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Science League Biology I - January, 2008

Choose the answer that best completes the statements or questions below and fill in the appropriate response on the form. If you change an answer be sure to completely erase your first choice. Please PRINT your name, school, area, and which test you are taking onto the scan-tron,

1. When a plant cell is immersed in distilled water, the water molecules move into the cells by

A) transpiration D) facilitated diffusion

B) osmosis E) adhesion/cohesion

C) active transport

2. The primary role of the lysosome is

A) ATP synthesis

B) protein synthesis

C) intracellular digestion

D) carbohydrate storage

E) carbohydrate transpor

3. Which of the following statements relating to cell respiration is false?

A) During glycolysis ATP is converted to ADP

B) The transformation of glucose to pyruvic acid can occur in the absence of oxygen

C) During the citric acid cycle, two molecules of CO2 and a molecule of F ADHz are produced for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle

D) The breakdown of glucose during fermentation yields more energy than its breakdown during aerobic respiration

E) In skeletal muscle cells lactic acid fermentation produces oxygen debt that at some point can be paid by the intake of oxygen

4. Monomers of fatty acids linked to glycerols produce

A) cellulose B) DNA C) glycogen D) steroids E) glycerides

5. Transport proteins, gated channels and pores are involved in which of the following processes?

A) osmosis D) active transport

B) passive transport E) A, Band C are correct

C) facilitated Diffusion

Use the following diagram to answer questions 6- 10.

CH£:OH

OH

6. Which of the following appropriately describes the diagram above?

A) glucose D) A and B are correct

B) carbohydrate E) A, Band C are correct

C) disaccharide

7. How many carbon atoms are found in the molecule above?

A) I B) 2 C) 6 D) 7 E) 12

8. The molecule above is not readily soluble in the phospholipid bilayer, however diffuses very quickly across a cell membrane into the cell by the following process:

A) active transport B) facilitated transport C) exocytosis D) pinocytosis

9. Which of the following is true about the above molecule?

A) it is a main source of energy for cell B) it is the main product of photosynthesis

C) it starts the process of respiration D) in animals it is synthesized in the liver and kidneys

E) all of the above

NJSL BiD I Jan 2008 Exam

10. How can the above molecule be used to make sucrose? By

A) bonding it with fructose B) forming a glycosidic bond C) hydrolysis

D) A and B are correct E) A, B and C are correct

11. What type of instrument is used to make the image above?

A) light microscope B) transmission electron microscope C) scanning electron microscope

0) any ofthe above E) none of the above

12. Which of the following is represented by the image above?

A) nucleus B) chloroplast C) mitochondrion

D) vacuole E) rough endoplasmic reticulum

13. The above organelle is hypothesized to have evolved from an independent, free-living organism.

Evidence to support this hypothesis comes from studying the

A) unicellular fungi B) red algae C) aerobic eubacteria

0) anaerobic plants E) photosynthetic algae

Use the following image to answer questions 14- 16.

14. Which of the following processes is depicted above?

A) a hydrolysis reaction B) formation of an amino acid

C) formation of ammonium D) formation ofa dipeptide E) formation of urea

15. Which of the following is the type of bond that formed in the image above?

A) H bond D) peptide bond

B) polar covalent bond E) aqueous bond

C) ionic bond

16. Which of the following hosts the process shown above?

A) mitochondria B) chloroplast C) ribosome 0) cell membrane E) nucleus

17. When is ATP produced during chemiosmosis?

A) when W ions move across the membrane

B) when light is absorbed by photosystem I

C) when a water molecule is split

D) when a glucose molecule is split

E) when electrons move down the transport chain

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18. Microscopic measurements are usually made in

Aj ug Bj um C)g O)m E)ml

19. You are preparing Petri dishes with nutrient agar for a science lab. The recipe for making nutrient agar is to mix 100mi of boiling water with 2.3g of nutrient agar powder. Which laboratory tool(s) will you need to measure out the powder?

A) beaker B) scale and weighing paper C) stirring rod 0) Petri dish E) all of the above

20. The quantity of ON A dissolved in solution is often expressed as

A) ml B) crrr' C) pg/um' D) dl E) dg/cnr'

21. Which of the following scientist's work contributed to the improvement of the microscope?

A) Louis Pasteur B) Carolus Linnaeus C) Robert Hooke

D) Charles Darwin E) Anton van Leeuwenhoek

22. The normal boiling point of water on the Celsius scale is

A) 0 0 B) 320 C) 1000 D) 2120 E) 2420

Use the following diagram to answer questions 23- 27.

~H~+ CH. CH2

(,

o-r-o- 9

'(H.-C,H~CH.

o C=Q 9=0

C9,~ CH2

.'-": CH2

9H2 CH2

yH2 9H2

9H;! CH2

9H2 CH2

'(H, CH.

yH2 Ct:!-_.

yH2 -""':;:CH"_CH2

9H2 -CH

yH2 ~CH2

yH2 --,CH2 .... CH2"

CH. -Cli

cI-I;, 'l..CH2

CH. -CH,

91-1;,

CH,

23. Which of the following describes the entire molecule above?

A) carbohydrate B) protein C) phospholipid 0) nucleic acid E) none of the above

24. The molecule above is a major component of

A) DNA B) RNA C) cellulose 0) biological membranes E) enzymes

25. Which constituent of the above molecule can be converted into glucose by the liver and provide energy for cell metabolism?

A) A B) B C) C 0) 0 E) B, C, and 0

26. Which ofthe constituents of the above molecule is labeled "saturated?"

A) A B) B C) C D) 0 E) none of the above

27. Which of the constituents of the above molecule is considered hydrophobic?

A) A B) A and B C) C D) 0 E) C and 0

28. Enzymes are important to metabolism because

A) they transform one chemical into another in metabolic pathways

B) they allow cells to drive needed but thermodynamically unfavorable reactions by coupling them to favorable ones

C) they allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes' in the cell's environment

D) they catalyze the chemical reactions

E) all of the above

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29. Which of the following processes releases energy?

A) catabolism B) anabolism C) carbon fixation D) ATP synthesis E) nucleotide synthesis

I I 'I

!

30. Which of the following is true ofanaboIism?

A) It constructs larger molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, from smaller ones

B) It is also known as "biosynthesis"

C) Its reactions are powered by A TP

D) A, B and C are true

E) None of the above because these answers describe the processes of catabolism.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 31- 35.

NH2

,jN~

He A II

N~CH OH OH OH

1 I c I

CHZ .. O-P-O-p-O/\P-OH

II II II

o 0 0

OH

31. Where is the most immediately available and useful energy of the above molecule stored?

A) A B) B C) C D) all labeled parts have equal amounts of stored energy

32. By what process would the energy mentioned in number 31 be released?

A) dehydration B) hydrolysis C) cleavage D) phosphorylation E) chemiosmosis

33. What is the chemical formula for the above molecule?

A) ClOH12N5013P3 B) CIIH12N5013P3 C) C3H12Ns013P3 D) ClOH16N5013P3

34. The above molecule is produced during which of the following?

A) photosynthesis D) A and B are correct

B) cellular respiration E) A, Band C are correct

C) translation

35. Where does the production of the above molecule occur?

A) chloroplasts B) mitochondria C) ribosomes

D) A and B are correct E) A, B and C are correct

36. Which of the following tenus does not fit in with the others?

A) light reactions B) light-independent reactions C) dark reactions

D) calvin cycle E) carbon fixation

37. Where do the related processes discussed in number 36 occur?

A) cristae B) matrix C) stroma D) grana E) thylakoid membrane

38. Which of the following is the location on an enzyme where the substrate binds?

A) binding site B) active site C) reaction center D) allosteric site E) bonding site

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Use the following image to answer questions 39- 42.

39. The molecule above is best characterized as a component of

A) carbohydrate B) protein C) lipid D) nucleic acid

E) starch

40. In the diagram above, to what are the arrows pointing?

A) hydrogen bonds B) amino group C) peptide bond

D) carbonyl group E) carboxyl group

41. Which of the following enzymes begins the catabolism of the above molecule

A) protease B) ligase C) RNA polymerase D) phosphorylase E) hexokinase

42. How does the enzyme in # 41 begin the synthesis of the above molecule?

A) inhibition B) dehydration C) hydrolysis D) cleavage E) adding energy

Use the following graph to answer questions 43- 44.

t.::rf.'sse G!)'{:iJa~o;.;idn,,:;

y-\ .)

I "

/

'1 2, :3 4 5· 67 3 "l} 10 11

p:H

43. What does the above graph tell you about enzymes?

A) they are pH dependent

C) they are most efficient in acidic environments E) not enough information is given

B) they are pH independent

D) they are most efficient in basic solutions

44. Why does Pepsin's activity peak at such a different pH from the others?

A) it is more efficient at different temperatures B) it has a-different activation energy

C) it must function.in an acidic part of the body D) it must function in a basic part of the body

E) it works alone

45. An element with an atomic number of 15 can make up to how many covalent bonds with hydrogen?

A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 4

46. Which of the following represents a polar covalent bond?

A) H-H B) H-O C) C-H D) C-C

E) 0-0

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47. Blueberries grow wild in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey because they grow best in moderately acidic soil. Which of the following pH values best indicates this type of soil?

A) 1.8 B) 4.9 C)7 D) 8.5 E) 11.8

48. A solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 1 X 10-4 M has a pH of

A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) 10

49. Which of the following is a strong acid due to its ability to ionize completely in solution?

A) NaOH B) NH2 C) H2C03 D) KOH E) HCI

50. A buffer does which of the following?

A) helps resist shifts in pH

B) releases H+ in basic solutions

C) releases if in acidic solutions

D) A and B are true

E) A and C are true

51. By changing this level of structural organization of a protein we can affect its function as an enzyme.

A) primary B) secondary C) tertiary D) A, B and C are correct E) Band C are correct

52. In 1655, the following scientist coined the word cell when observing a piece of cork under a

microscope.

A) Matthias Schleiden

B) Theodor Schwann

C) Robert Hooke

D) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

E) Francesco Redi

53. In 1836 this scientist achieved the first isolation of an animal enzyme, pepsin.

A) Matthias Schleiden D) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

B) Theodor Schwann E) Francesco Redi

C) Robert Hooke

54. The following scientist proposed that all plants are composed of cells.

A) Matthias Schleiden D) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

B) Theodor Schwarm E) Francesco Redi

C) Robert Hooke

Use the following graph of Absorption Spectra for Chlorophylls A and B to answer questions 55-57.

ABSORP'TlON SF.E:C"T:R.A. FOR CHLOROPHYLLS A AND a

b

W-AVELEz..l0TH (nro.)

55. What difference between the two chlorophylls above accounts for the different absorption capabilities?

A) One chlorophyll pigment appears red to the human eye, whereas the other appears green. S) The two molecules differ because they have different side groups but a common core.

C) Chlorophyll A operates at a higher temperature than chlorophyll B.

D) A and B are correct.

E) A, B and C are correct.

56. According to the graph above, what wavelengths reflect the most light?

A) 400-500 nm B) 450 nm C) 500-600 nm D) 600-700 run

E) 650 nm

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57. Which of the two pigments graphed above is the most important photosynthetic pigment in green plants?

A) chlorophyll A

B) chlorophyll B

C) Neither because beta-carotene, which is not shown, is the most important.

D) Neither because xanthophyll, which is not shown, is the most important.

58. What kind offoreign molecule would most likely adversely affect the process of glycolysis?

A) a molecule that reacts with oxygen depleting its presence in the cell

B) a molecule that binds with pyruvate rendering it inactive

C) a molecule that mimics the structure of glucose but can not be metabolized by the cell

D) a molecule that oxidizes NADH to NAD+

E) a molecule 'that interferes with the formation of acetyl coenzyme A

59. Which of the following best exhibits the downhill flow of electrons during aerobic respiration?

A) glucose~ATP-7oxygen

B) glucose~ATP~electron transport chain~NADH

C) food-s-Krebs cycle-7ATP-7NADH

D) food-s glycolysis-s-Krebs cycle-7NADH

E) food0NADH -7 electron transport chain-s-oxygen

60. In order for the mitochondrion to produce ATP, it requires all of the following except

A) membrane bound electron transport chain

B) proton pumps embedded in inner membrane

C) mitochondrion ATP synthase

D) enzymes for glycolysis

E) enzymes for the Krebs cycle

61. Which of the following processes produces the most ATP when glucose is fully oxidized to C02 and H20

A) glycolysis B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA C) Krebs Cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation E) substrate level phosphorylation

62. Which of the following processes converts ADP to ATP?

A) substrate level phosphorylation B) chemiosmosis C) cyclical oxidation

D) A and B are correct E) A, Band C are correct

63. In which process does a cytoplasmic enzyme attach a third phosphate toADP?

A) substrate level phosphorylation B) chemiosmosis C) cyclical oxidation

D) A and B are correct E) A, B and C are correct

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Use the following diagram to answer questions 64-67.

'~---A.

64. If you are viewing a specimen under the lowest objective of the microscope above, what is the total magnification?

A) 4X B) lOX C) 40X D) I OOX E) 400X

65. If yon are viewing a 0.25 mm cell under the lowest magnification mentioned in #64, how big does the cell appear to be?

A) 4 times as big B) 40 times as big C) 0.25!lm D) 2.5 um E) 25 !lID

66. What is the difference between the microscope pictured above and a dissecting scope?

A) A dissecting scope uses reflected light, while the microscope above uses transmitted light

B) A dissecting scope has a larger depth of field

C) A dissecting scope uses lower magnification

D) A and B are correct

E) A, B and C are correct

67. Which ofthe following is true about the microscope pictured above?

A) the field of view and depth offield decrease as the magnification increases

B) the field of view and depth offield increase as the magnification increases

C) when magnification increases, the field of view changes but not the depth of field

D) when magnification increases, the depth offield changes but not the field of view

E) neither the field of view or the depth of field change on this type of microscope

Use the following diagram to answer questions 68-69.

B

c

o

A

68. Which of the above images exemplifies a red blood cell in a concentrated solution ofNaCI?

69. Which of the above images exemplifies the terminal fate of a red blood cell is placed in distilled water?

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Use the following diagram to answer questions 70-71.

A

B

c

n

70. The above images (in sequence from A to D) show the process of

A) endocytosis D) A and C are correct

B) exocytosis E) Band C are correct

C) chemiosmosis

71. What type of cell would most likely be engaged in the process shown above?

A) A xylem cell

B) A cell from the lining of a digestive tract

C) A red blood cell

D) A cell from the outermost layers of human skin E)A virus

Use the following information regarding an experiment to answer questions 72-75.

A student conducted an experiment to determine whether plant and animal cells have the same amount of catalase, an enzyme found in plants and animals that causes hydrogen peroxide to break down into water and oxygen. She added small pieces of liver and potato tissues to separate test tubes which both contained 10 ml of3% hydrogen peroxide solution. The student recorded how much oxygen was released from each test tube for 25 seconds after the trial began. Her results are found in the following graph:

THE EFFECT OF CATAJ.ASE. ON HYDROGENPEROXmf.

Liver - - - Pota t(l

" to 15 U( 13

linw (M!O:onds}

In a second experiment, which yielded no oxygen, the student first boiled the liver before adding it to the test tube with the hydrogen peroxide solution.

72. Based on the results of these experiments, what is a valid inference?

A) Animal cells have higher concentrations of catalase than plant cells.

B) Heating catalase to high temperatures renders it inactive.

C) The boiled animal tissue requires more time to release its oxygen.

D) A and B are correct

E) A, Band C are correct

73. Catalase found in the human liver probably works at an optimum temperature of

A) -10°C B) O°C C) ro-c D) 37°C E) 100°C

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74. Excluding changing the amount of hydrogen peroxide and the size of the tissue, what is a controlled variable that can be tested in a follow up experiment that may affect the dependent variable?

A) pH B) light C) time of day D) A, Band C are correct E) none of the above

75. Which of the following are possible errors that may have occurred during the experiment above?

A) leakage of gas B) different surface areas of tissues C) a different enzyme was targeted

D) A and B are correct E) A, B and C are correct

Use the following information to answer questions 76-80.

A student cut several slices of a potato, recorded their mass and placed them in varying solutions. Her observations are recorded in the table below:

The Effect of Different Salt Solutions on the Mass of Potato Slices.

Beaker Solution Change in Mass
1 Distilled Water Gained 3 grams
2 5% Salt Solution Lost 0.3 grams
3 15% Salt Solution Lost 4.6 grams 76. Which of the following terms describing the tonicity of a solution is not shown in the table above?

A) hypotonic B) hypertonic C) isotonic D) all are shown

77. In which beaker might the potato cells have lost turgor?

A) Beaker 1 B) Beaker 2 C) Beaker 3 D) not enough information

78. Which of the following processes occurred during this experiment?

A) osmosis B) diffusion C) passive transport D) A and B E) all ofthe above

79. If an animal cell was placed in beaker number #1, what would potentially happen to that animal cell?

A) it will lyse B) it will lose turgor C) no change will occur

D) it will shrivel E) it will lose water

80. The process being tested in the above experiment is responsible for

A) maintaining a constant internal turgor pressure

B) equalizing osmotic pressure on both sides of the membrane

C) destroying the permeability of the cell membrane

D) stimulating cell division

E) A, B and C are correct

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New Jersey Science League Biology I Answer Key Date: JANUARY, 2008

1 B 17 A 33 D 49 E 65 B
2 C 18 B 34 D 50 D 66 E
3 D 19 B 35 D 51 D 67 A
4 E 20 C 36 A 52C 68 A
5 E 21 E 37 C 53 B 69 D
6D 22 C 38B 54 A 70 A
7 C 23 C 39 B 55 B 71 C
8 B 24 D 40 C 56 C 72 D
9 E 25 E 41 A 57 A 73 D
10D 26 D 42 C 58 C 74A
HB 27E 43 A 59 E 75 D
12 C 28 E 44 C 60 D 76 C
13 C 29 A 45 D 61 D 77 C
14 D 30 D 46 B 62 D 78 E
15 D 31 C 47 B 63 A 79 A
16C 32 B 48 B 64 C 80B BIOLOGY I TOPICS OF STUDY 2008 SEASON January - cell structure, metabolism, enzymes, experiments, inorganic/organic compounds, photosynthesis, respiration, philosophy/history, structure of matter, diffusion, energy, ATPIP, measurement, pH, microscope.

February - classification, mitosis/meiosis, genetics, DNAlRNA, evolution, virus, experiments, cell structure, philosophylbistory, photosynthesis, anaerobic/aerobic respiration, bacteria.

Marcb - animal structure/function/systems, plant structure/function/systems, cycles, evolution, embryology, reproduction, history/philosophy, experiments; fungi, algae, ecology, disease, mitosis/meiosis. April - human anatomy &physiology, nutrition, enzymes, embryology, populations, animal/plant behavior, ecology, cycles, regulation/homeostasis, disease, experiments, philosophy/history,

TESTING DATES FOR THE NEW JERSEY SCIENCE LEAGUE THURSDAY, JANUARY 10, 2008; THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14,2008 THURSDAY, MARCH 13,2008; **THURSDAY APRIL 10,2008

Each area may select a date in April, other than the first week, for all schools in the area to take the exam.

No area may take the April exam during the first week of ApriL