Intelligent Transportation Systems : Hari K S CAS VDY | Traffic | Transportation Engineering

Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
VADAKKENCHERRY
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)

Seminar Report On

“INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS”

Presented By HARI.K.S ES4 M.Sc Electronics

Dept. of Electronics

[1]

IHRD - CAS VDY

Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

CAS VDY

9846300331

COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
VADAKKENCHERRY
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” submitted by Mr. HARI.K.S, 4th semester, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Masters of Science Degree in Electronic Science of Calicut University, is a bonafide record of the seminar presented during the academic year 2010-2011.

Mr. SUBI.T.S

Mr. MADHAVADAS.C

Dept. of Electronics

[2]

IHRD - CAS VDY

Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems
(Head of the Department of in Electronics) (Seminar Coordinator& Lecturer Electronics)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We express our indebtedness to the Almighty for, among many other things, the success of my seminar report. I would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and thanks to our principal Pradeep Somasundaram Sir, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out this project successfully. I have a special thanks to Subi Sir, HOD of Electronics and Madhavadas Sir, Lecturer in Electronics who encouraged me to take this topic. I have also special thanks to my friends, and my beloved parents for their ideas, suggestions, co-operations and support. All glory and honor to the Almighty GOD, who showered his abundant grace on me to make this seminar a great success.

HARI K.S

Dept. of Electronics

[3]

IHRD - CAS VDY

Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

ABSTRACT
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are increasingly being considered as solutions for a wide range of transportation problems. ITS combines sensors, data communications, computing systems, traffic control devices, and intelligent data processing and control algorithms. Managing transportation systems requires several key steps including system monitoring, traffic conditions estimation and prediction, definition of appropriate performance criteria, system control, and finally simulation modeling. ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency, safety, and environmental impact of land transportation. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products.

Dept. of Electronics

[4]

IHRD - CAS VDY

Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

CONTENTS
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………. 2. ITS Logical Architecture………………………………………………. 3. ITS architecture………………………………………………………... 4. Intelligent transportation technologies………………………………… 5. ITS Systems…………………………………………………………… 5.1 Advanced Vehicle Control Systems……………………………….. 5.2 Vehicle Information & Communication System…………………… 5.3 Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems………………………... 5.4Advanced Traffic Management System……………………………. 5.5 Advanced travelers information systems …………………………. 6. Developmental Areas…………………………………………………... 6.1 Advances in navigation systems…………………………………… 6.2 Electronic toll collection systems…………………………………. 6.3 Assistance for safe driving………………………………………… 6.4 Optimization of traffic management………………………………. 6.5 Support for public transport…………………...…………………... 6.6Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations…………… 6.7 Support for pedestrians……………………………………………. 6.8 Support for emergency vehicle operations………………………… 7. Objectives……………………………………………………………… 8. Advantages……………………………………………………………. 9. Disadvantages………………………………………………………… 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………….

Dept. of Electronics

[5]

IHRD - CAS VDY

has turned the providers of advanced technologies. surface transportation was largely the domain of construction companies and the large automobile manufacturers. The development and deployment of ITS has only increased the importance of the transportation issue. The development of ITS.CAS VDY . Intelligent Transportation Systemic the incorporation of information technologies and advances in electronics into all parts of the transportation network. it is the application of technology to transportation systems. Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems involve the integration of technology in areas such as communications. The opportunities many of these non-traditional transportation companies have already realized will secure the continued contribution of both public. Dept. Simply speaking. of Electronics [6] IHRD . Until recently. and environmental impact of land transportation.and private-sector investment in transportation and guarantee a steady flow of new developments to increase safety and efficiency. and operation research methods with conventional transportation infrastructure to address many transportation issues that confront the conventional system at this time. safety. products. INTRODUCTION ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency. however.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1. The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems was first introduced as a concept of automating traffic flows. and services into important players in the industry. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products. information systems sensors.

and foster a cleaner environment.CAS VDY . On trains and buses. These goals are accomplished on the vehicle side through the application of electronics and communication technologies to advanced mechanical. in cars. as is illustrated in the following figure Dept. roads and vehicles.Basic vehicle. Intelligent Transportation Systems help drivers navigate.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As more electronics are incorporated into the automobiles at higher rates. avoid traffic holdups and avoid collisions. These systems. and hydraulic systems. driver comfort and convenience. applied to automobiles. will affect the vehicle in three basic functional areas . Intelligent Vehicles systems will help lessen traffic congestion. Intelligent Transportation Systems co-ordinate traffic signals. productivity. of Electronics [7] IHRD . Intelligent Transportation Systems improve safety. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a new transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users. mobility. a new automotive market is developing . electrical.The Intelligent Vehicles market. Thus. Thus. Safety and security and Telematics. efficiency. and environmental quality for humanity. On the road network. guidance and instructions to drivers. improve safety. detect and manage incidents and display information. Thus. they let managers optimize fleet operation and offer passengers automatic ticketing and real-time running information.

CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 2. ITS LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dept. of Electronics [8] IHRD .

etc. The topic of Intelligent Transportation Systems being very vast.The technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas. which account for how the system works. less congested and less polluting and also enhance the existing highway infrastructure which improves safety on the highways. The Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) which takes total control of vehicles on the roads. These goals can be achieved by a number of different systems and services.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 3. The technology oriented functional areas include many systems such as The Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) which gathers and compiles information to disseminate it to the public. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) and many more other systems components. there is no proper classification available. Dept. The Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS). since all the components of Intelligent Transportation Systems is very much interrelated. of Electronics [9] IHRD . increases capacity on the highways. Intelligent Transportation Systems also consists of ITS basic components and services. But as any system is. The Intelligent Transportation System components make up the whole physical architecture.CAS VDY . The Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) which provide data directly to travelers. The application oriented functional areas include The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS). ITS ARCHITECTURE Intelligent Transportation Systems is a worldwide initiative to apply modern communication technology to make our transport system safer. and makes them function at a more efficient level. Thus it has been subdivided into the two functional areas as given below . The Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS).

Intelligent transportation technologies: Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied. from basic management systems such as car navigation. traffic signal control systems. weather information. and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources. Additionally. such as security CCTV systems. variable message signs. Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications. bridge deicing systems.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.CAS VDY . of Electronics [10] IHRD . such as parking guidance and information systems. Dept. and the like. predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. container management systems.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.2 Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer. Long-range communications using these methods are well established. including model-based process control. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems. more capable computer processors on a vehicle.1 Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. or 3G. 4. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. Dept. these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment.CAS VDY .11 protocols. of Electronics [11] IHRD . but. unlike the short-range protocols. specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. The current trend is toward fewer. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802.16). A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. artificial intelligence. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Theoretically. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented. and ubiquitous computing.

there are more cars. the distance between antennas is shorter and. accuracy increases. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes.3 Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. As the car moves. and thus.CAS VDY . Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: • much less expensive than sensors or cameras • more coverage: all locations and streets • faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance • works in all weather conditions. thus. more phones. of Electronics [12] IHRD . more probes. including heavy rain Dept. With more congestion. By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information. In metropolitan areas. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. so does the signal of the mobile phone.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics [13] IHRD .CAS VDY .

The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop. and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. Dept. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. 4. or surrounding the road (buildings. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed.. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road. and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally. posts.CAS VDY . Intelligent vehicle technologies. Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones.g. e.5 Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. of Electronics [14] IHRD .4 Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes. length. RFID.

The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds. Dept. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. and wrong-way vehicle alarms. this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. and lane occupancy readings.6 Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. depending on the brand and model. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway.CAS VDY . Some systems provide additional outputs including gap. headway. of Electronics [15] IHRD . Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras. stopped-vehicle detection.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. counts.

1 VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (VICS) Vehicle Information and Communication System is a digital data communication system.CAS VDY . Information is transmitted in the direction of traffic flow to the drivers to suit their needs. Improvements in traffic flow in congested areas might be possible if the driver has information concerning traffic problems on the road ahead. which account for how the system works.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. This ensures that VICS changes from a "Luxury" to a "Necessity" once people use it. from beacons installed on the roadside via on-board car navigation equipment. the key feature of automatic intelligent transportation net is precise and real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways. Thus. 5. The two most popular means of communication between the vehicle and the driver are given below. One of the areas having the greatest potential payoff for electronics in automobiles is in the relationship of the car and driver to the road. Seemingly. of Electronics [16] IHRD . The benefit of this system is that. which promptly provides the latest necessary road traffic information to drivers via car navigation systems. Dept. ITS SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier. the road traffic conditions informed in advance makes a driver more relaxed and comfortable. There are over 2 million VICS units already in use. It also gives alternative choice on routes to avoid traffic congestion. the technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas constitute the basic system components of the Advanced Transportation Network System. they make up the whole physical architecture.

CAS VDY . In normal driving the driver looks through this mirror at the road. In addition to ITS normal function of generating voice output. (ii) Speech Synthesis (Voice Recognition): Important safety or trip related messages could be given audibly so that the driver doesn’t have to look away from the road. of Electronics [17] IHRD . the brightness can be controlled to accommodate a wide range of light levels. the computer generates an electrical waveform that is approximately the same as a human voice.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Heads up Display (HUD): A partially reflecting mirror is positioned above the instrument panel in the driver’s line of sight. The driver can read data from the HUD without moving the head from position for viewing the road. Also. Dept.

and operational support for traffic accident prevention.Smart cruise System concept Dept. The earlier discussed Smart cruise System coordinates between the road (Smart way) and the vehicle (Smart Car) in order to support safe and comfortable driving.CAS VDY . the Smart cruise Systems have been created by integrating Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASV) and Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) as shown below. warning. ADVANCED CRUISE-ASSIST HIGHWAY SYSTEMS(AHS) The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) consist of systems that coordinate between the road and the vehicle using radio communications to provide the driver with information. Thus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5.2. Fig: . of Electronics [18] IHRD .

and framework for integrating and applying these features. of Electronics [19] IHRD . it consists of communication systems between the road and cars.Services provided by Smart way Dept. the Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) is basically the Smart way.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As can be seen from the above figure. Smart way is a road or highway.CAS VDY . creating a platform for a variety of ITS services. Fig: . including drivers. Thus. an optical fiber network incorporated into the road system. a variety of sensors. which enables a wide range of information exchange among all of ITS users. Specifically. their cars and pedestrians.

enhance safety. ”AHS-I” supports part of the information collection for driving. which include the following: 1.CAS VDY . the addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car . 6. Rear end collision prevention function. Lateral collision prevention function. Automated Driving function.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The Smart way System is a very vast network. The goal of AHS is to reduce traffic accidents. responsibility for safe driving belongs to the “AHS-A” system.automation and intelligence. Dept. 2. can improve transportation scheme much better. AHS is classified into three levels based on driving support. “AHS-C” (control) and “AHS-A” (automated cruise). Adaptive Front Lighting Systems. 5. “AHS-C” supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection. AHS is the ultimate objective of ITS. Frontal obstruction detecting function. 3. Thus. Detection System of Surrounding Vehicles. performing several functions. etc. improve transportation efficiency as well as reduce the operational work of drivers. “AHS-A” fully supports the driving operation and the collection of information therefore. of Electronics [20] IHRD . namely “AHS-I” (information). 4.

3 Advanced traveler information system: (ATIS) Advanced travelers information systems (ATIS). They work even better with inclusion of geographic tourist guides and yellow pages that enable travelers to select destinations based on proximity to other places. provide accurate and timely information that help travelers to select routes. Deliver data directly to travelers.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. a part of new technology applications in transportation. empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. When archived. optimizing the transportation planning process. Dept. this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information. times of travel and travel modes. of Electronics [21] IHRD .CAS VDY .

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics [22] IHRD .CAS VDY .

including roadway incident control strategies from one central location to respond to traffic conditions in real time.monitor traffic conditions.cameras. ATMS operates with a series of video and roadway loop detectors. Support systems . network signal and ramp meter timing schedules.CAS VDY . of Electronics [23] IHRD . send messages to electronic Dept. sensors. semaphores and electronic displays.these systems use the information provided by the two previous elements they can change semaphores.4 Advanced Traffic Management System: (ATMS) ATMS are a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems that has been used to improve traffic service quality and to reduce traffic delays.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Help system operators to manage and control real time traffic. The three main ATMS elements are: Collection data team . variable message signs. Real time traffic control systems .

of Electronics [24] IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems displays and control highway access Dept.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics [25] IHRD .CAS VDY .

whether bus or rail. Tokyo. particularly providing “next bus” or “next train information. from Washington.CAS VDY .22 Advanced public transportation systems. which enable transit users to pay fares contactlessly from their smart cards or mobile phones using near field communications technology. and elsewhere.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. such as Suica in Japan or T-Money in South Korea. to report their current location. APTS help to make public transport a more attractive option for commuters by giving them enhanced visibility into the arrival and departure status (and overall timeliness) of buses and trains.5 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) include applications such as automatic vehicle location (AVL). making it possible for traffic operations managers to construct a realtime view of the status of all assets in the public transportation system. are increasingly common worldwide. to Paris. Seoul. DC. This category also includes electronic fare payment systems for public transportation systems. Dept. of Electronics [26] IHRD . which enable transit vehicles.

• Support for public transport.CAS VDY . DEVELOPMENT AREAS Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a field of very rapid development in all the areas that it is concerned with. Hence. • Electronic toll collection systems. • Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations. • Optimization of traffic management.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. Each of these development areas are discussed in detail below: Dept. • Assistance for safe driving. • Support for pedestrians. • Support for emergency vehicle operations. for simplicity the overall development of ITS can be grouped into the nine development areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems which include the following: • Advances in navigation systems. of Electronics [27] IHRD .

The congestion caused by incidents such as stalled cars. and traffic crashes are called non-recurring congestions while recurring congestions are those occurring at particular locations because the roadway's capacity doesn't meet the demand of high numbers of vehicles. The traffic information includes traffic congestion information for each optional route. of Electronics [28] IHRD . flat tires. information regarding congestion on the route. required time to the destination. There are two types of congestions. traffic information is distributed to the driver via the navigation system that is compatible with information supply system so that optimum route and travel time can be selected. which can send and receive information as required. The information is also distributed to homes and offices to assist drivers in deciding on an efficient travel plan prior to departure. etc is shown on the display inside the vehicle as the driver drives along.CAS VDY . Dept. The information can be displayed on the display in various ways including characters. simple diagrams or speed map displays. Thus. This information is provided by the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). thus best distributing the traffic flow. travel time required. and current information on parking availability. traffic restriction information.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. to improve driver convenience.1 ADVANCES IN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS In this system.

The information will be provided on demand and include the level of traffic congestion on each route. Pre-rip information can also be made available at home or the office beforehand. the system enables one to work out an effective travel plan. Dept. of Electronics [29] IHRD . In this way.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems In-vehicle display unit The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Route Guidance Traffic Information The provision of route guidance traffic information makes it possible for drivers to choose the best route to a particular destination and minimize travel time. This user service will improve driver convenience through dispersion of traffic flow. travel times. traffic control information. and parking space availability.CAS VDY .

it is an application of electronic signature detection to passenger and commercial vehicle traffic for the purpose of collecting tolls. To enable drivers and passengers to enjoy a pleasant trip. a prepaid card or a bank account. 6. The collection of fees is performed electronically by way of equipment installed in the vehicle and sensors at the toll location Dept. service areas.2Electronic toll collection system: ETC is based on vehicle roadside communication system.CAS VDY . Here is how it works: when a vehicle passes through the toll gate. more precisely. of Electronics [30] IHRD . and reduce exhaust emissions ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is a system by which drivers can pay tolls without having to stop at a tollbooth. the system provides service information such as regional attractions through an invehicle device or relay units at toll road parking areas.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ii) Provision of Destination-related Information: The provision of destination-related information makes it possible for drivers to select suitable destinations for their travel. for example. This method offers a huge increase in efficiency compared to manual toll collection. save energy. a microwave tags (noncontact card) exchanges information both ways between the gate and the vehicle to automatically subtract the toll from. or train stations along public roads. and should reduce traffic congestion at toll-booths.

Dept. The in-vehicle equipment and road information apparatus are used to provide this driving conditions information and the associated danger warning to each driver in real time. other information collecting systems.CAS VDY .3 ASSISTANCE FOR SAFE DRIVING In this system. and by the exchange of information using road-vehicle communication and vehicle-vehicle communication. information regarding the positions and movements of the driver’s own vehicle and those in the immediate surrounding area is gathered on a real time basis by means of cameras. of Electronics [31] IHRD . navigation systems.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Conceptual image of ETC 6. both on the roadside and in the vehicle.

Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .CAS VDY .Assistance for safe driving Also. considering the position and behavior of the control vehicle and surrounding vehicles. an automatic control function is added to the vehicles to support the driver's operation through speed control by automatic break operation or driving assistance by steering wheel control if danger is detected while. Thus. automated cruising is also made possible by means of the data processing equipments that allow automatic speed and steering control of the vehicles. and obstacles. at the same time. of Electronics [32] IHRD .

A warning is given if dangerous conditions are detected with respect to the position of a vehicle. (ii) Danger Warning Danger warning can prevent collisions or incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes.CAS VDY . and on traffic barriers ahead of the vehicle by means of sensors installed on the road and onboard the vehicles. other vehicles in the immediate surrounding area and traffic barriers present. Dept. This system supports drivers' operations by adding an automatic control function to the previously mentioned danger warning service.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The four user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Driving and Road Condition Information The provision of driving and road condition information can prevent accidents during the daytime and when vision is considerably obscured at night and in inclement weather. such as the condition of the road and vehicles in surrounding areas by means of sensors installed on the road and in the vehicle. the distance between vehicles. (iii) Assistance for driving Assistance for driving can also prevent collisions and incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. and this information is provided to each vehicle driver on a real time basis to enhance the driver's recognition of the travel environments. in consideration of the driver's own vehicle. thereby supporting the driver's decisions in operating his vehicle. The system involves application of automatic speed and steering control if a situation is considered dangerous. This system collects a variety of driving condition information. This system quickly gathers information on the positions and movements of vehicles in the immediate surrounding area. of Electronics [33] IHRD . or travel speeds.

This system is based on automatically controlled driving assistance functions. To prevent any secondary disasters induced by a traffic accident. Mobile navigation is performed for the driver using in-vehicle equipment and information supply units to administer the traffic. by applying control over the brakes. Also.CAS VDY . of Electronics [34] IHRD . driving amenities. by keeping a proper distance from other vehicles. accelerator and steering wheel depending on the travel environment in the immediate area. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (iv) Automated Highway Systems Automated highway systems can reduce driver workload and prevent traffic accidents. the traffic control pertinent to the accident is performed. and traffic restriction information is distributed to the drivers through the in-vehicle equipment and information supply units. for improving traffic safety. optimum signal control is implemented for the entire road network as well as for areas with exceptional traffic congestion and damaged roadside environments. 6. and the road environment.4 OPTIMIZATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT In this system. this information is updated every minute on the metropolitan expressways. a traffic accident is detected quickly. Automated highway systems make it possible to travel safely at a safe speed.

implements quick traffic control related to the accident. but also throughout the road network as a whole.Traffic management The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Optimization of Traffic Flow This facility improves traffic safety and comfort and enhances the environment. of Electronics [35] IHRD . (ii) Provision of Traffic Restriction Information during Accidents This facility can prevent secondary disasters resulting from a traffic accident. and provides drivers with the new traffic control information. This system quickly detects the occurrence of a traffic accident. Dept. This system utilizes an optimal signal control and provides drivers with route guidance by means of in-vehicle devices and variable message signs not only in areas of worsening traffic congestion.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .CAS VDY .

All information. including the operating state. performing priority dispatch as necessary. and expressway service areas. support is given to choose flexible transport measures. bus stops. offices. transfer and departure time zones suitable for the needs of the public transport users to improve their convenience. In addition.CAS VDY .5 SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT In this system. in-vehicle equipment and portable terminal units. and Dept. and to information supply units installed in the roads. the operation and administration of the public transport facilities are supported by real-time collection of the operating status of the public transport facilities. terminals. seat occupancy state. The information is transmitted to terminal units at homes.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. of Electronics [36] IHRD . and parking availability of the public transport facilities is distributed to implement optimum usage of transport facilities. required fares and fees.

and time of embarkation.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems distributing the collected information to the public transport companies as basic data. or through mobile Dept.CAS VDY . The system provides real-time information on the situation with respect to public transport congestion levels. transfers. of Electronics [37] IHRD . and parking space availability through terminals located at users' homes or offices prior to departure. The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Public Transport Information Provision of public transport information supports public transport passengers in their selection of travel. other fees. fares. thereby improving users' convenience.

6 INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS In this system. (ii) Assistance for Public Transport Operations and Management: In order to improve the convenience. 6. to reduce commercial traffic and to greatly improve transport efficiency and safety. safety and smooth operations of public transport. as determined necessary. portable terminals. thereby supporting public transport operations and management. and message signs or kiosks installed along the road.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems in-vehicle equipment. or at terminals. Thus multiple commercial vehicles with automated driving functions drive continuously by keeping a proper vehicular gap. real time collection of the operating status of trucks and tourist buses is distributed as basic data to the transport operators. assistance for public transport operations and operations management enables the collection of information on public transport operating conditions and implementation of public transport priority measures. The system provides public transport operators with various important traffic conditions data. bus stops and expressway service areas. and the efficiency of public transport business operations. Dept. of Electronics [38] IHRD .CAS VDY .

Also. 6. accidents are prevented by detecting pedestrians in the paths of vehicles and warning the driver and/or automatically activating the brakes. (ii) Automated Platooning of Commercial Vehicles Automated platooning of commercial vehicles can realize rapid improvement in transport efficiency. and improvement of transport safety. reduction of traffic volume of commercial vehicles. The two user services offered by this system are: Dept.CAS VDY . The green light timing of the crossing signal is extended with portable terminal units for safe crossing of the road.7 SUPPORT FOR PEDESTRIANS This system forms a safe and pleasant road environment for pedestrians including the elderly and handicapped with facilities like route guidance and routing using portable terminal units and voice to support them. This system improves the efficiency of freight and fleet management by establishing advanced. of Electronics [39] IHRD . automated and systematized logistic centers and by providing information on joint distribution and cargo hauled on trips. This system provides commercial vehicles with automated travel functions by keeping proper distances between vehicles.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Assistance for Commercial Vehicle Operations Management This system collects information on truck and sightseeing bus operating conditions on a real-time basis. and provides transport operators with this information.

8 Emergency vehicle notification systems Dept. magnetic voices. (ii) Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident Avoidance This system provides support for pedestrians and cyclists by extending the green time for pedestrians at signalized intersections by means of portable terminals. who are relatively vulnerable to traffic accidents. thereby preventing collisions involving pedestrians. of Electronics [40] IHRD . This system assists them by providing facilities with the help of portable terminal units. 6.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Pedestrian Route Guidance Pedestrian route guidance can create safe roadside environments which can be utilized by pedestrians and cyclists. sounds and route guidance and instruction signs. particularly the elderly or the handicapped. this system warns the driver of the situation or automatically applies the brakes. when imminent danger is detected in the case of a pedestrian in the path of a vehicle. Also.CAS VDY .

an integrated eCall device. or tolling device. PSAP). by the end of 2010. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. Telematics device. Dept. at earliest. of Electronics [41] IHRD . the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. When activated. and vehicle identification.CAS VDY . Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. including time. or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. eCall is expected to be offered.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface). a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. the direction the vehicle was traveling. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. At the same time. precise location.

9 Automatic road enforcement Dept.CAS VDY . of Electronics [42] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.

Traffic tickets are sent by mail.CAS VDY . of Electronics [43] IHRD . Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. Applications include: • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. • Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing. Dept. consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems A traffic enforcement camera system.

• Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements.CAS VDY .10 Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence. bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. Dept. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. 6. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. • Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems • Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. The simulation has shown that. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. In some jurisdictions. of Electronics [44] IHRD . which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas. the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system. It employs realtime traffic flow monitoring with image tracking systems. or when congestion occurs. This approach considers the traffic to be moving smoothly and hence does not require any management or monitoring of traffic conditions.CAS VDY . of Electronics [45] IHRD . a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. A more elaborate approach has been introduced to overcome these problems. Dept. When some unpredictable situation develops. there is no proper way of dealing with such development. Most of the present intelligent traffic lights are sensor based with a certain algorithm that controls the switching operation of the system.

• Provides news and Weather. when the bus is crowded.CAS VDY .11 IN-VEHICLE TRANSIT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Announcing stops. based on the vehicle’s location. and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle. Dept. • Primarily motivated by support for the disabled. of Electronics [46] IHRD . video clips. route. and other travel-related information on a flat-panel display. and direction of travel.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Information via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus. helpful for those unfamiliar with the route. transfer possibilities.

of Electronics [47] IHRD . transit planners can make changes to routes and schedules that better serve the transportation needs of their community. cost. with a reduction in time. • With the information provided by the APCs. time and location of each stop as passengers get on and off the bus. • The APC can collect data.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.CAS VDY . • Dept.12 AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTER The APC automatically records the number of passengers. and effort by means of infrared beams at the doors or pressure sensitive mats on the steps.

• Increasing the viability of public transportation. • Improving safety. of Electronics [48] IHRD . OBJECTIVES OF ITS The objectives of the ITS programs are to improve the surface transportation which includes the following: • Reducing traffic congestion. • Reducing traffic accidents. • Enhancing the mobility of travelers. Dept.CAS VDY . etc. • Responding more effectively to incidents.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 7. • Increasing the productivity of the transportation infrastructure. • Reducing pollution. especially the elderly and disabled. • Reducing the use of energy. • Increasing the ease and convenience of travel • Improving the environment. • Smoothening the traffic flow. • Reducing fuel consumption. • Reducing capital and operating costs.

ADVANTAGES OF ITS • Improved safety • Better traffic flow • Lower travel cost • Better environmental quality • Increased business activity • Greater user acceptance • Better travel information • Better planning information Dept.CAS VDY . of Electronics [49] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 8.

DISADVANTAGES OF ITS ➢ Difficult to use in mixed traffic ➢ Preliminary difficulties in understanding ➢ ITS equipments costly ➢ The control system software could be hacked by hackers Dept.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 9. of Electronics [50] IHRD .

of Electronics [51] IHRD . is not only an effective means to resolve these problems but is also an infrastructure which will help revolutionize industry and society in the 21st century. but this concept will subsequently be broadened. A vehicle has until now been regarded as just a means of transportation. the vehicle. ITS is an essential element in creating a global advanced information and telecommunications society. until now a "closed room. which combines humans.and out-flow of information. More concretely.CAS VDY . communication between the inside and outside of the vehicle is realized. roads. Dept." will be an "open" space. As this develops into the more real ITS age. will be a space much like an office or a home. As a result. Thus ITS. and as a leader of the advanced information and telecommunications society. as a source of generating new industries. balanced national land development. CONCLUSION Intelligent Transportation Systems represent the next step in the evolution of a nation's entire transportation system. while it is still mobile. with in. a vehicle. ITS has brought to the car culture an era of car multimedia revolution in which. and the creation of a standard of living for the people such that they can realize a truly comfortable and affluent lifestyle. it is expected that there will be an expansion of economic frontiers. ITS is expected both nationwide and worldwide to be the most effective measure for solving serious road traffic problems. from which it is possible to freely communicate. Also.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 10. and vehicles using state-of-the-art IT technologies.

of Electronics [52] IHRD .. (2001).or.com (Electronic Toll Collection) www.org (Society for automotive engineers) www.ahsra. M. From the net www. M.sae.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 11.ettm.J.org (California alliance for Intelligent Transportation Systems) www.jp (Advanced cruise assist highway system research association) www.gov (Bureau of transportation systems) www.org (Institution of transportation engg) Dept.ite. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barth.bts. Todd.caats.CAS VDY .A journal on Intelligent Transportation System Architecture for a Multi-station Shared Vehicle System.

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