NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Night vision technology, by deIinition, literally allows one to see in the dark.
Originally developed Ior military use, it has provided the United States with a strategic
military advantage, the value oI which can be measured in lives. Federal and state
agencies now routinely utilize the technology Ior site security, surveillance as well as
search and rescue. Night vision equipment has evolved Irom bulky optical instruments in
lightweight goggles through the advancement oI image intensiIication technology.

The Iirst thing you probably think oI when you see the words night vision is a
spy or action movie you've seen, in which someone straps on a pair oI night-vision
goggles to Iind someone else in a dark building on a moonless night. And you may have
wondered "Do those things really work? Can you actually see in the dark?" The answer is
most deIinitely yes. With the proper night-vision equipment, you can see a person
standing over 200 yards (183 m) away on a moonless, cloudy night! Night vision can
work in two very diIIerent ways, depending on the technology used.

Image enhancement - This works by collecting the tiny amounts oI light, including the
lower portion oI the inIrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to
our eyes, and ampliIying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.

Thermal imaging - This technology operates by capturing the upper portion oI the
inIrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by obiects instead oI simply reIlected as
light. Hotter obiects, such as warm bodies, emit more oI this light than cooler obiects like
trees or buildings.






n this article, you will learn about the two maior night-vision technologies. We'll also
discuss the various types oI night-vision equipment and applications. But Iirst, let's talk about
inIrared light.
The Basics
n order to understand night vision, it is important to understand something about light. The
amount oI energy in a light wave is related to its wavelength: Shorter wavelengths have
higher energy. OI visible light, violet has the most energy, and red has the least. Just next to
the visible light spectrum is the infrared spectrum.




nIrared light can be split into three categories:
Near-infrared (near-#) - Closest to visible light, near-# has wavelengths that range
Irom 0.7 to 1.3 microns, or 700 billionths to 1,300 billionths oI a meter.
id-infrared (mid-#) - Mid-# has wavelengths ranging Irom 1.3 to 3 microns.
Both near-# and mid-# are used by a variety oI electronic devices, including remote
controls.
Thermal-infrared (thermal-#) - Occupying the largest part oI the inIrared
spectrum, thermal-# has wavelengths ranging Irom 3 microns to over 30 microns.

The key diIIerence between thermal-# and the other two is that thermal-# is emitted by an
obiect instead oI reIlected oII it. nIrared light is emitted by an obiect because oI what is
happening at the atomic level

Atoms Atoms are constantly in motion. They continuously vibrate, move and rotate. Even
the atoms that make up the chairs that we sit in are moving around. Solids are actually in
motion! Atoms can be in diIIerent states oI excitation. n other words, they can have
diIIerent energies. I we apply a lot oI energy to an atom, it can leave what is called the
ground-state energy level and move to an excited level. The level oI excitation depends on
the amount oI energy applied to the atom via heat, light or electricity.
An atom consists oI a nucleus (containing the protons and neutrons) and an electron cloud.
Think oI the electrons in this cloud as circling the nucleus in many diIIerent orbits. Although
more modern views oI the atom do not depict discrete orbits Ior the.





Once an electron moves to a higher-energy orbit, it eventually wants to return to the ground
state. When it does, it releases its energy as a photon -- a particle oI light. You see atoms
releasing energy as photons all the time. For example, when the heating element in a toaster
turns bright red, the red color is caused by atoms excited by heat, releasing red photons. An
excited electron has more energy than a relaxed electron, and iust as the electron absorbed
some amount oI energy to reach this excited level, it can release this energy to return to the
ground state..

Anything that is alive uses energy, and so do many inanimate items such as engines and
rockets. Energy consumption generates heat. n turn, heat causes the atoms in an obiect to Iire
oII photons in the thermal-inIrared spectrum. The hotter the obiect, the shorter the
wavelength oI the inIrared photon it releases.

n night vision, thermal imaging takes advantage oI this inIrared emission. n the next
section, we'll see iust how it does this.

Thermal Imaging and Image Enhancement

Here's how thermal imaging works:
A special lens Iocuses the inIrared light emitted by all oI the obiects in view.

The Iocused light is scanned by a phased array oI inIrared-detector elements. The
detector elements create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermogram. t only
takes about one-thirtieth oI a second Ior the detector array to obtain the temperature
inIormation to make the thermogram. This inIormation is obtained Irom several thousand
points in the Iield oI view oI the detector array.


The thermogram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses.


The basic components of a thermaI-imaging system

Types of ThermaI Imaging Devices
Most thermal-imaging devices scan at a rate oI 30 times per second. They can sense
temperatures ranging Irom -4 degrees Fahrenheit (-20 degrees Celsius) to 3,600 F (2,000 C),
and can normally detect changes in temperature oI about 0.4 F (0.2 C).

It is quite easy to see everything but at night, you can see
during the day... very IittIe..


ThermaI imaging Iets you see again.

There are two common types oI thermal-imaging devices:
&n-cooled - This is the most common type oI thermal-imaging device. The inIrared-
detector elements are contained in a unit that operates at room temperature. This type oI
system is completely quiet, activates immediately and has the battery built right in.

Cryogenically cooled - More expensive and more susceptible to damage Irom
rugged use, these systems have the elements sealed inside a container that cools them to
below 32 F (zero C). The advantage oI such a system is the incredible resolution and
sensitivity that result Irom cooling the elements. Cryogenically-cooled systems can "see" a
diIIerence as small as 0.2 F (0.1 C)

Image Enhancement

mage-enhancement technology is what most people think oI when you talk about
night vision. n Iact, image-enhancement systems are normally called night-vision devices
(NVDs). NVDs rely on a special tube, called an image-intensifier tube, to collect and
ampliIy inIrared and visible light.


The image-intensifier tube changes photons to eIectrons and back again.


Here's how image enhancement works:
A conventional lens, called the objective lens, captures ambient light and some near-
inIrared light.
The gathered light is sent to the image-intensiIier tube. n most NVDs, the power
supply Ior the image-intensiIier tube receives power Irom two N-Cell or two "AA" batteries.
The tube outputs a high voltage, about 5,000 volts, to the image-tube components.
The image-intensiIier tube has a photocathode, which is used to convert the photons
oI light energy into electrons.

At the end oI the image-intensiIier tube, the electrons hit a screen coated with
phosphors. These electrons maintain their position in relation to the channel they passed
through, which provides a perIect image since the electrons stay in the same alignment as the
original photons. The energy oI the electrons causes the phosphors to reach an excited state
and release photons.


ight-vision images are known for their eerie green tint.


The green phosphor image is viewed through another lens, called the ocular lens,
which allows you to magniIy and Iocus the image. The NVD may be connected to an
electronic display, such as a monitor, or the image may be viewed directly through the ocular
lens.

Generations
Generation 0 - The earliest (1950's) night vision products were based on image
conversion, rather than intensiIication. They required a source oI invisible inIrared (#) light
mounted on or near the device to illuminate the target area.
Generation 1 - The "starlight scopes" oI the 1960's (Vietnam Era) have three
image intensiIier tubes connected in a series. These systems are larger and heavier than Gen 2
and Gen 3. The Gen 1 image is clear at the center but may be distorted around the edges.
(Low-cost Gen 1 imports are oIten mislabeled as a higher generation.
Figure 1 illustrates Iirst-generation night vision. |Not a great topic sentence but it
does has the advantage oI calling attention to the Iigure.| ncoming light is collimated by
Iiber optic plates beIore impacting a photocathode t which releases electrons, which in turn
impact a phosphor screen. The excited screen emits green light into a second Iiber optic plate,
and the process is repeated. The complete process is repeated three times providing an overall
gain oI 10,000.


Generation 2 - The micro channel plate (MCP) electron multiplier prompted Gen
2 development in the 1970s. The "gain" provided by the MCP eliminated the need Ior back-
to-back tubes - thereby improving size and image quality. The MCP enabled development oI
hand held and helmet mounted goggles.

Second-generation image intensiIication signiIicantly increased gain and resolution
by employing a microchannel plate. Figure 2 depicts the basic conIiguration.



Generation 3 - Two maior advancements characterized development oI Gen 3 in
the late 1970s and early 1980s: the gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode and the ion-barrier
Iilm on the MCP. The GaAs photocathode enabled detection oI obiects at greater distances
under much darker conditions. The ion-barrier Iilm increased the operational liIe oI the tube
Irom 2000 hours (Gen 2) to 10,000 (Gen 3), as demonstrated by actual testing and not
extrapolation.

Generation 4 - Ior a good explanation oI this commonly misunderstood
advancement in night vision technology.
When discussing night vision technology, you also may hear the term "Omnibus" or
"OMN". The U.S. Army procures night vision devices through multi-year/multi-product
contracts reIerred to as "Omnibus" - abbreviated as "OMN". For each successive OMN
contract, TT has provided Gen 3 devices with increasingly higher perIormance.



EY GENERATION DEVELOPENTS:
· GENE#ATON 1 (Developed in 1960's);
4Vacuum Tube Technology
4Full Moon Operation
4AmpliIication: 1,000
4Operating LiIe: 2,000 Hours
· GENE#ATON 2 (Developed in 1970's);
4First Micro channel Plate (MCP) Application
4One-Quarter Moon Operation
4AmpliIication: 20,000
4Operating LiIe: 2,500 Hours
· GENE#ATON 2¹ (1970s)
4Development increased image tube bias voltage to improve gain.
4Additionally, a glass Iaceplate was added to improve resolution.
· GENE#ATON 3 (Developed in 1990's);
4mproved MCP & Photocathode
4Starlight Operation
4AmpliIication: 40,000
4Operating LiIe: 10,000 Hour


Characteristics of Night Vision :

Using intensiIied night vision is diIIerent Irom using regular binoculars and/or your
own eyes. Below are some oI the aspects oI night vision that you should be aware oI when
you are using an image intensiIied night vision system.

Textures. Light and Dark :
Obiects that appear light during the day but have a dull surIace may appear darker,
through the night vision unit, than obiects that are dark during the day but have a highly
reIlective surIace. For example, a shinny dark colored iacket may appear brighter than a light
colored iacket with a dull surIace.
Depth Perception:
Night vision does not present normal depth perception.
Fog and Rain:
Night vision is very responsive to reIlective ambient light; thereIore, the light
reIlecting oII oI Iog or heavy rain causes much more light to go toward the night vision unit
and may degrade its perIormance.
Honeycomb:
This is a Iaint hexagonal pattern which is the result oI the manuIacturing process.
Black Spots :
A Iew black spots throughout the image area are also inherent characteristics oI all
night vision technology. These spots will remain constant and should not increase in size or
number. See example below oI an image with black spots.



Equipment and Applications :

Night-vision equipment can be split into three broad categories:

Scopes - Normally handheld or mounted on a weapon, scopes are monocular (one
eye-piece).




Goggles - While goggles can be handheld, they are most oIten worn on the head.




Cameras - Cameras with night-vision technology can send the image to a monitor Ior
display or to a VC# Ior recording.



Early Attempts at Night Vision Technology



Military tacticians throughout history have seen the advantages oI being able to
maneuver eIIectively under the cover oI darkness. Historically, maneuvering large armies at
night carried such risks that it was rarely attempted.

During WW , the United States, Britain, and Germany worked to develop
rudimentary night vision technology. For example, a useIul inIrared sniper scope that used
near-inIrared cathodes coupled to visible phosphors to provide a near-inIrared image
converter was Iielded.
Application of Night Vision:-

Automatic Brightness Control (ABC) :

An electronic Ieature that automatically reduces voltages to the microchannel plate to
keep the image intensiIier's brightness within optimal limits and protect the tube. The eIIect
oI this can be seen when rapidly changing Irom low-light to high-light conditions; the image
gets brighter and then, aIter a momentary delay, suddenly dims to a constant level.

Auto-Gated Power Supply :

When the power supply is "auto-gated," it means the system is turning itselI on and
oII at a very rapid rate. This, combined with a thin Iilm attached to the microchannel plate
(an ion barrier) reduces blooming. While "blooming" can be noticeably less on systems with
a thin Iilm layer, systems with thicker Iilm layers can be perIectly acceptable depending on
the end user's application. Deciding which night vision goggle is better should not be based
solely on blooming.

Black Spots :

These are common blemishes in the image intensiIier oI the NVD or can be dirt or
debris between the lenses oI the NVG. Black spots that are in the image intensiIier do not
aIIect the perIormance or reliability oI a night vision device and are inherent in the
manuIacturing processes. Every night vision image intensiIier tube is diIIerent. They are like
diamonds. See image to the right.

Binocular:

Viewing a single image source with both eyes (example: watching a television set).

Blooming:

Loss oI the entire night vision image, parts oI it, or small parts oI it, due to intensiIier
tube overloading by a bright light source. Also, known as a "halo" eIIect, when the viewer
sees a "halo" eIIect around visible light sources. When such a bright light source comes into
the night vision device's view, the entire night vision scene, or parts oI it, become much
brighter, "whiting out" obiects within the Iield oI view. Blooming is common in Generation 0
and 1 devices. The lights in the image to the right would be considered to be "blooming".

Bright-Source Protection (BSP) - High-Light Cut-Off :

An electronic Iunction that reduces the voltage to the photocathode when the night
vision device is exposed to bright light sources such as room lights or car lights. BSP protects
the image tube Irom damage and enhances its liIe; however, it also has the eIIect oI lowering
resolution when Iunctioning.



Boresighting:

The alignment oI a weapon aiming device to the bore oI the weapon. See also
Zeroing

C-ount:

A standard still and video camera lens thread size Ior mounting to the body oI a
camera. Usually 1/2" or 3/4" in diameter.

COSPEC (Commercial Specification) :

A term used to describe image tube quality, testing and inspection done by the
original equipment manuIacturer (OEM).

Chicken Wire:

An irregular pattern oI dark thin lines in the Iield oI view either throughout the image
area or in parts oI the image area. Under the worst-case condition, these lines wwill Iorm
hexagonal or square wave-shape lines.

Daylight Lens Cover:

Usually made oI soIt plastic or rubber with a pinhole that allows a small amount oI
light to enter the obiective lens oI a night vision device. This should be used Ior training
purposes only, and is not recommended Ior an extended period oI time.

Daylight Training Filter:

A glass Iilter assembly designed to Iit over the obiective lens oI a night vision
device. The Iilter reduces light input to a saIe (night-time) level, allowing saIe extended
daytime use oI the night vision device.

Diopter :

The unit oI measure used to deIine eye correction or the reIractive power oI a lens.
Usually, adiustments to an optical eyepiece accomodate Ior diIIerences in individual
eyesight. Most TT systems provide a ¹2 to -6 diopter range.

Distortion:
There are two types oI distortion Iound in night vision systems. One type is caused
by the design oI the optics, or image intensiIier tube, and is classical optical distortion. The
other type is associated with manuIacturing Ilaws in the Iiber optics used in the image
intensiIier tube.


NICHT DPEPATIDNS
DUT DF THE 0APK:
NICHT VISIDN EDUIPhENT FDP THE INFANTPY

The Reality:

The historically based and hard-earned reputation oI Canadian inIantrymen being
aggressive and eIIective night Iighters is currently being put into question through a
reluctance by soldiers to Iully employ currently issued night vision devices (NVD`s) coupled
with an inadequate allotment oI the required equipment. Unlike the past where boldness,
stamina and skills could win the day or night, modern night operations require up-to-date
equipment and procedures. UnIortunately, the equipment acquisition oI the Canadian nIantry
Corps has not kept pace with the advances in modern technology. The situation has evolved
to a point where the dismounted Canadian soldier with limited Gen-2 and NVDs no longer
possesses the capability to eIIectively Iight at night; this shortIall is especially clear when
comparing our dismounted inIantry`s ability to that our allies and potential adversaries.

More bluntly stated, we will not be able to see the enemy, so we will not be able to
kill him. More critically though, our current disadvantage will mean that our soldiers will be
unnecessarily put at risk by allowing them to be seen in situations where they cannot.

The Analysis :

t will be useIul to address this problem by examining the three Iollowing combat
Iunctions: manoeuvre, Iire power and command. All three oI these are aIIected by the
shortIalls that exist in our NVD stores. t is important to keep in mind, however, that more
equipment alone is not the solution to all oI our problems. The correct attitude oI individual
soldiers about the employment oI NVD`s must also be guaranteed; it is unacceptable to see
night vision goggles (NVG`s) dangling around soldiers` necks instead oI being mounted to a
head harness or helmet. The optimistic news is that one estimate shows an entire battalion
could be outIitted with the ability to "own the night" Ior less than two million dollars
(roughly the price oI one LAV-3).

The Prescription

1. anoeuvre :

n order Ior inIantry sub-units to move and Iight at night, every soldier requires some
type oI NVD. These devices allow the soldier to engage targets at the maximum range oI his
personal weapon and manoeuvre across the battleIield with good situational awareness.

The inIantry needs to replace all oI their current Gen-2 and older Gen-3 NVD`s with
the Iar superior Gen-3 Omni-5 models. The authors suggest that the minimum number
required by dismounted inIantry sections is one set oI NVG`s per Iire team.



2. Firepower:

Seeing is not enough; soldiers must also be able to hit and kill a target. Canadian
inIantry units do not have the ability to eIIectively engage targets at night without
illumination. The only way to gain this capability is by using NVG`s coupled with an #
pointing device (such as the PAQ-4C) or by using a weapon night sight such as the British-
made Kite sight.

3.Command and Control:

Commanding dismounted inIantry during normal daylight operations is an intricate
task; to attempt the same during reduced visibility operations is inIinitely more challenging.
Even aIter NVD`s are obtained, there must be a means Ior leaders to guarantee control and
thus reduce the risk oI Iratricide. This risk is an important consideration not only Ior

sub-unit Iire, but also Ior supporting Iire, such as provided by attack helicopters and
close air support.

















References
1. ) "Histological study of choroidal melanocytes in animals with tapetum lucidum cellulosum
(abstract)".
2. ) "The Human Eye and Single Photons".
3. ) Solovei, Ì.; Kreysing, M., Lanctôt, C., Kösem, S., Peichl, L., Cremer, T., et al. (2009, April
16). "Nuclear Architecture of Rod Photoreceptor Cells Adapts to Vision in Mammalian
Evolution.".0 (2): 945÷953. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.052.PMÌD 19379699.
4. ) CCTV Ìnformation
5. ) "Thermal Ìnfrared vs. Active Ìnfrared: A New Technology Begins to be Commercialized".
6. ) Extreme CCTV Surveillance Systems
7. ) J. Bentell , P. Nies , J. Cloots , J. Vermeiren , B. Grietens , O. David,A. Shurkun and R.
Schneider. FLIP IPPED InGAaS P%DIDE ARRAYS FR GA%ED IMAGING WI% EYE-
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