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4.

ELEMENT SHAPE FUNCTIONS

129

LI "" 0\

3 LI ~ 0.2\

c, = 0.5\

~--~--~---T--~2

\ \

(x z yz)

\

Fig. 7.16 Area coordinates

the cartesian system:

..

x = L1x1 + L2X2 + L3X3

Y = L1Yl + L;.Y2 + L3Y3 1 = L1 + L;. + L3

To every set, L1• L2• L3 (which are not independent, but are related by the third equation), corresponds a unique set of cartesian coordinates. At point 1, Ll = 1 and L2 = L3 = 0, etc. A linear relation between the new and cartesian coordinates implies that contours of Ll are equally placed straight lines parallel to side 2-3 on which L1 = O,etc.

Indeed it is easy to see that an alternative definition of the coordinate Ll of a point P is by a ratio of the area of the shaded triangle to that of the total triangle:

(7.30)

L _ area P23 1 - area 123

(7.31)

Hence the name of area coordinates.

Solving Eq. (7.30) for x and Y gives

L _a;.+b2x+c:zy

2 - 2&

L _a3+b3x+C3Y

3 - 2&

(7.32)

A-z I r ~'Y,f An.u-
~ : ~~ .
Q.~': X.,.. Y,.. v" Yz. j,t - >'2->1 c I = ,...,. .. ""2 ....... - ..
! I 136

THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

x

I

".1\. 111)4 nodes

3~4

, 2

jb) 10 nodes

k] 20 nodes

4

2

The tetrahedron family: (a) linear, (b) quadratic. aad (c) cubic Fig. 7.21

3

(a] 61\00.5

- w

00

s

""'l
==
rn
9 (b] 15 nodes :l
7 :z:
...
""'l
rn
fi rn
4 e-
r"!!
3 ~
r"!!
:z:
""'l
9 ~
r"!!
""'l
II (c] %6 nodes !:C
0
U, 1:1
6 Fig. 7.23 Trianlular prism elements (serendipity) family: (a) linear, (b) quadratic, and (c) cubic

,

(-I, -I

"
(I, I)



~

) (1,- (-1,1)

1)

Local coordinates

4~"
:::
>
'tI
."
tTl
.0
tTl
e-
tTl
3:
tTl
:z:
-I
~
>
:z:
0
z
c::::
3::
.!"1
:r:
i1
>
e-
...
Z
2 -I
I'll
C)
"
>
-I
...
0
Z
x
-
~ y

Fig. 8.1 Two-dimensional' mapping' of some clementi

Carte5ian map

4

3

2

Local coordinates

y

z

x

Fia· 8.2 Three.dirntftsion;ll' ffllll'l'ifti' of some elements

134

THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

1

/

Fig. 7.19 Right prisms of boundary node (serendipity) family with correspond. ing sheet and line elements

3

~ (a)

.L-l2

3

S (bl

4 2

4

J

7

(c)

5

2

Fig. 7.15 Triangular element family: (a) linear. (b) quadratic, and (e) cubic

Coarse

ELEMENT SHAPE FUNCTIONS

Fine

113

(a) 'Standard' approximation

2

(b) Hierarchic approximation

Fig. 7.1 A one-dimensional problem of stretching of a uniform elastic bar by prescribed body forces

) J )t 0 )!J () ,v f.
- - ....£t:; ·4M/30ttL-X
J,k" - - .f .--- T - -
J'C. J'X JIJ 9)( JI- cJk ,:)
-Pza .)
I-
)_;, /? 1

r: NO 1"~ tJ-Cv' Z 9--vtM;W~
t~' !
,
_;_ - P>< J." )~
)t -::h ~ "J<z._
(X) J__ .:Jx 11- )-;;:
'- y;;: »:
)1> c, )~
J_ .9 '( Jy 97.-
J/; -n ?f 7T- 1~ f ~[:rfjIA ~

-~

-

C:::=~ Ct2I"WJPavY5 LIlA @l(.(,V1o/:')(A

~ J,;J,jtVvtl cJ:Ol1.t/.I,(.IA N'" ,U,f.~ t,,1;Ut

-2" UtAv.

s

. ' /

___ r

I

4' -----

--

-

-

-

_.r

"> "

I I I

/

I

I

I I

For J nonsingular. all interior angles must be smaller than 180 degrees

Line of r '" -..!. falls 2

outside the element

/ /

A-l'l~~ 'E> ? o cJi AruE

1 t ~?; L B] ~ L1 i"1 T

).,U.. r -u L£ ~ .f2J c. J M'2?A

/

L ~ [lJ [BJ {/JH'I."(",.)I

r

., 1.t(L(,4 J.1 k~ .fJJ ~ .taA.1,,11J ! (/ ) f

~ - -=>-='- - '

f.J'£ U5> 4.A14 ~J.~4i LA lJ4U/fA 110/f/e A./w./-f."t/!,lV/.4J (;,) I,

~ I I - ------......... - ~ ------- - ~ ~

r k [~J 1 ~ ) (FJ ~tl.1') JI &,v [';-J ~ {ij [EJ [6J II J1J

k v

tJA~2~_ }JWJ yry,fl' z( I Ij' ; '~k .~

'( IAA ) ~ j ~'IiJ [1.1 J alv

~

ilfs ~ < 1, [~ ) fi~JfJI; ric

/

I

L \ ~ ro n A-I\J a ~ 4 00 ~ \ ~f':4J1.A_,,\ .t N\J I C:J

~------------------------------~------------

,

1-I

J

-

Using the interpolation functions h-, It,., 113, and 114 defined in Fig. 4.4, the I

coordinate interpolation given in (~) is, for this element, I

x = {(I -7- r)(1 -:- $).\'1 -r i(l - r)(1 + s)x~ f

+ 1(1 :._ r)(1 - S)X3 + t(I. + r)(I - S)X4

Y = {(1 -:- r)(1 -:- S)YI + i(I - r)(1 + s)y:

+ ±(1 - r)(l - S)Y3 + ~.(1 + r)(1 - S)Y4

The displacement interpolation given in (f;i) is

1/ = 1(1 ~ r)(1 ~ S)U1 -r i(1 - r)(l + $)//:

+ {(I _. r)(1 - $)/lJ + ±(1 + r)(1 - $)114

V = ±(1 + r)(1 -:- S)1.'l -7- 10 _. r)(I + s)r:

-i- ±(l - r)(l - S)V3 + :t(l + r)(1 - s)u", The element strains are given by

E7" = [€..... €yy /,,,,,1']

where

. au av au at!

e., = a-; en = -a; /'xy = -a +-a

. x Y y x

To evaluate the displacement derivatives, we need to evaluate (~):

! ~ 1 [ax a Yl r j_l .

! Or I . ar ar i ax. a a

I L i = ax ay Ii j_J or 3r = J ax

LasJ as asJ Lay .

••

-

where

ax - 1(1 ..:... S)X! - ~(1'+ S)X: - ~(t - S)Xl + *0'- S)X4

ar - 4" ...

ax = *(1 ..:... r).t-1 + {(1 - r)x2 - HI - r)x] -!(I + r)x4

~ '.'

ay = ~(l ..:... S)Yl - HI + s)y: - H1 - S)Y3 + iO - S)Y4

ar . . ".

a'· .

a; = ~(t ..:... r)Yl + 10 - r)Y2 - ~(l - r)YJ - {(I + r)Y4

Therefore, for any va'ue rand s, -] ::;; r ~ + 1 and -1 < S < +], we can form the Jacobian ooerator J by using the above expressions for ax/ar, ax/as, and a y;ar, a yJas. Assume that we evaluate J at r = rl and s = s J and denote the

operator by JIj and its determinant by det J1j• Then we have .

raJ" raJ

I ax _ -I ar

, .- JIj

: a a

. ~ay ."",,. las ."."

To evaluate the element strains we use

~; = -1(1 + S)UI - t(1 + S)U2 - *(1 - S)Ul + t(1 - s)u. au

as = {-(1 + r)1I1 + a(l - r)U2 - iO - r)u] - to + r)u.

~~ = i(l + S)vl - *(1 + S)V2 - to - S)VJ + {-(1 - s)v, au

as = {O + r)v! + !O - r)v: - {(l - r)V3 - {o' + r)v4

Therefore,

and

[av] .

ax [0

t -I

a1' = 7;JIj 0

ay at '_'j

where

UT=[UIVI U1V2 IIJVJ u.v.]

Evaluating the relations in (a) and (b), we can establish the strain-displacement transformation matrix at the point (rio s); i.e., we obtain

Eo = BIJu

where the subscripts i and j indicate that the strain-displacement transformation is evaluated at the points rl and SJ. For example, if x = r, Y = s, i.e., the stiffness matrix of a square element is required that has side lengths equal to 2, the Jacobian operator is the identity matrix, and hence

o

( _. ~ -,

• ~ .... .!i":_

.~ . - . n" ":_ \

,. Jr't.~~'J ~v.u't':) SsS .PlA.O V Au..,-'1-4Al.

L'f"i\1 " ~1L£1 [Bq] IIJd

{

-. - - - .

--

r. •. J n I -r 1""" ),),'JLN., ,JIll" i

VlfV L J 1 iJ' '/ j J /1 ( :

, • ~ • I

i.tJ

~.~. * (J),I..J(j ~c J;u ~

r

IS.D~~" (J.jcJ :~,.:J ~J ~ 'li.oP J ~

p ~

/~ & tJ 1 .. lIlJ2 6.1iN1.A HP.u.D To ,v; CA.

li ..,

ri-UEYlJ2.u'" ~ SJMD Con P .. 4'tllWu .q-

1l: ... ).) 'i:GJE:.s.S A-rill CA.I-l:.

t( 0AfUt:;r; " ( (O;C.)~a/? H; )

.

,

CU-l c;:u S~~s ~ Ah~v ~ I

$JW:J G.- U S. \tt:!:. SJ

, ,

,{)."(;e,.)E $) AA.J,:" ~ &JA

StLUJe._ f!".A~ (I) tA}{ )

j,;U

Coordinates and displacements vary parabolically along both element edges

/

(al Compatible elements

Three-noce edge

Coordinates vary I in~arly but dispiaceme'1ts vary parabolically

,. -

\~ .

\ " I

'\ I

~ I Two- node edge

\\ J_ Coordinates and

1\'\ 1/ displacements

'. vary Iinearl y

\ ~ {

} I..{ ~ l2..{ ~ ..h I ;C.,... c.,)'

1 V Z D.z. bz_)C 1:: Cz Y

i't.~\V 2-.>.::::.

c,J'f ? L)L,~

,
tl.~/U 2.b U?f~0vG9 ( .. )
~ ..:i .s. ..£vl.a4
h· U' II $ 2- ~,' II,' 0
u~ 2: L I.. ! i;:'{ '1 )\;z ;? 4; At'
i~J
.J_ ..f 2 h,'};' 1 <'A
U7' d2.{ ~ k,' + .bd 2. hI .ft.' --t- c., hA-. t ~; Yr'
i -::-.1
J ?_I I (~J .s. I (r
j_ ..E- T Cz ~~)i' i f!.(
V:z e (/ h' 'r: i:Jz_ 2: ~,' ~!
L ,- I I
I "I /74 ! '!'-1 !l

~ == Q~ ~ h; -t ~d )< + LA Y

_1_

Vi!' &1. 1- ~~ + ~L;r + LZ/

I ~'A

· fYR /

. '"' ?:~~~~ <j".</f).; DTtI:'J;~r;o

~ S. r~'AA ;U t1J Alof}5 ~ a--~~ ~

. (

l.3 ~U l.30 )

~./o '

,

Y1J3 - f Jf24 h!r.1'rtJ W

\L

)

~A &JAr J!f],~"F VI.) ~

GnP~PO

It

._

• t

lA>AI~

/

", .
0 (N ~J}!J h.PbY r f.? 0} S-J GJ I..h AJiJ)..J ii""·V-€-t. ~)O
~(.( 1£.~/' t ,z.c..f;\ CY £)'t~rth.1 \J.iJ_-c/' ~ ,4. r-1cJ" ~ t
I~
,
r{,1"V£. ~ 'tJ . lAJ-l ~ j'\ANl-dlA...'1,t '"'t \
~ ( (J

'._

f ~i..~O CUv-);l,'

, ~

ILL - c.~'i~.J'l J ,/N' £:b

~

(1J tJ J J¥'r. t rlA .

(al Nodal point degrees of freedom of original isoparametric element

(bl Relative displacement degrees of freedom of isoparametric element

(c) Displacement degrees of freedom of supercararnetnc element

Figure 4.13. Displacement degrees of freedom for thick to thin shell elements.

~ il CAl\(}'o ty'Lt{A ~ v ~1'(\} <._ ~ 1() ().J (;} ~l'2A ~ In.JEh.$',.u ~
AD LD d: 3D . 7- tVr(~lY~4 "-
~ 6.1 v:,w:r J A1M
I I
~ J~I."~ l .$ ~ ()- V\fi,\J)J \ )J~f" 6rtM..J
J tf'{'<)1..\'t. ) rf(",..)r1..tol.,(~ , ) rF(*-", t)J~'1..,f, ~t.I
I } } rf"(ltj~,h e ~ c{, [f (t,~J "t- C R~ J

t

J [f-l".~(l,t't..t~ e- c;_ 9;j [N'c'/~JJ ... fR,J

v

J [fllt,~. iJ] ,,('1. -:i, 4J e Z c.f'Jk if (It,; »: fk) J> liI,.. J

(..

-------

tJ-rL ~ A..b ru 0T2JJJ/~

I(j <:> q-J .v ~ ..{J "'" 11.t~ ~

c...?4.. tvlA"t4fl.j\

V ' /HA.A t AM-J) c-lJl' C"'~ .. ~j ~ 'U.

(?Q,l.I1, /.kAJ it<tL.,. 5vJ1J.4.N )

f

I

-,( 1, '!Z

I

1: 1 J('f)'/) = ±~. -f (f,)

_I I ' V

S ()rUfA '~l R'f..vN

I\t RJr.{t~,J.J 1:) ~ ~(VA

.

il.> (A)1PJ&..u1l ~ k r1A 1·1", a,a J~

HJ ClJfJf\.R APf',-,s)J J..-..f lJg-v'" M;(

( tV'L:' {; I.J t ~ c'- {, <f it' -P(1. A.) .p4. ... )1V
2 tV IN en (,.~ ) \1 ~ .... p fl rc: 1'4,) r: r ~ o~"") ::> '-' Rf:~ .... v' ~t.t 'J i+ r'~ .t3 <Jjt
I i.()v' I J C""-7 ~A J~V
~) rf '\_'" (/~Jt-v24 t: .. 1J}l ~1 o V')IY·' ~)
vl,Al,4 t1J4 ) ,-r ~ ~_. r-
(' I' )
L)r c.~v 4 ,t.r l/sr~dJ 1111~
~JiR Vi c'f.~~v' ~>.J Z-h cf 3.t ~ /<14 ,
~-------~~ TABLE 8.1

ABSCISSAE AND \VCIGHT COEFnCJE~TS OF THE GAUSSIAN QUADRATURE FORMULA

±a H
n = 1
0 2 ocoee OOOC If) O()){)()
n=2
0-57735 02691 89626 1-00000 00000 00000
n = 3
0-77459 66692 41483 0- 55555 55555 55556
0·00000 00000 00000 0-88g88 88888 88889
n=4
O-g6!l3 63115 94053 0-34785 48451 37454
0-33998 J0435 84856 0-65214 51548 62546
n=5
0-90617 98459 38664 0-23692 68850 56189
0-53846 93lUJ 05683 0-47862 867CL.! 99366
0-00000 0Cl000 00000 0-56888 88888 88889
II = 6
0·93246 95142 03152 0-17]32 449:3 79110
0-66120 93864 66265 0·36076 15730 48139
0-23861 91860 83197 0-46791 39345 7269]
n= 7
Q-949i 0 :91:3 4:'59 0'12948 49661 68870
0-74153 11855 99394 0·27970 53914 g927i
O'4() 584 51513 i739i 0·38183 00505 05119
0-00000 OCJOOO 00000 0·41795 91836 B469
n = 8
0·96028 98564 97536 0-10122 8536: 90376
0·79666 ~774 13627 0-22238 10_'\44 53374
0-52553 2.!.Q99 16319 0·31370 66458 71887
0'18343 46-C4 95650 0·36268 31833 18362
n:9
0-96816 02395 076:!6 o-os 127 4:;8S3 61574-
0·83603 11073 26636 0'18064 81606 94857
0-61337 14327 005~O 0-2606 ! 06964 02935
0-32425 3.!234 03809 0<>1 :34 ,ono 40003
0-00000 (j)OOO 00000 0'33023 93550 01260 n .. 10

0-97390 6:~85 17172 0·06667 13443 08688

0·86506 ~31;66 8S9RS O' 1 49.J 5 U491 50581

0'67940 95681 99024 0-Z190g ~36~5 1;9S1

0-43339 539~1 29247 0-26926 61193 09996

0·14887 433~9 8163] 0-29551 42247 14753

l 'f

e~

.,

4 -

J

1

t

~q

t

.J

" --- - .

1) . ./( F GOA. 1J.JuJ7

( ,

hi /.Aft:.> 6J ,p4.u! ) ~

._:)t 4.J l Fl L~~}( j -, :: pJ u)

{IR #' ,'t(,,}' t4 (O,l/oIfll& IW'2.4 ?

_ 4?LU1{ ~ !<- If

l p\'£ ~ 11" J 'w F

_ t2'IAt' r I i ~/"_ hlUb H; IJ J h » 4J f'tl-'} ,

!}' ; '_'~f Ii I1A 'JJ~f cee l1.;tu'niur L~ s'VJ"!:i:'

ta~ /[, ~ to» viE'? elF ,._, 'VI o'it~,V) Bh'F &.,...,

Ll,i.M I,vl'? CIWL\ ~'7 ijAttA (4-'1 Li Nl0 ?

.11 loh4..iJA~

-----

6"v J 't/l.G (.,..v'2A

n.U)

--

=----------

~ N S)Q.4lvt" C~l

,

.j) ,wc.n .. J-... ,1 W _:'>~./lt :F

2 (~- .. 41-; );' '·.116 ~(7.'

( .

Wt U,,"'tll {).).1

,

i . ;

!

t

_",.

_ • -_'c '_'. ,~ ~ \ ...

o ,~,i,; '! .yr, :;>O~..J,'.J:J ~1)..) - 0~!-i~L3 tv

fV~I..i..'~ ~ c ').J 1117 ';!II 0:.' ~ c.:,;v'fl.

(

~ '! "I.. 't::J;""':",9Ss..~:) c"

A.J '(.{

Il-<-{/I

s~· ~

2(p-~\ )

. It \\ '

\ ~,~ GflA ljjoi· A . ffi ;> 4,L''L J': <i 6- /lJ'1A.,u'\ J SL~

I .-\_

.eM -71.~ l- t)..~~?"l.-bl\4\-.-~ J,U t.VJ)J\'UIA l'.s/f't~A

5> "W-''1\~rr . Wl'O~,),? . 0 (.b2~)~

. .~-:t. . .-:

: oY~h~t...~.~ ~ : .. ;~P4;~=-~t,,",1~ :;(.n,.i V.)JJ~o_ £>~»ij A ~.l;(,i. i !)!r.Al,L·'~

I? u,tIJ ( ,1.7"", SoY Ovt 1.h.l!" ~~I.( , 01l.AJ,vf o( f:, 2(J>-")"~

lA,v f'Jd ,v?Hl) . "'~v' !U'

fA,V4.

~ (JrjJi) l \ t'lrulrtK

U~J./AW~\ c.~ ) -Ptl p~ gl:Lh\ ru > ~t t..\' A't~

-

, 0 (b) ~ o(~11
~'t,.~'~ UJJUW ti
D (h~) ~ O(h3 s-
~4111)n4'N d
'" (.65) '7 U (~») ~
CJ.tP.Y u 1')
c
I.. T ... BLE 8.2 NUMER.IC"'L.l~TEGJl.AnOX I'ORML'LAE FOR TRJA:-<'GLES

Error

. Triangular

Points coordinates

R; 0(11') a

a

R = 0(11') b

1. t, 0 ~.1. t

1.0, r

~--
a ~ 1 1 _12
R = 0\11") b a- 3' J -LM
0.6, 0.2, a 2 } z.l.
c 0.2. 0.6, 0.2 ..
d 0.2, 0.2. 0.6
a 1 ~ l 0.2250000000
b J' ~. ~
2" s; {J'l
c {Jj' ~,. /3, 0.132 39~ 1527
R = Olh"1 d e; Ii,. ~,J
e ~,. e.. «. ~
f Ii,,~,· «. 0.12593Y I~05
y 13" 13,. l,J with

~, ; 0.0597158717 Ii, = O.~/O 14=004 I " = O.i9i 4~6 985) /J, ~ O.IOl ~~~ 507 3

,

!

I

.j

'1,..

" "" -."_"-'-

I

I _J.

TABLE 4.3 RECOMMENDED ORDER OF GAUSS NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR Two-DIMENSIONAL ISOPARAMETRIC ELE~ENTS

Usually Best Maximum
Element Integration Order Integration Order
4-node
rectangle
D 2 by 2 2 by ~
4-node
distorted
2 by 2 3 by J 8-node
rectangle
2 by 2 3 by 3
8-node

distorted
3 by j 4 by 4 TABLE R.3

NUMERICAl. !:-'-TEGRAT10:-': FORMULAl fOR TETRAHEDRA

No. Order

Points Tetrahedral Weights Co-ord i na I es

a :1., p. ft, fJ 1
~
b ft,:J.,p, (3 1
2 Quadl"llic R = O(hl) 4
C p,p,:J.,p 1

d P,p, (J.:J. 1

1% = 058541020
P = 0'138[9600
~-~~- .~ .. - .. -.~-~-------.
11 1. !, t. J -~
b U,U, y
3 Cubic R .. OW) ff
~ t 1. i. t .s,
:;0
d f;. ~~ ~~ : ..
fO
t ;, i. i, t "
n Linear

fHor

f"1D f) tJfYU .... At-U~· r,v t r G·'14 ')).$AI e AJ4.}"'-{/uCA. --
~ &JV(..) LA il.J rA ur0~
-
-\'-- -
'(&
LA- ~ Vl-'l'rJ (2: I(i ()J G.j ~ 2f1/J ~b6Avl fYtt-t-4 $~f1I-. J ~W1A F'
V~i"l~A t(\ ... ~-v" it (,.4 ._Sohtvi !j't-t..()t. kft) IJzJ J,JJ?:)V
'f
~tn~~~ C£J..7 A lOf\..0 J!) L-~,;1 jptJ') fYt'j¥v1.J1):..vA~ In,4>tJ~ ~ u AJ

y~ 0 .1uLt \ "'~

~"" L~J y 0-1

i,)} 14;t1 " IVt.- '1J

I ,VIl C rw V!lv2 "U L-i1'€rV c..'J f

,1".' (,t /1N1.? .'~ J( F-J-l' ,}J

I

1'V'yrz(,..~ ~ f

~~"U O..Jf f:''1.A

. ...-

Nr ~ .D, Ot r

.---

x I rucgrati ng point (3 independent relations} o Nodal point with 2 degrees or freedom

LJ

x

z

,

B. One c.c.r .• suppressed

(a)

~/, BOLh d.o.I, ////supprcsscd

(b)

/.
X X x X
X X X X
X X x I x
~ )( X 11; x
:/'//;/////////'i'/;';/////. / '/£''''C::~/ ( c)

~
~ x x x x x x x )I;
I
X X X X X X X x
% x x x x
~ x x x x
11; x )C x x x x x
~
'// x x x x x x x x
%. I
X X x X X X )( X
-
// X X X X X X X x
i' ~.
~)( x 1 x x x x x x
;1/ .: /' ... ' .,/ ! /,//1'// '~.'C?// .. LI!'-:EJ..R

QUA.DR \TIC

r
Degrees of Independent Degrees of Independent
Freedom Relation Freedom Relation
(a) 4X2-3=5 > 1 x 3 "" 3 2 x 8 - 3 = 13 :'> 4 x J - 12
singular singular
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