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PEME 1030 Engineering Sciences 1
Mass Balances I
Professor M. Ghadiri
Institute of Particle Science and Engineering
School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering
2
Objectives:
• To provide a thorough understanding
of the concepts and techniques for
performing mass balance calculations.
• To provide a basis for all level 2
engineering modules.
3
Outcome:
• Understand concepts and methodology for
performing mass balance calculations.
• Be able to write and solve mass balance
equations for processes (with and ) without
chemical reactions.
• Be able to apply mass balances to
engineering processes.
4
Overview:
Basic texts:
• R.M. Felder & R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes, John Wiley & Sons.
• D.M. Himmelblau & J.B. Riggs, Basic Principles and
Calculations in Chemical Engineering, Prentice Hall.
5
What are Mass and Energy Balances?
Engineers deal with
¹
various types of plants
(design, operation and control)
 A plant consists of a sequence of processes/operations
suitable for generating power, converting raw materials into
finished products or processing/conditioning materials.
 Mass and Energy Balances are basically calculations of the
mass and energy flows entering or leaving
processes/operations in a plant.
 These calculations form the foundation part of plant design
and are extremely important.
6
7
Principles of Mass and Energy Balances
•Law of Conservation of Mass
•Law of Conservation of Energy
•Example: A Chemical Plant Flowsheet 
Manufacture of Formaldehyde (20
tonnes per day)
8
9
10
Units and Dimensions
Dimensions
A dimension is a property
that can be measured, such as length (L), mass
(M), time (t) or temperature (T)  [fundamental
dimensions]
or
calculated by multiplying or dividing other
dimensions, such as
t
L
time
distance
Velocity = =
3 3
L Length Volume = =
3
L
M
volume
mass
Density = =
11
Units
• are scales used to quantify dimensions;
• are specific values of dimensions defined by law
or custom;
• can be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided.
Basic Units
Units for the dimensions of length, mass, time,
absolute temperature, electric current, luminous
intensity,
Multiples Units
multiples or fractions of the basic units
(used for convenience e.g. years instead of
seconds, kilometers instead of meters, etc.)
12
Derived Units
a) obtained by multiplying and dividing base or
multiple units (referred to as compound units), e.g.
m
2
, ft/min, kg/ms
or
b) defined as equivalents of compound units
e.g. 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm ft/s
2
.
Systems of Units
•SI (Systeme Internationale, mks)  the "metric"
system commonly used in Europe
•Engineering (American, English, fps)
13
14
Dimensionless Quantities and Groups
A dimensionless quantity can be
• a pure number e.g. 1, 20.3, or
• a combination of variables with no net
dimensions.
e.g. the Reynolds number for pipe flow in fluid
dynamics is defined as,
Re = (length)(length/time)(mass/ length
3
)
(length x time/mass)
this is known as a dimensionless group.
15
• In engineering one will come across many
dimensionless groups.
• It is important to note that the numerical
value for a dimensionless group is
independent of the units chosen for the
primary quantities, provided the units are
consistent.
• Dimensional Homogeneity  every valid
equation must be "dimensionally
homogeneous"  all additive terms must
have the same dimension.
16
Converting Units
• To convert a quantity in terms of one unit to an
equivalent in new units, multiply by a "conversion
factor"  a ratio of equivalent quantities
• Tables of conversion factors have been compiled.
• These are easy to use, as long one remembers
that only like units cancel out when divided, unlike
units do not.
• The technique is simply to arrange the conversion
factors such that the unwanted units cancel out.
17
18
Example 1: Convert 20,000 Btu/hr into kW
From the conversion tables,
1 Btu = 1.055 kJ
1 hr = 3600 s
kW
s
kJ
s
hr
Btu
kJ
hr
Btu
hr
Btu
861 . 5 861 . 5
3600
1
055 . 1 20000 20000 = = × × =
19
Example 2: Convert 23 lbm.ft/min
2
to kg.m/s
2
From the conversion tables,
1 lbm = 0.454 kg
1 min = 60 s
1 ft = 0.3048m
2
4
2 2
m
2
m
2
m
s m kg 10 8 8
s 60
1
ft
m
3048 0
lb
kg
454 0
ft lb
23
ft lb
23 . .
min
. .
min
.
min
.
÷
× =

.

\


.

\

× × × =
With practice it is not necessary to write down the
units, and only the numerical conversion factors
are required.
20
Process Variables
• The quantities used to describe a process are
called process variables.
• To design or analyze a process, we need to
know the amounts, compositions, and condition
of materials entering, leaving, and within the
process.
• The process variables of interest to chemical
engineers are:
• Mass and Volume
• Composition
• Pressure
• Temperature
21
Mass and Volume (Density and Specific Volume)
• The density of a substance is the mass per
unit volume of the substance (kg/m
3
, g/cm
3
,
lb/ft
3
, etc).
Density =
Mass
Volume
• The specific volume of a substance is the
volume per unit mass, the reciprocal of the
density.
• The specific gravity(SG) of a substance is the
ratio of the density of the substance to the density
of a reference substance at a specific condition.
SG
substance
ref
=
p
p
22
Example
65 m
3
/h of liquid benzene (C
6
H
6
) is entering
a reactor.
• a) What is the mass flow rate of this
stream in kg/h?
• b) What is the molar flow rate in mol/h?
Mw=78.11 g/,mol
Density=0.879 g/mL
23
Flow Rates
• The rate at which a material is transported
through a process is the flow rate of that
material.
• The flow rate of a process stream may be
expressed as a
mass flow rate, mass per time (kg/s) or
volumetric flow rate, volume per time (m3/s) or
molar flow rate, moles per time (moles/s)
• The mass and volume flow rates are related
through the fluid density: p =m/V
24
Composition
Moles
A grammole (mol, gmol) is the amount of a
species whose mass in grams is numerically
the same as its molecular weight.
Carbon Dioxide has a molecular weight of 44, so
1 mol of CO
2
contains 44 grams.
This means one can use the molecular weight as
a conversion factor for going from mass to
moles.
No.of mols
Mass ingrams
Mol.Wt.
g =
25
We also use kilogram moles (kgmol) and pound
moles (lbmol, mole). These are defined the same
way but using different mass units. 1 lbmol of CO2
contains 44 lbs.
We use the same conversion factors for moles as
for converting mass units (454 gmole = 1 lbmole,
etc.).
26
Mass and Mole Fractions and Ratios
Weight basis
• The weight (or mass) fraction of a
component is the weight of that component
expressed as a fraction of the total weight of
the mixture.
• Weight fractions always total 1.0.
• The weight percent of a component is its
weight fraction × 100.
• Weight percentages always total 100%, and
are often denoted by the symbol %w/w.
• The weight ratio of one component to
another is the ratio of the weights of the two
components.
27
Consider a mixture of 720 kg of water, 92
kg ethanol and 60 kg acetic acid.
Wt(kg) Weight
frac.
%w/w Wt. ratio
Water 720 0.8257 82.57 12.00
Ethanol 92 0.1055 10.55 1.533
Acetic
acid
60 0.0688 6.88 1.00
Total 872 1.000 100.0 
28
Volume basis
Wt
(kg)
Density
(kg/m
3
)
Volume
(m
3
)
Volume
fraction
%v/v Volume
ratio
Water 720 1000 0.72 0.8055 80.55 12.59
Ethanol 92 789 0.1166 0.1305 13.05 2.039
Acetic
acid
60 1049 0.0572 0.0640 6.40 1.00
Total 872  0.8938 1.000 100.0 
29
Volume basis
Wt
(kg)
Density
(kg/m
3
)
Volume
(m
3
)
Volume
fraction
%v/v Volume
ratio
Water 720 1000 0.72 0.8055 80.55 12.59
Ethanol 92 789 0.1166 0.1305 13.05 2.039
Acetic
acid
60 1049 0.0572 0.0640 6.40 1.00
Total 872  0.8938 1.000 100.0 
30
Molar basis
Wt
(kg)
Mol. wt. No. of
kmols
Mol
fraction
Mol % Mol
ratio
Water 720 18 40 0.9302 93.02 40
Ethanol 92 46 2 0.0465 4.65 2.0
Acetic
acid
60 60 1 0.0233 2.33 1.0
Total 872  43 1.000 100.0 
31
Example
A mixture of gases has the following
composition by mass:
O
2
: 16%; CO: 4%; CO
2
: 17%; N
2
: 63%
What is the molar composition?
32
The Average Molecular Weight
i i
M y M
¯
=
¯
=
i
i
M
x
M
1
Where y
i
is the mol fraction and x
i
is the mass
fraction and Mi is the molecular weight of the i
th
component.
33
Example
Calculate the average molecular
weight of air.
34
Example: Conversion between flow rates
A 0.50 molar aqueous solution of
sulfuric acid flows into a process unit
at a rate of 1.25 m
3
/min. The specific
gravity of the solution is 1.03.
Calculate (i) the mass concentartion
of sulfuric acid; (ii) its mass flow rate;
(iii) its mass fraction.
35
Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
The air above the earth‟s surface exerts a
hydrostatic pressure on the surface. This is
“atmospheric pressure” which varies according to
the height of the column.
At sea level the pressure is
1atm 14.70
lb
in
f
2
=
= 760 mm Hg = 101.325
kPa
This value is called the “standard atmosphere”
and is used as a unit of pressure measurement.
36
Pressure Scales
Pressures can be expressed by either absolute
or relative scales.
The absolute scale uses zero as the reference
point and the pressure measured is known as
the absolute pressure.
The relative scale measures the pressure against
the atmospheric pressure taken as the
reference point and the pressure is called the
gauge pressure.
The absolute and relative pressures are related
as:
absolute pressure = gauge pressure +
atmospheric pressure
37
Absolute pressure is denoted either by the letters
„abs‟ or by the letter „a‟.
For example, 14.7 psi absolute is written as 14.7
psia, 1000 mm Hg absolute is written as 1000
mm Hg(abs).
Gauge pressures are denoted either by the word
„gauge‟ or by the letter „g‟.
Therefore 250 psi gauge may also be written as
250 psig.
Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called
“vacuum pressures”.
Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure 
Absolute pressure
Vacuum pressures are usually denoted by the
letters „vac‟
38
Pressure Conversion
Air is flowing through a duct under a draft
of 40 mm water. The barometer indicates
that the atmospheric pressure is 730 mm
Hg. What is the absolute pressure of the
gas?
39
Pressure Differences
In measuring the flow of fluids in a
pipeline, a differential manometer is used
to determine the pressure difference
across an orifice plate. The flow rate can
be calibrated with the observed pressure
drop. Calculate the pressure drop across
the orifice.
40
Temperature
The temperature of a substance in a particular
state (solid, liquid or gas) is a measure of the
average kinetic energy possessed by the
substance molecules.
In more simpler terms, one can say the
temperature indicates the ‘hotness’ of a
substance.
Temperature Scales
A defined temperature scale is obtained by
arbitrarily assigning numerical values to two
reproducibly measurable temperatures. For
example, the freezing and boiling point of water at
a pressure of 1 atm.
41
Summary of Temperature Scales
The
Celsius
(C)
Scale
The
Kelvin
(K)
Scale
The
Fahrenheit
(F)
Scale
The
Rankine
(R) Scale
o
C K
o
F R
Boiling point of
water
100 373 212 672
Freezing point
of water
0 273 32 492
Absolute zero 273 0 460 0
42
Temperature Conversions
( ) ( ) 273 + = C T K T
o
( ) ( )
T R T F
o o
= + 460
( ) ( )
T F T C
o o
= + 18 32 .
( ) ( )
( )
T C T F
o o
= ÷ 32 18 .
43
Conversion of Temperature Intervals
A degree is both a temperature and a temperature interval.
An interval of 1 Celsius or Kelvin degree therefore contains
1.8 Fahrenheit or Rankine degrees, leading to the
conversion factors:
1.8°F/1°C, 1.8°R/1 K, 1°F/1°R, 1°C/1 K
44
Temperature Conversion
Consider the interval from 20 ˚F to 80 ˚F.
1. Calculate the equivalent temperatures in
˚C and the interval between them.
2. Calculate directly the interval in ˚C.
45
Temperature Conversion and
Dimensional Homogeneity
The heat capacity of ammonia, defined as the amount
of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit
mass of ammonia by 1˚ at constant pressure, is, over
a limited range of temperatures, given by the
expression:
( ) F T 10 2.29 0.487
F lb
Btu
C
4 
m
p
° × + =


.

\

°
Determine the expression for C
p
in (J g
1
˚C
1
) in terms
of T (˚C).
46
Ideal Gas Mixtures
Consider a mixture of gases occupying a
volume V at a temperature T and total
pressure P. Suppose the mixture consists
of n
A
, n
B
, n
C
,.... moles of gases A, B, C,....
• From the ideal gas law
( )
PV n n n ... RT
A B C
= + + +
(The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures 
Dalton’s Law)
47
Values of the Gas Constant, R
Values used for the universal gas constant with different units
are given below.
8.314 m
3
.Pa/mol.K 62.36 litre.mm Hg/mol.K 8.314 J/mol.K
0.08314 litre.bar/mol.K 0.7302 ft
3
.atm/lb mol.
o
R 1.987 cal/mol.K
0.08206 litre.atm/mol.K 10.73 psia. ft3/lb mol.
o
R 1.987 Btu/lb mol.
o
R
48
Combustion gases having the following molar
composition are passed into an evaporator at a
temperature of 200 ˚C and a pressure of 743 mm Hg:
N
2
: 79.2%; O
2
: 7.2%; CO
2
: 13.6%.
Water is evaporated, the gases leaving at a
temperature of 85 ˚C and a pressure of 740 mm Hg
with the following molar composition:
N2: 48.3%; O2: 4.4%; CO
2
: 8.3%; H
2
O: 39.0%.
Calculate:
(a) Volume of gases leaving the evaporator per 100
m
3
entering.
(b) mass of water evaporated per 100 m
3
of gas
entering.
49
Typical Exam Question
A fully sealed 50 m
3
room at atmospheric pressure
and 20°C contains two balloons, one containing
helium and the other containing oxygen. The
balloons have each a volume of 0.5 m
3
and have
a gauge pressure of 2 m of water. The balloons
are ruptured and helium and oxygen get mixed
with air in the room.
Determine the mass and mol fractions of the
gaseous species in the room, assuming that air
contains 79% N
2
and 21% O
2
by volume and the
atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.
The Universal Gas Constant is 8.314 m
3
Pa
mol
1 ÷
K
1 ÷
.
Atomic molar mass of He is 4 g/mol.
50
Material Balance
• The General Material Balance Equation
A material balance is nothing more than an
accounting for material flows and changes in
inventory of material for a system. A balance (or
inventory) on a material in a system (a single
process unit, a collection of units, or an entire
process) may be written in the following general
way for any process/system under consideration
(see Figure 1):
51
Input Generation Output Consumption Accumulation
through + within  through  within = within (1)
the system the system the system the system the system
boundaries boundaries
52
The general balance equation may be written for any
material that enters or leaves any process system; it can
be applied to the total mass of this material or to any
molecular or atomic species involved in the process.
Equation 1 may be applied in different ways according to
the precise definition of 'material' and the way in which
the process is operated.
53
If the balance is applied to the total mass or to the mass of an element entering and
leaving the system, the generation and consumption terms are zero (excluding
nuclear reactions) and the equation becomes
total mass  total mass = accumulation
in out of mass (2)
or
mass of  mass of = accumulation of mass
element i in element i out of element i (3)
When considering quantities (mass or number of moles) of individual molecular
species, material may be produced or consumed by chemical reaction. In the
absence of chemical reactions equations like 2 apply also to the total number of
moles of each molecular species.
54
Processes may be classified as continuous or
batch. Most processes operate with a
continuous feed and form product
continuously. In a batch process, materials
are charged to a vessel and products
withdrawn when the reaction is complete.
Batch operation is usually used for low
volume products, e.g. manufacture of
pharmaceuticals
55
The material balance equation for a batch process must
necessarily include an accumulation term. Continuous
processes are often assumed to operate at steady
state, i.e. process variables such as flows do not
change with time. There is therefore no accumulation
and the general balance equation becomes
rate of input + rate of generation =
rate of output + rate of consumption (4)
or, for the total mass,
mass flow in = mass flow out (5)
Alternatively, when considering the operation of a
continuous steadystate process for a fixed period of
time, each of the terms in equation 4 may be expressed
simply as a mass or number of moles. Equation 2 thus
becomes
total mass in = total mass out
56
The Black Box Concept
Frequently, the engineers have to analyse complex
process flow diagrams. As an example: Figure 2.
The large scale complex problems can be broken to
simpler subproblems for writing balances using the black
box concept. For instance, we can place a black box
around all or any portion of this process and make our
balance. We do not care what happens inside the box,
only what is transferred across the box’s boundaries. If
we are interested in the total process, the box would look
like as in Figure 3. We could place a box around the
intersection of streams A, B, and recycle (Figure 4).
Similarly we can place boxes around the reactor or
absorber.
57
Material Balance Techniques
It is usually helpful to follow a systematic
procedure when tackling material balance
problems. One possibility is outlined below.
1. Draw and label the process flowsheet
organize information into an easy to understand
form. If possible show problem specifications on
the flowsheet. Label unknowns with algebraic
symbols.
2. Select a basis for the calculation the basis is
an amount or flowrate of a particular stream or
component in a stream. Other quantities are
determined in terms of the basis. It is usually most
convenient to choose an amount of feed to the
process as a basis. Molar units are preferable if
chemical reactions occur, otherwise the units in
the problem statement (mass or molar) are
probably best.
58
3. Convert units/amounts as necessary to be
consistent with the basis.
4. Write material balance equations for each
unit in the process or for the overall process. In
the absence of chemical reactions the number of
independent equations for each balance is equal
to the number of components.
5. Solve equations for unknown quantities. This
can be difficult, particularly if nonlinear equations
are involved. Overall balances usually give
simpler equations. For complex flowsheets
computer methods offer, the only practical
solution.
6. Scale the results if the basis selected is not
one of the flowrates in the problem specification
the results must be scaled appropriately.
Objectives:
• To provide a thorough understanding of the concepts and techniques for performing mass balance calculations. • To provide a basis for all level 2 engineering modules.
2
Outcome:
• Understand concepts and methodology for performing mass balance calculations. • Be able to write and solve mass balance equations for processes (with and ) without chemical reactions. • Be able to apply mass engineering processes. balances to
3
Overview:
Basic texts: • R.M. Felder & R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, John Wiley & Sons. • D.M. Himmelblau & J.B. Riggs, Basic Principles Calculations in Chemical Engineering, Prentice Hall. and
4
What are Mass and Energy Balances?
Engineers deal with various types of plants (design, operation and control) A plant consists of a sequence of processes/operations suitable for generating power, converting raw materials into finished products or processing/conditioning materials. Mass and Energy Balances are basically calculations of the mass and energy flows entering or leaving processes/operations in a plant. These calculations form the foundation part of plant design and are extremely important.
5
6 .
Principles of Mass and Energy Balances •Law of Conservation of Mass •Law of Conservation of Energy •Example: A Chemical Plant Flowsheet Manufacture of Formaldehyde (20 7 tonnes per day) .
8 .
9 .
such as mass M distance L Density 3 Velocity volume L time t Volume Length L 3 3 10 . time (t) or temperature (T) . such as length (L). mass (M).Units and Dimensions Dimensions A dimension is a property that can be measured.[fundamental dimensions] or calculated by multiplying or dividing other dimensions.
Basic Units Units for the dimensions of length. subtracted.g. • can be added. years instead of seconds.Units • are scales used to quantify dimensions. luminous intensity. electric current. etc. time. absolute temperature. • are specific values of dimensions defined by law or custom. mass. Multiples Units multiples or fractions of the basic units (used for convenience e. kilometers instead of meters. multiplied or divided.) 11 .
mks) .g.174 lbm ft/s2. m2. e. 1 lbf = 32.Derived Units a) obtained by multiplying and dividing base or multiple units (referred to as compound units).g. ft/min. English. fps) 12 . kg/ms or b) defined as equivalents of compound units e. Systems of Units •SI (Systeme Internationale.the "metric" system commonly used in Europe •Engineering (American.
13 .
14 . the Reynolds number for pipe flow in fluid dynamics is defined as. 20. 1.g. e. or • a combination of variables with no net dimensions.3.g.Dimensionless Quantities and Groups A dimensionless quantity can be • a pure number e. Re = (length)(length/time)(mass/ length3) (length x time/mass) this is known as a dimensionless group.
15 . • It is important to note that the numerical value for a dimensionless group is independent of the units chosen for the primary quantities. • Dimensional Homogeneity .every valid equation must be "dimensionally homogeneous" .• In engineering one will come across many dimensionless groups. provided the units are consistent.all additive terms must have the same dimension.
• These are easy to use. 16 . • The technique is simply to arrange the conversion factors such that the unwanted units cancel out.a ratio of equivalent quantities • Tables of conversion factors have been compiled.Converting Units • To convert a quantity in terms of one unit to an equivalent in new units. multiply by a "conversion factor" . unlike units do not. as long one remembers that only like units cancel out when divided.
17 .
Example 1: Convert 20.861kW hr hr Btu 3600 s s 18 .055 kJ 1 hr = 3600 s Btu Btu kJ 1 hr kJ 20000 20000 1. 1 Btu = 1.055 5.861 5.000 Btu/hr into kW From the conversion tables.
m/s2 From the conversion tables.3048m lbm .Example 2: Convert 23 lbm.3048 2 2 min min lbm ft 60 2 min 2 4 8.454 0. . 1 lbm = 0.ft kg m 1 23 23 0.8 10 kg.ft/min2 to kg.454 kg 1 min = 60 s 1 ft = 0. and only the numerical conversion factors 19 are required.m s s 2 With practice it is not necessary to write down the units.ft lbm .
• The process variables of interest to chemical engineers are: • Mass and Volume • Composition • Pressure • Temperature 20 . compositions. leaving. and within the process. • To design or analyze a process. and condition of materials entering. we need to know the amounts.Process Variables • The quantities used to describe a process are called process variables.
Mass Density Volume • The specific volume of a substance is the volume per unit mass. • The specific gravity(SG) of a substance is the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of a reference substance at a specific condition.Mass and Volume (Density and Specific Volume) • The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of the substance (kg/m3. substance SG 21 ref . lb/ft3. g/cm3. etc). the reciprocal of the density.
11 g/.879 g/mL 22 . • a) What is the mass flow rate of this stream in kg/h? • b) What is the molar flow rate in mol/h? Mw=78.mol Density=0.Example 65 m3/h of liquid benzene (C6H6) is entering a reactor.
Flow Rates • The rate at which a material is transported through a process is the flow rate of that material. • The flow rate of a process stream may be expressed as a mass flow rate. volume per time (m3/s) or molar flow rate. moles per time (moles/s) • The mass and volume flow rates are related through the fluid density: =m/V 23 . mass per time (kg/s) or volumetric flow rate.
Composition Moles A grammole (mol. Mass in grams No. This means one can use the molecular weight as a conversion factor for going from mass to moles.Wt. Carbon Dioxide has a molecular weight of 44.of gmols Mol. 24 . gmol) is the amount of a species whose mass in grams is numerically the same as its molecular weight. so 1 mol of CO2 contains 44 grams.
These are defined the same way but using different mass units.We also use kilogram. mole). etc. We use the same conversion factors for moles as for converting mass units (454 gmole = 1 lbmole.). 25 .moles (kgmol) and poundmoles (lbmol. 1 lbmol of CO2 contains 44 lbs.
and are often denoted by the symbol %w/w.0. • Weight fractions always total 1.Mass and Mole Fractions and Ratios Weight basis • The weight (or mass) fraction of a component is the weight of that component expressed as a fraction of the total weight of the mixture. • The weight percent of a component is its weight fraction 100. • The weight ratio of one component to another is the ratio of the weights of the two 26 components. . • Weight percentages always total 100%.
00 1.1055 0.533 1.55 6. Wt(kg) Water Ethanol Acetic acid Total 720 92 60 872 Weight frac. ratio 12.000 %w/w 82.57 10. 92 kg ethanol and 60 kg acetic acid.00 27 .8257 0.0 Wt.0688 1. 0.Consider a mixture of 720 kg of water.88 100.
0572 0.1305 1049 0.0 Volume ratio 12.8055 789 0.8938 1.40 100.00  28 .039 1.55 13.05 6.59 2.000 %v/v 80.72 0.Volume basis Water Ethanol Acetic acid Total Wt (kg) 720 92 60 872 Density Volume Volume (kg/m3) (m3) fraction 1000 0.1166 0.0640 0.
0572 0.72 0.8938 1.1305 1049 0.05 6.000 %v/v 80.00  29 .1166 0.40 100.55 13.8055 789 0.Volume basis Water Ethanol Acetic acid Total Wt (kg) 720 92 60 872 Density Volume Volume (kg/m3) (m3) fraction 1000 0.0640 0.0 Volume ratio 12.039 1.59 2.
33 100. wt. of kmols 40 2 1 43 Mol fraction 0.0233 1.0 Mol ratio 40 2.02 4. 18 46 60 No.Molar basis Wt (kg) 720 92 60 872 Mol.0  Water Ethanol Acetic acid Total 30 .65 2.0465 0.9302 0.000 Mol % 93.0 1.
Example A mixture of gases has the following composition by mass: O2: 16%. N2: 63% What is the molar composition? 31 . CO: 4%. CO2: 17%.
The Average Molecular Weight M yi M i xi 1 M Mi Where yi is the mol fraction and xi is the mass fraction and Mi is the molecular weight of the ith component. 32 .
Example Calculate the average molecular weight of air. 33 .
(iii) its mass fraction.03.25 m3/min. 34 .50 molar aqueous solution of sulfuric acid flows into a process unit at a rate of 1.Example: Conversion between flow rates A 0. Calculate (i) the mass concentartion of sulfuric acid. (ii) its mass flow rate. The specific gravity of the solution is 1.
325 kPa This value is called the “standard atmosphere” and is used as a unit of pressure measurement. 35 . This is “atmospheric pressure” which varies according to the height of the column. At sea level the pressure is lb f 1atm 14.Pressure Atmospheric Pressure The air above the earth‟s surface exerts a hydrostatic pressure on the surface.70 2 in = 760 mm Hg = 101.
The relative scale measures the pressure against the atmospheric pressure taken as the reference point and the pressure is called the gauge pressure.Pressure Scales Pressures can be expressed by either absolute or relative scales. The absolute and relative pressures are related as: absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure gauge pressure + 36 . The absolute scale uses zero as the reference point and the pressure measured is known as the absolute pressure.
1000 mm Hg absolute is written as 1000 mm Hg(abs).7 psia. Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure Vacuum pressures are usually denoted by the letters „vac‟ 37 . For example. Gauge pressures are denoted either by the word „gauge‟ or by the letter „g‟. Therefore 250 psi gauge may also be written as 250 psig. 14. Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called “vacuum pressures”.7 psi absolute is written as 14.Absolute pressure is denoted either by the letters „abs‟ or by the letter „a‟.
What is the absolute pressure of the gas? 38 . The barometer indicates that the atmospheric pressure is 730 mm Hg.Pressure Conversion Air is flowing through a duct under a draft of 40 mm water.
Calculate the pressure drop across the orifice. 39 .Pressure Differences In measuring the flow of fluids in a pipeline. The flow rate can be calibrated with the observed pressure drop. a differential manometer is used to determine the pressure difference across an orifice plate.
Temperature The temperature of a substance in a particular state (solid. 40 . one can say the temperature indicates the ‘hotness’ of a substance. In more simpler terms. For example. Temperature Scales A defined temperature scale is obtained by arbitrarily assigning numerical values to two reproducibly measurable temperatures. liquid or gas) is a measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by the substance molecules. the freezing and boiling point of water at a pressure of 1 atm.
Summary of Temperature Scales The Celsius (C) Scale o C 100 0 273 The The The Kelvin Fahrenheit Rankine (K) (F) (R) Scale Scale Scale o K F R 373 212 672 273 0 32 460 492 0 41 Boiling point of water Freezing point of water Absolute zero .
T C T F 32 18 .Temperature Conversions T K T oC 273 o o o o T R T F 460 T F 18T C 32 . o o 42 .
8°F/1°C. 1°C/1 K 43 . An interval of 1 Celsius or Kelvin degree therefore contains 1. 1°F/1°R. leading to the conversion factors: 1. 1.Conversion of Temperature Intervals A degree is both a temperature and a temperature interval.8°R/1 K.8 Fahrenheit or Rankine degrees.
Temperature Conversion Consider the interval from 20 ˚F to 80 ˚F. 1. 2. Calculate directly the interval in ˚C. Calculate the equivalent temperatures in ˚C and the interval between them. 44 .
defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of ammonia by 1˚ at constant pressure.4 T F Determine the expression for Cp in (J g1 ˚C1) in terms of T (˚C). given by the expression: Btu Cp lb F m 0. over a limited range of temperatures.487 2.Temperature Conversion and Dimensional Homogeneity The heat capacity of ammonia. is.29 10 . 45 .
Ideal Gas Mixtures Consider a mixture of gases occupying a volume V at a temperature T and total pressure P.. nB. B.. • From the ideal gas law PV n A n B n C .. Suppose the mixture consists of nA....... moles of gases A. C.. nC.RT (The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures 46 Dalton’s Law) .
ft3/lb mol.mm Hg/mol.atm/mol.7302 ft3.Pa/mol.987 Btu/lb mol. 8.314 J/mol.08206 litre.K 0.oR 1. R Values used for the universal gas constant with different units are given below.K 8.K 0.oR 1.atm/lb mol.oR 47 .K 10.73 psia.08314 litre.K 62.36 litre.K 0.987 cal/mol.bar/mol.Values of the Gas Constant.314 m3.
6%.2%. the gases leaving at a temperature of 85 ˚C and a pressure of 740 mm Hg with the following molar composition: N2: 48.3%.4%. CO2: 13.2%. Calculate: (a) Volume of gases leaving the evaporator per 100 m3 entering. H2O: 39.3%. (b) mass of water evaporated per 100 m3 of gas entering. Water is evaporated.Combustion gases having the following molar composition are passed into an evaporator at a temperature of 200 ˚C and a pressure of 743 mm Hg: N2: 79. CO2: 8.0%. O2: 4. O2: 7. 48 .
Determine the mass and mol fractions of the gaseous species in the room. one containing helium and the other containing oxygen.5 m3 and have a gauge pressure of 2 m of water.Typical Exam Question A fully sealed 50 m3 room at atmospheric pressure and 20°C contains two balloons. The balloons are ruptured and helium and oxygen get mixed with air in the room. . assuming that air contains 79% N and 21% O by volume and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.314 m Pa mol K . The balloons have each a volume of 0. 3 1 1 49 Atomic molar mass of He is 4 g/mol. 2 2 The Universal Gas Constant is 8.
Material Balance • The General Material Balance Equation A material balance is nothing more than an accounting for material flows and changes in inventory of material for a system. or an entire process) may be written in the following general way for any process/system under consideration (see Figure 1): 50 . A balance (or inventory) on a material in a system (a single process unit. a collection of units.
through .Input Generation Output Consumption Accumulation through + within .within = within the system the system the system the system the system boundaries boundaries 51 .
The general balance equation may be written for any material that enters or leaves any process system. Equation 1 may be applied in different ways according to the precise definition of 'material' and the way in which the process is operated. it can be applied to the total mass of this material or to any molecular or atomic species involved in the process. 52 .
the generation and consumption terms are zero (excluding nuclear reactions) and the equation becomes total mass in or mass of element i in mass of element i out = accumulation of mass of element i (3) total mass out = accumulation of mass (2) When considering quantities (mass or number of moles) of individual molecular species. 53 .If the balance is applied to the total mass or to the mass of an element entering and leaving the system. material may be produced or consumed by chemical reaction. In the absence of chemical reactions equations like 2 apply also to the total number of moles of each molecular species.
e. In a batch process. Most processes operate with a continuous feed and form product continuously. manufacture of pharmaceuticals 54 .g. Batch operation is usually used for low volume products. materials are charged to a vessel and products withdrawn when the reaction is complete.Processes may be classified as continuous or batch.
There is therefore no accumulation and the general balance equation becomes rate of input + rate of generation = rate of output + rate of consumption (4) or. when considering the operation of a continuous steadystate process for a fixed period of time. for the total mass. Continuous processes are often assumed to operate at steadystate.The material balance equation for a batch process must necessarily include an accumulation term. process variables such as flows do not change with time. each of the terms in equation 4 may be expressed simply as a mass or number of moles.e. i. Equation 2 thus becomes 55 total mass in = total mass out . mass flow in = mass flow out (5) Alternatively.
and recycle (Figure 4). 56 . only what is transferred across the box’s boundaries. we can place a black box around all or any portion of this process and make our balance. the box would look like as in Figure 3.The Black Box Concept Frequently. The large scale complex problems can be broken to simpler subproblems for writing balances using the black box concept. Similarly we can place boxes around the reactor or absorber. We could place a box around the intersection of streams A. If we are interested in the total process. We do not care what happens inside the box. For instance. As an example: Figure 2. the engineers have to analyse complex process flow diagrams. B.
If possible show problem specifications on the flowsheet. Label unknowns with algebraic symbols. 1. 2. Select a basis for the calculation.the basis is an amount or flowrate of a particular stream or component in a stream.Material Balance Techniques It is usually helpful to follow a systematic procedure when tackling material balance problems. One possibility is outlined below. Draw and label the process flowsheetorganize information into an easy to understand form. Molar units are preferable if chemical reactions occur. otherwise the units in the problem statement (mass or molar) are probably best. 57 . Other quantities are determined in terms of the basis. It is usually most convenient to choose an amount of feed to the process as a basis.
6. In the absence of chemical reactions the number of independent equations for each balance is equal to the number of components. This can be difficult.for unknown quantities. 4.as necessary to be consistent with the basis. Solve equations. 58 .if the basis selected is not one of the flowrates in the problem specification the results must be scaled appropriately. Overall balances usually give simpler equations. Write material balance equations. Convert units/amounts. For complex flowsheets computer methods offer. 5.for each unit in the process or for the overall process.3. Scale the results. particularly if nonlinear equations are involved. the only practical solution.
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