An

Introduction to the

Sciences of the

Quraan
by

Abu Ammaar

Yasir

Qadhi

ISBN

I

898649 32 4

British Library

Cataloguing

in Publication

Data.

A

catalogue record tor this hook

is

available Ironi the British Library.

First Edition. 142(1

AH/1999 CE

© Copyright 1999 by Yasir Qadhi

A 11 rig/its reserved. No pan ofthis publication may be reproduced in any language. Hored in
a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical,

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'typeset bv:

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1

)istnhution

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Dedicated

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Ammi and Abbi,
without whom,
after the blessings ofAllaah,
all this

would not be possible.

«0 My Lord! Bestow your Mercy on them, even as they reared me when I was young» /l 7:24/

1

Contents

TRANSLITERATION TABLE

1

INTRODUCTION
1.
1.

12

AN INTRODUCTION TO 'ULOOM AL-QUR'AAN
Definition of 'Uloom al-Qur'aan
Benefits of Studying

18 18

II.

'Uloom al-Qur'aan

19
19

III.

The

History

of

'Uloom al-Qur'aan

2.
I.

THE QUR'AAN
The Linguistic Meaning
of the

24

Word

'Qur'aan'

24
25

II.

The

Definition of the Qur'aan

The Breakdown of the Definition
III.

26

The Qur'aan

as the

Speech of Allaah

29 30
35

Tin Concept of the Kalaam of Allaah
Ti
rE

Qur'aan as the Kalaam of Allaai

i

A Refutation of the Ash'arees
The Sloiy of lbraaheem The Story ofMoosaa
Conclusion

40
45 46
52

IV The Names

of* the
it

Qur'aan

54
55

VThe
VI.

Qur'aan as

Describes Itself Describes the Qur'aan

The Sunnah

as

it

57 57

The Status of the Qur'aan The Rewards for those wi io
3.
I.

Recite and Practice

ti if

Qur'aan

58
61

INSPIRATION - AL-WAHY The Concept of Wahy
The Meaning of'Wahy The Procedure of'Wahy
A.
B.

61

II.

62

III.

64 64

Without an Intermediary With an Intermediary
The Revelation of the Qur'aan The Revelation of the Qur'aan
to the Angels to the Prophet (%ig,)froin Jibreel

67
68

69
72

IV The Difference Between the Qur'aan and Hadecth Qudsee

6 5 1

4.
I.

GRADUAL REVELATION
The
Stages of Revelation

75 75 75

The First Stage The Second Stage The Third Stage
Tampering of the Revelation?

76
78

79

II.

The Quantity or Revelation The Wisdom Behind the Gradual

80
Revelation
81

5.
I.

THE FIRST AND THE LAST REVELATIONS
The
First Revelation

88

89
91

II.

The

Last Revelation

III.

Relative First

and Last Verses

95 97

6.
I.

THE MAKKEE AND THE MADANEE VERSES
The
Definition of Makkee and

Madance

98 99
100 100
1

II.

The Knowledge of Makkee and Madanee Verses

III.

The Attributes

of Makkee anil Madanee Revelations

Common Themes of Makki.i: and Madanee Verses
Specific Characteristics of

Makkee and Madanee verses
verses

02

IV The Categories of Makkee and Madanee

102

V The
7.
I.

Benefits ol

Knowing Makkee and Madanee
-

105 107 107 109

THE CAUSES OF REVELATION ASBAAB AN-NUZOOL
The
Definition of Asbaab an-Nuzool
Bool{s

on Asbaab an-Nuzool

II.

The Derivation of Asbaab an-Nuzool

109 110
1

The Wordings of Asbaab an-Nuzool III. Multiple Asbaab an-Nuzool for One Verse IV Multiple Verses for One Sabab an-Nuzool V A Person as Sabab an-Nuzool VI. The Rulings from these Verses
VII.

1

1

1

1

1

1

17

The

Benefits ol

Knowing Asbaab an-Nuzool

119
24

8.
I.

THE COMPILATION OF THE QUR'AAN
During the Prophet's
(3H) Life

1

125 131

II.

III.

The First Compilation The 'Uthmaanic Compilation The
Different Mus-hafs

135

IV

139 139 139
141

A.

The Appearance of the Mus-hafs
The Spelling of the Words of the Our'aan The
Script

of the Mus_-haf.

The Qur'aan
.1

in Print

145

Winning!

146
147

B.

The Number of "UthmaanicMus-hafs
Were these Mls-haes the Same?

C.
I).

147 149
151
1

What Happened to the

Original Mus-haes?

VThe Verses of the Qur'aan
The Necessity of this Knowledge
The Origins of this Know/edge

52

152
1

The Number of Verses
The Arrangement of the
Verses

54

154
156 157 160
161

The Number of Words and Letters
TheBas.mai.aii asa Verse
VI.

The Soorahs

ot the

Qur'aan

The Arrangement of the Soorahs The Number of Soorahs
The Names of the Soorahs The
Classification

163 164
164 165 166

of the Soorahs

Other Classifications
9.
I.

THE BEGINNING OF THE SOORAHS

The Different Categories II. The Disjointed Letters
III.

166
167 170
172 172
1

The Ending of the Soorahs

10.
I.

THE AHRUF OF THE QUR'AAN
of the word

The Meaning

Ahruf

The Number of Ahruf of the Qur'aan III. What is Meant by the Ahruf of the Qur'aan?
11.

73

174

A. Those opinions which HAVE no
B.

basis

WHATSOEVER

176

Those opink >ns wi ik

i

i

i

iave

><

>me apparent basis.
1

BUT ARE WEAK OPINIONS
C.

76

Those opinions which have strong evidence

177 179 182 184

IV Are the Ahruf in Existence Today?

V

The

Wisdom

in the

Various Ahrul

II.
I.

THE QIRA'AAT OF THE QUR'AAN
"Qira'aat"

The meaning of the word
The The Conditions
for

184 184

II.

History of the Qira'aat

III.

an Authentic Qiraa'a

187
191

IV The Other Types of Qira'aat

1

V The Authentic
1)

Qira'aat

and the Qaarees

193 194 194
195

Naafi' al-Madanee

2) Ibn Katheer al-Mal{kce
3)

Aboo

'

Amr al-Basjee

4) Ibn

'Aamir as-Shaamee

195 195

5) 'Aasjm al-Koofee 6)
7)

Hamza al-Koofee
Al-Kisaa'ee

196 196 197 197
197

8)
9)

Aboo /afar al-Madanee
Ya'qoob al-Basjee

10)Khalaf
VI.

The Qira'aat Today The
Relationship of the

199

VII.

Ahruf with the

Qira'aat

200
202

VIII.

IX.
12.

The Benefits of the Qira'aat Some Examples of the Different

Qira'aat

202

THE CLEAR AND UNCLEAR VERSES AL-MUHKAM WA AL-MUTASHAABIH
I.

207

Definition of Muhkam and Mutashaabih

207
208
i

The Qur'aan as Mihkam and Mutashaabih The Exact Meaning of Mihkam and Mutashaabii
The Attributes ofAllaah
as

2

1

Mutashaabih?

21

II.

Other Categories of Mutashaabih The Haqeeqee and the Majaazee
The Attributes ofAllaah
as

221

224 225 228

Majaaz?

The 'Aam and the Khaas IV The Mutlaq and the Muqayyad
III.

229 230
231

VThc Mantooq
VI.

and Matlioom
the

The Naasikh and

Mansookh

ABROGATION IN THE QUR'AANAN-NAASIKH WA AL-MANSOOKH
13.
I.

232 232 233 234 235 235

The

Definition of Naskh

The Breakdown of the Definition The Salafand the Term
Booths Written on Nasf(h
II.

'Nas/(h'

The Proof of Naskh
The Conditions
for

III.

Naskh

236
237
238

IV The Categories of Naskh
A.

The Sources of the Naasikh and Mansookh

B.

C.
\:

The Verse and Ruling in the Qi jr'aan The Rulings of the Naasikh and Mansookh
Blessings of Naskh
Benefits Benefits

240 243
244

The

of the Genera/ Nas^h of the Specific Nasl{h

245 246 248 249 250
251

VI.

The

Benefits ol

VII.

The
The

Difference Between

Knowing Naasikh and Mansookh Naskh and Takhsees
verses in the Qur'aan

VIII.

The Number of Naasikh/Mansookh
'Verse

of the Sword'

A

Last

Example

2^5

Conclusion
14.

256

THE MIRACULOUS NATURE OF THE QUR'AAN 257 257 258 259
261
Verses

FJAAZAL-QUR'AAN
I.

Definition of I'jaaz

Other Types of Supernatural Acts
II.

The Proof for

I'jaaz

The Challenge! The Order of the
III.

262

The Qur'aan

as the Miracle of the Prophet

(^)

264 265

IV The Types of I'jaaz
A.
B.

The Language and Style of the Qur'aan The Predictions of n n. Qur'aan C. The Stories in the Qur'aan
The Purposes of the D.
Stories

267
272 274

275

The Beliefs and Laws of the Qur'aan E. The Scientific Facts of the Qur'aan F. The Effect the Qur'aan has on its Listeners G. The Lack ok Contradictions in the Qur'aan H. The Ease by which the Qur'aan is Memorised

276
278

283 285 285

V

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

286
287 289

VI.

The Quantity

for I'jaaz

15.
I.

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR'AAN - TAFSEER
Definition of Tafseer and Ta'weel

The

289 290
293 293 294 296 297

II.

The
A.
B.

Necessity and Importance of Tafseer

III.

The History ofTafseer

The Time of ti ie Proim iet (|j|) The Period of the Companions
oi-

C. Ti ie Period of the Successors

D. Tin- CoMiMLvnoN

Tafseer

342 344 348 The Dangers of Improper Tafseer 16. Tafseer of the Jurists D.1 IV The Principles of Tafseer 1) 299 by hie Tafseer of the Qur'aan Tafseer by the Sunnah I Qur'aan 300 302 303 2) low much of the Qur'aan was explained? 3) Tafseer by n if. on Inner MEANINGS Modernistic Tafseers 337 339 339 340 341 VII. Tafseer based B. Tafseer based F. Statement of the Companions of the Successors 306 309 309 3 1 Tafseer by the Statement 4) Tafseer by Arabic us. The Ruling on Translations The Conditions of Translation The Translation as the Qur'aan The Importance of Arabic 353 . I. Some Famous Tafseers ']aaini'al-Bayaan'ofat_-Tabarcc 'Tafseer al-Quraan al-'Adheem'oflbn Katheer 'Mafaatihal-Ghayb'ofar-Raazee 'al-Kashaaf'ofaz-Zamakhsharee VIII. THE TRANSLATION OF THE QUR'AAN Translation The Types of 348 359 350 351 II. 324 The Types of Tafseer on Narratk ins 326 327 339 332 333 335 A. Scientific Tafseer E. Language and Classical Poetry Linguistic Islaamic Poetry Prohibited? 312 Whose Poetry? 5) 6) 314 315 Tafseer By Pre-IslaamicArab Customs Tafseer By Judaeo-Christian Narratives Hadeeth Related to Israa'eeliyaat 317 317 319 (Ra'y) The Categories of Israa'eeliyaat 7) Tafseer by Subjective Opinion The Two Types of Ra'y 320 32 Where is Ra'y Used? 323 5 323 Mufassir A Divine Blessing V The Qualifications of a VI. Tafseer based on Personal Opinions C.

5 III. Translations 369 374 THE QUR'AAN AND ORIENTALISTS ol the The Authorship Qur'aan 374 Sincerity An Example of the Prophet's (^) 375 Authorship Theories 376 376 377 }7X A Poet? A Madman? Taught by Others? Imagination? II. An Appeal APPENDIX: PICTURE PLATES 397 4 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY . The - 'Return of the Qur'aan 392 393 II. 381 Some Books by Orientalists 383 383 384 'Geschichte des Qorans' ofNoeldeke 'Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'aan' by Arthur Jeffery 'The Collection of the Qur'aan' by John Burton 388 392 EPILOGUE I. I. The History of Translation Translations into Western 355 356 359 361 Languages English Translation by Muslims IV The Problems with Translations A Review of Some 17.

11 Transliteration Table Consonants t- .

having no hear witness .mil Muhammad (i^g) is His perfect worshipper._s jS i ici\ \yu"j «Oj [&*$ £y W-i -?jU^jj 1 «0 Mankind! Have taqiva ol your Lord. that I is worthy of worship testily except lor Allaah: that He alone. there is adverse consequences ol our deeds. and the (^g). And have taqwa of Allaah. that can Whoever Allaah none misguide him. and die not except as Muslims" (3:1 02] oy «l3 . and women.Introduction All Praise is due to Allaah. He created multitudes of men. Who created you from a single- person. and from these two. through whom and (do not I you demand your mutual Verily. «0 you who have laith! Have taqtva ot Allaah. guidance the guidance ol Muhammad And the worst ol aflairs . He will direct you to do righteous deeds. and from him. as He deserves. and whoever He misguides. seek evil I lis help. and ask Mis forgiveness. He created rights.uli i-. and the guides. then the best is Speech is the Speech of Allaah. and He will success" |33:70-71 forgive your sins. R ver. \ll. I hear witness and testify that there is is no deity partners. cut olf) the ties ol kinship. We seek refuge in Allaah from the of our souls. and say righteous speech. We praise Him.Watching over you» '"«**» 1:1 | - / »" *t" ' K ^'s^'l* '">''' ' If i'^I ' «0 you who you have faith! Have taqwa of Allaah. And ultimate- whoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger has indeed achieved the As best to what follows. then none can guide him. his wife. and messenger.

so it He is never disbelieved. He exists. the best guidance. The speech. that nil of a person's acts will be performed with one goal in mind: the pleasure of the Creator. Mujaahid ibn (abr that 103 A. so He life is never disobeyed. without actions are as if dead. despite first its lightness. The paragraph consists of acknowledging the "Oneness ot Allaah ar-Ritboobi\yiili). and that worship (j^g). which the Prophet (-^g) would give every time he spoke. the worship of Allaah. Guidance comes only from the two inspirations — the is Qur'aan and the Sunnah. and every misguidance is in the fire In this short speech. Damascus. it make it deserving and obligatory upon the creation to do these is The second paragraph testifies that the testimony of faith (shahaadah). 2 Reported by al-Maawardee in his lafscer.""' The taqwa Allaah is the of the heart. the Prophet first outlined the fundamentals of faith in (ccmaan). and which he Companions to give every time they spoke. be no such thing as an exhaustive work on the sciences related to the Q)ur'aan. for the Sunnah life example ol All that is opposed to the Qur'aan anil and actions of the Prophet Muhammad Sunnah — and in this opposition lies the fire source of Hell.) superior to other philosophies and the perfect methodologies that mankind has invented. The Qur'aan it described as the best of all Speech. despite their hrevity.) In the two paragraphs. It is by no means comprehensive. are deep in meantaught the ing. 1980) for details. the Prophet (gg) (Sjg) summarized the essence of Islaam. ami you are conscious of Him. all evil — arc termed newiy-inventeil innovations. and with this a Muslim will be is he will worship Allaah. "It that you obey Allaah. destined to the ot The work first that is in the reader's hands is a brief discussion ol certain aspects of the source of guidance. and every innovation of Hell. so that that all He is never forgotten. three verses that the Prophet ol \ The ($£.) defined taqwa as. The famous is student Ibn 'Abbaas.the Qur'aan. In the last paragraph. then must contain in it the best of is matters all is in all that is needed by mankind. 1 This speech is a translation ol what is called Khiilbiir ul-I liiajuh. . 1 is a misguidance. for there can It is. The Sunnah. 4/24S. carries great import. manifested in the ($£?. The words.Introduction arc newly-invented matters. based upon the teachings and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad This the essence of the "Oneness ot Actions' (Tawheed al-U/oohiyyah). and only Allaah. See al-Alhaanee's 'Kliuibtil til-lLiujali (al-Maklah al-lslamee. importance taqwa. If this all the case. the Prophet (^) summarized is the source of all guidance. and possesses such Names and Attributes that acts. {$£. which the I'rophel (Sgl would give whenever he started a speech. and that automatically implies that wa as-Sifaat).H. and that you thank ol Him.) would ol recite have one central theme: the (d. anil the source of all misguidance. His Existence' (Tawheed and in affirming His unique Names ami Attributes (Tawheed al-Asmaa is worthy of all types of praise. The fact that a person testifies that Allaah He is the One who is asked in all matters.

primarily the fact that their understanding due to and practicality are /{baas. nor discussed I the classical works ol this Apart from these points.certain sciences arc so intricately related to the Arabic language that their explanation would were be of little use in another language (a cursory look I at many of the topics of the Itqaan ur Burhaan will give the reader examples of what am referring to). However. the dependent on a knowledge of Arabic (example ol this are the 'aam and mutlaq and muc/ayyad. explain this science. The primary classical sources for this book were the general books of 'uloom al-Ouruan . in enough to benefit from. Apart from the three primary works mentioned above. but not in great detail. as preparation for the studies ahead. as this in not the place to field. inshaa Allaah. Work on ance this hook began in the summer of 1995. work. I had access fell to and benefited from many references. and other is word pairs). done to ensure as all much Not topics that are found in the cussed in this works of 'uloom al-Qur'aan have been diswork. detail. The fundamental and important topics related to this science have been mentioned. for most also utilized books that were specialized to that chapter's subject. to which was comlimited literary pleted by the time resources had arrived in Madeenah. however. when I I had received planned my acceptto letter to the Islaamic University of Madeenah. which he presented as his master's dissertation to the College of Qur'aan and Islaamic Sciences chapters I in the University of Madeenah. and edit the Even though factors. I Madeenah. This fascination was the primary motive that led me to continue editing and revising the work over the next two years. and the con- straints that had whilst writing the initial draft were removed. I I eventually did not enter the 'College ' ol Qur'aan' (due to certain I chose to study in the 'College of Hiidccth' instead). and Qattaan's Mabuahith). also particularly benefited from az-Zarqaani's Manaahil. and it is hoped that they may be added in later editions. was still greatly fasci- nated by the subject of 'uloom al-Qur'aan. and as-Sabt's analysis and critique of az- Zarqaani's work. I started reading the few hooks that first 1 had on 'uloom al-Qur'aan. This initial research formed the basis of the I draft of this work. Other topics not dealt with in this edition. due felt my (my primary sources for this draft I were as-Suyootee's ltqaan. The science ol tajweed is it I purposely avoided. for an English-speaking audience ol Although a previous knowledge ol certain aspects 'uloom al-Qur'aan .14 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan however. will give the reader a general feel confident in stating that the present lo the tield of work all understanding and introduction uloom al-Qur'aan. az-Zarkashcc's the need to critically revise Burhaan. had initially study in the 'College of Qur'aan and Islaamic Sciences' in the University. Yet other topics were discussed. This was authenticity of the contents as possible. The acceptance ol the publication of this work by al-Hidaayah was the final catalyst that was needed In to complete the work. In addition. and. an introduction to certain concepts that the scholars of the past have discussed under the topic of 'uloom al-Quraan.both I and modern. Some have been left out due to the language barrier . inshaa Allaah.

I have purposely ensured that such a knowledge is not a prerequisite to benefit from the work. is one of the of the greatest lessons a clear indication inferiority of the nature of man. and concepts were presented and developed in (what is hoped is) a style an English-speaking audience. . writing of this book) were enforced upon me. 1. myself.H.. ensure that his porates live benefits: thai it work it incor- brings lorlh something new. Throughout the work. The chapter was concluded with brief reviews of some of the more important translations.). for it is this. 5 Dumosft at-Ta'beer (Il'M 1'ros. il this part.H. and given of its translation in English..Introduction would help in understanding the concepts in this work.) wrote in the introduction to ".' And ponder over. It is How appropriate that every author. in particular suitable for last The first. Mailccnah. 261 A. certain views of Orientalists were given concerning the 'authorship' of the Qur'aan." not help but recall the I The work (d. 595 A.. p.. and had only his section out. ad-Deen al-Khaazin (d.H. famous work Bidaayat is "My purpose in writing this book so that it may serve as a reminder for myself concerning the opinions of the scholars in the 1 various matters pertaining to the laws (of Islaam). if (the it. In the have discussed the various topics related a history to the translation of the Qur'aan from an Islaamic perspective. who wrote/ have noticed that no author writes 'Il I book anil finishes it except that die next day he says. left t would have been il easier comprehend. the initial purpose of writing this book was to benefit As Imaam Muslim ibn al-Hajjaaj (d. I can- words of al-'Imaail al-Asfahaance a 597 A. 741 A. 8. would have been had added would have been appreciated it more. 7.. a famous scholar and interpreter of the Qur'aan. in fact. whenever he writes a book concern- ing a topic that has already been written about.H. in the introduction to his tafseer. anil three important works by Orientalists were critiqued. v. -I IbnKushd. 1986). outlined the aims of his work when he accurate his observations are! 'Alaa wrote." And as the Andalusian scholar Ibn Rushil (d.) wrote in the introduction to his (il-Miijttihid tea Xiluuiytit al-Mucjiasid. belter. and lo if 1 had only made il I this section earlier.). anil if only I had only changed this fact. ii. and 'The Qur'aan and Orientalists'.are of practical benefit to the audience. the nature ol the audience was mind. p.. that combines 5 Saheeh Muslim. this hook is written with the assumption that the reader has not hail any previous exposure to 'uluom al-Qur'aan. his Salicelr. I two chapters have been added with the Western audience in mind: 'The Translation of the Qur'aan". and discuss the stand- ard topics of 'uloom al-Qur'aan. before anyone else of mankind. The kept in that is first fifteen chapters form the main portion of the work. and first it was willed it that I complete then the person who would partake from the benefits of 1 would be myself in particular. being written. As was mentioned earlier. Therefore. would have been and points to more beautiful. p. these two chapters It is hoped that - in particular . 1. In the second.

many that have helped along the way. Of course. Lastly. Shaykh Abd ar-Razaaq ibn Abd al-Muhsin al-'Abaad. This group is mentioned. Muhammad Anwar completing his Sahib for reading over most of the critical portions of this work. I am also indebted to Dr. despite the fact that in the final stages ol he was highly pressed for time. the Attributes of Allaah mutashaabih and the not. and for his valuable comto al- ments and advice on the ii of the work. as text. the concepts discussed are not in reality outside the realm of'uloom al-Our'aa/i.) wrote. by answering my questions. 54. anil to benefit me with his vast knowledge of the subject. In addition. in particular. no there are for it is project ol this nature can ever be the sole product of one person. and peers that have helped me with various portions of the work.16 An Introduction to the . human fection. that it it explains concepts that were systematically explains the material. students ot knowledge. deserve my gratitude forgoing over the manuscript and sharing with me I their valuable advice. The book is dedicated by the to my my parents. giving all me or simply encouraging me in my efforts. Of course. and that it avoids unnecessary and undue And I hope I that this hook ol mine is not hercrt ot any ol these characteristics thai have mentioned. 'aqeedah. 'the religion the giving ol advice'.. ol and affording is me his constructive criticism. May Allaah reward of them! A note must be added concerning the mention and refutation of certain views of the Ash 'arces. as he was then doctoral dissertation. in the sections as concerning the . I that has brought me where am today. I would advice. Abu Abdillaah do David Dillon and Abu Sufyaan was in for their and Abu Sulaymaan. they were nonetheless included in this work number ot reasons. and. help in proof-reading the final all Jamaal al-Din Zarabo/. their upbringing and support (along with the constant blessings of Allaah). Qur'aan as the Balaam of Allaah. 3. enterprise is associated with error.o also deserves I my gratitude tor (hat have benefited from him while initial draft America.. took time out of his busy schedule to go over the portions of this book related to 'aqeedah."' Therefore. All comments may be directed care ol the publisher. p. My friends and fellow students of knowledge. and a discussion and refutation of certain incorrect views regarding these topics will only 6 7 Tafscer til-KJuiaziii. . c£ as-Sakhaawi. that previously unclear.Sciences of the Qur'aan information that was previously scattered. Attributes of Allaah as tnajaaz. My thanks are also extended ol idaayah Publishing and Distribution tor their acceptance the work. like to thank the many scholars. "Allaah has refused to allow perfection to any work except His Book. for am in great need them. instead of concentrating on the mistakes that are sure to be found in this work. the reader rest is requested to gloss over the flaws that might is exist. I am honoured fact that teacher. p. in general. and no work can claim per- As Imaam ash-Shaafi'ce 204 A. and benefit from the of the work. the reader kindly requested not to be parsi- monious in sharing with I me his sincere advice. (d. elaboration. and are perhaps more for a relevant to the books ol Firstly.H. in Although these refutations are found the works ol 'aloom al-Quraan.

this the views any way represent original research material. for that all that the author has done. and that induces them to further knowledge of this magnificent ami glorious book -the ! 'best of all Speech' (39:23)! meen Abu Ammaar 27th Ramadhan. Secondly.I I. have made it essential that a refutation be written against them. Naturally. Lastly. See Musnad Ahmad. (25th January. during the last few years. this book is not meant to be a complete in this refutation of the Ash 'a ices. However. 6/137. and opin- it are merely quotations If there is any credit to be given. editing.al-Madcenah an-Nabaivccxah X This Statement is based upon a slatcmcm of the Companion Ibn Mas'ood. 1998 CE) The City of the Prophet (^§) . translation and presentation of the material. is All that that I correct in this is work and ol benefit to the readers is from Allaah. from other scholars . that it it causes their . Therefore. who. thus affording the English audience hoped that the tion brie! discussions that are glimpse in this this such refutations. the author wishes to One last note: work does not ions in it make it clear that he is only a all student of knowl- edge . are mentioned work enough to caure- any person that might have been influenced by beliefs group.Ahlas-Su nnii/i waal-Jamaa'ah yet. the ideas of this group have started spreading with renewed vigour and enthusiasm their vitriolic attacks in the West. afar responding to iliis a question. . As or no thor- ough refutation exists in English. and cause him to examine the ology of the As/i 'a ices. sincerely pray that this work helps bring Muslims closer to their religion. and as such the refutations mentioned to include in this book are not the the It is exhaustive. nor in a specialist in the field of 'uloom al-Our aan. and and scathing accusations against the. the inclusion of these sections will perhaps give the reader an in example of how deviation occurs. 1418 A.Introduction 17 help explain each concept better. and all is incorrect Irom myself and S/iavtaan. Ash'arees differed with it was decided Ahl as-Sunnah and were common a work those issues which to uloom al-Our aan at of same lime. and the correct Islaamic method- solving them. is is in the collection.not a scholar.1 them to grow in their love for the Qur'aan. would make statement.

or 'The Sciences of the Qur'aan'. . the knowledge of the inimitable style of the Qur'aan the causes of revelation (asbaab an-nuzool). With regards to the history of the Qur'aan. etc. a. and one that is It is. the understanding of its abrogated rulings and verses (naasil{h wa al-mansOo\h). the blessings of reciting Quraan the Qur'aan. With regards revelations.CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to 'Uloom al-Qur aan ? I. at-Tawbah. and the preservation of the Qur'aan. the knowledge of its interpretation ('iraab (lafscer). such as the compilation of the Qur'aan. 'uloom al-Quraan deals with the Thus. the grammatical analy- of the Qur'aan al-Ouraan) and the knowledge of those words whose usage (gharecb al-Ouraan). the art and history of writing the Qur'aanic script {/asm al-masaaljif). who equates 'Uloom al-Qur'aan wiili Uspol at-tafseer. with regards to recitation. 'uloom al-Qur'aan deals with the stages of revelation of the Qur'aan. Definition of 'Uloom al-Qur'aan The knowledge ofuloom al-Qur'aan. 33. mutlaq and muqqayad. Islaamic scholarship. a vast field ot of primary importance. 'nam and l(/iaas. 'uloom al-Ouraan covers ol the malice anil madance was revealed in. Thereol fore. and the development 9 c£ ar-RoomeC. Makuhali 199-1. the to its understanding and implementation. the knowledge it knowledge of the various forms (ahruf) (i'jaaz sis al-Ouraan). deals with the knowledge of those sciences that have a direct bearing on the recitation. ami the etiquette of its recitation. for example. therefore. science of pronunciation (tajwecd). the knowledge ol the various classifications of its verses (mulikiim anil mutashaabih. understanding and implementation of the Qur'aan. Fahd ibn 'Abil al-Rahmaan ibn Sulaymaan: Dirasaaljl 'L'lutim al-Ouraan. the different methodologies of reciting the (the qira'aat). history.'' However. is has become uncommon over time It has been said that the knowledge of 'uloom al-Ouraan is in reality the knowl- edge that one required to know in order to properly interpret the Qur'aan. the compilation of the Qur'aan. Riyadh. uloom al-Ouraan also includes little no bearing on tafseer. to call this branch of Islaamic knowledge 'The Procedure and Methodology of 'uloom al-Ouraan would not be topics that have very Interpretation' ('Um Usool al-Tafscer) instead far from the or truth.).

is shall be -. it enables the reader to realize the wealth of knowledge anil insight that exists with regards to Book of Allaah. he will be able to understand the terms used. He will not be enemies. ami his heart will be at ease with regards authenticity. enables the student ot knowledge to the it heller understand the Qur'aan.i\s./ Usool at-Tafsecr." proved ami elaborated upon in this ill the next chapter. concerning |u Ii should b< pointed out that the Quraan is onlj iii Arabic. so chat may ponder over iis wises. unadulterated by opponents. Ii is no exaggeration is lo say that. once a person learns the essentials of his religion first its and what tion to is required for him to know. and benefit from the knowledge in to further increase his them to a greater extent. since he will be equipped with the the prejudices of its knowledge ot the Quraan. only refers to the Quraan. Thirdly. For example. As Allaah saw" in die Qur'aan. the all knowledge ol 'uloom al-Otir'aan initiated with the Prophet (J|g) himself The Companions used in to question the Prophet (^g) about any concept that they did not understand the verse. the Qur'aan. and this clause is. and thus better cherish the greatest Book that mankind has been given. #<_4Vi »(This they !M$^^s%3#^i3ftj££ is . fourthly. the know ledge he should turn his atten- the knowledge of the Quraan and sciences. He will understand the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan. "the meaning ol which The meaning ol is. " w h. In other words.. When only this phrase is used in a language other than Arabic. .n Allaah has said is. Therefore." Only when a person realizes what he does not know will lie appreciate how little he docs know. As some of the scholars of the past said. "True knowledge is to know one's ignorance. Therefore. lull ol blessings. therefore. because he will realize the beauty of the Qur'aan and the great blessings that he has been given through tooled by the fallacious claims of to its its revelation. Firstly. II. The Like History of 'Uloom al-Qur'aan the sciences of Islaam. Benefits of Studying There are many 'Uloom al-Qur'aan knowledge ot benefits to the 'uloom al-Qur'aan. Secondly. [38:29] ill. the knowledge of 'uloom al-Ouraun is more general then '///.ii Book chat We have sent down to you. and the various aspects that aid comprehension.. in that he will be familiar its with the history of its rev- elation and collection. this phrase should be understood as. he will be equipped knowledge and to learn more about his religion.An of the script of the Introduction to 'Uloom al-Quraan 19 Qur'aan. and thai men of understanding may re- member." since the Qur'aan is in Arabit . n contains an additional implicit clause that should be understood b> the audience." . the unconditional phrase. he will be able to defend (he Qur'aan against true and pristine its enemies. it its increases a person's belief (ecmaan). "Allaah when used book (or any hook). When he reads the books ol tafseer. and is the speech {/(alaum) ol Allaah.

57 A. Ibn is Mas'ood in the swear by Allaah. 68 AH.H. The Prophet (^) replied that the injustice referred was shirl{.). Zayd ibn Aslam (d. after the The generation that came Companions. first A term that means 'The rightly-guided Caliphs'. including lafseer and 'uloom al-Ouraan. under the wise guardianship of the ecessors' responsibilities.H. (d. (d. 114 A.). n. the Successors.H. Mujaahid ibn Jabr (d.). Ubay ibn Ka'ab (d. in. 104 AH. 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood left behind his great legacy to Alqamah ibn Qays (d. 63 A. Reported by al-Bukhaaree. Aboo al-'Aaliyah (d.H. 63 A. 12 13 14 'I ar-Roomee. there no soorah Qur'aan except that And and there is not a single verse in the Qur'aan except that know where it was revealed! know the reason behind its I I revelation! If there it were any person that knew more about the Qur'aan than did. 95 A. all These three places. 't AK i . 4 Thaabit (d.H. 50 A.H.H.' 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood (d. These students took over their predthis (d.). and they are the guided»[6:82| they asked. but also give history anil the its revelation. besides I whom there is no other god.iii . Taawoos ibn Kaysaan 106 A. Aboo Baler.) and Aa'ishah (d.)." of the to in this verse Such was the enthusiasm were able cause of to not Companions said.) and Muhammad ibn Ka'ab (d.i. or on a mountain or on a plain!" There were many Companions who were famous for their knowledge of the among them the four Khulajaa ar-Rauslndoon .).). 1 Reported by al-Bukhaarec. there is not a single verse in the Qur'aan except that I know whether it was IJ revealed at night or during the day. and in Iraaq. and passed Ibn Abbaas' students.).). 45 A. soul)?" "O Messenger of Allaah! Who amongst us does not do injustice (to his not They had understood that the verse was referring to those believers who did commit any injustice. were the leading centres of the sciences of Islaam. (d.). p. and Qataadah as-Sadoosee 10 A. "I in seeking this knowledge that they its only explain any verse in the Qur'aan. 1 1 10 A. 37. used to denote the ihiii. or the association of partners with Allaah. were all famous in Makkah.). Aboo Moosaa al-Ash'aree (d. studied eagerly knowledge faithfully to the next generation.H. Masrooq ibn al-Ajda' (d.H. . Abdullaah ibn Zubayr 73 AH. 32 AH.H. were the teachers of Madecnah. there nothing that you will ask I me except answer you. and Koofah. 90 A. 120 A.i|( « Those who hclieve and do not mix their belief with injustice. Madecnah. and Ataa' ibn Rabaah (d.H.H. Com [Kin ions. al-Hasan al-Basrce (d. Ask me concerning the book of Allaah! For swear by Allaah.). I would ride (on my camel) I towards him get this knowledge).). Zayd ibn Qur'aan.).FL)." is 'Alec ibn Abec Taalib told his students. "Ask that will me! For I swear by Allaah. 60 A.1 20 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Sjx-^j sSpU^^4^!^£!#ii. (to was possible for 1 me ' to reach him.). 100 A. 'Abdullaah ibn Abbaas (d.iikI tour caliphs. Makkah. only they will have security. Sa'eed ibn Jubayr 'Ikrimah al-Barbarce (d. or sin. Ubay ibn Ka'ab's students.).H. 32 AH.

Other early tafsccrs were written by Aboo (d. Ibn Qutaybah book on rare words in the Qur'aan. 303 A. IS A paraphrase of an authentic hadceth is. the author of the Sunan. 405) and Ibn Mardawayh 410). book on Asbaab an-Nuzool. wrote one on the merits of the Qur'aan. Ibn Darstawayh Vjaaz al-Quraan.).H. in addition to these books. 'Urn ad-Deen as-Sakhaawee wrote one on the various qira'aat.An Thus liars. Muhammad 'an ibn Jarecr at-Tabarcc (d. must also be mentioned that. A. Aboo Bakr al-Baaqillaance 403) wrote his famous treatise. the general level of knowledge was high. Bakr ibn Mundhir an-Naysabooree (d.) wrote its two books. Aboo Ishaac| az-Zajjaaj (d.H. and included the chains of narration (isnaad) of the reports. rare (d. the oral transmission of knowledge occupied more important status than the written transmission.H. words in the Qur'aan.. For examstate(d.H. the false claims of the umtnah. The ple. Mus/il(il al-Quraan. Vjaaz al-Quraan. 468) 634) wrote his famous book on Asbaab an-Nuzool. Aboo 'Ubayd al-Qaasim ibn Sallaam of the Qira'aat 224 A. 318). many of the books of hadceth. Ibn Abee Haatim (d. who will . repotted hy Ibn 'Adee and Ibn 'Asaakir. Chareeb al-Quraan. included sections on vari- ous topics of 'uloom al-Quraan. 234 A. but rather wrote to the fact that.) wrote the monumental Jaami' al-Bayaan that all later scholars Ta'weef aay al-Quraan.). 161 each of the following scholars (3ijg) wrote a tafseer of the Qur'aan. as-Sijistaanee (d. and one on abrogation 276 A. al-Haakim (d. who protected it from the alterations of the * of and the false interpretations of the ignorant* 1 in Early scholars did not write on 'uloom al-Quraan separate tracts general.H.H. Imaam an-Nasaa'ec (d.H. the teacher of Imaam al-Bukhaaree. All Hibbaan of these tafieen were 328). Fadaa'il al-Quraan.by the trustworthy (scholars) heretics. most of the books of the Sunnali have chapters on the tafseer of the Qur'aan. and did not warrant the extensive writing down of knowledge.). Aboo al-Hasan al-Waahidee (d.). After the books at tafseer followed a plethora of books on the other sciences of the Qur'aan: 'Alee al-Madeenee a (d. Introduction to 'Uloom ai-Qur'aan 21 the knowledge of the Qur'aan was passed on '.and Shu'bah ibn ai-Hajjaaj (d. first and most important of the topics to be written on was tafseer.) wrote another Aboo Bakr book on the (d. Wakee' ibnal-Jaraah 197A.H. one on the science (which was one of the first of kind). For example. the benefits of reciting the Qur'aan. and other topics. (d. 198A. 311) wrote a grammatical analysis of the Qur'aan. 160A. 310 A. the history of its compilation.). Following his predecessor's footsteps. on each science of the Qur'aan. ol the Prophet (Sg). In addition.). such as the Saheehs of al-Bukhaarce and Muslim. (d. also related to the miraculous nature ol the Qur'aan. composed of ments from the Prophet Sufyaan ibn 'Uyaynah and the Companions: Sufyaan al-Thawree (d.H. (d. wrote (d. This was due during a the early stages of Islaamic history. Ibn based on reports from the Prophet (Ǥg) and the Companions and Successors.) wrote a in the Qur'aan. It (d. Naasil(h wa al-Mansool{li. 330) composed a tract on the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan.H. The beginning ol the hadceth mVkt'TI 'This knowledge will be carried by the trustworthy ol the itmmah. and so on. 'Iraab al-Quraan. a tafseer would benefit from. 369). 330 A.

Principles of Islamic I 1 Jurisprudence (Islamic Texts Society.) appeared with his monumental Al-Burhaan fee 'Uloom title al-Qur'aan (the same as al-Hoofee's work).7 22 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Finally. have been given greater attenAhmed Von Denffer's book. The works oi this nature were actually meant to be works ol tafseer. pps. however.ondon. p. as is that of 'Alee ibn Ibraaheem Sa'eed related aspects (d. This a is one of the great later.a/-Ma^A^Afl/ // Aboo Shahmah. Subhee Saalih and the other by Dr. to stop the different qira'aat of the verse and how is they affect the meaning. So. for example. p.' 16 Anotherwork. includes information about the verses' its meaning. classics on 'uloom al-Quraan available in print. both of which Muhammad 'Abd alDirasaat al-Quraan al-Kareem by Muhammad arc entitled Mabaalutb fee 'Uloom al- Quraan.'Irfaanji 'Uloom al-Qur'aan.il. proper method of recitation. quoting Ibn Nadcem's Pihrist. One ol the first is works that reported in later references (but is not extant) is that of Aboo Hakr total Muhammad thirty ibn Khalat ibn al-Marzabaan (d. Muhammad 'Abd al-'Adhcem: Maiumhd al. Muasasat al-Risalal. the scholars of the later generations started compiling all of these sciences into first one book. 309 A. and thus began the era of the classic works on 'uloom al-Qur'aan. where of its and its where not to. Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer (al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution. and two books. Birmingham. . 'Uloom al- lf> ar-Roomce.'" and better no exception. 1 ' There appeared az-Zarkashee (d. 1 " In English. This book all primarily one on tafseer.). after each portion of the Qur'aan. the best works out lor introductory-level students are lladitli Literature: In Origin. 4 1-48. in Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi (Islamic Texts Society. a good work is by Mohammad Hashim Kamali. 9°}). Unfortunately. Beirut.H. a translation ol Ibn Taymiyyah's. 'AI-Bitr/uianfcc 'Uloom al-Qur'aan*. Manna': Mabaliith ft 'Uloom al-Qur'aan. 1983. n. . its purpose of revelation. that of Jalaal A little over 91 1 century another classic ap- ad-Deen as-Suyootee (d. 20 There This is. is the only book that this author has come across concerning 1/. such as hadeelh tion. but also discusses it of a verse. 18 ol Sec ar-Roomce. 19 In hadeelh. the only work present 2 " is and fiqh. p. 330). entitled 'al-liaawee fee 'Uloom al-Qur'aan. Devel- opment and Special Feature by ies in Hadilh Methodology and Literature by Indianapolis. and StudMuhammad Mustafa Azami (American Trust Publication. starting From the second century until the present one. Usool al-Fiqli. >5 and Qaltaan. all This work considered to be the first kind in expansive approach to the related sciences of the Qur'aan. A.H. number of times during the last few dec- Books on 'uloom al-Qur'aan continued these last few decades have been to appear throughout the centuries. 45.). this topic trom a Muslim author. 1993). peared. which he entitled. where lie lists the most important works in this tie-Id from every century the hijrah. entitled al-Itquanfee 'uloom al-Qur'aan. Dar al-Fikr. The known books of this era have been Manaahil al-'lrfaan fee 'Uloom al-Qur'aan by Shaykh Adheem az-Zarqaanee. and so forth. p. Other topics. Cairo. 1977). Mannaa' al-Qattaan. its interpretation. after this. and both have been printed a ades.. of which manuscript copies of fifteen of a of volumes are extant. These two works are considered the standard resource works on 'uloom al-Qur'aan.H. 14. until finally Badr ad-Deen 794 A. there does not seem to be great interest in English circles concerning this topic. 1991). 1 az-Zarqaanec. books of a similar nature.:. one by Dr. 24. otherwise known is al-Hoofee.

It is a useful book in that it a summary of many concepts of 'uloom al-Quraan. . the author does not go into great detail.An Qur'aati: Introduction to 'Uloom al-Quraan 23 presents An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan. probably due to the adult audience. and is meant lor a young However. 21 Published by.' Leicester. 1983. nature of the audience. 'The Islaamie Foundation.

the famous theologian. respectively. The qiraaa ol'lhn Kathecr. are 1 'lawn'. is word 'qur'aan' derived from qara'a. Therefore the meaning ol the word 'qur'aan' would be." 'Qur'aan' would then he the verbal noun tion' or and thus translates as 'The Recita- 'The Reading. without the hamza. . such that 'Qur'aan' would ihcqiniaal also pronounced it this way. from the same root word.) held the view that the just like "lo- 'qur'aan' was a proper noun that was not derived from any word. the pilgrimage which 'Umrah and Hajj combined is called HajjOiraan.H.. The most popular that the opinion. 2-t That of Aboo al-Hasan 'Alec al-A$h'arec (A. .' Allaah says reference to the Qur'aan.» | I7:H)6| and He says.). <jitraamth)» [7S:17-S| On word the other hand. 'The Qira'aal 1 ol the Qur'aan' lor more details on the various qira'aat.H. 22 23 The books given to Moosaa and "Ecsaa. One of hamza. 310 A. «And (it is) a Qur'aan which We have divided into parts. 1. to associate'. 324 A. The Linguistic Meaning There arc a number of of the Word 'Qur'aan' different opinions concerning the linguistic meaning of the word 'qur aan. which means. (nuisdai) of quia in a. which in 'to join. then follow its Recitation (Ar. In this case. Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee (d.CHAPTER 2 The Qur'aan i. 204 A. and the opinion held by at-Tabaree is (d." because its verses and soorahs are combined to form this book. When We have- recited it. recited the tah" or TnjecT.H. 'That which is joined together. qur'aanahoo).). For example. a 2 ' states that the word 'our aan' is from the root qarami. to recite. See ("h. the word would be pronounced the same way as Imaam ash-Shaafi'cc pronounced it. 'to read." He ' word without rhyme with the English word Another opinion means. «It is for Us to collect it and to Recite it (Ar.

and therefore means. better know as al-I-arraa'.I. is the strongest. Muhammad v. the Qur'aan composed one another in comprehension. promises and punishments. but they differ in as to There are many is wording only. Daar al-Hijrah. exclude everything that extraneous. 2 ' It is However. which mutawaatir transmissions. The Definition of the Qur'aan definitions of the Qur'aan. and affects the (tajweed) that affects many words in the Qur'aan. commands. and the word contorms with Arabic grammar It noun ot'qara'a. . Badr ad-Din: al-Burhdtlfi Uloom v. 27 28 This is the opinion ol lbn al-Atheer (d. There no difference of opinion 2" it what the Qur'aan is. comes from the is word qaraa'in.) is Riyaadh.).I in his 4. He revealed to Muhammad wording and meaning. but merely what the best way to define is. One of the more appropriate definitions is as follows:'"' The Qur'aan (j^) in is the Arabic Speech (kalaatn) of Allaah. 26 For more discussion ol these and oilier opinions. p. In other words. sec az-Zarkashcc. which means of verses that aid 'to resemble. but rather this occurs due to a particular rule of recitation those qira'aat. to be similar Hence. Saalim: al-Qiraaat p. al-Quraan. as it is well authentic (as shall be discussed in greater that this particular pronunciation is known that all the qira'aat detail)? The response to this are equally question is due to the peculiar rules of recitation (tajweed) ol many words. Beirut. an-Nihaayah. 1972. which means 'to combine'. and Baazmool. and the one that the majority of schol- the first one. I. 30. that essential. ihn I'mar ibn wa Athanthaa fee ui-Tafsccr.H. and lar to it. v. 1. 'The word 'qur'aan' is the verbal noun ot qania The proof for this is that it is named such in a the Qur'aan (and most ot the qira'aat pronounce the word with as the verbal hamza). the actual word 'Qur'aan' is word is still the same. p. 21. is combines is from qui'. and which has been preserved is in the mus-hafs. I.-" Yet another opinion called such since it is that 'Qur'aan' stories. including the pronunciation of the of the word 'Qur'aan.' Therefore. 207 A. and be as succinct as 29 az-Zarqaanec. Maktabah al-Asriyyah.276-8. and has reached us by a challenge to mankind to produce something simi- 2") That of Yahya ibn Ziyacl ad-I)aylamcc (d. and soorahs that resemble each other in beauty and prose.The Qur'aan 25 A fourth opinion-' 1 is that 'qur'aan' to'. the opinion that ars hold. may be asked: how does one explain the a fact that some qim'aat pronounce the word 'Qur'aan' without hamza. 23-27. v. 606 A. II. even though the pronunciation different in these qira'aat. is A cl. a famous grammar- ian Irom Koofah. p. good definition must include everything possible. 1996. the qira'aat that pronounce word 'Qur'aan' without a hamza do not intend to change the pronunciation of the word 'Qur'aan' itself. namely that the Recitation'.

32 33 Examples taken from az-Zarkashee.this (the Qur'aan) is in a clear Arabic tongue- 1 16:103] and. 1 8 1 -84.. 'The Ouraan is the. p. implies that the ' Qur'aan in the Arabic language..) compiled a to of over a hundred words Qur'aan in a were claimed be non-Arabic in origin. «."" it There are eleven references in the Qur'aan that is in the Arabic language. v. miskfiaat was a shining lamp in an Ethiopian language. any other language cannot be considered the Qur'aan. I. Thus. 15. 287. to be non-Arabic list in origin. 'The Translation v. az-Zarkashee. «And thus We have inspired you with an Arabic Qur'aan* itself as 1 42:7] Since the Qur'aan has described being in Arabic. This. I . Ibn Abbaas claimed that the word toor was Syriac for mountain. tions is every single word in the Qur'aan originally from the Arabic language? In other words. This opinion some later scholars to come forth with numerous examples of in the in the words that that were claimed (d. Intdnaa was a soft cloth in Hebrew for repentance. p. ol the Qur'aan. As-SuyoOf. amongst them the verses. Thereit is impermissible to recite in any other language. 52 His student 'Ikrimah was led same opinion. tjijiqa example.. v. . and also of the was Greek a small river. therefore." $0 3 See Ch. does the Qur'aan use words from other languages? There exist narra- from some ol the Companions. it is clear that any non- Arabic speech cannot be the Qur'aan. "to meant intend' in the for Roman language. and many grammarians after them.ee 911 A. as-Suyootee. We have revealed this as an Arabic Qur'aan" [12:2 and. lore. However. yet mentioned Qur'aan. implies that a translation ol the 1 Quraan into said.1 26 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The Breakdown of the Definition The statement in is the definition. Arabic." lor a more detailed discussion ol this point.. W/7 to was Persian book. " Imaam az-Zarkashee "Know that it the Qur'aan has been revealed in the language of the Arabs. I. and even versified these words poem. concerning certain for words in the Qur'aan which were claimed to be of non-Arabic origin. p. sundus meant Hindi (probably referring sirri Sanfor skrit).H. •Verily. 288.

however.s non-Arabic only meant that they were also used by other languages as well. 1 quoting from ar-Risaalah.itlaai>i) of Allaah. az-Zarkashce. anil safer tor speaking it would have been Qur'aan in is them! For some ol them have is pre- sumed there is that the part Arabic and part foreign! Yet the that it Qur'aan explicit that 54 nothing the Book of Allaah except is in the language of the Arabs. 17 was as if he ot other Arabic words. 1 . these particular phrases arc originally non-Arabic in origin. and had they restrained themselves from better.p. and the foreign were exchanged for Arabic ones.. v. v. 287.' Therefore. until they this became these that the a part ol Arabic. that He spoke in a manner ' 34 az-Zarkashce. as-Suyootee. However.Speech (kalaam) The Qur'aan is the Speech (k. denied the claim words in the 27 that there could be any non-Arabic Qur'aan. Arabic language. however. this is not a satisfactory explanation. p..) explained the above narrations when he said. The next part of the definition o! the Qur'aan states that it is the '. Aboo 'Ubayd al-Qaasim from Ibn 'Abbaas correctly ibn Sallaam (d. and by time words had mixed Qur'aan is with the Arabic language. and thus the Companions' claims that these words were ." In attempting to refute the opinion that the Qur'aan contains foreign words. v.. for in this he wrote concerning some grammarians ot his time. Thus. although there arc words that have non-Arabic origins. Therefore.H. as the word must have originated in one of the two languages. these poetry. words became part of fluent Arabic. 290. . 224 A. ever. "And some have spoken topic (of foreign words in the Qur'aan). p. is The correct opinion with me thai hoih of the a hove opinions | meanis ing that there are foreign words in the Qur'aan. to Ara- these words entered into the Arabic language.) claimed that these particular words were used by both of these languages simultaneously.. these Due to the continued usage of foreign. referring to the narrations of Ibn 'Abbaas|. 310 A. How- ever. they can no longer be considered ofAllaah. letters and were transformed bic words. and a part of the 'a were used so commonly that they became practical purposes. ash-Shaali'ee (d. as is the case Howtor all in with any language. and he who says that there are some foreign words also correct. 78. in Then the Qur'aan was revealed. az-Zarkashee. Imaam strict in this matter. 1. anil thai the Qur'aan in Arabic] arc correct... at- Tabaree (d. these words were 'borrowed' by Arabic. he is '" who says only in Arabic is correct.The Qur'aan Other scholars. In other words. it and were used were ignorant and if an Arab were ignorant of these words. 289.. 1 . 204 A. 35 36 37 p.. words by the Arabs.H.H. like the scholars said | only This is because the origin of these words is foreign.l.) was particularly they held the view that these verses precluded the existence of foreign words in the Qur'aan. Basing their evidences on the Qur'aanic verses quoted above. v. the correct opinion is that there are no non-Arabic words in the Qur'aan.

Jihrccl or and not from even Muhammad (^§). A mus-haf is it copy of the Qur'aan. which the Trustworthy Spirit (Angel Jihrccl) brought down... and the its sea (were ink still wherewith (l<alaam) to write). wording and meaning. liadeeth Oudsee only inspired in meaning. The next part of the definition states: '.. according to these scholars. and the different philosophies that have evolved concerning this topic.'" Therefore. All Wisc» Therefore.. this Qur'aan is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. The Qur'aan must be written any one of the mus-hajs 38 Ahadeeth Oudsee is defined to be a liadeeth in is which the Prophet l^g) says.'. with seven seas behind it to add to supply. attributing the speech to Allaah. allege..'. This excludes importance of the all speech that emanated from men. and angels. 'The Difference between the Qur'aan and Hadceth Oudsee'. When used in this definition. a written '...which of This excludes any other Speech {kalaam) infinite."Allaah says. includes one hundred and fourteen soorahs.". to it refers specifically to the copies that the Caliph 'Uthmaan ordered be written. this part of the definition also excludes is hadceth Oudsee'* since. Due to the fact that the Qur'aan is the kalaam of Allaah. ($^g).. Allaah |3I:27| All Mighty. The is next part of the definitions states: '. His that He spoke. This part of the definition affirms that the words of the Qur'aan arc from Allaah. «And il all the trees on the earth were pens. 39 See Ch. and excludes any Speech is that He spoke to other than The Qur'aan specifically the revelation sent down to the Prophet «And truly. This type of liadeeth discussed in more detail in the next chapter. starting with Soora/i al-Faatihah and in ending with Soorah an-Naas. such as the Ask'arees. 8. 'The Collection ol the Qur'aan. while its wording is from the Prophet («^g). is the Words of Allaah would not be exhausted. According to some scholars.//. under the heading. as some of the innovated sects oflslaam. Verily. The kalaam of Allaah Qur'aan says.. this part of the definition limits the Qur'aan to the kalaam that Allaah revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (•§§). as the He revealed to Muhammad (^g). Upon your 1 heart (O Muhammad) so that you may be among the warners» 26: 1 92-4 The next part of the definitions states:'. jinn.. this part of the defini- tion will be discussed in greater detail in the next section..' tor further details...which has been preserved in the mus-hafs. ..1 28 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan that befits Him.

. either case. which is entirely devoted lo discussing the concept ol i'jaaz in the Quraan. they are ahaad ').' states: '.' and 'Abrogation in the Qur'aan' lor an explanation ol the 4 1 maniookfl and variant readings. but rather in the books of 'aqecdah it However. was felt that this topic deserved greater attention in this work for a number of reasons: Firstly. It and not for the hadeeth. 44 IS. Speech (l^alaain) of Allaah are typi- the books ol 'u/oom al-Quraan. v. and of the Qur'aan: secondly. next part of the definition states: '. thai 'Uthmaan wrote were not and not the exactly the same. This point will be further elaborated in a later chapter. see Ch. challenged mankind produce even a chapter similar and this challenge is reserved for the Qur'aan..The Quraan of 'Uthmaan. ot' this 1 1 -12 Sec 'The Conditions for an Authentic Qiraaat' in Ch. The last part of the definition to it. would how- mentions the miraculous nature to (i'jaaz) of the Qur'aan.and is a challenge to is mankind to it produce something similar This part of the definition of the extraneous in that docs not remove anything that should not be a part hadeeth Oudsee is Qur'aan (unless one believes that in inspired in meaning and wording. when he recited the Qur'aan tor The reading must be in at least one mus-haf'of 'Uthmaan. if someone has 45 recited a few verses from the it Qur'aan. for a more detailed discussion point. The Qur'aan found in as the Speech of Allaah as the The detailed discussions of the Qur'aan cally not (faith). 29 This part of the definition excludes the verses that used were abrogated by the Prophet the last time. this topic -III Sec Ch. 'The Ahmfoi the Qur'aan. The mus-hafs Meaning See Ch. I. 4i 'tihaad' definition of as-Suyootcc. such that they could not all be mistaken or intentionally forge a 4' The Qur'aan authenticity. Allaah has to it. See 1 1 Ch." for the should be mentioned that the word 'Qur'aan' can be used for a part of the whole Qur'aan and Qur'aan. . that have not reached us in mutawaatir form Such readings are not considered part of the Qur'aan. due to the importance of this topic. H for further details. p.. however. generation so In other words. lor further details... in each its many people narrated 4 it that there is no question of There arc some readings.'s III and 1 i. Thus. 45 e£ az-Zarqaance. 41 The sions. necessarily in 4" to be a part of the Qur'aan. number of people. 22. other words. and not all of them. This portion essential. the shaadh readings.and has reached us by mutawaatir transmis- A transmission is called mutawaatir when it is reported by a large lie. (in has reached us through muttawaatir chains of narration. in that it as being part of the Qur'aan). since it deals with some of the Characteristics (sifaat) of Allaah. "You is possible to say in have recited the Qur'aan. and those readings that {%£$) before his death. for lurlher details." III. which case this portion is remove hadeeth Oudsee ever. such as those whose recitation was abrogated (the mansooltfi). '. or has completed the recitation of the whole Qur'aan..

lastly. 'The Mc rc\ etc. 47 I Uil us-Stinnali it am tallowing wa al-Jamaa'ah. Negation ol specific attributes (such as lorgetlulness and error) is rare. Names and Attributes that befit lim. _A>jzj *-~*—1 'jbj I "There is nothing that is similar to Him. therefore it deserves some discussion and elaboraol tion: thirdly. Tin-: Conceit of the Kalaam of Allaah ot Allaah deals with The topic of the kalaam described Himself with. this OCCUTS in general. As lor negation.. ••Anil to Allaah belong (all) the Most Bc. unspccific terms (most ol the time): lor . forget- fulness and error (20:52) and other attributes is that do not befit His Glory. Allaah has also negated all from Himself. Specifically. and great scholars have been persecuted because ol it. all Perfection and Excellence. . or the Companions ol the Prophet (gg). primarily amongst innovated sects of Ahlas-Sunnah this topic in wa al-Jamaa'ah""'. Before discussing the Qur'aan to in particular as the kalaam of Allaah. Majesty.Tirmidheel. etc. that his ummah would I divide into seventy-three sects. namely. When asked what what the characteristics today.uitilul Names. 'The All-Seer". The affirmation is Names and Attributes. [7:180] In addition to affirming these attributes ol imperfection Names and Attributes. saved group were. two basic principle is must be understood. such as sleep and tiredness (2:255). it is necessary understand the concept ol the kj. Indian Allaah. Names anil Attributes ol Beauty. When dealing with the principles Names and Attributes ol Allaah. 'There is nothing that is similar to Him'. concepts "I faith be available soon.[42:11] 46 thosc in a An expression that translates as 'The Followers ol the Siiiinah ami the Right Group. ol this of which would be in the lire oi excepi ma. 'There is none thai is equal to 1 lim'. All- Seer. 'The Ever-Living'. example. a should be kept mind that this is a relatively brief discussion. there does not exist 4. so call on I lim with them. and. and only lor a purpose. and do not resemble the attributes of His creation. OCCUR each Name and Attribute Bcstowei dI mentioned and affirmed individually. in general. and it is hoped that perhaps 48 more detailed explanation ol this.30 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan has been the subject o! great controversy during the history of Islaam. and Most Grandeur. in other words. that ol topic ol the one of the Attributes that Allaah has Speech (l{alaam). there still exist incorrect concepts and ideas concerning the meaning the /(ti/iiiiin ol Allaah. he (36) replied.' to dili'erentiate ilo who I not follow tin- Smuiii/i. I The Perfect first that Allaah has described Himself With the Best Names and Attributes. and lie is the All-Hearer. "Thcj (Narrated by at. are (that group) that lollou i mailing the.ilaam ol Allaah. all number lei I ol hadcci'h. Allaah says in the Qur'aan. which claim to be in the fold any discussion ol English. in and my Companions" louever.'" The second principle that Allaah's Names and Attributes arc Unique. Allaah says. ol Allaah's and cither. For example. The Prophet (56) predicted.

ins would be exhausted heforc the l(ahuini ol like it my Lord would even if We brought (another ocean) for its aid. Allaah. (or man's life was given of life him. So man characteristic of and Allaah describes Himself as having the characteristic of Life. Him. ice. is Mankind understands will that Allaah Ever-Living. Allaah has described Himself in the Qur'aan as al-Hayy. whereas the Attributes of Allaah are Perfect and Unique. even though he himself 'alive' (hayy). but the actuality ol Creator. that he has very different from the one that Allaah describes to Himsell as having.spoke directly (l^alhwia) to Moosaa- |4:164| '. man does not have the power to create life. unlike Allaah. all Praise and Glory be to acteristic o\l{alaam in over two dozen verses in the Qur'aan..' Life. since Allaah has it is Names and Attributes. 'The EverLiving. Likewise. since Allaah's Attributes are unique. Himself with. |18:1()9| . therefore. 'If the oceans i were ink wherewith to write the kalaam of my Lord. Names and Attributes. him. It is essential. has described Himself as having the CharAmongst these verses are the following: «Anil Allaah . He is also understands that. even though to. can never understand the actuality of The same analogy applies for the other Names and Attributes of Allaah.'. Therefore. mind. and it shall be taken away from has the in contrast to the characteristic that Allaah describes life. die finish. but it. that He was always with and always be with the life Life. not allowed to try make these attributes similar to those of the Creation.J The Qur'aan Therefore. since the attributes of the creation are imperfect. nor try to delve into the 'how-ness' of His Attributes. which means. In addition.' <??""(£* 1 j£-j Is J^o lib) C~Ji C~«J «And the Word {/(ii/ihim) ol your Lord has been fulfilled in [ruth and jus- tice" |6:115| «Say. the two characteristics differ as much as man differs from the mankind understands the concept of Allaah's m\mcii/-Hayy.">"£"<<. we now proceed to the With these two basic principles in concept of the kfllaam of Allaah. when dealing with the not to deny or distort the meanings of these described Himself with these to Names and Attributes of Allaah. pos- understand the concept that any Name is or Attribute refers For example. it 31 is not possible For mankind it is to understand the exact nature of Allaah's sible to Names and Attributes.

and to whomever He wishes. the Balaam ofAllaah heard by His creation. some of them others. . namely. in the story of Moosaa. .| 32 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan ••And the Word ofAllaah (l{uliniu) is the uppermost" [9:40] «(It will lie said to the people in the Heavens) Peace he on you. "O Moosaa. ^(«^ir*rH^uf^<y(^^*A-*i^. Verlisten to that am your Lord. As Allaah says. > j-*»/ '<ffii ' . and consists of words Allaah can he heard is and letters. . that He Speaks when He wishes. he was called. the stated in kalaam with sound. meeting between Aadam and Moosaa. For example. "Yes. the Qur'aan mentions that Allaah spoke to Moosaa and addressed him: •And when he (Moosaa) came ily.These are the prophets.. for he said.. the Qur'aan says. from behind a veil. In another authentic hadeeth. in which "Are you the one whom Allaah spoke to.and I have chosen you. nor was is their any messenger?" Moosaa answered. The tact that the l{ahiam ol clearly proven in the Qur'aan and Sunnah. which sounds like a 49 Reported by Ahoo Daawuod. the Prophet that Allaah's skies. we what Allaah has affirmed for Himself.Have you heard the story ol Moosaa: When his Lord allied him in the sacred valley of Toowax [79:15-16] These verses are clear that Allaah spoke to The Prophet (<^g) also Aadam asked Moosaa." a Word from a Lord who affirm is Mosi Merciful* |36:S8| Therefore. therefore which is inspired to you'» [20:1 1-1 3| In another verse. (and) We have honoured ami blessed over ^ some ol them Allaah spoke is to» 12:2^ In addition. their "When Allaah decrees a matter the angels move wings in humility lor His speech. and others. anil there described a Moosaa and Moosaa heard this speech. was no 4 '' interpreter between you." The hadeeth is explicit in that Allaah's Balaam to Moosaa was with(j^g) clearly out any intermediary. I (to the lire).

did He by Moosaa):" Imaam Ahmad answered. This can be refuted bj number .'" Alter narrating the entire hadceth. (d. each word of which consists of a number of letters. other narrations ol tins (el. all ol and these hadceth (ol \\\cl(alaam ol Allaah). and this is only so lor Allaah. I composed words and will he («^g) "'Whoever recites one word from the Book of Allaah 1 have ten rewards. "There is nothing similar to Him. # i".1 Tlit Qur'aan 33 chain over . Judgement. of course. 165. 256 A. asked by his son 'Abdullaah 290 A.. anil Mean is (counted as) a word. the Prophet (-^) gave a description of the sound /{alaam ol Allaah. words For example. so also.H. cl". Reported in al-Bukhaaree's Khalq Af'aal al-'lbaad. 1 This was also the belief of thesalaf.) was "When Allaah spoke to Moosaa. anil I le is i lie All.a ol the rock. speak with a sound (that was heard indeed! Your Lord speaks with sound.*"" Therefore. "Yes. 52 °>^ Ahmad.1 learer. whereas the wings are feminine.. every Muslim knows that the verse. and therefore impermissible ask how Allaah speaks. which also ex- plicit in the fact that Allaah speaks in n/(a/aai?i that can be heard. and the reckoning that and it in it is: ". Reported by al-Hukhaaree. l«Ullybj9 -Qui hoowa Allaahu ahad* 1 1 1 2: 1 consists of four words. It therefore follows that the Balaam of Allaah consists of is words and of letters. essential to keep in mind it is that the Speech of Allaah docs not resemto ble that of His creation. 24 A. for Allaah says. Meem is a word. and al-Bukhaaree al-Adab al-Mufrad.. Those who arc close lar can. All-Seer» |-I2:1 is I | The (and ol it fact that the Balaam of Allaah consists of words and letters something that docs not require proof and can be seen even by the most ignorant person. speaks with sound." Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d. The Prophet (^) letters. for himself mentioned that the Qur'aan stated. And do not and Laam is say the A/if Laam a weird. as shall be proven in the next section) consists anil letters.'""' In ihishadecth. p.and their Lord is will call them with a voice. And in this is to 1 proof that the sound of Allaah does not resemble the sound of mankind. the tense that used lor the sound ol the masculine.. which clearly proves that Allaah's ^alaam is with sound.). The Qur'aan is part ol the/Balaam ol Allaah. but rather Alifis a word. luidct'lh are explicit that the is Sound WY.. all Praise and (dory be can hear it just as those who are Imaam al-Bukhaaree Him. 54 . is and He will sav. the wings of the angels were the object s| sound.) narrated in book al-Adab al-Mufrad the hadceth of the Prophet ($g) referring to the Day of will occur. secondly.i sound described ol in the hadceth rclcrs to the movement wings. ol the angel's allege that the . we his narrate them as we heard them. said."" It is.H. il p. the 'I one who 1 is " close can hear just as the one who lar can.H. the tense would have been feminine Reported by 'Abdullaah ibn Reported by Ahmad ibn Hambal in in Kitchib as-Sitiinali. al-luday'. am the King.. the Prophet (5Eg) divided the Some groups reiers to 5n Reported by al-Bukhaaree. ways: firsdy. "Allaah.vaWs l^alaiim is anil not the angels' wings al-|udav'. 51 Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (d. 167).

. since He has sent the prophets with the language of their peoples.s created. 123. The Prophet in ihc /(it /initial (^5) said. is Another clear proofs characteristic ol the Balaam of Allaah that it is uncreated. in Hebrew. He speaks has He speaks in whichever if He wishes. just as Allaah has sent every prophet to preach in the language of his nation. and will says. "Whoever dismounts evil that is at any place. There are logic from the Qur'aan. p. 57 5S Reported by Muslim . |>.H. and His Command is the Qur'aan. only the Creator has this ability. As Imaain ad-Daarimee you! Verily..) also used this verse to prove that the kfllaam not created. the statements of the saliif. is of Allaali Injccl." so the creation the creation of Allaah. and was also a part of His Balaam. The Qur'aan says. Allaah revealed the this Torah and the Hebrew. and clear for this belief. 288 A. a created object does not have the ability to create another object.) wrote. for itself were created. (d.. is "To Him belongs the Creation and the Com51 mand.) said.a1 Jjiiu^Jj^ ^§s^ls^^j* £->! ••Verily. "Woe to Allaah knowledgeable of all languages. If He wishes. is the cause ol the creation. between the creation. cannot be created. and this is not possible! In other words. "He has lied (who says that the Qur'aan created)! Allaah has stated.. which is His Speech. (d. |7:S4| In this verse. and the Torah and Injccl His Balaam in Hebrew. Allaah differentiates and all that is in it.mil others. «Vcrily to Mini (Allaah) belongs the Creation and the Command'.H. the Siinnah. Reported by al-'Aajurree ibid." Imaam Ahmad of Allaah is ibn Hambal 17 241 A. xhckctlaam ofAllaah to that nation) to any nation (when Allaah revealed a Book was also in its language. The Speech is in fact the cause of the creation. concerning those is who deny and this concept. in not limited to the Arabic language. 198 A. ar-Radd.' nothing /(a harm him Allaah is moves from his stop. in as-Sharee'ah. and in Arabic. Sufyaan ibn 'Uyaynah is (d." 55 In other words. by the if it Will it ol Allaah. would mean that a created characteris- has created another object. This haded h also proves that the laam of not cre- 55 "56 ad-Daarimee. 123.H. 'I seek refuge until he of Allaah from the . J^vli ^.it We vi\ unto 'lie''- Therefore the Speech so tic it of Allaah. t£ al-Juday'. unto a thing [16:40] whin We intend it. is only lli. language He wishes. and if He wishes. in Syriac." 34 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Qur'aan into words and Tlie /(tiltiain letters. which includes the world and between the Command. as Allaah says. so He made the Qur'aan His fyllaam in Arabic. it: Our Word and it is.

is Imaam al-Hukhaaree (d.). For example. Ml.. tor the Qur aan says. \f'aal al-'Ibaait. me Irom spreading the S9 (>() nl-Judny". The Qur'aan In this section.» |^7:3| and His and attributes are a part ol Him.•' -f '-Ti--'-' "" >' Y. "In prool that the /(a/aam of Allaah (d.e. "It is not permissible to seek refuge in the cretact that a ol ated.The Qur aan ated. this topic will be discussed in greater detail. I It is the Pirst (i. from al-Bukhaarce's Klialq. would mean one of Allaah's attributes (that of speech) had a beginning.. meaning that from spreading the Qur'aan. Reported fay al-Daarimee.) stated. '\'\" '1 s* f* Z*\\' **'\ -i «Anil il any of the idolaters seeks your protection. The /(a/aam ol Allaah is an Attribute ol Allaah. See Ibn l'i. it as thi-. there is nothing after Iim). The Prophet (^) also said in referhim Qur'aan. all of Allaah's attributes are eternal and uncreated. jinn or angels. the very it person seeks refuge in ihc /(a/aam oi Allaah proves that Allaah.e. "Verily. Refuge can only be sought from the Creator (and His and not Irom the creation. .79. Qudaama. therefore has the same characteristics that the /(a/aam ol Allaah has. ami I le is die Last (i. is not created. stated. L989.H. It In the last section. p. However. 256 A.. Maktabah al-Huda. H.. -" is that Allaah Himself has referred to it as His /(a/aam. The prool that the Qur'aan in particular is the /(ii/aam ol Allaah says.. along with a brief history of the deviations that have occurred with regards to this belief". {Wis hui/ccr/i all types of evil. Some narrations of the earlier scholars have already been mentioned concerning the is fact that the Qur'aan the /(allium of Allaah. Allaah '. al-Tirmidhce ami others. Said. """ In other words. Nu'aym ibn Hammaad nor in the 228 A. since the $5 Prophet («gg) commanded the believers to seek relume in the /(a/aam ol Allaah from Attributes). certain characteristics ol:*the /(allium of Allaah shall be proven that the Quraan is a part of the /(a/iiam ol Allaah. there I is nothing before 1 lim). in this section.» |9:o| meaning until they hear the have prevented they prevented The Prophet ($g) also said. p. then grant him proteche tion. for it is an uncreated Attribute is not allowed to seek refuge in a created object. /(ci/i/ti in A simple logical prool that the it of Allaah that is not created is as follows: If the Balaam of Allaah were created." anil his teacher. . yet Allaah's attributes do not change with time. so that may hear the Word {/(tiLiant) ol Allaah. speech of men. the Quraysh Word {/(a/aam) o( my Lord. Kaiawi oi- Am ami were discussed. 'Abdiillaah ihn Ahmad: til- Burhanfi Bayan al-Qiir'aan.

and he refuses. "It has been narrated from many of ourW<//~that they used to say. All)aance's</</-Dtf W. then 65 his head should be cut offl" Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee (d. and the Qur'aan is the kalaam ot and everything besides Allaah. 66 67 al-Khamees. al-AI{bar. from Him it came. quoted Irom al-Khamces. As was proven verse. 204 A. "The superiority of the Balaam of Allaah over all other kalaam is (like) the superiority of Allaah over His Creation. Reported by al-Bayhaqee lit//: in his Sunan.aalikaa'ee.""' Imaam Aboo Hanecfah is (d. of tra- course."*1 belief that the The Qur'aan is the Balaam ol Allaah was the belief of all of the Companions.' This is also what I believe. #108. ". the is Balaam of Allaah is not created.H. and the concerning the the belief of the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah first wa al-Jamaa'ah after them. 241 A.H. # 494.H. Companions or Successors. p.the another place he mentions be done Qur'aan is not created. 62 63 64 65 Reported by al-I ./«/j. they only differed con- cerning the characteristics of this kalaam. who says that the Qur'aan is created. pre- the hearts.'"' 61 Reported by Ahmad and others.) wrote in his Fiqh al- will return. 179 A. and al-)uday\ p.36 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan ence to the Qur'aan. see allor the oilier side. implies that the Qur'aan not created either. Reported by al-Laalikaa'ee. written in the mus-hafs. recited by the tongues. what should "He should be forced to repent.) stated. #1333.. "The Qur'aan served in the speech {kalaam) of Allaah. S7. # 355. As for anything besides these (sources). nor do think that philosophy plays a part in any our beliefs). and those that came after them for seventy years. or the hadcclh ot the Prophet (^).""" Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (d. in the last section. This. and characterised by same characteristics as the kalaam of Allaah. 14.H." and in that. Akbar. . 3(11. and to 150 A. p. 44.H. and (of I am not a person of philosophy. ol no group amongst Muslims actually denied that the Qur'aan was the kalaam Allaah. "Whoever states that the Qur'aan is created is a disbeliever. Ibn 'Abbaas. |39:28| "This means that the Qur'aan is not created.) stated. "I have met the Companions of the Prophet (5g). Him Him created. p. 126 A."''-' 'Amr ibn Deenar (d. Reported by "Abdullaah ibn Ahmad in his as-Sunnah. The is or a statement ot the only (source) is the Quraan. 7 then none of it praiseworthy. 'The Qur'aan is the kalaam of Allaah. In fact. and revealed to the Prophet (S§). Allaah is the Creator. in explaining «A Qur'aan without any crookedness" said."" 4 Imaam Maalik it (d. Hundreds ot statements from the scholars of the fact that three generations exist is the Qur'aan is the Balaam of Allaah.) was asked concerning one to him: He replied. all of is it them said.) stated. and it is I not created.. For a detailed discussion of the authenticity of the luuUrth.

«This (the Qur'aan) (By these verses) /(ii/tiiim is nothing but the words of a mortal" |74:25| are certain that this (the Qur'aan) il we know and of is the of the Creator humans. Aboo al-Qaasim same it is Hibatullaah ihn Hasan fifty al-Laalikaa'ee (d.H. "This the fundamentals of the beliefs of the Akl al-Sitnmih iva al- Jama'ah.z Imaam u\J'ii//i faith! The hook 33. yet." After naming all of these scholars. wrote: s The Qur'aan as is the Speech (Ifalaani) ofAllaah. i21 A. and whoever states that created a disbeliever. 1." This work of bis were the same is an extremely important one in that it'll gives a clear it and lucid explanation of the basics of the belief of ibi: Akl al-Siiiinu/i al-]ama\ih. d. (jgj) by inspiration. then the 6K I Ic is Aim la'alar Ahmed ihn Muhammad is ihn Salamah al-Azadi al -Tahaawcc. whose opinions and madk-habsxhe people used 1 And were | to busy myself in compiling the quotes from modern scholars meaning those after the first three generations] (on top of these names). 418 A. upon the methodology of the jurists of this iimmah. unlike the speech of humans. absolutely ignore has a valuable Aboo Hanccfah's beliefs. In addition.'" So sors. point # Shark Aqeedah at-Takaiviyyah.H.) transmitted reports from over all of five-hundred and scholars of the salaf. Imaam al-Laalikaa'ee wrote. their beliefs concernit ing the fundamentals of the religion. narrations from the salaf concerning the fact that the Qur'aan is is not created has reached and far exceeded the level oimutawaatir.. And of these over a hundred were to follow.. «I will burn him in the Hell-Firc» |74:26| to him who said. The Believers it testify to its revela- They are certain that is the actual \alaam of Allaah. see the previous hundred pages (25()->4S). he said. For these numerous quotes. v. 344. In the introduction to his work. a man is a disbeliever Whoever hears it and thinks it is the speech of whom Allaah has condemned and threatened with the Fire of Hell. Imaams. not created. commentary by Ibn Abd alp. from the Succes- and the generation them. clearly is shows thai that the beliefs of Aboo I -Ianecfa ol as the beliefs ol''the All/ OS-Stinnak. in a It originated from Him re- an articulated speech manner that is not questioned and was vealed to His Prophet tion. and this a fact that no one can To give one example alone. al-Hanafee (d. the irony many those who claim 792 A. to follow this great and instead follow the Ai/i'aree or Maatureedee I/."' The deny. these are live-hundred after and lifly scholars or more.The Qur'aan 37 Imaam at-Tahaawee." in his famous Aqccdah at-Taluiaweeyah .I I. and Aboo Yusuf. for Allaah says. from all different places and generations. and the scholars whom the uniimih has accepted and are well-pleased with. not including the Companions. not created. 168. whom slated the fact: "The is Qur'aan is the Balaam of Allaah. the great scholar of the Siinnuli.).. (the two primary students of Aboo lanifah). 69 70 Main al-Aqeedah ai-Tahaawiyah al-Laalikaa'ee.. and does not resemble the speech ol mankind. Aboo Hanccfah I Nu'man and ihn Thaabit. and as-Shaybaance. p. .

people. they were forced to repent.. Il He does not have the attributes it ol vudd and wajh ('Hand' and 'face'). instead. ot his ol l^ahiam. see Walter M. succeeded converting the Abbaasiil Caliph Ma'moon (during the year 218 A. (d. . and is after him group known ol as the Jahm iyyah emerged.. amongst other things.it. Imaam Ahmad ibn last through this torture without relenting. three different groups of the eternal . comprised of"the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah 7 * claimed that the It Qur'aan was created. He was 1 executed time for holding (d. This led them to believe that Allaah would not Ik. even though he himself was ol later. tli.H. IS97. Imaam a few brave scholars. and beaten ami whipped so severely that doctors pronounced him on the verge ol death. due to the great controversy that was generated over this issue. Hambal 241 A. one ol the callers to the Mu'tazilali. Only managed to number ot years. This told ol group was considered by the scholars their heretical beliefs. despite their verbal disassociation from the ol the Jahmiyyah. and so one examines the reality beliel ol the Ash 'ti ices. 71 Thefahmiyyah denied all of the names ami attributes ofAllaah.38 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan number myself ol names would have reached the thousands. The most prominent scholars from over the Muslim lands were ordered to publicly proclaim this ideology.seen in the Hereafter. name ol Ja'ad ibn Dirham I24A.H.' This was one ot the greatest trials to ever inflict the Muslim Utnuiah. that fbrth. 73 The Mu'tazilah were a group that tried lo harmonise Greek philosophy with Islaam. The first person lo claim that the Qur'aan was created was a person by the (d. that He docs not have I the attribute Ol kfllaam. 11 For an interesting account ofthis Inquisition from an Leiden. and due to the was this group that temporarily gained popularity among the power ol the Caliph Ma'moon.it Allaah is not above [isiairaa) lis Throne.evolved with regards to the beliel nature of the Qur'aan. ol their beliefs are is clear t li. I restricted to to transmissions from these (named scholars). denying most of the attributes of Allaah.H.) to this ide- ology. that the kfllaam Allaah (anil thus the Qur'aan) was created.H.. and whoever did so. in many almost the same as those Jahmiyyah.). Patron's Ahmed ibn Hanbat and the Mihna. including that by die governor student.) when orthodoxy was finally redeemed. ol Islaam be outside the Islaam lor The Jahmiyyah claimed. this and other heretical beliefs. forcing salqf. Those that refused were brutally tortured.H..). lowever.besides the Ah I as-Stinnah . from generation generation. many ol them to renounce the beliel ol the all and claim that the Qur'aan was created. the was able to to spread his ideas to a much greater extent. and it was only during the Caliphate ol Multawakil (during the year 237 A.). Ma'moon then used his power as the Khaleefah to begin a relentless persecu- tion ol the scholars ol his time. The first group. the Jahmiyyah. many scholars were forced to verbally agree with them. led by Ahmad was jailed lor a ' I )uring this period. his Jahm ibn Salwaan it 128 A. Ahmad ibn 240). no one refuted or contradicted (hem. orientalist's perspective. as shall be elabo- rated in the next section. or they were commanded to be killed or banished. 71 Less than a century this belief ot in Abec Du'aad (d. Ja'ad was one ot the leaders ol innovation ol his time.

different groups evolved. but rather had studied the evidences. one which the is Qur'aan is created.p." can have the other incorrect.) said. Since this group is still present to this day.585-399 75 76 77 78 For further details. even such famous Daaral-Uloom and Dcoband are primarily Ash'aree. They claimed it Qur'aan was the Balaam of Allaah. then they should be killed!" After this period. meaning Quraan. #531.5. created. many and wide-spread. disbefahi/iiyyah are of three types: One group of lievers. ibid. not. 241 A. and the third say. ever!!" And anyone say other than this? Imaam Ahmad (d. al-Lalikaa'ee. during the lilih and sixth century ol thekijrah. Many ol the lamous scholars ol the past were influenced by thcAsh'arces. concerning the above three groups. And can it be other than this? Or can We can never have any doubts about it. 125. but the recita- tion of the reciter of the Qur'aan was created." 1 it will be discussed in greater detail than the other groups.1 their disbelief!"" The that the last group that formed during this time were the Lafdhiyyah. pps. The scholars of Islaam declared that the recita- investigation into this matter tion of the was not praiseworthy. 241 A. They should be 77 forced to repent. anil thus the scholars of their time were very severe in the refutation ol this One of the sa/af was asked concerning this group. This group. Since the eternal nature of the and the scholars of Ahlas-Sunnah united on group. sec- al-KhaUaa]. However. but the actual if the person intended that the sound was created. and thus the Lafdhiyyah agreed with thejahmiyyak. what is recited) is not.v.e. them says that the Quraan is created." should be pointed out that the Waaqifiyyah were not ignorant of the status ol the Qur'aan. "My two meanings. 7-1 al-Laalikaa'ee. and he replied. is that the actual recitation.H. This group did not give an created. #S-I4.' For me. "The Qur'aan it is not created. 71 ' Imaam Ahmad "The ibn Hambal (d. and ii they do not do so.The Qur'aan 39 The second group were known explicit it is as the Waaqifiyyah . and stop at that. then be in no doubt of the lydaam of Allaah. another says diat it is the /(alaam of Allaah. is this issue. . The incorrect meaning. and 7. expelled by the reciter of the Qur'aan the voice is created. the most prominent amongst them that of the Ash'arccs. 'Our recitation of the Qur'aan is created. these three groups have the same status (in another narration. and that was not created. "As for the Waaqifiyyah. and said.) said. institutions The scholars that follow the Ash 'aree faith today are such as al-Azhar University. and what most of the Lafdhiyyah is intended.. became extremely popular due to still histori- cal reasons. and had come to the conclusion that proofs of' the it was unclear whether the Qur'aan was created or Balaam of Allaah were so clear. since the statement. then this is a correct meaning. and the effects that this had are present to this day.H. of which is correct. the innovation of the Waaqifiyyah was a new inno- vation. . including most of the authors ol the classical works on 'uloom al-Our'iuin. nor opinion on It this issue. "We do not say it is do we say that not created. he added:) and all of them are of the Jahmiyyah. since recitation (i.

and agreed with the Ahl as-Sunnah. and will always be speakwishes. they themselves into many errors. However. just as the anyone. according to them. . according to the Ash'arecs. le is docs not speak in fact when He They further claimed that the hfllaam ol parts.). the essence ol the Torah. he ihem and started teaching the 'aqeedah ol Aboo Muhammad nate!) the "Ahdullaah ibn Sa'eed ibn Kullaab 240 A. and believed in the Attributes ol Allaah. he was a Mn 'lasilee. this section \\ should be mentioned that is also a refutation ol the sister group ol the Ash'arees. they then of die Qur'aan is followed up this principle is by stating that the actual text created.cll greatly influenced bj Greek phi- losophy. especially in the area ol the it Names and Attributes ol a Allaah. Ibn Kullaab. Therefore. but is the /{allium of Allaah not. and that They ing further stated that Allaah's palatini is Balaam does not consist ol words or letters. but refutation ol should be kept in mind that one point ol belief ol any group is an IPSO facto refutation perfect. in reality. and al-Ash'arcc during this stage. yad and other attributes. Injeel and Qur'aan are but the actual l{iiluam of Allaah is "expressions' ol the is without any language. those u ho claim to be Ash'aree are not truly following at Aboo al-Hasan tin al-Ash'aree. not the actual /(tt/chim ol Allaah. they explained this attribute in a unique way. and accepted the 'aqeedah in Ahl iii-Suninih. Therefore. from the teach7 '- ings of Aboo al-Hasan 'Alee ibn Ismaa'ccl al-Ash'arce (d. wajh. lor il they were.40 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan A Refutation of rwv. Thus. (Only one ol their errors will be elaborated in this section. tried to refine the beliefs of the Mu'tazilah and defend the teachings ofAht as-Sunnah. but rather an 'expression' ol the Balaam ol Allaah. must be mentioned that some of these points are based upon certain principles that the Ash'arees use to distort many ol the Attributes of Allaah. and their name. see Noor's doctoral dissertation on the subject. the Ash arees brought forth an 'aqeedah that that Allaah does posses the Attribute ol Speech. left alter the scholars not satisfy his questions on particular issues ol faith.H. in this they to \\\csalaf. (d.) ol that last groups claim was to be Ahl as- Siinmi/i. It Ish'arees with regard'. 324 A. which he renounced before 811 It his death. Allaah one meaning. such as isliwaa (rising over the throne). in other words. according to the Ash'arees. is not related to His Will. they claimed that Allaah his does not speak with sound. likewise the kfllaam ot an internal speech that cannot be heard. they would follow the 'aqeedah that he had his death. the Maatureedees. and stated men are a type ol speech that cannot be heard. Since they claimed that Allaah's Balaam is an internal Balaam. same meaning. M 7') It should be pointed out thai Aboo al-Hasan al-Ash'arcc I liimscll went through three phases during of the Mil 'tazilah could his lifetime. these will not be mentioned or refuted. Ihe beliefs ol these two groups lor ith regards to the kfiliiiim ol Allaah are practically the sam< our purposes. for they claimed that Allaah 's kplaam was an it "internal' Balaam - a l{aUiam that could not be heard by that. *" With regards was unknown and that the to the /(iihium of Allaah. The Arabic Qur'aan. They equated thoughts of Allaah is with the concept of thinking.H. However. the Injeel and the Qur'aan the same. al-Ash'aree rejected the teachings ol Ibn Kullaab. quoted in the Bibliography. Asi i'ari:i-s ThtAsh'arees are a group that take their 'aqeedah. and of the them to same /{cihniiii.). However. dui: to the brcvin ol this discus sion. ol also during this stage thai he wrote his book al-I6aanah. )uring the first phase. which he defended the 'aqeedah the salaf. and not 'aqeedah ol Ibn Kullaab. Allaah I continually speaking. but unfortu- methodology that they used to refute the Mu'tazilah lell was it-. is Therefore. They claimed Qur'aan was the Balaam of Allaah. and cannot be divided into all in tact Ibis led claim that thcToiah. 81 lo ihe These are the primary points ol difference between ihe Ahl as-Sunnah and the. kaliiam ol Allaah. For a lull refutation. since the beliefs of Ahl OS-Slinnah must be During the ol stage ol his It life.

one of the leaders and expounders of letters. "Allaah is (d. Just as the speech of the mind has no sound or words.The Qur'aan 41 Aboo Haamid al-Ghazaalee this 'aqeedah. 132.l. . wrote. intellect is found is in the traditions (the il Qur'aan and Sunnali) (concerning the attributes of Allaah) can agree with it. Lahore. then becomes ob- ligatory to interpret for it is what has been found in the traditions (the Qur'aan and Sunnali). more aware of His Names and creation Attributes than His creation is. merely because (^)) has deour minds cannot comprehend the actuality of fact that it is an Attribute. but rather can be interpreted. Ihyaa 'Bloom al-Dm. It is claimed that Imaam al-Ghazalce. they accepted. p.e.. understood meanings. and between those correct. They used their intellect as the criterion to understand Names and Attributes. they then interpreted those Names and Attributes which they gave anthropomorphic qualities contrary to their literal. p. And had the\' believed in them. Taken from Noor. the becomes obligatory intellect to to believe in But it as for those (attributes) which are deemed by the be impossible. of the creation. internal speech)... without asking. 505 A. speaks without words. and those that are au- thentic are not explicit. to an extreme. sounds and 82 and His Speech the Speech of the so mind (i. and whatever their intellect could not understand..). it.. As Aboo Haamid al-Ghazaalee. v. This principle. They used their Attributes gave and logic to decide which of Allaah's Names and some type of resemblance. even if it. They also neglected the not possible to compare Allaah's S2 cf." The primary and Attributes is principle that led the that they Ash 'arees all wished to remove Names resemblance between Allaah's Names to distort many of Allaah's and Attributes. Allaah not imaginable that the traditions will contain something that contradicts the intellect. Ashraf Publishers. thinking that by doing this they were removing any fear of resemblance between Allaah and His creation.d. it is not appropri- ate to re-interpret Name or Attribute that Allaah (or the Prophet scribed Himself with. His Speech has no sound or words. As for the luidecth which contain of characteristics of "M resemblance (of between His creation). "How?" or "Why?" it would have been is belter lor them. anthropomorphic83 and those Names and Attributes which did Based on felt diis classification.mil accepted the 'aqeedah 83 X-t Anthropomorphic: Tb give an object human-like characteristics. it examined.H. then most them are not authentic. all However.l. Then. al-Ghazalee. 90. they rejected or re-interpreted. Therefore. so whatever their intellect agreed with. at the end of his life recanted from the 'aqcedah of the Ash'arees . and Allaah is more eloquent than any of His any Therefore. In His reality. Whatever they felt was not befitting to Allaah. they neglected a very crucial is point. (dory be to Him. p. and that that Allaah. Abu Hamid: ol thesalaf. they took their intellect to be their criterion to accept and understand the Attributes ol Allaah. is. v. Allaah Himself had affirmed they interpreted until "All that it satisfied their intellect.. which intellect in essence is was taken by ihcAs/i 'dices qualities. 133. n. or not. their ovcr-zcalousness to free the Names and Attributes of Allaah from resembling those of His creation led them to deny and distort many or Allaah's Names and Attributes. wrote. From his al-Iqtisaadfee al-'Itiqaad.

Allaah. Therefore. by first to distort clear. See the above relerences for a more detailed discussion. letters. Allaah uses other words besides (such as to denote lis Speech. They also letter follows is reasoned that words. and then reasoning that.42 An Introduction to the Sciences ofthe Qur'aan Attributes and to try to understand them by making analogies with the attributes ot the creation. In addition. since not like I these Attributes must have a different meaning. one of the scholars Know ot thesa/af. the creation. they argued that speech must come from is a combination of or- gans. 2S. Nothing is he said about the Lord except what He has described Himself with in the Qur'aan. for if it Balaam It to be composed of words and were. As ments for their belief that the kfilaam of Allaah is without sound. is ol Allaah. His Revelation and the Ash 'iirecs delved into concepts that could not be understood by men. pps 375-379.ahium signifies an internal thought. the Ash'arees ' reasoned that the one who speaks must speak with sound and breath. Cairo. and there is nothing similar to Him.. and these are created. can never be eternal. al-Hasan. is Had they only understood that Allaah it is Unique. but Allaah free of these. 517-542. was not possible for Allaah's /<«/</«/. and not necessarily a spoken word. . this contradicts the proofs that were given in the previous section from the Qur'aan. along with their refutation. Sharfcas-Sunnah (Makfabah zs-Sunnah. and to an innovation misguidance. would have saved them from falling into the error ot denying these Attributes. a newly invented matter. said: May Allaah the Lord. such as the tongue. and that not possible to underit stand Allaah's Attributes by comparing ibem to those of the creation. Therefore. has made the Heavens and the Earth speak. anil Noor. the anil have mercy upon you! is that speculative speech is about Most High. The Ash'arees also try to prove the fact that the is word l. then. pps. p. 86 cf al-Juday". In addition. for they responded to His Command and said. and tried to reason the actuality ol the Attributes ol Allaah. and what the Messenger ot Allaah (^) explained Allaah. tial.' The Qur'aan Yet. since one and has a specific place in it. However. Their primary proof a line of poetry attributed to a pre-Islaamic Christian."" Therefore. and these words denote speech with sound.. l')No). explicit ol lis concepts in those ol comparing the Attributes Allaah is Allaah to creation. it is not necessarily true for to objects. "I to the Companions. Imaam al-Barbahaaree (d. Sunnah and stateof thcsalaf. To illustrate this example. with regards to the attribute ol /(ii/amii. -L>7.? to be with sound. or for Allaah's letters. tor these and oilier logical proofs thai the.. 8"5 al-Barbahaaree. throat and mouth. it each word. Glory and Praise We Him. 329). that the Ash'arees used their logic the Qur'aan and Sunnah. No one says about the attributes Ol low?" or "Why?" except one the /(ii/ttaiii who has doubts about Allaah. ibis meaning thai they seek all to prove contradicts the understood meaning 'l(tilaam' ofthe word nidiitt) l^alaiim in the I Arabic language. Light. it would be created.. The presumption all that tion based all upon the characteristics of sound must come from organs is a presumphumans. since each letter sequen- lollowing the one before it cannot have existed from eternity. composed ol another. can be seen. ac- cording to them. 'arees bring.

ami and tongues:! Ami how when a disbeliever's limbs will testify against him. as He causes things to speak. along Daawood- [21:79] that they (i. which was later taken by the. and this is improper. yet these objects do not have the organs that humans need ing as to speak. then did not Ailaah say to the Heavens and Earth «'(*omc willingly or unwillingly! |41:I2| They both said. Do about these people presume the mountains. would entail ol giving these characteristics to the Creator.J The Quraan 43 l-J WGft ^i | ••'We come. will make the skins <>! the dishelievers on the Day Judgement. willingly!'* And did not Ailaah say.) stated. 1 51. rather Ailaah will make them to speak.. "Abdullaah ibn said. for it is an analogy (d. cannot be accepted. to claim that the folaam of Ailaah were with sound.. - |4I:211 Ailaah caused these objects to speak. "Ailaah has caused us to speak. a sound heard which sounds like (the Ibn Mas'ood states that moving of) a chain over 87 ar-Rddd 'ala al-Jalimiyyah. Heavens and the Earth) glorified with a throat. zsjli&i biiiiy UlHc jr j^L 'Sj*sj£\ y lij <?A ••Ami they (the disbelievers) will us?' say. capable ofspeak- He wishes? (d. 375. the one who created all things. without any throat or lips or tongues!"" it Therefore.H.H. and lips.. and tongue. -ls/i'cim:<) that sound can only occur from a combination ol the throat. .) said. to willingly!"- -4 1 : 1 1 and Ailaah. as if He wishes. We come. cE al-Harbcc.e. ••peak all Glory and Praise he ol Him.. Ahmad ol ihn Hambal 290 A. Is not Ailaah. p. the lips. 'Why did you (our skins) testify against all They will - say. p. Ailaah with man.. lips and tongues:! Nay. Imaam Ahmad 241 A. Do you think that they will testify with throats. "My lather (Imaam Ahmad) is 'The luulceih when Ailaah Speaks. "As tor their claim (meaning the claim ofthejafimiyya/l. -And We subjected the mountains and the with (Prophet) birds to glorify Our praises.

it! and askeil Moosaa worship it However. sound And with this (opinion). They wish to confuse the peo- and deny (the Attributes of Allaah). "Then (Aboo opinion. came to us!" s '' In this narration. so worship Me. ihc As/i'tirccs maintain that the Balaam of Allaah is without sound. ^1 i. then means that this created object stated. In another narra- 'Abdullaah said. and the only people who deny ple this are ihc fa/wiiyya/i. And this (belief) the essence of innovation. \s/i 'drees'.. 36S. it they state to this. and caused this Moosaa hear that created sound.H. al-Harbcc.. .) 44 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan a rock. of thejahmiyyah. is "How then did Moosaa hear you claim that Allaah's Balaam without sound?" The scholars of theAsh'arees have this. then what did Moosaa hear when Allaah spoke to Himr II they respond that Allaah created a sound. and invented created.» [20:12-14] Therefore. p. we will continue to narrate these luidccth as Imaam Ahmad is staling that any person who is denies the fact that Allaah speaks with a sound tion." Imaam Ahmad replied. what if the superiority of Moosaa of over the other prophets he did not hear the Balaam Allaah: The Qur'aan is mentions that one of the blessings that certain prophets have been given Allaah spoke to them directly: that S8 89 90 91 This . «0 Moosaa. not been able to provide a satisfactory response for 2) II the fyzlaam ol Allaah is without sound. p. I am Allaah. Verily. (d. Imaam ash-Shahrastaanee 548 A. Whoever presumes that Allaah does not Speak they is a disbeliever! Verily.). "I asked my father: Some people are claiming that Allaah does not speak with a sound. am I your Lord. Reported 'Abdullaah ihn Ahmad in as-Sunnah.Verily. then the following points must be answered: 1 II the \alaam of Allaah to is without sound. "Nay! Allaah speaks with a sound. then what special status do those prophets is whom Allaah spoke to gain.. taken trom al-Harbce.2 In other words. Nihaayat al-Aqdaam. if they state that it was the actual it if Balaam of Allaah. then must be asked. # 534. they wish to cause confusion and deceive the people. while discussing the historical develop- ment of the various must be fore sects related to the Indicium a third of Allaah.uit hor adds: l>y Ami the. for he claimed that what we is not the actual /(u/umn of Allaah. 373. and claimed that all al- Hasan) al-Ash'arcc came.'"" \l In addition. . p. And this (hadceth) is denied by the Jahmiyyah^ These people are disbelievers. it implies that this created object claimed to be Allaah. there- is not god save me. he contradicted the consensus (ijmau) berecite is him. wrote.

then of what difference says. It is a characteristic that not desired. then what is the difference between the Knowledge ('Urn) of Allaah. unless il be by Inspiration. If the Speech of Allaah cannot be heard.» [2:253] Also. Ibraaheem answered. this mute. this its is There muteness. the kalaain ot Allaah cannot be heard. free of all attributes of imperfection. or from behind or (that) senger to reveal what He will by I lis Permission. as mentioned in the Qur'aan. of Allaah is an 'internal' Balaam. they questioned him as to whether he was the culprit. is this type of inspiration to the other types of inspiration? Allaah J^_^jl v_>lf£\_£l>Je>!_)' '—*"J Ji4JJi4*JSoo\/-»J «It is not possible for any human being that Allaah should speak a veil. to him. and this implies that it is an internal Speech. Allaah has described Himself with both of these characteristics in the Qur'aan.. In principle of faith was ot one of the most powerful arguments other than Allaah! that the prophets used to deny the worship show this. opposite. The stories of Ibraaheem and Moosaa clearly The Story of Ibraaheem The story of Ibraaheem and the idols is well known: Ibraaheem destroyed all of the idols of his people except the largest one.. speaks from 'behind a High. if Allaah speaks to a prophet. When his people discovered this. Some ol them Allaali spoke tO. - -i" • -*'"'i'f '' \> -if it- ••These arc he Messengers! I Some ot hem We blessed t (with . to it claim that Allaah docs not possess the attribute of speech (or to interpret Ash'arees do) yet Allaah is away is as the is in reality blasphemous. but thai prophet eannot hear him. as this then implies that the Creator fact. 92 The various types of inspiration will he discussed in the next chapter. -Ish'urees. Therefore. He is the Most according to the. and His Speech. then is the same as the Attribute ol Knowledge.' S) when Allaah how is this different from the other forms of inspiration?""' to the 'speech" of the If the /(<//(/!/». similar mind. . and fust as the attribute is a very dangerous implication: is of speech is a noble attribute. then veil.1 higher status) over others.The Qur'aan *'• 45 7J f'¥> - '. Most Wise» [42:51] This verse mentions different types ol inspirations. He semis a MesVerily. well is another point that the belief of the Ash 'arce s implies. nor is is it considered praiseworthy. known that the one who is mute not like the one who speaks. Il.

an internal speech of the mind!" for they understood what Ibraaheem meant!! This actions. Ihraaheem) that these (idols) do 'Do you then worship behie to you. why they turned to themselves. you are the wrong-doers (since you selves (again) left the idols unguarded). Ibraahccm rebuked them. and asked them. anil said. nor did have any (lower to harm or benefit them?. Ihraaheem showed his people that their idols were not worthy ol worship. primarily because they could not speak. Allaah says.'Rathcr. Did I hey (those who worshipped the calf) not realise thai it il (die call) could not respond to them with a (single) word. 'Then they turned to them(() and (responded). when the Children of Israa'eel took the calf that they had built as an object ol worship. but a speech not answer Ihraaheem with the belief that is the Ask'arees. Allaah says. ol for Ibraahccm's people did speaks. can an object that cannot even speak be worthy of worship?" Notice that to a "How Ihraaheem was referring not heard is speech that could be heard.. 'You know very well not speak' (Ihraaheem) replied. and realisetl the foolishness ol their that everyone and could only reply with the feeble response knew that their idols could not speak! The Story ofMoosaa Likewise. did it! (Why don't you) ask them. if they can speak!' So they turned to themselves.46 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan <. After they themselves acknowledged this. "Have you no sense?!" meaning. . "Our god . they were reprimanded in the Qur'aan. 'Verily. [20:89] In another verse. sides Allaah objects that can neither profit you nor harm your I and upon |2I:6?-67| that which vou worship besides Allaah! lave you no sense:!" In these verses. this one. the largest of them.

it that it could not speak! Even though the made was not capable of intelligent speech. <oj <u_o3 uJULyJ Zs*y *U-UJ_5 > Aiul when Moosaa came him. whenever it I le intends a thing. Allaah states. Likewise. equated the Creator with and thus lell into the same error as the people ol Moosaa and Ibraaheem did with regards Ma'roof (d. 'Be! -and is» [37:82| In this verse..).?| to Our appointed time and place. L^£~^ {£& Jy»f 0' ^^ *$ k| f«p" ^-"! -Verily. - His Command. to Moosaa after Moosaa hail arrived to the meetHe- nor after it . # 209. the Ask'arees.TheQur'aan -17 «And the people of Moosaa call thai it made in his absence. these two stories tributes that show that muteness and incoherent speech are Yet.. were removing all negative attributes from Allaah.H. one of the scholars of thesalaf. [7:14. but rather (in He is continually speaking. the image of a realise that made a sound (like the mooing ol 'a cowl. .once again proving that Allaah speaks when 9 5 Reported by 'AbduUaah il<n Ahmad. and his Lord spoke with This verse shows that Allaah spoke ing point."" The Ash arees also claim that the kplaam Allaah is not related to His will. unci ol Israa'eel for worshipping the it since the calf was not one of the clearest indications that call was not worthy of worship was noises. I )id they not could not . Allaah reprimanded the Children a perfect object. which implies that Allaah does not speak when He wishes is to. forwhenevcr says to it "Be!" which proves that Allaah Speaks when He- wishes. Thcrclorc. Allaah Speaks when He wishes to Speak) is clearly shown the Qur'aan. Allaah clearly Allaah intends a thing. nor guide them to the (straight) path: [7:148] In these calf. said.. it. He shows that His ftttlaam is related to His Will. reality is why Haaroon ibn "Whoever presumes that Allaah docs not speak. then in he is worshipping of idols. the attributes of these idols. out of their ornaments. two verses.. in reality at- do not befit the Creator. to the attribute ol speech! This 2?1 A. not before wishes. Allaah says. and thus the people of Ibraaheem and Moosaa thinking that they were rebuked lor taking gods that were mute. is only that He says.<ptii/(ti> them. The fact that Allaah 's Balaam related to His Will in other words.

. il the /(<i/aai)i of Allaah cannot be divided into parts. Taken from Noor. The scholars ol die . is well known of these three books differs from the other greatly. p.- pointed out that thtAsh'aree scholars themselves have differed with regards in this point./ ol Allaah except that Moosaa this comprehended dial it. the kcilaam ol Allaah cannot he divided into parts. your in opponent will be the he believed what was I stated in the Qur'aan and but you re- Sunnah. then dun there is not a /{</A/i//..ill would imply do Moosaa had be< n give n ol the know ledge ol Allaah). others in gave dillerent classification. However. The following conversation between one of the scholars ofA/tt us-Sitnna/i. to lis Messenger that it (i^g). Torah anil Injeel.ee (d. (which came) from Allaah and fused to submit to them. meant by this question. since their essence the same.H.[III as-Sunmill do not disagree amongst themselves in primary matters ol 'aqecdah. prohibitions. then you are forced to state that Allaah made Moosaa compre- hend some part ol His halaain.4K An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The Ash 'aree s also claim that the parts. expressions and cannot be divided into This principle then leads them to state that the in their Torah and Injcel are languages. with some changes. "Forget what I intend. bin n you not say this. and is one whole 444 concept. "What single I intend is as follows: If you respond ol my question by stating that Moosaa understood all ol the h'lhitim this implies Allaah.) and one of the scholars of the Ash 'aires prove interesting:" Aboo Nasr said Moosaa: Did lie to the Ash 'aire. 95 Reported in Dur Ta'aarud al-'Aql ten un-Siiql. tbu one you who says that the l{alaum of Allaah il can he divided is have been forced to say victor over you. your intellect has forced to agree you with the revelation in the process (in that the ha/uuin of Allaah can he divided " into parts). A. and questioned. then did Moosaa hear all ol the kfllaam of Allaah)?" The Ash 'aree this hesitated a little. and instead claimed was obligatory to turn your intellect (to understand these concepts). and facts. If this in essence the same.e. "What do you intend by question?" Aboo Nasr responded." and Qur'aan. 2/90. In addition. then the Qur'aan. Therefore. and that also claimed that a disbeliever. then this raises a problem that the Ash 'area must solve..alaam of Allaah (i. "What do you say when Allaah spoke to all understand ui the k. and you have humiliated yourscll 1 94 [t should I". \ct. and this is blasphemy and disbelief (for . and by this statement you have caused yourto self to fall into the same thing that you pretend run away from. 537. Some of them itsell is claim that the l(alaam of Allaah can be divided into commands. but the majority did not agree with This difference of opinion and of an indication ol the people ol innovation. faila am ol Allaah is all the same meaning. and they only differ were the case that each it in reality. lliis. . and respond told to my ques- tion!" but the Ash 'aree refused to respond until Aboo Nasr him what he Aboo Nasr then to responded. since yourself. should be the same. yet is the belief that Allaah's kalaam can be divided. Aboo Nasr \v\\\ as-Sija/. is when translated it into one language.

the Ash'arees explicitly state this and believe Quraan is created. since the Ash 'cures claimed that AWaah's kalaam could not be heard. the Arabic Qur'aan. thus (^g). others [ibreel that Allaah first made Jibrcel it. scholars. differentiated not and that it is created. it this is not so. and composed of words and the . However. all of which Qur'aan was first are equally blasphemous! Most (in them in the stateil stated that the created in the Lauh al-Mahfoodh other words. then where did the Qur'aan come from? And who was is is the first to recite it? And if. "This requires some rime left 49 for me to think. then. 'internal I not created.). the Ash'arees were torceil to admit that the Arabic Qur'aan the actual l{alaaw of Allaah. that the bus. and neither is composed of words and in letters. the Arabic words of the Qur'aan did not exist until they were created by Allaah Lauh al-Mahfoodh) thus . meaning the internal kalaam (ot Allaah) is not created. not. due to the fact that they is between what they called an 'internal kalaam' of Allaah. 'aires amongst themol selves into a number of opinions. This ol "internal kalaam' ol Allaah. then this implies that Moosaa understood a part of then the l{d laam ol Allaah. as it the Ash 'a rees claim. the Ash'arees it is were forced admit that the Qur'aan not the actual Balaam of Allaah (since in Arabic. did Moosaa bear all ol thc^alaam ofAllaah? It so. which is what the Ahl as-Sunnah is believe. reciteil anil which is in Arabic. but the Qur'aan.. parts. . and was the to verbalize thus making the Qur'aan the speech of Jibrcel. is making the Qur'aan the speech of the Prophet Muhammad This is In other words. since is only an 'expression* ol the kalaam\ and not the actual kalaam Allaah.TV. and this is not possible. even though they then follow up is statement with the phrase. anil not composed ot words anil questions. "The belief of the Ahl as-Suwiah (intending the belief of the Ash'arees) that the Qur'aan. then what the relationship of the Qur'aan. which with- out language. including: they then had to answer a is number of "Where did is the Qur'aan that present amongst us originate from? And what. differed letters). the Balaam ot Allaah not in any language." As one of their most famous Ibraaheem al-Haajooree 1277 A. it In other words. The final point that will be discussed in tact the most dangerous consequence of not in any lan- the belie! of the Ash 'arees. is wrote. 'hikaayah\ or "ihaarah') of the kalaam of Allaah. but instead an 'expression' (Ar. explicitly claiming that the Quraan was created. with its words anil letters?" In other words.but the kalaam of Allaah (d. understand the meaning of the Qur'aan. with the Balaam to o! Allaah? is Concerning this point. anil that His kalaam letters. heard. the kalaam of Allaah is one essence. anil between the actual Qur'aan. and is composed of words. As to who (or what) was the first to actually "express" it. must be created. sounil anil words. Since the Ash'arees claimed that Allaah did not actually speak the Quraan with a voice that is heard. but the Qur'aan." and the conversation. ". which is Arabic anil composed ot words and letters. H..The Qur'aan ThcAsh'aree responded. is guage. anil cannot be divided into when Allaah spoke to Moosaa. then this implies that Moosaa gained all the know ledge ol Allaah. accordit ing to them. yet others staled in that the Qur'aan was inspired meaning and first spoken by the Prophet (^g).

did any of these scholars differentiate between this 'internal \alaam' and the actual Qur'aan. Taken from |uday'.). What the salaf were referring 10 when they said that the very clear: The answer is Qur'aan is the \alaam ol Allaah. said in refutation ol the belief of Ibn Kullaab (which was is later taken by (i. and created"!! «. Al-Baajoorcc was perhaps the most famous scholar of the. p.. 436.H.) and Imaam Muslim 261 A. bin most of them do not know!. p.. of Imaam al-Bukhaarec 256 A.).50 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan meaning the one that we recite. 204 A. or that only an 'expression' (of the fyalaam of Allaah). must be asked: When all of the scholars of the saluf vehemently spoke against those who believed that the Qur'aan to this was created. besides whom there no other god. . Ttthfatal-Murecdalaa Jawhurat at-Tawkeed. mentioned Allaah. he is a heretic (zindceq) who wishes to destroy Islaam. and not an imaginary and invented 'internal /(a/aam'.H.H. If has an extremely popular explanation to mejawharah (the basic text book ol theAs/i'aree faith). beliefs some ot the early scholars during the time of the:m /^/explicitly refuted the (d. and this concept ol an 'internal' Balaam.H. entitled. 418 A. % 97 98 Reported in Kifaayal al-'Awaam.\rc these two examples tin- same? Alhamdulillaah. and even accused them well ot disbelief were they referring concept ol 'internal /(cilaam' that is the Ash 'arees invented. p. The scholar Aboo alwhom Imaam adh-Dhahabi and because of whom the called the 'Renovator' (inujaddid) ot the fourth century. 303 A. and none of them ditlercntiated between an 'internal Balaam ol Allaah' and the Qur'aan. then by Allaah. or where they referring to the Qur'aan that known to all Muslims? And when Imaam al-Laalikaa'ee (d. anil that the Qur'aan is not created.H. is "The Qur'aan is only an expression of the kfllaam of Allaah.) was popularised. 11)4. it Aboo al-Hasan al-Ash'arec and all his teacher Ibn Kullaab).. 14/201. wrote. and differentiated between and the actual Qur'aan! is The salaf are quoted as saying. Siyar. Uli'mcn ilnrinj. )." yet the. that the and state Qur'aan is only an 'expression' of this 'internal /<a/aam'? none ol the sa/aj preached or believed the doctrines that theAsh'arees invented. the last century. in essence. is the actual not Qur'aan.). |39:29l In fact."" r Abbaas ol Ahmad ibn 'Umar ibn Surayj (d. "Whoever presumes ol that that the Qur'aan it is is two things an 'internal' /{alaain ami an expression Balaam). Aboo al-Hasan al- Ash'aree). I WH. \sh 'arecs state. even a single scholar (before None of them.) quoted over five-hundred scholars of the saluf stating that the Qur'aan is the Balaam of Allaah."" Jicjli Imaam as-Shaali'ee (d. This Qur'aan is the Qur'aan that Allaah revealed through (ibreel to the Prophet (S^. luclay'.e. adh-Dhahabi. one of the teachers (d."'"' 'aires Therefore. and not created. the Ash that the It agreed with the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah Qur'aan is created. 256 A. He is a disbeliever in Allaah.. is created. of the Ash 'aires. Ahmad ibn Seenan al-Waasitce (d.H. "The Qur'aan is the Balaam ol not created.

and the famous and of ours. ami do not talk (i. tor the recitation.lh -I p. and believe in rather.. land he mentioned some Attributes. ol a created text! Imaam Ahmad 241 A. in each and every one ol them. 4 i8.e. And we agree upon thai which they agreed upon. or the disbelievers. And we do not give for these verses the interpretations ol the A /// tazilah.TheQuraan Ami it 51 has been affirmed ami agreed by all die people of this religion. or the mit/iropoinorphists.. or the Ash a tees. Whoever believes then he believes that [ibreel came with something 1 created.e. ..e. of the Qur'aan is created. "What is vour opinion are in reality encircling the belief ol is created": Imaam Ahmad this. and it to speak the ol from ihc sunnah. something created!" " 1 It should be noted that die belief that and the Prophet (^g) preached [ibreel came with somecreated. and to leave the actuality of them to AW. that all right!) guided scholars time the the verses pertaining to the Attributes ol Allaali. but rather we accept the apparent meanings narrations (of the hadeelh) and the verses (of the Qur'aan). hut it Uhese Attributes)... but is to try to re-interpret Ua'weel) 1 (i. all and in different languages.and to affirm the kfllaam (of Allaali). "The Lafdhiyyah Sarvvaan). and the Companions. adh-Dhahabi. 212. just as they came.. the beliefs ol the Ash'arees arc very similar to the beliefs ol the Lafdhiyyah (mentioned above). this the recitation ol the Qur'aan is also creis according to the Ash'arees. or with the anthropomorphism the it anthropomorphisms.. die siinnah and jamaa 'ah.. with letters. of past. and the belie! that the Prophet exactly the belief ol the (^) preached something Arabic Qur'aan Ash 'arces.. say what Allaali has said. "These people are worse than the Jahmiyyah.(/<//.. Rather. or the Jahmiyyah. words. and soorahs.<//-f '/«««. and interpret (^) t interpreted lie >. and the scholars ol those w 1 1 c > are well known lor I heir religion and character. )hiihabi.) stated. . is who believed that a person's recitation of the Qur'aan created. it). and then said:) . tor they believe that the created. replied. and the Successors..u/-Wu«w. 'Our recitation ol the Qur'aan Jahm (ibn came with something created (to the Prophet Imaam Ahmad was asked. I'M.H. (d. many of which in the Ash'arees deny. Since the Ash'arees believe that the actual text automatically implies that they believe that ated. 1 And we them is 'The belief in these (Attributes) ' is obligatory. and with sound. SB))* concerning those who say. (-gg) and authentic narrations coming Irom the Prophet Attributes—that it concerning the is mandatory to believe in them. we accept and do not reject nor do we interpret them with the interpretaol tions ol the other (groups). from the salaf that from the Companions. is is thing created.p...real ion). p. way these groups have done) an innovation In addition. to this and the Successors. and of this. all without any re-interpretation ent meanings ol state..i. . 99 inn 101 May'. lor they believe thai librccl ' n another narration.iAi. we accept wc accept the apparit without comparing 1 hem to the (. it. with w hat they did not talk about we do not give interpretations that ol the were not given by them). and it. (i. as tin Prophet we it.

and not talked nor prayed behind. they would not have had to resort 'rationalise' these Attributes to this supposed anthropomorphism from them. a Im/Mcc).. the Qur'aan. liar Allaah. then the ruling with regards to such to. the The beliefs anil deviations of the Ash 'arees are all based upon their anthropomor- phic understanding of the Attributes of Allaah. and the scholars the And leave debating (about the religion by using your intellect). a Waaqifee). And upon you. Imaam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al- Aajurree (d. but the Speech of Allaah Understanding these Attributes 'literally' does not mean understanding them in manner that they are found in the creation. they wished to refute the beliefs of the Mu'tazilah anil the Jahiniyyah. only an 'expression' ot what in the Lank al-MakfoodhV a person is Ash'aree).. they ended up agreeing with the beliefs of the same groups that they sought to refute. or "The Quraan (i. and contention! And whoever upon this path.e..) stated: Therefore it is essential that Muslim. .e. The Ash 'arees methodology is example of how deviation occurs when the proper Islaamic not followed..e. and says. in different languages. "My an recitation ol the is Qur'aan is created!" is (i. him. The Ash 'arees they ended also failed to realise that. is and useless argumentation. anil Unique. "The Qur'aan is the Balaam of Allaah!" anil stops at that (i. anil not argue over /(ti/uiwi ol is And they should know that it is the "It Allaah. Speech is composed of words and and is not created). may Allaah he pleased ol with them. or comparing them with the attributes of the creation. and affirm the Attributes ot Allaah. created!" or says. If they had only understood that the Attributes of Allaah cannot be compared remove to the attributes of the creation. but since they were so influenced by the principles of Greek logic and rationalism. up comparing Allaah's Attributes with the are an attributes of inanimate objects. are the narrations from the Prophet alter (:gg). letters. not). or says. and stated that the Qur'aan is created. not created. in their over-zcalousness to remove this im- aginary anthropomorphism that they believed existed in the Qur'aan and Sunnah. rather. anil teach each other it.H. 360 A. () Muslim. says. whenever this literally (in He wishes. and any negative similarity be- tween these Attributes and the attributes of the creation arc negated this Attribute. In conclusion. it means affirming the linguistic meaning of that Attribute in a manner that befits the Creator. nor are they to try to based upon the attributes of the creation. that the (in the case of is speech ot the creation is created. anil will never completely be understood by mankind. that he he left. the scholar of the Sunnah. but the actuality and 'how-ncss' of these Attributes are not delved into.52 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Conclusion The Attributes of Allaah as mentioned in the Qur'aan and Sunnah arc absolutely the case of the Attribute of Balaam. These Attributes are understood that Allaah Speaks. hut rather warned against. with a sound. So it a /u/mice argues with them. and the statements ot the Successors. and the narrations from the Companions Muslims...

The Ash 'aree beliefs were founded and propagated during the fourth century of the hijrah.H. 728 A.).) and other scholars before them. Firstly. Qur'aan is he was the lirst to claim that the l(alaam of Allaah can be heard. However.H.' 102 ash-Sharcc'ah. which happened to be the Ash'arec 'aqcedah. these names that you quote may be that responded to by quoting other names. 748 A. al-Baghawee (d. In order to refute this view. The likes ol Ibn 'Abd al-Barr (d. but rather to Allaah and to His of the Companions. 510 A. these scholars were great scholars in their own in. and his teacher Ibn il Jahm ibn Sarwaan. As lor the generations and scholars that is come then we look at them not individually. anil Ibn Kullaab. This was done to prove- that the right lo formulate 'aqeedah docs not belong to Ibn Taymiyyah. them as being pure Ash'arces. and the Ahl as-Sunnah may quote famous ol tin sa/al. and the statements of the Companions and Successors. They claim ings that the that the first person to claim that the Attributes anil therefore Allaah are to be taken in their literary mean- was lbn Taymiyyah. this author purposely avoided ol quoting even one statement Ibn Taymiyyah throughout the last three sections. unless and until desires! agrees with their intellect and Another manner by which they seek scholars throughout Islaamic history to confuse the people is by quoting famous and well-known to a certain degree who were Ash'arees or influenced (d. The point is that all these scholars of later generamay quote famous names. who held the views that you hold? Bukhaaree.). Jamaa'ah (part of which was elaborated an invention ol of Ibn Taymiyyah 728 A. 676 A. names. but we excuse their mistakes in 'ai/eedah. 4(13 A. {islawlaa) in his al-llqaan). (d. as-Suyootcc (d. 91 1 A. Successors. Maalik. and the actual Ifahuim ol Allaah. due to the environment that they were they were not exposed to the proper 'aqeedah and therefore followed the 'aqeedah ol their scholars anil teachers. but do not take from them to us than those which they disagreed with thesalaf for thesalaf are more beloved who came after them. love and respect them. an-Nawawcc (d. and what is good Iron) them we at lake. Every the Ash'arees. who held the beliefs that you hold?" Hut they cannot respond to you . the Ash'arces may be quoted. Ibn Taymiyyah (d. (d. the same time agreed with the Ahl as-Sunnah on some points (in as-Suyootcc even it criticises the belief that islawaa means 'to conquer' and say that. Fourthly.). and claim. by the beliefs of the Ash arees. Secondly. single scholar lived centuries before Ibn it Taymiyyah. then who all are the Ahl as-Sunnah}'" This may be mentioned lived after the refuted in a first number ways. and we consider following them alter this lime. So. the Prophet of (3SS) to We arc commanded by as pari take from the first three generations of Islaam. it is best to avoid praying behind them. and the innovator beliefs. In addition.). Notice one is lorced to pray behind them. 1.and of a surety they cannot respond to you then know that they are a people it who have turned away from accepting the Qur'aan and Sunnah. Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaani 974 A. we have quoted the Qur'aan. 671 A. 259. The likes of al-Baaqillaani and Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaani were influenced by the Ash'arees. therefore how could Ibn Taymiyyah be ol "Can you name even one As for us.). before al-Ash'aree. ami considered It it to be one of the sects of ihe /ahmlyya/i'. adh- Dhahahee (d.) himsell stated would he the best ol all generasalaft\r. always exist. 758 A.H. should be pointed out thai some of the Ash'arees claim that the aqcedah of in this section) is AM as-Sunnah wa al(d. and after them.).). tions! and these are the generations (hat the Prophet (5^. not the scholars of later generations were Ash'arces.M. repeated. it is very clearly noticed that the scholars three generations of thehijrah.).H.H. and .H. and became increasingly popular after that. during their time.) and 852 A. the prayer is still valid anil need not be how al-Aajurrec equated the beliefs of the Ash'arees with the beliefs of the /ahmiyya/i. Ibn Qudaamah 610 A..). must be asked person before Aboo al-Hasan al-Ash'aree. There- fore is not accurate to describe fields. it Concerning saying one's prayer behind an Ash'arec..).H. tions are not the criterion.ThcQuraan then I 53 hope lor him all good from 1 Allaah. for the simple reason that there were none. in those matters in Wc consider them as our scholars. Ibn Kathccr 774 A.'. as-Shaali'ce. for example. In other words. and . Thirdly. and the scholars ol the first generations. and ad-Daarimee to defend our Kullaab. Ibn all Hajr al-Haythamee many more respected and loved scholars.M. and what incorrect we do not take. names ol famous scholars all were on the correct 'aqeedah during the limes of these scholars.). "If of these of scholars are misguided Ash'arces. the belief of all Sunnah after them was one. for the scholars of the correct 'aqcedah have always existed and will (d.H. we do agree that all ol these scholars were pure Ash'arees. Aboo Hanecfah. p.H. al-Qurtubee (d. they quote the likes of al-Baaqillaancc (d. althe first to propagate these views? Instead.H. but fact. and the Sunnah. and the scholars of Ail as- Messenger ISS). the true criterion are the actual scholars and those that lollow their aucedah. Rather.). Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 463 A. Who is there.H. the likes ol Imaani Ahmad. v. and quoted above that is the belief that was elaborated upon and defended above.M.\t The Ash'arees cannot quote even one reputable scholar from the time of the actual was on their beliefs. our religion of Islaam.

there is no doubt in it. they would not be able to produce they helped one another'" 1 . and good and evil. since the is 'Qur'aan' denotes that which signifies the preservation recited ami preserved in the hearts. .AilJ 103 Gf.) 1 54 An Introduction to the Sciences <>l the Qur'aan iv. This the pious. The Names of the Qur'aan The Qur'aan 1 lias referred to itsell by a number oi names. whereas the 'Kiliiub' by writing. a Remem- brance ol the purpose ot lite. con- the guidance that they need.p.live 4) The (Remembrance. or Narrative): This name occurs 'Dhil{r signifies that the it times in the Qur'aan. «I51esscd be He Who seni down (Muhammad (=^)) so that he may Dhil{r the Criterion {Furqaan) to I lis Slave be a Warner lo mankind" |2S:1 titty. has been preserved both by memorisation and by writing."" The Furqaan (Criterion): Allaah has used this name four times in relerencc to the Qur'aan. In one verse. Allaah says. therefore. Allaah ^ii^ljOiS^JS. thus that the Book ol Allaah is best known. The Qur'aan.|2:I-2| is die Book. This taining the Book down upon His linal Prophet (5|g).Daraz. «Say: "II all ol mankind andjinn were 17:S8| to gather together to produce someit thing similar to this Qur'aan. hood. The Qur'aan is a Guidance and says. is including: it The Qur'aan (Recitation): This it should be no surprise that is by this name name mentioned seventy-three times. and the descriptions of Heaven and Hell. as describes the purpose ol creation. "A I if Laam Mean. The Qur'aan is the Criterion between taivheed and truth and false3) jt/j ///<•.even if 2) The all Kilcuib (Book): is This name has been mentioned seventy-seven times that Allaah sent in the Qur'aan. a guidance lor The names "Qur'aan' and 'Kitauli are complementary to one another. Allaah says. 12-13. the history of the past nations.

and not everywhere. is used to 'nazala' describe the Qur'aan in over one signifies the descent ol hundred and forty verses. ".." ^:22)." (4X:1S). The number of verses that deal with numerous mention here. «And it is indeed a Revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. and p. . these are more descriptive then appellative in na- v.The Qur'aan . He sent down v.and 105 |l)(i 1 1.. M. 105 earlier. Glory be to Him.r-> at. < -*" "^ \< .And verily this (Qur'aan) [43-33] is 55 a Reminder {Dliily) for you and your people» 5) The Tanzccl (Revelation): This name. but. in the Damishqi. Some of these. 274-76. 1977. lists and are not 'names' as such. next section.< "$ «Say: 'In the Bounty ol Allaah and His Mercy.' '*" them *f i '.[26:192] in that it This name shows the unique status of the Qur'aan be is is from Allaah. p. ($|g)..'names' are quoted names [?]. is above His creation.. such as ".. Imaam az-Zarkashee over fifty 'names' of the Qur'aan in the Qur'aan. along with a all of its derivatives. as mentioned ture.." this is better than all the (wealth) they can amass» |1():58| The 'Bounty' and 'Mercy' referred to in this verse have been ars of tafseer to mean Islaam and the Qur'aan. blessings. tranquillity upon them (the believers). such ( I We have caused the rain to descend trom the sky. see Iiulaihi. iii) the descent of Allaah's mercy cf. ii) the descent from die skies to the earth. is a Revelation that was sent down from Allaah to the Prophet As Allaah says.\nd descriptions ol the Qur'aan. '" The Qur'aan.""' therefore only some of them will be quoted. as some innovated sects claim.. where he lists and discusses over eighty names ami descriptions in his book. The Qur'aan as it Describes Itself The best and most authentic way it to describe the Qur'aan would be to quote what the Qur'aan arc too has to say concerning to itself. For one ol die best discussions of the . The believers are told to rejoice in the revelation that Allaah has sent down.. This name "sent is also one of the many proofs that Allaah. all all Glory to Him. taken There are many other descriptions of the Qur'aan which some scholars have it is as 'names'. let rejoice. but more appropriate to say that they describe the Qur'aan.. I. Saalih ibn lbraaheem: Al-lltidn aui al-Bayail Jl Asmaa al-Qliraail. az-Zarkashee. therefore.»' < "* J -* .and Prophet (SB). to a The root 1 word an object from higher place lower place.-"id this specific to the Qur'aan. as He the one who down' the Qur'aan. interpreted by the schol- Some of the verses that describe the Qur'aan are as follows: 1114 This word is used lor three different meanings is in the Qur'aan: i) the descent from Allaah to the as.

" |18:1-2| •. and to give- glad tidings to the believers.And We send down who belicve» [ 1 in the Qur'aan that which is a healing and a mercy to those 7:82] ••Allaah has sent down the best of statements. So who- ever accepts this guidance. its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth. strays only lor his is only for himself.j±^AjJh. anil We have sent down to you a Manifest Light.AJ~jj i^AAjJJ jjial JjtJ *liij ^-JJ i>i I ••() mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord. oft-repeated* [39:23] ••Verily..1 56 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan «() I mankind! Verily.[4:174| . (He has made Straight to give warning ol a severe punishment from I lim.. there has come to you a convincing proof from your . it Who Lias sent down to His slave tin- Book. and has not placed it) in any crookedness (falsehood). anil whoever goes astray.mil. a Book. he own loss» 1 39:41 And this is the Blessed it? » Reminder which Wc have sent down: will you then (dare to) deny [21:50] . and - a healing for the (sicknesses) ol the heart believers* |10:57| a guidance and mercy for the •All Praise and Thanks he to Allaah. We have sent down to it you the Book for mankind in truth.

. and the Hereafter) by Book. Allaah will raise (or honour) this (i. or against ($^. and one by the famous Katheer 778 A. such as the famous one by Imaam an-Nasaa'ee interpreter. with the same title.<</Aee/r by him. The Sunnah as it Describes the Qur'aan 1 you are those The importance ol the Qur'aan is so great that the Prophet (^) said. Ibn 8 A. al- ]ami' at-Sagheer u>a Ziyadah. Naasir al-I)cen al-Albaanee's Sahech aregraded. Alter recitation is all. "The best of who learn the Qur'aan ami teach to others. and His Chosen 107 Reported In al-ISukliaaree. and . "Indeed. "Rejoice! For verily. Therefore hold it!" on to it. anil He will debase others (Muslim). this Qur'aan is . "Verily. 3113 about the merits cifically ol the its reciter.). We made it a light by which ^*" •* - We (itiide those whom We I'll will" [42:52] * ''"\fs"' .H. Allaah has chosen people ol the amongst mankind. and the other part in your hands. Maktab al-Islaami.The Quraan 57 •And thus We have sent down to you an Inspiration from ( )tir ( Command. and 1-45:2111 •This (Qur'aan) is a clear insight and evidence for a guid- ance and a mercy tor people who have certain laith- vi. there exist numerous hadeeth (d. what good is the recitation ol the Qur'aan not accompanied by understanding and action? Again. not will you ever go astray alter (Musnad Ahmad). entitled 'Fadaa'il al-Om'aan'." " Although this hadeeth is 7 it most often used Qur'aan. Anas reported that the Prophet (3g) said. Iieirut.e.) said." (Muslim). as with the number of verses about Qur'aan and the Qur'aan. There are many treatises written spe- on this topic. Aboo Maalik "The Qur'aan is either an evidence (or proof) you. The People Qur'aan — they are the People ol Allaah.' mankind. IDS All of these ahadeelh have been taken from Muhammad l'»S8. for you will never be destroyed.H. al-Ash'aree stated that the Prophet lor you. nor faith (eetnaan). 'Umar people by it" reported that the Prophet in this world (<yg) said.-'-*' * —"i'. there is in the context ol teaching the recitation and memorisation ol the all it no reason not to extend the meaning ol this hadeeth to include of the that sciences ol the Qur'aan. Some of these hadeeth are as follows:'" The Status of the Qur'aan Jubayr reported that the Prophet part of it is (i^g) said.one in the Hands of Allaah.) (d. but You did not know what the Book (Qur'aan) was.

"Part of showing to show respect to a white-haired in it Muslim. On either side of the road there a wall in which there are open doors with curtains a voice calls."" and a credible (book). and the news of those after you. an- Nihaayah. otherwise you will is red inside. be- calls from above: "Beware! Don't (j^g) the curtain. "The Hook of Allaah Allaah which dangling from the Heavens down is to the earth" is the Rope ol (Musnad Ahmad). the open doors are the is things that He has prohibited: the voice which calls from the end of the road calls the Qur'aan. it. From the remote end of the road. is a narration in at-Tirmidhee which it a very eloquent and beautiful dea of the Qur'aan. however. and whoever seeks guidance by other than Allaah. (Aboo Daawood). Qi k'aan Aboo Moosaa glory to Allaah is (Sg§) said. Daeefat-Ttrmidhee.-U/cediili <ii-~]}ilhuiu>iyyah.e. and a carrier of the it Qur'aan leave it). and don't turn another voice lli "Proceed straight to any side!' Whenever someone intends lift a curtain from the door. 109 kmaahil \. and the scholars never Whoever speaks with has spoken the truth. who and does not exaggerate a just ruler" (i.' (The Prophet explained:) The straight path Islaam: the walls arc the limits (luidood) ofAllaah (which he has placed on actions). and whoever throws behind him. and whoever calls to will Ti ik Rewards for those who Recitk and Practick al-Ash'aree reported that the Prophet ti ii. themselves of it it is the Straight Path. d. 11" 1 1 1 . It is It is will be misled by Allaah's strong rope. p. 4. p. There scription (:Sfj). it the Criterion.e. and goes to all extremes to save a person. i. nor are the tongues confused by satisfy' it. it it will drag him into Hell" (at-Tabaraanee). 303. The "People it. it will lead him to Paradise. is one who is persistent in his intercession. whoever works upon will it be rewarded. Its wonders it never cease. " and is as follows: "The Book of Allaah it it has the tidings it is of those before you. overstep its bounds) nor ignore (i. "Allaah has set forth the following as a parable: There is is a road which leads straight to the destination. and a nuiti/ii/." cording to it will be just. Whoever puts it ahead of him. is the Judge between you. not strayed by (one's) desires. whoever judges acbe guided to the Straight Path. is not an authentic statement of the Prophet likely. p.. Ibn Mas'ood reported that the Prophet (^) said. it cannot be taken Whoever abandons due it to arrogance will be destroyed by Allaah. ol the Qur'aan' are those who know it and practice "The Qur'aan is an intercessor. 71 . and the voice which every believer" (at-Tirmidhee). 349 it See al-Albaanee's comments on in Slmrh . it as has been pointed out by at-Tirmidhee himself"" Most 1 is statement ol "Alee ibn Alice Taalib. lightly. and an intercession that is accepted. Ibn from above is Allaah's monitor in the heart of 'Amr reported is that the Prophet (5^g) said.58 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan ones" (an-X'asaa'cc). it is the Wise Remembrance. to lift hanging on them. ibn Sam'aan reporteil that the Prophet Nawwaas (^) said..

'O My a Lord! Adorn him (the one who It and practised say. I am not saying that l. 'Woe to me! wish I had been given what he has been given. It 'O My Lord! be pleased with him. them. and mercy surrounds them.auiii A /if. ten (rewards).e. so this 'Ismail ibn is has ten (rewards)." (Khateeb al-Baghilaadce). 136). Maalik reported that the Prophet a "If the Qur'aan is enclosed by skin it (i.mil they Stated thai this interpretation is number ofscholars concerning this hadceth. il person memorises the entire Qur'aan). Aboo Hurayrah gather together dering over it. reported that the Prophet (^g) said. (-^g) said. 'O My Lord! Increase it So he will be clothed with the clothes of glory will and honour. then is him and says. "The Qur'aan ol brought read will on the Day then ol Judgement. Allaah Ibn Mas'ood reported that the Prophet (-^) said.e. to 'Amr reported it that the Prophet first is said. one o! his neighbours hears I me! I wish had been given what he has been given. 1 12 This is one ofthe two interpretations v. "Never reciting the in one of the houses of Allaah. and it)!' will say. 'Woe would do what he is he- doing!' (The second it ot a) a person whom 1 Allaah has blessed with wealth."' then Allaah will never burn in the Fire (of Hell)" (al-Bayhaqee). p. then thrown in is il would not he burnt. So he will be adorned with this!' crown glory and honour. that the Ibn the 'Amr reported one Prophet (igg) said.1 Miim-Meem will count as a word.The Qur'aan 'Aa'ishali reported that the 59 Prophet (Jgg) said. Qur'aan. the angels). This is . Ibn let him read the mus-haf («?&. will rise level (in Paradise).. "The person who (i. Majma' Bi/war al-Anwaar... Then will say. thai classical scholars have given to this hadceth (ctan-Nifiaaya/i. I . "Recite the Qur'aan." (Aboo Daawood). anil Mean has thirty (rewards). "There no cause be envious except in two cases: (the of a) person anil whom Allaah has taught the Qur'aan. (i. until 'Recite. but rather that Alij has ten (rewards). There no contradiction both meanings are understood from and Allaah knows best. il the mus-lni) was wrapped ol these in a leather skin is >-T. The other interpretaduring the lifetime ol the Prophcl I that a lire. anil I spends in good causes. and Allaah remembers them in His gathering" (Aboo Daawood). "It will be said to the companion of recites. and he who reads it with (even) he shall get (at least) a double reward" (Aboo Daawood). "Whoever wishes to love and His Messenger. reads the Qur'aan lluentlv is with the honourable and obedient scribes difficulty. and rise!" For every verse he with him he he recites the last verse in his memory).. tion ol the hadcelh I I.e. so person (who sees him) says.mi author also asked a acceptable . Qur'aan alter he has entered Paradise. . understanding of ilic/wi/cc//. so ihc hadcelh il an indication ofoneol he miracles oil Ik this hadcelh. for verily you will be rewarded for it. and he recites to in the I day and night. bless will be said. do a group of people book of Allaah and pon- except that peace descends and the angels encircle upon them.) (Ibn Nu'aym is in his Hilyd).) is doing!'" (al-Bukhaarcc) will be Aboo lurayrah I reported that the Prophet it said. Ik pleased with Him!' So He (Allaah) 'Recite! And rise!" and every verse he recites will him with a good deed" (at-Tirmidhee). then would do what he <-ge. Ibn Mas'ood reported that the Prophet ($g) said.

"The its believer who Qur'aan like a citrus fruit - its fragrance is pleasing and laste is sweet. The hypocrite who recites the Qur'aan is like a basil . who does not recite the Qur'aan is like a dry date . The hypocrite who does not recite the Qur'aan is The believer like a colocynth - it has no smell.60 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan Aboo Moosaa recites the al-Asha'arce reported that the Prophet is (^) said. . but its taste is bitter.it has no fragrance but its taste is sweet.its fragrance is sweet. and its laste is bitter" (Muslim).

The Concept ol of Wahy and messengers.- * '<. oi s/iir/{ to Since the creation of mankind. on My verses. Allaah has communicated with them by choosing some them as prophets to guide mankind from the darkness rality ol their desires to the light of Islaam.. «C> Children ol Aadam! If there conies to you messengers from amongst right- you reciting to you eous. nor they grieve* |2:38| In another verse.C H A P T E R 3 Inspiration .then whenever there comes to you (mankind) Guidance from shall Me ..and shall whoever follows My Guidance. Allaah says in the Qur'aan. S. there he no fear on them. and inspiring them with His message.al-Wahy I. He stated. 'C *. «.<swf' . whosoever becomes pious and them shall he no nor shall they grieve" |7:3^| In fulfilment of these promises of messengers. j- >' jf\^ ' -* \* *' ' -V \"-V ' -* *&**&> Wwf-' m * -• A ni •" \ m - . Allaah said immowhen He sent Aadam down to Earth. then fear. and from the the purity ol worship.

his servant Umm Ayman was found crying. ami of warning. in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the messengers. or to communicate in a manner to that is not obvious or apparent anybody else.tnd and 'Eesaa. [10:2] This has been the only way whole: that ol inspiring that Allaah has communicated with mankind ol truth. I am crying because this. etc. And there are messengers whom We tioned to you before. The natural order and laws of nature. and messengers whom we have not told you about . the disbelievers of Makkah were amazed at the prophethood of Muhammad Allaah revealed. And Allaah is Kvcr-I'owcrlul. sponded. (j^). Verily he (g?. "(I am not crying because of his death.is a one ol their own with the message The final recipient ol any revelation from Allaah. now Allaah has stopped I lis revelation to mankind!" When she said Aboo Bakr and Umar started weeping with hcr. M> II. in a swilt manner.. and Isinaa'eel. and Haaroon and Sulaymaan. that when ($^).) is now in a better place than where he used to be. and Va'qoob and the Tribes (of the Children Ayyoob. Allaah spoke as givers directly.is ami to Moosaa. the Arab.62 An Introduction to the Sciences ofthc Qur'aan ••Verily We liave inspired you (() Muhammad) as We inspired Nooh and the prophets alter him. ol nature. . And We inspired Ibraahccm. and te inspired in each heaven affair* |4I:I2) This can be considered as the natural laws planets anil the rotation ol the earth. and Ishaaq. Allaah ••Then I He completed and finished their creation its (as) seven heavens. She was told. and to Yoonus. such as the orbits of the 1 1 s Reported by Mi .. Messengers (who came) hearers ol good news. .) has received from his Lord better for him (than ibis life). The Meaning of Wahy 'Wahy' means to to inspire. -*^A»-j vJU^_->-y j' U^c-^UJJ o& ••Is it i a cause ol wonder lor mankind that We have sent Our inspiration to a man from among themselves. for) indeed is I know that what he (£g. The word Qur'aan 'wti/iy' in its linguistic mean- ing has been used in a 1) number of places in the denote the following: says. All- Wise» [4:163-65] In tact. For example. "Do not grieve." She rewas ever to be inspired by Allaah. this inspiration ol Allaah to His prophets has been so common. When he ($g) was called by his Lord to return to his eternal the Qurashee. resting place. oflsraa'eel). and Daawood Wi have men- gave the Psalms (Ztiboor). the sou ol 'AbduUaah.'. anil the last ol the prophets that was Muhammad.

however. This type of inspiration. Allaah says.. and follow the ways of your Lord.» |6:121 and again.1 1 Inspiration - al-Wahy 63 2) Natural animal instinct. eat of all fruits. instinctively build their hives ers.- 16:68-69] is This signifies the natural animal instinct that every creature hees.. and inspired them (by gestures 1 and signs) to glorify Allaah's praises in the morning and afternoon* to his 19: 1 1 In "this verse. docs not 4) make its recipient a prophet. since she had received this ilhaam from Allaah. Signals or gestures to communicate. Allaah says. the mother of Moosaa knew that if she were to leave her baby to float on the river. for example. the gestures that Zakariyyah did people have been called an 'inspiration' since he did not verbalise his intent. «And your Lord and in the tree inspired the bee. "Suckle him! But when you fear him.. and search for nectar from flow- Human intuition and emotion. Take as habitations mountains. in and what (mankind) 1 builds. then cast him into the river and fear not. «.. Evil whispers from Satan.. For example. Allaah would protect him. \i^yo^^\^>z^o n^lf^j^^\j-^)^o^ [ •<.he came out unto his people. Then. .. When Allaah forbade Zakariyyah from speak- ing for three days.and of a certainty die devils inspire their cohorts (amongsl mankind) CO dispute with you. And we for inspired the mother of Moosaa.. 3) endowed with. Allaah said. saying. This type is also called ilhaam. nor grieve'* |28:7| In this case..

for every prophet an enemy . ami with an intermediary. The Procedure Wahy can'occur in of Wahy two ways: without an intermediary. Will IOL'T AN INTF. and is the meaning ol the word 'wuliy' when used in the context ol Islaamic sciences. He sends a MesHe is the Most High. III... "Aa'ishah re- .[6:1 12 We are also told to seek refuge in Allaah from the Satans who. or from behind a or (that) senger to reveal what He His Permission. Verily. [ 1 14:5] 6) Guidance to the angels Irom Allaah. Allaah reveals His message directly to His servant.whisper in the breast of mensays. so keep who have believed*i».KMFJ MARY In this case. is This the first type of inspiration that the Prophet ($g) received. ••... The primary verse that discusses ment: the types and categories ol nuihy is Allaah's state- •'-*-'*• E ' - " t '- »It is not possible lor any ii human wills by being thai Allaah should speak to him veil.. This can occur in two forms: I ) By way of dreams. unless be by Inspiration. firm those 7) 'I am with you.[8:12] is The inspiration to the prophets. Allaah ••(Rememher) when your Lord inspired the angels. A. This category the subject of discussion of this chapter. Most Wise.[42:51] These categories shall be the topic of discussion ol the next section..1 64 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan «And thus Wc have appointed mankind and jinns..devils among inspiring one another..

Inspiration - al-Wahy

65

ports,

"The commencement

or the divine inspiration
to

upon

the Prophet

($gg)

was
it

in

the lorm ol

good dreams; he never used
IM

dream about anything except

that

came

true like the rising of the sun."

In other words, before the Prophet (jg) received his

mission ol prophethood, he (^g) would see dreams of events which would eventually

come

true, just like the

sun

rises

every morning.

The dreams
Allaah. This
is

ol all the

prophets are an inspiration from Allaah. In these dreams,

the prophets are either

shown some event of the future, or given commandments by proven by the dream in which Ibraaheem saw himself sacrificing his

son Ismaa'ecl. Ibraaheem understood that this dream was a
directing

command

from Allaah,

him

to sacrifice his son.

•And when he (Ismaa'ecl) was old enough
son!
I

to

walk with him, he

said,

my

have seen

in a

dream

that

I

am

slaughtering you, so what do you

think:" (Ismaa'eel) said, 'O
Verily,

my

lather,

do what you have been commanded!
[

you

will find

me, inshaa Allaah, Irom amongst the patient's
this

$7:102)

Ibraaheem understood that
even though
it

was

a

command

from Allaah, as did Ismaa'eel,

was

in

the lorm of a dream.

Another example of this is the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. The Prophet ($g) had been shown a vision in which the Muslims were performing the rites of 'Umrah, and the

Companions
enter
be
in

set

out with the Prophet

perform the 'Umrah.

($£§) from Madeenah to Makkah hoping The pagans of Makkah, however, did not allow the Muslims

to to

Makkah, and

a treaty

known

as the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.

was enacted between the Muslims and the pagans, later to One of the conditions of the treaty was that,

the following year, the

the

Muslims would return and complete the rites of 'Umrah. As Muslims returned sad-heartened to Madeenah, Allaah revealed,

••Indeed,

of a surely

shall

Allaah

fulfil

the

dream which
if

He showed
rites

I

lis

Messenger; you shall enter the Masjiii al-Haiaain.

Allaah

wills, secure,

with your heads shaved or trimmed (after performing the
age), (earing

of pilgrim-

none

|48:27|

IH

Reported bj al-liukliaurce.

66

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

The

following year, the Muslims performed the

'Umrah

as per the terms ol the
true.

agreement.

The dream

that the Prophet (^g)

had seen eventually came
1

The Prophet
"Nothing
is left

" but he did say, (3§D never received any Qur'aan in this manner,

of prophethood except mubashiraat (glad tidings)."
'

When

he was

asked what this was, he replied, "A true dream."'"' In other words, the only type of
inspiration that
to a
is left

alter the

death of the Prophet
said,
7

(-^g) is in

the form of true

dreams
of

believer. In another narration, he (^g)

"A true and pious

dream

is

one out

forty-six parts of
2) Direct

prophethood.""

speech from Allaah.

This
This
is

is

the second

way

in

which Allaah communicates

to the

prophets

directly.

the

meaning

of the verse,

«It is

not possible for any
it

human

being that Allaah should speak
= >
I ]

to

him

unless

be...

from behind

a veil...» |42:

Allaah speaks directly to the prophet, but the prophet does not see him.

An example

of this

was when Allaah spoke

to

Moosaa on Mount

Toor,:

,_$!>_/

JJ
to

\i

~iW ^JJail "3jIjjJ
at the

U><Oj ><uJ£j LilJLJ C$*y *W-LJ_}
his

«And when Moosaa came
Lord spoke

lime and place appointed by Us, and

him. (Moosaa)

said,

"O

My

Lord! Allow

me

to look at you!'

(Allaah) said. '\ou will not see Me...'.. |7:143|

This method ofwahy occurred once with the Prophet
journey of at-Israa tea al-Mi'raaj.

m The Prophet

(j§|),

when he went on
(i^g),

his

(^g) did not see Allaah, since there

was

a veil

of light between them. Aboo Dharr asked the Prophet
of nl-Isnia)~"

your Lord (on the journey
could
I

see

Him?""" meaning

that there

was a

The Prophet (^g) replied, veil of Light that was between the

"Did you see "Light - how

1

1

S

Although some researchers claim
is

lli.U

the Prophet (»g) did receive
is

evidence that they use
stated that

not explicit.

The

particular narration

on the authority

some Qur'aan in this manner, the ol Anas ibn Maalik. who
:

once the I'rophet (3g) was

sitting

smiled.
just

They asked him. '"What makes you
to me..."

amongst them, when he dozed oil. He then raised his head and smile. C) Messenger ol Allaah (55) " lie replied, "\soorah has
is

been revealed

(Reported by Muslim). This
(/«;•//;#

not explicit evidence since the narration does not
It is

mention

that the revelation occurred

the Prophet's (Jg) sleep.
off. It is

possible that the inspiration could

have occurred before the Prophet (55) dozed
asleep, but the

also possible that the Prophet (55)

was not actualb

Companions presumed him

to

be

so.

Therefore,

it

is

not possible to use this narration as

evidence against other stronger and clearer proofs to the contrary.
1

Id
17

Reported by al-Bukhaarec.

1

Reported by al-Daarimcc from al-N'aw waas ibn Sama'aan.

Some commentators
Ik lore his
six. anil

have explained the
(six

traction as being the time that the Prophet (5J3) received true

dreams

prophethood
Allaah

months)

over the total time ol his prophethood {2i years): hence one out ol lorn
1

know

best.

18

The

journey which occurred during the

late

Makkan
Heavens.

stage of the I'rophet (5g), in which he (5£)

« as

taken from
I

Makkah

to Jerusalem,

and then

to the

19

Reported by Muslim.

Inspiration - al-Wahy

67

Prophet (Sg) and Allaah. In
possible for any human.'"'"

fact,

seeing Allaah before the

Day of Judgement

is

not

Some scholars claim
this
ary,

that the last
($yg)

manner

(i.e.,

the Prophet

received

two verses of Soorah al-Baqarah were revealed in them Irom Allaah. without an intermedial-Mi'raaj),
it

during die night ofal-Israa

wa

However, there

is

no authentic, ex-

plicit

prool lor this opinion, therefore,

cannot be accepted.

B.

With an

intermediary
ol inspiration.

This
tvahy
is

is

the primary anil most

common method

This method
is

ol

when

Allaah sends an angel to inspire Mis Messenger. This

the

meaning ol

the phrase,

*

*

£

#

-*

•<Ii

is

not possible lor
I

any human being
I

thai Allaah

should speak

to

him

unless...

It-

sends a messenger, so

le inspires

him

Willi

what

He

wills..."

[42:5]

This messenger was sometimes seen by the Prophet

(^) and sometimes

hidden.

The messenger whom

Allaah chose to communicate with His prophets was the An-

gel fibred. .Allaah says.

4Ji\oilj eiLii ^c- ,a! JJAjU

Jj>A»4

\3-*^ ^j^Jh,Cr*

•Whoever is an enemy
this (Qur'aan)

lo [ibreel (lei

him

perish), lor indeed

he has broughl
|2:')7|

down

to

your heart, by Allaah's permission"

In another verse.

"And

truly this (the Qur'aan)
Spirit

is
(|

a Revelation

from the Lord of the Worlds:

which the Trustworthy

ibreel)

brought down;

Upon your

heart (()

Muhammad)

that

you may be

among

the vvarners- |26:I92-194|

When
to

the Prophet

(5^5)

saw

Jibreel lor the first time, his wile

Khadeejah took him

her uncle.

Waraqah

ibn Nawfal.

who had converted

lo Christianity,

and was knowlol

edgeable ot the To rah and Injccl. After the Prophet

(*g?,)

informed him

what he had

12o For the proofs of this, sec Shark 'Aqccdah atTahjuviyyah,

p. 196-7.

)

.

68

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

seen,

Waraqah

told

him, "This (angel)
to

is

the

same one,

the

Naamoos (Keeper

of Se-

crets),

whom

Allaah sent

Moosaal
it is

When

discussing this concept afwahy,

essential to discuss

two types of inspira-

tions: firstly,

how Allaah

inspires Jibrccl with the Qur'aan, and, secondly,
specifically the

how

Jibreel

inspired the prophets,

and

Prophet

Muhammad

The Revelation of the Ouraan
that Allaah spoke the

to the

Angels
Balaam
that
It

In the last chapter, the Qur'aan as the

of Allaah
is

was discussed, and the

(act

Qur'aan

in a

manner

befitting

Him,

not similar or

com-

parable to the speech of humans, was proven.

was

also discussed that the l{alaam of

Allaah can be heard, contrary
the belief of the
rectly

to the beliefs of

some
is

of the

innovated

sects.

Therefore,
di-

Ahl as-Sunnah wa al-Jamaa'ah
of Allaah.

that Jibreel heard the

Qur'aan

from Allaah, as the Balaam
($§|) said,

The Prophet
ants).

"Whenever Allaah

desires to inspire a matter (to

His serv-

He

speaks with the inspiration, and (because of this) the heavens themselves

shake out of fear of Allaah.
they
fall

When
to

the people of the

down

in a

swoon and

prostrate to

Heaven (i.e., the angels) hear of it, Him. The first one to raise his head is

Jibreel,

and Allaah speaks

him with the

inspiration that

He

wishes.

Then

Jibreel

passes by the angels; whenever he goes by any heaven, the angels of that heaven ask

him, 'What did our Lord

say,

O Jibreel?' He answers, 'He has Spoken the
1

Truth,

and

He

is

the Most High, the Most Great.'" " This hadceth

is

explicit in that "...Allaah

speaks to him with the inspiration."

Apart from the proofs from the Qur'aan and Sunnah that were quoted above

(in

the section concerning the /{cilaam of Allaah), there exist narrations from such scholars as

Imaam
(d.

ash-Shaafi'cc

(d.

204 A.H.),
this

Bukhaaree

256 A.H.) concerning

Imaam Maalik (d. 179 A.H.). and alI2! point. Imaam Ahmad (d. 241 A.H.) was
Jibreel,

also very explicit

on

this point, for

he said, "Jibreel heard the Qur'aan from Allaah,

and the Prophet
'

(-^g)

heard the Qur'aan from

Prophet ($^) heard the Qur'aan from the Prophet
uncreated."
1

($gz).

and the Companions of the Therefore, the Qur'aan is

4

Imaam al-Bayhaqee

(d.

458 A.H.), said

in

explaining the verse,

"Verily.

We

have revealed

it

in the

Night

of

Decree

[97:

1

121

Reported in al-Uukhaaree.
Reported by al-Hukhaaree. Ibn Khuzaymah. ar.-Tabar.iani. and others. This hadceth
is

122

in relerencc to

the verse. "L'ruil.

when

tear

is

removed from

their (the angel's) hearts, they say.
|

'What did your Lord

Say?"

They answer, 'The
12?
cl.

truth,
1

and

He

is

the

Most High, the Most Great'"

.54:23]

[iulaihi. pps.

$9-147, where he quotes over a

dozen scholars on

this

one

issue.

124 Reported by al-Khallaal,

#

1779.

)

Inspiration - ul-Wahy

69

This verse
it

means - and Allaah knows
it,

best

- "We

made our angels
a

hear

and understand

and revealed with him what he heard, and
a

so the angel

descended with the revelation from
(the earth)."-"

higher place (the skies) to

lower one

However, some scholars claimed that fibred took the Qur'aan from the LauhalMtiljJ'oodJi

(The Protected

Tablet).

I2
''

Those who

follow this opinion use the verses in

the Qur'aan that allude to the Lauhal-Maljfoodli (which will he discussed in the next
chapter).

These evidences, however, do not

explicitly

mention

that Jibrccl took the

Qur'aan from the Latih al-Mci/jJoodh. Other scholars, primary those of the Ac// 'arces,
claimed that Jibrccl was inspired the meaning ot the Qur'aan, but the wording
either from Jibrccl or
is

Muhammad
in a

(^). This opinion
that befits

is

rejected outright, for

its
is

ad-

herents deny what Allaah has affirmed for Himself namely that the Qur'aan

His

Balaam that

He Spoke
is

manner and way

Him. To say

that the

wording
type ol

of the Qur'aan

from

Jibrccl or

Muhammad

(#5) denies the

whole concept of the
fact, this

kalaam of Allaah, and of the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan. In
inspiration
is

for the

Sunnah of the Prophet (^)

only,

and not

for the

Qur'aan, as shall

be explained shortly.

The Revelation of the Qur'aan
This occurred

to the

Prophet (%&) from Jihreel

After Jibrccl heard the Qur'aan from Allaah, he
(iiSi)-

communicated

this to the

Prophet

in

one of two ways.
to the

1

The

revelation

came

Prophet
for the

(jig) in a

very severe manner, like the ringit

ing of a
to

hell.

This was the hardest
a sweat,

Prophet (^g), and

is

reported that he used

break into

even on very cold nights,

when he was being inspired. After this
to

state passed, the

Prophet (^) remembered what was inspired

him. As the Qur'aan

says,

«VerilyWe
2) Jibreel

shall

send

down

to

you

a

heavy speech"
to the

|7.?:5|

took on the form of a

man and came
found

Prophet

(*^g).

This type

of

inspiration

was

easier for the Prophet (i^g).

The

proof for these

two methods

is

in the hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah, in

which she

stated that

Haarith ibn Hishaam asked the Prophet (3^),
ringing of a

"O

Allaah's Messenger!
it

How is the divine message revealed to you?" He («|§) responded, "Sometimes
tome
after a
I

comes
ol

like the

bell.
is

This form

is

the hardest on me, and this state passes off
to

have grasped what
talks to

inspired.
I

Sometimes the angel comes

me

in the

form

man and

me, and

127 grasp what he says."

125
1

Damishqi,
4,

p. 62

26 See Oh.

under 'The Stages of Revelation',

tor a

more

detailed discussion

of the Lauh

al-MalijoodJi.

127 Narrated by al-Kukhaarce

7(i

An

Introduction to the Sciences

ol

the Qur'aan

Therefore,
state of the

in the first case, the
(5g£)

angel would remain in
so that

its

angelic form,

and the

Prophet
this state

would change
difficult for

he

($yg)

could communicate with the

angel,

and

was

him. In the second case, the angel would change
form, and communicate with the Prophet
this type
($jg).

from his angelic being to
Since the Prophet
($£;)
"*

a

human

remained as he was,

of inspiration was easier for

him.

1

However,

in

both cases, the Prophet
(«gg) said alter

(?yg)

explained that he clearly understood

the inspiration, lor he
"...and
I

explaining each of the two types ol inspiration,

grasp what he says."

In the

beginning ol

his

prophethood, the Prophet (#g) was

learlul ol forgetting the

verses that Jibreel recited to him, so he ($g) used to quickly repeat after fibred, even

before Jibreel had finished his recitation. At this. Allaah revealed.

I

)o not

move vour tongue with
it

haste concerning (the

Qur aan);

it

is

lor

Us
its

to collect
recital..

and Recite

it.

Alter

we have

recited

il

to you.

then fellow

175:16-18)

The Prophet
no need
lor

(-^)

was assured

that he

would not

forget the Qur'aan, so there

was

him

to hasten in repealing alter the angel:

And do
|20:ll-l|

not he in haste (in taking) the Qur'aan (Irom the angel) before us
is

inspiration

completed

lo you.

and

say.

'My Lord! Increase my knowledge!'"

Jibreel came in the form ol a man and Companions or any other bystanders. Although the Companions saw Jibreel on a number of occasions in the form ol a man, he never inspired the Prophet («gg) with the Qur'aan on these occasions. Thus it may be surmised that when Jibreel came to the Prophet (j^g) in this form, with the iculv,',

There are no reported incidents where
(«ys,)

inspired the Prophet

in Iront ol the

only the Prophet (§g) could see him.
Jibreel also

came

to the

Prophet (£g)

in his

natural form, without taking
in the

on

a

different shape.

This occurred three times; once
of al-lsraa

Cave

ol

Hiraa'

when

the

first

revelation
tion)

came down, once

shortly afterwards (probably the second or third revela-

and once on the Night

wa

al-Mi'raaj. 12

The Prophet (^g) reported

I2S
cation.

cl.

Qattaan.

p. 39.
it

The scholar
as

Ibn Khaldoon (a. SOS A.H.)

is

also quoted
ol this

on

iliis

point ol conimuniwill

However,
to

should he kept in mind that the exaet nature such the investigation
into,

communication
this subject

never he

known
limited.

mankind, and

and commentary on.

should be kept

129

("II.

I'baydi.ii, p. $4-36.
is

Some

scholars claim that the Prophet (Jg) saw Jibreel in his natural lorm

only twice, and this

based on an authentic report.

[aspiration - nl-Wahy

71

that fibred

had

six
1

hundred wings, and that fibred was so
'"

large that he readied the

heavens
It

in height.

might be asked: Was

fibreel the only

angel that the Prophet

(«yg)

with?

The answer is
is

that the

Prophet

(3^5)
is

communicated with

a

communicated number ol different
to the revelation of sitting
is

angels, but the only angel

whose name

mentioned with regards

the Qur'aan

fibreel.

For example, Ibn 'Abbaas reports that once Jibrecl was
they heard a
it

with the Prophet

(S^g), when

sound from above,

fibreel said.

"This

(the

sound
to

ol) a

door Irom the
Jibrecl said,

skies,

has never opened until today."

An

angel
it

them, and

"This angel has

come down

to the earth,

has never

came down come

down
"I

before today."

The angel gave
two

his salaams to

give you glad tidings of

lights that

them, and said to the Prophet (%), you have been given, which have not been
(i.e.,

given to any prophet before you:

The Opening of the Book
shall not read

Soorah al-Faatihah),
in
it

and (he
you

last verses of

Soorah al-Baqarah, you
1

any word

except that
($yg) in-

will

be granted

'1

it."

Also, there are narrations in
that the angels hail

which the Prophet

formed the Companions

whispered

in his heart certain state-

ments. Therefore, although fibreel was not the only angel

whom

the Prophet

(5gg)

communicated with,

to the best of our

knowledge he
is

is

the only angel that
ol

came with

the Qur'aan. This agrees with the description that

given

the Qur'aan,

«And

this

(Qur'aan)

is

a Revelation

from the Lord of the world; which the

trustworthy Angel (Jibrcel) has brought dovvn» |26:192-193|

In other words, fibreel brought

down

all ol

the Qur'aan.

in a

The effect that the revelation process had on the Prophet (3|g) has been recorded number of luidccth. 'Aa'ishah narrates, "Sometimes the revelations wotdd de($yg)

scend upon the Prophet
with sweat." 1 *2

on a very cold morning, and

his forehead

would

glisten

'Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit reported
be seen, and his face

that

whenever the wahy descended upon the
(to the inspiration)

Prophet (^), the significance and importance that he gave

could

became

slightly pale. Also, the

Prophet (^) would lower his
for the
I,!

head during the inspiration process, and the Companions, due to their love
Prophet
(£§§))

would

also lower their heads, until the revelation had ended.

The Companions were
was only natural
that they

eager to witness the revelation upon the Prophet (^,). It would be so curious about witnessing such a rare phenom-

enon. Safwaan ibn Ya'la ibn

Umayyah
to

reported that his lather, Ya'la ibn

Umayyah
was
at (a

used to say (during the Prophet's
(3g) while the

(J^g) lifetime),

"How

I

wish

I

could see the Prophet
(%£g)

wahy comes down

him!" So, one day, the Prophet

130 cCAshqar, 'Aalim al-Malaa'i\ah,
131

p, II.

Reported by Muslim. Reported by Muslim.

132

133 Reported by Muslim.

72

An

Introduction to the Sciences oft lie Qnr'aan

place called) Ji'raanah,

when

a

person

came

to

him and

said, "()

Messenger <>l Allaah!

What

is

the ruling lor
in

one who

enters into the state o£ihraam

w while his clothes arc

soaked

came to came and stuck his head into (i^g). his face was red (due to
then
it

perfume?" So the Prophet (^) waited lor a while, until the inspiration him. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab motioned to Ya'la, "Come quickly!" so Ya'la
the Prophet's
(jgg)

tent to see him!

He

saw the Prophet

the inspiration), and he stayed like that lor

some

time,

was

lilted oil

from him, and he called the questioner and
as tor
s

said, "As lor the

perfume on you body, then wash yourself three times, and
replace
that
1

your clothes, then

This narration shows the extreme desirethem (with non-scented ones)..." the Companions had to see the Prophet (•gg) during this state, and also demon-

strates the difficulty

of the revelation process on the Prophet
it

(j^g).

To summarise
Qayyim's
1)

the various types of inspiration,

is

appropriate to quote Ibn
'"

al-

(d.

758 A.H.) classification

ol the types ol

wahy:

True dreams, such as those experienced by the Prophet prophethood.

(«yg)

before his

2)

The inspiration

that

used

to

be whispereil into the Prophet's

(-^g)

heart by the
in

angels, such as his (2g) statement. "Verily, the

Holy

Spirit has

whispered
1

my

heart that a person will never die until his (preordained) lime comes..."
3)

The The

angel useil to

come

to

him

in the

form

ol a

human and

speak with him.

4)
5)

inspiration used to

come

to
in

him

like the

ringing of a

bell.

He

(J^g)

used to see the angel
inspired in

the original form that the angel

was created

in.

6)

What Allaah What

him

(5S>) directly,

when he was above

the seven skies in

his journey ol al-Israa
7)

wa al-Mi'raaj.
directly, just like

Allaah Spoke to him

He

spoke

to

Moosaa, and

this also

occurred in his (igg) journey otal-lsraa

wa al-Mi'raaj.
third, fourth

The
only.

revelation ol the

Qur'aan occurred by the

and

fifth

methods

iy.

The

Difference Between the Qur'aan and Hadeeth
Qudsee
is

Qudsee
I

K hadeeth
injustice

a hadeeth in

which the Prophet

(-gg)

narrates a statement from

Allaah. For example, the Prophet (^g) said, "Allaah said, '0

My servants,

have made-

haraam

for

Me, and have made
1

it

haraam between you

also, so

do not be

unjust to one another.'" M

I

54

The
it

state thai a
is

person

this state,
1

not allowed to

who desires lo perform the major or minor pilgrimage must perfume the body, hence the reason lor the question.
is

enter.

I

luring

35 Reported In al-Bukhaarcc.
J6

I

Ibn al-Qayyim also mentions an eight li category, mv\ that
is

the inspiration from Allaah to the Prophet
cf.

ISK) without any barrier between them, but this category

one that has never occurred,

Zand al-Ma'ad.

id, p. 18.
1

57 Ibn N'u'aym in his Hilyo, see Suhech al-Jami

',

#2085.

138 Reported by Muslim.

'The Prophet 1) (^) saiil that Allaah said.. "Allaah should be held upon its literal. has no miraculous nature in 3) Allaah has promised to preserve the Qur'aan. from Allaah even in wording. it When best. on the other hand.i> even the wording is hadeeth Qudsee from Allaah. and this is the opinion that this author inclines til-Ot<i\uiii towards. I4H There have also been attempts to fabricate the difference is Quraanic recitations (see ('h. hadeeth Qudsee. Certain hadeeth Qudsee.. Allaah said.'. is Some scholars. Thus. 159 This thai is tlii- opinion that almost <>l . mainly '" exist in the form oiahaad non-mutatraatir) hadeeth. The reason thai most of tin. the in dilierent same hadeeth Qudsee found works ol hadeeth with dillerent wordings. 4) The Qur'aan verses has reached us in mutawaatir chains ol narration. is given by most scholars that the Qur'aan is the Speech of Allaah.". only their mornings have been preserved. on the other hand.ill authors of 'uloom al-Qitr'aan quote.. revealed is to the Prophet («^g) in meaning and wording. the wording? of the hadeeth Qudsee have not been promised to he preserved by Allaah contrast to the Qur'aan). Only the Qur'aan may be recited in prayer. The Qur'aan.e. ami the opinion that hadeeth Qudsee arc inspired in fhcAsh'aree Allaah. all scholars are in agreement as to what and letters are.' with regards to a verse ol the Qur'aan. just as the other hand. 5) It is an act of worship to recite the Qur'aan. whereas no such promise exists for the hadeeth Qudsee. are subject to a difference ot opinion over their authenticity. Therefore. it. The recitation of the Qur'aan. on the other hand. There is no difits ference ot opinion over the Qur'aan. . There is "meaning' and are not die actual kfilaam ol Allaah reeks o! absolutely no prool to show that the words ol the hadeeth Qudsee are not Iroin savs. that Allaah actually spoke these weirds. and Allaah knows (in is iowever. on an act of worship in and ot itself. but all that these rejected recitations ot the Qur'aan arc agreed upon by the scholars. n. laith. and if done so then such a prayer will not be valid.authors of the works of 'uloom have been Ash'arees.. This point also implies that a hadeeth Qudsee cannot be read in prayers. I the Prophet (SSO says. The person ing knowledge. Hadeeth Qudsee. 1 for further details). The Qur'aan has been put style. but this cannot be used tor a hadeeth Qudsee without adding the phrase. and the Prophet (JS) was inspired these words. has been preserved in wording and meaning. the Qur'aan attributed directly to Allaah. apparent meaning: namely. forth as a miracle that can never be imitated in lor all ol its prose or content."'' is Therefore. There are authentic. just like other hadeeth. is who reads hadeeth Qudsee will be rewarded for seek- if he read other hadeeth. It is said. on 1 the other hand. 1 weak and even all fabricated hadeeth Qudsee. (i. according to many only from Allaah in meaning. Hadeeth Qudsee.... tor it is still a hadeeth that must be checked with the rules of the scholars of hadeeth. A. It is an open challenge mankind to produce even a chapter similar to it. whereas this is not the case for a hadeeth Qudsee.Inspiration -at-Whhy 73 There arc 1 ) a number of differences between that is hadeeth Qudsee and die Qur'aan: is The primary difference die Qur'aan scholars. however.

whether they are Qttdsee or not. therefore. at Tirmidhee and Ahmad.. liven though thcSunneih an integral part is of Isiaamic belief and law. Siinini/i)'. inspired to the Prophet f^g) in wording and meaning.74 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan It should be mentioned that all of the hadeeth of the Prophet (•©£). whereas is is die Sunnah the speech of Muhammad it (^g).. the Qur'aan superior to since it is the actual Balaam ol Allaah. I 1 The Prophet (i.e."" was given the Qur'aan and something equivalent CO it Since the Prophet ($£." this implies that the his (JH) Sunnah is also a type of inspiration. "Verily. inspired only in meaning. The difference. "And he sent (%g.I was given.. are a type of inspiration sent down to him. HI Reported by Alioo Da.) said. is between the Qur aan and the Sunnah is that the Quraan the Speech of Allaah.) does not speak of his own desires: rather it is only a revelation down to him» |^3:3-4| This verse does not speak only of the Qur'aan but also of the Sunnah. (ijl) said. .iwnod. '. and its meanings safeguarded by Allaah... As the Qur'aan says.

ol Allaah' in v.$2| is Another proof for this fact (7: that Moosaa was given the Torah all at once. Sec The I Qur'aan as the Speech Ch.. it Before discussing the revelation of the Qur'aan to the Prophet should be like the mentioned prophet that the revelations lo the previous prophets were not gradual revelation of the Qur'aan.tut/i al-Makfoodh \M H' cf. whereas A/il as-Simmi/i claim dial die Qur'aan existed widioul any beginol ning (from eternity) as the Jplaam ofAllaah. and the wisdom behind gradual revelation. (5gg). first stage 1 Qur'aan. Rather. the Speech of Allaah. 'Why is not the Qur'aan revealed all at oncer' (it is down it in parts) so thai We may strengthen your heart. " was written on the Luiili al-Mahfoodh. all Praise be to Him. The The Stages of Revelation vast majority ol scholars hold the opinion that the process ol revelation oc- curred in three distinct stages: The The the Preserved Tablet. I. 2. The I. as men- tioned in the Qur'aan 144-1 54). gradually. Note the difference hctwecn t\u\ this point. and was written in theLauh al-Mahfoodh before the creation . or which is with Allaah. p.L .-J . in siages» |2S:. Baazmool lor a more detailed discussion. Qur'aan says. This is why the people at the time of the Prophet (&. to explain the piece-meal revelation the Qur'aan to the ol revelation ol the Prophet Muhammad This topic includes the various stages its Qur'aan.) were suras the prised that the Qur'aan was being revealed piece-meal. revealed gradually over a period ol twenty-three years. Those Thus wlio disbelieve sent :isk.40-42.C HA P T E R 4 Gradual Revelation The Qur'aan was ter. it ami die belief of the Ash'arees. MJ I. ami Wc have revealed to you. (3gg) The pro- cedure of the tvahy that the Prophet received was discussed in the ol previous chap- This chapter now seeks (J^g). each previous Scripture all at was given to the particular once. The Ash'arees claim that the Arabic Qur'aan exist until was written and Created in lie Lctuh al-Mahfondh.

. is is written on the Lauhal-Mahfoodh mentioned in the Qur'aan itself: ••Nay! This is indeed . Allaah revealed the Qur'aan to the lower heavens. as the Lauh it al-Mahfoodh has written on describes the (54:53).. The Prophet "The thing that Allaah created was the Pen. This writing occurred and was preserved on the Mahfoodh.- [2:185] and it also states. and the statements ofthe Companions. Sec Shark 'Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyuh. in a place that guarantees This also a manilestation ol the infinite it knowledge ol Allaah.. .1 Glorious Qur'aan! (Inscribed) in the Lauhal* Malgoodh. "Write the destiny ol all things. The tact that the Qur'aan and when it occurred. "The House of Honour" (cd-Bayt al-'Izza).. all commands and decrees of Allaah. the Lauh al-Mahfoodk)» [56:77-78] Part ol the wisdom is ot this stage is to prove to the believers the authenticity ofthe Qur'aan. "() My al- Lord! And what shall I writer" Allaah said. He said to it. The Qur'aan states. •• The month ol Ramadaan is the month in which the Qur'aan was revealed.recorded on The second From the a place called stage in in in Lauh al-Mahfoodh.small or big . The proof for this is found some verses ol the Qur'aan. In a Book well-guarded (i. first until the end of time. as its safety. on the Night ol Decree (Lay/ut al-Oadr). !5\^3J^<^4l^j3lLil I -14 Reported by Aboo Daawood. The method known only to Allaah. Therefore. "Write!" It responded. oJ the Heavens and Earth. is is the text ofthe Qur'aan. p.e. 264. until the Liii</j_ Day ol Judgement. The Qur'aan Lauh al-Mahfoodh having everything . ••And this is indeed a Noble Qur'aan. included in the Lauhal-Mahfoodh ol this writing. for further details. [85:21-2] and also. This revelation occurred Ramadaan. are written.76 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan is the Tablet upon which all ot the things that will happen from the creation (5|g) said. it was written down even before the as its revelation.

Ihn 'Abbaas said. since ($tg) it was done at once. and excellence of the Book. denies these two stages. we cannot accept them. Prophet ($£) also had the superiority of having the Qur'aan revealed piccc-meal over a period of twenty-three years.1 Gradual Revelation 77 «We have sent it (the Qur'aan) down. (by this initial descent to the lower heavens) Allaah the combined lower it He made the Prophet (5g) similar to the other at prophets sense that the Qur'aan was revealed once to the heavens. 148 Baazmool." l4. therefore in this aspect the Prophet Yet. on a Blessed Night- |44:s| The Qur'aan later specifics this Blessed Night as. the whole Qur'aan was sent scholar.H. in the month or Explaining these verses. called Bayi al-'hza. "'The whole Qur'aan was sent down to the lower heavens on the Night of Decree. and of the one because this it whom was revealed This is is is an indication the last to the inhabitants of the (to It heavens (the angels) that to the last <>l Book of all hooks be revealed). However. Therefore. And were at not for the fact that the it made close to them so that it Wisdom ol all at all Allaah was not to reveal the Book once.. and specifically on the Night of Decree. revealed has been it all prophets. SI. al-Nasaa'i and al-Baihai|ce. the shared the same procedure of revelation as the other prophets had. would have been revealed and once.it has originated trom the Prophet Qg)). H " were asked: What the secret of the revelation of the Qur'aan to the is: lower heavens? The response In its revelation is it a sign of the eminence to.it was then revealed piece-meal over "The House It is a period of twenty years. in his Mabahithfi 'Uloom at-Qur'aan. this knowledge cannot be derived through the Prophet (5SS).' 14 ' seen thai. to the best of all nations. and to He honoured him (3g) (by causing be revealed piece-meal after that). If it down in one night. in this revelation. this initial descent of the Qur'aan to the lower heavens lar to the revelation of was simi- the previous Scriptures. In other words. ". just as the previous Scriptures were revealed at once. He would inspire it. and in 1 another narration. 44. like the previous books). of Honour. Subhi Salih. The famous Imaam Aboo Shaamah. is (d. stating thai do not go back to the Prophet ijtihaail (SS). differentiate to between him and the other prophets (by causing the two matters together: (in the Quraan be revealed piece-meal). whenever Allaah wished to inspire something (from the Qur'aan). . 146 Narrated by al-Haakim. since these narrations p. can be revealed to them. 665 A. therefore Ibn Abbaas must have heard this from and this narration takes on the status oi marftm' (a Inulcclh lh. Then." '"' Other narrations from is Ibn 'Abbaas mention thai the place the Qur'aan was revealed lo or. «We have sent it down in the Night of Decree* 97:1 1 These verses specify that the entire Qur'aan was sent down Ramadaan. 145 Narrated by aj-Tabaree ami al-Haakim..) wrote. but instead Allaah decided to honour the Prophet (5g5). p. 147 Dr. (personal reasoning).

low ever. scholars hold this period to be twenty years. for this difference is and yet another group twenty Prophet (•yg) is itself a The reason the fact that the age ol the it subject of dispute. and it was shown that Jibreel heard the Qur'aan from Allaah. The ($£>) process ot inspiration to the angels discussed. agree thai he spent ten years in forty. 49. have inferred took the Qur'aan from the Lauh al-Mahfoodh. therefore. from these narrations that Jibreel Some this scholars.. most of them claimed that was the only method by which Jibreel received the jected immediately.not ol 1 great importance. \sh 'area. These narrations do not mention that Jibreel in that took the Qur'aan from the Allaah would ". according the strongest opinion." H'» az-Zarqaanee. and that his prophethood began when he (-^) was in The difference. or sixty live years.. Some five. . the strongest opinion. Which the trustworthy Spirit (Angel Jibreel) has brought down: I'pon Your heart (O Muhammad). to This gradual revelation occurred over a period of twenty-three years. that he (S^g) passed away at the age of sixty-three. the narrations state variously to be sixty. what Jibreel recited to the Prophet were the words that Allaah Spoke him. The Qur'aan refers to this revelation in many verses. so thai you may he one of the vvarncrs» |26:192-4| to the The procedure been discussed by which the Qur'aan was inspired Prophet (-^) has already in the previous chapter. incorrect to use the feet narrations of Ibn Abhaas which allude to the that [ibreel heard the Lauh al-Mahfoodh to negate the Qur'aan from Allaah. Madeenah. In one Allaah says. however. is.. as has been it is elaborated anil discussed the previous chapter. lims. p. As lor the. sixty three.inspire" Lauh al-Mahfoodh: was to in fact. as this denies the l{cilaam ot Allaah. which would then imply that the period in It which the Qur'aan was sent down was twenty-three is should be remembered that the Qur'aan in the Speech of Allaah. This opinion is rewhole concept of the Qur'aan being the actual stated that Jibreel heard the However. Jibrccl brought those portions Qur'aan which Allaah com- manded him verse.78 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Qur'aan THE THIRD The final stage of revelation STACK to was alluded by Ibn 'Abhaas of the in his previous narra- tion. ". Therefore. and the opinion that is widespread among the Musyears. to bring. In this stage. Qur'aan. the narration is explicit the portion of the Qur'aan that He wished to reveal. as long as we are sure the source ol revelation Allaah alone. In other words. as az-Zarqaanec is stated. other scholars Qur'aan from Allaah and took the Qur'aan from the Lauh al-Mahfoodh. -a '% «And truly this (Qur'aan) is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. All scholars. however. revolves 1 around how many years he stayed is Makkah before the hijnih. Whether Jibreel also took the Qur'aan Irom the Lauh al-Mahfoodh or not..

Allaah then ordered him to convey the revelation that he told been given. he ($^) should Thirdly. so no doubt can remain authenticity. "It is for Us II and Recite il in you. Allaah even ruled out the possibility that the Prophet (5S) might tamper wall the message deliberately. lor ISO This verse I le said.[5:67] If you (the message) so. •Move Il is not your tongue concerning (the Qur'aan) to make its haste therewith. Allaah then him the praises Jibreel in particular. anil to give you to (( ) Muhammad) the ability to recite recital" [75:16-8] it. its ruled out by Allaah. after having ensured that the Prophet (#*) memorised the («yg) hail a failure in his revelation. the trustworthiness of fibred has been guaranteed by Allaah. for Us to collect it." And when We have (^g) recited it you. in tear that he might forget. Allaah assured him that was chosen by Allaah to be the recipient ot the he (sgg) would not forget or miss any verse.. "trustworthy Spirit.Gradual Revelation 7 l> Tampering of the Revelation? The possibility that the revelation of the Qur'aan might have been tampered or is changed during the revelation process with regards to Firstly. then follow The Prophet tation before was instructed to be patient. sage!. •They |21:27| il" mil speak until lie- has spoken. When the Prophet (#5) used to hurriedly recite the verses from Jibreel. Allaah revealed. |26:19.i| meaning thai Jibreel was trustworthy in revealing the Qur'aan to the Prophet (^). Secondly. and mission as a him thai a failure on his part to do so would mean Prophet: () Messenger! Proclaim from your Lord. which has been sent down 1 to you do not do then you have nor conveyed lis mes- Fourthly." . and allow Jibreel to finish his recistart reciting. as the Prophet (^g) Qur'aan. to collect cm also read. Allaah de- scribes the angels in general as. anil they acl on Mis Command* and calls meaning that they do not disobey Allaah.

it to Us.. a severe punishment is promised for forging any revelation: "And surely if he (Muhammad) had artery!" |69:44-6| forged a false saying.. 'Learn the Qur'aan . the Qur'aan has been preserved authenticity. in a protected.. The revela- often verses during the story of 'Aa'ishah has been authenticated.. who preserved it it faith- without any alteration.) discusses ques- and concludes: It can be inferred from (combining) the authentic narrations. (-gg) During month in which the Prophet began his mission. 91 A. and who then passed on to mankind. I "It is not for me is to change it (the Qur'aan) 1 from my own only follow thai which revealed to me'» 10:15] In another verse. or tion less.H. attributing his right hand. was then written the the Lauh iil-Mahfoodh. and other evidences that the (quantity) of the Qur'aan revealed would depend on the particular situation.existed from eternity.' and the report in al-I'ayhaqcc that Ulnar ibn al-Khattaab said. say..as the Balaam of Allaah . The trustworthy Angel Jibreel. to the Prophet Muhammad (S^g). well-guarded Tablet. We would have seized him by life and then certainly have cut off his Therefore. then revealed lull).|4:95| As tor those narrations that explicitly mention only five verses. the Qur'aan was sent down to the lower heavens. As-Suyootee (d.. or ten verses. after he had heard the Qur'aan it from Allaah. and no doubt can be cast on It its The Qur'aan in . or more. such as the report in Ibn 'Asaakir that (the Companion) Aboo Sa'eed al-Khmlree morning and live in the would teach and his students five verses in the evening..except those who are disabled. five verses. "Jibreel used to bring the Qur'aan live verses at a time. safely.80 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan And lie (Muhammad) is does not speak from his own desires: il is only an inspiration that inspired" |53:3-4] «Say (O Muhammad): desire. as has the revelation of a small part ofa verse "f-rt t4*"* ". The Quantity of Revelation A question that arises tion is the quantity of Qur'aan thai fibreel used to 1 come with this to the Prophet (3g) in each revelation.

. The Wisdom Behind II the Gradual Revelation Allaah had willed. This said. ami so did the number ol questions in pertaining to laws. the 152 ^' wahy was more than (d. commenting on this phenomenon. the delegations were sent from other tribes to the Prophet (Jgj) increased. tor fibred used to come to the Prophet <£g) with Bvc is verses at a time. after the hijrah. And this is in contrast to the early period. therefore. during the beginning ot the prophethood.) passed away.the meaning of these reports that Jibreel would quote the Prophet (jgg) live verses at a time so that rest ot he (5^) could memorise them. tor. the Qur'aan would have been sent (-^g) at down to its in its entirety to the Prophet the beginning ol his prophethood.it that. IM 1^2 as-Suyootce. However. . with breaks in between the This gradually ol the increased (with time). Towards the end of the Prophet's the revelation increased greatly.8. ">7. until before his death. the Withy also increased frequency (to respond to these questions).p. come occasionally. for the Prophet Yet would take from Jibreel live verses at a time. at a then he would quote him the the revelation. 1 shows that the lime frame in which the Prophet (jgg) passed away was the lime frame which had the highest Irequcncy reason lor this is ol revelations. (ieS) Anas ibn Maalik narrates. And the tb.'. it ever was. I. just like the previous Scriptures. then the Prophet (^. Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. And the of the prophethood witnessed the highest frequency of revelation. live verses in time. 153 fiK&<j/-&anw\v.Gradual Revelation 81 five verses at a time. another question is whether the frequency or did it ot revelation was the same through- out the Prophet's (-^g) life. was not the case.9. longer soorahs were and these contained most ol the laws (ol the sharee'ah). which Khaalid ibn live verses at a -1 '" Deenar Aboo al-'Aaliyah told us to learn the (SSj) Quraan lime.).) life. revealed. II. Allaah says. The Qur'aan in fact refers and from these verses some ol the merits and gradual revelation in benefits ol this piece-meal revelation can be understood. this many verses. the wahy would revelations. after the Conquest ot Makkah. changer («g. which most of the revela"Allaah increased the wahx upon the Prophet before his death." Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr 852 A. so much so that the last years of the prophethood were the years in tion occurred. hardly any most ol the long Then. The translation has been paraphrased ai places. for the reasons outlined above. last part Makkah. v. p..H. This is explained by the narration in al-Bayhaqcc said. During the period ol iuorahs were revealed.

p.. a was anguished ami distressed by the ridiculed attitude of his people he was to- his message. In Soora/i Hood. in stages.. men- tioning the stories of many prophets. "And gers all that We relate to you (() Muhammad) of the news of the messenlirm!. We have revealed it hy stages!. or that he was possessed by the jinn. The Prophet wards cerer. Allaah concludes. 107- 1 17.v. Allaah reminds him. sent Why it is not the Qur'aan revealed to him all oncer' Thus (it is down in parts) that to We may strengthen a blessing that your heart thereby.Qattaan. anil chalits lenged the Prophet bring forth the Qur'aan in entirety. anil how the prophets dealt with the hard- ships and torments that they faced from their peoples. he was reaffirmed discusses the and zeal. Allaah revealed: And at those who dishelieve say. And We have revealed you gradually. ers) We know 1 that your heart is straitened hy what they (the disbeliev- say 1=5:971 By the continual revelation in his determination of the Qur'aan to the Prophet (5^*). And verily.[17:106] When the disbelievers (3gg) to mocked the gradual revelation ot the Qur'aan. They and mocked him. and to his ummah.i2| Thus the gradual revelation was considered Allaah gave to the Prophet ($g). in order that you might recite to mankind at intervals.> 1 is in order that We may make your heart strong and 1 1 : 1 20| 154 c£Baastmool.Ubaydaat. 1 Some 1) ot the benefits of the gradual revelation are as follows: *' To strengthen the ($g) resolve of the Prophet (j^g) against the disbelievers.99-101. This is what Allaah alludes to when He graduality of the revelation.4M6. This can also be seen in the content earlier revelations in Makkah. |25:. . where after the stories of the prophets of old are told.82 An Introduction to the Sciences <>! the Qur'aan -Anil it (is a) Qur'aan which it We have divided (into parts). and claimed that a sor- mailman. Thus [25:321 (it is sent down in parts) that We may strengthen of the your heart thereby. l. -Indeed.

the correctly. do no harm _ -—^ . as was quoted above. he (-^g) was reassured by the warnings given to the disbelievers by Allaah. Companions to Companions understood and implemented the Qur'aan . \\" -** l"'^'* "Therefore. "Verily.. anil they will show their hacks (in retreat)" [54:45J This gradual the method of revelation also helped to strengthen the determination of Companions. - - ^LjjJ-~>y> j*i«j Li \ jj$}^i ^_iXy£-_ "% % • So let not their speech grieve you. to Allaah's I'lans. [58:211 And. We know what they conceal anil what they reveal" |36:75| his Creator. it is I ami the messengers who will be Victori- ous".i reminder for the believers* [11:1201 2) To simplify its memorisation and understanding by the Companions. The Prophet ($g) was told to learn the previous prophets. He (-gg) was promised help Irom &$k£2&'&£ ••Allaah has ordained . The Qur'aan says. >>s •£>. it might have been very difficult lor the of verses properly. . and all their mockery of Islaam. like the messengers ol firm resolu- tion (before you did)" |46:>S| He will (S^) was told that the plots of the disbelievers.) Muhammad). Yet. with gradual revelations. as well admonition <tn<l . ' .Gradual Revelation S3 There are a number of ways in which the Prophet rrom the lessons ' (2g) ol was helped by these stories. • f** it's y\t\ >. he patient ((. ol The piece-meal revelations the Qur'aan made it easier lor the Companions to understand. -J. memorise and implement the portions that were revealed. lor verily. -\ X'-'' '\-'{'t l > ''*\' i-*iif T'r'* •\<" •<Anil all that we relate to gers is in order that to you (() Muhammad) ol the news ol the messenWe may make your heart strong ami firm! And in this as ait has come you the truth. These same verses inspired the Companions with courage and pa- tience. and gave them the stamina they needed to withstand the persecution ol the idolaters. '•Verily. their multitudes will be put to llighl. If the Qur'aan had been revealed understand all all at its once.

and the better explanation thereof" [25:33] There are many examples of such verses. Allaah The Qur'aan itsell refers of the revelation. even after the complete revelation of the Qur'aan." to say. a very famous Successor. Aboo 'Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulamce 70 A. Allaah revealed.H. the procedure of teaching the Qur'aan to the Succes- even alter its revelation had been completed. 1 109 A. until they 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. "We used ' to learn from Aboo Sa'eed al-Khudree five verses in the morning. like narrates that whenever the people who taught them the Qur'aan. complacency with regards the preservation ot the Qur'aan. 12. p. 155 Ibn Taymiyyah. Aboo Nadrah (d. 3) was a strong incentive to ensure that the verses were memorised This was crucial for the preservation of the Qur'aan. would learn ten verses of the Qur'aan.H. 157 ibid. in book lorm (as to the To rah was revealed). 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan. . Principles. when the idolaters demanded miracles from the Prophet (jg). it can also be said had the Qur'aan been revealed might have led to a feeling ot all at once. 110. p.84 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan The Companions adopted sors gradually. p. Instead. the Companions adopted the same gradual approach in teaching it to the later generations. its compilation fin- ished. »And no example you) except dial or similitude reveal to do they hring (to oppose or to find fault in We you the truth (against this similitude). They had learnt the benefits of teaching the Qur'aan gradually from the piecemeal revelation It ot the Qur'aan. As Ibn 'Abbaas "Whenever the disbelievers brought a new question would reveal to them an answer (through the Qur'aan). and (d. tor he told us that fibred used to bring (on average) 1 1 ' time.." to this aspect to the 1 '" Prophet (3|D. to To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet idolaters The said. They used all studied its and injunctions "We learnt the text ot the Qur'aan.)." Thus. but every time Allaah would reply to their queries. they would not proceed onwards ideas had learnt whatever concepts and regula- tions those verses contained. together. and ^ Another Successor. and five verses at a five in the evening. 110. (-^). 156 Qattaan. that. there due to the fact that verses were revealed and written. occasionally. related.). and others. and the People ot the Book used ask the Prophet («yg) questions in order to outwit him.

it Indeed. and I was sitting in the corner of the room. idolaters. was as il'the woman had been put in a "suspended' state: neither was she divorced so that she could remarry. "You arc to me like my mother. one of the most outstanding miracles of the Qur'aan was that vealed over a period of two decades.1 Gradual Revelation 85 «And even to il them." This statement meant that the man had taken a vow upon himself not to approach It his wife sexually. they willed. All-Sccing» |58:l | whose Hearing encompasses all voices! The woman came complaining to the Prophet (#|). and immediately Allaah's revelation came down. Praise be Him. she was not able to to hear the entire conversation. the tions Qur'aan came down immediately to cater it to the ques- and problems of the people proved that (jjjg). . and also between all future spouses who same problem. verily. and yet not a single thousand plus verses contradicted by another! is A humaninvariably authored book of this size and nature. even if written instantaneously. nor was she a proper wife to the husband. was in fact the word ol Allaah. the Qur'aan prohibited this act (cf. ••Indeed Allaah has heard the statement ol she who disputes with you con- cerning her husband. After this particular incident. in which a man would tell his wife. to the For example. and the dead had spoken We had gathered together all things before their very eyes. Allaah is All-Hearing. when Khawlah bint Tha'labah complained 1 Prophet (_ ) that her husband had made himself unlawful to her. re- vealed through the Prophet 4) To prove the miraculous nature of the Quraan. and immediately sent down these verses to solve the lace the problem between them. "All praise be to Allaah. yet Allaah. heard it from above the seven heavens. fact that the Therefore.. and complains to Allaah. and complains to Allaah.. of it and some of it I could not').'" '1 1 ' Even though 'Aa'ishah was sitting in the all same room. straining to hear what she was saying (in one narration. 'I could hear some 'Aa'ishah reports. Allaah hears the argument between both of" you. 58:1-10) 159 Narrated bv al-Bukhaarce. it frequently commanded of its six the Prophet (-^) and the is believers to a course of action. and We had sent down unto them angels. 'Indeed Allaah has heard the statement of she who disputes with you concerning her husband. it it was re- catered to a plethora of answered many questions from believers and situations. 158 the hack of The Arabs had a custom known as ithihuar. it solved a wide variety of problems. Whenever a situation or crises arose. the Qur'aan would clearly lay out the solution. but would not have believed unless Allaah norantly» [6: 1 1 1 most of them behave ig- Included in this category arc the answers that the Prophet (-^g) gave to the prob- lems that the believers faced. '"' Allaah revealed.

86 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan bound to contain errors it is and contradictions.' they would have responded.iaiKe. and proved the to exist- ence of Allaah through His Creation. and thus there were no specific Companions is that He revealed to them the made it easier tor them to adopt these laws." they 'Do not drink wine. These verses called upon the pagans the one true worship God.'^—^ \\A\^\ A \ «Do they not ponder over the Qur'aan? For indeed. At times. The Qur'aan challenges. inspiration. For turther details on see 7. "The first revelations only mentioned Heaven ami Hell verse revealed was. "Tin. and instilled in the early Muslims the strong faith that they needed to overcome the persecution of the idolaters. and of not to call upon others for help and aid. laws of Islaam gradually. revelations 1 came down This fact establishing the basics ol worship. the basics ol aqecdah). even on a cold 160 See Chapter 161 \l>2 6. and warning against the major sins. when the peo- ple were firm in their conviction ol Islaam. he used to sweat profusely. Inilaws ol" lialaal and haraain. had it been from other in it» |4:S2| than AILum. Allaah revealed the luilaal If the will first and \\\clnnaam. they would surely have found 5) many contradictions in a To reveal the laws of Islaam . the ol Makkan stage were being trained spiritually so that they could lorm the nucleus the future Muslim state in Madeenah. to ease the process of conversion upon the early Muslims. when she commented.e. the laws of Islaam were revealed gradually. Among the blessings of Allaah tially. as was in the last chapter. 'We will nevcrgive up Thus.. Narrated In' al-Hukhaarec. Once they had passed Allaah then to completed the revelation of the sharee'ah in gradual the lifestyle of Islaam. It steps.2 'Do no would have responded.ari|. fornication! '" . Eventually. or ivahy. a period ol It was as if an puzzle was perfectly pieced together during over two decades to form a flawless masterpiece.'"' The Companions during this stage. so that they could adapt can be seen that the first revelations warned against slnrl{. I. j $h X T. l7." for further details.malice lliis. the and arrangement ol the verses Prophet (%£?. " 1 was staled by Aa'ishah (i. The Qur'aan was intricate literally assembled out the fragmcntal revelations. fornicate. the order rather. 'We if never give up wine!' And the first verse revealed was. v.the Sharee'ah to the gradual manner. 6) To ease the revelation process on the Prophet (^). how much greater the miracle of twenty-three years! ol the Qur'aan when revealed over a period To add to its miracu- lous nature.) would instruct his was not done chronologically Companions of the location ol any new ol verses. and madanee Verses. Soon after this. . They elaborated the unique concept tawheed. The process ol mentioned was a difficult one for the Prophet (i^g). p.

the rc\ elation all at ol Allaah combined m le tirst revealed the Qur'aan once. And every time the angel would come to him with Quraan. to cater to the and needs of the people. would come him continually. who stated:" 1 ' And all of (meaning the concept of the gradual revelation) only status that to shows the concern. otherwise known this as Ibn Katheer. and Muhammad And I (i^g) is most honoured prophet that was senl by Allaah. Aboo al-Fidaa Ismaa'eel ibn 'Umar (d. morning and evening. (=gg) who would greater. 774 A. night and day. he- given their books at once. at home the or while travelling. and situation He then revealed to earth gradually.Gradual Revelation 87 night. because ol the severity of the inspiration. great scholar To summarise the concept of the gradual revelation.).may Allaah send His blessing and Mercy to of them. unlike the previous prophets. 1 65 Tafieer Ibn Kathecr. was and and more magnificent from all all of his fellow prophets . it Quraan the i« procedures: Irom the Lauh al-Mahfoodk to the the <> lower heavens. 3/318. to The Qur'aan is the most the honoured book be revealed by Allaah. . and the high since the revelation was given to the Prophet (i^g). it is appropriate to quote die and interpreter ol the Qur'aan. might have been too difficult lor the Prophet («§§) to bear. it Had the Quraan been revealed all at once.H. So the status of the Prophet higher.

this (Qur'aan) is a Revelation from the Lord of the Worlds: Which heart the trustworthy Spirit (Angel Jibreel) has brought down. nil that surrounds it » |42:7| 1 meaning the entire world. R 5 The First and the Last Revelations The changing nicated to him. the Qur'aan lays out the monumental task of the Prophet (^g): 3 ••Say. point in the lite ol the Prophet ol Muhammad (-^S) - and lor all ol humanity afterwards was the occurrence the (-^) first revelation that Allaah like commu- human before From this point onwards. .) leavens anil the Earth. final |7:1SS| was to be the recipient of the Creator's Revelation to Man- •And truly.i II A J l 1 I... '() Mankind! Verily 1 am sent to you I all as the Messenger ol Allaah. Upon Your (O Muhammad). so that you may be one of the warners» [26:192-4] (5^5) But what was the last? first revelation that the Prophet received? And what was the 1 64 Thfseer tbn K. he him had: had a mission the of which no •so thai you may warn the Mother of Cities and it. to • Whom The Prophet kind: belongs the Dominions ot the ($^. or as Ihn Katheer puts "all lands east and west" "4 ! In no unexplicit terms.ir/im 4/ 109.

is i\\c hadecth narrated by al-Bukhaarcc from 'Aa'ishah.). your Lord the Most Generous. like the bright daylight. before his desire to see his family (caused him to return).' him). He used to go for seclusion to the Cave of Hiraa where he used to worship Allaah continuously lor many days. The Prophet I I ($g£) added. and the second lime. . I. 'I do now know how to read' (in another narration.. until the truth descended upon him while he was him. ger the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him (^. and pressed me. Who has created is (all that exists}. to the around him l in a circle (to listen to 'h/rti. (96:1) he said.). Thereupon. He is used the to wear two white gar- When he came to Prophet (^). "Aboo Moosaa sit al-Asha'aree used to recite the Qur'aan to us. Created man from a clot. I I «Read! in the name ol your Lord. he caught me for the third time. 'I do not know how to read!' Thereupon he caught me for read. "I do not know how me so me to again replied. "The angel grabbed it me (forcibly) and pressed hard that could not bear any more. Mas taught man which he knew not- prool lor this opinion said. 105 who said. who was created. I las Created man from [96:1-5] a clot. and then released me and said. p. the stay. ami pressed me until could not bear Ie then released me and asked me to read. again responded. and then come back to Khadeejah in the to take his food again. and we used to ments.ord. the first revelation that the Prophet (-^) and is it is the correct opinion. 94. "The commencement of the divine revelation to Allaah's Messenwas in the form of good dreams which came true. read!" Cave of Hiraa'. v. also a narration in at-Tabaraanee from Aboo Raja al-Ulhaardee (d.*" ". 'This first sooiuh to be revealed 165 az-Zarqaancc. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous!* |96:1-S| this This hadeeth clearly shows that received. Read! Verily. The angel (Jibrcel) came to to The Prophet (|§) responded. The 1 ) First Revelation first There are four opinions concerning the verses that the Prophet (-yg> received. He used to take with him food lor which she . Then. He then released me ami I again asked 1 it. The first five verses of Somali al-'Alaq: •Read! In the Name of your L.The First and Last Revelations 89 l. that Who The in lias taught (the writing) by the Pen. "What shall read:'). and asked him to read.H. There A.

However... is Soorah al-Faatihah.»|%:l I |" Jaabir replied." The questioner then said. visited heard a voice Irom the sky. in The proof for this is based on another luidceth in al- which Jaabir ibn 'Abdillaah was asked. is be. •Say: () You Enveloped (in garments)" |74:1 was revealed first. Allaah then «Say: <) Yhi Enveloped (in garments)* |'" 7-4-: 1 1 This hadecth has been explained by saying soorah had been revealed in in its its that Jaabir told the questioner which entirety first. lor I he said. heard 'I was in the I mountain ol Hiraa'. "What first?" part ol the Qur'aan was revealed the He " replied. and I and to the left. and when came down to the valley (I a voice). Then vealed. I me. "I am only telling you that which heard from the Prophet (^). looked up and saw the same angel who had me at the cave ol Hiraa' sitting on a chair between the sky tion."""' In this narra- mentions that the Prophet (^g) that the first hail already seen Jibreel before this inci- dent. this second opinion 3) the weaker one. which proves revelation hail already occurred. Another 166 Reported by al-Bukhaaree. the luidceth first explicit that the which describes the encounter with Jibreel five verses ol Soorah al-'Alaq were revealed \~ and is that the next revelation was Soorah al-Muddathir. not authentic.ord.and a great fear re- overtook me! So returned to Ivhadeejah. is while the Prophet (3gg) was mid-way Therefore. This opinion luidceth. I "While I was walking. Jaabir and the earth. hadecth. . and told her to cover me. Therefore. states that the first 4) The Banna/ah. but entered in his narration. Alternately. Jaabir only heartl ol this I the last part ol the hadecth. since Soorah al-Muddathir was revealed entirety belore the remaining verses ol Soorah al-'Alaq. reported by al-Waahidee. some schol- ars have claimed that Jaabir was not present when the Prophet (^g) began narrating the above luidceth in which he (3ig) described his encounter with Jibreel. so I looked to the right. there- does not hold any weight. "I was informed that it was «Readl In the Name of your I. it a narration in al-Rayhaqee that this narration is states that the first was Soorah al-Faatihah. There revelation fore. anil in Iront of me.1 90 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 2) Soorah al-Muddathir. Whatever the case might (the Risthadeeth) first. and behind saw him — meaning Jibreel . in supported by another narration which Jaabir stated that the Prophet (igg) said. looked to the skies. Bukhaarcc.

1

The
verse revealed

Firsi anil Last

Revelations

91

was the basimiLih. "In the

Name

ol

Allaah, the Ever Merciful, the

Bestower
proof.'"
7

ol

Mercy," but this report too

is

not authentic, and cannot be taken as

II.

The

Last Revelation
a

There are
(i^5)

number
is

ot opinions

concerning the
is

last

revelation that the Prophet

received. This

because there

more than one hadeeth which
unlike the

discusses this
revelation,

subject,

each one of which gives

a different verse. Also,

first

there docs not exist any
final revelation

hadeeth in

which the Prophet (Sg) himself
last

states

what the

was. There are eleven opinions concerning the

revelation, as fol-

lows:
I)

IMi

Al-Bukhaarcc and at-Tabarec narrate from Ibn Abbaas
vealed to the Prophet (#,) was,

that the last verse re-

4*

And

fear the

day

in

which you

will return t" Allaah.

Then everyone

will
|

be

paid what he earned, and they will not be dealt with unjustly* |2:28l

Ibn "Abbaas added, "The Prophet
vealed, then he (^g) passed away."
2)

(3gg) lived

nine

nights after this verse

was

re-

Another narration, also by al-Bukhaaree Irom Ibn 'Abbaas.
verse revealed

states that the last

was

the 'Verse of Interest",

4i)l

\jaS\

\j-»\'-

-^Jt JJl Ljj Uj

.()

you
il

who
you

believe! Fear Allaah,

and give up whal remains Irom your

in-

terest,

are indeed Believers» |2:278| (d.

5)

At-Tabaree reported that Sa'eed ibn al-Mussayyib
final verse

90 A.H.) narrated, "The

revealed to the Messenger (3g)

was

the "Verse of Loaning',

( )

you

who

believe!

II

you COntraci a debt

lor a lixed time, write

il

down»

12:282
-I)

Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim report from al-Baraa' ibn 'Aazib that the

final verse-

was the verse of l^ahhihih
ants).

(a

person

who

does not leave ascendants or descend-

167 Both
is

ol the

above narrations an- weak since the name
96.
<S<I-H-1:

ol

du Companion who

narrated each hadeeth

missing:
168
ct;

cl. '/..ir/.ur. p.

Ubaydaat, pps.

Qauaan.

pps.

<>9

71: Zar/.ur. pps. 97-IIMI.

1

92

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

't."w>if

.' fc

.'>-'c^i--Allaah directs thus about \alaalah...»

<

«They ask you

for a legal verdict. Say:

|4:1761

5)

Al-Haakim
the last

reports

from Ubay ibn Ka'ab that the

final revelation

comprised

of

two

verses ot'Soorah at-Tawbah,

l^=a_ii \ £3

"\yj

r^

3 *W-J^

A
6)

(.rily.

there has

come unto you

a Messenger from amongst yourselves..."

[9:128-9]

Muslim
Nasr,

reports from Ibn 'Abbaas that the final soorah revealed

was Soorah an-

s,< xi <^4-"i?** *- <Tf

i?\*

"'~\^v\

When
7)

the

Help of Allaah conies

to you,

and the Conquest (ofMakkah)...*

[110:1-4]

Al-Bukhaarce reports from Ibn 'Abbaas that the

verse,

«And whoever

kills a

Believer intentionally, his recompense

is

Hell, to abide

therein forever..." [4:93]

was the
S)

last

verse revealed,

and no verse

after

it

abrogated

it.

Ibn

Mardawayh

narrates from

Umm Salama:

"The

final verse revealed

was,

«So their Lord answered them
to be lost the

(their prayers,

and

said),

"Never will

I

allow

work of any of you, be he male
1

or female. You are (members)

one

ol another..."' 1: 195

This (verse was revealed) because
Allaah always mentions
revealed,

I

asked. 'O Messenger of Allaah!

I

see that
(lirst)

men

(in the

Qur'aan). but not women!" So Allaah

The
«Do
not wish for those things which AJlaah has

First

and Last Revelations

93

made some of you

to excel for

over others. For

men
a

there

is

a

reward

for

what they have earned, and

women
and then

there

is

reward

for

what they have earned. ..»|4:32|

He

revealed the verse,

«Verily, the

Muslim men and women, and

the believing

men and women...

Allaah has prepared lor them forgiveness, and a great reward- [33:35]

and

finally

Me

revealed,

£$b&$+ i#$&w
i

«Ncver

will

I

allow to he
last

lost the

work

ol

any of

you...» [3:195]

Therefore,
9)

it

was the

verse revealed."
last soorcth re-

At-Tirmidhee and al-Haakim narrated from 'Aa'ishah that the
vealed was Soorah al-Maa'idah.

10)

At-Tabaree reported that Mu'aawiyah ibn Abec Sufyaan claimed that the
verse revealed

last

was the

last verse
last

oiSoorah al-Kahf (18:1

10).

11)

It

has been said that the

verse revealed was.

•Today

I

have perfected your religion for you. and have Completed

My

Fa-

vours upon you, and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion» [5:3]

A cursory

look at these opinions removes
last

many of them,

since each

Companion

was narrating the

verse to be revealed concerning a particular topic. Al-Baraa' ibn

'Aazib was referring to the final verse revealed concerning the laws of inheritance;

Umm Salama was referring to the last verse revealed concerning the relative status of
men and women; concerning 4:93, Ibn
rogated
of
it,"

'Abbaas' statement, "And no verse after

it

ab-

shows

that he

was

referring to the last verse revealed concerning the laws

manslaughter; and Ibn 'Abbaas' report concerning Soorah al-Nasr talks about the

final

complete soorah revealed, not the

final verse revealed.

The

report of 'Aa'ishah

1

94

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

that the last soorah to be revealed

soorah to

was Soorah al-Maa'idah means that this was the last be revealed which contained any legal rulings, as other narrations show.
of these verses are from the same passage
is

As

for the first three opinions, all
viz.
is

in the

Qur'aan,
ions, as
it

2:278-82, therefore there
all

no contradiction among these three opinfor

possible that

these verses were revealed together. As-Suyootce stated,
I

"As lor these three (opinions), then
ii

do not see any contradiction between them,

seems as

it

these verses were revealed at the

same time, and

their position in the

mus-hflf is

also the same."'"''
late revelations,
it

The remaining narrations deal with very

but not the

last.

The

strongest opinion

is

the

first

one, since

explicitly

mentions that hardly

i

week remained between
tion:

its

revelation

and the Prophet's
it

(5®) death.

The meaning ol
of Resurrec-

the verse also strengthens this opinion, as

refers to

death and the Day

••Ami liar die day in

which yon

will return toAll.i.ih.
\\ ill

Then everyone will be
iiiijiislly1

paid what he carnal, anil liny

nol he dealt with

2:28

1

As

for the last opinion, this

is

what

is

commonly

believed by most

Muslims

to

be

the last verse revealed:

jSS^JfcfoISIfJJI
« Today
I

have I'crlcclid your religion foryou...»[5:3|
is

However,

this
at

definitely not the last revelation.

This verse was revealed on the
ol

Day ol
(5^5)

Aralah,

the Farewell Pilgrimage, a
it

number

months before

the Prophet's

death. Since

refers to the

completion of the religion of Islaam,

many Muslims
meant by
ami
{luiluul

have thought that
this verse,

this signified the
is

end

ol the revelation.

What

is

actually

however,

that all the verses dealing with the rulings

of Islaam

luinuim) have been revealed. (This also explains 'Aa'ishah's opinion that the last soorah
to

be revealed was al-Maa'idah,

for this verse
It is

is

in

Soorah al-Maa'idah, and

it

was the

lasi

soorah dealing with legal rulings.)

clear in the luulccth of Ibn 'Abbaas dial the

revelation ol the Qur'aan continued to the Prophet (^g) until only days before he (^g) died. In fact, no

major scholar ever held the view
1

that this

was the

last

verse of the

Qur'aan to be revealed.

'"

169 Itqaan, 170 c£

v.

I.

p. J6.

Aim Shahbah,

pps. 125-127.

The
in.

First

and

Last Revelations

°5

Relative First

and Last Verses
dealt with the
first

The
general.

first

two sections

and

last revelations

of the Qur'aan
first

in

The

scholars of Islaam have also divided the subject of the
lirst

and

last rev-

elations conditionally, into separate categories, defining the
tions dealing with particular topics.

and the

last revela-

For example, there are a number of verses
cants.

in the

Qur'aan that deal with

intoxi-

The

lirst

These verses have been arranged chronologically by the scholars of Islaam. verse to mention intoxicants was:

«Thcy ask you concerning
great harm,
is

intoxicants
benefit to
is

and games ofchance. Say:
(that

In
is

them

is

and

(also)

some

mankind, but the harm

caused)

greater than the benefit (that

gained)..." [2:219]

The

next verse that was revealed restricted the consumption of intoxicants, such

that they

could only be drunk after the 'Ishaa prayer:

«0 You who
aess...»[4:43]

believe!

Do

not approach the prayer in a State of drunken

The
tion:

last

verse revealed concerning intoxicants prohibited any

amount

ol

consump-

->'

i

>*" <*';, '

"

''?~.

"fri>"

Satan only wants
cants... so will

to excite

enmity and hatred between you with
|t:'<1
|

intoxi-

you not then abstain.: »
lirst

Another topic

for

which the

and

last verses

have been defined are the verses
first

that deal with the lawful

and prohibited foods. The

verse revealed

was during the

Makkan

stage:

96

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

••Say:

I

do not

find in that

which has been inspired
except
if it
is

to a

me

anything forbidbloi >d

den to eat by one
poured
forth,

who wishes to do so,
to

he

dead animal, or

or the flesh

of swine - for that

surely

impure

- or the impi-

ous meat that has been sacrificed

other than Allaah» [6:145]

Alter
lastly

this, 16:1 14

was

revealed,

and

this

was followed

in

Madeenah by

2:73,

and

by

5:3,

which

classified the various types ol

dead meats that are forbidden.

A similar examination ol
The knowledge ol
ings
ate the history
this

the verses pertaining tojikaad have also been made. 171
is

chronology
It

essential in differentiating the abrogated rul-

from the applicable ones.

also enables the scholar to understand
it

and appreci-

of the evolution of Islaamic law, and
ol the

demonstrates the care with

which the knowledge

Qur'aan has been preserved.

171

eCAbuShahbah.pps.

129-130.

C H A P

T

E R

6

The Makkee and
the Madanee Verses

The Muslims

started out

weak and powerless
all

in

Makkah, and

yet within a

few

decades they managed to unite

the tribes of Arabia in the worship of Allaah.
liijnih of

The
to

turning point in this period was the

the Prophet
finally

(S^g)

from Makkah

Madeenah.
that the

It

was

after the hijrah that the

Muslims
fear.

had
it is

a state in

which they
in a differ-

could practice their religion without any

Therefore,

not surprising to find

Qur'aan catered to the
it

specific

needs of the Muslims

in

Madeenah

ent

way than

had done

in

tent, style

and syntax

of these

Makkah. There is a marked difference in the verse contwo periods, reflecting the different circumstances that
topic that
is

the

Muslims were

in. It is this

the subject of the

malice and madanee

verses.

The Qur'aan
This
is

has been preserved to an extent that
to a

is

unrivalled by any other book.

no surprise
says.

Muslim,

for

Allaah

I

Iimsell has

promised

to safeguard

it.

The

Qur'aan

&Sj^iM\yJ^(ScA^i
••Verily, it is

We who

have sent clown the Rememhrance. and of a surety.

We

will

guard

it

(from corruption)- |f>:9]

The Qur'aan
these aspects
is

has been preserved so carefully that not only has the actual text been
all

safeguarded, but also

related

knowledge

that

is

needed

to

understand

it.

Among

the science of categorising those verses

and soorahs which are mal^ee

and those which are madanee.

The Prophet

(^g) did not specifically

remark whether

a verse

was malice or

madanee, but the Companions understood the importance of this topic and carefully
preserved this knowledge, as
said: "I
it is

essential in

understanding the Qur'aan. Ibn Mas'ood
in the

swear by Allaah, besides
I

whom there is no other god, there is no soorah
if

Qur'aan except that
the Qur'aan except

know where it was revealed. And there is not that know the reason behind its revelation. And
I

a single verse in

there were any

person that
reach him.
I

knew more about
would
ride (on

the Qur'aan than

I

did,

and

it

was

possible for
1

me
:

to

my camel)

towards him

(to get this

knowledge)."

172

Reported by al-Bukhaaree.

98

An
It is

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

because

of this

enthusiasm

of

the

Companions

that all external information

concerning a verse's revelation was preserved. The scholar Aboo Bakr al-Baac]illaanee
(d.

403 A.H.)

said,

l7<

This (preservation)
panions ami Successors,

is

based upon the strong enthusiasm of the
the students

Com-

[usl like

(ol a certain scholar) lollow

up on the works of their teacher,
keep a record ofwh.it he wrote

anil

memorize

his

speeches and hooks, anil
last,

first

and what he wrote

so too the

Qur'aan
it

was (preserved) was even
stronger.

in tact to

an even greater

extent, for the eagerness lor

Thus,

it

is

not

uncommon

to find a

Companion

narrating external information
at first

concerning a

verse's revelation

- information that might
of revelation,

seem

irrelevant.

Such
cir-

information included the time and place

and sometimes even the

cumstances the Prophet
9:1 18

(i^,) was in. For example, al-Bukhaaree narrates that verse was revealed atTabook during the last third of the night, when the Prophet (jgg) was with Umm Salamah. Ibn Mas'ood said, "Once, we were with the Prophet (-yg) in

one

of the caves of Mina

when

Allaah revealed,
V'

«By the winds sent

forth...-" |77:1|.'"'

And

the verse,

"Allaah will protect you from mankind" |v67|

was revealed
guards."
tent

'at

night

when

the Prophet (S^) was in a tent, surrounded by body(5gg) lifted

When
l,s

Allaah revealed this verse, the Prophet

the covering ol the

ami

said to his bodyguards,

"O people! You may

lease, lor Allaah has
1 '
1

promised

to

protect me."
First,
it is

After this, the Prophet (^g) never took any bodyguards.

essential to discuss the definition o£tnaf$ee

and madanee

verses.

I.

The Definition of Makkee and Madanee
There are three methodologies by which the
mal{l{ec

and madanee revelations are

defined.

The

first

definition relies

upon

the time of revelation, taking the Prophet's (2^)
this definition,
if

hijrak as the division factor.

According to

if

a verse

was revealed before
it

the hijrah,

it

is

considered ma/(/(ce, and

revealed after the

hijral),

is

considered

madanee. This definition ignores the actual place of revelation. Therefore, those verses
revealed at the Farewell Pilgrimage (8 A.H.), or the

Conquest of Makkah (10 A.H.),

173
1

az-Zarkashee,

v.

I,p. 191.

7-1

Reported by al-Bukhaaree,

1

75 Reported by at-Tirmidhcc and al-Haakim. 76 For other examples ot this nature, sec Xarzur. pps.
I

1

56-138.

is the time of revelation. middle. These two methods are not equivalent 177 ct". tor example. a Companion specifically states the place and/or time ol revelation.Nk M. madanee. should also be mentioned that certain modern authors'' It have divided each of Makkan and Madeenan periods into three stages: early. The first way is by relying upon reports from the Companions. and if it was revealed in Makkah. ists ol after the hijrah in Makkah. Sometimes. In this method. is The third definition depends upon tor the the addressees of the verse. II. yy would be considered madanee by this definition. would be considered malice. once again. as this definition cannot take such verses into scheme. even though the actual place of revelation was Makkah. such as the People ol the Hook. They then attempted to show that each of these three stages has a unique style the and specific subject. pps. This is the strongest of the three definitions.in<i ih< M. The second way is by personal reasoning. that the verse place.inii Vitm -. even though they were revealed criterion here is The flaw not the time of revelation. The Knowledge of Makkee and Madanee Verses a verse or soorah is There are two ways of knowing whether malice or madanee. since it is the most beneficial. is it is considered malfac.ui. the verses revealed Makkah during first the Farewell Pilgrimage alter the hijrah. A with this definition (lor that those verses revealed neither in at Makkah nor Madeenah malice classification II example. Despite the ingenuity of this classification. One ol the flaws in this definition specifically that there are many verses in Qur'aan where the addressees are not Qur'aan addresses at a specific portion of all Madeenan. not place. or ijtihaad.iiskn . there does not seem to be a very fine line that discerns these stages from one another. as in the is definition. a scholar will take the verses' meaning and style into account ami try to 'presume' whether the verse in acceptability. or gives some external information from which the time of revelation can be inferred. lKS->2v . If it The second verse definition relies in upon it was revealed Madeenah. in other words. and it the verse is addressing the Muslims or hypocrites in Madeenah. the verses revealed Tabook) would not be classified as either its or madanee. Therefore. the mankind. but place. is malice or madanee. is where the verse was revealed. Salch. and late revelations. is also possible to combine these three to definitions is when dealing with a verse or soorah and to say. but addresses the polythe- ar-Ra'ad. ami or Makkan other times. The criterion according to this definition. will be considered the madanee. An example ol this is Soorah Madeenah. at a is malice. the verse meant if Quraysh and the polytheists of Makkah. yet malice with regards which was revealed whom it is madanee with regards to time and addressing. Ii it addresses of the creation. and is therefore the one primarily the place utilised by the scholars of Islaam.

and the laws of inter-religious conduct. and were the only eye-witnesses to the actual revelation process. the logical consequence in the 1 78 Unless there exist statements to the contrary by other Companions. as the needs of the ttmmah varied according to its situation. the Muslims had daily their own state and were needed relatively established. by affirming His Names and is Attributes. and now the Muslims were of divine guidance and social lives. and the each type of revelation. curred is at a certain lime and place. 6. the ruling that a certain verse is makfcee or madanee was derived by the ijlihaad of a scholar. Islaam to was a relatively new religion. In the early stages revelation. and rejecting all false deities and idols. rather. 179 For these attributes. and thus needed continual moral encouragement. in neeil The beliefs of Islaam in their had been revealed. 1/22-23. and the beliefs ot Islaam still had be established. to arrive at this verdict. so did the style and content of the revelation. however. The known characteristics ot mak){ec and madanee revelations (which is be discussed next) incorrect. Many malfam verses also stress the necessity ot is purifying one's worship to Allaah. There arc inspecting the various reports by a number of methods beyond ol Companions to arrive at the strongest conclusion. on the other band. In addition. . state of the have unique need. It. They also to know the rules and conduct ol ji/iaad. knowledge is taken as undisputed This because the Companions were present at the time of revelation. The attributes of the mal<l{ee and madanee ries: revelations are divided into two categospecific characteristics the common themes Ol of each type of revelation. Qattaan. The tact that there only one true god is proven in these verses. see: az-'/. because each type of revelation catered to a different The of Muslims differed greatly before still and after the hijrah. but these are the scope ol this book. the Muslims were oppressed and had very little power. but possible that such a verdict may be ill. anil that this belief of one god. is It that have been observed of should not be presumed that every makfcee I79 madanee verse indicative of these particular characteristics and themes. 1/187-191. In other words.arkashee. these arc general trends that are applicable to most mal{l{cc and madanee verses.3-64. then this ruling scholar applies the shall may be it accepted or rejected. In the second period. The Attributes This is of Makkee and Madanee is Revelations that they each One of the aspects ot'nia/(/(ee and madanee revelations attributes. Common Themes of Makkee and Madanee Verses The makfcee soorahs have 1 as common themes: ) The call to the pure worship of Allaah (tawheed). Ubaydaal 114-117. as-Suyootee.100 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan If there exist reports from the Companions stating that this a particular revelation ocfact.

and this led to a new breed of people. and tribulations had received. those who professed belief but in reality were nothing tions the hypocrites evils.. malice verses called lor good con- duct. only a broad basis of morality was established. in order to 180 Prayer hail already been established raku'ats in the Makkan stage. the angels. and an 3) The exposition of their faults and shortcomings. . the relationand the punishments for spe- crimes (Iwdood). but it was in Madcenah that the number of were changed and specified tor all later generations. In the of prayer. arc: that the believers faced at These soorahs repeatedly warned the idola- ters of the punishment that the earlier nations As 1 for the madance revelations. primarily in their books and beliefs. the descriptions ol in Heaven and Hell ol and the rewards and punishments 3) them. respecting orphan's properties.) 4) were not revealed."*" charity. the previously revealed scriptures. drinking. detailed laws The establishment of a system of laws governing individual. the laws state in with other religious groups. concerning the relationship of the Islaamic ship of the Muslims cific familial and societal relationships. and other aspects 'aqecdah. inheritance. fasting 2 madance verses. by affirming belief in prophcthood. and how Allaah dealt with 4) and treachery. For example. The Madcenan phase witnessed a new phenomenon that was unknown to the Muslims of Makkah -that of hypocrisy. marriage. their plots. etc. For the first time. specific laws (concerning lornication. and the the hands of the disbelievers. elaborated Day ol Judgement. it was socially and politically advantageous to be consid- ered a Muslim. At this stage. the Christians The madance verses sought to by exposing the corruption ol invite and Jews to Islaam. the madanee verses menwarn the Muslims against their Muslims not be become like them. Included in this are laws forjihaad. and by explaining the true teachings their faithlessness Moosaa and 'Eesaa. therefore. and treating female infants properly (as there was a custom amongst the Arabs of female infanticide). The madance verses also discussed in detail the history of the Children ol Israa'eel. of the previous generations. their common themes The perfection of the rituals of worship. discussion with the Jews and Christians concerning their religions. anil and caution the more than pretenders! Thus.) ) The Makkcc and 2) the Madance Verses 101 The establishment of the 'aqecdah (beliefs). The stories The trials mal{l<ec soorahs emphasised the sto- ries of the previous prophets. war and peace. The upon the stories of the previous prophets. The establishment of morality. the and pilgrimage were revealed. The exposition of the plots of the hypocrites. and the ma/(/(ce soorahs. the description of the Day ot Resurrection.

-Zarkashcc. '). 5) Generally. The There Categories of Makkee and is Madanee particular verse more to the knowledge of makkee and madanee verses than whether a was revealed before or after the hijrah. 2) All soorahs that begin with disjointed w such as Alif- Lam-Meem.is-Suyoolee. I87-2DS li>r most of these examples. . 1/11-31. and thai » huh at was revealed at yet is Makkah madanee. 4) 5) Generally. madanee. \ which mention the and the story ol Aadam and the creation. "Nay (kalaa)V' Qur'aan.u Madccnah categories). The scholar Aboo al-Qaasim an-Naysabooree (d. . and that which was revealed Makkah . with the exception ol Soorah al-Baqarah.H. except Soorah al-*Ankaboot. I. and Hu-Meem. 'Imraan. using strong words and frequent oaths. p. ol die Soorahs'. 2 Every soorah that mentions the hypocrites is madauee. anil classification into vet is makkee and madanee. is 3) Every soorah that addresses the Jews and Christians Every soorah that mcniionsjihaad is madanee. 192. Some 1 specific characteristics of madancc revelations are: a Every verse that mentions a punishment for ) crime (lutdood) is madauee. p. and. in makkee. 'The Beginning v. with the exceptions of al-Baqarah and Aali- which have a verse of prostration (sajdah at-tilaawah) are makkee. See az-Zarkashce. madanee verses are longer than their makkee counterparts.) 102 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Specific Characteristics of Makkee and Madanee are: verses Some 1 specific characteristics of makkee revelations is Every soonth that has the oath. stories of the previous prophets. iv.h. letters (a/-mttcjatta'aat). 182 18s a/. are makkee. These whoever does not know them and cannot distinguish between them ofAllaah! "' 1 is prohibited from explaining the Book Some of the more important categories arc mentioned below: 1 *3 181 See C. Hasan ibn Muhammad Amongst 406A. the verses in makkee revelations are short and succinct.) wrote: is the most noble ol Qur'aanic sciences its the knowledge tli.it ol its revelation. concern- concerning the people of Makkah. 3) All soorahs 4) Ail soorahs are makkee. This oath only occurs in the last hall of the over fifteen soorahs. and that which was revealed ing the people of Madccnah.. and .{ninelce/i other are twenty-five different categories in total. and which was revealed al Madccnah makkee.

For example. Soorah al-An'aam makjfee except lor three verses which were revealed after the hijrah. al-Ikhlas. or most of whose verses. al- Anlaal. al-Munafiqoon. '^C^JJJ^^^^J «And offer prayers perfectly at the 1 two ends of the day and in some hours ol the night. so that it is unsure whether they are malice or madanee. al-Maa'idah. These arc hijnth. even though a soorah might ple. Muhammad. an-Nisaa. as-Saff. 64 in particular is malice. alat- Hadeed. al-Hashr./(ee. . These arc the soorahs whose verses. al-Mumtahinah. These arc twenty soorahs of the Qur'aan.. Talaaq. and you. al-Falh. al-Muttafifeen. be madancc.) The Makkcc and the Madancc Verses 103 1 The m a /(/{ec soorahs. "() Messenger ($!§).. and have completed my lile» |5:3| fa- vours upon you. In a similar manner. al-Hujuraat.. az-Zilzaal. As was alluded it is to earlier. were revealed after the hijrah. and chosen Islaam as your way ol This verse was revealed the hijrah. The 4) rest of the eighty-two soorahs are malice. al-Jumu'ah. or most ol whose verses. an-Noor. 3) in which there is a difference of opinion. verses 151-153. Sufficient for you and lor the believers who follow you!" is 5) Madanee verses in mal{l{ec soorahs. yet verse w For exam- Soorah al-Anfaal Allaah is madanee. in That which resembles the madancc revelations content and style yet is mal{kcc. "Say: Come. 7) it is at the Farewell Pilgrimage. al-Qadr." 6) I will recite to you what your Lord has forbidden for that That which was revealed at Makkah yet is madanee. the soorahs whose verses.. were revealed before the 2) The madanee Those soorahs soorahs. yet since it was revealed after considered madanee. and an-Nasr.- 11:1 14| 1 fS4 The and actual arrangement ol the verses was noi chronological* See Ch. The soorahs in which there is a difference of opinion are twelve in number: alal- Faatihah. in Malice verses in general madanee soorahs. which begin. is possible that certain verses are mak. ar-Rahmaan. Bayinnah. at-Tahreem. S on the arrangement ol the soorahs verses. al-Falaq and an-Naas. at-Taghaabun. An example of this is the verse •Today I have perfected your religion for you. The madancc soorahs are: al-Baqarah. al-Mujaadalah. In other words. ar-Ra'ad. those verses were revealed after the hijrah at Makkah. Aali-'Imraan. al-Ahzaab. at-Tawbah.

in That which was revealed Madcenah addressing the Makkans. 10) That which was revealed at night. ^$^j&J$if&$&k « They ask you -|2:21 7| (() Muhammad) about lighting in the Sacred Months was revealed when the Muslims of Makkah were being attacked by the pagans during the Sacred Months. 'Aul ibn Afra was among the eighty Ansaar who embraced Islaam at the hands of the Prophet ($g) in Makkah (at the second covenant ol al. and the first lew verses ol Soorah Tawbah. of the Qur'aan was revealed during the daytime. you will not guide whom you was love. For example. I. However. 12) That which was taken from Madeenah to Makkah. 'OAllaah! If this is indeed the truth Imm \o\\. 191.|2S:56] (jgi. p. which led to the conversion of many people. There were a number of For verses that were sent by the Prophet (5gg) to the people of Makkah atter the// ijrah. "Ami when they (the disbelievers) said. For example.v. of its laws was not completely established yet is That which resembles the malice revelations madanee. yet the until after the hijrah.52| This verse seems to be malfcce since discusses the idolaters oi Makkah. . more and more soorahs were taken from Makkah to That which was taken from to from Makkah Madeenah.'» |8:. The first soorah to be taken Madeenah was Soorah Yoosut. the first verse ol Soorah alTaalib's death: Hajj.Aqabah).) PH An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan This verse was revealed prayer with 8) all at Makkah and alludes to the five daily prayers.) was revealed when the Prophet most 1 1 in his bed. After this. and Allaah revealed the answer in this verse. These Muslims asked the Prophet (jyg) whether they were allowed to light back.. example. and the whole of Soorah Maryam. The verse revealed at Aboo "Indeed. and Soorah al-Mumtahinah. the verse. There are many its verses like this.. but was in fact revealed after the 9) A ijrah. He returned to Madeenah atter he had memorised Soorah Yoosul. Makkah to Madeenah. then rain down stones on us from it the sky. 1 as "Aa'ishah narrated. and recited it to the people ol Madeenah. such as Soorah ar-Ra'ad in entirely. hut rather Allaah guides whom He wills. Also in this cat- 1X5 az-Zarkashec.

e. Allaah revealed these verses to console the Prophet ($^) Airily. IX() Sec Ch.mil you. anil will suffice lor the present discussion. 7. helps in understanding that Allaah consoling the Prophet (^g) that he will eventually return to Makkah. barred from performing 'Umrah. Another example Soonih at-Tawbah (also called Baraa'ah). but these arc the more impor- tant ones. These verses were sent by the Prophet (^g) to Ja'tar ibn Abee Taalib when he was debating with the Negus of Abyssinia: •pZ j \1SZ & ^Ak=> &ttl & Js£$\J*1^«J is ••() People ol the Hook: Come to a word that just ami fair between us . 13) That which was revealed during the hijrah.: The- Makkcc and the Madance Verses 105 cgory lims is the verse that prohibits interest (2:278). Most of the Qur'aan was revealed when the Prophet (>yg) was not travelling. Soorah al-Fath was revealed at Hudaybiyah. However. . when the or Madeenah. |28:8S| was revealed during is the hijrah. during the hijrah.. The Some Benefits of Knowing Makkee and Madanee knowledge oi nnil{kee verses are: ol the benefits ol the is and madanee verses 1 ) This knowledge essential in arriving at a proper it understanding and interpreta- tion of the Qur'aan.»| 5:64] That which was revealed while the Prophet (3^) was travelling. Muslims were There are other categories of mal{l{ec and madance. 'The Cause of Revelation. that IS) we worship none save Allaah. and the verse that informs the to Musal- ofMakkah who were unable forgive perform the hijrah that is ii is possible that Allaah would them (4:99). On the way from Makkah to Madeenah. so that he could recite the soorah to the polytheists Aboo Bakr while he was performing ofMakkah.""' The lact that l\Z&\$3<&\'$t&&j&tf%fa Airily. v. as is a key to understanding the reason behind the revelathe verse. some of the Qur'aan was revealed during battles or travels away from Makkah For example. for example... tion ol a verse or soorah . (O Muhammad) the Makkah)" |2S:SS] Qur'aatl will return That which was taken from Makkah to Abyssinia.' . He Who has given you (() Muhammad) Makkah)» the Qur'aan will return you back to the place of return (i.e. He Who has given you you back 14) to the place of return (i.. The Prophet (5^) sent this soorah to Hajj.

' . the Day ol Judgement. in the malice verses. In the madanee revelations. all da'tvah should being addressed. Abrogation in the Qur'aan.106 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 2) This knowledge helps differentiate the abrogated verses from the non-abrogated ones. emphasis begin with this same theme. 13. anil most important topic. Likewise. on the other hand. For example. tor example. The beliefs). is always given on . The polvthe- are given different arguments than the Jews or Christians. A person cannot help but marvel at the II miracle of the preservation of each and every intricate detail ol the Qur'aan. In each case. the reader gains ol the a better understanding of the Prophet (-^g). however. first 4) It gives the history ol the gradual revelation ol thesharee'ak. then how possible that the meaning and intent ol the verse has not been preserved? 1 87 Sec Ch. is it when and how actual a verse was revealed has been preserved. the knowledge ol where. the ruling is taken from the madanee 3) It verse. lawheed sacrifice.of directing all forms of worship. from love. that of 'aqeedah (Islaamic was the primary subject of the mal^kce revelations. For example. ings. Hell and other crucial topics.-gg). Heaven. ma/^ec and madanee methods anil characteristics in calling to the religion ot Allaah. 6) Lastly. ists depending on whom the verse addresses. while in the madanee verses he ol the told to beware ol the plotting life of the hypocrites. the Qur'aan talks about lawheed (mono- theism). In these soorahs. which different Islaamic laws ol ma/(/(ce were implemented verses. No matter which group the importance ol trust. hope. it proves the care and detail with which the knowledge ol the Qur'aan was preserved. fear. angels. gives an insight into the lile of the Prophet (. prayer. the Qur'aan primarily talks about laws for the individual. the Prophet (-^) is told by Allaah to bear patiently the torments ol the (J{g) is polythcists. family and state. if two verses deal with the same topic and give is different rul- but one is 11 madanee and the other makfcee. The caller to Islaam should use the same methodology is when addressing these groups. beliel in the prophets. and vows only to Allaah. is appreciated The gradualily by when one gains The an understanding t) It and madanee lays out the procedure and methodology of calling verses have different to Islaam (da'tvah). and Companions.

as follows: 1) The verses revealed withoul revealed without a asabab an-nuzool. all asbaab an-nuzool) is defined to be the event oroccur- rencethai was the direct cause of revelation ofa particular verse ovsooralt of the Qur'aan.ami there thai 1 is not a single verse in die Qur'aan excepi know the reason behind its revelation.. . Mosi oi the verses oi the wen particular incident occurring before their revelation.ool (plural: The sabab an-nuzool Therefore. ami give an answer or ruling pertaining to that occurrence. As lor the statement ol Ibn Mas'ood quoted earlier.. these verses that arc- the subject of this chapter. or because ol an incident or occurrence.i The sabab an-imzool musi direct be a specific incident. lun rather thai when such cause existed.. ol revelation.." 4:1 1 1 . it cause ol revelation ol a particular must have re- occurred shortly before the revelation. In other words. to Quraan The primary purpose for the revelation of the Qur'aan was ^Ui^i^^j •guide mankind oul <<\ the darkness into the light* 1 14:1 Inn this docs noi qualify as asabab an-nuzool for the revelation of the Qur'aan. the verses must have been vealed in response to the occurrence. In addition. The Definition ol Ashaah an-Nu/. ih i.1 1 CHAP T E R 7 The Causes of Revelation asbaab an-nuzool I. All. An example ol this are the verses pertaining 1" inheritance.." this docs not imply dial ever) verse had a a specific cause ol ii. commands you with regards toyoui i hildrcn's (inheritance)... as shall be discussed later. occurrence or question thai was verse or verses. Ibn Mas'ood was aware 2) Those verses revealed in response to It is a question. ". the verses ol the Quraan may Ik- divided into two categories with re- spec! to asbaab an-nuzool.

but this occurred before the Prophet's (Sgg) birth. but rather that such a purpose does not qualify as sabab an-nuzool. predictions that came 188 Narrated by nl-Rukhaarcc. inspection shows that it little does not come directly under this topic. incorrect. or that Conquest ol Makkah was the sabab an-nuzool ol the first the Battle of Badr was the sabab an-nuzool of the second. since during this battle the pagans ol "'' Makkah were to say that the 'put to (light' However.»|90:l-2| (jsjg) This soorah was revealed 'free' in Makkah. and the knowledge ol the unseen. Abrahah out with an army of elephants to destroy the Ka'bah. and they will show their backs* [54:45] it This verse was revealed have been at Makkah. Also excluded Irom sabab an-nuzool are the vious nations. 1 to a prediction ol the Battle of Badr. or a later occurrence clarifies the meaning of a An example of this the verse. the sabab an-nuzool of this verse was the question These verses 1 that Jaabir asked the Prophet ($g). p. yet the Prophet was not completely is a person in Makkah until after the Conquest of Makkah. This is when verse the verse precedes the actual occurrence. lor these ami oilier examples. it seems strained verse. Even though this incident explains the it meaning ol the verses. a verse mentions a pre- diction that eventually comes is true. Another example the verse. and some of the Companions understood and thus 'showed their backs'. it docs not qualify d. these verses were true. Abu Sbahbali.S sabab an-nuzool. 2%. and he asked the Prophet (^g) how he should divide his money among his children. Therefore to claim that the sabab an-nuzool ol Soonib al-Fcel ("I lave (105:1)). This is Qur'aan was to guide mankind. There but a is an occurrence that some authors have discussed under asbaab an-nuzool. .1IIH An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Quraan were revealed when the Prophet (5g) visited Jaabir inn 'Abdillaah while he was sick. is not to say that the guidance ol mankind not the purpose of the revelation of the Quraan. therefore ot the it As was mentioned. you not seen how your Lord dealt with the owners is ol the elephants?" set was the attacking ol the Ka'bah by Abrahah. «I swear by this city! Ami you arc a free (man) in this city. The sabab an-nuzool must also have occurred shortly before the revelation of the verse. Rather. «Thcir multitude will lie put to flight. since this is cannot he claimed that the sabab an-nuzool not a specific incident. 189 ct.. for example. since did not occur immediately preceding the revhistories ol the pre- elation ol this soorah. the sabab an-nuzool must be a specific incident.. " Therefore.

for personal reasoning determining the sabab an-nuzool of any It is necessary to rely on the people ascertain the sabab an-nuzool. Riyadh. Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d. only known through later references of it. city and dale of publication are not mentioned. who were when the verse was revealed to The sources for asbaab an-nuzool. with Companions anil their (d. Imaam 'Alec al-Madincc p. concerning asbaab an-nuzool. or statements from the Companions.H. 19? Al-Waahidee. their testimony of asbaab an-nuzool accepted.H. all Published by Matabi al-Ashaa'. the inauthentic ones before quoting any material 192 Irom Unfortunately. 1984. since would have come from it. 1984. 103 95 A. 8.). '"' and one I of the most authentic is by the famous scholar of Yemen. See the wa Manhajuhu fi Naqd ar-Rijal by Ikraam Allaali al- Umm al-Qurra University. 194 as-Suyootee."'" Since the tual revelation Companions witnessed is the ac- of the Qur'aan. This work combines it narrations.H. knowledge of tafseer. Therefore.).H.). Other scholars respond by the generation before the reasoning can be usee) for accepting a narration for sabab an-nuzool it from any generation. claiming that this that such testimony from the Successors must have come from the therefore these narrations must be accepted. there present no room verse. '4 190 Unfortunately. The scholars have differed with regards to the testimony of the Successors. anil is masters dissertation entitled Hai| () 191 . and Jalaal ad-Deen as-Suyootee 91 1 A. are hadeeth from the Prophet (d. "" The classics that are available in (d. work on this one of the most comprehensive works is by Khaleefah Aleeway. authentic and oth- erwise. or the students of the Companions: should their reports of asbaab an-nuzool be accepted? Some scholars say Companions. 220. 110A. Al-Waahidcc 487 A.Asbaab an-Nuzool Booths on 109 Asbaub an-Nuzool specifically There have been many books written on the topic of asbaab aii-nuzool.). 1/42. such A. . (d. is essential to differentiate the authentic narrations Irom it. therefore. "It is not permit- ted to speak about asbaab an-nuzool except by transmitting reports from those who witnessed the revelation of the Qur'aan. Shaykh Muqbil ibn Haadee al-Waadi'cc. 'Ikrimah 104 A. the works by Abul Hasan Alec al-Waahidcc (d. II. 852 A. (jig). and Qataadah as- Sadoosee(d.).) also authored a topic. entitled ]ami' an-Nuqool fi Asbaab an-Nuzool. Therefore. t liis work has been lost. all way back to the Companions. entitled Asbaub an-Nuzool. ": entitled Saheeh al-Musnad min Asbaab an-Nuzool. Sa'eed ibn Jubayr 1 Mujaahid ibn Jabr (d. In this era.).H.).The Causes of Revelation .) said. The Derivation or Asbaab an-Nuzool earlier. it is From what has been discussed ticular clear that the sabab an-nuzool is is a par- occurrence in the lifetime of the (ijtilnuid) in Prophet (^). p.H.H.H. 487 A. is Perhaps the safest opinion to say that reports concern ingsabab an-nuzool will be for their association accepted from only those Successors the who were well known as (d. entitled Lubaab un-Nucjool ft Asbaab an-Nuzool. Makkah.H. the publishers name. the teacher this field arc ollmaam al-Hukhaarec. The first person to write a book exclusively on this topic 1 was 'Alec al-Madccncc 234 A.

but the situation It is was not the sabab an-nuzool of the verse. or could also imply that the act was the sabab an-nuzool.. The clear first manner of phrasing that is (bund in the statement of the Companions (Sfe) and unequivocal concerning the sabab an-nuzool of the verse. 261 A. Imaam Muslim Ahmad ibn Hambal (d.H. and not necessarily that was the sabab an-nuzool of that verse. ihen the former taken to be the sabab an-nuzool ing of the verse.ut. and accepted them as sabab an-nuzool.... occasionally. 204 A. terpreted..\ it does not give certain knowledge.) and az- Zarkashee only accepted such reports to mean that the ruling of the verse applied to that situation.1 1(1 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan Asbaaii . 256 A. . narrated in such a manner.» |2:22?| l')S Uh. in nar- The Wordings It is ()] essential to discuss the different wordings that the Companions used rating the sabab an-mtzool of particular verses.\N-Nr/.. example the statement... il one ol is narrated in an unequivocal... so go into your tilth (i. and is so Allaah revealed.e. have sexual rela- them) as and when you wish. the reports ing).. however.o<)i. ol the verse. Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d. lor example. In other words. it could imply that the ruling ol the verse applies to that case. "I of a verse. they conveyed their the sabab an-nuzool own uncertainty in think this verse came down regarding. then there no doubt or ambiguity in accepting The second for act. is not explicit and unequivocal in nature.^JL-J 'lour wives are a tions with tilth lor you.) took these reports as equivalent hadev/b of the Prophet (Sg). In to . This because this type ol \\\i: statement does not necessarily imply that It the particular act mentioned was sabab an-nuzool of the verse. On the other hand.)..' or. and can be interpreted either way. 'The Prophet is was asked concerning such-and-such. At other times.'). the second type ol phrasing).' If the sabab anis nuzool it. ij>S j£J Oj>. and the latter as coming under the mean- Perhaps an example will better verse: clarify this point. the statement: 'The reason this verse was revealed was.t.ml. (d. due to the ambiguity in the wording of the state- ment.H.e. die the ruling Companions intended imply that it particular act came under (i.'" possible that there exists ol a particular verse.H. in narrating There arc two primary ways or wordings thai the Companions used such incidents.e. is nuzool This occurrence is next section.. clear report is manner the fust type of phrasis and the other not (i. The particular example is the At£ & '^3j>. such a case. 'This verse was revealed concerning such-and-such an Scholars have differed with regards to the acceptance of this type of report as is sabab an-nuzool.e.' type ol phrasing. p.H. and how these wordings are to to be ina This is because. more than one narration concerning the sabab anwill be discussed in greater detail in the in this section (i. The point that wished to be understood that.

1% Reported in al-Bukhaarcc. and therefore he said. and the other is authentic. When 1) It there exist multiple narrations concerning asbaab an-nuzool for a single 1 verse. One has just been mentioned. the following guidelines are used: "" one of the narrations is weak. both of which are narrated explicit in al-Bukhaaree. there are two reports concerning the subub an-nuzool iorsoorah 93. would be born with 1 When the Ansaar asked the Prophet (^>) about this superstition. The narration ot Ibn 'Umar shows that this verse also prohibits anal intercourse. "Is anal intercourse allowed?" it which case wotdd be ihv subub an-nuzool ot the verse). the was revealed in response to the question ol the Ansaar. It could imply was revealed it in response to the question. and has no relation to [aabir. it 197 In other words.70-73. a sabub an-nuzool). the verse course. in thai the verse was revealed response to particular question Irom the Ansaar. . 199 >i: Ubaydaat. so that once the Prophet ot the did not receive in- one ot the women Quraysh ridiculed him. Ibn (i. or could imply that (In- verse prohibits anal intercourse (in which case this is its one ot the points that can be derived Irom the verse. it is seen that there are two narrations for the sabub an-nuzool ol the verse. 198 Reported in al-Bukhaaree. £>Jfi &j&%£^}&^ \\$ I 5® tf^ Your Lord has neither (s^g) a die Forenoon! And by the Night when it is Still! Forsaken you nor Hated you!»[°S:l-3| Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim narrate spiration tor a tew days. Faced with these two narrations. p. In this example.\'uzool sabub an-nuzool.The Causes The verse has two narrations concerning "I'his verse oilier its ol Revelation - Asbaab an-. then the weak one is rejected and the authentic one accepted. there exists another narration from [aabir ibn 'Abdillaah which he stateil that this was revealed in response to a question from the Ansaar. Umar 1 narrated. saying. The narration of Ibn that the verse (in 'Umar is of the second type of wording. i. The in report of however. QaQaan 87-91.' in. "" was revealed concerning anal intercourse verse to prohibit it). instructing them that such intercourse was allowed. Multiple Asbaab an-Nuzool for There are many instances where there One Verse more than one narration concerning such example concerning verse 2:22^ exisls the sabub an-nuzool ol a particular verse. if The Jews of Madeenah used to claim that the back'"' then the child a person had intercourse with his wife from a deficiency.. 'This verse was revealed concerning anal interone takes precedence.e." in On the hand. For example. is explicit in its wording. '"1 Allaah revealed this verse.e.. he had normal intercourse with Ins wife with her back towards him.

in him. and she it.. you have only been given little" |17:S5|. 671 ). This caused the servant Prophet ($^5) to clean the house. v 4* ' *tf \-" *« ' ^<i\' ••They ask you concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit (or is from the command knowledge) ol my Lord. 4V"^ 'bt £A^J* &$£ ^ij^J •• I "hcv ask you concerning the Spirit.-'"" it is rejected as sabab an-nuzool. based on second-hand information. We passed by a group of Jews. I think your Satan has left you. "I : I saw the Prophet (5g) stand for a while.'»|17:85] has two reports concerning sabab an-nuzool.. he read." Allaah then revealed these verses in response to her. and when they did. who was walking with the Prophet (Sg) in Madeenah.' said. p.112 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan "() Muhammad. then the former narration accepted. Virr. In this case. (i. staling ( jfcg) did not receive inspiration for a few days. it is the Quraysh who are asking the Prophet and not the Jews. discovered a dead puppy under the bed. that the Prophet On the other hand..ittil in at-Tirmiilhcc.'"-' 200 There 2(i| is an unknown narrator in its chain. a to ask who said that the polytheists of Makkah order asked the Jews to give them question that they could ask the Prophet (3|g). then for preferring if investigated to see it there are any grounds one narration over the other. Reported in al-Bukhaarec. (icgl.-"" The second to baffle report is from Ibn Abbaas. is both narrations are authentic. 'Why ilo you not ask him something (to try to outwit him): *Thcn they asked. See Ibn Hajr's comments in luilh (v. Since this narration 2) If weak. The lews told (hem about the Spirit. there exists a narration in at-Tabaraanee. anil another that accepted. is For example. The first one is reported by Ibn Mas'ood. is When it she removed this soonih was re- vealed. Say: 'The Spirit is from the command (or knowledge) ol my its I. 'Tell us about the Spirit. one of them narrated in a clear manner as being the sabab an- the first type of phrasing mentioned is in the previous section). Allaah revealed these verses. who whispered to one another. nuzool other above. so (S||) I knew he was being inspired.' and ol knowledge.e. When the inspiration finished. 202 . and he was leaning on a stick.ord. whereas the is not. raising his head. the eyewitness report The verse. so he started worrying of the about this. as with the story of the Ansaar Another reason tions is that one narration is preferred over another is if one of the narra- reported by a at the Companion who witnessed is the sabab an-nuzool of the verse is and was present time of the revelation. In this report. 8.

"There -"" nothing to prevent there being more than one cause ol revelation.* [24:6] However. S" * Si'S '\*t\tf '">'£> •"{>'" •As tor those who accuse their wives. should he kill him." He then recited the Faced with these two authentic reports.. fibred came down with the following verses. seems apparent that the incident Iil. and he Allaah (-^g)! in al-Bukhaaree states that 'Uwaymir saw "( ) his wife came to the Prophet («^) and asked him. 204 Up to this However. or what should he do?" "Allaah has revealed verses concerning you verses of li'aan.i. The 1 "O Umayyah! Either bring your proof (the four witnesses). the Prophet (SSI could immediately respond to . The Prophet and your spouse. swearing by Allaah that they are indeed truthful.il occurred slightly he tore T'waymir's. since Ibn Mas'ood was present }) Ii at the time of revelation. precedence is given to the first one. is Ibn Hajr 852 A. |>. then this implies that the verse was revealed more than once. Messenger of A man sees his wife with another man.. and then ($g) responded. if*. Umayyah responded. If both reports arc equally authentic and the time frames are known to be far apart. An example ol this is the 'Verse o\ li'aan' (24:4). that Hilaal ibn Umayyah accused his wife of adultery. or else he 2(lT il would he u hipped i>l I lor slander. u hen 'Uwaymir came to the Prophet (Sg).) said. then let them four limes. which deals with the case of a husband who accuses his wife of adultery without the necessary lour witnesses. and Allaah will reveal to you (concerning my innocence) to free me of the punishment!" ["hereafter. 203 A leeway." The Causes of Revelation Asbaab - an-Niizoul 1 13 Faced with these two reports. but have no witnesses except themtestify selves. or else we will have to punish you (for slander by whipping you with eighty lashes)!"" Umayyah responded. "I swear by Him who has sent you! I am truthful." is This stance taken when it is possible that these incidents occurred during the same time frame.H. then this implies the verse was revealed response to both (d. another narration with another man. it is concluded that both of these incidents in and the verses of li'aan were revealed response both of these cases. occurred in a similar time frame. both reports are equivalent in authenticity. AI-Bukhaarce narrates Prophet (syg) said. does he need to go and seek other witnesses!" But the Prophet (-^g) repeated what he had said. since his question. lime. "() Messenger of Allaah (i^g)! A man sees his wile with another man. 15. himself be killed (for murder). to 4) . tour wit- nesses lo prove his accusation. the only verves governing accusations Stated thai an accuser hail to hrinj. and there does not exist any means ol giving preference to in any one ot them. whereas Ibn 'Abbaas was not. ol the incidents.

all of which are equally to is not possible for is all of these incidents have occurred simultaneously. "I will continue to seek forgiveness for you as long as I am not prohibited from doing so. its plies that the verse is was revealed on is As az-Zarkashce stated. 29." He ($£) then read the above verse.. three separate times. "It possible that a verse it. are you going to away from the religion of (your father) 'Abdul Muttalib?" Therefore Aboo Taalib died upon the religion of his father. "() Aboo Taalib.1 14 An Introduction to the Sciences of"the Qur'aan In other words. The first report that of at-Tirmidhcc. for do hold the to the above they will prefer the narration in al-Bukhaaree. these verses is from al-Haakim of my mother. In addition. I asked Allaah's permission to pray for her. 91. «It is not proper lor the Prophet and those who believe lo ask forgiveness lor the polytheists anil pagans. they will example. However.. and 1 show them verse also contains the ruling of that incident. if there exists which it is are authentic. 207 For example.. the Prophet Jahl taunted Muslim. it of this verse. and all inconceivable that these incidents occurred simultaneously. Aboo turn ($ig) tried to convince him to become a him. and started crying. as When next second report (•Jg) sal The who narrates from Ibn Mas'ood that once the Prophet to a grave. ol when it comes to reports on asbaab anwhich of these reports is the strongest (so.. nuzool such as these. and to remind peo- ple of And is the wisdom behind it is of this (meaning the multiple revelation of a that single verse). most scholars the most authentic book 206 az-Zarkashec. v.'"' that once a verse was revealed. The Prophet (i^g) said. hadecth). in his Mabauhilh . but a verse has already been revealed before it gives the ruling concerning that incident. They claim again. p. And lastly. Allaah revealed the above verse.31. there was no need to reveal the verse Therefore. "'This grave is the grave the Prophet {%&) was informed of this. Then he (3g) said.* [9:] 13| There are three reports concerning the revelation authentic. see Qattaan's opinion. Therefore. and none all of of more than one report ai asbaab an-nuzool. saying. all of which can be given preference over the others. but He forbade me. to signify all importance. However. even though they died were revealed. then this imof these occasions. who reports from 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib pagans. the the Prophet ($g). ol should be mentioned that some scholars deny that any verse the Qur'aan was revealed more than once. Faced with these three authentic narrations. that a person asked forgiveness for his parents." At this."' "' An example of this type of plural revelation is of the verse. with regards since this is try to find story. that possible that a certain incident or question should be the cause of the revelation ol a verse. so that the people can be same verse to is re-revealed to that the reminded of it. al-Bukhaaree narrates that when Aboo Taalib was on his death bed. revealed twice. It it is concluded that it was revealed on each of these occasions. I p.

where lie lias a whole section devoted i<> such examples.. I. c ** ij^2&\ ^j-^r^ tWiJ ^X— « ol «Do there not wish for that which Allaah has made some |4:32| you to excel over others.. one ol the wives ol the Prophet (S5). . Ja*>J* {&**> i^'j'Jj tff^. "O Messenger of Allaah! see that Allaah always mentions men (in the Qur'aan). Allaah has prepared ness and a great reward" [33:35] them lorgive- and lastly.J*r* Never will I S^ £-^ ^ 4 allow to he lost the work of any ol you. pps. •> i 'tf\ « Verily. ion arc (members)..'"" saying that this an indication of the importance of such iv. the verse. . ami the Muslim men and women. . one ot another* |3:l°^| 2ox cl. he he male or female. making one. . Umm I Salamah. the believing men anil women.*!.sabab an-nuzool number of For example." secondly. asked. I' 1 . verses.. v. Multiple Verses for It is One Sabab an-Nuzool revealed in response to one occasion the cause of revelation lor a also possible that a number ot verses were or question. az-Zarkashec.mil lor women a rewanl what they have earned. Allaah revealed three verses: firstly. thus different verses. /i *>K" y. the verse. the verse. but not women!" In response to her comment.Tlic Causes of Revelation - Asbaab an-Ntizonl I 1^ view that it is possible that certain verses is were revealed on more than one occasion.it they have earned. lor and the obedient men and women./-v :*({- .•: :*!£ . For is men there for is a reward torwh.

Allaah revealed. I. and Haakmi." 211 az-Zarkashcc. ii is concluded that all oi these verses were revealed because oi this anesahab an- "' nuzool. 'II we were the 'Station of Ihraahcem vl as a place of prayer?!' revealed. "1 agreed with my Lord I my judgement So Allaah agreed with only my Lord's) to take three matters: ('The lust was thai) asked the Prophet ($gg). is p. Sabab an-Nuzool to record The ( Companions used this which verses were revealed concerning them.»[8:l | 'The third verse was revealed w hen the Prophet (3^g) visited me w hen was 1 I sick. Therefore.1 number oi different narrations in which Umm Salamah asked the Mes- senger ofAllaah (sg) this question.1 when one ofyou approaches death to leave will tor Ins parents and v. and each narration gives one of these verses.ited by Ahmad. 21 W The revelation oi is t Ik first versi hi response to I'm the third by m . kin.. but world with kindncss. See OaUaan. 'No!' then asked. I le slated." " 'Umar ol in ibn al-Khattaab also reported a number (i. it There to was a sword that I really liked. 'It is writ ten for you . v. Allaah revealed. . ami then Allaah revealed the verse prohibiting wine. my mother promised not to eat or leave the Prophet Muhammad Therefore.1 16 An Immiluction to i he Sciences of the Qur'aan There are . A Person as was a source stated.. of verses that came down because him. (The drink until I one was due to the fact that) ($&..»|31:15] them in this The second verse was revealed concerning the booiy we had captured in war. '»2. hall ol He answered. 1 asked him. ol a third third 2 I le did not respond to so from then onwards (a bequest) 1 was allowed. "'And the lourth one occurred when ol was drinking wine with a I group went the Ansaar. then do not obey them. but during the tion.. 2 111 Sa'ad was probably refcrringw 2:180.) (to complain).il Salamah's question is narrated bj |>. Qur'aan were revealed concerning me as of honour and distinction lor them. 212 This the stone that Ihralieiin stood < on while he was building llu it Ka'abah. It used to he right ill front ol the Ka'abah. so I asked the Messenger ol Allaah (^g) to give me. a laliphate oi "Umar ibn al-KhaJjaab.. the Second verse n. was moved to its present loca- lew metres in Iron! ol the door of die Ka'abah. is. For example. •But ifthey (your parents} ners "I try to force you to join in worship with Me parttreat which you have no knowledge.irr. ai Tirmidhec. it?' '() Prophet (jgg)! I I wish to distribute 'A my ' wealth..). should give away this. so to the Prophet (5^.e. Sa'ad ion Alice (or he- Waqqaas "Four verses first ol the cause of me). -They ask you concerning tin spoils ol war.. One ol them hit me on my nose (because he was drunk).

. or should is be extended to cases that the wording implies? in In other words.1 The Causes of Revelation - Asbaab an-Nuzool 1 17 «And take the Station I oflbraheem as a place ). should the it verse only apply to the parall which it was revealed. ofprayer* |2:125| (The second was when) tolil the Prophet (. is it the ruling restricted to the specific circumstances which it was revealed. Is this verse then understood to apply only it does apply to everything the Prophet (Jig) commanded or forbade. or applied according to the generality of the wording of the verse? To quote an example. 'Verily. al-Bukhaarec reports that once the Prophet asked Jibrccl. For example.. so I told them. the sabcib an-mizool («^g) of a verse.. sometimes the Prophet not Muhammad (i^g) was himsell revealed.' ... or the booty of war. take it. 1 19:64 In this case.»|59:7| was revealed concerning to the spoils of war. since the wording of the verse implies this? The majority of scholars hold the view that the rulings from such verses are ap- plied to every case that the wording of the verse covers. his Lord will give him.) you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's (sgg) bouses. <.. 'If (-^g) could divorce all of you and replace you with better women.»[33:53] Allaah willed.... The verse that 'Umar is referring to is 66:S. "Why do you visit us more often?" Allaah then «And we (the angels) do not descend except by the command of your Lord. In other words. it may he that il he divorced you. the oft-quoted verse.'"'" In fact. both pious and impious order them to seclude people enter (your house and see) your themselves?' So Allaah revealed. the Prophet once the Prophet's (^) wives complained to him. women. the ruling is 213 Reported by al-Bukliaarec. abstain from it. Why don't you «0 (Thirdly.. instead ot you.And whatever the Messenger gives you. wives better than you. and whatever he forbids you. vi. The Rulings from these Verses of a verse is If the sabab an-nuzool ticular case for known. the Prophet's (jgg) question was ihc sabab an-nuzool of the verse.

For example. followed them. These verses cannot in general..mil ami promised this accusation spread first amongst the people of Madccnah. makes sense to apply this ruling to every similar case. In response to this false charge. . 214 ' Aa'ishah was accused liy some hypocrites ol com miltim. "Allaah has revealed verses concerning are applied to every is you and your spouse. For example. eration for a its comes under the maxims in //</// is. in order to extend the ruling of the verse beyond the sabab an-nuzool. Allaah revealed the ol this accusation. fact is also proven by the Companions. analogy Ujiyaas) must be resorted to. a that commands and prohibitions not related to the spoils of you curse woman came to 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood." So. going back to the initial example of the verse. or whether they are an exception. the verses that came down to clear 'Aa'ishah of N the (alse charges that were impugned on her arc obviously meant only lor her. take it. "And whatever the Mesto the senger gives you. However. and definitely the rejected view.. twenty utscs of Soonl/l au-Noor. who create gaps between their teeth (to look more beautiful). According to these jurists.despite the fact that they were revealed lor particular persons (the Prophet (j^g) even said. since the wording of the verse implies every command anil prohibition from the Prophet This (S^g). and Companions. and those ami those ladies heard ladies who get their facial hair removed. but rather to every case that wording of oi the verse.was held by a small group of jurists.) war.. This restrict the because is not possible to ruling to the circumstances ol all its revelation. an inspection into the asbaab these verses shoidd be applied in an-nuzool enables the researcher know whether (i. adultery. "I have those ladies who tattoo themselves or tattoo others. When to the case. and by the majority of the ing die verse only to its The other opinion that ol applyis sabab an-nuzool . this verse is applied based on the generality of the wording." to 'Uwaymir) - husband who accuses it his wile ol adultery without bringing any witnesses.. "The considruling comes from the generality of the wording. for example. thereby changing the creation of Allaah!" He answered. there are apply to the Muslims a very small number of verses this is that are specifically meant to apply only for the sabab an-nuzool for which they were revealed. . the verses ol li'aan . Therefore." even though the verses were revealed with regards booty of war. general. anil said. in who used this verse as evidence for obeying the Prophet (^.e. and not lor the Muslims in general. as the verse cannot be taken to apply to a later case. the verses ol li'aan were re- vealed concerning a certain circumstance that a husband accuses It his wife of adultery without bringing forth the necessary witnesses). lor the Qur'aan was revealed not just for the as a guidance for the nations until the Day of Judgement. This practice (ol taking the ruling from the generality the specificity ol the sabab) ol the verse and not from was the one practised by the Companions and those who jurists.1 1H An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan noi restricted to the sabab an-nuzool. In tact. which cleared 'Aa'ishah the culprits a severe punishment. and not the specificity one ol the popular legal circumstance ol revelation. However.

if only you had done the same!" The Prophet (Sgz) remained silent. it.) its impossible to properly inter- without reflecting over 72 s A. "I have read the whole Qur'aan from cover yet did not find this (curse)!" it.) stated. rather it is for all of mankind. said. commanded him to follow up this evil dead with The man askeil him. for knowledge ol application. "No. the Prophet (>gg) recited a verse that had just been revealed to him: «_ji. the appli- was not limited him. The To Benefits ol Knowing Asbaab an-Nuzool knowledge are as follows: Some 1) of the benefits ol this arrive at a proper understanding of the verse. Con- cerning this topic. good deeds remove (j^g) evil deeils» 1 1 1:1 H| In other words.-" She replied. in an even more explicit report. "Knowing asbaab an-nuzool 21t Narrated bv al-Hukhaarec. and they arc cursed to cover.H. "Allaah hid your sin. «And whatever the Messenger commands you. "Verily. and not the specific circumstances. the man left the gathering. when the Prophet (jyg) has cursed them. "The knowledge its asbaab an-nuzool . so do me as you please!" 'Umar chilled him.mis in under- standing the verse. had you really read you would have found Did you not read the statement of Allaah. by Allaah's Book. He answered. take hibits it. 702 A. abstain from iir»" |59:7| In this case.) sabab an-nuzool.H. \sbaab an. and whatever he pro- you from.I I." Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn ol Taymiyyah (d. it In fact. and remove any misinterpreta- tions or doubts concerning the verse's meaning. "O Messenger of (5§§)! Is this '' verse only for this me?" to He (jfe) responded. Once.Ntizool 119 "Anil why should and 1 not curse them. "It is ol asbaab an-nuzool. and did not respond to the man. The Prophet (j^g) ordered that he be called. vii. and when he came. the Prophet in good deeds Allaah order for him to be forgiven. al-Waahidee pret a verse 487 A. . "Abdullaah ibn its Mas'ood used the verse according to to the generality of meaning (that the Qur'aan commands the Muslims limit it obey the Prophet (<yg) in all matters). and did not to its sabab an-nuzool. "Indeed." 21 Even though cation ol the verse person was the sabab an-nuzool of the verse. "O Meskissed a woman that was unlawful for me to kiss. is was the Prophet (HD himsell who showed that the ruling from a verse to be taken a from the generality of the wording." Ibn cause of revelation produces knowledge of its is Daqceq al-'Ecd (d. is This by far the primary purpose of the (d. Alter a while. senger of Allaah (^g)! with I have man came to the Prophet (-jyg) and said.Tin- Cm uses of Revelation . knowledge said.

Marwa is an integral aspect of Hajj and 'Umrah. it is (the mountains ol) Safa and Marwa are from the signs ol Allaali! So not a sin on one who performs Hajj or 'L'mruh to the House (ol Allaah) to pass between them»[2:158] The walking between yet "Urwah could not ". In the days before Islaam. Labaab an-Nuaool. and the pagans sake ol ol these idols. to but were concerned about this 'pagan' ritual that used to be performed between Sala and Marwa.. imply- not know which Ka'bah was. 217 Another example of the following verse. The verse clarified that the walk between Safa ol and Marwa was an Islaamic pagans of old. . When the Makkah used to walk between Sala and Marwa lor the Muslims conquered Makkah. so they prayed in different directions. its 'Urwah was able to understand is meaning. Therefore. they destroyed these idols. Allaah revealed them that there was no sin on them for walking between these mountains. practice and hail nothing to do with the practice the was not revealed to explain the legal status ol the act of walking between Sala and Marwa. 62 and as-Suyooiee. is no sin if one walks between Safa and Marwa. it is not a to pass between them. verse says. one on Sala and the other used to be on Marwa. ••Verily. 'Aa'ishah." -So important is thi 1 knowledge one who deprived ol it is prohibited from interpreting the Qur'aan. 217 Narrated by al-Hukha. there ligator). However. the verse was revealed concerning direction the group verse ol Muslims who did revealed. there and asked her concerning these verses. the sabab an-nuzool of the verse shows a an incorrect meaning. ibn az-Zubayr read the following verse. After they reported what they had done to the Prophet (»^S). She some doubts that the Muslims two idols. understand how these verses implied this obligation. then explained that this verse was revealed to clear up had. this was 216 Quotes taken from Ubaydaat. and West! So wherever you turn your |2:l 1^| you will find the Face of Allaah" This verse might lead to lace the a person to believe that it is not a requirement of the prayer this to be Ka'bah. After 'Aa'ishah explained the sabab an-nuzool oi this verse.. 4l)i Aa-j lis \jly lHil9 ^-ri^j3j^^ faces «Anil to Allaah belongs the Hast (in prayer). but neither ob- He went to his aunt.. p.. since the Sala and sin.ircc. 5.' Some examples 'Urwah will help illustrate the importance of this topic.' From the apparent meaning is it of the verse. p.and Muslim. but rather to remove any doubts that the Muslims had with regards to its relationship with the the verse shows that the verse The sabab an-nuzool ol pagan custom ol old.120 An Introduction to the Sciences of tlie Quraan ol the a powerful tool that in understanding the meaning is Quraan.

in 2 A. and believe.1 The Ca uses ing that in circumstances where 1 of Revelation - Asbaab an-Nuzool 1 2 it is not possible to ascertain the c/ib/ab. 220 Almost all p. would be impossible to understand what the were referring to. racy of this. Qudaamah wine was allowed. 138). 28). incorrectly as- mentions 'Ulhmaan as the Companion who held this opinion. Ibn Hajr was Qudaamah who held this Opinion.'"" to believe that drinking one of the Companions. . T'thmaan (v. cursory look at any hook ol history w ill show the inaccuas- 'Ulhmaan that ibn Madhoon died after the Battle of Badr. and informed him al-lsaabah. and Abu Shahbah. 218 alAVaahidee. It had occurred before the prohibition of intoxi- can be seen from these three example that without the asbaab an-nuzool. p. would Allaah punish them drinking alcohol. ihn Madhoon. and almost a all later authors (including Suyootce) followed him in this error."' 1 In either case. I. 1 10. another example is concerning the verse. if it would be very 2) not impossible. this verse was revealed concern- ing the voluntary prayer of the traveller. Sahaabah.-" According to other reports. (cf al-lsaabah ft Tamyiz I. and do righteous deeds»|S:93| The apparent meaning of this interpret that a pious person verse caused ihn Madhoon. However. verse been known to him. or accept their martyrdom? This verse was then revealed. when the) refer to this incident. difficult. 30. These verses to clear 'Aa'ishah of the false charges that were it used to disparage her honour. He used this verse to and would not ol this be- was allowed to eat or drink anything. held accountable for his diet.I In fact. which may be prayed " in any direction. •There is no sin on those who believe ami ilo righteous deeds concerning what they eat. and 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab had him flogged ol during his Caliphate lor drinking wine. Allaali will still accept the prayer. il There are many verses the sabab an-nuzool the Quraan which would be impossible to understand first were not known. had the sabab an-nuzool to this conclusion. an- swering them that Allaah would not hold them accountable for what they had eaten or drank in the past. if they tear Allaah. the sabab an-nuzool of these verses verses was unknown. "This verse was revealed concerning the traveller on his mount.H. 1. Ihn 'Ulnar said. since these actions cants. in his al-liurhaan p. This because az-Zarkashcc. were revealed It An example are the twenty verses ol \ Soora/i al-Noor. to fully understand these verses. he would not have come response to a question by and died before for This verse was revealed in some Muslims concerning those people who had fought the drinking of alcohol was prohibited. the circumstances in in To understand which a verse was revealed. v. authors quote the name is ol Qudaamah ihn Madhoon 's brother. whereas his brother it mentions Qudaamah ibn Madhoon died in the year Mt A. the error of his interpretation of the verse (if # 7103. the asbaab an-nuzool clarifies ol the verse the misconception that the apparent Yet meaning might cause. clearly # 5469). p. Wherever he laces (his prayer is acceptable). However. 219 az-Zarqaancc.

On the other hand. it is obvious these 'Aa'ishah and her accusers only. O V^J sA <4^ ^ 1 «Pcrish the two hands of Aboo Lahab.1 122 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Likewise. '> -> <> \4^&^&-^<jpdj£m*£*Jb « Verily Allaah has heard the [SS: I ] woman who lias come to you complaining ahout her husband. exceptional cases.. hh%lJ2\J\J^^p\ «\'crily those who accuse chaste women. 1 repentance is still accepted from those it asbaab an-nuzool. this is When a Companion was the cause of revelation. On the the cause of revelation was a disbeliever.* in 3) order to understand its meaning. Marwaan. he instructed all of the governors to make this announcement. and may he perish loo!- 1 1 1 1:1 are a further humiliation tor him. for. when Mu'aawiyah wanted to nominate his son Yazeed for the position of the next caliph. this a further disgrace for him. For example. .." By knowing know when to apply the verses according to to the the generality of the wording. The governor ol Madeenah.) to them of to do This is an honour 'Umar. and when they are specific to the case lor which they were revealed. verses that were revealed concerning particular. p. To apply the verses in a proper manner. 80. For example. and when apply it specifically to the case it was revealed 4) To know the person who caused the revelation of the verse. if an honour is for him. since the revelation supported the opinion 'Umar. the verses instructing believing revealed after so. women to cover themselves was instruct 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab asked the Prophet for (#j. "This is the custom of Aboo Hakr and 221 Qattaan. called the people and asked them to give allegiance to Yazecd. the verses that were revealed concerning Aboo Lahab. other hand.. In the previous verses are in reference to example of the verses in Soorali al-Noor. arc cursed in this lilt- and the Hereafter. is possible to who accuse other women. There are certain A know ledge of the asbaab an-nuzool enables the researcher to know when the verses are applied in general. however. the verse reads. it is necessary to know the sabab an-nuzool of the verse. and he said..»[24:23] This verse did not allow any repentance for those who accused 'Aa'ishah. The knowledge of asbaab an-nuzool also prevents the application of the verse to the wrong persons.

swear by Allaah.. 'Aa'ishah replied. Marwaan then said. I H (cf. #5165). but he entered the house of Aa'ishah. 'Aa'ishah's knowl- edge asbaab an-nuzool enabled her to prevent the application ol this verse to one it whom did not refer to. 222 az-Zarqaanee. ••'Bui he who says to his parent. Woe Day to you! ol Do you hold on in the promise thai I shall be raised up (on the Judgement). he is the one this verse is referring to. when the generations before me have perished. you wish I can you the name ofthe person ol this verse is referring to. p.The Causes <>I Revelation - Aslnnib nn-Nuzool 123 'Umar. .. v. these are nothing but talcs ol "I the ancient!'*" [46: 1 7] if To tell this. rather the custom Heraclius!" his sister ol Caesar and Marwaan tried to capture 'Abd ar-Rahmaan." Therefore. I." 'Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Abee Bakr said. "I swear by Allaah. el-Isaabak.. he is not the one. "Nay.

. when Allaah has taken it upon Himself to guard and protect it? For He says. Only the Qur'aan can be claimed have been preserved in its original form.and is the Prophet (3^5) .has been favoured with over other nations.an honourable and respected Book. .9. 0^fc3$G&&£fy «Vcrily.CHAP T E R 8 The Compilation of the Qur'aan The compilation history. a We have sent down it this Remembrance (the Qur'aan). Scripture The Qur'aan the only divinely-revealed responsibility ofpre- whose preservation has been promised by Allaah. lor ol the Qur'aan is a unique phenomenon to that is peculiar to Islaamic no other religious book can claim be anywhere near as authentic as the Qur'aan. anil We are ol surety going to protect (from tampering)" |15:9| tearful ol forgetting its And when the Prophet (-ge) was verses. as are the authors of the Hindu to scriptures. it it from in front is a revelation from One who is All-Wise.. • *. And how can it it not be preserved. The 223 Rhaleefith. the The New Testament was authored arc over a century alter 'Eesaa's death. Worthy of Praise* This is one of the unique blessings that ummah .p. and Old Testament's authors shrouded in mystery. Falsehood cannot approach of it or from behind [41:41-42] this it. «. «Do lect not it move your tongue with haste concerning ability to recite it» |75:17] it! For it is for Us to Col- and give you the Allaah describes the Qur'aan as. Allaah revealed.

therefore behoves its Muslims when making such bold claims to investigate the manner in which it was preserved. the second..) ($g) Life itsell was sent to an illiterate nation. The ol first is the preservation of the Qur'aan during the lifetime of the Prophet (5g). whether he believes in the is It prophethood is of Muhammad Gil) or not. must conclude that the Qur'aan that present today the same Qur'aan that the Prophet (i8g) taught to the Companions. I. of Allaah. During the Prophet's The Prophet (&.and the rahbis to priests them was entrusted the protection of the Bool. and hey were witit. the earlier nations were given the responsibility ot protecting their scripol the tures. as the Qur'aan alludes to: ]y *o\) £5sJJj s-~^ t+oAnJ Mr-y^ Sw* Mr* ( «He is the one Who has sent amongst the illiterate ones a Messenger from will recite to amongst themselves. /or I «. and the third. and will not be discussed in as much detail.. and examine are three distinct stages ol the compilation ol the Qur'aan. this. whose protection was the responsibility Crea- An unbiased researcher.1 The Compilation serving earlier Scriptures had been placed of the Qur'aan 125 upon its recipients. but so was the himself Allaah commands mankind >> Qur'aan: .» nesses to [5:44 Thus. concerning the earlier Scriptures. _A_Y~i 4J. and teach them the Book. There the history ol compilation.fr \j>\^=!j and the 4jjl ^5j^^Wa>cl^ul Uj jL>-*^ \j Oj^y tj (judged according to their Scriptures). who them His signs. Qur'aan. and the Wisdom: and before deed in manifest error» |62:2| they were in- Not only was the nation Prophet ($gz. in contrast to the tor.. de- compilation All that ol the Qur'aan byAboo Bakr. without any divine aid. occurred after the compilation of 'Uthmaan not related to its preservation. the compilation is 'Uthmaan. and purify them.) that the Prophet (5§g) was sent in the to illiterate.. Allaah mentions.

m's description "I die I'rophci (Si5) as being illiterate.e. and because of this. literary It Muhammad («gg) was illiterate. however. the followers of falsehood might have doubted" |2 >:48|. but since the Prophet (^g) was illiterate. he Prophet (5£) to remain illiterate. In addition. nor did you write (any hook) with your right hand! In l that case. They claimed tor I that.. that the knowledge ol reading and writing was minimal. there was no need to read write. The annual honour is of 'Ukaadh was the time when every his poet would compete is lor the having poem posted on the door ol the Ka'bah. who can neither read nor In another verse. only seventeen peopleknew how to read and write in Makkah.. the Arabs of the Prophet's (Sg) time had a very strong oral tradition of poetry. Thus.. as the Messenger of Allaah. the proots tor llns are not explicit. ••Those who follow the unlettered prophet. but rather from the Creator then Irom where did he bring lorth the itself says: masterpiece of the Qur'aan? The Qur'aan ••Neither did von (( ) Muhammad) read any hook before it (i. then such a doubt could not exist! The lact that the Prophet (sgg) and the nation that he art ol was sent to was illiterate does not imply that the Arabs had no experience in the composition and rhetoric.. p. ami the various try to tribes ol Arabia used to compete with one another fair ol in produc- ing the most eloquent poems. this ol might have given reason doubt the Prophet's claim prophethood. Allaah describes the believers as. il the Prophet (i^) had been a writer. these 'prools' clearly contradict die <. the Arabs were forced to pass on most ol their history anil poetry orally. There no god except He!' So believe write. 224 li should Ik- mentioned to read that . See az-Zarqaancc.. was not from him.126 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan S. to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and in Allaah. 564-367 lor an in- depth discussion 22s Azaini. On the contrary. alter the miracle of the Qur'aan and his IjSI was established. anil one to whom the people- knew (5^5) to be an eloquent author. the revela- tion ol the Qur'aan). I. I am sent to you all.i small numher ol classical scholars believed thai the Prophet (-®) eventually learnt illiteracy how and and write. and lluis is Allaah taughl him how However. 1 v." [7:I57| The fact that the Prophet (#g) could neither read nor write was meant to be one oJ the greatest prools that the Qur'aan Himself.. This was the Prophet was sent to. ami therefore cannot be accepted. :: ' In other words.)ur'a. earth. It is said that. at the lime of the advent of Islaam. indeed.|7:li8| and 1 lis Messenger. and this opinion rejected by the majority ol scholars.i\ (() Muhammad is (5§5)): 'O Mankiiul! Verily. . What known. pps. they became well known literary situation ol the people that the lor their strong (^yg) memories. anil well-known to be so. ol ibis point.

Jibrecl recited to He (^g) used to be fearful of forgetting the verses that start him. 89.- The Compilation ot the Quraan 127 facts in mind. brought with him The story of 'Umar's conversion mentions that his sister had a saheefah (parchment) that one ot the Companions. in the details ol is thcwraA and other aspects ol history. when the Muslims were still The Prophet ($&. Before this.''\'\\' \i\\ y ' j -***c \-" ' A\' •Verily. This because no law or belief is based on these stories. and according to the Strongest opinion. point out that it p. However. the prayer had been his (J^g) twice a day. the Prophet (^) used The Qur'aan mentions. to spend large portions of the night reciting the Qur'aan. This story indicates that the Qur'aan to others was being recorded and taught (2^1) even during the early stages being persecuted. At this occasion. this ' Khabaab would secretly come to the house of he 'Umar's brother-in-law with parchment. ' <"> *& \ '\'\. or (sometimes) hall ol or (sometimes) a third anil so do 226 I his is the (curacy ol the Prophet (sysp to which Allaah look him to Jerusalem. due to the modest number ofsoorahs revealed. (to pray) a little less than two thirds ol it. so he used to repeating the verses even before Jibrecl finished. <©^0>i^lH^^ ** Jl3 iLllL^ij^ «Movc not your tongue with give you the ability to recite haste. to reassure him. This parch- ment had the said. The earliest record that exists of the Qur'aan having been written the sixth year of the prophethood (seven years before the hijrah). of the Prophet's mission. After 'Umar read it. Allaah then revealed. to recite it. "How beautiful and eloquent is this speech!""' and realised that the Qur'aan was a revelation from Allaah and accepted Islaam. down is during when 'Umar ibn al- Khattaab accepted Islaam. With these the very early '' rise thcsoora/is in existence at the time to recite in their prayers. had been obligated the second year of p. and teach them the Qur'aan. ol your Lord knows that you stand it. See Mubarakfoarec. Khabaab ibn al-Arath. 122-4 lor turther details is on the conversion ol 'Umar. and trom thence lo the Heavens. Raheeq al-Matfiturn. meaning the first two or three years. is not essential that each incident have a perfect isnaad. had to leach her family. . It is for Us to collect it and it» |7S:16-1 7| Also. prophethood.) was also very concerned about the preservation of the Qur'aan. 227 See Mubaraklooree. Although some scholars thcwwiWol this story not authentic. The prayer (siilaat) had already been made obligatory before the Prophet's n so the Companions would have had to memo(5lS) journey ofal-Israa tea al-Mi'raaj. it would have been very easy to memorise this quantity. it is doubtful that the Qur'aan was written down during Makkan period. first few versesof Soorah Taa Haa written on it. Allaah obligated the prayer live time a clay. the night.

the nnisjitl so noisy because of all of this to recitation of the to distort the Qur'aan that the Prophet (^g) ordered us (by mixing all ol meaning that these verses). a Anas ibn Maalik as saying that only four people memorised the Qur'aan before the Prophet's (^e) death: Ubay ibn Ka'ab.p. This all shows that many ol the number were Compan- ions had memorised most. Saalim. seventy reciters (memori/. Zayd ibn Thaabil and Aboo Zayd (his name was Qays ibn as-Sakan). Hudhaylah During the inci- ibn al-Yamaan. Soorah al-Baqarah. shared the Prophet's recite (Sgg) concern for the preservation of the They would for and memorise as much of the Qur'aan if as possible. that There are some narrations. "Learn the Qur'aan from four people: 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. and others. Companions reached the Well oI'Ma'oonah. to teach the Muslims of Madcenah the Qur'aan. of seem to imply that only a certain number people memorised the Qur'aan during the Prophet's (^g) lifetime. For example. 'Alee ibn Abce Taalib.it h. Zayd ibn Thaabil. 170. were disbelievers. the Prophet (^5) sent two Companions.. Those who were famous Bakr. Such was the concern of the Prophet (^g) in teaching the Qur'aan to the new Muslims that he would even send Companions to other cities to ensure that the Muslims in those cities could memorise the Qur'aan. Mu'aadh ibn fabal. states that the Prophet (^J) said.ul pretended to (/>'/'/) show an interest in Islaam. and a similar killed in the Battle of Yamaamah if (12 A. which occurred in the fourth year after the hijruh. hut in reality cl.»|7. having memorised most not all of the Qur'aan were Aboo 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab. The concern that the Prophet the following narration: (^) showed in teaching the Qur'aan is shown by 'Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit reported.?:2<)| In later years. L'bay ibn Ka'ab.. . Tin- Prophet (sS) hail sent these seventy Companions p. When 545. dent ol Bi'r \ Mu'oonulr'" alone. the Prophet (^) used (around to recite. Muharaktooree. when larger portions of the Qur'aan had been revealed.l20. Ibn Umm Makioom and Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr. Mu'aadh ibn fabal. "Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood.H. 'Abdullaah ibn 'Abbaas.). not of the Qur'aan. s Therefore. 2 ill p... Aali-'Imraan. the Prophet would ensure each new Muslim had a teacher to teach him the Qur'aan. they were massacred. the Prophet (3^) sent Mu'aadh ibn fabal to the hijruh. 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr. Mu'aadh ibn fabal." 228 Uhay<laat. and Ubay ibn Ka'ab.128 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan much of the Qur'aan as easy a group of (believers) with you.. in one rul(uh. "Whenever a person mi(-gg) grated lo Madcenah. Eventually. After the hijruh. the Prophet teach would assign him became "" to one of us so that wc could lower our voices so as not (5^g) him the Qur'aan."" Makkah to teach the Qur'aan to those who had not been able to perform The Companions Qur'aan. Even before the hijruh. however.ers) of the Qur'aan were killed. to teach certain trihes these th. so recite as foryou. and an-N'isaa' a sixth ot the Qur'aan). also in al-Bukhaaree. Annarration in al-Bukhaaree mentions other narration. "Uthmaan ibn 'Alfaan. 229 Muharakloorcc.

- The Qur'aan was also memorised by other Companions. Alee ibn AbeeTaalib. stones. and the Qur'aan was taken from them <: directly. . alter mentioning the names ol the seven Companions"' who were the most lamous as having memorised the Qur'aan.m ilm See Chapter "Allaan. p.. the Qur'aan was written were so common that to Zayd "During the lilettme ol the Prophet :. According of Ibn Sa'ad. Tabaqaal ol scribes for the Prophet among them the four caliphs. Zayd used to write the Revelation (the Qur'aan) lor the Prophet (5§&).. as that these Imaam adh-Dhahabee (d.and he would dictate I it me." The Compilation of the Qur'aan 129 The meaning tions. Al-Bukhaaree reports the following story: When it was revealed: Not equal arc those believers who sit at home ami those (hat strive in the cause of Allaah. but he to (-^g) also checked whether was written correctly. "I down. and the most prominent Imaam adh-Dhahabee said.) menCompanions were the ones who were the foremost in the memoriand it sation ol the Qur'aan. believers who sit at home and those. and Zayd bin Thaabit.» [4:95] the Prophet (5^) said 'Call Zayd ilm Thaabit lor (i. me. Aboo Muosaa al-Ash'aree ami Aboo ad-I)ardaa. "These are the ones whom we know to have memorised the Qur'aan during ing it to the next generation. to the date-palm leaves.) In other words."' their recitations have not reached us During the later periods. and from them originate the chains of narrations (isnaad) of all ten t/ini'tiut. is ol these narrations. but (through any isinituls). When Zayd came. soorahs > In other words. 1 the lifetime of the Prophet («|g).. (to the end ofthe This incident shows the haste with which the Prophet to (^g. and not just memorised. we used compile the Qur'aan from scraps ol cloth.. 2ii adh-Dhahabee. twenty-four dilferent people acted in the capacity (315).. 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab. and tell him to bring the ink-pot and the scapula bone the Prophet (S5) told him. "Abdullaah ilm Mas'ood. 42. they used to form the various and join the verses scrap by scrap. Write: paper and pen). ' (^)."'" The parchments on which ibn Thaabit reported. the Prophet (j^) also made sure that the Qur'aan was written down..e.) recorded the Qur'aan ensure its preservation. 2^4 al-Hamad.. Not only did the Prophet (•§§) ensure that the Qur'aan it was nar- written rates. The writing materials included cloth. 748 A. 98 235 Reported In al-Haakim. is through them that the chains o! narration ol the Qur'aan go hack in their to the Prophet ($£. When he finished. he would I command me: 'Read it (back to me)!' So used to recite back to him (what hail written). Zayd ilm Thaabit. saddles and shoulder blades of animals.' are those "Not equal verse)'". these Companions were the most famous in teach- knowledge of the recitation of the Qur'aan. I'll I I 'The Qira'aal ol the Quraan' lor details on the i/ini'atil. p. 231 These were: 'Utlima.H.

or other similar things. This (material) might be interpretative clauses for certain obscure phrases in the Qur'aan. some Companions who used to write the a Qur'aan in personal imis-luils sometimes wrote material that was not part ot the Qur'aan. p. anil since the inus-luils were lor personal use. For example. Ubay ibn Ka'ab also had less than and. during the month of Ramadaan. 237 tbtiAbee Daawood. See Azami. they wrote these additions in the mus-luif imcc there no fear ol them mixing the additions thai they little had written with the text the Qur'aan. "Jibreel used to recite the reported that the Prophet (gjji|) con- year he has recited it to me twice. fully aware ol that these additions were not a Howwas of because the scarcity ol writing materials. 239 A prayer that is meant v. It was the practice of the Prophet (^g) to recite the Qur'aan to the Angel Jibrcel every year. . "Do not write anything from me except it. 17. 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. but as such the should be remembered that these copies were written any for personal use. The Prophet the 23* had commanded the Companions. ol m These were not complete copies of the Qur'aan. but this do not see (any explanation for this) except that 236 Reported by Muslim. and some of over fifteen Qur'aan. in addition to the soorahs that he had. into enemy hands and thus be disrespected. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab. lor he later allowed tin ( 'ompan- down I hadeeth also. later abrogated by him. in fact. and assume that these additions were actually a part ot the Qur'aan. the daughter of the Prophet fided in her. Those people ol intellect tail to take these (actors into account. even though this was not the case. -I. p. the prayer lor also found. Faatimah. part ol the Qur'aan. or prayers (<lt<\uis). Az-Zarqaanee writes: To summarise. nor was the arrangement six soorahs. 179. and Companions could have know ledge besides the Qur'aan that they wished to preserve.\M) An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Quraan Tlie (5^. amongst them 'Aa'ishah and Hafsa. Jibreel would also recite it back to him. 238 lellery. This ions to write command was p.) Companions also had their own personal copies of the Qur'aan."' for their Those Companions who were famous the wives of the Prophet (#§). in greater detail in 240 az-Zarqaanee. This point be discussed Ch. p. listed mus-hafi were Ubay ibn Ka'ab. and (3g*. Whoever writes anything besides the Qur'aan should burn that the So com- mon. Some sources have Companions who were recorded to have written down most of the thesooraks in them the same as the later arrangement. Ibn Mas'ood had one hundred and is and the order of ihc soorahs was not the order which one hundred and fourteen soorahs c/ii»oo/ ''" present today.). 271. to he recited in the will ii'ilr prayer. They were ever. 'Scholars' and a hadeeth are who it try to cast doubts on the authenticity of the Qur'aan use such nar- rations to try to prove that these additions were actually 'verses' that were left out of the Qur'aan. were these mus-hafi mus-hafi might Prophet (3^*) had to issue an order prohib- iting the Companions from travelling to fall lor fear that these enemy territories with copies ot the Qur'aan. I." Qur'aan. 22-25. I whole Qur'aan to me every Ramadaan. 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib.

4) There were some revelations abrogated their recitation. and vice versa. The first issue that Aboo Bakr hail to ileal with was the issue ol apostasy. it was scattered in loose fragments that were owned by different people. II. The First Compilation (•£&). this abrogatermi- could occur at any time. "The Prophet (iS) used meet fibred every night Ramadaan. of Aa'ishah added. but it had not been compiled between two covers. and existed in written form. Zayd ihn Thaahit was present. Therefore it would not have been compile last all of it in one book.The Compilation of the Quraan 1 >\ my lime (of death) to is near. the Companions chose the best of them to be and Aboo Bakr took over the affairs of the Muslims. since the Qur'aan was not in any danger ol being There were numerous Companions who had memorised all of it. anil (^) used Jihreel to recite the that Qur'aan to him the Qur'aan. 24> Sec Ch.). The written Prophet (jig) did not compile the Qur'aan in one the hook during that the to he his lifetime.1) The arrangement (Sis). 1 ^ 'Abrogation in the Onr.in" lor Innlu-r ilcunls. only- had not been completely revealed The verse was revealed nine days before the death of the Prophet ($g). and each Companion had memorised various portions ol it. the Qur'aan used to be continually refeasible to yet. by the command of the Prophet the midst oima^an verses. Some 'Muslims' hail accepted 241 Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. therefore was essential that the wahy be nated before the Qur'aan be compiled. During this last recitation. 2) During the since lifetime of the Prophet it («y?. There are 1) a number ol reasons There was no pressing need during the the lifetime of the Prophet (5g) to compile in one book. the Prophet ($g) all its could not have compiled the Qur'aan in the correct order until verses had been revealed. . After the death of the Prophet their Leader."' 11 In another narration. 242 Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. plete) copies ol the Some Companions also had substantial (yet incom- Qur'aan.i. did not order lor for this: compiled between two covers. nor did he command in Companions hut he (i^g) to do so.' tion 1 ' that used to be a part ol the Qur'aan. but Allaah lifetime ol the Prophet it During the (^). whole Qur'aan lost. he recited the Qur'aan twice to twice. To summarise. the Prophet Jibrcel's recitation also. in ol the verses and sooraks was not chronological. (ihreel. the entire Qur'aan had been memorised by many ol the Companions."2 librccl. anil recite to Therefore. Rather. and used to hear and the year heard it from he (^5) died. when the Prophet (-^5) passed away. vealed. Therefore. . Verses that w ere revealed years alter the hijmh could be placed. He made sure it Qur'aan was down its totality.

but also proposed a solution. nor ordered He was worried that such a project might be considered an innovation in the religion.' 24*) who is hail claimed to be a prophet. He continued to convince Aboo Bakr until Aboo Bakr understood 'Umar's arguments and agreed put the to the project. so whenever any inspiration came to him.""'"' Zayd. Aboo Bakr told him. "Narrate to us something from the Prophet (iig). for the follow He was also the primary scribe of the Prophet said. It was one ol the The incident ol the compilation ot the Qur'aan p. 246 Ibn Alice Daauood. and immediately after the death of the state. exhorting him of the merits of such an and proving to him that such a project was in no way an innovation. Aboo Bakr then undertook a of wars that who claimed to be became known as the 'Wars Muslim itmmah. in order to consolidate the During one of these battles. I "And what can a I narrate to you? (or. and we do not doubt you. some people entered in upon Zayd and asked him. had not done. and I am scared lest more die in later battles. and he went to Aboo Bakr and said. Prophet (i^g). . the Battle ol Companions who had memorised the large number ol qurrad (memorizcrs of the Qur'aan) alarmed 'Umar. but rather was of general to benefit (musjalhi) to the Muslims. the one replied. The death of such a Aboo Bakr Bakr. unless you collect it. and others.H. (5^5). reported by al-Bukhaarcc.. since the lation of the Qur'aan was not a religious net per. after the Prophet's (HI) death. 'Umar compian act that realised that this act did not qualify as an innovation in the religion." This is shown by the above-mentioned narration (^yg) al-Bukhaaree in which the ordered for Zayd to be called.132 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan Islaam during the lifetime ol the Prophet (gg) tor political reasons. bloodiest ol the 'Wars ot Apostasy. to convince him. : of Apostasy' against these people. so we want you to collect the Qur'aan. "Many of the memorizcrs of the Qur'aan have died. You used to write the revelation for the Prophet (i^g)." He responded. 1.. could not even think of undertaking to be done. "You are an intelligent young man. Yamaamah (12 A. They both decided Companion Zayd bin Thaabit in charge of collecting the entire Qur'aan in one manuscript.). "And neighbour of the Prophet (JH). refused to give allegiance to the new Islaamic Many ol these 'Muslims' had given their allegiance to people series prophets. This might lead to the loss of the Qur'aan." 24 '' The\ chose Zayd because he was the person ing reasons: 1 ) besl suited for the job. and in it was because Prophet of this that Aboo Bakr Prophet "You used to write the revelation for the (i^g)." 'Umar not only realised the danger of this great loss. " around seventy Quraan were martvred. "How can I do that which the Prophet Prophet (3gg) did not do:" Aboo whom the Prophet (^g) trusted the most in a project that the (3gg) all his affairs.sc. he would call me to write it. But 'Umar continued idea. I what should narrate to you?") used to be 244 This was an attack on Musaylamah the Liar. Once.

He narrates concerning himself that (j|§) when he was eleven "I and the Prophet (?£?. 247 Reported by al-Bnkhaaree. "Neither 'Umar nor anyone over Zayd ibn Thaabit when it came to the laws of recitation of the Qur'aan. lifetime of the He et's Prophet (3§j).The Compilation of the Quraan therefore. of the most knowledgeable Companions with regards to the recita- tion ol the Qur'aan." he said. . p. had memorised the entire Qur'aan during the ibn Maalik said. 248 al-Hamad. 237. 112. and thus had said. I.""' (•§§) He was present at time of the Prophet's before he (d. Ibn 'Umar said." inheritance.). (^) death: Ubav 247 Mu'aadh ibn Jabal. Zayd ibn Thaabit and Aboo Zayd. and he remained day he died. v. (Sgjg) last recitation Id Jibrecl in the Ramadaan as-Sulamce died. Anas "Only lour people memorised the Qur'aan before the Prophibn Ka'ab. just arrived in his memory years old. and he was well pleased with that. The famous successor." Such was his stature among the Companions that 'Umar. The meaning ol I h is narration was explained earlier. p.H.) had entrusted with the writing of the 2) Quraan. was sharper... "It Would have been easier for me to move a mountain than do that which they told me Thus. ." 5) 24 ' He was one 'Uthmaan (d. reciters 'Uthmaan and "Alee all appointed Zayd to be one of the main judges and in this post until of Madeenah. The "May Allaah have mercy on him! He was a scholar sent out scholars to take over the judicial posts all amongst the people. it is of little surprise that Aboo Bakr and 'Umar both thought be given this person who should to do. but he kept Zayd in Madeenah so that he could give amongst its inhabitants!"'""' ol Zayd as the monumental task. and it was only after both Aboo Bakr and 'Umar convinced him that he agreed to do the task.H." 3) He was relatively younger than the other Companions. he passed away in 45 A.). was brought This is to the Prophet and the people "O Messenger of Allaah (5^5)! one of the boys of I (the tribe ol) recited to 4) Banec an-Najjaar. and he has memorised seventeen soorahs' So the Prophet (t^g).H. 133 was the one whom the Prophet (Sg. Madeenah. 1 1 2^1 All quotes taken Irom al-Hamad. 249 az-Zarkashcc.H.) said. 100 A. and the 103 A.'Umar verdicts over the Muslims lands. p. Aboo 'Abd ar-Rahmaan Prophet in its 70 A. 5. and his knowledge of the laws of inheritance. for he had in him all the qualities that were needed for this undertaking. in Aboo Bakr ol relied it upon him compila- tion. preferred Sulayman ibn Yasaar (d. anil Uthmaan him charge writing (during the second compila- tion).. But Zayd too was reluctant. "Zayd witnessed the last recitation (of the (i^S) to Jibrecl).) said. and because put of this. said. "Zayd ibn Thaabit with his knowledge of the recitation Aamiribn Sharaheel ash-Sha'bee overwhelmed and conquered the people (of the Qur'aan).

and at least one written copy of merit its the verse written under the supervision ol the Prophet into his final compilation.. until found the two verses ofSoorah at-Tawbah with Khu/. "Sit at the door ol the mosque. he still made sure that there were at least two other memori/. 2ss Reported by al-Bukhaaree. indicates that Zayd them was looking tor the last two verses ol Soom/i at-Tawbah. II. the people brought written the Qur'aan. since what was part Qur'aan anil Zayd knew he mentioned that he was fact that 251 Ibn AUc Daawood. "I testify that these verses have been M employed by Zayd ensured the authenticity of the compilation.: Some scholars have meaning two witnesses and two I written copies were required. and could have written it from strict criteria The his own memory.). 2"H Ibn Abec Daawood. last Zayd reports. since he hail heard (3H). him the scraps and parchments upon which they had Aboo Hakr told them.1 Messenger. 'Uthmaan (revealed from) Allaah!"' ibn 'Affaan said. This report does not mean In that only Khu/. until 1 found it with a person from the Ansaar. written under the direct supervision of the Prophet The narration of Khu/." 1 ot the '* This narration also proves the what was not. a written copy ol the verse. "Whoever has learnt any Qur'aan from the Prophet (*g) it mosque anil prothen let him bring forth. from the Prophet ••Amongst the Believers are AIIaah» |33:23|/ men who have lultilleil their covenant with so I put it in its proper soorah. i could not find a verse that I used to hear from the Prophet (Sag). p. from amongst yourselves. 8. in. mentioned above. "I collected the Qur'aan.aymah ibn Thaabii al-Ansaarce: «Thcrc has come to you. p. p. F..aymah came.»f9: I2N| found these verses with him only. Another narration adds. then write interpreted this as dovvn. Whoever it brings you two witnesses (tor a verse). p.." :."" 11 At this. and I did not find it with anybody else. He required at least two people (besides himself) who hail learnt the verses from the Prophet (S^g) directly. 252 ibid."' .ven though Zayd had memorised the entire Qur'aan. but rather that he it. (-^g). and ($£. but nobody else had brought forth written copies until Khu/. .crs ol the verse. 2ss Ibn Abcc Daawood. to acceptance 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab stood up in the claimed.aymah had heard the verse from the Prophet ($£). when Khu/aymah came. 111. was the only one that brought a parchment that had these verses written on fact.I M An He Introduction i<> the Sciences of the Qur'aan set about collecting the various fragments of the Qur'aan from "the pieces of wood anil the chests ol people'. I .aymah.

After 'Umar's death. the territories of the Muslims expanded what they had been. 'Uthmaan took over the caliphate. and ensure that none plished a momentous task. 10.i/ol the Qur'aan'. 'Alee ibn its verses were lost. is alleged that this mus-haj' was written to it the ahruf'" ol the Qur'aan. and not. "The person with the is greatest rewards with regards to the (compilation) ol the mus-haj Aboo Bakr. with 'Umar.' Now. the Muslims controlled the rem- nants of the Persian Empire. Id. The Muslims were successful waging jihaad tor the this cause of Allaah. . lor the first time. a wile of after his death.The Compilation of the Qur'aan searching lor a particular verse. 'The lAr. the Qur'aan (jgg). 128. Barely two years still after the alive. Egypt. Aboo Bakr accomAbec Taalib remarked. Others allege it the soorahs were in the same order preserve all of 'Uthmaan. was in one book. May Allaah's mercy be on Aboo Bakr. The written copy of the Qur'aan was called (literally a mus-haj' meaning a collection of loose papers) and remained with Aboo Bakr and. One of the places where 256 Qattaan. p. It 135 also proves that the arrange- ment of the verses was known to the Companions. five-fold Under his auspicious caliphate. cl. The 'Uthmaanic Compilation After the death of Aboo Bakr. the narration which mentions 'Alec as being the first is weak. the daughter of 'Umar and the Prophet ($£. Rather. it was not meant copy that was binding upon the as that ummah. p. When he passed away. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaaab took over the leadership of the Muslims. the death of the Prophet when all of the major Companions were Qur'aan had been compiled.). In reality. The mus-hafthut Aboo Bakr ordered to be collected was not meant copy that the whole timnnih had in its to be an official to follow." 254 There is some itsell difference of opinion over the arrangement ol the soorahs in that lor Aboo be an Bakr's mus-haf. lor further details. then with Hafsah. because he put the verse 'in its proper soorah. legacy ol his and continued the great in two predecessors. he was the first person to compile the Book of AUaah. this narration troni 'Alee himsell shows to he false. As lor the claim by certain Islaamic sects that 'Alee it was the first to compile the Qur'aan. is of no great consequence whether < the mus-haj "of Aboo Bakr was 'Uthmaanic one or compilation. Syria and parts of the then-defunct Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. of it was meant to preserve the Qur'aan entirety. in. and could not find it. Also. . and spreading the religion of Islaam. Also. Ibn Abec Daawootl. or in the same arrangement ol soorahs as that of the whether it was written with the intent ol preserving all the ahrufi the primary purpose of this compilation it was to serve as a basis for the 'Uthmaanic is this compilation that is linked directly to the mus-hajs that arc present in our hands today. In this. Most of the scholars are of the opinion not concern official Aboo Bakr's mus-haj did to with the proper order ol the soorahs. 257 See CM.

this standrecitation. hut this is the weaker opinion. could not believe what was happening. . I Muslims from ludhaylah ibn al-Yamaan. Unfortunately. after the Companions agreed to his idea.iavvood. to report to the caliph 'Uthmaan. and caused him convene gathering ol the Companions. He therefore left Azerbaijan for Madeenah. and this (alti- tude) might lead to disbelief' We asked him. alarmed by this news. p. and when Indhaytah informed 'Uthmaan ol the situation in Azerbaijan. Faithful!" its "O Commander of the umtnah before 2v it. the Muslims started differing amongst themselves with regards to the recitation of the Qur'aan. idea of yours all of so that there not be any disagreements or disunity. This incident in reported in al-Bukhaarcc. he requested Hafsah. this an excellent The action 'Uthmaan was agreed upon by the Companions. and all other copies destroyed. "save the this it disagrees about told Book. ard version would serve to unite the 'Alee ibn Muslims upon one Abee Taalib said concerning this incident. 26. 'Uthmaan told them his opinion: Official copies Companions. so that the ummah would have one standard Qur aan. The differently than the Muslims from Iraq.'" al- namely Zayd ibn Thaabit. Concerning the burning of the mus-htifs.' idea.'" We said. The Companions. 'Uthmaan. ('I. 'What do you suggest we is do?' He re- sponded. One of the Companions who was present amongst them. Jews anil Christians did before Hudhayfah 'Uthmaan what had occurred amongst of new Muslims in Azerbaijan. but only say good about him. asked 'Uthmaan what he thought the best plan of action was. Muslims from forces to light against the differ- umtnah had joined enemy.'""' Syria were reciting the Qur'aan each regarding They began contending with each other. He him the mus-haf that Aboo Bakr had then chose a committee of four people. twelve people. Therefore. p. occurrence on a larger He advised them to leave this this argumentation. 'What do you think (should be done) concerning these reached recitations (in Azerbaijan). Therefore. He asked us. in return. Sa'eed ibn al-'Aas and 'Abd 2^S The reason why the ( recitations ofSyria and 'Iraq dill'cred from one another w ill he understood alter one reads 259 'h. and requested their advice on this matter. 2d I According to another opinion." ' Hudhayfah pleaded like the to 'Uthmaan. "Verily. Ibn Alice D. he only did this after he hail called all of us. I Other narrations imply a that such a disagreement had also this ho- occurred Madeenah. I swear by Allaah. convened a gathering of the leading what Hudhayfah had told him. his recitation superior to his brother's.2 For is it has me 'I that each party is claiming that their recitation better. and therefore were not trained in the proper manner and etiquette of the recitation of the Qur'aan.. "O People! Do not say evil of 'Uthmaan. |l> on the is ii/jruf. These Muslims were not Companions. 22. think we should of consolidate the Muslims on one mus-haf.1 s(> An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan was occurring were the ent parts ol the territories of Armenia and Azerbaijan. informed them of the He Qur'aan should be written and sent to all the provinces. but realised that some action must be taken to prevent scale. the daughter of 'Umar ibn al-Khauaab. 'Abdullaah ibn az-Zubayr. Ilm Abee Daawood. to loan ordered to be compiled. to lder alarmed 2611 'Uthmaan. which she did.

) was sent to Koolah.. was the style of the Quraysh. knowledgeable of the Arabic language and of the Qur'aan. In fact 'Alee ibn Uthmaan I did this with the approval of the I Com' Abee Taalib said. with the Saa'ib (d. 262. According i<> famous historian.H. and because his (Arabic style was very similar to the Prophet's (£§). 126-7 for examples. Imaam ol the ailh-I )hahabee (d. p. 264 eC al-Mamad. pps. 'Uthmaan wrote to Ibn Mas'ood advising him to follow the consensus the oilier Companions. that the This incident shows there committee consulted the other Companions con- cerning even such minor details as the spellings of certain words. .H. 'Uthmaan ordered that one copy ol this mtt. p. the other three committee members were I mm the Quraysh. And. 7. "Sa'ecd ibn al-'Aas was one ol the members committee whom 'Uthmaan chose to write the mus-haf. would have done the same as he did. and Sa'ced ibn al- Rahmaan ibn al-Haarith to rewrite the Aas was known 748 A. He chose Zayd ihn Thaabil for the same reasons that Aboo Bakr had done before him. cl. differ (on it This was done on purpose: 'Uthmaan told them.). they could ask it him how he had spelt the word.is'ood did not agree null 'I'lhiuaan's is also reported that he later changed mind. then spell ' it in the dialect of the Quraysh. Apart from Zayd. The other two members were respectable Companions. the 2>>i> "I az-Zarqaanee. cf." 'Uthmaan said this in response to a difference that arose 'taboot' (in 2:248). he also sent ol Qur'aanic reciters to teach the people the correct recitation the Qur'aan. J.''' its 4 After the committee finished task. initially liis 265 Although there arc some reports that decision.<- hafbe sent necessary this to every province..18. v. 207. and ordered the governors of each province to burn it all the other copies of the Qur'aan in their provinces. At times.) .H. 449. and Aamir ibn Abdul 262 adh-I>hahahcc. A. 263 v. when hapso that was a difference of opinion. to Syria was sent al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah 7(1 50 A. they even called that particular scribe (if pened to be other than Zayd) who had written the verse for the Prophet (gg.l. tbn Kathccr. p. "If charge (of the affairs of the : Muslims) when 'Uthmaan had been. amongst them concerning the writing of the word write the should they (i. for all future time had to conform letter lor letter to 'Uthmaan's mus-haf. This if the was a drastic step. By Uthmaan panions. word in the Qurayshee style ol 'lubaol' or the Madanee style ol 'tabooh' it with a laa marbooljih): 'Uthmaan answered them that they should write since this as laboot. for his knowledge ol the Arabic language. al-Bidaayah we an-Nihaayah.S7un. 13. 63 A.e. Ibn Abee Daawood.H. for verily was revealed in their dialed. Every Qur'aan written alter his wise decision. he sent 'Abdullaah ibn (d. which lie agreed to do. "It you (three) and Zayd how to spell a word).I The Compilation of the Qur'aan 137 mus-haf ol Ahoo Bakr. Reported bj al-Bukhaarec. due to his eloquence. Makkan mus-haf. He kept Zayd ibn Thaabit in Madcenah. v. as 'Alee pointed out." Not only did 'Uthmaan send the actual mus-hafs to each province."" provided a copy the Qur'aan that would serve were in as a model mus-hafs. Aboo 'Abd ar- Rahmaan as-Sulamcc (d. but was unity of the Muslims was ol to be preserved. p.. it 'Abdullaah ibn M.).) said.

recitation of the Qur'aan. of whereas 'Uthmaan ordered the rewriting wood and the hearts Aboo Bakr's mus-haf in with the writing style of the Quraysh. on the other response to the inauthentic recitations that new- comers to Islaam. whereas 'Uthmaan ordered 4) Since Aboo Bakr did not face the problem ol inauthentic recitations of the Qur'aan.. on the other hand. 2411 A.H. 270 cf. used the services of Zayd but also had three ol the major Companions. Aboo Bakr compiled the Qur'aan response to the large in fear of its number of deaths lost. 'Uthmaan." the Qur'aan from '. who were ignorant of the Arabic of the Qur'aan. of those who had memorised the Qur'aan." 1 $8 An to Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Qays Basrah (d.. so that the people would have only one mus-haf in their hands. people Aboo Bakr relied on who were in charge ol the two compilations was different.. Aboo Bakr compiled ol people. 2X. . did not concern itself ar- ranging the soorahs properly. 269 az-Zarqaanee.arc|. on the other hand. 'Uthmaan. p. the person who was the best suited and most qualified to do namely Zayd ibn Thabit. docs not have any basis to support 267 az-7. the Tuurcel(h of Khalcefah il>n I. 2) The number ol so. were reciting. He wished to unite the Muslims on the proper all ami therefore ordered the eradication ol other mus-hafs. I. 404. The number of mus-hafs Aboo Bakr ordered to be several. However. 'Uthmaan's decision ensured that future copies would have 5) to rely upon the original 'Uthmaanic ones. p. '"" the mus-haf oi Aboo Bakr was written to preserve left it.H. 6) Aboo Bakr's mus-haf according to one opinion. 26S cf. :. v. Aboo Sulaymaan. made was only one. all of whom were known for their . he did not have to take the step that 'Uthmaan did in destroying all all other written copies of the Qur'aan.' all seven ahruf but the mus-hafof "Uthmaan only included one harf and six. 145.?) knowledge of the Qur'aan... to help him.iancc. . p.) lists the kittles ol Azerbaijan as having occurred in the year 2K A. p. only the verses of each soorah were arranged. 253. 'Uthmaan's compilation occurred the early part of 25 in the year 24 A. Khayyam 1 (d. however. arranged the soorahs and verses arrangement. v..). 7) in their proper According to some.I I cf Toareekjt. compiled the mus-hafs in being "Uthmaan. or according to others in A. out the other This opinion.al-Hama.l. and it J '' All of these reciters were well-known for their reci- tation of the Qur'aan. is in fact through them that most of the t/ira'aai are preserved. ~ 55 A. and hand.H.H.S Aboo Bakr's compilation of the mus?faflf differed from 'Uthmaan's compilation in the following: 1) The reason that each of in them compiled the Qur'aan was different.date-palm leaves. p. 60.

and the Companions agreed to iv. in contrast to Latin-based languages. the these attempts are based more upon imagi- . pps 569. since It requires a knowledge ol Arabic writing. ol the Some ol these pe- culiarities common Arabic and specifically Qurayshee script of that lime. the second recitation would not have it been possible Irom the mus-haf both recitations are possible.H. recitations of a particular word. re. and occasionally spelt the same word were that occurred in different places differently.so in 139 ihc eminent scholar of Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 51. 728 A. pps."'' 1 to all the provinces. and the recitation that the Khulafaa ar-Rashidoon. az-Zarc|aanee.l. v. Hs-4S. see L'li. There are certain peculiarities of the present in that the same as tin.' Had the (////"been written ol on this word. The Appearance of tj if. the word written without an a/if.spelling of mod'Uthmaanic script that are not written modern Arabic. die legitimacy ol changing the spelling oftbe mus-haflo conform This was primarily based upon the origin of the spelling: was it from the Prophet (jg$) himself. added certain silent letters (for example the word 'salaat' is merged particular words usually written as one (for written with a silent ivaw).) said. was the spelling ol the Qur aan not based upon either ol these two factors. pps. '////«' is example when the word :. ordered all to be written (again). ul.: followed by 'maa' it is word 'mimaa'). Aboo Bakr. however. v. For further Jit. by writing nature oi the Arabic script and without an a/if.nl in' Some scholars have attempted to nation wisdom behind such subtle changes... p. 'Uthmaan and write it it. For example. and this last rehearsal is the recitation ofZayd ibn Thaabit anil others. The manner of writing allows lor this. later scholars differed over to later Arabic. or was it by consensus of the Companions? Or. and he sent this. 'Umar. since there is an alternate recitation 'nndi/u. 'Alee ordered to be written in mus-hafs.573. The Different Mus-hafs A. die year that the Prophet ($§) passed away. Among these peculiarities in the writing ol the mus-hafIs Uthmaanic script eliminated certain alifs (tor example the wonl 'rahmaan' is without an a/if). during his caliphate. as-Sabt. 4(15-41 5. but in reality than certain know ledge. but upon the popudifference ol opinion lar custom of that time? The various opinions can be summarised as follows: 271 Aboo Sulaymaan. ". but later Arabic grammar changed Another peculiarity was that when theirexisted two the word was written such 'maatikj' in (1:4) is that both recitations would be preserved. and Aboo Bakr (was the it first) to Then of 'Uthmaan.iydaat. these rules. 271 This discussion lias purposely been left short. Due to these peculiarities ol the mus-haf'of 'Uthmaan. Jihrccl went over the Qur'aan with him it is twice. 1. 'Uthmaan.The Compilation ofthe Qur'aan To summarise. cl. Mus-hafs The Spelling ofthe Words of the Our ami The spelling of the words ol the Qur'aan is not the ern-day Arabic.

concluded that the spelling of the 'Uthmaanic later ??/«£- haf was obligatory upon generations to conform to. you diller in the spelling ol a word. I. az-Zarqaance. were not pronounced (such as the ivaw besides these. Since the Companions all agreed to the spelling of which later generations are not al- change. oxalif. :74 He answered. Therefore. p.H. "No! It may 444 way it was In fact.H. p. Imaam Ahmad tha. p.itt. A." 14(1 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan 1) The spelling ol the Qur'aan cannot be changed. "It is forbidden (haiaarn) to differ from the writing of 'Uthmaan (d. we should never presume ourselves to be greater than them. the scribe how to write cer- weak or forged.329.) said. Aboo 'Amr ad-I)aanec (d.i. cl". 147. The ol the first group claimed that the spelling ol the Qur'aan was the in the Sunnah Prophet (-^). "I do not know of any scholar who disagrees with Maalik (d. to. and the spelling ol the mus-haf of 'Uthmaan must be adhered The proponents ol into this opinion dilfered aver why the spelling could not be changed two groups.H. 275 Qaisaan.) was asked concerning the deletion ol certain letters in 'sa/aul'). in this issue!"' Imaam al-Bayhaqce Whoever 458 A. then committee would never have differed about the spelling of any word. its letters writes the imu-haj "must preserve earlier) and not change anything of what (the edgeable than lis. 276 az-Zarqaance. 148. Therefore. In other words. and methods. they arc very 27-1 O. the only reason the Companions wrote the Qur'aan with the spell- ing that they did was because that was the procedure ol writing at the time. v. This opinion in the spelling is contradicted by the incident in which 'II 'Uthmaan said to the comit mittee that compiled the Qur'aan. Qur'aan could be written only be written the in styles '. Companions. 2) The spelling of the Qur'aan depends upon the custom of the time. I. then write of the Quraysh. or A. This ruling was the opinion of thi: vast majority of xhcsalaf. Both however. generations wrote. of these groups. . 241 A. v. p. 377." this Had the script ol the Qur'aan been decided by the Prophet ($g). and cannot be changed. lowed to this constitutes ijmaa' (consensus). is not allowed to modify In other words. the spelling of the Qur'aan was with the approval ol the Prophet (^). p.) said. oxyaa. when asked whether the replied.in. because the Prophet it. Since this 27s As lor those reports in which the 1'rophct tain letters. in (the letters) any (letter) Imaam Maalik newly invented written first!" ! 179 waw. The second group claimed that the spelling of the Qur'aan was not from (^5) but from the the Prophet 'Uthmaan. 277 az-Zarqaanee.380.H. I. (d. (j^g) ordered this spelling. for they were more knowltrust- and had purer hearts and tongues. and were more worthy.). and that he had ordered the Qur'aan to he written it manner with which it was. (Sgs) mpposcdh commanded v.

at that time. Thus. they would have written the mus-haf differ- In weighing the two opinions above. modern Arabic. As proof.H. and the Uthmaanic mus-haf must retain sanctity. title. 403 A.The Compilation of the Qur'aan has changed.H. the style with which the letters arc written. They cf al-Hamad. The Script of the Mus-haf the 'Uthmaanic The script in which This script is mus-hafwas written was the old Koofce script.).H. but rather wrote in the of spelling ently. dots (nuqat) or vowel marks {tashl{eel). For example. haf of ions it is concluded that it is obligatory to adhere to the spelling of the mus- Uthmaan. is still 141 may he written to conform with these changes. with the Book of Allaah. and other marks (such as the shadda) that are used to pronounce the particular correctly. and al-'Izz ibn "And as-Salaam the 660 A. and they are below. 282 The phrase 'Hismillah al-Ralunaan uI-Ralwem'. is a yaa. which was the topic of the previous section. This is to be differentiated from the Spelling. to : '" almost incomprehensible modern-day Arabic 1 *" readers. Therefore. In addition. This is the opinion of Aboo Bakral-Baaqillaancc (d. since this spelling after was accepted and agreed upon by the Compan27* and the generations them. . p. " This was the line traditional manner of writing letter baa. the Qur'aan the recitation (d. text. and each letter could have any of that the appropriate letters to the vowel marks assigned to it. stated that the spelling of the mus-haf man con- The scrip! is ol the Arabic is the style of writing of the various letters. and the only sign that ended was the basmalak. 2*2 There were also no textual divisions (into 278 In hut. taa.). The Arabs at that letter time were accustomed such and would substitute the appropriate and vowel depending on the con- The 'Uthmaanic mus-haf was arranged a soorah had in the order of the suorahs present today. 609. then. The mus-haf the door were opened to change the spelling of the mus-haf. a straight could represent the thaa and yaa. There were no indications signifying the ending of the verses. script. if this might lead to playing change with time. as long as exactly the same. it way if to differentiate between the it yaa and to/ by the dots: if two dots is a taa. ol yhnfiithha. Therefore. zabar.). the almost all first opinion must be conceded to in light of the fact that the scholars of the salaf were of this opinion. the letters zeer. since the rules of spelling must not be its affected by the passage of time. al-Azhar released afalwa in the year 1355 A. and />«/. slating that it was not permissible to print a mus-haf or re-writc the Qur'aan 279 in form to the 'Uthmaanic spelling. The mus-hafs : were written without any hamzahs. the font u is it li which this text written differs from the font of the chapter The script. It was only by context and a vowels could be differentiated. to differentiate 280 The nuqal arc the dots that are used between different letters letters thai is have the same base structure: for example. for example. if the rules were different in their time. /(asra. 281 The las/f/url ol the Qur'aan are the diacritical marks and damina (in Urdu. which appears at the beginning ol each soorah except the ninth. the only are above the line. manner that they knew. they use the (jj§|) fact that Companions were not instructed by the Prophet to conform to a particular spelling.

letter. then write a dot in front ol the letter. 4<'2.H. According to one report.). and not the the first tasl{heel. A. Yahya ibn Ya'mar ibn Seereen (d. without tashl{ccl. the governor of Iraq with a scribe. the appearance ol As is well-known. the infamous governor of Iraq under the Umayyad 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marvvaan.the tashkfel. bin he initially declined to do so.H.. to do this. art ol tashl{ccl. Other reports give the names of Nasr ibn 'Aasim (d. etc. and requested him to supply him Aboo al-Aswad told the scribe. the strongest series ol events seems to be as folthe first lows: Aboo al-Aswad was to add the tas///(cc/ into the mus-haf on an official 283 al-Hamad.). al-Badawee. 95 A. al-Hassan al-Basree (d.). he once heard a person recite the «AlIaah and His apostle break oil all ties with the pagans* ( | ': 3| as "Allaah breaks oil all ties with the pagans and His Apostle." This drastic change in meaning occurred by changing only one vowel (i. However. pronouncing rasooltlh as rasoolih). modern ol this mus-hiifs is strikingly different from the simple 'Uthmaanic one. then write I dot above the /.H. 69 A. In combining all ol these reports. They had difficulty reading the script of 'Uthmaan. If I 1 ''1 pronounce an then write below the letter. sixtieths. ."- ' Aboo al-Aswad was reacting to the problems that had arisen amongst non-Arabs who had embraced Islaam and were new to the Arabic language. >mis-/u/fs.H.H. since he did not believe verse. Yet states that was Aboo al-Aswad who was Yoosul (d. "If pronounce (the vowel) it. Said Aboo al-Aswad. he went to Xiyaad ibn Abeehee.).H.). According to other reports.). are varying reports as to who the first person to add tashkeel into the Qur'aan The name that is most commonly mentioned is that of a Successor by the name ol Aboo al-Aswad ad-Du'aly (d. but command filth of Hajjaaj ibn Caliph. diacritical The There was. 11(1 A. who was also the first to codify the science of Arabic grammar (naluv). nounce the verse in Iron! ol p.) and Muhammad as 10 A. s2K. some the first of these reports qualify Nasr and Yayha another report at the adding the dots it (inn/til) lor time. This was done so that the Qur'aan be preserved with the of the Qur'aan. a under 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib.142 An Introduction to the Sciences of'tlic Qur'aan thirtieths. The process change was gradual. and not under the caliphate of 'Alee. This was the appearance of the original 'Uthmaanic however. p.e. Ziyaad il>n Abeehee purposely had a person misprocf. Aboo al-Aswad started the rudimentary (d. "I did not think the state of the people had degenerated to this level!" Recalling the advice of 'Alec ibn Abee Taalib. it was necessary. 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib asked him to make the mus_-luif easier for the people to recite. first change to occur was the addition of the marks . Thus. However. only the text embellishments. 11)0 1 89 A. If I pronounce it it as a. Aboo al-Aswad so that lie would realise the necessity ol adding the tashlfeel. was written. unadorned with later utmost purity.

these dots. p. Imaam Maalik was of the opinion that the Qur'aan 2X4 az-Zarqaancc.). This system spread and became popular amongst the it people after them. pps. 96 A.H. and 1* two students were the first add the taskheel and nuqat on an all official basis into the is mus-haf. In the beginning. They conditioned upon themselves not any letter to increase the number of dots of above three. 517. v.then don't see any problem with Therefore.) anil other scholars of the ol adding these dots (d. Qataadah (d.' 4 Az-Zarqaanee May Allaah have mercy on these two scholars (Yahya ibn Ya'mar and for they Nasr ibn 'Aasim). They did during the reign ol the Ummayad 1. first first to add the tashkeel this into the Qur'aan. 86 our. He "The people continued say: to ask me concerning the I addition of dots in the Qur'aan. were successful in this endeavour (ofadding nH^a/ and completed the addition of the nuqat tor the first time." Thus. p. Muhammad ibn Seereen hail added the nuqat his whereas Aboo al-Aswad and of the narrations. 143 during the caliphate of 'Alee. add dots {nuqat) during the reign of 'Abd al-Malik the first to A. an-Nakhaa'ce first 17 A. is don't think they should be doited. searchers in this field have concluded. 1 sa laf concerning their disapproval ol these It is narrated from Ibn Mas'ood. 329-331 407. They were not do so. and his students Yahya ibn Ya'mar and Nasr ibn to officially Aasim were the first ibn Marwaan (d. . v. This sequence of events takes into account the one that most of the rewrites. The Compilation of the Qur'aan basis. There arc hundreds of mus-Aafi present with this type ol tashkeel dating from the system.) was asked concerning the addireplied.. 285 az-Zarqaanee. 10 10 A. still some of the Companions were alive.). 287 al-Hamad. did not sec a problem with the 1 79 A.H. two generations concerning the prohibition Other scholars. p. I tion ol taskhcel and nuqat in the Qur'aan. and Abd al-Maalik's reign ended in 86 A. two centuries of the hijrah still There are some narrations from the additions. however. I.I less than three-quarters of a century after the Prophet's (3g) death. n.H. 1 to the mus_-lmf.). al-Hamad for these quotes. I As minor nius-hafi it.H. however.. (d.l. as both al- Hassan al-Basree and on their private to Muhammad ibn Seereen had preceded them in this endeav- However."""' Imaam Maalik (d. and had a great impact in removing confusion and doubts concerning (the proper recitation of) the ijuis-/uif. 516. scribes used to write the nuqat in black and the tashkeel in red to distinguish it from the actual first text of the Qur'aan.. such as al-Hasan al1 Basree addition of AH. 286 el'. and Yahya who differentiated the various similar letters ol the Arabic alphabet by means of dots. to the Qur'aan).H. Aboo al-Aswad was the and Nasr were the were the Caliph "Abd al-Maalik. al-Hassan al-Basree and mus-luifs. Aboo al-Aswad which means that while died in 69 A. the Qur'aan had been written down with a rudimentary version ol tashkeel and nuqat.) and Ibn Seereen (d. nor should anything be added that for the not in them." 2 "' — the ones that the children learn from .H. 406 and al-Bailawee. so As for the major mttt-hafs.

David.""" which the mus-haf was The was the sixth first Ummayad caliph.' It had tasl(heel.H. the word /(/nuns was dots at the end of a verse. "I 444 A.. 1985. to This strictness was due concern all felt by these scholars keep the script of the mtu-luif of Uthmaan pure from less strict additions.) to the benefit that (d. d. as present in the nitts-hafs of today." Ad-Daancc writes. and the separation of the verses by Initially.." 281 Both these quotes show that. 1988. Khalal ibn Hishaam (d. early part of the second century of the hijrah. Unfortunately. I p. used to sit in the gathering of al-Kisaa'ce (the famous Oaaree). the abbreviated to the letter l(haa. 'ashr (ten). p. and thus paper became the primary material upon written. and the dots {nuqat) were in red. after which the numbering would start from the beginning. and the only exception were the to the intts_-lnifs that children learnt from. due to certain problems. lashlfccl. 229 A. sSS s(>2. 1 289 The.H. p. 1. both of which were in the written in the margin of the mus_-l±af.337.H.m During the next few of the soorah names special centuries. the verses were indicated by a circle at the end is of each verse. al-Waleed ibn 'Abd al-Maalik (ruled 86-96 A. in 1982. lb see an example ol their work. until the end of that particular soorah. lor it aided the the Qur'aan. anA soorah names text ol it in a different colour. and after every ten. This was due in average person reports. London.144 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan should be left the way that it was written. pps. the primary material upon which the mttsAfter the hafwas written was parchment. the addition ot ' t ash keel anil nuqat was accepted as a pari of the writing of the miis-luif. Kuliyyah al-Quraan al-Kareem. "1 properly reciting was gained. 5 8.College its its ol Qur'aan and Islaamic Sciences in he Islaamic University of Madeenah embarked on I Qur'aan Project' script.H. Dur- 288 Both quotes from a -Hamad. the verses were distinguished by placing three word '/(/nuns' (five) was written. but not after had written portion ol the Qur aan. He ordered the cal- ligrapher Khaalid ibn Abee Hayyaaj to write the Qur'aan in Koofcc calligraphy. such as the writing at the beginning of\hc soorah. The goal was to prim a mus-haf A\M would be a copy ol the 'Uthmaanic one in and include nuqat. further developments occurred. the project Collapsed. written during I the beginning of the Caliphate ol writing) lishaam ibn Abel al-Maalik. symbols and numbers. to officially order the bcautification of the Qur'aan.). Soon afterwards. Alexandria Press. However.) happened to come across an old copy of the mus-haf. in the year 10 A. in Rajah. . verse numbers. the hamzahs. 291 lames.""' the first During century of the hijrah. and the word <«///• to a the letter ayn. Eventually. Its date (of was written on the 1 last page: "Written by Miighccrah ibn Meenaa. and the sequential number of the verse was written circle. see Xlajailah v. the taskheel later scholars of the salaf became concerning the addition of and nuqat. Islaamic University ol Madeenah. After every five verses. 290 al-Badawee. and the people would add (taskheel) based upon his recitation. eventually. the men the art ot Muslim conquest of Trans-oxania in the Muslims learnt from Chinese craftspaper-making. to differentiate between the actual b'thman and a later additions. Our'aus of the Momtukj.

604. 65. p. Von Denl'ler. one of the teachers of the it famous Arabic grammarian Sccbawayh. die greatest change lupah by Ibn Muqlah ol the (d. 4 Li A. Ibn Muqlah also established rules lor the writing ol each letter. These were followed by mus-hafs printed in Kazan (in 1828 CE). Istanbul (in 1877 CE) and Cairo a (in 1890 CE). It was edited by a lew. and contained many There errors. the letter sheen to represent the word ef. yaa. 602."' 2 However. Khaleel bin of the Qur'aan 145 Ahmad (cl. Al-Hamad criticises it as follows: are major errors (in this print). Ibn al-Bawvvaab (d. cil. who regarded as the lounderol die calligraphy script. which only proves the poor level of knowledge the editor had ol die Arabic language . 170 A. script. also beautified was also the letter tor first and made a it simpler.H.). anil on almost every page the reader will find manifest examples of these. ol the 293 For one most fascinating accounts of the development («/'. «••«<•. It one that Egypt. hijrali. CE.. anil a small l(haa without the dot to indicate that the letter had no vowel but was not silent. al-Badawee.\nA in "' ils rules. This mus-haf was actually a reproduction of a famous Turkish in mtts-hiif. "" This was : bering differed from traditional mus-hafs. in Hamburg. which took on was ordered by King Fu'aad ars ol the role of a 'standard printed version'. respectively.) also played a vital role in the spreading of the Nas^hee script. . in 1787 mus-hafdone by Muslims in this style is reputed to be the one done in St. In 1 84 1 . p. oitaslfhci'l: a straight line above the the vowel a. 294 al-Hamad. die /. The first Qur'aan thai is known to have been printed with movable type techniques was done in 1694 CE. another popu- "" The Our'ticin ill Print With the advent of the printing press. 'Aamir 'Alee Tabrcczce introduced Klmt an-Xastalceq. 530. see al- jjamail's dissertation on litis topic. shaddah (double letter). and the without a dot to represent the word fthiiiuiv (empty).»//-£<// changed accordingly. 1 1 1(1 published centuries Leipzig.) ol the script of the nms-haf.). in the style of writing is came in the third century ol M7 A. II. He introduced the Nasl^hcc style ol which totally replaced the is former Koofee and Upon which the writing of the Qur'aan today based.H. a line below the letter lor a dam ma lor ti. and became standard version for Orientalists for the next two The (in first Petersburg. p. 'Uthmaan (d.H. He to introduce the present system /. p. shaddah lor showing assimilation. al-Hamad. Qur'aan. 291 al-Hamad. under the supervision of Sheikh Mohammad Alee Khalaf al-Husaynee. Abraham Hinkcllmann.The Compilation ing the Abbasid era. Persia 1833 CE). is A more common one. Germany. in 1925. 2'H The origin of these Bve symbols arc the kfiaa letters alif.). In the seventh century ol lar script. Gustav Flucgel released another printed mus-l±aj\ written by Haafidh a which the verse numA. Russia. 296 Cf. pps 601-606. was written by committee ol schol- from al-Azhar University..

such that even its places of worship anil its Sacred Book must be absent from all Muslims. Rather."' in Madeenah. anil very recently also by the 'an Warsh 'an Naff (printed in Algeria in the qiraa'a and Mo- King Fa lid Complex). Therefore. Warsh. makes sense to understand this Inideeth as a warning and prohibition rather than . "When you decorate your mosques. and the letter fact with one dot below it (vs. are typically written in Maghrihcc which is very unique ami confusing for the unaccustomed eye. then destruction will be upon you!"2 "* other words. also printed All of these in the qiraa'a of Hats There are copies of the Qur'aan in the qiraa'a of rocco. almost all mtis-hafs follow one of two scripts: either Nasl{hec (most of the Arab countries). However. and. as-Saheelwh # 1351. and beautify you r mtis-hafs. 297 Sec Ch. the stronger opinion in that this hadeeth a warning to the which case any unnecessary and excessive decoration of the mus-hafis to be discouraged. but the vari- ous signs for stopping (ivuqoof) are also included the mus-haf as are the verse and soorah numbers! A Warning! Before completing this section concerning the evolution of the script of the mus- haf. just like in other mtts-hafi. it has also a a in Braille! The Ministry of Religious in . if Thh hadceth can be taken as a factual statement. and a love for this world. and ofQaloon Naff (printed in Libya). such religious symbols should be examples of modesty and humility. The Qira'aat of the Qur'aan. above it)! Not only has been printed the mas-haf'been printed in different qira'aal and scripts. factual prophecy. Due to the tact that there exist other authentic narrations forbidding it Muslims to decorate their a mosques.Affairs in Saudi Arabia released letter is three-volume Qur'aan written special set of dots. or Farscc (the I ndian sub-continent). the Prophet (^5) informing his itmmah that when a mosques and tor the mtis-hafs are decorated anil beautified. Not only that. Each Arabic represented by and each diacritical mark also has its special code.146 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Since then. however.299 types of embellishments. for further details. For example. literally is hundreds the lor the of other printed mns-hafs have followed. this will be is time is of destruction Muslims. In is taken factually. Arabic Braille. two dots). the letter qaaf'xs represented with one dot above a circle (vs. In the present age. in King Complex have been Holy Qur'aan 'an 'Aasim. in the qiraa'a of The mtis-hafs printed script. which typically is an indication of arrogance. it is very relevant to quote the Inideeth of the Prophet (^) in which he said. 299 1 1. This is one of the indications of the austerity anil simplicity of Islaam. One of the more the beautiful ones I'ahd 'Madeenah mits-haf Printing ot the recently printed in Saudi Arabia. is either written above or below the in letter. in his 298 Reported by IbnAbee Shaybah Musannafx cf. or as a warning.

).) stated that there rest were seven copies. copies. and sent the Other three to Koolah.I in I. . Yemen. lor regardless know the exact number of mus-hafs that 'Uthmaan ol the number ol original mus-hafs. p. 80. "The majority ol the scholars hold that when 'Uthmaan wrote the mus-haf Inthe \ ordered lour copies to be written. which 'Uthmaan would have kept possession.v. different Madeenah. which was kept Madeenah. Bahrain and Egypt would probably not have merhaving a special mus-haj "sent to venture that the 'personal' mus-haf ot them. At the time that the mus- were commissioned. and il does not seem too unrealistic to 'Uthmaan was none other than the mus?hafo\ in his Madeenah. and he sent one to each of the major prov1 inces. Basrah. This was done accidentally or by 50(1 az-Zarkashcc. the sixth lor his one having been the from the mus-haf ol one 'Uthmaan commissioned personal use. but there are addinot tional or different letters in some of the musthjtfs.umc Mus-hafs number of original i/ius-hafs that There are five opinions concerning the 'Uthmaan compiled: 1) Imaam az-Zarkashcc follows Aboo 'Amrad-Daancc's (d. state that there '" were live which were sent to the cities and Makkah.""" 2) As-Suyootce. since hafs ited has the strongest historical evidence. Yemen and Bahrain (another opinion maintains that the sent to Egypt. However.The Compilation B. the second il is probably the strongest. There no extra verse in any one of the mus-hafs. 444 A. contrary to Sur- popular opinion. Koolah. \. there have been eight copies. and Ibn Hajr above four (d. Were these Mus-hafs ti m Same? letter for letter? Did the 'Ulhmaanic four or eight mus-hafs match each other prisingly.M.) opinion that number ol mus-hafs was lour.l. 255 A. last ol the seven and not Bahrain). not ol very great concern to ordered to be written. Basrah and Shaam (Syria). some maintain addition to the above seven. 501 I. p. the evidence indicates otherwise. The different in a copies that is Uthmaan ordered to be written differed from each other lew letters. and the sent to Makkah. Syria. v. 852 A. all future one mus-hafs were written as exact copies of these. of the Qur'aan 147 The Number of 'Utiim. Ad-1 )aanee writes in WisMuqm'.l. in his Itc/aan.?) Some scholars maintain that there were six copies. 'Uthmaan kept one in Madeenah. i02 az-Zarqnance. .240.p. in 5) Lastly.406. thej It is include the personal mus-haf of'Uihmdan. C. II. il forced to choose between these opinions." 4) 1 -' Aboo Haatim one was ol as-Sijistaanee (d. as-Suyootee.

H. Since the various mus-hafs are not present any more. who read 3: 1 84 as bi zuburi wa bit kjtaab' whereas the rest of the qiraaat read 'iva is zuburi tval that the l{itaab' (i. Aboo Daawood (d.e..262. these slight changes were done in order to accommodate the various recitations of a particular verse (the akruf). Abu 'Amr ami Ibn KatheCE That of NaatV Ibn "Aamir. In lad. a differ- and must indicate the in the mus-hafs of Uthmaan.H. Kisaa'cc. without the two bus). 189 A. . va/(huafu. there occur changes cannot be attributed to one script. 1936)./ira'aal. al-Kisaa'ee (d. is 207 A. Between the various qiraaat. an actual word hafs..i.). I Those (il 'Aasim. and sent to Syria had the two extra bus in is it. or at least knew and who did. added in one 2) Visual Inspection: The second way that it is known that these mus-hafs differed from one another is by comparing them.h. Ibn 'Aamir was Syrian. The Companions not write both recitations in one mus-haf'lor tear ol confusion between the two. On the other hand. and sometimes words that even il this script were with- out dots and vowel marks.. in a number and it was particular spelling. However. m $03 az-Zarqaanec. on the . script. . then the possible to accommodate ail word was written with that ot these recitations in one- spelling. the (and only) person toeilii and publish was the famous Orientalist scholar Arthur [effery (published in Cairo. 17. then it was written with one tions in diil one mus-haf. il The example ol 'maalikf and not all 'nuilily has already been given before.I I. p.""' Another example 'iva quada of Ibn it 'Aamir.). as pan otitis famous work Materials for the History of the Text of the I Inly Our'aan. In this example. fact that The 1) the Ulhmaanic mus-hafs differed is known by two ways: in letters The q'trdaaf. the only book that remains of the the son of the famous scholar work authored by 'Abdullaah ibn Abee Daawood (d. ! " 7 Unfortunately. and al-Farraa' these classical works A. and another recitation in another mus-haf.'. (d. Rather..). 275 A. amongst them. p. other qirdaat? This ence letter fa change can not be attributed to the same it M read as laa yal^haafu. original mus-hafs of 'Uthmaan.l. known mus- mus-haf ihm 'Uthmaan whereas the ot the Other mus-hafs did not.im/. 316 ol Inulceth.148 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan chance.)..H. If the Prophet ($g) had recited the verse of ways. I I 306 This point will be better understood alter one reads Ch. is changing the tvaw to a fa.mil l. For example. ii Unfortunately. which he entitled Kitaab al-Masauhjf. reports must be taken from those who were fortunate enough to have read reported this more than one of the from those topic. 3(M illi v. Introduction to Ibn Abcc llrst Daawood. 307 308 it.' This is some ot the qira'aat m read 91:15 as 'wu laa the recitation that most ol the readers will be familiar with. in the recitations could ol the recita- be accommodated one spelling. a number ol scholars had written books specially on Some authors have mentioned at least ten scholars of the first four centuries of the hijrah who had written specific tracts on this topic. which is discussed in greater detail in C". 10.

H. but rather intentional. This the differences that originated in the different mus-hafs of scattered in the various qira'aat. There are no verses or phrases that are present Actually..The Compilation ol the Qur'aan 14° Khaalid ibn Iyaas (d. pps. there was no immediwhen Aboo Bakr passed away. Umar did not nominate any one successor after him. the mus-haf that 'Uthmaan sent to Syria had the extra letters.' instead oi'wa awsa. The other mus-hafs from the Madeenah mus-haf as for example in verse 3: 1X4. D. and found that quoted. then naturally inherited by Hafsah. It is What Happened to the Okiginal Mus-hafs ? to of great historical importance (and curiosity) know what happened to these original mus-hafs. Of the in the ten qira'aat. used to recite the Qur'aan in all of these ways. On death-bed. though. 2: 132 'wa ivasa. see Ibn Alice lists Daawood.. $09 For these anil many more p. as noted only with regards to certain in letters and words. all of the other differences the script of the mttfhafzxc still found differences between the qira'aat. and is between the qira'aat. " During the caliphates of 'Uthmaan and 'Alec. the purpose behind having these trivial changes between the mus-hafs to the was to preserve the various ahntf of the Qur'aan. 57-49. as was the case when 'Umar passed away. In the same way. he be even more certain that is the Qur'aan has been preserved even to the minutest detail. but rather a for the committee ate of six people. differences. Therefore Caliph present."" earlier. 9.circa I50A. after he passed away it was given to 'Umar. 695-702. so because are still all of 'Uthmaan found showing that the (%jg) scriptural differences arc not acci- dental. The mus-haf'was (5^j).' a/if. it remained 1 with Hafsah. il some mus-hafs without will one reflects over this phenomenon. the others. sin See al-Hamad. There differed are more than just twelve differences. ..) reported that he read the mus-hafof 'Uthmaan.. meaning that was without an whereas the second was with an reflected in the differences it This is in the actual script of the mus-hafs. which he "" The llrst of these was a/if. the first 5 it differed with the mus-hajs ol Madeenah in twelve verses. Khaalid ibn Iyaas only com- pared the mui-hflfoi 'Uthmaan with the mus-hafs of Madeenah. The Prophet upon later. where he 31 1 around sixty differences between the various mus-hafs. are These differences. his daughter and a wife of the Prophet Ac- cording to a report from Ibn Abce Daawood's Kitaah al-Masaahif Hafsah was very protective of the that he mus-haf and even refused to give it 'Uthmaan until he assured her would return it. Ihn Alice Daawood. Naafi' and Ibn 'Aamir read in with the a/if whereas the rest do not. as will be elaborated Therefore. As his mus-haf of Aboo Bakr. but the others did not. even most minute detail. pps.

made ol camel skin'. (1893 CE).150 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan al-Hakam 65 A. Marwaan to ibn (tl.l I. Ibn al-Jazaree K52 A.H.H/J 184 CE) saw the manuscript in the mosque of CE./I217 Madeenah until the in the year 5X11 it A. Some likely.H. 25. is now on exhibit at the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. of Tafseer ibn Katheer it'ii fame. p. King ol Hcdjaz." As for the "Uthmaanic mus-haf:. I."' Ibn Battuta (d.H. 62. so feared that alter some time people would doubt the veracity of this mus-haf. p.nici-. It has been re- ported that this copy was removed by the Turkish authorities to Istanbul. / 1915 CE. wrote in his monumental history.H." This copy see. but this does not seem in the (d. I. reports seeing for the hafs that were copied from the mui-haf of 'Uthmaan. Ibn Katheer had been sent from Palestine say this copy (d. the year 1.62. 614 A. . and England via was "verv large. .H. al-Bidaayah seen one ol them. (Therefore. Von Dcnffer. for all to There is also a copy of a mus-haf in Tashkent (former it USSR) that is alleged to If this is be- an 'Uthmaanic copy. Another opinion states that was burned in a lire that occurred Grand Mosque of Damascus. ?I2 In feet. in beautiful clear strong writing with strong ink. made in its way to it Leningrad. iH It an-Nihaayah.iz-Xarq. the famous Muslim directly traveller.) also reported seeing the mus-haf of Syria. 316 Taken from Von Denffer. from where it came to Berlin during World War I. he ordered ibid. p. As many musMadeenah manuscript: Ibn (ubair (d. "The only reason I did this was because all that (oi is in this mu£-iftf (ofAboo Bakr) I has been written and preserved by the mus-haf 'Ulhmaan).. 774 A. 411s. Germany (sic) ol will restore to lis Ma)esty. 1 54. Marwaan wanted eliminate this mus-haf since the "Uthmaanic mus-haf was sufficient for die Muslims. which was removed from and is Medinah by the the Turkish authorities II. I think. which concluded World War Article 246: contains the following clause: into the force Within si\ months from the coming I of the present original treaty. the Koran the Caliph Othman.510 A. to prevent these doubts I burnt il! it).H. p. an "Uthmaanic mus-haf it might actually be the mus-haf that 'Uthmaan kept for himself. although some say that is a copy of the original. on parchment.H. or they would say that there was something in it that had not been written down. v. but not Madeenah. 779 A. bin Halsah refused to hand it over. li>r h t < In- destroyed the very hour that Hafsa was buried! Hi 114 515 Qaaaao p.) became the gov- Alter the caliphate of 'Alec. ernor of Madeenah. Some say it remained in Madeenah in 1 Turks took from there $34 A. that he had it to Damascus. before destroying the mits-haf' [: He said.). Turkey. )." stated to have been presented to ex-Emperor William The manuscript then reached Istanbul. The Treaty ol Versailles. Marwaan had to wait until Hafsah passed away in 41 A.

(after the of the Qur'aan 151 It came in Umayyads had taken it from Madeenah to Morocco) the Russians took in 1924. Allaah says. and because of through this medium at a number of leading universities Uthmaanic first and private collections. and concludes thai il is the strongest candidate lor being an original mus-haf ol Uihmaan. and remained there until.» [2:248] Kingdom is lli. at at least two imis-lhifs that are reputed to be official is Even if they are not originals (and this very difficult to disprove). has a A sign or indication.. Petersburg. and it has remained in Tashkent The Russian authorities had 7 this the mus-hafis available made facsimiles ol the mus-haf. "The sign (aayuh) box. . x.H. As lor the other copies in Kgypt lhal are reputed to be 'Uthmaanic mus-hafs. number ol mus-hafi ol Iran and Iraq which are claimed to be al-Hamad. •Ask the Children 4) ol Israel how many miracles (aayuh) we gave them» [2:21 1 A verse or sentence. in 1869. he concludes that this is very unlikely. since the style of writing conforms to the few decades after the hijrah. This word. it Samarkand 890 A. to St. as hey have mit/al and lashheel marks." Therefore. 191-3. linguistically. «ln this there 3) is a lesson (aayuh) for those who give thought" 1 16: 1 1 A miracle. including: 1 an 'aayali. «And ol his their prophet said to them (the Children ol Israel). (14X5 to CE). Allaah says. there exist mus-hafs. Allaah says. 'You (O Muhammad) 116:1011 are but a forger.' Nay.) 1 1 The Compilation and the one he was reading Irom when he was murdered. Kvcn less likely candidates lor the Uthmaanic mus-hafi are a Alec's personal mus-haf. (but) most of them are ignorant!" 317 Al-Hamad describes this mus-httl in groat detail. The Verses or the Qur'aan as By 'verse' is meant what is known number of meanings to it. . they are worst copies of the original. jXjiyt Jx\) &+ -^Zj\ ^-s*J« 2uVJLJja\ilj Qur'aan) - •And when We change and Allaah knows a verse (aayuh) (in the in place of another best what he sends down they say.it there shall come to you a wooden 2) An admonition or lesson. They returned ittoSamarqand (close to Tashkent) since. Allaah says.

it is defined to be a pari is of the Qur'aan composed it ol sequential letters anil words. Some scholars have stated that ob- ligatory for the Friday 4) sermon to include at least one full verse in it. 339. Mosi scholars also encourage the recitation of three short or one long verse after the Faatihah.a after it. the beginning and end ol every single verse was taught to the the Prophet (£??. mankind to benefit from."'' and. Some scholars state that. JO. Mailcenah. including:''" 1 ot where a verse begins and ends is essential for a number of rea- The acceptability ol the rised the Faatihah. and admonitions for the believers and The Necessity of this Knowledge The know ledge sons. "Whoever memorises 1 the last ten verses ofSoorah Verily. is Combining a miracle the above linguistic meanings. hadceth in which the Prophet mentions particular verses For example. occupying a specific place in a specific soomk. Murshid al-Khataan. i2l IUM Press. 1990. Likewise. p. usooiuh in i|S d."" It contains lessons for disbelievers. any recitation should be started from the beginning of a verse. As proof. 320 Moosaa. and this cannot be done unless one knows the beginning and end ol a verse. with a beginning and end. az-Zarqaanee. an aayah it is a verse ol the Qur'aan. v. and many scholars have it stated that this the Prophet's ($g) Suniuili. The ease lar in finding particular passages in the Qur'aan. is not encouraged to start or stop a recitation from the middle of a verse. lor a discission ol the inimitaoilily ol a verse.) said. il a person has not memo- he must recite seven other verses of the Qur'aan instead of it. prayer. to how the location of the beginning anil ending of a The first opinion is that all of this knowledge is from the Prophet (3^) - in other words. is The finding of a particuverses of the passage simplified by the knowledge and numbering of the Qur'aan. and concluded at the ending ol one. The proper pause at the recitation ol the Qur'aan. there is al-Kahl will be saved from the tribulation ol Dajjal. and from Allaah (since inimitable). tor i'jttttz' 319 Sec Chapter 1^ under 'The Quantity Reported In Muslim. . In addition. the adherents of (sgg) clearly this Companions by opinion bring forth the numerous in cerxainsoorahs. and this recitation 2) is also dependent upon It this knowledge. The Origins of this Knotvledge verse There are two opinions as is known. is preferable .but not mandatory is to end of every verse. it is The acceptability ol the Friday sermon. certain rules of recitaol tion {tajweed) 3) depend upon the location the end ol a verse.) 152 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan When used in Islaamic sciences. the Prophet (§g. p. separate from what before and i. Ahd ar-Razaaej. 1 .).

arc oi DO difference opinion over them.."-' and. and sometimes did not: these locations are the reason lor the difference ol opinion. he would stop ticular places.. The second edge is opinion.The Compilation of the Quraaa the Qur'aan lorgiven. ". 153 composed of thirty verses that interceded lor its companions until he was It is. there were certain rules that these employed to discern the exact location ol the break. taking into account this and the above narrations from the Prophet (3g). 52. scholars even when ijtihaad was resorted to. there the Foot-Stool. Of course. whereas some locations were arrived at based upon ijtihaad. never stopped. and perhaps the stronger one. they claim that most of the locations for the breaks between the verses were well-known. "Read the I two verses oiSoorah al-Baqarah. agreed upon as verse breaks.and in (It is) it {Soorah al-Baqarah). . Those where he continually stopped whenever he (S^g) recited that passage are taken as verse breaks. Ol primary importance 522 Reported by Aboo I )aawood. Ik I le in Whose 1 lands last is the Dominion" |67:1| Soorah al-Mulk). is The reason as follows: that certain locations are subject to a difference ol opinion explained at par- When the Prophet places (5^5) used to recite the Qur'aan. without any difference of opinion. •Messed (i. {ijtihaad) fact that of the scholars of the salaf." a verse which is the Queen ol all other verses."''' for in- deed was given them from under the Throne is ' and. Reported by at-Tirmidhee. and where (the scholars) per- formed ijtihaad..The locations anil upon which the Prophet (5S) always stopped. so these too arc agreed upon that they are not verse breaks. p. but Then there are locations upon which the Prophet (-Sgl rather always continued his recitation. The diller- ence ol opinion occurs at those places where he («gz) sometimes stopped ami some- times did not. 523 Reported by 52-1 Ahmad. (of Allaah). and from the Prophet (^g). Those who there exists a difference of opinion over some Qur'aan (as shall be discussed below). from the Prophet and some ol it is based upon the personal reasoning hold this opinion give as proof the 'verses' in the fact. And then there are other locations upon which the Prophet (Sg) sometimes stopped... and there is never connected. as a verse break. the 'Verse ol These narrations show that the Qur'aan hail already been divided into verses by the Prophet (5^5). to be the and thus did not count verse. states that most of this knowl(l^g). whereas other took this beginning of a new Moosaa writes:'-" The reason for the difference ol opinion over the verse (breaks) reciting the is that the Prophcl ($S) would stop (while Quraan). Thus. 52*5 Moosaa.e. it some scholars took this to be a stop for breath.

whereas the earlier scholars said there were 6217 verses. Aboo ol Ja'far ibn Zubayr (d. Moosa. In Makkah. s2« ad-Daanec.the difference of opinion occurs only where one verse ends and the next 7 verse begins. whereas Mims 6232 verses. and this difference will be elaborated on in a separate section.1^4 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan was the context the verses bctore verses. to start lor example. to be numbering that is The scholars of were Basrah considered there verses were 6227 in 6204 verses. exercise ijtihiiiid in ill.e. ol'thi: c/inuicit) Thus..H. some qiruaat consider the . were divided with regards its question into seven opin- Each city (and therefore each qiraad) had own verse-number.' 326 c£ Moosaa. 1 59. and of difference ol opinion. the scholars agreed that the (Palestine) they held thai there in number. p. Again. The scholars of Islaam have said. p. is The only 'verse' at in the Quraan p. the scholars the Qur'aan (to be to this some are submore precise. fact that the there is no difference of opinion over the is arrangement and order 807 A. the difference occurs only in where to stop one verse and ol the start another... 34-38 . in In Damascus. . Madccnah and the later ones held there to be 62 14 verses. J29 Qaaaan. pps. this is The scholars of Koofah held the view that there were 6236 verses (and present in the nitis_-l±afs the written in the qiraa'a of Hafs 'an 'Aasim). over which there a difference ol opinion concerning its stains is the basmalah the beginning of each soorati.' thus breaking die '.' verse ofSoorah Faatihah to start from 'Sjraataladheen an'amta'a it whereas others into consider verses. It is ot the verse..) ol the verses in each soon//? from the Prophet ($J|) himself.'-' The Number of Verses With this in mind. they compared the particular verse with its and established beginning and end based upon them. So. last 'verse' two The Arrangement of the Even though there is Verses a difference of opinion over the actual verse numbering. 9. a mailer in which there is no difference of opinion among the Muslims.527 lor more details and examples.. from 'Ghayr il-maghdoobi'. what was the average length ol its sister verses? what was sister rhythm and rhyme it ol the '-'" passage? what was the ending sound ami note ol the and alter it? its Thus. the should be emphasised again that the actual arrangement ol the words and phrases same . What might be one verse scholars ol last for the scholars of Koofah might be considered as two by the Madeenah. and so on. is I agreed (ijnuni') on this point. how many verses are there ol the verse in the Qur'aan? As mentioned above. is "Flic arrangement the the verses in thcsooraJis (5gg) a matter which it mm command of the Prophet This is and we cannot question (i. 62 HI verses was the common opinion. most ject to a breaks are agreed upon. 27. the scholars ions.

He him. and Jibreel was ($gz) did not used to do this by his own judgement. the Prophet ($yg) Companions. "Jibreel came to me and com- manded me to put this verse at a certain place in this.""! 16:90]. v. and Nisaa'. for Jibreel inspired by Allaah with this knowledge. the Ramadaan.-Zubayr was reading the Qur'aan when he came across this verse. the soorahs in the prayer. then he said. for example. but he (5^5) was not willing to leave anything out that the Prophet had not ordered him to.. "O my nephew. I will not change anything from its place."" In this narration. •Allaah commands you with was justice. it. In would have had to Soorah Sajdah recite various JOortfAj. 'Uthmaan signified that he knew the place of the verses. and this was witnessed by Zayd ibn Thaabit. 'Uthmaan ibn Abee al-'Aas reported that lie was once sitting by the Prophet (gg) when he noticed that the Prophet (5§5) raised his eyes and fixed his gaze (an indication that he (j^g) was being inspired). ibn 'Altaan. •And those of you lor who die and leave behind their wives should bequeath them a year's maintenance and residence. 'Abdullaah ibn a/. ThereCompanions must have heard the various verses put together to form the ol soorah... and Araaf. the verses after so why do you 1 write it?" and asked him.. 530 Reported in Musnad Ahmad. In addition.. 347. 331 $32 Repotted by al-Bukhaarec.www//. the Friday sermons. This is gatherings ol the why as-Suyootec said. "The recitation of the Prophet (^) in front of the Companions proves that the arrangement ol the verses is Irom him. and Aali-'Imraan. 1."' and he recited Soorah Qaal more than once during in Fajr. "This verse has been abrogated by He answered. There are reports. Apart from these proofs. fact that the Prophet (|§§) used to recite complete and to the ment of the verses must have been taught by the Prophet the prayers in Companions is individually. In other words. 1>. that he (*yg) recited and he (3^) rccitcil al-Baqarah. .»l2:240] He went to "Uthmaan it. the Prophet (5^5) used to recite the entire Qur'aan during the month fore.The Compilation o! the Quraan 155 The used to Prophet (5®) used to mention to the scribe writing the verse where to put the verse in the tell Quraan. the Prophet (5g) told not only in which soorah to place the verse but also in which portion ol the soorah to do so. without turning diem out. az-Zarqaancc. shows the that the arrange- (jge) to all ol which the recitation aloud. and many more soorahs in the prayer.

famous governor of 1 the scholars of Basrah.). to the fact that certain qira'aut The reason this difference ol opinion exists letters that are due and. 249.156 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan and the Companions could not change the order of the verses from what the Prophet (SS>) recited. in 15:22.231. I. and 323. as-Sakhaawce. The Number of Words and There are 77.H. which consists of eleven $33 as-Suyoojcc. Some of the c/ini'mil consider llic disjointed letters to be a separate verse.671 letters. which would make these letters the smallest verse in the Qur'aan. Nasr ibn 'Aasim (d. As for the Qur'aan. lVa ad-duha and 'Wa al-fajr'. For. 334 ax-'/arkashec. 356. the in one another. called For example. Imaam as-Sakhaawee's (d. v. but they are letters in the same range as the in I examples cited."" The longest verse 89: 1 .). Hajjaaj ibn Yoosul (d. $36 Qattaan. I. p. is 'fa-asqaynaafamooku. 89 A. the mits-luifs ol 'Uthmaan were not 95 A. pronounce not written in the identical to script. "And it don't see any benefit (in all of would be book that is possible to be added (o or subtracted Irom. Iraq." So they stayed four months and words.p.439 words." Other opinions give different numbers. this is not possible. and he chose al-Hasan al-Basree (d. Abooal-'Aaliyah 90 A. 10A. He wrote. 643 A. lor these qiraaat.H.437 words Letters in the Qur'aan.). v.) and two more scholars. as mentioned earlier.qirna'a 337 This according of Hats. 2:282. the knowledge of the order of the verses is is imttawaatir. if it hail various opinions. but only five in pronunciation. cf.""' Also. and in the commanded them. H. (d.015 in the letters 4 Qur'aan. "Count the number of words counting the 323. is the 'Verse of Loaning". The longest continuous string of related letters letters.'"' This is retlected in the fact that there absolutely no known difference ot opinion in the arrangement of the verses tor each soorah. is p. m Both consist of six letters in writing.H. $35 p. to tin. and they concluded that there were 77. . and Qur'aan. with difference of is opinion in both ot these numbers. 82. Therefore. the Companions and those after them agreed that these numbers have no Islaamic significance or valid esoteric interpretations whatsoever. mind tor a in such discussions.) state- ment should be kept any benefit. after mentioning the these numbers).H. The shortest verse l is 93:1.

as every Muslim knows.I and others. separate verse at the beginning ol every soorah. It can be seen that the above opinions can be divided into two main categories: those who claim that the basmalah at the it beginning of the soorahs is a verse in the Qur'aan. is a verse of the Qur'aan is in 27:3(1 (which reads. or whether this soorahs. the Bestowcr of Mercy). . since the Com- panions only wrote in the 'Uthmaanic mits-haf what was agreed to be the Qur'aan.\ J ii it (the letter) from Sulaymaan. merely phrase said lor blessings between the and is meant to identify where one soorah ends and the next begins. it Soorah at-Tawbah.The Compilation oi the Qur'aan 157 The The basmalah is Basmai. and reads. but disagree as to status at the beginning other soorahs. In other first words. a part of The scholars are agreed that the basmalah docs not form and that "Verily. Soorah at-Tawbah).). ash-Shaafi'cc (d. 'Bismillaah ar-Rahjnaan ar-Raheem' (In the Name or Allaah. 5) The basmalah not a verse ot the Qur'aan. p. and of (reads): In the its Name ol Allaah. but is is a verse of the Qur'aan. is ol the The scholars who claim that Qur'aan. but rather a phrase which is used to distinguish one soorah from another.au as a Verse the phrase that occurs at the beginning ot each soorah or the Qur'aan. 204 A. such as Imaam 1.n Knihcer. This. as follows: is a The basmalah The basmalah separate verse. v. This is would imply that the basmalah 2) is the first verse at ol' every soorah. There are live opinions on this matter. ^-} j^\^j\& J^'£{ 'JSLj>'i. 17. the basmalah at the beginning ol the soorahs a verse (d. Imaam Ahmad 241 to A. except for Soorah at-Tawbah. The Kvcr-. and not lor 4) The basmalah a verse in is a separate verse. the basmalah not to be counted as any soorah. according to them. use as evidence the tact that the mus-ha/s that all "Uthmaan ordered be written contained the basmalah at the beginning ot the soorahs (except tor the ninth soorah. is a verse only at the beginning ot Soorah al-Faatihah. only a part ot a verse is the beginning ol every soorah. and not a 3) The basmalah other soorahs. the ol the 1) Bestowcr Mercy!"). In other words. Soorah al-Faatihah.). the basmalah the first part ol the verse in every soorah. not a part of any soorah .Merciful. the Ever-Merciful. II. J38 c£ Il. automatically implies that [he basmalah at the beginning ot the soorahs is a verse in die Qur'aan. and those who claim that is not. I. that has is been placed at the beginning of the soorah. There this is a difference ot is opinion amongst the scholars a verse at the is ol the ol Qur'aan over whether in particular phrase to be considered as beginning a each soorah.

the Prophet (syg) started the soorah with the basmalah. not a verse ol Based on this classic difference of a opinion.H. the Prophet (^) started Soorah al-Faatihah withit is out reciting the basmalah. and said. so when he All Praise I is due to AUaab» [1:1] respond. soorah starts. the basmalah ing that it is not mentioned. those a part do not hold the basmalah at the beginning ol the soorahs to be of the Qur'aan. Aboo Hanccfah (d. "Last night. asoorah was revealed me: tSismillaah ar-Rakmaan ar-Rahcem.1 158 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan and did nol write anything besides it. use the the purpose ol the basmalah is to signify where a new said. the qirdaat themselves differed over whether the basmalah was the Oaarces. (Sgg) did not know where asoorah 'I c\m\>.) and others. according to these scholars."" Another narration that this group uses the hadceth in which the and Prophet "Allaah has said. it verse in Soorah al-Faatihah and the other.'" In this narration.. they also use as evidence those narrations in which ihe Prophet ($g) recited the basmalah at the beginning of certain soorahs. tain)of#flM>ft&«r. «AI1 Praise is is due to Allanh» ol 1 1 : 1 the 'Mother of the Qur'aan' Jl and the 'Mother the Book' and the 'Seven oft-re- peated verses.H. as the following narration of Ibn 'Abbaas indicates.. that the Qur'aan. showing. have divided the prayer between Me My servant. in this narration. who said that the Prophet (i^g) said.'"' In other words. . Ibn 'Abbaas "The Prophet (-eg) said. M 1 Reported by al-Bukhaarec ami others. In addition. whereas the others did nol. such as Imaam Maalik (d. thus implyis not a verse. "My servant 40 has Praised Me.»"[108:l-3] We have given you the |I-'oun- In this narration. 15(1 fact that A. $39 Reported l»y J40 Reported by Aboo Daawood. Muslim and Aboo Daawood.. Mrily. 4». Ibn Katheer.". says. An even more explicit narration the one reported by Aboo Plurayrah. 179 A. such as the narration in which the Prophet to (3jg) smiled with pleasure..\\ is until the basmalah was revealed to him.soorahs. that However. which is mentions the entire Soorah al-Faatihah. and it can be interred that it was revealed with the soorah. Aasim and al-Kisaa ee were the only ones Among who considered to be a verse at the beginning ol each soorah.).

ar-Kaazic. this narration not a verse are all is based on must take precedence..1 statement $44 cl. "Verily. # 1183. the Faatihah) is the 'Mother of the Qur'aan' anil the "Mother of the Book' and the 'Seven oft-repeated verses'. 29-34. Aboo Daawood. Muhammad inn 'L'niar Fakhr ad-Din: Ahl<aom al-Basmalah. anil 'Bismi/lah ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem' is a verse ol it. and since the is narrations that are used to prove that the basmalah implicit reasoning. basmalah is is the opinion that the a part of Soorah al-Faatihah.d. since the difference ol opinion is not over whether the basmalah verse (the scholars are agreed that it is a part of the verse in J42 ^4 5 cl. most ol which make tins a statement Aboo is I lurayrah. For . were not for the fact that written in the mus-hafs of 'Uthmaan. Reported by ad-Daraqujncc. would have been written some of the imts-haf anil out ol others. w is This narration shows that the basmalah not a verse of the soorah. pps. however.. for an explanation ol the previous implicit' narrations. Perhaps the strongest opinion amongst these. 'Bismillaah ' tion is explicit in that the basmalah is a verse of Soorah al-Faatihah.1 The Compilation of the Qur'aan To resolve this difference of opinion. Majdi Ibrahim. and out of others! 342 This opinion the basmalah would perhaps is resolve the difference of Opinion. Aboo Hurayrah reported that the Prophet (^g) said. the purpose ol the-basmalah. its basmalah. and not a part ol the other soorahs. p. This narrathen recite (with it). it Had the basmalah been a verse in in some left ahmj anil not in others.e. the Prophet there is a soorah in the Qur'aan It composed of thirty is. anil not a l±adceth). for there exist narrations that the Prophet used to mention other soorahs without reciting the (S^g) said. as this soorah composed ol thirty verses without the basmalah. The strongest prool tor this opinion is an authentic narration that leaves no room for any doubt. «A1I l'niisc is due to Allaah» 1 1 : 1 ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem' tor verily it (i. there beginning ol the no strong proof that the basmalah is a verse at the («yg) other soorahs.." [67:1 |. ed..This is why some scholars staled Aboo Hurayrah. verses that interceded for companions until he was forgiven. For example.'" However. 159 some scholars claimed thai the basmalah left it was revealed in some all ol the ahmfoi the Qur'aan. al-Banna. and inn a Iwdecih ol the Prophet (5&<). thai this hadeeth not authentic (meaning thai n is . is The is issue ol whether the basmalah an actual a verse at the beginning ol the soorahs or is not not of significant importance. "When you recite.1 discussion ol thcahruf. as the narration of Ibn 'Abbaas mentions. Cairo. This hadceth ol is narrated through a number of ol different chains. For the other soorahs. c£ as-Sahcetyi/i. Blessed be He in Whose Hands is is the Dominion. is to differentiate between the ending of one soorah and the beginning of the next. 345 Reported by n. refer 10 Chapter in. Maktahah al-Qur 'aan. 358. .

.H. just as the walls of a city (Ar." it 1 fencing. signifies a specific linguistic is group of verses in the Qur'aan..160 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 27:30). where is it a verse. 26. Bahr. but best. 3-17 p.. 472. so they purinterpretations seeking to explain this. soar) ants. p. v. 9..' Some as if say it is from the word that signifies elevation. The Soorahs The word 'soorah' of the Qur'aan means an enclosure or a an elevated plain. its so it is the reciter of the Qur'aan rises from one level to another. guistic scholars have differed over the linroot meaning oi'soorah.. This narration will v.3. is the basmalah is counted as a verse at the beginning of Soorah al- not a verse at the beginning of any other soorah. a 'soorah' Combing its "The meaning to the Islaamic all has 'enclosed' certain verses. p. however.) writes. It is also used to denote " When meaning. Az-Zarkashee writes. or due to (the soorah's) high status. occupies a unique status is person who denies the basmalah as a verse otlhe soorah this. applied to Islaamic sciences. and at-Tawbah was revealed as a warning and threat lor the pagans. to the effect that the many Abee Taalib basmalah was posely left the basmalah out at this place. "There is no difference 1 '"' of opinion among (at the Muslims that a person is who denies the basmalah as a verse in the Qur'aan be considered a disbeliever. 774 A. . and elevated in status over other speech. lie discussed in the next section. 350 Tafsealbn Katheer. I. but rather. such as the walls around a city. 34H az-Zarkashee.. there have There arc narrations from 'Alec left out of at-Tawbah since the basmalah signifies peace and mercy. Contrary to is deny any other verse of the Qur'aan considered to be disbelief. is is as alit Qushayree because 'The correct reason that the basmalah it not at the beginning of is Jibreel did not reveal with (the soorah). or at the beginning of all thesoorahs. 1. Other weak narrations mention the story that the Companions cliil not know whether at-Tawbah and al-Anfaal were two soorahs or one."'*" VI. 4 ' The strongest opinion. the issue ofwhether the basmalah forms a part of the soorah as opinion is a verse or it not is the only area in which difference of in that a permitted. Faatihah. and Allaah knows As been ibn for the fact that Soorah at-Tawbah does not begin with the basmalah.' says. And it is also possible that 'soorah' signifies the various verses. Ibn Katheer (d." the beginning ofthe soorahs) not to To conclude. to not to be considered a disbeliever. 136. arranged in a specific manner.. or only ofSoorah al-Faatihah. As such. p. 349 Ubaydaat.""" combining of combine and enclose its inhabit- 346 az-Zarkashee. Therefore. is it : only in verse 27:30.

Anil why did you not write the basmalah between them.) The Compilation ol the Quraan 161 The Arrangement of the Soorahs The scholars of Islaam mended whether have agreed (ijmaa') to the fact that it is obligatory to follow that it the arrangement ot the soorahs in the writing ol the mus-haf.). and as such do not constitute any proof. then Aali-'Imraan. "The soorahs used to be revealed to the Prophet (^?. chronological order.H. starting with Soorah al-Iqra. "Put this verse in the soorah in which such-and-such is mentioned. w-hen Zayd compiled the mus-haf. These differences. and part by the ijtihaad of the Companions. Therefore. "Why did you which is pair al-Antaal. so whenever something was revealed he would call a scribe anil tell him. and put both of them in the tjwaal soorahs}" 'Uthmaan answered. when the revelation ol the possi- Qur'aan had not even been completed. then al-Muddathir. 179 A. As proof they use the following narration: Ibn 'Abbaas narrates that he asked T'thmaan. these mitsot the hafs were written during the lifetime Prophet it (Sjg). 1 The first opinion his states that the arrangement of the soorahs was from the official ijtihaad of the Companions. 82. v. p.) ami Ahoo Bakr al-Baaqillaancc (d.). The most common opinion amongst ranged by the Prophet (jjsjg) this group is that all the soorahs were ar- except tor Soorah ai-Tawbah and al-Antaal. .H. these Companions would have written their mtis-hafs with the proper arrangement ol the soorahs. ble for these mits-hafs to 2) would not even have been have been arranged in the correct order. This is the opinion ot 1 Imaam Maalik (d. ijtuaal ami mi-eai. The second opinion claims that part ot the arrangement was done by the Prophet (Sg). they have disagreed concerning the origin of this arrangement into three opinions. and soon. The followers of this opinion. anil Soorah at-Tawbah was one ol the ?5 1 as-Suyootee." The 'Alec's proof that given for this opinion is the fact that the different Companions For example." Soorah al-Antaal was one ot the first soorahs to be revealed in Madeenah. Apart from that. he employed own ijtihaad in the arrangement of the soorahs. acthis cording to the proponents ot opinion. had different arrangements ot the soorahs mus-haf was arranged in in their respective mtis-hafs. lor hail been so. even though it is from the mathaani^ with 1 at-Tawbah. however. However. then an-Nisaa.? is A. last <i2 For :i discussion of the tntuhaani. see the section of this chapter. (hut not obligatory) to follow this this recitation and is recom- arrangement in the recitation ol the it. have disagreed as to how many soorahs were arranged by the Prophet (-^5) and how many by the Companions. Both ihc mits-hafs ol 'Ubay ibn Ka'aband Ibn Mas'ood started with al-Bacjarah. Qur'aan. I . and the other Compan- ions agreed to this. this is the weakest ol the three opinions. In other words. since the mus-hajs ol the to read. show that the arrangement ot the soorahs it was not from the Prophet (^g). occurs during the prayer or outside ol However. Comin panions were personal. and were not meant lor others tact Most ol them were incomplete. 4<>. from the mi'een.

it into three soorahs. so passed away before I thought that was a part of it. and put them amongst the seven tiwaal sooraks. and why they agreed to is it (ijmaa). he (^) must it. and did not write the basmalah between them. so put the two of these together.e.) is perhaps the strongest opinion on the matter. have recited in a particular order.) and others. Qattaan p. if it was not for the fact that the above narration weak. this narration can- not be taken as proof in this matter.162 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan last parts of the Qur'aan revealed. Soorah at-Tawbah (j^g) resembled Soorah al-Anfaal).)) 'How do you divide the Qur'aan?* They replied. it clearly shows that the Qur'aan had been arrangetl into some order by Also. the Prophet (^g). This hadeeth will be discussed in I I "' the next section.H. and I have been given in place ol the Psalms the mi cen. p. Companions since the Prophet (%0. that all of the Qur'aan except tor at-Tawbah and al-Anfaal was ar- opinion of the majority It ranged by the Prophet (^g). since the Companions nil agreed to it {ijmua). he said."^ Therefore. the Prophet (-^g) recited when it the Qur'aan to fibred every year. "It has 35*5 no basis. and Zayd was present when he recited When Uthmaan compiled to this order. This narration would be a very explicit proof tor those is who hold this opinion.H. This opinion. 42 A. Another proof is that none of the Companions objected Therefore. the m us. . and have been given in place of the Gospel the mathaam. This recite the soorahs to the because the Prophet used to Companions in in a specific order. then 353 >54 Reported by In its Aboo Daawood and is others. For example.. and I its story was similar to it it (i. The Prophet because ol this. 1 Ahmad Shaakir said ol this hadeeth. c£ as_-Saheehah # 1480. 14 $.). was held by as-Suyootcc (who claimed that this was the ol scholars). and was honoured over the others with the mufasatl. the arrangement of the soorahs was understood by the taught them this. 44. In other words. whom al-ISukhaarec mentioned in his ad-Du'a/aa. Perhaps the strongest proof in the narration of Hudhaytah at-Thaqafcc 'We break (d. should be pointed out that the proponents of both of the above opinions claim that the present arrangement must be followed. cf. Reported bj Muslim. I could ask him concerning this issue. in his 356 Reported by at-Tabaranee Kabeer. given in place of the Torah the seven tjwaal. and he (^) mentioned the order ol some of them the two bright ones: al-Baqarah and certain hadeeth. "I have been AahVImraan.haf. "Recite and he (^) said. however." See Qattaan. 458 A. which he said. al-Bayhaqcc (d. 3) The last opinion states that the soorah order was from the command of the Prophet (^). "I asked the Companions (during the lifetime of the Prophet (%£. chain Yazced al-b'arscc. Zayd would have used the same order that he had heard from the Prophet ($g). is This (&f.) and this is why 'Uthmaan ar- ranged the soorahs in the present arrangement. the arrangement of lUc soorahs must have been that is known to the Companions.

Qur'aan is written in the "The arrangement ol the soorahs is Irom Allaah. ad-Dnrarjl Tanaasub as-Suwar . it (ihreel by the Prophet (jyg) in this twice the year he died. v. The majority of lafsccrs also discuss the relationship be- tween thesoorahs. iniifassa/ from Qaal to the end. the it Companions would to all the reeite the Qur'aan in a specific order so that they could finish every week. so the all arrangement it ol the soorahs is like the ar- rangement of the verses and words - ol is from the Prophet (^g). and the possibility remains that the Companions look is this arrangement from the Prophet and this the correct view. many of the scholars have discussed the wisdom behind the present ar- rangement of the soorahs. and he (gg) recited (d."' is 14..aU an al-'Aqd.) is al-Faalihah ami the which an-Naas.. "The whole Qur'aan was a period ol revealed to the lower heavens. A soorah would be revealed and response to an occurrence. and thus consider there be 1 13 soorahs. anil a verse in response to a happening.l. by consensus I of those in authority. $57 Reported by $58 recite Aboo Daawood.."" The Number ofSoorahs There arc scholars. then thirteen. 122. $61 hx. Hold quotes Irom az-Zarkashce. $60 Published by 'Aalim al-Kutub. but this refuted In the fad that the Prophel named each of them separately."' In fact.i position that not consistent with the present arrangement. combining al-Anfaal ami al-Tawbah (-S.'" In oilier words. one soorah. Jibreel used to inform the Prophet (-^) ol the arrangement and place ol the verses soorahs." Aboo Bakr al-Anhaaree it 328 A. 259.) said. the is of which A."™ Al-Hamad writes. p. Whal is imam In changing the arrangement is not to one soorah before die other in . then the "" ot the Quraan 163 five.i prayer. lor this is was occasionally done hy the Prophet (5£l. 251. 1 14 soorahs in the Qur'aan. v.H. Imaam az-Zaxkashee Ami know lirst that the 1 Dumber ofsoorahs of the Qur'aan. p.) as one. Mujaahid (il.I I. This narration shows that the arrange- ment of the soorahs was known Prophet (££>. as is present lasi ol in ihe mus-hafoi 'Uthmaan. It was recited to order every year. then eleven. . $62 az-Zarkashce. and Lauh al-Mahfoodh in this arrangement. In entitled Tanaasiq as-Suyootee wrote a multi-volume work solely on this topic. p. fact. whoever changes the arrangement be has ruined the arrangement of ol a soorah to a place before or after what it should proofs the Qur'aan. lull saiil thai there is were 1 1 $.is having .. then nine. and this is the view held by almost at- all the A very small minority held the opinion that Soorah al-Anfaal and to Tawbah are in fact said. Companions even during the life of the Imaam al-Karmaanee the said. $59 al-Hamad. Therefore. but rather to consider soorah .). over in twenty or so years.The Compilation then seven.Ahlal-ti. "The ($£. Beirut. 1987. then was revealed gradually. given (by the proponents ot the second opinion) are not explicit. I.

many of (HI). the mathaani from Ya Seen to al-Hujuraat and 363 Sec az-Zarkashcc. The longest soorah Soorah al-Baqarah. Some have added at-Tawbah as included in the 1) in the Qur'aan after the is tjwaal since there no basmalah that separates it from Soorah al-Anfaal. and thus there are possible that a soorah has more than one name (although some who hold that even the is from the Prophet (JH)). They start. . 3) The mathaani: These soorahs The These soorahs are the oft-repeated ones since they are recited in after the mi-cen.164 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The Names of the Soorahs As lor the names of the soorahs.M have been given place Psalms the mieen. The Classification of the Soorahs and the The soorahs of the Qur'aan arc grouped into four categories. the tjwaal (long) soorahs. the mathaani (oft-recited) soorahs jointed) soorahs. seems dial he also leans Reported In at -Taliaaraanee in his Kabccr. and the shortest is Soorah al-K.awtb. hence their name. al-Hujuraat) and finish with an-Naas. As for the particular soorahs that qualify as the to mieen and mathaani. and have been given . 2) The mieeti: These are the soorahs that have over or around a hundred verses.'" The tjwaal soorahs: These are the first seven soorahs Faatihah. I. p. "I in Torah the seven tjwaal. and I was honoured over the others with the mitfasjal. cl. is theme or word in it. where lie himself expresses his doubt over the divine origin of die to this opinion. be any consensus. 270. the mi'ecn (hundred) soorahs. according to the strongest opinion. and Soorah al-Ghaafir is also called al-Mu'min. of the basmalah. Some have said that the mi-een soorahs Soorah This would then imply that the tjwaal arc the soorahs from al-Baqarah to at-Tawbah. soorah names of"the soorahs arc was typically named tor a story. according to another opinion. although i64 it v. such as the hadeeth quoted above that them have been given by the Prophet mention the names of al-Baqarah. the mi-een from Yoonus to al-Faatir. prayers 4) more often than the longer ones. there docs not ends at appear Faatir. miifassal (dis- These categories are based on have been given of the in place of the I a hadeeth of the Prophet I (j||) in which he said. and in place of the Gospel the mathaani. However. A. 363 For example Soorah at-Tawbah also called al-Baraa'ah.ar. They have been called tiwaal be- cause they are the longest soorahs in the Qur'aan. the names of of the Prophet (jig). soorah names. Aalithe soorahs are not found in the hadeeth it is Imraan and al-Kahf. us_-Saheehah # 148(1. They occur miifassal: arc called disjointed or broken because of the fre- quent occurrence from Qaaf (or. all Some names were given by the sa/af as well.

he may read one manzil to finish the this: "I Most quoted (3^5) of the Companions used Qur'aan one week. he holds that the tjwaal arc from al-Baqarah to al-Aaral". In certain non-Arab coun- tries. The top number denotes the number of the ruku with respect to The middle number indicates the number of verses in that The bottom number indicates the number of the rul(ii with respect to the juz in it which occurs. placing al-Anlaal with the muthani. the first day of the week they would recite Nisaa. in the mi'cai\ . Aali-'lmraan and anrecitation of the Three soorahs. and al-Tawbah 366 Reported by Aboo Daawood. on the second day.The Compilation of the Qur'aan the mufassal from the scholars. 36 s ) Although Tarhooni in his work does not hold t hat it is necessary lor the soorahs. ru/(u. the next five soorahs."'" 165 Qaaf to an-Naas. so that the Qur'aan would be finished weekly. The Qur'aan is composed of sixty hizbs. In the mus-hafs ol today. that particular soorah. 1) has also been divided into sections to facilitate reading. Each hizb ruba's. So. and Yunus. The narration earlier Irom Hudhaytah shows asked the how they used to divide the Qur'aan (for Companions of the Prophet reading purposes). in each ol the differ- ent categories to he sequential. in a person wishes to finish the Qur'aan one week. then seven soorahs. then the mufassal words. 3) Hizb: The mus-hafs printed in Arab countries are typically divided into hizbs. then fixe soorahs. Thus. then eleven soorahs. this division also called a sipaara. the manzils arc different from this narration. This divi- sion of the Qur'aan into manzils tries. then thirteen soorahs. is not present in most mus-hafs printed in Arab coun- 2) Juz: The Qur'aan in is also divided into thirty parts. The beginning of eachy'«2 beginning of is also the beginning of a hizb. each equivalent to one or two paragraphs of text. and so on. These divi- sions have been adopted to assist the completion ol the Qur'aan in a certain number The ones that are more common is in the mus-hafs of today are as follows: il Manzil: The Qur'aan in divided into seven manzils. The ruku is accompanied by three numbers. this classification is not agreed upon by Other Classifications The Quraan of days. so that a day. They responded. is and the middle of a juz is the another hizb. each juz contains eight 4) Riu\u: The mus-hafs printed in the Indian subcontinent are typically divided into ru\us. lor example. and thus every juz contains two hizbs. then nine soorahs. Again. This is done order to is facilitate its reading in one month.'" * In other al-Baqarah. each of which is called a juz. from Qaaf to the end. further divided into quarters called ruba'.

v. The first category is the glorification by means ol Praise. . I he latter has the connotation ol praising Allaah because le possesses the Most IVrlcct Names ami Attributes. 2) The Glorification of Allaah. I. •< dorily the Name ol your Lord. "Glorified and Exalted he He (i. into which all The beginning of the soorahs may 1 the L4 soorahs 1) may be classified. For example.e. Haa-Yaa-'Ayn-Saad.'" The Disjointed Letters (al-MuqaUa'tiat). Haa-Meem.164-181. This is divided into two sub-categories.^. For example. "" 567 az-Zarkashce. All Praise is due to Allaah.Kaafetc.1 1 1 C H A P T E R 9 The Beginning of the Soorahs I.. rhis distinction will be better appreciated ii 36S Al/uu/i' one understands the different mean togs I »>i 'Subhoon and 'AUhmuliilhluah' '. only Pcrkd Attributes. the Most High- |87:l 1.p. These are twenty nine soorahs in number. AUf-Laatn-Meem. and by attributing Names and Attributes of Perfection. whereas the former has the connotation at negating from Allaah an) attributes oi imperfection. -Blessed he He in whose Hands is the Dominion" |67:1 The second category is the glorification by means of negating attributes ol weak- ness and imperfection. He is Rxalled over nil evil that is attrib- uted to Him)" 1 17:1 and. For example.. ami thus aliirmmv. The Different Categories be divided into ten categories. 1 1:1 and. This category shall be discussed in greater detail in the next section.

For example. half the Arabic alphabet. $*<$&££$$ "Read."0 Mankind" and others).ahab perish. The least common are l^aaj and noon. "For the taming of the Quraysh!" ii. 8) Allaah. or isy&J&% "By the Star in fifteen soorahs._!-'- "Ma) the two hands .^-i. or £jffi<£julfy "When the Help of Allaah "When the Event Befalls" (56:1). interpretations to the sensible. in the name of your Lord!" (96: He is 1 ).^ (83:1). For example. 7) (110:1). number. There have been numerous interpretations letters. five of which address the Prophet A Statement of Fact For example. and two with five. For example. For example. (Sg). comprise exactly letter. For example. the One!" (1 12:1) There arc six soorahs that fit into A Question. £$£ "By the Time!" (103:1).\3\l£\i.'V (106:1).-ii. There is only one soorah where this occurs: . Some ol the more common and opinions are discussed below: . and the Conquest" This occurs in seven soorahs. or 3yjS* "He frowned and turned away" (80:1). 3) A Call. in seventeen soorahs. This also occurs in six soorahs. as to the meaning and purpose ol these ranging from the ludicrous (some Orientalists claim that these the scribes letters are the initials of who wrote the Qur'aan for the Prophet (^)).U "What are they asking about?" (78:1) or the ^2ll>jS5j£\ll*j\ "Have you seen him who denies Recompense?" (107:1). 10) A Reason or Cause. and he (along u them)!" (111:1). ith and weight!" and 1^. all of when 6) goes down" (53:1). A O ^cJ^>^'j-~ ~'&£\>\ Comes. 5) An it Oath. These are the only three soorahs where this occurs.' 0}j^'^k=^' "Woe 3 : to every slanderer oi I and backbiter!" . Three soorahs begin with only one letters. A Command. "O You who Believe" £i\$£ and "O Prophet" (5:1 anil others). This occurs Condition. The most common mean. There are ten soorahs that 4) into this category. ten with two twelve with three letter is two with tour letters. jjltpClilJi "Successful indeed are the Believin ers" (23:1). (33:1 and others). S^:Li. (22:1 fit tj*X^#C«ft£ J.The Beginnings There are in the first of the Soorahs 167 a total of fourteen soorahs that begin with glorification. which are Makkan. This occurs twenty- three soorahs. The The Disjointed Letters . which both occur only once. 9) An ' Invocation. These letters. fourteen in letters of the letters. or the muqatta'aal occur at the beginning of twenty-nine soorahs in the Qur'aan. 1^1^111. hall of them are category and hall are in the second.'y j. disjointed letters. For example. or j^-lilify»ji "Say: this category. j' " "Woe Aboo to those who give less in measure (104:1).

Verses'. Again. (ibreel Allaah. 1. It is essential. as such numerical interpretations arc unfounded Qur'aan OtSunnah. because these letters have saiil. p. For example. such as "By the Dawn" (89: 1 ). to swear. they are acronyms (I. However.) Allaah is the one who has commanded us 10 relied over this Book. to verity il this actually was tin- statement ol Aboo az-Zarkashec reports \. Most of the scholars have rejected this view. or any ol the other to baffle the disbelievers. without an isnaad. Know). p. Certain fabricated Inuleeth support this view. 572 Ubayiiaat. babble) in the midst of it. all of which are amongst the names of Allaah. il however. Lateef and all Majeed. or and Muhammad. such as 'A/if-Lum-Mecni' indicates the three names: Allaah. "This opinion in the is rejected outright.. Ahoo Bakr as-Siddecc| of the Qur'aan is reported to have said. 5) They stand ' for specific meanings. so that you may overcome (the Qur'aan)™ |4I:26| $69 See ( :!. There are reports from Ibn 'Abbaas these reports are to this effect.) 16S An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan 1 These letters are is from the Miilaslnnibili. even though bility that (tl."" ami only Allaah knows their mean- ings. as the Qur'aan 8) not referred to as 'Alif-Lum-Mccm. In other words. "Every hook has (in anil the secret in the heginning of the soorahs this the muqatm'aat).'"' These from the names of Allaah. This opinion is a very common one. 17$.. This cannot be achieved except by understanding letters are meanings. They are from the is names of the Qur'aan. 6) Esoteric Interpretations. Alif-Lcmm-Mecm' stands fox Ana Alhuihu 'Alum Allaah. This view not the proper to way the Arabs used weight. I )o not listen to the Qur'aan. anil make noise (i. $70 az-Zarkashec. opinion is the safest one. They arc meant The disbelievers used to say. but these reports must be rejected too. and it is definitely the safest opinion. Other weak reports state that these letters are the greatest 1 name of Allaah (al-Ism al-Adkam). 3) '' Allaah has sworn by these letters. secrets in it. letters. its and seek guidance from 2) it. does not rule out the possi- some purpose and meaning. p. The Clear and Unclear v. for phrases. Needless to of these opinions are baseless since there no proof from the Qur'aan or Sunnah 7) to support them. In other words. I'akhr ad-Deen ar-Raazee commenting on this view. i/l az-Zarkashce.H. "It is not possible that Allaah would include something in His Book that His Creation would not understand. anil therefore this opinion does not seem 4) all have much These letters represent numerical values. . . 208. all certain extremist Soofis and is other heretical groups. 17?. 606 A. there is no proof for this. These are usually given by say. these letters have the same is purpose as the other oaths refuted since this is in the Qur'aan. liakr. 1 2.e. not authentic." it w However.is I.

H. By including the miiqaUa'aat as the verse of the Qur'aan after Soorah al-Faatihah. let (d. less than a third of the soorahs actually begin with these letters.) in his fa- mous tafseer. infinite man is being reminded 1 1 of his limited know ledge. Also. The muqatta'aat are not a phenomenon was to follow.ian in the ol 7. ) They are a reference to the other half of the alphabet. despite knowledge./. it support of They arc the names of the Although soorahs. "These letters are exactly is if is being said. in its and the words the same as their words. hut even these mention tin (lur'. Soorah Taa Haa.The Beginnings Thus.) said. panions never asked the explanation of these their thirst for letters from the Prophet (^g). Thus. as miracle.'' Thus. and to prove to the disbelieving Arabs that the Qur'aan was a revelation from Allaah. 1 . but again there does not This was the opinion of ar-Raazee 9) in seem to be any strong proof his famous fa/seer. Thus. and the Comletters. the very next verse mentions the Qur'aan. these letters seek to display the miraculous nature ol the Qur'aan. and the knowledge of his Creator. This shows that they were not puzzled by these its since they were accustomed to this use in the poems of Jaahilliyah. there is no doubt in it. This is indeed the Hook. according to opinion. p. 375 al-Kashaaf. 374 The only SOOraJlS where middle I . it is noticed that. 1 7. this docs not occur are al-'Ankabool and ar-Room."' This last opinion was the opinion of az-Zamakhsharee al-Baaqillaancc it (d. the Arab poets <>l Jaahilliyah occasional 1\ used disjointed In- beginning of their poetry to attract attention to the poem that Also. For example. 'Whoever presumes that the Qur'aan not a him 7" take the other half and form a speech that can compete with the Qur'aan!"" 12) They are used to attract attention. plausible one. it etc. this might be one of the purposes the muqatta'aat can does not really explain the meaning of the muqatta'aat. v. In other words. since even J 7 5 Tafieer ar-Raazee. started b\ the ters at the Qur'aan. the Arabs at the time of the Prophet (Sg) never questioned the muqat±a'aat. Kjtdii «AIif -Liim-Mcem. a guid- ance for the pious* |2:1-2|. Alhiah revealed these letters to of the Soorahs 169 bewilder the disbelievers. p. despite the fact that they tried everything to disparage the Prophet (5^). This opinion in is a it. To add weight to this explanation. 10) They are meant first to demonstrate man's limited knowledge. is possible to say Soorah Ya-Scen. therefore this cannot be their primary purpose. 1 . in almost all soorahs where these letters occur. the muqatta'aat are used to attract attention to the soorahs.n. v.s. be used lor. 403 A.H. the Arabs are arc being reminded that this Qur'aan yet it is composed of their letters. the jw.'"^ Imaam half the alphabet. 538 A. and cannot be imitated style and prose.

377 Also sec die opinion of ol Aboo Bakr al-Jazaa'irce in his lafscer. This leaves three opinions. 378 Tin. do not seem to be the primary purpose of the imiqaua'aat.170 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan though the mucjathi'aal were used by the poets of old. The part of a speech the part which the reader with. 'Abdullaah ibn Ghudayaan. -I. The endings of strong impact the soorahs arc typically very comprehensive the reader. 7. and by using the of techniques of the JaahiUiyah poets challenge and prevail over the eloquence the poems oldld. I S7. p. so too do the endwill leave ings of the soorahs. therefore it must have certain characteristics that make it stand out above the rcstot the speech. be secondary purposes. The Ending of the Soorahs Just as the beginning of the soorahs last have a certain is unique style. this aids the opinion!). leaving a upon An example is the ending oi'Soorah Ibrahcem: 376 /. Opinions eight.arzur. however. In a topic of this nature. ol concluded. 'Abd ar-Razaaq Afeeii. 144 oflhcir/'iz/tMnw) which Males: "The scholars have is differing opinions concerning this issue. v.was composed of their to letters and words.and Allaah knows best - thai these letters is the beginning of the soorahs are an indication ol the/yiwe ol the Qur'aan.Committee cerning these 6395. incapable of bringing forth Mmiclhing equivaletters (i.. Concerning the last It two opinions. As lor the first. p. weak (opinions two through seven). therelore. I. Allaah. and forceful. that they both are the strongest opinions." The Committee members were: 'Abdullaah ibn Qa'ood. v. Permanent Scholars (al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah) of Saudi Arabia was asked conbeginning ol the soorahs. and ten. 177 '" 8 III. nine. as was pointed out letters. the first.e. ai but the correct one . and that the creation lent to it. and Aboo lajjaaj al-Mizzi agreed with. that the actual purpose it the mttqatta'aat is known is only to prove both by showing the Arabs that the Qur'aan the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan. it is true that only Allaah knows for certain the meanings ol these that arc but this does not rule out the possibility that they may have meanings to possible to grasp. although are plausible ones. it is composed ol these same disjointed the Arabic alphabet) that al- they talk I And ibis opinion is the one thai Shaykh al-lslaam lbn Tayniiyyah defended. the Qur'aan"s inimitable. but to does not seem too unreasonable to claim that their purpose despite its inimitability . They may. . then. eleventh and twelfth. earlier. It is and Allaah knows best. In response k> ibis question. since there (Iocs not exist absolute proof for any ol first a way. Many can be eliminated as baseless or ihem (hence. despite the laci that in. be any grounds for rejecting either o! them. there does not seem seems likely. they issued a letters ai the faiwa (# p. and 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn 'Abd Allaah ibn Baaz. it is style of "poetry' is impossible to authoritatively say which ol these opin- ions in is the correct one.

I. Soorah al-Maa'idah and al-Hashr end with the a beautiful description ami glorification of Allaah. p. glorify (AllaafTs) praises. and the beginning of Soorah an-Nisaa' commands mankind the ties ol kinship. in the night-time. Soorah Aali-*Imraan ends with the exhortation of being patient and persevering in the cause of Allaah.[ 14:52] is Another example the comprehensive dit 'aa that forms the last two verses ofSoorah praise al-Baqarah. and the if in beginning of Soorah al-Baqarah describes the Qur'aan as a guidance.. and that they only One God who is worthy ol worship. ••Indeed. az-Zarkashee. and the beginning ol Soorah al-Maa idah reaffirms these commands by commanding the believers to be just in fulfilling their promises and obligations. of a surely the believers are successful!* [23: 1 and ends with. 186. . or wording. For example. the ending ol Soorah an-Nisaa' contains relatives to fear Allaah.. in order thai they ma\ he warned thereby.. v. either by meaning.n dure is men ol understanding may take hecd!». ?tfT*t ""-!*—'< i. and at the setting ol the |52:49| ol and the beginning Soorah an-Najm.lr' - "And stars. anil that may know tli. the ending is a Soorah al-I'aatihah request to Allaah to guide us to the Straight Path. is of the An with important aspect of this topic the relationship of the beginning of a soorah oil its ending. Typically.1 1 The Beginnings of the ••This Soorahs 171 (Quraan) is a Message lor mankind (ami a prooi against them). Soorah at-Tawbah ends with Prophet (^. and so forth. the disbelievers will not be successful. and lultil the laws of being just amongst with regards to the laws ol inheritance. for example. ef." [23:1 17| is The ending ol" relationship ol the ending ol a soorah with the beginning ol the next one also a topic of great importance. An example of a relationship in wording >- is the ending of Soorah at-Toor.). the answer to be ending of Soorah Aali-'Imraan exhorts the believers patient and fear Allaah. •<Surely. ••By the star when it goes down» [53: 1 both the ending and beginning mention the word 'star. Likewise. as to the prayer. $79 For this section. the ol beginning ol a soorah is related to the the previous one. Soorah al-Mn'minoon starts with the phrase.

the brink. means the it way that Ibn Mas'ood used to recite that verse or word.H.. a and therefore cannot be defined at this point. 'half has a number of mean- ings. including: 1 A letter or a alphabet. p. word. when we say the harf of Ibn Mas'ood. The ahruf are the various ways that the verses of the Qur'aan arc Imaam al-Qurtubee (d.""" 1 Most English authors translate ahruf as 'modes' or 'dialects. 671 A. "Every variation of a word in the Qur'aan is said to be a harf. for example.' For example." 14:46) Its exact definition in Qur'aanic sciences is the subject matter of this chapter. in this book the word will be left in Arabic since the meaning is broader than these translated words. the edge of something. to distort..it.' Al-huruf al-abjadiyya..' Allaah says concerning the Jews. or doubt)» |22:1 3) To swerve from the truth. ^<L*_*5 «.e. Allaah says.. they have displaced (lit. 380 Ubayda. yitharifutia) words from their right places. means the letters of the 2) 'The border. for example. However.' However. «Ancl (i. among mankind is he who in worships Allaah 1 (as it were) upon a half upon the very edge.. Linguistically. So.) said. temporary definition may be given as follows: read.. The Meaning of the Word 'Ahruf The word akrufis the plural of harf. . 153.) 1 CHAPTER 1 (I The Ahruf of the Qur'aan i.

the Prophet ($g) said. 385 Narrated hy al-Bukhaarcc and Muslim. "I ask Allaah's last. he (^g) said. p. 173 The Number of Ahruf of the Qur'aan The Qur'aan was revealed in seven ahruf. "Allaah has recite the Qur'aan to your people two ahruf. Jalaal ad-Dcen as-Suyootee lists twenty-one companions who narrated that the Qur'aan was revealed in seven ahruf'* Some of these narrations are as follows: narrations from the Prophet 1 1) Ibn 'Ahbaas reported that the Prophet (-^g) said. for indeed it I learnt thiSSOOrah I from the Prophet (^) anil was diftcreni from your recitation!" Therefore. Jibreel pardon and forgiveness! My and people are not capable of doing this!" At said. they do not differ 2) about what is permitted or forbidden." He then asked me to recite the same soorah." The Ahruf of the Qur'aan II. 'It was (also) revealed this way. has reached me that these seven ahruf are essentially one (in meaning). and asked him to recite Soorah al-Furqaan. "I ask Allaah's pardon and forgiveness! My people are not capacommanded you again replied. When he finished. 1 to increase for me.). until him to increase (the we stopped at seven ahruf. narrators in every stage ofthe chain. "I was sitting in the masjid when I heard Hishaam ibn Hakeem recite Soorah al-Furqaan. said. one of the narrators of the Inulccth. 384 Narrated hy Muslim. in seven different ahruf so recite whichever one is easy for so 381 Kmutawaath ftadeeih is one thai is reported hy a large number of much so dial ihcy could not all he mistaken or agree upon a lie. Indeed. ! "' 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab reported that the Prophet tribe (j^g) was once on the outskirts of said. "Allaah in came to for the fourth time. to recite the Qur'aan right. (syg). 'It was revealed this way. "Allaah has commanded you to recite the Qur'aan to your people in three ahruf. but I waited until he finished. 'It was the Prophet (5^) himself!' I responded. 'Who taught you to recite in such a manner?'" He replied. At this. When I had finished. in has commanded you recite.) replied for a third time. Narrated hy al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. "\ou are mistaken." The to "I Prophet ble ($g." The Prophet (££. I. I was almost about to jump on him in his prayer. dragged al- him to the Prophet (£g) and complained to him that Hishaam had recited Soorah manner different from what he (^) had taught me. so The proof for this is found in many much so that it reaches the level of mulawaatir. the Prophet (5^5) told me to let go of Hishaam." Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhrec 24 A. and then grabbed him by his garment and asked him. . 45.H. but it requested number "It of harf) and he continued (d.) replied. 382 as-Suyootee. Hishaam recited the Soorah in the same way I had heard him before. Madeenah (near the "Allaah has of Banoo Ghifaar) when Jibreel came to in him and commanded this!" Jibreel that you recite the Qur'aan to your people one harf. "Jibreel recited I the Qur'aan to me in one hjirf and I recited it back to him. (iig) of doing then came again and in said. 583 vol." The Prophet ask Allaah's pardon and forgiveness! My people are not capable of doing this!" Jibreel then came a third time and said. the Furqaan in a Qur'aan has been revealed you. your people 3) seven ahruf. and whichever hflrfthey they would be m 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab narrated.

in 4) In a story similar to 'Umar's. for all since the purpose of the ahruf was to simplify recitation The Prophet (3^) and Hishaam did did not teach not all the ahruf to the Companions. He (j^g) ap- proved both a sort parties' recitations.. Among them arc old and young men and women. learnt. and those who have never read any writing!" Jibreel answered him. Alter some discussion. fear! of denial and doubt that did not even I in the time of Jaahilliyah he struck at (before Islaam)! When I the Messenger (^) saw how felt was I affected. would be useful to mention some points that can be inferred from the above narrations: 1 The different In all the narrations that each ahruf are all directly from Allaah. Muhammad. 3) The Prophet (^) used to teach the different ahruf to different Companions. Ubay exist narrates. The Prophet (-gg) prayed to increase thc<//yv(/"bccause in hxsummiih were ". 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab also heard two people reciting the Quraan parties in a manner to the different from (jj|) what he had this point. and as though were looking Allaah Then the Prophet (3§jg) said. the limitations ol the Qur'aan being in only one/wr/have been removed by Allaah as a blessing for this Uminah. ami not from the Companions. 'Umar know about the existence ol the different ahruf Also. This why the Prophet (Sfe." Therelore. It tie- pending on the condition and situation of that Companion. in. I was then ordered to recite the Qur'aan («^g) in seven ahruf" Jibreel. dial the Prophet (#g) chose the particular harf to recite to a can be assumed ing on which one would be the easiest for that rise.) one of the ahruf recited by 'Umarand Hishaam." (Slg). the 386 Narrated by Muslim. old and young men and women. both went ol Prophet and recited the same portion At to him.. Companion dependparticular Companion to memoand memorisation. 'O Ubay! A message was sent to mc to recite the Quraan in one harf but requested (Allaah) to make things easy on my nation.."'"" that confirm that the There are many other hadcclh ahruf but these narrations Qur'aan was revealed in seven will suffice for the present discussion. 58/ Narrated hv at-Tirmidhee. who was inspired by Allaah. What is Meant by the Ahruf of the Qur'aan? it Before discussing the answer to this question. . it was clear hail is one been taught directly from the Prophet said to each this way.) 174 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'. 2) "It was revealed The reason the Prophet (5^5) requested the number of ahruf to be increased was to make the memorisation and recitation of the Qur'aan easier for his Uminah. "O ibn Ka'ab narrates that once the Prophet Ubay I met and said.. "O [ibrcel! have been sent to an illiterate nation. my in whereupon started sweating. and those who have never read any writing. ". where the Companions differed from each other. the Qur'aan has been revealed in seven ahruf.i.there occurred in my mind chest. A second message came that should recite the Quraan in two ahruf but I again made I I the same 5) request.

23 1 A. thus showing of that the aftruf were not radically different from each other. the Qur'aan was revealed in exactly seven ahruf 7) The In revelation of the Qur'aan in seven ahrufsiancd in Maileenah. one Prophet (^g) was on the out- skirts of Madeenah. one narration in the Musnad Imaam Ahmad slates that the it Qur'aan was revealed in in three ahruf. thirty-five opinions on this issue. 504 A.589 Ur.) had to pray to Allaah to remove his doubts. The number of ahruf is exactly seven . In other what was being words. the phrase.. perhaps the greatest scholar «X . ". therefore interpretations to the effect that 'seven' indicates an unspecified plurality (this was the opinion of Qaadee 'Iyaad ol (d.. cf. 'Umar could recognise that Hishaam was reciting Soorah al-Furqaaa. However. that.). a great ileal ol difference on (his Ibn Qutaybah listed 276 A.H. (he Com- panions were not content with listening theirs recitations that were different from despite the fact that these recitations were said lo have been learnt from the Prophet (3g) - until they had taken the matter there is to the Prophet (Sg) himself. 78-80. al-Albaaiicc.. «</ <w/V-/a<H»l"." indicates that this occurred after the hi/rah. ibn al-Jazaree (d.H. As issue. since both of these narrations are weak.so whichever one of them they they are in This is not to say that the ahruf do not complement one another in meaning.) recorded Ibn Sa'adan (d. Allaah increased this to seven was revealed narrations as meaning ahruf. and yet another narration states that ten ahruf. even though Hishaam was reciting the still Qur'aan in a different harf than 'Umar. tor what is meant by these seven ahruf (d. The of differences between these ahruf'were not so great as to prevent recognition recited.H. Also. after the of the narrations. sufficient.)) are false. but rather that the recitation of the Qur'aan 6) one harf is less. The prool for this recite. 832 A.not more. Imaam Muhammad c(. pps.H. in the Some scholars have tried to explain the first Makkan stage.1/»«/"of the Qur'aan 175 cause lor Ubay's doubts was the fact that he was unaware of these ahruf and the Prophet 4) ($^. whereas in die Madeenan given different interpretations to ahruf Other scholars have However. a famous grammarian and reciter (o the Qur'aan. the narration Ibn Shihaab shows that the basic meaning of all these ahruf was the same. m need to resort to such explanations..The .. . there is no reconcile these hadeeth. is the statement of the Prophet (-Us) "." of these ahruf is complete in and of itself. not The Prophet ($g) asked Jibrccl to increase the number of ahruf until Jibrccl reached seven ahruf. the Qur'aan was revealed in three stage.while the hijra/i.). and as- Suyootee of over forty. and thus to attempt to investigate into this issue was futile! On the other hand. # 1335 and 1339. 5) Each one correct. In all the cases quoted above. benefit that can be inferred is H) A ol last from these Inulcclh (although this is not rel- evant to the ahruf) the concern shown by to the Companions in the preservation the correct recitation ol the Qur'aan."" Therefore. even declared that the true meaning of (he ahruf was known only Allaah.

nor do they make logical sense. 133-144.«l. etc. any explicit narration trom the Prophet (^).pps. this opinion contradicts the variations in words that occurs in the qirdoat. and mctaphoric. said."'' The reason that such a great difference ol opinion exists concerning the exact ol the akrufis meaning due to the tact that there docs not exist salaf. $90 Itr.''" A. there no proof for these opinions. claiming that there arc seven levels 3) of knowledge. until Allaah opened my mind to that the correct answer in this matter. Those opinions which have no tall basis \w iatsoever: In this category those opinions which do not have say hadeeth to support them.) 176 An Introduction to the Sciences oi the Qur'aan ( >l the t/ini'iiai alter the era ol the salaf. specifying different literal verb forms. and they contradict common sense. is to narrow down as many as possible based upon the evidences. Those opinions which have some apparent BUT ARE WEAK OPINIONS: category are the following opinions: basis. such as All these opinions contradict the taivliccd. 137-191. sharee'ah. Other categories include those given by grammarians and linguists. anil have pondered over them. purpose ot the ahruf. or seven degrees of meanings to each verse. B. . 122-190. 1 Some of these are: Seven different categories general and specific. which arc dis- cussed in the following sections. Therefore. Also. naasikh and mansookfi. it should he understood trom the outset that it to arrive at one is specific is conclusion. however. 391 c£al-H«mad. and claim with certainty that alone is correct and all else wrong. 10. without actually changing the letters. topic lor and contemplated which is over thirty years. namely to make the is recita- tion of the Qur'aan easier for the Ummcih. these various opinions arc merely the conclusions of later scholars. Included I) in this These ahruf are seven different ways to pronounce the words. pure tolly. "I have sought to discover the meanings of this these hadeeth (about the almif). Itr. based upon their exami- nation of the evidences and their personal reasoning (ijtihaacl). However. Inshaa A/laa/i'. 2) An esoteric interpretation by certain Soofi groups. az-Za«jaaiiee. p. For example: constrained and unconstrained. Seven different branches of knowledge. the various opinions and All ol these opinions can be divided into three broad categories. eliminate What is desired. ot texts. pps. or the concerning the exact nature ol x\\c ahntf.

Tl fOSE OPINIONS WHICH HAVE strong evidence: worthy ot serious inspection. Thaqccf. This was the opinion A. promises and occurrences. There are three opinions in this category. p. at-Tahaawee (d. general and parable. Ibn 'Attiyah 54 1 A. Some meaning dialect ol scholars say that these seven dialects are spread throughout the Qur'aan.> discussion ofthe weakness in the above for further details two InuUnli. Hawaazin. and so Others say that the entire Qur'aan reciteil in each these dialects. p. clear commands and prohibitions. thus forming the seven ahruf.). specific. namely. 45S A.H. the Quraysh. sec Itr.H.rzur. (other scholars gave the Tameem. such that words are The seven ahruf denote seven ways ol recitation (lahajaat) replaced by their synonyms. particular. other parts are is in the of Hudhayl.H.. . as they These opinions are the ones that are I have strong evidence historically and mm the meanings ol the a handed h. recoma weak luideeth to ?) Similar to the above. at the time of the Prophet Each of these dialects belongs to a tribe among the Arabs." m the scholars that the seven ahruf arc Unfortunately.).H. is in the dialect of Quraysh. $92 }93 $94 For . There is command. "There not the is no difference ol opinion among same as the seven famous qira'aal.H. Muslim masses understand ihc hadeeth oi'ihc ahruf u> C. the scxcnulmtj have the exact same meanings but different wordings. support this. as Ibn Taymiyvah (d.H. In other words.. ibn Sallaam (d. and words from one dialect would be replaced by other words used by that particular verses tribe. 1 The seven ahruf rcicr to the seven dialects (lughaat) of the Arabs prevalent (3^5). as more than seven qira'aat* and the collection and codification of (-gj) death.I I. This was the opinion ol Aboo 'Ubavd al-Qaasim (d.) and others.'"' the qira'aat occurred lour centuries alter the Prophet's None of the major scholars of Islaam held this view. Ihtlaul ami and ambiguous. under this opinion. >1 I A. 1 on the qira'aat.) The Ahrufof the Qur'aan 2) 177 The ahruf arc mendation. and also based on a weak hadeeth. Huilhayl. This there are is contradicted histori- cally. seven types of verses in the Qur'aan: apparent. Kinaanah and Yemen names ol other tribes). 463 A. the different types are: haraatn. various would be pronounced according to the pronunciation of that particular tribe. 321 (d. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr ol Imaam at-Tabarec (d. 1 38. that part ot the Qur'aan forth. Sec the next chapter /. 4) The seven ahruf are the same as the seven qira'aat.) said. most of the refer to the qira'aat. al- Bayhaqee 2) (d. 728 A.). 224 A.).) and others. Thus. 86.

fatabiiyanoo in is changed xafatathabatoo is in 49:6.'i/ini il-manfoosh is changed to ka as-spof il-manfoosh both 1. Among these the fact that it three opinion. >% The letters manuscript "I T'thmaau H.H.H. Therefore.597 pps. For example. )if ferences in pronunciation. of a letter or Addition or subtraction hoowa al-gkaniyul hatnecd is ha meed. Some of them give different categories. wa attakjuxdhoo mini maqaami hamzahs Ibraaheema musallaa 7. lessening the effect of certain (called tas-hcci) or pronouncing certain atifs andyaas differently (called imaalak). This was ibn the opinion of Ibn Qutaybah (d. For exam- amanaatihim is changed to the singular// amanatihim. Differences in wordings or letters such that they conform to the vowelless. dotless script just of'Uthmaan. the plural li 6. 1 '" For example. Ja inna Alhiaha without the pronoun. 5. anil there does not exist ment them. This change could be from plural to singular or dual (or other variations). Differences in inflection points. ar-Raa/cc 606 A. For example. Makkcc A. except lor the first.).H. (d.832 their general thesis is and others.).that both ot these opinions have an elethem. have very strong evidences to support seems . Change in word order. Abee Taalib (d. For example. wa qaatalu wa qutilit is changed to wa 4. al-Baaqillaani (d.).lots or diacritical marks tn distinguish between certain and vowels. in 57:24. In other words. the script of'Uthmaan.). will fall into one of the following Change in wording.). in 23:8. does not explain the essence of what the ahrttfarc. :5. For example. in Soorah al-Faatihah. 276 A. I is read in the command wattakhidhoo. iliil not have . Despite it classifies the differences in theaArw/intO ingenious categories. or ple. he was probably differing with 'Umar more than one ol these seven categories." . whenever a difference found between these almif. 403 A. The 1 first It them. of truth in any grounds for rejecting cither of 595 All ol these variations. on the other hand.'' two opinions.178 An Ininuliiction to the Sciences "I the- Quraan 3) The seven tihritf refer to seven different ways thai the verse can he changed.I I. . madliki changed to nuilil{i without any change 3. 437 A. 168-177.H. i! iin I it wa qaatalu. ol which mean the same thing. reciting a different harf from when Flishaam was in 'Umar. in 2: 195. are found in ihc present-day qiraaat. by changing the dots.^/ inaAllaah al-ghaniyul The form of the word structure is changed. 2:125. For example. Ibn al-Jazaree (d. but the same. seven categories: in 10 1 this type of differ- ence 1 .and Allaah knows best . See Chapter See Itr. the third definition does not really an- swer the question as to the meaning of the ahruf. Also. /(</ al. from feminine to masculine. In is other words. . recited word. on 'The Collection ol the Qur'aan. the third one seems to have the least weight.

Are the Ahruf in Existence Today? A very crucial question that arises is whether these seven ahruf arc still present today. ami al-Hamad's conclusion.). which is very similar to this one. (d. U4. At-Tabaree holds that the recitation Qur'aan in seven ahruf was a concession given to the officially Companions at the time of the Prophet specifically ordered the luirf. and pronunciations. These not always reach seven different ways of recitation lor each verse. p.. the most fluent Arab tribes of that time. p.e. I. first group of scholars. such to these variations variations ditl made it easier for the Companions memorise the Qur'aan. az-Zarqanee.p.). 4H2 riuydaat. This serve. words. was concluded upon in the previous The The (d. the different ways of recitation never exceeded seven. but not limited in ii 1 79 is concluded that the seven ahruf represent variations based upon. 7'>.H. to the committee it that wrote the mus-haf ". then write in the script ol the Quraysh. 162. but in existence today. leaving the remaining He is alluding to the stateif you differ in (the ment of 'Uthmaan Tabaree anil those harf. 147. revealed by Allaah during the time ol the Prophet (5SI i" facilitate the memorisation ot the Qur'aan..H."" iv.v. at-Tahaawee and those who follow them. See ( Chapter 8 lor p. These variations occurred that all to. argue that only of the one harf is ($£9. 510 A. . al-Qaarec. was it not necessary to pre- and eventually there was no need ot as those In fact. he argues that all present in topresent dis- seven ahruf have been preserved. he committee assigned ("Uthmaan) chose to write the mus-huf"to preserve only one is He writes."' "" Imaam them. letters. utilise the definition that section. 1 spelling) of a word. this question in essence depends upon how one defines theohruf."'" This.i discussion ol the collection ol the Quraan. For all example. az-Zarqaancc strongly argues that this the ahruf have been preserved. people new to Islaam began ar- m 401 598 ef. 400 al-Hamad. but whenever such variations existed. ()l course. scholars of Islaam are divided into three opinions with regards to this issue. became the cause oi dissension amongst the Muslims.H. shows that 'Uthmaan preserved only one In response to the question. 32 1 A. but goes back to his definition that the ahruf represent seven ways that the verse can still be changed (opinion (3) above). "The only recitation that the Muslims have today for the one luirf that their pious six. when 'Uthmaan compiled the Qur'aan. of course. since the dialects ol the facilitation (i. p. the ahruj) it. Ibn Hibbaan 5S4 A. 170-172. according to at- who follow his opinion.The Ahruf of the Qur'aan Therefore. The cussion will. left "How could 'Uthmaan and the Companions pur4"2 posely have out the other sixahrujl" at-Tabaree answers: The seven ahruj were Arabs were many. . Thus..) composed of at-Tabaree (d. since these variations are day's cjiraaal.

Zayd had been present when the Prophet ($g£) It whole Qur'aan for the last time. This was the opin- ofAboo Bakr al-Baai|illaani (d. The second group of scholars the mus?hpfoi ion holds thai all of the ahruf zk in existence today.e. Ibn al-la/aree. so thai the iimmah would he united The Com- panions agreed is to this action of his.). 832 A.). 790 A. anil 'Uthmaan was written to preserve all seven ahruf.). an-Noshr. Ibn Katheer (d./A// and the later generations are ol the opinion that the 'Uthmaanic mus-hafs contains ol the seven ahruf only thai which its script allows.H. I'rophel (5S>) recited lo [ibrccl (during the las! year ol his The is present mus-haf contains all this reading.) writes. v.) anil others. and the agreement the Companions binding on the ummah. ashal- Shaatibee (d. Thus. anil heard from him twice. They understood their responsibility in transferring 403 The Arabic is is Milium.. the I'rophel (Sg) recited the whole Qur'aan twice to Jibreel. They claim that the Companions would never abandon a recitation that they used to recite during the lifetime of the Prophet (^g). the Companions unanimously agreed to discard all readings that conflicted with the mus-haf of 'Uthmaan. (What is preserved) are the recitations that the lite). Refer to Chapter s for more details. The Jazarcc third (d. and he must have chosen those to the exclusion ol the others. that a portion tor the of the seven ahruf Ui\\c been preserved) to be the strongest one.. Allaah 'Uthmaan to discard the other six ahruj and collect the Qur'aan in its recitation.). only months before his ($g) death/"4 can lie assumed.H. Secondly.180 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan guing over the differences inspired in 4 '" in the recitation ol the Qur'aan. that Zayd was aware ol the portions ol thc</A/7//~that the Prophet (5^g) recited. p. Zayd ibn Thabit was in charge ol the collection recited the mus-haf. 263-73-. arises: The question then On what basis did the ahruf to preserver The answer ol the to this is 'Uthmaan decide which portions of twofold: First. scholars held the view thai these recilalions of the Qur'aan occurred in different uhmf.H.H. The seems 1) third opinion (i. 31.. Ibn al-Jazarcc (d. and is not the she was waliy thai given to the prophets. these scholars hold that a portion ol the seven ahruf arc preserved. See pp. 724 A. anil thai they would not discard any knowl- edge that the Prophet (^g) had given them.H. 403 A. ol Ilin Taymiyyah (d. group of scholars is composed (d.H.H. with changes. following reasons: in preserving the The Companions were meticulous knowledge that they re- ceived from the Prophet ($g). Ibn 832 A. and not a single letter from it missing. they would eliminate only that which they knew was not a part ol the Qur'aan. then. ar-Raazee 606 A. and their consensus is binding on the ummah. by Allaah to lei The mother of Moosaa received this type ol inspiration when commanded Some 4(15 Moosaa adrifi in the river. which is the type of inspiration that is given to pious people. it 404 Actually. 4 '* The majority of the scholars ol the . . Therefore. 774 A. ol one luirj. and a small group of scholars. Obviously. They argue that 'Uthmaan preserved the ahruj to the extent that the script of his mug-haf allowed him to do so. It r.). 1.

1 Shamaail. unequivocal information exists about every topic of Islaam. he also wHw-/w/(ol"Uihmaan) has six.ilik stated.. only preserved one harf. this as was mentioned earlier. Since likely that the knowledge was available to the Arabs seems m«£-&«^"was purposely written without these dots or inflection points would encompass different readings. and hence the different ahruf.. Irom where then do the differences in the ten qinuuit originate from? All scholars are these ten qira'aat originated Irom the Prophet (%ig) unanimous is that himself. 1 The Ahjuf of the Qur'aan this vast 1 8 knowledge to the iinimah.H. as Imaam at-Tabarec is forced to Makkcc ibn Abec Taalib (d.. as at-Tabarec holds. p. contradict his stance.40' These two posi- 406 Anas ibn M. and ihey were not accountable for say: all seven ahrufsince was concession from Allaah. Therefore.. and extremely weak. I SI.i. since each of the ah ruf is part of the Qur'aan. There was no concession. "1 could not count more thai fourteen white hairs in his in the I'roplu-t's (£g) beard and : hair. where he tries to prove that this knowledge did not exist until the Muslims invented it. 437 A. 71. so proof. how could 'Uthmaan. it given the concession of choosing one harf lo recite A.. were devoid of dots and at that time.I a 1. as was mentioned in the relevant chapter. that the and this what we also believe. 'S Mih. which- ever was the easiest for him. .iuiJi there stroll}. (that the it This opinion Companions left out six ah ruf) is strange. it cannot be said that the Companions purposely left out six ahj'itf a\v\ preserved onlv one ol them in the mtt$r&flfof 'Uthmaan without bringing forth some strong. 140. Concerning this issue.. Al-Qaarce writes..1 310 claims. i. p. It is because ol this concern of theirs thai detailed much so that the Muslims even know how many white hairs the Prophet's (jgg) beard contained!'"" Therefore..." Reported by at-Tirmidhce p. However. lor claims that a part of the Qur'aan was removed by consensus of the Companions. Also. however.) pointed out: conform is At-Tabarec concedes the inus-haf of to the fact that the various qira'aat that to "Uthmaan are a part ol the seven ahruf claims.11 1. apparently in order to accommodate the various reci- and this shows that the mus-^afwas written with the intent to preserve more than one harf 3) If. to the exclusion of the other tions are contradictory. or any if of the Companions for thai matter. # 5 1 407 al-Qaaree. therefore seems appar- ent that the qiraaat have some integral relationship with the ah ruf'(as shall be dis- cussed in the next chapter).'"' The 'Uthmaanic mus-hafs. different e of opinion ovei this Si * . discard something from the Qur'aan without proof from the Creator? Even we say thai the in. in preserv- ing these ahruf rather they were responsible lor preserving all ot them. 408 it vowel points. only one harf has been preserved. mind. or rather ail the a clear Companions. that were not 2) abrogated. as Companions were at-Tabarec (d.1! I la 111. the script of the Uthmaanic nuis-hafwas writso that it ten with specific rules in tations. recite the we This concession in was given so that they could choose to Qur'aan any one of these seven ahruf. 409 al-Hamad.

however. c£Itr. . by these differences in the mus-hafs. second. However. cancelled the</A/?(/"that 'Uthmaan Imaam (5§|) al-Qistillaanee (d. JL 412 Uwais. This reading. This was of primary importance 2) preservation and propagation. cannot be said for certain the exact wisdom behind any Divine for the Creator's knowledge is infinite. there were two benefits: First. a goal in mind. to affirm those verses that were not abrogated and to indicate which verses were. to strengthen and preserve the Prophet's memorisation of the Qur'aan. 'Uthmaan had intended to preserve the differences in the These same lour arguments. 3) To prove that the truthfulness ol the Prophet illiterate. 8. it in the Various Ahruf act.H. but rather were complementary.pps. It seems apparent this to was done with ahruf.1 182 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 4) to The different mus-hafs that "Uthmaan ordered change is to be written were not identical of a word or letter each other. because ol the lact that certain variations that to recite as part ol the the Companions used Qur'aan are now no longer of >ia>/(h and ol the a part ol the Qur'aan (as will be explained in the chapters qira'aat). for within the ten qiraaat. These variant final readings can be explained as having been a part seven a hritf before the 4 did not preserve. «3 2 16-228. It way: each tribe and location had slight variations anil peculiarities unique to the Qur'aan had only been revealed in one ha rf it would have been difficult for the many different Arab tribes to memorise the Qur'aan properly. the the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan. and. can not be used i///ol for the second opinion (that the ahruf were actually preserved). for in a in number ot places. 923 A. his time. of which consisted of the most lluent and eloquent speech of 4 1" See ( -li. the revelation ol the Qur'aan in seven ahruf had the following benefits: 1) To facilitate the memorisation of the Qur'aan. However. all To prove ences. which took place before Zayd ibn Thaabit. the addition or deletion occurred some ol the mi<s-haJs." lor further details and examples.) to Jibrccl. Muhammad he (^g) was the revelation of all (^). for despite the fact the Qur'aan occurred in different tribal dialects and different words. 41 Ibn al-Jazarce. the scholars of Islaam have said that 11. "In this (last) recitation of the Prophet (*g) to Jibrcel. For despite of these differ- meanings of the ahruf did not contradict one another."412 V.p.^"'YWis reflected in the various qiraaat in existence today. 'The ( "<im |»i lai ion of the Quraan. The Wisdom Obviously. and the strongest conclusion seems be that. " reading ol the Qur'aan by the Prophet (%£.8. p. since the Qur'aan was revealed in seven ahruf this greatly eased in its its memorisation.) said. This is the only benefit that in the is explicitly narrated in the hadecth. there exist tions that could not have originated Irom the word changes and word addisame mus-haj. The Arabs did not all speak Arabic same it.

). the Prophet ($^) remarked. "The earlier books would be revealed from one door (of heaven). In one hadeeth. in seven ahruf.The A/pitfof the Qur'aan 4) 183 To honour in the uminah overall other nations. w us-S. Thus. the revelation of the Prophet (%£. but the Qur'aan was revealed from seven doors (ol Heaven).il In ill l. Qur'aan showed the unique status that the and his umnnih. occu- pied over other nations. oi the Prophet Muhammad {?£?. varying ahruf.i.""' il-4 Kc |»<>rn. to ease the process of preservation. .).ikim. anil show its superiority No other nation hail heen given its hook in such a manner.i/in/hi/i # iS7D. in one harf.

the later generations must take from the earlier ones. They undercities to teach 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab. Therefore. II. during his caliphate. who it from the Prophet himself. the reciting the is Qur'aan that are revelation that in existence today. p. the Companions memo- From him accordingly. 'to read.iilxi/.2-U Wnh. In Qur'aanic sciences. The be History of the Qira'aat ol The primary method will oral. than this. Palestine. Ubay ibn Ka'ab to and Aboo ail-I)ardaa Damascus. Qur'aan the was given Muhammad is and the qira'aat are the variations in words anil pronunciations ol this revelation. anil this chain continues (%&. the revelation of the Qur'aan in seven ainttf \\-. it refers to the various ways and manners of staled. and is named alter the reciter (Oaarec) who was famous lor that particular qiraa'a. to As Imaain az-Zarkashcc (5gg).p. sent several prominent Companions to various the people Qur'aan. 4(> .\s discussed. 'Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit was to sent to Hims. transmission of the Qur'aan has always been and always of Each generation Muslims learns backwards the Qur'aan from the generation before learnt it. others more Companions spread throughout the Muslim lands. Thus the qira'aat are the verbalisation of the Qur'aan."" -IIS -lid lir. it " "The is recita- tion of the Qur'aan is a Sunnah. stood the importance of the oral transmission of the Qur'aan. to recite. When the Some them memorised only one half.C 1 1 A I' T E R 1 I The Qira'aat of the Qur'aan i. which conies from the vnolq-r-a mean- ing. and the Qur'aan preserved in the qira'aat."' This the fun- damental principle in the preservation of the Qur'aan." 'Oiraa'a' means the recitation of something. As 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab stated. Each qiraaa has its own peculiar rules of recitation (tajweed) and variations in words and letters. recite the Qur'aan only as you have been taught. they took of with them the variations that they had learnt from the Prophet (3^). In the last chapter.) until the time of the Companions. The Meaning of the Word The word 'qira'aat' is 'Qira'aat' (he plural of qiraaa. As the Prophet rised it («yg) recited the Qur'aan in all of these ahruf.

106 A.H.) was (tabi'oon). 404.H. Saalim (d. 170. He kept Zayd (d. who both to the Prophet's (^g) recitation. members ol this generation took from the Successors the various recitations that they had learnt from the panions. 'Ahdullaah ibn Mas'ood. recitation Qiraaat of the Qur'aan 185 'Uthmaan also realised the importance of the proper of the Qur'aan. such as .H.). Aboo 'Abd al-Rahmaan as-Sulamee 96 A. ). 'Urwah ibn az-Zubayr (d. 106A. 103 A. 'Alec ibn AbccTaalib. along with many other sci- ences Islaam. in Basrah.).H.H.Aboo I learnt from Ubay.). ~ 55 A.H.).).H.The Likewise. Mujaahid (d.H. in turn. Included in this category are 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan.). At this time. p.H. 90 A. and Aboo Moosaa al-Ash'arce. 'Ubayd ibn 'Umayr(d.H. and the Companions spread the different variations throughout the Muslim world. Aboo ad-Dardaa. Ibn 'Abbaas also learnt from Zayd ibn Thaabit.'Ataa ibnAbeeRabah (d. and this is what is 417 az-Zarqaance. 90 A.). for example. Thus.) and ash-Sha'bee (d. 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab. 414-416. These Companions then taught the Successors. (d.). ol the all Muslim world.) and 'Ikrimah (d. 1.). and adopted a specific Comcalled way ol reciting the Qur'aan. 60 A.M. Those famous among the Successors for the recitation of the Qur'aan are: in Madcenah. Nasr ibn 'Aasim 89 A. 100 A. (d. Those who arc intcrcstci may consult Ubaydaai.H.).H. . 1 14 A. 94 A. and Aamir ibn 'Abdul Qays Basrah (d. and "Umar ibn Abd al-Azeez (d. 1 100 A.). and sent a reciters ot the Qur'aan all over the Muslim lands. p. as. Qataadah 110 A. 50 A. Again. each region started developing a specific of these various recitations had originated from the mouth Prophet (^g). and az-Zarqaance. during his caliphate. (d. each with the copy of his official mus-fwf. in its Each generation had rank those who were famous tor their knowledge ol the recitation of the Qur'aan.H. These Companions taught those Companions who were younger or had not had as much exposure lurayrah anil Ibn Abbaas. and in Syria.). Qajjaan.H. v.). Ibraaheem alibn Alqamah Aboo Nakhaa'ee (d.H. among the Companions. Qays 70 A. Mughcerah Aboo 'Abd ar-Rahmaan as-Sulamee to 70 AH. 104 A. there were many who were famous as having heard from the Prophet (^) most if not all of the Qur'aan. 1>.Taawoos (d. Since the Companions spread over the various parts of the type of recitation.72A. he sent 'Adullaah ibn Saa'ib ibn Shu'bah (d. ). Thus. 161.H.H.H. to Syria Madcenah. al-Mughcerah ibn Abee Shihaab and Khaleelah ibn Sa'ad. Zayd ibn Thaabit. Around after the turn of the first century of the hijrah appeared the scholars of the Qur'aan whom ol the qiraaat of today are named. v. pps. sent to Koofah. al-'Aaliyah (d. Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib (d."" 7 The Companions. Some learnt from more than one Companion. this is IIS h should be kepi in mind that a partial list anil is far from exhaustive. (d. the science of qira'aat was codified. recited and taught these variations to the Successors who taught them to the next generation (atbaa' at-tabi'oon). ibn Thaabit in Makkan mus-haf.).H. and so on.).H.). (d. in Koofah. 103 A.l. 63 A. in Makkah.) and Vahya ibn Ya'mar (d. Ibn Sirecn 10 A. with was sent al(d.

so have no knowledge would not have been misled. For example. ahruf that the Prophet since Ibn various hadecth. the Qur'aan. 16. and the people accepted and agreed upon their recita- tion. (d. and the territories surrounding them. They same as the seven almif as shall be elaborated upon shortly. p.) compiled his book on twenty qira'aat (including the famous 'seven'). oral least that those people explained the purpose behind choosing who number.e. 421) -121 Ibn Mujaahid.H. and al-Qaadee Ismaa'eel ibn Ishaaq 282 A.the knowledge ol tafsecr. number. number ofa&ra/that (Jgg) the Qur'aan was revealed Unfortunately.M. most famous of the Qur'aan and people from These Qaarees were the all around the Muslim lands would come them to learn the Qur'aan.'"" 1 He purposely chose seven Qaarees to match the in. The scholars of the succeeding generations started compiling works on cniqira'aat that were present in their times. 310) the most compiled a work on the qira'aat. in his introduction.. So these seven have chosen) are scholars from the Hijaaz Iraq Makkah ami Mailecnah). (that I He wrote (i. and Damascus. They arc named alter the Qaarees who recited the Qur'aan in that particular manner. and said that he was mistaken this. Due to this many of the later scholars took Ibn Mujaahid to task. However.186 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan a qiraa'a. This obviously Mujaahid wrote his book four cenmisconception. for he wanted to combine the most famous recitamajor cities five territories Makkah. him- Many of the seli to scholars disliked the fact that Ibn restricted so. V). entitled Kitaab al-Oira'aat. doing and wished that he had chosen a number greater than or less than this. They represent the various ways that the Companions learnt the Q)ur'aan from the Prophet (^§). Madecnah.. Basrah. Ah mad 258 A. pronunciations. and rules of recitation (tajtveed). Ibn al-Jazaree Mujaahid in 832 A.) wrote. *7. wishing that he had chosen a different (d. ol Koofah and Basrah) and Syria (i. [bn al-Jazarce.) wrote book on five of the qira'aat. 224 A. Each of these persons reciters to is called a Oaarce.) compiled twenty-five a qira'aat. H. Aboo 'Ubayd al-Qaasim ibn Jubayral-Koolce Saliaam (d. famous of these books is the one by Aboo Bakr Ahmad ibn Mujaahid 324). To summarise. Da- They inherited the Successors in the knowledge of the recitation all the Qur'aan. They dilter from each other are not the in various words. p. or Reciter. He was the first to limit Qaarees. in their time. hadceth aadfiqh.e.. and were famous as being the leaders in this field.. . Even Muhammed ibn Jareerat-Tabaree (d.) death. Koofah. this led many people to mistakenly believe that the referred to in the different qira'aat were the same is as the lalsc. for these were the from which the knowledge oi Islaam sprung forth . 4 " this -119 Uwais.H. the qua ant are particular methodologies of reciting the Quraan. so that this confusion could have been prevented. seven i/ini'tiul.e. mascus). turies after the Prophet's (S&.p. in qua aat of his time from the himseli to these particular tions ol which he compiled seven of the most famous in the Muslim world. (d. (i. the differibn (d. from their respective territories..

then will be labelled (according low Inch 122 This is very similar to what happened in the history ol I \ luiilcrlh. Such a qiraa'a cannot be refuted or is denied. Every ner. Muhammad ibn al-Ja/. an-N'asaa'cc and Ibn Maajah) are known is Authentic Books". The scholars ot the qim'aat therefore established rules in order to differentiate the authentic qiraaat from the unauthentic ones. work. except for three other authentic qim'aat. too. I hie to the thoroughness of this ot Inidcclh. as there were other authentic qiraaat thai Ibn Mujaahid did not compile. even such match to the not an obvious one. is a misconception. Names ol Narrators'. people started classifying these ered these six books separately from other works This description. that it was revealed in. these scholars considered any qiraa'a besides these seven to be detective (shaadh) qim'aat..). so that their would not ol the tact mean pronunciations or words. written by 'Abd al-Ghance al-Maqdiscc six win A.I I. rest ol is and many consid- hook as authentic t-Li/itc/n. even ol if il by one mana and matches with one the mus-htijs ol Uthmaan. and the students ol knowledge lelt Other qim'aat to study these seven. and surely VVc will guard it" [15:9] III. Therefore the people must accept whether be from the seven qiraaat (mentioned above). lor have the complete revelation that Allaah revealed it Prophet Muhammad is Allaah's promise to protect it: OjM-^Ij^Ux^I « Verily. 832 A. or even other than these. it is We who have revealed the Quraan. only applicable to the twosahcefi collection ol al-Bukhaarcc and Muslim. And whenever any it qiraa'a fails to meet one of the above mentioned three conditions. all the other qim'mit were lelt. Eventually. leu centuries ol ihc /iijra/i. however. an authentic qiraa'a. because ol one book on the (<l. Asmaa ar-Rijaat. The Conditions It for an Authentic Qiraa'a during the first was mentioned in the last section that. and the Qur'aan amongst the seven ahrnl it. there were many qim'aat that used to be recited. This does not imply.). but rather must be believed in. is qiraa'a that conforms to the rules of Arabic. that ten.at-Tirmidhee. The Muslims are assured to the that they (i^). the these works contain both authentic and inaulhcntic ahaadceth . Aboo as die "Silhuih Sitta" or the "Six >aawGod. or from the ten qiraaat. Due became to the popularity and excellence ol Ibn Mujaahid's book. Thus. The famous said: scholar of the Qur'aan. and only these ten were studied. The Another misconception that arose Qim'aat ofthe Qur'aan 187 was that some scholars assumed that these seven qim'aat were the ow/y authentic qiraaat of the Qur'aan.H. these seven qim'aat the most famous qiraaat ol that time. is and has an authentic chain ol narrators back Prophet (Sg).aree (d. This. somehow a portion ol the Qur'aan was lost by preserving only these loss Many of the qiraaat were a loss ot certain merely a mixture of others. The reason dial six particular books oihadceth (al-Bukhaaree. however. Muslim.

it is apparent that the above difference a difference in semantics only. a noted Muslim grammar- 426 uz-Zarfcashec.e.Viniir. Ihn al-Jazaree mentioned three conditions: The qiraa'a must conform to Arabic grammar. p. held this view are (d. This is the it meaning ol the phrase. 424 42i ian. include this condition or not. The qiraa'a must conform ol the with one ol the mus-hafs ol 'Uthmaan. p. He "Ahd al-Rahmaan ihn Ishaaij az-'/ajjaaj al-Nihaw. Hamzah and Ahoo 'Amr. is Soorah al-Faatihah is written in in the 'Uthmaanic mus-hafs which allows lor the variation lound other qira'aat of malif^t* 19 This an example where 423 Ihn al-Jazaree. Ihn K.even tradict it by one manner. 422. this condition. the word maa/i/y' 1 as m-l-/( (jAi-«). Among Makkcc ibn Abee Taalib (d.) .indec >2 >. or that the qiraa'a em1 ploy the most fluent and eloquent of phrases and expressions. v. rules of grammar to If we were do this. it was considered to have ' passed this condition..itluer.H. the conditions for an A. irregular {shaadh). Also. for the Qur'aan the most eloquent of Speech. In the chapter it on the compilation Qur'aan.H.) and Aboo 'Amr ad-Daanee authentic qiraa'a are the Actually. if 444 A. even conformed all For example. four anil eight mus-hafs around the was mentioned that 'Uthmaan sent out between Muslim world. {da'eef). ofgrammar must be based on this. however.). the attempts by some grammarians to :s invalidate certain qira'aat (such as az-ZajjaajV attempt to invalidate the qiraa'a ot Hamzah 2) have been rejected by all the scholars ol qiraa'a. then we cannot apply the it. As long in as a qiraa'a satisfied any il it one of these mus-hafs.. All ol them were without dots and vowel marks. last the practice of the scholars of the Qur'aan is is examined. p.. 188 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan of the conditions arc not met) either weak false {baatil). Ihn '. these mus-hafs had minor variations between them. I have paraphrased from the Arahic. > az-Zarqaanec. ". It is not essential. Therefore. whether they 426 This point will be discussed in greater detail below. v. 437 For them. for the first category ot il scholars (such as Ibn al-Jazaree) will reject a rule ol dicts grammar as invalid it contra- any of the ten authentic in verse 4:1) qira'aat. Arabic grammar. the scholars ol the Qur'aan the Speech ol Allaah. cl. (d. '. "II a proven to have originated Irom the Prophet (^). slightly. that is given preference over any rule of grammar. 424 Some qiraa'a is do not agree with to They argue. 471 427 The qiraa'a of 'Aasim and al-Kisaa'ec 428 Thc<//nw'</i>l Warsh. through any of is its qira'aat." ol The basic requirement is that does not con- an agreed upon principle scholars. and the rules who two. is I . Bohr. Thus. then we would this be implying that the Prophet made mistakes (Allaah forbid!). however. and presumed an (-^g) error in the qiraa'a. an authentic qiraa a overrides a rule ol Arabic grammar!" What is implying is that it is the Qur'aan. 1 '' Therefore. these conditions) the strongest opinion among the scholars of the past and the present. . I . or is And this (i. that the grammar used be agreed upon by all Arabic grammarians.

(ijinaa') of almost all the other scholars. a every ship by force. The only Makkec ibn Abee Taalib (d.. been sent down to as part ol the Qur'aan. to con- they were agreed on this since the earliest times." However. all and guarantees by Allaah that the variations that occur in the qira'aat have by the Prophet (i^g). recite the Qur'aan only as you have been taught. will /(ilaab (i. lor the reciters and many more besides these. mus-hafof Uthmaan. As was quoted from 'Umar earlier (and this same statement has also been made by Zayd ibn Thaabit. "The recitation ol the Qur'aan the is and passed down a Siinnalr... Ibn Taymiyyah. ".. be considered 3) (5§|). so i many that they cannot even be counted. 832 A. Ibn al-I laajib.). which translates as. recited Muslim iimmab without any atldition or deletion. Therefore. wrote: this opinion itsell goes against the consensus (d. as-Subkee. and many scholars. it. 437 A.." 4 However. " "Some ol the later scholars have presumed.raa'ec. Imaam an-Nuwayree 897 A. a commentator of Ibn al-Jazarcc's This opinion (ijnnni') is . king who seized them.." whereas Ibn 'Abbaas read ". work. and cannot. the later generations must take it from the earlier ones.) (whose definition being quoted). Ibn aldazaree wrote." is lyiyfa An example ol an explicit conformation a clot over is in 2:259. az-Zarkashcc. Both ol these scholars arc- highly respected. Ibn 'At wall. An example the others is conforming to one of the mus-hafi ol 'Uthmaan without the qiraa'a of Ibn Aamir.i newly-invented one. (sttheeh) The <///•</</'</ must have an authentic This is chain ol narrators back to the Prophet the most important condition." The two changes the recitation ol Ibn 'Abbaas are not allowed by the therefore... classical scholars in the field of qira'aat.). such as Ibn Abd al-Harr. Imaam Nawawec. and Ibn al-Jazarcc. an authentic recitation.. As of the Qur'aan.H.and there was. and the only ones 429 430 431 The qiraa'a of 'Aasim.H. who read 3:184 as wa bi ziiburi wii bit kjtaab instead ot wa az-ziiburi without the bus). contradicting the consensus of the jurists anil.and there was. behind them. and others ..s al-Jazarec (d. and later Ibn i. where one l(ayfa recitation nunshizuhaf® but without ol a qiraa'a one letter becomes nunshiruha. in in front ol king who seized every useable ship by force. An example a ol a qiraa'a that contradicts all the mus-hafi ol 'Uthmaan is the qiraa'a attributed to Ibn 'Abbaas in 18:79. and many ol the Successors).. the four maclh-lmbs.The the conformation is Qira'aat of the Qur'aan 1 89 "not obvious. that the Qur'aan can only be proven with mutawaalir narrations! The Haws in this opinion are obvious. al-A/..H. since the mus-hafthai 'Uthmaan sent to Syria had the two/ws in it. 13.. p.e. an important question mtitawaatir: notable exceptions were from is: do these chains of narration have to be The overwhelming majority ol scholars claimed that they did. others The qiraa'a oi Naafl'.

i. ". In reality. which he clearly States any qiraa'a must he taking mtuawaatir vot it to be accepted. . to ascertain read mention these quotes..i Qur'aan cannot he confirmed with an ahaad narration. for the qira'aat arc the Qur'aan.ill the works thai I have come across discussing this entitled Kitaab itt-lbtiiimih 'an topii (alsosee. 4 sS Other scholars make a Qur'aan differentiation for the to he accepted. besides the ten that are present today. all most of the scholars are in agreement thai these ten qirdaat are is mutawaatir. [came across another work oi ili. '"' however. hut in order foraqira'a to he accepted. means is our times. Uwais. v. 4 these ten qirdaat are in existence. so I do not ascertain when he wrote opinion ol the hook.. this issue as However. this differentiation does not seem is problem. between the Qur'aan and the qira'aat. •H4 p. I. but at the same time he did believe that mutawaatir. that the ten qirdaat are mutawaatir. since in our limes. 4 " -l i2 Makkee ibn Abec Taalih is quoted as having been the lirsi I to hold this opinion in . a qira'tk is substantiated as authentic. 12. In conclusion. ''Si. Ibn al-Ja/arec was ol the view that it was not necessary for a qirada to be mutawaatir lor the ten qirdaat were all to be accepted. or his later one. There have been numerous attempts that to prove various grammatical 'faults" in the qira'aat. on tin- while discussing aacshasdh i/ira'aat...190 An Introduction to the Sciences of the (. a and conform exists. nor could any case. for even he admits. an to solve the if ahaad narration However. Ibn al-Jazaree's conditions were perhaps applicable in his time. p. this is not correct. if he He states.it his Ma'aam al-Oira'aat. in p. ". . 43. that there has never existed any mutawaatir qirada that contradicted any rule ol Arabic grammar. then in earlier times. rimes are Makkee 45 ' ibn Alice Taalih 1 ' and those who followed him Ibn al-Jazaree).. p. 11-14.m tradict them in the later (i.e. p. Most of the other scholars of qirada. further research must he done Alice Taalih. p. only becomes more theoretical than practical. in another of his works.. 4 such readings do have grammatical basis for them. should be mentioned. that automatically implies dial 4 $6 is pari of the Qur'aan. 115. This is not to sa\ that there have not existed qira'aat that Arab grammarians have not found fault with. 31. with paraphrasing. fowevcr." mi confirming the Qur'aan with (p. al-Qadhi. bin other cf! al grammarians have always proven al-Aziz: lladith ples. isted when there ex- numerous qirdaat (-^g). see Uwais' discussion on this point. pps..my of the is people (of knowledge). ami the Qur'aan preserved it in all ol the qirdaat. In whether this really was the final Makkee ibn 433 al-Qadhi. quoting from Ihn al-Jazaree's Miinjid aJ-Muqreai. I Qaarcc.)ui'. Also. the narrations will suffice." 1 did not see am of the other hooks thai know whether this was his earlier opinion. he means then it it is possible thai he Therefore. he states. in order must hv mutawaatir..and p. "Whoever says this in that the mutawaatir qirdaat are unlimited. and this is not allowed bj . for exam- v al-Qaaree. . Any time such qirada overrides any rule ol Arabic grammar. however. Ahil al-.and this I the opinI we believe and hold to.. in Majalah Kallis/ah al-Qur'aan al-Karcem.and this (i. did not agree with him on this point. According to him. correct. Ibn al-Jazaree's opinion seems to have more theoretical than all realistic value. Therefore.in shaadh qira'aat) implies ahaad narration. \hntfas-Saba'ah. I I ft. and state that.8.. such qirdaat could be recited as long as they had an authentic chain ol narrators back to the Prophet even if such chains were ahaad. however. for today there arc no authentic mutawaatir qirdaat if besides these ten. For example.e. 1 '" Al-Qaarce writes." Elsewhere ion heclcariy states concerning this opinion ". It it to at least one of the mus-lmfs of 'L'thmaan. The addition in brackets are mine. 8). the conditions tor an authentic qirada that it must be mutawaatir. 59).

p. to. Also. finds that this last condition is.an authentic. Different scholars have adopted different classifications for defining those qira'aat that do not meet the above three conditions. no divine law regulating is that there can only be ten qira'aat. One of the simpler ones is as follows: Ai 1) The Sal±eel± (Authentic) Qira'aat: These are the ten authentic qira'aat.e.. is recognised to have been revealed to the Prophet None can m reject this fact except the ignorant. letter that This has been recog- and every any of these qira'aal have differed with the (5Sg). meaning that if this in reality. tUc qiraa'a must conform with Arabic grammar) of the word. p. whenever a qiraa'a has the mutawaatir chain of narrators and conforms with unequivocal prool that it 'Uthmaanic script. in. meaning that there to the no authen- mutawaatir qiraa'a that conforms 'Uthmaanic mus_-liaf\\\M has no basis in Arabic grammar. and is not a 'condition' perse-. 439 as-Suvootee. ments. (i. Taqce ad-Deen as-Subkee stated.The If Qira'aat of the Qur'aan we 191 we ponder over (his issue. it is classified in a different cat- egory. grammar - then this too does not ol imply the rejection of the This is because our ignorance such a grammatical basis does not ride out the matter possibility ol it such a basis. nuitawaatir qiraa'a conforming to the script. poem known its memorisation. it is possible lor there to is still exist other authentic c/nci'ciat besides these ten. this is is a part ol the Qur'aan. To conclude. even if we allow for the possibility that there exists such a qiraaa . we say: This last condition (meaning the conis formation of a qiraa'a with Arabic grammar) ol in reality a necessary by- the other two conditions. and these will be discussed below. not met. a will be limited. I. as the scholars of the Qur'aan would have known them by now. the qiraaa is rejected. tic. 440 Ubaydaat. however. since there Realistically.) The nised by others seven qira'aal that ash-Shaatibec compiled43* along with the other all three qira'aat are all. yet not having that any basis we can discover in Arabic qiraa'a. Theoretically. not a 'condition' in the sense is 'condition' Firstly. and reflect over these conditions. 82 1 78 . for two reasons: is such a case has never occurred. rv.H. 756 A. Secondly. product therefore. such an existence ot impossible. 438 Qaasim ibn in a Ahmad as-Sliaatihce kl.H. and therefore there cannot be any argument against it. since no still how much our knowledge encompasses. and the conditions of acceptance were discussed above. authentic mutawaatir qira'aal. As has already been alluded there arc ten c/iraaat that meet the above require(d.) compiled the seven qira'aal ol Aboo Bakribn Mujaahid as the Sluuuibiyah to facilitate v. 590 A. The Other Types of Qira'aat If a qimda fails to meet any of these conditions.

. Under yet egory fall many of the recitations that are transmitted with authentic chains ol narra- tions from the Companions.) in. and therefore not preserved by 'Uthmaan. ol tajsccr However. but these recitations were abrogated by this cat- himself. but do not match the mus-hafs of 'Uthmaan. in There are which they allow. 3) The Da'ccf (Weak) Qirdaat: These qira'aat conform with Arabic grammar and type the recitation of 1:4 as are allowed by the mus-hafoi 'Uthmaan. the shaadh. even ing of 35:28 as inama "It is example. These recitations used form a part of the Qur'aan.' used to recite 2:238 . in the past tense. they employ words or phrases (but not all. in particular. and to do not conform with the Uthmaanic before his death. The shaadh qirdaat. If it recited in prayer. used to form a part of the seven ahruf\\\M the Qur'aan was revealed the Prophet ($£. He is far removed from that they ascribe to last Him!!) three types of qirdaat. such as the science of grammar. until ihcv were abrogated bv the Prophet . and were recited by the (3ig) Com- panions. and are rejected completely. changes the meaning from.) 192 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 2) The Shaadh (Irregular) (Jirdaaf.Ma saint al-wusta' with the addition the first is. lo. 4) The Baatil (False) Qirdaat: These qirdaat do not meet any of the as tafscer. only those is who have knowledge amongst Mis slaves that truly fear Allaah. that they are not a part of the Qur'aan. especially the middle one. "middle prayer" alluded to ol this nature. numerous authentic narrations from recited a certain verse in a the Companions way that the mns-haj ol 'Uthmaan would not Another explanation that lor this type ol qira'aat is that they were a part ol the ahrnj were revealed to the Prophet (^) but later abrogated. of and is in fact it is haraam (forbidden recites these consider such a qirada as part the Qur'aan. but do not have authentic chains of narrations back to the Prophet (3^g). mits-haf. These qira'aat have an authentic chain ol nar- ration back to the Prophet (S^g) and conform to Arabic grammar. In addition. 'Aa'ishah ' Qur'aan. Most ol the time in tact see as-Suyootee's classification below) this type ol qirdaat in the was used by the Companions as explanations to certain verses ple. such a prayer will not be acceptable. that the "Uthmaanic mus-hafs do not allow. nor is one allowed to pray behind someone who qirdaat. In other words. The meaning ol "Guard against your prayers. the dii'ccf and The to ruling concerning these is the Baatil. the read- xaltfisha Allaalut mi/i ihadlul 'nlanut." in this verse is in 'Aa'ishah's addition explained that the fact the 'Asr prayer. the shaadh and the da'ccf qirdaat may be studied under the science (ami other sciences. and thus not preserved in the mits-hafot' 'Uthmaan. nia/a/<i An example ol this is yawmu deen. or nahw) as long as they are identified as such. they are not nuitawaatir. For exam'saint al-asr." "Allaah afraid of the all knowledgeable ol His slaves!" (All praise be to Allaah. For three criterion mentioned above.

These are the seven qira'aat compiled by Ibn Mujaahid.52. the «.. such as the differences between the raawis and tjiruqs (to be discussed below 3) ).and he has from the same mother. unless otherwise rclcrcnccil.-' 42 was one of the ahritfoi was later abrogated by the Prophet (#*) during his final recitation to As-Suyootee stated that the part ol the Qur'aan.» (4:12) a brother or sister was recited by Sa'eed ibn Abee Waqqaas as. and the Qaarees first whom they are named alter." These types of additions arc explained as having («^§).). and which ash-Shaatibee ash -Shaatjbiyyah 548 A. pps 4V>-477. mutawaatir and mash-hoor. and can be recited in prayer. classifies the various qira 'aat which are. a/Zarqaancc. tin- p. 2) Mash-haor (Well-known): These are some ol the variations found within the ten authentic qira'aat. 102. For example.l.) preserved in his book. 832 A. v. v.H..l.) . it that the various types of qira'aat is time to look at the ten authentic qira'aat. 324 A. 6) Mndraj (Interpolated): In this category.. as-Suyootee classified those readings that the verse.H. are considlast ered part of the Qur'aan. 442 e£ as-Suyootee. I. v. 1 Qiraaat of the Quraan 193 (d.) versified in his famous poem known as 441 as-Suyoojcc. ."' The seven are the ones that Aboo Bakr (d. These are the qira'aat that Mawdpo' (Fabricated): do not meet any of the three conditions (same as haatjl above)."' following Ibn al-Jazaree into six categories. al- biographical information in this section. first two types. ". v. p. Shaadh (Irregular): narration back to 5) These are theqira'aat that do not have an authentic chain of the Prophet (j^g) (the same as da'ce] above). . briefly: Mutawaatir. Ahaad (Singular): These are the qira'aat that have an authentic chain of narraa rule ol tion. was taken Irom pps.. The Authentic Now Qira'aat and the Qaarees have been discussed in detail. pps. or contradict Arabic grammar 4) same as shaadh above). 19. plus the Other three. 44' All ol lianna. Companions used to add for the sake of interpretation. ami all laashiniee. ibn Mujaahid (d.and he has a brother or sister. W-155.. 102 I. or that this which case it was assumed by the Companion that verse that fibred. but the four types are not a v.H. been heard by that Companion from the Prophet either as an explanation of the verse (in to be part ol the verse). but do not conform (the to the mus-hafo\ "Uthmaan. The As-Suyootee.

w. the qiraa'a of was the most liked by him.H. such as Abee Saa'ib. Madeenah. Eventually. of 99.H. The two students i) who preserved his qiraa'a are: Qaloon: He is 'Eesaa ibn Mcena life in az-Zarc]ee (120-220 A.H. Imaam Maalik Qur'aan the Naafi' is Sunnah" w meaning in the qiraa'a of Naafi'. who lea ml m Irom Zayd ibnThaabil and II u\ ibn Ka'ab. 446 al-Haashimcc. and lived his whole Madeenah. 103 A. who both learn I il from the Prophet (%).H." and the people once remarked.H. who took his (5^5).H. and Darbaas. He ai-Rahmaan ibn Abee Na'eem al-Laythee.H. the slave ot Ibn 'Abbaas.). al-Haraam at Makkah. born in Makkah in 45 A. he was taken as the chief Qaaree of his qiraa'a Madeenah. 'The Meaning ol the Word 'i|nr'aan .). and the leading Qaaree ibn Makkah during his lime. -. ol 445 I Knee his opinion ol the origin p. and learnt early Successors. Imaam ot ash-Shaafi'ee (d." 4 *'' The two primary i) Qaarecs is who preserved his qiraa'a are: al-Buz/. "We were taught the qiraa'a Ibn Katheer. and recited the Qur'aan to him many times. He learnt the Qur'aan from over seventy Successors. he took over his position as the leading Qaaree of Madeenah. Companions. 59. Eventually. used to Among recite the his students was Imaam Maalik 179 A. ihcuonl 'Qur'aan*. to study under Naafi".). He lived in Egypt. and he used that this qiraa'a to say. in the same city at the age A. Darbaas learnt the Qur'aan from Ibn 'Abbaas. He in was born around 70 A. "Indeed. and passed away (d. but travelled to Madeenah in 155 A.H..M.). originally from was one ot the major scholars ot qira'aat during his time.). and became ii) Warsh: He is the leading Qaaree ol Egypt.ee: He Abul Hasan j Ahmad id He was the mu adh-dhin at the Mas ol Buzzah al-Makkee (170-250 A. 444 al-Haashimee. Aboo Yazeed ibn al-Qa'qa' recitation who took his recitation from Aboo Hurayrah.). 204 A. Mujaahid ibn Jabr (d.H. |>.M.H.194 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Quraan 1) Naafi' al-Mctdanee: He is Naafi' ibn 'Abd an Istahanian family. c£ Cfa. He was the step- son of Naafi'. . anil we found Makkah upon his qiraa'a. he returned to Egypt. was adopted by the people (d. 2) Ibn Katheer al-Makl{ce: He is 'Abd Allaah ibn Katheer ibn 'Umar al-Makkee.-Zubayr). Alter Naafi' died.) used to recite the qiraa'a ot of Ibn Katheer. in 169 Ja'far Madeenah. from Ubay ibn Ka'ab. who took ol his recitation from the Prophet Alter the era ol the Successors. such He was among as the Qur'aan from the the generation of the Successors (he met some Anas ibn Maalik and 'Abdullaah ibn a/. including 130 A. Aboo Sa'eed 'Uthmaan ibn Sa'eed al-Misrce (1 10-197 A. and died 120 A.

who learnt from the Prophet (3g).H. and studied the Qur'aan under the Companion Aboo ad-Dardaa.H. 279 A. qira'aat.The (Jim ihii ol the Quraan 195 ii) Qumbul: He is Aboo 'Am r Muhammad ibn 'Abel I le was the leading Oaaree of the Hijaaz. of Sanan lame. He was one of the was blind. Among the seven Qaarees. The two primary Qaarees i) who preserved Wis qiraa'a are: ad-Doori: to He is Hafs ibn 'Umar acl-Doori (195-246 A.H.). least since he studied directly number ofpeople between him and the Prophet under a Companion. He was born in 69 A. He al-Rahmaan (195-291 A. . Ja'far (d.H. born capital of the in 21 He is A. The two primary i) Qaarees who and preserved his qiraa'a are: Hishaam: He is Hishaam ibn 'Ammaarad-Damishqce his ( 1 53-245 A. Damascus.. was also one of the teachers of Aboo Bakr ibn Mnjaahid 324 A.). and took over the position Imaam of the Qaarees in Koofah.H.). but grew up in Basrah. and was well-known for his recitation. among them Aboo (d. 'Abdullaah ibn (173-242 A. He taught the Qur'aan to Imaam an-N'asaa'ee 303 A.). he has the highest chain of narrators (3f|)). and al-Mugheerah ibn Abee Shihaab.H.H. His qiraa'a became accepted by the people of Syria. (d. 130 A. which was the 103 A. who learnt from 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab and other Companions. He lived his I life in Muslim empire in those days. the author of Kitaab al-Oiraaat.H. He was also Chief Judge of Da- mascus. (i. 4) Ibn ' Aamir ash-Shaamee: Abdullaah ibn 'Aamir al-Yahsabee.M. He was the Imaam of the Ummayad Mosque (the primary mosque in Damascus) during the time of 'Umar ibn 'Alul al-'Azeez (d.). alter the death Abd ar-Rahmaan -147 The truth ofMuharram. ii) Ibn Zhakwan: He is was also the Imaam ol the Ahmad ibn Zhakwan Ummayad Mosque during his time.H. first compile different notwithstanding the fact that he ii) as-Soosee: He is Aboo Shu'ayb Saalih ibn Ziyaad as-Soosee (171-261 A.I I. and Aboo al-'Aaliyah 95 A. knowledge ofhtidcelh :im\fiq/i. He 5) 'Aasjm al-Koojce: He ol is 'Aasim ibn Abee Najood al-Koofec. 'Aashoora?' 1 He died on the day of lis A. and was one of the teachers of Imaam at-Tirmidhec (d.). He studied 1 the Qur'aan under many of the Successors. le met some of the Companions. He was the as- most knowledgeable person during his time.).H.H.e.).H. He was born in Makkah. He was well-known for his recitation. anil passed away in 54 A. 1) Aboo 'Amr al-Basree: He is Zabaan ibn al-'Alaa ibn Amniaar al-Basree.H. from in recitation among the of Aboo Successors. (d.).).).

and passed away 193 A. 'Alee ibn Abee all and Zayd ibn Thaabit. He asked. 6) Hamzah al-Koofee: He is Hamzah ibn Habecb al-Koofee. (i. He passed away 56 A.H. Ja'far as-Saadiq to the (d.H.il I Ixisliinur.H. taught the Qur'aan to recite in the qiraaa of 'Aasim.H.)." His two students i) who preserved his qiraaa arc: Shu'ba: He is Shu'ba ibn 'Iyaash al-Koofee.H. then "Aasim. A. is He was the most knowledgeable of his contemporaries field. Arabic grammar. 95 A.H.H.H. different from the one he preserved from Hamzah (see below).H. The two primary i) Qaarees through whom his qiraaa is preserved arc: Khalaf: He is Khalaf ibn Hishaam al-Baghdaadee (150-227 A.H. He ii) also has his own qiraa'a.H. He is Aboo 'Amr Hafs ibn Sulaymaan al-Asadec al-Koofee (90-180 A.H. Whqiraa'a goes back Prophet 1 ($H) through 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib anil 'Abclullaah ibn Mas'ood. who learnt from the Prophet (3gg). He passed away 189 A. 4 '"' "The Naafi'). ol Imaam Aboo Haneelah (d.) (the great-grandson Husayn). the Qur'aan from Ubay ibn Ka'ab. I 16.). He was the most knowledgeable person of the qiraaa ol 'Aasim. ii) Hafs: a step-son of 'Aasim.H. . and passed away 220 A. HH . 148 A.). 150 Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (d. He learnt the Qur'aan from Aboo 'Abil ar-Rahmaan (who studied under 'Alee ibn and from Zirr ibn Hubaysh These Taalib.e. 75 A. Khallaad: 1 born 19 Aboo 'Eesaa Khallaad A. 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan. is He ibn Khaalid ash-Shaybaanee..196 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Sulamec (d. Students used to flock to entire Qur'aan. born in around 120 A. (d.) and Aboo "Amr ash-Shaybaanee (d.H. 83 A. and considered one of in the the classical scholars in this He authored numerous books. who used to 204 A. and others.H. He met some of the Compan(d. and learnt the Qur'aan from al-'Amash of 147 A.H.H. and was the teacher ofal-Hasan antl al-Husayn). born 95 A. He passed away 127 A.). He memo- rised the Qur'aan when he was ten years old. but if this not possible.).H. him to listen to the and they even used to record to where he stopped and hold him started every The Caliph Haroon ar-Rasheed used in great esteem. ions. and excelled sciences anil recitation of the Qur'aan. He was 7) Al-Kisaciee: He is 'Alee ibn Hamzah ibn 'Abdillaah.) was once qiraa'n of Madcenah "Which the qira'aat is do you prefer?" He replied. p. born 80 A. learnt Abee Taalib. verse.).

these Qaarees had 444).H.) and Idrccs (Idrees ibn 'Abd al-Kareem 292 A. d. qira'aat are more than just two students. (}^g). differ from each other. among A. These two students are each Raawis (narrators). He is one of the teachers of Imaam NaafV.H. 10) Klnilaf This is the specific qiraa'a same Khalal that is one of the two students of Hamzah. ibn Muttawakil. is He died 240 A. better known as Imaam ad-Daanee. He passed away 130 His two primary students 160 who preserved his qiraa'a were 'Eesaa ibn Wardaan (d.H. (d. the reason that the preserved through only two is that Aboo 'Amr 'Uthmaan ibn Sa'eed (d. and is usually called Khalaf "al-'Aashir (the 'tenth' Khali). and learnt the Qur'aan from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbaas. al- same ad-Dooree who is the Student ol Ahoo Atnr Basree (mentioned above). and they occasionally qiraa'a. 256 (Muhammad d. Each qiraa'a is preserved through two students of the Imaam of that Of course. ii) ad-Dooree: He the These are the seven Qaarees whom Ibn Mujaahid compiled in his book Kilaab alQiraaat. A. The following three Qaarees complete the ten authentic qiraaat. Thus. He adopted a of his own. d. Baghdaadee.H) and Sulaymaan ibn Jamaz 170 A. all are from non-Arab backgrounds except Ibn 'Aamir and Aboo 'Amr. Qaarees in Basrah after the death of Aboo His two primary students were Ruvvays teachers of Imaam al-Bukhaarec (d. 235 A. d. 238 A. ). He passed away 205 A.H. Kitaab at-Tayseer fee al-Qira 'aat as-Saba. 8) Aboo Ja 'far al-Madanee: He is Yazeed ibn al-Qa'qa' al-Makh/.) and Rooh (Rooh ibn 'Abd al-Mu'min al-Basree.) 9) Ya'qoob al-Basree: He is Ya'qoob ibn Ishaaq al-Hadhramee al-Basree. He studied under Aboo alMundhir Salaam ibn Sulayman.H. Of these. He became the Imaam of the 'Amr ibn 'Alaa. for he studied and preserved both o( these qira'aat. His two primary students Ibraaheem ibn 'Uthmaan. the Successors.H.oomee. Aboo Hurayrah and others.The His two primary students i) Qiraaat of the Qur'aan 197 who preserved his qiraa'a are: al-Layth: He is al-Layth ibn Khaalid al-Baghdaadee. selected and called preserved the recitation of the two best students of each Qaaree in his book. mutawaatir chains of narration back to the Prophet qiraa'a. who was one of the A.H.H. but Ibn Mujaahid gave his position to al-Kisaa'ee instead.).H. although other Raawis also narrated each only the .) All of these ten qiraaat have authentic. His qiraa'a goes back to the Prophet (j^g) through Aboo Moosaa al-Ash'arce. He was initially considered among the seven major Qaarees by many of the early scholars. who preserved this qiraa'a were Ishaaq (Ishaaq ibn al- 286 A.

but original definition above). and see }0:54. studied under the Oaarec whose qirada it was. certain variations . as did Shu'bah and Hals with Imaam Aasim. For example. however. when someone recites the qirada of Naafi". He- passed away 123 A. even two) between these stuin- When this occurred. ofraawi. by saying. concentrating etc. Hals quoted 'Aasim as saying that the qirada he taught him was that Aboo 'Abd al-Rahmaan as-Sulamce (d. fort) ili.H. there a third level of narration. The difference in the words Qa'Jin . according to some are of the madh-habs. 2) Ibn Mu hay sin: Makkee. 1 1. 474-480. 106. Thus. each Raawi. 83 A. 44 '' However. Inn since these words occur their diltcrences arc iliat a total ofaround p. below tiiruq (pi.ire in the particulars ol pronunciation. along with Ibn Katheer. -HI Actually. and.H. on some ( noticeable differences. so as not to prolong the discussion. as for example with Ibn Katheer. "The qirada ol Warsh 'an Naali' " lor short). 70 Add. Bahr. as a basis forfiq/i rulings as well. lor example. "The qirada ol Naafi' through the riwaayah ol Warsh.) from 'Alee ibn Abce Taalib. lor example. Hasan ibn Abce al-Hasan 1 lassaar Aboo Sa'ced al-Basree. Bach raawi has two hnrtys. the qirdaat are always mentioned including the Raawis. pps. -till p. who were Oaarccs in their own right. However. these students. the other Raawi ol Aasim) was that of Zirr ibn Hubaysh (d.e. For example. al-Qaarec. References to the recitation ol other however. compare a Qur'aan printed in Pakistan (Taj lorn pany.\m\ Dii'jin are due to the differences in thcittruq oftheqiraa'a of Hals '.. called a hin-cq (path). five hundred limes Qur'aan. m each other in around forty places in the directly Most of the time." or. and each preserved some of the Sometimes. .H. the termediary was not mentioned above. louiul in the classical works ol qirdaat. So. typically the variations between the Raawis are minor when compared differ- to the differences between the qirdaat themselves (though usually there are 4 ences in the rules ol tajweed ol the Raawis). sometimes. lor example) and one printed in Saudi Arabia or Egypt. The inter- may consult any ol the references mentioned in the beginning ol this There are lour sliaadh qirdaat Hollowing the not considered as part ol the Qur'aan. Shu'ba and Hals dilfcr from whole Qur'aan.«/ 'Aasim' 4^2 ell az-Zarkashee.) from Ibn Mas'ood. Warsh and Qaloon both studied under Imaam Naali".n Meaning thai they differ from each other in in the is words. there was an intermediary dents and the Imaam. He was one He is Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahmaan as-Suhaymcc al- ol the Chief Oaarees of Makkah. alter are: is w The Oaarccs whom they named 1) al-Hasan al-Basrce: This the famous Successor. while the one that he taught Aboo Hakr ibn Iyaasli (i. These Raawis io ol learnt the c/iraa'a from their Imaam. ested reader section.198 An Introduction to the Sciences ofthc Quraan in recitation <>i two main Raawis have been preserved Raawis are. he should mention whether it is through Warsh or Qaloon (for example. the Oaarcc taught dillcrcnt i/ira'aat variations ol the recitation ol the Oaarcc. He passed away 10 A. (or However. The dilicrcnrcs between the occasions there of tareeq) are negligible lor our purposes. These are may be used as tafscer. it might appear many. 44" Wohaibcc. such detail. lor a discussion of this point. Shu'ba. I4n. " To preserve even these diflerenccs. mainly on where to stop.

the situation today is that the vast majority of the Muslim world and a recites only the qiraa'a ol Aasim through the riwaya of Hals (Hafs 'an Aasim). Eventually. in every single verse.) reported. there are certain areas in the world where other qira'aat are prevalent.H. the Syrians Kalheer. people of a particular would recite in the qiraa'a ol the (d. century of the hijrah. those ol followed Ibn Aamir. that the people of Basra followed the recitation of Koofah followed 'Aasim. the city. only occasionally vi. Thus. Makkee ibn Abee Taalib 437 A.H. 4) al-Shamboozee: He Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn of the qira'aat that Ibraaheem al-Shamboozee. and each part or the Muslim world used for to recite according to city one of the qiraaat. example.H. Of course. Not surprisingly. He passed away 388 A. Makkah took after Ibn Madcenah followed Naafl". however. most of the other qira'aat died out and were replaced by other ones. These (our qira'aat contain most were recited by the Companis ions and did not conform to the nuis_-liaf of'Uthmaail. and Aboo Amr. Oaaree of that in the third Thus. He passed away 202 A. rough breakdown is as lollows: Qiraa'a ^ ST^m Muslim World Area . The The Qira'aat Today vital part of qira'aat were once a the Muslim itmmali. However. these (our qira'aat do not contradict the mtt£-hafo£ 'Uthnraan there a conflict.The 3) Qira'aat of the Qur'aan 199 Yahya al-Yazcedee: He is is Yahya ibn al-Mubaarak ibn al-Mugheerah.

832 A. This moves on to the second poem. as was mentioned in the last chapter. and upon what whether one believes thcahruf that the ahruf arc in existence today. .? This table was taken from . based on the population in these 1' re- spective countries. lu. and Qaloon should be more.7 '/< In addition.). Ibn "Abd al-Barr based upon one hctij "of (d. the scholars of Islaam have defined this relationship depending upon their respective definitions of 4 The three major opinions on 463 A.). pps. i. .M. consisting ot 73 couplets. have already memorised the entire Qur'aan in at least one qiraa'a.Tayyibah is more advanced than AicSkaagbiyyah-yAus-Durrah combination.H.nil looree's percentage should also be less. the opinion to one harfW. memorising the Tayyibah (short for Tayyibah an-Nushrfil Qirdaat alten qirdaat. a at specialised institutions of" higher learning throughout the Muslim world der a scholar to student may study privately un- who has memorised these qira 'nut). 50. ili knows best. and All.than 0. The Relationship of the Ahruf with the Qira'aat depend still The relationship of the ahruf with the authentic qira'aat must b\ essence the definition ol ahruf is. The first way is to memorise the Sliaatjhiyyah is (its actual 1 1 name to is Hirz al-Amaatiec wa Wajh at-Ta/iaanee). 1 The opinion is of Imaam at-Tabarce 310 A. of course.' VII. this opinion does not seem very strong. ami then memorise the Durrah foi ad-Durrah al-Madhiyyah ) by the first Muhammad . which deals with the last three the primary method by which the qirdaat are taught throughout the Muslim world. p. 454 Tin. poem deals with is seven qirdaat After a student of the Qur'aan has memo- rised this.). In this author's opinion.Ashr). and the differences between them. they hold that 'Uthmaan eliminated the other six </ Aw/" and preserved only one ha if. 455 ill Ilr. 45. The second method with all is to learn all ten qirdaat simultaneously. and ol recitation (tajweed) of both involve memorising lengthy poems that detail the rules each qirada. written by Imaam The Qaasim (short first Ahmad ash-Shaatibce 54K A. this issue are as follows: ) " (d. There are two primary ways memorising these qirdaat. Hals is probabl) closer to 97 than 95%. ?4o-s57.'' The qira'aat today are as a whole only memorised (or. the imis-hafo\ However. .H.200 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan This is obviously a very rough breakdown.H.). he then qirdaat. also by which is a poem that deals Muhammad ibn al-Jazarec. A student of the Qur'aan who wishes of memorise the qirdaat must.has greatb exaggerated ihipredominance oftheqiraa'a of Ibn 'Aamir. ami others. is if the origin of all of the authentic qira'aat originate from? In that only one harf then where do all the differences between the qira'aat addition. since Ibn al-lazaret recorded more differences between the various Uiniq than ash-Shaatibce did. This is because.xs been preserved does not seem be the strongest. since. ibn al-fazaree (d. that all the authentic qira'aat are the Qur'aan.ill labash. Therefore. by . which ibn a poem (d. as was mentioned in the previous chapter.

until il for . . is 852 A. but each c/iraa'a represents various akrufsuch that. Those ahrttf that were preserved are the ones that are in existence today. seems a peculiar harf'ol the Qur'aan.. 4s7 A.]. Ibn Hajr the strongest. through the variations in the qira'aat.) and a few scholars is that all ol the seven ahrttf'arc preserved in the qira'aat. until reached these seven Imaams' (Qaarees) in the same form. the writing of the mtts-luifs. This new recitation it was passed on from the earlier generations to the later ones. (d. "The Ahnif u\ the Qur'aan. the methodology that the Companions used to decide which ahrttf to preserve was discussed. They taught them the recitation ol the Quraan and (i. there is no single c/iraa'a that corresponds exactly to any one harf.H. ami they differed with each other based upon the differences ol the people of the territories . as long to the . even the most minute ot differences. The differences between the This goes back to qira'aat. Each Companion taught his particular the recitation that he had learnt from the Prophet (gg) ahrttf). such that each harf is found scattered through- out the qira'aat.H. 832 A. except lor the tact that to recite differently It many narrations in which the Companions used in any of the present qira'aat (these are today present they were reciting qira'aat.The 2) Qira'aat of the Qur'aan 201 The opinion of al-Baaqillaani (d.I'- conformed left mus-haf If their recitation differed with the mus-haf. This opinion seems there exists strong opinion. 437 who wrote: When the COnquered Prophet (5S) died.).H. originate from the seven ahrttf. our position on the existence ol the ahrttf today: that they exist inasmuch as the script of the /. the fundamentals of the religion. to follow ii Now.H. and others. they that recitation. and 1101 |u*t the seven.///>-//<{/ of 'Uthmaan allows them to. -irea the various Therefore the recitations of these territories differed based on the differences of the Companions. as-Suyootee.^'' the shaad/i qira'aat). To summarise the A. the ahrafiuc preserved. we quote Makkee ibn Abee Taalib (d." today. but this was not preserved in the 3) Tlie opinion ot Makkee ibn Abee Taalib (d. when 'Uthmaan ordered to the and sent them all new provinces.i discussion of the existence •>! the ahruj reached the ten Qaarees. in the sum total of the qira'aat.e. but not every difference between the seven ahrttf \s preserved in the qira'aat. last two chapters. 41)3 A. is This opinion also based upon these scholars' belief that like a all ot tin- ahrufhave from that been preserved. but not the seven ahrttf in totality..H. and the one that perhaps all ol that the qira'aat represent portions ol the seven akruf. each of the territories continued to recite the Qur'aan the same- way ll that they had done so before the mus-haf \\a<\ reached them.. •457 Actually. and this was during the time ofAboo Hakr and 'Umar. and ordered them and discard other readings. main of the Companions went to the ncwly- territories of the Muslims. Therefore.). Ibn al-Jazarce is (d.).none of whom differed with die mus-haf lhal 'Uthmaan 456 See the chapter entitled. In the last chapter.

the ol which deals with it belief. However. Qur'aan to the ditlercnt way Compan- and these differences were among the seven alnttfoi the Qur'aan which Allaah (Slg). there exist various ways and methodologies the Qur'aan that are different trom each other in pronunciation and meaning. other. 4 "" Four verses were chosen. therefore. revealed to the Prophet Thus. Abu Muhammad Makkee: Kilaab al-lbaanah li 'an Ma'ani al-Qira'aat. mutaivaatir chain of narrators back to the A further indication of the miraculous nature Cijaaz) of the Qur'aan. The Benefits of the Qira'aat Since the qira'aat arc based on the almtf. with a discussion of the various first demonmeanfrom ings. the differences in the qira'aat are remnants of die differences in the dial the Prophet (j^g) taught the recitation ol the ions. will be seen that. Muhyi Ramadaan. for notwithstanding the thouis sands 3) ol dillerences between the qira'aat. This includes not only ferences in pronunciations that the different the differences in 2) Arab tribes were used to. 5) as shall meaning and beauty ol be shown in the next section. dif- The facilitation ol the memorisation ot the Qur'aan. This.. Oar al-Mamoon 459 This is Thuralli. not M imply that the Qur'aan would have Income monotonous had the qira aat not existed. lap with those of the almtf. hut rather that the different qira aat are one ol the factors that contribute to this miraculous person 1611 Any who has dealt with the qira'aat knows this feeling. the ten authentic qira aat preserve the final recita- tion that the Prophet (^g) recited to Jibreel — in other words. and thus the text remains vibrant and never becomes monotonous. I>r. authentic. not a single dillcrcncc all contradictor)'. Proof that the Qur'aan a revelation trom Allaah. p. theqira'aat are manifes- tations ol the remaining ahrufoi the Quraan. but also words and is letters. 4 is the reason that the Qaarecs have dif- fered with each * Therefore. 1) many ol the benefits of the qira'aat over- Some of the benefits are as follows. 197''. effect. as of these have been recited with Prophet ($g). cd.""9 IX. In each verse. the second and third with stories. Beirut. qira'aat Proof that the Qur'aan has been preserved exactly. far •JW Ibn AbeeThalib. 4) a direct. . and the last with laws. 59.. this section discusses only those differences that change meaning'. because these qira aat add to the manner. vin. Some Examples It of the Different Qira'aat is appropriate to conclude this chapter by t|uoting various verses that ol the differences in strate some the qira'aat.2(12 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan had sent to them. Many ol the dillerences in the qira aat do not affect the meaning ofa verse. In other words. the Qur aan in a complementary The removal of any stagnation that might exist with regards to the text of the ol reciting Qur'aan. hut ol certain in rather change only the pronunciation result in a vowels and letters.

as two sepainto. The word 'malil{ means. v. Ibn 'Aamir. 1393 A. they are mean- ing that both ol them must be taken into account for the final ruling to be given.). Ham/.H. monarch.. malif(i yawm and ad-deen. is that ol Naafi". anil neither ol rate verses. and one of the that Allaah The word maalik means Names oi Allaah. "In the event that the different qira'aal considered as different verses. one of the Names of Allaah.. b. and He has what He pleases with His creation. is maalily yatvm ad-deen. the one who Possesses and ( )wns all of the Crea- and therefore to power Him. as the examples below show.^\$ •Say: O Allaah! Mtiulilf (Possessor) ol (all) Kingdoms!" [3:26] Allaah is the Owner who Possesses all things. belonging to the If Most Beneficent" Allaah is is the only Maalil( on the Day of Judgement. Adwaa al-Bayaan. The meaning of this name when is attributed to Allaah tion.e. The first reading. both ol which must be looked which can abrogate the other. the qiraaal taken together add Qiraaal of the Qur'aan 203 much deeper meanings and connotations than any one of them individually. p. 1) Soorah Faatihah. This is the recitation that 'master. 680. "king. Ibn Katheer and a/if. In tile fact. A king (Ma/i/() possesses not only wealth -16 1 Adwaa al-Bayaan. the Day ol Judgement) |25:26| will be (he true (sovereignty). since the one who is the Maalil^ on day must be the Maa/i/< ol all that was before that Day! The second reading. As Allaah says. and no one can stop or question of The verse therefore translates. This also has the con- notation ol the one who has power to judge. . ol this automatically implies that He the Maali/f Lxiore the that Day Judgement also. He will Own Rulership and Kingship. Judgement." most is is ol the readers will be familiar with. This same principle applies will in verses that deal with stories or belief." also Aboo Amr. Muhammad Ameen ash-Shanqcetec (d. the various readings between qiraaal are considered in terms of extracting rulings from verses ." This 4%\&. The seem scholar ol this century.ah."' "' 1 to give contradictory rulings. verse 4. "The Only Owner of the Day name (\laalil{) is also mentioned in. that of 'Aasim and al-Kisaa'ee. «The sovereignly on that clay (i. the do He has lull right to do as He pleases with His creation. and on the Day of Judgement. owner.The contradicting each other.. said in his famous lafscer. without the is sovereign.

[114:2] The name of Allaah 'Malik. day these kings and rulers will be in the greatest humiliation and disgrace...no other person will he an owner besides Him Judgement. since He is The (i.The King. I. and that the true Might. can he seen that the two readings increase the overall meaning ol the verse. whereas the name 'Maalil( is description of Allaah of all ol and His 4 "' ac- tions It sifah jl'liyyah). in this world. and Glory and Kingship belongs only has said.e. quence The of the result of the two qiraa'as is th. King".i/mool... is mentioned in the Qur'aan: . .H Allaah is the Maalil{ on the Day of in Judgement.5 and also..The Kins of Men. none that can pass judgements or rule on that Day except Him. p... to Allaah. ol the Day of JudgeHe is the only one whom Kingship belongs to." (like a Maalik]).1 204 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan and property ment. judge and command.The from Allaah. since He is "The Owner' His creation. reply:) It is Day when they will (all) come out.' is a description of Allaah a (i. Mtili/(. nothing ol them will be hidden Whose is the Kingdom on this Dayr! (Allaah Himself will Allaah's. the Unique. who. p..'" 462 al-Hamood. .. the Irresistible. meaning that there is that He is the Maalik. .. as but also the authority to rule.. meaning that all He is the Malik.. verse therefore translates. v. were mighty and arrogant kings. even though they might have been owners of judgement world.so for sure that they are in reality the on this day.e. [40:16] So. 403. The "The King (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Judgeone of the names of Allaah. 463 Ka. all Glory and Praise be to I lim. He will be the Owner (Maa/ik. and Power.. and the Malik. . each a giving connotation not given by the other.*| W:2.sifah dhaatiyyah). of the Day of Judgeto. as Allaah. and thus increasing the beauty and eloof the verse. these (kings) will know most humiliated of creation. besides and on this the kings and rulers of this world. instead ol their (worldly) glory.) Day of Judgement . besides of His creation. power and And.) of the Day of Judgement. Allaah has informed us ment. else in this all And Allaah is the King (Malik.XX. Allaah has informed us that ment.. So on that Day.. He is the only one whom Ownership belongs So.

" This is in reference to the resurrection ol the donkey.. The first reading ol the relevant part ol the verse. by al-Kisaa'ee. after the resurrection ol to believe that 'Know that Allaah is capable ol all things. is. al-Kisaa'ee and Hals. "Fie said. After this miraculous display. that. is. man was commanded to this know that Allaah is indeed capable Allaah is He responded 4' command. is. by Aboo 'Amr. "Look at the bones (ol the donkey)." meaning. hundred years." This translates as. ".'" This (now) know that Allaah is indeed capable shows miraculous display. "to bring to life. the things. lor the very verse is the commaml and response! . "(Jala'lam ana Allaaha. Ibn Katheer." The word nunshiruha means.n The 2) Qira'aat ofthe Quraan 205 Soorah al-Baqarah. "to cause to rise. Aasim. 'I reading. the lite. but put together. indeed. the verse reads as follows: "O you who 'feet' is be- When you intend to pray. and wondered how Allaah would him to die lor a back Thus.'" the donkey was shown to him. The second which dered reading." translates as. wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows. Each reading gives only a part of the picture... Allaah caused to lite. then brought him back Allaah also brought the man's donkey back to lite in front ol his eyes. passed by a deserted town. feet wipe your heads. he was or- Allaah was indeed All-Powerful. after this "Oaa/aa a'lamu ana Allaaha shayin qadeer. Naafi'. "I{ayfa nunshizuha. 4) 4 Soorah al-Maa'idah.. "." The word same read 464 In [his verse in particular. "l^ayfa nunshiriiha. verse 259." Again. but put together these readings help form a more complete picture. the last portion of the first same verse. capable of all things. In the reading of Naafi'. The word nunshizuha means. the readings differ as follows: The is." The verse then translates. and (wash) your up to the ankles.. Once of all again. it will be seen that even difle re tfiqh ruling arc given by the differences in the qira'aat. For the example. The lieve! relevant verse discusses the procedure lor ablution (ivudoo). verse last 6. and Ibn Kathecr. how We raise them up. both readings give different meanings. 'Aasim and Hamzah. that ol Hamzah and al-Kisaa'ee." The second reading. The bones of the donkey were "raised up' from the dust and 'resurrected' (meaning clothed with flesh) in front of the man.how We resurrect it and bring it back to lite. that of Naafi'. to resurrect. a 3) In more graphic picture is given. of all things. the i'jaaz ol the Qur'ann can be telt. Ibn 'Aamir 'alaa lytlli and Aboo 'Amr. and testified that. "It was said (to him): In this reading.. Ibn Aamir.. man finally believed that Allaah could bring the dead back to and repented ol his previous statement. Ibn 'Aamir. each reading adds more meaning to to the overall picture..how We cause the bones to join one another anil stand up again (Irom the dust). as a miracle for him." The verse therefore translates. tells This verse the story of a ever bring it man who to life.

v. |>. the ablution is performed by 'washing' the feet. 44-46. for each recitation applies to a different circumstance. -M '" Therefore. and he had ablution before putting them on.' so the verse word aijulikjtm. 52. It and there is no contradiction between them. 2. and in this tense.. not only in story-telling but also in beliefs and commands and prohibitions! To add to this miracle. \.wash your taces and hands up washing to the is elbows. washing ot the feet commanded. ... Does one 'wipe' his leel (meaning pass water over one actually similar to how the head wiped in ablution).to 'wipe' over his feet. For indeed.' Therefore.. each of these recitations adds a very essential ruling concerning the ablution. qira'aat. However. there can be no doubt the Qur'aan \slhc ultimate miracle the of the Prophet ($g). "These two verses can be combined understand that one reading deals with wiping over the socks. pps. not and wiping is sufficient. In general. while the second reading deals with feet (in case of not wearing socks). and is not obliged to wash them. the actual to this recitation. it a person is wearin fact ing shoes or socks.l. in which case it refers back wotdd read. according the The remaining i/ira 'tint pronounce to the verb 'wipe. and wipe your heads and obligatory. li>r further ilcuiils on this issue." Azwashing the Zarkashee said." According to this recitation. all of these changes originate from the one script of 'Uthmaan! Indeed. there no contradiction whatsoever. and form an integral factor in the miraculous nature ot the Qur'aan. 465 Set Fiqfi as-Sunnak. 466 az-Zarkashcc. ". is This is an apparent contradiction between the it. or docs is wash his leet (like the hands and (ace are washed)? In tact. he to is allowed - even encouraged . what other book in the qirdaat human history can claim the vitality that is displayed in - the subtle vaiations in letters anil words that change and complement meaning of the verse. is it refers back to the verb 'wash. this section that the qira'iiat are a part can be seen from of the eloquence ol the Qur'aan. feet.206 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan arjulakurn.

In reality." Al-Hal{cim. in or- der for a person to fully understand and appreciate the Qur'aan. in tail. the /nit/cri/tr and the niajaazec. l\\i<: to its importance). a strum: loinrnanil (if the necessary. M " Also essential are other categories of texts (such as the muhl{iim and mutashaabih. not open to interpretation. p. .' from h-l^-m. iminlooq and maJlioom). il is mic to say these topics an. and how meaning example." A mtlh^am interpretation ple verse is one that it is clear in its meaning. Definition of The word Muhkam and Mutashaabih One Names muhkam comes Judges. 'mini anil f(haas. interested in furthering (heir studies may 468 Ubaydaat. and the as other concepts in this and the mansoo/(/:). meaning 'The One who a criterion 2) This also has the connotation to of a standard. "'"^An exam- of a muhkam is. Imaam al-Qurtubee is (d. Among (for (for these aspects is the knowledge of the how words give particular meanings is example. to pass a verdict. he must be knowledgeable of various aspects related to the Arabic language. 671 A. Therefore. imitjaq and muqayyad). 467 This iliai is one <>l the areas where 'iilnum al-Our\uiii overlaps with nspol al-fiqh. the more important categories were chosen (the muhlyim and mullasliubih.deal) with in much greater detail in works of usool al-Jiq/i than in works of'uloom al- Quraan. 'To prevent. from these concepts. verse "The muhkam is the (phrase or word) whose meaning understood anil its exposition clear. which has the following meanings: of Allaah's is 1 'To judge. how the word or the text gives the desired text used (for example. its known. to obstruct. however.H. in order to acquaint the reader with some essential aspects of ill i-- knowledge. However. lor the iimhlytm and mttthlslnibih. 197. Iniqeeqce and majaazee). due to he misconceptions prevalent alioui it.) said. the in as tmUlUirit/ and the mafhoom. and the naasikji and mansookji). and the iiiiusi/(li consult any standard and mansoot(A. These categories Mere not discussed much detail I work (an exception was made. such that one has by which judge good or evil. the detailed explanation little is hut nt relatively Arabic language value.) CHAPTER 12 The Clear and Unclear Versesal-muhkam wa al-mljtashaabih The Qur'aan has been revealed in the most eloquent of Arabic. as in order to Utilise anil Knilil of such concepts to a non-Arabic audience is not only tedious. the 'nam and the iimtJtK/ /(/muss. Those work ofmoot al-jiqh. I. mttisi/(li and mni/i/iiyutl.

1

1

1

208

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

••All

praise

is

due

to Allaah, the
is

Lord of the Worldsin
it.

1

1

:

1

This verse

is

muhfcam since there

no ambiguity

The word mutashaabih
lar to.' 'Mutashaabih'

conies from sh-b-h, which
first

means
is

'to

resemble, to be simi-

has two meanings, the
is

one

'resembling.' and the second

'unclear.'

The second meaning

related to the

first,

since those objects

which resem-

ble

one another are
It is

difficult to distinguish,
in

hence

'unclear.'

used
in

in

both of these meanings

the Qur'aan and Siinnah. For example, the

Jews say

the Qur'aan,

••...to

us, all
is

cows look alike
first

(Ar. tashabaha)...»[2:70\

In this verse, the

word
clear,

used in the
in the

meaning
clear,

('resembling').

It is

used

in

the

second meaning ('unclear')
said,

famous

Inulcelh ol the
is

Prophet

(«yg) in

which he

"The

halaal

is

and the ha main

but between the two are matters

which

are unclear (Ar. nnitashaabihaai). ..."'""
'allegorical.' as

Mutashaabih does not mean

some

translators claim.

4

'"

The Qur'aan as Muhkam and Mutashaabih
On
occasion, Allaah calls the entire Qur'aan

muhkam. For example, He

said,

tAlif-Laam-Raa. These are the verses from the hakftm Book

»|

10:

1

and.

rAlif-Laam-Raa. (This
iil±kiimil)...»
1

is

a)

Book the

verses whereot are Perfected (Ar.

1

1:1

In these verses, Allaah
acts as a Criterion

is

saying that the whole Qur'aan
evil.

is

a clear, perfect

Book which
said, "Allaah

between good and
I

Imaam at-Tabarce (d. 310 A.H.)
evil

has protected (ahl(cima)
hood. Then,

lis

verses

from any

entering

it.

or any flaw, or any false-

He set

it

forth with
it

commands and
1

prohibitions.

This

is

because to ikftaam

something means

to better

and protect

it."''

As Allaah

says ol the Qur'aan,

469 Narrated by al-Bukhaaree.

470 For example,
sion.

Yiisul 'Alec.

See

'A

Review

ol

Some Translations'

in

Ch.

It lor a

more

detailed discus-

471

Zarzur. p. 163.

1

The

Clear and Unclear Verses

-

tii-Mnh/(iim

wa al-Mtttas/iaabi/i 209
(it is)

"Falsehood cannot

come

to

it

from before
|4

it

or from behind
:42

it.

sent

down by

the All-Wise.

Worthy of Praisecalls the entire

1

On

other occasions. Allaah

Qur'aan mutashaabih:

d>&§ 0£&^&frZX'S$&
"Allaah has sent
recited.....|?9:2?|

down

the best statements,

a

Book

that

is

mutashaabih

,

olt-

The meaning ofmutashaabih
ble

in this verse in their

is

that the verses ol the

Qur'aan resemin their beliefs

and complement one another
that there are
in the

eloquence and beauty, and
in

ami laws, so
In

no contradictions or differences

them.

one verse

Qur'aan, however. Allaah describes the Qur'aan as being part

muhfrpm and part mutashaabih.
The verse
in

question

is.

"Me

(Allaah)
it

is

Hook. In

arc verses that

- and others are

who has sent down to yon (0 Muhammad) the hk niuhj(iiiii -they are the foundation ol the Book mutashaabih So as for those who have a deviation in their
the one
.

hearts, they follow that

which
lor
its

is

mutashaabih, seeking to cause contusion
its

and chaos, and seeking
Allaah. and those well
ol
it

tawed. But none knows
in

la

will except
in
it.

grounded

knowledge:
is

I

lit

y say

"We believe

all

(both the muh/(am and mutashaabih)

from our Lord.
|

And none

re-

ceive admonition except those ol understanding'.'

?:7|

The word tawed has purposely not been translated above, because
depends upon how one reads the
verse.

its

meaning

Thcrelore
'ta'weel'

it

is

necessary to

first

explain the

meaning
1)

ol the

word tawed. The word
a

has three meanings:
fact that this
to

To understand
connotation
is

word

in light

of one of its connotations, despite the
is

not the primary intent oi the word. This

done due which
it

some
its

external evidence from the

word

itself,

such as the context

in

occurs. For

example, the phrase,
literal

"He was
'lion'

a lion in the battlefield,"

is

not understood in

sense.
it

I

he word

is

primarily used to denote an animal, but in this
it

context

does not make sense. Therefore,
'lion' in this

is

necessary to

make

ta'weel

and

understand the word
namely,
'a

phrase as meaning one
ol ta'weel
is

ol its

connotations,
one.

brave person.' This

meaning

the most

common

J

210 An Introduction

to the Sciences of the

Qur'aan

2)

To explain
is

a

word or phrase. This
it is

is

the same as

tafseer, in

which case something

explained so that

understood. For example,

stand the actions ol Khidr, Khidr explained to

when Moosaa did not underhim why he had done these acts.'

and

said.

\j~a aJ& f-b~iJi! U ^jj \j iiU'
••This
is

the ta'weel (interpretation)
1

of (those) things which you were not

capable ot being patient over*
3)

18:N2|

The
with

actuality of an event. In other words,
this

when and how something occurs.

It is

meaning of ta'weel

that Allaah says,

«Do
(i.e.,

they (the disbelievers) await for

its

(the

Day of Judgement's) tawed

do they await

for

its

fiillilmcnt)...?»|7:5.?|

Also, Yoosuf tells his family

when

the

dream

that he

had

finally

comes

true,

•This

is

the ta'weel

(i.e..

fulfilment) of

my dream

ol old...»

12:1(M)|
1

With

these

meanings
it,

ot ta'weel explained, the original verse

under discussion

is

examined. In
the Book.

Allaah differentiates the

muhkam

verses from the mutashaabih.

He

calls the i>itihl(ain verses,

or those verses that are clear in meaning, the foundation ot
tafseers

As the authentic

of the Qur'aan show, these verses are the verses
'

pertaining to ha/aal anil haraam and the laws ot Islaam.'
explicit in their

These

verses are clear

and

meanings, and none can distort the intent of such verses.
ol

As

for the

second portion ot the verse, there are two ways

reading
(§£$)).

it.

Both
first

ol

these originate Irom the
is

Companions (and thus from
none know
its

the Prophet

The

way
read
ol a

to stop after the phrase, '...except for Allaah."

This was the reading of Ihn Mas'ood.
ta'weel except lor Allaah."

The verse
phrase.

therefore reads, '...and
'ta

When

in this context,

wccl' signifies the actuality, such as the lime

ami methodology

The second way of reading and those well grounded

this verse is to stop alter '...those well
"...

grounded

in

knowledge," so that the verse reads,
in

and none know
is

its

ta'weel except for Allaah
II

knowledge." This

the reading ol Ibn 'Ahhaas.
ol ta

one

stops at this point, the context implies that the
tion.

meaning

weel

is

the interpreta-

Therefore, 'those well grounded in knowledge' are aware

ol the interpretation ol

the mutashaabih. Ibn 'Abbaas stated, "I

am

of those well-grounded

who know
472
did.

the

meaning

(ol

the mutashaabih).

m

in

knowledge,

Set' the story

of Moosaa ami Rhiilr

in

Simrah al-KahK verses MI-N2. lor the various acts that Rhiilr

47

i

d. Ibn Kathcer,
ibid.
v.

v.

I,

p. 370.

474

I.

p.

370-372.
v.

47

s

)

as-Suyootee.

2. p. 4.

1

The

Clear anil Unclear Verses

-

a/-Muh/aim wa al-Mutashaabih

1

1

Therefore both of these readings are correct, and each changes the meaning ol the word 'tawed' accordingly. The mutashaabih verses can be understood from one perspective (from the perspective of simply understanding these verses
guistic

from their

lin-

meanings), and cannot be understood from another perspective (from the per-

spective of the actuality of these verses).

The Exact Meaning of Muhkam and Mutashaabih
The scholars of
.

'ulootn al-Qur'aan
lists

have differed over the exact meaning oi'mith/(am

and mutashaabih As-Suyootee
alone.'
"

almost twenty opinions concerning

this issue

However,

in reality,

almost

all ol

the definitions that as-Suyootee quotes have
*'If

a similar

meaning. Az-Zarqaanee
similar

states,

we

look

at

these various opinions,

we do

not really find contradictions or discrepancies between them, but rather

we

see thai

they are

all

and

close in meaning.""'
are:

Some
1)

of the meanings that as-Suyootee quotes
is

The muhfcam

that

which

is

clear in

and

ol itself in contrast to the
is

mutashaabih.

2)

The muhftam
The muhkam The muhl(am The muhkam
As can be

arc the verses

whose meaning
is

understood, whereas the

mutashaabih are those verses whose meaning
3)
is

not understood.
valid

that

which can only hold one

meaning, whereas the

mutashaabih has many.
4)

can be understood by

itself

whereas the mutashaabih must be un-

derstood in light of other verses.
5)

docs not need any interpretation

in

order for

it

to be

understood,

whereas the mutashaabih needs interpretation.
seen, the various definitions have the

same theme:
in

the

muhkam

verses

are those verses that are clear in

meaning, and cannot be distorted or misunderstood,

whereas the mutashaabih verses arc those verses that are not clear
selves,

meaning by themit is

and

in

order to properly understand the mutashaabih verses,
in light ol
(-^g)

necessary to

look at

them

the

muhkam

verses.

The Prophet

once recited
4

this verse

and then

said,

"So when you see those

who

follow the mutashaabih ol the Qur'aan, then these are the ones
'"

whom Allaah

has

mentioned, so beware of them."
against those people

In this hadceth, the

Prophet

(-gg)

warns Muslims

who

follow the mutashaabih without properly understanding
phrase, '...follow the mutashaabih..' implies that
verses,

them

in light ol the

muhkam. The

these people
interpret

who

are being

warned against take only the mutashaabih
Therefore, those people

and

them according

to their desires.

who

interpret the

mutashaabih verses
this
is

in light

of the

muhkam

verses are nol blameworthy.

The proof for

the statement of Ibn

Abbaas quoted above, who,

alter reciting this verse, said.

47(>

ibid.

v.

2.

pps. 5-7.
\.

-177
-47S

az-Zarqaanec,

2. p.

295.

Narrated by al-Bukhaarec.

212

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

"I

am

of those well-grounded in knowledge,

who know
do
so.

the

meaning

(of the
is

mutashaabih)."*
possible,

This shows that the correct interpretation of the mutashaabih
is

and there

no harm
of the

if one is

qualified to

What

is

blameworthy

is

the

improper interpretation

mutashaabih.

In conclusion, Allaah has called the

whole Qur'aan muh/^am, meaning
between good and
its

that

it is

a

clear source of guidance

and

a criterion

evil;

He

has also called the

whole Qur'aan mutashaabih, meaning that
beauty and aid one another in meaning; and,

verses arc similar to

one another

in

finally.

He

has called part of it muhlytm
is

and

part mutashaabih,

tortion,

and

part of

it

meaning that part is unclear and open
that
is

ol the

to

and not open to disdistortion by those "who have a deviation
Qur'aan
clear

in their hearts.'

The portion
all

ing that
ance.

it

comprises

muhfcam forms the foundation of the Book, meanthe moral and social laws that mankind needs for its guidis

The mutashaabih
in

portion ol the Qur'aan
'

clear in

its

meaning

to "those well

grounded

knowledge, and

it is

necessary to understand these mutashaabih poractuality of the mutashaabih verses, however,
is

tions in light ol the

mukfaam ones. The

known

only to Allaah.

The Attributes ofAllaah

as

Mutashaabih ?
been the subject of great controversy
at certain

One of the

issues that has
is

times

in

Islaamic history

the question: Axe the verses pertaining to the Attributes of Allaah
is

from the mutashaabih?'*" What

meant by 'mutashaabih'

in this cpiestion is that

only

Allaah knows the true meaning of these Attributes.

The

opinion of

all

tributes of Allaah are

the scholars of thesalaf, without any exception, is that the Atmuh/(am from one perspective, and mutashaabih from another

perspective.

The

Attributes arc muhfyim,

meaning they

arc understood, in the sensethe ex-

that the linguistic
.Attributes are

mutashaabih

meaning and connotations of these Attributes are known; anil in the actuality and 'how-ness' of the Attributes. For
ol

ample. Allaah describes Himself with the Attribute
the

'Knowledge'.

The meaning
is

of

word 'knowledge'

is

well-known and understood.
understand the meaning of

When

this Attribute

applied

to Allaah, this

we know
infinite

anil

this Attribute,

but the actuality of

"Knowledge' can never be understood, since our limited minds cannot compre-

hend the

Knowledge

of

Allaah.

This agrees with the two recitations of the verse of Soorah Aali-'Imraan:

479 as-Suyoojee,
481)

v.

2. p. 4.

This point has not been discussed
ol

in the detail thai
is

ii

needs, since the detailed explanation of the
I

proper meanings o! the Attributes

Allaah

not dircrtly related to the topic being discussed.
ol'

lowcvcr.

due

to the laci that

groups such as the Ash a ins use the concept
ol Allaah.
it

Mutashaabih and inajaaz as
It is

denying the Attributes

was decided

to briefly discuss this issue.

hoped

that a

means of more detailed
a

discussion ol this anil other topics related to the

Names and

Attributes ol Allaah

may

be available in English

soon, inshaa Allaah.

The
«...and

Clear and Unclear Verses

-

al-Muh_k,am

wa

al-Mutashaabih 213

none know

its

id wed except for Allaah, and those well grounded

in

knowledge; they
mutashaabih)
is

say,

"We believe

in

it,

all

of

it

(both the muhl{iiiii and

from our Lord...»

[3:7]

As was mentioned
implies that
ness'.

in the

previous section,

if one stops after

the word, 'Allaah', this

only Allaah knows the tdweet -

in this case, the 'actuality'

and 'how-

Thus, no one knows the
if

actuality ot the Attributes except Allaah.

On the other

hand,

one does not stop
in

at this place, the verse

then implies that Allaah, ami those
the 'interpretation'. Thus,

well-grounded

knowledge know the ta 'weel -

in this case,

those well-grounded in knowledge understand the verses pertaining to the Attributes
ol

Allaah. In other words, the Attributes of Allaah are

known from one

perspective

(that of their

meanings and interpretations), and unknown from another perspective

(that of their actuality

and how-ness). 4 "

1

Many
imply
is

of the scholars of the

Ash 'a ices, however, claim
all

that

some
.

of the verses perto

taining to the Attributes ol Allaah are
that the

from the mutashaabih What they seek
is

meaning and

interpretation of these verses

known

only to Allaah.

In addition,

when

the Ash 'aires see a person of Ah/ as-Stinmih discuss the Attributes of

Allaah, they quote the liadeeth mentioned above: "So
the mutashaabih ol the
so
as
1
-'

when you

see those

who

follow

Our aan,
is

then these are the ones

whom Allaah

has mentioned,

beware of them"" implying that the person who mentions the Attributes of Allaah,
found
in the

uraan

,

the one

who

is

following the mutashaabih'.
to

Examples
the

that arc claimed to be

from the mutashaabih arc the verses pertaining
("ayn) (11:37),
It is

Hands

iyad)

of Allaah (48:10), His Eyes
(istiwaa) the

His Face

[u/ajh) (55:27),

and His Rising over
the

Throne

(20:5).

claimed by these scholars that

meaning of these

verses

is

known

only to Allaah. In addition, they claim that the
is

apparent

(Ar. 'dhaahir')

meaning

ot these verses

definitely not the

meaning

that

is

desired. After this bold claim, these scholars split into

two categories with regards to
of these verses

these verses.

The

first

group claimed that the true meaning

can never

be

known
)

or understood by mankind, but instead the meanings are 'entrusted' (Ar.
to Allaah,

'tafweed

and are not discussed. This group then attributed
ol ihc

this philoso-

phy

to thtsalaf,

and claimed, "The philosophy

sa/afh tafweed oi the Attributes
other attributes. So, for exam-

of Allaah."

The second group, on
is,

the other hand, claimed that the apparent (dhaahir)

meanings
ple,

of these verses can be 'interpreted' to

mean

the 'Hand' of Allaah

in reality, the 'Capability' ol Allaah; the 'istiwaa'

over the

Throne means the 'Conquering*

of the

Throne, and so

forth.
in

The

detailed refutation of these views

may be found

the books of 'aqeedah;
this topic, a

however, since there does not exist any material in English on
rised refutation
Firstly, their
is

summa-

as follows:

claim that the 'apparent'

meaning of the

verses

is

not intended has a

number

of implications,

amongst them:

485

4X1

Ilin

Taymiyyuh, ai-Tiidnntriyyah

.

p. 58.

482 Narrated by al-Bukhaarec. 48>
Taken Irom lhn al-Qavvim,
as-Sau>aa'it],
v.

I,

p. 314-316.

2M An
1)

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

That Allaah has revealed

in

His Book verses which, apparently, seem
ol

to

mislead

and deceive mankind, instead
2)

guiding them.
concerning His Attributes, but rather hinted
at

That Allaah did not
at

reveal the truth

them

in

such couched and vague language that the truth cannot be arrived

except by claiming that the verses pertaining to this topic are not to be under-

stood except aher great effort and distortion of their meanings.
.?)

That Allaah required His servants not what
slate.

to believe in the apparent

meanings of

He

revealed, but instead believe the exact opposite of what the verses clearly

4)

That Allaah

is

always revealing verses concerning His Attributes whose apparent
truth.

meanings oppose the
5)

That the ihem

best ol this iiinnuili, the sahif,

from the

first

of them

to the last ot

them,

did not understand this important concept properly, lor no quotes are found from
that agree with

were ignorant of these concepts

what the Ash'arees say. This implies that, cither the salaf (in which case the scholars of these Ash'arees are

plain

more knowledgeable than the sataf), or that they knew the truth but did not exit (in which case the saLij were not sincere in spreading the religion ol
Islaam). Both ol these possibilities cannot be true, as the sti/tif are the most knowlol this

edgeable ami sincere generations

umtnah, by testimony

ot the

Prophet

my
6)

That the salaf were ignorant, illiterate people, reading these verses pertaining to the Attributes ol Allaah. and not understanding anything from them, nor caring
to

understand them, or even asking about them.
if

7)

That,

what the Ash'arees say is true and all of these implications are correct, it would have been more beneficial and wiser not to reveal these verses, since the
revelation of these verses has caused nothing but deception

and doubts!

All praise
all

is

due

to Allaah.

He

is

above

all

that they ascribe to

Him!

Verily. Allaah,

Praise

and Glory be
and

creation creation

is,
is!

He

is

to Him, is more knowledgeable ot His more capable of clearly explaining His

Attributes than His Attributes than His

Secondly, the primary problem with the Ash

'arees,

as

was explained

in

the section

on the kahuun of Allaah,

is

they

ditl

not understand the verses pertaining to the At-

tributes ol Allaah properly. Instead, they only understood these verses as referring to

human-like (anthropomorphic)
nied the meanings
of

attributes, ami.

based on

this

assumption, they desays.

these verses. So. lor example,
stateil

when Allaah

"The Ever-

Merciful istawaa over the Throne" (Allaah has

seven times in the Qur'aan that

He

has 'istawaa' over His Throne,

e.g.,

«The Ever-Merciful

'rose over' {istawaa) over the

Throne*

(20:5))

1

5

The

Clear and Unclear Verses

-

al-Mtthfoim u'« cd-Mutashoabih 2

1

the only understanding that these Ash'arees had of this verse
that
is

is

that

it

implied a body
this

in

need

ol

another physical object (the Throne)

to rest

upon! Based on

anthropomorphic understanding, they then negated the meaning of the
wise,

verse. Like-

when Allaah

says,

«His two Hands are outstretched" [5:64] the only understanding that the Ash 'arees

had were two human-like

physical hands!

Had

they only realised that Allaah

is

above

their limited imaginations,

and

that

His

Attributes cannot be

compared or equated with those of His

creation,

it

would have

saved them Irom these serious errors!

Allaah clearly

states,

..There

is

nothing similarto Him, and
itself is

He isthe All-Hearer, All-Seer» |42:l

1

This verse

in

and of
is

a clear

and simple

refutation of the Ash 'arees; after
for

slating thai there
self
is it

nothing similar to Him, Allaah then immediately affirms

Him-

two Attributes

that are also found in the creation, that of hearing and sight!

Why

that, in this case, the Ash'arees

understand that Allaah has the Attributes of Hearinto errors with regards

ing and Seeing, but these two Attributes arc not similar to the hearing and seeing of

mankind; why

is it

that they understand this properly, yet

fall

to other Attributes?

The Names and

Attributes of Allaah are unique to

Him,

just like the

names and

attributes of the created are

unique

to

them.
certain

So Allaah has
these
ings

called

Himself with

Names and

Attributes,

and

Names and

Attributes,

when

ascribed to Allaah, have unique

mean-

which none

share.

And,

He

has called His servants with

names (and

attributes) that are peculiar to them...
are separated
ers,

These names

are the

same when they

Irom their owners... but when they are ascribed to their ownit.

each one takes on specific characteristics that are unique to
other...
Iiniself<//-/£</yy

different

from the

So. for example. Allaah has called
tor

I

(The Ever-Living),

He

said,

% I -rut - rr---*
There

fjc^^'y^l^
some ol His

i,

1

••Allaah!

is

no deity except Him, the liver-Living {al-Hayy), the Sus-

tainerofall- |2:255|

Likewise.
for

He

has also described

creation with 'Life' (hayy),

He

said.

J/J^opl ^Kj-^^P

1

^^ ^1

-"' «And Allaah spoke . there has come to you a Messenger from amongst yourselves..in. and made him samee' and basccr" 76:2] But neither is the Samee' like the samee'.. (For example) He Speech (/(tiiaam).. nor is the Rahecm like the And to I le has also described I limsell with certain Attributes.y <_^ LJ ^**i' •A'erily. anil brings out the dead living. nor is the Baseer like the baseer'. And Allaah has called Himseli 7\Voo/'(The Merciful). Rahecm (The Most He said... lor the believers.. Allaah ) like the other 1 hayy (i.. lor He said..}.-i/wee'and basccr. rahecm» |":12H| But neither rahecm. ".. . -»-^sjj . directly ([(allama) to Moosaa» (4:164] And I le described some of His creation with the attribute of speech. lor He said.. - -Mr. tor He said. and described has attributed His creation with these same Himseli the Attribute ol attributes. since al-Hayy one he Names ol Allaah.. the Ra'oof... One Full ol Kindness) .f /.e. the Rahccm» |22:6t| anil He has called some of His creation ra'oofand rahecm..-- » » *j{ .. for He said.i lis servants. for He said. .. <ci*ii A^r-V $-~^ 5-*-^i>!i>-"^*t Li»-»J ' « Verily. specific to him.. is the Ra'oof like the raooj.. man). "Verily.I 216 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan III- brings out the living (hayy) from the dead. Allaah is. anil thc/wvv 'He brings out the living {hayy) from the the name of life that is particular to the created.. 1_/Uja L>.|4:58) and I le has called some of .... Anil Allaah has called Himself Samee' (All-Hearing) and Baseer (AllSeeing).[30:19] from the And in neither is is this o! al-Hayy I (i.truly. he is raooj. t-JJ. particular to ileail' is lim.. lor mankind. Allaah I is Samee and ' Bascen. '.. for <.e. We have created \ man from drops of mixed semen..

14-19. such as.. lor He- has mentioned this seven times in His Book. .tnen..52. clear 2) meanings arc anthropomorphic? In arriving at this presumption. J. p.-' o hi.."' The purpose ality of ot this long quote is to show that there are names and attributes of Allaah that have also been given to the creation. including:' This presumption in itself.''. when this (the king) spoke U{alla)na) to (Yoosul). All-Sccr» |42: is 1 1 The proper methodology with regards tic to these Attributes to affirm their linguis- meaning in a manner that befits Allaah.. Therefore. but the difference between the actuthe two is as great as the difference between the two. it is not proper to deny or distort these Attributes merely on the assumption that they give human- like qualities. His creation as being istiwaa over objects. and He is the All-Hearer... and not to delve into the actuality or 'how- ness' of them. for Allaah has negated any similarity with His creation: «Thcre is nothing similar to Him. so that you may ride on the backs of your animals)* |43:13] is . for in His Book whose appar- ent. it. for He *jyj**^t^-4 • So that you (mankind) may istawaa over their backs (i. And He some ol has described Himself as being istiwaa over the Throne. pps..1 1 7 The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Mukfcam wa al-Mutashaabih 2 1 «.. And He has also described said. '"' tacts. J»ljo 484 Translated (by meaning) trom al-Ttulmtinryah. ihc As/t 'arees absolutely ignored the verses that negate any relationship between the Attributes of Allaah and those of His creation. •There is nothing similar to Him* |42:l 1 In other words. the presumption of the Ash 'arees that the apparent (dhauhir) mean- ings of these verses are 1) anthropomorphic necessitates certain ol theirs is. at-Tadmureeyah.and neither the one istiwaa like the other istiwaa'. 485 zi. ..»| 12:54| like the Hut neither is Kalaam other Balaam. 1 In addition. the One Who revealed. a very how can it be assumed that Allaah would reveal verses mean and low presumption.e. since these are concepts that cannot be grasped by the human mind.

the actuality ot it is an innovation. is Pleased with and gets Angry with some of His Creation. such as the proper understanding of the \alaam ofAllaah (as was discussed earlier).Merciful 'rose over' (httiwuu) I lis Throne's [20:5] how is this "rising' (istiwaa)?" Imaam Maalik it is responded. that His two same time negating what He has example. verses arc to be understood in their literal sense. but the "how' of is unknown. for think he is an evil person!"* In this very explicit text. in their over-zealousness to remove any resemblance between Allaah anil the creation. and asking questions about such matters I man away from me. ."" to Him contra- The example in of this with regards to the Attribute a of kplaam was given previously. Attributes that are clearly mentioned in the Qur'aan and Sunnah. there exist numerous quotes from (d. when this Attribute is applied to Allaah. lefi is I ol le nor id the right ol it. Yet belief in this is obligatory. essence equated negating the lad that Allaah speaks with voice. nor below this world. Imaam Maalik staled that the meaning of istiwtiu is well-known in the Arabic language. while at the (in this Hands negated (in this example.204. or ascribing dictory Attributes. cfi Ubaydaat.) gave to the man who •'The Ever. nor connected to verses I nor is He disconnected from This. II it Allaah above Mis creation (c£ ad- lhahabee's al-'Uloow lor the were asked to give a definition of something that was non- existent. and Attribute Allaah what Allaah has Attributed to Himself (yad) arc outstretched). nor to the it. it. nor He in from ol it nor behind it! nor is He inside ol l. despite the there exists literally hundreds of is and Inutccth describing.218 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Q)ur'aan ••Both is His Hands revealed. p. or with non-existent objects. is the response that Imaam Maalik 179 A. that these two Hands (yad) are not similar many man- ner to the hands ot the creation): 3) them to deny many Divine Attributes. Perhaps the most famous incident asked him. even the greatest philosopher could not collie up with a heller description than this description thai the Ask'arces give to their Creator!! 4S7 Reported by ad-Daarimcc. that lull proofs). they ended up comparing Allaah with inanimate objects. the (act that Allaah This presumption of theirs led Loves and Hates. nor outside ol it. and many more 4) Attributes. they in Him with a mute or inanimate object! the ^//(//concerning the fact that these Thirdly. either explicitly or implicitly. Get 486 An example of this it. (yad) are outstretched)* [5:64] the same One Who «Therc is nothing similar to Him» (42:1 1] Why do not to thvAsh'eirecs take the meanings of both ol these verses. "'Istiwaa' it is well-known (in meaning).in thai it.H. yet. is is their claim thai Allaah is neither above. all The net result of of this was that.

His creafor Nu'aym tion has self ibn Hammaad (d. ". and whoever denies what Allaah has affirmed Him- has committed disbelief. nor did deny the fact that it permissible to attribute this to Allaah (on the contrary. Ishaaq ibn Rahooyah 238 A. This phrase shows that to believe in this istiwaa in the obligatory. p.. he said.. so this is anthropomor- phism. In feet. "Whoever compares Allaah in to committed disbelief. meaning - for is asking the 'how-ness' ol the Imaam Maalik told him. tribute belief in it is obligatory' (in other words.. '/«/<«'.and belief in ol 'it' it is obligatory' is another refutation of the belief is ihc Ash 'a rees. the phrase.H.the philosophy '/'/' tafweed. 2% A. And there is no anthropomorphism (5^s) affirmed lor Himself. Hand and Hearing. literal.). The teacher Imaam al-Bukhaarce (d.).. . tor the is phrase 'belief in belief in it is obligatory' refers back to the istiwaa: "al-lstiwaa well- known.)." meaning. without compar- ing the Attributes found in of them with ihc attributes of the creation (thus rejecting the anthropomorphism).) There like only be anthropomorphism is if someone says. should be understood that all the scholars of the salaj "agreed in their interpreta- tion and understanding of the Attributes of Allaah. said.M. '."4"8 The famous said. "Eve- ryone knows what istiwaa means!" Lastly. ".9 The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Muhfytm wci al-Mutashaabili 1 1 unknown. the fact that must be believed shows that there \s> some- thing to believe in It .At- had no known meaning.H. is obliga- What Imaam Maalik denied was the tact that mankind has been given knowlii edge ol the actuality ol the istiwaa. "(Allah has the (yad). They would take the apparent ol these verses (thus believing in meanings concept what Allaah ot revealed). what obligatory"? was Imaam Maalik referring to when he Imaam Maalik understood that this Attribute had ". Imuam Maalik did trary to the not deny die tact that istiwaa has a lie meaning to it (conit is philosophy ol tafweed mentioned above). namely that Allaah has 'Risen over' (istiwaa) His Throne..the 'how 'ol is tinknow a. and Seeing' and he does not say comparisons (based on the attributes of how (these arc). "How is this istiwaa:" This shows that the questioner understood what the verse meant. "al-lstiwaa well-known.. who claim in what is obligatory 5 " In it is other words. his question was not about what istiwaa meant.and that the it is obligatory.. (." Also.ilul. the questioner indicated that he understood the verse properly..i. said.belief in a meaning to it it. nor does he give -ISS . "Belief It ol the Ash 'arees.the Attribute of istiwaa'./-{.. As for Attributes ol) person says.there would be nothing in to believe in! Therefore. tor he asked. .. or 'His seeing if a like my seeing". Imaam him for Maalik did not criticise or rebuke him for understanding the apparent mean- ing of the verse (that Allaah has the Attribute of istiwaa).belief in tory"). other- wise he would not have said." meanings of these verses are must be asked unknown. what Allaah has Him.ul-Dli.... ". but instead criticised asking something besides the apparent Attribute. 228 A. ot this . Imaam and scholar will of hadeeth. "Allaah's hand is my hand". . or what the Prophet has affirmed for (d..7. In response. as Allaah Himself has said. thus. but how this istiwaa occurred.

). for the Attributes (of Allaah). And the proper methodolfor the religion ol is to take the is middle path. so therefore the same methodology is is well known 489 ad-Dhahabi..H.' m Qnr'aan has been revealed and Allaah has addressed His creation in the language that they know. as it Allaah. Other groups tried to affirm them in such a manner that they ended up comparing them ogy is to the attributes of the creation. muhkam such as. And the basic principle in this regards is that to speak of the Attributes of Allaah as if to speak of the Essence of followed. Allaah between the extremes. interpreted until their meanings conform with To conclude (d. is that the Attributes of Allaah that arc Qur'aan and Sunnah arc not to be understood by either be ignored mankind by their linguistic meanings. they should and not discussed (the essence of the concept of tajweed). lucid Arabic. l. so they Some groups denied these ended up denying what Allaah Himself had affirmed. known only to Allaah. and to take them on their apparent meanings (dhanhii). Why else has Allaah re- vealed these concepts. Attributes. 67. and the one that the.. anil an is and dangerous one. 'There is nothing similar In conclusion. ). between the two extremes. instead. p. they should then understand them verses.v// \iicc< If should instead impugn their own intelligence and understanding of these verses. we quote the famous scholar al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee 436 A. for it carries a correct meaning. mutashaabih .1 220 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan is the creation).the methodology ol the sultifh to affirm them. the Ash 'aires claim that the verses pertaining to the Attributes of Allaah are in light of the from the mutaskaabih. and it is impermissible to delve The incorrect meaning of this phrase." is a incorrect of "The verses pertaining to the Attributes of Allaah are from the vague and imprecise phrase. then all that has As been narrated in the authentic sunnah . who wrote. All-Seer (42:11 in clear. and He the All-Hear. the to Him. So. \sli 'aires mentioned in the intend. To presume that the verses pertaining to the Attributes of Allaah carry no meanings absolutely contrary is to the meanings of their known meanings. The correct meaning of this phrase that the actuality the Attributes of Allaah are into these concepts. in reality a very dangerous and incorrect presumption. this section. but at the same time to deny any resemblance or 'how-ncss' of them. then this is not anthropomorphismU Allaah has said. in these clear wordings. or retheir desires. in' and presuming anthropomorphism in the Speech of Allaah. or that they carry words as known by the Arabs.a/-W«HW. •There This is is nothing similar l<> Him» |42:l 1 the proper methodology of understanding the imttaslnuibih verses. except that they be understood in this manner? Instead of 'reading die . . The statement.

As was mentioned the beginning ol this chapter. And likewise the is sunnah in Prophet (5S) understood in a similar manner. These and of definitions concentrated on one theme: tluit the muhjfam verses are clear in themselves. and is obligatory to negate any resemblance between them (i. "Allaah has a 'Hand' iyad).'"' Other Categories op Mutasi iaahih Some or the detentions of mutashaabih were given in the previous section. Rather. it since they were found (in the Qur'aan or siinnah). or Seeing. 'vail' is '. and were not permissible the religion. and eyes (these at- So we do compare these Attributes with the hands. is in reality an affirmation of the Existence of the Creator.. ol them to the And them it is obligatory to affirm all of these (verses). between the attributes ol Allaah and the attributes ol the creation). ami dealt with the same way .that the miilashaabih tire understood in light ofthe miihfyim. because Allaah has said.'"" they were responded lo by saying that there are./ as-Sunnah.>*> -There [42:ll| is nothing similar to Him. which cannot be understood except by reverting verses.e. and not an affirma- of their actuality. 49 ad-Dhahabi. al-L'hiwn: p. and both are accepted." then these are say. And we do not 'The weaning of ' 'Power'. and He is the AIM learing. the affirma- His Attributes is an affirmation "I thai existence. and contused those who were weak in knowl- edge thai they (i. There are yet other definitions of 'mutashaabih' that ileal at with another meaning of the word: that of 'resembling'. in the is Book of Allaah. Attributes that Allaah has affirmed lor Himsell. whose meaning mnhj(am lieve in understood apparently. verses that are miih/(iim. likewise. I/. 'Seeing is 'Knowledge and neither do not wc say that all oj these are physical limbs.1 1 The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Miihl^aiti wa al-Miitashaabih 22 that to affirm the Creator. and there are also verses that are miilashaabih. So if we all say. and (of the creation) which are physical limbs and organs by which tributes) occur.. nor that the meaning of Hearing' and cars. . whereas the mutashaabih verses require external factors to understand them..» So when the people of innovations condemned the people of narrations tor narrating these hadceth. 48. All-Sccing. or Hearing. and be- both ol the (the muhJiam and the miilashaabih).e. and 0C- ensed them with the disbelief 'oj'the anthropomorphism:. all Glory be to Him. ft* _A-^*-H ' f-^*r~*> '. tion oi tion and not how He Exists. the people ol narrations) were narrating things that were in not befitting to tawheed. we say that it is obligatory to affirm these Attributes. 490 Is it not as if al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee is refuting thcAsh'arees and their accusations against the.

16:79. and resemble". they will not believe" (36: 10)). (e. 492 as-Suyook-c. 47:3. "There gushed forth therefrom twelve springs" (2:60).pps. in who believe" |6:99.g.g.." 1 '2 In other words. For example:'"3 (e... 30:37. 24:54. in same wording.. 35:44 and 40:2 1 1 Four times. whether you warn them or (e.. '". p. Each of these two definitions the second definition that will be elaborated a separate science.g. a phrase or sentence is "The muh\am are whose wordrepeated somewhere else in as: the Qur'aan. There is in their no contradiction between this definition of mutashaabih utilized and between the one one of the that was discussed previously. them and you.but Those phrases which occur twice 1 most of them arc not thankful" 10:60 and 27:73|) (e. 2) 3) Thrice. 5. or. Some of the schol- have defined the mutashaabih verses as those verses which resemble one another wording. 18:50 anil 4) Five times. you and them. "And when We said to the angels. classifying them based the type of difference between the verses: involves the addition or subtraction of a letter or upon 1) The difference it word (e. 20:116|) (e.) 222 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Quraan 'to 'mutashaabih 'has two meanings: ars "to be unclear'. t33-L54. and." (6:151) anil. or.g. for those phrases other verses with a slight difference in word- az-Zarkashee also divides them into various categories.. "In this are signs for a people forth... they will not believe" (2:6). 29:24. 2. and so which re-occur As ing. the previous definlion utilises It word 'mutashaabih' ("to be unclear"). and it is upon in this section. and "There flowed forth therefrom twelve springs" (7:158))." [30:9.5 and 64:12}) 5) Six times..g.g. 493 aK-Zarfcashec. "Do they not travel through the land. "It is the same. cither exactly the same.. whether you warn them or is not. . meanings of the definition can also be said that the discussion of the previous section involved the to meanings. The ing is definition of this category is quoted by as-Suyootee those verses which are not repeated.!"(17:31 3) the exchange of a word with its synonym (e.. 5:92.. "Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger" |4:59. mutashaabih with regards whereas this definition involves the is mutashaabih with regards to wordings.. or with a slight difference.. I. and 39:32]). (e. the same.We will feed ".v. and the mutashaabih are those verses repeated.. 27:86. v.... Az-Zarkashee exactly the 1) lists many phrases in the Qur'aan that occur more than once..We will feed )). 2) the exchange of word order ". and this the second meaning of the word 'mutashaabih' ('to resemble"). 17:61. "Anil not.g.." |2:34.g..

«. Allaah says. Qur'aan. c£ Ubaydaat. job and suit the context is wiihin which they occur. on the other hand. the two verses are examined closely. 1991.I. Cairo. (also). Allaah assures them that 4'»4 There are more categories ofMutashaabih than i hese. in For example. 1 We will provide them sustenance and you 17:31 whereas the second verse reads. flu firsl verse is addressed in thost who fear that they will be inflicted with poverty in the future because of their children.*91 There have been anil how they number ol books written concentrating on these change the meaning of the verse. The verse reads. bring about different meanings. 202-204. The second verse.1 1 . '-"-. the parents are actually feeling the effects of this and are not managing themselves properly. Allaah refutes this fear by stating that Me will provide for the suste- nance of the children. . *>>. These parents arc worried that they will not be able to provide enough for their children. 51)0 A... poverty.?"'.. is addressed to those parents their children's fault. The Clear and Unclear 4) Verses - at-Muhfaam wa al-Mutashaabih 22$ the change from singular to plural.H. •And do not nance lor kill your children because of poverty: for We will provide suste- you and them- l |6:l 51| The two verses cater parents in dilferent situations.. the command prohibiting infanticide occurs twice in the one verse. who arc already to feed inflicted with poverty. az-Zarkashee. the rea- wisdom why each one occurs first in a particular order is seen.'>. pps. f '1^"t «And do not kill your children fur fear of poverty. part of the analyse of the interpreter of the Qur'aan in to why one phrase occurs in a certain manner one part of the Qur'aan. v. Thus. I pus. However. 113-134. I hy Mahmood ihn . Allaah says..*9* These subtle changes a differences. )ar al-Wal'a. E £0 ^. presuming that it is In this case.Wc will provide sustenance for you and for them» [6:151] At first glance. as well as the parents.. and in a slightly different manner in another part. 4y5 One ofthe classics rhai is available in print \sal-Burliaanfi Mulaihaabih ul-Our'aun Ham/ah al-Karmaanec (d.We will provide them sustenance and you (also)* 1 17:31 and in the other..£<=' '—>. there does not "you' seem to if be any benefit in reversing the order ol the pronouns son and and 'them'.

'" who denied the existence ofmajaaz in the Qur'aan (and still is Arabic language)..then referred to as haqecqee meaning.) I went CO an extreme anil stated. but not presi Qur'aan. 498 These are perhaps the two most famous scholars who have. have conceded to the existence ol majaaz in the Qur'aan.. Muhammad a topic al-Ameen ash- (d.). hut rather the 'people ol the town' are asked. 1393 A. In lact. For example. 1 S:77| (meaning It that the wall was very close to collapsing). or = . . original and primary intent .). 178. for there is no actual wing).in other words.H.'-> o\ Joy )j\ _U1 «..denied the existed ol majaaz language in the Arabic lit anil the Qur'aan.H. such as Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah Shanqcctce in the (d. a 4 "' should he noted that there are S number of scholars throughout 724 A. for 4 '"' He will provide lor them. and this has been and of debate among the scholars. p. and history. 496 al-Karmaance.then this to the majaazee meaning. 497 cl'. in the Arabic language. a is meaning or connotation dren a that not the primary use of the word . p.. the \:\mo\\\ Hambalcc scholar Ibn Qudaamah 620 A. in the is Ibn Qudaamah. «And ask (the 'town' with its the town is where we were. that are given ol Examples majaaz in the Qur'aan are the verses. ^5). II. another example ol majaaz)./cala/i. The (d.I 1. Thus. is On the other hand. 35. The Haqecqee and It the Majaazee its a word this is is used in its literal its is sense .. For example.. "Whoever denies majOOZ has indeed been it arrogant!" {Rawdah. ami lor their chil- dren. anil. «And lower unto them (one's parents) the wing ofsubmission anil humility through mercy.. however. in the affirms the existence of majaaz in the Arabic language.1 224 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan they do not have to fear this poverty... the exchange o! the pronouns in the two verses adds a subtle meaning to each verse..- 1 1 2:82 houses and walls not asked. p. is apply the word "offspring' to include grandchil- majaazee meaning.a wall that wished to collapse. he topic ol majaaz anil whether sense that if one exists in the language or not should not be made a topic ol ./. Sonic scholars stated that majaaz exists vast majority nl scholars.. it a word is used in a metaphorical sense - in other words. (including the sons of Muhammad al-Ameen ash- Shaniicclcc!).jJ>a. to apply the word 'ollspring' to one's children a Iniqccqcc meaning." |I7:24| (the use of 'wing' is majaazee.

and not related to the fundamentals of faith.The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Miihl^am tea al-Mutashaahih 225 The Attributes of Allaah verses in the Qur'aan as the as Majaaz? to Perhaps the strongest reason that led some scholars is deny the existence o{ majaazee scholars due to the fact that many of the of innovation (such Ash 'arees) have claimed that some of the verses pertaining to the Attributes of Allaah are majaazee.. in essence. hear the Throne of your Lord above them* [69:17] = in the Qur'aan. Therefore. then he is is to be considered an innovator. These scholars claimed majaaz lor 'Capability'. and the (angels) around it. such as the verse... affirmed the concept of majaaz. glorify the praises ol their Lord. Concerning of Allaah' as this particular exis ample.anil His Throne was over the water. there is lack of evidence.)w/ (Hand). This is because the existence al majaaz is a matter of ijiihaud.. This claim.. eight angels will. and Allaah knows . However.. . This fact agreed upon by is Thus. «The (angels) who hear the Throne. many scholars of the correct 'aqecdah (such as Ibn Qudaamah) majaaz. throughout tslaamic history... enabled them to deny tributes many ol the At- mentioned in the Qur'aan. even reasons: 1 if it is claimed that there are majaazee verses in the Qur'aan.. «." | S°:7t| and. the word will be interpreted a in a haqeeqee sense.» [ 1 1:7| and. •>. one needs to If bring clear proof from the Qur'aan or Sunnali to prove this point.. [40:7] and. that Allaah has Throne. but stated that the Attributes ol Allaah cannot be examples ol It is thus improper to make this concept a point of difference (i. "arsh' for 'Power'../ as- Sunnah and the people of innovation.e.\nd the Quraan?*) best. 'Does majaaz exist in the Arabic language . the understanding of the 'Throne by being haqeeqee proven many other verses. but it cannot lie imagined by humans... is reason in or proof to believe otherwise. order to say that the 'Throne of Allaah' majaazee for 'Power'. between the -!/. ••And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne from all sides.. viz.. such as wajh (Facc). on thai Day. 'arsh (Throne) that 'yaa" is and others. and so forth. the Attributes of Allaah can never claimed to be examples of majaaz for the following ) All verses and words are always taken in a haqeeqee is manner unless there all linguists.

and eight angels will carry this 'Power'? In addition. is possible that one of the is most important revealed in such topics of faith . however. majaazee form in reality.that of the Names and Attributes of Allaah — obscure and vague language? 3) The very concept of majaaz rests upon the perceived and well-known. (all them in vague. "And ask the that town. such as the Names and Atand vague language. it is In other words." the only reason that is is understood that Zayd was not an actual animal during the battle anil thus. due to the fact that the Attributes ol Allaah cannot be perceived or hilly understood by the creation. without any doubt. is One ol heard. language. The point that is trying to be made is that majaaz can only be used when the subject is wellknown and understood. "Zayd was a lion. rather Praise is than guide and instruct ascribe to Him!). couched language outwardly. it above water. and Glory be to Him.e. appears to mislead and deceive." the only reason that the reader understands. He is above all that they The Qur'aan describes itself in many verses as being a shining light. all Throne is a luiqecqcc throne. such as the Attributes of Allaah. 2) It is not appropriate that the fundamentals of tributes of Allaah. but rather hinted at dial. the other Attributes ol Allaah can be proven in a similar manner. in Praise is. lor how else was it. there are that clearly signify thai the numerous authentic Inideeth Likewise. a lion battlefield" is possible to say.. there can be no majaaz when 4) it comes to describing the Attributes of Allaah. it is fundamentals ol faith be revealed in the clearest and most for doubt.226 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan All these verses clearly show a that the Throne ol Allaah is a luiqceqee throne. Zayd was not said a He was a brave person. that the people of the town. simple Arabic." it is il It it were claimed lowed to that the Attributes of Allaah are majaaz. and eight angels hold unless haqeeqce Throne? Can it be imagined that the 'Power' of Allaah was over water. it when it is "Zayd was a lion during the battle. to claim that Allaah did not explain Names and in Attributes properly. due to Allaah. tions it is not the actual town that that towns is asked. Likewise.. In matters of the unseen. (i. and it is how else will the angels surround it. but is it is well-known cannot be asked quessaid. if person is al- deny what Allaah has person says that the verse. To claim that Allaah. and thus there is no danger that a person might be con- fused between the Iniqeeqec meaning anil the majaazee one. the people who are asked. "No. and that angels will surround the 'Power'. Since there can be no analogical relationship be- tween the Attributes of Allaah and those of His creation.. a Book that guides mankind. it that is understood from this Zayd is well-known not to be an animal. defined is: Majaaz is that which on the as a is permissible is to negate. revealed His Names ami Attributes His language. that Zayd was a very brave person. a revelation in clear. majaaz simply cannot be applied. that takes it him from the darkness to the Light. be revealed in (inexplicit essential that these explicit faith. in a manner all that leaves no room confusion or ambi- guity. . it when the phrase. when it is said.. the ways in which majaaz Therefore. Rather.

some of the deviant groups (such as the Falaasij'a.. both ol Allaah's hands are not outstretched. As lor the people of innovations. |>.e. This author adds: ". but tion.... with those people who say what die Qur'aan anil Sanihili says affirm these Attributes).H... opens the door to many extreme deviations Irom the true religion Of course.both ol His hands are outstretched. Life and others. and the Kliaii'uarij. not affirmers! And the iruih in this matter (i. not as majaazee. yad.. in essence. and other Attributes.and theAsh'arees"\ . deny these and they do not understand them in a haqeeqee manner. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr (d. "No. 463 A. Hearing and Seeing ol Allaah)? Just as these scholars acknowledge that Allaah has the Attributes of Knowledge. amongst other things! ol Heaven anil Hell. yad. and the Mu'lazilah. and arc affirmed Allaah Himself affirmed them. there no defence someone were majaazee. 5) To claim majaazee. and understanding them as haqeeqee.The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Muhl^am wa al-Mutashaabih 227 . is Ami they presume that one (i.. or 'Philoso- phers') did in actuality claim that all the verses pertaining to the matters of the unseen were majaaz. they a wajh. Life. but II these are different than the wajh and \acl ol the creation.) stated/'" The AM as-Sunnah have unanimously agreed in affirming those At- tributes (ol Allaah) that are in found in the Qur'aan or Saiinah. in essence this person claims that possible to say. who affirm these Attributes (lUc A/il tis-Sitniwfi) consider these people lo be ileniers anil negators is (oi Allaah's Attributes).."" then they Attributes. L98. In to claim that all the verses mentioning Allaah's Attributes are fact. the wajh.e. ol the verses that they claim that is some if mention Allaah's Attributes arc majaazee. that they do not resemble at all the attributes of the crea- In conclusion. Attributes ol as Allaah as majaaz (for example. to claim that of the verses that mention Allaah's Attributes are What there that makes these scholars consider some 'ayn. who affirms these Attributes an anlhropomorphist those giving human-like qualities to Allaah)' In reality." thus clearly and explicitly going against the verse in the Qur'aan). and istiwaa) and others haqecqce (such as the Knowledge. and The claim is that majaaz exists in the verses it pertaining to the fundamentals of faith an extremely dangerous claim.. They thus denied the existence angels and ji wis.." it is 1*5:641 is majaaz. and believing them. from the jahmiyyali. nor do they limit them to a particular manner. that some is ol the verses that all mention Allaah's Attributes are majaazee is. but these Attributes are not similar should also acknowledge that Allaah has to those of the creation. as ol Islaam. all ol these points come alter the (act that all the scholars ol the salaf as were of the opinion that Allaah's Attributes are haqecqee. 499 MqjmOo' til-Ruaawtiit. except dun they do not explain the 'how-ness' of these Attributes. iim i v.. 5.

I-I ">liahabi. 501 . Allaah «Every soul shall taste death. An example of this the verse. no matter how small or large that set For example. specific set.. An example ot this the verse. This is also uncommon in the Qur'aan. is the wording seems to be 'aam (i.tf/-l7««'«\ p. 105. animal is or jinn.228 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Alter quoting this.. a human. 502 Kamali. . on the other hand.. be 'specific'). is 3) 'Aam that has been This is the most common type ol 'aam in the Q)ur'aan. The primary and is that /(//aas applies to a single subject or a specified its number of objects.. f(haas a word it that is used to denote a limited dif- number of things..[3:185| it This verse K/iaas is applicable to every soul. the meaning in lact the tribes of Arabia). 748 A. specified.. the scope ol application is limited. (lit. all the members of a says. •<Allaah is aware of all things" |4:176| since there arc 2) no exceptions to this verse.. aam.e..'"'' in. but ftfiaas is meaning." |2:199| The "people' Even though /(/iaas (i. An example of this the verse. ~ in other words. unlike the There are three categories of 'aam: 1) is 'Aam that is totally unspecified. including everything to which Icrcncc between 'aam can be applied. in 'Aam in wording. all people). truth I Imaam ad-I)hahabi (d.e. will eventually end up negating the Creator ol all (His Attributes). referred to in this verse are the other tribes ol Arabia besides the Quraysh. and comparing Him to non-existent objects. "He has spoken the swear by Allaali!! He who misinterprets these Attributes. This is rare in the Qur'aan. the Khaas is 'general') a word that applies to is..I all I) stated. The 'Aam and The 'aam (lit. and carries what has been narrated of them upon majaaz. 269.p. "Then depart from the place whence the people depart.

who have been born of your wives with whom you have had intercourse with. where for a man would tell his wife that she was forbidden him sexually. 'unconditional') verse is one that is absolute in its scope. In other words.»|4:92| 503 This was a practice of the Arabs ofJaa/liUiyah. so the verse not 'aam.. iv. it is has not been specified. by saying that she was like (he back of his mother. in These two complementary categories are primarily used together laws of the Sharee'ah. the word 'house' mutlaq.. then it The muqayyad there is (lit. two-story house' muqayyad. applied to all slaves. . . since is a condition attached to the An example in the Qur'aan where Allaah states. freed..(the penalty for dhihaar*") is the freeing of a slave»[5&3] is The condition or quality of the slave Since only one slave must be would be 'aam.. 'aam applies to all the set. had it mutlaq. The Mutlaq and the Muqayyad to Amut/aq (lit. its meaning..» |4:23] is This verse has specified an 'aam in that only a specific type of step-daughter forbid- den in marriage... whereas the mutlaq can only apply to one member ot is.. It differs from the 'aam in that the 'aam applies to all members thai its are included in meanings simultaneously without exception. « Whoever kills a believer unintentionally must free a believing slave. members of a specific set. "qualified') occurs is when 'a a mutlaq is specified by an adjective. your step-daughters. not limited what it applies.. but house..The Clear ant! Unclear Verses - al-Muhl^am iva al-Mutashaabih 229 "Forbidden to you (in marriage) are. yet anspecify that rule not to apply in certain circumstances. is For example.. other verse or luidecth deducing the The may Qur'aan might give a general ruling in one place. whereas mutlaq only applies to any one member of that An example ot a mutlaq verse «.

is muqayyad since it specifics that in this case the slave must be a Mus- These ticular. Maalil^ees and Ihimbalces). anil the example given only ol one type. In par- when one ruling appears is mutlaq form.lhen he must last three days during Hii/j anil seven when he returns." [2:196] is obvious. that freed in the case oidh_ihaar must be a Muslim. and is the mantooq ol the verse.1 230 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aail This verse lim. For example. . According affected by the muqayyad in this case.. For example. Allaah commands believers with regards to their parents tioned <<AikI do not say 'uf that in them» |1 7:2. since saying 'uf all to them. In reality. and it is on the other hand. 2-17. share one commonality: that of causing harm and 504 a cl. on the other hand. Mafhoom al-muwaafaqah is defined to be the extension ol a ruling Irom a mencase to an un mentioned one due to a commonality between the two. Ol course. and a similar ruling lor another case- in muqayyad. there are is number diltercm categories where ibis occurs. an understanding are ol the verse that is not explicit in the words ol the sentence. the command number in the verse. is muqayyad must be a Mus- lim? So. There two main types of mafhoom: mafhoom al-muwaafaqah and mafhoom al-mitl{haalafah.5 This verse automatically implies beating or abusing parents is also forbidden. ». does the slave thai since the exact treed have to be a Muslim. does the muqayyad ruling concerning involuntary manslaughter altect the muljaq ruling regarding dhihaar': According mutlaq is to the majority (the Shajl'ees. this is a very over-simplified discussion ol the topic. categories are also used in interpreting the text in ami deducing laws.. QaQaan. the mutlaq ruling affected by the muqayyad oner For example. with is regards to the penalty for dhihaar. "I |>. is The mafhoom ol a verse. I when mentioned that the slave in the context ol the penalty lor involuntary manslaughter. the mutlaq is noi allowed to tree a non-Muslim slave in the case ol dhihaar?"* v. Even though the verse does not explicitly prohibit beating or abusing them. same ruling (that o freeing a slave). and the slave to the Hanafccs.. verse clearly indicates this. The Mantooq and Mafhoom The mantooq of a verse is the apparent meaning that can be understood directly to last a specific Irom the words of days in the sentence.. is in this case the affected by the muqayyad. the ' mafhoom al-muwaafaqah ol the beating them and abusing them discomfort to them.

on the other hand. is capable ol marrying free women. will in a separate chapter.the mafhoom ul-mul{lnialafah . «And whoever amongst you does not have the means lo marry Iree. is defined to be the application ot case. believing women. integral relationship to uloom al- Qur'aan. .. The Naasikh and Due to the it the Mansookh and its importance be discussed ol this topic. they may marry believing girls from among the (slaves) whom your It right hands possess." |4:2S| can be understood from this verse is . Allaah says. the opposite ruling of a mentioned case to an unmentioned is due to the tact that mentioned case contains a condition that not round in the unmentioned case.that if one girls.The Clear and Unclear Verses - al-Mufiffam wa al-Mutashaabik 231 Mafkoom the al-muk)iaalafah. these categories are used in deducing laws from the Qur'aan. For example. he not allowed to marry slave Again. vi.

to d<>» 145:291 From s) this connotation.CHAP T E R 13 Abrogation in the Qur'aan an-Naasikh wa al-Mansookh i. As for its definition in Islaamic sciences. to supersede". which has the '' following meanings:'" 1 ) 'To remove. 1S-2I ii>r.i verse..i discussion of this 506 '. quence point. and one verse can be abrogate more than one ruling. imusi^/i. Ly^^AJ^Obl.<il{h'. the iuiasil{h and the mansookfi . in non-Arabic readers. ••Verily.. except We bring something thai better than it. This may be used. In oilier words.»|2:106| and in another verse. Allaah says. is the primary one. to copy".. min.» |22:52| 2) 'To transcribe.. 'nastansi^ku') is whai you used 'inui.""" The naasikfi ruling the ruling that repeals the mamooklr. anil which are connotations. For example. The Definition of Naskh miasil{h 1 Both of the words and nuinsoolfh come from the root n-s-l(h. ••We thai . it. the active partici- 5n5 As for which i>i these meanings ii. Ml fl jj' j-iL^ j^_l_lU <>r do not abrogate (Ar. it is: The abrogation of a ruling bv . 55-61 and ash-Shanqccjee. this is of little conse|>|>s. . Allaah says in the Qur'aan.. for example. pps..bin Allaah abolishes (Ar. Zayd. to abrogate'. to abolish.<al(h) is . We were recording (Ar.\i IcaSI two' because there can be more than one verse can abrogate a ruling. with reference to record- ing or copying a written record. a scribe also called "To replace. more than One naasil(li and/or mansooltfl verse.i ruling that was revealed after Therefore. cause n to be forgotten. •. at least is two rulings must be involved.yonsa/fh) whai Satan throws in.

whereas naskh involves abrogating the ruling in toto (i. since there existed it cannot be considered an example topic.. since this verse abrogated certain pre-Islaamic any Islaamic ruling.Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasikh wa al-Mansookh 233 pic. Muhammad). 'in'niMon' (bac/aa'ah) previously existed from another phenomenon known as must have an Islaamic ruling on exactly the same subject which was then different In other words. Therefore. these cannot be 'abrogated'. whereas ijmaa' and qiyaas must occur after the Prophet (5Ki any student ol usool al- knows): therefore.. that of "specification' (/<//f/«ra). is is the ruling that abrogated.'. the passive form. in The His phrase: '. while mansookfi. it is not applied in any circumstances or conditions). Names ami Attributes. in order for naskfi to occur.csaa. and not belief Caqeedah). is mentioned fujh shortly. the ruling that is abrogated (the mansookh) must originate in the Qur'aan or Siainah.. Islaamic Arab culture. no previous Islaamic rulings on the however. as shall be i.of a ruling... 'Specification' involves one verse limiting or restricting a first general ruling found in another verse. naskh cannot occur with respect to ijmaa' (consensus) or i/iyaas (analogy). Cf_2 !>e*}3 C^fy i&tyj 'f£jfei^->!**> ^j i ^ I «He has ordained and thai lor you the same religion which which We have inspired to yon (O He ordained lor Nooh. and other matters related beliefs that to the fundamentals ol belief It concerning these non-abrogated Allaah says. any laws that were revealed without any precin pre- edent Islaamic rulings are not considered as examples of naskh. . For example. but rather of 'initiation' (badaa'ah). The Breakdown of the Definition The phrase: 'The abrogation.. but not 'initiation'. marriage to one's step-mother was allowed ($*j). the is Day ol Judgement.'" 1 ' ">n7 This is due to the fact that nasl(h can occur only during the lifetime of the Prophet (SS). an example of practices. saying that you should establish the religion and make no divisions Also. This verse is. This differentiates from another phenomenon lound Qur'aan.'. . of naskh. later. and T. In other words. is the ruling that does the abrogating. implies that naskh only valid in laws.e. Even though this verse re- pealed the legitimacy of this pre-Islaamic custom. Alter the advent ol the Prophet a verse was revealed that prohibited marriage to one's step-mother (verse 4:22). Moosaa. no ruling that is derived Irom ijmaa or c/iyaas can be abrogated. there abrogated by a later ruling. The dilfcr- ences between naskh and takhseeswiti be elaborated on This also implies that naskh must involve an actual abrogation law. thus 'initiating' a is new Islaamic ruling. implies that the it first ruling has been completely in the repealed. and that which in it" |42:1 s| we have ordained for Ihraaheem. ol a previous Islaamic and is therefore . naskfi cannot occur with regards to belief in Allaah. In other words.

ing) otqiyaas (analogy) cannot abrogate a ruling it'. since at this stage the laws ol Islaam finalised. this phrase also implies that the understanding of a verse (majhoom) can also he abrogated. The phrase: a ruling. It is this exact factor which confusion with regards to the numberol naasity/ mansooty verses in the Qur'aan (as shall be elaborated upon shortly).jJ of -Ami there is no sin on you if you enter uninhabited houses that are benefit to you (without permission)" (2-4:29) This is not an example of nasty (in its later definition) in the least. 508 . 204 A.. An later on in the chapter. lor the second in the first verse verse specifies that the 'houses' mentioned only applies to occupied houses.ias.). In other words."'* Therefore. an example ol nasty. The phrase: is '. l^-Ji-jSf «Do not enter any houses. except your own. . ijtihaad (personal reason'. since alter his death no new rulings Irom the Qur'aan otSttnnah are going to be revealed.that was revealed after implies that the mansooty ruling (the in riding thai abrogated) must precede the naasikh ruling lime.by be discussed wording {mantoocj) remains applicable. even though its explicit example that will help explain this will '.&}?." [24:27] was 'abrogated' {nasatya) by the verse.. p. to abrogation only was The first person to limit the meaning ol the word nasty to apply Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee (d. naskh™ is In the termi- nology ol Ibn 'Abbaas and the nasty also meant what referred to today as tatysees. This also implies that nasty could only occur in the lifetime ol the Prophet (Sgg). Ajys_l^_/i. Irom the Qur'aan or Sttnnah. fy^^^J^. is Nasty were primarily a Madinese phenomenon.ih. without permission. anil not salaf.. \2yj\y*-St $ ^Li*-_^0&.m-N.. in his famous treatise on the scholars ol the three gen- usool al-fiqh entitled ar-Risaalah.. this is an example of tatysees.' 234 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan Lastly.H. 104. abrogating) must also means that the naasity ruling (the one that does the come horn the Quraan or Siimnih. For example.. The Salafand the Term 'Nasty It should be pointed out that the salaf did not use the term 'nasty' to refer exclu- sively to abrogation. They also used the term to apply to specification {tatysees) and initiation (badaa'ah). p. Ibn 'Abbaas staled that the verse. when coming across statements Irom first erations that claim that a particular verse this cannot be immediately taken as has been one ol ihegreatesi causes ol was "abrogated" {nasatya) by another verse. I^.. 509 ash-Shanqeejee..

). all the examples ofmisl(h are was specified by the 'naasikli to actually examples oi latyisccs.H. In Aboo Muslim's Opinion.m adh-Dhaahiree 1 456 A. rather he did not Aboo Muslim did not deny the validity ol whal has been defined as name it as such.H.H. 597 A. since. Mustafa Zayd. Only some S/iee'ee Aboo Muslim al-Isfahaanee. both of is 224 A. ibn Hambal 241 A." " However. on this topic are: Ibn Shihaab a/. d.) and at-Tirmidhec ibn Sallaam (d. and in this he went against the consensus (ijmaa) of the scholars before him.-Zuhrec (d. there of have been a great it many books written on the naasikh and mansookh verses most attention the Qur'aan. while it is not inconceivable no rulings to that naskh can occur. S. Aboo Muslim held the view that talfhsces was also possible by p. whose book considered to be the best classical discussion of the subject. . (d. such as (d.H.). ii. Aboo Muslim was the scholar to deny the validall of nasl{h.H. 'Abdullaah ibn Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shanc|cctcc.H. Some ol the (d.).). 280 A.H. ibn many more authors wrote separate books on naskfi.). In tc/fseer. In other words. 1 1 concerning this topic is the famous Successor. 322 A. 66. cE ash-Shaiu|eetec.H.' " Without era is doubt. (d. Ibn Ha/.). Another excellent work isat- Ayac/i al-MansookJtah fee al-Qur'aan.Abrogation in the Quraan . condition which no other scholar had put. Makkcc Abee Taalib (d.). after the subject of in the topic that has been given the 'uloom al-Qur'aan is that of naskji. the book 'an-Nusl{h fee al-Quvaan by Dr. After this era. the most thorough discussion of the topic of naskji written in this it. and Aboo Daawood Aboo 'Ubayd al-Qaasim 275 A. 597 A. and offers his own conclusions of the validity of each claim.H. have writ(d.) mentioned. Aboo Muslim's view has been explicit aptly refuted. there arc demonstrate first 1 it. every 'mansookji have been meant only time a tor a limited time. In the author dis- cusses practically every verse that has ever been claimed to have been abrogated.H. fact.H.an-Naasikh wa al-Mansookh 235 Booty Written on Nas\h Due to the importance of this topic.H. Siiiuiii fame. since the Qur'aan and Sunnah is very on the occurrence of naskh. The Qur'aan says. to Qataadah as-Sadoosee 7 A. as and Mutazilee scholars (such objections concerning naskh.H. have raised Aboo Muslim claims that.). p. by Dr. would probably be no exaggeration lo say that. and the famous ad-Dccn as-Suyootce a 911 A. Aboo al-Faraj Ibn al-Jawzee (d. Ahmad (d.). lor him. Ii should he pointed oul thai bill 'niislf/i 'above. 437 A. One ten of the first to write a treatise (d.). more famous authors 125 A.). The Proof of Naskh The vast majority of scholars have upheld the validity of nasl{h. as Ibn al- Jawzee ity (d. 510 This ^1 1 lisi lias been summarised from ash-Shanqectee. Ibn al-'Arabee al-Maalikee Jalaal 543 A.

the occurrence of nasty is explicit. initially." Nay. the classic hadeeth that "I quoted is the Prophet's so. As long as both rulings can be applied. Allaah then revealed. p. or cause it to it. be forgotten. Allaah has ness in you. 8:65). they remind you of death. they shall overcome two hundred. ij U n==*^* ^SJ o J* Li*^» [»^s-S ^Ji_J JU... there are numerous instances Qur'aan or Sunnah a where nasty has been mentioned explicitly.|: In this verse. was prohibited from fleeing from the enemy il he were laced with (a ratio ten Muslim in battle enemy soldiers of 1 to 10. 513 Narrated by al-Haakim. However.J ^sJX.they say. We place something better than is Arc you una- ware In that Allaah indeed capable of all things?* another verse. but now you may freely do (3^5) ." 1 1 2 Mi An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan •<We do not abrogate substitute in its a ruling. . (but) most ol down 'You 1 (O Muhammad) them are ignorant!" 16:101 very explicit. The There Conditions for Naskh arc a number of conditions that the scholars ol uspol al-fiqh and uloom alOar'aan have laid down in order to substantiate any claim ol nasty. . since the very concept of nasty implies discarding a ruling for another one.. cf. lor He knows that there is a weak- il there are one hundred ol you. the occurrence ol nasty explicit. nasty is not resorted to. Allaah savs. For example. III. for used to forbid you to visit graves. 99. in the In these verses. So lightened your (burden).«U1 1 •Now. asb-Shanqeeiee. the concept ol nasty is Apart from these verses. One ol the reasons lor this is that nasty is called only as the last-resort. is regards to nasty in the Sunnah. statement. in place ol another - and are Allaah knows best what he sends hut a forger. [8:66] The With ratio was then reduced to one Muslim is lor every two non-Muslim soldiers. except that or similar to |2:1D(>| it. •And when We change a verse (in the Qur'aan) . 512 cf. " Once again.

abrogate the this Qur'aan or is mutawaatir hadceth. or with respect to their existence or non-existence in the Qur'aan. therefore from Him. pps. the relative time-frame of the verses in ques- known (by the narrations concerning makjfee and madanee revelations. a his is because qiyaas and other forms ol ijiihaacl cannot abrogate (ijmaci). iv. or else there ol cannot have been any abrogation. the it narrations concerning asbaab an-nuzool. S|4 Fbr other conditions of naskh. it is command Irom Allaah or the Prophet (^). 2:187 and 8:66). an luidccth cannot. 2) The naasikh ruling must have been revealed after the mansookji. and will be discussed in greater detail below. since it is of a lesser authority. as just mentioned. and ash-Shanqeetee's (pps. As for consensus ijmaa to occur against an explicit this also not possible for command in the Qur'aan ox Sunnah. see Ibn al-)a\vzec's conditions (Malbarcc. 2. They may be classified with respect to the sources of the and mansookji ridings. (Madgharcc. In other words. For the claim later ruling naskh to be substantiated.. 3) for certain that the naasikh ruling was revealed after the mansookji Both the naasikh and mansookji ridings must originate I in the Qur'aan or Sunnah. This is only called as a last-resort. this cannot be considered an example of naskji. a in must have repealed an is earlier one. However. cither cannot be the source of naasikjifmansookji rulings. concerning the previ- ous ruling tion is (e. and the other ruling to a different case. The The Categories of Naskh may be classified in naasikji various legal rulings that have been affected by naslji different categories. only Allaah has the right to abrogate any in the 4) command that originated Qur'aan or through the tongue ol His Prophet (^). . This can be ascertained two ways: either there a direct reference in the naasikh ruling or. according to those a who hold this opinion. Therefore. 1-6). such that both rulings cannot be applied at the same time. and other narrations).) Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-NaasikJi wa al-Mansookh 237 The more 1 important conditions are as follows: 514 condition for naskji to have occurred is The most important in that the two rulings be- question must directly contradict each other. 95-97). one ol the rulings can apply a specific case.g. also Most scholars have ahaad view added the condition that the naasikji ruling must origi- nate from an equal or greater authority than the mansookji. must be known ruling. naskji is way if to reconcile them. when there exists no to other way to explain the two rulings. and there exists no cause. pps. not correct. or with respect to the rulings ol the mansookji in comparison with the naasikji. In other words. Ibn al-'Arabcc's V. 35-37). In other words.

The Sources of the Naasiki i. This incident clear proof that the Qur'aan can abrogate the Sunnah.»[2:234] 2) The Qur'aan majority is abrogating the Sunnah. but eventually the QXir'aan revealed that the direction of the qihlah was be Makkah. lady: initially she An example of this is the waiting period ol a widowed was vear: to be main- tained Irom the wealth of her deceased husband for a period ol one ^f^Jj^fjil^ • Ami those ol you who die and leave behind their wives should bequeath lor them a year's maintenance and residence. . the naasityi ruling do not play a role can come in only Irom the Qur'aan or Siuuni/i.. without turning them oui. there are lour logical scenarios ol nasty) with regards to die ) The Qur'aan is abrogating the Qur'aan. Surely.|2:24l)| l..aier on...238 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan A. Therefore.wn M. such usqiyaas and in nasl{h.e. Putting these possibilities together. naskh can only occur within the Qur'aan ijinaa '. . this ruling was abrogated by the verse. all and the mansootyi ruling can only be found sources ol the naasikh and mansookjr. their (wives) should months and ten days.wm >< iki i As was mentioned in the previous section. This category agreed upon by all those who consider the validity ol naskh.. scholars have agreed to the validity ol this type ol naskh- The by the ol An exam- ple ol this the changing ol the qiblah.. the Muslims used to to pray low aids Jerusalem command of the Prophet (S£>) (i. We shall turn you to a qiblah that shall please you! So turn |2:I44| your face in the direction af the Masjidul-Hflraam Makkah). and the abrogation is came down in the Qur'aan. and Sunnah: other sources oilhc sharee'ah.» The initial qihlah was based on the Sunnah.. And those ol you who die and wail lour leave behind their wive-.. ••Verily! We have seen the turning ofyour face (O Muhammad) (at towards the heavens. the Sunnah). 1 the Qur'aan or Sunnah.

"There is no bequest ii) to an heir. Most of the scholars did not allow this type of naskjt. Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasikh wa al-Mansookh 239 3) The Sunnah abrogating the Qur'aan. is 1 not necessarily the cor" Ash-Shanqcctcc discusses this question in detail/ and concludes that an is ahaad hadeeth can abrogate the Qur'aan. nor the Sunnah to He felt the Qur'aan could only abrogate the Qur'aan. He docs to ash- must be known for certain that the of this. where lit- states that an ahaad hadeeth can abrogate the Qur'aan.H. when any ol you approaches death ami lie has wealth.56-44. that he make a bequest to his parents ami next of kin. . 1 79 A. pps. they reasoned..H.H. 241 A.59. be further subdivided into two categories: This category i) may Kmutawaatir hadeeth abrogating the Qur'aan. and since both give indisputable knowledge (qat_'cc ath-thuboot). An example according it is Shanqeetee. This was allowed by Imaam Maalik 1 Aboo Haneefah (d."' to Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee 204 A. other. although such an occurrence give the condition. view.. ahaad narra- tion occurred after the revelation of the verse.H. although representing the majority opinion. . p. 7. the Qur'aan is muttawaatir. all This was also allowed by those who upheld the validity of naskh. 51 7 ash-Shanqeetee. however. 516 ash-Shanqcctcc. anil the same with the Sunnah.» |2:I8()| This ruling was abrogated by the hadeeth of the Prophet (#£) in which he said.).). abrogate the Sunnah..). p. This category may be further subdivided into four categories: 515 Reported by Aboo Daawood. since. . Also see al-Albaanee's comments on Ms hadeeth in Akjfaam ul-fana'aiz. for known that this occurred during the Battle of Khaybar. whereas an ahaad hadeeth does not provide indisputable knowledge (dhannce ath-thuboot) This rect one. They reasoned that both are forms of revelation from Allaah. and as such 'abrogated' the previous ruling that it was allowed (by the understanding (d. and provides in- disputable knowledge of authenticity {qat'ee ath-thuboot). 50 A. they may abrogate one an(d.) did not allow the Qur'aan abrogate the Qur'aan. and one of the opinions of Imaam Ah mad (d. that it rare. 4) The Sunnah abrogating the Sunnah. is the prohibition of the flesh of domesticated donkeys. An example of a muttawaatir hadeeth ing leaving bequest to heirs: abrogating the Quraan is the verse concern- jfc$ £& ••It is prescribed lor you." 1 ''' An ahaad hadeeth abrogating the Qur'aan. of 16:45).

In other words. however. been abrogated. Muwall.) 240 An Introduction to the Sciences of die Quraan i) A mutawaatir hadeeth An ahaad hadeeth abrogating another mutawaatir hadeeth.\)}iutawaatir transmission) hul rather an incident ol nasl^h. have ters. Ahoo >aawood at- rirmulhee. or the ruling. the verse that initially prescribed ten sucklings can be taken as an example of this category. . Verse and Ruung it is i\ ii ik Qur'aan With respect to verses in the Qur'aan. period of one year for the An example (2:240). _' hill rather that it was abrogated only order lor a verse a short lime before the Prophet (5g) died (c£ Qatlaan.i. or both. however. held by those who allow an ahaad hadeeth to abrogate the Qur'aan (such as ash-Shanqeetec). The last category. As was alluded chap- there existed verses that used to be recited as part of the Qur'aan. it S8). is it must he narrated it mutawaatir hadeeth. that of an ahaad hadeeth abrogating mutawaatir one. 1 foster-child). Some of these abrogated verses dealt with legal rulings. B.. does not need mutawaatir 519 Although there is a dillerence ol opinion regarding the live. in which she said. "It had been This was it revealed in the Qur'aan that ten clear sucklings (of a baby with a riage unlawful later (i. by saying that the hadeeth a\\i\ saheeh. Thus. In any case. (with respect to the Qur'aan only. p. as is reported in Muslim. abrogated (and substituted) by and the Prophet 1 ' died and was before that time (found) in the Qur'aan. and in ol the Qur'aan to he accepted. This may I he refuted. minimum number of Sucklings that are re- quired to prohibit marriage. Some scholars (such as Mustafa Zayil) have rejected this narration. ii . possible that either the recitation ol the to in earlier verse. The majority. The three categories are agreed a upon by all is scholars. iii) An mutawaatir hadeeth An ahaad hadeeth first iv) abrogating a mutawaatir hadeeth. nor 2) the ruling applicable/ The Abrogation ) . anil also thai 'Aa'ishah is not reporting a verse Irom the Qur'aan this (which needs . ol the Ruling without the Verse (Naskh al-Hukm doona at- Tilaawah When this occurs. the relevant verse is still recited and is present in the mus-haf. but the ruling does not apply. claiming that is ahaad (since only 'Aa'ishah in a narrated it). ruling applied. neither the relevant verse found in the mus-haf. neither is its An example of this type is the report of 'Aa'ishah. and not the Sttiinah) naskh fied as follows: 1 may be classi- The Abrogation of the is Ruling and the Verse {Naskji al-Hjilyn the verse present in the mus-haf nor wa at-Tilaawah). Some scholars say based on this hadeeth. Ti . do not allow the occurrence of the fourth category. abrogating an ahaad hadeeth.'"' is * In this case. of this is the verse prescribing the waiting this ruling widow Even though does not apply any 5]N Reported by Muslim. This docs not mean thai he verse had heen accidentally l lell out ol the mus-haf.e. but whose recitation was later abrogated at the command of Allaah. and transmissions. ii) abrogating another ahaad hadeeth. whereas others say three or even one. woman) made mar(«gg) is that the baby would be considered her five sucklings.

^Hi&l J^_3 ' O j-J Zj&y*Jip. Stoning Allaah's a duty laid down is book lor married men and women who commit "Wa ash-shaykliu wa-shaykhatu them as a retribution of adultery when proof esin tablished. said people have thai in gathering <>l Muslims and non-Muslims. p. and after it. is the verse that initially prescribed the punishment for fornica- ">L. am afraid that with the lapse of lime.. then stone from Allaah. In reference to this verse. obvious!} noi vcrj knowledgeable. I would have written the verse with niy own hands'" ^22 Reported by al- lahaarani and others.£»_>5-J I I «And those of your women who commit illegal sexual intercourse. the verse is still recited as part of the Qur'aan. "And tor certain lor this concepi thai certain urn found in die Islaam you have 10 stone people to death I crimes. I l. «j£r » £ u ££a j^j j>i>uWii jy) \j sup stripes. even the wording of the verse of stoning has been preserved idha other authentic narrations. the Book down upon him.i few years ago. and it.ill culture mixed with Islaam!" lor the tear people would accuse me ol adding to the Hook Ihn ol Allaah. it stoning to death (to The Prophet (^) the married adulterers). we also did say. 9.i/ni. lake the If evidence of four witnesses amongst you against them. The it. Allaah sent Muhammad was JIS>) with the truth. then confine them to their houses until death overtakes them. The . people (may forget and) 'We do not find the punishment ol stoning in the Book is ol Allaah. if they commit adultery.is speaker.it low true was 'Umar.'"'" meaning. adultery to be stoned to death."" 21 In fact. the same.'"'" and in go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allaah. Allaah ing.- i The (unmarried) women and man a guilty ol illegal sexual intercourse |24:2| flog each of them with hundred 3) The Abrogation of the Verse without the Ruling (Nas^A at-Tilaawah doona al- Hukm). verse of stoning revealed with we recited ol I memorised and understood awarded the punishment him. may Allaah reward him! Reported by al-liukhaarec and Muslim.. or until Allaah ordains tor them some (other) way» |4:I5| This verse was abrogated by the verses in Soora/i an-Noor." Another narration 520 This author recalls a lecture he in a attended in America . cl... 'Umar while giving a sermon ( in the Prophet's (j^g) I mosque. a verse in the order those who had committed ibn al-Khattaab said.! It's Quraan! 521 lh.a_. In another narration. "Were ii noi lis . al-batha nakaala zanayaafarjumoohum or min Allaah. "Verily. . "And the married man woman. le sent it. removed the verse from the Qur'aan but Qur'aan used to left the relevant rul- For example.Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Nuasil^h wa al-Mansoofy 241 more. 'Umar said. Afl/. In this case. Another example tion. they testily.

they were massacred by the disbelievers. In response Anas ibn Maalik reported.* This was then abrogated after we had to this incident. he would wish for a third. 6. I cannot do to anymore.' as a part of the Qur'aan. and we are pleased with Him. This report also shows that the Companions understood and were familiar with the concept o£ nasty. Another nothing report of this nature 'If is by Ubay ibn Ka'ab. once came I Prophet ($y§). 526 For example. This narration explicit in the abrogation of the verse. "Allaah revealed verses of the Qur'aan concerning them (the martyrs): 'Tell our people that we have met our Lord.. p. request- him to send them some teachers. However. to the 'Umar ibn alto Khattaab narrated. 525 Narrated by at-Tahaauee in his Shark Mushlfil Alhaar. "Soorali al-Ahzaab used to be equal (in length) to Soorah al-Baqarah. and (instead) Allaah then revealed. Mitsnatl of Ahmad.242 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan clearly shows the fact that "I the recitation of this verse was abrogated. than a fourth ol as the Soorah al-Ahzaab that is present today's mus- haj is less Soorah al-Baqarah. and the verse pertaining stoning was mentioned. it still Prophet (^). A group ing ol disbelievers posed as Muslims. hibitions There are also references to a number of verses not related to commands and prowhose recitation was abrogated. asked the Prophet (^).. been reciting it tor a while. •<Do not presume . p.. 52 < Reported by al-Bayhaqee ami others. and Allaah of forgives who repents. "We used to con- sider the verse. so that I may "O Messenger of Allaah! Dictate to The Prophet (-gg) responded. He stated. and found many collections oFhadeeth.|3:l69]. 4 This report is explicit in that there existed verses that were recited in prayer. 1 v. Muslim. or even longer. for the son of Aadam had fill two valleys ot gold. 975. in al-Bukhaaree. and whose recitation was later abrogated. c£ ai-Sahfthah.. (the recitation '5 this verse him was abrogated) by the revelation of Soorah at-Takaathur. The Prophet (•§§) sent them seventy Compan- ions to teach them left the Qur'aan this and other aspects related to the religion. at-Tirmidhec anil others. 527 Reported by Ibn Hibbaan. and came to the Prophet (^). When the Companions with group. ' that those who have died in the way of Allaah are dead." meaning that he was not allowed do so anymore." 5 Even though the above remained a statement of the 'verse' was abrogated is as being part in ol the Qur'aan.. write it!" me this is the verse. "No. .. anil He is pleased with us. will ever the belly of Aadam's son except dust. 1 5. An example of this are those verses revealed with regards to the martyrs of the "Well of Ma'oonah'.w Ubay ibn Ka'ab also reported. 524 al-Malbaaiee."'" This implies that there existed recitation many in verses whose had been abrogated.

for the married persons 24:2). I here is a difference ol opinion whether Aboo I m. "I also (•§$) came because "It The Prophet explained. the into four categories: naasikh and mansookh may be divided is The naasikh ruling more difficult or more constrained than the mansookh. Initially. but people- was unable to. In this case. the naasikh ruling is equivalent to the mansookh 3) The naasikh ruling is a concession from the mansookh. An Another example that example it that has already been quoted to four tin- with regards to the waiting period ol widows. he asked. is clear that divine intervention caused these Companions who had memorised the verses to forget them.s < >F THE Naasiki and Mans< h >ki i i The rulings 1) naasikh riding might be a concession from the mansoofyh. ten days. . this are the rulings pertaining to adultery. in this case. An example of tor (c£. "() Messenger ol Allaah but could not do so!" At ' tried to recite such-and-such a soorah last night. Was reduced from one year is month and 1 was the mentioned ratio of with regards to to prohibition ol lleeing from the battlefield to II). Initially. (cl. or it might be one that requires ol' more effort. v s meaning that they of the tl had been caused to forget the relevant verses. since he saw the Prophet (SB). thus abrogating even the memory of the verse! This narration also shows that the a verse Prophet (3^5) was informed by Allaah whenever was abrogated. he tilt luiilcclli is considered authentic (v. ol For example. the naasikh ruling was easier is lor the Muslims than the mansookh. (5=3)' I When the Prophet («ygj) came. fasting Another example the procedure of fasting. since he (-^g) knew that these particular verses had been abrogated the night before." Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasifyi wa al-Mansool{h 243 and the Lastly. 4:15). In the morning. Indian Allaah.-Tah.also reports total obliteration which explicitly show the occurrence ol naskh. when Muslims to non-Muslims was for every this was later abrogated and the ratio reduced one Muslim is two non-Muslims. In this report. C.i from the Prophet (SB). same reason!" and the third.i\( . With respect to the degree of difficulty of the rulings. so he tried to recite in prayer one night. However..aawee also brings . 2. was prescribed 528 Reported In ai- jahaawec. he went to the Prophet (&. 2) The naasikh ruling is equivalent to the mansookh ruling in difficulty. the illegal punishment both married and unmarried sexual intercourse was lifelong imprisonment Allaah then revealed the verses of flogging lor the unmarried and stoning (cl. another narration \ is p. the second too!" man said. "And I was abrogated last night. of the abrogated verse. the verses that were revealed concerning the change the qiblah from Jerusalem in eflort. to Makkah. so the incident authentic. 172) which mentions Companion between Aboo Umaamah and the Prophet (SSI. una h actually narrated < lompanion. Aboo Umaamah ibn Sahl reported thai a it person had memorised a certain soorah. Rui . Tahzeeb al-Katnaat. this. Ti if. there art.) and tound two also waiting for him. and thus is considered #403). In any case. at. a v.

in which the Qur'aan abrogated the previous scriptures that were is re- vealed to other nations.» |2:18. other words. respect to the Qur'aan. or gone to sleep at night..24-4 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Quraan «... The With Blessings of Naskh two types ol naskh that occurred." [58:13] Therefore Allaah forgave this charity from them. «It is now lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wile on the niglu of the fast. Allaah repealed the law in tola..?| This meant. and there the specific mtsl(h. in which some verses ol the Qur'aan abrogated others. Alter this. spending in charity before your private consultations? {for nut Il you do not do and Allaah has forgiven you doing it). so le has turned to you and accepted (your repent- ance)* [2:187] Therefore.. v. then (at least) offer prayers perfectly.. . However. ••Arc you afraid ol it. this It is the second category that has been the discussion of chapter so far. Allaah revealed. Allaah knows that you used to deceive yourselves (by having I relations with them). there are There is a general naskh. drink or have intercourse after he had prayed the evening prayer (Isluta). «0 you who believe! When you want to consult the Messenger in private. a 4) In Muslim may is eat. drink or have sexual relations until dawn. and they were not required to do it. that a Muslim could not eat. both of these types of naskh have benefits behind them..as it was prescribed for those before you. Allaah revealed. spend something in charity before your private consultation" |58:I2| Allaah then repealed this law totally. as per the laws of the previous nations. in There no naasikh command place ol the mansookh. to give charity before An example ol this is the com- mand going to see the Prophet ($g*) privately..

<£ljj==*jj And they lor every nation. so that Since each prophet was sent to a different nation. The most important of these messages...'" 16:36] in Included with the belief belie! in the ol tawhecd was the belief (aul{hirali). These instruct code o! laws varied from time to time. their laws that would govern that them in their mutual affairs. left However. remained unchanged prophets and messengers. and from place to place. 4jl| *_J \jlj> jQ £_li_4 UjtS. was possible for one messen- «(And 'Kesaa before said to his people) I have come confirming that which was lawful for you part of what had been me of the Torah. all and was beneficial for them. all previous laws and religions were abrogated: «And whoever seeks a religion other than Islaam. messengers (risalauh). 'Wor1 ship Allaah alone. . for each set of peoples to. ger to abrogate the laws of a previous messenger.. ance in its as a manifestation ofAJJaah's mercy. and to nia/(c forbidden to you. anil avoid all false deities. anil Day ol Judgement for all These fundamentals all ol belie!. Wc have sent among every nation a Messenger. (saying). in times and places. With the coming of the religion of Islaam. Rather. mankind was not Creator provided without guid- social and political life. that ol the One- «Ancl verily.. the laws that 'Eesaa came with were meant to abrogate the laws of Moosaa. had their own specific problems and peculiar situations that needed to be catered Allaah says. and provide them an everlasting the Hereafter.|22:34] it ceremonies. it will never he accepted from him» |3:85] ." [3:50] In other words. Allaah has revealed to set mankind a general code of and of laws that would guide them to a better life in life in this world.Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Ntiasiltfi wti al-Mansoo\h 245 Benefits oj the General Nasl{h From beliefs lor the beginning of time. and warn against that lor them a set of them concerning all was harmful to them.. however. may mention the We appointed (their) religious Name of Allaah.. or 'aqeedah. is and one that has remained ness of Allaah (tawlwed): a constant theme lor all the prophets.

and ' all that contradicts it is previous scriptures.— 246 | An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan is The role and status of the Quraan with respect to other religions made clear in the billowing verse: C^tiijpjtj -." |7:157| ^29 530 cl.. .. |>. (meaning I nasf(h) is from Allaali. and is meant widi to be lor the a betterment lis worshippers. So. since at this later time that particular ruling will not he for their benefit. and that it is supeThis is rior to all other Scriptures (since it abrogates all previous Books).) slated. Makkee ibn Abee Taalib (d. which are mansoofyi The Qur'aan. M>7 A. hut le already knows command will he removed from t hem at a later lime.in Tafsecr Ibn Kathecr mi this verse -Nahaas. il| con- firming the Scripture that came before and is a muhaymin over ^ :-4X The word 'muhaymin' means tures. which were only meant for a specific na- tion. since the laws that have been revealed to is are perfect lor and suitable lor all nations. He commands them it ruling at a specific time. so that all that that the il Qur'aan a witness over the previous scripis conforms with rejected. at all times. Benefits of the Specific Nusl(h With regards to the specific nasftfl of the Qur'aan. at a specific time. and prohibits lor them thai i> and harmful. 116. .-C - ^-> -- «And We have sent down to you (() Muhammad) it. and forbids with all thai is honourable for evil them from all dial is evil anil immoral. These principles are clearly laid down »>. over all It also demonstrates sel the superiority of the of ummah of the it Prophet (-yg) all other nations.H. . acts as a naasil(h agent over the when they conflict with the Qur'aan/ 2 1 one of the greatest blessings of the Qur'aan. This in contrast to all other laws. > *-\\ s>>y «He (meaning Muhammad) commands them and good. from the previous scriptures accepted. since He knows I that will be lor their betterment for that thai tins particular lime. the Book in truth. he allows all them all that is pure and beneficial. And this of this too has many benefits to it. for it shows that it is the most complete Book (since nothing can abrogate the Qur'aan after it). therefore. in the following verse: -* .

* [8:66] is equivalent to or more difficult than the nninsootyi... |4:28| burden) on and.o .. the stoning of the married adulterer might be a hardship lor him. this a relor minder from Allaah to the believers of His blessings. L> A>--. be forgotten. but as a very severe deterrent for others.Abrogation in the Quraan - an-Nausil(h iva al-Mcmsool(h 247 Thus.. so that they may thank Him . or cause its ii to it. except iliat We substitute in place something better than is or similar to it. and is a manifesta- Mercy of Allaah. and you do not knows [2:216] you.. • \Vc do not abrogate a ruling. the is obvious.. if the naasityi It multiply. I j^ C-»-iJ 1 Ail I Jrt^J [8: ^7| Allaah is may discern the filthy from the pure.-aa£ ••Allaah wishes to lighten (the o I aJJ « Jo J_ you. even though it is beneficial for it And it is possible dial you love something. Also. As Allaah E .. And Allaah knows. every case of nasty is for the betterment of mankind. Arc you una- ware that Allaah indeed capable ot in all things?" |2:106| its Each type benefit in this tion ol "the of nasty that was discussed the previous section has benefits. '%J&<0\ fr ••Now has Allaah made If the mtusityi ruling is it easier for you.« * j^s-^. is harmful Thus. As for the abrogation ol the ruling without any replacing ruling.. this a means ot testing the believers so that S-lIJ «. even though tor you. more difficult.. is As for the abrogation of a ruling without the recitation of the verse.'j ••And it is possible that you detest something. | c c>. As Allaah says. or with a lighter ruling. the rewards for that particular deed will also should be remembered that what might seem like something difficult to be beneficial to us or to the us might in tact Muslims.. burden ot worship. it serves and a betterment tor society... in that it lightens the says.

since it He allowed the believers a Sharee'ah in a gradual manner.'""' verse. 'Alee then told him. tor the recitation o I each letter gives the reward often. and naasikji from its mansookh. To understand and implement Without knowing which verses that are not arc abrogated. a person is might apply those verses meant to be applied. ami its interpretation. And «And whoever has been blessing). unless he knowledgeable its ol the Book its ol Allaah. (^). blessed with wisdom has indeed been given a great by saying. If the recitation of the verse was also abrogated. and its muhkam from its mutashaabih. "You are destroyed (because you are judging to between people while you are not qualified do so) and you destroy other people Ibn 'Abbaas explained the (because you give them rulings that are incorrect). This why the scholars ol Islaam were very cona cerned in preserving this knowledge. |2:269|.) said. 5 532 Qaiuan. therefore.2M . to see a believer has faith in the Messenger (^g). p.248 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan His Mercy. the from the halaal. so that would not be implement the great burden on them. the muhkam from the later (ones). this to is another indication ol the Mercy oJ Allaah. reliits its impermissible lor any person to give verdicts concerning the is gion ol Allaah. and not the Qur'aan. 'Alee ibn Alice Taalib passed by naasil(h judge and asked him. P . "Do you know the from the mansookh?" The judge replied that he did not. or scholar {nuijtahid). 1) Some of the benefits of knowing naasikh and mansookh the Qur'aan properly.m. This verse is also a blessing to recite. from the mutashaabih. this is another type of test from Allaah. edge is should come as no surprise. since the ruling will then come from the Sunnah."* It earlier (revelations) and theharaam can be seen from the examples that were given is in die previous section that if a person obliged to know the naasikh Irom the mansookh It he wishes to derive laws this from the Qur'aan and Sunnah.H. " (Wisdom 32 is in knowing) the naasikh from the mansookh. its As tor the abrogation ol the recitation of a verse without if ruling. 531 Ibn Ha/. and process ol revelation. that knowl- one of the conditions tor a person to be an interpreter of the Qur'aan (mufnssir). is apparent that this know ledge are: is an essential one. and malice Irom maduiicc. the believer must his (J^g) truly believe in the Prophet to be successful. Once. The From Benefits ot all Knowing Naasikh and Mansookh it the examples that have been given. "It is Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee (d. Thus. 204 A. and follow the Qur'aan and Sunnah in order VI.

The Prophet certain (-gg). he must be knowledgeable Suiiiia/i. who seek vii. Tatysees. an example steal ol tatyisces: the hand of every thief will not be cut. then.. 124. This. ash-Shanqcejcc. such that what ( seems to be a general ruling only applies in certain cases. only those thieves who above a certain monetary value are punished. The defence of the Qur'aan and Sunnah. it is essential that show contradictions and discrepancies in the sharee'ah.""'' this. on the may occur with respect to other matters. 1 Nasty/ differs from latyisees in the following manners:"' 1) Nasty may only occur with regards other hand. Orien- and the "Muslim" scholars to try to been influenced by them) to ridicule anil mock the religion. increases one's belief (eemaan) in Allaah. Muslim can appreciate it the blessings that were given to this ummah it in this gradual to revelation. this ruling will not apply to him. is Therefore. ot The concept talists nasty has been used by the enemies that have of Islaam (in particular. For example. And The verse is the chief - male or female — cut off their hands 1 5:38] general ('aam). to laws and rulings (ahtyam). it Allaah revealed the laws ot Islaam gradually. Tatysees is defined to be the specification ofa general ruling 'aam). the Qur'aan orders the amputation ol the hand ol the thief. In addition to . The knowledge of the gradual revelation olihe s/iaree'ah. . as demonstrates him some 3) aspects of the infinite Wisdom and Know ledge of Allaah.Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasity wa al-Mansooty 249 ol and the 2) its asbaab an-nuzool. The Difference Between Naskh and Takhsees was mentioned at The phenomenon of tatysees this chapter. and Thus. below this value. It is ("specification") the beginning of essential that the concept ofnasty not be confused with that o\ tatysees. p. qualified that the thief in this case must If he stole steal above a monetary value. and for this reason many scholars of 'uloom al-Ouraan included in their works the differences between nasty and tatysees. By knowing the naasity from the mansooty.53 55-1 an-Nahaas. Muslims understand and appreciate the concept of" nasty. SO that would be easier lor the Muslims a to implement the new religion. so and misinterpretations of those that they arc not deceived by the distortions to destroy Islaam. For example. 54. however. 5. y. the Prophet f^g) specified the general ruling of the verse. and implies that the hand of every thief must be cut. Allaah says. Also.

Tatyisccs. The names of the number of verses number of cases that were considered as candidates for What is meant by 'Candidates gives the lor nasty' are the which were discussed by that author as being possible to be consid- ered as examples ot nastyi. Also. is should be pointed out that the difference of opinion still concerning those verses whose recitation has not been abrogated. exama little to Ibn al-'Arabee discusses around three-hundred verses which could be considered lor nastyi. ol these many verses. no matter what the on the other hand. whereas tatyisccs may be based on common sense or ijtihaad. however. ruling may only apply to Qur'aan. of ascertaining their exact there no means number. is Therefore. The naasityi must be revealed tatyisces. and in found is the mtts-haf. The second column number of nasty/ cases that for were actually concluded by the author as being legitimate examples. Thus. ple. . but rather valid in a narrower Irame. since many of them have been abrogated even from memory. Except those who believe. defined to be the implementation of a previtakhsees_ ous ruling in only some of the original cases. the naasityi may come from the Qur'aan or Sunnah. as examples However. after the mansootyi. the mansootyi cannot be applied alter the naasityi rulings of 'aam 3) still revealed. since qualifies those of man- who are not in a loss. scholars arc listed according to the nastyi. The kind 2) last verse. viii. on the other hand. and exhort one another in truth. whereas there is no such time restriction 4) on Nasl{h only occurs with respect to the Qur'aan or the Sunnah. and do righteous deeds. abandonment of the previous is ruling. he concludes that only over a third are actual cases of nastyi. and exhort one another in patience» 1 103:1-3] is The second verse general ('aam).250 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan «By the lime! All of mankind is in a loss. implying that is all ol mankind it will he in loss. an example oi'latyisees. Sunnah. As for those verses whose recitation has been abrogated. ijmaa'. after a is occurs. In other words. or c/iyaas. but the apply after the tatyisccs. the ruling not totally invalid. Nastyi implies a total case. the rest of the examples are shown by him not be examples ol nastyi.) Some of the various opinions are given in Tabic A. Tatyisccs. The Number of Naasikh/Mansookh (It Verses in the Qur'aan The in scholars of Islaam have differed greatly with regards to the number of verses arc- the Qur'aan that are mansootyi.

Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasif(h tea al-Mansookfi 251 Number of Verses Number Scholar as Candidates for of Verses Naskh Concluded are Naskh .

For example.- to the disbelievers.." and actually be said to be abrogated.. surely. less with Ibn al-'Arabee. 1 The main categories are: Those verses which are statements of fact.•> «Say: O my people! Do your work according to how you do come to know lor it. I too am end working. Certainly the wrong-doers will not be successluU [6:135] 3) Those verses of the disbelievers. .. Masters Diss. for example. kill die polyihcists wherever for you linil them.) 252 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan '•Then. 536 'Alee. and capture diem. In a masters dissertation specifically on this topic. al-Ayaat al-Muda'ec Nasl{hiiha bi Atiyitl tis-Sityf."" 'Uthmaan 'Alee discusses 147 vnses that have been claimed five of to have been abrogated by the 'Verse of the Sword. concludes that only them can He gives a useful categorisation of the types of verses that have been claimed to have been abrogated by the 'Verse of the Sword". which command the believers to turn away from the evil treatment and to deal with them peacefully. of the 1 05 cases thai he staled are examples oinasfyi.. This was one of the dred cases oi last verses to revealed. any verse disbelievers before this verse that had commanded any type ol treatment with the was revealed was "abrogated' by this verse. for example... when the Sacred Months have elapsed. Surely. and besiege diem.. . for example. and prepare [9:5] Lie them each and every ambush. and perhaps the last verse that dealt with the treatment of the disbelievers. According to the scholars that have over a hunnus/(/i." |2:8i| 2) Those verses which give warnings and threats .. Madecnah. you will which ol us will be the (happy) in the Hereafter. no than 75 were 'imuisootyi' by the 'Verse of the Sword"! also considered to be The majority of Ibn Hazm's cases arc mansookh because ol this verse. 'Uthmaan Mu'alim Islaamir University ol Mahmood: l'W2. <<And say good speech to mankind.

and to fight only in self-defence. and do not take helpers or between you and Irom them. for example. i*tf-rf1'7"*f *' *-•*> t- I'^-T'-'i- -V- -f~ «Say: Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger. ii- «Shovv forgiveness... then take hold of them. The Messenger's duty 6) is only to convey (the message) in a clear way» |24:54| Those verses which command the believers to return an evil with a similar evil.. Bui (^g)) is il you turn away. you shall be on the right guidance. enjoin what |7:199| is good. and turn away from the foolish. Kxcept those who join a group.. and allies kill them wherever you find them.. tor example.. Muhammad only responsible (or the duty placed upon him liir (i.. •<And fight in the transgress the 7) way ol Allaah those who light against you.1 Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Nacm^h wa al-Mansookh 253 •<So leave (the disbelievers) to speak nonsense..* [4:89-90] . «So bear patiently what they 5) say. for example. [2:190] Those verses which command the believers to respect the treaties that they had with the disbelievers. lo convey the message)... whom there is a treaty (ol peace). |20:130| is Those verses which remind the Prophet (^§) that his only duty to spread the message.. If you obey him.e. 4) Those verses which command the believers to be patient.. he (i.. but do not limits..5 and. for example. until they meet their Day which they have been promised" [43:8. and you (are responsible) that which is placed upon you. >*>U i_j £»&> J»j \yy o p ».e.but if they turn back. ami play around..

'-^t-^' ^-4io\» i^^^JL^-lc-L-J^^Jelj that all war-booty that |N:41 you obtain - one-fifth is for Allaah and His Messenger. *' r. .. for them. <1>_^J \j CJyJLj <u Ja L^i& i 53? az-Zarqaance. hut (line) piety in Allaah. Sword' in reality it does not abrogate a large number of verses. example. . many scholars stated «Aml you to Allaah belongs the east and west. For example. for the second verse clarifies how much oi 'the spoils ol war' are to be given to the state. this is a perfect example ofoaftfisees. the verse not abrogated. the verse first which commands the is believers to face it is Makkah (verse In reality. So wherever you turn (in prayer). will find the Face of Allaah" |2:1 L => | was abrogated by 2: 149). the in fact. As was mentioned earlier. v.. As Allaah -<It is not piety that you turn you faces east or west.- However. Thus. 2. ••The spoils of war arc for Allaah and I lis Messenger* |K:1 ] was 'abrogated' by.. most of these verses cannot be considered to have been abrogated in the Some of them Almost all merely apply to situations other than those that they were revealed these 'mansool{h' verses can similar to the situation in still for. For that many verses are understood that the verse. the word did not necessarily mean abrogation. since a statement of fact implying that all directions belong to Allaah. and Allaah has the savs.» |2:1 77| is (found in) one who believes anil. of be said to apply when the Muslims are in a situation 'Verse ol the which these verses were revealed.1 " 254 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan It can be seen from the examples and categories quoted that. in reality. is Yet another reason for this difference of opinion to be mausootyi but in reality are not. 27S-282. right to command the believ- ers to face any direction in prayer. does not abrogate any verse! exists az-Zarqaance concludes that Another reason why there failed to such a difference 'nasltfi of opinion is that a understand the meaning of the word when used by 'nasl^li' many scholars Companion or Successor. rH 4 «And know Si' -. pps. . Ibn 'Abbaas stated that the verse. least.

according to these scholars. To Allaah be- |2:I42| is Thus. held the opinion that these verses were not 'abrogated' as such. them.Abrogation in the Qur'aan - an-Naasity wa al-Mansool{h 255 ••The fools among men will say.. first is 'mansooty' verse.. Other scholars. A Last Example in Another example which there is a difference of opinion are the verses concern- ing the prohibition ol alcoholic drinks. since the explicit 538 cf! asli-Sliaiu|celcc.- [4:43] The verse that is considered to be the naasikh ruling «0 you who believe! Verily. so avoid thcm» |5:90| Historically speaking.. explicitly prohibit is it was this verse that wine. «Thcy ask you concerning wine and gambling. and some benefit. Muslims are prohibited from praying while drunk. not occur..s Since this particular example also helps to de- fine the exact meaning ofnusl{h. the verse that anything in the first is claimed to be abrogated it is actually not even all commanding place. as the previous verses is was understood by the Companions to had only limited its consumption. . «0 you who Believe! Do not approach prayers when is. p.. There are two verses that are claimed to be mansoofyi. There no difference of opinion that wine tor nasty r prohibited. The first one is. 135. This to example is taken by the majority of scholars be a classic case of nasltfi.. hut the harm is Say: There is much harm in greater than the benefit" |2:219| and the second one is. it shall be discussed in greater detail. however. according to the scholars not really mansooty at for the all. . there is still who claimed that nasty did much harm anil some benefit in still The same applies second 'mansooty' verse.. merely emphasising that directions belong to Allaah. but do these verses constitute valid examples The wine.. Therefore. .are an abomination ol Satan's handiworks. intoxicants. 'What has caused them (the Muslims) to turn from their qibhih that they used to he upon?" Respond: longs the east and west. you are drunk.

is would not be an exaggeration to say that there less difference of opinion concerning the of" laws of these verses rather than whether the verses can be considered examples nasty.e..."' " This was also the opinion ol the majority ol the scholars. p. 54 c I. lie ash-Shanqeetce's work. contains lims still cannot 'approach prayers' 'much harm and some benefit' and Muswhile they are drunk. p. Az-Zarkashee possible for the understanding of a verse to have been abrogated. there are many other examples where the scholars are in disaIt greement over whether to classify certain verses as naasityi/mansooty or not. permissible to drink. if (maflwom) ot a verse abrogated. or without 1 it.. these verses do not come naskfl. Even though the verse proto hibiting prayer in a state of drunkenness can be understood is imply that drinking is not prohibited at other times. only an understanding of and not explicit in the text. 540 as-Suyoojee.e. however.1 256 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Quraan is still meaning under of the verses (i. 2. essential to go back to the original definition of the understanding said. according lo them. Conclusion This section there is concluded by stating that great care needs to be taken when It it comes to the number of naasityi/mansooty pairs in the Qur'aan. is can definitely be said that some books concerning the number of naasityi and mansootyi pairs in the Qur'aan. despite the fact that many have exaggerated the number of verses of it.' what these scholars are claiming wine still In other words. but the understanding it is (mafhoom) ol the verse (viz. it (meaning nasty) 5 is rare. nask}i. "Do is not ap- proach prayers in a state of drunkenness") was not abrogated. As as-Suyootee wrote. I W." '" 1 verses in the Qur'aan 1?9 az-'/arkaslicc. ul-liuhr. the mantpoq) applicable. v. or in small quantities. it is In onler to refute this view. where concludes thai there arc only seven cases ofnasftfi. that the does not exceed a dozen.." It * 1 seems. "It is According is to the majority falls <>f scholars. This comes under nasty. is that the explicit texts of these verses are not abrogated. "abrogated. v. •). in this case. . In the same way. this under nasl{li. either with the explicit meaning of the verse. but at the same time there is unequivocal proof to show that nasty has indeed occurred on several occasions. as long as one not drunk during the time ot prayer) was abrogated. the explicit (manlpoq) ol the verse (i. text Therefore. "In great exaggeration in reality. this the verse. 28. since no verse was. and Allaah number ot naasityimansooty knows best.

For example. it was coined by later scholars and accepted among the timmah. 2) >) It must be out of the ordinary occurrences of nature.25. that the scholars There are a number of conditions have given lor an act to considered a mu'jizah?** 1 It has to occur with the command ol Ailaah. Masters Diss. Therefore.Fjaaz al-Qur'aan i. The that must match the claim of the prophet. . which means "to be incapable ol. Muhammad Hanccl.. but instead turns into another creature. to be weak'. p.'* Probably the first to use this term was Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (d. Definition of Fjaaz The word kind is i'jaaz comes from 'a-j-z. the miracles that the prophets performed are Galled mu'jizafl. 542 There is no harm in coining new terms to denote acts or concepts thai have a basis in Islaam. Mi However. inventing new concepts or of a religious nature 5 a bid'ah. anil neither did the like ! Companions many other terms in Islaamic sciences. 'Mujiza/i' are defined to be acts performed by prophets of a miraculous nature thai humans are incapable ol imitating. since incapable ot is man- performing such teals. This word use it.. Mu'jizah the actual act.H. It 4) 5) It must occur act at the hands of a person who claims prophethood. 13. cannot be performed again by any person or object. ltr. is An The be Qur'aanic term for this concept 'aayah.). 204 A. is However. Faqihee. Nadhariyva i'jaaz al-Qur'aan 'hid 'Aid al-Oaahir al-Jarjaani. fjaaz is is the concept. it if the prophet claims he will turn a staff into a snake.p.) C II A I" I" K R 1 4 The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan . not used in the Qur'aan or SunnaJi. or bayyinah. I960. S4-I Cairo Univ. as the acts naming ^4 ol a concept dues not necessarily tail into bid'oh. this will not be considered a mu'jizah. example of a mu'jizah the transformation of the staff of Moosaa into a serpent.

^4ti S-17 Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. No matter how eloquent the poet.'' 4 Ibn Taymiyyah (d. the light split into two and led each one to his house. the very fact that is l^araamah occurs to one of the followers of a particular prophet et's proof of that proph- truthfulness. 728 A.) wrote. For example.none can bring lorth anything similar to Speech of Allaah. p. this act ol l^araamah) are miracles ol a called a karaamah. the term i'jaaz used to denote the inimitais ble quality of the Qur'aan. # 557. rivalled or imitated. When as a a supposedly 'supernatural' act occurs this is hands ol an such magician or an innovator.258 An Introduction to the Sciences oi the Quraan a 6) The act must not a certain in his refute the prophet's claim. but rather magic to (sihr).'. the \araamaat (plural given to the believis of a prophet. this will also not be considered is a imt'jizah. besides mu'jizaat (plural of mu'jizah).^ Other Types of Supernatural Acts There are other types ol miraculous acts. Itr. as they arc signs and miracles that prove (the truthfulness) of prophethood. Due to the fact that the jinn have man (for example. An example of a /(araama/i is the incident in which two ($ys) Companions a for re- turned to their houses from the mosque ot the Prophet during dark night. In fact. these acts have absolutely no miraculous nature them. evil person.3. il prophet claims that is stone will speak. is Aboo 'Abd ar-Rahmaan as-Sulamee. . man orjinn. no miracle whatsoever. the /(a raamuat of the pious are included 14.. and thus can be included in the general mu'jizaat at the of that prophet. Therefore.H. In general. Ami this is the correct opinion. no believer can ever be fooled by the magician: S4t The last portion of the sentence. the in that it Quraan is set apart from all other cannot be this. The difference between. In other words. in reality. although some weak narrations (SSI). v. When books applied to Qur'aanic sciences. they can carry very heavy obpeople might be deceived into preevil jinn. they are merely physical feats than can be performed by different physical capabilities than jects. 2. and the stone speaks and says that that person to a liar claim prophethood. certain suming these tricks of a acts to be 'miracles'. In they are only physical acts ol the aided by their human counterparts." In other words. is When ers a a supernatural act occurs at the hands of a pious person. reality. leading the way. and a light shone in front of them. the mu'jizaat his a of their prophets.. no the other book can claim scholar. and the difference between the Speech His Creation is ot Allaah and the speech the dillerence between Allaah anil His Creation. Thus. When the time came '' them to separate paths.5. a statement of the famous Successor it raise to a statement ol the Prophet cE al-l-aahkaa'cc. and travel at extremely fast speeds). this. how knowledgeable how well-versed is the the ol since the Qur'aan grammarian . This exclusive to the Qur'aan. the miraculous nature l^araamah inferior to that of mu'jizah. concern \ng/(araamaat: "Many of the scholars in have mentioned that.

esaa) a Messenger a sign to the Children of I Israa'ecl. * Sy) i All' i.u *j\Je» Oys^-i . as a were. Allaah does not the work ol 'evil-doers'»[ 10:81 \yi~*>lj\ |_jxl^> u v_iii! siL~«J ijU j_J 'j I d si-^-^LU i tAa±2jj>-L* jS swallow up -And throw (() Moosaa) what is in your hand! is It will all that they have made. The Proof for Part of the Pjaaz is Simmth of Allaah that whenever He sends a prophet. and and eat. bird by Allaah's leave. have come it you with Irom your Lord. What magic. (ol and the magician skill) never he successful.-— ' W--." Surely.-^-"-'1' . if you bclieve» [3:49] .•". bring the dead to life by Allaah's Leave.« ^-^i . Surely Allaah will destroy | it. cles The mira- of Moosaa. the not in any 'miracles' rival of the magician are the weakest forms of 'miracles'. the figure ol a bird.\ The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - Vjaaz al-Qu'man 259 "Is this magic? Bui the magicians will never be successful!" 1 10:77] •And when (the magicians) you have brought sel right is cast down (what they had). That which they have made will only the trick ofa magician. will 'I make him to (T. Allaah says. y *. I and I heal him who was horn I blind. Me gives that prophet certain miracles anil signs to prove his prophcthood to his people. therein a sign lor you. and breathe into and it becomes the leper. and can/(tinniiihia/ anil way the real miracles of the mu'jizaat.. Moosaa for said. ~^_j°j-?} . And inform you of is what you and what you store in your houses. ii.MCi_»-»J' t/"'J And We (saying). that design lor it. no matter whatever amount |2():69| he may attain!- Thus. f 'i -"»i "1> OJ>_r^fJoUjOy> UL^~Kj-kJ'jAU'Oi. 'Eesaa and the other prophets are well-known to all Muslims. you out ol clay.

in fact. as you have pretended.. Or you ol to tall upon us in pieces. and the dead had spoken and We had gathered together all things before their very eye. Or you have a house sky. or you bring Allaah and the angels before (us) lace-to-lace. but most of them behave ignorantly!» |6:1 1 1 .e. They asked him {>$*#&&<&<<.!" |2:2I1] Despite all these miracles.. We had sent down unto them angels. sent as a Messenger!'- 7:90-93 told. the majority of people rejected their prophets. unless Allaah willed. adornahlc material gold and faith in silver). if even then they would not have believed. The disbelievers of Makkah were no exception to the disbelievers of old. 'We shall not believe in lor us. In another place.&{}))£> © X.J i^=vLJ lj «il i4&>i U1S k^o c-I*J OiJ*trJ t^-^^C^yj^i-i/^u^ C-i» till Oyvjl J-*3j c)Uj_«i Js-aj_^_ij L^U^JJ^^iiLy «And they forth say. you a until you cause ol a spring to gusli from the earth rivers to Or you have garden date palms and grapes.Answer them (O Muhammad)..And even to them.. the result of the showing of these miracles has been ' *»C>« .1 1 260 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan So many. cause the and cause heavens gush forth in their midst abundantly. are the miracles that were given to certain nations. or you ascend up into the until and even then for us a we will put no your ascension you bring down book Lord! that I we would just a read!'. however. said. that Allaah "And (just) ask the Children ol Israa'ecl low I many miracles We gave them. for miracle after miracle: and re- jected the call of the Prophet (s^g). (i. [1 'Glorified be my am man.

They even claimed thai they could imitate the Qur'aan: «And when Our verses are recited to them. as follows: \< "VCf'-x' - •" • 't. They arc. in the order that they occur Qur'aan. we old'. There are in the five verses that issue the tahaddi. The Challenge! These verses are called the verses ot ta/itiddi (challenge). it.' a is hai>e sent down a yon the Bool{ which for a recited to them} Verily. and them that We herein is am only a plain Warner. 1 can say something similar to These are nothing but stories of 8:31 In response to this. 'We have heard this! II we wish. was not sufficient for the disbelieving Makkans.1 1 The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan Allaah then tells - I'jaaz al-Ottraan 261 the disbelievers the ultimate miracle that the Prophet ($gf) has been given: «And they say. They claimed (5j||) that the Prophet was a liar who forged the Qur'aan.. 'Why arc sufficient (miracle) for not miracles sent I down to him from to his Lord?' Say: Is it not 'The signs are only with Allaah. |29:5()-1 Even this. or a magician.. they say.• ' > f-i?< . a mercy and reminder people who believe'. and this challenge proves the inimitable and miraculous quality of the Qur'aan. Allaah challenged them to fulfil this claim of theirs. however. £- \- "'\ . or one pos- sessed by jinn. > fel<''-4 I ' *t- 1 1- .

. (Muhammad call (jgg-)) lias forged it!" Say: Bring then a il soorah like unto and upon whomsoever you can. "Me it. you are truthful. and die rest of the verses are Baqarah was the last of these verses to be revealed.then Tear the Fire whose fuel are men and stones.<( )r do they say.' |2:2^-2-l| . produce [52:33-34] a recitation similar to indeed they are These any five verses mention different quantities to bring forth: one verse mentions 'recitation' be bought forth." 1 10:3H| '"?> 3) ."jl c/'L>g ^L? .la. The Order of the Was there that Verses a graduality in the challenger In other words. then it produce a soorah similar to anil of a surety it. -M-r \ - a >> •Or do they say.. lorgcd. 'He (Muhammad it. 'I le has forged it!" Nay! (Rather) they do not it. then. is and one whole 'Qur'aan' must be brought.»-•-> •*•&*" \' \*\' > \ . one verse mentions states that a ten soonihs. p. 217. (-^Sp) has lorged ill' Say: Bring then ten can. you do not do - you cannot do it . which implies thai the verse in al- madanee. . > "-'\ s^ \ -A ?\'-.it." 7:8S| 5) «()r do they say.. besides Allaah. did the to ten to the number ofsoorahs was challenged increase from one on this matter: whole Qur'aan. . you are truthful.vo'W.262 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan have sent "And if you are in doubt as to what it We down But to il ( )nr servant.^'0jJo^>-'-'-".' > 2) \*u ?>. Soorah al-Baqarah malice. il believe! Let truthful.) similar to il and call upon whomsoever you you are truthful. 1 1 1:13] 08& jL/$t j^^B ^fv^y J 4) •Say: B all of mankind and jinn gathered together to produce the it - like 1 of the 1 Qur'aan. or decrease? There- are four opinions 5" >»8 Ubay.. y /f *t * ' -t'l'" -T '! * *t' t^y^c^-^g>»^-^0j. prepared lor the disbelievers. besides Allaah. they could not produce even if they helped one another!. two verses mention one soorah. them.

then tear the f I-irc whose men and stones. Lastly. in each verse Allaah it is challenging the same thing: to produce something similar to the Qur'aan. is It is the quality of the Qur'aan that must be imitated the challenge to be met. However. the final challenge and prediction given: ••But if you do not do fuel are it . 550 ct:itr. 2. whereas is this qualification not mentioned in any other verse. and not the quantity. prepared lor the disbelievers" is 2:23-24] is still Another question that must be answered tive.. so Allaah issued this challenge to them. this does not mean that this challenge was only meant for them.and ofa surely you cannot do it . 549 az-Zarkashee. then to the whole Quraan. u<> in these There is no graduality challenges. This was then in- creased to ten soorahs. the in in prose and syntax. Allaah reduced the challenge back to 3) one soorah they were unable The lo initial this. When the Quraysh were unable to do even the challenge was re- duced to one soorah (10:38). be in one soorah.p.?. The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - 1'jaaz al-Ou'raan 263 1) The challenge was to produce something similar to the whole Qur'aan. This the opinion oi az- Zarkashec 4) al-Burhaan. challenge was to produce the whole Qur'aan. that had to be imitated. and is the opinion oflbn Katheer (d. whether to pride this challenge opera- or was it meant only tor the disbelievers during the Prophet's (§|g) time? The skill ol Arabs during the time ol the Prophet («gg) used themselves in their poetry and their eloquence. lastly.H. 774 A. and. This hints to the fact that these ten soorahs did not have to be as 'authentic' as the other imitations. The to 'all ol \ that is still an open challenge jinn and mankind' to produce something similar to the ol Quraan. then to finally to one soorah. since the Qur'aan truth of the matter is is meant there to be a miracle until the Day of Judgement. but not in his challenge was reduced to one is soorah that matched the Quraan prose anil content. Finally. it was only ihc prose this. initial This 2) The initial challenge was to produce only one soorah (10:38). In other words. the content of these ten soorahs did not have to have i'jaaz. ten soorahs or the if whole Qur'aan. in the last ol these verses revealed (2:24). When do the challenge was reduced to tensoorahs that would imitate the Qur'aan in content. In other words. 12. is OI when these four opinions. 1 10. p. . v. the third one (which 550 very similar to the first opinion) seems to have the strongest proof This is because the Qur'aan uses the word 'forged' issuing the challenge to produce ten soorahs similar to the Qur'aan.). and this challenge will continue to be operative until the Dav Judgement. was then reduced to ten soorahs. This is the most common opinion.

tor one of the most authentic .' Verily. that of the Qur'aan. Among his was the splitting of the moon in half the increase of an inadequate amount of food to a very large quantity. narrations concerning these events. The Qur'aan The Qur'aan as the Miracle of the Prophet ht/ie miracle of the Prophet (3g).1 264 An Introduction to the Sciences <>l the Qur'aan in. the speaking of stones." front : However. herein believe".>• "The signs arc only with Allaah. for they themselves were not present. I'<X7. There exist detailed believe in them. therefore. 1 >. 'Why arc not miracles scut 1 down to him from his Lord?' Say: /. nun Dalaa il an-Nubuwuiah.i. He (^) was given this miracle as the ultimate proof of his prophethood. that "v will have the largest number ol followers on the Day of Judgement. the Qur'aan) which Allaah revealed to me. and the Muslims must in The fact remains. I have been given I my (i. /Ja 'JJ=>/j '*£Q djf> j ^<j\ ~^±c £2 •And they say.ulcc. iil al-Bukhaarec. Kuwait.l. and sufficient (miracle) for am only a plain warncr. animals and trees to him. Sahee/i al-Mllsnad lists. none of these miracles at specific were permanent - they occurred in of specific groups of people times and places. The beauty ol this miracle can best be appreciated in the concept ol i'jaaz.. Allaah revealed that itsell is the Qur'aan sufficient as a miracle.e. The Qur'aan other miracles is not the only miracle that was given to the Prophet (5^).iVi. Muqbil ilm I la. See -W. (5gg. The ol fact that the Prophet ($g) said that he hoped he would have the most of number is followers on the Day Judgement shows that his miracle.ir al-Arqam. The Prophet said. and the sprouting of water from his ($£) hands when the Companions were short ol it. greater than any miracle that any previous prophet was given.' to it not a is than that is Wc have sent down a you the Boo/( which lor a recited to them'..il 552 There arc more miracles than these. . that later generations must believe at the narrations of those present the time ol the miracle.i. hope. however.) also alluded to the status ol the miracle of the that Allaah (as Qur'aan when he "There has not been a single prophet except ol gave him miracles bemiracle) the InspiraI cause tion which people believed in him. |29:5()-1 mercy and a reminder people who When the disbelievers asked for miracles from the Prophet ($g).

. p. as wains is ol proving the truthfulness ol the inspiration. As lor the Qur'aan." This shows as this one -for il is the inspiration in lollowers. (-^Sl! Its the proof of the prophethood Muhammad very revelafor it one of the most supernatural and extraordinary of acts. since (i. itself). miracles (lo prove the clearest unlike the previous inspirations. states Know l^.)rate th:it the greatest ol is all miracles.The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - I'jaaz al-Qu'raan 265 Man less being the Irail creature that he his. The famous Muslim in his Miu/i/adima/r. worship of Allaah). The Types How is of I'jaaz what aspect of the Qur'aan makes the Qur'aan inimitable? In other words. Ibn Khaldoon (d. and most powerful miracle. the impact ol the written word is much it than the impact of sight.the Qur'aan (5e£) to is a permanent miracle generations alter the Prophet or what time frame they are see and appreciate. the predicwas preserved.\\ $24. lor n is the religion ol Allaah and Mis Speech. were brought lorth sepaa it from the actual inspiration (that the prophet received).. is 728 A. and all is therefore not in need ol any external is. and so forth. form an 553 554 hr. and more. These miracles of a surety occurred. The beauty and the power or that it the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan is removes the constraints of time and place upon the lor all miracle . integral part of the the correct opinion that all of theseaspecis. anil the clearest in prool. proofin one combines die boast This is I that it is and the prool lor the boast). spiration the in- and the miracle in one. historian and sociologist. and the most sacred and to the blessed. no mailer where they live. 808 A. Majmoo' itl-l:attiiiwii. that have the largest number ol lollowers that a miracle as clear its on the Day of Judgement.1 hope.H.e.. ". il so miraculous? And what are those aspects of the Qur'aan that cannot be imitated? ol There have been numerous responses by the scholars Arabic ol the Qur'aan: the laws and sharee'iih that the tions that it 'tiloom al-Ottiaan: the gives. In reality. the diligence with is which it Qur aan came with. anil the miracle (all in one)!""' iv.\. born in. 1 1 5.\\... ." 1 essence and powerful . the Qur'aan that the Prophet ol "The and tion call il is greatest (of all miracles) (>g) Muhammad is came with. the Qur'aan that was revealed Prophet This is because all other miracles. therefore. the will meaning ol the Prophets (5gjs) state- ment. in general.). it combines the boast and the the truth from Allaah. but the clfcct that these miracles had on those have on later generations who saw them is much greater than the impact that will who merely read about them.must have the greatest number of believers and And Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. h it therefore. and the proof (ol the is the (to the prophethood of Muhammad («^)). H.) wrote.

106. and the sharee'ah is the only example of of laws. The perfection of a set of laws that can be applied to any society at any is time and place such 8) a set humanly impossible. in trying to answer how the Qur'aan then concludes. miraculous one facet.the statement those who researched the issue thoroughly that the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan is due to all of the is in previous factors simultaneously.) 266 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan i'jaaz of the Qur'aan. -1) stories and accounts of the nations and prophets of old. since person cannot read more than few times without it gelling monotonous and mundane.) time and those after them. and which later came true. ol its verses and sooraks. is an example of ol quotes have over a dozen aspects of i'jaaz. and not by any one of them only. it The fact that has been protected and remained unchanged over such a long all period ol time. for none of them are memo- rised like the 1 Qur'aan. "" 555 az-Zarkashcc.. p. <)) The deep meanings in contrast to and the fact that a reader never it tires of reading the Qur'aan. 1. the beauty of the Qur'aan in is that it is not just at it. v. anil ". 556 Paraphrased from Darwish. but rather trom all facets and angles is that one can look i'jaaz. the perfect 'aqecdah). This is any other book." 55S The scholar Muhammad of the ibn Juzay al-Kalbec (d. unless he was inspired by Allaah.H. this is The ease by which is it is memorised. and the man- 3) The The incapability to produce anything similar to it by the disbelievers during the Prophet's (#. no matter how many times a he has heard it or read a it. All of this not possible for a human to bring forth. all Glory be to Him. In other words. and the attribution of all that Befits Him. The Names and Attributes of Allaah. Az-Zarkashee. and the call ol the Creator to the created to worship is Him (in other words. All of this leads to the betterment world and in the Hereafter. 7) The that laws and sharee'ah that the Qur'aan it came with. since the Prophet (Sg) had no recourse 5) 6) to such information. 56 . despite the fact that 9) other religious books have been distorted.) divided the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan into ten categories: 1 The eloquence Qur'aan above that of any human speech. and the negation of all that does not Befit Him. and known by experience and observ- ance. p. 2) The unique arrangement and organisation ner in which the words are arranged... The predictions which occurred in the Qur'aan. For (the i'jaaz) combining all of these facets. that are present in it.. This in contrast to all other religious books. 741 A. and the morals and conduct ol life in this called for.

the miraculous nature of the and what remains ol them in theqira'aat. the miracles that were given to Moosaa were of a similar type." A. and each tribe competed with others to sec which one could produce the most skilled and eloquent poet. be no exaggeration to say that every chapter in this book is merely discussion of one of the many 55N cf. Some of these aspects low. except much stronger and more powerful (for example. . During the time of the Prophet (Jig). and others). the miracles that were given to 'Hesaa were of a similar type leper. the highest praise: that of being posted on the door ol the Ka'bah until the next Due to the to this pride that (-gg) was prevalent among the Arabs. poets Irom all over Arabia would compete lor the honour of having their poem win lair.k and on Style of the Qur'aan The miracles that were given to the prophets were chosen so that they would have that particular nation. It Jiuitliiiicc ami iihinc'ii>/\h. as- pects ol the i'jaaz ol the Qur'aan that have not been mentioned in this including the Qur'aan's stating of scientific lacts that were unknown at the lime ol the Prophet almif. the i'jaaz ol the Quraan cannot be limited to one list. such as the compilation of the Qur'aan. example. />ui^rc ami . Darwish. and the a tlliruf 'M\*\ would. etc. the diligence with which all the knowledge thai is essential to understand the verses. the miracle that the that was given a miracle Prophet was ol a similar nature.). Allaah revealed the Qur'aan in an Arabic that was so emotive and eloquent Arabs could clearly see it was from their Creator. and told them such attempts would be futile. 55. since the people ol the time ol Moosaa greatly excelled in the "art" ol sorcery and magic. Allaah challenged them to bring forth anything that similar to the Qur'aan. and others). the people at the time ol 'Ecsaa excelled in the art ol healing and medicine. facets ol i'jaaz\ p. the staff. the euphonious quality ol the Qur'aan. There are other list.The Miraculous Nature <>t the Quraan - I'jaaz al-Qu man 267 Again. the shining hand. (for and therefore. healing the curing the sick. 557 Sonic <>l the aspects of i'jaaz have already been discussed. in Tact. iithi>i/(/i Qur'aan has been preserved (Mich as iifbaub iin-nmool. The Languac. raising the dead. the Arahs had reached the peak ofeloquence. Likewise. the splitting of the Nile. will he discussed in greater detail he7 and many more aspects. the greatest impact Thus./ira'aal. (^): die impact that it has on those who listen to it. On top of this. and this was their most prized art! Poetry was what they valued the most. During the annual lair ol 'Ukaadh.

if you are truthful. either in Arabic or in any other language even with the greatest care. is almost impossible express the ideas of the text by only one interpretation.) to give 3) The use of different tenses meanings to a passage.) 268 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Quraan sent «And il you are in doubt as to to what We have down to il ( )ur servant. 24-2 = >. Their list as follows:""' 1) The form ol the Q)ur'aan reflects nether the sedentary softness of the It townsmen nor the nomadic roughness ot the Bedouins. but are recognised as expressing admirable nobility. and its rhythm and resounding. Taken verbatim Irom Klialila. 264-269. it when discuss- ing topics that are encouraging anil bearing glad tidings. and vice-versa. The Qur'aanic words neither transgress by their banality nor by their extreme rarity. over its synonyms. singular. pps. present. plural vs. will get the and when phrase message across. *>) uses words that arc The perfect combination of concisement and detail. Each style is unic|uc. (past vs. Itr. easy to pronounce and melodious to hear. to number o words. 3) The sentences arc constructed I in an elegant manner which uses the smallest brief. attains 5) The conciseness of expression same time there it such a striking clarity that the least learned difficulty.. Thus. then it produce asoorah similar il.. Arabic-speaking person can understand the Qur'aan without is At the in the such a profundity. etc. 559 S6II . But you do not do fuel are - and of d surely you cannot do it . without sounding too 4) express ideas of utmost richness. p. 224. deeper 4) The pronunciation of a word matches its context.then fear the Fire whose men and 1 '''' stones. flexibility. In other words. inspiration and radiance ol Quraan and that serves as the basis for the principles and rides it Islamic sciences to arts for theology anil the juridical schools. 2) The unique clear sentence structure and syntax. Al-Azhar University is also summarised the various types of literary i'jaaz. 199-280. the syllables arc more sustained than in prose in prose and less patterned The pauses come neither form nor in the manner of poetry but with a harmonious and melodic flow. the Qur'aan discusses the topic in detail. p. sweetness of the former and the vigour of the 2) possesses in right measure the latter. When the subject requires a short elaboration. The connotations given by the chosen word arc better than those that would have its synonyms. which does not follow any one pat- tern but varies throughout the Qur'aan. pps. prepared lor the disbelievers" |2:23-24| Some of the 1 aspects of the literary i'jaaz of the Qur'aan are as follows: of a particular The placement been given by word in perfect context.1.. it remains brief. Qauaan. Ubaydaai. The rhythms ot than in poetry. .

Allaah revealed. and heard him reciting the visible effect on him. Al-Waleed. and I swear by Allaah. Throughout the whole Qur'aan the speech maintains its surprising solemnity. nor can any compete with me in or rhetoric . and remains unconquered! before it and destroys all come (of poetry." After the tew days were over. Aboo Jahl came back to him and asked him what he had prepared. In the narrations. rushed to al-Walecd. the words have both persuasive teaching and emotive force. of Al-Waleed was the most eloquent and highly esteemed poet the Prophet (-j^g). "Your people will not be satisfied until Jahl. although the strongest and most apparent aspect of the most difficult aspect to discuss in a non-Arabic work. The news of this incident spread throughout Makkah. Aboo afraid that the people of Makkah might be affected by told this news and convert to Islaam. during could not think of any explanation to give except. is literary aspect of i'jaaz. and he went away shaken and startled by Jahl. its eloquence)!" Aboo think Jahl responded.. what he had heard. Instead ol detailing and giving examples of these various aspects of literary i'jaaz — a task which is well-nigh impossible to do in a foreign language to give a it would perhaps be more prudent had on its first few examples of the impact that the eloquence of the Qur'aan listeners. and arguments.not even in the poetry oljinnsl And yet. doctrines. The Qur'aan is in ". iSJQ^L. I swear by Allaah. laws." is Al-Waleed replied. a type of magic that has an effect on its listeners. and moral principles. a thor- ough understanding language is essential. aJjAS <^r^ U>"^' %-»i ilxJ^sM ..clear Arabic" (26:195). Makkah at the time of He Qur'aan. This had a once passed by the Prophet (^).The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan 6) - I'jaaz al-Quraan 269 There is a perfect intellect blend between the two antagonistic powers of reason and feeling. you speak against him!" few days. "This (the Qur'aan) is this time." In response to this. Muhammad's I speech (meaning the Quraan) does not bear any similarity to anything know. and part is is adorned with beauty and that it charm. Its first part is fruitful it and its last abundant (meaning because of is full of It deep meanings). there you who knows poetry as well as do. and shatters conquers that has (all other speech). so that I Al-Walecd therefore requested Aboo of "Leave me for a may an appropriate response to give to tfie Quraysh. and him. is Perhaps one of the most famous stories the story of al-Walced ibn al-Mugheerah. power and majesty which nothing can disturb. the speech that he says is very sweet. and in order to understand this concept of the Arabic o! i'jaaz. "And what can I swear by Allaah. that "O my uncle! say? For Say something (against (his Muhammad) none amongst composition so that the people will know you are against him and hate I I message). The i'jaaz. emotion.

." [74:16-26]. Giving glad tidings.'" the testimony from the greatest poet alive at the time of the Prophet Yet another incident is that of'Utbah il)ii Rabee". and started to discuss various ways that they could themselves ol this irritating problem. would As proof ol his convictions.hc /(itiiytt of'Utbah)?" When he applied the affirmative. "This mortal!' I irritated: then he turned back and was proud! nothing but magic trom old. Verily. in "Have you O Aboo al-Waleed (\. how he plotted! Then is he thought Then Then he Frowned anil was he said. (This a book whose verses are explained in detail . But most of them turn away.. lor a people who reflect. Any person who understands even the most verses basic amount of Arabic cannot help Inn notice the sheer power ami eloquence of these very them- selves! . so do you please. 'Uthali other members of the Quraysh. to the paganism of their ancestors. and started to try to convince let him abandon preaching finished. they said to themselves. Utbah himsell unteered to be the one to go and talk to the Prophet He {$£.270 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan •Nay! Verily he (i. A is) revelation from Allaah. "Then listen to me: • In the name ol Allaah. how he 1 plotted! And once more is him be cursed. 'Utbah suggested that perhaps the if only it Prophet (£g) could be convinced of giving up his message.. this nothing but the word ofa This. 'Utbah not the same as the 'Utbah that left us!" "-ill Ubaydaat. (3§§) continued to recite.e.. prevail. p." swear by the Lord When 'Utbah returned this to his people. Utbah argued. v. he thought and plotted.a Qur'aan in Arabic. 'Utbah («gg) said. was explained to him in a gentle manner the problems that his message had been causing. the Fver-Merciful.) came up. 225* from Seerah Ibn IJjslnuini. this 'new' message. until he finished ihcsoonih. so they |-M:1-4| The Prophet etly. is will cast him into the Hell -lire. and the Quraysh return (i^g). "I is of the Ka'bah. and the subject of all elders of the sage Quraysh began complaining about was once sitting with (%£?. {Jaa Mean. (*ig). The the problems that this 'new' mes- Muhammad had caused rid among their people. then. Then the Prophet as "You have heard what you have heard.. al-Waleed) has been stubborn in opposing our verses let and signs. the Prophet (^g) said.l. the Bestower ol Mercy. p. Common vol- sense. the Bestowcrol Mercy. the Ever-Merciful. and warning listen not ol (a severe punish- ment). sal qui- entranced by what he was hearing. So let him he cursed. After finishing his plea to the Prophet he (-gg) asked.27o.) t<> therefore set out to meet the Prophet (-^g).

have never heard before. that he was delayed from returning to his caravan. and burst out. the speech that soon be news (among the other have heard from him (meaning the Qur'aan) tribes). After he had 'Amr could not contain his patience anymore. . In another incident. and recited to him some of Musaylamah's quoted three 'revelations'. Yet.The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - Vjaoz al-Ou'raan 271 And poetry. So attracted was he to this recitation. After listening to Soorah Taa Haa. 563 Narrated by Muslim."""'' meaning that the Qur'aan will be the cause of some great event among the Arabs." In another narration. by And also a is cannot be uttered by Yet another story in no way resemble those uttered compared his words to the verses of a poet. 150-151. two messengers of Musaylamah came to Aboo Bakr. 'eloquence' of these verses. "O people! I I have heard a speech is it the like of which is it swear by Allaah. 'Amr left Musaylamah's camp. and Musaylamah's people found him and brought him to Musaylamah. swear by Allaah. and listened to him recite the Qur'aan. 'verses'. Neither do spoil the waier! you stop the one seeking a drink. he is the truthful. nor do you the other hnlli but die To us belongs half the earth. p. that even those failed. so obvious to imitate Liar'.. he is said. Unays al-Ghifaaree. ling in the vicinity The Companion Amr ibn al-'Aas was travel- of Musaylamah. p. he was asked saw the beauty of the Qur'aan. he said. two frogs! 151. He once went to Makkah to do some trading. the reason for his delay. to "Subkaan AllaahW Woe to you! This speech is not divine! How he managing mislead you (with it)?! 562 Itr. Itr.and was as if my heart is was about this to fly (because of its beauty)!'""" And the of 'Ulnar's conversion beautiful well-known.. Jubayr once heard the Prophet (3g) Soorah at-Toor in in recite Soorah at-Toor in the Maghrib prayer. "I heard the Prophet (^) recite Muslim at that time. lor other examples ol Musaylamah's lilerary 'genius'.. and these words a sorcerer. and started to quote it to Amr. started to rebel against the Musaylmah 'the Muslim state under the new caliphate of Aboo Bakr. have heard the words of sorcerers. or a magician. He responded. When he finally arrived. or a sorcerer. is and to Quraysh the Quraysh are a rebellious people. listen to it is not magic. "... and they are the liars!""' that of Jubayr ibn Mut'im. Aboo Bakr is replied. 142. and he was not a narrates. and returned to Madeenah. it the eloquence of the Qur'aan. of the Another Companion. By Allaah. "I have met a person in Makkah who claims to people claim that he is be sent by Allaah. Leave man alone. 565 Itr. Amr asked tion'. O gathering of I Quraysh. "How iWi) to and eloquent speech!" and immediately went to the Prophet announce his conversion. and happened to come across the Prophet (3|§). After who have tried have miserably the Prophet's (•§§) death. I The I a poet. Musaylamah replied that Musaylamah whether he had received any 'revelahe had." There not much to comment concerning cl. 564 Narrated by al-l!ukhaarcc. was also one clearly many people who Unays was one of the famous poets of Arabia. and it 1 was the story first time Islaam entered and settled it my heart. for I will indeed. it I was not the same 'Utbah. "You know as well as I do that you arc among the liars!" With that. nor this nor sorcery. Among the 'revelations' of Musaylamah are the lollowing 'verses': "The frog! Daughter of We protect what you protect! Your top part is in water. but such words poet. He the Maghrib prayer. He said. who had claimed to be a prophet. is In fact. pps. me. and your bottom part in mud.

meaning that this a challenge for of eternity. and another miracle.no good will it do to a person to believe then. beauty of the Qur'aan is so great that it is considered to be the ultimate authority and reference work for Arabic rhetoric. and Heaven and Hell.). InDay ol Judgement.. since Allaah has predicted. to this And this is exactly what has occurred! None have successfully challenged day 566 567 cl". without any doubt or fear. in very certain and sure terms. Ubaydaat. p. lor the disbelievers" |2:2?-24| commenting on is this verse. the Qur'aan has predicted that for all it is concerning its own i'jaaz.". «Say: II all of mankind and//'/. we sail into a deep ocean that has no escape from it!" s B. gathered together to produce the like of the it Qur'aan. said. . though. A. even To conclude. is cannot do it. come in the future. ""..H.. But il then produce a soorah similar to it if you are truthful... it is appropriate to quote the famous scholar Ibn al-Atheer (d. Itr. p. you do not do fuel are . the greatest prediction of the Qur'aan other words.. However. grammar and syntax. We have sent down to Our servants. 200. they could not produce even il they helped one another! » 17:88] 1 The (utility ol trying to imitate the Qur'aan has explicitly been foretold: «And if you are in doubt as to what it./.H..and all of a surety you this.272 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The eloquence and by non-Muslim Arabs..and of a surety you cannot do it . 774 A. il he hail not believed bc- fore.. 224. 606 who said: "II we begin to investigate into the wisdom and secrets of the elo- quence ol the noble Qur'aan. In will remain unrivalled and unimitated of eternity. when these events come d£byZ£&'ifS2 \f£J$-j£>{k*i «. The all Predictions of the Qur'aan predictions of the events to The Qur'aan cluded in this contains many category are the descriptions of the true. for all it of eternity.»|6:158| Without a doubt.then fear the Fire whose men and stones. in itself.. prepared Ibn Katheer (d.).. that nothing will be able to match this Qur'aan.

. and the establishment Islaam as the riding authority in the land (24:55). .. for how can they ilo when the Quraan is the kalaatn ofADaafc. territory.itiii-Mcaii. The Iir. the Persians lievers ol won. %'> t.The Miraculous Nature of ours. also predictions related to worldly events. they are nonetheless an integral aspect of the concept ol 568 Ibn Kathcer. and this was a cause of great celebration for the disbe- Makkah.. ami tried to regain their lost (S^g). Fhus. while the disbelievers of Makkah of the Prophet were hoping that the Persians would win. "ill . the Qur'aan the Per- outcome of a battle that would occur between the Romans and Before the advent ofTslaam. This battle occurred on the same day victory of the tell ol as the Battle of Badr. Arabic is bid}' s'meen.?" 1 " has also predicteil the fact that it The Quraan served for all of will remain uncorrupted and [ire- eternity: ^j^iM\yJ^\Q^^[ "Verily. Within three nine years. ami ol a surety We will guard it (from corruption)" 11^:9| There are predicted the sians. this verse predicted two events: the Romans. -A/if. S7U . Romans attacked the Per- and this time they were victorious. Allaah revealed. the A tew years before the Romans attacked back. the eventual ol Makkah (4X:27).>• JO: 1- 5j Exactly seven years after the revelation of these verses. to and they.. soon be victorious.1 . anil neither of the Quraan so - I'jaaz al-Quraan 27 ^ can they do so. For example. p. as they were Christians (and thus closer in faith to them). $01.v. At this.. Even though there are not a large number of predictions of this i'jaaz."" | and on that day. During this battle. the sians again. quered hijrah which had been under Roman control. it is We who have revealed the Qur'aan. In a land nearby.""" Other predictions also conquest of the victory in the Battle ol Badr (54:45). p. meaning a few years. the will rejoice with the help ol Allaah. The Romans have been Muslims defeated. 64. The Muslims in Makkah were hoping that the Romans would win. the Persians had attacked the Romans. when the Muslims were themselves 'rejoicing' because of their victory over the Quravsh. since they were fire-worshippers. and managed to regain their territory. The weird biili' implies any number greater than two and less than ten. and cona part of Syria. nature in the Qur'aan. and the victory of the Muslims. alter their defeat.

a nor would Ic have made it known to you. I lived amongst you 1 liletime before this (revelation started). and neither were you with them when they disputed" |3:44| And also. Yet.. He had lived amongst the Quraysh priest or to and during this time had never studied under any monk. Neither you nor your people knew them before this. The Qur'aan mentions the ($£0 prophethood: stories of the people of old as a sign of the Prophet's «This is part of the news of the unseen. during which time he (^g) was not known tor any literary activity. You were not with them (the when they cast lots with their pens as to which ol them should he charged with the care Mary. nor had inform his he read any history. despite his illiteracy.»[l 1:49 . I I would not have recited (the I Qur'aan) to you. from where did he obtain all of this knowledge? ••Say: If Allaah hail willed. from the camel of Saalih to the whale of Yoonus. from the splitting of the Nile by Moosaa to the virgin birth of (i^g) 'Eesaa.1 274 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan C. but from Allaah. to the building of the the flood of — from Heavens and of Ka'bah by Ibraaheem.... Verily. The Qur'aan mentions the stories of many had no recourse forty years. ••This is the news ol the unseen which We reveal unto you. lave you no sense:!- 10: ld| In other words. from the creation Aadam to Nooh. was a very powerful factor that proved that his revelation was not from himself. which Israelites) We ol inspire you with. he started the creation of the people of the histories of the previous nations the Earth. all of a sudden. The Stories in the Qur'aan prophets and nations of old. the fact that the Prophet (^) had spent forty years ol his life amongst the people of Makkah. to The Prophet for such information.

The Purposes of the Stories One of the primary purposes of these stories to the truth.|2H:44-4(. lor example. •Wc relate to you the best ol all stories through Our revelations to you ol the Quraan.| you (O And There are many verses of this nature in the Qur'aan. Muhammad) were not on the western side (of the mountain) We made clear to Moosaa the commandment. mh\ long were the ages that passed over them! And (neither) were you a dweller amongst the people ol iVladyan.|12:102| were Likewise.. Allaah reminds the Prophet ($g).The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - I'juaz al-Quraan 275 Before beginning the story of Ybosuf. Allaah says. you were among those who knew nothing of this!»> [I2:3| At the conclusion ol the same story. and the They are reminded that only Allaah knows the past. reciting Our verses to them.. Lie jJU^ll^SbLijl ^^j^^M^b". •This is pan ol the news ol tin- unseen that We reveal by inspiration to you. are told that 'F. . Allaah says. their plans (nor You were not present with them when they arranged you present) when they plotted together'. and the Jews are told to religion that the Prophet ($g) brought. after mentioning the stories of a number of prophets.. is to guide the remnants of the previ- ous nations The Christians. nor were you among when those present! Hut We created generations (alter Moosaa). upon their own religion.csaa preached reflect pure monotheism. but We were the ones sending Messengers! And neitherwere you at the side ol (Mount) Toorwhen We called. And before this (revelation).

since each story of the Qur'aan contains much wisdom and guidance to benefit Irom. you present when death approached )acobr» [2:133] ••Verily. The Qur'aan was Qur'aan to is revealed as a guidance tor mankind. nication between as the means commulor the Cod and man. The Jews. the crimes allegations murder.276 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Or were As Allaah says. to define the true set of beliefs ('aqecdah) with regards and implement these and the beliefs in a system of laws (sharec'ah) that will benefit the creation in this life next. Thf. incest and drunkenness to the prophets ol Allaah which Islaam vehemently denies. As an indication of the truthfulness of the Qur'aan. weariness and ignorance. This integrity of the prophets ascribe. With regards from all to all other beliefs in the Islaamic 'aqecdah. all claim to be monotheistic. Jews. In 'aqecdah. to of explain the methodology ol calling to the call way Allaah (all the prophets began their to by preaching the true worship of Allaah. this Qur'aan narrates to the Children of Israa'ccl most ol the (points) over which they differ» [27:76] Other purposes of these lievers (by stories is to establish bcliel in the prophets (as this (jjjJD is one of the fundamentals of faith). tawhecd). amongst other things. to affirm the patience ol the Prophet anil the be- mentioning how the prophets of old were treated by their peoples). ol the bcliel in prophets as recipients of divine revelation. For example. also implies a sense ol integrity is and honour prophets. and guide the Muslims to better morals. even lindus. the Qur'aan. but the Trinity I the Christians a and the paganism and idolatry of the lindus on. of who amongst other crimes. The stories in Prophet (i^g). and do not have a firm set of spiritual beliefs. arc one of the signs of the truthfulness of the and another aspect of the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan. although perhaps closer make it obvious that such than many other religions claim is a false to monotheism. perfect No other religion even comes close to this concept of tians. attribute to their god forget fulness. therefore. they distinctly stand out other religions in their purity. denied by the Christians and Jews. I ). Chrisof al-Asmaa' wa as-SJfaat) and His sole I Right to be Worshipped (Tawhecd al-Uloohiyyah). His Names and Attributes (Tawhecd Monotheism. and appeal to human and rationale. the topic of primary importance that of the Creator: His Existence (Tawhecd ar-Ruhoobiyvah). Beliefs and Laws of the Qur'aan The primary purpose of the to the Creator. the 'aqecdah and sharec'ah is of the Qur'aan are perfect. .

and amongst when applied in prove to be for the better- ment of the individual and society . pps. For an example. politii'jaaz is .interest when enacting.. vour adultery: &tf&itt «And do not approach unlawful sexual intercourse. . a law. The sharee'ah in its is the law of Allaah. public. The laws governing personal hygiene.. lakes into consideration ct. and societal needs that vary from «. the Qur'aan allows - in fact even encourages . Kamali." 1 1 7:32 and even sexual indecency: «And do not approach faahishah (shameful ness)» |6:151 deeds. two.. 267-82 .. us examine the laws pertaining to marriage in the Qur'aan. Sunnah or ijmaa'. immutable broad aspects. familial cal dealings life.. as long as this change docs not go against the Qur'aan. The concept a( maslaha mursalah.the let apparent. three or four.irrelevant of the time. maternal aunts. a specific people. thus taking into consideration the biological differences between men and women. debauchery and lewd- At the same time.1 1 ] The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - I'jaciz al-Qu'raan 277 The sharee 'ah is another indication or the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan. in a specific place totality. and time.» 1 24:32 prohibits incest: p^ypJc^p^ypJ^ «Forhidden to you are your mothers. No matter what aspect of the sharee'ah is taken. it is found to be perfect in all regards. the Qur'aan down the perfect guidelines for husbands: 571 There is room lor change in Islaam. these laws.marriage: «And marry those among you who are It single. place or people. all Instead of following the path of the Christian priests in forbidding relations with women... for example. Yet.choose what you wish .» |4:3| Instead of the cruel treatment that the laid women of old were subjected to. or not enacting. time and place: it allows for plurality of wives. financial transactions... marry women of your choice. it was revealed to the Prophet (^g) over fourteen hundred years ago. your sisters.* |4:23| your daughters." In 1 its final form. societal roles.

but instead change with the passage ol time. lor example." |4:19| is clearly defined the roles of men and women. the difference ol opinion could only be resolved with this Iraction. ami Modern Science'. such as pps. perhaps the most popular being Maurice Bucaille's The Bible. In tution prohibited the transportation this law. and discriminatory will and unjust legislations. however. Sometimes.and It treat them (your wives) with equity and kindness. these verses provided . the Our an.278 An Imroikiction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan . and Science?73 572 The American Constitution. Also.a perfect marital and familial set of laws. yet.3 it I'll'). This inherent deficiency in these laws. the ladiths. anil those who claimed that black people were not to be considered men at all. There are a number of books written about this topic. 57. one absurd laws. Yet. initially equated a black slave u> three-fifths of a whitman. women had no rights whatsoever. were revealed in a society The same can be comparison. and because they (men) spend to support them (women). and prostitution in all its forms was rampant.and will continue to provide for all ol eternity .. because AUaah lias made oiu ol diem to excel the other.. die ISih Amendment ofthe ( lonsti- and manufacture ol'alcoholic drinks. If the constitution of any will find discrepancies. the author's interpretations are not consistent with the understanding of the verse. less due to public indifference of had to be repealed in die 21st is Amendment it than fifteen years later. is lis Stance towards the and the status of the Prophet (Sg) also not correct. E. In laws that has remained unchanged or no system ol man-made set ol rules for the betterment of society.. in a manner that in accordance with the way they were created: Men are the protectors and maintaincrsol women. the 'aqecdah and sharee'ah of Islaam are further proofs for the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan. This strange fraction was decided upon id resolve a conflict between those who wanted black people lo equal one while man. there provided a perfect is said for every single moral issue that the Qur'aan discusses.. it These should be kept in mind. 167-9. such constitutions is never remain constant.. In addition.. . The Scientific Fa< ts < if ti ik Qur'aan in these One cerns its of the more popular aspects of the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan times con- comments on aspects of science that the Prophet (-^) and his people could not have known about. This book a very useful book in that details many I verses of a 'scientific' nature. one of the last chapters.» |4:34| where girls were buried alive. verses. since they provide all ol lor a perfect code of beliefs and system of laws for humanity. sexual licentiousness prevailed. 17' one of the strongest proofs of the In conclusion. country is examined. presents I a very distorted view ol luidirlh. validity ol hadcclh and shows the author's unlainiliariiy with the subject. 'The Qur'aan.

n «.. Se Blessed be Allaah. in the mother's womb.. _uj> £ lit. bones.» 139:61 From this. from one stage to another. any references typically brief to subjects of a scientific nature are and not very descriptive. the best of creators.. 't <> «He and created you in the all wombs of your along three veils of darkness surrounded you.'-i-^. then We made chewed lump of flesh. 'U-H i. mixed fluid. From the is literally millions of sperms produced and ejaculated. the Qur'aan conforms exactly modern science.. the uterine wall. the seminal vesi- the prostrate and other glands. . however. This occurs number of verses by the word 'nutfah' (cf. and all the other planets and stars rotate about it. [23: 14| forth as a 574 Although is this is not always the case -an exception being the evolution of the human embryo.>. only one sperm small quantity.2). 75:37). and imparts knowledge that was unknown during the lifetime of the Prophet These descriptions are earliest oi times. then We clothed the bones with flesh. since the cles. and the placenta. is of such verses. with choriono-amniotic membranes. (3|§). surrounded by three its layers: the abdomi- nal wall. 5'4 The i'jaaz. such as the description of the formais of human The sperm of man referred to as a 'mixture of liquids' (7(r. There tion are numerous examples life. that the Qur'aan is not meant to be a book is primarily devoted to a discussion of 'science'.Wc made the mixed liquid (zygote) into something which clings (the to the embryo "clings" the thing which clings into a that it womb by means ot the umbilical cord). sperm composed of various secretions from the testicles. however."» ii 'U& n \ >. and then We brought new creature. As such. i b\^a':\ jjlrj r.. but rather a book that meant for the guidance of mankind. This is actually used in the fertilisation process — a very referred to in a which signifies a small quantity of and forms the zygote.. during These three its development. a 'safe lodging" (23:13).The Miraculous Nature oi the Quraan - I'jaaz al-Ou man 279 It should be remembered.. then We made out of flesh. free from retroactive ideas that plagued humanity from the is such as the concept that the Earth stationary. appears to in the fact that even in these limited descriptions. is The embryo. mothers. layers are referred to in the verse. which described in vivid detail in the Qur'aan. The sperm then joins the female egg.. i±ib r-t<rr o^it <j jS.

"Then We made the passage (through the birth canal) easy. In many verses. of flesh' is The ol refer- ence to a ". the notion and 36:40). there are signs lor die night and men ol understanding. then into a lump of flesh (partly) in proportion (partly) out of proportion" |22:5| The vivid yet simple descriptions given in these verses were unknown Qur'aan to the peo1 ple of the Prophet's ($g) time. certain changes occur. The embryo. in the Creation of the Heavens Mini Earth.chewed lump bryo after the (he head is strikingly similar to the at this stage. Allaah Himself commands manas an indication of kind to ponder over the Creation. is appearance the em- month.. loose. |eddah. " Other ol ( facts that are given in the Qur'aan include the description of the formation of orbits for the planets (21:33 milk 16:66).. for is disproportionately larger than the body. partly out of proportion. and the descrip- tion of the water cycle (15:22. 424 •Verily. . all which contribute to making the canal This is referred to in 80:20.?). Human by Most Keith Moore. Those their sides. Willi Islamic Additions by Abdul-Ma jeed A/zindani (I )ar al- l'J8. demonstrating the i'jaaz of the in science. and mentions these His Exist- ence and Power. . the contractions of the uterus. including the release of certain hormones. extremely However. 35:9 and more). then from and a clinging entity. Typically. shortly before the of birth. This mentioned in the verse." Perhaps the best way of the to appreciate the it beauty of the above verses is to see pictures human embryo as first goes through the various stages of development. then from a sperm drop. sitting and lying down on and con- template the creation ol the Heavens and Earth. AYe created you from dust. who remember Allaah standing. and the breakage of the 'bag of water' surrounding the baby.1 280 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Quraan During narrow and the delivery process. this canal tight. the passage of die baby from the mother's is womb to the outside world occurs through the birth canal. Every verse that discusses nature and the creation falls into this category. and in the alteration of day.. ot the above material was taken from this reference.» |3:190-191 575 Perhaps the mosi detailed study of the verses pertaining 10 ihi- development of die embryo is ihe book: The Developing Qiblah.

would be tantaof mount for the to a rejection ol Allaah's knowledge. The Qur'aan is the Laws of Allaah concerning the Book of Allaah. killed. but meaning conforms with it not the only meaning that may be derived from (basically. such that this the verse. actual science). those who opposed them discovered the inaccuracy of these were harassed and even concepts. and most part. This occurs when some scholars take one of the possible linguistic meanings of a verse. and since it is from Allaah. this fiat. when no such is conflict exists. Whether there is strong proof to back up this theory or not is irrelevant .1 1 1 The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan - I'jaaz al-Qu'raan 28 One creation final note on the concept ol science as an i'jaaz ol the Qur'aan: there can never be a real contradiction between the Qur'aan and the (i. agreed •<lrom him He created |4:1 his mate. 'science'. on occasion.. is is possible for a scientific assumption to be incorrect. Following the above example. Yet. later scientists Therefore. no matter what 'proof might seem to exist. What is studied as on the other hand.without hesitation . when there is a conflict between the meaning ol a clear. it is the attempt by man to understand the creation and laws of Allaah. scientific 'facts' as the and clearly demonstrated by such historically Earth being in so or the orbiting of the Sun around the Earth. the laws that govern the creation are also Irom Allaah. and from these two I le spread forth many men and women* Therefore a Muslim can never believe in the theory that men are descendants of apes. to try to interpret clear Qur'aanic texts to suit modern theories. take the verse of the Qur'aan . meaning of such a verse. despite the fact that the theory ofevolution is in itself full of tlavvs and not without its problems. the verse 576 This. These concepts were believed strongly by the 'scientists' of their time that. for there to be an apparent conflict between and a scientific fact. or even the apparent A rejecis.the Qur'aan is clear that Allaah created Aadam from His own Hands. to try to interpret the story of the Creation of Aadam and Eve as actually having been man species is almost as blasphemous as It is the creation of some Neanderthal nco-hufirst rejecting the verse in the place! a verse possible.e. . Therefore. as some Muslim rationalists have done. <Vjv H in it» |2:1 "there is no doubt Likewise. however."'' Neither is it allowed.over any scientific tion of such a verse. explicit verse a (meaning qat'ec ad-dalaalah) of the Qur'aan and 'modern' science. Eor example. Muslim must 'fact'. the theory evolution upon by the majority of non-Muslim scholars.

then pass! But you will never he able to pass authority (from Allaah)» f them except with 55:33] at- However. " mine of cryptic notes on scientific facts. 1^7. spread out'. this interpretation must be rejected. ( ) Assembly ol Men . Unfortunately." so as to say. prove that they contain certain implied scientific One only needs to read works 578 Such people thai science talks til feel that. a look at the next verse. of the Qur'aan "And Earth it is He who flat. travel many people interpret the following verse as a prediction of space- by man: r^k&fji£. is that Allaah has created is flat. there are not scientific allusions buried under every third verse in the Qur'aan. and not . the miraculous nature the Qur'aan Joes not need such whimsical verification.. For example. it one of the aspects of to be must be put in its proper place. will show that this verse ol is in reference to the /in n.ws! II you have power to pass through the zones ol the Heavens and Earth .. and not to inter-galactic travel! is In conclusion. although the scientific aspect of the Qur'aan its i'jaaz.is a book of guidance. this Earth as a very vast mankind. The meaning place for Also. Since there Earth is exists clear proof that the not flat. they must prove that everything I about must have already been discussed in the Qur'aan. lowcvcr.< listening to the whispers of the angels in the Heaven (or to the Resurrection ol the creation Judgement). nor a Once again. but arc not very familiar with the interpretation a the Qur'aan. o! the verse. this has lims ot become an all loo common trend among Musbook who have specialised 578 in science. highly-imaginative Muslim 1 . and (15:19)) 'to to indicate that the is since the phrase 'n/cidd' occurs. to seek to facts.. some scholars have understood certain verses (e.ind///. p. In other words. and not that the Earth it is essential that scientific facts are not read in where they do not 'modernistic' exist. However. this verse not explicit in stating that the Earth and to conclude this from the above verses requires a degree of interpretation.g. waiting to be unearthed by some over-zealous." 282 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan is dhannee ad-dalaalah ) For example.5:3). and a proper methodology needs It followed in order to extract examples of such verses.. and the authentic tafseen of Ibn Katheer and on the Day Tabaree. is has spread out the Earth" (1.. in order to prose the veracity ol the Qur'aan. does more harm than good when certain verses in the Qur'aan are 'bent over backwards. the Qur'aan ". of science. therefore. as this chapter shows. which means is flat. I 579 Yon )enller.

. the Qur'aan can only cause them despair. fleeing in extreme dislike!. possible for a person to see a miracle as clear as the Qur'aan and it? remain indifferent of The effect that the Qur'aan had on Jubayr ibn Mut'im.1 1 The Miraculous Nature of the Qur'aan in - Vjaaz al-Ou'raaii 283 which this methodology was followed to sec how ludicrous the conclusions arc. hut only increases them 17:41 «And when you (O Muhammad) make mention ofyour Lord solely. in the Qur'aan they turn on their backs. For the disbelievers. ernist' Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa (d. they should he mentioned (such as the examples quoted above). and increase their arrogance. one of the founders of the 'Mod- movement. of this lost in translation.. (For example. claimed that the '/inns' that the Qur'aan was referring to actually alluded to the discovery of disease-carrying microbes!) explicit When such facts are clear and from the verse. since they must reject what they know to be true. |45:7-9| 580 This topic 58 Vjaaz is also discussed in greater detail in to Chapter it 15. yet persists in pride as he heard them not. 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab and al-Waleed ibn al-Mughecrah has already been discussed above. The Effect the Qur'aan has on is it. he makes them a jest!. under 'Scientific Tafseer. 'Do not listen to this Qur'aan. if not all. as most. The Qur'aan «And those who disbelieve say. they should be aban- doned. The Qur'aan itself discusses the effect that it has on its listeners in many says: verses. they go against the intent and but when meaning ol the verse. So announce to him a ol painful torment! And when he learns something of Our Verses.117:46| •<Woc to every sinful liar - who il bears the Verses of Allaah (being) recited to hint.^" F. and babble (it)*» in the midst of its (recitation) so that you may overcome |41:26) "And surely We have explained it in this Qur'aan (Our Signs) so that they in aversion!" 1 may take heed. its is Listeners the effect that the Qur'aan An to the aspect oi'i'jaaz that not discussed in most works 51 has on those who Is listen to it " No person can remain unaffected after he has listened Qur'aan. 1935). This is is more applicable those who listen to and understand in Arabic.

it feel a tremor in and when I lis verses are recited to them. a Book. . oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear Lord shiver from (when they recite it or hear it). it also increases their fear of Allaali. so write us down among witnesses'" |5:83| At the same time. 18:2] when Allaah is mentioned. some ol (the hypocrites) say. fordoes not Allaah say. it his Faith {'eemaan) increased liy it? 'As for those who has increased their faith. ••The believers are those who.""•>'/' there \'>z'C. 'Which ofyou has had believe. its part resembling each other their in goodness and truth. They say.284 An Introduction to the Sciences ofthe Quraan As for the believers. you thai they see their eyes overflowing with tears because ofthe truth have the recognised. and they rejoice!" [9:124| «And when they listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance ofAllaah» |39:23] And how could it not have this effect.1 \ '\' /Vm-1'rV ww t-^I i «And whenever comes down a soorah. increases their taith» >• i •If * \> %1313\ "Allaah has sent down it the best of statements. tijjJLjS--zj>j\^jl~t j ij» \j~* U<^yjl - - >. 'Our Lord! We believe. their hearts.

H. Every person in the Muslim community knows ol is not a single memorises (huffadh). In contrast. is a clear indication its divine origin. ami even harder keep in memory. the memorisers of the entire Qur'aan (huffadh are so ) common and numerous that there they are present community of Muslims in the world except that amongst them. catering to different problems. you would surely have ot the lear ol Allaah! bumbling itsell and crumhle out to Such are the | parables which We put forward mankind that they may relied. He had memorised the entire Qur'aan before he hail completed six years of age! . in It is not uncommon to meet small children who cannot even communicate . yet have put the entire Qur'aan to memory. but becomes the actual to words and sentences are extremely memorise. The Lack of Contradictions in the Qur'aan is One of the aspects of i'jaaz that the Qur'aan alludes to dictions in it. Every Muslim knows by experience the case with which the Qur'aan rised. despite it having been revealed over a period of twenty-three years. In addition. the memory. "I'he meanings of such passages may be put difficult to get. the lack of its contradictions in its 'aqcedah anil sharcc 'ah are further proofs for origin. one need only other religions and sec the number ot its adherents is who have memorised any Holy Scriptures. its Holy Scripture.The Miraculous Nature •Mail seen it of the Qur'aan - 1'jaaz al-Qu'raan 285 We sent down this Qur'aan on a mountain. the ease of memori- remains the same. In comparison. it is possible to meet people 5S2 This author mentions the case of one of his friends in the College of Qur'aan at the University of Madccnah. Also. on the other hand. that it contains no contra- •< Do they not ponder over the Qur'aan? Had surely found in it it been from other than Allaah. suffers no such obstacles. although perseverance sation is needed in memorising larger passages. and no other in totality.!<:i proper sen- tences. And the longer such passages rise. more impossible it to memo- The memorisation still of the Qur'aan. verbatim. In no other religion such great emphasis placed on religion has adherents memorising its who have memorised. Holy Scriptures than in Islaam. •> |59:2I G. The Qur'aan challenges. in different circumstances. The Eask There look at is by which the Qur'aan Muslim on the is Memorised not a single practising ol the face ot this Earth except that he has memorised some portion portion of their Qur'aan. is memois an attempt to memorise a passage out of another work or play to an artluous task. and such people are not considered too rare or exceptional. In addition. they would have many contradictions!" |4:82| in The fact that there are no contradictions of the Qur'aan.

without memory).H. to claim that was not inherently miraculous. ac- Nadhaam. and know tures those who were before us used to from parchments it. by His grace. Allaah would prevent any person from imitating cording to him. 224). 1 1. p.e. as out on stone! Such recites the a person might not it is even remember the events of yesterday. i. and were not capable of to memorising So how can we thank the One who has blessed us such a degree that a seventy-year old entile man from amongst 1 us can easily recite the Qur'aan from memory?'" v. 584 Itr. As-Suyootec said. According to anIn other words. due to old is still age. or external to the Qur'aan? first Aboo Ishaaq an-Nadhaam the Qur'aan (d.. above all other nations All. since Allaah would avert any such attempts. I 585 al-Awajee. but rather externally.y i ^Hi Ibn al-Jawzee. but rather external through the Power of Allaah. lor the Hindus believed that the Vedas could be produced by mankind. followed in this opinion by Aboo Ishaaq al-Isfaraa'eencc 418 A. and other scholars. can memorise the reail their Scrip- Quraan. Extrinsic The i'jaaz of the Quraan is a tact that no Muslim can is it or has denied. it was not miraculous in itself.. The according to these scholars. as it he is from the mus-haf.^85 An-Nadhaam was (d. was the . . . was not internal to the Qur'aan. "All praise is due to Allaah. Allaah would prevent him and lake away his capabilities and powers. hut the Qur'aan preserved in their memories.286 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan who. is This opinion rejected.) wrote in the introduction 'alaa book al-Huth Hifdh 'Um (The Encouragement ol Memorising Knowl- edge). 597 A. for memorised is one ol the specialities and exclusive no other nation was given the blessing ot being able to al- memorise to his its Holy Scripture. This opinion is the incorrect one.) of xhcAhl as-Sitnmih. [•. al-Murtadhaa of the Shee'ah. However. i'jaaz.nr 'aversion'. An-Nadhaam was influenced by Hindu philosophy. Intrinsic vs. no. is the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan inherent in the Qur'aan.For the fact that it has made our u m in ah unique by ledge. (i. the Qur'aan can be The tact that blessings ol this iimmu/i.p.H. Ibn al-Jawzee (d.M it. who has favoured us. This is called 'saifa/i'.. yet reciting directly when he Qur'aan. of the Mu'tazilah.. since produce it. the Qur'aan was capable of being imitated. have forgotten many tacts and experiences ol if etched life. because of the verse in the Qur'aan: $$S& aL0> 3&&$j J^ijc2. but it any attempted to Brahma would later destroy such attempts. 165. ih mil blessed us with the memorisation ol the Qur'aan. but if any person tried do to so.

In other wortls. the ering together is tact that Allaah still is informing them gath- a proof thai they possess the power and is capabilities that they normally do. to avert the plans ot those who vi. all to the il of Qur'aan its itself The elo- and the effect that has on listeners are all internal to the Qur'aan. those ol the Qur'aan. a number ot different aspects of i'jaaz were discussed which show thai the i'jaaz of the Qur'aan is internal quence. they could not produce mankind And jinn gathered together to produce the like ol the -even it they helped one another!" I7:8S| it | This verse mentions spite the their incapability to (reproduce the Quraan).The Miraculous Natun. (fixi'jaaz "I the Qhir'aan) were in the elimination ol their power. v. ol the (utility of their In other words. there efit in would he no benas il their 'gathering together'. The correct view. this would imply that the i'jaaz is not in the has no Qur'aan. deII lad that they still possess their faculties and powers. . By analogy. In other words. which would mean that the Qur'aan by is itself unique qualities of to it. The Quantity What is for I'jaaz the is words. this clearly shows that the Qur'aan itself is the source o(i'jaaz. does not have i'jaaz . a few verses are sufficient to is prove the miraculous nature verses long. there would be no point to the challenge of 'gathering together". If they did not possess their usual faculties. but rather that the Qur'aan itself is inimitable.. since the Qur'aan different from the the Speech Allaah. The i'jaaz of the Qur'aan is present in any soorah in its entirety.only the Qur'aan taken in its entirety is is Quraan miracle. Also. hut rather with Allaah.. what minimum portion ol the Qur'aan that qualifies as i'jaaz': In other the minimum portion of the Qur'aan that is capable of proving its this matter: a a miraculous nature? There arc three major opinions on 1) The ijaaz soorah by ol the itself is dependent on the whole Quraan. 151. for it would he the same dead corpses to 'gather to- were gathered together. 586 as-Suyooiee. laws and beliefs. If the opinion ot'sarfah were correct. try to imitate is that the Qur'aan inherently has this quality ot i'jaaz. any group / ol verses equivalent to a small soorah also qualifies as having '/aaz. whether it is a short soorah or a long one. This 2) the opinion of some ot the Mu'tazlilah. in the previous section. 2. and His Speech must be Speech ol the creation. their The miracle not that Allaah will eliminate power to imitate the Qur'aan. therefore. without the need for Divine intervention it.1 have paraphrased from the Arabic. This view cannot be accepted. and the view of the majority of scholars. p. Since the Qur'aan challenges them gether'. Since the smallest soorah three- who hold this opinion state that three small verses (or their equivalent) are sufficient to qualify as i'jaaz.of the Qur'aan - I'jaaz al-Qu'raan 287 ••Say: II all ol Qur'aan. predictions.

a portion of the is Qur'aan is miraculous every aspect. K where he uses a similar argument is lor another aspect ol i'jaaz. in his Mabaahilh. but perhaps a qualification might be added: Any elo- portion of the Qur'aan gives some aspect or aspects of i'jaaz." Perhaps the opinion the strongest one. but only the whole Qur'aan and Allaah knows best. the second by most of the al-Qur'aan. without there being of the minimum whole quantity. And we do not think that quantity. After quoting these various opinions. and the third by last oVuloom Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah is (d. Also see tli. However. concludes. 105. forms comprehensible phrase or sentence (but not necessarily phrase or a sentence can be recognised as the "Qur'aan". SSX Qattaan. . is Qattaan's remark convincing. whether it be in its quence. 589 1 1.only the whole Qur'aan can be claimed to do so.). a portion of the Qur'aan tlocs not necessarily give every single aspect of in its totality. portion ol the Qur'aan can be imitated."" in miraculous in S87 al-Awajec. some aspects. Qattaan. it Even the smallest portion a a Qur'aan is a miracle by itself. aZ-Zarkashcc. p. or a combination of other aspects. There is proof for all of these opinions it Qur'aan. 399. as long as verse). or in its laws. p. only the whole Qur'aan can be taken as an indication of i'jaaz In other words. and others. This does not mean. lor we find [i'jaaz) it the i'jaaz in the is limited to a certain ol the letters "I it minimum Quraan. having sounds the and in the occurrence ol is its words. 724 A. p. or one soorah (10:38). The scholars first opinion was held by some of the Mit'lazilah. as we also find and this in its verses and soorahs.n . considered to be an example ol in the i'jaaz. 264 2.288 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 3) The i'jaaz of the Qur'aan a is present throughout the Qur'aan. i'jaaz. 11?.H. ol course. hut only that a portion ol the Qur'aan does not substantiate every aspect o( i'jaaz . p. which very similar to this one.i al-Awajcc's conclusion. or even some speech equivalent to it (52:34). for Allaah challenges to bring forth a whole "Qur'aan" similar to (17:88). "" is sufficient (lor throughout). is a As long as it and can be called such. it The Qur'aan i'jaaz the Speech ol Allaah.

' comes from 'fassam\ which means. What. is common word if is heard in tafseer the word 'ta'weel'.' Therefore.' Thus. according to this definition. 'to . v. ." its which implies are repeated going back to the original meaning word to see what meanings and connotaand The meanings of the word 'ta'weel' were given earlier. 147. here. is these In Islaamic sciences. means.CHAPTER 15 The Interpretation of the Qur'aan . I. 2. between and ta'weel? 'to The word tions arc. its meanings explained. p. 'to explain. The word 1) 'ta'weel' has three meanings: in light To understand connotation is a word of one of its connotations. as-Suyootcc. a act woman who is uncovers her face is called a 'saafirah\ and the of uncovering her face called 'sufoor. 2. "591 v. from a-w-l.Tafseer The topic oftafseer is the most important topic ot'ii/oom al-Our'aan. to interpret. to uncover." According to another opinion. tafseer defined to be: its The science by 5 '" which the Qur'aan is understood.'" 1 the word tafseer is a transposition ivoms-fr. the difference. the stronger opinion is the first one. even though both meanings are correct. to revert. p. this subject is Another then. 590 az-Zarkashee. to expound. to The word tafseer is the verbal noun ot'fassara'. The Definition of Tafseer and Ta'weel 'tafseer The word elucidate. and means 'the explanation or interpretation of something. since in many ways it is the primary goal of 'uloom al-Ourazn first to understand and implement the of the Qur'aan properly. which means of a return. 'ta'weel' any. This has also been the written on. 'tafseer crets of ol would mean uncovering the meanings and exposing the sethe Qur'aan. However. which expose. and that is rulings derived. 223. topic of'n/oom al-Our'aan to have been and without a doubt the one in which most works in this Held have been written about. despite the fact that this not the primary intent of the word.

333 A. this (ijtihaad). is your Lord is ever-Watchful •• |8V:14| is that Allaah to is aware of all that man docs. 3) According reasoning to al-Maatureedec is (d. as-Suy<»)tcc. p. ar-Roomee. as it says. but the ta'weel that the verse is a warning 5) man not to lapse into sins or to belittle the to give the commandments of Allaah. in a verse. 2) Tafseer used used in in explaining a word which carries only one meaning. II. the most common understanding in modern usage of the two words is the second one. 4) Aboo literal Taalib at-Tha'labce held the view that tafseer was the explanation of the meaning of the verse. it called tafseer. does not Allaah say Qur'aan: «Verily this Qur'aan leads to the path that is most right" [17:9| and thus everybody can Qur'aan a find the Straight Path through this in Book: And is not the complete source of guidance and of itself.. whereas ta'wcel is used when one ol the possible connotations of a verse or word is chosen over the others due to external factors. whereas There is no one correct opinion since various authors use these two words in all of these meanings.2.). pps. For example. 221-2. whereas of the ta'weel choosing one connotations of a word that possesses many connotations.H.290 An Introduction to the Sciences of" the Qur'aan 2) 3) To explain a word or phrase. there are five tafseer main opinions as to the differ- ence between 1) and ta'wcel. of an event. whereas when it is based on personal is known as ta'weel. v. 14. whereas ta'wcel was the actual intent behind the verse. Zacabozo. 310A. when the interpretation is based on certain knowledge. This was the opinion of at-Taharee (d. namely that tafseer is used to explain the meaning or intent of a verse which has only one connotation. pps. 592 cl. 8-9. Tafseer is meant ta'weel gives the meanings of the individual words meaning of the verse as a whole. commentary is is of the Quraan uses these two terms interchangeably. However. «Vcrily.). amongst these five. The With actuality these two definitions in mind.H. The Necessity and Importance of Tafseer arises: The question in the Why is there a need tor tafseer: Alter all. the tafseer of the verse. . as follows:"" They as his are equivalent in meaning.

For example. a mercy and glad tidings for Muslims" 6:891? Indeed. 38 is a guidance and an admoni- tion lor those who ward But this in no way implies and that a person who unaware of the numerous hadceth of ol the reasons the Prophet (5^5) in explaining the Qur'aan. the Qur'aan does not always mention the events or references for which each particular verse was revealed. First of all.pps. it is true that anyone who approaches it. 64-66. Allaah uses the most clear. lacts will. and behind the revelation principles of rhetoric. an Arabic linguist or gramthe phrasing ol a verse that the marian might be able to see average person a certain wisdom behind A person specialised who is in the topics of 'tt/ooni al-Ouraan will it. 2) 3) The perfection of personal set conduct and good morals. down the Hook to you as an explanation 1 a guidance. |>. ami the relationship of the created with the Creator. there why tafseer is nec- essary despite these facts. 593 as-Suyootcc. ol\' tafseer in his As-Suyootee also discusses the necessity stating that will it al-Itqaan. of specific verses. be better able to grasp the intended meanings of a verse. in not qualified to derive rulings from the Qur'aan. seeksays. and derive rulings from contrast to the average layman. that some words may have multiple meanings. 594 c£ Ik. 223. v. and docs tafseer to explain what is meant by the wordcan be said that the purpose clarify. and these must be known in order for the verse to be fully it and totally under- stood. Lastly. all of of the intricacies ol Arabic of the grammar and ol and of the various c/ira'aaf. and ol to the al-Ouraan from the Qur'aan same degree who does know these may not. and in doing so the meaning is clear to those who are well-grounded in the itsell Arabic language.^" He begins In- is a known fact that is Allaah communicates with man in a way that the be able to understand. 4) The establishment of laws governing societal and political dealings between com- munities and nations. will find As Allaah ••This (Qur'aan) is a declaration lor oil evil» [3:1 mankind. ol tafseer is to \ is the job of the person It elaborate the principles which the Qur'aan came to 1) The elaboration of a perfect set of beliefs with regards to the Creator.2. eloquent and concise language. Secondly. However.1 The Interpretation of the Quraan - Tafseer 291 CjuL1*U ZSjiZj £-*-jj iS JJbj g£* J»J u£2» «And Wc have sent y y 1 ^ --£-^ VJj^_> lor everything. and the other topics of'uloom that a person knowledge will benefit the abrogated rulings. of laws and code of conduct to The establishment of a govern individual and familial relations. This the reason that every messenger has been sent in are three basic reasons the language ol his people. the Qur'aan with a pure heart. but not so clear to those who arc not. ing the guidance of Allaah. .

To give the good news of Paradise and the blessings the evil tidings ol the 7) punishment of Hell in store lor the disbelievers. in store for the believers. . 12. v. "Whoever recites the And the Successor Sa'eed Quraan and does not explain it. full of blessings. Apart from these reasons.' 51' 1 ) Both i|Uou-s taken from Zarabozo. but they arc in need of tafsecr. 596 as-Suyooicc. p. cl. 224. is and to the true happiness. so that ot they may ponder verses. Its goal is mankind to handhold ol Allaah. the Qur'aan it. ot the most honourable ot its all sciences lor three The lirst reason is with respect to ol topic. Iyaas ibn Mu'aawiyah not (d.) said. itself commands its readers to ponder over and to reflect upon its meanings. and this knowl- edge can only be obtained through the understanding of the Book of Allaah. Every is aspect of this religion and this world._4Vi ••(This is) \j^^^j^yS^}p^\^\i^ sent a Book which We have over its down to you.) said. they do not know what like a in the The example of one who knows tufseer is them what is person who comes to them with ibn like a lamp and (d." fubayr 95 A. The science of tafsecr is meant to explain to mankind the Book that has been revealed to them from Allaah. To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet ot the and this is done by explaining the miraculous nature Qur'aan is (i'jaaz). reports of what ments concerning what happens between he people.. will Its contains proanil judge- nouncements about what has passed. 2. The Qur'aan is like a treasure trappeil in a glass receptacle. in the near or distant future. Therefore. and the impious to 6) warning. and they do not have reads to v lamp. so that mankind can benefit from to the greatest possible extent. |38:29 It is the science of tafsecr which is the fruit of 'pondering over its verses. p. From the above discussion. 12. is an ignorant person. which contains every kind wisdom anil virtue. ol the sciences ol thtsharce'ah in need and knowledge ot the religion. As-Suyootee said. for it key that unlocks the treasure.H.). so that the pious act as a among and them may he followed. #. (•#. for it says.H." 1 292 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Quraan 5) The narrations of the history of the previous nations. Zarabozo. the job of a mufassir to explain all of the above points to mankind. 122 A. sage.. p. in the message. is "The examlike a ple of a people of who recite the Qur'aan and do a know its explanation comes to group mes- people who have a written message from their king that them during the is night. t happen wonders never cease. mankind can view and tafsecr acts like the benefit from this treasure. The third reason with respect to the great need for this science. the importance of tafsecr should become apparent. is (The science of tafsecr) reasons. to lead The second the linn reason is with respect to its goal. and that men understanding may re- member. Therefore. ibid. It deals with the Speech It Allaah. one that does not end.

is a great injustice?'" |31:13]. difficulties in jLj^xy^JLjj [£ •Those who believe and do not mix i. careful that they understood every single verse in the (d. Ii is The Time of the Prophet during the lifetime ot no surprise to discover that the science or tafseer started the Prophet (^) himself. so even there were any understanding any verse. as shall be expounded on was to interpret the Qur'aan. the Prophet ($gg) informed them that the injustice referred of to in this verse was shirk. or the association partners with Allaah. v7 ' In other words. may clearly explain to mankind what has been revealed to them. Qur'aan properly. «And We have so that you and so sent down to you (O Muhammad (syg)) the Remembrance. Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 293 The History of Tafseer A..The in. shirk. later.»|6:82| The Companions Luqmaan. and the was a relatively easy matter. knowledge as later interpreters would have as the Companions was the Arabic of the Qur'aan. "Have you not read the statement of «Verily. the revelation ol the Qur'aan. Aboo 'Abd ar-Rahmaan as-Sulamce 75 A.il-Bukhaaree. justice (to his soul) r" "O Messenger of Allaah! Who amongst us does not do inThe Prophet (-yg) replied. (%*£. that they may give thought" 1(>:44| 1 The science or tafseer during the Prophet's for a This was so number ol (actors. asked. Lastly. iiJi their belief with injustice. one of the primary roles of the Prophet (5§). Firstly. Companions were witnessing the circumstances during which it was revealed.) and most importantly. the Arabic ot the this anil as to. the Prophet if alive. in general. understood by them without any difficulties..) reported that when- who taught them the Qur'aan. like and others. they could turn to the Prophet (5^) for an explanation. The Companions were ever the people ibn Mas'ood. . In fact. Allaah says. and the Qur'aan was still being revealed. such did not need to search for Secondly. 'Abdullaah Quraan.H. They (j||) life were aware of the reason behind the revelation of a verse (asbaab an-mtzool). learnt ten verses of the 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan. they would not proceed and regulations those verses con- further until they had understood whatever ideas >97 Reported by . An example quoted earlier is with regards to the verse. Qur'aan was revealed was in their dialect. . Therefore the Arabic of the Qur'aan was.

The role of the Prophet be elaborated upon in (j^g). "Ibn Abbaas is the most knowledgeable ofthis ummah concerning the revelation given to Muhammad This is due to the fact that the Prophet (Sg) himself prayed tor Ibn 'Abbaas. were not the same category as the ten whom as- The most knowledgeable Companion with Qur'aan (£g). their edge of the interpretation There were many among the Companions who were well known for ol the Qur'aan. the tafseer narrations of earlier. Abdullaah ibn 'Umar said. the principles ol Arabic grammar anil rhetoric. ad-Adh-Dhahabee's Tafseer tea al-Mufasiroon. many ami wide-spread. They used "We learnt the already understood what they knew. in well known lor their Jaabir ibn 'Abdillaah and 'Aa'ishah. B. the science of tafseer took on a Thus it can be considered that the first true mufassirs were actually the Companions."' In Aboo Bakr. whenever it appears in this chapter. 11 (the reference to adh-1 )hahabee. used id denote the 'Ale< lour caliphs. that were prevalent at the time of the revelation of the Qur'aan. since they died relatively other words. to say. 12. Qur'aan was much There wire others besides these ten knowledge of tafseer. as Zayd ibn Thaahit. lirsi 599 A term thai means "The rightly-guided caliphs'. refers Dr. As Khulafaa. p. otherwise specified). Period of the Companions more systematic After the death of the Prophet (^). the statements of the Prophet {&. their own personal reasoning (ijtihaad).. "There for their knowl- are ten who were famous know ledge oftafseer among the Companions: the four Khulafaa ar-Raashidoon. as the Companions were ever. Aboo li. 2.. such as Anas ibn that they Companions who were Maalik. 'Abdullaah ibn 'Abbaas. These sources will be in discussed in greater detail the following section. v. for the for the Aboo Moosaa al-Ash'arce and 'Abdullaah ibn Zubayr. Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. p. and studied its ideas and injunctions all together. 598 Ibn Taymiyyah. adh-Dhahabee. 'Umar. during their lime. "Uthmaan and 600 as-Suyootec. Also. and quantity of the Qur'aan that he interpreted. other three. howto interpret the such as during the Caliphate of 'Alee.'"''"' This narration shows that the Companions were eager to understand Qur'aan. As-Suyootec wrote. and pagan and Judaco-Chrisriaa customs approach. Tin.""'" is regards to the interpretation of the considered to be Ibn 'Abbaas. During later times. there was no great need much of the Qur'aan. 6(11 i<> v. miles'. except Suyootee mentioned. p. the need greater than before. will the next section.). so much so that they would not memorise any verses until they hail Liincd. . Aboo Hurayrah. I. 239. The sources that the Companions used lor tafseer were the Qur'aan. Alee ibn Abee Taalib has the most narrations amongst them. Ubay ibn Ka'ab.ikr. there reports are very rare to find. 'Umar and 'Uthmaan to interpret are not as common due to the lad that they were not compiled because of their relatively early deaths. 2 ( M An Introduction u> the Sciences ol the Quraan Quraan..

Abee and Ubay ibn Ka'ab. and interpretation. or explaining a particular phrase or word with pre-Islaamic poetry. and the Conquest' then this a sign of your ap- proaching death. to prove to them this statement. 1 and ask tor Forgiveness. is Another characteristic ol this time- the relatively trivial differences in tafseer. even though wc have sons the same age as him (whom you do not allow to enter)?" 'Umar answered. lor verily He is ever-accepting repentance!* said. "No!" 'Umar asked. say. and their deaths. Allaah and ask for His forgiveness whenever "We have been commanded we are helped and aided to to thank victory. Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. therefore. despite age (he was 'Umar used to let Ibn 'Abbaas enter into the meetings ofthe older Companions. left Each one students ol them established centres of learning during their lifetimes. Also. and he asked them.The tor Interpretation ol the Qur'aan - Tcifseer 295 he in («gg) said." Umar asked Ibn 'Abbaas. is "When the help of Allaah conies. many among the Successors after The Companions Qur'aan. to are the most numerous narrations from Com- panions that are be found in tafseer literature. "And do you think the same also. to "This is an indi- (^) from Allaah that his lire is about end. and the Conquest" 1 1 10:1]? Some ol them did not reply. 602 Reported by al-Bukhaaree. "I don't 1 10:3] know any other meaning to this except what you have said!" 41 The ibn narrations ol Ibn 'Abbaas." O Ibn Abbaas?" He answered. This discussed. Alec Taalib. .f# ( 'Umar ilorily the Praises ol your Lord. as he his («yg) cousin. "Then what do you cation to the Prophet He replied. "O Allaah! Give him the knowledge ot the Book. as compared to later generations. Such inter- pretation typically consisted ol explaining a verse in clearer words. MH . "Whyis it that you let him enter. along with those ol Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. "What do you think ol the verse. of the Prophet (Sg). "Since he is amongst the most knowledgeable ol you!" So he called them one day. while others said. so some of them complained. The verse means.""""' He used accompany aunt the Prophet (S^g) during his youth. "O to Allaah! Give him the know a wife ledge of the religion. his Maymoonah was passed away). only thirteen the Prophet when ^LJdl •<When the help of Allaah comes. did the is did not leave narrations concerning every single verse in the because the people ol their time understood much of what the Qur'aan and only where the give their possibility for misinterpretation or ignorance existed Companions own interpretation of the relevant verse. his Ibn 'Abbaas was held in great esteem («gg) by the Companions. and ol Wisdom!" and was another narration.

).H. 1 I (d. his primary students became the schol95 A. he died 32 A.296 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan C. 109 A. their the Alter the death ol the Prophet (^.H. 63 A.). (d.H.H. and 'Ataa ibn Rabaah 114 A. the influence of 'Ubay ibn Ka'ab was the strongest in the arena of tiifieer. including the know ledge oftafieer. The Successors used the same sources to interpret the Qur'aan that the Companions did. d.).). Ka'ab ai-Ahbaar (he embraced Islaam after the death of the Prophet ($£•) and did not see him. and (d. where Ibn Abbaas hail taught. 10 Much of the Judaeo-Christian Qur'aan w ere traditions prevalent in tafseer literature can be traced back to these scholars. and 'Abdul Maalik ibn Jurayj (d. The Period of i i if Succfssors Companions. Aboo al-'Aaliyah (d. Sa'eed ibn Jubayr (d. 74 A. and Judaeothe Arabic language.) as the scholars of Madeenah during In Koofah.) and Qataadah 7 A. In particular. and their names are still to be lound in many works ol tufseer.H. of this area. Therefore. Each one taught cessors. 'Ikrimah (d.H. 1 In Madeenah.). and al-Aswad ibn \azeed (d.H. s6 A. the dilterences in interpreting the much greater is than during the time ot the Companions. the sources Qur'aan that the during this generation were: the Qur'aan. three pire: primary learning centres were established of these areas Makkah.).H.I I. except that they added to the list ol sources the interpretations ol the Companions. A.).). many ol these narrations entered into traditions Islaamic literature.). Christian tradition.H. the Companions spread out to different Mus- lim cities in order to teach people the religion ol Islaam. The}' understood that an interpretaAlter the generation ol the tion given by the Companions alter ol the Prophet {$£. greater Israaeeliyaat).H.H.M. 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood left behind his great legacy to 'Alqamah ibn Qays (d. Taawoos (d.). 43 A. 104 A. Most of the people who narrated these were lews and who had embraced Islaam.). Each ledge during the period of the know In ars in the Muslim embecame leading centres of Successors. the statements of the Prophet ol. Makkah.) could not be compared to an interfor interpreting the (|j§) pretation ot any person them.H. 90 A.). Historically. 61 A. many Suc- most ol whom became scholars in their own right in due lime. Wahb ibn Munnabih (d.) and Zayd ibn Aslam this period. Companions had informed them of the verse.) During (known as Christians this period. 1 10 A.). the students of the Companions took over the responsibility ofexplaining the Qur'aan.) became leading authorities in this field. Another characteristic of this period the . 104 A. 106 A. Companions' personal reasoning (ijtilhiad) own personal reasoning (ijlihaad). Also during this time. such as 'Abdullaah ibn Salaam (he was a Com1 panion. Masrooq (d. 150 A. emphasis was placed on Judaeo-Christian tradition and because ol this.). Madeenah and Koofah. al-Hasan al-Basrec (d. Other Successors from Koofah who were famous for their know ledge oftafieer were: 'Aamir ash-Sha'bcc as-Sadoosec (d.H.H. (d.H. Mujaahid ibn Jabr (d. his students 1 Muhammad emerged ibn Ka'ab al- Quradee tufsccr in 18 A.H.

not a complete tafseer of the Qur'aan. 161 clude Yazecd ibn Iaaroon as-Sulamee (d. Aboo don't al-'Abbaas. as part narrations and works of luideeth. dur- ing this stage. there- are a number of works to such manuscripts.The Interpretation ol the Qur'aan - Tafseer 297 (-^g). and Abd ibn Humayd . Therefore. the stage of the actual compilation and writing ol tafseer ol their began. may interpret it. you think il suitable to compile this.). think that 'No one before him every did anything anyone can add lo what he wrote!' and I 604 adh-Dhahabee.. An interesting narration in the Fihrist of Ibn Nadeem 438 A. but am unable respond to him. <>05 ibid.).H 249 A. rather. one of the students of al-Farraa.H. 220 A.v.l. (d.-. v. who. Aadam Abee Iyaas (d.l. Lastly. these tafseers encompassed first all the verses in the Qur'aan.p.). This was due to the powas rampant throughout the Muslim territories at that time. or write a book concerning this can return to book (whenever he asks me)'. said.' The luideeth.H. was with the gover- nor Hasan ibn Sahl. this work was from the (d..'"^ Most likely. ibid. Sufyaan al-Thavvri (d.H. al-Farraa said I to his students. 95 A-H. until the whole book was finished.H. Sufyaan ibn 'Uyaynah 198 A.and he he muadhin to recite Soorah al-Faatihah. since more verses needed explanation than during the time of the Companions. 155.. p. .e.) reads as follows:""" 'Umar tions to ibn Bukayr. However. so that tafseer was not only lim(«yg) those verses for which narrations from the Prophet and Companions existed. increase of Forged narrations attributed to the Prophet litical and religious strife that D. I something with regards to the Qur'aan. The most important works were by scholars of luideeth. the quantity of verses for which narrations exist from the Successors is greater than that for the Companions.l. 160 A. A. to write a In attempting to answer who the is person a comprehensive tafseer of the ol Qur'aan was. v. like it. Some of the scholars of this period that I were known 1 for their tafseer narrations in(d.H. p. The narrator of the story.).H.). Therefore.). He wrote to al-Farraa: if 'The governor sometimes quesI mc concerning (the tafseer ol) a verse in the Qur'aan. 606 from the Vihria. next stage in the history of tafseer saw the separation ol\ tafseer literature from during ited to this stage and the emergence of independent works solely on tafseer. also had sections on tafseer. I 52. ibn Wakec' ibn al-Jaraah 197 A. (d. Another stride was that every verse was discussed. 'Gather told l together so that may dictate to you the Qur'aan) a book on the Quraan'. None of their works have survived intact until the present day.).H.). 17A. but rather composed of narrations previous generations. The Computation of Tafseer After the period ol the Successors. the narrations of tafseer were considered a branch at luideeth literature..Shu'bah ibn al-Hajjaaj (d. the researcher all faced with rather significant impediment: a lack almost manuscripts written during the references in later is first century of [he hi/rah. 154.H. and among the f earliest works referenced that of Sa'ecd ibn ubayr (d. so that he (i.

al-Haakim (d. This stage. is available in manuscript lorni. first it is possible to divide the history of" tafseer into five periods.327 A. adh-Dhahabee. 5dX A.). in ol Opinion addition to the hadeeth ol the Prophet deal- ing with tafseer. 'ill') i1".. in general. only resorted to when absolutely necessary.""'' The period is considered to be the time of the Companions and Successors. AbooShaykh ibn Hibbaan (d. Greater emphasis (ijtihaad). 152. Ibn Abee Haatim (d. the various hadeeth different the Prophet and narrations from Companions began to be compiled.). led to the incrcasement or weak and fabricated reports in tafseer literature. 27s).H. in particular the tafseers (cl. the various qirdaat and their significance on the and. these narrations were typically limited tafseer to a specific area. 369 A. The During second period is the era of the late Successors. and thus we can say that this is definitely one of the earliest works of this nature. based on the hadeeth ol the previous generation. Personal reasoning (ijtihaad) Irom the Companions and Successors was. first tafseer to attempt to cover every aspect of a ol Aboo Bakr ibn Mundhiran-Naisapooree(d. 410). unlike many Others Irom 608 adh-Dhahabee. and the generation after them.H. In many ways. this time. also wrote a tafseer ol the Qur'aan. Thh tafseer. ami part ol it has been published by Daar al-Kutub al-Misriyah. although meaning ol the verse.) and Aboo Bakr ibn Mardaway h Other tafseers followed quickly. heavily based on narrations.H."" Ibn this Maajah (d. also discusses the grammatical analysis of the verse.H This era also saw the beginning written. this can be considered to be the verse. 405 A. and cona difference (-^g) sisted mainly ot narrations concerning those verses over which there was or misunderstanding. v. H.I I. 310 A.). on occasion. with greater ol the specialisation in tafseer. its era. but again was limited to narrations from the previous generations.' . and thus tafseer became an independent science among the Islaamic sciences.). I. Another aspect that this was the deletion ol the isnaad Irom tafseer narrations. tafseers was also placed on personal reasoning and tafseers written solely lor the defence ol sectarian views (such as the of the Mu'tazilah). Shaafi'ees started this era and Maalil^ees) appeared. and tafseer narrations ol therefore become ($yg) a part ol" hadeeth works. A Summary To summarise. One of the greatest the Qur'aan by classics available is without a doubt the monumental tafseer ol Muhammad ibn Jareerat-Tabarec (d. The works third stage saw the rise ol independent works. Ibn Jareer's personal reasoning (ijtihaad) on various aspects ol the verse. p. pps.H. 1956. . with tafseers being anil inter- emphasis on the grammatical analysis pretation ol the Qur'aan. Also during this time. hadeeth literature had begun to be compiled. which can be said to begin in the second hall 607 This work. ol Sunaii lame. for example. whereas in the first period. and even during for the defence ol'one'sjic/h madh-hab (such and as the tafseers ol the Hanafees. 151-56.298 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan AI-Farraa died in the year 207 A.

22s. whose comtafscer mentary was not limited to only those verses concerning which narrations existed primary source of Irom previous generations. which has lasted from the fourth century of the hijrah until today. he has done then he turns to thcSunna/l. despite the Prophet (i^g) has clearly explained that refers to the Jews and Chris- tians! '"' This period also witnessed the increasement of forged narrations in tafseer literature. polemical interpretation. saw the culmination of the science ol tafscer. as-Suyootee narrates concerning the verse. systematic These principles are derived Irom the Qur'aan. All thai the Prophet (SS) said based on his understanding o! the Qur'aan. one place might he explained in another. . thus giving a broad. he lirst turn to the Qur'aan This is because what has been narin rated succinctly in one place might be expounded upon in another place. However. based on well-grounded.The of the third century. the remained narrations Irom the previous generation. it is the explainer ol the Quraan." 11 The should scholars have said: Whoever wishes itself. as the isnaad disappeared from tafscer works. <>l I v. and is a clarilicrto Imaam as-Shaafi ce said. and what It is summarized that.Not the path ol those [1:7] whom Vm are angry with. tor it. and the emer- various categories of tafscer. The gence ol final period of the history oftafseer. to interpret the Qur'aan. anil the basis who proper tafseer." And Allaah said. and were written based on sectarian For example. 190. iy. topic-wise interpretation. and jurisprudential interpretation (these will be discussed in greater detail below). in summarising the principles ol tafscer. also produced the first Interpretation of the Qur'aan - T&fseer 299 complete Qur'aanic tafsccrs. which includes the conditions and characteristics ol a nuifassir (one interprets the Qur'aan). 2. The By the Principles of Tafseer "Principles of Tafseer is meant the proper methodology and characteristics to the of a in interpreting the Qur'aan. as-Suyooicc. on personal reasoning. As-Suyootee. said. and tafsecrs much was placed on personal reasoning.. such as tafseer based on narrations. is The science the of tafseer is one which. It was only during the fourth stage where greater emphasis bias. during still this stage.. reliance on narrations decreased. 2... 610 as-Suyooicc. nor those who arc astray that there exist ten different opinions concerning fact that the 1 who it this verse refers to. v. all-encompassing approach to interpretation. similar principles. to Other tajseers sought combine all of these topics into one work. Sunnah and the statements of the Companions. •. p. other sciences ol Islaam. p.

essential to turn to the Qur'aan order to interpret any verse in the Qur'aan.300 An Introduction to the Sciences of" the Qur'aan Airily. Sometimes. 1 ) Tafseer or the Qur'aan by ti ik Qur'aan is The most Alter all. and pious actions.. its had it been from any other than Allaah. and something similar to It" meaning the Sitnmih. and true knowl- edge. and there- tore in order to understand any one verse.L it. most knowledgeable of it. and the taariq. verse by verse. was revealed and since they were blessed with complete understanding. the for many contradictions in command it is is given to ponder over the whole Qur'aan. and then answered in the next verses. These principles. will now be discussed in greater detail. a ques- asked. verses would have contradicted one itsell in another. so that you that may judge between mankind by which Allaah has shown you» 1 |4:105| And the Prophet (%%) said. the Qur'aan an entire Book that has been revealed by Allaah. tjiariq is? (It is) And what will make you know what the the star of piercing brightness" |H6:1-3| is In other cases. The meanings of the Qur'aan can never contradict each other. This principle tion is is demonstrated in many verses in the Qur'aan. as Allaah I )o they not ponder over the Qur'aan? For indeed. "Indeed. . in truth. he turns to the Statefor they are the ments of the Companions. had it been from other it» |4:82| than Allaah. they would surely have found In this verse.' ' have been given the Qur'aan. We have revealed to you the Book. at. O4^^'€4}^tej^50^^P5 •My the Heavens. since they witnessed the circumstances and situations the Qur'aan in. the entire context of this verse must be looked says. important source is of understanding the Quraan the Quraan itself. anil others.uiunnd. Therefore. at-Tirmidhec and an-Nasaa'ee. For example. . the ref- erence to •the path of those whom You have favoured- |1:7| 612 Reported h\ Ahoo D. For example. the reference to another verse not obvious.. he does not find it (the lafsecr) in the Siimui/i.

1 The is Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 301 explained in 4:69 as: ••And whoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger. and essential to •< They (Aadam and live) said.. of the Prophets. and the flesh of pigs. they ol those will he in the comcom- pany whom Allaah has shown favour.ill dead animals. "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. a story is mentioned in brief. And how excellent panions are!» Therefore.. the beasts that are forbidden are "recited": ••Forbidden to von are [5:3] . the "words' that turn to another verse to Aadam received are know what Aadam said: not mentioned. states. For example. Allaah says. ••And unto the Jews. and in another place verse 2:37 elaborated. and the truththese ful followers. these prohibitions have already been elaborated upon elsewhere in the Qur'aan (cl.. the second verse explains In it is who "those whom You have favoured' are. fy%£2i\i^pcte «Lawtul to you (lor lood) are all the beasts ol cattle. ••Then Aadam received from his Lord words.. and the martyrs.. In another verse. and He relented towards him. 6:146). we will he ol the lost!» |7:2^| Other verses direct the reader to another passage in the Qur'aan. in the story of the repentance of Aadam.* [16:1 18| In other words. some places in the Qur'aan. • . or tell the reader that the subject has already in been mentioned. Allaah states. and the pious. except that I^: 1 which w il have been recited to you. For example.it is In this verse.- After two verses. and blood. II you do not forgive us and have Mercv on us. We forbade them such (foods) that We have already mentioned to you before.

Qur'aan be looked at in light of To conclude. "I y. and other categories which were not discussed). "O Messenger \ eri I ol Allaah! Who amongst us does not do In other injustice (to his soul)?" The Prophet (s^g) replied. the 'inim and the /(baas.. is in fact of equal importance to the Qur'aan. All the relevant verses must be taken into account to form a complete picture. matyee and madanee and the knowledge of the verses. the baqceqee and the majaazee. what the asked. i After the tafseer of the Qur'aan by the Qur'aan tafseer the second source o£tafseer Stuina/i is is by the Sinina/i.1 302 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The Prophet Qur'aan when (3gg) also showed the principle of interpreting verse. to understanding one of the primary roles of the Prophet ($sjg) was to explain the meanings ol the Qur'aan to mankind. so that you may dear!) explain that they mankind what has been 1 revealed to them. It must be mentioned that even though the it taken to be the 'second' source of tafseer. its it is essential that every verse ol the sister verses. the mantpoq and the mafhoom. 2) Tafseer isy ti m Sunnai itself. as all the verses of the Qur'aan complement one another.an example ol tafseer ol the Qur'aan by the Qur'aan. the Qur'aan by the lie was asked concerning the •Those who believe and ilo nut mix their belie! with injustice. and so may give thought" 6:44 613 Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. Included in the interpretation of the Qur'aan with the Qur'aan ol is the know ledge a( asbaab an-nuzool. the various qira'aat. .>•///'// lave you not read the statement . the naasikh and different categories of muhftam and mutashaabih. a person wishing to understand the Qur'aan must turn to the Sitnnah order to understand arrive at a proper In fact. This is because a general ruling ('aam) in one verses (the verse might be specified {/(baas) in another verse. . In in other words.jj'tjfo *lrffl _ j is a great injustice?'* (31:13). Allaah says. the Prophet (^) quoted them another verse in the Qur'aan to explain to them 'injustice' referred to in the verse actually meant .. the imttlaq and the muqqayad. all the must be considered to arrive at a proper understanding oi a verse. no interpretation of any verse can contradict another verse. it correctly. . words. In addition. the knowledge mansookh verses. The Qur'aan and Sttnmih must be taken together of a verse. • Anil We have sent down to you to (() Muhammad 1 (5g)) the Remembrance. different qira'aat of a verse and so forth.»[6:82] The Companions ofLuqmaan.

2.s point of view later on in his Itqaan. v. "Amongst the last verses dl4 al-Albaancc.'"' and others. 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood. as-Suyootee only managed few hundred narrations from the Prophet (^. the famous Successor. which agree. only in light of essential to understand the Qur'aan not the the explicit narrations of the Prophet of the (^) on Quraan. Actually. Egypt. As 'Aa'ishah 1. 'Umar narrated. do there exist narrations from the Prophet concerning the interpretation ol every single verse. p.' there might not exist Therefore. p.) (including a weak which he (^) explicitly interpreted other hand. to find a On the contrary. would not memorise more than ten verses until they had understood what knowledge it contained. 615 In fact. (its) knowledge and (its) implementation at the same time. 'So we learnt the Qur'aan. Aboo (d.5. v. (d.The Therefore. 14. and of the actions his sayings anil actions can This opinion Abel is supported by numerous statements from the Companions.). even though many explicit statements from it the Prophet (^g) concerning tafseer. he also had to convey its explanation as well/' 14 How Mitch of the Our aim The question wits Explained? arises. and then Companions made sure that they understood the meanimplemented it. Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah explained all of the Qur'aan. ar-Rahmaan as-Sulamee told us that they 1^ A. both of these opinions are correct once the intent of both sides is understood. in principle with Ibn Taymiyyah'. then. such as 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan.) claimed 1 that the Prophet ($^. since considered to be embodying the laws ol the Qur'aan. 244-264.H. Those who claimed there- that the Prophet ($£. They used to say. 12.H. and ous quoted verse of the it not.'" On the left us all the nec- essary knowledge needed in order to properly understand the Qur'aan. that the ing ol the Qur'aan. Itqaan.) was of the view that the Prophet (j§) Jalaal ad-Dccn as-Suyootee (d.il. the Prophet's ($g) characicrcmboclied the Qur'aan. 2. 618 Ibn Taymiyyah. pps.l. . what Ibn Taymiyyah meant was that the Prophet (££>) anil fabricated ones) in verse. 617 Reported by al-Iiukhaarec. Muhammad n. Naasir ad-Dcen. but also in light of all of the hudceth in light Prophet of the ($£§). whether they arc concerning beliefs or Prophet (^g). Therefore. 616 cf. p. narrated. whereas 728 A.H. not only was the job ol Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 303 the Prophet (^) to convey the literal text of the Qur'aan. Manzilat as-Sunnah fi al-Islaam (Oar al-IIayah al- 615 adh-Dhahabce. the Prophet (=^g) did leave us with the information and methodology necessary lor is understanding the Qur'aan. reported. view cl.) only explained a small portion of it. anil implemented it.s v. then. p. 91 A. as to how much of the Qur'aan was actually explained (j^g) by the Prophet (^g)r In other words.) only explained a small portion of the Qur'aan meant that do not tailed exist very many verbal narrations from the Prophet (3gg) concerning the de- explanation of every single verse in the Qur'aan. then how is the previ- Qur'aan understood? The scholars of Islaam were divided into two opinions with regards to this issue. Itqaan. "Those who taught us the Qur'aan. be laws. 1. 264. Islaamiyah. as-Suyot»£ee clarifies lii. It is apparent.

' anil the Prophet (i@$) in which he explained 1 '.a seeing olAllaah by the believers in Paradise." The luidecth describes is. 622 Reported by Muslim." In addition to such explicit examples of tafseer. the Prophet brought forth on that it).. Matiziliit. and relerred to in al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.. As was mentioned tion earlier." 61 " and the Prophet (g§) passed away This narration explicitly shows that the Prophet (-gg) to interest.Kciwth a r (1(18:1) was river that my life Lord has given me in Paradise. or the flesh of' swine. Another example is the luidecth with.S8)..). at Tirmidhee. used to make sure that the Companions understood the Qur'aan.those whom You are angry "."" He also explained the 'middle prayer' (2:238) as the Asr prayer. sftt .e. In another example... cut off his/her hand" The Sunnah of the Prophet (§g) explains that the thief's hand is only to be cut off if he steals above a certain monetary value. and that in such a case the right hand is to be cut off from the wrist joint/'""' These additional itself.. how it will be brought. 621 -Tirmidhee.Tirmidhee. I do not find in that which has been revealed to forbidden to eat by anyone who wishes to eat it except a dead animal. there be seventy thouin the sand angels dragging Qur'aan.those who are astray.. could not understand the correct interpreta- tion of this verse until they ol had asked he Prophet I (^g).. will It will have seventy thousand ropes (attached to and on each rope. or blood poured forth. . 623 Reported by al-liukhaaree and Muslim. 625 al-Alhaanee. details needeil lor understanding this verse are not present in the Qur'aan In another verse. (i. 6.' (1:7) as the Jews and Christians. Reported by Reported by at. "Hell will be For example.>n4 An Introduction to tlic Sciences ol the Quraan to be revealed were the verses pertaining before explaining them to us.'- the 'additional (reward)' (10:26) as the ".. (j|§) but are not recorded as explicit statements of stated.""' Although this luidecth does not mention any verse can be used to interpret verse 90:23.. This example trates the necessity ions. the penalty pre(5:.'» |6:I45| 619 Reported by 62(1 Ahmad at anil Ibn Maajah. it it. there are only a small percentage of verses for which explicit narrations exist from the Prophet (-^). male or female. for even the Companof Arabic. 4 Day Day of Judgement). the Qur'aan proclaims. The verse concerning the interpretaillus- of 'wrongdoing* (6:82) as skir% has already been given above."'' and that u I . -"•fX* i Sis-Xt-z — me anything which is •Say. since the only rea- son that the verses of interest were not explained in great detail was due to the sudden death of the Prophet (££. 624 Reported by cl. certain verses of Qur'aan. despite their knowledge of the interpretation of the Prophet (^). p. .. there exist numerous example from the and sayings of the Prophet (jgg) which explain tafseer. "Anil Hell will be brought that Day. scribed for theft "As for the thief.

1 The However.following manners:'' ol general or By his implementation vague commands. The Prophet (^g) responded. (5gg) as was explained by the Prophet dawn.when the white thread becomes clear from the black thread" [2:187]. pps."" 626 ibid. showed the believers the exact procedure and timings and the 2) specific rites ofHcijjin verses. and From these and other examples. For example. as the Siinnuli adds to this list all animals with fangs or claws.. despite the fact that there longer any tear Irom enemy attacks. 4) By constraining a general ruling or verse. panions came to the Prophet and asked him concerning the ••Ami it you travel il through the land.. The example in which falls in specified that the 'injustice' referred to in 6:82 wasshirJ{ this category. 627 Based on adh-Dhahabcc. and others. ol the specification of By generalising a specific ruling or verse.) 1) 1 The Companions could not understand why the Prophet were still ami the Muslims was no shortening their prayers during travel. 7. 'thief and 'hand' by the Prophet («^) ^) The example was given above. you who disbelieve may harm you(J^s. 60-62. (3gg) An example ol this is when some Comverse. p. For example. Bv explaining unclear concepts the believers CO begin their lasts. orders the believers to pray and perform The Prophet (|§|). this verse Interpretation of the Qnr'aan - Tafieer 305 is not exhaustive. "(The concesis sion to shorten prayers even in a state of security) a charity which Allaah has given you. by his actions ol prayer. ex- plained the 1) Quraan in tin. the Qur'aan Hiijj. and statements. 3) being the streaks ol light in the sky alter By specifying the exact connotation the Prophet (%jg) ol a word or phrase. 628 Reported by Muslim. therefore accept the charity. it is possible to say that the Prophet (5§|) 2. . there lear thai those is no sin upon you il you shorten |4: 1 your prayers. the verse commanding ••. anil excludes from the general ruling of dead animals seafood locusts.

are the two ultimate sources for understanding the Qur'aan. woman with her maternal or paternal aunt ing a 8) in marriage as co-wives). those whom You are angry with. the next important source for understanding the Qur'aan is the understanding of the Companions. The statements of the Compan- ions are taken as a fundamental source of tafseer for the following reasons: 1) The primary reason is that the Companions are a generation that was chosen by Allaah to accompany the Prophet (^g). whose knowledge of the Arabic language was unparalleled. tafsecr of the Qur'aan by the Qur'aan. 'The Categories of Naskh. This category has already been dis- These few examples should be importance to the Qur'aan in sufficient to illustrate that the Sunnah is of equal deriving laws and understanding the Qur'aan.. ami those tails who are astray* 1 1:7] as the Jews 7) and Christians under this category. In other all words. The unfor Qur'aan can never be understood properly without the Sunnah. and both sources must be taken simultaneously in order to arrive at a correct understanding. whereas the Qur'aan only prohibits combin- woman with her By emphasising the meaning of the verse. is allowed to contradict itself or the other.. These two sources Neither of tafseer." in Chapter 1. had difficulty derstanding many verses until the Prophet (jgg) cleared up the exact meaning them. For example.no interpretation is allowed to contradict or supersede the interpretation of the Qur'aan by the Qur'aan and (he Sunnah.3.e. The example which the Prophet (^g) ex- «. by practising and luideeth stressing af- firming the laws in the Qur'aan.306 An Introduction to the Sciences oi the Quraan in 6) By explaining the plained intent of a verse. Even the Companions. good treat- ment to wives merely affirm the verse. . sister (4:23). By adding extra commands or prohibitions Prophet's (jgg) to the verse." 2" that the verse was abrogated. These two sources are also the final authority on the interpretation of the Qur'aan .. <>Ancl live with them on good terms (and kindness)" |4:19| 9) By showing cussed. and tafseer of the Qur'aan by the Sunnah. An example ot this is the prohibition ol joining a (i. and to pass on the religion anil teachings 629 Sec. 3) Tafseer by the Statement of ti ik Companions After the Qur'aan and Sunnah.

). the author ofai-Mustadra^.H. In other words. Therefore. You see them bowing ami down seeking the Bounty of Allaah and His Pleasure.* |48:29] In more than one verse ot the Qur'aan..). Many of its verses were revealed to cater to problems that had risen amongst them. As such.H. and the majority ol scholA. (d.). pre-Islaamic customs. . and they with Him» |99:8| thus clearly showing the superiority of the The Prophet (#§) said. with the makjfee and madanee verses. is the Messenger of Allaah. then those 1" that will follow them. Allaah mentions the tact that «Hc is well pleased with them. held the view that the interpretation of a of the Companion equivalent to a hadeeth Prophet (^g) only when it concerns matters which are not based on Mh Reported bj al-Bukhaaree. "The best ol all Companions over other generations.'-W~» Ujj j»-^-<y •Muhammad (^) (i. once a Companions has given an interpretation is must that interpretation be accepted. they understood the references in the Qur'aan There of a verse. Therefore. Li j-iyj All' (jj X-aS oyC->j. 4(14 ATI. amongst themselves. this opinion (d. However. is a difference of opinion whether the interpretation of a Companion is ol definitive authority. as-Suyootec 91 1 (d. considered any interpretation by a Companion he believed that all equivalent to a hadeeth of the Prophet (^).H. 5) go searching for this as later generations would have to do. and Ibn Taymiyyah is such as an-Nawawee 676 A.e. 728 A. mankind are my Companions.""' 2) The Companions t actually witnessed the revelation of the Qur'aan. to hey were familiar with the asbaab an-mizool. The Qur'aan was revealed in the Arabic that the Companions spoke.The oflslaam testified Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafsecr ?()7 to later generations. Allaah says in the Qur'aan. many words and phrases that later generations had difficulty understanding were clear to the Companions. and with the naasikh and mamookh* and did not need knowledge. as the case with the previous two sources of tcifieer? Al-Haakim an-Naisapooree for (d. Anil those who are with him the Companions) are severe against the disbelievers falling ami merciful in prostration. Their character and religious knowledge has been tor by Allaah and the Prophet (H§). the most knowledgeable ol generations with regards to 4) The Companions were to such customs.).. such interpretations must have originated from the Prophet to be is (5^)ars. then those that will follow them.. not accepted in its generality.

Tudrccb ur-Riiuwcc.e. For example. pps. 2. and there does not exist any narrations to the contrary from other Companions. pretation exist narrations if the Companions agreed it to an interpretation of must be accepted. 633 e£adh-Dhahabec. v. that interif To conclude. 3) Their knowledge of the habits of the Jews and Christians elation ol the Qur'aan." it Due to ihis shaadh qiraa'a. grammar and pre-Islaamic po- 2) Their knowledge of the pre-Islaamic customs of the Arabs. to interpret the Qur'aan:"" Their knowledge of Arabic language. rather. 632 az-Zarkashec. (his point Az-Zarkashce summarised As w hen he said.612 After the interpretation of the Qur'aan by itself and by the hadeeth of the Prophet (8t§)i 1) the Companions relied upon four primary sources rhetoric.WN An Introduction to the Sciences <>t the Qur'aan personal reasoning (ijlilnuul). is investigated into: it this interpretation was based upon language. such qira'aat cannot be considered as the Qur'aan. since qualifies as ijmaa'. One of the interpretations ol this type of that they were added. 63. it is given a status below that of a hadeeth. This the a because such knowledge could not have originated from (S^g). of course. As mentioned earlier. or whether it sufficed to fast any three days one did not an oath. this does not diminish the status of the tafsecr from the Companions. it lor the interpretation ol the Companions. 1^6-N. fulfil differed over whether was necessary if to fast three consecutive days. The Companions were the most knowledgeable (ijtilniad) or this nation. Another qira'aat integral aspect of the tafsecr of the Companions is the shaadh and mudraj which were discussed earlier. was based upon knowledge). upon what they saw oiasbaab an-nuzool. not as Qur'aan. or the knowl- edge of the unseen. but for the sake of interpretation by the Companions. is such as reports concern mgsabab an-nuzool. this inter- 631 cf. . there from one Companion concerning the interpretation ol a verse. as-Suyootec. 172. a verse. but qira'aat is may be studied as tafseer. the verse which ol told the believers to "fast three days" (5:89) as an expiation an unfulfilled oath was later scholars read by him as: "fast three consecutive days. and there II no doulu that they should he given credence to in this interpretation. this interpretation relies (i. at the time of the rev- 4) Their personal reasoning and their keen intellect (which. It is necessary to lake these qira'aat into account when interpreting a verse. p. On the other hand.v. or other circumstances there is ol"pre. and as such their personal reasoning occupies a status above that of any later scholar. etry. in the shaadh qiraa'a ol Ibn Mas'ood. p. then they is arc the scholars ol the language."^ However. and must have come from the Prophet A report from Companion not concerning these topics cannot be taken as equivalent to a hadeeth of the Prophet (HD.Islaamic customs). I. then again no doubt concerning this type of interpretation.. Companions' ijtilniad.

"There is not a single verse the Qur'aan except that said. As proof for stance. one must the Qur'aan. is the Successors give the if same interpretation to a verse. then their interpretation must be accepted. a brief note concerning the tafseer narrations from the Successors would be useful.H. unlike the Companions other words. Also. They claimed that an interpretation of Successor could not have originated from the Prophet (^g). In each recitation. . the trustworthiness of every single Companions is guaranteed by the Qur'aan. (d.iymiyyali. nor over the generations resort to '' them.) for said. depending support it. they relied on the statements of certain prominent Successors concerning their Qur'aan.H." This is why Sutyaan ath-Thawrcc this (d. 4) Tafseer BY Arabic Languagi.H. the correct view in this matter. they did not witis ness the revelation. 103 I A.H.). but group will they differed among themselves. The relationship of the understanding of the Qur'aan to is knowledge of the Arabic having been language clear. p. but (>yg). 58. This topic is in reality ami tafseer by classical poetry. should be sufficient you!" '" Other scholars. "When you 1 hear an interpretation from Mujaahid. as did the generation before them. and their trustworthiness not (in guaranteed specifically for every one of their generation." Mujaahid (d. on which interpretation seems to have the strongest evidence Tafseer by the Statement of the Successors Before moving on to the next section. slopped at every verse. it is impossible to truly understand anil interpret the Qur'aan withit out knowledge of the Arabic language. 59. the Simna/i. "I recited the have heard something concerning to Ibn it. 161 A. as could the interpreta- tion of a Companion. In such cases. in this case the researcher can choose between the different interpretations. ell 'o-l p.) Qur'aan Abbaas its three times. since they never saw the Prophet (-^.) said. a rejected this view. anil is not the case for the Successors. to Some scholars took the tafseer of the Successors this be the next source of tafseer after the tafseer of the Companions.) said. Qataadah I knowledge in of the (d. 1 10 A. and Classical Poi try two topics: tafseer by the Arabic language. as Ibn Taymiyyah that il 728 A. whereas this a generation. then all exist such interpretations are accepted. !S and the Arabic language in order to obtain the correct interpretation. the contrary narrations trom different Companions concerning to same verse. however. then the opinion of one after have no authority over the other group. for they have been praised as not individually). Since the Qur'aan refers to Quotes laken from Ihn T. Therefore. II is not equivalent in strength to the interpretation given by the Prophet there exist various narrations from different Companions which If there- are not contradictory in nature. (>>t Ibn Taymiyyah. asking him concerning interpretation.The pretation is Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 309 also accepted. the Companions.

179 A.rushing to interpret the Qur'aan by the apparent Arabic wording. 63'i al-Qurtuhcc. for "dictionary" Arabic.." '' For example. 16. 293. Imaam Maalik (d.).. Sttnnah. of Such characteristics. and others. grammar. I.it one of the reasons that ii has been revealed in Arabic so that can be pondered over: liJ^I^J^sJ^LjpicU^AlJjJlu^ •We have H2:2| sent down to you an Arabic Qur'aan so that you may understand* The interpretation of the Qur'aan must comply with the rules ol the Arabic lan- guage. but such a reversal adds subtle meanings that would otherwise not be present. p. the necessity of knowing (his language fact. 37. 2.""" The famous is Successor and student for Ibn "Abbaas. and into the ever.""' 7 lined this principle clearly Imaam ash-Shaatibee 790 A. whereas that is it its context shows is a characteristic text. p. 637 az-Zarkashee. 671 A. 103 A. without its researching into its strange and obscure words. p. his tafseer against. p. or statement ot the Compan- 636 az-Zarkashee. 160.H. it might appear that the logical sequence of words has been specific.310 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan revealed in 'a clear Arabic tongue' it ( 16: 103). interchangeable phrases.H. In reversed. "Whoever desires to understand the Qur'aan.H.) warns in the introduction to . in Mujaahid (d. in order to understand cannot be overemphasised. said. it is essential to it is have a thorough understanding oi the characteristics of the Arabic language. words or even phrases might appear missing. deletion. will make an examof ple of him (by punishing him). The dict interpretation of the Qur'aan based on the Arabic language must not contra- an interpretation based on the Qur'aan. A Review ol some Translations' in Ch. . rhetoric and principles of discourse.) under- when he said.H. In is the Qur'aan states it di. it he is not knowl- edgeable of the dialects of the Arabs. yet this of eloquent Arabic. +9. v. "It any person is is brought I to me. in terms of vocabulary. "It impermissible any person who believes of Allaah and the Last Day to speak concerning the Book Allaah (d. since the missing words are understood by consome verses.) said. ami lie enters into the realm ol those 1 who interpret the Qur'aan (solely) with their intellects.. Sec some examples ol such errors under the section. is then it will be understood from the speech of the Arabs. having inter- preted the Qur'aan while he ignorant of the Arabic language. In other cases. 1 v. v. and are an indication the eloquence of the Qur'aan. and there no way other than this. are well known to the Arabs..""* Therefore. Who- rushes to extract meanings based on the apparent Arabic meanings his errors are frequent. I. the phrasing of a verse might be general. and ellipsis. not possible to understand the Qur'aan by only knowing Imaam al-Qurtubee (d. (characteristics) ofsuccinct speech. 63S Ik.

However. from the Companions and Successors.1 1 The ions. and Islaamic meaning (i.. and means that Allaah sent down patience 1'4 upon the Com- panions. ple. unless there is evidence to suggest otherwise. the word implies a known in known set ot and movements performed in the verses at specific times ot the day. Aboo 'Ubayd al-Mu 'ta/.e. so that they would be firm against their enemies. 641 at-Taharcc.. is describing the relationship with hypocrites. ". Therefore. shar'ce meanings). and to strengthen 1 your hearts and make your it teet firm thereby* [8:1 "This verse is majaaz. 197. Tabarec that it actually rained 'firm' on the Companions. This is because the Qur'aan was re- vealed to explain the sharee'ah of Islaam. Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 31 This is because Allaah and His Messenger ($|g) are they wish to express than later scholars of the language arc. commenting on the view of Aboo 'Ubayd. and not to explain Arabic. is which show that the verse to be taken in a haqeeqee manner. all said. And it is sufficient evidence that an opinion is mistaken when it contradicts those whom we have mentioned. to clean you thereby and to remove from you the whisperings Shaytaan.H. p. in general ihcs/iar'ee connotation isgiven precedence.ilee concerning 3>j «. although perhaps acceptable from contradicts authentic narrations a linguistical point of view. and that it this rain caused the to desert sand to (d. \\ v.and this opinion goes against the scholars oi tafseer. the ot the more knowledgeable of what knowledge later linguist or Companions is greater than the knowledge ol any grammarian. an interpretation that the scholar is To give an example ol based on Arabic yet contradicts said something stronger than the verse. the To give an exam- Arabic word 'salacit' linguistically its shcir'ee means a verbal invocation (also Arabic as dti'aa)." " This interpretation. At- 310 A. connotation. when the Prophet (<^) commanded. in actions sions.""'" Linguistic vs. Ittghawee vs. Islaamic When there occurs a word or phrase in the Qur'aan that gives different meanings its based on the linguistic connotation of the phrase... 41 9. become and thus made easier for the Companions walk. it. or for specific occa- Therefore. 640 at-Tayyaar.and He caused rain to descend on you from the oi sky. and cannot supersede them. Likewise.). .. the status ol interpreting the Qur'aan based on the Arabic language comes after these three sources.

) also spoke against this type ol poetry.e. those poets who versify about matters which are useful. ill 644 al-Alhaunce. In order to prohibit even verbally asking for their forgiveness. poetry in and of itself is not prohibited 642 d. would verbally bless their donors.uul Muslim. «Takc from their money alms. so that they fied may 1 be purified by it.uvMutdccth must be used. 64 s p.it they say what they do righteous deeds. . for he (^£) better for a man's chest to be filled with pus than to be with poetry. «As for the poets . I.ilurlhih..e. and make salaat for them* |9: 1)3| the word 'suhitit' is understood in its linguistic meaning. The Q)ur'aan says. they speak about every matter in their poetry. the funeral prayer over a deceased hypocrite forbidden). and remember Allaah constantly. i."' J An integral aspect ol interpreting the Qur'aan by the Arabic language is interpret- ing the Qur'aan by poetry. "It is amongst those censured filled The Prophet (gs. al-'Uthaymeen. \."' Therefore.. On the other hand. S. and sancti- with it. in the verse. p. other verses -. anil practice arc not what they preach. a verbal invocation («^g).1 312 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan s>. so much so that 1 it 'fills his chest' and turns him away from the in remembrance ol the Qur'aan. since this the primary and understood meaning ol the word. This was a practice that originated during the time of the Companions.iKc ."' excessively in- This hadeeth has been understood to refer to the poet who becomes volved in his poetry.il-Hiikh. and who believe.(only) the misguided follow them. said. Reported In .» [26:224-7] Therefore. <jfcll •And do 1 no! ever pcrlorm the saluai upon them (the hypocrites who died)» 9:84 ! lie word 'scilaal' is is taken in its shar'ee is meaning (i.. 29. of he blessing and forgiveness. 660.. since there exist narrations that the Prophet when used to receive such alms. Poetry Prohibited? Certain verses of the Qur'aan and luulecth seem to prohibit poetry. and do remember Allaah. essential to discuss It is therefore them to understand their proper intent. not practice? Except those (poets) lrci|uently Do you not see that and th.i. by the Qur'aan.

for poetry the recordings of the Arabs. and he askeil them «Or He will take them upon tafyiawufi | I6:47| At this." M ' to to their recordings. 647 az-Zatkashee. some poetry has wisdom in it. Therefore. is M" Arabic tongue |I6:103|. they return that was revealed in . v. Yet." might be asked. d-l() as-Suyoojec. and (of understanding) said. p. the language ol the Arabs word of the Qur'aan them." The wish to response to this is that the situation is not as they have presumed. v. in the In other words. but rather rare we is meanings of the obscure and said. interpret the Qur'aan . 1. p. something Arabs know from their poetry?" of poetry. to explain the Arabic of the Qur'aan. you are make poetry a source rather than the Qu r'aan!" And they said. "This is from our "Is dialect. the other Companions in a gathering. the is purpose ol poetry and not meant to be the basis said. beliefs arc derived. said. then is in poetry.The the Qur'aan or the Prophet It sit ninth Interpretation ol the Qur'aan . 157.Ttifsccr 313 — it is only evil and excessive poetry great that is censured.. grammarians. There numerous narrations Irom the Companions and Successors concerning their explaining the obscure and rare words in the Qur'aan with poetry. He answered. "Poetry if a the recording of the Arabs. "How can we (d. «. "If from which Islaamic laws or Ibn Abbaas seek it you ask is me concerning the rare words language. an old man from the tribe ol Hudhayl stood up and by said. (^) stated. we have not made poetry clarify the a primary source over the Qur'aan. This because Allaah has •Aerily. In 6*5 tact. 294. "How can you use poetry to comprehend the Qur'aan. Aboo Bakr ibn al-Anbaaree are in explaining this concept. which is the speech ol men:" 328 A. .the Speech of Allaah —by poetry. in the when poetry lias been condemned Quraan and sniiiin/i:'.I I. despite this." and he also said.(the Qur'aan is) in a clear." 'Umar asked him. "Indeed.is obscure take the meanings from it. 2.). words in it. and 'Umar was once with the meaning of the verse." and recited to them the 64S Reported by al-Bukhaaree. We have revealed this as an Arabic Qur'aan* 1 1 2:2| and He says.. some who have no knowledge have criticized the "When you do this. "Yes. this Takfiawuf'means that the line attrition (suffering loss little little).

nS| as-Suyootee. p. 3554). 5X. is "What i arc the recordings?" he replied. Zarabozo. and (lor we want you to explain it to us anil bring us proofs language your statements).'"' a times."'' In this incident. "(This means) there no doubt They asked. not the necessity ol knowing Arabic poetry to interpret the Qur'aan shown."'"' They went to Ibn 'Abbaas in "We wish to ask you concerning the Book from the Arabic in a clear Allaah. 'Umar said. I58-I7S. but also the superiority of the knowledge of the ol Com- panions over that any other generation. in each case trying to show that Ibn 'Abbaas was ignorant of meaning ol the verse. SO: el'. "Tell us the meaning ol the verse. p. However." Ibn 'Abbaas told them. however. NaalV once passed by Ibn 'Abbaas to his while he was interpreting the Qur'aan to those around him. v. NaalV ibn Azraq. 'oil cC Milhkaat # I. anil Ibn Abbaas. I. of in his cil-llqaan. fell 649 This is one of the characteristics of the Khawaarij. I as-Suyonlee. Naafi' said panion. As u hen used for smoothing arrows has takjiawuf (abraded) from the hack ofa tree* At this. and quote a line of classical poetry to prove only is this meaning. v. Ibn 'Abbaas its was able to explain 1 proper meaning. com- "Come. p." Ibn Abbaas responded. and in fact accused most of them of disbelief are the dogs for this reason and others that the Prophet (3S) said. . "Stick to the recordings. « There is no ray<b in is it» |2:2|?" in it. Therein As-Suyooiec." When asked. Whose Poetry? The question arises." (Reported In Ahmad.ir-Raheem. 20. thai they themselves i<> be more knowledgeIt is able than the Companions of the Prophet (5g). "The Khawaarij of the I lelllire. There only rayb (doubt) concerning what a Naafi' then proceeded to ask Ibn 'Abbaas the interpretation ofa further one hundred and eighty nine the verses. 652 'Abd . Have you not heard the line by Ibn Zabaree: '( ) Umanmuh! There is is no rayb (doubt) concerning the liar says! truth. tor every obscure phrase in each verse. anil the "The poetry of pre-Islaamic meaning of your words. as scholars Arabic of the Qur'aan? as follows:'"' The whose poetry may be used to interpret the have divided the Arab poets into four categories. ol it. to 648 adh-Dhahahee. and you will not be misled. lie explanation of your Book.314 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan 'I Ict saddle takjiawuf (abraded) a piece of skin from a long and high hump. "Ask me whatever you wish!"So they asked him. lor verily Allaah has revealed the Qur'aan Arabic tongue. "Do the Arabs know this meaning?" He replied. let us go to this person who is pretending to interpret the Qur'aan 1 even though he has no knowledge concerning order to try to outwit him. and asked him. "Yes. el.pps. quotes lengthy account between one of the leaders the Khawaarij. p. 55.

The
Prc-Islaamic poets, meaning those
(^5)-

Interpretation of the Qur'aan

-

Tafseer

$15

1)

who

died before the advent

ot the

Prophet

Examples of

this

category include Imri' al-Qays, al-'Ayshcc and an-

Naahighah.
2)

Contemporary poets, meaning those who were alive when the Prophet (^g) announced his prophcthood. Examples in this category include Labeed. and the famous Companion, Hassaan ibn Thaabit.
Early poets, meaning those

.3)

who appeared
Examples

after the

Prophet (^) but

still

rela-

tively early in Islaamic history.
4)

in this category are Jareer
till

and Farazdaq.

Later poets,

meaning those who came
first

after the last category
is

the present time.

Concerning the
poetry of dispute

two

categories, there

no difference of opinion that their
third category has

may be used to among the

interpret the Qur'aan. scholars,

The

been the subject
time-

one of the reasons being the lack of any clear
between
this category

frame

to indicate a cut-oil point

and the

last

one. However, the

strongest opinion seems to be that the

famous poets

in this

category can be used to

interpret the Qur'aan, since at this early stage, the Arabic language

was

still

relatively

pure and free from the foreign influences that was indicative
last

ol later times.

As

for the

category, the majority ot scholars

do not allow

for the interpretation ol the

Qur'aan
use ol
for his

by their poetry, even though some (such as az-Zamakhsharee). allowed
their poetry, as

tin-

long as the poet was of a trustworthy character, and

known

knowledge or the Arabic language."

To conclude,
Such poetry
is

it

is

essential to have an extensive

poetry in order to properly understand certain

know ledge of Arabic language anil words and phrases in the Qur'aan.
interpretation of an ob-

only used
is

to obtain a linguistic

meaning or

scure word, and

not directly used to form the basis for any Islaamic rulings.

5)

Tafseer By Pue-Islaamic Arab Customs
knowledge that
is

Another

integral

essential in understanding the

Qur'aan
is

is

the

knowledge of the customs and manners of the prc-Islaamic Arabs. This
Qur'aan was revealed
in a certain society

because the

and time frame, and

it

addressed

many of
it

the issues related to that society. Therefore, in order to understand such verses,
essential to

is

know

the customs and

manners

that they are referring to, since the actual

verses themselves

do not allude

to them.

A few examples will

help illustrate this point. Allaah says in the Qur'aan,

653

cf.

'Abd ar-Raheem,

p. 56-57.

S16

An

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

<y^
•>

«

-"<' 5

••They ask you

(O Muhammad) concerning

the crescent. Say: 'They

arc-

signs to indicate fixed periods of time lor
/fiy/ (pilgrimage).'

mankind, and

(to indicate) the

And

ii

is

not righteousness to enter your houses from the
is

back, bui true righteousness

(he)

who

tears Allaah.

So

(therefore) enter

houses through their proper doors, and fear Allaah thai you
ful. |2:l

may

he success-

89 1.

A

reader of this verse

who

is

unaware
ol

of the
is

customs

of the pre-Islaamic

Arabs

will

bcwildercdly ask.

"Of what

relationship

the sighting of the crescent to entering
to the tear ol

houses from the front or hack, and

both of these acts

Allaah?"

The answer
Islaamic Arabs.
refrain

to this question lies in

knowing one
be sighted

ol the superstitions of the pre-

When

the

moon used

to

lor Hujj, the

pagans

ol old

would

from entering their houses through their front doors, and instead would jump

over their back walls to enter their houses. Thus, Allaah revealed in this verse the
prohibition of such superstitions, and told
in

them

thai true righteousness

was not found

any

superstition, but rather in the fear of Allaah.

In another verse, Allaah says.

«Aud

it

you fear thai you shall not be able
care, then

to deal justly ol

with (female) or-

phans under your
four- [4:3]

marry

women

your choice, two, three, or

"Urwah

ibn Zubair could not understand ihe relationship ol taking care of orphans

with marrying other
this confusion.

She

replied,

women. He went to his aunt, Aa'ishah, to ask her to clear up "O my nephew! This verse is referring to the orphan girl
is

who

is

in the care of to

her guardian, and he

attracted by her beauty

and wealth.

He

wishes

marry

her,

without paying her the dowry that she deserves, so this verse

prohibited

think that
to

them (the guardians) from marrying them (the orphans) it they did not they would be able to deal justly with these girls in their dowry, but instead
1 "'

marry other free women.""
to

In this incident, 'Aa'ishah's

knowledge

of pre-Islaamic

customs allowed her

understand the intent of

this verse.

654

cl".

Ibn Katheer,

v.

I.

p. 242.
v.

655 Paraphrased from Ibn Kathcer,

I.

p.

wx.

The
As
a last

Interpretation of the Qur'aan

-

Tafsccr

317

example, the Qur'aan says,

«Alla;ih has not ordained the baheera, or the saaibah, or the wascelah, or the
Innini, hut

those

who disbelieve invent

lies

against Allaah.

And most

of

them

have no understanding* [5:103]

Once again,
what

it

is

essential to turn to pre-Islaamic
is

Arab customs
Allaah

in

order to understand

this verse

referring

to.

The Arabs

of old

had certain superstitious religious
is

practices concerning their animals,

and

in this verse

informing them that

these practices have

no

basis in the religion of Allaah, but instead are lies that the
Him.'''"'
is

pagans had attributed to

Although

this

source of tafseer
it is

not essential in order to understand every single

verse in the Qur'aan,

nonetheless one of the necessary knowledges that a mufassir

must have.

6)

Tafseer By JudaeoChristian Narratives
in

The Judaco-Christian narratives are known

Arabic as hraa' eeliyaat These nar.

rations arc mostly found in ludaco-Christian sources, such as the Torah, the Bible

and the Talmud, although some were orally passed down. Although most of the hradeeliyaat deal with the stories of the previous nations, there are also narrations on
aspects of laws, beliefs

and the signs of the Day of Judgement.

Hadeeth Related

to Israel 'eeliyaat
that deal with the use anil value of hraa'eeliyaat,

There are three primary hadeeth
which,
at first glance,

seem

to contradict themselves.

However,

as usual in cases in

which hadeeth appear
is

to 'contradict'

one another, a closer inspection shows

that such

not the case.

The Prophet
verse of the
Israel

(-g«) said,

"Spread knowledge from me, even
of the

if

it

is

a sentence

(i.e.,

a

Qur'aan or hadeeth

Prophet (^g)), and narrate from the Children of
a lie

without hesitation, but whoever intentionally forges
of

upon me, then
all

let

him

prepare his place

residence in Hell."

10 '

In this hadeeth,

it

appears that

hraa eeliyaat

narrations can be accepted.
In

another hadeeth,

it is

reported that
(j|§)

'Umaronce came
I

to the
this,

Prophet

(5|§)

with a

copy of the Torah.
plied, "It
is

The Prophet
that
I

asked him, "What
so that
(-y§)
all

is

O

'Umarr'"

He

re-

a

book

had copied
the Prophet

can add,

to

my

(present) knowledge,

more knowledge." At
flushed,

this,

and he immediately ordered
Jhn Kaihccr.
v.

became so angry that his checks appeared the Companions to be called to the masjid.

656

el!

2, p.

121.

657 Reported by al-Bukhaaree.

slK

An
(-gg)

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

He
and

then stood up and said,

"O

people! Verily.
to

I

have been given the most concise
is

precise

of speech... and

I

have come

you with (the knowledge) that
in

pure.

Therefore, do not be misled.
alive right

I

swear by

Him

whose Hands
mc!""

is
,s

my

life,

were Moosaa

now, he would have no option but
to

to follow

In this narration, the

Prophet (^g) appears

be strongly prohibiting even reading hraa'eeliyaat narrations.

The
Torah

third hadecth dealing with the subject

mentions that the Jews would read the

in

Hebrew, and then explain

it

to the

Muslims

in Arabic.

The Prophet (^0
re-

remarked,
say,

"Do

not believe the People ol the Hook, nor disbelieve them, but rather,
in Allaah,

"We believe

and what has been revealed

to us.

and what has been

vealed to you.'" In this narration, the Prophet ($g) told the Muslims that they were
not allowed to believe in such narrations, nor could they deny their truthlulness. but

could only affirm that Allaah had sent
In
is

down

revelations to both communities.
It

combining these three narrations, the lollowing conclusion may be reached:

permissible to quote hraa'eeliyaat, as long as these narrations

do not

contradict any

verses of the Qur'aan or luideeth of the Prophet (^).

not be used as a source of

know ledge,

as their

However, such narrations canauthenticity is unknown - rather, Mus-

lims cannot outright deny their authenticity, nor can they convincingly affirm them.

The

permission to narrate from the Israa'ecliyaal "without hesitation' applies
Sitniia/i,

to

those narrations which do not contradict the Qur'aan or
time, the
in.

but at the same

Muslims
that

are

warned

that such narrations

cannot authoritatively be believed

The Prophet
felt
it

(^g) strongly objected to Ulnar's action ol reading the Torah since

'Umar
the

would increase

his

knowledge. The Prophet

(s^g)

explained that

all

knowledge

that

was

essential to

know was

available in the

Qur'aan and Sunnah.

The Qur'aan
ers

also
(cl.

makes an

allusion to the hraa'eeliyaat. In the story ol the 'Sleep-

of the Cave'

Soorah al-Kahf, verses 9-26). Allaah mentions the various opin-

ions that were held by the People of the

Book concerning

their exact

number:

f't*..

>.

>'

•And they
and
ing at the
eighth.

say that they

were

three, the
five,

dog being the fourth among them.

(others) say that they

were

the

dog being the

sixth

wildly

muss-

unknown. (Others) say that tin \ were seven, the clog being the Answer (() Muhammad): 'My Lord knows best their numbers; none
a lew."

knows them but

So do not debate with them except with clear

proof.

And do not

consult any ol

them

(the People ol the

Hook) about the

affair (of

the People of the Cavc)» [18:22]

65H Reported by Ahmad. See Irwua.

if

IWJ,

for

varying narrations.

The
In these verses, a
this

Interpretation of the Qur'aan

-

Tafsecr

319

number of points may be

derived. Firstly, the
first

number of people
silently

in

group was seven, since Allaah refuted the
last

two opinions, but

approved

the

one.

Secondly, the verse alludes to the fact that
that this

great value - rather one should respond

knowing such facts is of no knowledge is with Allaah. Thirdly,
at the

the Jews and Christians debate amongst themselves and with the Muslims on topics

concerning which they have no clear knowledge, wildly guessing
This shows that much of the Isnui eeliyaat
is

unknown.

the product of human authorship. Fourthly,
to be obtained by debating with the
in

due

to the last

two

facts, there is

no great benefit
for the

Jews and Christians, except concerning those matters

which there

exists certain

knowledge.

Lastly, there

is

no reason

Muslims

to question the Jews

and Chris-

tians concerning such narrations, since they themselves are only guessing,

and

if this
1

knowledge were of any benefit,

it

would have been revealed

in the

Qur'aan oxSiinncih.''*
it is

"

Since the Prophet ($^) allowed the narration of such literature,
to find

not surprising

prominent Companions, such

'Abbaas, quoting
the

many Israu'ccliyaal

narrations.

Romans

(13 A.H.), 'Abdullaah ibn

and Ibn During the Battle of Yarmuk against 'Amr found two loads of books of the Chrisas 'Abdullaah ibn

'Amr ibn

al-'Aas

tians

and Jews. These books formed the basis of many of his
of the

1

Israa eeliyaat narrations."'"
ol

However, none
This
is

Companions used
is

these narrations as sources

knowledge.

because the Qur'aan

explicit that the

Jews and Christians tampered with
revelation. Therefore,
still
it is

their respective scriptures,
sible to ascertain

and changed the divine

impos-

which

facts they

added and which are

intact.

During the period of the Successors, the lsraa 'eeliyaal literature began playing a more prominent role in tafsecr. This was primarily due to a number of famous scholars

who were originally

Jews and Christians, but had converted to Islaam. After their

conversion, they used to narrate the Israa'eeliyaat that they had learnt in their youth.

Famous among them were Ka'ab al-Ahbaar
1

(d.

32 A.H.),

Wahb
(d.

ibn

Munnabih
1

(d.

10 A.FI.),

and 'Abd al-Malik ibn 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Jurayj

159 A.H.).""

Unfortunately, later generations
in believing in \\u: Israa'eeliyaat,

became

lax

concerning the prophetic prohibition

literature

and thus many of these narrations entered inio tafsecr and were accepted as fact. Even such prominent scholars such as Imaam
(d.

Ibn Jareer al-Tabaree

310 A.H.) and Ibn Katheer

(d.

774 A.H.) are well-known

for

including such material in their tafsecr literature, although these two scholars would
usually point out the uselessness of such material.

The Categories of Israa' eeliyaat
As alluded
1)

to earlier, the Israa' eeliyaat

can be divided into three
in the

categories:'

1

'"'

Those narrations which arc confirmed
stories in the

Qur'aan and Sunnah. Most of the
in

Qur'aan concerning the previous nations are also found

the Bi-

659

ft- Ilin

Taymiyyah,

p. 57,
I, p. 185.

660 adh-Dhahabw, w
661
ibid.
v.

I,

p.

206.
v.

662 adh-Dhahabcc.

l.p.189.

MU An
ble.

Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan

The general themes
ol

of many stories are
of

common

to

both books, such as the

Flood

Nooh, and the prophethood

Ibraahecm, Moosaa and others. Such

narrations in the Bible
thenticity
2)

may be

accepted, since the Qur'aan confirms their au-

Those narrations which
ings.

contradict the Qur'aan, the Sunnak, or Islaamic teachto certain

For example, the Bible ascribes

prophets

evil

deeds, such as the

story of Loot's intercourse with his daughter-in-law, anil

Sulaymaan ordering
re-

the death of one of his generals so that he could marry his wife. Such crimes are

unacceptable to ascribe to prophets, and as such these narrations must be
jected as false. In other places in the Bible, Allaah
is

given certain characteristics

(such as regret, tiredness, anil ignorance) that do not befit
Isradeeliyaat cannot be narrated unless
3)

Him. These

types ol

one explains

their falsehood.

Those narrations concerning which the Muslims have no knowledge. The majority ol Isradeeliyaat narrations fall under this category. It has been allowed to
narrate such stories without actually believing in them. For example, almost
the stories in the Bible arc, in general,
terparts.
all

Names,

figures

and places
in the Bible

more which

detailed than their Qur'aanic coun-

are typically not

mentioned

in the

Qur'aan are mentioned
facts

and other

Isradeeliyaat material."'"
it is

These
they

cannot be accepted as truth by Muslims, for

not

known whether

were tampered with or not. Example of such
Children
ol Jacob, the

facts are the

names of the twelve

ixsAzraa'eel),""*

Death (known in Muslim literature dog of the Sleepers of the Cave, the part ol the the colour of the

name of the Angel
dead

of

cow

that

Moosaa

hit the

man

with, and the

names

ol the birds

which

Ibraaheem

resurrected."''"'
(d.

Ibn Taymiyyah
Isradeeliyaat.

724 A.H.). in summarising the potential usefulness of the
t|Uotcd, as the Imdceth (ol the Prophet (=^.))
reli-

comments, "They may be
let

permits

it,

but

us note that most of them have no value whatsoever so far as

gious matters arc concerned.""""

7)

Tafseer by Subjectivk Opinion
is

(Ra'y)

The last
bic as
ra'y.

source ot tafseer

tafseer

by subjective opinion,

commonly known

in

Ara-

In other words, a scholar uses his personal opinion

(i/ti/iaad) to arrive at

an

interpretation ol a verse,

and

this

is

called tafseer with ray.

66

5

This

is

a

lunhcr indication
fact is

ol the i'jiwz

<>l

the Qur'aan. lor there
to read

is

absolutely no benefit to be gained

by such knowledge, ami in
66-t

more tedious

than useful lo know.
ol the

This
I

name does
1

not occur in anv verse ot the

Qur'aan or luuict'lh
ilo

Prophet (5S). I'heretorc, n

is

saler not

oca

1

the angel ot death A/.raa'eel. since

WC

not

know

lor sure the authenticity of this
(I

name. For

further details, see Ashqar,
p. IH.

'UmarSulaiman, 'Aalimal-Malaaikatal-Abraar,

)aran-Nafais, Kuwait, 1986),

665

cf.

Ibn Tayniyyali. p. 56.
p. 56.

666 Paraphrased from Ibn Taymiyyah.

)

The

Interpretation of the Qur'aan

-

lb/seer 321

A number of scholars

have claimed that there

is

a difference of

opinion over the

legitimacy of this type of tafseer.

They claimed
it.

that certain scholars allowed this type

o( tafseer, whereas others prohibited
difference of opinion
is

In reality, as

many

researchers have shown, the

only

verbal.'"'"

This

is

because

ra'y is of

two

types:

ray that

is is

based upon knowledge and conforms with the Qur'aan and Sunna/i, and ray that

based upon desires and disagrees with the Qur'aan and Sunnah. Those scholars that
arc quoted as prohibiting tafseer with ra'y in reality are prohibiting the second cat-

egory of ray, and not

ra'y in

general.

The Two Types of Ray The evidence
is is

that ra'y

is

of two types

is

found

in the

Qur'aan, the Sunnah and the
is

statements of the Companions.

The

first

type of ray, which
is

based upon knowledge,

not prohibited, whereas the second type ofra'y, which
prohibited.

not based upon knowledge,

The
ing:1

proofs that ra'y based

upon knowledge

is

not prohibited arc manv, includ-

The

verse,

••Do they not reflect anil ponder over the Qur'aan?
their hearts (that prevent

Or

arc there locks

on

them from understanding

it)?» |-t7:24|

This verse asks
that there are

mankind

to

ponder and

reflect

over the Qur'aan, which shows

meanings and interpretations
ra'y.

that are to be obtained only after

contemplation - tafseer with
2)

The

verse,

«(This

is)

a

Book

that

We
its

have sent
verses,

down

to you. full ol blessings, so that
re-

they may ponder over

and that men of understanding may

member.

|38:29|

Once

again, the believers are told to

ponder over

its

verses.

The

verse,

-...I!

they had only referred

it

back to the Messenger, or to those

in authority

amongst them, then those who are qualified
rulings)

to extract interpretations (or

would have known

it>.

|4:83|

667 c£ adh-Dhahabee,
668 adh-Dhahabee,
v.

v.

I.

p. 267; ai-Tayyaar, p.

48; Ik. p. 171; ar-Roomee, p. 79.

l,pps. 265-274; ar-Roomee, pps. 78-85.

)

322

An

Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan

This verse shows that there are people (the scholars) who are qualified to extract some knowledge that others might not be able to, once again proving that tafseer

with ra v
4)

is

allowed,

if

based upon knowledge.

The

prayer that the Prophet (jg)

made

for Ibn 'Abbaas,
to the
(i^g)

"O Allaah!

Grant him

interpretation"

shows

that there are
is

meanings

Qur'aan that are not obvi-

ous to everyone, and that
given this knowledge.
5)

why

the Prophet

prayed that Ibn 'Abbaas be

The Companions and
than
just narrations,

those after
this

them

all

interpreted the Qur'aan with more
is

and

proves that tafseer based upon ray

allowed. For

example,
in

when Aboo Bakr was asked concerning the case ol l^alaalah mentioned

verse 4:176, he replied, "I say with
if
it

my

ra'y, so

il

it

is

correct,

it is

from Allaah,

and

is

incorrect,

it

is

from myself and ShayUian."'"" This shows that Aboo
ra'y.
it,

Bakr interpreted the Qur'aan based upon
6)

The

fact that ijtihaad
is

is

a part

of this religion, and with
religion. Tafseer

any stagnation
ra'y is

that

might have existed
ijtihaad,

removed from the

with

one type of

and thus allowed.

The
1

proofs that ra'y based
verse,

upon

desires

is

prohibited are:

The

••Say:

My

Lord has only prohibited
thai

evil

deeds, the apparent and hidden ol

them,...
[7:33]

and

you say concerning Allaah (hat which you do nol know

2)

The

verse,

•Ami do not follow

thai

which you have no knowledge

of»

1

17:36]

These two
is

verses discourage speaking without knowledge,
is

and included

in this

ray that

not based

upon knowledge.

3)

The many
that ol

narrations that exist from the salaf that

show

their caution in inter-

preting the Qur'aan without any knowledge. Perhaps the most

famous quote do not know?"''
is

is

Aboo

Bakr,

who

said,

"What

earth

would give

me

support, and
I

what sky

would

shelter

me,

if I said

concerning the Book of Allaah what
ra'y
is

The above evidences
thy,

prove that

divided into two types:

ra'y that

praisewor-

The ra'y that is praiseworthy is that which is based upon knowledge, and performed by one who is qualified to do so. Therefore, this type
and
ra'y that is

blameworthy.

669 ai-Talxircc,
67(1

v.

4. p. 28-1.

ar-Roomee,

p.

X2.

the statements of the Companions anil the rules ol the Arabic language. however..) The Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 323 of ray does not contradict the Qur'aan. Any time an interpretation based is on any other source ol tafseer. 673 Reported bj Aboo Nu'aym. Suffice to say. 4) t) To extract and elaborate the morals that are to be gained from Qur'aanic stories. anil an ability to grasp meanings that are not apparent in a verse. and as such is it. that such interpretations (specifically weakest source than it lor those it generations alter the Companions) are the not allowed to contradict any source higher ra'y contradicts it is ol tafseer. . A Divine Blessing Perhaps one ol the most important is factors that is essential in order to arrive at a proper interpretation based upon ra'y tafseer a divine blessing from Ailaah. Such types ol ra'y typically contradict stronger sources ol tafscci: Where It is is Ray Used? tafseer obvious that by personal reasoning (ra'y) cannot. Ailaah will bless "Whoever Tears him with knowledge of that which he does not know. must be rejected. rather. Some 1 scholars have classified the areas that ra'y in a verse that might be used as lollows:'"' To uncover meanings conform with Arabic.»|2:282] (. anil Ailaah will (each you. An example ol this is when a certain linguist sees why one phrase or woril has been used in a certain context over its synonyms. be explained or confined to a particular methodology. 1 75. This is because based upon ra'y requires a keen intellect. even though there are certain knowledge cannot be gained through books. 672 Reported by al-Bukhaarec. and the Qur'aan."'' 7' This is also alluded to in the verse: -So fear Ailaah. 2) To discover certain hidden aspects of the Qur'aan within the realm of human limit. literary i'jaaz ol the To demonstrate the Qur'aan. that the Prophet ($g) prayed for Ibn 'Abbaas was this type ol understanding Bless when he (jg) said.. such a ra'y is based on these sources. However. P . "O Ailaah! him with the knowledge of interpretation."' this type of it. their perspectives. These qualities are from the blessings It and mercy of Ailaah. and cannot be achieved by book-know ledge alone. ways to achieve As Ailaah with the knowledge he knows. The ra'y that is blameworthy is that which is performed without knowledge. the Sunnah. the scholars of the past said. 3) To sec the goals of certain verses and understand An example ol this is when a scholar puts lorth a certain relationship between a set ol verses. by its very definition. by one who is not qualified to perform it.71 ci: Ik. since there no guarantee that correct.

Part of this belief that he must believe that the Qur'aan is the actual l{alaam of (d.i.(a mufassir) must witness that it (the Qur'aan) is the /(a/aam of Allaah. ar-Koomic. and will gain more knowledge. "It is impermissiis any person to give verdicts concerning the religion of Allaah. a disease in his heart (which prevents him from understanding C>7-f . 1 required to have. 2. or defend his particular sect or beliefs.) 324 An If a Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan person makes his intentions sincere for the sake of Allaah. is However.H. mufassir.?7. Ibn al-Qayyim 758 A.is. Allaah (and not an 'expression' of the l(alaam of Allaah!). 677 ar-Roomee. lor motive be to defame Islaam.ili. 11-1 >. these are only summary of and others. pps.in-N.. 22S. and its interpretation.H. p. 3) To be free from If a person is practising or believing in innovations.'' and the others are external and The proper intentions.) said. I ^6-42: Xamralcc. he ma/foe must be knowledgeable its As-Suyootee. sect. which Allaah actually spoke. or of a hereti- misguided will then he cannot be trusted to in interpreting the Quraan. lists fifteen characteristics that a person must have a qualified to interpret the Qur'aan. On top of this. 12-t. pps. and its muhfcam from from its its mulashaabih. ". the qualities that a mufassir are listed briefly below. a person does not believe that the Qur'aan from Allaah. Anil none can grasp givings its meanings unless ii his heart is free of misreally and doubts with regards is to the Qur'aan. it! As was quoted ble for earlier Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee 204 A. "All actions are by inten- The mufassir must intend to please Allaah by this action of interpreting to the Qur'aan. Some 7 '' of these qualities. 1 2.). since the Prophet tions.. and to respect the Qur'aan. 67^ as-Suyooicc. innovating in the religion of Allaah. and its of the Sunnah. 676 Reported by al-Bukhaaree ami others. and madanee. and have the proper beliefs concerning it. the mufassir Quraan."" " (j§|) said.. 2) The correct cal or his Islaamic beliefs ('aqcedah). before he is in his al-Itqaan. and he must intend guide people to the Straight Path to the best of his abilities. pps. If a person is not a Muslim. The Qualifications of a Mufassir A person who wishes to interpret the Qur'aan (a mufassir) and qualities before he just pick is must to fulfill certain con- ditions allowed of to explain the Qur'aan people . v. unless he its naasiltfi knowl- edgeable of the Book of Allaah. . v. and from its mansooltfi. then he will have no qualms in the interpretation about innovating must love and respect the is of the Book of Allaah. Also. and which was revealed and is to the Prophet (s^g) by inspiration. The first four are inherent qualities that arc essential in a acquired.. and its process of revelation. it is very likely that he be blessed with this type of ability. and practices the strives to knowledge that he knows.not eve- rybody can up the Book from Allaah and start interpreting (d." m asbaab an-nuzool. then there the Qur'aan). p.

1 1. These are the knowledges u( ma'aaiii. so that he is aware ol the various interpretations ol the verses pertaining to laws. shaadh ami baatjl qiraaats. a person whose primary language is Arabic is not necessarily knowledgeable of Arabic to the level that is required to interpret the Qur'aan. 679 This one point is a summary ol three different points in the liqaan. all ot which arc types ol knowl- edge related to the Arabic language. odology was outlined in the A basic introduction to this meth- previous section. eloquence and manners of ol oratory. A endowment that is not possible to obtain by one's self. including .) The 4) Interpretation <>i the Quraan - Tafseer 325 Repentance and a pious Allaah to the best of his heart. .'"' 12) 13) The know ledge the s_al±ecl±. This condition means that a mufassir must fear abilities. Inulee'. and not return to This is because. malice and madanee. This type of intellect was what the Prophet ($g) prayed for when he prayed for Ibn 'Abbaas. (satf).""'" 5) A thorough and proper understanding of the fundamentals of religion so that a mufassir can avoid falling into {'aqecdah). X) ')) Knowledge Knowledge of Arabic of grammar (nahw). that many of the heresies and innovations Qur'aan. The knowledge of the The knowledge principles of J/q/i (usool al-fiqh). he it. must immediately meanings. of course. is "No heart can understand the Qur'aan. and related sciences. Such knowledge must. "O Allaah. 15) 16) 17) The knowledge The knowledge oiasbaab an-mtzool. so that he can interpret die verses pertaining to laws in a proper manner. grant him divine an understanding of interpretation. 7) Knowledge of the Arabic language and its vocabulary. (-yg). be on a scholarly level. in The knowledge of the hadeeih of the Prophet the interpretation ol the Qur'aan. and bayaan. This is a type of gift from Allaah to whomever He chooses. ex- repent to Allaah for that sin. p. Arabic morphology basis of Arabic 10) 1 1 Knowledge of the words and word structures (ishliqaaq) 1 Knowledge of Arabic rhetoric. of naasiffh and mansookfi. or grasp it pure. particular those related to 1 8) The knowledge of all the other branches of 'uloom al-Qur'aan. muhfcam and mutashaubih and the types 19) ol\' i'jaaz of the Qur'aan. and is impossible for a heart lull of evils and innovations to understand the meanings of the Qur'aan properly. as Ibn alits Qayyim cept if it said. da 'cej. misguided 6) sects did with regards to the understanding of the Following the proper methodology of tafseer. 14) oi'fiq/i itself. and related sciences." 678 Zamralcc. and if he falls into a sin.

the Arabic- fore. From is this list. For each category. 164. ibn "Abel al-Haliim: hjiiiLhi J>-Sn\hii al-MlIStaqccm. this does not imply that all that is based upon that one particular methodology. bur rather that ol the general methodology the book ol is as shown. and the general laws and commandments are in Islaam. 1994) (>xi 469. In addition. all tafscers have been written into broad categories. Riyadh. this is due As to their for the knowledge type Arabic vocabulary. all <>l 682 The primary Ivrv references tor the names. and discuss the general principles that each category has in common. Ahmad 2. Na. therefore. I )r. az-Zarkashec. this refers to the basic principles of Islaam. this is the knowledge of the Day ol Judgement anil the actuality ol the Attributes of Allaah. As for the all which the scholars aware ol. qualified to interpret the verses ol the Qur'aan in is a manner which others arc incapable of. an-Najdcc (entire work). v.isir al-Aql. such as the Oneness of God (tawlwed). the finality of the prophelhood of Muhammad type (*yg). examples the most methodology will be given. and are capable afijtihaad. a type divided into four types: a type that the Arabs know by the scholars are aware for the type which no one can be excused from not knowing. 144-152). in general. ". classifications. into which almost can be classified. Maktabah ar-Rushd. lid.almost hall are directly related to the for knowledge ol the Arabic language.mil slum critiques ol these tajiccts were: adh-Dhahabcc \\u in-. fifteen conditions that as-Suyootec mentions in his seven . (entire work). is not feasible to discuss of them. The Types of Tafseer is Ibn 'Abbaas said. It is possible."""' ()X(I Ibn Taymiyynh. however. During the and that it history of Islaam. what is meant in this section by the types" of tafseer are the various methodologies that the scholars of tafseer have used while interpreting the Qur'aan.. categories. They are. grammar and the principles of rhetoric."'' As ol which the Arabs are aware of because ol their speech. the knowledge required every other condition (in terms of books and scholars) is not available in any language other than Arabic! It is not surprising. such as the time ol the known only to Allaah.326 An Introduction to the Sciences ot the Qur aim can he appreciated that not everyone it.H. |>. .) saying language is a part ol the religion (ol Islaam)!"" vi. However. ar-Roomcc (pps. and the relevant tafscers . and a type which none can know except for Allaah. which is lar from exhaustive. a certain tafseer in that tafseer is is placed in one category. As lor the type of whose knowledge matters the unseen. "Tafseer their language. the Qur'aan has been subject to all hundreds oltafseers. 72K A. to divide the tafseer?. p. The when found various tafscers can. therethat. which no one can be excused from not knowing. it qualified to pick up the Qur'aan anil start interpreting in particular if he is not even familiar with Arabic! Ol the list. Ofcourse. a type which sl of. be classified in one of six main each of which has certain commonalties that which will be discussed below.. this is because they are knowledgeable of the branches of 'ulootn al-Qur'aan. to see Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. and some will be elaborated famous tafscers that were written with that upon in the next section.

p. ol narrations is from the Prophet (^) and the sa/af This tafseer was only printed recently. recently. 4) Al-Kashf wa al-Bayaan A.H. and one ol the Imaams of science at jarh wa ta'dcel (the science of categorising the people of narrations reliability). "Some of them In addition. and statements of the Companions and Successors.H.there are a large reported by ath-Tha'labee... (d.. This work only in manuscript was only printed ol die narrations. and compiled thousands m* (d. Tafseer based This category is Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafsccr 527 on Narrations tafsccr known is as tafsccr bil mathoor. ol tafseer all but he cared little about his sources. is also reported that is Imaam Ahmad Hambal (d. 241 A. age reader confused. This type the most authentic and proper ol course. 249 A. by Muhammad ibn ]areer at-Tabaree (d. It is all narrations ol tafsccr bi al-ma'thoor in print: around these four great works. I. by Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazce (3gg) 327 A. Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah 724 said. . luidecth ol of the Prophet tafsccr is.M. The author is a famous scholar of luidecth. he ascribes views said.H. thus leaving an averit. Commenting on this tafsccr. 310 A. by Aboo al-Layth as-Samarqandee 375 A. 90. Mtiqaddimah. the How- work is a useful reference. reported that first and the revolve of Ibn al-Mundhir (d.. the tafseer of'Abd ibn Huniayd (d.'. and one of the works in the field of tafseer bi a/-nnithoor. Although the author quotes from the sa/af.). As a number ol fabricated luidecth which have been man. pps 214-261. ). 2) Tafsccr al-Qitraan a/. or the referenced work where the isnaad was found.H. the tafseer of Ibn Abee Haatim tafseer (d. weak and fabricated.) 'an Tafsccr a/-Ottr'aan. method ol tafsccr. but this too p.) authored a voluminous work ol tafsccr. oi tafsccr bi al-ma'tlumr. and copied from the books kinds of things without discriminating between the authentic. Bahr al-'U/oom. tafsccr of Ibn jareer 6K4 There arc lour primary works (d. or based on narrations. In his based upon their acceptance and work ol tafsccr. he a decisive rarely draws conclusion between these opinions.H. Also sec adh-Dhahabee's work. the at-Tabaree 310 A. this type ol tafseer are:"'" The most important works based on 1 jaami' al-Bayaan (d.). he does not include the isnaads thus making it difficult to benefit fully from it..)."''' 6X5 ar-Roomcc. missing. in the liclil v. the at least authors ol this type of tafseer included isnaads of the narrations..) The A.) (This work will be discussed in greater detail in the next section). especially it one wishes to obtain early inter- pretations of a verse after the time of the sa/af. and interpretations to unknown scholars.H. In ol the other words. On occasion. (sy?). This work the is a compilation ol narrations from the Prophet and the sa/af concern- ing tafseer.527 A.H. 40 . he kept his own comments classic 3) to a minimum. 685 Ibn Taymiyyah.). ath-Tha'labee was righteous and pious.. only the I( two are the other two have not. 518 A. been discovered in manuscript form. ". ibn as of yet.'Adheeni. Typically. 'an Ta'tvcel Aay al-Oitr'aan. Certain Soojic tendencies are also to be found in ever. the Qur'aan interpreted based upon other verses Qur'aan.). after having existed tor centuries form..H. 427 A. alter quoting the various opinions concerning a verse. by stating. by Aboo Ishaaq ath-Tha'labee (d.).H. Unfortunately.

(d. and the language and grammar of the Quraan. ars praised is his most famous work). except that he avoided narrat- ing fabricated traditions anil the views ol the innovators. its it The author was a very famous scholar ol Andalus.'Adheem. Ash-Shanqeelee has been called by is scholar of this century. Unfortunately. by Muhammad of ibn 'Alee ash-Shawkaanee (d. anil this work the author conditioned just one indication upon himself to interpret the Qur'aan with the Qur'aan ol (although he did not interpret every verse). it needs be critically edited to differentiate the weak narrations from the authentic ones.Tha'labce also delves extensively into the grammar ol the Quraan. 77-4 A. but pointed has minor errors in 1 '*' it.328 An Introduction to the Sciences <>l the Quraan ol Israa'eeliyaat narrations.H. The author summarised this tafseer dred works (some of them not extant anymore). as-Suyootee compiled the narrations he could find Irom the Prophet ($yg) verse.Tha'labcc's tafseer. ) Adwaa' al-Bayaanfcc ash-Shanqeetce al-Our aan bi al-Oitr'aan. p.H. and Many schol- hh tafseer. 565. In the work.H. by Ibn "Atiyyah al-Andalusee (d. ami eventually became out that 7) Chief Judge (Oaadee). however.Sharh as-Sunnah. Yemen. The author was a lamous scholar is time. 9) Ad-Durar al-Maiithoor fee at -Tafseer bi al-Mdthoor.).Azecz.H. and the rulings and opinions concerning the verses related lafiqh. 1. he passed away before he could complete hS6 Ibn Taymiyyah. In this work. by Ahoo (il. [alaal all ad-Deen as-Suyootee 911 A. and refer- enced. Al-jawaahir al-Hjissaan Tha'aalibee (d.il-Qanaan.). to No student knowledge can afford be without this work.H.). 546 A.). it. .393 A. anil Ibn Taymiyyah said "The tafseer ot al-Baghawee a summarised version ol at. by (d. Ash-Shawkaanee managed to eloquently summarise an five interpreta- tion ol the 1 1 Qur'aan based on these various methodologies into 'Ecda/i volumes. Ibn Taymiyyah praised hhtajscer. -1". Muhammad ai-Husayn a very ibn 516 A. 1(1) Fatk al-Oadeer. by Muhammad al-Ameen many the of that.""'"' the interpretations of the salaf without isnaad. The author was is famous scholar fiqh.).H. by Ibn Katheer ad-Dimashqee (d. This tafseer contains a large quantity Alh. 5) Ma'aalim at-Tanzeel. differences the i/ira'aat.). and one of the greatest scholars of his an excellent combination of interpretation based upon narrain proper ray. Miu/iiddimu/i. primarily basing 'Atiyyah's work. a hunon Ibn Most of the quotes from other tctfseers are verbatim. 1250 A.H. This tafseer tions. 6) The tafseer mentions Al-Mtiharraral-Wajcczfcc Tafseer al-Kitaab al. The work its is and the salaf concerning the interpretation of every voluminous and extremely useful. hadeeth. .). (This work 8) will be discussed in greater detail in the next section). (>X7 p. fee Tafseer al-Oitr'aan. in order to maxto imise value. by Abd ar-Rahmaan from over it ath- 876 A. Tafseer al-Our aan a/. ol ol Inideeth (his Mas'ood al-Baghawee book ol tafseer.

was defined and discussed These tafsccrs are based primaof a verse. and also included At times. he own ijtihaad. (d. The is author based his tafscer on some narrations from the his salaf. 297-368. general.tafscer of the Qur aan this with the Qur'aan and Sunnah .H. tafscer might be considered as having followed 1'1 based upon ra'y praiseworthy arc: "1 Mafaatih al-Ghayb. However. the arose was that the two primary sources of tafseer . B. Also see adh-Dhahabee.pps. with the proper emphasis on each type. and completed the this list is main student (Shaykh Atiyyah Saalim) took over from where last two volumes of the ttifsccr. 606 A. in other words.were not given great emphasis by most of these scholars. the works listed followed the methodol- with narrations. the on ijtihaad from the mufassir. v. Thus. but his Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 329 he left. 691 A. Tafsf-fj* based Tafsecr ar-Ra'y rily ox Personal Opinions earlier. and neither arc in all Of course. and ar- Raazce's 'scientific' interpretations of certain verses. and tafseer based upon blameworthy ra'y.The the work. based on the nuances of the phrasing various linguistic connotations carried by a word.H. and gave this methodology precedence over others. p. by Naasir ad-Decn al-Baydaawce (d. and other factors. since these were not considered while interpreting a verse. the as having works of Ibn Katheer and ash-Shawkaanee) can be considered combined these two types of tafscer. and secondary sources were used to interpret the Qur'aan. some of these and hadecth of tafseers (but not all) became well known for contradicting other verses the Prophet tion. az- Zamakhsharee's work.). ogy of tafscer the works mentioned cor- rect in all that they say. I. influenced by az-Zamakhsharee's opinions in 'aqeedah. 103. 688 ar-Roomee. (-ig). while tafscer based on ijtihaad (ray) only used as long as does not contra- anything stronger than it. Some of the works mentioned above (for example. Of course. The works The works that 1) is that can be classified in this category can be sub-divided into two cat- egories: tafsecr based upon praiseworthy that my. tafsecr One dict of the best forms one in which is by narrations it is given prec- edence. Although some of ihe taj'scers written with problem that methodology are useful works. this does not imply that the narrations of the Prophet (^g) and Companions are absolutely ignored in these works. by Fakhr ad-Decn ar-Raazee be discussed in greater detail in the next section). and ar-Raazce's work. not exhaustive. scholars in who did not have the proper 'aqeedah wrote interpretato tions of the Qur'aan which they sought ol tafsecr is \ defend and prove their innovations. In additafseers some of these were written based upon the type ol my that is blamewor- thy. .) (This work will 2) Anwaar at-Tanzeel wa Asraar at-Ta'wcel. but rather that the primary purpose and source of these seers taf was ijtihaad.

The author was an is ardent Ash'aree in 'aqeedah and Hanafce aifiqh.) This is a very useful work.). so his student. as-Suyootee. This tafseer was started by al-Muhalla. by 'Alaa ad-Dccn al-Khaa/.H. except that beliefs lie found in the latter. 701 A. as al-Khateeb lengthy title. 5) Gharadib al-Qur'aan wa Raghaaib al-Furqaan. primarily due to 8) simplicity and modest As-Siraaj al-Muneerfee al-I'aanathi alaa al-Hakeem al-Khabcer.in A. since the author concentrated on the literary i'jaaz. and critiques the views of ar-Raazee and az-Zamakhsharee. the tion of tlie Qur'aan. His tafseer Baydaawee's and az-Zamakhsharec's works. it. by Jalaal Jalaal ad-Deen as-Suyootee This tafseer is (d.). but he died before completing his death. .H. by Nidhaam ad-Dccn ibn al-Hasan The author based his tafseer primarily on arRaazce's work. the Qur'aan so that the average Muslim could read The author works ol benefits Irom and quotes manv works of the tafsecrs (in particular. work to turn to in order to obtain a linguistical analysis is Another ol az- salient feature of this tafseer that Aboo Hayyaan refutes many Zamakhsharcc's he shows heretical ideas from the Arabic language is itself (in other words. Despite its known f. 864 A.) and his student.H. very popular amongst the masses. In addition. lor he frequently gives his own opinan-Naysabooree (d.H. certain Soofic interpretations. (d. merely ol summaprimarily some the tafseer* written before his time.H. and added many benefits Irom az-Zamakhsharce's work. The author was not merely a compiler of quotes. 91 1 A. discussions.Mu'lazilec and his tafseer a clear indication of this. by (d. ad-Deen al-Muhalla (d.H. ar-Raazee and az-Zamakhsbarec). by Aboo al-Barakaat an-Nasafcc is (cl. and accentuated work seems be more of a grammatical discussion than interpretais Qur'aan.). At first grammatical analysis glance. the tafseer primary purpose was to simplify and condense the interpretation of it. he strives to show the relationship between the arrangement of the verses of the Qur'aan. the tafseer contains a some philosophical . 7-45 Muhammad ol the to ibn Vbosuf.. rised 741 The author.). 6) Al-Bal±r al-Muheei. as the author mentions the various differences that the scholars of held concerning the analysis (i'raab) of certain verses.). otherwise known asAbooHayyaan its A. 7) Tafseer al-falaalayn. primarily based on aldeletes \\\<. Litbaab at-Tdweel fee Ma'aanee at-Tanzeel.330 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 3) Maclaaril{ at-Tanzeel wa Haqaa'iq at-Tdweel. other977 A. by wise Shams ad-Deen Muhammad as-Sharbeenee (cl. Ma 'rifat/ii ba 'di Ma 'aanec Kalaami Rabina ibn Muhammad. The tafseer summarises a/. basing his summary on al-Baghawee's work. and defence of the views of the Ash'arees against the views ol the Mn'tazilah. completed it alter perhaps the most famous tafseer its in this category. how az-Zamakhsharee incorrect in deriving certain beliefs based upon Arabic grammar). but this perhaps the most distinctive feature of the work.Zam a khsharce's comments ol on the 4) literary eloquence the verses. as he himself mentions in his introduction. al-Baghawce. the al-Baydaawee. ions. However. first grammar have This work is perhaps the of a verse. anil includes his own critical comments as well.H. and size. 728 A.

(This tttfieer will be discussed ?J next section).). also of the Mh 'tazilah. and with the every tafseer written by a scholar ol this type ol tafseer. by Aboo 'Alee al-Fadl ibn Hasan at- Tabarsee (d. Al-Kashaaf by Mahmood az-Zamakhsharee (d. defender His aim in this tafseer was it is to present the meanings and interpretations ol the Qur'aan in simple language. The author was a famous scholar ol Syria. It is available in five small volumes. 982 A. (d. plain It a person wishes to understand the Qur'aan in and simple language. This tafseer a moder- ate-sized one. Shihaab ad-Deen al-Aloosee quotes and benefits from too 1270 A. on many occasions.).). This tafseer is primarily a collection and his tafseers.'Adheem wit as-Saba al-Mathaanee. and its discussion ol the eloquence of the Qur'aan.). a Shee'ite scholar. while others are relatively error-tree (such as as-Sa'adee's work). that the fact that these tafseers followed ray based contrary. ' (I) Rook n/-Mi/ a mice fee ' Tafseer al-Quraan al. H. and his work earned him considerable praise by the scholars of his lime. Maj/na' al-Bayaan fee Tafseer al-Our'aan. in fact.H.). and the author purposely keeps summary ol quotes Irom comments to a minimum.) and others. one of the leading scholars 2) Ma'tazilah. are ol the heretical sects many. However. and a 1376 A.H. and this is why some scholars use this tafseer as an example ol tafseer al-ishaaree (to be discussed below).).H. by (d.H. without any detailed discussions or evidences from other sources. however.The ( Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 331 ') Irshaad al- 'Ac// as-Saleem ilea Mazaaya al-Kitaab al-Karecm.H. this is the reference that he should obtain. in the 538 A. other 12) Tafseer al-Kalaam al-Mannaan. upon knowledge does not imply that all that is contained in them is correct. 1 1) Maluiasin at-Ta'weel. This tafseer tafseer for the is perhaps the most useful work of layman who does not wish if to go into any detail about the various interpretations of the Qur'aan.H. and certain wisdoms behind 1 arrangement. Per- intention of defending innovations. by Aboo as-Sa'ood is Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-'Imaadee especially usciul lor its (d. ol the The author was one of the most famous scholars ol aqeedah ol the salaf. 1354 A. . 415 A. The of one tafseers that are written with ra'y that is based upon desires. 538 A. hence included in this category.H. 1332 A. by 'Abd ar-Rahmaan as-Sa'adec Arabia. on the some of them contain grave errors (such as the works of an-Nasatee ami arRaazee). must be mentioned. and also gives his opinions. by (amaal ad-Deen al-Qaasimee (d. A voluminous work: the author many tafseers. such as Muhammad Rasheed Rida (d. the author gives bizarre Soofi interpretations to a verse.). by Qadec ol the Abd al-Jabbaar al-Hamadanee (d. can be considered an example haps the more famous 1) ol these tafseers are: Tanzeeh al-Oiiraan 'an al-Mataa'in.

with particular emphasis on law-related verses. Rawa'i" al-Bayaan Tafseer Aaytaat a/-Ah/(aam. Tafseer of the Jurists The Qur'aan it is is. Nayl al-Maraam fee Tafseer Aayat a/~Ah/<aam. This type of tafseer fact. Tafseer Ahfraam al-Ouraan.r-Roomcc. by Ibn al-Jawzee (d. Primarily written from a Maalil^cc perspective.) This tafseer only discusses those verses that deal with JJq/i. 458 A. the primary source offiqh. known as tafseer al-fuqahaa. by a 1) Aboo Bakr ibn and is al-'Arabee (d.). for methodology in the interpretation of the Quraan. Even though not primarily meant for fiqh.H. He also restricts himself to those verses related and does not conform to one partictdar madh-hab. hab. considered to be from a Maalikee perspective. Therefore no surprise to find that certain scholars tafscers have turned to the Qur'aan with this in mind.H. 94. its nonetheless can be considered a Hamba/ee 6) tafseer in discussion of verses related to fiqh. by Aboo Bakr al-Bayhaqee (d. Some 1) of the famous tafseers written with this methodology include: as al-Jassaas Tafseer Ahfcaam al-Ouraan. al-Ouraan).). or tafseer of the jurists. This tafseer is Hanafee point of view.H. or jurisprudence. This compilation of narrations from Imaam as-Shaafi'ee. modern author Muhammad to fiqh. otherwise known written from a 370 A. tafseer is 2) Akfcaam al-Ouraan.). <i) Tafseer Aayaat al-Ah_kaam. 1307 A. it Zaad al-Maseer fee this tafseer is 597 A. by (d. 'Urn at-Tafseer. This one also fined to one madh-hab.). and do not discuss verses primarily related to other matters. and written with the primary purpose of extracting laws from the is Qur'aan. is and is not con- 689 . the tafseer 5) is the tafseer emphasises the aspects related to the fiqh of a verse.).. However. all Although al-Qurtubce discusses the opinions concerning the fiqh of a verse. of course. incor- To place this tafseer in the category of tafseer bi al-ma'thoor the author follows the proper would not be icct. . 67 1 A. by the 'Alee as-Saboonee. Siddecq Hasan Khaan (d. p.H. 543 A. by Manaa' al-Qattaan (author ol Mabaabithfee 'Uloom restricted to verses related to fiqh. by Aboo "Abdullaah al-Qurtubce (d. The author was one of the scholars otAhl al-Hcideeth does not conform to and therefore his tafseer 7) one particular madh-hab.H. However.' 332 An Introduction to the Sciences ol the Qur'aan C. Aboo Bakr ar-Raazee. 4) considered a reference tor the madh- Al-Jaami' li Ahfyiam al-Ouraan. In some tafeecrs of this type only deal with those verses that have a direct relation- ship to fiqh. most of the classics in this field discuss all the verses of the Qur'aan.H. by Muhammad in India.

and underwater ol diving!"'"' As can be seen. pps.H.). sowing. abso- lutely essential that the proper methodology for extracting these scientific facts be followed. Shaykh Tantaawee (awharee 1359 A. ol the over-zealousne-s ol 1 brand of tafseer than ad-Adh-Dhahabee's discussion of the _'. Most even went to ludicrous extremes. or tafseer al- This type of tafseer. V. Scientific Tafseer Another category of tafseer 'ilmee. perhaps one ol the most extreme being Tafseer al-Maraaghee. precise measuring. Unfortunately. its title. had 'founded' and laid down the sciences and principles medicine."''' This type of tafseer the Qur'aan is I mean tafseer al-'ilmec. 518-522. and encourages knowledge but to claim that it basis for the principles ot these disciplines is absurd. is true that the Qur'aan docs not in general. but never all any discipline or principle explained. and very 690 For a list ol the various verses thai have been used to 'prove' these aspects. i. To presume that these sciences are it based on the Qur'aan requires quite a degree of imagination. in this category are Mafaatihal-Ghayb. The two most famous tafseers Deen ar-Raa/. was pointed out earlier in the section of scientific i'jaaz. Oitraan al-Kareem. and states. and. ol this not the father ot all of creation. baking. by the famous Egyptian scholar. some is these topics are not mentioned as such in the Qur'aan at all. pps. ol angels nndjinns. is He even goes to the extreme of claiming that Aadam since 'modern historical Dr. condemn forms the these sciences. algebra. these authors sought to provethat the Qur'aan mentions every type of science and knowledge known to man. this 2. There are other tafseers that have been influenced to various degrees by this type ol interpretation. 5s4.H. most on occasion. it is However.The Interpretation ot the Qur'aan - Tafsecr 333 D. metallurgy. these tafseers seek to elaborate upon as the scientific t'/aas ol the Quraan. 51 -588.ee (d. and denies the existence on the presumption and that these lads are not explainable by science. carpentry. weaving. p. instead. alfawaahirfee Tafseer al(d. 691 an-Najdec. the author denies or distorts almost all the supernatural miracles of the prophets. astronomy. These tafseers concentrate on Qur'aan which discuss nature and aspects related to the physical world. This author has not seen a better refutation topic. 1952 CE). and seek to explain these verses in the light of 'modern' science. it 692 adh-Dhahabee. 6'"!! scientific research does not support this theory' Muhammad adh-Dhahabee. by Fakhr ad- 606 A. meteorology. complains ol the increasing popularity ol this type of tafseer. agriculture. the modern and discovered has became increasingly widespread in our times. Therefore. basic aspects of these sciences are mentioned or hinted at. tanning. 69. 2. of these interpretations claiming that the Qur'aan ot engineering. . as can be presumed trom seeks to interpret the those verses in the Qur'aan based upon scientific facts. see ailh-Dhahabec. by Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-Maraaghee (d. p. almost none ol the tafseers that are famous for this type of interpretation followed such a methodology. which tries to prove thai the un- composed of all types of disciplines. one of the foremost scholars ofcomparative tafseer century.) (also mentioned above). is what has been termed 'scientific tafseer. In this work.

or that the Qur'aan a reference to all the sciences a gross error.. 2. 694 ibid.. 693 Ash-Shaatibee further stated iinimuh.e. ii v. and neither should one exert all his efforts in The Qur'aan was sent as a guidance for to lay mankind so that they could prop- erly worship their Creator. These authors tailed to realise.the siilaf ol this Companions and yet the Successors ol the and those that its came alter them. they had become engrossed in such subjects. loo much em- phasis should not be given to this topic. from the that. and exam- ined (the Qur'aan such a light). shows that it is not worth holding in such importance.. this field. In reality. (i.. =525. Qur'aan and sciences and what was hidden and none of them spoke of these tilings that are claimed to exist except lor what il we discussed in us. 79(1 A. the this type of interpretation if it is resorted Tafseer al-'ilmee is an important type of tafseer. in the is true that the Quraan contains scientific facts sixth century CE would not know. this it the salafdid not place too it much emphasis on — facts that a is this type oStafseer. then no! if In other words.334 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan and care lor the popular lor those who that are specialised in science Quraan.) mentioned over six centuries ago.. Is not as if ash-Shaajibee is addressing the modern authors of these types of tafscers . that the goal ol the Prophet (•§§) was not to teach mankind science.. and not proper methodology should be followed to.. Yes. but to presume that this is the primary purpose of is revelation. il seems that the authors of these type of tafscas were so impressed and awed with the West and its sciences. as Imaam ash-Shaatibee (d. it would have reached and at least the basic principle ol this issue scientific interpretation) would have been shows that thej proven to us.. 2. that these interpreits Quraan its are the most important prool of (that it authenticity.'''" . and other (sciences) that are well-known. down when principles of science. but to presume that il contains matters that does not. And this is based upon their presumption. material that il astonishes people of intellect. as tations of the its we mentioned earlier. (i. but rather to teach them the worship of Allaah! It is not of the primary goals of the Sharee'ah to provide and elaborate upon the disciplines ol modern science. and permanency can be applied in all generations). To conclude. and i'jaaz.e. but only is used properly. however. that they felt that the only way of proving Islaam was to show that the Qur'aan had preceded the West in the knowledge of all of these sciences. 695 adh-Dhahabee.. which did not have this concern with them. 526.I I. p. were more knowledgeable in it. tafseer al-'ilmee must be placed in its proper position. In addition. that the to affirm what these people are presuming (exists in the we are not denying thai the Qur'aan mentions some science Arabs bad. As ash-Shaatibee person living stated. some basic sciences). And this is clear prool that the Qur'aan was not sent Qur'aan). p. But we do not find any mention of this. which The effect that this is brand of tafseer that has dominated the hearts of these people has had we find a plethora of hooks being released it in these authors try to twist the Quraan it. so that appears as il all die sciences of'the heavens and earth are in whether explicitly or implicitly. : v.

due to the tact that this name has been associated with fetched interpretations. tally ol Other works the verse. . meet the above conditions) are nothing more than it on correct ray.) work (quoted above). as long as the following condi- were met:""" tafseer.e. the majority ot that was well-known basis is for its extremely imaginative It is which had no ol" from any verse! lor this reason many scholars said. since. >IW->l«. Perhaps the meanings of the verse.. Needless to say. the majority of works quoted above did not concern themselves with type of interpretation. while concentrating primarily on the apparent ishaaree meanings. That do fic/h rulings or 'aqeedah be derived from such 2) That verse.p. 2.H. In reality. that every verse in the Quraan has a certain hidden or inner meaning to anil this meaning cannot be obtained except by a few chosen people. c£ Ik. These works were primarily authored by extreme Soofis. and concentrated only on ishaaree ones. quoting various opinions concerning the apparent interpretations of ignored the apparent meanings a verse. 127(1 A. and are not very popular amongst the masses.M. (. Thus. the famous Soofi heretic. v. Tafseer at. pps. "This type tafseer not considered tafieerl"" However. would probably be saler to refrain from using the far- term tafseer al -ishaaree.The Interpretation ol the Quraan - Tafieer 335 E. 695 az-Zarkashee.. 170. That this interpretation it has some basis for it in the Sharee'ah. the ishaaree interpretation does not contradict the apparent meaning of the 3) That the ishaaree interpretation is not claimed to be the only or primary meaning of the verse. An example ol such a work is the tajsccr ot tafseer Muhcc ad-Dcen known for its ibn Arabee (d. thus negating the apparent meaning. would not be that incorrect to say that ishaaree interpretations that are interpreta- acceptable tions based (i. -HIS. such tafseer interpretations. is 6) That is not presumed that belief in the ishaaree interpretation it obligatory.. three ishaaree interpreta- tions are quoted. 4) That the ishaaree meaning does not contradict other aspects ol the Sharee'ah or common 5) sense. 638A.ih.Llh-l>l. |>. also commented on most fa- mous after tafseer of this type al-Aloosce's (d. This contains such blaswell phemous interpretations that even al-Azhar University (which is Soofi leanings) issued a decree prohibiting the publication and sale of this work! To give some examples of what tafseer al-ishaaree is like. Some is works. This type ol tafseer was prevalent amongst the Soofis."I. in order ot 'extremity*. Tafseer al-lshaaree is Tafseer Based on Inner Meanings a type ol tafseer in which it is assumed it. he to- usually ends the topic by mentioning such ishaaree interpretations.).ikc.2.Ishaaree was not used by all those who interpreted the Qur'aan.v. particularly of the Soofis. some scholars allowed tions 1) this type of tafseer. on the this contrary.

and '.) said. certain 'scholars' derived the is word meaning. or to leave their houses. 699 c£ Ik. as it the Qur'aan interpreta- stating that it is sufficient for all ol mankind's Such far-fetched 697 al-Qurtuixc. p. v. and they are the ones who have reached the title meaning is that they are the 'friends' (wulce) of Allaah. whoever 'drinks' from it excessively will fail. •Then. From this tact. 'mm 'bos'. Only few would have done special in quantity.<. p. Soofi leaders.." Some a parable 'scholars' said.2.H.419. but these (people) are great in quality."' 1'' 'sufficient'. the the Qur'aan is baa (in the basmalah preceding in 1 the Fa mihah) and the last letter is seen (in. «And it We had ordered them to kill themselves. lew of them. 3. when Taaloot you with a river.i 'to leave your houses' means it' to expel all love of this world from your hearts. . who will be successful. as the verse makes absolutely no mention ol going against one's desires and leaving the love of this world. The Qur'aan states.. except except a if he takes (a sip) with his hand. needs.336 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan An example of this type oi'iufsecr is concerning the story of Taaloot when he tested his people. 2W. 214. '"To kill your- means to its desires. true positions. Allaah will test whoever drinks from he will not be with me. a certain concept or philosophy 'read in' to the verse. in the interpretation of this verse. and distortion of the apparent meanings of the verse. he said.v. very few would have done so» |4:66| One selves' o! the famous scholars go against all of die Soofis interpreted this verse as. were it not for the fact that involves excessive interpretation. set oul with liis armv. Alter quoting this interpretation. "And how a beautiful this. that the river it is of this world. it. "Verily. 698 adh-Dhahabee.' Yet. but the one who takes is the bare minimum is the one (d. they [2:249] all drank of it. meant to be and whoever of what abandons he needs totally cannot survive.- 671 A.p. Imaam al-Qurtubcc it ••. first letter in As a last example.. al-jinnai wa an-naas 14:6). the of is As seen from this interpretation. Another example is the islmuree interpretation of the verse.

they would have discussed upon it. and methodologies that are suitable modern-day readers. MODERNISTIC TAFSEERS tafseer?. In addition. different from the categories mentioned above. and its goals praiseworthy. 1897 CE) and his student. ol this category are:'" 1 700 This is not i Ik- place to refute the ideas of this strongest philosophies alive today. 105. adli-Dhahabee. a tafseer lacing in their daily lives. In conclusion. which. almost the 'Modernist* school of thought these authors were influenced strongly by as the Is/aahiyya/i (known movement). with lor themes. and if there il was and any benefit to be gained from elaborated this type ol tafseer. that would incorporate Western thought and philosophy in its interpretation. at the same time it represents one ol the most powerful that its forces against the true teachings ol Islaam. especially amongst movement. tile Muslims of the West. that modern readers that was meant for today's generation. critique el this I 701 ar-Uoomee.The lions have Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 337 no basis in the proper methodology of tafscer. but its rather a type ol tafscer that styles. in essence. Riyadh. an act that. unheard of from the salaf. taqlecd. Muhammad 'Abduh (d. CE) (and by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khaan in the Indian subcontinent). It is. an act that the Mu'tazilah before them tried and '" failed to do. as such interpretation usually not in accordance with the proper methodology of tafseer. all interpretations based on the number ot Such times a word or letter occurs in the Qur'aan are examples of interpretations are tafseer al-ishaaree. F. Likewise. What unique Qur'aan is meant by this category arc not those is written in modern times. is primary goal to This is because ol the fact combine Western philosophy with Islaamic thought and teachings. union mutely. v.>/?///( practices ol today's societies). therefore. goes against the very purpose of the religion! I he more famous tafseer?. basically. it seeks to re-affirm the importance of ijti/iciad. Although this movement has some praiseworthy points (it fights against blind-following. p. the reader is referred to Muhammad Haamid Naasir'si//-. . hnumiyuiin (Maktahah al-Kawthar. in many ways il avoids the supersti- Jamaal ad-Deen al-Afghaanee 1905 tions and . SKH-WiS. 1. In other words. pps. the authors ot these tafseers tried to present the interpretation of the in an unprecedented style -a style that they felt the generation of present times. founded by (d. many of the auol thors of this type ol tafseer did not realise the fact that the proper tafseer methodology does not change with time. not possible that a person re-inter- pret the Qur'aan in a manner or methodology all ol not consistent with the methodology ol the salaj "in tafseer. it is necessary to be extremely cautious is il one is reading an ishaarce interpretation ol the Qur'aan. no hook is vel available in hnglish on the topic. lowcvcr a good series of audio lectures by Jamaal Xarabozo is available). is Although such an idea admirable. I-or a is probably one of the better discussion ami movement. IWd) (Unlortunalelv. that would solve problems that would be more amenable to its readers would be la/seers that would ignore much of the material found in older would neither comprehend nor (ind useful.

etc. Madeenah. the 'aqeedah. In addition. he fell into error because of his following certain views ences. but the influence that Muhammad author denies 'jinn 'Abduh had on him all the miracles very noticeable throughout the work: the of the Prophet (3g) except the Qur'aan. luijahaat. until became I the primary goal ol these movements. anil his over-exaltation of the physical sci- Tafseer al-Our'aan al-Kareem. his concept that Muslim societies and governments arc representative very tion of Jaahiliyyah.. 1383 A.). is misconception that the primary purpose of Islaam to light tyrannical all govern- ments and establish the law of Allaah. see Dr.p.iktabah al-Ghuraba. Birmingham. to times his interpreta- be discussing some work ol Arabic literature rather than the Book befitting ol Allaah. Adti'iiu iil-l. Tafseer al-Maraaghee. per- Syed Qutb was not very knowledgeable of the various has some grave errors in it sciences of Islaam. 69. purposely avoided reading fear that tation!'"' 1 any work he might be 'influenced' by In reality. Iowever. denies the reality ol magic.. by Syed 1387 A.H.H. 1354 A. one that present Muslim 7 '" situation. \. by Ahmad Mustafa al-Maraaghee (d.. since etc. To claim that his tafseer is the most popular is tafseer of to read.. p. and he I of Pakistan. For a critique ol'the views of Syed Qujb. in particular.w2. for taj'seer (in many matters of his he was influenced both by the Ash'arces and the 'modernists'. Rabec' Urn laadce al-Madklialee's The Methodology of the Prophets ill ('. 1935 CE). .. 1370 A. see the works of Syed Qutb ii'ii I >r. This tafseer was similar tafseers commented upon earlier. and died for its cause. Although Syed Qutb was much of less influenced by the Islaahiyyah school than the others that are mentioned.H.338 An Introduction to the Sciences ol'the Qur'aan 1) Tafseer al-Manaar. p. at he was much seems influenced by the arts (literature. 1966 CE). 703 an-Najdec. he was still extreme in his beliefs as his teacher. was taken loan extreme by thclfffiwaan it ol Egypt. I. 1993). 1963 CE). I'W7) 7(1'! ar-Roomee. 1052. and thus possibly its affect his own interpre- not without is benefits. For an excellent discusto this aspect. although /aaoiali Islaami sion <>l in essence cornet. modern times would not be an exaggeration. 4) Fee Dhilaal a/-Qur'aan. 704 This principle. by Muhammad as Rasheed Rida (d.'laaiiiiyah a/a 'Ai/eedat A/J/aarihi (M.tilling Allaah (al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution. However. In fact.H. An-Najdce summarised this and all when he said. by Mahmood Qutb (d. Kabee' Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee. 1952 CE). Al- though the author was not 'Abduh. lor greatly influenced by him. he was greatly influenced by the Ikltwaan al-MusIiineen movement Egypt. "And al-Maraaghee tried to make this tafseer oi his would be appropriate and suit the a 'modern' tafseer of the Qur'aan.. narrated that Rashced Rida.). and the importance of establishing the law haps due to the fact that Allaah on earth." 1) and ideas of the West. poetry. while writing this tafseer. it is Muhammad ol tafseer. Shalthooth (d. The to tafseer very simple and aims prove the superiority of the law of ol Islaam over "' all 1 other laws. and other aspects 2) which are not surprising to find in a "modernistic' work. the tafseer is it. 705 and many phrases of his are not when discussing such top- ics.620. interprets as being disease-carrying microbes. 702 adh-Dhahabee.

and authors such as as-Sa'adee. and From the relevant portions ol ad-Adh- .. al-Jazaa'iree this in their respective tafseers. a panions. by (224 - Muhammad ibn farcer at-Tabaree 310 A. directly from each tafseer. anil to mention the general methodology each mufassir 'Jaami' al-Bayaan' Jaami' al-Bayaan of at-Tabaree 'an Tawecl Aay al-Our'aan (The Comprehensive Explanation ol the Interpretation ol the Verses ol the Qur'aan). does not mean that the tisool at-tafscer ol such interpretations needs to change as It is well.imic sciences.) first is one of the earliest and greatest tafseers in existence. He even founded own inacUi- His work ol tafseer is one ol the classics in the realm ol' tafseer bi al-ma 'thuor (tafseer by narrations). that are alien to Islaam. At times. although perhaps the most popular amongst the Muslim masses of today. with his evidences. and ash-Shanqeetee have shown and proven vii. is and uses own reasoning One of the unique features of this tafseer that he quotes the chains ol narration (isnaaci) tor 706 These reviews were taken Dhahabee's work. grammatical analysis ol a verse. »*//<//. ol a verse. Alter quoting the various is narrations on a verse. al-Qaasimee. Typically. a very noble and necessary goal to present the interpretation of the Qur'aan in a this manner which the people ol a particular time and place will appreciate. the Successors anil those alter verses anil phrases ol the Qur'aan. and is consid- ered the reference to turn to in this tafseer Tabaree compiled among all the works of tafseer. "The various proceeds to narrations concerning the interpretation ol such-and-such. usually contains ideas and perspectives tafseer?. in masterpiece ol Islaamic history entitled Taari/(/i ar-Rusul tea/ Muloof{. there. at-Tabaree quotes a verse ol the Q)ur'aan. he usually gives the opinion that he thinks the strongest one. lor the interpretation ol the The author was addition a scholar in almost all fields of he wrote. he also discusses the various qira'aat lines ol classical poetry to substantiate the quotes meaning his all ol an obscure word. and not too infrequent deviations from the beliefs ol \hl as-Sunnah. delves into a (ijtihaad). Isla. and many other works hab\ in almost all fields ol Islaam. both and in methodology. Some Famous Tafseers is The purpose famous tafseers followed. the Comthem concerning to this tafseer." and then to a quote up dozen narrations Irom the .H.The Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 339 In conclusion. another now-extant work on his the qira'aat. possible to present the interpretation of the Qur'aan in a language anil style- that modem readers will benefit from while still I ol lowing the proper methodology of tafseer. However. 7 "" ol this section to briefly mention some ol the most important and that in existence. Although the majority ol the contents of these arc serious in 'aqeeclah It is are acceptable. and then states. This is because atmany narrations from the Prophet (j^g).. this brand of tafseer.

may Ahl he He also refutes the heretical beliefs of the Mu'tazilah and other sects of during as- his time. al-Haafidh al-Mizzee is (d.) said. entitled Tafseer al-Our aan al-Adheem.. At other times. Shaakir passed away before his editing of the Inuleeth 'Tafseer al-Quraan al- 'Adheem of Ibn Katheer ' Another important - tafseer is that of 'Imaad ad-Deen Abul Fidaa Ibn Kathcer (700 774 A. On occasion. In addition.and it ol is clear. In addition.. However.) and other notable scholars. and interprets the Attributes of Allaah upon the methodology Sunnah. and 7(17 Quotes taken from adh-Dliahabce.) said. ". usually only giving the strongest opinion.. However.340 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan every statement that he brings.H. having studied under Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d."" Some of the criticisms that have been made of it is this tafseer is that at-Tabaree did not only collect authentic narrations. "As for the tafseer*.H. p.H. that are in circulation. and available in 30 first volumes with completed. the best and greatest of all tufscers".). and thus the authenticity of any narration verified. to the overall merits ol In addition. 'And his book (meaning at-Tabaree's tafseer) (d. he also men- tions the various qira'aat of a verse.). 218. Ibn Kathcer was one of the most famous scholars of his time. Unfortunately. his commentary on the isnaads of the narrations of the few volcould In- umes.H. are trivial when compared (d.). an-Nawawee 676 A.and more - scholars since his time until today have praised this tafseer over others. but i'iraab) of the he docs not elaborate greatly on the grammar Qur'aan. however. 724 A. Another advantage so that the reader of this tajsccr that he explains the verses in simple language.. and thus difficult lor a beginning student of knowledge to ascertain which narrations are authentic. since Ibn Kathcer greatly summarises the different opinions that at-Tabaree quoted.l. at times at-Tabaree quotes (udaco-Christian narrations (Israa'celiyaat) which one are of no value whatsoever. v. his view concerning the usefulness of these stories. in many places Ibn Katheer gives his opinion con- cerning the authenticity of a particular narration. and Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah the most accurate of (d. is 724 A. them the tafseer of Ibn Jarcer at-Tabaree. and the tafseer free of innovations. criticism that The main had been made against these narrations this tafseer is that Ibn Katheer occasionally quotes Israa'celiyaat which are of absolutely no value. 742 A.H.H. As-Suyootee said. and does not comment on is the authenticity. "The uminah has agreed (ijmaa) that nothing has ever rivalled the tafseer of at-Tabaree". he merely quotes the isnaad. for is he writes after quoting one seems that this story taken from the Israa'celiyaat. of the work. the tafseer has been critically edited by the leading scholars of is Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir 1377 A. for he mentions the is statements of the past generations with isnaads. these criticisms Inuleeth ol this century. may understand the intent of the verse. His tafseer considered to be the second reference alter that of at-Tabaree. . is An advantage of this tafseer that it is easier to read than at-Tabaree's. Due is to these factors .

come across. "There is no book that has been written like it!" 7 "" The tafseer is available in tour average-sized volumes. faith. would be rises the of more benefit than at-Tabarce's tafseer. and philosophy {'Urn al-kplaam). is therefore cannot be accepted as absolute. Therefore. Ibn Kaihecr successfully summa- essence of the various interpretations based on tafseer bt al-ma thoor. and where he took to be complete."' Whatever the case may of tafseer work is still considered one of the classics in the realm based upon ray. As-Suyootce said of it. and became well known lor his know ledge ol . I. 709 adli-Dhahalxc. Work has already been started by Shaykh Aboo Ishaac] al-Huwaynee to critically edit the luideeth in this tafseer. the it was fin- ished by two later scholars. 301. .H.adh-Dhahabee. p. of course. (The although apparently seems there is Un locking ol Knowledge of the Unseen). based upon opinion (ijtihaad). He died of poisoning in 606 A. better known as Fakh r ad-Decn ar-Raazee.The therefore Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 341 it is allowed to quote them. this tafseer is it the most useful work tor a beginning student ol knowledge. and alter his death be. he gives the positions of the different and invariable case. his personal Howand ever. I. he does not hesitate to defend gives his faith against the Mu'tazilah him the opportunity to do so. some difference of opinion as to who completed this over from ar-Raa/. Therefore. Evidence seems to suggest that ar-Raazee was able to complete this work until Soora/i al-Ambiyaa. hut not to believe in them or reject them. and this is a topic that is generally neglected in other tafsccn. 'proves' the superiority and correctness of the Shaafi'ce point of view in every One in the of the benefits that may be obtained from this tafseer is that ar-Raazee in- cludes a detailed discussion of the relationship between the various verses and soorahs Qur'aan. He was born in ^44 A. and occasionally adds other aspects ol interpretation related to the verse. but as of yet only the first volume has been published. was completed alter his death. without in this regards.\n p." 7 "* when they conform with the truth.ee's interpretation. 117. Ar-Raazee was an ardent Ash'aree by wherever he feels that a particular verse is and a rigid follower of the Shaajl'ee madh-hab. such relationships are.v. 'Mafaatih al-Ghayb' of ar-Raazee The most famous tafseer based upon intellect (tafseer ar-ra'y) is that of Muhammad ibn 'Umar ar-Raazee. and Allaah knows In since reality. Yet another benefit of this tafseer that he pays special attention to the grammatical analysis and commentary of the Qur'aan. . 708 Ibn Kathccr. v. the His tafseer Mafaatili al-Ghayb. They cannot be relied upon except best. work. it going into extreme details that might bore the reader. p. discusses and interprets the verses in sufficient detail to benefit from. Whenever a verse of legal implications scholars. 710 cf. 257.Arabic grammar. Therefore.H. I..

This is why some scholars even said of it. Due to these discussions. 713 al-Kashaaf. 7M adh-Dhahabcc. and due az-Zamakhsharee (467-538 A. many scholars have strongly criticised thistafseer. 712 adh-Dhahabee. should have taken over thirty years. contrary to the see the rclercnce cited. If you truly seek guidance. and the praise that az- Zamakhsharee heaped on it. and in many work seems more tion. In addiscientific' he does not hesitate to quote the 'current opinions ol his day. by Mahmood ibn 'Umar al-Khawarizmec. Despite his blatant Mit'tazilee bias. p.H. "All praise due to Allaah.). az-Zamakhsharee was nonetheless a scholar ol the highest calibre in terms of his knowledge of Arabic vocabulary. Az-Zamakhsharee was extremely proud for writing the and praised it himself on occasions. created. 438.e. cally like philosophical ramblings than Qur'aanic commentary. specifi- whenever he views interprets a verse dealing with astronomy and nature.' In a separate poem. these scientific of the eleventh century are considered outdated to say the discussions often seem rather ludicrous and far-fetched. In the introduction to the work. better known of his time.v. it and the KaskaaflS die "' cure. For ignorance In reality. p.H. and his vehement and fiery attacks against the Ahl as-Sunnah. "Imaam ar-Raazec brought in hhtafeeer many long discussion of topics that have absolutely no value to the science oftafseer. to read it. I. he It is was aggressively outspoken concerning the Mit'tazilee is even saiil that he started his tafseer with the phrase. p. the most famous one \sal-Kashaaf'an at-Ta'weel (The Unveiling of wa 'Uyoou al-Aqaaweelfee Wujooh and the Essence of the Opinions Concerning the PerInterpretation). even though versified. was able to spread the announcing faith. he Yet I The tafseers in this world swear by my life thai none is is are infinite. He was one ol the leading Mit'tazilee scholars to his great knowledge and eloquence. v. 442. he says. after explaining the reasons work. 'In this (lafseer) you will find everything except ttifsec r!'" 7 " 'al-Kashaaf of az-Zamal{lisharce ' Among the many tafseers Haqaa'iq at-Tanzeel the Truths of the Revelation spectives ol as of the Mu'tazilak. gram- 711 adh-Dhahabee.342 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Quraan is The main criticism with regards to this tufsecr the fact that it is full of philoplaces tin- sophical discussions and quotes from different philosophers." is difficult to deny the Kashaaf of its merits. '' two years and a few months). Far from being hesitant in his heretical doctrines. Aboo Hayyaan (d. is. that he completed it 'during the time-period it of the caliphate ol Aboo Bakr (i. Since the least. I.) said of it. who created many the Quraan. For reasons as to why this phrase was eventually changed. 2. the Mu'tasilah believe thai the Qur'aan is licliel nt the Ahlas-Sunnah.. then resolve yourself a disease. I."7 of his work. 745 A. . doctrines of the Mittazilah to a great extent. v. like my Kashaaf. As was mentioned in Ch.p304. v. I.

In his tafseer. and even quotes a line of classical poetry to prove this meaning! By doing this. Alioci Daawood. For example. Muslim. such as Shaykh (d. the non-existence of magic. at-Tirmidhec. with the man has Iree will. no line of poetry can be used to contradict the explicit mean- ings of the Qur'aan and Siinnah.The Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 34 5 mar." (75:23) he misinterprets the meaning of the word 'looking' to 71 " 'expecting mercy'.H. 2. others. Ibn al-Qayyim (d. as-Subkee 756 A. such as Sluivh 'Aqccdah tit-Taluutwiyiih. He dis- cusses the wisdom and beauty behind the particular phrasing ol verses literary and passages. man is the creator ol his Therefore. az-Zamakhsharee has overlooked the in used to explain obscure words the Quraan.H. this issue in its We quote Shaykh al-lslaam's stance on the writings I entirety. 1. and that Alia. All of these merits. However. given prin- quoted authentic.) and many others. lie emphasises the grammatiits beauty and eloquence of the Qur'aan. looking at their Lord. and that Allaah is the creator is ol man's actions. who deny that the Mus- lims will see Allaah on the Day is of Judgement and in the Heavens.H.as typical with his it is lull ol benefit is and wisdom: What am saying and then that people like the Mu 'tazilak first form some ideas. for . rhetoric and manners cal ol eloquence. az-Zamakhsharee seeks to prove Mu'tazilee doctrines by confusing the readers with his Arabic. ill has control over man's actions despite the beliel that fact that man has free-will. and many other Mu'tazilee beliefs. 509. however. since the reader may be convinced by azIt Zamakhsharee's knowledge into believing some of these Mu'tazilee doctrines. . Even subtle sentence structures that a less discerning eye would pass over az-Zamakhsharee to unearth a panorama of meanings literary miracle ol and wisdom the that demonstrates over and over again the unrivalled Hook of Allaah. Ibn Majah and 717 The Ahl as-Sunnah believe that Muslim sinners are not eternally damned to the Helllire. know ledge of" "Some faces that day will be radiant. and all of mankind who testify and believe in tawliccd will eventually enter Paradise. 716 Reported by al-Bukhaarcc. p. contrary to clear verses in the Qur'aan anil hadeeth of the Prophet that the line of poetry ciple that poetry is (i^g) to this effect. and accentuates literary i'jaaz. None the earlier 715 c£ al-Kashaaf. the free-will of hu- mans over which Allaah has no control. and others. you will see your " Lord (as easily) as you see moon moon). must be put in perspective. precisely lor this reason that is most scholars warned against this tafseer. as (the full the hadeeth. For details and proofs ol these points. and that magic is real. "Verily. is The above verse in the Qur'aan explicit in this its meaning. At times. al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. an-Nasaa'cc.). and is is not used to re-interpret the obvious. In other places in this tafseer. az-Zamakhsharee defends the doctrine of the doctrine that eternal damnation of sinners in the Helllire. of' interpret the Qur'aan to suit their purpose. 758 A. the actions. he seeks to prove the belief of the Mu'tazilah. this tafseer is a dangerous one. the reader n lined to standard works ol theology. ot the and demonstrates time and time again the are minutely scrutinised by magnificence anil splendour Qur'aan. v."' Therefore. 724 A. in his tafseer ol the verse.).

Due up to the benefits ol this lafseer. cl. you do not know then leave be- cause they argued over their Hook.-'/amakhsharcc). say one who does know!"'' He (5^) also said. he (%%) passed by group of people arguing over He commanded them. The author of the Kashaaf. the Book of Allaah came do not it to confirm its verses with each other (and not to contradict them). Reported by Muslim. but are not aware is ot them (being present in the quote). their erroneous views have entered (other misguided sects) and become much more destructive. # 236. is The most well known of these commentaries of the Kashaaf al-lnsaaf'/.are with interpret the Qur'aan. In lad.1 344 An Introduction to the Sciences oi the Qur'aan generations . Their inter- them in what they believe or how they pretations ol the Quraan can easily he shown to be wrong in two ways: by inter- demonstrating that their views are erroneous. and stated that such argu- mentation leads to disbelief Once.//. lor instance. 47-8.).the Companions or the scholars ol this itmmilh . Indeed. other parts.H.•). "Verily the nations before you were destroyed by try to contradict part ot the this action ot yours. or by showing that their pretations of the Qur'aan are a lucid unjustified. Some have erroneous ami charming and introduce tail their beliefs so cleverly that many of their readers (i. The Dangers ($§|) of Improper Tafseer a The Prophet the Qur'aan.e. pps. with 71'' 721) sliglu changes. certain later scholar of the Ash'arees tried to clear the Mtt'tazilce doctrines of this lafseer in critical footnotes. in a/. al-Kashaaf'by Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Iskandaree Insjiaj'"as (d. has succeeded hardly tqfieer making his ideas attractive to a great look lor erroneous ideas in his commentary.."' ' The Prophet (5^) also warned I who interpret the Quraan improperly when he said."'"' In another narration.. forbade arguing over the Qur'aan.. Since their language elegant. 683 A. VIII. # 237. and if it. he over the Qur'aan against people fear the is "To argue equivalent to disbelief (/(«/. cl. The most main text. writers number ol people who would know some I and scholars who approvingly quote in their writings and speeches passages from their (the Mtttuzilee) commentaries that contain ideas which follow on Irom the principles which thev (the lafseer authors) believe and know to be wrong. "The thing that most for my ummah is the hypocrite with an eloquent tongue who argues 718 Ibn Tnymyyah. Mis/ifyitil Reported by Ahmad and an-Nasaa'ee. Therefore reject its verses it. widely available edition of the Kashaaf has the footnotes to the In conclusion. style ol writing. this lafseer should only be read by one who is firmly grounded in the knowledge of the fundamentals ofbelief {'ai/cedah) of both theAMas-Suntiah and its critical the Mu'tazilah if one reads the Kashaaf wnhoul Ash'arees if commentaries (anil of the he reads it with one of these commentaries!). they would Book of Allaah with to other verses. MishkfiM . Reported by 72 Ahmad and Aboo I )anwood. "Those before you were destroyed («gg) said. to see them. due When you it know something Irom to (the Qur'aan)..

He responded.. Aboo Mulaykah said.H. "I must request that. lor example. The Qur'aan itself alludes to this when it says. for it is as if you are narrating concerning Allaah!" And Ibraheem an-Nakhaa'ec (d. the proper interpretation of this verse is that all judgement must be the Prophet based upon the (5e3)). "Whoever speaks he is concerning the Qur'aan with mistaken. . (jfs.The Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafseer 345 with the Qur'aan. seeking thereby to cause dispute anil tur- moil" |3:7| 722 Reported by Ahmad and al-Bazzaar. since they had both agreed them. if some of you were to be asked concerning it. And Masrooq (d. 63 A. let "Whoever speaks concerning the Qur'aan without any knowledge. "Beware oftafseer..H. 72? Reported by at-Tirmidhce. and in another hadeeth. The Ijadeeth in question arc as follows: It is reported that the Prophet his personal reasoning. arbitrators.and as lor those in whose hearts is a disease. "Ibn 'Abbaas was asked concerning a verse. it is Without relying on the proper methodology of tafseer. the Qur'aan).) It is no exaggeration to say that every single deviant sect that has sprung forth in its the history of Islaam has misinterpreted verses ol the Qur'aan in order to support particular beliefs. 96 A. "Verily. without going into any details. rejected the verse in the Judgement is only for Allaah" (12:40).) said. if you are a Muslim.) said. the Inidceth ihemsclvcs are weak. "Our companions would be scared of" 1 tafseer. then him seek his place in the lire ofHell!"™ The Companions and early generations were very cautious when it came to inter- preting the Qur'aan without the proper know ledge. they follow that which is unclear in it (i." meaning that he was not qualified to interpret the verse.) said. believed that Alee and Mu'aawiyah.e. I )aa\vood. had disbelieved. by accepting the judgement of the Qur'aan. you would have replied.H. Aboo 82-Ki.) concerning a verse in the Qur'aan. the Khawaarij. 90 A.. 725 All quotes from ar-Roomcc."'ibn al-Musayyib (d.In other words. but he refused to say anything. However."-. anil commands of Allaah (and by extension the commands of not that people are prohibited Irom judging between themselves. ol There arc a number oft-quoted l±aclcelh on the prohibition of speaking about the Qur'aan without any knowledge. please do not sit with me. Ibn "Abd al-Barr. Although the principles ami prohibitions outlined in these Inideeth are correct. and the people who followed them.H. and tear it out of respect. 90 A. 493."'-'" then even if he is correct. the Prophet (jj§) is warning against deviants who seek to prove their heresies with verses from the Qur'aan. cl". he (^) is reported to have said. «. 72-4 Reported by at-Tirmidluv and p. They felt to allow arbitrators to judge between that Alee and Mu'aawiyah had. And ii is narrated that Sa'eed would not speak concerning the Qur'aan except with that which was understood by everyone. p." And a person asked the Companion Jundub ibn Abdillaah (d. the very first sect to split from the Muslim nation. Qur'aan in possible to interpret the any way one desires to.

(3jjg) is not the father of any of your men.346 An Introduction to the Sciences oi'the Qur'aan In other words. and the consensus ol the Muslim ttmmah on this matter. It is even possible to misinterpret verses so that it seems that the Qur'aan itselt is is proving some of the most Islaamically heretical ideas possible! the prophethood of Muhammad (^). With is mind. but he (l<lhiatani) is the Messenger of Allaah. This is because. is even it their unicpie interpretation ol the Arabic meaning odfhaatam considered. lor a more detailed 728 This is excluding the other verses in the Qur'aan that allude to the finality of the prophethood. in certain Soofi tafseers. .' '"This interpretation can only be accepted by one who is ignorant ot the Arabic language. and of the principles of signify 'seal. and the Seal is of the prophets. the 'seal'). by using the word /(/laatain (translated by them as is and no\l{haalim ('the last of something"). Ihsan Elahi.' a look at tafseer.im. For example. stating that the I'rophct last of was the best and most pcrlcct but not necessarily the them. 727 c£ Z. the verse. the Qur'aan ol the prophets.y^j3 \jJj\Lj <6i\ jj—j if^J rt>4^> CJ?-^ ^ J-**t O ° w •Muhammad This verse ever. the numerous authentic hadeeth on this subject.iam by all ol the scholars ol the Isla. earlier. As il was mentioned it. absolutely no basis in the Arabic language. is essential to takei/// die qiraaat of a verse into account when interpreting this in and all the different readings tation of the must complement one another.i| 726 cl! Muhamamd Ali's footnote lo this verse in liis The Holy Oitnuin. or the last of something. Lahore. Due to this grossly heretical belief] the Qadianis have been excluded Iron) the lold ol Isl. I'W)) discussion Ol this point. or any other Qadiani publication on this topic. 1^'jj ^S**-j J°'J^ -k l?jJ b*j ' •And tains' il is He who has spread nut the earth. An example ol this the interpretation (or rather misinterpretation) ol the Qadianis concerning the finality ol The Qur'aan says. . The interpretation ol the Qadianis An even more blatant indication of ludicrousness of this interpretation is the fact that. and placed therein firm moun- 1 1 3:. only 'Aasini read the phrase in question as%haatam\ the restol the nine qiraaat read the phrase as khaatim\ This is a stark indication of the ignorance of misguided sects with regards to the proper methodology retpiired to interpret the Qur'aan. /2S Even more ludicrous are some of the interpretations based on forged narrations and presumed inner meanings {tafseer al-ishaaree) to a verse. those who desire chaos amongst the Muslims will try to twisl Qur'aanic verses that might not be entirely clear to suit whatever concepts and ideas they wish to prove. the understanding ol the Companions. the interpre- Qadianis shown to be baseless. try to How- Qadianis prove that.[33:40] the most explicit indication of the finality of the prophethood. of the ten c/ira'aat. although /{haatam does any ol the dozen classical 72 ' Arabic lexicons will show thai n also has the signifies finality.iheer. Qadiayaniyat (Mara Tarjuman as-Sunna/i.

and the Cho- sen Ones among I lis servants. and is to seek help from them. 2. v. . p. Therefore. in is essential to turn to them. and whoever travels the earth in order to find them. 729 Quote! from adh-Dhahabee. 419. by letting their imaginations free. and of the necesis asking them for help and aid instead of Allaah! This belief of these Soofis a manifestation of skitfy. and placed in His awtaad (one of the highest hierarchial levels in Soofi doctrine).The is Interpretation of the Qur'aan - Tafsecr 347 interpreted as follows: "Allaah it is the one who it has spread out the earth. upon tafsecr*. successful and has been Soofis have sity of saved!"' '' The verse is clearly referring to the miraculous nature of the yet. creation of the earth and the mountains. which Allaah has said in the Qur'aan that give! He would not for- These examples prove the tafsecr. certain been able to read into this verse the concept of awtaads. necessity of relying classical. the proper methodology of and of depending upon of a particular verse authentic to obtain the proper under- standing or passage.

. such that each word of the first language translated into equivalent in the other language. and a trans- lation 1 by meaning. Those who speak more than one language syntax of every language is realise that verbatim translation is not successful in imparting understanding of a text.. that the first meaning of the word 'tarjamati we are interested in in this chapter. and honoured Adam's progeny and "taught of the different languages on the face of the Earth.' However. This word also has the connotation hence Ibn Abbaas was called the 'Tarjmmiitn al-Oui'min.the names of all things. Verily indeed signs for men of sound knowledge' another proof of the exist- (30:22). with all was Allaah Himself who honoured Aadam by teach(2:31).' meaning it is "The Interpreter of the Qur'aan. The Types of Translation There are two ways of translating a text: a literal. it becomes necessary to translate important texts and books written in one language into other languages so that a greater segment of mankind may benefit from them. In addition. lor translation 'tarjanmli '. In such translations... not every word has an equivalent in another language. . This its is because the grammar and and each has specific procedure and method- ology of speech. verbatim translation." him eloquent speech' (55:4).. Verbatim translation: What is meant by this is is the word-for-word translation of its a text.. Therefore. ing It him ". the differences in human languages is yet ence ami power of the Creator. I.differences of your languages and colours.) CHAPTER 16 The Translation of the Qur'aan Among the many miracles and blessings or Allaah in this are is the ". Indeed. the word order remains almost the same. different. is The Arabic word of 'interpretation'. 2) Translation by meaning: In this case. the intent or meaning of a text is trans- lated into a different language.

This of "" is because there no benefit to be gained out 7 it. the language of his people. [amal-un-Nisa bint Rafai's The Our an: and Study (Abul Qasim So far...2. 1 7i> az-Zarqaanec. I hey would have said. to spark in a curious reader an interest that will lead him closer to the truth. the rest are not accountable. I am sent to all of you as the Messenger of Allaah.•And if We hail sent this as a Qur'aan in in a foreign language. The Qur'aan is in Arabic. but 731 See Ch. but perhaps. it.The Translation of the Qur'aan 349 II. 734 World Bibliography. Arabic and (the Messenger) an Arab:!' • The question Qur'aan is then arises: is It the Prophet (-^g) was sent for all of mankind. and the in Arabic. as Allaah says. p. He (-^g) was also given his message in Arabic. it. Translation An excellent example of this in Publications). 2 tor prool thai the Quraan it is onlv in Arabic anil is the Speech ol Allaah. of the Prophet (^) giving than Arabic has also been explained: In fact. first fewJus have been completed. 33. in the translation.the Speech of Allaah and the revelation to the Prophet " (j^g).J in fact ford l(ifaayah" 2 for ummah. il 752 A type ol obligatory act such that. \. The Ruling on The Prophet (3|g) Translations sent for all was of mankind. p. 'What! (A book) not [41:44].|7:158|. 730 An exception might lie made.'>. part of the ummah does none does then all are accountable. for It is true that the Qur'aan is not no translation can do justice to its eloquence and beauty. the absurdity his message in a language other . con- forming with Allaah's practice. as part ol its duty to spread the message ol Islaam. . and any type of translation will not be regarded as the Qur'aan . •Anil We have not sent any Messenger except with the language of his peo- ple [14:4]. a faint glimmer of the shining splendour of the original may be seen. this is forbidden with regards to the Qur'aan. all the translation of the Qur'aan allowed so that the Qur'aan may be As spread to of mankind: is for verbatim translations. «Say: 'O Mankind! Verily.' How else can it be expected that non-Arabs encounter the message of the Qur'aan? translatable. there has been no known difference of opinion on this issue. this is allowed and . As the for translations ol the meaning." In lact. lor a verbatim translation that English only the is is meant to help people learn the Arabic of the Qur'aan. maybe. XXIII. however. enough.

278. These conditions. v. but only encouraged..I I. v. . also incorrect to call such for the 'The Qur'aan." or even. p. to the intent ol the verse. anil that the translation only a rendering of the meaning the Qur'aan into a different language. The translator should include appropriate remarks on this erably in the introduction.. A translation done by a person who excels in the knowledge ol Arabic and English. le replied that was not obligatory to do so. in Arabic and the language that he is translat- 3) The The The translator must be knowledgeable of the grammar and peculiarities of the Arabic language. I 7SH c£ al-Uthaymcen. of the Qur'aan. Ubaydaat. The translation must be complete.either side-by-side or above is — so .e." or similar such wordings. 736 Sec 'Tin. 122-12-t. especially the first one. 7i7 az-Zarqaancc. must be rejected lor this 7^5 az-Zarqaance. issue.2. so that 'A Translation of it the Meanings is understood by the scholars have audience that the work even stipulated that the translation in their hands is not the Qur'aan. 2) The translator must be proficient ing in. He must mention It is that the translation can never be substituted for the original (the Qur'aan).' clearly Qur'aan cannot be translated. 4) translator must be familiar with the other Islaamic sciences to a degree with which he can 5) translate the Qur'aan with the proper interpretation.Qualities ofa Mufassir. this author asked Shay khal-'Uthaymecn (on the sc Ith 1418 A. the Qur'aan) is not needed by the person reading the translation. and specifically the Qur'aan. 'A Translation of the Qur'aan. or else the whole purpose ol the 7) Neither the translator nor his audience may believe that the translation is the Qur'aan. was manda- tory or not. 136.2. translations. ". translation is lost. However. This point was elaborated on in the previous chapter. translation must conform such that it is a reason- able rendering of the meanings of the original. such that the original (i. prefis He must clarify to his is audience that the Qur'aan ol only in Arabic. in tinI Masjid iil-Ufimam) whether the writing of the Arabic it ripi with a translation ofRamadhan. a translation ol the Qur'aan is only allowed it the following conditions are observed: n 1 The will translator a must he a Muslim with its correct Islaamic beliefs in ( aqeedah).s that it is that the translation not the actual Qur'aan. Some it is mandatory for the Arabic it text to be written along with mentally understood . but is not a Muslim. This is because person who does not believe the Divine Authorship of the Qur'aan never be able to do justice to 736 translation. classical must be consulted. points 2-4. p. Such works must be called. For interpretations ol the Qur'aan 6) the authentic. this. make it imperative that the translation be done by a knowledgeable Muslim.) ^0 Aii Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan The Conditions of Translation However. p. pps.

What is meant In recited iii 'lake- the place of the Qur'aan' is thai the translation could Ik used to derive laws. anil a challenge to man- kind to produce something similar to Therefore. the translators it is have indicated that this not in the Qur'aan but rather an interpretation of the verse. encouraged. "Verily. fact that the earlier." The phrase 'the Qur'aan and the Sunnah' is not in the Arabic. "Anil those who believe in (the Qur'aan and the Sunnah) which has been sent down. tttijahuat. the dillercnce between the interpretation and the Khan and Hilali's translation of the Qur'aan.. no matter how eloquent the English.) and explain the Qur'aan of such a translation is also permissible to interpret tell in a different language. Translation "I the Qur'aan 351 Arthur It is J. CE) and the then Grand Shaykh ofal-A/har. during which time (d. For example. anil which has been preserved is mus-hafs.The reason. there are eleven references in the Qur'aan that verses. ". (12:2). and a refutation ol see ar-Koouiee. The fact that a translation of cannot be considered as all a substitute lor the actual Qur'aan has been agreed upon by the major scholars ol Islaam.413-44L . Muhammad 1 Mustafa al-Maraghcc 1945 CE).this (the this as is in the Arabic language. trans- as long as the readers can lation. Kamaal Ata 'intellec- Turk 1929 CE) ordered that the Arabic Qur'aan be substituted for a Turkish transol it! lation. and reached height in the early part of the twentieth century. according to some. were also of the opinion that such a translation " could take the place of the Qur'aan. and. The Egyptian Farced Wajdee 1954 (d. ami not that the Arabic it. bic amongst them the and. and.. it is not permissible to believe the Qur'aan the actual Quraan. verse 2:4 has been translated as.. Qur'aan should be To see a lullcr discussion ol "their precise views. The Translation as the Qur'aan in As was mentioned thai the translation is the conditions lor translation. is By including it in parentheses. (An example Arberry's The Koran Interpreted. Quraan) is in a clear Ara- tongue" We have revealed an Arabic Qur'aan" (42:7). However. XXVI. pps. the tion. tual' which would be read during prayer and outside (d. anil has reached us by muttawaatir transmissions.. This is allowed.and was never seriously a topic of debate amongst the scholars.' The simplest refutation of this view is is by recalling the definition of the Qur'aan: The Qur'aan the Arabic Speech (Balaam) of Allaah. it. in but it is the intent of the verse. p. In- prayer. "And thus We have inspired you with an Arabic Qur'aan" 7.59 World Bibliography . beliefs ami neglected. Qur'aan is in Arabic is an integral part of the definiit As was mentioned (16: 103). there have been some modern tion of 'scholars' who have stated that a transla- the Qur'aan may actually be considered as the original! This issue became the topic of serious discussion its during the late half of the nineteenth century. which in He revealed to in the Muhammad (^) wording anil meaning.

However.H.H. including the Slniafi'ccs." lowever. SI8. and Hambalees. and his prayer if void (il he docs Ibis die case even he is not capable of this {i. change is (to another language). and only when know all Arabic. 1 made such a Statement. said in reference to the following verse: •Ami il We had sent this they would have said. then is lie is not allowed to this). 742 Qattaan. H. 852 A. Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaanee ash-Shaafi'ce (d. It a person il is capable of its recitation in Arabic.H. Quraan in a foreign language other than 'Why are not its verses explained in detail in Arabic.). he is prohibited from reciting in a different language). finally issued afanm in which it Qur'aan is only in Arabic. ox alhamdulillah. Qaadee Aboo Bakr ibn al-'Arabec (d. ' Ibn Hajr then went on recite in the to mention that the Law-giver provides certain formulas' 4 to prayer for the one who does not know Arabic. 543 A.e. his prayer will not be valid. p. may Allaah have mercy on him. p. Qur'aan may- This is because the verse ne- gates the attribute ol (the Qur'aan) being non-Arabic. anil do not have any proof to back them up..H.).) allowed the recitation of the Qur'aan in Persian. Another issue that is related to the above one is the recitation ol translations ol the Qur'aan during the prayer. 1.).). 1X9 A. p. Imaam Aboo Ybosuf (d. See Syed Sabiq. 150 A. 741) ibid. until he memorises the necessary soorahs. translation. and was forced by necessity to in a foreign language. of these opinions go against the major- opinion. 182 A. c£ az-Zarqaance. 743 Such assubhan Allaah. This fii/wa effectively ended the debate that had been raging on before this time. restricted the generality a person did not I of their teacher's riding. and any translation cannot he considered 7 *' a substitute for the Qur'aan.2. 63.) and Muhammad person prays with such a translation. some of the later Hanafces allowed it in Turkish and Urdu. Imaam Aboo Hanccfah (d. II XXVIII I 741 thai should he mentioned that some scholars say dial Aboo ihis stance later laneelah never v. or he withdrew from p."" and based on this. stated that the in 1936 CE (1355 A. the famous commentator of Saheeh al-Bu/(haaree. The II recitation of the translation of the Qur'aan during prayer is forbidden accord- ing to the vast majority ol scholars. v. a Miicilil^ces. the famous Maalikee commentator on the Qur'aan. wrote. ash-Shaybaanee allowed recite ity it it (d. even it if he cannot recile the Qur'aan in Arabic. (in our • language)? What! [41:44] A (book) not Arabic and a (Messenger who is) Arab?' Our scholars he (recited) in its (of the Maalikees) have said that this verse refutes the view thai the ofAboo hjancclah. . on in his life. l-'ie/h us-Sunnah.H.1 352 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan Al-Azhar University. such as Persian. The two students of Aboo Haneefah. 22.

. a person instead on the words and speech Can greater loss than this? The bic I scholars ol this ummah.2. p. such as a word ol the Qur'aan. Muhammad there be a <5£). 676 A." In another place. whether a person tion) capable of reading Arabic or not.. Instead ol to being able to read the Words must that Allaah rely Himself Spoke and revealed ol a mortal. p.l34. Ubay ibn Ka'ab said. "Teach Arabic ol Ara- grammar) and like you teach the memorisation is the Qur'aan!" to recite forget (a portion) more beloved Aboo Bakrsaid. it is concluded by stating that is it is necessary to translate the Qur'aan into different languages. The Muslims the language ol Islaam - who do not understand Arabic must the realise the great loss that they arc in ol their Creator."' az-Zarqaanec.The Translation ol the Quraan 353 Shaykh al-Islaam Ihn Taymiyyah (d. part ol the duty ol spreading Islaam. the Committee lor Religious Verdicts at verdict (fattvaa) staling that such transliterations were forbidden. all realised (i. . regardless whether a person capable ' ol speaking 7 Arabic or not.. 728 A.' 4" Ti It is il- Importance of Arabic in imperative that the Muslims particular are familiar with the Arabic lanis guage to a it degree that they can understand the Qur'aan. is not valid and must be repeated. . nor il is it allowed recite translations ol the Qur'aan in prayer. opinion. Arabic has been anil always will be. anil whether such recitations occur during prayer or not. "It ol is not allowed to recite the Qur'aan in is any language other than Arabic. since this lations. the rhythm." Therefore. the importance of the Arabic language.p.H. "As for the Qur'aan. is not to be recited in other than Arabic. whether a is 14 person is is capable of doing so or not. the i'jaaz - translation.) said. which would invariably lead to changes in meaning. then this in essence held the view that it is is not possible. \. "As for bringing a word (from another language) to explain the meaning (ol another word).H. "That me than to make a grammatical mistake!" And 'Umar once passed by a group of archers who missed their targets. "There present in the Arabic script. He 7-14 All quotes taken from Qattaan. In lact. ol Such transto however.e. This according to the majority it the correct opinion. performed. This is why the scholars of the religion impermissible to recite (the Qur'aan) in a language other than is Arabic. without a doubt. because this (translais removes the fact that the Qur'aan it a revelation from Allaah. and not the words all is lost in ol the Creator. The beauty. from the ( Companions to this generation. and so il Azharevcn issued a is no doubt thai the errors Latin script is devoid number of letters II can never give (the sound) that the Arabic letters give.there its would occur and mispronunciations v. in its words. the Qur'aan were written in a Latin script. 319-20. 74^ az-Zarqaancc. may never be taken as substitutes the Qur'aan. by not being able to understand and read words When they read "translations' they should recognise that these arc the words ol a human interpreter.. this much ol a as possible. 160. 746 Concerning writing the Qur'aank Arabic in another should be avoided as script (what is known as transliteration). anil he said. They wrote. Such a prayer.l. the eloquence.) said."'' Imaam an-Nawawee (d.

) said. so thai he can skahada. It is is not surprising. and obligatory act It is yet they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic. Due to the power ol llie Qur'aan. For the Qur'aan has combined all the Arabs. Arabic as hard as he can. and knowing is obligatory. in general. Islaam the One ol the ministers ol in their England. strive to learn it is imperative that every testify the Muslim should upon him. p. 74X that is to say. but they made a grammatical mistake in phrasing their response. and they responded that they were only beginners.152. 15. anil learnt how to read and write it.it. such the prophets. religion. 'Allaalui Al(bm\ the tasbeeh to 'Subhaan Allaah' and the huhaluul is the prayer said in the last portion ol thesataat. 59. therefore. The orientalist Philip DeTra/. Aboo L'liaadali. every nation among the nations Muslims '' would have had their own languagc. tor the classical Arabic would have spread among them it \nd wire not Qur'aan.) even went so it far as to say that. "As long as hands.So die Qur'aan has been the source of preserving communication between the Islaamic and Arab nations. An. taslhilmd'** and other prayers.y wrote."' lor this precise reason that it is seen that those Muslim firmly societies that arc igno- rant ol Arabic are. I fit is lost. that one of the goals of the enemies of Islaam tion ol the Arabic language. 728 A. laws ami politics. and it is inconceivable lh.I 354 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan reprimanded them. and Studied and worked with ol it. "The basis of Islaam is the Arabic language. This is because the understand the Qur'aan and Sunnah is obligatory on every Muslim. wrote. less Islaamically knowledgeable (and hence more sus- ceptible to deviation) than those societies which are grounded in Arabic. p. Europe can never prevail over the Muslims have the Quraan 7-17 Quotes taken from Aboo The tafyecr is L'badali. 752 .. in 1948 CE. 751 Iijlidaa. 204 A.. 750 Ibn Taymiyyah.the al-Islaam Ibn is Taymiyyah (d. p. Sir Gladstone. 469 Translated from ibid. "Verily. Arabic language ability to a part of the religion. and (the genis eral Islaamic principle is that) every act that is 1 ' an essential prerequisite to perform an also obligatory. 15-2".H. the better it is him!" 74 " And Shaykh ".2. were it not for (he ii Quraan. and recite the Book ol Allaah. your misin grammar are more difficult lor me to bear than your mistakes ' Imaam ash-Shaafi'cc (d. "Therefore. numerous peoples would not have taken up this language. ami say the invocations that are mandatory sealed for as the tal{beer. And the more he learns the language that Allaah Himsell chose to be the language ol (-yg).H. Sir Edward Benson is lost! l wrote. lor they realise that the destruc- one of the uniting factors ol the Muslims is the language of the Qur'aan. anil him who to be the language of His Final Revelation. v. 74'' az-Zarqaancc. say. were it not lor the Quraan. p. die Muslims have become a united nation in their language. takes in (Arabic) archery!"'' 1 He told them. tasbeeh. |>|>s.

nor ismuul known. p. 4H-23. These verses led the Negus to convert the hijnili anil probably the first recorded instance of any translation of the Qur'aan. III. al-Mabtool. inviting them to Islaam. Egypt.'" After the hijrah. "We will never be able to overpower the Algerians as long as they read the Qur'aan anil speak Arabic. p. this incident cither not found mentioned before this time. hie to recite the I. even during the prayers. luijahaai. 757 as-Sarakhsce. made by non-Muslims. ibid.» These letters were sent out around the sixth year after the hi/rah. the Prophet (^) included verse 3:64: •Say: () People of the Scriptures! Come to terms common between us anil you: that we worship none hut Allaah. There ol the lirsi to translate Companion Salmaan al-Farsee was resome portions ol the Qur'aan. under the leadership ol fa'far ibn Abee Taalib.\lti/(/i/ylo<m>. recited the first The Muslims in Abyssinia. . the Turkish language.. which were translated to to Islaam. The The History of Translation translation ol any part of the Qur'aan occurred during the lifetime of the first Prophet (Sgg). the Prophet ($«) sent letters to the emperors of Persia.I in the period lajjnaj ibn Yoosul There is also a possibility of the existence ol a Berber translation written in 753 ar-Roomee. p. He ordered lor the Qur'aan to be recited Turkish. few verses oiSoorah Maryam to the Negus. ''5 A. the French government was ad- vised by consulate in Algeria. century A. did.' Syriac translations I. Most ol these verses in the Qur'aan. as the report mention* dial these new Muslims would is these translations in their prayer." 753 During the French occupation its ol Algeria. ri/-. This incident occurreil before is him. 416.. In order to derive any rulings from an incident. 44. which he 5" Concerning other arc- early translations. in any il hook. Aboo Ubaadah.Translation of the Qur'aan 355 East. and abolish the Arabic language from And exactly what Kamaal Ataa Turk. Reports are also found that state that the quested by some Persian converts then sent them." ol Qur'aan from this is their midst.). ol I in the second part (d. I I 755 Sec Riihtcij 756 pps. letters included some and these verses would had to have been translated along with the letters. is in now written in Latin. Therefore. Rome.I I. first must he substan- tiated to have occurred! 7SS World Bibliography.The. In particular. bic we must remove the Aratheir tongues. 57. p. However. which was once written Arabic. and transposed the Arabic alphabet with the F. anil Bahrain.uro- pean one.. 5. As-Sarakhsce quotes this as prool t< >r the feci thai u is permissi recite Quraan is Its in another language. v. 7^4 p. XXVIII. such that even today. the sectdar leader Turkey who abolin ished the Islaamic caliphate in 1921.

"' Translations into Western Languages The first translation ol the Qur'aan into a Western language was done in 1 143 CE by Robcrtus Retcncsis. part of which is still The first Turkish translation was completed in the 5th hijrah. by a more popular translation (the son of Shah Walce Allaah adwas published in Calcutta. The Gujurati was done by 'Abd al-Qaadir ibn Luqmaan. who ordered the Muslim ruler of Sind. first written Persian translation was clone at the command ol the Samaanid Aboo Saalih Mansoor ibn N'ooh (d. a famous scholar ol Singkel. The Abbot's to try to motive for such an undertaking was dcramc Islaam. Concerning Bengali translations. This was followed by another ol Shah Walee Allaah's sons. and printed by Bibliander Press Martin Luther also wrote an introduction in Basle. it is claimed that the first partial translation was done by Ghulam Akbar Ali ol Mirzapoor. due to the fact that ol the Urdu is itself a young language.H. 270 A. The first translation of the Qur'aan into Malay was clone in the middle of the 7th century by 'Abd ar-Ra'ooIal-Fansoorcc.H. and published in Delhi.H.H. in London. The earliest is still Turkish translation that extant is was completed in 734 A. The first Swahili translation was printed in 1923 CE.. whereas the first translation Brahman.H.). 364 A. The in first complete translation Qur'aan into Urdu was done by Mawlaana Shah Rafee' ad-Deen Dehlawec).H. XXVIII- XXXIV . It was translated command of Peter the Venerable. in 1868 A. The king. This translation was accompa- nied by a translation available in manuscript form. into Latin under the who was helped by Llermannus Dalmata.H. and published first Lahore CE (this translation was not complete..H. ( 1 776 CE). The in first Punjabi translation was attempted by in 1X85 Nuwaan Kootee Shah.H. pps. It was published in Cairo complete translation was done by a 1 in 1923 CE.H. "Abdullaah ibn 'Umar. Shah 'Abd alIt Qaadir. was approved by Martin Luther. all Urdu relatively translations have been fairly recent. Switzer- to this edition.) tafseer. Abbot of Cluny. century of the oflmaam at-Tabaree's (d. however). to trans- late the Qur'aan tor him. This second translation was completed in 1205 A. 1 190 A. 759 All the maicrial ol the last few paragraphs has been summarised trom World Bibliography. It was done by the missionary Godfrey Dale. in 1879 CE. in 1886 CE. There was a Persian oral translation made by Moosaa ibn Sayyaar al-Aswaaree before 225 A. but only the mention of this translation is left. and a complete Indian translation before 270 A.356 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan 127 A. This translation was spread land in 1543. According to TAX! Arnold. a Chinese translation also possibly existed. in as during this time the until it Crusades were being fought. 310 A. Garish Chandra Sen. and primed under the auspices lor ol the "Society Promoting Christian Knowledge. The earliest Hindi translation in reputed to be the one ordered by the Raja Mahrook. manuscript form.. and published in Bombay.

'"' 1 Similar assessments were made by Savary and Sale. This German translation formed the basis for the Dutch translation. 8. and entitled. Qur'aan was the 1616. but most unsound part of the Universe. who was the French Consul in Egypt for it translated the Qur'aan (from Arabic.. so larced with contradictions. obscene speech." The transunknown. where the Sword.quotations to give the 7" 5 from various Arabic Commentaries. interest that existed in that It was published in England. some years. Andre du Rycr.this. xv. his Alcoran (sic) (the Ground-work of the Turkish most it religion).. its forcible. Maracci included '. . carefully selected and garbled.' 761) Arbcrry. Padua. the first complete English translation was actually a translation from the French. 7" 2 After Ross. was from this edition that Alexander Ross translated it into English in 1649. and as such was highly inaccurate. Khalifa. hath been already translated into. "Here begynneth a of the Turves hue called alcoran. it He dedicated his work to the Holy enti- Roman Emperor Leopold tled a "Refutation of the and he introduces by a one volume introduction Koran. and strongest arguement. may prove an Anti-dote. published This translation served as the basis in for the in Ger- man translation.Latin. therefore bis translation faulty in the extreme. p. 19. p. '" Ross' spirit for translating the Qur'aan speaks for said of him. printed in Hamburg in 1641.. p. (anil) French. 761 Kidwai. This was published form the basis many other English I. translated the who was a Confessor to in Pope Innocent XI. and his introduction. Thus." In his translation. a Zwemer 'He was utterly unacquainted with Arabic. and was to Qur'aan into Latin of in 1698. In addition. lytcll treatyse was only 61 pages in length. done by Solomon Schweigger and printed Nuremburg. 763 Yusuf'Ali. for a change!) into French. first one by Andrea first Arrivabcnc. though hath been a poyson (sic) it that hath infected a very great. itself. blasphemies..The Alphonse Translation of the Qur'aan 357 X (1252 - 1284 CE) ordered first a certain Abraham of Toledo to translate portions ol the Qur'aan. and not is thorough French scholar.. .. The It first partial translation into English appeared in 1515. . yei never gained any prosletyte. so as worst possible impression of Islam to Europe. translations.Such as late it and ridiculous it is. 762 65.Thou shalt lind ol so rude. hath not prevailed. fables. In In 1647. to confirm in thee the health of Christianity. This was the standard English translation for around a century. having taken the pains only to transit oul of French. Father Ludovic Maracci. . and shows the early country concerning Islaam. lator And also it spekyth ofMciclitimcf the Nygromancer. and thus the Spanish translation ol seventy soorahs was accomplished. and incongruous a composure. Italian ol the and other particulars about the translation are first Perhaps the "modern" translation in 1547. p. 1 present it to thee. not doubting.. Rev. Ross wrote: . Italian.

" ' The next translation that had J. French 1750). 12. This translation. 13. Rodwell was probably the first to even attempt to imitate the to. though. 12. He writes in the introduction to his translation: I imagine it almost needless to either the following translation. it is other re- absolutely necessary to undeceive those who. il not surprising thai his translation It is is crude. have entertained loo favourable to an opinion of the original. that the Prophet (sgg) ". Unfortunately. was undoubtedly the most famous one It over two centuries. which seldom in an idea.. style ol the Arabic. a wearisome. In his translation.'. he claimed worked himself up into a belief that he had received a advice' to missionaries so that they can carry out divine call. p. German (in 1764). to the free addition Arabic text ol the Qur'aan printed in Hamburg in 1694 (which itself was not for of errors). major impact English language was that of Reverend M.had More sympathetic then his predecessor. "" in 1861. enable us effectually to expose the With such blatant antagonism towards Islaam and the Prophet is Muhammad ($yg). Swedish (in 1814) and Bulgarian (in 1902).Bui in whatever use an impartial version of the Koran Ui<) may be of spects. and also imposture.. from the ignorant or unfair translations which have appeared. George Sale. Sale relied heavily on Maracci's Latin version. which sometimes crawls the dust. It was also on this translation Edward Gibbon based his sarcastic remarks on the beauty ol the Qur'aan. he rearranged the soorahs what he thought was... I shall not here inquire into the reasons in why the law of Muhammad has met with so unexampled a reception the world (lor they are greatly deceived who imagine it to have been propagated by the sword alone).. toilsome reading as I ever undertook. make an apology lor publishing it a work ol use as well as the Christian religion.. Rodwell. (in was translated into Dutch (in 1742). Russian (in 1792). his on the Sale translation that the famous philosopher Thomas Carlyle based "It is as unfair assessment of the Qur'aan.. ". 765 p.358 An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'aan /Viler him. ibid.. in Since his Arabic was poor. peruse with impatience the endless incoherent rhapsodj excites a sentiment or lost in ol and precept. Nothing hut carry any that a sense ol duty could European through the Qur'aan. and the editions. completed his famous translation into English in 1734. inaccurate ami lull ol interpolated phrases. 766 Arbcrry. 7(W Arbcrry. original English alone has seen over a hundred and twenty Sale was no altruist. a and is sometimes in the the clouds. a lawyer who hail learnt Arabic from a royal court inter- preter by the name ol Dadichi. and he did not hide his intentions lor translating the Qur'aan.. crude." "' he wrote. p. . their proselytism He also gives 'useful among Muslims.. or he ill They must have therein. or logo about to prove curiosity. incondite. . a mean opinion ol grounded who can apprehend any danger from so manifest a forgery. confused jumble. .the infidel. and declamation.will Huropcan table...

. where Rodwell had placed the translated and his verse. is one. Daawood's translation came out in 1956. published in Patiala (India) in 1905. common with all other non-Muslim translations of the Qur'aan.. and is perhaps the most difficult translation to read. is seen throughout his This translation was followed by the translation of Edward Henry Palmer in 1 881). The Koran: pared by Various Oriental Learned Scholars. p. Arberry. his bias blatantly shown throughout his translation. N. in which he and also 'critically rearis ranged' the order of the soorahs. Muhammad Pre- Hakeem Khan's. was so conscious. For this. that the Koran untranslatable.the rhetoric and rhythm of the Arabic of the Koran are so characteristic. translation. published Delhi. During the 767 Kidwai. substitutions and derangements' 7 '" of the text of the Qur'aan. as he wished to 'illustrate alterations. However. 26. the altered arrangement nnd soorah substitutions arc based upon little more than his own deranged imagination. For example. Obviously. there exist many instances of incorrect translation and cither omissions or additions into the text. translations is the one by Arthur J. which he did by Max Oxford University Press's Sacred Books of the East series. He writes in his Introduction: In choosing to call the present of the work The Komi: Interpreted I have confor ceded the relevancy orthodox Muslim view. He was an Iraqi Jew. so powerful. at least. it is not free from omissions and mistranslations.'"" His translation docs not contain any explanatory notes or background inlormation on the soorahs. so highl