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MODULE 1
Required amount of time to complete: 10 minutes

TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS
TOPIC 1: TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS

SUBJECT 1: Societal And Personal Losses From Traffic Crashes (quantified)

The motor vehicle has become central to the way of life and the way of business
in the United States. This invention has led to more productivity, greater mobility,
higher efficiency and effectiveness over the same time a century ago. However,
all of these benefits have come at a great cost. Motor vehicle crashes are the
number one cause of death for all people from 6 to 33 years old and account for
more than 90% of all transportation related fatalities . The economic cost of motor
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vehicle crashes alone is estimated at more than \$150.5 billion annually . 2

The majority of persons killed or injured in traffic crashes were drivers (64%),
followed by passengers (32%), pedestrians (3%) and cyclists (2%)3. 96% of the
12 million vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes in 1995 were passenger
cars or light trucks. Slightly more than half of fatal collisions occurred on roads
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with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more while only 21% of property damage
crashes occurred on these roads. Collisions on city streets are largely at
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intersections because of lane changing, running or jumping lights, etc., while
collisions on freeways are mainly caused by tailgating or following too closely.

How many people die on our roadways annually?

Approximately 41,000+.

In 1999, 41,611 people died on our roadways. That is an average of
approximately 114 persons being killed on our roadways every day of the year.
One person dies on our roads every 13 minutes. This means that while you are
reading this program, 18 people will have died on the roadways in the United
States .
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In 2000, Florida's share of the carnage on our roads resulted in 2,999 lives
being lost. This works out to eight per day or one every three hours . 7

How many people are injured on our roadways annually?

The number of injuries that occur on our roadways is phenomenal. In 1999,
3,236,000 were injured on the roadways of the United States. This works out to

8,865 injuries caused by motor vehicle collisions per day or 369 per hour or
six per minute or one every ten seconds. In the four hours that you are
reading this program, 1477 persons will be injured on the roads of the United
States .
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In Florida in 2000, there were 246,541 traffic collision related injuries. This
works out to 675 per day or 28 per hour or approximately one every two
minutes and 13 seconds . 9

Our personal mobility and business opportunities are greatly enhanced by the
motor vehicle. However, there is no such thing as a free lunch. We pay for these
advantages with our lives, property and the increasing costs in all categories of
our existence for the motor vehicle.

Resources:
NHTSA, Traffic Safety Overview, 1995, Washington, D.C., number 3, 4, 5.NHTSA, Traffic Safety
Overview, 1999, Washington, DC, number 1, 2, 6, 8.DHSMV, Traffic Crash Facts, 2000,
Tallahassee, Florida, number 7, 9.

TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS
TOPIC 1: TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS

SUBJECT 2: Contribution Of DUI And Other Hazardous Acts

As if driving is not dangerous enough, there is a significant portion of our driving
population that drives under the influence of alcohol and other drugs. Driving
requires a high degree of awareness of the driving environment and consists of a
decision making process that is used hundreds of times per mile of travel. When
you introduce alcohol and other drugs into this decision making process, the
process is slowed down, sometimes fatally. It is or at least should be intuitively
obvious that you are not going to proceed safely in a fast paced decision making
process with your ability to make those decisions slowed down.

Alcohol-related crashes cost society \$45 billion anually, yet this conservative
estimate does not include pain, suffering and lost quality of life. The indirect costs
raise the alcohol-related crash figure to a staggering \$116 billion in 1993 . 1

What was the average cost for each injured survivor of an alcohol-related crash?

Approximately \$67,000, including \$6,000 in health care costs and \$13,000 in lost
productivity . 2

What impact does alcohol and other drugs have on traffic collisions?

In 1999, there were 15,786 fatalities in alcohol related crashes. This is a 6%
decrease compared to 1996, and it represents an average of one alcohol-related
fatality every 33 minutes. NHTSA estimates that alcohol was involved in 38% of
fatal crashes and in 7% of all crashes in 1999. NHTSA also estimated that 30.1%
of all traffic fatalities occurred in crashes in which at least one driver or non-
occupant had a blood alcohol concentration of .10 grams per deciliter or greater . 3

Approximately 1.4 million drivers were arrested in 1998 for driving under the
influence of alcohol and other drugs. This is an arrest rate of one in every 132
licensed drivers in the United States. About three in every 10 Americans will be
involved in an alcohol related crash at some time or another in their life .
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In Florida, in 2000, there were 23,578 alcohol-related crashes, which injured
19,775 people and killed 9795. 32.6% of traffic fatalities and 9.5% of traffic
crashes were alcohol related6. Approximately three people died and 60 were
injured every day due to alcohol related collisions in Florida .
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What other hazardous acts affect the driving environment?

In 1999, speeding was a contributing factor in 30% of all fatal crashes, and
12,628 lives were lost in speeding related crashes. Motor vehicle crashes cost
society an estimated \$4,800 per second. The economic cost of crashes was
estimated at \$150.5 billion in 1994. The cost of speeding related crashes in 1998
accounted for \$27.7 billion dollars or \$52,607 per minute or \$877 per second . 8

Other concepts to be aware of are the concepts of aggressive driving and road
rage. Aggressive driving is defined as "at least one of these four driving offenses,
running a red light or stop sign, failure to yield the right-of-way and reckless
driving ".
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The cost of aggressive driving is substantial. It has been estimated that over the
last ten years, aggressive driving has killed an average of 1500 people each
year, injured 800,000 and cost the country an estimated \$24 billion in medical
costs, property damage and lost time from work . 10

Road rage is the most extreme example of aggressive driving and usually is an
extremely rare event. Road rage is the term used to refer to physical assaults
that result from a traffic dispute. Road rage is an aggressive driving incident that
has lost control. A near collision that turns to violence . No agency can say how
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000+ people die annually on the roads of the United States. 1999. C. Tallahassee. You must only pass the final exam. 1999. Washington. Collisions on city streets are largely at intersections because of lane changing. Traffic Safety Facts.bad a problem road rage has become. AAA estimates that between 1990 and 1996. Public Policy Statistics.. 4. in 2000. Florida.DHSMV. Aggressive driving: A road well traveled. 1998. number 1. Cost of Alcohol Related Crashes. 10. 7. number 8. running or jumping lights. Traffic Safety Overview. In Florida. 6.USA Today. number 9. approximately _______ people died everyday in motor vehicle crashes. 12 Resources: MADD. 11. Traffic Crash Facts. 2NHTSA. DC. True False 3. 218 people have died on our roads as a result of road rage . October 1998. 70 80 . (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. number 5. Motor Vehicle crashes account for more than ______% of all transportation-related fatalities. 2 4 6 8 4. number 3. one-quarter half three-quarters all 5. D. Slightly more than _______ of fatal collisions occur on roads with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more.. 2000. These questions are for practice only. Speeding. True False 2. 12. Washington. Monday November 23.NHTSA. Approximately 41.

True False 9. 1 3 6 7. 90 95 6. It has been estimated that over the last ten years aggressive driving has cost society \$24 billion in medical costs. About ____ in every 10 Americans will be involved in an alcohol related crash at some time or another in their life. property damage and lost time from work. Road rage is the term used to refer to physical assaults that result from a traffic dispute. The most extreme example of aggressive driving is called: defensive driving road rage poor driving PROGRAM READING MODULE 2 Required amount of time to complete: 25 minutes THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 1: Dealing With Stress . True False 8.

such as shorter following distances. he or she is concentrating on what has him or her upset. Washington. Even those lucky enough to avoid a crash will know friends. the driver is not concentrating on the driving task. It should be made clear that a tired driver.5. This could manifest itself in increased risk taking behavior. Aggressive driving as defined earlier is "at least one of these four driving offenses. 2. If you feel that you have a sleep disorder. With severe emotional distress. 1 How would you feel if you were at fault in a collision that turned a 20-year-old into a quadriplegic. C. consult your physician and seek help4. Arrive Alive. Unsafe behaviors like this contribute to increased crash risk. Drive Alert. or one with a cluttered mind has decreased ability to avoid collisions and is likely to be involved in an altercation as well. 3. D. particularly for crash survivors who do not sustain a physical injury . yet while the physical trauma caused by crashes has been the subject of extensive research. 4 THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 3: Dealing With Emotional Distress The emotionally distressed driver is more apt to be involved in a traffic collision than is the rested. increased speed. family. the individual could turn to substance use or abuse to hide the emotional pain. aggressive driving could result. clear-headed motor vehicle operator. With the increased risk-taking behavior.3 How is an emotionally disturbed driver more vulnerable to a collision? 1. failure to yield the right-of-way and reckless driving." Engaging in any or all of the listed behaviors could result in a collision. etc. psychological damage and suffering is less well understood. or colleagues who have suffered the effects of a serious crash . When disturbed by emotions. or killed a family's only child? The answer seems obvious. erratic lane changes. October 1988. 2. a disturbed driver. . number 1. Combine this with driving and this would contribute to increased crash risk. 3. running a red light or stop sign. Resources: National Sleep Foundation. 2 At least once during their lifetime almost all drivers will be involved in a serious crash where people are injured or killed.

disregarding the facts or analysis of others . Alberta. is needed to enhance the driving conditions on the road. People stress the negative side of laws rather than the positive. 4. Planning and research are heavily involved in the establishment of traffic laws. Traffic laws are not made policy on rash. however. 5 Resources: Recovery. hasty decisions. Coping can be particularly difficult during the recoil phase. 1 As most people can attest. there is a genuine need for traffic control on the roadways. 2. number 1. Unsupervised and uncontrolled driving would lead to chaos. motor vehicle operators look on traffic laws with disdain. just the sight of law enforcement officials will cause drivers to slow and drive more carefully. Far too often. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 4: Appropriate Attitude Traffic laws are instituted and established as safety mechanisms for motor vehicle operators. when drivers realize what they did or did not do. 3. Street design does not warrant speeds in excess of posted limits.Many drivers naturally pass through these phases without outside assistance. Some. British Columbia. as the objective is to make driving safe for all individuals. Seatbelts. They may take all the blame for the crash. both well organized and planned. Haunting Experience. have become mandatory because it is statistically verifiable that they help save lives. Traffic laws are tools . October 1998. Just the simple addition of a traffic officer to an uncontrolled intersection where problems exist can show the benefits visible law enforcement has towards traffic safety. for example. Often. seem unusually preoccupied with the event and do not appear to get better. 5. Sound traffic control. nor would certain turns be construed as safe operating procedures on particular streets. but are done with the care of the driver in mind.

Drivers must understand that these laws benefit them and should be supported and followed. but developing appropriate attitudes is not simple. Drivers should be aware that circumstances and attitude changes could dramatically affect driving habits. * Justifying risks because they are taken in a noble cause. * The illusion of control or overestimating your ability. * Disregarding personal safety. Nobody enjoys receiving a traffic citation. Drivers must understand that more laws promote safe driving and are truly beneficial and consequently should have the support of the motor vehicle operators. but a driver's attitude can greatly influence the risk involved. 3 Research evidence shows that attitudes affect driving safety. . Operators of a motor vehicle should have an attitude suited for operation of a motor vehicle when behind the wheel and should not let other circumstances distract their attention. What are some of the characteristics of a risk taking driver? There is always some degree of risk associated with driving.that save lives. Drivers should strive to develop a positive attitude when driving. yet this is no reason to reject these life saving devices and tools. Attitudes that predispose you to risk are: * Enjoying the thrill of danger. not frowned upon. It depends on recognizing that attitudes are important and on making a personal commitment to change attitudes that are unsafe. * Enjoying impressing passengers or other drivers. The conscientious driver is often times the defensive driver and the least likely to be involved in a traffic collision . 2 Stress and hurriedness can adversely affect one’s ability to drive.

* Developing the ability to LET GO of the perceived insults to yourself by the actions of other drivers. * Having a realization that heavy traffic and the actions of others are beyond our control. In more than 90% of traffic collisions. Collisions do not just happen by chance. it has to be built into the way you drive . * Matching the vehicle's speed and direction to the situation.Most drivers think they are both safer and more skillful than the average driver is . * Awareness of the risks inherent in particular road and traffic situations.but we cannot all be right. * Accurate observation. 4 What are some of the traits of a good driver? Good drivers have a quiet level of efficiency in their actions and this derives from: * A good level of attention. . human error is the cause. Driving safety cannot be thought of as an add-on extra. they are the consequence of unsafe driving practices.

use abuse . 2.. Having a positive attitude about driving and becoming and remaining aware of the driving environment will help you become a more effective and safe driver. Responsible Driving. number 1. 1995 . (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. These questions are for practice only.* Develop and have the understanding that there is nothing out on the road worth dying over. Responsible Driving. Chapter 2. With severe emotional pain. Washington. D. the driver could turn to substance ______ to hide emotional pain. number 3. This derives from: a good level of attention accurate observation both neither 2. Chapter 5. number 4. Resources: American Automobile Association.American Automobile Association. Understanding Youthful Risk Taking. You must only pass the final exam. Your body reacts to an alarm reaction by releasing _______ into your blood stream: salt glucose adrenaline water 3. Good drivers have a quiet level of efficiency in their actions.NHTSA. C.

neither both 4. which are predisposing you to risk. emotions or fatigue. Approximately 100. When you are experiencing heightened stress. Attitudes. Exhaustion can manifest itself in your life in such things as: migraine headaches insomnia both a and b neither a or b PROGRAM READING MODULE 3 .000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness and fatigue as a principal casual factor. are for: the thrill of danger impressing passengers both neither 7. the driver should: continue as normal not drive stomp on the gas 8. Developing appropriate attitudes depends on recognizing that attitudes are: not necessary a waste of time important 5. True False 6.

which causes the affects on the brain and body to take affect sooner. The decision making process is slowed. Does alcohol affect the central nervous system? Yes. Does alcohol affect the reaction times of a driver? Yes. by sniffing. problems with vision and a loss of self-control. The only safe amount of alcohol to consume and then drive is none. by smoking. model glue and other stimulants whether taken by swallowing.2 Alcohol is implicated in a very large number of road collisions because it leads to slow reflexes. If the driver drinks a carbonated alcoholic beverage. as is the basic hand-eye coordination. while his response time labors. Alcohol often makes the individual tired and drowsy. the affects will be faster as the alcohol is absorbed sooner and on the way to the brain . by injection or by any other means. those feelings will be heightened after alcohol consumption. The affects of alcohol are a general depressing of the functions of the brain and body. Impaired driver’s reaction times often double in response to outside stimulus. A carbonated alcohol drink is absorbed faster by the body because of the carbonation. Depressing of these functions begins at the first sip of alcohol. alcohol affects the central nervous system by being a depressant. pungent drug that acts as a depressant. This causes a faster absorption of the alcohol into the blood stream. odorless. Required amount of time to complete: 40 minutes THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 1: Effect Of Alcohol And Other Drugs On Driver Capabilities Alcohol is a colorless. A situation that a sober driver could handle and avoid easily becomes troublesome and critical to the impaired driver. volatile. 3 . alcohol has a demonstrative affect on the reaction time of drivers. Driving after drinking increases the risk of bodily harm resulting from a collision and increase the probability of a greater injury than would have happened if you were driving sober. 1 Drivers must understand that if they are tired and drowsy before driving. Reaction time is decreased with each drink. barbiturates. The more a person drinks. the less likely he or she is to stay awake and alert while driving. time that makes the difference between a crash and avoiding that crash . What is a Controlled Substance? Controlled substances include narcotic drugs.

Slowed complex reaction time. Impaired judgment. which is absorbed from the blood stream. LIVER. Blood is channeled directly from the stomach to the liver. 3. it swells and fat accumulates in the liver cells. The greater the damage the more likely scar tissue can form causing cirrhosis. the storage of vitamin A and glycogen and filtering all blood that goes from the intestines to the heart. BRAIN.What are some of the affects of alcohol on the central nervous system? 1. 5 2. 4. regardless of the size of the person. Vision can deteriorate and body nutrition can decline . You think you can drive when you cannot. which are adversely impacted by alcohol and other drugs . 6. The frontal lobe is essential for driving a motor vehicle as the frontal lobe controls judgment. with the potential of unconsciousness. Impaired muscle coordination. 2. When the liver is injured. The brain lacks an interior system of veins and requires large amounts of oxygen. The liver's function is to oxidize all toxic substances in the body. emotions. The functions are production of blood clotting elements. decision making and awareness. coma and death . Increased drowsiness after the high. Prolonged abuse of alcohol can severely injure and potentially kill liver cells and then the drinker. The liver is capable of oxidizing approximately one ounce of hard liquor per hour. This factor particularly compromises an impaired driver's ability to respond in emergency or unanticipated situations. This blood dispersed throughout the brain affects the brain in the following manner: the brain is affected with anything that the blood carries in it and the frontal lobe is the first part to be affected by alcohol. A bleeding ulcer occurs if acid flows into the ulcerated wall and penetrates an artery. 4 What are some of the major organs of your body that alcohol affects and how? 1. breaking down of large proteins. 6 3. 5. Alcohol impairs the primary function of the liver. Alcohol consumption on an empty stomach can cause a peptic ulcer or a bleeding ulcer. multiple vision. Dizziness and night vision impairment. Decreased peripheral vision. STOMACH. blurring. Driving a motor vehicle requires many coordinated functions. It should be understood and made clear that alcohol is a toxic poison that can kill .

12 Hallucinogens. time and distance comprehension. A driver pulled over under the influence of codeine is still breaking the law as he is driving under the influence. many of these drugs warn not to operate a motor vehicle when under the dosage as they can cause drowsiness. antihistamines. create restlessness. methamphetamines. opium and morphine. Prolonged abuse of the liver will cause symptoms to appear . amphetamines. This type of drug temporarily stimulates some vital process or organ in the body. 10 Stimulants. This type of drug induces a soothing. Cocaine would be a classic example of a stimulant. This type of drug causes distortion of the driver’s perception. barbiturates. and cause lack of coordination and vision by seeing objects that are not really visible. Prescription drugs include cough medicine. as would marijuana. it appears to act as a stimulant for the first hour after consumption but is physiologically a depressant. caffeine and nicotine. Drivers must be aware of what is in the over the counter medications they are taking and that these substances could impair the ability to drive safely . Depressants lower the rate of muscular or nervous system activity and are essentially sedatives. Since . antihistamines and tranquilizers. and tranquilizers. hearing. Hallucinogens include LSD. heightens impulsive or impatient behavior. barbiturates. impair judgment. Narcotics are highly addictive and affect the driver's decision making process. Alcohol falls into this category. lulling or dulling affect and in large enough doses can cause comas and death. can induce rapid mood swings. In addition. Drivers must be aware of what prescription medicine they are taking and the affects of each on the body . as is concentration. 9 Depressants. Peyote and PCP. Cocaine affects the driver’s view of reality. reduces concentration. Drivers often fail to realize that many drugs as prescribed by their physician have warning labels attached noting alcohol consumption with the drug could be very dangerous. 8 Over the counter medications. codeine. 11 Narcotics. When alcohol is consumed. . sight. slow reaction time. light-headedness.as a result of liver damage. sedatives and related substances that are not conducive to driving. intensify emotions. impairing the driver's vision and motor skills. heightens aggressive or hostile behavior and distorts the drivers decision-making process . reaction time. and may lead to unconscousness. Driving under the influence of a depressant can have catastrophic affects as judgment is impaired (drivers think they are alright to drive. 7 What other types of drugs can affect driving? Prescription drugs. slower reactions. concentration and coordination. Stimulants include cocaine. Narcotics include heroin. when they are not) and reactions are dulled and slowed. Many over the counter medications contain alcohol.

Each drug compounds the effect of the other. further altering the driver’s ability to safely operate a motor vehicle . 13 What is the synergistic effect? Synergistic Effect.08 or more grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or . The most dangerous aspect of synergism is the additive effect. 9. 14 Resources: American Automobile Association. the only way to sober up is time. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Authoritative Guide for Parents. when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired or to the extent that the person is deprived . Chapter 13. In spite of all the rumors that you have heard. 2.08 or more grams of alcohol per 210 milliliters of breath. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 2: Relationship Of Amount Of Alcohol Consumed To BAC When you consume alcohol. he or she is presumed to be impaired . 12. sight. Teachers and Counselors. 10. BAC is the measurement of the weight of alcohol in your blood stream per unit of volume. Chapter 2. 13. number 8.driving depends on the driver’s perception. Alcohol. It is unlawful for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances. 08? Yes. dramatically reducing these capabilities is not a sound driving technique . You should be aware that impairment (where you are unsafe to drive) begins with the first sip of alcohol. The effect is different with each combination. Chapter 3. A one plus one combination could equal four. it takes your liver about one hour to remove one drink from your system. Thomas Milhorn. Use and Abuse in America. the amount of alcohol that accumulates in your body increases with the number of drinks you have and the amount of time in which you drink. 7. 4. 5. 6. 14. The synergistic effect is what happens when you combine the intake of two or more drugs at the same time. Responsible Driving.H. hearing and vision. when a person has a BAC of . Specifically. each time and each person. number 3. Alcohol plus sleeping pills can have a dramatically greater effect than either drug alone.Mendelson and Mello. 1 Can you be convicted of a DUI with a BAC of less than the presumptive limit of . Regardless of your size or weight. number 1. What is the definition of BAC? BAC is the abbreviation for the concept of Blood Alcohol Concentration. 11.

2. perceptions. 2 What effect can alcohol have on you? 1. five ounce glass of wine and 12-oz. In a review of studies of alcohol-related crashes. October 1998. 5. As you continue to drink alcohol. Alcohol also acts like an anesthetic: it suppresses or reduces perception. have an empty stomach. information process capability. 7. sections 316. which makes the subject wrongly assess his capabilities and take risks. divided attention performance.1934. number 3. beer is all the same. The amount of alcohol in a one ounce shot of 80 proof whiskey. If you are upset. Alcohol also affects your vision and reduces your alertness. 2. You may think you can drive safely when you can't. Alcohol affects you differently at different times. drugs or alcohol will probably have a stronger effect on you. Blood Alcohol Levels. this drink has multiple shots of at least an 80 proof alcoholic beverage. When you have a specialty drink like a Long Island Ice Tea. the amount stored in your body continues to increase. which would never have been taken in the normal state. over-tired. so by comparison.015 of BAC per hour.of full possession of normal faculties. Time is the only way to eliminate alcohol from your body. tracking ability. concentrated attention ability.MADD.193 and 316. your ability to drive safely decreases. 3. to drive or be in actual physical control of any motor vehicle within this state . Resources: Florida Statutes. you have just consumed four regular drinks at one time. impairment in all these areas was significant at blood alcohol concentrations of 0. The first thing affected after drinking alcohol is a person's judgment. Alcohol appears to act as a stimulant and provokes a sensation approaching euphoria. visual functions. disrupts the faculties and above all. 3 6. As stated earlier. 4 THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 3: Legal Consequences . as the amount of alcohol you consume increases.054. 4. number 1. slows down the reflexes . Your body can eliminate about . reaction time. and psychomotor performance. Public Policy Statistics.

Florida's "Alcohol/Controlled Substance DUI Law. A BAC of . More than 32% of all Florida crashes and 38% nationally in which someone is killed involve a driver who has been drinking or taking drugs. At what Blood Alcohol Concentration are you considered impaired? Driving Under the Influence (DUI) at any BAC level may be used as legal evidence in conjunction with other indicators of impairment. and mandatory attendance at a substance abuse school. 1982.Not more than \$1000 Imprisonment: Not more than nine months Fine for Third Conviction: Not less than \$1000 .08).08 grams of alcohol per 210 ml of breath.08 and above creates a presumption of impairment. The presumptive limit is .Not more than \$2500 .Not more than \$500 Imprisonment: Not more than six months Fine for Second Conviction: Not less than \$500 . (. first time offenders convicted of DUI can be assured of losing their driver license for at least six months. DO NOT DRIVE if you have been drinking or taking drugs. there are still those among us who continue to drive under the influence. more commonly known as "point zero eight". The Florida Statutes are perfectly clear. paying a \$250 fine. stricter conditions apply to new drivers. Under the Florida Statutes. These consequences would consist of combinations of the following: Fine for First Conviction: Not less than \$250 . Now. The rule here is "zero tolerance" and it means what it says: If you are under 21. performing 50 hours of community service." in effect since July 1. is one of the toughest in the United States. There is no safe amount to use when you are going to drive. you may not drive with even the slightest amount of alcohol in your body. the severity of the legal consequences increases with each repeat of this offense.08 grams of alcohol per 100 ml of blood or . In spite all of the warnings. For those individual drivers. you will come into penalties for your inappropriate behavior. it is strictly forbidden to drive any motorized vehicle if your faculties are impaired. What are the fines or can I be imprisoned for a DUI? If you are convicted of a DUI.

sections 316. If I am convicted of a DUI can I lose my driving privilege? Yes. 1996. . the law provided that it is unlawful for someone under age 21 to drive or be in actual physical control of a motor vehicle with a blood or breath alcohol level of . so does the length of the revocation. your license will be suspended for one year for the first refusal or 18 months for persons with previous suspensions for refusal to take any sobriety test required by law. if within 10 years of first conviction. The loss that we all suffer annually through impaired driving is staggering as mentioned earlier. stop to consider the costs of what could happen. First Conviction . The suspension period is six months for a first violation or one year if the offenders driving privileges have been previously suspended for the same offense. Imprisonment: Not more than 12 months NOTE: The fines and imprisonment are higher if the BAC is . What is the time of suspension for a person under the age of 21 who has a alcohol level of . Third Conviction . Let us look at what this one beer actually costs.1934. As the number of convictions increase.193 and 316. urine test or a breath test? If you refuse to take any sobriety test required by law when asked.02 or higher.License Revocation at least 180 days (up to one year). What will happen if you refuse to take a blood test. The amount of time that your driving privilege is revoked depends on which conviction this is for you. if within five years of previous conviction.License Revocation at least five years. Second Conviction . THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 4: Financial Consequences Of DUI If you have ever driven under the influence.02 or higher? Effective October 1.20 or higher or if a minor is present in the vehicle. Resources: Florida Statutes.License Revocation at least 10 years. You could kill yourself or an innocent bystander.

What are some of the associated personal costs for DUI? What do you think are
some estimates?

Some of the associated costs of a DUI are:

 Towing - \$150
 Lawyer - \$3500
 Fine - \$250 to \$500
 DUI School - \$190 to \$285
 Insurance - \$1500
 Lost Wages - \$1000
 Court Costs - \$450
 Substance Abuse Evaluation - \$75
 Treatment - \$400
 Cost Recovery - \$350

That "one" beer cost you in the neighborhood of \$8000. You could have
made a down payment on a really nice car, a house or some other substantial
piece of property with that money. The price per beer goes up for a second or
subsequent DUI. What else could you do with \$8000? 1

What are some of the losses to society as a result of DUI?

In fatal crashes, the loss is what that person could have done with his or her life if
he or she were part of the future. We have no way of estimating what that
person(s) would have accomplished if he or she remained alive. For those who
are injured, we all bear the cost of their rehabilitation, either directly when we pay
their bill because they cannot through public assistance, or indirectly through
higher insurance and health costs. For those that are permanently disabled, we
pay to support them for the rest of their lives.

For those convicted of this crime, society has to pay for their defense, police and
paramedics to go to the crash scene and clean up the damage. In case of death,
the police have to inform loved ones of the demise of someone close to them.
There is then subsequent suffering in your family or another's from the loss of
someone close to them.

Resources:
Florida Department of Transportation, Beer Costs \$8025, Metro-Dade Police Department, 1996,
number 1.

THE HUMAN FACTORS
TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION

SUBJECT 5: Ways To Avoid Driving Impaired

Obviously no one should drink and drive. Once you start drinking, your vision,
mobility and comprehension are affected. However, if you choose to consume
alcohol, think before you drink. There are many ways to consume alcohol and not
get behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. Just think of what you would rather do
than spend \$8000 on a DUI conviction.

What are some clues you can use to avoid the impaired driver through driving
defensively?

There are some visual clues for the defensive driver to spot and then avoid the
impaired driver. The impaired driver might be exhibiting one or more of the
following behaviors: no lights, straddling lanes, weaving, stopping without cause,
tailgating, driving well below the posted speed limit, inconsistent signaling and
abrupt turns. When you see this activity, avoid this driver. Also be aware of your
surroundings. Avoid the parts of town where the bars and nightclubs are located.
Do not drive late at night on weekends and watch for impaired drivers crossing
the center line .
1

What are some alternatives to driving impaired?

THINK OF A WAY TO GET HOME WITHOUT DRIVING:

If you do choose to drink, please do not drive. There are other ways to travel
after consuming alcohol. Always plan ahead, pick a designated driver (the
designated driver does not drink at all), drink at a friend's house and spend the
night, take a taxi, or consider not consuming alcohol at all .
2

Resources:
MADD, Public Policy Statistics, October 1998, number 1, 2.

These questions are for practice only. You must only pass the final exam.
(REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move
to the next module)

1. At what Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) are you presumed
impaired in Florida?
.04
.06

.08
.10
2. __________ is a type of drug that temporarily stimulates some
vital process or organ in the body.
stimulant
depressant
narcotic
hallucinogen
3. The frontal lobe of the brain is the first part of the brain that is
affected by alcohol.
True
False
4. What are some of the visual clues a defensive driver can use
to spot an impaired driver?
tailgating
inconsistent signaling
abrupt turns
all of the above
5. For a _____ conviction of a DUI you could pay a fine of not
less than \$1000 and not more than \$2500.
first
second
third
fourth
6. The synergistic affect is _________ with each combination,
each time and each person.
different
the same
has no affect
none of the above
7. The amount of alcohol in a 1 oz. shot of 80 proof whiskey, a 5
oz. glass of wine and a 12 oz. beer are ______.
different
all the same
can't be measured

As the driver you can use many evasive actions to avoid any collision. This is a straight-line relationship. For example. the more force at impact. the greater the force of impact. If one vehicle is going 20 mph and the other is going 60 mph. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 1: Effect Of Speed On Force Of Impact One should avoid dangerous driving situations (excessive speed. True False PROGRAM READING MODULE 4 Required amount of time to complete: 25 minutes MAN. but action must be taken to avoid a head-on collision. running red lights or stop signs. the one going 60 mph has nine times the force at impact than the one going 20 mph.). the greater the speed of any vehicle. This is a squared relationship. Three times the speed will have nine times the force of impact (32). You can turn the steering wheel. etc. 8. If you are going the same speed. Alcohol affects the reaction time of drivers by slowing the reaction time down. use your brakes. if both vehicles are going 20 mph and one is a sub- compact and the other is a tractor-trailer. let off on the accelerator prior to impact or do combinations of all three to lessen the severity of the collision . Four times the speed will have sixteen times . the greater the vehicle weight. followed by the multiple vehicle collision. the collision with the tractor-trailer will have the greater force of impact. The more weight. 1 What is the effect of speed on the force of impact? Simply put. the greater the force of impact. If the vehicles are the same weight. the vehicle with the higher speed will have the greater force of impact. The most dangerous situation to avoid is the head-on collision.

Georgia. Additionally. The first is the car with whatever you hit or whatever hit you.Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. Chapters 8 and 12. how long does it take to dissipate the kinetic energy contained in the vehicle and everything in it? It takes about 7/10 of a second. Great speed increases the probability of injury in a crash . This is also what injures or kills the occupants of the vehicles. you are actually in two collisions. number 2. Speed and Speed Limits. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 2: Concept Of Second Collision When it looks like you cannot avoid the collision that is about to happen in front of you. If a car leaves the road at 35 mph and hits a large tree. 2. . 3 Resources: American Automobile Association. The impact of the car with the object.8 million pounds of force to release in a crash. The second collision is when you are stopped by the windshield or steering column if you do not wear your safety belt. Speed kills. Responsible Driving. any object that is not secured in place will go flying to the front of the car. 2 What are the two collisions that happen in a crash? 1. striking what is in front of those flying objects. Five times the speed will have twenty five times the force of impact (52). The impact of the driver with the inside of the car.the force of impact (42). number 1. 3. October 1998. A three thousand-pound car traveling at 70 mph has 15. MAN. The force at impact is what can kill. and so on. Atlanta. The damage caused to a person striking his seat belt at a relative speed of 15 mph (35 mph forward momentum minus 20 mph speed of belt) and "riding down" the crash (decelerating) over the next 3/10 of a second is much less than that sustained by a person striking the front of the passenger compartment at a relative speed of 35 mph and stopping in 1/10 of a second . The release of this energy is what causes the car to get damaged or destroyed in the crash.

This law means that it will take a force to start and stop an object in motion . frame and engine continue to absorb the energy from the crash. their heads continue back to . Occupants decelerate to 25 mph. The front bumper strikes the tree and begins to deform. Loose objects from the rear seat and deck come flying forward to strike the front seat passengers at 35 mph.In the first tenth of a second: the car and everything inside are going at the speed of the vehicle.In the fifth tenth of a second: the safety belts begin to deform by stretching to decelerate the passenger in a comparatively gentle manner. .In the third tenth of a second: the frame and body of the car continue to deform. The safety belts and passengers continue forward at 35 mph. the belted occupants rebound from the safety belts. Loose objects from the back seat and deck continue forward at 35 mph. The car body. the passenger compartment. . The car's passengers are still traveling forward at 35 mph.In the fourth tenth of a second: the frame of the car decelerates to 20 mph and continues to dissipate the energy of the crash. for the purpose of demonstration we will pick 35 mph. 1 Below is the 7/10 of a second impact (including people and objects in the vehicle): 1/10 sec. the rest of the car and its occupants continue moving forward at 35 mph. The unsecured objects in the back of the vehicle could strike with enough energy to cause injury or death. . . 7/10 sec. the car frame has decelerated to 15 mph. 2/10 sec. front dash and windshield have decelerated to 20 mph. the engine and frame strike the tree and begin to decelerate.In the seventh tenth of a second: the frame and body have finished deforming and rebound in the opposite direction (reaction to the crash action). Unbelted occupants continue forward at 35 mph. A force is required to change the speed or direction of a moving body.What happens in a crash? Newton’s first law of motion states: A body remains at rest unless a force makes it move. 3/10 sec. . the radiator and fan begin to crush. Belted occupants decelerate to 10 mph.In the second tenth of a second: the bumper continues to deform as the energy of the crash is being dissipated.The sixth tenth of a second: the safety belts have reached their deformation limits. Unbelted occupants continue forward to strike the dashboard. The front center of the car slows to 0 mph. steering column and windshield at 35 mph. . the dashboard and windshield decelerate to 0 mph. 4/10 sec. . 6/10 sec. 5/10 sec.

Atlanta. number 1Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. The unbelted occupants are carted off to the hospital or morgue for an extended stay.come into contact with the head restraints. As you recall from earlier in the course. Resources: Telford. some longer than others. Unbelted occupants reach 0 mph by striking the windshield. This energy is the force that needs to be dissipated in a collision. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 3: Energy Absorption As you drive around. number 2. Speed and Speed Limits. Even . Laurie. you are going 70 mph and the car you strike head on is going 70 mph. a 140 mph collision. does it make a difference where the crash occurs on the vehicle? The direction of impact in the collision makes a very large difference. what do you have? Simple. University of West Florida. Their internal organs.Georgia. still going 35 mph. As an example. How do modern vehicles absorb the energy from a crash? Modern vehicles absorb the energy from a crash by the way they deform or "crush" when they are in a crash. the greater the force of impact. your car is "carrying" around kinetic energy. they deform and crush. The passenger compartment is the strongest portion of the vehicle. October 1998. strike their rapidly decelerating body frames . October 1998. The car doors have internal steel beams to protect the passenger compartment. steering column and dashboard. The energy of the crash is used up crushing the metal of the vehicle.2 The crash is essentially over!!! The belted-in occupants count their lucky stars and continue on with their lives. Laws of Motion. the greater the speed of the vehicle. With the body of the motor vehicle using up the energy of the crash. MAN.

Three times the speed will have nine times the force of impact. True False 6. True False 2. One of the two collisions that happen in a crash is: impact of the car with the object impact of the car with the air both neither 5. True False . the passengers are still traveling forward at the speed of the vehicle. The second collision is when the windshield or steering column stops you if you do not wear your safety belt. Unbelted vehicle occupants reach 0 mph by striking the windshield. True False 4. These questions are for practice only. As the vehicle continues to deform at the beginning. You must only pass the final exam. Resources: Your motor vehicle's owner manual. True False 3. the 140- mph crash has approximately 31.6 million pounds of force to dissipate. steering column and dashboard. The increase of speed is a squared relationship.with the modern cars that are designed to absorb the energy of impact. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. Modern vehicles are designed to crush when they crash to absorb kinetic energy.

Negligent or irresponsible driving will not be tolerated and will be dealt with severely and swiftly. If one vehicle is going 20 mph and another is going 60 mph. What is the point system? . The ______ at impact is what can kill. size length force 8. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 1: Legal Penalties Including Point System Any violation or number of violations can result in the potential loss of your driving privilege. not a right. 7. the one going 60 mph has ______ times the force at impact as the one going 20 mph. three six nine twelve PROGRAM READING MODULE 7 Required amount of time to complete: 50 minutes MAN. Is driving in Florida a right or a privilege? Driving is a privilege in both Florida and the United States. Driving in Florida and the United States is a privilege.

Drivers should be aware that speed limits apply when no visible or noticeable posts are around. the default speed limit is 55 mph. Other vehicles and pedestrians are put at risk by speeding drivers whose distances they may not be able to judge accurately. you will now read about the speed limits including the default limits when a sign is not posted. Is speeding a safety problem? . What are the speed limits in Florida? No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. Recent studies have shown that drivers who run red lights are likely to be speeding and that motorcyclists who crash with other vehicles making left turns are also likely to be speeding. In business or residential districts the speed limit is 30 mph unless otherwise posted. Why are speed limits important? Roadway design factors. including how far ahead a driver can see. are compromised if vehicles travel faster than circumstances warrant. vehicle or other conveyance or object on or entering the highway. Compliance with legal requirements call on all persons to use due care1. In every event. If no signs are posted on either the rural interstate limited access highway or the four lane highway divided by a median strip.SUBJECT 2: Speed Limits Including Default Limits With speeding being the great problem that it is. speed shall be controlled as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person.

turning on a red light.187. "It is clear that speeding does represent a significant traffic safety problem. The shape of a road sign can tell you as much about the sign's message as its color. 316. You can be issued a ticket for driving too slowly. Washington. Speeding.C. What is a yield sign? . approaching intersections or merging into traffic.NHTSA. Signals And Road Markings There is a host of information available on the roadways. D. You should not drive so slowly that you block other vehicles moving at normal. You should drive with the flow of traffic (within the speed limit).189. MAN. passing. Section 316." the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports. 316. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 3: Signs. number 1. Every driver needs to be extra careful when the weather is bad or when changing lanes. 1998.183(1).Yes. directing the flow of traffic and the interaction of the driving environment. number 2.. safe speeds. Traffic Safety Facts. Is driving too slowly against the law? Yes. Speeding is a factor in 30% of all fatal crashes annually2. Resources: Florida Statutes. Always be alert to what is happening on the road.

while a single broken white line signals traffic flowing in two lanes in the same direction. when it is legal. What do the lines on the roadways tell the driver? Solid double yellow lines. the driver should go no more than 15 mph and exercise extreme caution. The driver shall stop behind the limit line at an intersection or street controlled by a traffic light and proceed when the signal changes. these are not safe actions. At a street or intersection with a stop sign. This first example is most frequently seen on two lane rural roadways. These are specifically designated lanes in the roadway for turning either right or left. On roads or intersections without limit or crosswalk lines. Intersections. and necessary to do so. Single broken yellow and white lines. The arrow will point in the . The driver is allowed by law to make turns over and left turns out of a driveway and crossovers from driveway to driveway as long as the flow of traffic is not impeded and no excessive speed is used. Turn lanes. the driver should use the end of the curb as a determination of where the intersection starts and where the vehicle should stop.sometimes make the road difficult to drive on. the driver shall stop behind the limit line. Road limit lines. These lanes can be governed by specific turn arrow lights that direct when the specific turn may be accomplished. then proceed out into the intersection at a cautious speed to start a turn or other maneuver. If oncoming vehicles must slow or make drastic maneuvers. At a blind intersection. A single broken yellow line shows traffic flowing two (opposite) directions. The defensive driver should be aware of how close other vehicles are on the roadway and should only cross broken lines with caution. Double yellow lines cannot be crossed in other situations than those described. This would be similar to driving on sand or gravel. safe. The driver of a vehicle approaching an intersection shall yield the right of way to a vehicle which has entered the intersection from a different highway.

Crosswalks. Crosswalks are specific lanes for pedestrians to cross roadways.direction of the turn and the red. increase speed. and the driver must have adequate visibility of all roadways and vehicles he or she may affect or be affected by. What are on-ramps and merging lanes? Drivers should be advised that highway on-ramps are for entrance to and preparation for highway driving. the driver just needs to be paying attention. . Bicycle lanes should be kept clear of and merged through with extreme caution. deliberate manner and prepare to stop at the bottom of the off-ramp if necessary. yellow and green arrow indication mean the same as a red. If the crosswalks are marked. The driver is called on to signal. They can be lined on the pavement and governed by walk and don't walk signs or be unmarked. and merge safely into traffic. the driver of the vehicle must stop at the marked stop line or if unmarked. Motor vehicles may not be in a bicycle lane unless they are entering or leaving the highway. Drivers must no longer travel at the drastically reduced speeds suitable for city driving. The maneuver must also be completed in a reasonable amount of time. preparing to turn or parking where parking is permitted but not in the bicycle lane. the driver must stop before entering the intersection. Motor vehicle operators shall use a passing lane when the attempted maneuver is perceived as safe and prudent and can be completed without the use of excessive speed. The driver is called on to signal. Exiting a highway requires reduced speed. reduce speed in a casual. yellow or green light. Drivers are called upon to increase speeds to that of the highway traffic and use the on-ramp and subsequent merging lanes as a means to get into the flow of highway traffic. Increasing speed should never happen on an off-ramp. What is a passing lane? Passing lanes are for passing. What are bicycle lanes? Bicycle lanes are for bicycles. Bicycles must stay in the bicycle lane and similarly motor vehicles must stay in lanes designed for their use. What are off-ramps and merging lanes? Drivers should realize that off-ramps are designed for reducing speeds and are links to and roadways for the entrance back into city driving. There is no secret or trick to driving. Pretty obvious. extra caution and the total road awareness of the operator of the motor vehicle. is illegal and is the opposite of what is desired.

Wrong way Yellow means: General warning .Have you ever passed another vehicle by crossing the double yellow line? Was that really a good idea? How many different colors are there for traffic signs and what do they mean? There are eight: Green means: Directional information Brown means: Recreation areas Red means: Stop. Yield.

Blue means: Motorist service guidance White and black means: Regulatory Orange means: Construction maintenance. .

a driver must yield the right of way and immediately drive to a position parallel to and as close as possible to the nearest edge or curb of the highway clear of any intersection and remain there until the emergency vehicle has passed. what should you do? On the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle sounding a siren. As we go about our daily business. Exercise extreme caution around a emergency situation and follow the directions given by a police officer. When you are approached by an emergency vehicle. fire rescue and emergency medical teams. having at least one lighted lamp exhibiting a red or blue light plainly visible. We need to be aware as drivers what to do when one of these emergency vehicles approaches. should you start moving slowly? Remain off the side of the road until the emergency vehicle has passed. . Resources: Florida Statutes. What is the distance you must stay behind an emergency vehicle? Stay at least 500 feet behind any moving emergency vehicle displaying flashing warning lights and sounding a siren. we are watched over by law enforcement. Once the emergency vehicle approaches you. Keep a foot on the brake so the brake lights let emergency vehicle drivers know you have stopped.

316. You must only pass the final exam. Your driving privilege will be permanently revoked if you are convicted _____ times for DUI. Resources: Sections.221. 316. 316. Florida Statutes. Traffic signals direct traffic flow from two different directions. On an automobile. True False 2. 316. it will be difficult to see the road ahead. These questions are for practice only. Bumpers: Every motor vehicle of not more than 5000 pounds shall be equipped with a front and rear bumper. 316. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. True False 5. Under the Florida Statutes. False True 6. Turn lanes are specifically designated lanes in the roadway for turning either right or left.required to have your windshield wipers in good working order.271. The _____ signals the driver to stop behind the limit or crosswalk line before the intersection.294. red light yellow light green light 3.2952. If the front windshield is dirty. 316.262. a point system was established to keep track of inappropriate driving behavior and set cumulative point totals that will result in a licensing action. four three . 316. Your driving privilege will be canceled if you fail to comply with some portion of the Florida Statutes. the front can have a maximum height depending on vehicle weight or 22 to 27 inches and the rear bumper can have a height of 22 to 29 inches.237.251. when measured from the ground. False True 4.

two one 7. convicted of DUI convicted of reckless driving three times in one year both neither PROGRAM READING MODULE 5 Required amount of time to complete: 30 minutes MAN. seat belts are required by law to be worn by all drivers and passengers in the front seat of a motor vehicle and by all person under 18 regardless of seating location in the motor vehicle . 1 The fine for being convicted of not wearing your safety belt is \$30 for each violation plus court costs of up \$33 for each separate offense. Some of the reasons that your driving privilege could be revoked are _______. the driver will receive the citation and pay the fine and court costs . red light yellow light green light 8. If a passenger is under 18 and not properly restrained. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 1: Safety Belts In Florida. 2 For those drivers who say they do not want to wear their seat belt because they are concerned about immersion in water or a vehicle fire as a result of the . The ______signals the driver to proceed with the presumed right of way while still using caution.

However. For children through three years of age. The law requires children through three years of age have the restraint device be in a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer’s integrated child seat. . thereby placing their child at risk. the restraint device must be a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer’s integrated child seat. children sustain serious injuries and die in motor vehicle crashes. Resources: Florida Statutes.18. sections 316. Many of these injuries and deaths can be avoided with the correct use of child safety seats and safety belts. the lap belt should fit snugly and properly across the hips and the shoulder strap should cross over the shoulder and across the chest. vehicle seat designs and child safety seat designs. Should a child be seated in the front or back seat? The bottom line is that the back seat is the safest place for a child of any age to ride. Always read both the vehicle owner's manual and the car seat instructions carefully when deciding which car seat to use and how to properly install it. Every day. a separate carrier. a fine (\$60 plus court cost of no more than \$30) and three points on their driving record. At what age should a child be to use an infant seat? Infant seats are designed for babies from birth until at least 20 pounds and one year of age. the driver can receive a citation. Children five years of age and under must be placed in a properly installed crash tested federally approved restraint device.613 and 318. Whose responsibility is it for the child to be properly restrained? The driver of the motor vehicle is responsible to ensure that a child is properly restrained. When can a child start using a safety belt? When children are old enough (six and older) and large enough to "fit" an adult safety belt. If not. integrated child seat or seat belt may be used. For ages four and five. they can be moved out of a booster seat. many adults are unaware they are using the safety restraint incorrectly. To "fit" a safety belt properly. Installation can be difficult due to the variety of seat belt configurations. Check your car manual to find out if you need to use a locking clip or other equipment to properly secure the seat. Children five years of age and under must be placed in a properly installed crash tested federally approved restraint device.

a total of 4. they should position their seat as far back from the air bag as possible. Starting in model year 1999. Those who argued that the bag should deploy rapidly enough to protect unbelted occupants of the front seat won the day. children. 1 Can a new vehicle be purchased without air bags? Almost all-new cars have dual (driver and passenger side) air bags. Eventually. Can an airbag be disabled? Disabling an air bag is difficult and can be dangerous. Infants and small adults should be seated in the rear of the vehicle equipped with dual air bags protecting the front seat. Do air bags save lives? Yes. repair shops. MAN. The force this requires is a problem for smaller people and people who might be positioned close to the air bag . MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 4: Air Bags When air bags were introduced in the early 1990's. all new passenger cars must have dual air bags.969 lives have been saved . and adults under five feet. pickup trucks) may include an on-off switch for the passenger side airbag. In 1999. an estimated 1. For cars that have airbags where should your hands grip the steering wheel? The American Automobile Association (AAA) has suggested modifying the steering wheel gripping position in air bag equipped cars from ten and two o'clock to nine and three or even eight and four o'clock to allow room for the air bag to deploy . Recent NHTSA research indicates an overall fatality reducing effectiveness for air bags of 11%. However. If this is not possible.263 lives were saved by air bags and from 1987 to 1999. 2 Do I need to wear my safety belts if I have airbags in my car? .e. some newer vehicles (i. from disabling air bags. five inches tall. etc. all new light trucks must have dual air bags. there was considerable debate on how fast they should deploy.primarily infants. Air bags used in conjunction with the lap and shoulder belts offer the most effective safety protection available today for passenger vehicle occupants. if necessary you can contact and obtain permission from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to disable an airbag. Starting in model year 1998. Federal law prohibits dealers..

______ of traffic fatalities occur within 25 miles of home and below 40 mph. you should place your hands on the steering wheel at the 3 and 9 or 4 and 8 o'clock positions to allow room for air bags to deploy. both neither 4. True False 5. 4% 3% 2% 1% 7. immersion in water or fire as a result of a collision happens in less than ________ of all collisions annually. In Florida. If you maintain your motor vehicle it will: last longer work better neither both PROGRAM READING MODULE 6 . 8% 10% 50% 80% 6. You do not need to change your windshield wipers. True False 8. they should last as long as you own the car. When you grip the steering wheel.

or carrying packages of some sort. always scan for pedestrians. To move safely throughout this system. number 1. with their children. Get the steering system checked by an expert and have it repaired if necessary . Traffic lanes are 10. we will have to share the roadway with all of its users. The sharper the turn. Consequently. 3. Responsible Driving. 5. This means that they can use the roadways the same as other vehicles. or greater. 4. MAN. a bicyclist has all the rights and duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle. You should allow time and look for pedestrians who are elderly. handicapped. 5 Resources: American Automobile Association. You will still have directional control of the vehicle. 12. As experience tells us. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 6: Sharing The Road There are many users of the roadway systems. look for pedestrians crossing the intersecting street with the green light. pedestrians should walk on the side of the road facing oncoming traffic. The driver should be aware of and keep . 1. When you make a right turn on red (where it is not prohibited). 2. Pedestrians should be given the right of way in all circumstances. Slow down and reduce the number of sharp turns you will try to make.2065. Florida Statutes. 16 feet. You should be on the lookout for pedestrians that cross at mid- block or against lights. Chapters 10. the more effort it will require to turn the steering wheel. which side of the road should the pedestrian walk on? When there are no sidewalks. 1 When there are no sidewalks. but the steering wheel will be difficult to turn. You are required to yield the right of way to the pedestrian in this instance. 2. this is not always done. Can a bicyclist use the roadways like a motor vehicle? Under Section 316. 3. What should a driver be aware of when driving around pedestrians? The driver should be aware that the average person travels at about four feet per second.

Both the driver of and the driver affected by these wide turns should use caution. the driver cannot see you. Splash or spray from their tires can reduce visibility. 3. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 7: Passing. they could run over you. 5. If they cannot see you. Start the wipers before the vehicle passes. Responsible Driving. Drivers should be aware of the extra room needed for the execution of turns by a large vehicle. Drivers should keep clear of these vehicles until their turn is completed. reduce speed. Attempting to steal the inside track from a large truck can prove disastrous as the large motor vehicle continues its turn and drives over the top of your car. and use evasive action when needed to avoid collisions . number 1. At night. Slow down if a truck or bus is passing you. Maintain a following distance of at least four seconds behind these and other large or special-use vehicles. oversized trucks)? 1. Be even more careful passing a truck with a trailer. You do not want to be so close to the motorcycle that you would run over the rider if the rider fell. the rider does not have the same protection as a car. 4. 2. The driver may not see you and could force you off the road. Including Necessary Clear Distance . 4 Resources: American Automobile Association. The no-zones are the areas in which you do not want to stay. Similarly. use low beam headlights when following a truck or bus. Often. These are referred to as the "no- zones". 3. drivers of large vehicles should leave their vehicles sufficient room to complete turning maneuvers and should not underestimate the amount of room needed to complete the wide turns. MAN. What should you remember when driving by a larger vehicle (bus. Be aware of the larger vehicle's blind spots. a driver must swing out to the left or right before making a turn. Chapters 12. 4. Tailgating or failing to judge their speed is also a dangerous activity. 2. increase your following distance. These zones are behind or beside the vehicle where you cannot see the larger vehicle driver in the mirrors. If the motorcycle goes down for any reason. Keep a safe distance behind a truck or bus. If you cannot see the driver. When you follow a motorcycle. 4.

you should not pass. legal and safe?" These are considerations that you should make in every passing situation. If you answer no to any one of them. there will be situations in which we have to pass another vehicle. Why should you be careful when changing lanes? . * When passing a vehicle. What should a driver ask themselves about passing another vehicle? When attempting to overtake and pass another vehicle. you should ask youself. To do this safely. be sure you can see the wheels of the vehicle on the ground in your rear view mirror before pulling in front. there are many things that we need to take into consideration. and move into the passing lane only if it is clear and you are in a legal passing zone. 1 When passing a vehicle. what precautions should you use? * When passing a vehicle.As we drive. * Don't linger alongside a truck when passing. * On a level highway. Always pass a large truck on the left side and after you have passed the truck move ahead of it. The passing maneuver should be prudent and safe for conditions and the driver must have an unobstructed view and the necessary clearance before conducting the pass. it takes only three to five seconds longer to pass a truck than a car. first check to your front and rear. Passing on an open roadway should be done with the same caution. No passing to the left shall be done when approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver' s view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle might approach from the opposite direction . "is this pass necessary.

you come upon a stop sign at the same time as another driver in a cross street and he is on your right. moped rider. The driver reaching an intersection at the same time as another vehicle shall yield the right of way to the vehicle traveling on a continuing highway. and opposing signals all increase the collision potential in an intersection . motorcyclist. It only says who must yield (give up) the right-of-way. A driver should never insist on the right of way nor attempt to force their way into traffic. The driver should consider how the right-of-way will affect his or her travel. 2 Should I be concerned at an intersection? Drivers should exercise extreme caution when approaching and proceeding through intersections. Every driver. 1 Should you ever insist on the right of way? The driver should never assume that other drivers will start or complete any maneuver. The driver shall proceed through and towards a blind intersection at a reasonably safe speed . etc. you are letting them go before you in the traffic situation. The driver should not be influenced by friends or peer groups when driving and should make his or her own decisions in regards to routes. as does gaining eye contact with all operators of motor vehicles that come directly in conflict with you. 3 A driver approaching a blind intersection shall do so with extreme caution and reduced speed. These are some ways for you to reduce this probability when you are driving.Failure to yield the right of way leads to collisions in all the United States and especially in Florida. You yield (give up) the right of way to that driver by letting them go first. vehicles making left and right turns. The driver should use his or her own discretion as to travel plans and the environment . Conflicting highways. bicyclist and pedestrian must do everything possible to avoid a crash. When you yield the right of way to another vehicle. For example. The driver should be aware of the areas in which he drives most frequently and should have a general knowledge of other frequently traveled streets or roadways as well. The driver should know which intersections or thoroughfares are more apt to have collisions and should avoid them. The driver shall yield the right of way whenever it is not safe or prudent for his or her vehicle to proceed through the intersection. Who has the right of way? The law gives the right-of-way to no one. 4 . speed. Drivers should attempt to be both courteous and conscientious toward other drivers . Giving up the right of way to other drivers also helps to avoid collisions. Drivers should try to anticipate other drivers actions as well as yielding whenever needed or required by law.

The left turn should be completed from the left lane to the left lane. Chapters 8 and 12. . Right hand turns must be completed into the right hand land or lane closest to the curb. It is always better to give up the right of way versus getting into a collision. The right of way is yielded to the driver on the right. 3. as conflict is bound to exist. as a rear end collision would send the vehicle into oncoming traffic. unless otherwise dictated by a traffic signal. number 1. 2. The driver should position the vehicle behind the limit line at first and then ease out into the intersection before completing the turn. When I am making a turn. Drivers are advised to yield and give up the right of way when traffic dictates and are called on to use good judgment as well. Left turns should be made from the furthest most left hand lane and should be done so only when traffic dictates it is safe and prudent. never insist on the right of way. while still able to complete the turn in ample time. Responsible Driving.5 What should you do if a traffic signal is malfunctioning? Stop. Resources: American Automobile Association. 5.American Automobile Association. Responsible Driving. The driver making the left turn should not have the steering wheel turned in the direction of the turn before beginning the maneuver. just as you would for a four-way stop. number 4. The driver making the left turn should position himself far enough out into the intersection as to get a clear view of all traffic conditions. Turns that are executed simultaneously with another vehicle must be done with extra caution. what should I be concerned about? The driver should exercise extreme caution when attempting turning maneuvers from an intersection. Remember. The driver in conflict with another vehicle should yield to the vehicle to his direct right in most cases . Chapters 1 and 2. This means that the first to the intersection proceeds first.

You should be particularly alert in school and construction zones. Control of speed is an influencing factor in safe operation of a motor vehicle as excessive speed is a major cause of collisions (30%. How fast should you drive? You should never drive faster than what is safe for conditions. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 9: Speed Adjustments In Relationship To Surroundings When traveling. Speed laws should be observed by every motor vehicle operator and are established solely as a safety . you should adjust your driving speed to take into consideration the surroundings you are driving through. as discussed earlier). motor vehicle operators should drive at speeds where the vehicle is under control and is in conjunction with speed limits and recommendations. At all times.MAN.