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Intelligent Transportation Systems
COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)
Seminar Report On
“INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS”
Presented By HARI.K.S ES4 M.Sc Electronics
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” submitted by Mr. HARI.K.S, 4th semester, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Masters of Science Degree in Electronic Science of Calicut University, is a bonafide record of the seminar presented during the academic year 2010-2011.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
(Head of the Department of in Electronics) (Seminar Coordinator& Lecturer Electronics)
We express our indebtedness to the Almighty for, among many other things, the success of my seminar report. I would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and thanks to our principal Pradeep Somasundaram Sir, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out this project successfully. I have a special thanks to Subi Sir, HOD of Electronics and Madhavadas Sir, Lecturer in Electronics who encouraged me to take this topic. I have also special thanks to my friends, and my beloved parents for their ideas, suggestions, co-operations and support. All glory and honor to the Almighty GOD, who showered his abundant grace on me to make this seminar a great success.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are increasingly being considered as solutions for a wide range of transportation problems. ITS combines sensors, data communications, computing systems, traffic control devices, and intelligent data processing and control algorithms. Managing transportation systems requires several key steps including system monitoring, traffic conditions estimation and prediction, definition of appropriate performance criteria, system control, and finally simulation modeling. ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency, safety, and environmental impact of land transportation. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………. 2. ITS Logical Architecture………………………………………………. 3. ITS architecture………………………………………………………... 4. Intelligent transportation technologies………………………………… 5. ITS Systems…………………………………………………………… 5.1 Advanced Vehicle Control Systems……………………………….. 5.2 Vehicle Information & Communication System…………………… 5.3 Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems………………………... 5.4Advanced Traffic Management System……………………………. 5.5 Advanced travelers information systems …………………………. 6. Developmental Areas…………………………………………………... 6.1 Advances in navigation systems…………………………………… 6.2 Electronic toll collection systems…………………………………. 6.3 Assistance for safe driving………………………………………… 6.4 Optimization of traffic management………………………………. 6.5 Support for public transport…………………...…………………... 6.6Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations…………… 6.7 Support for pedestrians……………………………………………. 6.8 Support for emergency vehicle operations………………………… 7. Objectives……………………………………………………………… 8. Advantages……………………………………………………………. 9. Disadvantages………………………………………………………… 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………….
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems involve the integration of technology in areas such as communications. it is the application of technology to transportation systems. information systems sensors. The development and deployment of ITS has only increased the importance of the transportation issue. The development of ITS. however.and private-sector investment in transportation and guarantee a steady flow of new developments to increase safety and efficiency. has turned the providers of advanced technologies. of Electronics  IHRD . and environmental impact of land transportation. The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems was first introduced as a concept of automating traffic flows. safety. products. Intelligent Transportation Systemic the incorporation of information technologies and advances in electronics into all parts of the transportation network. Simply speaking. and services into important players in the industry. surface transportation was largely the domain of construction companies and the large automobile manufacturers.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1. INTRODUCTION ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency. and operation research methods with conventional transportation infrastructure to address many transportation issues that confront the conventional system at this time. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products. Until recently.CAS VDY . The opportunities many of these non-traditional transportation companies have already realized will secure the continued contribution of both public. Dept.
Intelligent Vehicles systems will help lessen traffic congestion. as is illustrated in the following figure Dept. electrical. productivity. and foster a cleaner environment.CAS VDY . will affect the vehicle in three basic functional areas . roads and vehicles. of Electronics  IHRD . a new automotive market is developing . On the road network.Basic vehicle. Intelligent Transportation Systems co-ordinate traffic signals. Thus. These goals are accomplished on the vehicle side through the application of electronics and communication technologies to advanced mechanical. mobility. guidance and instructions to drivers. improve safety. These systems. and hydraulic systems. Intelligent Transportation Systems improve safety. On trains and buses. Thus. efficiency. avoid traffic holdups and avoid collisions.The Intelligent Vehicles market.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As more electronics are incorporated into the automobiles at higher rates. detect and manage incidents and display information. applied to automobiles. in cars. Safety and security and Telematics. they let managers optimize fleet operation and offer passengers automatic ticketing and real-time running information. Thus. and environmental quality for humanity. Intelligent Transportation Systems help drivers navigate. driver comfort and convenience. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a new transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users.
ITS LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 2.
Thus it has been subdivided into the two functional areas as given below . and makes them function at a more efficient level. These goals can be achieved by a number of different systems and services.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 3. increases capacity on the highways. But as any system is. Dept. Intelligent Transportation Systems also consists of ITS basic components and services.CAS VDY . ITS ARCHITECTURE Intelligent Transportation Systems is a worldwide initiative to apply modern communication technology to make our transport system safer. The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS). since all the components of Intelligent Transportation Systems is very much interrelated. of Electronics  IHRD . there is no proper classification available. etc.The technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas. The Intelligent Transportation System components make up the whole physical architecture. The technology oriented functional areas include many systems such as The Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) which gathers and compiles information to disseminate it to the public. which account for how the system works. The Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) which takes total control of vehicles on the roads. The Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS). The application oriented functional areas include The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). The topic of Intelligent Transportation Systems being very vast. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) and many more other systems components. The Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). The Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) which provide data directly to travelers. less congested and less polluting and also enhance the existing highway infrastructure which improves safety on the highways.
container management systems. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.CAS VDY . Dept. bridge deicing systems. Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. Additionally. traffic signal control systems. of Electronics  IHRD . and the like. Intelligent transportation technologies: Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied. such as parking guidance and information systems. from basic management systems such as car navigation. weather information. variable message signs. and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources. predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. such as security CCTV systems.
specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802.11 protocols. these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment.16). more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems. 4. artificial intelligence. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. Theoretically. The current trend is toward fewer. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. Long-range communications using these methods are well established. more capable computer processors on a vehicle.2 Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer. Dept. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. but. or 3G. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. of Electronics  IHRD . and ubiquitous computing. including model-based process control. unlike the short-range protocols.1 Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems.CAS VDY . Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.
more phones. including heavy rain Dept. accuracy increases. there are more cars.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. more probes. By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information.CAS VDY . These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. In metropolitan areas. the distance between antennas is shorter and. so does the signal of the mobile phone. With more congestion. thus. of Electronics  IHRD . As the car moves. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: • much less expensive than sensors or cameras • more coverage: all locations and streets • faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance • works in all weather conditions.3 Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road. and thus. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes.
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .
Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes.CAS VDY . and weight of vehicles and the distance between them.5 Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field.4 Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. e. posts. Dept. and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. RFID.. length. and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems. or surrounding the road (buildings. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road. 4. of Electronics  IHRD . The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed. Intelligent vehicle technologies.g. and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally.
Some systems provide additional outputs including gap. counts. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. and lane occupancy readings. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway. stopped-vehicle detection.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.6 Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras.CAS VDY . Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed. headway. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. of Electronics  IHRD . depending on the brand and model. this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. Dept. and wrong-way vehicle alarms.
This ensures that VICS changes from a "Luxury" to a "Necessity" once people use it. Information is transmitted in the direction of traffic flow to the drivers to suit their needs. Dept. which promptly provides the latest necessary road traffic information to drivers via car navigation systems. Thus. It also gives alternative choice on routes to avoid traffic congestion. There are over 2 million VICS units already in use. which account for how the system works. the technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas constitute the basic system components of the Advanced Transportation Network System. from beacons installed on the roadside via on-board car navigation equipment. Improvements in traffic flow in congested areas might be possible if the driver has information concerning traffic problems on the road ahead.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. The benefit of this system is that.1 VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (VICS) Vehicle Information and Communication System is a digital data communication system. they make up the whole physical architecture. Seemingly. of Electronics  IHRD . 5. ITS SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier. The two most popular means of communication between the vehicle and the driver are given below. the road traffic conditions informed in advance makes a driver more relaxed and comfortable.CAS VDY . One of the areas having the greatest potential payoff for electronics in automobiles is in the relationship of the car and driver to the road. the key feature of automatic intelligent transportation net is precise and real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways.
(ii) Speech Synthesis (Voice Recognition): Important safety or trip related messages could be given audibly so that the driver doesn’t have to look away from the road. In addition to ITS normal function of generating voice output. Also. Dept. the brightness can be controlled to accommodate a wide range of light levels.CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD . the computer generates an electrical waveform that is approximately the same as a human voice.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Heads up Display (HUD): A partially reflecting mirror is positioned above the instrument panel in the driver’s line of sight. The driver can read data from the HUD without moving the head from position for viewing the road. In normal driving the driver looks through this mirror at the road.
of Electronics  IHRD . Fig: . ADVANCED CRUISE-ASSIST HIGHWAY SYSTEMS(AHS) The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) consist of systems that coordinate between the road and the vehicle using radio communications to provide the driver with information. warning. The earlier discussed Smart cruise System coordinates between the road (Smart way) and the vehicle (Smart Car) in order to support safe and comfortable driving. and operational support for traffic accident prevention.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5.Smart cruise System concept Dept. the Smart cruise Systems have been created by integrating Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASV) and Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) as shown below.CAS VDY . Thus.2.
an optical fiber network incorporated into the road system.CAS VDY . Specifically. a variety of sensors. including drivers.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As can be seen from the above figure. Fig: . which enables a wide range of information exchange among all of ITS users. it consists of communication systems between the road and cars. Thus.Services provided by Smart way Dept. their cars and pedestrians. the Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) is basically the Smart way. of Electronics  IHRD . creating a platform for a variety of ITS services. Smart way is a road or highway. and framework for integrating and applying these features.
2. performing several functions.automation and intelligence. Detection System of Surrounding Vehicles. Frontal obstruction detecting function. of Electronics  IHRD . Adaptive Front Lighting Systems. “AHS-C” (control) and “AHS-A” (automated cruise). Automated Driving function. 3. etc. Dept. “AHS-C” supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection. Lateral collision prevention function. Rear end collision prevention function. namely “AHS-I” (information). 5.CAS VDY . responsibility for safe driving belongs to the “AHS-A” system. The goal of AHS is to reduce traffic accidents. can improve transportation scheme much better. enhance safety. which include the following: 1.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The Smart way System is a very vast network. improve transportation efficiency as well as reduce the operational work of drivers. AHS is the ultimate objective of ITS. Thus. 6. “AHS-A” fully supports the driving operation and the collection of information therefore. the addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car . AHS is classified into three levels based on driving support. ”AHS-I” supports part of the information collection for driving. 4.
3 Advanced traveler information system: (ATIS) Advanced travelers information systems (ATIS). optimizing the transportation planning process. provide accurate and timely information that help travelers to select routes. When archived. a part of new technology applications in transportation.CAS VDY . Deliver data directly to travelers. empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. times of travel and travel modes. Dept. They work even better with inclusion of geographic tourist guides and yellow pages that enable travelers to select destinations based on proximity to other places. of Electronics  IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information.
CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .
these systems use the information provided by the two previous elements they can change semaphores. semaphores and electronic displays. send messages to electronic Dept.monitor traffic conditions.4 Advanced Traffic Management System: (ATMS) ATMS are a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems that has been used to improve traffic service quality and to reduce traffic delays. sensors. Support systems . including roadway incident control strategies from one central location to respond to traffic conditions in real time. network signal and ramp meter timing schedules.CAS VDY . Real time traffic control systems . The three main ATMS elements are: Collection data team . of Electronics  IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. variable message signs. Help system operators to manage and control real time traffic.cameras. ATMS operates with a series of video and roadway loop detectors.
of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems displays and control highway access Dept.
CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.
which enable transit vehicles. This category also includes electronic fare payment systems for public transportation systems. making it possible for traffic operations managers to construct a realtime view of the status of all assets in the public transportation system.22 Advanced public transportation systems.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Tokyo. which enable transit users to pay fares contactlessly from their smart cards or mobile phones using near field communications technology. whether bus or rail. Seoul. are increasingly common worldwide. to Paris. and elsewhere.5 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) include applications such as automatic vehicle location (AVL). DC. APTS help to make public transport a more attractive option for commuters by giving them enhanced visibility into the arrival and departure status (and overall timeliness) of buses and trains. of Electronics  IHRD . Dept.CAS VDY . to report their current location. particularly providing “next bus” or “next train information. such as Suica in Japan or T-Money in South Korea. from Washington.
• Support for emergency vehicle operations. • Assistance for safe driving. of Electronics  IHRD . for simplicity the overall development of ITS can be grouped into the nine development areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems which include the following: • Advances in navigation systems. Hence.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Electronic toll collection systems. Each of these development areas are discussed in detail below: Dept. • Support for public transport.CAS VDY . • Support for pedestrians. • Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations. • Optimization of traffic management. DEVELOPMENT AREAS Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a field of very rapid development in all the areas that it is concerned with.
etc is shown on the display inside the vehicle as the driver drives along. This information is provided by the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). required time to the destination. The congestion caused by incidents such as stalled cars. flat tires. Dept. traffic restriction information. Thus.CAS VDY . thus best distributing the traffic flow. traffic information is distributed to the driver via the navigation system that is compatible with information supply system so that optimum route and travel time can be selected. information regarding congestion on the route. travel time required. simple diagrams or speed map displays. There are two types of congestions. of Electronics  IHRD . to improve driver convenience.1 ADVANCES IN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS In this system. The traffic information includes traffic congestion information for each optional route. The information can be displayed on the display in various ways including characters. which can send and receive information as required. The information is also distributed to homes and offices to assist drivers in deciding on an efficient travel plan prior to departure. and traffic crashes are called non-recurring congestions while recurring congestions are those occurring at particular locations because the roadway's capacity doesn't meet the demand of high numbers of vehicles.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. and current information on parking availability.
Dept. Pre-rip information can also be made available at home or the office beforehand.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems In-vehicle display unit The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Route Guidance Traffic Information The provision of route guidance traffic information makes it possible for drivers to choose the best route to a particular destination and minimize travel time. This user service will improve driver convenience through dispersion of traffic flow. In this way. the system enables one to work out an effective travel plan.CAS VDY . traffic control information. travel times. of Electronics  IHRD . The information will be provided on demand and include the level of traffic congestion on each route. and parking space availability.
the system provides service information such as regional attractions through an invehicle device or relay units at toll road parking areas. of Electronics  IHRD . The collection of fees is performed electronically by way of equipment installed in the vehicle and sensors at the toll location Dept. a microwave tags (noncontact card) exchanges information both ways between the gate and the vehicle to automatically subtract the toll from. and reduce exhaust emissions ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is a system by which drivers can pay tolls without having to stop at a tollbooth.2Electronic toll collection system: ETC is based on vehicle roadside communication system. Here is how it works: when a vehicle passes through the toll gate.CAS VDY . 6. it is an application of electronic signature detection to passenger and commercial vehicle traffic for the purpose of collecting tolls. a prepaid card or a bank account. This method offers a huge increase in efficiency compared to manual toll collection. service areas.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ii) Provision of Destination-related Information: The provision of destination-related information makes it possible for drivers to select suitable destinations for their travel. and should reduce traffic congestion at toll-booths. or train stations along public roads. save energy. To enable drivers and passengers to enjoy a pleasant trip. for example. more precisely.
both on the roadside and in the vehicle.CAS VDY . Dept. navigation systems. The in-vehicle equipment and road information apparatus are used to provide this driving conditions information and the associated danger warning to each driver in real time.3 ASSISTANCE FOR SAFE DRIVING In this system. and by the exchange of information using road-vehicle communication and vehicle-vehicle communication.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Conceptual image of ETC 6. other information collecting systems. of Electronics  IHRD . information regarding the positions and movements of the driver’s own vehicle and those in the immediate surrounding area is gathered on a real time basis by means of cameras.
Dept.CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD . at the same time. an automatic control function is added to the vehicles to support the driver's operation through speed control by automatic break operation or driving assistance by steering wheel control if danger is detected while. and obstacles.Assistance for safe driving Also. considering the position and behavior of the control vehicle and surrounding vehicles. Thus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: . automated cruising is also made possible by means of the data processing equipments that allow automatic speed and steering control of the vehicles.
of Electronics  IHRD . (ii) Danger Warning Danger warning can prevent collisions or incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. and this information is provided to each vehicle driver on a real time basis to enhance the driver's recognition of the travel environments.CAS VDY . This system quickly gathers information on the positions and movements of vehicles in the immediate surrounding area. (iii) Assistance for driving Assistance for driving can also prevent collisions and incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. A warning is given if dangerous conditions are detected with respect to the position of a vehicle. Dept. in consideration of the driver's own vehicle. This system collects a variety of driving condition information. thereby supporting the driver's decisions in operating his vehicle. This system supports drivers' operations by adding an automatic control function to the previously mentioned danger warning service. such as the condition of the road and vehicles in surrounding areas by means of sensors installed on the road and in the vehicle. and on traffic barriers ahead of the vehicle by means of sensors installed on the road and onboard the vehicles. The system involves application of automatic speed and steering control if a situation is considered dangerous. the distance between vehicles. other vehicles in the immediate surrounding area and traffic barriers present.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The four user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Driving and Road Condition Information The provision of driving and road condition information can prevent accidents during the daytime and when vision is considerably obscured at night and in inclement weather. or travel speeds.
This system is based on automatically controlled driving assistance functions. the traffic control pertinent to the accident is performed. Also. and the road environment. for improving traffic safety. a traffic accident is detected quickly. Dept. accelerator and steering wheel depending on the travel environment in the immediate area. Automated highway systems make it possible to travel safely at a safe speed. Mobile navigation is performed for the driver using in-vehicle equipment and information supply units to administer the traffic. by keeping a proper distance from other vehicles.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (iv) Automated Highway Systems Automated highway systems can reduce driver workload and prevent traffic accidents. driving amenities. and traffic restriction information is distributed to the drivers through the in-vehicle equipment and information supply units. by applying control over the brakes. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY . this information is updated every minute on the metropolitan expressways. optimum signal control is implemented for the entire road network as well as for areas with exceptional traffic congestion and damaged roadside environments. 6. To prevent any secondary disasters induced by a traffic accident.4 OPTIMIZATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT In this system.
and provides drivers with the new traffic control information.Traffic management The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Optimization of Traffic Flow This facility improves traffic safety and comfort and enhances the environment. but also throughout the road network as a whole.CAS VDY . (ii) Provision of Traffic Restriction Information during Accidents This facility can prevent secondary disasters resulting from a traffic accident. This system utilizes an optimal signal control and provides drivers with route guidance by means of in-vehicle devices and variable message signs not only in areas of worsening traffic congestion. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: . This system quickly detects the occurrence of a traffic accident. of Electronics  IHRD . implements quick traffic control related to the accident.
performing priority dispatch as necessary. support is given to choose flexible transport measures.5 SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT In this system. and parking availability of the public transport facilities is distributed to implement optimum usage of transport facilities. and expressway service areas. and Dept. seat occupancy state. In addition. and to information supply units installed in the roads. terminals. All information. offices. in-vehicle equipment and portable terminal units.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. bus stops. including the operating state. The information is transmitted to terminal units at homes.CAS VDY . required fares and fees. the operation and administration of the public transport facilities are supported by real-time collection of the operating status of the public transport facilities. transfer and departure time zones suitable for the needs of the public transport users to improve their convenience. of Electronics  IHRD .
other fees.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems distributing the collected information to the public transport companies as basic data. and time of embarkation. transfers. fares.CAS VDY . or through mobile Dept. of Electronics  IHRD . The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Public Transport Information Provision of public transport information supports public transport passengers in their selection of travel. thereby improving users' convenience. and parking space availability through terminals located at users' homes or offices prior to departure. The system provides real-time information on the situation with respect to public transport congestion levels.
and message signs or kiosks installed along the road.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems in-vehicle equipment. thereby supporting public transport operations and management. safety and smooth operations of public transport. 6. bus stops and expressway service areas. The system provides public transport operators with various important traffic conditions data.6 INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS In this system. to reduce commercial traffic and to greatly improve transport efficiency and safety. Dept. Thus multiple commercial vehicles with automated driving functions drive continuously by keeping a proper vehicular gap. assistance for public transport operations and operations management enables the collection of information on public transport operating conditions and implementation of public transport priority measures. real time collection of the operating status of trucks and tourist buses is distributed as basic data to the transport operators. portable terminals. as determined necessary. of Electronics  IHRD . and the efficiency of public transport business operations. or at terminals. (ii) Assistance for Public Transport Operations and Management: In order to improve the convenience.
and provides transport operators with this information. Also.CAS VDY . reduction of traffic volume of commercial vehicles. The two user services offered by this system are: Dept. 6. and improvement of transport safety.7 SUPPORT FOR PEDESTRIANS This system forms a safe and pleasant road environment for pedestrians including the elderly and handicapped with facilities like route guidance and routing using portable terminal units and voice to support them. The green light timing of the crossing signal is extended with portable terminal units for safe crossing of the road. automated and systematized logistic centers and by providing information on joint distribution and cargo hauled on trips. of Electronics  IHRD . This system provides commercial vehicles with automated travel functions by keeping proper distances between vehicles.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Assistance for Commercial Vehicle Operations Management This system collects information on truck and sightseeing bus operating conditions on a real-time basis. This system improves the efficiency of freight and fleet management by establishing advanced. (ii) Automated Platooning of Commercial Vehicles Automated platooning of commercial vehicles can realize rapid improvement in transport efficiency. accidents are prevented by detecting pedestrians in the paths of vehicles and warning the driver and/or automatically activating the brakes.
thereby preventing collisions involving pedestrians. of Electronics  IHRD . who are relatively vulnerable to traffic accidents. when imminent danger is detected in the case of a pedestrian in the path of a vehicle. Also. particularly the elderly or the handicapped.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Pedestrian Route Guidance Pedestrian route guidance can create safe roadside environments which can be utilized by pedestrians and cyclists. This system assists them by providing facilities with the help of portable terminal units.8 Emergency vehicle notification systems Dept. magnetic voices. (ii) Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident Avoidance This system provides support for pedestrians and cyclists by extending the green time for pedestrians at signalized intersections by means of portable terminals. sounds and route guidance and instruction signs. this system warns the driver of the situation or automatically applies the brakes. 6.
by the end of 2010. or tolling device. an integrated eCall device. eCall is expected to be offered. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. including time. At the same time. When activated. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. the direction the vehicle was traveling. and vehicle identification. the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. PSAP). at earliest. pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. precise location. Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY . The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. Telematics device.
of Electronics  IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.CAS VDY .9 Automatic road enforcement Dept.
CAS VDY . Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device. of Electronics  IHRD . • Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing. Applications include: • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems A traffic enforcement camera system. is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number.
bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. The simulation has shown that. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems • Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column.CAS VDY . 6. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. of Electronics  IHRD . • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. Dept. • Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas. In some jurisdictions. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. • Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red.10 Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence.
Most of the present intelligent traffic lights are sensor based with a certain algorithm that controls the switching operation of the system. Dept. This approach considers the traffic to be moving smoothly and hence does not require any management or monitoring of traffic conditions.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system. A more elaborate approach has been introduced to overcome these problems. there is no proper way of dealing with such development.CAS VDY . It employs realtime traffic flow monitoring with image tracking systems. of Electronics  IHRD . or when congestion occurs. a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. When some unpredictable situation develops.
and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle. video clips. and direction of travel. Dept. helpful for those unfamiliar with the route. and other travel-related information on a flat-panel display.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Provides news and Weather. transfer possibilities.CAS VDY . • Primarily motivated by support for the disabled. • Information via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus. of Electronics  IHRD . when the bus is crowded. route.11 IN-VEHICLE TRANSIT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Announcing stops. based on the vehicle’s location.
CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .12 AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTER The APC automatically records the number of passengers. transit planners can make changes to routes and schedules that better serve the transportation needs of their community. with a reduction in time. • The APC can collect data. and effort by means of infrared beams at the doors or pressure sensitive mats on the steps. time and location of each stop as passengers get on and off the bus. • With the information provided by the APCs. cost. • Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.
• Increasing the ease and convenience of travel • Improving the environment. Dept. • Reducing fuel consumption. • Reducing traffic accidents. • Increasing the viability of public transportation. especially the elderly and disabled. OBJECTIVES OF ITS The objectives of the ITS programs are to improve the surface transportation which includes the following: • Reducing traffic congestion. • Reducing the use of energy. • Increasing the productivity of the transportation infrastructure. • Smoothening the traffic flow. • Enhancing the mobility of travelers.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 7. etc. of Electronics  IHRD . • Responding more effectively to incidents.CAS VDY . • Reducing pollution. • Improving safety. • Reducing capital and operating costs.
of Electronics  IHRD . ADVANTAGES OF ITS • Improved safety • Better traffic flow • Lower travel cost • Better environmental quality • Increased business activity • Greater user acceptance • Better travel information • Better planning information Dept.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 8.
of Electronics  IHRD .DISADVANTAGES OF ITS ➢ Difficult to use in mixed traffic ➢ Preliminary difficulties in understanding ➢ ITS equipments costly ➢ The control system software could be hacked by hackers Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 9.CAS VDY .
As this develops into the more real ITS age. as a source of generating new industries. CONCLUSION Intelligent Transportation Systems represent the next step in the evolution of a nation's entire transportation system. will be a space much like an office or a home. More concretely. is not only an effective means to resolve these problems but is also an infrastructure which will help revolutionize industry and society in the 21st century. balanced national land development. Dept. with in. but this concept will subsequently be broadened.and out-flow of information. ITS is expected both nationwide and worldwide to be the most effective measure for solving serious road traffic problems. As a result. from which it is possible to freely communicate. of Electronics  IHRD . the vehicle. until now a "closed room." will be an "open" space. Thus ITS. A vehicle has until now been regarded as just a means of transportation. roads. and vehicles using state-of-the-art IT technologies. while it is still mobile. which combines humans. it is expected that there will be an expansion of economic frontiers. communication between the inside and outside of the vehicle is realized. Also. ITS has brought to the car culture an era of car multimedia revolution in which. and the creation of a standard of living for the people such that they can realize a truly comfortable and affluent lifestyle. ITS is an essential element in creating a global advanced information and telecommunications society.CAS VDY . and as a leader of the advanced information and telecommunications society. a vehicle.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 10.
CAS VDY . From the net www.ettm. M.org (California alliance for Intelligent Transportation Systems) www.gov (Bureau of transportation systems) www. (2001).sae..jp (Advanced cruise assist highway system research association) www.or.bts. of Electronics  IHRD . Todd. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barth.org (Institution of transportation engg) Dept.com (Electronic Toll Collection) www.org (Society for automotive engineers) www. M.J.ahsra.A journal on Intelligent Transportation System Architecture for a Multi-station Shared Vehicle System.ite.caats.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 11.
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