C I R C LY 5

User Manual

MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd.

P.O. Box 2114, Richmond South, Vic., 3121 Australia Tel.:(03) 9427 1085 Intl. +613 9427 1085 Fax:(03) 9428 1197 Intl. +613 9428 1197 Email: mincad@mincad.com.au Web: http://www.mincad.com.au

April 2009 © MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd.

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Contents
Summary CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement Introduction 3 5 7

Overview........................................................................................................................................ 7 Special Features for Pavement Engineering................................................................................. 8 Cumulative Damage Concept ............................................................................................. 8 Material performance .......................................................................................................... 9 Traffic and Loading............................................................................................................ 10 Wheel Loadings................................................................................................................. 10 Automatic thickness design............................................................................................... 10 ESA Multipliers .................................................................................................................. 10 Methods for handling Damage Pulses .............................................................................. 11

Overview of User Interface

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Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 13 Creating, Opening and Saving Files............................................................................................ 14 Creating and Editing Input Data .................................................................................................. 14 Database Approach........................................................................................................... 15 Running CIRCLY32 Analysis and Plotting Results ..................................................................... 15 Run Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 15 Plot Results ....................................................................................................................... 15 Options ........................................................................................................................................ 16

What's New in Version 5.0

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Overview...................................................................................................................................... 17 Support of Austroads 2008 Pavement Design Guide ................................................................. 17 New "built-in" Graphics Engine.................................................................................................... 18 Cost Calculation .......................................................................................................................... 21 Automatic Parametric Analysis.................................................................................................... 22

How to Start Using CIRCLY

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Getting Started: Assembling and Running a Job ........................................................................ 23 Global Coordinate System........................................................................................................... 30

Alternative Calculation Options

33

Overview...................................................................................................................................... 33 Damage Calculation Details ........................................................................................................ 33 Thickness Design Capability ....................................................................................................... 35

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Contents

Calculating Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths)................................................ 36

How to Use Advanced Features

39

Cost Calculation .......................................................................................................................... 39 Calculation of Total Cost ................................................................................................... 39 Material Costs ................................................................................................................... 40 Automatic Parametric Analysis.................................................................................................... 41 Example—Cost Optimization....................................................................................................... 42

How to Modify the Databases

49

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 49 Units .................................................................................................................................. 49 Sign Convention ................................................................................................................ 51 Overview of Database Approach ...................................................................................... 52 The "Layered System" and "Materials" Databases ..................................................................... 53 Overview of Layered System and Material Properties...................................................... 53 Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in road pavement materials.............................................. 54 Creating a new Layered System ....................................................................................... 55 Defining the Layer properties ............................................................................................ 56 Duplicating a Layered System .......................................................................................... 57 Adding a new Elastic Material ........................................................................................... 58 Example: Asphalt tensile strain relationship...................................................................... 60 Adding a new Material Type.............................................................................................. 61 The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum" Databases.......................................................................... 62 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 62 Adding a new Traffic Spectrum ......................................................................................... 62 Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum .......................................................................................... 63 Coordinate System for Loads............................................................................................ 64 Adding a new Load Group (i.e., a Vehicle or Axle Group) ................................................ 65 Defining Load Locations (i.e., Wheel positions)................................................................ 67 Important Note about Axle Locations ................................................................................ 67 Important Note about Damage Pulses .............................................................................. 69 Coordinates for Results ............................................................................................................... 71

Appendices Overview of Austroads 2008 Features

73 75

Model of Standard Axle ..................................................................................................... 75 Project Reliability............................................................................................................... 76 Material Properties ............................................................................................................ 76

How to Use New Austroads 2004/2008 Features

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Modelling the Standard Axle ............................................................................................. 79 How to Use Project Reliability ........................................................................................... 80 Changes to Materials ........................................................................................................ 82 Austroads 2008 Examples ................................................................................................ 83 References .................................................................................................................................. 85

optionally the contribution of each vehicle/load configuration can be explicitly analysed. . The first mainframe version of CIRCLY was released in 1977 and the current Windows version is Version 5. while simultaneously designing the thickness of another layer. Other geotechnical applications. fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth) layer interfaces. can also be analysed using CIRCLY. non-uniform surface contact stress distributions. The system calculates the cumulative damage induced by a traffic spectrum consisting of any combination of user-specified vehicle types and load configurations. CIRCLY has many other powerful features. Combining this with a Cost Analysis feature. horizontal. a comprehensive range of load types. allows for fine-tuning of layer thicknesses to minimize construction and maintenance costs. As well as using the usual 'equivalent' single wheel and axle load approximations. including vertical.3 Summary CIRCLY software is for the mechanistic analysis and design of road pavements.. torsional. 2008) that is widely used in Australia and New Zealand. CIRCLY uses state-of-the-art material properties and performance models and is continuously being developed and extended. This feature will optimise up to three layers. etc. such as foundation engineering and settlement analysis. It is an integral component of the Austroads Pavement Design Guide (Austroads. and automatic sub-layering of unbound granular materials. A Parametric Analysis feature can loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two layers. including selection of: cross-anisotropic and isotropic material properties.

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to any one or more of the following: if the breach related to goods: the replacement of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods. the repair of such goods.2 To the maximum extent permitted by law and subject only subject only to the warranties and remedies set out in Clause 12 and Sub-clause 21. statutory or otherwise. This documentation is licensed and sold pursuant to the terms and conditions of the CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement. Mincad Systems shall not be under any liability (contractual. . failure or omission of Mincad Systems. Acknowledgement 22.1 To the maximum extent permitted by law all warranties whether express. such term shall be deemed to be included in this Agreement. 21. Copyright This manual is copyright and may not be copied. However. without the prior written consent of Mincad Systems. consequential loss or damage) howsoever caused. 22. which appears under the CIRCLY "About" dialogue box which provides (in part). are excluded. Customer warrants that it has not relied on any representation made by Mincad Systems or upon any descriptions or illustrations or specifications contained in any document including any catalogues or publicity material produced by Mincad Systems. relating in any way to the subject matter of this Agreement or to this Agreement generally. or the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again. and if the breach relates to services the supplying of the services again. the liability of Mincad Systems for any breach of such term shall be limited. photocopied. Where legislation implies in this Agreement any condition or warranty and that legislation avoids or prohibits provisions in a contract excluding or modifying the application of or the exercise of or liability under such term.Exclusions and Limitation of Liability 21. tortious or otherwise) to Customer in respect of any loss or damage (including. without limitation. reproduced. implied.1. in whole or part. All rights Reserved. or the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired.1 Customer acknowledges and agrees that: (a) pavement design and engineering is a complex area and the CIRCLY is not designed as a substitute in any way for professional advice.5 CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement CIRCLY (c) Mincad Systems Pty Ltd ABN 27 006 782 832. at the option of Mincad Systems. the payment of the cost of replacing the goods or of acquiring equivalent goods. 21. translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form. which may be suffered or incurred or which may arise directly or indirectly in respect to the supply of goods or services pursuant to this Agreement or the act.

(c) Whilst CIRCLY may be used by persons without a detailed knowledge of computers. 23. costs. without limitation: (i) the applicable engineering standards for paving and concrete. CIRCLY is designed to be used by persons who have a detailed knowledge of. taxes or liability whether direct or indirect arising out of: (a) use of CIRCLY. 22. either by Customer or a third party relying on figures supplied or not supplied by CIRCLY. including. and (e) It shall obtain professional advice in relation to all results provided by CIRCLY. without limitation the relevant industry recognised engineering design guides.0 User's Guide (b) CIRCLY is supplied with certain operating instructions and a failure to follow these instructions carefully could result in erroneous data being produced by CIRCLY. . and (ii) All appropriate legislation and other relevant instruments. Customer shall fully indemnify and keep indemnified Mincad Systems. To the extent permitted by law. demands. unlawful or negligent act or omission of Customer.6 CIRCLY 5. (b) a breach of this agreement by Customer. expenses. Indemnity Customer warrants that any materials supplied to Mincad Systems by Customer do not infringe Intellectual Property Right of any person. employees and agents. against any loss.2 CIRCLY is licensed on the basis set out in this Agreement on the understanding that to the extent permitted by law Mincad Systems is not responsible for the results of any actions taken. or (c) any wilful. (d) It shall manually check all results provided by CIRCLY for any anomalies. its officers.

Typical runs take less than a second on Pentium™ PCs. In many soil and rock engineering problems. CIRCLY has a user-friendly menu-driven interface that runs under Microsoft Windows. thus eliminating the need to constantly re-key information. cross-anisotropic material properties can also be considered. or near horizontal. and the "gripping" load developed by pneumatic tyres on pavements. . Results can be easily exported to other application packages such as spreadsheets for further processing. torsional wheel loads due to cornering. loads may be applied to soil or rock pavement layers in the form of vertical wheel loads.7 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Overview CIRCLY is a powerful package that analyses a comprehensive range of load types acting on layered elastic systems. In addition. CIRCLY can also be used for other geotechnical applications such as foundation engineering and settlement analysis. surface of natural or man-made stratified deposits. loads are applied to the horizontal. foundation loads on footings. piers and rafts may be applied as vertical forces. Results can be obtained in tabular form or as report-quality plots on any printer or plotter supported by Microsoft Windows. CIRCLY calculates the stresses. The system calculates the cumulative damage induced by a traffic spectrum consisting of any combination of vehicle types and load configurations. The program allows all of these load types to be simulated for a circular loaded shape. As well as the usual isotropic properties. Anisotropies of this type have been observed in soil and rock deposits due to processes involved in their formation. CIRCLY is an integral component of the Austroads Pavement Design Guide (2008) that is widely used in Australia and New Zealand. horizontal forces. Databases are used for material properties and loadings. moments about horizontal axes or contact stresses due to foundation roughness. it is not necessary to approximate multi-wheel configurations by ‘equivalent’ single loads. Because the contribution of each vehicle/load configuration can be explicitly considered. strains and displacements that are developed in these systems. horizontal wheel loads due to traction and braking. In practice. permitting the rational assessment of ultimate stability and the behaviour under working loads. CIRCLY has special features for the convenient mechanistic analysis and design of pavements using state-of-the-art material properties and performance models. CIRCLY can also model non-uniform contact stress distributions. or a combination of both types. A cross-anisotropic material is assumed to have a vertical axis of symmetry. The interfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth).

MINCAD Systems. Version 3. CIRCLY was commercialised in 1988 by MINCAD Systems. Version 4.0 was released in early 2004.0 was released in late 1996 and included many improvements. Input data for the program is much simpler than that required for most finite element programs. Version 4. including a major re-write of the integration algorithms and automatic sub-layer generation for granular materials. Cumulative Damage Concept The system explicitly accumulates the contribution from each loading in the traffic spectrum at each analysis point by using Miner's hypothesis.4) was made in early 1996. The Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF) for the parameter is given by summing the damage factors over all the loadings in the traffic spectrum: .1 was released in early 2003. proving its worth in thousands of design applications. The damage factor for the i-th loading is defined as the number of repetitions (ni) of a given response parameter divided by the ‘allowable’ repetitions (Ni) of the response parameter that would cause failure. Version 5.0 see What's New in Version 5.0 (see "Overview" on page 17) Special Features for Pavement Engineering CIRCLY has many features to facilitate pavement analysis and design.0 User's Guide CIRCLY is based on integral transform techniques and offers significant advantages over other linear elastic analysis techniques.8 CIRCLY 5. Wardle and Gerrard 1972). For an overview of the new features of Version 5.0 was released in early 1999 and extended the software to include an automatic thickness design capability. For most problems the program uses less computer time than a finite element program. This Australian designed system has been developed by the Melbourne company. It has been in regular use in Australia and worldwide for more than two decades. CIRCLY was first released in 1977 and handled polynomial type radial variations in contact stress and multiple loads which provide a much closer representation of the actual loading conditions (Wardle 1977). such as the finite element method. A limited release of the first Windows version (Version 2. CIRCLY had its genesis in software developed at CSIRO for relatively simple loading cases (Harrison.

The current version of the software uses the cumulative damage concept to sum the damage from multiple vehicle/load cases for one set of layered system material properties. This approach allows analyses to be conducted by directly using a mix of vehicle or axle types. If the cumulative damage is less than 1.0. It is not necessary to approximate passes of different vehicles or axles to passes of an ‘equivalent’ standard load.Chapter 1 Introduction 9 The system is presumed to have reached its design life when the cumulative damage reaches 1. The figure below is a sample cumulative damage plot produced by CIRCLY.0 the system is predicted to ‘fail’ before all of the design traffic has been applied. The procedure takes account of: the design repetitions of each vehicle/load condition. Material performance Generally most performance models may be represented graphically by a plot of tolerable strain versus load repetitions (generally by a straight line of 'best fit' on a log-log plot). CIRCLY represents models in the form: . and the material performance properties used in the design model. If the cumulative damage is greater than 1.0 the system has excess capacity and the cumulative damage represents the proportion of life consumed. CIRCLY generates a file that can be read by most spreadsheet and technical graphics programs.

the traffic expressed in ESAs must be multiplied by a factor that depends on each material type.1. vertical deflection. . You can specify these multipliers (e. Traffic and Loading You define the anticipated repetitions over the design period for each vehicle or axle group and 'load case'. For further details see Damage Calculation Details (on page 33). Automatic thickness design You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. 10) for each material type. etc. maximum tensile strain.g. You can use your own performance equations by specifying values for ‘k’ and ‘b’ and the particular component to be used. Wheel Loadings The load on each wheel is defined by tyre contact radius and contact pressure (generally assumed to be the tyre inflation pressure). CIRCLY is supplied with a comprehensive range of published performance models. for example vertical strain. ESA Multipliers For design methods such as Austroads that use an equivalent standard wheel approach.0 User's Guide where N k b ε is the predicted life (repetitions) is a material constant is the damage exponent of the material is the induced strain (dimensionless strain) Log-log relationships can be readily converted to the above form. 1. This procedure is very fast and takes only a few seconds on a Pentium™ PC.10 CIRCLY 5. For further details see Thickness Design Capability (on page 35). The 'load case' allows the loading for a given vehicle or axle group to be treated in more detail if required. Although the loads are usually vertical. CIRCLY can compute results from non-vertical loads such as braking and cornering loads.

Further details are given in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 69). and a single pulse that reflects the overall loading on the axle group.Chapter 1 Introduction 11 Methods for handling Damage Pulses The damage that a given point in the pavement will experience during the passage of a multiple axle primarily depends on the depth below the road surface. The two extremes of behaviour are– multiple distinct pulses resulting from each axle. . for shallow depths. CIRCLY lets you specify the method to be used to calculate the damage. for large depths.

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13 CHAPTER 2 Overview of User Interface Introduction CIRCLY has a standard format Microsoft Windows menu. but most commands can be accessed directly from the toolbar as shown below: .

Updates the current job file. Each icon corresponds to one of the main groups of data necessary to fully define a Job. strains.cls CIRCLY data file. prompting you to save any changes.cli Jobname.this is used to save the details of your job. Creating and Editing Input Data The following seven icons allow you to create and modify your input data.dmx CIRCLY32 input data file CIRCLY32 'printable' results file CIRCLY32 raw results file (i. open and save job files. Opening and Saving Files You supply a 'Jobname' to use as the basis for naming all of the files associated with a 'job' or analysis. prompting you to save any changes. .) CIRCLY32 cumulative damage results file (for plotting) CIRCLY32 results summary file (damage factors and critical strains) All of these files are text files that can be opened by standard text editors. then opens an existing job.dam Jobname. etc. Closes the current job.clo Jobname. then clicking Save As. All the other files are generated automatically by the system: Jobname.e.. You can also save your job under a different name by clicking on the File Menu.0 User's Guide Creating. then creates a new job. Icon Description Closes the current job. Three icons on the toolbar allow you to create. If the job name is Jobname the following files are used– Jobname.14 CIRCLY 5.prn Jobname.

Alternatively. . This graph option shows the variation of the CDF as a function of X. vertical distances/depths below the surface of the pavement) and results can be plotted for a selected displacement. Plot Results Usually. this command will produce a graph of the damage contribution from each vehicle type and the overall total (damage contribution from all the traffic). the data for a commonly used material need only be entered into the system once. The relational database approach gives maximum flexibility in data preparation..e. Optionally you can graph the maximum CDF as a function of Aircraft Gross Weight. X=0 corresponds the centrelines of the vehicles).Chapter 2 Overview of User Interface 15 Database Approach Some of the input data items are entered using very simple input forms. stress or strain component at your chosen Z-values (i. For example. You can tailor each of the databases to contain specific sets of regularly used data. During a long analysis you can switch to another application (CIRCLY will continue to run at a lower priority using Microsoft Windows multitasking). stress or strain component. all Layered systems that use that material and subsequently all Jobs that use those layered systems will automatically access the modified material properties. as an option you can produce a graph of a selected displacement. This is designed to eliminate re-entry of data for design loads and material properties. Most of the input data is handled using a relational database approach.e. If this data is subsequently modified. the distance from the centreline of the pavement (i. Running CIRCLY32 Analysis and Plotting Results Run Analysis This invokes the CIRCLY32 analysis.

0 User's Guide Options The Options screen allows specification of the following directory: location for all data files (Defaults to the sub-folder. "data".16 CIRCLY 5.) . in the folder in which CIRCLY has been installed.

0 if you have used earlier versions such as CIRCLY 4. In what follows. the new Guide will be referred to as the 2008 Guide.0 Overview You will find many improvements in CIRCLY 5.0 or 4.17 CHAPTER 3 What's New in Version 5. Briefly. Changed methodology for sub-layering of unbound granular material.Part 2: Pavement Structural Design) was first published in 1992 (Austroads.0. Crossreferences to the rest of the manual show you where to look for information on these topics.0 implements the following changed features in the Guide: Standard Axle modelled in full (Austroads 1992 used only one side or half the axle) Project Reliability as chosen by the designer. Latest improvements include new features to make designing pavements easier. This section gives a quick overview of the new and improved features in CIRCLY 5. Detailed instructions on how to use the new features are given in How to Use New Austroads 2008 Features (see "How to Use New Austroads 2004/2008 Features" on page 79). 1992). more transparent and more efficient. These changes are outlined in more detail in Overview of Austroads 2008 Features (on page 75).1. Changed Subgrade Performance model for subgrade materials. CIRCLY 5. . Support of Austroads 2008 Pavement Design Guide The Austroads Pavement Design Guide (the full title is Guide to Pavement Technology . The Guide underwent a major re-write culminating in the 2004 version. Introduction of Select Fill as a particular type of unbound granular material.

0 User's Guide New "built-in" Graphics Engine CIRCLY now uses its own "built-in" Graphics Engine to create on-screen graphics almost instantaneously. results for different layers or Z-depths in a layered system can be created without reanalysing the system.18 CIRCLY 5. The graphics can be customized. exported and printed. Here is a sample Cumulative Damage graph: You can choose a graph for a different layer (without re-analysing the system): . In most cases.

0 19 Here is a sample "Three-dimensional" graph of vertical displacement: .Chapter 3 What's New in Version 5.

20 CIRCLY 5. Click on “Customization Dialog” to customize the graph: .0 User's Guide You can customize the graph via the context-sensitive graph menu that drops down when you right click with the mouse pointer anywhere on the graph.

Chapter 3 What's New in Version 5. Cost Calculation The unit costs for the materials laid and constructed in the layers can be specified using a combination of both a volumetric (or weight) component and an areal component. such as surface treatments.0 21 This lets you customize many of the graph parameters such as Minimum and Maximum axis values. The areal component can also be used in circumstances where the relationship between total layer cost and thickness has a non-zero component for zero thickness. . etc. The areal component lets you take account of costs that are primarily a function of area. subgrade stabilization and the like.

0 User's Guide Automatic Parametric Analysis Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two nominated layers. Additionally. you can automatically design the thickness of another layer.22 CIRCLY 5. you can have Layer 3 vary from 800 mm to 1000 mm in steps of 10 mm. Layer 3 Thickness . for each combination of those layer thicknesses. By combining Automatic Parametric Analysis with the Cost Analysis feature you can fine-tune layer thicknesses to optimise construction cost. For example. Automatically generated plot: Total Cost vs.

Start a new Job file button. Click on the . Follow this procedure: 1.23 CHAPTER 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY Getting Started: Assembling and Running a Job In the interests of providing instant hands-on experience. this worked example assumes that most of the input data is already in the appropriate databases. You will be using an existing traffic spectrum and an existing layered system.

Specify Layered System button. This will bring up the list of available Traffic Spectra: If you have not already selected a spectrum the blue highlight will be positioned on the first entry. Select Traffic Spectrum button. 2.Unbound Granular Pavement’ by moving the mouse pointer to this line and then clicking on it.0 User's Guide Enter your Job Name and Job Title (this is used on the graphs). Click on the Click on the Spectrum tab. Click on the Click on the Layered System tab. 3. Select ‘Austroads 2004 . This will bring up the list of available Layered Systems: .24 CIRCLY 5.Example 1 .

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 25 If you have not already selected a Layered System. 4.Example 1 . Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for results calculation: An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the X-axis A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the X-direction and the Y-direction Enter the data as shown below. Click on the This screen has fields for specifying the locations for which results are to be computed.Unbound Granular Pavement’ by moving the mouse pointer to this line and then clicking on it. Select ‘Austroads 2004 . the blue highlight will be positioned on the first entry. Specify Coordinates for Results button. .

26 CIRCLY 5. To comply with the Austroads Guide. 5 Run the CIRCLY32 analysis button. as shown below.0) to (165. Analyses typically take about a second on a Pentium™ PC.0) at intervals of 165 mm. . the dimensions are in millimetres (see Units (on page 49) for further details). This invokes the CIRCLY32 analysis. The sub-section Assumed number of damage pulses per movement is dealt with later in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 69). Click on the When the CIRCLY32 analysis starts you may see a blue "progress bar" at the bottom left corner of the screen. When the CIRCLY32 analysis is complete the results for the damage factor (CDF) will be transferred to the top table on the screen.0 User's Guide The data entered as above will create a line along the X-axis from (0.

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 27 6. This will generate a graph of the results: Click on the . Plot the Results button.

28 CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide You can print a copy of the chart by clicking on the Print icon on the toolbar. You can also copy the graph to the clipboard and then paste into another application such as Microsoft Word or Powerpoint. You do this via the context-sensitive graph menu that drops down when you right click with the mouse pointer anywhere on the graph: .

The 'Export Dialog' lets you export to a variety of formats. . but for most purposes select 'Metafile' to ensure that the graphics are scalable.Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 29 Then click on 'Export Dialog'.

A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the X-direction and the Y-direction. The global coordinate system is also used to describe the resultant displacements and stress and strain tensors. the layered system geometry and the points below the road surface at which results are required. Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for results calculation: An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the X-axis. . Figure 1: Global Coordinate System The Z-axis is vertically downwards with Z = 0 on the pavement surface.30 CIRCLY 5. The Y-axis is then parallel to the direction of vehicle travel.0 User's Guide Global Coordinate System A global coordinate system is used to define load locations. The X-axis is usually taken as the direction transverse to the direction of vehicle travel.

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 31 Y Direction of Travel 0 X Xmin Xdel Xmax Results points Figure 2: Coordinates for results defined by a line of equally spaced points Ymax Y Ydel Ymin X 0 Xmin Xdel Xmax Results points Direction of Travel Figure 3: Coordinates for results defined by a uniform grid of points .

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you will calculate the damage factors (CDF) for your pavement. Click on the button. you can calculate results for any given displacement.0 offers a number of calculation options. Alternatively. Damage Calculation Details Typically. This will bring up the following screen: . You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer.33 CHAPTER 5 Alternative Calculation Options Overview CIRCLY 5. stress or strain component at selected Z-values (depths below the road surface). Normally. cementstabilised layer and subgrade) will have performance criteria associated with them. between one layer (the subgrade) and three layers (asphalt surfacing.

When operating in 'calculate damage factors' mode. This table is a summary of the properties for those layers that have a performance criterion. The Traffic Multipliers are defined in the Austroads Pavement Design Guide (2008) as SAR/ESA for each distress type. where SAR are standard axle repetitions. The need for multipliers arises only if the actual road traffic spectrum has been represented as ESAs. The multipliers to take account of the material type and the actual traffic mix. The multipliers are simply used to multiply the ESA count that is specified in the Traffic Spectrum screen.34 CIRCLY 5. the key features on the screen (the numbers refer to the screenshot above) are: This table is a summary of the layered system including material titles and current thicknesses. Also the current Cumulative Damage Factors (CDFs) will be shown if the problem has been run previously. 2 3 .0 User's Guide 1 Two alternative calculation options are available: Calculate damage factors (CDF). The current thickness of any layer can be changed from this screen. Calculate selected results at user-defined Z-values (see Calculate Selected Results at User-defined Z-Values (see "Calculating Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths)" on page 36)).

. the design will use the maximum damage factor (CDFmax) from all the layers that have a performance criterion. In some circumstances. Here a tick ( damage factor calculation. The layer selected will be highlighted in blue. You select the layer you wish to design by moving the mouse pointer to the appropriate layer and clicking the mouse button once.Chapter 5 Alternative Calculation Options 35 Thickness Design Capability You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. The design involves bringing the maximum damage factor to 1. The thickness design capability is invoked by clicking on the checkbox that is labelled 'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'. This procedure is very fast. 1 2 3 By default. typically taking a few seconds on a Pentium™ PC. ) denotes that the layer will be included in the maximum The tick-box can be toggled on and off by clicking on it.0 by varying the thickness of the highlighted layer. it may be necessary to ignore one or more layers when calculating the maximum damage factor.

If a specified maximum or minimum thickness limit prevents attainment of a CDF of 1. damage factors are not calculated. When you use this option. stress or strain component. stresses and strains) at selected Z-values (depths).0 User's Guide Minimum and maximum thicknesses can be specified for each layer. Calculating Selected Results at User-defined Z-values (depths) In some circumstances. the CDF for the thickness limit will be computed.0.36 CIRCLY 5. you may need to calculate selected results (displacements. so that no constraints are applied. This will bring up the following screen: 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Click on the button. Specify first convenient Z-values and then plot results for a selected displacement. or these fields can be left blank.

strain etc. When a Z-value coincides with the interface between two layers.) by clicking on the down arrow on the right hand side of the 'component type' combo box.e. Each Z-value is added by clicking the New button 6. You can choose the component that is to be plotted by first clicking on the 'Component type' tab. etc. 5 . You can then define the component type (e. or below the interface).. above the interface.g. This will invoke this drop down list: 1 2 Click on the component type that you wish to use. you can specify which side of the interface is to be used (i. A drop down list of alternatives will appear: Click on the Component that you wish to use. vertical. You can delete any entry by clicking on it and then clicking the Delete button. 3 The actual component (e.g. 4 Now you can define the Z-values.Chapter 5 Alternative Calculation Options 37 This option is invoked by clicking the button that is labelled 'Calculate selected results at user-defined Z-values'. displacement.) is specified by clicking on the down arrow on the right hand side of the 'Component' combo box.

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39 CHAPTER 6 How to Use Advanced Features Cost Calculation Calculation of Total Cost CIRCLY 5. This will bring up the following screen: 1 Click on the Calculate Cost checkbox .0 can automatically calculate Total Cost for a pavement from the unit costs of materials in each layer. Click on the button.

i) ($/m3) x Thickness (layer no. etc.0 User's Guide Material Costs The unit costs for the layers can be specified using a combination of both a volumetric (or weight) component and an areal component. The areal component lets you take account of costs that are primarily a function of area such as surface treatments. or Cost/Weight and the density of the material (Weight/Volume). Unit Material Costs The Total Cost for a given layer is calculated as follows: Total Cost (layer no.40 CIRCLY 5. i) ($/m2) = Unit Volumetric Cost (layer no. . i) ($/m2) The Unit Volumetric Cost can be defined in terms of: 1 2 Cost/Volume. The areal component can also be used in circumstances where the relationship between total layer cost and thickness has a non-zero component for zero thickness. subgrade stabilization. i) (mm) + Unit Areal Cost (layer no.

the number of Layers for which you are varying the thickness): 1. or 2.Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features 41 Automatic Parametric Analysis Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two nominated layers. Two Independent Variables. Combining this with the Cost Analysis feature lets you fine-tune layer thicknesses to optimize construction cost. 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer: The thickness will range from T1minimum to T1maximum in steps of T1step. you can automatically design the thickness of another layer. One Independent Variable. This will bring up the following form: 1 2 3 4 1 This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i. Additionally. 3 This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Independent Variable. . for each combination of those layer thicknesses. Click on the button. you can have Layer 2 vary from 100 mm to 200 mm in steps of 10 mm. This will bring up the following screen: 1 1 Click to switch on Parametric Analysis.e. For example. 2 This section gives the details of the first Independent Variable.

For each Layer 2 thickness. you will get CIRCLY to automatically design the thickness of Layer 3. Type H Asphalt: Size 20. Class 4 $50 / m3 Subgrade.42 CIRCLY 5. Example—Cost Optimization In this example you will use the Automatic Parametric Analysis feature to automatically loop through a range of thicknesses for one layer (Layer 2) and to determine which thickness has the minimum Total Cost. 1 2 3 4 2 This section gives the additional details for the second Independent Variable 3 Here you specify which layer (thickness) is to be used as the second Independent Variable 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer: The thickness will range from T2minimum to T2maximum in steps of T2step.0 User's Guide To use two Independent Variables. Thickness T1 = 40 mm Asphalt: Size 14. CBR = 3 . Type T Unit Cost $288 / m3 T2 = ? $288 / m3 T3 = ? Crushed Rock: 20 mm . click the combo box ( 1 on the screenshot below).

the thickness of Layer 2.Pavement Option B2". 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for Layer 2: .Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features 43 Step 1. 2 Click the Parametric Analysis check-box. Step 2. the number of Layers for which you are varying the thickness). For this example you will use the default. 3 This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Independent Variable. For this example change this to "2". 2 This section gives the details of the Independent Variable. Open the sample file "Economic Analysis . (as you are varying the thickness of Layer 2).e. One Independent Variable. 1 2 1 Make sure the Calculate Cost check-box is ticked. This will bring up the following form: 1 This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i.

1 2 1 Click the check-box labelled 'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'. . Now set the automatic thickness design feature to Layer 3. you will let Layer 2 vary in thickness from 160 mm to 230 mm in steps of 10 mm.0 User's Guide For this example. Now click on to run the analysis. 2 Click anywhere on the Layer 3 row. Step 3. Step: 10. Maximum: 230.44 CIRCLY 5. Enter the following values: Minimum: 160. Click in the "Minimum Thickness" cell on this row and enter 100 (mm). Click on the "Summary" tab (left of the "Variables" tab).

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features 45 Step 4. click on to plot the results. When the analysis is finished.Plot the CDF (for Layer 2) vs. Layer 2 thickness. Minimum Total Cost This plot shows the Minimum Total Cost condition for Layer 2 thickness is 220 mm (to a resolution of 10 mm). Select CDF (Select Layer =>). Click on the Layer combo box. . Click on the Parameter combo box. Step 5.Plot the Total Cost vs Layer 2 thickness.

Click on the Parameter combo box. .46 CIRCLY 5.40km/h (This is Layer No. Layer 2 thickness.Plot the Layer 3 thickness (Design Layer) vs.0 User's Guide Select Size 20 Type T . 2) Step 6.

If the Layer 2 thickness is 160 mm or less. the Layer 3 thickness would be 39. This would be inconsistent with the Austroads (1992) sub-layering requirement that the minimum thickness of a sub-layer is 50 mm.6 mm. because of the Minimum Thickness constraint and because the CDF is 0.Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features 47 Select Thickness (Layer used for Thickness Design). the "designed" thickness of Layer 3 exceeds 5000 mm.91. Therefore a Layer 2 thickness of less than 160 is not viable if supported by the Layer 3 material. If there was no Minimum Thickness constraint. If the Layer 2 thickness is 220 mm. . Comments on these results. the Layer 3 thickness is 100 mm.

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Pressure Force Moment Strain Units mm MPa N N. Displacement Elastic modulus. Quantity Length. Output stresses will have the same units as used to define the loading stresses and the elastic moduli. the strains are dimensionless and the displacements will have the same units as the load dimension and the layer thicknesses. Displacement Metric* mm Metric m Metric m Imperial ft Imperial in . Quantity Length. The recommended system of units is given below. Other compatible systems of units can be used as shown in the following table.49 CHAPTER 7 How to Modify the Databases Introduction Units In order for CIRCLY to deliver coherent results. These units must be used for all Austroads applications involving sub-layering of granular materials. as long as sub-layering of granular materials is not used. all data must be in a consistent set of units.mm mm/mm This system of units is consistent with the Austroads Pavement Design Guide and has been used for all the data files provided with CIRCLY.

mm mm/mm kPa kN kN.in in/in *This system of units must be used for Austroads applications involving sub-layering of granular materials.m m/m MPa MN MN.50 CIRCLY 5.m m/m lb/ft2 lbf lbf.ft ft/ft lb/in2 (psi) lbf lbf.0 User's Guide Elastic modulus. . Pressure Force Moment Strain MPa N N.

The sign conventions used in the rectangular coordinate system and cylindrical local coordinate system are illustrated below. Figure 4: Sign Convention . Displacements in negative coordinate directions are considered to be positive.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 51 Sign Convention Compressive direct stresses and strains are considered to be positive. Hence a load causing a positive stress acts in the positive coordinate direction. Positive shear stresses are defined on the basis that both the stress and strain tensors obey the right hand rule.

To create a new layered system. Define each of the Materials and thicknesses for each of the Layers using the Layered System Components database. these steps must be followed: 1 2 3 Create any materials that are not already in the Elastic Materials database.52 CIRCLY 5. Each load group referenced by the Traffic Spectrum is linked to a record in the Load Group data. This means that: Elastic Materials Properties data must be entered before the Layered System Components data. A consequence of the relational database approach is that data should generally be prepared from the 'bottom up'. Load Group data must be entered before the Traffic Spectrum Components data. The Figure below illustrates the relational database concept for the elastic material properties. Here. the data for a commonly used material need only be entered into the system once. . For example. Worked examples in the following sections show how you can create new data.0 User's Guide Overview of Database Approach The relational database approach is designed to eliminate re-entry of data for design loads and material properties. Figure 5: Relationships between elements in Layered System databases A similar hierarchy applies for the Traffic database. Create a new entry in the Layered Systems database. each of the components that make up a Layered System is linked to entries in the Elastic Material Properties database via an ID (index) field of up to 10 characters. If this data is subsequently modified. all Layered Systems that use that material and subsequently all Jobs that use those Layered Systems will automatically access the modified material properties.

If the bottom layer is of finite depth. NL Rough rigid base Smooth rigid base Semi-infinite base ∞ . The layer interface planes are horizontal and each layer is assumed to be of infinite extent in all horizontal directions.e. it is assumed to rest on a rigid base.e.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 53 The "Layered System" and "Materials" Databases Overview of Layered System and Material Properties CIRCLY models road pavements as a system of layers. or a combination of both types. 2 Layer No. 1 Layer No.. Interfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth). The layered system consists of one or more layers. smooth).. The bottom layer may extend to a finite depth or to a semi-infinite depth (see the figure below). and the contact can be either fully continuous (i. Layer No. rough) or fully frictionless (i. each with differing elastic properties.

5 > ν > -1.0 To be able to model a cross-anisotropic material you need to specify five constants: the vertical Elastic modulus (Ev).νh σyy .νvh σyy + σzz) ((1+νh)/Eh) σxy (1/f) σxz (1/f) σyz The moduli and Poisson's ratios are related by the following equation: νvh/Ev = νhv/Eh The condition that the strain energy must be positive imposes restrictions on the values of the elastic constants: Eh > 0 1 > νh > -1 Ev > 0 f>0 1-νh-2νhvnvh > 0 For isotropic materials the restrictions become: E>0 0.νhv σzz) (1/Ev) (. A cross-anisotropic material has an axis of symmetry of rotation. these properties are different from those in the direction parallel to the axis.νvh σxx .. In the Austroads pavement design method (2004) cross-anisotropic properties are used for subgrade materials and unbound granular aggregates and isotropic properties are used for bound materials such as asphalt and cemented materials. the elastic properties are equivalent in all directions perpendicular to the axis of symmetry (in horizontal.0 User's Guide Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in road pavement materials The elastic material in each layer of the pavement/road structure is assumed to be homogeneous and of cross-anisotropic or isotropic symmetry. .νh σxx + σyy .54 CIRCLY 5. the Poisson’s ratio (νh) and the Shear modulus (f). the horizontal Elastic modulus (Eh). whereas isotropic materials have the same elastic properties in both the vertical and horizontal directions. i. In general. which is assumed to be vertical. The stress-strain relations for a cross-anisotropic material in a particular layer are: εxx = εyy = εzz = εxy = εxz = εyz = (1/Eh) (σxx . radial directions).νhv σzz) (1/Eh) (. the Poisson’s ratio (νvh).e.

ν. as they are assumed to be the same in all directions. Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear as shown below. Creating a new Layered System Click on the button. Click on the Layered System tab. . and a single Poisson's ratio. Click the OK button.5 Ev νvh = νh = ν f = Ev/(1+ν) In this case. Ev.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 55 Data values for all five constants are rarely available. For isotropic materials. The Austroads Pavement Design Guide uses the following simplifications to model subgrade and unbound granular materials: Eh = 0. You should now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters). only the Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio need to be entered. the material is defined simply by the vertical Elastic modulus. Now you can define the details of the layers in your layered system. For this example you can type in 'MyLayers' as the ID and 'Example of creating a new Layered System' as the Title.

i. interfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth). To select the Material Type. A pop-up list will appear. You repeat this process to add as many layers as you require. as shown below. You can specify any interfaces as fully frictionless.56 CIRCLY 5. and working downwards through the pavement. A new record will be added at the bottom of the table and the cursor will be positioned in the Thickness column. starting with typically asphalt or cemented material. Click on the New button. Select the required material by clicking on the appropriate line. The subgrade will extend to an infinite depth if you enter the thickness as 0. As explained in Overview of Layered System and Material Properties (on page 53). or a combination of both types.0. click on the appropriate line then click the OK button.. 1 . You will now choose the Material Type. then click on the OK button.0 User's Guide Defining the Layer properties You add the layers working from the top of your pavement system.e. Enter the layer thickness. A list of available materials will now appear.

You can change the condition for the interface at the bottom of a given layer by clicking in the 'Interface Type' cell. Move the blue highlight to the Layered System that you want to duplicate: Then click the Duplicate button. Duplicating a Layered System Sometimes you may want to create a Layered System that is similar to an existing one. all interfaces are assumed to be rough. The Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Layered System. You can then click on the down arrow at the right of the cell to select a 'Smooth' interface.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 57 1 By default. Then you can change the settings that need to be different. Note that for a semi-infinite subgrade both 'Rough' and 'Smooth' are equivalent. You will then see a form that will let you define the ID and Title of the newly duplicated Layered System: .

After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Layered System Components table so that you can make your changes. Click on the material type combo box as shown below to select from the available material types.0 User's Guide The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Layered System . as shown below. . Click the OK button. CBR=2. For this example.make sure that you modify the Title. Click here to select Material Type Click on the New button. the ID is used to sort the data. Click on 'Subgrade (Austroads 2004)' for the Material Type.58 CIRCLY 5. A dialog box will appear. As you can see from the example below.5'. Type in 'Subgrade.5' for the Title. Click on the Elastic Materials tab. You should now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters. you can type in 'Sub_CBR2. Adding a new Elastic Material Click on the button. You now choose the material type to be used.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 59 You will now be given an opportunity to select a Performance Criterion. Click on the OK button.5 νvh = νh = 0. A new record will be added to the table.0 Eh = 12.45 f = 17.24 (= 0. Select 'Anisotropic' in the column headed 'Aniso?'. then click on the appropriate performance criterion. To select a Performance Criterion make sure the checkbox next to ‘Use performance criterion’ is checked.5 Ev) (= ν) (= Ev/(1+ν)) The new record should be as shown below: . Then type in the moduli and Poisson's ratios as follows: Ev = 25.

assume VB = 12. For this example. For this example type in 'Asph1600' for the ID.1600 MPa. The value of the Reliability Factor is automatically handled by your choice of Project Reliability (see How to Use Project Reliability (on page 80)).9 and Smix = 1600 MPa. . and Smix= mix stiffness (Elastic modulus) in MPa.0 User's Guide Example: Asphalt tensile strain relationship For this example we consider the Shell asphalt fatigue criterion: where RF is the Reliability Factor µε = maximum tensile strain (in units of microstrain). Type in 'Asphalt. You now choose the material type to be used.9%' for the Title.60 CIRCLY 5. Click the OK button. Now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and the Title (up to 72 characters). button. so that the above equation simplifies to: N = [ 5889 / µε]5 To enter this data click on the Click on the Performance tab. Vb=12. VB = percentage by volume of bitumen in the asphalt. Click on the material type combo box (as shown on the first screenshot in Adding a new Elastic Material) to select from the available material types. For this example click on 'Asphalt'. Click on the New button.

You will now choose the Generic Material Type for your new Material Type: button. then click on the appropriate sub-layering scheme. Click on the OK button. .Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 61 Adding a new Material Type You can add new material types. click the checkbox next to ‘use sub-layering’. Click New to create a new entry. Click on the Click on the Material Types tab. To add a new material type. You will now be given an opportunity to select a Sub-Layering scheme. To select a SubLayering scheme. Click the OK button. A dialog box will now appear and you can enter the ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and Title field (up to 72 characters).

Depending on whether or not the components you need already exist.0 User's Guide The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum" Databases Introduction Four inter-related databases are used for the Traffic data.62 CIRCLY 5. You can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow or by dragging the slider down. Click the OK button. This will activate a pop-up list of possible choices. Adding a new Traffic Spectrum If the Traffic screen is not already active. The Spectrum Components Table will now appear. click on the Click on the Spectrum tab. Click New to create a new entry. Now define your spectrum components: Click New for each vehicle model you wish to include. the steps required are described in the following sub-sections. . A dialog box will now appear and you can enter the ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and Title field (up to 72 characters). Load Locations. button. Enter the number of vehicle movements (or passages) over the desired design life. You can move the highlight to the vehicle that you wish to use by positioning the mouse pointer on it and clicking once. The databases form a hierarchy: Traffic Spectrum. Load Groups. If there are more entries than will fit in the listbox there will be a slider bar on the right. You finally select the vehicle by double clicking on it. A new record will be added at the bottom of the table and the cursor will be positioned in the Movements column. Traffic Spectrum Components.

make sure that you modify the Title.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 63 Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum Sometimes you may want to create a Traffic Spectrum that is similar to an existing one. After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Traffic Spectrum Components table so that you can make your changes. . The Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Traffic Spectrum. You will then see a form that will let you define the ID and Title of the newly duplicated Traffic Spectrum: The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Traffic Spectrum . Move the blue highlight to the Traffic Spectrum that you want to duplicate: Then click the Duplicate button. Then you can change the settings that need to be different.

Z for Global coordinates and lowercase x. while 'local' coordinate systems are used to describe each of the loads. You can choose the origin of the 'global' coordinate system to be any point on the upper surface of the layered system and the X and Y axes as any two mutually perpendicular axes that lie in this horizontal plane. The Z-axis in the positive direction is taken as vertically downwards. For loads that are symmetrical about a horizontal axis this axis is taken as the x-axis. θ. y. This load typically represents the contact of a tyre on the surface of the pavement. though. Y. y. Figure 6: Global and Local Coordinate Systems .64 CIRCLY 5. The location of the circular load is described by a ‘global’ coordinate system. z for Local coordinates. The 'global' system is cartesian. Each 'local' coordinate system may be cartesian (x. The orientation of the load is defined by the angle (θload) between the directions of the X-axis and the x-axis. z) or cylindrical (r. The location and orientation of a load are therefore specified by Xload. it is possible to model more complex loads induced by breaking and turning movements of vehicles. for convenience. z) and has its origin at the centre of the load it describes. Note the use of uppercase X. For loads that are symmetrical about their centre point the x-axis may have any orientation. it may be taken as parallel to the X-axis so that θload is then zero. Z. Yload and θload. which is dealt with in Wardle (2004). In terms of the 'global' coordinate system the origin of each 'local' coordinate system is specified by Xload. Y.0 User's Guide Coordinate System for Loads The most common type of load modelled in CIRCLY is a circular area over which a uniform vertical pressure is applied. with axes X. Yload. However.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 65 Adding a new Load Group (i. . Click on the Load Groups tab. For this example type in 'TA-DW' as the ID and 'Tandem axle with dual wheels' as the Title.e. Click on the New button. Type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters). Click the OK button. The example given here is for a tandem axle with dual wheels.. a Vehicle or Axle Group) Click on the button. A dialog box will appear as shown below.

1 0. Non-zero values give non-uniform contact pressure distributions as described in Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. enter the reference stress referred to in the Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual.66 CIRCLY 5. for other values see Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual) Radius of tyre contact area (mm) For Vertical loads (Type=1) use the tyre contact pressure. Type 1 Radius Stress 92.0 The entries should look like this: You should now specify the wheel locations. .0 User's Guide A record will be added to the table and you can enter the relevant data as follows: Field name (Heading) Plot Label Rows Value TA-DW 2 Explanation Label used by legend in graphs (Up to 72 characters) Number of rows (axles) in main gear (this is the NROWS parameter described in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 69)) A flag to indicate type of load (1=Vertical. If this parameter is zero the contact stress will be uniform. generally assumed to be the tyre inflation pressure (MPa). If you are using an advanced load type.75 Exponent 0.

It is essential that the gear numbers are correctly specified.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 67 Defining Load Locations (i. click on the appropriate record within the Load Groups table and click on Load Locations again. If it is not the one you have just defined. Click on the Load Locations tab. Note that the wheels making up a given gear can be in any order. as described. click on the Load Groups tab. the entries in the table should be similar to the table below.other values allow for a variation in contact pressure from wheel to wheel. and the X and Y coordinates of each wheel. This is used to shift the Y-coordinates of the wheels for the combined pulse option. click on the button. Click New for each wheel and enter the gear number. dual wheels gear layout (TA-DW) shown above. Wheel positions) If the Load Groups screen is not already active. See the note Important Note about Axle Locations (on page 67) below for special information about defining axle locations.. For the Tandem axle. Theta corresponds to θLOAD in Figure: Global and Local Coordinate Systems. The gear numbers are used for calculating the centroid of gear number 1. Theta is only used to define the force or moment direction for non-standard loads such as braking loads. so that the gear centroid of gear number 1 is on Y = 0 (see Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 69) for further details). The scaling factor is normally 1. Important Note about Axle Locations Make sure gear number 1 has an axle on Y = 0. Check the descriptive title above the table to make sure that you are referring to the correct Load Group.e. .0 .

68 CIRCLY 5.0) (165.0) 0 Axle 1 X (-165.0 User's Guide Y Direction of Travel (-165.-1320) (165. dual wheels) .-1320) Axle 2 Figure 7: Example wheel layout (Tandem axle.

In this case. dual wheels). then multiplies the computed damage by the number of axles in the axle group (NROWS). . relative to axle spacing. for large depths. CIRCLY then computes the damage beneath that axle due to the strain contributions for all wheels of the vehicle. CIRCLY then computes the damage pulse beneath the centroid of the gear due to the strain contributions for all wheels of the vehicle. CIRCLY relies on you to specify one set of axles at Y = 0 as shown on Figure: Example wheel layout (Tandem axle. and ignores the number of axles in the group. as shown in the Figure below. you specify 'combined pulse for gear' and CIRCLY will automatically shift the load coordinates so that the origin is at the centroid of the gear. However. which is specified in the ROWS column of the Load Groups section of the Loads database. NROWS refers to the number of axles in the gear. one ‘pulse per axle’ is selected. For shallow pavement depths.Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 69 Important Note about Damage Pulses The damage that a given point in the pavement will experience during the passage of a multiple axle will primarily depend on the depth that the given point is below the road surface. relative to the axle spacing. the maximum strain will generally occur under the centroid of the gear.

70 CIRCLY 5. Computation of the damage at intermediate depths requires judgement based on a knowledge of the strain pattern. CIRCLY automatically shifts the position of the load coordinates if you specify 'combined pulse for gear'. . You specify how to deal with the gear by clicking on the button to open the Coordinates for Results screen. This screen has a sub-section for specifying the locations at which results are to be computed and the method for treating the damage pulses.0 User's Guide Y Axle 1 Direction of Travel 0 X Axle 2 Figure 8: Automatic shift of Y-coordinates for ‘combined pulse for gear’ case You must decide whether the pavement is deep or shallow relative to the axle spacing. regardless of whether CIRCLY or other analysis methods are used.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 71 Coordinates for Results Click on the button. or A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the x-direction and the y-direction. . Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for results calculation: An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the x-axis. This screen has fields for specifying the locations for which results are to be computed and the method for treating damage pulses.

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73 CHAPTER 8 Appendices .

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This figure shows the layout of the wheels and their respective positions along the CIRCLY xaxis. The following notes assume that you are already familiar with the original Guide. we use the convention that Austroads 1992 is the original Guide and that Austroads 2008 is the new Guide. No attempt is made to comprehensively describe all the features. Model of Standard Axle The Standard Axle Load consists of a dual-wheeled single axle.75 Overview of Austroads 2008 Features The Austroads Pavement Design Guide (the full title is Guide to Pavement Technology . The Guide underwent a major re-write culminating in the 2004 version. but the main differences with the original Guide are highlighted.Part 2: Pavement Structural Design) was first published in 1992 (Austroads. For convenience. Austroads 2008 uses a full Standard Axle Loading. 1992). applying a load of 80 kN. These notes should be read in conjunction with Austroads 2008. Figure 9: Model of Standard Axle .

0 User's Guide Project Reliability The Project Reliability is defined as follows (Austroads 2008): The Project Reliability is the probability that the pavement when constructed to the chosen design will outlast its Design Traffic before major rehabilitation is required. Austroads 2008 always uses 5 equi-thick sub-layers [with Austroads 1992.76 CIRCLY 5.97.97.90 Material Properties Sub-layering Unbound Granular Materials Sub-layering is required for granular materials placed directly on the subgrade. The desired project reliability is chosen by the designer.000 Highway: lane AADT<2. Typical project reliability levels are given as follows (Austroads 2008): Road Class Freeway Highway: lane AADT>2. In regard to these reliability procedures.5 90 .000 Main Road: lane AADT>500 Other Roads: lane AADT<500 Project Reliability (%) 95 . b The vertical Elastic modulus of the top sub-layer is the minimum of the value specified in the CIRCLY input (indicative values are given in Table 6.95 85 . The procedure is: a Divide the total depth of unbound granular materials into 5 equi-thick sub-layers. the number of sub-layers were dependent on the thickness and elastic properties of the layers].5 85 . a project is defined as a portion from a uniformly designed and (nominally) uniformly constructed road pavement which is subsequently rehabilitated as an entity.3 of Austroads 2008) and that determined using: .95 80 .

The total (i. The vertical Elastic modulus of the top sub-layer of selected subgrade is the minimum of 10 times the design CBR of the selected subgrade material and that determined using: b The ratio of Elastic moduli of adjacent sub-layers is given by: c The Elastic modulus of each sub-layer may then be calculated from the Elastic modulus of the adjacent underlying sub-layer. If this condition is not met. an alternative trial selected subgrade configuration needs to be selected. Selected Subgrade Materials Selected subgrade materials are a special case of unbound granular material. . d If the pavement includes more than one type of selected subgrade material.Chapter 8 Overview of Austroads 2008 Features 77 c The ratio of Elastic moduli of adjacent sub-layers is given by: d The Elastic modulus of each sub-layer may then be calculated from the Elastic modulus of the adjacent underlying sub-layer. RF. beginning with the insitu subgrade. Performance Models The main change to the Performance Models is the introduction of a Reliability Factor. the Elastic modulus of which is known.e. the Elastic modulus of which is known. combined) thickness of all selected materials is divided into five sub-layers and each assigned an Elastic modulus value according to the following guidelines: a Divide the total depth of all selected subgrade materials into 5 equi-thick sub-layers. a check needs to be made that the vertical Elastic modulus calculated for each sub-layer (step a) does not exceed 10 times the design CBR of each selected subgrade material within the sub-layer. beginning with the subgrade or upper sub-layer of selected subgrade material as appropriate.

5 95% 1.67 Subgrade The subgrade Performance Model used in Austroads 2008 is: Note that a Reliability Factor is not used for the subgrade.5 Asphalt Suggested Reliability Factors (RF) for Asphalt Fatigue (Austroads 2004) Desired Project Reliability Reliability Factor (RF) 80% 2.0 95% 1.78 CIRCLY 5. Cemented Materials Suggested Reliability Factors (RF) for Cemented Materials Fatigue (Austroads 2004) Desired Project Reliability Reliability Factor (RF) 80% 4.5% 0. apart from the introduction of the Reliability Factor.7 85% 3.0 User's Guide The Performance models for Cemented and Asphalt Materials are the same as for Austroads 1992.0 97.0 97.0 90% 1.5% 0. .3 90% 2.5 85% 2.

This Standard Axle is provided in the Load Groups database with the ID given by "ESA75Full". The design tyre pressure for pavement analysis is taken as 750 kPa (Chapter 7.1 in conjunction with the original Guide. Modelling the Standard Axle The layout of the four wheels used to model the Standard Axle is shown in the earlier section (see "Model of Standard Axle" on page 75). The following notes assume that you are already familiar with using CIRCLY 4. Austroads 2008).0 or 4. This Section shows how to use the new Austroads features in CIRCLY 5.0.79 How to Use New Austroads 2004/2008 Features The previous Section provided an Overview of the new features in the Austroads 2004/2008 Guide. .

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CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide

How to Use Project Reliability
Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen:

1

1 Click the Reliability tab to switch to the Reliability form. This will bring up the following form:

2

Chapter 8 How to Use New Austroads 2004/2008 Features

81

2 Click on Use Project Reliability Factors.

3

3 In the Project Reliability list, click the desired Project Reliability.

4

4 This Table shows the Reliability Factor for each Material Type.

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CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide

Changes to Materials
The Materials database in CIRCLY is affected by the Austroads 2004 changes in three main areas: 1 2 3 Unbound Granular Materials Subgrade Materials Select Subgrade Materials

To ensure that pavements can be handled using either the Austroads 1992 or Austroads 2004 methods, separate Material Types are used for variants of these materials: Material Type Design Method: Unbound Granular Material Austroads 1992 Unbound Granular (Austroads 1992 sub-layering) Subgrade (Austroads 1992) n/a Austroads 2004 Unbound Granular (Austroads 2004 sub-layering) Subgrade (Austroads 2004) Subgrade (Selected Material)

Subgrade Select Subgrade Material n/a = not applicable

Chapter 8 How to Use New Austroads 2004/2008 Features

83

Austroads 2008 Examples
Appendix 8.3 (Austroads 2008) outlines three worked examples that apply a mechanistic design procedure for flexible road pavements. Copies of these examples are provided in the CIRCLY database:

CIRCLY Job Name Austroads 2004 - Example 1 - Unbound Granular Pavement Austroads 2004 - Example 2- Asphalt Pavement with CT Subbase Austroads 2004 - Example 2- Asphalt Pavement with CT Subbase- Post-Cracked Austroads 2004 - Example 3 - Full Depth Asphalt Pavement CT = Cement Treated

Pavement Description Sprayed Seal Surfaced Unbound Granular Pavement Asphalt Pavement containing a Cemented Material Subbase (pre-cracking phase) Asphalt Pavement containing a Cemented Material Subbase (post-cracking phase) Full Depth Asphalt Pavement

See Appendix 8.3 (Austroads 2008) for full details of the parameters used.

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L. Division of Applied Geomechanics. Wardle. Pavement Design – A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements. AGPT02/08.J. No. . (Austroads: Sydney).J. Guide to Pavement Technology .Part 2: Pavement Structural Design. Austroads Publication No. (2004). Geomechanics Computer Program. CSIRO Australia. Austroads (2008). Austroads Publication No. AP-17/92. Australia. Mincad Systems. Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. (1977). L.85 References Austroads (1992). 2. Wardle. Program CIRCLY User’s Manual.

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