Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems


Seminar Report On


Presented By HARI.K.S ES4 M.Sc Electronics

Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems




This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” submitted by Mr. HARI.K.S, 4th semester, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Masters of Science Degree in Electronic Science of Calicut University, is a bonafide record of the seminar presented during the academic year 2010-2011.



Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems
(Head of the Department of in Electronics) (Seminar Coordinator& Lecturer Electronics)

We express our indebtedness to the Almighty for, among many other things, the success of my seminar report. I would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and thanks to our principal Pradeep Somasundaram Sir, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out this project successfully. I have a special thanks to Subi Sir, HOD of Electronics and Madhavadas Sir, Lecturer in Electronics who encouraged me to take this topic. I have also special thanks to my friends, and my beloved parents for their ideas, suggestions, co-operations and support. All glory and honor to the Almighty GOD, who showered his abundant grace on me to make this seminar a great success.


Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are increasingly being considered as solutions for a wide range of transportation problems. ITS combines sensors, data communications, computing systems, traffic control devices, and intelligent data processing and control algorithms. Managing transportation systems requires several key steps including system monitoring, traffic conditions estimation and prediction, definition of appropriate performance criteria, system control, and finally simulation modeling. ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency, safety, and environmental impact of land transportation. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products.

Dept. of Electronics



Seminar Report-2011

Intelligent Transportation Systems

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………. 2. ITS Logical Architecture………………………………………………. 3. ITS architecture………………………………………………………... 4. Intelligent transportation technologies………………………………… 5. ITS Systems…………………………………………………………… 5.1 Advanced Vehicle Control Systems……………………………….. 5.2 Vehicle Information & Communication System…………………… 5.3 Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems………………………... 5.4Advanced Traffic Management System……………………………. 5.5 Advanced travelers information systems …………………………. 6. Developmental Areas…………………………………………………... 6.1 Advances in navigation systems…………………………………… 6.2 Electronic toll collection systems…………………………………. 6.3 Assistance for safe driving………………………………………… 6.4 Optimization of traffic management………………………………. 6.5 Support for public transport…………………...…………………... 6.6Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations…………… 6.7 Support for pedestrians……………………………………………. 6.8 Support for emergency vehicle operations………………………… 7. Objectives……………………………………………………………… 8. Advantages……………………………………………………………. 9. Disadvantages………………………………………………………… 10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………….

Dept. of Electronics



products. Intelligent Transportation Systemic the incorporation of information technologies and advances in electronics into all parts of the transportation network. it is the application of technology to transportation systems. information systems sensors. INTRODUCTION ITS is an international program aimed at using advanced technology for improving the efficiency. and operation research methods with conventional transportation infrastructure to address many transportation issues that confront the conventional system at this time. Dept.and private-sector investment in transportation and guarantee a steady flow of new developments to increase safety and efficiency. of Electronics [6] IHRD . The development of ITS. The development and deployment of ITS has only increased the importance of the transportation issue.CAS VDY . and environmental impact of land transportation. however. and services into important players in the industry. surface transportation was largely the domain of construction companies and the large automobile manufacturers. Simply speaking. It incorporates a wide variety of advanced technology systems and products. Thus Intelligent Transportation Systems involve the integration of technology in areas such as communications. safety.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 1. Until recently. has turned the providers of advanced technologies. The opportunities many of these non-traditional transportation companies have already realized will secure the continued contribution of both public. The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems was first introduced as a concept of automating traffic flows.

will affect the vehicle in three basic functional areas . guidance and instructions to drivers. Intelligent Transportation Systems help drivers navigate. Intelligent Transportation Systems co-ordinate traffic signals. Thus. On trains and buses. and foster a cleaner environment. applied to automobiles. a new automotive market is developing . productivity. The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a new transportation system which is comprised of an advanced information and telecommunications network for users. mobility. they let managers optimize fleet operation and offer passengers automatic ticketing and real-time running information. These goals are accomplished on the vehicle side through the application of electronics and communication technologies to advanced mechanical. and environmental quality for humanity. improve safety. Intelligent Vehicles systems will help lessen traffic congestion. driver comfort and convenience.The Intelligent Vehicles market. detect and manage incidents and display information. avoid traffic holdups and avoid collisions. On the road network.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As more electronics are incorporated into the automobiles at higher rates. in cars. Thus. efficiency.Basic vehicle. Thus. roads and vehicles. electrical. Intelligent Transportation Systems improve safety. of Electronics [7] IHRD .CAS VDY . and hydraulic systems. as is illustrated in the following figure Dept. These systems. Safety and security and Telematics.

of Electronics [8] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 2.CAS VDY . ITS LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dept.

The Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) which takes total control of vehicles on the roads. increases capacity on the highways. But as any system is. The Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). less congested and less polluting and also enhance the existing highway infrastructure which improves safety on the highways. The application oriented functional areas include The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) and many more other systems components. The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS). The technology oriented functional areas include many systems such as The Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) which gathers and compiles information to disseminate it to the public. Dept. etc.The technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas. The Intelligent Transportation System components make up the whole physical architecture. of Electronics [9] IHRD . and makes them function at a more efficient level. Thus it has been subdivided into the two functional areas as given below . Intelligent Transportation Systems also consists of ITS basic components and services. The topic of Intelligent Transportation Systems being very vast. The Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) which provide data directly to travelers.CAS VDY . which account for how the system works. These goals can be achieved by a number of different systems and services. since all the components of Intelligent Transportation Systems is very much interrelated.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 3. ITS ARCHITECTURE Intelligent Transportation Systems is a worldwide initiative to apply modern communication technology to make our transport system safer. The Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS). there is no proper classification available.

predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. Additionally. weather information. traffic signal control systems. container management systems. and the like. from basic management systems such as car navigation.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. such as security CCTV systems. automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications.CAS VDY . such as parking guidance and information systems. bridge deicing systems. Dept. of Electronics [10] IHRD . Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. variable message signs. Intelligent transportation technologies: Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied. and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources.

including model-based process control. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802. Long-range communications using these methods are well established. and ubiquitous computing. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure. Theoretically.16). specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. Dept. of Electronics [11] IHRD . Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802. these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems.11 protocols. 4.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4.1 Wireless communications: Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. artificial intelligence. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented. The current trend is toward fewer. more capable computer processors on a vehicle. or 3G. the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. unlike the short-range protocols. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence.CAS VDY . but.2 Computational technologies: Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer.

No infrastructure needs to be built along the road. of Electronics [12] IHRD . thus. more probes. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information. the distance between antennas is shorter and. As the car moves. only the mobile phone network is leveraged. more phones. and thus. including heavy rain Dept. so does the signal of the mobile phone.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. With more congestion. there are more cars. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement: • much less expensive than sensors or cameras • more coverage: all locations and streets • faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance • works in all weather conditions.3 Floating car data/floating cellular data: Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. accuracy increases. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes. In metropolitan areas.CAS VDY .

CAS VDY . of Electronics [13] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.

and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed.5 Inductive loop detection: Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field.4 Sensing technologies: Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip. posts. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road.. length. e.g.CAS VDY . or surrounding the road (buildings. of Electronics [14] IHRD . RFID. and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop. Dept. Intelligent vehicle technologies. and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally. Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones. 4.

Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway. counts. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap.6 Video vehicle detection: Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. and wrong-way vehicle alarms. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. stopped-vehicle detection. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras. headway. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 4. this type of system is known as a "non-intrusive" method of traffic detection. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. and lane occupancy readings. depending on the brand and model.CAS VDY . Dept. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. of Electronics [15] IHRD .

Improvements in traffic flow in congested areas might be possible if the driver has information concerning traffic problems on the road ahead.1 VEHICLE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (VICS) Vehicle Information and Communication System is a digital data communication system. There are over 2 million VICS units already in use. ITS SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier. This ensures that VICS changes from a "Luxury" to a "Necessity" once people use it. the road traffic conditions informed in advance makes a driver more relaxed and comfortable. The benefit of this system is that. the technology oriented functional areas and the application oriented functional areas constitute the basic system components of the Advanced Transportation Network System. which promptly provides the latest necessary road traffic information to drivers via car navigation systems. of Electronics [16] IHRD . One of the areas having the greatest potential payoff for electronics in automobiles is in the relationship of the car and driver to the road.CAS VDY . It also gives alternative choice on routes to avoid traffic congestion. Information is transmitted in the direction of traffic flow to the drivers to suit their needs. they make up the whole physical architecture. Dept. from beacons installed on the roadside via on-board car navigation equipment. The two most popular means of communication between the vehicle and the driver are given below. 5. Thus.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. the key feature of automatic intelligent transportation net is precise and real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways. Seemingly. which account for how the system works.

Also. the computer generates an electrical waveform that is approximately the same as a human voice.CAS VDY . In addition to ITS normal function of generating voice output.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Heads up Display (HUD): A partially reflecting mirror is positioned above the instrument panel in the driver’s line of sight. The driver can read data from the HUD without moving the head from position for viewing the road. the brightness can be controlled to accommodate a wide range of light levels. of Electronics [17] IHRD . In normal driving the driver looks through this mirror at the road. (ii) Speech Synthesis (Voice Recognition): Important safety or trip related messages could be given audibly so that the driver doesn’t have to look away from the road. Dept.

2. of Electronics [18] IHRD . The earlier discussed Smart cruise System coordinates between the road (Smart way) and the vehicle (Smart Car) in order to support safe and comfortable driving.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. Thus.Smart cruise System concept Dept.CAS VDY . the Smart cruise Systems have been created by integrating Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASV) and Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) as shown below. and operational support for traffic accident prevention. Fig: . warning. ADVANCED CRUISE-ASSIST HIGHWAY SYSTEMS(AHS) The Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) consist of systems that coordinate between the road and the vehicle using radio communications to provide the driver with information.

the Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System (AHS) is basically the Smart way. an optical fiber network incorporated into the road system. Fig: . of Electronics [19] IHRD .CAS VDY . a variety of sensors. Smart way is a road or highway. their cars and pedestrians.Services provided by Smart way Dept. it consists of communication systems between the road and cars.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems As can be seen from the above figure. Specifically. which enables a wide range of information exchange among all of ITS users. creating a platform for a variety of ITS services. Thus. and framework for integrating and applying these features. including drivers.

the addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car . Dept.automation and intelligence.CAS VDY . Lateral collision prevention function. The goal of AHS is to reduce traffic accidents. which include the following: 1. responsibility for safe driving belongs to the “AHS-A” system. “AHS-A” fully supports the driving operation and the collection of information therefore. of Electronics [20] IHRD . Adaptive Front Lighting Systems. 2. “AHS-C” (control) and “AHS-A” (automated cruise). AHS is the ultimate objective of ITS. namely “AHS-I” (information). “AHS-C” supports part of the driving operation as well as the information collection.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The Smart way System is a very vast network. 6. etc. Frontal obstruction detecting function. 4. Rear end collision prevention function. Automated Driving function. Thus. Detection System of Surrounding Vehicles. can improve transportation scheme much better. improve transportation efficiency as well as reduce the operational work of drivers. performing several functions. AHS is classified into three levels based on driving support. 5. 3. enhance safety. ”AHS-I” supports part of the information collection for driving.

provide accurate and timely information that help travelers to select routes.3 Advanced traveler information system: (ATIS) Advanced travelers information systems (ATIS). empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. a part of new technology applications in transportation. Dept. times of travel and travel modes. this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information. They work even better with inclusion of geographic tourist guides and yellow pages that enable travelers to select destinations based on proximity to other places. optimizing the transportation planning process. of Electronics [21] IHRD . When archived.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5.CAS VDY . Deliver data directly to travelers.

of Electronics [22] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.CAS VDY .

ATMS operates with a series of video and roadway loop detectors. sensors. Help system operators to manage and control real time traffic.cameras. semaphores and electronic displays. including roadway incident control strategies from one central location to respond to traffic conditions in real time.4 Advanced Traffic Management System: (ATMS) ATMS are a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems that has been used to improve traffic service quality and to reduce traffic delays. Support systems .monitor traffic conditions.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. send messages to electronic Dept. network signal and ramp meter timing schedules.CAS VDY . Real time traffic control systems . The three main ATMS elements are: Collection data team . of Electronics [23] IHRD .these systems use the information provided by the two previous elements they can change semaphores. variable message signs.

CAS VDY . of Electronics [24] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems displays and control highway access Dept.

of Electronics [25] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dept.CAS VDY .

to report their current location. Seoul. which enable transit vehicles. are increasingly common worldwide. Dept. particularly providing “next bus” or “next train information.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 5. such as Suica in Japan or T-Money in South Korea.22 Advanced public transportation systems. and elsewhere. of Electronics [26] IHRD . to Paris. This category also includes electronic fare payment systems for public transportation systems.CAS VDY .5 ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) include applications such as automatic vehicle location (AVL). whether bus or rail. which enable transit users to pay fares contactlessly from their smart cards or mobile phones using near field communications technology. APTS help to make public transport a more attractive option for commuters by giving them enhanced visibility into the arrival and departure status (and overall timeliness) of buses and trains. Tokyo. from Washington. DC. making it possible for traffic operations managers to construct a realtime view of the status of all assets in the public transportation system.

Hence.CAS VDY . • Electronic toll collection systems. Each of these development areas are discussed in detail below: Dept. • Support for pedestrians. • Support for public transport. of Electronics [27] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • Increasing efficiency in commercial vehicle operations. • Assistance for safe driving. • Support for emergency vehicle operations. for simplicity the overall development of ITS can be grouped into the nine development areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems which include the following: • Advances in navigation systems. • Optimization of traffic management. DEVELOPMENT AREAS Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a field of very rapid development in all the areas that it is concerned with.

of Electronics [28] IHRD . travel time required. and current information on parking availability. to improve driver convenience. The information is also distributed to homes and offices to assist drivers in deciding on an efficient travel plan prior to departure. There are two types of congestions. simple diagrams or speed map displays. traffic restriction information. thus best distributing the traffic flow. traffic information is distributed to the driver via the navigation system that is compatible with information supply system so that optimum route and travel time can be selected. and traffic crashes are called non-recurring congestions while recurring congestions are those occurring at particular locations because the roadway's capacity doesn't meet the demand of high numbers of vehicles. The traffic information includes traffic congestion information for each optional route. The information can be displayed on the display in various ways including characters. which can send and receive information as required. Thus. information regarding congestion on the route.CAS VDY . etc is shown on the display inside the vehicle as the driver drives along. required time to the destination.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. This information is provided by the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS). flat tires. Dept.1 ADVANCES IN NAVIGATION SYSTEMS In this system. The congestion caused by incidents such as stalled cars.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems In-vehicle display unit The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Route Guidance Traffic Information The provision of route guidance traffic information makes it possible for drivers to choose the best route to a particular destination and minimize travel time. of Electronics [29] IHRD . In this way.CAS VDY . and parking space availability. the system enables one to work out an effective travel plan. traffic control information. This user service will improve driver convenience through dispersion of traffic flow. travel times. Pre-rip information can also be made available at home or the office beforehand. Dept. The information will be provided on demand and include the level of traffic congestion on each route.

service areas. of Electronics [30] IHRD . a microwave tags (noncontact card) exchanges information both ways between the gate and the vehicle to automatically subtract the toll from. The collection of fees is performed electronically by way of equipment installed in the vehicle and sensors at the toll location Dept. the system provides service information such as regional attractions through an invehicle device or relay units at toll road parking areas. This method offers a huge increase in efficiency compared to manual toll collection. and reduce exhaust emissions ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is a system by which drivers can pay tolls without having to stop at a tollbooth. it is an application of electronic signature detection to passenger and commercial vehicle traffic for the purpose of collecting tolls.2Electronic toll collection system: ETC is based on vehicle roadside communication system. save energy. or train stations along public roads.CAS VDY . for example. more precisely. 6.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ii) Provision of Destination-related Information: The provision of destination-related information makes it possible for drivers to select suitable destinations for their travel. and should reduce traffic congestion at toll-booths. Here is how it works: when a vehicle passes through the toll gate. a prepaid card or a bank account. To enable drivers and passengers to enjoy a pleasant trip.

Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Conceptual image of ETC 6. information regarding the positions and movements of the driver’s own vehicle and those in the immediate surrounding area is gathered on a real time basis by means of cameras. The in-vehicle equipment and road information apparatus are used to provide this driving conditions information and the associated danger warning to each driver in real time. of Electronics [31] IHRD . other information collecting systems. both on the roadside and in the vehicle. Dept. and by the exchange of information using road-vehicle communication and vehicle-vehicle communication. navigation systems.3 ASSISTANCE FOR SAFE DRIVING In this system.CAS VDY .

considering the position and behavior of the control vehicle and surrounding vehicles.Assistance for safe driving Also. of Electronics [32] IHRD . automated cruising is also made possible by means of the data processing equipments that allow automatic speed and steering control of the vehicles.CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: . an automatic control function is added to the vehicles to support the driver's operation through speed control by automatic break operation or driving assistance by steering wheel control if danger is detected while. Dept. and obstacles. at the same time. Thus.

(iii) Assistance for driving Assistance for driving can also prevent collisions and incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. This system supports drivers' operations by adding an automatic control function to the previously mentioned danger warning service. (ii) Danger Warning Danger warning can prevent collisions or incidents resulting from vehicles deviating from their respective traffic lanes. in consideration of the driver's own vehicle. Dept. This system quickly gathers information on the positions and movements of vehicles in the immediate surrounding area.CAS VDY . such as the condition of the road and vehicles in surrounding areas by means of sensors installed on the road and in the vehicle. The system involves application of automatic speed and steering control if a situation is considered dangerous. other vehicles in the immediate surrounding area and traffic barriers present.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The four user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Driving and Road Condition Information The provision of driving and road condition information can prevent accidents during the daytime and when vision is considerably obscured at night and in inclement weather. and this information is provided to each vehicle driver on a real time basis to enhance the driver's recognition of the travel environments. of Electronics [33] IHRD . This system collects a variety of driving condition information. thereby supporting the driver's decisions in operating his vehicle. A warning is given if dangerous conditions are detected with respect to the position of a vehicle. and on traffic barriers ahead of the vehicle by means of sensors installed on the road and onboard the vehicles. the distance between vehicles. or travel speeds.

Dept.4 OPTIMIZATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT In this system. and traffic restriction information is distributed to the drivers through the in-vehicle equipment and information supply units. by applying control over the brakes. Automated highway systems make it possible to travel safely at a safe speed. and the road environment. This system is based on automatically controlled driving assistance functions. this information is updated every minute on the metropolitan expressways. for improving traffic safety. by keeping a proper distance from other vehicles. accelerator and steering wheel depending on the travel environment in the immediate area. of Electronics [34] IHRD . Mobile navigation is performed for the driver using in-vehicle equipment and information supply units to administer the traffic. To prevent any secondary disasters induced by a traffic accident. a traffic accident is detected quickly. optimum signal control is implemented for the entire road network as well as for areas with exceptional traffic congestion and damaged roadside environments.CAS VDY . driving amenities. 6.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (iv) Automated Highway Systems Automated highway systems can reduce driver workload and prevent traffic accidents. the traffic control pertinent to the accident is performed. Also.

This system quickly detects the occurrence of a traffic accident. and provides drivers with the new traffic control information. implements quick traffic control related to the accident. (ii) Provision of Traffic Restriction Information during Accidents This facility can prevent secondary disasters resulting from a traffic accident. This system utilizes an optimal signal control and provides drivers with route guidance by means of in-vehicle devices and variable message signs not only in areas of worsening traffic congestion.Traffic management The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Optimization of Traffic Flow This facility improves traffic safety and comfort and enhances the environment. but also throughout the road network as a whole. of Electronics [35] IHRD .CAS VDY . Dept.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Fig: .

and parking availability of the public transport facilities is distributed to implement optimum usage of transport facilities. and Dept. including the operating state.CAS VDY . in-vehicle equipment and portable terminal units. required fares and fees. of Electronics [36] IHRD . terminals. bus stops. the operation and administration of the public transport facilities are supported by real-time collection of the operating status of the public transport facilities. and expressway service areas. The information is transmitted to terminal units at homes.5 SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT In this system. and to information supply units installed in the roads. seat occupancy state. performing priority dispatch as necessary. In addition. All information. offices.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. transfer and departure time zones suitable for the needs of the public transport users to improve their convenience. support is given to choose flexible transport measures.

The system provides real-time information on the situation with respect to public transport congestion levels. and parking space availability through terminals located at users' homes or offices prior to departure.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems distributing the collected information to the public transport companies as basic data. fares. of Electronics [37] IHRD . and time of embarkation. transfers. or through mobile Dept. The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Provision of Public Transport Information Provision of public transport information supports public transport passengers in their selection of travel. other fees.CAS VDY . thereby improving users' convenience.

and the efficiency of public transport business operations. or at terminals. and message signs or kiosks installed along the road. real time collection of the operating status of trucks and tourist buses is distributed as basic data to the transport operators. thereby supporting public transport operations and management. Dept. safety and smooth operations of public transport.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems in-vehicle equipment. of Electronics [38] IHRD . to reduce commercial traffic and to greatly improve transport efficiency and safety. Thus multiple commercial vehicles with automated driving functions drive continuously by keeping a proper vehicular gap. assistance for public transport operations and operations management enables the collection of information on public transport operating conditions and implementation of public transport priority measures. 6. portable terminals. The system provides public transport operators with various important traffic conditions data. (ii) Assistance for Public Transport Operations and Management: In order to improve the convenience. bus stops and expressway service areas.6 INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS In this system.CAS VDY . as determined necessary.

CAS VDY . reduction of traffic volume of commercial vehicles. This system provides commercial vehicles with automated travel functions by keeping proper distances between vehicles. and improvement of transport safety. The green light timing of the crossing signal is extended with portable terminal units for safe crossing of the road. automated and systematized logistic centers and by providing information on joint distribution and cargo hauled on trips. and provides transport operators with this information.7 SUPPORT FOR PEDESTRIANS This system forms a safe and pleasant road environment for pedestrians including the elderly and handicapped with facilities like route guidance and routing using portable terminal units and voice to support them. (ii) Automated Platooning of Commercial Vehicles Automated platooning of commercial vehicles can realize rapid improvement in transport efficiency. This system improves the efficiency of freight and fleet management by establishing advanced. 6.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The two user services offered by this system are: (i) Assistance for Commercial Vehicle Operations Management This system collects information on truck and sightseeing bus operating conditions on a real-time basis. accidents are prevented by detecting pedestrians in the paths of vehicles and warning the driver and/or automatically activating the brakes. The two user services offered by this system are: Dept. Also. of Electronics [39] IHRD .

(ii) Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident Avoidance This system provides support for pedestrians and cyclists by extending the green time for pedestrians at signalized intersections by means of portable terminals. when imminent danger is detected in the case of a pedestrian in the path of a vehicle. Also. this system warns the driver of the situation or automatically applies the brakes. thereby preventing collisions involving pedestrians.CAS VDY . magnetic voices. 6. This system assists them by providing facilities with the help of portable terminal units.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (i) Pedestrian Route Guidance Pedestrian route guidance can create safe roadside environments which can be utilized by pedestrians and cyclists. particularly the elderly or the handicapped.8 Emergency vehicle notification systems Dept. sounds and route guidance and instruction signs. who are relatively vulnerable to traffic accidents. of Electronics [40] IHRD .

precise location. When activated. of Electronics [41] IHRD .CAS VDY . eCall is expected to be offered. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. Dept. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface). or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. an integrated eCall device. or tolling device. including time. the direction the vehicle was traveling. the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. PSAP). by the end of 2010. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. at earliest.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. and vehicle identification. pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. Telematics device. At the same time.

CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.9 Automatic road enforcement Dept. of Electronics [42] IHRD .

CAS VDY . is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. of Electronics [43] IHRD . Applications include: • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. • Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems A traffic enforcement camera system. Dept. consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device. Traffic tickets are sent by mail.

the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. • Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red. which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. of Electronics [44] IHRD . 6. In some jurisdictions. multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. The simulation has shown that. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas.CAS VDY . The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. • Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems • Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses.10 Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence. bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. Dept.

a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system. A more elaborate approach has been introduced to overcome these problems.CAS VDY . there is no proper way of dealing with such development. This approach considers the traffic to be moving smoothly and hence does not require any management or monitoring of traffic conditions. Dept. of Electronics [45] IHRD . or when congestion occurs. Most of the present intelligent traffic lights are sensor based with a certain algorithm that controls the switching operation of the system. When some unpredictable situation develops. It employs realtime traffic flow monitoring with image tracking systems.

when the bus is crowded. Dept. based on the vehicle’s location. of Electronics [46] IHRD . • Information via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus. transfer possibilities. • Provides news and Weather. • Primarily motivated by support for the disabled. video clips. and other travel-related information on a flat-panel display. and direction of travel.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6.CAS VDY . helpful for those unfamiliar with the route.11 IN-VEHICLE TRANSIT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Announcing stops. route. and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle.

cost. time and location of each stop as passengers get on and off the bus. and effort by means of infrared beams at the doors or pressure sensitive mats on the steps.CAS VDY . of Electronics [47] IHRD . • With the information provided by the APCs. transit planners can make changes to routes and schedules that better serve the transportation needs of their community.12 AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTER The APC automatically records the number of passengers. with a reduction in time.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 6. • The APC can collect data. • Dept.

• Reducing capital and operating costs. • Increasing the productivity of the transportation infrastructure. • Reducing traffic accidents. • Smoothening the traffic flow. • Enhancing the mobility of travelers. of Electronics [48] IHRD . • Improving safety. OBJECTIVES OF ITS The objectives of the ITS programs are to improve the surface transportation which includes the following: • Reducing traffic congestion. • Responding more effectively to incidents. especially the elderly and disabled. etc. • Increasing the viability of public transportation. • Increasing the ease and convenience of travel • Improving the environment. • Reducing the use of energy. Dept.CAS VDY . • Reducing fuel consumption.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 7. • Reducing pollution.

CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 8. ADVANTAGES OF ITS • Improved safety • Better traffic flow • Lower travel cost • Better environmental quality • Increased business activity • Greater user acceptance • Better travel information • Better planning information Dept. of Electronics [49] IHRD .

of Electronics [50] IHRD .CAS VDY .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 9.DISADVANTAGES OF ITS ➢ Difficult to use in mixed traffic ➢ Preliminary difficulties in understanding ➢ ITS equipments costly ➢ The control system software could be hacked by hackers Dept.

until now a "closed room. ITS has brought to the car culture an era of car multimedia revolution in which.Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems 10. the vehicle. from which it is possible to freely communicate. More concretely. Thus ITS. and the creation of a standard of living for the people such that they can realize a truly comfortable and affluent lifestyle." will be an "open" space. Also. and vehicles using state-of-the-art IT technologies. as a source of generating new industries. will be a space much like an office or a home. As this develops into the more real ITS age.and out-flow of information. A vehicle has until now been regarded as just a means of transportation. while it is still mobile. a vehicle. ITS is expected both nationwide and worldwide to be the most effective measure for solving serious road traffic problems.CAS VDY . CONCLUSION Intelligent Transportation Systems represent the next step in the evolution of a nation's entire transportation system. roads. Dept. but this concept will subsequently be broadened. communication between the inside and outside of the vehicle is realized. is not only an effective means to resolve these problems but is also an infrastructure which will help revolutionize industry and society in the 21st century. balanced national land development. with in. and as a leader of the advanced information and telecommunications society. which combines humans. ITS is an essential element in creating a global advanced information and telecommunications society. it is expected that there will be an expansion of economic frontiers. of Electronics [51] IHRD . As a result. (Society for automotive engineers) (Advanced cruise assist highway system research association) (Bureau of transportation systems) www.A journal on Intelligent Transportation System Architecture for a Multi-station Shared Vehicle System. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barth.bts.caats. of Electronics [52] IHRD .Seminar Report-2011 Intelligent Transportation Systems (California alliance for Intelligent Transportation Systems) www.or.. M. From the net www.ahsra. (2001). (Institution of transportation engg) (Electronic Toll Collection) www.sae.ettm.CAS VDY .

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