Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems


Seminar Report On


Presented By HARI.K.S ES4 M.Sc Electronics

Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems




This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” submitted by Mr. HARI.K.S, 4th semester, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Masters of Science Degree in Electronic Science of Calicut University, is a bonafide record of the seminar presented during the academic year 2010-2011.



Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems
(Head of the Department of in Electronics) (Seminar Coordinator& Lecturer Electronics)

We express our indebtedness to the Almighty for, among many other things, the success of my seminar report. I would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and thanks to our principal Pradeep Somasundaram Sir, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out this project successfully. I have a special thanks to Subi Sir, HOD of Electronics and Madhavadas Sir, Lecturer in Electronics who encouraged me to take this topic. I have also special thanks to my friends, and my beloved parents for their ideas, suggestions, co-operations and support. All glory and honor to the Almighty GOD, who showered his abundant grace on me to make this seminar a great success.


Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are increasingly being considered as solutions for a wide range of transportation problems. ITS combines sensors, data communications, computing systems, traffic control devices, and intelligent data processing and control algorithms. Managing transportation systems requires several key steps including system monitoring, traffic conditions estimation and prediction, definition of appropriate performance criteria, system control, and finally simulation modeling. ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency, safety, and environmental impact of land transportation. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products.

Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………. 2. ITS Logical Architecture………………………………………………. 3. ITS architecture………………………………………………………... 4. Intelligent transportation technologies………………………………… 5. ITS Systems…………………………………………………………… 5.1 Advanced Vehicle Control Systems……………………………….. 5.2 Vehicle Information & Communication System…………………… 5.3 Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems………………………... 5.4Advanced Traffic Management System……………………………. 5.5 Advanced travelers information systems …………………………. 6. Developmental Areas…………………………………………………... 6.1 Advances in navigation systems…………………………………… 6.2 Electronic toll collection systems…………………………………. 6.3 Assistance for safe driving………………………………………… 6.4 Optimization of traffic management………………………………. 6.5 Support for public transport…………………...…………………... 6.6Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations…………… 6.7 Support for pedestrians……………………………………………. 6.8 Support for emergency vehicle operations………………………… 7. Objectives……………………………………………………………… 8. Advantages……………………………………………………………. 9. Disadvantages………………………………………………………… 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………….

Dept. of Electronics



Simply speaking.CAS VDY . information systems sensors. it is the application of technology to transportation systems. The development of ITS. The opportunities many of these non-traditional transportation companies have already realized will secure the continued contribution of both public. products. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products. safety. however. Intelligent Transportation Systemic the incorporation of information technologies and advances in electronics into all parts of the transportation network. and operation research methods with conventional transportation infrastructure to address many transportation issues that confront the conventional system at this time. INTRODUCTION ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency. surface transportation was largely the domain of construction companies and the large automobile manufacturers. and services into important players in the industry. Until recently. The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems was first introduced as a concept of automating traffic flows. of Electronics [6] IHRD . Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems involve the integration of technology in areas such as communications.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1. has turned the providers of advanced technologies. and environmental impact of land transportation. Dept. The development and deployment of ITS has only increased the importance of the transportation issue.and private-sector investment in transportation and guarantee a steady flow of new developments to increase safety and efficiency.

Thus. On the road network. in cars.Basic vehicle. Intelligent Transportation Systems help drivers navigate. These goals are accomplished on the vehicle side through the application of electronics and communication technologies to advanced mechanical. productivity. roads and vehicles. Thus. Intelligent Vehicles systems will help lessen traffic congestion.The Intelligent Vehicles market. of Electronics [7] IHRD . and environmental quality for humanity. driver comfort and convenience. they let managers optimize fleet operation and offer passengers automatic ticketing and real-time running information. mobility. avoid traffic holdups and avoid collisions. Safety and security and Telematics. detect and manage incidents and display information. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a new transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users. improve safety. as is illustrated in the following figure Dept.CAS VDY . Intelligent Transportation Systems improve safety. Thus. guidance and instructions to drivers. will affect the vehicle in three basic functional areas . On trains and buses. and hydraulic systems. electrical. Intelligent Transportation Systems co-ordinate traffic signals. These systems. and foster a cleaner environment. a new automotive market is developing .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As more electronics are incorporated into the automobiles at higher rates. applied to automobiles. efficiency.

CAS VDY . ITS LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dept. of Electronics [8] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 2.

The Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). The Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS). The Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) which provide data directly to travelers. which account for how the system works. But as any system is. and makes them function at a more efficient level. less congested and less polluting and also enhance the existing highway infrastructure which improves safety on the highways. The Intelligent Transportation System components make up the whole physical architecture. The technology oriented functional areas include many systems such as The Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) which gathers and compiles information to disseminate it to the public. Dept. Intelligent Transportation Systems also consists of ITS basic components and services. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) and many more other systems components. since all the components of Intelligent Transportation Systems is very much interrelated. Thus it has been subdivided into the two functional areas as given below . ITS ARCHITECTURE Intelligent Transportation Systems is a worldwide initiative to apply modern communication technology to make our transport system safer. The topic of Intelligent Transportation Systems being very vast. there is no proper classification available. The application oriented functional areas include The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 3.The technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas.CAS VDY . etc. These goals can be achieved by a number of different systems and services. increases capacity on the highways. The Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) which takes total control of vehicles on the roads. of Electronics [9] IHRD .

container management systems. traffic signal control systems. Dept. weather information. predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources.CAS VDY . Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. of Electronics [10] IHRD . bridge deicing systems. and the like. such as security CCTV systems. Additionally. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications. variable message signs. such as parking guidance and information systems. Intelligent transportation technologies: Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied. from basic management systems such as car navigation.

specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation.CAS VDY . more capable computer processors on a vehicle. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Theoretically. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. 4. The current trend is toward fewer. or 3G.16). more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems.2 Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer. these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. Dept. artificial intelligence. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802. Long-range communications using these methods are well established. and ubiquitous computing. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. but. of Electronics [11] IHRD .11 protocols. unlike the short-range protocols. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. including model-based process control.1 Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems.

there are more cars. accuracy increases. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes. including heavy rain Dept. more probes. the distance between antennas is shorter and. of Electronics [12] IHRD . and thus. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. In metropolitan areas.3 Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. so does the signal of the mobile phone. thus. With more congestion. As the car moves. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: • much less expensive than sensors or cameras • more coverage: all locations and streets • faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance • works in all weather conditions. more phones.CAS VDY . By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information.

CAS VDY . of Electronics [13] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.

and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. Intelligent vehicle technologies.. RFID. and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally.g. length.CAS VDY . and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed.4 Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip. or surrounding the road (buildings. 4. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems.5 Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. Dept. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop. e. posts. Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones. of Electronics [14] IHRD .

depending on the brand and model. headway. and wrong-way vehicle alarms. counts. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds.6 Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras. of Electronics [15] IHRD . Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed.CAS VDY . this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. Dept. and lane occupancy readings. stopped-vehicle detection.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.

The two most popular means of communication between the vehicle and the driver are given below. ITS SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier. from beacons installed on the roadside via on-board car navigation equipment. 5.CAS VDY . they make up the whole physical architecture. the technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas constitute the basic system components of the Advanced Transportation Network System. This ensures that VICS changes from a "Luxury" to a "Necessity" once people use it. of Electronics [16] IHRD . Improvements in traffic flow in congested areas might be possible if the driver has information concerning traffic problems on the road ahead. It also gives alternative choice on routes to avoid traffic congestion.1 VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (VICS) Vehicle Information and Communication System is a digital data communication system.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. The benefit of this system is that. which promptly provides the latest necessary road traffic information to drivers via car navigation systems. Seemingly. Information is transmitted in the direction of traffic flow to the drivers to suit their needs. One of the areas having the greatest potential payoff for electronics in automobiles is in the relationship of the car and driver to the road. Dept. which account for how the system works. Thus. the key feature of automatic intelligent transportation net is precise and real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways. the road traffic conditions informed in advance makes a driver more relaxed and comfortable. There are over 2 million VICS units already in use.

the brightness can be controlled to accommodate a wide range of light levels. Dept. In addition to ITS normal function of generating voice output. the computer generates an electrical waveform that is approximately the same as a human voice. Also. (ii) Speech Synthesis (Voice Recognition): Important safety or trip related messages could be given audibly so that the driver doesn’t have to look away from the road. The driver can read data from the HUD without moving the head from position for viewing the road.CAS VDY . of Electronics [17] IHRD . In normal driving the driver looks through this mirror at the road.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Heads up Display (HUD): A partially reflecting mirror is positioned above the instrument panel in the driver’s line of sight.

ADVANCED CRUISE-ASSIST HIGHWAY SYSTEMS(AHS) The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) consist of systems that coordinate between the road and the vehicle using radio communications to provide the driver with information. of Electronics [18] IHRD . the Smart cruise Systems have been created by integrating Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASV) and Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) as shown below.CAS VDY . Fig: . The earlier discussed Smart cruise System coordinates between the road (Smart way) and the vehicle (Smart Car) in order to support safe and comfortable driving.2.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. and operational support for traffic accident prevention. warning.Smart cruise System concept Dept. Thus.

including drivers. Specifically. Fig: .CAS VDY . the Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) is basically the Smart way. which enables a wide range of information exchange among all of ITS users. of Electronics [19] IHRD . a variety of sensors.Services provided by Smart way Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As can be seen from the above figure. Thus. it consists of communication systems between the road and cars. their cars and pedestrians. creating a platform for a variety of ITS services. and framework for integrating and applying these features. an optical fiber network incorporated into the road system. Smart way is a road or highway.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The Smart way System is a very vast network. the addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car . 6. Rear end collision prevention function. 2. The goal of AHS is to reduce traffic accidents. 4. Dept. performing several functions. can improve transportation scheme much better. AHS is classified into three levels based on driving support. etc. 3. Detection System of Surrounding Vehicles. “AHS-A” fully supports the driving operation and the collection of information therefore. of Electronics [20] IHRD . Thus. namely “AHS-I” (information).CAS VDY . improve transportation efficiency as well as reduce the operational work of drivers. responsibility for safe driving belongs to the “AHS-A” system. Adaptive Front Lighting Systems. Lateral collision prevention function. ”AHS-I” supports part of the information collection for driving.automation and intelligence. AHS is the ultimate objective of ITS. which include the following: 1. “AHS-C” supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection. 5. enhance safety. “AHS-C” (control) and “AHS-A” (automated cruise). Automated Driving function. Frontal obstruction detecting function.

optimizing the transportation planning process. provide accurate and timely information that help travelers to select routes. times of travel and travel modes. empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. Dept.CAS VDY . this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information. a part of new technology applications in transportation.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Deliver data directly to travelers. They work even better with inclusion of geographic tourist guides and yellow pages that enable travelers to select destinations based on proximity to other places.3 Advanced traveler information system: (ATIS) Advanced travelers information systems (ATIS). of Electronics [21] IHRD . When archived.

of Electronics [22] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.CAS VDY .

variable message signs.cameras.monitor traffic conditions.CAS VDY . including roadway incident control strategies from one central location to respond to traffic conditions in real time. Real time traffic control systems .4 Advanced Traffic Management System: (ATMS) ATMS are a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems that has been used to improve traffic service quality and to reduce traffic delays.these systems use the information provided by the two previous elements they can change semaphores. of Electronics [23] IHRD . The three main ATMS elements are: Collection data team . Support systems .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. semaphores and electronic displays. network signal and ramp meter timing schedules. Help system operators to manage and control real time traffic. sensors. ATMS operates with a series of video and roadway loop detectors. send messages to electronic Dept.

of Electronics [24] IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems displays and control highway access Dept.

CAS VDY . of Electronics [25] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.

from Washington. DC.5 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) include applications such as automatic vehicle location (AVL). particularly providing “next bus” or “next train information.22 Advanced public transportation systems. such as Suica in Japan or T-Money in South Korea. APTS help to make public transport a more attractive option for commuters by giving them enhanced visibility into the arrival and departure status (and overall timeliness) of buses and trains. making it possible for traffic operations managers to construct a realtime view of the status of all assets in the public transportation system. Tokyo. which enable transit users to pay fares contactlessly from their smart cards or mobile phones using near field communications technology.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Seoul. to report their current location. whether bus or rail. Dept.CAS VDY . to Paris. of Electronics [26] IHRD . This category also includes electronic fare payment systems for public transportation systems. and elsewhere. which enable transit vehicles. are increasingly common worldwide.

for simplicity the overall development of ITS can be grouped into the nine development areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems which include the following: • Advances in navigation systems. Hence. • Assistance for safe driving. • Optimization of traffic management. • Electronic toll collection systems. • Support for public transport.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations. • Support for emergency vehicle operations. • Support for pedestrians. of Electronics [27] IHRD . Each of these development areas are discussed in detail below: Dept. DEVELOPMENT AREAS Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a field of very rapid development in all the areas that it is concerned with.

The information is also distributed to homes and offices to assist drivers in deciding on an efficient travel plan prior to departure. The information can be displayed on the display in various ways including characters. travel time required. traffic information is distributed to the driver via the navigation system that is compatible with information supply system so that optimum route and travel time can be selected. traffic restriction information. simple diagrams or speed map displays. information regarding congestion on the route. and traffic crashes are called non-recurring congestions while recurring congestions are those occurring at particular locations because the roadway's capacity doesn't meet the demand of high numbers of vehicles. of Electronics [28] IHRD . which can send and receive information as required. There are two types of congestions.CAS VDY . This information is provided by the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). to improve driver convenience. The traffic information includes traffic congestion information for each optional route. The congestion caused by incidents such as stalled cars. required time to the destination. Thus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. Dept. etc is shown on the display inside the vehicle as the driver drives along. flat tires.1 ADVANCES IN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS In this system. and current information on parking availability. thus best distributing the traffic flow.

traffic control information. Dept. In this way. the system enables one to work out an effective travel plan. The information will be provided on demand and include the level of traffic congestion on each route. of Electronics [29] IHRD . and parking space availability. Pre-rip information can also be made available at home or the office beforehand. This user service will improve driver convenience through dispersion of traffic flow. travel times.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems In-vehicle display unit The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Route Guidance Traffic Information The provision of route guidance traffic information makes it possible for drivers to choose the best route to a particular destination and minimize travel time.CAS VDY .

This method offers a huge increase in efficiency compared to manual toll collection. 6. The collection of fees is performed electronically by way of equipment installed in the vehicle and sensors at the toll location Dept. Here is how it works: when a vehicle passes through the toll gate. of Electronics [30] IHRD . save energy. and reduce exhaust emissions ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is a system by which drivers can pay tolls without having to stop at a tollbooth.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ii) Provision of Destination-related Information: The provision of destination-related information makes it possible for drivers to select suitable destinations for their travel. more precisely. it is an application of electronic signature detection to passenger and commercial vehicle traffic for the purpose of collecting tolls. and should reduce traffic congestion at toll-booths.2Electronic toll collection system: ETC is based on vehicle roadside communication system. or train stations along public roads. a microwave tags (noncontact card) exchanges information both ways between the gate and the vehicle to automatically subtract the toll from.CAS VDY . a prepaid card or a bank account. the system provides service information such as regional attractions through an invehicle device or relay units at toll road parking areas. for example. To enable drivers and passengers to enjoy a pleasant trip. service areas.

The in-vehicle equipment and road information apparatus are used to provide this driving conditions information and the associated danger warning to each driver in real time. navigation systems. other information collecting systems. of Electronics [31] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Conceptual image of ETC 6.3 ASSISTANCE FOR SAFE DRIVING In this system. and by the exchange of information using road-vehicle communication and vehicle-vehicle communication.CAS VDY . information regarding the positions and movements of the driver’s own vehicle and those in the immediate surrounding area is gathered on a real time basis by means of cameras. both on the roadside and in the vehicle. Dept.

at the same time.CAS VDY . automated cruising is also made possible by means of the data processing equipments that allow automatic speed and steering control of the vehicles. Thus. of Electronics [32] IHRD . an automatic control function is added to the vehicles to support the driver's operation through speed control by automatic break operation or driving assistance by steering wheel control if danger is detected while. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .Assistance for safe driving Also. considering the position and behavior of the control vehicle and surrounding vehicles. and obstacles.

(ii) Danger Warning Danger warning can prevent collisions or incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. of Electronics [33] IHRD . The system involves application of automatic speed and steering control if a situation is considered dangerous. (iii) Assistance for driving Assistance for driving can also prevent collisions and incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. thereby supporting the driver's decisions in operating his vehicle. A warning is given if dangerous conditions are detected with respect to the position of a vehicle. such as the condition of the road and vehicles in surrounding areas by means of sensors installed on the road and in the vehicle. This system quickly gathers information on the positions and movements of vehicles in the immediate surrounding area. and on traffic barriers ahead of the vehicle by means of sensors installed on the road and onboard the vehicles. or travel speeds.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The four user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Driving and Road Condition Information The provision of driving and road condition information can prevent accidents during the daytime and when vision is considerably obscured at night and in inclement weather. This system collects a variety of driving condition information. Dept. the distance between vehicles.CAS VDY . This system supports drivers' operations by adding an automatic control function to the previously mentioned danger warning service. in consideration of the driver's own vehicle. other vehicles in the immediate surrounding area and traffic barriers present. and this information is provided to each vehicle driver on a real time basis to enhance the driver's recognition of the travel environments.

driving amenities. Also.4 OPTIMIZATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT In this system. accelerator and steering wheel depending on the travel environment in the immediate area. by applying control over the brakes.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (iv) Automated Highway Systems Automated highway systems can reduce driver workload and prevent traffic accidents. To prevent any secondary disasters induced by a traffic accident. Automated highway systems make it possible to travel safely at a safe speed. This system is based on automatically controlled driving assistance functions. for improving traffic safety. the traffic control pertinent to the accident is performed.CAS VDY . this information is updated every minute on the metropolitan expressways. Mobile navigation is performed for the driver using in-vehicle equipment and information supply units to administer the traffic. and the road environment. Dept. and traffic restriction information is distributed to the drivers through the in-vehicle equipment and information supply units. a traffic accident is detected quickly. of Electronics [34] IHRD . by keeping a proper distance from other vehicles. optimum signal control is implemented for the entire road network as well as for areas with exceptional traffic congestion and damaged roadside environments. 6.

but also throughout the road network as a whole. implements quick traffic control related to the accident. (ii) Provision of Traffic Restriction Information during Accidents This facility can prevent secondary disasters resulting from a traffic accident.Traffic management The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Optimization of Traffic Flow This facility improves traffic safety and comfort and enhances the environment. of Electronics [35] IHRD . This system utilizes an optimal signal control and provides drivers with route guidance by means of in-vehicle devices and variable message signs not only in areas of worsening traffic congestion.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: . and provides drivers with the new traffic control information. Dept. This system quickly detects the occurrence of a traffic accident.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. support is given to choose flexible transport measures. the operation and administration of the public transport facilities are supported by real-time collection of the operating status of the public transport facilities. The information is transmitted to terminal units at homes. in-vehicle equipment and portable terminal units. performing priority dispatch as necessary. bus stops. of Electronics [36] IHRD . offices.5 SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT In this system. seat occupancy state. and expressway service areas. including the operating state. transfer and departure time zones suitable for the needs of the public transport users to improve their convenience. terminals. All information. and parking availability of the public transport facilities is distributed to implement optimum usage of transport facilities.CAS VDY . In addition. and Dept. and to information supply units installed in the roads. required fares and fees.

other fees. of Electronics [37] IHRD . and parking space availability through terminals located at users' homes or offices prior to departure. or through mobile Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems distributing the collected information to the public transport companies as basic data. thereby improving users' convenience. fares. transfers. and time of embarkation. The system provides real-time information on the situation with respect to public transport congestion levels. The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Public Transport Information Provision of public transport information supports public transport passengers in their selection of travel.CAS VDY .

or at terminals. bus stops and expressway service areas.CAS VDY . Thus multiple commercial vehicles with automated driving functions drive continuously by keeping a proper vehicular gap.6 INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS In this system. of Electronics [38] IHRD . Dept. 6. to reduce commercial traffic and to greatly improve transport efficiency and safety. and message signs or kiosks installed along the road. (ii) Assistance for Public Transport Operations and Management: In order to improve the convenience. portable terminals. The system provides public transport operators with various important traffic conditions data. as determined necessary.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems in-vehicle equipment. real time collection of the operating status of trucks and tourist buses is distributed as basic data to the transport operators. assistance for public transport operations and operations management enables the collection of information on public transport operating conditions and implementation of public transport priority measures. safety and smooth operations of public transport. thereby supporting public transport operations and management. and the efficiency of public transport business operations.

6. and improvement of transport safety. (ii) Automated Platooning of Commercial Vehicles Automated platooning of commercial vehicles can realize rapid improvement in transport efficiency. This system provides commercial vehicles with automated travel functions by keeping proper distances between vehicles. automated and systematized logistic centers and by providing information on joint distribution and cargo hauled on trips. accidents are prevented by detecting pedestrians in the paths of vehicles and warning the driver and/or automatically activating the brakes. This system improves the efficiency of freight and fleet management by establishing advanced.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Assistance for Commercial Vehicle Operations Management This system collects information on truck and sightseeing bus operating conditions on a real-time basis.7 SUPPORT FOR PEDESTRIANS This system forms a safe and pleasant road environment for pedestrians including the elderly and handicapped with facilities like route guidance and routing using portable terminal units and voice to support them. of Electronics [39] IHRD . The green light timing of the crossing signal is extended with portable terminal units for safe crossing of the road. The two user services offered by this system are: Dept. Also. and provides transport operators with this information.CAS VDY . reduction of traffic volume of commercial vehicles.

CAS VDY . when imminent danger is detected in the case of a pedestrian in the path of a vehicle.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Pedestrian Route Guidance Pedestrian route guidance can create safe roadside environments which can be utilized by pedestrians and cyclists. particularly the elderly or the handicapped. thereby preventing collisions involving pedestrians. 6. (ii) Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident Avoidance This system provides support for pedestrians and cyclists by extending the green time for pedestrians at signalized intersections by means of portable terminals. magnetic voices. this system warns the driver of the situation or automatically applies the brakes. Also.8 Emergency vehicle notification systems Dept. of Electronics [40] IHRD . who are relatively vulnerable to traffic accidents. sounds and route guidance and instruction signs. This system assists them by providing facilities with the help of portable terminal units.

pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. at earliest. and vehicle identification. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. an integrated eCall device.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. of Electronics [41] IHRD . Dept. a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. or tolling device. by the end of 2010. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. At the same time. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface).CAS VDY . precise location. Telematics device. the direction the vehicle was traveling. including time. the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. eCall is expected to be offered. PSAP). When activated.

CAS VDY . of Electronics [42] IHRD .9 Automatic road enforcement Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.

Dept. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. of Electronics [43] IHRD . • Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing.CAS VDY . consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems A traffic enforcement camera system. Applications include: • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number.

10 Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence. bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. 6. of Electronics [44] IHRD . A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. In some jurisdictions. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. Dept. • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. The simulation has shown that. • Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems • Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses. which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. • Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red.

a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. or when congestion occurs. When some unpredictable situation develops. A more elaborate approach has been introduced to overcome these problems. Most of the present intelligent traffic lights are sensor based with a certain algorithm that controls the switching operation of the system. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system. there is no proper way of dealing with such development. It employs realtime traffic flow monitoring with image tracking systems.CAS VDY . of Electronics [45] IHRD . This approach considers the traffic to be moving smoothly and hence does not require any management or monitoring of traffic conditions.

transfer possibilities. of Electronics [46] IHRD . • Provides news and Weather.11 IN-VEHICLE TRANSIT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Announcing stops.CAS VDY . Dept. • Information via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus. video clips. helpful for those unfamiliar with the route. when the bus is crowded. and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle. route.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Primarily motivated by support for the disabled. and other travel-related information on a flat-panel display. based on the vehicle’s location. and direction of travel.

with a reduction in time. transit planners can make changes to routes and schedules that better serve the transportation needs of their community. time and location of each stop as passengers get on and off the bus. • Dept.CAS VDY . of Electronics [47] IHRD .12 AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTER The APC automatically records the number of passengers. cost. • With the information provided by the APCs.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. and effort by means of infrared beams at the doors or pressure sensitive mats on the steps. • The APC can collect data.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 7. • Reducing fuel consumption. OBJECTIVES OF ITS The objectives of the ITS programs are to improve the surface transportation which includes the following: • Reducing traffic congestion. • Improving safety. etc. • Increasing the viability of public transportation. • Reducing the use of energy. • Increasing the ease and convenience of travel • Improving the environment. • Reducing capital and operating costs. • Responding more effectively to incidents. • Reducing traffic accidents. Dept. of Electronics [48] IHRD . • Reducing pollution.CAS VDY . especially the elderly and disabled. • Increasing the productivity of the transportation infrastructure. • Enhancing the mobility of travelers. • Smoothening the traffic flow.

CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 8. ADVANTAGES OF ITS • Improved safety • Better traffic flow • Lower travel cost • Better environmental quality • Increased business activity • Greater user acceptance • Better travel information • Better planning information Dept. of Electronics [49] IHRD .

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 9. of Electronics [50] IHRD .DISADVANTAGES OF ITS ➢ Difficult to use in mixed traffic ➢ Preliminary difficulties in understanding ➢ ITS equipments costly ➢ The control system software could be hacked by hackers Dept.CAS VDY .

and out-flow of information. communication between the inside and outside of the vehicle is realized. a vehicle. the vehicle. but this concept will subsequently be broadened. and vehicles using state-of-the-art IT technologies. ITS is expected both nationwide and worldwide to be the most effective measure for solving serious road traffic problems. with in.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 10. will be a space much like an office or a home. More concretely. while it is still mobile. Thus ITS. until now a "closed room. and the creation of a standard of living for the people such that they can realize a truly comfortable and affluent lifestyle. As a result.CAS VDY . ITS has brought to the car culture an era of car multimedia revolution in which. Also. roads. of Electronics [51] IHRD . Dept. is not only an effective means to resolve these problems but is also an infrastructure which will help revolutionize industry and society in the 21st century. CONCLUSION Intelligent Transportation Systems represent the next step in the evolution of a nation's entire transportation system. as a source of generating new industries. which combines humans. balanced national land development. As this develops into the more real ITS age. from which it is possible to freely communicate." will be an "open" space. ITS is an essential element in creating a global advanced information and telecommunications society. it is expected that there will be an expansion of economic frontiers. A vehicle has until now been regarded as just a means of transportation. and as a leader of the advanced information and telecommunications society. (California alliance for Intelligent Transportation Systems) www.or. From the net (Bureau of transportation systems) (Society for automotive engineers) (Advanced cruise assist highway system research association) (Electronic Toll Collection) www. Todd..CAS VDY . M. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barth.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (Institution of transportation engg) Dept. (2001).A journal on Intelligent Transportation System Architecture for a Multi-station Shared Vehicle System.ettm. M.caats. of Electronics [52] IHRD .sae.

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