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Table 1. Comparative characteristics, strategies, and expected co-benefits of sampled sub-national REDD+ pilot programs. 3.

3. Will early Brazilian REDD+ strategies live up to emissions through avoided deforestation. Proceedings of
expectations? the National Academy of Sciences 105: 10302-10307.
3. Nepstad, D., Soares-Filho, B.S., Merry, F., Lima, A.,
Moutinho, P., Carter, J., Bowman, M., Cattaneo, A., Grounding the REDD+ debate:
It is still too early to make any conclusions about pilot Rodrigues, H., Schwartzman, S., McGrath, D.G., Stickler,
REDD+ initiatives in the Brazilian Amazon, especially
since national and global architectures are still under
C.M., Lubowski, R., Piris-Cabezas, P., Rivero, S., Alencar, A.,
Almeida, O., Stella, O. 2009. The end of deforestation in the Preliminary evidence from pilot
REDD+ PROGRAM Brazilian Amazon. Science 326: 1350-1351.
construction. That said, there is positive evidence

Scale Entire state; 8 initial priority Entire municipality, including Entire municipality of Juma Sustainable
that, despite challenges, these efforts could
contribute to cost-effective and equitable climate
4. Börner, J., Wunder, S., Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S., Tito, M.R.,
Pereira, L., Nascimento, N. 2010. Direct conservation
payments in the Brazilian Amazon: scope and equity
initiatives in the Brazilian Amazon
areas total area of indigenous Cotriguaçu Development Reserve
lands and conservation units change mitigation. Three particularly innovative implications. Ecological Economics 69: 1272-1282.
that exceeds municipal limits elements distinguish the design of these REDD+ 5. Brown, D., Seymour, F., Peskett, L. 2008. How do we
(within Pará); focal area achieve REDD co-benefits and avoid doing harm? In:
under consultation with local
programs from conventional conservation initiatives: Angelsen, A. (Ed.), Moving Ahead with REDD. CIFOR, Bogor,
actors Indonesia, pp. 107-118.
Target actors Extractivists, indigenous Colonist settlers, indigenous Timber industry, Riverine populations a. Clear commitment to performance assessment: All 6. Sunderlin, W., Larson, A.M., Cronkleton, P. 2009. Forest
groups, small/medium/large groups, small/medium/large medium/large cattle
agriculturalists, timber landholders, multi-level ranchers, colonist reviewed pilot REDD+ schemes have invested in the tenure rights and REDD+: From inertia to policy solutions. In:
producers government agencies settlers, indigenous Angelson, A. (Ed), Realizing REDD+: National strategy and
establishment of reference levels and MRV systems.
groups policy options. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, pp. 139-149.
Main drivers of
deforestation and
degradation in
project area
Road paving, illegal logging,
cattle ranching, swidden
agriculture, fire
Cattle ranching, illegal land-
grabbing, illegal logging, lack
production alternatives
Cattle ranching, illegal
Illegal logging, swidden
agriculture, localized
cattle expansion
Scale and focus of project actions focus on the
relevant drivers of deforestation and degradation,
and in most, leakage control provisions have been
7. Stickler, C.M., Nepstad, D.C., Coe, M.T., McGrath, D.G.,
Rodrigues, H.O., Walker, W.S., Soares-Filho, B.S., Davidson,
E.A. 2009. The potential ecological costs and co-benefits of
A n international mechanism to reduce

REDD+ IMPACT contemplated. REDD: a critical review and case study from the Amazon emissions from deforestation and forest
PATHWAY S region. Global Change Biology 15: 2803-2824. degradation and increased carbon stocks
b. Direct compensation payments: Intervention 8. Asner, G.P., Powell, G.V.N., Mascaro, J., Knapp, D.E., Clark,
Land tenure Partner with National Partner with state (ITERPA) Zoning of medium and Not applicable (reserve strategies go beyond traditional ICDP approaches and J.K., Jacobson, J., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., Balaji, A., Paez- through improved forest management
Photo of Juma River: © FAS
regularization Institute of Agrarian Land and federal (INCRA) land large landholdings established before generally include direct and conditional Acosta, G., Victoria, E., Secada, L., Valqui, M., Flint Hughes, R. (REDD+) is likely to become part of a post-
Reform (INCRA) to develop agencies to develop more through Rural project started)
compensation mechanisms and attempts to promote 2010. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in 2012 international convention on climate
the ‘Legal Land’ project in precise digital maps, and Environmental opportunity costs were shown to be low on large
the Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of
line with Ecological- identify landholders’ property Cadastre (CAR) equity and social and ecological co-benefits. Diverse change. Meanwhile, the academic and tracts of threatened forest lands, and transaction
Economic Zoning State Plan limits through Rural Sciences 107: 16738-16742.
Environmental Cadastre intervention strategies may, however, raise REDD+ 9. Putz, F.E., Redford, K. 2009. Dangers of carbon-based public debate on the role of forest costs are modest in countries, such as Brazil, with
(CAR) implementation costs beyond predictions. conservation. Global Environmental Change 19: 400-401. conservation in climate change mitigation substantial institutional capacity and ongoing policy
Capacity-building Technical trainings with Trainings with all actors in Technical trainings for Environmental
c. Synergies through partnerships between sub- 10. Viana, V.M. 2010. Sustainable Development in Practice:
change for avoided deforestation (3, 4).
government technicians in REDD+ and CAR; additional medium/large education; technical
Lessons learned from Amazonas. IIED, London, UK. has become increasingly polarized. Many
PES concepts and ISA- training in MRV with landholders in best training in income national governments and NGOs/private
Carbono implementation government agencies, and cattle ranching diversification 11. May, P.H., Millikan, B. 2010. The Context of REDD+ in Brazil. of these conflicting positions are based on
foundations: The partnerships in these programs CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia Counter-point: REDD+ could turn out to be ineffective
improved land use practices practices and conceptual models or assumptions about
with communities sustainable forest d e mons trate re q uire d s yne rgie s be tw e e n 12. Soares-Filho, B.S., Nepstad, D., Curran, L., Voll, E., Cerqueira, and expensive
management; forest government agencies with mandates for tenure G., Garcia, R.A., Ramos, C.A., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P., how REDD+ will be put into practice;
cover monitoring; REDD+ could be ineffective if it focuses on areas of
community regularization and law enforcement, yet sometimes Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modeling conservation in the Amazon linking the debate to the large number of
Basin. Nature, 440, 520-523. low additionality, or fails to address extrasectoral
development low institutional capacity, and NGOs and private pilot REDD+ initiatives currently underway drivers of deforestation, poor governance, and
REDD+ incentive PES/rewards, public PES, improve law PES/rewards, improve PES/rewards, public 13. Wunder, S. 2008. How do we deal with leakage? In:
Mechanisms services, improve enforcment (technical enforcement, support services, improve foundations that may be more efficient, but lack Angelsen, A. (Ed.), Moving Ahead with REDD. CIFOR, Bogor, is thus an important step forward. We leakage risks. Also, along with economic multiplier
enforcment, support support), support sustainable sustainable land use enforcment, support legitimate means to provide basic REDD-readiness Indonesia, pp. 65-75. discuss three hypotheses related to the effects, REDD+ could become very expensive, since it
sustainable land use land use alternatives alternatives income diversification
conditions. opportunities and limitations of REDD+ and requires large preparatory investments in land
The authors acknowledge the organizers of the Amazon Initiative
workshop held in Lima, Peru in September 2010, from which this link them to strategies being pursued by zoning, capacity building, implementation of
BENEFITS No single Brazilian REDD+ pilot can claim to have document emerged. We thank William Sunderlin, Jack Putz, and four incipient REDD+ programs in the Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV)
Ecological co- Priority areas selected Improved management of Conservation of Biodiversity introduced sufficient safeguards against all potential Márcio Sztutman for comments on an earlier version. systems, and law enforcement.
Brazilian Amazon.
benefits considering biodiversity, soil, protected areas; landscape biodiversity and water conservation stumbling blocks in the way of cost-effective and
and water resources planning across land tenure resources, soil For further information, please contact:
mosaics to maximize conservation and equitable forest-based emission reduction. Early 2. REDD+ will have positive social effects
biodiversity conservation restoration REDD+ funding has, nonetheless, resulted in a new Amy Duchelle (CIFOR):
Social co-benefits Secure land tenure; Sustainable livelihood Access to credit and Promotion of rural
generation of conservation initiatives with potential Jan Börner (CIFOR): Hypotheses in the REDD+ debate
promotion of rural alternatives; stronger sustainable land use livelihoods; health, Point: REDD+ conditionality offers a chance for
Graphic design: María Eugenia Isnardi

Sven Wunder (CIFOR):

livelihoods; health, community organization; alternatives; education, transport to be cost-effective, and both socially and ecologically improved governance and community well-being
education, transport technical assistance stronger community services; community
Edson Araújo (SEMA/AC): 1. REDD+ is a cost-effective climate change
acceptable. Renato Farias (ICV): Through large-scale and performance-based funding,
services; community organizations empowerment mitigation strategy
empowerment João Tezza (FAS):
Angelica Toniolo (TNC):
REDD+ offers a unique opportunity to provide social
Monitoring of Partnership with WWF/Sky Pursuit of CCBA/CARE Pursuit of CCBA certified (2008) References
ecological and for socio-ecological social and environmental CCBA/CARE social Rane G. Cortez (TNC): Point: Empirical research supports potential cost- co-benefits, such as improved local governance and
social indicators monitoring; test site of standards; pursuit of FSC and environmental 1. Stern, N. 2007. The Economics of Climate Change. The Stern Monica de los Ríos (SEMA/AC):
effectiveness of REDD+ enhanced community well-being, which are also pre-
CCBA indicators; pursuit of certification in forest standards Maria Fernanda Gebara (CIFOR):
FSC certification in forest management areas Review Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. Greenhouse gas abatement cost studies suggest conditions for REDD+ effectiveness (5). REDD+
Raissa Guerra (UF, CIFOR):
management areas 2. Kindermann, G., Obersteiner, M., Sohngen, B., Sathaye, J., standards that include social criteria, such as the
Andrasko, K., Rametsteiner, E., Schlamadinger, B., Wunder,
Thais Megid (FAS) : REDD+ is relatively cost-effective in comparison to
Laurent Micol (ICV): other mitigation options (1, 2). Farm-level Climate, Community, and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA)
S., Beach, R. 2008. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon Gabriel Ribenboim (FAS):
Virgílio Viana (FAS):
5 6 1
voluntary standards for forest carbon programs, and Incipient REDD+ programs in the Figure 1. Map of 5 pilot REDD+ pilot program sites in the Brazilian Amazon interventions to deal with the risks accordingly or, Social co-benefits are primarily being addressed
the Brazilian Social and Environmental Principles and alternatively, by discounting credits for estimated through program efforts to clarify land tenure,
Brazilian Amazon

Map: Nathália Nascimento

Criteria for REDD+ (, leakage (13). Acre has determined that a improve local livelihoods, and engage local
provide safeguards to assure recognition of local percentage of the carbon credits will be kept in communities in program decision-making. While
Through its Global Comparative Study (GCS) on
rights. security to deduct for possible leakage, and formed REDD+ has clearly incentivized land zoning in
REDD+, the Center for International Forestry
an agreement with the neighboring state program areas, there are no guarantees that
Research (CIFOR) is partnering with four pilot
Counter-point: Weak governance in REDD+ could lead government of Madre de Dios, Peru to enhance customary rights are recognized in these processes,
REDD+ programs in the Brazilian Amazon (Box
to high social costs shared territorial management instruments to especially where rights are contested. That said, all
1, Figure 1) to understand short-term processes
REDD+ may disproportionately favor large and well- prevent international leakage. In SFX and NWMT, are pursuing CCBA certification (already attained by
and impacts in terms of effectiveness,
off farmers, whereas local and indigenous leakage is being addressed through 'neutralization' Juma) through which such rights issues could be
efficiency, equity, and co-benefits
communities that lack a voice in the design of REDD+ strategies to discourage clearing of new areas (e.g. monitored. All programs include Integrated
strategies may disproportionately bear the costs. promoting intensified cattle ranching and Conservation and Development Project (ICDP)
People with unclear or unrecognized land use rights agriculture, and economic alternatives). These approaches to promote rural livelihoods, which are
may easily be excluded from REDD+ programs also plan to delineate leakage zones and primarily focused on sustainable agriculture and
incentives or deprived of customary Box 1. Basic facts of four Brazilian REDD+ programs researched discount for estimated leakage. forestry, as well as community empowerment.
rights (6). in collaboration with CIFOR's GCS-REDD. Juma, in particular, has demonstrated purposeful
REDD+ Pilot Program cost-efficiency will depend on chosen inclusion of marginal groups, and household income
1) Incentives for Environmental Services - Carbon intervention strategies. Despite differences in scale benefits go directly to women.
3. REDD+ will provide ecological benefits (ISA-Carbono), Acre
Program in
São Felix
- State-wide REDD+ program led by Acre's State Government do Xingu and target populations, these four programs are
Point: A host of ecological co-benefits will (based on 12-year history of state forest-based development) (SFX), Pará adopting direct compensation mechanisms in Promotion of ecological co-benefits
(project focal
- Goal to promote progressive, consistent, and long-term reduction Incentives for combination with improved enforcement and public All program proponents incorporate conservation
naturally flow from REDD+ Environmental
area to be
in greenhouse gas emissions, through intensified production, defined
There are many potential ecological co- Services - Carbon through services, and support for sustainable land use of biodiversity, soils, and water resources in their
increased value of standing forest, sustainable forest (ISA-Carbono), Acre consultation
benefits of REDD+, because it focuses on management, and forest protection with local alternatives. In most programs, land zoning is being REDD+ interventions. Conservation strategies
Juma actors)
the conservation of carbon in standing - Support from Amazon Fund, KfW, and Sky TV REDD undertaken as a fundamental REDD-readiness include creation of protected areas, improved
natural forests, which tend to provide - State Government recently passed “SISA” law (Lei 2308, 22 Oct Project, activity. Reference levels and MRV systems are management of existing protected areas, and
2010) to back program through institutionalized system of Amazonas
many other environmental services, incentives for environmental services Northwest being defined and implemented through promotion of sustainable forest management and
including maintenance and restoration of Mato Grosso partnerships with experts in universities, research improved agricultural practices. The pursuit of
hydrological functions and water quality, 2) REDD+ Pilot Program in São Felix do Xingu (SFX), Pará REDD+ organizations, or NGOs to take advantage of CCBA and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
soil resources, and terrestrial and aquatic - Partnership between The Nature Conservancy (TNC), State Pilot Project existing capacity and to reduce costs. Programs are certification (in forest management areas of select
Environmental Secretariat of Pará (SEMA/PA), and municipal
biodiversity (7). A comprehensive government of São Felix do Xingu investing heavily in institutional and individual programs) could simultaneously address
ecologically-focused MRV system could - Goals include land zoning, improved law enforcement, indigenous These programs, led by government agencies, non- 1. Program scale and scope as they relate to cost- capacity-building (Table 1). Such a diversity of biodiversity monitoring and minimize ecological
be developed through enhanced remote and protected area management, sustainable production activities in REDD+ implementation comes with risks. Additionally, MRV systems for carbon could
alternatives, restoration of degraded lands, enrichment planting, governmental organizations (NGOs), and a private effectiveness
sensing technologies combined with field foundation in four states of the Brazilian Amazon, are financial costs, but is likely necessary for program be used to demonstrate positive hydrological
and participation of vulnerable groups in REDD+ decision-making
studies (7, 8), along with the CCBA diverse in terms of scale and action (Table 1). That These four REDD+ programs work at different scales effectiveness. outcomes associated with stream buffer
standards that focus on biodiversity. 3) Northwest Mato Grosso (NWMT) REDD+ Pilot Project said, they are not entirely representative of the and target distinct actors, and all demonstrate restoration (SFX, NWMT) and maintenance of soil
- Partnership between Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV), State 2. Program strategies to promote positive social quality through decreased use of fire by
Environmental Secretariat of Mato Grosso (SEMA/MT), TNC, REDD+ landscape in Brazil, which includes private leadership by or partnership with sub-national
Counter-point: Ecological costs may arise sector projects and those that target only indigenous government agencies. and ecological outcomes smallholders (Acre). Leakage control from high
L'Office National des Forêts International (ONF-I), and municipal
from the narrow carbon focus of REDD+ government of Cotriguaçu groups. biomass to low biomass areas would need to be
The carbon focus of REDD+ has led to - Goals include land zoning, restoration of “Legal Reserve” and “Areas
The effectiveness of these programs will depend on Benefit-sharing and promotion of social co-benefits incorporated into a national REDD+ strategy, as it
legitimate concerns about its potential of Permanent Protection,” recuperation of degraded lands, Based on a previous analysis (4)¹, returns to land would be difficult for programs to control.
sustainable production (cattle ranching and forest management), Key elements of REDD+ pilot program their strategies to deal with conditions of
ecological effects. Two important and protected area management additionality and leakage control. According to the uses in the various project sites are in the low to
ecological costs of REDD+ could be the - Support from Amazon Fund and Packard Foundation design Soares-Filho et al. model of predicted deforestation in middle range of opportunity cost estimates for the
displacement of destruction from high- the Brazilian Amazon (12), all programs could justify Brazilian Amazon, even for São Felix do Xingu (US$
biomass forests to low-biomass 4) Juma REDD Project, Amazonas Sub-national REDD+ programs in the Brazilian 3.3/Mg CO2) and NWMT (US$ 2.4/Mg CO2) that
- First CCBA certified REDD project in Brazil in 2008 (10) additionality, because at least in part they target
ecosystems, and the replacement of - Implemented by private foundation Fundação Amazonas Amazon cannot be separated from the context in areas that are projected to be threatened by target large landholders. Per-unit compensation
native ecosystems with monoculture tree Sustentável (FAS) in partnership with State Environmental and which they are embedded (11). The programs deforestation until 2050, even in places where requirements for emission reductions are
plantations (7) in situations where Sustainable Development Secretariat (SDS/AM) discussed here benefit from national policies for historical deforestation rates are low (Acre's ISA- particularly low in project sites with high forest
- Incorporates Bolsa Floresta (BF) Program goals of reduced deforestation, an engaged civil society, and biomass, such as Juma (US$ 0.4/Mg CO2). If
plantation forests qualify for REDD+ Carbono priority areas and Juma). That said, the
conservation and improved livelihoods through supporting
high MRV capacity. They also face the challenges of producers do not have to make huge economic

Photo: Haroldo Palo Jr.

funding. Additionally, in REDD+ projects sustainable production alternatives, providing public services, model projections depend substantially on
that involve forest management, strengthening institutions, and conditionally subsidizing household dealing with land tenure insecurity and poor forest infrastructure expansion, and in certain areas it sacrifices to be able to produce carbon credits, they
silvicultural interventions to increase income, which are applied in 15 sustainable-use protected areas in law enforcement, and meeting the equity would thus be more likely to derive net benefits. All
Amazonas remains to be seen to what extent such development
carbon stocks could have negative expectations of highly mobilized social movements will occur. programs have or plan to elaborate benefit-sharing
- Support from Marriott Hotel (Juma), endowment fund managed by
implications for biodiversity through FAS (BF household subsidies), and Amazon Fund and Bradesco that represent forest peoples' rights. documents through consultation with local
severe modification of forest structure (3 other BF components)
Programs can address leakage by identifying stakeholders.
and composition (9). Aerial view of the deforestation frontier in São Félix do Xingu, in the
potential leakage channels and by designing ¹ Detailed methods for calculation of opportunity costs in state of Pará, Brazil.
Börner et al. 2010.

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