This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Intelligent Transportation Systems
COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)
Seminar Report On
“INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS”
Presented By HARI.K.S ES4 M.Sc Electronics
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCE
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT MANAGED BY IHRD, A GOVT. OF KERALA UNDERTAKING)
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” submitted by Mr. HARI.K.S, 4th semester, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Masters of Science Degree in Electronic Science of Calicut University, is a bonafide record of the seminar presented during the academic year 2010-2011.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
(Head of the Department of in Electronics) (Seminar Coordinator& Lecturer Electronics)
We express our indebtedness to the Almighty for, among many other things, the success of my seminar report. I would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and thanks to our principal Pradeep Somasundaram Sir, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out this project successfully. I have a special thanks to Subi Sir, HOD of Electronics and Madhavadas Sir, Lecturer in Electronics who encouraged me to take this topic. I have also special thanks to my friends, and my beloved parents for their ideas, suggestions, co-operations and support. All glory and honor to the Almighty GOD, who showered his abundant grace on me to make this seminar a great success.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are increasingly being considered as solutions for a wide range of transportation problems. ITS combines sensors, data communications, computing systems, traffic control devices, and intelligent data processing and control algorithms. Managing transportation systems requires several key steps including system monitoring, traffic conditions estimation and prediction, definition of appropriate performance criteria, system control, and finally simulation modeling. ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency, safety, and environmental impact of land transportation. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products.
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
Intelligent Transportation Systems
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………. 2. ITS Logical Architecture………………………………………………. 3. ITS architecture………………………………………………………... 4. Intelligent transportation technologies………………………………… 5. ITS Systems…………………………………………………………… 5.1 Advanced Vehicle Control Systems……………………………….. 5.2 Vehicle Information & Communication System…………………… 5.3 Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems………………………... 5.4Advanced Traffic Management System……………………………. 5.5 Advanced travelers information systems …………………………. 6. Developmental Areas…………………………………………………... 6.1 Advances in navigation systems…………………………………… 6.2 Electronic toll collection systems…………………………………. 6.3 Assistance for safe driving………………………………………… 6.4 Optimization of traffic management………………………………. 6.5 Support for public transport…………………...…………………... 6.6Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations…………… 6.7 Support for pedestrians……………………………………………. 6.8 Support for emergency vehicle operations………………………… 7. Objectives……………………………………………………………… 8. Advantages……………………………………………………………. 9. Disadvantages………………………………………………………… 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………….
Dept. of Electronics
IHRD - CAS VDY
has turned the providers of advanced technologies. Simply speaking. it is the application of technology to transportation systems. The development of ITS. products. Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems involve the integration of technology in areas such as communications. INTRODUCTION ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency.and private-sector investment in transportation and guarantee a steady flow of new developments to increase safety and efficiency. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products. and operation research methods with conventional transportation infrastructure to address many transportation issues that confront the conventional system at this time.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1. Dept.CAS VDY . however. Intelligent Transportation Systemic the incorporation of information technologies and advances in electronics into all parts of the transportation network. information systems sensors. of Electronics  IHRD . The development and deployment of ITS has only increased the importance of the transportation issue. safety. and services into important players in the industry. surface transportation was largely the domain of construction companies and the large automobile manufacturers. and environmental impact of land transportation. The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems was first introduced as a concept of automating traffic flows. The opportunities many of these non-traditional transportation companies have already realized will secure the continued contribution of both public. Until recently.
mobility. as is illustrated in the following figure Dept. detect and manage incidents and display information. Thus. improve safety. electrical. Intelligent Transportation Systems help drivers navigate. productivity. Intelligent Transportation Systems improve safety. These systems. Intelligent Transportation Systems co-ordinate traffic signals. they let managers optimize fleet operation and offer passengers automatic ticketing and real-time running information. guidance and instructions to drivers. These goals are accomplished on the vehicle side through the application of electronics and communication technologies to advanced mechanical. On trains and buses.The Intelligent Vehicles market. and hydraulic systems. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a new transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users.Basic vehicle. driver comfort and convenience.CAS VDY . roads and vehicles. Safety and security and Telematics. a new automotive market is developing . in cars. Thus. avoid traffic holdups and avoid collisions. of Electronics  IHRD . efficiency. Thus. and environmental quality for humanity. and foster a cleaner environment. Intelligent Vehicles systems will help lessen traffic congestion.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As more electronics are incorporated into the automobiles at higher rates. On the road network. will affect the vehicle in three basic functional areas . applied to automobiles.
CAS VDY . ITS LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 2. of Electronics  IHRD .
and makes them function at a more efficient level.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 3. The Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS). The Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) which takes total control of vehicles on the roads. The topic of Intelligent Transportation Systems being very vast. But as any system is. Dept. Intelligent Transportation Systems also consists of ITS basic components and services. These goals can be achieved by a number of different systems and services. Thus it has been subdivided into the two functional areas as given below . increases capacity on the highways. etc.The technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas. ITS ARCHITECTURE Intelligent Transportation Systems is a worldwide initiative to apply modern communication technology to make our transport system safer. since all the components of Intelligent Transportation Systems is very much interrelated. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) and many more other systems components. The Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) which provide data directly to travelers. The application oriented functional areas include The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS).CAS VDY . The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS). The Intelligent Transportation System components make up the whole physical architecture. The Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). less congested and less polluting and also enhance the existing highway infrastructure which improves safety on the highways. The technology oriented functional areas include many systems such as The Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) which gathers and compiles information to disseminate it to the public. there is no proper classification available. of Electronics  IHRD . which account for how the system works.
bridge deicing systems. from basic management systems such as car navigation. and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. such as security CCTV systems. Dept. such as parking guidance and information systems. weather information. Intelligent transportation technologies: Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied.CAS VDY . and the like. Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. of Electronics  IHRD . container management systems. traffic signal control systems. predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. Additionally. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications. variable message signs.
4.2 Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. and ubiquitous computing. The current trend is toward fewer. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.CAS VDY . more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems. Theoretically. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. of Electronics  IHRD . these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. Long-range communications using these methods are well established.11 protocols.16). unlike the short-range protocols. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented. or 3G.1 Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. including model-based process control. specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. more capable computer processors on a vehicle. artificial intelligence. Dept. but.
more phones. thus. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: • much less expensive than sensors or cameras • more coverage: all locations and streets • faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance • works in all weather conditions. so does the signal of the mobile phone.CAS VDY . As the car moves.3 Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. accuracy increases. more probes. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. there are more cars. In metropolitan areas.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. the distance between antennas is shorter and. including heavy rain Dept. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes. With more congestion. and thus. By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information. of Electronics  IHRD .
of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.
or surrounding the road (buildings. Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones. 4. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them.g.CAS VDY .5 Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems. of Electronics  IHRD . and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally. Intelligent vehicle technologies. length. e.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.4 Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip. posts. and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. Dept. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed. RFID. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes.. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop.
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.CAS VDY . This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway. counts. and lane occupancy readings. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. stopped-vehicle detection. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. headway. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras. and wrong-way vehicle alarms. of Electronics  IHRD . Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. depending on the brand and model.6 Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds. Dept. this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap.
the technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas constitute the basic system components of the Advanced Transportation Network System. they make up the whole physical architecture. Improvements in traffic flow in congested areas might be possible if the driver has information concerning traffic problems on the road ahead. It also gives alternative choice on routes to avoid traffic congestion. the road traffic conditions informed in advance makes a driver more relaxed and comfortable. The benefit of this system is that. One of the areas having the greatest potential payoff for electronics in automobiles is in the relationship of the car and driver to the road. 5. which account for how the system works.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Seemingly. ITS SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier. Thus. which promptly provides the latest necessary road traffic information to drivers via car navigation systems.CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .1 VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (VICS) Vehicle Information and Communication System is a digital data communication system. The two most popular means of communication between the vehicle and the driver are given below. Information is transmitted in the direction of traffic flow to the drivers to suit their needs. This ensures that VICS changes from a "Luxury" to a "Necessity" once people use it. There are over 2 million VICS units already in use. the key feature of automatic intelligent transportation net is precise and real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways. from beacons installed on the roadside via on-board car navigation equipment. Dept.
The driver can read data from the HUD without moving the head from position for viewing the road.CAS VDY . In normal driving the driver looks through this mirror at the road. Also. of Electronics  IHRD . In addition to ITS normal function of generating voice output. the brightness can be controlled to accommodate a wide range of light levels. the computer generates an electrical waveform that is approximately the same as a human voice.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Heads up Display (HUD): A partially reflecting mirror is positioned above the instrument panel in the driver’s line of sight. (ii) Speech Synthesis (Voice Recognition): Important safety or trip related messages could be given audibly so that the driver doesn’t have to look away from the road. Dept.
the Smart cruise Systems have been created by integrating Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASV) and Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) as shown below.Smart cruise System concept Dept. ADVANCED CRUISE-ASSIST HIGHWAY SYSTEMS(AHS) The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) consist of systems that coordinate between the road and the vehicle using radio communications to provide the driver with information.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. of Electronics  IHRD . warning. Fig: . The earlier discussed Smart cruise System coordinates between the road (Smart way) and the vehicle (Smart Car) in order to support safe and comfortable driving. Thus. and operational support for traffic accident prevention.2.CAS VDY .
which enables a wide range of information exchange among all of ITS users.CAS VDY . their cars and pedestrians. it consists of communication systems between the road and cars. an optical fiber network incorporated into the road system.Services provided by Smart way Dept. Specifically. including drivers.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As can be seen from the above figure. creating a platform for a variety of ITS services. and framework for integrating and applying these features. the Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) is basically the Smart way. of Electronics  IHRD . Thus. Fig: . Smart way is a road or highway. a variety of sensors.
The goal of AHS is to reduce traffic accidents. Adaptive Front Lighting Systems. Detection System of Surrounding Vehicles. Thus.automation and intelligence. ”AHS-I” supports part of the information collection for driving. 2. 4. can improve transportation scheme much better. etc. performing several functions. the addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car . of Electronics  IHRD . “AHS-A” fully supports the driving operation and the collection of information therefore. Automated Driving function. 3. Lateral collision prevention function. 6. Rear end collision prevention function. responsibility for safe driving belongs to the “AHS-A” system. “AHS-C” (control) and “AHS-A” (automated cruise). 5. Dept. which include the following: 1. AHS is classified into three levels based on driving support. AHS is the ultimate objective of ITS. improve transportation efficiency as well as reduce the operational work of drivers.CAS VDY . enhance safety. Frontal obstruction detecting function. namely “AHS-I” (information).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The Smart way System is a very vast network. “AHS-C” supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection.
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. When archived. of Electronics  IHRD . Dept. times of travel and travel modes. Deliver data directly to travelers. They work even better with inclusion of geographic tourist guides and yellow pages that enable travelers to select destinations based on proximity to other places. provide accurate and timely information that help travelers to select routes. optimizing the transportation planning process. a part of new technology applications in transportation. this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information. empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation.CAS VDY .3 Advanced traveler information system: (ATIS) Advanced travelers information systems (ATIS).
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .
monitor traffic conditions.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. sensors. Help system operators to manage and control real time traffic. semaphores and electronic displays. network signal and ramp meter timing schedules. of Electronics  IHRD .these systems use the information provided by the two previous elements they can change semaphores. send messages to electronic Dept. Support systems . variable message signs. including roadway incident control strategies from one central location to respond to traffic conditions in real time. ATMS operates with a series of video and roadway loop detectors.cameras. The three main ATMS elements are: Collection data team .4 Advanced Traffic Management System: (ATMS) ATMS are a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems that has been used to improve traffic service quality and to reduce traffic delays. Real time traffic control systems .
CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems displays and control highway access Dept.
of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.
to Paris.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. DC. such as Suica in Japan or T-Money in South Korea.CAS VDY . Dept. Seoul.5 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) include applications such as automatic vehicle location (AVL). which enable transit users to pay fares contactlessly from their smart cards or mobile phones using near field communications technology. are increasingly common worldwide. whether bus or rail. APTS help to make public transport a more attractive option for commuters by giving them enhanced visibility into the arrival and departure status (and overall timeliness) of buses and trains. and elsewhere. of Electronics  IHRD . making it possible for traffic operations managers to construct a realtime view of the status of all assets in the public transportation system. which enable transit vehicles. Tokyo. to report their current location. This category also includes electronic fare payment systems for public transportation systems.22 Advanced public transportation systems. from Washington. particularly providing “next bus” or “next train information.
for simplicity the overall development of ITS can be grouped into the nine development areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems which include the following: • Advances in navigation systems.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. DEVELOPMENT AREAS Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a field of very rapid development in all the areas that it is concerned with. • Assistance for safe driving. • Support for emergency vehicle operations. Hence. • Optimization of traffic management. • Support for pedestrians. • Support for public transport. of Electronics  IHRD . Each of these development areas are discussed in detail below: Dept.CAS VDY . • Electronic toll collection systems. • Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations.
of Electronics  IHRD .1 ADVANCES IN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS In this system. traffic restriction information. The congestion caused by incidents such as stalled cars. There are two types of congestions. which can send and receive information as required. and traffic crashes are called non-recurring congestions while recurring congestions are those occurring at particular locations because the roadway's capacity doesn't meet the demand of high numbers of vehicles. Dept. traffic information is distributed to the driver via the navigation system that is compatible with information supply system so that optimum route and travel time can be selected. flat tires.CAS VDY . The information can be displayed on the display in various ways including characters. information regarding congestion on the route. to improve driver convenience. simple diagrams or speed map displays. The traffic information includes traffic congestion information for each optional route. and current information on parking availability. thus best distributing the traffic flow. The information is also distributed to homes and offices to assist drivers in deciding on an efficient travel plan prior to departure. etc is shown on the display inside the vehicle as the driver drives along. travel time required.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. required time to the destination. Thus. This information is provided by the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS).
traffic control information. and parking space availability. The information will be provided on demand and include the level of traffic congestion on each route. Pre-rip information can also be made available at home or the office beforehand. the system enables one to work out an effective travel plan. travel times.CAS VDY . This user service will improve driver convenience through dispersion of traffic flow. of Electronics  IHRD . Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems In-vehicle display unit The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Route Guidance Traffic Information The provision of route guidance traffic information makes it possible for drivers to choose the best route to a particular destination and minimize travel time. In this way.
This method offers a huge increase in efficiency compared to manual toll collection. or train stations along public roads.2Electronic toll collection system: ETC is based on vehicle roadside communication system. for example.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ii) Provision of Destination-related Information: The provision of destination-related information makes it possible for drivers to select suitable destinations for their travel. a microwave tags (noncontact card) exchanges information both ways between the gate and the vehicle to automatically subtract the toll from. The collection of fees is performed electronically by way of equipment installed in the vehicle and sensors at the toll location Dept. more precisely. save energy. the system provides service information such as regional attractions through an invehicle device or relay units at toll road parking areas. To enable drivers and passengers to enjoy a pleasant trip. 6. and reduce exhaust emissions ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is a system by which drivers can pay tolls without having to stop at a tollbooth. Here is how it works: when a vehicle passes through the toll gate. it is an application of electronic signature detection to passenger and commercial vehicle traffic for the purpose of collecting tolls. a prepaid card or a bank account. service areas. of Electronics  IHRD . and should reduce traffic congestion at toll-booths.CAS VDY .
Dept. navigation systems. other information collecting systems. and by the exchange of information using road-vehicle communication and vehicle-vehicle communication. both on the roadside and in the vehicle.CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .3 ASSISTANCE FOR SAFE DRIVING In this system. The in-vehicle equipment and road information apparatus are used to provide this driving conditions information and the associated danger warning to each driver in real time.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Conceptual image of ETC 6. information regarding the positions and movements of the driver’s own vehicle and those in the immediate surrounding area is gathered on a real time basis by means of cameras.
at the same time. of Electronics  IHRD . an automatic control function is added to the vehicles to support the driver's operation through speed control by automatic break operation or driving assistance by steering wheel control if danger is detected while. considering the position and behavior of the control vehicle and surrounding vehicles.CAS VDY . Thus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .Assistance for safe driving Also. Dept. automated cruising is also made possible by means of the data processing equipments that allow automatic speed and steering control of the vehicles. and obstacles.
in consideration of the driver's own vehicle.CAS VDY . such as the condition of the road and vehicles in surrounding areas by means of sensors installed on the road and in the vehicle. (iii) Assistance for driving Assistance for driving can also prevent collisions and incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. other vehicles in the immediate surrounding area and traffic barriers present. and on traffic barriers ahead of the vehicle by means of sensors installed on the road and onboard the vehicles. A warning is given if dangerous conditions are detected with respect to the position of a vehicle. The system involves application of automatic speed and steering control if a situation is considered dangerous. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The four user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Driving and Road Condition Information The provision of driving and road condition information can prevent accidents during the daytime and when vision is considerably obscured at night and in inclement weather. or travel speeds. thereby supporting the driver's decisions in operating his vehicle. the distance between vehicles. This system collects a variety of driving condition information. This system quickly gathers information on the positions and movements of vehicles in the immediate surrounding area. (ii) Danger Warning Danger warning can prevent collisions or incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. and this information is provided to each vehicle driver on a real time basis to enhance the driver's recognition of the travel environments. This system supports drivers' operations by adding an automatic control function to the previously mentioned danger warning service. of Electronics  IHRD .
Mobile navigation is performed for the driver using in-vehicle equipment and information supply units to administer the traffic. and the road environment. This system is based on automatically controlled driving assistance functions. driving amenities. Automated highway systems make it possible to travel safely at a safe speed.4 OPTIMIZATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT In this system. by applying control over the brakes. Also. 6. the traffic control pertinent to the accident is performed. this information is updated every minute on the metropolitan expressways. for improving traffic safety. Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (iv) Automated Highway Systems Automated highway systems can reduce driver workload and prevent traffic accidents. To prevent any secondary disasters induced by a traffic accident. by keeping a proper distance from other vehicles.CAS VDY . accelerator and steering wheel depending on the travel environment in the immediate area. optimum signal control is implemented for the entire road network as well as for areas with exceptional traffic congestion and damaged roadside environments. of Electronics  IHRD . a traffic accident is detected quickly. and traffic restriction information is distributed to the drivers through the in-vehicle equipment and information supply units.
Dept. (ii) Provision of Traffic Restriction Information during Accidents This facility can prevent secondary disasters resulting from a traffic accident. of Electronics  IHRD . but also throughout the road network as a whole. This system quickly detects the occurrence of a traffic accident. implements quick traffic control related to the accident. This system utilizes an optimal signal control and provides drivers with route guidance by means of in-vehicle devices and variable message signs not only in areas of worsening traffic congestion. and provides drivers with the new traffic control information.CAS VDY .Traffic management The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Optimization of Traffic Flow This facility improves traffic safety and comfort and enhances the environment.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .
terminals. The information is transmitted to terminal units at homes. performing priority dispatch as necessary. and Dept. support is given to choose flexible transport measures. All information. In addition. and parking availability of the public transport facilities is distributed to implement optimum usage of transport facilities. and to information supply units installed in the roads.CAS VDY . including the operating state. transfer and departure time zones suitable for the needs of the public transport users to improve their convenience.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. in-vehicle equipment and portable terminal units. and expressway service areas.5 SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT In this system. of Electronics  IHRD . offices. required fares and fees. seat occupancy state. the operation and administration of the public transport facilities are supported by real-time collection of the operating status of the public transport facilities. bus stops.
CAS VDY . or through mobile Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems distributing the collected information to the public transport companies as basic data. and parking space availability through terminals located at users' homes or offices prior to departure. The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Public Transport Information Provision of public transport information supports public transport passengers in their selection of travel. and time of embarkation. thereby improving users' convenience. transfers. The system provides real-time information on the situation with respect to public transport congestion levels. fares. of Electronics  IHRD . other fees.
thereby supporting public transport operations and management. real time collection of the operating status of trucks and tourist buses is distributed as basic data to the transport operators. Thus multiple commercial vehicles with automated driving functions drive continuously by keeping a proper vehicular gap. portable terminals. of Electronics  IHRD . 6. assistance for public transport operations and operations management enables the collection of information on public transport operating conditions and implementation of public transport priority measures. and the efficiency of public transport business operations. bus stops and expressway service areas. as determined necessary.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems in-vehicle equipment. Dept.6 INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS In this system. The system provides public transport operators with various important traffic conditions data. (ii) Assistance for Public Transport Operations and Management: In order to improve the convenience. to reduce commercial traffic and to greatly improve transport efficiency and safety.CAS VDY . or at terminals. and message signs or kiosks installed along the road. safety and smooth operations of public transport.
This system improves the efficiency of freight and fleet management by establishing advanced. reduction of traffic volume of commercial vehicles.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Assistance for Commercial Vehicle Operations Management This system collects information on truck and sightseeing bus operating conditions on a real-time basis. accidents are prevented by detecting pedestrians in the paths of vehicles and warning the driver and/or automatically activating the brakes. automated and systematized logistic centers and by providing information on joint distribution and cargo hauled on trips. and improvement of transport safety. and provides transport operators with this information. The two user services offered by this system are: Dept. The green light timing of the crossing signal is extended with portable terminal units for safe crossing of the road. This system provides commercial vehicles with automated travel functions by keeping proper distances between vehicles. (ii) Automated Platooning of Commercial Vehicles Automated platooning of commercial vehicles can realize rapid improvement in transport efficiency. Also. 6.CAS VDY . of Electronics  IHRD .7 SUPPORT FOR PEDESTRIANS This system forms a safe and pleasant road environment for pedestrians including the elderly and handicapped with facilities like route guidance and routing using portable terminal units and voice to support them.
(ii) Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident Avoidance This system provides support for pedestrians and cyclists by extending the green time for pedestrians at signalized intersections by means of portable terminals. This system assists them by providing facilities with the help of portable terminal units. this system warns the driver of the situation or automatically applies the brakes.8 Emergency vehicle notification systems Dept. thereby preventing collisions involving pedestrians.CAS VDY . who are relatively vulnerable to traffic accidents. particularly the elderly or the handicapped. of Electronics  IHRD . sounds and route guidance and instruction signs. magnetic voices. Also. 6. when imminent danger is detected in the case of a pedestrian in the path of a vehicle.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Pedestrian Route Guidance Pedestrian route guidance can create safe roadside environments which can be utilized by pedestrians and cyclists.
at earliest. a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. and vehicle identification. of Electronics  IHRD . the direction the vehicle was traveling. At the same time. precise location. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface).Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. Telematics device. including time.CAS VDY . by the end of 2010. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. Dept. When activated. eCall is expected to be offered. the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. or tolling device. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. an integrated eCall device. pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. PSAP).
9 Automatic road enforcement Dept. of Electronics  IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.
Dept. of Electronics  IHRD . Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems A traffic enforcement camera system.CAS VDY . is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. Applications include: • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. • Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing.
It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. of Electronics  IHRD . • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. • Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red. bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. • Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. Dept. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems • Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. In some jurisdictions. The simulation has shown that. 6. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme.CAS VDY . the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases.10 Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence.
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system. of Electronics  IHRD . This approach considers the traffic to be moving smoothly and hence does not require any management or monitoring of traffic conditions. When some unpredictable situation develops. A more elaborate approach has been introduced to overcome these problems. a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. or when congestion occurs. Most of the present intelligent traffic lights are sensor based with a certain algorithm that controls the switching operation of the system. It employs realtime traffic flow monitoring with image tracking systems. there is no proper way of dealing with such development. Dept.CAS VDY .
based on the vehicle’s location. and other travel-related information on a flat-panel display. and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Primarily motivated by support for the disabled. of Electronics  IHRD . helpful for those unfamiliar with the route. video clips. • Provides news and Weather. when the bus is crowded.CAS VDY .11 IN-VEHICLE TRANSIT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Announcing stops. and direction of travel. route. transfer possibilities. Dept. • Information via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus.
of Electronics  IHRD . transit planners can make changes to routes and schedules that better serve the transportation needs of their community.12 AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTER The APC automatically records the number of passengers. • Dept. and effort by means of infrared beams at the doors or pressure sensitive mats on the steps. • The APC can collect data.CAS VDY . • With the information provided by the APCs. time and location of each stop as passengers get on and off the bus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. with a reduction in time. cost.
• Increasing the productivity of the transportation infrastructure. etc. • Responding more effectively to incidents. especially the elderly and disabled. • Increasing the ease and convenience of travel • Improving the environment.CAS VDY . • Increasing the viability of public transportation. • Smoothening the traffic flow. Dept. • Improving safety. • Reducing pollution. • Reducing the use of energy. OBJECTIVES OF ITS The objectives of the ITS programs are to improve the surface transportation which includes the following: • Reducing traffic congestion. • Enhancing the mobility of travelers. • Reducing fuel consumption. of Electronics  IHRD . • Reducing capital and operating costs. • Reducing traffic accidents.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 7.
Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 8. of Electronics  IHRD . ADVANTAGES OF ITS • Improved safety • Better traffic flow • Lower travel cost • Better environmental quality • Increased business activity • Greater user acceptance • Better travel information • Better planning information Dept.CAS VDY .
of Electronics  IHRD .DISADVANTAGES OF ITS ➢ Difficult to use in mixed traffic ➢ Preliminary difficulties in understanding ➢ ITS equipments costly ➢ The control system software could be hacked by hackers Dept.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 9.
balanced national land development. the vehicle." will be an "open" space. and vehicles using state-of-the-art IT technologies. A vehicle has until now been regarded as just a means of transportation. from which it is possible to freely communicate. while it is still mobile. of Electronics  IHRD .and out-flow of information. roads. and the creation of a standard of living for the people such that they can realize a truly comfortable and affluent lifestyle. until now a "closed room.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 10. communication between the inside and outside of the vehicle is realized. As this develops into the more real ITS age. Dept. a vehicle. ITS has brought to the car culture an era of car multimedia revolution in which. and as a leader of the advanced information and telecommunications society. ITS is an essential element in creating a global advanced information and telecommunications society. More concretely. as a source of generating new industries. Thus ITS. will be a space much like an office or a home. with in. As a result. it is expected that there will be an expansion of economic frontiers. which combines humans. is not only an effective means to resolve these problems but is also an infrastructure which will help revolutionize industry and society in the 21st century.CAS VDY . ITS is expected both nationwide and worldwide to be the most effective measure for solving serious road traffic problems. Also. CONCLUSION Intelligent Transportation Systems represent the next step in the evolution of a nation's entire transportation system. but this concept will subsequently be broadened.
bts.ite.com (Electronic Toll Collection) www.sae.CAS VDY .org (California alliance for Intelligent Transportation Systems) www.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 11.org (Institution of transportation engg) Dept. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barth. M.or.A journal on Intelligent Transportation System Architecture for a Multi-station Shared Vehicle System.org (Society for automotive engineers) www. of Electronics  IHRD . (2001).ahsra.caats.. From the net www.J.gov (Bureau of transportation systems) www.ettm. M.jp (Advanced cruise assist highway system research association) www. Todd.