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‫ﻣﺮآﺰ اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬

‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬

‫دورة ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺠﺴﻮر ذات اﻟﺮواﻓﺪ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮة ‪ 29-25‬آﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪2009 /‬‬

‫‪Design of a Reinforced Concrete Deck-Girder Bridge‬‬
‫‪to AASHTO & ACI Codes‬‬

‫إﻋﺪاد وإﻟﻘﺎء‬
‫اﻟﻤﻬﻨﺪس أﻹﺳﺘﺸﺎري‬
‫أﻻﺳﺘﺎذ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻼء ﻣﻬﺪي اﻟﺨﻄﻴﺐ‬

‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮة اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻮر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ رواﻓﺪ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ .‬هﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺠﺴﻮر ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻪ اﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ 1-‬وﻣﻘﻄﻌﻪ اﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ، 2-‬ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺮاق ﺿﻤﻦ ﻓﻀﺎءات ﺗﺘﺮاوح ﻣﻦ ‪ 10‬ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ‪ 30‬ﻣﺘﺮ وذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﻤﻮاد أﻷوﻟﻴﺔ واﻟﺨﺒﺮة ﻓﻲ إﻧﺸﺎءﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪Given Data:‬‬
‫‪Effective Span= 63 ft‬‬
‫‪Effective Width= 3o ft‬‬
‫‪Live Load= HS20‬‬
‫)‪Concrete Strength (Cylindrical Test) f'c =5000 psi (35 MPa‬‬
‫)‪Steel a- Grade 40 for Deck Slab f y = 40,000 psi (330 MPa‬‬
‫)‪b- Grade 60 for Girders f y =60,000 psi (414 MPa‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

3-‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬا ﺗﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ واﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ ‪ Md‬اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪wl 2‬‬ ‫‪Dl × l 2‬‬ ‫‪145 × (5.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ إﻃﺎر اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ HS20‬وﻳﺴﺎوي ﻧﺼﻒ ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮر اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫وإن ‪P20‬‬ ‫‪ 32..‬‬ ‫∗∗ وزن ﻗﺪم ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪، 150‬ووزن ﻗﺪم ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ أﻻﺳﻔﻠﺘﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪130‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ .33) 2‬‬ ‫‪=m‬‬ ‫‪=m‬‬ ‫‪= m412 ft.‬‬ ‫∗ هﺬﻩ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎت إﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻴﺔ ﺳﻮف ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت أﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ آﻔﺎﺋﺘﻬﺎ أو اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮهﺎ‪.(MI‬ﺗﺸﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ إﻟﻰ أن ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺼﺪم )‪ (I‬اﻟﺬي ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎوز ‪ 30 %‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺰوم‬ ‫أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ آﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪……………………………………………………………………………….8‬‬ ‫× ‪ML = 0.7-‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪ ً‬ ‫وﻟﺤﺴﺎب اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ ‪ ML‬اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮور‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ، HS20‬ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Ss + 2‬‬ ‫‪5.lb‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ إن ‪0.lb‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪Md = m‬‬ ‫أﻹﺳﻠﻮب أﻟﻤﺘﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ )آﺎﻓﺔ أﻵﻟﻴﺎت واﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﻤﺎرﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ( آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﻪ آﺮاﺳﺔ ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻄﺮق واﻟﻨﻘﻞ ‪ AASHTO‬وهﻲ اﺧﺘﺼﺎر ل‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials‬‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﻼف أوزان وأﺑﻌﺎد وأﻋﺪاد اﻟﻌﺠﻼت اﻟﻤﺎرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ‪ ،‬واﺳﺘﻨﺎدا إﻟﻰ دراﺳﺎت ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫وإﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ HS20‬ذات اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻤﺤﺪد واﻷﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﺎورهﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻋﻦ اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻت ﻣﺮور ﻋﺠﻼت ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬وآﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.8‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم إذا آﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة ﻓﻮق ﺛﻼﺛﺔ رواﻓﺪ‬ ‫أو أآﺜﺮ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ إذا آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ راﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ ﺑﺪوﻧﻪ‪.000 LB‬أي ﺑﻌﺒﺎرة ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.33 + 2‬‬ ‫× ‪P 20 = 0..8‬‬ ‫‪× 16000 = 2932 ft. 16.000LB‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻌﺠﻼت اﻟﻤﺎرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ﺑﺴﺮع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ اهﺘﺰاز ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬آﻤﺎ إن ﺗﻮﻗﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ اﻟﺼﺪم )‪ ، (Impact‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﺰوم إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻋﺰوم اﻟﺼﺪم‬ ‫)‪ .33 ft‬‬ ‫‪12 × 2 12 × 2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﻃﺔ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪Ss = 7 −‬‬ ‫)‪h = 8in∗ (20 cm‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮض أن اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﻃﺔ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ إآﺴﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ أﻻﺳﻔﻠﺘﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﻤﻚ ‪ ، 4in‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﻘﺪار أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ ‪ DL‬اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ آﻞ ﻗﺪم ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ وآﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫∗∗ ‪+ 130 × ≈ 145 psf‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫× ‪DL = 150‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ وﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻪ إﻧﺸﺎﺋﻴﺎً ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮاض ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‪1/10‬‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺰوم أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ واﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ‪ 1/2‬ﻟﺮﺻﻴﻒ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ وآﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‫‪Deck Slab Design:‬‬ ‫)‪b = 20 in∗ (50 cm‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮض إن ﻋﺮض أي راﻓﺪ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬ ‫‪= 5.

lb‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ رﺻﻴﻒ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪85(6 −‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪wl 2‬‬ ‫‪=−‬‬ ‫‪ML = −‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪MT = Md + ML = −3000 − 1135 = −4135 ft.33 + 150‬‬ ‫‪MI = ML × I = 2932 × 0.lb‬‬ ‫=‪I‬‬ ‫أﻵن ﻧﺠﻤﻊ آﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ وهﻲ ﻋﺰوم أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ واﻟﺤﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﺼﺪم ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى )‪ (MT‬وآﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪MT = Md + ML + MI = 412 + 2932 + 880 = 4224 ft.322 ⇒ 0.3 = 880 ft.lb‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ رﺻﻴﻒ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪(150 × )(6 − ) 2‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪12 = −3000 ft.lb‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ .‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.3‬‬ ‫‪Ss + 150 5.lb‬‬ ‫‪Md = −‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫و اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ رﺻﻴﻒ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪ 85psf‬ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪10 2‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪12 = −1135 ft.

..000‬‬ ‫‪20.....86 × 12‬‬ ‫‪2 MT‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪fckjb‬‬ ‫= ‪dreq‬‬ ‫‪.4 × 5000 = 2000 psi‬‬ ‫‪f s = 0....000‬‬ ‫= ‪Stress Ratio r = fs fc‬‬ ‫‪= 10‬‬ ‫‪2.....42 × 0......5 f y = 0. 4-‬‬ ‫‪Tension T= As×fs = Compression C = 0...........25‬‬ ‫=‪k‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.............42‬‬ ‫‪j = 1− = 1−‬‬ ‫‪= 0.000.............42‬‬ ‫‪n + r 7...............5 bkd × fc‬‬ ‫‪Moment of Resistance Mr = T × jd = As × fs × jd‬‬ ‫‪Concrete Youngs Modulas Ec = 57000 f c′ = 57000 5000 = 4....86‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫= ‪Modular Ratio n = Es Ec‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻖ أﻷدﻧﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻟﻠﺒﻼﻃﺔ )‪ (d req..........000.....000‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬ ‫‪7.......25 + 10‬‬ ‫‪k‬‬ ‫‪0..000 psi‬‬ ‫‪29.............000 psi‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ .....‬‬ ‫* ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ‪ WSDM‬ﻳﺠﺮي ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﻌﺰوم اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﺑﺪون زﻳﺎدة‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد وذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ درﺟﺔ أﻷﻣﺎن اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﺮ وآﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪f c = 0..4 f c′ = 0.000..25‬‬ ‫‪4.‬ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪2 × 4224 × 12‬‬ ‫‪= 3...000 = 20.000‬‬ ‫‪= 7...5 × 40...42in‬‬ ‫‪2000 × 0.......‫ﻧﺼﻤﻢ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ وﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫)‪*WSDM (Working Stress Design Method‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ رﻣﻮزهﺎ وﻣﻌﺎدﻻﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪....

‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻗﻀﺒﺎن ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺢ ذات ﻗﻄﺮ‪ 5/8‬وﻏﻄﺎء ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ‪ 1in‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮك ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ أﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺂآﻞ ﺑﺴﻤﻚ ‪ ، 1in‬ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮ ‪ d ava.526‬‬ ‫= ‪Spacing‬‬ ‫‪Use #5@7´´c/c.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻗﺪم ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ ‪ As‬ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪MT‬‬ ‫‪4224 × 12‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.55in ⇒ 10in‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫× ‪Spacing ( Secondary) = 7.07in ⇒ 7in‬‬ ‫‪As 0.6‬‬ ‫= ‪As‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ‪ #5‬ذو ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﺮﺿﻲ ‪ ، Ab = 0.07‬‬ ‫‪Use #5@10´´c/c‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ . = 8 − 1 −‬‬ ‫وهﺬا اﻟﻌﻤﻖ أآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ‪ .59 ft = 0.‬أﻣﺎ آﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﺘﺤﺪدهﺎ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ آﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎوز ‪ 67%‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ وﺗﺒﻠﻎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪67‬‬ ‫‪= 10.526in 2‬‬ ‫‪f s jd 20. 3.(5-‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪− 1 = 5.‬ﻳﺴﺎوي‪) :‬ﻻﺣﻆ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ أﻹﺟﻬﺎدات اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ أﻹﻧﻜﻤﺎش وﺗﻐﻴﺮ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة ‪ ،‬وآﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰة ﻹﻃﺎرات اﻟﻌﺠﻼت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺢ ﺛﺎﻧﻮي ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻮق اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ وﺑﺼﻮرة ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪة ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .86 × 5.T&B‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻀﺎءات اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮة وﻟﺘﻼﻓﻲ إﺣﻨﺎء اﻟﻘﻀﺒﺎن ﺑﺼﻮرة ﻗﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺘﻢ إﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻗﻀﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ أﺳﻔﻞ اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ أﻋﻼهﺎ‪ .31‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.‬إن هﺬا أﻹﺟﺮاء رﺑﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ آﻤﻴﺔ أآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ أﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﺮ اﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ إﺟﻮر اﻟﺤﺪادة وﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‪.000 × 0.31in 2‬راﺟﻊ اﻟﺠﺪول اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪Ab‬‬ ‫‪0.59 × 12 = 7.6in‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪d ava.42in‬ﻟﺬا ﻓﺎن اﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺴﻤﻚ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪8in‬‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮن أﻣﻴﻨﺔ وﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ وﺳﻴﺘﻢ اﻋﺘﻤﺎدهﺎ‪.

lb‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫= ‪Md‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﻌﺰم أﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﺮور اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪، 7-‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻪ آﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎن اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﻃﺔ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ رواﻓﺪ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وإن ﻋﺮض اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎرﻳﻦ ﻣﺮورﻳﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎن اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ إن آﻞ راﻓﺪ داﺧﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ أن ﻳﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎل إﻃﺎرات اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻀﺮوﺑًﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ ‪ ، S/5‬ﺣﻴﺚ إن ‪ S‬ﺗﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﺮاآﺰ اﻟﺮواﻓﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺳًﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻗﺪام ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎوز ‪ 10‬أﻗﺪام‪. 4.000 × 1.‫‪Design of Interior Girders‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﺮواﻓﺪ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ T‬ﻓﺎن ﻋﺮض اﻟﺸﻔﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ‪ Width of Top Flange‬ﻳﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺮاآﺰ اﻟﺮواﻓﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪ 7ft‬وآﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪S 7‬‬ ‫‪= = 1.4 wheel load/ wheel‬‬ ‫‪5 5‬‬ ‫وﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮن ﺣﻤﻞ آﻞ ﻣﻦ أﻹﻃﺎرﻳﻦ أﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ واﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﻳﺴﺎوي ‪ 16.400lb‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ‫أﻹﻃﺎر أﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ﻳﺴﺎوي ‪.4 = 22.4 = 5.000 × 1. 6-‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺮاض ﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ ‪) 40in‬ﻣﺘﺮ واﺣﺪ( ﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎب أﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪم واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻮل اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ وآﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪12 20 40‬‬ ‫‪× × ) = 1850lb / ft‬‬ ‫‪12 12 12‬‬ ‫(‪DL = 145 + 150‬‬ ‫وﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺰم أﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪DL × l‬‬ ‫‪1850 × 63‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 917.600lb‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ .000 ft.

lb‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ .85 + 5.‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎت ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ أﻹﻧﺸﺎءات اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﻘﺪار وﻣﻮﻗﻊ أﻟﻌﺰم أﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺎﺣﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة اﻟﻤﺤﺎور وﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ أﻷوزان اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ آﻞ ﻣﺤﻮر ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫أ‪ -‬إن ﻣﺨﻄﻂ اﻟﻌﺰوم ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮط ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ وإن أﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺰم ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﺗﺤﺖ أﺣﺪ‬ ‫أﻹﻃﺎرات‪.‬‬ ‫‪22.( R‬ﻻﺣﻆ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.266 × 685.lb‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪= 0.85 + 22.165 = 1.400 × 33.600 × 14 = 658.15 − 5.347lb‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬ ‫= ‪RB‬‬ ‫‪MLmax = RB × 29.400 × 19.750.85‬‬ ‫‪= 23.165 ft.165 + 0. 7-‬‬ ‫ت‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺨﺒﺮة ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﺄن أﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﺰم ﻳﻘﻊ ﺗﺤﺖ أﻷﻃﺎر اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ وﻟﻴﺲ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻹﻃﺎرات‪.266‬‬ ‫‪63 + 125‬‬ ‫= ‪Impact Factor I‬‬ ‫‪MT = 917.000 + 658.600 × 47.000 ft.‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻮﻗﻊ أﻹﻃﺎر اﻟﺬي ﻳﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﻌﺰم أﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ان ﺧﻂ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﻒ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﻒ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ أﻷﻃﺎر وﻣﺤﺼﻠﺔ وزن اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ) ‪ .

‬ﻻﺣﻆ إن ﺣﻤﻞ أﻹﻃﺎر اﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺑﺪون زﻳﺎدة ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﺮب آﻞ ﻣﻦ أﺣﻤﺎل أﻹﻃﺎر اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ واﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ، 1.4‬آﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﻗﻮى اﻟﻘﺺ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮى اﻟﻘﺺ اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ ‪ Dead Load Shears Vd‬ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻬﺎ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.266 × 36. 8-‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬ ‫‪= 58.526lb‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ .533 = 104.400 × 49 + 5.000 × 63 + 22.533lb‬‬ ‫‪VT = 58. 9-‬‬ ‫‪VLmax = RA = (16.275lb‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫× ‪Vd max = 1850‬‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻗﻮى اﻟﻘﺺ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﺑﺴﺒﺐ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮن ﻗﻮة اﻟﻘﺺ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ‪ VL‬ﺗﺤﺖ أﻹﻃﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻔﻲ وﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ دﺧﻮل اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ‪ .533 + 0.600 × 35) / 63 = 36.275 + 36.

‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ أﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ‬ ‫‪Determination of Girder Cross Section Dimensions‬‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎت آﺮاﺳــﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت ‪ ، AASHTO‬ﻳﺠﺮي ﺣﺴــﺎب إﺟﻬﺎد اﻟﻘﺺ أﻻﺳــﻤﻲ ‪v‬‬ ‫‪ Nominal Shear Stress‬اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺊ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺨﺪﻣﻴﺔ ‪ Service Loads‬وﻓﻖ اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪VT‬‬ ‫‪bw d‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ إن ‪ b w‬ﺗﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﻌﺮض اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺮاﻓﺪ وإن ‪ v‬ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫وﻓﻖ اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎن ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫=‪v‬‬ ‫‪v = 2.855in 2‬‬ ‫= ‪As‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫) ‪f s (d − ) 30.5 = 31 .95 5.95 f c′ = 2.6in‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪d ava = 48 − 1 − 2.000 × 12‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 18.5in‬ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ‪ ، h req‬آﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ 10 -‬ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪+ 2 + + 2.750.5 −‬‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ As‬ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪1.000(40.38in‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪hreq = 25 +‬‬ ‫وﻟﻤﺎ آﺎن اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮاﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ ، h=48in‬ﻟﺬا ﻳﻜﻮن ﻃﻮل ذرراع اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ‪ d ava‬ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪−2−‬‬ ‫‪= 40.6 −‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪MT‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ .526‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 500in 2‬‬ ‫‪208‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫= ‪bw d‬‬ ‫وﻟﻤﺎ آﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ إﻓﺘﺮﺿﻨﺎ إن اﻟﻌﺮض اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺮاﻓﺪ ﻳﺴﺎوي ‪ 20in‬ﻟﺬا ﻳﻜﻮن ﻃﻮل ذرراع اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ‪ d req‬ﻳﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪= 25in‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫= ‪d req‬‬ ‫إذا إﻓﺘﺮﺿﻨﺎ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻃﺒﻘﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ‪ ، #10‬راﺟﻊ اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ‪ ، 2-‬ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮك ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺻﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارهﺎ ‪ 2in‬ﺑﻴﻦ أي ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬و إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻏﻄﺎء ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺴﻤﻚ ‪ 2.000 = 208 psi‬‬ ‫‪VT 104.

625‬‬ ‫‪2 × 0.855‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 14.892‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪j = 1−‬‬ ‫‪MT‬‬ ‫‪)×b × hf × j × d‬‬ ‫‪= 1342 psi ≤ f all 2000 psi ⇒ O.000‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪29.324 × 40.‬وﻳﺘﻢ إﻋﺘﺒﺎر إن ﺟﺰء اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ هﻮ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻌﺮض ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻺﻧﻀﻐﺎط ﻣﻊ أﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻮاد ﺑﻨﻈﺮ أﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎر وآﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪= 7.K‬‬ ‫‪1.85 ⇒ 15bars‬‬ ‫‪Ab‬‬ ‫‪1.000.2‬‬ ‫‪29.324‬‬ ‫‪= 1−‬‬ ‫‪= 0.625‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫=‪n‬‬ ‫= ‪fc‬‬ .892 × 40.000 f ' c‬‬ ‫‪f s 30.000‬‬ ‫‪57.2‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.000 × 12‬‬ ‫‪hf‬‬ ‫‪2kd‬‬ ‫= ‪fc‬‬ ‫‪(1 −‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪(1 −‬‬ ‫‪) × 12 × 7 × 7 × 0.000‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 15‬‬ ‫‪fc‬‬ ‫‪2.000.27‬‬ ‫= ‪Number of #10 Bars‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ إﺟﻬﺎدات أﻹﻧﻀﻐﺎط واﻟﺘﺄآﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪم ﺗﺠﺎوزهﺎ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎدات اﻟﻤﺴﻤﻮح ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‪ .2 + 15‬‬ ‫=‪k‬‬ ‫‪k‬‬ ‫‪0.‫‪As 18.000‬‬ ‫‪57.750.000‬‬ ‫=‪r‬‬ ‫‪7.000 5.324‬‬ ‫‪n + r 7.

‫‪Web Shear Reinforcement‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن إﺟﻬﺎدات اﻟﻘﺺ آﺒﻴﺮﻩ ﻗﺮب اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻧﺪ وﺗﻘﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬وﻳﻜﻮن أﺧﻄﺮهﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪d‬‬ ‫)‪ (40.213lb‬‬ ‫‪VL10 = RA = (5.‬‬ ‫‪31.5 − 3.4‬‬ ‫‪= 52.5 + 22.4ft‬ﻋﻦ أي ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪﻳﻦ‪ .625in=3.‬ﻟﺬا ﺳﻴﺠﺮي ﺣﺴﺎب أﻹﺟﻬﺎدات ﻋﻨﺪ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ وآﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 10ft‬ﻋﻦ أي ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﻨﺪي اﻟﺮاﻓﺪ‪.400 × (39 + 53)) / 63 = 34.5 − 10‬‬ ‫× ‪= 58.275‬‬ ‫‪Vd10‬‬ ‫‪VL3.275‬‬ ‫‪= 39.5‬‬ ‫× ‪Vd 3.5‬‬ ‫‪31.4 = RA = (5.400 × (45.6 + 59.775lb‬‬ ‫‪31.933lb‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ .4 = 58.600 × 25 + 22.6)) / 63 = 40.600 × 31.012lb‬‬ ‫‪31.

15-‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫=‪s‬‬ .95 f ' c = 0.000‬‬ ‫‪= 104 psi‬‬ ‫‪20 × 40.922lb‬‬ ‫‪VT10 = 39. 14-‬‬ ‫وآﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.625/2=20in‬إذاً‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺢ ‪ #5‬ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ اﻟﻘﺼﻮى ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻹﺟﻬﺎدات اﻟﻘﺺ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪Av × f s 0.266(34.775 + 1.4‬‬ ‫‪84.‫‪VT3. 40.000‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 46 psi‬‬ ‫‪s × bw‬‬ ‫‪20 × 20‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ﻹﺟﻬﺎدات اﻟﻘﺺ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫= ‪v − vc‬‬ ‫‪67 + 46 = 113 psi‬‬ ‫أي إن ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﻐﻄﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪63 − 2 × 10 = 43 ft‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺧﺎرج هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬أي آﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻧﺪ واﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻃﻮل أي ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫أﻗﺪام‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ال ‪ Stirrups‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺎوي‪:‬‬ ‫‪Av × f s‬‬ ‫‪0.922‬‬ ‫‪= 127 psi‬‬ ‫‪20 × 40 .625‬‬ ‫= ‪v3.4 = 52.62 × 30.000‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 15.5in ⇒ 15in‬‬ ‫‪(v − v c )bw (127 − 67) × 20‬‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ آﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ال ‪ Stirrups‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.625‬‬ ‫= ‪v10‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻞ إﺟﻬﺎد ﻗﺺ إﺳﻤﻲ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪vc = 0.000 = 67 psi‬‬ ‫وﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ ﻻﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ال ‪Stirrups‬‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪ d/2‬أي‬ ‫‪ .95 5.012 + 1.213) = 102.62 × 30.266(40.933) = 84.000lb‬‬ ‫‪VT‬‬ ‫‪bd‬‬ ‫=‪v‬‬ ‫‪Shear Stress‬‬ ‫‪102 .

14 .

15 .

4mm ‫أﻹزاﺣﺎت‬ Surface area 1ft² = 0.1571kN/m³ Linear loads 1kip/ft = 14.356kN.006895MPa 1kip/in² = 6.lb = 1. custuomary units to SI metric units Spans 1ft = 0.448kN 1lb/ft³ = 0.2mm² Section modulus 1in³ = 16.0479kN/m² 1kip/ft² = 47.9kN/m² Stress and moments Stress Moment or tourque ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳـﺮ اﻟﻤﻘـﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻋـﺰم اﻟﻘـﺼﻮر اﻟـﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟـﺘـﺤـﻤـﻴــــــــﻞ‬ Density Surface loads ‫اﻟـﺨـﻮاص‬ ‫أﻹﻧـﺸــﺎﺋـﻴـﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﻪ‬ ‫أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻤُـ َﺮ َآﺰَﻩ‬ ‫اﻟـﻜـﺜـﺎﻓـﻪ‬ ‫أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺨَـﻄﻴﻪ‬ ‫أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﻪ‬ ‫أﻹﺟﻬﺎدات واﻟـﻌـﺰوم‬ 1lb/in² = 0.m 16 ‫أﻹﺟـﻬـﺎد‬ ‫أﻟﻌـﺰم أو أﻹﻟـﺘـﻮاء‬ .765m³ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ Overall Geometry Sructural Properties Area 1in² = 645.kip = 1.4162 × 10 6 mm 4 Loadings Concentrated loads 1lb = 4.m 1ft.448N 1kip = 4.895MPa 1ft.59kN/m 1lb/ft² = 0.3048m ‫أﻷﺑﻌـﺎد ﺑـﺼﻮرﻩ‬ ‫ﻋـﺎﻣــﻪ‬ ‫أﻷﻃﻮال‬ Displacements 1in = 25.-1-‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺟَـﺪول ﻣُـﻌﺎﻣِـﻼت ﺗـﺤـﻮﻳـﻞ وﺣـﺪات اﻟﻘـﻴﺎس‬ Conversion factores.0929m² ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﻪ اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﻪ‬ Volume 1ft³ = 0.356N. U.0283m³ 1yd³ = 0.39×10³mm³ Moment of inertia 1in1in4 = 0 .S.

4‬‬ ‫‪3.18‬‬ ‫‪0.5‬‬ ‫‪0.668‬‬ ‫‪1.5‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪166‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪129‬‬ ‫‪12.25‬‬ ‫)‪(14/8‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪13.2‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪42‬‬ ‫‪23.42‬‬ ‫‪6.36‬‬ ‫‪0.44‬‬ ‫‪7.S‬‬ ‫‪Unit‬‬ ‫‪weight‬‬ ‫‪Perimeter‬‬ ‫‪c/s Area‬‬ ‫‪Diameter‬‬ ‫‪Bar‬‬ ‫‪No.8‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪74‬‬ ‫‪13.79‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪3.1‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ .3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪297‬‬ ‫‪3.313‬‬ ‫‪4.2‬‬ ‫‪121.6‬‬ ‫‪7.4‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪819‬‬ ‫‪31.303‬‬ ‫‪3.376‬‬ ‫‪1.44‬‬ ‫¾‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪2.56‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪71‬‬ ‫‪9.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪد اﻟﻘﻀﺒﺎن )ﻃﻮل ‪ 6‬ﻣﺘﺮ( ﻓﻲ آﻞ ﻃﻦ‬ ‫وزن اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻮزن ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺮ ‪Ø‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫‪kg‬‬ ‫‪kg‬‬ ‫‪mm‬‬ ‫‪mm²‬‬ ‫‪mm‬‬ ‫‪666‬‬ ‫‪1.36‬‬ ‫‪5.25‬‬ ‫‪3.2‬‬ ‫½‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪1.97‬‬ ‫‪80‬‬ ‫‪509‬‬ ‫‪25.38‬‬ ‫‪135‬‬ ‫‪1451‬‬ ‫‪44.7‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪47.‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ‪-2-‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس وﻗﻄﺮ وﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ وﻣﺤﻴﻂ ووزن ﻗﻀﺒﺎن ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ )‪(units U.32‬‬ ‫‪2.14‬‬ ‫‪0.043‬‬ ‫‪1.99‬‬ ‫‪1.41‬‬ ‫‪2.27‬‬ ‫)‪(10/8‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪5.04‬‬ ‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪387‬‬ ‫‪22.‬‬ ‫‪lb/ft‬‬ ‫‪in‬‬ ‫‪in²‬‬ ‫‪in‬‬ ‫‪#‬‬ ‫‪0.5‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪26‬‬ ‫‪38.06‬‬ ‫‪90‬‬ ‫‪645‬‬ ‫‪28.36‬‬ ‫‪0.11‬‬ ‫)‪(3/8‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪0.23‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬ ‫‪283‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪54‬‬ ‫‪18.24‬‬ ‫‪180‬‬ ‫‪2580‬‬ ‫‪57.57‬‬ ‫‪0.67‬‬ ‫‪3.75‬‬ ‫‪0.044‬‬ ‫‪2.502‬‬ ‫‪2.96‬‬ ‫‪0.9‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪≈ 14.6‬‬ ‫)‪(7/8‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪2.167‬‬ ‫‪0.84‬‬ ‫‪3.55‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪15.7‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪107‬‬ ‫‪9.3‬‬ ‫‪11.6‬‬ ‫‪68.25‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪6.05‬‬ ‫¼‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪0.43‬‬ ‫‪1.4‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪30.4‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪≈ 8.54‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫)‪(9/8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪4.3‬‬ ‫‪1.65‬‬ ‫‪5.79‬‬ ‫‪0.31‬‬ ‫)‪(5/8‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪1.91‬‬ ‫‪110‬‬ ‫‪1006‬‬ ‫‪34.09‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫)‪(18/8‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس وﻗﻄﺮ وﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ وﻣﺤﻴﻂ ووزن ﻗﻀﺒﺎن ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ )‪(SI units‬‬ ‫‪Bar‬‬ ‫‪No.56‬‬ ‫)‪(11/8‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪7.42‬‬ ‫‪20.

‬ﻟﺬا‬ ‫أوﺻﺖ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮق واﻟﺠﺴﻮر ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺮورهﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﻮر‪ .39‬‬ ‫‪0.‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ أدﻧﺎﻩ أﻷﺣﻤﺎل واﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ Class 100‬واﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮهﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Military Bridge Loading‬‬ ‫‪Standard Vehicle Class 100‬‬ ‫‪Impact Factor‬‬ ‫)‪Span of Concrete Bridge (ft‬‬ ‫‪0.28‬‬ ‫‪0.00‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪65‬‬ ‫‪98‬‬ ‫‪130‬‬ ‫‪164‬‬ ‫‪More than 164‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ .‫أﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ إن اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﺮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ اﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ HS20‬اﻟﺘﻲ أوﺻﺖ ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ AASHTO‬ﺗﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻗﺎدرًا ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﺮور أﻷﺣﻤﺎل أﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎدﻳﺔ ﺑﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻻ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﻴﻨﺔ واﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‪ .36‬‬ ‫‪0.37‬‬ ‫‪0.12‬‬ ‫‪0.32‬‬ ‫‪0.24‬‬ ‫‪0.‬إﻻ أن هﻨﺎك ﺣﺎﻻت ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﺿًﺎ ﻟﻤﺮور أﺣﻤﺎ ً‬ ‫آﺎﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﺠﺴﺮ ﻳﺘﻌﺮض ﻹﺟﻬﺎدات ﻗﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆدي ﻟﺘﻀﺮرﻩ أو اﻧﻬﻴﺎرﻩ‪ .40‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0.

32 × 5497 = 7670 ft.lb For Military Loading.37 j = 1− = 0.42in 2 / ft 45.877 3 2 × 7670 × 12 d erq.6in 3650 × 0.33 + 2 × 30.2 45.73 × f ' c = 0. spacing of #5 bars can be calculated as follows: 8. #5@8´´c/c.2 + 12.000 = 3650 psi n = 7.877 × 12 5 d ava.33 0.Deck Slab check: Md = 412 ft.lb 5.8 × 32 I = 0.37 × 0.6in ≥ d req 3.75 ft = 8.75 × f y = 0.75 × 60. it is allowed to overstress materials as follows: +25% for Steel +33% for Concrete f s = 0.K 16 7670 × 12 As = = 0.31 = 0. #5@12´´c/c 19 .67 Use G60.lb ML = 0.000 = 5497 ft.6in ⇒ O.000 r= = 12.73 × 5.32 MT = 412 + 1.000 psi f c = 0.6 0.42 Use G60.37 7.2 k= = 0.9in ⇒ 8in Spacing = 0.877 × 5. = = 3.3in 0.33 3650 7.000 × 0.000 = 45.9 = 13. = 8 − 1 − 1 − = 5. T&B By using the maximum secondary reinforcement of 67% of the main reinforcement.

701 .163 . 777 = 3 . 000 ( 9 + 14 ) + 42 .275 + 1. 701 . 32 × 1 .Interior Girder check: Md = 917. 000 + 1 . 000 × 15 − 42 . 345 ft .000 ft.275lb VT = 58.888 lb ML = RA × 29 − 21 .lb Girder dimensions check: Vd = 58.lb 63 RA = 28 . 000 ( 34 + 37 ) + 21 .lb MT = 917 .111 = 193. 000 × 3 = 1.061lb 20 . 777 ft . 000 × 49 ⇒ RA = 73 .32 × 102.

37 × 40.K 8 16 3.8in 20 10 10 d ava.525lb 31.722in 2 7 45. 19.3 31.89 ⇒ 18bars 1.8in ⇒ O.32 × 100.275 = ⇒ Vd15 = 30.163. 3650 psi ⇒ O.5 − 3. VL 3.061 = 696in 2 v 277 696 d req.5 Vd15 58.' v = 1.778 = 125.345 × 12 As = = 22.33 × 2.5 − 15 31.33 × 0.272lb vc = 1.3 =100.5 According to Fig.27 Ab bw d = Use 18#10.837 × 40.778 lb VT3.122 lb VL 15 =71.170lb 31.345 × 12 7 (1 − ) × 12 × 7 × 7 × 0.32 × 71.722 = = 17.K . 20.170 + 1. three layers Concrete compression check: fc act . According to Fig. 34. = 3.625 − ) 2 As 22.3 = 52.5 − − 2 − = 40.525 + 1. = 48 − 1 − 2.163.95 f c = 277 psi VT 193.3 = 52. = = 34.3 58.625in ≥ d req.122 = 184.275 = ⇒ Vd 3.95 f c′ = 89 psi 21 = 2475 psi ≤ fc all .625 Shear reinforcement check: Vd 3.331lb VT15 = 30.625 2 × 0.000(40.

62 × 45. The remaining two distances -15ft from support.will be provided with #5 stirrups spaced at: s= Av × f s 0.62 × 45.000 = 10.1 ⇒ 10in (v − vc ) × bw (227 − 89) × 20 Use #5 U Stirrups@10´´c/c 22 .000 = = 70 psi s × bw 20 × 20 Then the section shear resistance will be 89+70=159 psi It is clear that the maximum allowed spacing of 20in will be enough to cover all the intermediate distance up to 15ft from each support. the steel #5 bars will resist: v − vc = Av × f s 0.By using the maximum allowed spacing of d/2=20in.

23 .

24 .