II I I III

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NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

CODE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS GBJ 11-89

Edited by: The former Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China.

Approved by: Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China.

Date of Enforcement: January 1, 1990.

NEW WORLD PRESS

Beijing 1994

ISBN 7-80005-259-1/T'001

Code for seismic design of buildings

Published by New World Press

24 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, China

Printed in the People' s Republic of China

Preface

This book is the English translation of Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GBJ 11 - 89 and "Notice No. 1 on Partial Revisions of National Standards of Engineering Construction in 1993 ... It is the official translation of the original in Chinese for general use as examined and approved by the Department of Standards and Norms, Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China.

In the event of any inconsistency between the Chinese - language text of the Code and the present English - language text of the Code, the Chinese - language text shall be taken as ruling.

Department of Standards and Norms, Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China

© COP¥RIGHT Department of Standards and Norms, Ministry of Construction,

the People's Republic of China 1994

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic. mechanical. photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of

! the Ministry of Construction. the People's Republic of China.

MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION, P.R.C

March 27, 1989 Document (89) JB No.145

On the publication of the National Standard, "Code for Seismic Design of Buildings"

According to the requirements of Document (81) lFS No. 546, issued by the former Slate Capital Construction Commission, the "Seismic Design Code for Industrial and Civil Buildings, T] 11-78" has been revised by the former Miriist r y of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection together with the authorities concerned and its title has been changed to "Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, GB] 11-89 ". A review had been made by the Ministry of Construction and other relevant authorities, and the new code has been approved and will be put into effect from 1 anuar y 1, 1990. The "Seismic Design code for Industrial and Civil Buildings, T] 11-78" will be null and void as of 1 une :30 ,1991 .

The Ministry of Construction will supervise the present code; the China Academy of Building Research will be responsible for its interpretation, and the China Architecture and Building Press will be responsible for its publication.

11

Ministry of Construcfion, People's Republic of China

March 15, 1993

Partial Ravision of the National Standards for Engineering Construction

Notice No.1

Parts of the mational standard, "Code for the Seismic Design of Buildings, GBl 11

-- 89", have been revised by the China Academy of Building Research working in conjunction with other related organizations. This revision has been examined and aproved by the relevant deartmen ts. Provisions in the unr eviscd code corresponding to those amended in the revised code are invalid as j uly 1,1993.

1II

MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION, P.R.C.

March,1989

A Note on the Revision of the Present Code

The present code was a revised version of the former design code: "Seismic Design Code for Industrial and Civil Buildings TJ 11-78", undertaken by the China Academy of Building Research together with relevant design and research institutions and universities in accordance to Document (81 )JFS No. 546 issued by the former State Capital Construction Commission.

In the period of revision, the revising group carried out studies on specific topics, investigated and summarized lessons learned from strong earthquakes having occurred in recent years in China and other parts of the world, adopted new research achievements in earthquake engineering, considered the present economic and construction situation in China, and finally worked out the drafting of the revised code. Afterwards comments were solicited from various design, construction, research, and educational institutions and relevant authorities, and the document was redrafted and upgraded. In the meantime, pilot designs underwent field testing. Finally the revised draft code was reviewed and finalized by the Ministry of Construction and relevant authorities.

The present code contains eleven chapters and seven appendices. The main revisions are as follows: seismic design requirements for buildings in. the seismic region of intensity VI have been added; requirements for two-stage design with a check of strength and deformation that reflects the principle of earthquake-resistance have been proposed; expressions for seismic checking of structures based on the theory of probability have been adopted; revisions have been made on the criteria for the classification of construction sites, response spectra for design, and design values of seismic actions; liquefaction potential identification of saturated soil and anti-liquefaction measures have been improved; regulations supplementing the conceptional seismic design of structures, seismic design methods, seismic measures for the improvement of integrarity of buildings and structures, deformability and energy-absorption capacity of members have been added. Paragraphs on the seismic design for block masonry

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buildings and single-story steel factory buildings, as w~ll as a chapter on earth, wood, and stone buildings have also been added.

The code must be used in coordination with the "Code for the Loads of Building Struc tures, GBJ 9-87" and other national design standards and codes for building structures which have been drawn up or revised on the basis of the "Uniform Standard for the Design of Building Structures GBJ 68-84", which was approved and issued by the central government in 1984. The code should not be used in conjunction with national design standards and codes of structures not drawn up or revised on the basis of "Uniform Standard GBJ 68-84".

Owing to various limitations, some problems in the code remain to be solved through further investigation, scientific research and testing. Therefore, in the period of implementation, all institutions concerned are requested to sum up and accumulate their experiences in seismic design. If modifications and supplementations of the code are deemed necessary, please submit comments and relevant data to the Institute of Earthquake Engineering, China Academy of Building Research for further

reVISIOn.

v

CONTENTS

Key Notations

1. General .. . ... . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . 1

2.Basic requirements of seismic design 3

2.1 Seismic effect, site and subsoil , 3

2.2 Configuration of plan and elevation 4

2.3 Seismic structural system ,. 4

2.4 Non-structural members 5

2.5 Materials and construction 6

3. Site, subsoil and foundation 7

3.1 Site , 7

9

3.2 Seismic checking for subsoil and foundation

3.3 Seismic measures for subsoil 11

4. Seismic action and seismic checking for structures 17

4.1 General '" 17

4.2 Calculation of horizontal seismic action 20

4.3 Calculation of vertical seismic action 24

4.4 Seismic checking for cross section , 25

4.5 Seismic checking for deformation .. , 28

5.Multi-story masonry buildings 32

5. 1 General ... .. . ... ... .. . .. . ... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 32

5.2 Essentials in calculation

......................................................... 35

5.3 Constructional measures for multi-story brick buildings ...... ... 37

5.4 Constructional measures for multi-story block masonry buildings 42

6. Multi-story and high-rise reinforced concrete buildings 46

6. 1 General , 46

6.2 Essentials in calculation

......................................................... 51

6.3 Constructional measures for framed structures 56

6. 4 Constructional measures for shear wall structures 62

6. 5 Constructional measures for frame-shear wall structures 63

7. Multi-story brick buildings with framed first story or inner frames 64

7. 1 General ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 64

VI

7.2 Essentials in calculation .. , 65

7. 3 Constructional measures 67

8. Single-story factory buildings 68

8.1 Single-story factory buildings with reinforced concrete columns 68

8.2 Single-story factory buildings with brick columns 79

8.3 Single-story steel factory buildings 83

9. Single-story spacious buildings , , ,.. 87

9. 1 General , , 87

9.2 Essentials in calculation 87

-9.3 Constructional measures 88

10.Earth, wood, and stone buildings 90

10.1 Earth buildings in villages and towns 90

10.2 Wood buildings in villages and towns 91

10.3 Stone buildings ... ... 92

11 . Chimneys and water towers 95

11.1 Chimneys 95

11.2 Water towers 98

Appendices

A. Glossary of terms ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...... ...... ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i03

B. Seismic checking of cross section in the core zone of frame joints 104

C. Seismic checking of frames with filled brick walls 106

D. Seismic design of diaphragm of frame supported story in shear wall structures

................................................................................................ 109

E. Adjustment of seismic action effect on transverse planar bent in single-storey

factory buildings 110

F. Seismic checking of single-storey factory buildings with reinforced concrete

columns in the longitudinal direction 114

G. Explanation of words in this code. 119

Additional Notes 120

Key Notations

Actions and action effects

F Ek, F Evk-standard values of overall horizontal and vertical seismic actions on structure respectively;

GE, G.q-representative value of gravitional load and representative value of total e-

.

quivalent gravitational load on structuref member )in an earthquake respec-

tively;

wk-standard value of wind load;

S-seismic action effectf bending moment, axial force, shear force, stress and deformation), or fundamental combination of the seismic action effect and the other load effect;

M -bending moment;

N -axial force;

V -shear force;

p-compression on the base of foundation; u -lateral drift;

8-story displacement rotation.

Resisting forces and material properties K -stiffness of structure( member) ;

R -bearing capacity of structural member;

[8 ]-limit value of story displacement rotation;

I, fv, IE-design value, standard value and seismic design value of various material strength+including static bearing capacity of foundation) respectively.

Geometric parameters A -area of cross section of structural member; A a-area of cross section of reinforcement;

B -total width of structure;

H +-total height;

Lr+total length of structure (a unit); a -distance;

c .. a' .-minimum distances from the resultant of the longitudinal tensile reinforcement to the edge of the cross section respectively;

VI

b-cross section width of member;

d-depth or thickness of soil layer lor diameter of reinforcement or chimney; e r+eccentric distance;

h-cross section height of member; l-length or span of member;

t ++thickness of shear wall or plate.

Coefficients for calculation

G;, CE, Cw-action effect (inner force and deformation) coefficients; r G, rE, i'w-partial coefficients of action;

i'RE-seismic adjusting coefficient for bearing capacity; cp-combination value coefficient or effect coefficient;

,.,-amplification factor or adjusting coefficient of seismic action effect (inner force and deformation) ;

Xji-mode coordinate of displacement (relative horizontal displacement of mass i of mode j in the x direction);

Yji-mode coordinate of displacement (relative horizontal displacement of mass i of mode j in the y disection);

a, am .. -horizontal seismic effect coefficient and its maximum value; a v max-maximum value of vertical seismic effect coefficient; $y-yield strength coefficient of structure or member;

• I

~-calculation coefficient;

A +-slendemess ratio of member or proportional coefficient; p-steel ratio or ratio;

~--rotational mode coordinate, or stability coefficient for compression on member.

Others

T-natural period of structure; N -penetration blow count;

liE-liquefaction index of subsoil during earthquake; vam-average shear wave velocity of soil;

n +-total number, e. g. number of stories, masses, reinforcing bars, spans.

IX

.. I

1. General

1.0.1 This code is prepared for the purpose of carrying out the policy of giving priority to the prevention of earthquake disasters so that when buildings are made earthquake-resistant, damage to buildings, loss of life and economic losses will be minimized .

When buildings designed based on the code are subjected. to the influence of frequently occurred earthquakes with an intensity of less than the fortification intensity of the region, the buildings will not be, or will be only slightly damaged and will continue to be servicable without repair; when they are subjected to the influence of earthquakes equal to the fortification intensity of the region, they may be damaged but will still be servicable after ordinary repair or without repair; when they are subjected to the influence of expected rare earthquakes with an intensity higher than the fortification intensity of the region, they will not collapse nor suffer damage that would endanger human lives.

1. o. 2 The code is applied to seismic design of ordinary buildings (including chimneys, water towers, etc.) in regions of fortification intensity of VI to IX.

The design of buildings in regions of fortification intensity X and/or with specific professional requirements shall follow related special provisions.

1.0.3 Fortification intensity shall be determined by documents (maps) approved and issued by the authorized central government agency. Normally, the basic intensity may be used; for cities where a disaster prevention plan has been drawn up, the approved seismic fortification zoning may be used (by using the fortification intensity or the design ground motion parameters).

1.0. 4 Buildings shall be classified into the following four types based on their importance ..

Type A--Buildings with special requirements, such as those that would result in serious consequences if they are damaged by an earthquake. They must be approved by competent State authorities.

Type B--Buildings of life-line systems in the main designated cities of the nation.

Type C--Buildings not included in types A, B or D.

Type D--Buildings of less importance, where earthquake damage will not likely cause death or injury to people and/or considerable economic losses.

1. o. 5 Seismic design of all types of buildings shall conform to the following 1

..

I .. I

I I

t

~

req uiremen ts .

1. Seismic actions of Type A buildings shall be calculated by ground motion parameters obtained from specific study; seismic actions of buildings of other types shall be determined from the fortification intensity of the region. However, buildings in regions of fortification intensity VI need not undergo any calculation of seismic actions except where there are specific provisions in the code.

2. Specific seismic measures shall be taken for Type A buildings; seismic measures for Type B buildings, except as specified in the code, shall be those taken for the region, the fortification intensity of which is one grade higher than that of the local region. However, when the fortification intensity is IX, seismic measures taken may be appropriately more stringent than those for fortification intensity IX; seismic measures for Type C buildings shall be taken based on the fortification intensity of the

\

region; for Type D buildings, based on the fortification intensity one grade lower

than that of the region; when the fortification intensity is VI, no reduction of intensity is necessary.

Note: The term" fortification intensity" in the code is usually shortened as " intensity".

For example. fortification intensity of VI. W. ". or IX is shortened as intensity VI. \1. "or IX respectively.

1. O. 6 The code was revised in accordance with provisions of the national standard: "Uniform Standard for the Design of Building Structures, GBJ 68-84". Notations, units and glossary of terms used in the code are in accordance with the national standard: "Notations, Units and Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in the Design of Building Structures, GBJ 83-85".

1. O. 7 Seismic designs based on this code should be coordinated also with requirements specified in other current design and geotechnical codes concerned.

2

2. Basic requirements of seismic design

"

2. 1 Seismic effect, site and subsoil

2.1.1 If seirnic effects upon the region of given fortification intensity, where buildings are located, are caused by an earthquake either in the region or in a region of intensity one grade higher than the fortification intensity of the region, the buildings shall be designed in accordance with provisions of the code for design nearearthquake; if seismic effects upon the region are caused by an earthquake in a region of intensity two grades or more higher than the fortification intensity of the region, the buildings shall be designed by provisions of the code for design far-earthquake .

Note:' In the code. the term "design near-earthquake" is generally simplified as "nearearthquake"; "design far-earthquake" as "far-earthquake".

2.1. 2 When selecting a construction site, a comprehensive evaluation should be made based on the requirements of the project, seismicity of the region. and geotechnical and geological data of the site. The location' favorable to earthquake resistance should be selected, while unfavorable locatiorts should be avoided. 1£ unfavorable locations are unavoidable, appropriate seismic measures shall be taken. Type A. B, and C buildings shall not be built in hazardous regions.

2. 1.3 When the construction site is a site of Type I, seismic constructional measures shall be taken as those stipulated for an intensity one grade lower than the given intensity, except Type D buildings, while the earthquake actions shall still be calculated based on the given intensity. However, when the given intensity equals VI, stringency of constructional measures shall not be reduced.

2. 1. 4 Design of subsoil and foundation should be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. The same structural unit should not be placed on subsoil with entirely different characteristics.

2. The same structural unit should not be placed partly on natural subsoil and partly on pile foundation.

3. For subsoil with layers consisted of soft clay, potentially liquefied soil, recently back-filled soil, or with extremely non-uniform distribution, measures should be taken to strengthen the integrality and rigi~ity of the foundation.

3

2.2 Configuration of plan and elevation

2. 2. 1 Configuration of plan and elevation of buildings should be regular and symmetric; distribution of mass and change in stiffness should be even; and the floors of the building should not be staggered.

2.2.2 Seismic joints of buildings may be installed based on the actual need of the structure. When no seismic joints are installed in a building with irregular configuration, the computing model selected shall agree with its actual conditions and a more precise seismic analysis shall be performed; local stresses and deformation concentrations, as well as torsional effects shall all be estimated, vulnerable parts shall be identified, and appropriate measures shall be taken to enhance its seismic resistance. If seismic joints are installed, the structure shall be split into regular structural units. Seismic joints shall have enough clearance in accordance with the intensity, site category, and type of building. The superstructures on the two sides of the joint shall be separated completely.

Expansion joints and settlement joints shall comply with the requirements of seismic joints.

2.3 Seismic structural system

2.3.1 The seismic structural system of a building shall be determined through comprehensive analysis of the technical and economic conditions based on the following factors: importance of the building, fortification intensity, building height, site, subsoil, foundation, material used, and construction technology.

2.3.2 Seismic structural system shall comply with the following requirements: 1. It shall have a clear computing model and reasonable path for seismic action transfer;

2. It should have several lines of defense against earthquakes. It should avoid loss of either earthquate resistance capacity or gravity load capacity of the whole system due to damage to part of the structure or members;

3. It shall possess the necessary strength, adequate deformabili ty, and better energy dissipation ability;

4. It should possess a rational distribution of stiffness and strength, avoid weakening of some parts of the structure due to local weakening or abrupt changes; avoid appearance of extremely large concentration of stress and plastic deformation; when weak parts do appear, measures should be taken to enhance their earthquake resist an tee capacity.

2. 3. 3 Earthquake structural clements shall comply with the following

requirements:

1. For unit masonry, m order to improve deformability, reinforced concrete

ring beams, construction columns, and core columns shall be installed as specified, or reinforced masonry or composite masonry columns shall be used.

2. For unit concrete structural members, dimensions of members shall be selected rationally, longi tudinal reinforcement and hoops shall be installed so that shearing failure docs not occur before [lexual failure; crushing of concrete does not occur before the yielding of steel bars, and anchorage and cohesion failure of steel bar docs not occur before member failure.

3. For steel members, dimensions of members shall be rationally selected to

avoid buckling.

2.3.4 The connections of seismic structural members shall comply with the

following requirements:

1. The load bearing capacity of member joints shall not be less than that of the

member;

2. The anchoring load bearing capacity of pre-embeddedJnembers shall not be

less than that of connecting members;

3. The connections of prefabricated structures shall ensure the integrality of the

structure.

2.3.5 The earthquake resistant bracing system shall guarantee the stability of the

structure during an earthquake.

2.4 Non-structural members

2.4.1 Secondary structural members shall be reliably connected or anchored to the main structure so that human injury or damage to important equipment due, to their collapse can be avoided.

2.4.2- Due consideration should be given to the favorable or unfavorable effects of

curtain walls and partition walls on the earthquake resistance of the structure; irrational layout of walls that would cause damage to the main structure shall be

avoided.

2.4.3 Veneers shall be firmly adhered to the main structure; falling of suspended

ceilings shall be avoided to prevent human injury; suspended or adhered heavy decorative ornaments shall also be avoided; when unavoidable, safety measures shall

be taken.

4

5

2.5 Materials and construction

2.5. 1 Specific material and construction requirements for earthquake resistant structures shall be clearly stated in the design documents.

2.5.2 Except as stipulated in different chapters of the code, the property indices of structural materials shall possess the minimum requirements as shown below:

1. The strength grade of clay bricks shall not be less than M U 7. 5; the strength grade of mortar for brick masonry should not be less than M 2. 5; the strength grade of mortar for a ·brick chimney should not be less than M 5;

2. The strength grade of concrete blocks should not be less than MU 10 for medium-size and MU 5, for small-size blocks ; the strength grade of mortar for concrete blocks should not be less than M 5;

3. The strength grade of concrete for beams, columns and joints of a frame with Seismic Category 1 should not be less than C 30; for constructional columns, core columns, ring beams, and spread foundations should not be less than C 15; for other members shall not be less than C 20;

4. The strength grade of steel reinforcements: longitudinal bars should be Grade II or ill deformed bars; hoops should be Grade I or II bars; the bars for constructional columns and core columns may be Grade I or II bars.

2.5.3 In the construction of structures, main bearing steel reinforcements should not be replaced by those with strength grade higher than that used in the original design. When replacement is necessary, the conversion shall be made based on the actual yielding strength of the reinforcement.

2.5.4 For construction of constructional columns, core columns and frames with infilled walls in a brick masonry building with a framed first story, the brick walls shall be laid before the concrete column is cast.

2.5.5 The bricks at the intersection of longitudinal and transverse walls in a brick masonry building shall be laid with racking, otherwise tying measures shall be adapted.

2.5.6 The inspection and acceptance of materials and construction quality shall be In accordance with the requirements specified in the relevant current national standards.

3. Site, subsoil and foundation

3.1 Site

3.1."1 In the selecti6n of a construction site, the ground sections, including those favorable, unfavorable. and hazardous to earthquake resistance, shall be identified by Table 3.1. 1.

Table 3.1.1

Identification of Ground Sections

Ground section category

Geological. topographical and geomorphical description

Stiff soil or dense and homogeneous medium-stiff soil in a wide open area.

Favorable to earthquake resistance

Unfavorable to earth-quak resistance

Soft soil; liquefiable soil; stripe-shaped protruding ridge; high isolated hill; non-rocky steep slope; river banks and edges of slopes-soil strata having obviously heterogeneous distribution in plane for cause of formation. lithology, and statef such as abandoned and filled river beds, fracture zone of fault, and hidden swamp, creek, gully and pit, as well as subsoil with partial excavation and filling. )

Places where landslide. avalanche, subsidence. formation of Hazardous to earthquake cracks and mud rock flow are liable to occur during an resistance earthquake; location of causative fault on which ground dislocation may occur.

3.1.2 The site soil should be classified according to the shear-wave velocity of the soil layer as shown in Table 3. 1 .2.

Table 3.1. 2 Classification of Site Soil

Type of site soil Shear-wave velocity of soil layer (m/s)

Stiff soil Medium-stiff site soil Medium-soft site soil Soft site soil

v.>500 5QO~v_>250 250~v ... >140 v ... ~140

Note: v, is the shear-wave velocity of soil layer; b.m is the weighted mean shear-wave velocity 01 soil layers. according to t hc thickness of all soil layers within 15 m under "t he ground level bUI not greater than the thickness of the overlaying layer.

6

7

3. 1. 3 If no measured data of shear-wave velocity for Type C and Type D buildings is available, the soil may be classified according to Table 3.1. 3 and the type of site soil may be determined based on the following principles: In case of singlelayer soil, the type of soil is the same as the type of site soil; in case of multi-layer soil, the type of site soil may be evaluated comprehensively based on the types and thicknesses of the soil layers within 15 m below ground level, but not greater than the thickness of the overlaying layer at the site.

Table 3.1.3

Classification of Soil

Type of soil

Slightly dense gravel, coarse or medium sand; fine and silty sand other than that which is loose; cohesive soil and silt with /k";;200;fillland with /k~130.

Geotechnical description

Stiff soil

Stable rock, dense gravel

Medium-stiff soil

Medium dense or slightly dense gravel; dense or mediumdense gravel. coarse or medium sand; cohesive soil and silt with 1»200.

Medium-soft soil

Soft soil

Muck and mucky soil; loose sand; new alluvial sediment of cohesive soil and silt Ifill land with 1><130.

Note: I> is the nominal value of static bearing capacity of subsoil in kPa.

3.1.4 The overlaying thickness of the site is the distance from the ground level to a soil layer where the shear-wave velocity is more than 500 mls or to the top of the stiff soil.

3.1. 5 Construction sites shall be classified into four categories. according to type of site soil and the overlaying thickness at the site, 'and should also comply with Table 3.1.5. If sufficient basis is available, the site category may be modified accordingly.

3.1. 6 The geological exploration of the site shall be carried out not only based on the provisions of relevant national standards, but also on the classification of the ground sections-whether favorable, unfavorable, or hazardous to buildings. providing the site category of the building and geotechnical stability evaluation for earthquake resistance (whether landslide or avalanche would occur) according to the

8

actual condition. For buildings where a supplementary time-history analysis is required. the relevant dynamic parameters and the overlaying thickness of the site shall also be provided as required by design.

Table 3. 1 .5 Construction Site Categories

Thickness of overlaying layer at site. dM(m)
Type of site soil 3< dM";;9 19< d •• ";;SO
0 0<d ov ";;3 d_>80
Stiff site soil I
Medium-stiff site soil I I n
Medium-soft site soil I n ill
Soft site soil I n 1 ill N 3.2 Seismic checking for subsoil and foundation

3.2. 1 For the following types of buildings, the bearing capacity of natural subsoil and foundation need not be checked for earthquake resistance:

1. Unit masonry buildings. multi-story brick buildings with inner frames' or framed first story, and water towers;

2. Ordinary single-story factory buildings, single-story spacious buildings, multi-story framed civil buildings, and multi-story framed buildings with eqivalent foundation loading to that of multi-story framed civil buildings, provided that no weak cohesive soil layers lie within the range of the main bearing layer of the subsoil;

3. Chimneys not exceeding 100 meters in height when the intensity is VI or VII;

4. Structures, of which seismic checking specified in this code need not be conducted for their superstructure .

Note: Weak cohesive soil layer refers to soil layer with nominal static bearing capacity less than SO, 100 and 120 kPa when the intensity is \I. )'I, and IX respectively.

3.2.2 In the checking of foundation on natural subsoil for earthquake resistance, the seismic bearing capacity of subsoil shall be calculated by the following equation:

f.E=~.f. (3.2.2)

where f.E-adjusted design value of seismic bearing capacity of subsoil; ~.-adjusting coefficient for seismic bearing capacity of subsoil, and shall be taken from Table 3.2.2 ;

f.-design value of static bearing capacity of subsoil and shall be taken as the

value as given in t he current national standard:

Subsoil and Foundation for Buildings" .

.. Design Code for

9

Table 3.2.2

Adjusting Coefficient for Seismic Bearing Capacity of Subsoil

factory buildings with foundation load equivalent to that of multi-storey framed civil buildings.

3.3 Seismic measures for subsoil

3. 3. 1 Under ordinary circumstances, discrimination of the potential of liquefaction of the saturated soil and adoption of measures to prevent liquefaction need not be considered when intensity is VI, but for Type B buildings that are sensitive to the settlement caused by liquefaction, measures for intensity VI may be used , When, the intensity is VII to IX, for Type B buildings. discrimination of the potential of liquefaction and adoption of relevant measures may be considered using those stipulated for the original intensity.

3.3.2 If one of the following conditions is satisfied. saturated sand or saturated silt may be preliminarily discriminated as non-liquefiable soil, or effects of liquefaction need not be considered:

1. If the geological period of the soil is pleistocene of the Quatenary period (Q3) or earlier, the soil may be considered non-liquefiable.

2. If the clay particle content (particle diameter less than 0.005 mm ) of silt is not less than 10 % , 13 % • and 16 % 1 when the intensity is W. VII, and IX respectively. the soil may be considered non-liquefiable.

Geotechnical description

1.0

Rock; dense gravel; dense gravel. dense coarse or medium sand; cohesive soil or silt with /,;;;'300

1.5

Medium dense or slightly dense gravel; medium or slightly dense gravel; coarse or medium sand ldense and medium dense fine or silty sand ; cohesive soil or silt with 150~j. < 300

1.3

Slightly dense fine sand and silty sand ; cohesive soil or silt with 100~j.<150;newly alluvial sediment deposit of cohesive soil and silt.

1.1

Silt. silty soil. loose sand. and fill

3.2.3 In the checking of vertical bearing capacity of natural subsoil under seismic action. the mean pressure on the base of the foundation and the maximum pressure at the edge of the foundation shall comply with the following equations; also, the area of zero stress between the foundation base and the subsoil shall not be more than 25 % of the total area of the foundation base; the zero-stress area for chimney foundations should comply with the requirements specified in the current national standard:

"Design Code for Chimneys" .

p ~f.E (3.2.3 - 1)

Pm .. ~1.2f'E (3.2.3 - 2)

where p-mean design value of pressure of combined seismic action on the

foundation base;

Pm .. -maximum design value of pressure of combined seismic action at the edge of foundation base.

3.2.4 For pile foundation with low pile caps and mainly supporting vertical load, the seismic bearing capacity of the pile foundation need not be checked for the following buildings types if there is no liquefaction potential soil layer, no silt or silty soil surrounding the pilecap, or no fill with nominal value of static bearing capacity not greater than 100 kPa:

1. Buildings as specified in Clauses 1.3, 4 of Article 3.2. 1

2. When the intensity is VB. or '111, ordinary single-story factory buildings, single-story spacious buildings. multi-story framed civil buildings. and multi-story 10

Note: Clay particle content is determined by usc of sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. When using other methods. appropriate conversions should be used based on related provisions.

3. For buildings resting on natural subsoil, effects of liquefaction need not be considered when the thickness of the non-liquefiable overlaying layer and the depth of, underground water level comply with one of the following conditions:

d.>do + db - 2 (3.3.2 -1)

dw>do+db-3

d ; + dw>1.5do + 2db - 4.5

(3.3.2-2) (3.3.2 - 3)

where d w-depth of underground water level (m ) for which the mean annual highest level during the service of the building should be used or the annual highest level in recent years may also be used.

d.-thickness of the non-liquefiable overlaying layer (m); when computing, silt and silty soil layer should be deduced.

db-buried depth of foundation (m); if it is not greater than 2 rn , then 2 m shall be used.

do-characteristic depth of liquefaction-potential soil (rn }, values in Table 11

3.3.2 may be used.

3. 3. 4 For the subsoil with liquefaction-potential soil layers, the depth and thickness of each layer shall be investigated and the liquefaction index shall be calculated using the following formula:

. N

IIF.= 2: (1 --') d nu,

;"=", Nr:r;

Table 3.3.2 Characteristic Depth of Lfquefaetlon-Petential Soilf m )

Intensity
Type of saturated soil VI IX
\1.
Silt 6 7 8
Sand 7 8 9 (3.3.4)

where I IE-liquefaction index.

11-total number of standard penetration test points in each bore within the depth of 15m under the ground surface.

N, ,N"i-mcasurcd value and critical value of standard penetration resistance, In number of blow counts, at the ith point respectively; when the measured value is greater than the critical value, the latter should be used.

di-thickness of soil layer (rn ) at the ith point; it may be taken as half of the difference in depth between the upper and lower neighboring standard penetration test points; but the upper point depth shall not be less than the depth of ground water, and the lower point depth not greater than the liquefaction-potential depth.

wi-weighted function value of the ith soil layer (in m-1), considering the effect of the layer depth of the unit soil layer thickness; when the depth of the midpoint of the layer is less than 5 m, a value of 10 shall be used; when it equals 15 m , a value of zero shall be used; when it is between 5 m and 15 m , the value shall be taken by linear interpolation.

3.3.5 For the subsoil with liquefaction-potential soil layers, its category of liquefaction shall be classified according to the liquefaction index as shown in Table 3. 3. 5.

3.3.6 Anti-liquefaction measures for subsoil shall be determined comprehensively considering the importance of the building, category of liquefaction of 'the subsoil, and other actual conditions. For the flat and uniform liquefaction-potential soil layer, measures shown in Table 3.3.6 may be selected. Untreated liquefaction-potential soil layer shall not be used as bearing layer of natural subsoil except for Type D buildings.

3. 3. 3 If it is considered in the preliminary discrinination that further discrimination of the potential of liquefaction is necessary, the standard penetration tests shall be performed. For the liquefaction-potential soil situated within a depth of 15m below the ground level, the following equations shall be satisfied. Other discriminating methods, if already proved successful, may also be used.

N63,s< N" (3.3.3 -1)

N,,=No[O.9+0.1(d.-dw)] II (3.3.3-2)

"'"Pc

where N 63,s-measured value of standard penetration resistance in number of blow

counts for saturated soil (correction for the length of rod not yet considered) ;

N ,,--critical value of standard penetration resistance in number of blow counts for liquefaction discrimination;

No-reference value of standard penetration resistance in number of blow counts for liquefaction discrimination, it shall be taken fromTable 3.3.3 ; d.-depth of standard penetration for saturated soil (m);

po-percentage of clay particle content; when it is less than 3% or when the soil is sand, the value of 3 % shall be used.

Table 3.3.3 Reference Value of Standard Penetration Resistance in Number of Blow Counts.

Intensity
Near- or far-earthquake VI IX
'd
Near-earthquake 6 10 16
Far-cart hquake 8 12 -- Table 3.3.5

Category of Liquefaction

Liquefaction Index 0< 1,.';;;5 5<1,,';;;15 1,,>15
Category of liquilnction light moderate serious 12

13

\

! I

Table3.3.6

number of blow counts shall be greater than the corresponding critical value. 4. Excavate out the entire liquifaction-potential soil layers.

3. 3. 8 Measures taken to eliminate part of layers liable to settle during

liquefaction should comply with the following requirements:

1. Excavation shall lx- carried out to a depth SO that the liquefaction index of the

subsoil shall be not greater than 4. For single foundations and strip footings. the depth of cxcavation shall not be less than 5m also under the base of the footing or not less than the width of thc footing, whichever is greater;

2. In the range of the depth of excavation, the liquefaction-potential soil layers

shall either be excavated or strengthened by compaction. so that the measured value of the standard p~netration resistance of the treated soil layer. in number of blow counts. shall be greater than the corresponding critical value.

3.3.9 The following measures can be taken for treatment of the foundation and the superstructure to reduce the effect of liquefaction based on comprehensive

considerations:

1. Select the appropriate buried depth of foundation.

2. Regulate the foundation base area to reduce the eccentricity of the

foundation; .

3. Upgrade the integrality and rigidity of the foundation. For example. the use

of caisson or raft footing. the use of footing in the shape of a cross. adding foundation ring beams or connecting beams;

4. Decrease the load; upgrade the integrality, uniformity, and symmetry of

the superstructure; install rational settlement joints, and avoid the use of a structural configuration that is vulnerable to unequal settlement.

5. At locations where pipelines pass through the building, sufficient space shall

be left beforehand for the pipelines, or flexible connections shall be used.

3.3.10' If, in the range of the main bearing layer of subsoil, there is a layer of soft cohesive soil, measures such as adoption of pile foundation, strenghtening of subsoil, or those specified in Article 3. 3. 9 shall be taken based on comprehensive consideration in the light of specific conditions.

3.3.11 If abandoned and filled rivers beds, hidden ditches. partially excavated

or partially filled slopes, partial or non-uniform liquefaction-potential soil layers, or other soil layers that _ possess serious non-uniform distribution in plane of formation, lithology, and state that are obviously different from each other can not be avoided for a site, the gcological, gcomorphical and topographical features of layers shall be thoroughly investigated and appropriate measures shall be taken in the light of specific

15

Anti-Liquefaction Measures

Building type Category of liquefaction of subsoil
Light Moderate Serious
Layers, liable settle Layers, liable to settle
to
during liquefaction. to be during liquefaction. to be
partially eliminated. or completely eliminated. or Lsyers, liable to settle
B partially to be eliminated
foundation and super- during liquifaction, to be
structure on the layers to together with foundation completely eliminated.
be treated. and superstructure to be
treated.
Layers. Iiabe to settle
Foundation and super- Foundation and super- during liquefaction. to be
structure to be treated. or structure to be treated. or completely eliminated or
C partially to be eliminated
measures may not be other more strict
taken. measures to be taken. together with foundation
and superstructure to be
J treated.
Foundation and super-
D Measures may not be Measures may not be structure to be treated. or
taken taken other low-cost measures
to be taken. 3.3.7 Measures taken to eliminate all layers liable to settle during liquefaction shall comply with the following requirements:

1. When pile foundation is used. the length of the pile (not including the length of the pile tip) driven into the stable soil layer below the liquefaction depth shall be determined by calculation. For gravel, gravel sand. coarse and medium sand, stiff cohesive soil. and dense silt, the length shall not be less than 500 mm ; for other nonrocky soil. the length should not be -less than 1. 5 m also;

2. When deep foundations are used. the depth of the foundation base embeded in the stable soil layer below the liquefaction depth shall not be less than 500 mm ;

3. When a compaction method is used for strengthening (e. g. vibrating impact, vibrating compaction. sand pile compaction, and strong ramming), compaction shall be carried out down to the lower margin of liquefaction-potential depth. and the measured value of the standard penetration resistance of the compacted soil layer in

14

condi tions.

3.3.12 If sloping bank of a river where sliding and ground-cracking may be induced during an earthquake or the boundary section of abandoned and filled river beds cannot be avoided for a site, relevant stabilization measures for the subsoil shall be taken.

4.

Seismic action and seismic checking for structures

4.1 General

4.1.1 Seismic action on all types of building structure shall be considered according to the following principles:

1. Under ordinary circumstances, horizontal seismic actions may be considered and checked separately along the two main axial directions of the building structure; the horizontal seismic action shall be resisted totally by the corresponding lateral force- . resisting elements;

2. For structures with braced lateral force-resisting elements, the horizontal seismic action in the direction of each lateral force-resisting element should be considered separately;

3. For structures with obvious asymmetric and non-uniform mass and stiffness distribution, the torsion effects caused by horizontal seismic action shall be considered ~

4. For large-span structures, long-cantilevered structures, chimneys, and similar tall structures in regions of intensity VII or IX, and for high-rise buildings in regions of intensity IX, vertical seismic action shall be considered;

. i

4.1.2 The following methods shall be taken for seismic computation of any type

of building structure:

1. For structures, not higher than 40m, with deformations predominantly due to shear and a rather uniform distribution of mass and stiffness in elevation, or for structures modeled as a single-mass system, a simplified method, such as the base shear method, may be used;

2. For building structures other than those as stated in the above clause, the response spectrum method for' modal analysis should be used; for free-standing chimneys not higher than 100m, an approximate method in Chapter 11 of this code may be used;

3. For buildings with extremely irregular configuration, buildings of type A, and high rise buildings within the height range given in Table 4.1.2, a time-history analysis procedure should be used as an additional safeguard:

The number of acceleration records or synthesized acceleration curves for timehistory analysis should be selected according to intensity, near- or far-earthquake, and site category. However, the base shear obtained from the time-history analysis shall be not less than 80 % of that calculated by the method specified in clause 1 or 2 of this article.

16 17

Table 4.1. 2 Building Height Range for Using Time-History Analysis Procedure

Table 4.1.4 - 1

Maximum Value of Horizontal Seismic effect Coefficient for Seismic Checking Cross of Sections

Intensity \1; Intensity ~ at sites of category I. IT

Intensity

VI

IX

>80m

Intensity 1'1 at sites of category ill. N; and intensity IX

>60m

0.08

0.16

0.32

0.04

4.1.3 In the computation of seismic action. the representative value of gravity load of the building shall be taken as the sum of standard values of the weight of the structure and components plus the combination values of variable loads on the structure. Combination coefficients for different variable loads shall be taken from Table 4.1.3.

Table 4.1.4 - 2

Characteristic Period Value(s)

Site category
Near- or far-earthquake
I IT ill N
Near-earthquake 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.65
Far-eart hquake 0.25 0.40 0.55 0.85
a~ Table 4.1.3

Combination Coefficients

Types of variable load Combination coefficient
Snow load O. 5
Accumulated dust load on the roof O. 5
Live load on the roof no need to consider
Live load on t he floor. based on actual conditions 1. 0
Live load on the floor. considered as equivalent unifor~
load:
1. Library stack room. file storage room O. 8
2. Other civil buildings O. 5
Suspended load of cranes
1. Cranes with rigid hook O. 3
2. Cranes with flexible hook no need to consider 00.1 T, 3.0

Fig. 4. 1.4 Seismic Effect Coefficient Curve

a -seismic effect coefficient

am .. -maximum value of scimic effect coefficient T-natural vibration period of structure

T ,-characteristic period taken from Table 4. 1. 4-2. based on the site category and nearor far-earthquake.

T(s)

Note: When the suspended load of cranes with rigid hook is comparatively large. the combination coefficient may be determined in the light of specific conditions.

4. 1. 5 Natural vibration period of a structure may be determined by theoretical computation or by empirical formula. When it is determined by theoretical computation. calculation model and elastic stiffness of the structure corresponding to those used in the seismic checking shall be used, and the evaluated result shall be reduced appropriately considering the effect of non-structural members; when determined by empirical formula, it shall comply with corresponding practical conditions.

4.1.6 Checking of structures for earthquake resistance shall comply with the following requirements:

4.1.4 Seismic effect coefficient of a building structure shall be determined from Figure 4.1.4, based on near- or far- earthquake, site category, and natural period of structure. Its lower limit shall be not less than 20 % of the maximum value: In checking of cross sections for earthquake resistance, the maximum value of horizontal seismic effect coefficient shall be taken from Table 4.1.4-1.

18

19

..-_-=--=--::_-::_-----_- .... ----_.- ... ;,,= ............ -------_---..------------_ ..... _---------------------_.

1. Seismic checking of cross section may not be carried out for: (1) buildings in a region of intensity VI (except comparatively high buildings and tall structures built on a site of category N). and (2) structures that need not be checked according to related chapters of this code. However. the relevant requirements for seismic measures shall be satisfied ;

2. For structures other than those as stated in clauses 1 and 3 of this article. seismic checking of cross section shall be conducted according to section 4.4.

3. For structures meeting the requirements of section 4.5. not only the seismic checking in cross section shall be conducted by the provisions of section 4.4. but also the corresponding checking of deformation should be carried out.

framed first story or inner frames. the maximum value of horizontal seismic effect coefficient may be taken;

G,q-equivalent total gravity load of a structure. The representative value of the total gravity load shall be used when the structure is modeled as a single-mass system; when the structure is modeled as a multi-mass system. 85 % of the representative value of the total gravity load may

be used.

F,-standard value of horizontal seismic action applied on mass.

G,. Gj-representative values of gravity load concentrated at the masses of i and j respectively. which shall be determined by Article 4.1.3.

"H,;Hj--calculated height of mass i and j from the base of the building respectively.

on-additional seismic action coefficient at the top of the building; for multi-story reinforced concrete buildings. it may be taken using Table 4.2.1 ; for multi-story brick buildings with inner frames. a value of 0.2 may be used; no need to consider for other buildings.

.6 F n-additional horizontal seismic action applied at top of the building.

4.2 Calculation of horizontal seismic action

4.2.1 When the base shear method is used. only a single-degree of freedom may be considered for each story; the standard value of horizontal seismic action of the structure shall be determined "by the following Iorrnulasf Fig . 4.2.1) :

FEk=aIG,q (4.2.1-1)

GH

F, = -.-'_' FEk (1- 0.)

~G)fj

} = 1

LlFn=OnFEk

(i=1, 2"'n)

(4.2.1-2)

(4.2.1 - 3)

Table 4.2.1

Additional Seismic Action Coefficient at Top of the Building

F. + LlF. I-

I

l~

I

I I I I

FE!< I

4.2.2 When the response spectrum method is used for modal analysis. if the torsional effect of a structure is not considered. the seismic action and the action effect may be calculated in accordance to the following requirements:

1. The standard value of horizontalseismi~ action on mass i of the structure. corresponding to j th mode. shall be determined by the following formulas:

Fj,=ajyjXj,G, (i=1. 2"'n; j=l, 2. "'m) (4.2.2-1)

G.

T.(s)

T,>1.4 T.

";;;0.25

O. 08 T, + O. 07 0.08T, + 0.01 o . 08 T, - O. 02

"'1 11

No need to consider

0.3-0.4

;;'0.55

Note: T,-foundamental period of the structure

Fig. 4.2.1 Sketch for Computation of the Horizontal Seismic Action

where FEk-standard value of the total horizontal seismic action of the structure.

a r+-horizontal seismic effect coefficient corresponding to the fundamental period of the structure. which shall be determined using Article 4.1.4. For multi-story masonry buildings and multi-story brick buildings with

(4.2.2 - 2)

where Fj,-standard value of horizontal seismic action of mass corresponding to

21

20

mode j;

aj-seismic effect coefficient corresponding to the natural period of j th mode of the structure. it shall be determined by article 4.1.4; Xji-relative horizontal displacement of mass i corresponding to jth mode Yj-mode participation factor of j th mode.

2. Total effect of the horizontal seismic action (bending moment. shear. axial force. or deformation) shall be determined by the following formula:

S =.["E;SJ (4.2.2-3)

where S-horizontal seismic action effect

Sj-action effect caused by the horizontal seismic action of j th mode. and only the first two or three modes may be taken. When the fundamental natural period is greater than 1.5 s. or the ratio of height to width of the building exceeds 5. number of modes used may be increased in the computation. .

4.2.3 When the base shear method is used. the effect of seismic action of penthouse, parapet. and chimney on the roof should be multiplied by an amplification factor of 3. 0; the increase part of the effect should be assigned to the roof. not to the lower part of the structure; when modal analysis method is used. the projecting part may be considered as a mass; the amplification factor of seismic action effect of the projecting sky-light frame of a single-story factory building shall comply with relevant requirements of Chapter 8 of this code.

4.2.4 The horizontal seismic shear force at each floor level of the structure shall be distributed to the lateral force-resisting members (such as walls. columns. and shear walls) according to the following principles:

1. For buildings with rigid diaphragms. such as cast-in-place and monolithicprecast reinforced concrete floors and roofs. the distribution may be done in proportion to the equivalent stiffness of the lateral force-resisting members;

2. For buildings with flexible diaphragms. such as wood floors and roofs. the distribution may be carried out in proportion to the representative values of gravity load acting on the floor area. braced by the lateral force-resisting members;

3. For buildings with ordinary prefabricated reinforced concrete floors and roofs. the average value of the results obtained from the above-mentioned two methods of distribution may be used;

4. When the effect of spatial action. deformation of diaphragms. elasto-plastic deformation of the wall. and torsional effect are considered. the results of' distribution may be appropriately regulated in accordance with relevant requirements 22

specified in this code.

4.2.5 When considering the torsional effect. the building may be modeled with three degrees of freedom. including two orthogonal horizontal displacements. and one angular rotation for each floor level of the building. The seismic action and action effect may be calculated by the modal analysis method shown below. The simplified method for the determination of the seismic action effect may be used. provided reliable basis is available.

1. Standard value of horizontal seismic action applied to the ith floor. corresponding to the j th mode of natural vibration of the structure shall be determined by the following equations:

FzJ, = aJYIJXJ,G'1

FyJ, = aJY'JYJ,G, F'Ji = aJYIJr~CPJ,G,

(i=1.2···n;j=1.2· .: ·m)

(4.2.5 -1)

Fzji. Fyji• F,ji-standard values of horizontal seismic action applied to the i th floor. corresponding to the j th mode in the directions of x • y and angular rotation respectively;

Xji• Yji. -relative horizontal displacements of the center of mass of thei th floor. corresponding to the j th mode in the directions of x and y respectively;

cpji-relative angular rotation of the i th floor corresponding to the jth mode;

ri-radius of gyration of mass for the i th floor. which is the square root (positive value) of the quotient obtained by dividing the rotational moment of inertia of the mass in the i th floor by the mass of the floor ;

Y'j-mode participation factor of the j th mode. considering torsion effect. which may be determined by the following formulas:

When only the seismic action in the x direction is considered:

where

(4.2.5 - 2)

When only the seismic action in the y direction is considered: r; = ±Yj,G.! ±(Xf, + Yfi + cpfyn G,

i = I i = 1

(4.2.5 - 3)

2. The effect of seismic action considering torsion effect shall be determined by the following equations:

23

;:__.------ --_ ..

representative value of the gravity load and the coefficient of vertical seismic action. Values for the coefficient of vertical seismic action may be obtained using Table 4.3.2 .

I

Coefficients of Vertical Seismic Action

S = f; ~pjASjSk

i= 1 ,:: 1

0.02(1+AT)AP

(4.2.5-4)

(4.2.5 - 5)

Table 4.3.2

where Sj. Sk-action effects caused by the seismic action of the j th and k th modes respectively (the first 9 to 15 modes taken may be sufficient) ; PjA-coupling coefficient of the j th and the k th modes;

). T-the ratio between the natural periods of the k th and j th mode.

4.2.6 In the seismic computation of a structure, in general, the interaction of subsoil and structure may be ignored. However, for reinforced concrete high-rise buildings with caisson or a relatively rigid raft foundation on sites of categories ill or N, if the subsoil-structure interaction is considered, the horizontal seismi~ action may be reduced by 10 % - 20 %, depending on the type of structure and the category of the site, based on the assumption of a rigid subsoil condition. The story-drifts of the building may be determined on the basis of the reduced floor shear force.

Type of roof 51 ructure Intensity Sile category
I n m,N
Flat network VI no need to
structure 0.08 0.10
and steel truss consider
IX 0.15 O~ 15 0.20
Reinforced concrete roof VI 0.10 0.13 0.13
truss IX 0.20 0.25
0.25 4.3.3 For long-cantilver and other large-span structures in regions of intensity \I and IX, the standard value of the vertical seismic actions may be taken as 10 % and 20 % of the representative value of gravity load of the structure or the memb~r

4.3 Calculation of vertical seismic action

respectively.

G.

4.3.1 For chimneys and similar tall structures as well as high-rise buildings, the standard value of vertical seismic action shall be determined by the following equations (Fig. 4.3.1); the effects of vertical seismic action at the floor level may be distributed in proportion of the representative value of gravity loads acting on the members.

G,

F Evk = av• ma.rG eq

(4.3.1-1) (4.3.1-2)

where F Evk-standard value of the total vertical seismic actions applied to the structure;

FE ...

Fig. 4.3.1 Schematic Diagram for the Computation of Vertical Seismic Action

F ,,;-standard value of vertical seismic action at the level of mass i ; av.maz-maximum value of vertical seismic effect coefficient, which may be taken as 65% of the maximum value of the horizontal seismic effect coefficient;

G,q-equivalent total gravity load of the structure, which may be taken as 75 % of the representative value of the total gravity load applied to the

structure.

4.3.2 For a flat network roof structure and for trusses with a span greater than 24m, the standard value of vertical seismic action may be taken as the product of the 24

4.4 Seismic checking for cross section'

4.4.1 Fundamental combination of effects-of seismic action and other loads on structural members shall be calculated by the following equation:

(4.4.1)

25

Table 4.4.1

Partial Coefficient of Seismic Actions

Seismic actions 'YEh 'YE.
Considering horizontal seismic action only 1.3 need not consider
Considering vertical seismic action only need not consider 1.3
Considering both horizontal and vertical
1.3 0.5
seismic actions S-design value of combination of inner forcesin a structural member, including design value of combination of bending moment, axial force and shear force;

YG-partial coefficient of gravity load, a value of 1. 2 shall be used in ordinary conditions; when the effect of gravity load is favorable to the loading capacity of the member, a value of 1.0 may be used; YEh, YE.-partial coefficients for horizontal and vertical seismic action respectively, which shall be taken using Table 4.4.1;

Y w +-partial coefficient for wind load, for which a value of 1.4 shall be used;

GE-representative value of gravity load, which shall be taken from Article 4.1.3, but when a crane is available, the standard value of the hanging gravity load of the crane shall be included; Ehk-standard value of horizontal seismic action, which shall be obtained by the requirements of section 4.2 ;

. E .k-standard value of vertical seismic action, which shall be abtained by the requirements of section 4.3 ;

wk-standard value of wind load;

¢ .. -coefficient for combination value of wind load, which need not be considered for ordinary structures; for chimneys, water towers with considerable height and high-rise buildings, o. 2 may be used;

CG, CEh, CE" C,,-action effect coefficients for gravity load, horizontal seismic action,

where

vertical seismic action, and wind load respectively; in ordinary circumstances, they shall be determined by the national standard, "Uniform standard for the Design of Building Structures, GBJ 68- 84". When the requirements are available in various chapters of

26

I

I I

this code, they shall be multiplied by corresponding amplification factors and adjustment factors.

Note t Subscripts representing the horizontal direction are generally omitted in this code.

Table 4.4.2 Adjusting Coefficient for Load-bearing Capacity (rRE)

Material Type of Structural Member Stress type rRE
Column 0.7
Column braces in factory buildings with steel
structural systems 0.8
Steel. Eccentric
Column braces in factory buildings with compression
reinforced concrete structural systems 0.9
Welded-joint of members 1.0
Seismic shear walls with constructional 0.9
Masonry columns or core columns at both ends Shear
1.0· .
Other seismic shear walls
Beam Bending 0.75
Columns with axial compression ratio< 0.15 Eccentric
compression 0.75
Reinforced Columns with axial compression ratio ;;'0.15 Eccentric
0.80
concrete compression
Seismic shear wall Eccentric
compression 0.85
All types of members Shear. eccentric
tension 0.85 4.4. 2 In the checking of cross-section of structural members for seismic

resistance, the following expression shall be used for design:

S~RjyRE (4.4.2)

where

YRE-seismic adjusting coefficient for load-bearing capacity of the structural member, wpich shall be obtained by using Table 4.4.2 except that requirements are available in other chapters of this code;

27

R-design value ofload-bearing capacity of the structural member, which shall be calculated by the pertinent code provisions.

4.4.3 When vertical seismic action is only considered, the seismic adjusting coefficient may be taken as 1.0 for all structural members.

1. Transversal bents of single-story factory buildings with tall reinforced concrete columns and large spans situated in regions of intensity VII for site category of ill and N, or of intensity of IX. for all sites;

2. Framed structures and brick wall buildings with a frame in the first story, situated in regions of intensity VU to IX, when the yield strength coefficient of the story is less than 0.5.

3. Reinforced concrete structures of Type A building.

4.5 Seismic checking for deformation

4.5.1 For frames (including frames with infilled walls) and frame-shear wall structures (including frames with soft stories) the seismic deformation of a structure should be checked for the action of earthquakes frequently ocurred with intensity lower than the fortification intensity of the region. The inter-story elastic displacement shall comply with the following requirement:

L1u.~ (8,) H (4.5.1)

where LI u.-inter-story elastic displacement caused by the standard value of the frequently occured earthquake action. When calculating, the maximum value of horizontal ~eismic effect coefficient shall be taken from Table4.1.4-1 ; all partial coefficients of various actions shall be taken as 1. 0, and elastic stiffness may be used for reinforced concrete members;

(8.) -limit value of inter-story elastic displacement rotation which may be taken in accordance with Table 4.5.1

H-height of story

Table 4.5.1 Limit Value of Inter-Story Elastic Displacement Rotation

Type of structure Conditions (6,)
Considering anti-lateral action of filled brick
walls 1/550
Frame
Others 1/450
Public buildings with stringent requirements for 1/800
Frame-shear wall ornamental decorations
Others 1/650 4.5.2 The following structures should be checked for seismic deformation at their weak stories (or locations) under the action of an expected seldomly occurred earthquake with an intensity higher than the fortification intensity of the region:

28

Note: Yield strength coefficient of a storey is the ratio between thestory shear bearing capacity, calculated by standard value of the actual strength of reinforcement and other material , and the story elastic seismic shear force. For bent column, it refers to the ratio between the bending bearing capacity of the normal cross section, calculated by the standard value of the actual cross section area of reinforcement and the strength of the material as well as the axial force, and the elastic seismic moment.

4.5.3 Elasto-plastic deformation of a weak story (or location) of a structure under the action of a seldomly occurred earthquake may be calculated by the following

methods:

1. For framed structures and those with filled walls that do not exceed 12 stories

and with no abrupt change of story stiffness and single-story factory buildings with reinforced concrete column, the simplified method in Article 4.5.5 may be used.

2. For buildings with more than 12 stories and Class A buildings the time-history

analysis method may be used.

4.5.4 In the computation of the standard value of seldomly occurred, earthquake

action, the horizontal seismic effect coefficient shall be taken from Figure 4.1.4, with maximum values taken from Table 4.5.4 : "

Table 4.5.4 'Maximum Value of Horizontal Seismic Effect Coefficient under the Action of Seldomly Occured Earthquake

Intensity

IX

0.50

0.90

1.40

4. 5. 5 The simplified calculation method for inter-story elasto-plastic displacement in the weak story (or location) of a structure should comply with the following requirements:

1. The weak story (or location of a structure) may be identified as follows:

(1 ) For structures with a uniform distribution of story yield strength coefficient along the height of the structure. the first story of the building may be identified as 29

I,

~-----

the weak story.

(2) For structures with non-uniform distribution of storey yield strength coefficient along the height of the structure, the story (location) with minimum, or smaller, story yield strength coefficient may be identified as the weak story, but, in general, no more than two or three stories (locations) may be identified as weak stories.

(3) For single-story factory buildings, the weak location is at the upper part of the columns.

2. The inter-story elasto-plastic displacement may be calculated by the following equations:

conditions, the factor may be determined by interpolation; ~y -story yield strength coefficient.

4. 5. 6 The inter-story elasto-plastic displacement in the weak stories

(locations) of a structure shall comply with the following requirement:

.L!u. = l] • .L! u<

or .L!P.=p.L!u,=t.L!u,

(4.5.5-1) (4.5.5 - 2)

(4.5.6)

Table 4. 5. 5 Amplification Factor for Elasto-Plastic Displacement

Total number of ~y
Type of structure
stories or locations
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
2-4 1.30 1.40 1.60 2.10
Multi-story structure
with uniform elevation 5-7 1.50 1.65 1.80 2.40
8-12 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.80
Single-story factory Upper part of column
building 1.30 1.60 2.00 2.60 where .L! u .-inter-story elasto-plastie displacement; .L! u ,-inter-story yield displacement; p-story ductility factor;

.L!u.-;nter-story displacement induced by the action of seldomly occurred earthquake, calculated by elastic analysis;

l].-amplification factor for elasto-plastic displacement; when the yield strength coefficient of the weak storyf location Jis not less than 80% of the average value of coefficients of the neighboring stories (Iocation) , "I. may be taken from Table 4.5.5, but when the yield strength coefficient is not more than 50 % of the above-mentioned average value, the corresponding values in the Table should be multiplied by 1.5. In other

30

where H-height of the weak story (location) or the height of the upper column in single-story factory building;

(6p) -limit value of inter-story elasto-plastic displacement rotation, which can be taken from Table 4. 5. 6; for frame structures, when axial compression ratio is less than O. 4, values in Table 4. 5. 6 can be increased by 10 %; when the upper limit values of the steel ratio of stirrups in Table 6.3.10 in this code are used for the entire height of the columns, the values in Table 4. 5.6 can be increased by 20 %, but the total increase should not be greater than 25 % .

Table 4.5.6

Inter-Story Elasto-Plastic Displacement Rotation

Type of structure

(6.)

Bent with reinforced concrete columns in single-story strucure

1/30

Frame structure and frame structure with filled walls

1/50

1/70

Frame in the first story of brick building

31

1

s. Multi-story masonry buildings

5.1 General

5. 1. 1 This chapter is applicable to multi-story masonry buildings with bearing walls built of clay bricks, medium-size fly ash solid blocks, and medium- or small-size concrete blocks; the buildings with bearing walls built of hollow bricks should be designed in accordance with specific provisions.

5.1. 2 The building height (in meter and/or in story) shall not exceed the values in Table 5.1.2 for multi-story masonry buildings. However, for buildings with a few transverse bearing walls, such as hospital and school buildings, the values in Table 5.1.2 shall be decreased by three meters and/or one story; for buildings with very few transverse bearing walls in each story, the values shall be decreased appropriately based on specific conditions.

The story height of brick and block masonry buildings should not be greater than 4m and 3. 6m respectively.

Table 5.1.2

Limitation of Building Height (in meter or story) for Unit Masonry Buildings

Intensity
Type of Minimum VI VI W
thickness IX
masonry of wall (rn ) Heigh t No.of !Height No.of !Height No.of /Height
No.of
(m ) stories (rn ) stories (m) stories (m) stories
Clay brick 0.24 24 8 21 7 18 6 12 4
Small-size
concrete blocl 0.19 21 7 18 6 15 5
Medium-size Should not
concrete blocl 0.20 18 6 15 5 9 3
be used
Medium-size
fly ash block 0.24 18 6 15 5 9 3 Note:Building height refers to the height from the outdoor ground level to the caves level of a building without basement or with fully-buried basement. However. for buildings with partially-buried basement. the building height may be measured from 'basemc-nt floor surface.

32

I

5.1.3 The maximum ratio of height to width for a multi-story masonry building shall be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab. 5 .1. 3.

Note: The width of a building with an exterior corridor does not include the width of the corridor.

Table 5.1.3 Maximum Ratio of Building Height to Width for Multi-storey masonry buildings

Intensity VI VI. VI IX
Max. ratio of
building height 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.5
to width 5. 1. 4 The structural system of multi-story masonry buildings shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Priority shall be given to the use of structural systems with transverse bearing walls or both transverse and longitudinal bearing walls.

2. Distribution of longitudinal and transverse walls should be uniform and symmetrical, aligned in-plane, and shall be continued in elevation. The walls between the windows on the same axis should be distributed uniformly.

3. In the intensity of VII and IX and in one of the following cases as well, a seismic joint should be installed. Walls shall be installed on both sides of the joint and the joint gap can be taken as 50 to 100mm.

(1) Difference in heights on the elevation of buildings exceeds 6m.

(2) In buildings with staggered stories and with relatively large difference

between floor levels in elevation.

(3) Stiffness, and mass of different parts of the structure are sharply different. 4. Staircase should not be installed at the end or in the corner of a building.

5_ The installation of flues, ventilation ducts, and garbage ducts in a building shall not weaken the wall. When the wall is weakened, strengthening measures shall be take,n. Flues adhered to the wall without vertical reinforcement or chimneys on the roof should not be used.

6. Precast reinforced concrete eaves without anchorage should not be used. 5.1.5 Spacing of seismic transverse shear walls of multi-story masonry buildings shall not exceed the values as set forth in Tab. 5.1.5

33

Table 5.1.5

Maximum Spacing of Seismic Transverse Shear Walls(m)

Clay brick building Medium-size block Small-size block
Type of floor and building building
roof Intensity
VI " W IX VI " W VI VI W
Cast in-situ and/or
monolithic-precast 18 18 15 11 13 13 10 15 15 11
reinforced concrete
Precast reinforced
15 15 11 7 10 10 7 11 11 7
concrete
Timber 11 11 7 4 should not be used 5.1.6 Local dimension limitation of multi-story masonry buildings should be in accordance with requirements as set forth in Tab. 5.1. 6:

Table 5.1.6 Local Dimension Limitations of Multi-Story Masonry buildings(m)

Intensity
Location
VI VI W IX
Minimum width of a bearing wall between windows 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.5
Minimum distance from the end of exterior bearing wall 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0
to the edge of door or window opening
Minimum distance from the end of exterior non-bearing 1.0 1.0 1.0 1,0
wall to the edge of door or window opening
Minimum distance from the outside corner of interior
wall to the edge of door of window opening 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0
Maximum height of parapet without anchorage (not at 0.5 0.5 0.5 0
the en trance) 34

"

II.

5.2 Essentials in calculation

5.2.1 The base shear method may be used in the seismic design of multi-story masonry buildings; the seismic adjusting coefficient for load-bearing capacity of selfsupporting walls may be taken as 0.75.

5.2.2 Only wall sections with a comparatively large bearing area or having small vertical stress in multi-story masonry buildings may be selected for seismic checking of cross section for shear force.

5.2.3 In the distribution of seismic shear forces and checking of cross-section, the equivalent wall stiffness for lateral force resistance in a story shall be determined by the following principles:

1. Only the shear deformation should be considered when the height-width ratio of the wall section is less than 1.0.

2. Both bending and shear deformations shall be considered when the heightwidth ratio of the wall section is not greater than 4.0, but not less than 1.0

3. The stiffness of the wall section may be ignored when the height-width ratio of the wall section is greater than 4.0.

Note :The height-width ratio of the wall section refers to the ratio of the height of the story to the length of the wall. As for the small wall section at the edge of door or window opening, it refers to the ratio of the clear height of the opening to the width of the wall at the edge of the opening.

5.2.4 Design value of seismic shear strength along the stepped cross section of various types of unit masonry, shall be determined by the following formula:

fvE=~Nfv (5.2.4)

Table 5.2.4 Effect coefficient of Normal Stress of Masonry Strength

(10/ f.
Type of masonry
0 1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
Clay brick 0.80 1.00 1.28 1.50 1.70 1.95 2.32 / /
Medium-size fly ash / 1.18 1.54 1.90 2.20 2.65 3.40 4.15 4.90
or concrete block
Small-size concrete / 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.60 3.10 3.95 4.80 /
block Note: a" is the mean compressive stress on the cross-section of unit masonry, corresponding to the representative value of gravity load.

35

where fv-design value of shear strength of unit masonry in non-seismic design. taken in accordance with the national standard. "Design Code for Masonry structures. GBJ 3-88";

~N-effect coefficient of normal stress of masonry strength and may be taken in accordance with Tab. 5.2.4.

5.2.5 The seismic load-bearing capacity of the cross-section of walls with clay bricks. medium-size fly ash or concrete blocks shall be checked by the following equation:

V~ fvEA YRE

where V-design value of shear force of the wall;

A +-transversal cross-section area of the wall;

YRE-seismic adjusting coefficient for load-bearing capacity. and it shall be obtained from Tab. 4.4.2.

(5.2.5)

5.2.6 The seismic load-bearing capacity of the cross-section of clay brick walls with horizontal reinforcement shall be checked by the following equation:

V~ Y~E UvEA +0.15f,A,) (5.2.6)

where f,-design value of tensile strength of the reinforcement;

A,-total cross section area of the reinforcement in the vertical cross-section of the wall in a story.

5.2.7 The seismic load-bearing capacity of the cross-section of walls with smallsize concrete blocks shall be checked by the following equation:

1

V~ YRE UvEA +(0.03f,A, + 0.05f,A,) ~.] (5.2.7)

where f.-design value of axial compressive strength of concrete in the core column; A.-total area of the core column cross-section;

A,-total area of cross-section of the reinforcement in the core column; ~.-effect coefficient of the core column and may be taken from Table 5.2.7.

Table 5.2.7

Effect coefficient of the Core Column

I

. f

5.3 Constructional measures for multi-story brick buildings

5.3. 1 Reinforced concrete constructional columns (hereafter referred simply as constructional columns) shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements for multi-story clay brick buildings:

1. In general. the loca t ions of constructional columns shall be in accordance

with the requirements in Tab. 5.3.1.

2. For multi-story brick buildings with exposed or single-side corridor. The

constructional columns shall be installed in accordance with the requirements in Tab. 5.3.1. based on the building assumed with one more story. and the longitudinal walls on both sides of the single-side corridor shall be treated as exterior walls.

3. For buildings with few transverse walls. such as school buildings and hospitals; constructional columns shall be installed in accordance with the requirements in Clause 1 or 2 in this Article. but the number of storys in Table 5.3. 1 shall be increased by one.

5.3.2 Constructional columns of the multi-story clay brick buildings shall comply

with the following requirements:

1. For a constructional column the minimum cross-section may be taken as 240 x 180 rnm i longitudinal reinforcement of 4<1>12 should be used; stirrup spacing should not exceed 250 mm , and more stirrups should be added appropriately at the top and bottom of the column. For constructional columns in buildings more than 6 stories in intensity VB.. or more than 5 stories in intensity VIII. and in buildings in intensity IX. longitudinal reinforemcnts of 4<1>14 should be taken. and the stirrup spacing shall not exceed 200· mm. The cross-section and reinforcement of constructional columns at the four corners of a building may be properly increased.

2. Bricks in the connection of the constructional columm and the adjacent walls should be laid with toothing , and 2<1>6 tie bars shall be placed at every 500 mm spacing along the height of the wall. and the length of the tie bar extending into the walls at both sides should not be less than 1 m .

3. Constructional column shall be connected with the ring beam. For buildings in which ring beams are installed on every two stories. reinforced brick belt shall be placed in the stories without a ring beam. When constructional columns are installed only at the four corners of the building. the reinforced brick belt in the exterior wall shall extend across one panel; as for other cases. the reinforced belt shall' be continuous over the exterior wall and the corresponding transverse wall. The height of the reinforced belt shall not be less than four brick courses. and the grade of mortar used shall not he lower than M5.

Filled opening ratio. p p<0.15 0.15";;p<0.25 0.25";;p<0.5 p;;'0.5
" 0 1.00 1.10 1.15 Note: Filled opening ratio is the ratio of the number of core columns to the total number of openings in blocks

36

37

,

4. Foundation may not be installed individually for a constructional column. but the column shall extend 500 mm below the outdoor ground level. or be anchored in the foundation ring beam located in a place not more than 500 mm below the ground level.

Table 5.3.1 Requirements of Installation of Constructional Columns for Brick Buildings

No. of stories
Intensity Locations of Installation
VI W VI IX
Four corners of the story, staircase and
4.5 3,4 2,3 / elevator shaft when the intensity is VI! or
VI.
Four corners of the
exterior wall; inter- Intersections of transverse ( axis) and
sections of transverse exterior wall for every two bays;
6-~ 5,6 4 2 wall and exterior wall intersections of gable and interior walls; four
where the floors are corners of the staircase and elevator shaft
staggered; both sides when the intensity is VI! to IX.
of relatively large open
ings l intersections of Intersections of interior (axis) and exterior
interior and exterior wall; comparatively small local wall pier of
longitudinal walls of the interior wall; four corners of staircase
/ 7 5.6 3,4 large rooms. and elevator shaft when intensity is VI!, VII,
or IX; intersections of interior longitudinal
and transverse ( axis) walls when the
intensity is IX. 5.3.3 For large rooms with a story height greater than 3.6 m or a bay longer than 7.2 m in the intensity of VI, and for all buildings in the intensity of VII and IX, at the corner of the exterior wall and the intersection of the interior and the exterior wall, where constructional column is not available, 2"'6 tie bars shall be placed at every 500 mm along the height of the wall and should be extend to the walls on each side with a length not less than 1m

38

5.3.4 For a post-built non-bearing part itron wall, 2"'6 bars tied with bearing wall or column shall he arranged along the height of the wall at every 500 mm in spacing, and shall extend to the wall on both sides with a length not less than 500 mm i for the post-built non-bearing partition wall. the top of the wall with a length greater than 5.1 m shall be tied with the slab or beam in the intensity of VII or IX.

5.3.5 Poured in-situ reinforced concrete ring beams in multi-story brick buildings shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:

1. For brick buildings with precast reinforced concrete or timber floors and roof, the ring beams shall be installed in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Table5. 3.5 when the transverse walls arc used for bearing; and shall be installed in each. story when the longitudinal walls are used for bearing also; the spacing of ring beams on the seismic transverse walls shall be reduced appropriately from standards set forth in Table 5.3.5.

... _---_._--- ...... ====--,,-------------_ .... _------------------------

Table 5.3.5 Requirements for Installation of Cast-In-Situ Reinforced Concrete Ring Beams in Brick Buildings

Intensity
Type of wall VII IX
VI and VI!
Exterior wall and At t he level of roof At the level of roof At the level of roof
interior longitudinal and [loor of every and floor of each story and floor of each story
wall other story
Di tto: along all trans-
Ditto; at roof level, verse walls at the roof
spacing shall not be level and spacing shall Ditto ion all transverse
Interior transverse greater than 7 m ; at not be greater than 7 walls in each story
wall floor levels. not greater m; at the floor levels.
than Ifim- ar locations spacing not greater
corresponding to the than 7 m; at locations
constructional column corresponding to the
constructional column 2. For buildings with reliable connection of the poured in-situ or precast monolithic reinforced concrete floors and roof to the brick walls, the ring beams may be ignored. But the slab shall be securely connected with the corresponding constructional columns hy means of reinforcement.

39

3. For buildings with brick arch floors and roof in the intensity VI to W, the ring beams shall be installed on all walls for each story.

5.3.6 Construction of the poured in-situ reinforced concrete ring beams in multistory clay brick buildings shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Ring beams shall be closed or overlapping where interrupted by an opening; ring beams should be installed at the same level as the precast floor slab or close to the bottom of the slab.

2. If no transverse wall exists in the spacing as set forth for ring beams in Article 5.3. 5, the reinforcements in the beam or slab joint shall be used in lieu of ring beams.

3. Height of the cross-section of ring beams shall not be less than 120 mm, and the reinforcement shall comply with the requirements in Tab. 5. 3. 6; for the foundation ring beam installed additionally in accordance with clause 3 in Article 2. 1. 4 of this code, the height of cross-section shall not be· less than 180mm, and the reinforcement shall not be less than 4;12; for ring beams in buildings with brick arch floors and roof, the height of cross-section and the reinforcement shall be determined by calculation, but the reinforcement used should not be less than 4;10.

Table 5.3.6

Requirements Cor ReinCorcement oC Ring Beams

Reinforcement

Intensity

VI. VI

IX

Minimum no. of longitudinal reinforcement

4+10

4H2

Maximum spacing of stirrups (rnrn )

150

250

200

5.3.7 Floor and roof slabs in a multi-story brick building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Length of the poured in-situ reinforced concrete floor or roof slab extending to the longitudinal or transverse wall should not be less than 120 mm.

2. Length of the precast reinforced concrete floor or roof slab extending to the exterior wall shall not be less than 120 mm when the ring beam is not located at the same level as the slab; and that extending to the interior wall should not be less than 100 mm and shall also not be less than 80 mm : and that extending to the beam, not less than 80 mm.

40

3. When the span of a precast slab parallel to the exterior wall is greater than 4.8 m , the side of the slab adjacent to the exterior wall shall be tied with the exterior wall or the ring beam.

4. For the floor slab of a large room at the end of a building, and for the roof slab of a building in thc intensity of WI, and the floor and roof slabs of a building in the intensity of IX, precast reinforced concrete slabs shall be tied with each other and also with the beam, the wall or the ring beam, when the ring beam is located at the bottom of the slab.

5.3.8 Reinforced concrete beams or trusses in the floor and roof system shall be connected securely with walls, columns (including constructional columns) or ring beams. The connection of the beam and the brick column shall not weaken the crosssection of the column. Top parts of the isolated brick columns in each story shall be fastened securely in two directions.

5.3.9Sloping roof trusses shall be connected securely with the ring beam at the top story of a building. Purlins or roof slabs shall be connected reliably with the wall or the truss. Eave tiles above the entrance or exit of a building should be anchored with roof members. In the intensity of VIII and IX, on top of the longitudinal wall in the top story, stepwise brick piers should be built to support the end gable wall.

5.3. 10 Precast balcony shall be connected reliably with the ring beam and the poured in-situ stripe in the floor slab.

5.3. 11 Non-reinforced brick lintel shall not be used above the door or window openings. Supporting length of the lintel shall not be less than 240 mm and 360 mm for the intensity of VI - VII and IX respectively.

5.3.17 Staircase shall be built in accordance with the following requirements:

1. In the intensity of VII or IX, 2;6 reinforcing bars should be placed at every 500 mm along the height and should extend over the full length of the transversal and exterior wall in the staircase of the top story. In the intensity of IX, a 60 mm thick reinforced mortar stripe may be laid in other stories at the elevation of the staircase landing or at the middle level of the story. Strength grade of the mortar should not be lower than M5; amount of reinforcement not less than 2;10.

2. In the intensity of VII or IX, the supporting length of the girder on the staircase and outside corner of the interior wall of the entrance hall shall be not less than 500 mm , and the girder shall be connected with the ring beam.

3. Precast stair-step section shall be connected reliably with the landing beam; for stair-step section cantilevered out of the wall or staircase with no vertical rib of steps inserted in the wall, unreinforced brick balustrade shall not be used.

41

4. For staircase or elevator shaft. part of which projects out of the roof. the constructional column shall extend to the top of the staircase or the elevator shaft. and shall be connected with the top ring beam. and 2<1>6 tie bars shall be arranged at every 500 mm along the height of the wall at the intersection of the interior and the exterior wall. and shall extend to the walls on both sides with a length not less than 1

m .

5. 3. 13 Only one type of foundation or pile cappings should be used for each structural unit. Bottoms of the foundations should be buried at the same level. otherwise foundation ring beam shall be provided. and the foundation shall be stepped on a slope of 1: 2.

5.4 Constructional measures for multi-story block masonry buildings

5.4. 1 For small-size concrete block buildings. reinforced concrete core columns shall be installed in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab. 5.4.1. For buildings with few transverse walls. such as school buildings and hospitals. core columns shall be installed in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab. 5.4.1. but the number of stories shall be increased by one.

5.4.2 Reinforced concrete core columns shall be installed at locations as set forth in Tab. 5.4.2 for medium-size concrete block buildings.

5. 4. 3 Core column in block buildings shall comply with the following constructional requirements:

1. Cross-section of the core column in small-size concrete block buildings should be not less than 130 mm X 130 mm.

2. Concrete strength grade of the core column may be taken as C15 and C20 for small-size and medium-size concrete block buildings respectively.

3. Tying mat reinforcement shall be placed on the connection of the core column and the wall. Vertical inserted reinforcement shall pass through the w hole wall and be connected with the ring' beam of each story. Number of vertical inserted reinforcements shall be not less than 1<1>12 for small-size concrete block buildings. and not less than 1<1>14 or 2<1>10 for medium-size block building in the intensity of VI or VII. and not less than 1<1>16 or 2H2 in the intensity of 111!1.

4. Core column shall extend to a depth of 500 mm below the outdoor surface. or be anchored in the foundation ring beam buried below the surface not greater than 500

mm.

5. 4. 4 Reinforced concrete constructional columns in medium-size fly ash block

42

buildings shall be installed in accordance with the corresponding requirements for buildings based on number of stories after adding one more story as set forth in Article 5.3.1. Tlieconstructional ' column shall comply with the requirements as set forth in Article 5.3.2. but the minimum cross-section may be taken as 240 mm X 240 mm , and the tying mat reinforcement shall be laid in the column to connect with the wall.

Table 5.4.1

Requirements for Installation of CoreColumn in Small-Size Concrete Block Buildings

No.of stories

Intensity

6

VI V8: VI

4.5 3.4 2.3

7

5

Five openings of the blocks at the

Location of installation

No. of openings of blocks to be grouted (filled) in a core column

Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase; intersections of the interior wall and the exterior wall in large rooms

4

Four corners of the exterior wall and staircase; intersections of the interior wall and the exterior wall in large rooms; intersections of the gable wall and the interior longitudinal wall; intersections of transverse wall (axis) and the exterior longitudinal wall in the partitioned panel

Three openings of the blocks at four corners of the exterior wall; four openings of the blocks at the intersection of interior and exterior wall

Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase; intersections of

6

5

the interior wall and the exterior corner of the exterior wall; four wall in large rooms; all openings of the blocks at the intersections of interior wall (axis) intersections of interior and exterior and the exterior wall; intersections walls; four or five openings of the of the interior longitudinal wall blocks at intersection of interior and the transverse wallf axis}: and walls; one opening of the block at both sides of door opening in the both sides of a door opening

intensity of VI

43

Table 5.4.2 Locations Cor Installation oC Core Colmns In Medium-Size Concrete Block Buildings

Intensity

Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase; intersections of the gable wall and the interior longitudinal wall, intersections of the transverse wall (axis) and the exterior longitudinal wall in a partitioned panel; intersections of the interior wall and the exterior wall in large rooms

Locations of installation

VI and"

VI

Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase; intersections of the transverse wall (axis) and the longitudinal wall; both sides of the door opening in the transversal wall; intersections of interier and exterior walls in large rooms

5.4.5 For medium-size fly ash block buildings in the intensity of VI to YID or small-size concrete block buildings in the intensity of '11, tying mat reinforcement shall be laid at the locations shown in Tab. 5. 4. 5 where neither constructional columns nor core columns have been provided.

Table 5.4.5

Locations oC InstalLation oC Tying Mat ReinCorcement Cor Block Buildings

Intensity

Intersections of the interior and exterior wall; four corners of the staircase

Locations

VI,,,

Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase; intersections of the gable wall and the interior longitudinal wall

5.4.6 Tying mat reinforcement placed on the intersection of walls or connection of the core column or constructional column with the wall in block masonry buildings should extend to the wall not less than Irn, and shall be in acoordance with the following requirements:

1. Spot welded mat made of 4>4 bars placed at every 600 mm along height of the wall may be used for small-size concrete block buildings.

2. Mat reinforcement made of 4>6 bars spaced at every other course of block may

44

I

be used for medium-size concrete block buildings.

3. For medium-size fly ash block buildings, mat reinforcement of 4>6 bars spaced at every other course may be used for intensity of VI or VI, and every course of block for intensity of VII .

5.4.7 Distance between the vertical joints of block in the adjacent upper and lower courses in the medium-size concrete block wall shall be not less than one third of the height of the block, and also not less than 150 mm . Otherwise mat reinforcement made of 4>6 bars shall be installed in the horizontal joints of block and extend 300 mm beyond the vertical joint.

5.4.8 Poured in-situ reinforced concrete ring beam in block masonry buildings shall be installed in accordance with the corresponding requirements as set forth in Article

5.3.5, but the intensity shall be increased by one grade. When precast reinforced concrete floor system is used, ring beams shall be placed in each story.

5.4.9 Other constructional measures for block masonry buildings shall be in accordance with the related requirements as set forth in Article 5.3.4 and Articles5. 3.6 to 5.3.13.

45

6. Multi-story and high-rise reinforced concrete buildings

6.1 General

6. 1. 1 This chapter is valid for the poured in-situ reinforced concrete structures . with a maximum height specified in Tab. 6.1.1. The applicable maximum height for irregular structures, shear wall structures with frame supported stories, or structures on a site of category N shall be reduced appropriately.

Note: The term "shear wall" in this Chapter is equivalent (0 the same term in the national standard. "Design Code for Concrete Structures. GBJ 10-89".

Table 6.1.1 Maximum Height of Buildings(m)
Intensity
Type of structures
VI \1 1'1 IX
Framed structure same as in the 55 45 25
Framed-shear wall structure non-siesmic 120 100 50
Shear wall structure design 120 100 60 Note: The height of building refers to the height from the outdoor ground level to the eaves level of a building.

6.1.2 Poured in-situ shear wall structure with frame supported stories should not be used when height of the structure exceeds 120 m , 100 m and 80 m in the region of intensity VI, VI!. or VI respectively, and shall not be used in the region of intensity

IX.

6.1.3 Reinforced concrete structures shall be graded according to intensity, structure type, and building height, and shall be in accordance with corresponding requirements of computation and constructional measures taken .

Seismic grading of a structure should proceed as specified III Tab. 6. 1. 3. In frame-shear wall structures, when the seismic overturning moment subjected by shear walls is less than 50 % of the total seismic overturning moment subjected by the structure, the frames of the structure shall be graded as that of the framed structure.

NOTE: In China. multi-story buildings refer to buildings with number of stories up to 8. and high-rise buildings refer to buildings with number. of stories above 8.

46

Note: The term "seismic grade" in this chapter is hereafter simplified to "grade".

Table 6.1.3

Seismic Grade of Poured In-Situ Reinforced Concrete Structures

Intensity
Typ{' of ~1 r!I('llIrI'!4 \I IX
VI 11
Building ';;;25 >25 ';;;35 >35 ';;;35 >35 ';;;25
Framed hcightf m}
structure
Frame' ~ 3 3 2 2 I I
Building· <50 >50 <60 >60 <50 pO-SO >SO <25 >25
Frame- l1l'igh'{m}
shenr wall
Frame 4 3 3 2 3 2 I 2 I
structure
Sheer wall 3 2 2 I I
Building <60 >60 ,;;;SO >SO <35 p5-S0 >SO ';;;25 >25
hcigb tf m )
Ordinary 4 3 3 - 2 3 2 I 2 1
shear wall
Strengthene
parts at the
Shear wall bottom of
structure the shear
wall on the 3 2 2 2 I ~hould
ground in not Shall not
the structure
with [rnme be he used
St.lpporl ing .- used
stories
Frames for
supporting 3 2 2 Zl 2 1
stories Note: i. Ordinary shear walls also include shear walls not on the ground and the upper part of the shear walls on the floor in a structure with frame supported stories;

2. In the intensity of VI. type C buildings with a hight not greater than 12m. ordinary civil framed structures with a regular shape (except stadiums and theatres). and similar industrial framed structures can be graded as Grade 3.

6.1.4 Structures with a regular shape should comply with the following

requirements:

1. The length of the projecting part of a building in plan should not be greater 47

It-II' . ._ .. .... _ •• _. _ __. ................... ====-,-.,.__,..,,------------- ... -------------------------

than its width and also should not be greater than 30% of the total length in the direction of the width.

2. For buildings with setbacks in elevation, the dimension of the setback should be not greater than 25% of the total dimension in that direction.

3. Stiffness of a storey should be not less than 70% of the stiffness of the adjacent upper story, and, also, the total stiffness of three consecutive storeies should not be reduced more than 50% .

4. Mass distribution in-plane and arrangement of lateral force resisting members in a building should be basically uniform and symmetric.

6. 1. 5 Rational structural system should be selected for reinforced concrete buildings so that no seismic joints are neccessary to be installed. When it is necessary to install seismic joints, minimum clearance of the joints shall comply with the following requirements:

1. For frame and frame-shear wall buildings, when the building height is not more than 15 m, a length of 70 mm may be taken as the clearance; when the building height is more than 15 rn , and in the intensity of VI, VI, VII, and IX, the clearance should be increased by 20 mm for every 5, 4, 3 and 2 m increase in height respectively.

2. Seismic joint clearance in a shear wall building may be taken as 70 % of the values as set forth in Clause 1.

6.1.6 For buildings with superior decoration andhigh-rise buildings, frame-shear wall/shear wall structural system shall be used preferentially.

6.1.7 In frame or frame-shear wall structures, frames or shear walls should be arranged in two orthogonal directions, and the center lines of beams and columns or those of the column and the shear wall should coinside with each other; eccentricity between the center lines of beams and columns in a frame should not be greater than 1/4 of the column width.

6.1.8 The aspect ratio of the diaphragm, when there are no large openings between two adjacent shear walls, should not exceed those as set forth in Tab. 6.1. 8. If the aspect ratio is greater than those in Tab. 6. 1. 8, the effect of in-plane deformation of the diaphragm shall be considered.

6. 1. 9 When precast floor or roof diaphragms are used in frame-shear wall structures, measures shall be taken to ensure the integrality of diaphragms and reliable connection between diaphragm and shear wall.

6.1. 10 Installation of shear walls in frame-shear wall structures shall comply with the following requirements:

48

1. Shear walls should be built through the total height of the building, and the transverse shear walls should be connected with the longitudinal shear walls.

2. Shear walls shall not be placed at locations where large opening on wall is necessary; the area of the opening on the shear wall should not exceed 1/6 of the wall area, and openings on all stories should be in line vertically. Height of the beam over the opening should be not less than 1/5 of the story height.

3. When the building is relatively long, the longitudinal shear wall should not

be installed at the end bay of the building.

Table 6.1.8

Aspect Ratio of the Diaphragm Between Two Adjacent Shear Walls

Intensity
Type of diaphragms vI \'1 VI IX
Poured in-situ diaphragm or 4.0 3.0 2.0
4.0
lapped beam and slab
should not
Precast floor slab 3.0 3.0 2.5 be used
Poured in-situ beam and slab in shall not
2.5 2.5 2.0
the frame supported stories be used 6.1.11 In framed structures, distribution of masonry filled walls in both plan and elevation should be uniform and symmetric; the formation of weak story and short column should be avoided. Light-weight walls or panels connected flexibly with the frame should be used as enclosure walls and partition walls in frames of seismic grade

lor 2.

6.1.12 Effect of laternal force resistance of brick filled walls may be considered

for grade 2 framed structures with up to 5 stories, grade 3 framed structures with up to 8 stories and all grade 4 framed structures, but they shall comply with the requirements for shear walls as set forth in Article 6. 1. 8 and Article 6. 1 . lOin this Section.

6.1.13 Installation of shear walls in shear wall structure shall be in accordance

with the following requirements:

1. A relatively long shear wall should be divided uniformly into several short sections by installing of weak connecting beams based on the opening in the wall, and 49

I

the height-width ratio of wall section (including walls with small openings and coupled walls) should be not less than 2;

2. When relatively large openings exist in shear walls. the openings should be arranged in a vertical line.

3. For buildings with a frame supported story in the lower part. stiffness of the story shall be not less than 50 % of the stiffness of the adjacent upper story; the number of shear walls on the ground should not be less than 50 % of those in the upper stories. and spacing of the shear walls should not be greater than four bays or 24 rn , whichever is the smaller. Length-width ratio of the floor diaphragm between the shear walls on the ground shall not exceed the value as set forth in Tab. 6.1.8.

Note- A coupled wall with weak connecting beams refers to a coupled wall for which the total bending moment of cross section of the wall .under seismic action in each story shall not be less than 5 times the 'total restraint moment of the connecting beams in the given story and all upper stories.

6.1.14 Shear walls in the top story. staircase and lateral force resistant elevator shaft. longitudinal shear walls at the end bay of building and gable walls. single limb wall. wall with small opening and the bottom portion of the coupled wall (i . e.l/8 of the total height or the width of the limb wall. whichever is the greater; for buildings wi th a frame supported first story. the bottom portion shall not be less than the height of the floor level just above the frame supported story) shall comply with related requirements for strengthening portion as set forth in this Chapter.

6.1.15 In one of the following cases for framed structure. foundation tie beams should be installed in the direction of both main axes:

1. Frames of grade 1 and 2;

2. The representative values of gravity loads on column foundations differ greately.

3. Comparatively deep-lying foundations. or buried depths of different foundations differ greatly .

4. In the range of the main bearing layer of the foundation. there exist weak cohesive soil layers. layers liable to liquefaction. and seriously heterogeneous layers. 6.1.16 Shear wall foundations in frame-shear wall structures and foundation of shear walls on the ground in the frame supported story shall have excellent integrality and ability against rotation.

6. 1. 17 Joint and anchorage of reinforcement shall be in accordance with the followi~g requirements other than those as set forth in the current national standard. "Construction and Acceptance Code for Reinforced Concrete Structures" .

50

1. Stirrup shall have 135· hooks and the straight portion of a stirrup shall not be less than 10 times of its diameter;

2. Longitudinal bar joints in beams and columns of a frame and members at the edge of a shear wall should be welded or connected mechanically at all locations of grade 1 structures. at the hot tom of columns in the first story of grade 2 structures and at strengthening portions at the bottom of the shear wall. In other cases. tied joints may be used; in the range of overlapping of reinforcement. spacing of stirrups shall not be greater than 100 mm.

3. For grade 1 or 2 structures. anchorage length of the longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns of the frame and in connecting beams of the shear wall shall be 5 times of the diameter of the longtitudinal reinforcement more than the minimum anchorage length specified in the non-seismic design .

4. Joints of distribution reinforcement of the shear wall and joints of the vertical reinforcement in the strengthening portion in the :vall bottom of grade 1 or 2 structure, shall be welded or connected mechanically. when diameter of the reinforcement is greater than <1>22. Inthe other cases. tied joints may be used. but the overlapping location shall be offset for every other reinforcing bar in the strengthening portion.

5. Welded or tied joint should not be placed at the location where maximum bending moment of the member occurs and at the end of beams or columns where stirrups are densely arranged; overlapping length in tied joints shall be 10 times and 5 times of reinforcement diameter more than the minimum overlapping length specified in the non-seismic design for grade 1 or 2 structures respectively.

6. When the total steel ratio of the longitudinal reinforcement III columns exceeds 3 %. stirrups shall be welded.

6.2

Essentials in calculation

6. 2. 1 Earthquake action effect shall be, adjusted for reinforced concrete structures in accordance with the provisions in this Section; checking of cross-section of members shall be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in the related current codes for structural design. if not specified in this Chapter and related Appendices. but the design value of loading capacity shall be divided by the seismic adjusting coefficient for loading capacity specified in the code.

Checking of cross-section of members for earthquake resistance need not be performed for structures as set forth in clause 1. Article 4.1.6 in intensity VI.

6.2.2 At the joint of the beam and the column in grade 1 or 2 frames. bending moment at the end of the beam or the column shall comply with the following 51

1 I

equations, except the top story and the column with an axial compression ratio less than 0.15.

For grade 1 structures,

(6.2.2-1 ) (6.2.2-2) (6.2.2-3)

or 2:M.= 1. Uj2:Mb

For grade 2 structures, 2: M. = 1.12: M b

where 2: M.-sum of bending moment design values for cross-section combinition in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the ends of columns above and below the joint i in general case, the bending moments at the upper and lower ends of column may be distributed by elastic analysis.

2: Mb-sum of bending moment design values for cross-section combination in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the ends of beams to the right and left of the joint;

Aj-actual reinforcement amplification factor of a joint, which may be taken as 1. 1 times the ratio of the sum of actual longitudinal tensile reinforcement areas to that of calculated areas at the ends of beams to the right and left of the joint, or may be determined by analysis and comparison.

2: M bu.-sum of bending moments corresponding to seismic bending capacity of normal cross section with actual reinforcement in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the ends of beams to the right and left of the joint, which may be determined by actual reinforcement area and standard value of the material strength.

6.2.3 Design value combined bending moment at the bottom of columns on the first story and at the two ends of columns in the frame supported story of grade 1 and 2 frame structures shall be multiplied by an amplification factor of 1. 5 and 1. 25 respectively.

6.2.4 Combined shear force design value of cross-sections at the ends of beams, columns, shear walls and connecting beams in a frame, necessary to be checked for . earthquake resistance in accordance with Article 4.1.6 in the code, shall comply with the following equation:

(6.2.4)

where V-combined shear force design value of cross-sections at the end, and shall be taken in accordance with Articles 6.2.5 to 6.2.7.

f.-design value of axial compressive strength of concrete;

52

b-cross-section width of the beam, column or shear wall;

ho-:-effective height of cross-section; for shear wall, it may be taken as the height of cross-section.

6.2.5 Combined shear force design value of cross-section at the end of the beam . in the frame and the connecting beam with a span-depth ratio greater than 2.5 in the shear wall shall be adjusted in accordance with the following equations for grade 1 and 2 structures, and need not be adjusted for grade 3 structures.

For grade 1 structures V = 1 . 05 ( M~u. + M'bua) I l n + V Gb

(6.2.5-1)

V = 1.05Ab(MI. + M'b)1 In + VGb V = 1. 05( M~ + MOl In + V Gb

(6.2.5-2) (6.2.5-3)

or

For grade 2 structures

where Ab-actual reinforcement amplification factor of the beam, and may be taken as 1.1 times of the ratio of sum of areas of the actual longitudinal tensile reinforcement at the right and left ends of the beam to the sum of calculated areas of the reinforcements, or may be determined by analysis and comparison;

l n -clear span of the beam;

V Gb-shear force design value at the end cross section of the beam obtained in the analysis based on simply supported beams, when the beam 'is subject to the represe~tative value of gravity load I in the intensity of IX, it shall include also the standard value of vertical seismic action for high-rise buildings) ;

Mlb, M'b-combined bending moment design values of cross-section in the clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the left and right ends of the beam respectively.

M~u., M'bu.-bending moments corresponding to seismic bending capacity of normal cross section with actual reinforcement in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the left and the right ends of the beam respectively, and may be determined in accordance with the actual reinforcement area and the standard value of material strength.

6.2.6· Combined shear force design value of cross-section at the end of columns in the frame and framed supported columns shall be adj usted for grade 1 or 2 structures in accordance with the following equations and need not be adjusted for grade 3 structures.

For grade l'structures V = 1. l( M~ua + M~u.) I H n

or V=1.1)..(M~+M~)/Hn

For grade 2 structures V = 1. 1 ( M~ + MD I H n

(6.2.6 -1) (6.2.6 - 2) (6.2.6 - 3)

53

A,-Actual reinforcement amplification factor of the column, which may be taken as the ratio of the sum of the bending moments corresponding to seismic loading capacity of normal sections of reinforcement at the upper end and the lower end of the eccentric compression column to, the sum of design values of the combination, or may be determined by analysis and comparison;

H.-Clear height of the column;

M~, M~-Combined bending moment design value of cross-sections In the clockwise or couter-clockwise direction at the upper and lower end of the column respectively, and shall comply with the requirements set forth in Article 6.2.2 and Article 6.2.3.

where

M~u., M~u.-Bending moment values corresponding to seismic loading capacity of normal cross section of the actual reinforcement in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction at the upper and lower end of the column respectively, and may be determined in accordance with the actual reinforcement area, the standard value of material strength and axial compressive force.

6. 2. 7 Combined shear force design value of cross-section In the strengthening portion at the bottom of a shear wall shall be multiplied by the following amplification factors for grade 1 or 2 structures, but need not be multiplied for grade 3 structures.

For grade 1 structures 1jY = 1. 1 ~w~a = 1. 1 A.. (6.2.7 - 1)

For grade 2 structures 7Jv = 1.1 (6.2.7 - 2)

where 1jy-Shear amplification factor.

A,,-Actual reinforcement amplification factor of the shear wall, and may be taken as the ratio of the bending moment corresponding to seismic bending capacity of normal cross section of the actual reinforcement at the bottom of the shear wall to the combined bending moment design value, or may be determined by analysis and comparison.

M .. ua-bending .moment corresponding to seismic loading capacity of normal cross section of the actual reinforcement at the bottom of the shear wall, and may be determined in accordance with the actual reinforcement area and the standard value of material strength and axial compressive force;

M .. -Combined bending moment design value at the bottom of the shear wall. 6.2.8 Core region in joints of grade 1 or 2 frames shall be checked for earthquake resistance in accordance with Appendix B in the code, and need not be checked for 54

grade 3 and 4 frames, but the core region shall comply with the requirements of constructional measures.

6. 2. 9 Seismic checking for framed structures considering the lateral force resisting effect of clay brick filled walls may be conducted in accordance with Appendix C of the code.

6.2.10 In frame-shear wall structures with a regular shape, seismic shear force on the frame part in any story obtained according to the interaction of the frame and the shear wall, shall not be less than 20 % of the base shear or 1. 5 times the maximum seismic shear in each story in the frame part obtained by interaction' analysis, whichever is the smaller.

6.2.11 Combined bending moment design value of cross-sections of single limb wall, shear wall with small opening, or coupled shear wall with weak connecting beam in grade 1 shear walls shall be taken in accordance with the following provisions:

Combined bending moment design value of cross-section at the bottom of the wall shall be taken as that of all sections in the strengthening portion at the bottom of the wall; restrained bending moment design value at the top shall be taken as the combimed bending moment design value of cross-section at the top of walls; combined bending moment design value of cross-section in the middle of the wall shall be taken by linear interpolation between the above two values.

The actual loading capacity of normal cross section at the utmost upper cross section of the strengthening portion at the bottom of the wall, calculated on the basis of the actual longitudinal reinforcement area and the standard value of material strength, shall be not greater than that in the adjacent ordinary portions.

6.2.12 In the double-limb shear wall, when tensile stress occurs averagely across the whole section of any limb wall, which is subject to tension. with a large eccentricity, the combined shear force design value and bending moment design value of the other limb wall shall be multiplied by an amplification factor of 1. 25.

6.2.13 In the calculation of internal force and deformation of shear walls, interaction of the longitudinal wall and transverse wall in connection shall be considered; spacing of shear walls, width of the wall between window or door opening, thickness of the shear wall plus 6 times the thickness of wing walls on both sides of the wall, and 1/10 of the total height of the shear wall, whichever is the least, may be used as the effective width of wing walls in the poured-in-situ shear wall.

6.2.14 Floor slab in the frame supported story in the shear wall structure may be designed in accordance with Appendix D in the code for earthquake resistance.

55

6.2.15 The following equation shall be used in the seismic checking of crosssection of constructional joints in grade 1 shear walls :

1 VWj~-(0.6fyA,+ 0.8N) J'RF.

(6.2.15)

where V wj-combined shear force design value of. cross section of constructional joints in the shear wall;

ff +-tensile strength design value of the vertical reinforcement;

A ,-Total cross section area of vertical distribution reinforcement and vertical inserted reinforcement of the shear wall panel and longitudinal reinforcement of the edge members (not including wing walls on both sides lof the shear wall at the constructional joint;

N +-combined axial force design value of cross section at the constructional joint; positive value is taken for compression and negative for tension.

6.3 Constructional measures for framed structures

6.3. 1 Dimensions of cross-section of beams shall comply with the following

requirements:

1. Width of cross section of beams should not be less than 200 mrn i

2. Height-width ratio of cross section of beams should not be greater than- 4;

3. Ratio of clear span and height of cross-section of beams should not be less than 4.

6.3.2 Steel ratio of longitudinal tension reinforcement at the end of beams shall not be greater than 2. 5 %, also the ratio of the height of the compression zone in concrete to the effective height of the cross section shall not be greater than 0.25 for grade 1 structures, and 0.35 for grades 2 and 3 structures.

6.3.3 Arrangement of the longitudinal reinforcement in beams shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Ratio of the amount of reinforcement at the bottom to that at the top of the end cross section of beams shall be not less than O. 5 for grade 1 structures and 0.3 for grade 2 and 3 structures, other than the calculated ratio.

2. Amount of reinforcing bars at the top and the bottom of beams througth the whole length shall be not less than 2<1>14, and also not less than 1/4 of the larger area of the longitudinal reinforcement at the top and the bottom at the end of beams for grades 1 and 2 structures, and shall be not less than 2<1>12 for grades 3 and 4

structures.

3. Diameter of each longitudinal reinforcing bar of the beam passing through the

56

column in the middle should not be greater than 1/20 of the size of the cross section of the column in the given directiori for grades 1 and 2 structures.

6.3.4 Arrangement of stirrups in the densified zone at the end of beams shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Length of the densified zone, maximum spacing and minimum diameter of stirrups shall be taken in accordance with Tab. 6. 3. 4. When the steel ratio of the longitudinal tension reinforcing bars at the end of the beam is greater than 2 %, the minimum diameter of stirrups in the Table shall be increased by 2 mm.

2. Distance between stirrup limbs in the densified zone should be not greater than 200 mm for grades 1 and 2 structures and 250 mm for grade 3 and 4 structures.

Table 6.3.4

Length of the Densified Zone, Maximum Spacing and Minimum Diameter of Stirrups in a Beam

Seismic Length of densified zone Maximum spacing of stirrups Minimum
grade of (the greater value shall be taken) the least value hall be taken} diameter of
structure (rnrn ) (mm ) stirrups
1 2hb,500 hb/4, 6d ,100 +10
2 l. 5h •• 500 h./4.8d.lOO +8
3 l. 5h •• 500 h./4.8d.150 +8
4 l. 5h •• 500 h./4.8d.150 +6 Note: d is the diameter of longitudinal reinforcement; h. is the height of the beam.

6. 3. 5 Size of cross section of columns shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Width of cross section of the column should be not less than 300mm.

2. Ratio of clear height of the column to height of its cross-section (or diameter for a circular column) should be greater than 4.

6.3.6 Axial compression ratio of the column should not exceed the value as set forth in Tab. 6.3.6; but. if the ratio of clear height to height of cross section (or diameter for a circular column) of the column is not greater than 4, and its deformation requirement is relatively high, the limit value of axial compression ratio of columns shall be reduced appropriately.

57

Table 6.3.6 Limit Value of Axial Compression Ratio of Columns

Seimic grade of structure
Type of columns
1 2 3
Column in frame 0.7 0.8 0.9
Column in frame supported story 0.6 0.7 0.8 Note: 1) Axial compression ratio refers to the ratio of the combined axial compressive force design value of column to the product of the area of the whole cross section of the column and the concrete compressive strength design values. As for structures, which need not be checked for earthquake resistance as set forth in Article 4. 1. 6, axial compressive force design value specified in the non-seismic design is used in calculation. Combination coefficients of variable loads shall be used in accordance with Table 4.1.3;

2)For frame-shear wall structure, when seismic overturning moment subjected by the part of shear wall is much greater than that specified in Article 6. 1. 3 in this chapter, the limit values shown in the table may be increased properly, but should not be greater than 0.9.

6.3.7 Arrangement of longitudinal reinforcing bars in the column shall comply with the following requirements:

1. They should be arranged symmetrically.

2. Spacing of longitudinal reinforcing bars should not be greater than 200 mm for columns, the cross section size of which is greater than 400 mrn.

3. Minimum total steel ratio of longitudinal reinforcing bars in columns shall be adopted as set forth in Tab. 6. 3. 7. As for comparatively tall buildings on Type N sites, values in the Table shall be increased by O. 1.

6.3.8 Length of densified zones of stirrups in a column shall be determined in accordance with the following provisions:

1. At ends of the column, height of cross section (or diameter for circular columns), or 1/6 of the clear height of the column or 500 rnm, whichever is the greatest, shall be taken as the length of the zone.

2. For columns in the first story, a distance of 500 mm of the column above and below the rigid ground surface shall be taken as the length of the zone.

3. Overall height of the column shall be taken as the length of the zone, when the ratio of the clear height of column to the height of its cross-section is less than 4 (including short columns formed by inserted filled walls).

4. Overall height is taken as the length of the zone for frame-supported columns.

5. Overall height is taken as the length of the zone for corner columns in grade 1

58

frames.

6. Overall height is taken as the length of the zone for columns, the deformation ability of which is required to improve.

'1IIhic 6.3.7

Minimum 'llIlal Steel Ratio of Longitudinal Reinforcements in Columnsf in %)

, •

\

~

Seismic grade of st ruct ures
Type of columns
1 2 3 4
Middle columns and exterior
columns in frames 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
Columns at of frames ..
the corner
and in frame supported story 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 I

t

I

6.3.9 Spacing and diameter of stirrups in the densified zone of the column shall comply with the following requirements:

Thble 6.3.9

Maximum Spacing and Minimum Diameter of Stirrups in the Densified Zone of the Column

Siesmic
grade of Maximum spacing of stirrupsf the smaller Minimum diameter of
value shall be used) (rnm) stirrups
structures
1 6d,100 +10
2 8d,100 +8
3 8d,150 +8
4 8d,150 +6 .

I

r

~

I

t t t t

1. In general; maximum spacing and minimum diameter of stirrups shall be taken in accordance with Table 6.3.9.

2. For columns in grade 3 frames, when the cross section dimension is not greater than 400 mm, minimum diameter of stirrups may be <1>6; when diameter of stirrups in grade 2 frames is not less than </>10, 150 mm may be taken as the maximum spacing of stirrups.

3. For columns in frame supported story and columns with a ratio of clear height of the column to height of cross-section not greater than 4, spacing of stirrups shall be not greater 59

than 100 mm.

6.3.10 Steel volume ratio of stirrups in the densified zone of the column should comply with the following requirements:

1. Minimum steel volume ratio of stirrups should be taken in accordance with Table 6.3.10.

2. Minimum steel volume ratio of stirrups should be taken as the upper limit value as set forth in Table 6.3.10 for ~olumns with concrete strength grade higher than C40. or those required to improve the deformation ability as set forth in Article 4.5.6. or those in comparatively tall buildings on Type N sites.

3. Steel volume ratio should be not less than 1. 0 % for columns with a ratio of clear height to cross section height (or diameter for circular columns) not greater than4 in grade 1 or 2 frames:

Thble 6.3.10

Minimum Steel Volumn Ratio of Stirrups in the Densified Zone of Columns (in %)

Seismic grade Axial compression ratio of columns
of structures Type of stirrups
<0.4 0.4-0.6 >0.6
Ordinary stirrups. composite stirrups 0.8 1.2 1.6
1
Spiral stirrups 0.8 1.0 1.2
Ordinary stirrups. composite stirrups 0.6-0.8 0.8-1.2 1.2-1.6
2
Spiral stirrups 0.6 0.8-1.0 1.0-1.2
Ordinary stirrups. composite stirrups 0.4-0.6 0.6-0.8 0.8-1.2
3
Spiral stirrups 0.4 0.6 0.8 Note: 1) Ordinary stirrups refer to individal rectanguler stirrups; composite stirrups are stirrups formed by rectangular stirrups and rhombic. polygonal. round stirrups or tie bar;

2) In the calculation of steel volume ratio of composite stirrups. volume of stirrups in the overlapping portion should be deduced.

3)For stirrups of grade II steel and concrete of strength grade not higher than C40. values in the Table may be multiplied by a reduction factor of 0.85. However. the factor shall not be less than 0.4;

4)When the distance between limbs of composite stirrup with a # -shape is not more than 200 mm and. also. diameter of the stirrup is not less than +10. the corresponding values for spiral stirrups in the table may be taken.

6.3.11 The distance between limbs of stirrup in the densified zone of columns should

60

t I

1

l.

be not greater than 200 mm for grade 1 structures. 250 mm for grade 2 structures and 300 mm for grade 3 or 4 structures respectively. and stirrups should be arranged in two directions for every other longitudinal reinforcing bar for confinement; when combined tie bar stirrups are used. the tie bar should be intimately close to the longitudinal reinforcing bar and hooked with the closed stirrup.

6.3.12 Amount of stirrups in the non-densified wne of the column should be not less than 50% of that in the densified zone. and also spacing of stirrups shall be not less than 10 times the longitudinal reinforcement diameter for seismic grade 1 or 2 structures and 15 times for grade 3 structures respectively.

6.3.13 The maximum spacing and minimum diameter of stirrups in the core zone of a joint in the frame should be obtained by using Table 6.3.9 . The steel volume ratio should be not less than 1. O. O. 8. and 0.6 % for seismic grade 1, 2, and 3 structures respectively. However, when the axial compression ratio is less than 0.4, it should be obtained also by using Table 6.3.10.

6.3.14 Filled masonry wall shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. When the lateral force resisting effect of filled brick walls is considered, the brick wall shall be laid in plane of the frame and connected firmly with beams and columns. Thickness of the wall shall be not less than 240 mm and the grade of mortar strength not less than M5. The brick wall should be laid before concreting the frame. Filled walls of other types shall be connected flexibly with columns in the frame, but the top of the wall shall be intimately connected with the frame.

2. For a frame with filled masonry walls 24>6 reinforcing tie bars shall be placed for every 500 mm along the height of the column in. the frame. Length of tie bars extending to the filled wall should be the whole length of the filled wall for grade 1 and 2 frames, and shall be not less than 1/5 of the wall length but also not less than 700 mm for grade 3 or 4 frames.

3. When the wall length is greater than 5 m, the top of the wall should be tied with the tie beam; when the height of the wall exceeds 4 m, a reinforced concrete horizontal beam should be placed at the middle level of the wall to connect the .columns on both sides.

, I

I +

I

I 1"

t

...

I

t t t

61

6.4 Constructional measures for shear wall structures.

6.4.1 The edge elements, such as wing column (stub return), end column or enclosed column, shall be installed in the shear wall of grade 1 or 2 and at the strengthening part of the shear wall of grade 3. As for the cross section of the enclosed column, the width is the same as the shear wall thickness and the depth shall be 1. 5 to 2. 0 times the thickness of the shear wall. For the cross section of the wing column, dimension of the cross section shall be the same of the enclosed column with an extension on both sides of the shear wall not greater than twice that of the wing wall thickness.

6.4.2 Thickness of the shear wall panel with wing wall or end column on both sides shall be not less than 160 mm and also not less than 1/20 and 1/25 of the story height for grade 1, and not less than 140 mm and also not less than 1/25 of the story height for grades 2 and 3.

6.4.3 Vertical and lateral distribution reinforcements in a shear wall shall be arranged in two rows for all portions in grade 1, and strengthening portions in grade 2, but should be arranged in two rows for ordinary portions in grade 2 and strengthening portions in grade 3 or 4; spacing between tie bars of the distribution reinforcements in two rows shall be .not greater than 700 mm and the diameter of tie bars shall be not less than 6 mm. Spacing between tie bars shall be intensified appropriately in the strengthening portion at the bottom.

6.4.4 Arrangement of the vertical and lateral distribution reinforcements in a shear wall shall be both in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Table 6. 4. 4 ; minimum steel ratio of distribution reinforcement in ordinary location for comparatively high multi-story buildings of grade 3 on Type N site shall be not less than 0.20 % .

'Iable 6.4.4 Requirements for Distribution Reinforcements in Shear Walls

Seismic Minimum steel ratio( % ) Maximum
grade of Minimum
spacing diameter
structures Ordinary portion Strengthening portion (mm)
1 0.25 0.25
2 0.20 0.25 300 +8
3.4 0.15 0.20 6.4.5 Reinforcements in edge elements of the shear wall shall be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Table 6. 4 . 5.

6.4.6 For connecting beams in the top story, stirrups shall be placed in the range of

62

anchorage length of longitudinal reinforcements.

Thble 6.4.5

Requirements for Reinforcements .in Edge Elements of a Shear Wall

SI rcngt hening portion fit boll om Other locetiona
Seismic Minimum amount Stirrup or tie bar Minimum amount Stirrup or tie bar
grade of of longitudinal of longitudinal
structures reinforcements (rhr- Minimum Max.spa- reinforcements{ the Minimum Max.spa- .
greater value sh:lll diameter cing'(mm} greater value shall diameter cing(mm)
he used) be used)
1 0.0151\c ;8 100 0.012Ac ;8 150
2 0.0121\c ;8 O.OIOAr. ;8
150 200
4;12
3 0.005I\c. +6 0.05Ac.
150 +6 200
2;12 2;14
4 2;12 +6 150 2;12 +6 200 Note: A, is the cross-section area of enclosed or end columns. The cross section area of enclosed columns should be used only for the wing columns.

6.5 Constructional measures for frame-shear wall structures

6.5.1 Thickness of a shear wall panel shall be not less than 160 mm, and also not less than 1/20 of the story height. In the perimeter of the wall panel, a boundary frame formed by beams (or enclosed beams) and end columns shall be made. When the width of cross section of the boundary beam is not less than 2 times of the wall thickness, the wall thickness shall not be less than 1/20 of its dear height.

6.5.2 Steel ratio of both vertical and lateral distribution reinforcements in a shear wall panel shall be not less than O. 25 %, and the reinforcements shall be arranged in two rows. Spacing of tie bars shall be not greater than 600 mm.

6. 5. 3 Stirrups in the end column along the overall height of a shear wall shall be arranged in accordance with the requirements for the strengthening portion at the bottom of the wall as set forth in Tab. 6. 4. 5.

6. 5. 4 Other constructional measures for frame-shear wall structures shall . be in

- I

accordancewith the related requirements as set forth in section 3 and 4 in this Chapter.

63

7. Multi-story brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames

Table 7.1.3

Maximum Spacing of Transverse Shear Walls(m)

7.1 General

Intensity
Type of building VI \I IX
"
Brick building with Upper stories Same as brick buildings in Tab.5.1.5
framed first story First story 25 21 18 15
Brick building with inner-frames and
30 30 30 20
multi-row of columns
Brick building with inner-frames and Same as brick buildings in Tab. 5.1. 5
single row of columns 7. 1. 1 This chapter is applicable to multi-story clay brick buildings with frameshear wall in the first story or with inner-frames. It is applicable to other similar unit masonry buildings for reference.

7. 1.2 Overall height and number of stories of multi-story brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames should not exceed the values as set forth in Tab. 7.1.2

Table 7.1.2 Limit Value of Overall Height(m)and Number of Stories

Intensity
VI \I VI IX
Type of building
No.of No.of No.of No.of
Height Height stories Height stories Height stories
stories
Brick building with framed 19 6 19 6 16 5 11 3
first story
Brick building with inner-
frames and multi-row of 16 5 16 5 14 4 7 2
columns
Brick building with inner- be
Should not
frames and single row of 14 4 14 4 11 3
used
columns 7. 1. 4 In the first story of brick buildings with framed first story, certain members of shear walls shall be arranged symmetrically along the longitudinal and the transversal direction, and the ratio of lateral drift stiffness of the second story to that of the first story. shall be not greater than 3 and 2 in the intensity of W, and VlI or IX respectively. Reinforced concrete walls should be used as shear walls, and in the intensity of VI and VII, filled brick walls and small-size concrete block walls may be used in the framed structure.

7. 1.5 The unit masonry and reinforced concrete structural members in brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames shall comply with the related requirements as set forth in Chapter 5 and 6 respectively. Seismic grade of the reinforced concrete structures may be determined as framed structures for the frame in brick buildings with framed first story and inner frames, and as grade 3 for shear walls.

NoteOverall height of a building shall be calculated as in the note of Tab. 5.1.2.

7.2

Essentials in calculation

64

7.2.1 The base shear method may be used in the seismic calculation for brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames, and the earthquake action effect shall be adjusted in accordance with the provisions as set forth in this section.

7.2.2 Design value of seismic shear force in the longitudinal and the transversal directions in the first story of brick buildings with framed first story shall be multiplied by an amplification factor in the range of 1.2 -::-.1.5, based on the ratio of lateral drift stiffness of the second story to that of the first story.

7.2.3 Design value of seismic shear force in the longitudinal and the transversal 65

7.1.3 Maximum spacing of transverse shear walls in brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames shall be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab.7.1.3

NOTE:An inner frame is a frame without exterior columns. This kind of structoure is commonly used in China. Bearing brick walls are used instead of exterior columns in the inner frame.

directions in the first story of brick buildings with framed first story shall be fully undertaken by the shear walls in corresponding direction. and can be distributed in proportion of the lateral drift stiffness of the shear walls.

7.2.4 Seismic action effect of frame columns in brick buildings with framed first story may be determined by the following method:

1. Design value of seismic shear force suffered by frame columns may be determined in proportion of the effective lateral drift stiffness of all lateral force resisting members; value of the effective lateral drift stiffness may not be reduced for the frame. and may be taken as 30% for the reinforced concrete wall. and 20% for the clay brick wall.

2. Additional axial force induced by the seismic overturning moment shall be considered in the calculation of the axial force of the frame column. The seismic overturning moment carried by the elements in all axes may be determined in proportion of the rotation stiffness of shear walls and frames in the first story.

7. 2.5 Design value of seismic shear force for columns in multi-story brick buildings with inner-frames should be determined in accordance with the following equation:

7.2.6 Seismic checking of brick columns in the exterior wall may be carried out in accordance with Article 8.2.8 in this code.

7.3 Constructional measures

7.3.1 Reinforced concrete constructional columns shall be installed in the upper stories of brick buildings with framed first story. based on the total number c)f stories and in accordance wi th the provisions as set forth in Chapter 5 of this code.

Reinforced concrete constructional columns shall be installed at the following locations in multi-story brick buildings with inner-frames:

1. Four corners of the exterior wall. staircase. and elevator shaft.

2. Both ends of the shear wall and in the exterior longitudinal and transversal wall without composite columns corresponding to the axis of the central row of columns in intensity VI. VI and VI when number of stories is not less than 5. 4. and 3 respectively and in intensity IX.

7.3.2 Cross section of constructional column should be not less than 240 mm x 240 mrn ; longitudinal reinforcement. not less than 4'1>14; and spacing of stirrups. not greater than 200 mrn . The constructional column shall be conriected with the ring beam in each story.

7.3.3 Cast in-situ or precast monolithic reinforced concrete slab shall be used' as the floor in the first story of brick buildings with framed first story and as the roof of multi-story brick buildings with inner-frames.

7.3.4 Ring beams shall be installed in all stories of brick buildings with framed first story or inner-frames having precast reinforced concrete floor and roof diaphragm. When cast in-situ or precast monolithic reinforced concrete floor slab is

• I

. used. ring beams need not be installed but the floor slab shall be connected reliably

with the corresponding constructional columns by reinforcing bars.

7.3. 5 The width of a longitudinal window wall in multi-story brick buildings with inner-frames shall be not less than 1. 5 m ; supported length of the beam on the exterior wall shall be not less than 300 mm ; and the beam shall be connected with the ring beam.

Vc=~ (~I+~2A)V

nbn•

where Vc- Design value of seismic shear force of column;

V - Design value of seismic shear force of story;

¢,,-Coefficient of type of columns. and may be taken as 0.012 for interior reinforced concrete columns. 0.0075 for composite brick columns in the exterior wall. and 0.005 for unreinforced brick columns (walls);

(7.2.5)

nb-Number of bays between transverse shear walls; n.-Number of spans of the inner-frame;

A - Ratio of spacing of lateral shear walls to the total width of the building and may be taken as 0.75 when th~ ratio is less than 0.75 ;

t",. t"2 - Coefficients for calculation. and may be taken in accordance with Table 7.2.5.

Table 7.2.5

Coefficients for Calculation

Total number of stories of the building 2 3 4 5
t. 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.5
t. 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 66

67

(I) General

used for curtain walls of the higher span at the junction of the higher span and the lower span, or for the suspending wall in the intersection of the longtudinal and transversal bents of the building; enclosing masonry wall should be built as attached walls, but, in the two sides of a, single-span factory building, filled walls may be used.

8. 1.6 Masonry partition walls, should be separated from columns, or flexibly connected with the columns, but measures shall be taken to ensure stability of the wall. Also, on top of the wall, a cast-in-situ reinforced concrete beam shall be placed.

8.1.7 Roof truss should be placed at the end of a factory building instead of gable wall, and the gable wall should not be used as a bearing wall.

8. Single-story factory buildings

8.1 Single-story factory buildings with reinforced concrete columns

8. 1. 1 Layout of the factory building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Height of each span in multi-span factory buildings should be equal;

2. Attached building of a factory building should not be arranged at the corners of the building;

3. Seismic joint should be installed in factory buildings with a complicated configuration or attached buildings; width of the joint may be taken as 100-150 mm at the junction of the longitudinal and the transversal spans of a factory building, or 50 - 90 mm in other cases.

8.1. 2 Steel frame should be adopted for skylights projecting on the roof. In the intensity of VI - VI, reinforced concrete skylight with rectangular cross-section elements may be used; in the intensity of IX, settled-type shylights may be used. Roof and end walls of the skylight should be made of light-weight materials. Frame of the skylight should be installed at first on the third column bay from the end of the

( n )

Essentials in calculation

factory building.

8. 1.3 Prestressed concrete or reinforced concrete roof trusses should be used for factory buildings; steel roof trusses may be used for factory buildings with a span greater than 24 m, or on site of categories ill and N in intensity VII , and on any site category in intensity IX. If the column bay is 12 m , prestressed concrete brackets may be installed.

8.1.4 In the intensity of VII and IX, rectangular or I-shape cross-section columns double limb columns' with inclined web bracings -should be used for factory

8.1;8 Seismic checking of cross-sections in transversal and longitudinal directions' need not be carried' out for single-span factory buildings and multi-span factory buildings of equal height with gable walls at both ends, the column height of which does not exceed 10 m (except factory buildings with saw-toothed roof), on sites of categories I or IT in the intensity VI[, but the constructional measures of buildings shall comply with those as set forth in this section.

8. 1.9 The following methods may be used for seismic calculation in transversal direction of a factory building:

1. For factory buildings with reinforced concrete roof with or without purlins, the effects of spacial action, torsion and crane truss shall be considered. The seismic action in transversal direction may be calculated as that in planar bents and corresponding adjusting coefficients for seismic shear and bending moment of the bent as set forth in Appendix E in this code may be used. 'The building may also be analysed as a multi-mass spacial structure, considering the planar elastic deformation of the roof.

2. F~ctory buildings with a light-weight roof, equal column bays, but lacking a complete bracing system, may be calculated as planar bents.

Note: Light-weight roof refers to a roof made of moulded steel plates, or corrugated iron sheets, or asbestos tiles and purlins.

or buildings, but I-section columns with thin web and openings or with precast webs should not be used. Rectangular cross-section should be used for columns in a range from the column base to 500 mm above the indoor ground surface, or for the upper part of the step-wise column. Section steel should be used as braces between columns, the inclined angle of which should be not greater than 55'.

8.1. 5 Light-weight panels or large-size reinforced concrete panels should be used as curtain walls for factory buildings; large-size panels should be used for factory buildings, when spacing of exterior columns is 12 m ; light-weight panels should be 68

8.1.10 The following methods may be used for seismic calculation in longitudinal direction of a factory building:

1. Factory buildings with light-weight reinforced concrete roof with or without 69

I

l

purlins and with a considerably complete bracing system may be analysed as multimass spacial structures. considering the effect of planar elastic deformation of the roof. effective stiffness of curtain walls and partition walls as well as torsion. If a building is in accordance with the conditions as set forth in Appendix F in this code. corresponding simplified calculation method may be used.

2. Other factory buildings with a light-weight roof may be calculated as longitudinal bent consisting of a row of columns separately.

8.1.11 The following methods may be used for seismic calculation of skylight frame on the roof:

1. The base shear method may be used for seismic calculation of reinforced concrete skylight truss with inclined web members in transversal direction. When the span of the skylight frame is greater than 9 m or in the intensity of IX. effect of seismic action of the skylight frame shall be multiplied by an amplification factor. the value of which may be taken as 1. 5.

2. Spacial structure analysis method may be used for seismic calculation of skylight frames in the longitudinal direction. considering planar elastic deformation of the roof and effective stiffness of the longitudinal walls. Base shear method may be used in the calculation of longitudinal seismic action for skylight frame in the singlespan factory building and multi-span factory building of equal height with reinforced concrete roof without purlins, the height of columns of both of which does not exceed 15 m. But the effect of seismic action of the skylight frame shall be multiplied by the following amplification factors.

For the roof in a single span or an exterior span. or in the mid-span having longitudinal interior partition walls.

unfavorable combination in seismic checking. Additional bending moment induced by displacement (p-.6. effect) shall be considered also.

8. 1. 13 In factory buildings with unequal heights. cross-section area of the longitudinal tension reinforcement in the column bracket. supporting the roof on the lower span, shall be determined according to the following equation:

A >-( NGa +12Nf.)

.:?' 0.85h.f, . y; rRE

where A.-cross-section area of the longitudinal horizontal tension reinforcement; N G-design value of compression induced by the representative value of

(8.1.13)

gravity load on the surface of the column bracket;

a -distance between the action point of the gravity load and the near edge of the lower crane column; when it is less than 0.3 h •• O. 3h. shall be taken;

h.- effective height of the largest vertical cross section of the bracket;

N E- design value of horizontal tension in the seismic combination on the surface of the column bracket;

I

YRE-seismic adjusting coefficient for loading capacity. it may be taken as

1.0.

8.1.14 Seismic checking of seismic action effect of inclined member in the cross column bracing and connection joint of the brace and the column may be carried out as set forth in Appendix F.

( ][) Constructional measures

TJ=I+0.5n For the roof in other mid-spans.

(8.1. 11-1}

(8.1.11-2)

8. 1. 15 Connection of members and arrangement of bracings 1U the roof with purlins shall be in accordance with the following requirements;

1. Purlins shall be welded tightly with the roof truss (roof beam). and sufficient bearing length of purlins shall be provided.

2. Purlins on the double ridge roof shall be tied with each other at 1/3 of the

where

TJ =0.5n TJ - amplification factor of seismic action effect;

n- number of spans in the factory building lif number of spans exceeds 4. it will be considered as 4.

8.1. 12 In a factory building with large column array. the column spacings of which in both direction not less than 12 m, but without a bridge-type crane and column bracings, columns should be square in cross-section. Horizontal seismic action in two major axis directions shall be considered simultaneously in seismic checking of cross-section. 100 % of the action in one major axis direction combined with 30 % of the action in corresponding perpendicular direction shall be taken as an

70

span.

3. Channel tiles. corrugated Iron sheets and asbestos tiles shall be tied with purlins.

4. Arrangement of bracings should comply with the requirements in Table 8. 1.15.

71

Table 8.1.1S

Bracing Arrangement for Roof with Purtins

top surfaccs .

3. In the intensity of VIII and IX, angle steel should be used as parts on the bottom of the end of the large-size roof slab, and should be welded firmly with the main reinforcement in the slab.

4. For non-standard roof slab, precast monolithic joint should be used. or the slab should be welded firmly with the roof truss (beam) after cutting the four corners of the slab.

5. Anchorage bars of the built-in parts on the top of the end of the roof truss (beam) should be not less than 4"'10 and 4"'12 in the intensity of VIII and IX respectively.

6. Arrangement of bracings should be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab 8.1.16 - 1 and Tab. 8.1. 16 - 2 for shaft-type skylight in the middle of the building. In the intensity of VIII or IX, one number of vertical bracing system may be installed at each end of a building unit with thin-web beam roof structure, the span of which is not greater than 15 m ,

8.1.17 Wall panels and columns on both sides of the reinforced concrete skylight frame projected on the roof should be connected with each other by holts.

8.1.18 Cross section and reinforcement of the reinforced concrete roof truss shall be in accordance with the following requirements.

1. Reinforcement in the upper chord in the first panel of the truss and the strut at the, end of the trapezoid-shaped truss should be not less than 4"'12 and 4H4 in the intensity of VI or Wand VII or IX respectively.

Intensity
Bracing VI IX
VI and \I
One no. of bracing
installed in each end
bay of a building unit
and at the bay with
Transverse One no. of bracing column bracing in a One no. of bracing
bracing on installed in each end building unit with a installed in each end
the upper bay of a factory length greater than 66 bay for a building unit
chord building unit m: one no. of and at the bay with
additonal local bracing column bracing, and in
installed at each end of a building unit with 8
Bracing the zone with skylight length greater than 42
opening. rn .
of the One no. of additional
roof local transverse upper
truss Transverse chord bracing installed
at each end of the zone
bracing on the with skylight opening.
lower chord
Same 8S in the non-seismic design
Vertical
bracing in the
middle of the
span
Vertical When height of the end part of the roof truss is greater than 900 mm, one
bracing at the no. of bracing installed in each end bay of a building unit and in the bay
end of the with column bracing
span
Transverse One no. of bracing
installed in each end
bracing on the skylight bay of a unit
upper chord in a factory building One no. of spacing One no. of bracing
Bracing installed at every 36 m installed at every 18 m
of the in each end skylight in each end skylight
skylight One no. of spacing bay of a unit in a bay of a unit in a
frame Vertical installed at every 36 m factory building factory building
bracing on in each end skylight
both sides bay of a unit in a
factory building Table 8.1.16-1 Bracing Arrangement for Roofs Without Purtins

Intensity
Bracing I
VI and \I VI IX
Same as in the non-
seismic design when
the span of the truss is One no. of bracing installed in each end bay and
Transverse less than 18 m: one
bracing on the no. of bracing installed bays with column bracings l one additional local
in each end bay of a bracing installed at each end of the skylight
upper chord unit in a factory opening for a building unit.
building, when the
span of the truss is not
less than 18m. 8.1.16 Connection of members in the roof without purlins shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Large-size roof slabs shall be welded firmly with the roof truss (roof beam), and length of the welding seam in the connection of the roof slab and the roof truss (roof beam) adjacent to the row of columns should be not less than 80 mm.

2. For the end bay of a building unit with a skylight, when the intensity is VI or VII, or for each bay when the intensity is VI and IX, adjacent large-size roof slabs in the direction perpendicular to the roof truss should be welded with each other at their 72

73

Bracing

\I

IX

Transverse
bracing on
the lower
Bracing chord
of the Vertical
roof bracing in the
truss middle of the
.
span
HeiRht
of the-
cnd-pul
or the'
..,.1
Vend , .... .;;
900mm
bnci"" Horizontal tie rod on the upper chord

"

Height of the

One no. of bracing One no. of bracing

One no. of bracing installed at an interval of 30 m in each end

VI and VI

Same as in the

non-seismic

design

Intensity

be the same as that of the upper chord.

3. Cross section dimension of the small strut supporting the roof slabs at the end of the upper chord of the truss should be not less than 200 mm x 200 mm, and the small strut height, not greater than 500 mm. Major reinforcments in the strut should be IT in shape and not less than 4H2 and 4H4 in the intensity of VI or vn and VII or IX respectively.4>6 bars may be used as stirrups with a spacing of 100 mm.

8.1.19 Stirrups in a column of a factory building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. In the following range, confinement reinforement shall'be provided:

One no. of bracing in et alled along the roof trtl~!l when it~ span i!" not greater than 12 m , but bracings need not he installed for precast monolithic roof. Bracings need not he installed 01.0 at the truss end in elise A curtain wall with ft poured-in-situ ring beam exists at the height of the upper chord of the roof tru ..

One no. of bracing installed along the roof trllS!' when its span is not greater than 15 m, but bracings need not be installed for precast monolithic roof. Dracings need not be installed also at the truss end in case ft curtain wall with a. poured-in-situ ring beam exists at the height of the upper chord of the roof truss

Table 8.1.16 - 2

Bracing Arrangement for Roofs Without Purlins Having Shaft-Type Skylight in the Middle of a Building

Vertical bracing on both sides of the skylight

One no. of bracing in stalled at an interval of 30 m in each end bay with skylight with a

unit

Intensity
Bracing
VI and \I \I IX
Transverse bracing on One no. of bracing One no. of bracing
the upper chord One no. of bracing instaUed in each end installed in each end
installed in each end bay and bays with bay and bays with
bay of a unit in the column bracings of a column bracings of
Transverse bracing on factory building unit in the factory each unit in the factory
the lower chord building building
Horizontal tie rod on the Installed at the joints of the upper chord in the middle span of the truss
upper chord within the range of the skylight
Horizontal tie rod on the Installed at the joints of the lower chord of the truss on both sides of
lower chord skylight and in the range of the skylight
Vertical bracing in the Installed in the bay with transverse bracings on the upper chord with a'
middle of the span location corresponding to that of the tie rod on lower chord
One no. of bracing
Hight of the installed at on interval
end part of Same as in the non- Same as in the non- of 48 m in each bay
the roof truss seismic design seismic design with transversal
';;;;900 mm bracings on the upper
Vertical chord
bracing
on both
sides One no. of bracing One no. of bracing
Height of the One no. of bracing installed at an interval installed at an interval
end part of installed in each end of 48 m in each end of 30 m in each end
the roof truss bay of a unit in the bay and bays with bay and bays with
>900 mm factory building column bracings of a column bracing. of •
unit unit Same as in the nonseismic design

Same as the transversal bracing on the upper chord

One no. of bracing installed in each end bay of 8 unit in 8 factory building

One no. of spacing installed in each end bay of a unit at an interval of 48 m in a factory building

end-part installed at each end installed in each end of the

roof bay of a unit in the bay and bays with

truss';;;; factory building column bracings

900mm

boy

with

column

bracings

One no. of bracing installed at an interval of 18 m in each end bay with skylight in a

One no. of bracing in stalled at an interval 01 24 m in each end bay with skylight in a unit

unit

2. Width of the cross section of the end strut of the trapezoid-shaped truss should

74

~.-- ... -.-.--- .. ----- .. ----~===---------------------

75·

1) Column head: for a length of 500 mm from the top of the column, and also not less than the length of the column cross section.

2) Upper column: from the bracket surface to a distance of 300mm above the crane beam surface of a step-wise column.

3) Bracket of the column (column shoulder): for the whole height of the

bracket.

4) End of the column: from the bottom of the lower column to a distance of 500 mm above the indoor ground surface.

5) In a distance 300 mm above and below the joint of the column, its bracing, and locations, at which the column displacement is constrained by the platform or the built-in interior partition wall.

2. Spacing of stirrups in the intensified zone shall be not greater than 100 mrn , and the minimum diameter of the stirrup shall be in accordance with the provisions as set forth in Tab. 8.1.19.

accordance with the following requirements:

1. In general, bracing between the upper columns and the lower columns shall be installed in the middle of a building unit. In the case of factory buildings installed with cranes, or in the intensity of VII and IX, additional upper column bracing should also be installed at both ends of a building unit.

2. Slenderness ratio of bracing members should not exceed the values as set forth in Tab. 8.1. 20.

Table 8.1.20

Maximum Slenderness Ratio of Inclined Members in the Diagonal Bracing

Intensity
Location
VI \I W IX
Upper column 250 250 200 150
Lower column 200 200 150 150 Table 8.1.19 Minimum Diameter of Stirrups in the Intensified Zone.

Intensity and type of sites
Location of Category m or N Category m or N
intensified Category I or II sites in intensity VI, VI,
sites in intensity sites in intensity
zone and category I or II lind 1111 sites in
VI or VI sites in intensity VI intensity IX
Top and bottom of +8 +8 +8
ordinary columns
Upper column,
bracket.and column +8 +8 +10
bottom with bracings
Top of the column
with bracings and
locaions at which the +6 +10 +10
column displacement
is constrained 3. Location of the lower connection joint and constructional measures for the lower column bracing shall be adopted so that the seismic action can be transmitted directly to the foundation; otherwise, the unfavorable effect of the bracing reaction on the column and the foundation shall be considered when the intensity is VI or \'1[.

4. Gusset plate shall be intalled at the intersection of the diagonal bracing and the thickness of the gusset plate shall be not less than 10 mm. The gusset plate shall be welded with the inclined members, and these members should be welded with the end gusset plate.

8.1. 21 A horizontal compression member should be installed along the top level of the middle column rows for multi-span factory building with a span not less than 18m in the intensity of VII. or along the top level of all column rows for amulti-span factory building in the intensity of IX. The compression member may be taken instead of the horizontal tie rod installed at the support of the trapezoid-shape roof truss. Clearance between the end of the reinforced concrete tie rod and the roof truss shall be filled with concrete.

8.1.22 Connection joints of the structural members in. a factory building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Roof truss (or beam) should be connected with columns on top by bolts in the intensity of VII, or by hinge plate in the intensity of IX, but bolts may also be used; thickness of the bearing plate at the end of the roof truss (beam) should be 77

8. 1.20 Layout and details of a column bracing in a factory building shall be in 76

not less than 16 mm.

2. Anchorage bars in the built-in parts on top of a column should be 4<1>14 and 4<1>16 in the intensity of VI and lX respectively. For columns with bracings, shear plate shall be installed additionally other than built-in parts.

3. Built-in plate shall be put on the top of the wind resistant column in a gable wall, so that top of the column can be reliably connected with the upper chord of the end truss (or upper flange of the roof beam).

4. Built-in parts in the bracket in the middle of a column (column shoulder) supporting the lower-span roof shall be welded with the longitudinal reinforcement subjected to the calculated horizontal tension in the bracket (column shoulder), and the welded bars shall be not less than 2<1>12, 24>14 and 2<1>16 in the intensity VI or VB. , ", and lX respectively.

5. Steel angles together with end plate should be used as anchors of the built-in parts at the joint of the bracing and the column at category ill or N sites in intensity VI, and all sites in intensity lX, and, in other cases, deformed bars of grade II may be used, but anchorage length shall be not less than 30 times the diameter of the anchor bar.

8.1.23 Brick enclosing walls shall be tied reliably with columns along the height (including wind resistant columns), end of the roof truss (beam), roof slab and gully plate. Eclosing walls above the lower roof level of a factory building with unequal heights and suspended walls in the intersection of the longitudinal and transversal units shall be tied firmly with columns and roof members.

8.1.24 Ring beams in the brick enclosing walls shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Poured in-situ reinforced concrete ring beams shall be installed at the following positions:

1) One number of ring beam shall be installed on both levels of upper chord at the end of the trapezoid-shape roof truss and top of the column, but only one ring beam can be installed if height of the end part of the truss is not greater than 900 mm. 2) In the intensities of VI and lX, a ring beam shall be added on the top level of the window in an interval of 4 m approximately, based on the principle that beams in the upper part should be more densely placed than in the lower part.

3) A reinforced concrete beam shall be installed on the gable wall along the roof level, and shall be connected with the ring beam at the level of the upper chord at the end of the roof truss.

2. Width of the cross section of the ring beam should be same as the wall

78

L

L

thickness and height of the beam shall be not less than 180mm. Reinforcement of the beam shall be not less, than 4<1>12 and 4<1>14 in the intensity of VI - VII and lX respectively.

3. Longitudinal reinforcement in the ring beam on top of the column at the corner of the factory and in the range of the end bay should be not less than 4<1>14 and 4<1>16 in the intensity of VI - VIII and lX respectively; stirrup diameter in the range of 1m on both sides of the corner should be not less than <1>8, and spacing of stirrups should be not greater than 100 mrn . In ring beams at the corner, not less than 3 horizontal diagonal bars, with a diameter same as that of the longitudinal bar, shall additionally be installed.

4. Ring beam shall be firmly connected with the column or roof truss. The beam on the gable wall shall be tied with the roof slabs. Anchor tie bars for the connection of the ring beam on the top of the column and the column should be not less than 4<1>12, the anchorage length of which should be n?t less than 35 times the reinforcement diameter.

8.1.25 Poured in-situ joint shall be used for the precast foundation beam und~r the brick enclosing wall at site of category ill or N in intensity VI, and all sites in intensity lX; if strip footing is otherwise used, a continuous poured in-situ reinforced concrete ring beam shall be placed at the top level of the column foundation and reinforcement of the beam shall not be less than 4 <1>12.

8.1.26 Poured in-situ wall beams should be used; if precast wall beams are used, the bottom of the beam shall be tied firmly with the top of the brick wall and anchored in the column. Wall beams adjacent -to the corner of a factory building shall be flexibly connected with each other.

8.1. 27 In the intensities of VII and lX, large-size reinforced concrete wall panels should be flexibly connected with the column of the roof truss in a factory building.

8.2 Single-story factory buildings with brick columns

( I ) General

8.2.1 This section is applicable to the following medium- and small-size factory buildings with brick bearing columns (piers):

1: Single-span and multi-span (of equal height) workshop and warehouse. without bridge crane.

2. Buildings with a span not greater than 15m and a height from top level of the 79

column to the ground not greater than 6.6 m in the intensity of VI - VII.

3. Buildings with a span not greater than 12 m and an elevation at top of the column is not greater than 4.5 m in the intensity of IX.

8.2.2 Plan and elevation layout of a factory building should be in accordance with the related provisions as set forth in section 8. 1, but installation of the seismic joint should comply with the following requirements: .

1. A seismic joint need not be installed in a factory building with a light-weight

roof.

2. A seismic jomt should be installed between the factory building with reinforced concrete roof and the annex building, and width of the joint may be taken as 50-70 mm.

Note: Light-weight roof mentioned in this section refers as wood roof and other roofs with light-weight steel trusses, corrugated iron sheets or asbestos tiles.

8.2.3 Structural system of a factory building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Light-weight roof should be used in intensity VI - VI! and shall be used in intensity IX.

2. Cross-shaped section may be used for unreinforced brick columns in the intensity of VI and VI!; composite brick columns shall be used at category I and IT sites in the intensity of VII; composite brick columns and reinforced concrete columns should be used for exterior and middle columns respectively at category ill and N sites in the intensity of 'l1li and all sites in the intensity of IX.

3. Shear walls, subject to longitudinal seismic action and of the same height as the column, may be installed between brick columns in the longitudinal row of a factory building. Brick shear wall shall be laid zigzag in courses with the brick column and shall have a foundation. A through horizontal compression member shall be placed on top of the column withou brick shear walls in the building with a reinforced concrete roof with purlins at category ill and N sites in the intensity of VDI.

4. Bearing gable walls shall be installed at both ends of the building.

5. Transverse interior partition walls should be made as shear walls. Lightweight walls should be used as non-bearing partition walls. When lightweight walls are not used, additional seismic shear induced by the partition wall on the column and its connection joint with the roof truss shall be considered.

80

( ll) Essentials in calculation

8.2.4 Seismic checking for single-span buildings and multi-span factory buildings of equal heights, with gable walls at both ends, and elevation of the column top of which is not greater than 4.5 m , may not be carried out at category I or II sites in the intensity of VII, but the constructional measures for these buildings shall comply with provisions as set forth in this section.

8.2.5 The following methods may be used in the seismic calculation of factory buildings in transverse direction:

1. Factory buildings with a light-weight roof may be calculated as planar bents.

2. Factory buildings with a reinforced concrete roof may be calculated as planar bents cosidering spacial action, and the seismic action effect should be adjusted as set forth in Appendix E.

8.2.6 Longitudinal seismic computation for a factory building may be carried out with reference to the related provisions as set forth in Section 8.1 based on the type of the roof structure.

8 •. 2.7 Transverse seismic computation for the truss-type reinforced concrete skylight frame with diagonal web members projecting on the roof may be conducted with reference to the provisions specified in Article 8.1. 11 in this chapter.

8.2.8 Seismic checking of brick columns subject to eccentric compression shall conform to the following requirements:

1. Overall eccentricity of non-reinforced brick columns, produced by the standard value of seismic action and the representative value of gravity load should not exceed 0.9 times the distance from the centroid of the cross section to the edge of the section in the direction where the vertical force exists; seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity may be taken as O. 9 .

2. Reinforcement of the composite brick column shall be determined by calculation; seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity in this case may be taken as 0.85.

( ][) Constructional measures

8.2.9 Arrangement of bracing in a wood roof should be in accordance with the requirements as set fonth in Tab. 8. 2. 9, and bracing of the roof with steel trusses, corrugated iron sheets or asbestos tiles may be installed according to provisions for a roof without sheathings as set forth in Table 8.2.9 ; bracing shall be connected with

81

.... --.-.~~,.,~.~------------ ...... --------------

I

the roof truss and the skylight frame by bolts.

intensity of VII and IX, a ring beam shall be also added at an interval of 3 - 4 m along height of the wall. Depth of the ring beam shall not be less than 180 mm and its reinforcement not less than 4cp12. Foundation ring beam shall also be installed, when the subsoil is weak cohesive soil, liquefaction-potential soil, newly filled soil or a seriously non-uniformly distributed soil layer.

8.2.12 A poured in-situ reinforced concrete beam shall be placed on the gable wall along the roof level and anchored with the roof members. Cross-section area and reinforcement of the buttress of the gable wall should not be less than those of the bent column respectively. The buttress shall be equal in height with the gable wall and connected with the beam on the gable wall or other roof members:

8.2.13 The ring beam on top of the wall or bearing plate on top of the column shall be connected firmly with roof truss (beam) by bolts or welding. Thickness of the bearing plate on top of the column shall be not less than 240 mrn, and two layers of reinforcement mesh with a diameter of not less than cp8 and spacing not greater than 100 mm shall be placed on the plate. The ring beam on top of the wall and the bearing plate on top of the column shall be poured at the same time. In the intensity of IX, spacing of stirrups in the ring beam shall be not greater than 100 mm , and arranged in a distance of 500 mm on both sides of the bearing plate.

8.2.14 Span of the hyperbolic brick arch should not be greater than 15 m, 12 rn, and 9 m in the intensity of vn, VII and IX respectively. Tie bars shall be installed at the foot of the arch and anchored in the reinforced concrete ring beam. Hyperbolic brick arch structure shall not be used when the subsoil is weak cohesive soil, liquefaction-potential soil, newly filled soil or a seriously non-uniformly distributed soil layer .

Table 8.2.9 Arrangement of Bracing in a Wood Roof

Intensity
VI and \I \I IX
Fully covered Scarcely
Bracing with sheathings covered Fully Scarcely covered
All types with covered
of roof sheathings with with sheathings or
Without With or no sheathings no sheathings
skylight skylight sheathings
One no.
One no. installed in One no.
installec the second installed
bay at
in the both ends in the 2nd One no. installed in
zone of 8 unit bay at both the second bay at
Transverse with in the ends of a both ends of a unit
bracing on Same as in the sky-ligh building unit in the in the building and
the upper non-seismic design opening and at 20 m building. at 20m interval,
chord at both interval, for for the roof when span of the
ends of the roof truss with roof truss is greater
8. unit truss with a span than 6m.
Bracing in the greater
of roof building a span than 6m.
truss greater
than 6 m
Transverse
bracing on Ditto
the lower
chord
Vertical Same 8S in the non-seismic design Installed in every
bracing in other bay and a
horizontal tie rod
the middle through the lower
of the span. chord i. added
Verticl One no. installed in the first bay at
bracing on One no. installed in the first hay at both both end. of the skylight at an
Bracing both sid es ends of the skylight interval of 20 m
of of skylight
skylight Transverse
frame bracing on For skylights of a considerable large span. refer to arrangement of bracing for the
the upper roof truss without skylight
chord 8.3 Single-story steel factory buildings

( I) General

8.3.1 This section is applicable to single-story factory buildings with single-span or multi-span of equal height and bearing steel columns and roof trusses. Requirements of the plan layout and reinforced concrete roof may be refered to the provisions as set forth in section 8.1 .

8.3.2 Structural system of the factory building shall conform to the following requirements:

1. Rigid frame or frames, the trusses of which is firmly connected with the 83

8.2.10 Constructional measures for reinforced concrete roofs shall conform to the related provisions as set forth in Section 8. 1 .

8.2.11 A poured in-situ closed ring beam .shall be placed along the exterior wall and the bearing interior walls at the top of the column in a factory building. In the 82

!

~------- .. -- .. =========---------------- ......... ----------------------

l

I

columns. should be used in the transverse direction of the building.

2. Overall stability and local stability of the structure and mem bers of the factory building shall be ensured.

3. Welding joint of members shall not be located in the maximum stress zone where plastic hinge may occur.

4. Damage to joints. such as bracing joints. connection joints at column foot and joints of the roof truss and the column. shall not occur prior to yielding of the whole cross section of the member.

5. Bracing members shall be made of material in a whole piece.

8.3.3 Enclosing walls of a factory building shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Precast reinforced concrete panels or light-weight panels. flexibly connected with the column. should be used as enclosing walls in the intensity of Wand VII. however filled brick walls shall not be used. If masonry enclosing walls are used in the intensity of VII. measures shall be taken so that the wall does not prevent the horizontal displacement of column rows in the longitudinal direction.

2. Light-weight panels should be used as enclosing walls in the intensity of IX..

( ll) Essentials in calculation

8.3.4 In the calculation of seismic action for factory buildings. the weight and stiffness of enclosing wall shall be in accordance with the following provisions:

1. Overall weight of the wall shall be considered for light-weight panels or precast reinforced concrete panels. flexibly connected with columns. but effect of stiffness may not be considered.

2. Overall weight of unit masonry enclosing walls. not preventing the horizontal displacement of column rows in the longitudinal direction. may be considered only in the seismic calculation in transverse direction. and effect of stiffness may not be considered in the seismic calculation in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

3. Overall weight -of unit masonry walls intimately close to the column and tied with the column shall be considered. but only 40 % of stiffness in the direction parallel to the wall shall be considered in the caculation.

8.3.5 The following methods may be used in the seismic calculation of a factory building in transverse direction:

1. Factory buildings with light-weight panels or large-size p·anels.flexibly connected with the column. may be calculated as planar bents when the columns are 84

uniformly spaced. The roof deformation should be considered. when the spacing of columns is not uniformly spaced. Therefore. spacial action analysis should be performed considering the roof deformation.

2. Calculation for the factory building with unit masonry enclosing walls may be carried out with reference to Article8.l.9 .

8.3.6 The following methods may be used in the seismic computation of a factory building in longitudinal direction:

1. Factory buildings with light-weight panels or large-size panels •. 'flexibly connected with the column, may be calculated as single-mass system. and distribution of seismic action to rows of column shall be determined according to the following principles:

1) Seismic action may be distributed in proportion of the stiffness of rows of column for buildings with a reinforced concrete roof without purlins.

2) For buildings with a light-weight roof or a reinforced concrete roof with purlins, seismic action may be distributed in proportion of the representative values of gravity load subjected by rows of column or by calculation based on an individual row of column, whichever is greater shall be used.

2. Longitudinal seismic action for buildings with unit masonry enclosing walls laid close to the column may refer to the provisions specified in Article 8.1.10.

8.3.7 Similar sectional area may be taken for diagonal rods in the longitudinal and transverse horizontal bracings on the upper and lower chord of the roof truss. and the straight compression member may be designed by using the same strength as the diagonal tension member. Load capacity of the bracing joint shall not be less than the' capacity of the member, calculated on the basis of the yielding strength of the whole cross-section; sectional area of the diagonal member of the vertical bracing at the end of the roof truss, and in the middle of the span, may be taken as 1.2 times that' of the diagonal mem ber lof the horizontal bracing.

( :m:) Construction measures

8.3.8 Arrangement of bracing for roofs with purlins should be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Tab. 8.1. 15

8.3.9 Slenderness ratio of the column shall not exceed the values as set forth in Tab.8.3.9.

8.3.10 Ratio of width to thickness of all limb plates of the column cross-section shall not exceed the values as set forth in Tab. 8. 3.10 in the intensity of IX..

85

_ .. .=_ .=~~_,___--- ..._.ioo_ ..,..;.....,.._-" ...

Table 8.3.9 Maximum Slenderness Ratio of the Column

Steel grade p<0.20 p;':0.20
Q235(Grade 3) 120 150(1- p)
16M •• 16Mnq steel 100 120(1- p) Note:p is the ratio of design value of combined axial compression and load capacity of steel columns. calculated on the basis of the yielding strength.

8.3.11 Appropriate measures shall be taken at the column foot to prove transmission of internal force of the column, calculated on the basis of the yielding strength of the whole cross-section.

8. 3. 12 Cross welding seam shall be strictly prohibited for use in welding members.

Table 8.3.10 Maximum Ratio of Witdth to Thickness of Plates

Restraint condition and location
Steel grade
Restrained on both sides Restrained on both sides
Free on one side (Upper column) (Lower column)
Q235(Grade 3) 12 70 55
16M •• 16M .. steel 10 58 46 86

9 • Single-story spacious buildings

9.1 General

9.1.1 This chapter is applicable to public buildings composed of a considerable spacious hall with a single story and annex buildings, such as cinemas, theaters, clubs, auditoriums. and cafeterias.

9.1. 2 Seismic joint should not be installed between a hall and its lobby or back hall, and also may not be installed between a hall and its annex buildings on both sides, but their connection shall be strengthened.

9. 1. 3 Reinforced concrete structure shall be used for the hall in a single-story spacious building in the intensity of IX. Also, reinforced concrete structures should be used for the hall in the following cases:

1. Having a canopy, or with a span greater than 21 m , or elevation at the column top of which is greater than 10 m , in the intensity of VI[.

2. Having a canopy, or with a span greater than 18 m , or elevation at the column top of which is greater than 8 rn , in the intensity of VII.

9.1. 4 For other requirements for the hall, refer to the provisions specified in Chapter 8 . The annex buildings shall conform to the related provisions as set forth in this code.

9.2 Essentials in calculation

9.2. 1 In the seismic calculation of single-story spacious buildings, the building may be divided into several separate units, such as the lobby, the back hall, the hall, and rooms on both sides of the hall. The calculation may be conducted according to related p~ovisions as set forth in this code, but the interaction effect of these units shall be considered.

9. 2. 2 In the determination of the natural period of the single-story spacious building, the effect of the spacial integrality action of the roof and the effect of the annex' buildings shall be considered.

9.2.3 Seismic calculation in the transversal direction for single-story spacious buildings should be in accordance with the following principles:

1. For the hall without annex buildings on both sides, a typical bay may be selected for calculation from the part of building with a canopy and the part without a canopy respectively. I f the building is in accordance with the provisions as set forth in Chapter 8, space action may also be considered.

2. In the case of a hall with annex buildings on both sides, appropriate 87

calculation methods shall be selected, according to the structural type of the annex buildings.

9.2.4 Standard value of the horizontal longitudinal seismic action of the hall in a single-story spacious building may be evaluated as follows:

(9.2.4.)

where Fn-standard value of the horizontal longitudinal seismic action on the

longitudinal wall or the row of colums on one side of the hall;

G,q-representative value of equivalent gravity load, including half of the weight of the roof of the hall and that of the annex buildings, 50 % of the standard value of snow load and reduced weight of the longitudinal wall or the row of columns on one side.

9.2.5 Seismic checking of out-of-plane cross section shall be carried out for the buttress of the large gable wall in the intensity of WI and IX.

9.3 Constructional measures

9.3. 1 Roof detail of the hall shall be in accordance with the provisions as set forth in Chapter 8 .

9.3'.2 Composite brick columns should be adopted instead of brick columns for a hall, and reinforcement in the column head shall be anchored in the reinforced concrete ring beam beneath the roof truss; longitudinal reinforcement in the composite column shall he determined by calculation, and shall not be less than 44>12 and 64>14 at category ill or N sites in the intensity of VI, or all sites in the intensity of VI, and not less than 6cj>I4 in the intensity of VII and IX for all sites.

9.3.3 Transverse walls in the stage shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Constructional columns or reinforced concrete columns shall be installed on the two sides of the transverse wall and at both ends of the wall in front of the stage. 2. Reinforced concrete beam shall be installed on the transverse wall along the roof of the hall, and depth of its cross section should be not less than 180 mm. The beam shall be reliably connected with the roof members.

3. Struts shall be installed at intervals of 4 m on the bearing wall above the girder in front of the stage in the intensity of VI to WI . Also, wall beam shall be placed along the height of the wall at 3 m interval. Cross section, reinforcement content, and connection of the strut with the wall shall conform 10 the requirements for constructional columns in multi-story unit masonry buildings.

4. Brick wall on the girder in front of the stage should not be used for bearing

88

loads in the intensity of LX.

9.3.4 A poured in-situ ring beam shall be placed at the top of the column (wall) of the hall, and an additional ring beam should be placed at an interval of about 3 m along the height of the wall. When height at the end part of the trapezoid-shaped roof truss is greater than 900 mrn , a ring beam shall be added also at the elevation of the upper chord, and its depth of cross section should be not less than 180 mm, and width should be the same as thickness of the wall. Its reinforcement content shall dot be less than 4cj>I2. Stirrup spacing should not be greater than 200 mrn .

9.3.5 When no seismic joint is installed between the hall and the annex building, a closed ring beam shall be placed at the same elevation and tied at the connection of the hall and the annex building. 24>16 tie bars shall be installed at the connection of walls at 500 m interval along the height of the wall, and the bars should extend into the wall not less than 1 m on both sides.

9.3.6.Cantilever canopy shall be reliably anchored, and measures shall be taken to prevent overturning of the canopy.

9.3.7 Reinforced concrete beams shall be placed on the gable wall along the roof and shall be tied with the roof members. Constructional columns or composite brick

• I

columns shall be installed in the gable wall, the cross section area and reinforcement

content of which should not be less than those of the bent column or brick column in the longitudinal wall. These columns shall extend to the apex of the gable wall and be connected with the beam on the gable wall.

9. 3. 8 Operation platform or floor diaphragm shall be used for the horizontal bracing of the large gables connected with the back wall of the stage, and at the junction of the hall and the lobby.

89

\

10 . Earth, wood and stone buildings

10.1 Earth buildings in villages and towns

10.1.1 This section is applicable to buildings with bearing adobe. lime-earth and rammed earth walls. as well as earth caves and earth arch houses in the intensity of VI toW.

Note: 1. Lime-earth walls refer to walls made of earth added with lime (or other cementitious materials) and walls made of adobe added with lime;

2. Earth caves include both caves cut from undisturbed earth cliff and caves with an arch roof laid by adobe.

10.1. 2 Earth buildings should be of one story only. In the intensity of VIand VI[. buildings with lime-earth walls may be of two stories. but total height of the building shall be not greater than 6 m . Height of the single-story earth building from the ground surface to the eave should be not greater than 2.5 m • and span of a room not greater than 3.2 m. Clear span of the earth cave should be not greater than 2.5 m ,

10.1. 3 Transverse wall shall be installed in each bay of an earth building. Beams shall not be laid on earth walls without bearing plate. Bearing walls made of different kinds of material should not be used in the same building.

10.1.4 Light-weight roofing materials shall be used. Double-slope roof or archshaped roof should be adopted for buildings with bearing gable wall. On the wall. bearing wood plate shall be installed to support purlins. On top of the wall. ring beam or bearing wood plate shall be installed. Purlins on gable wall shall extend out of the wall. Purlins on the interior wall shall be overlapped entirely or connected with wood plates or swallow-talied connection shall be used. Members of the wood roof shall be connected with each other by nails. clevis pin and lead wire.

10.1.5 Interior and exterior earth walls shall be laid alternately or rammed in each layer. In the four corners of the exterior wall and the intersection of the exterior wall and the interior wall. a layer of tying materials. e. g.. bamboo bundles. or branches of trees or twigs of the chaste tree. should be laid at an interval of 300 mm along height of the wall.

10.1. 6 Foundation of all types of earth buildings shall be rammed firmly and a

water-proof layer should be put beneath the wall.

10.1.7 Adobe should be moulded by wet-process. using cohesive soil as raw material and straw and reed shall be added in the soil as tying materials. Adobe shall be laid horizontally. and mud paste or mud-lime mortar should be used in laying 90

walls.

10.1.8 Ring beam shall be installed in each story of buildings with lime-earth walls. and shall pass through all transverse walls. A step-wise buttress should be added at each side of the gable wall up to the top of the interior longitudinal wall.

10.1.9 In earth-arch buidings, the multi-span arch structure shall be arranged continuously. Each arch shall be supported on the stable ground or earth wall. Thickness of the' arch should be 300 - 400 mrn . The arch shall be laid by use of form work and not be laid by inclined laying method without formwork. Above the exterior bearing wall and on top of the arch. no doors or windows shall be installed.

10.1.10 In the construction of earth caves. sites where land-slides or slumping are liable to occur should be avoided. Soil of the earth cliff. from which the cave is cut. shall be dense and stable • and the cliff shall be smooth in slope. with no obvious vertical joints. In front of the cliff cave. no adobe wall or walls of other materials should be laid as the front wall. Caves at differnt elevations should not be made. otherwise sufficient spacing shall be kept for such caves. and they should not be in line vertically.

10.2

Wood buildings in villages and towns

10.2. 1 This section is applicable to buildings with mortised wood frames. buildings with wood trusses, and wood columns • and buildings with wood columns and wood beams.

10.2.2 Irregular configuration shall be avoided in the plan of wood buildings. In a building, wood columns and brick columns or walls shall not be used simultaneously for bearing purpose.

10.2. 3 Buildings with wood trusses and wood columns and buildings with mortised wood frames should not exceed two stories. and total height of the building should not exceed 6 m . Buildings with wood columns and beams should be of singlestory.' and the height of the building should not exceed 3 m.

10.2.4 Three-bay wood frame with four columns should be used for spacious buildings of considerable large span. such as auditoriums. theaters and' cereal warehouses.

10.2.S Arrangement of roof bracing of the wood truss shall be in accordance with the related requirements as set forth in section 8.2 , but the roof bracings on both ends of the building shall be installed in the end bay.

10.2.6 Top of the column shall be mortised to the lower chord of th~ truss and connected by means of clevis pin. In the intensity of VI and IX. foot of the column 91

shall be anchored in the foundation by use of iron parts.

10.2.7 Diagonal bracing shall be installed between the wood column and the truss (or beam) in a spacious building. Diagonal bracing shall be installed also in non-seismic partition walls in houses with considerable transverse walls. Bracing need not be used in buildings with mortised wood frames. Diagonal bracing should be made of wood plates and extend to the upper chord of the truss.

10.2.8 In the longitudinal direction of buildings with mortised wood frames, a piece of wood shall be installed at both the upper and lower ends of the wood column, passing through and connected with the other column, and 1 - 2 diagonal column braces shall be installed in each row of columns in the longitudinal direction.

10.2.9 Diagonal braces and bracing members of the roof shall be connected with main structural members by bolts. Except for the mortised members, other wood members should be connected by bolts.

10.2.10 Enclosing wall shall be tied reliably with the wood structure. Enclosing walls laid by adobes or bricks should be placed on the exterior side of wood columns, and the wood columns shall not be enclosed completely by the wall.

10.3 Stone buildings

10. 3. 1 This section is applicable to buildings with regularly coursed rubble bearing walls or randomly coursed rubble bearing walls (with or without bearing stone plates) laid by mortar in the intensity of VI- VI .

10.3.2 Height of each story of multi-story stone-buildings should not exceed 3 rn , and the total height and the number of stories should not exceed the values as set forth in Tab 10.3.2:

Table 10.3.2 Limit Value for Total Height (m rand Number of Stories of Multi-story Stone Building

Intensity
VI II VI
Type of wall
Total Novof Total No.of Total No.of
height stories height stories height stories
Processed and semi-processed
rubble wall masonry ( without 16 5 13 4 10 3
bearing stone plate)
Coarse rubble and random
rubble wall masonry ( with 13 4 10 3 7 2
bearing stone plate) 92

Note t Determinatiom of the total height of the building is specified in the Note of Tab.5.1.2.

10.3.3 Spacing of seismic transverse walls in multi-story stone buildings should not exceed the values as set forth in Tab.l0.3.3.

Table 10.3.3

Spacing of Seismic Transverse Walls in M uIti-Story Stone Buildings (m)

I Intensity
Type of floor and roof
VI VI VI
Poured in-situ or precast
monolithic reinforced concrete 10 10 7
floor or roof
Precast reinforced concrete floor
7 7 4
or roof 10.3.4 Poured in-situ or precast monolithic reinforced concrete floor and roof should beused in multi-story stone buildings.

10.3.5 Seismic checking of cross-section of the rubble wall may refer to section 5.2. Shear strength of the wall shall be determined on the basis of test data.

10. 3. 6 Reinforced concrete constructional columns shall be installed in the following positions in multi-story stone buildings:

1. Four corners of the exterior wall and the staircase.

2. Intersections of interior and exterior walls in every other bay in the intensity of VI and W, and in each bay in the intensity of VII.

10.3.7 Horizontal sectional area of the opening in a seismic transverse wall shall be not greater than one third of the total sectional area.

10.3.8 Ring beams shall be installed on the longitudinal and transverse walls in each story, the height of the cross section of which shall not be less than 120 mm, and the width should be the same as the wall thickness. Longitudinal reinforcement in the beam shall be not less than 4<1>10, and spacing of stirrups should be not greater than 200 mm.

10.3.9 At the intersection of the longitudinal wall and transverse wall, where no constructional columns are installed, bonders without bearing plates inserted shall be laid, and tying steel mesh shall be laid at an interval of about 500 mm along the height of the wall. Extended length of the mesh in the intersection of walls on each side should be not less than 1 m.

93

10.3.10 For other related constructional requirements, refer to provisions as set forth in Chapter 5 .

94

11. Chimneys and water towers

11. 1 Chimneys

11. 1. 1 This section is applicable to ordinary free standing brick chimneys and reinforced concrete chimneys. Reinforced brick chimneys may be used for category ill or N sites in the intensity of VI, and at category I and II sites in the intensity of W or Y1I ,:when the height of chimneys does not exceed 60 m. Reinforced concrete chimneys should be used for category ill and N sites in the intensity of VI and all categories of sites in the intensity of IX, when the height of chimney exceeds 60 m, and also for chimneys of significance . Chimneys at category I and II sites in the intensity of VI may be designed according to the related provisions as set forth in the non-seis~ic design.

Note: 1. Chimneys of significance refer to those equivalent to type B buildings. 2. Ordinary chimneys refer to chimneys without attached water tank.

11.1. 2 Seismic checking of cross section need not be carried out for the following chimneys, but the detail of these chimneys shall comply with the provisions as set forth in this section.

1. Chimneys at category I and II sites in the intensity of W .

2. Brick chimneys at category ill and N sites in the intensity of "\1, and at category I and II sites in the intensity of VII, when the height of chimneys is not greater than 60 m.

3. Reinforced conctete chimneys at category ill and N sites in the intensity of VIl, and at category I and II sites in the intensity of VII, when the height of chimneys is not greater than 210 m and wind load not less than 0.7 kN/ m2•

11.1.3 The following methods may be used in the seismic design of chimneys in the horizontal direction:

1. The simplified methods as set forth in Article 11. 1. 4 may be used for chimneys not higher than 100 m.

2. Response spectrum method of the mode analysis should be used for chimneys other than those above mentioned. Combination of the first three modes, the first 3 - 5 modes and the first 5 -7 modes may be considered for chimneys below 150 m, between 150;.._. 200 m , and higher than 210 m respectively.

11.1.4 When the simplified method is used in the seismic design for free standing chimneys, the following provisions shall be complied with in the calculation of action effect induced by the standard value of the horizontal seismic action:

95

1. Fundamental natural period of ordinary free standing chimneys may be determined by the following equations:

For brick chimneys not higher than 60 m,

T, =0.26+0.0024H2/d

(11.1.4-1)

For reinforced concrete chimneys not higher than 150 m , T, =0.45+0.0011H·/d

where T,-fundamental natural period of the chimney (s);

H-height of the chimney, measured from top surface of the foundation (rn ) ;

(11.1.4-2)

d-external diameter of the cross section at half height of the chimney shaft (rn}.

2. Seismic bending moment and shear force at base of the chimney shall be determined according to the following equations:

MO=a,GkHo (11.1.4-3)

VO=TJca,Gk (11.1.4-4)

where M.-bending moment induced by the standard value of horizontal seismic action at the base of the chimney;

a,-horizontal seismic effect coefficient corresponding to the fundamental natural period of the chimney, and it shall be determined as set forth in Article 4. 1. 4 ;

Gk-standard value of the dead load of the chimney;

H.- height from top surface of the foundation to the center of gravity of the chimney;

V.-shear force induced by the standard value of horizontal seismic action at the base of the chimney;

TJc-Modified coefficient of base shear of the chimney . It may be taken from Tab. 11. 1. 4 .

Table 11.1. 4

Mollified Coefficient of the Base Shear of Chimney

Characteristic period Fundamental period, T .(s)
T,(s) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0.20 0.80 1.10 1.10 0.95 0.85 0.75
0.25 0.75 1.00 1.10 1.05 0.95 0.85
0.30 0.65 0.90 1.10 1.10 1.00 0.95
0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.10 1.15 1.05
0.55 0.55 0.70 0.85 1.00 1.10 1.10
0.65 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.10
0.85 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 96

3. Seismic bending moment and shear force of cross sections of the chimney may be determined by Fig. 11. 1.4:

(a l Sketcb diagram of chimney (b)Bending moment

(c IShear

H,-height of the cross section in calculation; M, -bending moment of the cross section in calculation; Vi-shear force of the calculated cross section;

Fig. 11.1.4 Distribution of Seismic Action Effect of the Chimney,

11.1. 5 Vertical seismic action on the chimney shall be determined as set forth in

Articles 4. 1. 1 and 4. 3. 1 amplification factor for the vertical seismic action effect

may be taken as 2. 5.

11. 1.6 Additional seismic bending moment shall be considered for reinforced concrete chimneys; thermal stress of the shaft wall need not be considered in seismic checking of cross section, but effect of temperature on physico-mechanical properties of materials shall be considered, and seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity of the chimney may be taken as 0.9.

11. 1. 7 Minimum requirements of reinforcement in the upper part of brick chimneys shall be in accordance with those as set forth in Tab. 11. 1. 7, and half of the reinforcenent should extend to the lower part; when there is thermal reinforcement in the masonry shaft, total amount of the hoop reinforcement maybe reduced appropriately.

11.1. 8 A reinforced concrete ring beam shall be installed at the top part of brick chimneys, and an additional reinforced concrete ring beam should be placed at 2/3 of the total height in the intensity of VII. Depth of the cross section of the ring beam should be not less than 180 mm, and width not less than 2/3 of thickness of the shaft wall and not less than 240 mm. Longitudinal reinforcement should be not less than 44>12, and spacing of stirrups shall be not greater than 250 mm.

97

Table 11.1.7 Minimum Requirements of Reinforcement of Reinforcement in the Upper Part of Brick Chimneys

Reinforcement

+8@300 mm

towers with a capacity not greater than 20 m" may be supported by brick columns at category I and II sites in the intensity of VI and \I respectively; while water towers with a capacity not greater than 50 m3 may be supported by a brick cylinder shaft at all sites in' the intensity of VI and \I and at category I and II._sites in the intensity of \I; reinforced concrete water tower or steel water tower should be used at category ill andN sites in the intensity of VII and at all categories of site in the intensity of IX , and for water towers of significance.

11. 2. 2 Seismic checking of cross section of the following members in a water tower need not be carried out, but they shall be in accordance with the constructional requirements in this section:

1. The water tank of the tower, but not including the lower ring beam of the tank, supported by the tower frame at category ill and N sites in intensity VI and at all categories of sites in intensity IX.

2. Reinforced concrete supporting frame; shaft wall of the tank with a capacity less than.50 m", supported by a brick cylinder shaft, not higher than 20 m ; columns and beams of the tank with a capacity less than 20 m3 and not higher than 7 m supported by brick cloumns, at category I and II sites in intensity .\1.

3. Reinforced concrete cylindrical shaft wall supporting the tank at all categories of sites in intensity Vlland at category I and II sites in intensity ~.

11. 2. 3 In seismic checking of cross section of the tank, both full load and no load conditions shall be considered. For frame-supported tanks and polygonal tanks, checking shall be carried out in the normal and diagonal directions respectively. Calculation of vertical seismic action for relatively high water towers may refer to Article 4.3.1.

11.2.4 The following methods may be used in the seismic calculation for water towers in horizontal drection :

1. For frame-supported water towers and other similar water towers, the base bending moment induced by the corresponding standard value of horizontal seismic action may be determined according to the following equation:

Mo = al( G, + </J .. G .. ) H,

(11.2.4)

where Mo -bending moment induced by the standard value of the seismic action at. the base (H a water tower;

ai-horizontal seismic effect coefficient corresponding to the fundamental natural period of the water tower; it shall be determined according to Article 4. 1 .4;

G,--the representative value of gravity load of the tank; it shall be 99

Intensity and type of sites

Category m and N sites in intensity VI

Category I and n sites in intensity"

Category m and N sites in intensity " and category I and Il sites in intensity VI

-_. __ ._-_.---.---------------------_ .......... --------------

Rinforcement range

From 0.5 H to the top

Total height. when H"';;;30 m;

from 0.4 H to the top , when H > 30

m

Vertical einforce-

ment

Not less than 6+8, spacing 500 -700 mm

Not less than 6HO.spacing 500-700 mm

Hoop einforcement

+8@500mm

11. 1. 9 Hook shall be made at the end of reinforcement in brick chimneys.

Overlapping length of reinforcement shall be not less than 40 times of the reinforcement diameter. In the overlapping zone, reinforcements should be tied firmly by lead wire; vertical reinforcements passing through the chimney shall be anchored in the ring beam on the top, while those not passing through the chimney shall be anchored in the holes made in advance in the wall, which shall be filled with mortar after placing the reinforcement.

11. 1. 10 Seismic resistant joint shall be. made between the reinforced concrete chimney and the smoke flue, the width of which shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

1. 50 mm may be taken as the width when height of the smoke flue is not higher than 15 m .

2. When height of the smoke flue exceeds 15 m , a value of 15 mm should be added to the width of the joint for every 5 m, 4 m',3 m, and 2 m increase in height, corresponding to intensity VI, VI. VII and IX respectively.

11.2

Water towers

11. 2.1 This section is applicable to ordinary free standing water towers. Water

98

-

determined according to Article 4.1. 3 ; .

¢m-equivalent coefficient of bending moment; it may be taken as 0.35 for bearing structures with equal stiffness, and it may be appropriately reduced for bearing structures with varied stiffness, but shall be not less than 0.25;

G,,--representative value of gravity load of bearing structure and attached platform of the water tower;

Ho-height from top surface of the foundation to center of gravity of the tank.

2. The base shear method may be used for relatively low tanks supported by a cylinder shaft.

3. The response spectrum method for mode analysis may be used for a relatively high water tower supported by a brick cylinder shaft or for water towers in which the ratio of height to diameter of the shaft is greater than 3.5.

11.2.5. Integrated foundation or ring-shaped foundation should be used for foundation of the water tower supported by columns at category II - N sites. Foundation tie beams shall be used for the connection of isolated foundations.

11. 2. 6 Water towers supported by a reinforced concrete cylinder shaft shall comply with the following constructional requirements:

1. For vertical reinforcement in the cylinder shaft wall, diameter of the reinforcement shall be not less than '1>12, spacing not less than 200 mm, and overlapping length not less than 40 times of the reinforcement diameter. Overlapping locations shall be placed alternatively. Number of joints of reinforcement in the same horizontal cross section shall be not more than 1/4 of the total number of reinforcement.

2. Reinforced concrete portal frame should be installed for the door opening at the lower part of the cylinder shaft.

3. Reinforcement for strengthening purpose, not less than 24>12, shall be placed surrounding the sides of the window openings of the cylinder shaft.

11. 2.7 Frame supported reinforced concrete water tower shall be in accordance with the following conctructional requirements:

1. Transverse beams of the frame shall have considerable large stiffness, and the stirrups in the beam shall be closed and .comply with requirements as set forth in clause 1 of Article 6. 1. 17 , and the spacing of stirrups shall be not greater than 200 mrn. Also, spacing of stirrups at the end of the beam, in a range equal' to depth of the beam, shall be not greater than 100 mm.

100

2. Within a zone of 800 mm, below the bottom of the tank and a zone of 800 mm above top surface of the foundation, as well as in a zone above and under the joint of the beam and the column with a distance equal to width of the column, but not less than 1/6 of the clear height of the column, stirrup spacing of the column shall be not greater than 100 mrn ; stirrup diameter of the column shall be not less than 4>8 in intensity \1B or IX.

3. Brackets shall be added at ends of the ring beam under the tank and of the transverse beams. For water towers higher than 20 m and in intensity VII or .IX, a horizontal reinforced concrete diagonal bracing should be install at an intervals of about 10 m along elevation of the tower, and cross section of the brace should be not less than that of the column of the suppoting frame.

11.2.8 Water tank supported by a brick cylinder shaft shall be in accordance with the following constructional requirements:

1. Reinforcement content in the brick cylinder shaft wall shall be determined by calculation, and the reinforcing zone and minimum reinforcement content shall be in accordance with the requirements as set forth in Table. 11. 2.8:

Table 11. 2. 8

Requirements for Reinforcement of the Brick Cylinder Shaft Wall

---------------------

Reinforcement

Intensity and category of site

~--------------------

Category ill and N sites in the

intensity of VI and category I

Category N sites in the intensity of VI and category I and n

Height of the

reinforcing zone

sites in the intensity of W

Vertical reinforcement in the masonry

and n sites in the intensity of

From the bottom to 0.6 H of the

Total height of the shaft shaft

Not less than 6H2. spacing 500 -700 mm

Reinforcement in the vertical channel

1<1>12 for each channel, spacing 1000 mm, and not less than 6

no.

Hoop

reinforce-

4>s, spacing 360 mm

ment

Not less than 6H2, spacing 500 -700 mm

14>14 for each channel, spacing 1000 mm, and not less than 6

no.

4>8, spacing 250 mrn

101

II,

2. Overlapping and anchorage of reinforcement of the shaft wall shall be in accordance with Article 11.1. 9.

3. Not less than four constructional columns should be installed in the cylinder shaft wall at category ill and N sites in intensity VB. and at category I and II sites in intensity VII. and cross section of the constructional column should not be less than 240 mm X 240 mrn . Other detail requirements shall be in accordance with Article 5.3.2.

4. Ring beam should be placed at an interval of 4 m along the height of the shaft. and the depth of the cross section of the beam should be not less than 180 mrn , width not less than 2/3 of thickness of the shaft wall. and also not less than 240 mm . The longitudinal reinforcement content shall be not less than 4;12. and stirrup spacing of which not greater than 250 mm.

5. Reinforced concrete ring beams shall be installed at the upper and lower bounds of the door opening in the lower part of the brick shaft . Reinforced concrete or brick door frames should be installed at the two sides of the door opening; as for other openings. 3cf>8 steel bars shall be placed at both upper and lower bounds of openings. Also. length of both ends of the bars. extending into the shaft wall. shall be not less than 1 m.

102

Appendix A Glossary of terms

Seismic basic intensity of a region denotes the maximum seismic intensity. probably encountered in the region in a certain future period under ordinary site conditions, i. e. the intensity specified in the current "Chinese Seismic Intensity Zoning Map".

Fortification intensity is the intensity. approved by the State authority. as a basis for the fortification of buildings in a region against earthguake.

Site is an area approximately equivalent to a factory area. a residential area or a village. where a specified building exists. Sites of the same category shall have similar response spectral characteristics.

Seismic effect coefficient is the statistical average value of the ratio of maximum acceleration response to gravitational acceleration of the single-mass elastic structure under an earthquake action.

Design near-earthquake and design far-eathquake are design earthquakes classified according to the focal distance in the same fortification intensity. When the fortification intensity is IX and above, only near-earthquake is considered.

Representative value of gravity load in seismic design represents the sum of standard value of permanent load on the structure or member and combination value of related varied loads. in the fundamental combination of calculation of the standard value of seismic action and effect of the structural member action in the seismic design. Combination value coefficient is determined on the basis of the combination probability during an earthquake.

Adjusting coefficient for seismic action effect is the coefficient used to adjust the seismic action effect (bending moment. shear. axial force • and deformation) in the design of a structure or a member. considering the effect of simplification of the structural model in calculation. and redistribution of elasto-plastic internal forces or other factors in the seismic analysis.

103

Appendix B

Seismic checking of cross section in the core zone of frame joints

B. 1 Design value of shear force

Design value of shear force combination in the core zone of a joint in a frame shall be determined by the following equations:

For grade 1 structures: V == 1. 05 ~ ~ bu.O _ h bo - a;)

J hbo-a, H,-hb

V=1.05).i2:~b(1_hbo-a;)

J hbo-a, H,-hb

V = 1.05~MbO_ hbo - a;)

J hbo-a, H,-hb

Where Vi-design value of shear force combination in a core zone of the joint j ; hbo-effective depth of the beam cross section; if depths of cross section of

(B'<I - 1)

or

(B-I-2)

For grade 2 stuctures :

(B - 2)

the beam on both sides of the joint are unequal, the average value may be taken;

a;-distance from the resultant of the compression reinforcement of the beam to the compression zone edge;

H,-calculated height of the column. The distance between the reflection points of columns above and beneath the joint may be taken as the calculated height;

h b -cross section depth of the beam; if depths of cross-section of the beam on both sides of the joint are unequal, the average value may be taken.

B.2 Width for the checking of cross section in the core zone.

1. When cross section width of the beam in the direction of checking is not less than 1/2 of the cross section width of the side column. the cross section width of the column on that side may be taken as the width for the checking of cross section in the core zone; when it is smaller than 1/2 of the cross section width of the column. the smaller value of the results obtained by the following equations may be taken:

b, = bb + 0.5 he (B - 3)

b, == be

(B - 4)

where bj- width for the checking of cross section in the core zone of a joint; bo- cross section width of the beam;

h,- cross section depth of the column in the direction of checking; b,- cross section width of the column in the direction of checking.

2. If the center line of a beam does not coincide with that of a column, the 104

smaller value of the value obtained in clause I and that determined by the following equation may be taken as the width for the checking of cross section in the core zone:

bi=0.5(bb+b,)+0.25h,-e (B-5)

where e- the eccentric distance between the center lines of the beam and the column.

B.3 Seismic checking of cross section

Following expressions shall be used in seismic checking of cross section In the core zone of joint j :

1

Vi~';- (0.3 '7J,bjhj) (B-6)

IRE

V::::::: 1 (0 b hbo-a'

F""YRE .1 '7J,b;hj + O.lTjiN b;: !yyA sv j--s-') (B-7)

where '7j-the restraint effect coefficient of cross beams i L. 5 may be taken as 'li' if cross section width of each beam on the four sides is not less than 1/2 of cross section width of the column on that side and, also. depth of the secondary beam is not less than 3/4 of that of the major beam; or 1. 0 may be taken as '7i for other cases;

hi +-cross section depth in the core zone of joint i. and the cross section depth of the column in the checking direction may be taken as hi; YRE-the seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity; O. 85 may be taken as YRF.;

Nr+axial compression of the upper column corresponding to the design value of shear combination, and its value shall be not greater than 50% of the product of sectional area of the column and design value o(the concrete compressive strength;

f,y-design value of tensile strength of the stirrup;

A,yj -total sectional area of limbs of stirrups in the same direction in the range of checking width in the core zone.

s-spacing of stirrups.

105

J

'1

Appendix C

Seismic checking of frames with filled brick walls

C.l Lateral drift stiffness

If lateral resistance is considered in frames with filled brick walls. the lateral drift

stiffness may be determined by the following equations:

(C-l)

where

KI,,= KI+ K",

K.=3I/1k~E"I:'/[H~(l/Im+ Yl/lv)] Y =9I:./A:'H~

K I,,-lateral drift stiffness of the frame with filled walls; K I-total lateral drift stiffness of the frame;

K ,,-total lateral drift stiffness of the filled walls. but K", is not considered for filled walls, when the ratio of opening area in the wall to the wall

(C-2) (C-3)

surface area is greater than 60% ;

I/Ik-stiffness reduced coefficient a. 0, 0.6 and 0.3 may be taken as ¢k for the upper, middle and lower stories respectively; stories of the building may be divided into three approximately equal parts as upper, middle, and lower stories;

E.-elasticity modulus of the filled brick wall; H" -height of the filled brick wall;

y-shear effect coefficient;

A .. ,(b), I ",(b)-horizontal sectional area and moment of inertia of the filled wall respectively; if opening exists in the wall, the sum of the corresponding values of the wall on both sides of the opening may be taken (see Fig. C - 1, the indices t, b represent top and bottom of the filled wall respectively) ;

¢m, ¢v-opening effect coefficients; they maybe taken as follows:

For walls without opening, ¢m= ¢v= 1

(C - 4)

(C - 5)

(C-6)

106

A~- I.

A\,

I\,

A\, I\,

Fig. C-1 Sectional Area and Moment of Inertiaof Filled Walls with Opening

C.2 Seismic action effect

1. Design value of shear of combination of stories shall be distributed in proportion to interstory drift stiffness of each frame and frame with filled walls, but the design value of shear force, carried by the frame without filled walls, should not be less than the corresponding design value, carried by the part of frame in the frame with filled walls (not including the additional shear induced by the filled wall).

2. In the calculation of axial compression and shear on the column in the frame with filled walls, additional axial compression and shear force, induced by the infilled wall, shall be considered , and these values may be determined by the following equations:

NI= V"Hlll VI= V,

(C -7) (C - 8)

where

N I-design value of additional axial compressive force on the column in the frame;

V w-design value of shear force, carried by the filled wall; if filled walls exist on both sides of the column, the greater design value of these walls may be taken as V",;

H I-story height of the frame; [-span of the frame;

VI-design value of additional shear force on the column in a frame.

C.3 Seismic checking of cross section

The following expressions shall be used in seismic checking of cross section of a frame. with filled walls:

Vlw~_l-~(M~e + M~c) I He + _l_2.fvEAwo (C-9)

YRt:e YRt: ..

107

\

0.4 V[w<_l_~(M~, + M~,Y H, (C-I0)

}'RE,

where V [w-design value of shear force carried by the frame with filled walls;

j.E-design value of seismic shear strength of the brick wall; it" shall be taken in accordance with Article 5.2.4;

Awo-calculated horizontal cross section area of the brick walla.25 times the actual sectional area may be taken as Awo for walls with no opening, while the net sectional area may be taken as A,,~ for walls with opening, but the portion of the wall, the width of which is less than 1/4 of the height of the opening, is not considered;

M~" M~,-design values of load capacity of the normal cross section subject to eccentric compression at the upper end and lower end of the frame column respectively; values ofM; and M~ may be taken according to the related equations for non-seismic design as set forth in the current national standard, "Design Code for Reinforced Concrete Structures", but equal signs shall be used;

H ,-calculated height of the column; if filled walls exist at both sides of the column, 2/3 of the clear height of the column may be taken as He; if half filled walls exist at both sides or filled wall exists only on one side, clear height of the column may be taken as He;

}'RE,-seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity of the frame column; 0.8 may be taken as }'REc

}'REw-seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacity of filled brick walls; 0.9 may be taken as }'REw.

108

Appendix D

Seismic design of diaphragm of frame supported story. in shear wall structures

1. Following expressions should be used in seismic checking of cross section of the frame supported floor slab in shear wall structures:

V[<_l_(O.lj,b[t[) }'RE

1 V[<-(0.6jyA,) }'RE

(0-1 )

(0-2)

where V [-combined design value of shear force in the frame supported slabs transmitted from the shear walls not on the ground to those

on the ground;

hI-width of the frame supported slab;

t r+-thickness of the frame supported slab;

A,......,-gectional area of total reinforcements in the frame supported floor (including beams and slabs), passing through the shear walls on the ground;

}'RE-seismic adjusting coefficient for load capacityj O.Bf may be taken as }'RE.

2. Frame supported floor slab shall be poured in-situ, its thickness should be not less than 180 mm , grade of concrete strength should be not less than C30. Two layers of bi-axial reinforcement shall be placed in the slab, and steel ratio in each direction shall be not less than 0.25 %

3. Boundary beams shall be installed along the edge of the frame supported floor slab and perimeter of the opening. The width of the beam should not be less than 2 times the slab thickness, and longitudinal steel ratio shall be not less than 1 %. Joint of reinforcement in the beam should be welded. Reinforcement in the floor slab shall be anchored in the boundary beams.

4. When the plan dimension of a building is considerably long or irregular in shape, or internal forces of shear walls differ considerably, bending capacity in-plane of the frame supported slab shall be checked also. In checking, interaction of the reinforcement in the tension zone of the floor slab and the reinforcment in the boundary beams may be considered.

109

Appendix E

Adjustment of seismic action effect on transverse planar bent in singlestory factory buildings

E.1 Adjustment of the fundamental natural period

In the calculation of transverse seismic action of the factory building, based on planar bent model, fixing effect of the connection between longitudinal wall, roof truss, and column shall be considered for the fundamental natural period of the bent, which may be adjusted as set forth in the following:

Table E.1 Adjusting Coefficient for Reinforced Concrete Columns (Except Those at the Intersection of the Higher Span and Lower Span), Considering the Effect of Spacial Action and Torsion

Roof lengrhf m)
Type Gable wall
of Roof
';;;30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96
Buildings ..
with equal / / 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.80 0.8 0.80 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.90
Buildings height
with spans.
Rein- gable
forced walls
concreto at both Buildings of
ends
roof unequal / / 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.95 1.00
without height
purlins spans
Buildings with • gable 1.05 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35
wall at one end
Buildings
with equal / / 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.05 1.05 1.10
Buildings height
with spans
Rein- a gable
forced walls
eoncret at both Buildings of
end.
roof unequal / / 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.05 1.05 1.10 1.10 1.15
with heights
purlins spans
Buildings with. gable 1.00 1.05 1. 10 1.10 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.25 1.25
wall a t one end 110

1. For bents composed of reinforced concrete roof truss and reinforced concrete columns or steel columns, 80% of the calculated period value is taken when longitudinal walls exist; while 90 % is taken when no longitudinal walls exist.

2. For bents composed of reinforced concrete roof trussf or composite truss Jand brick columns, 90 % of the calculated period value is taken.

3. For bents composed of wood truss, steel-wood truss or light-weight steel truss and brick columns, the calculated period value is taken ,

I

E.2 Adj usting coefficient considering the spacial action and torsion effect

1. In the adjustment of seismic shear and bending moment on bent columns in a single-story factory building with reinforced concrete roof, fundamental natural period shall be determined as set forth in Article E.l, and shall be in accordance with the following conditions:

(1) For intensity vn or VII;

(2) When ratio of the roof length to the total span of the factory building unit is less than 8, or total span of the factory is greater than 12 rn i

(3) When the thickness of the gable wall or transverse wall is not less than 240 mm (IB), horizontal sectional area of the opening is not more than 50 % of the total sectional area of the wall, and the gable wall is well connected with the roof system. (4) When the height of the column is not greater than 15- m .

Note: O. Roof length refers to the spacing of the gable walls (or transverse walls with a height up to the top of column); if the gable wall (or the transverse walls with a heigt h up to the top of column) only exists at one end, then the distance from the bent under consideration to the gable wall (or the transverse wall wit h a height up to the top of column) shall be taken.

2). In factory buildings with unequal-height spans, in which the height of the higher span differs considerably with that of the lower span, the total span may not include the span of the lower one.

2. Shear force and bending moment on the' bent column shall be multiplied by corresponding adjusting coefficients. and the value of adjusting coefficient for reinforced concrete columns. other than those at the intersection of the higher bay and the lower bay, may be taken in accordance with Table E. 1 ; while those for brick columns in buildings with gable walls at both ends may be taken in accordance with Table E.2.

111

. I

Table E.2 Adjusting Coefficient for Brick Columns Considering the Effect of Spacial Action

Distance between gable walls at both ends (m)
Type of roof
';;;;24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72
Reinforced concrete roof
0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.95 0.95 1.00
without purlins
Reinforced concrete roof
0.75 0.80 0.90 0.95 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.05 1.10
with purlins 3. Seismic shear and bending moment determined by the base shear method for the cross sections of the reinforced concrete column above the bracket ,supporting the roof of the lower span, in the intersection of the higher span and lower span, shall be multiplied by an amplification factor, which may be determined by the following equation:

(E.!)

where

'7-amplification factor of seismic shear and bending moment;

{-spacial action effect coefficient at the intersection of the higher and the lower span i it may be taken in accordance with Tab.E.3;

n h -number of higher spans;

n.-number of spans for calculation iif lower spans only exist on one side, total number of lower spans shall be taken as no; if lower spans exist on both sides, sum of the total number of lower spans and number of higher spans shall be taken;

GEl-the representative value of total gravity load concentrated at the elevation of the roof of the lower spans on one side of the intersection of the higher and lower spans;

GEh-representative value of total gravity load concentrated at the elevation of the column top in the higher span.

E.3 Amplification factor for seismic action effect induced by the crane truss

Seismic shear and bending moment, induced by the crane truss, on the crosssection of upper column at the elevation of the top of the crane beam in single-story factory buildings with reinforced concrete columns shall be multiplied by the amplification factor as set forth in Tab. E. 4, when the simplified method, such as the

112

base shear method, is used.

Table E. 3 Spacial Action Effect Coefficient for the Reinforced Concrete Upper Column in the Intersection of the Higher and the Lower Span

Roof

~36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96

Roof length {m)

Gable wall

Reinforeed

con-

. 06

Type of roof

Reinforced concrete roof without purlins

Reinforced concrete roof with purlins

Building. with . gable walls at

/

hath end.

crete roof without f-:'-=.:-:==-..,....,_+--_L.____,JL___l._-..I._-'-_-L_...L_.L__.L.._.L__

Building. with a

purlins gable wall at

one end

1. 25 .

Buildings with

Reinforced con- gable wall. at . /

crete roof with I--f,bo""tfhi'e",n::d',-::-::;:-,-t_-'-_-L_...L_.L__.L.._L,____,JC__J,_-..I._.....J... __ Building. with a

purlins gable wall at

one end

Table E. 4

1. 05

Amplification Factor for Seismic Shear and Bending Moment Induced by the Crane Truss

Columns in
Exterior Other middle
Gable wall the higher or
columns columns
lower bay
With gable
wall. at both 2. 0 2. 5 3. 0
ends
With gahle
wall at one 1. 5 2. 0 2. 5
end
With gable
walls at both 1. 5 2. 0 2. 5
ends
Wit ga Ie
wall at one 1. 5 2. 0 2. 0
end 113

..

Appendix F

Seismic checking of single-story factory buildings with reinforced concrete columns in the longitudinal direction

F. 1 Fundamental natural period in the longitudinal direction

In the calculation of seismic action on factory buildings with reinforced concrete columns (single span or multi-span of equal height) in the longitudinal direction, based on this Appendix, the fundamental period in this direction may be determined by the following equations, if elevation of the column top is not greater than 15 m and the average span is not greater than 30 m .

1. For factory buildings with brick enclosing walls, it may be calculated according to the following equation:

T, = O. 23 + O. 00025cpllM

(F. 1)

where cpl-roof type coefficient; it may be taken as 1.0 for reinforced concrete roof truss with large-size roof slab, and 0.85 for steel roof truss;

l-span of the factory building (m); the average value of all spans for multi-span factory buildings may be taken ;

H-distance from the top surface of foundation to the top of column (rn}.

2. For open or semi-open factory buildings, or those in which wall panels are flexibly connected with columns, it may be calculated also as set forth in Clause I and multiplied by the following enclosing wall effect coefficient:

</.Iz = 2 . 6 - O. 002l M ( F . 2 )

where cpz- enclosing wall effect coefficient; if it is less than 1. 0, 1. 0 shall be taken as cpz.

F.2 Seismic action on a row of columns

1. In factory buildirigs with a reinforced concrete roof and multi-span of equal height, standard value of seismic action at the elevation of column top for all rows of columns in the longitudinal direction may be determined by the following equations.

F G r:

i = a, <q};K.i (F. 3)

(F. 4)

where Fi-standard value of longitudinal seismic action at the elevation at top of the ith row of columns;

aI-horizontal seismic effect coefficient corresponding to longitudinal fundamental natural period of the factory building; it shall be

114

determined as set forth in Article 4.1.4 .

Geq-representative value of total equivalent gravitional load on row of columns in the building unit; it shall include the representative value of gravity load of the roof, determined as set forth in Article 4.1. 3, 70 % of thc weight of longitudinal walls, 50 % of the weight of transverse walls and gable walls, and the reduced weight of columns (if crane exists, 10% of the column weight is used; if no crane exists, 50% of the column weight is used);

Ki-totallateral drift stiffness of the column top of the ith column row, and it shall include the total sum of drift stiffness of the interior columns in the ith column row and that of the column bracings of the upper and lower columns and the reduced lateral drift stiffness of the longitudinal wall; the reduced coefficient for the lateral drift stiffness of the brick enclosing wall, placed outside of columns, may be taken as 0.2 - 0.6 according to the lateral drift of row of columns;

K.i-adjusted lateral drift stiffness of the column top in the i thcolumn row;

cp3-the enclosing wall effect coefficient for the lateral drift stiffness of row of columns and it may be taken as set forth in Tab. F. 1. For factory buildings with 4 or 5 spans, having longitudinal brick enclosing wall, CP3 of the 3rd row of columns, counted from the exterior row, may be taken as 1. 15 times the corresponding value in Tab. F . 1 ;

cp,- the column bracing effect coefficient for the lateral drift stiffness of row of columns, and may be taken as 1.0 for exterior row of columns, when there is brick enclosing wall in the longitudinal direction, and </.14 of the middle row of columns may be taken as set forth in Tab. F. 2

2. Standard value of longitudinal seismic action at the elevation of top of the crane beam on the row of columns in multi-span factory buildings of equal-height spans with reinforced concrete roof may be determined by the following equation:

H-

r: = a,Gciri: -(F.5)

where Fci-standard value of longitudinal seismic action at the elevation of top of the crane beam on the i th row of columns;

Gci-representative value of equivalent gravity load, concentrated at the elevation of top of the crane beam on the ith row of columns, and it shall include the representative value of gravity load of the crane beam and the suspended items, determined by Article 4.1.3, as well as 40 % of the weight of the column;

115

Hd-the height to the top of crane beam on the ith row of columns; H;- the height to the top of the column in the i th row.

Table F. 1

Enclosing Wall Effect Coefficient

Type of enclosing Row of columns and type of roof
wall and intensity Middle row of columns
Brick wall Brick wall Roof without purlins Roof with purlins
Exterior ro
with a with 8 of columns No skylight in With skylight No skylight in With .kylight
thickness thickness the exterior in the exterior the exterior in the exterior
of 240mm of 370mm span span span span
/ '4 O. 85 1. 7 1. 8 1. 8 1. 9
'4 1I O. 85 1. 5 1. 6 1. 6 1. 7
1I IX o. 85 1. 3 1. 4 1. 4 1. 5
IX / O. 85 1. 2 1. 3 1. 3 1. 4
No enclosing walls,
asbestos tiles or O. 90 1. 1 1. 1 1. 2 1. 2
sheathings Table F. 2

Bracing Effect Coefficient for the Middle Row of Columns in Factory Buildings with Longitudhial Brick Enclosing Wall

Number of bays of column with bracing installed in the lower part of columns in the building unit

1. 10

";;;40 41-80 81-120 121-150 >150

1. 40

Slenderness ratio of the diagonal brace between the lower part of columns in the middle row of columns

No bracing in the middle row of columns

One-column bay

O. 90

1.00

1. 10

1. 25

O. 95

/

/

Two-column bay

O. 90

O. 95

F.3 Seismic action effect on column bracing and its checking

1. Horizontal displacement of the column bracing. the slenderness ratio of the diagonal member of which is not greater than 200. under the action of a unit lateral force may be determined by the following equation:

1

u = 2 1 + c/J; u ,; ( F. 6 )

where u -displacement at the applied point of a unit lateral force;

116

c/J;-stability coefficient for axial compression on a diagonal member in the i th panel. it shall be taken as set forth in thecurrent national standard. "Design Code for Steel Structures" ;

un-relative displacement of the i th panel under the action of a unit lateral force. considering only when the load is subjected by the tie member.

2. Cross section of a diagonal member with a slenderness ratio not greater than 200 may be checked only for tension. but the unloading effect of the compression member shall be considered. and the tension may be determined by the following equation:

where

i,

N,= ' Vbi

(1 + cpcCPi)sc

N,-design value of axial tension in the checking of tension strength for the diagonal member of the bracing in the i th .panel ;

(F. 7)

[i-total length of the inclined brace in the i th panel;

c/J,-unloading coefficient for compression members; it may be taken as 0.7. 0.6 or 0.5 when the slenderness ratio of the member is 60. 100 and 200 respectively;

Vb;-design value of seismic shear subjected by the bracing in the ith panel;

s,-clear distance between columns where the bracing is located.

3. For the longitudinal column row without wall laid closely outside the columns. bracing between the upper columns and bracing between the lower columns in the same column row should be designed with the same lateral load capacity.

F.4 Seismic checking of the anchor bar in the built-in plate at a joint

The cross section area of the anchor bar in the built-in plate at the end joint of column bracing may be taken as 1.25 times the value obtained from checking by the following expressions:

A ::::;,YREN .::-- I,

1 cP = -::-:::--

1+0.6eo

I ~,s

~m=0.6+0.25t/d

~v = (4 - 0.08d)jf;

(F.8)

(F.9)

(F.10) (F.Il)

where

A.-total sectional area of anchor bars;

117

II

YRE-seismic adjusting coefficient of load capacity, it may be taken as 1. 0;

N -diagonal tension of the built-in plate, it may be taken as 1. 05 times the axial force of the diagonal member of the bracing, calculated according to the yielding strength of the whole cross section;

e.-eccentric distance between the diagonal tension and the resultant action line of anchor bars; it shall be less than 20 % of the distance between anchor bars in the outer rows;

8-angle between the diagonal tension and its horizontal projection; cp-eccentric effect coefficient;

s -distance between anchor bars of the outer rows (rnm}:

~ m -bending deformation effect coefficient of the built-in plate; t-thickness of the built-in plate (rnrn};

d -diameter of the anchor bar (rnm};

~,--effect coefficient of the number of rows of anchor bars in the checking direction; 1.0, 0.9 or 0.85 may be taken as ~r for the 2nd, 3rd or 4th rows of anchor bars respectively;

~y-shear effect coefficient for anchor bars; if it is greater than 0.7, then 0.7 shall be taken.

118

Appendix G

Explanation of words in this code

1. The following verbal forms are used to indicate different requirements to be followed in the implementation of the code.

(1) Verbal forms used to indicate requirements most strictly and unavoidably to be followed:

"must", in affirmative form; "strictly prohibited", in negative form.

(2) Verbal forms used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed, or to be followed in normal condition:

"shall", in affirmative form; "shall not" in negative form

(3) Verbal forms used to indicate that among several possibilities one IS recommended to be selected, and to be selected at first when it is allowable:

"should" or "may" in affirmative form; "should not" or "need not" In negative form.

2. When provisions are strictly to be followed in accordance with specified standard, code or other related regulations, it shall be written as ; "shall be-: "'in accordance with-: ",.. or "shall comply with requirements as set forth in ,', ... ". As for provisions not strictly to be followed in accordance with specified standard, code or other related regulations. it shall be written as: "refer to-: .....

-

Additional Notes

Editor in chief, list of participating organizations and chief members in

drafting this code:

Editor in Chief: China Academy of Building Research Participating organizations in the drafting of this code:

Institute of Engineering Mechanics OEM). State Seismology Bureau Beijing Municipal Building Design Institute

General Design and Research Institute. Ministry of Mechanical and Electronic

Industry

China Northwest Building Design Institute Tongji University

Northwest Electric Power Design Institute. Ministry of Energy Source Professional Design Institute. Ministry of Railway

Academy of Building Research •. Ministry of Metallurgical Industry No.6 Design Institute. Ministry of Mechanical and Electronic Industry Harbin Building Engineering Institute

Shanghai Institute of Building Material Industry Sichuan Provincial Academy of Building Research Beijing Municipal Institute of Reconnaissance Tianjin Municipal Institute of Building Design

Beijing General Design Institute of Steel and Iron Industry China Southwest Institute of Building Design

Xian Institute of Metallurgical Industry Buildings

No.2 Design Institute. Ministry of Mechanical and Electroinc Industry No.7 Design Institute. Ministry of Mechanical and Electronic Industry Taiyuan University of Technology

Chinese Overseas University

Qinghua University

Academy of Railway Engineering. Ministry of Railway Liaoning Provincial Institute of Building Research Dalian University of Technology

Coal Industry Planning Design Institute. Ministry of Energy Sources No.4 Planning and Design Institute. Ministry of Aerospace Industry

120

Chief members in the drafting:

Gong Siti Wei Lian Xie lunfei Zhou Bingzhang Hu Qingchang
Qiu Minchuan Yin Zhiqian Zhou Xiyuan Wu Mingshun Zhong Yicun
Liu Dahai Dai Guoying Wang Guangjun Huang Cunhan Li Shushen
Liu Huishan Dong lincheng Liu Ji Qiao Tianmin Wen Liangmo
Song Shaoxian Xu Shanfan Bai Aodong Liu Muzhong Tong Y uesheng
Shi Yaoxin Shen Iumin Yu Andong Ren Xijing Zeng Xiangfu
Qin Quan Chen Linshu Translated by: Lu Rongjian Checked by: Ye Yaoxian

121 ,

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• ~tiUli:i:tt~1i1, ~)c/.i:i:'$w,l'fE~lilijtM. -~tJl!:: fli1lt:W-tIlJli*i. 1994. 11

ISBN 7-80005-259-1

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I. 1!Jj.-~iHIJi:i:it, .~i:i:tt-tIHt~1i1-~)c N. TU234-65

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Ji1it Jl.IlUlm iii JVi~:ff (:ltl!:aJi IE. 241})

~t;t(*~""lJIJnPIJll 1994 4' (~)t) ~-JVi ISBN 7-80005-259-1/T • 001 15000

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