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Human Anatomy and Physiology II Oklahoma City Community College
Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle
Long cylindrical cells Many nuclei per cell Striated Voluntary Rapid contractions
Branching cells One or two nuclei per cell Striated Involuntary Medium speed contractions
wave-like contractions .Smooth Muscle Fusiform cells One nucleus per cell Nonstriated Involuntary Slow.
Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle .
Z line Z line .
H Band .
Sarcomere Relaxed .
Sarcomere Partially Contracted .
Sarcomere Completely Contracted .
Binding Site Tropomyosin Troponin .
Neuromuscular Junction .
Acetylcholine Opens Channel + Na .
Muscle Contraction Summary Nerve impulse reaches myoneural junction Acetylcholine is released from motor neuron Ach binds with receptors in the muscle membrane to allow sodium to enter Sodium influx will generate an action potential in the sarcolemma .
tropomyosin complex Binding sites in the actin filament are exposed .Muscle Contraction Continued Action potential travels down T tubule Sarcoplamic reticulum releases calcium Calcium binds with troponin to move the troponin.
Muscle Contraction Continued Myosin head attach to binding sites and create a power stroke ATP detaches myosin heads and energizes them for another contaction When action potentials cease the muscle stop contracting .
Motor Unit All the muscle cells controlled by one nerve cell .
Motor Unit Ratios Back muscles ± 1:100 Finger muscles ± 1:10 Eye muscles ± 1:1 .
Creatine Molecule capable of storing ATP energy Creatine + ATP Creatine phosphate + ADP .
Creatine Phosphate Molecule with stored ATP energy Creatine phosphate + ADP Creatine + ATP .
Muscle Fatique Lack of oxygen causes ATP deficit Lactic acid builds up from anaerobic respiration .
Muscle Atrophy Weakening and shrinking of a muscle May be caused ± Immobilization ± Loss of neural stimulation .
Muscle Hypertrophy Enlargement of a muscle More capillaries More mitochondria Caused by ± Strenuous exercise ± Steroid hormones .
Steroid Hormones Stimulate muscle growth and hypertrophy .
Muscle Tonus Tightness of a muscle Some fibers always contracted .
Tetany Sustained contraction of a muscle Result of a rapid succession of nerve impulses .
Refractory Period Brief period of time in which muscle cells will not respond to a stimulus .
Refractory Periods Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle .
Isometric Contraction Produces no movement Used in ± Standing ± Sitting ± Posture .
Isotonic Contraction Produces movement Used in ± Walking ± Moving any part of the body .
THE END .