FLUENT 6.

3

User’s Guide

September 2006

Copyright c 2006 by Fluent Inc. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or otherwise used in any form without express written permission from Fluent Inc.

Airpak, FIDAP, FLUENT, FLUENT for CATIA V5, FloWizard, GAMBIT, Icemax, Icepak, Icepro, Icewave, Icechip, MixSim, and POLYFLOW are registered trademarks of Fluent Inc. All other products or name brands are trademarks of their respective holders. CHEMKIN is a registered trademark of Reaction Design Inc. Portions of this program include material copyrighted by PathScale Corporation 2003-2004.

Fluent Inc. Centerra Resource Park 10 Cavendish Court Lebanon, NH 03766

Contents

Preface 1 Starting and Executing FLUENT 1.1

UTM-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-5 1-8 1-9

Starting FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 Single-Precision and Double-Precision Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . Starting FLUENT on a UNIX System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting FLUENT on a Windows System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Simulation Facility (RSF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Startup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Executing FLUENT Remotely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Running FLUENT on a Remote Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 Starting the Solver Manually on the Remote Machine . . . . . . 1-15 Executing Remotely by Reading a Case File . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15

1.3

Running FLUENT in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 Background Execution on UNIX Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 Background Execution on Windows Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18 Batch Execution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19

1.4 1.5 1.6

Checkpointing a FLUENT Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Cleaning Up Processes From a FLUENT Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21 Exiting the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22

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2 Graphical User Interface (GUI) 2.1 GUI Components 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-1 2-1 2-1 2-5

Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Graphics Display Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17

Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only) . . . . . 2-20 Using the GUI Help System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11 2.3.12 Panel Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 Context-Sensitive Help (UNIX Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Opening the User’s Guide Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Opening the User’s Guide Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Opening the Reference Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23 Help on Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Help for Text Interface Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Accessing the Other Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26 Accessing the User Services Center Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 Accessing the Fluent Online Technical Support Web Site . . . . . 2-28 Obtaining a Listing of Other FLUENT License Users . . . . . . . 2-28 Version and Release Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28 3-1 3-1 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-5

3 Text User Interface (TUI) 3.1 Text Menu System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 Command Abbreviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Line History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scheme Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.2

Text Prompt System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-9

Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Default Value Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 3.4

Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 3.4.2 System Commands for UNIX-based Operating Systems . . . . .

System Commands for Windows Operating Systems . . . . . . . 3-10

3.5 3.6

Text Menu Input from Character Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Using the Text Interface Help System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-6 4-7

4 Reading and Writing Files 4.1 Shortcuts for Reading and Writing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 Default File Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binary Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detecting File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recent File List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading and Writing Compressed Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tilde Expansion (UNIX Systems Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Numbering of Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disabling the Overwrite Confirmation Prompt . . . . . . . . . .

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4.2

Reading Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Reading TGrid Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading Surface Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading GAMBIT and GeoMesh Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading PreBFC Unstructured Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-7 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-9

4.3

Reading and Writing Case and Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 Reading and Writing Case Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reading and Writing Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Reading and Writing Case and Data Files Together . . . . . . . 4-10

Automatic Saving of Case and Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Reading FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case and Data Files . . . . . . . 4-13 Reading and Writing Profile Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15

Writing a Boundary Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 Reading Scheme Source Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 Creating and Reading Journal Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 4.9.1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18

4.10 Creating Transcript Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 4.11 Importing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 4.11.1 4.11.2 4.11.3 4.11.4 4.11.5 4.11.6 4.11.7 4.11.8 4.11.9 ABAQUS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 ANSYS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 Meshes and Data in CGNS Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 EnSight Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 FIDAP Neutral Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 GAMBIT and GeoMesh Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 HYPERMESH ASCII Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 I-deas Universal Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 LSTC Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25

4.11.10 Marc POST Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25

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4.11.11 NASTRAN Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 4.11.12 PATRAN Neutral Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 4.11.13 PLOT3D Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 4.11.14 PTC Mechanica Design Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 4.11.15 FLUENT 4 Case Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 4.11.16 PreBFC Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 4.11.17 Partition Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 4.11.18 CHEMKIN Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 4.12 Exporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29 4.12.1 4.12.2 4.12.3 4.12.4 4.12.5 4.12.6 4.12.7 4.12.8 4.12.9 Using the Export Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31 ABAQUS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32 ANSYS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33 ANSYS Input Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-34 ASCII Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-34 AVS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35 CGNS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35 Data Explorer Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-36 EnSight Case Gold Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-36

4.12.10 FAST Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-38 4.12.11 FAST Solution Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-38 4.12.12 Fieldview Unstructured Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-38 4.12.13 I-deas Universal Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39 4.12.14 NASTRAN Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-40 4.12.15 PATRAN Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 4.12.16 RadTherm Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 4.12.17 Tecplot Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42 4.12.18 Defining Transient Export Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43

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4.13 Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-44 4.13.1 4.13.2 Performing Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . 4-44 Format of the Interpolation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46

4.14 Saving Hardcopy Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46 4.14.1 Using the Graphics Hardcopy Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47

4.15 Saving the Panel Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-52 4.16 The .fluent File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-52 5 Unit Systems 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Restrictions on Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units in Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Built-In Unit Systems in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customizing Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-4 6-1 6-2 6-2

6 Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.1 Grid Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.2 Examples of Acceptable Grid Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Face-Node Connectivity in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11 Choosing the Appropriate Grid Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17

Grid Requirements and Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19 6.2.1 6.2.2 Geometry/Grid Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19

Mesh Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20

6.3

Grid Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7 GAMBIT Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24 GeoMesh Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24 TGrid Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24 PreBFC Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25 ICEMCFD Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26 Grid Files from Third-Party CAD Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26 FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32

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6.3.8 6.3.9 6.3.10 6.3.11 6.4

FLUENT 4 Case Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32 FIDAP Neutral Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32 Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-33

Reading Surface Mesh Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-37

Non-Conformal Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-37 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Non-Conformal Grid Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-37 Requirements and Limitations of Non-Conformal Grids . . . . . 6-41 Using a Non-Conformal Grid in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-43 Starting From a FLUENT/UNS or RAMPANT Case . . . . . . . . 6-45

6.5

Checking the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46 6.5.1 6.5.2 Grid Check Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46 Repairing Duplicate Shadow Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-48

6.6

Reporting Grid Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-48 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 Grid Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-48 Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-49 Grid Zone Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-51

Partition Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-51

6.7

Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-52 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 Converting the Domain to a Polyhedra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-52 Converting Skewed Cells to Polyhedra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-58 Steps in Converting Skewed Cells to Polyhedral Cells . . . . . . . 6-59

6.8

Modifying the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-60 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4 6.8.5 6.8.6 6.8.7 Merging Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-61 Separating Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-62 Fusing Face Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-69 Creating Periodic Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-71 Slitting Periodic Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-72

Slitting Face Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-73 Extruding Face Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-74

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6.8.8 6.8.9 6.8.10 6.8.11 6.8.12

Replacing, Deleting, Deactivating, and Activating Zones . . . . . 6-75 Reordering the Domain and Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-79 Scaling the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-80 Translating the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-83 Rotating the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-84 7-1 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-9

7 Boundary Conditions 7.1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.1.10 7.2 Available Boundary Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Boundary Conditions Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing Boundary Zone Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Boundary Zones in the Graphics Display . . . . . . . . Changing Boundary Zone Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Non-Uniform Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . .

Defining Transient Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Saving and Reusing Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12

Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12 7.2.1 7.2.2 Using Flow Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Determining Turbulence Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14

7.3

Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 Inputs at Pressure Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Default Settings at Pressure Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . 7-27

7.4

Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 Inputs at Velocity Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30

Default Settings at Velocity Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36 Calculation Procedure at Velocity Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . 7-36

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7.5

Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 Inputs at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39 Default Settings at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . 7-44 Calculation Procedure at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries . . . . . . 7-45

7.6

Inlet Vent Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-47 7.6.1 Inputs at Inlet Vent Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-47

7.7

Intake Fan Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-49 7.7.1 Inputs at Intake Fan Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-49

7.8

Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-51 7.8.1 7.8.2 7.8.3 7.8.4 Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-52 Default Settings at Pressure Outlet Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . 7-56 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Outlet Boundaries . . . . . . 7-57 Other Optional Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries . . . . . . 7-59

7.9

Pressure Far-Field Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-61 7.9.1 7.9.2 7.9.3 Inputs at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-62 Default Settings at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries . . . . . . . . 7-64 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries . . . . . 7-64

7.10 Outflow Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-65 7.10.1 7.10.2 7.10.3 7.10.4 FLUENT’s Treatment at Outflow Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 7-66 Using Outflow Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-66 Mass Flow Split Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-68 Other Inputs at Outflow Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69

7.11 Outlet Vent Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70 7.11.1 Inputs at Outlet Vent Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-70

7.12 Exhaust Fan Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73 7.12.1 Inputs at Exhaust Fan Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-73

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7.13 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 7.13.1 7.13.2 7.13.3 7.13.4 Inputs at Wall Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-75 Default Settings at Wall Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93 Shear-Stress Calculation Procedure at Wall Boundaries . . . . . 7-94 Heat Transfer Calculations at Wall Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . 7-95

7.14 Symmetry Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-97 7.14.1 7.14.2 Examples of Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98 Calculation Procedure at Symmetry Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 7-100

7.15 Periodic Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100 7.15.1 7.15.2 7.15.3 7.15.4 Examples of Periodic Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-101 Inputs for Periodic Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-101 Default Settings at Periodic Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-104 Calculation Procedure at Periodic Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 7-104

7.16 Axis Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-105 7.17 Fluid Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-106 7.17.1 Inputs for Fluid Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-106

7.18 Solid Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-109 7.18.1 Inputs for Solid Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-110

7.19 Porous Media Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-112 7.19.1 7.19.2 7.19.3 7.19.4 7.19.5 7.19.6 7.19.7 7.19.8 7.19.9 Limitations and Assumptions of the Porous Media Model . . . . 7-113 Momentum Equations for Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-113 Treatment of the Energy Equation in Porous Media . . . . . . . 7-116 Treatment of Turbulence in Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Effect of Porosity on Transient Scalar Equations . . . . . . . . . 7-117 User Inputs for Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-117 Modeling Porous Media Based on Physical Velocity . . . . . . . . 7-131 Solution Strategies for Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-132 Postprocessing for Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-133

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7.20 Fan Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-134 7.20.1 7.20.2 7.20.3 Fan Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-134 User Inputs for Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-135 Postprocessing for Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-143

7.21 Radiator Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-144 7.21.1 7.21.2 7.21.3 Radiator Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-144 User Inputs for Radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-146 Postprocessing for Radiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-151

7.22 Porous Jump Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-153 7.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-155 7.23.1 7.23.2 Turbo-Specific Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . 7-156 General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 7-168

7.24 User-Defined Fan Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-176 7.24.1 7.24.2 Steps for Using the User-Defined Fan Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-176 Example of a User-Defined Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-177

7.25 Heat Exchanger Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-186 7.25.1 7.25.2 7.25.3 7.25.4 7.25.5 Overview and Restrictions of the Heat Exchanger Models . . . . 7-186 Heat Exchanger Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-189 Using the Heat Exchanger Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-196 Using the Heat Exchanger Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-208 Postprocessing for the Heat Exchanger Model . . . . . . . . . . . 7-211

7.26 Boundary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-216 7.26.1 7.26.2 7.26.3 7.26.4 Boundary Profile Specification Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-216 Boundary Profile File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-217 Using Boundary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-220 Reorienting Boundary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-223

7.27 Fixing the Values of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-228 7.27.1 7.27.2 Overview of Fixing the Value of a Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-228 Procedure for Fixing Values of Variables in a Zone . . . . . . . . 7-230

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7.28 Defining Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . 7-233 7.28.1 Procedure for Defining Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-234

7.29 Coupling Boundary Conditions with GT-Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-238 7.29.1 7.29.2 Requirements and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-238 User Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-239

7.30 Coupling Boundary Conditions with WAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-241 7.30.1 7.30.2 Requirements and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-241 User Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-242 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4

8 Physical Properties 8.1 Defining Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.2 Material Types and Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Materials Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Using a User-Defined Materials Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10

Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions . . . . . . 8-19 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Inputs for Polynomial Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Inputs for Piecewise-Linear Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21 Inputs for Piecewise-Polynomial Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22 Checking and Modifying Existing Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23

8.3

Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.3.6 8.3.7 Defining Density for Various Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 Input of Constant Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25

Inputs for the Boussinesq Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25 Density as a Profile Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 Incompressible Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 Ideal Gas Law for Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27 Composition-Dependent Density for Multicomponent Mixtures . 8-28

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8.4

Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 Input of Constant Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 Viscosity as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31 Defining the Viscosity Using Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 8-34

Composition-Dependent Viscosity for Multicomponent Mixtures

Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35

8.5

Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.5.5 Constant Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42 Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . 8-43 Thermal Conductivity Using Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43 Composition-Dependent Thermal Conductivity for Multicomponent Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44 Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity for Solids . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45

8.6

User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-50 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 Isotropic Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-51 Anisotropic Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-54 User-Defined Anisotropic Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-58

8.7

Specific Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-59 8.7.1 8.7.2 8.7.3 8.7.4 Input of Constant Specific Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-59 Specific Heat Capacity as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . 8-60 Defining Specific Heat Capacity Using Kinetic Theory . . . . . . 8-60 Specific Heat Capacity as a Function of Composition . . . . . . . 8-61

8.8

Radiation Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-61 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.8.3 8.8.4 Absorption Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-62 Scattering Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-64 Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-65 Reporting the Radiation Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-65

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8.9

Mass Diffusion Coefficients 8.9.1 8.9.2 8.9.3 8.9.4 8.9.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-65

Fickian Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-65 Full Multicomponent Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-67 Thermal Diffusion Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-68 Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-69 Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs for Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . 8-75

8.10 Standard State Enthalpies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-76 8.11 Standard State Entropies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-76 8.12 Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-76 8.13 Kinetic Theory Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-77 8.14 Operating Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78 8.14.1 8.14.2 8.14.3 The Effect of Numerical Roundoff on Pressure Calculation in Low-Mach-Number Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-78 Operating Pressure, Gauge Pressure, and Absolute Pressure . . . 8-79 Setting the Operating Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-79

8.15 Reference Pressure Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-80 8.15.1 Actual Reference Pressure Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-81

8.16 Real Gas Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-81 8.16.1 8.16.2 The NIST Real Gas Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-84 The User-Defined Real Gas Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-88 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-7

9 Modeling Basic Fluid Flow 9.1 9.2 9.3 Overview of Physical Models in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuity and Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UDS Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Up UDS Equations in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.4

Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.4.5 9.4.6 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17 User Inputs for the Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 User Inputs for the Density-Based Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20 Monitoring the Value of the Pressure Gradient . . . . . . . . . . 9-20 Postprocessing for Streamwise-Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21

9.5

Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.5.4 9.5.5 Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23 Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24 Turbulence Modeling in Swirling Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26 Grid Setup for Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Modeling Axisymmetric Flows with Swirl or Rotation . . . . . . 9-27

9.6

Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-32 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 9.6.5 9.6.6 When to Use the Compressible Flow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-34 Physics of Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35 Modeling Inputs for Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-36 Floating Operating Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-38 Solution Strategies for Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-40 Reporting of Results for Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . 9-41

9.7

Inviscid Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-41 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.4 Euler Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-42 Setting Up an Inviscid Flow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-43 Solution Strategies for Inviscid Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-44 Postprocessing for Inviscid Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-44

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10 Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 10.1 Introduction

10-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

10.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling . . . . . . . . 10-7

10.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9 10.3.1 10.3.2 The Multiple Reference Frame Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9 The Mixing Plane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15

10.4 Grid Setup for a Single Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21 10.5 Grid Setup for a Multiple Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22 10.6 Steps in Using Rotating Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22 10.7 Setting Up a Single Rotating Reference Frame Problem . . . . . . . . . . 10-25 10.7.1 Choosing the Relative or Absolute Velocity Formulation . . . . . 10-27

10.8 Solution Strategies for a Single Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . 10-29 10.8.1 Gradual Increase of the Rotational Speed to Improve Solution Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30

10.9 Postprocessing for a Single Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30 10.10 Setting Up a Multiple Rotating Reference Frame Problem . . . . . . . . 10-32 10.10.1 Setting Up Multiple Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32 10.10.2 Setting Up the Mixing Plane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-35 10.11 Solution Strategies for MRF and Mixing Plane Problems . . . . . . . . . 10-40 10.11.1 MRF Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-40 10.11.2 Mixing Plane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-40 10.12 Postprocessing for MRF and Mixing Plane Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 10-40

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11 Modeling Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 11.1 Introduction 11.1.1

11-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Conservation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3

11.2 Sliding Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 11.2.1 11.2.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Sliding Mesh Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10

11.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 11.3.5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Dynamic Mesh Update Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Volume Mesh Update Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34 Solid-Body Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35 Steady-State Dynamic Mesh Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-39

11.4 Steps in Using Sliding Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42 11.4.1 11.4.2 Grid Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42 Setting Up the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-43

11.5 Solution Strategies for Sliding Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45 11.6 Postprocessing for Sliding Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-49 11.7 Steps in Using Dynamic Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-50 11.7.1 11.7.2 11.7.3 11.7.4 11.7.5 11.7.6 11.7.7 Setting Dynamic Mesh Modeling Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 11-51 Specifying the Motion of Dynamic Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-60 Previewing the Dynamic Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-70 Defining Dynamic Mesh Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73 Using the In-Cylinder Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83 Using the 2.5D Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-99 Using the Six DOF Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-101

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12 Modeling Turbulence 12.1 Introduction

12-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2

12.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 Reynolds-Averaged Approach of the DES Model vs. LES . . . . 12-3 Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Boussinesq Approach vs. Reynolds Stress Transport Models . . . 12-5 Computational Effort: CPU Time and Solution Behavior . . . . 12-6

12.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 12.3.4 12.3.5 12.3.6 12.3.7 12.3.8 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . 12-7 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8 Modeling the Turbulent Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8 Modeling the Turbulent Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10 Model Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11

12.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 12.4.1 12.4.2 12.4.3 12.4.4 12.4.5 12.4.6 12.4.7 Standard k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 RNG k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14 Realizable k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18 Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models . . . . . . . . 12-22 Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . . . . . 12-23 Effects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . 12-24 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k- Models . 12-25

12.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-26 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 Standard k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-26 Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-31 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-35

12.6 The v 2 -f Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36

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12.7 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37 12.7.1 12.7.2 12.7.3 12.7.4 12.7.5 12.7.6 12.7.7 12.7.8 12.7.9 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38 Modeling Turbulent Diffusive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38 Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-39 Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-44 Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-44 Modeling the Dissipation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-46

12.7.10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47 12.8 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47 12.8.1 12.8.2 12.8.3 Spalart-Allmaras RANS Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-48 Realizable k- RANS Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-48 SST k-ω RANS Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-49

12.9 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-49 12.9.1 12.9.2 12.9.3 12.9.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-49 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-50 Subgrid-Scale Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-52 Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model . . . . . . . . . . 12-56

12.10 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . 12-58 12.10.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-58 12.10.2 Standard Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-61 12.10.3 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-65 12.10.4 Enhanced Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-68 12.10.5 User-Defined Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-74 12.10.6 LES Near-Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-74 12.11 Grid Considerations for Turbulent Flow Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . 12-75 12.11.1 Near-Wall Mesh Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-75

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12.12 Steps in Using a Turbulence Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-77 12.13 Setting Up the Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-80 12.14 Setting Up the k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-81 12.14.1 Setting Up the Standard or Realizable k- Model . . . . . . . . . 12-81 12.14.2 Setting Up the RNG k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-82 12.15 Setting Up the k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-84 12.15.1 Setting Up the Standard k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-84 12.15.2 Setting Up the Shear-Stress Transport k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . 12-85 12.16 Setting Up the Reynolds Stress Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-86 12.17 Setting Up the Detached Eddy Simulation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-89 12.18 Setting Up the Large Eddy Simulation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-90 12.19 Setup Options for all Turbulence Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-92 12.19.1 Including the Viscous Heating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-92 12.19.2 Including Turbulence Generation Due to Buoyancy . . . . . . . . 12-92 12.19.3 Vorticity- and Strain/Vorticity-Based Production . . . . . . . . . 12-92 12.19.4 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-92 12.19.5 Differential Viscosity Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93 12.19.6 Swirl Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93 12.19.7 Transitional Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93 12.19.8 Shear Flow Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93 12.19.9 Including Pressure Gradient Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93 12.19.10 Including Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-94 12.19.11 Including the Wall Reflection Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-94 12.19.12 Solving the k Equation to Obtain Wall Boundary Conditions . . 12-94 12.19.13 Quadratic Pressure-Strain Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-94 12.19.14 Low-Re Stress-Omega Pressure-Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-95 12.19.15 Subgrid-Scale Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-95

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12.19.16 Customizing the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-95 12.19.17 Customizing the Turbulent Prandtl Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 12-96 12.19.18 Modeling Turbulence with Non-Newtonian Fluids . . . . . . . . 12-96 12.20 Defining Turbulence Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-96 12.20.1 The Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-96 12.20.2 k- Models and k-ω Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-97 12.20.3 Reynolds Stress Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98

12.20.4 Large Eddy Simulation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100 12.21 Providing an Initial Guess for k and (or k and ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100

12.22 Solution Strategies for Turbulent Flow Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101 12.22.1 Mesh Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101 12.22.2 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101 12.22.3 Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102 12.22.4 RSM-Specific Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102 12.22.5 LES-Specific Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-103 12.23 Postprocessing for Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105 12.23.1 Custom Field Functions for Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109 12.23.2 Postprocessing Turbulent Flow Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109 12.23.3 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-111 13 Modeling Heat Transfer 13.1 Introduction 13-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1

13.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 Heat Transfer Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Steps in Solving Heat Transfer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7 Solution Strategies for Heat Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . 13-10 Postprocessing Heat Transfer Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Shell Conduction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21

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13.3 Modeling Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 13.3.1 13.3.2 13.3.3 13.3.4 13.3.5 13.3.6 13.3.7 13.3.8 13.3.9 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25 Radiative Transfer Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29 P-1 Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30 Rosseland Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory . . . . . . . 13-36 Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 13-40 Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 13-61 Radiation in Combusting Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64

Choosing a Radiation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68

13.3.10 Steps in Using the Radiation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-69 13.3.11 Setting Up the DTRM Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-71 13.3.12 Setting Up the S2S Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74 13.3.13 Setting Up the DO Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-84 13.3.14 Defining Material Properties for Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-88 13.3.15 Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . 13-89 13.3.16 Solution Strategies for Radiation Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-99 13.3.17 Postprocessing Radiation Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-104 13.3.18 Solar Load Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-109 13.4 Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-137 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3 13.4.4 13.4.5 13.4.6 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-137 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-138 Steps in Using Periodic Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-140 Solution Strategies for Periodic Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . 13-142 Monitoring Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-142 Postprocessing for Periodic Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-143

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14 Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

14-1

14.1 Volumetric Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 14.1.4 14.1.5 14.1.6 14.1.7 14.1.8 14.1.9 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Overview of User Inputs for Modeling Species Transport and Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12 Enabling Species Transport and Reactions and Choosing the Mixture Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15 Defining Properties for the Mixture and Its Constituent Species . 14-17 Defining Boundary Conditions for Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-34 Defining Other Sources of Chemical Species . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35 Solution Procedures for Chemical Mixing and Finite-Rate Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35 Postprocessing for Species Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-40 Importing a Volumetric Kinetic Mechanism in CHEMKIN Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-41

14.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition . . . . . . . . . 14-44 14.2.1 14.2.2 14.2.3 14.2.4 14.2.5 14.2.6 Overview of Surface Species and Wall Surface Reactions . . . . . 14-44 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 User Inputs for Wall Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-49 Solution Procedures for Wall Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . 14-51 Postprocessing for Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-51 Importing a Surface Kinetic Mechanism in CHEMKIN Format . 14-52

14.3 Particle Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-56 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-56 User Inputs for Particle Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-61 Using the Multiple Surface Reactions Model for Discrete-Phase Particle Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-62

14.4 Species Transport Without Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-63

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15 Modeling Non-Premixed Combustion 15.1 Introduction 15.1.1

15-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2

Overview of the Non-Premixed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2

15.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . 15-2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 15.2.4 15.2.5 Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3 Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction . . . . . . . . . . 15-8 Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . 15-12 Chemistry Tabulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18

15.3 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 Restrictions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 The Flamelet Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 Flamelet Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28 Flamelet Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28

15.4 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-30 15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-31 Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-31 Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32

15.5 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 15.5.1 15.5.2 The Generalized Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . 15-33 The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . . 15-36

15.6 Steps in Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 15.6.1 15.6.2 15.6.3 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-37 Defining the Problem Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-38 Overview of the Problem Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-38

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15.7 Setting Up the Equilibrium Chemistry Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42 15.7.1 15.7.2 15.7.3 15.7.4 15.7.5 Choosing Adiabatic or Non-Adiabatic Options . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 Specifying the Operating Pressure for the System . . . . . . . . . 15-43 Enabling a Secondary Inlet Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-44 Choosing to Define the Fuel Stream(s) Empirically . . . . . . . . 15-45 Enabling the Rich Flammability Limit (RFL) Option . . . . . . 15-46

15.8 Setting Up the Steady and Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Models . . . . . 15-46 15.8.1 15.8.2 15.8.3 15.8.4 15.8.5 Choosing Adiabatic or Non-Adiabatic Options . . . . . . . . . . 15-47 Specifying the Operating Pressure for the System . . . . . . . . . 15-47 Specifying a Chemical Mechanism File for Flamelet Generation . 15-48 Importing a Flamelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-49 Using the Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . 15-49

15.9 Defining the Stream Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-51 15.9.1 15.9.2 15.9.3 15.9.4 15.9.5 Setting Boundary Stream Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-54 Modifying the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-54 Composition Inputs for Empirically-Defined Fuel Streams . . . . 15-55 Modeling Liquid Fuel Combustion Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-55 Modeling Coal Combustion Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . 15-56

15.10 Setting Up Control Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-60 15.10.1 Forcing the Exclusion and Inclusion of Equilibrium Species . . . 15-60 15.10.2 Defining the Flamelet Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-62 15.10.3 Zeroing Species in the Initial Unsteady Flamelet . . . . . . . . . 15-63 15.11 Calculating the Flamelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-65 15.11.1 Steady Flamelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-65 15.11.2 Unsteady Flamelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-67 15.11.3 Saving the Flamelet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-70 15.11.4 Postprocessing the Flamelet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-70

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15.12 Calculating the Look-Up Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 15.12.1 Stability Issues in Calculating Look-Up Tables . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 15.12.2 Saving the Look-Up Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 15.12.3 Postprocessing the Look-Up Table Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-78 15.13 Defining Non-Premixed Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-85 15.13.1 Input of Mixture Fraction Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . 15-85 15.13.2 Diffusion at Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.13.3 Input of Thermal Boundary Conditions and Fuel Inlet Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.14 Defining Non-Premixed Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87 15.15 Coal Modeling Inputs in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-88 15.16 Solution Strategies for Non-Premixed Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-89 15.16.1 Single-Mixture-Fraction Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-89 15.16.2 Two-Mixture-Fraction Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90 15.16.3 Starting a Non-Premixed Calculation From a Previous Case File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90 15.16.4 Solving the Flow Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-92 15.17 Postprocessing the Non-Premixed Model Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-94 16 Modeling Premixed Combustion 16-1

16.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1 16.1.1 16.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2

16.2 Premixed Combustion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 16.2.1 16.2.2 16.2.3 16.2.4 16.2.5 Propagation of the Flame Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Turbulent Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4 Premixed Combustion Model Formulation in FLUENT . . . . . . 16-9 Calculation of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9 Calculation of Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10

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16.3 Using the Premixed Combustion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 16.3.1 16.3.2 16.3.3 16.3.4 16.3.5 16.3.6 16.3.7 Enabling the Premixed Combustion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12 Choosing an Adiabatic or Non-Adiabatic Model . . . . . . . . . 16-12

Modifying the Constants for the Premixed Combustion Model . . 16-13 Defining Physical Properties for the Unburnt Mixture . . . . . . 16-13 Setting Boundary Conditions for the Progress Variable . . . . . . 16-14 Initializing the Progress Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Postprocessing for Premixed Combustion Calculations . . . . . . 16-15 17-1

17 Modeling Partially Premixed Combustion

17.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 17.1.1 17.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1

17.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 17.2.1 17.2.2 Calculation of Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Laminar Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3

17.3 Using the Partially Premixed Combustion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 17.3.1 17.3.2 Setup and Solution Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 Modifying the Unburnt Mixture Property Polynomials . . . . . . 17-6 18-1

18 Modeling a Composition PDF Transport Problem

18.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 18.2 Composition PDF Transport Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 18.2.1 18.2.2 18.2.3 18.2.4 18.2.5 Solution of the PDF Transport Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 Particle Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 Particle Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4 Particle Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6 The ISAT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7

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18.3 Steps for Using the Composition PDF Transport Model . . . . . . . . . 18-9 18.3.1 18.3.2 18.3.3 18.3.4 18.3.5 18.3.6 18.3.7 18.3.8 18.3.9 Enabling the Composition PDF Transport Model . . . . . . . . . 18-10 Setting Integration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11 Enabling KINetics from Reaction Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12 Enabling Liquid Micro-Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13 Selecting the Particle Mixing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13 Defining the Solution Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13 Monitoring the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15 Monitoring ISAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-16 Using ISAT Efficiently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17

18.3.10 Reading and Writing ISAT Tables in Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18 18.3.11 Running Unsteady Composition PDF Transport Simulations . . 18-19 18.3.12 Running Compressible Composition PDF Transport Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19 18.3.13 Running Composition PDF Transport Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19 18.3.14 Postprocessing for Composition PDF Transport Calculations . . 18-19 19 Modeling Engine Ignition 19-1

19.1 Spark Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 19.1.1 19.1.2 19.1.3 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Spark Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Using the Spark Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3

19.2 Autoignition Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5 19.2.1 19.2.2 19.2.3 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6 Ignition Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Using the Autoignition Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-11

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19.3 Crevice Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14 19.3.1 19.3.2 19.3.3 19.3.4 19.3.5 19.3.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-14 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17 Crevice Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17 Using the Crevice Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-19 Crevice Model Solution Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-21 Postprocessing for the Crevice Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-21 20-1

20 Modeling Pollutant Formation

20.1 NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 20.1.1 20.1.2 20.1.3 20.1.4 20.1.5 20.1.6 20.1.7 20.1.8 20.1.9 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2 Governing Equations for NOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 Thermal NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-4 Prompt NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8 Fuel NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-12 NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-24 NOx Reduction by Reburning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-26 NOx Reduction by SNCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-30 NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-36

20.1.10 Using the NOx Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-39 20.1.11 Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-51 20.1.12 Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-52 20.2 SOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-53 20.2.1 20.2.2 20.2.3 20.2.4 20.2.5 20.2.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-54 Governing Equations for SOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-55 Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-56 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-58 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-59 SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-59

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20.2.7 20.2.8 20.2.9

SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-60 Using the SOx Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-61 Solution Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-71

20.2.10 Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-72 20.3 Soot Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-73 20.3.1 20.3.2 20.3.3 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-73 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-74 Using the Soot Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-78 21-1

21 Predicting Aerodynamically Generated Noise

21.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1 21.1.1 21.1.2 21.1.3 Direct Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2 Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3

21.2 Acoustics Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4 21.2.1 21.2.2 The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7

21.3 Using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Acoustics Model . . . . . . . . 21-12 21.3.1 21.3.2 21.3.3 21.3.4 Enabling the FW-H Acoustics Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-13

Specifying Source Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-17 Specifying Acoustic Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-20 Postprocessing the FW-H Acoustics Model Data . . . . . . . . . 21-21

21.4 Using the Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-25 21.4.1 21.4.2 Enabling the Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . 21-26 Postprocessing the Broadband Noise Source Model Data . . . . . 21-27

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22 Modeling Discrete Phase 22.1 Introduction 22.1.1 22.1.2

22-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3

22.2 Particle Motion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5 22.2.1 22.2.2 Equations of Motion for Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5 Turbulent Dispersion of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-10

22.3 Multicomponent Particle Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-17 22.4 Wall-Film Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-19 22.4.1 22.4.2 22.4.3 22.4.4 22.4.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-19 Interaction During Impact with a Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-20 Splashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-22 Separation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-26

Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles . . . . . . . . . . 22-26

22.5 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-31 22.6 Dynamic Drag Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-32 22.7 Spray Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-33 22.7.1 22.7.2 Droplet Collision Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-34 Droplet Breakup Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-37

22.8 Atomizer Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-46 22.8.1 22.8.2 22.8.3 22.8.4 22.8.5 The Plain-Orifice Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-47 The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-55 The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-60 The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-61 The Effervescent Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-62

22.9 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-63 22.9.1 22.9.2 Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases . . . . . . 22-64 Particle Types in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-67

22.10 Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-91

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22.11 Steps for Using the Discrete Phase Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-91 22.11.1 Options for Interaction with the Continuous Phase . . . . . . . . 22-93 22.11.2 Steady/Transient Treatment of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-93 22.11.3 Parameter Tracking for the Discrete Phase Model 22.11.4 Alternate Drag Laws . . . . . . . . 22-96

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-99

22.11.5 Physical Models for the Discrete Phase Model . . . . . . . . . . . 22-100 22.11.6 Options for Spray Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-102 22.11.7 Numerics of the Discrete Phase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-103 22.11.8 User-Defined Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-106 22.11.9 Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model . . . . . . . . . 22-106 22.12 Setting Initial Conditions for the Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-109 22.12.1 Injection Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-110

22.12.2 Particle Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-126 22.12.3 Creating, Modifying, Copying, Deleting, and Listing Injections . 22-127 22.12.4 Defining Injection Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-129 22.12.5 Modeling Turbulent Dispersion of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-134 22.12.6 Custom Particle Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-137 22.12.7 Defining Properties Common to More than One Injection . . . . 22-138 22.13 Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . 22-140 22.13.1 Discrete Phase Boundary Condition Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-141 22.13.2 Setting Particle Erosion and Accretion Parameters . . . . . . . . 22-146 22.14 Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-146 22.14.1 Summary of Property Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-146 22.14.2 Setting Discrete-Phase Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-150 22.15 Solution Strategies for the Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-156 22.15.1 Integration of Particle Equation of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-157 22.15.2 Performing Trajectory Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-159 22.15.3 Resetting the Interphase Exchange Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-163

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22.16 Postprocessing for the Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-163 22.16.1 Displaying of Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-164 22.16.2 Reporting of Trajectory Fates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-167 22.16.3 Step-by-Step Reporting of Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-172 22.16.4 Reporting of Current Positions for Unsteady Tracking . . . . . . 22-174 22.16.5 Reporting of Interphase Exchange Terms and Discrete Phase Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-175 22.16.6 Sampling of Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-176 22.16.7 Histogram Reporting of Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-178 22.16.8 Summary Reporting of Current Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-179 22.16.9 Postprocessing of Erosion/Accretion Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-181 23 Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.1 Introduction 23.1.1 23.1.2 23-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2

Multiphase Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2 Examples of Multiphase Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5

23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5 23.2.1 23.2.2 23.2.3 23.2.4 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6 Model Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7 Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-11 Stability and Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12

23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12 23.3.1 23.3.2 23.3.3 23.3.4 23.3.5 23.3.6 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12 Volume Fraction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-14 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-19 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-19 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20 Additional Scalar Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20

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23.3.7 23.3.8 23.3.9

Time Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-21 Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-26

23.4 Mixture Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-29 23.4.1 23.4.2 23.4.3 23.4.4 23.4.5 23.4.6 23.4.7 23.4.8 23.4.9 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . 23-29 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-31 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-32 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-32 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . 23-33 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases . . . . . . . 23-34 Granular Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-35 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-36 Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-37

23.5 Eulerian Model Theory 23.5.1 23.5.2 23.5.3 23.5.4 23.5.5 23.5.6 23.5.7 23.5.8 23.5.9

Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . 23-37 Volume Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-39 Conservation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-40 Interphase Exchange Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-44 Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-50 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . 23-53 Solids Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-54 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-57 Description of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-58

23.5.10 Turbulence Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-60 23.5.11 Solution Method in FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-70

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23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-71 23.6.1 23.6.2 23.6.3 23.6.4 Overview and Limitations of the Wet Steam Model . . . . . . . . 23-71 Wet Steam Flow Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-72 Phase Change Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-74 Built-in Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties . . . . . . . . . . 23-75

23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-78 23.7.1 23.7.2 23.7.3 23.7.4 Source Terms due to Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-78 Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-80 UDF-Prescribed Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-80 Cavitation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-81

23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-89 23.8.1 23.8.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-90 Mass and Momentum Transfer with Multiphase Species Transport23-91

23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-94 23.9.1 23.9.2 23.9.3 23.9.4 23.9.5 23.9.6 23.9.7 23.9.8 Enabling the Multiphase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-96 Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-97 Defining the Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-98 Including Body Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-99 Modeling Multiphase Species Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-100 Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-102 Including Mass Transfer Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-103 Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-106

23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-121 23.10.1 Choosing a VOF Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-121 23.10.2 Modeling Open Channel Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-124 23.10.3 Defining the Phases for the VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-131 23.10.4 Setting Time-Dependent Parameters for the VOF Model . . . . . 23-135 23.10.5 Modeling Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-137 23.10.6 Modeling Solidification/Melting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-138

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23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-138

23.11.1 Defining the Phases for the Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-138 23.11.2 Including Cavitation Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-144 23.11.3 Modeling Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-146 23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-147 23.12.1 Additional Guidelines for Eulerian Multiphase Simulations . . . . 23-147 23.12.2 Defining the Phases for the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-147 23.12.3 Modeling Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-156 23.12.4 Including Heat Transfer Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-158 23.12.5 Modeling Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-159 23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-160 23.13.1 Using User-Defined Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties . . . 23-160 23.13.2 Writing the User-Defined Wet Steam Property Functions (UDWSPF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-161 23.13.3 Compiling Your UDWSPF and Building a Shared Library File . 23-164 23.13.4 Loading the UDWSPF Shared Library File . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-166 23.13.5 UDWSPF Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-167 23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-175 23.14.1 Setting Initial Volume Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-175 23.14.2 VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-175 23.14.3 Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-177 23.14.4 Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-178 23.14.5 Wet Steam Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-179 23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-181 23.15.1 Model-Specific Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-181 23.15.2 Displaying Velocity Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-185 23.15.3 Reporting Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-185 23.15.4 Reporting Forces on Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-185 23.15.5 Reporting Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-186

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24 Modeling Solidification and Melting

24-1

24.1 Overview and Limitations of the Solidification/Melting Model . . . . . . 24-1 24.1.1 24.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2

24.2 Theory for the Solidification/Melting Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 24.2.1 24.2.2 24.2.3 24.2.4 24.2.5 24.2.6 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3 Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-4 Turbulence Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-5 Species Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-5 Pull Velocity for Continuous Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-6 Contact Resistance at Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-7

24.3 Using the Solidification/Melting Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-9 24.3.1 24.3.2 24.3.3 24.3.4 Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-9 Procedures for Modeling Continuous Casting . . . . . . . . . . . 24-11 Solution Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-12

Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-12 25-1

25 Using the Solver

25.1 Overview of Flow Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2 25.1.1 25.1.2 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3 Density-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5

25.2 General Scalar Transport Equation: Discretization and Solution . . . . . 25-8 25.2.1 Solving the Linear System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-9

25.3 Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-10 25.3.1 25.3.2 25.3.3 Spatial Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-10 Temporal Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-17 Evaluation of Gradients and Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19

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25.4 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-22 25.4.1 25.4.2 25.4.3 25.4.4 25.4.5 Discretization of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-23 Discretization of the Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-25 Pressure-Velocity Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-26 Steady-State Iterative Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-32 Time-Advancement Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-33

25.5 Density-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-37 25.5.1 25.5.2 25.5.3 25.5.4 25.5.5 Governing Equations in Vector Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-37 Preconditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-38 Convective Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-41 Steady-State Flow Solution Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-43 Unsteady Flows Solution Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-45

25.6 Multigrid Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-48 25.6.1 25.6.2 25.6.3 25.6.4 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-48 Multigrid Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-50 Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-54 Full-Approximation Storage (FAS) Multigrid . . . . . . . . . . . 25-61

25.7 How To Use the Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-63 25.7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-67

25.8 Choosing the Discretization Scheme 25.8.1 25.8.2 25.8.3 25.8.4 25.8.5

First-Order Accuracy vs. Second-Order Accuracy . . . . . . . . . 25-67 Other Discretization Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-68 Choosing the Pressure Interpolation Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-68 Choosing the Density Interpolation Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-69 User Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-70

25.9 Pressure-Based Solver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-71 25.9.1 25.9.2 25.9.3 Choosing the Pressure-Velocity Coupling Method . . . . . . . . . 25-71 Setting Under-Relaxation Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-74 Setting Solution Controls for the Non-Iterative Solver . . . . . . 25-76

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25.10 Density-Based Solver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-80 25.10.1 Changing the Courant Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-80 25.10.2 Convective Flux Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-82 25.10.3 Turning On FAS Multigrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-82 25.11 Setting Algebraic Multigrid Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-84 25.11.1 Additional Algebraic Multigrid Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-87 25.11.2 Setting FAS Multigrid Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-91 25.12 Setting Solution Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-94 25.13 Setting Multi-Stage Time-Stepping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-97 25.14 Initializing the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-98 25.14.1 Initializing the Entire Flow Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-99 25.14.2 Patching Values in Selected Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-101 25.15 Using Full Multigrid (FMG) Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-103 25.15.1 Overview of FMG Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-103 25.15.2 Steps in Using FMG Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-105 25.15.3 Convergence Strategies for FMG Initialization . . . . . . . . . . 25-106 25.16 Performing Steady-State Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-106 25.17 Performing Time-Dependent Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-108 25.17.1 User Inputs for Time-Dependent Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-110 25.17.2 Adaptive Time Stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-116

25.17.3 Variable Time Stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-119 25.17.4 Postprocessing for Time-Dependent Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 25-121 25.18 Monitoring Solution Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-122 25.18.1 Monitoring Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-122 25.18.2 Monitoring Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-133 25.18.3 Monitoring Forces and Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-134 25.18.4 Monitoring Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-138 25.18.5 Monitoring Volume Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-142

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25.19 Executing Commands During the Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-146 25.19.1 Specifying the Commands to be Executed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-146 25.19.2 Defining Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-148 25.19.3 Saving Files During the Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-149 25.20 Additional Options in the Solver Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-149 25.20.1 Animating the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-149 25.20.2 Importing and Exporting Particle History Data . . . . . . . . . . 25-159 25.20.3 Managing Acoustic Signal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-163 25.21 Checking Your Case Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-163 25.21.1 Checking the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-166 25.21.2 Checking Model Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-168 25.21.3 Checking Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-170 25.21.4 Checking Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-173 25.21.5 Checking the Solver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-175 25.22 Convergence and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-178 25.22.1 Judging Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-178 25.22.2 Step-by-Step Solution Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-180 25.22.3 Modifying Algebraic Multigrid Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-181 25.22.4 Modifying the Multi-Stage Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-182 26 Adapting the Grid 26-1

26.1 Using Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2 26.1.1 26.1.2 Adaption Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2 Adaption Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-5

26.2 Static Adaption Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-6 26.2.1 26.2.2 26.2.3 Hanging Node Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-7 Conformal Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-9 Conformal vs. Hanging Node Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-12

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26.3 Boundary Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-13 26.3.1 Performing Boundary Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-15

26.4 Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-19 26.4.1 26.4.2 Gradient Adaption Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-19 Performing Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-23

26.5 Dynamic Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-26 26.5.1 Dynamic Gradient Adaption Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-26

26.6 Isovalue Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-28 26.6.1 Performing Isovalue Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-30

26.7 Region Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-31 26.7.1 26.7.2 26.7.3 Defining a Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-31 Region Adaption Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-32 Performing Region Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-34

26.8 Volume Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-36 26.8.1 26.8.2 26.8.3 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-36 Volume Adaption Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-36 Performing Volume Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-38

26.9 Yplus/Ystar Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-39 26.9.1 26.9.2 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-39 Performing Yplus or Ystar Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-41

26.10 Geometry-Based Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-42 26.10.1 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-42 26.10.2 Performing Geometry-Based Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-47 26.11 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-49 26.11.1 Manipulating Adaption Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-52 26.11.2 Modifying Adaption Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-56 26.11.3 Displaying Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-57 26.11.4 Adapting to Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-59 26.12 Grid Adaption Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-59

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26.13 Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-63 26.13.1 Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-64 26.13.2 Face Swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-68 26.13.3 Combining Skewness-Based Smoothing and Face Swapping . . . 26-69 27 Creating Surfaces for Displaying and Reporting Data 27-1

27.1 Using Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2 27.2 Zone Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3 27.3 Partition Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-4 27.4 Point Surfaces 27.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-7

Using the Point Tool

27.5 Line and Rake Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-9 27.5.1 Using the Line Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-11

27.6 Plane Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-13 27.6.1 Using the Plane Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-16

27.7 Quadric Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-18 27.8 Isosurfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-20

27.9 Clipping Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-23 27.10 Transforming Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-26 27.11 Grouping, Renaming, and Deleting Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-28 28 Displaying Graphics 28-1

28.1 Basic Graphics Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 28.1.1 28.1.2 28.1.3 28.1.4 28.1.5 28.1.6 Displaying the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 Displaying Contours and Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-10 Displaying Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-19 Displaying Pathlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-29 Displaying Results on a Sweep Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-41 Hiding the Graphics Window Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-43

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28.2 Customizing the Graphics Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-44 28.2.1 28.2.2 28.2.3 28.2.4 28.2.5 28.2.6 28.2.7 Overlay of Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-44 Opening Multiple Graphics Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-46 Changing the Legend Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-47 Adding Text to the Graphics Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-48 Changing the Colormap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-52 Adding Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-59 Modifying the Rendering Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-62

28.3 Controlling the Mouse Button Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-63 28.4 Modifying the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-65 28.4.1 28.4.2 28.4.3 28.4.4 Scaling, Centering, Rotating, Translating, and Zooming the Display28-66 Controlling Perspective and Camera Parameters . . . . . . . . . 28-70 Saving and Restoring Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-71 Mirroring and Periodic Repeats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-73

28.5 Composing a Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-78 28.5.1 28.5.2 28.5.3 28.5.4 28.5.5 28.5.6 28.5.7 Selecting the Object(s) to be Manipulated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-79 Changing an Object’s Display Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-80 Transforming Geometric Objects in a Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-83 Modifying Iso-Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-85 Modifying Pathline Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-87 Deleting an Object from the Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-88 Adding a Bounding Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-88

28.6 Animating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-91 28.6.1 28.6.2 28.6.3 28.6.4 28.6.5 Creating an Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-92 Playing an Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-93 Saving an Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-94 Reading an Animation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-96 Notes on Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-96

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28.7 Creating Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-96 28.7.1 28.7.2 28.7.3 Recording Animations To Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-97 Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-98 Recording an Animation with FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-99

28.8 Histogram and XY Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-108 28.8.1 28.8.2 28.8.3 28.8.4 28.8.5 28.8.6 28.8.7 28.8.8 28.8.9 Plot Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-108 XY Plots of Solution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-110 XY Plots of File Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-115 XY Plots of Circumferential Averages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-117 XY Plot File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-120 Residual Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-121 Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-121 Modifying Axis Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-123 Modifying Curve Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-126

28.9 Turbomachinery Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-128 28.9.1 28.9.2 28.9.3 28.9.4 28.9.5 28.9.6 28.9.7 Defining the Turbomachinery Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-128 Generating Reports of Turbomachinery Data . . . . . . . . . . . 28-132 Displaying Turbomachinery Averaged Contours . . . . . . . . . . 28-141 Displaying Turbomachinery 2D Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-143 Generating Averaged XY Plots of Turbomachinery Solution Data 28-145 Globally Setting the Turbomachinery Topology . . . . . . . . . . 28-147 Turbomachinery-Specific Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-147

28.10 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-148 28.10.1 Limitations of the FFT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-148 28.10.2 Windowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-149 28.10.3 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-150 28.10.4 Using the FFT Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-151

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29 Reporting Alphanumeric Data

29-1

29.1 Reporting Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2 29.2 Fluxes Through Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2 29.2.1 Generating a Flux Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-3

29.3 Forces on Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-5 29.3.1 29.3.2 Computing Forces, Moments, and the Center of Pressure . . . . 29-5

Generating a Force, Moment, or Center of Pressure Report . . . 29-8

29.4 Projected Surface Area Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-11 29.5 Surface Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-12 29.5.1 29.5.2 Computing Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-13 Generating a Surface Integral Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-16

29.6 Volume Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-18 29.6.1 29.6.2 Computing Volume Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-19 Generating a Volume Integral Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-20

29.7 Histogram Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-21 29.8 Discrete Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-22 29.9 S2S Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-22 29.10 Reference Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-22 29.10.1 Setting Reference Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-23 29.10.2 Setting the Reference Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-24 29.11 Summary Reports of Case Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-25 29.11.1 Generating a Summary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-25 30 Field Function Definitions 30-1

30.1 Node, Cell, and Facet Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1 30.1.1 30.1.2 30.1.3 Cell Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1 Node Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2 Facet Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-3

30.2 Velocity Reporting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-4

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30.3 Field Variables Listed by Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-6 30.4 Alphabetical Listing of Field Variables and Their Definitions . . . . . . . 30-20 30.5 Custom Field Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-52 30.5.1 30.5.2 30.5.3 Creating a Custom Field Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-52 Manipulating, Saving, and Loading Custom Field Functions . . . 30-55 Sample Custom Field Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-57 31-1

31 Parallel Processing

31.1 Introduction to Parallel Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1 31.2 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Windows System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-4 31.2.1 31.2.2 31.2.3 31.2.4 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Windows System Using Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-4 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Windows System Using the Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-7 Starting Parallel FLUENT with the Fluent Launcher . . . . . . . . 31-9 Starting Parallel FLUENT with the Microsoft Job Scheduler (win64 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-14

31.3 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System . . . . . . . . . . . 31-15 31.3.1 31.3.2 31.3.3 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System Using Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-15 Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System Using the Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-20 Setting Up Your Remote Shell and Secure Shell Clients . . . . . 31-21

31.4 Checking Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-23 31.5 Partitioning the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-24 31.5.1 31.5.2 31.5.3 31.5.4 31.5.5 Overview of Grid Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-24 Preparing Hexcore Meshes for Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-26 Partitioning the Grid Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-27 Partitioning the Grid Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-28 Grid Partitioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-38

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31.5.6 31.5.7

Checking the Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-46 Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-48

31.6 Checking and Improving Parallel Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-49 31.6.1 31.6.2 Checking Parallel Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-49 Optimizing the Parallel Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-53 A-1

A FLUENT Model Compatibility

A.1 FLUENT Model Compatibility Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 B Case and Data File Formats B-1

B.1 Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 B.2 Formatting Conventions in Binary and Formatted Files . . . . . . . . . . B-2 B.3 Grid Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2 B.3.1 B.3.2 B.3.3 B.3.4 B.3.5 B.3.6 B.3.7 B.3.8 B.3.9 Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3 Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4 Periodic Shadow Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5

Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6 Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8 Face Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-10 Cell Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-11

B.3.10 Interface Face Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12 B.4 Other (Non-Grid) Case Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19 B.4.1 B.4.2 Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19 Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22

B.5 Data Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22 B.5.1 B.5.2 B.5.3 Grid Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22 Data Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-23 Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-24

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and other methods.Using This Manual The Contents of This Manual The FLUENT User’s Guide tells you what you need to know to use FLUENT. running. • Chapter 5: Unit Systems. It also provides instructions for remote execution. describes the mechanics of using the text interface and the TUI on-line help. 2006 UTM-1 . September 29. Fluent is unable to distribute copies of the papers listed in the bibliography. • Chapter 3: Text User Interface (TUI). translating. and an index.S. • Chapter 6: Reading and Manipulating Grids. and exiting FLUENT. This chapter also contains information about the use of non-conformal grids. when to use them.) • Chapter 4: Reading and Writing Files. other than those published internally by Fluent. describes the mechanics of using the graphical user interface and the GUI on-line help. you will find a Reference Guide. (See the separate Text Command List for information about specific text interface commands. and using the Remote Simulation Facility (RSF). including hardcopy files. Please use your library or a document delivery service to obtain copies of copyrighted papers. A brief description of what is in each chapter follows: • Chapter 1: Starting and Executing FLUENT. i Under U. a bibliography. At the end of the User’s Guide. and international copyright law. It also contains information about porous media and lumped parameter models. describes options and alternatives to starting. how to define them. a nomenclature list. • Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions. batch execution. describes how to use the standard and custom unit systems available in FLUENT. describes the different types of boundary conditions available in FLUENT. and how to define boundary profiles and volumetric sources and fix the value of a variable in a particular region. describes the files that FLUENT can read and write. describes the various sources of computational grids and explains how to obtain diagnostic information about the grid and how to modify it by scaling. • Chapter 2: Graphical User Interface (GUI). c Fluent Inc.

natural convection.Using This Manual • Chapter 8: Physical Properties. describes the acoustics model and how to use it. This chapter includes details about using prePDF. multiple moving reference frames. and inviscid flows). UTM-2 c Fluent Inc. 2006 . describes the governing equations and physical models used by FLUENT to compute fluid flow (including periodic flow. • Chapter 17: Modeling Partially Premixed Combustion. and periodic heat transfer). • Chapter 16: Modeling Premixed Combustion. • Chapter 10: Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. compressible flows. • Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer. describes the physical properties of materials and the equations that FLUENT uses to compute the properties from the information that you input. • Chapter 11: Modeling Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. describes the models for the formation of NOx . SOx . describes the finite-rate chemistry models in FLUENT and how to use them. describes the non-premixed combustion model and how to use it. as well as the inputs you need to provide to use these models. September 29. describes the premixed combustion model and how to use it. swirling and rotating flows. • Chapter 19: Modeling Engine Ignition. describes the use of sliding and deforming meshes in FLUENT. • Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry. describes the partially premixed combustion model and how to use it. describes the engine ignition models available in FLUENT. describes the composition PDF transport model and how to use it. • Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. and mixing planes in FLUENT. • Chapter 15: Modeling Non-Premixed Combustion. • Chapter 20: Modeling Pollutant Formation. describes the use of single rotating reference frames. This chapter also provides information about modeling species transport in non-reacting flows. • Chapter 21: Predicting Aerodynamically Generated Noise. describes the physical models used by FLUENT to compute heat transfer (including convective and conductive heat transfer. radiative heat transfer. as well as the inputs you need to provide to use these models. describes FLUENT’s models for turbulent flow and when and how to use them. • Chapter 18: Modeling a Composition PDF Transport Problem. • Chapter 9: Modeling Basic Fluid Flow. and soot and how to use them.

and tells you how to create your own custom field functions. describes how to obtain reports of fluxes. • Appendix B: Case and Data File Formats. describes FLUENT’s model for solidification and melting and how to use it. • Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid. describes how to create surfaces in the domain on which you can examine FLUENT solution data. describes the flow variables that appear in the variable selection drop-down lists in FLUENT panels. presents information about the contents and formats of FLUENT case and data files.Using This Manual • Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase. describes the FLUENT solvers and how to use them. and Eulerian) and how to use them. c Fluent Inc. describes the parallel processing features in FLUENT and how to use them. describes the graphics tools that you can use to examine your FLUENT solution. • Appendix A: FLUENT Model Compatibility. mixture. • Chapter 24: Modeling Solidification and Melting. • Chapter 25: Using the Solver. describes the general multiphase models available in FLUENT (VOF. describes the discrete phase models available in FLUENT and how to use them. forces. • Chapter 30: Field Function Definitions. and other solution data. presents a chart outlining the compatibility of several FLUENT model categories. surface integrals. • Chapter 28: Displaying Graphics. This chapter also provides information about partitioning your grid for parallel processing. describes the solution-adaptive mesh refinement feature in FLUENT and how to use it. September 29. 2006 UTM-3 . • Chapter 31: Parallel Processing. • Chapter 23: Modeling Multiphase Flows. • Chapter 27: Creating Surfaces for Displaying and Reporting Data. • Chapter 29: Reporting Alphanumeric Data.

• The GAMBIT manuals teach you how to use the GAMBIT preprocessor for geometry creation and mesh generation. • The text interface type style is also used when illustrating exactly what appears on the screen or exactly what you need to type into a field in a panel. Typographical Conventions Several typographical conventions are used in this manual’s text to facilitate your learning process. commentary.g. and briefly describes the user interface.. provides an overview of the problem setup steps. UTM-4 c Fluent Inc. and presents helpful tips in order for you to create a successfull CFD simulation. The manual also includes information about accessing the FLUENT manuals on CD-ROM or in the installation area. surface/iso-surface command). • An informational icon ( i ) marks an important note. Iso-Surface panel. 2006 . • The Text Command List provides a brief description of each of the commands in FLUENT’s text interface. The information displayed on the screen is enclosed in a large box to distinguish it from the narrative text. • Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text interface menu items (e. • The Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with detailed instructions. and postprocessing of results. and user inputs are often enclosed in smaller boxes. there are several other manuals available to help you use FLUENT and its associated programs: • The Getting Started Guide describes the capabilities of FLUENT. • The UDF Manual contains information about writing and using user-defined functions (UDFs). September 29.Using This Manual The Contents of the Other Manuals In addition to this User’s Guide.

mini flow charts usually precede a description of a panel or command.Using This Manual • A mini flow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a specific command or panel.. • The menu selections that will lead you to a particular panel are also indicated (usually within a paragraph) using a “/”. menu item can be selected from the Define pull-down menu. Define −→Boundary Conditions. For example. or a screen illustration showing how to use the panel or command. In this manual.. menu item from the Define pull-down menu.. c Fluent Inc. and display −→grid indicates that the grid command is available in the display text menu. 2006 UTM-5 . September 29. They allow you to look up information about a command or panel and quickly determine how to access it without having to search the preceding material. The words before the arrows invoke menus (or submenus) and the arrows point from a specific menu toward the item you should select from that menu.. Define/Materials..... tells you to choose the Materials. For example. indicates that the Boundary Conditions.

2 and is known as the T = ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z UTM-6 c Fluent Inc. • The operator .Using This Manual Mathematical Conventions • Where possible. vector quantities are displayed with a raised arrow (e. A). 2006 . in Cartesian coordinates.. which is the inner product between and a vector. a. I). ·v = ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 – The operator · . the identity matrix. represents the partial derivative of a quantity with respect to all directions in the chosen coordinate system. for example. p= ∂p ∂p ∂p ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z – The gradient of a vector quantity is a second-order tensor.g. September 29. for example. (v) = ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z vx ı + vy  + vz k This tensor is usually written as          ∂vx ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vz ∂x ∂vx ∂y ∂vy ∂y ∂vz ∂y ∂vx ∂z ∂vy ∂z ∂vz ∂z          – The divergence of a vector quantity. In Cartesian coordinates. for example. nabla. referred to as grad. is defined to be ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z appears in several ways: – The gradient of a scalar quantity is the vector whose components are the partial derivatives. or del. for example. which is usually written as Laplacian. Boldfaced characters are reserved for vectors and matrices as they apply to linear algebra (e..g.

v. and w instead of the conventional v with directional subscripts. which is defined as ( T) = 2 ∂T ∂x 2 ∂T + ∂y 2 ∂T + ∂z 2 • An exception to the use of is found in the discussion of Reynolds stresses in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. • Known Defects for FLUENT—a link available from the product page. c Fluent Inc. please write down the exact error message that appeared and note as much information as you can about what you were doing in FLUENT. and provides the ability to sign up for e-mail notifications on our latest product releases. there is a link to the Search Solutions & Request Support page. If you encounter an error. Technical Support If you encounter difficulties while using FLUENT. The FAQs can be searched by word or phrase. where you can discuss topics of mutual interest and share ideas and information with other Fluent users. User Services Center (www. The defects can be searched by word or phrase. In this chapter.com): • Installation and System FAQs—a link available from the main page on the User Services Center.com). or from the Fluent Inc. Then refer to the following resources available on the Fluent Inc. please first refer to the section(s) of the manual containing information on the commands you are trying to use or the type of problem you are trying to solve. • Online Technical Support—a link available from the main page on the User Services Center. From the Online Technical Support Portal page. The User Services Center also provides on-line forums. you will also find that some velocity vector components are written as u. and are available for general installation questions as well as for product questions. where convention dictates the use of Cartesian tensor notation. September 29.fluentusers.Using This Manual 2 T is different from the expression ( T )2 . The product documentation is available from the on-line help on the documentation CD. where the solutions can be searched by word or phrase. and are listed by categories. 2006 UTM-7 .fluentusers. User Services Center (www.

UTM-8 c Fluent Inc. there are a few things that we encourage you to do before calling: • Note what you are trying to accomplish with FLUENT.Using This Manual Contacting Technical Support If none of the resources available on the User Services Center help in resolving the problem. This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause. • Save a journal or transcript file of the FLUENT session in which the problem occurred. September 29. However. • Note what you were doing when the problem or error occurred. 2006 . we invite you to call your support engineer for assistance. or you have complex modeling projects.

thin pipe).1 Starting FLUENT The way you start FLUENT will be different for Linux/UNIX and Windows systems. automotive manifolds).1 Single-Precision and Double-Precision Solvers Both single-precision and double-precision versions of FLUENT are available on all computer platforms. 2006 1-1 . • Section 1.1: Starting FLUENT • Section 1. a very long. The installation process (described in the separate installation instructions for your computer type) is designed to ensure that the FLUENT program is launched when you follow the appropriate instructions.g. but certain types of problems may benefit from the use of a double-precision version.5: Cleaning Up Processes From a FLUENT Simulation • Section 1... Several examples are listed below: • If your geometry has features of very disparate length scales (e. as described below in Sections 1. For most cases.1. Starting and Executing FLUENT This chapter provides instructions for starting and executing FLUENT.1. single-precision calculations may not be adequate to represent the node coordinates.2 and 1.1. If it is not. September 29.3.Chapter 1. consult your computer systems manager or your Fluent support engineer. c Fluent Inc.2: Executing FLUENT Remotely • Section 1. 1.3: Running FLUENT in Batch Mode • Section 1.6: Exiting the Program 1. mean pressure levels in all but one of the zones can be quite large (since you can set only one global reference pressure location). Doubleprecision calculations may therefore be necessary to resolve the pressure differences that drive the flow. • If your geometry involves multiple enclosures connected via small-diameter pipes (e.g.4: Checkpointing a FLUENT Simulation • Section 1. the single-precision solver will be sufficiently accurate. since these will typically be much smaller than the pressure levels.

1-2 c Fluent Inc. double-precision solver. and then use the Select Solver panel to choose the appropriate version. and fluent 3ddp runs the three-dimensional. single-precision solver.2 Starting FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System There are several ways to start FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX system: • Start the appropriate version from the command line. due to inefficient transfer of boundary information. • Start the solver from the command line without specifying a version. convergence and/or accuracy may be impaired with the singleprecision solver. 1.Starting and Executing FLUENT • For conjugate problems involving high thermal-conductivity ratios and/or highaspect-ratio grids. double-precision solver. Specifying the Solver Version from the Command Line When you start FLUENT from the command line. fluent 2ddp runs the two-dimensional. See Section 31. • Start the solver from the command line without specifying a version. 2006 . September 29. fluent 3d runs the three-dimensional.1. and then read in a case file (or a case file and data file) to start the appropriate version. as well as whether you want a single-precision or double-precision calculation: fluent 2d runs the two-dimensional. single-precision solver.3: Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System for information about starting the parallel solvers. you can specify the dimensionality of the problem (2D or 3D).

typing fluent on the command line will start the 64bit version of FLUENT by default. 2006 1-3 . c Fluent Inc.1. To launch the 32-bit version of FLUENT. the startup console window (the text window and the main menu bar) will appear as shown in Figure 1.1.1. For a double-precision version.1. type the following on the command line: fluent -32 The option of launching the 32-bit version is useful when running small cases that do not require a lot of memory. September 29. Specifying the Solver Version in the Select Solver Panel If you type fluent on the command line with no arguments.1: Console Window at Startup You can start a single-precision version of FLUENT by typing 2d or 3d at the version> prompt. Solaris. AIX. and HP-UX (PA-RISC)). Figure 1. type 2ddp or 3ddp.1 Starting FLUENT Launching the 32-Bit Version of FLUENT from the Command Line On operating systems that contain both 32-bit and 64-bit ports (including IRIX.

menu item in the File menu. as described in Sections 1.1.. 1-4 c Fluent Inc. Specify the precision by turning the Double Precision option on or off under Versions.3. select the Run..2. you can specify a complete pathname to the executable in the Program text entry box before clicking Run. and you can pick the appropriate version.. 2006 .) Figure 1.2: The FLUENT Version Is Selected Using the Select Solver Panel You will normally follow the steps below to start a solver from the panel: 1. The Select Solver panel will appear as shown in Figure 1.Starting and Executing FLUENT If you would rather use the GUI to start the correct version. (You can also start FLUENT on a remote machine or start the parallel version from this panel. File −→Run. Click the Run button.2 and 31.. Specify a 2D or 3D solver by turning the 3D option on or off under Versions. 3.1. 2. If the program executable is not in your search path. September 29.

cas and . or 3ddp) and x with the number of processors (e. You can then automatically execute the appropriate solver by selecting a case file or case and data files using the File/Read/Case.Inc program group. (Note that if the default “Fluent. rather than in the Fluent. fluent 3d -t3 to run the 3D version on 3 processors)..1. File/Read/Case. This program will add the Fluent. File −→ Read −→Case & Data. You can do this by selecting the program item “Set Environment”.. select the Fluent. 2ddp. From the Command Prompt window. you will find the FLUENT 6 menu item in the program group with the new name that was assigned. which is also found in the Fluent. you can also start the parallel version of FLUENT. fluent 3d (for the 3D single-precision solver). 1. September 29. For information about the parallel version of FLUENT. you must first modify your user environment so that the Command utility will find fluent. Before doing so.. menu item (see Section 4. To start the parallel version on x processors... 3d. however.. type fluent version -tx at the prompt.3: Reading and Writing Case and Data Files) or using the read-case or read-case-data command in the version text menu.g.1.. or fluent 3ddp (for the 3D double-precision solver) at the prompt. File/Read/Case & Data.dat extensions. respectively). or File/Read/Case & Data. replacing version with the desired solver version (2d..Inc program group.1 Starting FLUENT Specifying the Solver Version by Reading a Case File As discussed above. c Fluent Inc.Inc” program group name was changed when FLUENT was installed.) • Start from a Command Prompt window by typing fluent 2d (for the 2D singleprecision solver). 2006 1-5 .1.. the console window will appear as shown in Figure 1. or read-case starts the solver that is appropriate for the specified case file and then reads in the file.Inc menu..1. see Chapter 31: Parallel Processing. and then select the FLUENT 6 program item... File −→ Read −→Case. select the Programs menu..Inc directory to your command search path. fluent 2ddp (for the 2D double-precision solver). or read-case-data starts the solver that is appropriate for the specified case file and then reads in the specified case and data files (where the case and data files have the same name with . if you type fluent on the command line without specifying a version argument.3 Starting FLUENT on a Windows System There are two ways to start FLUENT on a Windows system: • Click the Start button.

as well as whether you want a single-precision or double-precision calculation: Figure 1.Starting and Executing FLUENT Specifying the Solver Version from the FLUENT Version Panel When you start FLUENT from the Programs menu the FLUENT Version panel will appear. 1-6 c Fluent Inc. single-precision solver. where you can specify the dimensionality of the problem (2D or 3D). For starting the parallel version of FLUENT. The full FLUENT simulation allows you to set up. while Post Only allows you to set up or postprocess a problem. Furthermore.2: Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Windows System. but will not allow you to perform calculations. solve and postprocess a problem. and 3ddp runs the three-dimensional. you can choose to start the full FLUENT simulation or only postprocessing capabilities by selecting either Full Simulation or Post Only from the Mode drop-down list. September 29. 3d runs the three-dimensional. double-precision solver.1.3: The FLUENT Version Panel for Full and Postprocessing Simulations 2d runs the two-dimensional. 2ddp runs the two-dimensional. double-precision solver. refer to Section 31. 2006 . single-precision solver.

then by default the 32-bit version will be launched when starting FLUENT.2.2 and 31.. menu item in the File menu. The Select Solver panel will appear as shown in Figure 1.4. (You can also start FLUENT on a remote machine or start the parallel version from this panel.3: Starting FLUENT on a Windows System.1.1 Starting FLUENT Launching the 32-Bit Version of FLUENT on a 64-Bit Windows Machine If you have a 32-bit Windows system. File −→Run. You can start the appropriate version by selecting the Run.. If you have a 64-bit Windows system.4: The FLUENT Version Is Selected Using the Select Solver Panel c Fluent Inc. as described in Section 1.) Figure 1. You can launch the 32-bit version of FLUENT on the 64-bit Windows machine by typing the following in a Command Prompt window: fluent -antx86 Specifying the Solver Version in the Select Solver Panel If you type fluent on the command line..1.1. 2006 1-7 . as described in Sections 1.1.. then by default the 64-bit version will be launched when FLUENT is started. the startup console window (the text window and the main menu bar) will appear. September 29.

3. you must first have installed the contents of the FLUENT 6. Figure 1. FLUENT displays the Remote Simulation Facility panel (Figure 1. When you select this option. For more information about the RSF. i To link to the RSF on Linux/UNIX platforms. 2006 . You must save your case and data files in order to use them on the RSF..5).htm.Starting and Executing FLUENT You will normally follow the steps below to start a solver from the panel: 1. you can exit from FLUENT. you can specify a complete pathname to the executable in the Program text entry box before clicking Run. 1.com/software/rsolve/index.. Click the Run button. click Start RSF to open your web browser and load the page for the FLUENT Remote Simulation Facility (RSF). 1-8 c Fluent Inc. September 29. 2. Specify the precision by turning the Double Precision option on or off under Versions.1. complex simulations at a remote data center.5: The Remote Simulation Facility Panel If a case and data file are already loaded into FLUENT. which contains the files necessary to launch your browser so you can automatically view the appropriate web pages.1. Once you save the case and data files and launch the RSF.4 Remote Simulation Facility (RSF) FLUENT’s Remote Simulation Facility (RSF) is a highly secure mechanism for executing large. the Write Case & Data button will be active.x Documentation CD. To start an RSF session. If the program executable is not in your search path. You can use FLUENT to access the RSF using the File menu. which will allow you to write out the case and data files for the current session.fluent. see http://www. Specify a 2D or 3D solver by turning the 3D option on or off under Versions. File −→RSF.1.

-post run a post-processing-only executable. -sgeq queue name of queue for a given computing grid. 2006 1-9 . -v list all versions. set parallel environment for SGE to fluent_pe. -cxarg following argument passed to cortex. -project x write project x start and end times to license log. -manspa manually spawn compute nodes. -gu run without gui. -cnf=x specify the host file c Fluent Inc. -sgepe fluent_pe min_n-max_n. sets the graphics driver (available drivers vary by platform). -lsf run fluent under LSF. -nocheck disable checks for valid license file and server.1. -i journal read the specified journal file. -sge run fluent under Sun Grid Engine. you can type fluent -help before starting up the solver. -cx host:p1:p2 connect to the specified cortex process. -pathx specify root path x to Fluent.1 Starting FLUENT 1. -gr run without graphics. set Checkpointing object to ckpt_obj for SGE. -tx specify number of processors x. -g run without gui or graphics. -env show environment variables. -help this listing. -px specify communicator x. -hcl following argument passed to fluent host. -vx specify version x. -driver [ opengl | x11 | null ].Inc.5 Startup Options To obtain information about available startup options. Typing fluent -env will list all environment variables before running FLUENT. -n no execute. September 29. -ncl following argument passed to fluent node. All available options are listed below: Usage: fluent [version] [-help] [options] options: -cl following argument passed to fluent. min_n and max_n are number of min and max nodes requested. -r list all releases. -rx specify release x. -checknetwork check the network connections before spawning compute nodes. -loadx load mpp from host x. -sgeckpt ckpt_obj.1.

keeping it in a minimized window.1.) fluent -gr will run Cortex without graphics. Cortex Options -cl. For example. This option can be used in conjunction with the -i journal option to run a job in “background” mode. fluent -hidden allows you to run in batch mode. -i journal. -v. Most of the Windows startup options are common to Linux/UNIX startup options and are described in the proceeding sections. fluent -gu will run Cortex without the graphical user interface. while typing fluent -ex will specify executable revision x. To start the solver and immediately read a journal file.6: Hiding the Graphics Window Display. -e. 2006 . -vx. and -ex are available. the GUI will be available. -rx. Graphics Options If you type fluent -driver. These options are described in detail in Section 28. -cxarg. (On Windows systems. On Windows you can specify fluent -driver opengl and fluent -driver msw to enable graphics display. and -cx host:p1:p2 are for specifying arguments for FLUENT and Cortex. fluent -driver x11. -driver. and -cnf=x. and fluent -driver null. Cortex is a process that provides the user interface and graphics for FLUENT. replacing journal with the name of the journal file you want to read.1. This option is useful if you are not on an X Window display or if you want to submit a batch job. -post. fluent -g will run Cortex without graphics and without the graphical user interface. -hidden. and -ex. you can specify the graphics driver to be used in the solver session. -g. -help. -r. September 29. The parallel startup options that are available are -tx. -pathx. Options that are unique to Windows include -hidden.Starting and Executing FLUENT Windows Startup Options On Windows systems. -env. fluent -gu will run FLUENT. if you maximize the window. 1-10 c Fluent Inc.2: Specifying the Solver Version in the Select Solver Panel). -e. Using msw in stead of opengl instructs FLUENT to use the Operating Systems Windows rather than the hardware OpenGL driver. The option -cx host:p1:p2 is used only when you are starting the solver manually (see Section 1. on Linux/UNIX you can specify fluent -driver opengl. fluent -e allows you to list all executable revisions. type fluent -i journal. -px.

-loadx is used to start the parallel compute node processes on a dedicated parallel machine from its remote front-end machine (x).log in the license subdirectory of your FLUENT installation directory). -pathx specifies the root path (path) to the Fluent. and thereby take advantage of the checkpointing features of that load management tool.1: Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System Using Command Line Options. -manspa is used to disable the default automatic spawning of compute node processes.g.com). Parallel Options These options are used in association with the parallel solver.3.3: Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System. -hcl is used to pass an argument to the FLUENT host process. -px specifies the use of parallel communicator x. To determine the CPU time for the project.fluentusers.log. -tx specifies that x processors are to be used. For more information about starting the parallel version of FLUENT. see Section 31.1 Starting FLUENT License Options The -project x option allows you to record CPU time for individual “projects” separately. add the USER CPU and SYSTEM CPU values that appear in license. 2006 1-11 . c Fluent Inc. This is useful if you know that the license daemon is running or you would rather not try to start it if it is not running (e. -ncl is used to pass an argument to the FLUENT compute node process(es). User Services Center (www. where x can be any of the communicators listed in Section 31. See the installation notes for more information about the license manager. You can type fluent -n or use the -n option in conjunction with any of the others to see where the (specified) executable is without actually running it. if you do not have privileges to do so). September 29.1. For further details about using the -lsf option.. go to the documentation page on the Fluent Inc. extra information related to CPU time will be written to the license manager log file (usually license.Inc installation directory. LSF Options The -lsf option allows you to run FLUENT under Platform Computing Corporation’s LSF software. The -nocheck option speeds up the solver startup by not checking to see if the license server is running. If a job is started by typing fluent -project x (where x is replaced by the name of the project).

2.1.3.1 and 31. you can spawn the processes as described in Section 31. SGE options The -sge option runs FLUENT under Sun Grid Engine (SGE) software. you will use the Version panel. Other options that can be employed in conjunction with -sge are -sgeq queue. September 29. Postprocessing Option fluent -post will run a version of the solver that allows you to set up a problem or perform postprocessing. Otherwise. To use this option on Linux/UNIX.1. as described in Section 1. go to the documentation page on the Fluent Inc. it will check only those machines which it needs for the current run and will not go over the complete list. fluent 3d -post To use this option on Windows. refer to Sections 31.1: Starting Parallel FLUENT on a Linux/UNIX System Using Command Line Options.fluentusers. The -checknetwork allows you to check the configuration of the machines you are using for parallel spawning. To learn more about hosts files. for example.3.Starting and Executing FLUENT -cnf=x (where x is the name of a hosts file) spawns a compute node on each machine listed in the hosts file. and allows you to use the features of this software to manage your distributed computing resources. and -sgepe fluent pe min n-max n. The command you will invoke to check if your machines are configured properly is fluent version -t0 -pnet -cnf=x -checknetwork If your hosts file specifies more machines than you want to use. 1-12 c Fluent Inc.3: Specifying the Solver Version from the FLUENT Version Panel. User Services Center (www. This option has to be used with the -cnf=x command. but will not allow you to perform calculations. For a detailed explanation of these options.com). -sgeckpt ckpt obj. 2006 . With this specified. launch FLUENT by adding the -post flag after the version number. Running FLUENT for pre. This option is only valid when running the parallel version of FLUENT. An alternative to using the -checknetwork command line option is to set your environment such that FLUENT_CHECK_NETWORK is set to 1.and postprocessing requires you to use the -post flag on startup. FLUENT will always check the network without the -checknetwork command being invoked.

By default. c Fluent Inc. sizing the FLUENT console to 700x500 pixels and positioning it on your monitor screen at +20-400. 3d). fluent -v will list the available versions. respectively. For example.2. you can select the solver after startup..2: Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only). but run it on a different (remote) machine. or you can wait and specify the version when prompted by the solver. 1. fluent -rx will run release x of FLUENT. to change the FLUENT window size and position you can either modify the . replacing version with the desired version. will list all releases of the specified version. These options can be used to customize your graphical user interface. When you type the startup command without specifying a version. Therefore. fluent -vx will run version x of FLUENT.1. typing fluent 3d -geometry 700x500+20-400 will start the 3D version of FLUENT. September 29. or you can simply type the following command at startup: fluent [version] [-geometry] [XXxYY+00-50] where XX and YY are the width and height in pixels. You may specify a version as well. 1. Starting the solver in this manner allows you to run it on a remote processor.1 Overview and Limitations If FLUENT has been started without a version argument (e. you just start Cortex. 2006 1-13 . and +00-50 is the position of the window. This section explains how to do this. This gives you the opportunity to specify a different processor on which to run the solver.2 Executing FLUENT Remotely There may be situations when you want to view FLUENT on one machine. when you type the command to start FLUENT and include the version.2 Executing FLUENT Remotely Version and Release Options Typing fluent version -r.g.Xdefaults file described in Section 2. Other Startup Options There are other startup options that are not listed when you type the fluent -help command. you actually start Cortex (a process that provides the user interface and graphics for FLUENT) and Cortex then starts FLUENT on the same processor on which Cortex is running.

and your password at that machine (Password). use the text commands for reading and writing files instead. Start FLUENT by typing the following: • On a Linux/UNIX machine. your username at that machine (Username). type fluent -serv -a 2. you will normally follow the procedure listed below. Open the Select Solver panel. 1-14 c Fluent Inc.. under Remote Execution. set the internet name of the remote machine (Hostname).2.2 Running FLUENT on a Remote Machine To run FLUENT on a remote processor. you may need to try the procedure described in Section 1. In the Select Solver panel.2.) 5. Click the Run button. 3. 1.Starting and Executing FLUENT Note the following limitations when you run FLUENT on a remote Linux/UNIX machine from a local Windows machine: • You will not be able to read or write files using the items in the File pull-down menu.1 and 31. 2006 . Specify the appropriate solver version under Versions and Options in the Select Solver panel. type fluent • On a Windows machine (in a Command Prompt window). September 29. If the remote processor refuses to start the solver.2.3: Starting the Solver Manually on the Remote Machine. See the separate Text Command List for details.. (More information about these items is available in Sections 1. File −→Run. • You will not be able to use user-defined functions. 4. 1.

The procedure is as follows: 1.1. 3d).2. In the telnet or xterm window. c Fluent Inc. FLUENT will print a message telling you what arguments you should use to start the solver on a remote machine. 2. 3. type the following to start the desired version of FLUENT: fluent version -cx host:p1:p2 replacing version by the version that you wish to run (e.2.2. Click the Listen button in the Select Solver panel or type listen at the version> prompt (and press <Enter> to accept the default “time out”). Open a telnet or xterm window and log onto the remote machine where you want to launch the solver. The arguments will be in this format: -cx host:p1:p2 where host is the name of the host Cortex is running on.2: Running FLUENT on a Remote Machine.2: Running FLUENT on a Remote Machine).g.2 Executing FLUENT Remotely 1. 2006 1-15 . 1. This will save the settings for remote execution.4 Executing Remotely by Reading a Case File If you plan to start the appropriate version of FLUENT by reading in a case file (as described in Section 1. and then click Apply instead of Run. and :p1:p2 are two colon-separated integers indicating the port numbers being used. you can use the “listen” option to work around network security devices that prevent Cortex from creating a remote process directly..3 Starting the Solver Manually on the Remote Machine If the remote process fails when you click the Run button in the Select Solver panel (as described in Section 1. the solver will be run on the specified remote machine.1. but you wish to run the solver on a remote machine. and the host and port numbers by the values displayed above when you clicked Listen in the Select Solver panel or typed listen in the FLUENT console window.2. When you start the solver by specifying a case file. September 29. you can specify the remote machine in the Select Solver panel as described in Section 1.2: Specifying the Solver Version by Reading a Case File).

3 Running FLUENT in Batch Mode FLUENT can be used interactively.2: Background Execution on Windows Systems provides guidance for running in batch/background on Windows systems. • fluent is the command you type to execute FLUENT interactively. This allows the computer resources to be prioritized. However. enables you to control the process from a file (eliminating the need for you to be present during the calculation). Generally you will perform problem setup. initial calculations.3. September 29. and Section 1.3. you may want to run FLUENT in batch or background mode.g.3. when you are ready to perform a large number of iterative calculations. and postprocessing of results in an interactive mode. the menu prompts and residual reports). 1-16 c Fluent Inc. or it can be used in a batch or background mode in which inputs are obtained from and outputs are stored in files. type: fluent 2d -g < inputfile > outputfile 2>&1 & In these examples. While the procedures for running FLUENT in a batch mode differ depending on your computer operating system. 1. and also provides a record of the calculation history (residuals) in an output file. • outputfile is a file that the background job will create and which will contain the output that FLUENT would normally print to the screen (e. Section 1.1 Background Execution on Linux/UNIX Systems To run FLUENT in the background in a C-shell (csh) on a Linux/UNIX system. • inputfile is a file of FLUENT commands that are identical to those that you would type interactively. 2006 . with input from and display to your computer screen.Starting and Executing FLUENT 1. type a command of the following form at the system-level prompt: fluent 2d -g < inputfile >& outputfile & or in a Bourne/Korn-shell. • & tells the Linux/UNIX system to perform this task in background and to send all standard system errors (if any) to outputfile..1: Background Execution on Linux/UNIX Systems provides guidance for running in batch/background on Linux/UNIX systems.1: Starting FLUENT). • -g indicates that the program is to be run without the GUI or graphics (see Section 1.

Write data file wd example50. initializes the solution. Read case file rc example. so if you use any text commands for which aliases do not exist. The final line of the file terminates the session. In general. FLUENT assumes that input beginning with a / starts in the top-level text menu. etc.. you would submit the batch job in a C-shell using: fluent 2d -g -i inputfile >& outputfile & or in a Bourne/Korn-shell using: fluent 2d -g -i inputfile > outputfile 2>&1 & c Fluent Inc.g. has the advantage that the outputfile will contain a record of the commands in the inputfile.1. /solve/initialize/initialize-flow).dat . Note that the example input file makes use of the standard aliases for reading and writing case and data files and for iterating. As in the example above. September 29.3 Running FLUENT in Batch Mode The file inputfile can be a journal file created in an earlier FLUENT session. An alternate strategy for submitting your batch run. comment lines must begin with a . or it can be a file that you have created using a text editor. Calculate another 50 iterations it 50 . as follows. Exit FLUENT exit yes This example file reads a case file example. Note also that you can include comments in the file. Initialize the solution /solve/initialize/initialize-flow .cas.) These predefined aliases allow you to execute commonly-used commands without entering the text menu in which they are found.cas . 2006 1-17 . Write another data file wd example100. you must be sure to type in the complete name of the command (e. saving a new data file after each 50 iterations. A typical inputfile is shown below: .dat . (it is the alias for /solve/iterate. wd is the alias for /file/write-data. and performs 100 iterations in two groups of 50. rc is the alias for /file/read-case. (semicolon). In this approach. Calculate 50 iterations it 50 . the file must consist only of text interface commands (since the GUI is disabled during batch execution). In either case.

g. See Section 4. To get an output (or transcript) file while running FLUENT in the background on a Windows system.10: Creating Transcript Files for details about transcript files. start transcript file /file/start-transcript outputfile. • fluent is the command you type to execute FLUENT interactively.trn where the outputfile is a file that the background job will create and which will contain the output that FLUENT would normally print to the screen (e. See Section 4.9: Creating and Reading Journal Files for details about journal files. • -i journal reads the specified journal file.Starting and Executing FLUENT 1. • -g indicates that the program is to be run minimized in the taskbar.3. the following commands can be used: fluent 3d -g -i journal fluent 3d -g -wait -i journal fluent 3d -g -hidden -i journal In these examples.2 Background Execution on Windows Systems To run FLUENT in the background on a Windows system. the journal file must contain the following command to write a transcript file: . • -hidden is similar to the -wait command. the menu prompts and residual reports). 1-18 c Fluent Inc.. September 29. 2006 . but also executes FLUENT completely hidden and noninteractively. • -wait is the command you type in a DOS batch file or some other script in a situation where the script needs to wait until FLUENT has completed its run.

3.. you may want to suppress this type of interaction in order to. While executing FLUENT in batch mode. September 29.3 Running FLUENT in Batch Mode 1. FLUENT may require feedback from you in the event of a problem it encounters. This option is turned off by default. This option is turned off by default.1. create journal files more easily. or Question dialog boxes. FLUENT usually communicates problems or questions through the use of Error dialog boxes.1: The Batch Options Panel The Batch Options panel contains the following items: Confirm File Overwrite determines whether FLUENT confirms a file overwrite. for example. Note that these options are also available in the file/set-batch-options command in the text interface. c Fluent Inc. Hide Questions allows you to hide Question dialog boxes. Exit on Error allows you to automatically exit from batch mode when an error occurs. There are three common batch configuration options available to you when running FLUENT in batch mode. 2006 1-19 .3.. file −→set-batch-options Any combination of these options can be turned on or off at any given time prior to running in batch mode. You can access these options using the Batch Options panel. Warning dialog boxes. Figure 1. This option is turned on by default.3 Batch Execution Options During a typical session. File −→Batch Options.

User Services Center (www. 1. 1. These two tools allow you to checkpoint any job running under them.txt 1-20 c Fluent Inc. checkpointing allows you slightly more control in that you can save a FLUENT job even after you have started the job and did not set the autosave option. depending upon how the simulation has been started. FLUENT running under LSF or SGE FLUENT is integrated with load management tools like LSF and SGE. create a file called check-fluent.fluentusers. the batch option settings will not be altered. There are two different ways to checkpoint a FLUENT simulation.3. so that FLUENT saves the case and data files and then continues the calculation. If you read in additional mesh or case files during this session.4: Automatic Saving of Case and Data Files).. For more information on using FLUENT and SGE or LSF.com). • Saving case and data files and continuing the calculation: On Linux/UNIX. i. September 29. 2. Checkpointing also allows you to save case and data files and then exit out of FLUENT.. a different checkpointing mechanism can be used when running a FLUENT simulation. journal files developed for use in batch mode should begin by enabling the desired batch option settings (if different from the default settings). You can use the standard method provided by these tools to checkpoint the FLUENT job.e. c:\\temp\check-fluent. go to the documentation page on the Fluent Inc.Starting and Executing FLUENT i Batch option settings are not saved with case files. While similar to the autosave feature of FLUENT (Section 4. or so that FLUENT saves the case and data files and then exits. They are meant to apply for the duration of the current FLUENT session only.4 Checkpointing a FLUENT Simulation The checkpointing feature of FLUENT allows you to save case and data files while your simulation is running. /tmp/check-fluent On Windows. which allows you to save files throughout a simulation. Independently running FLUENT When not using tools such as LSF or SGE. This feature is especially useful when you need to stop a FLUENT job abruptly and save its data. You can checkpoint a FLUENT simulation while iterating/time-stepping.txt.e. create a file called check-fluent. i. 2006 . As batch options are not saved with case files.

To change the default location of the saved case and data files.e. c:\\temp\exit-fluent. This can be set by entering the following Scheme command prior to running the unsteady simulation: (ckpt/time-step?#t) Now when you save the checkpoint file (as described previously). for unsteady simulations you have the option of completing all of the iterations in the current time-step before checkpointing. the case and data file will be saved at the end of the current time-step and named accordingly. use the following Scheme command: (ckpt/time-step?#f) i Note that the (ckpt/time-step?#t) command will have the effect only in the case of an unsteady simulation. /tmp/exit-fluent On Windows. i.1. 2006 1-21 . c Fluent Inc. While the default behavior is to checkpoint the simulation at the end of the current iteration. you can use the following Scheme commands: (set! and (set! checkpoint/exit-filename pathname) checkpoint/check-filename pathname) where pathname is the path you wish to set as the new default location of the saved case and data files.e. To switch back to the default checkpointing mechanism at the end of the current iteration.txt. FLUENT offers an alternate way to checkpoint an unsteady simulation.. create a file called exit-fluent. September 29. create a file called exit-fluent. i.4 Checkpointing a FLUENT Simulation • Saving case and data files and exiting FLUENT: On Linux/UNIX..txt The saved case and data files will have the current iteration number appended to their file names.

kill-fluent-thor-32895. for example. then FLUENT will write the kill-script file to your home directory. When a session is started. if the shell script already has executable permissions. kill-fluent-mymachine-1234). %APPDATA%/Fluent. you will receive a warning message. if the current directory does not possess the proper write permissions. 1-22 c Fluent Inc. FLUENT creates a kill-fluent script file.5 Cleaning Up Processes From a FLUENT Simulation FLUENT lets you easily remove extraneous processes in the event that a FLUENT simulation needs to be stopped. FLUENT is started on a machine called thor and the process identification number is 32895. The Fluent.. if the current directory does not possess the proper write permissions.g. you can safely delete any left over kill scripts from your working directory. type the following command in the console window: sh kill-fluent-thor-32895 Or. FLUENT will create a kill-script called kill-fluent-thor-32895 in the current directory.bat) that FLUENT generates at the beginning of each session.. FLUENT will save the kill-script file to a different directory (i. On Windows.e. The script can be used to cleanly kill all FLUENT-related processes. You can cancel the exit and write the appropriate file(s) or you can continue to exit without saving the case or data. If the present state of the program has not been written to a file. To run the kill-script.Starting and Executing FLUENT 1. September 29. i 1.Inc where it is assumed that the APPDATA environment variable is already defined).6 Once a FLUENT session has been closed. If.. on Linux or UNIX platforms.g. 2006 . simply type: kill-fluent-thor-32895 To clean up extraneous FLUENT processes on Windows. Exiting the Program You can exit FLUENT by selecting Exit in the File pull-down menu.Inc directory will be created if it is not already present. double-click the corresponding batch file (e. FLUENT creates the kill-script file in the current working directory with a file name that includes the machine name and the process identification number (PID) (e. On UNIX and Linux platforms. and kill all FLUENT processes related to your session.

September 29. and dialog boxes. you have a choice between a text user interface (TUI) and a graphical user interface (GUI). Terminal Emulator The terminal emulator is similar in behavior to “xterm” or other UNIX command shell tools. Graphical User Interface (GUI) The user interface to FLUENT consists of a graphical interface with pull-down menus.1. It allows you to interact with the TUI menu. When you use the GUI. the attributes of the GUI (including colors and text fonts) can be customized to better match your platform environment.2: Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only) • Section 2. • Section 2. When using the Console to interact with FLUENT.3: Using the GUI Help System 2. or to the MS-DOS Command Prompt window on Windows systems.1 is a sample screen shot showing all of the GUI components.1. On UNIX systems. panels.1 GUI Components The graphical user interface (GUI) is made up of four main components: a console.1 Console The FLUENT Console is the main window that controls the execution of the program. 2006 2-1 .2: Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only). c Fluent Inc. The Console contains a terminal emulator for the TUI and a menu bar for the GUI.1: GUI Components • Section 2. This is described in Section 2. More information on the TUI can be found in Chapter 3: Text User Interface (TUI). Figure 2. and graphics windows. as well as a textual command line interface (described in Chapter 3: Text User Interface (TUI)). The four GUI components are described in detail in subsequent section. 2. control panels. dialog boxes. you will be interacting with one of these components at all times.Chapter 2.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) Console Graphics Window Dialog Box Panel Figure 2.1.2: The Console 2-2 c Fluent Inc. September 29.1. 2006 .1: Screen Shot Showing GUI Components Figure 2.

Press the <Ctrl> and <Insert> keys together. Move the pointer to the end of the text (text should be highlighted). Release the left mouse button. It also lets you perform text copy and paste operations between the Console and other X Window (or Windows) applications that support copy and paste. 4. c Fluent Inc. Press the middle mouse button to “paste” the text. Move the pointer to the beginning of the text to be copied. and all typing is displayed on the bottom line. Press and hold down the left mouse button. the lines will be scrolled off the top of the window. Move the pointer to the end of the text (text should be highlighted). Move the pointer to the beginning of the text to be copied. As the number of text lines grows. 2. 6. On a Windows system. Move the pointer to the target window. error messages) is printed in the terminal emulator.2. The scroll bar on the right allows you to go back and look at the preceding text. 5. 2. The terminal emulator accepts <Ctrl-C> to let you interrupt the program while it is working. 4.1 GUI Components All textual output from the program (e. 2006 2-3 . 5. 3.g.. Press and hold down the left mouse button. 3. The following steps show you how to perform a copy and paste operation on a UNIX system: 1. you will follow the steps below to copy text to the clipboard: 1. Release the left mouse button. September 29.

follow the procedure outlined below: 1.. A pull-down menu contains items that perform commonly executed actions. press <Alt> h. If at any time you wish to cancel a menu selection while a pull-down menu is posted. Move the pointer to the name of the pull-down menu. Click the left mouse button to display the pull-down menu. An accelerator key can be used to select a menu item without displaying the pull-down menu. In addition to using the mouse. Release the left mouse button. If a menu item has an associated accelerator key. 2-4 c Fluent Inc. you can also select a pull-down menu item using the keyboard. from left to right and from top to bottom). Pressing the <Alt> key plus the mnemonic character of a pulldown menu will display the menu. Figure 2. Each pull-down menu label or menu item contains one underlined character. A pull-down menu item may also have an accelerator key associated with it.3 shows the FLUENT menu bar. you can type a mnemonic character associated with an item to select that item.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Menu Bar The menu bar organizes the GUI menu hierarchy using a set of pull-down menus. 4. For example. known as the mnemonic.. option.e. 3. you can press the <Esc> key. Once the pull-down menu is selected and displayed. then h. For example.1. 2. 2006 . if a pull-down menu contains the item Iterate. you can select this item by holding down the <Ctrl> key and pressing the “I” key.3: The FLUENT Menu Bar To select a pull-down menu item with the mouse.. the key will be shown to the right of the item.. Ctrl+I.1. September 29.. to display the Help menu and select the Using Help. Menu items are arranged to correspond to the typical sequence of actions that you perform in FLUENT (i. Figure 2. Move the pointer to the item you wish to select and click it.

the operation will proceed. you should take care of it before moving on to other tasks. such as issuing warning and error messages. you can click the OK button to close the dialog box. Information Dialog Box The Information dialog box is used to report some information that FLUENT thinks you should know. The following sections describe each type of dialog box. or asking a question requiring a yes or no answer. A dialog box is a separate “temporary” window that appears when FLUENT needs to communicate with you.2.1. If you click the Cancel button. Warning Dialog Box The Warning dialog box is used to warn you of a potential problem and ask you whether or not you want to proceed with the current operation. c Fluent Inc. it will be closed. When a dialog box appears on your screen.1 GUI Components 2. If you click the OK button. September 29. Once you have read the information. 2006 2-5 . and then you can continue. Once you have tended to the dialog box.2 Dialog Boxes Dialog boxes are used to perform simple input/output tasks. the operation will be canceled.

September 29. Question Dialog Box The Question dialog box is used to ask you a question that requires a yes or no answer. You can. 2006 . 2-6 c Fluent Inc. because it requires no action by you. Working Dialog Box The Working dialog box is displayed when FLUENT is busy performing a task. When the program is finished. It is there to let you know that you must wait. This is a special dialog box. You can click the appropriate button to answer the question. it will close the dialog box automatically. Once you have read the error information. you can click the OK button to close the dialog box. however.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Error Dialog Box The Error dialog box is used to alert you of an error that has occurred. abort the task that is being performed by clicking the Cancel button.

2: Including External Data in the Solution XY Plot for more information). September 29.1.2. In such cases.1. Figure 2. c Fluent Inc.5 will appear in almost all cases. but it will be different if you are loading external data files for use in an XY plot (see the Section 28. the dialog box will look like Figure 2. The version shown in Figure 2.8.1. Select File Dialog Box (UNIX or Linux) For UNIX or Linux systems.6. 2006 2-7 .1 GUI Components Select File Dialog Box (Windows) File selection on Windows systems is accomplished using the standard Windows Select File dialog box.4: The Select File Dialog Box for Windows See documentation regarding your Windows system for further instructions on file selection. note that the appearance of the Select File dialog box will not always be the same.

etc. 2. You can also click once on a directory and then click the Filter button.. and then a subdirectory. instead of double-clicking. Specify the file name by selecting it in the Files list or entering it in the File text entry box (if available) at the bottom of the dialog box. before the optional search pattern (described below).” item represents the parent directory.).5: The Select File Dialog Box for UNIX or Linux Platforms The steps for file selection are as follows: 1. in the Directories list until you reach the directory you want. September 29.1. • Double-click a directory. Be sure to include the final / character in the pathname. Go to the appropriate directory.” item represents the current directory and the “. etc. Note that the “. You can do this in two different ways: • Enter the path to the desired directory in the Filter text entry box and then press the <Enter> key or click the Filter button. The name of this text entry box will change depending on the type of file you are selecting (Case File. Journal File.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Figure 2. 2-8 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .

and only those files that have a . data. If you are reading multiple XY-plot data files. 3. if you are reading a data file. You can choose another file. September 29. Binary files take up less space and can be read and written by FLUENT more quickly. you can change the search pattern to *.6: Another Version Select File Dialog Box for UNIX or Linux Platforms i Note that if you are searching for an existing file with a nonstandard extension. but it will require more storage space than the same file in binary format. If you are writing a case.DAT*.1 GUI Components Figure 2. For example. or radiation file.2. If you want files with a . (If you accidentally select the wrong file. you can choose it in the XY File(s) list and click the Remove button to remove it from the list of files to be read.1.dat extension will appear in the Files list. enter just * as the search pattern.DAT extension to appear in the Files list.dat*. 2006 2-9 . If you want all files in the directory to be listed in the Files list. the selected file will be added to the list of XY File(s). you may need to modify the “search pattern” at the end of the path in the Filter text entry box. and it will also be added to this list.) Repeat until all of the desired files are in the XY File(s) list. 4. following the instructions above. c Fluent Inc. use the Write Binary Files check box to specify whether the file should be written as a text or binary file. You can read and edit a text file. the default extension in the search path will be *.

you will always have to click OK yourself. This will automatically activate the OK button. September 29. Click the OK button to read or write the specified file. doubleclick it instead of just selecting it. The types of controls you will see are described further in this section.Graphical User Interface (GUI) 5. Cancel closes the panel.1. you can press the <Enter> key instead of clicking the OK button. Clicking or double-clicking will just add the selected file to the XY File(s) list.) • If you entered the name of the file in the File text entry box. When you have finished entering data in a panel’s controls. a panel is displayed in a separate window. or cancel the changes. ignoring any changes you have made. depending on how it was designed. This type of panel includes two button controls as described below: OK applies any changes you have made to the panel. but working with a panel is more akin to filling out a form. each panel falls into one of two behavioral categories. 2. (If you are reading an XY file. 2006 . The first category of panels is used in situations where it is desirable to apply the changes and immediately close the panel. For this task. if desired. Each panel is unique and employs various types of input controls that make up the form. Similar to a dialog box. then closes the panel.3 Panels Panels are used to perform more complicated input tasks. An example of this type of panel is shown in the following figure: 2-10 c Fluent Inc. you will need to apply the changes you have made. Shortcuts for this step are as follows: • If your file appears in the Files list and you are not reading an XY file.

1 GUI Components The other category of panels is used in situations where it is desirable to keep the panel displayed on the screen after changes have been applied. An example of this type of panel is shown in the following figure: All panels include the following button used to access on-line help: Help displays information about the controls in the panel. but they will work exactly as described here. September 29. but does not close the panel. This makes it easy to quickly go back to that panel and make more changes. Panels used for postprocessing and grid adaption often fall into this category. Note that the examples shown here are for a UNIX system. The help information will appear in your web browser. Close closes the panel. The name of this button is often changed to something more descriptive. Each type of input control utilized by the panels is described below. For example.2. and the adaption panels use the name Adapt. your panel controls may look slightly different. many of the postprocessing panels use the name Display for this button. This type of panel includes two button controls as described below: Apply applies any changes you have made to the panel. if you are working on a Windows system. 2006 2-11 . c Fluent Inc.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) Tab Much like the tabs on a notebook divider. You can access each section of the panel by “clicking” the left mouse button on the corresponding tab. 2-12 c Fluent Inc. and all others will be turned off. also referred to as a push button. it will be turned on. Radio Buttons Radio buttons are a set of check boxes with the condition that only one can be set in the “on” position at a time. A click is one press and release of the mouse button. When you click the left mouse button on a radio button. Check Box A check box. place the pointer over the button and click the left mouse button. Radio buttons appear either as diamonds (as shown above) or as circles. To activate a button. is used to perform a function indicated by the button label. A panel that contains many controls may be divided into different sections to reduce the amount of screen space it occupies. Click the left mouse button on the check box to toggle the state. September 29. tabs in panels are used to mark the different sections into which a panel is divided. 2006 . also referred to as a check button. Button A button. is used to turn on/off an item or action indicated by the check box label.

You may find it easier to enter large integer numbers using scientific notation.g.538. c Fluent Inc.2. For example. It will often have a label associated with it to indicate the purpose of the entry. 50000.. -10. 2006 2-13 . the label will show the units associated with the real number entry. 10.5E5. For most integer number entry controls. the value will be increased (or decreased) by one when you click an arrow button.45 and 5.. The keys used are shown below: Key Shift Ctrl Real Number Entry Factor of Increase 10 100 A real number entry is similar to a text entry. 10. The integer number entry also has arrow buttons that allow you to easily increase or decrease its value. Integer Number Entry An integer number entry is similar to a text entry except it allows only integer numbers to be entered (e. -10.g.1 GUI Components Text Entry A text entry lets you type text input. 50000 and 5E4). You can increase the size of the increment by holding down a keyboard key while clicking the arrow button. you could enter 350000 or 3. In most cases. September 29. except it allows only real numbers to be entered (e.72E-4).

Multiple-Selection List A multiple-selection list is similar to a single-selection list. Clicking on the second button will deselect all items. Clicking on a selected item will deselect it. To select a range of items in a multiple-selection list. Clicking on the first button will select all items. There are two small buttons in the upper right corner of the multiple selection list that accelerate the task of selecting or deselecting all the items in the list. and all the items between them. 2006 . Selecting another item will deselect the previously selected item in the list. Many panels will also accept a double-click in order to invoke the panel action that is associated with the list selection (see information on the panel of interest for more details). Each item is printed on a separate line in the list.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Single-Selection List A single-selection list contains zero or more items. You can select an item by placing the pointer over the item line and clicking with the left mouse button. its selection state will toggle. will be selected. you can select the first desired item. The first and last items. Clicking on an unselected item will select it. September 29. When you click the left mouse button on an item. 2-14 c Fluent Inc. except it allows for more than one selected item at a time. The selected item will become highlighted. You can also click and drag the left mouse button to select multiple items. and then select the last desired item while holding down the <Shift> key.

2006 2-15 . Click the arrow button to display the list.1 GUI Components Drop-Down List A drop-down list is a hidden single-selection list that shows only the current selection to save space.2. If you wish to abort the selection operation while the list is displayed. Click the left mouse button on the item to make the selection and close the list. 2. c Fluent Inc. When you want to change the selection. September 29. you can move the pointer anywhere outside the list and click the left mouse button. follow the steps below: 1. 3. Place the pointer over the new list item.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) Scale The scale is used to select a value from a predefined range by moving a slider. 2. To change the value. 4. Place the pointer over the slider. 2-16 c Fluent Inc. Place the pointer over the slider and click the left mouse button. 2. The number shows the current value. 3. Move the pointer along the slider bar to change the value. Press and hold down the left mouse button. move the slider bar left or right to change the value. 2006 . September 29. Using the arrow keys on the keyboard. follow one of the procedures below: 1. Release the left mouse button. or 1.

September 29. These features are not available on UNIX systems. i To cancel a display operation.34e+03 -1. Figure 2.93e+02 -9. there are special features for printing the contents of the graphics window directly.78e+03 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Figure 2. 4.1 GUI Components 2.23e+03 -1.7) are separate windows that display the program’s graphical output. c Fluent Inc.1.73e+02 -6.g. For Windows systems.1.45e+03 -1.2. press <Ctrl-C> while the data is being processed in preparation for graphical display.32e+02 -2.7: Sample Graphics Display Window The Display Options panel can be used to change the attributes of the graphics display or to open another display window.80e+01 -2.53e+02 -4.22e+01 -1.18e+02 3.43e+02 -3.63e+02 -5.12e+03 -1.56e+03 -1..98e+02 8.4 Graphics Display Windows Graphics display windows (e.08e+02 1. You cannot cancel the operation after the program begins to draw in the graphics window.67e+03 -1.1.04e+02 -1. 2006 2-17 .83e+02 -7. The Mouse Buttons panel can be used to set the action taken when a mouse button is pressed in the display window.01e+03 -1.

Color selects a color picture. Some attributes of the copied picture can be changed using the Page Setup panel.. which enables you to send a copy of the picture to a printer. This assumes that your printer or display has at least 65536 colors. 2006 . displays the Microsoft Windows Print dialog box. True Color creates a picture defined by RGB values. Print. Still more attributes of the final print can be specified within the Microsoft Windows Print and Print Setup dialog boxes (see documentation for Microsoft Windows and your printer for details). Monochrome selects a black-and-white picture. FLUENT adds three more commands to the menu for printer and clipboard support. you can display the graphics window’s system menu by clicking in the upper-left corner of the graphics window. These commands are described below: Copy to Clipboard places a copy of the current picture into the Microsoft Windows clipboard.. The size of your graphics window affects the size of the text fonts used in the picture.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Printing the Contents of the Graphics Display Window (Windows Systems Only) If you are using the Windows version of FLUENT. 2-18 c Fluent Inc. such as move. or to a printer. menu item in the graphics display window’s system menu. Mapped Color creates a picture that uses a colormap.. Color Quality allows you to specify the color mode used for the picture. displays the Page Setup panel. This menu contains the usual system commands. Page Setup. size. select the Page Setup.. Further details about this panel are included in the following section. Along with the system commands. experiment with the graphics window size and examine the resulting clipboard picture using the Windows clipboard viewer. Gray Scale selects a gray-scale picture. or “unlimited colors”.. Some attributes of the copied picture can be changed using the Page Setup panel. September 29. This is the right choice for devices that have 256 colors. For best results. which allows you to change attributes of the picture copied to the clipboard. Page Setup Panel (Windows Systems Only) To open the Page Setup panel. and close. Controls Color allows you to specify a color or non-color picture..

experiment with the graphics window size and examine the resulting clipboard picture using the Windows clipboard viewer. This format will have a higher resolution when printed. but some large 3D pictures may take a long time to print. Printer Scale % controls the amount of the page that the printed picture will cover. 2006 2-19 . Picture Format allows you to specify a raster or a vector picture. Enhanced Metafile is a Windows Enhanced Metafile.2. Raster creates a raster picture. Metafile is a Windows Metafile. DIB Bitmap is a device-independent bitmap copy of the graphics window. The size of your graphics window can affect the size of the clipboard picture. Decreasing the scaling will effectively increase the margin between the picture and the edge of the paper. Bitmap is a bitmap copy of the graphics window. c Fluent Inc. but some large 3D pictures may take much less time to print.1 GUI Components Figure 2. This format will have a lower resolution when printed. September 29. Vector creates a vector picture.8: The Page Setup Panel (Windows Systems Only) Clipboard Formats allows you to choose the desired format copied to the clipboard.1. For best results.

selectColor: green Fluent*XmToggleButtonGadget. it is made in portrait mode.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Options contains options that control other attributes of the picture.2 Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only) On UNIX systems. otherwise. please refer to any documentation you may have that describes how to use the X Window System or OSF/Motif applications. The program will try to provide default text fonts that are satisfactory for your platform’s display size. 2. The default X Window resource values for a medium resolution display are shown below: ! ! General resources ! Fluent*geometry: +0-0 Fluent*fontList: *-helvetica-bold-r-normal--12-* Fluent*MenuBar*fontList: *-helvetica-bold-r-normal--12-* Fluent*XmText*fontList: *-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-* Fluent*XmTextField*fontList: *-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-* Fluent*foreground: black Fluent*background: gray75 Fluent*activeForeground: black Fluent*activeBackground: gray85 Fluent*disabledTextColor: gray55 Fluent*XmToggleButton. 2006 . This option is applicable only when printing.selectColor: green Fluent*XmText. The attributes of the GUI are represented by X Window “resources”. but in some cases customization may be necessary if the default text fonts make the GUI too small or too large on your display. If you are unfamiliar with the X Window System Resource Database. and text fonts. or if the default colors are undesirable. the picture is made in landscape mode. while the graphics window is displayed with a black background and white foreground. Landscape Orientation (Printer) specifies the orientation of the picture. This feature allows you to make a copy of the picture with a white background and a black foreground.translations:\ #override<Key>Delete: delete-previous-character() Fluent*XmTextField. September 29. you may wish to customize the graphical user interface by changing attributes such as text color. If selected. Reverse Foreground/Background specifies that the foreground and background colors of the picture will be swapped. background color. The GUI in FLUENT is based on the X Window System Toolkit and OSF/Motif.translations:\ #override<Key>Delete: delete-previous-character() 2-20 c Fluent Inc.

or on SUN workstations.2.foreground: black Fluent*Hyper. c Fluent Inc.background: linen Fluent*Hyper.hyperColor: SlateBlue3 Fluent*Hyper*normalFont:\ *-new century schoolbook-medium-r-normal--12-* Fluent*Hyper*hyperFont:\ *-new century schoolbook-bold-r-normal--12-* Fluent*Hyper*texLargeFont:\ *-new century schoolbook-bold-r-normal--14-* Fluent*Hyper*texBoldFont:\ *-new century schoolbook-bold-r-normal--12-* Fluent*Hyper*texFixedFont:\ *-courier-bold-r-normal--12-* Fluent*Hyper*texItalicFont:\ *-new century schoolbook-medium-i-normal--12-* Fluent*Hyper*texMathFont:\ *-symbol-medium-r-normal--14-* Fluent*Hyper*texSansFont:\ *-helvetica-bold-r-normal--12-* To customize one or more of the resources for a particular user.columns: 80 Fluent*ConsoleText.background: linen ! ! Help Viewer resources ! Fluent*Hyper. To customize one or more of the resources for several users at a site. place the resource specification lines in an application defaults resource file called Fluent. 2006 2-21 . See documentation regarding your platform for more information. place appropriate resource specification lines in that user’s file $HOME/. September 29.2 Customizing the Graphical User Interface (UNIX Systems Only) ! ! Console resources ! Fluent*ConsoleText. the directory may be /usr/openwin/lib/app-defaults.Xdefaults or whatever resource file is loaded by the X Window System on the user’s platform.rows: 24 Fluent*ConsoleText. This file should then be installed in a directory such as /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults.

There are many ways to access the information contained in the on-line help. which is the last chapter of the User’s Guide in the on-line help. In addition to the User’s Guide. Through the graphical user interface.. 2. and you can use the hypertext links and the browser’s search and navigation tools (as well as the additional navigation tools described in the separate Getting Started Guide) to find the information you need. you can also access the other FLUENT documentation (e. This section focuses on the Help menu in FLUENT.1 Panel Help To get help about a panel that you are currently using. 2006 . and use the hypertext links there to find the information you are looking for. the Tutorial Guide or UDF Manual). and how you can use it (and the Help button in each panel) to access the HTML-based on-line help from within FLUENT. contains a description of each menu item and panel. 2-22 c Fluent Inc. The User’s Guide and other manuals are displayed in your web browser. as well as guidelines for modifying the appearance of the HTML versions of the manuals. You can get reference information from within a panel or (on UNIX machines) request contextsensitive help for a particular menu item or panel. You can also go to the User’s Guide contents page or index.g. you have the entire User’s Guide and other documentation available to you with the click of a mouse button. The Getting Started Guide also provides additional information about navigating and finding information in the User’s Guide (and other manuals). In this section you will also find hypertext links to the section(s) of the User’s Guide that discuss how to use the panel and provide related information. September 29. click the Help button in the panel. You also need to have installed the HTML files from the documentation CD-ROM. The web browser will open to the section of the Reference Guide that explains the function of each item in the panel.3.3 Using the GUI Help System FLUENT includes an intergrated HTML-based on-line help system that provides easy access to the program documentation. Note that the Reference Guide. See the separate installation instructions for your platform type for information about installing the files from the documentation CD-ROM. See the separate Getting Started Guide for more information about accessing the documentation outside of FLUENT. i FLUENT’s help system is HTML-based. so you need to have access to a web browser.Graphical User Interface (GUI) 2.

3. Help −→User’s Guide Contents. 2..3 Opening the User’s Guide Table of Contents To see a list of the chapters in the User’s Guide. Selecting this menu item will open the web browser to the “A” page of the index (Figure 2. which are links. click the Reference Guide hypertext link near the bottom of the User’s Guide Contents page. Each chapter in the list is a hypertext link that you can click to view that chapter. arranged by pull-down menu. select an item from a pull-down menu.3. you can use the context-sensitive help feature. menu item in the Help pull-down menu. which contains information about each panel or menu item.. select the User’s Guide Contents. Clicking on one of these links will bring you to the corresponding place in the User’s Guide where the index entry topic is discussed.2 Context-Sensitive Help (UNIX Only) If you want to find out how or when a particular menu item or panel is used. Next to each entry in the index you will find one or more numbers.3. Select the Context-Sensitive Help item in the Help pull-down menu.3.5 Opening the Reference Guide To open the web browser to the first page of the Reference Guide. 2.3. c Fluent Inc.3. You can use the links at the top and bottom of the page to access the index pages for other letters of the alphabet. The web browser will open to the section of the User’s Guide that discusses the selected item. select the User’s Guide Index.1). Help −→Context-Sensitive Help With the resulting question-mark cursor.2. which will display a list of contents including all section titles in addition to the chapter titles...4 Opening the User’s Guide Index To see the index for the User’s Guide.. menu item in the Help pull-down menu.. September 29. 2. There is also an Expanded Contents link. Each of these is a link to the corresponding chapter or section of the manual. Help −→User’s Guide Index.2).. 2006 2-23 .3 Using the GUI Help System 2. Selecting this item will open the web browser to the contents page of the User’s Guide (Figure 2..

3.1: The FLUENT User’s Guide Contents Page 2-24 c Fluent Inc. September 29.Graphical User Interface (GUI) Figure 2. 2006 .

September 29.2: The FLUENT User’s Guide Index c Fluent Inc.2. 2006 2-25 .3 Using the GUI Help System Figure 2.3.

) To see what other FLUENT manuals are available. or use the text interface help system described in Section 3.Graphical User Interface (GUI) 2.8 Accessing the Other Manuals As noted above..7 Help for Text Interface Commands There are two ways to find information about text interface commands.3. the web browser will open to the FLUENT documentation “home” page (Figure 2. menu item in the Help pull-down menu.. Help −→More Documentation. See the separate Getting Started Guide for more information. When you select this item. in addition to the User’s Guide. select the More Documentation.6 Help on Help You can obtain information about using on-line help by selecting the Using Help. you can access other manuals through the on-line help.. September 29.. When you select this item. the web browser will open to the beginning of this section.. You can either go to the Text Command List (which can be accessed using the Help/More Documentation.6: Using the Text Interface Help System. 2. Help −→Using Help.3. as described below)...3. menu item in the Help pull-down menu.3.. (You can also access the User’s Guide in formats other than HTML— namely. 2-26 c Fluent Inc.. 2.. Adobe Acrobat PDF—which is recommended if you want to print out an entire chapter or a long section. menu item. 2006 .3).

2006 2-27 .3: The FLUENT Documentation Home Page c Fluent Inc.3.3 Using the GUI Help System Figure 2.2. September 29.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) 2..3.11 Obtaining a Listing of Other FLUENT License Users You can obtain a listing of current FLUENT users when you select the License Usage. 2-28 c Fluent Inc. FLUENT will direct your web browser to the appropriate web address.... Help −→User Services Center.. 2...9 Accessing the User Services Center Web Site You can access the Fluent User Services Center web site by selecting the User Services Center. i To link to the User Services Center on UNIX platforms. menu item in the Help pull-down menu.3. 2.. you must first have installed the contents of the FLUENT Documentation CD.3.3. menu item in the Help pull-down menu. 2006 . 2.. FLUENT will direct your web browser to the appropriate web address. menu item in the Help pull-down menu... menu item in the Help pull-down menu. FLUENT will display a list the current users of the FLUENT license feature in the console. September 29. Help −→Online Technical Support. Help −→Version...10 Accessing the Fluent Online Technical Support Web Site You can access the Fluent Online Technical Support web site by selecting the Online Technical Support. which contains the files necessary to launch your browser so you can automatically view the appropriate web pages... Help −→License Usage..12 Version and Release Information You can obtain information about the version and release of FLUENT you are running by selecting the Version.

• Section 3.6: Using the Text Interface Help System The text interface (TUI) uses.1: Text Menu System • Section 3. 3. and is written in.5: Text Menu Input from Character Strings • Section 3. When you first start FLUENT. modified with text editors.3: Interrupts • Section 3. Because it is text based.4: System Commands • Section 3. a dialect of Lisp called Scheme. and read back in to be executed. Because the text menu system is tightly integrated with the Scheme extension language. Text User Interface (TUI) In addition to the graphical user interface described in Chapter 2: Graphical User Interface (GUI). you are in the “root” menu and the menu prompt is simply a caret. The menu system structure is similar to the directory tree structure of UNIX operating systems.2: Text Prompt System • Section 3. Users familiar with Scheme will be able to use the interpretive capabilities of the interface to create customized commands.1 Text Menu System The text menu system provides a hierarchical interface to the program’s underlying procedural interface. the user interface to FLUENT includes a textual command line interface. you can easily manipulate its operation with standard text-based tools: input can be saved in files. September 29. > c Fluent Inc. it can easily be programmed to provide sophisticated control and customized functionality. 2006 3-1 .Chapter 3.

> display /display> set /display/set> To move back to the previously occupied menu. to move down into a submenu. /display> /file /display//file> In the above example. /display//file> q /display> 3-2 c Fluent Inc. When you move into the submenu. September 29. when you quit from the /file menu. Similarly. To execute a command. /display/set> q /display> You can move directly to a menu by giving its full pathname. enter its name or an abbreviation. just type its name (or an abbreviation). control was passed from /display to /file without stopping in the root menu. > <Enter> adapt/ define/ display/ exit file/ grid/ parallel/ plot/ report/ solve/ surface/ view/ By convention. submenu names end with a / to differentiate them from menu commands. control will be passed directly back to /display. the prompt will change to reflect the current menu name. 2006 . Therefore. type q or quit at the prompt.Text User Interface (TUI) To generate a listing of the submenus and commands in the current menu. simply press <Enter>.

the first command is selected. A phrase is matched by matching an initial sequence of its characters.6: Using the Text Interface Help System. then the first command to appear in the menu is chosen. /display> The text menu system provides on-line help for menu commands. s-a-c. If an abbreviation matches more than one command. This can be resolved by choosing a different abbreviation. sometimes your abbreviation will match more than one command. 3. such as liin.1 Command Abbreviation To select a menu command. A character is matched by typing that character. or l-int. there is an anomaly such as lint not matching lightinginterpolation because the li gets absorbed in lights-on? and then the nt does not match interpolation. A command is matched by matching an initial sequence of its phrases. and insert text simply by typing. When abbreviating commands. The rules for matching a command are as follows: A command name consists of phrases separated by hyphens. then the command with the greatest number of matched phrases is chosen.1. c Fluent Inc.3. September 29. The text menu on-line help system is described in Section 3. control will again be returned to the menu from which you invoked the command. In such cases. i Only the <Backspace> key is available for editing when FLUENT is started with -g options. each of the following will match the command set-ambientcolor: setambient-color. /display> /file start-journal jrnl Opening input journal to file "jrnl". Matching of hyphens is optional. For example. To edit the current command. 2006 3-3 . you do not need to type the entire name. delete with the <Backspace> key. and sa. if you execute a command without stopping in any of the menus along the way.1 Text Menu System Furthermore. If more than one command has the same number of matched phrases. Occasionally. you can position the cursor with the left and right arrow keys. you can type an abbreviation that matches the command. sac.

1.3 Scheme Evaluation If you enter an open parenthesis. > (define a 1) a > (+ a 2 3 4) 10 3-4 c Fluent Inc. only rc (an alias for read-case) will be saved. command-history will store only the last ten commands.1. (. and the result of evaluating the expression is displayed.cas is a user input to the alias-function. at the menu prompt. September 29. 2006 .5: Startup Options). consider the following entry in the TUI: rc new_file. By default. then that parenthesis and all characters up to and including the matching closing parenthesis are passed to Scheme to be evaluated. By way of illustration.1.Text User Interface (TUI) 3. since new file.cas i In history.2 Command Line History You can use the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard to go through recently used commands that are stored in history. Commands recalled from history can be edited or corrected using the <Backspace> key and the left and right arrow keys. 3. This can be changed (for example to 15) by using the following command: > (set! *cmd-history-length* 15) i i > Command-history is not available if the FLUENT application is started with -g options (see Section 1. The user inputs supplied as the arguments of the TUI command or alias will not be saved in history.

September 29.. pwd. filenames. the number 1 for the first prompt. It is a separate token that indicates a default value.4 Aliases Command aliases can be defined within the menu system.) To abort a prompt sequence. . ls.2 Text Prompt System Commands require various arguments. followed by an optional units string enclosed in parentheses. simply press <Ctrl-C>. and alias. aliases take precedence over command execution. pwd prints the working directory in which all file operations will take place. (comma).1] <Enter> line-weight [1] <Enter> title [""] <Enter> The default value for a prompt is accepted by typing a <Enter> or a . yes/no responses. and the number 2 for the third prompt. error displays the Scheme object that was the “irritant” in the most recent Scheme error interrupt.3. and lists. The sequence “1. A uniform interface to this input is provided by the text prompt system.1. alias displays the list of symbols currently aliased. character strings. chdir. followed by a default value enclosed in square brackets. A prompt consists of a prompt string. 3. the default value for the second prompt. ls lists the files in the working directory. (See Section 3.2 Text Prompt System 3. 2006 3-5 . c Fluent Inc. The following aliases are predefined in Cortex: error. As with the UNIX csh shell. chdir will change the working directory.2” results in three values. i Note that a comma is not a separator. The following shows some examples of prompts: filled grids? [no] <Enter> shrink-factor [0. including numbers. A short help message can be displayed at any prompt by entering a ?.6: Using the Text Interface Help System.

Numbers can be either integers or reals. 3-6 c Fluent Inc. #o37. data. The decimal integer 31 can be entered as 31. These are entered with the Scheme symbols for true and false. -2. yes/no prompts are used for confirming potentially dangerous actions such as overwriting an existing file. and hexadecimal form. Symbols must start with an alphabetical character (i. Character strings can include any characters. #b11111. Zone names. Valid numbers are. octal.g.3 Strings Character strings are entered in double quotes. a letter).4.Text User Interface (TUI) 3. for example. so you do not need a decimal point to indicate that a number is real.9 will become 1. September 29.9E5. e.2. 2006 .4 Symbols Symbols are entered without quotes. 2 is just as much a real as 2. Integers can also be specified in binary. #t and #f.2 Booleans Some prompts require a yes-or-no response. surface names. Some prompts require actual Scheme boolean values (true or false)..1 Numbers The most common prompt type is a number. Plot titles and plot legend titles are examples of character strings. mesh. 16.e. 3. exiting without saving case. In Scheme. and material names are examples of symbols. A yes/no prompt will accept either yes or y for a positive response. . integers are a subset of reals. 3. any fractional part will simply be truncated. and cannot include any blank spaces or commas. "red". and no or n for a negative response. including blank spaces and punctuation.2. 1. etc.2. and +1E-5. or #x1f.0. 3. If you enter a real at an integer prompt..2.

ps") fn > hc fn will end up writing a hardcopy file with the name fn. September 29. This terminating list forms the tail of the prompted list. the empty list can be entered as () as well as the standard form ’(). Normally. For example.5 Filenames Filenames are actually just character strings. 2006 3-7 .ps. For convenience. For example. For convenience. Subsequently.2 Text Prompt System 3. Lists are prompted for an element at a time. list prompts save the previous argument list as the default.2.2. If. etc. then the name must be surrounded with double quotes. strings. fn did not get a chance to evaluate "valve.3. a filename contains an embedded space character. Since the filename prompt did not evaluate the response. A list is a Scheme object that is simply a sequence of objects terminated by the empty list. and 100.6 Lists Some functions in FLUENT require a “list” of objects such as numbers. 10. element(1) element(2) element(3) element(4) [()] [()] [()] [()] 1 10 100 <Enter> creates a list of three numbers: 1.ps" as it would for most other prompts. 3. filename prompts do not require the string to be surrounded with double quotes. element(1) element(2) element(3) element(4) element(5) [1] <Enter> [10] <Enter> [100] <Enter> [()] 1000 [()] <Enter> c Fluent Inc. booleans. the sequence > (define fn "valve. To modify the list. One consequence of this convenience is that filename prompts do not evaluate the response. ’(). and can either be empty or can contain values. and the end of the list is signaled by entering an empty list. overwrite the desired elements and terminate the process with an empty list. not valve. for some exceptional reason.

For example. You can therefore enter any valid Scheme expression as the response to a prompt..2.0 (* x x)))) unit-y /foo> set-xy x-component [1. Finally.0] (/ 1 3) y-component [0.7 Evaluation All responses to prompts (except filenames.1.Text User Interface (TUI) adds a fourth element. September 29. and 13.0] (/ 1 3) y-component [0. a single empty list removes all elements element(1) [1] () 3. 12. to enter a unit vector with one component equal to 1/3 (without using your calculator). you could first define a utility function to compute the second component of a unit vector.’(11 12 13) creates a five element list: 1. > (define (unit-y x) (sqrt (. 11. see above) are evaluated by the Scheme interpreter before they are used. /foo> set-xy x-component [1.0] (unit-y (/ 1 3)) 3-8 c Fluent Inc. Then element(1) [1] <Enter> element(2) [10] <Enter> element(3) [100] () leaves only 1 and 10 in the list. 2006 . 10. Subsequently entering element(1) [1] .0] (sqrt (/ 8 9)) or.

and is therefore not useful.1 System Commands for UNIX-based Operating Systems If you are running FLUENT under a UNIX-based operating system.4 System Commands The way you execute system commands with the ! (bang) shell escape character will be slightly different for UNIX and Windows systems. if you want to decrease a default value so that it is one-third of the original value. 3. 3.rp !pwd and !ls will execute the UNIX commands in the directory in which Cortex was started.) Typing cd with no arguments will move you to your home directory in the console.3 Interrupts 3. September 29. in which case the output will appear in the window in which you started Cortex. so it will not change the working directory either for FLUENT or for Cortex.8 Default Value Binding The default value at any prompt is bound to the Scheme symbol “_” (underscore) so that the default value can form part of a Scheme expression. 2006 3-9 . For example.* > !vi script.3. c Fluent Inc.3 Interrupts The execution of the code can be halted using <Ctrl-C>.8] (/ _ 3) 3. all characters following the ! up to the next newline character will be executed in a subshell. you could enter shrink-factor [0. at which time the present operation stops at the next recoverable location.4.2. Any further input related to these system commands must be entered in the window in which you started the program. (Note that if you started FLUENT remotely.) > !rm junk. unless you started it remotely. and any screen output will also appear in that window. The screen output will appear in the window in which you started FLUENT. this input and output will be in the window in which you started Cortex. (Note that !cd executes in a subshell.

all characters following the ! up to the next newline character will be executed.Text User Interface (TUI) FLUENT includes three system command aliases (pwd. September 29. Note that these aliases will invoke the corresponding UNIX commands with respect to the parent directory of the case file.cas valve2. The !cd command with no argument will display the current working directory in the FLUENT console.cas valve1. in the window in which Cortex was started) follows the examples. Example input (in the FLUENT console): > !pwd > !ls valve*. Several examples of system commands entered in the console are shown below.msh 3. pwd prints the parent directory of the case file in the FLUENT console. if you started the program remotely. or in a separate window if the command starts an external program.* Example output (in the window in which FLUENT—or Cortex. ls.rp !cd and !dir will execute the DOS commands and the screen output will appear in the FLUENT console. 3-10 c Fluent Inc. For example.4. and chdir) that will be executed in your working directory with output displayed in the FLUENT console.msh valve2. such as Notepad.* > !notepad script. if you started the program remotely—was started): /home/cfd/run/valve valve1. The results of a command will appear in the FLUENT console. while !pwd prints the directory from which you started FLUENT in the UNIX shell window where you started FLUENT.2 System Commands for Windows Operating Systems If you are running FLUENT under a Windows operating system. 2006 . > !del junk. The screen output that will appear in the window in which FLUENT was started (or.

This simple loop could also be written without using menu commands at all.5 Text Menu Input from Character Strings Often.088. Example input (in boxes) and output (in the FLUENT console): > !cd p:/cfd/run/valve > !dir valve*.cas valve1. use (ti-menu-load-string "di ow 1") A Scheme loop that will open windows 0 and 1 and display the front view of the grid in window 0 and the back view in window 1 is given by (for-each (lambda (window view) (ti-menu-load-string (format #f "di ow ~a gr view rv ~a" window view))) ’(0 1) ’(front back)) This loop makes use of the format function to construct the string used by menu-load-string.5 Text Menu Input from Character Strings Several examples of system commands entered in the console are shown below.cas valve2.msh 4 File(s) 621. September 29.msh valve2. For example.183 bytes 0 Dir(s) 1.704 bytes free 3. but you need to know the Scheme functions that get executed by the menu commands to do it: (for-each (lambda (window view) (cx-open-window window) (display-grid) (cx-restore-view view)) ’(0 1) ’(front back)) c Fluent Inc. This can be done with ti-menu-load-string. to open graphics window 1.830.*/w Volume in drive P is users Volume Serial Number is 1234-5678 Directory of p:/cfd/run/valve valve1. 2006 3-11 .3. when writing a Scheme extension function for FLUENT. it is convenient to be able to include menu commands in the function.

you can obtain a brief description of each of the commands by entering a ? followed by the command in question. As a result. September 29. the grid will be drawn in the active window. 2006 . For example.” In this mode. It ignores any menu you may be in when you invoke ti-menu-load-string. as in (ti-menu-load-string "display open-window 1 grid") 3.Text User Interface (TUI) String input can also provide an easy way to create aliases within FLUENT. incorrect usage will not work even if you type it from within the display/ menu—the string itself must cause control to enter the display/ menu. you need only enter the command or menu name to display the help message. To exit the help mode type q or quit as for a normal menu. you could type the following: (alias ’dg (lambda () (ti-menu-load-string "/di gr"))) Then any time you enter dg from anywhere in the menu hierarchy. i ti-menu-load-string evaluates the string argument in the top level menu. Example: > ?dis display/: Enter the display menu.6 Using the Text Interface Help System The text user interface provides context-sensitive on-line help. to create an alias that will display the grid. 3-12 c Fluent Inc. Within the text menu system. the command (ti-menu-load-string "open-window 1 gr") . You can also enter a lone ? to enter “help mode.

3. September 29. type a ? at the prompt when you are prompted for information. Example: > display/annotate Annotation text [""] ? Enter the text to annotate the plot with.6 Using the Text Interface Help System Example: > ? [help-mode]> di display/: Enter the display menu. [help-mode]> pwd pwd: #[alias] (LAMBDA () (BEGIN (SET! pwd-cmd ((LAMBDA n n) ’system (IF (cx-send ’(unix?)) "pwd" "cd"))) (cx-send pwd-cmd))) [help-mode]> q To access the help. 2006 3-13 . Annotation text [""] c Fluent Inc.

September 29. 2006 .Text User Interface (TUI) 3-14 c Fluent Inc.

profile. journal. case. You can also export data for use with various visualization and postprocessing tools. profile.6: Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions • Section 4. FLUENT also has features that allow you to save panel layouts and hardcopies of graphics windows.10: Creating Transcript Files • Section 4.fluent File c Fluent Inc. • Section 4. and journal files.15: Saving the Panel Layout • Section 4. These operations are described in the following sections.11: Importing Files • Section 4.2: Reading Mesh Files • Section 4.7: Writing a Boundary Grid • Section 4. Scheme.3: Reading and Writing Case and Data Files • Section 4.4: Reading FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case and Data Files • Section 4. data. 2006 4-1 . September 29.8: Reading Scheme Source Files • Section 4.9: Creating and Reading Journal Files • Section 4.5: Reading and Writing Profile Files • Section 4. and transcript files. data.12: Exporting Files • Section 4.Chapter 4. Files that are written include case.14: Saving Hardcopy Files • Section 4.16: The .1: Shortcuts for Reading and Writing Files • Section 4. Reading and Writing Files During a FLUENT session you may need to import and export several kinds of files.13: Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation • Section 4. Files that are read include mesh.

1. profiles. • Recent file list. Note: You cannot read and edit a binary file. 4. • Ability to disable the overwrite confirmation prompt. 4-2 c Fluent Inc. For example. September 29.1.1) and . 2006 . scheme files. When you specify the first part of the filename (the prefix) for the commonly used files.cas is automatically appended. just specify the prefix myfile in the Select File dialog box (Figure 4. the solver automatically appends or detects the appropriate suffix. • Binary file reading and writing. etc. PDF (Probability Density Function) files. data. turn off the Write Binary Files option in the Select File dialog box when you are writing the file. Binary files take up less memory than text files and can be read and written by FLUENT more quickly. to write a case file named myfile. you can just specify myfile and FLUENT automatically searches for a file of that name with the suffix . or ray file. To save a text file. DTRM ray files..cas into the solver. • Automatic numbering of files. a binary file is saved by default.cas. • Tilde expansion. Similarly.cas. as you can do for a text file.2 Binary Files When you write a case. • Automatic detection of file format (text/binary). The default file suffix for case and data files.1.1 Shortcuts for Reading and Writing Files The following features in FLUENT make reading and writing files convenient: • Automatic appending or detection of default filename suffixes. • Reading and writing of compressed files. are automatically detected and appended. 4.Reading and Writing Files 4. journal files. The appropriate default file suffix appears in the Select File dialog box for each type of file. to read the case file named myfile.1 Default File Suffixes Each type of file read or written in FLUENT has a default file suffix associated with it.

Note that the files listed in this submenu may not be appropriate for your current session (e.4 Recent File List At the bottom of the File/Read submenu there is a list of four FLUENT case files that you most recently read or wrote. 2006 4-3 . select it in the list.1.g.1.. or ray file.cas and file1.1.. a 3D case file can be listed even if you are running a 2D version of FLUENT). To read one of these files into FLUENT. 4.dat) and it was read/written with the case file the last time the case file was read/written. This allows you to read a recently used file without selecting it in the Select File dialog box. Also. the solver automatically determines whether it is a text (formatted) file or binary file. if you read a case file using this shortcut. file1. the corresponding data file is read only if it has the same base name as the case file (e.1: The Select File Dialog Box 4.g. September 29.4.1 Shortcuts for Reading and Writing Files Figure 4. data.3 Detecting File Format When you read a case. PDF. c Fluent Inc. mesh.

Reading "| gunzip -c flow. the solver reports the following message indicating that the result of the gunzip is imported into FLUENT via an operating system pipe.Reading and Writing Files 4. it attempts to locate files with default suffixes and extensions appended to the name. First. Files that were compressed with compress cannot be read into FLUENT on a Windows machine..gz • file-name. If it cannot find a file with that name. if you enter the name file-name.. such as . files with a . You can also type in the filename without any suffix (e.suffix.1. FLUENT cannot access the ray tracing information properly from a compressed ray file.msh. The solver reports an error if it fails to find an existing file with one of these names. if you select a file named flow.Z extension.g.gz.gz".cas or .suffix. For example.suffix • file-name. the solver invokes gunzip to import the file. If you select a compressed file with a .msh. only files that were compressed with gzip (i.Z where suffix is a common extension to the file. i i For Windows systems. If you select a compressed file with a .5 Reading and Writing Compressed Files Reading Compressed Files You can use the Select File dialog box to read files compressed using compress or gzip.gz • file-name. if you are not sure whether or not the file is compressed). 4-4 c Fluent Inc.. FLUENT automatically invokes zcat to import the file.msh. For example.gz extension) can be read. Do not read a compressed ray file.. September 29. the solver traverses the following list until it finds an existing file: • file-name • file-name. 2006 .gz extension. the solver attempts to open a file with the input name.e.Z • file-name.

FLUENT saves the file file.cas. and the ~username is expanded to the home directory of “username”.gz as the name for a case file. If you specify ~/file as the case file to be written. if you specify ~/ as the first two characters of a filename. The status message indicates that the case file information is being piped into the gzip command.Z does not compress the file. the .. In this particular example. the ~ is expanded as your home directory. FLUENT saves the file file. the solver reports the following message: Writing "| gzip -cfv > flow. September 29.4. i i For Windows systems.gz extension onto the file name. You can specify a subdirectory of your home directory as well: if you enter ~/cases/file.gz to the name.6 Tilde Expansion (UNIX Systems Only) On UNIX systems.cas extension is added automatically. compression can be performed only with gzip.cas. FLUENT cannot access the ray tracing information properly from a compressed ray file. 2006 4-5 .Z or . For example. c Fluent Inc.cas in your home directory.cas in the cases subdirectory. 4. That is.gz". you can start a filename with ~username/.1.1 Shortcuts for Reading and Writing Files Writing Compressed Files You can use the Select File dialog box to write a compressed file by appending a . and that the output of the compression command is being redirected to the file with the specified name. Similarly. Do not write a compressed ray file. but appending .. you can write a compressed file by appending . if you enter flow.

The default field width for %i. you can save files with names that reflect the flow-time at which they are saved by including the character string %f in the file name..ps for the file name.e.ps if the solution is at the 10th iteration). where x and y are the preferred field width and number of decimal places..yf. you can specify contours-%t..3.g. since the flow-time will always remain zero. You can change the field width by using %xi. when you specify filename-%f.4: Automatic Saving of Case and Data Files for information about saving and numbering case and data files automatically. since the time step will always remain zero.. and the solver saves a file with the appropriate name (e. and %xn in the filename. use the character string %-x.7 Automatic Numbering of Files There are several special characters that you can include in a filename. use the character string %i in the file name. • To save a hardcopy file with a name that reflects the total number of hardcopy files saved so far in the current solver session. %t. FLUENT will automatically add zeros to the beginning of the flow-time to achieve the prescribed field width. respectively. 2006 .) • For unsteady-state calculations. time step. use the character string %x. • For unsteady-state calculations. and the solver saves a file with the appropriate name (e.ps for the file name. where x is the preferred field width. contours-0010. For example.g. For example. iteration number. 4-6 c Fluent Inc. This automatic saving of files with flow-time should not be used for steady-state cases.ps if the solution is at the first time step). the flow-time that is included in the file name will have a field width of 10 and 6 decimal places. you can specify contours-%i. To eliminate these zeros and left align the flow-time. and %n formats is 4. • To save a file with a name that reflects the iteration at which it is saved.Reading and Writing Files 4. you can save files with names that reflect the time step at which they are saved by including the character string %t in the file name. This option can be used only for hardcopy files. or total number of files saved so far). Using one of these character strings in your filename provides a shortcut for numbering the files based on various parameters (i.g. contours-0001. filename-005. use the character string %n in the file name. the solver will save a file with the appropriate name (e. The usage is similar to %t. This automatic saving of files with the time step should not be used for steady-state cases. By default. To modify this format.000000.yf instead.1.ps for the file name.ps for a solution at a flow-time of 5 seconds). For example. (See also Section 4. September 29. because you need not enter a new filename each time you save a file. %xt.

4.8 Disabling the Overwrite Confirmation Prompt By default. 4. The mesh file contains the coordinates of all the nodes..3.3. If you do not want the solver to ask you for confirmation before it overwrites existing files. flow parameters. see Section 6. File −→ Read −→Case. and PreBFC can all write a nativeformat mesh file.1: Reading and Writing Case Files. GeoMesh.. or solution parameters. Hence you can read a TGrid mesh into the solver using the File/Read/Case. see Section 31. wall-1. GAMBIT. From FLUENT’s point of view. and the zone types and numbers of all the faces (e.2 Reading Mesh Files Mesh files are created using the grid generators (GAMBIT. September 29. pressure-inlet-5.5: Using the Partition Filter.1. GeoMesh. TGrid. and 6.4.2. 4.3.1 Reading TGrid Mesh Files TGrid has the same file format as FLUENT. c Fluent Inc. Grid −→Surface Mesh.3: TGrid Grid Files. The mesh file does not contain any information on boundary conditions.3. you can choose the file/confirm-overwrite? text command and answer no.2 Reading Surface Meshes To read the surface mesh file into FLUENT. or by several third-party CAD packages. For information about reading surface mesh files. use the Grid/Surface Mesh. menu item. For information about grids. 2006 4-7 . see Chapter 6: Reading and Manipulating Grids.2..16: Reading Surface Mesh Files. menu item. if you ask FLUENT to write a file with the same name as an existing file in that directory.5.1: Reading and Writing Case Files). a mesh file is a subset of a case file (described in Section 4.. TGrid. a mesh file that is saved in FLUENT format) into the solver.2 Reading Mesh Files 4. For information about reading these files. and PreBFC).. For information about reading TGrid mesh files. connectivity information that tells how the nodes are connected to one another to form faces and cells.e..g. symmetry-2).4. To read a native-format mesh file (i..1.. see Sections 6.. 6. See Chapter 3: Text User Interface (TUI) for the text user interface commands.3. 6.3.. as described in Section 4. menu item.3. use the File/Read/Case.3..2. it will ask you to confirm that it is “OK to overwrite” the existing file..3. For information on importing an unpartitioned mesh file into the parallel solver using the partition filter. see Section 6.

. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. the case file and the data file. FLUENT/UNS. 4-8 c Fluent Inc.4 Reading PreBFC Unstructured Mesh Files Since PreBFC’s unstructured triangular grids have the same file format as FLUENT. menu item. Specify the name of the file to be read. FLUENT writes files in binary format.. you can read a PreBFC triangular mesh into the solver using the File/Read/Case. By default. i 4. In addition. September 29. FLUENT will warn you when you try to exit the program.. they will have different numbers of cells). Select the Case.2.. To write a text file.2. File −→ Read −→Case. File −→ Read −→Case. 2006 .3 Save the file using the MESH-RAMPANT/TGRID command. FLUENT automatically detects the file type when reading. 4. Binary files require less storage space and are faster to read and write.5: Reading and Writing Compressed Files).... menu item to open the Select File dialog box. Reading and Writing Case and Data Files Information related to the FLUENT simulation is stored in both. you must save a new case file as well as a data file. For information about reading PreBFC mesh files. Otherwise the new data file will not correspond to the case file (for example. FLUENT can read and write either text or binary case and data files. see Section 6. The commands for reading and writing these files are described in the following sections. or RAMPANT grid in GAMBIT or GeoMesh. i If you adapt the grid.. disable the Write Binary Files check button in the Select File dialog box.3 Reading GAMBIT and GeoMesh Mesh Files If you create a FLUENT 5/6. along with commands for the automatic saving of case and data at specified intervals.1.Reading and Writing Files 4... menu item. If you have not saved the latest case or data file.4: PreBFC Grid Files.3. you can read and write either text or binary files in compressed formats (see Section 4.

.2: Reading Mesh Files) because the grid information is a subset of the case information. When FLUENT writes a data file. 2006 4-9 ..dat is added to the name you type unless the name already ends with .. If a file with that name is not found. boundary conditions. File −→ Read −→Data. File −→ Write −→Data.3.. Select the File/Write/Data. The commands used for reading case files can also be used to read native-format grid files (as described in Section 4.. File −→ Read −→Case.. See Section 1.5: Reading and Writing Compressed Files).3 Reading and Writing Case and Data Files 4..1. When FLUENT reads a case file.. and solution parameters for a problem. When FLUENT writes a case file.1 Reading and Writing Case Files Case files contain the grid.. If a file with that name is not found.dat. File −→ Write −→Case. When FLUENT reads a data file.. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box. it first looks for a file with the exact name you typed. . For information about the format of case files see Appendix B: Case and Data File Formats.3.2: Specifying the Solver Version by Reading a Case File for information about executing the appropriate version automatically. September 29. Select the File/Write/Case. For information about the format of data files see Appendix B: Case and Data File Formats. it searches for the same file with different extensions (Section 4.5: Reading and Writing Compressed Files). Select the File/Read/Case. c Fluent Inc. it searches for the same file with different extensions (Section 4. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box. 4. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box.4.. Write a Data file using the Select File dialog box. It also contains the information about the user interface and graphics environment.. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box.. . Write a case file using the Select File dialog box... Read a case file using the Select File dialog box.. based on the case file that is read.1.1.cas. Select the File/Read/Data.cas is added to the name you type unless the name already ends with . Read a data file using the Select File dialog box. it first looks for a file with the exact name you typed.2 Reading and Writing Data Files Data files contain the values of the flow field in each grid element and the convergence history (residuals) for that flow field.

indicating that no automatic saving is performed. You must set the frequency of saves for case and/or data files.. since it allows you to save the results at different time steps or flow times without stopping the calculation and performing the save manually.. File −→ Read −→Case & Data. 4. If you define an Autosave Case File Frequency of 10.3. Enter the case-saving frequency in the Autosave Case File Frequency field. 4-10 c Fluent Inc.3. menu item. If you have limited disk space. for example. and the root file name. For steady flows.dat suffix) is also read. to examine the solution at different stages in the iteration history.. To write a case file and a data file. To read both files. select the appropriate case file.. See Section 1. 2006 . select the File/Write/Case & Data.3. Enable the Overwrite Existing Files option and set the value of the Maximum Number of Each File Type field.1.. Data files contain the values of the flow field in each grid element and the convergence history (residuals) for that flow field. Case files contain the grid. you can specify the frequency in iterations. if the value of Maximum Number of Each File Type is set to five. and solution parameters.2: Specifying the Solver Version by Reading a Case File for information about executing the appropriate version automatically based on the case file that is read. and the datasaving frequency in the Autosave Data File Frequency field. File −→ Write −→Autosave. Automatic saving is specified using the Autosave Case/Data panel (Figure 4. Both values are set to zero by default. and the corresponding data file (same name with . boundary conditions.. You can also use the autosave feature for steady-state problems.. This is especially useful for time-dependent calculations. The case and data files are treated separately. For example.1). in which case you specify the frequency in iterations)..3 Reading and Writing Case and Data Files Together A case file and a data file together contain all the information required to restart a solution. September 29. restrict the number of files saved by FLUENT using the Overwrite Existing Files option. a case file is saved every 10 iterations or time steps.. menu item. and for unsteady flows.Reading and Writing Files 4. You can read a case file and a data file together by using the Select File dialog box invoked by selecting the File/Read/Case & Data. you can specify it in time steps or flow time (unless you are using the explicit time stepping formulation.4 Automatic Saving of Case and Data Files You can request FLUENT to automatically save case and data files at specified intervals during a calculation.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.

If the specified File Name ends in .cas or . Select time-step from the Append File Name with drop-down list.gz or .3. For steady-state calculations. After saving the specified number of files.1: The Autosave Case/Data Panel FLUENT saves a maximum of five case and five data files. the saved file name that you enter in the File Name field will have an iteration appended to it. September 29.2).5: Reading and Writing Compressed Files for details about file compression. Enter the file name for the autosave files in the File Name field. The resulting files saved would be myfile-0005. See Section 4. The procedure you would follow is to first set a frequency for the Autosave Case/Data File Frequency field. You can select time-step or flow-time from the Append File Name with drop-down list (see Figure 4. you can autosave files such that your file name has a flow time or time step appended to it. irrespective of the frequency.4. appropriate file compression is performed.dat indicating that this file was saved at the fifth time step.3. Consider an unsteady-state case for which you want to save your case and/or data files at known time steps.Z. FLUENT overwrites the earliest existing file. The iteration or time-step number and an appropriate suffix (. c Fluent Inc.1.dat) is added to the specified root name.3 Reading and Writing Case and Data Files Figure 4. 2006 4-11 . For unsteady-state calculations.cas myfile-0005.

1. 4-12 c Fluent Inc.3. Figure 4.7: Automatic Numbering of Files.cas myfile-0.2: The Autosave Case/Data Panel when Appending flow-time For steady-state and unsteady-state cases.5 seconds. For example.dat indicating a flow time of 0. September 29.500000. of Decimal Digits in File Name will be six. indicating the flow time as described in Section 4. The default No. you have the option to specify the format in which you want to save your case and/or data files. however. Enter a file name (myfile) in the File Name field. you can modify this number to reduce or increase the width of your file name. 2006 .500000. select flow-time from the Append File Name with drop-down list. The resulting files saved are myfile-0. Select time-step from the Append File Name with and enter the File Name followed by a -%f. you may want to save your solutions at certain flow times with their corresponding time steps (transient cases only).Reading and Writing Files If you want to save your case and/or data files at known flow times.

Section 4..3: Reading and Writing Case and Data Files). FLUENT selects the Pressure-Based solver in the Solver panel. they can be used to prescribe a velocity field on an inlet plane. or 4 can be read into FLUENT in the same way that current case files are read (see Section 4. entering filename-%f will result in the saved file name having the format filename-000.4 The automatic numbering of files can be applied when using the autosave function. • .26: Boundary Profiles. c Fluent Inc. see Section 7.dat is your file extension when using the autosave option.cas) can be explained as follows: • filename.7: Automatic Numbering of Files has information on automatic numbering of files. Reading Profile Files To read the boundary profile files. selected from the Append File Name with drop-down list.500000 is the flow time (%f) and has a field width of ten characters. invoke the Select File dialog box by selecting the File/Read/Profile.500000-0010. menu item.3: Reading and Writing Case and Data Files).. File −→ Read −→Profile. Reading FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case and Data Files Case files created by FLUENT/UNS 3 or 4 or RAMPANT 2. 2006 4-13 .cas or . 3.cas.1.7: Automatic Numbering of Files.4 Reading FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case and Data Files For example.4. If you read a case file created by FLUENT/UNS. • 000. All of the autosave inputs are stored in the case file. For information on boundary profiles. FLUENT selects the Density-Based Explicit solver formulation in the Solver panel. For example.is the file name you chose when autosaving your solution. If you read a case file created by RAMPANT.. September 29. • 0010 is the appended time-step. as discussed in Section 4. The naming convention used in the example (filename-000.. i 4. 4.1. allowing for six decimal places.500000-0010.5 Reading and Writing Profile Files Boundary profiles are used to specify flow conditions on a boundary zone of the solution domain. Data files created by FLUENT/UNS 4 or RAMPANT 4 can be read into FLUENT in the same way that current data files are read (see Section 4.

1). When you read the profile 4-14 c Fluent Inc.. To write a profile file. September 29.. Click Write.5. 2006 . FLUENT saves the grid coordinates of the data points in the selected surface(s) and the values of the selected variables at those positions. For example.Reading and Writing Files Writing Profile Files You can also create a profile file from the conditions on a specified boundary or surface. you can create a profile file from the outlet conditions of one case. 3.5. File −→ Write −→Profile. use the Write Profile panel (Figure 4. Select the surface(s) from which you want to extract data for the profile(s) in the Surfaces list.. Then you can read that profile into another case and use the outlet profile data as the inlet conditions for the new case. 2.1: The Write Profile Panel 1. Choose the variable(s) for which you want to create profiles in the Values list. Figure 4. 4. Retain the default option of Define New Profiles. and specify the profile file name in the resulting Select File dialog box..

If you want FLUENT to apply a set of conditions to multiple zones with similar names. if you reoriented an existing profile to create a new one). Click Write. check the conditions at boundaries within and adjacent to the region of the topological change. and specify the file name in the resulting Select File dialog box. When the read-bc feature is not used. All currently defined profiles are saved in this file. a cell zone has been removed). This is important for wall zones. This file can be read back into the solver whenever you wish to use these profiles again. the case will not run successfully. allowing the case to run with the default values. file −→write-bc FLUENT writes the boundary conditions. file −→read-bc FLUENT sets the boundary conditions in the current model by comparing the zone name associated with each set of conditions in the file with the zone names in the model. enter the write-bc text command and specify a name for the file. or to a single zone with a name you are not sure of in advance.6 Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions file back into the solver. you can edit the boundarycondition file saved with the write-bc command to include wildcards (*) within the c Fluent Inc. September 29.. To read boundary conditions from a file and to apply them to the corresponding zones in your model. If the model does not contain a matching zone name for a set of boundary conditions. enter the read-bc text command.6 Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions To save all currently defined boundary conditions to a file. those conditions are ignored. 5.g. See Appendix B: Case and Data File Formats for details about the case file format. Note: If the boundary conditions are not checked and some remain uninitialized. the surface name is the profile name and the value name is the field name that appears in the drop-down lists in the boundary condition panels. 6. 2006 4-15 .. all boundary conditions get the default settings when a mesh file is imported. 4.. Select the Write Currently Defined Profiles option: • If you have made any modifications to the boundary profiles since you read them in (e.4.g. • If you wish to store all the profiles used in a case file in a separate file. If you read boundary conditions into a model that contains a different mesh topology (e.. and model settings to a file using the same format as the “zone” section of the case file. the solver.

4. > (load "file.scm In this case.. and wall-17 in your current model.. A boundary grid can be written using the Select File dialog box invoked by selecting the File/Write/Boundary Grid. or source alias)..scm > source file. 4-16 c Fluent Inc. menu item or the file/ read-journal command in the text interface (or its . each character of the file is echoed to the console as it is read in the same way as if you were typing in the contents of the file. This file can be read and used by TGrid to produce a volume mesh.8 Reading Scheme Source Files A Scheme source file can be loaded in three ways: through the menu system as a scheme file.. You may find this feature useful if you are unsatisfied with a mesh obtained from another grid generation program.scm") Shorter files can also be loaded with the File/Read/Journal. use the Select File dialog box invoked by selecting the File/Read/Scheme. For large source files. 4. menu item. September 29. wall-15. 2006 . File −→ Write −→Boundary Grid... or the Scheme load function. file. menu item File −→ Read −→Scheme.. edit the boundary-condition file so that the zone name associated with the desired conditions is wall-*.7 Writing a Boundary Grid You can write the boundary zones (surface grid) to a file..Reading and Writing Files zone names... For example. through the menu system as a journal file. if you want to apply a particular set of conditions to wall-12. or through Scheme itself. > .

The GUI commands are recorded as Scheme code lines in journal files. when the program reaches the write instruction. only one journal file can be open for recording. FLUENT creates a journal file by recording everything you type on the command line or enter through the GUI. by design. September 29. try to re-create the state in which the journal was written before you read it into the program. c Fluent Inc. although transcript files are often more useful for this purpose (see Section 4. you should check that if a file with that name exists in your directory before you read in your journal file. Also. arranged as they would be typed interactively into the program or entered through the GUI. be sure to put a semicolon (. For example. it will prompt for a confirmation if it is OK to overwrite the old file. If a file with that name exists and you read in your journal file. just a simple record and playback facility. i At a point of time.9 Creating and Reading Journal Files A journal file contains a sequence of FLUENT commands. Command input is taken from the specified journal file until its end is reached. Each line from the journal file is echoed to the standard output (usually the screen) as it is read and processed.1: Background Execution on Linux/UNIX Systems for an example. if your journal file includes an instruction to save a new file with a specified name. If you want to include comments in your file. 2006 4-17 . if your journal file creates several surfaces and displays data on those surfaces. It contains no information about the state in which it was recorded or the state in which it is being played back. You can also read a journal file at any time.3. For example. • Be careful not to change the directory while recording a journal file. The purpose of a journal file is to automate a series of commands instead of entering them repeatedly on the command line. you must be sure to read in appropriate case and data files before reading the journal file.) at the beginning of each comment line. See Section 1. i A journal file is. You can also create journal files manually with a text editor. • Other conditions that may affect the program’s ability to perform the instructions contained in a journal file can be created by modifications or manipulations that you make within the program.9 Creating and Reading Journal Files 4. FLUENT cannot continue to follow the instructions of the journal file. Since the journal file does not contain any response to the confirmation request. Another use is to produce a record of the input to a program session for later reference. but you can write a journal and a transcript file simultaneously.4. at which time control is returned to the standard input (usually the keyboard).10: Creating Transcript Files).

You can end transcript recording by selecting Stop Transcript. menu item becomes the Stop Journal menu item. FLUENT creates a transcript file by recording everything typed as input or entered through the GUI.. journal recording begins.. File −→ Write −→Stop Journal You can read a journal file into the program using the Select File dialog box invoked by selecting the File/Read/Journal. regardless of where you are in the text menu hierarchy when you invoke the read command.... or by exiting the program. but you can write a transcript and a journal file simultaneously. or by exiting the program.Reading and Writing Files 4.1 Procedure To start the journaling process. File −→ Write −→Start Journal. menu item. The Start Journal. menu item becomes the Stop Transcript menu item. File −→ Write −→Stop Transcript 4-18 c Fluent Inc.e... i Only one transcript file can be open for recording at a time. transcript files (unlike journal files). 4.. top-level) text menu... September 29.. You can also read a journal file while a transcript recording is in progress. To start the transcripting process. and everything printed as output in the text window.... menu item. File −→ Write −→Start Transcript. The purpose of a transcript file is to produce a record of the program session for later reference.9. After you enter a name for the file in the Select File dialog box. GUI commands are recorded as Scheme code lines in transcript files. transcript recording begins and the Start Transcript. cannot be read back into the program. menu item. select the File/Write/Start Transcript. Because they contain messages and other output. select the File/Write/Start Journal. You can end journal recording by selecting Stop Journal...10 Creating Transcript Files A transcript file contains a complete record of all standard input to and output from FLUENT (usually all keyboard and GUI input and all screen output). File −→ Read −→Journal. Journal files are always loaded in the main (i. After you enter a name for the file in the Select File dialog box.. 2006 .

rmg. • CGNS files.cdb. .4. • PTC Mechanica Design studies. • EnSight files. • FIDAP Neutral files. c Fluent Inc.11 Importing Files 4. 2006 4-19 . • CFX . • LSTC/DYNA keyword input files and state databases. and . . • HYPERMESH ASCII files.inp and .fil files. • GAMBIT files. • PATRAN Neutral files.def and . • ANSYS .res files.inp. • PLOT3D grid and result files.rst. • Marc POST files. • NASTRAN Bulk Data files.11 Importing Files FLUENT allows you to import the following file formats: • ABAQUS . September 29. • I-deas Universal files.rfl files. .

1 ABAQUS Files To import an ABAQUS input file.Reading and Writing Files Figure 4. no results of datasets are produced. Select this menu item to open the Select File dialog box.. 4-20 c Fluent Inc. To import an ABAQUS filbin file use the File/Import/ABAQUS/Filbin File. use the File/Import/ABAQUS/Input File.. The ABAQUS input file (.. menu item. The interface only produces datasets associated with the finite element model. 2006 . September 29. Element types commonly associated with structural analysis are supported by this file format.11. File −→ Import −→ ABAQUS −→Input File..11. Select this menu item to open the Select File dialog box.inp) is a text file which contains the input description of a finite element model for the ABAQUS finite element program.1: The Import Menu 4. menu item. There is a list of input keywords that are recognized in the ABAQUS Input File [4].fil extension and consists of finite element model and results data..... This output file has a . Specify the name of the ABAQUS Filbin File to be read. Specify the name of the ABAQUS Input File to be read. File −→ Import −→ ABAQUS −→Filbin File.

. . 2006 4-21 .ans. use the File/Import/ANSYS/Input File..rmg extensions. see Section 6. To import an ANSYS result file. c Fluent Inc. use the File/Import/CFX/Result File.3.11..rst. menu item. Those imported files will have ..11 Importing Files 4. .. i CFX file import is available for 3D cases only. Select this menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box. To import a CFX result file..prep7 extensions.. 4. File −→ Import −→ ANSYS −→Input File. The solver reads grid information from the ANSYS file with .2 ANSYS Files To import an ANSYS input file.. Select this menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box. For information about importing CFX files. menu item. Specify the name of the ANSYS Result File to be read. use the File/Import/ANSYS/Result File... and .. use the File/Import/CFX/Definition File.def extensions. specify the name of the CFX Result File to be read. .10: CFX Files. .rth.neu.rfl. In the Select File dialog box.. and . In the Select File dialog box.3 CFX Files To import a CFX definition file... The solver reads grid information from the CFX file with .9: ANSYS Files.. For information about importing ANSYS files.3. Specify the name of the ANSYS Prep7 File to be read.cdb. File −→ Import −→ CFX −→Definition File.11. Specify the name of the CFX Definition File to be read. Those imported files will have .4.res extensions. File −→ Import −→ CFX −→Result File. see Section 6. menu item.. File −→ Import −→ ANSYS −→Result File. menu item. September 29.

where you will specify a filename. numbered in the same order...cgns) into FLUENT.11. if a boundary zone is of type pressureoutlet and is read as outlet.....4 Meshes and Data in CGNS Format To import meshes in CFD general notation system (CGNS) format (. It allows the user to take full advantage of parallel processing and rendering and supports a range of virtual reality devices.. menu item. which uses this file format. The new and original grids should have the same zones.. where each part contains its own local coordinate array.case extension.). use the File/Import/CGNS/Mesh & Data.5 EnSight Files You can import an EnSight file using the File/Import/EnSight. it enables real-time collaboration...).. To import a mesh and the corresponding CGNS data. menu item. 4-22 c Fluent Inc. and read the data using the data only option (Data. use the File/Import/CGNS/Data... and communicate engineering datasets. A warning is issued if they do not. the Select File dialog box will appear. i 4. 2006 . To import only the CGNS data.11. set up the boundary conditions. File −→ Import −→ CGNS −→Mesh & Data. visualize.. i To import data correctly. This file will have an . it should be changed to pressure-outlet before importing the data... use the File/Import/CGNS/Mesh. first import the mesh using the mesh only option (Mesh. File −→ Import −→ CGNS −→Mesh. because inconsistencies can create problems with the boundary conditions. Furthermore. menu item.. menu item. September 29.encas or . This file format is applied to both unstructured and structured data. The EnSight Gold software package. When selecting this option. For example. File −→ Import −→ CGNS −→Data. allows you to analyze...Reading and Writing Files 4. File −→ Import −→EnSight..

9 I-deas Universal Files I-deas Universal files can be read into FLUENT with the File/Import/I-deas Universal.8 HYPERMESH ASCII Files You can read a HYPERMESH ASCII file using the File/Import/HYPERMESH ASCII. This file will have an .4. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box.hma. see Section 6.11. see Sections 6.....2. where you will specify a filename. September 29. For information about importing FIDAP Neutral files.14: FIDAP Neutral Files.3.. File −→ Import −→GAMBIT. or .6 FIDAP Neutral Files You can read a FIDAP neutral file using the File/Import/FIDAP.11. Select the I-deas Universal..and postprocessor for popular finite element solvers. File −→ Import −→FIDAP.1 and 6..3. File −→ Import −→I-deas Universal. the Select File dialog box will appear.3.. . In the Select File dialog box. For information about importing I-deas Universal files. menu item. menu item.. File −→ Import −→HYPERMESH ASCII.3.hmascii extension.11 Importing Files 4.11... allowing engineers to analyze product design performance in a highly interactive and visual environment.unv file extension..hm. rather than a FLUENT grid file. FLUENT reads grid information and zone types from the FIDAP file. When selecting this option.. 2006 4-23 . 4.6: I-deas Universal Files. This file should have an . HYPERMESH is a high-performance finite element pre. 4. You must specify boundary conditions and other information after reading this file. The solver reads grid information and zone types from the I-deas Universal file. Specify the name of the I-deas Universal file to be read.. you can import it into FLUENT using the File/Import/GAMBIT.. c Fluent Inc.7 GAMBIT and GeoMesh Mesh Files If you have saved a neutral file from GAMBIT... see Section 6. 4. For information about importing files from GAMBIT and GeoMesh. specify the name of the FIDAP Neutral File to be read.11. menu item.FDNEUT or . menu item..

File −→ Import −→ LSTC −→State File.11. The LSTC input file is a text file which contains the input description of a finite element model for the LS-DYNA finite element program. File −→ Import −→ LSTC −→Input File. menu item... menu item. 4-24 c Fluent Inc.. menu item and in the Select File dialog box.. energy. a nonlinear finite element program.10 LSTC Files To import an LSTC input file use the File/Import/LSTC/Input File. The element types commonly associated with structural analysis are supported.. September 29. specify the name of the file to be read. Dataset attributes include such things as time.k. The state file consists of three major sections: control data. Select the Marc POST. enabling you to assess the structural integrity and performance of the material.Reading and Writing Files 4. 4. and state data. geometry data. An LSTC state file has a .. It also allows you to simulate deformations that are part-to-part or part-to-self contact under a range of conditions.11 Marc POST Files Marc POST files can be read into FLUENT using the File/Import/Marc POST.. This interface only produces datasets associated with the grid.. menu item.d3plot file extension. LSTC input files have the following file extensions: . MSC Marc allows you to study deformations that exceed the linear elastic range of some materials.11.. .key. and momentum. no results datasets are produced.dyn To import an LSTC state file use the File/Import/LSTC/State File... 2006 .. These files are generated using MSC Marc. and .. Each dataset in the state data section corresponds to the time and global data items associated with each state on the database. File −→ Import −→Marc POST..

12 NASTRAN Files You can read NASTRAN Bulkdata files into FLUENT with the File/Import/NASTRAN/Bulkdata File. In the Select File dialog box.dat.. c Fluent Inc. To read a PATRAN Result File. .. 4.8: PATRAN Neutral Files..neu.4.. For information about importing NASTRAN files.op2 file extension. September 29.11. .3. menu item.pat PATRAN Neutral file to be read.11 Importing Files 4.. see Section 6. or .. specify the name of the PATRAN Result File to be read. Specify the name of the .7: NASTRAN Files. File −→ Import −→ NASTRAN −→Bulkdata File.. This file will have .. For information about importing PATRAN Neutral files. a file in which you have grouped nodes with the same specified group name). This file will have .bdf file extensions. menu item. Selecting this menu item invokes the Select File dialog box.... File −→ Import −→ PATRAN −→Result File. menu item. The solver reads grid information from the PATRAN Neutral file.. 2006 4-25 . the Select File dialog box will appear and you will specify the name of the NASTRAN File to be read.. use the File/Import/PATRAN/Result File. When you select the Bulkdata File. specify the name of the NASTRAN Output2 File to be read.. To import NASTRAN Op2 files into FLUENT use the File/Import/NASTRAN/Op2 File.11..13 PATRAN Neutral Files To read a PATRAN Neutral file zoned by named components (that is. menu item.. use the File/Import/PATRAN/Neutral File. File −→ Import −→ PATRAN −→Neutral File.. In the Select File dialog box.. menu item.out. see Section 6.3. This file is an output binary data file that contains data used in the NASTRAN finite element program. File −→ Import −→ NASTRAN −→Op2 File. . The solver reads grid information from the NASTRAN file.nas.

.xyz.11. 4... model parameters.11. September 29. FLUENT’s VKI interface keys on the . For information about importing FLUENT 4 case files. The form of the file must have the . The PLOT3D grid and result files have ..15 PTC Mechanica Design Files To import a PTC Mechanica Design file use the File/Import/PTC Mechanica Design.g. menu item. File −→ Import −→ PLOT3D −→Grid File.grd file extensions.. Select the FLUENT 4 Case File. File −→ Import −→FLUENT 4 Case File. model and results data. and other information after reading this file. menu item. use the File/Import/PLOT3D/Result File.... This will open the Select File dialog box.. The PTC Mechanica Design file contains analysis. To import a PLOT3D result file.. Specify the name of the FLUENT 4 case file to be read.. File −→ Import −→PTC Mechanica Design.neu extension. File −→ Import −→ PLOT3D −→Result File. FLUENT reads only grid information and zone types from the FLUENT 4 case file. i Mechanica results consists of an entire directory structure of files.neu file and can traverse the directory structure from there to access the other files that it needs.x.14 PLOT3D Files To import a PLOT3D grid file use the File/Import/PLOT3D/Grid File. material properties. which must be used in exactly the form that Mechanica originally generates it.16 FLUENT 4 Case Files You can read a FLUENT 4 case file using the File/Import/FLUENT 4 Case File. You must specify boundary conditions.. see Section 6.. These file formats may be formatted. unformatted or binary.13: FLUENT 4 Case Files. 4. menu item. 2006 .. 4-26 c Fluent Inc.. menu item.11.. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box.. called a “study” in Mechanica terminology. Only the binary form of the results data files is supported.3. . . or .Reading and Writing Files 4. Specify the name of the neutral file to be read..

menu item.1..1.. 4. using the File/Import/Partition/Metis Zone.. (Figure 14. menu item.19 CHEMKIN Mechanism To import a CHEMKIN format. menu item..5. see Section 6.9).. Select the PreBFC File... See Section 14. menu item to invoke the Select File dialog box. menu item.5: Using the Partition Filter for detailed information about partitioning.....4. File −→ Import −→PreBFC File. Specify the name of the PreBFC structured mesh file to be read.3. you can import the mechanism file into FLUENT using the File/Import/CHEMKIN Mechanism. See Section 31.11 Importing Files 4. For information about importing PreBFC mesh files.18 Partition Files To perform METIS partitioning on an unpartitioned grid.. The solver reads grid information and zone types from the PreBFC mesh file.4: PreBFC Grid Files. September 29.9: Importing a Volumetric Kinetic Mechanism in CHEMKIN Format for detailed information on importing a CHEMKIN Mechanism file.11.11.11. c Fluent Inc.. File −→ Import −→CHEMKIN Mechanism. use the File/Import/Partition/Metis. 2006 4-27 .. File −→ Import −→ Partition −→Metis.. File −→ Import −→ Partition −→Metis Zone....17 PreBFC Files You can read a PreBFC structured mesh file into FLUENT using the File/Import/PreBFC File. 4. You may also partition each cell zone individually.

EnSight. Partial force for each wall face is calculated by dividing its facial force by its number of shared nodes. and Tecplot formats.12.12. For NASTRAN.12. ANSYS Input. 2. viscous force and surface tension force of the face.17 provide specific information for each type of File Type. PATRAN. Section 4. Facial force for each wall face is calculated by summing the pressure force. ASCII. I-deas Universal.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters explains how to export data during the calculation. AVS. 3. FLUENT performs the following steps: 1. and PATRAN file formats. RadTherm. 4-28 c Fluent Inc. September 29. ANSYS. ANSYS Input.2 to 4. CGNS. Total force for each wall node is calculated by summing the partial forces of all the wall faces sharing that node.12 Exporting Files The current release of FLUENT allows you to export data to ABAQUS.1: Using the Export Panel explains how to save data in these formats. FAST. Section 4. 2006 . Data Explorer. Elements • Node Sets (Boundary Conditions) • Temperature • Pressure • Heat Flux • Heat Transfer Coefficient • Force To generate the force data that is exported for nodes at boundaries. the following quantities are exported [4]: • Nodes.Reading and Writing Files 4.12. and Sections 4. FIELDVIEW. NASTRAN. ABAQUS. I-deas.

FLUENT supports exporting polyhedral data only for ASCII. and Fieldview Unstructured file formats. i c Fluent Inc.5.12. 2006 4-29 . if you export a file from FLUENT with surfaces selected. However.12. TGrid can import surface data (see the TGrid User’s Guide for details). Consequently.9. EnSight Case Gold. see Sections 4. September 29. and 4.12 Exporting Files i When using the parallel version of FLUENT. For further details. 4.12. you can export only the following packages: • ABAQUS • ANSYS Input • CGNS • EnSight Case Gold • Fieldview Unstructured • I-deas Universal • NASTRAN • PATRAN • Tecplot i FLUENT cannot import surfaces.12. you may not be able to read these files back into FLUENT.4.

2 to 4..12.17.1: The Export Panel Information concerning the necessary steps and available options for each File Type are listed in Sections 4. Figure 4. File −→Export.. use the Export panel (Figure 4.Reading and Writing Files 4.12. September 29. 4-30 c Fluent Inc.12. 2006 .12.12. along with the equivalent text commands.1).1 Using the Export Panel To write data that can be imported into one of the products for data visualization and postprocessing.

and Temperature.12.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. the entire domain is exported. file/export/abaqus file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no yes|no c Fluent Inc. and optional loads. zone groups. The exported file format of ABAQUS (file. you can choose the loads to be written based on the kind of finite element analysis you intend to undertake. Export of data to ABAQUS is valid only for solid zones or for those surfaces that lie at the intersection of solid zones. See Section 4.inp) contains coordinates.e.. Click the Write. using the Select File dialog box. Temperature data is exported for the whole domain. If no surfaces are selected.. When the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy.. menu option. if no Surfaces are selected). and Heat Trans Coeff..12 Exporting Files 4.. button to save the file. Pressure. By selecting Structural in the Analysis list. September 29. You also have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands.. you can select the following Thermal Loads: Temperature. • Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i.4. you can select the following Structural Loads: Force.. Heat Flux. only the Structural Loads options of Force and Pressure are available.2 ABAQUS Files Select ABAQUS under File Type and choose the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list. connectivity. By selecting Thermal in the Analysis list.12. Note the following limitations with these loads: • When the Energy Equation is disabled. 2006 4-31 . menu option.

‘‘thermal-conductivity-eff’’. ‘‘pressure-coefficient’’. enter the following command: SET. and the scalars listed below: ‘‘x-velocity’’. menu option. aix51. ‘‘total-temperature’’. ‘‘z-velocity’’.rfl extension. irix65 mips4. ‘‘mach-number’’. ‘‘viscosity-turb’’. and ultra). The ANSYS file is a single file containing coordinates. You will be prompted to enter an Ansys file name and the Zone to Export. file/export/ansys file name list-of-zones () 4-32 c Fluent Inc. In ANSYS. To read this file into ANSYS. 2006 . ‘‘y-velocity’’. do the following: 1. alpha hpux10p8. ‘‘thermal-conductivity-lam’’. ‘‘turb-diss-rate’’. This file preserves the cell zones defined in FLUENT. 3. The file written is an ANSYS results file with a . ‘‘temperature’’. September 29. hpux11. ‘‘wall-shear’’. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. ‘‘heat-flux’’.Reading and Writing Files 4. ‘‘specific-heat-cp’’ i Export to ANSYS is available on a limited number of platforms (aix43. You will see some information listed in the ANSYS Output window displaying geometry information. 2. go to General Postproc−→ Data and File Options and read the . ‘‘total-pressure’’.rfl file generated from FLUENT. ‘‘stream-function’’. irix65.. ‘‘turb-kinetic-energy’’. In the small ANSYS Input window. including the nodal solution under Results in the drop-down list.FIRST 4..12. In the ANSYS MULTIPHYSICS UTILITY menu. See Section 4. ‘‘viscosity-eff’’. select Plot and then Nodes or Elements. ‘‘density’’. Go to Results Summary and click on the first line in the upcoming panel.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. connectivity. ‘‘pressure’’.3 ANSYS Files Export to ANSYS can only be invoked using the file/export/ansys text command. ‘‘viscosity-lam’’.12. ‘‘heat-transfer-coef’’.

. and loads that can be used to do finite element analysis in ANSYS with minimal effort. If no surfaces are selected. if no Surfaces are selected).12. See Section 4. c Fluent Inc. The file format is written in .12.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. • Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i... Also select the variable(s) for which data is to be saved in the Functions to Write list. button to save the file. Click the Write.. you can select the following Thermal Loads: Temperature. You also have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. the entire domain is exported.e.4 ANSYS Input Files Select ANSYS Input under File Type and choose the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list. If no surfaces are selected.. elements. Note the following limitations with these loads: • When the Energy Equation is disabled. the entire domain is exported.4. menu option. September 29.. and Temperature.cdb format. using the Select File dialog box. file/export/ansys-input file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no yes|no 4.. FLUENT exports an input file that contains ANSYS finite element information including nodes. you can select the following Structural Loads: Force. The export of ANSYS Input files is in ASCII format and thus is available on all platforms. When the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy. 2006 4-33 . Heat Flux.12. only the Structural Loads options of Force and Pressure are available. and Heat Trans Coeff. By selecting Structural in the Analysis list.5 ASCII Files Select ASCII under File Type and choose the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list.12 Exporting Files 4. By selecting Thermal in the Analysis list. you can choose the loads to be written based on the kind of finite element analysis you intend to undertake. menu option. Pressure.

Click the Write.7 CGNS Files Select CGNS under File Type and specify the scalars you want in the Functions to Write list. If you specify the data Location as Node. Click the Write. For boundary faces. September 29. If you choose Cell Center.. and specified scalar function data. • Use the Solver/Execute Commands. then the data values at the node points are exported. using the Select File dialog box.Reading and Writing Files When exporting ASCII files. then the data values at the node points are exported. using the Select File dialog box. then the data values from the cell centers are exported. An AVS version 4 UCD file contains coordinate and connectivity information and specified scalar function data. 2006 . optional loads. • Select the Delimiter separating the fields (Comma or Space). it is the face center values that are exported when the Cell Center option is selected. Select the Location from which the values of scalar functions are to be taken. then the data values from the cell centers are exported. file/export/ascii file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no list-of-scalars q yes|no AVS Files Select AVS under File Type and specify the scalars you want in the Functions to Write list. 4-34 c Fluent Inc. menu option to export data at specified intervals during the calculation. See Section 4.. See Section 4.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details.12.12.12.. file/export/avs file name list-of-scalars q 4. If you choose Cell Center. For boundary faces... button to save the file.. it is the face center values that are exported when the Cell Center option is selected. FLUENT will export a single ASCII file containing coordinates. If you specify the data Location as Node.. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. button to save the file. i 4. menu option..6 FLUENT supports exporting polyhedral data to ASCII.12. you have several options: • Select the Location from which the values of scalar functions are to be taken.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details.

4..12. using the Select File dialog box. and specified function data.. Click the Write.. For all other types of exported files.) are exported as absolute velocities. If you choose Cell Center. See Section 4.. 2006 4-35 . menu option. c Fluent Inc.. CGNS (CFD general notation system) is a single file (e. or I-deas Universal and the reference zone is not a stationary zone. Also specify the scalars you want in the Functions to Write list.12 Exporting Files You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. Radial Velocity. the entire domain is exported. file/export/cgns file name location list-of-scalars q 4. button to save the file.12. X Velocity.. connectivity. This data is always exported.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details.dx) is exported.. i When you are exporting data for Data Explorer.. button to save the file. using the Select File dialog box.12. containing coordinate. it is the face center values that are exported when the Cell Center option is selected. zone information.cgns) containing coordinates. You can select the Location from which the values of scalar functions are to be taken. Click the Write.g.9 EnSight Case Gold Files Select EnSight Case Gold under File Type and select the scalars you want to write in the Functions to Write list.12. EnSight Case Gold. If you specify the data Location as Node. file.. then the data values at the node points are exported. velocity. menu option.8 Data Explorer Files Select Data Explorer under File Typeand choose the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list. connectivity.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. the velocities exported by default are absolute velocities. A single file (e. September 29.. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. then the data values from the cell centers are exported. even if you do not choose to export any scalars. file/export/dx file name list-of-surfaces () list-of-scalars q 4.. Y Velocity.g. For boundary faces. etc.g. If no surfaces are selected. Any velocities that you select to export as scalars in the Functions to Write list (e. velocity. file. See Section 4. the data in the velocity fields is exported by default as velocities relative to the motion specification of that zone. and selected scalars.

• You cannot change the number of compute nodes for a given parallel run.encas). the exported EnSight Case Gold files for each time step will not be compatible. which also lists all of the other exported file names. etc.8: Data Explorer Files for further details.g. • A velocity file (e. file. velocity.. • A scalar file (e. Click the Write.g. i i For non-stationary reference zones.. All of the geometry. If this is attempted. FLUENT supports exporting polyhedral data to EnSight. file.vel. all the velocities are exported to EnSight as velocities relative to the selected reference zone.g.scl1. file.g. EnSight Case Gold has four file formats: • A geometry file (e.scl1) for each selected variable or function. If you enable the Transient option.Reading and Writing Files You can also specify the file Format as Binary or ASCII.g. file.. The time values are written to the EnSight case file (e. button to save the file for the specified function(s).vel) containing the velocity.geo) containing the coordinates and connectivity information. See the informational note in Section 4. 2006 . specify a value for Append Frequency and the File Name. file..g.) are appended after the specified number of time steps during the solution process. file/export/ensight-gold file name list-of-scalars q yes|no 4-36 c Fluent Inc. using the Select File dialog box. To save the transient parameters.. and scalar files (e. You can write separate files for each time step by enabling the Separate Files for Each Timestep option.geo...encas) that contains details about the other exported files.. file. September 29. • An EnSight case file (e. note the following: • You cannot switch the solver between serial and parallel. click Apply.12. file. i When exporting EnSight Case Gold files for transient simulations. file. The advantage of the binary format is that it takes less time to load the exported files into EnSight.

12. the regions file contains information about the origin.. file/export/fast-grid file name 4. The following files are written: • A grid file in extended Plot3D format containing coordinates and connectivity. • A velocity file containing the velocity.12 Fieldview Unstructured Files Select Fieldview Unstructured under File Type and select the scalars you want to write in the Functions to Write list..g. 2006 4-37 . A single file is written containing density. button. and total energy data. using the Select File dialog box. button to save the file for the specified function(s).. Click the Write.. September 29. Select FAST under File Type and select the scalars you want to write in the Functions to Write list. the axis of rotation and the rotation speed.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. button to save the file for the specified function(s)..g. Volume data is written using the absolute frame of reference..fvuns. c Fluent Inc. • A scalar file for each selected variable or function. • A regions file (e. See Section 4.. file/export/fast-solution file name 4. file.. menu option.12. file.12.. using the Select File dialog box. The cell zone information includes the names of the cell zones along with the grid numbers.12 Exporting Files 4.11 FAST Solution Files This file type is valid only for triangular and tetrahedral grids.10 FAST Files This file type is valid only for triangular and tetrahedral grids.fvreg) containing information about the cell zones and the frame of reference.fvuns) containing coordinate and connectivity information and specified scalar function data. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands..12. Select FAST Solution under File Type and click the Write. velocity. Click the Write. The following files are written: • A binary file (e.4. For the rotating frame of reference.

ensure that the mesh does not contain pyramidal elements. 4. and Temperature. If no surfaces are selected.e. Note the following limitations with these loads: • When the Energy Equation is disabled. Select the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list.12. or dynamic adapted mesh) can be written at each time step by defining the command to write the file in the Execute Commands panel.. only the Structural Loads options of Force and Pressure are available..Reading and Writing Files file/export/fieldview-unstruct file name list-of-scalars q i FLUENT allows you to export polyhedral data to FIELDVIEW.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters. This is a limitation of FIELDVIEW. 2006 . September 29. You can avoid the repeated writing of the grid files by using the TUI command for writing only the data file. The TUI provides separate options to write the grid and data files. you can choose the loads based on the kind of finite element analysis you intend to undertake. Heat Flux. Pressure. When the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy.. and Heat Trans Coeff. By selecting Structural in the Analysis list. • Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i.12. if no Surfaces are selected). the polyhedra will be decomposed into tetrahedral cells. You have the option of selecting loads to be included in the exported file. you can select the following Thermal Loads: Temperature. you can select the following Structural Loads: Force.13 I-deas Universal Files i If you intend to export data to I-deas. file/export/fieldview-unstruct-grid file name For the grids that do not change with time. By selecting Thermal in the Analysis list. see Section 4. moving deforming mesh. Select I-deas Universal under File Type. menu option. as these are currently not supported by I-deas. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to Write list. the entire domain is exported. Grids that change with time (sliding mesh. the grid file needs to be written only once. file/export/fieldview-unstruct-data file name For more information about exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation. Note that while FIELDVIEW supports post-processing of meshes with polyhedral cells. 4-38 c Fluent Inc.

. if no Surfaces are selected). file. only the Structural Loads options of Force and Pressure are available. Click the Write. By selecting Structural in the Analysis list. you can select the following Thermal Loads: Temperature. When data is written for the heat transfer coefficient...12 Exporting Files You also have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands.e.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. A single file (e. file/export/ideas file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no yes|no list-of-scalars q 4. using the Select File dialog box.12. When the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy.8: Data Explorer Files for further details. optional loads. you can choose the loads based on the kind of finite element analysis you intend to undertake. connectivity. September 29. file/export/nastran file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no yes|no list-of-scalars q c Fluent Inc. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to Write list.. i For non-stationary reference zones. zone groups. Pressure is written as PLOAD4. and selected scalars. You have the option of selecting loads to be included in the exported file. nodal forces are written for the walls. and heat flux is written as QHBDYE data. and Heat Trans Coeff. Click the Write. See the informational note in Section 4.12. A single file is written containing coordinates. See Section 4. it is based on the wall faces rather than the nodes. using the Select File dialog box. You also have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. If you select wall zones in the Surfaces list.. menu option. Pressure. zone groups.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details.4. button to save the file.bdf) is written containing coordinates. menu option.... velocity.14 NASTRAN Files Select NASTRAN under File Type.. By selecting Thermal in the Analysis list. you can select the following Structural Loads: Force.g.12. See Section 4. • Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i. optional loads.. Select the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list. all the velocities are exported to Ideas Universal as velocities relative to the selected reference zone.. the entire domain is exported.12. Heat Flux.. connectivity. button to save the file. Note the following limitations with these loads: • When the Energy Equation is disabled. If you do not select any surfaces. and velocity. 2006 4-39 . menu option. and Temperature.

rst). using the Select File dialog box..e. By selecting Structural in the Analysis list. You also have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. See Section 4.12. When the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy. you can select the following Structural Loads: Force. file/export/patran-neutral file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no yes|no list-of-scalars q 4. Pressure is written as a distributed load. velocity. Select the method of writing the heat transfer coefficient (Heat Transfer Coef. optional loads.g. and Temperature... zone groups. file. By selecting Thermal in the Analysis list.Reading and Writing Files 4. September 29. the entire domain is exported. Click the Write.. file. menu option. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. if a turbulence model is enabled.res tmpl) is written. which can be Flux Based or. • Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i. Select RadTherm under File Type and select the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list..g.. you can select the following Thermal Loads: Temperature. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to Write list..12. menu option.. the entire domain is exported. if no Surfaces are selected)..12. 2006 . you can choose the loads based on the kind of finite element analysis you intend to undertake.. 4-40 c Fluent Inc. Heat Flux. file. Note the following limitations with these loads: • When the Energy Equation is disabled. and selected scalars. only the Structural Loads options of Force and Pressure are available. button to save the file. Wall Function based... Pressure. menu option.. If wall zones are selected in the Surfaces list. and Heat Trans Coeff.15 PATRAN Files Select PATRAN under File Type. A neutral file (e.). Select the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list. If no surfaces are selected.g.12. The PATRAN result template file (e.out) is written containing coordinates. See Section 4. nodal forces are written for the walls.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. connectivity. You have the option of selecting loads to be included in the exported file.16 RadTherm Files The option to export a RadTherm file type is available only when the Energy Equation is enabled under the Define/Models/Energy. If you do not select any surfaces. menu option.18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details.. which lists the scalars present in the nodal result file (e.

.12..12 Exporting Files Click the Write. A single file is written containing the coordinates and scalar functions in the appropriate tabular format. using the Select File dialog box. If you intend to postprocess FLUENT data with Tecplot. September 29. file/export/tecplot file name list-of-surfaces () list-of-scalars q c Fluent Inc. Click the Write.4.. If you are interested in this option.12. heat transfer coefficients.. the element that is just touching the wall). If the wall is two-sided.com. not for the shadow face (which is a duplicate). The utility fe2ram can import Tecplot files only in FEPOINT format. menu option. button to save the file. A PATRAN neutral file (e. See Section 4..18: Defining Transient Export Parameters for the complete details. If the wall is one-sided.e. the data is written for both sides.17 Tecplot Files Select Tecplot under File Type and choose the surface(s) for which you want to write data in the Surfaces list.. the data is written for the entire domain. contact Tecplot. 2006 4-41 . using the Select File dialog box. the values are written only for the original wall face. i i FLUENT exports Tecplot files in FEBLOCK format. In the case of wall-wall shadow. you can either export data from FLUENT and import it into Tecplot.g. You have the option of exporting data at specified intervals during the calculation through the Solver/Execute Commands. file/export/radtherm file name list-of-surfaces () yes|no 4. file. Select the variable(s) for which data is to be saved in the Functions to Write list.tecplot. The data loader reads native FLUENT case and data files directly. for assistance or visit www. If no surfaces are selected. or use the Tecplot FLUENT Data Loader included with your Tecplot distribution. button to save the file.. Inc. and temperatures of the wall for any selected wall surface..neu) is written containing element velocity components (i. the data is written for one side of the wall.

It is of the following general form: file/export/file-type file name [list-of-surfaces ()] [yes|no] [list-of-scalars q] where items enclosed in square brackets are optional depending on the type of file being exported. FLUENT prompts you with the question OK to overwrite? every time the command is executed. September 29. the input x-velocity cell-volume q will select x velocity and the cell volume. • yes|no indicates that you need to answer a prompted question. See Section 25. the input outlet-3 wall-2 5 () will select surfaces named outlet-3. menu option to export data at specified intervals during the calculation. wall-2.19: Executing Commands During the Calculation for information about executing commands and creating and using command macros. The text command for exporting to a particular format can be entered directly into the Command text field (or the FLUENT console if you are defining a macro). FLUENT does not overwrite exported files.12. • list-of-scalars indicates the list of cell functions that you want to write to the exported file (for relevant types of files). • list-of-surfaces indicates the list of surfaces (name or ID) that you wish to export (for relevant types of files). • file name (without the extension) indicates the name of the file that you wish to save.. If the specified file name already exists. use the Solver/Execute Commands. 4-42 c Fluent Inc.Reading and Writing Files 4. For example. • file-type indicates the type of file being exported.. 2006 . Certain file types require more than one yes or no input. Enter a response to this question (yes or no) as part of the text command entered in the Command field. replace file-type by fieldview-unstruct to indicate Fieldview Unstructured.18 Defining Transient Export Parameters For formats other than EnSight. For example. i By default. and also the surface with the ID 5 (not the zone ID). For example. The () input terminates the list. The q input terminates the list.

hybrid) and continue the calculation using the first solution as a starting point. Set up the model and calculate a solution on the initial grid.13 Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation FLUENT can interpolate solution data for a given geometry from one grid to another. select Write Data.. 2006 4-43 .13.13 Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation 4. hexahedral) and then change to another grid (e. c Fluent Inc.1).13. September 29. using the Interpolate Data panel (Figure 4. Write an interpolation file for the solution data to be interpolated onto the new grid.1: The Interpolate Data Panel (a) Under Options. allowing you to compute a solution using one grid (e. File −→Interpolate. (c) Choose the variable(s) for which you want to interpolate data in the Fields list.g. write the data for the fluid zones and the data for the solid zones to separate files. 4.1 Performing Grid-to-Grid Solution Interpolation The procedure for grid-to-grid solution interpolation is as follows: 1.. select the cell zones for which you want to save data to be interpolated. Note: If your case includes both fluid and solid zones.4.13. 2. All FLUENT solution variables are available for interpolation.g. Figure 4. (b) In the Cell Zones list...

material properties.. (c) Define the boundary conditions. computed. 4-44 c Fluent Inc. (b) Define the appropriate models. i Enable all of the models that were enabled in the original case.. Read in the data to be interpolated. if the energy equation was enabled in the original case and you forget to enable it in the new case. button and specify the interpolation file name in the resulting Select File dialog box. If the solution has not been initialized.6: Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions for further details.. 3. If all zones already have data (from initialization or a previously computed or read solution). 5. Set up a new case. 4. select a subset of the Cell Zones to read and interpolate data onto a specific zone (or zones). select the cell zones for which you want to read and interpolate data. and then read in those boundary conditions with the new grid using the read-bc text command.. using the appropriate menu item in the File/Read/ or File/Import/ menu... (a) Under Options. 2006 . all zones in the Cell Zones list is selected by default. The file format is described in Section 4. Reduce the under-relaxation factors and calculate on the new grid for a few iterations to avoid sudden changes due to any imbalance of fluxes after interpolation. Then increase the under-relaxation factors and compute a solution on the new grid. (b) In the Cell Zones list. i If your case includes both fluid and solid zones. (c) Click the Read. Hence perform these steps twice.13. For example. the temperature data in the interpolation file will not interpolated. select Read and Interpolate. to ensure that no zone remains without data after the interpolation. See Section 4. (a) Read in the new grid.Reading and Writing Files (d) Click Write. i An alternative way to set up the new case is to save the boundary conditions from the original model using the write-bc text command. September 29. the two sets of data are saved to separate files. and specify the interpolation file name in the resulting Select File dialog box. or read. once to interpolate the data for the fluid zones and once to interpolate the data for the solid zones. File −→Interpolate.2: Format of the Interpolation File. etc.

2006 4-45 .068062 -0. 4.2 Format of the Interpolation File An example of an interpolation file is shown below: 2 2 34800 3 x-velocity pressure y-velocity -0.14 Saving Hardcopy Files 4. and (in 3D) z coordinates for all the data points. Many systems provide a utility to “dump” the contents of a graphics window into a raster file. while the graphics windows may utilize specialized graphics hardware for optimum performance. It is 1. • From line 5 is a list of field names. since hardcopies are generated using the internal software renderer.0680413 . The list depends on the models turned on. • In the end is list of the field values at all the points in the same order as their names.14 Saving Hardcopy Files Graphics window displays can be saved in various formats (including TIFF and PostScript). y.0 for FLUENT 5 and 2.4.0 for FLUENT 6. The number of coordinate and field points should match the number given in line 3. To see a complete list of the field names used by FLUENT. c Fluent Inc. This is generally the fastest method of generating a hardcopy (since the scene is already rendered in the graphics window).. select the display/contours text command and view the available choices for contours of.13. • The second line is the dimension (2 or 3). etc. pressure.) included. • The fourth line is the total number of fields (temperature. and guarantees that the hardcopy is identical to the window. • Then comes a list of x. • The third line is the total number of points. The format of the interpolation file is as follows: • The first line is the interpolation file version. September 29. There can be slight differences between hardcopies and the displayed graphics windows..

. Figure 4.14. 7. click the Apply button instead of the Save. button. Define the resolution. if applicable. 2006 . (optional) Preview the result. 2. See Section 4...1. Click the Save. 5. specify the command to be used for the dump. Choose the hardcopy file format. 8..1 Using the Graphics Hardcopy Panel To set hardcopy parameters and save hardcopy files. use the Graphics Hardcopy panel.14. 4.7: Automatic Numbering of Files for information on special features related to filename specification. button and enter the filename in the resulting Select File dialog box. Set the appropriate options. 3..1: The Graphics Hardcopy Panel The procedure for saving a hardcopy file is as follows: 1.Reading and Writing Files 4.. September 29. 4-46 c Fluent Inc. The applied settings become the defaults for subsequent hardcopies. Set the coloring. File −→Hardcopy. If you are generating a window dump. If you are not ready to save a hardcopy but want to save the current hardcopy settings. Specify the file type. if applicable. 6.

2006 4-47 . color bars. most display or visibility characteristics set in FLUENT. Window Dump (UNIX systems only) selects a window dump operation for generating the hardcopy. This format can commonly be used by VR systems and the 3D geometry can be viewed and manipulated in a web-browser graphics window. IRIS Image is the native raster image file format on SGI computers. although the actual vector PostScript information is used for printing (on a PostScript device). c Fluent Inc. PPM output is a common raster file format. outer face culling. September 29. are not explicitly exported but are controlled by the software used to view the VRML file. VRML is a graphics interchange format that allows export of 3D geometrical entities that you can display in the FLUENT graphics window. The IRIS Image driver may not be available on all platforms. titles. In addition. such as lighting. You can save EPS files in raster or vector format. The HPGL driver supports a limited set of colors and is not capable of rendering some scenes properly. with the addition of Adobe Document Structuring Conventions (v2) statements.14 Saving Hardcopy Files Choosing the Hardcopy File Format To choose the hardcopy file format.4. JPEG is a common raster file format. and hidden line removal. HPGL is a vector file format designed for pen plotters. TIFF is a common raster file format. transparency. programs that import EPS files use the preview bitmap to display on-screen. shading method. With this format. Often. PostScript is a common vector file format. face and edge visibility. and orientation axis are not exported. Currently. you need to specify the appropriate Window Dump Command. i Non-geometric entities such as text. select one of the following items in the Format list: EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) output is the same as PostScript output. You can also choose to save a PostScript file in raster format. no preview bitmap is included in EPS output.

Defining the Resolution For raster hardcopy files. and text. PostScript. • Select Gray Scale for a gray-scale copy. Raster files have a fixed resolution. 2006 . For PostScript and EPS files. If the Width and Height are both zero. Set the desired Width and Height under Resolution. EPS. specify the type of Coloring you want to use for the hardcopy file. • Select Color for a color-scale copy. polygons. EPS. Most monochrome PostScript devices render Color images in shades of gray. September 29. you can save vector files for simple 2D displays and raster files for complicated scenes. The supported vector formats include PostScript. you can control the resolution of the hardcopy image by specifying the size (in pixels). you should select Gray Scale. Specifying the Color Mode For all formats except the window dump. choose one of the following under File Type: • A Vector file defines the graphics image as a combination of geometric primitives like lines. i For the quickest print time. • Select Monochrome for a black-and-white copy. click Info in the Display Options panel. but to ensure that the color ramp is rendered as a linearly-increasing gray ramp. JPEG. the hardcopy is generated at the same resolution as the active graphics window. specify the resolution in dots per inch (DPI) instead of setting the width and height.Reading and Writing Files Choosing the File Type When you save an EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) or PostScript file. The supported raster formats are IRIS image. PPM. 4-48 c Fluent Inc. and TIFF. Vector files are usually scalable to any resolution. • A Raster file defines the color of each individual pixel in the image. and HPGL. To check the size of the active window in pixels.

button. otherwise. rle-raster enables a run-length encoded raster file that is about the same size as the standard raster file. If this option is enabled. This is the default file type. but will print much more quickly. set the Window Dump Command to xwd -id %w > When the dump occurs.g.4. c Fluent Inc. 2006 4-49 . This feature allows you to make hardcopies with a white background and a black foreground.. but will print slightly more quickly. The following options is found in the display/set/hard-copy/driver/ post-format text menu: fast-raster enables a raster file that may be larger than the standard raster file. myfile. Enter the filename for the output from the window dump (e.14 Saving Hardcopy Files Hardcopy Options For all hardcopy formats except the window dump. the Select File dialog box appears. If this option is turned on. Hardcopy Options for PostScript Files FLUENT provides options that allow you to save PostScript files that can be printed more quickly. if you want to use xwd to capture a window.. raster enables the standard raster file. For example. it is made in portrait mode. Window Dumps (UNIX Systems Only) If you select the Window Dump format. the program uses the specified Window Dump Command to save the hardcopy file..xwd). the foreground and background colors of graphics windows being hardcopied is swapped. September 29. you can control two additional settings under Options: • Specify the orientation of the hardcopy using the Landscape Orientation button. FLUENT automatically interprets %w to be the ID number of the active window. while the graphics windows are displayed with a black background and white foreground. the hardcopy is made in landscape mode. vector enables the standard vector file. When you click the Save. • Control the foreground/background color using the Reverse Foreground/Background option.

etc. In such cases. Now. 2006 . Specify the output format to be MIFF by using the . to invoke the Select File dialog box. system and graphics-driver specific. TIFF) to generate higher-quality 24-bit color output rather than dumping the 8-bit window. but for the filename in the Select File dialog box enter myfile%n. save the window dumps into numbered files.. If you are using an 8-bit graphics display. Set the default Window Dump Command enter import -window %w Click Save. the value of %n increases by one. you can investigate the effects of different options interactively before saving the final.. use the ImageMagick tool import. The window dump feature is both. For this reason. Thus the commands available for dumping windows depends on the particular configuration. When saving window dumps is that the window dump captures the window exactly as it is displayed. colors.miff suffix at the end of filename. all of the inputs that control these characteristics are disabled in the Graphics Hardcopy panel when you enable the Window Dump format. including resolution. use one of the built-in raster drivers (e.xwd. September 29. Each time a new window dump is created. To do this. Previewing the Hardcopy Image Before saving a hardcopy file. use the Window Dump Command (xwd -id %w). saving the files in MIFF format (the native ImageMagick format) is more efficient. To use the ImageMagick animate program. So there is no need to tack numbers onto the hardcopy filenames manually. transparency. approved hardcopy.. you have the option of previewing what the saved image looks like.Reading and Writing Files If you are planning to make an animation.g. Click Preview to apply the current settings to the active graphics window. 4-50 c Fluent Inc. using the %n variable.

4. when you open a panel or create a graphics window. The . If it finds the file. September 29.4. This file can contain Scheme functions that customize the code’s operation. 2006 4-51 . Any panel or window not specified in the saved configuration uses the default position.e. MixSim.cas. For more details about ti-menu-load-string.cxlayout file in your home directory applies to all Cortex applications (i. File −→Save Layout A . FLUENT looks in your home directory for an optional file called .5: Text Menu Input from Character Strings. You can arrange panels and graphics windows on your screen in a preferred configuration and select the File/Save Layout menu item. For example. it is positioned based on the saved configuration.cas") then FLUENT will read in the case file test. the positions of these panels are added to the positions of the panels that you saved earlier.fluent. If you move a panel for which a position is already saved. and TGrid).fluent File When starting up.15 Saving the Panel Layout The Save Layout command in the File pull-down menu allows you to save the present panel and window layout. FLUENT. the new position is written to the .16 The .fluent file can also contain TUI commands that are executed via the Scheme function ti-menu-load-string.cxlayout file. The . if the . In subsequent sessions. it loads it with the Scheme load function.cxlayout file is written in your home directory.15 Saving the Panel Layout 4.fluent file contains the following: (ti-menu-load-string "file read-case test. and then you save the layout.. see Section 3. c Fluent Inc. If you subsequently arrange different panels and save the layout again.

September 29.Reading and Writing Files 4-52 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .

all of your previous inputs (and the default prompts) are converted to the new unit system. you can alter the unit system and FLUENT will convert all of the problem data to the new unit system when results are displayed.1: Restrictions on Units • Section 5.4: Customizing Units FLUENT allows you to work in any unit system. including inconsistent units. for example. Both solvers always prompt you for the units required for all dimensional inputs. Thus. Information is organized into the following sections: • Section 5. Unit Systems This chapter describes the units used in FLUENT and how you can control them. 2006 5-1 . internally storing all parameters and performing all calculations in SI units.Chapter 5. September 29. FLUENT uses these conversion factors for input and output. all problem inputs and results are stored in SI units internally. FLUENT simply converts these values to your unit system at the interface level. If you have completed a simulation in SI units but you would like to report the results in any other units. If you have input some parameters in SI units and then you switch to British. This means that the parameters stored in the case and data files are in SI units. you may work in British units with heat input in Watts or you may work in SI units with length defined in inches. c Fluent Inc.3: Built-In Unit Systems in FLUENT • Section 5. Units can be altered part-way through a problem setup and/or after you have completed your calculation. As noted above.2: Units in Grid Files • Section 5. This is accomplished by providing FLUENT with a correct set of conversion factors between the units you want to use and the standard SI unit system that is used internally by the solver.

5: Custom Field Functions) – data in externally-created XY plot files (see Section 28. if you are using Fahrenheit or Rankine as the temperature unit. Momentum. If this is not true. Energy. • You must always define the following in SI units.10: Scaling the Grid.28: Defining Mass. and Other Sources) – custom field functions (see Section 30. remember that temperature in the function is always in units of Kelvin or Rankine.1 Restrictions on Units It is important to note that the units for some inputs in FLUENT are different from the units used for the rest of the problem setup.8. values must be entered in terms of Rankine.26: Boundary Profiles) – source terms (see Section 7.8. 5-2 c Fluent Inc. See Section 8. 5. you will need to scale the grid. If you are using Celsius or Kelvin as your temperature unit. then polynomial coefficient values must be entered in terms of Kelvin. September 29.2 Units in Grid Files Some grid generators allow you to define a set of units for the mesh dimensions. 2006 . it is always assumed that the unit of length is meters. regardless of the unit system you are using: – boundary profiles (see Section 7.) • If you define a material property by specifying a temperature-dependent polynomial or piecewise-polynomial function.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions for information about temperature-dependent material properties. However. as described in Section 6. when you read the grid into FLUENT.3: XY Plots of File Data) – user-defined functions (See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdefined functions.Unit Systems 5.

You can then close the panel if you are not interested in customizing any units. Define −→Units. Changing the unit system in the Set Units panel causes all future inputs that have units to be based on the newly selected unit system.3. and to return to the “default” system. September 29.. Clicking on one of the buttons under Set All To will immediately change the unit system. click on the british button. using the buttons under the Set All To heading. CGS. c Fluent Inc. click on the cgs button. Figure 5. to choose the CGS (centimeter-gram-second) standard for all units. The default system of units is like SI.. to select the International System of units (SI) standard for all units. SI.3 Built-In Unit Systems in FLUENT FLUENT provides four built-in unit systems: British.” You can convert all units from one system to another in the Set Units panel (Figure 5.5. and “default. 2006 5-3 .3 Built-In Unit Systems in FLUENT 5. click on the si button.3. but uses degrees instead of radians for angles.1).1: The Set Units Panel To choose the English Engineering standard for all units. click on the default button.

Listing Current Units Before customizing units for one or more quantities. Choose a new unit from those that are available in the Units list. but you want to change the units for one quantity (or for a few).0254 meters/inch. FLUENT will print out a list (in the text window) containing all quantities and their current units. Changing the Units for a Quantity FLUENT will allow you to modify the units for individual quantities. This is useful for problems in which you want to use one of the built-in unit systems.15.1) to select an available unit or specify your own unit name and conversion factor for each quantity.4 Customizing Units If you would like a mixed unit system. you may want to use SI units for your problem. You can do this by clicking on the List button at the bottom of the Set Units panel. Select the quantity in the Quantities list (they are arranged in alphabetical order). you will follow these two steps: 1.3. 2.1. For example. you would select temperature in the Quantities list and c in the Units list. For the example cited above. but the dimensions of the geometry are given in inches. and offsets. conversion factors. The Factor would change to 1.3: Built-In Unit Systems in FLUENT). Once you have selected the quantity and the new unit. September 29. For example. unless you wish to change the units for another quantity by following the same procedure. you can use the Set Units panel (Figure 5. 2006 .Unit Systems 5. To change the units for a particular quantity. or any unit system different from the four supplied by FLUENT (and described in Section 5. no further action is needed. and then change the unit of length from meters to inches. the Offset field would also be updated.) If there were a non-zero offset for the new unit. you would choose length in the Quantities list. You can select the SI unit system. and then select in in the Units list.3. The Factor will automatically be updated to show 0. (See Figure 5. 5-4 c Fluent Inc. and the Offset would change to 273. you may want to list the current units. if you were using SI units but wanted to define temperature in Celsius instead of Kelvin.

Click on OK in the Define Unit panel.. Figure 5.. and the offset in the Offset field.4. the conversion factor in the Factor field.. Enter the name of your new unit in the Unit field. select time in the Quantities list in the Set Units panel and click on the New. In the Set Units panel. 2. select the quantity in the Quantities list. Then click on OK.4. and the new unit will appear in the Set Units panel.4 Customizing Units Defining a New Unit To create a new unit to be used for a particular quantity. For example.4. c Fluent Inc. September 29. if you want to use hours as the unit of time. enter hr for the Unit and 3600 for the Factor. you will follow the procedure below: 1. In this panel. The new unit hr will appear in the Units list in the Set Units panel. and it will be selected.5.1. as in Figure 5. 4. button and the Define Unit panel (Figure 5. In the resulting Define Unit panel..1: The Define Unit Panel 3.1) will open. 2006 5-5 . the selected quantity will be shown in the Quantity field. Click on the New. button.

For example. which is equal to 0.4-1) You should input a conversion factor of 0. you can determine the conversion factor by using the following equation: x ft 0. you should input a conversion factor of 0. September 29.3048 m min m × × =y min ft 60 s s (5. Thus the conversion factor should have the form SI units/custom units.Unit Systems Determining the Conversion Factor The conversion factor you specify (Factor in the Define Unit panel) tells FLUENT the number to multiply by to obtain the SI unit value from your customized unit value. if you want the unit of length to be inches.0254 meters/inch. If you want the unit of velocity to be feet/min. 5-6 c Fluent Inc.0051.3048/60. 2006 .

c Fluent Inc. You can find out the number of nodes. You can convert all 3D meshes to polyhedral cells except pure hex meshes. 2006 6-1 . These and other capabilities are described in the following sections. September 29. You can also obtain diagnostic information on the grid. faces.6: Reporting Grid Statistics • Section 6. and check for the proper numbers of nodes and faces per cell.5: Checking the Grid • Section 6. determine the minimum and maximum cell volumes in the domain. and domain information. reordering the cells in the domain to decrease bandwidth.2: Grid Requirements and Considerations • Section 6.3: Grid Import • Section 6. Reading and Manipulating Grids FLUENT can import different types of grids from various sources. • Section 6. Hexahedral cells are preserved during conversion. including memory usage and simplex.7: Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh • Section 6. You can modify the grid by translating or scaling node coordinates.Chapter 6. partitioning the cells for parallel processing.5: Partitioning the Grid for details on partitioning the grid for parallel processing. and cells in the grid. and Section 31. and merging or separating zones.1: Grid Topologies • Section 6.8: Modifying the Grid See Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid for information about adapting the grid based on solution data and related functions. topological.4: Non-Conformal Grids • Section 6.

quadrilateral and triangular cells are accepted. Figure 6. nodes on edges and faces that are not vertices of all the cells sharing those edges or faces).e.3: Choosing the Appropriate Grid Type explains how to choose the grid type that is best suited for your problem.1.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. tetrahedral. This gives you the flexibility to use the best grid topology for your problem.1. In 2D..1: Examples of Acceptable Grid Topologies. tetrahedral.1. pyramid. and in 3D.1. as well as hybrid meshes containing quadrilateral and triangular cells or hexahedral. Grids with non-conformal boundaries (i. See Section 26. conformal block-structured grids. Some examples of grids that are valid for FLUENT are presented in Section 6. and polyhedral grids are all acceptable. Note: Though FLUENT does not require a cyclic branch cut in an O-type grid.4: NonConformal Grids for details. quadrilateral. and polyhedral cells can be used. and wedge cells are acceptable. Both single-block and multi-block structured meshes.1 Grid Topologies FLUENT being an unstructured solver uses internal data structures to assign an order to the cells. Section 6.j.2: Face-Node Connectivity in FLUENT. multiblock structured grids. faces. Different cell shapes and their face-node connectivity is explained in Section 6. 2006 . FLUENT also accepts grids with hanging nodes (i. It does not require i. pyramid. See Section 6.1 depicts each of these cell types.1.e. C-type grids. hexahedral. grids with zero-thickness walls. 6-2 c Fluent Inc. and grid points in a mesh and to maintain contact between adjacent cells. grids with multiple subdomains in which the grid node locations at the internal subdomain boundaries are not identical) are also acceptable.13 show examples of grids that are valid for FLUENT.1: Hanging Node Adaption for details.1.k indexing to locate neighboring cells. September 29. wedge.1 Examples of Acceptable Grid Topologies FLUENT can solve problems on a wide variety of grids. Therefore.2. tetrahedral. non-conformal grids. 6. and unstructured triangular. Figures 6. hexahedral. O-type grids. it will accept a grid that contains one. as the solver does not force an overall structure or topology on the grid..2–6.1.

2006 6-3 . September 29.1 Grid Topologies 2D Cell Types Triangle Quadrilateral 3D Cell Types Tetrahedron Hexahedron Prism/Wedge Pyramid Polyhedron Figure 6.1.1: Cell Types c Fluent Inc.6.

2: Structured Quadrilateral Grid for an Airfoil 6-4 c Fluent Inc.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6.1. 2006 . September 29.

1 Grid Topologies Figure 6.1.6. September 29. 2006 6-5 .4: Multiblock Structured Quadrilateral Grid c Fluent Inc.3: Unstructured Quadrilateral Grid Figure 6.1.

September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6. 2006 .1.6: Parachute Modeled With Zero-Thickness Wall 6-6 c Fluent Inc.5: O-Type Structured Quadrilateral Grid Figure 6.1.

6. 2006 6-7 .1.1.1 Grid Topologies Branch Cut Figure 6.8: 3D Multiblock Structured Grid c Fluent Inc.7: C-Type Structured Quadrilateral Grid Figure 6. September 29.

1.9: Unstructured Triangular Grid for an Airfoil Figure 6.10: Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid 6-8 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .1. September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6.

12: Non-Conformal Hybrid Grid for a Rotor-Stator Geometry c Fluent Inc.1 Grid Topologies Figure 6.11: Hybrid Triangular/Quadrilateral Grid with Hanging Nodes Figure 6. September 29.1. 2006 6-9 .1.6.

2006 .13: Converted Polyhedral Mesh 6-10 c Fluent Inc.1. September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6.

14) • quadrilateral (Figure 6. Face-Node Connectivity for Triangular Cells 3 Face 3 Face 2 1 2 Face 1 Figure 6.1 Grid Topologies 6.17) • pyramidal (Figure 6.1.1.6.16) • wedge (Figure 6.1.1.15) • tetrahedral (Figure 6.19) • polyhedral (Figure 6.20) This information is useful in interfacing with FLUENT.1.18) • hex (Figure 6.2 Face-Node Connectivity in FLUENT This section contains information about the connectivity of faces and their related nodes in terms of node number and face number. 2006 6-11 . Face-node connectivity for the following cell shapes is explained here: • triangular (Figure 6.1.1. September 29.1.1.14: Face and Node Numbering for Triangular Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Associated Nodes 1-2 2-3 3-1 c Fluent Inc.

1. 2006 .1.Reading and Manipulating Grids Face-Node Connectivity for Quadrilateral Cells 4 Face 3 3 Face 4 Face 2 1 2 Face 1 Figure 6.16: Face and Node Numbering for Tetrahedral Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Face 4 Associated Nodes 3-2-4 4-1-3 2-1-4 3-1-2 6-12 c Fluent Inc. September 29.15: Face and Node Numbering for Quadrilateral Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Face 4 Associated Nodes 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 Face-Node Connectivity for Tetrahedral Cells 4 2 1 3 Figure 6.

2006 6-13 .17: Face and Node Numbering for Wedge Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Face 4 Face 5 Associated Nodes 3-2-1 6-5-4 4-2-3-6 5-1-2-4 6-3-1-5 c Fluent Inc.1 Grid Topologies Face-Node Connectivity for Wedge Cells 5 1 4 6 2 3 Figure 6.6.1. September 29.

Reading and Manipulating Grids Face-Node Connectivity for Pyramidal Cells 5 4 3 1 2 Figure 6. September 29. 2006 .1.18: Face and Node Numbering for Pyramidal Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Face 4 Face 5 Associated Nodes 4-3-2-1 4-5-3 3-5-2 2-5-1 1-5-4 6-14 c Fluent Inc.

2006 6-15 .1 Grid Topologies Face-Node Connectivity for Hex Cells 6 5 4 3 7 8 1 2 Figure 6.1.19: Face and Node Numbering for Hex Cells Face Face 1 Face 2 Face 3 Face 4 Face 5 Face 6 Associated Nodes 4-3-2-1 3-4-6-5 4-1-7-6 2-3-5-8 1-2-8-7 7-8-5-6 c Fluent Inc. September 29.6.

September 29. 2006 . there is no explicit face and node numbering as with the other cell types. 6-16 c Fluent Inc.Reading and Manipulating Grids Face-Node Connectivity for Polyhedral Cells Figure 6.1.20: An Example of a Polyhedral Cell For polyhedral cells.

3 Choosing the Appropriate Grid Type FLUENT can use grids comprised of triangular or quadrilateral cells (or a combination of the two) in 2D. consider the following issues: • Setup time • Computational expense • Numerical diffusion Setup Time Many flow problems solved in engineering practice involve complex geometries. Therefore. and tetrahedral. c Fluent Inc.1. a triangular/tetrahedral mesh can be created with far fewer cells than the equivalent mesh consisting of quadrilateral/hexahedral elements.3: Grid Import). When choosing mesh type. 2006 6-17 . This can be a motivation for using quadrilateral or hexahedral cells in your FLUENT simulation. if your geometry is relatively simple. polyhedral. The choice of which mesh type to use will depend on your application. Computational Expense When geometries are complex or the range of length scales of the flow is large. However. Note: FLUENT has a range of filters that allow you to import structured meshes from other codes. Unstructured quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes offer many of the advantages of triangular/tetrahedral meshes for moderately-complex geometries. This is because a triangular/tetrahedral mesh allows clustering of cells in selected regions of the flow domain.1 Grid Topologies 6. hexahedral. pyramid. it will save you time to use this mesh in FLUENT rather than regenerate it.6. Structured quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes will generally force cells to be placed in regions where they are not needed. or wedge cells (or a combination of these) in 3D. including FLUENT 4 (see Section 6. September 29. If you already have a mesh created for a structured code. The creation of structured or block-structured grids (consisting of quadrilateral or hexahedral elements) for such problems can be extremely time-consuming if not impossible. setup time for complex geometries is the major motivation for using unstructured grids employing triangular or tetrahedral cells. there may be no saving in setup time with either approach.

in which you can rely on a quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh to minimize numerical diffusion. Although the result is a coarser mesh. which is undesirable as it may impede accuracy and convergence. The following comments can be made about numerical diffusion: • Numerical diffusion is most noticeable when the real diffusion is small. one way of dealing with numerical diffusion is to refine the mesh. It is advantageous to use a quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh. This is because numerical diffusion arises from truncation errors that are a consequence of representing the fluid flow equations in discrete form. this situation might occur. The mesh is likely to have far fewer cells than if you use triangular/tetrahedral cells. possibly saving you some computational expense. Therefore. if you have a relatively simple geometry in which the flow conforms well to the shape of the geometry. If you use a quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh. • Numerical diffusion is minimized when the flow is aligned with the mesh. but not for complex flows. If you use a triangular/tetrahedral mesh. when the situation is convection-dominated. use a mesh of high-aspectratio quadrilateral/hexahedral cells. • The second-order discretization scheme used in FLUENT can help reduce the effects of numerical diffusion on the solution. such as the flow through a long duct. Therefore. This is the most relevant to the choice of the grid. • All practical numerical schemes for solving fluid flow contain a finite amount of numerical diffusion. 6-18 c Fluent Inc. Numerical Diffusion A dominant source of error in multidimensional situations is numerical diffusion (false diffusion). since you will be able to get a better solution with fewer cells than if you were using a triangular/tetrahedral mesh. It is only in a simple flow. yet its effect on a flow calculation is analogous to that of increasing the real diffusion coefficient. A large aspect ratio in a triangular/tetrahedral cell will invariably affect the skewness of the cell. The term false diffusion is used because the diffusion is not a real phenomenon. the flow can never be aligned with the grid.Reading and Manipulating Grids A characteristic of quadrilateral/hexahedral elements that might make them more economical in some situations is that they permit a much larger aspect ratio than triangular/tetrahedral cells. In such situations. 2006 . September 29. convergence will generally be faster. • The amount of numerical diffusion is inversely related to the resolution of the mesh. that is. such as a long thin duct. Converting the entire domain of your (tetrahedral) mesh to a polyhedral mesh will result in a lower cell count than your original mesh.

September 29.4: Creating Periodic Zones for details).1). this option is recommended only for periodic zones that are planar. For conformal periodic boundaries. 6. most CAD packages do not. the periodic zones must have identical grids.2.4: Creating Periodic Zones for details). you can create the conformal periodic boundaries in FLUENT using the make-periodic text command (see Section 6.8.2 Grid Requirements and Considerations 6. If your mesh was created in such a package. create the periodic boundaries using the non-conformal periodic option in FLUENT (see Section 6. However. See the GAMBIT Modeling Guide or the TGrid User’s Guide for more information about creating periodic boundaries in GAMBIT or TGrid. 2006 6-19 .2 Grid Requirements and Considerations This section contains information about special geometry/grid requirements and general comments on mesh quality.) Alternatively.1: Setup of Axisymmetric Geometries with the x Axis as the Centerline • FLUENT allows you to set up periodic boundaries using either conformal or nonconformal periodic zones.2. The conformal periodic boundaries can be created in GAMBIT or TGrid when you are generating the volume mesh. c Fluent Inc. y x C L Figure 6. Although GAMBIT and TGrid can produce true periodic boundaries.1 Geometry/Grid Requirements You should be aware of the following geometry setup and grid construction requirements at the beginning of your problem setup: • Axisymmetric geometries must be defined such that the axis of rotation is the x axis of the Cartesian coordinates used to define the geometry (Figure 6.6.2.8.

smoothness. checking the quality of your grid is essential. • Cell equivolume skew on tri/tet elements (Section 30.2.4: Alphabetical Listing of Field Variables and Their Definitions). Depending on the cell types in the mesh (tetrahedral. • “Aspect ratio” on all meshes.2. and is defined as the ratio of the maximum distance between the cell centroid and face centroids to the minimum distance between the nodes of the cell (see Figure 6. polyhedral. etc.4: Alphabetical Listing of Field Variables and Their Definitions).2). Regardless of the type of mesh used in your domain. then a warning will appear in the console noting the problems FLUENT has detected with your mesh. you may still be able to run the case successfully. 2006 . 6-20 c Fluent Inc.4: Alphabetical Listing of Field Variables and Their Definitions). The warnings that you see use rules of thumb and although it is a warning. and skewness. The attributes associated with mesh quality are node point distribution.2 Mesh Quality The quality of the mesh plays a significant role in the accuracy and stability of the numerical computation. hexahedral. If the quality of your grid is questionable.). September 29. • Face squish on polyhedral meshes (Section 30.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. The “aspect ratio” is a measure of the stretching of a cell. different quality criteria are evaluated: • Cell squish on all meshes (Section 30.

2: Measurements Involved in Calculating the “Aspect Ratio” Aspect Ratio = A : B A 6. The example below demonstrates the output the text command yields.2 Grid Requirements and Considerations Cell Centroid B 6-21 . 2006 grid −→quality Grid Quality: Applying quality criteria for triangular/mixed cells.61001e-01 Maximum cell skewness = 4. you can use the text command: Face Centroid ¡  ¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡   ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢  ¢¢      ¢  ¢  ¢¢      ¡¡  ¢¡  ¢¡¡  ¢¡ ¢¢ ¢  ¢ ¢¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¢¡    ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡  ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢  ¢¢  ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡  ¢ ¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡   ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡  ¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡  ¢¢   ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¢¡   ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¢  ¢ ¢ ¢  ¢ ¢  ¢¢  ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡    ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢      ¢       ¢ ¢¢¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡    ¡¡  ¡  ¡¡  ¡¡   ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢   ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢ ¡¡¢¢¡¢¢¡¡¢¢¡¡ ¢ ¢¢ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¢¡  ¢ ¢¢  ¢ ¢ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¢   ¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡   ¢ ¢      ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢    ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡  ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¢  ¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡   ¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¢¡  ¢¢   ¢ ¢   ¢ ¢ ¡¡ ¢¢¡ ¢¢¡¡ ¢¢¡ ¢¡   ¡¢ ¡  ¢¢      ¢¢   ¢¢      ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¢  ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¢¡  ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡ ¢  ¢¢  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¢¡  ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡  ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¢¡  ¡¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¡¢ ¡  ¢¢    ¢¢  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡  ¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡   ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡  ¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¢  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡   ¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢¡    ¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡  ¢ ¢   ¢ ¢   ¢¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¢¡  ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¡   ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡  ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢  ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¢¡   ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¢  ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  ¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡ ¢ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¡¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡  ¢¡  ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡     ¢ ¢    c Fluent Inc.A message will be printed to the console. To check the quality of your grid.2.48776e-01 Maximum ‘aspect_ratio’ = 5.23830e+00 Figure 6. Maximum cell squish = 4. September 29.

shock waves.e.. memory and disk space). the CPU and memory requirements to compute the solution and postprocess the results also increase. mesh spacing near walls) also plays a significant role in the accuracy of the computed wall shear stress and heat transfer coefficient. 2006 . 6-22 c Fluent Inc. Unfortunately. no flow passage should be represented by fewer than 5 cells. For example. September 29. the prediction of separation due to an adverse pressure gradient depends heavily on the resolution of the boundary layer upstream of the point of separation. In the near-wall region. Solution-adaptive grid refinement can be used to increase and/or decrease grid density based on the evolving flow field. See Section 12. and thus provides the potential for more economical use of grid points (and hence reduced time and resource requirements). the numerical results for turbulent flows tend to be more susceptible to grid dependency than those for laminar flows.Reading and Manipulating Grids Node Density and Clustering Since you are discretely defining a continuous domain.e. This is particularly true in laminar flows where the grid adjacent to the wall should obey yp where yp u∞ ν x u∞ νx ≤ 1 (6. the grid should be fine enough to minimize the change in the flow variables from cell to cell. Resolution of the boundary layer (i. separated regions. Proper resolution of the mesh for turbulent flows is also very important. In regions of large gradients. the degree to which the salient features of the flow (such as shear layers. depends on the density and distribution of nodes in the mesh. Moreover. as in shear layers or mixing zones. different mesh resolutions are required depending on the near-wall model being used. Most cases will require many more cells to adequately resolve the passage. the grid resolution in most complicated 3D flow fields will be constrained by CPU time and computer resource limitations (i. and mixing zones) are resolved. boundary layers. See Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid for information on solution adaption. poor resolution in critical regions can dramatically alter the flow characteristics. In many cases. Although accuracy increases with larger grids.2-1 is based upon the Blasius solution for laminar flow over a flat plate at zero incidence [322].11: Grid Considerations for Turbulent Flow Simulations for guidelines.2-1) = distance to the wall from the adjacent cell centroid = free-stream velocity = kinematic viscosity of the fluid = distance along the wall from the starting point of the boundary layer Equation 6.. it is very difficult to determine the locations of important flow features in advance. In general. Due to the strong interaction of the mean flow and turbulence.

(See Sections 26. However. • Aspect ratio is a measure of the stretching of the cell. FLUENT provides the capability to improve the smoothness by refining the mesh based on the change in cell volume or the gradient of cell volume. Cell Shape The shape of the cell (including its skewness and aspect ratio) also has a significant impact on the accuracy of the numerical solution. you should strive to achieve a high-quality mesh over the entire flow domain. optimal quadrilateral meshes will have vertex angles close to 90 degrees. a general rule of thumb is to avoid aspect ratios in excess of 5:1. As discussed in Section 6. smoothness.2 Grid Requirements and Considerations Smoothness Truncation error is the difference between the partial derivatives in the governing equations and their discrete approximations. Since the locations of strong flow gradients generally cannot be determined a priori. For example. while triangular meshes should preferably have angles of close to 60 degrees and have all angles less than 90 degrees. 2006 6-23 . but can be very damaging in regions with strong flow gradients. and cell shape on the accuracy and stability of the solution process is dependent on the flow field being simulated. for highly anisotropic flows. c Fluent Inc. Highly skewed cells can decrease accuracy and destabilize the solution. For example. Rapid changes in cell volume between adjacent cells translate into larger truncation errors.3: Computational Expense.8). September 29. extreme aspect ratios may yield accurate results with fewer cells. Flow-Field Dependency The effect of resolution.4 and 26. • Skewness is defined as the difference between the shape of the cell and the shape of an equilateral cell of equivalent volume. For information on refining the grid based on change in cell volume.1.6. very skewed cells can be tolerated in benign flow regions.

and save your mesh using the File/Write/Mesh. ICEMCFD. September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. 6-24 c Fluent Inc. NASTRAN. To create any of these meshes for FLUENT. ANSYS.3.2: Reading Mesh Files. there are many sources from which you can obtain a grid to be used in your simulation.3 TGrid Grid Files You can use TGrid to create 2D and 3D unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids from boundary or surface grids. You can also prepare multiple mesh files and combine them to create a single mesh.. To import the grid into FLUENT... RAMPANT. follow the procedure described in the GAMBIT Modeling Guide. You can also use the grid contained in a FLUENT/UNS. as described in Section 4.2: Reading Mesh Files.. or FLUENT 4 case file. or other preprocessors.2 GeoMesh Grid Files You can use GeoMesh to create complete 2D quadrilateral or triangular grids. GeoMesh.. use the File/Read/Case. as described in Section 4.. 3D hexahedral grids.3. All such meshes can be imported directly into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. as described in Section 4.3 Grid Import Since FLUENT can handle a number of different grid topologies.2: Reading Mesh Files. menu item. menu item. 6. 6. and export your mesh in FLUENT 5/6 format. PATRAN. PreBFC. To complete the generation of a 3D tetrahedral mesh. ARIES. TGrid. read the surface mesh into TGrid and generate the volume mesh there. I-deas.. Follow the meshing procedure described in the TGrid User’s Guide. 2006 . You can generate a grid using GAMBIT. menu item. 6. menu item. All other meshes can be imported directly into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case.. and triangular surface grids for 3D tetrahedral grids.3.1 GAMBIT Grid Files You can use GAMBIT to create 2D and 3D structured/unstructured/hybrid grids. follow the procedure described in the GeoMesh User’s Guide. To create any of these meshes for FLUENT.

follow the procedure described in the PreBFC User’s Guide (Chapters 6 and 7). follow the procedure described in the PreBFC User’s Guide. menu item.3: TGrid Grid Files for information about TGrid grid files..2: Reading Mesh Files. and complete the grid generation there. Do not specify more than 70 wall zones and 35 inlet zones.17: PreBFC Files.6. See Section 6. September 29. use the File/Import/PreBFC File.. use the File/Read/Case. as described in Section 4..3. structured quadrilateral/hexahedral and unstructured triangular/tetrahedral. enter the following command: utility fl42seg input filename output filename The output file produced can be read into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case.3. To manually convert a file in PreBFC format to a mesh file suitable for FLUENT. as described in Section 4..3 Grid Import 6. The resulting grid will contain triangular elements.11. menu item. follow the procedure described in Chapter 8 of the PreBFC User’s Guide for generating a surface mesh. The resulting grid will contain quadrilateral (2D) or hexahedral (3D) elements. Unstructured Triangular and Tetrahedral Grid Files To generate an unstructured 2D grid. To import the grid.2: Reading Mesh Files. Structured Grid Files To generate a structured 2D or 3D grid. menu item. Then read the surface mesh into TGrid.. c Fluent Inc. as described in Section 4. The current FLUENT format is the same as the RAMPANT format. Save the mesh file in the RAMPANT format using the MESH-RAMPANT/TGRID command.4 PreBFC Grid Files You can use PreBFC to create two different types of grids for FLUENT. To import the grid. 2006 6-25 .. To generate a 3D unstructured tetrahedral grid.

2006 . 6..2: Reading Mesh Files. not the FLUENT 4 format. wedge. Use the fe2ram filter to convert the Universal file to the format used by FLUENT. tetrahedral. menu item. menu item. quadrilateral. To convert an input file in I-deas Universal format to an output file in FLUENT format. follow the instructions on page 6-32.3. The current FLUENT format is the same as the RAMPANT format. 3. 1. Generate an I-deas surface or volume mesh containing triangular.5 ICEMCFD Grid Files You can use ICEMCFD to create structured grids in FLUENT 4 format and unstructured grids in RAMPANT format. Import it into TGrid using the commands described in the TGrid User’s Guide. tetrahedral. After the output file is written..2: Reading Mesh Files. September 29. as described in Section 4.. wedge and/or hexahedral elements. tetrahedral. After reading a triangular or tetrahedral ICEMCFD volume mesh. Generate an I-deas volume mesh with linear triangular. Generate an I-deas volume mesh with linear triangular. as described in Section 4.11.3. wedge.3. • To import a RAMPANT grid. 2.6 I-deas Universal Files You can import an I-deas Universal file into FLUENTin three different ways. read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case.3: TGrid Grid Files.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. use the File/Read/Case...9: I-deas Universal Files.. 6-26 c Fluent Inc. menu item. perform smoothing and swapping (as described in Section 26. Import it directly using the File/Import/I-deas Universal. • To import a FLUENT 4 grid. quadrilateral. or hexahedral elements. follow the instructions in Section 6.13: Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping) to improve its quality. or hexahedral elements. In TGrid. as described in Section 4.3. quadrilateral. complete the grid generation (if necessary) and follow the instructions in Section 6.13: FLUENT 4 Case Files. Adhere to the restrictions described in Appendix B of the TGrid User’s Guide.

One technique is to generate groups automatically based on curves or mesh areas—i. Faces that contain the nodes in a group are gathered into a single zone. It is important not to group nodes of internal faces with nodes of boundary faces. 2432. These nodes must be removed in I-deas before writing the universal file for import into FLUENT.. 2006 6-27 . This implies that writing multiple mesh areas/volumes to a single Universal file may confuse FLUENT.3 Grid Import Recognized I-deas Datasets The following Universal file datasets are recognized by the FLUENT grid import utility: • Node Coordinates dataset number 15. 2417. Deleting Duplicate Nodes I-deas may generate duplicate or coincident nodes in the process of creating elements. If the elements are not grouped. the elements must exist in a constant z plane. You may also create the groups manually. 2430. 780. boundary conditions are applied to each zone. 781. every curve or mesh area will be a different zone in FLUENT. 2411 • Elements dataset number 71. Grouping Nodes to Create Face Zones Nodes are grouped in I-deas using the Group command to create boundary face zones. 2429. Note: The mesh area or mesh volume datasets are not recognized. Grouping Elements to Create Cell Zones Elements in I-deas are grouped using the Group command to create the multiple cell zones. September 29. All elements grouped together are placed in a single cell zone in FLUENT. 2435 For 2D volume grids. 2412 • Permanent Groups dataset number 752.6.e. FLUENT will place all the cells into a single zone. c Fluent Inc. In FLUENT. generating groups consisting of all nodes related to a given curve (2D) or mesh area (3D).

Recognized NASTRAN Bulk Data Entries The following NASTRAN file datasets are recognized by the FLUENT grid import utility: • GRID single-precision node coordinates • GRID* double-precision node coordinates • CBAR line elements • CTETRA. quadrilateral. 2006 .11. the elements must exist in a constant z plane.7 NASTRAN Files There are three different ways in which you can import a NASTRAN file into FLUENT: • You can generate a NASTRAN surface or volume mesh containing triangular.3: TGrid Grid Files. wedge. as described in Section 4..2: Reading Mesh Files. To convert an input file in NASTRAN format to an output file in FLUENT format.12: NASTRAN Files. tetrahedral. • You can generate a NASTRAN volume mesh with linear triangular. 6-28 c Fluent Inc. and wedge elements For 2D volume grids. tetrahedral. quadrilateral. or hexahedral elements. and/or hexahedral elements. CQUAD4. quadrilateral. In TGrid. or hexahedral elements. After reading a triangular or tetrahedral NASTRAN volume mesh using the latter methods perform smoothing and swapping (as described in Section 26. quadrilateral.. and import it into TGrid using the commands described in the TGrid User’s Guide and adhering to the restrictions described in Appendix B of the TGrid User’s Guide. follow the instructions on page 6-32. Then use the fe2ram filter to convert the NASTRAN file to the format used by FLUENT. CPENTA hexahedral. menu item. and import it directly using the File/Import/NASTRAN. wedge. wedge.13: Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping) to improve its quality. CTRIA3 tetrahedral and triangular elements • CHEXA. complete the grid generation (if necessary) and then follow the instructions in Section 6. • You can generate a NASTRAN volume mesh with linear triangular.. After the output file has been written. menu item.3.. September 29. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. tetrahedral.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.3. as described in Section 4.

11. After reading a triangular or tetrahedral PATRAN volume mesh using the latter methods perform smoothing and swapping (as described in Section 26. or hexahedral elements and then use the fe2ram filter to convert the Neutral file into the format used by FLUENT. wedge.. After the output file has been written.3.2: Reading Mesh Files. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. as described in Section 4. To convert an input file in PATRAN Neutral format to an output file in FLUENT format. These nodes must be removed in NASTRAN before writing the file for import into FLUENT.8 PATRAN Neutral Files There are three different ways in which you can import a PATRAN Neutral file into FLUENT.. wedge. quadrilateral. complete the grid generation (if necessary) and then follow the instructions in Section 6. follow the instructions on page 6-32.13: PATRAN Neutral Files. and import it into TGrid using the commands described in the TGrid User’s Guide and adhering to the restrictions described in Appendix B of the TGrid User’s Guide.. wedge. quadrilateral. or hexahedral elements (grouping nodes with the same componentgroup name) and import it directly to FLUENT by selecting the File/Import/ PATRAN. 6. menu item. tetrahedral. In TGrid. tetrahedral. menu item. • You can generate a PATRAN volume mesh with linear triangular.3: TGrid Grid Files. • You can generate a PATRAN volume mesh with linear triangular. quadrilateral. September 29. 2006 6-29 .6..13: Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping) to improve its quality. and/or hexahedral elements. tetrahedral.3 Grid Import Deleting Duplicate Nodes NASTRAN may generate duplicate or coincident nodes in the process of creating elements. Recognized PATRAN Datasets The following PATRAN Neutral file packet types are recognized by the FLUENT grid import utility: • Node Data Packet Type 01 • Element Data Packet Type 02 • Distributed Load Data Packet Type 06 c Fluent Inc.3. • You can generate a PATRAN surface or volume mesh containing triangular. as described in Section 4.

3: TGrid Grid Files. quadrilateral. FLUENT will place all the cells into a single zone.. • You can generate an ANSYS volume mesh with linear triangular.2: Reading Mesh Files. as described in Section 4. If the elements are not grouped. complete the grid generation (if necessary) and then follow the instructions in Section 6. tetrahedral. or hexahedral elements using ANSYS or ARIES. or hexahedral elements as well as with higher order elements like 20 node hexahedron. tetrahedral. 6-30 c Fluent Inc. • You can generate an ANSYS volume mesh with linear triangular. The higher order elements will be converted to their corresponding linear elements during the import in FLUENT. the elements must exist in a constant z plane. wedge. • You can generate a surface or volume mesh containing triangular.5 format to an output file in FLUENT format. September 29. wedge. and import it into TGrid using the commands described in the TGrid User’s Guide and adhering to the restrictions described in Appendix B of the TGrid User’s Guide. as described in Section 4. 6.13: Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping) to improve its quality. In TGrid. After the output file has been written.. 2006 .9 ANSYS Files There are three different ways in which you can import an ANSYS file into FLUENT. SOLID92.. tetrahedral. To convert an input file in ANSYS 5..11. Grouping Elements to Create Cell Zones Elements are grouped in PATRAN using the Named Component command to create the multiple cell zones. wedge. menu item.2: ANSYS Files. After reading a triangular or tetrahedral volume mesh using method 2 or 3 above.Reading and Manipulating Grids • Node Temperature Data Packet Type 10 • Name Components Packet Type 21 • File Header Packet Type 25 For 2D volume grids. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. quadrilateral. or hexahedral elements and then use the fe2ram filter to convert the ANSYS file into the format used by FLUENT. follow the instructions on page 6-32. quadrilateral.3. menu item.4 or 5. All elements grouped together are placed in a single cell zone in FLUENT. you should perform smoothing and swapping (as described in Section 26.3. and SOLID187 and import it directly to FLUENT using the File/Import/ANSYS.

and hexahedral elements.3 Grid Import Recognized ANSYS 5. if element data without an explicit element ID is used.5 (. 2006 6-31 . using the File/Import/CFX menu item. See Section 6. the merge tolerance may need to be adjusted. they are retained.cdb files).def) and result (.11. the filter assumes sequential numbering of the elements when creating the zones.res) files into FLUENT.4 and 5. They may contain tetrahedral. Alternatively.3: CFX Files. such as definition (. The fe2ram utility is used as the import filter. In addition. conformal interfaces contain coincident nodes which are merged and changed to type Interior. 6. If they are nonconformal. FLUENT’s fuse thread functionality can be used to merge the conformal interfaces. The following ANSYS file datasets are recognized by the FLUENT grid import utility: • NBLOCK node block data • EBLOCK element block data • CMBLOCK element/node grouping The elements must be STIF63 linear shell elements.3. wedge.10 CFX Files You can import 3D CFX files. for the merge to work correctly. For some cases. September 29. However. The 3D element set corresponding to zones/domains present in these files are imported as cell zones in FLUENT. which can be used as a stand-alone to obtain a FLUENT mesh file. as described in Section 4. pyramidal.3.11: Using the fe2ram Filter to Convert Files for information about fe2ram.6.5 Datasets FLUENT can import mesh files from ANSYS 5. c Fluent Inc. The following boundary condition types are retained: • inlet • outlet • symmetry • interface • wall The boundaries of type Interface may be conformal or non-conformal. retaining original boundary names. The boundary zones in these files are a group of faces with a boundary condition name/type and are imported as face zones with the boundary condition name/type retained in FLUENT.4 and 5.

September 29. 3. • input file is the name of the original file.11 Using the fe2ram Filter to Convert Files The fe2ram filter can be used to manually convert files of certain formats into FLUENT mesh files. • zoning indicates how zones were identified in the original format.. To use the fe2ram filter.unv to an output file called sample.3. which can then be read into FLUENT. if you wanted to convert the 2D I-deas volume mesh file sample. To print a list of the formats which fe2ram can convert. Replace dimension by -d2 to indicate that the grid is two dimensional.4: Reading FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case and Data Files. etc. type utility fe2ram -cl -help. or -zNONE to ignore all zone groupings.grd. you will enter the following command: utility fe2ram -d2 -tIDEAS sample. • dimension indicates the dimension of the dataset. For example. enter the following at a command prompt in a terminal or command window: utility fe2ram [dimension] format [zoning] input file output file Note: The items enclosed in square brackets are optional.. Replace zoning by -zID for a grid that was zoned by property IDs. because zoning by groups is the default.3. as described in Section 4.unv sample. For example. -tIDEAS for an I-deas file. because 3D is the default. output file is the name of the file to which you want to write the converted grid information.12 FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT Case Files If you have a FLUENT/UNS 3 or 4 case file or a RAMPANT 2.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. For a grid zoned by group. or 4 case file and you want to run a FLUENT simulation using the same grid. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. • format indicates the format of the file you wish to convert. 6-32 c Fluent Inc.grd 6. For a 3D grid. -tNASTRAN for a NASTRAN file. 2006 . do not enter any value for dimension. menu item. Do not type the square brackets. do not enter anything for zoning. replace format with -tANSYS for an ANSYS file.

Do not type the square brackets. as described in Section 4. as described in Section 4.. enter the following command: utility fl42seg input filename output filename After the output file has been written. read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case. import it into FLUENT using the File/Import/FLUENT 4 Case..14 FIDAP Neutral Files If you have a FIDAP Neutral file and you want to run a FLUENT simulation using the same grid. After the output file has been written. To manually convert an input file in FLUENT 4 format to an output file in the current FLUENT format. as described in Section 4.6: FIDAP Neutral Files... import it using the File/Import/FIDAP..11. Check the conversion information printed out by FLUENT to see if you need to modify any boundary types. you can read it into FLUENT using the File/Read/Case.3 Grid Import 6. FLUENT will read grid information and zone types from the FLUENT 4 case file.2: Reading Mesh Files.11. To manually convert an input file in FIDAP format to an output file in FLUENT format. 6. 2006 6-33 . enter the following command: utility fe2ram [dimension] -tFIDAP7 input file output file The item in square brackets is optional. because 3D is the default. as described in Section 4.3.6. FLUENT will read grid information and zone types from the FIDAP file. i FLUENT 4 may interpret some pressure boundaries differently from the current release of FLUENT.. menu item. For a 3D file. c Fluent Inc. replace dimension with -d2. For a 2D file.3. September 29.. menu item.2: Reading Mesh Files.16: FLUENT 4 Case Files. do not enter anything for dimension. menu item.13 FLUENT 4 Case Files If you have a FLUENT 4 case file and you want to run a FLUENT simulation using the same grid.. menu item.

Read in your first mesh file. In the Select File panel. • To solve on a multiblock mesh.. Grid −→ Zone −→Append Case File. The steps to take when reading more than one mesh file are: 1. This multigrid handling capability is time saving. since you can directly read in the different mesh files in FLUENT itself without using other tools like TGrid or tmerge. Display −→Grid.15 Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files There may be some cases in which you will need to read multiple mesh files (subdomains) to form your computational domain.3. See Section 6.. FLUENT can handle non-conformal grid interfaces. • For very complicated geometries. select the mesh file and click OK. Read in your second mesh file and append it to the fist mesh selected in the first step.3. select the second mesh file and click OK. 6-34 c Fluent Inc.. • Using TGrid or tmerge. Using FLUENT’s Ability to Read Multiple Mesh Files FLUENT allows you to handle more than one mesh at a time within the same solver settings. The grid node locations need not be identical at the boundaries where two separate meshes meet. (optional)..4: NonConformal Grids for details about non-conformal grid boundaries. September 29. You will find that the second mesh is appended to the first. Display your meshes..1). 2. In the Select File panel (Figure 6. 3. File −→ Read −→Case. generate each block of the mesh in the grid generator and save it to a separate grid file.. There are two ways for reading multiple grid files in FLUENT: • Using FLUENT’s ability to read multiple mesh files. it may be more efficient to save the mesh for each part as a separate grid file.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. 2006 .

1)..1: The Select File Panel FLUENT also allows you to append the data on the mesh.. not for parallel cases. c Fluent Inc. For the second step. follow the procedure above. i Reading multiple grid and data options are available only for serial cases.3. 2006 6-35 .3.3 Grid Import Figure 6. Both the case and data files will be appended. To do that. use the following menu: Grid −→ Zone −→Append Case & Data Files. Select the case file in the Select File panel (Figure 6.6. and click OK. September 29.

msh 3.13: FLUENT 4 Case Files. Read the combined grid file into the solver in the usual manner (using the File/Read/Case. i If you are planning to use sliding meshes. 6-36 c Fluent Inc.. Before starting the solver. scale. use the Fuse Face Zones panel to fuse the overlapping boundaries (see Section 6. use either TGrid or the tmerge filter to combine the grids into one grid file. In the example below. do the following before starting FLUENT: (a) For 3D problems. See the TGrid User’s Guide for information about reading and writing files in TGrid. but the tmerge method allows you to rotate. or a rotation angle. it will automatically merge them into a single grid. do the following: (a) Read all of the grid files into TGrid. September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids Using TGrid or tmerge 1. • To use TGrid. 2006 . first convert it to FLUENT format using the fl42seg filter described in Section 6. the original zone(s) will be discarded. specify scaling factors.msh my2.. (c) For each input file.3: Fusing Face Zones). utility tmerge -2d -cl -p my1. (b) Save the merged grid file. specify the names of the input files (the separate grid files) and the name of the output file in which to save the complete grid. type utility tmerge -3d. and/or translate the grids before they are merged. (b) When prompted.3. i If one (or more) of the grids you wish to import is structured (e. If all faces on either or both of the original zones have been moved to the new zone.g. or rotation is performed. The matching faces will be moved to a new zone with a boundary type of interior. Generate the grid for the whole domain in the grid generator. no scaling. a FLUENT 4 grid file). When TGrid reads the grid files. change the type of the two overlapping zones to interface (as described in Section 6. For a conformal mesh. if you do not want a boundary between the adjacent cell zones. menu item). For 2D problems.msh final. do not combine the overlapping zones. The TGrid method is convenient.8. or if you have non-conformal boundaries between adjacent cell zones.. 2. type utility tmerge -2d. translation. and save each cell zone (or block or part) to a separate grid file for FLUENT.4: Non-Conformal Grids). Instead. translation distances. • To use the tmerge filter.

. .y translation. eg. . done. typ 1 node zone: id 2..1. ib 1678. 1 1 x..y scaling factor.. scaling.2. typ 2 . eg. ie 2169. id 1. eg. 0 1 rotation angle (deg). 0 1 rotation angle (deg). ie 2169.msh Reading. ..y scaling factor. translation. id 2. Hence you can simplify the inputs to the following: user@mymachine:> utility tmerge -2d Starting /Fluent.1/ultra/tmerge_2d. 492 nodes. node zone: id 1. eg. 1 1 x.11 Enter name of grid file (ENTER to continue) : my1. type 1. type 2. eg. 45 : 1 1 : 0 0 : 0 Enter name of grid file (ENTER to continue) : <Enter> Enter name of output file : final. ie 1677. Appending done. Version 2.msh x. 45 : 1 1 : 0 0 : 0 Enter name of grid file (ENTER to continue) : my2.1.msh x.3 Grid Import In this example. Writing. done. 1677 nodes. . tmerge2D Fluent Inc. 2006 6-37 . ie 1677. ib 1.y translation. ib 1678.6.Inc/utility/tmerge2. c Fluent Inc.13 Append 2D grid files. September 29. eg. ib 1. or rotation is not requested.

although the meshes do not slide in this situation.1).3..3... That is. 6. not from the interface zone faces.4. In the Surfaces Meshes panel. You can also display and delete the surfaces using this panel.1 Non-Conformal Grid Calculations To compute the flux across the non-conformal boundary. the grid node locations need not to be identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet..2). and select the surface mesh file using the Select File panel. menu item. click Read.4 Non-Conformal Grids In FLUENT it is possible to use a grid composed of cell zones with non-conformal boundaries. If one of the interface zones extends beyond the other (Figure 6.2: The Surface Meshes Panel 6.4. The resulting intersection produces an interior zone where the two interface zones overlap (see Figure 6. FLUENT must first compute the intersection between the interface zones that comprise the boundary. September 29. 2006 . 6-38 c Fluent Inc. Fluxes across the grid interface are computed using the faces resulting from the intersection of the two interface zones.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. use the Grid/Surface Mesh. Figure 6. To read the surface mesh file into FLUENT. FLUENT handles such meshes using the same technique that is used in the sliding mesh model. FLUENT will create one or two additional wall zones for the portion(s) of the boundary where the two interface zones do not overlap.16 Reading Surface Mesh Files Surface meshes are used as background mesh for geometry based adaption.4.

4. 2006 6-39 .4. September 29.6.1: Completely Overlapping Grid Interface Intersection interface zone 1 interface zone 2 wall zone 2 interior zone wall zone 1 Figure 6.2: Partially Overlapping Grid Interface Intersection c Fluent Inc.4 Non-Conformal Grids interface zone 1 interface zone 2 interior zone Figure 6.

2006 . d-b. b-e.3. and e-c) are grouped to form an interior zone. Faces produced in the region where the two cell zones overlap (d-b. b-e.4.4. cell zone 1 I A a interface zone 2 B b D II III C e E IV VI V c F interface zone 1 d cell zone 2 Figure 6. To compute the flux across the interface into cell IV. and e-c. while the remaining face (a-d) forms a wall zone.Reading and Manipulating Grids In the example shown in Figure 6. face D-E is ignored and instead. September 29.3: Two-Dimensional Non-Conformal Grid Interface The intersection of these zones produces the faces a-d. 6-40 c Fluent Inc. the interface zones are composed of faces A-B and B-C. faces d-b and b-e are used bringing information into cell IV from cells I and III. and faces D-E and E-F.

left handed faces can be generated due to bad grids. But in extreme cases. it is recommended to first separate the zones and then create the interfaces separately to get the better solution. Such faces are deleted automatically. 2006 6-41 . This approach does not involve node movement and cells are not necessarily water tight cells. Left handed cells can also be created for the geometries that contains sharp edges and corners. Note: The former approach of making cells water tight sometimes results in concave cells. You can also manually switch to the virtual polygon approach for such cases. with the new interface in parallel. For this reason the virtual polygon approach is more stable than the triangular face approach.1 and earlier) use only the triangular face approach. This approach involves node movement and water tight cells. Case files from FLUENT 6. define −→ grid-interfaces −→use-virtual-polygon-approach /define/grid-interfaces> use-virtual-polygon-approach /define/grid-interfaces> During sliding mesh calculations. September 29. Hence gradients are corrected to take into account the missing cell area. so that the solution does not diverge.6. For such geometries.4 Non-Conformal Grids Non-Conformal Interface Algorithms Non-conformal interface calculations are handled using the following two approaches: • Triangular face approach: triangulates the polygon intersection faces. however using different approach for calculations. By default. Both the algorithms calculate the intersection of the interface meshes.1 or earlier can be read and run normally in the current version of FLUENT. these cases will use the triangular face approach. i Previous versions of FLUENT (version 6. FLUENT corrects the left handedness of these faces automatically. Current versions of FLUENT support both approaches. c Fluent Inc. use the use-virtual-polygon-approach TUI command. Additional input of angle/translation-vector may be required to recreate face-periodic interfaces. there will be no need for encapsulation. causing the interface creation to fail. it cannot be fully corrected. • Virtual polygon approach: stores area vector and centroid of the polygon faces. and stores triangular faces. which may affect the final solution. To use the new algorithm. Also.

the circular edge. Figure 6. it is especially important that both sides of the interface closely follow that feature. in 3D).4: A Circular Non-Conformal Interface • A face zone cannot share a non-conformal interface with more than one other face zone. September 29.2 Requirements and Limitations of Non-Conformal Grids This section describes the requirements and limitations of non-conformal grids: • The grid interface can be of any shape (including a non-planar surface.5.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.g. a non-conformal interface is not allowed to be created between the three surfaces shown: one side of the box (rectangle 1) and an end cap from each pipe (circle 1 and circle 2).) i The maximum tolerance between two interfaces should not be larger than their adjacent cell size at that location That is no cell should be completely enclosed between two interfaces. the interface does not closely follow the feature (in this case. 6-42 c Fluent Inc.. In this example.4. provided that the two interface boundaries are based on the same geometry. In order to create a non-conformal interface. If there are sharp features (e. non-conformal interface between them.6. consider the case of two concentric circles that define two fluid zones with a circular. rectangle 1a and rectangle 1b. as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6.4. Because the node spacing on the interface edge of the outer fluid zone is coarse compared to the radius of curvature.4. For example. rectangle 1 is split into two surfaces. respectively. This is illustrated by an example. 2006 .4.4. Each volume in the figure is meshed separately and does not match node-to-node at the interface. shown in Figure 6.4. Then two non-conformal interfaces are created between rectangle 1a and circle 2 and rectangle 1b and circle 1. 90-degree angles) or curvature in the mesh.

4 Non-Conformal Grids rectangle 1 circle 1 circle 2 Figure 6.6.5: Box with Two Pipes Intersecting One Side Allowed: Divide rectangle 1 into two surfaces rectangle 1a circle 2 rectangle 1b circle 1 interface pairings are: rectangle 1a ⇔ circle 2 rectangle 1b ⇔ circle 1 Not allowed: Keeping things as they are Not Valid: rectangle 1 ⇔ circle 2 rectangle 1 ⇔ circle 1 rectangle 1 circle 2 circle 1 Figure 6. September 29.6: One-to-One Mapping c Fluent Inc. 2006 6-43 .4.4.

you must have conformal periodics on either side of the interface threads.Reading and Manipulating Grids • If you create a single grid with multiple cell zones separated by a non-conformal boundary.3. The face zones for two adjacent cell zones will have the same position and shape.. 6. After reading in the grid. you must be sure that each cell zone has a distinct face zone on the non-conformal boundary. change the type of each pair of zones that comprises the non-conformal boundary to interface (as described in Section 7. Read the grid into FLUENT.3. September 29.1. • For 3D cases.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files. See also Section 6. It is also possible to create a separate grid file for each of the cell zones. but one will correspond to one cell zone and one to the other. • All periodic zones must be correctly oriented (either rotational or translational) before you create the non-conformal interface. or turbine. where a wall zone is created for non-overlapping regions. This ensures that FLUENT can obtain a solution on the mesh.4. • Periodic interfaces require conformal periodics adjacent to it. This is not true for interfaces in general. check if the grid meets all the requirements listed in Section 6. when you calculate just one channel and blade of a fan. 2006 . That is they need to have the same rotational or translational extent and also have the same axial extent. etc.. This will not work with nonconformal periodics.. Define −→Boundary Conditions. first follow the instructions in Section 6.2: Requirements and Limitations of Non-Conformal Grids). 2.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files to merge them into a single grid.4. and then merge them as described in Section 6.4. Periodic non-conformal interfaces must overlap exactly. Then do the following: 1.3: Changing Boundary Zone Types). For example. 6-44 c Fluent Inc. only one pair of periodic boundaries can neighbor the interface.3 Using a Non-Conformal Grid in FLUENT If your multiple-zone grid includes non-conformal boundaries. If you have multiple grid files that have not yet been merged. if the interface is periodic.4: Starting From a FLUENT/UNS or RAMPANT Case for information about using non-conformal FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT cases.

September 29. There are two options: • Enable Periodic for periodic problems. (b) Specify the two interface zones that comprise the grid interface by selecting one or more zones in the Interface Zone 1 list and one or more zones in the Interface Zone 2 list. or if you would like to model a (thermally) coupled wall between two fluid zones using non-conformal interfaces. 2006 6-45 . i If one of your interface zones is much smaller than the other. i Periodic is not a valid option when more than one zone is selected in each Interface Zone • Enable Coupled if the interface lies between a solid zone and a fluid zone.4. if appropriate.4 Non-Conformal Grids 3.4. Define −→Grid Interfaces..6. you should specify the smaller zone as Interface Zone 1 to improve the accuracy of the intersection calculation. (c) Set the Interface Type.7: The Grid Interfaces Panel (a) Enter a name for the interface in the Grid Interface field.. Define the non-conformal grid interfaces in the Grid Interfaces panel (Figure 6.7). Figure 6. c Fluent Inc.

. you can select it in the Grid Interface list and click the Delete button to delete it.g.Reading and Manipulating Grids (d) Click on Create to create a new grid interface. Any boundary zones or wall interface zones that were created when the interface was created will also be deleted. You can then continue the problem setup or calculation as usual.. wall-4. check the boundary zone type of the zone(s) created for the non-overlapping portion(s) of the boundary. If you have enabled the Coupled option.. FLUENT will create boundary zones for the interface (e. which will appear under Interface Wall Zone 1 and Interface Wall Zone 2.4. If the zone type is not correct. wall-9. you must use the define/grid-interfaces/recreate text command. i If you have a FLUENT/UNS or RAMPANT data file for the non-conformal case. However. wall-10). you can use the Boundary Conditions panel to change it.4 Starting From a FLUENT/UNS or RAMPANT Case FLUENT/UNS and RAMPANT case files with non-conformal interfaces can be read and used by FLUENT without any changes. FLUENT will also create wall interface zones (e. 6-46 c Fluent Inc. you must read it in before you use the recreate command. FLUENT will recreate all grid interfaces in the domain. If you create an incorrect grid interface. (e) If the two interface zones did not overlap entirely. you may want to recompute the grid interface to take advantage of FLUENT’s improved intersection calculation. (f) If you have any Coupled type interfaces. wall-4-shadow). define boundary conditions (if relevant) by updating the interface wall zones in the Boundary Conditions panel. For all types of interfaces. You may then proceed with the problem setup as usual. You cannot simply delete the original grid interface and recompute it. which will appear under Boundary Zone 1 and Boundary Zone 2. Instead.. 6. define −→ grid-interfaces −→recreate When you select this command. 2006 . September 29.g. Define −→Boundary Conditions.

volume statistics. Checking for nodes that lie below the x-axis.027890e-04 maximum 2d volume (m3): 1. and (for axisymmetric cases) node position verification with respect to the x axis. max (m) = 6. Checking number of cells per face. 6.1 Grid Check Information The information that FLUENT generates when you use the Check item will appear in the console. Checking element type consistency.599501e-03 total volume (m3): 2. c Fluent Inc. You can obtain this information by selecting the Check menu item in the Grid pull-down menu. grid topology and periodic boundary information. verification of simplex counters. 2006 6-47 . Checking face cells. Checking boundary types: Checking face pairs. in order to detect any grid trouble before you get started with the problem setup. Sample output is shown below: Grid Check Domain Extents: x-coordinate: min (m) = 0.000000e+00. max (m) = 6.5 Checking the Grid 6. Checking face handedness.353664e-05 maximum volume (m3): 7.341560e+00 minimum 2d volume (m3): 4.5.400001e+01 y-coordinate: min (m) = -4.538534e+00. Checking periodic boundaries. Checking number of faces per cell. Grid −→Check i It is generally a good idea to check your grid right after reading it into the solver.300719e-04 maximum face area (m2): 3.781404e-02 Checking number of nodes per cell.6.400000e+01 Volume statistics: minimum volume (m3): 2. Checking bridge faces. Checking right-handed cells. September 29.5 Checking the Grid The grid checking capability in FLUENT provides domain extents.230393e-03 Face area statistics: minimum face area (m2): 1. Checking thread pointers.

cell children. You must eliminate these negative volumes before continuing the flow solution process. and prescribed periodic angles are computed. and z coordinates in meters. it can eliminate some unnecessary work. The volume statistics include minimum. For more information on creating and viewing isovalue adaption registers. the number of nodes below the x axis is listed. Polyhedral cells (3D) will have an arbitrary number of faces and nodes. a tetrahedral cell (3D) should have 4 faces and 4 nodes. face children. and a hexahedral cell (3D) should have 6 faces and 8 nodes. average. you cannot obtain a flow solution until you eliminate these connectivity problems. By doing so. Usually a grid with negative volumes will also have left-handed faces. A negative value for the minimum volume indicates that one or more cells have improper connectivity.6: Isovalue Adaption. storage. 2006 . The topological information to be verified begins with the number of faces and nodes per cell. node count. and total cell volume in m3 . For axisymmetric cases. A triangular cell (2D) should have 3 faces and 3 nodes. nosolve face count. Cells with a negative volume can often be identified using the Iso-Value Adaption capability to mark them for adaption and view them in the graphics window. 6-48 c Fluent Inc. since the axisymmetric cell volumes are created by rotating the 2D cell volume about the x axis. maximum. The domain extents list the minimum and maximum x. Again. September 29. The last topological verification is checking the element-type consistency. maximum. the boundary information is checked to ensure that the boundaries are truly periodic. see Section 26. A common mistake is to specify the angle incorrectly. Any discrepancies are reported. faces. FLUENT will determine that it does not need to keep track of the element types. Next. a quadrilateral cell (2D) should have 4 faces and 4 nodes. y. If a mesh does not contain mixed elements (quadrilaterals and triangles or hexahedra and tetrahedra). Finally. For solution domains with rotationally periodic boundaries. The zones should contain all righthanded faces. the minimum. thus nodes below the x axis would create negative volumes. nosolve cell count. the face handedness for each zone is checked. and cells the solver has constructed are compared to the values specified in the corresponding header declarations in the grid file.Reading and Manipulating Grids Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Done. The actual numbers of nodes. For domains with translationally periodic boundaries. the simplex counters are verified. Nodes below the x axis are forbidden for axisymmetric cases.

you will be prompted for the rotation angle.2: Memory Usage • Section 6.6.6 Reporting Grid Statistics There are several methods for reporting information about the grid after it has been read into FLUENT. Grid −→ Info −→Size A partition is a piece of a grid that has been segregated for parallel processing (see Chapter 31: Parallel Processing). A sample of the resulting output follows: Grid Size Level 0 Cells 7917 Faces 12247 Nodes 4468 Partitions 1 2 cell zones. and partitions in the grid by selecting the Grid/Info/Size menu item.6. faces. cells.6.6 Reporting Grid Statistics 6.6. 11 face zones. September 29.1: Grid Size • Section 6. c Fluent Inc. 6.3: Grid Zone Information • Section 6. You can repair such a grid using the following text command: grid −→ modify-zones −→repair-periodic If the interface is rotational periodic. it indicates the existence of duplicate shadow nodes. This error occurs only in grids with periodic-type walls. 2006 6-49 .6.1 Grid Size You can print out the numbers of nodes.2 Repairing Duplicate Shadow Nodes If the Grid/Check report includes the following message: WARNING: node on face thread 2 has multiple shadows.5. Zone-by-zone counts of cells and faces can also be reported. the grid size.6. and statistics about the grid partitions. Information about grid statistics is provided in the following sections: • Section 6. You can report the amount of memory used by the current problem.4: Partition Statistics 6.

2006 . • Process Dynamic memory is the allocated heap memory used to store the grid and solution variables. 11 face zones. 6-50 c Fluent Inc. September 29. and object pointers (generic pointers for various grid and graphics utilities) that are used and allocated. If you are using the density-based coupled explicit solver. as described in Section 6. and the amount of memory used by the solver process. You can obtain this information by selecting the Grid/Info/Memory Usage menu item. FLUENT has a feature that will report the following information: the numbers of nodes.2 Memory Usage During a FLUENT session you may want to check the amount of memory used and allocated in the present analysis. The grid levels result from creating coarse grid levels for the FAS multigrid convergence acceleration (see Section 25.4: Full-Approximation Storage (FAS) Multigrid). UNIX Systems On UNIX systems.Reading and Manipulating Grids If you are interested in how the cells and faces are divided among the different zones. Grid −→ Info −→Memory Usage The memory information will be different for UNIX and Windows systems. you can use the Grid/Info/Zones menu item.6. 6. the process memory information includes the following: • Process Static memory is essentially the size of the code itself.6. A sample of the resulting output is shown below: Grid Size Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cells 7917 1347 392 133 50 17 Faces 12247 3658 1217 475 197 78 Nodes 4468 0 0 0 0 0 Partitions 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 cell zones.3: Grid Zone Information. • Process Total memory is the sum of static and dynamic memory.6. the grid information will be printed for each grid level. cells. edges. faces. the amount of array memory (scratch memory used for surfaces) used and allocated.

and fl smpi542. the process image name will be something like fl542s. On Windows systems. fl542. 2006 6-51 .exe (solver host).6.6 Reporting Grid Statistics Windows Systems On Windows systems. c Fluent Inc. • In the serial version of FLUENT.exe. and Cortex (GUI and graphics memory). • Process Virtual memory is the allocated heap memory currently swapped to the Windows system page file. so the heap memory value includes storage for the grid and solution variables only. you can also get more information on the FLUENT process (or processes) by using the Task Manager (see your Windows documentation for details). examples of process image names are as follows: cx332. since Cortex and the solver are contained in the same process. the heap memory value includes storage for the solver (grid and solution variables). September 29. Cortex runs in its own process. the process memory information includes the following: • Process Physical memory is the allocated heap memory currently resident in RAM. For the serial version. Note the following: • The memory information does not include the static (code) memory. • Process Total memory is the sum of physical and virtual memory. • In the parallel version.exe (Cortex).exe (one solver node). For the parallel version.

1040 quadrilateral symmetry faces. zone 1.3 Grid Zone Information You can print information in the console about the nodes. face) type (triangular. the boundary condition type. Grid −→ Info −→Zones The grid zone information includes the total number of nodes and. zone 5.5. for each face and cell zone.6: Interpreting Partition Statistics for further details. 532 quadrilateral pressure-outlet faces. Grid −→ Info −→Partitions The statistics include the numbers of cells. the number of faces or cells. zone 7. 6-52 c Fluent Inc.6. in 3D. zone 2. zone 3. faces. September 29. faces. and the zone ID. etc. zone 4. 1040 quadrilateral symmetry faces. 2006 . Sample output is shown below: Zone sizes on domain 1: 21280 hexahedral cells. 61708 quadrilateral interior faces. 1120 quadrilateral wall faces.). the cell (and. See Section 31. quadrilateral. zone 6. and neighbors of each partition.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. 532 quadrilateral velocity-inlet faces. 6.4 Partition Statistics You can print grid partition statistics in the console by selecting the Grid/Info/Partitions menu item.6. interfaces. 23493 nodes. including sample output. and cells in each zone using the Grid/Info/Zones menu item.

7 Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh The FLUENT solver. • Converting skewed tetrahedral cells to polyhedral cells. there are two options in FLUENT that allow you to convert your nonpolyhedral mesh to a polyhedral mesh: • Converting the entire domain into polyhedral cells (applicable only for meshes that contain tetrahedral and/or wedge/prism cells). and divide the cell into 4 sub-volumes. These duals are then agglomerated into polyhedral cells around the original nodes. FLUENT automatically decomposes each non-hexahedral cell into multiple sub-volumes called “duals” (the shaded regions seen in the 2D example in Figure 6.2). Currently.6.7.1). you can consider the straightforward case of a tetrahedral mesh.7 Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh 6.1 Converting the Domain to a Polyhedra Conversion of a mesh to polyhedra only applies to 3D meshes that contain tetrahedral and/or wedge/prism cells. Thus. September 29. Each dual is associated with one of the original nodes of the cell. The node that is now within the polyhedral cell is no longer needed and is removed. being face-based.7. new faces are created within the cell by connecting the cell centroid to the new edges on each face. c Fluent Inc. These interior faces establish the boundaries between the duals of a cell. Then. the collection of duals from all cells sharing a particular node makes up each polyhedral cell (see Figure 6. To begin the conversion process. in order to minimize the number of faces on the resultant polyhedral cell. 6. Each of the cells are decomposed in the following manner: first. 2006 6-53 . new edges are created on each face between the face centroid and the centroids of the edges of that face. supports polyhedral cells. These dividing faces may be adjusted and merged with neighboring faces during the agglomeration process. The advantages that polyhedral meshes have shown over some of the tetrahedral or hybrid meshes is the lower overall cell count.7. almost 3-5 times lower for unstructured meshes than the original cell count. To better understand how duals are formed.

September 29. 2006 .7.7.1: Connection of Edge Centroids with Face Centroids c Fluent Inc.2: A Polyhedral Cell Figure 6.¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡               ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡  ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡  ¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢  ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢  ¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡  ¤£¡¡¤¡¡¡¤  ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢ ¤£ ¡¤£ ¤£ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¡¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢  ¡ ¡ ¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£  ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢ ¤£¤¡£¡¤£¤¡£¡£¡¤£¤ ¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡ ¤£¡¡¤£¡¡¡¤£ ¡£¡¡£¡£¡ ¤¡¡¤¡¤¡ ¡£¤¡¡£¤¡£¤¡ £¤£¡¡£¤£¡¡¡£¤£ Reading and Manipulating Grids 6-54 Figure 6.

2006 6-55 . except when they border non-hexahedral cells. c Fluent Inc. but the converted cell has more than the original 6 faces (see Figure 6.e. resulting in a polyhedral cell.7 Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh Figure 6.7. In such a case the shape of the original hexahedral cell is preserved (i.3).7. the overall dimensions of the cell stay the same).3: A Converted Polyhedral Cell with Preserved Hexahedral Cell Shape i Hexahedral cells are not converted to polyhedra when the domain is converted. the shared face of the hexahedral cell is decomposed into multiple faces as well. September 29.6. When the neighboring cell is reconfigured as polyhedra.

4: Treatment of Wedge Boundary Layers Special Treatment of Boundary Layers Conversion proceeds in a slightly different manner in boundary layers that are modeled using thin wedge/prism cells. September 29. These cells are decomposed in the plane of the boundary surface. but not in the direction normal to the surface. 2006 .7. 6-56 c Fluent Inc.7.4).Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6. In most cases. the cell count in the new polyhedral boundary layer will be lower than the original boundary layer. The resulting polyhedra will therefore preserve the thickness of the original wedge/prism cells (Figure 6.

c Fluent Inc. as well as meshes generated by the GAMBIT Hex Core meshing scheme or the TGrid Hexcore menu option.1: Hanging Node Adaption). use the Grid/Polyhedra/Convert Domain menu.6.5.. • Meshes with hanging nodes will not be converted. For more information about adaption. Building polyhedra mesh.. the original tetrahedral mesh of a section of a manifold......7. then it does not have hanging nodes and can therefore be converted.. Figure 6... • The dynamic mesh model cannot be used on polyhedral meshes........ The dynamic mesh model will automatically be disabled if a case with the dynamic mesh option enabled is converted.. Done. Optimizing polyhedra mesh...2.. Grid −→ Polyhedra −→Convert Domain The resulting message printed on the console is Converting domain to polyhedra... This includes meshes that have undergone hanging node adaption (see Section 26. Processing face zones. 2006 6-57 . Creating polyhedra zones... is compared to Figure 6.7 Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh To convert the entire domain of your mesh.6 which is the resulting mesh after the entire domain is converted to a polyhedra... Processing cell zones. Note that if the mesh has undergone conformal adaption (see Section 26. Limitations Some limitations you will find with polyhedral meshes that you generally do not experience with other cell types include: • Meshes that already contain polyhedral cells cannot be converted.2. • The following grid manipulation tools are not available on polyhedral meshes: – extrude-face-zone under the modify-zone option – fuse – skewness smoothing – swapping will not affect polyhedral cells • Meshes in which the domain has been converted to polyhedral cells are not eligible for adaption.. see Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid.7.. September 29.2: Conformal Adaption).

September 29.7. 2006 .7.5: The Original Tetrahedral Mesh Figure 6.6: The Converted Polyhedral Mesh 6-58 c Fluent Inc.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6.

Note that if the mesh has undergone conformal adaption (see Section 26.7 Converting the Grid to a Polyhedral Mesh 6. see Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid. A different algorithm is used for local conversion. Then all of the cells which share this edge are combined into a polyhedral cell. the quality of the mesh can be improved significantly. This algorithm evaluates each highly skewed tetrahedral cell and all of the surrounding cells. Limitations There are certain limitations with this type of conversion: • The following grid manipulation tools are not available on polyhedral meshes: – extrude-face-zone under the modify-zone option – fuse – skewness smoothing – swapping will not affect polyhedral cells • The polyhedral cells that result from the conversion are not eligible for adaption. to select an edge on the highly skewed cell that best matches criteria for cell agglomeration. • Meshes with hanging nodes will not be converted.2: Preparing Hexcore Meshes for Partitioning). 2006 6-59 . This includes meshes that have undergone hanging node adaption (see Section 26.1: Hanging Node Adaption).6. as well as meshes generated by the GAMBIT Hex Core meshing scheme or the TGrid Hexcore menu option (hexcore meshes). By converting the highly skewed tetrahedral cells.2: Conformal Adaption) or it is a hexcore mesh in which the transitional cells have been converted to polyhedra (see Section 31. For more information about adaption. as all other cells are skipped.2 Converting Skewed Cells to Polyhedra Another method of cell agglomeration is the skewness-based cluster approach. • Only tetrahedral cells are converted. then it does not have hanging nodes and can therefore be converted. During the process. The objective is to convert only skewed tetrahedral cells above a specified cell equivolume skewness threshold into polyhedra. c Fluent Inc. This type of conversion is designed to convert only part of the domain.2.7.5. the data is interpolated from the original cells to the resultant polyhedra. September 29.2.

Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.2: Limitations) and click the Convert button. the Current Maximum Cell Skewness and Cells Above Target (%) skewness are displayed. 2. Select the zone(s) you want to consider for local polyhedra conversion under Cell Zones. September 29. 6-60 c Fluent Inc. Figure 6. Set the Target Maximum Cell Skewness (see Section 6.. go to the Convert Skewed Cells panel Grid −→ Polyhedra −→Convert Skewed Cells.3 Steps in Converting Skewed Cells to Polyhedral Cells To convert part of your domain to polyhedral cells. Once the zone selection is made. else the conversion will be ineffective due to the high face count.7. i The Cells Above Target (%) should be only a couple of percentage points. The output reported on the FLUENT console is the number of created polyhedra and the resulting maximum cell skewness. 2006 .7: The Convert Skewed Cells Panel 1.7..7. 3.

11: Translating the Grid • Section 6.5: Slitting Periodic Zones • Section 6.8.6: Slitting Face Zones • Section 6. as the data in the old data files may not correspond to the new case file. you can reorder the cells in the domain to decrease bandwidth. if data exist).5: Partitioning the Grid.8.8.4: Creating Periodic Zones • Section 6.8: Replacing.8.6. create or slit periodic zones. and fuse boundaries. 2006 6-61 . September 29.8. which can be used to improve the mesh. If you have old data files that you would like to be able to read in again.8. and Activating Zones • Section 6. are described in Section 26.8.13: Improving the Grid by Smoothing and Swapping. Deleting. Smoothing and diagonal swapping.8. You can scale or translate the grid.12: Rotating the Grid c Fluent Inc. Deactivating.8.3: Fusing Face Zones • Section 6.9: Reordering the Domain and Zones • Section 6.10: Scaling the Grid • Section 6. In addition. i Whenever you modify the grid. be sure to retain the original case file as well. you should be sure to save a new case file (and a data file.1: Merging Zones • Section 6. Information about grid manipulation is provided in the following sections: • Section 6.8 Modifying the Grid There are several ways in which you can modify or manipulate the grid after it has been read into FLUENT.2: Separating Zones • Section 6. merge or separate zones.8.8.7: Extruding Face Zones • Section 6.8 Modifying the Grid 6. Methods for partitioning grids to be used in a parallel solver are discussed in Section 31.8.

A large number of zones often translates into a large number of surfaces that must be selected for the various display options. it can be difficult to render an internal flow-field solution. In addition. you may want to merge zones. For example. there may be cases where you will want to retain a larger number of zones. If the outer domain is composed of several zones. Zone merging is performed in the Merge Zones panel (Figure 6.8. Although merging zones can be helpful.1). Although a large number of zones can make selection of surfaces for display tedious.. Merging zones involves combining multiple zones of similar type into a single zone.8. Since the merging process is not fully reversible. 6-62 c Fluent Inc.11: Grouping. September 29. it can also provide more choices for rendering the grid and the flow-field solution. and Deleting Surfaces). Fortunately.1: The Merge Zones Panel When to Merge Zones FLUENT allows you to merge zones of similar type into a single zone.1 Merging Zones To simplify the solution process. For instance.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.8. 2006 .. such as color contouring. setting the same boundary condition parameters for a large number of zones can be time-consuming and may introduce inconsistencies. the grids of subsets of these zones can be plotted along with the solution to provide the relationship between the geometry and solution field. surfaces can also be merged (see Section 27. minimizing the negative impact of a large number of zones on postprocessing efficiency. Grid −→Merge. the postprocessing of the data often involves surfaces generated using the zones. Figure 6. This is not necessary unless the number of zones becomes prohibitive to efficient setup or postprocessing of the numerical analysis. Renaming. Setting boundary conditions and postprocessing may be easier after you have merged similar zones. a larger number of zones provides more flexibility in imposing boundary conditions.

Click on the Merge button to merge the selected zones. they are automatically assigned to the proper zones when separation occurs. you will need to separate the fluid zone into two or more fluid zones. If you plan to solve a problem using the sliding mesh model or multiple reference frames. c Fluent Inc. Select two or more zones in the Zones of Type list. For example.6. if you created a single wall zone when generating the grid for a duct. you should save a new case file. i Remember to save a new case file (and a data file. but you forgot to create different fluid zones for the regions moving at different speeds. the corresponding zones will appear in the Zones of Type list. if data exists). 2.8 Modifying the Grid Using the Merge Zones Panel The procedure for merging multiple zones of the same type into a single zone is as follows: 1. If your grid contains a zone that you want to break up into smaller portions. Slitting (decoupling) of periodic zones is discussed in Section 6. The maximum number of zones into which you can separate any one face zone or cell zone is 32. September 29. There are four ways to separate face zones and two ways to separate cell zones. you will need to break that wall zone into two or more wall zones. Note that all of the separation methods allow you to report the result of the separation before you commit to performing it. 3.5: Slitting Periodic Zones.8. If data exist. but you want to specify different temperatures on specific portions of the wall. you can make use of these features.8.2 Separating Zones There are several methods available in FLUENT that allow you to separate a single face or cell zone into multiple zones of the same type. followed by the cell separation tools. Select the zone type in the Multiple Types list. so you should also write a new data file. This list contains all the zone types for which there are multiple zones. The face separation methods will be described first. When you choose a type from this list. 6. i i After performing any of these separations. 2006 6-63 .

if your grid consists of a cube. For example. you would specify a significant angle of 89◦ . (Use the Manage Adaption Registers panel to determine the ID of the register you wish to use. 2006 . 6-64 c Fluent Inc. and all 6 sides of the cube are in a single wall zone. Faces with normal vectors that differ by an angle greater than or equal to the specified significant angle will be placed in different zones. For example. When you specify which register is to be used for the separation of the face zone. Consistent orientation can only be guaranteed on contiguous regions. isovalues of some variable. If you have a small face zone and would like to put each face in the zone into its own zone. Since the normal vector for each cube side differs by 90◦ from the normals of its adjacent sides. so you may need to separate face zones to allow proper boundary condition specification. or any of the other adaption methods discussed in Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid. September 29. when you use coupled wall boundary conditions you need the faces on the zone to have a consistent orientation. you can mark cells for adaption based on their location in the domain (region adaption). you can separate face zones based on contiguous regions. it is often easy to separate face zones based on significant angle.) Finally. each of the 6 sides will be placed in a different wall zone. You can also separate face zones based on the marks stored in adaption registers. you can do so by separating the faces based on face. their boundary closeness (boundary adaption). all faces of cells that are marked will be placed into a new face zone. For example.Reading and Manipulating Grids Separating Face Zones Methods for Separating Face Zones For geometries with sharp corners.

select the adaption register to be used in the Registers list. Mark.6.8 Modifying the Grid Inputs for Separating Face Zones To break up a face zone based on angle. face. 2. Select the separation method (Angle. Face.8. The steps for separating faces are as follows: 1. do one of the following: • If you are separating faces by angle. you should do so before performing any adaptions using the (default) hanging node adaption method. skip to the next step. September 29. Grid −→ Separate −→Faces. or region. • If you are separating faces by mark. specify the significant angle in the Angle field.8.2: The Separate Face Zones Panel i If you are planning to separate face zones. Otherwise. adaption mark. Figure 6. If you are separating by face or region. or Region) under Options. Face zones that contain hanging nodes cannot be separated. Specify the face zone to be separated in the Zones list..2). c Fluent Inc. use the Separate Face Zones panel (Figure 6.. 3. 2006 6-65 .

to move the offending face to a new zone. click on the Separate button. The report will look like this: Zone not separated. (optional) To check what the result of the separation will be before you actually separate the face zone. i When you separate the face zone by adaption mark. FLUENT will print the following information: 45 faces in contiguous region 0 30 faces in contiguous region 1 11 faces in contiguous region 2 14 faces in contiguous region 3 Separates zone 4 into 4 zone(s). 5. 6-66 c Fluent Inc. click on the Report button.8. You can then merge this new zone with the zone in which you want the face to be placed.. created zone wall-4:001 created zone wall-4:002 created zone wall-4:010 done. based on angle.Reading and Manipulating Grids 4. you may sometimes find that a face of a corner cell will be placed in the wrong face zone. You can usually correct this problem by performing an additional separation. To separate the face zone..1: Merging Zones. September 29. Updating zone information . as described in Section 6. 45 faces in contiguous region 0 30 faces in contiguous region 1 11 faces in contiguous region 2 14 faces in contiguous region 3 Separates zone 4 into 4 zone(s). 2006 .

3).8 Modifying the Grid Separating Cell Zones Methods for Separating Cell Zones If you have two or more enclosed cell regions sharing internal boundaries (as shown in Figure 6. When you specify which register is to be used for the separation of the cell zone. but all of the cells are contained in a single cell zone. cells that are marked will be placed into a new cell zone.6. Note that if the shared internal boundary is of type interior. you can mark cells with a certain isovalue range or cells inside or outside a specified region). You can mark cells for adaption using any of the adaption methods discussed in Chapter 26: Adapting the Grid (e. you can separate the cells into distinct zones using the separation-by-region method.) prior to performing the separation. you must change it to another double-sided face zone type (fan. radiator.g. (Use the Manage Adaption Registers panel to determine the ID of the register you wish to use.3: Cell Zone Separation Based on Region You can also separate cell zones based on the marks stored in adaption registers. September 29.8.. etc. zone 1 zone 2 Figure 6.) c Fluent Inc. 2006 6-67 .8.

Figure 6. Separates zone 14 into two zones. September 29. 2. If you are separating cells by mark. you should do so before performing any adaptions using the (default) hanging node adaption method. Grid −→ Separate −→Cells. (optional) To check what the result of the separation will be before you actually separate the cell zone. select the adaption register to be used in the Registers list. 4. click on the Report button.Reading and Manipulating Grids Inputs for Separating Cell Zones To break up a cell zone based on region or adaption mark.4).. Cell zones that contain hanging nodes cannot be separated. 2006 . use the Separate Cell Zones panel (Figure 6. 6-68 c Fluent Inc.4: The Separate Cell Zones Panel i If you are planning to separate cell zones. The steps for separating cells are as follows: 1. The report will look like this: Zone not separated. Select the separation method (Mark or Region) under Options.. Specify the cell zone to be separated in the Zones list.8.8. 3. with 1275 and 32 cells.

No faces marked on thread. 2006 6-69 . FLUENT will print the following information: Separates zone 14 into two zones. faces of cells that are moved to a new zone will be placed in a new face zone. 9 No faces marked on thread. with 1763 and 58 faces. 5 No faces marked on thread. c Fluent Inc. 2 No faces marked on thread. September 29. 8 No faces marked on thread. 3 No faces marked on thread. 66 Moved 20 faces from face zone 4 to zone 6 Updating zone information . click on the Separate button.6. with 1275 and 32 cells.8 Modifying the Grid 5. All faces marked on thread. When you separate by mark. 1 No faces marked on thread. When you separate by region. 4 No faces marked on thread. 61 Separates zone 62 into two zones. To separate the cell zone. faces of cells that are moved to a new zone will not necessarily be placed in a new face zone. 7 No faces marked on thread. see the comment above. separation of a cell zone will often result in the separation of face zones as well.. Moved 32 cells from cell zone 14 to zone 10 created zone interior-4 created zone interior-6 created zone fluid-14:010 done. at the end of the inputs for face zone separation.. As shown in the example above. If you find that any faces are placed incorrectly.

Figure 6. as described in Section 6. you will combine the subdomains into a single file before reading the grid into the solver. (See Section 6.3.3: Controlling the Mouse Button Functions for information about the mouse button functions).3.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files for details.4: Non-Conformal Grids for details. 6-70 c Fluent Inc.8. Another possible scenario is that you decided. September 29.) The Fuse Face Zones panel (Figure 6.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.. to save the mesh for each part of a complicated geometry as a separate part file.3 Fusing Face Zones The face fusing utility is a convenient feature that can be used to fuse boundaries (and merge duplicate nodes and faces) created by assembling multiple mesh regions. after the complete grid is read in. (Note that the grid node locations need not be identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet. You need to keep track of the zone ID numbers when tmerge or TGrid reports its progress or. see Section 6.5: The Fuse Face Zones Panel The boundaries on which the duplicate nodes lie are assigned zone ID numbers (just like any other boundary) when the grid files are combined. Grid −→Fuse. display all boundary grid zones and use the mouse-probe button to determine the zone names (see Section 28.5) allows you to merge the duplicate nodes and delete these artificial internal boundaries..) This situation could arise if you generate each block of a multiblock grid separately and save it to a separate grid file.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files.8. When the domain is divided into subdomains and the grid is generated separately for each subdomain.8. 2006 . during grid generation.

Fusing Zones on Branch Cuts Meshes imported from structured mesh generators or solvers (such as FLUENT 4) can often be O-type or C-type grids with a reentrant branch cut where coincident duplicate nodes lie on a periodic boundary. Click on the Fuse button to fuse the selected zones. Select the zones to be fused in the Zones list. Since FLUENT uses an unstructured grid representation.4: Creating Periodic Zones.) To fuse this periodic zone with itself. grid −→ modify-zones −→fuse-face-zones This command will prompt you for the name or ID of each zone to be fused. (Of course. September 29.8.8 Modifying the Grid Inputs for Fusing Face Zones The steps for fusing face zones are as follows: 1. as described in Section 6.6. This will create two symmetry zones that you can fuse using the procedure above. there is no reason to retain this artificial internal boundary. if data exist) after fusing faces.8. c Fluent Inc. or you may fuse the wrong nodes. i Remember to save a new case file (and a data file. Note that if you need to fuse portions of a non-periodic zone with itself. use the matching-tolerance command. 2006 6-71 . If all of the appropriate faces do not get fused using the default Tolerance. 2.) To change the node tolerance. you should increase it and attempt to fuse the zones again.5: Slitting Periodic Zones. (This tolerance is the same as the matching tolerance discussed in Section 6.5.) The Tolerance should not exceed 0. you must first slit the periodic zone. you must use the text command fuse-face-zones. (You will enter the same zone twice. you can preserve these periodic boundaries and the solution algorithm will solve the problem with periodic boundary conditions.

grid −→ modify-zones −→matching-tolerance 6-72 c Fluent Inc. zone 4 deleted Created periodic zones. grid −→ modify-zones −→make-periodic You will need to specify the two face zones that will comprise the periodic pair (you can enter their full names or just their IDs). You can assign periodicity to your grid by coupling a pair of face zones. The matching tolerance for a face is a fraction of the minimum edge length of the face. and indicate whether they are rotationally or translationally periodic. translational) [yes] n Create periodic zones? [yes] yes computed translation deltas: -2.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.8. whether or not the nodes on corresponding faces are coincident). then you can create a non-conformal periodic zone. (See Section 6. /grid/modify-zones> mp Periodic zone [()] 1 Shadow zone [()] 4 Rotational periodic? (if no.e.4: NonConformal Grids for more information about non-conformal grids. If the periodic boundary creation fails. 2006 .000000 all 10 faces matched for zones 1 and 4.4 Creating Periodic Zones FLUENT allows you to set up periodic boundaries using either conformal or non-conformal periodic zones. The order in which you specify the periodic zone and its matching shadow zone is not significant. you can create a conformal periodic zone. If the two zones have identical node and face distributions..000000 -2. the solver will check to see if the faces on the selected zones “match” (i. you will use the make-periodic text command. Creating Conformal Periodic Zones To create conformal periodic boundaries.5 or you may match up the periodic zones incorrectly and corrupt the grid.) i Remember to save a new case file (and a data file. you can change the matching tolerance using the matching-tolerance command. September 29. if data exist) after creating or slitting a periodic boundary. If the two zones are not identical at the boundaries within a specified tolerance. When you create a conformal periodic boundary. but it should not exceed 0.

8. For example.6. the non-conformal periodic boundaries are set up using the make-periodic command in the define/grid-interfaces text menu.0 Create periodic zone? [yes] yes grid-interface name [] fan-periodic i 6. Note that the created non-conformal periodic zones cannot be used with 3-D sliding mesh cases. if interface-15 and interface-2 are the two non-conformal periodic zones. September 29. you need to change the non-conformal periodic zones to interface zones. and the solver will decouple the two zones in the pair (the periodic zone and its shadow) and change them to two symmetry zones: /grid/modify-zones> sp periodic zone [()] periodic-1 Separated periodic zone.5 If non-conformal periodics are used. You will then need to set up the origin as well as the axes of the adjacent cell zone. grid −→ modify-zones −→slit-periodic You will specify the periodic zone’s name or ID. they should not be intersected by any other non-conformal interfaces.8 Modifying the Grid Creating Non-Conformal Periodic Zones To create non-conformal periodic boundaries. 2006 6-73 . define −→ grid-interfaces −→make-periodic For example: /define/grid-interfaces> make-periodic Periodic zone [()] interface-15 Shadow zone [()] interface-2 Rotational periodic? (if no. you can use the slit-periodic command. Slitting Periodic Zones If you wish to decouple the zones in a periodic pair. translational) [yes] yes Rotation angle (deg) [0] 40. c Fluent Inc.

it is independent of thermal coupling. i You should not confuse “slitting” a face zone with “separating” a face zone. (This coupling refers only to the grid. One set of nodes and faces will belong to one of the resulting boundary zones and the other set will belong to the other zone. • You can slit a coupled wall zone into two distinct. but no new faces or nodes are created.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6.8. The only ill effect of the shared nodes at each end is that you may see some inaccuracies at those points when you graphically display solution data with a slit boundary. you will not be able to fuse the boundaries back together again.6 Slitting Face Zones The face-zone slitting feature has two uses: • You can slit a single boundary zone of any double-sided type (i.. you should slit the coupled wall to obtain two distinct walls. except those nodes that are located at the ends (2D) or edges (3D) of the zone. and the solver will replace the zone with two zones: /grid/modify-zones> slfz face zone id/name [] wall-4 zone 4 deleted face zone 4 created face zone 10 created 6-74 c Fluent Inc. Inputs for Slitting Face Zones If you wish to slit a face zone.) Normally. but remain coupled. Two-sided walls are automatically slit. 2006 . grid −→ modify-zones −→slit-face-zone You will specify the face zone’s name or ID.e. adapting on one wall causes the same adaption on the shadow. the existing faces and nodes are simply redistributed among the zones. September 29. When you slit a face zone. uncoupled wall zones.) The adaption process treats these coupled walls just like periodic boundaries. you can use the slit-face-zone command. any boundary zone that has cells on both sides of it) into two distinct zones. additional faces and nodes are created and placed in a new zone. (Note that if you adapt the boundary after slitting. When you slit a face zone. When you separate a face zone. the solver will duplicate all faces and nodes. a new zone will be created. If you want to adapt one wall independent of its shadow. you will not need to manually slit a face zone.

8. The current extrusion capability creates prismatic or hexahedral layers based on the shape of the face and normal vectors computed by averaging the face normals to the face zone’s nodes.7 Extruding Face Zones The ability to extrude a boundary face zone allows you to extend the solution domain without having to exit the solver.0 and end with 1. You can define the extrusion process by specifying a list of displacements (in SI units) or by specifying a total distance (in SI units) and parametric coordinates.0. a total distance. 1. Specifying Extrusion by Displacement Distances You can specify the extrusion by entering a list of displacement distances (in SI units) using the extrude-face-zone-delta command. For example. A typical application of the extrusion capability is to extend the solution domain when recirculating flow is impinging on a flow outlet.0. grid −→ modify-zones −→extrude-face-zone-delta You will be prompted for the boundary face zone ID or name and a list of displacement distances.0. the following list of parametric coordinates would create two equally spaced extrusion layers: 0. if data exist) after slitting faces.6. 2006 6-75 . i Note that extrusion is not possible from boundary face zones that have hanging nodes. The list of parametric coordinates should begin with 0. September 29. and a list of parametric coordinates. c Fluent Inc. 6.5. Specifying Extrusion by Parametric Coordinates You can specify the extrusion by specifying a distance (in SI units) and parametric coordinates using the extrude-face-zone-para command grid −→ modify-zones −→extrude-face-zone-para You will be prompted for the boundary face zone ID or name. 0.8 Modifying the Grid i Remember to save a new case file (and a data file.

6). Note that the new cell zone might not have the same name as the old cell zone. do the following: 1.8.8. Replacing a zone is performed in the Replace Cell Zones panel (Figure 6. Under Existing Zones. or temporarily deactivate and activate zones from your FLUENT case. The replaced mesh will be conformal with that of the old mesh. select the zone you want to replace. 2006 . You can also permanently delete a cell zone and all associated face zones.. 6-76 c Fluent Inc. Click Browse. Replacing Zones This feature allows you to replace a small region of a computational domain with a new region of different mesh quality.. Grid −→ Zone −→Replace. The deleted cell zone is now totally separated and can be deleted without affecting anything else. The zone names of the new mesh will be listed under the Replace with list box. 2.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. without remeshing the whole domain every time.. and select the new or modified mesh containing the cell zone which will replace the cell zone in the current mesh. FLUENT will first separate all the face zones which are connected to any undeleted zones in the current mesh. Figure 6. This functionality will be required where you may want to make changes to the geometry or mesh quality for any part of the domain.6: The Replace Cell Zones Panel For replacing the zones of the same type. September 29.. This ability of FLUENT is time saving since you can modify only the required part of the domain. Deactivating. Deleting. and Activating Zones FLUENT allows you to append or replace the existing cell zone in the grid.8 Replacing. FLUENT checks for all face zones which have the same name as the face zones that were deleted and applies the old boundary conditions.8.

2006 6-77 . and restores the condition of the mesh to its original form. Deleting Zones To permanently delete zones. Grid −→ Zone −→Delete. Click Replace to replace the selected zone.6. select them in the Delete Cell Zones panel (Figure 6. select the zone from the newly read mesh. creating sliding interfaces. Figure 6.8. FLUENT stitches the two-sided walls.8.7)..7: The Delete Cell Zones Panel c Fluent Inc.. and click Delete.8 Modifying the Grid 3. 4. September 29. Under Replace with.

8. select them in the Deactivate Cell Zones panel (Figure 6. September 29. porous-jump... 6-78 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .. or radiator) into wall and wall-shadow pairs. Read in the data file. Select the zone(s) to be deactivated under Cell Zones. 3.8).e. Grid −→ Zone −→Deactivate. 2. prior to clicking the Deactivate button.8: The Deactivate Cell Zones Panel Deactivation will separate all relevant interior face zones (i. or the solution is initialized. To deactivate selected cell zones in parallel 1. Click the Deactivate button. or initialize your solution. Figure 6.8.Reading and Manipulating Grids Deactivating Zones To deactivate zones. i If you have neither read in the data file. The zones will not be deactivated until data is read. and click Deactivate. interior. Note: When you deactivate a zone using the Deactivate Cell Zones panel. fan. then the selected cell zones will only be marked for deactivation. nor initialized the solution. FLUENT will remove the zone from the grid and from all relevant solver loops.

nor initialized the solution. If you plan to reactivate them at a later time.. Click the Activate button. or the solution is initialized.. September 29. however.8. Figure 6. 2. you need to make sure that the boundary conditions for the wall and wall-shadow pairs are restored correctly to what you assigned before deactivating the zones.6. Adaption. After reactivation. i If you have neither read in the data file. prior to clicking the Activate button. Read in the data file. To activate selected cell zones in parallel 1.9). Grid −→ Zone −→Activate. 2006 6-79 . or initialize your solution. The zones will not be activated until data is read.8 Modifying the Grid Activating Zones You can reactivate the zones and recover the last data available for them using the Activate Cell Zones panel (Figure 6. is supported. then the selected cell zones will only be marked for activation. Select the zone(s) to be activated under Cell Zones. c Fluent Inc. make sure that the face zones that are separated during deactivation are not modified.9: The Activate Cell Zones Panel Note: The Activate Cell Zones panel will only be populated with zones that were previously deactivated.8. 3.

e. you can print the bandwidth of the present grid partitions by selecting the Print Bandwidth menu item. September 29. These level assignments form the level tree. and cells in memory.. and also for printing the bandwidth of the present grid partitions. Since most of the computational loops are over faces. and cells in memory. The Grid/Reorder submenu contains commands for reordering the domain and zones. In general. faces. and the nodes. and the zones can be reordered for user-interface convenience.9 Reordering the Domain and Zones Reordering the domain can improve the computational performance of the solver by rearranging the nodes. You may also choose to reorder the zones. This command prints the semi-bandwidth and maximum memory distance for each grid partition. Each cell is then assigned to a level based on its distance from the seed cell. Grid −→ Reorder −→Domain To reorder the zones. you would like the two cells in memory cache at the same time to reduce cache and/or disk swapping—i. The domain can be reordered to increase memory access efficiency. and Stockmeyer [118]. select the Zones menu item. if data exist) after reordering. Poole. The present scheme reorders the faces and cells in the zone. Grid −→ Reorder −→Zones Finally. 6-80 c Fluent Inc. The bandwidth provides insight into the distribution of the cells in the zones and in memory. About Reordering The Reverse Cuthill-McKee algorithm [72] is used in the reordering process to construct a “level tree” initiated from a “seed cell” in the domain. the faces and cells are reordered so that neighboring cells are near each other in the zone and in memory. 2006 . you want the cells near each other in memory to reduce the cost of memory access. select the Domain menu item. faces. First a cell (called the seed cell) is selected using the algorithm of Gibbs.8. Grid −→ Reorder −→Print Bandwidth i Remember to save a new case file (and a data file.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. The zones are reordered by first sorting on zone type and then on zone ID. Zone reordering is performed simply for user-interface convenience. To reorder the domain.

Each node coordinate will be multiplied by the corresponding scale factor. If you print the bandwidth.8. you could stretch the grid in the x direction by assigning a scale factor of 2 in the x direction and 1 in the y and z directions. Bandwidth reduction = 809/21 = 38. This would double the extent of the grid in the x direction. done. 2006 6-81 . FLUENT stores the computational grid in meters. You will use the Scale Grid panel (Figure 6.10 Scaling the Grid Internally. c Fluent Inc. faces. Any data that exist when you scale the grid will be invalid. you can select from a list of common units to convert the grid or you can supply your own custom scale factors. you will see a report similar to the following: Maximum cell distance = 21 The bandwidth is the maximum difference between neighboring cells in the zone—i.. you should do so before you initialize the flow or begin calculations.52 Done. etc.8.).10) to scale the grid from a standard unit of measurement or to apply custom scaling factors. since it will change the aspect ratios of the cells in your grid. 6. feet. September 29. For instance.6.8 Modifying the Grid A typical output produced using the domain reordering is shown below: >> Reordering domain using Reverse Cuthill-McKee method: zones. if you numbered each cell in the zone list sequentially and compared the differences between these indices. To do this. the SI unit of length. you should use anisotropic scaling with caution. i If you plan to scale the grid in any way. Grid −→Scale. it is assumed that the grid was generated in units of meters. If your grid was created using a different unit of length (inches. you must scale the grid to meters. However.. cells.. When grid information is read into the solver.e. centimeters. Scaling can also be used to change the physical size of the grid.

8. 2006 . September 29.Reading and Manipulating Grids Figure 6.10: The Scale Grid Panel 6-82 c Fluent Inc.

you can enter the Scale Factors (e.0254 meters/inch or 0. If you created your grid using units other than those in the list. If you prefer to use your original unit of length during the FLUENT session. For example. Unscaling the Grid If you use the wrong scale factor. If you want to work in your original units.4: Customizing Units).g. This is a shortcut for changing the length unit in the Set Units panel (see Section 5. The Domain Extents will be updated to show the correct range in meters. September 29. When you click on the Change Length Units button. inches. (Selecting m in the Grid Was Created In list and clicking on Scale will not unscale the grid. instead of in meters. The Domain Extents will be updated to show the new range. or feet in the Grid Was Created In drop-down list. Changing the Unit of Length As mentioned above in step 2.g. c Fluent Inc. 2. when you scale the grid you do not change the units. This unit will be used for all future inputs of length quantities.. millimeters. if your grid is 5 feet by 8 feet. the number of meters per yard) manually. The Scale Factors will automatically be set to the correct values (e.8 Modifying the Grid Using the Scale Grid Panel The procedure for scaling the grid is as follows: 1. you can follow the procedure described below to change the unit. 2006 6-83 . you can click on the Unscale button. and you want to model the same geometry with dimensions twice as big (10 × 16). 0. or wish to undo the scaling for any other reason.6. you just convert the original dimensions of your grid points from your original units to meters by multiplying each node coordinate by the specified Scale Factors. you can enter 2 for the X and Y Scale Factors and click on Scale. accidentally click the Scale button twice.. you can click on the Change Length Units button. the Domain Extents will be updated to show the range in your original units.3048 meters/foot). Click on the Scale button.) Changing the Physical Size of the Grid You can also use the Scale Grid panel to change the physical size of the grid. Indicate the units in which you created the grid by choosing the appropriate abbreviation for centimeters. “Unscaling” simply divides each of the node coordinates by the specified Scale Factors.

2006 . for example.11). Enter the desired translations in the x. and (for 3D) z directions (i. you want to move the origin to a particular point on an object (such as the leading edge of a flat plate) to make an XY plot have the desired distances on the x axis. or for an axisymmetric problem if the grid were set up with the axis of rotation not coinciding with the x axis. Y.. The Domain Extents will be updated to display the new extents of the translated grid. You can translate grid points in FLUENT using the Translate Grid panel (Figure 6.8. the desired delta in the axes origin) in the X. Figure 6.11: The Translate Grid Panel Using the Translate Grid Panel The procedure for translating the grid is as follows: 1.8. (Note that the Domain Extents are purely informational. It is also useful if. Grid −→Translate. You can specify positive or negative real numbers in the current unit of length.) 6-84 c Fluent Inc.11 Translating the Grid You can “move” the grid by applying prescribed offsets to the Cartesian coordinates of all the nodes in the grid.e. 2.Reading and Manipulating Grids 6. y.. you cannot edit them manually.8. and Z fields under Translation Offsets. Click on the Translate button.. September 29. This would be necessary for a rotating problem if the grid were set up with the axis of rotation not passing through the origin.

2006 6-85 .12: The Rotate Grid Panel c Fluent Inc.8.8. Figure 6.12 Rotating the Grid The ability to rotate the mesh is analogous to the ability to translate the mesh in FLUENT. y.. September 29.8 Modifying the Grid 6. or z (for 3D) axis and also specify the rotation origin.12). You can rotate the grid in FLUENT using the Rotate Grid panel (Figure 6. This option is useful in the cases where the structural grid and the CFD grid are offset by a small angle.6. Grid −→Rotate.8. You can rotate the mesh about the x..

September 29. 2006 .) 6-86 c Fluent Inc. 3. Specify the required Rotation Angle for the grid. Y. Under Rotation Axis. and Z (for 3D) coordinates to specify a new origin for axis of rotation. you cannot edit them manually. enter X. 2. Under Rotation Origin.Reading and Manipulating Grids Using the Rotate Grid Panel The procedure for rotating the grid is as follows: 1. You can specify any positive or negative real number in the correct unit of angle. Click on Rotate button. enter 1 for the axis along which you want to rotate the grid. 4. The Domain Extents will be updated to display the new extents of the rotated grid. (Note that the Domain Extents are purely informational.

10: Outflow Boundary Conditions • Section 7. Boundary Conditions This chapter describes the boundary condition options available in FLUENT. 2006 7-1 .5: Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions • Section 7.3: Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions • Section 7. Details regarding the boundary condition inputs you must supply and the internal treatment at boundaries are provided.4: Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions • Section 7.7: Intake Fan Boundary Conditions • Section 7.6: Inlet Vent Boundary Conditions • Section 7.8: Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions • Section 7.14: Symmetry Boundary Conditions • Section 7.19: Porous Media Conditions c Fluent Inc. The information in this chapter is divided into the following sections: • Section 7.9: Pressure Far-Field Boundary Conditions • Section 7.16: Axis Boundary Conditions • Section 7.11: Outlet Vent Boundary Conditions • Section 7.13: Wall Boundary Conditions • Section 7.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions • Section 7. September 29.Chapter 7.12: Exhaust Fan Boundary Conditions • Section 7.15: Periodic Boundary Conditions • Section 7.1: Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions • Section 7.18: Solid Conditions • Section 7.17: Fluid Conditions • Section 7.

20: Fan Boundary Conditions • Section 7.23: Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions • Section 7.24: User-Defined Fan Model • Section 7.21: Radiator Boundary Conditions • Section 7.Boundary Conditions • Section 7. Momentum.30: Coupling Boundary Conditions with WAVE 7-2 c Fluent Inc. 2006 . and Other Sources • Section 7.27: Fixing the Values of Variables • Section 7.22: Porous Jump Boundary Conditions • Section 7.28: Defining Mass.26: Boundary Profiles • Section 7.29: Coupling Boundary Conditions with GT-Power • Section 7. Energy. September 29.25: Heat Exchanger Models • Section 7.

• Wall.1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions Boundary conditions specify the flow and thermal variables on the boundaries of your physical model.7. and solid (porous is a type of fluid zone). a critical component of your FLUENT simulations and it is important that they are specified appropriately. and exhaust fan. (The internal face boundary conditions are defined on cell faces. These boundary conditions are used to implement physical models representing fans. and an explanation of how to set them and when they are most appropriately used will be provided. which means that they do not have a finite thickness and they provide a means of introducing a step change in flow properties. and axis. pressure far-field.1 Available Boundary Types The boundary types available in FLUENT are classified as follows: • Flow inlet and exit boundaries: pressure inlet. pressure outlet. and radiators. symmetry. 2006 7-3 . porous jump. mass flow inlet. velocity inlet.15: Periodic Boundary Conditions. additional information about modeling fully-developed periodic flows is provided in Section 9. 7. vent.1. wall. Note that while periodic boundaries are described in Section 7. periodic. thin porous membranes. and pole boundaries: wall. therefore. radiator. They are. repeating.1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions 7. September 29. The “interior” type of internal face zone does not require any input from you. outlet vent. c Fluent Inc.) In this chapter. and interior. and inlet. outflow. the boundary conditions listed above will be described. • Internal face boundaries: fan.4: Periodic Flows. intake fan. • Internal cell zones: fluid.

1..6 explain how to perform these operations with the Boundary Conditions panel. September 29.3–7..1. Define −→Boundary Conditions.1. Figure 7.1.1.Boundary Conditions 7.2 The Boundary Conditions Panel The Boundary Conditions panel (Figure 7.1) allows you to change the boundary zone type for a given zone and open other panels to set the boundary condition parameters for each zone. 2006 . 7-4 c Fluent Inc.1: The Boundary Conditions Panel Sections 7. and how to use the mouse and the graphics display in conjunction with the panel.

1. and the panel for setting conditions for the zone will open automatically. you should check the zone types of all boundary zones and change any if necessary.4: Creating Periodic Zones explains how to create and uncouple periodic zones. See Section 23. Confirm the change when prompted by the Question dialog box. or Eulerian). Choose the correct zone type in the Type list. In the Boundary Conditions panel.7.9. select the zone to be changed in the Zone list. since additional restrictions exist for this boundary type. Once you have confirmed the change. the name will change automatically (if the original name was the default name for that zone—see Section 7.7: Changing Boundary Zone Names). If you are using one of the general multiphase models (VOF.1. the zone type will be changed. mixture. 2. i c Fluent Inc.3 Changing Boundary Zone Types Before you set any boundary conditions. 3. i Note that you cannot use this method to change zone types to or from the periodic type. Section 6. 2006 7-5 . September 29.1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions 7. but you want to use a velocity inlet instead. if your grid includes a pressure inlet.8: Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions for details. the procedure for changing types is slightly different.8. The steps for changing a zone type are as follows: 1. For example. you will need to change the pressure-inlet zone to a velocity-inlet zone.

2006 .) Table 7.Boundary Conditions Categories of Zone Types You should be aware that you can only change boundary types within each category listed in Table 7. intake fan.1: Merging Zones for information about merging zones. pressure inlet. or 1. inlet vent.4 Setting Boundary Conditions In FLUENT. porous jump.1. outlet vent. pressure farfield. To set boundary conditions for a particular zone.1. 7-6 c Fluent Inc.8.1: Zone Types Listed by Category Category Faces Zone Types axis. outflow. solid (porous is a type of fluid cell) Double-Sided Faces Periodic Cells 7. wall. September 29. perform one of the following sequences: 1. pressure outlet.. Choose the zone in the Zone list. not with individual faces or cells.. If you want to combine two or more zones that will have the same boundary conditions. or 1. (Note that a double-sided face zone is a zone that separates two different cell zones or regions. Double-click on the zone in the Zone list. 2. radiator.1. button. symmetry. see Section 6. Choose the zone in the Boundary Conditions panel’s Zone list. exhaust fan fan. velocity inlet. mass flow inlet.1. 2. Click on the Set. Click on the selected zone type in the Type list. interior. boundary conditions are associated with zones. wall periodic fluid.

2: The Copy BCs Panel 2. mixture.8: Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions for details. and then simply copy them to the others. button. 2006 7-7 .1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions The panel for the selected boundary zone will open. 7. FLUENT will set all of the boundary conditions for the zones selected in the To Zones list to be the same as the conditions for the zone selected in the From Zone list. The procedure for copying boundary conditions is as follows: 1.5 Copying Boundary Conditions You can copy boundary conditions from one zone to other zones of the same type. and you can specify the appropriate boundary conditions. Click Copy. Figure 7.1. you can set the conditions for one wall. select the zone that has the conditions you want to copy.7. (You cannot copy a subset of the conditions. September 29. for example. i If you are using one of the general multiphase models (VOF. This will open the Copy BCs panel (Figure 7.2).1.1.) c Fluent Inc.9. such as only the thermal conditions. click the Copy. 3. See Section 23. select the zone or zones to which you want to copy the conditions. 4. you have several wall zones in your model and they all have the same boundary conditions. If. In the Boundary Conditions panel. In the To Zones list.. the procedure for setting boundary conditions is slightly different from that described above. or Eulerian).. In the From Zone list.

.e. 7.3: Changing Boundary Zone Types.8: Steps for Copying Boundary Conditions for details. Enter a new name under Zone Name.) To rename a zone.g. 7-8 c Fluent Inc.1. Use the mouse probe button (the right button. September 29.. or vice versa. you may want to assign more descriptive names to the boundary zones. 2006 . mixture. since the thermal conditions for external and internal walls are different. do the following: 1. 3. In some cases.1. The zone you select in the graphics display will automatically be selected in the Zone list in the Boundary Conditions panel. If you have two pressure-inlet zones. pressure-inlet-7).3: Controlling the Mouse Button Functions to modify the mouse button functions) to click on a boundary zone in the graphics window. To use this feature. if the energy equation is being solved. 2. i If you are using one of the general multiphase models (VOF. or Eulerian).1.6 Selecting Boundary Zones in the Graphics Display Whenever you need to select a zone in the Boundary Conditions panel. This feature is particularly useful if you are setting up a problem for the first time. See Section 23.Boundary Conditions Note that you cannot copy conditions from external walls to internal (i. the procedure for copying boundary conditions is slightly different.. (Changing the name of a zone will not change its type. 7. to open the panel for the selected zone. 2. Select the zone to be renamed in the Zones list in the Boundary Conditions panel. Display the grid using the Grid Display panel. for example. two-sided) walls. Instructions for changing a zone’s type are provided in Section 7.. you might want to rename them small-inlet and large-inlet. 4.7 Changing Boundary Zone Names The default name for a zone is its type plus an ID number (e. figure out which zone is which). and its name and ID will be printed in the console window. follow these steps: 1. Click Set. Click the OK button. or if you have two or more zones of the same type and you want to determine the zone IDs (i.9. you can use the mouse in the graphics window to choose the appropriate zone.e.. by default—see Section 28.

1: Setting In-Cylinder Parameters).. or a function that you create using a user-defined function (UDF). and user-defined functions are described in the separate UDF Manual. bn) . September 29. rn)) c Fluent Inc. You can use a profile contained in an externally generated boundary profile file.7..7.26: Boundary Profiles) is ((profile-name transient n periodic?) (field_name-1 a1 a2 a3 . . (field_name-r r1 r2 r3 . the name you specified will be retained.1.8 Defining Non-Uniform Boundary Conditions Most conditions at each type of boundary zone can be defined as profile functions instead of constant values.26: Boundary Profiles • transient profile in a tabular format i For both methods. .26: Boundary Profiles. Examples of transient profiles and transient tables in crank angle can be found in the sections that follow. Standard Transient Profiles The format of the standard transient profile file (based on the profiles described in Section 7.. 2006 7-9 . in a similar fashion to time. it must be spatially uniform. However. then you have the option to use the crank angle instead of time. . the automatic name change that accompanies a change in type occurs only if the name of the zone is its type plus its ID.1. the boundary condition will vary only in time. 7. if the in-cylinder model is activated (Section 11. an) (field_name-2 b1 b2 b3 .. Boundary condition profiles are described in Section 7. Crank angles can be included in transient tables as well as transient profiles..9 Defining Transient Boundary Conditions There are two ways you can specify transient boundary conditions: • transient profile with a format similar to the standard boundary profiles described in Section 7.1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions Note that if you specify a new name for a zone and then change its type... 7...

or 0 if the profile is not time-periodic.000000e+02 5. menu item. Also. Uppercase letters in boundary profile names are not acceptable.26.600000e+02) (temperature 3.000000e+02 3.g..3: Using Boundary Profiles for details.Boundary Conditions One of the field names should be used for the time field. name). Define −→Profiles.. File −→ Read −→Profile.. September 29.. 2006 .. The periodic? entry indicates whether or not the profile is time-periodic. must be specified in SI units because FLUENT does not perform unit conversion when reading profile files. including coordinate values. See Section 7.000000e+02) ) i All quantities. An example is shown below: ((sampleprofile transient 3 0) (time 1 2 3 ) (u 10 20 30 ) ) This example demonstrates the use of crank angle in a transient profile ((example transient 3 1) (angle 0...000000e+00 1. Set it to 1 for a time-periodic profile. You can read this file into FLUENT using the Boundary Profiles panel or the File/Read/Profile. and the time field section must be in ascending order.800000e+02 3. boundary profile names must have all lowercase letters (e. 7-10 c Fluent Inc.

.. . .. must be in ascending order. field-name-1) should be used for the time field. . . v-n_field-2 .. An example is shown below: periodtabprofile 2 4 1 time u 0 10 1 20 2 30 3 10 c Fluent Inc.7.... v-1-n_data v-2-n_data . v-n_field-n_data The first field name (e.g. ....... and the time field section. then n data must be the number that closes one period.. An example is shown below: sampletabprofile 2 3 0 time u 1 10 2 20 3 30 This file defines the same transient profile as the standard profile example above. which represents the flow time. September 29. .. field-name-n_field v-1-1 v-2-1 . . Set it to 1 for a time-periodic profile. 2006 7-11 .... If the periodicity is set to 1. ...1 Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions Tabular Transient Profiles The format of the tabular transient profile file is profile-name n_field n_data periodic? field-name-1 field-name-2 field-name-3 .... ... . ... or 0 if the profile is not time-periodic. . The periodic? entry indicates whether or not the profile is time-periodic. v-n_field-1 v-1-2 v-2-2 . .

You can read this file into FLUENT using the read-transient-table text command. name). 7-12 c Fluent Inc. and what information is needed for each one.1.g. the profile will be listed in the Boundary Profiles panel and can be used in the same way as a boundary profile. spaces or parentheses should not be included..6: Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions. See Section 7. file −→read-transient-table After reading the table into FLUENT. 7.2 Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions FLUENT has a wide range of boundary conditions that permit flow to enter and exit the solution domain. Uppercase letters in boundary profile names are not acceptable. September 29. including coordinate values. as described in Section 4.Boundary Conditions The following example uses crank angle instead of time: example 2 3 1 angle temperature 0 300 180 500 360 300 i All quantities. Recommendations for determining inlet values of the turbulence parameters are also provided. boundary profile names must have all lowercase letters (e. 7. When choosing the field names. Also. 2006 . must be specified in SI units because FLUENT does not perform unit conversion when reading profile files.3: Using Boundary Profiles for details. To help you select the most appropriate boundary condition for your application.10 Saving and Reusing Boundary Conditions You can save boundary conditions to a file so that you can use them to specify the same conditions for a different case. this section includes descriptions of how each type of condition is used.26.

• Exhaust fan boundary conditions are used to model an external exhaust fan with a specified pressure jump and ambient (discharge) static pressure. • Pressure inlet boundary conditions are used to define the total pressure and other scalar quantities at flow inlets. This boundary type is available only for compressible flows.1 Using Flow Boundary Conditions This section provides an overview of flow boundaries in FLUENT and how to use them. • Outlet vent boundary conditions are used to model an outlet vent with a specified loss coefficient and ambient (discharge) static pressure and temperature. and exhaust fan. as the outflow boundary condition assumes a zero normal gradient for all flow variables except pressure. with free-stream Mach number and static conditions specified. The inlet and exit boundary condition options in FLUENT are as follows: • Velocity inlet boundary conditions are used to define the velocity and scalar properties of the flow at inlet boundaries. outlet vent.2 Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions 7. They are appropriate where the exit flow is close to a fully developed condition.2. pressure far-field.7. mass flow inlet. outflow. flow direction. and ambient (intake) total pressure and temperature. • Intake fan boundary conditions are used to model an external intake fan with a specified pressure jump. September 29. pressure inlet. It is not necessary to use mass flow inlets in incompressible flows because when density is constant. • Inlet vent boundary conditions are used to model an inlet vent with a specified loss coefficient. and ambient (inlet) total pressure and temperature. c Fluent Inc. The use of a pressure outlet boundary condition instead of an outflow condition often results in a better rate of convergence when backflow occurs during iteration. • Mass flow inlet boundary conditions are used in compressible flows to prescribe a mass flow rate at an inlet. FLUENT provides 10 types of boundary zone types for the specification of flow inlets and exits: velocity inlet. They are not appropriate for compressible flow calculations. velocity inlet boundary conditions will fix the mass flow. flow direction. • Outflow boundary conditions are used to model flow exits where the details of the flow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solution of the flow problem. inlet vent. • Pressure far-field boundary conditions are used to model a free-stream compressible flow at infinity. intake fan. 2006 7-13 . in case of backflow). pressure outlet. • Pressure outlet boundary conditions are used to define the static pressure at flow outlets (and also other scalar variables.

• Reynolds stress model: Choose K and Epsilon in the Turbulence Specification Method drop-down list and select the appropriate profile names in the drop-down lists next to Turb.models: Choose K and Epsilon in the Turbulence Specification Method drop-down list and select the appropriate profile names in the drop-down lists next to Turb. Choose Reynolds-Stress Components in the Reynolds-Stress Specification Method drop-down list and select the appropriate profile name in the drop-down list next to each of the individual Reynolds-stress components. you can use it as described below: • Spalart-Allmaras model: Choose Turbulent Viscosity or Turbulent Viscosity Ratio in the Turbulence Specification Method drop-down list and select the appropriate profile name in the drop-down list next to Turbulent Viscosity or Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. This section describes which quantities are needed for specific turbulence models and how they must be specified. Specification of Turbulence Quantities Using Profiles If it is important to accurately represent a boundary layer or fully-developed turbulent flow at the inlet. Dissipation Rate.26: Boundary Profiles) from experimental data or empirical formulas. It also provides guidelines for the most appropriate way of determining the inflow boundary values. you can either use this analytical description to create a boundary profile file. Dissipation Rate. outlet. FLUENT computes the boundary value for the modified turbulent viscosity. Dissipation Rate. or far-field boundary. you should ideally set the turbulence quantities by creating a boundary profile file (see Section 7.Boundary Conditions 7. 2006 . • k. • k-ω models: Choose K and Omega in the Turbulence Specification Method drop-down list and select the appropriate profile names in the drop-down lists next to Turb.2.) Once you have created the profile function. Kinetic Energy and Turb. 7-14 c Fluent Inc. September 29.2 Determining Turbulence Parameters When the flow enters the domain at an inlet. Kinetic Energy and Spec. by ˜ combining µt /µ with the appropriate values of density and molecular viscosity. rather than data points. ν . Kinetic Energy and Turb. If you have an analytical description of the profile. (See the separate UDF Manual for information on user-defined functions. FLUENT requires specification of transported turbulence quantities. or create a user-defined function to provide the inlet boundary information.

16(ReDH )−1/8 uavg (7. far-field boundaries. is defined as the ratio of the root-mean-square of the velocity fluctuations. Examples are fluid entering a duct. it is appropriate to specify a uniform value of the turbulence quantity at the boundary where inflow occurs. making the result of the calculation relatively insensitive to the inflow boundary values. Ideally. Nevertheless.05%. September 29. turbulent viscosity ratio. hydraulic diameter. If the flow is fully developed.2 Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions Uniform Specification of Turbulence Quantities In some situations. the turbulence intensity will be 4%. A turbulence intensity of 1% or less is generally considered low and turbulence intensities greater than 10% are considered high. higher levels of turbulence are generated within shear layers than enter the domain at flow boundaries. if you are simulating a wind-tunnel experiment. For internal flows. the turbulence intensity at the inlets is totally dependent on the upstream history of the flow. the turbulence intensity may be as high as a few percent. In modern low-turbulence wind tunnels. For example. for example. to the mean flow velocity. The turbulence intensity at the core of a fully-developed duct flow can be estimated from the following formula derived from an empirical correlation for pipe flows: I≡ u = 0. you can use a low turbulence intensity. u .2-1) At a Reynolds number of 50. according to this formula. Turbulence Intensity The turbulence intensity. measured data. the free-stream turbulence intensity may be as low as 0. you can specify the turbulence quantities in terms of more convenient quantities such as turbulence intensity. and turbulence length scale. If the flow upstream is under-developed and undisturbed. These quantities are discussed further in the following sections. the turbulence intensity in the free stream is usually available from the tunnel characteristics. In most turbulent flows. c Fluent Inc.000. You can use the turbulence specification methods described above to enter uniform constant values instead of profiles. Alternatively.7. you will have a good estimate of the turbulence intensity at the inlet boundary from external. uavg . or even fully-developed duct flows where accurate profiles of turbulence quantities are unknown. caution must be used to ensure that boundary values are not so unphysical as to contaminate your solution or impede convergence. 2006 7-15 . I. This is particularly true of external flows where unphysically large values of effective viscosity in the free stream can “swamp” the boundary layers.

Boundary Conditions Turbulence Length Scale and Hydraulic Diameter The turbulence length scale.07 is based on the maximum value of the mixing length in fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. If the turbulence derives its characteristic length from an obstacle in the flow. An approximate relationship between and the physical size of the duct is = 0. • For flows downstream of turning vanes. from = 0. to compute the turbulence length scale. The factor of 0.2-2. . where L is the diameter of the pipe. choose the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter specification method and specify the hydraulic diameter L = DH in the Hydraulic Diameter field. 7-16 c Fluent Inc. Guidelines for choosing the characteristic length L or the turbulence length scale selected flow types are listed below: for • For fully-developed internal flows. choose the Intensity and Length Scale method and use the boundary-layer thickness. For most cases. In fully-developed duct flows. September 29. It should be noted that the relationship of Equation 7.07L (7. such as a perforated plate. which relates a physical dimension (L) to the turbulence length scale ( ). is a physical quantity related to the size of the large eddies that contain the energy in turbulent flows. is restricted by the size of the duct. choose the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter method and specify the characteristic length of the flow opening for L in the Hydraulic Diameter field. you can base L on the hydraulic diameter. In a channel of non-circular cross-section. it is more appropriate to base the turbulence length scale on the characteristic length of the obstacle rather than on the duct size. . it is a suitable approximation.4δ99 . however..2-2) where L is the relevant dimension of the duct. δ99 . • For wall-bounded flows in which the inlets involve a turbulent boundary layer. since the turbulent eddies cannot be larger than the duct. perforated plates. Enter this value for in the Turbulence Length Scale field. etc. is not necessarily applicable to all situations. 2006 .

the turbulence parameters are set so that 1 < µt /µ < 10. Several useful relations. I. Estimating Modified Turbulent Viscosity from Turbulence Intensity and Length Scale To obtain the modified turbulent viscosity.2-3) This formula is used in FLUENT if you select the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter specification method with the Spalart-Allmaras model. September 29. are presented below. (7. Intensity and Length Scale.2-2. or µt /µ.models. the following equation can be used: 3 uavg I 2 ν= ˜ (7. or the RSM). Estimating Turbulent Kinetic Energy from Turbulence Intensity The relationship between the turbulent kinetic energy. However. most of which are used within FLUENT. L. This relationship is used in FLUENT whenever the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter. and turbulence intensity. µt /µ. ν . Relationships for Deriving Turbulence Quantities To obtain the values of transported turbulence quantities from more convenient quantities such as I. for the Spalart-Allmaras model from the ˜ turbulence intensity. is directly proportional to the turbulent Reynolds number (Ret ≡ k 2 /( ν)). Typically. 2006 7-17 . shear layers. Ret is large (on the order of 100 to 1000) in high-Reynoldsnumber boundary layers. is 3 k = (uavg I)2 2 where uavg is the mean flow velocity. µt /µ is fairly small. at the free-stream boundaries of most external flows. and length scale. I. you can choose Turbulent Viscosity Ratio (for the Spalart-Allmaras model) or Intensity and Viscosity Ratio (for the k. and fully-developed duct flows. To specify quantities in terms of the turbulent viscosity ratio.2 Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions Turbulent Viscosity Ratio The turbulent viscosity ratio.7. or Intensity and Viscosity Ratio method is used instead of specifying explicit values for k and . k. you must typically resort to an empirical relation. the k-ω models.2-4) c Fluent Inc. . is obtained from Equation 7.

U ∂k/∂x = − . Its basis is the exact equation for k in decaying turbulence. 2006 . and L∞ is the streamwise length of the flow domain. 10% of the inlet value of k). This relationship is used in FLUENT whenever the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter or Intensity and Length Scale method is used instead of specifying explicit values for k and . The determination of was discussed previously. using Equation 7.2-7 is a linear approximation to the power-law decay observed in high-Reynolds-number isotropic turbulence.09).Boundary Conditions Estimating Turbulent Dissipation Rate from a Length Scale If you know the turbulence length scale.2-6. you can choose a value of such that ≈ ∆kU∞ L∞ (7. Estimating Turbulent Dissipation Rate for Decaying Turbulence If you are simulating a wind-tunnel situation in which the model is mounted in the test section downstream of a grid and/or wire mesh screens.2-5) where Cµ is an empirical constant specified in the turbulence model (approximately 0.09). September 29. Equation 7. . Estimating Turbulent Dissipation Rate from Turbulent Viscosity Ratio The value of can be obtained from the turbulent viscosity ratio µt /µ and k using the following relationship: k2 = ρCµ µ µt µ −1 (7. 7-18 c Fluent Inc. U∞ is the free-stream velocity. This relationship is used in FLUENT whenever the Intensity and Viscosity Ratio method is used instead of specifying explicit values for k and .2-6) where Cµ is an empirical constant specified in the turbulence model (approximately 0. If you use this method to estimate .2-7) where ∆k is the approximate decay of k you wish to have across the flow domain (say. you can determine 3/4 = Cµ from the relationship k 3/2 (7. you should also check the resulting turbulent viscosity ratio µt /µ to make sure that it is not too large.

you can use it to derive a constant free-stream value of that you can then specify directly by choosing K and Epsilon in the Turbulence Specification Method drop-down list. This relationship is used in FLUENT whenever the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter or Intensity and Length Scale method is used instead of specifying explicit values for k and ω.2-8) where Cµ is an empirical constant specified in the turbulence model (approximately 0. .09). c Fluent Inc.2-4. The determination of was discussed previously.7. In this situation. September 29.2-9) This relationship is used in FLUENT whenever the Intensity and Viscosity Ratio method is used instead of specifying explicit values for k and ω.2 Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions Although this method is not used internally by FLUENT. 2006 7-19 . you will typically determine k from I using Equation 7. you can determine ω from the relationship k 1/2 Cµ 1/4 ω= (7. Estimating Specific Dissipation Rate from a Length Scale If you know the turbulence length scale. Estimating Specific Dissipation Rate from Turbulent Viscosity Ratio The value of ω can be obtained from the turbulent viscosity ratio µt /µ and k using the following relationship: k ω=ρ µ µt µ −1 (7.

Boundary Conditions Estimating Reynolds Stress Components from Turbulent Kinetic Energy When the RSM is used. September 29. 2006 . is used to randomly perturb the instantaneous velocity field at the inlet. Instead.4: Large Eddy Simulation Model.2-11) (7. FLUENT will use this method if you select K or Turbulence Intensity in the Reynolds-Stress Specification Method drop-down list.9.4: Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model. they are approximately determined from the specified values of k. as described in Section 12.20. The turbulence is assumed to be isotropic such that u i uj = 0 and 2 uα uα = k 3 (no summation over the index α). (7. if you do not specify the values of the Reynolds stresses explicitly at the inlet using the Reynolds-Stress Components option in the Reynolds-Stress Specification Method drop-down list. It does not specify a modeled turbulence quantity. the stochastic components of the flow at the inlet boundary are accounted for by superposing random perturbations on individual velocity components as described in Section 12.2-10) Specifying Inlet Turbulence for LES The turbulence intensity value specified at a velocity inlet for LES. 7-20 c Fluent Inc.

3.3 Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions Pressure inlet boundary conditions are used to define the fluid pressure at flow inlets. 7. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) c Fluent Inc. Pressure inlet boundary conditions can be used when the inlet pressure is known but the flow rate and/or velocity is not known. the DTRM.1: Inputs at Pressure Inlet Boundaries • Section 7.3. September 29.7. along with all other scalar properties of the flow.3 Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions 7. the DO model. You can find the following information about pressure inlet boundary conditions in these section: • Section 7.3.3: Calculation Procedure at Pressure Inlet Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions.2: Default Settings at Pressure Inlet Boundaries • Section 7. They are suitable for both incompressible and compressible flow calculations.1 Inputs at Pressure Inlet Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a pressure inlet boundary: • total (stagnation) pressure • total (stagnation) temperature • flow direction • static pressure • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. Pressure inlet boundary conditions can also be used to define a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.3. see Section 7. This situation may arise in many practical situations. 2006 7-21 . including buoyancy-driven flows.

2: Modeling Open Channel Flows.Boundary Conditions • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Pressure Inlet panel (Figure 7. Figure 7. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). Note that open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23. 2006 .10.3.3.1. September 29.1).1: The Pressure Inlet Panel 7-22 c Fluent Inc.

and excluded from the pressure calculation when the density is uniform. Total pressure for an incompressible fluid is defined as 1 p0 = ps + ρ|v|2 2 and for a compressible fluid of constant cp as p0 = ps 1 + where p0 ps M γ γ−1 2 M 2 γ/(γ−1) (7.3-3 will include the swirl component. Remember that the total pressure value is the gauge pressure with respect to the operating pressure defined in the Operating Conditions panel. the pressure in FLUENT is defined as ps = ps − ρ0 gx or ∂ps ∂ps = − ρ0 g ∂x ∂x (7. See Section 13. c Fluent Inc.5: Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows for information about buoyancy-driven (naturalconvection) flows.3-2) (7. Thus your inputs of pressure should not include hydrostatic pressure differences. (ρ−ρ0 )g.3 Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions Pressure Inputs and Hydrostatic Head The pressure field (ps ) and your pressure inputs (ps or p0 ) include the hydrostatic head. Total temperature is set in the Total Temperature field. 2006 7-23 . v in Equation 7.2.3-3) (7. Defining Total Pressure and Temperature Enter the value for total pressure in the Gauge Total Pressure field in the Pressure Inlet panel.3-1) This definition allows the hydrostatic head to be taken into the body force term. That is. September 29.3-4) = total pressure = static pressure = Mach number = ratio of specific heats (cp /cv ) If you are modeling axisymmetric swirl.7. and reports of pressure (ps ) will not show any influence of the hydrostatic pressure. ρ0 gx.

or Local Cylindrical (Radial. depending on whether or not the Absolute velocity formulation is enabled in the Solver panel. and axial components. – For problems involving multiple zones (e. depending on whether or not the Absolute velocity formulation is enabled in the Solver panel. the flow direction will always be in the absolute frame. For the density-based solvers. For the density-based solvers. • The Cylindrical coordinate system uses the axial. 3.3-4) is always in the absolute frame. multiple reference frames or sliding meshes).e. If you selected Normal to Boundary in step 1 and you are modeling axisymmetric swirl. September 29. y. Choose Cartesian (X. referring to Figure 7. the flow direction will be absolute or relative to the grid velocity. and tangential components based on the following coordinate systems: – For problems involving a single cell zone. or you can define the flow to be normal to the boundary. For moving zone problems calculated using the pressure-based solver.. Y. Axial). Tangential. Tangential. multiple reference frames.1: 1. Cylindrical (Radial. the velocity in Equation 7.. a mixing plane. Choose which method you will use to specify the flow direction by selecting Direction Vector or Normal to Boundary in the Direction Specification Method drop-down list. you will next choose the coordinate system in which you will define the vector components. there are no additional inputs for flow direction. the coordinate system is defined by the rotation axis specified in the Fluid (or Solid) panel for the fluid (or solid) zone that is adjacent to the inlet.3-3 (or the Mach number in Equation 7. • The Cartesian coordinate system is based on the Cartesian coordinate system used by the geometry.3-4) will be absolute or relative to the grid velocity. Z). if you are using a rotating reference frame. 2006 . radial.3. and your geometry is 3D. the velocity in Equation 7. The procedure for defining the flow direction is as follows. enter the appropriate value for the Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. If you chose Normal to Boundary and your geometry is 3D or 2D without axisymmetric swirl.g. you can set either the (Cartesian) x. or the (cylindrical) radial. If you chose in step 1 to specify the direction vector. and z components. Axial) in the Coordinate System drop-down list. Defining the Flow Direction You can define the flow direction at a pressure inlet explicitly.Boundary Conditions If the adjacent cell zone is moving (i. If you choose to specify the direction vector. the coordinate system is defined by the rotation axis and origin specified in the Fluid panel. 7-24 c Fluent Inc. 2.3-3 (or the Mach number in Equation 7. tangential. or sliding meshes) and you are using the pressurebased solver.

c Fluent Inc. 2D. Y. enter the appropriate values for X.2). define the vector components as follows: • If your geometry is 2D non-axisymmetric. Figure 7. and Axisymmetric Domains • The Local Cylindrical coordinate system allows you to define a coordinate system specifically for the inlet.3 Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions For all of the above definitions of the cylindrical coordinate system. or you chose in step 3 to input Cartesian vector components. Radial. 2006 7-25 . and Z-Coordinate of Axis Origin. September 29.7. axial tangential radial tangential radial rotation axis rotation axis origin radial rotation axis axial tangential (swirl) Figure 7. positive axial velocities are in the direction of the rotation axis vector. Radial. Y. and (in 3D) Z-Component of Flow Direction. and positive tangential velocities are based on the right-hand rule using the positive rotation axis (see Figure 7. and (if you are modeling axisymmetric swirl or using cylindrical coordinates) TangentialComponent of Flow Direction.2 shows the vector components for these different coordinate systems. When you use the local cylindrical option. Y. and Tangential-Component of Flow Direction.3. or you chose in step 3 to input Cylindrical components. and then specify the X. • If your geometry is 2D axisymmetric. • If you are using Local Cylindrical coordinates. The local cylindrical coordinate system is useful if you have several inlets with different rotation axes.3. and Z-Component of Axis Direction and the X. enter the appropriate values for Axial. If you chose in step 1 to specify the direction vector. you will define the coordinate system right here in the Pressure Inlet panel. enter the appropriate values for Axial.2: Cylindrical Velocity Components in 3D. 4. positive radial velocities point radially out from the rotation axis.3.

Defining Radiation Parameters If you are using the P-1 radiation model. 7-26 c Fluent Inc. The Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure is ignored by FLUENT whenever the flow is subsonic.Boundary Conditions Defining Static Pressure The static pressure (termed the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure) must be specified if the inlet flow is supersonic or if you plan to initialize the solution based on the pressure inlet boundary conditions.14: Initializing the Solution. see Section 14. Instructions for deciding which method to use and determining appropriate values for these inputs are provided in Section 7.2. Note the comments in Section 7. for a sub-sonic inlet it should generally be set based on a reasonable estimate of the inlet Mach number (for compressible flow) or inlet velocity (for incompressible flow). in which case it is calculated from the specified stagnation quantities. you will set the species mass fractions under Species Mass Fractions. September 29. if you are using two mixture fractions). the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure will be used in conjunction with the specified stagnation pressure to compute initial values according to the isentropic relations (for compressible flow) or Bernoulli’s equation (for incompressible flow). For details.3. there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters. Defining Non-Premixed Combustion Parameters If you are using the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model.) Defining Species Mass Fractions If you are modeling species transport. Solution initialization is discussed in Section 25. Defining Turbulence Parameters For turbulent calculations. the DTRM. Therefore.1: Pressure Inputs and Hydrostatic Head regarding hydrostatic pressure.3.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.2: Determining Turbulence Parameters.1. you will set the Mean Mixture Fraction and Mixture Fraction Variance (and the Secondary Mean Mixture Fraction and Secondary Mixture Fraction Variance. as described in Section 15. See Section 13. Turbulence modeling in general is described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence.5: Defining Boundary Conditions for Species. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optionally) Black Body Temperature. 2006 . or the surface-tosurface model. If you choose to initialize the solution based on the pressure-inlet conditions. the DO model.13: Defining Non-Premixed Boundary Conditions. (The Rosseland radiation model does not require any boundary condition inputs. Remember that the static pressure value you enter is relative to the operating pressure set in the Operating Conditions panel.

Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions If you are using the VOF. Kinetic Energy Turb. See Section 23. as described in Section 16. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the pressure inlet.10. or Eulerian model for multiphase flow.7.3.5: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Progress Variable. September 29.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details. Defining Open Channel Boundary Conditions If you are using the VOF model for multiphase flow and modeling open channel flows. and additional parameters. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles.3 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Inlet Boundaries The treatment of pressure inlet boundary conditions by FLUENT can be described as a loss-free transition from stagnation conditions to the inlet conditions. For incompressible flows.3 Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions Defining Premixed Combustion Boundary Conditions If you are using the premixed or partially premixed combustion model. c Fluent Inc. Bottom Level. you will set the Progress Variable.9. See Section 22.3. this is accomplished by application of the Bernoulli equation at the inlet boundary. See Section 23.8: Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions for details. mixture. In compressible flows. 2006 7-27 . you will need to specify the Free Surface Level. Dissipation Rate 0 0 300 1 0 0 1 1 7.2 Default Settings at Pressure Inlet Boundaries Default settings (in SI) for pressure inlet boundary conditions are as follows: Gauge Total Pressure Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure Total Temperature X-Component of Flow Direction Y-Component of Flow Direction Z-Component of Flow Direction Turb.3.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows for details. the equivalent isentropic flow relations for an ideal gas are used. you will need to specify volume fractions for secondary phases and (for some models) additional parameters. 7.

Given p0 and ps . Note that the operating pressure. September 29. are related to the inlet velocity via Bernoulli’s equation: 1 p0 = ps + ρv 2 2 (7.3-6 and 7.Boundary Conditions Incompressible Flow Calculations at Pressure Inlet Boundaries When flow enters through a pressure inlet boundary. static pressure. total temperature is equal to static temperature. FLUENT uses the boundary condition pressure you input as the total pressure of the fluid at the inlet plane. and velocity at a pressure inlet boundary. appears in Equation 7. where the mass fractions are the values you entered as an inlet condition. isentropic relations for an ideal gas are applied to relate total pressure. 7-28 c Fluent Inc. p0 .3: Calculation Procedure at Velocity Inlet Boundaries. the inlet total pressure and the static pressure. and species can then be computed as outlined in Section 7. Equations 7. Individual velocity components at the inlet are then derived using the direction vector components. energy. p0 .3-7 are used to compute the velocity magnitude of the fluid at the inlet plane. pop . in the adjacent fluid cell are thus related as p0 + pop γ−1 2 = 1+ M ps + pop 2 where M≡ v v =√ c γRTs (7. density at the inlet plane is either constant or calculated as a function of temperature and/or species mass fractions. at the inlet and the static pressure.3-6 because your boundary condition inputs are in terms of pressure relative to the operating pressure.4.3-7) γ/(γ−1) (7.3-5) With the resulting velocity magnitude and the flow direction vector you assigned at the inlet. The inlet mass flow rate and fluxes of momentum. For incompressible flows. the total pressure specified is used as the static pressure. the velocity components can be computed. For incompressible flows. Compressible Flow Calculations at Pressure Inlet Boundaries In compressible flows. 2006 . Your input of total pressure. and γ = cp /cv .3-6) c = the speed of sound. ps . ps . In incompressible flow. If flow exits through a pressure inlet.

4. Ts . Yi . since this could cause the inflow stagnation properties to become highly non-uniform. 2006 7-29 . T0 . c Fluent Inc.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions For compressible flow.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions Velocity inlet boundary conditions are used to define the flow velocity. the density at the inlet plane is defined by the ideal gas law in the form ρ= ps + pop RTs (7. is computed from the species mass fractions.4.3: Calculation Procedure at Velocity Inlet Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries. so they will rise to whatever value is necessary to provide the prescribed velocity distribution.7. i This boundary condition is intended for incompressible flows. You should also be careful not to place a velocity inlet too close to a solid obstruction.3-9) 7. is computed from your input of total temperature. The total (or stagnation) properties of the flow are not fixed.2: Default Settings at Velocity Inlet Boundaries • Section 7. The static temperature at the inlet. along with all relevant scalar properties of the flow. as T0 γ−1 2 =1+ M Ts 2 (7. and its use in compressible flows will lead to a nonphysical result because it allows stagnation conditions to float to any level. You can find the following information about velocity inlet boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7. R. that you defined as boundary conditions at the pressure inlet boundary. September 29. see Section 7. a velocity inlet may be used in FLUENT to define the flow velocity at flow exits.4.1: Inputs at Velocity Inlet Boundaries • Section 7.) In such cases you must ensure that overall continuity is maintained in the domain.3-8) The specific gas constant. In special instances. (The scalar inputs are not used in such cases. at flow inlets.

the DTRM.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).4. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) All values are entered in the Velocity Inlet panel (Figure 7.4. the DO model. 7-30 c Fluent Inc. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. September 29.1).1.1 Inputs at Velocity Inlet Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a velocity inlet boundary: • velocity magnitude and direction or velocity components • swirl velocity (for 2D axisymmetric problems with swirl) • temperature (for energy calculations) • outflow gauge pressure (for calculations with the density-based solvers) • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model.Boundary Conditions 7. 2006 .

1: The Velocity Inlet Panel c Fluent Inc.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions Figure 7.4. 2006 7-31 . September 29.7.

If the cell zone adjacent to the velocity inlet is moving (i. 2. if you are using a rotating reference frame. 7-32 c Fluent Inc. cylindrical. Tangential. you can specify either relative or absolute velocities. Axial) in the Coordinate System drop-down list. 2006 . enter the appropriate values of Radial. and local cylindrical coordinate systems. Set the appropriate velocity parameters. If the cell zone adjacent to the velocity inlet is moving. Y. the velocity components. September 29. you will define the X. or you chose in step 3 to use a Cylindrical coordinate system. you will enter the magnitude of the velocity vector at the inflow boundary (the Velocity Magnitude) and the direction of the vector: • If your geometry is 2D non-axisymmetric. or sliding meshes). and your geometry is 3D. Tangential. Choose which method you will use to specify the flow direction by selecting Magnitude and Direction. If you are going to set the velocity magnitude and direction or the velocity components. Cylindrical (Radial. you will also specify the swirl velocity. • If your geometry is 2D axisymmetric. See Section 7. and (if you are modeling axisymmetric swirl or using cylindrical coordinates) Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. If the adjacent cell zone is not moving. Absolute and Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone will be equivalent. or you chose in step 3 to use the Cartesian coordinate system.3. Setting the Velocity Magnitude and Direction If you selected Magnitude and Direction as the Velocity Specification Method in step 1 above. so you need not visit the list. or Local Cylindrical (Radial.e. Axial. or Magnitude. Components. multiple reference frames. and (in 3D) Z-Component of Flow Direction. The procedure for defining the inflow velocity is as follows: 1. Y. or the velocity magnitude normal to the boundary. 3.Boundary Conditions Defining the Velocity You can define the inflow velocity by specifying the velocity magnitude and direction. Axial). as described below for each specification method.1: Defining the Flow Direction for information about Cartesian. For axisymmetric problems with swirl in FLUENT. Z). Choose Cartesian (X.. Normal to Boundary in the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. 4. you can choose to specify relative or absolute velocities by selecting Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone or Absolute in the Reference Frame drop-down list. you will next choose the coordinate system in which you will define the vector or velocity components.

2006 7-33 . i Remember that positive values for x. Normal to Boundary as the Velocity Specification Method in step 1 above. and then specify the X. you will set the Radial and Axial-Velocity. • If you chose in step 3 to use a Local Cylindrical coordinate system. and (optionally) the Angular Velocity. and Z-Component of Axis Direction and the X. and Axial-Velocity. and z velocities indicate flow in the positive x.7. and axial velocities. Setting the Velocity Components If you selected Components as the Velocity Specification Method in step 1 above. and Z-Component of Axis Direction and the X. you will also enter the Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. as described below. Y. c Fluent Inc. and z directions. and Swirl-Velocity. for example. and (optionally) the Swirl Angular Velocity. enter the appropriate values for Axial. y. and (in 3D) Z-Velocity. • If you chose in step 3 to use a Cylindrical coordinate system. • If your geometry is 2D axisymmetric without swirl. Radial.2 shows the vector components for these different coordinate systems. Figure 7. you will set the Radial. and Axial-Velocity. Tangential. you will set the Axial. If you are modeling 2D axisymmetric swirl. Setting the Velocity Magnitude Normal to the Boundary If you selected Magnitude.3. y. as described below. you will enter the magnitude of the velocity vector at the inflow boundary (the Velocity Magnitude). Y. Y. Y. Radial. and Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. you will define the X. September 29. positive axial velocities are in the direction of the axis vector. If flow enters the domain in the negative x direction. and then specify the X. and Z-Coordinate of Axis Origin. tangential. as described below. • If your model is 2D axisymmetric with swirl. and positive tangential velocities are based on the right-hand rule using the positive axis. and Z-Coordinate of Axis Origin. you will need to specify a negative value for the x velocity.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions • If you chose in step 3 to use a Local Cylindrical coordinate system. The same holds true for the radial. Positive radial velocities point radially out from the axis. Y. you will enter the components of the velocity vector at the inflow boundary as follows: • If your geometry is 2D non-axisymmetric. and (optionally) the Angular Velocity. Tangential. or you chose in step 3 to use the Cartesian coordinate system. you will set the Radial.

FLUENT will add vθ and Ωr to get the swirl or tangential velocity at each cell. If you specify both the Swirl-Velocity and the Swirl Angular Velocity. Similarly.3. you will set the species mass fractions under Species Mass Fractions. (The Rosseland radiation model does not require any boundary condition inputs. see Section 14. Turbulence modeling in general is described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. and you are modeling axisymmetric swirl. September 29.1.2: Determining Turbulence Parameters.) Defining Species Mass Fractions If you are modeling species transport. See Section 13. Defining Turbulence Parameters For turbulent calculations. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optionally) Black Body Temperature. or the Tangential-Velocity and the Angular Velocity. If the flow exits the domain at any face on the boundary. For details.Boundary Conditions Setting the Angular Velocity If you chose Components as the Velocity Specification Method in step 1 above. you can specify the inlet Angular Velocity Ω in addition to the Tangential-Velocity. If you specify Ω.2. you can specify an Outflow Gauge Pressure for a velocity inlet boundary. Defining Radiation Parameters If you are using the P-1 radiation model. or the surface-tosurface model. where r is the radial coordinate in the coordinate system defined by the rotation axis and origin. you will set the static temperature of the flow at the velocity inlet boundary in the Temperature field.5: Defining Boundary Conditions for Species. you can specify the inlet Swirl Angular Velocity Ω in addition to the Swirl-Velocity. the DTRM. that face will be treated as a pressure outlet with the pressure prescribed in the Outflow Gauge Pressure field. 7-34 c Fluent Inc. vθ is computed for each cell as Ωr. the DO model. 2006 .15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details. there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters. Defining Outflow Gauge Pressure If you are using one of the density-based solvers. if you chose Components as the Velocity Specification Method and you chose in step 3 to use a Cylindrical or Local Cylindrical coordinate system. Defining the Temperature For calculations in which the energy equation is being solved. Instructions for deciding which method to use and determining appropriate values for these inputs are provided in Section 7.

you will set the Progress Variable. Defining Premixed Combustion Boundary Conditions If you are using the premixed or partially premixed combustion model. or Eulerian model for multiphase flow.5: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Progress Variable.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions Defining Non-Premixed Combustion Parameters If you are using the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model. as described in Section 15. you will need to specify volume fractions for secondary phases and (for some models) additional parameters. 2006 7-35 . as described in Section 16.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details.8: Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions for details.13: Defining Non-Premixed Boundary Conditions. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the velocity inlet.3. See Section 22. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles. See Section 23. you will set the Mean Mixture Fraction and Mixture Fraction Variance (and the Secondary Mean Mixture Fraction and Secondary Mixture Fraction Variance. c Fluent Inc. September 29. Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions If you are using the VOF.9. if you are using two mixture fractions).7. mixture.

and fluxes of energy and chemical species. Treatment of Velocity Inlet Conditions at Flow Inlets When your velocity inlet boundary condition defines flow entering the physical domain of the model.4.2 Default Settings at Velocity Inlet Boundaries Default settings (in SI) for velocity inlet boundary conditions are as follows: Temperature Velocity Magnitude X-Component of Flow Direction Y-Component of Flow Direction Z-Component of Flow Direction X-Velocity Y-Velocity Z-Velocity Turb. energy. 2006 .4-1) Note that only the velocity component normal to the control volume face contributes to the inlet mass flow rate.Boundary Conditions 7.4. The mass flow rate entering a fluid cell adjacent to a velocity inlet boundary is computed as m= ˙ ρv · dA (7. September 29.3 Calculation Procedure at Velocity Inlet Boundaries FLUENT uses your boundary condition inputs at velocity inlets to compute the mass flow into the domain through the inlet and to compute the fluxes of momentum. momentum fluxes. Dissipation Rate Outflow Gauge Pressure 300 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 7. and species through the inlet. 7-36 c Fluent Inc. This section describes these calculations for the case of flow entering the domain through the velocity inlet boundary and for the less common case of flow exiting the domain through the velocity inlet boundary. Kinetic Energy Turb. FLUENT uses both the velocity components and the scalar quantities that you defined as boundary conditions to compute the inlet mass flow rate.

when flow exits the domain through a velocity inlet boundary FLUENT uses the boundary condition value for the velocity component normal to the exit flow area. In the density-based solvers. and/or species mass fractions. In the pressure-based solver. Density Calculation Density at the inlet plane is either constant or calculated as a function of temperature. This approach might be used. It does not use any other boundary conditions that you have input. if the flow exits the domain at any face on the boundary. c Fluent Inc. for example. September 29.4 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions Treatment of Velocity Inlet Conditions at Flow Exits Sometimes a velocity inlet boundary is used where flow exits the physical domain. i In such cases you must ensure that overall continuity is maintained in the domain. where the mass fractions are the values you entered as an inlet condition. that face will be treated as a pressure outlet with the pressure prescribed in the Outflow Gauge Pressure field.7. all flow conditions except the normal velocity component are assumed to be those of the upstream cell. when the flow rate through one exit of the domain is known or is to be imposed on the model. Instead. pressure. 2006 7-37 .

while the velocity of the main flow is governed primarily by a (different) pressure inlet/outlet boundary condition pair. so if both the pressure inlet boundary condition and the mass flow inlet boundary condition are acceptable choices.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions.3: Calculation Procedure at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries. specifying the mass flux permits the total pressure to vary in response to the interior solution. This is in contrast to the pressure inlet boundary condition (see Section 7. velocity inlet boundary conditions will fix the mass flow. A mass flow inlet is often used when it is more important to match a prescribed mass flow rate than to match the total pressure of the inflow stream. Physically. You can find the following information about mass flow inlet boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7. It is not necessary to use mass flow inlets in incompressible flows because when density is constant.Boundary Conditions 7.5. see Section 7.5 Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions Mass flow boundary conditions can be used in FLUENT to provide a prescribed mass flow rate or mass flux distribution at an inlet. i i i The adjustment of inlet total pressure might result in a slower convergence. 2006 .2: Default Settings at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries • Section 7.5. where the total pressure is fixed while the mass flux varies. September 29. An example is the case of a small cooling jet that is bled into the main flow at a fixed mass flow rate.3: Pressure Inlet Boundary Conditions). you should choose the former.5.1: Inputs at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries • Section 7. 7-38 c Fluent Inc. Mass flow inlet boundary conditions cannot be applied to any of the multiphase models if all phases are incompressible.

5 Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions 7.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows. see below for more information about this specification method. or (primarily for the mixing plane model) mass flux with average mass flux • total (stagnation) temperature • static pressure • flow direction • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. you can also specify an average mass flux. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Mass-Flow Inlet panel (Figure 7. c Fluent Inc. the DO model. 2006 7-39 .1.7.1).4: Setting Boundary Conditions). You can define the mass flux (but not the mass flow rate) using a boundary profile or a user-defined function. Defining the Mass Flow Rate or Mass Flux You can specify the mass flow rate through the inlet zone and have FLUENT convert this value to mass flux. the DTRM. it will be converted internally to a uniform mass flux over the zone by dividing the flow rate by the area of the zone.10.1 Inputs at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a mass flow inlet boundary: • mass flow rate. mass flux. For cases where the mass flux varies across the boundary. Note that open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23. or specify the mass flux directly. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.5. September 29. If you set the mass flow rate.5.

5.Boundary Conditions Figure 7.1: The Mass-Flow Inlet Panel 7-40 c Fluent Inc. September 29. 2006 .

set the prescribed mass flux and average mass flux in the Mass Flux and Average Mass Flux fields. Mass Flux. The mass flux with average mass flux specification method is also used by the mixing plane model described in Section 10. If. this mass flow rate is the flow rate through the entire (2π-radian) domain. If you selected Mass Flux with Average Mass Flux. you can keep the profile unchanged. or Mass Flux with Average Mass Flux in the Mass Flow Specification Method drop-down list. set the prescribed mass flux in the Mass Flux field.2: The Mixing Plane Model. September 29.7. then you do not need to specify the mass flux or flow rate. i Note that for axisymmetric problems. 2006 7-41 . This will ensure that mass is conserved between the upstream zone and the downstream (mass flow inlet) zone. and specify an average mass flux of 5. More About Mass Flux and Average Mass Flux As noted above.5 Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions The inputs for mass flow rate or flux are as follows: 1. set the prescribed mass flow rate in the Mass Flow-Rate field. Choose the method you will use to specify the mass flow by selecting Mass Flow Rate. c Fluent Inc. you can keep the default Mass Flow-Rate of 1. FLUENT will maintain the profile shape but adjust the values so that the resulting mass flux across the boundary is 5. If the mass flow inlet boundary is going to represent one of the mixing planes. not through a 1-radian slice. you can specify an average mass flux with the mass flux. If you selected Mass Flux. you specify a mass flux profile such that the average mass flux integrated over the zone area is 4. for example.3. When you create the mixing plane later on in the problem setup. 2. Defining the Total Temperature Enter the value for the total (stagnation) temperature of the inflow stream in the Total Temperature field in the Mass-Flow Inlet panel.7. but you actually want to have a total mass flux of 5. FLUENT will automatically select the Mass Flux with Average Mass Flux method in the Mass-Flow Inlet panel and set the Average Mass Flux to the value obtained by integrating the mass flux profile for the upstream zone. If you selected Mass Flow Rate (the default).

If the cell zone adjacent to the mass flow inlet is moving.Boundary Conditions Defining Static Pressure The static pressure (termed the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure) must be specified if the inlet flow is supersonic or if you plan to initialize the solution based on the pressure inlet boundary conditions. choose Absolute (the default) or Relative in the Reference Frame drop-down list. 3.5. the flow direction will be normal to the boundary. Remember that the static pressure value you enter is relative to the operating pressure set in the Operating Conditions panel.1: 1. September 29. The Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure is ignored by FLUENT whenever the flow is subsonic. Defining the Flow Direction You can define the flow direction at a mass flow inlet explicitly.. there will be no swirl component at the boundary for axisymmetric swirl. If the cell zone adjacent to the mass flow inlet is not moving. The procedure for defining the flow direction is as follows. referring to Figure 7. You will have the option to specify the flow direction either in the absolute or relative reference frame.3. If you selected Normal to Boundary. or you can define the flow to be normal to the boundary.1: Pressure Inputs and Hydrostatic Head regarding hydrostatic pressure. 2. If you choose to initialize the flow based on the mass flow inlet conditions. i. Solution initialization is discussed in Section 25. both formulations are equivalent.e. when the cell zone adjacent to the mass flow inlet is moving. the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure will be used in conjunction with the specified stagnation quantities to compute initial values according to isentropic relations.14: Initializing the Solution. i Note that if you are modeling axisymmetric swirl. Choose which method you will use to specify the flow direction by selecting Direction Vector or Normal to Boundary in the Direction Specification Method drop-down list. Note the comments in Section 7. 2006 . there are no additional inputs for flow direction. 7-42 c Fluent Inc. i These options are equivalent when the cell zone next to the mass flow inlet is stationary.

Tangential. and Z-Coordinate of Axis Origin. If you selected Direction Vector and your geometry is 2D. Z). you will set the species mass fractions under Species Mass Fractions. Defining Turbulence Parameters For turbulent calculations. Axial). enter the appropriate values for Axial. Radial. If you selected Direction Vector. Cylindrical (Radial.1: Defining the Flow Direction for information about Cartesian. 5. Axial) in the Coordinate System drop-down list. • If your geometry is 2D axisymmetric. (The Rosseland radiation model does not require any boundary condition inputs. Y. see Section 14. For details. Y. or you chose to use a 3D Cartesian coordinate system.2 shows the vector components for these different coordinate systems. 2006 7-43 .1. See Section 7.2. and (in 3D) Z-Component of Flow Direction. there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters. September 29. go to the next step. Y. and Z-Component of Axis Direction and the X. If your geometry is 3D. c Fluent Inc. Tangential. Radial. • If you chose to use a 3D Local Cylindrical coordinate system.3. enter the appropriate values for Axial. Defining Radiation Parameters If you are using the P-1 radiation model. the DO model. and (if you are modeling swirl or using cylindrical coordinates) Tangential-Component of Flow Direction.3. you will next choose the coordinate system in which you will define the flow direction components.7. the DTRM. Y. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optionally) Black Body Temperature.5: Defining Boundary Conditions for Species.2: Determining Turbulence Parameters.3. or Local Cylindrical (Radial.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details. or the surface-tosurface model. Instructions for deciding which method to use and determining appropriate values for these inputs are provided in Section 7.) Defining Species Mass Fractions If you are modeling species transport. See Section 13. and Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. and then specify the X.5 Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions 4. cylindrical. Turbulence modeling is described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. enter the appropriate values for X. set the vector components as follows: • If your geometry is 2D non-axisymmetric. Figure 7. and local cylindrical coordinate systems. or you chose to use a 3D Cylindrical coordinate system. Choose Cartesian (X.

as described in Section 16.5. September 29. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles. you will need to specify the Free Surface Level.5: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Progress Variable.13: Defining Non-Premixed Boundary Conditions. 7. Kinetic Energy Turb. if you are using two mixture fractions). you will set the Progress Variable. you will set the Mean Mixture Fraction and Mixture Fraction Variance (and the Secondary Mean Mixture Fraction and Secondary Mixture Fraction Variance. See Section 23. See Section 22. Dissipation Rate 1 300 0 1 0 0 1 1 7-44 c Fluent Inc.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details. Defining Premixed Combustion Boundary Conditions If you are using the premixed or partially premixed combustion model. and additional parameters.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows for details.2 Default Settings at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries Default settings (in SI) for mass flow inlet boundary conditions are as follows: Mass Flow-Rate Total Temperature Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure X-Component of Flow Direction Y-Component of Flow Direction Z-Component of Flow Direction Turb.10.3.Boundary Conditions Defining Non-Premixed Combustion Parameters If you are using the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model. Defining Open Channel Boundary Conditions If you are using the VOF model for multiphase flow and modeling open channel flows. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the mass flow inlet. Bottom Level. 2006 . as described in Section 15.

flow direction. the static temperature and static pressure are required to compute the density: p = ρRT (7. the mass flux can be varied over the boundary by using profile files or user-defined functions. the density. and total temperature are used.5.5-1) If the direct mass flux specification option is used. at the face must be determined in order to find the normal velocity.5-2) If the inlet is supersonic. the static pressure used is the value that has been set as a boundary condition. for the inlet. Each of these cases is examined below. and this velocity is used to compute the fluxes of all relevant solution variables into the domain. ρ. ρvn (mass flow rate ˙ per unit area). vn . it is used to correct the specified mass flux profile.3 Calculation Procedure at Mass Flow Inlet Boundaries When mass flow boundary conditions are used for an inlet zone. static pressure. FLUENT converts it internally to a uniform mass flux by dividing the mass flow rate by the total inlet area: ρvn = m ˙ A (7. With each iteration. The second is to specify the mass flux.5 Mass Flow Inlet Boundary Conditions 7. If a total mass flow rate is specified. Once the value of ρvn at a given face has been determined. The manner in which the density is obtained depends upon whether the fluid is modeled as an ideal gas or not. the computed velocity is adjusted so that the correct mass flow value is maintained.7. as described earlier in this section. 2006 7-45 . If the average mass flux is also specified (either explicitly by you or automatically by FLUENT). If the inlet is subsonic. a velocity is computed for each face in that zone. There are two ways to specify the mass flow rate. To compute this velocity. m. The first is to specify the total mass flow rate. September 29. Flow Calculations at Mass Flow Boundaries for Ideal Gases If the fluid is an ideal gas. your inputs for mass flow rate. the static pressure is extrapolated from the cells inside the inlet face. c Fluent Inc.

the static temperature is equal to the total temperature. Flux Calculations at Mass Flow Boundaries To compute the fluxes of all variables at the inlet. For example.5-1. These fluxes are used as boundary conditions for the corresponding conservation equations during the course of the solution. the flux of mass is ρvn . 2006 . The density at the inlet is either constant or readily computed as a function of the temperature and (optionally) the species mass fractions.Boundary Conditions The static temperature at the inlet is computed from the total enthalpy. The velocity is then computed using Equation 7. and the flux of turbulence kinetic energy is ρkvn .5-3 can be solved to obtain the static temperature. is used along with the inlet value of the variable in question. which is determined from the total temperature that has been set as a boundary condition. the flux velocity.5-1.5-3) where the velocity is related to the mass flow rate given by Equation 7. Using Equation 7. Equation 7. 7-46 c Fluent Inc. Flow Calculations at Mass Flow Boundaries for Incompressible Flows When you are modeling incompressible flows. The total enthalpy is given by 1 h0 (T0 ) = h(T ) + v 2 2 (7.5-2 to relate density to the (known) static pressure and (unknown) temperature. September 29. vn .

the DO model.6.6 Inlet Vent Boundary Conditions 7.7. September 29.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). c Fluent Inc.1. 7.1).1 Inputs at Inlet Vent Boundaries You will enter the following information for an inlet vent boundary: • total (stagnation) pressure • total (stagnation) temperature • flow direction • static pressure • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model.10. the DTRM. See Section 7. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) • loss coefficient • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Inlet Vent panel (Figure 7.6 Inlet Vent Boundary Conditions Inlet vent boundary conditions are used to model an inlet vent with a specified loss coefficient. Specification of the loss coefficient is described here. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1: Inputs at Pressure Inlet Boundaries for details. Open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows.6. flow direction. and ambient (inlet) pressure and temperature. 2006 7-47 .3. The first 11 items listed above are specified in the same way that they are specified at pressure inlet boundaries.

2006 .6-1) i ∆p is the pressure drop in the direction of the flow. 7-48 c Fluent Inc.1: The Inlet Vent Panel Specifying the Loss Coefficient An inlet vent is considered to be infinitely thin. September 29. and the pressure drop through the vent is assumed to be proportional to the dynamic head of the fluid. with an empirically determined loss coefficient that you supply. That is. v.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. (7. the pressure drop. varies with the normal component of velocity through the vent. ∆p. as follows: 1 ∆p = kL ρv 2 2 where ρ is the fluid density. and kL is the non-dimensional loss coefficient.6. therefore the vent will appear as a resistance even in the case of backflow.

c Fluent Inc. and ambient (intake) pressure and temperature.1. September 29.7. the DTRM. the DO model. 2006 7-49 . 7. See Section 8.1).7 Intake Fan Boundary Conditions Intake fan boundary conditions are used to model an external intake fan with a specified pressure jump.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions for details. flow direction.7. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. 7. or piecewise-polynomial function of the normal velocity.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).7 Intake Fan Boundary Conditions You can define the Loss-Coefficient across the vent as a constant.1 Inputs at Intake Fan Boundaries You will enter the following information for an intake fan boundary: • total (stagnation) pressure • total (stagnation) temperature • flow direction • static pressure • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. The panels for defining these functions are the same as those used for defining temperature-dependent properties. polynomial.7. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) • pressure jump • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Intake Fan panel (shown in Figure 7. piecewiselinear.

the fan is treated like an outlet vent with a loss coefficient of unity. You can define the Pressure-Jump across the fan as a constant. Open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23.7. In the case of reversed flow.1: The Intake Fan Panel Specifying the Pressure Jump An intake fan is considered to be infinitely thin. or piecewise-polynomial function of the normal velocity. polynomial.10. 2006 .2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions for details. See Section 8.Boundary Conditions The first 11 items listed above are specified in the same way that they are specified at pressure inlet boundaries. September 29. The panels for defining these functions are the same as those used for defining temperature-dependent properties. and the discontinuous pressure rise across it is specified as a function of the velocity through the fan. Specification of the pressure jump is described here. 7-50 c Fluent Inc. piecewise-linear.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows.1: Inputs at Pressure Inlet Boundaries for details. Figure 7. See Section 7.3.

The value of the specified static pressure is used only while the flow is subsonic. Convergence difficulties will be minimized if you specify realistic values for the backflow quantities.4: Other Optional Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries.1: Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries • Section 7.8.7. pressure will be extrapolated from the flow in the interior. Several options in FLUENT exist.8. the specified pressure will no longer be used.3: Calculation Procedure at Pressure Outlet Boundaries • Section 7. All other flow quantities are extrapolated from the interior.8. September 29. c Fluent Inc.8. Should the flow become locally supersonic.1: Defining Static Pressure for details).8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions Pressure outlet boundary conditions require the specification of a static (gauge) pressure at the outlet boundary.8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions 7. A set of “backflow” conditions is also specified should the flow reverse direction at the pressure outlet boundary during the solution process. see Section 7.4: Target Mass Flow Rate Option for details) can be specified. 2006 7-51 .8.8. You can find the following information about pressure outlet boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7. and a target mass flow rate for pressure outlets (see Section 7.2: Default Settings at Pressure Outlet Boundaries • Section 7. where a radial equilibrium outlet boundary condition can be used (see Section 7.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions.

2: General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for details) • target mass flow rate (not available for multiphase flows) All values are entered in the Pressure Outlet panel (Figure 7.23. the DTRM. or the surface-to-surface model) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) • non-reflecting boundary (for compressible density-based solver.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).1 Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a pressure outlet boundary: • static pressure • backflow conditions – total (stagnation) temperature (for energy calculations) – backflow direction specification method – turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) – chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) – mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. 2006 .8. see Section 7.Boundary Conditions 7. Note that open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows.1).8.10. 7-52 c Fluent Inc. the DO model. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1. September 29.

1: The Pressure Outlet Panel c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-53 .8.7.8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions Figure 7. September 29.

Defining Backflow Conditions Backflow properties consistent with the models you are using will appear in the Pressure Outlet panel. enter the appropriate value for Gauge Pressure in the Pressure Outlet panel. Remember that the static pressure value you enter is relative to the operating pressure set in the Operating Conditions panel. it could be applied to the calculation of the flow through an annulus containing guide vanes. the specified gauge pressure applies only to the position of minimum radius (relative to the axis of rotation) at the boundary. Should the flow become locally supersonic. If you choose Direction Vector. If you choose From Neighboring Cell. The specified values will be used only if flow is pulled in through the outlet. The default value for this field is Normal to Boundary. 2006 . and deemed to be relevant to the flow field solution. so that the pressure gradient is given by ∂p ρv 2 = θ ∂r r (7. For example. the panel will display a Coordinate System drop-down list. i Note that the radial equilibrium outlet condition is available only for 3D and axisymmetric swirl calculations.Boundary Conditions Defining Static Pressure To set the static pressure at the pressure outlet boundary. Refer to Section 7. and if you are running the 3D version of FLUENT. the pressure will be extrapolated from the upstream conditions. September 29.8-1) where r is the distance from the axis of rotation and vθ is the tangential velocity.3. • The Backflow Total Temperature should be set for problems involving energy calculation.1: Pressure Inputs and Hydrostatic Head regarding hydrostatic pressure. • When the direction of the backflow re-entering the computational domain is known. FLUENT will determine the direction of the 7-54 c Fluent Inc. and requires no further input. the panel will expand to show the inputs for the components of the direction vector for the backflow. The static pressure on the rest of the zone is calculated from the assumption that radial velocity is negligible. FLUENT also provides an option to use a radial equilibrium outlet boundary condition. Note that this boundary condition can be used even if the rotational velocity is zero. When this feature is active. To enable this option. you can specify it choosing one of the options available in the Backflow Direction Specification Method drop-down list. turn on Radial Equilibrium Pressure Distribution. This value will be used for subsonic flow only.

7. you will need to specify volume fractions for secondary phases and (for some models) additional parameters. i Even if no backflow is expected in the converged solution. you will set the backflow mixture fraction and variance values.2. The flow direction in this case will be normal to the boundary. or sliding meshes) and you are using the pressure-based solver. see Section 14. mixture. • If you are modeling combustion using the premixed or partially premixed combustion model. • If backflow occurs.e. If the cell zone adjacent to the pressure outlet is moving (i.13: Defining Non-Premixed Boundary Conditions for details. c Fluent Inc.3-3 (or the Mach number in Equation 7.5: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Progress Variable for details. or Eulerian model for multiphase flow. mixing planes. For details.1. depending on whether or not the Absolute velocity formulation is enabled in the Solver panel. you will set the backflow Progress Variable value. Turbulence modeling in general is described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. • For turbulent calculations.5: Defining Boundary Conditions for Species. See Section 15. 2006 7-55 . • If you are using the VOF. • If you are modeling species transport. Instructions for deciding which method to use in determining appropriate values for these inputs are provided in Section 7.3-3) will be absolute or relative to the motion of the cell zone. See Section 16. there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters.2: Determining Turbulence Parameters.3. if you are using a rotating reference frame.8: Defining Multiphase Boundary Conditions for details. the velocity in the dynamic contribution to total pressure (see Equation 7. you should always set realistic values to minimize convergence difficulties in the event that backflow does occur during the calculation.8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions backflow using the direction of the flow in the cell layer adjacent to the pressure outlet. so you need not specify a backflow pressure value explicitly..3-4) is always in the absolute frame. September 29. the velocity in Equation 7.9. • If you are modeling combustion using the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model. you will set the backflow species mass fractions under Species Mass Fractions. multiple reference frames. For the density-based solvers. See Section 23. the pressure you specified as the Gauge Pressure will be used as total pressure.

Mn ).13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details. and extrapolates all other conditions from the interior of the domain. (The Rosseland radiation model does not require any boundary condition inputs. Density-Based Solver Implementation In the density-based solver. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the pressure outlet. the DO model.3. September 29.8.Boundary Conditions Defining Radiation Parameters If you are using the P-1 radiation model. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optional) Black Body Temperature. Dissipation Rate 0 300 1 1 7. or the surface-tosurface model. See Section 22. Kinetic Energy Backflow Turb. This weighting is a blend of fifth-order polynomials based on the exit face normal Mach number [214]. Pe . See Section 23. 7. Therefore.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.3 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Outlet Boundaries At pressure outlets.2 Default Settings at Pressure Outlet Boundaries Default settings (in SI) for pressure outlet boundary conditions are as follows: Gauge Pressure Backflow Total Temperature Backflow Turb. the pressure at the faces of the pressure outlet boundary condition is computed using a pressure splitting procedure based on the AU SM + scheme of Liou [214]. and additional parameters. where Pc is the 7-56 c Fluent Inc.8.10. ps . Bottom Level. 2006 . Defining Open Channel Boundary Conditions If you are using the VOF model for multiphase flow and modeling open channel flows. you will need to specify the Free Surface Level.) Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows for details. FLUENT uses the boundary condition pressure you input as the static pressure of the fluid at the outlet plane. See Section 13. the pressure is computed using a weighted average of the left and right state of the face boundary. the face pressure Pf is function of (Pc . For subsonic compressible flow leaving the exit pressure boundary. the DTRM.

8. i This implementation is not available when you use the general NRBC option. For incompressible flows.8-2) With this boundary implementation. then the face pressure value Pf is extrapolated from the interior cell pressure.8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions interior cell pressure neighboring the exit face f. upon flow convergence.2: Pressures at the Face of a Pressure Outlet Boundary If the flow becomes locally supersonic. the face pressure is computed as an average between the specified pressure and interior pressure. Pe is the specified exit pressure. c Fluent Inc.5(Pc + Pe ) (7. 2006 ¢£ L R P e 7-57 . September 29. the exit pressure is not constant along the pressure outlet boundary. Pressure Outlet face f P f Pc  ¡ c Mn Figure 7. Pf = 0. the average boundary pressure will be close to the specified static exit pressure.7. However. and Mn is the face normal Mach number. or when you enable the turbo-specific NRBC model.

This option will allow you to specify either a constant value or attach a UDF to set the target mass flow rate. i Note that the target mass flow rate option is not available with multiphase flows or when any of the non-reflecting boundary conditions models are used.8-3) where dP is the change in pressure. Both methods are based on the simple Bernoulli’s equation. September 29. There are other solution strategies that may be used if convergence difficulties are encountered. should suffice in obtaining a converged solution on the targeted mass flow rate. Moreover. if convergence difficulties are encountered while using the default method. The NRBC option is used when waves are made to pass through the boundaries while avoiding false reflections.Boundary Conditions 7. and A is the area of the pressure-outlet boundary. This option is only available when the density-based solver and ideal gas law are used. Method 2. m is the current computed mass flow rate at the ˙ pressure-outlet boundary. the target mass flow rate is achieved by adjusting the pressure value at the pressure-outlet zone up and down at every iteration. The target mass flow rate option can be activated from the Pressure Outlet boundary panel by selecting the target mass flow rate button. then the user may want to select the alternate method.5ρave (m2 − m2 )/(ρave A)2 ˙ ˙ req (7. mreq is the required mass flow rate. In general. Target Mass Flow Rate Option Two methods (Method 1 and Method 2) are available for adjusting the pressure at a pressure-outlet zone in order to meet the desired mass flow rate. However. The default method. However. This is done in accordance with one of the two available methods until the desired target mass flow rate is obtained. 7-58 c Fluent Inc. Details of non-reflecting boundary conditions can be found in Section 7.8. ρave is the computed av˙ erage density at the pressure-outlet boundary.4 Other Optional Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Option One of the options that may be used at pressure outlets is non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBC). The change in pressure based on Bernoulli’s equation is given by the following equation: dP = 0. they differ in the internal iteration strategy for obtaining the change in pressure on a pressure-outlet zone. 2006 . which will be discussed at the end of this section.23. Method 1.2: General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions of this chapter. the target mass flow rate option will not be available for that particular zone. if the pressure-outlet zone is used in the mixing-plane model.

prints to the cortex window the required mass flow rate. After the solution stabilizes. For further information on Full Multigrid Initialization. mean pressure. September 29.15: Using Full Multigrid (FMG) Initialization. you may want to switch off the target mass flow rate option initially. The purpose of this input is to limit the exit pressure value and prevent it from reaching unreasonable limits.7. then try to lower the under-relaxation factor from the default value. (b) Set the under-relaxation factor (the default setting is 0. The set-method option allows you to: (a) Select Method 1 or 2 (the default setting is Method 1). Also. In some cases. see Section 25. in some cases you may want to limit the pressure values in the zone by adjusting the minimum or maximum pressure limits (note that this limit is applied to all pressure-outlet zones when the target mass flow rate option is selected). All of the above parameters can be accessed from the target-mass-flow-rate-settings text command. Otherwise. this strategy is usually very successful. computed mass flow rate. The use of Full Multigrid Initialization is also very helpful in obtaining a good starting solution and in general will reduce the time required to get a converged solution on a target mass flow rate. (c) Set the maximum and minimum pressure that will be imposed on any pressureoutlet when a target mass flow rate option is activated. the new pressure imposed on the outlet and the change in pressure in SI units.05). c Fluent Inc. The verbosity? option. 2006 7-59 . you can use the alternate method to converge at the required mass flow rate. For many complex flow problems. Solution Strategies When Using the Target Mass Flow Rate Option If convergence difficulties are encountered or if the solution is not converging at the desired mass flow rate. then guess an exit pressure that will bring the solution closer to the target mass flow rate. 2. if enabled. you can turn on the target mass flow rate option and iterate to convergence.8 Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions Target Mass Flow Rate Settings The settings for the target mass flow rate option can be accessed from the target-mass-flow-rate-settings text command: define −→ boundary-conditions −→target-mass-flow-rate-settings There are two options under this menu: 1.

3. For example. An example of a simple UDF using a DEFINE PROFILE that will adjust the mass flow rate can be found in Section 2.3: Density). in lifting airfoil calculations.9. You can find the following information about pressure far-field boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7.9.3: Calculation Procedure at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries. To effectively approximate true infinite-extent conditions. you must place the far-field boundary far enough from the object of interest.1: Inputs at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries • Section 7.9.9 Pressure Far-Field Boundary Conditions Pressure far-field conditions are used in FLUENT to model a free-stream condition at infinity.13: DEFINE PROFILE of the UDF Manual.2: Default Settings at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries • Section 7. 7. 7-60 c Fluent Inc. Using it for other flows is not permitted.Boundary Conditions Setting Target Mass Flow Rates Using UDFs For some unsteady problems it is desirable that the target mass flow rate be a function of the physical flow time. This enforcement of boundary condition can be done by attaching a UDF with DEFINE_PROFILE functions to the target mass flow rate field.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions. since it uses characteristic information (Riemann invariants) to determine the flow variables at the boundaries. September 29. 2006 . it is not uncommon for the farfield boundary to be a circle with a radius of 20 chord lengths. i This boundary condition is applicable only when the density is calculated using the ideal-gas law (see Section 8. The pressure far-field boundary condition is often called a characteristic boundary condition. with free-stream Mach number and static conditions being specified. i Note that the mass flow rate profile is a function of time and only one constant value should be applied to all zone faces at a given time. see Section 7.

which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. the DO model. If your geometry is 2D axisymmetric. Defining Static Pressure. Y. September 29. sonic. The Mach number can be subsonic. 2006 7-61 .9.7.1 Inputs at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a pressure far-field boundary: • static pressure • mach number • temperature • flow direction • turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model.9. or the surface-to-surface model) • chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) All values are entered in the Pressure Far-Field panel (Figure 7. c Fluent Inc. and (if you are modeling axisymmetric swirl) Tangential-Component of Flow Direction. enter the appropriate values for Gauge Pressure and Temperature in the Pressure Far-Field panel. enter the appropriate values for X. You will also set the Mach Number there. or supersonic. If your geometry is 2D non-axisymmetric or 3D.1). Radial. enter the appropriate values for Axial. and (in 3D) Z-Component of Flow Direction in the Pressure Far-Field panel. Defining the Flow Direction You can define the flow direction at a pressure far-field boundary by setting the components of the direction vector.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). and Static Temperature To set the static pressure and temperature at the far-field boundary.1. Mach Number.9 Pressure Far-Field Boundary Conditions 7. the DTRM.

you will set the species mass fractions under Species Mass Fractions. the DO model.1. the DTRM.2: Determining Turbulence Parameters. or the surface-tosurface model. See Section 13.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. Instructions for deciding which method to use and determining appropriate values for these inputs are provided in Section 7. Defining Radiation Parameters If you are using the P-1 radiation model.1: The Pressure Far-Field Panel Defining Turbulence Parameters For turbulent calculations. 7-62 c Fluent Inc. September 29. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optionally) Black Body Temperature. there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters.5: Defining Boundary Conditions for Species for details.3. 2006 .2. Turbulence modeling is described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence. Defining Species Transport Parameters If you are modeling species transport. See Section 14.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.9.

Dissipation Rate 0 0.7..e.9. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the pressure far-field boundary. and the subscript i refers to conditions in the interior of the domain (i.2 Default Settings at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries Default settings (in SI) for pressure far-field boundary conditions are as follows: Gauge Pressure Mach Number Temperature X-Component of Flow Direction Y-Component of Flow Direction Z-Component of Flow Direction Turb.9-1) Ri = vni + 2ci γ−1 (7. characteristic variables) for a one-dimensional flow normal to the boundary.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details..3 Calculation Procedure at Pressure Far-Field Boundaries The pressure far-field boundary condition is a non-reflecting boundary condition based on the introduction of Riemann invariants (i. corresponding to incoming and outgoing waves: R∞ = vn∞ − 2c∞ γ−1 (7.9-3) (7.e.9 Pressure Far-Field Boundary Conditions Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles.9. in the cell adjacent to the boundary face). See Section 22. These two invariants can be added and subtracted to give the following two equations: 1 vn = (Ri + R∞ ) 2 c= γ−1 (Ri − R∞ ) 4 (7.9-4) c Fluent Inc. September 29. For flow that is subsonic there are two Riemann invariants.6 300 1 0 0 1 1 7. The subscript ∞ refers to conditions being applied at infinity (the boundary conditions). 7. c is the local speed of sound and γ is the ratio of specific heats (ideal gas).9-2) where vn is the velocity magnitude normal to the boundary. Kinetic Energy Turb. 2006 7-63 .

10. Using the values for vn . At a face through which flow exits. the tangential velocity components and entropy are extrapolated from the interior. a discrete phase of particles.10. tangential velocity components.4: Other Inputs at Outflow Boundaries For an overview of flow boundaries. i Note that outflow boundaries cannot be used in the following cases: • If a problem includes pressure inlet boundaries.8: Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions) instead. however.3.3: Mass Flow Split Boundary Conditions • Section 7. September 29. to understand the limitations of this boundary type.10 Outflow Boundary Conditions Outflow boundary conditions in FLUENT are used to model flow exits where the details of the flow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solution of the flow problem. • With the multiphase models (Eulerian. • If you are modeling compressible flow.9: Open Channel Flow). c. It is important.1: FLUENT’s Treatment at Outflow Boundaries • Section 7.10. 7. at an inflow face. and VOF (except when modeling open channel flow. use pressure outlet boundary conditions (see Section 7. 2006 . see Section 7. and pressure at the boundary face can be calculated.2: Flow Inlet and Exit Boundary Conditions. velocity. • If you are modeling unsteady flows with varying density.Boundary Conditions where vn and c become the values of normal velocity and sound speed applied on the boundary. and entropy the values of density. 7-64 c Fluent Inc. even if the flow is incompressible. mixture. these are specified as having free-stream values. You can find the following information about outflow boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7. as described in Section 23. temperature. or split mass flow): FLUENT extrapolates the required information from the interior. You do not define any conditions at outflow boundaries (unless you are modeling radiative heat transfer.2: Using Outflow Boundaries • Section 7.10.

1 shows a simple two-dimensional flow problem and several possible outflow boundary location choices. The appropriate placement of an outflow boundary is described by example below. location B is a poor choice for c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-65 . September 29. However.1: FLUENT’s Treatment at Outflow Boundaries. Fully-developed flows are flows in which the flow velocity profile (and/or profiles of other properties such as temperature) is unchanging in the flow direction. • An overall mass balance correction. The zero diffusion flux condition applied at outflow cells means that the conditions of the outflow plane are extrapolated from within the domain and have no impact on the upstream flow. 7. when there is no area change at the outflow boundary. the outflow boundary condition is obeyed in fully-developed flows where the diffusion flux for all flow variables in the exit direction are zero. It is important to note that gradients in the cross-stream direction may exist at an outflow boundary.10. The zero diffusion flux condition applied by FLUENT at outflow boundaries is approached physically in fully-developed flows.10. • Outflow boundaries where normal gradients are negligible: Figure 7.10. Because the outflow boundary condition ignores these axial gradients in the flow. At this location. Location C shows the outflow boundary located upstream of the plenum exit but in a region of the duct where the flow is fully-developed. as noted below. • Ill-posed outflow boundaries: Location B in Figure 7.1 FLUENT’s Treatment at Outflow Boundaries The boundary conditions used by FLUENT at outflow boundaries are as follows: • A zero diffusion flux for all flow variables. you may also define outflow boundaries at physical boundaries where the flow is not fully developed—and you can do so with confidence if the assumption of a zero diffusion flux at the exit is expected to have a small impact on your flow solution. the outflow boundary condition is exactly obeyed.1 shows the outflow boundary near the reattachment point of the recirculation in the wake of the backwardfacing step.10. This choice of outflow boundary condition is ill-posed as the gradients normal to the exit plane are quite large at this point and can be expected to have a significant impact on the flow field upstream.2 Using Outflow Boundaries As noted in Section 7.10.7. Only the diffusion fluxes in the direction normal to the exit plane are assumed to be zero.10 Outflow Boundary Conditions 7. The extrapolation procedure used by FLUENT updates the outflow velocity and pressure in a manner that is consistent with a fully-developed flow assumption.

(FLUENT chooses the temperature using the temperature of the fluid adjacent to the outflow. In addition. In situations like this the FLUENT calculation typically does not converge and the results of the calculation have no validity.8: Pressure Outlet Boundary Conditions) are recommended. The exit location should be moved downstream from the reattachment point. For such calculations.10. For example. the scalar properties of the flow are not defined. even if the final solution is not expected to have any flow reentering the domain. This is because when flow is pulled into the domain through an outflow. inside the domain. the temperature of the flow pulled in through the outflow is not defined. the mass flow rate through the domain is “floating” or undefined. Figure 7. i Note that convergence may be affected if there is recirculation through the outflow boundary at any point during the calculation. September 29.1: Choice of the Outflow Boundary Condition Location an outflow boundary.Boundary Conditions A B C outflow outflow outflow condition condition condition obeyed ill-posed not obeyed Figure 7.1 shows a second ill-posed outflow boundary at location A.10. This is particularly true of turbulent flow simulations. pressure outlet boundary conditions (see Section 7. the outflow is located where flow is pulled into the FLUENT domain through the outflow boundary. when flow enters the domain through an outflow boundary. Here. 2006 . 7-66 c Fluent Inc.) Thus you should view all calculations that involve flow entering the domain through an outflow boundary with skepticism.

10-1) By default. Thus.10. If.. i. the Flow Rate Weighting for all outflow boundaries is set to 1. In the Outflow panel.10 Outflow Boundary Conditions 7. if you have two outflow boundaries and you want half of the flow to exit through each one. i If you specify a Flow Rate Weighting of 0.75+1.2: The Outflow Panel The Flow Rate Weighting is a weighting factor: Flow Rate Weighting specified on boundary percentage flow = through boundary sum of all Flow Rate Weightings (7.1% Boundary 2 = c Fluent Inc. no inputs are required from you.429 or 42.0 1. If the flow is divided equally among all of your outflow boundaries (or if you have just one outflow boundary). however. 0.75+1. and 25% through the other.3 Mass Flow Split Boundary Conditions In FLUENT. you will need to explicitly specify both Flow Rate Weightings. it is possible to use multiple outflow boundaries and specify the fractional flow rate through each boundary.75 at the first exit and leave the default Flow Rate Weighting (1. Figure 7.0) at the second exit.0 Boundary 1 = 0.25 for the other. September 29. set the Flow Rate Weighting to indicate what portion of the outflow is through the boundary. 2006 7-67 . you need not change the settings from the default.571 or 57.9% = 0. then the flow through each boundary will be = 0.7.e. you want 75% of the flow to exit through one.10.75 0.75 for one boundary and 0. FLUENT will scale the flow rate fractions to obtain equal fractions through all outflow boundaries.0 0.

2006 . These parameters are described in Section 13. the DO model. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the outflow boundary. The default value for Internal Emissivity is 1 and the default value for Black Body Temperature is 300. See Section 22. however. you will set the Internal Emissivity and (optionally) Black Body Temperature in the Outflow panel.4 Other Inputs at Outflow Boundaries Radiation Inputs at Outflow Boundaries In general.Boundary Conditions 7. you are using the P-1 radiation model.11 Outlet Vent Boundary Conditions Outlet vent boundary conditions are used to model an outlet vent with a specified loss coefficient and ambient (discharge) pressure and temperature. there are no boundary conditions for you to set at an outflow boundary.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details. the DTRM. If. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation. September 29. or the surfaceto-surface model. 7.3.10. 7-68 c Fluent Inc.

or the surface-to-surface model) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • loss coefficient • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Outlet Vent panel (Figure 7.8.1: Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries for details.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). c Fluent Inc. See Section 7.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows. September 29.11. the DO model. the DTRM. 2006 7-69 .1.7.1).10. Specification of the loss coefficient is described here. Open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23.1 Inputs at Outlet Vent Boundaries You will enter the following information for an outlet vent boundary: • static pressure • backflow conditions – total (stagnation) temperature (for energy calculations) – turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) – chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) – mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. The first 4 items listed above are specified in the same way that they are specified at pressure outlet boundaries. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.11.11 Outlet Vent Boundary Conditions 7.

The panels for defining these functions are the same as those used for defining temperature-dependent properties. and kL is the nondimensional loss coefficient. September 29.11.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. 2006 . ∆p. piecewise-linear. varies with the normal component of velocity through the vent. (7. and the pressure drop through the vent is assumed to be proportional to the dynamic head of the fluid. as follows: 1 ∆p = kL ρv 2 2 where ρ is the fluid density. therefore the vent will appear as a resistance even in the case of backflow. See Section 8. polynomial. v. That is.1: The Outlet Vent Panel Specifying the Loss Coefficient An outlet vent is considered to be infinitely thin.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions for details. 7-70 c Fluent Inc. You can define a constant.11-1) i ∆p is the pressure drop in the direction of the flow. the pressure drop. or piecewise-polynomial function for the Loss-Coefficient across the vent. with an empirically determined loss coefficient which you supply.

12 Exhaust Fan Boundary Conditions Exhaust fan boundary conditions are used to model an external exhaust fan with a specified pressure jump and ambient (discharge) pressure. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. Specification of the pressure jump is described here. See Section 7.12 Exhaust Fan Boundary Conditions 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).7.8. or the surface-to-surface model) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • pressure jump • open channel flow parameters (for open channel flow calculations using the VOF multiphase model) All values are entered in the Exhaust Fan panel (Figure 7.12. 7. Open channel boundary condition inputs are described in Section 23.1: Inputs at Pressure Outlet Boundaries for details. the DO model.12.10. The first 4 items listed above are specified in the same way that they are specified at pressure outlet boundaries.2: Modeling Open Channel Flows.1). 2006 7-71 . c Fluent Inc.1 Inputs at Exhaust Fan Boundaries You will enter the following information for an exhaust fan boundary: • static pressure • backflow conditions – total (stagnation) temperature (for energy calculations) – turbulence parameters (for turbulent calculations) – chemical species mass fractions (for species calculations) – mixture fraction and variance (for non-premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – progress variable (for premixed or partially premixed combustion calculations) – multiphase boundary conditions (for general multiphase calculations) – user-defined scalar boundary conditions (for user-defined scalar calculations) • radiation parameters (for calculations using the P-1 model. the DTRM. September 29.

2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions for details. the fan is treated like an inlet vent with a loss coefficient of unity. polynomial. 2006 . Figure 7. 7-72 c Fluent Inc. You can define a constant. The panels for defining these functions are the same as those used for defining temperature-dependent properties. September 29. See Section 8.1: The Exhaust Fan Panel i You must be careful to model the exhaust fan so that a pressure rise occurs for forward flow through the fan. or piecewise-polynomial function for the Pressure-Jump across the fan. and the discontinuous pressure rise across it is specified as a function of the local fluid velocity normal to the fan.Boundary Conditions Specifying the Pressure Jump An exhaust fan is considered to be infinitely thin. piecewise-linear.12. In the case of reversed flow.

2: Default Settings at Wall Boundaries • Section 7.14: Symmetry Boundary Conditions for details.13. See Section 7.13.1: Inputs at Wall Boundaries • Section 7.1 Inputs at Wall Boundaries Summary You will enter the following information for a wall boundary: • thermal boundary conditions (for heat transfer calculations) • wall motion conditions (for moving or rotating walls) • shear conditions (for slip walls. the DO model. optional) c Fluent Inc. or the surface-to-surface model) • discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • wall adhesion contact angle (for VOF calculations. or model a “slip” wall by specifying shear.) The shear stress and heat transfer between the fluid and wall are computed based on the flow details in the local flow field. (You can also model a slip wall with zero shear using the symmetry boundary type.13. September 29.13.7.13 Wall Boundary Conditions 7. In viscous flows. but using a symmetry boundary will apply symmetry conditions for all equations. 2006 7-73 .3: Shear-Stress Calculation Procedure at Wall Boundaries • Section 7. You can find the following information about wall boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7.13. but you can specify a tangential velocity component in terms of the translational or rotational motion of the wall boundary. optional) • species boundary conditions (for species calculations) • chemical reaction boundary conditions (for surface reactions) • radiation boundary conditions (for calculations using the P-1 model. optional) • wall roughness (for turbulent flows. the no-slip boundary condition is enforced at walls by default.4: Heat Transfer Calculations at Wall Boundaries 7. the DTRM.13 Wall Boundary Conditions Wall boundary conditions are used to bound fluid and solid regions.

choose the Heat Flux option under Thermal Conditions. See below for details. Heat Flux Boundary Conditions For a fixed heat flux condition. two-sided) walls of your model. See below for details about shell conduction..1. Meshing these walls with solid cells would lead to high-aspect-ratio meshes and a significant increase in the total number of cells. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. 7-74 c Fluent Inc. you should also set parameters for calculating thin-wall thermal resistance and heat generation in the wall. If the wall has a nonzero thickness. To view the thermal conditions. You can define an adiabatic wall by setting a zero heat flux condition. called shell conduction.Boundary Conditions Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls When you are solving the energy equation. This is the default condition for all walls. The inputs for each type of thermal condition are described below. This type of conduction. Five types of thermal conditions are available: • fixed heat flux • fixed temperature • convective heat transfer • external radiation heat transfer • combined external radiation and convection heat transfer If the wall zone is a “two-sided wall” (a wall that forms the interface between two regions. allows you to more conveniently model heat conduction on walls where the wall thickness is small with respect to the overall geometry (e. September 29. click the Thermal tab.. You will then need to set the appropriate value for the heat flux at the wall surface in the Heat Flux field. such as the fluid/solid interface for a conjugate heat transfer problem) a subset of these thermal conditions will be available. 2006 .4: Setting Boundary Conditions). You can model conduction within boundary walls and internal (i. but you will also be able to choose whether or not the two sides of the wall are “coupled”.g.13.1).e. finned heat exchangers or sheet metal in automobile underhoods). Thermal conditions are entered in the Thermal section of the Wall panel (Figure 7. you need to define thermal boundary conditions at wall boundaries. as described below.

13.13 Wall Boundary Conditions Figure 7.13-8 or Equation 7.7. you can enable the Radiation option in the Wall panel and set the External Emissivity and External Radiation Temperature. Your inputs of Heat Transfer Coefficient and Free Stream Temperature will allow FLUENT to compute the heat transfer to the wall using Equation 7. c Fluent Inc. choose the Temperature option under Thermal Conditions in the Wall panel. You will need to specify the temperature at the wall surface (Temperature). select Convection under Thermal Conditions.1: The Wall Panel (Thermal Section) Temperature Boundary Conditions To select the fixed temperature condition. Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions For a convective heat transfer wall boundary.13-9. External Radiation Boundary Conditions If radiation heat transfer from the exterior of your model is of interest. 2006 7-75 .13-12. September 29. The heat transfer to the wall is computed using Equation 7.

or contact resistance between two solid regions.. To include these effects in the heat transfer calculation you will need to specify the type of material. If there is no shell conduction. a wall will have a thickness of zero. With this thermal condition. you should use the shell conduction model (see below for details). a coating on a solid zone. you will need to set the Heat Transfer Coefficient. If shell conduction is enabled (Section 7. to open the Material panel. and the heat generation rate in the wall. This is the side of the wall surface away from the adjacent fluid or solid cell zone. you can only specify a constant thermal conductivity. September 29. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material. and External Radiation Temperature.13. The thermal resistance of the wall is ∆x/k.Boundary Conditions Combined Convection and External Radiation Boundary Conditions You can choose a thermal condition that combines the convection and radiation boundary conditions by selecting the Mixed option. “outer” refers to the surface of the wall facing the fluid/solid cell zone and “inner” refers to the surface of the wall facing away from the adjacent fluid/solid cell zone. where k is the conductivity of the wall material and ∆x is the wall thickness. Free Stream Temperature. as shown in Figure 7. i The convention used in FLUENT is that for any wall. which is called the inner surface of the thin wall. not the full contents of the standard Materials panel. For example. 2006 .1: Shell Conduction in ThinWalls). External Emissivity. If you want to use a non-constant thermal conductivity for a wall with non-zero thickness. you can model the effect of a piece of sheet metal between two fluid zones. in conjunction with any of the thermal conditions. model a thin layer of material on the wall.13. Select the material type in the Material Name drop-down list. The thermal wall boundary condition you set will be specified on the outside of the fluid/solid domain. then the “outer” surface stores the face temperature of the wall while the “inner” surface stores the evaluated value of the boundary condition specified by the user. and specify the thickness in the Wall Thickness field. i 7-76 c Fluent Inc. You can.. the shell cell temperature will be stored in the “inner” surface. this panel contains just the properties of the selected material. the thickness of the wall. you can click Edit. The temperature specified at this side of the wall is Tb . FLUENT will solve a 1D conduction equation to compute the thermal resistance offered by the wall and the heat generation in the wall. Note that for thin walls. however.2. Thin-Wall Thermal Resistance Parameters By default.

2: Thermal Conditions are Specified on the Inner Surface of the Thin Wall c Fluent Inc.13 Wall Boundary Conditions thin wall outer surface (wall surface toward the adjacent fluid or solid cell zone) Tb fluid or solid cells inner surface (wall surface away from the adjacent fluid or solid cell zone) ∆x Figure 7.7. September 29.13. 2006 7-77 .

for example. September 29. for example. When you read a grid with this type of wall zone into FLUENT. a “shadow” zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. (Convection and Radiation are not applicable for two-sided walls. If you specify a non-zero wall thickness for the uncoupled walls. and are effectively insulated from one another. where Tb1 is the Temperature (or qb1 is the Heat Flux) specified on one wall and Tb2 is the Temperature (or qb2 is the Heat Flux) specified on the other wall. This option is useful if. Specifying the heat generation rate inside the wall is useful if. (This option will appear in the Wall panel only when the wall is a two-sided wall. specify the material type.Boundary Conditions Specify the heat generation rate inside the wall in the Heat Generation Rate field. if desired. You will need to set the relevant parameters for the selected thermal condition. the shadow zone’s name will be shown in the Shadow Face Zone field.13.3. You can. you are modeling printed circuit boards where you know the electrical power dissipated in the circuits but not the heat flux or wall temperature. however.) The relationship between the wall and its shadow will be retained. Thermal Conditions for Two-Sided Walls If the wall zone has a fluid or solid region on each side. or to couple the two zones: • To couple the two sides of the wall. Note that the gap between the walls in Figure 7. it is included in the figure only to show where the thermal boundary condition for each uncoupled wall is applied. Note that the resistance parameters you set for one side of the wall will automatically be assigned to its shadow wall zone. • To uncouple the two sides of the wall and specify different thermal conditions on each one. You can choose to specify different thermal conditions on each zone. so that you can couple them again at a later time. The two uncoupled walls can have different thicknesses. and heat generation rate for thin-wall thermal resistance calculations. wall thickness.3 is not part of the model. you are modeling printed circuit boards where you know the electrical power dissipated in the circuits. 2006 . select the Coupled option under Thermal Conditions. because the solver will calculate heat transfer directly from the solution in the adjacent cells. In the Wall panel. 7-78 c Fluent Inc. the thermal boundary conditions you set will be specified on the inner surfaces of the two thin walls. as described above. as described above.13.) No additional thermal boundary conditions are required. it is called a “two-sided wall”. as shown in Figure 7. kw1 and kw2 are the thermal conductivities of the uncoupled thin walls. choose Temperature or Heat Flux as the thermal condition type.

13. September 29.7. 2006 7-79 .13 Wall Boundary Conditions thin walls q b1 or Tb1 q b2 or Tb2 fluid or solid cells fluid or solid cells k w1 k w2 Figure 7.3: Thermal Conditions are Specified on the Inner Surfaces of the Uncoupled Thin Walls c Fluent Inc.

FLUENT cases with shell conduction can be read in serial or parallel. • When used in conjunction with the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model.5: Partitioning the Grid for more infomation on partitioning). because the shell conduction model is relevant only for walls with non-zero thickness. If you need to split or merge a shell conducting wall. When this option is enabled. • It cannot be used with the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model. shell zones can be created on any wall with a positive thickness. If you want to perform adaption elsewhere in the computational domain. 2006 . After reading a case file in parallel. Note that the shell conduction model has several limitations: • It is available only in 3D. the TUI command define/boundary-conditions/modify-zones/delete-all-shells is used. This capability is available in both serial and parallel mode. in addition to conduction across the wall (which is always computed when the energy equation is solved). 7-80 c Fluent Inc.1: Manipulating Adaption Registers to ensure that no adaption is performed on the shell conducting wall. September 29. • The shell conduction model cannot be used on a wall zone that has been adapted. Either a partitioned or an unpartitioned case file can be read in parallel (see Section 31. The Shell Conduction option will appear in the Wall panel for all walls when solution of the energy equation is active. shell conducting walls cannot be semi-transparent. To delete existing shell conduction zones all at once. These fluxes are accounted for correctly in the FLUENT solution. but not in the flux report itself. the thermal conditions are applied as described above for thin walls. disable the Shell Conduction option for the wall.Boundary Conditions Shell Conduction in Thin-Walls To enable shell conduction for a wall. perform the split or merge operation. • It is available only when the pressure-based solver is used. • Fluxes at the ends of a shell conducting wall are not included in the heat balance reports. For a wall with shell conduction enabled. and then enable Shell Conduction for the new wall zones. FLUENT will compute heat conduction within the wall. be sure to use the mask register described in Section 26. i i You must specify a non-zero Wall Thickness in the Wall panel. • Shell conducting walls cannot be split or merged.11. turn on the Shell Conduction option in the Wall boundary condition panel.

which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.4). 2006 7-81 . Figure 7. To view the wall motion conditions. or the velocity components. click the Momentum tab.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).4: The Wall Panel for a Moving Wall c Fluent Inc.13.1.13 Wall Boundary Conditions Wall Motion Wall boundaries can be either stationary or moving. The stationary boundary condition specifies a fixed wall. whereas the moving boundary condition can be used to specify the translational or rotational velocity of the wall.7. Wall motion conditions are entered in the Momentum section of the Wall panel (Figure 7. September 29.13.

The Wall panel will expand. Note that if the adjacent cell zone is not moving. you can choose to specify velocities relative to the zone motion by enabling the Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone option. and therefore moving at the speed of the adjacent cell zone in the absolute frame. to show the wall velocity conditions. Select the Moving Wall option under Wall Motion. Velocity Conditions for Moving Walls If you wish to include tangential motion of the wall in your calculation.13.g. or the velocity components. a velocity of zero means that the wall is stationary in the absolute frame. it is recommended that you specify relative velocities (the default) rather than absolute velocities.. you will need to use the Components option.. By default. If you choose to specify relative velocities. 7-82 c Fluent Inc.g.Z vector). sliding meshes.Y. If you choose to specify absolute velocities (by enabling the Absolute option). you need to define the translational or rotational velocity. Then.Boundary Conditions Defining a Stationary Wall For a stationary wall. If you need to define non-linear translational motion. if you are using a moving reference frame or a sliding mesh). Specifying Relative or Absolute Velocity If the cell zone adjacent to the wall is moving (e.4. wall motion is “disabled” by the specification of Translational velocity with a Speed of zero. if you modify the speed of the adjacent cell zone. a velocity of zero means that the wall is stationary in the relative frame. September 29. and you want the wall to be fixed in the moving frame. Note that you cannot use the moving wall condition to model problems where the wall has a motion normal to itself. i If you are using one or more moving reference frames. a rectangular duct with a moving belt as one wall) you can enable the Translational option and specify the wall’s Speed and Direction (X. choose the Stationary Wall option under Wall Motion. 2006 . FLUENT will neglect any normal component of wall motion that you specify using the methods below. as shown in Figure 7. and therefore moving at the speed of the adjacent cell zone—but in the opposite direction—in the relative reference frame. described below. or mixing planes. the absolute and relative options are equivalent. as you would if you specified absolute velocities. Translational Wall Motion For problems that include linear translational motion of the wall boundary (e. you will not need to make any changes to the wall velocities.

For 3D problems. Note. and ZVelocity of the wall. a circle or cylinder). Y-Velocity. You can define non-linear translational motion using a boundary profile or a user-defined function for the X-Velocity. Wall Motion for Two-Sided Walls As discussed earlier in this section. 2006 7-83 . Y-Velocity. you will specify only the Rotation-Axis Origin. and/or Z-Velocity of the wall. For two-sided walls.13 Wall Boundary Conditions Rotational Wall Motion For problems that include rotational wall motion you can enable the Rotational option and define the rotational Speed about a specified axis. when you read a grid with a two-sided wall zone (which forms the interface between fluid/solid regions) into FLUENT. Wall Motion Based on Velocity Components For problems that include linear or non-linear translational motion of the wall boundary you can enable the Components option and specify the X-Velocity. set the RotationAxis Direction and Rotation-Axis Origin. To define the axis.0) to the (X. This axis is independent of the axis of rotation used by the adjacent cell zone. September 29. Note also that rotational motion can be specified for a wall in a stationary reference frame. the axis of rotation is the vector passing through the specified RotationAxis Origin and parallel to the vector from (0. with the origin at (0. you will not define the axis: the rotation will always be about the x axis..Y.0). Note that the modeling of tangential rotational motion will be correct only if the wall bounds a surface of revolution about the prescribed axis of rotation (e. that you cannot specify motion for a wall (or shadow) that is adjacent to a solid zone. whether or not they are coupled. For 2D axisymmetric problems.Z) point specified under Rotation-Axis Direction. and independent of any other wall rotation axis. it is possible to specify different motions for the wall and shadow zones.0. Shear Conditions at Walls Four types of shear conditions are available: • no-slip • specified shear • specularity coefficient • Marangoni stress c Fluent Inc. a “shadow” zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. For 2D problems.7. the axis of rotation is the z-direction vector passing through the specified point.g. however.

13. slip wall (zero shear stress). For non-zero shear. and z components of the shear stress as constant values or boundary profiles. the shear to be specified is the shear at the wall by the fluid. To specify the specularity coefficient. Specified Shear In addition to the no-slip wall that is the default for viscous flows. The specified shear boundary condition allows you to specify the x. This is the default for all walls in viscous flows. and free surface conditions (zero shear stress or shear stress dependent on surface tension gradient).13. The specified shear and Marangoni stress boundary conditions are useful in modeling situations in which the shear stress (rather than the motion of the fluid) is known. and it indicates that the fluid sticks to the wall and moves with the same velocity as the wall. 7-84 c Fluent Inc. and z components of shear under Shear Stress. The shear stress is calculated based on the surface gradient of the temperature and the specified surface tension gradient.1. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. but when the value is near unity. The Marangoni stress option is available only for calculations in which the energy equation is being solved. select the Specified Shear option under Shear Condition (see Figure 7. This implementation is based on the Johnson and Jackson [166] boundary conditions for granular flows.Boundary Conditions The no-slip condition is the default. The specularity coefficient is a measure of the fraction of collisions which transfer momentum to the wall and its value ranges between zero and unity. Specularity Coefficient For multiphase granular flow. Examples of such situations are applied shear stress. y.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). Shear conditions are entered in the Momentum section of the Wall panel. To specify the shear. if it is moving. you can specify the specularity coefficient such that when the value is zero. The specularity coefficient shear condition is specifically used in multiphase with granular flows. 2006 . September 29.5). To view the shear conditions. No-Slip Walls You can model a no-slip wall by selecting the No Slip option under Shear Condition.6) and enter the desired value in the text-entry box under Specularity Coefficient. click the Momentum tab. this condition is equivalent to zero shear at the wall. you can model a slip wall by specifying zero or non-zero shear. The Marangoni stress boundary condition allows you to specify the gradient of the surface tension with respect to the temperature at this surface. select the Specularity Coefficient option under Shear Condition (see Figure 7. there is a significant amount of lateral momentum transfer. You can then enter x. y. Wall functions for turbulence are not used with the Specified Shear option.

and s T is the surface gradient.13.13.5: The Wall Panel for Specified Shear Marangoni Stress FLUENT can also model shear stresses caused by the variation of surface tension due to temperature. Wall functions for turbulence are not used with the Marangoni Stress option.13-1) where dσ/dT is the surface tension gradient with respect to temperature. The shear stress applied at the wall is given by τ= dσ dT sT (7. You can then enter the surface tension gradient (dσ/dT in Equation 7. c Fluent Inc.7). This shear stress is then applied to the momentum equation. To model Marangoni stress for the wall.7. September 29. This option is available only for calculations in which the energy equation is being solved. select the Marangoni Stress option under Shear Condition (see Figure 7.13-1) in the Surface Tension Gradient field. 2006 7-85 .13 Wall Boundary Conditions Figure 7.

Boundary Conditions Figure 7. 2006 . September 29. has the same slope (1/κ) but a different intercept (additive constant B in the log-law). ships.13. the law-ofthe-wall for mean velocity modified for roughness has the form up u∗ 1 ρu∗ yp = ln(E ) − ∆B τw /ρ κ µ 1/4 where u∗ = Cµ k 1/2 and (7.13-2) ∆B = 1 ln fr κ (7.13-3) 7-86 c Fluent Inc.6: The Wall Panel for the Specularity Coefficient Wall Roughness Effects in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows Fluid flows over rough surfaces are encountered in diverse situations. you can include the wall roughness effects through the law-of-the-wall modified for roughness. Law-of-the-Wall Modified for Roughness Experiments in roughened pipes and channels indicate that the mean velocity distribution near rough walls. and piping systems. turbomachinery. Wall roughness affects drag (resistance) and heat and mass transfer on the walls. when plotted in the usual semi-logarithmic scale. Examples are. heat exchangers. Thus. flows over the surfaces of airplanes. If you are modeling a turbulent wall-bounded flow in which the wall roughness effects are considered to be significant. and atmospheric boundary layers over terrain of varying roughness. among many others.

Analyses of experimental data show that the roughness function is not a single function + + of Ks .25) + • transitional (2.7: The Wall Panel for Marangoni Stress where fr is a roughness function that quantifies the shift of the intercept due to roughness effects. on the type (uniform sand. Ks = ρKs u∗ /µ. threads. but takes different forms depending on the Ks value. For a sand-grain roughness and similar types of uniform roughness elements. however. ∆B depends. There is no universal roughness function valid for all types of roughness. in general.) and size of the roughness. September 29. rivets.25 < Ks ≤ 90) + • fully rough (Ks > 90) c Fluent Inc. where Ks is the physical roughness height and u∗ = Cµ k 1/2 . ∆B has been found to be well-correlated with the nondimensional roughness + 1/4 height. 2006 7-87 . mesh-wire. etc. ribs. It has been observed that there are three distinct regimes: + • hydrodynamically smooth (Ks ≤ 2.7.13.13 Wall Boundary Conditions Figure 7.

Boundary Conditions

According to the data, roughness effects are negligible in the hydrodynamically smooth regime, but become increasingly important in the transitional regime, and take full effect in the fully rough regime. In FLUENT, the whole roughness regime is subdivided into the three regimes, and the formulas proposed by Cebeci and Bradshaw based on Nikuradse’s data [51] are adopted to compute ∆B for each regime.
+ For the hydrodynamically smooth regime (Ks ≤ 2.25):

∆B = 0
+ For the transitional regime (2.25 < Ks ≤ 90): + 1 Ks − 2.25 + + ln + Cs Ks × sin 0.4258(ln Ks − 0.811) κ 87.75

(7.13-4)

∆B =

(7.13-5)

where Cs is a roughness constant, and depends on the type of the roughness.
+ In the fully rough regime (Ks > 90):

∆B =

1 + ln(1 + Cs Ks ) κ

(7.13-6)

+ In the solver, given the roughness parameters, ∆B(Ks ) is evaluated using the corresponding formula (Equation 7.13-4, 7.13-5, or 7.13-6). The modified law-of-the-wall in Equation 7.13-2 is then used to evaluate the shear stress at the wall and other wall functions for the mean temperature and turbulent quantities.

Setting the Roughness Parameters The roughness parameters are in the Momentum section of the Wall panel (see Figure 7.13.7), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions). To view the wall roughness parameters, click the Momentum tab. To model the wall roughness effects, you must specify two roughness parameters: the Roughness Height, Ks , and the Roughness Constant, Cs . The default roughness height (Ks ) is zero, which corresponds to smooth walls. For the roughness to take effect, you must specify a non-zero value for Ks . For a uniform sand-grain roughness, the height of the sand-grain can simply be taken for Ks . For a non-uniform sand-grain, however, the mean diameter (D50 ) would be a more meaningful roughness height. For other types of roughness, an “equivalent” sand-grain roughness height could be used for Ks . The above approaches are only relevant if the height is considered constant per surface. However, if the roughness constant or roughness height is not constant (i.e., flow over a nonuniform surface), then you can specify a boundary profile (Section 7.26: Boundary

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7.13 Wall Boundary Conditions

Profiles). Similarly, user-defined functions may be used to define a wall roughness height that is not constant. For details on the format of user-defined functions, refer to the separate UDF Manual. Choosing a proper roughness constant (Cs ) is dictated mainly by the type of the given roughness. The default roughness constant (Cs = 0.5) was determined so that, when used with k- turbulence models, it reproduces Nikuradse’s resistance data for pipes roughened with tightly-packed, uniform sand-grain roughness. You may need to adjust the roughness constant when the roughness you want to model departs much from uniform sand-grain. For instance, there is some experimental evidence that, for non-uniform sand-grains, ribs, and wire-mesh roughness, a higher value (Cs = 0.5 ∼ 1.0) is more appropriate. Unfortunately, a clear guideline for choosing Cs for arbitrary types of roughness is not available. Note that it is not physically meaningful to have a mesh size such that the wall-adjacent cell is smaller than the roughness height. For best results, make sure that the distance from the wall to the centroid of the wall-adjacent cell is greater than Ks .

Species Boundary Conditions for Walls
By default, a zero-gradient condition for all species is assumed at walls (except for species that participate in surface reactions), but it is also possible to specify species mass fractions at walls. That is, Dirichlet boundary conditions such as those that are specified at inlets can be used at walls as well. If you wish to retain the default zero-gradient condition for a species, no inputs are required. If you want to specify the mass fraction for a species at the wall, the steps are as follows: 1. Click the Species tab in the Wall panel to view the species boundary conditions for the wall (see Figure 7.13.8). 2. Under Species Boundary Condition, select Specified Mass Fraction (rather than Zero Diffusive Flux) in the drop-down list to the right of the species name. The panel will expand to include space for Species Mass Fractions. 3. Under Species Mass Fractions, specify the mass fraction for the species. The boundary condition type for each species is specified separately, so you can choose to use different methods for different species. If you are modeling species transport with reactions, you can, alternatively, enable a reaction mechanism at a wall by turning on the Reaction option and selecting an available mechanism from the Reaction Mechanisms drop-down list. See Section 14.1.4: Defining Zone-Based Reaction Mechanisms more information about defining reaction mechanisms.

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Boundary Conditions

Figure 7.13.8: The Wall Panel for Species Boundary Condition Input

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7.13 Wall Boundary Conditions

Reaction Boundary Conditions for Walls
If you have enabled the modeling of wall surface reactions in the Species Model panel, you can indicate whether or not surface reactions should be activated for the wall. In the Species section of the Wall panel (Figure 7.13.8), turn the Surface Reactions option on or off. Note that a zero-gradient condition is assumed at the wall for species that do not participate in any surface reactions.

Radiation Boundary Conditions for Walls
If you are using the P-1 radiation model, the DTRM, the DO model, or the surface-tosurface model, you will need to set the emissivity of the wall (Internal Emissivity) in the Radiation section of the Wall panel. If you are using the Rosseland model you do not need to set the emissivity, because FLUENT assumes the emissivity is 1. If you are using the DO model you will also need to define the wall as diffuse, specular, or semi-transparent. See Section 13.3.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.

Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Boundary Conditions for Walls
If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles, you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the wall in the DPM section of the Wall panel. See Section 22.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details.

Wall Adhesion Contact Angle for VOF Model
If you are using the VOF model and you are modeling wall adhesion, you can specify the contact angle for each pair of phases at the wall in the Momentum section of the Wall panel. See Section 23.9.8: Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions for details.

User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Boundary Conditions for Walls
If you have defined UDS transport equations in your model, you can specify boundary conditions for each equation in the UDS section of the Wall panel. See Section 9.3.3: Setting Up UDS Equations in FLUENT for details.

7.13.2

Default Settings at Wall Boundaries

The default thermal boundary condition is a fixed heat flux of zero. Walls are, by default, not moving.

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7.13.3

Shear-Stress Calculation Procedure at Wall Boundaries

For no-slip wall conditions, FLUENT uses the properties of the flow adjacent to the wall/fluid boundary to predict the shear stress on the fluid at the wall. In laminar flows this calculation simply depends on the velocity gradient at the wall, while in turbulent flows one of the approaches described in Section 12.10: Near-Wall Treatments for WallBounded Turbulent Flows is used. For specified-shear walls, FLUENT will compute the tangential velocity at the boundary. If you are modeling inviscid flow with FLUENT, all walls use a slip condition, so they are frictionless and exert no shear stress on the adjacent fluid.

Shear-Stress Calculation in Laminar Flow
In a laminar flow, the wall shear stress is defined by the normal velocity gradient at the wall as τw = µ ∂v ∂n (7.13-7)

When there is a steep velocity gradient at the wall, you must be sure that the grid is sufficiently fine to accurately resolve the boundary layer. Guidelines for the appropriate placement of the near-wall node in laminar flows are provided in Section 6.2.2: Node Density and Clustering.

Shear-Stress Calculation in Turbulent Flows
Wall treatments for turbulent flows are described in Section 12.10: Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows.

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7.13 Wall Boundary Conditions

7.13.4

Heat Transfer Calculations at Wall Boundaries

Temperature Boundary Conditions
When a fixed temperature condition is applied at the wall, the heat flux to the wall from a fluid cell is computed as q = hf (Tw − Tf ) + qrad where hf Tw Tf qrad = = = = fluid-side local heat transfer coefficient wall surface temperature local fluid temperature radiative heat flux (7.13-8)

Note that the fluid-side heat transfer coefficient is computed based on the local flow-field conditions (e.g., turbulence level, temperature, and velocity profiles), as described by Equations 7.13-15 and 12.10-5. Heat transfer to the wall boundary from a solid cell is computed as q= where ks Ts ∆n = thermal conductivity of the solid = local solid temperature = distance between wall surface and the solid cell center ks (Tw − Ts ) + qrad ∆n (7.13-9)

Heat Flux Boundary Conditions
When you define a heat flux boundary condition at a wall, you specify the heat flux at the wall surface. FLUENT uses Equation 7.13-8 and your input of heat flux to determine the wall surface temperature adjacent to a fluid cell as Tw = q − qrad + Tf hf (7.13-10)

where, as noted above, the fluid-side heat transfer coefficient is computed based on the local flow-field conditions. When the wall borders a solid region, the wall surface temperature is computed as Tw = (q − qrad )∆n + Ts ks (7.13-11)

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Boundary Conditions

Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions
When you specify a convective heat transfer coefficient boundary condition at a wall, FLUENT uses your inputs of the external heat transfer coefficient and external heat sink temperature to compute the heat flux to the wall as

q = hf (Tw − Tf ) + qrad = hext (Text − Tw ) where hext Text qrad = = = external heat transfer coefficient defined by you external heat-sink temperature defined by you radiative heat flux

(7.13-12)

Equation 7.13-12 assumes a wall of zero thickness.

External Radiation Boundary Conditions
When the external radiation boundary condition is used in FLUENT, the heat flux to the wall is computed as

q = hf (Tw − Tf ) + qrad 4 4 = ext σ(T∞ − Tw ) where
ext

(7.13-13)

σ Tw T∞ qrad

= = = =

emissivity of the external wall surface defined by you Stefan-Boltzmann constant surface temperature of the wall temperature of the radiation source or sink on the exterior of the domain, defined by you = radiative heat flux to the wall from within the domain

Equation 7.13-13 assumes a wall of zero thickness.

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7.14 Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Combined External Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions
When you choose the combined external heat transfer condition, the heat flux to the wall is computed as

q = hf (Tw − Tf ) + qrad 4 4 = hext (Text − Tw ) + ext σ(T∞ − Tw )

(7.13-14)

where the variables are as defined above. Equation 7.13-14 assumes a wall of zero thickness.

Calculation of the Fluid-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
In laminar flows, the fluid side heat transfer at walls is computed using Fourier’s law applied at the walls. FLUENT uses its discrete form: ∂T ∂n

q = kf

(7.13-15)
wall

where n is the local coordinate normal to the wall. For turbulent flows, FLUENT uses the law-of-the-wall for temperature derived using the analogy between heat and momentum transfer [197]. See Section 12.10.2: Standard Wall Functions for details.

7.14

Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Symmetry boundary conditions are used when the physical geometry of interest, and the expected pattern of the flow/thermal solution, have mirror symmetry. They can also be used to model zero-shear slip walls in viscous flows. This section describes the treatment of the flow at symmetry planes and provides examples of the use of symmetry. You do not define any boundary conditions at symmetry boundaries, but you must take care to correctly define your symmetry boundary locations.

i

At the centerline of an axisymmetric geometry, you should use the axis boundary type rather than the symmetry boundary type, as illustrated in Figure 7.16.1. See Section 7.16: Axis Boundary Conditions for details.

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7.14.1

Examples of Symmetry Boundaries

Symmetry boundaries are used to reduce the extent of your computational model to a symmetric subsection of the overall physical system. Figures 7.14.1 and 7.14.2 illustrate two examples of symmetry boundary conditions used in this way.

symmetry planes

Figure 7.14.1: Use of Symmetry to Model One Quarter of a 3D Duct

2 symmetry planes (model includes a 90° sector)

Figure 7.14.2: Use of Symmetry to Model One Quarter of a Circular CrossSection

Figure 7.14.3 illustrates two problems in which a symmetry plane would be inappropriate. In both examples, the problem geometry is symmetric but the flow itself does not obey the symmetry boundary conditions. In the first example, buoyancy creates an asymmetric flow. In the second, swirl in the flow creates a flow normal to the would-be symmetry plane. Note that this second example should be handled using rotationally periodic boundaries (as illustrated in Figure 7.15.1).

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7.14 Symmetry Boundary Conditions

cold hot fluid rises hot g

cold

not a plane of symmetry

not a plane of symmetry

Figure 7.14.3: Inappropriate Use of Symmetry

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Boundary Conditions

7.14.2

Calculation Procedure at Symmetry Boundaries

FLUENT assumes a zero flux of all quantities across a symmetry boundary. There is no convective flux across a symmetry plane: the normal velocity component at the symmetry plane is thus zero. There is no diffusion flux across a symmetry plane: the normal gradients of all flow variables are thus zero at the symmetry plane. The symmetry boundary condition can therefore be summarized as follows: • zero normal velocity at a symmetry plane • zero normal gradients of all variables at a symmetry plane As stated above, these conditions determine a zero flux across the symmetry plane, which is required by the definition of symmetry. Since the shear stress is zero at a symmetry boundary, it can also be interpreted as a “slip” wall when used in viscous flow calculations.

7.15

Periodic Boundary Conditions

Periodic boundary conditions are used when the physical geometry of interest and the expected pattern of the flow/thermal solution have a periodically repeating nature. Two types of periodic conditions are available in FLUENT. The first type does not allow a pressure drop across the periodic planes. (Note to FLUENT 4 users: This type of periodic boundary is referred to as a “cyclic” boundary in FLUENT 4.) The second type allows a pressure drop to occur across translationally periodic boundaries, enabling you to model “fully-developed” periodic flow. (In FLUENT 4 this is a “periodic” boundary.) This section discusses the no-pressure-drop periodic boundary condition. A complete description of the fully-developed periodic flow modeling capability is provided in Section 9.4: Periodic Flows. You can find the following information about periodic boundary conditions in this section: • Section 7.15.1: Examples of Periodic Boundaries • Section 7.15.2: Inputs for Periodic Boundaries • Section 7.15.3: Default Settings at Periodic Boundaries • Section 7.15.4: Calculation Procedure at Periodic Boundaries

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7.15 Periodic Boundary Conditions

7.15.1

Examples of Periodic Boundaries

Periodic boundary conditions are used when the flows across two opposite planes in your computational model are identical. Figure 7.15.1 illustrates a typical application of periodic boundary conditions. In this example the flow entering the computational model through one periodic plane is identical to the flow exiting the domain through the opposite periodic plane. Periodic planes are always used in pairs as illustrated in this example.
4 tangential inlets

periodic boundaries

Figure 7.15.1: Use of Periodic Boundaries to Define Swirling Flow in a Cylindrical Vessel

7.15.2

Inputs for Periodic Boundaries

For a periodic boundary without any pressure drop, there is only one input you need to consider: whether the geometry is rotationally or translationally periodic. (Additional inputs are required for a periodic flow with a periodic pressure drop. See Section 9.4: Periodic Flows.) Rotationally periodic boundaries are boundaries that form an included angle about the centerline of a rotationally symmetric geometry. Figure 7.15.1 illustrates rotational periodicity. Translationally periodic boundaries are boundaries that form periodic planes in a rectilinear geometry. Figure 7.15.2 illustrates translationally periodic boundaries. You will specify translational or rotational periodicity for a periodic boundary in the Periodic panel (Figure 7.15.4), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).

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Figure 7.15.2: Example of Translational Periodicity - Physical Domain

periodic boundary

periodic boundary

Figure 7.15.3: Example of Translational Periodicity - Modeled Domain

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7.15 Periodic Boundary Conditions

Figure 7.15.4: The Periodic Panel

Note that there will be an additional item in the Periodic panel for the density-based solvers, which allows you to specify the periodic pressure jump. See Section 9.4: Periodic Flows for details. If the domain is rotationally periodic, select Rotational as the Periodic Type; if it is translationally periodic, select Translational. For rotationally periodic domains, the solver will automatically compute the angle through which the periodic zone is rotated. The axis used for this rotation is the axis of rotation specified for the adjacent cell zone. Note that there is no need for the adjacent cell zone to be moving for you to use a rotationally periodic boundary. You could, for example, model pipe flow in 3D using a nonrotating reference frame with a pie-slice of the pipe; the sides of the slice would require rotational periodicity. You can use the Grid/Check menu item (see Section 6.5: Checking the Grid) to compute and display the minimum, maximum, and average rotational angles of all faces on periodic boundaries. If the difference between the minimum, maximum, and average values is not negligible, then there is a problem with the grid: the grid geometry is not periodic about the specified axis.

7.15.3

Default Settings at Periodic Boundaries

By default, all periodic boundaries are translational.

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7.15.4

Calculation Procedure at Periodic Boundaries

FLUENT treats the flow at a periodic boundary as though the opposing periodic plane is a direct neighbor to the cells adjacent to the first periodic boundary. Thus, when calculating the flow through the periodic boundary adjacent to a fluid cell, the flow conditions at the fluid cell adjacent to the opposite periodic plane are used.

7.16

Axis Boundary Conditions

The axis boundary type must be used as the centerline of an axisymmetric geometry (see Figure 7.16.1). It can also be used for the centerline of a cylindrical-polar quadrilateral or hexahedral grid (e.g., a grid created for a structured-grid code such as FLUENT 4). You do not need to define any boundary conditions at axis boundaries.

axis

Figure 7.16.1: Use of an Axis Boundary as the Centerline in an Axisymmetric Geometry

Calculation Procedure at Axis Boundaries
To determine the appropriate physical value for a particular variable at a point on the axis, FLUENT uses the cell value in the adjacent cell.

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7.17 Fluid Conditions

7.17 Fluid Conditions
A fluid zone is a group of cells for which all active equations are solved. The only required input for a fluid zone is the type of fluid material. You must indicate which material the fluid zone contains so that the appropriate material properties will be used.

i

If you are modeling species transport and/or combustion, you will not select a material here; the mixture material is specified in the Species Model panel when you enable the model. Similarly, you will not specify the materials for a multiphase flow here; you will choose them when you define the phases, as described in Section 23.10.3: Defining the Phases for the VOF Model.

Optional inputs allow you to set sources or fixed values of mass, momentum, heat (temperature), turbulence, species, and other scalar quantities. You can also define motion for the fluid zone. If there are rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to the fluid zone, you will need to specify the rotation axis. If you are modeling turbulence using one of the k- models, the k-ω model, or the Spalart-Allmaras model, you can choose to define the fluid zone as a laminar flow region. If you are modeling radiation using the DO model, you can specify whether or not the fluid participates in radiation.

i
7.17.1

For information about porous zones, see Section 7.19: Porous Media Conditions.

Inputs for Fluid Zones

You will set all fluid conditions in the Fluid panel (Figure 7.17.1), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).

Defining the Fluid Material
To define the material contained in the fluid zone, select the appropriate item in the Material Name drop-down list. This list will contain all fluid materials that have been defined (or loaded from the materials database) in the Materials panel. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Material panel; this panel contains just the properties of the selected material, not the full contents of the standard Materials panel.

i

If you are modeling species transport or multiphase flow, the Material Name list will not appear in the Fluid panel. For species calculations, the mixture material for all fluid zones will be the material you specified in the Species Model panel. For multiphase flows, the materials are specified when you define the phases, as described in Section 23.10.3: Defining the Phases for the VOF Model.

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Boundary Conditions

Figure 7.17.1: The Fluid Panel

Defining Sources
If you wish to define a source of heat, mass, momentum, turbulence, species, or other scalar quantity within the fluid zone, you can do so by enabling the Source Terms option. See Section 7.28: Defining Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Other Sources for details.

Defining Fixed Values
If you wish to fix the value of one or more variables in the fluid zone, rather than computing them during the calculation, you can do so by enabling the Fixed Values option. See Section 7.27: Fixing the Values of Variables for details.

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7.17 Fluid Conditions

Specifying a Laminar Zone
When you are calculating a turbulent flow, it is possible to “turn off” turbulence modeling in a specific fluid zone. To disable turbulence modeling, turn on the Laminar Zone option in the Fluid panel. This will disable the turbulence production, but transport the turbulence quantities. If, in addition, you want to set the turbulent viscosity to zero you can do that using the text command define/ boundary-conditions/fluid. You will be asked if you want to Set Turbulent Viscosity to zero within laminar zone?. If your response is yes, FLUENT will set both the production term in the turbulence transport equation and µt to zero. This is useful if you know that the flow in a certain region is laminar. For example, if you know the location of the transition point on an airfoil, you can create a laminar/turbulent transition boundary where the laminar cell zone borders the turbulent cell zone. This feature allows you to model turbulent transition on the airfoil. Disabling turbulence modeling in a fluid zone, can be applied to all the turbulence models except the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model.

Specifying a Reaction Mechanism
If you are modeling species transport with reactions, you can enable a reaction mechanism in a fluid zone by turning on the Reaction option and selecting an available mechanism from the Reaction Mechanisms drop-down list. See Section 14.1.4: Defining Zone-Based Reaction Mechanisms more information about defining reaction mechanisms.

Specifying the Rotation Axis
If there are rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to the fluid zone or if the zone is rotating, you must specify the rotation axis. To define the axis, set the Rotation-Axis Direction and Rotation-Axis Origin. This axis is independent of the axis of rotation used by any adjacent wall zones or any other cell zones. For 3D problems, the axis of rotation is the vector from the Rotation-Axis Origin in the direction of the vector given by your Rotation-Axis Direction inputs. For 2D non-axisymmetric problems, you will specify only the Rotation-Axis Origin; the axis of rotation is the z-direction vector passing through the specified point. (The z direction is normal to the plane of your geometry so that rotation occurs in the plane.) For 2D axisymmetric problems, you will not define the axis: the rotation will always be about the x axis, with the origin at (0,0).

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Defining Zone Motion
To define zone motion for a rotating or translating reference frame, select Moving Reference Frame in the Motion Type drop-down list (visible if you scroll down using the scroll bar to the right of the Rotation-Axis Origin and Direction) and then set the appropriate parameters in the expanded portion of the panel. To define zone motion for a sliding mesh, select Moving Mesh in the Motion Type dropdown list and then set the appropriate parameters in the expanded portion of the panel. See Section 11.2: Sliding Mesh Theory for details. For problems that include linear, translational motion of the fluid zone, specify the Translational Velocity by setting the X, Y, and Z components. For problems that include rotational motion, specify the rotational Speed under Rotational Velocity. The rotation axis is defined as described above. See Chapter 10: Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames for details about modeling flows in moving reference frames.

Defining Radiation Parameters
If you are using the DO radiation model, you can specify whether or not the fluid zone participates in radiation using the Participates in Radiation option. See Section 13.3.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.

7.18

Solid Conditions

A “solid” zone is a group of cells for which only a heat conduction problem is solved; no flow equations are solved. The material being treated as a solid may actually be a fluid, but it is assumed that no convection is taking place. The only required input for a solid zone is the type of solid material. You must indicate which material the solid zone contains so that the appropriate material properties will be used. Optional inputs allow you to set a volumetric heat generation rate (heat source) or a fixed value of temperature. You can also define motion for the solid zone. If there are rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to the solid zone, you will need to specify the rotation axis. If you are modeling radiation using the DO model, you can specify whether or not the solid material participates in radiation.

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7.18 Solid Conditions

7.18.1

Inputs for Solid Zones

You will set all solid conditions in the Solid panel (Figure 7.18.1), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).

Figure 7.18.1: The Solid Panel

Defining the Solid Material
To define the material contained in the solid zone, select the appropriate item in the Material Name drop-down list. This list will contain all solid materials that have been defined (or loaded from the materials database) in the Materials panel. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Material panel; this panel contains just the properties of the selected material, not the full contents of the standard Materials panel.

Defining a Heat Source
If you wish to define a source of heat within the solid zone, you can do so by enabling the Source Terms option. See Section 7.28: Defining Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Other Sources for details.

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Defining a Fixed Temperature
If you wish to fix the value of temperature in the solid zone, rather than computing it during the calculation, you can do so by enabling the Fixed Values option. See Section 7.27: Fixing the Values of Variables for details.

Specifying the Rotation Axis
If there are rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to the solid zone or if the zone is rotating, you must specify the rotation axis. To define the axis, set the Rotation-Axis Direction and Rotation-Axis Origin. This axis is independent of the axis of rotation used by any adjacent wall zones or any other cell zones. For 3D problems, the axis of rotation is the vector from the Rotation-Axis Origin in the direction of the vector given by your Rotation-Axis Direction inputs. For 2D non-axisymmetric problems, you will specify only the Rotation-Axis Origin; the axis of rotation is the z-direction vector passing through the specified point. (The z direction is normal to the plane of your geometry so that rotation occurs in the plane.) For 2D axisymmetric problems, you will not define the axis: the rotation will always be about the x axis, with the origin at (0,0).

Defining Zone Motion
To define zone motion for a rotating or translating reference frame, select Moving Reference Frame in the Motion Type drop-down list and then set the appropriate parameters in the expanded portion of the panel. To define zone motion for a sliding mesh, select Moving Mesh in the Motion Type dropdown list and then set the appropriate parameters in the expanded portion of the panel. See Section 11.2: Sliding Mesh Theory for details. For problems that include linear, translational motion of the fluid zone, specify the Translational Velocity by setting the X, Y, and Z components. For problems that include rotational motion, specify the rotational Speed under Rotational Velocity. The rotation axis is defined as described above. See Chapter 10: Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames for details about modeling flows in moving reference frames.

Defining Radiation Parameters
If you are using the DO radiation model, you can specify whether or not the solid material participates in radiation using the Participates in Radiation option. See Section 13.3.15: Defining Boundary Conditions for Radiation for details.

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7.19 Porous Media Conditions

7.19 Porous Media Conditions
The porous media model can be used for a wide variety of problems, including flows through packed beds, filter papers, perforated plates, flow distributors, and tube banks. When you use this model, you define a cell zone in which the porous media model is applied and the pressure loss in the flow is determined via your inputs as described in Section 7.19.2: Momentum Equations for Porous Media. Heat transfer through the medium can also be represented, subject to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the medium and the fluid flow, as described in Section 7.19.3: Treatment of the Energy Equation in Porous Media. A 1D simplification of the porous media model, termed the “porous jump,” can be used to model a thin membrane with known velocity/pressure-drop characteristics. The porous jump model is applied to a face zone, not to a cell zone, and should be used (instead of the full porous media model) whenever possible because it is more robust and yields better convergence. See Section 7.22: Porous Jump Boundary Conditions for details. You can find information about modeling porous media in the following sections: • Section 7.19.1: Limitations and Assumptions of the Porous Media Model • Section 7.19.2: Momentum Equations for Porous Media • Section 7.19.3: Treatment of the Energy Equation in Porous Media • Section 7.19.4: Treatment of Turbulence in Porous Media • Section 7.19.5: Effect of Porosity on Transient Scalar Equations • Section 7.19.6: User Inputs for Porous Media • Section 7.19.7: Modeling Porous Media Based on Physical Velocity • Section 7.19.8: Solution Strategies for Porous Media • Section 7.19.9: Postprocessing for Porous Media

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7.19.1

Limitations and Assumptions of the Porous Media Model

The porous media model incorporates an empirically determined flow resistance in a region of your model defined as “porous”. In essence, the porous media model is nothing more than an added momentum sink in the governing momentum equations. As such, the following modeling assumptions and limitations should be readily recognized: • Since the volume blockage that is physically present is not represented in the model, by default FLUENT uses and reports a superficial velocity inside the porous medium, based on the volumetric flow rate, to ensure continuity of the velocity vectors across the porous medium interface. As a more accurate alternative, you can instruct FLUENT to use the true (physical) velocity inside the porous medium. See Section 7.19.7: Modeling Porous Media Based on Physical Velocity for details. • The effect of the porous medium on the turbulence field is only approximated. See Section 7.19.4: Treatment of Turbulence in Porous Media for details. • When applying the porous media model in a moving reference frame, FLUENT will either apply the relative reference frame or the absolute reference frame when you enable the Relative Velocity Resistance Formulation. This allows for the correct prediction of the source terms. For more information about porous media, see Sections 7.19.6 and 7.19.6. • When specifying the specific heat capacity, Cp , for the selected material in the porous zone, Cp must be entered as a constant value.

7.19.2

Momentum Equations for Porous Media

Porous media are modeled by the addition of a momentum source term to the standard fluid flow equations. The source term is composed of two parts: a viscous loss term (Darcy, the first term on the right-hand side of Equation 7.19-1 ), and an inertial loss term (the second term on the right-hand side of Equation 7.19-1) 1 Si = −  Dij µvj + Cij ρ|v|vj  2 j=1 j=1

3 3

(7.19-1)

where Si is the source term for the ith (x, y, or z) momentum equation, |v| is the magnitude of the velocity and D and C are prescribed matrices. This momentum sink contributes to the pressure gradient in the porous cell, creating a pressure drop that is proportional to the fluid velocity (or velocity squared) in the cell.

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To recover the case of simple homogeneous porous media Si = − µ 1 vi + C2 ρ|v|vi α 2 (7.19-2)

where α is the permeability and C2 is the inertial resistance factor, simply specify D and C as diagonal matrices with 1/α and C2 , respectively, on the diagonals (and zero for the other elements). FLUENT also allows the source term to be modeled as a power law of the velocity magnitude: Si = −C0 |v|C1 = −C0 |v|(C1 −1) vi where C0 and C1 are user-defined empirical coefficients. (7.19-3)

i

In the power-law model, the pressure drop is isotropic and the units for C0 are SI.

Darcy’s Law in Porous Media
In laminar flows through porous media, the pressure drop is typically proportional to velocity and the constant C2 can be considered to be zero. Ignoring convective acceleration and diffusion, the porous media model then reduces to Darcy’s Law: µ p=− v α (7.19-4)

The pressure drop that FLUENT computes in each of the three (x,y,z) coordinate directions within the porous region is then µ vj ∆nx j=1 αxj µ vj ∆ny j=1 αyj µ vj ∆nz j=1 αzj
3 3 3

∆px =

∆py =

(7.19-5)

∆pz =

where 1/αij are the entries in the matrix D in Equation 7.19-1, vj are the velocity components in the x, y, and z directions, and ∆nx , ∆ny , and ∆nz are the thicknesses of the medium in the x, y, and z directions.

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Here, the thickness of the medium (∆nx , ∆ny , or ∆nz ) is the actual thickness of the porous region in your model. Thus if the thicknesses used in your model differ from the actual thicknesses, you must make the adjustments in your inputs for 1/αij .

Inertial Losses in Porous Media
At high flow velocities, the constant C2 in Equation 7.19-1 provides a correction for inertial losses in the porous medium. This constant can be viewed as a loss coefficient per unit length along the flow direction, thereby allowing the pressure drop to be specified as a function of dynamic head. If you are modeling a perforated plate or tube bank, you can sometimes eliminate the permeability term and use the inertial loss term alone, yielding the following simplified form of the porous media equation:
3

p=−
j=1

C2ij

1 ρvj |v| 2

(7.19-6)

or when written in terms of the pressure drop in the x, y, z directions:

∆px ≈ ∆py ≈ ∆pz ≈

1 C2xj ∆nx ρvj |v| 2 j=1 1 C2yj ∆ny ρvj |v| 2 j=1 1 C2zj ∆nz ρvj |v| 2 j=1
3 3

3

(7.19-7)

Again, the thickness of the medium (∆nx , ∆ny , or ∆nz ) is the thickness you have defined in your model.

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7.19.3

Treatment of the Energy Equation in Porous Media

FLUENT solves the standard energy transport equation (Equation 13.2-1) in porous media regions with modifications to the conduction flux and the transient terms only. In the porous medium, the conduction flux uses an effective conductivity and the transient term includes the thermal inertia of the solid region on the medium:

∂ (γρf Ef + (1 − γ)ρs Es ) + ∂t where Ef Es γ keff h Sf = = = = =

· (v(ρf Ef + p)) =

· keff T −
i

h hi Ji + (τ · v) + Sf

(7.19-8) total fluid energy total solid medium energy porosity of the medium effective thermal conductivity of the medium fluid enthalpy source term

Effective Conductivity in the Porous Medium
The effective thermal conductivity in the porous medium, keff , is computed by FLUENT as the volume average of the fluid conductivity and the solid conductivity: keff = γkf + (1 − γ)ks where γ kf ks = porosity of the medium = fluid phase thermal conductivity (including the turbulent contribution, kt ) = solid medium thermal conductivity (7.19-9)

The fluid thermal conductivity kf and the solid thermal conductivity ks can be computed via user-defined functions. The anisotropic effective thermal conductivity can also be specified via user-defined functions. In this case, the isotropic contributions from the fluid, γkf , are added to the diagonal elements of the solid anisotropic thermal conductivity matrix.

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7.19.4

Treatment of Turbulence in Porous Media

FLUENT will, by default, solve the standard conservation equations for turbulence quantities in the porous medium. In this default approach, turbulence in the medium is treated as though the solid medium has no effect on the turbulence generation or dissipation rates. This assumption may be reasonable if the medium’s permeability is quite large and the geometric scale of the medium does not interact with the scale of the turbulent eddies. In other instances, however, you may want to suppress the effect of turbulence in the medium. If you are using one of the turbulence models (with the exception of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model), you can suppress the effect of turbulence in a porous region by setting the turbulent contribution to viscosity, µt , equal to zero. When you choose this option, FLUENT will transport the inlet turbulence quantities through the medium, but their effect on the fluid mixing and momentum will be ignored. In addition, the generation of turbulence will be set to zero in the medium. This modeling strategy is enabled by turning on the Laminar Zone option in the Fluid panel. Enabling this option implies that µt is zero and that generation of turbulence will be zero in this porous zone. Disabling the option (the default) implies that turbulence will be computed in the porous region just as in the bulk fluid flow. Refer to Section 7.17.1: Specifying a Laminar Zone for details about using the Laminar Zone option.

7.19.5

Effect of Porosity on Transient Scalar Equations

For transient porous media calculations, the effect of porosity on the time-derivative terms is accounted for in all scalar transport equations and the continuity equation. When the ∂ effect of porosity is taken into account, the time-derivative term becomes ∂t (γρφ), where φ is the scalar quantity (k, , etc.) and γ is the porosity. The effect of porosity is enabled automatically for transient calculations, and the porosity is set to 1 by default.

7.19.6

User Inputs for Porous Media

When you are modeling a porous region, the only additional inputs for the problem setup are as follows. Optional inputs are indicated as such. 1. Define the porous zone. 2. Define the porous velocity formulation. (optional) 3. Identify the fluid material flowing through the porous medium. 4. Enable reactions for the porous zone, if appropriate, and select the reaction mechanism.

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5. Enable the Relative Velocity Resistance Formulation. By default, this option is already enabled and takes the moving porous media into consideration (as described in Section 7.19.6: Including the Relative Velocity Resistance Formulation). 6. Set the viscous resistance coefficients (Dij in Equation 7.19-1, or 1/α in Equation 7.19-2) and the inertial resistance coefficients (Cij in Equation 7.19-1, or C2 in Equation 7.19-2), and define the direction vectors for which they apply. Alternatively, specify the coefficients for the power-law model. 7. Specify the porosity of the porous medium. 8. Select the material contained in the porous medium (required only for models that include heat transfer). Note that the specific heat capacity, Cp , for the selected material in the porous zone can only be entered as a constant value. 9. Set the volumetric heat generation rate in the solid portion of the porous medium (or any other sources, such as mass or momentum). (optional) 10. Set any fixed values for solution variables in the fluid region (optional). 11. Suppress the turbulent viscosity in the porous region, if appropriate. 12. Specify the rotation axis and/or zone motion, if relevant. Methods for determining the resistance coefficients and/or permeability are presented below. If you choose to use the power-law approximation of the porous-media momentum source term, you will enter the coefficients C0 and C1 in Equation 7.19-3 instead of the resistance coefficients and flow direction. You will set all parameters for the porous medium in the Fluid panel (Figure 7.19.1), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).

Defining the Porous Zone
As mentioned in Section 7.1: Overview of Defining Boundary Conditions, a porous zone is modeled as a special type of fluid zone. To indicate that the fluid zone is a porous region, enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel. The panel will expand to show the porous media inputs (as shown in Figure 7.19.1).

Defining the Porous Velocity Formulation
The Solver panel contains a Porous Formulation region where you can instruct FLUENT to use either a superficial or physical velocity in the porous medium simulation. By default, the velocity is set to Superficial Velocity. For details about using the Physical Velocity formulation, see Section 7.19.7: Modeling Porous Media Based on Physical Velocity.

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Figure 7.19.1: The Fluid Panel for a Porous Zone

Defining the Fluid Passing Through the Porous Medium
To define the fluid that passes through the porous medium, select the appropriate fluid in the Material Name drop-down list in the Fluid panel. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Material panel; this panel contains just the properties of the selected material, not the full contents of the standard Materials panel.

i

If you are modeling species transport or multiphase flow, the Material Name list will not appear in the Fluid panel. For species calculations, the mixture material for all fluid/porous zones will be the material you specified in the Species Model panel. For multiphase flows, the materials are specified when you define the phases, as described in Section 23.10.3: Defining the Phases for the VOF Model.

Enabling Reactions in a Porous Zone
If you are modeling species transport with reactions, you can enable reactions in a porous zone by turning on the Reaction option in the Fluid panel and selecting a mechanism in the Reaction Mechanism drop-down list.

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If your mechanism contains wall surface reactions, you will also need to specify a value for the Surface-to-Volume Ratio. This value is the surface area of the pore walls per A unit volume ( V ), and can be thought of as a measure of catalyst loading. With this value, FLUENT can calculate the total surface area on which the reaction takes place A in each cell by multiplying V by the volume of the cell. See Section 14.1.4: Defining Zone-Based Reaction Mechanisms for details about defining reaction mechanisms. See Section 14.2: Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition for details about wall surface reactions.

Including the Relative Velocity Resistance Formulation
Prior to FLUENT 6.3, cases with moving reference frames used the absolute velocities in the source calculations for inertial and viscous resistance. This approach has been enhanced so that relative velocities are used for the porous source calculations (Section 7.19.2: Momentum Equations for Porous Media). Using the Relative Velocity Resistance Formulation option (turned on by default) allows you to better predict the source terms for cases involving moving meshes or moving reference frames (MRF). This option works well in cases with non-moving and moving porous media. Note that FLUENT will use the appropriate velocities (relative or absolute), depending on your case setup.

Defining the Viscous and Inertial Resistance Coefficients
The viscous and inertial resistance coefficients are both defined in the same manner. The basic approach for defining the coefficients using a Cartesian coordinate system is to define one direction vector in 2D or two direction vectors in 3D, and then specify the viscous and/or inertial resistance coefficients in each direction. In 2D, the second direction, which is not explicitly defined, is normal to the plane defined by the specified direction vector and the z direction vector. In 3D, the third direction is normal to the plane defined by the two specified direction vectors. For a 3D problem, the second direction must be normal to the first. If you fail to specify two normal directions, the solver will ensure that they are normal by ignoring any component of the second direction that is in the first direction. You should therefore be certain that the first direction is correctly specified. You can also define the viscous and/or inertial resistance coefficients in each direction using a user-defined function (UDF). The user-defined options become available in the corresponding drop-down list when the UDF has been created and loaded into FLUENT. Note that the coefficients defined in the UDF must utilize the DEFINE PROFILE macro. For more information on creating and using user-defined function, see the separate UDF Manual. If you are modeling axisymmetric swirling flows, you can specify an additional direction component for the viscous and/or inertial resistance coefficients. This direction component is always tangential to the other two specified directions. This option is available for both density-based and pressure-based solvers.

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In 3D, it is also possible to define the coefficients using a conical (or cylindrical) coordinate system, as described below.

i

Note that the viscous and inertial resistance coefficients are generally based on the superficial velocity of the fluid in the porous media.

The procedure for defining resistance coefficients is as follows: 1. Define the direction vectors. • To use a Cartesian coordinate system, simply specify the Direction-1 Vector and, for 3D, the Direction-2 Vector. The unspecified direction will be determined as described above. These direction vectors correspond to the principle axes of the porous media. For some problems in which the principal axes of the porous medium are not aligned with the coordinate axes of the domain, you may not know a priori the direction vectors of the porous medium. In such cases, the plane tool in 3D (or the line tool in 2D) can help you to determine these direction vectors. (a) “Snap” the plane tool (or the line tool) onto the boundary of the porous region. (Follow the instructions in Section 27.6.1: Using the Plane Tool or 27.5.1 for initializing the tool to a position on an existing surface.) (b) Rotate the axes of the tool appropriately until they are aligned with the porous medium. (c) Once the axes are aligned, click on the Update From Plane Tool or Update From Line Tool button in the Fluid panel. FLUENT will automatically set the Direction-1 Vector to the direction of the red arrow of the tool, and (in 3D) the Direction-2 Vector to the direction of the green arrow. • To use a conical coordinate system (e.g., for an annular, conical filter element), follow the steps below. This option is available only in 3D cases. (a) Turn on the Conical option. (b) Specify the Cone Axis Vector and Point on Cone Axis. The cone axis is specified as being in the direction of the Cone Axis Vector (unit vector), and passing through the Point on Cone Axis. The cone axis may or may not pass through the origin of the coordinate system. (c) Set the Cone Half Angle (the angle between the cone’s axis and its surface, shown in Figure 7.19.2). To use a cylindrical coordinate system, set the Cone Half Angle to 0.

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θ
Figure 7.19.2: Cone Half Angle

For some problems in which the axis of the conical filter element is not aligned with the coordinate axes of the domain, you may not know a priori the direction vector of the cone axis and coordinates of a point on the cone axis. In such cases, the plane tool can help you to determine the cone axis vector and point coordinates. One method is as follows: (a) Select a boundary zone of the conical filter element that is normal to the cone axis vector in the drop-down list next to the Snap to Zone button. (b) Click on the Snap to Zone button. FLUENT will automatically “snap” the plane tool onto the boundary. It will also set the Cone Axis Vector and the Point on Cone Axis. (Note that you will still have to set the Cone Half Angle yourself.) An alternate method is as follows: (a) “Snap” the plane tool onto the boundary of the porous region. (Follow the instructions in Section 27.6.1: Using the Plane Tool for initializing the tool to a position on an existing surface.) (b) Rotate and translate the axes of the tool appropriately until the red arrow of the tool is pointing in the direction of the cone axis vector and the origin of the tool is on the cone axis. (c) Once the axes and origin of the tool are aligned, click on the Update From Plane Tool button in the Fluid panel. FLUENT will automatically set the Cone Axis Vector and the Point on Cone Axis. (Note that you will still have to set the Cone Half Angle yourself.) 2. Under Viscous Resistance, specify the viscous resistance coefficient 1/α in each direction. Under Inertial Resistance, specify the inertial resistance coefficient C2 in each direction. (You will need to scroll down with the scroll bar to view these inputs.) For porous media cases containing highly anisotropic inertial resistances, enable Alternative Formulation under Inertial Resistance. The Alternative Formulation option provides better stability to the calculation when your porous medium is anisotropic.

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The pressure loss through the medium depends on the magnitude of the velocity vector of the i th component in the medium. Using the formulation of Equation 7.19-6 yields the expression below: 1 Si = ρCi |vi |vi 2 (7.19-10)

Whether or not you use the Alternative Formulation option depends on how well you can fit your experimentally determined pressure drop data to the FLUENT model. For example, if the flow through the medium is aligned with the grid in your FLUENT model, then it will not make a difference whether or not you use the formulation. For more infomation about simulations involving highly anisotropic porous media, see Section 7.19.8: Solution Strategies for Porous Media.

i

Note that the alternative formulation is compatible only with the pressurebased solver.

If you are using the Conical specification method, Direction-1 is the cone axis direction, Direction-2 is the normal to the cone surface (radial (r) direction for a cylinder), and Direction-3 is the circumferential (θ) direction. In 3D there are three possible categories of coefficients, and in 2D there are two: • In the isotropic case, the resistance coefficients in all directions are the same (e.g., a sponge). For an isotropic case, you must explicitly set the resistance coefficients in each direction to the same value. • When (in 3D) the coefficients in two directions are the same and those in the third direction are different or (in 2D) the coefficients in the two directions are different, you must be careful to specify the coefficients properly for each direction. For example, if you had a porous region consisting of cylindrical straws with small holes in them positioned parallel to the flow direction, the flow would pass easily through the straws, but the flow in the other two directions (through the small holes) would be very little. If you had a plane of flat plates perpendicular to the flow direction, the flow would not pass through them at all; it would instead move in the other two directions. • In 3D the third possible case is one in which all three coefficients are different. For example, if the porous region consisted of a plane of irregularly-spaced objects (e.g., pins), the movement of flow between the blockages would be different in each direction. You would therefore need to specify different coefficients in each direction. Methods for deriving viscous and inertial loss coefficients are described in the sections that follow.

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Deriving Porous Media Inputs Based on Superficial Velocity, Using a Known Pressure Loss When you use the porous media model, you must keep in mind that the porous cells in FLUENT are 100% open, and that the values that you specify for 1/αij and/or C2ij must be based on this assumption. Suppose, however, that you know how the pressure drop varies with the velocity through the actual device, which is only partially open to flow. The following exercise is designed to show you how to compute a value for C2 which is appropriate for the FLUENT model. Consider a perforated plate which has 25% area open to flow. The pressure drop through the plate is known to be 0.5 times the dynamic head in the plate. The loss factor, KL , defined as 1 2 ∆p = KL ( ρv25%open ) 2 (7.19-11)

is therefore 0.5, based on the actual fluid velocity in the plate, i.e., the velocity through the 25% open area. To compute an appropriate value for C2 , note that in the FLUENT model: 1. The velocity through the perforated plate assumes that the plate is 100% open. 2. The loss coefficient must be converted into dynamic head loss per unit length of the porous region. Noting item 1, the first step is to compute an adjusted loss factor, KL , which would be based on the velocity of a 100% open area: 1 2 ∆p = KL ( ρv100%open ) 2 or, noting that for the same flow rate, v25%open = 4 × v100%open , (7.19-12)

KL = KL × = 0.5 × = 8

2 v25%open 2 v100%open

4 1

2

(7.19-13)

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The adjusted loss factor has a value of 8. Noting item 2, you must now convert this into a loss coefficient per unit thickness of the perforated plate. Assume that the plate has a thickness of 1.0 mm (10−3 m). The inertial loss factor would then be

C2 =

KL thickness 8 = = 8000 m−1 10−3

(7.19-14)

Note that, for anisotropic media, this information must be computed for each of the 2 (or 3) coordinate directions. Using the Ergun Equation to Derive Porous Media Inputs for a Packed Bed As a second example, consider the modeling of a packed bed. In turbulent flows, packed beds are modeled using both a permeability and an inertial loss coefficient. One technique for deriving the appropriate constants involves the use of the Ergun equation [98], a semiempirical correlation applicable over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and for many types of packing: |∆p| 150µ (1 − )2 1.75ρ (1 − ) 2 = v∞ + v∞ 2 3 3 L Dp Dp (7.19-15)

When modeling laminar flow through a packed bed, the second term in the above equation may be dropped, resulting in the Blake-Kozeny equation [98]: |∆p| 150µ (1 − )2 = v∞ 2 3 L Dp (7.19-16)

In these equations, µ is the viscosity, Dp is the mean particle diameter, L is the bed depth, and is the void fraction, defined as the volume of voids divided by the volume of the packed bed region. Comparing Equations 7.19-4 and 7.19-6 with 7.19-15, the permeability and inertial loss coefficient in each component direction may be identified as
2 3 Dp α= 150 (1 − )2

(7.19-17)

and C2 = 3.5 (1 − ) 3 Dp (7.19-18)

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Using an Empirical Equation to Derive Porous Media Inputs for Turbulent Flow Through a Perforated Plate As a third example we will take the equation of Van Winkle et al. [279, 339] and show how porous media inputs can be calculated for pressure loss through a perforated plate with square-edged holes. The expression, which is claimed by the authors to apply for turbulent flow through square-edged holes on an equilateral triangular spacing, is m = CAf (2ρ∆p)/(1 − (Af /Ap )2 ) ˙ where m ˙ Af Ap C mass flow rate through the plate the free area or total area of the holes the area of the plate (solid and holes) a coefficient that has been tabulated for various Reynolds-number ranges and for various D/t D/t = the ratio of hole diameter to plate thickness for t/D > 1.6 and for Re > 4000 the coefficient C takes a value of approximately 0.98, where the Reynolds number is based on hole diameter and velocity in the holes. Rearranging Equation 7.19-19, making use of the relationship m = ρvAp ˙ and dividing by the plate thickness, ∆x = t, we obtain ∆p 1 2 1 (Ap /Af )2 − 1 = ρv ∆x 2 C2 t (7.19-21) (7.19-20) = = = = (7.19-19)

where v is the superficial velocity (not the velocity in the holes). Comparing with Equation 7.19-6 it is seen that, for the direction normal to the plate, the constant C2 can be calculated from C2 = 1 (Ap /Af )2 − 1 C2 t (7.19-22)

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Using Tabulated Data to Derive Porous Media Inputs for Laminar Flow Through a Fibrous Mat Consider the problem of laminar flow through a mat or filter pad which is made up of randomly-oriented fibers of glass wool. As an alternative to the Blake-Kozeny equation (Equation 7.19-16) we might choose to employ tabulated experimental data. Such data is available for many types of fiber [158].

volume fraction of solid material 0.262 0.258 0.221 0.218 0.172

dimensionless permeability B of glass wool 0.25 0.26 0.40 0.41 0.80

where B = α/a2 and a is the fiber diameter. α, for use in Equation 7.19-4, is easily computed for a given fiber diameter and volume fraction. Deriving the Porous Coefficients Based on Experimental Pressure and Velocity Data Experimental data that is available in the form of pressure drop against velocity through the porous component, can be extrapolated to determine the coefficients for the porous media. To effect a pressure drop across a porous medium of thickness, ∆n, the coefficients of the porous media are determined in the manner described below. If the experimental data is: Velocity (m/s) 20.0 50.0 80.0 110.0 Pressure Drop (Pa) 78.0 487.0 1432.0 2964.0

then an xy curve can be plotted to create a trendline through these points yielding the following equation ∆p = 0.28296v 2 − 4.33539v where ∆p is the pressure drop and v is the velocity. (7.19-23)

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Note that a simplified version of the momentum equation, relating the pressure drop to the source term, can be expressed as p = Si or ∆p = −Si ∆n (7.19-25) (7.19-24)

Hence, comparing Equation 7.19-23 to Equation 7.19-2, yields the following curve coefficients: 1 0.28296 = C2 ρ∆n 2 (7.19-26)

with ρ = 1.225 kg/m3 , and a porous media thickness, ∆n, assumed to be 1m in this example, the inertial resistance factor, C2 = 0.462. Likewise, − 4.33539 = µ ∆n α
1 α

(7.19-27) = −242282.

with µ = 1.7894 × 10−5 , the viscous inertial resistance factor,

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Note that this same technique can be applied to the porous jump boundary condition. Similar to the case of the porous media, you have to take into account the thickness of the medium ∆n. Your experimental data can be plotted in an xy curve, yielding an equation that is equivalent to Equation 7.22-1. From there, you can determine the permeability α and the pressure jump coefficient C2 .

Using the Power-Law Model
If you choose to use the power-law approximation of the porous-media momentum source term (Equation 7.19-3), the only inputs required are the coefficients C0 and C1 . Under Power Law Model in the Fluid panel, enter the values for C0 and C1. Note that the power-law model can be used in conjunction with the Darcy and inertia models. C0 must be in SI units, consistent with the value of C1.

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Defining Porosity
To define the porosity, scroll down below the resistance inputs in the Fluid panel, and set the Porosity under Fluid Porosity. You can also define the porosity using a user-defined function (UDF). The user-defined option becomes available in the corresponding drop-down list when the UDF has been created and loaded into FLUENT. Note that the porosity defined in the UDF must utilize the DEFINE PROFILE macro. For more information on creating and using user-defined function, see the separate UDF Manual. The porosity, γ, is the volume fraction of fluid within the porous region (i.e., the open volume fraction of the medium). The porosity is used in the prediction of heat transfer in the medium, as described in Section 7.19.3: Treatment of the Energy Equation in Porous Media, and in the time-derivative term in the scalar transport equations for unsteady flow, as described in Section 7.19.5: Effect of Porosity on Transient Scalar Equations. It also impacts the calculation of reaction source terms and body forces in the medium. These sources will be proportional to the fluid volume in the medium. If you want to represent the medium as completely open (no effect of the solid medium), you should set the porosity equal to 1.0 (the default). When the porosity is equal to 1.0, the solid portion of the medium will have no impact on heat transfer or thermal/reaction source terms in the medium.

Defining the Porous Material
If you choose to model heat transfer in the porous medium, you must specify the material contained in the porous medium. To define the material contained in the porous medium, scroll down below the resistance inputs in the Fluid panel, and select the appropriate solid in the Solid Material Name drop-down list under Fluid Porosity. If you want to check or modify the properties of the selected material, you can click Edit... to open the Material panel; this panel contains just the properties of the selected material, not the full contents of the standard Materials panel. In the Material panel, you can define the non-isotropic thermal conductivity of the porous material using a user-defined function (UDF). The user-defined option becomes available in the corresponding drop-down list when the UDF has been created and loaded into FLUENT. Note that the non-isotropic thermal conductivity defined in the UDF must utilize the DEFINE PROPERTY macro. For more information on creating and using userdefined function, see the separate UDF Manual.

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Defining Sources
If you want to include effects of the heat generated by the porous medium in the energy equation, enable the Source Terms option and set a non-zero Energy source. The solver will compute the heat generated by the porous region by multiplying this value by the total volume of the cells comprising the porous zone. You may also define sources of mass, momentum, turbulence, species, or other scalar quantities, as described in Section 7.28: Defining Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Other Sources.

Defining Fixed Values
If you want to fix the value of one or more variables in the fluid region of the zone, rather than computing them during the calculation, you can do so by enabling the Fixed Values option. See Section 7.27: Fixing the Values of Variables for details.

Suppressing the Turbulent Viscosity in the Porous Region
As discussed in Section 7.19.4: Treatment of Turbulence in Porous Media, turbulence will be computed in the porous region just as in the bulk fluid flow. If you are using one of the turbulence models (with the exception of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model), and you want the turbulence generation to be zero in the porous zone, turn on the Laminar Zone option in the Fluid panel. Refer to Section 7.17.1: Specifying a Laminar Zone for more information about suppressing turbulence generation.

Specifying the Rotation Axis and Defining Zone Motion
Inputs for the rotation axis and zone motion are the same as for a standard fluid zone. See Section 7.17.1: Inputs for Fluid Zones for details.

7.19.7

Modeling Porous Media Based on Physical Velocity

As stated in Section 7.19.1: Limitations and Assumptions of the Porous Media Model, by default FLUENT calculates the superficial velocity based on volumetric flow rate. The superficial velocity in the governing equations can be represented as vsuperficial = γvphysical (7.19-28)

where γ is the porosity of the media defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by the fluid to the total volume. The superficial velocity values within the porous region remain the same as those outside of the porous region. This limits the accuracy of the porous model where there should be an increase in velocity throughout the porous region. For more accurate simulations

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of porous media flows, it becomes necessary to solve for the true, or physical velocity throughout the flowfield, rather than the superficial velocity. FLUENT allows the calculation on the physical velocity using the Porous Formulation region of the Solver panel. By default, the Superficial Velocity option is turned on. Using the physical velocity formulation, and assuming a general scalar φ, the governing equation in an isotropic porous media has the following form: ∂(γρφ) + ∂t · (γρvφ) = · (γΓ φ) + γSφ (7.19-29)

Assuming isotropic porosity and single phase flow, the volume-averaged mass and momentum conservation equations are as follows: ∂(γρ) + ∂t ∂(γρv) + ∂t · (γρvv) = −γ p + · (γρv) = 0 µ C2 ρ + |v| v α 2 (7.19-30)

· (γτ ) + γ Bf −

(7.19-31)

The last term in Equation 7.19-31 represents the viscous and inertial drag forces imposed by the pore walls on the fluid.

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Note that even when you solve for the physical velocity in Equation 7.19-31, the two resistance coefficients can still be derived using the superficial velocity as given in Section 7.19.6: Defining the Viscous and Inertial Resistance Coefficients. FLUENT assumes that the inputs for these resistance coefficients are based upon well-established empirical correlations that are usually based on superficial velocity. Therefore, FLUENT automatically converts the inputs for the resistance coefficients into those that are compatible with the physical velocity formulation. Note that the inlet mass flow is also calculated from the superficial velocity. Therefore, for the same mass flow rate at the inlet and the same resistance coefficients, for either the physical or superficial velocity formulation you should obtain the same pressure drop across the porous media zone.

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7.19.8

Solution Strategies for Porous Media

In general, you can use the standard solution procedures and solution parameter settings when your FLUENT model includes porous media. You may find, however, that the rate of convergence slows when you define a porous region through which the pressure drop is relatively large in the flow direction (e.g., the permeability, α, is low or the inertial factor, C2 , is large). This slow convergence can occur because the porous media pressure drop appears as a momentum source term—yielding a loss of diagonal dominance—in the matrix of equations solved. The best remedy for poor convergence of a problem involving a porous medium is to supply a good initial guess for the pressure drop across the medium. You can supply this guess by patching a value for the pressure in the fluid cells upstream and/or downstream of the medium, as described in Section 25.14.2: Patching Values in Selected Cells. It is important to recall, when patching the pressure, that the pressures you input should be defined as the gauge pressures used by the solver (i.e., relative to the operating pressure defined in the Operating Conditions panel). Another possible way to deal with poor convergence is to temporarily disable the porous media model (by turning off the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel) and obtain an initial flow field without the effect of the porous region. With the porous media model turned off, FLUENT will treat the porous zone as a fluid zone and calculate the flow field accordingly. Once an initial solution is obtained, or the calculation is proceeding steadily to convergence, you can enable the porous media model and continue the calculation with the porous region included. (This method is not recommended for porous media with high resistance.) Simulations involving highly anisotropic porous media may, at times, pose convergence troubles. You can address these issues by limiting the anisotropy of the porous media coefficients (1/αij and C2i,j ) to two or three orders of magnitude. Even if the medium’s resistance in one direction is infinite, you do not need to set the resistance in that direction to be greater than 1000 times the resistance in the primary flow direction.

7.19.9

Postprocessing for Porous Media

The impact of a porous region on the flow field can be determined by examining either velocity components or pressure values. Graphical plots (including XY plots and contour or vector plots) or alphanumeric reports of the following variables/functions may be of interest: • X, Y, Z Velocity (in the Velocity... category) • Static Pressure (in the Pressure... category) These variables are contained in the specified categories of the variable selection dropdown list that appears in postprocessing panels.

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Note that thermal reporting in the porous region is defined follows: keff = γks + (1 − γ)kf where γ kf ks = porosity of the medium = fluid phase thermal conductivity (including the turbulent contribution, kt ) = solid medium thermal conductivity For porous media involving surface reactions, you can display/report the surface reaction rates using the Arrhenius Rate of Reaction-n in the Reactions... category of the variable selection drop-down list. (7.19-32)

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7.20

Fan Boundary Conditions

The fan model is a lumped parameter model that can be used to determine the impact of a fan with known characteristics upon some larger flow field. The fan boundary type allows you to input an empirical fan curve which governs the relationship between head (pressure rise) and flow rate (velocity) across a fan element. You can also specify radial and tangential components of the fan swirl velocity. The fan model does not provide an accurate description of the detailed flow through the fan blades. Instead, it predicts the amount of flow through the fan. Fans may be used in conjunction with other flow sources, or as the sole source of flow in a simulation. In the latter case, the system flow rate is determined by the balance between losses in the system and the fan curve. FLUENT also provides a connection for a special user-defined fan model that updates the pressure jump function during the calculation. This feature is described in Section 7.24: User-Defined Fan Model. You can find the following information about modeling fans in this section: • Section 7.20.1: Fan Equations • Section 7.20.2: User Inputs for Fans • Section 7.20.3: Postprocessing for Fans

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7.20.1

Fan Equations

Modeling the Pressure Rise Across the Fan
A fan is considered to be infinitely thin, and the discontinuous pressure rise across it is specified as a function of the velocity through the fan. The relationship may be a constant, a polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewise-polynomial function, or a userdefined function. In the case of a polynomial, the relationship is of the form
N

∆p =
n=1

fn v n−1

(7.20-1)

where ∆p is the pressure jump, fn are the pressure-jump polynomial coefficients, and v is the magnitude of the local fluid velocity normal to the fan.

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The velocity v can be either positive or negative. You must be careful to model the fan so that a pressure rise occurs for forward flow through the fan.

You can, optionally, use the mass-averaged velocity normal to the fan to determine a single pressure-jump value for all faces in the fan zone.

Modeling the Fan Swirl Velocity
For three-dimensional problems, the values of the convected tangential and radial velocity fields can be imposed on the fan surface to generate swirl. These velocities can be specified as functions of the radial distance from the fan center. The relationships may be constant or polynomial functions, or user-defined functions.

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You must use SI units for all fan swirl velocity inputs.

For the case of polynomial functions, the tangential and radial velocity components can be specified by the following equations:
N

Uθ =
n=−1 N

fn rn ; −1 ≤ N ≤ 6

(7.20-2)

Ur =
n=−1

gn rn ; −1 ≤ N ≤ 6

(7.20-3)

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where Uθ and Ur are, respectively, the tangential and radial velocities on the fan surface in m/s, fn and gn are the tangential and radial velocity polynomial coefficients, and r is the distance to the fan center.

7.20.2

User Inputs for Fans

Once the fan zone has been identified (in the Boundary Conditions panel), you will set all modeling inputs for the fan in the Fan panel (Figure 7.20.1), which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).

Figure 7.20.1: The Fan Panel

Inputs for a fan are as follows: 1. Identify the fan zone. 2. Define the pressure jump across the fan. 3. Define the discrete phase boundary condition for the fan (for discrete phase calculations). 4. Define the swirl velocity, if desired (3D only).

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Identifying the Fan Zone
Since the fan is considered to be infinitely thin, it must be modeled as the interface between cells, rather than a cell zone. Thus the fan zone is a type of internal face zone (where the faces are line segments in 2D or triangles/quadrilaterals in 3D). If, when you read your grid into FLUENT, the fan zone is identified as an interior zone, use the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.1.3: Changing Boundary Zone Types) to change the appropriate interior zone to a fan zone. Define −→Boundary Conditions... Once the interior zone has been changed to a fan zone, you can open the Fan panel and specify the pressure jump and, optionally, the swirl velocity.

Defining the Pressure Jump
To define the pressure jump, you will specify a polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewisepolynomial function of velocity, a user-defined function, or a constant value. You should also check the Zone Average Direction vector to be sure that a pressure rise occurs for forward flow through the fan. The Zone Average Direction, calculated by the solver, is the face-averaged direction vector for the fan zone. If this vector is pointing in the direction you want the fan to blow, do not select Reverse Fan Direction; if it is pointing in the opposite direction, select Reverse Fan Direction. Polynomial, Piecewise-Linear, or Piecewise-Polynomial Function Follow these steps to set a polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewise-polynomial function for the pressure jump: 1. Check that the Profile Specification of Pressure-Jump option is off in the Fan panel. 2. Choose polynomial, piecewise-linear, or piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list to the right of Pressure-Jump. (If the function type you want is already selected, you can click on the Edit... button to open the panel where you will define the function.) 3. In the panel that appears for the definition of the Pressure-Jump function (e.g., Figure 7.20.2), enter the appropriate values. These profile input panels are used the same way as the profile input panels for temperature-dependent properties. See Section 8.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions to find out how to use them. 4. Set any of the optional parameters described below. (optional) When you define the pressure jump using any of these types of functions, you can choose to limit the minimum and maximum velocity magnitudes used to calculate the pressure

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Figure 7.20.2: Polynomial Profile Panel for Pressure Jump Definition

jump. Enabling the Limit Polynomial Velocity Range option limits the pressure jump when a Min Velocity Magnitude and a Max Velocity Magnitude are specified.

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The values corresponding to the Min Velocity Magnitude and the Max Velocity Magnitude do not limit the flow field velocity to this range. However, this range does limit the value of the pressure jump, which is a polynomial and a function of velocity, as seen in Equation 7.20-1. If the calculated normal velocity magnitude exceeds the Max Velocity Magnitude that has been specified, then the pressure jump at the Max Velocity Magnitude value will be used. Similarly, if the calculated velocity is less than the specified Min Velocity Magnitude, the pressure jump at the Min Velocity Magnitude will be substituted for the pressure jump corresponding to the calculated velocity.

You also have the option to use the mass-averaged velocity normal to the fan to determine a single pressure-jump value for all faces in the fan zone. Turning on Calculate PressureJump from Average Conditions enables this option. Constant Value To define a constant pressure jump, follow these steps: 1. Turn off the Profile Specification of Pressure-Jump option in the Fan panel. 2. Choose constant in the drop-down list to the right of Pressure-Jump. 3. Enter the value for ∆p in the Pressure-Jump field.

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You can follow the procedure below, if it is more convenient: 1. Turn on the Profile Specification of Pressure-Jump option. 2. Select constant in the drop-down list below Pressure Jump Profile, and enter the value for ∆p in the Pressure Jump Profile field. User-Defined Function or Boundary Profile For a user-defined pressure-jump function or a function defined in a boundary profile file, you will follow these steps: 1. Turn on the Profile Specification of Pressure-Jump option. 2. Choose the appropriate function in the drop-down list below Pressure Jump Profile. See the separate UDF Manual for information about user-defined functions, and Section 7.26: Boundary Profiles for details about boundary profile files. Example: Determining the Pressure Jump Function This example shows you how to determine the function for the pressure jump. Consider the simple two-dimensional duct flow illustrated in Figure 7.20.3. Air at constant density enters the 2.0 m × 0.4 m duct with a velocity of 15 m/s. Centered in the duct is a fan.
Air 5 m/s Fan 0.4 m

2.0 m

Figure 7.20.3: A Fan Located In a 2D Duct

Assume that the fan characteristics are as follows when the fan is operating at 2000 rpm: Q (m3 /s) 25 20 15 10 5 0 ∆p (Pa) 0.0 175 350 525 700 875

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where Q is the flow through the fan and ∆p is the pressure rise across the fan. The fan characteristics in this example follow a simple linear relationship between pressure rise and flow rate. To convert this into a relationship between pressure rise and velocity, the cross-sectional area of the fan must be known. In this example, assuming that the duct is 1.0 m deep, this area is 0.4 m2 , so that the corresponding velocity values are as follows: v (m/s) 62.5 50.0 37.5 25.0 12.5 0 ∆p (Pa) 0.0 175 350 525 700 875

The polynomial form of this relationship is the following equation for a line: ∆p = 875 − 14v (7.20-4)

Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions for the Fan
If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles, you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the fan. See Section 22.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details.

Defining the Fan Swirl Velocity
If you want to set tangential and radial velocity fields on the fan surface to generate swirl in a 3D problem, follow these steps: 1. Turn on the Swirl-Velocity Specification option in the Fan panel. 2. Specify the fan’s axis of rotation by defining the axis origin (Fan Origin) and direction vector (Fan Axis). 3. Set the value for the radius of the fan’s hub (Fan Hub Radius). The default is 1 × 10−6 to avoid division by zero in the polynomial. 4. Set the tangential and radial velocity functions as polynomial functions of radial distance, constant values, or user-defined functions.

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You must use SI units for all fan swirl velocity inputs.

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Polynomial Function To define a polynomial function for tangential or radial velocity, follow the steps below: 1. Check that the Profile Specification of Tangential Velocity or Profile Specification of Radial Velocity option is off in the Fan panel. 2. Enter the coefficients fn in Equation 7.20-2 or gn in Equation 7.20-3 in the Tangentialor Radial-Velocity Polynomial Coefficients field. Enter f−1 first, then f0 , etc. Separate each coefficient by a blank space. Remember that the first coefficient is for 1 . r Constant Value To define a constant tangential or radial velocity, the steps are as follows: 1. Turn on the Profile Specification of Tangential Velocity or Profile Specification of Radial Velocity option in the Fan panel. 2. Select constant in the drop-down list under Tangential or Radial Velocity Profile. 3. Enter the value for Uθ or Ur in the Tangential or Radial Velocity Profile field. You can follow the procedure below, if it is more convenient: 1. Turn off the Profile Specification of Tangential Velocity or Profile Specification of Radial Velocity option in the Fan panel. 2. Enter the value for Uθ or Ur in the Tangential- or Radial-Velocity Polynomial Coefficients field. User-Defined Function or Boundary Profile For a user-defined tangential or radial velocity function or a function contained in a boundary profile file, follow the procedure below: 1. Turn on the Profile Specification of Tangential or Radial Velocity option. 2. Choose the appropriate function from the drop-down list under Tangential or Radial Velocity Profile. See the separate UDF Manual for information about user-defined functions, and Section 7.26: Boundary Profiles for details about boundary profile files.

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and you will not see. September 29. i When generating these plots. • XY plots of Static Pressure and Static Temperature vs position. 2. Use the Transform Surface panel (as described in Section 27.Boundary Conditions 7. for example. Graphical Plots Graphical reports of interest with fans are as follows: • Contours or profiles of Static Pressure and Static Temperature. report the average Static Pressure just upstream and just downstream of the fan. Chapter 28: Displaying Graphics explains how to generate graphical displays of data.5: Surface Integration.10: Transforming Surfaces) to translate the fan zone slightly upstream and slightly downstream to create two new surfaces. be sure to turn off the display of node values so that you can see the different values on each side of the fan. the cell values on either side of the fan will be averaged to obtain a node value. There are two steps to this procedure: 1. 2006 . as described in Section 29. (If you display node values.3 Postprocessing for Fans Reporting the Pressure Rise Through the Fan You can use the Surface Integrals panel to report the pressure rise through the fan. Create a surface on each side of the fan zone. In the Surface Integrals panel.20.) 7-138 c Fluent Inc. You can then calculate the pressure rise through the fan. the pressure jump across the fan.

21-2) where rn are polynomial coefficients and v is the magnitude of the local fluid velocity normal to the radiator. as follows: 1 ∆p = kL ρv 2 2 (7. c Fluent Inc.21 Radiator Boundary Conditions A lumped-parameter model for a heat exchange element (for example.21-1) where ρ is the fluid density.21 Radiator Boundary Conditions 7. piecewise-linear. ∆p.1 Radiator Equations Modeling the Pressure Loss Through a Radiator A radiator is considered to be infinitely thin. In the case of a polynomial. a radiator or condenser). v. 7. is available in FLUENT.25: Heat Exchanger Models for details.21. varies with the normal component of velocity through the radiator.21. or piecewise-polynomial function. 2006 7-139 . the relationship is of the form N kL = n=1 rn v n−1 (7. which can be specified as a constant or as a polynomial. The radiator boundary type allows you to specify both the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient as functions of the velocity normal to the radiator.1: Radiator Equations • Section 7. and kL is the non-dimensional loss coefficient.21.3: Postprocessing for Radiators A more detailed heat exchanger model is also available in FLUENT.2: User Inputs for Radiators • Section 7. September 29. See Section 7. with an empirically determined loss coefficient which you supply. the pressure drop. That is.7.21. and the pressure drop through the radiator is assumed to be proportional to the dynamic head of the fluid. You can find the following information about modeling radiators in this section: • Section 7.

21-5) Equation 7. For a polynomial.21-6) 7-140 c Fluent Inc.d − Text ) (7.Boundary Conditions Modeling the Heat Transfer Through a Radiator The heat flux from the radiator to the surrounding fluid is given as q = h(Tair.d − Text ) A (7. you must supply an expression for the heat transfer coefficient.21-3) where q is the heat flux. 2006 . q (either the entered value or the value calculated using Equation 7. Text ) may be specified.21-3) is integrated over the radiator surface area. v.d is the temperature downstream of the heat exchanger (radiator). 0 ≤ N ≤ 7 (7. consider the heat balance equation: q= where q m ˙ cp h Text Tair. and Text is the reference temperature for the liquid.d − Text ) A (7. Either the actual heat flux (q) or the heat transfer coefficient and radiator temperature (h. The convective heat transfer coefficient. September 29. piecewise-linear. as a function of the fluid velocity through the radiator.d A = = = = = = = heat flux (W/m2 ) fluid mass flow rate (kg/s) specific heat capacity of fluid (J/kg-K) empirical heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 -K) external temperature (reference temperature for the liquid) (K) temperature downstream from the heat exchanger (K) heat exchanger frontal area (m2 ) mcp ∆T ˙ = h(Tair. or piecewise-polynomial function.21-4) where hn are polynomial coefficients and v is the magnitude of the local fluid velocity normal to the radiator in m/s. h. the relationship is of the form N h= n=0 hn v n . can be specified as a constant or as a polynomial. h.d ) ˙ = h(Tair. To obtain this expression. Tair. Calculating the Heat Transfer Coefficient To model the thermal behavior of the radiator.21-5 can be rewritten as q= mcp (Tair.u − Tair.

can therefore be computed as h= or. 2006 7-141 . you will set all modeling inputs for the radiator in the Radiator panel (Figure 7. h. Figure 7.u − Tair.1.21. The heat transfer coefficient.21.1: The Radiator Panel c Fluent Inc. in terms of the fluid velocity.2 User Inputs for Radiators Once the radiator zone has been identified (in the Boundary Conditions panel).u − Tair.1).21-8) mcp (Tair.7. h= ρvcp (Tair.4: Setting Boundary Conditions).21 Radiator Boundary Conditions where Tair. September 29.21.d − Text ) (7. which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7.d ) ˙ A(Tair.u is the upstream air temperature.21-7) 7.d ) Tair.d − Text (7.

Piecewise-Linear. or Piecewise-Polynomial Function Follow these steps to set a polynomial.2). rather than a cell zone. or piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list to the right of Loss-Coefficient.1. Identify the radiator zone. Choose polynomial..21. piecewise-linear. 3. 7-142 c Fluent Inc. use the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. In the panel that appears for the definition of the Loss-Coefficient function (e. it must be modeled as the interface between cells.. Define −→Boundary Conditions. See Section 8. the radiator zone is identified as an interior zone.g. Polynomial. Once the interior zone has been changed to a radiator zone. Identifying the Radiator Zone Since the radiator is considered to be infinitely thin. Define the discrete phase boundary condition for the radiator (for discrete phase calculations). piecewise-linear. Defining the Pressure Loss Coefficient Function To define the pressure loss coefficient kL you can specify a polynomial.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions to find out how to use them. If. enter the appropriate values.Boundary Conditions The inputs for a radiator are as follows: 1. 4.3: Changing Boundary Zone Types) to change the appropriate interior zone to a radiator zone. you can open the Radiator panel and specify the loss coefficient and heat flux information. Define the pressure loss coefficient.. Define either the heat flux or the heat transfer coefficient and radiator temperature. button to open the panel where you will define the function. or piecewise-polynomial function for the pressure loss coefficient: 1.) 2... (If the function type you want is already selected. 2006 . Figure 7. or piecewise-polynomial function of velocity. you can click on the Edit. or a constant value. 2. piecewise-linear. These profile input panels are used the same way as the profile input panels for temperature-dependent properties. when you read your grid into FLUENT. Thus the radiator zone is a type of internal face zone (where the faces are line segments in 2D or triangles/quadrilaterals in 3D). September 29.

assume that the radiator to be modeled yields the test data shown in Table 7. decreasing as the velocity increases. (7. September 29.2 below. Choose constant in the Loss-Coefficient drop-down list. ∆p.2v where v is now the absolute value of the velocity through the radiator.7. The loss coefficient is a linear function of the velocity. 1 ρv 2 . shown in Figure 7. and the ratio of these two values.3. Enter the value for kL in the Loss-Coefficient field.21.21. 2. which was taken with a waterside flow rate of 7 kg/min and an inlet water temperature of 400. The form of this relationship is kL = 7. it is helpful to construct a table with values of the dynamic head. (The air density. is 1.0 kg/m3 . For this case.0 − 0.21.3. The radiator characteristics must be known empirically. follow these steps: 1. kL (from 2 Equation 7.2: Polynomial Profile Panel for Loss-Coefficient Definition Constant Value To define a constant loss coefficient. 2006 7-143 .21-1).) The reduced data are shown in Table 7.0 K.21. Example: Calculating the Loss Coefficient This example shows you how to determine the loss coefficient function.21. To compute the loss coefficient. as a function of pressure drop.21-9) c Fluent Inc.21 Radiator Boundary Conditions Figure 7.1. defined in Figure 7. Consider the simple two-dimensional duct flow of air through a water-cooled radiator.

1: Airside Radiator Data Velocity (m/s) 5.0 Pressure Drop (Pa) 75.2: Reduced Radiator Data v (m/s) 5.0 450. 2006 .0 Table 7.5 ∆p (Pa) 75.Boundary Conditions T = 300 K AIR ¶ T = 300 K U = 8 m/s 0.0 5.0 300.21.0 Downstream Temp (K) 330.5 m RADIATOR.0 15.0 250.0 1 ρv 2 2 (Pa) 12.0 15.21.3: A Simple Duct with a Radiator Table 7.0 kL 6.21.0 250.0 7-144 c Fluent Inc. T = 400 K 2.5 50.0 112.0 300.0 10.5 320.0 450.0 Upstream Temp (K) 300.0 4.0 10.0 322.0 m Figure 7. September 29.

or piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list to the right of Heat-Transfer-Coefficient. or piecewise-polynomial function of velocity. piecewise-linear. c Fluent Inc. or Piecewise-Polynomial Function Follow these steps to set a polynomial. In the panel that appears for the definition of the Heat-Transfer-Coefficient function. Choose constant in the Heat-Transfer-Coefficient drop-down list. enter the appropriate values. Polynomial. Constant Value To define a constant heat transfer coefficient. To define the heat transfer coefficient. Choose polynomial. September 29.) 2.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions to find out how to use them.21. These profile input panels are used the same way as the profile input panels for temperature-dependent properties.. Enter the value for h in the Heat-Transfer-Coefficient field.7. and set the constant Heat Flux value. follow these steps: 1. you can click on the Edit. Piecewise-Linear. To define the radiator temperature. you can specify a polynomial. enter the value for Text in the Temperature field. To define the actual heat flux.1: Radiator Equations. Text ). 2006 7-145 .21 Radiator Boundary Conditions Defining the Heat Flux Parameters As mentioned in Section 7. or set the heat transfer coefficient and radiator temperature (h. or piecewise-polynomial function for the heat transfer coefficient: 1. (If the function type you want is already selected. piecewise-linear. specify a Temperature of 0. 2. you can either define the actual heat flux (q) in the Heat Flux field. See Section 8. button to open the panel where you will define the function. or a constant value.. piecewise-linear. All inputs are in the Radiator panel.

There are two steps to this procedure: 1. Consider the simple two-dimensional duct flow of air through a water-cooled radiator.9 2903. report the average Static Pressure just upstream and just downstream of the radiator. 2. See Section 22.3 Postprocessing for Radiators Reporting the Radiator Pressure Drop You can use the Surface Integrals panel to report the pressure drop across the radiator.5: Surface Integration.11v + 1. 7-146 c Fluent Inc. September 29. as described in Section 29.3.0 The heat transfer coefficient obeys a second-order polynomial relationship (fit to the points in the table above) with the velocity. which is of the form h = 1469.21.21. You can then calculate the pressure drop across the radiator.Boundary Conditions Example: Determining the Heat Transfer Coefficient Function This example shows you how to determine the function for the heat transfer coefficient. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions for the Radiator If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles.21.73v 2 (7. In the Surface Integrals panel. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the radiator.2 3750. The data supplied in Table 7. shown in Figure 7. 7.0 15.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details.1 + 126.0 10.10: Transforming Surfaces) to translate the radiator zone slightly upstream and slightly downstream to create two new surfaces. Create a surface on each side of the radiator zone.0 kg/m3 ) and specific heat (1000 J/kg-K) can be used to obtain the following values for the heat transfer coefficient h: Velocity (m/s) 5.21-10) Note that the velocity v is assumed to be the absolute value of the velocity passing through the radiator.1 along with values for the air density (1. Use the Transform Surface panel (as described in Section 27.0 h (W/m2 -K) 2142. 2006 .

21-2 to determine the loss coefficient and then Equation 7. the cell values on either side of the radiator will be averaged to obtain a node value. and you will not see.) Once you have the average normal velocity. • XY plots of Static Pressure and Static Temperature vs position. 2006 7-147 .21-1. be sure to turn off the display of node values so that you can see the different values on each side of the radiator. follow the procedure outlined above for the pressure drop to generate surfaces upstream and downstream of the radiator.21 Radiator Boundary Conditions To check this value against the expected value based on Equation 7. the pressure loss across the radiator.21-1 to calculate the expected pressure loss. Reporting Heat Transfer in the Radiator To determine the temperature rise across the radiator. or z axis. (If the radiator is not aligned with the x. Then use the Surface Integrals panel (as for the pressure drop report) to report the average Static Temperature on each surface. i When generating these plots. September 29. Graphical Plots Graphical reports of interest with radiators are as follows: • Contours or profiles of Static Pressure and Static Temperature. You can then calculate the temperature rise across the radiator. for example.7. (If you display node values. y.) c Fluent Inc. you can use Equation 7. you can use the Surface Integrals panel to report the average normal velocity through the radiator. Chapter 28: Displaying Graphics explains how to generate graphical displays of data. you will need to use the Custom Field Function Calculator panel to generate a function for the velocity normal to the radiator.

α is the permeability of the medium. v is the velocity normal to the porous face.6: User Inputs for Porous Media. Figure 7. It is essentially a 1D simplification of the porous media model available for cell zones. and ∆m is the thickness of the medium. This simpler model should be used whenever possible (instead of the full porous media model) because it is more robust and yields better convergence. 2006 .22-1) where µ is the laminar fluid viscosity.Boundary Conditions 7.22. Examples of uses for the porous jump condition include modeling pressure drops through screens and filters. September 29.1). which is opened from the Boundary Conditions panel (as described in Section 7. Appropriate values for α and C2 can be calculated using the techniques described in Section 7.22 Porous Jump Boundary Conditions Porous jump conditions are used to model a thin “membrane” that has known velocity (pressure-drop) characteristics. User Inputs for the Porous Jump Model Once the porous jump zone has been identified (in the Boundary Conditions panel).4: Setting Boundary Conditions). you will set all modeling inputs for the porous jump in the Porous Jump panel (Figure 7.1. C2 is the pressure-jump coefficient.22.1: The Porous Jump Panel 7-148 c Fluent Inc. and modeling radiators when you are not concerned with heat transfer.19. The thin porous medium has a finite thickness over which the pressure change is defined as a combination of Darcy’s Law and an additional inertial loss term: ∆p = − µ 1 v + C2 ρv 2 ∆m α 2 (7.

Define −→Boundary Conditions..e. September 29. 3.22-1).1. you can open the Porous Jump panel (as described in Section 7. if it is identified as another type of internal face zone). Define the discrete phase boundary condition for the porous jump (for discrete phase calculations). you can use the Boundary Conditions panel to change the appropriate face zone to a porous-jump zone. The procedure for changing a zone’s type is described in Section 7. Set the Face Permeability of the medium (α in Equation 7. 2.9: Postprocessing for Porous Media. rather than a cell zone. Identifying the Porous Jump Zone Since the porous jump model is a 1D simplification of the porous media model.22 Porous Jump Boundary Conditions The inputs required for the porous jump model are as follows: 1.13: Setting Boundary Conditions for the Discrete Phase for details.1..3: Changing Boundary Zone Types. you can set the fate of particle trajectories at the porous jump. Defining Discrete Phase Boundary Conditions for the Porous Jump If you are modeling a discrete phase of particles. Identify the porous-jump zone. If the porous-jump zone is not identified as such by default when you read in the grid (i. Once the zone has been changed to a porous jump. See Section 7. 2006 7-149 . Postprocessing for the Porous Jump Postprocessing suggestions for a problem that includes a porous jump are the same as for porous media problems. Set the Porous Medium Thickness (∆m).. 5. Thus the porous-jump zone is a type of internal face zone (where the faces are line segments in 2D or triangles/quadrilaterals in 3D).7. Set the Pressure-Jump Coefficient (C2 ). 4. c Fluent Inc.4: Setting Boundary Conditions) and specify the porous jump parameters listed above.19. See Section 22. the porous-jump zone must be modeled as the interface between cells.

In FLUENT.1: Turbo-Specific Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions • Section 7. the interior domain will contain spurious wave reflections. and have no geometric restrictions. • Section 7. Both methods are available in the density-based solvers and when the compressible ideal-gas law is used. On the other hand. are oriented toward turbomachinery types of geometry and are applicable only in steady-state calculations. As a consequence. i NRBCs are not available in the pressure-based solver. Many applications require precise control of the wave reflections from the domain boundaries to obtain accurate flow solutions. 2006 . two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBC) are available: • turbo-specific NRBC • general NRBC Turbo-specific NRBCs.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions The standard pressure boundary condition. Non-reflecting boundary conditions provide a special treatment to the domain boundaries to control these spurious wave reflections. imposed on the boundaries of artificially truncated domain.2: General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions 7-150 c Fluent Inc.23. Information about non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) is provided in the following sections.23. the general NRBC. as the name indicates. September 29. can be used in both steady and unsteady calculations. results in the reflection of the outgoing waves.Boundary Conditions 7.

with the density calculated using the ideal gas law. September 29. • Inlet and outlet boundary conditions must be pressure inlets and outlets only.3).23.23.e. static pressure at an outlet boundary). leading to local errors. and an unstructured mesh may be used away from the inlet and outlet boundaries in 3D geometries.1 Turbo-Specific Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Overview The standard pressure boundary conditions for compressible flow fix specific flow variables at the boundary (e. pressure waves incident on the boundary will reflect in an unphysical manner.2 for examples. See Figures 7. 317]. The turbo-specific non-reflecting boundary conditions permit waves to “pass” through the boundaries without spurious reflections. such as compressor or turbine blade rows. i Note that you may use unstructured meshes in 2D geometries (Figure 7... Similar implementations have been investigated by other authors [240. While the method was originally designed for axial turbomachinery. As a result. The method used in FLUENT is based on the Fourier transformation of solution variables at the non-reflecting boundary [123]. it has been extended for use with radial turbomachinery. The effects are more pronounced for internal flow problems where boundaries are usually close to geometry inside the domain.g. The solution is rearranged as a sum of terms corresponding to different frequencies.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions 7. Limitations Note the following limitations of turbo-specific NRBCs: • They are available only with the density-based solvers (explicit or implicit). 2006 7-151 . • Quad-mapped (structured) surface meshes must be used for inflow and outflow boundaries in a 3D geometry (i.7. c Fluent Inc.23. and their contributions are calculated independently.1 and 7. i Note that the pressure inlet boundaries must be set to the cylindrical coordinate flow specification method when turbo-specific NRBCs are used. triangular or quad-paved surface meshes are not allowed). • The current implementation applies to steady compressible flows.23.

If strong reverse flow is present.23. then you should consider using the General NRBCs instead. • NRBCs are not compatible with species transport models. This approximation works best for geometries with a blade pitch that is small compared to the radius of the geometry.Boundary Conditions • The turbo-specific NRBC method used in FLUENT is based on quasi-3D analysis. September 29. • Reverse flow on the inflow and outflow boundaries are not allowed. They are mainly used to solve ideal-gas single-specie flow. 2006 .1: Mesh and Prescribed Boundary Conditions in a 3D Axial Flow Problem 7-152 c Fluent Inc. Figure 7. The method developed for 2D turbo-specific NRBC [123] has been extended for use on 3D geometries [317] by decoupling the tangential flow variations from the radial variations.

23.2: Mesh and Prescribed Boundary Conditions in a 3D Radial Flow Problem c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-153 .7. September 29.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Figure 7.

3: Mesh and Prescribed Boundary Conditions in a 2D Case 7-154 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .23.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. September 29.

. at the boundaries such that waves will not reflect. the linearized Euler equations are transformed to characteristic variable (Ci ) form. 317]. ρ. The solution at the inlet and outlet boundaries is circumferentially decomposed into Fourier modes.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Theory Turbo-specific NRBCs are based on Fourier decomposition of solutions to the linearized Euler equations.). Equations in Characteristic Variable Form In order to treat individual waves.7.23-1) 1 2a2 1 2 ρ a 1 2a2 1 2 ρ a − a12 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ρ a 0 0 0 1 ρ a  0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 0     . p = p − p.23-2) c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-155 . ut . denoted by δCi . etc.g.g. If we first consider the 1D form of the linearized Euler equations. ur . ρ. ρ = ρ − ρ. with the 0th mode representing the average boundary value (which is to be imposed as a user input).. a procedure is developed to determine the changes in the characteristic variables. and p represent ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ perturbations from a uniform condition (e. C = C3       C4         C  5   C1        C   2   where a is the average acoustic speed along a boundary zone. ˜ ˜ Note that the analysis is performed using the cylindrical coordinate system. September 29. In quasi-3D approaches [123. it can be shown that the characteristic variables Ci are related to the solution variables as follows: ˜ Q = T −1 C where ˜ ˜ Q = ut  . All overlined (averaged) flow field variables (e. and higher harmonics that are modified to eliminate reflections [317]. a) are intended to be averaged along the pitchwise direction. These changes in characteristic variables are determined as follows: δC = T δQ (7. 240. ua . T −1   ur  ˜      p  ˜   ρ  ˜      u   ˜a       =     (7.

. September 29. and treated as 2D non-reflecting boundary conditions [123].Boundary Conditions where   δC1       δC   2    5    δC = δC3  . The incoming characteristics are therefore given by δCij = δCioldj + σ δCinewj − δCioldj δCinewj = δC i + δCiLj (7. and four characteristics for subsonic outflow (δC1 . T =     δC4          δC   0 0 0 −a2 0 0 ρa 0 0 0 0 ρa 0 ρa 0 0 0 −ρ a 0 0 1 0 0 1 1      . The 0th Fourier mode corresponds to the average circumferential solution. δC2 . δC3 . Note that this method assumes a periodic solution in the pitchwise direction. The remaining parts of the solution are described by a sum of harmonics.75. 3. The underrelaxation factor σ has a default value of 0. . and is treated according to the standard 1D characteristic theory. and j = 1. 2006 . and local changes in the characteristic variable due to harmonic variation along the boundary (δCiL ). δC4 ) — are determined from extrapolation of the flow field variables using Equation 7. N is the grid index in the pitchwise direction including the periodic point once.23-4) where i = 1. δC3 . The flow is decomposed into mean and circumferential components using Fourier decomposition.. and one characteristic for subsonic outflow (δC5 ) — are split into two components: average change along the boundary (δC i ). δQ = δut      δur         δp     δρ       δu    a   The changes to the outgoing characteristics — one characteristic for subsonic inflow (δC5 ). δC2 . The changes in the incoming characteristics — four characteristics for subsonic inflow (δC1 .. δC4 ). 2.23-2.23-3) (7. 7-156 c Fluent Inc. 4 on the inlet boundary or i = 5 on the outlet boundary.

23-10) The average characteristic is then obtained from residual linearization as follows (see also Figure 7. δC3 . September 29.23-14) c Fluent Inc.23-5) (7.23-11) R4 where Ma = Mt Mr ua a ut = a ur = a (7. The average changes in the incoming characteristics are computed from the requirement that the entropy (s). from which sin and h0in are easily obtained. Note that in FLUENT you can specify p0 and T0 at the inlet. δC4 ) calculated using Equation 7. there is one outgoing characteristic (δC5 ) determined from Equation 7. 2006 7-157 . and stagnation enthalpy (h0 ) are specified.23-12) (7.23-8) (7. radial and tangential flow angles (αr and αt ).23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Inlet Boundary For subsonic inflow.23-7) (7.23-13) (7.23. This is equivalent to forcing the following four residuals to be zero: R1 = p (s − sin ) R2 = ρ a (ut − ua tan αt ) R3 = ρ a (ur − ua tan αr ) R4 = ρ h0 − h0in where sin = γ ln (T0in ) − (γ − 1) ln (p0in ) h0in = cp T0in (7.23-3.7. and four incoming characteristics (δC1 .4 for an illustration of the definitions for the prescribed inlet angles):   δC 1          −1 tan αt (1−γ)M tan αr (γ−1)M 2 (γ−1)M Mt M 0 M1 M −Mt M  δC 2 =  δC 3         δC 4 0 tan αt 0 tan αt M − tan αr M −2 M tan αt 2 Mt M M2 M 2 Mr M   R1       R2    R      3   (7. δC2 .23-2.23-9) (7.23-6) (7.

23-20) (7.23-16) (7.23-15) (7.23-18) (7.4: Prescribed Inlet Angles where |v| = u 2 + u 2 + u2 t r a ut |v| ur = |v| ua = |v| (7.Boundary Conditions and M = 1 + Ma − Mt tan αt + Mr tan αr M1 = −1 − Ma − Mr tan αr M2 = −1 − Ma − Mt tan αt radial (7.23-17) ur v ut αr ua αt theta axial Figure 7.23-21) (7. 2006 .23-22) (7. September 29.23-19) (7.23-23) et = er ea et ea er tan αr = ea tan αt = 7-158 c Fluent Inc.23.

23-28) c Fluent Inc. 317]: δC1Lj = p (sj − s) δC2Lj = C2j − ρa utj − ut δC3Lj = −ρa urj − ur δC4Lj = −2 (7. The characteristic variable C2j is computed from the inverse discrete Fourier transform of the second characteristic. Hence.23-24) + Mtj δC2Lj + Mrj δC3Lj + ρ h0j − h0 (1+Maj ) 1 δC1Lj γ−1 Note that the relation for the first and fourth local characteristics force the local entropy and stagnation enthalpy to match their average steady-state values.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions To address the local characteristic changes at each j grid point along the inflow boundary.23-27) β = a2 − u 2 − u 2 a t (7. 2006 7-159 .23-26) β<0 a + ua where √ i β β>0 −sign (ut ) |β| β < 0 B= and (7. the following relations are developed [123. September 29.7. The discrete Fourier transform of the second characteristic in turn is related to the discrete Fourier transform of the fifth characteristic.23-25) The Fourier coefficients C2n are related to a set of equidistant distributed characteristic ∗ variables C5j by the following [240]:   ut + B   −    N (a + ua )        − ut + B C  5j N ∗ C5j exp −i2π j=1 ˆ C2n = jn N β>0 (7. the characteristic variable C2j is computed along the pitch as follows:  N 2 −1 C2j = 2   n=1 θj − θ1  ˆ C2n exp i2πn  θN − θ1  (7.

23-3. and δC4 ) calculated using Equation 7. δC3 .23-31) −1 C5j = 2   n=1 θj − θ1  ˆ C5n exp i2πn  θN − θ1  (7.23-33) β<0 A2 C2j − A4 C4j 7-160 c Fluent Inc. 2006 . Outlet Boundary For subsonic outflow. δC2 . respectively) and given by the following [240]:   A2        N ∗ C2j exp i2π j=1 N ˆ C5n =   jn A4 − N N N ∗ C4j exp i2π j=1 jn N β>0 (7. there are four outgoing characteristics (δC1 .23-30) where p is the current averaged pressure at the exit plane and pout is the desirable average exit pressure (this value is specified by you for single-blade calculations or obtained from the assigned profile for mixing-plane calculations).23-2.23-29) For supersonic inflow the user-prescribed static pressure (psin ) along with total pressure (p0in ) and total temperature (T0in ) are sufficient for determining the flow condition at the inlet. and one incoming characteristic (δC5 ) determined from Equation 7.Boundary Conditions ∗ The set of equidistributed characteristic variables C5j is computed from arbitrary distributed C5j by using a cubic spline for interpolation. where C5j = −ρ a uaj − ua + (pj − p) (7. September 29. The local changes (δC5Lj ) are given by δC5Lj = C5j + ρ a uaj − ua − (pj − p) The characteristic variable C5j is computed along the pitch as follows:  N 2 (7.23-32) ˆ The Fourier coefficients C5n are related to two sets of equidistantly distributed charac∗ ∗ teristic variables (C2j and C4j . The average change in the incoming fifth characteristic is given by δC 5 = −2 (p − pout ) (7.

Therefore. then converge it again with turbospecific NRBCs turned on. it is recommended that you first converge the solution before turning on turbo-specific NRBCs.23-2. These steps are necessary because only approximate flux Jacobians are used for the pressure-inlet and pressure-outlet boundaries when turbo-specific NRBCs are activated with the densitybased implicit solver. 2006 7-161 . the changes in the flow variables δQ can be obtained from Equation 7.23-35) ∗ ∗ The two sets of equidistributed characteristic variables (C2j and C4j ) are computed from arbitrarily distributed C2j and C4j characteristics by using a cubic spline for interpolation.23-40) (7.23-37) For supersonic outflow all flow field variables are extrapolated from the interior.23-34) (7.23-41) (7. c Fluent Inc. If the solution is diverging.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions where 2ua B − ut B + ut A4 = B − ut A2 = (7. September 29.23-39) (7. the values of the flow variables at the boundary faces are as follows: pf uaf utf urf Tf = = = = = pj + δp uaj + δua utj + δut urj + δur Tj + δT (7. Updated Flow Variables Once the changes in the characteristics are determined on the inflow or outflow boundaries.23-36) (7.23-42) Using Turbo-Specific Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions i If you intend to use turbo-specific NRBCs in conjunction with the densitybased implicit solver. then you should lower the CFL number. where C2j = ρ a utj − ut C4j = ρ a uaj − ua + (pj − p) (7.23-38) (7.7.

2006 . Perform NRBC initialization using the initialize text command: define −→ boundary-conditions −→ non-reflecting-bc −→ turbo-specific-nrbc −→initialize If the initialization is successful. The default value is 0. • 0 : silent • 1 : basic information (default) • 2 : detailed information (for debugging purposes only) Using the NRBCs with the Mixing-Plane Model If you want to use the NRBCs with the mixing-plane model you must define the mixing plane interfaces as pressure-outlet and pressure-inlet zone type pairs. i Turbo-specific NRBCs should not be used with the mixing-plane model if reverse flow is present across the mixing-plane. The initialization will set up the pressure-inlet and pressure-outlet boundaries for use with turbo-specific NRBCs. 3. verbosity allows you to control the amount of information printed to the console during an NRBC calculation. modify the parameters in the set/ submenu: define −→ boundary-conditions −→ non-reflecting-bc −→ turbo-specific-nrbc −→set under-relaxation allows you to set the value of the under-relaxation factor σ in Equation 7. If the initialization is not successful. September 29. If necessary. 2. i Note that the pressure inlet boundaries must be set to the cylindrical coordinate flow specification method when turbo-specific NRBCs are used. a summary printout of the domain extent will be displayed. use the show-status text command. 7-162 c Fluent Inc.75.23-3. an error message will be displayed indicating the source of the problem. The default is to use higher-order reconstruction if available.Boundary Conditions The procedure for using the turbo-specific NRBCs is as follows: 1. discretization allows you to set the discretization scheme. Turn on the turbo-specific NRBCs using the non-reflecting-bc text command: define −→ boundary-conditions −→ non-reflecting-bc −→ turbo-specific-nrbc −→enable? If you are not sure whether or not NRBCs are turned on.

4: Partitioning the Grid Manually for more information).2 General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Overview The general non-reflecting boundary conditions in FLUENT are based on characteristic wave relations derived from the Euler equations. i If you switch from Turbo-specific NRBC to general NRBC or vice versa. Unlike the turbo-specific NRBC method presented in the previous section. v. You cannot use both NRBC models at the same time. good cell skewness near the boundaries where the NRBC will be applied is advisable for a more stable. the General NRBC method is not restricted by geometric constraints or mesh type. converged solution. In addition. To obtain the primitive flow quantities (P. They are mainly used to solve ideal-gas single-specie flow. T ) on the pressure-outlet. reformulated Euler equations are solved on the boundary of the domain in an algorithm similar to the flow equations applied to the interior of the domain. 7. • The general NRBC is not available if the target mass flow rate is activated in the pressure-outlet panel. September 29. c Fluent Inc. u.5. where NRBCs will be applied. the General NRBCs can be applied to steady or transient flows as long as the compressible ideal-gas law is used. You can ensure this by manually partitioning the grid (see Section 31. However. must be located or contained within a single partition. Restrictions and Limitations Note the following restrictions and limitations on the general NRBCs: • The general NRBC is available only with the density-based solvers.7. all cells in each boundary zone.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Using the NRBCs in Parallel FLUENT When the turbo-specific NRBCs are used in conjunction with the parallel solver. • The general NRBC should not be used if the turbo-specific NRBC is activated. • NRBCs are not compatible with species transport models. then make sure you switch off one NRBC model before turning on the next. w. 2006 7-163 . and applied only on pressureoutlet boundary conditions.23. i The general NRBC should not be used with the wet steam or real gas models. • The general NRBC is available only with compressible flow while using the ideal-gas law.

w. x1 . The di terms in the transformed Euler equations contain the outgoing and incoming characteristic wave amplitudes. 2006 . 375] is then used to modify terms corresponding to waves propagating in the x1 normal direction. x3 ) and the global Cartesian system (X. x2 . i Note that a transformation between the local orthogonal coordinate system (x1 . The characteristic analysis [374. x2 . using similar time stepping algorithms to obtain the values of the primitive flow variables (P. u. w) in a global Cartesian system. x3 ) such that one of the coordinates. Li . Y.Boundary Conditions Theory General NRBCs are derived by first recasting the Euler equations in an orthogonal coordinate system (x1 . is normal to the boundary Figure 7. v. Z) must be defined on each face on the boundary to obtain the velocity components (u. The equations above are solved on pressure-outlet boundaries. along with the interior governing flow equations. m2 = ρU1 and m3 = ρU3 and U1 . v. September 29.23. x2 . and are defined as follows: d1 = d2 = d3 = d4 = d5 = 1 1 [L2 + (L5 + L1 )] 2 c 2 1 (L5 + L1 ) 2 1 (L5 − L1 ) 2ρc L3 L4 (7.5.23-43) ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂(m1 U2 ) ∂(m1 U3 ) U1 d1 + ρd3 + + =0 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂(m2 U2 ) ∂(m2 U3 ) ∂P U2 d1 + ρd4 + + + =0 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂(m3 U2 ) ∂(m3 U3 ) ∂P U3 d1 + ρd5 + + + =0 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 1 2 d2 ∂[(ρE + P )U2 ] ∂[(ρE + P )U3 ] |V | d1 + + m1 d3 + m2 d4 + m3 d5 + + =0 2 (γ − 1) ∂x2 ∂x3 Where m1 = ρU1 .23-44) 7-164 c Fluent Inc. U2 and U3 are the velocity components in the coordinate system (x1 . When doing so. T ). a system of equations can be written to describe the wave propagation as follows: ∂ρ ∂t ∂m1 ∂t ∂m2 ∂t ∂m3 ∂t ∂ρE ∂t + d1 + + + + + ∂m2 ∂m3 + =0 (7. x3 ).

September 29.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions x2 local orthogonal coordinate system x1 y global coordinate system pressure outlet boundary x Figure 7.7.5: The Local Orthogonal Coordinate System onto which Euler Equations are Recasted for the General NRBC Method c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-165 .23.

for the lone incoming wave.23. and λ5 ) and one enters the domain (associated with negative eigenvalue λ1 ). and P is the local pressure value at the boundary. These eigenvalues are given by: λ1 = U1 − c λ2 = λ3 = λ4 = U1 λ5 = U1 + c (7.e eigenvalues). L4 and ∂P L5 must be first determined from Equations 7. Therefore. 7-166 c Fluent Inc. L1 is given by L1 = K(P − Pexit ) (7. Li . the desirable average pressure on a non-reflecting boundary can be either relaxed toward a pressure value at infinity or enforced to be equivalent to some desired pressure at the exit of the boundary. are given by: ∂P ∂U1 − ρc ) ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂P ∂P λ2 (c2 − ) ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂U2 λ3 ∂x1 ∂U3 λ4 ∂x1 ∂P ∂U1 λ5 ( + ρc ) ∂x1 ∂x1 L1 = λ1 ( L2 = L3 = L4 = L5 = (7. the values of L2 . K is the relaxation factor. 288] is used to determine the value of the L1 wave amplitude. λ4 .Boundary Conditions From characteristic analyses.23-44 on a pressure-outlet boundary. The LRM method sets the value of the incoming wave amplitude to be proportional to the differences between the local pressure on a boundary face and the imposed exit pressure. as seen in Figure 7.6.23-45) The outgoing and incoming characteristic waves are associated with the characteristic velocities of the system (i. λ3 .23-46) For subsonic flow leaving a pressure-outlet boundary. 2006 . the wave amplitudes. ∂U1 ∂U2 3 . In general. . To solve Equations 7. L3 . September 29. four waves leave the domain (associated with positive eigenvalues λ2 . Then. and ∂U1 from inside the domain.23-46 by using extrapolated values of ∂x1 .23-47) where Pexit is the imposed pressure at the exit boundary. λi . the Linear ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x Relaxation Method (LRM) of Poinsot [287.

λ 3 L 4 . λ 5 flow direction pressure outlet boundary Figure 7.7. The Wave Amplitudes are Shown with the Associated Eigenvalues for a Subsonic Flow Condition c Fluent Inc. λ 1 L 2 . September 29.6: Waves Leaving and Entering a Boundary Face on a PressureOutlet Boundary. 2006 7-167 .23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions x2 x1 L1.λ 2 L 3 .23.λ 4 L5 .

The boundary is designed so that the pressure at the boundary relaxes toward the imposed pressure at infinity. which can be adjusted in the TUI: define −→ boundary-conditions −→ non-reflecting-bc −→ general-nrbc −→set In the set/ submenu. h is the domain size. On the other hand. The speed at which this relaxation takes place is controlled by the parameter. Pexit = P∞ ).e. sigma.. the suggested K factor is given by: K = σ1 (1 − Mmax 2 ) c h (7. Mmax is the maximum Mach number in the domain.15. and σ1 is the under-relaxation factor (default value is 0.15) .Boundary Conditions If you want the average pressure at the boundary to relax toward P at infinity (i. To activate the general NRBC 1. 3. (a) The Exit pressure is at infinity boundary is typically used in unsteady calculations or when the exit pressure value is imposed at infinity. if the desired average pressure at the boundary is to approach a specific imposed value at the boundary. button. enable the Non-Reflecting Boundary option. then the K factor is given by: K = σ2 c where the default value for σ2 is 5. 2. you can set the sigma value.23-49) Using General Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions The General NRBC is available for use in the Pressure Outlet panel when either the density-based explicit or the density-based implicit solvers are activated to solve for compressible flows using the ideal-gas law.. The default value for sigma is 0. 2006 . Select pressure-outlet from the Boundary Conditions Panel and click the Set. Select one of the two NRBC Pressure Specification options: Exit pressure is at infinity or Exit pressure is average pressure.23-48) where c is the acoustic speed . In the Pressure Outlet panel.0 (7. 7-168 c Fluent Inc. September 29.

September 29.23 Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions Figure 7.23.7: The Pressure Outlet Panel With the Non-Reflecting Boundary Enabled c Fluent Inc. 2006 7-169 .7.

with the NRBC activated. specify a polynomial that describes the pressure jump as a function of axial velocity through the fan. In many flow situations. This would require a periodic update to the profile file itself. The matching of average exit pressure to the imposed average pressure is controlled by parameter sigma2 which can be adjusted in the TUI: define −→ boundary-conditions −→ non-reflecting-bc −→ general-nrbc −→set In the set/ submenu. is 2. the user can intervene to adjust the sigma2 value so that the desired average pressure on the boundary is approached. 7. Usually. For example. the CFL value must be reduced from the normal operation to keep the solution stable. In the case where the desired average boundary pressure has not been achieved. based upon some instructions that you supply. If you use a profile file.24 User-Defined Fan Model The user-defined fan model in FLUENT allows you to periodically regenerate a profile file that can be used to specify the characteristics of a fan. however. the same profile will be used consistently throughout the course of the solution. through the standard interface. i There is no guarantee that the sigma2 value of 5. for steady-state solutions the best practice is to first achieve a good stable solution (not necessarily converged) before activating the non-reflecting boundary condition. or use a profile file that describes the pressure jump as a function of the axial velocity or location at the fan face.0 .0. You can. that you want to change the profile as the flow field develops.Boundary Conditions (b) The Exit pressure is average pressure boundary specification is usually used in steady-state calculations when you want to force the average pressure on the boundary to approach the exit pressure value. The default value for sigma2 is 5. input a constant for the pressure jump. September 29. 7-170 c Fluent Inc. you can set the sigma2 value. Suppose. 2006 . and radial and swirling components of velocity generated by the fan. A typical CFL value in the density-based implicit solver. This is particularly true with the density-based implicit solver since the boundary update is done in an explicit manner. the solver can operate at higher CFL values without the NRBCs being turned on. including pressure jump across the fan. consider the calculation of the pressure jump across the fan.0 will force the average boundary pressure to match the specified exit pressure in all flow situations. The user-defined fan model is designed to help you do this. Therefore.

identify one or more interior faces to represent one or more fan zones.. Input the name of your executable and the instructions for reading and writing profile files in the User-Defined Fan Model panel. Perform the calculation. you need to generate an executable that reads a fan profile file that is written by FLUENT. surrounded by a symmetry boundary. 5. according to inputs that you supply through the standard interface. With this in mind. Define −→Boundary Conditions. Define −→ User-Defined −→Fan Model. 2.24.25 m long and 0. An inlet supplies air at 10 m/s to a cylindrical region. and writes out a modified one. At the center of the flow domain is a circular fan..1 Steps for Using the User-Defined Fan Model To make use of the user-defined fan model. which FLUENT will then read.24 User-Defined Fan Model To use this model. 4.. September 29.2 m in diameter. Your program will be called and executed automatically. follow the steps below.1.. for example). 2006 7-171 . The source code for this executable can be written in any programming language (Fortran or C.2 Example of a User-Defined Fan Usage of the user-defined fan model is best demonstrated by an example. 1. 7. c Fluent Inc.24.24. 3. In your model. Initialize the flow field and the profile files.7. Enter the fan parameters using the standard Fan panel (opened from the Boundary Conditions panel). A pressure outlet boundary is at the downstream end. 1. consider the domain shown in Figure 7. 7.

The sizes of the annular regions are determined by the size of the fan and the number of radial points to be used in the profiles.Boundary Conditions Y X Z Grid Figure 7. 2006 . which will perform the following tasks: 1. These variables (static pressure. and swirl velocity for the fan.1: The Inlet. Once the profile file is written. Write a new profile file that contains the results of these calculations. September 29. 2. 7-172 c Fluent Inc. Read the profile file containing the current flow conditions at the fan. radial velocity.24. 3. and Pressure Outlet Zones for a Circular Fan Operating in a Cylindrical Domain Solving this problem with the user-defined fan model will cause FLUENT to periodically write out a radial profile file with the current solution variables at the fan face. radial. Fan. Perform a calculation to compute new values for the pressure jump. FLUENT will then read the new profile file and continue with the calculation. pressure jump. FLUENT will invoke an executable. axial. and swirling (tangential) velocity components) will represent averaged quantities over annular sections of the fan.

24. Finally. the name of the executable should be entered under External Command Name. Figure 7. Your executable will be able to differentiate between the fan zones because the zone ID for each fan is included in the solution profile file.24 User-Defined Fan Model Setting the User-Defined Fan Parameters Specification of the parameters for the user-defined fan begins in the User-Defined Fan Model panel (Figure 7. If you have multiple fan zones in a simulation. as shown in the panel.24. 2006 7-173 . and separate profile files will be written for each. for which you have different profile specifications. means that the fan executable in this example will act every 10 iterations to modify the profile file. you can select the fan zone(s) on which your executable will operate under Fan Zones. In the current example. the name of the executable is fantest.7. based on the input for the Iteration Update Interval.2: The User-Defined Fan Model Panel In this panel. you can select them all at this point... then you must type the complete path to the executable. The executable will be invoked once for each zone. c Fluent Inc.2). In this example. The number of points in the profile file to be written by FLUENT is entered under Output Profile Points. This profile file can have the same or a different number of points as the one that is written by the external executable. September 29. fan-8. An input of 10. Define −→ User-Defined −→ Fan Model. there is only one fan. The executable file will be called on to update the profile file periodically. i If the executable is not located in your working directory.

1=point) real ir(npmax) ! input: radial positions real ip(npmax) ! input: pressure real idp(npmax) ! input: pressure-jump real iva(npmax) ! input: axial velocity real ivr(npmax) ! input: radial velocity real ivt(npmax) ! input: tangential velocity character*80 zoneid integer rfanprof ! function to read a profile file integer status c status = rfanprof(npmax. 2006 .iva.10.0) then write(*.0 .inp. You can obtain a copy of this subroutine and the two that it calls (to read and write profile files) by contacting your Fluent technical support engineer. inp idp(i) = 200.f.zoneid.*) ’error reading input profile file’ else do 10 i = 1.ivt) endif stop end 7-174 c Fluent Inc. and write a new profile file that will subsequently be read by FLUENT to update the fan conditions. c c c c c c c c c c This program is invoked at intervals by FLUENT to read a profile-format file that contains radially averaged data at a fan face.ne.ivr.idp. fantest.iptype.0 10 continue call wfanprof(6.ir. $ inp.0*iva(i) ivt(i) = 20. September 29.ir. compute new pressure-jump and swirl-velocity components.Boundary Conditions Sample User-Defined Fan Program The executable file will be built from the Fortran program.zoneid.ivt) if (status.ip.idp. Usage: fantest < input_profile > output_profile integer npmax parameter (npmax = 900) integer inp ! input: number of profile points integer iptype ! input: profile type (0=radial.ivr. which is shown below.iptype.0*ir(i) ivr(i) = 0.

(For more information on profile file formats. • The radial velocity.dp. which in this example is a function of the axial velocity.vr. ’)’ write(unit.26. $ typenam. which in this example is proportional to the radial position.vt) c c c c writes a FLUENT profile file for input by the user fan model integer unit character*80 zoneid integer ptype integer n real r(n) real dp(n) real vr(n) real vt(n) character*6 typenam ! output unit number ! ! ! ! ! ! profile type (0=radial.24 User-Defined Fan Model After the variable declarations.) subroutine wfanprof(unit. which in this example is set to zero. iva. n. zoneid(1:index(zoneid.*) ’(r’ write(unit. ivr. 2006 7-175 .ptype. ’ ’. which have comments on the right.*) ’((’.eq.2: Boundary Profile File Format. and pass the current values of the relevant variables (as defined in the declaration list) to fantest.’\0’)-1). ir. September 29. After the loop. idp. ivt.r. A loop is done on the number of points in the profile to compute new values for: • The pressure jump across the fan.zoneid.n. see Section 7.100) r write(unit. the subroutine rfanprof is called to read the profile file. a new profile is written by the subroutine wfanprof. shown below. 1=point) number of points radial position pressure jump radial velocity tangential velocity if (ptype.7. • The swirling or tangential velocity.0) then typenam = ’radial’ else typenam = ’point’ endif write(unit.*) ’)’ c Fluent Inc.

Initializing the Flow Field and Profile Files The next step in the setup of the user-defined fan is to initialize (create) the profile files that will be used. the names you use in wfanprof will appear as profile names in the Fan panel.26: Boundary Profiles for more details on the types of profile files that are available. 2006 . and then type the command (update-user-fans) in the console window. first initialize the flow field with the Solution Initialization panel (using the velocity inlet conditions. (The parentheses are part of the command.8. To do this.*) ’)’ write(unit. 7-176 c Fluent Inc. September 29.100) dp write(unit. (See Section 7.*) ’(radial-velocity’ write(unit.*) ’)’ write(unit.) The names that you use for the various profiles are arbitrary.1x)) return end This subroutine will write a profile file in either radial or point format. Once you have initialized the profile files.100) vt write(unit.*) ’(tangential-velocity’ write(unit.Boundary Conditions write(unit.) This will create the profile names that are given in the subroutine wfanprof.100) vr write(unit.*) ’(pressure-jump’ write(unit. based on your input for the integer ptype.*) ’)’ 100 format(5(e15. for example). and must be typed in.

3: The Fan Panel At this time. 2006 7-177 . and Fan Hub Radius can be entered. In the panel above. the Fan Axis. the selected profiles are named fan-8-pressurejump.3) to complete the problem setup. along with the choice of profiles for the calculation of pressure jump. With the profile options enabled. Fan Origin.24. and fan-8-radial-velocity. and radial velocity. September 29. fan-8-tangential-velocity. you will need to visit the Fan panel (Figure 7.20: Fan Boundary Conditions for general information on using the Fan panel.) Figure 7.7.24 User-Defined Fan Model Selecting the Profiles Once the profile names have been established.24. you can select the names of the profiles from the drop-down lists. corresponding to the names that were used in the subroutine wfanprof. (See Section 7. tangential velocity. c Fluent Inc.

The prefix for these files takes its name from the fan zone with which the profiles are associated.0000e+00 1.0280e-01 2. It is therefore a smaller file than fan-8-out.5194e-01 2.8612e-01 Writing "fan-8-out. As it begins to converge. . 9 2. 10 1. . . .1169e-01 . Reading "fan-8-in. pressure-jump.4569e-01 11 1. and tangential velocity at 20 radial locations at the site of the fan. . ..0000e+00 1.0000e+00 1.0000e+00 1.5822e-01 6.1033e-01 . r.2663e-01 7.. axial velocity.prof. .. .4538e-01 2. .0000e+00 1. .6895e-01 8. .0497e-01 2. The file fan-8-out.7612e-01 7. .8870e-01 7. Done. tangential-velocity. . . .1779e-01 9. It contains values for pressure.prof"..4618e-02 2.0000e+00 ! 2 residual normalization factors changed (continuity 2 1.3802e-01 7. radial velocity.prof is generated by fantest and contains updated values for pressure jump and radial and tangential velocity only. 2006 . . . September 29. . . Done. .8139e-02 3. . An example of the profile file fan-8-in. 7-178 c Fluent Inc. .4933e-01 3 6. pressure jump.. .9609e-01 2. radial-velocity.0000e+00 1. . . . the report in the console window shows that the profile files are being written and read every 10 iterations: iter continuity x-velocity y-velocity z-velocity k 1 residual normalization factors changed (continuity 1 1. .0000e+00 9.. The file fan-8-in. This represents the last profile file to be written by fantest during the convergence history.3699e-02 2.prof is shown below. 10 "fan-8" radial-profile points.prof". .0316e-01 2.Boundary Conditions Performing the Calculation The solution is now ready to run.prof is written out by FLUENT and read by the executable fantest.0000e+00 1. ! Reading profile file.

10182057E+03 0. and the tangential (swirling) component increases with radius.15e+00 6. According to the input file shown above.34e+00 Y X Z Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) Figure 7.98020668E+02 0.00000000E+00 0. there is no radial component.98138817E+02 ) (radial-velocity 0.56e+00 7.83932275E+00 0.60e+00 9.94963484E-01 0.24.66261977E+00 0. 1.24. the pressure jump at the site of the fan should be approximately 97.00000000E+00 0.5).68471842E-01 0.8 Pa/m.19070756E+01 Results A plot of the transverse velocity components at the site of the fan is shown in Figure 7. 2006 7-179 .00000000E+00 0.50801374E-01 0.20e+00 8. Examination of the figure supports this finding.98394081E+02 0.24 User-Defined Fan Model ((fan-8 radial 10) (r 0. c Fluent Inc.95353782E-01 0.77307090E-01 ) (pressure-jump 0. This XY plot is made on a line at y=0.05 m.18992697E+01 0.10160275E+01 0.41966137E-01 0.24.97787750E+02 0.98478783E+02 0.00000000E+00 0.98469681E+02 0.15461419E+01 ) 0.13694369E+01 0.00000000E+00 0. an XY plot of the static pressure as a function of x position is shown (Figure 7. September 29.33130988E-01 0.00e+01 9.00000000E+00 0.00000000E+00 0.79e+00 8.11927314E+01 0.38e+00 7.00000000E+00 0.97905228E+02 0.24295786E-01 0.59636571E-01 0.75e+00 6.48591572E+00 0.97748657E+02 0.17228458E+01 0.86142287E-01 0.4. As expected.00000000E+00 ) (tangential-velocity 0. or at about half the radius of the duct.97e+00 7.98264198E+02 0.7.4: Transverse Velocities at the Site of the Fan As a final check on the result.00000000E+00 0.04e+01 1.

00e+02 Y X Z -0.05 1.6 0.00e+01 -9.4 -0.00e+01 -8.2 0 0.00e+00 -1.00e+01 -6. 2006 . September 29.00e+01 -2.2 0.00e+01 -4.00e+01 Static Pressure (pascal) -5.00e+01 -1.00e+01 -3.8 1 Position (m) Static Pressure Figure 7.5: Static Pressure Jump Across the Fan 7-180 c Fluent Inc.24.Boundary Conditions y=.4 0.00e+01 0.00e+01 -7.

2: Heat Exchanger Model Theory • Section 7.4: Using the Heat Exchanger Group • Section 7. The following sections contain information about the heat exchanger models: • Section 7. including power plants.25. you must define one or more fluid zone(s) to represent the heat exchanger core. the fluid zone representing the heat exchanger core is subdivided into macroscopic cells or macros along the auxiliary fluid path. lumped-parameter models are used to account for the pressure loss and auxiliary fluid heat rejection. 2006 7-181 . for most engineering problems. the core is discretized into 3 × 4×2 macros. the auxiliary fluid may be single-phase or two-phase. the fluid zone is sized to the dimension of the core itself. heat rejection is not constant over the entire core. To use the heat exchanger models.5: Postprocessing for the Heat Exchanger Model 7. a coolant. This configuration consists of 2 passes. The auxiliary fluid inlet temperature to each macro is computed and then subsequently used to compute the heat rejection from each macro.25. FLUENT provides two heat exchanger models: the simpleeffectiveness-model and the number-of-transfer-units (NTU) model.3: Using the Heat Exchanger Model • Section 7. As a result.25 Heat Exchanger Models Many engineering systems. September 29. In FLUENT. climate control.25. In principle.25.25. For the simple-effectiveness-model. In this figure.1 Overview and Restrictions of the Heat Exchanger Models Overview In a typical heat exchanger core.25. This approach provides a realistic heat rejection distribution over the heat exchanger core. and engine cooling systems typically contain tubular heat exchangers. In FLUENT.1.1: Overview and Restrictions of the Heat Exchanger Models • Section 7. as in Figure 7. you will define the auxiliary fluid path. heat exchanger cores introduce a pressure drop to the gas stream (also termed the primary fluid) and transfer heat to a second fluid. However. the auxiliary fluid temperature is stratified in the direction of the auxiliary fluid flow.25 Heat Exchanger Models 7. As part of the setup procedure. referred to here as the auxiliary fluid. the number c Fluent Inc. each pass having four rows and three columns of macros. it is impractical to model individual fins and tubes of a heat exchanger core. The models can be used to compute auxiliary fluid inlet temperature for a fixed heat rejection or total heat rejection for a fixed auxiliary fluid inlet temperature.7.25. Typically.

25. The auxiliary fluid is assumed to flow through a large number of parallel tubes. 2006 .4: Using the Heat Exchanger Group. For the purpose of auxiliary fluid flow.25. implying that the gas side flow is unidirectional. heat exchanger effectiveness.g. You can independently choose the principal auxiliary fluid flow direction. Coolant Passage Macro 0 Macro 1 Macro 2 Macro 21 Macro 2 2 Macro 23 Macro 3 Macro 4 Macro 5 Macro 18 Macro 19 Macro 20 Macro 6 Macro 7 Macro 8 Macro 15 Macro 16 Macro 17 Macro 9 Macro 10 Macro 11 Macro 12 Macro 13 Macro 14 Figure 7.. For more information on heat exchanger groups. You can also combine several fluid zones as a single heat exchanger group. and the auxiliary fluid mass flow rate of the heat exchanger group is divided among the zones in the ratio of the respective volumes.Boundary Conditions of macros. for pressure dependent properties) and a supplementary auxiliary fluid stream entering or leaving it. i It is highly recommended that the free-form Tet mesh is not used in the Heat Exchanger Model. heat exchanger groups can also be connected in series. Instead. In addition. The heat exchanger models were designed for “compact” heat exchangers. the pass-to-pass direction and the external gas flow direction. evenly distributed Hex/Wedge cells should be used for improved accuracy and a more robust solution process.1: Core Discretized Into 3 × 4×2 Macros 7-182 c Fluent Inc. In this situation each fluid zone acts as a separate heat exchanger core. and the physical properties and operating conditions of the core (pressure drop parameters. see Section 7. which can optionally double back in a serpentine pattern to create a number of “passes”. September 29. auxiliary fluid flow rate. etc. a heat exchanger group can have an auxiliary fluid pressure drop (e.).

• The gas streamwise direction (see Equation 7. • The model can be used with variable density of gas.2 Heat Exchanger Model Theory In FLUENT. FLUENT provides two heat exchanger models: the default ntu-model and the simpleeffectiveness-model. 7. . For the ntu-model. The simple-effectiveness-model interpolates the effectiveness from the velocity vs effectiveness curve that you provide. FLUENT will automatically convert this heat transfer data to a primary fluid mass flow rate vs NTU curve (this curve will be piecewise linear). • For the simple-effectiveness-model.25 Heat Exchanger Models Restrictions The following restrictions are made for the heat exchanger models: • The core must be approximately rectangular in shape. the gas capacity rate must be less than the auxiliary fluid capacity rate. • The model can be used to model heat transfer to the gas from the auxiliary fluid and vice versa. the heat exchanger core is treated as a fluid zone with momentum and heat transfer.25. • The model can be used in either the serial or parallel FLUENT solvers.25-1) must be aligned with one of the three orthogonal axes defined by the rectangular core. September 29. This curve will be used by FLUENT to calculate the NTU for macros based on their size and primary fluid flow rate. Pressure loss is modeled as a momentum sink in the momentum equation. The ntu-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to check heat capacity for both the gas and the auxiliary fluid and takes the lesser of the two for the calculation of heat transfer. from the NTU value that is calculated by FLUENT from the heat transfer data provided by the user in tabular format. • The model can be used to model gas-side reverse flow. • Auxiliary fluid phase change cannot be modeled using the ntu-model. 2006 7-183 .7. and heat transfer is modeled as a heat source in the energy equation. c Fluent Inc. FLUENT calculates the effectiveness. • The macro-based method requires that an equal number of cells reside in each macro of equal size. • Flow acceleration effects are neglected in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

• The auxiliary fluid properties can be a function of pressure and temperature. Streamwise Pressure Drop In both heat exchanger models.25. thus allowing phase change of the auxiliary fluid. September 29.Boundary Conditions The simple-effectiveness-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to model heat transfer from the auxiliary fluid to the fluid.25-2) 7-184 c Fluent Inc. • The model can be used to make a network of heat exchangers using a heat exchanger group (Section 7. pressure loss is modeled using the porous media model in FLUENT. 2006 .25-1) The pressure loss coefficient is computed from f = (Kc + 1 − σ 2 ) − (1 − σ 2 − Ke ) where σ Kc Ke A Ac fc νe νi νm = = = = = = = = = minimum flow to face area ratio entrance loss coefficient exit loss coefficient gas-side surface area minimum cross-sectional flow area core friction factor specific volume at the exit specific volume at the inlet mean specific volume ≡ 1 (νe + νi ) 2 νe νe A νm +2 − 1 + fc νi νi Ac νi (7. The streamwise pressure drop can be expressed as 1 2 ∆p = f ρm UAmin 2 where ∆p f ρm UAmin = = = = streamwise pressure drop streamwise pressure loss coefficient mean gas density gas velocity at the minimum flow area (7.4: Using the Heat Exchanger Group). • The model can be used by serial as well as parallel solvers.

September 29. [174]. the core friction factor is defined as fc = aReb min where a b Remin = core friction coefficient = core friction exponent = Reynolds number for velocity at the minimum flow area (7.25-5) where L is the flow length of the heat exchanger. In Equation 7.25-3) a and b are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data.25-6) where U is the gas velocity and σ is the minimum flow to face area ratio. 2006 7-185 .25-4) For a heat exchanger core. then L is the length in the primary fluid flow direction. effectively forcing the gas flow through the core to be unidirectional.25-3 is defined as Remin = where ρm µm Dh UAmin = = = = mean gas density mean gas viscosity hydraulic diameter gas velocity at the minimum flow area ρm UAmin Dh µm (7.25-2. [174]. The Reynolds number in Equation 7. c Fluent Inc. You will need to specify the core friction coefficient and exponent based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger models that you set up [176]. the hydraulic diameter can be defined as Dh = 4L Ac A (7. You will need to specify these parameters based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger configuration that you are setting up [176].7.25 Heat Exchanger Models Kc and Ke are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data. These parameters are used to set up large resistances in the two non-streamwise directions. If the tubes are normal to the primary fluid flow. Note that UAmin can be calculated from UAmin = U σ (7.

25-8) The value of depends on the heat exchanger geometry and flow pattern (parallel flow.hot − Tin. FLUENT calculates the effectiveness from the ratio of heat capacity and the number of transfer units using the relation = 1 − exp − where Cr is the ratio of Cmin to Cmax . etc. The maximum possible heat transfer is given by qmax = Cmin (Tin. counter flow.25-7) where Tin.cold are the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluids and Cmin = min[(mcp )hot . . Though the effectiveness is defined for a complete heat exchanger. cross flow. 2006 .hot − Tin. the actual rate of heat transfer.cold ) (7. (mcp )cold ] ˙ ˙ Thus.78 Ntu (1 − e−Cr Ntu ) Cr (7.Boundary Conditions Heat Transfer Effectiveness For the simple-effectiveness-model.22 0. For each macro. This Ntu for the heat exchanger is scaled for each macro in the ratio of their areas.hot and Tin. is defined as the ratio of actual rate of heat transfer from the hot to cold fluid to the maximum possible rate of heat transfer. Ntu should be specified for various gas flow rates (for a single auxiliary fluid flow rate) as an input to the model.25-9) (7. September 29. q.cold ) (7. the gas inlet temperature is calculated using the mass average of the incoming gas temperatures at the boundaries. For the ntu-model.25-10) 7-186 c Fluent Inc. 1 0.). This automatically takes into account any reverse flow of the gas at the boundaries. is defined as q = Cmin (Tin. it can be applied to a small portion of the heat exchanger represented by a computational cell. the heat-exchanger effectiveness.

the heat transfer for a macro is calculated from qmacro = Cmin (Tin. For the simple-effectiveness-model.7. September 29. the heat rejection from a macro is calculated by summing the heat transfer of all the cells contained within the macro qmacro = all cells in macro qcell (7.auxiliaryfluid − Tcell ) ˙ where (mcp )g ˙ Tin.25-11) For the simple-effectiveness-model.25-12) For the ntu-model.25 Heat Exchanger Models Heat Rejection Heat rejection is computed for each cell within a macro and added as a source term to the energy equation for the gas flow. 2006 7-187 . Note that heat rejection from the auxiliary fluid to gas can be either positive or negative.25-14) c Fluent Inc. the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = (mcp )g (Tin.gas = macro effectiveness = macro auxiliary fluid inlet temperature = macro gas inlet temperature (7.25-13) For the ntu-model. the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = qmacro Vcell Vmacro (7.auxiliaryfluid − Tin.auxiliaryfluid Tcell = heat exchanger effectiveness = gas capacity rate (flow rate × specific heat) = auxiliary fluid inlet temperature of macro containing the cell = cell temperature (7.gas ) where Tin.auxiliaryfluid Tin.

25-17) UDF method Tout =   where f p f (hout . the outlet enthalpy of each macro (in the last row) is mass averaged to obtain the inlet condition for the next pass macros. and 2 in Figure 7. 7-188 c Fluent Inc.1) are assumed to be where the auxiliary fluid enters the heat exchanger core. the total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is computed as the sum of the heat rejection from all the macros: qtotal = all macros qmacro (7. so that all of the equations are satisfied simultaneously. which becomes the inlet condition for the next row macros. the inlet temperature to the first row of macros is iteratively computed.25-15) The auxiliary fluid inlet temperature to each macro (Tin. the heat transfer for the first row of macros are used to calculate their exit enthalpy. The auxiliary fluid outlet temperature from the macro is calculated as    hout cp. 2006 . For a given macro. September 29.auxiliaryfluid in Equations 7.25-16) where hin and hout are the inlet and outlet enthalpies of the auxiliary fluid in the macro.25-13) is computed based on the energy balance of the auxiliary fluid flow.Boundary Conditions For both heat exchanger models. The first row of macros (Macros 0.auxiliaryfluid constant specific heat method (7. At the end of each pass. p) = user-defined function = auxiliary fluid pressure The values of hout and Tout then become the inlet conditions to the next macro. 1. When a fixed auxiliary fluid inlet temperature is specified. qmacro = (m)auxiliaryfluid (hout − hin ) ˙ (7. When the fixed total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is specified.25.25-11 and 7.

Thus. the auxiliary fluid inlet mass flow rate is automatically apportioned to each zone in the group as follows: k i mi = ˙ Vi.k refers ˙ to the volume of the kth finite volume cell within the ith fluid zone. and the outlet auxiliary fluid enthalpy is calculated on a massaveraged basis: ¯ h= i mi hi ˙ ˙ i mi (7.7. 1 ∆p 2 N (7. At the outlet end of the group. Within each zone. the auxiliary fluid flows through each macro in series as usual.k m ˙ k Vi. x) (7. after taking into account any auxiliary stream effects. In this case.25-19) With user-defined functions. a single heat exchanger may be comprised of multiple fluid zones.25-20) where p is the absolute pressure and x is the quality (mass fraction of vapor) of a twophase vapor-liquid mixture. September 29. the simple-effectiveness-model allows you to simulate twophase auxiliary fluid flows and other complex auxiliary fluid enthalpy relationships of the form h = h(T.25 Heat Exchanger Models Heat Exchanger Group Connectivity If the optional heat exchanger group is used. When pressure-dependent auxiliary fluid properties are used. 2006 7-189 . Vi.25-18) where mi is the total auxiliary mass flow rate for the heat exchanger group. the parallel auxiliary fluid streams through the individual zones are recombined. p. the mean pressure within each macro is calculated and passed to the user-defined function as pj = pin + j + ¯ where j pin ∆p N = = = = macro row index inlet auxiliary fluid pressure overall pressure drop across a heat exchanger group number of rows per pass × number of passes. the auxiliary fluid is assumed to flow through these zones in parallel.25-21) c Fluent Inc.k (7.

2).. Enable the calculation of energy in the Energy panel..3 Using the Heat Exchanger Model The heat exchanger model settings may be written into and read from the boundary conditions file (Section 4.25. Define −→ Models −→Energy.Boundary Conditions 7. Figure 7.25. Otherwise.2: The Heat Exchanger Model Panel Displaying the Model Data Tab 7-190 c Fluent Inc.. Specify the inputs to the heat exchanger model.6: Reading and Writing Boundary Conditions) using the text commands. 2. 2006 . Define −→ User-Defined −→Heat Exchanger. the steps for setting up the heat exchanger models are as follows: 1. respectively. September 29. using the Heat Exchanger Model panel (Figure 7.25. file/write-bc and file/read-bc..

as required (Figure 7.25. c Fluent Inc.. (h) Under the Geometry tab. button will open up the Heat Transfer Data Table panel with information on the fluid flow rates and heat transfer data (Figure 7.25 Heat Exchanger Models (a) In the Fluid Zone drop-down list.. button..2). the Number of Rows/Pass. then clicking on the Velocity Effectiveness Curve.. and the Number of Columns/Pass fields. Clicking on the Heat Transfer Data.25. (e) If the ntu-model is chosen.. (d) Specify the Core Porosity Model if needed. allows you to set the velocity vs effectiveness curve. September 29. 2006 7-191 .3: The Heat Transfer Data Table Panel for the NTU Model (f) Enter the Auxiliary Fluid Temperature and the Primary Fluid Temperature for the ntu-model. button will appear under Heat Exchanger Performance Data.3).. (g) If the simple-effectiveness-model is chosen.7. (c) Specify the heat exchanger model as either the default ntu-model or the simpleeffectiveness-model. define the macro grid using the Number of Passes. (b) Under the Model Data tab.25. a Heat Transfer Data. choose Fixed Heat Rejection or Fixed Inlet Temperature. select the fluid zone representing the heat exchanger core. Figure 7. under the Heat Exchanger Performance Data.

(j) In the Auxiliary Fluid tab.4: The Heat Exchanger Model Panel Displaying the Geometry Tab (i) In the Auxiliary Fluid tab. (m) Repeat steps (a)–(l) for any other heat exchanger fluid zones. or to connect the auxiliary fluid flow path among multiple heat exchangers.4: Using the Heat Exchanger Group. September 29. To use multiple fluid zones to define a single heat exchanger. specify the Auxiliary Fluid Properties Method. polynomial or piecewise-linear profile that is a function of time. Inlet Temperature.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. see Section 7. specify the auxiliary fluid properties and conditions (Auxiliary Fluid Flow Rate. 2006 . (k) Auxiliary Fluid Flow Rate. and Auxiliary Fluid Specific Heat). Heat Rejection. either as a constant-specific-heat or as a user-defined-enthalpy. (l) Click Apply in the Heat Exchanger panel to save all the settings. Inlet Temperature.25. and Inlet Pressure can be provided as a constant.25. 7-192 c Fluent Inc.

September 29. c Fluent Inc.5: The Heat Exchanger Model Panel Displaying the Auxiliary Fluid Tab Selecting the Zone for the Heat Exchanger Choose the fluid zone for which you want to define a heat exchanger in the Fluid Zone drop-down list.7.25.25 Heat Exchanger Models Figure 7. 2006 7-193 .

2006 . Click the Heat Transfer Data. some performance data must be entered for the heat exchanger. and depth of the heat exchanger core. 3.6. Set the Number of auxiliary flow rates and primary fluid flow rates. and the width direction by the blue axis. click on the Update From Plane Tool button in the Heat Exchanger Model panel. then you can provide velocities and corresponding effectiveness values. The depth direction is determined by the red axis. Translate and rotate the axes of the tool appropriately until they are aligned with the principal directions of the heat exchanger core. you will need to provide velocity versus effectiveness data. 1.) 7-194 c Fluent Inc. width.. The panel will resize itself accordingly. you may not know the auxiliary fluid inlet and pass-to-pass direction vectors a priori. to open up a tabular panel. In this panel. you will specify direction vectors for the Auxiliary Fluid Inlet Direction and the Pass-to-Pass Direction in the Geometry tab. you can use the plane tool as follows to help you to determine these direction vectors. “Snap” the plane tool onto the boundary of the heat exchanger core. In such cases. Specifying the Auxiliary Fluid Inlet and Pass-to-Pass Directions To define the auxiliary fluid direction and flow path. Once the axes are aligned.Boundary Conditions Specifying Heat Exchanger Performance Data Based on the heat transfer model you choose in the Model Data tab.25. For some problems in which the principal axes of the heat exchanger core are not aligned with the coordinate axes of the domain.. you can set the number of points in the curve. Figure 7. The directional vectors will be set automatically.. • simple-effectiveness-model: For this model. the height direction by the green axis. You may write this data to a file that can be read later. • ntu-model: For the ntu-model you will provide the heat transfer for different primary and auxiliary fluid flow rates. (Follow the instructions in Section 27. September 29.) 2. (Note that the Update from Plane Tool button will also set the height. To provide this you can click the Velocity Effectiveness Curve. This data can be written to a file and read back. button.6 shows these directions relative to the macros.1: Initializing the Plane Tool for initializing the tool to a position on an existing surface.. This will open up a tabular panel. You will need to provide various primary fluid flow rates and auxiliary fluid flow rates and the corresponding heat transfer values.

c Fluent Inc.25. i The Number of Rows/Pass. For each pass.6: 1 × 4×3 Macros In the Heat Exchanger Model panel.25 Heat Exchanger Models Defining the Macros As discussed in Section 7. the number of macro rows per pass. the fluid zone representing the heat exchanger core is split into macros. 2006 7-195 . The model will automatically extrude the macros to the depth of the heat exchanger core. as well as the Number of Columns/Pass must be divisible by the number of cells in their respective directions. width Coolant Inlet Direction (1 Macro Column/Pass) (4 Macro Rows/Pass) height Pass-to-Pass Direction (3 Passes) Figure 7. September 29. specify the Number of Passes.25. Macros are constructed based on the specified number of passes. Macros are numbered from 0 to (n − 1) in the direction of auxiliary fluid flow. and the corresponding auxiliary fluid inlet and pass-to-pass directions (see Figure 7. where n is the number of macros.7. the number of macro columns per pass. in the Geometry tab.1: Overview and Restrictions of the Heat Exchanger Models.6). and the Number of Columns/Pass. the Number of Rows/Pass are defined in the direction of the auxiliary flow inlet direction and the Number of Columns/Pass are defined in the direction of the pass-to-pass direction. the Number of Rows/Pass.25.

September 29. you may want to show the location of an inlet and an outlet along with the macros. The path of the auxiliary fluid is color-coded in the display: macro 0 is red and macro n − 1 is blue. you may want to include portions of the computational-domain grid in your macros plot as spatial reference points. and you can set the grid display parameters there. Then click View Passes to display it. To view the macros for your specified Number of Passes.00e+00 1. 5. and Number of Columns/Pass. 7-196 c Fluent Inc. For example. This is accomplished by turning on the Draw Grid option. For some problems. as defined in the Grid Display panel. click the Apply button at the bottom of the panel. Number of Rows/Pass. will be included in the macros plot (see Figure 7.00e+00 3.Boundary Conditions Viewing the Macros You can view the auxiliary fluid path by displaying the macros.00e+00 4.7). the grid display.25. When you click on View Passes in the Heat Exchanger Model panel. 2006 . especially complex geometries.7: Grid Display With Macros Selecting the Heat Exchanger Model You can specify the model for your heat exchanger by selecting the ntu-model or the simple-effectiveness-model from the Heat Transfer Model drop-down list in the Model Data tab. The Grid Display panel will appear automatically when you turn on the Draw Grid option.00e+00 Macros X Figure 7.00e+00 Y Z 0.00e+00 2.25.

September 29. Enable the Fixed Inlet Temperature option in the Model Data tab.25 Heat Exchanger Models Specifying the Auxiliary Fluid Properties and Conditions To define the auxiliary fluid properties and conditions.19. • If you want FLUENT to compute the auxiliary fluid inlet temperature for a specified heat rejection. c Fluent Inc. • Define a new core porosity model with your own values. 2.25-15) in the Auxiliary Fluid tab. which will be used by FLUENT as an initial guess for the inlet temperature (Tin in Equations 7. You can choose a Constant Specific Heat (cp ) and set the value in the Auxiliary Fluid Specific Heat field below. This will automatically set the porous media inputs. The properties of the auxiliary fluid can be ˙ specified using the Auxiliary Fluid Properties Method drop-down list. Specify the Inlet Temperature (Tin in Equations 7. you must also specify the Inlet Pressure (pin in Equation 7.25-21) and Inlet Quality (x in Equation 7. you will need to set the porosity parameters in the boundary conditions panel for the heat exchanger zone(s). 2006 7-197 . 2. Specify the Initial Temperature. follow the steps below: 1. you will specify the Auxiliary Fluid Flow Rate (m) in the Auxiliary Fluid tab. To do this. If you would like FLUENT to set the porosity of this a heat exchanger zone using a particular core model.25-16). you can select the appropriate model. or as a user-defined function for the enthalpy using the User Defined Enthalpy option and selecting the corresponding UDF from the Auxiliary Fluid Enthalpy UDF drop-down list. • If you want FLUENT to compute the total heat rejection of the core for a given inlet auxiliary fluid temperature.7.25-11 and 7. If you do not choose a core porosity model. There are three ways to specify the Core Porosity Model parameters: • Use the values in FLUENT’s default model. Enable the Fixed Heat Rejection option in the Model Data tab. • Read a core porosity model from an external file.25-20). The models you define will be saved in the case file. Specify the Heat Rejection (qtotal in Equation 7. follow the procedures described in Section 7.6: User Inputs for Porous Media.25-11 and 7.25-16) in the Auxiliary Fluid tab. Setting the Pressure-Drop Parameters and Effectiveness The pressure drop parameters and effectiveness define the Core Porosity Model. • If you enable the User Defined Enthalpy option under the Auxiliary Fluid Properties Method. 3. follow the steps below: 1.

.25. simply retain the selection of default-model in the Core Porosity Model drop-down list in the Heat Exchanger Model panel. To use these values. Figure 7. 7-198 c Fluent Inc.8: The Core Porosity Model Panel 2.) The default-model core porosity model is a list of constant values from the Heat Exchanger Model panel.. 2006 . These constants are used for setting the porous media parameters. The steps for creating a new model are as follows: 1. you can create a new model. (You can view the default parameters in the Heat Exchanger Model panel. September 29.8). button to the right of the Core Porosity Model drop-down list. for which default-model should have been selected. Enter the name of your new model in the Name box at the top of the panel. Click the Edit. as described below. This will open the Core Porosity Model panel (Figure 7.Boundary Conditions Using the Default Core Porosity Model FLUENT provides a default model for a typical heat exchanger core. Defining a New Core Porosity Model If you want to define pressure-drop and effectiveness parameters that are different from those in the default core porosity model.25.

and add the new model to the database. specify the following parameters used in Equation 7.25 Heat Exchanger Models 3.. Click the Change/Create button. click on the Read. you will follow these steps: 1.33 9. This will add your new model to the database. Under Gas-Side Pressure Drop. c Fluent Inc. specify the HXC Parameters File name and click OK. Reading Heat Exchanger Parameters from an External File You can read parameters for your Core Porosity Model from an external file. In the resulting Select File dialog box. modelname). September 29.7. 2006 7-199 .. button.25-3). A sample file is shown below: ("modelname" (0. In the Core Porosity Model panel.43 0. in Equation 7.. The second set of numbers contains the gas-side pressure drop parameters: (σ Kc Ke A Ac a b) To read an external heat exchanger file.053 5. respectively.1 0. FLUENT will read the core porosity model parameters. 2.2 0. select the model name in the Database drop-down list (in the Core Porosity Model panel).73 0. The values for that model from the database will be displayed in the Core Porosity Model panel. Viewing the Parameters for an Existing Core Model To view the parameters associated with a core porosity model that you have already defined.66)) The first entry in the file is the name of the model (e. 4.g.25-2: Minimum Flow to Face Area Ratio (σ) Entrance Loss Coefficient (Kc ) Exit Loss Coefficient (Ke ) Gas-Side Surface Area (A) Minimum Cross Section Flow Area (Ac ) and the Core Friction Coefficient and Core Friction Exponent (a and b.

perform the following steps: 1. Initial Temperature. Define −→ Models −→Energy.9). you can use heat exchanger groups. i. or to connect the auxiliary fluid flow path among multiple heat exchangers. 2. and Inlet Pressure can be provided as a constant..25.11) to specify the auxiliary fluid operating conditions. 7-200 c Fluent Inc. Specify the Specific Heat as either a constant-specific-heat or as a userdefined-enthalpy. polynomial or piecewise-linear profile that is a function of time. (a) Under Name.25. ii. To use heat exchanger groups.Boundary Conditions 7. and the Number of Columns/Pass. From the Core Porosity Model drop-down list. select the Upstream heat exchanger group if such a connection exists. iii. Specify the Auxiliary Fluid Inlet Direction and Pass-to-Pass Direction. 2006 . choose either the ntu-model or the simple-effectiveness-model. specify the core model that should be used to calculate the porous media parameters for the zones in the group. (d) Click on the Geometry tab (Figure 7. specify the gas flow direction as either Width. (c) Click on the Model Data tab. Specify the inputs to the heat exchanger group model. Under Connectivity.25. September 29. i. In the Heat Transfer Model drop-down list. using the Heat Exchanger Group panel (Figure 7. iv. Provide the Heat Exchanger Performance Data according to the chosen model. enter the name of the heat exchanger group. ii.4 Using the Heat Exchanger Group To define a single heat exchanger that uses multiple fluid zones. or Depth. Define the macro grid by specifying the Number of Passes.. Auxiliary Fluid Flow Rate. the Number of Rows/Pass. i.. (b) Under Fluid Zones. Height. Define −→ User-Defined −→Heat Exchanger Group.10). v. Enable the calculation of energy in the Energy panel.25. (e) Click the Auxiliary Fluid tab (Figure 7.. ii. select the fluid zones that you want to define in the heat exchanger group. Under Primary Fluid Flow Direction.

September 29.25. 2006 7-201 .25 Heat Exchanger Models Figure 7.7.9: The Heat Exchanger Group Panel c Fluent Inc.

25. 2006 . September 29.Boundary Conditions Figure 7.10: The Heat Exchanger Group Panel .Geometry Tab 7-202 c Fluent Inc.

2006 7-203 .25 Heat Exchanger Models Figure 7.Auxiliary Fluid Tab c Fluent Inc.7. September 29.25.11: The Heat Exchanger Group Panel .

Supplementary Auxiliary Fluid Stream Tab i.25. 7-204 c Fluent Inc. click the Supplementary Auxiliary Fluid Stream tab.Boundary Conditions (f) If a supplementary auxiliary stream is to be modeled. You can specify the Supplementary Flow Temperature as a constant. Figure 7.12: The Heat Exchanger Group Panel . ii. polynomial or piecewise-linear profile that is a function of time. polynomial or piecewise-linear profile that is a function of time. September 29. 2006 . You can specify the Supplementary Mass Flow Rate as a constant.

. Selecting the Upstream Heat Exchanger Group If you want to connect the current group in series with another group. September 29. 2006 7-205 . and Number of Columns/Pass • Auxiliary Fluid Inlet Direction and the Pass-to-Pass Direction • Core Porosity Model Selecting the Fluid Zones for the Heat Exchanger Group Select the fluid zones that you want to define in the heat exchanger group in the Fluid Zones drop-down list.7. Number of Rows/Pass. 3. The connection will persist even if the connection is later changed and the Replace button is clicked. Note that any group can have at most one upstream and one downstream group. You may override any of the following: • Number of Passes. you need to delete the connecting group and create a new heat exchanger group with the proper connection. The auxiliary fluid flow in all these zones will be in parallel. button to open the Heat Exchanger Model panel (Figure 7. choose the upstream heat exchanger group. To change a connection to an upstream heat exchanger group. If a heat exchanger group is comprised of multiple fluid zones and you wish to override any of the inputs defined in the previous steps. Select a heat exchanger group from the Upstream drop-down list under Connectivity in the Model Data tab of the Heat Exchanger Group panel. Note that one zone cannot be included in more than one heat exchanger group.25. c Fluent Inc. i Creating or replacing any heat exchanger group initializes any previously calculated values for temperature and enthalpy for all macros. Replace changes the parameters of the already existing group that is selected in the HX Groups list. i Connecting to an upstream heat exchanger group can be done only while creating a heat exchanger group. click on the Set. a group cannot be connected to itself. Also..2). Select the particular fluid zone as usual. Notice that the individual heat exchanger inherits the properties of the group by default.25 Heat Exchanger Models (g) Click Create or Replace in the Heat Exchanger Group panel to save all the settings.

25. pressure. The auxiliary stream has the following assumptions: • The magnitude of a negative auxiliary stream must be less than the primary auxiliary fluid inlet flow rate of the heat exchanger group. or 2 for specific heat. 2006 . width. Thread *t. /* (temperature or enthalpy or Cp depending on index). The function should return a single value depending on the index: • Enthalpy for given values of temperature. September 29. and quality. • Temperature for given values of enthalpy and pressure • Specific heat for given values of temperature and pressure The user-defined function should be of type DEFINE_SOURCE(udf_name.Boundary Conditions Specifying the Auxiliary Fluid Inlet and Pass-to-Pass Directions The Auxiliary Fluid Inlet Direction and Pass-to-Pass Direction. You will input the mass flow rate. You will also need to specify the heat transfer for various flow rates of primary and auxiliary flows. */ Specifying Supplementary Auxiliary Fluid Streams The addition or removal of a supplementary auxiliary fluid is allowed in any of the heat exchanger groups. temperature. • Added streams will be assumed to have the same fluid properties as the primary inlet auxiliary fluid. Note that auxiliary streams are not allowed for individual zones. or 2 for quality. where n in the expression d[n] would be 0 for temperature. Specifying the Auxiliary Fluid Properties The auxiliary fluid can be specified as having a constant-specific-heat. real d[n]. and quality of the supplementary auxiliary fluid. int index). 1 for temperature. cell_t c. 1 for pressure.3: Specifying the Auxiliary Fluid Inlet and Pass-toPass Directions in the Heat Exchanger Model panel. This user-defined function should return real value. The variable index is 0 for enthalpy. in the Geometry tab can be specified as directed in Section 7. and depth as the average of the fluid zones selected in the Fluid Zones. or a user-defined function can be written to calculate the enthalpy. Note that the Update from Plane Tool will set the height. 7-206 c Fluent Inc.

specify the fluid zone id/name for which you want to report the results. every time the Tin boundary condition for the first heat exchanger group is modified. However. FLUENT will correspondingly update every downstream heat exchanger group. 2006 7-207 . Thus the boundary condition Tin for the first heat exchanger group in a connected series will automatically propagate as an initial guess for every other heat exchanger group in the series. To view the connectivity of the heat exchanger groups. Similarly. excluding any macros. you will be allowed to override Tin for any connected heat exchanger group by providing a value in the Initial Temperature field. To report the results for the macros. to be equal to the Tin of the upstream heat exchanger group. All heat exchangers included in a group must use the fixed Tin option.25 Heat Exchanger Models Initializing the Auxiliary Fluid Temperature When the heat exchanger group is connected to an upstream heat exchanger group. no local override of this setting is possible through the Heat Exchanger panel. 7. Whenever such an override is supplied.7. you can use the following text command: define −→ user-defined −→ heat-exchanger −→heat-exchanger-macro-report Specify the fluid zone id/name for which you want to obtain information. FLUENT will automatically set the initial guess for the auxiliary fluid inlet temperature. outlet temperature. you can use the following text command: define −→ user-defined −→ heat-exchanger −→heat-exchanger-report When prompted. and inlet temperature for the entire heat exchanger. If you want to impose a non-uniform initialization on the auxiliary fluid temperature field. first connect the heat exchanger groups and then set Tin for each heat exchanger group in streamwise order. use the text command (report-connectivity) c Fluent Inc. All heat exchangers within a heat exchanger group must have the same Tin .25. September 29.5 Postprocessing for the Heat Exchanger Model To view the computed values of total heat rejection. In other words. Tin . when it is necessary to further improve convergence properties. FLUENTwill automatically propagate the new Tin to any heat exchanger groups further downstream in the series.

zij . In other words.26. where 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n. your profile file should contain a sufficiently high point density.26. which must be sorted in ascending order of the r field. This feature allows you to use experimental data. Zero-order interpolation is performed between the points. Profiles written using the Write Profile panel and profiles of experimental data in random order are examples of point profiles. where 1 ≤ i ≤ n. An example of a line profile is a profile of data obtained from an external program that calculates a boundary-layer profile. the solver uses the value from the profile file located closest to the cell. yi . Information about boundary profiles is presented in the following subsections: • Section 7. zi . The axis for the cylindrical coordinate system is determined as follows: 7-208 c Fluent Inc. • Line profiles are specified for 2D problems by an ordered set of n points: (xi .2: Boundary Profile File Format • Section 7.26.5: Reading and Writing Profile Files) as the boundary condition for a variable. vi ) for 2D problems or (xi . for each cell face at the boundary. Therefore. yij . where 1 ≤ i ≤ n. FLUENT will interpolate the point cloud as needed to obtain values at the boundary faces.1: Boundary Profile Specification Types • Section 7. if you wish an accurate specification of an inlet profile.3: Using Boundary Profiles • Section 7. vi ). Examples of mesh profiles are profiles of data from a structured mesh solution and experimental data in a regular array. • Radial profiles are specified for 2D and 3D problems by an ordered set of n points: (ri . vi ). data calculated by an external program. Linear interpolation is performed between the points. or data written from a previous solution using the Write Profile panel (as described in Section 4. • Mesh profiles are specified for 3D problems by an m by n mesh of points: (xij . 2006 .Boundary Conditions 7. Zero-order interpolation is performed between the points. yi . vi ) for 3D problems.26. vij ). The interpolation method for unstructured point data is zero order. where 1 ≤ i ≤ n. The data in a radial profile are a function of radius only.4: Reorienting Boundary Profiles 7. yi .26.1 Boundary Profile Specification Types Five types of profiles are provided: • Point profiles are specified by an unordered set of n points: (xi .26 Boundary Profiles FLUENT provides a very flexible boundary profile definition mechanism. September 29.

or axial). i In the general format description below. Parentheses are used to delimit profiles and the fields within the profiles. mesh. Linear interpolation is performed between the points. as described below). 2006 7-209 . spaces. as defined in the Fluid panel (unless you are using local cylindrical coordinates at the boundary. where 1 ≤ i ≤ n. which must be sorted in ascending order of the z field. Some of these fields contain the coordinate points and the rest contain boundary data. The data in an axial profile are a function of the axial direction. “|” indicates that you should input only one of the items separated by |’s and “. must be specified in SI units because FLUENT does not perform unit conversion when reading profile files.2 Boundary Profile File Format The format of the profile files is fairly simple. – For 3D problems in which you are using local cylindrical coordinates to specify conditions at the boundary.. – For 3D problems without a swirling fan. Each profile consists of a header that specifies the profile name. c Fluent Inc. i All quantities.26 Boundary Profiles – For 2D problems.0). line.” indicates a continuation of the list. Any combination of tabs. September 29. it is the rotation axis of the adjacent fluid zone. including coordinate values. and is followed by an arbitrary number of named “fields”. 7.26. it is the z-direction vector through (0. radial. it is the fan axis defined in the Fan panel (unless you are using local cylindrical coordinates at the boundary. as described below). profile type (point. it is the x-direction vector through (0. and newlines can be used to separate elements. The file can contain an arbitrary number of profiles. – For 3D problems involving a swirling fan. and number of defining points. • Axial profiles are specified for 3D problems by an ordered set of n points: (zi . vi ).0). it is the axis of the specified local coordinate system.7. – For 2D axisymmetric problems..

7-210 c Fluent Inc. . for 3D. Each profile of type axial must contain a field with name z.. The rest of the names are arbitrary. .. fn)) ((profile2-name mesh m n) (field1-name a11 a12 .... am1 am2 .. .g..Boundary Conditions ((profile1-name point|line|radial n) (field1-name a1 a2 . line. z. . . (fieldf-name f11 f12 . ... . . Each profile of type radial must contain a field with name r... a21 a22 .. y. a1n a2n amn) f1n f2n fmn)) Boundary profile names must have all lowercase letters (e. September 29. 2006 .. f21 f22 ... (fieldf-name f1 f2 . . Uppercase letters in boundary profile names are not acceptable.... and mesh must contain fields with names x. but must be valid Scheme symbols. . and. . For compatibility with old-style profile files. an) (field2-name b1 b2 .. bn) . point is assumed. Each profile of type point. fm1 fm2 . if the profile type is missing. name).

k.05731E+00 1.93642E-01 6. For a compressible flow calculation.31222E-01 (u 5.40079E+00 1.04399E+01 9.00000E+00 4.33020E-03 3.59870E+00 1.00000E+00 ) 7.31187E+01 9.81265E-03 ) c Fluent Inc.90015E-03 3.84519E-01 7.7.01674E+01 1. Below is an example of a profile file that does this: ((turb-prof point 8) (x 4.00000E+00 4.32680E-01 6. together with k and . September 29.06443E-03 3.00000E+00 4.90494E-01 3.21535E+01 9.00000E+00 5.57471E-01 ) 7.80001E-03 4.78365E-03 9.01637E+01 5.19247E-01 6.79056E-03 ) 4.47866E+00 6.19485E-03 2.93228E-01 6.27713E+02 6.00000E+00 (y 1. this will be done using profiles of total pressure.89666E-03 (eps 1.47418E-03 4. and . For an incompressible flow.00000E+00 4.89414E-03 6.01656E+01 (tke 4. it might be preferable to specify the inlet value of streamwise velocity.00000E+00 4.01616E+01 ) 4.90478E-03 ) 2. 2006 7-211 .26 Boundary Profiles Example A typical usage of a boundary profile file is to specify the profile of the boundary layer at an inlet.

select it in the list.26.26. To check which fields are defined in a particular profile. If you want to define a non-constant source term. button in the Boundary Profiles panel (Figure 7. To use a particular profile. and you can also delete a particular profile.. menu item. 7-212 c Fluent Inc. 1.... the old profile will be overwritten. Define −→Profiles.g. September 29. Define −→Profiles.. In Figure 7.. select it in the Profiles list and click on the Delete button.3 Using Boundary Profiles The procedure for using a boundary profile to define a particular boundary condition is outlined below. 3.. i Boundary profiles cannot be used to define volumetric source terms.26. Once you have read in a profile file.1.2: Boundary Profile File Format.26. refer to the separate UDF Manual. the Velocity Inlet and Pressure Inlet panels). you can check which fields are defined in each profile... the profile fields from the profile file of Section 7. To delete a profile. you will need to use a user-defined function. and a profile in the file has the same name as an existing profile. select the profile name in the Profile list. When a profile is deleted.Boundary Conditions 7. and each profile has one or more fields defined in it.2: Example are shown..26. following the format described in Section 7. Note that if you use the Boundary Profiles panel to read a file. Read the boundary profile using the Read. Checking and Deleting Profiles Each profile file contains one or more profiles. 2006 . 2.26. File −→ Read −→Profile. Create a file that contains the desired boundary profile.1) or the File/Read/Profile. For more information on UDFs.1). the fields defined in the profile file (and those defined in any other profile file that you have read in) will appear in the drop-down list to the right of or below each parameter for which profile specification is allowed. The available fields in that file will be displayed in the Fields list. In the boundary conditions panels (e. all fields defined in it will be removed from the Fields list. These tasks are accomplished in the Boundary Profiles panel (Figure 7..

open the Solution XY Plot panel. and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. However.26.26. c Fluent Inc. the variable of interest in the Y Axis Function drop-down list. this means that there is an error in the profile file.) Once the profiles have been specified. the profiles are used for inlet values of x velocity. since it is assumed negligible. and then click Plot. and the desired Plot Direction. Select the appropriate boundary zone in the Surfaces list.1: The Boundary Profiles Panel Example For the example given in Section 7.2. If the data plotted do not agree with your specified profile.2: Example. 2006 7-213 . • For 3D calculations. use the Contours panel to display contours on the appropriate boundary zone surface. The Node Values check button must be turned on in order for you to view the profile data. turbulent kinetic energy. and the flow solution has been initialized. Ensure that the Node Values check button is turned on. the boundary conditions have been saved (OK’d). (The y velocity is set to a constant value of zero.7. a profile of y velocity could also be used. as illustrated in Figure 7. If the data shown in the contour plot do not agree with your specified profile.26. you can view the inlet profile as follows: • For 2D calculations. September 29.26 Boundary Profiles Figure 7. this means that there is an error in the profile file. You should then see the inlet profile plotted.

2: Example of Using Profiles as Boundary Conditions 7-214 c Fluent Inc. September 29.Boundary Conditions Figure 7. 2006 .26.

FLUENT allows you to change the orientation of an existing boundary profile so that it can be used at a boundary positioned arbitrarily in space.3).7.3: The Orient Profile Panel c Fluent Inc. September 29. button.. 2. This will open the Orient Profile panel (Figure 7.4 Reorienting Boundary Profiles For 3D cases only.26.26. 2006 7-215 . Define and read the boundary profile as described in Section 7. This allows you.3: Using Boundary Profiles. Figure 7.. Steps for Changing the Profile Orientation The procedure for orienting the boundary profile data in the principal directions of a boundary is outlined below: 1. select the profile in the Profile list. Note that FLUENT assumes that the profile and the boundary are planar. for example.26 Boundary Profiles 7. and then click on the Orient.26.26. In the Boundary Profiles panel. to take experimental data for an inlet with one orientation and apply it to an inlet in your model that has a different spatial orientation.

September 29. 2006 . and z only. y. and z directions of the boundary profile from the drop-down lists under Compute From.Boundary Conditions 3.. z) in the first row under New Field Names.. the original profile was defined in 2D. enter the name of the new profile you want to create in the New Profile box. i.. y. Do not use any other names or upper case letters in this field.. y. 7-216 c Fluent Inc. (b) Select the names of the 3 components of the vector in the local x.) 6. (A selection of 0 indicates that the coordinate does not exist in the original profile. Define the coordinate field. and z from the dropdown lists under Compute From. (b) Click on the button under Treat as Scalar Quantity in the same row. The number of new fields is equal to the number of vectors and scalars to be defined plus 1 (for the coordinates). y. (b) Select the appropriate local coordinate fields for x. (a) Enter the names of the three coordinates (x. Define the scalar fields in the new profile. (c) Select the name of the scalar in the corresponding drop-down list under Compute From. i Ensure that the coordinates are named x.. (a) Enter the names of the 3 components in the directions of the coordinate axes of the boundary under New Field Names. In the Orient Profile panel.... i Do not use upper case letters in these fields..e.. Specify the number of fields you want to create using the up/down arrows next to the New Fields box. 5. 7. Define the vector fields in the new profile. i Do not use upper case letters in these fields. 4. (a) Enter the name of the scalar in the first column under New Field Names.

and A are the successive rotations around the z.. only a translation. will now appear in the Boundary Profiles panel and will be available for use at the desired boundary. specify the Direction Vector.26-5) 9. c Fluent Inc. β. 10.26 Boundary Profiles 8. The rotational matrix used here is based on Euler angles (γ.7. Rotation around the z axis: cos γ − sin γ 0   C =  sin γ cos γ 0  0 0 1 Rotation around the y axis: cos β 0 sin β  0 1 0  B=  − sin β 0 cos β Rotation around the x axis: 1 0 0   A =  0 cos α − sin α  0 sin α cos α       (7. which you entered in the New Profile box.26-3) (7. y. it may be necessary to perform only a rotation... The Direction Vector is the vector that translates a boundary profile to the new position. Click the Create button in the Orient Profile panel. specify the rotational matrix RM under the Rotation Matrix [RM]. or a combination of a translation and a rotation. Its name.. B.26-1) (7.26-4) (7. respectively. Under Orient To. and α) that define an orthogonal system x y z as the result of the three successive rotations from the original system xyz. 2006 7-217 . and your new profile will be created. In other words. and x axes.  x x      y  = [RM ]  y  z z RM = [C][B][A]    (7.26-2) where C. i Note that depending on your case.. and is defined between the centers of the profile fields. Under Orient To. September 29..

−10)T . the rotation will locate the profile away from the inlet boundary.39e+01 1. 2006 . since γ = β = 0. September 29.49e+01 1. a translation will be performed.4.09e+01 9. where I is the identity matrix. 1. However. a translation via a directional vector needs to be performed.97e+00 3.99e+01 1.69e+01 1. The purpose of this example is to impose this outlet profile on the inlet boundary via a 90◦ rotation about the x axis. In this example.00e+00 Outlet Inlet Contours of Velocity Magnitude (m/s) Figure 7. Note that if the profile being imposed on the inlet boundary was due to a rotation of -90◦ about the x axis.26.95e+00 6. shown in Figure 7.97e+00 2.96e+00 4. then C = B = I. then the rotational matrix RM must be found for γ = β = 0 and α = −90◦ . the directional vector is (0. A scalar profile at the outlet is written out to a profile file. Φout is the image of the Φout rotated 90◦ around the x axis. and the rotation matrix is 1 0 0 1 0 0    ◦ ◦  RM = [C][B][A] =  0 cos 90 − sin 90  =  0 0 −1  0 sin 90◦ cos 90◦ 0 1 0     (7. 7-218 c Fluent Inc.26. 15.5.3.Boundary Conditions Profile Orienting Example Consider the domain with a square inlet and outlet. and a new directional vector must be found to align the profile to the boundary.99e+00 Y X Z 9.26. The directional vector is the vector that translates Φout to Φin .98e+00 1.94e+00 7.79e+01 1.94e+00 8. The appropriate inputs for the Orient Profile panel are shown in Figure 7.29e+01 1.94e-01 0.4: Scalar Profile at the Outlet The problem is shown schematically in Figure 7.26.96e+00 5.26-6) To overlay the outlet profile on the inlet boundary. Φout is the scalar profile of the outlet. To align the profile to the inlet boundary.59e+01 1.19e+01 1.89e+01 1. In this example.

26. −10) T Φ’ out ¡ ¨ ¡  §¡ ¡ ¨¡¨ ¡ " " " " " " " " ¨¡§ §¡ ¡ !¡¡!¡¡!¡!¡!¡!¡ §¡¨ "¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡!" ¡§¨§  ¡ ! ! ! 10 30 5 Φ out 5 ¡ ¡ ¡ ©© ¡©© Rotation 90 ¡ ¡ ¡  ¡ y x ¡ ¡  ¡ Φ in z 10 10  ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ c Fluent Inc. September 29.26 Boundary Profiles 7-219 ¢ ¢ ¢  ¡¡ £¤ ¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¢¡¡  ¡¡ ¥¦   .5: Problem Specification 5 7. 2006 Figure 7. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Directional vector (0. 15.

1 Overview of Fixing the Value of a Variable The ability to fix the value of a variable has a wide range of applications. experimental data for the velocity profile in the outflow region are available for many impeller types. and velocity components can be fixed based on measured data.27 Fixing the Values of Variables The option to fix values of variables in FLUENT allows you to set the value of one or more variables in a fluid or solid zone. essentially setting a boundary condition for the variables within the cells of the zone. a fluid cell zone may be used in the impeller regions.) 7. the transport equation for that variable is not solved in the cell (and the cell is not included when the residual sum is computed for that variable).Boundary Conditions 7. If you do not need to know the details of the flow around the blades for your problem. The velocity fixing method is often used to model the flow in stirred tanks.27. 7-220 c Fluent Inc. (Refer to Section 25. The velocities in the rest of the vessel can then be calculated using this fixed velocity profile as a boundary condition. i You can fix values for temperature and species mass fractions only if you are using the pressure-based solver. September 29. You can fix values for velocity components only if you are using the pressure-based segregated solver. 2006 .1 shows an example of how this method is used to model the flow pattern created by a disk-turbine in an axisymmetric stirred vessel.1. This approach provides an alternative to the use of a rotating reference frame (solution in the reference frame of the blade) and can be used to model baffled tanks. Although the actual impeller geometry can be modeled and the flow pattern calculated using the sliding mesh model.27. you can model the impeller by fixing the experimentally-obtained liquid velocities in its outflow zone.1: Pressure-Based Solver for information about the pressurebased segregated solver. In both 2D and 3D geometries. The fixed value is used for the calculation of face fluxes between the cell and its neighbors. The result is a smooth transition between the fixed value of a variable and the values at the neighboring cells. Figure 7. When a variable is fixed in a given cell.

you can fix the values of velocity components and (depending on which multiphase turbulence model you are using) turbulence quantities on a per-phase basis. If you are using the Eulerian multiphase model. If you are using the non-premixed combustion model. For turbulence quantities.27 Fixing the Values of Variables Figure 7. you can specify fixed values for the species mass fractions for each individual species except the last one you defined. See the separate UDF Manual for details about defining user-defined scalars. enthalpy. 2006 7-221 . If you have more than one species in your model. and user-defined scalars. See Section 23. turbulence quantities. you can fix the enthalpy in a fluid zone.7. c Fluent Inc. different values can be set depending on your choice of turbulence model. temperature (pressure-based solver only). species mass fractions (pressure-based solver only). September 29. You can fix the value of the temperature in a fluid or solid zone if you are solving the energy equation.27.1: Fixing Values for the Flow in a Stirred Tank Variables That Can Be Fixed The variables that can be fixed include velocity components (pressure-based segregated solver only).8: Eulerian Model for details about setting boundary conditions for Eulerian multiphase calculations.9.

it will not rotate unless it has been explicitly defined as a moving zone. enthalpy. choose (or keep) none in the drop-down list next to the relevant field.26. choose constant in the drop-down list next to the relevant field and then enter the constant value in the field.Boundary Conditions 7. • To specify a constant value for a variable. species mass fractions. 2.) • If you do not want to fix the value for a variable.17. If you specify a radial-type boundary profile (see Section 7. (Note that it is acceptable to specify the rotation axis and direction for a non-rotating zone. the local coordinate system upon which the radial profile is based is defined by the Rotation-Axis Origin and Rotation-Axis Direction for the fluid zone.2 Procedure for Fixing Values of Variables in a Zone To fix the values of one or more variables in a cell zone. Select the appropriate profile or UDF in the drop-down list next to the relevant field. 2006 .. September 29.1: Boundary Profile Specification Types) for temperature.27. or turbulence quantities for the k. you can use a boundary profile (see Section 7. noting the comments below. follow these steps (remembering to use only SI units): 1. or k-ω model. In the Fluid panel or Solid panel. 7-222 c Fluent Inc. This is the default for all variables. This will not cause the zone to rotate.1: Specifying the Rotation Axis for information about setting these parameters. Spalart-Allmaras.26: Boundary Profiles) or a user-defined function for a boundary profile (see the separate UDF Manual). Fix the values for the appropriate variables. turn on the Fixed Values option. • To specify a non-constant value for a variable. See Section 7.

See Section 7.1.) i You can fix values for velocity components only if you are using the pressure-based segregated solver. and (in 3D) Z Velocity values. for axisymmetric cases. and then specify the Axial. c Fluent Inc. If you are using the non-premixed combustion model. and (for axisymmetric swirl) Swirl Velocity values. you can fix the temperature in a zone by specifying the value of the Temperature. Y. The units for a fixed enthalpy are m2 /s2 . and/or Tangential Velocity values. For 3D cases. you can choose to specify cylindrical velocity components instead of Cartesian components. The units for a fixed temperature are K.1: Pressure-Based Solver for information about the pressure-based segregated solver. See above for details. The units for a fixed velocity are m/s.17. you can fix the enthalpy in a zone by specifying the value of the Enthalpy. 2006 7-223 . Radial. (Note that it is acceptable to specify the rotation axis and direction for a non-rotating zone.7. Turn on the Local Coordinate System For Fixed Velocities option. The local coordinate system is defined by the Rotation-Axis Origin and Rotation-Axis Direction for the fluid zone. you can specify X. it will not rotate unless it has been explicitly defined as a moving zone. (Refer to Section 25.1: Specifying the Rotation Axis for information about setting these parameters. the local coordinate system upon which the radial profile is based is defined by the Rotation-Axis Origin and Rotation-Axis Direction for the fluid zone. This will not cause the zone to rotate.1: Boundary Profile Specification Types) for temperature or enthalpy. If you specify a radial-type boundary profile (see Section 7. i You can fix the value of temperature only if you are using the pressurebased solver.26. September 29.) Fixing Temperature and Enthalpy If you are solving the energy equation. Radial.27 Fixing the Values of Variables Fixing Velocity Components To fix the velocity components. or. Axial.

2006 . o2) except the last one you defined. Note that you cannot specify radial-type profiles for the Reynolds stresses. The units for k and the Reynolds stresses are m2 /s2 . To fix the value of the modified turbulent viscosity (˜) for the Spalart-Allmaras model.equations.. To fix the values of k and ω in the k-ω equations. The units for k are m2 /s2 and those for ω are 1/s. and/or UW Reynolds Stress. WW Reynolds Stress. and those for are m2 /s3 .26. If you specify a radial-type boundary profile (see Section 7. ω. 7-224 c Fluent Inc. specify the User defined scalar-n value. specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy and Specific Dissipation Rate values.1: Boundary Profile Specification Types) for a species mass fraction. See above for details. Turbulence Dissipation Rate. If you specify a radial-type boundary profile (see Section 7. the local coordinate system upon which the radial profile ˜ is based is defined by the Rotation-Axis Origin and Rotation-Axis Direction for the fluid zone. September 29. or ν . See the separate UDF Manual for information on user-defined scalars. To fix the value of k. VW Reynolds Stress. h2. Fixing User-Defined Scalars To fix the value of a user-defined scalar. you can fix the values of the species mass fractions for individual species. or the Reynolds stresses in the RSM transport equations.Boundary Conditions Fixing Species Mass Fractions If you are using the species transport model. The units for k are m2 /s2 and those for are m2 /s3 . specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy. ν specify the Modified Turbulent Viscosity value.1: Boundary Profile Specification Types) for k. . . UV Reynolds Stress. Fixing Turbulence Quantities To fix the values of k and in the k. See above for details.26. specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy and Turbulence Dissipation Rate values. (There will be one for each user-defined scalar you have defined. FLUENT allows you to fix the species mass fraction for each species (e.) The units for a user-defined scalar will be the appropriate SI units for the scalar quantity. the local coordinate system upon which the radial profile is based is defined by the Rotation-Axis Origin and Rotation-Axis Direction for the fluid zone. The units for the modified turbulent viscosity are m2 /s. i You can fix values for species mass fractions only if you are using the pressure-based solver.g. VV Reynolds Stress. UU Reynolds Stress.

(Note that defining only a momentum. fire) that is not explicitly defined in your model. momentum. • Heat release due to a source (e.g. or turbulence source is acceptable. Momentum. Energy. All sources must be specified in SI units. and energy sources in that cell zone. you can place the cell(s) into which the heat is originally released in its own solid zone and then define the energy source in that cell zone.. c Fluent Inc. due to an issue of scale.) To add source terms to a cell or group of cells. The sources are then applied to that cell zone. This feature is useful when you want to input a known value for these sources. • An energy source in a solid zone. Momentum.g. momentum. For this case. you might need to define a source for a species representing smoke generation.7. there may be a drop in velocity or temperature. Energy. you can create a user-defined function as described in the separate UDF Manual. and Other Sources You can define volumetric sources of mass (for single or multiple species). consequently.28. For this case. where V V V V V is the cell volume. you can place the cell(s) into which the heat is originally released in its own fluid zone and then define the energy source in that cell zone. or a source of energy for a solid zone. If you define only a mass source. energy.28 Defining Mass. If you need to model an inlet that is smaller than a cell.. e. i Note that if you define a mass source for a cell zone. that mass enters the domain with no momentum or thermal heat. Typical uses for this feature are listed below: • A flow source that cannot be represented by an inlet. This drop may or may not be perceptible. and Other Sources 7. 2006 7-225 .28 Defining Mass. if appropriate for your model. In the above example of simulating a fire. for conjugate heat transfer applications. energy. you ˙ ˙ ˙ should set a mass source of m = ρj Aj vj and a momentum source of mv = mvj . you must place the cell(s) in a separate zone. and all negative source terms indicate sinks. (For more complicated sources with functional dependency. you can place the cell where the tiny “inlet” is located in its own fluid zone and then define the mass. turbulence. and other scalar quantities in a fluid zone. • A species source due to a reaction that is not explicitly included in the model. For the example shown in Figure 7. you should also define a momentum source and. depending on the size of the source. energy and turbulence sources.) Sign Conventions and Units All positive source terms indicate sources. September 29.1. The mass will therefore have to be accelerated and heated by the flow and.

momentum. September 29. user-defined..Boundary Conditions v Aj j Figure 7. you can use a user-defined function (see the separate UDF Manual). • To specify a source. or other source. choose constant. button next to the mass. The sources panel will open where you will define the number of sources.28. 7-226 c Fluent Inc. • To specify a temperature-dependent or other functional source. Set the appropriate source terms under the Source Terms tab.1: Defining a Source for a Tiny Inlet 7.28. energy. or none in the drop-down list. This is the default for all variables. follow these steps (remembering to use only SI units): 1. choose (or keep) none in the drop-down list next to the relevant field. • If you do not want to specify a source term for a variable. 2. click the Edit. choose constant in the drop-down list and then enter the constant value in the field. 2006 . turn on the Source Terms option. noting the comments below. • To specify a constant source. In the Fluid panel or Solid panel. For each source.1 Procedure for Defining Sources To define one or more source terms for a zone..

If you have more than one species. you can use the Volume Integrals panel.01. Since you cannot specify the mass source for the last species explicitly. In the momentum equation (Equation 9. The units for the energy source are W/m3 . In the energy equation (Equation 13. To do this.g. The units for the species mass sources are kg/m3 -s.. if the mass source for hydrogen in a hydrogen-air mixture is 0.7. specify an Energy term. as described above. 2006 7-227 . Mass Sources If you have only one species in your problem. In the continuity equation (Equation 9. Energy. you will specify a value of 0. This concept also applies within each cell if you use user-defined functions for species mass sources. the defined momentum source will appear in the F term. • Since the sources you specify are defined per unit volume. and a value of 0.01 in the h2 field. FLUENT will compute it by subtracting the sum of all other species mass sources from the specified total Mass source.045 in the Mass field. o2) except the last one you defined. then you should specify a value of 0 for the Mass source. a value of 0. the defined mass source will appear in the Si term. The units for the mass source are kg/m3 -s. to determine the appropriate value of your source term you will often need to first determine the volume of the cell(s) in the zone for which you are defining the source. Y Momentum. you can simply define a Mass source for that species. The units for the momentum source are N/m3 . the defined energy source will appear in the Sh term. Energy Sources To define a source of energy. In the conservation equation for a chemical species (Equation 14. and Other Sources • Remember that you should not define just a mass source without defining the other sources.02 in the o2 field. the defined mass source will appear in the Sm term. If the total of all species mass sources (including the last one) is 0.1-1).02. Momentum Sources To define a source of momentum. September 29. Momentum. For example. c Fluent Inc. There will be a total Mass source term as well as a source term listed explicitly for each species (e. the mass source for oxygen is 0. h2.2-3). and the mass source for nitrogen (the last species) is 0. and/or Z Momentum term. you can specify mass sources for each individual species.2-1). and also specify the values of the non-zero individual species mass sources. specify the X Momentum.015.2-1).28 Defining Mass.

7-32. The units for the modified turbulent viscosity source are kg/m-s2 .7-1).5-2). Equation 12. UV Reynolds Stress.3-1).4-1). WW Reynolds Stress. The defined ω source will appear in the Sω term on the right-hand side of the specific turbulent dissipation rate equation (Equation 12. specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy. or the Reynolds stresses in the RSM transport equations. UU Reynolds Stress. ˜ Turbulence Sources for the k-ω Model To define a source of k or ω in the k-ω equations. the defined modified turbulent viscosity source will appear in the Sν term. The defined k source will appear in the Sk term on the right-hand side of Equation 12.5-1). The defined Reynolds stress sources will appear in the Suser term on the right-hand side of the Reynolds stress transport equation (Equation 12.4-2). The defined k source will appear in the Sk term on the right-hand side of the turbulent kinetic energy equation (Equation 12.g. Turbulence Dissipation Rate. Equation 12. . VW Reynolds Stress. Turbulence Sources for the Spalart-Allmaras Model To define a source of modified turbulent viscosity.equations. The units for the k source and the sources of Reynolds stress are kg/m-s3 . Turbulence Sources for the Reynolds Stress Model To define a source of k. The defined will appear in the S term on the right-hand side of Equation 12. In the transport equation for the Spalart-Allmaras model (Equation 12. September 29. specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy or Specific Dissipation Rate term. The units for the k source are kg/m-s3 and those for ω are kg/m3 -s2 .. and/or UW Reynolds Stress terms. 7-228 c Fluent Inc. specify the Turbulence Kinetic Energy or Turbulence Dissipation Rate term.Model To define a source of k or in the k.. and those for are kg/m-s4 . specify the Modified Turbulent Viscosity term. The units for the k source are kg/m-s3 and those for are kg/m-s4 .Boundary Conditions Turbulence Sources Turbulence Sources for the k. VV Reynolds Stress. The defined k source will appear in the Sk term on the right-hand side of the turbulent kinetic energy equation (e. The defined source will appear in the S term on the right-hand side of the turbulent dissipation rate equation (e. 2006 .7-29.g.

if the source term you are defining represents a transfer from internal energy to radiative energy (e.2-5).2-1. HCN. The units for the radiation source are W/m3 . and SNH3 terms of Equations 20.2-4). and the defined source will appear in the ρSc term in Equation 16.3.g.. SHCN . specify the P1 term. NO. or nh3 term. Energy. The defined mixture fraction variance source will appear in the Suser term in the transport equation for the mixture fraction variance (Equation 15. 20. HCN. and Other Sources Mean Mixture Fraction and Variance Sources To define a source of the mean mixture fraction or its variance for the non-premixed combustion model. specify the Progress Variable term.3-5.7. The units for these sources are kg/m3 -s. If you are using the two-mixture-fraction approach. Note that. See Section 9.1-1. P-1 Radiation Sources To define a source for the P-1 radiation model. hcn. The defined mean mixture fraction source will appear in the Suser term in the transport equation for the mixture fraction (Equation 15. c Fluent Inc. and those for the mixture fraction variance source are kg/m3 -s. September 29.1-2. Progress Variable Sources To define a source of the progress variable for the premixed combustion model. and NH3 Sources for the NOx Model To define a source of NO. specify the Mean Mixture Fraction or Mixture Fraction Variance term. specify the no. and 20.3: Setting Up UDS Equations in FLUENT for details. and the defined source will appear in the SG term in Equation 13. and the defined sources will appear in the SNO . you will need to specify an Energy source of the same magnitude as the P1 source.28 Defining Mass. Momentum.1-3. User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Sources You can specify source term(s) for each UDS transport equation you have defined in your model. you can also specify sources of the Secondary Mean Mixture Fraction and Secondary Mixture Fraction Variance. The units for the mean mixture fraction source are kg/m3 -s. 2006 7-229 . or NH3 for the NOx model. The units for the progress variable source are kg/m3 -s. absorption or emission). in order to ensure overall energy conservation. but with the opposite sign.

7. • Boundary conditions for the following variables can be obtained from GT-Power: – velocity – temperature – pressure – density – species mass fractions – k and (Note that it is recommended that you define these conditions in FLUENT yourself. September 29. Normal to Boundary as the Velocity Specification Method in the Velocity Inlet panel. 7-230 c Fluent Inc. you must select Magnitude.Boundary Conditions 7.1 Requirements and Restrictions Note the following requirements and restrictions for the GT-Power coupling: • The flow must be unsteady. so that the boundary conditions will be valid for your coupled simulation. a maximum of 20 boundary zones can be coupled to GT-Power. rather than using the data provided by GT-Power. During the FLUENT simulation. • The compressible ideal gas law must be used for density. For a velocity inlet. since the GT-Power values are based on a 1D model.29.) • Make sure that the material properties you set in FLUENT are the same as those used in GT-Power. • Each boundary zone for which you plan to define conditions using GT-Power must be a flow boundary of one of the following types: – velocity inlet – mass flow inlet – pressure inlet – pressure outlet Also. 2006 . you must select Normal to Boundary as the Direction Specification Method in the Mass-Flow Inlet or Pressure Inlet panel. FLUENT and GT-Power are coupled together and information about the boundary conditions at each time step is transferred between them.29 Coupling Boundary Conditions with GT-Power GT-Power users can define time-dependent boundary conditions in FLUENT based on information from GT-Power. • If a mass flow inlet or pressure inlet is coupled to GT-Power.

recall that FLUENT can handle a maximum of 50 species.. Figure 7. shown in Figure 7. c Fluent Inc. • You can install the GT-Power libraries in a directory other than the default location.29..29. Define −→ User-Defined −→1D Coupling.the GTI installation directory where GT-Power is installed – FLUENT GTIVERSION .1). 2006 7-231 .the current version of the GTI installation i 7.29 Coupling Boundary Conditions with GT-Power • If your model includes species.2 GTI is not backwards compatible. Read in the mesh file and define the models.1: Requirements and Restrictions. Specify the location of the GT-Power data and have FLUENT use them to generate user-defined functions for the relevant boundary conditions (using the 1D Simulation Library panel. noting the requirements and restrictions listed in Section 7.7. materials. If the GT-Power libraries are loaded into a non-default location.29. (c) Click the Start button. 1.29. (b) Specify the name of the GT-Power input file in the 1D Input File Name field. 2. Also. and boundary zone types (but not the actual boundary conditions).1: The 1D Simulation Library Panel (a) Select GTpower in the 1D Library drop-down list. you need to set the following environment variables: – FLUENT GTIHOME . User Inputs The procedure for setting up the GT-Power coupling in FLUENT is presented below. September 29. make sure that the name of each species in GT-Power corresponds to the Chemical Formula for that species material in the Materials panel.

. Set boundary conditions for all zones.29. Figure 7.29.2: Using GT-Power Data for Boundary Conditions 4. you must edit the GT-Power input data file.. 7-232 c Fluent Inc. If you plan to continue the simulation at a later time. September 29.Boundary Conditions When you click Start. i Note that you must select the same UDF for all conditions at a particular boundary zone (as shown. select the appropriate UDFs as the conditions. To use a GT-Power restart file to restart a FLUENT calculation. 2006 . 5. File −→ Write −→Autosave. for example. See the GT-Power User’s Guide for instructions. Continue the problem setup and calculate a solution in the usual manner. GT-Power will start up and FLUENT user-defined functions for each boundary in the input file will be generated. For flow boundaries for which you are using GT-Power data. this UDF contains all of the conditions at that boundary. 3. specify how often you want to have the case and data files saved automatically. in Figure 7. starting from the final data file of the current simulation.2).

30. It is recommended that realistic material properties be assigned to each of the five species. and F5). Normal to Boundary as the Velocity Specification Method in the Velocity Inlet panel. F2.30 Coupling Boundary Conditions with WAVE WAVE users can define time-dependent boundary conditions in FLUENT based on information from WAVE. • If a mass flow inlet or pressure inlet is coupled to WAVE.30 Coupling Boundary Conditions with WAVE 7.7. you must select Magnitude. For a velocity inlet. September 29. 7. F3. a maximum of 20 boundary zones can be coupled to WAVE. 2006 7-233 . • The compressible ideal gas law must be used for density. you must select Normal to Boundary as the Direction Specification Method in the Mass-Flow Inlet or Pressure Inlet panel. • The flow must be unsteady. F4. During the FLUENT simulation. FLUENT and WAVE are coupled together and information about the boundary conditions at each time step is transferred between them.1 Requirements and Restrictions Note the following requirements and restrictions for the WAVE coupling: • WAVE needs to be installed and licensed. • Boundary conditions for the following variables can be obtained from WAVE: – velocity – temperature – pressure – density c Fluent Inc. • There are always five species that must be modeled in FLUENT just as they are defined in WAVE (F1. • Each boundary zone for which you plan to define conditions using WAVE must be a flow boundary of one of the following types: – velocity inlet – mass flow inlet – pressure inlet – pressure outlet Also.

shown in Figure 7.1). Define −→ User-Defined −→1D Coupling. 7..30. 7-234 c Fluent Inc. since WAVE does not calculate them. so that the boundary conditions will be valid for your coupled simulation. make sure that the name of each species in WAVE corresponds to the Chemical Formula for that species material in the Materials panel. recall that FLUENT can handle a maximum of 50 species.Boundary Conditions – species mass fractions – k and (Note that you are required to define these conditions in FLUENT yourself.1: The 1D Simulation Library Panel with WAVE Selected (a) Select WAVE in the 1D Library drop-down list.2 User Inputs The procedure for setting up the WAVE coupling in FLUENT is presented below. and boundary zone types. Specify the location of the WAVE data and have FLUENT use them to generate user-defined functions for the relevant boundary conditions (using the 1D Simulation Library panel.30.30. Read in the mesh file and define the models. materials. Figure 7. September 29. (c) Click the Start button. (b) Specify the name of the WAVE input file in the 1D Input File Name field. When you click Start. WAVE will start up and FLUENT user-defined functions for each boundary in the input file will be generated. • If your model includes species. 2006 .) • Make sure that the material properties you set in FLUENT are the same as those used in WAVE. 2. Also. 1..

2006 7-235 .30 Coupling Boundary Conditions with WAVE 3.. for example. restarting from the final data file of the current simulation. Set boundary conditions for all zones.7. select the appropriate UDFs as the conditions.30. September 29. For flow boundaries for which you are using WAVE data.30. this UDF contains all of the conditions at that boundary. i Note that you must select the same UDF for all conditions at a particular boundary zone (as shown. You should instruct FLUENT to automatically save case and data files at specified intervals using the autosave feature. c Fluent Inc. If you plan to continue the simulation at a later time. Figure 7. you need to instruct both FLUENT and WAVE how often that you want to automatically save your data.2). File −→ Write −→Autosave.2: Using WAVE Data for Boundary Conditions 4.. in Figure 7.

2006 . For example. the time interval for writing data files must be set to the same value in both FLUENT and WAVE. Continue the problem setup and calculate a solution in the usual manner. 5. September 29. 7-236 c Fluent Inc. i To use the restart feature. See the WAVE User’s Guide for instructions on this feature.Boundary Conditions In addition. if FLUENT has set the autosave feature to 100. you should instruct WAVE as to how often it should generate its own restart files. then WAVE must also set the restart file write frequency to 100 as well.

2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions • Section 8.7: Specific Heat Capacity • Section 8. September 29. • Section 8.6: User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity • Section 8.13: Kinetic Theory Parameters • Section 8. mixture.15: Reference Pressure Location • Section 8. If you are using one of the general multiphase models (VOF. or Eulerian).1: Defining Materials • Section 8. and the methods you can use for each property input. see Section 23. Physical Properties This chapter describes how to define materials.3: Defining the Phases for information about how to define the individual phases and their material properties.3: Density • Section 8.9. Each property is described in detail in the following sections.4: Viscosity • Section 8.5: Thermal Conductivity • Section 8.12: Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient • Section 8.9: Mass Diffusion Coefficients • Section 8.Chapter 8. 2006 8-1 . the physical equations used to compute material properties.14: Operating Pressure • Section 8.10: Standard State Enthalpies • Section 8.11: Standard State Entropies • Section 8.16: Real Gas Models c Fluent Inc.8: Radiation Properties • Section 8.

The value will be used just for postprocessing enthalpy. only density. and heat capacity are defined. September 29.Physical Properties 8. FLUENT will automatically activate the energy equation. Then you have to define the thermal boundary conditions and other parameters yourself. 8-2 c Fluent Inc. and a constant value for density. not in the calculation. Heat capacity will appear in the list of solid properties for steady flows as well. These properties may include the following: • density and/or molecular weights • viscosity • heat capacity • thermal conductivity • UDS diffusion coefficients • mass diffusion coefficients • standard state enthalpies • kinetic theory parameters Properties may be temperature-dependent and/or composition-dependent. density and heat capacity for a solid material are not required unless you are modeling unsteady flow or moving solid zones. a constant value or temperature-dependent function for heat capacity. 2006 . temperature-dependent profile for viscosity). You can specify a constant value. Material properties are defined in the Materials panel. where you can enter values for the properties that are relevant to the problem scope you have defined in the Models panel.1 Defining Materials An important step in the setup of the model is to define the materials and their physical properties.. Physical Properties for Solid Materials For solid materials. piecewise-linear. ideal gas law for density. The Materials panel will show the properties that need to be defined for the active physical models. If any property you define requires the energy equation to be solved (e.g. or a user-defined function for thermal conductivity. a temperature-dependent function. If you are modeling semi-transparent media. If you are using the pressure-based solver. thermal conductivity. with temperature dependence based on a polynomial. case radiation properties are also defined. or piecewise-polynomial function and individual component properties either defined by you or computed via kinetic theory.

1 Defining Materials 8. In addition to using the FLUENT materials database. FLUENT provides a built-in global database of approximately 675 predefined materials along with their properties and default values for each property. you can copy materials from this global (site-wide) database and use the default properties or define new materials by editing their properties. These materials are then assigned as boundary conditions for zones. 2006 8-3 . See Section 8.scm where path is the directory in which you have installed FLUENT and the variable x corresponds to your release version. you can also create your own database and materials.1 Material Types and Databases In FLUENT.2: Mixture Materials. droplet-particles.1. Properties will be defined for the mixture. The materials specified by you will be available to you if you read this case file into a new solver session. ⇓ i All the materials that exist in your local materials list will be saved in the case file (when you write one). September 29.. as well as for the constituent species. define a mixture material. To define a material in the problem setup.1.2: The Concept of Discrete-Phase Materials.1. you can define six types of materials: fluids. consisting of the various species involved in the problem. combustingparticles. e. The FLUENT materials database is located in the following file: path/Fluent. When you model species transport.Inc/fluent6. and inert-particles are available for the discrete-phase model.2.x/cortex/lib/propdb.8. Combusting-particles.g. Physical properties of fluids and solids are associated with named materials. 2 for fluent6. and use it to define the materials in your problem setup. which are fluid materials. c Fluent Inc. dropletparticles.3: Using a User-Defined Materials Database for information about creating and using user-defined custom material databases. mixtures. as described in Section 22. solids. The mixture material concept is discussed in detail in Section 14.14. and inert-particles.

you can use the default properties for air or modify the properties. 8-4 c Fluent Inc.e.Physical Properties 8.2 Using the Materials Panel The Materials panel (Figure 8.. If you copy water from the database. The inputs for temperaturedependent properties are explained in Section 8. If the fluid involved in your problem is air.1. Define −→Materials.. Figure 8. The specific inputs for each material property are discussed in the remaining sections of this chapter. in the solver session) will include a single fluid material (air) and a single solid material (aluminum).2: Defining Properties Using TemperatureDependent Functions. 2006 .1. These generic functions are described in this section.1) allows you to define the materials and their properties in your problem setup using either the Fluent Database or a User-Defined Database. If the fluid in your problem is water. It allows you to copy materials from a database.1: The Materials Panel By default. and modify material properties. create new materials. September 29. you can still make modifications to the properties of your local copy of water.1. your local materials list (i. you can either copy water from the FLUENT database or create a new “water” material from scratch..

and combusting particle materials will not be available unless you have created a discrete phase injection of these particle types (see Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase). You can use the scroll bar to the right of the Properties section to scroll through the listed items. etc. etc. but not its chemical formula (unless you are creating a new material). Select the type of material (fluid. or other similarly named list. or other similarly named list. Click the Change/Create button after making changes to the properties for each material. Choose the material for which you want to modify properties. Modifying Properties of an Existing Material Probably.8. inert. September 29. repeat the process described above. 4. 2. The steps for this procedure are as follows: 1. Fluent Solid Materials list. 2. To change the properties of an additional material.) in the Material Type drop-down list. The procedure for renaming a material is as follows: 1.) in the Material Type drop-down list. Renaming an Existing Material Each material is identified by a name and a chemical formula (if one exists). c Fluent Inc. in the Fluent Fluid Materials list. The name of the list will be the same as the material type you selected in step 1. droplet. Choose the material for which you want to modify properties. the most common operation you will perform in the Materials panel is the modification of properties for an existing material. all of its constituent fluid materials (species) will automatically be copied over as well. solid. Fluent Solid Materials list. Similarly.1 Defining Materials Mixture materials will not exist in your local list unless you have enabled species transport (see Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry). 2006 8-5 . 3. solid. Click on the Change/Create button to change the properties of the selected material to your new property settings. When a mixture material is copied from the database. You can change the name of a material. Select the type of material (fluid. The name of the list will be the same as the material type you selected in step 1. in the Fluent Fluid Materials drop-down list. Make the required changes to the properties listed in the Properties section of the panel.

Select the type of material (fluid. To rename another material. You cannot edit these values. If you enter a material name that is more than 29 characters long. 399. etc. and mixture materials. asking you if the original material should be overwritten. If you were creating a new material.Physical Properties 3.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions). solid. copy it from the FLUENT database to your local materials list. Select one of the function types in the drop-down list to the right of the property and the relevant parameters will be displayed. The inactive buttons in the Fluent Database Materials panel are operations that are applicable only for a user-defined database. A Question dialog box will appear. or other similarly named list.. FLUENT will print an error message in the console window. 2006 . button in the Materials panel to open the Fluent Database Materials panel (Figure 8. The procedure for copying a material is as follows: 1.1.2). To check the material properties. click No to retain the original material. 4. 148]. 4.. with property data from several different sources [233. choose the materials you wish to copy by clicking on them. 310. To use one of these materials in your problem. 8-6 c Fluent Inc. use the scroll bar to the right of the Properties area to scroll through the listed items... Click on the Fluent Database. In the Fluent Fluid Materials list. i The maximum character length you can enter in the Name field is 29. These operations will be available when you click the User-Defined Database. click Yes to overwrite it. Click on the Change/Create button. button in the Materials panel. repeat the process described above. Click the Change/Create button after renaming each material. The properties of the selected material will be displayed in the Properties area. If you are renaming the original material. temperature-dependent functions are available in addition to the constant values. 2. September 29. 3. but the panels in which they are displayed function in the same way as those used for setting temperature-dependent property functions (Section 8. For some properties. Enter the new name in the Name field at the top of the panel.) in the Material Type drop-down list. solid. Fluent Solid Materials list. Copying Materials from the FLUENT Database The global (site-wide) materials database contains many commonly used fluid.

1. Click Copy. 6. After copying a material from the database. The original material in the database will not be affected by any changes made to your local copy of the material. and your copy of properties will now be displayed in the Materials panel. c Fluent Inc. as described earlier in this section. you can modify its properties or change its name.1 Defining Materials Figure 8. 2006 8-7 . Close the Fluent Database Materials panel. September 29.2: Fluent Database Materials Panel 5. The materials and their properties will be downloaded from the database into your local list.8.

Enter the new material name in the Name field. A panel will appear asking you to enter the chemical formula of your new material. A Question dialog box will appear. FLUENT will print an error message in the console window. etc. leave the formula blank and click on OK. 4. (b) Enter the formula if it is known. Fluent Solid Materials. Saving Materials and Properties All the materials and properties in your local list are saved in the case file when it is written. This material will be available for use only for the current problem and will not be saved in the FLUENT database. If you read this case file into a new solver session. Set the material’s properties in the Properties area. all of your materials and properties will be available for use in the new session. Click on the Change/Create button. (a) Click on No to retain the original material and add your new material to the list. and click OK. solid. asking you if the original material should be overwritten. 3. If there are many properties listed. September 29. 2006 . If you enter a material name that is more than 29 characters long. or other similarly named list.Physical Properties Creating a New Material If the material you want to use is not available in the database. It does not matter which material is selected in the Fluent Fluid Materials. Else. you can easily create a new material for the local list. 2. you may use the scroll bar to the right of the Properties area to scroll through the listed items. i The maximum character length you can enter in the Name field is 29. 8-8 c Fluent Inc.) in the Material Type drop-down list. The Materials panel will be updated to show the new material name and chemical formula in the Fluid Materials list (or Fluent Solid Materials or other similarly named list). Select the new material type (fluid. The procedure for creating a new material is as follows: 1.

or other similarly named list. air. Select the type of material (fluid. the materials in your local list and those in the database are listed alphabetically by name (e. choose the Name option under Order Materials By. You may specify the ordering method separately for the Materials and Fluent Database Materials panels. If you prefer to list them alphabetically by chemical formula.. 3.) in the Material Type drop-down list. atomic-oxygen (o). o (atomic-oxygen).8. The list’s name will be the same as the material type you selected in step 1. you can order the database materials by chemical formula and the local materials list by name. To change back to the alphabetical listing by name. The example materials listed. you can delete them: 1. solid. September 29. 2. Deleting materials from your local list will have no effect on the materials contained in the global database.1 Defining Materials Deleting a Material If there are materials in your local materials list that you no longer need. select the Chemical Formula option under Order Materials By.g. Click on the Delete button. co2 (carbon-dioxide). Changing the Order of the Materials List By default. etc. Fluent Solid Materials list. carbon-dioxide (co2)). Each panel has its own Order Materials By options. For example. Choose the material to be deleted in the Fluent Fluid Materials drop-down list. c Fluent Inc. 2006 8-9 . will now be in the order of: air.

1.Physical Properties 8. 0.225 300)) (specific-heat (constant .scm files with data saved in the specified format you can open these databases in FLUENT and use them to define the materials in your problem setup. Opening a User-Defined Database If you have a database of custom materials as .966)) ) 8-10 c Fluent Inc.7894e-05 273.666)) (molecular-weight (constant . Examples: The prescribed format for saving material properties information is shown here for air and aluminum.1. 1006. 2006 . 1. you can also use or create a user-defined materials database using the User-Defined Materials Database panel. create new materials • add them to the user-defined database • delete materials from the database • copy materials from a case to a user-defined database • view the database The following sections will address each of these functionalities in detail.3 Using a User-Defined Materials Database In addition to the Fluent Materials Database. (air fluid (chemical-formula .43)) (thermal-conductivity (constant . These files can be created in a text editor and saved with a . You can browse and do the following: • select from existing user-defined databases • copy materials from a user-defined database • create a new database.0242)) (viscosity (constant .7894e-05) (sutherland 1.7894e-05 273.56) (power-law 1.11 110.11 0.225) (premixed-combustion 1. 28. September 29. #f) (density (constant .scm extension.

This will open the Open Database panel. You can select the material type in the Material Type drop-down list and the corresponding materials will appear in the User-Defined Liquid Materials. 164448. al) (density (constant . the materials present in the database are listed in the User-Defined Database Materials panel. Click OK in the Open Database panel to open the User-Defined Database Materials panel. Figure 8.. 202. Viewing Materials in a User-Defined Database When an existing user-defined database is opened. User-Defined Solid Materials or other similarly named list (the list’s name will be the same as the material type you selected).. click the User-Defined Database. select the database in the Select File dialog box that opens and click OK..08)) ) To select a user-defined database. 871)) (thermal-conductivity (constant . 2006 8-11 .1. button. September 29. button in the Materials panel. c Fluent Inc.4)) (formation-entropy (constant .. 2719)) (specific-heat (constant .3: Open Database Panel Click the Browse.8.1 Defining Materials (aluminum solid (chemical-formula .

3. 2006 . The properties are displayed in the Properties area. solid. In the User-Defined Fluid Materials list.. 2.Physical Properties Figure 8. 8-12 c Fluent Inc. September 29. This panel is similar to the Fluent Database Materials panel in function and operation. or other similarly named list (the list’s name will be the same as the material type you selected in step 2). etc. click the User-Defined Database. In the User-Defined Database Materials panel of the selected database.) in the Material Type drop-down list. Copying Materials from a User-Defined Database The procedure for copying a material from a custom database is as follows: 1. select the type of material (fluid. In the Materials panel.4: User-Defined Database Materials Panel The properties of the selected material will appear in the Properties section of the panel.1.. choose the materials you wish to copy by clicking on them. button and open the database from which you want to copy the material. User-Defined Solid Materials list.

Copying Materials from the Case to a User-Defined Database You can copy materials that are defined in your problem setup to an existing or new material database. FLUENT will prompt you to enter a new name and formula in the New Material Name panel. The material in the database will not be affected by any changes you make to your local copy of the material.. you may modify its properties or change its name. If a material with the same name is already defined in the case. If you want to create a new database.1. In the Open Database panel. Close the User-Defined Database Materials panel.5: New Material Name Panel 6. September 29. 2006 8-13 . Enter a new name and formula in the respective fields and click OK to make a local copy of the material. After copying a material from the database.1.1 Defining Materials 4. as described earlier in Section 8.8. To copy all the materials from the database in one step. enter the name of the new database in the Database Name field and click OK. and your copy of the properties will now be displayed in the Materials panel. 5. c Fluent Inc. Figure 8. The procedure for copying materials from the case file to a database is as follows: 1. Click on the Copy button... If you want to check the material properties. In the Materials panel. 2. use the scroll bar to the right of the Properties area to scroll through the listed items. click User-Defined Database. select the database to which you want to copy the material. Click Yes to confirm. click the shaded icon to the right of the User-Defined Materials title and click Copy. The selected materials and their properties will be copied from the database into your local list.2: Using the Materials Panel. A Question dialog box will ask you to confirm if you want to create a new file.

select the materials that you want to copy.. Note: Do not copy materials one by one.. (b) Click Copy and close the panel. Instead. This will open the Copy Case Material panel. etc.. The name of the list will be the same as the material type you selected in step (a).) in the Material Type drop-down list.Physical Properties 3. In the User-Defined Database Materials panel. September 29. Figure 8. 2006 . select the type of material (fluid. This will result in previously copied materials getting overwritten by the new ones. 1. Clicking on the unshaded icon will deselect the selections in the list. click Copy Materials From Case. (a) In the User-Defined Database Materials panel of the selected database. Select the material to be modified.. solid.1. button and open the database that you want to use. Modifying Properties of an Existing Material You can modify the properties of an existing material and use the modified material in the problem setup and save the modified material to the materials database.6: Copy Case Material Panel (a) In the Copy Case Material panel. In the Materials panel.. User-Defined Solid Materials list. 8-14 c Fluent Inc. To select all the materials. click on the shaded icon to the right of the Case Materials title. select all the materials to be copied at once and click Copy.. (b) In the User-Defined Fluid Materials list. click on the User-Defined Database. or other similarly named list.

Make the changes in the corresponding method panel and click OK. 3. click User-Defined Database. 2... Creating a New Materials Database and Materials Using the User-Defined Database Materials panel. (d) To use the modified material in the problem setup. Click Yes to confirm. under Edit Properties. click Save. The procedure for creating a new database and add new materials to the database is as follows: 1. ii. A dialog box will appear asking you confirm the creation of a new file. enter the name of the database that you are creating and click OK. iv. to open the Edit Property Methods panel. Select the method to be modified in the Material Properties list of the Edit Property Methods panel and click Edit.. you can create a new materials database... In the Materials panel. Click Apply in the Material Properties panel..1 Defining Materials (c) Click Edit. 2006 8-15 ...7) panel. (e) To save the modified material to the database. in order to modify the properties. In the Material Properties list. and also create new materials from scratch. select the property to be modified and click Edit. to open the Material Properties panel. This will open a blank User-Defined Database Materials (Figure 8. September 29. c Fluent Inc.1. In the Open Database panel.. i. copy materials to this database. iii. click Copy in the UserDefined Database Materials panel and close the panel.8.

1. properties applicable to that material type will appear in the Available Properties list. (d) Click the button to move these properties to the Material Properties list on the right and click Apply. 8-16 c Fluent Inc. Click New. Select the properties that are applicable for the material that you are defining by clicking on them. combusting-particle. (c) Depending on the type of material selected in the Types list. (a) In the Material Properties panel.Physical Properties Figure 8. in the User-Defined Database Materials panel. (b) Enter the name and formula (if required) of the material that you are creating in the Name and Formula fields. droplet-particle. You can select from fluid. 2006 . inert-particle. This will open a blank Material Properties panel. and mixture materials. You can use the button to move the property from the Material Properties list to the Available Properties list... select the material type. solid.7: User-Defined Database Materials Panel: Blank 4. under Types. September 29.

select the property in the Material Properties list and click Edit. To edit the parameters that define a property. (a) The methods that can be used to define the selected property are listed in the Available Properties list. September 29..1 Defining Materials Figure 8. Select the existing database in the Open Database panel.. This opens the Edit Property Methods panel.. Click Apply in the Material Properties panel.16 for details of these properties.2 to 8. You can select one or more methods and specify them for the material that you are defining. (c) Click OK in the Edit Property Methods panel. you can select the method in the Edit Properties drop-down list and click Edit. 6.. 7..1. This will open the corresponding property panel.. Similarly. Click Save in the User-Defined Database Materials panel to save the changes to the new materials database. you can also append new materials to an existing database. where you can modify the parameters used by the property method. 2006 8-17 . methods used to define the properties and the parameters for each method. c Fluent Inc. (b) To modify each of these methods. Create new materials and click save to append these materials to the existing database.8. by selecting and moving them to the Material Properties list. Refer to Sections 8.8: Material Properties Panel: Blank 5.

9: Edit Property Methods Panel Deleting Materials from a Database To delete a material from a database.Physical Properties Figure 8. click the User-Defined Database button in the Materials panel. Click Save to save the database.1. September 29. Select the Material Type and the materials that you want to delete in the User-Defined Materials list and click Delete. 8-18 c Fluent Inc. Select the database in the Open Database panel and click OK. 2006 .

Some properties have additional functions available and for some only a subset of these three functions can be used. you can define a polynomial. If you use Celsius or Kelvin as the temperature unit. φ is the property.2-1) where 1 ≤ n ≤ N and N is the number of segments • piecewise-polynomial: for Tmin..2 ≤ T < Tmax. then polynomial coefficient values must be entered in terms of Kelvin.2 : φ(T ) = B1 + B2 T + B3 T 2 + . for Tmin.. See the section on the property in question to determine which temperature-dependent functions you can use.8. For most properties.2-2) (8.. 2006 8-19 . piecewise-linear. the temperature in the function is always in units of Kelvin or Rankine. (8.2 Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions Material properties can be defined as functions of temperature. If you use Fahrenheit or Rankine as the temperature unit.1 ≤ T < Tmax.1 : φ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . In the equations above. or piecewise-polynomial function of temperature: • polynomial: φ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . September 29.2-3) i If you define a polynomial or piecewise-polynomial function of temperature. enter the values in terms of Rankine.2 Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions 8... c Fluent Inc.. • piecewise-linear: φ(T ) = φn + φn+1 − φn (T − Tn ) Tn+1 − Tn (8.

the solver will not allow you to do anything else until you perform the following steps..1: The Polynomial Profile Panel Note: Since this is a modal panel.g. The Polynomial Profile panel (Figure 8. (b) Define the coefficients. A3 ... In the Materials panel. The default of 1 defines a polynomial of order 0.02T (8. Figure 8. as described above.. The panel in Figure 8. An input of 2 defines a polynomial of order 1 and the property will vary linearly with temperature and so on.1 Inputs for Polynomial Functions To define a polynomial function of temperature for a material property. (a) Specify the number of Coefficients up to 8 coefficients are available.A2 .2-1. The number of coefficients defines the order of the polynomial. 2.2-4) i Note the restriction on the units for temperature. 3. choose polynomial in the drop-down list to the right of the property name (e.1 shows the inputs for the following function: ρ(T ) = 1000 − 0. do the following: 1. Coefficients 1.Physical Properties 8. September 29.2. The property will be constant and equal to the single coefficient A1 . 8-20 c Fluent Inc.2. 2006 .2.. correspond to A1 .. in Equation 8. Density).1) will open automatically..2.

The Piecewise-Linear Profile panel(Figure 8.2 Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions 8. (a) Set the number of Points defining the piecewise distribution.2 shows the final inputs for the profile depicted in Figure 8. First enter the independent and dependent variable values for Point 1. September 29.2.g.2 Inputs for Piecewise-Linear Functions To define a piecewise-linear function of temperature for a material property. Viscosity). In the Materials panel. choose piecewise-linear in the drop-down list to the right of the property name (e. (b) Under Data Points.8.2) will open automatically. the solver will not allow you to do anything else until you perform the following steps. i If the temperature exceeds the maximum Temperature (Tmax ) you have specified for the profile. do the following: 1. FLUENT will use the Value corresponding to Tmin . then increase the Point number and enter the appropriate values for each additional pair of variables. If the temperature falls below the minimum Temperature (Tmin ) specified for your profile. The panel in Figure 8.2. The solver will not sort them for you. A maximum of 30 piecewise points can be defined for each property. 2006 8-21 .2. The pairs of points must be supplied in the order of increasing value of temperature.. Figure 8. c Fluent Inc.2.2. enter the data pairs for each point.3. FLUENT will use the Value corresponding to Tmax .2: The Piecewise-Linear Profile Panel Since this is a modal panel.

first perform the following steps. µ × 10 5 (Pa-sec) (440. 2006 . 1. September 29.. Since this is a modal panel.2. 2. 1. Cp).2.2. T (K) Figure 8.3 Inputs for Piecewise-Polynomial Functions To define a piecewise-polynomial function of temperature for a material property.4) will open automatically.Physical Properties 3 Viscosity.117 × 10 ) -5 (300. In the Materials panel. choose piecewise-polynomial in the drop-down list to the right of the property name (e. Figure 8. follow these steps: 1. 2.599 × 10 -5 ) • • -5 1 250 300 350 400 450 Temperature.3: Piecewise-Linear Definition of Viscosity as µ(T ) 8.445 × 10-5 ) • 2 (360. The Piecewise-Polynomial Profile panel (Figure 8.g.2.4: The Piecewise-Polynomial Profile Panel 8-22 c Fluent Inc.846 × 10 ) • (250.

and you can check or modify the inputs as desired.000 × 10−10 T 4      for 1000 ≤ T < 5000 :     841. 2006 8-23 . button. button to the right of the property name.4 shows the inputs for the first range of Equation 8. specify the Minimum and Maximum temperatures... data pairs..377 + 0.2-5.2. number of Coefficients.8. button (instead of the Edit. you cannot edit the profiles. 5. 2. 4. correspond to A1 . in Equation 8. Increase the value of Range and enter the Minimum and Maximum temperatures.A2 .2 Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions 2. B3 . The property will vary linearly with temperature and so on. The solver will not sort them for you.B2 ..2-3. For the first range (Range = 1).. and the number of Coefficients. 3. For the example of Equation 8. click on the Edit.593T − 2. The ranges must be supplied in the order of increasing value of temperature. but you can examine them by clicking on the View. or ranges for a previouslydefined profile. The appropriate panel will open. 3.2..4 Checking and Modifying Existing Profiles If you want to check or change the coefficients.2-5..523 × 10−8 T 3 − 3.297 × 10−6 T 3 − 4. two ranges of temperatures are defined: cp (T ) =   for 300 ≤ T < 1000 :     429.. Repeat if there is a third range..) c Fluent Inc. Define the coefficients. and the Coefficients (B1 .) The number of coefficients defines the order of the polynomial. An input of 2 defines a polynomial of order 1.874T − 1.415 × 10−4 T 2 + 4. Specify the number of Ranges. (Up to eight coefficients are available.. Coefficients 1.929 + 1.) for the next range. The panel in Figure 8.966 × 10−3 T 2 + 1. The property will be constant and equal to the single coefficient A1 . The default of 1 defines a polynomial of order 0..2-5) You may define up to three ranges.. September 29. A3 . i In the Fluent Database Materials panel....153 × 10−12 T 4 (8. 8.

you will define the Density in the Materials panel. when pressure variations are small enough that the flow is fully incompressible but you wish to use the ideal gas law to express the relationship between density and temperature (e. Define −→Materials.1 Defining Density for Various Flow Regimes The selection of density in FLUENT is very important. September 29. – The incompressible ideal gas law. or piecewise-polynomial function of temperature. for natural convection problems involving small changes in temperature. piecewise-linear.. – Density as a polynomial. • For compressible flows. if you do not want density to be a function of temperature. Set the density relationship based on your flow regime.3 Density FLUENT provides several options for definition of the fluid density: • constant density • temperature and/or composition dependent density Each of these input options and the governing physical models are explained in the following sections. as in a natural convection problem. the ideal gas law is the appropriate density relationship.. – The Boussinesq model. • For incompressible flows. 8. for a natural convection problem). when the density is a function of temperature only.Physical Properties 8. 8-24 c Fluent Inc.. 2006 . In all cases.3. you may choose one of the following methods: – Constant density.g.

8.3 Density Mixing Density Relationships in Multiple-Zone Models If your model has multiple fluid zones that use different materials. as described in Section 13. c Fluent Inc. you should be aware of the following: • For calculations with the pressure-based solver that do not use one of the general multiphase models. they will share the same operating temperature.3. the compressible ideal gas law cannot be mixed with any other density methods. 2006 8-25 . 8. This restriction does not apply to the density-based solvers. select constant in the Density drop-down list under Properties in the Materials panel. You will also need to set the Thermal Expansion Coefficient.3. September 29. choose boussinesq from the Density drop-down list in the Materials panel and specify a constant value for Density. • There is only one specified operating pressure and one specified operating temperature.5: The Boussinesq Model. This means that if you are using the ideal gas law for more than one material.2.2 Input of Constant Density If you want to define the density of the fluid as a constant. For the default fluid (air). the density is 1.225 kg/m3 . If you are using the Boussinesq model for more than one material.8.3 Inputs for the Boussinesq Approximation To enable the Boussinesq approximation for density. This means that if the compressible ideal gas law is used for one material. as well as relevant operating conditions. Enter the value of density for the material. it must be used for all materials. they will share the same operating pressure.

or polynomial in the Density drop-down list. as described in Section 8..3. (8.3-2) (8. the density depends only on the operating pressure and not on the local relative pressure field..3. September 29.3-3) (8.3-5) In this form.2 ≤ T < Tmax. You can enter the data pairs (Tn . 2006 .3-4) For one of the these methods.. select piecewise-linear.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions. 8-26 c Fluent Inc.1 : ρ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . ranges and coefficients.3-1) for Tmin. Three types of functions are available: • piecewise-linear: ρ(T ) = ρn + • piecewise-polynomial: ρn+1 − ρn (T − Tn ) Tn+1 − Tn (8.Physical Properties 8.4 Density as a Profile Function of Temperature If you are modeling a problem that involves heat transfer. • polynomial: ρ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .5 Incompressible Ideal Gas Law In FLUENT.. for Tmin. R Mw pop = the universal gas constant = the molecular weight of the gas = Operating Pressure pop R T Mw (8. or coefficients that describe these functions using the Materials panel... the solver will compute the density as ρ= where.1 ≤ T < Tmax. 8. you can define the density as a function of temperature. piecewise-polynomial. if you choose to define the density using the ideal gas law for an incompressible flow. ρn ).2 : ρ(T ) = B1 + B2 T + B3 T 2 + .

i By default.8. operating pressure is set to 101325 Pa. 8. See Section 8.14: Operating Pressure for recommendations on setting appropriate values for the operating pressure.3. 3.3. Set the molecular weight of the homogeneous or single-component fluid (if no chemical species transport equations are to be solved). or the molecular weights of each fluid material (species) in a multicomponent mixture. Specify the incompressible ideal gas law individually for each material that you want to use it for. For each fluid material. 2006 8-27 .. Enable the ideal gas law for an incompressible fluid by choosing incompressible-idealgas from the drop-down list to the right of Density in the Materials panel. the gas law is as following: ρ= where..7: Composition-Dependent Density for Multicomponent Mixtures for information on specifying the incompressible ideal gas law for mixtures. The input of the operating pressure is of great importance when you are computing density with the ideal gas law.6 Ideal Gas Law for Compressible Flows For compressible flows. p pop = the local relative (or gauge) pressure predicted by FLUENT = the Operating Pressure pop + p R T Mw (8. Define −→Operating Conditions.3-6) c Fluent Inc. See Section 8. Set the operating pressure by defining the Operating Pressure in the Operating Conditions panel. enter the value of the Molecular Weight in the Materials panel. September 29. 2.3 Density Density Inputs for the Incompressible Ideal Gas Law The inputs for the incompressible ideal gas law are as follows: 1.

Operating pressure is set to 101325 Pa.7 Composition-Dependent Density for Multicomponent Mixtures If you are solving species transport equations. Specify the ideal gas law individually for each material that you want to use it for. 2006 .3-6 notes that the operating pressure is added to the relative pressure field computed by the solver. For each fluid material.. By default. 8. Define −→Operating Conditions. do the following: 1. Set the operating pressure by defining the Operating Pressure in the Operating Conditions panel. 8-28 c Fluent Inc. Select the density method: • For non-ideal-gas mixtures. September 29. enter the value of the Molecular Weight in the Materials panel.1..4: Defining Properties for the Mixture and Its Constituent Species. as described in detail in Section 14.3. To define a composition-dependent density for a mixture. 3. yielding the absolute static pressure. select ideal-gas for the mixture material in the drop-down list to the right of Density in the Materials panel. See Section 8.3.14: Operating Pressure for recommendations on setting appropriate values for the operating pressure. or the molecular weights of each fluid material (species) in a multicomponent mixture. set properties for the mixture material and for the constituent fluids (species). Set the molecular weight of the homogeneous or single-component fluid (if no chemical species transport equations are to be solved). i The input of the operating pressure is of great importance when you are computing density with the ideal gas law. • If you are modeling compressible flow. See Section 8.7: Composition-Dependent Density for Multicomponent Mixtures for information on specifying the ideal gas law for mixtures. Enable the ideal gas law for a compressible fluid by choosing ideal-gas from the drop-down list to the right of Density in the Materials panel. Equation 8. 2.Physical Properties Density Inputs for the Ideal Gas Law for Compressible Flows The inputs for the ideal gas law are as follows: 1. select the volume-weighted-mixing-law method for the mixture material in the drop-down list to the right of Density in the Materials panel.

define the density for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. If you have selected volume-weighted-mixing-law. define the density for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. or user-defined densities for the individual species.i pop = = = = = the the the the the local relative (or gauge) pressure predicted by FLUENT universal gas constant mass fraction of species i molecular weight of species i Operating Pressure pop + p Yi RT i Mw. p R Yi Mw. The only difference between the user-defined-mixing-law and the user-defined option for specifying density. the individual properties of the species materials can also be specified. (Note that only the constant. the gas law has the following form: ρ= where. select incompressible-ideal-gas for the mixture material in the Density drop-down list in the Materials panel. 3.i (8. the polynomial methods and the user-defined methods are available. For more information on defining properties with user-defined functions. • If you have a user-defined function that you want to use to model the density. 2006 8-29 . You may define constant. For compressible flows. If you are modeling a non-ideal-gas mixture.3-8) c Fluent Inc. If you selected user-defined-mixing-law.) 2. viscosity and thermal conductivity of mixture materials. You may define constant or (if applicable) temperature-dependent densities for the individual species. is that with the user-defined-mixing-law option. or (if applicable) temperature-dependent densities.8. you can choose either the user-defined method or the user-defined-mixing-law method for the mixture material in the drop-down list. 4.3 Density • If you are modeling incompressible flow using the ideal gas law. September 29. Click Change/Create. FLUENT will compute the mixture density as ρ= 1 Yi i ρi (8.3-7) where Yi is the mass fraction and ρi is the density of species i. see the separate UDF Manual .

4. Define −→Materials.4 Viscosity FLUENT provides several options for definition of the fluid viscosity: • constant viscosity • temperature dependent and/or composition dependent viscosity • kinetic theory • non-Newtonian viscosity • user-defined function Each of these input options and the governing physical models are detailed in this section. define the Viscosity in the Materials panel. Viscosities are input as dynamic viscosity (µ) in units of kg/m-s in SI units or lbm /ft-s in British units. September 29. the solver will compute the density as ρ= where. 8-30 c Fluent Inc.i (8.7894 × 10−5 kg/m-s. the viscosity is 1. select constant in the Viscosity drop-down list in the Materials panel. (User-defined functions are described in the separate UDF Manual. R Yi Mw.Physical Properties In FLUENT..i pop = = = = the the the the universal gas constant mass fraction of species i molecular weight of species i Operating Pressure pop RT Yi i Mw. 2006 .1 Input of Constant Viscosity If you want to define the viscosity of your fluid as a constant. 8. if you choose to define the density using the ideal gas law for an incompressible flow..3-9) 8. and enter the value of viscosity for the fluid. FLUENT does not ask for input of the kinematic viscosity (ν).) In all cases. For the default fluid (air).

2 : µ(T ) = B1 + B2 T + B3 T 2 + .1 ≤ T < Tmax.1 : µ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . c Fluent Inc.4.2 ≤ T < Tmax.2: Defining Properties Using TemperatureDependent Functions.. • polynomial: µ(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .4-1) for Tmin. you can define the viscosity as a function of temperature. • Sutherland’s law • power law (8.4. For Sutherland’s law or the power law.8.. Sutherland Viscosity Law Sutherland’s viscosity law resulted from a kinetic theory by Sutherland (1893) using an idealized intermolecular-force potential. Five types of functions are available: • piecewise-linear: µ(T ) = µn + • piecewise-polynomial: µn+1 − µn (T − Tn ) Tn+1 − Tn (8. 2006 8-31 . piecewise-polynomial. ranges and coefficients.2 Viscosity as a Function of Temperature If you are modeling a problem that involves heat transfer. September 29. select piecewise-linear. polynomial in the Viscosity drop-down list and then enter the data pairs (Tn . The formula is specified using two or three coefficients...4-3) (8. or coefficients that describe these functions Section 8.4-2) (8. choose sutherland or powerlaw respectively in the drop-down list and enter the parameters. µn ). For one of the first three..4 Viscosity 8..4-4) i The power law described here is different from the non-Newtonian power law described in Section 8.5: Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids. for Tmin.

716×10−5 kg/m-s. i Use SI units if you choose the two-coefficient method. C1 = 1.4-6) the viscosity in kg/m-s the static temperature in K reference value in kg/m-s reference temperature in K an effective temperature in K (Sutherland constant) For air at moderate temperatures and pressures. The Sutherland Law panel will open. and S = 110. Select the Two Coefficient Method or the Three Coefficient Method.Physical Properties Sutherland’s law with two coefficients has the form C1 T 3/2 T + C2 µ= where. Inputs for Sutherland’s Law To use Sutherland’s law. T0 = 273.4 K. September 29.56 K. 2006 . µ0 = 1. set C1 and C2. choose sutherland in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. and you can enter the coefficients as follows: 1. the Reference Temperature T0 . µ T µ0 T0 S = = = = = T0 + S T +S (8. For the Two Coefficient Method. set the Reference Viscosity µ0 . and the Effective Temperature S. 8-32 c Fluent Inc. Sutherland’s law with three coefficients has the form T T0 3/2 µ = µ0 where.458 × 10−6 kg/m-s-K1/2 . 2. For the Three Coefficient Method. µ T C1 and C2 Yi Mw.4-5) viscosity in kg/m-s static temperature in K coefficients mass fraction of species i molecular weight of species i Operating Pressure For air at moderate temperatures and pressures. and C2 = 110.11 K.i pop = = = = = = the the the the the the (8.

c Fluent Inc. For the Three Coefficient Method. Select the Two Coefficient Method or the Three Coefficient Method.5: Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids. this form is considered to be slightly less accurate than Sutherland’s law. Inputs for the Power Law To use the power law. For the Two Coefficient Method. and n = 2/3. B = 4. A power-law viscosity law with three coefficients has the form µ = µ0 T T0 n (8. and n = 2/3.4. 2. i The non-Newtonian power law for viscosity is described in Section 8. and B is a dimensional coefficient. and the Temperature Exponent n. µ0 = 1. September 29. For air at moderate temperatures and pressures. set B and the Temperature Exponent n.093 × 10−7 . the Reference Temperature T0 . T0 = 273 K. For dilute gases at moderate temperatures. A power-law viscosity law with two coefficients has the form µ = BT n (8. T is the static temperature in K. 2006 8-33 . The Power Law panel will open. For air at moderate temperatures and pressures. and you can enter the coefficients as follows: 1. i Note that you must use SI units if you choose the two-coefficient method. µ0 is a reference value in kg/m-s. choose power-law in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. set the Reference Viscosity µ0 .4-8) where µ is the viscosity in kg/m-s.8.716 × 10−5 kg/m-s.4-7) where µ is the viscosity in kg/m-s.4 Viscosity Power-Law Viscosity Law Another common approximation for the viscosity of dilute gases is the power-law form. T0 is a reference value in K. T is the static temperature in K.

or (if applicable) temperature-dependent viscosities.4. 4. If you selected user-defined-mixing-law. you have the option to define a composition-dependent viscosity. if applicable. and Ωµ = Ωµ (T ∗ ) where T∗ = T ( /kB ) (8.4-9 to compute the fluid viscosity. ideal-gas-mixing-law in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. Define the viscosity for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. or user-defined viscosities for the individual 8-34 c Fluent Inc. You may also use kinetic theory for the individual viscosities. 2006 . 8.4 Composition-Dependent Viscosity for Multicomponent Mixtures If you are modeling a flow that includes more than one chemical species (multicomponent flow).3: Density). (Note that you can also define the viscosity of the mixture as a constant value or a function of temperature. are inputs to the kinetic theory calculation that you supply by selecting kinetic-theory from the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity in the Materials panel.4. If you have a user-defined function that you want to use to model the viscosity. Click Change/Create.4-9) where µ is in units of kg/m-s. or specify a non-Newtonian viscosity. 2. σ is in units of Angstroms. T is in units of Kelvin.13: Kinetic Theory Parameters for details about these inputs. follow these steps: 1. 3. you can choose either the user-defined method or the user-defined-mixinglaw method for the mixture material in the drop-down list. You may define constant.) To define a composition-dependent viscosity for a mixture. choose mass-weighted-mixing-law or. You may define constant or (if applicable) temperature-dependent viscosities for the individual species. September 29. The solver will use these kinetic theory inputs in Equation 8. σ and /kB . For the mixture material.3 Defining the Viscosity Using Kinetic Theory If you are using the gas law (as described in Section 8.4-10) The Lennard-Jones parameters. See Section 8.Physical Properties 8. you have the option to define the fluid viscosity using kinetic theory as √ µ = 2.67 × 10 −6 Mw T σ 2 Ωµ (8. define the viscosity for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. if you are using the ideal gas law for density.

4.4-13) 8. the shear stress is proportional to the rate-ofdeformation tensor D: τ = µD where D is defined by ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj (8. the mixture viscosity is computed based on a simple mass fraction average of the pure species viscosities: µ= i Yi µi (8. Mw. see the separate UDF Manual . viscosity and thermal conductivity of mixture materials. (Note that only the constant. The only difference between the user-defined-mixing-law and the user-defined option for specifying density. the polynomial methods and the user-defined methods are available.4 Viscosity species. September 29. the solver will compute the mixture viscosity based on kinetic theory as µ= i Xi µi j Xi φij (8. which is independent of D.4-12) For non-ideal gas mixtures.4-14) D= (8. For more information on defining properties with user-defined functions. c Fluent Inc.8.) If you are using the ideal gas law.j Mw.i 1/4 2 8 1+ and Xi is the mole fraction of species i.4-15) and µ is the viscosity.4-11) where 1+ φij = µi µj 1/2 Mw. is that with the user-defined-mixing-law option.j 1/2 (8.5 Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids For incompressible Newtonian fluids. 2006 8-35 .i Mw. the individual properties of the species materials can also be specified.

Appropriate values for the input parameters for these models can be found in the literature (e. in the non-Newtonian models available in FLUENT. However. September 29.4. γ is related to the second invariant of D and is defined ˙ ˙ as 1 D:D 2 γ= ˙ (8. the shear stress can similarly be written in terms of a non-Newtonian viscosity η: τ =η D D (8.2: Power-Law Viscosity Law.4-17) FLUENT provides four options for modeling non-Newtonian flows: • power law • Carreau model for pseudo-plastics • Cross model • Herschel-Bulkley model for Bingham plastics i Note that the non-Newtonian power law described below is different from the power law described in Section 8. Note: Non-newtonian model for single phase is available for the mixture model and it is recommended that this should be attached to the primary phase..4-16) In general. non-Newtonian flow will be modeled according to the following power law for the nonNewtonian viscosity: η = k γ n−1 eT0 /T ˙ (8. η is considered to be a function of the shear rate γ only. η is a function of all three invariants of the rate-of-deformation tensor D.Physical Properties For some non-Newtonian fluids. Power Law for Non-Newtonian Viscosity If you choose non-newtonian-power-law in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity.4-18) 8-36 c Fluent Inc. [368]). 2006 .g.

1: Variation of Viscosity with Shear Rate According to the NonNewtonian Power Law . T0 . ηmin . Reference Temperature T0 . choose non-newtonian-power-law in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. c Fluent Inc. Similarly. k is a measure of the average viscosity of the fluid (the consistency index). the value of ηmax will be used instead.4-18.1 shows how viscosity is limited by ηmin and ηmax at low and high shear rates. n.4. respectively. Figure 8. Power-Law Index n. and ηmax are input parameters. yielding the following equation: ηmin < η = k γ n−1 eT0 /T < ηmax ˙ (8. The Non-Newtonian Power Law panel will open. 2006 8-37 . the value of T0 should be set to zero. If the energy equation is not being solved. The value of n determines the class of the fluid: n=1 → n>1 → n<1 → Newtonian fluid shear-thickening (dilatant fluids) shear-thinning (pseudo-plastics) Inputs for the Non-Newtonian Power Law To use the non-Newtonian power law.4 Viscosity FLUENT allows you to place upper and lower limits on the power law function. the value of ηmin will be used instead. FLUENT uses a default value of T =273 K in Equation 8. and ηmin and ηmax are.4-19) where k. if the computed viscosity is greater than ηmax . the lower and upper limits of the power law. September 29. and you can enter the Consistency Index k. If the viscosity computed from the power law is less than ηmin . T0 is the reference temperature. as described below. η max log η η min log γ Figure 8. n is a measure of the deviation of the fluid from Newtonian (the power-law index).4.8. Minimum Viscosity Limit ηmin . For temperature-independent viscosity. and Maximum Viscosity Limit ηmax .

2 shows how viscosity is limited by η0 and η∞ at low and high shear rates. Reference Temperature Tα . Infinite Shear Viscosity η∞ . The Carreau model attempts to describe a wide range of fluids by the establishment of a curve-fit to piece together functions for both Newtonian and shear-thinning (n < 1) non-Newtonian laws. ˙ ˙ respectively.2: Variation of Viscosity with Shear Rate According to the Carreau Model .4-20) (8. choose carreau in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. The Carreau Model panel will open. In the Carreau model.4. T0 is set to zero by default. and Activation Energy α. 8-38 c Fluent Inc. T and Tα are the absolute temperatures and η0 and η∞ are. September 29. and η∞ are dependent upon the fluid. η0 log η η∞ log γ Figure 8. the zero. Tα . Power-Law Index n. and α is the activation energy.4. λ is the time constant. the upper and lower limiting values of the fluid viscosity. Zero Shear Viscosity η0 . λ. Figure 8. and you can enter the Time Constant λ.4-21) and the parameters n. Inputs for the Carreau Model To use the Carreau model.Physical Properties The Carreau Model for Pseudo-Plastics The power law model described in Equation 8. η → η0 . and for γ → ∞. the viscosity is η = η∞ + (η0 − η∞ )[1 + (H(T )γλ)2 ](n−1)/2 ˙ where H(T ) = exp α 1 1 − T − T0 Tα − T0 (8. For γ → 0.and infinite-shear viscosities. 2006 . η → η∞ . n is the power-law index (as described above for the non-Newtonian power law).4-18 results in a fluid viscosity that varies with shear rate. η0 . while Tα is the reference temperature at which H(T ) = 1. respectively. where η0 and η∞ are.

e. September 29.4-22) n = zero-shear-rate viscosity = natural time (i.3: The Carreau Model Panel Cross Model The Cross model for viscosity is η= where η0 λ η0 1 + (λγ)1−n ˙ (8. Time Constant λ.. Inputs for the Cross Model To use the Cross model. and you can enter the Zero Shear Viscosity η0 . choose cross in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. The Cross Model panel will open. and Power-Law Index n . inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to power-law behavior) = power-law index The Cross model is commonly used when it is necessary to describe the low-shear-rate behavior of the viscosity. 2006 8-39 . c Fluent Inc.4 Viscosity Figure 8.4.8.

η= τ0 + k[γ n − (τ0 /µ0 )n ] ˙ γ ˙ (8. Figure 8. the material remains rigid. γ . For low strain rates (γ < τ0 /µ0 ). The Herschel-Bulkley model combines the effects of Bingham and power-law behavior in a fluid. September 29. τ0 . and n is the power-law index.4-23) where k is the consistency factor. the fluid behavior is described by a power law. is passed. Bingham plastics are characterized by a non-zero shear stress when the strain rate is zero: τ = τ 0 + ηD where τ0 is the yield stress: • For τ < τ0 .4 shows how shear stress (τ ) varies with shear rate (γ) for the Herschel-Bulkley ˙ model.4: Variation of Shear Stress with Shear Rate According to the Herschel-Bulkley Model 8-40 c Fluent Inc. Figure 8. • For τ > τ0 .4. n>1 Bingham (n=1) 0<n<1 τ0 τ γ0 . the “rigid” material acts like a very viscous ˙ fluid with viscosity µ0 .Physical Properties Herschel-Bulkley Model for Bingham Plastics The power law model described above is valid for fluids for which the shear stress is zero when the strain rate is zero. 2006 .4.4-24) (8. As the strain rate increases and the yield stress threshold. the material flows as a power-law fluid.

8. dough. The Herschel-Bulkley panel will open. The Herschel-Bulkley model is commonly used to describe materials such as concrete.5 Thermal Conductivity If you choose the Herschel-Bulkley model for Bingham plastics. for which a constant viscosity after a critical shear stress is a reasonable assumption. Power-Law Index n. mud. Yield Stress Threshold τ0 .5 Thermal Conductivity The thermal conductivity must be defined when heat transfer is active. and Yielding Viscosity µ0 . choose herschel-bulkley in the drop-down list to the right of Viscosity. cylindrical orthotropic) (for solid materials only) • user-defined Each of these input options and the governing physical models are detailed in this section. and toothpaste. User-defined functions (UDFs) are described in the separate UDF Manual. Equation 8.and/or composition-dependent thermal conductivity • kinetic theory • anisotropic (anisotropic. September 29. FLUENT provides several options for definition of the thermal conductivity: • constant thermal conductivity • temperature. 2006 8-41 . 8. In addition to the transition behavior between a flow and no-flow regime. and you can enter the Consistency Index k. Inputs for the Herschel-Bulkley Model To use the Herschel-Bulkley model. biaxial. orthotropic. c Fluent Inc. the Herschel-Bulkley model can also exhibit a shear-thinning or shear-thickening behavior depending on the value of n. You will need to define thermal conductivity when you are modeling energy and viscous flow.4-24 will be used to determine the fluid viscosity.

8-42 c Fluent Inc.1: The Materials Panel Thermal conductivity is defined in units of W/m-K in SI units or BTU/hr-ft-◦ R in British units. Figure 8..1 Constant Thermal Conductivity If you want to define the thermal conductivity as a constant.5. Define −→Materials. 8. the thermal conductivity is 0.0242 W/m-K. you will define the Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8.5. September 29.Physical Properties In all cases.. For the default fluid (air).5.1).5.1). and enter the value of thermal conductivity for the material. check that constant is selected in the drop-down list to the right of Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8. 2006 .

3: Density)... kn ).1 : k(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . 2006 8-43 . To enable the use of this equation for calculating thermal conductivity. • polynomial: k(T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + . Mw is the molecular weight. you have the option to define the thermal conductivity using kinetic theory as k= 15 R 4 c p Mw 1 µ + 4 Mw 15 R 3 (8.2 ≤ T < Tmax. and cp is the material’s specified or computed specific heat capacity. September 29. Three types of functions are available: • piecewise-linear: k(T ) = kn + • piecewise-polynomial: kn+1 − kn (T − Tn ) Tn+1 − Tn (8.5-4) You can input the data pairs (Tn . The solver will use Equation 8..2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions. ranges and coefficients Ai and Bi . µ is the material’s specified or computed viscosity. or coefficients Ai that describe these functions using the Materials panel.2 : k(T ) = B1 + B2 T + B3 T 2 + . for Tmin. 8. as described in Section 8.3 Thermal Conductivity Using Kinetic Theory If you are using the gas law (as described in Section 8..5-5 to compute the thermal conductivity.5 Thermal Conductivity 8.5.5-3) (8.5-2) (8.5-5) where R is the universal gas constant. c Fluent Inc. (8.5-1) for Tmin..2 Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Temperature You can also choose to define the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature.8.5. select kinetictheory from the drop-down list to the right of Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel.1 ≤ T < Tmax..

For the mixture material. If you have a user-defined function that you want to use to model the thermal conductivity. which are used in the ideal gas law for thermal conductivity (Equation 8. 8-44 c Fluent Inc. (Note that you can also define the thermal conductivity of the mixture as a constant value or a function of temperature. you have the option to define a composition-dependent thermal conductivity. because these two viscosity specification methods are the only ones that allow specification of the component viscosities. You may also use kinetic theory for the individual thermal conductivities. the polynomial methods and the user-defined methods are available. The only difference between the user-defined-mixing-law and the user-defined option for specifying density. Click Change/Create. September 29.4 Composition-Dependent Thermal Conductivity for Multicomponent Mixtures If you are modeling a flow that includes more than one chemical species (multicomponent flow). ideal-gas-mixing-law in the drop-down list to the right of Thermal Conductivity. choose mass-weighted-mixing-law or. 2006 . is that with the user-defined-mixing-law option.) To define a composition-dependent thermal conductivity for a mixture. 4. follow these steps: 1.) i If you use ideal-gas-mixing-law for the thermal conductivity of a mixture. you must use ideal-gas-mixing-law or mass-weighted-mixing-law for viscosity.5. 3. or user-defined thermal conductivities for the individual species. or (if applicable) temperature-dependent thermal conductivities. see the separate UDF Manual. define the thermal conductivity for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. you can choose either the user-defined method or the user-defined-mixing-law method for the mixture material in the drop-down list. (Note that only the constant.5-6). 2. the individual properties of the species materials can also be specified. If you selected user-defined-mixing-law. You may define constant or (if applicable) temperature-dependent thermal conductivities for the individual species. or using kinetic theory. Define the thermal conductivity for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. if applicable.Physical Properties 8. viscosity and thermal conductivity of mixture materials. For more information on defining properties with user-defined functions. if you are using the ideal gas law. You may define constant.

5-7) For non-ideal gases. the solver will compute the mixture thermal conductivity based on kinetic theory as k= i Xi ki j Xj φij (8. The heat flux vector is written as qi = −kij ∂T ∂xj (8.i 1/4 2 8 1+ and Xi is the mole fraction of species i. 2006 8-45 .j 1/2 (8.5-6) where 1+ φij = µi µj 1/2 Mw.i Mw. c Fluent Inc. you cannot use them with the density-based solvers. Mw.5 Thermal Conductivity If you are using the ideal gas law. the mixture thermal conductivity is computed based on a simple mass fraction average of the pure species conductivities: k= i Yi k i (8.5.5-9) The following options are available for defining anisotropic thermal conductivity in FLUENT.8. • anisotropic • biaxial • orthotropic • cylindrical orthotropic i Note that the anisotropic conductivity options are available only with the pressure-based solver.j Mw.5 Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity for Solids The anisotropic conductivity option in FLUENT solves the conduction equation in solids with the thermal conductivity specified as a matrix.5-8) 8. These are discussed below. September 29.

5. enter the Matrix Components of matrix eij and then select the Conductivity (k in Equation 8. September 29.Physical Properties Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity For anisotropic diffusion.5-10) to be a constant. select anisotropic for Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8.1 and 8. Refer to the separate UDF Manual. This will open the Anisotropic Conductivity panel (Figure 8. polynomial function of temperature (polynomial.5. piecewise-polynomial).5. the thermal conductivity matrix (Equation 8. you will get an error message. 8-46 c Fluent Inc. When you select the user-defined option.2 for details on constants and thermal polynomial functions. Figure 8. 2006 .2).5. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE PROPERTY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted the UDF.1). Otherwise. To define anisotropic thermal conductivity for a solid material.5-10) ˆ where k is the conductivity and eij is a matrix (2 × 2 for two dimensions and 3 × 3 for ˆ three-dimensional problems. Note that eij can be a non-symmetric matrix. See Sections 8.2: The Anisotropic Conductivity Panel ˆ In the Anisotropic Conductivity panel. or user-defined function.5-9) is specified as kij = kˆij e (8.5. piecewise-linear.

This opens the Orthotropic Conductivity panel (Figure 8. or piecewisepolynomial. Orthotropic Thermal Conductivity When the orthotropic thermal conductivity is used. both the conductivity normal to the surface of the solid region (Transverse Conductivity) and the conductivity within the shell or solid region (Planar Conductivity) can be defined as constant. kζ ) in the principal directions (ˆξ . The conductivity matrix is then e ˆ ˆ computed as kij = kξ eξi eξj + kη eηi eηj + kζ eζi eζj (8.8. September 29.5. however. piecewise-linear. eη . 2006 8-47 .5-11) To define an orthotropic thermal conductivity in solids. See Section 7. the conductivity is isotropic.13.5. select orthotropic in the dropdown list for Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. eζ ) are specified.5. polynomial.5. select biaxial in the drop-down list for Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. c Fluent Inc.3). Figure 8.4). kη . Within the shell.5 Thermal Conductivity Biaxial Thermal Conductivity Biaxial thermal conductivity is mainly applicable to solid materials used for the wall shell conduction model. See Sections 8.1: Shell Conduction in Thin-Walls for more information about shell conduction in walls. This opens the Biaxial Conductivity panel (Figure 8.2 for details on these parameters.1 and 8.5. the thermal conductivities (kξ . To define a biaxial thermal conductivity.3: The Biaxial Conductivity Panel In the Biaxial Conductivity panel.

Physical Properties Figure 8. eζ ) are mutually orthogonal.4: The Orthotropic Conductivity Panel Since the directions (ˆξ . You can define Conductivity 0 (kξ ). 2006 .Y. When you select the user-defined option. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE PROPERTY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted the UDF. eη . Refer to the separate UDF Manual. and eη is defined using X. only the first two need to be e ˆ ˆ ˆ specified for three-dimensional problems. Otherwise. See Sections 8.1 for and 8. Conductivity 1 (kη ). eξ is defined using X.Y.5. you will get an error message. piecewise-linear.Z under Direction 1 Components. and Conductivity 2 (kζ ) as constant. only the functions (kξ .Z under Direction 0 ˆ Components. piecewise-polynomial functions of temperature.5.5. or user-defined. e 8-48 c Fluent Inc. September 29.2 for details on constant and temperature profile functions. i For two-dimensional problems. polynomial. kη ) and the unit vector (ˆξ ) need to be specified.

and axial direction conductivities. tangential. September 29.5. Figure 8.5. select cyl-orthotropic in the drop-down list for Thermal Conductivity in the Materials panel. The calculation is based on the location of the cell in the cylindrical coordinate system specified. the direction is always along the +z axis. FLUENT will automatically compute the anisotropic conductivity matrix at each cell from this input. c Fluent Inc.8.5 Thermal Conductivity Cylindrical Orthotropic Thermal Conductivity The orthotropic conductivity of solids can be specified in cylindrical coordinates.5). In two-dimensional cases. This opens the Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity panel (Figure 8. the origin of the cylindrical coordinate system must be specified along with the radial and tangential direction conductivities. 2006 8-49 .5: The Cylindrical Orthotropic Conductivity Panel In three-dimensional cases. To define the orthotropic thermal conductivity in cylindrical coordinates. the origin and the direction of the cylindrical coordinate system must be specified along with the radial. Note that in twodimensional cases.

and user-defined-anisotropic. the cell next to the wall is chosen for computing the conductivity matrix instead of the wall itself. or user-defined functions. 2006 . the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE PROPERTY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted the UDF. i 8. piecewise-polynomial. polynomial functions of temperature. All UDS diffusivity parameters are set from the Materials panel and are discussed below. See Sections 8. or as user-defined functions of temperature. and Axial Conductivity as constant. φk ) (8. orthotropic. cyl-orthotropic. Tangential Conductivity.6-1) 8-50 c Fluent Inc.5.2 for details on constant and thermal profile functions. The second-order diffusion term in the most general form is · (Γ · where Γ is a 3 × 3 tensor in 3D.6-1) for each UDS (in both fluid and solid zones) in four different ways: general anisotropic. Otherwise. When you select the user-defined option. User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity There are two types of UDS diffusivity that you can specify in FLUENT: isotropic and anisotropic.1 and 8. September 29. Isotropic diffusion coefficients can be specified in two ways: either as a single user-defined that applies to all UDS transport equations defined for your model. you will get an error message. Diffusion is isotropic when it is the same in all directions.Physical Properties You can define the Radial Conductivity. Refer to the separate UDF Manual. Diffusion is anisotropic when the diffusion coefficients are different in different directions. Anisotropic diffusion can be specified by a tensor diffusion coefficient matrix Γ (Equation 8. piecewise-linear.6 For conductivity calculations near the wall. polynomial. Note that details about how to define and use UDFs in UDS transport equations is discussed in the separate UDF Manual.5. or on a per-scalar basis as constants.

8. Γ in Equation 8.6.1: The Materials Panel c Fluent Inc.1). Figure 8..6-1 is equal to a scalar Γ times the identity matrix and the equation reduces to · (Γ φk ) (8..6-2) You can specify isotropic diffusivity as a single user-defined function that applies to all UDS transport equations. For this case.6. 2006 8-51 . September 29. choose user-defined from the drop-down list for UDS Diffusivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8.6. Define −→Materials.6 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity 8.1 Isotropic Diffusion For isotropic diffusion.

6.Physical Properties If you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or have interpreted the UDF. then the User-Defined Functions panel will open. you will get an error message. Isotropic diffusion coefficients can also be defined on a per-scalar basis by selecting defined-per-uds from the drop-down list for UDS Diffusivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8. allowing you to hook the DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY UDF to FLUENT. 2006 . Refer to the separate UDF Manual. September 29.3).6.2: The Materials Panel 8-52 c Fluent Inc.6.2). If no functions have been loaded. This will open the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. Figure 8.

2. September 29. (For the default fluid (air).8. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted a UDF.) If you choose polynomial. select a scalar equation (e. Refer to the separate UDF Manual.. uds-0) and then choose a constant. the constant diffusion coefficient is 1 kg/m-s. or user-defined function from the Coefficient drop-down list. See Section 8. polynomial.6 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity Figure 8.1: Inputs for Polynomial Functions for details. you will get an error message.3: The UDS Diffusion Coefficients Panel In the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel. Otherwise. c Fluent Inc.g. When you select the user-defined option. the Polynomial Profile panel will open and you can specify your coefficients as a function of temperature. 2006 8-53 .6.

6-1 in the form KΓ where K is a constant 3x3 matrix in 3D and Γ is a scalar multiplier. UDS diffusion coefficients can be postprocessed only in those cells which have isotropic diffusivity. 8-54 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .Physical Properties 8. In all cases. In the UDS Diffusion Coefficient panel.g. You can use anisotropic diffusivity for UDS scalar transport equations to model species transport equations in porous media and in solids where species diffusion shows anisotropic behavior. you enable anisotropic diffusion by selecting defined-per-uds under UDS Diffusivity in the Materials panel (Figure 8.6.6-3) ˆ where k is the diffusivity and eij is a matrix (2 × 2 for two dimensions and 3 × 3 for ˆ three-dimensional problems).. you can specify Γ in Equation 8. The diffusion coefficient matrix is specified as kij = kˆij e (8.6-1) on a per-scalar basis. September 29. • anisotropic • orthotropic • cylindrical orthotropic • user-defined anisotropic Anisotropic Diffusivity For anisotropic diffusivity.. Note that eij can be a non-symmetric matrix.2). i i Note that the anisotropic diffusion options discussed in the following sections are available with the pressure-based solver and the density-based solvers. select a scalar equation (e. This will open the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. the diffusion coefficient will be zero. Define −→Materials.6. These methods are described in detail below.6.. uds-0) and then choose one of the following methods under Coefficients to specify the anisotropic diffusion coefficient. In all other cells.2 Anisotropic Diffusion You can specify anisotropic diffusion coefficients in both fluid and solid zones by defining the tensor diffusion coefficient matrix Γ (Equation 8.3).

This will open the Anisotropic UDS Diffusivity panel (Figure 8..4). you can specify Γ in Equation 8. and 8. Figure 8.1.4: The Anisotropic UDS Diffusivity Panel In the Anisotropic UDS Diffusivity panel.g. The principal directions are the same everywhere.6. polynomial function of temperature (polynomial.3 for details on polynomial temperature functions. 2006 8-55 . polynomial function of temperature. Then choose anisotropic in the drop-down list under Coefficient. piecewiselinear.8. 8. Otherwise.6 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity To specify anisotropic diffusion coefficients. in turn.6. or through user-defined functions. piecewise-polynomial). or user-defined.2.2. See Sections 8.3). FLUENT.6. but each of he directional diffusion coefficients can be specified as a constant. first select a scalar equation (e. c Fluent Inc. enter the Matrix Components and then select the Diffusivity to be a constant. Refer to the separate UDF Manual. When you select the user-defined option. uds-0) from the User-Defined Scalar Diffusion list in the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. you will get an error message. September 29. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted a UDF. Orthotropic Diffusivity For orthotropic diffusivity.2. computes Γ from parameters that you supply.6-1 through ’principal’ direction vectors and diffusion coefficients along these directions.2.

8. eη .Y. Then choose orthotropic in the drop-down list under Coefficient.3 for details on polynomial temperature functions. first select a scalar equation (e. the diffusion coefficients (kξ .Physical Properties When orthotropic diffusivity is used.2.5).2. and eη is defined using X.Y. uds-0) from the User-Defined Scalar Diffusion list in the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. eη . This will open the Orthotropic UDS Diffusivity panel (Figure 8. kη ) and the unit vector (ˆξ ) need to be specified.Z under Direction 0 ˆ Components. polynomial. kη . kζ ) in the principal directions (ˆξ .6. 2006 . only the first two need to be e ˆ ˆ ˆ specified for three-dimensional problems. or user-defined.6-4) i For two-dimensional problems. e To specify orthotropic diffusion coefficients. eξ is defined using X. The diffusivity matrix is then computed as e ˆ ˆ kij = kξ eξi eξj + kη eηi eηj + kζ eζi eζj (8. September 29. eζ ) are mutually orthogonal. and Diffusivity 2 (kζ ) as constant. Diffusivity 1 (kη ).1.3).g. eζ ) are specified. Figure 8.6.6.2.2.5: The Orthotropic UDS Diffusivity Panel Since the directions (ˆξ .Z under Direction 1 Components. piecewise-polynomial functions of temperature. only the functions (kξ . You can define Diffusivity 0 (kξ ). See Sections 8.. piecewiselinear. 8-56 c Fluent Inc. and 8.

6. tangential.6). and axial. Cylindrical Orthotropic Diffusivity Orthotropic UDS diffusivity can also be specified on a per-scalar basis in cylindrical coordinates. Refer to the separate UDF Manual. FLUENT will automatically compute the anisotropic diffusivity matrix at each cell from this input. the direction is always along the +z axis. September 29. If no functions have been loaded. In two-dimensional cases. Note that in twodimensional cases. To specify cylindrical orthotropic diffusion coefficients. This method is similar to orthotropic UDS diffusivity. c Fluent Inc. tangential. you will get an error message. uds-0) from the User-Defined Scalar Diffusion list in the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. first select a scalar equation (e. The calculation is based on the location of the cell in the cylindrical coordinate system specified. Then choose cyl-orthotropic in the drop-down list under Coefficient.6. the origin and the direction of the cylindrical coordinate system must be specified along with the radial.6 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Diffusivity When you select the user-defined option..6. This will open the Cylindrical Orthotropic UDS Diffusivity panel (Figure 8.8. except that the principal directions are specified as radial. and axial direction conductivities. 2006 8-57 .3). Figure 8.6: The Cylindrical Orthotropic UDS Diffusivity Panel In three-dimensional cases. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted a UDF.g. the origin of the cylindrical coordinate system must be specified along with the radial and tangential direction conductivities.

using the drop-down list below each of the diffusivities.6-1 on a per-scalar basis. through user-defined functions (UDFs).g.2.6. Refer to the separate UDF Manual for details. and Axial Diffusivity as constant. first select a scalar equation (e.. you will get an error message.6. the User-Defined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted a UDF. 8-58 c Fluent Inc. Otherwise.7).2. and 8. The UserDefined Functions panel will open allowing you to hook a DEFINE ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSIVITY UDF only if you have previously loaded a compiled UDF library or interpreted a UDF. you will get an error message. See Sections 8.3 for details on polynomial temperature functions. Refer to the separate UDF Manual. Tangential Diffusivity. uds-0) from the User-Defined Scalar Diffusion list in the UDS Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8.7: The UDS Diffusion Coefficients Panel Then choose user-defined-anisotropic in the drop-down list under Coefficient. When you select the user-defined option.3 User-Defined Anisotropic Diffusivity You can specify Γ in Equation 8. piecewise-polynomial. Figure 8.2.Physical Properties You can define the Radial Diffusivity.1. If no functions have been loaded.2.6. September 29. piecewise-linear. polynomial. To specify a UDF for anisotropic diffusivity on a per-scalar basis. 8. or as user-defined functions of temperature. 2006 . 8. directly.

FLUENT provides several options for definition of the heat capacity: • constant heat capacity • temperature. The specific heat for the default fluid (air) is 1006.. a temperature-dependent specific heat is recommended. and enter the value of heat capacity. September 29.and/or composition-dependent heat capacity • kinetic theory Each of these input options and the governing physical models are detailed in this section. you will define the Cp in the Materials panel.7. check that constant is selected in the drop-down list to the right of Cp in the Materials panel. In all cases.8. 8. Specific heat capacity is input in units of J/kg-K in SI units or BTU/lbm-◦ R in British units.7 Specific Heat Capacity The specific heat capacity must be defined when the energy equation is active..1 Input of Constant Specific Heat Capacity If you want to define the heat capacity as a constant.43 J/kg-K. c Fluent Inc. i For combustion applications. Define −→Materials.7 Specific Heat Capacity 8. 2006 8-59 .

as described in Section 8.7-1) for Tmin. 8. The solver will use your kinetic theory inputs in Equation 8..13: Kinetic Theory Parameters for details about kinetic theory inputs. ranges and coefficients Ai and Bi .1 ≤ T < Tmax.i (8.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions. (8.1 : cp (T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .2 ≤ T < Tmax..7. 2006 .2 : cp (T ) = B1 + B2 T + B3 T 2 + .Physical Properties 8.. for Tmin.7-5 to compute the specific heat capacity..3: Density).3 Defining Specific Heat Capacity Using Kinetic Theory If you are using the gas law (as described in Section 8. you have the option to define the specific heat capacity using kinetic theory as cp. cpn ). • polynomial: cp (T ) = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .7.7-4) You can input the data pairs (Tn .i = 1 R (fi + 2) 2 Mw.7-5) where fi is the number of modes of energy storage (degrees of freedom) for the gas species i which you can input by selecting kinetic-theory from the drop-down list to the right of Cp in the Materials panel.7-3) (8.7-2) (8.2 Specific Heat Capacity as a Function of Temperature You can also choose to define the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. September 29.. Three types of functions are available: • piecewise-linear: cp (T ) = cpn + • piecewise-polynomial: cpn+1 − cpn (T − Tn ) Tn+1 − Tn (8.. 8-60 c Fluent Inc. or coefficients Ai that describe these functions using the Materials panel. See Section 8.

Click Change/Create. if you are modeling semi-transparent media. follow these steps: 1. 2006 8-61 . You may define constant or (if applicable) temperature-dependent heat capacities for the individual species. you will need to set the radiation Absorption Coefficient and Scattering Coefficient (a and σs in Equation 13.3-3).4 Specific Heat Capacity as a Function of Composition If you are modeling a flow that includes more than one chemical species (multicomponent flow). • For the DO model. to be used when semi-transparent media are modeled. • For the DTRM. September 29. choose mixing-law in the drop-down list to the right of Cp. Information about defining each of these properties is provided in the following sections. or using kinetic theory. 2.3-56). • For the Rosseland radiation model.3-2). you can specify radiation properties for solid materials.3-37). you have the option to define a composition-dependent specific heat capacity. For the mixture material.8 Radiation Properties When you have activated one of the radiation models (except for the surface-to-surface model. only the Absorption Coefficient is required (a in Equation 13.7-6) 8. there will be additional properties for you to set in the Materials panel: • For the P-1 model. You may also use kinetic theory for the individual heat capacities. you will also need to set the Absorption Coefficient and Scattering Coefficient (a and σs in Equation 13. Define the specific heat capacity for each of the fluid materials that comprise the mixture. if applicable.8. The solver will compute the mixture’s specific heat capacity as a mass fraction average of the pure species heat capacities: cp = i Yi cp. c Fluent Inc.8 Radiation Properties 8. (Note that you can also define the heat capacity of the mixture as a constant value or a function of temperature.3-30). which requires no additional properties). In addition. you will set both the Absorption Coefficient and the Scattering Coefficient (a and σs in Equation 13. Note that with the DO model. you can specify the Refractive Index (na or nb in Equation 13.i (8.) To define a composition-dependent specific heat capacity for a mixture. 3.7.

Along with the scattering coefficient. simply enter the value in the field next to Absorption Coefficient in the Materials panel.1 Absorption Coefficient To define the absorption coefficient. The absorbing and emitting parts of the radiative transfer equation (RTE). (Remember that you must first enable the species calculation in order to see the wsggm choices in the list. it describes the change in radiation intensity per unit length along the path through the fluid medium. Equation 13. The absorbing or emitting effects depend on the chosen radiation model. a composition-dependent function. which are generally available in textbooks on radiation heat transfer. or wsggm-userspecified in the drop-down list to the right of Absorption Coefficient in the Materials panel. with the local value of a a function of the local mass fractions of water vapor and carbon dioxide. is a function of the absorption coefficient. 2006 . select wsggm-cell-based. The three WSGGM options differ in the method used to compute the path length. and x is the distance through the material.) 8-62 c Fluent Inc. wsggm-domain-based. This modeling option can be useful for simulation of radiation in combustion applications. Inputs for a Constant Absorption Coefficient To define a constant absorption coefficient. September 29.3-1. The variable-absorption-coefficient model used by FLUENT is the weightedsum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) described in Section 13.3.8-1) where I is the radiation intensity.then Lambert’s Law of absorption applies I = Io exp (−ax) (8. (Select constant in the drop-down list first if it is not already selected. you can specify a constant value. If there are only absorption effects. or a user-defined function. a temperaturedependent function (see Section 8. and CO2 and H2 O must be present in the mixture. If you are modeling non-gray radiation with the DO radiation model. you also have the option to specify a constant absorption coefficient in each of the gray bands.Physical Properties 8.8. as described below.) Inputs for a Composition-Dependent Absorption Coefficient FLUENT also allows you to input a composition-dependent absorption coefficient.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions). To activate it. The absorption coefficient is requested in units of 1/length. Absorption coefficients can be computed using tables of emissivity for CO2 and H2 O.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows. a is the absorption coefficient.

as long as you are using the WSGGM to compute a composition-dependent absorption coefficient. This panel will open when you choose wsggm-userspecified. If you are modeling soot formation and you want to include the effect of soot formation on the absorption coefficient. but you will set the mean beam length yourself in the Path Length field in the WSGGM User Specified panel.8 Radiation Properties Path Length Inputs When the WSGGM is used to compute the absorption coefficient. since this is a modal panel. • If you choose wsggm-user-specified. Inputs for a Non-Gray Radiation Absorption Coefficient If you are using the non-gray DO model (see Sections 13. you will have a choice of methods used to calculate the path length s in Equation 13. See Section 13. Select gray-band in the Absorption Coefficient drop-down list. • If you choose wsggm-domain-based. you must tend to it immediately. and since it is a modal panel.) Effect of Particles and Soot on the Absorption Coefficient FLUENT will include the effect of particles on the absorption coefficient if you have turned on the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model panel (only for the P-1 and DO radiation models). turn on the Generalized Model for Soot-Radiation Interaction in the Soot Model panel.3. the characteristic-cell-size approach will be used and no further inputs are required. you must tend to it immediately. (Note that.13). You can use the characteristic cell size or the mean beam length (computed by the solver or defined by you). c Fluent Inc. and then define the absorption coefficient for each band in the Gray-Band Absorption Coefficient panel. the mean-beam-length approach will be used. the mean-beam-length approach will be used for the calculation of a and FLUENT will compute the mean beam length based on an average dimension of the domain.3. September 29. you can specify a different constant absorption coefficient for each of the bands used by the gray-band model.3.3-81. The soot effects can be included for any of the radiation models. no further inputs are required. • If you choose wsggm-cell-based.8.6 and 13.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows to determine which method is appropriate for your case. 2006 8-63 . You will select the path length method when you choose the property input method for Absorption Coefficient as described above.

You can also specify a non-isotropic phase function. The scattering coefficient is requested in units of 1/length.in which you can specify the Forward Scattering Factor and Asymmetry Factor (f and C in Equation 13. where particulates may be present. This is the default setting in FLUENT. select delta-eddington in the Scattering Phase Function drop-down list. You may wish to increase the scattering coefficient in combustion systems. Note that. No further inputs are necessary. you must tend to it immediately. a temperature-dependent function (see Section 8. Along with the absorption coefficient. it describes the change in radiation intensity per unit length along the path through the fluid medium. select isotropic in the Scattering Phase Function drop-down list. If you are using the DO model. (Select constant in the drop-down list first if it is not already selected. Delta-Eddington Phase Function To use a Delta-Eddington phase function. Isotropic Phase Function To model isotropic scattering. select linear-anisotropic in the Scattering Phase Function drop-down list and set the value of the phase function coefficient (C in Equation 13. but you can also specify a linearanisotropic scattering function.3-46).8. This will open the Delta-Eddington Scattering Function panel. 8-64 c Fluent Inc. and it is assumed to be isotropic. You can specify a constant value. Delta-Eddington and user-defined scattering functions are also available. set to zero. or a user-defined function.2 Scattering Coefficient The scattering coefficient is.Physical Properties 8.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions). Inputs for a Constant Scattering Coefficient To define a constant scattering coefficient. Linear-Anisotropic Phase Function To model anisotropic scattering. by default. since this is a modal panel. simply enter the value in the field next to Scattering Coefficient in the Materials panel.) Inputs for the Scattering Phase Function Scattering is assumed to be isotropic. 2006 .3-3). September 29. by default.

8. 8.9-1) where Di. See the separate UDF Manual for information about user-defined functions.1 The full multicomponent diffusion model is enabled in the Species Model panel. It is used only if you are modeling semitransparent media with the DO radiation model.. select user-defined in the Scattering Phase Function drop-down list.m Yi − DT. but for some applications (e. category.m is the mass diffusion coefficient for species i in the mixture and DT.3-47.g.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients User-Defined Phase Function To use a user-defined phase function. there are two ways to model the diffusion of chemical species.. c Fluent Inc. 2006 8-65 .9. diffusion-dominated laminar flows such as chemical vapor deposition).4 Reporting the Radiation Properties You can display the computed local values for a and σs using the Absorption Coefficient and Scattering Coefficient items in the Radiation.8. Also. note that the full multicomponent diffusion model is computationally expensive.i T T (8. You will also find the Refractive Index in the Radiation.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients For species transport calculations.3 Refractive Index The refractive index is. September 29.8. The user-defined function must contain specifications for Φ∗ and f in Equation 13... set to 1..8. Mass diffusion coefficients are used to compute the diffusion flux of a chemical species in a laminar flow using (by default) Fick’s law: Ji = −ρDi.i is the thermal (Soret) diffusion coefficient. 8. Fickian Diffusion Mass diffusion coefficients are required whenever you are solving species transport equations in multi-component flows. You can specify a constant value in the field next to Refractive Index. category of the variable selection dropdown list that appears in postprocessing panels. For most applications the Fick’s law approximation is adequate. by default. the full multicomponent diffusion model is recommended. i 8.

instead. As discussed in Section 8. or when Di. the turbulent diffusion coefficient normally overwhelms the laminar diffusion coefficient.m .m = 1 − Xi (Xj /Dij ) j.m + µt ) Sct Yi − DT.j=i (8. the binary mass diffusion coefficient of component i in component j.9. As seen from Equation 8.9. Di.9-3) where Sct is the effective Schmidt number for the turbulent flow: Sct = µt ρDt (8. Equation 8. 8-66 c Fluent Inc. Dij is not used directly.i T T (8. this parameter relates the effective mass diffusion coefficient due to turbulence with the eddy viscosity µt . for all i except the carrier gas.9-1 is strictly valid when the mixture composition is not changing.m or Dij for each chemical species.m is independent of composition.4: Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs. the diffusion coefficient in the mixture. however.9-1 is replaced with the following form: Ji = −(ρDi. as described in Section 8. including by specifying Dij .5: Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs for Turbulent Flow. FLUENT can also compute the transport of non-dilute mixtures in laminar flows by treating such mixtures as multicomponent systems. 2006 .m can be specified in a variety of ways.m using the same methods available for the laminar case.Physical Properties Equation 8.9-4) and Dt is the effective mass diffusion coefficient due to turbulence. Within FLUENT. This is an acceptable approximation in dilute mixtures when Yi << 1. so the default constant value for the laminar diffusion coefficient is usually acceptable. You can input Di. September 29.9-2) where Xi is the mole fraction of species i. In turbulent flows.9-4. is computed as Di. with the added option to alter the default settings for the turbulent Schmidt number. Di. In turbulent flows your mass diffusion coefficient inputs consist of defining the molecular contribution to diffusion Di.

. and one determinant of size N × N [360]. then di = Xi .i − ρj ρi (8. This will lead to the definition of generalized Fick’s law diffusion coefficients [371]. in diffusion-dominated laminar flows). to derive relations for the diffusion fluxes containing the gradient of only one component (as described in Section 8. where N is the number of chemical species. If the external force is assumed to be the same on all species and that pressure diffusion is negligible.j DT.9-5) j=i j=i where X is the mole fraction. Here. Since the diffusive mass flux vector is Ji = ρi Vi . FLUENT has the ability to model full multicomponent species transport. V is the diffusion velocity. the Maxwell-Stefan equations can be written as N j=1 Xi Xj T Vj − Vi = di − Dij T N j=1 Xi Xj Dij DT.9-6) j=i c Fluent Inc. This method is preferred over computing the multicomponent diffusion coefficients since their evaluation requires the computation of N 2 co-factor determinants of size (N − 1) × (N − 1).j DT. As one of the laminar-flow diffusion models. in general.8. the above equation can be written as N j=1 j=i Ji Xi Xj  Jj − = Dij ρj ρi   T Xi − T N j=1 Xi Xj Dij DT. September 29. and DT is the thermal diffusion coefficient.g. General Theory For multicomponent systems it is not possible.1: Fickian Diffusion).i − ρj ρi (8.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients 8. For an ideal gas the Maxwell diffusion coefficients are equal to the binary diffusion coefficients. Dij is the binary mass diffusion coefficient.2 Full Multicomponent Diffusion A careful treatment of chemical species diffusion in the species transport and energy equations is important when details of the molecular transport processes are significant (e. Maxwell-Stefan Equations From Merk [239].9. 2006 8-67 .9. the Maxwell-Stefan equations will be used to obtain the diffusive mass flux.

3 Thermal Diffusion Coefficients The thermal diffusion coefficients can be defined as constants.j Mw. Other terms are defined as follows: Dij = [D] = [A]−1 [B] Aii  Xi Mw = − + D M iN w.9-9) j=i Aij = Xi Bii Bij 1 Mw 1 Mw − Dij Mw.i  0.i T T (8.j DiN Mw. 8-68 c Fluent Inc.489 Mw. the diffusive mass flux vector. user-defined functions.i Xi   0.9.9-7) where Yj is the mass fraction of species j.i Mw Mw = Xi − Mw.N (8.9-8) Xj Mw   Dij Mw.i Xi = −2. September 29.59 × 10 T  N   0.511 Mw.N  N j=1 (8.i Xi       − Yi  ·  i=1   N        (8. or using the following empirically-based composition-dependent expression derived from [188]:    N 0.N Mw.511 i=1 Mw.9-11) (8. polynomial functions. Ji .i Xi DT.511  −7 0. 8.i   (8. 2006 .9-13) i=1 This form of the Soret diffusion coefficient will cause heavy molecules to diffuse less rapidly. towards heated surfaces.9-10) (8.9-12) where [A] and [B] are (N − 1) × (N − 1) matrices and [D] is an (N − 1) × (N − 1) matrix of the generalized Fick’s law diffusion coefficients Dij [371].659  Mw. can be obtained from N −1 Ji = − j=1 ρDij Yj − DT. and light molecules to diffuse more rapidly.Physical Properties After some mathematical manipulations.N Mw Mw = − Xi + (1 − Xi ) Mw.

2: Full Multicomponent Diffusion. Define −→Materials. This is done using the DEFINE DIFFUSIVITY macro and is explained in the separate UDF Manual.4 Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs By default. You can input the mass diffusion coefficients using one of the following methods: • Constant dilute approximation (Fickian diffusion only): define one constant for all Di.9-2. and then select the multicomponent method (the third method listed above) in the Materials panel. If you choose to define Dij . Dij .. c Fluent Inc. the dilute approximation methods are not appropriate for the full multicomponent diffusion model. The diffusion coefficients have units of m2 /s in SI units or ft2 /s in British units. unless you have enabled full multicomponent diffusion. 2006 8-69 . September 29.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients 8.m . • User-defined function (UDF): define a single function that will apply to all mass diffusion coefficients.9-3. • Dilute approximation (Fickian diffusion only): define each Di. if you are modeling a non-dilute mixture.8. • Multicomponent method: define the binary diffusion of species i in each species j.m or Dij for each chemical species using the Materials panel.m as a constant or as a polynomial function of temperature (if heat transfer is enabled). For turbulent flows.9-1 (for laminar flows) with your inputs for Di. You may wish to define the individual binary mass diffusion coefficients. the solver will compute the diffusion of species i in the mixture using Equation 8.9. the solver computes the species diffusion using Equation 8.m (using one of the first two methods) if you are modeling a dilute mixture. the diffusion coefficient for species i in the mixture. turn on the Full Multicomponent Diffusion option in the Species Model panel.. with chemical species present at low mass fraction in a “carrier” fluid that is present at high concentration. species diffusion is computed with Equation 8. or (for ideal gases only) using kinetic theory. You will define Di. You should choose to input Di. Dij as a constant or a polynomial function of temperature. i If you want to use the full multicomponent diffusion model described in Section 8.m .9.

1: The Mass Diffusion Coefficients Panel for Dilute Approximation 8-70 c Fluent Inc. In the resulting Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. September 29. Dilute Approximation Inputs To use the dilute approximation method.9. 2. follow these steps: 1. Enter a single value of Di.9.1). Select dilute-approx in the drop-down list to the right of Mass Diffusivity.m . Select constant-dilute-appx in the drop-down list to the right of Mass Diffusivity. follow the steps below: 1.Physical Properties Constant Dilute Approximation Inputs To use the constant dilute approximation method. 2. The same value will be used for the diffusion coefficient of each species in the mixture. 2006 . Figure 8. select the species in the Species Di list for which you are going to define the mass diffusion coefficient.

. 2006 8-71 .m = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients 3.. You can define Di. and then enter the value in the field below the list. • To define a constant diffusion coefficient. select the species in the Species Di list and the Species Dj list for which you are going to define the mass diffusion coefficient Dij for species i in species j.8. You can define Dij for the selected pair of species as a constant value or as a polynomial function of temperature (if heat transfer is active). c Fluent Inc. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have defined diffusion coefficients for all species in the Species Di list in the Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel. (8. choose polynomial in the Coefficient drop-down list and then define the polynomial coefficients as described in Section 8. Select multicomponent in the drop-down list to the right of Mass Diffusivity. Multicomponent Method Inputs To use the multicomponent method.9.1: Inputs for Polynomial Functions. 3. follow the steps below: 1.m for the selected species either as a constant value or (if heat transfer is active) as a polynomial function of temperature: • To define a constant diffusion coefficient. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have defined diffusion coefficients for all pairs of species in the Species Di and Species Dj lists in the Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel.9-15) 4. • To define a temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient.2. (8. • To define a temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient. In the resulting Mass Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8.2.1: Inputs for Polynomial Functions.. September 29. and define constant or temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients.. and then enter the value in the field below the list. Dij = A1 + A2 T + A3 T 2 + .2). Di. 2. choose polynomial in the Coefficient drop-down list and then define the polynomial coefficients as described in Section 8. select constant (the default) in the drop-down list below Coefficient.9-14) 4. select constant (the default) in the drop-down list below Coefficient.

2: The Mass Diffusion Coefficients Panel for the Multicomponent Method 8-72 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .Physical Properties Figure 8.9. September 29.

σij is calculated as the arithmetic average of the individual σs: 1 σij = (σi + σj ) 2 (8.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients To use the multicomponent method. divided by Avogadro’s number. σi and ( /kB )i . Choose kinetic-theory in the drop-down list to the right of Mass Diffusivity. follow these steps: 1.9-19) c Fluent Inc. R. and ΩD is the diffusion collision integral.9-17) kB is the Boltzmann constant. ( /kB )ij for the mixture is the geometric average: ( /kB )ij = ( /kB )i ( /kB )j (8.j 1/2 2 pabs σij ΩD (8. Click Change/Create after completing other property definitions for the mixture material. 2006 8-73 . as described in Section 8.9-16) where pabs is the absolute pressure. Define the Lennard-Jones parameters. where ∗ TD = T ( /kB )ij (8.8. The solver will use a modification of the Chapman-Enskog formula [234] to compute the diffusion coefficient using kinetic theory: T3 1 Mw.13: Kinetic Theory Parameters. for each species (fluid material).9-18) For a binary mixture.00188 + 1 Mw. September 29. 2. and define the diffusion coefficient using kinetic theory (available only when the ideal gas law is used). 3. which is a measure of the interaction of the molecules in the system.i Dij = 0. which is defined as the gas constant. ΩD is a function of the ∗ quantity TD .

3) will open. • Choose user-defined to use a user-defined function. select the species in the Species Thermal Di list for which you are going to define the thermal diffusion coefficient. • Choose specified to input the coefficient for each species.9-13.3: The Thermal Diffusion Coefficients Panel 8-74 c Fluent Inc. Figure 8. Further inputs are described in the next step. The Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel (Figure 8. No further inputs are required for this option. If you choose specified. September 29. See the separate UDF Manual for details. 2.Physical Properties Thermal Diffusion Coefficient Inputs If you have enabled thermal diffusion (in the Species Model panel). 2006 .9.9. Select one of the following three methods in the drop-down list to the right of Thermal Diffusion Coefficient: • Choose kinetic-theory to have FLUENT compute the thermal diffusion coefficients using the empirically-based expression in Equation 8. you can define the thermal diffusion coefficients in the Materials panel as follows: 1.

7) for any species. and you will also have the option to alter the default setting for the turbulent Schmidt number. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have defined diffusion coefficients for all species in the Species Thermal Di list in the Thermal Diffusion Coefficients panel. i Note that the full multicomponent diffusion model described in Section 8. 4.9-4. Define −→ Models −→Viscous.9. Sct . choose polynomial in the Coefficient drop-down list and then define the polynomial coefficients as described in Section 8. in a turbulent flow. as described for laminar flows in Section 8.4: Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs.9 Mass Diffusion Coefficients 3. • To define a temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient. Schmidt Number in the Viscous Model panel. The turbulent Schmidt number measures the relative diffusion of momentum and mass due to turbulence and is on the order of unity in all turbulent flows. Usually. Should you wish to modify the Schmidt number.2: Full Multicomponent Diffusion is not recommended for turbulent flows. you will have little reason to alter the default value (0. c Fluent Inc. select constant (the default) in the drop-down list below Coefficient.. 2006 8-75 . the mass diffusion is dominated by the turbulent transport as determined by the turbulent Schmidt number (Equation 8. Because the turbulent Schmidt number is an empirical constant that is relatively insensitive to the molecular fluid properties. you will define Di. enter a new value for Turb. and then enter the value in the field below the list.m or Dij . as defined in Equation 8.5 Mass Diffusion Coefficient Inputs for Turbulent Flow When your flow is turbulent. 8.8.i for the selected species either as a constant value or as a polynomial function of temperature: • To define a constant diffusion coefficient.9-4).9.2: Defining Properties Using Temperature-Dependent Functions. September 29.. Define DT.9.

and values at standard conditions can be found in combustion handbooks (e..10 Standard State Enthalpies When you are solving a reacting flow using the finite-rate or eddy dissipation model. each fluid material contained in the mixture material).j is the reference temperature at which h0 is defined. each fluid material contained in the mixture material). the fluid material in your domain should be assigned the properties of the unburned mixture. For each species involved in the reaction (i. you will need to define the standard state enthalpy (also known as the formation enthalpy or heat of formation).12 Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient If you are modeling premixed combustion (see Section 16: Modeling Premixed Combustion). 8-76 c Fluent Inc. 8.11-1) where Tref.e. you can set the Standard State Entropy and Reference Temperature in the Materials panel.j H= cp. 8. s0 for j each species j... 2006 .j dT T (8. you will need to use a third-party 1D combustion program with detailed chemistry.j dT (8.j S= cp. September 29.j is the reference temperature at which s0 is defined. h0 for each species j. which is also referred to as the thermal diffusivity. These inputs are used to define the mixture j enthalpy as mj h0 + j j T Tref.11 Standard State Entropies If you are using the finite-rate model with reversible reactions (see Section 14.1. you will need to define the standard state entropy.Physical Properties 8. These inputs are used to define the mixture entropy as m j s0 + j j T Tref. Standard state entropies j are input in units of J/kgmol-K in SI units or in units of Btu/lbm mol-◦ R in British units. you can set the Standard State Enthalpy and Reference Temperature in the Materials panel. To determine values at non-standard conditions.2-4). You can set the Molecular Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Materials panel. For each species involved in the reaction (i. α is defined as k/ρcp . Standard state enthalpies j are input in units of J/kg mol in SI units or in units of Btu/lbm mol in British units.10-1) where Tref.g.e.1: The Laminar Finite-Rate Model). [188]). including the molecular heat transfer coefficient (α in Equation 16.

2006 8-77 .13 Kinetic Theory Parameters You may choose to define the following properties using kinetic theory when the ideal gas law is enabled: • viscosity (for fluids) • thermal conductivity (for fluids) • specific heat capacity (for fluids) • mass diffusion coefficients (for multi-species mixtures) If you are using kinetic theory for a fluid’s viscosity (Equation 8. September 29. you will need to input the degrees of freedom for the fluid material. When kinetic theory is applied to calculation of a fluid’s thermal conductivity only.9-16). These parameters are the Lennard-Jones parameters and are referred to by FLUENT as the “characteristic length” and the “energy parameter” respectively. If you are going to calculate a fluid’s specific heat using kinetic theory (Equation 8. you will need to input the kinetic theory parameters σ and /kB for that fluid. no inputs are required. you will need to input σi and ( /kB )i for each chemical species i. If you use kinetic theory to define a mixture material’s mass diffusivity (Equation 8.13 Kinetic Theory Parameters 8. c Fluent Inc.4-9).8.7-5).

Appropriate values for different materials can be found in the literature (e.Physical Properties Inputs for Kinetic Theory The procedure for using kinetic theory is as follows: 1. This gives the simple relationship ∆p/p ∼ M2 . so that ∆p/p → 0 as M → 0. 8. where p is the static pressure and 2 γ is the ratio of specific heats. This section presents information about the operating pressure. If you are using kinetic theory for the mass diffusivity of a mixture material.1 The Effect of Numerical Roundoff on Pressure Calculation in Low-Mach-Number Flow In low-Mach-number compressible flow.. 2. 8-78 c Fluent Inc. 2006 . [144]). Therefore. low-Mach-number flow calculations are very susceptible to roundoff error. ∆p. and can be significantly affected by numerical roundoff. or heat capacity Cp of a fluid material.14 Operating Pressure Specification of the operating pressure affects your calculation in different ways for different flow regimes. unless adequate precaution is taken. 1 γpM2 . Degrees of freedom is a dimensionless input. Select kinetic-theory as the property specification method for the Viscosity. the overall pressure drop is small compared to the absolute static pressure. Characteristic length is defined in units of Angstroms. September 29. All kinetic theory parameters are set to zero by default. 8. To understand why this is true.14. Thermal Conductivity. you will define the kinetic theory parameters for each of the constituent species (fluid materials). consider a compressible flow with M << 1. The parameters to be set are as follows: • L-J Characteristic Length • L-J Energy Parameter • Degrees of Freedom (only required if kinetic theory is used for specific heat) See the beginning of this section to find out which parameters are required to calculate each property using kinetic theory. If the material for which you have selected the kinetic theory method for one or more properties is a fluid material. you must set the kinetic theory parameters for that material. its relevance for different cases. are related to the dynamic head. and how to set it correctly.g. The energy parameter is defined in units of absolute temperature. The pressure changes. or for the Mass Diffusivity of a mixture material.

it is common convention to use absolute pressures in such calculations.8. 2006 8-79 . so there is no real problem with roundoff error and there is therefore no real need to use gauge pressure. September 29. the operating pressure is not used in the density calculation. and Absolute Pressure FLUENT avoids the problem of roundoff error (discussed in Section 8. The absolute pressure is simply the sum of the operating pressure and the gauge pressure: pabs = pop + pgauge (8. and using the result (termed the gauge pressure). Note that the default operating pressure is 101325 Pa.6.14. See Section 9.14. Gauge Pressure. R You must therefore be sure to set the operating pressure appropriately. The relationship between the operating pressure. as described in Section 8. The pressure changes in such flows are much larger than those in low-Mach-number compressible flows. Mw Operating pressure is significant for low-Mach-number compressible flows because of its role in avoiding roundoff error problems. Since FLUENT always uses gauge pressure. c Fluent Inc. In fact. making gauge and absolute pressures equivalent.2 Operating Pressure.14. Gauge Pressure. you may want to specify a floating operating pressure instead of a constant operating pressure. 8.14.2: Operating Pressure. Again.14-1) All pressures that you specify and all pressures computed or reported by FLUENT are gauge pressures.14 Operating Pressure 8. and absolute pressure is shown below.4: Floating Operating Pressure for details.1: The Effect of Numerical Roundoff on Pressure Calculation in Low-Mach-Number Flow) by subtracting the operating pressure (generally a large pressure roughly equal to the average absolute pressure in the flow) from the absolute pressure. For time-dependent compressible flows. and Absolute Pressure. you must be sure to set the operating pressure appropriately. If the density is assumed constant or if it is derived from a profile function of temperature. Operating pressure is less significant for higher-Mach-number compressible flows. gauge pressure.3 Setting the Operating Pressure The Significance of Operating Pressure Operating pressure is significant for incompressible ideal gas flows because it directly determines the density: the incompressible ideal gas law computes density as ρ = popT . you can simply set the operating pressure to zero.

. 8. This is done using the pressure in the cell located at (or nearest to) the reference pressure location.14. September 29. you should use a value representative of the mean flow pressure. The pressure value in this cell is subtracted from the entire gauge pressure field. for a natural convection problem).Physical Properties How to Set the Operating Pressure The criteria for choosing a suitable operating pressure are based on the Mach-number regime of the flow and the relationship that is used to determine density. Table 8.1 shows the recommended approach for setting operating pressures. as a result.14.g. 8-80 c Fluent Inc.. the gauge pressure at the reference pressure location is always zero.15 Reference Pressure Location For incompressible flows that do not involve any pressure boundaries. 2006 . To place this discussion in perspective.. For example. the adjustment is not needed and the reference pressure location is ignored.1 Operating Pressure 0 or ≈ mean flow pressure ≈ mean flow pressure not used not used ≈ mean flow pressure ideal gas law profile function of temperature constant incompressible ideal gas law M < 0. Define −→Operating Conditions. Remember that the default operating pressure is 101325 Pa. if you use the ideal gas law in an incompressible flow calculation (e. If pressure boundaries are involved. FLUENT adjusts the gauge pressure field after each iteration to keep it from floating.1 incompressible incompressible incompressible You will set the Operating Pressure in the Operating Conditions panel.1: Recommended Settings for Operating Pressure Density Relationship ideal gas law Mach Number Regime M > 0. Table 8.

the actual location used as the pressure reference is different than that of your input value.Z) coordinates for Reference Pressure Location in the Operating Conditions panel.8.g. For example.. Define −→Operating Conditions.0). Therefore.Y. the flow of a refrigerant through a compressor) the flow cannot typically be modeled accurately using the idealgas assumption.1 Actual Reference Pressure Location For cases that have do not have pressure-related boundary conditions (e.. Note that reporting the actual reference pressure location is not available through the graphical user interface.16 Real Gas Models The reference pressure location is. c Fluent Inc.2: The User-Defined Real Gas Model Both models allow the user to solve for either a single-species fluid flow or a multiplespecies mixture fluid flow. 8. enter new (X.16. 2006 8-81 . pressure far-field. FLUENT sets the location of the reference pressure at a slightly different nearby location..16. by default. you need to specify the Reference Pressure Location at a point in the problem domain. Thus.0. Internally.1: The NIST Real Gas Models • Section 8.g. pressure outlet.15. The FLUENT density-based solvers provide two real gas options for solving this type of flows: • Section 8.. pressure inlet. 8. perhaps locating it at a point where the absolute static pressure is known (e.16 Real Gas Models Some engineering problems involve fluids that do not behave as ideal gases. the cell center at or closest to (0. To change the location. the real gas model allows you to solve accurately for the fluid flow and heat transfer problems where the working fluid behavior deviate from the ideal-gas assumption. September 29.). if you are planning to compare your results with experimental data). at very high-pressure or very low-temperature conditions (e.g. There may be cases in which you might want to move the reference pressure location. To report the actual reference pressure location that FLUENT uses.. use the following text command: define −→ operating-conditions −→used-ref-pressure-location i This text command is available only when the case is initialized and has no pressure-related boundary zones. etc.

• The mixture flow does not permit reactions Using the Real Gas Models When you enable one of the real gas models (NIST or User Defined) and select a valid material. Therefore. • Pressure-inlet. Calculate a solution and perform postprocessing. massflow-inlet. FLUENT’s functionality remains the same as when you model fluid flow and heat transfer using an ideal gas. with the exception of the Materials panel (see below).Physical Properties Real Gas Models Limitations The following limitations exist for the real gas models: • The real gas models can be used only with the density-based solvers. 3. 2. • Non-reflecting boundary conditions should not be used with the real gas models. all fluid zones must contain the real gas. the access to the Materials panel is restricted. Activate one of the real gas models. you cannot include a real gas and another fluid in the same problem. 2006 . if solid properties have to be set and modified then it should be done in the Materials panel before activating the real gas model. • When one of the real gas models is active. Enable one of the density-based solvers (whichever is appropriate for your case). September 29. 8-82 c Fluent Inc. Set up and write your case file. • The real gas models assume that the fluid you will be using in your FLUENT computation has the following characteristics: – single phase – superheated vapor • When the real gas model is used. and pressure-outlet are the only inflow and outflow boundaries available for use with the real gas models. 4. The information displayed in the Materials panel is not used by the solver because control of all relevant property evaluations is relinquished to the selected real gas model. The general procedure for using the real gas model is as follows: 1.

16 Real Gas Models Enabling the Density-Based Solver You can enable the density-based solver in the Solver panel. the linkage to the shared library containing real gas properties will be saved to the case file (along with property data for the material you selected in case of NIST the real gas model).8.. you will be able to activate one of the real gas models listed after typing the following text command at the FLUENT console prompt: define −→ user-defined −→real-gas The list of available real gas models will be displayed: nist-real-gas-model nist-multispecies-real-gas-model user-defined-real-gas-model user-defined-multispecies-real-gas-model The next sections provide additional information about activating and using these models. Define −→ Models −→Solver. The real gas models can be used with either the implicit or the explicit formulation. whenever you read your case file in a later session. Consequently. Activating the Real Gas Models When one of the density-based solvers is enabled. i The real gas models do not work with the pressure-based solvers. Writing Your Case File When you save your completed real gas model to a case file. FLUENT will load and report this information to the console during the read process. c Fluent Inc.. September 29. 2006 8-83 .

16. September 29. They use the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Mixtures Database Version 7. 8-84 c Fluent Inc.0) to evaluate thermodynamic and transport properties of approximately 39 pure fluids or a mixture of these fluids. and any information for a fluid that is displayed in the Materials panel is ignored by the solver.0 database is a shared library that is dynamically loaded into the solver when you activate one of the NIST real gas models in a FLUENT session.0 (REFPROP v7. or add custom materials to the NIST real gas model.1 The NIST Real Gas Models Overview and Limitations of the NIST Real Gas Models The NIST real gas models are available in the density-based solvers. The limitation on the real gas models listed in the previous section apply to NIST Real gas model in addition to the following: • You cannot modify material properties in the REFPROP database libraries. Once the NIST real gas model is activated. 2006 .Physical Properties Postprocessing All postprocessing functions properly report and display the current thermodynamic and transport properties of the selected real gas model. ratio of specific heats) 8. The thermodynamic and transport properties controlled by the real gas models include the following: • density • enthalpy • entropy • gas constant • molecular viscosity • sound speed • specific heat • thermal conductivity • any quantities that are derived from the properties listed above (e.g. The REFPROP v7. However. all postprocessing functions will properly report and display the current thermodynamic and transport properties of the real gas.. control of relevant property evaluations is relinquished to the REFPROP database. total quantities.

These equations are based on three models: • modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (MBWR) equation of state • Helmholtz-energy equation of state • extended corresponding states (ECS) For fluid consists of multispecies-mixture the thermodynamic properties are computed by employing mixing-rules applied to the Helmholtz energy of the mixture components. For details about these thermodynamic models.htm Table 8. September 29.8. The REFPROP v7. refer to Appendix B in the web-based REFPROP v7.16.1: Hydrocarbons and Refrigerants Supported by REFPROP v7. FLUENT’s functionality remains the same as when you model fluid flow and heat transfer using an ideal gas.0 database.1.nist.16. with the exception of the Materials panel (see below).0 and used in the NIST real gas model are listed in Table 8.0 database employs the most accurate pure-fluid equations of state that are currently available from NIST.0 Database The NIST real gas model uses 39 pure fluids from the REFPROP v7. The information displayed in the Materials panel is not used by the solver because control of all relevant property evaluations is relinquished to the REFPROP database. 2006 8-85 .16 Real Gas Models The REFPROP v7. c Fluent Inc.0 User’s Guide that is accessible from the NIST web site at: http://www.0 r23 r143a r245ca r141b r113 r218 isobutane methane r32 r152a r245fa r142b r114 rc318 propylene ethane r41 r227ea r22 r11 r115 ammonia nitrogen butane r125 r236ea r123 r12 r116 carbon dioxide oxygen water r134a r236fa r124 r13 r14 propane argon Using the NIST Real Gas Models When you enable one of the NIST real gas models (single-specie fluid or multiple-species mixture) and select a valid material. The pure-fluid refrigerants and hydrocarbons that are supported by REFPROP v7.gov/srd/nist23.

fld r218.fld isobutan.fld rc318. Select material from the REFPROP database list: If the single-specie real gas model is selected.fld r236fa.fld r142b.fld r115.fld r245ca.fld oxygen.fld r12.fld r32.fld r143a.fld ethane. 1.fld r23.fld r245fa.fld propane.fld r152a.fld r22.fld suffix) contained within quotes (" ").fld r134a. September 29.fld r11.fld r141b.fld r236ea.fld r113. and then you select the fluid material from the REFPROP database.fld argon. Activating one of the NIST real gas models is a two-step process.fld r124.fld r13. First you enable either the single-species NIST real gas model or the multi-species NIST real gas model.fld r41.fld water. 8-86 c Fluent Inc.fld r114.fld r125.fld propylen.fld methane.fld r227ea. you will be able to activate one of the NIST real gas models.fld co2. if you are solving for multi-specie mixture then you should enable the multi-species NIST real gas model by typing the following text command at the FLUENT console prompt: > define/user-defined/real-gas/nist-multispecies-real-gas-model use multispecies NIST real gas? [no] yes The list of available pure-fluid materials you can select from will be displayed: ammonia. then you need to enter the name of one fluid material when prompted: select real-gas data file [""] "r125.fld 2.fld" i You must enter the complete name of the material (including the . Enabling the appropriate NIST real gas model: If you are solving for a single-specie flow then you should enable the single-specie NIST real gas model by typing the following text command at the FLUENT console prompt: > define/user-defined/real-gas/nist-real-gas-model use NIST real gas? [no] yes On the other hand.fld r14.fld r123.fld butane. 2006 .fld r116.fld nitrogen.Physical Properties Activating the NIST Real Gas Model When the density-based solver is used.

021 !full name" Critical properties: Temperature : 339.3 (kg/m^3) Max Pressure : 6e+07 (Pa) c Fluent Inc. Setting material "air" to a real-gas.so". Matl name: : : Mol Wt : "R125" "pentafluoroethane "354-33-6" 120.. FLUENT will load data for that material from a library of pure fluids supported by the REFPROP database.Inc/fluent6.Inc/fluent6..779 (mol/L) 573.582 (kg/m^3) Equation Of State (EOS) used: Helmholtz Free Energy (FEQ) EOS:"FEQ Helmholtz equation of state for R-125 of Lemmon and Jacobsen (2002).52 (K) Max Temperature: 500 (K) Max Density : 1691.fld" select real-gas data file [""] "r22. r125.173 (K) Pressure : 3. September 29.2/realgas/lib/r125. then you need to enter the number of species in the mixture: Number of species [] 3 followed by the name of each fluid selected from the list shown above: select real-gas data file [""] "nitrogen. /usr/local/Fluent.g.." EOS Range of applicability Min Temperature: 172.52 (K) Max Temperature: 500 (K) Max Density : 1691.1 (kg/m^3) Max Pressure : 6e+07 (Pa) Thermal conductivity Range of applicability Min Temperature: 172..fld Opening "/usr/local/Fluent.6177e+06 (Pa) Density : 4.1 (kg/m^3) Max Pressure : 6e+07 (Pa) Viscosity Range of applicability Min Temperature: 172..fld" select real-gas data file [""] "co2.fld" Upon selection of a valid material (e.so) where the compiled REFPROP database source code is located.8. 2006 8-87 .fld).16 Real Gas Models If the multiple-species real gas model is selected.2/realgas/ ultra/librealgas.52 (K) Max Temperature: 500 (K) Max Density : 1692. and report that it is opening the shared library (librealgas.

any information for a fluid that is displayed in the Materials panel is ignored by FLUENT. 8-88 c Fluent Inc. not all combinations of species mixtures are allowed. It is important to realize that the real-gas properties in NIST are defined within a limited/bounded range. Therefore. converging a solution with real-gas model is in general done at much lower CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) value. you should expect the solution to converge at much slower rate with real-gas flow than when running ideal-gas flow. 2006 . and no real gas material is allowed to be created. September 29. In some combinations the mixing data will be estimated. It is possible that you specify flow at a state that is physically valid but otherwise not defined in the database. In such situation an error message generated by NIST will be returned and displayed on the FLUENT console. Finally.16. In some instances. In this situation the solution will diverge or immediately generate an error message on the FLUENT console as soon as the state crosses the limit of the database. Solution Strategies and Considerations for NIST Real Gas Model Simulation The flow modeling of NIST real-gas flow is much more complex and challenging than simple ideal-gas flow. This could be due to lack of data for one or more binary pairs. For mixture flows.Physical Properties i i Once the real gas model is activated. if you attempt to initialize the flow from an inlet flow conditions and an error message is generated from one of the property routines. It is important that the flow conditions you are prescribing fall within the range of the database. Also due to the complexity of the equations used in property evaluations.2 The User-Defined Real Gas Model Overview and Limitations of the User-Defined Real Gas Model The user-defined real gas model (UDRGM) has been developed for the FLUENT densitybased solvers to allow you to write your own custom real gas model to fit your particular modeling needs. a warning message will be displayed on the FLUENT console and the mixture material allowed to be created. The user defined real gas model allow the user to simulate a single-specie flow or multiple-species mixture flow. In this situation the divergence can be avoided by lowering the CFL value so a less aggressive convergence rate is adapted. the actual converged state is just within the bounded defined database but only transitory outside the range. It is recommended that you first attempt to converge your solution using first-order discretization then switch to second-order discretizations and re-iterate to convergence. then this is a good indicator that the flow conditions you have specified is not defined within the range of the database. 8.

5. Start FLUENT and set up your case file in the usual way. Compile your UDRGM C library and build a shared library file (you can use the available compiled UDF utilities in either the graphical user interface or the text command interface).Sample real gas function libraries are provided to assist you in writing your own UDRGM. 3. When using the UDRGM the robustness of the solver and the speed of flow convergence will largely depend on the complexity of the material properties you have defined in your UDF. Moreover. then the text command menu to use is: > define/user-defined/real-gas/user-defined-multispecies-real-gas-model use user multispecies defined real gas? [no] yes Upon activating the UDRGM. September 29. Create a C source code file that conforms to the format defined in this section. The procedure for using the UDRGM is defined below: 1.there are certain coding requirements that need to be followed when writing these functions. 2. It is important to understand the operational range of the property functions you are coding so you can simulate the flow within that range.16 Real Gas Models The UDRGM requires a library of functions written in the C programming language. 6. 2006 8-89 . the function library will now supply the fluid material properties for your case.8. Load your newly created UDRGM library via the text command menu: If single-species UDRGM to be used. then the text command menu is: > define/user-defined/real-gas/user-defined-real-gas-model use user defined real gas? [no] yes On the other hand. Run your calculation. if you are simulating multiple-species UDRGM flow. When UDRGM functions are compiled. 4. c Fluent Inc. they will be grouped in a shared library which later will be loaded and linked with the FLUENT executable. Define the real gas equation of state and all related thermodynamic and transport property equations.

The basic library requirements are as follows: • The code must contain the udf. void (*errorfunc)(char *format. Below. followed by a short description of the function. while for multiple-species flow return the species mass fractions in order defined by the user setup function. Note that ANYNAME can be any string of alphanumeric characters.. • You must use the principle set of functions listed below in your UDRGM library. . Can be used to read data and parameters related to your UDRGM.0 for single-specie flow. kg/m3 Yi [] = Species mass fraction i Yi [] return value of 1. however..h file inclusion directive at the beginning of the source code. char *f. and allows you to provide unique names to your library functions. • Any values that are passed to the solver by the UDRGM or returned by the solver to the UDRGM are assumed to be in SI units. These functions are the mechanism by which your thermodynamic property data are transferred to the FLUENT solver.Physical Properties Writing the UDRGM C Function Library Creating a UDRGM C function library is reasonably straightforward.. This allows the definitions for DEFINE macros and other FLUENT functions to be accessible during the compilation process. the UDRGM function names and argument lists are listed. void ANYNAME error(int err. DEFINE ON DEMAND) to be able to use the compiled UDFs utility (see the sample UDRGM codes provided below). your code must make use of specific function names and macros.e. Function inputs from the FLUENT solver consist of one or more of the following variables: T = Temperature. void ANYNAME Setup(Domain *domain. When writing UDF for multiple-species use this function to specify the number of species and the name of the species as shown in the multiple-species example. September 29. 8-90 c Fluent Inc.))performs model setup and initialization. • The code must include at least one of the UDF’s DEFINE functions (i. 2006 . Pa ρ = Density.). . int (*messagefunc) (char *format.. char *msg) prints error messages. which will be described in detail below. K p = Pressure. char *filename.

double ANYNAME thermal conductivity(double T. density and species massdT fraction if applicable. This is your equation of state. density and species massfraction if applicable. double Rho. double Rho. double yi[]) returns the value of dh at constant temperature as function of temperature. density and species mass-fraction if applicable. double ANYNAME mw(double yi[]) returns the fluid molecular weight. pressure and species mass-fraction if applicable. 2006 8-91 . double ANYNAME rho p(double T. double Rho. density and species massfraction if applicable. double yi[]) returns the enthalpy as a function of temperature. double ANYNAME enthalpy p(double T. double P. double ANYNAME enthalpy t(double T. double yi[]) returns the value of dρ at constant pressure as a function of temperature. double Rho. density and species mass-fraction if applicable. double yi[]) returns the value of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. double ANYNAME speed of sound(double T. double yi[]) returns the value of dρ at constant temperature as function of temperature. density and species massdp fraction if applicable. double ANYNAME viscosity(double T. double yi[]) returns the value dh of dT at constant pressure as function of temperature. double yi[]) returns the value of density as a function of temperature. double Rho. double Rho. double ANYNAME rho t(double T. double Rho. double Rho. September 29. double yi[]) returns the value of dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature. double Rho. density and species mass-fraction if applicable. double yi[]) returns the value of speed of sound as a function of temperature.16 Real Gas Models double ANYNAME density(double T. double Rho. i Since this function is called numerous times during each solver iteration. double ANYNAME entropy(double T. density and species mass-fraction if applicable. c Fluent Inc. double yi[]) returns the real gas specific heat at constant pressure as a function of temperature. density and species mass-fraction if applicable.8. it is important to make this function as numerically efficient as possible. density and species massdp fraction if applicable. double ANYNAME specific heat(double T. double yi[]) returns the entropy as a function of temperature. double ANYNAME enthalpy(double T.

The structure is of type RGAS Function and its name is RealGasFunctionList. This strategy is clearly illustrated in the multiple-specie real gas model example. /* viscosity */ ANYNAME_thermal_conductivity. 8-92 c Fluent Inc. These auxiliary functions will be called from the principle set of functions. /* thermal_conductivity */ ANYNAME_rho_t. when multiple-species real gas model UDF are written. UDF_EXPORT RGAS_Functions RealGasFunctionList = { ANYNAME_Setup. For example. /* entropy */ ANYNAME_specific_heat. your model may require further functions that will be called from the principle function set. /* specific_heat */ ANYNAME_mw. /* drho/dp |const T */ ANYNAME_enthalpy_t. Otherwise. /* Setup initialize */ ANYNAME_density. /* density */ ANYNAME_enthalpy. The principle set of functions shown above are the only functions in the UDRGM that will be interacting directly with the FLUENT code. September 29. /* drho/dT |const p */ ANYNAME_rho_p. /* dh/dT |const p */ ANYNAME_enthalpy_p /* dh/dp |const T */ }. the principle functions will return the mixture thermodynamic properties based on some specified mixing-law.Physical Properties At the end of the code you must define a structure of type RGAS Function whose members are pointers to the principle functions listed above. Therefore. 2006 . /* speed_of_sound */ ANYNAME_viscosity. In many cases. you may want to add further functions that will return the thermodynamic properties for the individual species. /* molecular_weight */ ANYNAME_speed_of_sound. /* enthalpy */ ANYNAME_entropy. i It is imperative that the sequence of function pointers shown below be followed. your real gas model will not load properly into the FLUENT code.

The UDRGM shared library is built in the same way that the FLUENT executable itself is built. This process requires the use of a C compiler. • You can now compile your UDRGM C code and build a shared library file using either the graphical interface or the text command interface.8. To use the UDRGM you will need to first build the UDRGM library by compiling your UDRGM C code and then loading the library into the FLUENT code..0 or higher). • Launch FLUENT. • Read your case file into FLUENT. Internally. v6. c Fluent Inc. you will need to ensure that a C++ compiler is installed before you can proceed (e. This shared library is then loaded into FLUENT (either at runtime or automatically when a case file is read) by a process called dynamic loading.g. where your case file resides.. The object libraries are specific to the computer architecture being used. Microsoft Visual C++. If you are using a PC. or when the job is run on a different type of computer. The general procedure for compiling UDRGM C code is as follows: • Place the UDRGM C code in your working directory. However.e. i To build UDRGM library you will use the compiled UDF utilities. therefore.16 Real Gas Models Compiling Your UDRGM C Functions and Building a Shared Library File This section presents the steps you will need to follow to compile your UDRGM C code and build a shared library file. 2006 8-93 . you will not use the UDF utilities to load the library. be rebuilt any time FLUENT is upgraded. as well as to the particular version of the FLUENT executable being run. September 29. The libraries must. when the computer’s operating system level changes. i. A separate loading area for the UDRGM library will be used. Most UNIX operating systems provide a C compiler as a standard feature. a script called Makefile is used to invoke the system C compiler to build an object code library that contains the native machine language translation of your higher-level C source code.

If you do not have an extra header file then hit <Enter> when prompted. • Continue on with the procedure when prompted.g. • Enter the compiled UDF library name.g. 2006 . then the compiled library will be placed in the appropriate architecture directory (e. if you hit <Enter> then a directory should exist with the name libudf. then a directory called myrealgas will be created and it will contain the library libudf. However. 8-94 c Fluent Inc. you can split them into separate files if desired.so (libudf.Physical Properties Compiling the UDRGM Using the Graphical Interface Please refer to the separate UDF Manual for information on compiled UDFs and building libraries using the FLUENT graphical user interface. • Enter the C source file names. • Select the compile option.. however. If the build is successful. if applicable. libudf) will reside. By default the library name is libudf. i The name given here is the name of the directory where the shared library (e. If. September 29. • Enter the header file names. i Ideally you should place all of your functions into a single file. Compiling the UDRGM Using the Text Interface The UDRGM library can be compiled in the text command interface as follows: • Select the menu item define −→ user-defined −→compiled-functions.dll on Windows). ntx86/2d).. you type a new library name such as myrealgas. For example. and this directory will contain library file called libudf.

h <RETURN> c Fluent Inc. September 29.8. 2006 8-95 . Continue?[yes] <RETURN> Give C-Source file names: First file name: [""] my_c_file. Example: > define/user-defined/compiled-functions load OR compile ? [load]> compile Compiled UDF library name: ["libudf"] my_lib Make sure that UDF source files are in the directory that contains your case and data files.c <RETURN> Next file name: [""] <RETURN> Give header file names: First file name: [""] my_header_file.16 Real Gas Models FLUENT will then start compiling the UDRGM C code and put it in the appropriate architecture directory. If you have an existing libudf directory. please remove this directory to ensure that latest files are used.

Physical Properties Loading the UDRGM Shared Library File To load the UDRGM library: • Go to the following menu item in the text command interface. September 29. define −→ user-defined −→real-gas • Select either user-defined-real-gas-model if you are modeling a single-specie real gas fluid or user-defined-multispecies-real-gas-model if you are modeling a multiple-species fluid-mixture... You can enter either the name of the directory where the UDRGM shared library is called or the entire path to the UDRGM shared library. Real-RealGasPrefexLable Library: 8-96 c Fluent Inc. • Turn on the real gas model.. 2006 .so" opened material "air" to a real-gas.. If the loading of the UDRGM library is successful you will or the message similar to the following: Opening Library Setting Loading user-defined realgas library "RealgasLibraryname". For single-specie: use user defined real gas? [no] yes For multiple-specie: use multispecies user defined real gas? [no] yes FLUENT will ask for the location of the user-defined real gas library. "RealgasDirName/lnx86/2d/libudf.

September 29.16-1) The specific heat is defined to be constant Cp = 1006. therefore. The enthalpy is. p T Cp H S ρ c R = = = = = = = = pressure temperature specific heat enthalpy entropy density speed of sound universal gas constant/molecular weight The ideal gas equation of state can be written in terms of pressure and temperature as ρ= p RT (8.16-3) where Tref = 288. defined as H = Cp T and entropy is given by T Tref pref p (8. In this simple example.16 Real Gas Models UDRGM Example: Ideal Gas Equation of State This section describes an example of a user-defined real gas model. 2006 8-97 . You can use this example as the basis for your own UDRGM code.16-5) =− p p ρ =− 2 RT T (8. the standard ideal gas equation of state is used in the UDRGM.16-6) c Fluent Inc.16-2) S = Cp log + R log (8.16-4) dρ dp dρ dT = T (8.42.8.15 K and pref = 101325 Pa The speed of sound is simply defined as R (Cp − R) 1 RT c= The density derivatives are: T Cp (8.

. September 29.f.). } 8-98 c Fluent Inc.h" #include "stdio.Physical Properties The enthalpy derivatives are: dH dT dH dp = T = Cp p (8. char *f. the access to the Materials panel will be restricted.16-7) Cp p dρ 1− =0 ρR ρ dp (8. static void (*usersError)(char *. for single gas (Kg/Kmol) */ #define RGAS (UNIVERSAL_GAS_CONSTANT/MW) static int (*usersMessage)(char *.).h" #include "stdarg.err.. DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(I_do_nothing) { /* This is a dummy function to allow us to use */ /* the Compiled UDFs utility */ } void IDEAL_error(int err.966 /* molec.. char *msg) { if (err) usersError("IDEAL_error (%d) from function: %s\n%s\n". wt.h" #define MW 28..h" #include "ctype. you will be using the equation of state and other fluid properties from this library rather than the one built into the FLUENT code. therefore.16-8) When you activate the real gas model and load the library successfully into FLUENT. 2006 .msg)... Ideal Gas UDRGM Code Listing /**********************************************************************/ /* User Defined Real Gas Model : */ /* For Ideal Gas Equation of State */ /* */ /**********************************************************************/ #include "udf.

int (*messagefunc)(char *format. filename)... .43. double press. } double IDEAL_density(double Temp.01325e5 double IDEAL_entropy(double Temp. return cp. char *filename. /* (J/Kg/K) */ } /* (J/Kg) */ /* (J/Kg/K) */ /* (Kg/m^3) */ c Fluent Inc. } double IDEAL_enthalpy(double Temp. density. double yi[]) { double r = press/(RGAS*Temp). usersError = errorfunc.. /* Density at Temp & press */ return r. September 29. usersMessage("\nLoading Real-Ideal Library: %s\n". return s. double yi[]) { double cp=1006.8. return h.16 Real Gas Models void IDEAL_Setup(Domain *domain. } #define TDatum 288. yi).)) { /* Use this function for any initialization or model setups*/ usersMessage = messagefunc. 2006 8-99 . double yi[]) { double h=Temp*IDEAL_specific_heat(Temp. double density. double density.yi)*log(fabs(Temp/TDatum))+ RGAS*log(fabs(PDatum/(RGAS*Temp*density))). void (*errorfunc)(char *format. . double density.density.). double yi[]) { double s=IDEAL_specific_heat(Temp.15 #define PDatum 1.. } double IDEAL_specific_heat(double Temp.

return mu. return sqrt(Temp*cp*RGAS/(cp-RGAS)). double yi[]) { double ktc=0.yi). } /* (Kg/Kmol) */ double IDEAL_speed_of_sound(double Temp. double density. double yi[]) { double cp=IDEAL_specific_heat(Temp. double yi[]) { /* derivative of rho wrt.0/(RGAS*Temp). Temp at constant p */ double rho_t=-density/Temp. pressure at constant T */ double rho_p=1. } double IDEAL_viscosity(double Temp. } double IDEAL_thermal_conductivity(double Temp.Physical Properties double IDEAL_mw(double yi[]) { return MW.0242. double density. return ktc. } double IDEAL_rho_t(double Temp. return rho_p. double yi[]) { /* derivative of rho wrt.7894e-05. return rho_t. double density. } double IDEAL_rho_p(double Temp. double yi[]) { double mu=1.density. double density. 2006 . September 29. double density. } /* (Kg/m^3/Pa) */ /* (Kg/m^3/K) */ /* W/m/K */ /* (Kg/m/s) */ /* m/s */ 8-100 c Fluent Inc.

pressure at constant T */ /* general form dh/dp|T = (1/rho)*[ 1 + (T/rho)*drho/dT|p] */ /* but for ideal gas dh/dp = 0 */ return 0. /* entropy */ IDEAL_specific_heat. 2006 8-101 . double yi[]) { /* derivative of enthalpy wrt. September 29. /* drho/dp |const T */ IDEAL_enthalpy_t. /* initialize */ IDEAL_density. /* specific_heat */ IDEAL_mw. /* dh/dT |const p */ IDEAL_enthalpy_p /* dh/dp |const T */ }. /**************************************************************/ c Fluent Inc. Temp at constant p */ return IDEAL_specific_heat(Temp. double density. yi).0 . /* speed_of_sound */ IDEAL_viscosity.16 Real Gas Models double IDEAL_enthalpy_t(double Temp. density.8. /* viscosity */ IDEAL_thermal_conductivity. } UDF_EXPORT RGAS_Functions RealGasFunctionList = { IDEAL_Setup. double yi[]) { /* derivative of enthalpy wrt. } double IDEAL_enthalpy_p(double Temp. /* drho/dT |const p */ IDEAL_rho_p. /* density */ IDEAL_enthalpy. /* enthalpy */ IDEAL_entropy. /* thermal_conductivity */ IDEAL_rho_t. double density. /* molecular_weight */ IDEAL_speed_of_sound.

Specific Volume and Density The Redlich-Kwong equation of state can be written in the following form: p= where RT a(T ) − (V − ˜ b) V (V + b0 ) n (8. pc RTc RTc . You can use this example as the basis for your own UDRGM code. the Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used in the UDRGM. September 29.08664 . In this example. a(T ) = a0 ρ T b0 = 0. ˜ = b0 − c0 b pc pc + Vc (Va0+b0 ) c 8-102 c Fluent Inc. c0 = + b0 − Vc . The model is based on a modified form of the Redlich-Kwong equation of state described in [14]. This section summarizes the equations used in developing the UDRGM for the RedlichKwong equation of state.42747 R2 Tc2 . 2006 . a0 = 0.Physical Properties UDRGM Example: Redlich-Kwong Equation of State This section describes another example of a user-defined real gas model.16-9) 1 Tc V = . and the subscript c designates a critical point property. The equations used in this UDRGM will be listed in the sections below. The following nomenclature applies to this section: a(T ) c Cp H n p R T S V ρ = = = = = = = = = = = Redlich-Kwong temperature function speed of sound specific heat enthalpy exponent in function a(T ) pressure universal gas constant/molecular weight temperature entropy specific volume density The superscript 0 designates a reference state.

0 pc (8.16-10 is solved using a standard algorithm for cubic equations (see [351] for details).16-9 must be solved for the specific volume (from which the density can be easily obtained). Equation 8. Alternatively. a3 = − p p p p (8. the cubic solution is coded to minimize the number of floating point operations. In the UDRGM code. [14] states that values of n are well correlated by the empirical equation n = 0.475ω 2 where ω is the acentric factor.16-11) (8. Equation 8. n.8. a2 = − ˜ 0 + bb − . A table of values can be found in [14] for some common substances. 2006 8-103 . since this function gets called numerous times during an iteration cycle. September 29. c Fluent Inc. For convenience. This is critical for optimal performance.16-9 can be written as a cubic equation for specific volume as follows: V 3 + a1 V 2 + a2 V + a3 = 0 where a1 = c 0 − RT RT b0 a(T ) a(T ) ˜ b .16 Real Gas Models Since the real gas model in FLUENT requires a function for density as a function of pressure and temperature.4986 + 1.7Tc . in the function a(T ) will depend on the substance. pv (T ) is the saturated vapor pressure evaluated at temperature T = 0. defined as ω = − log pv (T ) − 1.16-12) In the above equation.1735ω + 0. It should be noted that the value of the exponent.16-10) Equation 8.

(a3 )p = 2 2 2 p p p da(T ) dT −Rb0 + R (a1 )T = − .16-13) (8.16-15) T = −ρ2 p (8.16-9 using implicit differentiation. (a2 )T = p p .16-16) p 8-104 c Fluent Inc. (a3 )T = − da(T ) ˜ da(T ) b a(T ) .16-14) = − p RT RT b0 − a(T ) a(T ) ˜ b . The results are presented below: ∂V ∂p ∂V ∂T where (a1 )p = = − T (a1 )p V 2 + (a2 )p V + (a3 )p 3V 2 + 2a1 V + a2 (a1 )T V 2 + (a2 )T V + (a3 )T 3V 2 + 2a1 V + a2 (8. = −n dT p dT T The derivatives of density can be obtained from the above using the relations ∂ρ ∂p ∂ρ ∂T = −ρ2 T ∂V ∂p ∂V ∂T (8. September 29.Physical Properties Derivatives of Specific Volume and Density The derivatives of specific volume with respect to temperature and pressure can be easily determined from Equation 8. (a2 )p = . 2006 .

the derivative of enthalpy with respect to pressure (at constant temperature) can be obtained using the following thermodynamic relation [252]: ∂H ∂p =V −T T ∂V ∂T (8. In the present case..e.16-18) and obtain the enthalpy from the basic relation H 0 (T ) = The result is 1 1 1 1 H 0 (T ) = C1 T + C2 T 2 + C3 T 3 + C4 T 4 + C5 T 5 − H 0 (T 0 ) 2 3 4 5 (8. 2006 8-105 . September 29.16-20) T T0 0 Cp (T )dT (8.16-23) p c Fluent Inc.16 Real Gas Models Specific Heat and Enthalpy Following [14]. we employ a fourth-order polynomial for the specific heat for a thermally perfect gas [252] 0 Cp (T ) = C1 + C2 T + C3 T 2 + C4 T 3 + C5 T 4 (8.16-22) Finally. T 0 ). enthalpy for a real gas can be written H = H 0 (T ) + pV − RT − a(T ) V + b0 (1 + n) ln b0 V (8.16-17 with respect to temperature (at constant pressure): ∂H ∂T Cp = The result is (8. enthalpy is a function of temperature alone). The specific heat for the real gas can be obtained by differentiating Equation 8. which can be chosen arbitrarily.16-19) Note that H 0 (T 0 ) is the enthalpy at a reference state (p0 .16-17) where H 0 (T ) is the enthalpy function for a thermally perfect gas (i.8.16-21) p Cp = 0 Cp (T ) ∂V +p ∂T da(T ) (1 + n) V + b0 −R− ln dT b0 V p + a(T )(1 + n) ∂V ∂T p V (V + b0 ) (8.

16-25 becomes 1 1 1 S 0 (T. 2006 . Speed of Sound The speed of sound for a real gas can be determined from the thermodynamic relation c2 = Noting that.16-26) 2 3 4 where f (T 0 ) is a constant. the entropy can be expressed in the form b V −˜ S = S (T. p0 ) + C1 ln(T ) + C2 T + C3 T 2 + C4 T 3 + C5 T 4 − f (T 0 ) (8. September 29.16-27) ∂V ∂T 2 p ∂p ∂v (8. p0 . which can be absorbed into the reference entropy S(T 0 . Equation 8. p ) + R ln + 0 V 0 0 da(T ) dT b0 ln V + b0 V (8. p0 ) = S(T 0 .16-29) 8-106 c Fluent Inc. the entropy is given by S 0 (T.16-18. Equation 8.16-24) where the superscript 0 again refers to a reference state where the ideal gas law is applicable. p0 ) = S(T 0 .Physical Properties Entropy Following [14]. p0 ) + T T0 0 Cp (T ) dT T (8. Using the polynomial expression for specific heat. Cp − CV = −T we can write the speed of sound as Cp Cp − ∆C 1 ∂V ∂p T ∂p ∂ρ =− S Cp CV V2 ∂V ∂p T (8.16-25) Note that the pressure term is zero since the entropy is evaluated at the reference pressure. p0 ).16-28) T c=V − (8. For an ideal gas at a fixed reference pressure.

Tr is the reduced temperature Tr = T Tc (8. Using the Redlich-Kwong Real Gas UDRGM Using the Redlich-Kwong Real Gas UDRGM simply requires the modification of the top block of #define macros to provide the appropriate parameters for a given substance. CC2.1666 Tr1.5 Tr + 0.5 Mw p0.16-32 are simple relations. 2006 8-107 .6666 c Tc0.16-32) It should be noted that both Equation 8. CC3.16-31) 0.16-30 and 8. which usually becomes significant only at very high pressures. CC4.8 (8.16 Real Gas Models Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity The dynamic viscosity of a gas or vapor can be estimated using the following formula from [56]: µ(T ) = 6.16-30) and Mw is the molecular weight of the gas.8. and therefore may not provide satisfactory values of viscosity and thermal conductivity for certain applications. You are encouraged to modify these functions in the UDRGM source code if alternate formulae are available for a given gas. The parameters required are: MWT = PCRIT = TCRIT = ZCRIT = VCRIT = NRK = CC1.3 × 107 Here. Knowing the viscosity. CC5 = P REF = T REF = Molecular weight of the substance Critical pressure (Pa) Critical temperature (K) Critical compressibility factor Critical specific volume (m3 /kg) Exponent of a(T ) function Coefficients of Cp (T ) polynomial curve fit Reference pressure (Pa) Reference temperature (K) c Fluent Inc. This formula neglects the effect of pressure on viscosity. An example listing for CO2 is given below. the thermal conductivity can be estimated using the Eucken formula [93]: 5 k = µ Cp + R 4 (8. September 29.

77 /* IDEAL GAS SPECIFIC HEAT CURVE FIT */ #define #define #define #define #define CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 453.21 ZCRIT 0.15 8-108 c Fluent Inc. September 29.65014 -1.2769 VCRIT 2. 2006 .3834e6 TCRIT 304.577 1.141592654 #define #define #define #define #define #define MWT 44.00 /* REFERENCE STATE */ #define P_REF #define T_REF 101325 288.01 PCRIT 7.15517e-3 NRK 0. Once the source listing is modified. /* The variables below need to be set for a particular gas */ /* CO2 */ /* REAL GAS EQUATION OF STATE MODEL . the UDRGM C code can be recompiled and loaded into FLUENT in the manner described earlier.BASIC VARIABLES */ /* ALL VARIABLES ARE IN SI UNITS! */ #define RGASU UNIVERSAL_GAS_CONSTANT #define PI 3.24814e-3 3.78201e-7 0.Physical Properties The coefficients for the ideal gas specific heat polynomial were obtained from [252] (coefficients for other substances are also provided in [252]).

16 Real Gas Models Redlich-Kwong Real Gas UDRGM Code Listing /**************************************************************/ /* */ /* User-Defined Function: Redlich-Kwong Equation of State */ /* for Real Gas Modeling */ /* */ /* Author: Frank Kelecy */ /* Date: May 2003 */ /* Version: 1.h" /* The variables below need to be set for a particular gas */ /* CO2 */ /* REAL GAS EQUATION OF STATE MODEL . September 29.h" "ctype.h" "stdarg.3834e6 TCRIT 304. */ /* */ /**************************************************************/ #include #include #include #include "udf.15517e-3 NRK 0. 2006 8-109 .02 */ /* */ /* This implementation is completely general.21 ZCRIT 0.h" "stdio.141592654 #define #define #define #define #define #define MWT 44.8.01 PCRIT 7.77 c Fluent Inc.2769 VCRIT 2.BASIC VARIABLES */ /* ALL VARIABLES ARE IN SI UNITS! */ #define RGASU UNIVERSAL_GAS_CONSTANT #define PI 3. */ /* Parameters set for CO2.

.f. 2006 . bb.65014 -1. } 8-110 c Fluent Inc.0 static int (*usersMessage)(char *. static void (*usersError)(char *. char *msg) { if (err) usersError("RKEOS_error (%d) from function: %s\n%s\n". c0.). /* Static variables associated with Redlich-Kwong Model */ static double rgas.78201e-7 0. September 29..15 /* OPTIONAL REFERENCE (OFFSET) VALUES FOR ENTHALPY AND ENTROPY */ #define H_REF #define S_REF 0.err. char *f.. cp_int_ref.). b0. DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(I_do_nothing) { /* this is a dummy function to allow us */ /* to use the compiled UDFs utility */ } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_error */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ void RKEOS_error(int err. a0.0 0.Physical Properties /* IDEAL GAS SPECIFIC HEAT CURVE FIT */ #define #define #define #define #define CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 453.msg)..24814e-3 3.577 1...00 /* REFERENCE STATE */ #define P_REF #define T_REF 101325 288.

usersMessage("\nLoading Redlich-Kwong Library: %s\n".42747*rgas*rgas*TCRIT*TCRIT/PCRIT. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp.)) { rgas = RGASU/MWT. } c Fluent Inc. void (*messagefunc)(char *format. September 29.25*CC5*T_REF))). char *filename. a0 = 0.8. c0 = rgas*TCRIT/(PCRIT+a0/(VCRIT*(VCRIT+b0)))+b0-VCRIT. filename). b0 = 0.5*CC3+T_REF*(0. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_pressure */ /* Returns density given T and density */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_pressure(double temp.08664*rgas*TCRIT/PCRIT.NRK). bb = b0-c0./density. return rgas*temp/(v-bb)-afun/(v*(v+b0)). double density) { double v = 1.16 Real Gas Models /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_Setup */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ void RKEOS_Setup(Domain *domain. .)... usersMessage = messagefunc. 2006 8-111 . cp_int_ref = CC1*log(T_REF)+T_REF*(CC2+ T_REF*(0.333333*CC4+0. void (*errorfunc)(char *format... usersError = errorfunc. .

Physical Properties /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_spvol */ /* Returns specific volume given T and P */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_spvol(double temp.dd. dd = qq3-rr*rr.. then we have one real root */ /* If dd >= 0.. /* Solve cubic equation for specific volume */ qq = (a1*a1-3.)-a1/3.333333).*a3)/54.NRK). double vv. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp. } 8-112 c Fluent Inc. September 29. vv = (vv1 > vv2) ? vv1 : vv2.. vv = (vv > vv3) ? vv : vv3.)-a1/3.sqq.*PI)/3. a1 = c0-rgas*temp/press.*sqq*cos(tt/3. vv = (tt+qq/tt)-a1/3.a3. qq3 = qq*qq*qq. then we have three roots -> choose largest root */ if (dd < 0.vv1.) { tt = sqrt(-dd)+pow(fabs(rr). double press) { double a1..qq3. /* If dd < 0. vv3 = -2. a2 = -(bb*b0+rgas*temp*b0/press-afun/press).*sqq*cos((tt+4.)-a1/3. } else { tt = acos(rr/sqrt(qq3)). sqq = sqrt(qq). rr = (2*a1*a1*a1-9.0.. vv2 = -2.rr. double qq. vv1 = -2. a3 = -afun*bb/press.a2.*a1*a2+27.vv3.vv2. 2006 ..tt.*a2)/9.*PI)/3. } return vv.*sqq*cos((tt+2.

a1p. return -(a3p+v*(a2p+v*a1p))/(a2+v*(2.8. 2006 8-113 .a3p. double density) { double a1.a2. } c Fluent Inc. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp.press.*v)). press = RKEOS_pressure(temp./RKEOS_spvol(temp. a2 = -(bb*b0+rgas*temp*b0/press-afun/press). double press. a2p = a1p*b0-afun/(press*press). press)./density.*a1+3.16 Real Gas Models /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_density */ /* Returns density given T and P */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_density(double temp. density). v = 1. a1p = rgas*temp/(press*press). /* (Kg/m3) */ } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_dvdp */ /* Returns dv/dp given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_dvdp(double temp.v. September 29. a3p = afun*bb/(press*press).a2p. double yi[]) { return 1. a1 = c0-rgas*temp/press.NRK).

v. a1t = -rgas/press.*a1+3. a2 = -(bb*b0+rgas*temp*b0/press-afun/press). density). } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_Cp_ideal_gas */ /* Returns ideal gas specific heat given T */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_Cp_ideal_gas(double temp) { return (CC1+temp*(CC2+temp*(CC3+temp*(CC4+temp*CC5)))). 2006 . a2t = a1t*b0+dadt/press.2*CC5)))).5*CC2+temp*(0. } 8-114 c Fluent Inc./density. v = 1.a3t. September 29.press.a2t. a3t = -dadt*bb/press.a2. return -(a3t+v*(a2t+v*a1t))/(a2+v*(2. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp.*v)).333333*CC3+ temp*(0.25*CC4+temp*0. double density) { double a1. press = RKEOS_pressure(temp.NRK). a1 = c0-rgas*temp/press.dadt.Physical Properties /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_dvdt */ /* Returns dv/dT given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_dvdt(double temp. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_H_ideal_gas */ /* Returns ideal gas specific enthalpy given T */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_H_ideal_gas(double temp) { return temp*(CC1+temp*(0. dadt = -NRK*afun/temp.a1t.

+NRK)/b0*log((v+b0)/v) + afun*(1. double yi[]) { double delta_Cp. press = RKEOS_pressure(temp. delta_h = press*v-rgas*temp-afun*(1+NRK)/b0*log((v+b0)/v).v. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp. press = RKEOS_pressure(temp. density). } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_enthalpy */ /* Returns specific enthalpy given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_enthalpy(double temp. 2006 8-115 . v = 1. return H_REF+RKEOS_H_ideal_gas(temp)+delta_h. September 29.16 Real Gas Models /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_specific_heat */ /* Returns specific heat given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_specific_heat(double temp.NRK). double density.press. dadt = -NRK*afun/temp. double yi[]) { double delta_h . return RKEOS_Cp_ideal_gas(temp)+delta_Cp. delta_Cp = press*dvdt-rgas-dadt*(1./density. dvdt = RKEOS_dvdt(temp.press.dvdt. v = 1.NRK). double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp.8.dadt. v.+NRK)*dvdt/(v*(v+b0)). density)./density. } /* (J/Kg) */ /* (J/Kg-K) */ c Fluent Inc. density). double density.

NRK). double density.cp_int_ref.v. delta_s = rgas*log((v-bb)/v0)+dadt/b0*log((v+b0)/v). double yi[]) { double delta_s.cp_integral. dadt = -NRK*afun/temp./density.5*CC3+ temp*(0. v = 1.Physical Properties /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_entropy */ /* Returns entropy given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_entropy(double temp. double afun = a0*pow(TCRIT/temp. v0 = rgas*temp/P_REF.25*CC5*temp))) . /* (Kg/Kmol) */ } 8-116 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .333333*CC4+0. /* (J/Kg-K) */ } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_mw */ /* Returns molecular weight */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_mw(double yi[]) { return MWT.dadt. September 29. return S_REF+cp_integral+delta_s.v0. cp_integral = CC1*log(temp)+temp*(CC2+temp*(0.

/density. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_enthalpy_t */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_enthalpy_t(double temp. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_rho_p */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_rho_p(double temp. double dvdt = RKEOS_dvdt(temp. density).s given T and rho */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_speed_of_sound(double temp. double yi[]) { return RKEOS_specific_heat(temp. yi). September 29. density). density). } /* m/s */ c Fluent Inc.o. density). double v = 1. double density. double yi[]) { return -density*density*RKEOS_dvdt(temp. 2006 8-117 . double density. double yi[]) { return -density*density*RKEOS_dvdp(temp. double delta_c = -temp*dvdt*dvdt/dvdp. return sqrt(cp/((delta_c-cp)*dvdp))*v.8. density. double density. yi). double dvdp = RKEOS_dvdp(temp. density. double yi[]) { double cp = RKEOS_specific_heat(temp. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_rho_t */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_rho_t(double temp.16 Real Gas Models /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_speed_of_sound */ /* Returns s. double density.

pcatm.tc.tr. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_thermal_conductivity */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_thermal_conductivity(double temp. density). cp = RKEOS_Cp_ideal_gas(temp).16666)* (pow(tr. double dvdt = RKEOS_dvdt(temp.3e-7*sqrt(MWT)*pow(pcatm. September 29. tr = temp/TCRIT. tc = TCRIT. } 8-118 c Fluent Inc.25*rgas)*mu.1. double density. return (cp+1.6666)/pow(tc. double yi[]) { double mu.Physical Properties /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_enthalpy_p */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_enthalpy_p(double temp. density. } /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* FUNCTION: RKEOS_viscosity */ /*------------------------------------------------------------*/ double RKEOS_viscosity(double temp. double density. double density. double yi[]) { double cp. return v-temp*dvdt. mu = 6. yi). return mu. mu = RKEOS_viscosity(temp.5)/(tr+0. mu.8)).0.0. 2006 . pcatm = PCRIT/101325./density. double yi[]) { double v = 1..

/* initialize RKEOS_density. 2006 8-119 . In this example a fluid material is defined in the setup function as a mixture of four species (H20. /* density RKEOS_enthalpy.8. /* entropy RKEOS_specific_heat.16 Real Gas Models /* Export Real Gas Functions to Solver */ UDF_EXPORT RGAS_Functions RealGasFunctionList = { RKEOS_Setup. The example also provide numerical method of computing dρ dρ dh . The equation of state was the simple ideal gas equation of state. /* viscosity RKEOS_thermal_conductivity. /* dh/dT |const p RKEOS_enthalpy_p /* dh/dp |const T }. */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ UDRGM Example: Multiple-Species Real Gas Model This is a simple example for multiple-species real gas model that provide you with a template which you can use to write a more complex multiple-species UDRGM.c 1. /* drho/dT |const p RKEOS_rho_p. /* drho/dp |const T RKEOS_enthalpy_t. September 29. /* *sccs id: @(#)real_ideal. CO2). /* thermal_conductivity RKEOS_rho_t. /* specific_heat RKEOS_mw. . /* speed_of_sound RKEOS_viscosity. All Rights Reserved c Fluent Inc. Other auxiliary functions are written to provide individual species property to the principle function set.10 Copyright 1900/11/09 Fluent Inc. dT dp dT and dh dp . . /* enthalpy RKEOS_entropy. The other thermodynamic properties where defined by an ideal-gas mixing law. N2. O2. */ /* * * * Copyright 1988-1998 Fluent Inc. /* molecular_weight RKEOS_speed_of_sound.

copyright law as an unpublished work and is furnished pursuant to a written license agreement. You must NOT reference any Fluent globals directly from within this module nor link this against any Fluent libs. ref_T.).h" "ctype..e-10 #endif #define NCMAX 20 #define NSPECIE_NAME 80 static int (*usersMessage)(char *.exe and thus won’t be version-independent.... September 29.Physical Properties * * * * * * */ This is unpublished proprietary source code of Fluent Inc. #include #include #include #include "udf. or disclosed to others except in accordance with the terms and conditions of the license agreement. static int n_specs. It is protected by U. double Mixture_Rgas(double yi[]). 2006 . /* * * * * * * * */ NT Warning!!! Including udf..h" "stdio.e-20 #else #define SMALL 1. 8-120 c Fluent Inc.h is for getting definitions for Fluent constructs such as Domain.).h" #if RP_DOUBLE #define SMALL 1. static char gas[NCMAX][NSPECIE_NAME]. static double ref_p. copied. It is considered by Fluent to be confidential and may not be used.S.. static void (*usersError)(char *. doing so will cause dependancies on a specific Fluent binary such as fl551.h" "stdarg.

. double Rho. Rgas_i(double T. 2006 8-121 . char *f.). User must enter the number of species in the mixture and the name of the individual species. int i). K_i(double T. ABS_P(RP_Get_Real("reference-pressure"). RP_Get_Real("reference-temperature"). .. */ int i . . September 29. errorfunc. double r. Gm_i(double T.16 Real Gas Models double double double double double double double Mixture_pressure(double Temp.op_pres). double yi[]). void (*errorfunc)(char *format. usersMessage usersError ref_p ref_T = = = = messagefunc.)) { /* This function will be called from Fluent after the UDF library has been loaded. char *msg) { if (err) usersError("Mixture_error (%d) from function: %s\n%s\n". Cp_i(double T.msg).f.. double r. Mu_i(double T. int (*messagefunc)(char *format. double r.err. int i). double r. Mw_i(int i). int i). c Fluent Inc. int i)..8. char *specielist. int i). DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(I_do_nothing) { /* This is a dummy function must be included to allow for the use of the Fluent UDF compilation utility */ } void Mixture_error(int err. double r. } /*******************************************************************/ /* Mixture Functions */ /* These are the only functions called from Fluent Code */ /*******************************************************************/ void MIXTURE_Setup(Domain *domain.

++i) { strcat(specielist. .gas[i]). for (i=1. (void)strcpy(gas[0]. ."H2O") (void)strcpy(gas[1]. ++i) { Message0("\n MIXTURE_Setup: Specie[%d] = %s \n". i<n_specs. i<n_specs."CO2") . 2006 .0 .gas[i]).gas[0]). } } 8-122 c Fluent Inc. September 29. ref_p = 101325.i. strcat(specielist. /*====================================================*/ /*========= End Of User Input Section ==============*/ /*====================================================*/ Message0("\n MIXTURE_Setup: RealGas mixture initialization \n").n_specs)."N2") (void)strcpy(gas[2]. } /* concatenate species name into one string and send back to fluent */ strcat(specielist."O2") (void)strcpy(gas[3]. Message0("\n MIXTURE_Setup: setting reference-pressur to 101325 Pa \n"). DO NOT use space for naming species */ n_specs = 4 .Physical Properties if (ref_p == 0. . Message0("\n MIXTURE_Setup: Number of Species = %d \n"." "). for (i=0. } /*====================================================*/ /*========= User Input Section =====================*/ /*====================================================*/ /* Define Number of species & Species name.0) { Message0("\n MIXTURE_Setup: reference-pressure was not set by user \n").

double density.density. /* (J/Kg) */ } double MIXTURE_entropy(double Temp. for (i=0. return h.density.0 .density. double yi[]) { double h=0. return cp.yi)*log(Temp/ref_T) Rgas*log(density*Rgas*Temp/ref_p) . for (i=0.8. /* (J/Kg/K) */ c Fluent Inc. Rgas = Mixture_Rgas(yi). s = MIXTURE_specific_heat(Temp.0. int i .0 . double yi[]) { double s = 0. return s. double P. double yi[]) { double Rgas = Mixture_Rgas(yi) . ++i) cp += yi[i]*Cp_i(Temp.16 Real Gas Models double MIXTURE_density(double Temp.i). /* (J/Kg/K) */ } double MIXTURE_enthalpy(double Temp. double yi[]) { double cp=0. i<n_specs. int i . /* Density at Temp & P */ return r. double density.i)). ++i) h += yi[i]*(Temp*Cp_i(Temp. i<n_specs. double Rgas=0. double density. /* (Kg/m^3) */ } double MIXTURE_specific_heat(double Temp. September 29. double r = P/(Rgas*Temp). 2006 8-123 .0 .

cp = MIXTURE_specific_heat(Temp.0 .0/MAX(sum. double density.yi) .SMALL) return MW. int i . double yi[]) { double a. Rgas = Mixture_Rgas(yi) . Rgas . i<n_specs. int i . /* m/s */ return a . cp. /* (Kg/Kmol) */ } double MIXTURE_speed_of_sound(double Temp. September 29. a = sqrt(Rgas*Temp* cp/(cp-Rgas) ) .density. 2006 . ++i) mu += yi[i]*Mu_i(Temp. double yi[]) { double mu=0. MW = 1. double density. ++i) sum += (yi[i]/Mw_i(i)) . return mu.i). /* (Kg/m/s) */ } double MIXTURE_thermal_conductivity(double Temp. for (i=0. double yi[]) { double kt=0. i<n_specs. int i .density. for (i=0. } double MIXTURE_viscosity(double Temp. sum=0. double density. .Physical Properties } double MIXTURE_mw(double yi[]) { double MW. 8-124 c Fluent Inc.

i).yi) .p+dp.01.p.yi) . p = Mixture_pressure(Temp.density.density. yi). double rho2 .MIXTURE_enthalpy(Temp. double p . p rho2 dhdT = Mixture_pressure(Temp.yi) ) /dp. double dT= 0. drdp = (MIXTURE_density(Temp. c Fluent Inc.0 .p.yi) . double density. yi). 2006 8-125 .p.rho2. return drdp.density. p drdT = Mixture_pressure(Temp. double yi[]) { double drdp . /* W/m/K */ } double MIXTURE_rho_t(double Temp. = (MIXTURE_density(Temp+dT.8. /* (Kg/m^3/Pa) */ } double MIXTURE_enthalpy_t(double Temp.16 Real Gas Models for (i=0. double density. double yi[]) { double dhdT .yi)) /dT . September 29.MIXTURE_density(Temp. double dp= 5. i<n_specs. double dT=0.01 . = (MIXTURE_enthalpy(Temp+dT. /* derivative of rho wrt. Temp */ double p . return kt. double density.density. ++i) kt += yi[i]*K_i(Temp. double yi[]) { double drdT .density. yi). double p . = MIXTURE_density(Temp+dT.yi) ) /dT.MIXTURE_density(Temp.p. return drdT. /* (Kg/m^3/K) */ } double MIXTURE_rho_p(double Temp.yi) .

Physical Properties return dhdT . /* J/(Kg. yi).Pascal) */ /*******************************************************************/ /* Auxiliary Mixture Functions */ /*******************************************************************/ double Mixture_Rgas(double yi[]) { double Rgas=0. return Rgas . ++i) Rgas += yi[i]*(UNIVERSAL_GAS_CONSTANT/Mw_i(i)) . } /* J/ (Kg. double Rho. int i .p+dp.MIXTURE_enthalpy(Temp.density. September 29. 2006 . i<n_specs. double dp= 5.rho2. return dhdp . = (MIXTURE_enthalpy(Temp. for (i=0. double yi[]) { double Rgas = Mixture_Rgas(yi) .density. p rho2 dhdp = Mixture_pressure(Temp.0 .0 . double yi[]) { double dhdp .yi)) /dp. double density. = MIXTURE_density(Temp. double p . double rho2 .K) */ } double MIXTURE_enthalpy_p(double Temp.yi) .yi) . double P = Rho*Rgas*Temp . /* Pressure at Temp & P */ 8-126 c Fluent Inc. } double Mixture_pressure(double Temp.

31 . .02420 0.02610 0. September 29. mi[0] mi[1] mi[2] mi[3] = = = = 18.00995 . /*O2 */ = 840. /* (Kg/m^3) */ } /*******************************************************************/ /* Species Property Functions */ /*******************************************************************/ double Mw_i(int i) { double mi[20]. /*N2 */ = 919.01534 28. } double K_i(double T.01340 31. . int i) { double cpi[20] . .67 .99880 44. . cpi[0] cpi[1] cpi[2] cpi[3] = 2014.02460 0. ki[0] ki[1] ki[2] ki[3] = = = = 0. double r. double r.00 . /*CO2*/ return cpi[i] . int i) { double ki[20] .16 Real Gas Models return P.8. 2006 8-127 . /*H2O*/ = 1040.37 . /*H2O*/ /*N2 */ /*O2 */ /*CO2*/ c Fluent Inc. . } double Cp_i(double T. /*H2O*/ /*N2 */ /*O2 */ /*CO2*/ return mi[i] .01450 . .

919E-05 1. .663E-05 1.i) . } double Rgas_i(double T.Physical Properties return ki[i] . return Rgasi . return gammai . int i) { double mui[20] ./* initialize */ MIXTURE_density. gammai = Cp_i(T. double r. double r.Rgas_i(T. /*H2O*/ /*N2 */ /*O2 */ /*CO2*/ return mui[i] .r. mui[0] mui[1] mui[2] mui[3] = = = = 1. double r. 2006 . September 29. .i)/(Cp_i(T. int i) { double Rgasi . } /*******************************************************************/ /* Mixture Functions Structure */ /*******************************************************************/ UDF_EXPORT RGAS_Functions RealGasFunctionList = { MIXTURE_Setup. Rgasi = UNIVERSAL_GAS_CONSTANT/Mw_i(i) . .r. int i) { double gammai . } double Gm_i(double T.340E-05 1.370E-05 . } double Mu_i(double T.i)).r. /* density */ 8-128 c Fluent Inc.

/* entropy */ MIXTURE_specific_heat. /* enthalpy */ MIXTURE_entropy. /* viscosity */ MIXTURE_thermal_conductivity. September 29./* speed_of_sound */ MIXTURE_viscosity. /* thermal_conductivity MIXTURE_rho_t. */ /*******************************************************************/ /*******************************************************************/ c Fluent Inc. /* molecular_weight */ MIXTURE_speed_of_sound./* drho/dp |const T */ MIXTURE_enthalpy_t./* specific_heat */ MIXTURE_mw. 2006 8-129 . /* dh/dT |const p */ MIXTURE_enthalpy_p /* dh/dp |const T */ }.16 Real Gas Models MIXTURE_enthalpy.8./* drho/dT |const p */ MIXTURE_rho_p.

September 29. 2006 .Physical Properties 8-130 c Fluent Inc.

Models for flows in moving zones (including sliding and dynamic meshes) are explained in Chapter 10: Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. and the melting and solidification model is described in Chapter 24: Modeling Solidification and Melting. An overview of modeling species transport and reacting flows is provided in Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry.Chapter 9. porous jumps. general multiphase models are described in Chapter 23: Modeling Multiphase Flows.2: Continuity and Momentum Equations • Section 9. For information on modeling porous media.5: Swirling and Rotating Flows • Section 9.6: Compressible Flows • Section 9. and models for heat transfer (including radiation) are presented in Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer. The discrete phase model is described in Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase. and models for pollutant formation are presented in Chapter 20: Modeling Pollutant Formation. The information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: • Section 9. Modeling Basic Fluid Flow This chapter describes the basic physical models that FLUENT provides for fluid flow and the commands for defining and using them. models for turbulence are described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence.7: Inviscid Flows c Fluent Inc.1: Overview of Physical Models in FLUENT • Section 9. see Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions. and lumped parameter fans and radiators.4: Periodic Flows • Section 9.3: User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations • Section 9. September 29. 2006 9-1 . details about models for species transport and reacting flows are described in Chapters 14–18.

Examples of multiphase flows include channel flows. various useful features are provided. The moving reference frame family of models includes the ability to model single or multiple reference frames. including coal and droplet combustion. Another very useful group of models in FLUENT is the set of free surface and multiphase flow models. including coupling with the continuous phase. The set of radiation models and related submodels for modeling participating media are general and can take into account the complications of combustion.1 Overview of Physical Models in FLUENT FLUENT provides comprehensive modeling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and compressible. and moving reference frame models. FLUENT provides the volume-offluid (VOF). conjugate heat transfer in turbomachinery and automotive engine components. The DPM performs Lagrangian trajectory calculations for dispersed phases (particles. The turbulence models provided have a broad range of applicability. surface reaction. In FLUENT. 9-2 c Fluent Inc. including eddy dissipation and probability density function models. separation. A host of other models that are very useful for reacting flow applications are also available.Modeling Basic Fluid Flow 9. Various modes of heat transfer can be modeled. useful for modeling multiple stages in turbomachinery applications. Robust and accurate turbulence models are a vital component of the FLUENT suite of models. September 29. pumps. A time-accurate sliding mesh method. These include porous media. external aerodynamics. laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers. and multiphase flows in bubble columns and fluidized beds. and gas-liquid-solid flows. or bubbles). and they include the effects of other physical phenomena. for example. and cavitation. 2006 . is also provided. mixture. lumped parameter (fan and heat exchanger). a broad range of mathematical models for transport phenomena (like heat transfer and chemical reactions) is combined with the ability to model complex geometries. etc. For these types of problems. gas-solid. Examples of FLUENT applications include laminar non-Newtonian flows in process equipment. such as buoyancy and compressibility. Particular care has been devoted to addressing issues of near-wall accuracy via the use of extended wall functions and zonal models. sedimentation. as well as the discrete phase model (DPM). droplets. streamwise-periodic flow and heat transfer. Steady-state or transient analyses can be performed. liquid-solid. and fans. porous media. and pollutant formation models. swirl. forced. sprays. along with the mixing plane model for computing time-averaged flow fields. and Eulerian models. To permit modeling of fluid flow and related transport phenomena in industrial equipment and processes. flow through compressors. A particular strength of FLUENT is its ability to model combustion phenomena using a variety of models. including natural. These can be used for analysis of gas-liquid. and mixed convection with or without conjugate heat transfer.

September 29. The source Sm is the mass added to the continuous phase from the dispersed second phase (e.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations 9. The Mass Conservation Equation The equation for conservation of mass. or continuity equation. 2006 9-3 .. The Euler equations solved for inviscid flow are presented in Section 9.g. due to vaporization of liquid droplets) and any user-defined sources. In this section. c Fluent Inc.2-1 is the general form of the mass conservation equation and is valid for incompressible as well as compressible flows.7: Inviscid Flows.2-1) Equation 9. if the non-premixed combustion model is used.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations For all flows. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. FLUENT solves conservation equations for mass and momentum.2-2) where x is the axial coordinate. and species transport will be discussed in the chapters where those models are described. can be written as follows: ∂ρ + ∂t · (ρv) = Sm (9. The conservation equations relevant to heat transfer. the conservation equations for laminar flow in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame are presented.9. and vr is the radial velocity. Additional transport equations are also solved when the flow is turbulent. r is the radial coordinate. vx is the axial velocity. For flows involving species mixing or reactions. conservation equations for the mixture fraction and its variance are solved. the continuity equation is given by ∂ρ ∂ ∂ ρvr + (ρvx ) + (ρvr ) + = Sm ∂t ∂x ∂r r (9. a species conservation equation is solved or. turbulence modeling. an additional equation for energy conservation is solved. The equations that are applicable to rotating reference frames are presented in Chapter 10: Modeling Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. For flows involving heat transfer or compressibility.

5: Swirling and Rotating Flows for information about modeling axisymmetric swirl. For 2D axisymmetric geometries.2-4) where µ is the molecular viscosity.. and ρg and F are the gravitational body force and external body forces (e. (See Section 9.2-6) and vz is the swirl velocity.2-7) 1 ∂ ∂vr 2 rµ 2 − ( r ∂r ∂r 3 · v) − 2µ vr 2 µ + ( r2 3 r · v) + ρ 2 vz + Fr r (9. the axial and radial momentum conservation equations are given by ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vx 2 (ρvx ) + (rρvx vx ) + (rρvr vx ) = − + rµ 2 − ( · v) ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂x r ∂x ∂x 3 1 ∂ ∂vx ∂vr + rµ + + Fx r ∂r ∂r ∂x (9. and the second term on the right hand side is the effect of volume dilation. F also contains other model-dependent source terms such as porous-media and user-defined sources.) 9-4 c Fluent Inc. I is the unit tensor.Modeling Basic Fluid Flow Momentum Conservation Equations Conservation of momentum in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame is described by [24] ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · (τ ) + ρg + F (9. τ is the stress tensor (described below). 2006 . respectively.2-5) and ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vr ∂vx (ρvr ) + (rρvx vr ) + (rρvr vr ) = − + rµ + ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂r r ∂x ∂x ∂r + where ·v = ∂vx ∂vr vr + + ∂x ∂r r (9. that arise from interaction with the dispersed phase).g. The stress tensor τ is given by τ =µ ( v+ v T) − 2 3 · vI (9.2-3) where p is the static pressure. September 29.

.2 UDS Theory Single Phase Flow For an arbitrary scalar φk .. . c Fluent Inc. Γk could be written as Γk I where I is the identity matrix.3.3. 9. FLUENT will solve one of the three following equations. N ∂t ∂xi ∂xi (9.1: Introduction • Section 9. September 29. • Section 9.. . Extra scalar transport equations may be needed in certain types of combustion applications or for example in plasma-enhanced surface reaction modeling.3-2) where Γk and Sφk are the diffusion coefficient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations.1 Introduction FLUENT can solve the transport equation for an arbitrary.3: Setting Up UDS Equations in FLUENT 9. user-defined scalar (UDS) in the same way that it solves the transport equation for a scalar such as species mass fraction.3.9. FLUENT will solve the equation − ∂ ∂φk (Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. depending on the method used to compute the convective flux: • If convective flux is not to be computed.3. Note that Γk is defined as a tensor in the case of anisotropic diffusivity. FLUENT allows you to define additional scalar transport equations in your model in the UserDefined Scalars panel..3-1) where Γk and Sφk are the diffusion coefficient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations.2: UDS Theory • Section 9..3.3 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations 9. 2006 9-5 . The diffusion term is thus · (Γk · φk ) For isotropic diffusivity. N ∂xi ∂xi (9..3 User-Defined Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations This section provides information on how you can specify user-defined scalar (UDS) transport equations to enhance the standard features of FLUENT. For the steady-state case. FLUENT solves the equation ∂ρφk ∂ ∂φk + (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1.

. September 29. N m (9. . physical density. In this case. In this case.Modeling Basic Fluid Flow • If convective flux is to be computed with mass flow rate. . respectively. 2006 .. For an arbitrary k scalar in phase-1.3-4) where dS is the face vector area. the user-defined mass flux is assumed to be of the form F = S ρu · dS (9.3-7) where mixture density ρm . and mixture diffusivity for the scalar k Γk are calculated according to m 9-6 c Fluent Inc. or is considered the same for each phase. respectively. and velocity of phase-l. scalar φk is associated only with one phase (phase-l) l and is considered an individual field variable of phase-l. Γk and Slk are the diffusion coefficient and source term.3-5) where αl . FLUENT solves transport equations for two types of scalars: per phase and mixture.. The mass flux for phase-l is defined as Fl = αl ρl ul · dS (9... and ul are the volume fraction. which l you will need to specify. N ∂xi ∂xi (9...3-6) S If the transport variable described by scalar φk represents the physical field that is shared l between phases. FLUENT will solve the equation ∂ ∂φk (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. then you should consider this scalar as being associated with a mixture of phases. ρl .. the generic transport equation for the scalar is ∂ρm φk + ∂t · (ρm um φk − Γk φk ) = S km k = 1. mixture velocity um . φk . . Multiphase Flow For multiphase flows. In this case..3-3) • It is also possible to specify a user-defined function to be used in the computation of convective flux. N l l l (9. denoted by φk . FLUENT l solves the transport equation inside the volume occupied by phase-l ∂αl ρl φk l + ∂t · (αl ρl ul φk − αl Γk φk ) = Slk k = 1.

3 Setting Up UDS Equations in FLUENT FLUENT allows you to define up to 50 user-defined scalar (UDS) transport equations in your model.9.3-8) ρm u m = l αl ρl ul (9.3.3-10) Γk = m k Sm = l (9.3-1) from the previous theory section is shown below with the four terms (unsteady. diffusivity. then mass fluxes shown in Equation 9.1). (Figure 9.1: Generalized UDS Transport Equation c Fluent Inc.3-6 and Equation 9.3-10 will need to be replaced in the corresponding scalar transport equations. September 29.3. Figure 9. flux. source) that you can customize. 9. You will define a UDS transport equation by setting the parameters for these four terms.3-11) Slk (9.3-9) Fm = S rhom um · dS αl Γk l l (9. The general scalar transport equation (Equation 9. 2006 9-7 .