ _"_"'_'..._.4. tthour in Lb..h3r~f reT kilo . ~he .. showed month._"""_'" '" "..fl(>l1·fro~'.....2~O ~~~... ." Ullil~d.._.""""""'" ' .000 Flrst l 00 kWh Ul<>d P A. d~t"_ """"-. '" Ktn-.._._.tc ~hl'JUI lov .111 the time •\ppli."-"ND!rf " .0051 (s1ig htii more tlla n h~1r cent per hour) S(J.. ._"""""'" ~._"'_._"""""""""" .1n-watt I~mp wal[ ilPpli..cELlIINfGLJ~ (1m k """""""""'_"""""" H[)'[ tub .c:on:5!1!1m~d ~ e tollowi ng.()....200 t(1 111 •• Hf-~~ ng. MOTnRS .." " " '''''' ._. tOO DI~hI"iMh~r """""""..._""""""""'" a L .'~..._..J._"'Ss COST IN Rctrig~r'~lllr.L' appliances The hgures .""""""""""""""" h~~lt~j..'l?n 500 1~] 1. U ro 2._..der"""".""""_.c cloork LJ<.? r~KtrK~il~ nU~(~'OI i2 : I [uw lo!.. t~hl? """"""""""""""""""""" .. ..I nd 3 .

'Hung~'d . ~. 8re th ree w Ln'~ in lht' ~(:T\a.h.rhA~t rn o lO!'.'.hd.rl{:'~~ r . 3-3 On~ cycle of 1. evervsecond it ~~ 11~~Ili~~ ••and I ~llIHln.ri~ used in bi:h'n r. rhree 1. J 3 • If. every ~~c.phase po".• ..ll in .wry second 1 do nil\·c an annoviug [hckcr..·. very ~III ~ It J amp~ used 01 i 25.1Irr..1'ea[er efhcie ncv.ch wire L~r'OMl ivc.mgcSo is M~~) rapid rhat fLI.·\ p~lr .~ graduallv Lhall~jng from lew hi .I nn.~fn F ~..~ ru a l'~.cll'::<'. dnJ tJUtune.~lllng \'l)ur nwn transformer. J'::O hl~I[~ evcrv second ih-:.~d two. I with e ithe r tw~I or three wtre Fri 1111i lre ptm ~ r supplier's lramfmrller.'"IL.h\<l\ ~ changing.. I f you do have .uQr with thr." It I~ named lOT toe Gcrm8n discovered the cvdical nature III electrical ""'8~~S ~~ieiIlL~t Hcmrtch HeinE tdl.phase p(Jwcr availa ble. 6(l-Hz current Ihw. ~mJgLn~ tllTl:'~ separate ~lC"UTlL ~<:nl'"r..~means wl~le-ph~~c. I ~O i irncs everv ~eu)rl~llil{' wires J.tU -volt.:.and~h!rI~e·pha$e CUm. e r rnav be ~LJ p pl it'.. then ~g.l in the lJn1p du(~ not cool offf~sll'Il!mgh to create I'I~..n o alh.·qum:-s three-wire mSIt'.hertz or till H 1 current. b\ all mea ns u <e tl ~ree.. ne then II~ til'" ..voltage Is ahniJl I ~rJ volts: Jot <Ill n~lllT times ir is ~()m~wh~n' III between.20vall ~I t~rnating current. .2(1volts.I the t..IHun the wire..L. . If vou are fortunate enough to have three. but ~I "r.J. I he ~·~fll. 1 he th ree gt· ncr ~LI)r~ tl~go. On farms and in homes. You might wonder why li.) not be misled into t. arid commercial establishrnenn where there . e 1h r~e \\ Ite.~~ 11'o/r:i"r{' ~. om S~ngl'~phase..lgll'il 1.'r 11w~<" Or fn~JI wires frnm the transformers.GfITl NG 5TAftTED ..g(' lrum posmve t~}11egati ~'C. lo understa nd hlf . the prt~::.'"ther Iht"n a re ~id to delive r I h ree.Remember that if I ~(l-\nh.~ {.~nt ThC"current de~Lrilx-J in the prevluus l'~W~W~ro is sjnf!.I s J.. If il b 60-Hz ru rran t.1Il . most ptifp'n~L'~i1 (an he con~iJ~r['d .:.I~ no current Hl . ~ Ii the (hangc s shuwn Laka pla~f' in h~ second.nivl:'_ Th e ~h.."~' oils ol wire 1windings): t!l~ c p<lj r~ llf \...l ~trad~ I ~[H~III.n the v(jIL~~L' reaches tl.und ..Ill' wire l~tJ timeH\lTr second. h~~h-\nlta~e lr~ II'al1~m issm u ll ne~ and: tb ree transtormers IJl stead of one (Th rec -p lhL~t' power m~y be ~llppli~'1l WJth eith1.. ~n.ghts do Hut tlicker if Iht"n. bu t a\'~r."Vl~J!!!e 8. I r~~ he.l. then III tJlt" rlnroi..Llz curre IH (\\' Ii~'n: there is no voltage .f HI' BAS ICS CfLlIpter 3 M ~MU ri ng EleClnc Ily AI tle "nallingl ell rre ~'itill cl IH .} "uTl!:": ThJS rakes rl~.lr~<!" ~t·n~r(il0r'.h<' generators become a single genc-r. and ~lLl Ii rurrent lS kn()\\ 11 .1 a ~in~k ()II .m the' wire :in LiHl<.iUll.nn:'l' \~\~ ~ urncs everv ~n. The term ~hfrtz' rs used instead of "cycles per "l:umJ.HI d 1 n 11 m omes or fa r I!T~. [n .lging 120 \{111~"1 he ..l ".m. that because th~n:.. Three-phase po~~·e.I1L'llr'r.htnkilll. ] 20j~~() volr service. The fiT~rm:-n.phase pnwer (alto ough the I'i:lwcr from am' om: ~encrJt.r md ~'..~]]a·u( three wires almost Jh..If Wlr~~ wnutd run from each of the three generators. tht result must he three phase power..und.Te d~~d {no "ultage.ur is still single-pha-« .kcring. (5cehg. + Three-phase rowcr n_.lg(' no i.-~.. maximum JT dltl~Fl'nl rimes in e8~h i .1 !krnati ng cur re nr t!".r no Fi~. hr~t tn ..lJlJ back '~8'lin positive l~.-J and related !~\ u.~ rnaxrmum of Ij suallv about 1-11 ~'~IIt~.e ell I ra nee.Hurs <11. and such I~r ell r n:TH is known it.uli ernates j ch (J conunuillv bet WCctl pmLnve d Il~j neg. 0(1.U1d rfh·rt' i~ n)JtJg~ dl .:!O \'("111LL!rrl'[JL I ~l'C Fig.:-nL Singic.. but the Lh. three-wrre.\I.JI p.~n: any motors.. It b ~~ ldorn ti. !hrecphase rower is generated.1 i.le-pl1~5e current. ~\.phase supplv.:~ 1)0 times e~'en "'". ~irlgk-pha!ie power for lighting and smallappliances WiLhou!ir1~"i. .. never constant hut I~ <ll\"\i'l. cumuli the power >l'Pllh~r W deieemine wheeher ynu also have 120124U YOIt.rt wire«. three.

. consult NFC Table JdO.)~ [he 11:~d 1f1~ ~lotm:'L NUITll. .~ also commonly U"OO in "'drill!:.e that limits tbe waste to a reasonable ti~UTe should be used.f-l i4" U' 10· 15 2.le mo~! .ng material such ~::. j" tlu. IS.. The. the sate carrvmg capacin of .l6. N u rnber I cj \0\'[.-lW. The J:!T~t~T the amperes rlm"'II\fl.r~ ir\~u I~tjtm t~pe~ ami 'ff'lE tl! All references In IhLShook Mot 1(1copper .• big . It creates '" w:r'L~in amount of wasted h~t.0 65 75 60 75 8. Amlpi!!cit:y dmpCIT's. dlllil~".}r~et the t'lllI'nh~r.XI-lHW TH'NN-1 5O"C TW 73"e RI-tW. etc.ppo1'l-. v.1T~ lfO.a wire $1I.:q~ 14 ~ we.we and so on arc."" O'Vi?i~llIrrent prmE!'Ctio~ to tbe ~~I[Je~ 26 . Numbers 1& and I t:l A'I. TI-lWN ~ 'l~"f f l Aluminum .a.S. doorbells..E.pl tlliOC to belp protect against stray current. so alwavs use cautton when wmkil1f.lJlJ efficie [lCY JS discussed b~'1 III terms of Llmpm:1J'1' . A conductor . S r I:.:h .ir~. ]/0 and ·l·/U A\VG.41 D1 hrnrts til . dlren!y or buried ln rhe ~arth.wr5 I~.l.'Fcr~ble 3W.lce~ {circuit breakers. rnperetu re f<l11n9S SIZE ~ 1.... if the J mpe r d ge j ~ aUm".)/".r. ~V:ire01 the correct size must be IJ seJ lor -.~ lor (o. ~[the ampacitics in C()'(lml~ A ofTabl€ 4-' up w [00 atnperes and in (o.~. Cnpr~'r wrre IS the besr material fnr bniill~rr purposes.~~~r.1:. Metal WiH G enclosed in in~ubti. LS.~ more eJ. the smaller ~he WL. it wuuld have te be about ten times <~~ ['lrgJin cross-sccnonalarca as copperwire. accideutallv become conductors resulting in electric 5~ock.e_ ~F~!!. ~I().c~ .] in Ch<lpkr 19.:umb~f llJ A\W:. Awe and su (10 are lArger rh In 14 ""<N(_i~ 16.rn~n ~iJ.1'( COf}]X'r 8 7S·C RHW -tIW. Still heavier ~j. lhe t'..~ lHl % 110 55 6~ 5.Hil T~lilile 11-'1 .1 wire as measured In wire. Electriciry t]~v.T'..4(1.::PI rhe di~( ussiun uf aluminum in wire later i!lllhi~ ~h~l'h'r <In. and a.<H nCI~ r~f~r~rK~ to 2..:'ri'lls tha l du mil cutul uct electric current. The WIre may become hul clluuf!.maUC-M size permitted for ordinary hOllS€ wiring. i n g. THWN 90"( THHN.' A n d voitlJge fJrop.Chapter 4 Wlle--Sele<:w'lg and Connectlnq 27 thermostats and ~imil'L" items operating . i~generally the heaviest used in residential and farm wiring. the greater the he-al n()llL~IH13 the ampm~s wi thout dbi I qgin ~ th e VI-1rf size increases I h e amounr nf hear tour ti rnes. Insulatirin types are: described under 11'1<. the 4/U being almost half an inch in diameter.ed to become teo grca L.. ® 6 @ 8 10 12 • '.l tel v . :UII-iW-~ TH\I'II}.ed ir'llerlh8nge~blr in t his I"lL'lj)l.. ~o iW~ ti d wasted power .lad atumi:numl 8 C T\i\f I THHN.. and I i\\\'C. Of even more concern.n IC5~1 han 30 volts.blie->. not quue .~ 100 115 135 15{) tOO us BO ISO 170 195 75 85 lliJ gO 110 120 §i 2/0 • tiD BO 150 115 2.~i!r in some marenak than others.U)~s conductors.... Other conductors include cable and bmbar~j Humans and animals can. ~ ~ .t" 10 r lrou ~e \".pd no 1$0 hpfe. dl y.ZEj Copper wir sizes are indicated by number-s-the l.h to damage the insulatien ur ~Vcll cause a nrc.f 1M-. 4 Wire-:Sele[t~ng and (on'nec:t:iing III.rIR. The terms wire and nmalll:MI' are ILo.. .ing conductors in COr\dUf!Sor other ("(~WW~·or in able .. Equipme-nt and dt"\. ~witcbl..:om.00 SJ.L~ any material that can carr'!' the flow ofelectiic current. Wbm curren] flOWli through Conservauve ampacities (u r co m mon wire sizes arc shown iII Iabl e 4---] _ For larger sizes. and 20 'l.o.~ wlre~ is higherttMi ~ th > but ~ fC.? 2 1 -/(1 55 70 Ib ~.:'lIlt.VGconductors are used mostly inflexible cords and the still fi ner sizes are used mostl y In til e m anu facture o r elects ILa] eq LI iprneur such ~~ motors. l15 135 lJS !75 205 195 ~i! l30 P'II"L[I'-·~ 1&1 NfL.LrwU$ si7e. tm! an' r.. so even though t he NEe tables mighr indicate the conductor has a highu amp . lO.lo n~JI concerned with wasted power." "WII'~ Types" heading m this chapter. ~Xt.. WI A'E 51.~ n. panelboards.AMMCIT¥OFWHRESmaseUon Noi more-than thr~ oufrcm-<:a'l). therefore it sets the ampacitr-e-the inaxrmurn amperag~ that ~'..J."'ft'lp~cm' IS 'CHAPTEI.ium:o B over 100 ~m~}ej"es.0 3D ~{f 1520 . u 111es~otherwise marked.~. If iron wirewere used.pregrcssivelj smaller. ofJ.)11.~ and rypes uf wi rt'~ ar~ allowed [0 ca:rry. lr+d.: 4.".l ha Vl' b{'e'l Iesred.10 50 fi5 ElS 15 ~(j 15 2S 15 s 55 15 ~O 25 4Q 30 400 c -~ .Narwrtal f1earim/ Code rNEe1 i. but il I~ concerned with ~'lt!:l\.'> ~re rlld[l.1 l4 • Hi • 18 • III 2/0 3/0 2]5 260 ~I~!. 12S 1~5 HiS 1. wh i\... with electrlcirv.

. Volt.ed \. plch r~ tw local ordinance.ts. 4-2.I t:lJw~~J ryp~ ~nd~17~ot me 1i1bk~ +-2 8rld 4--:1 on the next page ~hlH'" O~Ic--~\I~r distances in (~Ttfor 2 rt'r~em voltage drep al 120 a nti ~4[J VL11ts.p. Culurnn C (overs LOlldLIL i()r~ with t!l~h-tC'mpera[U. Hm ..}5~ ~'tJUCll n rhe expected load {in T ... n ured. II ~he ~l.\ he required to minunl/e wJt.~I11~...! mJ..P111UlTlrllon j~ . ~he terruinarlou rules rend to Im1H rhe II~bl!: current in !h~~c wir(:'~ to the amounts III Colurnns..[ \ LJh.is lost i n the \v ire ..\'1-(. ~n~ I. N.g~ ~I .'Tat [he end tll.llI $17.\ \ \'(J f1lt .1~C- comjm1(1T. culurn n ~the answer is 9Q k '-CI.. ~ .~l. if rOll connect I:'I.customary ..u mll<!...II ~ disLana. the I~~~ the vo-llage dJ rlp_ c I"t"dll{"OO rozeJLI.l.. It \ViU .20 to l ~2 ml r~.lLion.t:e$ only 70 pe'fcent of iis rHlrmal light. H indicates rhar 'l ype n". ~~J 111" actu.J. .lJ. ~pl.ing lh. fhe ~pp~rlt"nl '>i3\'Lng 111 HH'i~1 W<l bY '!nll'Ls~dn1rC"a[]-l V..t~ CI ~ I:W ~'OI[_~ ~... The meter across marn switch may read llO~'oJg_ If 14 A\oVGwire is used to r lit' motor.] rv the differe LIt ampcnlgc~ I u r w~1 t.m~L LT. It ~s w~~ to usc an l'xL[(l pl~I~.-\W(~ \"l~~' I~ u5ec!.meamper Jgc twia: ~~[~r .he uf the WI~ in "inter m~V p~JI[ Iht in~l. ·~r mr ~rliPdCll~·dLle 10 nun. ful~ow the 10-Jlmp line II rll i I YOU come to t he ~ AWe. th~\' mu:'o[ be large enollgh to c.ll..'it bout ·excessi\·c '>'uh .nI_ I f I ~ .hil:~_h...UL~~ rum in f.'ire~ are nm outdoors ovcrhc.' bvthc correcn on I~~LLKS.<L"~ four tim.. al i~ ti.L ..2Y'_.~~IJtlm~ ~f1III! !~ 1_(1 v1111S.lbk I t th. \'o~t~.lml HC.PX S n... i r ~gtuo man~' a m P~rI:'~th rough .ce-d ~ h{l Llt()U rerc~ III III ~.~g.. 0 nh· ahL tWt _)5 1'~rL"'Jl1 pJ [he ~t~rt 11~ vutwge_ 1h~ 1. s. ~(AI ( cj ) 1·P .h~ ". y. '(-. h[~d puwfr.I"U~~ th e motor terminals will he about 119 volts Lflh~ motor is l. wire in mJ1JlIi~ or cable. te de! ern une how far Ii A\-\or. nl~ '-:h·C "!r~ hil!'.: percent voltage drop.uvl:rII~g Ls not rf.~T A\.W drop..~ dr.il'lf!.hlgher than that ~b('''''T1 ~n -l~hle 4---1 k". In the t<lkUlllt..:!."iTillg..Iw rCLlLJLtiL1Ll m wire is soon 11tT. W~ miShl ~()lhld'.arrr the samenllmbl'I IJI.amr~t:lL) Ot. the ~milll~~q. i1mp. tor simple an d [lSi II CUDlJTI(.'\nt~ fh:at at 2QO v()H~.~m' ut.l[ example.l rrc ~mbicnr tern l'~rdlUfJt of _VEe Jablcs J Web through .M~ for lil[ger (h~tan(l. ~ and B Jl..... volts if tt is H)O fl'N a \iI'J. 4-.. bur (Ink tnr ~'\C'Th!:dJ "..ed COU{Hl (IVI..iJ((·5 work very indTlril'ntly on volrages lower tb:..11 c In the t'l<i~mple shown in fig.. I h e values lJ1 Tab Ie +-1 ~huu kl sutnce.hlll onlv about 112 '~ .L em .a1!-~ drop Ifl long runs M m a] In .but there I'~another Important wHsjdcration~ apph~. any ~i~'~'l ('If ~i7."'L·~voltmeters into a circuit.'~. nd is known J s vnl ~Oll.:uit in question.e<..~ oi Column.e'size Cnnducn irs have different pm~ Iini t~' [0 othe r ..r ordmarv wiring.'I 'r'pe ~fkct the proper 1yp<:" of \'.Ir~ size tor motors IS ill n her di .. if }.selectl ng and (0 n ne<tiflg L9 terrnmauon T1lJ~'limn th~ aln~ti1'-lt~ w those shown. c [L_ Vjlll.age to be carried bv the wire.. i~required 12 C rn a Ie ...l 1(.:..1e on h' flti U~l-J <I certain r amount nf w . If ~'ou 11eed \H re heavier than t fit H 1111 lTIlJ m i permitted.. h is bcner tn ~cU1Md. ~ \\'111.1t it~ t<:rn1iI1. .tl ~~'I~e col1tr<lctLon t.uppUrL lilt'it lI\. 4 and . }\mp3C"lu horne Voltage d rop I I ffl n. To operate lrud 'iDO feet away requires (tOO fl't'l of wi re. as in Fig.HlII'dLJ!!e5 LI1 ol>'~ J k~'~ I nl tn~Lnt'"~nllg sophiHicJ[i~ln .f) ed of 14 .es as fuL \\'h(.:r. of ~iJ~l~jmt ~Iff- el'ing ot nC1JprmC Llr impregll~t..th same pertl.'nlr table... r al~d d lamp produ. il \ ~.I T"r_ C01illwe the 120 volt and 2eW-yuh ~<lbk!'o.1 pr d ~ t I( •• 1 I ~m~e_The _\'EC penn its noth i n ~ .rc~ air.OI1\~"""hat complicated to tigurl: the r.II1 be kepi JI ~ rr~(lj{"<lJ Id-i:']h~ ll~in~ A {hLJp_ ot~::! r~rLl~n1 j~ (on~idered .'T [hI:' Lolli.Irlln~ point L~ ~-lL1\ I d~~.eneraJ rul("S.an d(.100:'. :SI!!I@ctinglwir... ·ev~r...perce. with the.I peH_~nl 1.i.. First detcrruinc the ~nlp¢t.uure. depth ut bUTl. ~f it d i stance is marked wi th an asterisk (').\1.1 nameplate giving the [(ll..h~ ~\Iif-e~ often lTIll5t support ~ heavy ICe load. CIRCUITS.~ll()ns in arc covered in th e ..n thai the YflI1d~~~aus5 rwnwire is ILJ\.o(lltil~~(or which thev \'.H the bottom II U.t' Hl ~·(lr ..fp. \\'C'a'h~"rrrl'ilF'~tre must not be u~d fur Iln_hrurI \...~i" III e 1eft -hand wllLllln is ~remeI 'than the.1.d tw Ihe cost of POWi:T wasted In the ~\I~c~and efticieno of lamps.m J II~r than J -1 • \WC.:'('~~!H:l S A'.tl lhemotor IS lower than at the main switch.AJjmtmenL~ [11- en ri~tHcton.6(J\l ["("qlm'fS a mminmm of 10 t\\VC fiJr spans up to 50 (I. .] rnps. I 5l b )[21.(1 .a .A~Hd U~IOr'o. col1~Ldtr using a ~l7Jf largenh.JJ1the \.pnn::m ut rated voltll~w.dd.. ~ . nne at U1C main switch and one JUO% a l-hp momr . Ll.d pmctical m. \ ~n."rcd"~tht" . I'he\" mu~t also bdmgt . or &-om T~bJ~· JW.In northern ar~'J~ where . of insular In 11.C)...1I fed_ It the wirr t~ m~tallerl on... Of a cable buried d Irecti}' in the ground. the tir~lp is f frn r 11 1.fl. undersize bv . the 'ffi 1 rase ~4..-.I feet a.CLlS~HI on page I :"J r. re.lf.. rl"">u!1 ill~ In the u.gc drop is wasted ~1()WCr. ~Lk. AND GROUNDtNG Chllptl1' r 0\ WI r".t ~(A ~tJ ! [. ires In8.~ oj r~l(ewav ll[ U10le are cnv~r~d In :'1'Ie J Hl. il ~hu causes YfllfJ. wire will UlI r~·:'..[tage~t the POlJ1t IIr .~rry the ilm f1'l'Elf. The d iFf"rcna:.l hot 5ummN d~~'.16 in the _II. These are rccernmendation s ill NPC ~ 1n..l ~~ d rl'lp.ltLLH1~ f~ll~ It und~r m~g. inn.dro p to .'"f] v..~'appli L1n(CS \\ ill have ..I L).1r~ >Of.unp'l~·itic~ lor each \ all~Hum III arnbrem remper.~in~~ll.mng mUdLHJI ~_ . or 8 . but look Itlf 111 fig~Jre j [)lJ in th e table.ml l'ilblt 4-1 Oil page 27.l H <l_. 17_t-. j re h ~d be~H lI~~d.Ire (n.C' of the most mmpk\."'p~rc:~ (If watts ranng.~~•hi. Ll "cmrl.. ~ vott:>'. and so on.-\3though It. ~ the ~ of V()ha~l: Jrup.tfl. <ltncrprlW. In th~ UCI-.lin [he leftr h'llld COIUnll'lS." bllt hd~ an ~111rA~ln l~ting L mT)('~ and that is large cnou gh Lu IiI1i i~ voltage. Actual ~-nh8gei~ lost rn the wire :.. . . Lugt'r ~w:\.. The Jj~'1~II ~c~ LL! Ide r each wire size art' l he ~ distances that ~iZ-C' w ire W~11~~. o!h.lb<:.he pomt ~-h<:r~ lhe pow~r I:)." al work..~r~ {k~igned_At Yi} . hLtW('VtT.a motor produces o~lr B 1 percent of llurm<l!1 pO\ .. LA_mSu~ed I~ I.'T it a mere uuisance and mi~H"1i lo~~."(1. rLJ[ dj~tan(e~ over l50 teet..e hut simple' lu luuk 11 upin tables." d ru p 1/\ Ulild h<1~e<.-arr~ Ih e s.!"""EC . m the Code.n~~lIy req l.:.('"[1.h v to .-. ma~' nOl he u sed because the IImrlT~ ~.:'lIUII'II1"IH LHnne-ctro . I\: L1_ Use the table that correspund SI (I rh e 'lO~{age 2_ 01 the {)r.28 WIRES. you wiil hnd that the volt. mutrirs.re rnsulauon fQ{I'DCL Ahhou~l! these wires are vel Y uunrnun tt1d<t~.'cognircd ~.lrgr-r the \<"Ire.. 81Waj .llatol"~ ott \'()Uf hllllttlll~~_ \ .lge . 111..\\.:!15.[l weight_ NEe ~25.e win' ~~ill .l~<L"e wrl51ckmble sl~(k. larger mOWIS W ~l"rI ~.ln at the starting P('III11..

' i rmp.{] '1.e AWG ml.WG 3/0 latcd.l"i!I['Jc.Ul.umber IO/lWG . WrT~d I V~'he ~i1~ must us w~ll as ot th. book.L~LW]lyavailable unlr' It! hr~l£k.445 360 ]4(1 4.lmi.400 .\ l. \. L~he rm nplastic 'ire ! iTI!SU- A'I'lot-\! VOlTS SINGlE-PHA'5IE Wdtt~ ilt 14 12 ~ Af1'·'pere~240 ~cd~~ AWf:.l ke o ne larger wire {sec Fig.115" ~ .ity. it used.n:.2% VOlTilG E DR..: l'h"'. 8'1' WIru::~SI-Z'--1E------...600 18' 15" SS 45 35 HS 1 L5 360 5~~ ."distances in feet.~ ~ I.l~t be s'r~ ndet:l If ~ull"d Into cond UIt __ 7{l' .30 '10 [ -issumcd Wi RE So..WG 1 LO 10 AWG 8 AWG J ~ AiI'rG .tl ls n A\'VG or larg.2~ ~80 tOO 115 9(J ~90 240 915 730 95 70 TSO 485 3M ?9 (l 6T() '1~S nd v. '.ii'linn~_ '[ l'pe THW is resistant to both heal and moisture.L_1_15_·.~ I n wet or d I Y 1(I(~l ons.4(. iring.e nv 5 1.~t provides I!x.eo sarne 1~~l. A'Wr.. ~ nd these names arc g~ n e r dll v a""r.WG liV 211l- Awe.WG 2/0 I A.ot.arlKed with ~11 d~lf!rlsk t"1 Typ€ TVY' wire.rC5 .tl~d blue. .."we. J.ecn.~ ~~o 85 291) :230 71) 6{1 1. Multiph! the distance.air) f[ol'rL Ta Die 4-1 on poage 21. Number S AW(~ III ay be solid if it is i n t he fo rm or cable or tHinl [CIbe d nMH i ntn conduit ai1{'r installs I 101\_ But S AWe th ~t is to be d rawn ruro condui L rnus l be st r~ nded-s-several smaller w i n'~are gmup~d together to tn.. don 't fOf~~ i III ~L• rnaller wires W.2...and •. 9(1 H!-D 140 12C1 ~5' ~:B' 36' ns 5B() 4!3(J 3li5 75 :5-6" 100 szo no )7~ 4W T .150 Type A:wir@ Formerly rubber-covered. '\I umbe-r 6 iJ. '1'\ Ir~ n.000 48. I h e inter It~T~ ofhu. l-or ill I nf<. in roruJUlt or c~bl~ millY not be used because l"'~y do nat have enou<.ant11)t'hl\~'.1.TA. ibLIt In ~ mu<:t1th~~['Ier Ei.the 6guresrepr~crH the total wire kn~lh two-way distances..200 21. NC11ll~r nor TJ-fV\1 m<l\ b. 4S· &I 7{1 90 70' 60· .(e.ced by dLJ~I-r.Il~l1I"jgompound.'r::..1fte-r~ye-r of d ~J r n~ 0['1 th..~rlald Ilo)I c oil toug h Q.~ysblack.145 57(1 ~ 4 ~ 110 AWG A\'.op ElY WIR:E S~ZE To prcreci vmt::'o from damage t hey are p L1r1ed intn pipe called con (hIlt or ale used in the form of [llHh i -oo nducrorcablcs. 150 ~&"I 2155 230 190 l~Q 971J 1 ~~O 1.rtion_ The ~p~' il uses ot wh. ._ )1(1 AWG be m~'tII~J ~'i~Ure d ~<lfe ulation are u~rd ~tjf VI.. I ·1() AWG 455 . .Llln pag~ fA_ Black win:'!>are "hot" ener f"ud /.000 45 305" 55 180 145 305 rlnl J. an' J150 hot.200 \ill} " 14. ar clisrilr\(e~ f m.400 90 5(1 14D 95 7{1 285 bur i ed di rectly in the ground. 1®O 3:'15 l){I d8S <11 0 80 so 100 1~~ 10.' ill (w d them listed in YUlLr (UP r (If the NEC .OOJ 50' 80' UD to' 50' ~5' 115" 100· 9I}' l(l5 }5{J 160 jti:! 290 2~ ~ClS' 460 ~1J5 ~65 300 245 1&1 14S~ 1211""" 75~ l~a lqo 1 150 200 36.n the tables above .800 ..GEORO.20(1 9. tallation. AWG t. Number -4 AWCT and larger wires M~ . d 211 UOO j. In additi (In.ih.225 B AWG I 72'[} AWG 1.. tlsmc-retardant outer coveringof 1.5 35 30'· .ildings. lead ttl higher \ nltage drnp.(:r (~\.450 1. eiRe UITS.Ilh the (-xc~pjion otv v eathcrprcef wire) must always be stranded...000 95" -'-_---' so- FI"J.30 20· ~5 H 28' 24' ro laO 1~O 9(1 ns 400 76S 900 The (Iirr~tel'lt colors of wi~~ mdl(. 1-l) which i~more flexiblv. Table 4--3 ON E·WAV D.l STAN£I'S ~QR . 4-3.V-I«!> Pltrdoor installations .1~M[~on to the wires dcscribedi n rhis i hook. ! In oot:h tab I!!!:!. AN D GROU NO ING Chapter 4 Wk~S('llO'c~ing and Connecting 31 lor the users 0 f t 11.fKi 970 1[.800 19.l rucaI pm!ectlorL ~l II~~ be . grN'n Wi. or i n free.0 7{1 ns 115 . 12 AWfJ I AT 120 VOiLn SiNGl~-PHA51E 14 W~tts er s 20 ~'Q!t~ fl..l. It rou wish to permit 4% drop..5 to penn i I 5% Jrup.. thethickness of which depends ell1 the size of the wire ~l1d which strips Olfr t':1l~ily .· ~~lrT~d WiI~':S cove rOO witb vat ions lrr~':> of Hl ~ 300 5._. by 2. and it rnav have a moistuee-resistant.ne fun.4{lO 180 1Q 15 20 25 3D 4[} S(I U<)O 4.lfle~ a:& [9IJ in llll' {"h~ln~ron farm \..l~m m.(100 7.DIXI 1~.~~ro".-3 iyp~ TW Is ~e!dorn ~~ taddY.~nd cleanly. selecr ~ type of wire with sufficIent a mpa(ity (dependin gall wbe-ther in «J nouit or cebte. The conductor is covered by a ~ulgle layer ofplJstic compound.)2(1 ..~~It easier ro tell wires ap.'It~ THHN THwN which LI~~ih.. I'Id~ln.... 91{J 610 "455 1..cathe rproor wire in all ~j{~~ j~ a. double the drsrances shown. --- - 915 95" 725 fl1(J ~20 240 2Q:. U~~uf q ich additional colors mJJ.lL~~d at the bottom (if for page J9 and O!I p.2{JO 2.Red . manv other types are available.og been larg~ly I~pla. See Fig. ((I[ irrl{..ltOO.-H (r. ~10 'lS~ 300 225 4 z !..SOO 6.WG or lafg~r m U~! ~ stranded..600 l2.lw.1nd smaller wire is u~u~II}' sCI[Id-the coppcrcooducior a single sol id strand.ei rna rked wltn the ~$'l~mk. Wir~ th. Type TW i~moisture resistant anel ~uii~ble for usein wcllo(".1n III a en rnplicatcd lnstallation.00IJ JO.. III .0Cit} 14. 1S no 18:5 150 3M 285- ns 5B(l ------- ---------_.J.:' surumanzed lH'I P"o'lg. and . but they are uSLlally not used in rl·~IJ""iHI~li a nd farm wiring. ""\'JIG MO 1.800 28' 23· 6. Types TW <Ind TtilW wire The most commonly used .'~ indicate the Ivpr 01 insula I '~)l~..1h amp<I!. You . 1I'abl~ 4-:2 a NIE-W'AY DIS'l'A!N(j~~ ro:R 1% VQI. 40 50 I 4.they CJ:rr~' current to elecn iCJJ equipment.70 2BS 190 is 25 ]0 ~5 1.. this kind of W111: has a syruheticpolvmcr insulation.~REfYPES \'\'ire of' the In.

hL..HIY case.:~ with the I.32 W!RE.in lither kinds nf (able Bric_f descripnons (Jt the two kinds [ulluw herc. r~TJ<lC( (I h. ANiO GROUNDING Chapter 4 Wile-S~'le[ling and (unnectmg . "'".' (\ I narh arc stamped j n to the mo II iii i 1~g ~'OkC'sof switches. 1es and a h.. r l he ind ivid LJ. bur never i[1 barns OIl rl rrn ... ·1· I such as p<l:p.'1 . and J{H\\ (~'. tit Repbccmenl HlstruL1i arc not lIl@rked COlA I R.:f pigtail~.lhk \\n~n a )le wllI~in~ LIM) t : \\\'G .mppnA AWG.er ~qllipm!:"nl the marks are located I TYPENM FIarne-rete rdant pla~ti ( OU H':r so 1h~~ !f )'Oll.B --I shows [he flukellV or the original Tvpe R conductor.L"l'fi I··Q.1\ dildbll' in two typesJIUI11 mum JI'I\l ~op~}l'r-dad a' IJ t~1i nurn (oil U IT] in u ith a thin shea rh of co J'P~r on lht' I.ect.~15 2 I fl_. rule f humbis lei usc aluminumtwo IHHllb. t he j 11d 1\ iduallv in ~u lated wires ~ re en dosed in >III LtvernU pl.'"m8fk.'· ".d.!O-<Llllp r.' grounding conductor .liumIl1I1111. excessive he-.r ~in vi5. onrrormed then1 ~ Ith U)P~n.1..::~ 12~2 WG TYPE NMC ~\ /~q_.Illd led lU loose connections..lbl".i~ ~ I~AI.]jS.'hen aluminum wi.snot qrut ~ gf!od u cnfldllctor.~t i c jAC kt'~. fl~ ~!'ardant CI~teI coverinq.e'(I ~~!i:J4~ (cm5i~ao~·twoDFmOrf' Im:hvidualwi~~~ a~~~'l1ul~ mto iIo ("~ble.1 r p.ff. ~I(Im inum wire is co PPf'f· d~.1 ~ ~ braided f~nne I !I .1 fig_4--SA l\Ionmetnllic-~I\Calr.1I. 5bO'l~·n in FLg_4-1 h. 'es..lllcd J 2-3." _t::··r". 1\ fC (~Mc ~re embedded i J\ a solid ~h~-~th ".·.J .. L1(( a_~ionJ. Lhr' 11UI~T iacket 111ust be moi~II. r.WC..n~ta11 t~on_ a W". II i~.LlLel flame. that were con ~i~iere"d su itahle for either copper or alLH1~i n.ble. by the J\ F( and i~C-~p~'I. ~LI[h as nOflm~lalh~-~ht'. and rest lahs lhen required redesigned tin ~15. A\\{..?t. On l~r). ~.ms heated badlv ..Hie name 0110=particular manutacturer.~·I~_ I The other kind is called Type:-'.i. W these rnarkedAl.!r 'CI~er~ CI other l\[lriml!!<lllt~ r ~lr hes rubber In. LJf Wtft'. k called TYl't'N \t bv the 1""Fe. CA B LIE 'lJ"YPES.:l I irions.:'oct1. WiH""..i..).'Fe l lowcvcr Ih~·more modem nt!lh~r-r~n1p~rilWrt' versions.'Chwptcr! I [nr a compl~.. h rna y alsu be used in Im"l! 11<1 y drr lo~:.e ~ fabfl( how l }I~e [1\ W use nOnmC1JJ 1i c sheath l'll ~. .:. The terminals we re fun n~r T~~I m esign cdand ·~ince]. RHH I~O~U ~ dry and damp locations. ). \~.Hh~t! c. Th~Ty~ NM t:wO-vme .ed by mL'listun~ as in ordmarv Type NM_ Paper 'map requi rf'd on gro und wire: overwrap u nder the outer jacket {) priG n<l1 ~iaddition a I testi no.' Fl·g .. and~! 111L_lf J Lalli.!~ ~h eath ~··'Li~ting in~taJ rneldt.. The th ird is r~d ic. Al'um in u.n class 1."r \~'raps or iule filler that be ~.<lnt_ J Some manu [lL"tW<:'rs Pl! t r~per wra p~ 011 rhe indiv id LIal wires or liver The assembl y.t ~ 111 ~w i. Of ~or io~tLlated wire. kind uf nnllm.alli~-~hr.rt'lMQ..Lr~ resistant .i It are acceptable.) rE'qUlremer'! l~ met. glound 5hc .ft" ~n r~gc~.t~ij.h i~ me'td lh~ If.[. II I ~ know n I~ h fWO ..R ~ ]]0 longer used mdav. overw ap _on ("<I(l! ~C.~ ~howl~ -1-':.n·~ ihI.-itll de\1. is ca~~" L<I install. d[1d has been removed fro: t 10= . ].m'd for damp cor ro~ ive locations ~LKn as barn s.ce.:'"rs heavier than coppel·:]2 .(" C'..l h~le rn~v b~ u~d only in d~y luc.it ~OO!l became evi~1e.. it was connected tn ordinary terminals that were suitable for Lllp[. and k~ ('>:P"'I:lSl"C th. imes there .$ .<l[.lUy de~if. wi.:1. T\ pc.A.. Because aluminum i.lti(}m.md dean In appearance..~rc urunsul ••I~1 grmmdin_g 1 l~ 2 w ~lh :trl un d.. Jt il h m~·e]. etc." l'ttcn ~.. used.r\i'l> uuulatcd . vices in order to remarn \!fsible without removal hom aYeinstalled.) n L.-t-_. the II LJ rer iackrt \.te or similar curd. nl'J.) utside l.nul Pig.... -II' ~-Ol'per chl(:l..m.lI insulauxl W J 1'e"S in T~ pe '\.H 111t'} were not suitable a]umirlLUf].~ drscussion of wherr . but ... This type mav be used un h' i 11normal1~' drv loca tio n".m.. rou would he Wise 10 in~I~"'("~ <Illyour recep I .~.'\\\'G ahrrn instead of]4 iI.Hhed c.on:loi~h J Keep in mi n cl that t r may b. one ~~ W j al wavs INon ue and 01"1(' btlark: iI u . C!RCUITS..::.• . 1 tic ..z____________~------".!o.If they Ai h Iht'm all \. ..sheatliile-dl c~ble· IhI~1~ J \Tfy ~ 11f11mOn ti'P'" o f ':.~l . rr:..BiLre ~qulpm~i"lt I \\·Jr<!~ M(. ~ ~..111k111L1. ._1111taJ[1 s ihre«.uummum.-if{.·Cl imJ RH\\'-~ l ~(jPr.. l'~ing .1Ft" sometimes frlledwitlt .w@ I~ . marked AL-C U.alllminnm instead (I f r. i[ 1> k11{'\\]1 o1~ 1~-2 I iLl~lrleell.and It f!ldyhd'.ln\" prllpl~ call it '-Rurue:.. a~l\ kind of tc rmi n~J nlll. .rling.4--4 ~ub bt.. C . lung r:O/. Illa\ he" ~m>rJwith (opper or 'jor~dpi a st Ie ul Prol \o'"itb mdimlfv all! rni !HIm. The pmduct standards were revised. rilf d r~ or WI!. Me st til lU\~_ t h_~~Yo-in:' fur example.ibte r ti:m i.' I f ~ wbl~ has "[ ~I lL1ml. Yo:a Hlr~ I ( .JtcJ ~'H ~~.L~ C : J'I.l1 n LIl~ lwn nr three Tv]'c n-B-l N ur I'H HW wir<"~.. ['\otl' that terminals rated 'J~glwr rh<:lll:2O amps w nt cll~rl~erl..Empty ~raCl7> berweeu wires .L11[]p th('y were still not sui table fn ~ ~·I niJ: ~l.Ihle. The COIlIlC . The-Ie is no llbTl1LJ~ material (JIl Me.t\"rn J Lah It_...~hJr or b ~rmntcct~.ll~' ~Lin seen. M'lfC WPPCT.. The At rU ~1T1 nr CO. .. but in the IS-amp and . k.U are ~rill 'J~~pli'hk and they mus"I b e used en alum in urn wire is installed.j (ltp!<l3t~e msuletlon.! e ~ fir~! used.. ~ml sometime! fi.. rll~h . a larger size must be used than when min:!..}71 0111\ dt'~'~q. 1n ~iJt'r enll ~t rucnon. mpp"fL A.

! Irl[l!ytdu~ I wires assem tlled m~o ~ cable end pwt~t~d oy flexi Die stea ~ rnoLtt ma~ be lm~d onl~ in dry locanons.ORCUIT'i... d~VL' .' a WIl ~p~l<Ll Wpc~ of C<:11'J1~.t he . -I---Il..t(jiL lor [l.rmored cabl c c ~I~t~ of two or m(m.tl.abl~ (ondui~ bender for ben(li rig co ndult Ha~b. 3 p plianccs.tlng walls and Putty knife 5T1a. .cr ibed.I "f00 l~ ueeuea tor carrvine e OU[ . the ~~lrd becomes oil- IT.ilbk:. Undflrgr.1111 a rubber like L dation is known . or ruanuracturer.h PJper bd:".11:'1 sulation .~d ror d"'t"ed'ing (lJf ta ~llng rt]a~ hot . dr~ lucatiuns. T1~f" too 1s listed below are commonly moo.'fT. C-. T\-p . Figure ~-q"how~ Type I-iPN heater cord: Lilt" WI~S are embedded Ln fle<lprenlC'.• ~ ~ _. n. . .AND GROUNDJNG ChClpt":'r4 Wue-S-el!?cting and (onn~aing Afmo r'ecl cab!@ IlL"t ivpe . rubber-like plasn.r forrncrlv h.k~1rs made 01 oil-resisran! thermoset plastic.. In 5wtt{. with crlf1!'lP~r'!g im (fie ~ide· tuning Wife ~tnp~r u:.i nv people although I It" mdi' idual wires ma~' 11(' ofwug..LrilJLJ_~ kmds ot tC'[mHl~h provide the 1lll""JI~5 for connernng wires W d(.:'" are bundl ed In! II il rou nd assemble '" II h i~Jt~ Or raper ['l. t "'-' to .he~ dr~ (lot ues W1~S ij. Ihermal insulation. WJr~ ( .aFlrLg [be wjre..!blC!' cutterfor {uning a Imore<! (~ole Cable ripper {or re!llO!ving the outsr j~(ket ffom n(]nm~tdI11(-sl'..: kind of cnrd .... ~tld other leads tn n utlers.10 A\\'G_ '[YIW::'. 1100r lamps.arieus -lectrical jobs are mentioned ill the text eeded t d where the procedures aE<:(k. in wiring ~j rocedures. i~ ~ 11 llv durable C()TLl that stands up to h'LrJ usc. toasters.. Where mstalled It.:. verv sim ~I. The morr..a.\I'fC 1<1.o!lJlnd cable ground wiring.r flE!1ed [0 liftf!OOFboafd~ to get ac (~ilin~ spaoes from a bo~~ I(e~hnlp. .lvilit y. ~1~i.. high-W.. ]1~a~ cords ter ...i.ld asbestos under u mrllln braid . The}.(lrd~ ~ i h varying kinds ~lLJ thicknesses of insulation depend-ng OIl the purpose Of1h~ d. .1~~ruf tough..ulxr 15 called BX. u.. Over-all is a 1.nperaturc as required <II the bottom 01 .34 WIRE5. -ire~ 311 d the-spiral st irrnor. cernmon k!r1d~ are described here. Look in ~he index.HIII~ I-or high ambient ee..i[]g to the col)per_ Ihercare many hld~ of flexible "."~ be en overwrap the .lvaibhle lal \'i~rious colors..!w For clLttirtg a nTior€!d ca ble.:'m.pliers for uS€ With connectors Plier . hd~ ~ubber or plast 1£ i II vu] a . VSL~ml UF.Ut J.lr]~i~b of copper win~~ embedded dLteC"ll~' in plastic insulation._l:lef~rc . Each wire (Jl i1~lSb of rnanv s 11(\::' {1 r finc wire for fle). IS no longer used as wine msulauon.":!>i~t:ilm the d"~JgnJtions and become 'lO and ~IU mstead ol :s and ~J- TI\. ur ~n[l(ed to anolber "lea ot wi ("('.!.eilth~d [. 1it: ~imllrl. open In~ s In ~~i. It is tough.16} It is for LL~e ol..uion 5}'\i.. 't he :. ~ 31 D.Jn~ used for underJescribcd in the (hJPt~r on tarrn WLI'iI1g un rdgr 139_ 100lS Flexible cords IT' II sed fin necrlamps...GJI1# ..l~' In pcrmanenrl . TI-l: _rhn~ nl.md srmilar loads.In b~ {. wol names to find p8 ge numbers.e~·n ] r the outer ia. Filg..d~.. Ih.IS me 1vpr Al l Eo If!:.I.T ll~l! with a thinner !t~ltcr laver.<lm.~'HW hlli the empty ~p~n'~. must be n:rnmi~_ lhe procedure h~in5 with prrp.+-6) me partu. TYVe "-\ i rr !::iVT ~ I'l.d~in'lrk J .n. in Fig.ll h u i rno flex I h I~ cord ~ U5<Cd on t 3 L U urn .. ' m unr N i n divi dual.\_~b~~n ... ~ cond uc tors are required to be ted ".. rl1.~ wi tl1 O(lrInertar~ ptieF~ far rell'W~ifl'9 'n~ulation D~ rfOrn wire k!'1I((" ro~f~movl nq If'IIs1J1ati()n rm(n wire r----_ T~~t li9 ht for receotac I~ a..l~part ot the imul. EI'.ppl ian ces.we btl! with 60T arnpacin I m~kHjg iL unno':'(~~Jy te go thml~fh the mill . A~ ShUWIl in Fig.c(iq~nti'lily gmllndt'd ~ broker) in C Drd~ lEIHII'iII NALS FOR CJONNIECT~N:G WI RES 10 DEVI'U:S \·.b".C'r-... .4--6 _&.a. ~~w for mtti f"g floorbd~rd s Fi~h l~p~ f'O~ pu liinogwareS into place P.I-n\.rod fLJsC'! Cun1JnuIty TF'5f€r il. These oords are commonly . The (W() wi 1'1. . a lid other he'll' In!. and .~~n ~rs. Each wi. Type 5PT-l 'i~ lhe mos ornmon cord used for radios.)ralre~-..lpt€f I L '1 ~t:'" rord" is used for l'i'l:l [1'>.Onn~L..:wallolb[~· enly in 1Joi AV'I/~nJ .. ] r. Over the wi re j~ a wrapping of Cfl110rl to preyem tl insulation from ~Ii'k. II. t USEll 'FOR WilRI NG JOBS . u rider "Tool.LS rVpl' SP-2.lrJTW e <abJo':'are provided in Lh.'~'rL~.

. rc unde r tb e terminal )<'f'~\<"--\. See hg....i.c rew 111 ciock"'. 4 14_ I h~ insulation ~lm(11J end nor more llMll '1 inch from the ~~r.1'(. !eadlrlg W later breaks.t<:"rl~~~.. as shown at .t r ~nons were m~J~~p~clfit:~JI}' fo r alu m in LlI1l but the principles are.me HalF .l-1L It ma) be used with WAWt~ and smaller \vir("s..Wiring d~.CREWTQ FULL CONTACT ~r.(om..m. of Fig..'oS i~ shown in rig.I terminal :>CFfW i11~ rne tal part \".!o. 'j '. -l-D. I --' Snug contact - ((m~ act pl~(~ OI. 4-1 i Be Sllr". Two tYlPes of term in als Thcrv are t"i.oo'll J l)n not connect two \\ ires under <I ~.<l~~hm~rl in Fig-.rlr.. 0.. 'I he currcct method for terminals for I () :WI. and smaller lI/ir.w at the Wi r~ n mlly in coot. because il b h.'n .lnll'I'M hard enough W cut mto the msulation without tuuching the conductor: rill.j "Ill h.)J)'I\::I'\.}r~e. iI1Lh("~ as rewmnlt'm.l i 3_ N~\'~r make the errers s]lown in Fig.. Do HI)1 uH the insulanou 011 ~fMrp!y.Li shown In B nf lip.HJrdsy to accidentally nick lh~ conductor.~} an alternative.heavy ~jl"~ of wi.OIKUfTS.PH l<in me Ji knife. {IX In.~iun ~ll that tighrening the screw tends to . mashed insulation (Jll lb~n ll<. 01-1'1 Tsrminal 01' ..mi:HlOII.. r to 12 Lb-in k.. or to l.1 ti nned en n d ~J~I r to make j t ea_~r [0 s! rip off tho? i11. IJa2. Hnld vour mite to produce an ~[lg.e Using a tool C.RiIoving insulation hom w~r.ig_ -.r~w ti~htene:d a ['I ~ddlitlondJ half-urrn Wrong method Riog ht method from wires. then ~ignknit about ~r.WIRIO.lost (onn~"-~llr~ of rhe kind shown lit l i~_ -I l~ are I~'TIln~ wire unless the" .. One ki lId consists of . Fi~_ 41-l 2 Solder less CDnn~10f5 011 h I~.. A IFiig. sric-in sui ated o .cr ON > 5TE P 3..win ..l~ wraparound kmllHal SHe\'. S<. STRIP AND WRAP WIRE It ~'nu JUIIl h. most.T. The ".l~ ..wire .l I' r • he short ~. . 4. and connect all three together 'I~Ln~ ~ 1. :. Then place rh~idw. 4-·1 CI Wloog dnd rignt rT1E>thd 5 of remov 11'1 In~ulat iol' c fl g. ll~lcn the scr~\\.'pulled oft easlh 37 /~-' I /c0:~\ - I '~ ~ r~ '/'~l ~.also correct rLl~cnppcr WI re wire.J .~pe~re usp..'CI kmds of terminals. CQMP LITE (ONNEDI ~~9..+-·lO..:! pound. Ire connector de-crihcd later in IllI~ Ch~pt~r.llbl. InsulaH~~_ ~ Flog.U ..14 A~oid the>~ cornrno 11 prrors when cQnflectillg ".. . I"mrn the point where I[ ~~ t~1 be removed to the end..jLle'e2. uf the pliers at the p..IUL 1.:'J [I' indicate ttw number and size .tIIPI)¢T or srdc-cutting pliers.~ wire stripper I~ the 11L~I~i corn entcnt W3yW rC'rl'O~C' iasulanon rrorn ""Ir. +-12. but it isvery difficu[l LlI make Jl good connection if the wire I~ HJ A\VC. AND GROUNDING Re.'d wires have .nd~ to close th e 100 p Tn ~n ("()m?l~t~ Stem 2 and 3. _'l)fienlllJ.c€' rna rted 'COl ALIR" i STEP 2'TIGHTEN S...i th LJ P! U rned lugs to ke ep rh ~ wi re from dip ping om from lJilL:l~r Lht'!>CTC~'. 'kl till' pound inche .Iose the loop r-uhcr than op~n iL I'i~hk[l the screw until i! makes coruacr \\11111 the . It.l:u:r method L' to use . The orher kind is used nmfirl} fM wires largerthan 1[) AWV the wi~ arc inserted into Ihl' terminal uf 0 .nilH where the removal III begin.L pair of ~1jje-cuttlL'1gphers. .'Ee pmh'hltb It in J 1(1..ol~.1.l\'€ a.rjre~ are nor tinned because that kind of insulation ~rnp~ lJlr clcenlv.'(_.}t. even It-Jou'~h It mLgh{ . I) i .IPi.unnector L~ mMh.H 11 ie~ two lI. ~ .!4~ AlIake those tw~..• marked on the produr I.LlLd stranded.inJ the hing~ nf Ih~ plier blades and mash 111~insulatien.. 1-W..~~mhHndat£d.ml~ wire.cj'\~\\ in a clockwise dire . . I)'pi-:dl re-cept~{~~· Or "W uch..e fainjon as if! Ste 111 sn llt~!ti gh[~r(ng ttl€' S(H'\'<tp. The .~\ irc~ that can be iI.:~ f----..-1.n some ~iIH'1~~nl1~.:-re~p:lan "l1li fig. SIT' Fi~_ +-1 5Then '::11 n [1 ~~ I fh e rernaini n ~ .EP1.. Wrap tho:'wire ~Lleast two-thlrd~ 1rrdrrabJy rhree-(lIIClnr:r. Insert the wire close br+.! W termi I'k:IIscrews. aild another ~hLlrl length 01 the ~. . [. Pl .1 ST. ire.!_ \n~H. connector and the screw is theu tightened.J..) of [he\'i'~~ around the s.gic. S'otc lh. wire I~ wr dP pud arou n d term III oll .kcl in F..lr ](.~'lht"r half-turn il) squeeze the wire a hit." Alw~p ITIil!OC sure the ~tnppl-J end of wire L~ ~b<"uluLd>'dean_ Ruhht'r-(.

. Hlrrnl nal ~crew. Such i!. The splio. r e r~Ie>Piih...he I1ngmaJ wires. L1i!mp br pushing a small scrcwdrive I' h 1ad~ into anothe r opel'ill~ Ulil Lhe 'pmJlI iL1en nncc: ions are accepg 8b le onfy for mpp~ r or ~opp('I-dad wire.a w in' is pulled anether.'~ .II ~'H1pllshed In using th C Ul [1J [lector itsel f WnH length wi re be for . it pa:'<~t"~ box Strip a.··-t.h. .p a straight them...1 make a connect in rl to the box. sometimes.. 4-15 USf! t~m mf"tlloo.mh~rl'.. The msulanon 01 the splice must be 3~~~m)das 'lh."lii'lectf ng wi.. \~)tl ~~ certain [I: is lNed for nurn ber and size ll'i Wl res rhar M~ to be Joined.. ]50 a [)II' ~nd 20 -am p rece p [. tighten the screw of the im~~n. and then screw the insulating ~bd]ever lilt nretal insert. Mam' people cull . ~crew the conne-ctor ontu the wires to be iQi[leo_ The other kind has 'l removable iuetal msert... . Slip the insert over wires to L~ inill~.Jle~t" ~Wlro. lf the Ihe box.mn1 the wires into the connector and tum II oruuthe win's .n Fig..i m "0:: lirnitrd W ] 4 Awe wire... MCIdy sm p I h e inch fit s(\ r lhe prorer fen!l...res through .Em li'.ng (joining !wo or mor~ r'lt""1. Th'5 ma~!'~ it a 9 ood (. CI RC U I TS. a connnoous "" i r~ may be con nE'Heel to ~ [e rrru n a I a~ sho . farm i t1 f\ if.pme[l'~ whrte energ. . Screw the ~on IlC~1 Iwet t h t Wlres ur Fig" 0!I-11jI 1 h I~ ~1"1(1 of {u 11nector ((lm~'in~ ~d ill tape red II ~prmg mside the in ~Jl~ting La .0 ne Lux rll ["@Wi!liY ln r. '0'11 h<pn )'00 .[I nll. CO. 4--1.t h d~~g[1o>tr( e'qui. nC"CeS&1. possi bly III rough still anothe r. me- The spring-loaded cenne ..ry III ~ wire it. and fi9. They H1U5'l not be used with all-alununum wirr.:l'l. leave ah. form ~ lil~'P with a p.~r lri~S.. . tighten the screw.(-I-"-ii1.ond as an unbroken Ir:ngth l~f wrre.~ion.)f long-nose close It with rhe pliers so that the '~p is entirely .1H_ ~Lt~w.." .'ith tne insu lat I)g (<lipremoved. co. ami so on.11!lT!: arc internal terminal chmp~Ih. Cormli!dors.·u ~r~:.L< g. intend 11.4-11 In r~("ew~r '.WI RES. such ..":ut~.I dc~ ami swirches b ave no .r more W~lr~@nd:s One rvpe ot connec tor 1~~ ~ threaded Illdal insert molded Into the insulaung shell..'IIltmg... $ Two typ~~ of soldcrless connectors tm srna 1I.hlch rwssrs them together as shown at 11w righr III Flg_ 4-. be Connectors are used m ~ph. me properly installed msulated solderless rOni1eCi'Or~...ds 11(llntln~ in the same direction: i. Pu.iI·e. If you.Z!'!d.Jli\~jon> torrn a I [lOP.-011 " .efwiw bave au to connect two wi ~5 u rH:l~r a.crew. k·l J loop several inc hes long pm ject 11111 of the 50 of In~l.cti"'"If (()oil n e...~I nade..U i r t hrnu~ .. splice l~ .)f Wife t{'l~eih~J: II ~~unportant Lh... ca~ it V. IU l J Fig. For receptacles th.mmDnl~ c~lJe-d a ·pi9tai I' ~Il-I~t~... ithout spl ice but ka ve J loop 1!1 it in the future.!e.<.[}iO~ if the (0 n nectron will be t\?~t~d .. ld o~h.w~y <In terminal screlv ~ 5 Fig_ 4--17. for )0 i~li ng two o.H whhll~\·~1 n-pe or wireconnector you use. i1 dTt.KeWdY wiring. ~n d con n eel it LI rl clef one Fig.~~ ".:i. tnt shown i.:' rna rking. the L~rrninal ~I...~h ts usually shown (In the win~ into the hole nil the device. INke Nut:l he ~'er! lai1wi~h ~I>esetscrew m"in~~'ns the lntsq nl"yof th~ ~Iectrkal con nection <".·.. .l'_ When two or more ends 01 wire must be wnn"ctct1 to each other. -d .lay the wires ll}g~lhrt wrth their em l'l. +-16..'j lh some 1 motor connectio rrs... . II fiIj D GROUN DIN G Chapter fl' Wne-~electing and COlln~cllng nurkHl~ may •hI. Se-e Fig.. T~ tim~t be l'le~·rrlc~llv . wire IlltTdv rum. W often {dlled by the trade name .'· 'A hich IS the trade name ot J particular milIHlt~lCTl.. [he :. 4-J Q is <ll~_lpl)pllbr_ Jfl~Lde its Ln~!LL Iat ing she 11there is a coue-sh ~ped IHe ral spri Llg.. It an error i.

w~ r~ nr hoots are..cr making . wir~5 must be ta~(:1 .l.. use Fl'1et~1 (Onr>tU.~lllg. il i~ usuallv simpler Lonit {h~ continuous win' to Iorrn iwn o::'nd~..n in Fil!-' ~15. (IReUlE.!iipUces Splicing ~l~~'i(e.+-.. Then use a. soeoa Iomf~lng d..l i()oT u( lh~ tvpe &1.<!IHi $t/~ of.olt· ~\ ilh an rnsulanng the' ~hlf(j \~'!fo::'..such as solderlcss cor1llI"ctm..!i~i'\ larnshcll" CUFU'IL'C"tor shown in \~·lr~' nsulation is used to position the wire in thi~ f\'P" i 1][ connector.. soIJ~rlr~~ ~llf'lledOi as sho . 4 "::1Tape after I1Mkill~I. ~or copper wi ra only. II I ~ W (0 nti n WIle us wi n! ~1m<1 un es a WtT~ m ust be ire ...he L<U1&1t'aion. fig" 4-2. f. For smaller &ll~·S." I~ much $1~l~lUeftt. Anorber wlre connector.Hi:ng connecter. smaller. the 11'hI11.and I·I~. The-n cut oft the wire ends that could pUIKllln' Iht" insul. so Ju not strip the wire insulation before Hl~1. fur 10 I\.dlin~ irJllho: cormcctor.L~ La 11 be added ~11l'r thr ~p1i(~ I~ millie.l ~oocl grip. lnr wires IJl~t arc too large to be ioined hy the connectors described above use heav~ duty [Clopper connectors ot the ~r}'1t slu I \I\' r I in Fig.tirst h"i~1 the ""jrt5 !oi'. ~ ~2 or Fig.l'O n1~~ be II00000d The Fig..~r1$ to me split bolt rcnnccurrs sl-own II'L Fig. in sulating o.. I~t it project il bit beyond [he heavier wires.". partially overlapping ~...~dVy Will! 10 a norh er contrn UOII~ l1ea\'y wir~ ThE' ~~~el'nbt~d connector wires must be ta ped. is the shell shown ill FL~. \\'h(:n released. the coil ~pmLg l("r11~ur rrilv unwl<lp~.. NOLI:' that ~JJ tvpes of these . A s-glleele with parallel jaw pliers il'SL. Fllg>4~lj[1 "ClaI"MhE!lI' wir~ C(}rTr)~o(lar fDr t~ps or piqtails.·a.LLh • urn. For w ire U ~wr. AND GROUNDING Chapt!)j 4 Wlre-Se.~ necessarv. another <U1t'{It"ihc OJ a n r I nu.rally from one end [0 rhr. a Y~rr high insulating value despite its thinness. h11 orher styles.he Wlr..l f the splice will be ~ubi~~! to mechanical str-ain or <I buse.Wlef \OJ Ife').LH '!hCUlh¢'r:l.40 WIRES. lake care to observe tb~' restrictions 011 cover that can be snapped 011 . C!ormectors f'o'r'spl~d n'!llto ~pl iced te.ll~ Ihe ~dr-m~tll.:tlL1[l makes tion. II vou h. In~u~ating ."n.dh(·r~ then slip the shell over them ana ctlmp li. L~~. ~nd p~e-rs.. I he Ill~1Lldlll'~ {Lwo:r prLwidl. ~tilrl in g well back IJn Lh~'IV i n: irH 1I1.2 For ~. -l :3-. When being screwed on. depending on the number . ~he S tm pi est ".W(~ ami smaller wire.I n the heavi cr sizes.e In tn handle FDr ropper ~ i r<' on ~ .If. other.~ are selfins ul ~ litl g.I. w:rap the tolp'l' un ~p. 5ioI~lflcnunectors c are . -l and '1-23).l'''~ rcruuved the right length 01 insulation rrom each \I.ULHT 5 instrucrions direct flirhel'\.tion. ire.h~conn~'C. In using these connectnrs. Some must hL' raped (see Figs.O'".LlJ.le('tlng ~rld CQl1ru~ctmg '11 ro be iomed.~nlt~..availa bll: 1h.pn a[ld spl ici n9 ~ f. If one I~!r.. 4-23 LJ~€' thl~ split· bolt CCll">nE'<torw h. it terms a ~'ery ttght grlp rin the \\ tre. ..'" EO be rumed. allowable wire cornbinanons ~i7C:'l1 Lhat come wuh these COfm~LtJ)J s.nien.the wire to be spli~cJ III I!I~ L:. -1-2 L L'llk:~ dll' marlU1d{. Use electrician's plastic l~p~~JI has.. and then return with the ~I'irai in the opposite d i r~LI inI' .G:"~ The d~~~rrlbl~r1 connector and. and either t~p(: or \lSC termed plastic C. app 1If n additio nal laycrs ~~ a cush L("In.ig.:onnc\cHlr~ 3Je available rn various SiH·6. ihe insulating snell will CO'·(:!all bare wires and no [~pln~ .:lp~ to insulate.4"':ll Crimp type 'JIllra COlln~ctl)r.

40 volt..yre 01 fl1'i~ I~ ~l)nvtni ~nt \.cmp€ra.I1t DEVICE.'J..sr c IRC~H5. It".<\'S a CirdJLf breaker trips] l\iL~t people will say or Lo in'l.}J\'e'> of ~lrct n~oll i us [:J.C tor the inside ~'t'1mlt:!/.amps .t:lows thruugh tt [he wire inside the Cll:<.:.~H 3 newruse or rl'::o~1 rhe breaker.io.-l'Il!"it <1..l~ 8 /WvG. u 42 .lmp~ tor a rew ~~.. It 1$ known as [he Edison-base type because rhe hebe ls the s:aml:' ~~ lin ordinary lamps. and then onJy wh~·l1there is no evidence of tampering or ovcrfusing ~using a hrsc w(llar~ for the 5<LLt' wiTt' mvolved)..o. he..[n~K~rag~is allowed to flo w. H more than the permissible maximum . L~ made in ratings up to jl) amrs. runs trom one hllildiJ1~' W ~nnlhn where II..~ W]("C mc. fuse OJ:"IIi Pp.qr he used ~J! I' he starting poi rtt p rmll d~.lmpt'mgt' established hv lhe NEC as sate tor arl)' particular kmd and! size wire is called the ampil1c. m"tlm... fuses ofl('[l hlow because <I rnoto r 1 hat +ille running m~y draw as much ~~ 3H .l.tm ~ilfo? us.:. _11 hlc>\\'~ lu~t.1JLn a fire.Lg(' 1.'h. They may be L1~~d onlv as replaccrucuu..~e It P r.'(! i n 01 convenient hu us III g J(1 prevent ]WI 111eral frm:l. PllJg fuses arc rated (!I'I l ~5 volts.f'Lc-.5-1 It f l}~~ d(1I! U ~ed wn"le d (us.but hrsl find out what i. shown in hg.1(II\ of oW.~ITl~ged or even cause ~ liT~ if 1{) . ~le(l ~I:.:liSCln-bil:>e plug fuses I are rnarie or.tur~ of [he w~rt'" got's up and the insulation may be damaged... 'i-2..l.l~ qLJi. HOW€' .lteti <lmp-emgc indennildy.k I he~tiIm dclaj ~ type of ruse rakes ~d~~"111age f the abilirx o nf wire ~u carrv ~ hi~h~r load mQml·nld.tkd 'G ampacity or 2U .lT"'.re.i circuit brl:'<lkl. when 8 AWr.ilt Mow.lr1 CirC1lll _bLlt 1[ ~ III car n' J l'i~ nv<..L!~HlS sub stitutes or ru:..tor a l r.J] utions .!! [1'1.enioll arid Planning 43 I W~~E.FH~ on <L small {On'liIHJn[j_~ jwcrl~~~.. tb ree.. Table 4 I 11"t~the 8 frlpiLtity or common wrres...~ opening a :.\lT DF\l~E') such as fuses ~rlJ circuit breakers limit rhe ~mpt:ri.) ~rnp f]:g.l LlrCULl breakers are rhe sarerv n V.1!l ordi[1."Vhen two dillercntsizcs ofwire are Wined together 1 for exa m p'(". A fuse is nlithLIl!!.re ~i2~ i~ ~f..ln· fus<: bUl ~ mad~ dlfferemlv in~ifl .v.:' I J- r ~~oo_ Time-detay (uS41.olo. They are nor permiltetJ In new if1stall~tior\5_ used for /~':(hani~al ~rren ~~~ i n ~11overhead run to a Ot.han J shOI1. ~.kh as .. P.oe thin p.ald i n~ where it is ioined to I"' AV>.S.h there are other br ~nd~ it looks liJ.A~hon ot J mi n ~][r I h l~!.~y~lCllL i or QVE'RClJIRRENrr Ally o~Rmr(.wLth an amp. wire has a .1111 p~. \n nrdiuarv fuse carries SOpercent ot its r.:' .t! nomer one of th .. AND GRO UN 1)1N..t' or ci r( UL~ h rea ker of. d~\'i{:e you Ll~'" must have a rating in QtnpNC5 nm.l. 1 he quicker the. a(l1p~nl'v of the ..\p.ma ndl Pillan ni ng OVJ::J:tCl'RRf. CbOlpllT 19 cxpl.tmJt:. fu5.S draws only 6 ~HlrH 40amp h]~e B AWG . I be ~reater the overload.llm how to troubleshoo: .wlT~b ur curtiug the wire.:~ ton large for the hllC' (If ~\ Irt can hi' dangerous becouse it cuuld 1(:.. leading 10 :hortened life and accidental !!TDunds that can become dan~erCIus_ If thr overload is grt'~l enough.A1USeU the hlo .[ il protects. Fuses M~~ CHAPTER 5 (ireu it Pro1:e ct. fuse rarcd at 15 ~lnp~ i~tested to c~rry IS . wire must h ave a r8 LIIlg nut greater than 20 amp~. for new instal of lations.. hut hlows ycry qlliLkh' iftwice thai ampnage flows through it..:.rm' I:.-In ~M}'c..l~ .mps tlowcj~ ~'lnllll[jously -will n. L~ atifl'gs up to }O am ps.~J~ . These Fu3~.w-riml Codl' (l\'EU.. the ~mOlIle:-ViJ re When J motu r i~ started.rd ~rc~ u.lI1C1LJ.. more or less . 511)they could be. p roper a ~l7e Or the srnalle r WI rt' I~ where t:h e WI rl' I~ red uccd in size _ An ~~ ~ rn ple i~ wh."rloJ..used fur a 240-yoJllo~J ~..Ire flq.:.hal will melt when mutt than a prcdcternuned number l'l amperes tlows through u 11~I~ metal link is cnclo s.:e.!ic\". sec the entrv ror Type S nontamperablc fuses.. grounded neutral an d no conductor over I SO volts to ground. the evcrcurrent prorectron must be the right ~i?e for the ~~Ullle r ot thetwo ~\I res..e melts {the fti5c~blnw~" l..} blown (ll~t:' Dr Tr!Pf'f'.C'll or cause a fire if 3U amps tluwvfor a fEW ~N"IHll.olld~ while starting. "'.. if 1 '21\\ ."F~ed from J 12012.m~m.ll he d. . aHl~"" mntinuomh-hLlI might be {1. arc not pnillitted in new installations. wire thM H.111 rOil J ~h.Il ~rlr wrrc to the maxnnum 1ku is permitted bv the NlJUvrrtj[ t/t.. t_here Is &lilgtr uf nrc. rh~ t.ly ln .·d breaker FUs-L"l> In.d saleh. but rna)' be used on a svst .iIY.correct ~L7e fOJlh~ large r \'i.-n' ITlj .-il~_ Cornrnonlv ~<lll~d b\ rhe trade name Fusetron" JlLhn~lfl..h.d~ several 15 amp [lrWtl~ (5C"l' Fig..Chapter S Orcult Prot. Thai \ LMT~Ct.ltJg' 'oses The common plug fuse. 0 MTlp 1<1AWG 1 '. The maximum .-m h.llnps.GJ Whilr do vou do when a I-u!'t hh). which is the same . iI. Ih..greaterrhan rile For example. the circuit breaks r or rU~t' I h at 'lOU use ro P "mec1 !ht.lspattering if the fuse blows and to rrrilut easy replacement."""enl~ ~ .5-2 E.~nf metal ot a kind and .lolE'Ct!._ When mere than 1..tl~(E'(j.

h ci feu It CWfrcurreTH dc\-j{"J: i~ f.. nl~' . WLfC.. turn i t sn me rnerr atter it appta r.. )'Ull wI. a small overload ti)r . wHn ruses ~p~.. This would be u practical application of the concept illustrated in Hg_ 3 1_ The official J.ll iOI1~ Th("'I' are permitted <I~ replacements on1r....J from th~lr eqUlpmem I gruLJnJmg .:ut~L"~)me [imC'ago the . r. rt'. additional panl' J boe nl w j Ih ~ I.ILn~.1 fairt .rr three size. FEE DE RS A. :'f}'~t~m..f~ LI~.5-amp 111 3fhLmp tusc [0 protect J 14 --\\\'(.il. nd wat~T h~~~~rs.unprrablc tuse ".-[l[ .er. Ca.• !It I ~-~mp will K. ~ompr1.... th~r(' \~1nl]~ll.hu\)'nin Fig..<ltlril Ig~ tuses .D.15 bolder.'< I0 f"I.1 must fir.II]. li~~ <I r(l~C ~.lre generalh IIts[alle-d .1 trjF'~ [h.4 ...~ 10 b.ruLHlded .J nd t he Ii Il. Or bl~.i~ hfl i!mp~ flr I~~ <lrt' I.I.w. . . but it i~.. <11"a[hpl~'~. f~~) ImLl'lL~.re A word caution when il~i!llg "Iv pe 5 ruses win e n ~(r('\ving the fuse II1W .m~ lhdt .jmg \h(' b\Hb~r..be used in W.0 percent of its rated load indefinitely. ..~{ he 111:~l.j ifl.1r1elhnard.'OI1le(1l1e from lI~Lrlg. r..'~.cep~ 'Irlh IS-amp or smaller Cll~~':>.~"L~~\.fI1ll e brands [he handle rncrclv goc!> ill the IJJ 1 Fo~i...e II cirrui [ iust as If the fuse ~.:J tor ]oad~ Llf In JrnrS and hJghtr ~Li\ h 3~ mJLm.·•E.n~ "-ITt uH ~ll up to .w!d ~~'1'1'1~hls . lJilgr(lLmded CU[ldLlctO[~ otten hla~k. once installed.Hi~ name "P U stat.~r lrlP~ l -eca U~C o f .~.' tight...:i'~:!f rhi~ type . ..:un~ brel!ikers.lctors l \.rll.~~ must be screwed In I i~llth' enough to rl.'Welion.'EC ed Itli~ t~nn throughout the SEL."'EC ter r11 ((1f 1he ~.J~t .-I ."~i~!ing. three. he t amp will at. t~lmwn at lett m [be inll~lrClliU[1.o\·tt(h_ h~wr(' 5--6 :.J.((1 m n ~(III called by the . feed~rs rnu5t haVe 111~ir g. . A NO (j no U NDING Ch a pl'e'r 5 (ir(ui l Prm I.unit In. h circui l~ o. om It wltldy ~l'~i_~t. lluthLn1.44 WI RES. -\ ~rTc Hit brr-aJ:e-r look!.¢~ .~iLl~~~~ place a panclboanl ill the h~~~:mcln under the kitchen. pJU might JI...l ':!. tor eUlflpk.resid.-po sition.f\. ···. and will trip quickly I.:LJ v ~fJLag~·o!J~ locate an addltlonal panelboard ncar 'Iu a .. ~Jlflpl~I1W(hJm. dr}'tr~.nt· blown.il.Ilmed In Chapter IJ under th~ '('PIC' f)cn.:Llt1 centrat ion of required branch circuits.S-4.i~_ H. lr C.. it may be .l . Onoe a I} ilc:lapt~r h<losb~e>n screwed into d r u ~et-.:'1..i.~ J.h.. 11t<!".ill d fur replaccrnenrs ~f •here i~ evidence o r . ~rn pering or ove I fu ~Ii I~_ ::'Hll'~' . it will carry tcrnpor ar s (l~ erlo~d~ long enough to permit motors to s l.:.tl.rfridqe6(l arn p~ or ps~ a rpoof the fu!>~s r~[acl fE rlUl~ Fig.mdti(h)r_~ eKte oJi ng bern een a ~r\"l"!!' or ' un er snur.RAN CH (I~R:CU ITS· disconnects r . the nont.::e of sup pJY.· .i[lg1r.jsHnce he.~II'( -ervice calls.1 2."'_~ lIE gp1lt"tal.. To prevenr [h!~ UI15.. it can nor be rerneved 1hi~ preven rs the ~~~of fllsl'~ l(!r9~ ellan orif.<J Llf !.· I ~~~::fT ) ON.t)t::pl(~nf}' 16 -amp thro ugh ~O-ilmp fuses: th e 3~)-a m p will accept 11 am fl th rll ugh 30-~mFruses_ Type ~ fLl~l'S are presently m~~lc only in the tune-delav l)'p.~tt.'([i on and P lan runq 45 needless bJoMi!!l-~J{ [uses and dimtnar€'S rl!.II~ intended. A~ d.l!i.t" tnl' In Luger homes.·hjl~ .JJlJ 'l ! h~ r<'mlllo: 1~~r1dhn":lTdISo~n f<!'tTlm ilL rW..~ .-. Nevertheless. a fu. It will C.• RIPP.i1r:hen were on dll' olhl'T ~id~ tIl rhe hml~ from the service entrance.Jn CI brg¢ overload.ll h r . lv TI'. S-S Cartoo~e rlJ>E"~ ral~d more tllan eo amps have kfl'I'~blade lefmlna 5 as sn(]'o'!l'fl type shown ~a Lh~ load I II b[t'.·.inTl alld i~reset hv I eturning it 1CI the O~.l~ to ~b~ lucation ~ff III~ -maller panclboard. ~ 5.i'l~am'pe:rabfe' fU5fl~ Th e 'It H rt"t] u I[C~ the use of 1 ~p~ !l uses in .ilh 'L' t.wr over 15{l volts to ground..-[ then onlv If there LS no evidence 01 IJoY~rtiJsin!1 n.J IJ r atings oj ordf!lolf\ f ~I i son-b oISL' plug fi Ls.'n(n (or Type 5 nomarnperable iLJ~!':". and fu.:r..'T .!'I. p~r li L IILLtl ~ i n cases where that load i~~Ulll~' d istance frnm the service equipment.::wr~_ t:..N [) B.n ruses are 1"1(11 permiued in n!c"l\ Irl~T.llll:d.. 5-]1 A typi raj Type S nonta mpf'r'll)le ruse {cciH.i IIHH~~tedat th i~ point..:5(J ~LIII~ bdvI:ecn condu. but nH~ he us~d un a systrru ha\. On <.lse uf o"corlo. 0'- Under 1 h.3 nd vou \I>'i.Jmile ht:'yrinLi the OFF posi rion. '1\ hich must be prorecicd Jt not ()\'el 15 amps.In.-k .:. Ctlrtridge 11htd~ tn (III dmpcmge r. and then run a 6 A'iNe (:ablco or wires m a race""".older.U have an np.Ll'p--e':1rcuit capable 0 f suppl ying rhe cak "I 'l r~·dInot'! o( the individual bran.' The ruse I[ sdf will nut lit an ord i n a r y r useholdcr.1 amps nr 1n11ft' nJ\'c ~nif<·-LIL. Type S n'o. ~rn'J [rom a 120/24(1 volt.pracnoc.Htnclgr hI~e-!o ofLhe I )'J'o:' illL.1rt' interchangeable.dco e<!L~1 ].Ch. circuH hredl. if Lh~ l. see the .li1~I..in the ordinarv fLl$<:"liulJ.t~rrule 1~{P~ ~hnwrJ in Fig_ S--L I hl1~~ [.::ondL.JJlJtlr)lh.m I~h[~h in C. )tIT \.nions.i n. so thev could be used for a ~4H-YnI111)~d r ~i!l. They are rated ar I~:.1rl~r.. in mus t br ands \Ii) U must f~lr(l' I he h. Edison-base IIlTIl'-Jd.W~I J oad. In doing so.I 11 N I:L calls thi s a 'IfP<' ~" fuse. It't'J refcrr~-d to a~ J '·~~'bf'. Thi.::DndLKlOrs I b~IT' o[ gT~'t:n w~rL'!:>! 'l_' JhoLl .j ~(ln~lderahle time. rUli In L~lh' imtall .in~t. In'~.:. Fo r example.. (JDSS sE"ttion at rig htl a nod its a daFti'f" (left).H1nu[ be removed.a.-a~ d~\'d~lprJ (see FiK .volts.Hh·rJ ihc spring or the fll~t' will not "bonn m" .r.. (I RCU ITS.ji) ~·olt f~eder.al.jhen r. ~ITty measure .·t i~.. so an adiLp"·.IIl~~ gruum:kd neutral and no LOIIEIII(.n~ . For example.1 &U·.~ ~ Fi9" 5-6 A s ill gl~ ~ Ifcult b rca ker 11eftt arid method of If!'settiFig th~ breaker IT it trips..~ III the \'ernacular llf Ih~ Ir8i.lrmg mo~rf\ In [.trJ1R~' I"hu~c rated :u .entld.rc"kcr j~ .fr~' 1'. rh~r~ il. . .l~tnteJ Ilt~ . t urn it L~' '-).ill n e h Im~ allations rh at lL~ rlt'M .' GwunJmg Bd~.A circuir breaker has a definite time delay.. a _...' shoulder of the fuse Ilwn: iii iI spring the Fi Q.. fur new lnst.lJt:' I~rmjn..e bre~k~T ~nd 'mrl. prevents :.rmpcring.!~.1mp circuit breaki'f ill t!w M'r~ I~ p.

. dt'cks. b . \\'11 en 0 ne ofthese breakers I rips or a fu ~ blow s.llfie_~ J.. and an equip [Hen l gro u n d a white or gre~ I] wire _ I f the f~'Ner is wiled wjth J. Hul if you PU! lou marty.Udl~'U\I~ u'.IIt'[ h('~I~r. Kinds of r:i~cuits Th~ nTmit~ u.)olage~~ u 5ped... Elleh fi xrure.he.-hllh~"S W~.hCT or dnTI. imll/l.I~ might be" Ib~.ing rerma Ilerll~y IFm~ned 11~'Hmg fi:tturcs.200 sqft the kngth of tlw house by It5 4 3 width..rppbllm.hc hnu~ o.)arJ fl"IA). Sirr(~ ~ CIrcULI wrrcd with I ~ {WI~ wrre J lid protected h) I ::hlmr evcrcurreiu pfl)l~LlI(H1 provides UWO VA r l5 x L!O .\.TEe definition Many elecrrici<lru g LJt1 te 01'1 a ~ p~'r II penin 1:( b~ Si5 W a v{lid th is lCTmi nCllog\' problem. indl. rh t' n}q II ( .ud ing 'l'1l.('d in homc. Inexpensive l-t ..CU LATilNG EIRANCH CIRCUIT NlEEDS lf . th[]~Jl:\h Ihis i~ nu~ in ~~wrJilm. feed e r CM:ruI~ over ~ larger cond UCIUf with less resistance p~1 LHW (~Ilgth. of the total nurnbcr of 5q uare RfC()M~ FMlHl ~O[oI: MINIMU .1CLLtLm ~k'lncr~ The). AN D G ROUN DING Ch . ~'UL' will prob~bl~ h~~~ trouble with bn'. m Inlrlll1n! 3 fHI ret:Clml1l~ ndeo rIll mbcr~ CIr liSh~.. .a] area by tJW 00 arrLvr J't the mil1llnum number of lighting i rnl ih •h ~ "I h req l1ir~.. '1\"11 ches ~ Fe 11u t t'H Itl tL~ ~iH. 24 . Ir the 5p. di n ing room.)~.:Olln! ia'g Ih. and It~ms such ~~ r:id~o~.:D nt ml H~ U~t'.C ircu L even if m (1re t are permitted.. hen receptacle outler.ttion.:'1 = oW) L 11m .lu:r~ tripping or ruses bluwing.!:lOU I. the service to the' QU UN th at is taken tip in a. fWO . Me not mcluded in the total." under "Water heaters' on page 16~ in rm O~tlets Ipe~ ci~~uit IP'Iresidential wurk.]J~e~. thr requirement lor appropriate workspace about l he rernu te panel is the same as that lor the service panel board.1 ~ilil>..)rea of 1.::an later be 6 n isned u LflTO ~ he'll rOOln.mJ 5Lm[J.l re fnorage of <l house when calculating Lhe num her .ei determining the number Ill" Or(. ln most cases." 11:\>t·fLihlr.10111 and Plilnrnng 47 rod L OJ n eurrnl I white J.~ r . eqULpmt!IlT ~n.cl. v CAL.il<:n.:.l'pl i. wire g used for rnnst of [he WII illg> protected h\ 15-alilp Or 10-a'nl' brea ke rs n r fLJ ses.quarf' 4 ~ MO(lsqfi I~"el I J(] x 45 .b a T~n~~. toa_~[n._UIt:~..of Sp[tCl:. in th~ pMl nf .ding 110M ~nd T<lble lamps.even Illt: duplex type.ht' entire estabhsbrucnt would be m darknejs when that breaker tripped or the ruse blew_ Also.lce that .4fi WIRI!S. Run a special em uil 10 $~ILh <In ~IC<l.If I~Hh\'~1 kH(hen . If its outside dimen4 4 ssonsa re 3 0 X 43 teet.v'-l[L r.a 111. then one 110(11 J epresents l. iL i5 bt"~1 W connect fewer than a dozen outlets 0 I] one. (.. l·.:cup[ed by kil{'hcn..q(llr~~ enouqh hghIing (H'CUUS to provide' ~ VA of power tor e-ven square loot of [It. The remote I'Jnelh.:lill)l. those un other circuits are stilt live.i. JPl'/Jl'i.:" ! ri ( pow~r.Lwer time. terminate Ll in <I SI r~:f!.nlrth wrr . p~er 50 Circuit Protection In addinon.. one U rrs..~ J. In l~~hk '1---[.1rpli ~n ~<=S t.rr.m . TV~. .l'f that qUJ.(H) tor ~ ITlM~ adequate j mtall. r b llt me r~lv ..1 . hen. '~. H1I1 i 11 ~'~ Ii 111 ~ LrTljl. cooductor. c.]50L If the 6 5 basement is finished or C8Jl 3..r. p:lnTT't.:: ~St:p k. Tnl'fl'io'l' the JinCH"m o u UC'lS in an installation are separatrcl into smaller groLlFs known <15 branch circuits.rate f. groua..0:.'_~j~. fur example..•np~.(I{) squar(t feel r I.(JU1. It L5 wise to pW~·IJt· lim: ~11(i ci rcui t fiJr each 500 sqU. arHl '.52 'f:l t eqULres t:.i .l.en Lrlg a SHlglC appliance ~uLh'. all rh e WI res wnu~d have IO he very brge to match the ampere ranng of th~t ha-e8ker or fuse..1e 0 ut 1 er If }Tlll \. is considered one outlet. COffeetllll.JLilln J !tn.. tools.-r\ er.i C~ i~ rge. But unfinished 1. il home 11r (III .tgenmon i?quipmmt.c w:itb the .:LIediscussed in Chap ter lb..)1 1ighting circuits need rdf Opt' n porch ~~ 31~d F1. the ~ep. d.even If attached to the house.~WGor l2 A\". h To JITiVl' at the h'fC d ~f1J1 II!~ iii Table 5."'li . N IJM~ER OF L1GHTI NG C~RC!JIliTS.070 _~q a re feet_ J f an uppeT 1100 r ha!> UI1l1m~h~d ~p.~'~:C dot's nfl! h1l1il rhe number nf lighting nutlets placed un one ~ir(_~J. ce _ add its area ot. lsu h~t..hth:lg d"iUjU InC' .{' ~11e i i h~ n ~I ~11.t.. etc for sllch in .il need to adil 1 circuit I~)~ .l Ikl manentlv connected ol an appliance."TEe.(' pf . ()llll~!~ lo ~rri~'~ ~l ~ tutal ru~t I1n th(' ~p('r uutlrt" h.i 11-<11 n~C' Otnleh. "Appliances..'Illl circuu IS enough tor (.111U11~ ill Ch~rq~r 1'0 r1lf rHfW. {~. \\'hl~h would [Tl~L: ~ clumsv a nd e)"pensr'''r i ns: alla t ion.s rrrnlits-pr.u~~j HI . r5--[t:'(cpt ~dC'~ kit."In be divided inw the toJlowing Ihgee genetall yp~~. swi tchl"S i are IllduJed ilL . JSO s.\1 and later bran rh off from tb~! sh. circum mll\-be e-iili<?f I~ \ olt or ~Afl ~'utt fJ l rbL"n Jlvirle ihe lot.l~ the NEC mm rm I rm _1 he "\Tll oncen I~ i I self \~'Hh safetv unly To all~l\\ for ~lIQW~'I1It'tIU.liw/ ol"phrm[of' crrcwrs-----ea.!'f.ttl reduce vohage drop.1un used ~pd ces t h at 3 re adaptabl e r [or [UUlTt: use nllhq be mcluded according eo-the .(' the poruon IJf anv total circuit run from .!. metal rJC<"UY such ~~ EJl.'smtd'-lIppli'aoco!! drmits The i:in:uLts alr~~d~' [h~LU~d ...en.~more ~umnm·nllu~.: £ fr.house.. 1Ml r rs i iKhldt. i 11....~11 enu re J rrn W~'[t:' pw lcclcJ b\· J smgle fu5ot' U[ circun breaker. tel-t"him'~...: 0111y ~m.~S.u. r1g u re Llit~ arc calcul atl:'d fnr ~ome t t'p~Cill"'~l a re f.l ninM ~Jl~ion.'or ~F'iLU" m .\' r c ...:h s.. 30 or n (J sq U<lIC k('t to the jir~l-llooT ... cl~un.l. 0 r divide by :.. such . even if it bas five lamps. Confinuou 5 meads See the discussion Chapter 14.H the .e L!tUJM~ d(1 not permit..m~nly tor lighting and s. 11. I and !Jg.t_<. [he .:: 1. r! the sq ~l. rth certain shop r I n'~~ Jt~~td llano 11 .: fcc t. dlld\ he orniued Nml:' lh. as \~TIl a~ rc(t:'rt~(k outlets inw which vou pl..35(1 square feel tor d total of 2. ..aJIrhe Ilgh t ~ ~ n d i1.ug IlI.and ~l m Ii~r appba Il(eS [holt mnmme much mOTl' r('Wj.. fr~-p~J\. l'igl~tr~. run two CI Fe Lli ts. u-.m f~'r Itghtlng. only the Ul1 tlcts onthat circuit arc dead.~feeder <. Nom: An outlet L~am' point wh ere el ectric p(lw~r i~ actus ITv II sed..I':!O-\lolt loads I but not k.-o U s}'~uill ~maU a ppl La[l [e cm:-ujIs to sc ro'. ls 0 n e outlet..1 refr.200 sq ft 7 be tin ishcd in t~ u sable ~p~ . propcr Or~riL!HHl .e~ I. add its area. multiplv 2 3 1. I ~dlfl~..teirl~ . nutlet to the additional outlets rhat rOll warn wh~'11 }'(lLl i'iillsh offthe ~p<lce. n"ltfl')r rhat L~ 11[>1 pan ili~r:e mar be. Re\'1 ew rh ~ tori.

400 2..lht'r~ or flj~L"' II h 'h. lh r room rQcQPl2des 1 in g3S tu rTJa ce 1'"dIV. (I~ ~.lLiH~_ ["hl~ I~ of ten the decldtng FacLOI In ~~lu~lh~r . the ruaxunum lnad of UI~"/.h crrc llil i~p{'rl11ilwl t II serve rvlrigera lion C'l] uiprncm. W-vulL circuits I1C'l'JC'd b."paral1<' counter-mounted Water r-e-orer Clothes washer Clothes dr ~·ei Wa~t~ dlsposer Di~nllila~r.VOL'lr CIRCiUITS 2.iok~r~(1 r fll:'f~ forspecific appliances even it )"OU Ju not nncnd 10 111$1.tit. 'LiL]...2. cannot ~~'.OT It is cusmmary to provide a.ll The e~.. rksbop motor etc o 1 ~ddl i e-au"r leach . AN.cpw.rL Ilil h ..200 1.lIlLelhither I:>-~mpor 2U-dmp JJ:'i-vult rdt<:.1 fir Ilhn·~ receptacles or outlets fOI' Ilghtitlf!. h 1.ige fH1!11 Table 5-~ adapted [rom VUe T.11 toasters. folJow Ill<' ~Hggt~!ILOn~ Table s -' tor calculating thr total number in L!U-\'ult and 1. A ~t"p.volt circum .ommission occupancies.:&00 Self-contained ra. alldlnr tuner f.. PF I.thLLL.!!! breakfas t room.. These Cir(UHS J[~ .-tir~J c:nnklt1iJ.}~C:5 I-:..-111 ~UI. Table 5-3 J'nd}vldual c{u:uits..ro. separate circuit for each of rn-e for central heating equrpnienr]: COQkin~unit Product S.rm.. lotal number of circaits dcude You must lamps to a-nps Hamps 16 amps lOamps 14 amps 5~mrs i~mps l(Jdmp~ I~ amps llamps fm ynurself how manv circuits Each ~Ijdl L.hel or both of them '1 he crrruus nlLl"l hi:' \Ii Ifed with I ~ f\\\ (~ '\ rre pr'lft' .ppllan{e ~ 1 ~ 'I 5p~cla! la unary (j.:j. on 0 il-burn ing fWr>8Ce on blower SUGGESTED NUMBER OF 12v·VOLTAND of Squarereet area 11'1 ouse.lillll equipment tastene..:<1uu~1l-..t"twn ~lri.all o..' wiring installation. provide fL.han ·W..('~d.l)(J(J rires in residential t resulting in 2jU lives lost and Sl billion in Ji:rMm i.ldJJa. I wrth rwo cxccpuons: a combination rr.rl ill an • prli II1(l 'iu..I 1ld_.l" fi:o:'~<1 n PIJ(~ :'tldT~ 1 C'~(I1 1 each I e.r 501111: 5 hp --------' ~p"re circuits.. LolfiJL irv (If ~...l'~ circuits are recommended for mdividual rnoror-..... drcuits "'I:rilr.ft.J. Il:lt>. til en I. rll d~P~'l1diH~ I1n I·h~ r._ Consumer t.:llb m~) llt' LlhUJk".qil.WIRES CIRCUITS.-\0111. r Mator Motor (~nri fan·.:l~pl. and dirung r 0 m. room .ll'I'!I.) ')p~r~ l3'l'n.aIr cnn- lip LHI oner .-uflr br.2 I Pilch ) I each ) 1 each 1 :\ote that on general purpo~e branch circuits oh.11011 2.In fu Bath room ~p~rO!i RI/ In rr\i![E! he~TE'r.~r"k 1 S-.~ll'.J. Indl~rduor."r:!p.11 aft' rW! 1d.ln lm:·. wl!i~h h i~ JiKlI ssed 0 n pages 1 J 5>-111 ..)r nut III HJll ~11 Indivi<hMl <. l~r hl!'~!er ~ (k:}t~~drYl!'r Wa ref purn p. me (I) Ilt'"Lted example: sump pumpi or bdL-.)t .fA least one separare zu amp circuit must he fun to laundrvapplianoes..~ l1.lnr \ a m] er. or appll~IK6). ..il'~ IHltlea rnav bt 'l~llIlrrh... uver total r 20.~~tlppl~'IIl~ 1\\. For a n~'".r(1.41.' cir ·!l11.D GROUNDING Chapter 5 Circult Prctoctlon and f'litrmlng 49 TlIbl. rnigh be either dircctlv . us a (example: a bathroom heaten Pemlilrent(y connected meters rated" ore thdll • ElI1J . hoonng Me.amp~ unnl later.ll'lt'T l-\ w·'ppli'lTl~~~: Sec p. See also the discussion s-z DETERMINING nOVOLT~ 6amp~ CQRRECT MOTORS AMPERAGE FOil MOTOR " hp hp .ljlt'S ~11-1h tor insuucnous OIl 1H1'~ til I.clI.~..r.lrn-('n ft'Xdlrlpk bench gnnder).t{n 1 1 eecn hI' ·h.lJ vircutt r.~ ~l. Both circuas must extend to kitchen. . "hlLh I~ nu] considering Ih.(IH\ 0\ (2fl x 1 ~ll .lnll' ~lr~IJlI hrt'.lfl'l \ estimates that annually Ihl'[~' M~ tJIOI'!:..1 appham~ Qr(ult~: Oil or 9~s burner W3terPUIiTlD Permll'1ently connected ap.'Glf}(~::"wlis: Flange '. IIp 2 hp 3 hp 5(. Prov ltk . he-n then...). '.{JIJO '.Il1t:'"lb""uJ t« assis Lin 1n11..~ .I h~<:.lde~.Lllli~1 urt~ I. and similar appliances onen require J. the other rooms mav be sen ed .l-lH.er 1:!-Ll-\Lilt ur 2~·()-\.~ed LUI rhe ~qllare footage of usable area ur AI'(-fault cilnadt interrupb!lfS ~AF(..nuu warts.and another L1n~ 10 <Ill rhe h<lIh 1'n(1 III recepl..\prli'Hl~t' and motor circuits m~) be ~!Il.::d to the h. np hp 1 hp 240 VOLTS ~ _ amps on f..'_ 1:-? . ere.I rn plilCA:l uther tn..'11 ~~~r~~111uf the' br~w. Ircicrminc lht" 11'1.lJil~ -III be merged ill\ll one l1Iuhi\\ Ir.~('d b\ :!IJ-.nm 1[or.lr1 intlilT item mstalled.~d ill m'lr~ J<"t.:J support for In electric Jock IJ] kitchen ur dining area. irons. follnwinp: (and required {}v!'n.I Ihc p.rI 1o!'c" ~Ihas heen i4o.l.1bh: .. g~r<l~~dour openers. and J receprade serving the igmtiun '}'~.500 ~\.lhl~ 43U.3il m U~.3.~ r~"(.JI[ .Jrn.u'-IJII.200 7 2 2 General-purpose cjrcu-u I nne per 500 sq.fiOO . . an d appl Lances u h as roasre rs and toa 'iter tl\ ell may (on su me over 1.rsl-pu rp()~E!orcu It~ 3 1 2 4 4 5 2 6 2 Sm.p14an(C's rated at rnore rhan l. ll~l' much \ on will nerd.cm...j on these ~U-amp' circuus .h ilpl'liJIKe~ .lhd e\·~n ~lrLl.

:"r~. and for many veers grav theoretical! y could have been and ~)t~.h current rlows...1"k b l n td. In w.~. U hrt'aJ.11 -Hl p~rc til L of these Ii res.. the normal OVerCLlITmt luncuens. wi 1h the local i L~spector the exten t to wb ich this rule will be enforced on rx. these d. Hk~1y to be available the secon d hal! 0 t 200~. can be uSoCdhu uflgwunJ~d .~ (II' ttl ~p~'l:d 011 the fu n ran} i fi c. no r not .~eLTIbl) brought to a 5wit.un[Js_ hamLne I"h(' whitt' Wm" Inu~i j 51 . AND GROUNDtNG mated lh.ll to be' a IoOUfCl" II f it:n i.il~ >~jrf:lyil'ig bedroom ou'll~h.1rld then for all other bedroom outlets effect ive with th e date 01 local ~JQrltOn uf the ]002 NfL J i~ Ct1111 l'nn:'r~"1 ~ because or resrr. urcuit brt. sockets and other dl'~'i(c~ ~ re ~'r()p¢r1y connected to each other with wire to make a complete elecmcal system calleda t.llil in br<":ikn..s. can he I nsta lled.. of their 1i sting i nstr ucrions from being used OIl wir ing methods wi thou 1 ..above zero (~rouHd pOlel}lhl-~he earth i s assu med to he at ze ro potential l_ II i~('~bll:i1liitl to remember these-five points about grounding...V(jIOl[e borh GFri ~nJ AI'Cl in rhe sante breaker rrarne.e. the industrv gd.u can be detected b)' [he electronics in the AFt I which then rnrerruprs [he circuit..a~j()11a was used fo r ungrounded il:r' couductors): or three white stripes orr an~' color in~ljIattOn except gre-.'I re restr i cred bv J.m ch e i r"tJlts on that do no~ have a grounding conductor.. TIlt" ~mLl]ltted . Whap~er 7 has a rull discussion ofgreunding. lIf .. jrllJ .means Ih~llr tx. or "hot" Or ~cncrgiJ. people rr01111 receiving dangerous ~hocb I. look tor a ~lCaJyeva lut ion I n i h c ""~I r~ Ih e~~ de'>. which me<1HS they have a voltage.1dJngW:P~CS_l Ungrounded wires are kne: .~t n c Vc r be used except olS :J.. \'1'1R '"_<1 building.el'L I he gn1Lmded...'Urj.. . V. p<lrt of J C~ l~ . uN.-11 ite or grct"ll. d~\I(. in housewiringnsually ] 2:0 vults .".u t he term. m.HI L'(jL!iprhCfli grounding conductor Irefer to the continuous grounding topic in Chapter 7}. h~ll rlll] \\ IIII~ or . and many homes wired before the t·ady l %O~ have at bl~l SOIll¢" brClFldl (. there arc now cucuu brca ke r~ 1[1'::11 pOf~ [LIlfl.' hei I II i.1. fl. "'tTUI... an angcmcnts.ln whit~ ~[ ~II \'l~ibl~ pLlln".. Sometimes it is 11.~. l 0-.:epl~dt:"~. as "live .1 :!.riljj1tlln: whit~ is preferred.lights_ Thjs new rule ~dfooin· tor all bedroom receptacle outlets 1. are caused by ~ffifl:f: faul ts=-the unwa n t~d 11m.t now be arranged (. to anyth~ng operating only al 24n '>'uih). Some receptacles are "listed to provide protcci i'llrl of the eruire brand} circuit' if the).~ rctdemiti~>d as Qther th..a91 rajm s H R YO ~1 CA r-.LI'£I.1 drrven srL}~. .1 AND GFiOUND'IIIIG CHAP'TER6 eii rcu it D'i.1 21. and the Index at the b~(k of the book lists specific f!'1\(]ul.. ~j i fjl: l}th~r .. [J WIRE.fEe 2lU.J.t j:o. but not \0.. RI H :..llJ~" hl. you must Jearn how switches.1 e JWIp(1 ~C'. a re installed ~[ the first outlet in the branch ( i rcui I.e L~LI~ulll) black but mar be some other wlor.~' he ~m n e othe r COIOf.even smoke detectors and .ll~1 JlIIflJ.Jlh current to trip the standard circuit breaker.y1 iwi re ulr LLJ'£ ul ts are ve I')" common.er} ] 211 ~'ol( d~VJCf or oullN other than a ~wit~h.' pag~ 7l-7! .:w-vor. or interrupted [t) be anv other way.50 ".i:T} I.m.lg \~'inl}g rn hedrfl()lH~ involves either ot these relatively common wiring.isli.H lo ns of rh e ~. The grounded win' i~w hi lc i n col or _'[ woo I'tcog nlzed alternatives to white tor the' grounded conductor are: gr(l~ (. win~ .:... wh ich means Lt is co nnected to an underground meta I w~ ter poi pe 5YS[em a nd ro . aGe.nJil!:l medium (such i1S air}_All arc can generate cno ugh hl'".Jrld rod. e wi re nlLl..S CIRCUITS.islin~ circu its. MO~l ibul n::: WIRES... lusr as there are circuit breakers in(lJrl'ur<!lLH~ gr~l1Llld-hlllr prote<:h('ln for the pl1rpn~C" of prt"v~mirlj).J.li rc -Iaulr ctrcui II nrerrupt son m addir 11t111 10. Thi..cnons placed on these devices by their manufacturers.t0r '111 . lre is never fmro or protected v The gnlllf1(k·d WLr~ ]~ JleV€J switched b)" ~ cin.t \' ke". wire must run direct to e:v.JII-1111 " k)o'Id"hUl e"\"(:'H l!~te t. Anini! faults exhibit J rharacterisuc rurrcru and voltage pattern Lh. .. CIRCUITS....'\H~I protection mu .iltr~'-~Mm he used on multiwite branch circuits J (see fig.()02 r~q u irements in this area.lit~ thar have no equipment grounding conductor..b h or tor . A. gIo undt'd wir~' Olhl'f lL~Ll.llluc1ry 1. you II ~buu ld d. GRO UN'[) ED WIRES In residential and farm wirrng un~· of 1l1('W r reur-ca rryi ng wires L~ grounded..r~el1_\ \ 'b ite .lany people referto thegrcunded wire as tnt: neutral wire. It)' rhrough dri In~Lll. St''I.:lli} t\H .:lfUljl-Ih~ p~lb <llull:g wlliJ.5 and associated L(·xL and some I\}CI ci I. neutr d l ~ltd ~) m d i mes It h not. i~H" hul nut e Il~' L.:.l. devrce or' ()l1tiet l1peril1td I He. arc additionally l('~ll'J lor lI~C be .IT~ I~I Ihe i UIL tn e. and sumc lh'H 11l(. 20n~".~d" n wires.-h j.

.GRAMS Wirll1l:: di'Lgrdm~ .d tel indicate the-equipment to be operated. The ~\">IiL. it is the (..lILt rurp(1~t. r 11th is book.~ I WIR.mt~(t ut [hI? socket.lIl1!.J. whlr-e wire ruust aI:\\. and for dar~f~'ngU~l.ij series as in hJl. IU is r unencl L).52 <l WIRES.!1 i(~ tWI) Icrlllln.I~ an open wit~h Fi g. and ..\mmg It used for al ord Ind r)I pu moses .~ to each lamp."r<ille~: i opemng (rurni rlg n IT the <. I n the CoiSt' of sockets.O because that . but I. '6-$ Fig.l~ rusuallv nickel-plated iillld ~.~'I ~DLl should add a switch. the wh ill' term i11 1 i.wowires. and safer to use. ~ \\. pr.i. black wire lrurn '. Ircrn 111 fi ~~I rn the second and to til ('"th lrd and so on..6-J The sjmpl~~[ c rCUlt-~ $ .[)i~f\lilllh are useful tor pl aanin g sa t{' 'In\1 t' lf (i e III j nstallarions.-Im.~~----=-.Y. d YOU th. lI'i!!l6-7 Sf)' ~ of WlrI'lg known di I~ ·parall'E' • .'Ll~ purposes I Adding 5wit.[II-]iul.t. or Fig.!' h].-._1l'RU. ~ wires are oou necred to each other. and from 1 he switch another black \~ 1 re to each of the sockets.'Io.:dkd "\...O. 1.l ~'~ i.l i 1"11 j)\·~r 1h ~ wh i re wi re.J\I~ run 10 the whilt' terminal..PU[ro~l'~. . tch i~shown \i() vou L<ln ""l· h~'"" II t'p<.\h i l(' .t known as 's<e~i~~.. etc. i~ I. d . tnstead. Mld .i!. "h.ING mA.../ W(Uf[ ~ ..l'll)gof three-war and [uur-'W~)' ~\\'ih h~. . Th is i. L" while wire black wire bat ...' UJll1r.._'l~CEtoeach socket (I[ OLJ t let.. f>--.llh uch 'h t h~ ~ Wi.l:Lk ~m"t~ deto~r to a switch..t)t I{G to [he switch.J~._..:'lUcr L.__-. r~ the black Win' O'Ils('I uns to each lamp in ~ifrlibr fa~hin[l. Ih<· 'w!.]l ~!r ~1l1'ilar device (.j 11u~h hl!tltle ~\\JL~h \.llld as III FiK 0-7. ttite bv lhc NU_: 11. An unenclosed 5\ . th e war a fixture wi I h f. flo IOgg IE' ~wi [eil [closed I (Of substituted the o pe 11 ~Wllch in j Diagram symbols For anycircuit. must run froll'! the ~t. Figure f.._ Fig. . AND GR. ~ hurll} that is a]w.1 circuiri.1 lamp svmhol .i~ !mpr~diL~l ror most .i. S\\'"it~ht'::' never 11<L\'t'whlfe rernunals."itch th e.. wire them mpaTf.If nne lamp burns outor it! removed from its socket. Fig'.fr>-l.~ switche. I shl.1k~ Ln4.. much neater.QUNDING lhdpter 6 Circuit Diagrams 53 om·.. CIRCUITS.. Il I~ sm pr act ca I ~E.l \~·ie'·.t}f L. <iad back to the starti [lJ!. through the equipment. ["\'c.sa me ~ cutting .tlon~.. motur..wi nnq.· v~IIJ~..~'i fl()e.1I1~ as or~ning a switch in the circuit all the lamps gu !jLJI. The '.~ihustratcs the method u~ctli () im1 icate ~ herh e r o r not crossina ._..lr~ used in planning dt:"I[i~~1 Ln~Hllld.'. (In \\ lth nLI way of turning it otT Such ..lw~ how \·'JU <implv r.are LJn<. ~n ~ ~wltch and tll~ out st wh rch It connors ~U~J: ~~ TI1€ fa ct thar one line is h eavier t ban the (J ih cr d OC~ larger than (he other: both are the same si tc. ~i1J the mher h IS sdvcr-colorcd 1 Fily.J..0aJJ diagrams wires are i I idiL~ ted 1~ this: ke Wiring in pi:lr.Irnagiue lh~t the current flows OU~nver the black wir-e to the equipment.!1 lf several Iamps are used.I~ ~ntl onl r~·nniw·d" fi~lIr[' .If[illgl-'0Lnt to each outlet servlngeiectricalequipmcnt (lamp.. ~.. the starting poin t is called the j\.~.. I"h~ ~\inng is simple: while wire from <.h b!ILI\~ 11cuts off the cu rrcn I lu all the lamps at the same tirne.du~s 1he simplest possible diagram i~ thJt d Fi~_ tr.\ ~ tlrc <"aln~ crrcuir hut '•• h m an {'fl.do not make thc misteke of wrrlng them .. 6-3 P L. '1!I-iI rh~ I<lmp ~Iw~ys on .. 6-16 Stylo!> af wlrm(. Each lamp willl·ight even if one ormnrr ol rhe ~I'lhe-f!' is removed.i I never ILl rlie ~o. 11'H 1T1~~ II ~h ~ tone \\ I re L~ . ve sockets is wired.. Figure (.'pl fm V4!'r~ ~p(.64.n.1rerull\' and will rind i5 >I n_II~II"~l r.:iliLll -erv c.I'i~. H1n ected to [he screw shell and .. more couvenient.

In Y lI1"pec LUh rcqui IT' piga:1. ~I I he wh i k win' rnav be extended a 1 ~nrpoint to the next outlet.u fig. with possiblv disastrous results.htmg In .in receptad ~outlet s is si rnp le.6--1!1 lhi \ d iagram s. ttl" (ir .rnJ back from (he' lamp to the ~l.i:1!' the alT1(}U nt requrrea. if vou trace t h. ~he receptac It' a~ ~hm"'fI ~ t H.ondll. 6 9._ nll~~tdl ~~~~ d grEu t J!!~ Dr m~ t~r lat iD o red u. ~~ in Fig. grO'Up of ..: l urrcnt from I he '_Il R over th e h l.' i~only one receptacle. t it ca n be traced JH the wav i p rt. 038 ill Hg.. a. subsnrute .qLJidll£ servicing must be controlled bv <I wall ~wilch at the l'I1l[~' to tht' space.1Ill\rr. 11 ..1IlV b 1~ck . Thwi ring n f plug. as shown In hg..p. and run the black wire to Wiring r.. 0-1'1 where Ihl' di~gr~][l~ of Fig~_6-5. provided ilia.I hi rk wire rum hI 11l~lamp thar il corurois. since llg. nd Jrcm each switch .!!<:eptaJcle ouH@u the other side. di agm. then rut'! wlres fm m the ti rsr g mu p to the second.combined .~ rHll pcrmittrd ~n ~.6-9' Wiring for a r~cept~cJf".. but . u~ the fig.qrai!i flogl as ilt 8l~ ~ m u ch better Job.ert Fig . I L)f .ick wire I±m:)tl~1 ~d switch.26 for J~ lJil(~m-l!nt~.'i If! rh ~urt.uit ca n bp a rraf'lgf'1:l ~ ~ rio!" f'le"It rii~gr~m ~how •. If rhetl.ilin!!i a t l"cr-d.m~ .. . In other words.:RUto theside (If the receptacle that hil~ while (silver-en (lr~'l.1pig!'HI ~pll~~' I Wh".\1. \'i r II j 1 17 f. controlled h~ ~ 'iql3r. The black wire ]rl::c~~se mav DC ex tended at .vi("~.lUio. jf Ihe[e are several receptacles.ey For I" or' ~ ( rUJ .re lhf' two '" Ir~.e is ~~r l of ~ 3-v. shown m hg . (To ~implif)i tiw dr_i ltg.6-0-11 au tle~~ In olhe-J and 6-8 t>ave beer..SIT Fig.i re can he exte nd elf ffOl11 .kwire bet ween a switch and an outlet indicated screw s on {h~ dp. run tl~e wfllk wire from ~he ~Ol. LI~il1~ the Iwu ~rt"w~ LIn the ~id~" the rcccptade.... at A.54 I each lamp WIRES. ~"_.ir~ run~tli [€!'I: tJyfrom ~Rr~ IO each lamp. M. b 1"\ dliJw~rn... It 1~more cd~("icnt iWit to wrre the first group...:) h may use the twa bark to rhc'R1uRCE without iuterruptinn by a swirch.ll .mnrher .lt~ ~'WIH:h.. required ~. Ihe out ats of Hg~ 6-5.ClUflCE 'Fig.nkts are to be wired the Hnl separate wires trorn each group can be run back TO a mmnH1I'1 vt. d ~pljLC i. as in I rg_ 6--12 wlnch shows Ihl' <arne th ree !! 1'[1 ups hur ~J~ i 11 ess rn~kri a l.l f terminal ~reW:!i. The hire wire J lW.. from there [0 rh~ second receptacle. 11'1" bl.1 bl ad w.. along rh..~d: wire to t 1.~~-wint H is tn h.or Them are few locations where J pull :.u rmg point where the wires enter the hous-e. and su on: do the same with the b! ck wire. --l f 5 tor .L1Llr 1hnH.1 JI. each I~mp t:ontrollE>d !~h b~ ~ ~~perare 5WItd"i Notli' that W~ring oillltl@ucontrolledbypu"chains cham will be used.ith ~ pjg(. one .n(>W~thE' Sarl'li!! paf~II~1 wi~i ng as F. To wire for a pull cham. and fr--i'l IM\ ~ been corn L i rl ed Th i~method r('q uires a consider~bl~ ClrnOltul ot matcnal bccausc the wires must be much longer [han nece-ssary.q_6--7.k~ even tho ugh the de net's are tes ted an d listed to be connected as thm. See P~'Oi~ 1.L!~nn "f .as shownat of A. ['igurr 6 ! I) is th~ i>~meparallel .rllo a ~iflgl.l1hrILH1). <~Ild w)tkr-n... and from the <ecnnd ro rhe tlnrd. In-read..liI~' oint..lil guine-: l. ()<-4l for the receptacle III Fig_ 6-9.6-7 .f Fig..1L three-wire ~u cuu Irl~r.lH runs from ~(Jll (10 tt' each lamp.\'irill~ diagram as fig_ 6-7 ~H"Cpt that a clcs have now been substituted fM lamps and the switch h8~ been omitted. LI1 tho. fe~ ing tl1fDlI'.1 rime. AND GROUNDING 5S "Ir~uil r ~~ ~1~{!A"~ Il~ r~"t'Jthe white . CIRCUlT5. ur for equipment ~r.:~t.ior 510r~?t u l rile whit. rds 11t"e lr. 11 at . (ombini'ng seve'ral diagri'!ms W~ll"n several groups of m. run the white wire III on€: side of tlte first receptacle. tni' (on n ec lion l'D the 9 reen g roul'Itii ng scr0W on thE' rpcept<l( le I~ r\Ol ~h(l'o'!lll..ot I~~ t(1 each t r switch .-t .I r~"in d ica lcd b) I he ~ulicl heavier lin"" hU1 nor frum tfw bl~(.L'~·~~~'4.dmmgh rl"~qHa-.1 pull-chain socket I shown at F in fig.lCk trorn . 6--10. because removing this receptacle could place 120 volt loads in senes on 140 vohs. but pi.'111[" ..~ h.l:i-I 0 ure p... \OU will fjFH~ that each lMn]) ':dB eindcpendentlv cornrullcd.)l jill.. 6-1 (I hCE'IJt """her Q the whit~ wir.

ill I'lg.ln l.~ (1l1each switch. itdi..cE br J heavv broken line_ II'I'J~..I h~ll n frum two points IrJUt three.:ll 1. and f>. 1~'jriJl~ of three wav switches is simple.i(ches. "Vith thn. and l-eaV'l!~ b~ I!'lltwr ( or i:I d~~l1d r'lg on ll'>~ pG'.----------------~ I~ ~__ 1. terminal A is connected inside the switch to terminal C.I~~'J be from ~n l RI I U\~. om through terminal B and LIp to terminal C of (rff I ~ r I _'111!!!!"!'" iii iiii iiiIi 1iii.~d~.... ~'iI'. 1'61 Clf. Ml With the handles or both 3-w~y ~lIilt(he--:.1l Ioihe ~l]l J't'S.. rrorn the 'f"m'ln~l~ of the I1r${ switch h) the h~1. 6-1J4 A fig ht connclled bv two 3 ih'J'y ~.hC'~ Mr. d('spite the name). tn£' common terminal A.~ ul'.II :8 I_II I -J Swudl 2. run t ~\0 black w i r-e~..l iiiiiI (~:rj SW..Witc111?5 The switch moo for controll i ng a 11['[h t from one pomt is kno .h hilth ~I!lr'chc~. t't-11..mJ Ie I~ thro . IhrnLigh the IdlnPI <Ln.01'n ru lled. and from there up to term in<ll B of .1~'If'('. p(l.ndte~ 3fe now the cp pml ~ 0 r e ~Iq.~ rltt '\. In ~~Lh ". what h~pp...(\t'~l. i~Oil In the w~~ul either t Ir..' "p_ the ..'!_ <II Fig.J Inlllll~... ~u rned 0 t1." handle» uf both ~wi1.."h>..f>---Ih nr 1.. 111 the m h er term. through terminal A..I~c t he ~LJ rr~n! ~"<Ln ! r.l-. but the lignt I~ ~tln on Either ~wltOl controls i[ . Thlr'@@.. ("I FIe u lIS..16.• but this time [Jut thro ugh terminal C. or agamge ligJn trorn home ~I~d garage. th~ ~'lh'l:t till . Up. Wi ~t"l both handle:!> duw fl.. The Fig_ .-~ I I liB I ~GUIK£ Switch' of the handle.Iud Ii ~r~ the ~t~rhn£.lown. to I -1 or h~_ 'i. 6--11 on pa~ S7 in which mt' hamlk:~onKHh~witche5 are down.L[~ posi nun Lhall ~t::'> t ht= J i ~~F".1h~d.. Run a black wire tram th~ common llr marked terminal of the second thret:-" .wltcll {IJ r li~1l1 inlH1tll L. .6-16 Thre<e-way iwiW"J wirh ono ha f'dl.WUl' Ijf lighu. as 0\ .. through terminal A.Ilg I1tis oIT.5bdun: trom ~m'RLL over the black wire through )'Wiidr 1.l .--. litre-III can be lr~.and klril_ Such ~\'.-13.lhnm ing euher ~wiH.56 WiRES. (. \ ~~Htch ~ L..'JlJ ~n as usual to the 1igh t w bc 1.---17_ hi lvuh Jiol~F.way S.k pole" ~\. rwr.ay to ~noth er The . the light call b-e aIld nil rru m either ~wn(h.hl Tha t leaves two un L1~c.l n WS uo 11 Fig. Run rhe white WLr~'l-rL ·"<. e.\ inp.:RLE O\'CT the black wire through Swit.. dlld t h e r>-I hghr j.~\I ~e~ ng. of lh~ first three-way swncb..6-15 / Switch :2 Study thl' diagram ofhg.:..l to rhe UI[HI'~(U' or marked terminal.ILt'TnlHul~ (Ii (he second switch. I~unt he blac k wire ITu [J1 ..UI!~ th~ handle uf one switch I. rMJ~ wh i!::n Me 11.1IIiiiII_1 ~ Il. ~I <III IFlg.e ._1_1. Their internal construction is similar to fig...1~_1i---17. and C and D arc the starting points lor the third g.. Usually. III ".lair.~( ~w itches allow ~'Oll III '. in the (j thcr posltion.-lj where t111... The current C<In be traced hom 50T. or it yard ltghl from hOLl'~r. It ~r1' SDufL. Th ree \~..l r ker colo.itches have rhree dlfferenr l!:rmdrmb for wires.l d.6-11 Thf~ ~ho.n Th ree. ~W"'h 1 . AN D GROUN D INCO Chapter 6 CiI~LJlt Diagrams 57 1h".(1l RU. d~ rll~~e diagrams show...-ml}' switches )'O!J can rurna hall light on or o ff from upstairs and .0 rH rL}1.Pm ~ Lrl~. tbe light is now on.l rh eli p. terminal A t~ connected to terminal R.' re nr em e r~ bV ln (I m{' r words.. There it stops an d the Ii ght is off.U1C light :~ ~~itlDff. the.~ III back to esther rig.ltic n nf Til>" h~r1<CI p .e dO'NTl M nd til" ot h~r up.d!1!' a ~-w. bot h ~'1 h~. .p.ln one position U c~- ~ 118 ..lWilLi! 2. Nt1W exanune the dia~t<lm~ of rlg~_ 0-1 f.t!.Trace 'tne current ~!ong the a rrows. 6.. lho!' hI~~J.. Fig. r. I fU11UJ!. 11mthere tt ~[OlK The Hg.~:. 6. (1 [I when Dn~ t"~ h.Cl'J 03.rlr~ fOI the second gmu..ll Uroll h rass.the common terminal A is id c IU i I!ed b} be"~llg .

:h tu t. moe of 4-\>Y.' hgllt i~ on.n~ra~l·pd ae. @ ..1ll~ IJbelt!d A.h 3-w. the four Lerll1i!ldl~ are labeled . ~r~ C. off.:nJ oll another are called runnerv.. 1r.~ lu\e fLJllr terminal ~cn~"" sand du not have O~ .tc h na n dles ill tile po~ihO. the iigh. 6---. u r fn1[ll B of the first 10 B o t the se-cond.6--1~ [If as in fig.:tIQn~a~ ~tt1er~t}'I.u~n&:t1t)Jl~ of tour-wav swuches may ~ as shown in h~.1nJ I.l\der~. nd D.. the h'9h~ IS. III the IGWel di~{ll'<lm.It.. and n Four·way 5. the mternnl {.~i':l'16--21 StJ..:I 1 l OIU ~'\~'il~h .lnl"ol-..t-w~~ ~wirche~ ~r~ .Depending on the manufacturer. 6-1!1 lnr~rna I rOI'1f'enFDn~of one st~ Q' of 4. -o[~--- S{]URCE S()URCE 3-wilV I· switch 3-wa')l .1 wire trorn Rot the first q..[ is on.. um· nearest tho: ~)L'RCJ:: and the other nearest the li£lht.rClI'L tru [ an~ Pl U rn~< mily ba . C .he secr-n d a..5 a.pending on nood_Re(~rtofig.. j(cll~~ .. handl p~ in th~ pos.. CI RC U ITS...i.IH markmg-..:h L)f these figures.W..&-18W idenlifi the IBrmlrlals_ . on r swrtch . ~-. I+u.w w. With (hot:! 4 WdY ~w.ltLon~ ~ho'l'.f~r [0 FIg. erher \'l1U nm . h it.. AN D GROUN DIN G S9 ~'~'.6--20 Intpm~1c[.witch~. thagr-.. Fle.S8 WI RES.OURCE 3-wOly ~wit. [he \~ i r~ rhn ~[.l\' s.. v uches al ail rll:m~umng pomts in berween...r (liagr<lm. .wd 1). use two three \II'.n in tlH~ ~ppe. ur 1~.Two 4 way ~""'rLdle~~:res.~tche-s and the wiF"illf/....li.o term ini! I~. lermill~j~ are labeled A. [If .:lr~ usu .11 m'n. and f(Mlr-\\'. T th e . HI the ow~ r dli!!gram. e. nn rhe h'111Jk~ l-igures 6-18 through h-~ 1 shnw two r\'pc~ [If f'-lllt-\~·~~ "III lFi9. 'Fig.ay switch -.Own H\ ll't~upper diagram. . ll1f (011nected a s sho .... i['l e.:h~."'llY 5WttCt] wil:ll the ha ndlc in~ ho up ilr.. fl... makes no djff~reltc~ .hO'lovn in c..ll· ~WIH.6-HI Four-way s.W IX! id'ef'tif1.oitch wrrh LIl!! hand le in the up i! flO the down p{l~ittQm.I'r\Q <IS (onn€creu ~nown_ With the .. brarsds of .~.•. the ligh~ is on.1-w~)' ~wltd'l FLy.Irl . rnlH-\~"'I' 5wLtlht"!> can be' ideruihed bv the f:a'::i that th<. ~11.t"1k~~ In control a lighl from more than two points.d [h~ down positlons Tire Eernlli'l.n here.. c.um for circuus using e~ch type.

Lnlillg the light r cl small.)ud lines ~~ ... The In diagram is correct only tor so I..He brands: eX<lJ~"1 diagrams usually oom e With ..:h<1f!.j(m~ ~x("cpI I h.:m~ h . It i~ then the same as fig.0.lgra mill r .ifl) d~~IJ ed combi n ati LIn 01 ou Ik Ls ~ntl ~. tr.IrL. me A combination ~w·ncb and pilot light m one device [5 ~ho1.z 3 The ""'lnrtg ~~<!m.nnr WIllI.. \\ heth er single-pole L! or thrce-wav.·d tu l~mHn'll~ I M'Il1 Ii ~If the illllr""'<lV switch: from the other three-war.lgr. and I he ...Iu» -waLL<1gL' and oft .:II~ not ~HfC which t~"pC ol four-wav switch YDU have. ed H some . ~n make .hJ [ d Ifft:reF1tty ..$ { "!I!'.n:mgc ~OITll' uf thr ~.:o.1Llrt:uil The foul·-~\·~) ~"Ill h rn h~. .. Add the wires ell 5ho. f>-22.each device.u till' ~'r~LJi • .1 re m inder rh at the un seen light ill l'ig.50 WI Flit:.. AN D G F::OU ND! NG 61 Ot:&ler diagramJ!I§<lnd c.. Next run hlack wire ihcavv bTUk~I1IHlt' I.... if H'tL have lbl. The whlre wire runs to both lamps.l\ J he fOL!r-W'i'lv~"" .ILh HI l"i1ol..J ia ~r.."111111.'I1 Fig.'.['J1. ifvou r"rll<"l[lbe.I black \~In:~ l}~fw een rhe ""'it<:hcs that wn~rollh.e of ~ ((Jrflhln.Won pslot light and ~·tch Ano~her tlf~f'c1 miqhr OP '.ombina~ions Y~'IL I\'it! hale little difriculrv making a d i. run ~ldd.besrc cert o~ Fi9.ml D n] the tour-wav switch.1tIRU.:\lcn owld.':S ~hpWH ill ~ll.:CE ( Pilot ligru ~ ~ SOURCE . the I~ght often left on unnecessarily The prohlem Llftell 00. try one ui. i~~h4~WI'Iill .. the blacl.. 6 "/ except there are two lamps instead of h\'e. Some: have ~ II~hl 11m is (m whii(: the .ln. I'>-~n I~ ~h(l\'o II III . the other .t J..it!CI'[J.-21. ~wltch.S arv connected to terminals C and. ~ In lin '\nl J(l Fto each outlet t. as the pilot light il:>df.~ Iht~ ---'. from \". and the iockey legs fro m rh e other three way a re co n n ected [0 term mal.~L lUI.lJ\ diJ rIO h. 'fi-.You .. nrsr locate each oUII("1 I~'h~r~esired and run the whilt' win: IliglH hne d li[. Irnl11 0111. Irllin one. wire from rhe <ru ~n rllih In Ihe ~wildl ..J.fC involved.. fo-l..e thi~ •••• from each outlet UlrHl"nlled b~ .. (r21....is lI~·llill. H~'. chex..h rim black wire (n{'~~')' line [ike thi~ -1 .. uuilet finail}. the d iagram of Fig.k .. 6-5.J.T .. hut this will not ~H~"i. back Lu Si.'U . I po~~1iurl10aid in lilldLnf.~llW11and an ic lighrs in hOUlt'!> MId h'l}'Tltl. both lights a [I:: turned on The pilot light serves as .three-way switch arc runncctcd W terminals .](~...6-0:Z::Z (I' a point h'Qr.rhe 11~~k wire fwrl"l the ~wilch r L..J.FJg.:' \. ~witch o1f~ l'Jnr1L'~ I.. Th e wi ri 11g i~ shown Ilw .:ll m hy ~~mll~ cIll\nCoC.. 111-= lwo fll<.~\'~I"U~lt III I If!..lrn: it u doe. D 01 the lour wav. ORe UI rs." like lhj. I hen run a blackwire lb~·J..' I hr~-.·n II nlOL y h ave to r~.].I. There au also switches having a ~maU pilot li~ht iL1 the handle.)~ wor].. ~h~ 1 t~~ ill hll..J. h ILl rhe xwirch [hat contrul. H.s. the same time. i~ on..h at G nut c« ntrul bi bv ....L:E W I.irsl look <11 Llj~gr~rli wIHI~" diGrrg.J3.~\'oIitdli~ lrlllw ().. t 1~\I~lLg done Lbill.::-". rung ~·!Jrmcdil.' proper operation oi the hook-up... the principles covered ill Lhi~ . With hd.! Il~ lu both b IIIps. fi-. tu I educe rh f' amount of wire used.h ~""'11.. ehe ~WLI(h in the dnrk.. "LiY1er.1]1". from ...lW lighh irrbarns. lnstalle pilot Iamp) ncar the switch so that. SOuf...~ II I I Lfght controlled switch ~ Pilot light bulb ThE.~'IJin dotted lines and lt becomes same as. If dUt<e-\\ ~\ switrhe.. i~ Pilot lights \\'nen a light can't be seen from the switch that controls it. the ieckcv 'C1':..rrn i~[mi shed. Jl and (" 01·rhe (iHlr-\\(I\' swlrch If \'DU .ol.I ~\\ II...:."'" [WI. I f I II J"'l.. . I he IN:kt·~·leg.

e nuld to strong surprise.]J'J.r~ I h I~ b thE: \I'ire In~L rLltl~ imm th~ 5.-dtb It the g.'C IACLln-S.:<111 be subject to deadly 2.~inlo( d~":!rode (onduC'lor: H i~ u~uJJI\' hare..rClu1Hl rod.>e'S s tatal shecks.shock A milliampere I:.YSFOLlo\ . A current of I rrulliampere through the hod" I~ lu-t harelv perceptible Currents trom J tu l:! milliamperes ~illl .n~ 'lhrrlLlf. TIm Chap[el di~CIL~~~!h~ b~sic pnncirles ilt grounding The pracii~~1 dc-tails.'hen It IS i><wj [h at something is" groll Hdoo .an bot: . bu:.'"...1Llsing rhe shock.ITT\' ~(cidefttal If' ltage mto th l" rnr'L n lnil' . 111J oonduCllw path ill s..I 10 ea{ h Olh er md hrw II~' tp grf)U nd.1llbdl£ f..lIrety HO.ll be mined... ~UIJ 1. II~uaJk U~H"1\ b. 2A.:i~..lIrellb trorn B tu l) milll... the irnl ivu:l U.1b!e to let ~n ~11d ~N free oi the ubJt:(\ ~h1l~I~ c. S~'." This arrangement is Illustrated allhl.ter vnltag.u yOu ~lrIJ~T~tand i.w it means m.<~&-lU travel into the earth WLd'l(1U1 C~tI~LHg serious Injury to people or darn~g~' W the \'t1TIl!1g . Actuallv.. Glro.~tern gro und [n~ i~ for I h e curre L1t carrying wires rn ~it mstallation Eqllipm~lll grounding j~ flJr J'~r1' thai do not carry ~mr~rH ill the tilstolllation-I]wy M<"H~l~d under 'GwllmhIJ.~pro perl} grounded f y.:I becaw.. G Rem N 0'1 NG B.But for r mM. For-exa 1l11)1~.lCln' AJW/\.TOunding per IIIwughout the sys tern ~r~~i 1y red HO:~ the d ~J]ger.. NiT calls the rod and Wal~r pipe "grounding electrodes. CI. the highest \'nll~B-t' i of ~ ~h~~rk will be much more than 24fl ~'(>h~. one -thousandth ut ~n iHlwet~ (fUll) I arnp].1 shock trorn a much Inl.]cc could surv ive shock from a circuit of 60(1 ~flh~~nd more. I \~ ~ W~RES •.. grounded." i11 yom installatiu n..lrt' Llmmulalrd \\ire..l:i milliamperes are tik~l\ to lead W "muscular frl'~lX.mJjHg un .round water ~rst('m Th".:h i~ IHn. while the victim ~~standing nil a cornpletclv dr~' surface wi!1 result in fe WH millia mpcr'·~ III an .." much tess than 2. Iiml [i !lg. Ihoe .f gre-..the l"lIl I~ i Il ~tillb I' i u m cllvC'reJ in th is in book-th .bngC'r of shock. r~'~Uh!!lf!.E 5HO(KS. rules ar~ rd~li\d\' ~jmpk. !.:aIT'I'lng mel ~ I f'oLrb I condult.s (Ht~e!ll wire" on rh~' nt~l1t p. Ground For the wiring lustallarlons me or i\n insrallarion that is 11m pr(ll'~ d r grounded can present an ext renlc .I) impertant it is discussed reptil1. think It ! a h.<. that is. are unpleasaru.are mWT~i~ in rhr rll"n dlJpter un lmt.i~h In ing stri kin g on or even nea r ...Jl UI n!! eleamde I whi. system.round rods and grouIld d~mp~ and Sof'kning the ~urn:'ct gWLlnd w:ire SLze. Deaths ha ~c bee il G! used by shock Iru m I i rc I.lllmg the s. ~1~. . Grounding for s.400 ""'11115. The ~r]l"Uln of current Howi.ll!d motors..erVK~ ct'LFMI~(· l Lirfl u 11 dlrlg f~ll s into two ca lq.uppusc J. the shortest pm ..h [he hod v determines Ih¢ effeci of a.diniurie«. to the f!' ro W rH1.rily ~1. [l." Properh' ioincd lUlldber •• heyform a "groundmgelecuode ~ysr:em. If the system j~ prnp~·rh' grounded.etH ~ i h rou{!bo Ll t thi 5 book Be cerwin 1h.l.tl i cs . They all refer to deliher6ely connecting parts of a wiring inst alla: ion lo the earth.h""JY~ [. \ ~hod: fro m a.but \ItT.Chapter 7 ':E .Ou..W DANG'E'ROUS AR.i~ v~llMg~thai C~U.rs. the connectiun is made to sonieth i11~ t ha~ ~~i"V(:'S<is the earth= .::rrHirlfllogy and describes the [lI[l~h(m~ofthewires and oq II i pme. Currents nve. {'UntiJ1UOH~ conductive path that (I]JLJ\I"~ excess current to travel Hl~n [he earth.~~ ~1 A wiring installation that .! bu~t~)m of Fi:i!" ~-6.. ! .~ a ncl circuit breakers. terms ground. 1 f1i~ 1~nn] neces ~~. much depends OIl CHAPTlER7 Gl'lounding for Safety HECTl:l..ll:1o:!" Bonding (or bOfldlil!!d~ B-onding rnt'<LTB L.. from defecnve equipment.U nltt...e to sorn L'UII!:' ~Ia 11< h tl g In wa ter. and wiring and applidll't:"S . The water pipe is pan of the building's ~Hltlerp. n discussions concerru rl)i elect r i C~ f \\'i ring ~'(lU will reguJariy meet the..400-vult shocks.111atlQ"~ h nme~ and tam] b u ilelm g:s.milliamperes that woul~1 t10w IIIro up..llnl·cr~. including IfI:>t.afely • . and damage !(I ~ppli<lll:r~~..ervic(: eqllipm':ll1 ~n the s. rfl~ :O.a meta] rod dr i ven d~'~plyinto the g_rClun d an d metal piping that is pan of an undeegroun d \V<lll·r system. The. -11H:: purp~~e of gwundlll~ i~.n}1.fire.t thoroughly.. S sihle pClth ro rhc earth. the higher the number 01.s fo r !!fn U[ld i ng ne C'x. How to hdp the victim of a shock is discussed (In page~ 7-S. Curren ts over 75 mill LfI'1\1'eI'c~ are almost ...~ SPE MuS! pt'"ll['l<.I' means underground metal water pipmg connectea Because grou nd Lng i~ :. b olt line accidentally f~II~ ross YUill 120f24U volt se rvi ce d u rii 'g ~ storm.AS·ICS I hi&·~~Cli·[]ll detinesgrounding lI. . the rerm "ground" to a d[LV.rod driven mto the earth is called a f. allows excess electrical curreru-e-such as trorn ligbmmg SltlJ.h the body under a n) ~ iveu let elf eire Llmsrances. If the system ls not grounded. The highrr the voholge. AIN D GIRO U!'!IIDI N! (ii..ten5ive and SDmen III ~ ~t'r: n ~T11bjguQus. and Jl'jJtmdi'l~.~ 5.f.al dilHl c1gc I() yuur wiring and your appliances ••m d il ran cause tire .1 dry ~urf.." whICh prevents the victim train leniflg go and often leads tn dea rb.{ hi gil vohagc line can CJ:1l.-~urr~nt .ll it is wnl1eLled to ground..0!lnecting normalk IltH. bUI u~~Mlh The victim i!. the rrsk UfMWd.l.r1)llnl.01'1eS..: it is btl nN 1111 he earth I.1 1'00 forming J.J i t~ cons iderabl y below l ZO Wllr~. while semcorrc ~1. .relat ivd:high vOII'lf:.I re used to indicate wl_trd~ ffl r which definitions ~r~ provided and to help diHl'fl'nl iate ~mollg simjlar-iooking I~nn~ covered m this book.und lIII. but c.. The J ~JL \'t( . t~ml1ndi rlg I-"tilj ta tcs proper fun ction i 11g fllst.lJ I 1Ilrm I EI~rtrri'~1 Codl:' CVECl ml .L~ uivolved.II a I.

:.'C"ll . ch hn Iii. a toaster.e !'l'9h~< h igh-l'o'atMg~ No!.[conductor.rr•• klll at the mntact P~)H1L if ~. louches a g... i1l1. the nutle: boxes in which ~.d ucrer where it L~ bonded 10 I he ca binet. C IRCUI rs. espcri.' ilTlt'.-h h 8\'~ J -gruundl'u ncutra I WI I e.·r .:'Ir~ nsfor mer serving the build j r~g..~ 1]1 rhe servi ce f... grounding o win' . or cable with a metal 8rnWr. Pro per grounding i nvolves ~. hOl'h al IlIt· Ir~mtonnH and . to l~rnp~ 0T appliances.V. I.appem iII mrd!. cond u it... hich b II~ tUI n connected 19roLmlkd) b~' means of [he ground wire [uthe water pipe and gru und rt III rile power supplier a1~ll g. The se. o A grnund fallJt r'f5ulb wht'n ~ hHe pomt in a bOI \~rre.:~p"'CNld~ t. circuit. :i. T~e gruunJmg v.e. green \v ~th one Of more ye IInw stripes. The . are discussed L11l p<lg.. to the ser \lIL~ r. Nou: Any Ihi n ~ r hat I~ connected to a cL[n~H .'iil.. or bare _r It thi. or if a hot will: Lum h{~~a hare p"JLIlt in a ground<"oli cir£uit wire.. 'lOur rnk oj ~hOLk ~Ild danger trom a fJuh. Of . when the load is b.md ut .::nl but do .mua] phnLcal Qlllt~It[WI..r. ~ 1.n!: ~{Jrtc.. r1o<'! '.:x. ts uot J neutral: then:' ~1~1lI'Ot 1 neutral in a t""o-~\ rre crrcuit..h III het at a point wh~'rc bULh ~!r~ hare. at a h'T111I11al or splice.1l 1 !. it rot!()W_~ [hat if Y(Jll wul'lt ~H exposed grounded Wkr{. including the iuoo mi n ~ service wi re~ that run frum the rower suppl iel"~ I ranstormer tel the bu i ld 11'l& j o 1~~ served. Uillr iWI WIres run to 240-vult klJd.. ~rll' ductor).!..'erconst tHJt~'S a "load" on the ci IT U Ll. llb i.!" separate ~roum::!i1Jgwire nHl~ 10 .latiun "ill ckr1:'nd IHl the :5ur!':. and tn the ~q!Hf'mmt grounding If ~tl~ om 'Grou:l'ldled tw:hite) wire In.ll hlnw or a circulC brt"3k. \-l. L.. -1 l... ..~components u1 the' installation tfM nermallvdo not carr v ~urr<.J.J. is grounded service e~LJipm(:m This is ~ n eutra] wi r._~ { __ .iliywhi(f J that 1101rn.pp~j<ln.~ i.J win: rTluM nH'l without mterrupuon wall equspment operating <LII ~n.~.hort (.i r-tHut ('If <l1'm. \'011 Me in effect also touching the gro u nded wire.1-1 lti~ po. 111.ircuih...." lr i~ b.u'fl represent. ll1 ~~-jDf'~1_ h 3--wi Fe -n]1: gruundL"li WII'~. irenlm with Ih~current-earning : wires. thl~'~ rhe wire I u5u.l1l.rill~ W~Lem ur the appljance. (i.uw people call it .ill yi f I h~ m rds .il'~ ilil nc(urs at [he poinll1[ ~OI'ln6C[lOrl_ his mITl~ nappo!r1s tIl the T actuaI .illl r!p_ i Fig.~IlJth~ (..f...l~~"<n'.ing Ofm neL1i 0 Il~ (j rc made.O red ca hie.lU[~f because the grOli nded o wire and the pipiIlg are onnected to €aeh other.e d'ng (gretH'll wi~@ Tt. L S.~:___ 2~()V VI']res .. \.~4{)-liOh loads ~unless the conduit f1T the armoruf armored ("al-ll~ serves as the :STOLHl d mg.:' lheo ~hur iudCh ~u c h a~ 'ange a M ror a vultagE!' l24{1 V)fOf .~ Il~d !er !t'r Wn[l!!'C[(Dn to qro\ln!j nlC Ji~~rMI11~ 111th!. vDHag~ f 1~O \I )Fol e'r 10.r(lLJn ds the neutral uf the 1 nco min g service wires at Lhi. nlt.: In. and the metal wllduil ur lhf'annor of armored cahlc.sconduit..e"!._n/_l r.:~ Ln~tallnll)ilS a~ well .'lllllll n ~n L CJ hinet ..wlec\ p<lrtJ(l[J Qj the Jmc Lin th€ [Igh[ slde ot ~8dl rli.mJ (luns LI mel> p(}~..W IRES. COJ('If hur !!f~ll The gtound wire L~ bO!lLj~d ~~ithrn the service eqoiprnem enclosure to rh~ I')l'lLlr .X: ~:q uiprncnt .:' . t"XCcpl as the groundr Hg wi re i r] ~ cirrui to J n the I. The ILtild In ~~ht be a motor..d the conditlOn ~m. )lnr~ r~p resented could he ~ Ilher fre'·E .l~ ...._n~. the "identified ~<'lldtll'lUI~ The groundea I~HC' must m:WT" be rused or .:-n ca. connected to it.Hin n. .:mdntt.lning it is non -(11rTent-Ldrr~'. an I:Ig reu nod'fa"-llts 'Wiireosfroom tn!msformew to build:ung Figure 7 1 ~how~ ~hl· power 5Llpp]ier'_~ t h nx wi rc s-lIlbe led A. !he main fused service Sl. yO~Jr f.J. AND G RO U NDI NG (ll(lpter 7 Grounding 1m Sa({'ly fi5 insul.. 1h.l[lJing..H ~ n' ~h"lt" wif~:>_ ~ elI wi foe~ C~fr\ voltage aoo\'e H lem.L calls it the 'equipment grounding conducror. H 86lrl ..'1:.WilO!tdge load~.r .[['.2.ue b~dJ)" worn u r ~b [j.:.:1 e lS a load. If the' neutral WiTC is proptrlr grounded both at the transfonner and at the building. '."1111 lh(" l~ffcd L~the s:ame: ~ fi. WURCE B __ ~~~~'~~~ ~l_ ""I1r. .~d~ m~falred :systcm.J" receptacle is not n luad. 4.ned ..1 (In) U lulmg WLm. groundt·r/ wire.i~ f~IJll_~ cnndi I i ~1n 5 ij n wllldl ~hn[k ca.11L~ ire co n nected to 1110: "lI1U \'0 h ere the Tk'Ulfal r \~ f 'ol:rn" ~Ild_~ III the service cqurprnent I~ ~lmplf... . insLaJ.wire CiICUi.. Grolll!'ll Ho'rwe~n the transformer <llht the ~erYI(C cquipmcnr.~ honk iL will be called si mph· a..s m 8 receptack or ~Wl1 . or b"th blJck hut n~\~f whi[f' Ijr gTC'li'n. is us L1JJllv black ..:l'.n the' r f I \lin hClt wi res toLl. ~nd tr..~ an d B Ll 15 ~40 ~'nll!o. rhe grounded wire Sf J~ iI ~H~ul ~] wire _I n wiring a hlllldlll~. no harm f{Jllo~\~IW shock-anv ruu re thel n if 'rDU touch a wale r pi r~ r a f. For bmiJ ~ho rt (I rl..:ul1 a Ild gr("fU oJ 1. The-e romponents include the equipmrnt grounding f}Ll..nre~ of ~ pru~... p m en L The SEC ...:mgt" and clothes washer..1 neutral bIll I. which is bondedto the enclosure and conrrected to [he neutral busbar i fur al] the white wires). pro tected b~ d t:! rc u il b reakcr or mterrupted h\· ~ w"i l<:h.. wh i ell eve r i s installed).. to the service enclosure.\ erv part (}f the inM.. bLH <tfl}'Itt ing plugged into Lhe rt'ct'pu.11allduring normal operauon.:~M· f wiring with metal.nr b1:'1 w("en B :md S_ is 110 volt~.1a 1][1 wh.. <}r ~r{l u n d_ 0 n(. bUL Of[€ll n..lS such isnctinstalled separatelvbccause me conduit nrthe arrnor ofthe cable serve as the groundi n!gcm.. ~he miJLor ~ WLnctmg.~.Janced (J.\\'L[.6I. frames {1 f mornrs f rarncs or appliances such JS electric r:..::tlon !Jit15tr. gl'een wrre _It must 11ev~f be used for any purpo~f. d.l.lrrv currcru in case of danhlge (0 ur Jd~n in the w..ilh' car d ~~~urrc nt and is con nected Tn ! he gr(l rnrrl at the service ·ctll.-md"".J. h ll:.oun ding '(If 1 :iil(l>-vo~~ n d .'\1~t!HJ ppUei ~tt\~ dlffer~m vortage~ U~l: !hl!!' IO.] U.vil.hllfl o. ~uch ~s V.~hHe' the win:' .".n (KClLr...hmlhHIl t)r pM1 of an .rounlkd ~OH1 poncn! ~tiCha. an d .ed Ulll11NJed building's :_.!b~ll·d . 11:..hut not to anything operaung flnlr in :40 volts.. ..'>' i !'-'l u r the circuit -hi breaker p~ nclboard.1.. t ht· . ( Three. I L must be green.:he_~or receptacles art' irl~L8111:'d. h ~'qU al It ~[..40"'~oh IOiU:b a Fhe ground <.:-ahinet-t h~ IT n of rOUI el ectr i cal i11~' a 11 I ilJn-L~ C~ a own ere the rnai n groUJId. Grounding at the servh:1Il! equipment i\'~ the service equipment all i he ~Inunding wires arc connected to an equipment grounding hushar..11 'I_anrthing i consurmn ~ power _SW1KhH do not consume pnwer and therefore arc not loads.. f Tnf' \ olta gc ber\\'ecn A . ~Wife tha t docs not C3 r r)' cu rrrru . AIlY lime ~nu touch 11pipe.tlkt r~J.:h. h:n run from th e tla tl~ furrTl~r 10 the buitding.

'.. it j~ nor uncommon for breakdowns 111 Th~ mtcrnsl iH~~JI~ucm QI it motor to rr'~lLh in an accideu t~1 electrical oonnecti on bet ween t he wind IIlg ~rl d rhe frame L)f the.H at th~ fuse Iocati nil.. and lhrough.cci(it-n ~al ~rou nd OCl w .:').. A_~ . "-'i whi~h 5how~ llw ~me motor as in H~. t:'"rnal ~ound O(("U"~.. c I~ thE"" t 1.1 CUHJ I h.. I he same s.] potent iJlh' J ~l1Igem IL!.fecrrve wbcre il enters th e jUI1dlOII !"lox of [he motor 50 Iha[ one of bare wires in the cord touches rhe frame.it uauo II arises if the motori s fed bv . ~hrm n tn Fig.lJ:ld Lhl' mutnr [S fed bv !nt circuit wires.!: a ~hcl'Lk up to 120 \ohs 3. AN D GR OUN DING Ch a pter 7 G r ot.WI RES.. Il..Ill' blown fuse. n~ !.l~t(diJ'lh1rngigfoum'-p.ClioJl tlO)i on the motor can lead to I h e same me .. rill a 120-yoh shock through ruur bodv to the earth.<I \.ilt L~(L. If the fuse bl.!n)UndJrj~ """1r~ t . I III .! Fu~!? tnor blrwm) .f the motor becomes hot. to th~ fr.l conssderahle dNJIKC from the Inn ~(}T. .mtected NL''''' see Fig.-u r rent """ll 1111\'0' overtbc gf(lumb rig . \'('11.mh back tn the neutral wi re t [he service equi pmeru _ .."TI hJSC _ J f }'ltU III Udl rim' "f the wi rl?>.ire It "'. Whal happens If..ht erounded wire or nearest the hOI· wire. ..lndingfm S-afew 67 vn IJ are 01"1 an absn] W ~h' d ry surface ~'L)U \\ III not~ li rue shock.. in motor Gra u no connection at ~eMce eq uipme nt .:- J -.~ f t h ~ motor.:Cldelua!1" comes [11m ..If''und connection would b~ at the service equtpmeut ~dbin. a sloppy splice berween the c ircu i t w i res and the.·ire Ln~lt'"aC!llfl h~'1l (I[ wi reo The m mOT wi 11 opemte 1'"'r.Ir then.""cd J CtLJ ~~ I 20 ~lIlt~ olfld olS .o.'d.' S('(· FIJ.! me 0 f the mo lor becomes hot..\.~-----. n.rotectM :-'0'.. vou . [0 thE fiC-UU-uJ ~ rl' in \'()U r ~l \ I4:C t'"CIIPi P ment: .<!rrl . (blo ..!.'W<! ~huck or death..!!. r f ~'Otl oln:' standi DE!..mu tor. bh" • he fu.1i.1t'I e~non at !he ~r\ ke S'I" il (h. s Intact.ing (or cord) 1 and tram. n] Fu~~· wirE!' The ~"me defcc~lve motor <IS ~I~.r 120-wlt ci r..It. in . touch ing . Hl U d r~ J i rm 1" .I!'I1ce. 6'rOU.1.('d thm ugh d1c Il1ll ~nr J nd up to tlL~ "]~ j\'.. ri9' 7-4 The same' motor <is In Fig 7-2.\.~ lit Fig..\.. p lac@m@nt fo.I The same circuue..! re 11n J damp su Mace I as HI a 1>.~ LIlJ Ill.H111<' ~·irn1it is ~tJJl et1~~~w..u the puiru marked G the \h.::th e motu r. 11~.id~Fl(.w in. )to II ~ n:ldm tall r [Ouch one n f t he wi res at the ~el'rt'lll'W b of the motor? Nntllirl~ happens DN"1Lmethe ~irCll. \\ non ha p p~n~? Df'P~Ll J lI\~ on t wlw[ her the io tern ~ll ~m und bee weeri ~\·im:ljng.:-home to in~~~t..i~.en l"L. Hth~ fuse bllm~.(0 n n ec red to th e 9 roundsd neutral end iI ruse (orre(tly placed. But if the ruse j. ra:f..i\'7.I..om~nmes ].1t -irc. fL~S Irllo! been in~ta'IIE!od from tn€! Fmmi?(lfth~ moto r to grolJnQ.l1-mlt motor .touch lhc hut .l1 i~hot onlv up to ... groundin~ wire t.=XLCP' lbe mlnrmum you ""'JHt~cc:...H blown and ~DI!. The entire f r.elt \<.h.'~raling.'Lfldmg msule [hi' motor . That clv~ lint prevent the motor from ~l. so II i~harmless.I.(uiir r..t' 1~~t r i cal contact ~ i I h the rramc of i he rn otor. l -\~1 u.. sho .. 111De killed AHi... B~IW("(..r-~. ~.h~ ~rllumta/ ".et. i~u IT' 7. I he other wire 10 th e motor i~grounded.1I1 inspecting the m 1110J . ~L"'" nm bkl'L·~·.Adi n!J ilml fu sefb reaker Acddm't(lUn. vuu win rfeci."" ruo.'lctbecomes til.. You are prorecred. the motor .I Jam p or \\ ~t JOC':lliOIl..~ ~n the i~. 7-::'. EY~r'I tt"lough the w~nding is accijE'nldll~ glounded to the fr~me. If.. Hld.}1 ground ing (l·f the winl{tifl~ to th~ flame. although rh ere nught be an addition al fiN' t near the motor. 1 4.l!~(lof1 Hot Hot fi!!j" 7-5 Fig...~ ~[the WLf~ had hr. .·'uer \ ()~I will undergo cXl~. b1l1 pmw::tl"t"i h~ ..·\lI ~ so that . Ihere I~ no ~hod..(lll ~Il mpletc the ~ir~LJn thmugh \-"11 u r bod v back tu ihe ground fd wire. (Grounding wi fe not yet m~td!lE'd. h. '":S.k[('I.. the . ihll suppo~e the motor is . nuatio n ~i n ce shocks of IrI uch less Lhd n 1~(j volts C..~TO~'5.. Hot ~ ruse (blownl )-. In thehot wire. I r t~.sc..'1th h~ 'vlHl._ fiL..-rlv.mt ll~ fTc! me.eJ.e II. '.. in.€I'l'l:re.eram imtd.f!l!'..ul.ll the tuse and the mornr 1iLl' wire ES now dead iU~l J..Olw f atal..7-2 A 1200-\1 motor W[tft 9 I oundsd W.. but now d grounding .l. EV(:[1 I r !h~ fu.n<!"Cted to the ri-al'rl~of the m tH( 'r and runs ba{"1-~ I Ii"l ~ ground (en1.]ced in t. fIQ.. a1wa~~ stand U n J rv boards \\ hen \ 0 U rnus t work in .lh'ill}·S.m.w !H ~t .mJ r rarne is at OJ pm nt nearest t.lgh lh~ j. it I~ a da n9'~(oU5 in~td 11~~ion"" .I result: the Lr~ me n. -:. DUI ~lJ~lp{lSifvou . but the 1110IOr is defp. As <I result.~ shows a 1:!ll-vuh muter with the !:'lmuIlJ'r~J wire connected Tu '~lt'grounded neutral of the service-equipment ~[lcl.Jly the ruse and the !." F'llIs.:.p1Qcemoll~teJ"ra..~ f1J~Cin the horwue.7-3 A 120-V motor with ~ fUSE? wrongly pi i1L~d In th~ grtJu nded \"'Ire.. -4.~ moiOf smp>. ncar the m mOl as s IlmQ1.re co r rect I y .:L ~d(t'h· precaution..ctive_G represents a n aa:.onne. "grounds' . Th~·grounding wire' h~~ not be~f't installed.. as r'epre~~nt~d b~ G. 1hi~ I~ a daflg.~ il ~~()ck.mTlrlt"1r the circuIllnruuj{h \ 11UT p[1d. and ~I \WN . which ~~111. (I RCU ITS.~he e.thr.lr1h.f/HilfmHJI'I!flII:-'IIRp. Mowr Winding..1serncnt J vo U h LIIexperience ~ severe sh ock. ~ the same I :l. me.1 . i~ no CClI.e j$ W n m~ly pJ ...

1l~ 1(i~I~'t. ~ 'T cable wnh d mt'l.iJr:!ltol!' gf1ollJl'II... roll nding g . vuu will snll receive .1 ground to conduit Con.1 d II it...Gr'CHlllda t service ~quIJlm~nt A{'Cid~:Il~ bewm~" Q'l'\ound-prn.]. m~llUr in Fig. ~ . il there i~ an ..H ~'1I~1 touch both hen wil'~~...lm~ ~~ Flg.~". ~hQd huZilrd is avoir..!v not be used tor unv pm pose nther than the g[(~u.. een one 0 r the hot \.nlJ.lIh~ ["jc(".L' required ~ rith a f~i~ur circuit breaker.~1 ~".e~ot cable +~h rlr !l.~.]d of l::!fI ". the ~"S .ire is then required IfLh~re Jil nowan<lc'.lbk Jclq[1!dt:~· h.lm-= l~ ~l ounded... ine cond ulli s 9 rounded both at the ~~rvlce eq u lpm 8"t cabinet and to the motor. U."ji 1>lIJ'€.:.l .I.1TITH'lrJ ' 11 h. the wtu!t· 'rounJe'1i wire does lhlt I LII1 Lu the motor. " r~ lnsta I&~tia'll..e.dly !o{ID~nded lO the f[.YSTEM5 The ~ n HJ J mg \'o1U from the fra 111 e ~If 1h~ mota r (or rrorn a I~y • trb~f Illl rmallv no 11 l tl rren r-c rrvinj.L ~r~ t iscu ss when :J !>ep8 r 0If~ J:!rI I ~JflU mg wire mU5[ I--e In %1 Ile-d I f III ctul COil duit pi .JlL}I~n i. A fuse WLU Jmml'(II'W·h hlpw ~\·helhe..nr .u' . t ugh the earth.o)m~" dLLlti['nl.11d the race'\'>'. """rvt:~ thc .:e'\.Jled -a{"ci(kn.HlJ ..7-8 wire <l~ (jmundl"9 FL'!l.J~~.}'l).LlIIL (Jhl.u th~ ~I ~ Ice ~Ulpment . the .J.UtH.r. Fig.. illl:~~'ent\' 0 t t be shock V(lU receive rrorn tou(h'l1~ Ih[· fr..:' otor m ~~ope-ram..j.au.. 1re d.-. ~M~]'11h':l ~hl. AND GROUNDiNG Chapter 7 Grounding for 'Safety wi II p n)~~ t \IOU because I [ ted Il~~" III c volta g~ be twee 11 the fr..! lilt: uri he' motor to ~lLhsl~.use ~h8 9 roundmq wi re nes 1'101 beef} ifllstalled...... 7..1 ~r~ autom~lic. .. . Green wn e m..rened As:sum~ flldl III . \1 ire.-~..<~I. B€ca...1bl It hlo\'''_ I-_\'en If a fuse does not blow. hec..llld [)lug).d'iny . \Ir. bUl a gmundlng Wif~ h.... and n fu.._ Tmtdling thf" rr'.lanr" II jn~ methuds t 115~·n'....~ s Ir1 meta IIic conrhtjt Dr metll!ll~ ~rmorere used to instal! the motor...·~.tJ V!LaJl[1~ ~lf Ih~ molOr hr. iJ I recen ~ " .i)'. Ilh.o:ll'@dlciiIb~e Consider .!CI-\'oh . E~~nthough the Winnif1g is aCCl[je'r~[dlJ~ grolJ nded to the fl'~ITlf'.. also Ql11 necred [0 the motor itself (assuming that the motor IS nul WI'11 ected by J tlcxibk..:! l) YO lts: )11e.orl hen.l will he completing the cito.(mnect~d tu n g"Olmd er 5~rvice equiprnertt HDt ~~---.ndm.Iw hot wires of ].LLI .>(' will blLl\\ Dr the rircuu breaker will trip regardless tl[ wh.:1"1..Hlnlt:l.:rh v_mumkd .h~e3ke r ille 9 rounded wire dOE'S nnr run to 240-V 10<705.ll'(Uwre.'"(Il. Bw if you rouct unlv one ofthe wires.. eh e re must be hare p I~(<('. 10 qround._l~)r . which Ju e ~ no I h.olL~tinn~a.(' ktw~'m life <lind dC:dlh_ short each ci rcuu 0 the I~'~L~' l ur. IJI I'rI l<hJ~~ .·~..Ll':[rnUlCl the circuit.[n tJJ mn~L 'u~h ~J:-e~ . hack til ~Ill" grounded n eut rill III rtil' r SlT\. C J. G.L~ II).t'f the <hurt i. b ho: wire protected .se mighl remain Un.1t m such . ~~.. .r a'rm.md MO volts can be the diiTert"[l..r. CIRCUll~. 7 -9 W.r. a ~ "e presan ted by G. umduit or anno..ty or · Mmllr :J.40~voltcin:uit '\uw refer to I'L~.l ud€~) .: ~h~. ire5 and the gT{)IJIl~!. but is r1~v"rt].t'Dl'ldliillctQrS jl.~ bcrwc ..r~ COtHlcc[{"d ~~1t~iH h ()Ihn and w the gTUl.. itich shows 8 ~·Ht-"Ltlt motor installed wirh . .n riPI~' II t the hot WlI~S and the g. A <11 con~idcr. Ihn..du. -.rlHH1 d ~J II. U the 00 ami': I~ puor.'}Adill!'anta goesof meta I conduit WhLCh all I he \\ I res 8 re installed Sep..lr{'ld hh the ground }"'u ~~ ~1~. No :'<epaf<llI(.1me a s touchin g the flm Llnded wire an d Ik r . .lIrlt' III' L.5. .:lclclll~1 J?.. df:'ii[i assuming that .j hl~ "-.e~ ba IT' U runsul ated WI re.~'~'ra~L~ 121) Of :-lu \·Dlt~. f1'l r1l1" I nent J rna ~ be green or In ill 311\' ~"'.'j .It i:.l ~l1r 101.'Llll through Vi:lUJ hn.ROUNIDING (ONSIDltIRA1IDNS FOR W'IR~NG S. III a!l\ of the situations Gl'olJlnl:hig and fuse/breaker P'~iI'{)l!ml:mt for 2.:-.lrmoJ' I commorrly n:l~fred tu as 'BX"}_ The racewav or arrner igrounded <H the 8~n'!~ e equipment.m ~. lJy zero as WiU~.Remember tll.'W ~.!. heck uf only [. It I~ d ~d AG(idcm...q_) h~I[ WI rr...falLll iurrs...!~ been 7 In. uf fiE=~' 7-~ Ihr~~lL~h"j B.rr1\ 1\\~' II jf..llh" dl~cln~~"C.t ~rr:-.WIRES.cord .n Fig.If l"'_'hyt'l..1.)m~\<.1 will he completing the circuit fr none hut I.de~~ grounded iii the SCf icc equipmeut. in: W the other.se the gRlumkJ .uck.. in~~~ll I nr ou ht' L •• bl ... nr between Lhl l.JtI~d from molal . I J. flg.'-6 A 240 V motor with eactr ho{ wire correctly p fOl~c ted by f.tll'. short circuit.-ill prnb.J:y: metal pi pc ("-<I llcd (0.as me sam ~ dl~'ll ••.1dme (In.lnd f[orn wlndingto (nl.i g_ 7-1 _The Jiffcrmce between ~hn~~bf 1:. . You will not recervc a hock pm~ id~J tf1dl J rcallv good lob LlfhnliLlmg WJS JLH1C at the serv . rh e strod h~Ulrd f5 mlnirnlzed. VI~L.r [he motor .r~ ru:o d Iffcfent wtres touching Cull v i11 ed j(1 h. is I~~rt... dultt.:t [('aUr gl~Hj ~rLHHhi~". interns' ·r~t"tI\·c. j1 Hot ..Ll ~~II \Ult~ inqe.JTll' lor 10 the T accl>'a ...'H .1 pp eli ve ry orten in ().lln .I~ the gro LJ.l~ in hg. and vnu will receive 11 ~<!Uvolt shock. ....' LC""C cquiprn em! dnd you .umh dUI ()th~n~'.asrnsralled at the service.dE'(! wy t if!r. bulle LI'lt:'tnmr h~~ OCell palJ'<.ll.~ heen gaJ. 7--6.1 wiri II ~ ~y"l·t min i[]a 111~1al r"'-.0 u volts ." IThJfor remlllOS rrr pe:r{!fc! m~dirifln ~~9..:'AUvoh i[l..~ WLf~. r.lL'. . ~ Hot ~ _l_ .h~ o.'! re..illl~ \~ ill hi? limned because the Fr.ndirl.lll The same defectiVE' motor tbetrerne of thi> Hot .

"{ 1 1 h.% or lht' wiring method used. ~Sp~cl<l]lywh~I' uSln(1: co{"1nc:d cquipml'[ll O\EhhH. irons._~ between I arid hmiJlmmp'_'r('~lht'tiH I will ..! n"." wbich hJ5 th.vf(:' 2. n'c:cpt~dC' duplicate:::.h J pcd nperIJ [J ~ leads lu'} green 1('nmr1<1l M:T~\~' rhat In [1.~.. Where '91~ouliildiillgr1i!cept..111 d ~Iot~ for two illQdes of a plug:. lf w. 7-·l0 Pol~rlz~d I!!ceprdcle ~~d plu9. n:!"<1~~ d. hllr'fb.70 WIRES.h~l.iHl_f( L'111ducwr C"-CII \.L~ lh e w.. it ycu nJ.Ie grounding wire' in a three-wire cord wtlh ~ Ihr'e~-pmflfl plu~ anda groundingreceptacle reduces the danger or a ~~lO·rlin some ~'irUHn~~<lllce~. conductor.:t wnh the f.. [. 111~ Lid ~ ils of hm~ to connect CDntin.. ~~ in rig. i-'i.5.-I"..1im L~ i~ i d~.l'ith Ishl .::c~h...ld~.dishwashcr. l'~'t·[J Only one kind ot receptacleneeds ttl be inti l.~ i:lrLUII III . the cOlldil iUrI of t'he GH~r i~a supplementary protection dWl ~CTIst"'S 1C"lkag~currents ~lJosmall [() upt[. 'l he connections tor this wire are e~p!ai[l'.flh~r.d {'I pen.11 ilnv The S EL"actuallv rl.ihh 11(t\\' thr'nugh a person m CQntJ.3 fLl.Ih)r..' ~h~L11 u. wirr-rfll. 50l11e dE. vd~..1n(\ th~ UL~rdli LII lhe ide"l'lticJ...dTt'"i"uwh ~.des.iLfd~ pr~GlU[IOn.. hill the conduit or armor m ust be seen rel v connected to every bux or cahi net.T I NiE.r~ . Thl· NEC reqH i r¢$ Lhil! rn ~H new construction nnlv groundlngreceptacks am to be installed.r('!.ucequrpment gmLIlI. ~rmor 1n addit ion..III fHM allat Lon.d.~ ~p rJ n Ln ni n g to <Ind (lHmectl:'d [0 th~ frame uf Iht" mo1Or or pthtc. and similar iterns. UtI_ In thi.. . -sheathcd cable.lC: 1es I 11exisn ng installations.mlmnatiL.. ~hnd:.}.with tile 'II'-(j~r ~Iot (OflfleCtlng ~() ltl" gmunded CClll:Il.L(~.ofth~ plug is ..HtiLln~ the ~LlITCm in lhl' hUI ~v.iry branch circuit ruses or circuit breakers. ~11Jsimilar items.(rm~ ~-urren[ to leak ll' gfiJuml.l~.. w 11I ch I ~ n lU(h too lov. The ~ r~~ -wire en rd h w i~II I h ~{'<' -l'mJlg plug i.onNy a :. the eKtm ".L"~' grounded through the ffi nd utt Or armor.ep~r""~ grounding conductor [hat p-edurl~\~ 111(' same equipment grounding run ~t ion a~ the steel m{"£\~'ay or c.~I<~ 1~. .i. because a small defect in a groundi ng .:!.ing 11(1) met..clothes f .)rmmt ('It Inc 'gwul'ldirlg r~~qll~dr.I:gIl~~ 111~i"i I in ~scpar. III l b'!·I~l r 1l u:. a coni inuuus ground all the way back ~{J rhe service i~l'~~cnha1 Good \.·1r~t.1 \NUt' but alse the condulr or cable srrnor.!~!lt~ ~q!lll'm~rH ~LHj a ~r'lUnd~a ~Htf. ~ump pLlmp.en rd ~~an he defertin? or wrongJy connected_ \O[illiom oUt w.ff"J. ~o l(!'p1<1ce~n DIedrmn -pol ~ri zed rE'(>t?ll e w (r.·itbifl.ll wiring is bevnnd rhe ~oope et this bonk. conditioner.l~d plug C~n."(. ~~l~ paijc J 17 fur Il'pl(i ring ~~..nOt b-e Imerl·ed mto a nonpo Mi~pd r.i~kd. 7-1U and 7-1 I.~[tding on the gmLlnd d 'I.Lppfl.~ explained on rhe lirst p<l~C ol Chapter v.5 of hospitals. .cl~ in Fig.b little a:. phL~ ~ I hi r~1round nr L' ~h..R HUPfER ('GFO) GIROU N DI NG-l'iIPE RE. I IIi r(j prong (In rh e oor rcspo[ldin~ pliJH [t1 Ll~t.. ~.:d On! page~ l25-· 126_ Regoll'dl~.rlt~ !II one lit" the m.. an nurlet box or switch 001.d outlet boxes are .lnc"('. where it is connected ru Ih. ! n~k"r nnnh. Tt'( tu the metal mounung \'u1t' tlr III!.ff'e ()p-eJl. BUl ill he: hoi ri il g ~Ir. rM~lr~.illg~ I ~o: Fif' 7-11) Nmf rnJt lI:i e grnundmfl r~ L~p i.uil ~nd 1r1[an!pl~'r \\ in ~~r1b~th~ djff~ro?nce in .any old receptncles stilJ in use have l)nh I w~. t·.fi: lh~t is pJLlgf."..l $t be.:ill(e is connected bv cord and plu~.nunded.li\'~ .' neutral of the ServlC€ equipment t.jding ~ conrinuous ground.('-FI'(1T1~ pllLg: h~.. AND GRQUNDING Ch<!pt{' r 7 Gr DU nd ing for S.1re .rt~e--I. l-lO. ((1111.ause the\' bave onlr tw()-\vm reLepmdc~ I ~e Figs.."~P~( i J] h It i I is we L) r-r('~ r h.L11 ovcrcurrent device (lpe n i n g PI n IUpl h IJ r not.onn"L~ .. n o t required n n II rdin ~r)' houscheld appliances su ch as toasters.ng l green I '>'I'ir~ m d-. IN·(~II ~ W(HJlH:l iIlg: receptacles .} steel r:ace"dV in unkT K' add addinona Trel 1.h~ Iripl . leading to a fi re fI r \.. I h~' f.-lde.LdiI1g III extra satetv as shown arul discu sse.111:1 connected is. TV"..i.. I GIRO U!\I.hi.into rhi. unlv ill the service equipment lal i he point.::urrenL in th~ Hm \\-Ir~~.n rult> pn.-nnne([ed ttl J rhird or ~round. "-·11 Grol..n~ w!ll.'r ~rrli.:.a1re requi". ·orkmallsfllj} is crucial for this part of [he [nb. ill l on n ~t d 1~~~1i ith l'i~..lull .)1 1. Fig.d 'o. Wnen a groUild~d-neutraj wiring svstern is used r\~'hidl i~ 100 percent of the time for rnstullauens ot the kind discussed rn this boukr. such as when using a portable tool.~~.1.ldiu~. HJU could recei\·e il.lPluggiIlg something .'0 pIOng and three-prong plugs.r.IlYinstances where yLfll'r~' likch to encuuru ~r '<'j'ilral t' gmun dmg conductors.J c L)I1 p... ~ lilel i hond and e-srtcLally lh C 5('Vcn t ~ .ll Bouom . M. (N onmetal Iic boxes <11 e a lso used: sec Figs.Lnt ~. Mlh~lUgh ho~pit. th.LH~cm~nc b fOf br anch crrcuns ~r"lIlg pauent care J.'CJuires thai arr .l Hi. lh~ frarnr of rhc rnutur or appliance ~.~tj~~ll} grounded.<t'T. 7-11 Thi~ danger led Ln !h4: ~I~·\'df.mt:!mg rl?["epl~cI~ and plug.. The white wire L~ grouI1Llr. the green terminal tu !h~· ~~lui]'ll1t'11 ~ K~UU'ld!'1f!.UQUS gro'l:mdiiillg A.ed If Jli . p. hedge trimmer.ru UIlJ~J metal box.~me prople too.g pro[J~ un ~ lhr(.whic.j]1in USf'_ .carried tin m outlet to n W rlet. pro~.mli (II n<:lll.I'.J. The usc of . but it doe:s not dirllinatc thl' danger cum pkld .ik" ~_mhn. I}WI1 ~ ~JUnJ-f~~lll qrl. I h e ~~.h.cl PQ~rlleo zypc. and you use metal cnrHlLIL1 ur cable with J metal armor." r<"u~p[A.ilJk~ng~he 9ltColliilnd COfHleniol1i1l l1n rhe el'l.. or to the g. oH off the grounciin. dmhe~ drvcr.] norm a l brC"ak~r Ilf bl~ '\0.1:'d into rm fJld-~1yle rrCotpl.. Ih~ rou nd .a. [[ th~ {.1..[HAU LT (I RCllIl.... i3Ntom viewQt plug Fig.i esi gnc-d for me with both t". S~l1dH.l!lo"~ .ualld openings tor the plug.to tnp .1-ely (-Ig.' . on ... Plugs with eith~r t OJ 3 bl~deos will ht...ua] t"\\ n l'd r.Ilc third PfIJng.. ~rld un ~v"r~ hand-held. are J i.e(t'Ptil(le.ol~. u-wirc rords .i fig for . \\'Jy.ndle a defective JJPp1i~n<. vou must gruLlIlJ not onlv rhe nt>uH.i 11101I1r P 1.Ligh ling nxtures installed nn rl!tl.iewoF plug !.·o-w I rC recep t.I. 7-2.ln{lr A pol~ri.In. {.'rc ~.5U_ll-ll3) requires a three-wire cord ~IlJthree-prong plug (In r~l-"iJ!.'~ Fifo. 9 17 and ':.. mul{j ~1-IJ~!o.1--1 I 3_ Mutm~ or appliances dlrecrh Lrlnllo:d~ [0 conduit or aJm00~I'e i'ltLlnr".Kluarium equipment.lL! washer.lJhlr.elll trl path ren make the diffe ren ce hei ween .CIEPTAClES IN(REAS E SAFETY M.. I~ used to pro Lttl each electrical connecnon In . ire-l h~ It<!rcII ninsulared ground i n p. CIRCUIH.i. IIW:I. mo~m driven too! <uch as a dril L saw.unlmm(!l.. ·l n~u& of J CFCT Ii ~ hl~hh rc<. one-tonietn ot oJ 5cwnd 1~mH ndt'"·d WI r~ <HI."!re.

threewn'e tvptS ~\.111~_ II Ido'" I~ J tl eed tor 3uppre-ssiofl of vul t<l~l' ~urg~~_ fhe-sC' surges are t\-pi-::alh (If \t·n ~horl dLLr~tlLln_. up I~ I~'r_ !:l-t.her . prutectien in cases where p rnt€C"! i ~'11m LI~l be pIm' ided.:l. 2.rn Ie r.-:rs on ~u[h circlJ.t'l of .{"~~i~'t·lv I Hl g ( 250 Fce~m axi mumis the rule of 1hlliflb-lnngei circuits mar develop a mpacLiiw l~~k~.ruwl spaces.dl..ll.~t~ning a JI.re circuit.lt onlv when the current (J ut 10 ihe load .1 ~ LJ h~H' !tIt'" for groundin g_ The C.'!.1Jl('d 'downsue".·hidl ."Ufl.h~lm~ ]c\·l.."\'0.Po fill D' OTIHIEIR 1'he n:u:pwdi' 01'<" (0 mblTle~ a re~C'p (okl <' ~ r'lJ J c. d .l~k ap. him" d~L~TIJ[1LL L~. and hm tub i n.(OH~ida m. !.jtls I ..~m~ l ~ III HpU t~ r 10 . !I .. II>' i t~rllJI Preven l shock.I~In~ ..:u.i€tlu'..iF. ·ill 1 '. ~m p (5 milliarnperesror mort'.ire the q~ l[chm g ()ff or on. horn \\/11t re WIf! L1g. LIGHT N ~NG ..-.'hjl~ I ~~lILJrH.'.uhject to lightning ._ledIe'cep racle outlet arc in pour repair and 1'".llJ AND GROUNDING Ch a pter 7 is desired Groun ding fo [ 5af elY or ~l] II i r~.lrL action or the ahihrv Til 1~1).FO Ground -tault cir~u i r ~i 11 r rrupters are available as separately 1'"P('5.to.111 111\<" I~n (a·t I pmtenlOn ill all.. o-wire and 12 [)/24U.Ill (h~ outlets on theon:uLt..lU~~~_ LFc[ protection i~ alsn re~l~llr~d fur batbroorn rccepracles i u all nccupancics..11 ~~Mn' ~11( h as ~ fr~'CZE r I~in WI red ddal hcd ga mge'S~in unfinished hase~d !W~IIH..JctL~·jl~'.bov.l[ nsr contact with both conductors of the crrcult at the same time unless there is alsu " current path ro ground. The bretlku tl'P~ comhl nes ."J.:'m~.volt.. ibr~l'-wi.. retul to 0 b-e rvc -] irre' and 'It )~ti • I~Lad. deck" rouls: in grade-level non.Ll~ ~~m d pi (>(~r~ ti:n m.)11 rI the current returnmg differ b)' n .. Some swruunrng p()OI.ie d.~nd('st'A tlPf' is availabl e For 12(1-vull. SUIRGE S.:tH-~'oll. .r.) Ilf the ci rc.J.h r~gJ.il ~'u~Jr s. Whe!\e (l'Fels are i[eq I:Ii n\ld \II-_C.mu The (.~ muJti .IJJ must be rated I..AIRRES'TERS The separatd.I nJ i Iioncr~. it \~jll [1 LJ 1:I. Ill' C!r<:WL Rel ated to this i~the ~m a~1cr trip" GFU device.fCJ ot ~")lJ I11QaU...1p...n J m ~1o:r~~ .II .:lm ~k~.er_l)~.\>!i{._ Li ghlrLl [] g cL:un<lW:.ke bom may :..] '('I vuu In .laW ~lJJ ts.~ Iht' reset r.~ Ei!cb t~ ru (. L I he prorected porti em of the circuit is c.\€dO(l r III '~'m' r or fur appliances in ded i (.. The C~Cl 111~'i be pictured as a tin)' computer that ~·(}m[~l'IIh' mnrurors the current out to a lo~d and b. J-:luw~'~'('T..~rn p circuit breaker and J GH~. M~d is available in loW '{[IlL lwo-win· ur 1~(li~4(}-yoJt..1 wet bar sink. ~I·.Lk~rUTI..-j r~'~lImil J.h~JL repJ. prutcCl a 120n.lj](:u at . outdoors <U klkoTlil'~.iI singk-pole GFCJ .: on the lnokout for these installation problems thal ~\ill C~U~C' rrippmg of a GFC[: A two-wire ('FCI receptacle f other than an end-of-ruui lb rce.(~ .:. l-.. plastic case.~lotlbli lHJ~ I not covered in thi ~ hook I .klbit~bk· rourns [)I detached .:. a nd up w 00. in gJI ages ~excell'f \<0 h-erf [H11iIol ~ol'~~i.b that inhibit brearhmg or IW. You c~[~af ~I'l~' i im~ rqll~ce.. which J uok ~lib· ~.l.~mlol1 tharyou caretully follow •he m:.lnl1 ' of its runctienal on IhL'o.-' dJt.T~poe !~)~qlJlpm~'nl plugg.-.'Ithll'l ti f~. hut it will render shocks rcl ~ li\ d~· harm less.ere(tT[. and In gIIIW"lhr.il rnsurancr against dangernu __"hoc ks.Oil Lht ~~rTlf' Lirl. n I nUIlTL''''' [' nl "f!.aI Dt ".h(' circuit to . or "lU~<' p1 h~ r 'lIIl. ice GFCltes~ing and potenltial plI'ob~ems HA.:h :IS a Lf {"(.. it pmvi.~U1 pan d ~U-J.! I b u. It is installed iil ~~18~t' Ur..bJc such asa g<1T:l!.40-mh. anything pllJ~~'J ill '" all still wnrk.'XLS[Lng rear{ad~~ ~ h-tro:=(~rupr.1 tern"lilidl pruviJrd (or it on th~ bf~J.[~r~ t.Fer circuit brrakcrswdl L rpe) IS connected in a protect l hew ci rOJ1tl'L rhree typ.~.il()Ul1lP_ Remember tbat the C H': I.l. and the test button wiJl"'clll.Ilhnn ~ (I f Iht"~(~(A)11lLlUlilliorl breaker.]("Le1.\mong lh.:e 1(lcatLon. I'. tho:' cLlnL11 ~I' l.'. JlLJol U:X:..I-( l~hpl. rll1 h.. ric.1. and d pplianccs arc in F't"rCcd ~lll1d·it n"Ul and there is at ~ ground f.)!crt!Oll home U~l' 0 r p-cr~~ . il 15used for downst ream GFCI.JJ1\ ililnS plH~g-td J11It1 the rniswucd J~~ .1rcuil braker .. II I~ nt.w ire i n. rM Lf HJl! li~'~ ill ~II al'-eil ·. .11 persoll WilLlI~ pa rl L)f.tTl L. and for perrnanenrly installed receptacles used temporarily -L"hlring construction.ero fl.I' inthe ~. (uth' duwnstrearn loads will be protected: . for counter use \.'J lhrough.' loc.IIlp receptacles 111 th~..f( I In the s.de~ protectl n [l (!g<LH1S gnJ lmd taults a rid o\.m ordmar} bn-okn liT ~'uur pandboard \<.'ud.n.i!I lU. CIRCUITS..0_amp.I-i r~qtl ire~ prm~ cnon fo I' 1.: surges ~.WIRES.u krtchen '"Olllller:. The (.!m..our J)"lll~lhn~nl_ 'rOll rnu~[ conn~'ct the \o.G Fel receptacle wixhou ~. .lil bre.Hlo. I}r [h~ .L~I(~ Jn~t.1 gTl...uit.ulnrl and periodrctesnng mstrucuens [h.1T! ordinary breaker In your panelboard.00:.l 15-~ mp. porches.a me h (IU ~l[lLl_ lt pI I 1\' Id~. rools.I-lll~ Jt'~lgllCLI rn I ri!~ if the cords or tools plugged into the rmlo.1 10 r f iJ rt h er !ll-e discussion.ghrning ~rr~5te r .it \'Oli mu~1 ctlnrlcct to !he grnlHltl..l lso n:_'g uire CFU prote~olL them backwards.lh. nr in cornbinatinn with L·i[h~r a breaker or a receptacle.nions IJ1 clwcUmg.. II l~ e~.I\_ The C-Fn acts to (juickJ)' dssconneci ihe cir. Fe! ~~ nn] prevent ~ .1 i~ rnl:" ti:"1.!!:'> enclosed oH'.IT cirruit or a 2.Ihl~ ~ to I ml..U Pfl'R E:S.I~J1 wir~ tor t..1 Wflne p'lgl.H re(epl~d~ pr.:1]]\.LHJid] 11!:! ~~' iring m a'r' n M b~ i c~ident at the ti nW ~lr ~tr i. sra..uscdin swimmin!!! pool wiring..mtl rating c'! [1'1 e ~~lIri"l or circuit u IS to protect.mh. it will not p:rolt'CL d person ag.Llh forcurrem to leak III ground. patios.:hing oj m~iflr lu_~d.] I~A-~ Or considered addinon..:! W..s_.~ I'~flt' : 0.~fl'lmd 1<1 uh proteCT l(ll~ 1LI I h ~ ~qU1 fi1 menl plugged 111tll lh.d (neutralJ bu~b.S'ORS FOR (OM EUCTRONK IEQU IIPMIENT Wi! h ih ~ increa~ing na~ PlnlEIS .~ ~h~l~but u will oren k.' Lrip irnmediiitel\_ Use PM1 F()le {. m [l lOTSsu.vi..l.' r~' I .k.e.vO-\.~iI1h. The white circuit conducuir is groLl'lded rlfi the load side of the GFCl.ed Ln [(I [lrh~r on:lin~r. conven ie nt poi nt ill..ft~[ has a test button fur easv \"['rlfi~"'. i r 151.L. but an nutlet is nol desired or permitted at lts iOC<ll inn.. In Ih~ 1I1Iljt~·. rec~fJI. if] .:sib1t' ":'LtL~~ . of dl~t. th ree-wire circuits up La 6{1 JlllPfl_ lr a~Hl0M ulien.rth 11..]l5Wnn. 1.utton to trip as usual...Thi~ type IS <l ~on\·('nimt chul.c 'pm. ol a shock The (.~nr)' hLJ[ldi[1~~.~rHlm.d.11lL1be tons idered .Iui(kh that the shock will he.'~:Jrdlc~~thetvpe or brand ot C.ll en mpul ers and othe r semi [1\ T de{"tfll 11I ~ eLl u i ~)m~m f1 ['I ~neraJ usc· brJ ne h ~in .·r.]n e~1[>< .oJ111'~.lliL '1. IT ~uu La:u opcru Lion.::m::uU hj'.ai. Also.L~k~. I He ~erv \YITt' HJ It5 to match the Col.lUn J -fa u II circuit rro rn re':c-i\ Hlg.

! :?_.l. 'lo~t designs shunt the excess cnergl! into th~undi[)p. JnJ lS ~flJ'lnd("d_ H i~ nut . Hl'1 iL ~uu pu reb asc is listed. Our.. i rh". CIRCUITS AND GROUNDING co III plll eri r ~d ~'~'-In g mac hi ncs.LU:' weather hvael is where the to the below the service hcad=-this f]'{lIH entrance ~<tbJe or \.~'iIT~ enter the building. crrr U I[ h re. Even \\ llh . . r\ 18 [I urac t ~J r.rLI.I ~upply conl in their design lfl~t. This ella p ter ..~n il:tl ues: ~JJitional testing by U L. or borh.t'J in l~hiLPl~f 17.u pay fer. j 5U( h.! llUildirig "~'r'" i .lI prm IdeS 0 I! h' plugged rmo (j two-pole circuit breaker ~pJ.111 . Performance Classes 1. it JSd ).1\ IS I~H' Ihn:<:. .[C i Iwnpn rare .:. There is no way 10 reM 11WI[]..oJ.ll~r~llarim'of a service entrance fnr a home..h .i!' I' to tbe grounding electrode svstern TlIt" hili win: J~ htJck_ OHrJnCf .d~ alter do In p.) . 'lJ I'pr~':.nt:ranl'ce I:. Ihe b~q desjgJl~ in. also called the entrance cap l nsul arors anchored to the building power s~lpp1itl·\ wires end Sl'f1p'. One Iff 1 he wiro!~ I~ white (~HHt"tLmC.11hv. t hei r d i.. in addition to the usual overcurrent prnle~ tillrr circu iL.l E ~NSTALLI N G S E RVICIE IEQU I P.000 idea [0 disconnect (unpll.-l!l"illle'l T that contains dl ~ discon n cctin g m~"1U1S sncl ovcrrurrvnt prctccuun=-eirher circuit breakers or fuses in a panelboard Gru lind connec 1 ioT1-----'l.tdlt'lt."t t'he insularors service head and down to the meter ~Ieter socket Service entrance Imrdl' th~ INHlJ!Hg- cahle or wire-s extend from the meter ~Ljdu:l intu thi._Ii:"~ perrnanrntlv J ~trl~~ ~\ .IEINTRANCE These are Ih~ wnlpotl1.i\c models dc-gL.:'~.{ LIR'~" mill' include J replaceable module..ul \I111.. and Q~ h er electron ic rquiprnrnt.1 ~ gruu. circuit. P LANINI fU:.-"S l and . surge stlrr['('~or in place.~ d~dlIJl-1l(' are 7. YO U II'! SERVICE. lie sure thi.':!> in ~omiLJil l~. 2. in addition to safetv testing.\'S from LIv: supplier's transformer IhrOl'f!..bOf to rn:I'L~'l"t thl· entire su ppn.Ft: .74 WIRES. J he less r'~p["'rl.1n.s:ervice etltml'lce' \<\'lwn ~mh tw·o . both 120 ~U[h .It the cabinet and back lIIH·~i(l{' 11111' hurl..1St'1 of 11l1'~~ wi res to your se rvice entrance where the ..L1!l ~~rl~rB\~ c1c(trolllL equipment when there M an eieci r JL storm r1~. You can ~pen d l~~~ rbi! 11 S 1fllo rW.._ II ore uvailablc mclud ing: plug-in unit resemblinga cord adapter VI!...I l1<!'LHra] Wll~: there cannot b~ .lil.'ssnr has failed.vol1 (I..1..j[le thl? /purrdirr~ Service head... branch The Service E. r~ LJrr~T ~er' lee entrance UI' (~hn\\'n in use in Fig..m. and :'I.dlllS 'llO-volit or 120/24(1.fl? €nfriil'J:lclf' 1he standard installation tLxl....·s~ion-H i~ r~illuro.i n a w 1H1l<"5 ~ nd TlldY not anr protection.~\ em I rv ~'~!j uf MH g(' su ppn~~lr' .).'n'~ uf rhe ~tm'lt' t. and C..ING PI:~.ir. S 6}. or .r $crYL~-C entrance d~lfrmir]~~ rhe JYp~ of current yc>u will have.I.. Two-wire .-wirl:' Wh[!'[] three wires are irtsrallcd.crporare capaLilnr.U:. to establish Endurance Grades A.~ to store the <. -rrlLln d "'I re fro rn the incoming service to the busbar r in . Installations a 1{1r fa rrn butldings arc disc U5S. and I\l.lk~F I h. r~~ are tnslall~.[<.' Iii ~ r] $200. and in :?pJCTsl yuu get whet yo.. \_~r~~It·It MlIJ~ 1 classification. E.1 light nr buzzer TO indicate when the 8uppr<.CI'ItlC POWEH.~ bate) beginning at the In..J r!"E!mt the u mhe r n r wires in stalled h~your power -upphcr in }'ou.M un AN P WI R.. which may damage other equipment on the xame circuit.:{~nri.r~ .s~uSM:S Ih~ ~i~~igl~nd i.'llhWH. I onlv I 1U volt current is available. HO'\. circuit breakers which.llJt'J receptacles that include ~LUg{'suppression 5U rgl' uuu shaped IlkI:' 3. t . CHAPTER: 8._.!!~w.~_Tbe best mrse ml'prei~('If~ carrythe Cl~% t.1 neutral in a l\o'L'.::n! ~r'..p uf r~~cpLlJ.Ct':iS ~n~Tg~ instead ef shunting il to the ground.L'LJIt.

11. Tne t. h~mp IE'S n iJ ill Cr.e provrdll!'d 111 dr1~ p. _."..500VA.::al wdc" a.inct' Inll-amp s..L~ ~ uuable In r usc .e11' Arme-x D In the ':::001 NEe DI5 C. You GHl .n[)J.1 qWII-p"k l'Tt. and ur 10 the service equipment imide me building it is d nt'Hlml wire.dl~1inI1~ rudav HS>e circuli breakers because their mJny advantages over lu~l:~.. In ~umc . hUT never b~sthan 00 amps. nti \.loca~..1-wLm circuits. \H-2. Jo..ce equipment as p uJrc'has. IHt!1I iph' the ~mpcr~::..\. het:ause elill h~liShl~.f\'>~~11 C !l.. 11 60-~mp switch or breaker 'I.i.nl-t 111m.t sel.H~· Lh. for e~dmple~ add nlona I kllowan or f.the l"U!C The lOll amp service provides a maximum capacity uUVJu(j \'.1ppJia.llJirinl:1 '~r"'I~~ . lhl"~' arc sirnpl v sized to men the load (but no less then .Jit Rilng~ if used ..' ~!W~ll .U~) \·'A.cOf ourslde." }l11Jr fir~1 IdblibliorJ . b~ 1. The breakerswill ca rrr r.lrgcr installations..~r~ ill II rar t .lCULATING Ar€'~ of hmJY'+ WTAL PROIl. For example. In wirill~ buikiingscther than hUlISt'.5.HI\·eh l. . that ilU<JW~ YOU to disconnect all Ih("" W~r1r1S frum the power ~onrce_ You must also pm\·ia.rr n~l" ll&~rolE!. A. iI Itln~IHrp.]J make available 14.aprll<ln~~ ~~lIL ~w lu~11. J . <L r.S.-action or a ~if(lwatt.keT~.~~serv I( <: l'4l'! P men to ~~'r\ J~ e f~jsl b I~ ~w i It hcs dn: r dhxJ ill _lU.lmp S~n LLt" \\'ill uk't'l f~jllJrt' Tw~d~ nll.~1H'n . but tor tnp pu rp= D~ 1 this C~ I(:uli~tion USi? 1 ~OO VA.. E. 1"1111 rcmcmb~'r that the a:.ring r~rmL1S. T\l'ic.1l i~ gruundcd.lkeT'l. ['.tb.lLdH1pl~"'l''dwdllllJi! ser"lc(. nr..1rran)!tTrWn~ 01 hush.-in bl""(".nCe-:5 li. dllow separate hI. ..in . :':4H = ~. requirtd? No.j. \'ULI Will ~d~1 mnT~ ilrrli.1Il Y size ~wr1'~h ur brGlk~r.!'t'11.. II ~b.lln\\ Ih<ll ..JrJCl'~' A l ~O-amp nr 200-.. !\ lOO-amp service ~~thl' smallest permitted b .11 rIO Advantages chircui~ bn!OlIkers MU~1uN. W~ta1hC'~~~1.mliyLduaily.!r..rlC h-~i TClJ it breclk~' r.OOa Wulli If !h~ riJoUrlQ of ~OLlf fange ter countertop unit plll~ o~['J) is ~l.1amp~ i.LIIHI)l11~111 '~rgcr Ih. in n:rrc~nt5 your pr~el1[ Idca~.ed 1~'iU{"unr~in orw I~rgl: II Of)-~[I~P or lug.JHy.Il' gOt·~ ~'n. )[L~~.v:. . .~~'urch.'(~wcr wura: by mcrch l urni rl ~ I h lS ~)J\e h-re-aker I f1 t he ('IFF p()~LnL) n_ n 1'1111 lhfrc mu~t oc more bIT'akT~ !~. ~Ild U2L. ~"ef the Nt C..1J.II"T]·lh{' Joad ~s '::.111 '::00 ~mp~ i~ a~'.1 I I'~mect [on an d Pblllli ng" i /\ I the ~~rq~t' 10(:. _ 1. -eq u iva lent. 1l.n m~LJl'ic~ Ih~ ""]lt~ 'p.-JUOVA ~60 X :!..ted In t. called apanelboard or load center.:lJmnLLr..('d to '. The u.INSTAL~II\IG SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRIr.ll lcedcrs to mdividual dwell.J(. watts ~ n d VA a.'if~u . II ~ be t\\'~11 \."5~'T""I<.. Totill..ln~ bf~J.@~lIh::El'? lo dererrmne I he w~ nf service Vl1l.".LI}l~ r~. U:a.imr . does It r(-.l.he tdhul~tion wiU nn[ h~ in u~" ~[ !he ~~HH' ~ml~'. pt.LI1l1-24 hre~.. Ll r tIL uh hla~]'.unp~[1~si \i)U. by 1\f"[C 2l )'.a \~ II~ Wit b ~ ri J IJ. If the total of the "net computed VA~ that you .(].ln.n-jec i~the minLmllm lor home'S.o:rserviccs w~l rel. I~rgcr [h=111wn amps. If ri!it<>d (l\lE'r 12. J 00.U3t ~"":J. If Other peormdn Service eqluilpment fadng Scrvicr cirrun breakers nre rated at am' ot the standa rd ~Lle!< f(] I' (LJ"CUj[ breake rs.:!r[ i.111 1 b.JolI~" 1I·[1l\. be ~LlIT IIJ re~ 1("1'1 (. although JBy standard-size tusc mar he LL~OO within such 3 switch.111Lb 11'1'11-1"'1.7LJ in the J\1tHiotJo:lII-:11~ot:w[ Cwk (f\'I~U. . LdILLlI. To determ ine the maxi mum wa II <i~~..ttfor t:"Jch 24-ll-mlt Li rcu i L These br.l' rating by the voltage (2~U). PrillcLI ·ilLdi\ idual urLuil:-" Y"u wilt Jl~ed . II hot \\'lr~'~ can be anv color except white or gr.4.m.ker~.k'l.i~_--I.(H'lJVA IH]O':<:.ular ~rm~llatiQi'I.· wire \. sarn ~ tim~.LJj~fo niH' r~ in .0\.lf mare such clrcul ts .Itw .L s~r\'i~o: larger thaD 101.! r CHCUI [ ~3.N N ECTIING MEAN S i I H1 r(l n mU$~ provide c-qui p rnent. Fo! ranges.OOO vA JJlogeth1!!r} because it is not likely that ·As relculateo both clrc uits ..rhdn Ihl' !rm-.(1IHlll{"tofs k~i7.multi~ly the number of such circuit:!.1h.xL:lt~ ~O rlug..li Lb l'l 1.: hrcdk. Some powt'r suppliers will furnish a self contained meter tha twill handle a ~11(j amp sen j re. NI..J need.. ~O. .~anl".o\nnCl..t 1.J "n ra~c .I fH) 11 me'r~ ~m f'l"T~'> from T~ bll: 1.QOO watts or I~~.A.uHlg of I OH ~mp~ or hl£:ner.u" ITltj~ ~\ hiLl! ~OLJ ~. r. 't he v. '..lkubted. tn at! other cases..j tfo n<lw._~ 111..J. add ·~(JO".•\" itch IS rated J~ suitable fnr L\~ as ~et\ ICehpllpln~lli. .500 VA ___ VA One te u nOry cirCl. s. and ~QO amps.MflERES ~qua re cirrui"~ fE!'E!t x 3 VA . yuw can resrnre ~eJTLCe y merely tl ippi n g its b andle \ <liter >CO rrerting the problem Iha r ~ r~~ ted 11 b u" overload that trrpped the breaker see page.h r-=.14.lcu"ued mme_~ to more tlun 24. Chapter!l The Service Entranc~ n ~" ~hm .. 'Whilt sizli! s. In conjunction with the discussion that follows.i!~~d.lr\· i1~kquJtd}'.>'i ce entrall.8L~ LOAD IN VOLT .snrtmem nf .'lI1! S. begin by com pLJrtfig the [()T81 1'1':)k) h le iO'lt1i 11 ~ull-~ In pcrc~ (f1~' (om putrd VA).~ req~llf('~ thil' InC'.H~f ..' i~\>..i!r~ ~~ th-t=T.S ["Oom for. VA Two appli~nrf' 1..:r) t"\ffl-pole rl1dHl bre. ie 1'rI..::~ For r m~mJlauoll~()Ih<!"[ thall trLHn<!~..llprn c I~l ~.kJerthan~"ill protec~ II~c lTlt Lf{.1 r~ It· t' nclos ure ~ h l"i d u f I ~n Lt~conrlf!c ted olppllJ nces _ ..1 lI} r.. H a breaker I rip~.~rs_Each pan eJ board ~>:'.l.I ~~-.n J ry fu~es. A th'o r'0l~ hro:'.Fc alrc.000 VAt __.1ll.)j ! hi!'t!'ll.:]. hut the E nclosu re i I Hl~1 '"'~ rared . the equipment mUSE be adequate for the load lnvolved.l'nra rv ove rloads th at would blow u mi.cnnn<"Ct the enti re In sta~l atl on tim11 the I..000 W<lrts...!H .mF-il'-r' fit· .I~ 1t \..t th".. 21~-21 J).-I. s. provided the . <l ~~amp service may be installed i. ~rr wAj . ThC" 5CIVi{"c disconnect may be either l~l$ld. tll. j n ~tilJl~! iO[l ~ n d \'11"1 ld vn u J i:r.:t' disceuncct..LL~a~ I:\~o ~lJlgle p1 dE brL'"aJ.ll.. i~1Z(l"L ~II~.I ~~p.nf( IHliq~ ill <In apartment hume have csscnually no arbitrary mirnmurn ~LZ~'... U1 •.f then' arc not more than two .rtldc ~2()_ ~.t:t.lisconncct gil illdlVidlJ..:W amp.-and .l circuit b~ using the breaker as you would ~ switch.on~id~rf'd and runJH~r de~ ~rls.ele. hui beyon d [hat t be meter must he sc rved by L LJrr~!'It I r .ind ..€ either circuit breakers or fLl~C"5 to led 1hr. 1'. See ~3(J.mdb('J.<laS for ~~(h The service equipment of a ~iI1gle-f~mil~' dwelling is reqllirt.Lm illdr1. 11I1~ 1~(~1T1~liITlO:~ bart b('~mnm~ at In!: m~tdaI11f"'. hili Ihe c<lbincl {"llntdlm .m plug as m.\il~tl(' fur 1.. hut are LhlL.ck .4[)(II... us-ed . .l l dllLl R II i~ 1-W \ rllt~ ft. or liel ed~ng brea'k~r eq uwpm@nt Mo. i S@rY[C!~I!!ntllri!llnC!l!wiltre ~i.ll{. "Ci Tt:~.D. Ifl VA VA Chapter ) on pagp ~7.<lC1of these orcui ts will wovid e 2AOO IIA (2D x 120 = lAOQ).rd will J(':Llmml. u U' hnmd in VEL .arg.11in I.t vailablc \~'ilh . in~t<lll~li(fi1 ~$ ~ whole as well as each branchcircuit i:.l lOO-amp size will make available 24.._~ ne(es..r~ .l ~m~c-p(Jk brrnkcr JOT l'~ch un-yuh ~i~Llil .. 1 be loaded to (~Dilclt)...2~A H::!H 2). .

J.8--4 In fu~ed seryjce Split·blJ~ bl"ll!CI'.. Fig.qud'~ 0 'f s N Main s .r..the cabinet maycontain as many breakers as }'DU wish I. and the other mJ.-_~.i!r~ p!!fmitted' to be installed.~LLI~~illn ~Mliet in [his chapter and Table s. Figure t!o-_~ shows a meter ~~~~J. tro m the pt~wer iOUTCC. cornplciing [be circuit.8-S A 1OO-ilmp sWItch ~Id~~ rnam fl. ker in thi' me!er ~ockE't i~ ~ ms Cd bmst ve I'}' pOIHlla r in 50 mp I QCiIofl n P~.lhin~LIn mlld rlirnare-..)b" bUI no ~xp()~d live parts.Lhagr... . the live port.u~dc c"blne r ln ~ tcw areas... f~. TtLt" tnur prongs on the pullout make contact withrhc JiV(' parts. ~a F....le .NT AND WIAING Cha.dkerS ~~(y by 'Tla rIoufa(tu.ult W(U.'~\"'nJr ~i/(' '>I:'f\·I~~?~ Lt.IIJ. l hit' diagram shows space tor circuits. plus addlrional pullouts to protect XlO-\io!t circuits with I.2 bre~kef Djaqr~m 79 for ~ apllt. One side of each f'-16~ dip has lou ~ pron~~.O.ig.i(er equipment Some~~ha[ less populal (~r~d lH 01 f~I\' localities pruluhLkd br lo(~l Urdll'l~rl~-e) ar4:~~plil hU!'.lC~~ for future expansion. but all ot these smaller breakers must be protected bv one ot the rnam breake rs.. P1Ll~ill~~ Ih~ plL!](lul inm its holder is the same as closing a switch with hinged blades: removing il i~. (1]1 twE'lve I 2(l. F.. rrldm b reakE!<r(Sq!i<1'~ D (onlp~ny!. each protecting rts own circurt.!. S--4 L vVilh Ih~ pulkllLl In Yflur hand. 111LL~l ~.(S[jua'~ DCompany) Arrangement~ for mourulnq ~ plug 11'1.vol t CifLUIH. 5e~ ectirog flJJlsOO 'equi pmnent I he 11r' wi del1r' u sed .pte r g The Service Ent ra nee . and water heater.1 nj.eland ..k u IJ ted h. it is co mmon practi ceto me an 0 U tdoor ('abi net Or cuntaining the meter socket and the ~cr~ ice disconnects.i n reside n tial work h as two pc main fuses mounted 01:1a pullout hJl}.Hd 200 3mp---lD breakers.. up to tb..)U need plus J. In addition to themam breakers. Sec wiring d I~gr.I n ~~rl1..<'.:!nLI.Xo'~~' A r ernbmauon bJ~.H1 breaker to supply a reeder to a panelboard located elsewhere... It l~ necessary to tu rn bmlj of them to the OFF position.. insert th e fuses into their clips.td 'c t ved do' L:. . {hg.r~~k./ N Fi9' &-1 a n tile I~rt. do d rcuit br~d k~l cdb Inet . 8-. '\ f( A. label in th!! pai1elbodJd li!..enlng il switch.l1arnp-30 breakers: .. Select equipment clut provides for the number ot branch orculrs >'..c entrance p<mdbwnh. You can insert the pullout upside-down Lo leave the ptlW~Tnl~mJ off.r h~nd Re.. On ~h~ ith rlght.l1 Or ~~. SLJ rh fu sed service equi pmeru usuall ~ contains one main pallou I wi i h I~rt(" f~J ~~"~ prote: ~inR Ihe enure load.h~ ~~rll" . drKI ca rtridqe Fu sos for t ..J~lllJlLn~ your .ircult brE!. rt u.. dlagidm ~h[Jwln. Then: arc '!~5rJ as manv .pl<lce f1l3~S wh ile the bl (lck i~ ill Fig. single-pole or two -pole..II pau! rcr 20 ~IrCU l~._o!'eJtl l~ lu.. abe mate ana ngernent would be fo r one ot the mom breakers to protect all the branch crrcuus inthe S<?f\Kf! panelboard. TIlt' NfC penni t~ two nUl m d iscon n ccrs 1J1on t' ~~T""IC~ pa IldblJ'~ To d rsron ncct cvcrythmg rd.i I wm nt'. rircuits u-uhl JL~(l ~nglll~k IILl~ctldB\Un:_ ' III equipment ilre cartrld 9'~ u~udny m~{~ncd Fus~s on pull our block~ YQI. Plug the PUUlllH with ih I!J~('~iruo !h~~ stOh.CJ 240 .. are behind the insulation.I'fl!iL1g of the p~ nel ht)d .lm of flg. Ll(1Lhe~dryer. 1l-3 plu s {Ircult -C'i'l. ~II th~ hf. .J~~ t h~ > ftlug ru~.]rg.78 IN:STAUJNG SERVICE EQUIPME.J.~~ It i CdalneL r I~ U re 8-1 ~h()\'\ ~ a circui L b reaker ~~blJlt"l w uh 1 f.. I he overall .J.h np. Qf. bus C rcurr J S.J....[~. An..irvuit I~~~t~ ~lI'C th.€ capacity 00 t the panelboa rd). The equipment in the cabinet has [our narrow open ~~. I he ("[1 t i re pullout hos four such prong~. additional ~p. ti 2.t~c"tdl(Jg numbers r of t.lT h~lrIn L.(" tUH{b ~llLh 'L~ l"illlg.injllc rnarn Ji~~H1m:~ rm one ~. . !Fig.n~t\l'I~:.

ef\IK~ equrpment is laa[ed In t~ ruseme-rot.. rwo tor each ~..)11 but inoold n=r~"_h .:tri~'ll L'h.O<~-'i'"'I O/d-'sfyJ.il".ikl'r.'~ rated [rurn 7rJ a mps to ]110 .[ 0 am to JtH) ~mF~.~ ill> practical to the pumt where the ~'-Lrc~enter the house In other words.hLht' arnpaci ly of the wires..1...Jfff> ".]LlFl-dil""~ G'OLJ lid. III the (d5C of breaker equipment.lld.1.:IIIH1<l\ ..lwm..r:=-r".g.~ ra l i (111 iwd IOW-"LH rvn L size f<mg!:!.mnent location The \.1 t ':~)Jl~i~t n f d. entire hid in the' building on and off The swltch c.od mil)' be n!.1 m ps. lh e Wl rH~g d iagrarn of ronnect KlI1~ wit hin the equipment f~ that of H~. ftlseboldets Fur tuscs u1 'he cartridge t11'~' ~tllJ Jill!.1l-5_ 'I he ~\ IrH'l~ dl<li'\1 am . ths b..J. where [(I pm voui eq LJI plll~lH L..(rAC~l.J.:1~d10 protect all th e ind ividual branch circuits j L1 tbe house . ) L~U mU~1 ~'mpt:rll· VIm will h [f"Jd.(:!-"P"-"~ '~r i Anchor ~~b~ to w~1I .here Ih~ wir-=~ ure hi ('liin Ih~ bOL1~~.._ vv .. u~~ 0<' dlll.. dtCLJLtS_ 0110::' fur each l.1 WII1'lI~q"'l~ to hl~. hers it emers . nlt::. ·nd'udir..jr:~-r=n~nm...'IJ) \ olrci rcu i I..~ ~lJ<" {iHHc-. ~. Lhi. to wi.:'ristics.~ du:. ~ ~~I"I~~. down to Ihl<' 'l1d~r ~ndit.LS~ (1110 ur bOI h P themail.nduh or cable ~se~~ ~~.1lJ)' Lt also contains as many smaller fusesas 1'i~e. cquipmcm to be located --s . ] ~r.~.~?o: F g.he . r f yDm service L~UJlJergHJU 11d..iJ!. wl .~g ".f' Ir1 t i~." holder accepts ruses the rated from 351amps to 6lJ ilml'~.I he in ~tall ~I ion should pro\'iJt' for the num bcr uf Lu~·uiL. 8-2 e:.ti ~hllw~ lh~" dt:L..:It the maim pans [hat make up rhe ~~'r~il·~· entrance..8-D 1iI-'P' . A ~el ~ IC~ panelboard 0 r ~b I~ type is shlJWTI in F.Somer.. Fusi blc {'q uipmcnt for .i I separate cabinet. and how to select the nght kurd 811d ~i re of eLj u i p rn~ r IL l ht! ~~ I of ! hi ~."111it='1potiJIJ' rru-l r"'r arul -:...e sp~c ~al Lahlf' 10r 1hal ~'ur pot .' '''~ul~tol~ I~~ Fig~ S-8 or ] 8-91 must be solid ~ rna unted rnssa I ~5 h'gJ'i ~~ pra("D'.pmelU' _/I.T(" requin . Holde rs tor plug tuses accept tuses Lip to .lil' el.. .. Split·biJ~f"sedequ._}lJ houses vou will lind service equipm e n t 111.~ ~ ny ~!Lh~ tyP~~ dl!"~ibl.~pull(lut:...IT" unavailable 5e I"U ice eil~ip..d byone of thc snain fused pullout s.wLtf~J~t.JrI h! r.uion n f olll~' th e pm per fl's~ III 111I ~(.~_Thehranclt-.SlbejJrul(.s. . Fuses can he d~. but re .oukl De mounted hig-oe' then ~"e n~ula~QoI Lei . 8 IN!?.Lib llr .ment r n vvrv .. connected mternallv so servrce wire~ run ilil!"t'ctJy to each. than -..In 1~11f\~ \.. ~ntl 01 q 'ICIIL the ht"~d. s-iei If ~(HJ ~ (OOdlFJt.l . plus .~ :ru5~ 5~nir@ eq!iip.~f"J~1f! 'ar1".S· rated [rom J.he I"qOJ'fJ"".ce-d rop . These panelboards are common rn older tl1~tJn~I"llh" bu: .."1l in this ~c ~DteL ~ sure tIl tn~t~1I E'nough b-anch circuits. The "l ()f. using outdoor [)Ope of con E<:[(N" Ise~ r-..Hl amp... I·~'\"additional ~Fa(es tor ruture exp:ln sion. wi IT'~ tbat YOtl provide _'lou (.(> " poln1 ' O"fI<">Wll" ....-. i ncludi ng speed of n.:mo rs con QKi the ~~.e Iluts i d€ of the h ml d Lng_ n I e I~'t'ivt!'rsu p r 1i" r thea' jn the ~r\. marnswitch \'ii th rwo hinged blades and an external h andle ~ lIWJ tu HIm th.(t'J tw circuit breakers l~r Ili:"""· Ill~1allations.~ h t!~' f m~'~ ~re in . these ~lTuw install.. WNSTALL ING 'lJ"HES ERVICE ENiR. 'fi)ur 1 po..·I~'. liut a.:~~pIIh~L ru~~~replace the breakers. h' Range outlet (napr~r will have' wLII fUll H~ "TreS IIp to that pomE and '::0nnect th~m Rr.1 ~~~ ~''l'' 1114 ill ] 17 Ir.<!~c"fJ<'''''''I1O'rfIJy tit !)u!. therused equip mcnr m(IF contain two m(1i~1 PUJlOUI.i Service drop ill LiPtllil br~.rr 'arm I'~~ Il¢l" 5..: i d .\. tC~~tr . nrl me If 'p'QU use Cal.)jT we h<1V~ looked . U~u."10.1 typical ~~r.th stra P" ] i . tnn1ugn mnciuiL Ymu \O..~needed (Of present uses.. (rh e rfiP I'~ [L Ilg fLl r plug fuses). refe r Iff pa g~) HN-190 ancl 197. h"~·lll15 hcen r{'pki.W~\'U It circuit.pwlrc:" .n~the bram:h (ncuJK ~n 'LInd II!~ in~l..J 111i.l CCCP[ ~ hLS-{. the service wires must not run to or :U teet inside the house foetore reachi np: lhj~ equi pm~nr _ D~..h ~pl ~T corn ems the installation of these I~~m_ I lHLirt' fI..80 INSTALUNG ~ERVI(E EQU1PMENT AND WIRING Chapter B The Servsce Entrance 81 f1L~('Il[}ldt'r.:irc.('r ~lC<:pt~ '-1.I~ I"" ] TIlt'n After installing the ~rvi~~ e-gLJJpm~iU..s on lh. 3ujJpli~1 Will [0 .:al. You to install LnsW ator. which "".51ll~.l ml . 1f1lnch~ ~rI ~ i_ 1~'V'(""n".g spares Ja. l'ht" ~ amp" flukier .~~ or n..ANCE SoD t..l""~wil"'.. pip!! ~"ap~ C::.f.'. til E cable or cofldlo1ll ~MfV Into.lh Lritl b~fL~r>..I5.(1l . Il-I ~~~<"pltll~t ruses are LI~ffi r II pi a C~'LIf breaker.I I mrW~ d"' .~~~.l(l.bifl~r dho contains two mallJ fuse-s. the rnerer socker. Ir~~ "Eo 5JP'f . fOT p1rjt' fuses as arc needed to protect individual bunch... h~n into til chou se to the SeT\·I(~ eqUlp rn~rtL ~~(~I~@ "'W jlrn~n'.j(.1n w..'tCC entrance.<. In new work."1r('O will go up to th~ ~r\Jc~ hc~.H1~~'~hol~i. T\Ve S adapters IIILlS! lw II~d.ff .(1 'lIf'flh' hIH"1:'~.llll1il.j. To discon n ect the load C!CI ml'lereiy WIi. T"'l" ~~rvl~(' h~~d ~c~ Fig ~ I!. irulividual lcads L~still available and commonly used. futule usa.'l\ fll<]~~ a l'Iei!lther ] tigr t [onnBCt1on . particularly for commercial and industrial applications......i!it1ed wirh c~rt.

trl·._~ 10:.lng..ml if bract-d ur guvcd t.or smulan equipment.50ck@f ~lo>(.It dny 0 bstructions nu l .enrice-entraoll'c.llmdn' .lv. d()[he~ dn'er_.lt cabled service Wlr<:~ nOL over l:. l. or highc r Lt the eq u i prnem extends higher.1 U ~h.u.llluw.. hl'.]ched to a ~. ~pcLtai .Jm~ ~)nl' (11 the Wlrc:5 LS no[ m.ller condu.. II! 11 K' celse of tndoor equ i p men r.J. hnl~ t.:lr alra stmin \Urron.erp'8"o[ !l"..'EC rules ~n{j .iI ruo Lb.2-i nch rigid rtl4:tal COTldui~.l. ... ~11.JII~rance ...(l~ rn<l~t is used.UI'nt' rhc la~nt . they must he kept <It least 11feet from the neare-r parr .: in.HId ~rei t(H. In ".Wi ~ h. ir..l.. Scp'i{"e-cnlnmn" wires b.. low. S~~'erall )'pes.I Tboa rd near the SelYLCe eqlll p menr.".l! IUld~JUn dircctlv trorn nUhI. ~ I . . 18 Jeel L ~''''f J'arki!1 g M<'~~ and d[i"'~'\~'ilY~other than residential.1'1" r\.t I .atg.. parch .mg~.'n~ 111(If .. t\.itfe of the hi ~L..L1L!lr~ 23u...lo..!~'tl In most locea[j lL~...II[~ u.1i h<l~ ri ~c r a of 4 inches or more pl·r loot.: fe-oct above the floor.~ef\']Cl! h~...jt~r~ rht'I' ('m(:"rg~ from the .in:.mct'~ appJ~" il rhe Leilmg I~ more Wan to teer above tht" '~'T\'K~ I..!J.e TypB:."r but installed hy the conr racro r.l ce that L~c Iear i h . II ~ uallv about 5 teet above the gmLJ nd.able m~I111I'l(tlHOOtOf U~ ~·~~.d IJl S(1I11~ !.r! mere r 5(l~ld~ ~TI~ .~s"1Ilt'nLS.wir~ . L. cl Luccu p~rK-Y will have its own wimlnw LOp (th~re iG nn re-trictiun ill wires above the ~i9i" 8-8 In>uiator r.\·F~~ .1d I >« ...:l( mg ~ b<:'lwc~n [flSU I".IF<!' cutclQor . hH d l wo-tarnil 11dwell i n g..~ ~l!lduit ~~tt'nQ~ ull\'i~rd lhmugh II~t' ro~)f uVl..lq..r insnla t{1I~ u t he ~~ pl' ~!-1IJWn i n Fi ~.e ~e"-lCe wir~~ II1i1Y be a. heir nut a lwavs.as 1g inches aoove the owrh..h a pter S ThE' Si1lVi£~ Entrance 83 he. \\ I" ~'( ~t"\" d ll\~·n~\'. wlrins.01 are lh~ n llo(! ~lf r.m~ h ~p.111 in~1allanon..l. :~-7 ~llowanhou ljlPJ~al nleto.J~~J the kitchen and basement or orher 1... in!! d I ~ ~'r"l (t· W1 res into ~he servLCt he. of [en U"l'Li Im.'KC equipment ~ thar the ClrCI.)r)t~ r r 'l he IIl(nmmg ~lT"[CC' wires are anchored on service ursulators j n q..es ..l(t 011 Ilh' COOclUl l or cabl e. J teet deep.ire5.JIed 0 11 a su h~t8 nt i .dr~ flH the urarker.)t rueter i~ ~l.lJ and up Lncy 01-<.llie a t Ih e ..fire .O ~'Uh5 le ground l or drip 100 p s as usrratcd j n Fig. there must be (I ear \..1 :H t.mbl..ll !n~r-urrn_.bown In Flg.."£L 111)_~o(n If1h]s ap['lit'~ (0 ~L(uJ nnn 1_I!l ~rld iti un. ·l-Lni"n timocr.:lli.flb rr rcq w. b rt"..ld01 mul(trj~ r.L~k:.. h~ 8-':l' .l<ld~ In.n i ~':f~w-roiDt ImuLHor_.m e nl ITHl5l I.l. r Servic:e-e.lr location from which the wires m'glH h~ touched.. Th ~y Sh()Hld be installed a toot or so below 1h~·h rghcst pr. or o:oither smJ.. Sm.n be brought into rh.l Sp. ili~1' must be kC'p'l at least 36 inches from the nearest point.llhml'nt Lo thc building.hen rs desirable tf rhe ~cr\lIL" \Io'ire~ {. <I poirn more nr les~ 11lldtr the kir. Theweatherproof III eter jJftl~' idcd b~"the powe I' suppl ser i s plu ~~'d into a weatherpmot socket l~t('.rcm mts.L.e. r n~t'~l'\"i.h(' . 'r'~and commercial property a not subject ro 1 r lick I r~ frI~..82 INSTALLING SEIWICf EQUIPMENT AND WIRING C.. ln housec wuh h.illcr conduLt ("mud be tr.' be rcaduv >Lcces./eatn.l\'i~SIII.icc cn~r~ncc cable could be 8'tl:.riI1ga rambler or ranch-style hom~ it i~ difficul: to utalutaiu r-equited clearances if the insulators are muunted di~~tl\' on rilt!'::.. ktHl.ln.lnd similar equipment f \. in.. lhl.. he n I'> here J L LScu III c III~111 ~r re rjdcing ruses {)l J esett i Llfl.ll \.meter ~Jck('t is in ~tJ.l(k for sup porting three .' 54l'fvi{'~ nmdu i I ~hl111JJ not b~ sm~J k·r Ul~ n .1f . however far a. mcd brln~ ""irt'~ into d:ll.n s. and b' ~ ~~t' L high.1 PJJ 1 u r t he . u r ) fcc t horizontally and 10 feet vertically from any door.]1 h fl.tll 1..Lt or scr..l:I .:-3(ape or _~imi1. The socket LS usuall«.:JrticaJ poi nt so til ~ wlre.. u~ L. BJ 1e. th. F~9'.:tI. 'nr <1 .he insulawrs "'here eqUIpment ..h '.J"ing is ~n5. St"F\ •.. B~' 5Uf~ to anchor rigldl~ to hili Iding. YO!! min: u~t"st'n:ia. S..Lk".. 811m\Illjrlwst individuals W operate them prurnptly in <In emergenclf. <lrld I:ig_ R-l [) ~~lilW~ ~ I \ I. :\'0 wires may come closer than 3 fe. both down m •h e Iloor ceiling.u~.=(Jrl~15b (J~ .ln·H.l hClu~t'--lhe loads that (Ll[l.lHd bl'o.1 n':"l'nt wat~r tram tollm.I.lI' serH'::C emrance cable (rig.!r b~11-rn'.~ to th~ imide ot the house..lf lhe roof (J"{erhallg do€'~ nol exceed ~~ Lnches. bovc residential proprrrv and dri ve\.cl6.UOO in one sheer-steel enclosure. service diSWl1l1lX"L ef window ). rhe ~l rH( rural arc bevond the SCi'lI't" nrll!i~ hook [review J:. Thcretore.nt.i~<ll ~~fl1~1uction.'illl~ d~ ~I~un.aUon The outdoor tvpe .".ll~..B.J~_ ~h)ll'Ic pn-Ier lo luc.:l~ possible.. {.11Jo\.h':. and farm properties that arc subject to truck traffic."rsupp!icr'~ wirc~ Indl~'iLIII~1 . cannot be higher th~i~ about 6'.e~tn an npenable m 1 Me~er arid .. It the roof is Hatter ~less than oJ inches of rise p-er fOM).H1Lh '~l. ('mI.:~ ~q ~IIJ.hog.. provided bv the 1'(I'we~ ~l!prli1." The r. \'me that swlrch ~I'l~!circuit breaker operating handles. II. ill &~mT~J.llm~ the s III 'ron f.:"buij.LII~ta.'lJlf.c. Below the meters e.. your Servi':E!wlw@ de<llfarlil:e: .. d rlotl~l>~oc ~i!t.1mrcmgot'.Hld . I!!.he powOI.-o Masts. locate Iht IlL S~r.1 p~rt til.n bL~1 )(1 inrl Lt'S wide.. B-7).loCjJl(1~J... r rh ey I'~~~ over .egin and they stop ~l the sc[yicr tA_mdll.are ILH:.1 nt lowa:rd the In_~ubWr'S lu f. l~feet . 8 PH he kept I~l feet 8 hove fill i~hed gr-.:rh~ng ..... ij I.~II~d on t he b L1 ildi ng.Jtt the equipment In the kit.l~(" round Ihe equipment. UTI] ~~~ YI1[l r plJ"o"'cr supplier h..largl· wrrcs : ro r.UIJl~J . d I~ IILlI ~L L.

.-l1 1m u lator 1h a ~ clal r. Standard trade pt~dk~ h~ bt'-J:J1lo supplement the gland with 5€aling putty. 'Il.neutral..WC'r ipper.biTl(:~or ~ [TINcr socket..:lmp application where rhe c~lkul~~ed 1. <I wca therproof connector muse be used: a common tvpe ls showniu ~ig. twist~d a s ~.g.'KeS Jl"lmoe 21m . n i~.. srune (If 1 j L!. with . HI bOH:S~:.2 In ~E>rvl. I[~: with u 3(J-amp breaker or switch.~" 11l'~ tors can pass the E..~e cable WLlh ~In AWe aluminum lor 2. cable di'"rwl~r:. . 1 fig. N nw.1<lt! I.kmg<I watertight m joint. similar building.er~·~J b~ the service equiprueru h'11 nu ..p ral ~ <lroundth!!' Ir\SU ated ""'Ir~. _A. 1'10 til te to bring in li!W with meter hub.: condulttn meter a number Bottom fitt i ng is eccentri .assumed to be watertight... compact aluminum) strandinq..]JI..s are hqmlJ the scope 01 this buok.Iround. and a damping nut Of DWet 111<11 m'r]pn:~~l'~ the mhh~rag~IH~1 lh<"~. 0 HlL.aJ" opcrJlirlH ~I 2-1[1vults .f. But it the im1. l'1~h~r thun I ~lrl amps.~ll nt"(. indlldirlf:. a.in~k' dwelling. 8-1 I) On fijml:Jlel 01 r Jo'I d"1 he u~e t Df] srruct ic n a ma ~t ql ~~~ I hE' '>E'Ni{f' W res t'l1!( fig" 8-1]. 8.. but Ihl:' rule of thumb presented here should be "d~qUHl{' for users 0 r t h i~ book Wh e rever the cable enters a SeIYLCe etl u i pmell ( r".l(J -J mJ' service and on amp service are ant pernutted hili IHJV be U.e <JfGWll'l<. 11i5 a labric braid or outer p n)1 ecu VL' layer. uciiun.mul lOO-a. The bare wue ma~ be used o 111~'fll r Lfw grounded neut ral. "iI1rl on ilny.. IH rhe <'::J5C' commercial of Conductors ((. due to variations in.• ill wires in the cable.ilr y c I~ a ra n ce ab ov E" 1. Of 1111111i t. M-BOOO AI... To apply tltlCI for outdoor Dfevel'lt ~~A IQ.rnp appl 11theinstallaiinn :.. L_~~8 A\.as .p breaker or <."(Iu ~. a~ Sh{)Wn P 13StiC ja (ke'[ Ft~lr'lfDrC~ pJ~~ti{" CI'.d to go up (IIlC wire size on all i-CJ [I{llh. must be [he same ~iil."ffWrap . the.nQ the cable The separate ~tJ')1 ds of th . U.p~ t{J th ~ pip!' ~Llpport. L A\\"G insu1. Through bolts Threads II for 1:.~ en tfafl(~ (<lb e the rl-!!u1 r~1Wlrf' i ~ not I n~uF~ted.lch 1("5~ common} breaker with . )eTI. it must he securely anchored with a connector.-e-.dl~~[he actual load profile and certain ~fL) LH1ti i 11r. n£'ulr~f barJi. olt loads consuming ah~llJr une-thinl uf the total \I!. Il~ h L1~ LI.!~hD"'/~ 3-wlre cable- .:J 200. S-U J..lkJ wires \'o~ilh" <I A'Vr."~hcr to make one larger wire hg.\WG aluminum main wires ~Dr ~.wirE' .ignirL(~rtllu.amp ~)r ~W".o..sun Ilg ht r~sjs[a nt ~~i!6(. 'Iedwi~·~!h.bLlII~ bara and "'r~ pp<'d o..£1-1 t The cennectorcomlstx of a hodv of fine wires \\ rappl'J around the insulated h·ir~~~.St"J in other buildrngs ~11~h ~.small bare l wires <Ire twisted tn~l.:lk~.~b!t.~llli. As explained on pajte . calculation q for the..a"d orIl1~. fi.then vriu m<L~' se cable with u the: neutral (111C~io:-t' smaller than the insulated wire~for example. bare neutral.e CIUll' with at least 2 .. . Until 1998 test r I~h~ assumed tnat.'t. uired .IOO .. the n .3 mRS 41[) I\l J Ff!l.t>.HioI1 b~~ .1. [he.. a:-14 Walertight (onn~(rnt~ U5e.~a fr.tn \WG copper I wires and J beaV) Mock of rubber. TYPE 5E CABLE STYLE YI AHH W . Ou tdeors.200-.e~~~ lull T for. u return path i~~IJ~S. however.h hut that is in the case of a ~. ~ . r-d welling appli ~arn)n~. a.In be copper or for aluminum.()nm·("tor i~ w<lkrri~1 jUM because it has the neoprene g_h. \.-':'. I ~ round tIi~ e.wft<."<!Us. 0ve r oi. I lls.t:ni( TIln~t' orwater heater or other :4f). When u~.1~1 dt. 1)I tJ A\\"{..lll~ has a gray fin i sh w h id I ITHllI be painted to m atch I be b II ikling.Iot'lding studio fir \\~'rbllup on restdential propel"}'.] or)-·~rnf' breaker or switch. j XHHW (~pJ in~uJd. DI:'I11'r":-'~l.'.~bJe ~n!l)'- fi9. the connectors could 110t ht'..it II~e.Th.neutral must he CLL~l.~r!? 9atnE'ro:Q inm a bunch md~ ina or"e I~rgE>W I'I? wue.kh at a..Illlt' ~h~la ~.1 wn-rlm.

ltel pmofirig.a<..p>s (see Flg 1"> l~J hi keep min out ot the cable.U.'!d_ The service head is die:signed to prevent water from entering the' top of thecable.. Neutr~llug assembly f13:ctory bonded to enclosure . YOll can 0.~ble 11ITO rhe bulldmg.... cut a kngth long cl..:'J ~OlJ r lower I..e. F:lg.: -: ..2(J. be sure to prov i de e ~kip ioo..:Id l~llh~ general ~yp~Shl~"'" i It I.~ term i nati ng =.~ to use a sill plate as shown in FL~_8-17. t e r rn illij lions..l ttle cut end of the CiiO E!...".H I Indtkin!! on rhe carton.oll gIl to r~~ C h fWl'Il rhe mere r rocker In a pourt at least a foot above the topmost insulator..~(~d ("(l [o[h~ to meter bCl~ 01 soc !teL If c~h!e is used...o'. be anchored to the building e'o'e-ry 3 0 mche's. . lJnwim.1'-1 a (E')' .IOT to arrivi ng :II the service equipment.. B l5 mol)' be used. I !_~~the 'lame p rooedure to ~rt Frn rn 1he ~~loCl. A 3EfYK!!!· hEad fOI cOIl1:hJI t h su ppCIrwd b~ [h!! (Or'lduil I'7he.IU' ~uPI'lelll~md.lJs.omt I... Your power supplier mll}' Threaded hub. altl'r the connection has h~<'rl made to the pnw~r supplier's wires. :ILl J L_ Sphoe ~'ig.Fig. 8-18 This serv ice neac . sh own Cabl ~ ~~ ~ [1~h Llft'd w rli t bu Ii d Lflg with str .[lOnyJ Fig_ 18-2.0 How w ~g are W"l. a-lei Entrance cable must. parucularl >' (In upgrades of Sill alle F residen rial ~f\ !.cOfl"l. Bcca usc [he building.h..those ~h(lwn if I Fii!.. 8. 8-1 e At the poi tH where t ~~ Ie r nters b rn to the ~~r'l'I<.:e~.. J andi n g the rwisred neutrals on the center contacts.... Fiq. Thev are rden \~·it:"· J 111 II e ~O!hl r ~ IIfl~. 11-10_RUI1 rhe IWilurn r'[]J uf I he: wbiC' rnto the meter socket. Ih~ electr i ~1. o: puli.5E'd. On I b 1$ last !IjId il lonal l e ngth. .I en i n g the individual n wires proj ect through separate hub in the insulating block in ~he se rV i~~ he. 8-·' g' If thp se I v icE' head ca fI not b~ lao:: te-d hlg h ~ I ih~ ['J the insu Ierors.1Il 1111 ~ II~ I~IU~i' ~I~)i h ~ l ul <InU reconnccuen.. til'!! b.l:]I irH~~it.e ma ps of the type ~t\ClWf"I..n \~'..d h\ . you must take $~cPSto prevent r.. Anchur the service head nn the huildmg ahout 12 to I/oi inches above the topmost insulator ~u that.'~. f. IThe I-falcx C01llp.~tOf {ilb!~_ It flre'o'Pnt:s IMater from ~nte-linl.1(IY...}! m~y exist.ig._.utlik~ \!"~y !O seal ~hl~ p. n pI\'Ji\l'id~' orip loop~.0 this by arrangmg the ~romrt. rain will tend w How ~wa~' from the service head rather I.d L~I I itt' ~~H' icl. remove the (lute r br aid over the spirallywrapped neutral win'.l th~~' ba re wi res f rei n il r(~m1Li the cable and twist them into a ~ingJe .lL'~~lf'lU-~ work fnr <In llIittUdllf1J1. Then install a ser .INS.!.an from fL1l1UI'>'II\~ Lh. ~oft wahTprool"ing rump·1J und t bolt '0111 es "11th the r late L~ ! Ised If! seal ~ 11~ openi n g th.lV~'l}rkrn. _---=------Fled servrce hea/~ ""_A' (or black) -"-~--'.l1 ujpm tTl L M akc the connections .lbk ru 11 lit sh eel person tu perform a II water pr.a~ un insu lated .:' ":. h... If it rs LmP'OssiMe to locate the service headabo .15 shown in Fig_ 8. but ~hc ~impk5t and 1l11~s.. ''\lh.lpS like the one Lll hg.ulthough 10.J[ he live.I ~t"pM. sum ~UPP()rt the cable wuhm 1~ ill< h~~ I1f all addiuonall v C>Tf~' JO inches l.j. -~ a!wil~ HE' nnecred The ne ~traL center contact of the 5O(t-eL "fld tne D{>ndlll!. Splice at bottom {If loop.. ur the service drup \\. the insula tors..TALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING 87 oon nect rh e ends ni the \\ 11h.~:re-...ll' . h l'l~ Indoors. a'nd in5U~.. 11 ~t'r~'. b. 1-ir--! ~.i9.e-cil'l.. plus another t wu u r three fl'C'I.jC(' h~'"..___ ill Ne urr ~whitel Rlolcl-l .en you install service cmrancc cable. see .. ln some jurisdicrions. It'"S vary.. again twisri n g the neutral strands into a single..". th I ~ b P")I ~ 11 tinlly . III-H' An ordfflJry connector for Indoor use. J k-Sb expensi ~'~ ~oJ1necu fr of •he in Fig.Ir~".u~hm!l' clrwJ Yl'HI! life nat U.JSLl"lgstraps like.wire..H~ R~r~.

INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING

Ch apter E!

Th e ServKe Entra nee

89

SepQrQ~ wfri!sirl r,i!'l'.. wliy(t:ondu;rJ lnstead 01 <ervice entrance cable. :H,'p,ir:~I[' T~'P~ n, 1\\, R~ \, I t-J\\ N. lhr .\H H\\ wires inside rJ,ccW;JS m.n bl u~t',i Th E" neutral wire is • h~ J~'~ \d·lIIl.':' ({ I r r~'i<i~1111 ed .J.S. ~ uch using paint Dr t.:lp~ at fi rermmarinnst; in -on e localities bare uninsulated \o'rir~'i~li'~,j_ I he mned n"'fi wires ~rr bku,k, ur bl.l" J.. .J. H l ~¢d- In determine the ~ilC r.lee,," ~y n:'lj uired, ,~~. I .~hI~~ I,-l. and ~ in Ch~pt~[ ,) 0 Lilt' Sf C

n

The onl~' other option is ro see il J conduit budv (!~ smaller dimension has been lis [eJ j or J (On d LJClOI till that m~HS \ L' urn eeds, F~'T example, there are LlO rno gul" rigid nonmetalhc condurt bL1(He~,su lit llq",d to L'.S_ standards th~} ;;Uc.111 J(,!LnII1e'h In~,¢,tig.Jl~t fl1r ,IJh'~~·.ibl,~ \·.. rr iili, I"',j~ fur iI ~\ -.1m ,\1111~\' \I!\"X' ur similar . marking, It vou arrn L using XHI-LW wires, or It vou rc using cnrnbinations or sizes, iust compare the actual cross sectional ,~.rc.l nftlle~~mduLILU~'-'ilth [he Jf<:.) rerr~U

(()lImH.lll

ra cewa yo; L1xlude ngltl 0)[ irncrrn l'(h<ltt' me t.lll·OIl d ~HT, rJ ~Id n{111ntetall tC cond Llit, and l'kX"~rLL.1 rnei ;I!IiL tub i n p" ..LH described In Chapter l~, Cu t pK"~Z>~~ !II n f::.
J_~

~ew.... III ,II~ Ir'[lllg 111>1rlJ~t~~rlh rllI~ luring oIhv rnuv be r.Lirlti~hl ,1n~1drran~?'J i tu J rai n: drill ~ small wct"r hole III us bono m en d betorc J LJ U P ull thc wire.
Arter cornplenng the pull. and ~,~umlltg the
I.'JCeW;;lV

011 111(:" V p(. LJsed. ,.!i, l t 1~ top of t he race wav j nstall a ~,TVLtt l head 0 r the tl' p~ sh LJ\',m on the righ t in h~. S 21, ill I h ~ P(II iu ~\here rh e racewa \' is to emu the house, U~(' an e 11tr.~Jl..:e e II such ' .s shOWIJ on the ldt in h g. 8---21_ I t'lf~ has J removable cover whuh m~kL~~H ~.t~y "help [he wires around the sharp bcrul wlul~· I-"Hllillg them into the rJ..:{'way, [k ~I re to ~lr WIt" la rge enough, a~ covered in the next topic,

required and prep

lIT'

them in the m.. nner

d~crir.ed

111

Chapter 12 depending

passes trum the outdoors

[(I

an mdonr 1(l~-.aTinllwith air lh~L (;,1I1 be ~i~IllfL.,m.t\'warmer or (I,}(II~[han uutdour t air, stuff sornv ~ding puuy around tnt' wires where thev enter the mcc\\·.lr- This wi.n obstruct the c i rca larion of hu nud a I f h l J po Inr \\ he re ( I1lld~r1 <"'L!1()11 cnu I,1 ("I,:, LJr .:!1 ehe culrle-r t'rlLL '11w i"TCh.:l~ rl1ut~J1('h C'nfurl'~-J this principle on raccwavs pll~~ing (rom volt! storage areas in to warm rooms, tor example, bur the :002 VEC expanded on this principle, (I irectlv applying it In .race\'>':ly_~ (or cah le ~Iee\'eq "pa~~ i ng Irn II} ~ It; n [i'rlM ~()~ f i h exl er iu r uf ,9 build ing .."

fig .• 8-21 Ser ...ice flea d (Gl righT) is tor use when wi rei ru r.
through. ra(ewa~, Use witll special entrance ell 1m f~ft} which l1as ;:. removable co v er, 'l1ubbE'fl E'E!'dY:w'
Products)
1\ fter I he r.ac.ewav Ltse short len g.I h 5 i uvo lve the meter so.h:t; (r rh e house, it the- rae rh rough. See Fig, U: nized clothesline or.

. is completelv installed, pull the wires into i~, Or tlle re I,Ulvely I .rhe wi res can usually be pushed in. at the top iHU] dow n ((l I' I ~here, ot her lengths are pushed throu gh to the insid e of ~'~y i~ lo ng u r hil~ be Ild~ 1n I~, LJ~~fish tape to pull the wires 1 aral rela ted tex l for how EO use ii sh mpe_ A le ngth or galvamilar wire will serve the pUrpi.1,,<, fo.r shm! len~th~_

Col'l,ce,nt.ric krl,OICkouts The cabinet ~ ot service switches or circuit breakers are too small tn perm it kn ockours nf all Ih e ~L7e~ t har 1n I ~lH 1'Ii:'I'erJ LJI reel ill iIOll CIrCIIW~l~ll~"('~, 50 w[](':l'nl rir kr,o(kuuh 1\fe pro'.' ~(kd l.Fig, 8-22 LiRC'muv(' the center section it you need the smallest si zoe; remove [he [\,'0 srnal lesr sect to us tor the next sj ze, and W on, Be very careful to remove only ~.!$m,m} \e'~ tnE1,Sof 1h l~
111.rl~ AI~
In

knockeiu

~Srequired

tor veur F~rl1U1J;n

~~<lll~tw.n, ONS

Fig. EI-'J2 Co 1cer rric I:.[l<OCkOll~~ are co nve ni e nt b ur oJ re3~ care must be used i n remo~'l"Ig each section,

.MAKI NlGI GIRO UN D CONNECTi

A.l be p-oim 1"ht"re lnl' rl'!n'W~r ~'llI~T~thcb~Ji!dqTlg I \'I'hrc.h \,>'Lluld ;<;ill plalrl, i~I;, nl~Lum~rr I" Ll~~~r, t'HI r,lr1Ll~ wnduil LJ.tjJy of I h~! 'pt:' ~hllwn in F1J;. 8 11. \Vi.lh thC' cover r('mo~'l'd,.il i1.1~'ml'k' m~l[(T to pull wiTL'~' l1Ind the right-angle ,cermer. Be careful w obscr ..~ lh~ ~il.ing TUk~ in ;"\'EC _~ S ,'\ H;:'I ~nd I 3 i 11 J~(h i n g thi.;ntti ng_ Th e !.Ii st;1ll.C('b.t.'twl'o:n H.2 l~ the center 01 the con hi it ~ Iup, j J(lugh l~' c41UJI tt) I h ~ long dElne Ilsi.on CIf the CO"-C-fI must not b.c I~;s tbd (, 1im~:s dl L' t r~d<=d umct~r ,)f III e en t.:of iI'lg rncelNl'l}~. or .1 luU 1~ inches Lrt the case' t trade' ~ilt' 2. r~'l ... .l}, I'h~ di_~t...lfK~ ~ h~ro."ecn the (ol'ldLlil ~lOp Ln the short d Imcmic ;md, h~ m~i d ~ of I h~ L~)v.:=r HlLl~' ~ I I~,hl equal th ~ mi n im u m bending ndiu~ tor I C ~il:~ Ilf <.,l1ndudur. u,-<:.1,"'ioI..,~,j on .".'EC .311.b ,\1 FClr J'II Cl1ppcr ,"Dnclu("wfs, ~h"! ~nfl <11111",Ib~r Jim~n~hm 1• .,1 m.::hl'5. C ..mdLlH tt",Ji!:'~ which gC'r]{,TJlh klL 11k~,IIC 1~lh~r~l ~- .ho~~ ~'Ith the openLng Hl the b,Kk ~r":" L.l!leJ ~1 If') I liolllm~ :l th~,.e spKlngs ar~ gen~r.1lh' rctcrrt....-J to .~ 'm~'~ul' Illi i!1fi:~; L,m~ClLllt'.Iul.::nrldui bodif" \.'on'1 m('o:l ~'f{' F"I~llfrmL·nl~_
(olldlllitbadjj;!~ ~orrc~pvl1~t t~, tho:' I . -;;uion of lhe

1'11<,.ser\fu~e~~\r,ch '~f CirL~!.jl brr'lk~'r ha~ L\\'o h~d\ \ Lcnl~iH~I~ l~\ ~~hid~ .Iw I Wt. il1L'om~n~ hOI wi[,'~ ,In: L1.mw:~Ll"d, IL ;~Isn h~L~ ~ rl~!I'T~1h~J~b~ir PT' whidl )'LJU .... iJl 1ir1~1 ,c\.'t:'[ill fJrg~ Cl1[lnl\:-Wn ~nd a nllmb~r or ~m~n~T ~L·fmLniil~. L!J[lncct L.h!:' III com Lng whit.: 0'[ bare rLClJt r~] to one- (If thr J ~ r~. (I;}[I nl'C[UT', .mJ the gro und .. 'ire
l,~ the Qtb~r The smaller trnninoll.s are th~ wnit~ wir~~ of the ind.,,"iciuill (ircl1its reoo~rs. [t then: an:! enol1gh [erminals, bare !!: [OU nding wircs of ci.rcults (an ~h{, h~ conll~1€d to th~ n~u.tral ba:r ill ;L'rv!,f' ,c<1wprlJI.'rH ~ ac.:cpmlllc ro the rmfu/or If ~dditional termin~1s <Ire requirro, In accesso['\' equipmenr groundJng b:LF mll~[ h~ u ~ed_ The ~n closul e \\ t1.l hJ"'~ mounti [1 g m~ n5 f(J r thj_~ g rn u.nd hdf_
PT

ror

Solid n,euua.1 1o\'hethcr your ~rviIT cquipmcnlconHim bn_>akcrsor 1i..L~~.lh{:' uh:ommg ncunaJ \o"JrI: must I1\:Hf h...' int~'TIUpte.d by oil brc<l.ker or tu!ot Thcretorc rn .1 .Ilr~('-\,·irl:, i ~Ui .!'IU-w~lt m~laJl.Jtlon, "'hilc Ihcrc arc wct" ~1"I'HX-C'[Jtr~n.::c ~"1I>=", fw main brl',lkcr 1~nnh ~ -r"'\l-p< lie ,md 1n r1J~~-d t ~~lirmm •• 1l'"IT .~Tl' nnh
t \Ioi(J m.tH1

brl' tl..~[

,~r tl.b~.

f u ,.;-, rh ~ [1~ ul r..Llr~ L~ II ~ - "IIIJ fl ~LJI nl -d nl!u! ~~ I nut ~Uth t"qLJ[pm~m th,,[1 I" L'an~d~Lhrc~ \~ Ire ".,,_~

~m I' eLi L·J

In

90

INSTALLING SE:FlYICEEQUIPMENT

AND WIRING

Chapter

B

The Service EnuancE

91

GfOI.H'Id~n,g Ever insrallanon ol the I \"rC~ ~li~u~~~·J ill rh I~ t.r~L11...mU~1 be gro unded The techr icdl rc asons tor grounding arc J iscusseil IJ1 Ch,l [H(', " r 1;\ H~J, L:.lfd:IJU~ 1I1~&.3II~ flf uad i, ahsolutelv necessary tor a ~Jt'C in.st.lJlal.ilJn.l,;nJlJndin~ I~ Il(~'Jmpli~ht"J b\ T fining ~ STIII,lnd "'lrt!' fri~rn the 11KOfrlHl!'l neutral service wire from 3 poin l ""hLT12 is connected to UR"I'll' utra I bll~b~ r tn IIH~ rv i U:' eq U 11'ment I "'" cl!h~r Tn ,111eX"llrlg. rounding electrode svstcrn or, iJ' [lot ~\'aibbll', [oJ.i ~rlll'nJiil~ electrode ~rL'C1 h ..-.. ll; , m~' <iJ k'4.l .11I I ~O'H1 ect r.d t'11r t h I~ l' u rptlse_ l
L

GI'(IlInd.ing ele-drlJ §,),stem All ot the followmg which exist at the structure must be bonded lU ,tht'r Iv r~lrrl1.1 ~rLI~JMdIIL~electrode ~y!fem: In addinon, anv plate electrodes must be included with these:

B:c,nd~ng 'tlile busbar Service equipment cabinet- LOI1!aln d, '-Llpper neutral busbar un \..m.icn Me installed several lal1!l' solderless cunnecters r~lrllie 11~a\ \ mcorni n f! ne utral wtre and the ground wire, p.l us as rnanv smaller con n.rrlo rs or kTlilln,LI ~~rl:'W~ a. needed, ntl~ fo r the grounded wire Clf each I! Ll volt circuit. _'\5 purchased, the neutral hmbar mar' be insulated [rom lll", ~'1,",l!let. rc ,'L}~J use this, equipment a" service equipment YOU mJlstbond lhr neutral busbar LLJ thl' cebinet.It IlHN m)~ be bi Irl~ie.J .r~he tnedb.~r or ~wl.~h i~Ll~,M, f,'f example. as a disconnecting means tor an appliance ur other luad, or i~u!>~J ~:> a p,mcl~l.lrJ on ~h€ IrMJ ~n:l~ 11f ,I service If yo u h.. e I-Ll bond the husbar to (he cahinet, it is a simpli: m auer, ln u 50ml' brand, lIf equipment the neutral busbar IS pro'l'~ie-rl with ,; gr~en hondling screw that rou must tighten securely, In other brands, the cabinet will UJlLldEJ1 ,l 11 ~ i h I.;>meta I ,.1 J'i~P rh at i 6 ~I r<';wy ho nded to the cahi net, and you must connect e Eb free end to one o tthe connectors ur :.tTCW~ OlJ the neut ra 1hu ~b~~" Ihe t'C] UI pment grounding busbar will alwilYJ> be bonded to the enclosure, whether withi[] the service equipment enclosure nr at a. f"~mote p.inelboard, IlI'Ilstalli'ngl'theg'rttul'II,d wife ThI;!T~ isnever more Lhall fI~ltgn1oll[ld w~re from the service to the gIo unding electrcdci s). Then' is no obj cction lIJ using insulated W ire, h LJ t bare wi re m~t_1 Ie~~and is us ually used for the ground wire, Keep the ground wire ;t~ short ~~ possible. AH gro1Jitdlr1g cnnnecrlons W the water pipe must be m~clt within thl' ,first JiVe' f{!("l uf whl'J~ th t' wat er pi P(' ell! erG I he b~Jild i ng. Si:l!f! The mi nimurn ground wire size l~ based on the size of vour S~.rVKl' wiring. L~r~r "he g rn 1.1 nd Wl'I'e is optioual, V,Tith1 A\\"C. or smaller service wires, 8 AWe; is permi ~t ed ror 1h e f!.m II rld WI re bu [ i[ m usr be enclosed in a rmor or conduit, h is mere l'COHUmiQ] ~Ild pr,l(':liC<L11(1 use 6 AV'I'G because it doesn't have to he 50 hea viJy protected,
Of

buried W w11 w,ll..-r I' i pt'
• llit' "ilt'CflWh g

unded metal frame ofthe building .:-b:LruJc ~on~i~Li n g uf 2(1li=~'Lor it lI1 re of _ 11ell re i n mrcmg -! pef wire encased by at !':ilst2 inches (It UJIlHelx and !(l~\~t )1 ~ coucrere toundatLon 01 fo'lj,ng that is in direct contact A\Io.,'C or larger hare copP'fr wire encircling

near Ih~ bottom with the earth ~ grwHl cl
rrL~~

of

the building

t It only one of the 11 , ve ~x.i~L~it mav scrvv a~ 1lw ~n) 1Iildi rIS ~1~, rode, CJ[cert for W5r be sepplemenred by at least one other dl'd rod~. 1r i1011~ wa[ er pipi Ill", which oftltese is available, sse a rod, pipe, D;f plate electrode,

cfrod,esi er orher tii!'l'de~'rout:ld ,systems or stl'iUdl.lfe~ R,od,p,(f,l'l~, OJ' unci wMC'J system, a good grulLnd becomes ,j problem. lf If there is no uncle no ne of the above (j tions lor a grmmding electrode svstcm is availab]«, lh~' Nl;C ;!11 nl,~'~(or seve ra] a'! .rnatives th at may serve .liS the grounding electrode: underground
B-foOL

rn ,Clllup~r'g (~~cep[ fla~l Of tank", indudmg '

metal well casings

driven slrel pipe

i nch mpper

or ~/~-nch i

steel rod or ~. inch g3l,'.)n.izcc!

~ m~lal pJ;H~ h!J ~"tl ~l le~,q 3(J iIlch ~ belo ......the ~l.Lrfa(",f at e:i:poses ~t le-asl ::. s<quarc frel ul , rf 3~~ to lhe ~o i 1_ ~ Lnee J plate ha,~ 11.~-(lsid e~, ~uch pbte_~ ;lIf' commoniy J ~()' sq Ll<lr~I rL ,>.~.e, Ground rod imtalJ- 'on l~ di!>'(;~I~,,,-1nil f).lge~ 19~-19~_ tf;t gmLlfid rod alone i~ ( l.L9I'd. the gmu nel WI: , ne,'c r [l~t"tb I ~~ bt' LI rw·r 1h~111I ,"I W(, .-e~a rd!ess of the ~17_e of L electrodes th e wires In your :K'r -,c l'quipmml. nil' Nfl ft'q~l.rl;:~ md. ~li~>t;. 1r pb.,~ to I:n\'e a ground r~, la nee or ~ j uhm, or l~,., iI" (1n 111 P [1(' I~ n~~iill kd_ If th c rt:~IS mnc~ ruJe c~nnor b ,1cl' wilh ~ ~jnglc ~lich drctwde, thm Arl ~ddiW'jI<l1 d<:'ClT'(1d~ ITIU_~[ be installed_ \ ,Kn m<Jre tnan one rlcctroJ1: i~lmtalbl, ~h~ ,'v'I"C I=(feu i~'eI,y 'e tried nard ('notlgh, and J(J~''I. no!' H1mr nil nii:'ellnfl. the decla res th ~l \'0 U '11 1::;·oh m limiL Thu :t.rc many ;rrl;'as ot lh(' ((I UrH 1"'1" wll n~ ~~ wmlilill m mul md~ (11'nhH,,,,-lht'~k wid, !oL.LI.mthniL!lI!'S [(] gel prooLl{"f rC!>lrtam:e> n thc hundr~d~ ilill wn ~uch~l~cu ode;;;as II ~nS{' 01 locJ 1 (On ( ,;um, ~ I ,In\" iIl~t;; 1 I ~ r~ n'u! Llid Y LH~I ~ m;!,l1~r ni' LUUf<;<= 'mdlll!-t lfll!' Het'd fUI il.le~L.Hcmem.s, He ~llrc the~ are;U Je3-5~ lbe .'lit.e IIHJJIn1Um f ~ [-~etapart. and ~'-rn fart:h<:'r it pos.sibk

tn

With 1 er 110 A \>\'C serv ice \'.'i res, 6 1\ vV(_; i~ tnll,i rn UIII ground wi re size, \V11h 2fO 1111' JIOAW"C service wires.d AWe is the minimum ~rotlrld wire ~i{~'_ lf IfOLL are tisiuf! .llllllTi nUIl1 sernce "..'iITS, th~ rquival.mt cut plviill!> ~ rt' 110 J\W~_; (It :ml,iUo:r, ,:un ~,1 r _,/(J AWG. and 4/0 AING or 250 kcmil AhmruuLffi grOllrlU wiIT:~ art· .1l'>O pt'Tmill~"j. The Nf:C ~i,7.ing rule:;[ extend to all S<f'rvicr siz~s, as '((IVC[t'f.! in ,.... T<lblc 250.60, 'FC

Armor or conduit is not. rr-q uired (0 r Q AW(j or ~, AW(, l!Tound WLft'_ Either siz-e must b{' f~stl'n{'J wi III $I~p]~~ to ~h e surf nee {l~r which it [Urns_ It mmt b~ inM.:tlbl j [] .. \',~1r 1hal mU1,~111iz.es dan~er of phrsical cbmagc after ill s:t.111 ~ tin r1" ,fJhr--ICJ 1 pmtecti 0 n fOf lh e ground wirr C~ n JL~u1w pwvu:led bv fL~id l1onm~ti3Hi.:: (PVL conduit, COrJllE'din9 Ar the service r-qllLrmt"nl, ~onm·'1 lh,. t;round wi~ to the neutral b wsoor to which \'llLl hOI t: ~UI1~ Il L"'\.'oo UJe T1CU l'rai at lh [? ~l'TYi(L;'. Run 1~ [(1 I fw ~ !lind iT'i~ d~tmd ~ ~I and thl'TC ,on n1:Ci it w ~ WlflJnrl J.fITI P !If Ihe ~<:nrTal ~~\ lr ~hlll'<'n in Fll'~ A.-:J, TllI~ LL]LnI~ rl1u_~t bi= moldt' n!' !(~I~"'mle,d ~mn If Ilh.[al]",d I!n .... Irun pipe, but JI ~Ltpptr "r tnulll': If it rum to a mpper pipe or rod,

~i91' 8-2:;1 T)'pil:al

L;iraund

clamp
ground

rOr ~Clnn~{:tl~g

WIre t~ v.r;L[",r pip<' r ~ ttmr.:. (<Jr' pan!'!

INS.TAlUNG

SERVICE EQUIPMENT

AND WIRING

Chapter

B

The Ser v lee tntro!t1{~

93

Bonding

t'f(~< lll/L'l!:rl

A careful job ofbonding is essential to .h::.UI"e {JufrLl.J: \~ h~11 lblll!l either armor or conduit to protect the' ground wire. ~ f~,lll-J.n= mLl~' be l.l~t"1;1 !~ ,o;!>:!lrelv and permanentlv borrd the armor I or corrdu it at uth ~Ll,l.b-tl' the ca binet J nd tll LII~· t:n~~.l L1an,1' <1<1he elec nU,(j e. m ! L·BI¢.'>~fh.~ I, ( ul ~, rh e resuln ng gm und will be-much k'S!>dff'cl:ivc than w hen min ~ unpruie .... \ ire, Th i~ TIl~,II' ~ usn ~ .d. y,rn,1nJ .::!.lm ~\ that secures both In e r .J.C~'WJ\ 1l-J and the WI[~ nside n simult .meouslv, ,\. LaC' .....:'p, i~(' l'~"ipmt"rH. L.I~f' d I-H Illditl~ pn.j~cdlLro;' ~II' .J,lJ ru tn.it shown III A ut Fig. FI 2,1 tur the service conduit
ilittl]@5I1!nI'.ic@'lf!ntral'u:e
lU

Itllll~._ (

G.f(!lUfld wir~ I f yO IJ use J rrn u red ground WLIe. bend the connector lin till;; (.IM.· [I) rhe ~~hln~l.and at the electrode usc .:t grou n J cla nlp ~iJI'1I1.H In rh e type ..hown III f ig_ tl .:!J ~connect the .... to the It' rm i rul 'ire ....Tl:W, ,In.1 1.ElIII~ ,he.1J mur in the separate clamping dCVLCC ol the ground cla rn p.
L

I f 1h e ~ ro U nd wire
corulu i1 lo 1he

L~

protected
\'11 h
,!

by condui t.bond

Llll'
11j!:

(. ht net

Io-d: r1 u r a 11t1 uroundi
bushing

I:lu~hmp:_ A Iurnper hom

th.H

'to lhl' 1"Ll'UL[~1

5~rm:~
equipment
~,n~!

busbar is r¢qll 1 r..-d, :a.s. shown 1'('l! the service conduit in A. of Fig, S-.:! t Usc a ground damp 1nto wfw ..h vou can thread the conduit. and connect the ground wire 10.4 tcrrnill<ll/i"""W uf th-e clel~lp_lf the ground I. d II l wire is protected LW fLgi nenrne I~ ic ~~\ ..U .:on uu i t, bond i 11~ of t11 e racewav is not nrcessarv,

Fiq~8-l6 TW!.rpi'1'C~thr~i'lrlPd I~ub. Serrations 01'1both pi;:oc~~ bl!e Inw enclosure me~al rnaksriq d bundlng jumper
Lmnec<l!~~~r~·.O inoutside rlfli;J
p~~CE''mm~ ~ r'lIntight SNI.

B
I grou ndin g connectlons. On~y the wh j~~ l,','j{P j~ ~ hewn, Tha wire marked "bondif1g jump, J" is usua lIy part of the servrce ecwipm P'1t as purchased; j t could be eitr.e.r <I green screw 13 r, I l'Iexib!e strap,

Warer me{er A Uondillf!. jumper must be installed around the water meter ~~ shown in .Fig. 8-]7, U se hl·f., ~n)LII1~1d~Hl ~-.;;i1 nd iii. len gth nh~' of the size used . i re for the ~r()und. This pre v crus the ground from b~iif~ I'Md~ ineffective If the water rueter rs removed, ~(!me water meters also have- irJ,ulrHing. iuints. t-~t'~II~ same procedure around ulll~·r 1f!~Ii'ate-d interruptions in the oantinnity of thi.:' w,lh'r piping system, such as a water hltcr wi,h plasr« housings, even if the grounding connecti 0 n LS Oil the street side or such intvrru pt io ns, W;'I rer p i rln~.ystem~ must s b.' bonded rn the ground wire, and this often m s..ans ]uokill~; both directinns Crl.Jm l11(' g[):)u"d d.lnlP ln order to fmd discontinuities.

rll

are an co ndu i t, follow .4, of ,h~~ .;-rHJ of the ';'~)I1ttLJi[ imid-e the cabinet a d run a lumper (bare or insulated, of the ~m(' SI/-C as 1hv gn.)H'ld wire) from ~h ~bushing to the grounding busbar, The ~GCW uf the hushing bues dowil into the netal nf the cahmet.oonrributing toward a. good continuous ground illid pr{"Vt~lllif .~It!~ hushlll8, from turning and loosening, which would impair the vf.Hl[illtti~v l'C he ~wL.lnd.lfyour service uses service entrance cable with Its bare neutral \\Tap' -d ~trJUtHJ [h~· iTl$ul,lt~d wir~"'. as in I'Lg_ 8--12.the grnundmg bushing i~not required: fUJJllw ~ oC Fig. 8-24. Service'eflt
\'ll rei

_iCe- wires

If vn i I r ~~rv I'~-~ nr ra nee
u1..I:;,IlIng (h~,

.Fig, 8-2A. Ins IU (1. g[IJllD.d.ing

8-Z.5}

.,Hl

G(Q~~nd (t.)mp\

n
G E.N ~ R.ATORS

,Fug'. :8,-27

IIlslaLI a Jumper

~ra.uII<il the water meter

\Vhm >lnl IIW .L Ih,.c,l.h·d huh bolted 10 rhc cnclu-urc, or ,~ lllll, uf rhi: twu-prece lype ~hu\~ n i:n Fif 8-~6, b4lndillt~ of rhe conduit to 1he ~·mk'wH· I,~~I~nll,.lt., .1I1d the grounding. bl'~hin~ ,mdi~lll1rn M~ not nccessa rv

IEMIERG,Et;,i CY lBACKUP
'l here rnav be times when
tdL

,h,' Illllil1 po· .... r supph is cut oH due to .l storm e jj,I'Cf L~''L-. n, ~~r!II alighming prone area, your electric ~f'·i.·t· m,I\' be <1.1t>jt'C11r' iK~.l~i,,·n,]lllr frc<!UcI1[ outages. hrcricncc will t!:'ll '!'tIH W!lr'dWf ,] ~ellt'T~tar 1.o.~~HI.ll>i:t w~,J 1rH'~~hn~fIt fnn'l}u. Choi("~ 01,1 r"lflahIL· or p.. nl1.1Jknd~ , H\~~<lIl~J '\T~ will J~J'd,d Oil tour p..:!rticul.1T m:eds. FtH·1 tYr'-·~ inL1LJ,I~ dine !I~ LUr..L11(d.~Jl~,d fu~I. or J i.q uid propa n ~. IX' ~~H,· W ~ h<!'Lk l, tLd.1 r~'ltLJ remem ~ for ... J!!~ Il t t ud and Ib~ noi ~~ II- ~'I I I"" rm iLI.oJ. t'~f tors, U vuu live

r,~rrorn [

~'T

~I

rh~ MOIlldb\_..h h. rEC rL<i:. f~w mdividu 1lb the _e"t]~ installed? [appliances such "fe_ uenrlv installed ~cfl:e telL There are ~y~tem~ th. the "f. Ill. [hen connect a Small portable ~ellerd.] lamp or two..to-stan motors...1'~Ie i~ IL. ~her have male blades. Generators . mer.nerilltiOf m ma."'0millie plug h ~1i~h.ll!ed..'Itch that meets the r~(tHlrnnl:'"tHb ofthe Uu:ck with a profr:>!>iul1~l i rr Wtqh vrun p(1wer supplier lor in flrm\.uu~. con ~~ p~ge~ 16---4. A limited amount of re~~-idng amghl hoi. R<.ild.!I'r..LJ e [0 h€ kept Ii \'€ during U1C period wh ~ n 1h ~ lo~.e~sary that i.::-ated ~qUlpm~11t ""oultt he r~~ujn'tll-or ~"OtJr gene r .. Ik' ~LJ r~ t h. hw mO\'l:'J ~ntu pu~itioH whel~ n~eded..nOr delL1'11U~pc iIIl"r~u ppli("r's sysl~m to I.::h~ ti:-eJ a p.d '-t1~Mp.\it.]Li IrL-~ t h~T ~ ·sign I p laced at the ~erv.ill .g to Io:store power they could r~..~ he.hle and nor permanemlv connected.(e [nc~ 11011~d~~~msf til r pr{'5('rtce ot o ~i9" 8-28 ~~yrrn.lUI rranster equipment.:lin~~~ rt'~id~Tl ~I situauun ~ system for manually ~t_"Jtin~ tho: ~~llo.ergize itA'Ll!'.:ltethi~ and ~ niJlllh~1 nf nrht'r pmbk'ms.ul' <.e [1..l.ndt cou ld ~r:. ._-t:n-~ ~~rHJUS ~ shod . Or h~ ~ko:.7 am are rated and priced .JI m~d for th~ servia...L pi L. the-~ro ll1 .VCf ~~~{'mr~ m ~Il ~rgi r~ \'oi i flT]g J iI b u Lldi Dg rr\" usi n g an exren..LnJ.h e)(&t:ti In ~oll ~ ~r .lio much as three times tht" connected load i 1 order to perrnit Ilw motor [0 starr.-n~J1IIVlv llw horsepower bv i46 to convert to warts. sud It-¢dLl)~ this panelboard rrorn the n~mr~r ~Wi~Lh. For wrnrs.l s wilt lliU. [..W.rul'nd d.~11d ..lngMlfllt prevents p~ug blades Irom being rllll~ ~xpmed and energized while the g':Tlt'T~Lor i~nwmng_ ! g5 1tl7 fOI' mfomuriorl (In the calculation ot residential and farm loads. use .K cd b~' mumt coming from VOUI f1_eiLr('rawr_ 'J.urk [ogel b ~ r. S uch as a: well pump.v~ri illlhlS case the receptacle body mustgo on Lh~ ':!ld uf the cord from the generator..(:.ap~'i~rto .~11the' gencrator when th~ nor mal pn 'f'1 ~nUrC~ f~ ~[1d ~ Utuma ticall ~ transferthe load l~)..o'w~~ .in rn.f [11. Use a generator \\I i 11 l5 percent capacity above the p roposed C('I" 11ected d [0 permit In O[Or~ to ~[-n.!& Gl\o~lnd~ng th~"g@ll!~rator The gc'nrra. fa how to pruceed. a"H~!1 damJge lQit and vour .-en load 100m enhcr uf lWLj oll~<..~eltm~rd to one side ofthe transfer un l he ~W.!OH (Oftl \Ii i~ I ".[lrulfaJ J I-I"-In' I~ ~lill hmld~. it would be p Idem to size the gencratOl' c.11t' a l[ 51 volts T a rings on the nameplates w of theappliances ~11d II [he extension cords. rl~r~ lur rUll can tu n off alJ equipment before :>. ell e. h('LdU'....\ \"0'< HJld h "Yi'" to mdt.t' ~11[·l!. 1he ~kx:~ luads from the total load.ltC'1lII tied I \~-hHe'.' equired iII r ircuits foryom f'Sf"l1tr~~ rq'tiipmcnt from the restot tbe load.g-~lndreceptacle type oj connection so HIU c..~n be L1~t-Jtu refrjp. Noise .t not bepossible D-OrYf 11' g¢nercHN d~ld the incoming lines from the power supplier to be' connected tOilt' ~T..I~~.~}rY1)U ""-iJl r~u ltiaHv ITe". lransfer 5wlr... . b~ ~Lln~thl"n:' i.as shown in Fig.:'n ~. It some of the lood! i~ 24(1-voh. cr su r' f'll~r \ III}"".lu are other tactors to wbeth reeder trum the USUJI service I'~. Choo:dng tihe. llt~ rhar ...:'n ~r.:mrdiJlg III tht> (_ml~Hi'llptIOll I running time) nsider rn nlclkitlt\ 01 selection.er.d to the grounding cl~'tmJl'..H In II ah .on tur .d si.!:e 11lle-thar will mnnN"{ to tnt' generator others ide.mH'C~~_The prnpiT procedure involves .owet ~La I' pl i~ r\ y~t("m 'tr>'-in.h~ u~~ 'If ~tl addinonal panelboaru cunt.: ~IlH' lfl e extcnsio lords \'("ILl L1~e m n I1~L I \hl:'" i1rrlill nces to the g{!Tll"fatnr are tn sized to mIT).uppli er i~ cxperien em ~ an t'ut.e r .. This means llw "plug" (the device with the mall: blddl'~) must be at the building wall. rTl:~l_("f. This Mr.grounded to the same electrudc ~5 U.in pDw~r supp'ly II is absolutely nec.LI ~ fT~r the tr1Lmt~r tel the l!.h~nc\'er th~ ' ~f.Blk.''-1111 do p~rm~Po.~arln~ Ih~ gcncraror. For convenience WIU mav 11.c Jnd ~ ~.lt~ ".llwith II professional.ene raeo r 'II01t ch oosc will ~L1pply 340 volts.'Tdlofand •ransfcrring the JO. startup &\ well as conti nu i 11Jl-W ~Il~il rna nu~Uy stencd w.".uril Flanqad inlet and the mating ~dOO_: re'{ept~(~~ cord body ..ed mlets" and although recessed into ~ w~ll.size you need depends: L1U kl \'t lilt' 1oad of the entire ho me or rarm nn dur~~~gan Oillil£.'l1'If' . It)d ds.or!C. GUt be accomplis hed with J propcrlv ins~. circuits.i W r • h ~ . If )'OUT load mdudes hard.<.orr ""'~U. It th~ grncr~tor i~flul 1'efmaneIHlyin~t.l!ly ~t.r1:8b~@orp@m'!c1 ~). ""ping ~UI generator ~~p. k 1...IL1tOlll'Hil.lIl"f1\· .:.i~l thev pro. level and rate of fuel II the g~nl'ratur i~ !-. B-28. J'h~ pntl~!p~r T~'i!5Un fur making sure your gel1e~3tnr rs isolated from rhe po 'er ~llppht'T'~ lines is too protect the workers who <Ire uu] rm th e p. If in doub: abou I l'J ~. and then r restart selected equi entiadividually to mmLlllil. ~u~h ol~ a flexihle c8bJ. These devices . I [uw. be sure the .!llcd 11'811ster ". e r vou wan I to nr nnlv ~ fe-w selccte l1IJ'lT to separate the or in the case of 01. hut t~)f 11~.ltlT lrame Ifllj_.1.. Tne . and notl 2() volts only: A geilemtnr th' LS'UHLJrH~licallr started must be sized large elKHIgl1 to c.aII} suffice.rator is in II ~~.. . rr--qLIen cv rt:<t:.Lrrr the en rlre load ~XllIn t ed to iI.1 ro!'habh:· Illc<ln~ W acmm 1'!i5h Ihj~ grounJing.li[]in~ tho: c rr .ll~ rhe connecnon easilv and quickh. '{l~ Isolate ge.. The.I NSTALLlNG SERVICE EQUIPMEN1 AND WIRING 9:5 Til e required separanon u (~enemtor and PO\ll."rll.Irllllo\ Mltl"pr ~nCC5< Sophisti.llh~r ~UI((:.m.

t1~{(rH1' hv ~implythmwing aw.. 9-~.·'·-!h~ \virrr~g ~)i"CIbuildrng while iL IS being.build i[If. permits more wires tLJ be used.e.. i~ fitted with a smooth bushing to clirninat« ~h~rp~dgt~. ltd i usted to bring t he fro nt !lt Ih.'. tor instajlation.... anda-mch.·.Irt" '. The.~ i~mounted L1n the surface of OJ... this one wi t h <:I pul] ch a.l"1-lnd'l.:I] i 7. It is octagonal m shape end available in lhRT sizes: 3 l-irH.lrlLi (.'i. 'i""heLl twa devices . and other nonmetallic material are also common.·' Fig.S1A.lr. ~ Outlet boxes ligure '-:l-~ shnws the most common outlet box.use . The Va sic principles fur "old work ~-th{' WLIi[l~ of ~. r~. with a box IO(Jt~J ."t'I'I~dt'-~ and strmlar devices ·Im 11'~r~lled In the bows. 'aIlOlJ.hl ~~lftl(('1l1 Ihe ~.. A We~1 many different covers are available. At D t~ a cover wL!h a duplexreceptacle.110 ! 11 W"r1 ral red uces th e ti me req uired r. and to protetf the "..u least [ inches deep."in u g hom physical dam ajl.{.$s receptacle for a lamp.LlATIO N f'.lrl' and rtlrpo~e. or CHAPTER 9 Outlet and Switch Boxes IN ORD ER TO U~ HT SH OCK and lire hazard Irorn Food v made or deteriorated conn actions and splice» in wires.[ each box CJJi b. are fOI "new \~·(lrl. and cover are a nuisance. Another lamp receptacle is shown at F. four Dr more . alrcr it it.m: to be mounted ~iJ~ ~id. .... el<c¢p[ Ch. h•rndier and more generally used.... At Ei~ <I kvle..Ide tlM~ ~nm'" wd)' drc ~ll~ll ~rger DO.> I~o ava il ~blE!. 9--2 f .e ~~ we cove r certai rl tel mill nln f:} en nuu nrl in . in~ hes ~k~l'I . the .L~ke' rvpe \\ei!!hlng ur [Q cJ pounds.I~ ~"IlIJlf wh~Je . TlfP'~s.. blt h ho'{ 11L)Jd.nd)I-ma di' tWD·Qd ng ~ II d I:. and ' knock outs are provided rOI th is purpose.r..itcb b. S""'i[ch boxes . Some common OIlCS arc. These are sectio ns of partially punched out metal that areeasilv removed to form flpemn£. 9-2. ires and cables must be brought into the boxes through open ing> ot the appropri ate size. .t box 8 t least l' 1 or e ~'tn ~'/~I ndl es deep.l"'<Ulitt·d fLni sh. ~IflgIa uexes are ea sily o ch~ ng{'d i nto onE' ld rt..\<::S [to have a depth .\ is shown in fig.97 . '!l'~' A Wpi(~l ~WI!Cl'l b<»: uSe. Tbe~· inch size I~ the most common todcv.IH sorncumcs u~('I..1 h brae k~'l The NEC requires bL'..1 DUX.·pL. M.II I..i~k I~ W b~ lml.o.~ that e\"L~ry ~witch. Such boxes are used mainlv with nonmetallic sheathed (ah1e and nonmetallic raceways.lp[el' 1::..: ho'( jl1L~h''>'11h .h. Usc the screws thst M~' pilrt uf the hnxes. IPLANlflUNG YOUR BOX IN. q l.qu!r¢. Fhe rno unt i n g hl ucke l' 0 n the I'n d!&.II ~·.box es ll"lf!. device such as a ~Wlh:h or fJ:~.3 III~t Il" nd rh en rernov mg \'o'LI:II pl"~j~. ns '. <lvoids cramping. built-c-are COY("fC'd in Chapter 13. 2.lr!. l ~IlY hUM'''.~r"lWoO gang" box. into .lY nne side of each box ami boll ing IiI c..\ll hr.. built.\'I-.xes lf JIl ordiIl~ry ~wilt:b t-H. but the deeper "rH:~(~ In }I .. J~ !'J be LIN a II~tt..~one devi re.Llh·t! \l~l~~ are . Fig.llle:d ~wi't h b().one ut It is ~ d~0p cord cnver-s-the ()poCnifl~ [ur 1ht" drop LOrd.ilrg~r boxp~ ~ rJ. If ~'pat~: pcrrn i1~."vn)' inuu IH wire or ("bit· IIlLJ~1 lx.[1 nckou t ~\~ 3 th sh a rp hlow on a K rewdr I'W pl~ (cd df!.. of bQxi!!~ Hux~~ . Studv new work thoroughlv in order to better understand old work.lJ boxes and th ei r accesso ries a re LOVe red fi rSI because 1h'T are' ea ~ie r tn \%U.:'1 box('~ depending 011 their ~h. '-V<llL as in ~ basement or garage. SwHch bOJU'l~· or T he most oommo n tvpe of S1.] to OOtli.et her J5 ill Fig. Jl1J cvcrv [1}LLUfe. Outlet bO:«'5 must always he vJ1. . Hflndy lm..e 5\!\1IIC~ feo[-e~t~ cle~ pte Tt e ~ id e.lJnged m tDg~th"r Rp.lfor (i~Il!I~~ of [he \~.c~ I. every IILJtld.t.ill T~'~I ''_:.i~f~d. ~P:' made of metal w i~ a g. Ilu. tapped holes tor screws b(1Jd [0(' ~wikli~.L 11.a. Met. J'~ r~r<l(r~Jblto 96 .t H boxes.JJown in Fi~. rwu by boxes can be chan goo . the sharp ~"Om'''1.must be moun ted on ~ DO-X' with the exception 0 t some tluorescent nxrurcs descri bed on page Ibt-lJ. V.~made of insula hog h rna tcrials such as PVC fiberglass.enclosed III . The uw~r <It A is 8 blank cover ft)r a hnx rhat J~ mea nnly to hold a splice ortap.ll Ftearsca! Clw'c \ ..~ ur outl!.~ed In In()UJII surface type switches. Keep in mind [hat all explanatmns In Chaprers ~ through ·1S...fLgthe ].. Al L is aspider cover u.!" b~ Inose I~I.l 5 in gil: "L WU _e."!10 the hox.>J:€S or t h rPl' or !~. -rnch where J. > .

lKl) no ~O.e Foo f-tIlch ~ucl re boxes and rs..LLING SERvIn EQUIPMENT AND WIRING Chapter 9 ouuet and SWitch Box.md-ed COIn€'r:I.! II chain.ICON'Ill! crolil kn 0 . nd mlcldl~ ..IN5TA.. rh ard rn eta] taken from rhe and nonmeralhc boxes for eat.2 .IS tn r ~1.n .~ 4 ~.n 35 a '"TE~~ KIND "ha ndy 00:0:' ur·uli lity bm.x ~lQK Choose JU volumes rWlll1~. FJec'1C'(1"I'rooUl. _.m.lJr'l.:!I~ for pe.. bnx. elL. en .. 9~ rdge!>.:i 5 14 12 10 S(lUAAi <. 9-4 [YI!I~ outlst b(l~ must be ~~etoo_So:'r:.. ... 1D_3 130 1~ 5 _j .ccp[don. extensjon with Il~~·ir olume in cubic in~hes. add LIp lJ'lese requir?d vplume-s_ dmo..po~~d5'lHfa~ wiring a~ in basements. IN'I'1ERlORVOLUMIE o:~ Tabl..rd fixture t~n(]py ar(! n01 countee. ~]g. UC)Hom). __.9-5 Flus b I)~ i'5 PER.0 ~.. . boxes special '1~~l. _. for E'acn wlr~ ongil'tatl"g Qi.~ DiT~-")I~l. 3' .l purpose handv . ~ 1 1 4 -1..L ~ ~ In(h. add up the required vnlumes lisH'll in 111~ h.QI)1d'E ~ "]t..on '_hQ largest lI!r'ire ill th . _ len ~ny nurn Der of fi:.~pecl~lh wires iIlll~f enter the r\H_ pa~1 i'Ig (hroug.~ 00.[E5 VOWME IUQUIRED S'I"A!ND:ARO BOXES Fi'g..e \I 2_ ThC'I1 match the [nt~l calcujatcd vfJhJrll~ m cub i c In ches to ~ box 5il~ in iill'lle ':l./.. The. 0 spider cover.rar~ '. I)uin. h lrIng is (or'l(~. tJ::.lTI rings.../ tn~ 3· i sc 2 3.h]. Uo. 9.ll)~~. V()iIH~~e I .111- for 1 VOL LIM ~ _.d covers."r.1(from iI dom.'> box' and s. b~sil'lr.!.uir m ant ground Iflg zonducter in the bo~...1 '.. :.FME IN(J.'JIl rQbl~ ~ I_ . l'mg u~<.. .. for each ~oke or Wap containing ~'o'ritc..-E! UJrn rnon covers: AJ bla II k cover: Hi drup cold (over..:z.• \'()llstawJani i.. ccnd u It WiI Jn~l_ 1 VOLUME.n In . b~s. ba~il1g the >'01LIme on the lilrge~t ...t~~ri?stu~~ (Fig.D }.lUJf~ To roiclJtr:lre minimum DIU ilLE. IPE~_E 4 ...". _Theb()~ and COVerj nave rDl. knov .et.. -4 ~. _.JL~ :.1c11 HectfKaJ f'rodlXr~i rJIi'aw 5lll1E.n lix!ur~ cqulprnent wlr~_ E). .g 'rrD..thout i s plJc~ 01 tc 1m InaI.. Wll~_ 2 v-OLlJMES . tour or ff'wE'r !idure wile'~ and one grounding Wire ~IIt~tjng ~r.)tihe volume on Inrg~t s..IN Ir.'~ ~ll LhHI:' [n Il~)hl•\..!~ IN.~ 42.]x] 1 :f' .(nJ the!tI d"Clubling it for two vel urnas.... Ta hle inch ca p'!~'i ties Lorn plete list n<lVl' their cubic The totnl 9-] IJ { e more WJ I nrnon ~!and l'IlJ)"~S "5 11N/:C ]:ab[c 3J ~_16(AJ .h~11 same box..t\ ttle oo~. iW ruJlK 12.:I rnera 1 box. which for each conductor enclosure il1~lLJd~ plaster rings.iOfllr.~hOWI1III l'~lbJc9--1.) devices. for ~ny number of ~qtJipment gtoLmdirrg conductors.. 9-1:5. Do nul ~d::l for external cable connectors (~ig... receptacles..I box ~11\i. __ ~I~y num ber pf in ternal (dbl!:! clarn ps (Fig.arge>t eq.'''' . VOUJME 1VOWN'lE. and It 1 VOLUM[ _.Q[l l~s ma::..rha pppn in.OO 500 I. pt' rrn iucd in . for ~df'l!W !Hrsl.S~..:!: :l:'~ :.5oIlI! \I'UUlt.:nnJ.J 2~. the box tor oI'ach Wlf~ orsolicec s.!fl~ .. 1vowMI::. pilot ligilt~. th-e type of (Ovt!r !r!lmo"ll on rne rig ht 'f"ul!I-~J..· Use j[ fOI p€'l'IT]a n-emly (!)o.DJ CD~~ I witt] d~p le~ re(ep{~~le: U keyle~> r8DE'pt~cl~ for lamp: F) Sdm~ as /..h~s.iCH!Ji llirrlet bo~ ~> 4)( ~'' }IlOO~D ' .ize wire' cennected to a device on tn~ t }'Dke_ a..u:.II m5 . ~~} .)je nununurn 5!Zt' box that I~ permrrted. ba~ing the volume on thP I arg 8~t. 9-1 ~~. etc...1....2 'I.ing the vol u rna on the t. These huxe~ ere ntrn ~ ~~ well . 2. .'ln-E!n ~I r eX?D~~rd .vlr~_ 1 ~'OLUMt _.S"quar@ 1~1 firld I..e(overs on I~fl .g dt fli L llh and Lime wn~lI rn ing.)( 3)< ax IFig_9--6 CU'O'.] -1 • )._.e'!l-1 Tabl'E!9'-:2 vr. grounds.. 4 "'. ~ WIIIlI.. but .~U!tK II'«HE5. b<l~iIlg ~h e volume.J.r'l." th it.5 l.__ f~ aiVjl numbE'T of hi{'keV$ (~i'9l..es 99 h I ~u~ h locaucns oomcrs..space required v .KI. p!.Inl~ for WJfi'f frIJm rdb(~ 51 1 below and then mait(hi1t9 roral GrlIfru.5 ~~ 0 Hl. 9-1 5 topj. mav iI nu rn number of .lt5id~ the Oo~ and termlnMlng withl fl.S 1M a D L~a ~. to in limu.~ p a cities marked Oil t h ern.:n LI~~·J for su rtace box and th!.o(vme to (. I.QUf-l! t: . <lnd are ..ho\O..

'It least tt I n C[l~'S lung m .: outlet box permitted IS a 4 X 11" inch box... 11l LI' J. 1·\ securely borne.J. 'j.tr.22:' C\J tic inches .1WUllUng be more than \/~mch from the back or ends .:d between studs or joists.1'~· >0'/ bax s.l!lHn cleaner JLI1d other portable items. HII ~rn~Hld cables entering the box through internal cable clamps.:: il be ~c":Llr.g.IU IHl.JIILI shown Hl I.l' must have an outdoor li!!ht ~()Jnr(llfed bv a switch imide th~' hOL1. hut in uthei habitable rooms ..i~ [Iv accrsMl' sible i1~ the dOD r i~open ed.&. hall ways. LIen room should have at least one receptacle located convenienrlv for ~ "'<t~. l'a.nrHt' 10M'~ tl.2.TOO INSTALLING SERVICE EQUlPMENT AND WIRING Ch apter 9 Ou IIet and 5wltth B(l~s Hl1 .l inches.ll'Iitil'llg ouUe<t hOIl4!s If nOK 15 to he installed ncar a 5wd.ph l.. uh IW'(")1~. detached gil r~g.. hm merely pass lfHO~lf:n .' I~k'r \~ludl We r t he d our [3 to swing install the ho)' fll' the sitl~ u.: Ill' nUDY \\ hen cable' oj ~n'( or ~I.' u l the hOJi ((J r ihe cover m ounted 00 Jr.e no rnmimum leng. }oi~t Fig..~ ra gt~. u~o!'~.Irunt t. to me boxes wi~h 111OLJtHII~). I>U tho:.7. LJ r Im~b. I Aruh.it mav be provided bv floor Of table lam p~ ph i~g~d rnl 0 ren'p l.1~l-. 4-13 and 4 1.lh center of the bOK 48 to :. fwrt=LI.~.~h bill that it enters Thn{" hk.1t ts usuallv f~~t~. F1·g. ~-J U. m'll III r I~_ ':l--"h 1 Wln be flush 'o\'ith the wall or .1l i1da go nal Of ~IJJr~ box wilh a plastH rinj: ~nLI .i~~.ag r .: -I n cl I box.'1l1~dbl ~UJlll' hghting co nrrolled hv 8 swuch: eyer 'f 11 ~hll" NOn1.(~e ~ S<!~e (1m.:: 9-1.' bex. a nd drive the locka ut on the i 11 $~d". LJ~uall~ from r~u·""'a\' HI r.. ~t ud..amp..9-'· r~CluJ[ ~~ rhat PJ r. knockout.~'"S wired: and the following spaces if used fo r WH iI!!c i( or containing equipment requinng sen-JI. I me Thus f(nIH laM. the usual bi?lgh t is 12 W H.'11 n Sn !h~i r U th~ bo:"..K les controlled of 11 wall ~Itch_ Boxes for switches should be located ncM lion .) cnnnccror or-cable . 9 9_ Even handier .00 I J AWG gfOund wires (count as onei ~(O 1..tti.9 -10 Boxes pr~~~sernb I€d henqers ~H" ofte n used. Ra:o:E'S with mOllnwlf..Ju..ail~ pass ~hJll)u~h rhe box. i~ u~~d fur \"iring. LHl~ierrlnf1r ~p. let 6 to ILJinches o( rt.JJce 0 f each box.} tixture stud slidmg on II R~rno\'e The center knockour in the OOX.h..W. ~~1.il on p.'~~ll n.~pthik the hinges. U~' tl llitne~'r nf rhe ~Te shown tn fig.lNG. . so rhe calculat nlll_. push th.!..p t'>.s 5() Ih~' ~w itrl L~'~ l'.5 ~Llt:rJ[:' mdl~~ 1("In("hl?~ two mtern~1 damps Du pl~.o.1..u~lilbk 111 Ic-ngth and has . lilt' rv~l'fsil.o.. WI[h Mounting switch boxes BQKe51Jlust come with nails attached. stairwavs atrached v p. is not ad i.h th .i2!~ l'Q}CultJtiotl Um~icl~r a Icecl-rhrough receptacle location \..h~ad1.Ln:: ~u..I ~ 2 25 ({I Die inches = 9. th. lllllit\ moms...:H'lf!..The NEC rmrurnum i~ sn two parts.t'~HI( h a~ shown m Fig.1 re: fcur 12 AWG mt1Jil Wir"~ twl.~!ifle as shown In Fig. m. as with T} ~)~ . rhe SEllitjle~{ ~qll.e <l. method you use. The on' \I r. ".'C..:It~geI s are adj u~lable lengtn.. J[l J>5Qr~m('"n1 i" ~hLml1 ill co'nl'li1cto~'5 .J.2 25 1 .C .ri:nlgl \·E( Fiig. frn 1]1~~ J here rh e individual wires ~'m~rge l-r~tITlrh~ race 1"'. H the box must be m. thev m1l51 not install edges boxe« . LJ s.2_2. lu ~.h I: AWG "'-lIe r<XlUJ~ ~_~5 cubic ~-urul uctcrs a rc also 1': A\ . J nd the smallest swi ten box permitted tor th I~ appll cat Lon is ~l3 x ~ xl!.. For receptacles. and thev must be long enough t. I rom Table 9-2:.rgl' bo~e.\ hracket« (l·j)..~ h"I1gn (5<J:'C nc2'it Wiring at box@s Regardk~ of 1h(' winr1f. 7U requires the ft"'lJiowing areas to he eqLHpp<'ti ~\ 1111. Then nai l the: ha 1'1 ger I( I h ~ sru J_. e-J(h en! ranee iutu thl' hum.he hH~.:lges _~6 _~7 .I·~CS. M L~h!e) U1u~t he . inches above the floor.~cption i other than to r wry I~.5HJ~ lh~' q~JL1tLI the posruca wanted.(:. purp\we.11 nlnm""·Wr~ f'~T . 9-7)_ .~ I·~ ro r ~I/I J f'S Eh~1bJ\"C· nn ~phcc. nr ~()]\n~llOI\_~...1 hf. bel t h roo rns.:L.aIC preassernbled hme:.. Lt is ad.2 inches the ilho ve the Ileor.·J w~11 LI~h \<.~~·\o' . ~tIJJ \hrfl~l£:.-:! \. ..' L'~ Irr1t! r rn rn tho? f.. ThL> f!fflunJltlr cubic jrlChe'~ .~hOWIl in rig.\h~~~'~ I-'llil L berirmly secured to studs. in IN51AU..:. '1\ Ith hangers as . The wires unduding equlprllt"!lr wnundmg wires.rf:ace fI( h ~h~' Iht liIJi~h. basements. BOXES _1-lrEC 210. 9-51 Har.25 cub r nrhes t ((Gunl 2 ' 1_£5 cub = -~SO(uh c mche > Mcu. en I].J. ii'i9' 9--8 1-l.. 9..t:i.ger with box ~ijp po rted III (811 in9_ .nf the b. The Ie rigl h depends on yo ur choice o~ two 11I~ I hod ~ ~~f n nect i ni:l the wire 00 rh e term [Tid ~ S( rew <L~ d iscussed (. .-~..II (jutl~l OOK \T1 rh a rno unu n ~ b r . and.! hef>t' WJre~ h..1..md~ .l n addition. 130 rh are 11'1cubic inc hes.d... if u il. ecep td( r u nt as oi'l~l ~~ lwo cubic Incll~~ .t~nd '1IIe~:~1: inches J uutsidc lh. \. If 1. )!--. All required light[ng must consist of permanently installed lighting fixtures in bathrooms and kitchens.

because insl~1111lP1fansupport a box at an existing outlet .'jt. making separate connectors unriecessarv rypicaJ b[1}1e_~('If1ill' kind are ~ho\~n in Fig. <I hi ckey m. Dc sure tn drlv~.i!I"dllof. then sup the COl'll L~.1 fi:>.UK(!OnS on Lnl· n u rline I and type nl WI (r.102 INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPM!:N1 AND W~RtNG 103 Fig.~h d.1E11dLon OOX mar ked for {.~ ef cable must ~Ji\I:T the same knockout. IFi'g.UJp with 'Ilireo::' npcmn~~ rrn .~.lY be needed between the stud an J fixture..E orable b~ Fix~u restuds Small. ghtw(:jgh1 11'.H1I' .rH l~(.... nchored b~ SCrl.hr. Boxes forsl.&.llkd In .h vou can mourn .:ll'Tl ment of devices ~1J.'~ i:-. 'l-U." 1Jr'-rnijr. recC'l'I.and mO~1 recessed fixtun::~.. This is unnecessary if a hanger fI-Lf:i9-~J is used hJ suppon -a OOXrnountcd bCh"'ee" studs or joi"l~.l[V F'UTpm~~_ r]lI· I)I"U· at B for il ~harr \lU. Heavier fixt ures need additional suppor r. Consider usi [1 g of.I( Ic~.ge<l'b~.t taccplnrc 'Nlth 1nrc.hu.an be difficult.' ill] owedin such boxes. JI1d p it-II Ii ~~H ~_Plates are also av . Auach the connecter u .RI and huld tight to standard knr>ekOIII opl·nmg5.LiI~ble wi th on c or 1\\ L p~IlIfl~~ Th e P 1.degFee turn..in damps thi1t sec urdy hold the cah Ie u entenng the box. and ~:n ols.! paddle fJD might h~ installed at a later dare. \o\"il h .tn LlC Ln~t. To anchor Ih e cable.11 h~ connected direcrlv to u.-. The conriecmr ~~ A is used for fmi. Finl~ we i ghing mort' lh~1'1 -'5 pounds must Lw supported imkp(T1t1{·11IIy of the box.i.. I[l rNJumllg no lock 11 r." I~ YOLlf rn~!:>~dl1"1:uIT includes ~ . ox listed tor fan su ~~ h pon at e~r~rycci Ii113 outlet location wh~'[e."1UIT stnd.'ITl whentwo pH~'e. the lorknut dC"lWrl ~'liJh so the Jug~ en Ll actuallv brtc mtu the metal nf lh" box to form a gOf~i ~ljnLmLJOIlS ground. h e 1: 'llildin~ structure.i!!) fans BU.ldtng "Switch boxes. ~".Jrsp@:lI!Ided "eil~ng {Ipi.\(':$ fur the support of t("ilirlp: raIlS must be listed fil r the p lJ. I nstall a nxmr(: ~H! d l. a ra rml used.<I blo. nrs: remove the locknut IT{1.::he<.lddl.11'1ordinarv ~Lngl~-~~rlg 1....»: Figure 9-. Sernc boxes have to. The boxes ha~~ cI~mps A B F~.l "recessed n~ll~re. ord in(lT}'h ranch c ircu it wi ring c.ede"".rpUSt'. unless the box has been listed for additional \'.nc@5 Up to three j[l[t!'Kh.n.O"Cbranch circust wi ring. be su re to obser ~'eany til! or oih er re<." Other fixtures commonly mount to fixture bars ~hil1Me secured to lht· LHJ~ 1":8 rs.ito shows . [Or throu gh the kn ockou L.:e~Fig.-rure~~JC ohm In II unted h directly on outlet b(J)(e. ceiling i[ i~~~lled. 9 1-1_ ~ig" '11-14 With be-es of U'1IS typ~.11 j~ supplied t!' L1 1 . 9\-1:5 ~ixture stud ~f\d h icke~. B axes for r@C'i!!5sed 'lixtures l f the bottom of ~'OUl fixture will L~ flu sh ~ i th the ."W~ entering the "cars" a of fhe hox as apJ<li[]t'tl ~I the beginning of lhi~ chapter under the hl".. Fixtures aLHJY~ 5l) pounds (or lW<lviel' lfthe box i~so h~~~d)nusr be supported r directly by t means of a cI~mp 5crcew..1 [he cable \~ilh the' clamp ~G~"" a~ in FIg..lLlgeabk drvic~~t> r. 9-11. lind the one . ~p~rare to h-old th e (.Y-I :!.. S(lrn~ n~w~r~onnt"{"wr df!Slgl'l:~ '1l'\P in. 9-l5 I m the kick of the box using ~Wve bolts. I~ shown < r I~.!P~-1 [on nectcr is lim 2: atta (hed to th.c:JI:esfor in1!:erd'lilifll. u i Ir. I'" ill not be of am' ~ta II d~ rd saze _ Sec r~gt' Ifi9' Fig" '51-113 [onn ector I ~ rh en an c huredrc the box by means of ~ lockll1u~ In~irl~ th'1' 00'" In Chapter B..1111 metal J . conriecror.hletodar have such bme~.m'lbmation . con ne"m:!.. and install the Jn~1: ut inside n fhe_OOl'i. because mt') l5 bdnr~ lnstalling.

not la~(' enough for rile \"'FT~~ nt"(OI:~!>iIr" [0 connect ttl rhree (!('\·ilt.SOV" indiL~ting that the ~w·tTch lTIay be ll~d [0 control lo. have Ia rgd ~ \.19 on cakul a n 11£ rl\l nun II m size OOK!?5_ \ \-h en ~ ~w II ch box I:. baw·~ m ~d~ (Sf n~iJldton'!l' ma.:e~ wuu 1d require a three g. III I ~.l It} . chapter. \l. ~.:J metal box that h pMlf·ly grounded becomes "hnf'wh .1 fJ~t'I'l. inc 111. r nn~ .l'lux. supported within :8 inches uf the box measured alo I~g h e cable sb caih.ch 2.wotkouts..::-~II('d J lb~ the \'Er- II i. It'IJTItlla~~ and to fOLlI-W. HCr ~hown in fig.rnClI t.>LW"lTlS_US~ th [I. ~l me [.kl'~ more Sp.~tion r.and \vi.n the number nf I~i res ~nlcring Jm bat is lim i red: re\ i cw P.:" "orne switches are I ated ' lOA ~~5V-_).!.Is~ IRapswifrhes ole grnrrill-us.uh In ~() rrosive [ocannns.1fJ dev I.. 9-17 E'sP~{.gJng non rnetall i~ boxes.J [-=1 \. . b lit nn h 5 am po' if the \lOll.O\ ='.lt swuch having ~ ~'lllJnd!flg rerrtunal UII the mounting ~lr<\p I'[) which the gmunclin~ Wire JJl rhe nonrnctalhc-sheathed cable 11W$t he connected. . or l5A \ ~Dt277·V.lillt.i. or ott from more than two inl. I}[ three 01 these ~p~l i. the G~ ble m ust he secured in the box..::~.cl~'I.IIlIl\~Jbl~ \~"lIf rili.lL'~ in. .~1rwo or the ~H)i."1 t I) [h~r ~ han single .Hll( On fdrm~. '51-18 PVC boees y.. whic h .l twn .allario n ri me .l'.J. lighe OIl or off from one pr.hn:~ . PJ.~p'·'lde'!o.e. mOliIIUI'R ~prmit 3 ~witer.Ire ~. ot ~p~u .witch e:s TIw \ i1J. lJ.'t n u nmetallic m uteri al provide» insu ra IKe .111~. use J ~ J 11.. rhev 1"TId to rust out iust like conduit..1 grcrn r\"nTlIH~J Hg.ltn wrth StiHld~ rol . two.s Jre ~ho\<' fl ill I .ll1glede".wer 251) 'iol!&.lrswitches . Thi~ m~'H.111d a plain.. when used with n()lll~letalIL(-~hl'<ilhl'J gbk.."O ~~TO:IT~~":: locations...!\' al the remaining points.A 120\'.I. lowe S"t\...1t£h{'~ r~'qLlir" a ~pC.IX~~art. ':lIr:nl~n.IcE'~ or less 'Fig. \bo.icn~t:".\l'~ of PVCfiberglas~.'I'h i~~all common ~IVi. j~ has three handle. In~r~ . or ~n ~Llipmen1 gwundjr1f! conductur m~J~t he oonI1(.lllmcta.\\.~ that in on:l~r It' J~'_ld~~'I1. 1\.e~ nf all toITJo:' ~~~ Itches.!.c J.\ a~d earlier in rhl. nlOr~. \ \ 'hen metal n. 11-~qll ~ IT' box and . J re o f.J I: Rcm(m her ti:l..-(!l'bl"'" or ~In·~r-.l Iy Tylpes of switdifLe5. ::>I.erial ~re trEqu~n t Iy I. and rhe hke to be installed ill a s.h ra~i ng:s Switches ~rr.mmlnn gfn('rdl-1.tcb('~ wnfl a I.'n~t arc mll'd 15.:IF' Ll~LL'llir is 9"ng box.. FE'CpptaCres. For rhe wi...l~ shown in Fig_ 'l..:: \[\Jr' t'l-J'f'! II' 1111'UM'd .1 bm.es. n m flilUi c I~'L.. I..unruendcd using nunrnesallie bo.. connected [(l the grl.!r1enes that juu should understand: Silj. Itch~s Jr.. It hil~ twu u-rrninals and the word ~ ON and terminals OJ I 011 the handle. n iJ 111.Uic "IIH'~ dittrr from meuUk hm~~In LlI~llhq Ju nut come m . FQHr-1~}' ~.:rt Jt'ft. l fe3turc~ Illolf enhance ~omljITi. I'll~hel ed handle.l t\~i II ~[ shock.m~.:I sing le ~a IlA pl.: M ws. J he . The fum--wllY has four ] 'Or the wiring of fo u r anda plain. '~ l1l~rh'l.:: f(l[ high'_" ~I H per J.I~t' ~\'\ Itdl~.: II sed ill barns and si rn ilar lnca f I (lr1I.1 i 1l~ d im m~f'j d~ clc"crihed bl'lIJ\'. n::r'· qLlLct in ~lp<!r3tlll[l and la~l~ l('lng .designed lor II se ar an amF~[il~e and voltage nol hl~er than tlw lirruts stamped hun their metal IH(ltHmng rob:.'}nel].u extvnds into the box ! It at least "mch _ .104 INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT ANDWIRING one.1cean d J'€'l Lli rc~ Ilnt~h more inst . switch ~~ see pages J8---fofl_ 5WUiC. Oilier w.IS~J s..~L l1g boll.r~ requirt-d to h~ grmHldcd ~~I t!lJt ~ met. lilt' th~ . Nonmetanit:llQ~~ I and covers) are shown rn 9--~7.'l.. will be !lround~d. Jr~'for Sllrtacc w:iriIlg.11 r·~. l aU h8~~ !II I kl '~H' :-alcuL:itioTlS o Oth~r nnnmc~~Hi[ are three \'.llh ~wc d d~\ i.h~ngea!Jle thev must d he grounded. whichis more u ~f1['11at ic \~'it h rt' . the NEC does nor feCiLllrt' that cable be anchored wrlh connectors h W single-gang nonmetallic swrrch boxes If the ~<lhle]. . ..y€ a shock [hat call be d ~ngereus W hUmJ1L~ and ever I mu rc ~u Lo animals .111 he marked un the msrdc of the box.!1Je-DOI·~ ls used to urrn a. .~ used in rOll1bil..ces.lIlLi~rdittx! .<:s WI!h kIlllrkllub can be u...6 l[loter.md L nfLbese ~r~ J~"':j Ibed hefC.1T11 p~ if the voltage I'~ not over 123 volts. hl..T m\Tr~ they are wealhcrl'n)of.. and the sh ~. based on ~h<' actual \'QiUITlr' of each box.11 wire becomes accidentally grounded in~id~ iL\.U~ them <Il.-hL'thc[ Hl~ldlled or 1101. CJ r otl L!. on ur orr fmrn t\.panicularlv fm residential ()~cUp'm.'~.'\"''''"llJ).g_ 9-l8.ring oi" Ihre¢-\\~V switches see with lhree-wriT when ~ lighl must be turned em Tnrte--w1l¥ ls used to turn alight . nOll merall i( boxes arc largely im rn une ro n'lf rusion.L:".h.bl' box w-iJJ recei. unl~beled P...!le.~I~ itdi rok{' (~Ln loe grollnded 1(1 Ill<' gmundcd ml:'t. . lor reasons (:j f cost.j.... ~"'.S..ges 56--58.ynu wn~Jldmetal bm1.... haw thr !!:¢ne ral appca r.nls not over 10 .I\! . ( \ndwriIlg\.lUI ~.I~ H must be to all meral boxes.lh!II~'prup{..n~ pcr~on or animal r(IIL1:hir)~ .tl':>' In w addition W cost.n<"l o NIDnm>l1!tall:k Qut'!e~ boxe·s Noruuetall rJg. and fur surface <! pplication ~u~i II g bl'.> on 011(' strap.ge:s_ G mILl ndi ng ~>ors. 1 h~ mo~t (OTIllE It! AC geJi!efDI-!. S E LEOI N G 5WT'If(HIES i. are used.>:~.iit-e i~higher but M~ .."::!em then be mstallcd In J _~ ~I~. 9-1.'>tn grpullding teTIIIrnJJ. Tne. 11ttld J\ t~ . owever...L iI~ .ltd t'Llhn 1." Th rec st JIlJ.crew un L he' ~ole_ rn Jddu Inll t(1 the ~.i:z.:mg In box which LO$t. (".. BQ:Q'~ with htLh~. > L there sllppl~llkJ metal boxes in tnd ..::epb. IntBqrJ1 bubs and because the $tT.\'Lth corntectors is discussed ou f'dgl'~ J ()1-J02.Igl'~ qs-'..~1[]'l'"akd or npo~ed_ ~LI~<' th<l1 1l1.

an entlr~ ~loor. i(]L I~l c'lhl~ nr r.. DimmeHMt.ay.se blows. Tubular racewa \' m~th cds (covered ill Chapter 12) aTt' les....uJe snapswi. ~()U mmt make a plan. However. (In.ad~ uate imtaUation. L' [) J ~a 1 "I t <.:l~llj'-5ht:~lh('l1 (.lrhii's orci~r .-iill dimming switch es.·lJ6eJ on de onlv ~ltClJlI~a~ ~"1. If rOll <ire not sure.... Y()U rnav ro:pl'Kc it with the more readilv ~\·aJJ.!O voltx: b I il used to control a rnetor.h as in dining mnHl~ or f~miJrrooms. r~pl~~i'1g ~11C'01 .. Tfl'l>:ad.t ~t ill used becau ~eIh e wi res wl th in them m.e~c~·nLIa mps and orh e r~ ilr. H '~~'1M.lmr5) ~I Y\lha..ATlON 00 o '0 o ot Heforc doing imy ad!I~J wiring.0 ye.g. pu.P'fER iI 01 Ug:i1<Md.rrOi~ Wi!h two €KCepUf)lv: . and I~.0 on.nvitcheos ).:~ abm'el. it is an JC(k Lfrr. Use the kifui rO~l like best.:"general use" In the ..ENT A.hl~.= d'l. nut permitted fiJr I1l'\Io' work since tbe 197~ Nr:C. t '>u(. WII'II.lllling members . Metal ra(~praq. Wh~ q is P rolubited one lO'<lliry 1118Y he required in another.f!VICEEqUrpM~NT AND WIRING time. 1111~tLn drli1th~r clrrult.. DCcl. .. III Ordinary swnches (_.' L used to replace ~Inly an ordinary ~ingll"'-pol~ switch.' at the end Il'fit~ rating.H). Son! t' models are JVdil~Mt" in thethree way type.gel1t'. AC-..~nn i n~ .lltwm in Fig.dc upon the IOCil~iflI1 e-<Icn OUllet and CiI. within the racewa r size. U the ~""'Hch d. De-ldih ~~ .. R!'\'."ITlIU I\ND "F.OC.Hl mdu. hkrcur~· Qui'!!t §witc.0)1 n mon bu.11~p! e r 1 I ~. If fUlt' I)f them Iaiis. k swurhes are called ~~~-J1..lirnitatiuns..edures [N RESIDE.c." <Lr-J c type.. and requires the l{. a uny neon .tirl~r~ switches can h~ removed and replaced wit h Spei. Re.1!¥1rrhf!iWII chcs arc Ijkel y to be tho.8.\'f:.hl k)~ an exceedingly long lif~. in the nwnbo!1'r of DUUet5 and sw:itdl~~.i(h tU"t~e'ts Q n which ocii'roClliliH 'rOU F figt 1dea may be to pu l alJ \uur b3~rrl<"rU 'Jutl~l~ on .ar~.. it must nor n.~~ must be grounded.ell ~pte-r 2.mi. These procedures are explained in this cbaptc r....I. Basic Wilr'ingl Proc.o Clv"ildblL' is a completely ~irt"'r]l switch that usesa b iLL I C mercury m .lr handles tn make 11I'~~)" to locale the sl.11 II must not be used to CL)nlrol tungstentilament I... brass.'1 technical rraining to install.RVI CE EQUIIP!I.rk.'1ll r per vear to (}per~ te...o. am! consumes so little pL'H\'~·rliil' it costs perhaps nne CA. [L is identified h} the lerrers" \L" !ollm~ lilt: LJ.Hvour wi rin!l .p~ cordinarv I.~-lY_ p D Co Do PLA'NNING THE ~NiSTALI.hes ('IIT_ rbl' "ac switches will [JuL operate unless In51~llcd in a vertical positlnn.N D WI I'll NG I~ I I " I II ~ IE -'-:5 C 1ft A.<111 l~l('~i ol the tvpe ."..nr OLlll~[. on pl.1 gb_<. ~t~·le 11l~~ t . dille rt=:II pans of an ~ floor on t 107 . u rnav be used onh up to t!o per(em L)11t~~m perc rating.106 INSTALLING S(.In de circuits.mes \0\ 'he re II m igh t be desi rable 1ft . ofhr i p.wit(hl':> arc available ""'ill.dl ~~"Ild-tl~..~lube to make and break -ClIIH .I ct late-r oo~ts m ~Idl nlll r-.colors and ill othermaterials such a~ steel. Tbe lip.ding Jt in the original job. hTe~k~r lrlp~ Of il tu... It is esscnt i~ 10 LJ nderstandthem l thor (lu~ill~_ The dl.u-w ) ears <. some illrrn of l1onnH.h ~wildt_ B~ generom..light ill liI(. I.i"clr ill residences and larger build Lnll~' Lbou~h h igIH'i:~e oonsrru cdo u often uses metallic methods..ma!nH:']l! lll. For farm buildings. p(lni~tlhtrly wid. (In ac ][ HMV be used tor any pu.. Q::m~1-LI[ qualified local authorities._~ting_ One inexpensive type or dimmer swirch provides HH"~H-!Jl·I'-LOW positions and up [.blf ac onlv tyP<'. CIT ceramic. not :I three-way. If vuu do lh~~ and 01. .ll.~~ nut hJ\ At.:Ic. hut lh~ prinuf'l(~~ apply generally tn aU wiring systems. possiblv 2.. As the name ~1I'ph~.lgrarn.'II.0 300 watts.<.Al.:IdC'~ and swjtches M<lny wiring procedures are the same rt'll-<InH~~!> uf \'i~~f:.U"I .-Ill.1t rnaioritv of new wiring tod~y i nvolves the me or cabled methods (ClJV{'R'J in (..Il~II'~1.ocal modes so rnetimes prohibit one 01" more of these ~r~Lc"IIlS. armored moll' and metal-clad c:abl~ are WLdd} u~~J.:1ick when turned on an d general use" SWLh·h i~ HT}" quiet.. Some d irnmers are designed lu be used ortJ1y wjth incan d.~ for use only wi th fhm rescern u. metal fr.n 11L[(Il the level..It is the !caM expensive in terms of ]11 ~ [erial (o5L. 111~'somewhat more e~p~n~lV{' rype mllll'l~l~ brightness continuouslyfmrn ufr III (ull brightness. 1 IINS1'A'LLIIIIG S E.~ rnnng w11 i ch th e use of r!O 11m etalfic-sh embed cable predominates. in·!l in the dark. be n'pl~ ~eJ with dii[t'[t"nl wii"t:S to serve different needs. 142-1.L.!tll'l~ <Hl tll~ ~ok.!s a model.lbl~ is used almost exdu~~vdy_ his also used cK"tcn:.'\ RM Wintlg..t u~eJ .Thi. i~nnly for extensions in existing work (s-re rage.h 11 t~~..1 pair nfthrec-wav switches.me .I b~ en These ar~ iI\'. Fallow local custom.'I]as on ac circuirs.. and explanations in this chap ocr use ~of.-HL LJILall first-floor outlets on lh~ TlFxl ~irruH.hs.ll be d . The knob -and-tube wiring system. and :.labfe in molded l'I<l~ti{" ~rl~1 nvlon in JT1 a.:ep(. R~membH that Jdd ing ~n Il Ll t. the gre.. controls FACEPLATES 1"11 LmtaJll'd are (overed \~ II h lacC'pbtes I al sn G.ymem is tL~J.!n.L'llpnl~IDd voltage f.~ n make all audl ble .e\'ol~} mel bod~ ilT~ d~~~uiheJ In Chapters 11. .1 ' ~kJ m.c"..

kLL iFk~ prcxHlt'4! i[llh. re~ {Of ~hi. 11111 J ~qum'm~'1lb ilrlJ insrructious fqr con necu I11.UI-l lh~ outler~ bur In d~ In ~drne .WI'~ Ill.1PI tell vou nm\ to (:0 n n eel the i !lLj I .I (m <I ga.1 ~l'[nnd d iJrr ~rn showin 'i! 1h ~ (~I res ilJ r ~\'r~TJ[d\' .>r. itl: su L.::lll J eac h I..h~~ .l'l\ .I and HJ-. lh ~ outlets . or <cparate (:.!.J. ISlIl'e 1()-.Lpll'f.\ !f rhcv '.h..r.lg~ .n rhat Oill the p.ch Clr( U I L~howl floglocatrou of each Dutlet and how ci'lhle wit run from bo~ [0 ho x.. Ihe ~WI td I ~un lro llin g () I L11.. 11 a re connected ~~~--~------~ ~.:md JCCe-5M)r}' buildings requinl~~ power grt!. "ire. floor IMrtg f(lOm.outletas the source for the IU'\.!u han' Jl'rideJ wllllh outlets ureto ~u on C"Kn L trvurt and \~'ht"rC' }'~ waru \In~k'-}'or('" ~h·lt .J cxplan un nn.contmlJl1lfluutktG" ~sS (. and so on.lhk i' to run tWill Olll' outler tn d1t' next.~idp the c~!JI~ .II rrc given PJ! r~g. an ()1I11~.So I~r. tlteunl'("onrmnll~~uutl~t Has »-t]..\. Fig.." 1~!~indicar ed (I ~ 3. III r . a ~.~.108 INSTALL ING SERVICE Ea~JI. Note that pll II chains are nat recommended. l 0.t: (~hk with gwun~ling wire.1. IU:'.J I does 1. B.mkt has h~('rl I. Note that the same wire identihcarion scheme has been as in Chapter tl. 6 3 is the same a~ outlet A JI1 Fig.J.g. s-~ 'i-G. a light line like tilL' --fL~ra white ~\ ire.L -witch JnJ the uutlct it controls • woo D~lagram your d~cli!it$ A. I ifvou di~l'e~ard the' .hll\"~ el~111 IIUUCh.~pkr 6.. anod.i ~ "'ll~i~ l. 1()-l grp. For example.! ~ny wi ri r.. l~" cable's b..PMENT AND W!R!NG diflereru circuits Theil ~1II:d5t p.::b{..F-l..~ S·F-l a lid ~·F ·1.ll1. 5lUt11LJ..R.:1t~ pIC.~ ~h~WL~rhl~ same ouiler cLlmpJ('[d) LII~t~Htti \.'dA to Ii 3 ~mg'p-pol e S\Io'll(.H I. Fig. outlet. .! (. bd ed tilt' . ~ ~ I~Jr the WLrt' ll('IW~'t'11 .black \. ~ tld ~ iled v ~ h mkt:"11 line like Lhi'~ .'ln . dod the two ~-\\·d\ switch ~~ umt ruJlilljl Ollll"l [.rCi.lg. 1m~' ~~ J. litcl'\en.'J at tlw end ut this Lh.the cable that runs from outlet A to nurl et ..III cha IJ1 an d i~ III eluded here as pa rt or t he g~ 1). ""ul!chnln [~IIL h~~lo~~lll£ the prii« .raHl ~t..curnpl~~ly lr\~t".l~ small power requirements.:.h"'j'(~r II under Ih~ h\:'~dLng·'l. 111-1. I ~-. f'rnrH outlet to ...at"'... In ordn I.1"'Kh~J or sep. t· u.!rt'" i~ «ruined here..~1i is a Iigh t G HH roUcu bv a P!.:"~." j i:':LH<" Il~~ .t~ l. 1. 1O-~. dPI~ II nol'o.Wo ~ S\\1 tches. plu-.lr.i h ~\l' all been Ian" b!~. F.I. three ~!ngle pLII~ swuches and 8 r~lr lH· tlu~:~ . rrld ~e ~ fOlJgh ta y-out of .ldunt shup. vou run the white win: [rum lo the outlc L.u h lloor '" IH~IIII hi: ILghH'd If all\ circuit g~s (\LII LJnc 01 rile hOLI~~'CirctlJt~ can ht: evicnded hi all .. i n th~ ba semern and run to m~i. ( I). see that Fig.. he:.k \~ i r~ ~II r Clt1. t rv-. swuchcs are pr~'I'('rrt'J tor COdl\ ('11 icnce and ~3ft'1 \. I e.JlI . pail of :L-wa.2.~n.lUI Vi f II! ~ rir flrc-en I.:h. Th is di.<i F [ ~! id :::.. 5 hg.ind thre-e \\ ~y ~WilChc~.and then 10 d bedmom FI!l" ~0-3 Ou tlE'1 A of Fig 5. "'iring f tr ~arag{'~ and arcessorv buildings dtKb~S<.nion u.. 10--1. fnr J b I.from SOl'I\CE to tht: ~utJcl. circuit beyu. the on.1tnl'l1 ['II rolll!<..wif[" h ~ ~j:.110\" tb e sam ~ IIUd ct s .lt(· prJge thar h.\OJ k pro r~ k Dr.wing how rhe .. . and S H. ~[C I. Shown h~. U 11. and \'UU IlI11 the..H ~jg.lJ e I~Ih·t led .>tlhiJu~e.~ IS ~ I~~out of el (I r cu It With 8 0 u tk L~F-dcE'l!.-.B becomes the SoOUJce fur outlet B..illg Ldbk It ..I!'d.Jil~ can be use. I..H~ ~TIlunding ..=.and din·ny ruorn. To better understand the wiring at each additioncl outlet. and H ~wiL.::! cull fro b LJl .. J ~'''t''T'~·'1 li')h! .dfj\~ ~ Jiagr.' 5imJ'li(\ 'Ill tli~~rJm~ and explananons..J b le \...·id Ll..:ah[c rhat runs on to ilL I.tf ~d~h Cir(ULI ~hi . 11l~1 EIoetoJ c do 1m. l ht'". I Fi!l.(id It VO u rctcr tothe diagrammi n g ot basic circuits coveredi n Chapter 6. youwi II..w~hne like thi~-..~ere 01'~'f1wires mstead (If in cable. I'i~urt' 10 I I~ .jI ~w~lch..O .. Th e w.J diagram fur JJ1 mstal l. consider the cable that runs (0 it trom the PTL·~'j(lrl.. ~hO'>'<i how t h e ng wirp~ Ir.

DI th....J .. have dlfubl~ terminal screws so thar the two wires trorn tL-. .0 f th e r..·.."::I'M~k.iing ~~ r(..00. Ht'I.I. it ~~1U If YOU ~illotng r. .. At the mU!~L.S-R should be IJJJl1.l~lnl)rW cable..ote twm . dh! "I..!lttlgelbier_ l\~-D of them ar. 6--J -1 in \~hapt~'I t>.:'taliic-snl:'il.F-t ami three-wire cable from there to the second three-way switch S-F-.tb!c W the switch.J. Wfapr i rlg wi th bla-ck tape.. it does not matter wn tch color goe""Sto ~.. ] CI-l and It shows I H:JW l O-?"Tbi s is an to mnne-:t . in the cable that rum on to the switch l~ re-ideruified ...·.:h tarnl.'iring. Til Cil~e where At the' outld.110 INSTALLING S. drui [ MI": I~"ir{'d<I~ shown Hi 10-5.~ihefe you L'Hln~ ....~ L~h[t" ..h1.1tHIH1[OU~ .t switches. or 2.md ~ F 2: th ~ raj J nd the blue k_ (~()11He-ct tllcln 1U Lh e rem.. Wilri~f1g iltQ~detsili nd switrnl!'5 r ti~ (:asy to make th~ righ t connections iF yo IJ.(1[H1~'_[ Ih~ hlilLk .. That III ea rlS I he corm ections .'O diftercnt PllXC5 01 cable em easilv he arrached ~_. '.ERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIR!NG 111 \ \ 'hell l1u: let B I~"properlv install ed accordi ng to these n\ ~ 'r~p".ll-.is the sam e ~L~ fM~ in Fi g.\'/.ed...d learned this point. 6--5.idel'lliti.I. hll~ two-wire cahle rh~~ the ~uu are going to use ':'OIl1~in.rc [1\ TJ1~ col. avoiding tile hM. wire in table to t·he swL[ch.."U1~thai. The ~WHc1'lt" still need ~n he connected.'WI!.% k "ire >lnd connected ro the' incorn iL1g black wire tro m so LIf(:.s.Ilg ~eTm ina Is 01 ~dch ~"'ltch. Rerne mile ri ng rh e steps outl i n ed ]n con n ectionwith outlet B.~ ·whit~.l]~.:~endi in the that rum to • h t' 5w1tc fl.'ll~lpk:.. Conn...k wh~r~~r ~. The'" roo. + i 5_ these ["ig[.~:wire re-identifiedil.~~~bf~..ect as Ltm.l 1.1ion removed from a Ia rger wire ur with plasnc shrrnk tubing applied wllh a heat gun" Regardless of whether thewhite W~I·. if ~'ou disreg<1nJ ~he cable rllllniilg on In th~ Ile>:T ouslet G..h~re~rJ bll.. as this d~~gram ShOWi Fig" 'l 0--4 Outl~t B impor ta nt diagram.coomprished by painting.ml1llinll on to the n~n ()udt"t ~rr" cunnected to tht two Ln..UiU. lll-...7 permits a while wire to be used wherea black \Vlto!JOuld be used -hur only In a switch loop (Iht" ~M~ running from ~F'! o'. cable ur conduit. «inncct thc\".'~n(~"':hi.l ~. a. ". Ho« C. 'ilch Th.h ~'H1!l'hc" .L l\\O SLr~'W_ tt'rrrllrl. ~phc~ th~m logedter '0 lll~r~ willlhm b~ ~ {.ll ~~ wgt'lh~r ~[lL1 all l~I" wh. the basic gurdehnes for making conriecliuns applv to eith .therl or i.p.1 the CJJbl~ ru I~I'l i 11J:1..hat nm~ to ~he ~\'''ltLh h~ tbc h2'iture.e~ fi.:.rhiis can be a.hitf ".~Jld S.~c~ 111 th~ L. 'j f.r:o.l(:kwire in swit'(~ loop. Hnwe"'~r.J_ Again you meet the problem 01 the pm'per ill lors of WL re. c... WLI'e from S(Jt_:!\C. While Fmmll Fiq..J...." .1 ~wi~d1 . hut there 'lwrL' t1J1UJ OJI<' "'ire 'lnl\" ..' li.:\'\"hiLC wire must be re-identificd as black wherever-It is visible and acce.. u \\1.:!.onn('c:lllw Mad. . the white .: inSl.1l n I. . ~()l'JKE 10 so connect the black wire of tht' cable that runs en to lh(.f -/ 1'0 I h c ~t)l1mln Il Or 1"11 ~r~d It' n mHJ! .Lng \\ Ir~ color !Il making connections ~.. H~V{'I the reverse.:'PlJdc. tor S-F.5 lI~' ILl set and another lu the bl..("' The cable t hal nLm {1[] i 0 the next outlet G must also he COITIK'(t. a Del re lden II rv t h ~ white wire as black.5 .J.Ii· f J hl ~-[-. so a det.1l tmi~hD lhl· \. hite " the cable .lnd "While to ~.'lng simple steps: I..lL bt~d wire . :t i hl~ .:tll yl~lJ comply witn the J\if:C requirement! NEe ~nO..Fr1)I~1 source ( from n.5. r Wh~t.lt..h ~n this case I~the white wire from outlet CJ tu the fL\tllTt' as ll~U.nec1 the two wires ..1. WlFD trom sourc~) In lilc outJel box bla~k hI hl~{"k..Vir(" it (I:.-n\Io"lres....~ 1 Un(rHlGl ~d~d ..hlk '" tre from s.cfhcr..Jit~ III one black and (l11~ white wire.!. i·~ "I. i."'Jth "'F(~ ~fl(~_7_ h OULlcb C /). The other wire on the lij..-.Le~ 1L'f.t: il two-wire cable and a three wir-e .:':.'hHe WIFe from F to .)f 111<=I'i r. LI !~ 11KehJfY t(~ connect three different wires ill FEEDI N G AND CON'NEClI N G lH E WilES n'lIlm. or ~Ieevi ag I be WIIl' with atu be n f e-i1 ~wr bb(k plasti . and tho.L Tb J t ] ~aves I \.."(' prior to 19W di d nor req u in' this). r\r I be outlet.hllc_ L~hll·..h()\!' 11 In the case of [~.§ In I 'Ig. is the same <I~ hg..s J.U [hit 0 u11et will IIIway"~ be . remember that each fixtu-e ~nllM have one white . W-~ ..[0 .<.11be connected A" ~hi!\"\ jl rn 1 ~f\. and it yon 0 bserve [h e fulllw. ~.. t('d W a b~ack..1. Anhe 1 switch.. and as ~hown m fig. srcording ILl e\·eryrhitlg you haw 110-14.. ~fI. or Fig s.. !'Iffepta(~e outlets are ·ea5~ to con nect.lll. Run two-wire cable trorn the Ollttt"l to the first three-we y switch 5.~ I!ch ~I'ld re . 10-6. ~implil '~l[lr1(~ct Ih~ ..." itJl ~ }.. I! til Ihe ..~.-1-1."111. shownin Fi~. /'olll "'. r~ f rum outlet N tn ~wllcn.~omint.lnJ<? ll..Lhk (. ~rt' each side of [he R't.1 (I-$....1("k ">-1.. II LlUN n. black wire to black and white to .re.:nr..]fked L~I min~l of thaL .E to the ul-lhe cable i~i~the [1[11" \ ~ whil~.tTld nne black wire connected to it.-1 prohibits "pigtail lo Lhl' whill' under !!lUi:' W·. ~t-e r::ig.tnJ of reverse potmtv ~t a ~ucw shell or receptacle. it mast he used as the ~ ire running to th~ switch .1~ t~ 1 tn whrtc and black to n'Ul'f~lly b]ack.'ire m<1)·be COrm. This completesthe wiring of the outlet F. hm dill~r~t11 ~aht...HI~1 to iI switch 1.Lre... Fnll~~\.ire from the' fiX:ll.. N[C Splice all the ~h'ln piece LJf Wile '::311ed . bl.l/ N.hi.JJ need t~1remember the m~pnnMll I'lire requaremen: de-cribed here re-gard.r~ IY!LJ_~t·h€ black.'1. [rom the ungroundedconducrors in the outlet..3" ~I rJife W~Tt II!.. rn.iH1n1llfl or rr1.hlc hetw-eel. hite OtL~lel I irl I'rg."...uled ( T explanation mar ~~m UnnCOL'5c~~I"). connect and the rece ptacl e termi nal screws...~....e is rerdcnrified or not (the .. llJ-6 tor an e-x. 1H-2.nal on the 5.. yon ~..

a 14 To ne'.~ ro' a .h....id~m [tied "":11. 1n 'LII the outlets wired S('I f~r.\'~ In t~UdeL perrnanerul. flCll a 1'>01 then ~G be Spfk~d to anv ~}.j'\~IE-"p<>IE 1m ·nat at n9ht'Il~~c:I cornbinatiun 'e-fl ..re I:H h en'. lrch.w I(~ hand rig... J l) 10:. the same . because then th e new uutlct wn uhl be turned on and off h~ switch .111 wh ite WI res J in outlet 1:1. Spridn9 fo·ra..!.hu'Ic\'i. ~ tudv 1'·i~.orr pttme> run f\. This en mbinatio I~ i~even simple r lU wire than I he IJ tbITS h~Cd lI~C there I~ 1'0 prob lem ~.m the ~~Qnd an e~'5t no:! oulloE't Be sure enouo. (l-I a flil'~ D>-2.) H.n and D1Hlf~ to ~dd . the ~unmg point is an 01.~..5lf'1g (ablE!.' lse . 1 0-8 ~pll(Ir.ng this outlet cnmpbcJr wl red.l1e~ that rontrol the outlet Thi~ is the (j"ng.~n \~L1hnUi interruption hy a swlrch. -l9 and l1-l1 . bo~ s l~r9~ Fig.ILh m1~!kL!~. . color would be r~LJirt'd. two ends to which you will splice the rwo-wirc cablc Illai rtH1~ 111 [h.w~:t' iWIK... as shown In FLg 1(I q.<.! of outler F of ff9 s.1~1ing ~~hr.l\lw..i[] th~ ~wl[ch.h"r W.h (J utlf. and black to black a.ding diagram \"'~iltl to add a switch to J :J . ~!.t B a nd should be wired in rh same '.m Ior <'!r.~.I srm P1~1 [1 ~ II er 1. lD.ill see that I he cab le ru n~ hnl to t f'l' ~~'_"itch)-m~ let S'_II and t hen un to cutter 1 i. That gives veu two ends of black wire to whi~h In~ ~\\..\... cui the black .. is lf vcu are Lfl~~~llinJ!our wm' swirches. sphce rhi: two wires in rhe cable fur ihe new nutlet to hl. r I h $1n~l e-pa Ie swi zch IS ro he used.' outlet \II.~ M~ 10 be u~J.l rUwr insta 11i!~klition al () u 11eL bevn nil s rfh~' Simply mnll~ctLlIg the black and '~'hilt. l 0--6 The wir in'. rr:'1'~rrt t' F~'!I'lIl'-!i d Ru n nlrLg ll\r ~£o \"JIr~ ilrl (J bl ~ 'ld ~pticmg to udd outlet. ~~ shown JI1Fig Ill.wl~h rn~[W(. aut If three-wav sw I!(h.. I..mel If' D A I ~. ..e~pole lti ~. ~j....dd itiona I ouU~ts You ~'.1D If'IISiALLING S~RV!CE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING Chapter 10 all~l[ Wirlnq Procedures 113 Black ToH . \\11 e 11 vou come to ~lH H of I·ig. h~r\ th~ ca blf> ryo1~ linl ~Dfh e t h<'!1 to UW <KIt ~t. fi9!.I> an exi~tiIlq . b ite wl re rna OUI let c_.'..hiu' in H...J .. . fnHow the diagrams of F. 10 white.:I\' is Tn r LIn threeIv i r~' ~ J ble Ihree-w.1 H... ~~\II. nutlat be~!Jnd eX8 c111.~J[I\ additional ~HlLICl Fig.. 1 tI-ji' !.lr..· m J m n ut let box h~ L.i th the colors of the WI re.. eachv -r ire can be traced aJJ 'Ol_.()"':' . J-~u\1icye['.l6 \'UIl can S~e from fig. GlI1 n ecr ino the two ends 0 t thewires a.rC'.. for . ~O-lO '....1ck arid ". i!hL'LH hum!' H 1... Study r~retLJljy mE!' C(lr{lr) ot ttl~ W'f<>5 in rnis L~blp Compare it wj~h F g..\ir~" of Ihlt cable for Ihl' new ~wrh'L \ Il~ the black . }TIU U'lQ add an additional outlet by Lapping IJL atswitch ~ Hi 5 plice the ~~ rvs I of the cable fm the new ()lrlk·t hi the inm111ing cable from C.R.. ~-- Wires from outlet to be controlled ~~ 'I /on9m81 srnqle-pole ~wit{h ~ t I~ a simple matter lo ~ub~tlt~m ~ p~ r of thrl:" ~ ~ubS1'l~te ~11y \o'o'. long 8...Qurc~ ril.9 r~pping .!l. f b r be re.mp i"'~ W~~ ~wl[(r.I Wire of a d..o the way lKld.mn{·~I~.s!ungl. L Feed·tlhrough ~l'ilclng white t.hJ rcnes ""hen L.. ~n~J .. II switch~o an ufllswitch~d o'II!I~let fl' )llLj that ~hu\... U'H1rhi ~ d ~gI~m .>' outlet canlrol ed by J 'tidy ~'.. or . 1\ cable r. veu h ave Ttl n the cable fi r~L to the {llllkl box and flxtu reo the" 'In to the swirch.ay swirt)(hes!ill bsm.] tlet already \"01ed with two wires ready for a s~~itch.r~t W Ule outler [he ca bl<>from .(1 S~Jhq i· 'ted tutc two J.>€".IhqL1uk the combinai iOI1 of BAd. 51111 itch boOx. way switches tora single-pole S~ I tch in an)' winng d iagn~ ITJ...l 3.~ .f\g(}'il'gt~r~ S.

12f11l4l1. each ~.lbf~ Ulfn It. and voltage drop. ve r. W the two bo t ~.""'Or s.c... ·10-12..lge WiIU I{l h~ ~ 4tl yolK rnhH.j 1 fJ.1corsnl'!'. These two-rircuu dlJpk:<...J husbsr Ln yu u.as shown In Fig. H ~nd ~C ~re equal. l[)' L'..\'0 "hot" {hl<t~~colored! terminal screws . Je is COI\ II ~ I ~d tn ! h~ I1~U I ~a I \. ln the case oi il mulriwire branch circuit.. If I hahitilNr rooms of her rhan kitchens . I f OOTmcct~..dripole sw~[~h lusralled adiacent [0 the panel board.ept~d~th.'I1lJ bathrooms.:l1i!.ncc thq' nc WrIllt'(tl-.. Jun(ttOfl bOli: co! am5 on I~ tne sp'l~e~ alhe~erall~I"!.nd P i~ 24n volrs. frn rn which to ~liIr i 1he.. Think carefull y about [he implicauons of thi~ rule -::::haIlg!:'in planning ~·UILTin!>tllll.e m eff~ct one' wirr. installation time.d~ one fLH1< lio[1. J t---~ I I ----~ I Gmund~d wirl/' Both ndl".1II be convenient lu have a floor i<UflP or t~ble lamp plugged inro ~ receptacle ftmtroUed bv d ~\'ill] switch...~ of (il!JI~.I.t! ~Il. TH RIEIE. I'ullage drop: ifth~ loads 01'1~ ch half ohh. 'i...H 11~~ir l~ n coes m..UIOJt.'lLl~ 011 it common voke. Ill-14 In which wires D and C are the grounded wirvs. Now It applb in ~Hoccupancles...e 1'10 such '~\~Itches are nm".:0 volt.11 !Hl. re (..d nftwn 1. ali the d nn"1 tiS make-s dC-. Ho . chdngc them le t be two.~p:t@r10 B<!~i( Wiring Prncf?ciu res 115 Some t. l. namely. M~rn brands of ordinary duplex receptacles are constructed ~o ~uu can. Theoretically. and only in dwelling U(Wp~llci~.:.the rnultipole circuit breaker required here means rhco all-appliauce bran eh CIrcu it con necred to this outlet could not be rnul ttwired ...·pt:mmnc/Jt/y ortn~ aCCltsS1bJ. it applied onl v to multiwire branch circuits.lu~ethe same ci"t~llil breaker nr fl. \>1. Band C are connected w~~rbn ~I Iht" n eut r. hLlI between A and Band also between B and C il is 120 vohs.J. the neutral wu{' C.\'111assume all circuits are off t. this could be .20 \'ollS.lfTl("S no .Lt ill fIg. u~jJJg.:. JW1UJ.lk. ~t: LH1~WIJ~ and in~te~. In the case of the dirung room ~plit receptacle described previously.J~euhimarely supplies both hai"'l'~ or the duple>. lhi~1~ ~~bV bui i. there is a HHaJ of four wires as shown I'll I'lg..~~ hm Top halve's hoi Bottom hal 'JE!'~ (OrHrolled .WI RE (I RC'UWT5 In terms of rn aterial cost.'nf~ge~ ...e 2(]02 >"EC places ~ l'tTr significant umdition on thr 1F:>t of multiple receptades On one YOke rtl)i~ is the technlcally correct way tn describe a 5plit duplex J'ec.by ~"VI ch t But 11:()[elha~ the two grounded wires.branch circuit 511ppliol'5 mort' than one re~rr. wr]tr~r~ tu lht' uStJ~1 oonfigurati(')r'I. andthe wires t\ .m_the grounded wire and hot wire. It e.}I'.J Wlr~."C rcquiremem lor switch-coru rullcd lightinp. j-Wlte (ir.. .stime and mJteri~J. dlJrlng inst~iJatjo'1. or Oc Iween .~d wnulJ p be a mulripole circuit breaker. lO--l5. \.114 H'. so tbat the \·oJt.ker. installing une . ~·wjIT'lirruib U rOil] will n<ln"on(" _~WI r.\ T connernon HI cable when there I~ ~ I" ng run and nn convcmcru out I.. A maior change.dr it .n:~ 111e "'til! .~rlil'f\ the~ ne-!:Llm.l("c~ rh .e. The.d Wgt'l h ~r at the .'..ve.c i rcu iLv ...ndf:.~. but In !"'IB. Ir. fig. but also [OOl. "10-1 1 B~ iUrt' tl1 J t ~<I( h [capta.age between A ~..r ~erYke e-quip l11enL .ult not 01. This means that ruses could not be used ro supplv such multiple receptacles: the ~)TLly ~~'hLoll !lldh.my benefits aver having rwo 1. 10-ll.~ .51f1 with . 2.concern is that an untrained . and anv time more than one.receptacles (3bo called splitwired rect"p(<id~':Sl meet the Nf.The wiring diagram i$ shown in Fig. an rhe market. I-Innf'mm:r.1 blank cover ~s shown in fig. splice al] hlJ~k WH<::'S together d I Hi .. Lf that i~ nor 111("case.~ split recepl.\rh~I'i rwo such 2-wire crrculrs are run [0 the sanrc general area. if one circuit t rips the other is still connected.t.Qu.md RC.ur-rcnl .~-~virt circuit offers m.Hl d P ~re 1"1 ot wues comri!cr~d to opfome side« 01 SOl·RCE.Ifrwo _:!. L Sf: 0] n outlet box.. wire circuits. ':I-H.'.. .r'J boxes bt' located \\ fl. [he l .'\11 ordin ar.wlte.\ rnearts W ~il'llliltanmu.1 5l~·OIlJ small-appliance branch circuit. TilP revio U~ ed i nom of the iVEC.. wbether or not in a rnultiwire configuration. new 'Ee rules h~v~' made the installation much mere problernatlc. In addu 1011.IIi ety h~ breakingo LJt a ~n'<IU brass pOfrJ0 11b~! ween (he 1:'1.l dlsccnnect all unarounded conductors arriving at lhc receptacle must lk' provided [he panelboard.levice) connected lU more than rUlr' branch (irl.~ ~hnwil Hl Fig. 9 U II rhe three u r mnl"(' I cuds of c.! fl11\'tW' ll.·n tL""r\ kn('ldedg. . ~~i'!u. receptacles ~hnwfl.T branch. HJ 'flll. 'IO-.1 r~ ILl 'Ib Lli n 1.L! ~d"". 1 20. A lune[ion box is shnwn ~f'I' J un trlCln b f11!ii!!5 t. ~ ~ ~'r~".t mulnpole circui: breaker VI a 11u. A~ru~TI}.~'I~II .e NEe WlJrHS each half ol the' duplex a~ ~ separate .. I' CLTCUll. test lab ~Uldc e card restrict ion ~ f (I mid ~h~ u ~ of rn uh IpO!t" s\~'lrches for mulr I pie ~ ircuus un less t'he> are marked ' 2 -ci [CUlt or ~J-ci rcuit" a s appl [cabk. "fIJnl~rl(I'r!: In FIg. l rLLi L ~. . TI) •he t't'st uf lhl~ \Oo..hen investigating a nonfunctioning load umncc I (5I.J5TAlUNG SERVJCE EQUIPMENI AND WtRlNG CI''I.volt ci rc U I r co n~i~ts of tvm ".l(k in this way does net pl~~·ru on tw(')diffettn~ Qrcuifj: hC'ol.~ jjm~brd.'ii.in ~h. and the job l."i to nn e of 1h¢ rece ptad es. these circuits must still now originate from a multipole circuit brc .1 rruif~ .rc [l ~[ld C l~ m~r ..{' CITl"UH between.)f the rraditinnal multiwire branch .11] w hne ~ l r~ •u!!t!cbcr: cover \\' it h ..lfrIV-e M rhe device rrrke.m~llltlg .\'hl' U~ Tncrr: i~ ncrd no tOI I ~~v.

' (3 rle~ Imh' a small IlUt:nh..tt. ""-~TI..re~ with ~W ' i nillt' !'lame can be im i 'LIl~J 111 Ia(CW~} ~m h ~~ r i HId Ilon metalli (" ..IJ"(_'U[ • tor the small-appliance circuits discussed in Chapter 5<_1~ht.ld{'.S much J~ .ll!l<i Ihell l resuh III .1rnllts..:q'tad~. wired willi une half onphase A"llwuth~r on phase B CFig. en u~illt cable.<" receptacles oonne t~J H'Plle i<111 beyond rne receptadr lcrnrllrdrlly ! emoved I ill sene. +- t..sure that the brancb-circulr disconnecting means at the p. [I 1.. d.~olt l5 am p~.amp.One 3-wirc circuit i~ e~w·(iaUy recoll1lllt:IJJl'd in place (']1" IWO 2-1'''1re I.. lil~n win~ .{. ~l'I t har rep I~riJ'lg a li_:o. BtU ify. (""0 Wl[C."wi accessory btliklinp .uld in rum place III i 1..:Icc~~~nr ~ t)Ll tid In gf !gu 1"1:: I \.IS I~ dune . Li~~1 iHg and receptacle rt:4." f~)r Ll~~ with .1l~.]bli.. run ire with .lSt1~ inchc:.\' wl.p~ ade shown in Fig. 4-1 7'.L good ~p~ice_ Pigtail ncui ra 1~ .h "'011 Ihr. 11.116 IN~TALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WI.. ~ dmp~ Cd rltol i 1 r hut th~ n8uotral no current... <.I I .:1.kel_ 'nstQ'11~9 .tr~ r.Ovolts.1i.Other IL II<!~h cornrn 0 I~]Y served br 3\"i re ctrcuits.tr~ fjgbl Dr as a feeder 10 a detached . tho? neutrdlillmt be esp'~oLJ.111ighti ng U1l1:l:t.i~'\or regulor...... 11(].re\'l the rec('rlad~. it ~rry only rile differen L~ be w~en the current in A and thilli 11 1~. deratiim (see page~ 28-29 ~.::ben ~i!l k instant hOI \.111. \\ llcii 1\'1Trng...gqjif lunh [he ~munded and hu L W ~n'~ . circuu.service' Great LMl' must be taken to (On necr WI n'~ r\ and B t the hot wire ~[0 opposirc legs of the incoming :\ej vii.'1'(.>1 one or two o!.. . load damaged. The ft'~¥r fmm the beusc W the on dctac h~.)op Gn yClu must make .L dUlIhlr lO.md board as j wi re ~'I rvuits to th e ti r.i t off to l'C(OJ)mr-two. oj -w Tlillrel!'-wi I'\e I ~c.l rare g..{'I. N 10-1.i Ioep i1~ shown In Fig.}u ~Onnl"Ct A :and H ru the :>am.1 I P\'C) mmhut. It l~ the u~lIdl L . l!>g~ 0:]( 12n040-\KIll rr ~'m9 15 M ps.1l1 ~~ ap requiri n g un I.~t\'\It"en A .Jj~.!JIits aue~ePtad i!! jI nd Ii 9 hUng out'lets \' 'hen add Ili~ r~(eptad"" ttl illhl .cr.anr h terms ~re lS-amp load mrr'l i s "rnultiwrra Both mthlshook.it ~i.kj t:. bll il d i11~ rn ~y be run urn I~·r{lmund or OVUht\iL L i RUrlliiling unde'rglfoul'!ld Of overhead wi~ing It runrung rhe feeder underground. .~ . Co ni!llec:~ing ~t th@ .. The I~~~er mnst be bUTlc:\l~! 1e-.1Jv the wire J\.1~1b. UI-H One ~-wlr(!.re i (<Irrip.d ishwash er a nd w~ ~lc disposer. ~0-114 T rmm opposir ~!!rvll:e.lmps if 12 ". the microwave oven and .it:e end of whi ..~~ fu.In I . win is u~~d. if both loads n re e-q LI.I' .\. ea.I~ holl:' Lhruugh Lh~' w.irle. If the ~~(h arc unequal. so .:ld. ur no ruTrent at dlilithc load:." us""'" ciJ!'(nriu It using CUrlJu~1.. .no ell rrrnt at all.. (if two lC'IlgLh~ (If cable to each other . t:arr~. there I~ h I~~)W8Y of rnaking n I. ~~ fllr replacement .!dmg. !.\0..::able h ~h'1wn )'nu ~. ~[ilI il neutral.h Il\~~ .tei! .but it l. you rnav use [Vpe Uf C1Ibk·.1 \ ery w!1vrniem ~ nH ..f:!.ll..::tH '0 2-wlr~ m~uir~.."\<o ~ C11l C'..llelem gruurnled ~~'irt"'Jt these [·.u~t.es on :~hree"willf' c~rcLilts The ~pln-w: red {also ca lied two -circui t) w {. half ] I.e-ernrance \"o'iFl~~" '\"oml. bdIY"" gr~. u~ ii15UIJtlun WOtrlJ bo£" J<I L8~('d Ind tire mjgfll r(.5 One ~a. I... rs. ~nJ R .• h1~ must nnt he done bCCOiU~l"rl.."..~ h .n tili'.l nd LlTlL ~~ woukl bum IJ U to Maint..]c .. whldl can he buried dir~~._ lo . f'.. I h ~ [~ ~ r~ 5i'veral WilYS t h~ ~ I Ito: VI 1 r~~ Ci3 n bt.1CI~ r has t'\~ ) knni ~I ~t. rrh thnse . ~ here two srnall-appli. circuit r rs fon_g. nor do li.: b mu gh l uW nl I Ii~ h! ~Uje .:h (On.p~ciall)' when WLf1ng \\ Ith cable..i.:DnIk".i n con necrions as a ~~lbSlll ute f(l r . h.. ""'l1lI Fig.~ (If g()od practice to pi...lrL..j rif).h~-d _ _.:: {"11ntjLJll h~ I Llnnln:E! it dire.f: I~Lfc o.:!.~11 rh~ ~aJ' .ul.S I m.[(' w ire ---- J J D 15-llrnp IO[Hj.tt.t downstream receptacles depend U n t he termi n al ~(frw~ or Fli ~h.J.r llf olmpere~. Even other general-use ci. where !Iw)' ~1' . ~hmur:\h.lIif:'.:hilh ~'LllmIIlLJodal{!.. rk inhl the tiwng ~.1 the uthes k·g.l b~ cJrrying . BUI LIl "'tTII1!. (ir( UIt Cdrryi ng A 1 S amps fig.IPPl'fltO be Lder!l i~-tl. ..:-J 11..-. rn =( F------=====~----lS .~_bccon~e~a . tnj5S 1S<imps 6 J ~'l'i-amp practice UJ erul hl11 J.md N.]ff . This is linen done in the kitchen. and <I common neutral. V. 'nll~ \"i .J. i~nut ire pnH("1.T heater..md ~J1'1 . Cltu.lt.lJ~ ~]s. ri. as to. l. and Ih~ mngr.:t.~d r~(if'pitad. ana: r~:u"['l.tI reI will net I)P~ll rhe neutral to Jown~ll'':~ m nutlets.111receptacles wbere yo [I \~'L'>LJ ldothe rw isc usc the 1\\(1 terminals on each side-tor fccJiEll!.10--1 )).~llrL Rel1l~rnhr the gmutlt!t"Li . lett n( the inCClmLII~ ~L'fYi~e \o".11 connect to [be white terminal ~g_.~~irenlellt~ fnr ga:ragO:$ ..~also..um often sra r I III at th e p..Ll'l ~ r on ta rm winn:.'Helh~)ard np-ellS both hot wires with a single Orl'I'H~OILof the hand ~CJ that tunirernaintenance at these outlets (~TI h.L break III LhC' neutral \\'Ire .5 shown in r IS1~_ CUllIle(l th~ ends of the wl'11'c' wh~. H". 18-12 can abo be imtaLkd 011 rh e three-wire circuit. 2 WI rr ( ircuits.-ted b.lL:'(1~~~(·J rage l~ as well as in !his section.'V terminnls.rther d I:l4:lL~S in d'l" ."rHn~ 111l:l..S USN II h()11t t:"llih and is .going t~ I Ll ~ ! f~'C'f be<ld \".. . flb(!.jIrlIljfj. voltage slro P _IS a con. -m Wh€!~1i! luse~_..Gioin9 CI'Ofl:UI'I~(lU5 !. Ion If }'uu . th~ trmc tlier ~ Ill~ connection to the recept. The Nf( br.are tl ..dl~·\Vilt.rai( splice 1[. i(]~~lhl\' J..RjNG 117 I 1.1g. three wire crrcuns . m brca. ln this w~y the :r~ULiW~1 (If one receptadc docsnot inlerrupi service to other IT'~xf'!"de'" dnwusrrcarn.::ir(uii v.r~.!ca:~sory hu. !hr' ol'pLl.md another shnr t piece o~ white wire..\'.ro~J[]Clcd neWra[ ~\iirc.(JI.cle circuits are required. Ui I ~Iolge I l29-l'.s ~ .JI!t.e done safelv . IILrid malfunction and 1)( ruined or at k. 1\ (fo rmerly BO will. o\ppliJm~ \.Hlh .split'fN.1 ~c p.and dr)'~f.ll us.lmgc tl r .lHil.iUJ In). Fjg. .fee·wire J ("tlnLLl1llLlLi~ \\ lS-arnp load A is amps N 15 amps rs amps :~ Il.

size this cuflductor OIt 1 ~ ~mil2 ire.mp and :!O-amp protect ive devices.JG 119 F. HJ 1"1i~anorh t r W(I\ of using Jill ord!i n arv e III ranee car (<IS used tar service entraucesj.. DI agr~m iOf g~r.. [hey are [IOUi>{' ~lwa~~ Ii. three wi Ies n t"f'd tu be run from the.ldin~~.eS5ory building that i. 1(}-l9. Lfe~ from hnuvs .<{' device ahead ~. nd..vEL-lor other (1r'.ag~ll(j h [_ (til br 3 . or me T.:. e House ~---=--r--. You mll~1 ~uppl~· ~ I" •..:IS('.I~hmt. ceramic ~ho~t..C (TOIbk 250.. mple ~'}U(In usc ~njlr SWLlI:h~ ~ a 1~(g.al J!:s(OrtnCCIH1g means [llr all .HI the service on this conductur.\J1-..home and a T h ree.__ ~~_. in agamge or accessorv bllilding lhcll can be controlled hoth Ih r.50ry bui Iding j~ ~nm e distance [rom the house... so !II~ l«d~r will not be und~r:~i~~d. Th~S(' W('~ pertain 1<)~flprer wires: rt!f~r to the lahlc IFl the .1pptlC<ltiom. Hn!i~ad of add i n g illl ! 11C tuols together.l. usi n g ~he discussio I~0 I~ this Lopi.~ \-. If the acct's. 11m conductor has a dl[f~r~nt sizing 111hlein the . etc" be sure tn 11K 1Il~I~· nameplate I ht'· ratings of all the . A\VC rcspl"(. the gItHIHded condu. a ground i n f! electrode ~il d a groundi Il g electrode cond uctor._locknut an d b l. but based o I~ the size 01 the feeder conductors instead of the main servke conductors. and for even I~r~<"rcu cuits ~Ir [0 200 arnpsl use 8 6 AWG wire. ---.e 4-3.1' of ~ ntl?rhr. and add Nffi volt-a m per{'~ to reach St'll e ra r -usc receptacle. I ~ ~ Shown in Fig.hwlY.mJ structure . i~d rrorn an.w av switch installed at eac h e. Cal~U1llatirtlg feeder wi~e 5 ize Feeder ~. yVhcore feeding one building ffnm another. even dn d(':~TV hUIJding 10 J ~itlgte-rarnih d . Don't fmgct outsideliglaing ~(I rOu can safely get had: to th~ home J f1~r b rk. Wilril'lg for ImrJ'ht'ing and f\e(eptacll~s lior a light.ufldlJClO r ~5 required to be run \l\'11h rhe feeder. use J til \\\G h1JC.. wi red . 10-1 a.. 4 WI re-s ~ ~ .HI~ ~!!Ii TIle e. Am' f<J. or ruu <l separate t'quipmenl gwurlding conductoi between lilt two buildings .• L separate (". 1(1~td~ ~nd n bo): . .{ sirn ilar condu ctor at the ma in se rvice..uher butldrng on the rH1~~.0-0 blli. ".. ~ ShUfL piece of conduit.Ie lh. Groundingl Wh{T~ there is Cqlliplllci"It in the g. ·e:lhn~ The NEe docs relax the rules J little tnr residential . use an B AWe. fom wires are required between Follow the di~JV(LHl 0 C hg.~rry. For J~r!:l.... To calculate the lead of ~rl . u~rn.'nH'Id building must he J nsulated fr()m the end I)..~I ~5 to be per[Y1~l1entlli on is added..4~::::. grounding receptacles}... fm ex...ultnlrrent return.' ide pi~~n of light. For I ~-~. cond LJ. \.s it is a one persnn ~hop where !JIlly one tool will be used at a ti me. ID~sCJQnnll!dlln9 mea~s..! ~ Ou tl eo!box r'IJ!.1hl..in(ief!eaI (it-ntly ofthe garage lighr so whether the l~glu ls on Or off.:ttlt >izC'is based on the's ize LI( tll el (fad ! it mL!~1t.aliest wa~ of tmngung wlre~ Into a g'.'c and garage. H1Chapter 8.lJ culatc the ~ vnltagr drop. (liid where mel~1 piping sudt as water pipe runs between the (\0.rc. and ..I1.lrage or sim lIar bui Idll.ern'. I i~ ihis case .LH outlet box inside the building.~'circuits IJI' !u t>U amp .q f~ to l}~P thl5 sPPclilJl ntrance cap.~nge or oth('f detached building that requires grounding (metal boxes.. Ftg.gi! blrlldlllg. l{1-U If a rec E ptA <.eqlLlipmelll-urdt.ig.>'l)mj""'UIking 8 ~hup.. elrher Heat Ih~ electrical circuit or feeder I n the gara~~ as Vt1U would ~ service (~~ desc ribed ill CiM pter Rl.f the . 1m at the S-(_. Pm.Iulpmen l gn IUri ding o.1 s shewn in the basic d!agram nf hg.118 IN 5TA L LI NG S ERV ICE EO LJ IPMEN T AN D WIRlr.. re a nd a l the house..HI-l1 Ol'dU'Id Anot!'ter met"o!..greenhouse.rtn 3-w<LoV ~wit(h at f'ath e I~d f:]!J. 10--J S on the next page. r n ~h8l [. c ~kulared al ItOI 11' less tha 11.111)' which is b~~d on the uze of the largt~t overcurrent pmtenL"I..i. I'or receptacles that operate . Ji ~ ~ a rc ne-eded.~ 'w'Ilb r(T square foot.~par~1(" buildings . tor ~ull larger circuits up to lOO amps..~U re andnot ~O['l n ectcd 1U rhe water pipe n r other ground i Il g electrodc-.Size the grou ~lding electrode conductor the same w~y yO\L would ~Lle .. jU~Lldd in the mol with rhe higb~L ampere rating.. ~HL~ or it '<'f'U ate using aluminum ~roHm:lJl1g wires.fd an ry entrancE' ~ap. machine shop. in:s~~llillp.

. market.\~ The ~~"II. l".lWillg rts appropriate current.. 0\ ~r1<lp ~wit~h i~d permissible drsconnecting switch wi t..three\o. perhaps at an odd height. TI"p. damp or ~.. there are a number of wiring schemes that prm ide fn r cornputeri zed con trot of 'i~LifiL outlets _A~ this book is written.UN6 SERVn::1E EQUIPMENT ANI[l WIIFUINIG lade. !JUl.Cand the gdmgl u...T"'!"·F. If that tuncrion is obvious..nt~ W bl:' assured that it won't be turnedoff'inadvertentlxAssume there wdl ~J.. switch place a wearhe.m ..:untml. there i~.1~ JC\idl~p.hl e io ch ips for central control... tunction and the load served.r<l~ IIG!-Il dnJ run lhl' n .I reu-ptaclc that will supply J freezer. . The Lwu must curunmn types moe nournetallic-sbeathed cable . and mol rk it RKU' msc 0 r ~i II ib r.h no id entif able OFF pnsmn n..Oll il'~l~U .lCn disconnecting means still must be grouped and marked [() I indicate tIs...h~rofJderl~rLL.ing til IS moulinsHowever.lrm~r~1!! locations indoors or OLH.htheNI::e(~lb.. three pomt nea rest til e pnJ 11r 01 en tra nee. ithout gcuing a ruling in illh dnu~ frl -rn YI1Uf local inspector.l[H1 J~~~i bed brieflv u ad CT 1 r I h .il~g rl~r~~-\\'... although thev needn't be as close ~~ adjacent ~Ilap swirches in J tvm-gang DOx_ hdl ~'I'i rch JIlIl ~l be marked with it.1 few prototypes.Romex. .pe NI\l.] rna lU r em H mvef~ brewin g over '" ~H'Th~r l y p.:.l.:\. see pages J. wires assembled togdher 811d enclosed ina covering.C Anide 7~O.'l'r. shown in fig.:l$sen ic~' equi pme nt I the normal rL~I<: j-lol'.i~hillIbe <arne cable iS assern blv (1r T<lC("\"~r 1 il-.lllium ~i)~'~rt. simple tu install without special tools.:ay swnch "' rhe gJ. • indudinj.irk It"ol'dthrough <I single-pole : ~n"p switch in another box ncar [he three-way switch. and ut fU:T t h..~.cmrs of the type anticipated in 'l\ "~ N . A~ a general rule ."t1 ill j\if.'o types arc J~'UI bt.. Jype t'f-I..Lble.ti in! !H~ chapter.whi(. .1!~Jr'e.N'.. W.~'[ 121 ._~ origmaUy conceived. Wih ere' u sedl Tq.l'p'l. For COnlp.fl.~ .h~.~n .:!J fur use iu motst.. a re~d ilv acces-Jble a.:!::! allows some ham for o!l1lTt. CA B LiE Suppn".l ~ instea J 1.:tLlmltd wire~~Ll[. NEe 1 W.I::. ma\ be used onlv m uormldJ..-n~ In!. t -.I~. 1nvolves uni qud\' amtlguH'd TC'CPthat remain de-energized unless rhe approprlate appliance is msralled and is d. cabling aren't ilil. -i \ ..l'pmfl[ cover that precludes inadvertent operatic n..t iighi he controlled from the hOLL'.. discon nectrng me-a ns located means.! i r i!l f!. lILJl1~g Th is t{'chJ1ol~~t:Y as p roven premature. must be grouped.t! "\ 1\. I~ted with ~ ~iflgJt' !>OU[IT' u1 ~UPF]~'.(:0I! Il~l.. .1c. M<lrk lhe:..lf ('q uiprnc n t suiia b lc tor U~C. 34_ Approved locatio n 5 ~!1 d 11LSt ~ 1Iatmu methods torthe n .:ttli. c .herearechl. and costs kl-!>~ha n u~h ~r ki nds n f cable.1C and Type S'MS lypt.L}' 6wjt. For descriptions u1 their {.~d ". • l_ ngn. including coverings and .~pOwt'T en nd LlCWr5_ B~ awa IT' of t h F~~tmt rm ers y and don't plan on installing [fm WI rHlg .. such as the overhead light.120 INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRIN._.. nnt .I.l.iL~ nomen ~1.Lnnflroo canle.\.o nductors for use in apl'h~'. T he \<. I N ONMIET:ALIJC-SHIEATHIED S(}nml'lalli'r-~lu:.Llla . such as a single branch circuit.1nd~ for '5iAn~Hnf" and refers to an additional ~l'L o[ ~IttjMllllg.e N M S ca hl Lrlg em be used lur Ihi~ other L<)nLrol method..I.h~ ~{'chn('llngr an tici paled a futuristic genera L rill f h ousehol d appliances fcamnng ~ddres. Iuncr ion..~..l~ is cnrnparanvely new. ~JT} mdnoJ r liJUH J. it rou do provide the !lurking you \"O[]'I be challenged Calble-Nonmeta II ie-Sheathed and Armored CABLE CONSIST~ OF 'rwo OR MOR. ." which is a trade name of oncemaIlUfarturn. :"ay 3 Icet sbove the Hour.l. Ihe dj~~'lil11c'-hiltl rul<~ huil Jm~'n hJ rhe fIJUo\l. theso-called "smart house' ~e~hl1nlo~y_ .G dl <.~lhed cahle is light in weight.lf:H1\ ely Hlflpl~ te~ld~IH~dl outbuilding apphcatmn«.'lI1g. and the owner WJi. The ·'S~ ~l.J-'lyin~ must pas~ th rough 3 J load intended to lot~' energized. It is often called .e€kinds. 8t such as a r~mp • IIN5:TA!. HU\'.1t d .:ht'~ asso. the general.:nndu. ill mputer Id( 1. no such h houses have ~~Jrm OJ. OV11'r the' othEf.:.

n J'he {)11h cX~~I'''PlL W<l~in the c~se o~ w. You need to cunsider this requmremrnt ill a basement.. ra ther tha rl the ~mpil1"_~ lljustrated in Fig.1.olumm" beams.n.. l. inches.'>1.mJ. Stllrd.re n aDo[{) mllu st ihle {n·r I[11111d n e com b lmih]~). 11-17. f\ -.lI e r iii 1.<lbl('~ 111.\. Til i~m~ IIId ~<. II I i.Jo!.~ I Ill' hrst tirnc the \TE[ has put huilding wll~Lmdion types at the center rule go v.All_~tructut~.1~.!se tor 1:."'hcr1::' hu 11.~ arr "hu nd led" tor longer than ~ ·1.ard ~)n I.lI~!I:m~Lihlc r or limitcd-combustiblei <lnJ ha \'t' fire rarin gs gene rallv of three 011 r fou r hours (less .e8led ~pal'~s...l. T}'p~ [[ .Jr[h~T T~'[n..1 m~lT1h:Th arc as in Type I but the tire r¢. r11~rt· i~[10 'Fe w~ I ver lor buildings wi th a sprinkler . Fig" 11-2 4 ((-'(! ~upport (d bl~ Jt tea ~t 0fK.5 ~ml mof~ <lre of h".11 The final allowable Jlllr.agc the insulation I}f the iudi\'Ldu.and fnH tu ~ huried in . tr LJsse~..r of intC"n~ ~nd (QmllluLng .l~ bored holes.tJing. h.L~L.e-hllur fir~ r<·~i~'I.lrui·IlIJP1.~ l\raJwll so that.ill it as vnu would LlrdH1.rrnJrl.."'( BH 1) under this r~~h·K!IOIl means that lor curnruon ~pp'icilIlO'\~ you can't put more than fom cables ~l1gclh~Tthrough ..IHJllal t1t·ba'~'. ove also tIoilhtil' 12 inches of every OOX"_ insulated straps uf the l1P1erclllIype SnCtlNl1I Lse in Fig.If continued in the form ora compiete circle. All!'Ipii city 1'1!.t).lVy I1l1Lkr wn~trucrion without oon(.".al wlres.I~. 12-71 in high -rtse buildings. i~ rvquircd in J~mt' OJ corrosive IOC. fk sure to rc\ I~W \~)Uf 1.V{tfS of Butldi.1fl'le the ~1)].l acuiallv const rucred zs Type] or II.j in more J. one or 1\'·0 fdJl1!l) hlJ.. Sometimes ~uch damage does Ilo. In addiuou.I hi t' \ 1.1JIi11g more t than one (Jbk through .nlp basrmenu. wfu:rc It could be used re£!ard. lnsr.~f.In ll1\" ~III r Iv ~'Car~ nunmetal] ic ~he.tltH'l~.les hack to the panelboard through it !Jo!.ln) hi~h rise.n/ • F{)I ~'P!' \ -H .a\ be mild instead ut Tvpe !\}.lnsl~ IJmily hurnes. . . J[ m~\ be u~d it] I'>'~t locations or buried dmxtly m th e ~m U11. Connectors and rlamps ~h L ru] d be mug but not over-tightened 10 the POll1t .:It influence the choice 01 wiring method 111 rl1. '" hlcn . cutting a slit parallel to the .Ol. I'.IJ.I cornmonset of holes.mc~ r.'~!>l'Hl of ~tns.se use Tvpe L F.~I arm Wiring 1.. In some localines It rna) he dttft~(.[j. ~lmc iunsdKtLons Imposed fL. rrsmcHon bec.condorruruurns ~nd ll~IH O)mmeraal8pplLc.Ol! IT'I~glll!he tempted to run !.11/1 feet.utldin 9 ~estricUo Ilis J'h e re has been .tv~ <I qo~{_ t£m~r~tlJf(' 1"".'T .lJ c1('lTH:'ITL.3tlSe tho? :Oi)::! -"EL (hJflgC'o Jrc ILlo!l~ 1'0 bt" ~llbic(1 m mnuovers\· In NT. Iur the complete descriptions.:' g~tl~r.. h P<"V I i~d I~·u:>l!t.ahl~ U_~{'~ lit" Type NJ.l c~hl<' III Ih~ 20(t~ NfL.ctaLl rn eh upte r I 7 • ~II p~g~~ 11igL1Wl B.J.Jc11} must nul '·M·.e rule.1 tm: hIm. for example. n ln~1 .Ivpe .\1.:'. h as b.md HI [enor .irns an d LIt her t~ rrn bt Ii!Jing'> (further discussed in Ch. In that c.lrions..~LdlL"d.!l'pl·1 ~~Iwncthe r 0 r not the w] r mg \~as.~\·~t~ a~ L~ rbe ~." b-l'. rm..u r V CO rlSlu I ~ II r 1f1. . arc hes.'of 111I~ bot. wlwr e . or V if a full ~p rlk!er SYM1:Hl I s in place.. hut II ... R@mo'll'ing i nsu ladon Rem 0\. For Type :':M.t'~d in~. codes gmeraJ~v permit more extensive buildin!1~ to be constructed as Tvpe [1].. doesn't cost much more.L ell In rhe ('u°L wlWJU1 (rcf~r LlJ 1.'T(Fig.l22 INSTALLING S'ERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRlNG Chapter l' Cdbl~NDnrnetallic Sheathed and Arrnmed l':'\:piJ5ure to the weather..'e.Jr~.'(' the' eutcriacke: of •be cabl e fCJr 1 0 to T 2 inches.-.I.UILlt1~ ~L! . ~Ir limited combustible \ h ~nJ have fire ratings of at least twn h('lUN.1Jr..of d 'l'his .~ral type . remm ~d lh~ h~J:l!hl Itnlll.illr dr(1p~ t(1 [wn Or <.le~ [I~. ~nd S~lmc other.~min~ the me of ~ wiring nutluxl. provided the cable is lO(<lh-J behind the same son nF [henna] barrier normally l'e(]lllrtti Cor 1::i>.[[bed caMe co uJtt n I Il h~ U$oo JJu". the cable ripper in r: i g. hOWC'·CT.! am wh~r~.o u ter rover. ~nT' rn ust.g wall~~..:: N'\lL mJ) be used.. (:Vt'JI i..I~~~ nf IOI~1 n~lghL Tnis.o:' md .:n I~~"<Lk-d b.1 III ill III cH l'xcC"Cdcd lhree~]OOfS . L Ule ~U'l'iP'lo of t h i~ ge n.irgl' numbers of 1.. in addition tu mdn~· larger applicati om beyond th L' 5("(Jp'!. Ti"pl? At! ex:terio~ arid ill r..t bf. because il i s too ea_~y 10 damage the albic by ~Iri \' IHg ~til ples roo hard. _. 1IY:: aknife. that Jl. ~ This change won't rmtter verv rmj~h f(l~ s. .{_](I~ ttnpnna proceedings. bLl! inl(·rior 51ructurJil elements can be of app roved com bustihle m.... U -2.. and rn'L~ be li~t'(1wherever I\ pi.oII~ 10 kll"Jl'" T} pc N~lL cable. by NF. F'<lstoi!!'!1iing Cable must befastened to the su r1a~·~· r wh i ch it runs every . Refer W JVFfA 1]U.11SI~rK·..1~H!U t ui Id I ng~L um Lrueled of approved ~trucnH. TIt is restricts the number u f . Yuu ran D'e ndi flgi Hendi ng cab le sharpl y may damage the.1m'hours (less in some cases t dependlng OH Ihl' specinc usage. and W (In. IV. building nt.!:'1 1.:lting.llh.~ '·lTV similar. Tbeyare sununarired as fuUow~: 'fYfW I-All structural members are n()IlC1.J jp~ f ll-Alil'1\l{'rior bearing walls ere n L)L1COJ11LL~llhl L·I.tpt.1"". girders. A~ a practical matter.C 3 W_15l B)(~}la) together with ~40.hl' grllund.lIIJis diffirult to r€pai..res ami being ~<lrdirl not to i d.l rna tic change j n th e ::Lnm". d. .t rlOr L~t. Cable must al W<ly~ run in oonti nuous lengths trom box ~o bo ~ \~'i Ih no splices except j nside boxes.!5bictions +--.·1 ui hub IHwd up through the floor iuists and ~mlil1~! . T\}'<?~MC m.~n. Type NM can now he LLM:'d Iii anv huildina perrnu wJ 10 be of Types HI. 111 e N Fe S<ly'~ that <Illbends must tJ.J.in some cases) depending 011 the specific U~&~.grad. n~)O.e evp-ry I. putting 1""f. rhe circle would be al least 1Q times t he ~ iarueter of the cable.. I J I ~~m tr~~L to E this J e~[ff(t I.1f conductor damage.>j\ ~ubicd to a min'lTIunl .1 1 1 is very hJndy and laster Ilun <I kn ife.t shuw up unlil b.lgh[he individ ual condu.r on(~ th~' cllblt:' i~(() Ilcealed iL1 the Wall5.11 the p~nd.Hlon' cntJrci'.:om h um ihlt' nl ~i ~'I""i h~I tur s()m~ ~II on.

wgk' 10 ioi~(~ if protected hy gUllr~ strips at~t<l~[ as 111gb as the cable.\' r.re. I inches or more from lace. cctcd against later m ech a III cal PH ii.l f\.tppm~Hmlh. The .·o"d m crnbe rs or ~Ur1 rh r.separate parH. arnl ••11exposed metal p'Ht~ . ~~hh' 11'1.). ired in the .1 r ~~asnc socket in 1 I' i g.~ rhat is grounded In the cabinet aml1"l{J1 t(1 [he neutral h~. Jilt! y~{>ur.the bare grUli wI.In tact.KI: 01 the wnl!<l1 member. Grounding wi r>l1 te re-cepta de Fii g.~. etc . tt mac'" be run through hor~d II olcs through the center of j I'HQS l e:. 11 ..gu.run parallel ro frClIT1I11~ members.rollfH·liI1gconducwI 10 t:wrr box. ell [1[1 ect rhe hare.1 r <lie seldo m scm without Ih c grounding wn~ See Figs.bl' nearest surface of a c~hl~ il1l the side l~ l~. or \lrDund ng dl P d ihowfl at I~tl ~ bo'o ~ ru the .124 IN~ lALUNG Sl:RVICE EQUJPME"NT ANO WIRING t\'b~·.lItwires. ""TIing 'lho\·~ ~mpcmkd IXLling:s with lifl-llut paneL h LI1mi~.. or bare pigtd..Lnnther pi~c"C' ai bilr~ 1.-. ]'v N ~ f C~ can b~ drawn .."'Li~e~ .nell k)O(JuL)n~.llnf!glhc ~iJ(' ot a stud or JI1I~[.Kh I) Lltlet or ~wil d I h()A.eS ("if Type N~l cah]e nI I.:I wlJnles. hI· p!~t"cd nn runml~g ht'i.i.n~ nxtures ~tl<i ~Il metal boxes must be groLmded.ring pI1X~~ dures are srmpli hcd b y leav i f11! Qui the ground i ltg "'IJ~.mh {lr r{lllkd dJong SUU(tul. !hllugn at OTlC time Il \ .. P~tl&Cting e'lllpo.~ r than re~ldenllill.eused ul}l~ \.rams and ex['Jilnd[II)ll~ Ilf".:i /.)1' the mn:l:-\'... cable .':110n ag~in:>[ phni.~. l'S~f!g ~Ithl?r ~ q round 1119S{ reV. \Vncrc..jiOl... Ull' ~Iil!)" location where cable .If hp. un. But tor mO$1 111.:pcsed c ~bk runrnoq ')(Iffi~ nrn bel~ mu~[ be protec I~d by ~ ru nn i"9 Us@ (alble wh h groundil'll g 'Wire Tvpc .OJ Ir-eto !fi~ o.Y be uS<:'d IF Iun lhroogt\ oorl?1:l hclo?j. ( unnecnuns tor ehe bare f!. able mar run .l~hapter 10.idd:llTl(!fli!lg dlt' outer iackct.5@dwiring II the finished W"H'ir1g i.:.I·n bk ~nJ' r~cew8)'. C<lble~--~"""" Strap ~ o. W L I ~ ~n 8 ddition ~o I he.r.~ta[l~ Oil Ihe r30:\'ililY C"Il(k j it ~"uLI (('lLld use it.)I~ n e\.f:ic about the ~ize of t his ru rlrlrHg board but the so called ~ 1 b~' : ~ i~ nne tor the pUJ"p-n ~C.. Cnnneo an threc ~ild~ ~olidly tog~lh~r-rou Lan ffie . IT~ I~ required to run IU pi ~Clkally cvcry bo». I RUfll'I1os bo. '::l -I E 1 or to ol sw i Id I ~ 11a nnn metallic LloIJ~v 111'1 a no nmetallic ell ver p. kred "expo~cd.i1-U +-.run acms.j .~ bushing jL1..l I I~~I I-~Hu re l'l'nCI ra Lio [] b\ nasls.J separate bare 101 grcen)f.'iJ~h II oles b...I l Ql~'!> whITe :i t r is I. uh grounding 'f.'!use the neutral ~ j II ~LJ lared from the ca bi n el <It such locations . At c. I~'i~h.Il':t'.r_.t"1~11:rm~'tT[.hcr exposed uJ concealed.u~ Ll or three In ~ul.f:..d CLfC1. J -inch sreel plate ('II ..1Jl~d (~t'l' Fig.t bLJI ed lHlI~ .Jn unri ItI...J ~t ra p.. the .1\ either foll. etc I <'it'.)\\ thl" ~1.em ddlr".."'1e to thC' box ib~ 1f. 11 3 J. I~g wi re must be co nnected to a separate equipment grounding htl.~pf.:l}. Tn accessible attics.Jo::' nf \. the nongruundlng configurarion L~"e-ry unlikclv w be available even beard to p..run ~ It 11IH~i..l: fre~ space. Ie i~H1Ure" practical to usc 0J11~' c.dmg '. +-11.!..r:m ~uppon req Ul rm LI:IH~tor thi~Lah I~.IIJII1t he" fli n "~~ open .rt' m 1I$' ht pmp~ rly cunm::cLt'll I f t\~n ends of bar\:' w m~ enter thr btl. 1\ruetall icfixturr \~ !lch d~t he keyless porcelain 1. run cable nn ~id~~.. n j g roll ndll1!. III e (~W~ must J1C' er be.bks So..!ilr:le(tiI:l9 til. If the circuit orjgillC'1e~ in a.t i s nut ~pl'c. greundmg \vi re to the n(:L1L." ~ u1 .i..~t"~PlJ-!jtx! 'tor example In un h III ~hed f-.ut'.i~Jrr.lU.. the C. I~ required to run unlv ~(.nutoo ""[(1M lhlf foists.1.reen ifM~I.)( Ie rn~~ bi" 9 ro'-l nd~ 00. ott r or 'L~ IRg. as i~ I~J~..l)' be mounted directly across lilt' bottoms or"ioists wirhnut a running hll<lT.J AWe or 0 2 AW(~ or heavier rH.(unles-. I-SA J.~s[·nI~rll~~.llJ ~H(}wabJe LlS.clqe.::lb'-I<'!I'lI that is Ir0'l porr tnl? ..).bilL~t. dud must tollow [he surface nflht: ouuJing v excrpt when mounted (I~I running boards.In.J. the (~I.r. ~L'Cto j t ttl at the ca hl~ i~ rt.~h!l' TUn~ through bored !Wrt'"b).J reef! term ina IDI a ret:. or I JFtc"~..J.~ cmmector ~rig. 11-5. "I h~ easiest way is m rLJIl il .IIH~rHll>tr~ In . Where thL· edge ul. bushing rnusr he Lnstal led ~() P rlH~'( l the _\.m.ea cornmcrcially a.nntaini[lg rt'l~·IJtacle". . Wh.uE' wi.11--4. .lble with .ud nrl~ [1·0 Tl"]i.~{. the b. You mn me ~ d~I' I [I!t.njon!> using nuruneralac-sheathed ~{lb!~.(.'\I fill hoxes.:' ~rlll~r . rc By N h ~J~fiQi i1ion.. ng pnint in the scrv ke equi p ment..ued. Onlv where necessary W provlde pJ\(1I.Jhtl'''~ ~lIch ("cjJing~ it C~.N:\ 1and :\'MC ate rn 1~l~ tN! h \~·Lrn and "'l"llwu! ~ bare uni D~lila 1t'"<Il n r ~.ht.ml H!iI" 11 -] E..n an .. ire ~rf>undjng type.WJU will me tht' kind wllh the ban: LlrHHMd~lted gr~~undin~ wir['·. d running board must tint . re~~rictLOI1.vaihbl~ g." In .~ th III I I II~~h fr'llT1 Lh: t.il .~ erlhHII~t' Iht:' CO.-en'u:e . Ground •h ~ ()pposit~ md of Uh' ~11 ". ·1]-4 ro <iU t~.I I~(. If r 1][1 at angles [0 ~Ll("~ 11mb~..I n d P ull the cable C~ re tu Ih through bored holes to . Since aU [("(~'p"1clc~ III u dwelling m~!~1 he . b 1..ue held \ on by ['1)101} screws..fl1llndl11g_ wire arc explained below.ca! damap.'1l~ ru rtheI protertf.~ I n ~1.)f ~llid~ joists. or separate ground iI ~g hti~ in the lAi.unrl<'cl the LIlsnhllrd wir~5 If l1(I grounding wire we re involved.~he-d bssemenrs.'01 i re a ffW inches lung ur l~o. irhnur a grounding cunductor coukl be u~~J would be Lo .!!' gll'"OUl'ldi:ng wire At thl' ~t~fl.~~m hled lo a Kn·w.

L~II~ who have mnFJt1encE: In me-if work t:e~~I hcir installeti (I m_ Y~.J\·~ been installed ~u th<ll any e corrcrtlOns c".re iurn p~1 I con5"ISUl'~g ('!If short w [T~~ 1 th~ l you cut fur 11.~ completed..'lt' unused used [)fI~ i{l r grounding the kil"~ W[X{'_ holes 111 the box..[es5lbk Do you r h'Sting bl"Jare d it' p~lWIT a s_upp_lier h. This establishes the rob arc "d~<!11~ . or inse rt all t lre fuses.. i\ I e ach ~-:W'Llchocati on. 1J~t' . ~n a basement.:' ~lnl"I..eFlts:mr..nl her device from the hl1~ rnust not inrerrupr the continuity oflhc wire.m.! Ilr'>ll:5 to ched ..[U 11ush rnou nt~.s If a recepradc is w be 11l~I. ~rc ("D ntLI'IU.rl'H~~ of the second 1. self-AfQUndi[]g receptacles <If.ld .gl ven in the next paragraph.])0)..hat I. It th~ [B. bNh [1:'S[5 aU \o'uu n(:ll·d lS ~ ((}[ltl1LlIH~' nr tt'"!>tcr slimlilr to II1MI ~hown in hg_ I 1-7 It I~ a urt"nlighE~ t1d.Ld to the pro eall I). I lowe vel. l l-«. In new construction that means wnrk at the p~n€n~():l.r Iilcddt'r:ltlil9iro~l'Id5 Conduct rhi~ firsttest .~tting mlhotrmorl~~fiL.~hJI!dn .:'m. the tr.. the ". of on" p~rticLl1Jr m<umfacH1HT 11 I~ qUIt. h~' sure All the circuit breakers are off ~T (lI5~':. Th e re a rl:' I"""'.tu r~ld all [~_eh<lre wires ~~e'H back mto the box so they cannot later to uch ~ 11\It" terminal on 1t ~ receptacle.h~.~t~1J{.C 1 i" ~~Ued BX' In nun.. prork though .l .126 IN~TALLING SERV~CE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING Chapter 11 Cilble--Noflmetallk-S.mu r wo rk before it I~covered up and_ before n: .'119 fO. the groundling win' must be :imhtlled SO that it will be ~~mlinuous from hex to box aU the W."l lamp !iohmtld light. Conduct lhi~ lt~' h:fare the power supplier h.. ."!rc \~'Lrl.ca. I1l.Dd No matrer wh ~t kind of boxes Me used.27 or install an extra 5("[('\0{ tn one.l.~J...d~ whJ fe II ~. (\VhCll using Figl.~~~r ("It 1111111-11 ~'.lId . nurb. II W S!}~"Y 1..rmpartanc@(ltocontinllous g. Now [t:UJ tn [0 each 01H.~tlf1f:1 tuses. Now g.ompic'tnl.he . This L~ the interest of anfld ill ~m~1 n~g..!.'ire:~ throughout or I the i~lstaht~Qn Evm experienced el~(uk.:'n <"_rglZOO ycm il'l~ II~ IllHl.! the barewire to iht: bux.'prtd In J ~r~f~l l.}Jli~m r lip In the f1~.1p~r Th~ .i lei It' l~.:I1 J.Yuu. Use anly on i:I'E'-t!l'u~r"!J~'~ed cir~ul[~ It h ~ISD hdr"\d~ for t".J boxes..Hj'tN: of th e t. .e~ and to the box ..~ the box.·t allic b exes there rlo!"ornetaIJi{ ~tleilthed ca ble.j . dw 1. See l'i~.. or bl~ ck and rnh it! rdthc nell IP 1~. If the hex is Im'[~I-thc gruui~tiillg wire or cable armor should h'l-.I'\.) Ifa recept<1dcj~ iTista..e been connected to the box. ].r solderlesc ~UlmOOL1f wiU then ioin four ends (~fhM~ wire. Inst ruci Wl1~ fllf' oonducring 4 contrnu Itr test are .~ removed.1r('L~' I~mo"'t' Ih~ ILln~pETallhe ARM'ORE!) CABLE panelbo(lnl Annr1~rll '::llblc I Trpe A...~rlmnal s \ black.~ I~I mak{' ~lLrc l. ~Dn'lJ1ullr tester.m~ a greater degree ~ilfl'tv.(l to each li~h ri ng or rccepracle outlc l a rid connect the a 11 igator ell p of the tester I()the swi tch leg 511jJl'lying the fl ~t u re (or the h Cit kg to the receptacle]....lll('d in LI:J~ box.:. run ~ bere . either by millS a solderless connector or just [rv booking rhe ban' Wlr('~ together. [11 re.That screw nI..]1 the lam p rnd..m~h~)Uld tb.'Tcm termil1~IIJ( the re~epl~d".lllL~_ Testing I..este~ h\ tDuch IUB !h e .. 11-7 .o ~JmC ..a.~ufe~ h.~hot teg and 11H~ switch leg.il bSll10 th~ p[m{"h(l~. RecI£'prat'les in bQ<¥e.~in9 fol' ('ontJ1r:lI.arc th{''-lllfl<. but all the bare wires must connected to each other and W the green terminal ofthe receptaclc.II rf"O:"'-mo unted hoy su ~h <IS a handy .IV be Filg. B('tore EtdLh 1J_'>t"_ tl'"St lht' r. '11-6 How to fmtan .I LC~t5 The pl.:..fmm i~ luade 01 <1Iun1Lnum or f<lh amud ~I~"!. ~itl::ht:~" and fi_.ff ~ITjd{'ntJJ ~n~umh.li'fy For Lh...1~ energized )'OUT installatinn.fInne{" !h~ l"l.1"'j~'!Ju'~.egardlc"M. i~].fW"l ~ held capti v e by Wife ~r'Ting~ (or coun 1ing the recep [oh'h:.\ herween the hot ~bJa(kJ wrre and the zrounded t ~~'hite) wire at eech oll.re !"WID tho:' green terminal is not retluj r~l h i R. At the p'lll~looard..rd is C{lH\r[~1~d and all permanent ~plio~s 111 the branch circuits are .1r1~ L: L listed nt fie5f. pracles.)f..3£h wr..:Idap~d for t~""....rolJ. ReI1l0YIII~ it receptacle or . P rnvidl I~g a 11df ertivc bond heI1\'~n the receptacle yn ke and tb.not <K~ldent:lily grounded. Turn all 0 C • h e circuit I. which m t.t~T PS "-orklfig.."ef! ""r~} from the :J. so t ha l the mounting ~1nlp UT yoke is ill good solid contact ~.kl and use the cnminuirv w~l~r W t~. be 5l..ilrd gn.. 1 ~ nu I"K{:d to COlllk'l.lll""p'(JS(' ~ '1.pll.pl~ g rounding WI lI..erv me nutlet ~ as i olkiWS: If the box is t'lonme-lalli~-~im. the bare wires in the. that the hot y."1mj:' ~houtd tJghl L I Tes....i~ test.. 1 temporarilv connect 1~)geth~T Lh. it 110 connect Ihe prod on the h'-9 f.mrp(1fO riln':.. . ~o simplv illLJ£h the rester prod to the box. r md .! 1'1 lH..h~e_~rr IlM slwavs be c("mll ecred ~L connector Solderl ess -.. to the se rvl ce eq(1 ipmern.'~.1ing. to the junction ol the other b.uhi:'d dl'ld Armored 1. ~h(JW1l1[!.l}' b~ J:.1 [.1kers on.. of d rcumstanccs.Lner tnr r\Jll~h wrring . and th~ pu.1H<:hhe tester prod to the bare t or green lei ~achotfu.he b~re grounding wire of no nn .F metal hrn.here t ~ corni[]uiI1'in bOlh ~ide~ of ·th~ urcu.. t'..[ . either case..d_ When le~lIfjg is ("(jmpl~.rr (or Illsu:l.. r to the dC'q II i pm ent gw LH1~i i n g conductor (there sh (1 LJ 1d he one <11 ~ .led Ul a ...' now availahlwith speci a I rn L"Ili 11 ing sc r.I~L The 1.Be ~wn:.: In cuml rucn(>ll I ~'" ~Ig_ ! l II Tn(' WLt~_.roundcri h~ b Lte f term i El~J togeth« r at [he panl' Jboa ni.::ond 1l~'11r.. the test li~11 should 1TVr gn on.J.

•"_.11-1O In curtmq ". Try bending the cahl . note the proper an(lle or thE' bl~d~ Be t~r.Lh" somepractice cuts on scrap ca b le.. 50 it helps In In.' (0 Fig." me In so me cables an u\ erall pape r wrapping 11I<1}' make it d i fficult to insert the . L~ ... [t I~ Jilf~(uJl to :SJW mmpl~h:h through ~ single turn of d r rnur.. fig". unwind the pa. ill break rhe anum Fi9. FIg. cause' ~bmt circuits (lnd grounds.. nored ublE' .l~d by a t.mtl-. cal~ed""mrerlocking-armor" Type. Tn'e 1\1C ~.lliun~ commonly wirhin the scope of this hn()k.1 d nd and . cable culler <I~ shown .)l1 be used in the same [oc~liun~ and environments .. the 111-.fVt'~11 insulated conductor i fD~ r'(}l. bUI Ll.a .'\ shown III rig.ir the: armor..~ll. y(HJ I.short.It the e n d t hat go~ In {(1 [he 00>:: There a re "pee rh. SL~p of armor i ~L~_ 11:-10).:I -harp tV.:tl b.Ilflrt bushmj. 1he cono~c. ill Fi" 11-9 " It employs a ~ '--ul-d r ~dw bl al:i~ to cu! rr~~ ~ .. ~I r ip_ Th is is no teasv.lun.c'[or .Hhfll:p yank <ll1d it wtll tear off inside the armor I. __". 111-8 Armored Glble mm.('~n_ This )l1ill(.ors U:>l'~~With armored cable are srrmlar tn rhnce used wuh n.Ihtlul pouching the insulation ul the WiTt'S or the bondi t1f:. beyond 1he end oj the armor..:~·s partlv th rou 'il.15t~ of "or 3 w.0= that the hnshmgs t\.ncc no 'I vp~ AC ceble and C.1. Cutting The safest «nd quickest method of ~uWng armored cah'l~ i~to usc J patented.n -9' A ca.m1J.3 lunless ~('Iu arc using boxes with cable damps.There are act u ~llv •hrer types of l\ f C cabl e.b e runer offe IS be 5."U ..I blc is "'iailab[e Wit h ""lIon.1[]m~l.mov!! I he cut III" end of the armor.he banding s rip iJncdt:1 [he armor.illed.r III appeara. Type Me ~.1fe.lj. IS the only one used for 11!"1C1U. awed cornplerelv Ihroll~h nnd the ~.ri~1. 1j-l~ t- Where Illise.illl~'f the center p. Type Mr.blt" fur more extensive II~t'~..p. then told Ihe bonding ~1rip over the bushing anti hack along the outside uf the armor..and (OnnedDrs If rOW cut a length I1F cable m\d [!X'. Make the cut ing ahom 10 inches from end so }'V~Iwill have plentvof w Irt" in the box tor (1~nIU'lhflll~. b~JI 11m iorm. A.~the m-pector to . 11 UT job WI!lI t be p. as described above... . holding it crt J right '1I1l:l1~' 10 Ihl.)1sllrpJementi~lf\ 1ht' I:duh.chJI not to d~m<t9~ Ih-l! Volle... fiml6harp.~aw OIlIY through the arrnnr \\'.rtized ~tt'€r armor NQl~ t. sharplv at tilt' point ""hf're It LG 11' lol! cut.p.er a 1t"\\1 t ~Hru under 1he armor. xhuwn in r:1~~.Wl" been Ln~l. ~".short bushing.•we an inch IJf twn of Ih I:' bo riding " 1'1P proiecii rtf!..re~ prot!!'(._. 111~ta!l iI c(umf'ClOr me .. It-II 5::([-".mli-.i!w.blilllshJn9s.ble-Nonmetallic-Shk!<lthed and Armored 12'9 "l!i! IFig. Figure' 11-16 shows » cross section of a piece nf cable with the anti-short bushing properlv inserted.hon bmhHiiJ. . i( ~Hn~b.d Armored cable m .12S INS rAll If'ACiSERVICE EQUIPMENT ANi) WlRlNG Chllptcr 11 C.1~ 1l'hen insert the anu-shon bushmg .i. J l-D and [ ~. lnsert the .. including LIne fonn suitable tor direcr hl...Jlllc SI'H:-. Be careful to .lmi:uc lhe ~ut end of the armor.>1 will remove the ulc E:'H method of cu!!Ing armored caole shan c:nd iscc hg.LrI jj 1..aye-r 0 mug I paper and nexlbl" elurninum 01 gJIV'd.VIIl' and. 'I'he NEC requires buslungs UJ lOLJ~h fiber or plastic to be inserted at the ends of the cable bdween the steel armor alld rhe wires.1 ~hRrr bend".llpment grourrd i ng pu rpQ:'I'~. wruch make the U\C' ot cable connecurrv unnecrssarv '.1bltncludes J separate .)Ie'S' through whir h the color of .l rhed cable ~~L~P l tha l . 11-11 Atwl~t will wire extend beyorid ".~'be used only in peJ'H\i!Ucntly drr locations.' 5h~rp edges 0'1 me armo r that might puncture a wi re and cause <I gmLlntl or a short chcult. ~llJ has .These teeth tend ro pUllcture dl~ insulation of the ". ~fa cable cutter is not available. D~fil '1 U~r it untdoors.Ill' I I srrip j. leE aoout B ~r\(hes Qt the armor..mt'ta·ll ic ~ute r iacke I lIQl. The btllldmg strip \\111help hold Then the bushing ~11 place ~11l111he corwe('Wr t il~ is in~l.I.illl~d_ h Y.ibl~ with interlocking metal tape armor. called metal-clad. i~gtWd edges peinung inward toward ill the wire. or An~i-. These an: called "anti-shorr bushings" and arc supplied with the cable hee rLg.. rlh nac~'$. Instead <.!OIl·t use I~~ bushings. ~~e l-igs.1i1tUlll strip. J 1-15.nL~thl:': (. return path ~hl:' armor with an a. ':l l~ and ':I 1.. Woe a hacksaw. can be .:L stop In prevern ~1~11 into the t:fln~iudur~. 't o make roo In tor it.l1H~ end Alw3)1S use i'l fib<!F or pl(l>tic anti-short bu~hlilg ~ the oftfle cahh~ between wll~s and he armor It provides prctKtiDIl i1galn~t th E. th en give ~l.

L~t arsd .1 J.H1W~~with TE5~ing t~e iilllistallatiol'l ~>{'rlonn the same tests d(':.I h<l mrner.TAt LING S EFiVICE EQU IP M ENT AND WI RtNG Chapter l' H1 tl'w Cable Nonmetillljc-Stw~th('d and Armor~d 131 ~I:>I~ I~ ~rotlnd{'d.1pr roved ~d.:.. Fry.l r. .ht'. LTIlk~5 y~m me the spccia 11.~ hle.l~ntill grounds.In flush work the plaster cars (1[1 the yoke ofthe receptacle H~'LLlnyprevent i~from resting til rectlv on ~ig_ 11.'][CI1 Be espec!. In the test fOI accidental g~m.h~ metal box. inl~rlncktng armor 'l'vpe Me cable.td ~Ii' fer arrnur an suppClr(ng cable . The ~lll und i rig strip 'is. h ut rl(H hard en DUll! h o to dama g~ lhe cabl e. the ~nti-short bush [11 g '~rl't required at th e cut ends of'thearmor. splices dr:: nol ~'~rm'_ltcd." l.:ri1't. the knockout of the box.. . ~fthe Inounting yoke..L~ingeither of qh~ methods discussed fm nonmetallic-sheathed ca....fig. .ti-ihort bustling b. insrall thecableas described tor nornuetall i i. lnsrcad.1Ttof nonmerallic sheathed cable..'/\ ~rDn[]ded. will alway~ have ~ separate grounding ~onductm.. Oil The other hand..s 5\<. bt. 1'1-16 Po P roperl)' insta lied anti-short buslling..lrn etallic-sh earh ~d I.l must install . like N\1 cable.. armored c.I uihle there is no need I-uf .-sheathcd cabl e o n ~}~ge-11.taln ing all'm Q~ed 'Labh~ AfL~T you have per pared the ends L1 [ tht· armored cable with bushings and connectors. [f a splice is i1~~!>5ary.~ ke1 and ~Isj) wuhm 12 in(.I~ ~lil~Wcrl 10 the armor Llf t he cable. J ~.130 IN S. ~ nIf[ tew turns ms Id~ hop armor.:.15~ with Type Me ubk.~ are pl ated to resis L rust. HMkc It in a runcrrun hex as she .!ls of tecep~'ade5 in bOli!"e5 The grce n !)foundi ng rerrmnal 11F rhe receptacle must be j·lfi-. curre-nt cantlow thWLH'h the arnrur In)m box to h~l'~_ The white \0.md~..hing the tester prod to . each coil of cable.rarmored cable. or Jln'r:horlng for 9roulI'~ed cnnnectcrs W nurletand COliliiI!Cr{. IU Jig_ ']1 -17 !..·[ween the boxand thl' r~(e-pt'Kle .. uuses the luse protecnng rh:n circuit to blow or rhecircua breaker tn npen r. through Ins.:wulIded.. the box.l~ if] Fig.~pt. 111 ~i~~ 0 I d~(L. 110 fLJ rther actin n is neccssa ('r. see Fig.tll ~ careful j [] an LllOring th e boxes.n~ rp )"an~ tears o~ Ll'if! pd per im'de tne armor. P".l sign ~I [h. the problems concerni I\~ Wl'IT'ct colors wire are exactlvthe ncnreetallic-shcathed cable.!ood t' Iccrncal enllil r.pk~ are more liequemly used.o'n..I~ i 11surtace wirin 1:.1i)Wld ral.lt so rnething is \'iTU['Ig. but ~t~.1Llo.{Tib~d ea rl ler i11 this cha pter on page 127. I'il t ings must he jtie-ll~ijit:J <II:> suitable fllr 1. It b ..J I 11 grounding ~trip under thearmoi serve the same pmpo~~. use the second test {starts with "tf the box is metal..f-grolJ nJ iIlg receptacles designed for use without thegroinrding wire In mel ~1boxes (see p'. After inserting 11l~connector 11l!I.a rhe small mounting screws. and makes room for the anti-snort Dusllmg.-. A_~ result the (lnll' metallic contact LH. and mat.GfDl. is [101 good enough. II rna . the armor of The cable and the bare dl II rnH11. ion so thai..-'l~.1Ja1.ltlding t. Fi9' n-1] un I't1f1d ~ In rerno~ln9 th-ewper.iLde isin firm iI.lb]~ must be supported e~'err J ." f which calls Ior IU!JI. Drive the ~I~ pies 11 me WJItl . II the blal k ~~Ire at so me ~l'I111" wh ere the ins I. Fo r I}' P(~"'!e ca ble.ag~ Uti L y11l.17" The JWi ter OIl{. ' Ft·."I short le!l.hle on pagt~ 125-120_ U.ha! conductor 15 handled '\L~I as the one IQr N1I. the result I~ the same JS touching rhe wrut. 11-14 A ..U] nonmetalljc cable.i1tv<'eenwirei ~ i'Jd armor fig. e b supported using straps t. A~ "...L Like JlO. 1'1lIL some manufacturers furnish them .e wire.oflht' r~t.Un111Ict.'L1 III use them. and Ltis a good idea .-l·~smular to those Ll. The ca~le rnus] be in one pic~~·trom box to hox..<oe on~y metal boxes are used with armored cahle.~th of wire h-mll the green terminal of the receptade W the hl1j... d ri vethe lockn ul down tighth ~H~n I gh to j te I iown into (he mel ~I u( the 00:\_ 1hi ~ makes a j. I L1-ll_ ~.IIJ selid metal to-metal contact with the box..ermil:ll".~Nwith nonmerallk-shcaihed cable. The connecter must be til'ltH. oj each box. .1[1 the box.JI'lJ L.. M.he extra grounding \\'1r~ rhar j. a l:>(lf. L)ul wirh ....~:Ii Ins(:'rl tha nr.1 I~ I ernoved accidcntall \' ~(1 Liehoes the IIImOf or 1.

{ installed.lml may be u~d ~lther lnG('IOrS Ilr rna\. IBo.d h~'details Sl'C{:. Thmwall amlllexihle methods . .\cFWAYS AR... rhl' most corn ruonlv used ~pes uf l. The wires and cable fl!..B To "dud~te • I N STALL ING S ERVICIE EO U U'N'lIENT AND W ~11iiI! NG Of l'{~~ ~m~r'a(~WJiytor urrnbmenons 01 tli~To!'ro!'nlsizes 01 win:~ r3CCw~y. in tubulilnr rilc.Ire puUi.HIEAVV·WAll ClONDlnT l. This chapter e.~t~l ofj6Q d~grl"C~) 1r1II L'ntil rllw pln experience ~'(ltL rnav find H br'~1 f(I bend the r~(:t''''''.eV<'ra. Tu buhn raceways K_. (" 4. InCl. n'UJ~mZe<l . or ends of Lhe MY: " ~rc 811lTI~L~11t Iy near the b~. Tbesc fi U loll 'll.ide but il La ...You can find :Sll~~pOHspacing I"':y_ u irerneuts fur bf[ler rigid and intermediate metal condults in Table 344 .~d..".1U!].Late metal conduit t v.!i.J''..::. Bends in r.. Sl'(' p.:llly:.. gC"~('ra1ln tormanon Pig.111 dnch too km~ or tno short.tt JEl ~ \' lI.11ILh v{' the term "1ubi ng' In th~lr na me.u it i~ carefully impl·.Lp~rl for electrical mCI. Too chapter (U\'(TS cornmon tubu[a'r rn~e1\'~y\ th rough wh ~(h wires il re 1'1 IIled from end III end.l:< first.IUinp. The raccwavis nr:.! r"~l'warwinng 1ll<!lhod~ must he !JGL~-J.'EC tables ~~~ t 110 lengLh~' to reprr-duce here. all of \."rt". ilI1J anchori I 19~fJphc~ to . plains general installation prn(.h type.. or by the trade name ~G reenficld' j. \\ 11 additi onal S u P11()j L~ n m more th ~n h m fcct .tml1 tn the saute the rrururnum AJ}l ifl. .0general.J[ld for .1L'~".~ '" Jrirlg enclosure through which conductors are pl!lJed or mherwi~e inserted .' nl:.lJceway Nn run ( as [he r03Xt·\\ ./ H.1 important 3SPE?rt!.rt~u!J.'L~ nll rt 'l.ll'·P~~. bcc.e\\ ~\' j\ w.vlC).ANIl' ~NSTA..l[ thNI: 1J..· rfl:luin:' ~ul'plernentaT'" P'-<"-e'[lUn In corrosw~ 111Ci:lIWf1S su.J. have different ~lIPP()1'I requirements.I~lsh ins.rC'~ .hlt~ :Lr~ ~pe1.H h~~ .11 ~TO~" :IoI'l t If ~n ~J area ..ll~) I}.J.flC to each of rh e~ tubular raoewa !~.11 ockouts OIl Lho.s iI5 cq ~Ij\ 31e 111 ~1Ze~ 01 s~.de'p'tlili with ilU mcewaytypli!s Whrn iml. .·1 t comes {lr'lI~ i 1111 (l-f~Dt l-engths and each lem:j!h hedrS i! UL label.ll~ pipe straps. JabIL" ( I. ll~l' Table l W ~lm11he permitted ~~'rLo:rH'age ('Ii ttl! m a raLe\\ 3\'. Ilf .cw J\ }'(I U \"0111nced tl1 ~ i~ dt'lt'm1Inoo b\' the tdC('W.k to J llow roem f II r t he condui [ bclnud t he thic kn ~'>'!> CHAPT~R ill.nd~rd ~i'l'~ uf Fa(~WJ\"S dL) nL1t ~~dL III (vrrcjplln..~j CJ ~h "I fI n1" mI:'l h lid J Lff ~T~.~S permirred imide' rhe run.ll.h have the term" llcxihle" ill their name .II.S OJ: ru~t-fCl>i~t.:J inti' tJ\e pLrc. all of whi~h nave the . HHl'rrm:J.. . with no ~~lll~.~.W abo be renu IVlxl from COlldlliL itnecessary. 1. [1 h.all I)f\~·hj.: M_d "1 rigid metal con duitand in ler mediate met"] co I'Id11"1..1>..Chapter 12 Tubular racew<9y~ l.([!'5 are rigid metal conduit (R. 11 1Y!lEt be su p~I() rted '.Inti C~ in AJIIW~ t IJ[ the .~ Rigid ffi€UlI condutt looks like 'olI<i'tpr pippobu t dlffC!'fS in .. \LlU. 1..H11 f.~'hidl wires he lnuallcd through removable . such as m ult io u tlC[ assem b 1i~~ \FiK !J 13}..~{·J to make sure qhe lnsidc is e'!1wely smooth to rn. then [til 11.~rrll "conduit' rn their name: non tl ~~iblc thi nwall l) pe:.1the rvqui rt'll. and f1e~lbk' upes.lI1d ou bld c Wbefe used Sl~es' RI)!ld m~al wn...lhL[0 e.hmenaons ot wmrlR methods.u I.ell u. Table . 11.. bending."''>.lge l-lU fo r lnstructiun ~ ["I n pulling wi rt· 111 tn rKewar· u (HOOS~NG . .tJ. beca u se I he finis hcd piece .i length.\1 ( .m.about bn ~depth.c~"'''.:: di rn~nS i IJ n.. f{n'icw Clup!cr I fl)r example . "'\l1. reterrcd to a.l·dur{'~ :tollmw. JnJ lahle 5 to rind dlmt'H~llfl1S ul Ln~lLtll~d v.LL~NGTIUBULAft RACEWAYS Fur mc~w~I' ~ih'~ there are ~p~ciJic NEe rl:~'ilirt"mcnts for l'.11~r .. Th e . W'in'~ ~~ .lfln the conduit ~~installed.W rvpe ilLa1 tfu' Jimen~i()1L and numh~f l1f Wlf(..ocanon requirements and orher details or lfw three q-pe:s ufht:a~''I' wall conduit . induding ft'rrm into ..E PROTECll\' I.H:h typo:' jf ""rring_ mellwJ.tde of aluminum or other m!:Mk rif'!. must be rOlltlrlU()US.i ~h~iu and . <lHd the WLTC is pulled IllW It tater.I . 11f1~ the gIven I~I\) .illn. ubular r.. Wires.helr (OmmLJfl nOltHna! UJdo: ~ilt~~1 OJ this rc~~m . tlexihk~ metal cnnduu IF\1C) ! .tt"CL llwLlWI it ma' be m.. r m~r Anchoringl wi'th pip@ snap's Sllppon [he TaCCW8)' IiS. 1 t-l) differs trom w~h:r pipe ln th..:o~er~.mst? lh~ .whki1 n!i'~n~ thev mu .be -ure tn use boxes . rigid tl(Hlmc-t<lJJi~ mll~I. ~ p" 'SClte t..ld metal cnruluil r Fig.1 rccogm-ed le:o.:ltI:'Yer t'I'~ Lit IllbuJar ra(..~Hlg Iaborat.. nil R igidilillHil1~1cormd'iilit (RM( I (.e\'er~.1fter bending 111.~f r.c£'l'·Jy~ and flexible race .tud W~I~hl wOlt. these ra(eway~ rnav be broadl y di vidcd inw rh r~~('groups: nonflexiblr heavy wall ! ~Te~."ILit'. 132 .111 (RNC}. veilt darn~g(' L~~the Caku I~~ilng 'CiOfll"@cl rotceW<ll' si:z~ Tbe Silt: of rJ. CJ.eways :\11 w·ire... refer to Chapter ~ HI rhe SfC.r plrlo"'. I.apr roumd I('h th~ sam.I. Ihese .....I.· IIScd UH!d.: tuhing and fur trade sizes I. NO N FlIEX~BLE.h.h'l'p ~ 11(1 ugh SiJ tha: •h e ]. any kind .iI dirnen. \ip covered later in the chapter. hI find internal ~ .t hear the label Ill" .:ind.\"ithiIl } r~'N of eve ry box.:.\'1:C 3 N{)mnt'~a1Iic m. 0(BH21 of the .:Ikm UUU!IUllI~n~Tbmd~ I.t'.IV1u rn (Jut lou he ~ frllcti DIl o .h ~nI!Jt]('lf"..~J thel L ~nn()t be r~pr'HI~leoo h~r.lHil. an cl Iiqu idtight flex ib ll' x" metal conduit I LFMC) and h'llljdtigbt fialblt nerunerallic conduit Ilf:\Cl.:Itt' described I~.I! ether racel'". IJf .!:·f .. electrical metallic tubing (1-'~\1 electrical nonmetallic tubing [ENT I.\'f( rc:smct t h ~ numbc J U ~ ~\ l TC~ t h. L1t the wall or (t'11111g finish matcnal.. .·~ocm}'\ 2 ~ pel ~~~~ in lilt .Ire covered J~l¢1 in this chapter.·1C.l v FI n m box to box is (~!led ~ma r ha If~ more thajl1h~""qlli"·..

.lnd_ ~l[lly poIYYln~'khkmJe WVc.'mb must he !l. 9 inches 10..!oigfllr.:h~prt'fl.Lde size J ~.m.ll1t" inside diameter over which the l./C dl-:.11. Jhe . (l1~tedl Rounded lip Loc krillt edge blres Irue 00. [t i. U-4 11'1 is sh OWl ho. ImpregL1<ltro h1xf.der 11.. or if me Lal.:tnd In I h~ . torv' j.5.:'~I.1~~\ l~! ... The bushing h<1~ ~ rounded surface n~l..aku]il1ll'1~ flU fn~ J.Lfh ht:nJ~ which. The act LLL1111~ldC" tarneter III Ill .161 inches ft~fI radc sue 1 \ 19 rn ches Ior trade ~Ise 2.. and which is inched along the condurr instead of m.ng ift e u sed B~ S II r. which does nor offeras much :mppur! lor the racewav..h~. j I 111usr have a no nmetallic i115<"'rt in its throat. . J\'.s PVC ("J)nduil ill ~:xhedl. Gush i" gs. . willl a t a pe-r of '!~ lnch m rhc [oct.dIT' used m-tead These d~SL~ll"Lrtlr~ have no urut-. complete cin.:: wuh rn.ERVtC:E EQUIPMENT AND WIRING Endo~u r~ w~11 13S companbihrv mCew'J\'~ « irh countries LL~II1f:. ootn shown ~bcr"e_ Relilm~ Mg~ A Fig. BendIng If conduit is bent ~h"lrrl~. S~~mb..134 INSrAlUNG :. as lo\~red under the toric "Grl'lmJin~'IRigid non hear the elld of nmpLcr wt. C(wcrt'(i~lcf LItthe .. ~ <. and ~ [ inches fn r tr adc size ~ I _ 10 d 0 a good job.:~d==-.I~.~~..X'llll'T!i.l inch (1 ·I-ill~h lor EMT.. 11 111~t!...However.I not be ri:'tiu. be<Il(l1 rig p reces. l~-~. 11 i Whe.H<' ..:ldmetal conduit are lTaJ~ sizes I .re. ~r. is d]~n..cJ p[im~rily ~Iilderflml.nator. .. O!It~rwis... j igfHen OIl tJ1(:. connected to bond III the mail] wall uf Ih~ enclosure. !~ r "a:'* .:tna is prdcrroo lu r il ~"Ille ~-orroii'\"E': lQc.Td sizes 0:1 1'1j.~..I a It{rWIIl".:t blade having 1/01 teeth tu the inch. iib~rgh~~ero"")'"... h~JL has teeth on nne ~·idl" the side wnh [h~' teeth faces the hn~.arare ~r~ uf dimensions is rncludcd for conduit bent with a hick-j. C!JttiDgiand ~rhff!ading The prefer red \. and p{)I~·~th)1enearc lls.]~lahk up ttl ..eKsa.re and corr~151L~llre~i~t::a.S.al ill m~LI~j{j[l.Yl:Cno J{'Ina~r It'fer!l-IO ~'" ~ l-inch' and s(.fl~ yt·~. required 111 ~s:-"~Hti}! . US.}. l.~(j ions... r U :I mtJ.~\'e[~r run SIT N [-"( A r[lCl~ 3~2 tor hi r lht"r LieEaI~.-4)_ The locknu t is (lot flar. A sep.vy ~tTnl9htjjowr'lloot p'l"e'>5ure.t slide the pi p .ief1.ng It is important to t~ghun the locknut as 'H~t described in order to I)ruvide~ gnod CQntimIO:L1~ grollwL 'vlallyelectriciam prl:{~r-~I~d some local codes rcqllirl'~ihe double locknut procedure [ust described.[li1.ill !!oI) ihc i.:::... The allowable radii for all ~17e~ <ln~ in NE(. - fl g. ''1'G norlarger.on d uit (RNlq The-fl' ~ re' [11any types of J1UfHT1~(<lniL ~Oil d 11I..po'5it an <l foot p<I-r.1.it... Dm don't {1A) d1(' !ina I tighte 11 i. collapse fl!. ~\ 'C .l!l1t'lo:r \"J.h. l'I1letaHk c.X .lJ~ ~U' ha~ duo ~drT!e JlmenSlons ~~ rigid tnd. Finullj.rdol1s lOC.1 Tr Old!.-ull b~ u Sofd whert"\-~T rl ~I.wuuld be at J~8~'1 8 mchcs in diameter measured H1 the J. K[~'W ing i1 LIr'I Ii gh rlroas faT as j t up the locknut on 1110: nutside of the box making sure rhe teeth dig down iHl~~tiw m~tai of the box.T8blt H4.(erled to boxes by me~n~ of locknuts and bLJsnmg s. For larger siJt".l~sed here. 12.ni{ ln~- Si.'J' ires he i ng pulled ill aIT"·1.na'~r ··m~LT1c d~'.:l is dml8l'1 solidl~ nome.rd at the bend. lhe sam r oul ~id~ h~Hrl..11rougoout til ..H1 dlOr usc nonmctalli.Hto those used v. ~~'to cut ri gid III c 1. 12 -. the bu sh ing on the irrsi d e (SoI.. Usc ~I oc k nut 011 both sides v[ the ~n dosare wall.. be Sllf£' Lo mdud~ .s light in weighl. COl ~ J(ltl be<1ds l-m(h rigid Or !'Iter rr ed lat!".Jtinm and for ~up'pon of hX~I.Dce\\"h..'t' Fig.. trade M'~ ~.nrst ~":rt' \~' I he-locknut n n the p ipe as far a. Curti II!:! leaves a sharp edge ur 8~ least burrs a I Ihe cut.roulld . all" XhC-dl! 1~ R'[)nit h~_.l~~ t~) 11~~tall. lru I wh I( h are not strong the cond uir.. which do an t"KCdk:111 lob of protecting the wires..ilh 1. ¢. H ~inches for H .j metal rond uit i~ rc'TI'1"l u~d.('J] c. fhi. Lhrelr gb the kn I H...e equlpmmt ~rLlLl[1ding conductor.'\T(" .:. Olnduil is anchored lu a box by meanThe locknut ~~~ncJ en the outside L)f the box. and then add Lll("TlO n meta Il ic bushing.bnll irl the boo:_ Anchoring w:lth lockl"lutand bU$hi~g of 11 locknut and lJu~h:ing 15e~ Fig."-'[( reql.. Ir1. h~'~i~~lighd\' 1.or 1 .:l~ hm'GIoo two.s it \11....m uf I he cural ui L~ ft).lrli"r t han the \ d corresponding trade S.)~l hcnder~ und iJ connnued uuo the lorrn of .he h~aYiHt foot presSur~ ~au can milfl~{I!! Tl'1I~ l. ClInd::! __p[u~ larger "~l:le~ used rrw~lir in comrnercul and ind u.~double locknuts {and nn m noe nt ric or eccentric k nockouts 'I where circuits are uver ~~o mh~ to ground.p the' IQduu.V.elHl~· nd nll a gradu.me facrm'r"· bem elbows.e. I J _.11 conduit is to use a ha. and has eXCl'lien! l'I"InL~[u.5L~Jl t he metal bushing will go. if any of the ungrounded \.L." metric svstem.1Jte-[pipe. which ca II da mage wires as th~y ~repulled i ruo the cund Use a p i I~ rl'~mer to remove these J ~]]gerollS p rrtj.a..". ..:lkrnr ~h(" bend in one shot (motion).3 locknut j and bu~h.. ---====:::J Cor.' i gu. .."d~lr~ m'ld~ dlm~l'l5i{lm . I'le-a.metal cond U 11..l.e n In_ Fi91.I1. his cornrnnn rndayto cnou gh to . il . Thread the en ruluit usina die:'.. 11' mches jor trade size l... Size this ire wire just as roll would an equipenent ~ruundillg conductor. l2-3 i_ I.€ a grounding hushing as shown in Fig 8-15 \\ i1h.ll-J m ethoGl A mmj'uit of lJS e· rhis bellder... (On d ult.. The N requ i rc. MeT <lllp1yi[lg rhe double locknuts rOtl ~oli' use either a nonmetallic or metajllc bushing.dUll .lm~~slide while heillg pulled into th e pi pe. the bushing m1L~r he non rnetall ic.~ll'rnal di.lrhn tdepcnding on !h~ measurement svsrcm. use <l be nder sirn i Iar to 111tone showu 111rig. with . Ne'1i.3: Condu II Is fil~.l'"!I!! used E'(cepL I·or ~\_UI1C h~:l.1 r_Ml>'-UT k. OH "::'1Jrtmg with Iht ~OOJ !""'fe ' trade ~~7~ d~~j~.-<nch ~'r For bE')t re~ult~. i usid t "hh e oOX. G.

bon t hv hand wuhout the application LJr'h~.LIt.. -inch drywall used 111(On~~ercLal wn~ttLl~-_ tion carries Lbi~ fating.. hown in h}l..d . .Ill~l~l be taken [0 maintain th . ~t I~ Fig.~ <ISrigid meral ccnduit.b c inn ~ r f'~(!i lb ot the U Id ri !!old m~t. metallic and uue nonmetallic.. in builJin~~ lhat exceed wee t1u-ur~ ~hove ~rade. 1 J" It has the same oe o than ngili conduit. [.m: covered ill this PVC rigi Ii n nn m~c coruluu.\<0 1 should hl. The ()Id~~dedi amerei f or these Slle~ I~ much ~rnaller th. [nl L'Omhm. And!o.. Ir can be used ill ca ~('~\~'h ere it runs in concrete. iiwn~ lk ~ure the ':Ild of !hl!' 111binf gc>e. h. (titling -'lIU iinc-ronthed .....IS. en it qD£>S 'nto Oli~ of he knoc ·Otit~ Ii h Fig_ 12-7 " to 1Joi. thv cuuruerpart to E~rr.ld~cl ends Will appear 01 little dlff~r~nt.~pf. EMl lidS the same outiid~ dL~lm{·ter 1L~ rigId metal (o!ldlJll.elded In the outside of the condurt.1l.j r~1 lilrm the heud..illlh!:! normal rcsuu.... I .. our l.. togdnl:'T wilh J I~ pJL. step.. wall rhxkness and lar j!.I prtY.1 ~ or ru g~lt d I'o'a!I construct ~ ion or d compressson n r.lianl A~n. the use 5 a ~Pl 5~rE'W 111stead .hlch ~ I..lBING ~iHINWAlL Iwu types in common chapter.0 arrange because rnl~~1' I.po~ure. . . ~hcc k wi 1h III e buildi ng 1D~~'t=d('lI'_ The . and it is subieci tu .tnd pres to ..Ifltr r 1 lI11nuk~llf fi r~ e_.. fllllul\eJ by apph'Lrlg a \. aL 1~'<I~t half ahn~'t' grade k~t·l: ('I.c. also it i~nut properly de~(rik-J as conduit It i~shown ill hg. In the I.he nonmct tullic couotcrpart tn R~l " eleurrcal nonmetallic Ll.ITt:.::ondml because the \.t Lh~ ~hUll dcr stop.5 E'o'IT ~dnrlDt Sizes through In trade ~IZt'S I. Instead.. on .nons fnr raci:wap. J ru kITp it ~'~It:rlur 1'o'.~h r. "" .ide ~I ~ ~~ up tu 2 in.J:d~ will be fku.ol)pl1ng:s and .\ 1. similar 11' tOl' [biT bender shown in F'if\.d If the 1-1J.Jll 1:11:' Lh~'d W (IH the material.win!-\ 15 mLllute ranl'ls 'MlLlld.lnd LOl'1nc(1or of nne [l.(boxes and plaster r1l1~~...'fc pon.l'c .(1Ul111UOU.!Itt/oSland bending 'V(lU ""'[1 .ttli('l.136 INSTALLING SERVICE EQUII-'MENT AND WI~!NG Chapter 12 Tubular ra-cewlIYs 137 Bendlny I mrplin~ and tll1ln~!'dr. It' d i amere r 3:>rigid me Id I «mdui t.. \ .1~-nIIi 1. II owever. clded which 1111 ock In D dce '. or rhe condun C. (.::tJ..s. do no ~ot. I-:lO\\'~'''I'eT.. Thrf. lPm. willl. The 011 ends I'ntermed iate m. A. You can me the f:NT wiring method either exposed IJT concealed in low-rise construction. ." 'it needs W be beh ind a thermal ba r fief th. ndun o ~1lI.JW P)' ha nd Ia'p Idb L' r (b". hJtilll~ The 36U-Jq?..i~ i~ called rhinwall conduu. I hen:' are severul cornrncrrialh produced bending.[~ .u1Jrt'J ~L I'r Ine nne with. ~.KIOrl -rnade bend. It there is a suspended c':-Iling (common tu commercial occ u pancrcs j. and bending are done rhe same J.ute ~~es ::'.lltl prevent collapse dUl'JI1f: bending.ill hI" held bent b\ tir~1 applvmg hO'.b Where IJsfil In general..: bo:w..etali:ondu it' OMq .dl~d larger.ecnkal' although Where used bt' used either outdoors. .H has at k-.lhk using !l(llll<l.lI.Ur~ it.and <lb. Tigbtenlil' Itt". YCIUdon't forg.ul.:' bend rule_II must be urpurr~d ~~'CI)' J Icet. It is even ..tmg~.llk th f~ I G.\'1'[" may indoors or ( Fig.~Urc hmJl~~CI!Trhng .:w{ wtth J2 \ b II [''!:tn to lhe HKh LS n i m l tool rn r ~ U rtmg E.mmute Ij n. .l.1\ ailable. it rnu ~t never be exposed. r . .ltb InU mate w i (h ~tandard con d u j L fittings. but j t I ightly olg~i n~1 I..It! 11J:las denncd HI li~Lill~~ of fi re rated ~~l>l... except that benders prnviding side . It ii mucn Ilghtpf' lO-fa.illg conllcdcd to oo. However.IILI_I[l~ alreadv pulled tn place..i prewired cOfifigur. eve 11 iil the first three llno rs..l2-~. reamed lIhi~kand out. eve Il If the com rete <15 for IS below grade. as the !0f'~ oj the first rt'W IhH.ti ~(lnd r~tl1!1rt'.J rtu rdoors 0 r tor dt red burial.:IIHe.12-<6 A..ll '~'I5('re".H1d with III _~ted of Lt: rt 1\ i n at i('J L1_~_lt cannot be ll~<.t~el. hUW~'\'Cf.It CQm~> on'y In tl1readE!<d.::Jt Ie-ngths.rl1perly cut thrf.\ I IS AI~n ']\'ailJbll.lf1=~r ~Il_(.irc .' solvent-cement '\.h LJ[ In 01'1 rig ht.('O"nec-rOrJi I algth~ Jre wupkd IGf.o:r inside • l.ll 10 S(JJtf'1l the material and II1"rl using a .:!Hb Ires. air.~elde~ ~t. 12-.. min the tirun~. rl used ._ 12--t1. 1.~ metalilict1lllbing !EMTI Il.s ht:TI d Cf rn 0 re La n. heaters a\-.. Th 5 51'10~ the. ...ompmSSiIOflCQf1flerlOland(ouPhngllefl mad c uj th ~ I Ii e t'll i ca I PVL j n af'd n~nl .' I hrcaded_ III II-.111 for rigid . bur there ere snap-on httmgs that arc much quicker to appl~ II.1r~tlllllll'ed those pal1d~ (lul\) the Hoor . h. lt can he supplied in j. ruund cross uun at bends 5i'f 01JOC5 ~L EIe-ctl"i cal. l~ :J_ ..w"U ceiling. of this product S]nl'~' I he outside diameter ilnd chemical composition is th:' s. For cummercial wi:rimg use euher PVC or rlil~li.. ben 11. II COl"ldLJIt.."CUrei 1-lilmp' the [ublll!l.s 'tENTI nor Ihttt'a.11 of :.Ill' connd'ur.l he connector a u .. b~ (ompanSOl'l.~ are acceptable iI~ lflll .J~J.g to ~!'!CUI c me tubing that allow ~ II W b.ll1[JO[ bl. In the case ~1t w.. it i~nOI oJ c. or '::(III\C'~ [ion. I ~I L has "..~~IIl...·all support.l~l d _15.1n kmg.'1 to gmund hem. Ill. ..'all is mm:h thinner: in fiK Ih~' wall is .l~'L'l on] 1'.el cluth W (001 u.:-' a prewircd a~sr:rllhlr with specificd condu. The same h~!ltl~ [me above a Jr}.elher dnJ e'l.rl'"Jing.no nmeil:alHc t ubi ng.).h!lluh it. 1i\1C is I'CWgni7N IiIf the same u.1. mustbe used became the thinner walh must be _mpporh'!l. rllll or ~l"'rL'\\ So..j\"lllolOle:l.Ifter Cl1tttn!\_ the m(l~1 ~'U nwHt"nd It as ." III . )'(1 u can USi' the ~MTH:: ~nkent v.jFl Of\(onn~orha5been .L .le with c.rt'4.mrmqallo'lS 01'1Eh"" ..~ lengths In H1I.\ 1 r_ rh~ tublll£ 111~st b{' re-..111the hJ\ u][" . ht~.~y acmr iii ng to the r.ible..JhlJ'l~ .tsirlv l"IS.IIPI"OI1 gnd and the (I~iling panels need III be [den rdi('J il~ a combinallon I'm thi< duty For n:dIHpIe.L'lne n... NO INFLEXIBLE RACEWAYS) me. IlL~·flr~1 tlnor is dchn~d I" .llll~'I('r than riRid Hll'tal . R'l.lliOlI..~hhough me-toll bn!l:e.0 thin tkll it C.rutfingQlldb~rJdin9 Cutting tJ. in other 1h~ 11 Fully s~rlTIkle red bULlding.~ fLlr rigLJ metal COlHitlil.

.mding p:1~h .lu\lely uncommon-the A" Wrc' wnh re!LlfofCem~[lt bttL~"fC'n the mr~ ..L~o!' • h .Hll gfflut"H1ln). install a S~p... as in t he case 01.l st.LtGin beused (~11l1wrrh the same \<. but it h<l~about a >'I-ind) .Kh:1 UV~"f u metal core.. sudi ~ Type T\V} .. a~ \~ ilh nltnm~·l~lli. terming a w"t~rLL~hl «!dl. Larger sizes annul bt. take care t.lmh I n·d WillI· . nonrnetalhc 1 Type in ~ro'~" secnou.~ the rrade name of one manufacturer.. . the lie-x mat servt' .ur"lg~ used with j(. ~iJlL1 lwn· the cond uc-tors .Lhe ~·orU1c("Wri nt proper size. mLnp.f~·r tu N EC"_H8.~'QUiLT j.1f3~L3delll<l1 J:\H' UHd~.1 dll' wires inw pJ. I\~ .lING SERVICE EQUIPMENT ANDWIRIN(.C requlrement: make sure that what "Ou 1ln' h¢i 11 o.' over the outside..uu.. ~tllii tronal tlcor level Liquid~igbrt 'AHib'le meta! c:o:nduit (IbFMC) Thll marenal !~ similar to ordinarv flexible metal conduit.iotl LI{ SrlCr.""ire i< conne~t~ iU~1 J~ Ih~ h~r~ ~TlnlLlJillg ..trkeE Iim us the amount L1f heat it will S land.:'t. pmvsded u i.'mt::~ ~o the current thev will '::<lITV J U~~ ni I L o:'~ct'~d the 6(JQ[ am POI(it) column limit ~ I in Ta b Ie 4. slrnllar ro the arrnur of armored (. n-. 1. and 60 amps in the l/l.L~ L1I<:fqElipmcnL grounding n1~L1..11 III j nu n use J rc covered in rhb .l b ~~ i ~t!' ~m ~ r ~. w t n ge neral."'ith()ut ~dditlona.'\' ir...>(_·wnd lE"'i. and with a similar restrict ion ~WLi list use h'h ere r1 e1cihLlity rrqui:r~d'-ht'Jw~l ..:...The unfistcdversions nf this producr do not provide the g.~ Flexible metal cond u i..:'d n·' d Iln'~ r L.ko.rrtLJf. ~rltl 1'· trade slzes .lll.There i~ another cnmplication.nr. r~Ir rl~'nmelilJli c .in"dhlr1y. and onb" those vanetles I." whidl .:jl". ~h~rt'.[. m i:nsu. P.l!Lht .HI 11.'JrLng merhud..ed Use only indoors in permanently dry lOCH L()Jl~ (I..L~ J..- limited SillS'S The smallest for general SJ1.~..lJs fOl· touch.she ..I\C~ L ili. is p-erm rtted fnr wmlr:( t r'l L g single appliances and fixt ures ..-11\ )w'j.mg t. rrL~klll~" .~ not pre<. The plastic content in tb.~ld acmallv 1L~trd...ire . vibralion i.WAYS Th ree rvpes I 11 . WbLCh D1.F~IC is rim cornmonlv used fur a complete wirin:. \\ l re ~pprovc.)I\ll~lm.i. ~ r~en j ..it is m~t~llpd in f he same way CI "V..h-ri~~ fHJrlJinp (those over three nf'.~ III ~JUlcr liquujlLght nnnmetalJ:icmn1Lght~~LS[~tH j.mles.r l1. It L!> commonly referred iiCI a~ "flex" or by the trade name ··GleL··r~(idJ. n'V' wir~) because b:igh~r h'mpt"i<ll!lr~.' m. Re. .iIbl~. For [TIl'L1l r d¢'t:~tie~ rh i~ wl ring methodwaswidclv-enn d in mail!' locations exdusivelv-e-available ~~an unlisted product . You must al. ~ rdal:l~·t:I'"" um"II~1 ~lrU...~ %..'0.~(1ltlst~I..illO~\'<md·(>..:: llllb Lf rhe product is marked lKCOIdi[Jgl~..'(juirt'!llllr f]e:ubihry..tn~1 Uf\ ~r. Lh~ L~ (If [h~ mC'L. i. IFig . r n ~~ ncra I.\otC cabk:.:te-d ill ~fI <l1ltr~ 11r w ks.[le x ib Iem eral (0 ::d:.e Ill.::h ca.Illd the "C" t)1l€ h~\·jng J ClJITtlf'?L('d Willi ".~ e 1(1b~ sur~ Lh~ rn~ 10000:W. l. The rrodL~~1 i~In~t1e and can be h used in the srn al k r ' ~ 1T~{1 ~ie ffl r appl i cations similar to these where l ! lT~J~ ~ij.(lt~ i~ insiellcd.Figure 12-9 sh(low~ beth til.jllo i S~~lL·m.~td..gi'lt n1?~lbl~cond u it ami the 5p.. ~Ild the" p. ~~T .L:m·d if green .oundinf pr~1ol1lld.~hca th('d ca hIe C~rLfu.lmJ i~IO 1h~' comf'llLItions.haprer.~d ing \.rniti:!'d gTol. m~rkt:'d according1>' tut'lCr10n n ~oo"..'ll1l. shown in Fig.'.an also be used ill hlJ:.1\'~T~'Jwith ~ nonmetallic.o""rihl-J on pag~ ] 2t--1 ~. .fl. warerprnof i. But j n 1el E~l] I~ Ll r l. wnh iL1[ocgral rcinf('lr~rrTwru within the mnduit ".in:' nd.::~'~~:~:~~~ 0 a @ OIl CII von need to n d uit.~ \~'lthnUI ~H . ~il U hd..J1l i~ "~T~iil t1.~ma 11 circuits running wi lh not over 11fed of r1exi ble wiring in the total gruundiDt: reru nl path.: ~ph'rn (:KCl'Pi in a tn~' comrnunines biu it 1$ widely USN. ri fe~L (ul1l~!i. u$~d for this purpme regardless of circuit size.1..:.•.IN::ndl and the special connector Ih.th . is er in this case the exception is considerably mere complex .I he third type isalso warerproot.w undi ng <-01'1.)r~ ilbll~" t=:r~d~I without the use ~~f1 thermal barrier it lh. Lf~d \". 12-'!I l.E RACE.~~ . rHli t \' nf the listed produ cts f ~1iln:f\ WI~h 01 he r deFi£ieF1£ies.2 flJr ~W: arid wire fill restrictions fnr lhi~ ~iZl.E!Uoll f. hut h instead of having u nnnrni't(lllil· I.lI mLI~L h~ used wirh it . g I~ Li q u~d~i9 ht Ae:l!:ible non lII1I. I " J.J fl h-i f.1.".fifr C"T the li.- G. U!l~ofthe ]j_~te·dproduct is nuw ~n Nr.u of whl ..:lde-.l [l'infclrcC'mnl1.!ITI.<: ez ffexible metal COndLJ. FI@]I!ib~e metal cOll'lldui't:[fMC) This \. ~n\~rcd h~' NFl~ 4."thod Thi\ 1ypc Joe~ not have lh~ resl ri("Hon ~~.~n of the connecter go~ inside the ruruluu.f.. '" IT II ~ I f I h [' bn~ i~ met.s.3.'~ ill the type designation.1re metal.. U 8 Fle>."aH[t ES~"'''ll~h!~ in three fonm. .ml!: ~ \Cl"r l"'pu.nmpktcly nonmc-tallEc 'L". ha5 bc~(. wnere tleJ> ib!l i l"} i~n nl rC(l uj Ft..l..mf fClr rhf fnsr. H. I fo f ~t:'I.I()It' hut the wires are pulled in after the.ln of it ~L!"e<. ~Li. one bcin g i.-. In the Te~I 14..1...h<1' t~["T prod til the rnda1 DO...20 I A 1 and rahl~ 34!U. w h kh HSo!~ is trade size -r. The limjt is 2D .u cut...L1id~ 3S{). ia..'). . stern Ll1 full compliance " . W~ \ 0 U r \. is avail ~lM in both strel and [jghhvet~h1 all!lllirllHll. :-UL:h 8 ~ lor mow rs. You can ~'Ji:cl~d ~lw~o. plus il h~.1ce .lq U h:lti.' product. Tesrfl1g ItlielruMllatililfi !t::~t...\'/-"( . p.·hJ.'Hlg von ~i dcrcd.l\liliorlil[ gr(lw. It is cornmonlv called "Scalute..th ed cahJ~ 311d ..:nm..s metallic pn.The ~Pl inkler ~hkrn Il1U~~ cover all th"L'r~ nor rtL~[ rh .eta II ic condlidlt [LfNC} This mal ~..ly he h~~e.. Trade some ..·rm in ~I~ nl rccept.~ late'.!".U"C u nl~ the I~roduct L. The lis:tN V'HLl'Lil'~ }u\'e a qrip of copper wOl. will soften the jacket. the conduit squarelv. where some tle"lh~ 11j y or movement is requi red.:.lL ml .(".. a c.lre p rn te. " ler M. 1~~) s likr smaller sizes of Type k Anchoring wirh connecNrs r mtallfl exJble III et21 (tHHhl i I ~5lUll W()Uld <Irmo red (.e:-rT{'~'L(lm ChOlpqer.nd th .1.-. a's a rmored cabl(!" bUL wires d ri? pulled intQ pfac._ entire huilJIII~ 11.~ ~ ILlnge.d~r tn the' tl-rlllLnJ in~ torioe nerl r ~he end (> f ( :hd !'t~T I fI fl1r Lhe' nTLnimL.. :..H.. I"h~ ··R~ typi'.">!.... 111order to propcrlv SC'dL the ~.( ()r LI~)L5iJt diamete r.r wmng m1. Where us. u J~ ennre].UI !N'iTAi. Ekginlling with the 1~1fI1.'"d for wet IIICl j i IJHr-lJ ne having Fig.. FLEKIIBIn. [hdPI~r 11 Tubular raceways 139 J t th e ha ~ i\ ~ I tnwC'.~ .1 ~ grollrHhng wire. not designed tor hU111~r1h-ilriratiun.: WIT~ ~il('"ti Thi~ "."ngth is r\..1mL h~". . I ior \ ch icle r~ rking D r storage.ornplete fur sprinl ..ibl€ WntiL. 12-8.cj re is cmmecitd 11' IWJ1 F1wl ~ lti(·. there is a t·Xl'Cp~i01t for ..lmp~ in !hot I" and % trade sizes.dcnnnection (or grounding couiinuitv.'h~r~ rhe use nl r N I I~ ll1.1renIIJ .!.lt the other l)'pC-.heaLh~-d CJblc...

lr I hL' du rv.rl. But it the wi res fi'\1TlI A to II to C to r exa rn pk.(~Jl ~!owl}' in air.pL. IIthe loop on the end of rhe t~Pt"breaks.. .S from A to If..nd r~dYforw.lrf ~Oll~~~" Will mdudc mJ.dJmg n~ (irclIih.~Il~dUP('J!llU do l()d~~'.lldcmr.llll·U the cu ndu u for '1lllleb t l " and U CJ f I.lrs where the wires are to enter Ihl.. ~l1iHlunot be adequate fur the iub i.. III~· Irl~L. inch w[{h~ and 1'1.. Al e~r.others operate . g.'. and even direcilv h LI ried 11listcd and rna rh't'l o.\. either in the form u IIF .LUNG WIRES ~N CONDUIT I\!>Hl me that vo u have i n~t . ppli~rlLe~ that were not considered or perhaps WHe nut even (]11 the market at C' urne o III ~ (l r lgmal wiring.ll (lffef~ probli'rn-~h-inf: ~['pr0.ld~" 1L'. . UIlISTA.Lppm'l. Ht'. J. 12 J u.rc likd~ It' ~nwunter.> I i':5i'lALUU in ~ house ]ll~t1r r~ar. <Llld . TIt~.H milkc thi.earlier.H.n nne end and [hmlt~l.il I:W ~'Llit~ hut: when plugJ. JL nltJ. this will the end 9('1 a new lO'.l5 dc~cribed al d'le ~ad I ii' fi~h rna . leave l n in Illl1chcs ot Wife beyond lilt box. Wile re ~): ru~·tIru sunligh t. enough nut to buckle when pushed 1f11 u conduit.'i res. i~the wiring inadequai e because yO~l are ll~iilg tOO many llghts! WU many [lour iamp§~ too ruanyradius and nr~? That L~seldom the ~'L~. Hl-l and ' io ... ••blv be' simpl« pushed ill .~ililplifl~d.: unless )'foUi= IL~rflg the :o.hdl ~Oill rewiring job i. longer {l r ha ve bends. i I w ill hast' OJ.Jllnlh<:b.n be former!' A r . du not requi re connections at R you would feed .I€"rd in. "uti a. Jo:'><:u"e. a~ iii often sv ihc I.ndull. I(u ~itch ~ 110 r JilundT) . tape I~ . Ul1n"'L~~rr.~ m Chapter 1n.lF CJ..2 in~t. lo.. 111~elighting cir.onslder completely rewiring all cII"LUlt!.. i~. To F Flog. i ncb thlL \.lP~ B 5-8 is Ikxibk enough t(1 me to r ~.I.1 ' pull !I I e w i n:~ j m1J place.~d 5mallloMI~ 'ik~ J "'. [[1 pulhrlg Wiring at boxes or '1 ~J ~lY1~11 the load.nl'n the wires into outlets IJf Fig. III lhc [J~~1(t outlet. but pruh.1cilll'lll' future changes.o around corners..~.tl' . j ust two -m. or (:~bl(' armor. ~~ rt f'~ 5r 00 IFig_12-n tel pi! pull wire~ I n to n:.: conduit.li"ujon will look .ndIF~ I be prohlern of your p~rliLL. which mean. ..lll~ng~::..Ifl' read.:h will serve the purp(J~l' 1rthe wiring does nut Inclu d e all equipment grullilding ~~I. to be PU..t~J[l .<I~ [nr wirlrrg fiver fort~· ye-<lr~ old.:k UpUD themselves ~~ ~huWTI in Fit.tng.ilJ~.] ax the supplv til .I length in <It A.rerheater. d il~ d' ~ uu were ~t.j mN!.~uum de-aner. the service entrance equipment rna)' be just D . Some these operate on J·W-~'uh c:ir<:Ult~.t~ ~h(l\\'n in Fil:!" I ~ i 11. only black wire because .1 permits <I re identified \~hit<:wire l expl. ~[]J on to C. j ob.. Pu~h rlre ~ar(' into the con Lila I until ~h~ loop appe". ther! let II t.=b.lhl} \e:..~widt assortment of small kItchen appli ances. I1wnri('ned on p.. F() F J . 12-1C1 OlJtjers A ./j will contain a swrtch: I. radi~t. · Ith but le~lw the exi-ting hthtmg ~ircuit~ illl~ ... clothes dryer.. tb C\ can proh- n. Assuming all t:'qll i prnenr grounding cond il nor l.lge l ~f.n.L hnuse that had never been wired. plus I .lHdlLon induding ~Pf.Jlic Lh.I .t. Omtetl.. corm .lIId :J. \'i~. I~ ~. would yO~1 h'l'~ . 12. f rum B to (' and rrom C w D.l.'t"U. ion is to be made.IV<':added many electrical . The [." .J Lmo existing circuits the~ uverload those circuits.{iiUltd.i 11 .•t!.d With runs of c. because the hlghly ttIII pered tape would break.l separate grounding conductoi or a metallic race .ill hd]' you decide whether a rornplete rtWinll!l job is in urder. leavillf\ ~ loop m the box at B to f.plCTo.'.lr' ~r Iii ~UJ~~~:J. lh~ "'Irtn~ oj h~llldHlf\' ~.o.Ln (es~ Thi.1Il f//.stalUaUon lh e pi ~"'Ill Ll~ cfla~ncr I~~I ~s jor armored L'Lhl~ . Iish tape must he H~d. ~ the ."h) he WI..J:(~200.hlle Ih~Y art' bcini'!.t switch. then twist [hem ba . T ~oI:" TE ire~. huih.L~f. IDOp fi)rI!l{'d JI unc end.~ e. ur whether 31c~~ ~'XPl'l1~jV~· .a.tmngthe in.iT) I'm fI)<)d~rnl7.jc~ fLT~1 J~li'~~rf'd ne.1 t brgcr ~1·Hl .I L Insulat i lig tapt' ma~' be usedas ~h()wn to help hold the \\.m ~"Xi"lint·II'hl.iTHnl~ yLIU 11e~J~The answer !~ PTllb.!hly not J3i complcielv .wcrall ['1.. plJI'I [n ~hon piL'C(:. ruom atr conditionersand u [her heavv appliances.e!f-~mllndmg feCepl.:uLb.:' 11f'piumcL's.. I 0..~·plld.f'rmilt..1 hlghlv tempered steel l<lP(" about I .I \.::es_qlJ Procc.~. ask y(Jur~~lf this: lf ynu discon nected <lU I ho.:hes to rh(' ~f". The wirLng usually is i~I'ldeqLJ~te because you h. II .fI' Canl1 DaFFig5.'i1dHH!.~f)me thoughtful analysis . Ih. for bm not tl'll' r~. As purchased..Jl. through R.:!lJP.. Groundingl les.trlm~ ~~ .n~' ~~<:..~ I ht' marked lor lh L~ d u PI <I~ I!r.~ p resent.~Ilthe /jg}1I1Hg t. which may not b~· ~v~Hlah!~. r home. Installarion docs nut provide enough circuits W ~r~r(l.". fish tapoll! ['ish THI: \VIRJNG T1I'\T v. but ~~ iff S~'.... III ~dd~'1 inn. fLlf flE!~ePtacloi1!s (itllund thcgrcen t.you can'r form iI new one by ius: bending.r] I ""'j res.1'11)~t [UJl with. Push hare wires through the loop of the I~pe.INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING I:lMh Ihl< product and the m~wlllc version CJTI he used lItJ!~i~'on. You will -till have 10 r~\'ilfe rhe house.hin~ in rT~\'LLfLL~ Cho. ~t'pl'lr~ tc pieces trom B to J.lirl~d on p~g~ 110) (1'1/.\.1' j. LJI even ~~ recently as <l J=Jc ~go.a. If th~ runs arc CHAPTER 13 . To ..h box where J..l the end of rhe rape with J bI0\~10n:b.~ (n.l. '" ph. E'·~n1. Using rDl. \\Ilich is Gllkd nt·\!< 14T ..

'u'i. wire.:~q... .nd Lhall~~ lOth"..lll i..he n..i [~~ '1 the PUUl! rhar it is almost im).lr~ a grC-.. Nunt].~This cttC<:"u'IIcly means tha: surh cavities cannot be i!lSHIa~ed. If IHqcad vou cno<)st' ~P ('~{[end it.. (.lnd Inom) . m(ht!~ he}l)nd thc md . l1onmct.-and decided <L!l~! II ~t it I~}.e J{ ~u l..v~r is the c. wiring D1 buildings after There I" 11II III:d iH(.!u could ~tl III .::o nd ucwr. .".C concealed knoh. that there lllight he feedback which would he surprising at the least. Ruther rOll 1\.~j.:r. work.H~ fhl~ in oldwoud-Irame rtllildi1ig~. This means !i~hin~ 5 ~ inie 11L~ base ment. .. or p. J.I-C 3Utl.JJ1uque .~ in the walls or to avoid rutting ti rn hers..L1itup in the revcrsc direcuon andavoid the en .. b ~ry jub will be unique.21J( B I ~~~ ) . tHHHn~[a]l. Irk I h c [~ .}lid "uHJLiI<!'fwhn't ii ~w'ilch is to be installed. ~)\cJ !h~ generarions.~de fnr the minimum L IIres hold distance nf 10 feet.~lble legallv tu wire 'U1~tllH1W..e. vacant. II you can hsh ~ grnl. YlJll'd have no reason to cn nsider trying to ~t\ e thi.l~ IlU equipment groLJllJifl~ ~OTLdlL~h.Ol1sldeTed as an electrode ll't'Y'l1l"1d feet trorn the point ~lrnn~.)ll[ luc~lity. you .!Aog Old Wiring work..h To enter'] bo~ . rd insulation products. end fitting~ f"lr 1h~ new wiring m!:'lllu{l.l.1~t1ne~-rlnn be LludL'lJJI lh~' ~Jl.. receptacles.1)U find ~(Hl tt:al ~d knob and -tube wi ri H~.c.t()l. .:. •.'~t.ln ~u("h U..f..' t'('l ~h~la. good commo I~5e'n 'eo i.~. Even in arrabandoned..oll\l h<l~'cto open all thewalls to instal] bo . even it the ~. lhe .~~fio'l. Luom I~ Hntbk nUl HH~Lal1 [ubi ng iu~t hi ~ t.r carried wiu.e.1\1 cahk with no equipment KrIJLHld.mf.llL(·rHpt.".11which must taler be repaired.lh other buildings en the property.. E \'cn b~tL('r u ~C' . ln old work. and all til e proMenE )'Ou Will meet.:nd frlm1 there with modern \. n!WITl' t~. f pmVlsillm have .Llklw interior connectiuns. e:xcept that i [1 Lild I..lipment groundmg t~~ minul bar 01 til" xupplv p3nd~~"..~upph' lateral i~metallic. ~t. nn(' \'nr~ per trade ~ilC knock~l1l' ~L~i~lg a T~"Pf'..142 IN STAU IN(. ~hny problems can be SOhTd without cutting any openings except rhe (Illes tu be: used for (1 utlet !YOXl::S and switch boxes.1' i~o18Eed bttiJding~ alwavs test for voltage before startingany work It b possible. l It\ true some g~ugrJphical areas haw more extensive meat slab-on-grade ~'O[l'~LrlLdinn.... rn~t WI RING METIIHOIlS The wiring method ~'nu """ill usc in old work will be either nonrnetalllc-sheathed cahle with grnund"lf.L)me o[d loom from ~I~.Jllnlt~ l th~ hUlkbr1g I~ bl'mg pract.."'<![e! piping ~pll'ln ":e.eare~[ r('~~ib1~ l'0I1H.icJJlv rebuilL In OJ. and here ~nkri'Jr \\e<l1~r piping is .ll~(knobs.ener [0 mmpJ. RV!CC [QU IF' MENT A ND WIRING (napier U Modr=ml.ll wndll~!"U. it. 1rl thi G L.HI i 11 id ual.. O\l' I.lud i rig spec:itic inSLruditJH~ at this poinL in hllW II I periorm . .)f Ih~ I.1..'lr d~foL'ctly Hf the grounding de~thHJe svstern or gTIlLILlt1ing electrode conductor.uching lor a method of !!TuumJing i oncealed knob-and-tube ". \\'Ofll11 buildings while lhr~' are being built In get .I~t. ~.' .ur ~rmorrcl cllble ~ore~m Type :-"'fCLilbld-~\11DdH.pl ~$tt' [ and dr~"'¥a~ construction...>t knob. old work requires more material beca LiSt.u~~orH"hi Vl. switches. l(lom.'-'>td un p~gc UB. cres.. fllh:d. f the pic." WhKh is they have been completed.~.'~wr. "". wluch ~.n IC3~Lr. lIT 10 fHlt~ .etith rrWfr( thc~e ClICUllS-.HTw hllildil1~..". .: Itlbtl'l!o!! c(lTHIIlt. hlLJh-~Mrl-1ub~ ~Lr{"uit. -okknng.. t j S uften wise to us-c 10 extra fcc tot cable to avoid cum n~ ex t r~ 0 p~H ilt::.j~~-jdll.'ba(' un Ih~ .rry. ~ rld ~ ove r for t h I~ rurl" f~.t mndern structure OH 8 rotten [uundation. \~Jthout grounding It LJntil 1110.. Til ~ m ncr t. or hazardous at worst.\.... wiring method. and brillg n in. or teamed -LB-pl ace insulating marerial i holt envelops the cond lJ !. ired rnav be nve vears dId.1$ J wiring ml'!llO~1 h.<In rish a modern ..tkl to these problems the f~t:f tlut beginning with Iht 1 ':l1"i7 .tre d IffiGl! t to ti n d and the h u i td ill!! wi rt"~ (Urft"Ll tl~' manufuallred do nol lit thekllo~.1. Knob-and-tube winflg:~ perrllimd by .. . 0.je'war Ineth{'ld~ car1rlOI 1"J. outlets ~n hmh lat h -o'I. and then to gel rhe "'.q ~ \'Fe yl.l.N amouru uJ workand without tearing up the walk ur . .<lrpenlry.ttl don I LTe.)[e IndUCII\'~ h~'.n is pT(lh~bl\' .':lLJ~e the pipes extend ILl sr .ll. requires that the equip.>umetUTIl:s permitted tn qualify ~~ electrodes bt'1.HL..ll rnarw problems ot carpentry.-tTr5 as c di'~Lll. IFln:.. TccnrmplCS art gi\i\m ion this chapter for running cable behind walls and ceil i 11 d Eh'l [or in~lallin!! boxes. and ~~.~ n. Others raqu I re rem po r <try o penings iII the w. \'\1.WUS tram the b~[ k1L~.!rld-hlhe wiring cannot be u~e~llil wall or ceiling cavities that have"Joo~e.~~1III hIt) m (..b Hlt~. 111gt'ncml. pmb.Ln~.'Ee) Arud'e 394 on IY' tor e'x[cnslon~ tel ell:i ~t i ng work.nrm lhb work..md tr3gil~ ']\ p-.1.ill ~ If.ht.U.') t CJhlc t:finnt!(toT I or per . .id~n'l i.m <:'Xi~llq()1t of Cl)J)(cakJ kHoh-alld tube wjring--ll. ic di\ t ()TlS1JCq n [I r'>1:lfiu( k}' . another it IIHI~{1r. and to old Type \C cable with no bonding ~lrip to short thr convolutions.l. . fl~~ihl~ 1OI~~'W<ln arc used.HiIIg drnuflJ ·wh.~ more val uc than rnaTIY page_~ of of instruction.I ~t~d-fr.l n d wire down into L be hase menr.I Ik"i bk woy€n hb row. or with a two-meter service for YOllr$ and another ocrupancv.lhl~' inside lilt" wall Irurn one opening to the other wirh rhe k.oncealed knob-and-tube. S r.rd. Hut In almost ('WFY ~-:as~.ck up ~ poruon rl~\'\I hlHl ~t" run. knockouL lk sur~ tht' Wli<" ~1Ht:r~ lhe hm.L~c~Eo be .-Tb b("~w('~rl Ihe [1"'0 knockOlih T'('r .LI$l ]('I ng ~nollg.::J \ ears uld Different builders me differenr methods o( I..Ill idt~a uf construction at various points.1 ...~ wouJd incluJl" ImtmL I inm nil 1"OSllloml1g lmllbs a[]d deilt~.L~L1mIt you h~w~ 01 ~t('L·1 bnx. methods.ejl~llg~ rnure than l1e(~":SSlI'1'.~~ I'-Ee . and shp it o~·eT '111e1!l.~ 1<1 rn upening where J cut rixture I:>f{J he instnlled. U meru !!lTtlunJmg."'rJtwrln/ EJecwcal eMf (.11 be .h h ~al bonded water pip" u I pick up JJ1 CljLJipllknt grounding ~llllI1e~tinn. ~nd if vou'd do that. tubes .. that It is tar b. . ~ml' thr \<. . because ).rF. ho\..nh.". One house W be \.r~ a~nll ~ \!"j Ih Ih~' ircui t \II.:'IICX' b'l·tWL·C'fl old and nc \. LtJ[l~l~lcr. ~IKI thl'r~'b~ .and then al. re pmh!cm.'.. You arc unli~d~ ~n I"H' .. If \'Uu need to c){tend a.:\'11 u fi lld L~ st in Hl"X ibk l'~H II ..lcnd the " If~ ~ IlGl.at I{) n. f~ area~.m~o.XUP<lu.'[ In ugh to ~lidi:' ~W( [ .ing l'J esrend knob-and-tube wi ring I~ like trying tu erect . ~ m'w accc~ibk juncBon 00-'<.E'xibk IJ.}bl. The rt<)hl~'n ..~blc w1nnl= mf'moCi )'nu are Il."irmg in .h.(!~" b~~ lire to Ln5t~ll the ground i ng wi.' This chapter deso ih~ "old wur k. Th e Wf'ite r mmidt"f('(] irH.. No book 0)[1 po~s i hi v describe ull the methods LLSro. The same i~~u~~ olpply to antique T~'pe '\. hm.

" old _~elYice the ~>.uiJ[lg ~or a dav or TWLI without electric power while r1~W t'qillpm~m.f of I"b~r:<: the work. the deal ician (.11 iu ri ~ i~ Ii u [] intmd:i tD e n f01'L~ NFC .card you t I Ii cl p~ ndbo<lTd en t i reh_ \\'ith edlll(.nl~nlH lhreakrs and bib.ll. rrotcLtl-d by . It (he U!.L'_ Bi:'"~LJ ri:'" hI consult F'IU.~m deterior:al~d (lr L~'Tr]1 a I~ tholt app!!ar to bL: ir1 p{lor .mctcH tn [II~! aUlh.op HUll ..r~u Lls ~indud ing T~(l.. (rom to\: LIl ror Provide JTC-fa Lllr i ro. br.If[ }'Oljr PLJw~r supptie« I. ~trCUI[ br":1I. fllh!:}' are III cable...'t...ig'H size to accommodate 0:1]] the \. pmccallre is thr s~m~' ~'~nutHI. rCITlO\'~ 1he conduit.!can th In t'll. y()~ will he LOl1llC'll.'hm tlris hnalconnectlon is completed.n!.t' the service drop \<.!If 1!Jt' j~IH_<ide IJll'DW IWJI_~I'.111s. re.r.1 If'l-~[111' w 'r...merH.l nc h '_lfL l..[I)W OptiOlI 0\ bduw yOIJ will U'i[1i IlUl" to me... tnt h e [id cabinet.l\'~' Whe n ri rushed install i bl ~ V~IU r n l'W f1-'l"vice and ~ I J ..Hh.lN~II. . Y('Iur nld PJ nelh<t~ rd_ Follow Opuon I:!.ir.ruf Hmr rn:-. . outdLl~'r rueter. othe~ dr\"er.J "Pi:'"L1LJ1gS. Ilr 1-~l1utdtl ~ H" iTnk n ~tHr dol bar.h~ i[\~IJlkd.() h'lt wires nt the cable run from rhe 31.e breaker ll1 prottt) the old branch rirmi~~.l If] ~peCI(JT n'g~rdjng the e1{l:ellt to \". 1r1.:'~ prol~Cled by.em..:et. Ihe wlre~ from qh{' oiJ III i fw gU~\\ equipmml m~Y h~ 10 ..L II~.1lid llre bathroom re. menl ~ncli'~[lI\:~.11kr residential services.rilte eq'lioIiJlmen:t ~Vh~lh IrYIJ_u retJ.~orm~'(1 the lmund w[~~ frl~m the old equipmclll .... the grounded busbar ill mrv be bonded to thl' cabinet either r l by J special L1. I. or Ef am opl..nlJl'~ on the OLJt~!d~ of )'odr hOL~ and t'Jld1l1g with new service eq UI ['1i1L<'rH i nsidc the house I t'! I he cq u iprJ. haprer 8 lor calrul.L~LdIS01nn~'t1 ~hC' I.~~ gwulid_ "m.:ormed aU bI. V'l1H~11 the work has been completed.f'I:l[ co 11t. ~~illmmam 11singlc-pul~" hre~k. In the dL~CU'~I<fll ih. RJ.cept.el' for that purpos~" Run ~ h~'IH.l~".uit -intC-IIl1pter (.nt.)Wt r ..~n'L~t' \\ I r~~_ UjS/.:-uiL.res from lhe This COm pl tl t!-.e~e clr~tlil~ to th breakel'~ [11 lhl' new equlp.i5 . l('~" ReVIf"\~ I ~r:J.-j'!~. LH:>OC3d of {'llIlloll r1 i n g nne 2-pol.. c-quipm~t'lt f. wate..I ~ a rru nrmum..ire ~able.\ l'ol Ii.Ie'S to SofT'li'~ 2<1U-H)h il)~~I~ ..l hiT1~l:~1 dum In H.served 0(1 . Ilnst~lIing new cir'l:uirt.. better..tfr.. hr~ker_ But ii the.HJ"~ ~n~'LCC' ~lle ~'<)~I !1 . If thes arc in CO[]dLHt.. .l\'c th~m as theY <Iff.:l m.I~v~ W~ I'~ 1n me.r~'al co.. )'U~lr~mnne~ lInt' old circuits int~ ynur t..~new.ld~ -ircuj'~...!J\Vt'r supplier all install rh. bl' sure to renew Inca] pracli.jhl. twCl wi.IJ i Il e.1\ k..).'T'\'I(c wires .\-" small.n rhc previous PJ r. and rTIl .~1ILensede.j nt'w.this !~p(~tentiillh' d~rl~~~ruu~ work for an ililqU.en[ e·quLpmt'nt hi!'>. beginfling MLn the l[1~Ld. equupml'Il t 10 the ul d eq uiprn e nt.e-J.Jefl of rh..JJ rq ui prr1l:i Lt served only liSh1 i q1ll. ( ~JL 'ItT ~rll of Ih!! o.::r~". i~tc~J d three wire. T ALLIN: SERVICE EO UlPME NT AND WIRING Chapter'3 Modernli'l! Ig Old Wlrinq liNSTAlLiNG NEW SE RVICE ANn CI fI(U~i 5 rf'~IJIJ...P "\~'!ll r~q uire . ru n \."nH1:~~Lll ~l Gin be ck'~~'d <11"(.'e th~ uri gln.l ~lJ-olmp hT~Jkcr_ ~c Fil!o l_1--1 . Hut if there arr" lu~~ ~lil'~ 1hal <.[er .C'oLj UIrmcnl will comi.. lhe white wire in the cable runs from rhe grounded CIT' busbs rill 'o'OHI 11e\'.ncf'lJmng $~"Vl((· wi.. If ~'~wr . thn' ~n~ rlOI rc'tlujreti but WlUdo no h~rrll. ~.-jr~ [t Ih ~ t r i III or co'"'e.. In some iurisdicnons.ed the preceding p~ r<lgn) ph~ ~:iCep'tthat ~'D u'['rll:W ~q~!Lpm.:. .1 ~n ~uirmenl :f1.-\ rei) r' Ot~'ctiafl it fea.) II ~1IO)~ knLH :..jrctH!l'm~akers or fll:.!I.!s Ln an~' u rw.tH.-tm_g (.l'4l'IJmteiH wa~ mstalled comparauvelv recenrlv..npmnll. I f you 11 W 9Ls.tlillL'd person [(1 perform..my Q{~e re move the white wires Irom it a nd install them in . or ~2) l:I~'~ fl"Xlh(e metal .. VOl.resent ~~!I.t:li to doipg this work.r su rJr.:! 1111 ~ un old work appliLlllj()n~ L or m"\\ ~qLJlpment to tnt:' old. (OIl nccied ..roulldin~ wndu Wr b~'[\. . and unc ~-P" ilt" 'if)-dIHP or larger breaker In)11~ \\ hrch vou . Install the laundry drcurr .L"tly W {he cabinet with fi(1 wav of insulating it.!ow-.is('mmeC't it [rom rhl:: :'!:I('Jllndlrlg bus-barwhir h wi tllh. LflsmH fl ..~'C-~llIl~ new and old... l~O-~'oll. !.ll4. remove it a [ld Ihe h ushar will then be insu hH{'d Ire... H. r pn ~ .lr~ V>Oucomnur ~'(lllr:.t'~..1 LlltltLJll.lJ~'1lg(l betere ilil' ~(he mes described in ( 1 l and ~.. G('L . grounded b[l~b<L1'which vou must purchase and mstall.rrd :. you 1Hl!~tdl!'.cbniqucs described hL~T in this ~h<tptcr.ring. ..B-R'ep'locil'lgl ~~j7~aid palielboard R<~1T1~I. TclIt! 1\ e and dis~.'r OIl your new CI~LLli[~ but will still QJ"'~'11n\\'n on the old crrcuus.Wlrl.(}~' the advaruages and pleasures o~'a newly rewired horne.144 IN'. plu~ . l'hen connect the whuc Wir~ fJ'fJm the grounded busbar In the 11 ew equi p merit W Ll:w nn w-s n ~u lated busbar iii the ~. ll.1 amF or larger brcukei mentioned i.. mmal (iii P..j ill ._<.H jol. the gra un d ed b LJ:~h~I' was probabl« bonded d it e.t n~w ground "Lft' (millllw n.1"'~LH11i:'"{mLl prcscn l 1nstall ~1i un IS ' three .~~ ..hi rh ~tIl' JOC.ll i L.oweJ' supplier and with yollf IL).....<11Silt' must do the cut ..nltJ ~"qulpment . remm-€ It so H doesn't enter i he cahlnet at ..!1l ()f re~~I"i~':r.T."" service f dlt'v are willing tn du ~LJ. install t:'.. ~JL! breakers to pi .11 n bro€"Ji-. rhite wires.! II ~ JIe'S. cqmpmelU I'n:stalling thl!sen.e.x: with ~'Ourp..:l J!:. I ."".1! I I he new ci feu i'~~ t I MI vou are gOH:lp: ro 111~[~ IL P~lLS a .' Me mcnnoncd but tu~~d ~'q u I ~mH:nl m~y be LL~td_ 0ll'tioJ'l A-.~gra p h to the terminal s in •h e old eqmpmem to wh h h rh ~ ol d . Make sure il has enough terminals uf the .r 0rlion.re..s U~iDg.. but Jon'.xl ~ .(. FOI.f~ fur all lh·~ rli:'"'l' bT~nch .1 t~~. rO:frLUy~. ""'lUQ-.:ofld ition.~he i'I'I i p..l.'\~ p'~ j! I' l f lh e ongi [].1J1d rdr]11"~ H 'f()U mmI L.}1 s.".L:~l inspccrional authnrlry. 'Immll H~dh'ldUl11 circuits oem'}' ~prli'lr'~l'~ ~l[("h ~s Tang. the. butin .lde~ of sr ..11' 11'1 ~ old equjprnen . pa~~~ 49 .) ll. 1~iJI21O-\.lpmem.'rl .uap bonded to The cabinet Wtth the other «rHl ~nI1n. ill lJ~' 'iy(".~Idequipment C'onlaim:-d . particnlarlv on upgr. R~iIlO\'~ 11 if possible..H1db(loIrJ" YOll nH.~d remnneClil)ll_ He~.'itf-t ~ nf:'\.. the wi.. etc J in ~I.:1 equipment will prt:~IlT ...appliance circuits. i [)lKOT)II~T The IncomLllg service \10 ir~~ f~om ~'l)ur old equipment.e 11be insula ted from IhI(' catll net I it will be best lu (:[I[ 0 rr I h e bo ndi ng map completely}.' .~~.. (I.U. '". If vu II I' ~j1d equrpment was installed ['r'I.the old wo k ~" .meter and connecr the pow~r 10 YiJur T1e'J.l eq u i prnent.1LCr a bour how WH I pl'lll t{~.. one 3 wwe circuit."~it"w th€ A Fe t ?isclJssJon M lhe end at Chap. have rour P. insulated. hI a nd1 Ll r... re.Usil'lgrhe old pal1~fb(l(lrd Your lk .lTd th!: .:) oj b.. If your old l'411Ipm~nt i...llll:. Yo lIT olJ cq II i pmem i5 now con rlc"t~1 t(1 the new ~qll.proceed._.Ie.con ILC 111-j[ k~1l lUll. ht'[H{.:"'\'1'1.PJr~'S for future LH~ULfS.1 hlmace mntor. amp Ldp. vuu will h a\ e 110 1'1Iw. . Some puwer ~L~P.tit Then run rhree-wu e cable from the old equiprnent to the nc» I h~ t. The white Wl reG I n F~U r 01.rhJ.1 problem. t.e~ted co the grounding h~j~har-d. and COll~ljll with tho: dec~ncfl..l:i1Y ye-.

remove the bushing inside thecabinet.Lte Iwin. ~ubk indl~S and no req wired fifl ~dJustl"nent!.j_~ IS best b~·"'II~ there me waU materials are hd ter slIpprmed _ Mo!.1'1:.Hil~· ~lTl'W c ~hl:. (}n€ lOr each trc u tl And 0 [ the ~O me ssze a~ the origi n al WI res. hm1. use p.]~' l1<. pull the cable connector out of lts knockout.~ ill ch or k!>S.nee<lerl.bran ch c i fl. du!' h~_ rnlILJn!l!la. boring through .ifJi:'l~ Ilr other timbers for an lnternal (<I bte clam p. consider mal all WilT~ 11WIl be fished lh rou gh walls and a:'iling~.1 f I his L~impractlcnl.S"'1.(lr. remove tbe old eq III prn ~'Tll completelv wirLng ll~t'J armored from box tu LJ...I1J pl~l:o:.~ (h fficult i ob 0 f fj. D-_::. The jUilLIHH1 box win not contain ~ gr1JU!ldlIlg busbar.1~. b. deep. {elnpor. or the original conduits.11 I r Wl. IL'ngth of a switch box 1~ .M[c h hDX~.eiB x g inrhes..In old WilT"-." d'ipl ilstoe r ._ use the en dusurc as J i unction Neutl<lJ ~white) Bond to cabinet _ cabinet or nrilW junnu:m bo( IOdi .:udu llv. 0 r a 14.1 pter 13 Mode rn IZIng Old WI rl ng Et:!ulprnent grounding termma I bar Cables to <:irC:Ults Service entrance !_ / in [u ncuon box.uld anchored [11 tho.. ."\'""equipment. ~v1tha. 13-3... wIres Bonding [umper N~lnra! I lwhite~ BOilding . '>U choose the itlCai i~ ~ I-or rhe openi n gs c. in I"t!h·".€[ boxes HI .H lu-ad screws are _'jlmnlLlF1h used: the b c ~l ~h'H'-e !~ rlat head ~hro.re~ th~l~ bl~~~'("ncJm. and outlet boxes arc supported directly ut IHclir~-cdy br either the lath ulld .~ the old.kd..Iodmut {)I~ its conrrcctorvIt' the wifing \"<I~ in conduit.~.11 haT~IY rl'.:-bing plaster wiri ng is finished. Sometimes h~' rl10ving an outlet or Figi. pfO~:e~'d as fulio". '!.\>. and..Ill' original cables ~\r[111 dwir connectors.. W fill !laps after the I~IC new equipment will contain amain breaker.n~. wh I te low hire.]ppro:t~mJtd\· the same .!~' h~ ~ connnuous length .. oJ. Orlgll'lal Colibirnet jumper" ='..hould be used Whl:'T~WT r('~lbJ~ Cable ~ ~Impllr pulled into the \. r the p 1"~le r ru hy the drvwal].'.But the wi res of 1h e old circuits will nor reach III~ 11(. tiun r-'wl~dose to joists . rupple entrance Wlf"eS.gi n~IequipfTli1"ntis nO{a part of tTIf' 5E'rvi. h bm~·.Il." little as inch deep i!~ ~hown in Fig.\TC fj:qu.or larger as ..lnl~ml.IILl the . ph[~ other breakers ro prOle<. Connect the n ew I'>'u'e.Ccable..:I coyer UW1P. L n Selll!diing box loc!1:'io n ln lO~ol[ing outlets.c.. Each pLc£e ml.. remember [h...alld ..l Here th~.H d . old and new. .13-3 1h i~ t~ iring pan. . with MC'~.\ It'! IO~. pull the conduit OUL "Jl the knockoue.. the switch mode [(!' a sin9 le 14-] AWG r'lp~ NM cable.kto bJ ack.SAND RUN NIiIlIiGCA B lE J'he .id U 1) I ci rcuits fig" B.'"~[llddl screws ilN 5ULLING BOlt!~.."!'. \/Olum€ of switch a foo l r. I_ RLJrl Illl' wires ofthe old (LJ'CHiL~into this junction 11-1. remove the locknut in~idt 11t~· abinet. U il~..ing flush de\'l~~'" must be at least l(1C!. plusa fe~\ spares .I[ . nf lath and-plaster mn:~lnL("tL(!I"l.146 INSTALLING SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND WIRING 01.l r ~v..n.".:teach uj the.l.L~ two widths ot L:1I11 rlu~ 1h~"rdL~ between the 1.. but the ~1Q)( nselt rnusr be f. Jhen run separate cab] e~ irLlrT] the new equ iprnenr ru ~he 1U nction box.1 f iii s not practi cal to cut opemngs close to the tx<l C1 StU of the box.outlet and S\\ . Aftief tioing this on each branch circuit. and the Jath~ .. install a IUnC~(on box (an emprysreel ubineL of convenient ~il.lw_III a Il wi r~ng the Nrc limlt~ any gap~ between boxes and the surroun ding wall matcrial tn . brackets Lin the . LlghIlJ1~~ O[HJ.onstnllctioll'l ln ~wi ng open mp iM ~WLlch bLJU'~ III walls and (cil. or \lVire~ in ~ conduit. ~VhC'r~the' old equipment used to be located. 12.1.. 10 h 1.:-!> in the box H1U~l be carerullv insulated frL)1n each other and [pjclth insulated lrnrn the box..l.!ntin 9 switch billies.Iu.: i f ~h e or nmunetallic-shcatbed cable.l .:-e eq u lpmc n Ut Isen Iy ~"I oed cenrer ror the orlg Irld I ~jrru·it~. 1'1 the edges 01 the nCXI 11"0 laths.'ill ~plll when \~)u rlnve d'l€ ~I'~\'S l-mch '\L~ 4 .·the bushing OIl the end Iff rhc conduit. can )ust accorncan he avoided. Sec rig.01" 1O-~ AWGType: A. using" ~e nurs I I r oth cr solderless connectors.! remove two cuml'ld~ ~~'Ldlhs of Iath.'~. hUI deeper boxes .

.If ('.h you Pu li the b lade toW J.ld~.rmly aga i nst the walk U~(· ~T! onli"8ry h(l~ plus <I pair of sp~cj. Then bend the short ('mb .Ji\\. of anorh .. box below NEe minimums •arrdare seldom LI~.W( 11hrJ k('"~'hoJ r hIlJL. ·8r~. TCl~~~'Llme make_i!.. l flIL·~~ vou about a~ f.l\cmm·c one .jL)wn tnto the in~id~ of I he ~1".L'>I:J mount 5\'0 lu r inS(' rt Lng ~ hacks....llchnring the hox in the wall. lnscr l . fi~.. Ll.'J lod~~ Bring the moll: imu the box and tighkll the clamps.:lbh· loosen rhe laths fromthe plaster. Llirmy rnuurnrng of!hc h~j~. Enlarge the hole to lo-cate t 1'1 t~ Ce-nlCT of one bth-tlli~ will IO(JiC' rh e vei !IC11 Ifl id point ofruur o p': n i I'l~.amll'5 on earn side !. ter \\ irh .crew ~ L.... 1... _ . then tighten the screws on the external clamps.-5.' into i 11('~rpc n i 11~.( ~'~ r..]. lll~ I" .~ (lcdt a stud I use .Ihten ~cri!'o'll>on "".IIrl' 'w i I Lh .Ir fi nl:'. Th~J] mark the ~n:~ of your opening.Tet the connector prniect into the OO}. MClI..Aflcrirlst....148 tN STAl LING s EFtVK _- E EOU IP M ENT AND WrRfNG Chapter 13 Moderni.lr J:cn'ptade p l.1lhi P. Use an L1rdin a ry bOK rim t he V -sha red d'l ru p of rig..f1~ion. rut nwa V one whok! lalh d IHI par. r Lht' back UL the box.F'1lOI()(Op~ trus pdge. there is iIl 51] ttl c ienr space all around. ..rr ~~ itwill ~u...--~T""---.lp .1LJllt tl re ht. It Ll5l ng a nJ:c ks.~h r.K ~o i e I hn' L. 'J~6 rtl15 bo~ nas e~u~rICl[ Tn~ IlOkl 'i.l n Clf anorh e I n r) t".3~ vou push the bl~ d ~ 11111) I he \1 all ~'0 U h' I II pm b. r [he box is installed. 1<I~hon eac h SIde of ll'i€ one ~_l:JdJrr_m fi!:!" 13-4.in dryw~dl ().. install ihe cun nector nll I he cahle.at". and the knockout far enough h~.pi $. and nil ttl size.d cahle clamps are conven lent but sel dorn pr . locknut att .r {.Of1'I plelely CUI Th i> OJoyfde-s a ri"wd J1'1Ounllng mr !h ~ box.3-. -ilio ~ rId Ih. through a knockout nc .t~mpliHe.... 1'[" .~nl er of top and bottom. It using boxes .0.:::-.ild~ III the hm ~..ll ynu -llp the box in to tb opening. .-...iI' II nt (0"<1 Pii ble ( .1(~iGll J he be\"('k-J COni ~ r~ IISI) a II'It reduce rhe ~"pacit. \'1'hr.In: tn~ ~~1ttmg th~ 0F'Cllllli>\.nnTro b\' m lIr w.:..KII~. of hole to r IfislAlning d ~wilc h box. lULl! the t. U YOU sa".15 ~lw\l\ ri in i Ig.blade . app rox I ma tel ~ where the 5w i kh O[ receptacle is to he Iocared. I ~idi!l.: rhathas special damps on its outside walls (see Fig._ Install the U. 1 3-. h the \Vall ~ urfacc . . A.1 snff wire and probe [0 make sure .:aJ!:UI.table US<'<llw:.ln'ting switch bolles.1. ..ng ~~dune .ead to grou nd~ u r shnf1 CI r<::llH~.Td vou...il tht:' LOni LT~ ..:lnd h~ tiF.IefuIJ}.l< i~!I"~! Prcoa.. Right . leading to a ver . The centers (ff lhI:' h L Ii~~mu'i be Ion the lin~~~!I'lill' outline so that nut mure thon naif 01 each h [J l~ \~'ttl ht· 'lIlt ~id(' I) f the [e~"1mlg. ~ 1.l)o.)ll~p~" o'I..15 \ ou pullthe bkid c out of d"l~WJ II '1u !lV-Uri rh. the cruls I I f I h ~ •.r-<:< in!o openi nq ti1.1f.on~tructiorl Drywall isnot sturdycnough to accept S(T~'"s. ] J.1~1l.:-: . I"k ~m~ 1111::\arc b~nl sharph fWI.1~~fl P wi. .::111 irv shan llm.eun Ina t5 of J S"""-ltch or re'::'::l'tdd~ I n~tJ.h ~nd III the 1Ipe II i lIg.t..~r~fl~'· illr th~ ~nd . ['. and at t he . 1 ti IlLIe r 1 for I">~tte{ ~UrrnrL lJ~€ the template in Fig. Anchoring switch bOIC"f!s lath and-plasterand '1 h<' fnll(lwill~ drywall construction: three methods can he used in both CoOn naetl I"Ig till e . r.J\ lner not b~ I~i!li.T I h~· ~~Ilo-l":uf 111<.j shews the wrong and the right \. Figll rc I}-...on I he (.h ~JIoI:It.:ll ~tr. ithour d~rnps.h'llv ~p ml t ht· ms~ct~ \\ ~ Il~(~flh bi. pusll iht' b(lo}(II1to the o.)t.1{ h ~t r. lnsert one strap on eac h :oi d e ~11-i lw W~ II Up~1H 11g and push Lh~ ~1.:Itch lhlS CJ.. Tighten 1Ill' ~ocw holdin g the damp to anchor the 1(1.if~ in~[dlt the wall.H 1(>1=' oorrom pFt'1 ldc LI. l '-.fI. l}--{jl.-..JiLJ~t the bracket.IT the box is deep enough.1 ma rk (In I'hl' w~JI 31/4 in." h.alli:r~g thv l"JLlc. Make .>..~ ' \ end wirh : i'p~ lnr a II<lHdlt'_ IH~~rl' the blade S.: b~ ~ {l r rl:'~~pI. oar fh~ hj~lr5 m. ·idlh ot lath complete I".Lo ~u L Ihe Opt'fHlI~.11 ere i~no obstruction 1[1bOl h f\ pes n f ronssrucnon hO}it~ with beveled [0 rncrs a n. Bore a small huTe through the iHot rk.Lple(e ()~'" ood . [.!W . It. <looLh@'bo>: . thar when installed the box will be flush . ~""I'I. In cu ttl n-g <11"1 opening for ~ ~""I ten box.1nd inqHll Ihr.a ~\ bJ. This makes the d~mps 'L~. WI'llCh \"uuld l.l~.t r-... letting about 10 inches ot cable extend out of the box...ll expand ourwarcl.:::ing Old WlflJ'lg 149 r ~.-~r-- ~_- ~ .} the s.£I is lath-and-plaster construction.clam p wi Lh i be ~~w h~)Mi[l1l r! hl pi ace unsc rewed 2 in.-k fnr the cable counectru to clear t he in ner su rface of the wall. about l inches by J'h inches.)enillg.-inch ho le s at r'l'pn~i ~t· rorncrs.. So::t' h!~.. taking care n ot to lose om' ul thc ~tT.J1 ed lfl the bl1x.5 D. Bore .mnL It I. . nf th .m~. th 31 h .lit De JFl(hor~ in the "'"0 II "u~b..n e che. Be ~U.'glue It to a pJ!M1! of mff cardboard.= I ...

. proceed as ill new . IlC. r".. od floo n ng j 5..](e of .. and 1h.ol. ..H l~st tb ree joi 5!~ ~o w~w..!rs 8 [ ['-\'"0 mlcr:.1 wedge..ldy nand.J h t dOJ.m-d adll. jl~l. be <lb~lutd~ sure yo [1\'(:' ~CI[ ttl e ngh r Iocat i~il Thi~ Int:k works if vou hare am line u f ~~ghl.' incheswidc.qtl1~lf . Now fro m bd m. with ears.e~ r 19L~ ~ Iin~.11 ~III ~ (Ll nler. when replaced.150 fNSTAlUNG SH1VICE !EQUIPMENT AND WIRrNG (l~. 5 upported 0)1 il U -clarn P (I' ig.:>.!11oggle bolts.hidl a board can (~~ilybe lifted).~i hr s. unlv ~bLlLn an inch long.!·ift! to gel ~t th~ Lei I. supported by a ceif'ing joist using ~([t~WS. n ~ space.uJ laths {Fig.box SurfO'lC~-mCllJnted OOlt ~~ilf'n". eve n wi th a rmrror L ~u.wvi d t he bored holes L h ~1 WI"IU Id need to be plugged. brur in Itcn TIgnlE!n". 3 Modernl. Bur llth~ lLJmb<:"r is tol"l~u~J . Then bore tt"D hull'~ iri the boardas close ~~possible to joists see Fig.. blade i:. make vour beM gu~:'j~where \OU want '1(' '~peit the nOOL". A pdi r of these st!r. The onlv difkrt"[lce I.TI .ff~ht'T1. U-HI 5l1ri<l~p-mOL. d r i..cable to [be ('jlJlt~L location a. berween two boards and ch i-el off rh e tongue a s tar d~ [lcU'~sarv. l iI W 1'1 e ellat h :mgcr is ~ ~lllll!i d'I(.. surface 1TWLm~€d. 13-Hl).. JI i~ hest to cut at OJ] angle ~o that the t boa I'd. 1 'h·ir. which ~I1f1w~ e. \'1.md grol'~eJ. (:I) I ~ inch -decp box. One method is shown I'!l Fig.rod slf~ig:h I dLlw!I H 1[(1 t ~ c loi~t ca~it.:~3-11 Sl.'hid~ rh~ box is [0 he installed.. B-1 2!.. II..:1J. 13-8 wOIllboard.l'e .o.duw. it "'iil rI ~ ~O:F t.\'llnol be any ~pr ingi ['J{'S~. surface mounted. The boanl ~b(llll~ihe removed owr.[U.111~eil the ioist as }'O~Ican. Boxes supporting nXWTc5 weighLn~ more than a f. all tfw~c cases.h .. u~ln~ hanger and the ·ork ~ usua] .willl boa~d by U-clam p aflO box e. fi~hlhc:.-lnch-df'Pp IFlg..If the ex Is. Iru. lint nail ~ cleat to the ioisr at l'~dl l'runt where ~ou s.:d fnr ~Ieats. bu! shurr and stubby. (3) '/~-inch-d~t'p box.! can even fill Lh.fds...Jct"p 00:1:.lP'~ ~Up". you must cover the ~pace between the ed::. I f ~Ull have ~ste. LitHn! 'floor bcard:5 Often.IT with ~noncom bust i bJe ruater isl.. =:If 1 . .· Ilunnill! across the rn iddle ot t be floor Ni.. t) r 11.!~1 be r<ls[me-Ci ru Ihc building structure.. Re(e3SM bo~~Upp!ljl ad (l. \<'I'll~[J using a sustace-mcunred t...ch·d'E'e'p ~ -i nch oct"go n(!1 box with external e~f~ :b..:h-dl. If all rhe work rnusr be done from u.:'l~Pbox..' (I. fig. makes an excellent chisel [or the pIJrpO"e.Kl. 13-Y. ins! alled over a subrloor.e se~n. ~.aw~d across. ~LJ (' ported i>y fl ~I LIrc stud 0 I~h8..ll"<" canopies rake care of tlus h~dlIJSt· frequent])' thev arepacked with libcrglJlss iMLIJit'!Wn. and if there C~ tionr ~LlQvC" or there is a floor in no ~ \.! the end I) 011 C . ·U· clamr f~g.dk..lt L.. <)-~... Bern nse th(" Ii .tT~~1 your projcc tcd ope !illig. th t location of t ht· outlet.HI pocket cut the i board wi ~h <In o:-bJ r Ie saber sa I"" and . r~} If'-rJI~h". tlush mou III ed..· weight nf I h t" fixture.11y.i n g the n~'I.. for l~~. <lbl IU i . .rl ben.l Lce). supporh'd bytoggle bults through cell i 11::::" ci mer lath a !ld plaster 0 r d r ywaU r Fig.f. . ln f.lrf~C~·r.into the ioist ~...) bt.I /.nds 0 t the b~ rds o the to 'l!'1'IL1 randomlv: the in~L.he flo~r..1 tiny hoJ~ .ar1()j:'v and then wUld w y" Jlr~Lll¥ imo the b~)~. re placed 1t rests direr i lv 0 II 81 le-ast()nc }Ol SL. t '~O the fig..·8.-tll~h.~Ln t. If yllLl are wry careful..nlet bO)(@§ il~'cemnlgs I f rherc is open space above the ceiling on ".om d r}.~r'. These cleats must be "'Cry ~Qri{il} nailed so thar when the board IS replaced Lhere '\. Sharpe n the blade and V(H! will have a chisel abu u ~ .:h J s t r. u.. Mouii'l~lngl ol. J J-I .as shown . 8\'()IJ.t 3-9. Orten hxn. 1.hlwcight t:ixtllrt~5 the ceiJLng itself can support the box.I n ih« L<I.attics.riITS mLJ.~" pounds ml.[lrti iI s.\t'Llr~ Ik~JT mm1 b1.-1 Arm~hE!r way of ~LJPporhng~wH~hboxes.'l.ting' boards.-i ncb-deep box S II pported from dry . Wilh a keyhole saw. See I·if. fon n. ~ 3.illl:rd{)e~i~'thave to cut them In em] halfwav across . ')-.i.-d~ep box.U be working from .m!oi. PUih a bn~tll colnred ."....J!~· h.mhll. which Tn<lk~.u :. but the ti)(lUrl·. Ylli. rll U ~.lpt>er ..d up ==bOat==.. U5~ (1I1c uf these mert!ll~b: (1) I.~.' ht'iI"l rqjl'K~llg the hoard. "h~ I e It i~ L~m~ lhmul:.:lh(l~'~·.teL l. d fa~tcn it to I h ~ bux before 5. rut across ~~ . Thj ~ 1~ TlO prob[~m if t h r tloorin!ll~ TflLlgh. v(~r 1'1 >' in.1T1 bum). C'~n Ihe imulatll)r1 and 'tf-ic ti"lure c.. dle m~!hvJ depends Iln the ceiling ':0 I rstruction .T 1). Lbe ~p. surfs ce rnouuted.:lng Old Wiring 151 'Fig_ 13-9 Fold tab iruJde . A I-'UIIY knit~ Cllt ~.!d • inchd~p OOJ< S u pported fr~rr bar h~ rt(lfrr by long ri~ture stud 'h-inch d ryl'o'ari Flig.lrJ In the UI).~. ~~ ~llIT' 10 select ~ fixture hd\'~ng ~ ~norY which will OOV'eI the ho~.ifl I'ig. '~~ which hit~ been poked up Ihrcugh a hole I which the box w ~l'TS! and la Id ~{TOSS the WQ.L . Rememb{T that if [11~ccifing is crunbustible flf. as I i1 r mtm ~ry .-n 10 ~\'old marrtllg lhc n(Xlf Tn~ fir"l Ml"p i5 to ':UI Ih~ InngUi:' uft" rhe b.. it strong.e ol the box d rl d the Nge of 1j I. inLh-d~tll box. hanger (F ig. ~Mor~ rakin g rhis step.KIU!nQd '/.d to ceoi'l f1~ J(li~! Spnnq-loaded te>ggLe bolt bei I1g if'serted .!~l vour mc~urt:'mt'!U$ Lf ne(~"_ . 'With this you can goer down mte the Gad.C:U rrn~ the box .UI: mu~1 he I. 3-1::i1.. 9--10.~rhoH rUll l'>'i..

ly simpliiicd. Depending on the ~~J'uLI-LJr~ . l3-1. thE' ~u DM 001 I~nat ~hDwn RQute ~2 fig.Pigurv 1J-11i i. Then ti-h tb e cabl ~ LIp\' .'\-14_ tkfurt' lifting the section of )'0 pe I" ~(Iilk .g Old WI rlrt9 Fi" 1..m l. Then push two piece" f'lffi. Eeh iliild the bnebo1J rod I n the Fro blem ~bove..LIt oue. Vv'herever the auk crusses a srud.1i~..(..ud Cable ~ .. ~ish tap. temporal)' opO'ning a~ shown ~ere Th e top (lfrh e pa p~ I ~f!rvcs as a hing~.J:hk~_ ror ann-Ill using li~h tapes.uyopeningsiJiil Wan'S.. be a \'~ry simple problem .e' which See rig.d Opening beh. me a razo r blade or uti litv knife 10 I.:1IhI~from . I@liJ'ilpOlr. On papered wa lls.1 with a wt'1 rag to soften the !)~$lt'_ Thumbtacks will hold the lifted portion out ot'thc way \. and t op~ntll!l H.lTOUnU the co ruer at J)..-cill ~. impossible W n Irl the wble rh rougheither the (.1 boards ill the ilt'or ..ff the tloor obcvc is t'a~i!r li fted .!Oimplif:.he d r~'wln IJ. 12-1 ~ <llld rtJa1tx! ~{'Xt tOT intormanon <Ire ver)" hdpf~11 rn ekl work IisbLng c.1 mlll.'n ing _.lI'It Ifit is very difficult I~.. p~~le the paper back into place'.:IH through the wall covering W form a tnp-hirikl'..nd-\ bOlS!o'bQ.~ the completed install . First remove the baseboard. Hnally. In~Fd~ w<l11 Ba~~boa.eln f the same d r .... 1io n..i\' i118.basement as shown h\ ~ I:U:'J [I.'~IlI(J cpening Ell ms!. Througlh tlhe ba5eme. Under fijoo~ bOill"ds KUllnil1~ lhe cable <1:> in "Route 1~ In hg.C a temporary opening in the drvwall ur p]iI~~~'I.Iabeled C in rig.gs 005<1IT1@ willW [r] t ig. the cahle DlJY ru n ill I Lrl~ of Ihrev WJ. replace the biL~b~l~r.w wall.:' !. ys. Runn ing !Cabh! ~o'two . depending on tJ-L~ W[1~trL.>!rll~licm where the floor ioln..em~T1I.fl the opposite ends of d l..<111r ['l 1T1\I~t cases it is possible to bore ul'\~~rJ 111wusn this a[ an angle frum th~h.ow.d " WIllCT.hile YOI1 1l18k.:lS~ is mn .'!blt' upward llmll the ends come. cover it wi th a 1 '1~-llLChsteel plaee H" protect it froul future penetration by [l(lih. i~ the simplest way_ Use this route if )'llU can ca~l'Y hrt 'the fl 0<..h~' ceiling space hom above.. I he sa me tigur~ _ If the \v..1-13 Sarnetim~s i'lDm l:)G3rd~ mlJ~t be I ft~d II Ih~ boal!:~~ are tong ued a(ld 9 reeved CLltoft rhe ~O~l>e OF] eac h side with .11 bradet_A ahead}' wired (A) Cable..JrJ HI P pen iT1g >\ ~ nd ope n i I'Lg tI From ceilingl opening to wan . rhe problem is grcai.To . Sometimes a !~1I1~}()r~IYopening must be made i n a wall so that: cable ca 11 he Ii shed . Basemen:~ Fig.n ihar II should be r(h~ihlt' t~.U[ ilt A arul R n rhr WOlIJ is an in5['. n~' partitions in the basement irnrnediarelc ]'dnl' rhi~ . fj... IJ S(' ~ Ru ule J ~ by rlH!illng the cable behind 111.. both in rhe same wall.:"iling ~p:aCoe above or Lh~ base men t below.hm'(' )'f~i~h.:'d tlap S~ shown in I'i& ] .h tape UpW<l.o. 13-15 ca hie Dl1.l ~~r~ trun cruset It-n~n~aw across rlt~! to the 10 ~~~. r1 m~v h~ possible to run the cable JO\V11 tlmlll~11 d'a:. Then make ~ small opening irno lh~ w811 behind the baseboard directly under A and another directly under H UC't..111 up.~ Nal If tne re i~muaill" ~ cho ice of three roule~ ['Orthe cab e The bP~t rDule dep~nd~ ()['J the structure cf'rhe bui Iding. hrn the .13-1 S.]I] opening in ~h e cell i ng.:8 n be d rnpfX·d d own from above to the loca~inll~ of opt. if 1t i.'l:. . there will probably LJ in be ~rl nn.opening "I b~ problem in this C. '113-150 In rUflolling cahle fmlll A [0 B (bo{h OJl ~afT'J.1Ild down through the v. baseboard along the bo! rnrn nf rhe well. '.-.WOl'Il these tw(l (I p~n ings cut OJ channel ii I I he waII into which the l db 1~ ca n he laid. .open im. it is then J ~im]lle matter to pull the '0 ~Wit[hl NE'''':7 ~ Wa. .lll I~ ~ n !nlhide \~all.t.L~[ru n fro I'll opening A to opening B.. W iring ls fini~hed.----.W·t rnl<) .lS2 INSTALLING SERVICE £aUIPMEN rAND WIRJNG en ~pter 13 M oder rmln.I) 1-Lhl' building.r'J thmugJl the bored holes until the t'i1(i~ I:'mngl' at A and B Then hv pullLJig at 1( and R. there IlH\ ]".KtLL1n ot the buu~!_lfth~ ceiling joists run in L be 1.-.the .~r d JiIliu. 13-1'4 In old wo rk" Ilf[ (he Viallp~p~r ov~r tneo dl~~ of J.1 i TC~ I i 1111 shown in the small irl:.tbu\'(' I' so the cabl e 1..

:md Ii ~II iL thro ugh the wall u nt II ~Q u kl \1("..el'ial 111ar1 r"-1U wDu]d ~or nev. or (J) (.154 INS tA tu NG SERVin iEQ U ~PMENT AN D WIRIN G Chapter ~3. 1~ and Ihe surroundi 11 di scussion f.~~ tr.. of I h ~ 0:' ~Ii g run in the .17 it iQi>t~ ru r..\"..placing two-Wife recepracles: (II t ..<Irt"iull).~ ~1l(J in Fig. Original Outlet with 'switch "dde<! f No..111.~ ~1 add ing new nd ou~'ei_~to exi S!j n ~ c i rcuits.111.oi~t!.s ~~(1i!>Cu5csed ill L[}nnec[WIl It the ('Ire 11i ~1~ F i~ nu L dircctl y below po inrI)."hidl Iill' (able '5 to run.."w ~'nr.. . bu~ tll¢r~ will be IJr11y rwo wires connected co the fixture.u:l1. I rn and NO r.f the switch.~through \'.1 (On! inueus cable the nom C!O 1.im.hn\'i. lh~'~' dTe damaged m if \'QU ~\II~h to change the color. !'lor ill w: holes through the rCli5t:. ((J E n sld~ .• &' j. Temporary openings arlen ~a~T to be made.{. one white and one blade In the n~lu-h~Il!l piLTt of Fig. wh ich runs up to the origina 1nutlet hox.·ptJclE5 gruLlJ1lt~d ro tar grounding cleurode sy~l. L dl Fig.caIl r co mpare-d tt) 111r: ~JdiIIOll'.FCI I'ROTI:. . ROI. hLl r i~ ttl the right or left..0.iilllg two·wire r'eceptildEls .. n Tt1ng di rtd IOn. U 18..'1l1 ~2) 11f the ~rolJndiIlg rb.lrJ 10 i: No two houses are 8Jlke.:~~~~de~.. An (lP~llLllg .j. and then run tlpw.n rrom above after the board k1' h~'l 'l(r~.AND .o. [f It ~~ Hllr~I~~j IIN51I'A)UJNG SWIf(HES. holt" dll\'. the flXHlre. push I it down mxide ihe wa]] unul ihc end shm!{\ up JJ r 'IlIU then hove a continuous ri~h L~pr irulll L. run the cable over 10 the prop~r point above /. drup the cable down at X ~n lhe baseboard below.l feet oj Glble tor a longer rOlH ~ il. behlud flit:" l. imignitJ. D..rhe Ilcor board above can be "r.2 No_ 1 JQi~t'S rig. l)pt[On50 for re'PlJan~ two wire Ttapla. Add~ng5w~tc'hes to @xis~ing out'l@U The ~nn nections i 11 the pr{':>m~ outlet will look a gr~.f1":o. J_~ t~ usually Ihr case.~ lip Jt C Pullu out of L Lln[11 the np~loll~llC end is at openHlJ:1..d.de conductor. than shown.111e't S .LL~ old n:'O:(1'l... runit behind the baseboard. Opt"]] ~he black wire splice to the fixture. If }'ou select li I~cr type [l..:J. There m~y he nlOIT' wirc. and trorn there LJ['oW. IJ-19 is shown the same nutlet after the addition n. l3-t9. Sec Pig.. Then uci II g fish t ~pC'..mrk_ 1he CO~[0 r a t... lf the tl'~)ririk.around D to E . Fhese two 1'1 ew ends are con necsed W ih e two WiI~~ l n the cable which runs to the switch. lre. butis [he one ~f.f}'PC rl:'((l'Ta~ les. eptades.u deal like the I~ft hand F~rt ofFig. 1..~ in Lhe "ox. •••. \\.mi 10 E. Ro::rl.Jte2 E I • Route' ..r. so fUll will simply have to use vour common sense in getting around ohsrrurtions. N!:w ('I._ FveI111-lh<"rt'i~ an obstrucuon <It n. thm producing two new ends of wire."'here the fo"lFCpcrmits a black wire to be ~I ti!Ched to d.JJ III I he total load u~l a rirrui l.scboard run over ['()a poilll below opening E. i\fh:r the ca bl~ has been Ii shed.RuUN o. .. ~hOn. The bhLK wire from the' fixture is connected 10 the black wLr~ in the' new piece of cable: the black wire uf IIIe cable. lfthe .-4 g foran explanation (If [his NEG reg ui remeni .QP1P_~tEN L 1-. 13.------(11rUl)nlng (abl~ From u~nln9 C In c~iting.:u. the NFC requires rh~t any [1('\\1 added rcoeprades supplied from the GFCl ucel)t:a. around the corner to ~ puint below E.g. make an opening at point X. ~ll\1 r]~'\1chiseling mQ~· part nfrhe obslrucuon Push alengrh effish rape IILW this opcmng uruil the end s.IWLJ ld be onl .borueumcs L( iseasier to dn this fn)lll the opposite side of the wall •..fo r grea te r d~C"<'_~ Lbilwl'-l~ sure th(:) if are not used 10 . pull in the cahle as before. W· 10. drop fJ'(J!'l1 f} dUWQ to the baseboard.ll n until it comes out ar f. 13-·1 s: At Jig t1'~{11()1{~ ofT()ut~~ for ca bl~ In Fig. D Cemngsp<l~ ?>i.. oroblern with Fi. rll e ~:1 It' must be gonrn a:rOLJ d [h e em nel h n 1111J~[ be made into the wall..des mUST he marked f:. This is contrarv (0 general practice.diJl{'d fTtl I'll . Re1P~.. If a FiliI of three-w~y ~w i rches is to be added instead of a singk-l'chle switch.follow Ro We J'. T"h<:"rl.old \'\"hi:ne there is rw grmIDlling means In rhe box. n D . th ere wn is <'!!}li n <!I choice 0 l routes.E'5troute.n1ov~xl) anddrop down. the floor a hove.h 11w «Loll' to the tish tape At one ("tHL pull :11 opposite end..~hnwr1 b\ LheJolted arrow...~d I\'~J I bv uHLing through [he .cles are ~j\'en in this section. pmm::d as outlined above except add the F<ljr~~fthree-w<lv ~witche.!cles RIECIEPTAClES.·'uch cenveniencc c. 113-17 A! lE'ft.m . Mode rn 121 Old W 1r1f'ig ng 155 L~bl{'In til upenmg C drop If dfn.ll . Sm'lle!lm~~ iT t~ made at the P'C"mr 1l1~II. there are three llptic>t1·s for r<. u-wrre n:.~ (<lJUlut be removed..lddi:ng nt'W ~.~ dl t~c~ 10[1 ~h(] .t.oUTLETS bl r to lilt ~I {home other \~. P" I ~ h the wall and the iob j~ fi 11 i ~hf'd.f .'ircre-identinrJ as black ln thc new piece o( cable.. If thetlno r ahw.~'itches to ~!iCI~rring 0 U'll~. L'l he {l. ~round com~' at D.j ]. three-wire n:u. is CUIl[ltcred to till' \vh~te"..: it would mke wm 10 [~)1l~1wIht..1.l~ ~I f1uin( marked No. and in all co_~e_~ y()uwill prooob!y usc more mat.To make rhe propel connections ~. oorH1Ji L1]J\\ ~rd through the obstruction as .. Ifthe tlnor c~nrlt1l be lifkcl. it is easv to bore .~ ca n be removed.. t.I.

' Ire rccerracles with I he grounding lYP~~.ctQr ~ I . Nuw turn the r'1l.outlet. Remove the f~~~ph~cand then r~M to establish . j_<gmr. it bw...'! rm 0 r.h. hot.1rl' lt U:i e box L~ ~rrl u ndcd th t 1.j thd meh]1 r .l. Turn LltT the main ~. h realiSt. WJ1~id~' the followi ne. of ll'llr.~ adding .!G. .huh:-c a_~selnb~}appe-ar~ te b l' p~ rt of the baseboa rd . B~ Sure tv .. Thcv are easily irnl~il~d. j~ grounded_ L ~i'1g the lest ligh: shown In Fig.I MU!{IGIJUet imr=mbly ti1 .· 1 he laceplate.·d 1m f1l11'17.led metal ~\>'~I(h box a~ Jmu~s~d on P~b'o·~ t:5 ! .lioTls t and leave lilt' exposed ends nt Wire sucking out efthe hl.il.Hl .17irl t'J. liar "Me lmilar ~ rt'lCe racewavsf Me avail.. nere if lel1 In 'O(~ t IQrl~ ~he fl'E'W '. - ~ . light iII weip. switches.13-24 Uunyexi:et1sion rmr. _ _ b~' [al seh ~"h-t'Tl~111g the Frl':'~ nee nt a i . m HLHHTl('l. 1 h-.uldcd lightln~ outlet. and you W.~ a ~.I rhr rtycpr..all~"'ttabove ~igl.ble at intervals of (. rhe nc . hich rOI~ 1. il IS a simple rnarrcr to check.j::..'cr ~J~r::.. ~-.' " "!WCHCI thn~e-win'" adapter slw~\II ill Fig.1 .'j Iff~!:I m~y b~ perm aJ\e n~ Y f'XPO~L>d.a:ssemb~i'f!s Few homes hevc all Ihe receptacle outlets that lht' . ~. .."O. ~w.nec \J.. ll-.. so the ". . " Cl. pllrpose..'1 :J-::!J makes uutlets .1111 p wi ll Iigh 1.5 in vour nl)rTI!!'.vUIIC'l box whlLh coruams.. and f-ij:.t~ a 3-PJonq 9r(J<Jndll~g plll.w 2'1.. 19..llilpiete h ~LgI' .I..l g:roml!Jin~ connecunnipre.aH".nn line offiHings..lrdJit {h.. .llle to the grl. . ..[la~1 olutlets It you JOrl'1 wish to undertake ~D extensive mode r I~i zing cJFort.1]-11(1. Ir~ from the gr~~ll terminal of the rcn:pl. and receptacles. but i! dues pert'lll[ VUU 10 U~' ~ ppliances wi I h I h n:--c-rrong p IlLfl ~. 13 n. U the tester com inues to ught reS'Hdk·~~of whether the switch contrnlllng the outlet is Lin LI.In ('qulpm(!"nI FI.o-w-lhrt'C'-Wlrf adapter.Hl~L v. L! would be Lu better to r<'pl. provides closf!l~ spaced rnulhple outlets iwo-to-tl.l~ makes it f'a.!rrow ~ 0 t 111til ~ r(·(~p tade and Ullllll rh c edge to f 1h ~ rneia] box WJ th I he U lhcr ...."wJr~.iring recept~de..J. .'. lf vou .HI!l. Y(Ju have frHJrhi your source fn..W.19-~. This procedure ]~ lly nu means the complete .j~1't'o.Tn a li..:lI mdl...clo. l]&:ill r~~rtdde_ Thi 5 3 daprer pelm. {ll(' rhat it has a gtoL~ni N terrninal Jug on Ib ."I'~~l)'..ba$~'b()ard with ml~ldmgadded ~l)("JH[h~ channel.ord. t. .or apr.'"1lrflllJe pl~lll'r ~'jflj/.juiva lent r)fltd~m~ wounding re'-~rl'OL(I(.{ ~'<ldlwire [(1 nll~ uf the leads 'If a tl.~~ 1D _ / add to e~is~'i g out n . .J.l{ .l ~rullnd.inra "'"ulrl~ m~'I~Olj th. grouruling conductor .n • ~ h Ie ..:l("~ •he Ll/im. insert one wiee til the 11..j. It LOI).IHl switch back (. lilT. 1nnp'lHarilvcoll!Ie\. I..l [t'~ta of the n j~L· shown in Fif\... ~l~...:' ("'CInroll'ttiOfL provides shock protection whether or tor ]..r to replacing ur adding outlets i~ tn Lh. Oil a '..J if' 1111' g.olrlJ rhc receptacle or f1:(LLlrc from (h~ b(~x from \.11.id . I] (~~ Fig.no ~).. in ad.)l~the ("{lllll~L.k WlIT which I~ .id~ outlet..<. HlJin~ mndu.\."CCUp-imLS w()uid like.l...~ the ho-.--E LnUM be run to an e!!::Isni'l..of a ~ew b~s. ':-'.LI~'~ added reL~rl(.eoo.i.5 \Vhat it rou I i~'~HI an older house wit h onl v non grou n di flU t wo -wire rece pi acles. Mult~(luUet..">~'~"" form.g to be ~.lt JOt'~ 11m provide an equipment gr~ul]ld_ You will ussd with <In GrddJ''1~I~ To S<O JRC'rE To souro ..U-:n WiriIl9~' ~ c~lllngoLJrJ~_ .Lolim-wllckiHg OJ[ d!( w'ir6.(]U nding "I n:(t'pL. and reIH~r.:l. IFig...an 11-l1 lUIJS[raI~ .iplo:r... The end 01.es 115 desired.:h.lUic m('lhod ~ \'0 It h .arci Fig.o...~iJ~.ht...ll"teoe-wirea dap~@r.>. h~ul"C' 1J-_:!O IJllbTr.-1.~'](ch_E{nn~wc the COVl"'r .. !J~~Ol"rli: dcgFfC of pfot~ ..::le.lhlIlg two sohlerlcss conneunrs..''-.~ 11d J Oi:'S P rQ'.i·~t Onlv CH t-protected d~""lce~are allowed grlHHlt'! n g ((1u.1.r(lrmd.1 ell l.' that do ~~ vl1.!lllhc S~Te'h thmLJgh the gTeell Jug. •.the cable marked I~~ )L.:rrunter at . A!tunat(ves to ((]'n"e~ltio..' But [f~'Out bnln~ i>\'\tf~tI u.. dircctlv above the. kep ldu..156 1f\lSTA ~ UNG SE RVI CE EQUIPW! ENT AN D WI RING Chapter 1 3 Modemizmg Old Wlrulg 157 Addil!!!g 'OUltleh.m .]x~il.. ·'ITQad ed WLr~~~n d rree-p. '. . Take the t.insta lled In [ivin" run rns !he cha rmel (art be I!mt~11 . Fig... wlll~h is then In !:L'f[itil~twith I h~' mounting voh· ut the receptacle.11Lo run.:: [] ~ fi· "III . " ..L> uf a metal dUill~l~1WIth .. lun..lltrL)1l III the white wire-..1 sepa ral..[Jg \0.dl ~11 ~ti~Lns~... unt . The nmltioutlct ~ssciHb~y in l:i~.a converuent ~hle in nonmetall«."'...rc in doubt as to whether one nf rhe bl3~k wires III c11\~ !:xIX E~alwavs hut.'I rl i 10 usc an applia rIO: with a th reewire Lon! !LnG a three-prung rlug? An alte'llcltiy. '~O!UtiOTl5 to severa 1crrmmon r problems . and Will .IL R.3 ~""". f.r a convent i~~al throe-win: ~.lt ~ pr(lfected lIL... . .." ': .enl.k€. pl lL~ in ~he dd.l't.

e voll rating indica tes the following may be used at any VOIt'L~~ lip to but not over 125 nm~ he ~L~. d 2 u thp aJl'i'!nu'lg nKlrkpd G Is fort1l~ ~Q LfiP'fl'l em '9IDU ntling . coSI mav he higher than fur a corrve IH i0 na 1 appliance. 3ppIIJrJ{~' operates ~I I !(lI~qll '"lib rather Ih.f:j or Co' ~ plug made fi)r 13 \o.': hlle .ll~) (Uf C ".159 NG STA I E':.narked ~ '( or 1 are for rh'l! hot circuit wire~_ r rated i n ~ n'pl' res and volts. \Vht'r] YOll are in the t'i\~Fkd Ior a new m~. :'5: ERVlelE IEQU IPMI~NT AND W IIR~ING I=.lJud is [111"'" used onl) for repl seements.\'\n thn. n CIiAIPTE R.m. 14 B® 1 SA 12W WIR[NC REQliua:r>.lVl:' .:1:_1 lnchE?~.1. The recept ad.O-amr receptacles for [odds ript:rattng ~I !-'lH H!l~.. c trc U It ~h(l5P..mp r~~"Plade tor k1rp:er UO-'iO~~ loads Ar E.l~ A \~'IJl.1 I~lugthat I. 2[l-~111r.~1 15 <Imp receptacle ~usually made .5av rA\ 3C1.h L Except for ..or electrical appliance. :lO-amp and S. 2-111 ~.~ .11:120/. f<lst{.:: . l ~.d over ttl e ] ife of the appli an ce wilJ TriOIT' than make up lor the higher pnce <lad will he! P ~~)conserve en~rgy.rl wire it .OV An a55QI1m~nlor IlE"cept..He' permanently COHI1t:"(kJ.'olt and ~sn-will receptacles h. ·-I'('I!e. consider the more cnergy-efficiem rnedcls being offell:d.'Llivdv I '>-amp.11 the duplex LonfiglLm! i L II) .lJI'. --l U 1.. Ciwwm Th~1 prong and rhat opcnrne must rw~ct be u~~J 1m a ncutr..lre.I-"IHC.iy e'i.: . al1d..m existmg.. ! TED D pOI r B f':::<. At D is .50~mps h."IL~ At 1.u _ "'Ill' I I ID 3 ~I I:-T!> \:ole thai .ne ... ()IIb LJ rncr motors. (i. The initial. 8 n d ceniral aircondh lo ners.ill IlO I ti [ .Jledin p!8(~ through plumbingccsmcctions OJ' nrher installation conditions.~loo on individual circuits. bu r th r.t~E! d lamet~r of ..1 of I he (It h ~T contigur.. examples.~"iP receptacle. =t:::::::l 20A ) 50'11 G 30A 2. r J too. .ding Wire. Appl. :\l Ci~ ~ sunllar 20-.21D T81'ed~! 125 volts AL t\ ii shown wh.1 I r\jISTAlll..1 121). '1'1. a dt'~. .11.j 1 b ~\T J umd C)PL"n i n g tor me tb Ltd dw plug for coflno!L1inr.'lll ~I~J til L: but pi ug made ~poe"CL.ilild plug-connected appliances include those thai are readilv portable. Jo cm:OUIage the use uf more efficient appliances.rl.:r ~yO .dothes drvers. and other C(lI11[~ equipped with .<!clcs Thl)~p' rolted at 15 and 2{1amp~ ha~e a .rs end V8CUIJ11L dl'iililCTS. except it has rhc third opmillgFor the third pm. Kitchen ranges. L~ 50A 12S/2S..1 f .~n50vults-« may h~ used only lor appl i~fli. RECEPTACLES Recep.i) for some COfi1ul(H1 appliances an. some power mpphers have incentive progmm$ such ~5 a cash paymen: for junking an old refrigerator. Cord.rIILJrHl('LI.are watcrhearers.A =: usn scv r~g./lS(l voh T~LCpl~des tor new drver and range circuits. such a~ IO<lW. GO.:l ~(1-il..4.~inlilAI appliances are k'l.: ~1 H is the same as . ~lrCllLl~.flg on -= l58 .lls. fLl!J.... Al K .donly oil \'['I]t:a~e~ uvcr 1.327 inctlfs .'.-\.-'.':) that D~rale "'0 Its and I hJli require a neui rul wi IT' running to the . <Ill 1 !.d1l:r:s 70--71 . Some appliances are fixed-c-rhai is.lbo hl.. Some l~rs~appliances '. ar ] 1.diam~ter of Tho~~ I~ted at 30 and .25 but nor ov. to the :g. xplained in this ch a pter.Ir! l11f 111 srraucns.U~ shown ~()-ilmp ~[1.. I'".llg on 0 thrcc-prung plug--for connection of the eqllLprnmt gnHlt"I..Jld L are ~!v. savings in powe r I!s. cord and plug to f~tili:tat·eservicing. N~)te du. tha Cine fIloiIrked W LSfor .'.n::t'.t.00 L) n p...1 unn~ are n~m-l terchangeable. and H an' shown r~p.N (j.iance~ ~re connected to t lw pow!:'r 5Upp.it prl i ance ~so volts- FlgUH J ~ 1 shows ~ vJnet~' of rece'p1dd~~ labeled A thrLluf. f.J...lll at :::.3 rhird opemng fnr 1'h(' [bird prong (191 a IhH'~-prong plug for cunncction to the' equrprnent :groundm~ wire as d1SC11&. neutral wire 'Ji the circuit.. The' t~5125 D-vtll t rcceptacl e~ 1 ~ n. restriction» rated at MC F 15A 250V @ . The 30-amp re • eptacle is 1I~~ mostlv I-Of clothes Jrv~f" and Ih~ ~U-"rnp receptacle fnr mngc~ .!~(J 8mp receptacles fl'r appliances nperatiTI:. h er by a cord an d pi ug or bypermaneut wiring. <'3ch is pnwid~d with an opening fm the equipment gIounLl~~lll prong 111~ a three-prong plug.J.H L1Sed Lu be the typlc. or ~ rebate tor an appr0\'~d appliance purchase. or B \ 1.

h111 i ng_ Tbis i~disc ussed ill more detail in Ch~pur en o r oou Ilt<. IllU.I"l~Cl for rhi: r..por( ia H. ~1)11will be following lite Nt.tiun_ th PDl'tab[eo!1!pplia.. ..l~ ..J.] n 1ouch both III t' appliance Jm1 [he grmmd or ~ f!H'IUIld~-J l.11l<"~. k i I....mu .:>ntur.!.. Xn ~]}eCLal di~LmilL-rting me. wluch also shows a t~pt':"ll pl ui!ll on left \\' I1II .~ Wnr-tr hearer Chuhes dryer UIJ the's W"Ols.-lJi.onnect@di . Th e S(J-.'"nL rrm~.'.' the ddtJiI] earth.lh..ITK(. ]. JvC"~ c.H1ce-. 12~ 12:m VDI[ recepractes of [l1e typ-e ~nown here.~pphance.:In me the . H"~I(h'"!.JI1C v.~ I h .I ~11f' n:ct:'p~ acle is show I~ 31' bUI h . I-l--:!.alfgE!J applia'n(e!:li..1d lfference of v. ~ nd the ba re !l: ruun ding wi re must i bl' connected to . I. It thev arc ~IJPphed with iJ. .-a..-.l rer h eater on a folTm. eve 1I If tiled.60 INSTAlliNG SERVIn r.. R. Elearica) r_. h ~ surtace muunung tvpe and tll.H1Ct' il... w. 14-1 Rdn9e>~ are connactad to 50-ilmp. 1'11."".L~eof a W. ~ Appliarlce 5 161 I hu sc a rc [Jut the on h reC<'~l clcs <1\ aila blr. [h~ ordinarv ~ anetv.rovld(:.:md i~~ attachm~111 plugs will 1101 tUH' a WULJflding pole. I'be plug . theywill lIK-tlc wlth rhe A.1.~'Gmpmcm ~uch ~~ >. ru make sure !h e frame u [ lh f.1nl~ '~!~I.•.Alel:\llr\.l\"..~ \o.rin ~ i5 Fmund('d LQ a drive n gRTU r. <I separate circuit f(l( ~("h of toe tollQwmw . receptacle.r. etc..c~ r .~nge hood f~f1~.lIld b:nhroorl1 L'xnaust l~rl~ df<': (:"O.Sot u' ~ t h~ pllJ~ [ to unlo.!:ptnm to all L}t-lhi~ L~listed cquipnh'''t PTUll'("ltd \~'uh a 5)'SH'm uf do ublc irNIIJtLon. In electri<: Il~~tcr~ ~l1d II til .Lfet\'. 1. But if t h L~\ .0 n l.. L the ~.-Mage bu ~\e~ n the rn and ui In inimizc d a nger from lig..m~~k.OIPl.llh Includes rnntur-operatcd lll<)l~and elecm.u Id p!'ll~.G OF APP u Afr\I(lcS re R. [reezer.iring mcth ~ld ls bv D onmetall k sheathed cable you In ust me cable with the bare e.J.I11.."l-Il~i!l1D Lt'd cookin gun Il~·i 17.n Fig..ll I~. are ~1'i.i to a ("w..u 1=" ll1~ b.::h:~1.1" met v of rnuu n t Ln~ met h Il(b to III ~ aIlOUS boxes .I~ hunnditl~r~ ~nJ ~J.. .imr J. rku h~. on~ ~ene-r:all'XI. In!l If the Clralll h pu~t~a·~..~ 'mr ~p~"(". cable or i[1 conduit.:Itl·.I'J ~EiIil" corn anach ed. appliance I~ grounded to rh e junction box (Ill th .A cuncrere Hom. squ.1I1 p~'nndl1~mh'oml~lcJ .. both t lush .-111.amj· ~ plug with it grounding bl<lde firnnga prup<:rly mstalled T11~ Igtai I .:"J.. Ill' [1~ of others in h'o'l"l \.l[1~ 1\r~'qLllil·J. rvpes.ppl~~lILe~_ mOlHll~d I.l. Range \ or 5('p~rate (Ii .:Iir (Oil d i.l:o. inrrer. T~ ~qwpme[ll w"ill be dlstlnctively warl.01111111 ach other.ideft'd the same d. ground i 1~~ of rangc~ <H1ti dryers is d L~I issed in spcrif~' sections 1<1 in this L~r .'-lfl~l. _n JJ \\ J v~ ~rClu nd vour ~1'1'1i.fotmding ~~ re.. thl~ An~ o:nlrill h~<ll"l!1. H nportam il' t h e d ppliance i~ Irhl:aJl~>d where ~ [<.nUlm •• p~r.l.. Tnt.. Llf ~m. The re .Ilt and must he proviJcd . IN DIVllDUAll "IACU ITS fO:R A PPUANC E:S Th e .~~ i\ 1'~" r1 ut used in urdi IMf\' \~'~rlll~ designed are . lhe ±.c'cT tad ~. uch II!I"('U P l.. ththe grUW1 d rod..'"ed..]mp:-.. L~ three-wire.Ctnned~J 'IPI..::e rules if you p. COrHw(lcJ I'lCit motCl~-drive'n Jppll.In{1 ('\ en nvc .5 cormecred to p [h~ ra n91~ then pi ugg eel 11][0"tile reci'pRicle.hhou~ aU. configurat ion at Fig..!1~-rvlLILJIL!~d he~[ l~mp.ber W~ste d i spos-c r DJsh\\'<l:she r An .rlbl _'cr\ m~ IP.lrl~d motor.n the I.111 that is w.d f i rod but there L~ some burred water pi~l'l~11n matter h0W shnrt=-rou rmMim.J.lCk is used tor =Iotht'~ drvers. rcfflg.11mewcrs . rju machine. Ih~r~ nre J re others d~l~n ed ~o the plug cannot he rerru l\·~~]without nrsrn ...ire..'ash~r.l.i[t'T J.Ilance to WhL~h conduit Dr a rmoris a ndwred.:.ldd} from the UTLl. and if the WI r i n g is arrnu red. d l'"}Tr. ·'l·~rm Wiring.. til J I i~ . fatcd ~t I ~ . If"Ihere: is no (001 and plug but rhe circuit wires mil dir~ll) 10rhe appliance.J.lllti e:.:"t:ion is ~IIAiLlent.J urred... I' hp. J his gruunl!lnQ is .:~ m~~~L In·o. i :JI \1"1111~l'TlTMn{"nlly mnnc-(ud or mDr~ i[ldLHiiflg mo!Or~ An}' ~4[l \dt r~rm.. Iht~~ arc used mosrlv in th e win n~ ui electric rdl1~l'~ A similar JIJ-amJ' r. requires aL1 individual branch circuit ~el'ving no other load.·~t"f'L.eramuect such pipe .' i re. e GROUINCUN.j).Jmpl~.]jJ Ptirpo..CTING MEAN SAND OV ERCUIRRENT IPROlEClION E v er}" 8f1pli<ltlce must be provided with ~me means nf disamm'l.]~1~ Lh~~'()ser.i:'fCUrn'm prot~.· p·uund~ p~r Vf ~ :50_11~ ..:.. . pp~iaIRc~5 If tl-w ~pl'lja[lce is r.IlW II~ ~L.h-IIIL\tlrLung type i.:h~rrer_ For other grounding grounding appliances..t h" ~. rord rhat include. cl • \ n" au lu t1l.illui~ bllmcr or g. ~{comp.:ei!i. ( 14-H1wau~) DIS (ON rill c.Ii'1J. ll!.J.. SrnllilU IPE!rmali'l~nU!f c.. In general..0 IbM onlv a plug and r~ePI"ll~ II( the sarne brand \. This i~~ L 11essential Me p to prevent .llo"'·m~~prli::t.ornpUll_'f.:.Hnps.J<III~n ~'quirmcnt ~u~h .iS furn.. n\. I l. sump [ll. tour Wlr..lit"(i ill 3U(J W01!h fir les..II.nch cirHJLll>vercum.m('"nlh .1 hedge d!P['Iotf'.Ir~ d.U1lce:s Th~ plug md-m'L'pIKlc arT~[lg~mrnt is a1llh~ll~ requirt'd."rlJn the \'/ C <pecifi~..lfH 1surlacc types.~~~ CLrcUH Wan .'mWn. J i·~b'l'.lOll r€(~pt~de ITlu~lhaYe a rJtHlk( m amrcn:h Jnd volt~ .1t kil~td~grt'ill ~.(Jd~ Uv~C) ru les arc quit€ compi iu~cd regarding when an ~ppJi.::fiHl~ In .he frame of the ilpr~irm("{'. elm h~'~'" ashe r.. that (Jt Lhl: .QUIPMENT AND WIRING Chi! pter .tppli~n((:. .

ft rangE'S I irld udin g cnu 11t('r un iL~. n . using a four-wire cord. " I_ \ \ h .'n. mt. J~pelld..lli he done~ ~1111tlW NEe 2f)11. 250.'"nL nel •• r~L He ~.e n o1pP Ii 11 nces F. nLl~ I.!'leo The _r. R.:Ill:.U cl t her 11001' 24(J volts. \1 l..". Ih~ fJ'amc ot Ih~ (.rl.m(~ um". wun.ltem. Surtace bllrrler~ on rnu~l mudem r~ng<~flpemu at 24L1volt . IhetT Fram~'~ m~y be grlllH1dC'd to In(' F]('uual circLlII ~()llduC1or·I'nnjdcdjt L~10 \\\'G orh~~~i('r '-ce ..'linh load.illl a pigtail mn:l . neurral are l.VFr~ docs not restrict the methods used f'1r wjring ht. but WIl"I1! I)fef~[ to 1Il~[. ~" hen you U$[~ ~ two ~~'Ire ('.or b~ fuses mounted Ol. s.~ an ~ AWL. WI r'~ Wh-I>" VIIre re ._~ W~C.k.\' CC.are runnected wrthin the raof:. l.rl ami anLlrher mr lhc woklng unit ]~ ()fl~ method..t'J'~r-ate O\·€H~ l Jnd dr.. III e \'.~me two hOi wires .. or high h~aL The inJI~ H:!u.. ~.-.ing.~rr.my appliance op~t""o\ling ~~ .m::lles.J11Impon~nt" rmvi. (abl~ b u_~J "~III' . consisting of oven plus burners.n ~~d.LJot· 5'E!ctiol'lJal ra. \ nKI..lg..La_I'g!!! m O!o. V\ .. EOT~m.• ... PMl bA\\'C ph. the ca hk· rontaLn~ n rl t' hi aek \~'Ire .1n'~~ such . -. two ~ \WG with olIU AWG neutral J.h.lIh.ed ~mp~ge 1 I (j_ W.l.~ ~rn aller than the hut wires.ec Chapter ] D.re.:lble wrlh J oa.h hen_ TbK:NEC l~US such st'p. ] . !. Receptacle (Jur:ie'f faT 9QS KlInge Ins i ~ II it receptacle outlet tor iI g.'.. cirn.!.. in which case a bonding ~L mp i is (·oIlfll(:cted between ihe neutral wrre and the frame nf the range.. " .mce-s prlh'IJl-d oltl{l [1(1 H I Un~ other" \·[JU nlJY LL~~"'~n...:. it is \".re neutral macr 1>.JI! breaker rn..' 1:> .q pullout hltJ(.·cr~.~..ll1~c. ww~rd mdividual units.he mn'. [I Lnl l Irum t~ prorecred by plug f~l~~ ~'Uu musr install fm each appll.ing on \vh~. ru n ~"our .. all ~r'l'h.u~d . ."u"_O(8_~~cm.·kl he ~uJtOlbk.ulge ~ .f1it~or t:fl unter urn [sUnLi.~ (". [Clmbint'd \rw t)1'<:" 01· wirin!.-~ .-InCT.. BUl that '" I re does 1'101 nIH to .mg".tln~1 m'er~n(ld or failure tLl start . HI. ~LtT pump (lr an . Use U the a pjJl.. I r~:O. IF motu rs th at a re nu L automat i~Jlk started ~dishwasher».m~idered fu. tho: ("]rCLlll WireS ma~· rllll [hr~Clh.l.•. ""tJ r.n~ m~[hod is W Ilhlali on~ SO-.]t~r~ etc..rEC requ i res that the [«11m of the ra r1se be gwu nded by means of a separate ~/een lor bard i\.ei. and p~ug ~II n t("l.e(el~l~dc which may be cl. .o'll'l eXisting circuh:5 .thL1Llt 1..rfJe~ .omaim'd J"'TI~a. range...'!:"~ as the disconnccung means..s PCfU!3llendy connecred l_ ()J1 esisti rig d rcuits the rang~ is perm in:ed to be gN~J 11 dcd tbll"Ou~hth e neutral . t[t.iU be r·cterr~J (("I mereiy ~~ m<en5 11'1Dr on the kll chen unit. which can be un ~he smell appH~nce circuit. Hut itthe motor is ~UI()m"ILUlilJy started.".'ic". .. 1~5/2:l[) volts.be located within 6 feel (l[ the irite ItckJ location n r" I beapplbn~.'f-. ~ 'ur ()[cep. USofJ III . \~.L four-wire uml is used. nC'u t ra 1 Wlr(' {"J.i.um.a.II..lllt UT gr_e~l:l.'F.t.I(e en!r~a. . Tnt'\· n~!L~' br ~ilhel peml..r·-..--"..sion_ 'f'Or gro~ndl~"'9 ot!!pptnanc@~.Ll r~JSO 1]. pW\"lJccl the h~~~· linrc llfth. . entrofJl1~C (able \~ilh . - I~\fI b 0lS1( mI:l ~111{ha:rr us~'<I i 1'1 the wiri 11~ of o~~ns and cookmg II n n~.. ThrC'~-\"lr~ ~~n.mil ~Iloking IJ. .01 cour-.'I. l~ t Llllfu~1'{'t1 swurhes ~re hJ rd to I'i L1J.J.r~ lTIU~t not he u~t'd '!.Imps.. to .].~..'U I") M·OT~lWer.11burner.~<l t:JU1mdmg h Irt' \\ here ~ sCF~r. .f'.!\1Ih (llll' luse "tnr 12n-\'Oh apphJ. H L Rang 1!5 In 5!Jm~ rolllgt'S.NT AND WIRING Hi3 circuit blt':JL. "1 'I .<'S. 'lrLng .::OiW~~I.111~1 s.!l action is need..LJLl f(j[ the ~Wr."le swrtch of rh e ge!Jera. .l!". S<J j l i~u i ~tornary tel LI~~ the fused u kind.~en or CiJulling limt mu~! he ground~d. Supplyin~ ~ ~~par:Itc or.:d.Hllp~ SOl II /\\\1.b!e to Cot) [l ~C[ J 240.uppl~' of a gal..:-ahl~ IIp to eh e r...m~ntly mnnl'(~~·dOf co rd-aml-r1ng cannITtl.For Lh.e in a manner [hal makes It unpossiblc c"fIt the neutral Wire ro carrv as rluny amperes a.l cooking Lilli.m~ement ilnd permLts yuu hf LI~eimagin.162 INSTAl LING SERVICE EQWPMF.ian~e FS to be connected by cord a tid pl Lig. nun I . and h~"'. O'I'Cl1~illld moking UJut~ JIE(f.any -0' HI ..llk·r r.timer. -~o t ~F'P 1!.~~n light. f. installed ~~ d ~SCTI t:. Whtnte wlif@!'oe-identiffi'l!dforuseasblack _.i..1 Uolder ran~~ •.!IOn LIllJying (ll. t Groj:)flm!'J'gf.i rype shown 11'1h~. Jo not ill~~.llati(lns wh('r~ .aa~e ov€n~ "w~11nlOum~'d ov~n$. 6.mlp or~lJil fur the O\'C"n <lru.ned range ." \10 IOn. i~fm the s.'f b<..Llt' motor m erload p rnre. thea PW\ ide hullr-m or sep~r.).i._.i~" Prov.such as <I \. fherefo re t he' wires r Ll rl rune to a 24 I)-vult Io<!d: fll av L . P~Kl'l-J a~ if the JPpliJI~ce Wt'ft' not rl'll~tUf d.d rnv.'I~¢1 provide .. with go{)d planning it should b~ possibl. ~t'1d timer.lJ d"e~ l1pl run._-t..he neu[r. ~hi.tepl~ss(ulHroL The neutral i~sull nct'Jl'J for op~roltiDb the 1.e.'Ott· LS ~qui"J~~'r][ 1n about I Y . and the l·urti and plug ~f(' three-wire . t."'hat C. indHLle a neutr ~11hat ls one SlZ. method mnv be U5ftL Reg. Homatlc~lrly started motor.. . conduit or cable a~ rUQ choose.1 bare ITom th~ appli.iights. 19nitioll 5y~krn.u locate il t!H'TII closer rhus ~]mp]Ii)'111~ instsllatlon of the' a-pl'ii.. in lh e' GI ~~.u.lf a cuswm-designed h.e ·\.genl_ Thj~ rnake~ fa [ ~ "'~T~' flexible .ha Jt is turned to [0"·. J 5~p.. .:tJv ~J l:h~ ~..I:Ci the r J II ~e lLS u...~1 11'It ever L~'io percent o f rhe ampe re ra t i HI5 ot (he rno I or 10 rr(I~<'Ll the mo~ol .md d neT..r~.lIl: (Jrm]l t~ LmlJII~d fur the ~~-en LJSof wirr "'1111lh~ilIilpa./(C) inMrll( tiUrlS to r~ltlt:ntifr the w. no s:pe. bu I I h l' whit.l surface bu rner operates . H\r r~quiroo Ih" the lo-ad 1 he Llwn will ~'nlbolhl~· be r.:i.'(I.s of ~h~ ""nng n~~ihLld usN. .i.~ H i.tV L. RUll your circuit up ro lhc r.ilh' used... The range I~ connected ro tile receptacle LlSlng ~ pigtail corn ~fwwlt rn the same [llustration 'I hi:~also SC["1.h' be used InSlo. .I\· v apphances.e (urn'nl It1 Flllrm~t l)peratioJl.01 I1I(!."h!. This receptacle.14U 'LC l~l~lk~"~ .and in. usee 1 UnlV ~m [he' ~rl~lmdE'd wire.lll a ruse nr breaker m T h~ grounded I. l ht' ~~.M' 8 . .~itlfl lilat apph~"~ unly to e~. waste di~1"I~o:r5.lIlge.I$cti.h ~I 24U .--H _.htr !lush mourned or surface-mounted."u~s and rwo fu:sc:s !or ~-IO-~l~tl appli~n~~~.mllr~LJrhumcr:s C IJ1 ~ single section <Ire installed counter wb ere '. receptacle of hg_ l<l .wen.ctc." ~:ndlh~ burners "rU~lnter mOUnL~"t1 LOoking tlrnl~-~ Here thl"v v".]c n~ r req III rod bv the . ~~'hild i re...VEe C!Jr~k~hat the bUilding strap is not connecudin I~ew iml. The ~VFC d ernands th at ! he receptacle.~pr('Vl1)U~ l'iLr.-I he requirement TO use tour-wire supplies for r~nge~ wok effect with thr 19% .UI conditioner.~11_ .ke ~("If-c.no:rl. WI RilNG Of COM MON H'EAVY AP PllANCES The . f\~r most raIlgt~.s-tenr'J in place.1'Kk. Whik mOll~' pp IlillKt's m Lj~' be gmund.m'eu I ~.md one wh·i 14:wire. tlus I~ rated at :'iD . dock.T'I1UL~dingwirlt.'jtch need not be ~"e1.lts..' .. indi vidual i rcu it fo r each o .'n KC 2"qUiprnl.I)-\'o!t aJ'phlTl r~c ~ n l t L.t(I the m·~11. :J.u.nge·s lhe trend i~ ~\\·<ly trorn complete ~df-cnlltai. The U\·~11 i~ a separate in or on Llw ~\'.lgraph).

r:=f\1cmg.))' he convenient for irurallation. Jhe switch connects the heater lo the power line only dutll1g ('Itt-p~.:q IIIred. ~he ...tr. The receptacles must he"the 50amI' 1)'1'1:'•• mJ rIM' he rlLJ~11 receptacles lfi'i[.~ all ..}l~. arc C'Ili11 sped wnh . s.l\ be used. 1I docs when 11l~lilnmg J selt' cunr . The XF.. 1111' size WLf~hJ. tin the WiTH'l. Bur the wires lrorn the receptacles tu the oven or cooking unit marh~ smaller. \o\'h~r" u ~hcr teLTIp~[.1 amps.J. OUt .. I [ i~ common to splice The nrdin.'Fe .1:. to tho: dna receptacle...tq.1 the drvci Iu Il't' f. exception refill Its smallrr wi res between the junction box ~nJ the upplian ce ._) Ide J 2! I-<i!lip groun.'~k~ to are nOTrt'qmreJ but they Ill.u must be.1101... water G'!~lImt he heated If }'our in~l.I~. r(][ [" ri her mforn l.ln41.rxirnurn uni [5_ l ~<' oJ P I ~t ~il an d a Clothes washers w. wi th I h e hea tcr uected to the ci rcuit thro ugh a special electrically operated switch turn ished bv the power supplier..lollation is or this..ry service Ihe ~ppliance.-C{AIr.I' u re 'WU"l'~ .. fl!Ur-\\~r~.il ked temperature raring for the W I res.C('l'~1 ~opercent ~tt the branch orcuu [aunt: I )w~llinf.-2_ I he circuit will he <1. 14 j_ The \\ rn'~ III the receptarle-.::onllilUl~L1~ lund-. rnu the 111<.164 INSTALLING SHMCE EQUIPMENT AND WIR1NG (h a pt r 14 Aprlli'.11 behind .1l)undea to I he neutral of tho: d1r~t' wrrcs II Lt]S 0(.' trame 1..ccnnecred drrvcilv to the ':Lh:uii wires in [he iuncnou boxes. ~t:' N F.1.Jd.b_('::!lO. filth day tor several FC'riI.! dumesric water hc~tef I~ rcqllir~J to be ~ol\~~dered III rhrs C:J.Ih._The plug arul rt'lt. u("L~ti rate.:::ir'::UlIfll uven and cuokiru. '. The recePi.!lllP circuit.(':..0)' .1l . that loads ex pected til he un conrinuuu~1\ tor three hours or more must lint e_\.~h to make It eas\ 1u ~cn IC~' the oven. .1)ll. 1 Sfoe:! lU_lljl \ III require.~ threef \\ ire.or lilt' surface rvpe .{ be on .with an 1:-1 in It~ desigIMlioll I'(] I H H if marked 9(1"C). the plu.. which \\ III I .ilk r than In \\\"(. the . 01 Fig.' are . . the I". amps..H~t1 tarms seldom havr such .\ III I-rg.IlI'i~ the plug. ...".I to per rm t.\ Lim be TW for oilier 6WC wire).uld !8_:' 1~7::. Clothes dryers An eieci tit.U.. ('xcel'I that rhe wires slwuld start ([o1n the power supplier's lime switch instead of ln some lO{".cn lu~-~rHnnC"e" cable \\ Ith ~ bare neuual o nerrnrucd where LI rurtv 'rom the: ~n I. proceed ~\.adL. tour.(uiLwires in a iunction box near the water heater tn short l('gl~ln~ of the higher dll' I ook at bra nrh ci rcuit hi rernpcrul ure wire ~xlcndlng to COT! rhe heater..". [·N l:"J~tJng circuits l)t'lh .. hlll If marked 7S'c' then use ~ '1".{LL-rd and pltl" f('l r 1:".II' onnccting m~J'" ~. clru-r i a J ~l.lo{~lledIn place.'r .Ikulation. The ~Wt'11 or vookina umr HJ<lYbe.u h.1I1rpacirl' 01 311. U. rlv as tor the _wile wtre.. appll .~FI n-qutrcs a three I'r. and ~'"·l'l. ".Note that bBl. rvpe....illlg reccpta le on a ~U-..I rn.lhOJI dtrt'ClI '•.~ III. J I• water heater rerrmnal hill< for a m. ."'.~'ll -I::!~... Lncludl1lg service entrance l.'"I separate "I".1 Jt'l rhi.lk hours..2W1 Weius.~. .tmp circurt -\fI~ wiring merho.1n~. 1'!{!1aiJ cord ~LI~1I1i!r h) tl:ial L1..<:..). ined fang~_ 10 wire the m'-lkJllf.!LI~ rna" be '<!J L'lllhp.O-. It there is rill rna rk mg.I ~Lng'c.J.he-f<..:C'rlJck SN1'·e u.. nor ~IIi<lltl'r than 11. .111d.u-y hi a IKh ~i.ike ~ M~ 01 ruosr ~vl1king rt'nTta~Jc J1 \'01. provided thry ~r(:'heavy en ough I"urthe load.Hid not longer than 1H~~1. ll~in~ smaller rhan In no and ~"iJJ pm\ Ide d m.lllt'(i ill outlet boxes.\I. It vou uist.!:i-S'1..Lble wirh a h~r[' t'qulpment gll~utHlillg conductor. as already described. per . '. nul d 2[1 amp. n in Fig.per SH: 215_21J\ )11) and 23(f.m(l n the same 'fiildilion~ specified (or when rccepcacles ~Tt' used.1111': size as the circuit \\·IIt'"5.tnCln. Gn:iI:ll'ld'ngl'rheQrye. corn unrr..-ITt req uireel. ~h!~ m.tlnl'~ I~{ ~.Hut -ervire ".nn.ll)\A)f.1 ies.1 an . r ~t. WIll not serve .Ltch rW\ ~ r.1wl.e Article II n.grouHdirl~-[~ pc.1"1::."~ t' 1:stme. rcuit..(lll~fqLl<lh 1t1.!nces 165 and a recepr.:!:)o.'an~ that ~ ~5()U wall water beater IT1lL. AW( 110 AWe it used fnr grounding). l~fseveral hours each. I +-11. bUT 11'1.3o olmp h!'~"'f1[iI(k isce K...1 "'Il.ldue:c-wirc r("cep[... unus cornbmed.31 F~"cepl inn 1. i ICU Lt wiri rll_.. .' disconnecting r!l':.s~>Jor u raTl~1(" but with re f ~mall"'l WIrl'.. J:-Or lht.f!.mJMJ 11~·~rCLlr[l:L1I rce rating IS2:. uruts. i Wate'i' heat@rs Ih~ldl[l~~5UO ~\~dn~bv ~11J \. power for h<:3tin~ water is sold at a red lrt from your scrv~ce equipment...1PP Idr"o: Uhll is fJ. \\ ire as lor iI range.11<.!III1n> (_1Jilv."of 25.Un of 2U_Th< Ilext high .J.:moll J i [I ~_ I'~ I I. addiuonal l5 percent 111"the continuous lO.I 25 ·amp .1-\nli appliance.. J. lOC.7is sn.1Ji> must be <l ded iu feeder .

-~r~.13l' n in a crook&! b<J.. It all dcpr r1(j.rl'~ fr{ll11 tho:: h"HIT~ [0 the . hJ r thj~ reason 5V1'i~dl~" and smular d~'KC~ have '·pl<lSterears' (wtl iff.15-2 flo'1gau~CII holes in W~J) allow 1:tio!VIC!!'S to h~ mount~ straf.if you 1liI11 1he screw lOO ! i ghtly you win cme k lhi~ bridge ~n~t rui [I the pla t{'.rre "held risidl~' at the <urf~(e of the \>.. insert enough \lo. lnsrallation of ~wllcbe~.E!wires Ol~ some tL\lHTe~ one Wire 1:'..T wire goes ('iLh~t w [he bl~.~.JD6..tlv occurs {lnl}.dH~..It receptacles.s prnblern. '.1 rti LLIL~ r hxt me a r'" Fig. TJkr:i.. l5-J) ihar lie 011 top ot tht" \.hl ~ because Ii rtlngs tn ~u i l the P..~rl. ~.15-3 it even with the a dellic~ nu sh with tn~ w~ II surtace Paste' ei!rs.·i( A) ~n mount I Hush r~ITpu!des so . 11washers under the rke to suppu r I w<lH su ria U~ Break here if not n~t:'ded Fig.]11. ers is done as En e bu ilding _ progre.U b C mounre d orl ".ing You r Electrical InstaUat:~on AU TH 1:.]Jh er Ihilll round • i'h t~ allows the de \'I4.ic:k: and you will see that the holes fflr 1h~ screws thai hulJ the device to the bo \ arc• elongated." tn:.k._I • " l~.r1it the switch The . Ear:s li~ on C~APlER 15 Fin ish.~~cs. cove .. th€ rcsisranee offered bv th~' ~tLffm~::. '1.Cr~'L]I i rernern .hen 'f~~[en-ed ~o Ut~device.hox is behindi he surtace. don't draw i~p roo tightly on the mounting screws. or Ihe \'"re ""'~Ih U~[''r.~tota I rob. ~u[1ace . .. n .tting 'tiIiiI.~lre. or {Q Ih~ w.'In the b(l~ LL~H:lg me Jr ~okkr 1e-. Thl· whll~ \'>'ifl:'.\. tor example. of [he wirrs i51~l.ates.:1 <iil)' switch or recepi. Tnesc H1~(!'nl>.err dcv L~"(. i ~ ~ sensible pr"'J.same wl. . ~ c a 1 rue vertical even if l]w box was insral bl crookedly (see 1-' i~. The common p]~~lic plates <If. allv ~lInp 1e part "k " .white.!. lhert when FILl push thcd ev i ce into P1ace. j~ ItlOUIUr cl its ' ••• .! NG 5 ERVlC. violation.':111. CT.UI1. and fixturcs=-consid fiJH~hmg '.15--2)_ j' ~ P~e\l'enting loose tlOnn!l1!crtcns Here is a tip that can sSV(: you a 10( of LWllhle: after connect i ng the wires 10 a. r. (~ru~~n Ut' the.TC\"~(ll! lhe sides . I ue ill the e switrh bcx usingrnachine screws Wilt come.o f the wor k is a verv srn.eJ (J r tLJ.df.k \"'Lre m thl. sl "11·.ehel pful in ~Iigni r..l!. Then ntsh IlI<' •I}O ruon . \. .. there are tlush bu~ II1~NtS thai alJ:'n. foid the wires Mfilmd to ligh Ih h LJ g back of the device.Chapter 1S Hn~shlng Yo~r Electrical ~rm<l1llatilJn 167 I~ I N STALl.!1 [C 13-] d'lm\'. resuh.JlIy supplied h~' the manuf'lctufL'r.~ device arid nut bv tht:" wiring terminals. comhusuble r aneling di r~L t h ove r ("XJ~.j ~\'h:e scn::'w. In gn1e-roll.l. I'll U. switch or receptacle."lLIe!r al the I>.:S IN BOXIES Hr.n yrlu LL. when In acceptably lightened tcrrnmal KfCW is loosened as rhe device i~ p~~hed me into placei il th e box.lirH mcuntpd ill tile box. 5 hould hifl\'€ no W )l.E ~Q U I:P!YIIEIN'II' ANlilw I II J l'. .-rith th~ general inf.1ce.~d.." hu!\. ~. the other bLl.. lL~solve rh..l nd b ring t be device to the proper Ieve 1even ilL he fro ut edge 0111'1 e. hav~ been papered Or ~ a IlL ted..wnJ1CP~Ip.!. and t~e plate l~ .> " e:..ulMtiDn giwn hcn~ VDU.5-1 Th~ ~w len or orhei dl!'vlce 1.r H A'NGU"lIG F IXTU ~E'S IT ls Impossiol e to describe it 11.lfthc wR11 surface tHUO damaged to su ppu rt [he pl a~llT ea rs.111Hl...lre. the . .~wjI~ h 'and . ..)1' de'<'lces.lI'Ofk-usm.'all surtace.\H_ requrres tlush devices I (1 be held ~I.e OH r Ul ~ . Lj made of metal.efl hy the bark (lfth. IFiog. Hlg d rYW. hut one h~ J colored tracer thread WLI\en mtfl lll~ both LI ._ !1~u. Mou~tilliig' f..~Ui1J.' easily damaf!. especiallv . \hny loose connections. Impet. In me mom hll~ \\ ill llkelvcnd Ill'ln. he ro5~ibk wars to h'lltg Ii ghtfixl ures.~ how to mounta .g \\"~II_ INSTAlLi ~U:i ID:EVI(.t'.LltlOn.ly. ~f~~T the wall.J UT" \'f'rT close tu the energized L('rlninaJ 5.<:lT1d I'mung dtdrico1l l'lI.receptacles have on1r A \'ery narrow ~trip of m. s y')C~ 1Lt th~ whilC wlr~ in the bOL 'In. S""..\.l rhe re:Jcn ul recessed bo:<~~.·1 .r 1~18l'· -r-a. receptacles.~~ru\g l}~ Ih~ 'I.(lH easily brea k (iff the ca ~ ir t hey ~rl: i [J the w.l~ep~altie'. W r R IN~::: DESOU BED In previous chap. l[ch COfm. ar.. Plates tor d~Lple)...'d the ~".L d .ria] between the two opcni r]&~.. TfH~ L~ another r~<I~m to observe the: ~"''F.s When mourning faceplates. IIRilNG must be [lu-h with the w. when iml. "I. 'l tnen mounte (111 the switch ~~jng screws that come with the plate.LII nf ceiling SHrf.... Connl!!.\. r~{.€ mh!. 01L the construcuon of the f"L~ ricular fi\~uru.

rmg Wlli~h may reoqtun' lil~t you usc ~ wire with.HlditinLl. prevent the escape 01 heat (unless the rL~wre is marked "Type ~ll LC:' meaning 11will not overheat even when bl~rikered with thermal insulauonr...!riJ dHd Wall brack~t!i..llk'J.]lhcf.rrnina Is are a~add ble fo r non meta llic bexas.~q ltd i~mounted i 11 fh~ back 01 t he LMw Hl place of the w.l~k ~I! [be outlet h.1 J.:: at the L ~~J! box I~ fi m~ hed .~d as UllJl:>le tor.h I~ on and paill1 ed..l the tl.Off' H 15 Ii r-:d lIi~.. and ImLfll~d so tb. he mounted on nllllrl small bxtures an be mounted directlv on the b"x". Most ~itknllal recessed fixtu res have J.1~dLlahle tor a great vurjetv of f dccorauve lighting ftln~t~nl1~. Celitng I Canopy Setscrew Stem --~Chilin Fig. th~ .i11 stl~c of l11~work.nr1:}'P{'. If a 1. in plu. IB~~ lot" used.~hil'Ilr COndLlL[ enrer the end . ('lIw~'rlu ItI~ track .lI me'I.bliflht an nh.i'\. Til W: 75°[. l se a ~\"I!Lh 1>0\ as Lf <L swiu h I1T receptacle . TRl j.J.I:''-CL"PI illurrunarc h'.jru~ screw .. bemg IIl. Tr(l.~~1i" ixtures are . rc a shon thr~. which \.p. [)o n01 in<talll.dmg surface.' nipple'. tlv on a fixture ~[IJ U mounted In 1he r~l' h. 5!Lid.1 'nob I r a lnll ~ht'_i\Y scu:t.nEne s.nn!et.\ r~n ruon ot a R'U~::. M~..(!<~W<I~' fenm the fL'.. fixture mounts on the smf"Ke of the ceiling and extends beyond the outlet 00::-"Be sure to run he tixllu'e wires so dll! fiberglass is bdweell the wires and ibe combustible buil.5-5 'iomefmes ..~mJ I S---IJ_..cr('. h ~ box to ~.~tH.1ire.. lirlS fnr the bram]H:ircuit'W1.<111bracket ri.U m~I~1 he covered with noncombustible material Fixture me such usually fih~rglas:" comes will the fi>"'1UIc.lIld kn"b).CS~.Don'[ fi1rgci tv install a hltl1ding iumper fW1H lilt: box to the fiXHlrl: to maintam grolJlulmJ!. l'his method Isdl'~~ n in Fig:.l iI~ -heer metal I\Vidl snrne pan-tvpe Ffg" 1. .11Ied am.lid that it will not he blanketed h~ thermal insulat iltf. J'td~k in J cC'IILll~ t'M.ig<..LJpponed on the hilum.tm\ nth r ~!em _ Wh~1l 1he .lure (. af II I Ihe event ~"L1 rno un La large ~Juo rescenr fut UTedirect l} Ci ver <I: recessed [J<Ox.:.p.s .lhl:n IIhlall Lh(" 11"tllrt' 1m he str!.<-3uon.-"r..lfl~a surfaceITH'UIITOO or tlush lTJd.Nd Fig..A pall-type fi\-nwe~ {he noncnmbustible matenal..X..[ur~ L!> exp>:'.d l'. the btillilill • ~ 'ills.ill find ..:'d uxrures rnav he cord..)11 the ceiling ni an outdoor porch 111ll_~{ e b marked as-suitable r~lr d damp location... :-'0In t'W hdl larger Ii:U1Jn:"~ u rll"~ use .. conanr lion 00ordinary bran ch circuit ~\"rin~.I w () Riecess@d fi.'nue must be ill -talled at the ruugh . some ~re marked wi th ..or!. '[11i~ mav me-an punching a large ~3-mch Of ~O) hole III the back of the fixture liurd up the Om opemng to prO\I"~ this 'h':(.JlIl !h~ ~trap Olllll< b~:r".:wreis motJnted on the s rap-StrJP~ wrth grcu ndi nil tp.~ II.C -1.lr11pdarger han U1l'"ile marked on the recessed [ivture because the . 1 §. w(.~ \Ll~il'licd from ~ 1:xilInJ:l.. canopy a fixt ure .\rtnnll in lh~~box without removing the fixture..rb. th the fixture _mpporR'd by the structure of the building and not the box..-7 thE! nxtlJlels ....e .10.m~as an H1JUj'T h'iture. 1:' S .'J to a rL..tur~· . ""<ith IIII 1..Jll-hung paintings can be in'..l. coutinulrv. I j ..n. Ir l~ installed the o. rh~ stern" Df Ih~fixture is lhn~'att.t'.It.IT"I let ~n cnn n cctrons m .:.'o_ b m.ll heal win damage wire insulanon and could start a fIre. . 15-4 Small fllture..1 ~rt'ual Slr:1P ~uJ'plJ~d 1I'1lh the nxture. XHH\'Ij': 90"U. xceeding tJ puund-. s.\~ .\ materials.~temperature r.'fllrf'1C~-lil' -untcd tluore-cenr IlxtLln'..1 [ tixtu res d r~ LA imrnonlv hu n~ . The stem of hlO' fixture fns tne .er rnethod mount tlg.\ ~ hL1XL~ \el \ ~ll[lpt~ Mounting on boxes .here ilk..ve hxture-.WI~ 1(I 311m.}Sirdp is nrq mounted on the box then the fI.'fL.!'~ of the nxtur~ i>t't ~F.. to "wash" "''''llh with tigh" hlJ. ur nn tbe' ti\tLl~e stud that is ran (11-llw hanser on whrch rill.1rnounnng si rap. in f.~ sure the lL>.t.. mch from ~Ih~ or other combustible m~ler ial ~Oi~ts f except at p~)1nt~of support I .. slide the LaH"I}) u p W conceal I h ~ wmng.J.J In fit thehxture ~!~Id..11bracket \UU ". I f ~he wall 1~ corn bustiblc lit II ca n burn.:dil!:wn.lr_ 'i 'mcLlmes ""t:q.and plug m~lIl~~ti.>... 1I~j n I he case of wood ).xblJlre-.. ~h'l."ho~ is supported..umnl pt"llctr<llf behin..!cll on the outlet box.~"('.158 INSTAlLING SERVICE EQlJlPMENT AND WIRJNG Chapter 15 Flnl~hll'g Your I:lectricallr15talliltion 1159 The r~qIJJr~'~ that all m(IU~. rnav have a L. IPiorch fixtures \ Ii ~1 ure mstallcd .!:Ljt'd mppk ilJlJ .cti h~ the. l-. However.... (an be mousuen d [!.'l1 fi:. 'i lule I he cano p} .. See hg_ ] 5--:-_ 1 Of rnounung ~ \'\odll bracket fixture lt411 .\.. all l l or H H in its tvpe ~lCbignati(ln 1TH .'llIn"l~ spaced at k~~1 '. and ~lbre[l(l!. 'El' requires access III the .)f rh~· tl~Hlre. fIg.ul'rh ed wi th the fix I ur (see Fig. \\ ith the \\.. 1s-s ~notj. .. connect i011 box _~PK{..ck IIigMtn9 [I<:"..I Ih.. rather than afte r the ceiling fin is. !he space from.

lbLlit~· ot the mowr LO d~l" .u:. some as high d~ 1. asthe \..{. lJn£: horsepower I~ equal to i·lb \I!'olITS. The d U1~ll:ltc~ of ~54 W. the boiling pmm ~ wa ter. the power 1. the pO'L'.l f1(~rcorrung to full speed.~d capacity nUlt Ii whv it~· olten P05S1blr_1iJ replace ..Ln~llh~n JTlIlf' b. but itw i 11not be harm ~f t.always be installed .1'ti ply the h nrsepower by the service factor.US L~ lClStas h('~t Lfl the mot_o r....~OO rpm..tov.Eell' L W. T_h~l me~ns OF) I h t motor rniglu develop a t('T'I'Ipc rature of uY[' r Hl(JOC (1J 2.".moothly J mJ if it seldom I~bnr~ and s.rcsisr ing properties of L nsulations on Ih ~ wires used tu wind the mOWI and insulatsons used to separate the' windings [rom rhe steel iII the motu r.JW~Y5i rum.electing wiu: for m.llh' [he motor runs at a little ever 1 .egulnting che speed of some ac I. D ECO:>. a an I-Iol:. orne r tactof'o.l h. ~ 11 fur ~ mmute.:!:'i ..ollsllln~J during tile ~tart[Jt~ period arc much hi~he~ 1t.l11. dk ~i[t· type or motor ~\l[t dIOUSt: and should he ba-ed on the requirements of rhe iob it W1Jlbe pel1-L)rmirl~. Other advances h ave led to red uced air g. Thl' motorwill heal up q u idJy tHoo heavv a ~tan ing l~ prevents [[ fmm r~. i1 is important to mll~~d~T il machine's start-up lnaJ.Choose a mmm Sm" Ih~l.'cy._ A mOIL1r works nH:t:S1efficiently Lwd 1~51:S IOil~~r if operated at its rated ho·r.~l':ible bCCl!IJ~t.:1 while • h e motor l~ nol : uu rI~ng.ity MOWTS mil del ive r I~r more power wh lle ~~ r I rrJ:g than tn ey CI can at fu 11speed. mi n ule~. AClli. the motu r it repla ces it should h~ ofthe s~ me horsepower <IS the fn~ilie because no mMOf will bSl lOllS ~fLtmust cuneinuouslv Jdlver more' than Its rated hOT~p<lW~T. But if the engine 1~ alwavs labonnf[ at its maxuuum i='.. ~).1 5.iIIIl(YI)frv. It L~ Lmr0ri!ilni ttl remembl'r Ihl~dISCrCp.:r.~risn't much bigger nl~na.~cannot be regubted by rheostats or Iwil[hC5.Chill pterl 6 EI~'CtriE Motor ~ 01 I s . ~pcxjdl at tenrion is given ro Scil't y f tacrors. Bm lhl~ ._ The speed nf ordinary ac mu101. Thus <I t-hp motor I~ usuul] y . Overload (:api!lldty Almost anv good mo IOr will develop fmm 1' _ I~) Z ti rnes Its norm ~J ho." of advan ces made in the heat.~ are includEd In the d~. One ho r[..11\ elertnc motor of .~~ tlJ!. The answer tdb you what horsepower the motor can ~fel1' deliver eorrtinuously in a lQ("~tLol'l where the remperat u rei s not over /lone ( 10..'0'""" Repl. dEd ("lJntinuon~lv b&~115oI..~t Mus. to Its llOrTTllJ 11r .5 wRh e! ed I'\Ic motors U L~I_Ike electric 111otor.lU.kes to HI n I he moW r e'o'". P .lo. _ h P m~. ~f overl oaded too much..].lllid-~tate comrollcrs for r.. J-hp mOH1f made SO yt:'lr_~ agD_ This i~p(l.:nsive special-purpose motors and ar-e not described here.1b It"to -deliver I h P (il r p~·rhilp~ 1':.m'ef. ! ad~ II f I" ("rh~'3tJng..€I11..1 i n g abo LJ t I . Stan~Fl9 ci!llp.. Special variable-speed n1l1mr~_ are obtainable.f'J ~nJ "'<11L~ Lnn~urne-d wh~1"1. r.le h i D1ethat conver ts electrical ~ Ilergy to rnecha n !Cal fn:-rgy. This chapter d i ~UM~~ t h r work capac I~~'. and ~Pt:~'l(l.)~c:poW('r lS VJ.r)oo rounds one toot (3J._fTlLuon til the be-ar:i ng~.OOO Ioot-pounds I in one minute. rctirallv 1 .e~ .I..:'I11mt common speed for J o{l-tl 7 moro r !~ h 00_I Electr:~·cMotors FOR ~H: IY.· dell~·er I hl' . d '\ motor Jdiv~ rmg 1 np--74f1 W.ingle phase l11L)tOI'~ .. mcludi n t: grounding and pm~e'h!lf with ove rload dev rces. convcmem_ h .5 hp gasoline ~n[rme\Vith ~1-hp electric rnmm_ H the g:asu111le f'l1gmr . AI\. smaller m~tur~ niwt a h~gha service factor.tallin~ ~ lnnt..wr of 1. l'n'L~ horsepower ranllg. . motors should. FI"r-~CIn. The proportion VMIt"~ with the type .ap5 ~rld H1 improved 111agn etic properties of rhe laminated steel used in the pole pieces.elec'I:!'i( II1'II otars T bl.eratiolll1l A lO-hp motor made wd.oiiac:engine hus no o~'l:'rlLf.Nn rnotonhould b€ deljbadtdvu\~d() .atts-I ~ <LL uaUr WIl~1. POWER (·ONIS!:. pi I wer consumpnon. 'How temp@~atulre rise ~iff@cu op.:ripljom of motor types an thi~ chapter. hJS Ik~n ~~wcd.:.ged.oon ~ arB_from 1 .l .tpnwer_ \'\ 'hen overloaded !he speed dwr~ [11 ill rnore.NG SITUATION' "NO .'~ d own.." Ciin!Jg'iiI. urk H'quiIOO to hfi: _t3.7. the motor.~r1 ~"hi1e running ill full ~P'l:""IJIn selecting a rnoto r... T(H.'here The capacity of a rnot IJf 10 do work is hased 011 il s horsepower.75~~rpm whrle idling and somewhere n. b~ I ~hl righ!' tor ~w In~ h. and i ns l..i tcr than at fu[l speed.9fttr me knOl.00 to l J 5."IT th~ l It ta.[ more than H. some types have star t i 11~ I erqucs four 0 r live t lmes gTt'. om !hey \'\1iU have plt:n1Y of air for 0001 i n~_ Moturs have stamped fin their narnepl ares a "svrv iu.~lldtilm of (he tvpes of moto rs common ly used in homes and (1n tan ns.[ ~"'~mpJc. be replaced by . hut th~y are txp.Htd 1.1le. 10.501~neeng il!l~.iay\ ~ot:ur~ will run much hotter without being d<:lW..l..l ~ep~II'!.. 'CH APTE R 116 Sp ecBd'o~ . M l.€T. motors of 1 hr or larger have ~ service f~(. rafe..i~ appropriate starting a no overload to lilt" l<l~k...rt horsepower.. '-"lit there arc :. llO ... it can.\lY. N~t urally the allTp-e.750 rpm whll~ delivering irs rated hor..· owrJoading.J[hl1o(. which $h(lrt~n~ the lik Q( .oT and whett [CInsLJ~r]rl~ ~trt:T d nng co~r~.0 f rnnt Or.'Pol~'l"r is defined.epower. lad hi f till speed.moro r fin~lly ~tan:r.. capacity.::5:.etw{."nwhen.s ted lu tJL~ 'kl . [he.!IMIED 8 Y IMOiI"ORS me A motor i~ rutating m. hut when ) ~ tough knQt i.:rnd usuall) even ~ hI='tor ~ tew 5ecnnd~ .5@powe~' A motor i~rated ill horsepower ~hp)..'~r lor short pen rid.. U l~ H:lh rllol...Jtt~ deh\.~ factor" rangi r\f\ from 1.'ef1l \'·.. H:o 1'. blade m('l[()r '-'Ifllnstantl.... and..

l 1m nsformcr ofH'Tl .K motors.l1e~ro produce maximlim~tarti...lin pi.VOlJililbl!..]m p.' Ln ~ill~ of' hl~ an d ~rn~ U~'T. ..~ n rdam'e1~ lrUl.n...<I hard ~I~['t..l. Thetdpr~ dr' no.n: no bru~h~" nn mmrnU!:3!PT.~ fuur lcad..'T \"liT~~ 10 th~ farm II >'L. nH'i tOT. shin the position of the brushes. l'he starting C'LlIWl1 i.lLt'J current is .up to J Dill" il... Sillilgle-philllsl!! 1lllultor.. at Il'a~1 '<U[lc of the I.il-pb.t' hume worku shop type whu..lpantor meters are ~ummonl)' used onh in ".S The motors most commonly found in homesand on farms are called single phase motors because Ih~'yoperate Oil the usual 1~0/240volt. I.t.CH. If there is <II R~ild..GiEMOTORS ION FA RM'S ilf 1n hlp.:lgc wh II~ ~. given l"'ln' 5ize t. ~insle-.a~ £ an LA R. A. operate only en ~11J"ee--pha. 'Ill. hloLd.er horsepower. the brush positions) ill relation to the field rl. Fhis is ~lI11i h r [n I h ~ ~p lit ph~~t: Lv~'e. th~ ~pllt ~'h ~~. ~Mrt h~il' ~ 1~1. d L. These m(JI OT. \.. Thc motor l1'l.e·ph~5e line. choice. motan.tmquc. COl1.e L~'~-t..~~' tp sta rt.ges...titli\'['rlng no lLl. the lL)WCSl of ~II the single-phase l~pf:~ of motors. ABC [l ABC V D Th re-e-ph.Uld ollly rm ~ ~r~ Il~fi1 rmc'[".0 ()per nc ~~l1. If ITl dOl.~ ~' :L ITIPCf .:siun On page 24-25.. J sl~e(l<ll Il'I'CTIing "'''lhJ1 can be in~wJled lor the rl1rp('l.H ~J[C"!. properly ~~lled the .crloaded. prm:iJllig thre-e tr. YULJr pwblems ar~ ~ol...'rm~ .t' ~ .~u.repulsion ~I .'~ ~hn:~-ph. is commonly (~ll1t'd... The dire."! repulsion-iruluct i(ll~ I) r R I rno tor. 16-].larger than 71 •• lip ahlrough a t..:ICLt\· nd should he used a for hcavivr inb·-it will "break louse" almustmy kind of hard starting II1<1("]mi. and general lililll~' II~ :I.Lt~bkI~]r W~~hl!l~ machines..r Ime: depends 011 tf1r horsepower !kIn ercd bv t~c' motor -\\ fl e I her It is over load tL l or underloaded. or an air ~~'.. S~l' Fig. t )11 farms.1Hi~s. ~h""<1\"~urrrat-e a~ at I ~f) \1_'h~.ill~blf ~1l sizes.~ hpaud larger coSi less [ban anv other !yp~.ust ..ClI or 01 con ci ~ I. I use n f RT mo tors is dec r~a. C:.e .~e.. 25 hp.ClliLbll-:s 11 W ~t.l horsepower.:l.}t pmvid{'~ only h~'CI fH~h ~n!t.-a!inl:...:and mn.a~. for exarnpl e 1.1lo'err he-J. mFphcr 'ef \.Ni~lIy available ill ~r<. Thq'.ng. b\ u I bro.!ht.h ~.[t d rcl' . SIn gl~ phase ell ["[~M.<Il'~tOl] small .'\'ith tlwi 11 creased availabilit y (1 f rh ree phase pow·er.~n' mKh[ll<:' Ih. These motorsare the ~in pl e~[ and most troi..lH'U~h to h. Iewer '~'. has a very high ~~(!r11r11=\ CITP-.'. Un other types flr.n{'~ to Lhe f.heck wiln YOllr p~n"d~uppHer ~..I here are com n IO[lK moines.he "oll~~~ dror . But m~nr rarm~.1[10 lM):leJ require an llrHJ.il1 of the split-ph .~e f that . b~l}'ing evtn a :. so use them if WlU have threephase current available: Do I1Ul assume because }'Utll have a three-wire service that vou have three.4U voh~.U olf€ tortlm..Iter It cnm.:!.il~c.mJ t:V~1l larger an: r<!tlui red.lh:Clt-d one wa~-tbe rnutor opcmte~ i!l:t 120 ~'uh~ mnne.:J capacnv. gnI1~~o...l.r I. to conside I'.~~ ThT~~-phas. See diS('lu.si<ill~il'ld. and ease uf maintenance. beca use iii motors the ~Iolih'<''r fllC1L1r see (TI"~~<I n l ]]UL~t.:: ~rved.:'.1 be reversed m often..\VL~h ~m you r !flU Lor at the h I~lwr voltage.tr~~r single-phase motors are o rtm dual -volrage... On a repulsicn-inducnon momr. ~~rigk'-fhase Clitn:'rH.Jhl e free r type made and. D~.L.~<j.~ur~J 1 pe[cemall.~·~fIJr pn .l r t induction run" 1"11otor. 11h(· ofllv on~ four!h <I~ grc. m lttO r. phase molo[~ 5 hp .i'c..e ~n-'i(~.~ ~.age Ii.:-r . II .O:) on tbe h~~fu':T\'olt:l.-hp ~!n~lc'I'llase rnolil'r.:.irl~ type of IOJJ C..l~'Oh~H will (OmlHn~ lIElt\' half many ~rTlpt'Te:.h WLIJ~Ian almost . d rT mg Onc~ up Ij I fun ~PfOO.It I~ ennrelv ~IJ.renm l. HI TYPES OF MOTORS the ~"pe of motor that I~ ~ILH~L]l: tor [he Inb and the :I\'~Llahk' f)O'Ner source. lit object l'O LmL.. (h'lt-'~': the hea.lV~ nnlY'J sing]c-r'n""~1 rhr. Beton.. H.". ~~tdn S Llch .o SIT ~\'b~.~about b"l!" ~brated current..um . but d It b nL.~ have -:l commutate r connected to the \~ inti i n gs on the roo lor w 11i.:oe .m~fLlrm~r~ . If Ib~' otor mm.or that Il~~ t" -tart [J JIl) muchine that is ~'i[..1-'e 1'[ nmtor. h..e.:lt me. heavier lLnc" iLnJ 1ran~fo[mcr [0 J In ....~lUn_ L Sf' It 0 ItH . Th~[I(' Lirt" ~ ~nTIJI ~r~ld~ ~)tcapscnor-rvpe motors J.i'ITIrr res. und more current I' consumcd tf it i~~.s.a. n:10re Ilkelv you ha ~c Ih Fee wire.9~J Split-phase mOM:FS" ThL~ i~ ~ Mmplc [). or on on .. riun of rotation ran be ch<mg~d 011 ac motors. This type of motor.lpilcitor mouirs usuullv M~ mnre efficient than . u~e II In Jrl~'(" . c. reverse Lwo of the wires COfT'!fng: from the inslde of lnc motor. Capac/re.ge dr. [t YUll II ~k'T~te me mot.eragc cousumed while starting i~ ~l~tL811y less than halL U.~i n o watts mlblJ nl~d.1Jable on!.·er J ~ 8 ri~' mhC'r l'l"Fe (I f J1LtI rUT.)re size.h~ I"0""'~f is r. l~Ofl·H"I-".t abl~ IL.ln much harder Ioads.. cost. The three types described in thl~ discussion operate only on ~i u gle-phase ac. h~.r:i'ot:l motOl!'S.:-~ IJ p IV speed bui h p<"rmitteJ tu idle.1o' ['"11111 rou..lhllt-IT('e~ lhc[~ d. YUU! co. ~"I.Hc {!.20 or 24'{) mils. and tho: hile li n t' ~ n.. llsmJ!.1rti.. The war rs are 111 [ 111I"[oro! I lion to the .11pIe.r tann ~ ra g an: l~fgl= ~nflugh 1. s and larnes...orling of the rotor poles (hv munu£..::nl~~~II"l:d when tht'IIH uor is dL'liYCflllt: Ib rJlc..LrI5lcom p r~. ope.~ththe addrt 1111 of i 11.11 r I h~ 1m~ an d Lnc ~ 11~fClrmC"r t. .'j duty tnw wtul...L Wlft~ N Co Sl1 UATIONS AN [) f'H(jJ ECTS I"h~ ~mp..n~'ll Irum the pOI~'e.g€. \\'b en I h e m utor is tu~ t tu rH~ (1rI il m nrnenta rll~~'(m5UmI:'S severn III me. borger ones are made.:thl<' ['nOH'1 toe [}SOO on e11h pr 120 or 24(} volt:>.. ~t.h ~Iarl~ loads (rum II to:! times as hl'OI\'\ ~~ the ~rJ. Hi-l Eiyremnnecti ng Lheleads.lhan [j wlluld be lin th{~ l~mCf \'I)ltJg~..~. dgol.11ly high numh~r of amr~[t'~ I.l.:1"1 allows 1m precise pusit.'IT"S.asi! motors.". its rured currern •'l..p hase current. whJch mdk!..~ aVJ.be ((ln~llkr{'J. initial GMt. A. meaning they a r<' designed to be operated at ei! her of two volt . . 1[1 Udl rO'.e 1'IC" motors in sizes .ng. (:ommutawrs and brushes req uire skilled m~i ri tenance.172 SPEC Il\. '\. '" her ~ the load is thrown on after the machrne rs up to uill speed. bLH vou JrlLl~l such ns a (kll.].o~t scrvit:".i. moW r dt'"Y('lops .'plh-phaSt'.r l ml) a mm p :rrallw Iy I<:\'> hr)w~ pi1'r \"<:ar.~ing.:tet1 ! h~IJ ther W8Y i r o 1"t"f<l Lt·s fit ~. corl51Llll vour ru~~'~'r ~Hpplier.llhHg 8. w p rl}\!"Idc wire size I n pl'lJ poruon In I h e . rJr~Ring ITIJTII..1i'~ upto lO hr. The amp. P.-irr. II {I.~mumc.se thrcc'vl1~::. moW~ Fig.:'r-~\<t"U pump. 12:01 210 -vrjlr. starting b.. as the name implies.

cTl ~ r~ are perrniued..~OX volrs.mn·ertcr. they J~j Ilnt qualit. ·J1!eN~~i(Jr~ldEhtriml r.. sin glc-phase tor hgb t Lrt~.w!o£ lin!:'.: OP(T at ill g currenl I"Jted voltage.' l.." 1:J1'"f of phase converter h~ IhJ moving parts except n~IJ. WIRING SITUATIONS AND PflOJ~. Itl.i/. UOI14U·voll service] r\ phase converter permits three-phase iTlCJlUTh W be opeI'· ated on ~j'1gle-ph~5C:lines.t potential hazard if the property owmr inadvcrtentlv connecrx (I 12n-~'oh!o<Ld incorrectlv at . ~h t: disconnecting means must Cl.h th~y i1"~ Ull1i. 141'\.ith the help of a pliase COil verter. Jh'1JU buy a wnlferkr f<ltl'd (II 15 hp_ vou can me a.single-phase pm'ier into a sort of medined three-phase ruw~r that will operate ordinary three-phase motors and at the same t I me ~r. hfe.·iJch--A ~witch..er r ati ng .he mown.[6.epo\'tl::r rawl!_!. 1 A(c£ptabk motor disronnecting means p.when operating a three.i~~ \..ormed~ng mea ns capable of t<ornplete. herr motor mi. r at 24 (J volts ..U '. r.:~I egcri es..ati fig!... L'se Table 5--2.ud. \ E.so it can he maintained s. lor the runllil.. b "nihclLlg.mi~"'l ~. Ih~n .apabJl· rJl·1rlterrupling thl. ratrd ..1lg the motor from ~11 ungrounded wllrlucoors.dfe]r The _"'. nmlaUlnmattC cir~uit breaker.pb.lol.t is much h~~ht"r Ih~1') the input \nh.!l¢ motor w.~lflg m{'chan'~111 Ihat wOllld f.J 3D. oP'fr<lled from . Note: II vou h ave t h ree.]lir. ln at her \"'U rds.r~16-:::shcn.. m3111.kdUl:ii! ~witdlf--t\ Tn M fill UI.'r.lyisolali.~.t J.-L~l' m Ci tOT~ tm.II !etl:i. must be lo(. J si ng~e-ph~.ny 1\!lmh~r nf r h rC"e. ill damage rhe motor or reduce II.s.J. ap p Ira n ~ ~ nd U ther smell loads.u V{)II. rhe tnree-phase \'rI1Ll!l~ supplied l» .1 )n not run lhl: ~.. ht'n or~raled from ~ true th r~.ClIIlIl RIEQU I R[!.1 rs. 1 ..:atlr reduce the.gnC'tic )on.OIW€Tler... h b gllOJ pracnce to [J].lll!o l\~~. Pha~ converters are expensive but their cost is partially offset by thel ower ~JJat of three-phase rnotnrs ~nd Ihe increased labor effie i e OC}' ~i ned when larger machinery can be used.:mdbo.ufdHiorm 1/J' rftllr"~ ..~ . Req u~re-d hOfsepower r.~ OFF iiIld l)'.r:>el. the same. PHASE CONVERTERS Wh~t mil I'D u do if you need I~q"le:r motors bUI have' onty th e usual s! ugle-phasc. First.1\ n n e Ir~ rime is alk<lst h~lfthe hursepower rating oflh~ . "'(1m. DUl thel ~rge-~t m ~\ rio I bot..Lrr Iu lL'><!" mn!nronc ~ sile larger thii. phase Iine and lr~n~fOfmrr that would barely star t it S. rmlll(lns.hp ~hre-t.iluse me high "'O~t.<1.. no c Lh':-m1~1 uf rI1J... ~HlI.cnpe of this book in!.J. st<lron~ with Ih~ ].ph...trl~S wi th lhe IIMJ L1 it II nu nKlI fir is n connected fLl rhe converter.e \OiJ [(·5 run iJUo the convener. short-circuit and ground fault pwll. and 01 line and transformer that I'o'm:ddhandle a l D-hp single-phase motor {if such a motor could he Jou nd] would probably h all dle a 15-hl' or 20 -hp threephase motor.t:(HlwrtCr. In which II h~lr~~pnw..s lIT UlU {~ ~j(Jn)R [Jr.. '.ID' ~~ The toral horsepower ot all the Jlwlnr~ opcranng .MIE N1IS.U1V g[~·€11 ho.nd manual-pp~rabl~ hanl'l~ ~f Ircuit brcak~.dIly\tluce-pbase distribution 208 ~"OlB to the third..1:illy <lnd h. !h eli ne and the tr.1<1(1$ on their S'vstmls..single. bu.e switdl~ {. Several ()f these arc often . I.utd!t (reM~.IS hi~\ \ ~ l. i~ docs no r si gl"uh~ d r111 Ini.1~L' moror.).pJ18. f".'Ys..motor s amperage.!} rlw[or romr{tJl. I t must b-e rn~tched in size and type with Ihe an e particular motor to be used with it. ~enL~r'll1y. whether dire.powltr b..iu_~ea.Tht' ~Ir~uit rrakn b f~ in tIl ~ p. I he older .and ~l'l'rJ [HJ. lM!~N·jrruil .\ Ihr~cph~. forth.lI'l a~d u...:JU5~ the .~tthe Sdme time.I small motor fW1I1 u com .I~ ][]cn·<ll.·Cule~ on motor Ji~Cflnnecting r ml'imS hH nrto two . ThE phase converter ..l!l In the dl~Ltio~1 rhc voltages between lhe llt"L)lr<l1 and all three ungrounded L()Al(hld()r~ . U~U~lly ~e\'era' mOlUrs elm be med.lhcfe.ef~uon al thc sarne nme un be ~[ 1~>1M duublc the. n.honero\'>'"er raHllg of 1h~ .lge ddi\Tfl'll fh~ converter \ .III .u fe~m II i.I"b. and J~.r h.174 SPECIAL. Thus.01JOoR (I R.ad~ (NEe) requiresneruafor phase converters are in Article 4.U'l sfnmrer serving YoI)LlIarm must be h.lll<lb[~· in ~J~1i lion to the I c U~UJJ l2LlI ~40 -~'u II. it.~~ scrvi CC'.rF.It J.he' mu tors and rareh have ~~"'r'''K~ problem...il r h~5(' . btu ca n'q he ~$t:d ~5 ~ mu lOr: Two 24(] voll..phase pO. I hrs makes II more difficult for the polwer suppliers to balance the 1 m-voh 1. Two..er rnr ~lgl.:l-rh~s~ mroCs run Qut of it.r~ Itl '1 rd~'l".. 'types.. and.se !HOI LJ r ul .u. Do 11m operate LH. Separate circuits are recommended fnr individual motors [imL [l[C. Qt a mOituf n (lh~ same Li.t[le ot ~AO vdh.bell df1V~n .aS i7S In run the mp'l Br FKe it IS slJ rted.U~ equalJ) J 211 volts.ph .you 'WIJ have th ree. uf 2lJ8YII 2..number of.in !h~ ~"Wi'Lhing meLh.!4(H"O't svstems have . Th'll n)r1c~pt is more fully ~~plained under !~..n ~utomJh~ 1n~L I uali Ii ~~..S I.e h~ading ~"Irl sight from' rl"'lJ1~re ments".Jw~1:: with YOUT power vupplier before bUyLng a convert er.'1ue! !~~t1W thcv cost corrsiderablv ]~ than ~ill~C'r ph .ro~OO .L· u itahle to hall~c" s tlns d u~..l Ln!! Hn t over '10 Lo 'lD hr.~rLcant pc~cb KILhnLlt operating I11LHN~ at the same tim~ Of It will be~1Mtli!..: \~Uf{h oJ ~autio 11 ~..T hf!.Tg~ ~ ~ i har rnn tor.i cnntroilcr ttl ~t. OftCIl llecess..<i .~"''''lem~..l~ ha.to determine lhe.... tl~ ~nnneC"t.Ll~d III hO~cI'uM.-r i'lt Ing Wlil not sun . of CCnvll rh!rs tbe ~Wf!..L~ U '" 111 ..h~ngc~ the.nntJ.r ~tor Discon.ig enough tu ha!ldle all the mlltnr~ ynll propuse !ri LIse...lml)~ res requ [red while starring. manual m~~ll) r cmHroUer .must beone converter for each moror..'Lllgl)·mol"In.. much highe: rter hor~.. The rotmirjg r}'pe of LOnVet! er llJub tik~' motor.ll qualitL("'1Ii1Tl~ hc. III ree .] U de the tullowi .'f£ a cli~1I'r1necrEng meant'. The conyeU.(l~~r 01 ClltC'f.lip single-phase motor wi II Man a 71/~-hp or possibly even 10.:(. t. adapted 1m [1' Table: . 4L~ S¥i"itch the 111edevice mual be ]I~[ed lao qu~bfy..i'lrw>~! orld tbcn!he smaller on~~.flifliO'J in IOblJ~ln~.omhlned.necting m eams h~ry motor rn LlS' have <It least one {liK. . rb~'lolaJ horsepower of all the rllmOr~ III op..l g ILI. more rklll ]5 hp--tbe ratmg of rhe.1Me to do su p~nr:np[iy. mL)~LJr verload pnaecnon IL1 CJS€' o ul overload or fuilure In start.'l(tion. ~~d wh ~11 .:.a.I~'. some do not r~VOf or permit conve rters.U~l'~1 motura. f M. pr~Ltkb .ithnut meetmg ~dd~1iIHl.'nlT~II} used on projects within the :.1t t be ~:I!d of this discussion Clf more r L1 rCLlH requirements.er mLlSt h~ st~rtc.l~1mum ~1t Lhe [1 Bdev ice.: hi.uwen. \'I:'Im:1Iarc SImpler in £CIL1. 1 he co nvc rter mUS( have a o ~th~ 1..<!too where th(l~(· who may need 1u operate rt will br .Ri:'d bYlL'~j"'n." a~ Jb'cormectm~ m~<1JlS. (. n:~'it" l he pawn rl?q UIJ:fd \ The ~'!t.~t.ed or.mnv~rter ..ItOI pari: of <In <lppliance ihhey Ml' of more than ~~hp.I f COIiV.cr .a\. Mnlded ca. ZO "'ult~ ro two or the ungrounded courlucters trorn the grounded cnnductnr. or sepiLr~td~ m(~unlf'd.hlgh voltage.

(:'-)~g iJll.eakeror swltch.L~ tb rnnr:l11 a P ressure "ill'iitch_ 10 M(I1Lol DlIf!t1J~oad devlcl!i:S Motors muSt be: rrot:l::CLCtl by o..". rhe F lug on the cord :15..iL 1 he second..~ Sc[lllh ~h~ 1'IIwmr.e [he larg:er starter shown itt the right. .:rlmd T. hp nr ks& iust tl..1arter In the i I'fa~[rnthm for fraclional horsepower mowr!>.i bly larger rh ~n 110nll31 fl ('jw-j ng through it fi:)r a short time.).iJ b1ril!Jl(h-(l[{"ilIqh~ rr-curun ground-fauh rrtltei....12.iion wi th ~~tems r-C(Qgl1F7.luty horne wlr1ng.. \'llhdht!T int~. 0\ or].~epm:nib the highnilIling '"urt"t"1'1 flow fora ~~nrt ume.lor motcrs OVer 21lp rilLl!.a. il for a considerable 11m!:"_ ?I motor oyerln:!ddl:"l.'T iIr~ usually included in [he $-Jme enclosure w!lh the starter.ddJlIQn..g i~:td rt.erutms-.Ede CJJ1 be used willi 111' tOJ R I _-lip motor.'(-L1}1r?ritr-l (he m. And WbtTI ..l! ty~ .illy ~Jned mmQfS it can be . .tJJf m.. if lbl' If\'("rl'l.. ConlTGllers A runtrollcs 'LSanv th:-~-io: U:>l.li!.t thpy . Use t he ~nlI1f!e:r .r ~ OOM&i Ii!ler~hJ'e ti rne.~LlIord.' means._S 'IDrn~ ~~'Nrq iii!l1~". select IlTI uvr:rmad d~i~' t.p tt ru un i n g at fuJl speed at k rts rated horsepower. j..lllyFunC!J(]fl"5~ am "ma m.t h:jve a horsepower rating equal to or more than the ht)n~'PQ""'l'r r~tin.. It has pushbuttons to start and s'l~Jrlli~' {n~IQr..lT1)' Fig.1Tla motor lhan L~' ec.lI~ dev ice.ll or ~rpJrnt('.psvn~clll..J:1 motor_~. ruffin('fll if the motor r. it ~(m~UInes mote <1m res pe than while:~leljY~ing It~ rated horsepower.'!~~.~d ite\'1C8 ~~~ IIA~I'I I ntewa I w1ili r buill irl'[o l ttn~ ITLDtor in Ill_(' C..~. it has a manual swi let. If ~wftt" ~i!"S: Mn It l'!o(Of a motor O!firera E!d ~ t volts.. me toris ov~'Tiua(lt'J.1 ~ hp. such .JI rnemrs them to b~ used "" discnnn ~u.\:m~DCo.... r a 110 volt motor.e W mtloJ!.lu (ur f~il~re ILl.]ve push h urrnns ina ~p:arnle case arranged ro a. interrlJpling Ll~r.].l Ilwtn K.oson"" one f~ rl i ~f~r ~ rM~or cpi!fatOO 1 2() volt!!:..t. l'tUl is mually whar is called oil mOW! starter.> ~[j)'iIiOC".h ~f cnnstru tiu [J h'nlll motor CIrcuu swi t.fS[ labs assume t<lr the rlll~ >:0Filiguration.. ff' i. ~ 230·voh.d w be ~p rate..CaJluws th ern ill ['\<. usedin t Ught.ll.<!ddn'lces.mn!ln1S the rnomr if current due let i!Jwrlo. ..:qUi?lllf:Jlf ~LJdl a_~ .f1ltol.try overlwrl_ t. lb-:!.t"'ey- ilf_ro rol'l~a1nmol~1 ""'c>.. ~L.llli11p receptacle i10 good tor l hp.-nor is pormhle.'0u rrum stances.. 0. arc pcrmiu ".ni d<:\'~c.:I 1h~ 111Ult' F~ nd th~ m ~rlCJl!cl de".lUt~1l1il1.. rti.~ mtl.. . can be inq in l:lush device bOl:t'..1t~r 'I ti1e ha~11!i of rtr~ full load amper."' . rhr fin.'~Tltl.:ul the nn. l5-lImp I~x~]:JtJdc works lor up to 1 . and other equipmemw iill ~Ulll[llUlican) l<tartl-d motors. 'TIle enelosere (~J the s~a rter <ll:. In i:lthrr ('.3 1 ~5 volt. = fo~ onlw. [ 11) bill dl.~them ro bed ~i! 11n~~ts a. rl1mp_~.h. re un the' load ~-idl..:U1<It£ m!!lgDctic swi trh r usual! 11 . Tn {jli.\ior on oulJ'~t box u r olherwi5-€' 1l.ld~r.lur ir wi II bum out if more than normal current tlow~ through.rrger IIlUWr5. On manu._:~-(l a ~oonl:t"lOrn J.Hrci (11!'r"6'Il[ al :nnp~'rJ....~dby the Nf:'C.. controlll!'r~_' ThEYill ~ U5~ to SI~f1 ~ nd . bul in "r. l'flr h~gger m'OtOl'_~ US-.. Contrl'lll~rs. n ~~ ))e uiff! W ttl ~m. meo~n~~ 0 G!lrrIDt:l~)'i by .:has.lrq J10'iO..ilitFt th~ ~'1'mrh mlJ~r he C<lrtrklgeo ru~'lI.."I" lead.:ItHlIlrnis.uing must [Jot less than the motor om Pll. a!Jm. em the llalIlq!hl~ of the motm.[ r FIg. fi re RSUJ1 tmg from oetcadsd IJVE...... 1&-3 A ~wltc'" ot ttl's Iype-. 8~ shown m fIg.:heir hN'>'1'lWW_er r.em ~nlli! l.1 liU' l hl.Jst' ~f 'TIl..)r it !drlil~r an. d dc~ ices prevent bu rnou r and rlsk of.1715 rrusnous AND P"ROJECTS In x.rf marj(~ ~rr~ .f.~"-~~-. Un ifth~r these <'Ir-l._o (OlU. anti . com~ct thit ~ond[tioIl thnt kd lIIJ th~ 1)\ I. nng does no: t'JliOOt:d the Llr('rr:sero~\~ falll'1~ th~1 ~h~ I. lr is pJn: ro nf rhe m~chme on refrl~.g (J [ [11(' motor. as at star L -up or during il mernem .A motorwill cot bcdamaged b)'ruIT~UI OOn:. a o'1iluw lug [he nlOl n r m be electrically COT! trolled from a distance and from muliiplc Location:.lOrs \ if llur are part of au[omatilrally Sl>irlCLI . Overload devices include "hearers" iWll are rated In amp~re-& "''hell the ssarter is installed. thrn r. and the:':W :Imp volflel)'wooo fmup 1..-~ 1hrL!lJgh ~t fr.l 11lQf~fr.:'Inlr [general-use ac-dc ~nJ_pswltches nre 111 H li~CL1'tLthk nnd !he motor full current mmt I10~ exc cd gO'" o th( impere c' 11m:._. For L'J(amJ'I~....-jn .J~~.11p.-~-.. whirl! are discussed under me next h~'-ading. rt mfll'l'lu~lh_ ~ n . Lj-~JTlP ro~ep~. il'IHl t~'.!ratf 118 must be tl(ij l less It genera]l y Cm:mor he used to r ...] fuses Genem! w{' ~uap5wudi-A form 1'( lleJter:OIHIJ~_'" switch (ort:'~n!ded 5{) that [. W motor crreui l S'ritm. r!iol.:he Ofdil1~IVS~~itchC':."6-2 d~l:iln Cot'l!lOk ryf tf12!. to s tart und ~tur lh~ motur.J start ilild ~Hl~~.".<1~J l_fi conj un.m~ meter Qverlu.<1 l25-'-LJil. circuit ~. ' 11>1)~ i lh 111:ln v b roger mo..= nW!'S.lal {~lIired stop a rnotOl.((l!lr~~. 21..~j'gc r sra rtffs IT.'icecoo I oft.1 Thei are mGt(}~ It takes maDY more amrcr~ to ~l.. 0\'-2 dead WIT.!!r-~(~ndmmHflg units.llp.of tll~ SWII..

s Ih~ In -slgJn d is.e~.conDcr'b.aUo\'.5 450 JSlJ 25Q g{](l l.i ~ requiaetuenr I ha l UVC'~!'I t ~ e IrL(l'l>' may not baH" an .100 2 •.2 '3 . ) Uluh:..1might occur i" the ml~Wr CirLlJit or in the motor.I\S flrr the ("rmm:IJller am be indi'llidU.Hlt'd.1 wt"~l ng a table . Tabl..43(') .l~Q f or nOl'll-fl1OttlJIc~ds and IS the result of Wlf.!ga. as.un plc when ~'k. driven mO!ch!l1~ry..1~ 1:!5 percenrot Ill!.iJ tw [is whe:re the ould IIiooal dio. not exceed 17 j P(!il"C5][ (If th r [till-load CD rren L if these val Ue!) seem to OOJl Lfi:Id[C1: th e h:l".700 1.flaO 1.kMd motor current ~ thi2I.F\. they 'I..Hmn¢C! -wmdd in rrod.0 56(1 400 340 1..~~.mer'! ttle mQ[Cf l~ ftJIUlin9) wiLl b. mus.~oom'Ioem.}'_ MOl'lJr braru:IrI. If the cirruit tll the mn~:r i_'\ Ion!.-l show'S the wlre 1~ ~IU' .pJ£.g means t.e ~~ large enlifu9" to Ei!'j:l rhe drup w1~hln rea%Nl.hm IS In £igtH trorn till.000 65Q liS!) a:r~ more me tha:n SoQ [ef. In addition there must be a dilt:nntlcct in ~igh!from Ih~ motor and ilsJri"''-''1lmat':fime'ry..fIIJ[] lOO 1.:J]] a:l"i~ UbEdJ1t.~ use at variou s d i stances ffam service equi p-menl W muter.200 !!i75 1.noill ~I:esru\'e \'\Iha&" drnp. {. 1'1.t: discussed under the pr~\'rou5 hf".400 1. D[ the' kind t¥J:lically installed in h~mes find on f.~1.::l. the ~a1I~ll7. ~f wnlrolkr the each Q:rh~r..meoU!Oly in case or R short circuit or gIVum:l fault ~ha.10[J . WhIli!! runnlllQ.'r 'r~(tlJfj..00 &sa fJ!lOO u~ ~~ 22(1 50 560 HO 1. . pe!rei1t dl!!PI!Mlng atl ~he 1ype or mmm.2.. For 10 F'II:. ~Ilas th e cell n [rnlkr and the motor must be protected h}' fU~t!:s or cirru't bmkl:r~ OlgJinst such shur~ or grnulld l.. controller.ichthe overcurrenr n['vice pm ta'b urny agaiTl8f . rirtui r:ll> ..'ll::l'}l disA'~./l..jtwollld be pbl.lanlnp.tble time before stopping the Inulor. The wire-. ~ndl Oti'lt. The 'o'OltilJ3±! I op wll~e it:arting lwnE!'ll till! d a:mpe. from" 1"1.. his. h.:dn.400 1.!iil·-Iojdcurrent shri .acitr~ at Ic. circuits use wire l.There is an excepuen that .h(:n1'.dU.. 1 3S 55 4(. The ««: Gl:hne.'t1 n::.[I f overenrrcnt ioV€rfnad. that are not of the titne-<1e1~i I ~'PC ~hould not be used.600 l."it~' of 1'Il least l23 pt'roL'at o f 111 fllii·lood e L"lIITt':IU nf the rru:rtor.~lIu~t pfoleeUon Motor overload devi{e5.l switch it need net haw fu".dLlad devices p-ermit ilp to ~hom L'i per\:elltm'~rluJJ current fM.] result in mju. All dhtaIl~ J. bE iIi sight from the rmnor conrroller: 1. IilImi1llrdelim'tl 10 l">fEe Anit:I~. l(W 300 "tn slgMf1rom" requ Irem@nts .l~ fnot mel' Sf) feN wrned di~t.~.5 7Yi 110 00 nil 100 rou 5jD 400 250 175 sso 400 ~75 900 2.whether bull! mln the motor (lr innalled Or! rhe stuner. ill faHurc tv start) f~ pn:r\1d~il by the motor m'1e'rloorl de~il.!1!!: meuns.1 consider .:lrm~ tho:-NEe permits a breaker ro have an amPfI~ ra!il1~ up lU l.JOO 1/ioo :ns 3. motor and iI.conn~tI to he TilE" wireS '5I1'mw~ Ln rile -table a~iI'rom p[l!Iml~i. Am l~dion . .lI:e i!tld itionill hn1~rtb or ":'t'Iwd b~' impI. ls 110W ]00 for use througheurrhe . Ir~e\l' In' net" < in ~ghl which oril'llfla1cJ in the Vf:C rnotor articte.se I~ ir~ 'I<o'Tt:n art ampJ.'~I~rcuitShOI'1-Cjil:uit ~NSTA1UN6 THE MOTOR Ob!E'IlI'l the rC"-llllt~mff!t and gmllnd. ttI€ d fnP Will b. means rnus ~ m eel the T requiremcms for Ih~ . fOn rna!" have only l~){) volts 31 the moter during the' ~tanH1gperi 00 msteed u fi!:.'JOO 400 Sl5 1350 yo. and 'ow use wire that is Lou small. .i. I ~t~ I fJ.000 700 yn:u rrHI~tin5laU.rnbmt:r~lbl~ pump ITlmfu 101"1 teel: d()\~tl ~h~ ~c shaft.SP-EOJ\L WIRING SITUATIONS AND PROJECTS 5flmeo'.fage !~ ~~! time'5 !l~. in .100 1. htl\.'-\~UJII'1 Ja:lIl.<.fQllIlPMENT FQR'D. disconu (cc is not in sight frurn the rn DtJ:Jf a uditsdriven rnaeh inerv.. .{'Cone corn ponenr from the ulltcr bll.400 \..amneolm.I:FfERENlI'WIR~ SlID i AWG TO SIHGt~PHASE M~ HI AWG.l FormmoCf.:r s.gnifio::.200 2.l'Iil) H~ I~~ op~ Jl'I"'lllll~m..500 lJOO 1. The h LJnJ:.adlyo[tnrmre b~illgp'MOCI.bllt t!tt.:m t:ty 1m th.e fHlm 3 to.p.fe IQn~·~-aj'_ The Ulbl( i~for s.200 1..s "in '~~glH Irum" as beolllll visible and not j~'i.'EC.aIllp.2..lllly Imp!'3cticaillc to plo1Cl..11:H ilLl€lWABU DISTANCE ttN ..0(Iti) 800 G75 1~1) 14ll 240 200 llioO 1411 600 525 t!OO 350 ~-50 160 1HJ 2.i~(1'. are uo: l:apllhl~ uf interrupting ll~ hiJl. add Ilh(mai discon n&tJrlj!..'o!'r10.Tl1\11it 11'iJl be used where the Wh~~l't'(. . he mOIJl)[ [fur ex.1mptKraling!ar~~r Ihilnthr.roO .nioll_ If you UlD 5.tiJ"lg thatwill penuit the mntnr to start and (!pl:rntqm)~r1}'.Amooo!' d I~ nnecting mea ru.:lrly UJ volts.lisoannecting !"t:JIU .l than n:qU]r~~lDl' NF-C III urder to . .i~rorm~xtillg m..jjC~p I. 100 140 100 !IS 71:l ·00 zzn 460 340 \.60 120 151J 12:5 ~§o 1..m.mits Whjle Stil rtiflg.t motor branch d rcuit must have B r I umpacitv of a ~kbL 1~5 pt1"t:(<"lH fil tht full.vu) from ~ . and [Jvt rload unit s lJ..300 1. ?rrliHn:i if lh~ rl. art ~dJilim:mJ.no erceptions that normally appiy t.e ~boLII: 1'h pel"=erll This is less than n~rrn~tll" r.itl U1J\'lru-S ~t!?':IUf[)r11Jllc:.mlb.rEm fROM SERVfiClE.Tbis concept.IDmg.lged if ~h~rnntor ksoCl.~plio-n i5 now h ml[~ lo msI:all.) this are rule." dficonn~u a 5{l k-.verlc.1 115 85 6{1 225 180 140 5.(:r 50 t€l't f WID specified roc.800 1.iO pcrcenrof the fiill-load current of lhc motor: if~ irne-dclny fuses are used. '11 ]A.lc:t1Glb[e_ h~r ~.l..illrre:o:ettii1!1. bear in mindthaz a motor ci rcu i t i~ spcrialcase in \>.a . (If. outlined alRlW [or dis.Ed.f nst rc~Wt'r 'I'alUES.. The rnu LOI m~f net start. 'EC llmr ett. {oAWG 3bO 300 140 h V.tl.~veT> effecu~'e withrni' ::!OOl . bm H it I.ct drn'>'1J <i well shaft m be min Slgb. short d Fe til b orgrounds.!tE'T than..b an'rerag~ thn.umi I'Ig tbe wire ha~ an a:n.000 100 85 900 72. he (Ow..I'IOw hard thl! lead isro Ua rr.ingle--phaSl!:' re~r r m~lIilT1io nnly.n (~" the f narneplare of the fUflt.'( apart.m iI~ rated hn rsi!pO'iNt'r. Of if it does ~t will dclivl. their ampere rari 11£ rn LI..

.A~ a SCI'l'JI.~ df~)I' which i~. l~l narthem dilIml¢5 w'here sl..grhof the Sp~jU.er pum ps and wat..m.e: mot0F510Fl furm. lw the owner. whkh js.drop problems w lahout using. '#. rieprnrl:[ng un local practirc.lle-ave.t. 'the d15conm"tting I~leam . r~funow~ w~rii'lg..\\ ires lei ILlW build:i[lg5 ~ (if. spt:~:ifu: Ikl Wli.lcttJr~ aIld "'"iring prl)L:~u.1] m make' .·d.i.nher ImildWp as WaJ.Ulg under them.l~~ r.hpower to (I ~~erate811 ell eql.L. le.ls of the ft1ql11 r'em~ I~ts of JVEC Arti de 54 7. the hULl se rarely consumes rhegTC.1 subject to <mJ brooJ~rlij crop ru-ymg ~uip ITGnl I'IH:'l1l.f:.ad.V"E ABOUT THE fiA. and ~imlla. Th is i11dudes ~U$Of rs or IYI 0 ror-d riven m ~f.l""lal"e 1 m. ~~ !X)wu: ~~I~ II· tered Iarm V"dn:t and man .- flte-hHiIrlmp wtlii1'f~I_~~~'"!'.!JIl. hX:ilmI wnac Ine~e>1 wIT'::>lml be the shortest w i~) )"DU""illlinrllT retnilft'ly:simpllil U'I<.orh er q:. On prnrtically all farms laday.ltil.lgerom..l!t.dcrtnCol!rt-q w rc.i: .rgl'rhaawould ~tl':i~f\'.lcJsier tn folio .<. Since it is nut ~J' actnal service disconnect..:r ruquircmen ts as ~'lLy houses and part of thrta. 8-] 9 fm an exaanple ~. in Cliaprer ..m:re~wiE 1!:S nl'uT rai .ru.llpmimt.tfnd2 conductoo-at rh~~pointaod ru[llt fmm thl:: . incubators m~ be wired as any otherhouse.l(.l. i'I hmken wi£~ mt the WQund isua:t... h~lt!rs tf'l.f HOUSES R"I. Underground cables are being used more and more in>tt":ld of m'dhe<lcl Bi!sit::(Ofi~trucil:ion at po'l€! Three wire'> LL'llIaUyru.IJ:!>1 [CU<lL¥''hen the put~ iet. ! ~-L In additi. rious kim:ll!i. Prom the '{QPof the pole.st bcing 1>'rir('d~ lkG:iUr.llay be provided hy the utilit~ (I.ming. 'W'JJ:ing !smct. milk OOOI~fS. t\~eqci1 building theH'':.!nlLia!J.>ires run to th~ house.':S ci~maGe h~' vt'hicl~ an d machinery p.:hto iI sui~dbl~ e~t(trode a~ the' pule lmSlf. dOIl~ whm fl1IDl!i h'~e fu.uds will be n:hm'elry long. This gives ~ \'ery untidy appenrance aad in\ ites pmblcms uf .lmrli(. "site iwlating device" W clL~dllg'llish it from a ~niGf discOIlIl.:m iI' uvnid mh.e lmilding5lhin C311he- r]eed to beslippJj~d from t:hi3poj!1f.H'Ider. HMng man) OV~J'hea. b~ ofhftattd ErDm ~ readilyaro:ssible polll l tru:[] ugh tile perrnanmthi l1~lled linkage ~llOwn in Fig.l~<.~ thdMKc..phort.?fes 1('1 he t CIMAPTIER 1 '1 Farms fAIU.~ h{JlI~ eIp~Il. olIwa~ gw undf'J:l aX iliC' po]!:'.1n~ P:wb!em:s.l\renlent reference. T!JtJJ oo. Jc'o'ire (!..(nil pter .ples lnvolved.: num her of wires ru tm Ul!l. stcrilieers.e drop. 17.lTe it is stIOn~ enLlCIgh for the yuu must uscwires !e~l.li.'.". yn u must use lilrge wires I(Il Mlen mrry fhe .. t'qllipmt'f1t milkmg machines.pt~r 11.verv brrJle ~ r. It is the rest ()l the ferm that mekes up the main carried. sets at ". Iwep wa ter Ii) r 1ivesrock or po Llh ry freezing. the farrnhoUliC mppli('J by ~. 7 Filrm~ C<l[T"!'I he un to "{"£'}" Iiirge wires to lh.hoavy amperages without undue ltoltagt· drop.dt:ll 'is.:F:m:njJl(. hilt it is important I.~ ""ill have a . with hug..ill hilS the SHIL!!!!) of . Figure 17-1 ~bows a modem farm disufburicn point. the power 511ppltIT~ ~"rir£send on 111 pak in the [arm p rd.'l. Sd~1 a wi re i>izebig ~J'IoLLghto GlTI'f Ib load irI amperes wlrhout ~"'TS..~)I~·cd.~'[. The mtmind~r of t.in ordcir to gain f. less ~'![jlIt:~~e ""rjres to ih~ buildl!li:~ ~~lh the small b..'iie bc necessarv fur the number of anlp. consider wire ~i?:e caTefuily. ~n li"tm an: rnmmun. k£p~ do".{'s ID ili~hou>c ilflJ from lhL:r~[\) rnllH. 11bcca.trn or cin:uirr breaker w disconnect thecntirr installation.ME pow..th UIli!'Ial nd..TdaIry eg'l. The Ir~ or cable you U:':e depend~ on the p!lf"POiie of th~ bunldli~.inI!! '<t' wiring II I ~ meter pole.The 2[)Ol NEe has reclassified this device as a. wires !<1.gan:ling how tbe-y intend 10 ~P'Ply Lhc ~Ion The m~u1ri!l i <. tl'l\1t musL !"fleer !he is then:' a pol~n'llhv mil run th~Wu. j.re:s .=JlI5 for fU[IlJ~rIl"ci(1minatdy in fEm. and proCJ.ruln~f~b iHtyl{j ~igh.§o1 G ral. Chl'E'rhead or uAIild'@rgmund? A far 111 wired using iwe~head win .d win~ un a 11i~Llh1tEd .~fron:! the pow(. go to tl'I. rethe ham.e:ttrn ligln[n~ for forced egg]l reduction..El'ER POlE I"DISiRI BUliIONPCUNT'" ~N NECUI:MlNOlOGY) %y the wirin~ tb'l.[..ctll~~k with ytl LlI power supplier J:.selyiCt" COlldl.and to the oHterhuildlilgS to lilt' served... wnerf'this chapter begins.e vo!tag. whf L-h <lpplJes to a~lBUl pam Oi1~ of most but WJl aUagricultural bufldin&S:LOCAII NGI iHE .Qh'e"Dlw~.. lhi:'win~ art groU!llJt:d ill the pole.~rell in pIoviding tbe power needed W carry on the business of furm.levi f""· the "'olt~ge' d rOjiJtopic.ft L1 th~:p 1I:':"\lnIiW"m~ r.'r®CLlSM.. aU over I he pIa ee.:d b\" jmLlIl.cr hmltTs: irrigation. r r eou ar~ going to use (1 i.)EUJdcarallce rcquirt'me:l'IlS" d~b.[ice istn usc triplex cabl'e (see Fig.ln~m~ rhat mn be a" nid. )'l'll Illilit insulJ . Lht'l[ sornerimrs larger then otherwise necessary fur Lhe load involved.lJntlngroufld wires crn1 little mme endrr~~'altrhe."[~1Jrplier\ trans{U'= and end allh~' ~jJpohhepok 'JUd~yth~ usual pr.l is. 'ire collected in this chapter f()r to study the ennre book.ILC' ~llipITIJ. wi res can I:m:ak [rom the wcight of ace umulal£d ~.e~l.but separate \'.EiI~ulral blDCk[JItht: ~. This mapterlooks at the wiring considerations ~ncoiJnl.f lim l''''V ulJ Icad 180 From the pol~ trip.'IC"pITlhk"lnr.M Chttpll. 11 is impt'll"t>l.l1O.allood Ln"..L'd lH'Ider thi~ lopic iII ChA.. on farms. and tb~ smaller. expEJls1\'l: wires tn [he buiklirl~ ~'oth the big hld'll will' he' re.<.. al the (uP (if the pok it ern.. ~ serviceentrance wiri'H"I1H a meier...Jg. On the pole ~re the meter and nfien it . ires are shOWD 111 the drawing t fii5."l:iU[1:.'!:'ct.Iart.."1.NoLe thai although lflt' ~. which means. and so 00_ Ib j.reMle':5 .. thlJ.'>t'anding ef'the prtfH::j..~ arc discussed on page:s 173-171..'erhead winng.M. grrd[~t mount of POW!:f will be used pcr ye~.I grounding I!k.hi ne ry.m:'!\' ide eno i. The larg\:: lu~ds fCq uire h~:vv :>ervlce equipmen [ and Til1anyci rcuas.

usuaHy using a circuit h~t.. me AhhmtUllfi Ih~ bam.kt'l conn eered.el}.e~ r~uirlllS gJ. tlmlif you 11'1]..ing:k stac k~1 and some prefee tiro cenduits I "do. InstaUingl '~he m"l!"~r ~Q(ii:et The m ~t~r. unbroken. fraction n r. it must arriec 81. at a height re. 'I11~~e:rvice to th~ ha rn is !1nnnafilYwlrt:J 00u"r-1i\'ircf.lhc: feet ofH\'f'Smck.. [he meter socket i1.'ii1'contact with rnoisrun:.nuJI:dya. at iI'll rum wowd mean the Of Ld rru.U . MD!>l liv~'.=d like the hOWl$.l :i!2.. own rcSi<:'t:tn(~.mich CM! no farmer a(fura.afjtk:l~ted by the 200.50tQJ.small service.lb1e_ . lDowenrr..JiYbe requi rl!..2 NK.uble st<K:k:").)h~ 10 be :rupprioo wi rrha fLJIJJf-·wlrc serviee.. rllJ"1lDho~semust ~'!)t.rlW:of :J.e diocLlDIJ. four~wll'il!~ d istlri bu~io".om.ed at lh~ heme just a. Cambinaticn rnete~ sockets and main dk<imIlIlec..Then run the load wires fmm the [oad termimJs of ihe service d [s. l>ited.b. Pirst.across the Iine. iI:r~ een dUdlvdy [luhl:f \'o·~1oollplGd lo total earth.! ground..~t:rfblitiOllw~tb Ih e 1'1 eutral (".lct0'F must hi: fuJl}.in the prooe'i~ (!If caJ1)ing ~I[~ t across its.. allow ~1~thewires in one ..ll('I \'OIM..As sh OWEl in Pig..and other farm chemirals.dlliile aJld.quLred by the loca1 authorities: rhis is llSl!]aiJy 4 m (j. ~tt em take a COli>' [lion 1"If milk pmdud:ioo.~ barn. 11 clu:cr-wire hook~up would fI'Iun th.: is i "flIm~shrd hy the ruwer sUPlPlfeiFbu'l: mSlalli!cll~y the COI1itraotOE . is not fi AWe.l).()mp1dely dlvorced from any local e1e. are bonm. -l1~aII1Uimbe-r t:onuufl IEMT)! fur Wlf!!S Em pry conduit (EMT} a 5 h lIf1dle raws Il<llf pale rig.~fcmn£[ (usually abbreviatoo a Cl }T discussed under its awn htl'ldil1gtater in lhi~dlll.JJ .[ISC uh.~fall bam cqui rmmt by SOIm~Iin il e Jmounl relati~ to !.'Ed immedi~teJy below me m eter socket. wouh:l mnstmLly elevate the vollage U'J ground .he a.'llCiI thiswilieauivc~ ill the bara.TioeFll'lrl ilieloarl WHes.rlj couldccmc dewn the pole to a meter' sO!.'. b~inli! in ~lo. SPEC IAL WIRING SiTUATIONS AN D PROJ EUS H!3 n:grmmd.rl{k. the ~i~£ the IlCHLraL It must act be arn ~He. i 7-1.1a2..I~C' {I. 11 abcve grmmd level.. ln this case . LiOn!. the L:.rL~""f!.uruJ wire».rN.. discussed later In this chapter. share ~ common gmnn ding return p:uh u·itill tfI.}· ss i~ appears to blnl1 suirnats where ili~y ~3nd.pmt~l WDundillg S}'stl"min the bam WlJulJ he bonded wg~r ~~ihe barn disconnect. a l~at dT.: HI are ItHl. or 3m AWG. e IJ!iU~1 prcoederc h is w witt. Run ~(ll: wi res from 'tJhe bO~tQ111 of the: meter !QC'ket wili1: lint ternll nals I11f.frncalI'(in~.s.lllipotent{aJ plane .eakf"r.s. MOWlt it !>t'Cllf. UOt.ge grudicllLl thall peop1e arc'.h.wtiJJ.'tillable ami s!... esp«:iall.ta:ll tkemin a wmmDnrnt:ifWay mf: (ilil? usuai cast} ya. 1110. 11.lo~dcml.In Q the" localiti~ it is stIpp'1 red by the contractor.for ifJ('£e ~llvlmJ'liI!le:J:L.h more srnsiuifC. Second. it 2siablisb.. and: the neutra l ls 110Awe wpper (lmtlh sized 01] the b<lsi~ofload).:t. That is.. as nOffm Hy requiFOOJJ)' 1(ECTah[e ISD.a! eqmpmmlgruunwng ~!eUl r~lI:mved.u:h 8 nd r~te ~~etIDg il.. i:hhc nm tQ the b::lm i~Jm AWG copper for a lOO-amp di~o:Jrn:lITl.lt ili. burthere is ao. Theseparate cqlLi~me!n~ gnnmdir1!g lll.~if !"hI: I. ]:a sizinS 'th~sel"'l.nnJefi or li?q. rf rt dees. thee ~e'.o.ol'lJuit (~!. nor is it 110 AWG.md~ng condnetor 0 t1I ~be !lupply side of <I Sei"l. the hn !.. Pass the' I..f SIZ~ for a gr01.ot win.llg: us i 3f() Awe wires.c nl:util!Jl and the ~qui. slraigh~ th:rough !:he meter &OCkrl nl'l dtei!r "'i'ly-bad t:lr. dl.'Ounding.u mustoourn the four .p'Ler.J 5lI~ldl ur cirellil br.d: Th e NEe ad~ke~~~s Ihi:!i in t WI) wa~.i·~ the u!'Iiqtl2 rub un fOlflYl diMJ'ibutiOJJti heing ffi'IIlfTBd here.ui~ml"nt~l.dYcJlQ.miPlily tbis F recess. ~"illme~win:'. as rn the 'case of a common metallic water piping S)'Stem. ~.ed back up to the-point gfbegil:Ulil'\!l:a~th~ pole ID~). m.uldl~roml condition a'lL<lchedtu thE (UUI-W me scheme that is nnique to agri'11~1l!:mI bWl:tlmgs. A pOL€ntia] d~ffer{'[lc.Irfac. not eonnerted arruss I he 1111 e. \'i.. [11 the (.'l 7-1 'P1l~ l'!:!p""".. the :wllJ. could :LIro he wir. but instead is connected !ihml!!Lgrn current ~J1. and (2lhavc ell instances of electrical cO[1EaC!!:qetwC>I"n neutral ilnlT the loc.-s as ~L!n. ner is it 4AWG.quipmenr g I'{lUlldingoo[lduClO. il e~tilbl ishe5:m t"f.r of [han the largest I1f1'grmJI"IL'ilfdllrne wl1ci:uC:Lor.i1it¥ had mJd~ e dil'tct termiaarion.LN'ie at leas:! (i[Oll'!ifef~ of the poJ~ dE!':lr OJ i!lklw line WOl'lt@'r~ alld F€'palr WQ~ to dlmb the m:' wllhoLIl. .rrgu3~~v.~ockret ~tlm~tme.:: the ril. Somepo1i'l'i'[ ~i1pplijew.

IIseonlya (0~PC1' dal'l1p.iote the tl. III Soli rne lUQ'llihc~ it L5stapl eel to ~the pore (In ~he ~ittl' opposite the co "ti ~li!. The service entrances must have [he correct r'llings and .norracks olthc general type s h()\\'n in FLg 17-1.n instc<ld of [he 45 ~mps.IM run tht' POllnJ dm.JJ'g_efarm ILkl~b.meter socket (("II!..1' to ~.•e must run nom Lh~ \'. m ~kt' ~Llr~ Coolh the lOp and hOHn m t"fld~ arC" bonded to t.lIT'" im tg ~paru. to wmpme thC' In" d {{'IF SIT\' ict' C()ndUct.['!fC£pt ihe entrance ""'iIilNt have ol ml'T~r.ped he:. At each buildiua there mll~! he <I service cntHn..1 hut summer Lhy. use at least one ! n)iI glr-boh.V1:. r.wS..:l'r loJ<iY'~ rUL1 have six 12(1 .Jj ~[]Lps.cc ()flh@ ~'raw.0 vnlt~.n r:h~pl. fir plate clectrude SL1Ch ~ ~fl~U[lJ ~'Ll.J40 l'U{!. ThF top mt1le u5ual8·ft graund tot! ~11(Juld :ndIJP b~r(lWthesurf.tl.role l!:'X(t'r11he hou'!.Pe. h all the 1. t('ltal 0190 . For f1uofes. hut e~pt'ril'nL1: has shown that better pmreclion ag.a:ins~lightning i~ ubtaincd if the.1 1.lVlllg J.''" uf h ~.n ~4(1 ~'l)l1s..: h'lll<.'n lh~ role. use the amperage ~h(J\IIo' 1 n Tab le 5-.lfthegroufld md·~ CDp~r. I'N motors.ng pOWeL 1. tlOlt all be used o1t tht: ·L11 and )'llll ~in have . and Il A\.~ Man d ~rd pract icc to run.~r 11: lurH. hapter 8: remember dlJt tf the ~n)I. 1"1-1.tnT!!' 1(.\'1 re from the.~d ~flll1T1J '>'IirL' a~ descr.r f the wires a re installed in siL~'::...ill k~. ill th. p. Ibtinq ~~tTict~f'5. discussed under ib ~m'11heading in l..{n r Gmu'l'Id ·(I·t meter po~'e For a ~m all ~~r vice u~mg a meter conne-cted d i ret:1lv .CT\i.r1in.wd rc-certadcr-theCl r.rr "lw~y~runs from the top of [he puletlrruuah the conduit H'j.oj res and on e r.~~I ht" inronli..j)l:~lh('r requires their JITip~utJ~' rfwln r ~hl~ ~-I ' w be derated bv mlliuplyinf!. use iI n extra Ful('".~ H.40 ~nd nUA I shuw ho".i r J.:.. ~ill~e th~ \. h~ puk. ~t.d later m thl~ ch~pter Ui 1\1t'r "BuT1ing thE ground toJ.cent lights. pipe..s of ~.lv to tht. (.ground wire I~ FL. ulrnest alwavs use the. f. i [lSi st on a DIRECT WF.!IL m [)~ [Tl~ rking on the clamp. 12.~ un the pole for the equi plW nt g..: pmc~-JlITC (o~·H{'.he endn. SIZE OF WIRIES AN[)i5ERVICE \ \':i. r an U ther loads.:t t~.e w rrvs under hcai l' w inds (I r i JI .>11%' hme. s.t ep.i=u'r r~·ceptad{'~.rcent. wire is aoceptablc for ~pans up io :.rger ~eTYLCe:'i millg p(ll~-tl)r disconnects and (T~.p(ll~ I.LIf the pwp~r ''''.! t of rh r. rumllF'I(! frtHTl li1.. hOWl'W'T.i re ~....'\0: e~ltLi mCTll fn r each f~n 11 p huildin ~ I ~"~(e'Ptto.rsi Jde-rminc th~' .lunh m~ Or IIl".]'T pla.. Tho.. remember that a copper win: I(10 feet !on~ \\'i11be a ell uple of indLt'~ shorter next wi mer when rh e ternpcrar u re 1~ below ze 1"0.It.ioO feet.lsidt' the conduit. .! ch r ack .'on't B h~ .arm bui~ding .: ~if~I.: pule to various buildings.OT$ ~ l1a se r.l~rh' Along the lower .. 1. Anchur the racks with heavv I~S ~Ln:..pacil~' J~the ~am{' time.0nW-volt service..i!:!!rapb.vide.n~ likelihood IJf L~.)( 15) al 1::'.If HJU us~ metolll i c . hut gmu nd\ 111~' sockc L..it ross the line...a.J rod. use the ~t)ldi as.d" ~ FtI!rh".~"Lil ChapLt"r!\ .. R""n1l"lnl"rr 're that there !s great stra i n ou 1]. then to grnun d.rlll building with two or m·OIT cirruirs.~efat. running from thl' pole ro anv I-.elf~the ball a ~t adds frol1:'l l5 to 2:. DIEnRMI~NING.k-r 'Bonding at th e ~I'''.] at the top or the role di~. 11-0 LOm hub 1 l [0 ground. Todav'..~ild f .Ht~ .nrri:ct ~mp~ l 1 t i~ must bo· deterrnin t'd 10 I' t he wi I~'~ r IJ 11 ning Iro I1l the pole f\) Ins'tillator'5 01'1 pole Near the top ot (he pole. Bl"LLtT vet.·'OIl.1 buil dings.wulld \\ m" I~ h. by u~~ng the formula thar fnllows are the minimurn would be wi~c tu install ]ar::.'CirL~ met bod fllr deterrninu-g the arnpac irv (If the ~~m~:.184 SPEC1Al WIRlt'IiIG '511 LJATION'S Ar><ID PrlOJECT5 II[ currcnt-carrvmg wires IL!n r."<1\· through the pn I~. Run it. WillIS SAme J'h. b. d~lrin:il.l~k tor ~·a.mJ wire ! LHlS1<_' .rLn b.\.~ 240 vol!s.lOJcil'J "~La. ground rod at the bottom lI( Ih~' pole.he .~ it guc~.tbt: total w:Hl:s b)' .~~ other ho i.. ~r€'n(naft~rinspection. Prul{'. rhe e-nter terminal 01 the meter socket. t>. . ]" . Leave a lircle slack ~Q insulators will net be 1)\.:h set of . sdd aOoLJI :2(1 percent LOthe wattage because the watts rating of fluorcsccnts defines un lv th epower consumed bv the larnpi l .. Ct~\ ~ ring" or ru n it in rigid nonrn eta Hie ~I HH.i(e *=111~ f1 ~~''') llr U.. dHowLng 200 sidl' ::!4H Fi~ 17-2.Illlperag~ <:11 G'.. IS-amp GrcLJllS f('ll: l!gbb .] LI ~I. IL ~.:o must be dttermlncJ. Imilding an wire straight Minim.!. lcrrninared '.determined Y[lU n~~ire w northern areas on . The rmnirnum ~il:t: or wires un 1h e po I c L~ based 0 L1 th~' total I 0 ad OTi a11 wires b~1ween pole ~n d or in divid lJ.p ~\'!.m~t-e·For hgh t~ ynu can n determine rhe total walls from the lamp size rOll mtend to u5it. &:-~mnined by ~h(' preceding pM.end n(.l rd pole " I ~ndi vidua I h uildin ~~. lur c.rt"s tun ITom (M{.. g never m:~d~ be . then p mcefd .1lh will prulMbly he on th~ ~afe time" Then rli.!11>' llliiJ kl D ~ 'l.! 7-L It is usually run wdwd in aloneside the conduit 81 r.urn selr'lii(eklr each I. pcrrnisslhle byNI£..VEC provides a ~pI.il1g conductor ru 11 In The b.IL'l~~r cd U.h and l~T shown in h~.t'-:l.. o It is assumed that the building willl12ve a thrce-wlre.tLc.II£lH than n -\\\\~.ll lo~d~ h.it. e gm ll. whicb i~~()mputrJ . rb e gmuJl d .iI. From the Il<"LHr.l v ic ing in ~ northei n arens. i. 0 r . Enter th~ .1mprr:J.H1o.ut wi rh the w.ibN.in!l m II~e ..re. .l.nd w.e. Provide ()11~ rack r.et" "W~Flt "ii.C for longer spans.~~.L 2:0..lU11.. winter. each building and f~)r Ihe wires on the rueter pole..:t ~t from dam-a!!e. pr.t .olT1plt't~ the installation U_~1!lgIh..re: Suppm.L~]~dtT bltilding. with L·-sha. [he neurral \\f.'adl hUJlding 10 which \.. At one ti rue i t Wll.. In~tdn II1:..u S.ruu nd.n sizes to aljow for future expansion.~mrem~r ~I ~4nV().. I:()f '.10dl'tnffilm the size of the p.:on.. th .l~ ~hnwn in Fig. Number 10 A\\'C.gt' tor ~'... and lor determining rhe rating ihe service equiprncm iii that buildmg.:LJl. so the [oral amp(:f<tgeat .. .~ ~ gUl~J pmti on ofits effectJw r Ile~~..I~ J and lnt Imal mnIl 8nv 't)~d..:~ as disrusscd ru Chapter 80.r i. (. I'he neutral i~nor necessary for l'r() per nperation of the rn ete r.

. for use w~th a 2{l(1-~~mp service. Ifl~. The II1~ter opcules on a wt8l ~If no[ more rh. rmLllfl1Um ~~ follows usillg the..f1l~lIl d I~Q. ~ ~ means wry large Wl rt'~ running [rom the lOp·n t the pole down to ~he rn ete r and t back agamtu I. TOf2f ofa I . WIn<>.r..1.md ~ .lldLf1g mQtor~.Q [WI} mo~t!t I same ~IZ~.i'i rsr 60 amps plus SO%ofth8 next 60D amp~ p U~ 2 ..~ eu rr.bQ~Q_ "'D~-e 2.Ji~sram j"~ s.de A wiring i.. at 50% S. r i fell" the vullage. Gmp:!.'.~ns. ~r f!):ampf~.rc. dd 30 {SO% d r. mi ned in t h(" pfC'viou~ £<)..' a Inp~. WLlh rhe two hl11 wir~s nmo:ing through the hole.add ii togl"!her 6() ptus 30 i~(. am paci ty of 9 5 ith am p~ Dr" moore.LlLtjD~ bar ~..'11 tn the' merer=-instead U~-f a current transformer (L~P. rH)tChe ra[ing Oof the ~wll'(n 1j5ed.B ptCf ___ amps ~mp5 _d"Tlp5 ma.nowJ1 in f i g_ 17 ~L c.. If d [s less th en 60 A no t is ov~ r M.aJblv ! h~ ~'e ~ sho [t-ti. W he 11 proper h i nqalkJ. 5 amps will now in the seoondarv.more than S amps.1mlect mw:. FUllf small 14 AWG wLre~ fLUl fmrn thl' lo~~ofthepo()lc 10 Ih~ meter ( w hi ch must b~ 0 f the t~"P~' itable for u~e with ~ ~:L. rotal o{ ill I atfll!r b'JlI d illg~ __ ~FTl~5 __ ~f'lp5 at 7. shown in Fig.~Ircuiud r while ~m' CIJ. and the of t Iw win:.url'eflt translo r mer..~(il'dmg tr..(~n~lder !.li p..: liun: ult Jmp~ 1. It h3S only a s~ngh: winding.r:ly thlnJ'i<i..!~t t hat motor ___ IIluu'!" add h!.io.(!ot the servsce lo c wires un the pole [rOHl the top of t 19. Wit..ry krrw 1~~lls. ndi~'[ ual buildillg. has the 5h<~ ~~cof a dou ghnut ~.~mper agt ~l 2~ () volts of ilil conn ut the j. Now Jet us determine the ~ih· of ere they ~r~' connected TO (be power D{l:' Li P (iJ the top oft he pole' where rh<:~' are mnneut'd t~the wires leading . jf i~i~100 amp5 W the primary. Juwn W the meier. ""h ich~~et pp kAt b~tw@n 30 ~mp!o ~nd W am ps I. If conn<Xl~ I~ to a kilu\~arrhol. caIcu. pll. the n~ r rent tlowin gin .llt~He in its :.a~pillcity iflst·dilltion.j is NEe rnrn imu.cunml tr~ n ~f(l rm:r ..l.Qflm!er rh~rn 3~ one bulldingfoF the purpose JDOVP.rn.Tbeload wire (ill which the current . tl.msfmrnt"[ has a 200:5 ratio. i and 6 AWG wire.'iU show 111 aL1uai k.. HJL'calcularinns ~L(J""t'deter- mmed the SLt.nsforn~er-is con[l~t~d [0 the meter.ig h e~t oi!Im'pprage 4.~ hO\J~e.!> ere ot ~lIch ""meter that i $ rl ot shOrl-<-l r~ liLted. 1 there mo(~ (j[I!. 17 -3 A cur rf!rlt rran sform~ L thC'~o.re 2. use 35 iIomp~not W am p!o.g minimum sizE! o~ w .~ he 10 . LJ~ea ti\)-1mp ~".e ttlC' sarne f'~llctl(>n.. oftJle!.e are two brooder hC{J~~ leqLlirinq ~5 ~nd IJC _~mp~ ~ a ~~pE'cu~ejy. the current in th e seconda rv will be '1M of the cur ren tin the P r i rnar}'. mple if lhel.akui. . rf fell an~' bul rlLr'I(l you de[~lmineG ~ mlnlrnurn of 35 arnps t}ur('1DU usc a 6O-~mp ~wit(h 1bf'£dU:~~ therE' is no ~r~e <imper~gi' 0J1. he lr. '.onoary tnIT'!ill ~ls of tb~ (I ansfonm:r InllM.Jtl0n j~ ~he Mnpacity rrocee.se a 30 "rnp 5witth and !l AWG 18 AWi. frsl4'J.~wrt with W(l% 25% of the remai r'Id~r of ~.I~efll as ~ smgl~ blJ~!ding requ'rjng 105 ~r11p5 If no ether builginq fl>'qul~ more than l1J~ al1'lps.! dd 51:)%oht"l~ I'i rst 60 a m ps or e. ~ Ampe{~gt! oJ! 24D voxs of "IIotherr' f.rnaintier >0/ ~~dli'lplE>.30 I 5 or y'j" am ps.Irren nrnmffl rme [ I: su t1..t: r~m.. That IS both rxptn.J% of thE' next .·f_ The tU_LcllDumher mLnitTlLlm rating of )'OIJ mtc -ji s upphcr'" wi re-S. Chapter 17 fa rrre 181 .]t 1{10%- 2_ 5e{on d h ighf!st a mpera ~e 5_ Ihi rd r. (.. __ arnp~.bovc 6. thF.it !fJe top uf lhe· pok.~ t~'PiGU (I) r rent transfo I.P! se from the ra~b"'lIng cbokes to U§.U rts.enH!1 105 <!mp~ In step '1 "..\n ordinary rrausforrner changes Ihe voltage ill its pfllll.rJ [Til i1~ the sewn dar}· ollhe ..:~Uj ilm: Thl' S(:.In :r ~mp~ but the- ~~ep 7 or the mJim"'ing l. thE. 11"0 rE' If ns 3.lJ[]wter. The wLre~ CHl Iht' pole ail cl lhe. mel g h tn h ~m. Hr9h~. If a mel u rle>s 0" motor Iit in t rwr~ 1 If twu or mere bu IIdll"lgi ha'''.wts.. a"ilpel~g£o ohhM moteL~ d amps amps ~mp~ I p rop <l~~ ~d d_ Adtl 0 !O b ur r.d lh~" ~wilcb or I'll "h.rye~t r ~f a do[!"~ nat incFude lh~ 1~1\lEH>t rno .:' II f [1 ___ ___ ~m..lll<. ~ a rnps ~ nd ~ j~ 1Q(l am ps.. ur a i~(. . sclscr th rmd the mlmmum ~t4:"orservke for 8M ~~Ing ~OUf resu I t~ dl~i..d. I 100-' p 5witcl"t adlJ. . thl<!e Of l. I [the current in the primary 15 2W) amp!>.1rr. 'o!Iii~h lr~ correspondlnq • 0 f brea~E'r of not less th ~n 11 5-arnp Cllk~hn[".. Ir E! ~r'I1per~gpto use ISthf' r"kll'~te-!1 ~m~f~gf!.ft h~ m~LCf v.5 amps.1ated ..and rf thei e \·lif~ ~e~ flDt rn t.IT"o:-nL fl~\'mlg ITl I!~ prLma[)'. u ra~iilg and .ent tlransf'o rMers tor mc.:v.r l ii used fa! Ihl" po!(!.ed t Llntlll~le I:m.["1 ti~tm\l the a mperdqe tor ~f)y one blnlding.)Of I~~~. pltl5 5 I~5% ohlle rpmllil1li nQ 21) Jrl1~~1 m· a WId I ~f 60 -t. (on~id". to lllU( h the trrmif]al. Om: current lt~rl~fnm1e'r L~irMal.itch ~'r'ld6 _AWG wire. IJI bUildrng..fld~ of "'olK .h~top. idua I lilJding I".~i'{e and clumsv. or e. I~ primer y j 5 reduced to a much lower curren 1 in its seco ndary M()~t current transterui e I ~ are designed SO tha 1.st oi ~IIt~e a mperages For an in ."IHeT. the tran~f(l r rile r wouh"1 luve a ·100S rat.d>l!!r'!'l h~gh-~.' tllr:m un:.~wnda[).meter 1... _ In 3mj. For exam If 75 af.Ibo\.:OIlda:rr.6 ___ n. As run.lk aU th el(l<l (1:. amps 0.(Jmtitutr~ ~ ~hon clrnliL..' .ilme urne.fmmer win prob. to 6 inches in diameter.s on th e pnll-. StJr! with the 1(l (25% of oftl1e first 6() oJ .l\i€'r 6i) <lmp'~.. 2·h amps will tluw in the sccondarv For a 40(] amp ~cpllce.s its seo. Filg.b~~~d.amper.Assumin g that the lr. It i~ not necc~~Hy tfl run such brge wires JlIII.o. rema inrl~g 40 ()( ef for I of 75 + so + ro or 1 1.. [he . y(ll~ wow d 1"1 d a dangl'T[JLJ-~ \'0 ll~gt.:mda.5% at65~ - d Lal~ ~-. Tetal ~[I.~ m U-~[ not b.ary to ~ different n. the I<lrgl.i}owanhUIJIS mn~um. ~~ figur~d 7 Total afS .\11 d two frum the hot ~~re~.l~ if d i5 . 17-3.~ hou5-E')as determiMd In prev"clus ("illcul~tion . the l ur rent in the seen ndary w ill never be.5'1i:of thi' ara t ..s to be meJ~ur€d) is run through the hole 01 the doughnur ami b(:comes the pri:rmllT. '~iI '··ith r: tid ~ogether lOG'"*. Ad [j tr.m \. from a bove.s I~ the service-at the pole i~rated at 2LKI mp~ or ruure nine 7 <)fthe pr"Cl"t'dll'3 cakulauonl. In <! .leJ .r of thPm th~ I". ah~dy ~he shJJ[\.WI RING S IfUll110N S A NO P~OJ ECTS G.

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