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Theories of Management_ppt[1]

Theories of Management_ppt[1]

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THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT

A. Scientific Theory 

Also called Taylorism, the Taylor system, or the Classical Perspective) Its a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. productivity.

General Approach 
   

Develop a standard method for performing each job Select workers with appropriate abilities for each job Train workers in the standard method previously developed Support workers by planning their work and eliminating interruptions. interruptions. Provide wage incentives to workers for increased output

Contributions     Scientific approach to business management and process improvement Importance of compensation for performance Began the careful study of tasks and jobs Importance of selection criteria .

training or experience Actions and decisions are recorded to allow continuity and memory Management is different from ownership of the organization Managers follow rules/procedures to enable reliable/predictable behaviour .Elements       Labor is defined and authority/responsibility is legitimised/official Positions placed in hierarchy and under authority of higher level Selection is based upon technical competence.

Taylor is efficiency. was an Taylor. W. Taylor.Frederick Winslow Taylor Widely known as F. regarded as the father of scientific management. the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas. were highly influential in the Progressive Era. He was one of consultants. American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. Era.  . broadly conceived. and was one of the first management consultants.

it is represented by standardized procedure (rule . usually in large organizations & government. government. Bureaucratic Theory  Type of Management ruled by bureaucracy . formal division of powers. . and relationships. relationships.is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity.B. As opposed to adhocracy.following) that dictates the execution of most or all processes within the body. influence. In practice the interpretation and execution of policy can lead to informal influence. hierarchy.

Characteristics of Bureaucracy          Formality A climate of rules and conventionality Division of labor Specialization Written specifications Memoranda and minutes Centralization Controls Emphasis on a high level of efficiency and production .

Born in Germany. and sociologist. sociologist. century. . Weber became a lawyer. scholar.Max Weber  was one of the most profoundly influential thinkers of the twentieth century. political economist. politician.

. "The hallmark of human-relation humantheories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions." contraptions. Human Relation Theory   It refers to the integration of people to work productively and cooperatively and with economic.C. psychological and social satisfaction. satisfaction.

Six Functions of Management .Henry Fayol -       planning organizing leading coordinating controlling staffing .

theorist. management functionally. the topic in the early twentieth century. defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". to reach one's intended goal. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. goal.   . George Elton Mayo (December 26. who wrote on 1868±1933).One can also think of people". Fritz Jules Roethlisberger (1898 ± 1974) was a 1974) social scientist and management theorist. September 7. 1880 26. or as the actions taken plan.Proponents:  Mary Parker Follett (1868±1933). sociologist and organization theorist. theorist. 1949) was an Australian 1949) psychologist.

Most people must be ³coerced. goals.´ all. can. directed. controlled. threatened with punishment´ to get them to work hard enough to satisfy the organization¶s goals.´ and want ³security above all.´ have ³relatively little ambition. . Most people prefer ³to be directed.D. Theory X  Underlying the Theory X approach to management are three assumptions about human nature: nature:    Most people have an innate dislike for work and will avoid it if they can.´ wish ³to avoid responsibility.

Theory Y Assumes that:  ³The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. are capable not only of accepting responsibility but of seeking it. may be a ³source of satisfaction.E. Indeed. work work.´  ³Under the condition of modern industrial life. not have an innate dislikefor work.  ³External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort toward organizational objectives. the intellectual potentialities of the average human are only partially utilized.´ If selfachievement. it. selfself-discipline in working for goals for which they are committed.´ Most people do rest. motivated. employees will be highly motivated.´ utilized. population.´ satisfaction.  Most people.  ³Commitment is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.´ Most people will display objectives. selfactualization needs can be satisfied through work. . ingenuity. and creativity in the solution of organizational problem is widely distributed to the population. committed.  ³The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. under proper conditions.

.

1954.Proponent:  Douglas Mcgregor (1906 ± 1964) 1964) was a Management professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management and president of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954. .

The selection of the right type of power. . Theory M  The Theory M style of leadership is one that recognizes that it is necessary to employ a variety of tactics for varying management situations. management. manager / leader is confident in his leadership abilities and understands both the scientific and artistic sides of management. or combination of power. components. This type situations. critical. This style recognizes the absolute need for power and the fact that it consists of separate components.F. for the proper situation is critical.

Proponent:  Niccolò Machiavelli (1469± 1469± 1527) 1527) was born in Florence as a lawyer¶s son. . son.

tends to promote stable employment. Theory Z focused on 1980s increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the wellwellbeing of the employee. high productivity. both on and off the job. and high employee morale and satisfaction. Theory Z  SoSo-called "Japanese Management" style popularized during the Asian economic boom of the 1980s.G. satisfaction. . This management job.

including their family . informal control with explicit. formalized measures Collective decision-making decisionSlow evaluation and promotion Moderately specialized careers Concern for a total person.Characteristics of the Theory Z        LongLong-term employment and job security Collective responsibility Implicit.

. management.Proponent:  William G. Ouchi (born 1943) is 1943) an American professor and author in the field of business management.

call centers. government. TQM processes. . TQM Theory  Total Quality Management (TQM) is a business management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. education. has been widely used in manufacturing. and service industries.H. as well as NASA space and science programs. programs.

Lead. Staff. provisioning and organizing   .Control.TQM is composed of three paradigms:  Total: Involving the entire organization. and/or product life cycle Quality: With its usual definitions. Organize. with all its complexities Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan. supply chain.

.In Japan. a pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the writer). Miryokuteki Hinshitsu ± The idea that "things should have an aesthetic quality" (for example. Kansei ± Examining the way the user applies the product leads to improvement in the product itself. writer). Atarimae Hinshitsu ± The idea that "things will work as they are supposed to" (for example. measurable. repeatable and measurable. TQM comprises four process steps. namely:     Kaizen ± Focuses on "Continuous Process Improvement". a pen will write). itself. to make processes visible. write).

. 1993) statistician. consultant. 1900 14. although he is perhaps best known for his work in Japan. There. from 1950 onward he taught top management how to improve design (and thus service). and consultant. Deming is widely credited with improving production in the United States during World War II.Proponent:  William Edward Deming (October 14. product quality. including the application of statistical methods. lecturer. testing and sales (the last through global markets) through various methods. 1993) was an American 20. ± December 20. author. Japan. professor. methods.

Sort out unnecessary items and out. discard/remove from work areas.5S + 1 Activities  SEIRI ± SORT ± SURIIN  Clear out. areas. .

 SEITON . place. .SYSTEMATIZE ± SINUPIN  A place for everything and everything in it¶s place.

area clean. clean. trash. to keep work etc. etc. SEISO ± SWEEP ± SIMUTIN ANG DUMI  Sweep out all dirt. . waste.

members. area and surroundings to maintain health of team members. Sanitize work Surroundings. . SEIKETSU ± SANITIZE ± SIGURUHIN ANG KALIGTASAN  Hygienic Surroundings.

results. SHITSUKE ± SELF-DISCIPLINE ± SARILING KUSA SELF Self-discipline of team members in performing the Selfabove 4S+1. S+1  SHIKKARI ± SUSTAIN ± SIKAPING MAPANATILI ANG 5S  Steadily or persistently sustain the 5S activities. Do activities. not stop. . Continue in order to achieve good results.

year. . services.I. The research administrator will insure that time sheets are completed and forwarded to the accountant and project director in time for funds to be drawn down for payroll (three days in advance of payday). Management By Objective Managers are urged to give specific goals and objectives and then measure whether workers achieved those. payday). Example of an objective: objective:    The vice-president will write three vicefunded proposals each year. The president will obtain three commercial contracts for consulting services. those.

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