CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.

Background of the problem There are four skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing that are thought in English. Speaking is considered the most important skills to master, because there is an assumption that students must learn and speak English fluently in this globalization era. With speaking people know everything about the language, no matter how well or bad the speaker produces the language. In junior high school speaking should be learn and should be practicing in the classroom. The students must try to speak in English lesson to make them to communicate in English. Many English language teachers meet with difficulties to teach their students to speak in the classroom, this is because teacher did not have good media and can¶t create fun when they teach students. Certainly it make students lazy and feel afraid to make mistake, lack of vocabulary, do not care and do not pay attention when the teacher explain the lesson. So the teachers try to find the solution to improve students speaking ability. Also teacher wants students to practice their English in daily life as well as in the classroom at least. In the future they will be able to communicate effectively based on their need of the social context among different people and different situation. In teaching English, the teacher must try to find several ways such as using media that to make their student to speak fluently. So teacher can use media such as video in teaching speaking. It is use to make their student interesting and fell enjoy to studying the lesson. Video is the technology to capture, record, process, transmit and rearrange the moving picture that can be
1

used in teaching and learning process. Using video teacher can create fun and enjoy situation to improve students speaking ability. Beside that student can find new idea and vocabulary after watching the video. From the problem above, I think it is hard for the teacher to teach English well. Therefore it is needed to do an effective and innovative media to motivate the students speaking ability by using video. Teachers argue that watching video it is an enjoyable activity to make the students¶ to improve their speaking ability at junior high school. B. identification of the problem There are several techniques or strategies to develop students¶ speaking skill in English language. Some teacher use media and reality to support them in teaching speaking English, they use several techniques such as presentation techniques, collaborative learning, seminar, discussion, storytelling, describing object (video, picture) becoming radio announcer, interview techniques and many others. To improve students speaking ability teacher can use video. Video is one of many media that can be used to improve students speaking ability in the classroom. Student can watch a video and so they can feel enjoy, fun and interested to study English. C. formulation of the problems Based on the background of the problem and the identification of the problem above, this paper focuses on improving students speaking ability by using video. The problem in this paper is formulated in the following question: how can video used to improve junior high school students¶ speaking ability?

2

D. purpose of the paper The main purpose of this paper is to discuss about using a video in improving junior high school students¶ speaking ability.

3

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A. Speaking There are many definition of speaking. According to Syafrudin (2001) speaking is as active productive skill makes us of oral communication. Finocchiro and Bonomo in Syafaruddin (2001) stated that speaking as one or more sound make by human being for purposing of communication. Beside, Chaney in Alfira (1998) says that speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning. So, the student should have capability in telling their ideas about some problems or some things. The goal of speaking is to improve students¶ communicative skill. By telling their ideas, the students can improve their speaking ability and increase their confidence. Mc.Donough and shaw (1993) says speaking is the ways to express ideas and opinion, expressing and desire to do something, negotiating or solving a particular problem, and maintaining social relationship and friendship. Long and Richard ( 1982 ) says speaking is a complex set of ability that involve many component, including pronunciations, listening and grammar skill. Nolascco and Athur (1987) states that speaking is a conversation or interaction. And Finochiro and Bonomo (1987) stated that speaking is combination of several skills. And there are sixs points to done by the learner: (1) describing what he want to say, (2) choosing the pattern, (3) choosing the worlds that fit to the meaning, (4) using correct arranges of sounds, (5) making sure what he want to say in appropriate situation, (6) placing his tongue and lips in good position.
4

From the explanation above it can conducted that speaking is very important to communicated with others to take and give information learning language speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the classroom event in real life situation, in order to an able our students to communicate effectively and accurately by using component such as vocabulary and pronunciation, fluency and basic grammatical pattern. B. Video Video is one of the technological aids that use in the classroom nowadays. Video is an extremely use media which incorporates a wide variety at visual element and a great range of audio experiences in additional to spoken language based on speaking descriptive text. Sane (2009) stated that video is the technology to capture, record, and process, transmit and rearrange the moving picture also video can use for tutorials, videos for learning, and even videos for entertainment or for documentation of activities. It means in teaching English language we can use video to make students not bored and like to study English language. Many problems that face by the students in speaking descriptive text specially describing about pet such as not interesting and boring, difficult to express their ideas and also lack of vocabulary can be solved because through video show the students will be interested in watching the video, so they will not be bored. Katchen (1989) stated that more and more video are being produce for language teaching. Its mean that video is very important for the teacher in the classroom to make students fell enjoy, fun and not bored to study English language. Katchen ( 1989) stated that teacher can use video to help students become better speaker in English. Its means they can see what it look like and sound like. And it will motivate the students to thinks from that they can see, so they can describe something that they look in that video.
5

C. Teaching speaking Teaching English as a foreign language in junior high school is difficult. But the teacher must create the good techniques to make the students motivated in learning English. Byrne in Syafaruddin (2001) stated that the aim of the teacher who teaches a foreign language is to set the learner into a situation where the learners actively participate as a member of community. Its mean the teacher should create the suitable techniques that related to the topic given. So the students fell enjoy and comfortable and also motivate in teaching and learning process. And make they will be more active while learning English in the classroom. As Zhang (1977) states that language teaching activities in the classroom are aimed at achieving individual language use. In this needs teacher not only to create a warm and humanistic classroom atmosphere, but also create an active speaker. The teacher are also the most effective factors that determine the success of the students speaking abilities, and also the teacher as the more powerful person in the classroom speaking activities. English teacher is normally transferring the language by using appropriate methods, techniques media, evaluation, classroom activities and so forth. Brown in alfira (1998) stated that teaching speaking is to provide speaking skill: fluency, accurancy and interaction. Interaction itself is focused on nature of most communication therefore in teaching speaking, teacher should help the learners to take them in a real life situation, so they can use English fluency and accurately. In teaching learning process, especially for teaching speaking, there are three activities that the teacher do in teaching, namely, pre teaching, whilst teaching, and post teaching. The first phase is pre teaching. Pre-teaching phase involves introducing the topic and preparing students
6

for the lesson. At this stage students can bring their best of knowledge and skills to a text that they are going to speak. The goals of pre teaching activity are to increase concentration, motivation, creativity and also give students a sense of purpose and a reason for ending before they gain the new information. The second phase is whilst teaching. In whilst teaching phase students are provided with a set of instructions to give them a purpose for speaking and to serve as a guide for them as they speak. In deep, in teaching speaking activities should provide learners to speak more than teacher. Beside that the activities should be based on the learners¶ level of ability, maturity and interest learners them self. The interesting material of teaching can encourage the learner to speak English creatively. Teacher is also the most effective factor that determines the success of the students speaking activities. As the most powerful person in the classroom, the teacher will make the classroom speaking activities run well by realizing that English teacher is not merely, transferring the language, also promoting the student¶s ability to use the language by using appropriate methods, techniques, media evaluation, classroom activities and so forth. The third phase is post teaching. In post teaching phase students are given short comprehension questions, vocabulary work opportunity for discussion of the topic and the author¶s reasoning, and summary writing assignment. The purpose of this last phase is to help students develop and clarify their interpretation in describing about pet that they have seen on video. So there are three phase of teaching, pre, whilst, and post phase. Each has some stages and activities should be done by the teacher. The teacher can choose one of the better strategies in each phased based on the topic of the lesson.
7

In fact in teaching speaking at junior high school, speaking is difficult to be implemented by both teacher and students. Many teacher face difficulties to find the good techniques in teaching speaking and students are difficult to express their ideas so that the writer try to use video to improve students¶ speaking ability of describing about pet.

8

CHAPTER III HOW TO USE VIDEO TO IMPROVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS¶ SPEAKING ABILITY

In teaching speaking to junior high school students, teachers show video to make students interesting and more creative to speak in English language. In study there are several kinds of text that the students should be mastered by the students in this curriculum, one of that is descriptive text. Descriptive text is the text that is used to describe a particular person, place, or thing. In descriptive text, especially describing about thing the teacher chooses a video about animals such as rabbit and cat.

A. Preparation To improve the students¶ speaking ability, it needs innovation and creation to motivate them while learning speaking skill. Therefore, the teachers need to prepare the material and interesting media that can help them in teaching. A.1 Material The media that can be used in teaching is the appropriate media in teach the materials that will be learn by the students. In selecting the material, the teachers have to see the curriculum first as a guide for them in teaching. Based on curriculum for junior high school, there are two kinds of monologue texts used for teaching English from the first grade. One of the texts is descriptive text. In teaching descriptive text, the teacher should have some interesting media. Commonly, the
students will be interested to a familiar image to describe such as, rabbit and cat. It is better for the teacher to use it in order to explore the students¶ knowledge and ideas to speak.

9

In teaching descriptive text teachers that need a true and familiar image about the thing that wants to describe by the students. These objects make the students more understand about the purpose of the descriptive text. So, the teachers should prepare the material well when they want to teach the texts. Appropriate material will make the teaching process successful.

A.2 Media Media are the essential and important parts that must be made in instructional design. As tools for language learning or teaching, media have undoubtedly always facilitated for both instructed and no instructed learners. Gerlach and Donal (1973) states that media have four general purposes; Media can help to simplify the teaching process, and they can help to perfect it, machines allow the teachers practice the principle of object teaching and illustration, by media the use of mother tongue of the students can be reduced, media are instruments of motivation if they are used in such away as to stimulate learning. Besides preparing the material, the teachers also need the interesting media that will be used in the teaching process. In selecting the media, the teachers have to be creative. The media that will be used by the teachers have to be interesting for the students, especially for junior high school student in teaching speaking. For example: video. Teachers can use video in teaching speaking. Through using video it can motivate and increasing students¶ vocabulary also make the students feel enjoy and fun to study. So using video is very helpful for teacher in teaching and learning process. Video that will be given in whilst-teaching and post-teaching activity by the teachers.

10

B. Teaching Implementation Like the other teaching, there are some steps in implementing the teaching learning process, which have to be obeyed by the teacher. Generally, the activities in teaching learning process are divided into three phase, pre-activity, whilst-activity, and post activity. In whilst teaching, the teacher can use video and ask and answer some questions in exploring the students¶ knowledge about the lesson. And in post teaching, the teacher use video in improving the students¶ ability in speaking. There are some steps that we can use in teaching by asking and giving question in pre-teaching activity. The steps are: a. Greetings b. Reviews the previous lesson c. Checks homework d. Teacher led the students into the lesson by telling about his favorite pet. e. Teacher asks students about their favorite pet. 1) What do you pet look like? 2) What it eyes look like? And what it color? 3) Are you like to play with your pet? f. Teachers go on to the lesson. In this step teacher tells about his favorite pet because he wants to lead the students to the topic. And asking to the students some question about their pet to know more clearly about their pet. In whilst-teaching activity the teacher will show video and one text to the student that is related to the video that is given by the teacher. The teacher will ask some question to the student that based on video.
11

The steps in whilst teaching activity is: 1. The teacher shows a video about the lesson. 2. Ask them to watch it clearly 3.Teacher asking some question to the students. 1) What is my pet? 2) What it is name? 3) What Ruby eyes look like? 4) What Ruby ears look like? 5) Can we describe Ruby video into a text? 4. Teachers explain about the lesson. 5. Teacher show the video again. 6. Teacher show descriptive text about a pet in that video. 7. Teachers ask them to read after the teacher. 8. Teacher asking some question that related to the text. 9. Teachers ask them to practice in pair. 10. The teacher confirm about the students have done. The last activity is post-teaching activity. The steps are: 1. Give them different video. 2. Ask them to watch it clearly. 3. Ask them to describe what their see in that video. 4. Called them one by one to describe a pet in that video.

12

5. See their fluency, vocabularies, grammar and their descriptive text Those steps in post teaching are done to measure the students understanding about the lesson which has been explained in pre-teaching and whilst-teaching activity. By using video, the students will easier and more fun in telling their ideas. In this activity we need more than one video. It is used for making some differences of ideas among the students. ( see the lesson plan in appendix )

13

C. Discussion Teaching speaking to the students needs innovation and creation to motivate them while learning speaking. One way that can be used by the teacher is by using media especially video. The advantages of teaching speaking by using video are to create enjoy and fun atmosphere in teaching learning process. These media are really useful and helpful for the student. Besides, video are also used to motivate the students in learning English. Teaching by using video is used to give variety in explaining material. Like Stempleski (1987) that said video can be used in a variety of instructional setting such as in classroom and in self study and evaluation situation. Also Stempleski (1987) said the importance of using video as media language as follows: (1) to motivate students to learn. (2) Providing authentic look. (3) Facilitations better comprehension of the intended message. Using video in teaching also makes the students get a chance to describe what they see in the video. Every person will have different to describe same video. It will motivate them to have an opportunity to tell what they see about the video. From all the describing, the teacher can make the students want to describe about what they see in that video. Furthermore, the students will learn how to speak English in correct grammar, to use a lot of vocabulary and to tell fluently. By using video, the students can improve their speaking ability because they can tell what they have seen in the video.

14

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Speaking is quite difficult if the students do not understand what they want to speaking about. The students still get difficulties in improving the idea what they want to speak. They cannot get the picture that they want to describe. They even do not have preparation and description to speak. Sometimes the teachers do not lead the students in to the texts first. The teachers just give the students a written text, and discuss it by giving them some questions about the text but not all of them can answer that question. Some of the students just keep silent because they do not understand with the texts given by the teachers. In this case, the students will be asked to brainstorm the topic before they start to speak. The teachers can use media at the first stage in the teaching of speaking. The teachers show the video that related to the text. And then, the teachers ask some questions based on the video that can lead the students to activate their existing knowledge about the topic. By doing so, the students will get the description and the background information before coming to the texts. As a result, they are able to speak about a thing in that video because they have got some points in their mind that they have see in the video.

15

B. Suggestion To make teaching speaking skill success, the teachers have to lead the students first in to the texts that will be taught. In leading the students into the texts, the teachers should be creative in selecting the media. There have been several common media that can be used. One of them is video. There are some advantages of using the video in the teaching; it helps the teachers to distribute material to the students easier than teaching without it, the students are easy to understand, and it is more interesting for the students in the learning process. In their teaching, the teachers have to keep the video short and have to make sure the video teaches something. Through this paper, the writer suggest to the speaker who wants to have a new strategy in improving speaking ability to use this strategy in teaching and learning process. For the students as well, video can also help them in practicing their English when they want to describe something in the video.

16

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alfira. 1998. Some Activities to Develop Speaking Ability of SMU Students. Padang. IKIP. Cahyani, Dian Eko. 2004. The correlation between the students achievement on intensive course program and their speaking ability. Thesis unp. Gerlach, Vernon s and Donal p Ely. 1973. Teaching and media a systematic approach. New jersey: prentice-hall, Englewood cliffs Finochiro, Mary and Bonomo. 1987. Teaching the Foreign Language. London. Katchen, J. E. (1989). The video camera: Key to Improving Speaking Skills. Paper presented at the Japan Association on language teaching, Okayama, Japan. Long, Michael. H and R, Jack. 1982. Methodology in Tesol a Division of wads worth, Inc. Boston. Massachusetts. Mc. Donough, Jo and Shaw, cristopher. 1993. Materials and methods in ELT. A Teacher¶s Guide. Oxford UK and Cambridge USA. Nolasco , Rob and Athur, Lois. 1987. Recourse Book for Teacher. Oxford University Press. Sane. 2009. Video and Audio. http://blog.math.uny.ac.id/rusandi/tag/definisi-audio-video.com on November 20, 2010 Stempleski, Susan. 1987. Short takes: Using authentic video in the English class. Paper present at the Annual Meeting of the International Assosiation of Teachers of English as a Foreing Language. Belgium. Syafrudin. 2001. Increasing students speaking ability through oral communication. Padang. UNP Wiyarnis. 2007. Improving students speaking ability through news report. FBSS. UNP.
17

Zhang, Xian Hao. 1997. Tape Recorder, Role Play, and Turn Taking in a Large of EFL Listening and Speaking Class. English Teaching Forum.

18

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.