µAyur¶µveda¶ ± µLife¶µScience¶

Udai SJC ± 3rd March Happy Holi Nikhil Rasiwasia

Ayurveda - Origins
Accurate dating is uncertain 
More objectively identifiable after the advent of Buddhism (c. 500 BC)  Invasion of Darius, Alexander brought exchange

Significant medical content can be found in Rig-Veda (presumed origin c. 1500 BC) Early writings on perishable bhojpatra

) Upnishads (self development spiritual text. and the nature of God ) Authoritative supplements .Vedas It is the bedrock upon which Ayurveda rests Considered to be composed around 1500-2000 BC Four veda        Rig-veda : lots of stuff Sam-veda : Soma sacrifice Yajur-veda : entire sacrificial rite Athar-veda : non-relegious (1200 BC). cough. leprosy) Brahmanas Aranyakas (³the forest books". philosophy. lots of medical text (fever. jaundice. heart disease. meaning treatises for sadhus living in the wilderness. meditation. diarrhes.

End of Vedic Period (500 BC) Subsequent text deriving from primary vedic samhitas  Laid more emphasis on the dharma of selfdevelopment with explicit spiritual and philosophical content Vedanta ± derived from Upnishads Ramayana Mahabharat."tales of ancient times" . Bhagavad Gita Puranas ± AD 320 to 520 .

 Comfortable adopting Ayurveda  Jivaka. buddha¶s personal physicin Ashoka (convert to buddhism established many charitable hospitals) Spread of Buddhism == spread of Ayurveda Nagarjuna ± AD 100. restructure and reform older vedic traditions. . brought about significant advances in Ayurveda ± father of iatrochemistry ± preparation of medicinal mineral substances .Ayurveda and Buddhism Buddhism  attempt to purify.Taxila¶s outstanding Ayurvedic physician.

phelgm. earth . black bile  Dietary therapy. dry  Four fundamental essence: air. yellow bile. fire. wet. cold. water.Westerm Medicine and Aurveda Hippocrates : Father of western medicine  Humoral theory ± blood. influence of seasons on health Aristotle  Relied heavily on empirical observation and naturalistic classification  Four prime qualities: hot.

Chinese medicine and ayurveda Oldest extant chinese medical text ± Huang-di Nei-jing or Inner classic of the Yellow Emperor (300 BC) Similarities ± because of exchange of ideas via Buddhism and trade. .

Ayurveda and Arab Medicine (Unani Tibb) Arab medicine by Avicenna (AD 980)  Produced Canon of Medicine. a compendium of the previous works of Hippocrates and Galen Mostly based on Greek medicine (Unani) Reports of exchange of ideas ± Ayurvedic physicians were invited to baghdad to teach and organize hospitals .

Sarangadhara Samhita ± Pulse Diagnosis .Earliest Texts 760 BC: Charaka Samhita ± herbal or plant based pharmacopoeia 660 BC: Sushruta Samhita ± Surgival approaches 7th Century : Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata of Sindh ± summary of previous two AD 100: Nagarjuna ± iatrochemistry 1331: Madhava Nidana by Madhava of Kishkindha ± Ayurvedic Diagnosis 14th Century .

however it holds a secondary place in medicine in India Indian govt. opening of British medical schools 1920: a national revival and resurgence of interest in traditional Indian culture and practices 1946: Formal govt. recognition and reacceptance of Ayurveda and resurgence of research. Currently. Unani Tibb. officially recognizes as legitimate: Allopathy. Homeopathy.Ayurveda in 19th Century Ayurveda flourished till 12th century. and its cousins Siddha and Yoga. . Ayurveda. Naturopathy. till the Muslim invasion Not much progress from 12th to 17th century British invasion : 1833 virtually all ayurveda schools closed.

categorical and uses a classification system of disease. continually modified according to seasonal changes A : Individual has the innate capacity for potential selfcorrection and primary self healing Diagnostic Treatment Belief . A : Maintenance of optimal health by daily proactive care. W: scientific objectivity and verifiability (accumulating statistically significant data) ± ³experience-distant´ A : pratyaksha (perceptive understanding of each individual) ± ³experience-near´ W: Linear logic. whose disruptive trends may later develop into discrete disease.Ayurveda vs Western Science Philosophy        W: treats discrete disease entities A : treats subtle dysphoria.

perseverance and active personal role.Why Ayurveda? Health maintenance rather than disease treatment System of diet and lifestyle  enhance the quality of life by dealing with subtle trends that might lead to actual disease Compatible with those whose beliefs include naturalistic. spiritual and consciousness-oriented approaches Often require intentional and sustained self-discipline. .

Gynecology and Pediatrics Toxicology Psychiatry Antiaging and rejuvenation Reproductive and aphrodisiac medicine Shalyatantra Shalakya Tantra Kaumarabhiritya Agadatantra Bhutavidya Rasayana   Vajikarana .Ashtanga Ayurveda Kayachikitsa       Internal Medicine Surgery Otolaryngology(ENT). Ophthalmology Obstetrics.

by Kapila Yoga ± Gradual liberation of human spirit to attain Samadhi ± by Patanjali Nyaya Darshana ± monotheistic system.postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms by Kanada Purva Mimamsa (inquiry) ± emphsis on discipline. logical approach of apprehending the world using reason Vaisheshika .Theoretical Foundations Darshanas ± ideological systems  Astika Sankhya ± nontheistic creation sequence . emphasizes the spiritual base of reality. human misperception by Shankara (AD 780)  Nastika Buddhism Jainism Lokayata . ritual and service Uttara Mimamsa or Advita Vedanta ± spiritually oriented.

discerning ability.Analogy Four techniques of knowing . Buddhi ± most refined. intellect. wisdom Pratyaksha ± direct sensory perception Anumana ± inference Sabda ± authoritative statement Upmana .Epistemology Knowledge Process From Nyaya Dharshana philosophy Four cognitive faculties         Manas ± mind as it experiences sensations Chitta ± transmitter from manas to higher cognitive functions Ahamkara ± self-identity that provides the individual with the experience of relative constancy.

integrated coherence with actively interdependent aspects Dynamic aspect is fueled by constant interaction amongst three doshas ±  Vata : movement  Pitta : transformation  Kapha : consolidation the fundamental regulatory principles of the body¶s physiological functioning Interplay between them modulates the interaction of the Gurvadi Gunas (10 pairs of opposite qualities)  Characterize all perceptible substances .World View Essentially unitary and dynamic.

Gurvadi Gunas Shita/ushna Snigdha/ruksha Guru/laghu Sthula/sukshma Sandra/drava Sthira/chala Manda/tikshna Mridu/kathina Slaksha/khara Picchila/sishada .

oily/dry heavy/light gross/subtle dense/liquid stable/mobile dull/sharp soft/hard smooth/rough sticky/clear . Shita/ushna Snigdha/ruksha Guru/laghu Sthula/sukshma Sandra/drava Sthira/chala Manda/tikshna Mridu/kathina Slaksha/khara Picchila/sishada cold/hot wet.English please.

duty.Vedic Standards Four basic life goals (purushartha)  Dharma ± individual's abidance with the inherent lawfulness in universe ± purpose. justice  Artha ± possessions  Kama ± Pleasure  Moksha ± liberation .

comes into being. then at that moment the first material energy. . prakriti. indescribable  Essence Satyam ± essential truth Ritam ± deep structure.Sankhya Model of Creation Avayakta  pure existence in its unmanifest state  Absolutely transcendental. self-correcting Brihat ± vast breath of its being  Two components Purusha ± primal immaterial matrix out of which all else emerge. pristine consciousness Prakriti ± when µpurusha¶ spontaneously moves.

dullness Highly rarefied potentials that impart direction and create a unique character. agitation  Tamas ± interita. . clear. harmony  Rajas ± dynamic movement.Maha Gunas Three axiomatic attributes that are inherent to maha gunas (subtle)  Sattva ± pure.

Next all steps are material .Ahamkara Next step in the developmental process of prakriti A giant leap which eventually becomes most characteristically individualized in human experience Experience of personal sense of self.

Pancha Mahabhuti Ether/Space Air Fire Water Earth .

Birth of Doshas .Vata .

Pitta .

Kapha .