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Materials

Lecture 5: Torsion

Learning Outcomes

Torsion twisting of an object due to an applied torque

Torsion Formula

Angle of Twist

Transmission of Power

Torsional Deformation of a Circular Shaft

longitudinal axis.

If the angle of rotation is small, the length of the shaft

and its radius will remain unchanged.

The Torsion Formula

When material is linear-elastic, Hooke’s law applies.

A linear variation in shear strain leads to a

corresponding linear variation in shear stress

along any radial line on the cross section.

Tc Tp

max or

J J

= maximum shear stress in the shaft

max

= shear stress

T = resultant internal torque

J = polar moment of inertia of cross-sectional area

c = outer radius of the shaft

p = intermediate distance

The Torsion Formula

If the shaft has a solid circular cross section,

J c4

2

J co4 ci4

2

Example 5.2

The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T. Find the fraction of T that is

resisted by the material contained within the outer region of the shaft, which has an

inner radius of c/2 and outer radius c.

Solution:

Stress in the shaft varies linearly, thus c max

the lighter-shaded region is

dT ' dA c max 2 d

c

2 max 3 15 3

T' d max c (1)

c c/2

32

Solution:

Using the torsion formula to determine the maximum stress in the shaft, we have

Tc Tc

max

J 2 c4

2T

max

c3

15

T' T (Ans)

16

Example 5.3

The shaft is supported by two bearings and is subjected to three torques. Determine

the shear stress developed at points A and B, located at section a–a of the shaft.

Solution:

From the free-body diagram of the left segment,

Mx 0; 4250 3000 T 0 T 1250 kNmm

4

J 75 4.97 107 mm

2

Since point A is at ρ = c = 75 mm,

Tc 1250 75

B 1.89 MPa (Ans)

J 4.97 107

Likewise for point B, at ρ =15 mm, we have

Tc 1250 15

B 7

0.377 MPa (Ans)

J 4.97 10

Power Transmission

Power is defined as the work performed per unit of

time.

For a rotating shaft with a torque, the power is

P 2 fT

For shaft design, the design or geometric parameter

is J T

c allow

Example 5.5

A solid steel shaft AB is to be used to transmit 3750 W from the motor M to which it

is attached. If the shaft rotates at w =175 rpm and the steel has an allowable shear

stress of allow τallow =100 MPa, determine the required diameter of the shaft to the

nearest mm.

Solution:

The torque on the shaft is

P T

175 2

3750 T T 204.6 Nm

60

J c4 T

Since

c 2 c allow

1/ 3 1/ 3

2T 2 204.6 1000

c 10.92 mm

allow 100

Angle of Twist

Integrating over the entire length L of the shaft, we have

L Φ = angle of twist

T x dx T(x) = internal torque

J xG J(x) = shaft’s polar moment of inertia

0

G = shear modulus of elasticity for the material

TL

JG

Sign convention is

determined by right hand rule,

Example 5.8

The two solid steel shafts are coupled together using the meshed gears. Determine

the angle of twist of end A of shaft AB when the torque 45 Nm is applied. Take G to

be 80 GPa. Shaft AB is free to rotate within bearings E and F, whereas shaft DC is

fixed at D. Each shaft has a diameter of 20 mm.

Solution:

From free body diagram,

F 45 / 0.15 300 N

TD x 300 0.075 22.5 Nm

Angle of twist at C is

TLDC 22.5 1.5

C 4 9

0.0269 rad

JG 2 0.001 80 10

Since the gears at the end of the shaft are in mesh,

B 0.15 0.0269 0.075 0.0134 rad

Solution:

Since the angle of twist of end A with respect to end B of shaft AB caused by the

torque 45 Nm,

TAB LAB 45 2

A/ B 4

0.0716 rad

JG 2 0.010 80 109

Example 5.10

The tapered shaft is made of a material having a shear modulus G. Determine the

angle of twist of its end B when subjected to the torque.

Solution:

From free body diagram, the internal torque is T.

c2 c1 c2 c c2 c1

c c2 x

L x L

4

c2 c1

Thus, at x, J x c2 x

2 L

For angle of twist,

L

2T dx 2TL c22 c1c2 c12

4

(Ans)

G 0 c2 c1 3 G c13c23

c2 x

L

Example 5.11

The solid steel shaft has a diameter of 20 mm. If it is subjected to the two torques,

determine the reactions at the fixed supports A and B.

Solution:

By inspection of the free-body diagram,

Mx 0; Tb 800 500 TA 0 (1)

Using the sign convention,

0

JG JG JG

1.8TA 0.2TB 750 (2)

Solid Noncircular Shafts

The maximum shear stress and the angle of twist for

solid noncircular shafts are tabulated as below:

Example 5.13

The 6061-T6 aluminum shaft has a cross-sectional area in the shape of an

equilateral triangle. Determine the largest torque T that can be applied to the end of

the shaft if the allowable shear stress is τallow = 56 MPa and the angle of twist at its

end is restricted to Φallow = 0.02 rad. How much torque can be applied to a shaft of

circular cross section made from the same amount of material? Gal = 26 GPa.

Solution:

By inspection, the resultant internal torque at any cross section

along the shaft’s axis is also T.

20T 20T

allow 3

; 56 3

T 1779.2 Nm

a 40

46T 46T 1.2 103

allow ; 0.02 T 24.12 Nm (Ans)

a 4Gal 404 26 103

Solution:

For circular cross section, we have

1

Acircle Atriangle; c2 40 40 sin 60 c 14.85 mm

2

The limitations of stress and angle of twist then require

Tc T 14.85

allow ; 56 4

T 288.06 Nm

J / 2 14.85

TL T 1.2 103

allow ; 0.02 4

T 33.10 Nm (Ans)

JGal / 2 14.85 26 103

Thin-Walled Tubes Having Closed Cross Sections

Shear flow q is the product of the tube’s thickness and

the average shear stress.

q avg t

Average shear stress for thin-walled tubes is

T τavg = average shear stress

avg

2tAm T = resultant internal torque at the cross section

t = thickness of the tube

Am = mean area enclosed boundary

TL ds

4 Am2 G t

Example 5.14

Calculate the average shear stress in a thin-walled tube having a circular cross

section of mean radius rm and thickness t, which is subjected to a torque T. Also,

what is the relative angle of twist if the tube has a length L?

Solution:

The mean area for the tube is Am rm2

T T

avg 2

(Ans)

2tAm 2 trm

TL ds TL

(Ans)

4 Am2 G t 3

2 rmGt

Example 5.16

A square aluminum tube has the dimensions. Determine the average shear stress in

the tube at point A if it is subjected to a torque of 85 Nm. Also compute the angle of

twist due to this loading. Take Gal = 26 GPa.

Solution:

By inspection, the internal resultant torque is T = 85 Nm.

T 85 103

avg 1.7 N/mm 2 (Ans)

2tAm 2 10 2500

Solution:

For angle of twist,

2

0.196 10 mm-1 ds

4 Am2 G t 4 2500 26 103 10

Integral represents the length around the centreline boundary of the tube, thus

4 3

0.196 10 4 50 3.92 10 rad (Ans)

Stress Concentration

Torsional stress concentration factor, K, is used to

simplify complex stress analysis.

The maximum shear stress is then determined from the

equation

Tc

max K

J

Example 5.18

The stepped shaft is supported by bearings at A and B. Determine the maximum

stress in the shaft due to the applied torques. The fillet at the junction of each shaft

has a radius of r = 6 mm.

Solution:

By inspection, moment equilibrium about the axis

of the shaft is satisfied

The stress-concentration factor can be determined

by the graph using the geometry,

D 2 40 r 6

2; 0.15

d 2 20 d 2 20

Tc 30 0.020

max K 1.3 4

3.10 MPa (Ans)

J 2 0.020

Inelastic Torsion

Considering the shear stress acting on an element of

area dA located a distance p from the center of the

shaft,

2

T 2 d

A

always linear.

Perfectly plastic assumes the shaft will continue to twist

with no increase in torque.

It is called plastic torque.

Example 5.20

A solid circular shaft has a radius of 20 mm and length of 1.5 m. The material has an

elastic–plastic diagram as shown. Determine the torque needed to twist the shaft Φ

= 0.6 rad.

Solution:

The maximum shear strain occurs at the surface of

the shaft,

L max1.5

; 0.6 max 0.008 rad

0.02

The radius of the elastic core can be obtained by

Y 0.02

Y 0.004 m 4 mm

0.0016 0.008

Based on the shear–strain distribution, we have

3 3 75 106 3

T Y

4c Y 4 0.02 0.0043 1.25 kNm (Ans)

6 6

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