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ENVIRONMENT PROJECT

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KOLHAPUR, WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO KAPIL TIRTH MARKET

INDEX

PART – ONE

a. Introduction

b. Importance

c. Scope & Limitations

d. Objectives

PART – TWO

a. Methodology

b. Hypothesis

c. Theoretical Background

d. Collection of Data

e. Analysis of Data

f. Problems

g. Suggestions

PART – THREE

a. Conclusions

b. Appendix & References

The prevailing approach has been one of collection and disposal that is. However. One such major problem that every developing city or town faces is that of disposal of waste without disturbing the ecology & the environment.a. The Municipal Corporation of Kolhapur is formally responsible for the management of waste in the city. b. the most important challenge of Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (KMC) lies not in collecting. Scope & Limitations : Scope : Management of Waste is a very challenging task for any Municipal body or Corporation as the same has to be done efficiently with a view to reduce pollution & to keep the environment of the city/ town clean.e. Development of Small towns into cities and cities into mega cities is going through at a very fast pace. . In general solid waste management is given a very low priority and as a result. The situation in India particularly in the capital cities is severe. Burning of Waste is not a solution of disposing waste as the same results in lot of toxic gases which not only lead to health problem for the living beings but also adds to the threat of global warming. Importance : Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of developing countries. the cities of the world have come close. development has a price i. for reaping the benefits of development one has to bear certain inconvenience. c. very limited funds are provided for solid waste management by the government. garbage is collected and disposed off at the dumping sites that are currently servicing the city. Introduction : With the Globalisation & improved means of Communication. As we all know. Wastes are of Two Types viz. transporting of waste & keeping the city clean but in the effective management of Solid Waste in such a way that the same does not pose any health problems to the neighbouring areas or adversely affects the environment either directly or indirectly. Solid & Liquid.

c. vendors. Solid Waste is generated domestically by the residents of the city at their houses. transportation of waste from Kapil Tirth Market only. Limited Data : The data used in this study has been taken from the KMC officials. Limited Time : This study is conducted within a very short period due to time constraint. Factories in Industrial Areas. 2010 at Kapil Tirth Market & Kasba Bavda Disposal Site. Limited Application : This study is exclusively based on the collection. Transportation of Solid Waste from Kapil Tirth Market in Kolhapur & the disposal of the same at the designated disposal site at Kasba Bavda which is situated at the outskirts of Kolhapur city. etc. Shops & Offices in Commercial Complexes. d.. 2010 & 30th Dec. full fledged and all aspects may not have been covered to the fullest extend. Hospitals.. The working of KMC of just three days may or may not reflect the real nature of work carried out by KMC with regard to Solid Waste Management. Limitations : The Study undertaken has following limitations & constraints : a. Objectives : The objectives of the Study of Solid Waste Management in Kolhapur. the conclusions & suggestions of this study are based on such limited data. Shopping Centres/ Malls. b. Limited Period : The study is limited to the Observations made during the personal visits made between 28th Dec. School/ Colleges. the observations made with respect to this site may not reflect a true picture of the overall handling of Solid Waste Management by KMC in Kolhapur City d. Hence. No official record from KMC were available due to shortage of time period . During such limited period the study may not be detailed. public. Hence. etc. Vegetable/ Fruits/ Grains/ Fish/ Mutton & Chicken Markets. with Special Reference to Kapil Tirth Market Kolhapur are as follows : . The Scope of Study is restricted to the Collection.

HYPOTHESIS 1. To Study the Process of Segregation of Solid Waste into Wet & Dry Waste.  Analysis & study of the overall status of Solid Waste Management with respect to Kapil Tirth Market in Kolhapur  Suggestions based on the observations made during the personal visit to KMC for improving the effectiveness of Solid Waste Management in Kolhapur. . Methodology : For this project following sequence of Methodology was followed :  Collect the various types of information which are necessary for the study of Solid Waste Management  Collection of data from various sources to study the Solid Waste Management in Kolhapur  Personal interviews conducted for proper understanding of various issues & problems. 2. KMC is properly monitoring all activities related Solid Waste Management 3. To Study the Efficiency of Transportation of Waste Collected. The Solid Waste Management Programme implemented by KMC is efficient and adequate.. d. c. b. a. To Study the Effectiveness of Waste Collection at the public dust bins near the market. The Processing & Disposal of Solid Waste is done effectively without causing any pollution & health hazards. To Study the Process of Disposal of Solid Waste at the Disposal Site.

The process of Solid Waste Management comprises of the following : • Collection & Segregation of Municipal Solid Waste • Storage of Municipal Solid Waste • Transportation of Municipal Solid Waste • Processing of Municipal Solid Waste • Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Sources of Solid Waste: Domestic Waste: . Along with the increase in population and the overall development of the city. Kolhapur. commercial and industrial operations. According to the estimates of the Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (KMC). It is one of the fastest developing city after Pune in the south-western part of Maharashtra. the city generates an estimated 175 to 180 tons of solid waste per day which is about 370 – 380 gms per person.167 & is estimated to increase to 5. the limits of the city have also stretched. increasing commercial and industrial activities and changing life styles in the cities are observed to be the main reason for the steady increase in the generation of solid waste. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Solid waste comprises of unwanted and discarded materials from houses. The proportion of dry and wet waste generation is approximately 35% and 65%.79. The dry and wet solid wastes are collected from individual houses and public dust-bins and transported to the outskirts of the city limits. The dry waste is generated in commercial area while the wet waste is generated in residential area.4. Rapid urbanisation.281 in the next ten years. The Municipal Corporation thus is under tremendous pressure to cater to the civic needs of all the residents of Kolhapur City. The population of Kolhapur as per 2001 census was 493. hotels and food industry. is a fast emerging city situated on the Mumbai Bangalore National Highway No. street sweeping.

There are around 1. markets and office buildings. The main components of waste involve paper. food waste.286 shops and commercial establishments generating 15 MT / day of solid waste. Road Sweeping: Road sweeping is also a major source of Solid Waste. There is no organized system for shopkeepers to store their waste and usually this waste is added to the domestic waste either through community bins or road sweeping. There are 31 small and large markets in the city that generate 20 MT / day of solid waste. There are around 1053 restaurants. glass and metals. hotels. Commercial Waste: This includes solid waste from stores. cardboard. plastic. They deposit waste in community bins provided by Kolhapur Municipal Corporation on the roadsides. The individual householders do not store their garbage in their house premises.It is major source of solid waste in the Kolhapur city. It includes dust. Kolhapur Municipal Corporation has constructed open garbage houses in the markets and the vendors are expected to put their waste vegetables in this garbage house only. wood. papers. There are around 11. The lanes and by lanes and scarcely or thinly populated areas are swept twice or thrice a week.000 households and 10. This amount is around 55 MT / day. shops.447 slums in the city generating domestic waste. Main roads of Commercial areas as well as thickly populated residential area are swept daily. hotels and eating places in the city generating 10 MT / day of solid waste. Many times in the market the vegetables are thrown by vendors in open. which rot and starts stinking which creates unhealthy atmosphere in the market. Road sweeping operation is carried out daily on some roads whereas at some places it is done twice or thrice a week. Kolhapur Municipal vehicles collect this waste from these hotel and restaurants whereas small eateries are putting their wastes in the common bins. It amounts 20 MT / day of total Solid Waste by sweeping of around 650 km of roads of Kolhapur city.10. restaurants. plastic and other material. Industrial Waste: . In some areas through external agency household waste is collected by “Ghanta Gadi”.

a. Demolition waste : Another important industry generating solid waste is construction industry. casting. printer parts. Garden and Park Waste: There are around 59 gardens and parks in the city generating solid waste mostly in the form of dry leaves. bleaches. pesticides. grease. empty cans of aerosol. P. cartridge. The waste in the form of metal scraps. plastic parts which normally partially placed out side the industry. . computer discs. tiles. Pawar Nagar. E-waste including cassettes. TV’s and computers. etc are done in this area. oil filters. foam and thermocol packings. bungalows and households burn dry leaves adding to air pollution. public places. b. The waste stone. Mainly rag pickers collect plastic and metal scrap for recycling whereas other material is placed in community bins. flash lights and cameras. This construction waste should not be mixed with Municipal Solid Waste and can be used for land fills. Variety of industrial jobs such as welding. Many private gardens of educational institutes. tape recorder. car batteries. Other Solid Waste: There are many items disposed by people such as batteries from radios. Small Industrial Unit Waste Shivaji Udyamnagar. electronic printed circuit boards and other electronic parts of radio. foundry sand. grass cuttings etc. Jawahar Nagar are small industrial areas located in the heart of city generating 10 MT / day of solid waste. oil. Instead of burning this garden waste. it can be used for vermin composting in the gardens. soil. thermometers and mercury containing products. and other demolition waste material is thrown on roads amounting around 10 MT / day. button cells. This will minimize the waste generated as well as be useful as good fertilizer. mobiles. government offices. forging. Y. unwanted metal. adds to total solid waste generated in the Kolhapur city.

Storage of Waste: At many sites Municipal Corporation has made provision for temporary storage of solid waste. metals of all kinds. buffaloes and horses containing around 16. 20 RCC containers and 4 heaps. flower and fruit including peels. disposable daipers.181 animals in it. The daily collection & transportation of solid wastes from point of collection / storage to the final disposal site is done by these vehicles. . The number of dust bins provided by KMC for storage of waste are 1688 including 937 RCC circular bins. wrappings and discarded material like equipments. egg shells. plant waste. Collection & Transportation of Waste : Kolhapur Municipal Corporation has given a contract of collection and transportation of solid waste from city to Private Company from 14th February. 2008. waste from slaughter house. 2 dumper placers and 6 refuse collectors.00 pm. for dry waste or wet waste & bio degradable or non bio degradable waste for segregation of waste at the time of collection of waste itself. wood. burning. etc. the remaining waste contributes to the total Municipal Solid Waste of the city. . 2 tractors. 245 RCC rectangular bins. 6 tippers. rubber. fruit and vegetable market. The dry or recyclable solid waste includes paper. There are many stables of cows. As Kolhapur is a city surrounded with agricultural fields whose products are brought in to the vegetable markets of the city and then wastes are dumped either in garbage bins or disposed on roads. Waste Segregation: Biodegradable solid waste includes domestic waste of all kinds including vegetable waste. At some places the KMC has provided two separate dust bins viz. 22 dumpers. Even though cow dung is used for variety of purposes like composting. The Door to door collection by ‘Ghanta Gadi’ is carried out by the said private company from 06. bones. Similarly dust bins are provided at corners of streets & in by lanes of important commercial / residential junctions. glass of all types. sanitary napkins. furniture and clothes. There are 22 collection & transportation vehicles containing 12 trucks. The job of collection of solid waste is done by 1565 sweepers and supportive staff. hairs . In vegetable markets open garbage houses are made available to vegetable vendors. plastic and containers of all types. soiled papers. meat and fish market.00 am to 02.

data which is collected fresh or for the first time for the sake of study. Collection of Data : Data collection is a very important step in any project and success of any project largely depends upon the accuracy of data collection. For the purpose of this study primary data was collected by conducting personal interviews with various shopkeepers.e.Sambhapur 12 km away from Kolhapur where a quarry is filled by this waste. This compost is sold on trial basis by women cooperative societies.67 hectors of land at Halsawade is allotted for sanitary land filling. vegetable / fruit vendors. however this land is under dispute and stay has been given by Hon’ble High Court. Land fill - The non recyclable solid waste is sent for land fill site at Top . Salokhe Park and Nagala Park area. mtrs area near Kasba Bavda by a private company to whom the KMC has given contract.Processing & Disposal of Waste : Segregating & Processing of Waste into Bio fertiliser KMC has engaged a private company for processing & segregating biodegradable solid waste and using it for making bio fertilizers. Rajendra Nagar. This activity is carried out in 40. These units are run by local organization of women on co-operative basis. Solid waste – mainly the domestic waste generated from the local area is used for vermin composting. This vermicompost mainly utilizes domestic waste. A 16. SOURCES OF INFORMATION - Primary data Primary data i. Proper analysis cannot be done without gathering relevant data to carry out the research work accurately. buyers at . Vermicompost Vermicompost pits are maintained by Kolhapur Municipal Corporation at three places viz.000 sq.

this primary data collection has its own limitations like its correctness & completeness. as well as all over the market.the Kapil Tirth Market. books. waste paper. in which most of the waste gathered around them remains uncleaned. However.e Large no. damaged / spoiled packing boxes/sheets. Sweepers. Normally. hence the information collected through secondary source was also analysed for the study of solid waste management in Kolhapur with special reference to Kapil Tirth Market. Although separate dust bins for wet & dry waste are provided by KMC. This project is based on the primary data collected through personal interview of various people at the Kapil Tirth Market as well as at the KMC office. no strict implementation . This market is always full of people . Analysis of Data : Kapil Tirth Market is one oldest & biggest vegetable market in Kolhapur. of Vegetable & Fruit Vendors & buyers visit the market & at evening times the market is over crowded. Drivers of Waste Transporters & Supervisory Staff of KMC. etc as were necessary for the study.i. it is but natural that equally large amount of garbage & waste generated at such a large market place. With such large of people assembling at the market. however towards the end of the day. This market is located in the heart of the city & very close to the famous Mahalaxmi Temple. etc are generally seen lying in huge quantity in & around the waste bin. empty packets of gutka/ cigarette / beedi. The KMC has installed around four dustbins in the vicinity of Kapil Tirth Market for gathering & storage of waste generated at the market. plastic. etc Secondary data The Secondary data in the form of reports & publications available at KMC office. Waste in the form of left overs of discarded vegetables/ fruits. articles in newspapers/ Internet. the vegetable & fruit vendors & shop keepers clean their own area at the start of the day. except a few persons generally all the sellers are in hurry to pack their things & to go home.

There is a lack of awareness among the people regarding segregation of dry / wet waste & also of bio degradable / non bio degradable waste. The organic fertilizers produced by the private contractor are marketed under the brand name of “Hareet Karveer” and “Bio – Zoom”.00 am to 7. etc. KMC also has deployed 6 sweepers in this area for sweeping & cleaning of market as well as the surrounding lanes & streets near the market with one supervisory staff for checking & inspection. flies. the work of segregation & processing is being done by the staff of private contractor hired by KMC.000 sq.Sambhapur 12 km away from Kolhapur where a quarry is being filled by this waste.30 pm to 3. m. The private contractor has also set up a plant here. the non recyclable solid waste is sent for land fill site at Top . There is no regularity in collection & transportation of waste due to which the waste near the market which generally consists of leftover discarded vegetables / fruits start decaying spreading bad odour all around the place & also attracting lot of rats. from the observations made by us & based on the discussions & personal interview of various people. Problems : During our visit to Kapil Tirth Market. which has a self contained infrastructural facility required for production of organic fertilizers. The waste collected from the market is transported to the Kasaba Bavda disposal site which is around 5 to 6 kms from Kapil Tirth Market. While . b. insects.regarding the specific use of these dust bins is being done due to lack of awareness among the people. following problems were noticed by us : a.00 pm. birds. Further. in an area of 40. having the necessary active microbial nutrients required for enriching the soil and increasing sustainable crop production. The daily average waste collected at this market is around 1 MT which is transported by trucks twice in the day – once in the morning between 7. At the Kasba Bawda Disposal site. .30 am & second time around 2.

c. Further. etc c. This will not only help in keeping the city neat & clean as the waste shall not be thrown on roads but shall also generate revenue for KMC. etc while beggars search for leftover & discarded fruits. d. around the dust bins. segregating & collecting useful recyclable material from these waste dust bins. b. due to which the waste gets scattered outside the dust bin. e. Rag pickers normally gather around the dustbin at late evenings/ early morning to pick up plastic. so that there is no decay of left over vegetables/ fruits. paper. money & time of KMC. as result of which waste is seen lying on the road. etc can be reduced. this will save lot of efforts. the smaller dustbins are seen overflowing with waste due to which the excess waste is seen falling around the dustbins. people throw waste near the dustbin instead of putting it into the dust bin. colleges. if possible dust bins near such market places should have cover so that the dirty smell from the rotten fruits/ vegetables. Strict time table should be prepared & followed for regular collection & transportation of waste from the dust bins near the Kapil Tirth market. These trained rag pickers may be issued a license with a specific area for sorting. KMC should take up a programme of creating awareness among the people about the importance of segregating dry / wet waste & also bio degradable / non bio degradable waste by issuing advertisements in the newspaper/local cable TV/ film theatres in city & also slide shows in schools. etc due to which dust bins are disturbed . Rag pickers who actually disturb waste dust bins for picking up useful recyclable material for selling the same & making some money can help KMC if they are properly trained into sorting & segregating the waste collected in the dust bins. scrap metal. vegetables or any other eatables.should be imposed on all persons who throw waste outside the waste dustbin. At times. Alongwith educating the people of strictly using waste dust bins a fine of Rs.10/. . Suggestions : a. without scattering the waste out of dustbin. Many a times. d.

Looking at the City Development Plan for Kolhapur City with the horizon year of 2031 which was prepared under the then Municipal Commissoner of Kolhapur Shri Kunal Kumar. City Development Plan of Kolhapur City. Environmental Status Report – Kolhapur Municipal Corporation . We sincerely hope that the planning made is properly & timely implemented by KMC and all citizens of Kolhapur city should also willing & whole heartly extend their active participation so that we can live in nice Clean. for the daily backlog of almost 60 MT of waste that is generated everyday due to collection & transportation of around 120 MT of waste as against the 180 MT of waste collected & stored daily. Supervisors of KMC should immediately report problems related to smaller size of dustbins/ damaged dust bins in their area which are constantly overflowing due to collection & storage of more waste than its size. Based on the report of the supervisor. Management of Municipal Solid Waste – Dr. e. KMC has already shown its determination of upgrading its solid waste management system. 2031 c. KMC is planning to deploy additional trucks of tippers into service. for the city by implementing a waste composting project using private sector participation. Nita Mukherjee d. Further. CONCLUSIONS : The Kolhapur Municpal Corporation is fully aware about the problems related to Solid Waste Management & is equally concerned about the health of the citizens of the City.published by The Bombay Community Public Trust b.67 hectors of land at Halsawade for land filling. KMC should take action of replacing a suitable size dust bin from which waste shall not over flow. it appears that KMC is fully gearing up itself to meet all the challenges of civic issues related to Kolhapur City including Solid Waste Management. KMC also has also acquired 16. Green & Pollution Free City of Kolhapur !!! APPENDIX & REFERENCES a. Understanding of our Civic Issues .