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Lecture 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials

Learning Outcomes;

**Tension and Compression Tests
**

Stress-Strain Diagrams

Hooke’s Law

Poisson’s Ratio

**The Tension and Compression Test
**

The strength of a material depends on its ability to

sustain a load.

This property is to perform under the tension or

compression test.

The following machine is designed to read the load

required to maintain specimen stretching.

The Stress–Strain Diagram Conventional Stress–Strain Diagram Nominal or engineering stress is obtained by dividing the applied load P by the specimen’s original cross- sectional area. L0 . P A0 Nominal or engineering strain is obtained by dividing the change in the specimen’s gauge length by the specimen’s original gauge length.

Material is said to be linearly elastic.The Stress–Strain Diagram Conventional Stress–Strain Diagram Stress-Strain Diagram Elastic Behaviour Stress is proportional to the strain. Yielding Increase in stress above elastic limit will cause material to deform permanently. .

Necking At ultimate stress. cross-sectional area begins to decrease in a localized region of the specimen. Specimen breaks at the fracture stress.The Stress–Strain Diagram Conventional Stress–Strain Diagram Stress-Strain Diagram Strain Hardening. After yielding a further load will reaches a ultimate stress. .

Use this diagram since most engineering design is done within the elastic range. .The Stress–Strain Diagram True Stress–Strain Diagram The values of stress and strain computed from these measurements are called true stress and true strain.

Brittle Materials Materials that exhibit little or no yielding before failure are referred to as brittle materials.Stress–Strain Behavior of Ductile and Brittle Materials Ductile Materials Material that can subjected to large strains before it ruptures is called a ductile material. .

. σ = stress E E = modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus ε = strain E can be used only if a material has linear–elastic behaviour.Hooke’s Law Hooke’s Law defines the linear relationship between stress and strain within the elastic region.

. elastic strain is recovered.Hooke’s Law Strain Hardening When ductile material is loaded into the plastic region and then unloaded. The plastic strain remains and material is subjected to a permanent set.

ur. Modulus of Resilience When stress reaches the proportional limit. the strain- energy density is the modulus of resilience.Strain Energy When material is deformed by external loading. it will store energy internally throughout its volume. Energy is related to the strains called strain energy. 2 1 1 pl ur pl pl 2 2 E .

.Strain Energy Modulus of Toughness Modulus of toughness. ut. represents the entire area under the stress–strain diagram. It indicates the strain-energy density of the material just before it fractures.

When material is stressed to 600 MPa.0 GPa 0. compute the modulus of resilience both before and after the load application. find the permanent strain that remains in the specimen when load is released. Also. The slope of line OA is the modulus of elasticity.006 From triangle CBD. BD 600 106 E 75.0 109 CD 0. 450 E 75. the strain is approximately 0. Example 3. Solution: When the specimen is subjected to the load.2 The stress–strain diagram for an aluminum alloy that is used for making aircraft parts is shown.023 mm/mm.008 mm/mm CD CD .

0150 mm/mm (Ans) Computing the modulus of resilience. The permanent strain is OC 0.008 0.006 1.35 MJ/m3 (Ans) 2 2 1 1 ur final pl pl 600 0.Solution: This strain represents the amount of recovered elastic strain. 1 1 ur initial pl pl 450 0. .40 MJ/m3 (Ans) 2 2 Note that the SI system of units is measured in joules.008 2. where 1 J = 1 N • m.023 0.

and vice versa. the ratio of these strains is a constant since the deformations are proportional. states that in the elastic range. long Typical values are 1/3 or 1/4. v (nu). . v lat Poisson’s ratio is dimensionless.Poisson’s Ratio Poisson’s ratio. Negative sign since longitudinal elongation (positive strain) causes lateral contraction (negative strain).

determine the change in its length and the change in the dimensions of its cross section after applying the load. If an axial force of is applied to the bar.1 0.05 From the table for A-36 steel. Est = 200 GPa z 16. Example 3.0 106 Pa A 0. Solution: The normal stress in the bar is P 80 103 z 16.4 A bar made of A-36 steel has the dimensions shown. The material behaves elastically.0 106 6 z 80 10 mm/mm Est 200 106 .

Solution: The axial elongation of the bar is therefore 6 z z Lz 80 10 1. 05 1.6 10 0.32 80 10 25.5 120 m (Ans) The contraction strains in both the x and y directions are 6 x y vst z 0.56 m (Ans) 6 y y Ly 25.1 2.28 m (Ans) .6 10 0.6 m/m The changes in the dimensions of the cross section are 6 x x Lx 25.

The Shear Stress–Strain Diagram For pure shear. shear stress will distort the element uniformly. . equilibrium requires equal shear stresses on each face of the element. When material is homogeneous and isotropic.

and G are actually related by the equation E G 21 v . so Hooke’s Law for shear applies.The Shear Stress–Strain Diagram For most engineering materials the elastic behaviour is linear. E. G G = shear modulus of elasticity or the modulus of rigidity 3 material constants.

Example 3. Find the shear modulus G. find the maximum distance d that the top of a block of this material could be displaced horizontally if the material behaves elastically when acted upon by a shear force V. Also.5 A specimen of titanium alloy is tested in torsion and the shear stress–strain diagram is shown. shear modulus is 360 G 45 103 MPa (Ans) 0. and the ultimate shear stress. the proportional limit. What is the magnitude of V necessary to cause this displacement? Solution: The coordinates of point A are (0.008 rad. 360 MPa).008 . Thus.

4 mm 50 mm The shear force V needed to cause the displacement is V V avg .008 d 0.008 rad 0. Thus. Thus the ultimate stress is u 504 MPa (Ans) Since the angle is small. the top of the will be displaced horizontally by d tan 0. point B. 360 MPa V 2700 kN (Ans) A 75 100 .Solution: By inspection. the proportional limit is pl 360 MPa (Ans) This value represents the maximum shear stress. the graph ceases to be linear at point A.

*Failure of Materials Due to Creep and Fatigue Creep When material support a load for long period of time. Both stress and/or temperature play a significant role in the rate of creep. This time-dependent permanent deformation is known as creep. it will deform until a sudden fracture occurs. . Creep strength will decrease for higher temperatures or higher applied stresses.

*Failure of Materials Due to Creep and Fatigue Fatigue When metal subjected to repeated cycles of stress or strain. Endurance or fatigue limit is a limit which no failure can be detected after applying a load for a specified number of cycles. it will ultimately leads to fracture. This behaviour is called fatigue. . This limit can be determined in S-N diagram.

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