PROGRAM READING MODULE 1

Required amount of time to complete: 10 minutes TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS TOPIC 1: TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS
SUBJECT 1: Societal And Personal Losses From Traffic Crashes (quantified)

The motor vehicle has become central to the way of life and the way of business in the United States. This invention has led to more productivity, greater mobility, higher efficiency and effectiveness over the same time a century ago. However, all of these benefits have come at a great cost. Motor vehicle crashes are the number one cause of death for all people from 6 to 33 years old and account for more than 90% of all transportation related fatalities . The economic cost of motor vehicle crashes alone is estimated at more than $150.5 billion annually .
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The majority of persons killed or injured in traffic crashes were drivers (64%), followed by passengers (32%), pedestrians (3%) and cyclists (2%)3. 96% of the 12 million vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes in 1995 were passenger cars or light trucks. Slightly more than half of fatal collisions occurred on roads with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more while only 21% of property damage crashes occurred on these roads. Collisions on city streets are largely at intersections because of lane changing, running or jumping lights, etc., while collisions on freeways are mainly caused by tailgating or following too closely.
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How many people die on our roadways annually? Approximately 41,000+. In 1999, 41,611 people died on our roadways. That is an average of approximately 114 persons being killed on our roadways every day of the year. One person dies on our roads every 13 minutes. This means that while you are reading this program, 18 people will have died on the roadways in the United States .
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In 2000, Florida's share of the carnage on our roads resulted in 2,999 lives being lost. This works out to eight per day or one every three hours .
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How many people are injured on our roadways annually? The number of injuries that occur on our roadways is phenomenal. In 1999, 3,236,000 were injured on the roadways of the United States. This works out to

8,865 injuries caused by motor vehicle collisions per day or 369 per hour or six per minute or one every ten seconds. In the four hours that you are reading this program, 1477 persons will be injured on the roads of the United States .
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In Florida in 2000, there were 246,541 traffic collision related injuries. This works out to 675 per day or 28 per hour or approximately one every two minutes and 13 seconds .
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Our personal mobility and business opportunities are greatly enhanced by the motor vehicle. However, there is no such thing as a free lunch. We pay for these advantages with our lives, property and the increasing costs in all categories of our existence for the motor vehicle.
Resources: NHTSA, Traffic Safety Overview, 1995, Washington, D.C., number 3, 4, 5.NHTSA, Traffic Safety Overview, 1999, Washington, DC, number 1, 2, 6, 8.DHSMV, Traffic Crash Facts, 2000, Tallahassee, Florida, number 7, 9.

TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS TOPIC 1: TRAFFIC CRASH PROBLEM - MAGNITUDE AND FACTORS
SUBJECT 2: Contribution Of DUI And Other Hazardous Acts

As if driving is not dangerous enough, there is a significant portion of our driving population that drives under the influence of alcohol and other drugs. Driving requires a high degree of awareness of the driving environment and consists of a decision making process that is used hundreds of times per mile of travel. When you introduce alcohol and other drugs into this decision making process, the process is slowed down, sometimes fatally. It is or at least should be intuitively obvious that you are not going to proceed safely in a fast paced decision making process with your ability to make those decisions slowed down. Alcohol-related crashes cost society $45 billion anually, yet this conservative estimate does not include pain, suffering and lost quality of life. The indirect costs raise the alcohol-related crash figure to a staggering $116 billion in 1993 .
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What was the average cost for each injured survivor of an alcohol-related crash?

Approximately $67,000, including $6,000 in health care costs and $13,000 in lost productivity .
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What impact does alcohol and other drugs have on traffic collisions? In 1999, there were 15,786 fatalities in alcohol related crashes. This is a 6% decrease compared to 1996, and it represents an average of one alcohol-related fatality every 33 minutes. NHTSA estimates that alcohol was involved in 38% of fatal crashes and in 7% of all crashes in 1999. NHTSA also estimated that 30.1% of all traffic fatalities occurred in crashes in which at least one driver or nonoccupant had a blood alcohol concentration of .10 grams per deciliter or greater .
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Approximately 1.4 million drivers were arrested in 1998 for driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs. This is an arrest rate of one in every 132 licensed drivers in the United States. About three in every 10 Americans will be involved in an alcohol related crash at some time or another in their life .
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In Florida, in 2000, there were 23,578 alcohol-related crashes, which injured 19,775 people and killed 9795. 32.6% of traffic fatalities and 9.5% of traffic crashes were alcohol related6. Approximately three people died and 60 were injured every day due to alcohol related collisions in Florida .
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What other hazardous acts affect the driving environment? In 1999, speeding was a contributing factor in 30% of all fatal crashes, and 12,628 lives were lost in speeding related crashes. Motor vehicle crashes cost society an estimated $4,800 per second. The economic cost of crashes was estimated at $150.5 billion in 1994. The cost of speeding related crashes in 1998 accounted for $27.7 billion dollars or $52,607 per minute or $877 per second .
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Other concepts to be aware of are the concepts of aggressive driving and road rage. Aggressive driving is defined as "at least one of these four driving offenses, running a red light or stop sign, failure to yield the right-of-way and reckless driving ".
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The cost of aggressive driving is substantial. It has been estimated that over the last ten years, aggressive driving has killed an average of 1500 people each year, injured 800,000 and cost the country an estimated $24 billion in medical costs, property damage and lost time from work .
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Road rage is the most extreme example of aggressive driving and usually is an extremely rare event. Road rage is the term used to refer to physical assaults that result from a traffic dispute. Road rage is an aggressive driving incident that has lost control. A near collision that turns to violence . No agency can say how
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True False 3.DHSMV. Traffic Safety Facts.USA Today. number 1.. 12. Florida. In Florida. 1999. C. Collisions on city streets are largely at intersections because of lane changing. 11. 2000. number 9. approximately _______ people died everyday in motor vehicle crashes. 7. October 1998. number 3.bad a problem road rage has become. one-quarter half three-quarters all 5. in 2000. Tallahassee. 1998. number 5. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. AAA estimates that between 1990 and 1996. Aggressive driving: A road well traveled. Approximately 41. number 8. These questions are for practice only..NHTSA. 4. 10. Motor Vehicle crashes account for more than ______% of all transportation-related fatalities. Monday November 23. Washington. Cost of Alcohol Related Crashes. Washington. 2NHTSA. 70 80 . Public Policy Statistics. Slightly more than _______ of fatal collisions occur on roads with posted speed limits of 55 mph or more. running or jumping lights. D. 12 Resources: MADD. Traffic Safety Overview. 1999. 2 4 6 8 4. DC.000+ people die annually on the roads of the United States. 218 people have died on our roads as a result of road rage . 6. True False 2. Traffic Crash Facts. Speeding. You must only pass the final exam.

True False 9.90 95 6. 1 3 6 7. Road rage is the term used to refer to physical assaults that result from a traffic dispute. True False 8. property damage and lost time from work. About ____ in every 10 Americans will be involved in an alcohol related crash at some time or another in their life. The most extreme example of aggressive driving is called: defensive driving road rage poor driving PROGRAM READING MODULE 2 Required amount of time to complete: 25 minutes THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 1: Dealing With Stress . It has been estimated that over the last ten years aggressive driving has cost society $24 billion in medical costs.

The driver should evaluate his or her state of mind before attempting the operation of a motor vehicle and should not drive when heightened stress. your face gets flushed. however. The resistance stage is where your body repairs the damage caused by the alarm stage. The ability to anticipate and determine upcoming driving hazards and conditions is also adversely affected. which may include fear of a collision or anger at the driver who pulled out in front of you. emotions or fatigue are realized.Driving while irritated. (2) resistance. 1 The operation of a motor vehicle takes a clear and focused mind. What three stages does the body respond to when it is stressed? To use stress in a positive way and prevent it from becoming distress. speed and take chances on the road. and (3) exhaustion. you should become aware of your own reactions to stressful events. Too much stress. life would be dull and unexciting. high blood pressure. you perspire. Exhaustion may be manifested in such things as migraine headaches. 3 A major challenge in this stress filled world of today is to make the stress in your life work for you instead of against you. Stressful conditions involving personal or business life will affect safe driving and should be recognized and addressed as negative influences on driving habits. your arms and legs tighten up preparing you to fight or flee from the situation. Without stress. and opportunity to life. and as a result the dangerous driver. a slower reaction time. challenge. and an overall lack of safe driving habits. but it is quite true. Stress adds flavor. This driver is more apt to make more unsafe lane changes. The body responds to stress by going through three stages: (1) alarm. Your initial reaction would be an alarm reaction. 2 Do we need stress in our life? Yes. uncluttered by thoughts of aggravation and distress. backaches or insomnia. anger. The driver with a wandering mind caused by any one of the aforementioned effects has a decreased awareness of the road. you need stress in your life!! Does that surprise you? Perhaps. can seriously affect your physical and mental well-being . As an example. upset or shaken will substantially alter one’s judgment when behind the wheel. assume that a car pulls out abruptly into traffic in front of you. The angry driver is the aggressive offensive driver. The exhaustion stage comes about when the alarm resistance cycle is repeated too often and the body does not have sufficient time to repair any damage. Your body physically reacts by releasing hormones (adrenaline) into your blood stream. 4 How does one deal with stress? .

When you are nervous. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 2: Dealing With Fatigue Drivers should be made aware that fighting tiredness while at the wheel is not advisable. particularly when they don't do things your way? Try cooperation instead of confrontation. If a problem is beyond your control and cannot be changed at the moment. fatigue can seriously impair driving ability. . The onset of fatigue frequently coincides with the onset of darkness when visibility is greatly reduced and the risk of traffic crashes is high. However. even for the alert driver. Must you always be right? Do other people upset you. often referred to as "inattention". Drivers who drive through the night or at other times when they are normally asleep. (ADM) 91-502. Drivers who drive long distances without rest breaks. Responsible Driving. it's better than fighting and always being "right". 3. number 2U. angry. 5 Resources: American Automobile Association. We all respond differently to different situations. 1. don't fight the situation . Try physical activity. The actual extent to which fatigue contributes to the traffic crash picture is probably much higher than statistics indicate. Chapter 3. Know your limits. 5. 1991. DHHS Publication no. Share your stress. It helps to talk to someone about your concerns and worries. Drivers that are sleep deprived. 3. number 3. or upset. 2. Public Health Service. 4. What drivers are most at a greater risk of having a collision? 1. 2.There are as many ways to deal with stress as there are individuals.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Chapter 2. release the pressure through exercise or physical activity. because long before a driver actually becomes drowsy. number 1American Automobile Association. 4. here are some guidelines to use. Responsible Driving.

6. Drivers who are taking medication (that increases sleepiness) or drinking alcohol. Frequent travelers (e.000 police-reported crashes annually (about 1. . Avoid alcohol and other drugs that may impair driving performance. Drivers who are driving alone. 2 The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that approximately 100. Drivers that drive on long. 4. Get a good night's sleep.one-sixth of all crashes . This varies from individual to individual but is somewhere around eight hours per night.are thought to be produced by driver inattention/lapses . In addition to the high number of miles driven each year. Which drivers are especially susceptible to fatigue-related crashes? Truck drivers are especially susceptible to fatigue-related crashes. Drowsiness/fatigue may play a role in crashes attributed to other causes. boring roads and become hypnotized by the road. 1 How many have driven from home to work or work to home and don't remember the last few miles they drove? Fatigue has affected all of us at some time or another on the road. many truckers may drive during the night when the body is sleepiest.g. bring a passenger. 3. If you are taking a long trip. 5. 3 How do you prevent fatigue from affecting your driving? To prevent fatigue from affecting your driving. 7. Truckers may also have a high prevalence of a sleep and breathing disorder called sleep apnea . 2. business travelers ). The passenger can share the driving task and stay awake to talk to the driver while being alert for the signs of fatigue. rural.4. here are some tips you should consider: 1.5% of all crashes) involve drowsiness/fatigue as a principal casual factor. About one million crashes annually . Schedule regular stops (about every two hours or 100 miles)..

With severe emotional distress. family. 1 How would you feel if you were at fault in a collision that turned a 20-year-old into a quadriplegic. Drive Alert. 4 THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 3: Dealing With Emotional Distress The emotionally distressed driver is more apt to be involved in a traffic collision than is the rested. erratic lane changes. Washington. yet while the physical trauma caused by crashes has been the subject of extensive research. Aggressive driving as defined earlier is "at least one of these four driving offenses. This could manifest itself in increased risk taking behavior. such as shorter following distances. or killed a family's only child? The answer seems obvious. 3." Engaging in any or all of the listed behaviors could result in a collision. Even those lucky enough to avoid a crash will know friends. C. If you feel that you have a sleep disorder. the driver is not concentrating on the driving task. Resources: National Sleep Foundation. consult your physician and seek help4. aggressive driving could result. 2 At least once during their lifetime almost all drivers will be involved in a serious crash where people are injured or killed. psychological damage and suffering is less well understood. October 1988. D. the individual could turn to substance use or abuse to hide the emotional pain. It should be made clear that a tired driver. With the increased risk-taking behavior. Arrive Alive. number 1. 2. particularly for crash survivors who do not sustain a physical injury . increased speed. When disturbed by emotions. clear-headed motor vehicle operator.5. or one with a cluttered mind has decreased ability to avoid collisions and is likely to be involved in an altercation as well. 3 How is an emotionally disturbed driver more vulnerable to a collision? 1. 3. 2. Combine this with driving and this would contribute to increased crash risk. etc. a disturbed driver. . Unsafe behaviors like this contribute to increased crash risk. or colleagues who have suffered the effects of a serious crash . failure to yield the right-of-way and reckless driving. running a red light or stop sign. he or she is concentrating on what has him or her upset.

4 What are the four ways which drivers cope with emotional trauma? The recovery process of a driver who has been involved in a collision follows four basic phases. hold it for a few seconds and then let it out. Take a deep breath. These phases are: 1.4. regardless of who was at fault . Preoccupied with the event and realization of what happened. some hurt. 4. 3. 2. Shock. If you are unsuccessful in controlling your emotions and are in a crash. 3. drivers tend to blame themselves if others are injured or killed. which in an extreme case. Your mind is not capable of rational function. Do not get in your motor vehicle and drive angry. Attribution. Get some perspective. real or imagined. Resolution. Go for a walk. your confusion and frustration level have risen to the point where you blindly strike out. Do anything non-violent. unchecked emotions can lead to aggressive driving. Take a moment and recognize your anger for what it is. what are the four emotional reactions of a car collision or ticket? Crashes can trigger a powerful emotional reaction: Shock Anxiety Guilt Grief All but the most hardened people who cause injury or death are emotionally overwhelmed by the experience. and sometimes denial. Recoil and impact. do not drive when emotionally distressed. The person has made their peace with the situation. Take a time out and go sit in your room. Try to displace yourself from what it is that is upsetting you. Why did this happen to me? That can’t be right. As mentioned earlier. Because driving puts them in control of their car. numbing. talk to someone you trust. This happened because. Your emotional distress has now risen to the point of violence. the person figures out the whys. What do I do when emotional distress has taken over? 1. could result in "road rage". . 2.

motor vehicle operators look on traffic laws with disdain. number 1. Seatbelts.Many drivers naturally pass through these phases without outside assistance. there is a genuine need for traffic control on the roadways. 5. for example. just the sight of law enforcement officials will cause drivers to slow and drive more carefully. They may take all the blame for the crash. Traffic laws are tools . have become mandatory because it is statistically verifiable that they help save lives. 5 Resources: Recovery. 2. is needed to enhance the driving conditions on the road. when drivers realize what they did or did not do. 4. 1 As most people can attest. Street design does not warrant speeds in excess of posted limits. but are done with the care of the driver in mind. Sound traffic control. Some. Planning and research are heavily involved in the establishment of traffic laws. 3. Often. nor would certain turns be construed as safe operating procedures on particular streets. seem unusually preoccupied with the event and do not appear to get better. hasty decisions. Unsupervised and uncontrolled driving would lead to chaos. Haunting Experience. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS SUBJECT 4: Appropriate Attitude Traffic laws are instituted and established as safety mechanisms for motor vehicle operators. both well organized and planned. however. British Columbia. disregarding the facts or analysis of others . Alberta. Just the simple addition of a traffic officer to an uncontrolled intersection where problems exist can show the benefits visible law enforcement has towards traffic safety. October 1998. as the objective is to make driving safe for all individuals. People stress the negative side of laws rather than the positive. Traffic laws are not made policy on rash. Coping can be particularly difficult during the recoil phase. Far too often.

Drivers must understand that more laws promote safe driving and are truly beneficial and consequently should have the support of the motor vehicle operators. * Enjoying impressing passengers or other drivers. What are some of the characteristics of a risk taking driver? There is always some degree of risk associated with driving. Drivers must understand that these laws benefit them and should be supported and followed. but a driver's attitude can greatly influence the risk involved. Operators of a motor vehicle should have an attitude suited for operation of a motor vehicle when behind the wheel and should not let other circumstances distract their attention.that save lives. Nobody enjoys receiving a traffic citation. * The illusion of control or overestimating your ability. . 2 Stress and hurriedness can adversely affect one’s ability to drive. Drivers should be aware that circumstances and attitude changes could dramatically affect driving habits. 3 Research evidence shows that attitudes affect driving safety. * Disregarding personal safety. * Justifying risks because they are taken in a noble cause. The conscientious driver is often times the defensive driver and the least likely to be involved in a traffic collision . It depends on recognizing that attitudes are important and on making a personal commitment to change attitudes that are unsafe. not frowned upon. Drivers should strive to develop a positive attitude when driving. Attitudes that predispose you to risk are: * Enjoying the thrill of danger. but developing appropriate attitudes is not simple. yet this is no reason to reject these life saving devices and tools.

human error is the cause. * Accurate observation. * Matching the vehicle's speed and direction to the situation. it has to be built into the way you drive . they are the consequence of unsafe driving practices. Driving safety cannot be thought of as an add-on extra. * Awareness of the risks inherent in particular road and traffic situations.Most drivers think they are both safer and more skillful than the average driver is .but we cannot all be right. * Developing the ability to LET GO of the perceived insults to yourself by the actions of other drivers. * Having a realization that heavy traffic and the actions of others are beyond our control. 4 What are some of the traits of a good driver? Good drivers have a quiet level of efficiency in their actions and this derives from: * A good level of attention. Collisions do not just happen by chance. In more than 90% of traffic collisions. .

the driver could turn to substance ______ to hide emotional pain. Good drivers have a quiet level of efficiency in their actions. Chapter 2. Your body reacts to an alarm reaction by releasing _______ into your blood stream: salt glucose adrenaline water 3. 1995 . C.American Automobile Association. With severe emotional pain. 2.* Develop and have the understanding that there is nothing out on the road worth dying over. number 4. number 1. This derives from: a good level of attention accurate observation both neither 2. Responsible Driving. You must only pass the final exam. number 3.NHTSA. use abuse . Resources: American Automobile Association. Responsible Driving. Washington. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. Having a positive attitude about driving and becoming and remaining aware of the driving environment will help you become a more effective and safe driver. Chapter 5. These questions are for practice only. Understanding Youthful Risk Taking.. D.

Approximately 100.neither both 4. emotions or fatigue. Developing appropriate attitudes depends on recognizing that attitudes are: not necessary a waste of time important 5. True 6. are for: the thrill of danger impressing passengers both neither 7. the driver should: continue as normal not drive 8. False Attitudes.000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness and fatigue as a principal casual factor. stomp on the gas Exhaustion can manifest itself in your life in such things as: migraine headaches insomnia both a and b neither a or b PROGRAM READING MODULE 3 . which are predisposing you to risk. When you are experiencing heightened stress.

pungent drug that acts as a depressant. Does alcohol affect the central nervous system? Yes.Required amount of time to complete: 40 minutes THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 1: Effect Of Alcohol And Other Drugs On Driver Capabilities Alcohol is a colorless. Driving after drinking increases the risk of bodily harm resulting from a collision and increase the probability of a greater injury than would have happened if you were driving sober. Does alcohol affect the reaction times of a driver? Yes. by smoking. as is the basic hand-eye coordination. alcohol has a demonstrative affect on the reaction time of drivers. What is a Controlled Substance? Controlled substances include narcotic drugs. The decision making process is slowed. A carbonated alcohol drink is absorbed faster by the body because of the carbonation. Impaired driver’s reaction times often double in response to outside stimulus. Depressing of these functions begins at the first sip of alcohol. This causes a faster absorption of the alcohol into the blood stream. by injection or by any other means. 1 Drivers must understand that if they are tired and drowsy before driving. If the driver drinks a carbonated alcoholic beverage. Alcohol often makes the individual tired and drowsy. A situation that a sober driver could handle and avoid easily becomes troublesome and critical to the impaired driver. the less likely he or she is to stay awake and alert while driving. barbiturates. 2 Alcohol is implicated in a very large number of road collisions because it leads to slow reflexes. odorless. model glue and other stimulants whether taken by swallowing. The only safe amount of alcohol to consume and then drive is none. those feelings will be heightened after alcohol consumption. by sniffing. The more a person drinks. The affects of alcohol are a general depressing of the functions of the brain and body. time that makes the difference between a crash and avoiding that crash . the affects will be faster as the alcohol is absorbed sooner and on the way to the brain . while his response time labors. volatile. Reaction time is decreased with each drink. problems with vision and a loss of self-control. alcohol affects the central nervous system by being a depressant. which causes the affects on the brain and body to take affect sooner. 3 .

The greater the damage the more likely scar tissue can form causing cirrhosis.What are some of the affects of alcohol on the central nervous system? 1. 5. regardless of the size of the person. The liver's function is to oxidize all toxic substances in the body. which is absorbed from the blood stream. The brain lacks an interior system of veins and requires large amounts of oxygen. You think you can drive when you cannot. STOMACH. Driving a motor vehicle requires many coordinated functions. Dizziness and night vision impairment. Vision can deteriorate and body nutrition can decline . Increased drowsiness after the high. The frontal lobe is essential for driving a motor vehicle as the frontal lobe controls judgment. Blood is channeled directly from the stomach to the liver. Prolonged abuse of alcohol can severely injure and potentially kill liver cells and then the drinker. emotions. BRAIN. 6 3. which are adversely impacted by alcohol and other drugs . Alcohol consumption on an empty stomach can cause a peptic ulcer or a bleeding ulcer. 4. 3. Alcohol impairs the primary function of the liver. multiple vision. Decreased peripheral vision. blurring. 5 2. the storage of vitamin A and glycogen and filtering all blood that goes from the intestines to the heart. A bleeding ulcer occurs if acid flows into the ulcerated wall and penetrates an artery. with the potential of unconsciousness. Slowed complex reaction time. 4 What are some of the major organs of your body that alcohol affects and how? 1. coma and death . This blood dispersed throughout the brain affects the brain in the following manner: the brain is affected with anything that the blood carries in it and the frontal lobe is the first part to be affected by alcohol. 6. 2. The functions are production of blood clotting elements. When the liver is injured. Impaired judgment. It should be understood and made clear that alcohol is a toxic poison that can kill . decision making and awareness. breaking down of large proteins. The liver is capable of oxidizing approximately one ounce of hard liquor per hour. it swells and fat accumulates in the liver cells. This factor particularly compromises an impaired driver's ability to respond in emergency or unanticipated situations. Impaired muscle coordination. LIVER.

sedatives and related substances that are not conducive to driving. Hallucinogens include LSD. Prolonged abuse of the liver will cause symptoms to appear . Since . 8 Over the counter medications. Alcohol falls into this category. impairing the driver's vision and motor skills. slow reaction time. can induce rapid mood swings. as would marijuana. Many over the counter medications contain alcohol. Stimulants include cocaine. 10 Stimulants. Depressants lower the rate of muscular or nervous system activity and are essentially sedatives. when they are not) and reactions are dulled and slowed. 11 Narcotics. intensify emotions. caffeine and nicotine. create restlessness. In addition. lulling or dulling affect and in large enough doses can cause comas and death. Peyote and PCP. reduces concentration. methamphetamines. and cause lack of coordination and vision by seeing objects that are not really visible. and may lead to unconscousness. . Cocaine affects the driver’s view of reality. sight. Drivers must be aware of what is in the over the counter medications they are taking and that these substances could impair the ability to drive safely . it appears to act as a stimulant for the first hour after consumption but is physiologically a depressant. hearing. Narcotics include heroin. Driving under the influence of a depressant can have catastrophic affects as judgment is impaired (drivers think they are alright to drive. barbiturates. Cocaine would be a classic example of a stimulant. 12 Hallucinogens. This type of drug causes distortion of the driver’s perception. A driver pulled over under the influence of codeine is still breaking the law as he is driving under the influence. amphetamines. 7 What other types of drugs can affect driving? Prescription drugs. Drivers often fail to realize that many drugs as prescribed by their physician have warning labels attached noting alcohol consumption with the drug could be very dangerous. codeine. This type of drug induces a soothing. Drivers must be aware of what prescription medicine they are taking and the affects of each on the body . and tranquilizers. slower reactions. antihistamines. impair judgment. reaction time. barbiturates. heightens impulsive or impatient behavior. Prescription drugs include cough medicine. light-headedness. as is concentration. antihistamines and tranquilizers. concentration and coordination. This type of drug temporarily stimulates some vital process or organ in the body. many of these drugs warn not to operate a motor vehicle when under the dosage as they can cause drowsiness.as a result of liver damage. time and distance comprehension. When alcohol is consumed. heightens aggressive or hostile behavior and distorts the drivers decision-making process . 9 Depressants. Narcotics are highly addictive and affect the driver's decision making process. opium and morphine.

A one plus one combination could equal four. number 1. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 2: Relationship Of Amount Of Alcohol Consumed To BAC When you consume alcohol. 9. Chapter 2.driving depends on the driver’s perception. 14. Alcohol plus sleeping pills can have a dramatically greater effect than either drug alone. 10. 13. Specifically. the only way to sober up is time. BAC is the measurement of the weight of alcohol in your blood stream per unit of volume. 4. when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired or to the extent that the person is deprived . You should be aware that impairment (where you are unsafe to drive) begins with the first sip of alcohol. 6. sight. he or she is presumed to be impaired . the amount of alcohol that accumulates in your body increases with the number of drinks you have and the amount of time in which you drink. Use and Abuse in America. Chapter 13. Teachers and Counselors.08 or more grams of alcohol per 210 milliliters of breath. Alcohol. number 3. 12. 2. It is unlawful for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances. it takes your liver about one hour to remove one drink from your system. 14 Resources: American Automobile Association. Each drug compounds the effect of the other. number 8. The most dangerous aspect of synergism is the additive effect. What is the definition of BAC? BAC is the abbreviation for the concept of Blood Alcohol Concentration.H. hearing and vision. when a person has a BAC of . In spite of all the rumors that you have heard. 5. further altering the driver’s ability to safely operate a motor vehicle . Chapter 3. 08? Yes. 1 Can you be convicted of a DUI with a BAC of less than the presumptive limit of . each time and each person. Responsible Driving. 13 What is the synergistic effect? Synergistic Effect. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Authoritative Guide for Parents. dramatically reducing these capabilities is not a sound driving technique .Mendelson and Mello. The synergistic effect is what happens when you combine the intake of two or more drugs at the same time. 11. Thomas Milhorn.08 or more grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or . The effect is different with each combination. Regardless of your size or weight. 7.

1934.015 of BAC per hour. October 1998. sections 316. Alcohol also affects your vision and reduces your alertness. tracking ability. you have just consumed four regular drinks at one time. Time is the only way to eliminate alcohol from your body. perceptions. so by comparison. disrupts the faculties and above all. The first thing affected after drinking alcohol is a person's judgment. your ability to drive safely decreases. 4 THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 3: Legal Consequences . You may think you can drive safely when you can't. As stated earlier. visual functions. Resources: Florida Statutes.054. 2. 7. 2. beer is all the same. 5. If you are upset.MADD.of full possession of normal faculties. 2 What effect can alcohol have on you? 1. When you have a specialty drink like a Long Island Ice Tea. and psychomotor performance. 3 6. Public Policy Statistics. In a review of studies of alcohol-related crashes. Your body can eliminate about . the amount stored in your body continues to increase. As you continue to drink alcohol. number 1.193 and 316. reaction time. divided attention performance. The amount of alcohol in a one ounce shot of 80 proof whiskey. information process capability. Alcohol also acts like an anesthetic: it suppresses or reduces perception. Alcohol affects you differently at different times. Blood Alcohol Levels. concentrated attention ability. which would never have been taken in the normal state. this drink has multiple shots of at least an 80 proof alcoholic beverage. number 3. which makes the subject wrongly assess his capabilities and take risks. over-tired. five ounce glass of wine and 12-oz. 4. 3. slows down the reflexes . to drive or be in actual physical control of any motor vehicle within this state . have an empty stomach. Alcohol appears to act as a stimulant and provokes a sensation approaching euphoria. as the amount of alcohol you consume increases. drugs or alcohol will probably have a stronger effect on you. impairment in all these areas was significant at blood alcohol concentrations of 0.

There is no safe amount to use when you are going to drive. Florida's "Alcohol/Controlled Substance DUI Law. is one of the toughest in the United States. and mandatory attendance at a substance abuse school. there are still those among us who continue to drive under the influence. A BAC of . What are the fines or can I be imprisoned for a DUI? If you are convicted of a DUI. first time offenders convicted of DUI can be assured of losing their driver license for at least six months.08). more commonly known as "point zero eight".Not more than $1000 Imprisonment: Not more than nine months Fine for Third Conviction: Not less than $1000 . stricter conditions apply to new drivers. (. paying a $250 fine.The Florida Statutes are perfectly clear. The rule here is "zero tolerance" and it means what it says: If you are under 21. Now. you may not drive with even the slightest amount of alcohol in your body. These consequences would consist of combinations of the following: Fine for First Conviction: Not less than $250 ." in effect since July 1. performing 50 hours of community service. Under the Florida Statutes. At what Blood Alcohol Concentration are you considered impaired? Driving Under the Influence (DUI) at any BAC level may be used as legal evidence in conjunction with other indicators of impairment.08 and above creates a presumption of impairment. DO NOT DRIVE if you have been drinking or taking drugs. The presumptive limit is .Not more than $500 Imprisonment: Not more than six months Fine for Second Conviction: Not less than $500 . In spite all of the warnings. the severity of the legal consequences increases with each repeat of this offense. you will come into penalties for your inappropriate behavior. 1982. More than 32% of all Florida crashes and 38% nationally in which someone is killed involve a driver who has been drinking or taking drugs. it is strictly forbidden to drive any motorized vehicle if your faculties are impaired.08 grams of alcohol per 100 ml of blood or . For those individual drivers.Not more than $2500 .08 grams of alcohol per 210 ml of breath.

193 and 316. First Conviction .License Revocation at least five years. THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION SUBJECT 4: Financial Consequences Of DUI If you have ever driven under the influence. The suspension period is six months for a first violation or one year if the offenders driving privileges have been previously suspended for the same offense.Imprisonment: Not more than 12 months NOTE: The fines and imprisonment are higher if the BAC is . Let us look at what this one beer actually costs.License Revocation at least 180 days (up to one year). If I am convicted of a DUI can I lose my driving privilege? Yes. so does the length of the revocation. Third Conviction . the law provided that it is unlawful for someone under age 21 to drive or be in actual physical control of a motor vehicle with a blood or breath alcohol level of . sections 316. if within five years of previous conviction. Resources: Florida Statutes.20 or higher or if a minor is present in the vehicle. What is the time of suspension for a person under the age of 21 who has a alcohol level of . 1996. What will happen if you refuse to take a blood test. if within 10 years of first conviction.1934.02 or higher. urine test or a breath test? If you refuse to take any sobriety test required by law when asked.02 or higher? Effective October 1. Second Conviction . The loss that we all suffer annually through impaired driving is staggering as mentioned earlier. your license will be suspended for one year for the first refusal or 18 months for persons with previous suspensions for refusal to take any sobriety test required by law. The amount of time that your driving privilege is revoked depends on which conviction this is for you.License Revocation at least 10 years. stop to consider the costs of what could happen. As the number of convictions increase. You could kill yourself or an innocent bystander. .

What are some of the associated personal costs for DUI? What do you think are some estimates?

Some of the associated costs of a DUI are:            Towing - $150 Lawyer - $3500 Fine - $250 to $500 DUI School - $190 to $285 Insurance - $1500 Lost Wages - $1000 Court Costs - $450 Substance Abuse Evaluation - $75 Treatment - $400 License Reinstatement - $155 Cost Recovery - $350

That "one" beer cost you in the neighborhood of $8000. You could have made a down payment on a really nice car, a house or some other substantial piece of property with that money. The price per beer goes up for a second or subsequent DUI. What else could you do with $8000?
1

What are some of the losses to society as a result of DUI? In fatal crashes, the loss is what that person could have done with his or her life if he or she were part of the future. We have no way of estimating what that person(s) would have accomplished if he or she remained alive. For those who are injured, we all bear the cost of their rehabilitation, either directly when we pay their bill because they cannot through public assistance, or indirectly through higher insurance and health costs. For those that are permanently disabled, we pay to support them for the rest of their lives. For those convicted of this crime, society has to pay for their defense, police and paramedics to go to the crash scene and clean up the damage. In case of death, the police have to inform loved ones of the demise of someone close to them. There is then subsequent suffering in your family or another's from the loss of someone close to them.
Resources: Florida Department of Transportation, Beer Costs $8025, Metro-Dade Police Department, 1996, number 1.

THE HUMAN FACTORS TOPIC 3: DUI PREVENTION
SUBJECT 5: Ways To Avoid Driving Impaired

Obviously no one should drink and drive. Once you start drinking, your vision, mobility and comprehension are affected. However, if you choose to consume alcohol, think before you drink. There are many ways to consume alcohol and not get behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. Just think of what you would rather do than spend $8000 on a DUI conviction. What are some clues you can use to avoid the impaired driver through driving defensively? There are some visual clues for the defensive driver to spot and then avoid the impaired driver. The impaired driver might be exhibiting one or more of the following behaviors: no lights, straddling lanes, weaving, stopping without cause, tailgating, driving well below the posted speed limit, inconsistent signaling and abrupt turns. When you see this activity, avoid this driver. Also be aware of your surroundings. Avoid the parts of town where the bars and nightclubs are located. Do not drive late at night on weekends and watch for impaired drivers crossing the center line .
1

What are some alternatives to driving impaired? THINK OF A WAY TO GET HOME WITHOUT DRIVING: If you do choose to drink, please do not drive. There are other ways to travel after consuming alcohol. Always plan ahead, pick a designated driver (the designated driver does not drink at all), drink at a friend's house and spend the night, take a taxi, or consider not consuming alcohol at all .
2

Resources: MADD, Public Policy Statistics, October 1998, number 1, 2.

These questions are for practice only. You must only pass the final exam. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module)

1. At what Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) are you presumed impaired in Florida? .04 .06

.08 .10 2. __________ is a type of drug that temporarily stimulates some vital process or organ in the body. stimulant depressant narcotic hallucinogen 3. The frontal lobe of the brain is the first part of the brain that is affected by alcohol. True False 4. What are some of the visual clues a defensive driver can use to spot an impaired driver? tailgating inconsistent signaling abrupt turns all of the above 5. For a _____ conviction of a DUI you could pay a fine of not less than $1000 and not more than $2500. first second third fourth 6. The synergistic affect is _________ with each combination, each time and each person. different the same has no affect none of the above 7. The amount of alcohol in a 1 oz. shot of 80 proof whiskey, a 5 oz. glass of wine and a 12 oz. beer are ______. different all the same can't be measured

The more weight. If one vehicle is going 20 mph and the other is going 60 mph. Three times the speed will have nine times the force of impact (32). The most dangerous situation to avoid is the head-on collision. the one going 60 mph has nine times the force at impact than the one going 20 mph. the greater the vehicle weight. the collision with the tractor-trailer will have the greater force of impact. As the driver you can use many evasive actions to avoid any collision. but action must be taken to avoid a head-on collision. let off on the accelerator prior to impact or do combinations of all three to lessen the severity of the collision . This is a squared relationship. running red lights or stop signs. the more force at impact. Alcohol affects the reaction time of drivers by slowing the reaction time down. if both vehicles are going 20 mph and one is a subcompact and the other is a tractor-trailer. 1 What is the effect of speed on the force of impact? Simply put. If you are going the same speed.8. Four times the speed will have sixteen times . etc.). the greater the force of impact. You can turn the steering wheel. For example. This is a straight-line relationship. If the vehicles are the same weight. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 1: Effect Of Speed On Force Of Impact One should avoid dangerous driving situations (excessive speed. the greater the speed of any vehicle. True False PROGRAM READING MODULE 4 Required amount of time to complete: 25 minutes MAN. use your brakes. followed by the multiple vehicle collision. the vehicle with the higher speed will have the greater force of impact. the greater the force of impact.

3. 2 What are the two collisions that happen in a crash? 1. If a car leaves the road at 35 mph and hits a large tree. number 2. 2. The force at impact is what can kill. Atlanta. This is also what injures or kills the occupants of the vehicles. October 1998. Five times the speed will have twenty five times the force of impact (52). Chapters 8 and 12. Speed and Speed Limits. . The first is the car with whatever you hit or whatever hit you. Responsible Driving. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 2: Concept Of Second Collision When it looks like you cannot avoid the collision that is about to happen in front of you. MAN.Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. you are actually in two collisions. Additionally. Speed kills. The damage caused to a person striking his seat belt at a relative speed of 15 mph (35 mph forward momentum minus 20 mph speed of belt) and "riding down" the crash (decelerating) over the next 3/10 of a second is much less than that sustained by a person striking the front of the passenger compartment at a relative speed of 35 mph and stopping in 1/10 of a second . The impact of the car with the object.8 million pounds of force to release in a crash. The second collision is when you are stopped by the windshield or steering column if you do not wear your safety belt. striking what is in front of those flying objects. 3 Resources: American Automobile Association. The impact of the driver with the inside of the car. how long does it take to dissipate the kinetic energy contained in the vehicle and everything in it? It takes about 7/10 of a second. Georgia. number 1. any object that is not secured in place will go flying to the front of the car. A three thousand-pound car traveling at 70 mph has 15. Great speed increases the probability of injury in a crash .the force of impact (42). and so on. The release of this energy is what causes the car to get damaged or destroyed in the crash.

. the engine and frame strike the tree and begin to decelerate. The car's passengers are still traveling forward at 35 mph.In the fourth tenth of a second: the frame of the car decelerates to 20 mph and continues to dissipate the energy of the crash. . Loose objects from the back seat and deck continue forward at 35 mph. 3/10 sec. . The unsecured objects in the back of the vehicle could strike with enough energy to cause injury or death.In the first tenth of a second: the car and everything inside are going at the speed of the vehicle. The front bumper strikes the tree and begins to deform.The sixth tenth of a second: the safety belts have reached their deformation limits. the car frame has decelerated to 15 mph. The front center of the car slows to 0 mph. the radiator and fan begin to crush. steering column and windshield at 35 mph.In the seventh tenth of a second: the frame and body have finished deforming and rebound in the opposite direction (reaction to the crash action). Unbelted occupants continue forward at 35 mph.In the fifth tenth of a second: the safety belts begin to deform by stretching to decelerate the passenger in a comparatively gentle manner. frame and engine continue to absorb the energy from the crash. 4/10 sec. .What happens in a crash? Newton’s first law of motion states: A body remains at rest unless a force makes it move. The safety belts and passengers continue forward at 35 mph. . front dash and windshield have decelerated to 20 mph. their heads continue back to . . the belted occupants rebound from the safety belts. for the purpose of demonstration we will pick 35 mph. the rest of the car and its occupants continue moving forward at 35 mph. 6/10 sec. Unbelted occupants continue forward to strike the dashboard. 2/10 sec. This law means that it will take a force to start and stop an object in motion . A force is required to change the speed or direction of a moving body. the dashboard and windshield decelerate to 0 mph.In the second tenth of a second: the bumper continues to deform as the energy of the crash is being dissipated. the passenger compartment. 1 Below is the 7/10 of a second impact (including people and objects in the vehicle): 1/10 sec. Occupants decelerate to 25 mph. The car body. 7/10 sec. 5/10 sec.In the third tenth of a second: the frame and body of the car continue to deform. . Loose objects from the rear seat and deck come flying forward to strike the front seat passengers at 35 mph. Belted occupants decelerate to 10 mph.

As you recall from earlier in the course. number 1Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. Speed and Speed Limits. they deform and crush. The energy of the crash is used up crushing the metal of the vehicle. The car doors have internal steel beams to protect the passenger compartment. October 1998. some longer than others. Their internal organs. 2 The crash is essentially over!!! The belted-in occupants count their lucky stars and continue on with their lives. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 4: CRASH DYNAMICS SUBJECT 3: Energy Absorption As you drive around. steering column and dashboard. Laurie. number 2. Even . still going 35 mph. a 140 mph collision.Georgia. October 1998. The passenger compartment is the strongest portion of the vehicle. Atlanta. Laws of Motion. what do you have? Simple. you are going 70 mph and the car you strike head on is going 70 mph.come into contact with the head restraints. The unbelted occupants are carted off to the hospital or morgue for an extended stay. Resources: Telford. With the body of the motor vehicle using up the energy of the crash. strike their rapidly decelerating body frames . University of West Florida. As an example. does it make a difference where the crash occurs on the vehicle? The direction of impact in the collision makes a very large difference. the greater the speed of the vehicle. How do modern vehicles absorb the energy from a crash? Modern vehicles absorb the energy from a crash by the way they deform or "crush" when they are in a crash. the greater the force of impact. This energy is the force that needs to be dissipated in a collision. Unbelted occupants reach 0 mph by striking the windshield. your car is "carrying" around kinetic energy. MAN.

The increase of speed is a squared relationship. True False 3. Resources: Your motor vehicle's owner manual. True False 2. True False 4. True False .6 million pounds of force to dissipate.with the modern cars that are designed to absorb the energy of impact. steering column and dashboard. One of the two collisions that happen in a crash is: impact of the car with the object impact of the car with the air both neither 5. These questions are for practice only. You must only pass the final exam. Three times the speed will have nine times the force of impact. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. the passengers are still traveling forward at the speed of the vehicle. True False 6. Modern vehicles are designed to crush when they crash to absorb kinetic energy. Unbelted vehicle occupants reach 0 mph by striking the windshield. the 140mph crash has approximately 31. As the vehicle continues to deform at the beginning. The second collision is when the windshield or steering column stops you if you do not wear your safety belt.

three six nine twelve PROGRAM READING MODULE 7 Required amount of time to complete: 50 minutes MAN. not a right. size length force 8. Driving in Florida and the United States is a privilege. If one vehicle is going 20 mph and another is going 60 mph.7. What is the point system? . Is driving in Florida a right or a privilege? Driving is a privilege in both Florida and the United States. The ______ at impact is what can kill. Negligent or irresponsible driving will not be tolerated and will be dealt with severely and swiftly. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 1: Legal Penalties Including Point System Any violation or number of violations can result in the potential loss of your driving privilege. the one going 60 mph has ______ times the force at impact as the one going 20 mph.

Four points: Speeding 16 mph and above over the posted limit. Why could your driving privilege be revoked? Your license will be revoked if you: are convicted of DUI. your license will be suspended when you reach certain thresholds. A total of 24 points within a 36 month period. A total of 18 points within an 18 month period.Under section 322. you misuse a restricted license. Points against your driving privilege are assessed as follows: Three points: Speeding five-15 mph over the posted limit (one to four results in a warning). convicted of lying about the ownership or use of a motor vehicle. Florida Statutes. are convicted in traffic court and the court orders the suspension of your license. are not able to drive safely. allow your license to be used for a purpose that is illegal. As you accumulate points. fail to pay a traffic fine. convicted of reckless driving three . you do not stop and render aid in a collision where death and bodily injury occurred that was your fault. earn the required number of points in a given time period. An excessive amount of points will result in a license suspension or revocation. Six points: Unlawful speed resulting in a collision and leaving the scene of a collision with property damage over $50. convicted of a felony where a motor vehicle is used. a point system was established to keep track of inappropriate driving behavior and set cumulative point totals that will result in a licensing action. any moving violation resulting in a collision. if you refuse to consent to any sobriety test required by law. and reckless driving. your driving privilege is suspended for no more than 30 days. your driving privilege is suspended for no more than one year. These are if you accumulate: A total of 12 points within a 12 month period. and all other moving violations.27. passing a stopped school bus. or fail to appear in court as directed. safety restraint violation involving a person under six. Why could your driving privilege be suspended? Your license will be suspended if you: make a fraudulent license application. your driving privilege is suspended for no more than three months.

your driving privilege would be canceled until you show proof of completion of the required course. you are convicted of an immoral act involving a motor vehicle. If you are convicted of driving while your license is suspended. Sections 322. Your driving privilege will be revoked for at least three years if you kill someone. For instance. if you are required to participate in a basic driver improvement course like this one because you were in a collision in which you were at fault and any one involved in the collision was injured and transported to a medical treatment facility and you did not complete the course within the required time period. or you kill someone while driving under the influence.times in one year (forfeiting bail and not going to court to avoid a conviction counts the same as a conviction). you are convicted of three major offenses or 15 pointable offenses within a five year period. convicted of felony drug possession. 1982.27 MAN. chapter 316. have less than the minimum required vision. 318 and 322. Resources: Florida Statutes. a court orders your license be revoked. Why would your driving privilege be canceled? Your driving privilege would be canceled if you fail to comply with some portion of the Florida Statutes. canceled or revoked. or you are convicted of passing a stopped school bus that is loading or unloading students twice in a five year period. A DUI calls for a license suspension of a minimum of six months. you could be sent to jail and your license suspended for an additional three months. revoked permanently if you are convicted four times of DUI with at least one of the convictions after July 1. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS .

are compromised if vehicles travel faster than circumstances warrant. vehicle or other conveyance or object on or entering the highway. Other vehicles and pedestrians are put at risk by speeding drivers whose distances they may not be able to judge accurately. including how far ahead a driver can see.SUBJECT 2: Speed Limits Including Default Limits With speeding being the great problem that it is. the default speed limit is 55 mph. Drivers should be aware that speed limits apply when no visible or noticeable posts are around. Recent studies have shown that drivers who run red lights are likely to be speeding and that motorcyclists who crash with other vehicles making left turns are also likely to be speeding. In business or residential districts the speed limit is 30 mph unless otherwise posted. Is speeding a safety problem? . What are the speed limits in Florida? No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. In every event. Compliance with legal requirements call on all persons to use due care1. speed shall be controlled as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person. Why are speed limits important? Roadway design factors. you will now read about the speed limits including the default limits when a sign is not posted. If no signs are posted on either the rural interstate limited access highway or the four lane highway divided by a median strip.

You should not drive so slowly that you block other vehicles moving at normal. 1998. safe speeds. The shape of a road sign can tell you as much about the sign's message as its color.Yes. Is driving too slowly against the law? Yes. D. directing the flow of traffic and the interaction of the driving environment. 316. Section 316. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 3: Signs. Every driver needs to be extra careful when the weather is bad or when changing lanes. passing. 316. Resources: Florida Statutes. You should drive with the flow of traffic (within the speed limit). number 2.183(1). "It is clear that speeding does represent a significant traffic safety problem. What is a yield sign? .. You can be issued a ticket for driving too slowly. Washington. Traffic Safety Facts. MAN. turning on a red light.187.C. approaching intersections or merging into traffic." the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports. Signals And Road Markings There is a host of information available on the roadways.189. Speeding is a factor in 30% of all fatal crashes annually2.NHTSA. number 1. Always be alert to what is happening on the road. Speeding.

proceed when safe and beware of oncoming vehicles. Regulatory signs control and regulate traffic. On some roads. these signs are red. the purpose of the limit line is to prevent the driver from entering the crosswalk or intersection inadvertently or at an excessive speed and shows the driver where to make the stop before proceeding through. What information is available from traffic signs and street markings? Traffic signs and street markings such as yellow signs at intersections. The driver of a vehicle must come to a complete stop before proceeding through the intersection. What is a stop sign? The stop sign is red with white letters. Yellow and Green Light. The stop sign calls on the driver to make a mandatory stop and proceed when safe. A green light is the signal to proceed with the presumed right of way while still using caution. Never overdrive your headlights. What do traffic signals do? Signals.. crossings. The red light signals the driver to stop behind the limit or crosswalk line before the intersection. grooves that are present and banked also assist with drainage. Drivers should adjust their speed of travel as appropriate when the roadway they are on is not illuminated or the illumination is not enough to see clearly down the road. It alerts the driver to an upcoming hazard or road condition that does not reflect an immediate condition. black and white. The Red. warn the driver of an upcoming hazard or road changes and are considered warning signs for what awaits ahead.Yield signs are red and white with red letters. Except for parking signs. The two way signal is to direct traffic flowing from two different directions with the exception of signals with turning arrows which should be in accordance with one another. At a stop sign. etc. A flashing yellow light has the same meaning as a yield sign. A flashing red light has the same meaning as a stop sign. These grooves can . construction. A yellow light alerts the driver that a red light will soon follow and to prepare to stop. Rolling stops are not acceptable. A yield sign calls on the driver to do the following: stop when necessary.

Road limit lines. The driver is allowed by law to make turns over and left turns out of a driveway and crossovers from driveway to driveway as long as the flow of traffic is not impeded and no excessive speed is used. The driver shall stop behind the limit line at an intersection or street controlled by a traffic light and proceed when the signal changes. Double yellow lines cannot be crossed in other situations than those described. safe. the driver should use the end of the curb as a determination of where the intersection starts and where the vehicle should stop. the driver should go no more than 15 mph and exercise extreme caution. then proceed out into the intersection at a cautious speed to start a turn or other maneuver. If oncoming vehicles must slow or make drastic maneuvers. This would be similar to driving on sand or gravel. On roads or intersections without limit or crosswalk lines. What do the lines on the roadways tell the driver? Solid double yellow lines. The arrow will point in the . these are not safe actions. This first example is most frequently seen on two lane rural roadways. At a street or intersection with a stop sign.sometimes make the road difficult to drive on. while a single broken white line signals traffic flowing in two lanes in the same direction. The defensive driver should be aware of how close other vehicles are on the roadway and should only cross broken lines with caution. and necessary to do so. These are specifically designated lanes in the roadway for turning either right or left. Intersections. Turn lanes. Single broken yellow and white lines. The driver of a vehicle approaching an intersection shall yield the right of way to a vehicle which has entered the intersection from a different highway. These lanes can be governed by specific turn arrow lights that direct when the specific turn may be accomplished. the driver shall stop behind the limit line. At a blind intersection. when it is legal. A single broken yellow line shows traffic flowing two (opposite) directions.

If the crosswalks are marked.direction of the turn and the red. the driver of the vehicle must stop at the marked stop line or if unmarked. and the driver must have adequate visibility of all roadways and vehicles he or she may affect or be affected by. What are on-ramps and merging lanes? Drivers should be advised that highway on-ramps are for entrance to and preparation for highway driving. The maneuver must also be completed in a reasonable amount of time. . Exiting a highway requires reduced speed. Motor vehicles may not be in a bicycle lane unless they are entering or leaving the highway. Drivers must no longer travel at the drastically reduced speeds suitable for city driving. Drivers are called upon to increase speeds to that of the highway traffic and use the on-ramp and subsequent merging lanes as a means to get into the flow of highway traffic. reduce speed in a casual. extra caution and the total road awareness of the operator of the motor vehicle. The driver is called on to signal. increase speed. Crosswalks. What are off-ramps and merging lanes? Drivers should realize that off-ramps are designed for reducing speeds and are links to and roadways for the entrance back into city driving. yellow and green arrow indication mean the same as a red. They can be lined on the pavement and governed by walk and don't walk signs or be unmarked. Increasing speed should never happen on an off-ramp. the driver just needs to be paying attention. What is a passing lane? Passing lanes are for passing. Motor vehicle operators shall use a passing lane when the attempted maneuver is perceived as safe and prudent and can be completed without the use of excessive speed. Bicycles must stay in the bicycle lane and similarly motor vehicles must stay in lanes designed for their use. the driver must stop before entering the intersection. Bicycle lanes should be kept clear of and merged through with extreme caution. What are bicycle lanes? Bicycle lanes are for bicycles. yellow or green light. Pretty obvious. and merge safely into traffic. The driver is called on to signal. Crosswalks are specific lanes for pedestrians to cross roadways. deliberate manner and prepare to stop at the bottom of the off-ramp if necessary. There is no secret or trick to driving. is illegal and is the opposite of what is desired. preparing to turn or parking where parking is permitted but not in the bicycle lane.

Have you ever passed another vehicle by crossing the double yellow line? Was that really a good idea? How many different colors are there for traffic signs and what do they mean? There are eight: Green means: Directional information Brown means: Recreation areas Red means: Stop. Wrong way Yellow means: General warning . Yield.

Blue means: Motorist service guidance White and black means: Regulatory Orange means: Construction maintenance. .

yet we have people who drive by them when they are loading and unloading children. 322. If you pass a school bus you get a minimum of $100 fine for each offense. Sections 316. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 4: School Buses School buses carry our most precious cargo (our children). 2. MAN.18(5). You must remain stopped until all children are clear of the roadway and the bus signal has been withdrawn.Resources: Florida Statutes. If you are traveling in the same direction. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 5: Emergency Vehicles . all drivers moving in either direction must stop for a stopped school bus. If you pass a school bus on the side that the children enter and exit you get a minimum of $200 fine for each offense. and for a second offense within five years.27(3)(d)(4). On a four lane highway. Resources: Florida Statutes. your license is suspended for no less than 180 days and. If you pass a stopped school bus with the sign displayed loading or unloading what can happen to you? You get four points on your driving record for a conviction of passing a stopped school bus and: 1. and for a second offense within five years. no more than one year. When must you stop for a school bus? On a two-way street or highway. whether it is picking up or dropping off children. MAN.172. your license is suspended for no less than 90 days and. 318. you must stop. no more than six months. you need not stop if the bus is on the other side of a divided highway with an unpaved space of at least five feet or a raised median or a physical barrier when you are traveling in the opposite direction.

having at least one lighted lamp exhibiting a red or blue light plainly visible. a driver must yield the right of way and immediately drive to a position parallel to and as close as possible to the nearest edge or curb of the highway clear of any intersection and remain there until the emergency vehicle has passed. Keep a foot on the brake so the brake lights let emergency vehicle drivers know you have stopped. Once the emergency vehicle approaches you. We need to be aware as drivers what to do when one of these emergency vehicles approaches. should you start moving slowly? Remain off the side of the road until the emergency vehicle has passed.As we go about our daily business. When you are approached by an emergency vehicle. Exercise extreme caution around a emergency situation and follow the directions given by a police officer. fire rescue and emergency medical teams. we are watched over by law enforcement. what should you do? On the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle sounding a siren. What is the distance you must stay behind an emergency vehicle? Stay at least 500 feet behind any moving emergency vehicle displaying flashing warning lights and sounding a siren. . Resources: Florida Statutes.

the horn may be used to alert other drivers. What safety equipment is required and what is its proper function? Tires: Your vehicle's tires should be kept with at least 1/16th of an inch tread of tire. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 7: FLORIDA TRAFFIC LAWS SUBJECT 6: Required Vehicle Safety Equipment For you to survive in today's driving environment. use of the horn can warn opposing drivers of impending danger or lane straddling. the safety equipment installed in your vehicle will play a large role. and in high beam. When passing other vehicles. you could have a serious crash. Often times. Proper use of the horn is a helpful technique in defensive driving as it warns other drivers of road conditions and hazards that may affect them. Windshield: The windshield of your motor vehicle has to be made out of safety glazed glass that meets all federal standards on safety glass. Bald or unevenly worn tires will reduce or eliminate any control you would have over your vehicle in an emergency situation. Drivers should be aware that horns are put on as standard equipment in motor vehicles. smoke or rain. Mirrors: On your vehicle. Horn: Your vehicle must have a horn which can be heard from a distance of 200 feet. The law states that a horn should be used in an emergency situation dictated by a driver's own discretion. you are not safe unless your vehicle is in good condition. No matter how well you drive. Lighting Equipment: Your headlights in low beam should be able to let you see someone at 150 feet. If it is not. you should be able to see a person or motor vehicle 450 feet in front of you. allowing them to make the necessary adjustment to their driving. You are also . the inside and outside mirrors should be adjusted to be able to see 200 feet behind your vehicle. Brakes: The brakes on your passenger vehicle should be able to stop the vehicle from 20 mph within 25 feet.MAN. The law requires use of lower or passing beams during all twilight hours when it is dark or during fog. Twilight shall be the time between sunset and full night or between full night and sunrise. Tail lamps: The tail lamps of your vehicle are supposed to send out light that is visible for a distance of 1000 feet to the rear of the vehicle.

red light yellow light green light 3. 316. On an automobile.221. True False 2. You must only pass the final exam. 316. Under the Florida Statutes. 316.251.237. The _____ signals the driver to stop behind the limit or crosswalk line before the intersection. it will be difficult to see the road ahead. Your driving privilege will be permanently revoked if you are convicted _____ times for DUI. True Traffic signals direct traffic flow from two different directions. a point system was established to keep track of inappropriate driving behavior and set cumulative point totals that will result in a licensing action. Resources: Sections. Bumpers: Every motor vehicle of not more than 5000 pounds shall be equipped with a front and rear bumper. Turn lanes are specifically designated lanes in the roadway for turning either right or left. Your driving privilege will be canceled if you fail to comply with some portion of the Florida Statutes. False 4. False True 6. These questions are for practice only. 316. 316. four three . when measured from the ground.required to have your windshield wipers in good working order. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. If the front windshield is dirty.2952.271.262.294. True False 5. the front can have a maximum height depending on vehicle weight or 22 to 27 inches and the rear bumper can have a height of 22 to 29 inches. 316. Florida Statutes. 316.

The ______signals the driver to proceed with the presumed right of way while still using caution. convicted of DUI convicted of reckless driving three times in one year both neither PROGRAM READING MODULE 5 Required amount of time to complete: 30 minutes MAN. seat belts are required by law to be worn by all drivers and passengers in the front seat of a motor vehicle and by all person under 18 regardless of seating location in the motor vehicle .two one 7. red light yellow light green light 8. the driver will receive the citation and pay the fine and court costs . MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 1: Safety Belts In Florida. 2 For those drivers who say they do not want to wear their seat belt because they are concerned about immersion in water or a vehicle fire as a result of the . 1 The fine for being convicted of not wearing your safety belt is $30 for each violation plus court costs of up $33 for each separate offense. If a passenger is under 18 and not properly restrained. Some of the reasons that your driving privilege could be revoked are _______.

Safety belts can prevent death in about half of these crashes. go to an auto parts store or write your vehicle's manufacturer and ask for a clip to adjust the height of the safety belt. 2. a bad driver may still hit you. 1999. Do you think you could stop yourself if the wall suddenly popped up when you were two feet away from it? This is exactly the situation you face when the front of your car hits something at only 15 miles per hour. The belt across your chest should have about one fist width of slack. be sure to fasten your lap belt. Resources: Florida Statutes. The belt is fastened snugly across your hips. If your shoulder restraints keep hitting you in the ear or on the neck. since 80% of traffic fatalities occur within 25 miles of home and at under 40 miles an hour. Without the lap belt.collision. consult your owner’s manual on how to adjust the height of the safety belt. this belief is foolish. Fire or immersion in water happens in less than 1% of the vehicle collisions that happen annually either in Florida or in the United States as a whole. If you know this and are still not wearing a safety belt.NHTSA.000+ people die each year in car crashes. 4 Do you wear your seat belts? Imagine running as fast as you can into a wall. the force of the impact would shatter the arm or leg you use to brace yourself . Why should I wear my safety belt? The figures are familiar: 41.. ." Even if you had the split-second timing to do this.your hip bones and shoulder bones." Your good driving record will certainly help you avoid collisions. your body will simply pivot around the shoulder restraints and continue forward. If you have automatic seat belts. If the car does not have adjustable safety belts.614. "I won't be in an collision: I'm a good driver. the leading cause of death for people age of 6 through 33.." Actually this is the best time to wear a safety belt. you may need to ask yourself why not ? 3 What is the proper way to wear a seat belt? A properly worn seat belt means having both straps snugly fitted to transfer the impact of the collision to the parts of your body that can take it . "I'll brace myself. sections 316.18 number 1. You'd expect to get pretty banged up. 318. Traffic Safety Overview. What are some excuses why "I don't wear a seat belt"? "I'm only going to the shopping center. but even if you're a good driver.

the head's movement is stopped -. the head rest is probably too far away to provide much protection. Atlanta. strictly speaking. Thus. During the first split second as the vehicle is thrown forward. but only if it is properly adjusted. D. whiplash describes an event. not an injury. the seated victim's torso is pressed suddenly back into the seat. What position should the seat be in to achieve the best protection the head rest can give? Correct positioning of the seat is also essential: head restraints are most effective in reducing neck injury when positioned close to the back of the occupant's head with the head rest level with the middle of the ears of the person driving the motor vehicle.Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. number 4. This is because the neck's anatomy makes the body less able to withstand backward motion of the head. number 3. What does the term "Whiplash" mean? The word whiplash is used because in a rear-end collision the head is accelerated faster and harder than the torso -. If the seat is excessively reclined. with far less intensity than the original rearward motion. Both torso and head then rebound forward from the seat back and head rest. MAN. October 1998. A head restraint is properly positioned if the head first encounters it at about ear level.C. If the back of the head encounters a correctly positioned head rest.somewhat like the cracking of a whip. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 3: Child Restraints .. MAN. This device is the headrest on the top part of the motor vehicle seat. In a typical rear-end collision.Washington.usually before muscles are strained. Georgia. the head is left behind. The entire event lasts perhaps a fifth of a second. moving rearward. Speed and Speed Limits. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 2: Head Rests The injury commonly called "whiplash" occurs more frequently when a vehicle is rear-ended than when one is struck from the front. The modern day motor vehicle has a device that will protect you from whiplash.

. Resources: Florida Statutes.613 and 318. For ages four and five. the lap belt should fit snugly and properly across the hips and the shoulder strap should cross over the shoulder and across the chest. thereby placing their child at risk. a fine ($60 plus court cost of no more than $30) and three points on their driving record. Many of these injuries and deaths can be avoided with the correct use of child safety seats and safety belts. Installation can be difficult due to the variety of seat belt configurations. Whose responsibility is it for the child to be properly restrained? The driver of the motor vehicle is responsible to ensure that a child is properly restrained. To "fit" a safety belt properly. integrated child seat or seat belt may be used. At what age should a child be to use an infant seat? Infant seats are designed for babies from birth until at least 20 pounds and one year of age. sections 316. When can a child start using a safety belt? When children are old enough (six and older) and large enough to "fit" an adult safety belt.18. a separate carrier. Children five years of age and under must be placed in a properly installed crash tested federally approved restraint device. Children five years of age and under must be placed in a properly installed crash tested federally approved restraint device. Check your car manual to find out if you need to use a locking clip or other equipment to properly secure the seat. the restraint device must be a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer’s integrated child seat. Should a child be seated in the front or back seat? The bottom line is that the back seat is the safest place for a child of any age to ride. If not. vehicle seat designs and child safety seat designs. Always read both the vehicle owner's manual and the car seat instructions carefully when deciding which car seat to use and how to properly install it. The law requires children through three years of age have the restraint device be in a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer’s integrated child seat. many adults are unaware they are using the safety restraint incorrectly. the driver can receive a citation.Every day. children sustain serious injuries and die in motor vehicle crashes. For children through three years of age. However. they can be moved out of a booster seat.

Federal law prohibits dealers. For cars that have airbags where should your hands grip the steering wheel? The American Automobile Association (AAA) has suggested modifying the steering wheel gripping position in air bag equipped cars from ten and two o'clock to nine and three or even eight and four o'clock to allow room for the air bag to deploy .263 lives were saved by air bags and from 1987 to 1999.primarily infants. Air bags used in conjunction with the lap and shoulder belts offer the most effective safety protection available today for passenger vehicle occupants. all new light trucks must have dual air bags.969 lives have been saved . Recent NHTSA research indicates an overall fatality reducing effectiveness for air bags of 11%. In 1999. children. Starting in model year 1998. repair shops.. there was considerable debate on how fast they should deploy. Can an airbag be disabled? Disabling an air bag is difficult and can be dangerous.MAN. Do air bags save lives? Yes. some newer vehicles (i. If this is not possible. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 4: Air Bags When air bags were introduced in the early 1990's. and adults under five feet. a total of 4. five inches tall. 2 Do I need to wear my safety belts if I have airbags in my car? . Starting in model year 1999. if necessary you can contact and obtain permission from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to disable an airbag. an estimated 1. etc. Those who argued that the bag should deploy rapidly enough to protect unbelted occupants of the front seat won the day. Infants and small adults should be seated in the rear of the vehicle equipped with dual air bags protecting the front seat.e. pickup trucks) may include an on-off switch for the passenger side airbag. However. The force this requires is a problem for smaller people and people who might be positioned close to the air bag . they should position their seat as far back from the air bag as possible. all new passenger cars must have dual air bags. from disabling air bags. 1 Can a new vehicle be purchased without air bags? Almost all-new cars have dual (driver and passenger side) air bags. Eventually.

directional signals and interior lights.Car engines run particularly well when they are regularly lubricated. If it is not. This is much less expensive than replacing or rebuilding an engine.Make sure that your mirrors are clean and pointed in the correct direction. C. Most are designed to deploy in moderate to severe front crashes . Tires are designed to grip the road and give the driver directional control. Tires . bottom to top. What are the parts of the vehicle that you should properly maintain? You should consider your vehicle from front to back. 3 Resources: American Automobile Association. regularly change your windshield wipers.Make sure that all of your lights work and that your light lenses are clean. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 5: SAFETY EQUIPMENT SUBJECT 5: General Importance Of Vehicle Safety Maintenance No matter how well you drive. Lights . The windows are easier to see out of when they are clean. Windshield .Absolutely yes.NHTSA. 3. MAN. Regular oil changes cost between $10-30. you are not safe unless your vehicle is in good condition. Chapters 3.. number 1.Make sure that you regularly clean your windshield inside and out. your car could fail you at a critical moment. You keep your vehicle in good condition by having the vehicle properly maintained. Additionally. Mirrors . Traffic Safety Facts. D. Occupant Protection. Washington. Air bags are supplemental protection and are not designed to deploy in all crashes. excessively worn or improperly inflated tires decrease the ability of the driver to control the vehicle. and you could be in a serious crash. Bald. the air bags offer no protection. This is why seat belts must be worn in conjunction with air bags. taillights. The mirrors are designed to assist the driver in keeping track of traffic around their vehicle. Responsible Driving. 1999. Oil . number 2.Make sure that your tires are properly inflated and not worn away. Being struck from the side or rear. Check headlights. .

Knowing that through proper maintenance your vehicle will function as advertised increases the potential for you to come through an emergency situation in one piece. consult your owner's manual on how to adjust the height of the safety belts.Belts. Why should I bother to do vehicle maintenance? Simple. The time to find out that your car has a problem is in your driveway. You must only pass the final exam. the restraint device must be a separate carrier or a vehicle manufacturer's integrated child seat. front back . get a tune-up at the scheduled maintenance time. True False 2. not out on the interstate highway. For children through three years of age.Have your belts and hoses checked at the regularly scheduled time periods mentioned in your owner's manual. The vehicle will last longer and work better. True False 3. Additionally. regular tune-ups . (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1. The safest place for a child of any age to ride is in the ____ seat. hoses. These questions are for practice only. Resources: Your motor vehicle's owner manual. a properly maintained vehicle is a safer vehicle. Also. If your shoulder restraints keep hitting you in the ear or on the neck.

True False 5. 4% 3% 2% 1% 7. 8% 10% 50% 80% 6. False If you maintain your motor vehicle it will: last longer work better neither both PROGRAM READING MODULE 6 . ______ of traffic fatalities occur within 25 miles of home and below 40 mph. they should last as long as you own the car. True 8. When you grip the steering wheel. immersion in water or fire as a result of a collision happens in less than ________ of all collisions annually. you should place your hands on the steering wheel at the 3 and 9 or 4 and 8 o'clock positions to allow room for air bags to deploy. You do not need to change your windshield wipers.both neither 4. In Florida.

Inside your vehicle. by picking a fixed object on or near the road. homes. which can reduce the driver's concentration on the driving task. yet a wandering eye can be deadly. one thousand and two. Reaching for a ringing phone. Including Distance Guidelines. and counting one thousand and one. 1 Drivers should be of aware of road hazards and road conditions that may affect their vehicle yet should not let outside distractions deter them from safe driving habits. In rural areas. Adaptation To Surroundings While driving. Drivers must realize that an awareness of the road is vital in safe driving. until you . pedestrians. both inside and outside the motor vehicle. eating. and the distractions have the tendency to take precedence over traffic safety matters .. Drivers should not get caught up in sightseeing or scenery but should keep their mind focused on the road . can be observed yet should not consume one' s full attention. rather they should be considered one of the primary concerns of the driving task. personal hygiene and dealing with children instead of driving can increase the potential for a traffic collision. 2 Drivers should alter their visual habits if they are not conducive to the safe operation of a motor vehicle.. fax machines and stereos can interfere with driving. the 10-12 second distance is determined by the speed of the vehicle. devices such as cell phones. etc. Emergency vehicles would not constitute outside distractions. Drivers should train themselves to scan ahead two seconds looking for immediate hazards and from 10-12 seconds down the road for potential hazards. we are subject to many distractions. Wandering eyes and a basic lack of attention to the road all heighten the collision potential. etc. Distractions are just that.Required amount of time to complete: 50 minutes MAN. searching for your tunes. Billboards. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 1: Scanning.

increasing visibility by scanning the road ahead. Responsible Driving. controlling the speed of the vehicle and using the "look left. 2. number 2. In urban areas. such as a stalled trailer. quickly turn your head to see if your blind spot is clear. What are some techniques to aid the driver in aggressively scanning the roadways? 1. Blind Spot: these are areas near the left and right rear corners of your vehicle that are not visible in your mirrors. 3. number 1.American Automobile Association. Also avoid driving in someone else's blind spot. Chapters 1 and 2. positioning in regard to other traffic and road conditions . By seeing the hazard well in advance. look to both sides. Resources: American Automobile Association. NEVER RELY ON YOUR MIRRORS ALONE. Chapters 10. Look Ahead: good drivers keep an eye on what's happening about 10-12 seconds ahead. Periodically glancing at the rear-view mirror and the speedometer to get an adequate determination of your vehicle speed. you do the same scanning techniques. right. This allows you to recognize potential trouble signs ahead of you. Drivers should adequately position their vehicles away from vehicles they are immediately following as to give ample stopping distance in case of an emergency . 4. you have to see what's going on. left" technique prior to proceeding when the light changes. 3. It's as important for other drivers to see you as for you to see them. 4 Ways to avoid collisions at intersections include awareness of traffic patterns. . people or animals may cross your path. 4. coming up too fast or trying to pass. but because of the lower speeds this distance is about ¼ of a mile. you leave yourself adequate reaction time to deal with the hazard. Avoid a fixed. That's about a block in city driving. straight-ahead stare that may let you drift off into daydreams while on the road. The best way to spot potential trouble is by scanning. Look Behind: check the traffic behind you frequently (several times a minute) so you'll know if somebody is tailgating. construction and other hazards. Before you make any move to the sides. This will give a visual reference for what this distance would be.reach ten or twelve. would also be good ideas. 3 To be a defensive driver. Look To The Sides: as you approach any place where other cars. Responsible Driving.

if you are towing a boat. following a motorcycle. If so. With each additional factor. Your scanning should look two seconds along your path of travel for immediate hazards and 10 to 12 seconds down the road for potential hazards . Including 2 Second Minimum How we interact with other drivers on the roadway environment is very important. If not. increase following distance for traffic conditions." The two second following rule is: One: The car ahead is approaching a checkpoint (the sign). your following distance is adequate. at night in rain and foggy conditions.MAN. The driver should be aware of obstructions in their path and select safe paths around the obstructions. back off some more and do the three steps again. How would you pick a path through traffic? When selecting a proper path through traffic. Additional time should be allowed for poor visibility and weather conditions such as fog and rain . This interaction will get us home safely or make us another statistic that someone else will talk about in another driver improvement program. For example. following distance and dealing with tailgaters. attempt to leave adequate space (two seconds plus) between your vehicle and the surrounding traffic. 2 How do you deal with a tailgater? . you should add three seconds to your following distance. and you are being tailgated. you should add three seconds to your following distance. At all times. The two second rule was designed for good weather and clear visibility. Two: Begin counting seconds as the rear of the car ahead passes the checkpoint (one thousand and one. Also. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 2: Following Distance. Three: It should take at least two seconds for the front of your car to reach the check point. You should increase your following distance as your visibility decreases and as the weather gets worse. For example. 1 What following distance should you keep between your car and the car in front of you? You should use what is called the "two second rule. you should increase your following distance by one second. the driver should be observant of the habits of the vehicles in and around their path of travel. This section covers picking a path through traffic. one thousand and two).

4. letting off the brake in some instances (no car in front of you or not at an intersection) might also ease the force of the impact . Drivers being tailgated are advised to slow down to encourage the tailgating driver to pass. If possible.this is the distance your vehicle travels from the time your eyes see a hazard until your brain recognizes it. These factors are being constantly considered and are factors in your vehicle's stopping distance. tractor-trailer or sub compacts) in the traffic environment (type of road. careless driving. 3. 1 Driving too fast. 2.. visibility (weather. 3.e. Responsible Driving. type of vehicles around you. You must adjust your speed depending on driving conditions. tire condition and inflation).the distance traveled from the time your brain tells your foot to move from the accelerator until your foot is actually pushing the brake pedal. Heavier vehicles and vehicles traveling in combination with other vehicles (towing) have longer stopping distances. 2 What are the four parts to stopping distance? 1. Yet. . density of traffic) and rate of travel (speed). If a collision is inevitable. go to a well-lighted public place or police station and pull off the road. Perception Distance . Braking Distance .the distance it takes to stop once the brakes are put on. Chapters 1 and 12. and following too closely are major causes of motor vehicle crashes in Florida (approximately 22%) . remember that having stopping distance between vehicles is the best braking device . If the tailgater persists. number 1.at 55 mph it will take about six seconds to stop and your vehicle will travel about the distance of a football field. The factors to consider when adjusting your speed are traction (weather.Drivers should avoid tailgating and should subscribe to rules of proper following distance to avoid rear-end collisions. 3 Resources: American Automobile Association. Total Stopping Distance . change lanes and allow the tailgater to pass. MAN. 2. i. Reaction Distance . MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 3: Stopping Distance In Relationship To Speed Any regular passenger vehicle traveling at a speed of 20 mph should be able to stop within a distance of 25 feet.

it takes about four times as much distance to stop. Chapters 8 and 10. and drivers should understand that certain actions should be curtailed as a result.DHSMV. slick roads. Visibility is the dominant element necessary for safe driving. Florida. and the surrounding community . sections 316. MAN. number 2.Whenever you double your speed. Braking hard will not help and will often increase the skid .18 number 1. width. and all drivers should be aware of sight limits . and your vehicle will have four times the destructive power if it crashes. 318. traffic density. High speeds increase stopping distance greatly . Multiple mile visibility will no longer exist. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 4: Environmental Hazards The driver should be aware of the driving environment. standing water. Speed limits on roads are set based on determining factors such as surfacing materials. A driver should attempt to steer the vehicle in the direction of the skid or turn the wheel toward the direction the back end of the car is going. rain. banking of turns. 1999. dusk approaches and night time driving conditions take effect. 1 As we move through the driving environment. 2 How do the elements affect the driving environment? As the sun goes down. Traffic Crash Facts. How should a driver handle a skid? A driver whose vehicle becomes involved in a skid should attempt to regain control of his or her vehicle without resorting to drastic control inputs. Tallahassee. fog. drivers should adjust their driving actions accordingly. The roads are built for safety. slowing down and increasing following distance. distance between intersections. we should be aware of the hazards that Mother Nature places on the roadway.614. the operator of a motor vehicle should analyze daytime versus night time driving conditions and take action accordingly by turning on their headlights. 3 How do you adjust your driving to account for rainy weather? . 3 Resources: Florida Statutes. and wind. Responsible Driving. As is the case with driving in rainy or foggy conditions. Letting off the accelerator and grasping a firm hold on the steering wheel is essential as is remaining calm and level headed. A driver should learn how to drive and handle environmental hazards. and speed limits are determined by the conditions of the road where they are posted.American Automobile Association. number 3.

The driver should give himself or herself a clear path to follow. A vehicle traveling at an excessive speed on wet or slick roads can begin to hydroplane as water forms a barrier between the road and the tires and traction is lost as the wheel starts to ride on the water and not on the road surface. You do not know what is at the bottom of that standing water or how deep the standing water could be. when you get out of the situation. You should avoid standing water when possible. Often times. standing water becomes a problem. braking distance is increased substantially. This makes it easier for you to see and to be seen in a reduced visibility situation. This will dry them off. pull off the road and wait for the fog to lift. Consequently. Braking distance is dramatically affected and increased. 4 How do you adjust your driving to account for foggy weather? The driver should never overdrive his or her headlights and should travel at dramatically reduced speeds when fog exists. As with any situation where your visibility is reduced. handle turns. This makes it easier for you to see and to be seen in a reduced visibility situation. increasing pressure as the vehicle slows down . let off the accelerator. gently pump your brakes. After a heavy rain. A car under controlled speed is more likely to maneuver. 5 How do you adjust your driving to account for windy weather? . as the fog increases. as the inability to brake hard leaves one traveling beyond the intended stopping point. you should turn on your headlights. the braking distance is increased two or three times. If you happen to pass through a body of standing water. and remain in control under emergency situations. As with rain. your vehicle speed should decrease . grip the wheel firmly and brake gradually. You would be quite surprised if that standing water was the top of a sinkhole.The most dangerous time to drive on roads is immediately after it has started to rain. Dust particles and oil residue float on the water and drastically reduce the traction of the tires on the motor vehicle. including paths for other vehicles nearby. As with any situation where your visibility is reduced. When hydroplaning begins. Allow for increased braking distance. If the fog is so thick that you cannot see ahead. This phenomenon is best avoided by controlling (reducing) speed during these conditions and reacting accordingly (gentle control inputs). In addition. as a vehicle could be more likely to skid in wet conditions. The driver's lack of knowledge of upcoming road conditions and visibility of opposing and same direction traffic will be greatly reduced. one should alter speed dramatically in rainy weather or on wet roads as decreased speeds leave one in better control of the vehicle and less likely to skid or slide. Braking hard is neither advisable nor feasible because of the potential for a skid. you should turn on your low beam headlights. Speed should be decreased according to the conditions of the road.

Raise the hood1. Being on the right side of your lane will give you a few extra feet to avoid oncoming traffic. Move the vehicle so all four wheels are off the pavement. number 1. 6 Resources: American Automobile Association. things can happen very quickly. the biggest danger to you is having oncoming traffic blown into your lane. If possible. 5. We are now going to read about ways to deal with those emergencies. You want to avoid a crosswind situation. When you are driving. 5. 2. Turn on your emergency flashers. 4. Responsible Driving. What should you do if your car breaks down? 1. Follow these guidelines for handling emergencies. 3. drive on the right side of your lane. If you must drive in a crosswind situation. if the crosswind was from the left side of the road. park where the disabled vehicle can be seen for 200 feet in each direction. 3. 10 and 12. When your vehicle has an emergency. 6.This will speed you up or slow you down only marginally. Tie a white cloth on the left door handle or antenna. the emergency always happens at the worst possible moment. driving on the right side of your lane will give the few extra feet to prevent or reduce your chance of being blown into the path of oncoming traffic. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 5: Vehicle Emergencies Everyday driving is hours and hours of the same thing. Chapters 8. What should you do if your brakes are wet? . Get all passengers out on the side away from traffic. 6. 4. 2. followed by a few moments of terror. For example. You may have only a fraction of a second to make the right move. A strong cross wind could blow you into the path of oncoming traffic or into some other roadside hazard . MAN. If the crosswind is from the right side of the road.

Once the car is stopped do not drive it again until the brakes are fixed . consult your owner's manual. make sure you are far enough off the road so that you will not back up into or fall in front of moving traffic. 2. Take your foot off the gas pedal to let gravity start slowing you down. 4. Keep the button on the end of the brake pressed down so the wheels will not lock up. Concentrate on steering. 3. 6. If you do not know how to use your emergency brake. A fence. Pull completely off the pavement. Do not use your brakes and take your foot off the gas pedal or release your cruise control. Test brakes lightly after driving through deep water. or bushes would work. 3. When you start to change the tire. 4 What can you do when your power steering fails? . call for help or follow the breakdown information covered earlier . 7. a guard rail. Once you notice the brake failure. 3. 5. 2. 4. try to go straight ahead as the car will pull in the direction of the flat. Use your emergency brake if possible. Try to pick something that will give way when you hit against it to reduce damage to the car and to you. If you can't change the tire. Look for something to rub against. 2. Brakes may pull to one side or may not hold at all. 3 What can you do to stop your car in the event of brake failure? 1. Dry brakes by driving slowly in low gear and applying brakes . 5.1. Slow down gradually and begin moving toward the shoulder of the road. 2 What should you do if you have a tire blowout? 1. Brake softly when the car is under control. quickly pump your brakes to try and use any residual pressure in the brakes.

What should a driver be aware of when driving around pedestrians? The driver should be aware that the average person travels at about four feet per second. When you make a right turn on red (where it is not prohibited). Chapters 10. 1 When there are no sidewalks. 5 Resources: American Automobile Association. this is not always done. with their children. As experience tells us. You are required to yield the right of way to the pedestrian in this instance. look for pedestrians crossing the intersecting street with the green light. 16 feet. 2. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 6: Sharing The Road There are many users of the roadway systems. The sharper the turn. 12. This means that they can use the roadways the same as other vehicles. the more effort it will require to turn the steering wheel. Can a bicyclist use the roadways like a motor vehicle? Under Section 316. or greater. handicapped. Florida Statutes. MAN. Consequently. You should be on the lookout for pedestrians that cross at midblock or against lights. Traffic lanes are 10. always scan for pedestrians. or carrying packages of some sort. pedestrians should walk on the side of the road facing oncoming traffic. we will have to share the roadway with all of its users. Get the steering system checked by an expert and have it repaired if necessary . which side of the road should the pedestrian walk on? When there are no sidewalks. To move safely throughout this system. You should allow time and look for pedestrians who are elderly. Responsible Driving. The driver should be aware of and keep . but the steering wheel will be difficult to turn. 3. number 1. 3. Pedestrians should be given the right of way in all circumstances. 5.2065.1. 2. a bicyclist has all the rights and duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle. Slow down and reduce the number of sharp turns you will try to make. 4. You will still have directional control of the vehicle.

thus protecting themselves and the rider of the bicycle . As soon as it is safe to do so. You do not want to inadvertently pull into a lane where a motorcycle already is or open a door in front of one as you exit your car. Bicycles must adhere to all the same traffic laws as a motor vehicle yet often fail to do so. With the small size of the average bicycle. With the small size of the average motorcycle. the rider does not have the same protection as a car. . When you follow a bicycle. but not so fast or so close that the tires throw dirt or stones into the rider's face. increase your following distance. Tips for Other Drivers about Motorcycles: 1. You do not want to be so close to the bicycle that you would run over the rider if the rider fell. If the bicycle goes down for any reason. What should a driver be aware of when driving around motorcycles? Motorcycle riders should be aware of safe lane positioning and ideally be in the left-hand portion of the lane as to provide the best visibility for themselves and other drivers. but not so fast or so close that the tires throw dirt or stones into the rider's face. look carefully for bicycles in traffic or when you are parking. Motor vehicle drivers must be willing to share the road and give up the right of way. It is illegal for motorcycles to pass between cars in the middle of traffic lanes or to ride more than two abreast in a lane. pass the bicycle rider. look carefully for motorcycles in traffic or when you are parking. Pass as you would another vehicle. It is illegal to drive beside a motorcycle in the same traffic lane. You do not want to inadvertently pull into a lane where a bicycle already is or open a car door in front of one as you exit your car. 3. two motorcycle riders may drive side by side in the same lane. Motorcycle riders and other motor vehicle drivers should be aware of the low visibility of motorcycles on the roads.an eye out for bicycle riders. 2 Tips for Other Drivers about Bicycles: 1. 3. However. 2. 2. Pass as you would another vehicle.

the rider does not have the same protection as a car. 4 Resources: American Automobile Association. The driver may not see you and could force you off the road. Start the wipers before the vehicle passes. Responsible Driving. Slow down if a truck or bus is passing you. Be aware of the larger vehicle's blind spots. a driver must swing out to the left or right before making a turn. Similarly. 2. These are referred to as the "nozones". Chapters 12. Both the driver of and the driver affected by these wide turns should use caution. 2. Drivers should keep clear of these vehicles until their turn is completed. When you follow a motorcycle. 4. Splash or spray from their tires can reduce visibility. reduce speed. Attempting to steal the inside track from a large truck can prove disastrous as the large motor vehicle continues its turn and drives over the top of your car. Be even more careful passing a truck with a trailer. If they cannot see you. the driver cannot see you. they could run over you. drivers of large vehicles should leave their vehicles sufficient room to complete turning maneuvers and should not underestimate the amount of room needed to complete the wide turns. If the motorcycle goes down for any reason. MAN. 5. and use evasive action when needed to avoid collisions . increase your following distance. number 1. You do not want to be so close to the motorcycle that you would run over the rider if the rider fell. What should you remember when driving by a larger vehicle (bus. Drivers should be aware of the extra room needed for the execution of turns by a large vehicle. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 7: Passing.4. Including Necessary Clear Distance . If you cannot see the driver. Maintain a following distance of at least four seconds behind these and other large or special-use vehicles. Often. Tailgating or failing to judge their speed is also a dangerous activity. Keep a safe distance behind a truck or bus. These zones are behind or beside the vehicle where you cannot see the larger vehicle driver in the mirrors. 3. At night. 3. 4. The no-zones are the areas in which you do not want to stay. oversized trucks)? 1. use low beam headlights when following a truck or bus.

Passing on an open roadway should be done with the same caution. first check to your front and rear. you should not pass. * When passing a vehicle. you should ask youself. what precautions should you use? * When passing a vehicle.As we drive. legal and safe?" These are considerations that you should make in every passing situation. If you answer no to any one of them. "is this pass necessary. and move into the passing lane only if it is clear and you are in a legal passing zone. * On a level highway. Always pass a large truck on the left side and after you have passed the truck move ahead of it. The passing maneuver should be prudent and safe for conditions and the driver must have an unobstructed view and the necessary clearance before conducting the pass. be sure you can see the wheels of the vehicle on the ground in your rear view mirror before pulling in front. No passing to the left shall be done when approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver' s view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle might approach from the opposite direction . * Don't linger alongside a truck when passing. 1 When passing a vehicle. What should a driver ask themselves about passing another vehicle? When attempting to overtake and pass another vehicle. Why should you be careful when changing lanes? . To do this safely. it takes only three to five seconds longer to pass a truck than a car. there are many things that we need to take into consideration. there will be situations in which we have to pass another vehicle.

2 What are the prohibited passing situations? A vehicle shall pass to the left on a highway with opposing traffic as long as the maneuver does not interfere with the oncoming vehicles and is safe for conditions. the rearview mirror. Additionally. You should look over your shoulder to check your blind spots and should use all mirrors available to you before starting the pass. within a business or residential district with an unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for two or more vehicles in the direction of travel or on a one way street. When changing lanes. Drivers should not rely solely on any one of these elements but should use them in conjunction with one another. and glances over one's shoulder to get a full perspective on road conditions and other vehicles that may come into conflict. MAN. it is best to use a combination of side mirrors. Drivers should exercise extreme caution when passing on the right or left and should have an unobstructed view of the lane to which they will travel. A vehicle may pass on the right side if the vehicle to be passed is making or about to make a left turn upon a highway. not as one large block of lanes to be crossed together . Drivers should also realize that when changing lanes. as it increases the chances for mishap or collision. The driver should adjust speed accordingly. The driver should only pass if it can be done within the legal speed limits.Drivers should be aware that excessive lane changing on highways is not advisable. Excessive speed is neither allowable by law nor advisable in passing. look for and obey no passing signs and the double yellow lines on the road. number 1. viaduct or tunnel or when approaching within 100 feet of any traversing intersection or railroad grade crossing. No vehicle shall pass when the view is obstructed within 100 feet of any bridge. The pass must be construed as safe and prudent before the attempt and must be completed in a reasonable amount of time and distance .American Automobile Association. A vehicle attempting to pass on a highway must have sufficient space and room before beginning the pass. Multiple lane changing is legal as well but must be done individually. 3. Chapters 12. extreme caution should be exercised. 2. A vehicle must be able to return to the right lane when passing on the left before any approaching vehicle comes within 200 feet. 3 Resources: Florida Statutes. and the maneuver should be done within a reasonable amount of time. The double yellow lines also mean no passing. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 8: Right Of Way . Responsible Driving.

as does gaining eye contact with all operators of motor vehicles that come directly in conflict with you. vehicles making left and right turns. bicyclist and pedestrian must do everything possible to avoid a crash. motorcyclist. It only says who must yield (give up) the right-of-way. The driver should be aware of the areas in which he drives most frequently and should have a general knowledge of other frequently traveled streets or roadways as well. Who has the right of way? The law gives the right-of-way to no one. speed. 2 Should I be concerned at an intersection? Drivers should exercise extreme caution when approaching and proceeding through intersections. Every driver. The driver should consider how the right-of-way will affect his or her travel. moped rider. etc. When you yield the right of way to another vehicle. you come upon a stop sign at the same time as another driver in a cross street and he is on your right. The driver should use his or her own discretion as to travel plans and the environment . Giving up the right of way to other drivers also helps to avoid collisions. Conflicting highways. Drivers should attempt to be both courteous and conscientious toward other drivers . Drivers should try to anticipate other drivers actions as well as yielding whenever needed or required by law. 4 .Failure to yield the right of way leads to collisions in all the United States and especially in Florida. The driver reaching an intersection at the same time as another vehicle shall yield the right of way to the vehicle traveling on a continuing highway. you are letting them go before you in the traffic situation. These are some ways for you to reduce this probability when you are driving. The driver shall yield the right of way whenever it is not safe or prudent for his or her vehicle to proceed through the intersection. The driver should know which intersections or thoroughfares are more apt to have collisions and should avoid them. For example. The driver shall proceed through and towards a blind intersection at a reasonably safe speed . 1 Should you ever insist on the right of way? The driver should never assume that other drivers will start or complete any maneuver. You yield (give up) the right of way to that driver by letting them go first. and opposing signals all increase the collision potential in an intersection . 3 A driver approaching a blind intersection shall do so with extreme caution and reduced speed. A driver should never insist on the right of way nor attempt to force their way into traffic. The driver should not be influenced by friends or peer groups when driving and should make his or her own decisions in regards to routes.

The driver making the left turn should position himself far enough out into the intersection as to get a clear view of all traffic conditions. 3. Responsible Driving. Chapters 1 and 2. unless otherwise dictated by a traffic signal. Drivers are advised to yield and give up the right of way when traffic dictates and are called on to use good judgment as well. while still able to complete the turn in ample time. The driver in conflict with another vehicle should yield to the vehicle to his direct right in most cases . as conflict is bound to exist. number 1. Resources: American Automobile Association. The left turn should be completed from the left lane to the left lane. 5 What should you do if a traffic signal is malfunctioning? Stop. 5. This means that the first to the intersection proceeds first. .American Automobile Association. what should I be concerned about? The driver should exercise extreme caution when attempting turning maneuvers from an intersection. Chapters 8 and 12.When I am making a turn. just as you would for a four-way stop. as a rear end collision would send the vehicle into oncoming traffic. The driver making the left turn should not have the steering wheel turned in the direction of the turn before beginning the maneuver. It is always better to give up the right of way versus getting into a collision. The driver should position the vehicle behind the limit line at first and then ease out into the intersection before completing the turn. The right of way is yielded to the driver on the right. never insist on the right of way. Turns that are executed simultaneously with another vehicle must be done with extra caution. Remember. number 4. Responsible Driving. Left turns should be made from the furthest most left hand lane and should be done so only when traffic dictates it is safe and prudent. 2. Right hand turns must be completed into the right hand land or lane closest to the curb.

How fast should you drive? You should never drive faster than what is safe for conditions. Control of speed is an influencing factor in safe operation of a motor vehicle as excessive speed is a major cause of collisions (30%. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 9: Speed Adjustments In Relationship To Surroundings When traveling. You should be particularly alert in school and construction zones. as discussed earlier). At all times. Speed laws should be observed by every motor vehicle operator and are established solely as a safety .MAN. you should adjust your driving speed to take into consideration the surroundings you are driving through. motor vehicle operators should drive at speeds where the vehicle is under control and is in conjunction with speed limits and recommendations.

Often times the road narrows because of the construction or maintenance. gravel or other materials. and drivers must be very alert. proceed with extreme caution and keep alert for maintenance workers or materials. The driver should always observe maximum speed laws on streets. . Drivers should avoid roads with potholes. however. the driver can be better prepared to deal with these hazards if speed is reduced and caution is used. The driver operating a vehicle that does not fall under the category of a normal vehicle or with special circumstances or conditions should follow and adhere to special speed limits for designated vehicles . excessive lane changing and reduce your speed when driving on these materials . The posted maximum speed limit. reasonable and prudent at all times. roads. Total weight of the vehicle and cargo. These areas can be comprised of dirt. the driver should be aware of areas where the pavement is in bad condition. 2. parks or schools. Drivers should follow the directions of the maintenance or construction workers and should also adhere to the restrictions and limitations of any signs that may be posted. Posted speed limits around schools (20 mph or as posted) should be followed. Aggressively scanning the road and slower speeds give you a better chance to avoid a collision with a child . 1 What should I be looking for around a construction site? Drivers should be alert for individuals and equipment involved in road service. You should avoid drastic maneuvers. grass. These materials can cause a skid and increase your collision potential. Soft shoulders of the road should be avoided. Vehicles should slow to a safe speed. The basic speed laws states that a driver should operate a motor vehicle at a speed that is cautious. maintenance or construction. These areas are designated such when the pavement does not extend beyond the paved area. drivers should exercise extreme caution and reduce speeds dramatically. The driver should never operate a vehicle at any speed that is slower than is safe and not block or impede traffic with a slow moving vehicle. Additionally. School zones are indicated by regulatory signs with the posted hours of operation and flashing yellow lights advising caution. 3 What factors should you consider when selecting the speed of your vehicle? 1. 2 What should I be looking for around a school zone or playground? When traveling around playgrounds. loose gravel and related paving materials.mechanism for each person using roads or highways. or highways. Careless children or stray toys coming out onto the roadway are unavoidable.

How can I tell how many tracks are at any particular intersection? On the crossbuck or gate there are signs telling you how many tracks there are. 5. Florida Statutes. 4. Chapters 8 and 10. Regrettably. A person or signal warns that a train is coming. The exception is if you are up to five mph over the speed limit. the fine is $50. 3. You are not always warned of approaching trains. Why should you stop 15 feet from the tracks? 1. MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 6: CRASH PREVENTION TECHNIQUES SUBJECT 10: Railroad Crossings You might think that getting killed by a train would be fairly hard to accomplish. Resources: American Automobile Association. there have been 49 fatalities at railroad crossings in Florida . number 1.3. considering they are loud. from 1995 to the end of calendar year 1997. Intersections without barriers should be approached and crossed with caution. Road conditions. noisy and travel on fixed tracks that are clearly marked. 6. the fines for speeding in a school zone during the hours of operation are doubled. You will also have to pay court costs as imposed by the court of not less than $10.18(3)(b-d). Steepness of the grade. Weather. What happens to me if I am convicted of speeding in a school or construction zone? According to Section 318. 7. . Look and listen for trains in both directions. For a construction zone. Responsible Driving. 2. Length of the grade. 1 What should you do at a railroad crossing? Look for a train. the fines also double when construction workers are present. MAN. Signs warn that you are approaching railroad tracks. Traffic density and movement.

4. Florida. the location of the crossing is listed on a plate under the crossbuck. 1999. always look for another train. Just because your train has passed does not mean another one is not close by. 2. These questions are for practice only. Resources: DHSMV. Pass this information to the police. decrease keep . always look for a train on another track. when the train strikes the vehicle. 3. At most crossings in Florida. Never go around a traffic gate at a railroad crossing. You see a train coming. What are some of the actions you do not want to do at a railroad crossing? 1. If the vehicle is too large for you to move by hand. call the police and advise them where you are so they can call the railroad and stop any train movements over that crossing. If you head away from the direction the train is coming from. You must only pass the final exam. Florida Statutes requires you to stop. You hear the horn or bell of a train close by. a crossing by the train is imminent.2.1575. If you stall and a train is approaching. Tallahassee. 3. No passing to the left shall be done when _______. Never start up immediately after your train has passed. 4. You should _______ your following distance as your visibility decreases as the weather gets worse. move it off the track. If your vehicle stalls on a railroad crossing. When the gate is down. the vehicle could be thrown in the direction you are running down the tracks. At multiple track crossings. The best direction is at a 45 degree angle away from the tracks toward the direction the train is coming from. Traffic Crash Facts. get out of the vehicle and move away from the tracks. approaching or upon the crest of a grade curve of a highway both neither 2. number 1. Section 316. (REMEMBER: You must answer ALL questions listed below correctly before you can move to the next module) 1.

When the train has passed. True False . True False 7.increase none of the above 3. decrease increase have no affect on 5. Wandering eyes and a basic lack of attention to the road _________ the potential for a collision. True False 6. Drivers do not need to be aware of road hazards and road conditions that may affect their vehicle. Drivers should not be influenced by friends or peer groups when driving and should make their own decisions in regard to driving habits. Under good weather and clear visibility. start up right away. drivers do not need to adjust their driving. what minimum following distance should you keep between your car and the car in front of you? no time is required one second two seconds 4. When nighttime driving conditions exists. True False 8. never look for another train on the same track or on another track.

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