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Jonathan Bergknoff

Herstein Solutions
Chapters 1 and 2

Throughout, G is a group and p is a prime integer unless otherwise stated. “A ≤ B” denotes that A is a
subgroup of B while “A E B” denotes that A is a normal subgroup of B.

H 1.3.14* (Fermat’s Little Theorem) – Prove that if a ∈ Z then ap ≡ a mod p.

Proceed by induction on (positive) integer a. The theorem holds for a = 1 because 1p = 1 ≡ 1 mod p.
Suppose that k p ≡ k mod p and then compute, by the binomial theorem,
p  
X p i p−i
(k + 1)p = k1 = k p + 1 + p(. . .) ≡ k + 1 mod p.
i=0
i

In the last step, we used the induction hypothesis. This proves the result for positive integer a. The expansion
(k + 1)p = k p + 1 + p(. . .) is justified by lemma 2 (below) which states that p | np for n ∈ {1, . . . , p − 1}.


The case a = 0 is trivial: 0p = 0 ≡ 0 mod p. Let a ∈ Z+ as before. As was just proven, there exists c ∈ Z
such that ap − a = cp. Now, if p > 2 (odd), we have (−a)p − (−a) = −ap + a = (−c)p so (−a)p ≡ −a mod p.
On the other hand, if p = 2, we just need to see that “modulo 2” picks out even/odd parity. Regardless of
being positive or negative, an even integer squared is even and an odd integer squared is odd. Therefore
a2 ≡ a mod 2 and the theorem is proven in its entirety.

n n!

Lemma 1 – Let n ∈ Z+ and r ∈ {0, . . . , n}. The binomial coefficient r = r!(n−r)! is an integer.

Proof: Proceed by induction on n. For n = 1, 10 = 1 and 11 = 1 are both integers, as claimed. Suppose
 

that n−1

r is an integer for all r ∈ {0, . . . , n − 2}. Now
       
n−1 n−1 (n − 1)! (n − 1)! (n − r) + r n
+ = + = (n − 1)! = .
r r−1 r!(n − r − 1)! (r − 1)!(n − r)! r!(n − r)! r

Hence, when the above computation goes through, nr is a sum of integers and thus is, itself, an integer.


However, the computation fails from the outset for r = 0 and r = n (we’re interested in things like (r − 1)!
and (n − r − 1)!), so those cases must be considered independently. We have
   
n n! n n!
= =1 = =1
0 0!n! n n!0!
and the claim is proven.

p

Lemma 2 – Let n ∈ {1, . . . , p − 1}. Then p | n .

Proof: Intuitively, this lemma is true because the numerator has a factor of p and the denominator has no
factors that cancel it (relying crucially on the primality of p). By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (Z
is a UFD), we can write the denominator as n!(p − n)! = qiai with qi the unique ascending list of prime
Q

divisors of n!(p−n)! and ai their respective powers. As every factor of n(n−1) · · · 2·1·(p−n)(p−n−1) · · · 2·1
is smaller than p (this fails if n = 0 or n = p), p divides none of them and hence, as a prime, does not divide
their product. Then none of the qi is p. The factor of p in the numerator is then preserved upon taking the
quotient, and p | np . Note that it makes no sense to talk about p dividing np unless np ∈ Z (lemma 1).
  

H 1.3.15 – Let m, n, a, b ∈ Z with (m, n) = 1. Prove there exists x with x ≡ a mod m and x ≡ b mod n.

As m and n are coprime, there exist integers c, d such that cm + dn = 1. We see that (ac)m + (ad)n = a,
so that adn = a − acm ≡ a mod m. Similarly, (bc)m + (bd)n = b, so bcm = b − bdn ≡ b mod n. Set
x = adn + bcm. Then we have

x ≡ adn mod m ≡ a mod m x ≡ bcm mod n ≡ b mod n.

H 2.3.3 – Let (ab)2 = a2 b2 for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G is abelian.

The statement is that, for all a, b ∈ G, we have abab = a2 b2 . Multiply both sides of the equation on the left
by a−1 and on the right by b−1 . Then we have ba = ab and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.4* – Let G be such that, for three consecutive integers i, (ab)i = ai bi for all a, b ∈ G. Prove that G
is abelian.

Let N be the smallest of the three consecutive integers. Then we have that (ab)N = aN bN , (ab)N +1 =
aN +1 bN +1 and (ab)N +2 = aN +2 bN +2 for all a, b ∈ G. Inverting the first equation and right multiplying it to
the second equation implies

ab = aN +1 bN +1 b−N a−N = aN +1 ba−N hence baN = aN b.

Inverting the second equation and right multiplying it to the third equation gives

ab = aN +2 bN +2 b−(N +1) a−(N +1) = aN +2 ba−(N +1) hence baN +1 = aN +1 b.

Therefore aN +1 b = baN +1 = baN a = aN ba and left multiplying by a−N yields ab = ba for arbitrary a, b ∈ G.
Hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.8 – Let G be finite. Prove the existence of an N ∈ Z such that aN = e for all a ∈ G.

Let a ∈ G. As G is finite and closed under multiplication, the set {a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .} is finite. Hence there exist
m, n ∈ {0, 1, . . .} such that am = an (without loss of generality, take m > n). By the division algorithm, we

can write m = kn + r with k, r ∈ Z and 0 ≤ r < n. Now we have the statement akn+r = an or a(k−1)n+r = e.
Enumerate G as {a1 , . . . , an }. For each ai , there exists an Ni = (ki − 1)ni + ri , computed by the above
method, such that aN Ni . Then aN Ni N/Ni
= eN/Ni = e for each ai ∈ G.
Q
i = e. Let N = i = (ai )
i

H 2.3.9a – Let G have three elements. Prove that G is abelian.

Let G = {e, a, b}. In order to show that G is abelian, we only need to show that ab = ba because the identity
commutes with everything. Suppose ab 6= ba. We have only three choices: ab = e, ab = a or ab = b.

(1) If ab = e, then a = b−1 so ba = e = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab 6= e.

(2) If ab = a, then b = e so ba = a = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab 6= a.

(3) If ab = b, then a = e so ba = b = ab, which is a contradiction. Hence ab 6= b.

Therefore ab = ba necessarily, and hence G is abelian.

H 2.3.10 – Let G be such that every element is its own inverse. Prove that G is abelian.

Let a, b ∈ G. Then ab = a−1 b−1 = (ba)−1 = ba, so G is abelian.

H 2.3.11 – Let G have even order. Prove there exists a non-identity element a ∈ G with a2 = e.

If an element a of a group doesn’t satisfy a2 = e, then there exists a unique inverse element a−1 6= a in the
group. Elements of this type can be counted in pairs {a, a−1 }. There are therefore an even number 2k of
elements with a2 6= e. The identity satisfies e2 = e, so there are |G| − 2k − 1 ≥ 0 non-identity elements a
satisfying a2 = e. If |G| is even, then |G| − 2k − 1 is non-zero and hence there exists a non-identity element
a ∈ G with a2 = e.

H 2.3.12 – Let G be a non-empty set closed under an associative product with an e ∈ G such that ae = a
for all a ∈ G as well as the property that, for each a ∈ G, there exists y(a) ∈ G with ay(a) = e. Prove that
G is a group under this product.

In order for this set to be a group, right inverses must also be left inverses and it must hold that ea = a for all
a ∈ G. Multiply the equation ay(a) = e by y(y(a)), the right inverse of y(a), on the right: by associativity,

y(y(a)) = [ay(a)]y(y(a)) = a[y(a)y(y(a))] = a.

Hence y(y(a)) = a is the right inverse of y(a). Now we see that, in addition to ay(a) = e, we have y(a)a = e

5. H 2. hgi is not the trivial subgroup {e}.3 – Let G have no proper subgroups.5. By lemma 2. Now we can trivially show the property ea = a. Because g 6= e. H ∩ K is closed: let a. The subgroup hg m i is proper. hgi is a subgroup of G. a2 ∈ G are such that a1 H = a2 H. it must be that hgi = G which gives |g| = |G|. Prove that G is a group under composition. let τab : R → R be given by τab = ax + b. Then (g m )n = e which implies that |g m | = n < |G|. Prove that |G| is prime. which is a contradiction. Prove that H ∩ K ≤ G. K so ab ∈ H. Define a left coset of H by aH = {ah | h ∈ H}. Define f : {aH | a ∈ G} → {Ha | a ∈ G} by f (aH) = Ha−1 . Therefore G is a group. K. The map is injective: suppose a1 H. H ∩ K is closed under inverses: let a ∈ H ∩ K.6* – Let H. Suppose |G| = mn with m. K ≤ G have finite indices in G. Give an upper bound for the index of H ∩ K. Multiply the equation ae = a on the left by y(a) and on the right by a (notice that y(a)aa = [y(a)a]a = a): a = y(a)[ae]a = [y(a)a]ea = ea.e. b ∈ R. Let G = {τab | a 6= 0}. Then there exists h ∈ H such that a1 = a2 h and hence f (a1 H) = Ha−1 1 = Hh−1 a−1 −1 2 = Ha2 = f (a2 H). Ha is the image of a −1 H.5. This map is well-defined: suppose a1 .5. H 2. i. H 2. b ∈ H.7 – With a.3. Then Ha−1 −1 1 = Ha2 which implies the existence of h ∈ H such that a−1 −1 1 = ha2 .so that y(a) is the inverse (both left and right) of a. Inverting. Missing. The map is trivially surjective: for any a ∈ G. Hence ab ∈ H ∩ K.2 – Let G have a subgroup H. that a1 H = a2 H which proves injectivity. because G has no proper subgroups. H 2. and hence a−1 ∈ H ∩ K. n < |G|). Therefore |G| must be prime. H 2. with 1 < n < |G| elements. n > 1 (so m. we find that a1 = a2 h −1 . H ∩ K ≤ G. Hence. a2 H are such that f (a1 H) = f (a2 H). b ∈ H ∩ K. K because both are subgroups. Then a−1 ∈ H. What is τab ◦ τcd ? .5.1 – Let H and K be subgroups of the group G. Let g ∈ G with g 6= e. Show there is a bijection between left and right cosets of H in G. Then a.

d−b ∈ H. σcd ∈ H. (213)(12) = (23)} (123)H = {(123). Prove that G has a subgroup of order lcm(m. (123). c 6= 0. On the other hand. let H = {τab ∈ G | a ∈ Q}. we have that. τac. . σab ◦ σcd = σac. {Hτab } = {{τcd ∈ G | c = qa for some q ∈ Q\{0}} | a ∈ R\{0}} . this is the statement a a c that a ∈ Q. so τab H = Hτab .− b ∈ H. τcd ∈ G be such that τab H = τcd H. If τcd ∈ τab H then a ∈ Q.0 . τab and τac are in the same right coset regardless of b and c. (12)(213) = (13)} H(123) = {(123). −1 (a) Let τab .8 – Taking the group of 2. −1 The set is closed under inverses: τab = τ 1 . (b) Consider G = S3 = {e. H ≤ G. Again. n). Note that G is non-abelian because τab ◦ τcd = τac. which tells us that the right cosets are indexed by just one real parameter. By a a lemma 2. (12)} (213)H = {(213). c a Therefore consider the cosets τab H and Hτab . the right cosets are: He = {e. For this choice of G and H. Finally.5.3. there exist left cosets that are not right cosets and vice versa. so two elements of G are equivalent left-modulo H if the ratio of their first parameters is rational. (23).ad+b ◦ τef = τace.ad+b ∈ G so that G is closed under composition.acf +ad+b = τab ◦ τce. there is an identity element e = τ1.(τab ◦ τcd )(x) = a(cx + d) + b = acx + ad + b = τac. (13). Then τab ◦ τcd = τ a . (12). τcd ∈ G be such that Hτab = Hτcd .ad+b ∈ H and σab = σ 1 . Therefore τab H ⊂ Hτab . (12)} H(213) = {(213). (b) Give an example of a group G and a subgroup H of G such that the above is not true. H 2.5. Therefore c ∈ Q is the c c condition on this situation.− b ∈ G.5. In particular.5.8. The reverse inclusion is identical.cf +d = τab ◦ (τcd ◦ τef ). The left cosets are: eH = {e. (123)(12) = (13)}. prove that every left coset of H in G is also a right coset of H in G.7. (12)}. (12)(123) = (23)}. The operation is associative: (τab ◦ τcd ) ◦ τef = τac.ad+b 6= τac. As R is a field and a. Then τab ◦ τcd = τ c . −1 Because Q is a field.11 – Let G have subgroups of orders n and m.ad+b (x). Therefore a a G is a group.9 – (a) In the context of 2. H 2.5. Hence c ∈ Q which gives that τcd ∈ Hτab . −1 a Now let τab . Prove that H ≤ G and list the right cosets of H in G. (213)} and the subgroup H = {e.cb+d = τcd ◦ τab . H 2. for σab .b− ad ∈ H.

5. so ag −1 = g −1 a. Alternately. (N (a) is the “normalizer of a in G”) Let g.16 – Let a ∈ G. notice that Z(G) = N (a) ≤ G.5. On the other hand. and therefore the number of generators of G is φ(n). with φ the Euler totient function.5. 1. then g ∈ hg m i. Now . N (a) ≤ G. Additionally. The claim is that H = hg n0 i. Now. This proves the claim. . prove that |a| divides m. .14 – Let G = hgi be cyclic and let H ≤ G. Let g k ∈ H be arbitrary. n relatively prime implies that g m generates G. Prove that N (a) = {g ∈ G | ga = ag} is a subgroup of G.e. so H = hg n0 i is cyclic and the result is shown. b ∈ Z. Therefore n0 | k and we see that every element of H is a power of g n0 . as would be the case if m and n were not relatively prime. How many generators does G have? Let g be a generator of G. H 2. so that for some a ∈ Z we have (g m )a = g. By the division algorithm. g k g −qn0 = g r ∈ H. whence H ≤ hg n0 i. Hence m. because H is a group containing g n0 . By the division algorithm. By our assumption that n0 is the smallest positive exponent in H. If am = e. (Z is the “center of G”) T The proof is identical to that of 2. .Missing. 1.5.12 – Let a ∈ G.3. This proves the claim.13 – Prove that Z(G) = {g ∈ G | gx = xg for all x ∈ G} ≤ G. we may write m = q|a| + r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ {0. . H 2.12. Then there exists a smallest positive n0 such that g n0 ∈ H (remember H is closed under inverses. . Then (gh)a = gha = gah = agh = a(gh).15 – Let G be cyclic with |G| = n.5.5. |a| − 1}. so gh ∈ N (a). It is clear. then there exist a. multiply the equation ga = ag on the left and right by g −1 to find that g −1 gag −1 = g −1 agg −1 . This is impossible if am + bn > 1 for all a. Hence g −1 ∈ N (a). h ∈ N (a). . if G = hg m i. i. If m is relatively prime to n. . a∈G H 2. By lemma 2. G = hgi. so it can’t have just negative powers of g). Therefore let H be non-trivial. we must conclude that r = 0. H 2. H 2. . Hence G = hg m i implies that m is coprime to n. Prove that H is cyclic. If H is trivial. Now g = g am+bn = (g m )a (g n )b = (g m )a which tells us that g ∈ hg m i so G = hgi ≤ hg m i ≤ G. the result holds. n0 − 1}. we can write k = qn0 + r with q ∈ Z and r ∈ {0. by closure. b ∈ Z such that am + bn = 1. The claim is that g m is also a generator if and only if m is relatively prime to n. that hg n0 i ≤ H.

by the con- dition of the problem. As r < |a| and |a| is the minimal exponent taking a to the identity. the order of b divides 31.3 – Let H ≤ G and N E G. H 2. H 2. H E G because every one of its right cosets in G is also a left coset in G.e = am = aq|a|+r = (a|a| )q ar = ar . Hg}. Furthermore. Prove that N H ≤ G. we must conclude that r = 0 and hence |a| | m. conversely. Then. (Ha)(Ha−1 ) = H(aHa−1 ) is a right coset of H.1* – Let H ≤ G be such that the product (Ha)(Hb) is again a right coset of H for a. The set aHa−1 contains e = aea−1 . b ∈ G be such that a5 = e and aba−1 = b2 . Prove that H E G. Because distinct cosets are disjoint.5.18* – Let G be finite. Hg is exactly the set G\H of elements in G not belonging to H. .6. it is true that (Ha)(Ha−1 ) = H(aHa−1 ): (h1 a)(h2 a−1 ) ∈ (Ha)(Ha−1 ) is h1 (ah2 a−1 ) ∈ H(aHa−1 ) so (Ha)(Ha−1 ) ⊂ H(aHa−1 ). gH is again G\H (The only alternative would be gH = H. As sets. b ∈ G. so |b| = 1 or |b| = 31. Prove that G is cyclic.).17 – Let a.6. The last equality follows from raising the condition aba−1 = b2 to powers: (aba−1 )k = abk a−1 = b2k . Consider the product (Ha)(Ha−1 ) for arbitrary a ∈ G.e. The right cosets of H in G may be enumerated as {H. Let g ∈ G\H. b = b32 .2 – Let H ≤ G have index 2. H 2. but. Missing. Therefore a5 ba−5 = b32 .6. What is |b|? n We have that a2 ba−2 = a(aba−1 )a−1 = ab2 a−1 . because a5 = a−5 = e.5. It is trivial that H = He = eH is a left coset in addition to being a right coset. By 2. finally. or b31 = e. h1 (ah2 a−1 ) ∈ H(aHa−1 ) is (h1 a)(h2 a−1 ) ∈ (Ha)(Ha−1 ) so H(aHa−1 ) ⊂ (Ha)(Ha−1 ).16. that H E G. abelian and such that xn = e has at most n solutions for every n ∈ Z+ . the left hand side is simply b. Prove that H E G. H 2. We have. so that gH = Hg. It follows by induction that an ba−n = b2 : suppose this is true for n and compute n n+1 an+1 ba−(n+1) = a(an ba−n )a−1 = ab2 a−1 = b2 . H 2.10.5. By lemma 2. but that isn’t the case: ge = g 6∈ H while ge ∈ gH. so in fact H(aHa−1 ) = He = H which implies that aHa−1 ⊂ H. i.

Next. Let x ∈ H ∩ N and h ∈ H.6 – Let G be abelian. Then we have (n1 h1 )(n2 h2 ) = (n1 n3 )(h1 h2 ) ∈ N H so N H is closed under the group product. −k = ij 3 } = Q8 . . Q8 is non-abelian. Finally. hji. Let H ≤ G and let h ∈ H. k} is all of Q8 : for instance. N H is a group. Consider the order 8 quaternion group Q8 = {±1.13). Compute (n1 h1 )(n2 h2 ) = n1 h1 n2 h−1 −1 1 h1 h2 = n1 (h1 n2 h1 )h1 h2 . it’s the center of Q8 . We have hxh−1 ∈ H because it is a product of three elements of H. as displayed above. so of index 2. k = ij. By 2. k} because each already squares to −1. Prove that every subgroup of G is normal. See 2. We also have that hxh−1 ∈ N because N is normal and x ∈ N . h2 ∈ H. by lemma 2. j.4 – Let M.5. but. First observe that Q8 is non-abelian: ij = (ij)(−k 2 ) = (−ijk)k = k while ji = j −1 i−1 = (ij)−1 = k −1 = −k. so H E G. Furthermore. hii. We can enumerate all the subgroups of Q8 by considering subgroups generated by combinations of elements. −1 = i2 .6. and i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1. g ∈ G. −j = j 3 . hi.6. is G necessarily abelian? No. The rest of the subgroups are of order 4. Let x ∈ M ∩ N (so x ∈ M . the subgroup h−1i = {−1. Furthermore. any subgroup generated by 2 or more of {i. j. x ∈ N ) and g ∈ G. ±i ± j ± k} with (−1)2 = 1. j.2. Prove that H ∩ N E H. ki = Q8 of orders 1 and 8 respectively. Because M and N are normal. Both are trivially normal. −i = i3 . Then ghg −1 = gg −1 h = h ∈ H.6.Let n1 . First of all. hki are all normal. Therefore. We have (nh)−1 = h−1 n−1 = h−1 n−1 hh−1 = n0 h−1 ∈ N H. j. and so forth (in fact. Prove that M ∩ N E G. It is easy to see that h−1i is normal because its elements commute with everything: ih−1i = {i. H 2. again using the existence of n0 ∈ N such that n0 = h−1 n−1 h. −1 commuting with everything. hji.5 – Let H ≤ G and N E G.7* – If every subgroup of a group G is normal. 1} is of order 2. H 2. N E G. n2 ∈ N and h1 . H 2.6.3. we see that gxg −1 ∈ M and gxg −1 ∈ N so that gxg −1 ∈ M ∩ N . Therefore hxh−1 ∈ H ∩ N so H ∩ N E H. N H is closed under inverses: Let n ∈ N and h ∈ H. H 2. hki of order 4 round out the list. We can see that to be the case by noting that −1 is redundant as a generator if we include any of {i. Because N is normal.6. the subgroups hii. Therefore all subgroups of Q8 are normal. Therefore g(M ∩ N )g −1 ⊂ M ∩ N and hence M ∩ N E G. i. there exists n3 ∈ N such that h1 n2 h−1 1 = n3 . ji = {1 = i4 . −i} = h−1ii. we have the trivial subgroups h1i = {1} and hi.

Prove that H E G.6.6.8. there 0 exists a k 0 such that gtk g −1 = tk ∈ T (k 0 depends on k and g).6. and that subgroup has the same cardinality as H. By lemma 2.6. Furthermore.11 – Let M. .3.8 – Let H ≤ G. Therefore gSg −1 = S and S E G. nm = mn. The map f : H → gHg −1 given by f (h) = ghg −1 is a bijection. Therefore |gHg −1 | = |H|. Missing. then conjugation fixes H.12* – Let M.6. The restriction to finite G is likely just to allow Herstein’s use of the word “order”. Now we must have that nmn−1 m−1 ∈ M ∩ N which is assumed to be trivial. multiplying on the right by m and then n. By 2. Prove that every subgroup of T is normal in G.H 2. H 2. there exists n0 ∈ N such that n0 = mn−1 m−1 . gHg −1 ≤ G. Hence N M E G. Injectivity: f (h1 ) = f (h2 ) implies gh1 g −1 = gh2 g −1 so h1 = h2 . H 2. Hence nmn−1 m−1 = m0 m−1 ∈ M . Now conjugation brings H into another subgroup.13 – Let T E G be cyclic. We have gh1 g −1 gh2 g −1 = gh1 h2 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 because h1 h2 ∈ H. H 2. gHg −1 = H for all g ∈ G. 0 0 g(tm )k g −1 = (gtk g −1 )m = (tk )m = (tm )k ∈ S. by assumption. Prove that N M E G. N E G be such that M ∩ N = {e}. N E G. On the other hand.6.14* – Give an example of groups E ≤ F ≤ G with E E F and F E G but E not normal in G. Say T = hti. according to 2. H 2. h2 ∈ H.e. m] = nmn−1 m−1 . Consider the commutator [n. For g ∈ G. Prove that mn = nm for all m ∈ M and n ∈ N . By 2. Let g ∈ G and compute gN M g −1 = gN g −1 gM g −1 = N M . N M is a subgroup. As M E G and n ∈ G. Hence nmn−1 m−1 = e or. prove that gHg −1 ≤ G. Then consider an element (tm )k of S. because N E G and m ∈ G. This is the condition that H E G. Surjectivity: any ghg −1 ∈ gHg −1 is the image of h under f . If H is the only subgroup of order |H|. so let S = htm i. Then nmn−1 m−1 = nn0 ∈ N .3. (gh1 g −1 )−1 = gh−1 1 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 because h−1 ∈ H.5. there exists m0 ∈ M such that m0 = nmn−1 .6.14. Because T is normal. Let h1 . a subgroup S of T is again cyclic.6. H 2.9 – Let G be finite and let H ≤ G be the only subgroup of G of order |H|. i.

The identity in G is 0.1 – Are the following maps homomorphisms? If yes. For a ∈ G. Hence ker φ = {0}.7. (c) G = R under addition. The kernel of φ is trivial: if x ∈ G is such that gxg −1 = e. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x5 . b ∈ Z such that an + b|G| = 1.7. (a) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)2 = x2 y 2 = φ(x)φ(y).H 2. (e) Yes: φ(xy) = (xy)5 = x5 y 5 = φ(x)φ(y). 1}. Prove that any element x ∈ G satisfying x|N | = e must be in N . Hence ker φ = {e} and therefore φ is an isomorphism.16 – Let G be finite and let N E G be such that [G : N ] and |N | are coprime. then x = e. H 2. |N a| divides |a|.7. H 2. we have g = g an+b|G| = (g a )n . (d) Yes: φ(x + y) = 13(x + y) = 13x + 13y = φ(x) + φ(y). what are their kernels? (a) G = R\{0} under multiplication. We have (N a)|a| = N (a|a| ) = N e = N . so the kernel is the set of those x ∈ G such that φ(x) = 13x = 0. The identity in G is 1.3 – Let G be finite and let n ∈ Z be relatively prime to |G|. There exist a. φ is a homomorphism: φ(xy) = gxyg −1 = gx(g −1 g)yg −1 = φ(x)φ(y). (e) G any abelian group. H 2. (b) No: φ(2 · 3) = 26 = 64 while φ(2)φ(3) = 22 · 23 = 32.15 – Let N E G. prove that |N a| in G/N divides |a| in G.5. b ∈ Z such that a[G : N ] + b|N | = 1. By 2. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 13x. so the kernel is the set of those x ∈ G such that φ(x) = x2 = 1. . First notice that x[G:N ] ∈ N because the order of G/N is [G : N ] so N = (N x)[G:N ] = N x[G:N ] . There exist a. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x2 . (b) G as in (a). Prove that every x ∈ G may be written as g = xn with x ∈ G. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x + 1. Hence ker φ = {−1. (d) G as in (c).16. Let x ∈ G be such that x|N | = e. the identity in G/N .6. Prove φ is an isomorphism. ker φ = {x ∈ G | x5 = e}. Now x = xa[G:N ]+b|N | = (x[G:N ] )a (x|N | )b = (x[G:N ] )a ∈ N. (c) No: φ(x + y) = x + y + 1 while φ(x) + φ(y) = (x + 1) + (y + 1) = x + y + 2. For g ∈ G.6. H 2. φ : G → G given by φ(x) = 2x .2 – Let φ : G → G be given by φ(x) = gxg −1 for fixed g ∈ G.

By 2.7. 1. · · · }. In this sense. By lemma 2. Proof: As hU i is a subgroup containing U . is always surjective. Hence any subgroup of G containing U also contains hU i. y ∈ G and compute the conjugate of an element xyx−1 y −1 ∈ U : gxyx−1 y −1 g −1 = gxg −1 gyg −1 gx−1 g −1 gy −1 g −1 = (gxg −1 )(gyg −1 )(gxg −1 )−1 (gyg −1 )−1 ∈ U. so. so A is not empty. Define G0 = hU i (the commutator subgroup of G). Therefore hU i E G. prove that hU i E G. it also contains all inverses of elements of U . if H ≤ G0 then H E G.4 – Let U ⊂ G. (c) If G/N is abelian. hU i fits the criterion. the set of all finite (or empty. by (a). that G is abelian and hints to consider the map φ : G → G given by φ(y) = y n . (b) By lemma 3 (below). Therefore φ. Lemma 3 – Define V = {uk11 uk22 · · · uknn ∈ G | n ∈ {0. ui ∈ U. Furthermore. H 2. (a) Let g. (d) Prove that. T (a) Let A be the collection of all subgroups V of G which contain U . the inverse of uk11 · · · uknn is u−k n n · · · u−k 1 1 which is again in V . Note that if gug −1 = u0 ∈ U then taking the inverse gives gu−1 g −1 = u0−1 ∈ hU i. (b) If gug −1 ∈ U for all g ∈ G and u ∈ U .Herstein assumes. Then V = hU i. (b) Prove that G/G0 is abelian. 1 where u0i = gui g −1 . Now U ⊂ V . y ∈ G}. so V ⊂ hU i immediately.7. In that context. it makes sense to talk about a well-defined. hU i = V V ∈A is a subgroup of G which contains U and is a subset of every element of A. H 2. ki = ±1}. in which case the result is e) products of elements from U or their inverses. G0 = hU i E G. The map. G ∈ A. is a bijection for any finite G and choice of n coprime to |G|. additionally. the n-th power map. (a) Prove that G0 E G. as shown above (g = φ(g a )). Notice that V is both trivially closed under multiplication and non-empty (because when n = 0 we see that e ∈ V ). Now an arbitrary element of hU i may be written as uk11 · · · uknn (with n ≥ 0 and ki = ±1) so conjugation gives guk11 · · · uknn g −1 = guk11 g −1 g · · · g −1 guknn g −1 = u0k 0kn 1 · · · un ∈ hU i. Furthermore.7. but is not in general. prove that G0 ≤ N . x. unique nth root of a group element. . Let hU i ≤ G be the smallest subgroup of G containing U . (a) Prove that such a hU i exists. Therefore V = hU i and the claim is proven. hU i is exactly the set of all finite products of elements of U and their inverses.5 – Let U = {xyx−1 y −1 | x. This map is a homomorphism when G is abelian. hU i ≤ V .3.4b. it is closed under multiplication. V ≤ G. however.

. y such that x2 = y n = e and xy = y −1 x. for x. However. define φ : N M/M → N/(N ∩ M ) by φ(nmM ) = n(N ∩ M ) for n ∈ N . (b) Prove that D2n /hyi ∼ = Z2 . we have nmM = M . This means that n ∈ N ∩ M ≤ M .8 – Let D2n be the dihedral group with generators x. Define φ : G/N → R\{0} by φ(τab N ) = a. τab ◦ τcd = τac.7.7 – For a.e.7. m ∈ M . y ∈ G we have (N x)(N y)(N x−1 )(N y −1 ) = (N x)(N x−1 )(N y)(N y −1 ) = N (xx−1 yy −1 ) = N . G is a group under composition.7. Then n1 (N ∩ M ) = n2 m3 (N ∩ M ) = n2 (N ∩ M ) and the map is well-defined as claimed. (a) Prove that hyi E D2n . with τab ∈ G. so that n1 = n2 m3 for some m3 ∈ M . let τab : R → R be given by τab (x) = ax + b. y ∈ G. n2 ∈ N and m1 . m2 ∈ M . so m3 ∈ M ∩ N . so G/G0 is abelian.(b) We have. so H E G. Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is proven.6 – Let M. m2 ∈ M . The kernel of φ is trivial: if φ(τab N ) = 1.ad+b and τab = τ 1 . we have that ghg −1 h−1 ∈ H. Let G = {τab | a. By 2. also notice that m3 = n−1 2 n1 ∈ N . i. b ∈ R. Prove that N M/M ∼ = N/(N ∩ M ). then. φ is a homomorphism: φ(τab N τcd N ) = φ(τab τcd N ) = φ(τac. Then U ⊂ N and therefore G0 ≤ N by virtue of being the smallest subgroup containing U .5. (d) Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H.ad+b N ) = ac = φ(τab )φ(τcd ). N E G. i.5.7. Therefore. Right multiplying the equation by G0 y and then by G0 x gives that (G0 x)(G0 y) = (G0 y)(G0 x).6. b ∈ R. with the knowledge that all quantities are meaningful.e. The map is well-defined: suppose n1 m1 M = n2 m2 M for n1 . n2 ∈ N and m1 . then a = 1 so that τab ∈ N . Prove that N E G and that G/N ∼ = R\{0} under multiplication. φ is well-defined: suppose τab N = τcd N so that τcd = τab τ1e for some e ∈ R.− b = τ1. H 2. H 2. a 6= 0} and let N = {τ1b ∈ G}. It is trivial that M E N M because M E G and N M ≤ G. Hence xyx−1 y −1 ∈ N .− b . for x. this also means that n1 M = n2 M .ac ∈ N a a so that N E G. In fact. (c) If G/N is abelian. the kernel of φ is trivial: suppose φ(nmM ) = N ∩ M for n ∈ N and m ∈ M . Therefore φ is an isomorphism and the result is proven. Therefore ghg −1 ∈ H. φ is a homomorphism: let n1 . −1 By 2.ae+b so that c = a and φ(τcd N ) = c = a as required. Because G0 ≤ H. H 2. Then φ((n1 m1 M )(n2 m2 M )) = φ(n1 M n2 M ) = φ(n1 n2 M ) = n1 n2 (N ∩ M ) = n1 (N ∩ M )n2 (N ∩ M ) = φ(n1 m1 M )φ(n2 m2 M ). τab N = N .ac+b τ 1 . Then τcd = τa. that (G0 x)(G0 y)(G0 x−1 )(G0 y −1 ) = G0 (xyx−1 y −1 ) = G0 . Finally. Then. a a −1 τab τ1c τab = τa. N ∩ M E N .

Prove that G ∼ = S3 .2. but this forces G to be abelian by 2. which is a contradiction. a2 . Let’s recall S3 = {e. then G would be cyclic and hence abelian. ab = a2 . and the unique group of order 2.6. (b) The order of D2n /hyi is 2. so Z(G) E G. then {e. More constructively.11 – Let G be non-abelian with order 6. a. In our case. Let b ∈ G be distinct from {e.13) For g ∈ G.9 – Prove that Z(G) E G.10 – Prove that a group of order 9 is necessarily abelian. Then all of its elements have order 2. (213)}. Therefore there must exist an element a ∈ G with order 3.(a) hyi has order n. so this is not the desired group. uv = vu easily implies that um v n = v n um . we have gzg −1 = zgg −1 = z ∈ Z(G). (13). Furthermore. b. its non-identity elements have orders 2 and/or 3.7. H 2. If the order of b is 3. Its multiplication table is: S3 e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23) e e (123) (213) (12) (13) (23) (123) (123) (213) e (13) (23) (12) (213) (213) e (123) (23) (12) (13) (12) (12) (23) (13) e (213) (123) (13) (13) (12) (23) (123) e (213) (23) (23) (13) (12) (213) (123) e Suppose G has no elements of order 3.5.3. Hence we have 5 elements of the group in the case that b has order 3. if b2 = a then squaring gives a2 = b4 = b. It contains 2 elements of order 3 and 3 elements of order 2.7. Consider ab: the cases ab = e. Missing. hyi E D2n . b. For elements u. (see 2. Therefore if G is non-abelian. a. the fact that ab = ba gives us that G is abelian. so hyi has index 2n/n = 2 in D2n . the same argument has us conclude that ba is none of {e. 3 or 6 by Lagrange’s theorem. (123). a2 . is Z2 . . H 2. up to isomorphism. By 2. (12). so we must conclude that ab is the sixth element of the group. b2 }. H 2. and D2n has order 2n. a2 }. a. b2 } contains no duplicates: if b2 = a2 then multiplying on the left by a and on the right by b gives a = b. v of an arbitrary group. so ab = ba. ab = a.7.10. φ : D2n /hyi → Z2 given by φ(xi y j hY i) = i is an isomorphism. ab = b and ab = b2 all yield immediate contradictions. (23). If G contained an element of order 6. z ∈ Z(G). The non-identity elements of G have order 2. which is a contradiction.

. On the other hand. and both are isomorphic to S3 . d}. ψ(b) = (12). and ab = b gives an immediate contradiction. Consider the product ab. a2 . Hence T is not injective and thus not an isomorphism. so ab ∈ {c. (c) No. H 2. φ(a2 ) = (213). ad = b} and {ab = d. g2 ∈ G. φ(a) = (123).1 – Are the following maps automorphisms? (a) G = Z under addition. ψ : G2 → S3 given by ψ(e) = e. T is injective: if √ T (x) = T (y).12 – Let G be abelian and let N ≤ G. c}. Then (g1 N )(g2 N ) = (g1 g2 )N = (g2 g1 )N = (g2 N )(g1 N ) so that G/N is abelian. ψ(a2 ) = (123). Let x. and the remaining elements of G all have order 2: G = {e. Hence T is an automorphism. (d) G = S3 . ac = d. ac = b. positive square root which exists for all positive x. T is surjective: x = T ( x) where √ x is the unique. Each of the possibilities ab = e. (a) Yes. ab = a.Therefore a and a2 are the only elements of order 3. then x2 = y 2 so x = y because we restrict to positive reals. Let g1 . giving the equivalence of G2 to S3 . T is surjective: a = T (−a). Say G = hgi. then −a = −b so a = b. From those configurations. d} and ad ∈ {b. ψ(d) = (23) is again a bijective homomorphism. (c) G cyclic of order 12. so φ is an isomorphism. c. T is a homomorphism: we have T (a + b) = −(a + b) = (−a) + (−b) = T (a) + T (b). It is also a bijection.8. H 2. φ(b) = (12). There are two distinct situations possible: {ab = c. (b) Yes. These were the only two possible non-abelian groups of order 6. T : x 7→ x2 . so the claim is proven. we see that φ : G1 → S3 given by φ(e) = e.7. φ(d) = (23) is a homomorphism. T : x 7→ −x. proving the equivalence of G1 to S3 . d} with b2 = c2 = d2 = e. (b) G = R+ under multiplication. so the kernel of T is non-trivial. Prove that G/N is abelian. and. ab = a2 . T : x 7→ x−1 . Then g 4 6= e. ad = c}. T : x 7→ x3 . b. y ∈ R+ . ψ(c) = (13). Because G is abelian. T is injective: if T (a) = T (b). but T (g 4 ) = g 12 = e. φ(c) = (13). by a similar argument. ac ∈ {b. ψ(a) = (213). T is a homomorphism: we have T (xy) = (xy)2 = x2 y 2 = T (x)T (y). N is normal in G and G/N is a group. it’s easy to construct the entire multiplication table for the two Gs: G1 e a a2 b c d G2 e a a2 b c d e e a a2 b c d e e a a2 b c d 2 2 a a a e c d b a a a e d b c a2 a2 e a d b c a2 a2 e a c d b 2 b b d c e a a b b c d e a a2 c c b d a e a2 c c d b a2 e a d d c b a2 a e d d b c a a2 e Comparing to the group table for S3 . b ∈ Z. Let a. a.

which proves that Inn(G) E Aut(G). we can exhibit elements of order 2 and 3 in Aut(G) which proves that Aut(G) ∼= S3 in its entirety. To see that φ is a homomorphism. and let T be an automorphism of G.8.8.8. Hence φTw φ−1 = Tφ(w) ∈ Inn(G). φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab is an automorphism of order 2.4 – Prove that Inn(S3 ) ∼ = S3 . Then (φTw φ−1 )(g) = φ(Tw (φ−1 (g))) = φ(wφ−1 (g)w−1 ) = φ(w)gφ(w−1 ) = φ(w)gφ(w)−1 = Tφ(w) (g). we have T (h1 )T (h2 ) = T (h1 h2 ) ∈ T (H) and T (h1 )−1 = T (h−1 1 ) ∈ T (H). h2 ∈ H. For h1 .8. By lemma 2. Prove T (N ) E G. Therefore Z(S3 ) = {e} and. and permutes the three elements of order 2. An automorphism of G fixes the identity. φ : G → G given by φ(a) = b.6 – Let G = {e. Inn(S3 ) ∼ = S3 /Z(S3 ) ∼ = S3 .2. and we see easily that φ2 (a) = φ(b) = a and φ2 (b) = φ(a) = b. while T [(12)]T [(13)] = (12)(13) = (213).8. Prove T (H) ≤ G. T (N ) ≤ G. Therefore φ is a homomorphism. (12)(213) = (13) while (213)(12) = (23). T (H) ≤ G. we just need to check that φ(ab) = ab = φ(b)φ(a) = φ(a)φ(b). Tw : x 7→ wxw−1 ∈ Inn(G) and φ ∈ Aut(G).2 – Let H ≤ G. and let T be an automorphism of G.(d) No. where Tφ(w) : x 7→ φ(w)xφ(w)−1 . so (213) 6∈ Z(S3 ). φ(aab) = a = bab = φ(a)φ(ab) and φ(bab) = b = aab = φ(b)φ(ab). H 2.3 – Let N E G. Let g ∈ G and n ∈ N . Then it is clear that Aut(G) is isomorphic to a subgroup of S3 . Then gT (n)g −1 = T (T −1 (g)nT −1 (g −1 )) = T (n0 ) ∈ T (N ) for some n0 = T −1 (g)nT −1 (g −1 ) ∈ N because N is normal. so (12) 6∈ Z(S3 ) and (13) 6∈ Z(S3 ).8. By 2. The center of S3 is trivial. by lemma 2. Let g ∈ G. . H 2. Finally.19. Determine Aut(G). All other possible products automatically work because the group is abelian. Furthermore.5 – Prove that Inn(G) E Aut(G).3. H 2. For example. ab} be a group of order 4 with a2 = b2 = e and ab = ba. T [(12)(13)] = T [(213)] = (123). (23)(123) = (13) while (123)(23) = (12) so (13) 6∈ Z(S3 ) and (123) 6∈ Z(S3 ). H 2. as we can easily check: (12)(13) = (213) while (13)(12) = (123). a. so φ2 = id and hence φ is an order 2 automorphism. b. H 2.

As a result. is fixed by all inner automorphisms. To check the order of ψ. H 2. ψ(b) = ab and ψ(ab) = a is an automorphism of order 3. ψ 2 (b) = ψ(ab) = a and ψ 2 (ab) = ψ(a) = b. so. by definition. a priori. ψ : G → G given by ψ(a) = b.6. in fact. in fact.8 – Prove that the commutator subgroup G0 = haba−1 b−1 | a. gCg −1 is the image of C under the inner automorphism Tg : x 7→ gxg −1 . Then take the order 2 automorphism φ of G. Every inner automorphism fixes N but. b ∈ Gi (see 2. Prove M E G. ψ 3 (b) = ψ(a) = b and ψ 3 (ab) = ψ(b) = ab so. there need to be automorphisms outside of Inn(G) which don’t fix N . (b) Prove that the converse of (a) is false. This forces the subgroup to have order at least 6 = lcm(2. Hence N is normal. Tg (M ) = M as well. i. C is “characteristic” if φ(C) ⊂ C for all φ ∈ Aut(G). could move M ≤ N around. This is simply a restriction of a map to the domain N . but not characteristic because φ doesn’t fix it. but that’s the order of S3 itself. then inner automorphisms Tg wouldn’t restrict to automorphisms . H 2. b} = 6 hai.7. Because φ is a homomorphism. Therefore ψ 2 6= id. Hence M is fixed by every inner automorphism.e. ψ 3 = id.8. so we have Tg |N (M ) = M . and N = hai = {e.8. φ(b) = a and φ(ab) = ab. so C E G.5) is characteristic. we have φ(a1 b1 a−1 −1 −1 −1 1 b1 · · · an bn an bn ) = φ(a1 )φ(b1 )φ(a1 ) −1 φ(b1 )−1 · · · φ(an )φ(bn )φ(an )−1 φ(bn )−1 ∈ G0 . and ψ(bab) = b = aba = ψ(b)ψ(ab). N E G. with φ(a) = b. Hence Aut(G) ∼ = S3 . 3). We have φ(hai) = {e. ψ(aab) = ab = ψ(ab)ψ(a) = ψ(a)ψ(ab). a} which is normal because it is of index 2. H 2. Because Tg ∈ Aut(G). (a) Prove that a characteristic subgroup is normal. Let φ ∈ Aut(G) and let a1 b1 a−1 −1 −1 −1 0 1 b1 · · · an bn an bn ∈ G . We can check that ψ is a homomorphism: ψ(ab) = a = bab = ψ(a)ψ(b). we know that Aut(G) must be isomorphic to a subgroup of S3 which can accomodate elements of orders 2 and 3.Additionally. (a) Suppose C is characteristic and let g ∈ G. (b) A normal subgroup. Consider G = V4 . Now M is characteristic in N .9 – Let N E G and let M be a characteristic subgroup of N . In order for the converse to fail to hold.8. the Klein group of 2.7 – Let C ≤ G. we raise it to powers: ψ 2 (a) = ψ(b) = ab. but ψ 3 (a) = ψ(ab) = a. Some remarks: If N had not been normal. we have that gCg −1 = Tg (C) ⊂ C. M E G. Therefore φ(G0 ) ⊂ G0 .8. Notice that if Tg ∈ Inn(G). This holds for arbitrary g ∈ G. it restricts to an automorphism Tg |N of N because Tg (N ) = N . so G0 is characteristic.

Suppose G were not abelian. H 2. and using the fact that φ is a homomorphism. Missing. Suppose additionally that φ2 = id. Now φ(g) = φ(x−1 )φ2 (x) = φ(x)−1 x = (x−1 φ(x))−1 = g −1 . so that x = y. By 2. because φ is assumed to be a homomorphism. .8. Then φ(ab) = b−1 a−1 while φ(a)φ(b) = a−1 b−1 . Therefore.14. ψ is not a homomorphism in general. the argument would also break down: Tg restricts to an automorphism of N which is not. Therefore for every g ∈ G. H 2. an inner automorphism of N (not unless g ∈ N . Thus the restriction Tg |N would not fix M if it were only normal but not characteristic. with a. Prove that G is abelian. The restriction to finite G in the problem statement enables us to use the obscure (in my opinion) result 2. there exists an x ∈ G such that g = ψ(x) = x−1 φ(x). This map is injective: let x.10 – Let G be finite and let φ ∈ Aut(G) fix only the identity.10. then ρ is a homomorphism because ρ(gh) = h−1 g −1 = g −1 h−1 = ρ(g)ρ(h). there exists x ∈ G such that g = x−1 φ(x).12* – Let G be finite. Because G is finite. Also.8. on the right by φ(x−1 ). we have yx−1 = φ(yx−1 ). Remark: In fact. and let φ ∈ Aut(G) fix only the identity.11 – Let G be finite. Multiplying on the left by y. If G is not abelian. in fact). Prove that φ(x) = x−1 for all x in G and that G is abelian. This proves injectivity. if N were normal but M merely normal (not characteristic) in N .8.6. ψ is also necessarily surjective (however.of N (because Tg might throw some elements of N afield). and this is immaterial). then inverting b−1 a−1 = a−1 b−1 would produce the contradiction ab = ba. ρ is trivially a bijection (uniqueness of inverses gives injectivity. Therefore this exercise represents a strengthening of the conditions of 2. and let φ ∈ Aut(G) be such that φ(x) = x−1 for at least three quarters of the elements of G. Prove that every g ∈ G may be written as g = x−1 φ(x) for some x ∈ G. and the argument breaks down. If G is abelian. and g = ρ(g −1 ) gives surjectivity). Then x−1 φ(x) = y −1 φ(y). H 2. where we see that normality of subgroups is not a transitive property. we must conclude that yx−1 = e. G must be abelian. then ρ is not a homomorphism by the above argument. b ∈ G such that ab 6= ba. If we were to have that φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b). Let g ∈ G.10.8. in general. y ∈ G be such that ψ(x) = ψ(y). By our assumption on φ. Consider the map ψ : G → G given by ψ(x) = x−1 φ(x). if G is a group then G is abelian if and only if ρ : g 7→ g −1 is an automorphism of G.8.

and. then g = g −1 for all g ∈ G. i. Let x 6∈ H. H 2. as seen in 2. Furthermore. Consider Z∗an −1 . and therefore n | φ(an − 1). Prove that |H| is odd and that H is abelian. φ fixes H and hence restricts to an automorphism φ|H of H. φ is an automorphism (this needs to be checked!).8. If H were of even order. Prove that λg is a bijection and that λg λh = λgh .13 – Give an example of a non-abelian finite group G with an automorphism that maps exactly three quarters of the elements of G to their inverses. it would contain an element of order 2. a is coprime to an − 1 because (an−1 )a + (−1)(an − 1) = 1 so that a ∈ Z∗an −1 . the multiplicative (modulo an − 1) group of integers coprime to (an − 1). H 2. xh has order 2. The order of a is n because an ≡ 1 mod (an − 1) while. H 2.14* – Let G be finite with |G| > 2. Prove that n | φ(an − 1). this gives that H is abelian. take an element a 6∈ Z(G). Missing. Therefore inversion is an automorphism on H. 1 < ak < an − 1. If G is abelian.8. If ρ = id.8.15* – Let G have even order 2n. Prove Aut(G) is non-trivial. Thus the inner automorphism Ta : g 7→ aga−1 of conjugation by a does not fix g. with a > 1. then by 2. H 2. Now we see that hφ(h) = hxhx = (hx)2 = e. λg is injective: if x. Furthermore. all non-identity elements have order 2. so |H| must be odd. Therefore. construct the map φ : G → G which transposes two non-identity elements and fixes everything else.8. Let a ∈ Z.16* – Let φ(n) be the Euler φ-function.11). Define λg : G → G by λg (x) = gx.11. if G is abelian. The map φ : G → G given by φ(g) = xgx−1 = xgx is an inner automorphism of G. Then there exists g ∈ G with ag 6= ga. then y = gg −1 y = λg (g −1 y). It is assumed that H is the collection of elements with order different from 2. then λg (x) = λg (y) implies .e. for 1 < k < n. Then xh 6∈ H for any h ∈ H.8.H 2.3. By Lagrange. this order must divide the order of the group.9. and therefore aga−1 6= g. If G is non-abelian. In that case. Because H is normal (index 2). The number of elements in Z∗an −1 is φ(an − 1).8. then inversion ρ : g 7→ g −1 is an automorphism (see 2. λg is surjective: if y ∈ G.1 – Let g ∈ G. y ∈ G. either ρ or φ is a non-trivial automorphism of G.11 or Cauchy’s theorem. so that φ|H (h) = h−1 . because it is outside of H. Suppose that exactly half of the elements of G have order 2 and the rest form a subgroup H of order n. so Ta 6= id but Ta ∈ Aut(G).

Specifically. (b) W ≤ G because it is the intersection of subgroups. we have θ = τθ(e) . H 2. For x ∈ G. Hence each λg is a permutation of G and the λg form a subgroup (under composition) of the set of bijections G → G. there exists h ∈ H such that w = ghg −1 . H 2. (a) Show that gHg −1 ≤ G for every g ∈ G. for g. prove that θ = τh for some h ∈ G.9. for every g ∈ G. .3 – Let λg and τg be defined as in 2. We have λg (τh (x)) = λg (xh) = gxh while τh (λg (x)) = τh (gx) = gxh. Let x ∈ G. |G| = p2 does not divide [G : H]! = p!. then we find that θ(e) = x−1 θ(x) for all x ∈ G. there exists h ∈ H such that w may be written as w = (x−1 g)h(x−1 g)−1 = x−1 ghg −1 x. h ∈ G. so xwx−1 ∈ W and W E G. Let x ∈ G. Therefore λgh = λg λh . H 2. As p2 is not prime. Hence λg τh = τh λg . Additionally. i. This can be done for arbitrary x. we know by 2.9. if g.9.that gx = gy so x = y. For any g ∈ G.3. Lemma 2. (a) Let h1 . so the conditions of lemma 2. we see that θ(gx) = gθ(x) for all x. then λgh (x) = ghx while λg (λh (x)) = λg (hx) = ghx.21 are satisfied. Suppose w ∈ W so that. xwx−1 = xx−1 ghg −1 xx−1 = ghg −1 ∈ gHg −1 . the inverse of gh1 g −1 is gh−1 1 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 .5. gHg −1 ≤ G.[G : H]!. By Lagrange. we have λg τh = τh λg .1. this subgroup must have order p. and H ≤ G is a proper subgroup such that |G| .2. Define τg : G → G by τg (x) = xg. Note that we don’t assume θ to be a homomorphism.9.4 – Let H ≤ G.e.5 – Let |G| = p2 . then H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup of G. H 2. We have gh1 g −1 gh2 g −1 = gh1 h2 g −1 ∈ gHg −1 . g ∈ G. K = H. Consequently. Solving for θ(x) yields θ(x) = xθ(e).9. λg (θ(x)) = gθ(x) while θ(λg (x)) = θ(gx). However. Prove that. g ∈ G. so gHg −1 is closed under multiplication. (b) Prove that W = gHg −1 is a T g∈G normal subgroup of G. The lemma is proven by considering the action of left multiplication by G on the set G/H of left cosets of H in G.2 – Let λg be defined as in 2. Finally.3 that G has a proper subgroup H. Prove that G has a normal subgroup of order p. By lemma 2. Therefore H must contain a non-trivial normal subgroup K of G. h ∈ G. If θ : G → G is a bijection such that λg θ = θλg for all g ∈ G. If we pick g = x−1 . h2 ∈ H and let g ∈ G.21 states that if G is a finite group. By Lagrange. which is the desired result. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. Thus H E G and |H| = p. and consider xwx−1 .9. this subgroup must have order p.

In particular. If x ∈ G has order p. q or pq. i. suppose G has no elements of order p or 2p.7* – Let |G| = p2 .12. Lagrange’s theorem applied to hxi ∩ hyi (as a subgroup of hxi or hyi) tells us that it has order 1 or p. hxi = hyi = hxi ∩ hyi or hxi ∩ hyi = {e}. Suppose G contains no element of order p2 .9. If x ∈ G has order 2p. As x ∈ H and y ∈ G were arbitrary.9.6. Its order must be 1. (c) Prove that. As k 6∈ hhi. Then all non-identity elements of G have order 2. H 2.6. p. K E G with |H| = p and |K| = q. Therefore G is abelian by 2. Suppose H. because H has prime order. hyi E G. hk = kh. hgi is normal and. Therefore |hk| = pq. Then. Otherwise. hxi ∩ hyi = {e} invites the application of 2. If G contains an element of order p2 .e.10. it is cyclic and H = hxi. Similarly. and so it is normal by 2. suppose there is no element in G of order 2p.9. Otherwise.5). In fact. Therefore G necessarily has a subgroup H of order p. then x2 has order p. where p > q are both prime.p. given two primes p.3. The index of H is 2. Let y ∈ G.10* – Let |G| = pq. In the latter case. This argument applies to arbitrary g ∈ G. H 2. Compute (hk)p = hp k p = k p 6= e because q . so |x| = 1 and consequently hhi ∩ hki = {e}. Prove that H ≤ Z(G).5). If x ∈ hhi ∩ hki then |x| | p and |x| | q. H 2. where p 6= q are both prime. By 2. every element g ∈ G has order p.21 (as used in 2. Prove G has a subgroup H of order p and that H E G. By lemma 2. which again gives that xy = yx. (hk)q = hq k q = hq 6= e because p . then G is cyclic and hence abelian. G is abelian. by Lagrange.6.H 2. Z(G) = G so H ≤ Z(G).9.8 – Let |G| = 2p.(p − 1) then G is cyclic. g ∈ Z(G).12. we cannot have k = h−1 . (b) Prove that if q .q. hxi = hyi gives that x and y commute. In other words. H 2.6.21 (as used in 2. hgi ⊂ Z(G).9. Otherwise. (a) Prove that G has a subgroup of order p and a subgroup of order q. by 2. Prove that G is cyclic. this shows that H ≤ Z(G).9.9 – Let |G| = pq.9.6* – Let |G| = p2 and let H E G with |H| = p. all non-identity elements of G have order p.9. then Cauchy’s theorem for abelian groups implies the existence of an element x ∈ G of order p. Prove that G is abelian. In the former case.2. so H = hx2 i is a subgroup of order p. Let x ∈ H. Let H = hhi and K = hki so hp = e and k q = e. q with . and G = hhki is cyclic. then H = hxi is a subgroup of order p. and we reach a contradiction: if G is abelian. By lemma 2. then G is cyclic and hence abelian. so Z(G) = G. In that case. Now consider the element hk. If G contains an element of order p2 . so hk 6= e.

. . . H 2. 2) = (n. (123) sends this into 312456789. H 2. 67. . (123) sends this into 321. This problem statement has been modified accordingly. n − 1) · · · (12)] = (12) · · · (1n) = (1. (12) sends this into 231. there exists a non-abelian group of order pq.10. . (a) Consider the action of each cycle in order. while I compose permutations from right to left. . 1). . (b) (12)(123)(12). n − 1. am−1 ) · · · (a1 . . .10.(p − 1).10.5 – Find the cycle structure of all the powers of (12 · · · 8) Let σ = (12 · · · 8).q . am )(a1 . am ) = (a1 . . Disjoint cycles commute. Therefore −1 (12 · · · n)−1 = [(1n)(1. 2. a2 ).1. H 2. Starting with 123456789. 2. Missing.3 – Express as products of disjoint cycles: (a) (15)(16789)(45)(123). Therefore (12)(123)(12) = (132). 2. n. . (45) sends this into 312546789. . pg. The sequence goes σ σ σ 12345678 −→ 81234567 −→ 78123456 −→ 67812345 σ σ σ σ −→ 56781234 −→ 45678123 −→ 34567812 −→ 23456781 . Hence (15)(16789)(45)(123) = (123678954). (15) sends this into 412593678. n − 2. Herstein composes permutation from left to right. so this is often irrelevant. H 2. (b) Starting with 123. .10. (16789) sends this into 912543678. (b) (1625)(34). a2 . that (a1 . n − 1. n − 1. We’ll compute what σ i does to 12345678. . n − 2.2 – Decompose into products of disjoint cycles:     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 (a)   (b)   2 3 4 5 1 6 7 9 8 6 5 4 3 1 2 (a) (12345)(6)(7)(89).4 – Prove that (12 · · · n)−1 = (n. (d) Prove that any two non-abelian groups of order pq are isomorphic. (12) sends this into 213. 1) First note that a transposition (2-cycle) is its own inverse. . It’s straightforward to check by hand Herstein’s assertion.10. .

find a permutation a such that a−1 xa = y. . 6}. a(4) ∈ {5. so a(2).6 – (a) What is the order of an n-cycle? (b) What is the order of the product of disjoint cycles of lengths m1 .Then we have σ = (12345678). . We see that a(2) and a(4) must be fixed by x. b(251436789) = 951426387. As disjoint cycles commute. σ 3 = (14725836). Therefore a−1 ba = (2379). mk ? (c) How do you find the order of a given permutation? (a) Let σ be an n-cycle. σ 4 = (15)(26)(37)(48). m σim . 2. Therefore a−1 ba = (123) = b. We could have seen this immediately because a and b are disjoint.7 – Compute a−1 ba where (a) a = (12)(135). σ 6 = (1753)(2864). H 2. If σ k (i) = i for some k < n. a(3) = 2. σ 7 = (18765432) and σ 8 = e. . (b) a−1 = a2 = (597).10. there is at least one σi with mi . (b) a = (579). It is clear that ( i σi )N = e because mi | N for all i. Then x(a(1)) = a(y(1)) = a(3). b = (1579). m2 . then σ can be decomposed into smaller cycles because i has an orbit which is a cardinality k subset of {1. Hence the order of an n-cycle is n. . and a−1 (312496587) = 312456789.8 – (a) For x = (12)(34) and y = (56)(13). The order of Q Q Q (b) Let σ1 . b(123496587) = 312496587. For any smaller exponent K. and a−1 (951426387) = 192456387. and a(4) = 5. a(2) = 5. Compute a−1 ba by applying each permutation in order. n}. . a(5) = 3. There is freedom in creating a. ( i σi ) = i i σi is therefore N = lcmi (mi ). though it is not unique. (a) a = (1352) and a−1 = a3 = (1253). a = (1263)(45) is another solution. Q (c) Decompose the permutation into disjoint cycles. we see that x(x(a(1))) = a(1) .10. but the following choice works: a(1) = 1. The order of the permutation is the least common multiple of the lengths of the disjoint cycles. For example. σ 2 = (1357)(2468). Furthermore. x should transpose a(3) with a(1) and a(5) with a(6). σk be disjoint cycles. a(6) = 4. x(a(3)) = a(y(3)) = a(1).10. . a(123456789) = 251436789. . . (b) Prove there is no a such that a−1 (123)a = (13)(578). by the pigeonhole principle. σ n (i) = i. x(a(2)) = a(y(2)) = a(2). H 2. On the other hand. the least common multiple of the orders (lengths. Applying the same analysis as above. σ 5 = (16385274). This a works. . by (a)) of all the σi . H 2. This may also be written as a = (253)(46). b = (123). and so on. a(123456789) = 123496587. . . . (b) Let x = (123) and y = (13)(578). (c) Prove there is no a such that a−1 (12)a = (15)(34) (a) We must have xa = ay.K Q so that ( i σi )K 6= e.

x(a(4)) = a(3). so assume this result to be true.e. A more direct way to see this is that |a−1 xa| = |x| = 3 while |y| = 6 by 2. k + 2). This is a contradiction. and so it is impossible to construct such an a. 67). because sgn is multiplicative. H 2. the parity (even/odd) of the number of transpositions is (see pg. Hence a(1) must be brought on an orbit of length 2 by x.10. (b) (45)(123)(12345) = (45)(13)(12)(15)(14)(13)(12) is the product of seven transpositions. Then σ k+1 τ σ −(k+1) = . We see that στ σ −1 = (23). H 2. (b) (45)(123)(12345).10. We have x(a(1)) = a(5). if m is odd. Alternately. The cycles of x are all of length 1 or 3. applying σ −1 effects a left rotation by one. (c) (25)(14)(13)(12) is the product of four transpositions. Computing σ 2 τ σ −2 . The base case k = 1 was just shown. H 2. Only a(2) is fixed here. τ = (12) and U = hσ.while x(a(1)) = a(3) 6= a(1).10. i. but it is clear that x does this to no symbol. (c) Let x = (12) and y = (15)(34).9 – For what m is an m-cycle an even permutation? The m-cycle σ = (a1 · · · am ) = (a1 am ) · · · (a1 a3 )(a1 a2 ) may be written as the product of m − 1 transposi- tions. as it is the product of three transpositions.10. x(a(2)) = a(2).11 – Prove that Sn = h(12 · · · n). The result of applying σ to n symbols is to rotate them all to the right by one spot.10 – What are the parities of the following permutations? (a) (12)(123). τ i.6. Compute στ σ −1 by considering its action on 12 · · · n: σ −1 τ σ 123 · · · n −→ 234 · · · n1 −→ 324 · · · n1 −→ 1324 · · · n. Therefore no such a exists. (a) (12)(123) = (12)(13)(12) is odd. Let σ = (12 · · · n). Again. x(a(3)) = a(4). so it is odd. Similarly. and x(a(5)) = a(1). a pattern becomes clear which suggests that σ k τ σ −k = (k + 1. While this decomposition into transpositions is not unique. but x must fix three of its five inputs. Then σ is an even permutation if and only if m − 1 is even. (12)i. (c) (25)(14)(13)(12). so it is even. we can also compute sgn((45)(123)(12345)) = (−1)(+1)(+1) = −1. sgn((12)(123)) = (−1)(+1) = −1.

Hence any even permutation σ may be written as the product of 3-cycles. the result would be proven. Iterating this procedure. Now the arbitrary transposition (ab) we see to be in U because (ab) = (1a)(1b)(1a). We have (ab)(cd) = (adc)(abc) and (ab)(ad) = (adb). . k + 3). and so An = Un .10. n} are distinct and f ∈ {1. k − 1) = (12) is given to be in U ). A1 . 2. . k + 2) 2 3 4 ··· k+3 k+2 k+4 ··· n 1 σ 1 2 3 ··· k+1 k+3 k+2 ··· n−1 n from which we see that σ(k + 1. Thankfully. k + 2)σ −1 = (k + 2. we have that Un ≤ An . for n ≥ 3. 2. k)(1. e ∈ {1. n}. Then by 2. This configuration of indices is only possible for n ≥ 5.10. . b. .e. . Observe the action of this permutation: 1 2 3 ··· k+1 k+2 k+3 ··· n−1 n σ −1 2 3 4 ··· k+2 k+3 k+4 ··· n 1 (k + 1. if a. the subgroup Un generated by the 3-cycles is An . as every permutation may be decomposed into transpositions. i. . The spirit of this proof is to show that if N contains a 3-cycle then it contains all other 3-cycles. (k. (13) = (12)(23)(12) and (14) = (13)(34)(13). Let a. Continuing in this fashion. In particular. c. . c. we find that (1k) ∈ U for k ∈ {2. k + 1) ∈ U for k ∈ {1. k + 2)σ −1 . starting with k = 3 (because (1.13* – Let N E An contain a 3-cycle. Therefore An ⊂ Un .12. 2. and (iii) products of even permutations are again even. Using the normality of N . . d. so this finalizes the proof that U = Sn . e}. the second case has one index shared). . . b. Therefore the claim is proven that σ k τ σ −k = (k + 1. Note that (abc)2 = (abc)−1 = (acb) ∈ N . . then (abf )−1 (bcd)−1 (cde)−1 (abc)(cde)(bcd)(abf ) = (def ) ∈ N. Every even permutation is the product of an even number of transpositions. Because (i) 3-cycles are even permutations. This is useful because we can write (1k) = (1. Let (abc) ∈ N . This allows us to swap out an index. k) ∈ U . k − 1) where we use the just-discovered fact that (k − 1. smaller cases are almost trivial. . .σ(k + 1. For instance. . Prove that N = An .12* – Prove that. every permutation is contained in U . (ii) inverses of 3-cycles are again 3-cycles. H 2. d. n − 1}. σ ∈ Un . and both forms may be rewritten as a product of 3-cycles. 3. . k − 1)(k − 1. Let’s investigate the product (ab)(bc)(ab). Every product of two transpositions is in one of these two forms (the first case has no index shared. we can compute things like (cde)−1 (abc)(cde) = (abe) ∈ N . This permutation sends abc → bac → bca → cba. . Therefore. with the ultimate goal of generating an arbitrary 3-cycle from our original (abc). 2.10. d ∈ {1. . k + 2). . Now Sn ≤ U ≤ Sn . . n} be distinct. we see that. H 2. n}\{a. b. . so (ab)(bc)(ab) = (ac).

with n − r ones. although the long formula breaks down because there aren’t 5 symbols to choose from. Thus the number of distinct r-cycles in Sn is (r − 1)! nr = r(n−r)! n!  . 1. we count the distinct 3-cycles (123) and (132) but. . for instance. Lemma 2. A4 is actually susceptible to the above argument. 3. so they are irrelevant. so N = An . In particular.15 – Assume that A5 is simple. n n!  (a) An r-cycle permutes r out of n symbols.10.4!. . 1. r}. An ≤ N . then σ = τ (12 · · · r)i with i ∈ {0. i. Thus. Beyond this choice. τ fixing {1. . then |H| ≤ 12. Instead. the set of elements commuting with a. so. A subgroup of order 30 has index 2. .2. all r-cycles in Sn have the same cycle decomposition {1. r} fixed. although a proof may be found in 2. we don’t overcount (312) = (123) as unique.6. . 1. so |H| = 6 30. A3 = h(123)i has order 3 so it contains no non- trivial subgroups. 2.21 says nothing about an order 12 subgroup because 60 | 5! = 60. 30}.10. e. (b) All permutations of the same cycle decomposition are conjugate to one another. (c) Prove that.e. . . Because A5 is simple. 20. H contains a non-trivial normal subgroup of A5 . Prove that if H ≤ A5 is proper. n! H 2. 1. . Therefore |H| = 6 20. . there are (r − 1)! ways of permuting all but one of the symbols in the r-cycle. By lemma 2. where N (a) is the normalizer of a. by Lagrange’s theorem. which is disjoint from it. Therefore in A4 it is also the case that a normal subgroup containing a 3-cycle must contain every 3-cycle. .e. 12. (cde)−1 (abc)(cde) = (abe). H 2. if σ ∈ Sn commutes with (12 · · · r). as explored above. . then A ⊂ N ((12 · · · r)). we come to a contradiction.11. r}} is the set of interest.1 – (a) In Sn . ignoring movement of the rth symbol. 6. However.14* – Prove that A5 has no non-trivial normal subgroups. because |A5 | = 60 . H 2. .10. Therefore |H| must be 12 or smaller. . . 15. and there are r = r!(n−r)! ways of choosing those symbols. .12. 4. r − 1}. 5. (c) It is clear that (12 · · · r) commutes with its powers as well as with τ .21. . so it would be normal by 2. The cardinality of A is . 10.3! = [A5 : H]!. A5 has order 60. prove that there are r(n−r)! distinct r-cycles. (i. Therefore if A = {τ (12 · · · r)i | i ∈ {0. . Swapping the indices is done by conjugation. (abc)2 = (acb)). we see that to go from any one 3-cycle in A4 to another. 2. the only steps which might be required are swapping up to two indices and squaring (as noted above. r − 1} and τ ∈ Sn leaving all of {1. |H| ∈ {2.and A2 don’t accomodate 3-cycles. it is “simple”) Missing. .g. as A5 contains no non-trivial normal subgroups. Hence (12 · · · r) is conjugate to n! every one of the r(n−r)! r-cycles in Sn . . . Suppose |H| = 20 so [A5 : H] = 3. this is disallowed. By 2. (b) Find the number of conjugates of (12 · · · r) in Sn . The same argument rules out |H| = 15 because 60 .11.6c.

n}. The order of σ is equal to the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its disjoint cycle decomposition by 2. Then the number of conjugates of (12)(34) is |Sn |/|N ((12)(34))| = n!/(8(n − 4)!) = 81 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3). N (a) is normal. r + 2. by 2. In the case of a = (12 · · · r). If this were the case. so that the cycles in its decomposition must have length 1 or p. By 2. (b) All commuting elements σ are described in (a).11. . and so our original count is acceptable. Therefore the number of conjugates is n2 n−2 1   2 /2 = 8 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3).6. (σ(3)σ(4)) = (12). one p-cycle already exhausts them all and we therefore exclude possibilities such as σ being the product of two or more p-cycles. for instance. Prove that G is not simple.10. so that N (a) has index 2. The identity element satisfies ep = e. We need to pick 2 elements from n to constitute a. σ(2) is immediately determined and two choices remain for σ(3). Consider a non-identity element σ ∈ Sp .11. and 2 elements from n − 2 to constitute c. 2. We have that |G|/|N (a)| = (# conjugates of a) = 2.11.6a.6b.1. H 2. σ(4) is also determined. Then we will have overcounted by a factor of 2. the number of p-cycles in Sp is p!/(p · 0!) = (p − 1)! which. count in the following way: the conjugates of (12)(34) are those permutations with the same cycle structure (ab)(cd). Hence there are 4 · 2 · (n − 4)! = 8(n − 4)! distinct σ which commute with (12)(34). . d.3 – Prove that Sp contains (p − 1)! + 1 elements satisfying xp = e. Therefore A = N (a). b. Once σ(1) is picked. . we have σ(12)(34)σ −1 = (σ(1)σ(2))(σ(3)σ(4)). The action of σ on the n−4 other symbols is irrelevant. After picking σ(3). then the order of σ must be p because p is prime. so that G is of order 2 and is therefore abelian. (a) For σ ∈ Sn . Therefore we have exhibited (p − 1)! + 1 elements satisfying xp = e. H 2. We also know that the normalizer satisfies (# conjugates of a) = |Sn |/|N (a)|. which is a contradiction. then N (a) = G. we must have that σ is a p-cycle. The only oddball case to consider is if N (a) = {e}. If σ were to commute with (12)(34). Enumerate these σ by considering first σ(1) ∈ {1. 3. (12)(34) and (34)(12) which are equal. have order p.11. (σ(3)σ(4)) = (34) or (σ(1)σ(2)) = (34). . so |N (a)| = r(n − r)!. Are there others? No. 4} with 4 choices. getting.2.2 – (a) Find the number of conjugates of (12)(34) in Sn for n ≥ 4.10. Alternately. then we would need (σ(1)σ(2)) = (12).4 – Let G be finite and let a ∈ G have exactly two conjugates. By 2. (b) Determine N ((12)(34)).r(n − r)! because there are (n − r)! ways of permuting the n − r elements {r + 1. If it were the case that σ p = e. H 2. Thus for σ p = e to hold. Because there are only p symbols to choose from in Sp . . this gives n! r(n−r)! = n!/|N (a)|.

1. α = (abc) is conjugate to β = (bcd) by (abcdf ) ∈ A5 and α = (abc) is conjugate to β = (cdf ) by (acf bd) ∈ A5 . so the two 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . we easily see that (12)α(12) = β so that conjugation by (12) 6∈ A5 brings α into β. 2. i. 2. (14)(23). 2}. Solving for σ yields σ = (1234)(123)i (45)j = (14)(13)(12)(123)i (45)j which may be in A5 if i = 0 and j = 1.1c. More generally. we will momentarily prove it indirectly by ignoring the issue for now. by 2. α = (123) and β = (234). (34). {1. 3. for example. Indeed. For this particular α = (12345). As per 2. it is true that all elements of structure {1. 1. 1. Notice that the same can’t be done for 3-cycles. 3}.11. In S5 . Furthermore.9. (b) Find all conjugacy classes in A5 and the cardinalities of each.5 – (a) Find α. However. a contradiction. with e(abc)e−1 = (abc) (abcdf )(abc)(abcdf )−1 = (bcd) (acf bd)(abc)(acf bd)−1 = (cdf ).e. β ∈ A5 such that α and β are conjugate in S5 but not in A5 . it’s natural to wonder if all elements of structure {1. we considered the elements which commute with (12)(34). 2. We have (1234)(123)(4321) = (234). 4}}. Therefore τ 6∈ A5 so we have proved that this α and β are conjugate in S5 but not in A5 . τ are such that both σασ −1 = β and τ ατ −1 = β. 1. that τ −1 σ ∈ N (α). That is. (14)(23)}.11. (12)(34). Then we have τ −1 σασ −1 τ = α. but here we only allow conjugation by even permutations. we see that N (α) = {(12345)i | i ∈ {0. and {5}. (12345)(123)(54321) = (234). In fact.10. 1}. NS5 ((123)) = {(123)i (45)j | i ∈ {0. The conjugacy class of the identity is trivially C(e) = {e} with only one member. 1. If τ ∈ A5 . (a) Let α = (12345) and β = (21345). but if σ is another element of N ((123)). 1. (1423)}. (b) The possible cycle structures for elements of A5 are {1. 2.2a. Elements with structure {1.11. Now the conjugacy class of (12)(34) has 60/4 = 15 elements. we are very familiar with its normalizer. |CA5 ((12)(34))| = 15. are even permutations. they certainly do.H 2. 2}. 3} are 3-cycles. At this point. i. all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . The first cycle structure has only one element: the identity.1c. this is a nontrivial restriction. all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . (13)(24). Let’s investigate its conjugacy class: in 2. As seen in (a). Now suppose σ. The full normalizer in S5 can be seen by the remarks of 2. {1. 1}. j ∈ . then. (1324). In summary. From 2. 2}.11. 1.2a to be NS5 ((12)(34)) = {e. by the above comments. (13)(24). Pick the element (12)(34) with structure {1. Half of these elements are odd permutations. then we would have (12) ∈ A5 .11. Now put σ = (12) and let τ ∈ S5 be any other solution to τ ατ −1 = β. 2} and j ∈ {0. (12)(34). 2} are conjugate to one another under A5 . 2} share this conjugacy class. (12).e. 1. We have that τ −1 (12) ∈ A5 . 2. Then we have σ = (14)(13)(12)(45) = (12345) ∈ A5 . σ −1 (1234) = (123)i (45)j with i ∈ {0. Notice that N (α) ≤ A5 . so the normalizer of interest is NA5 ((12)(34)) = {e. however we now restrict our attention to those commuting elements which live in A5 . Take. This may be proven by a direct argument of the type given for 3-cycles at the end of the discussion of (a). They are both in A5 because they are 5-cycles which.

We saw above that (12345) and (21345) are not conjugate in A5 . H 2. 1. 2.{0. 10. Those a producing C(a) disjoint from N may be excluded from the sum because they contribute 0. 2} are conjugate to one another in A5 . so in fact gag −1 ∈ N for all g ∈ G because N is normal. 13.11. Therefore C(a) ⊂ N or C(a) ∩ N = {e}. These equivalence classes (“conjugacy classes”) partition N . 15. The order of N must be one of {2. If we take a single representative a from each conjugacy class and add up [G : N (a)]. we will find |N |. 12. 2. (c) Let N E A5 be non-trivial. Then gag −1 ∈ N because N is normal. CA5 (σ) = CA5 ((123)) because all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5 . 30}. the 5-cycles. 1. for any 3-cycle σ ∈ S5 . 20. By (b). This list does not intersect with the list of orders allowed by Lagrange’s theorem. The only remaining cycle structure is {5}.11. Therefore A5 has no non-trivial normal subgroups. by the discussion at the end of (a). NA5 ((12345)) = {(12345)i | i ∈ {0. H 2. Now we have demonstrated 5 distinct conjugacy classes of total size 1 + 15 + 20 + 12 + 12 = 60 = |A5 |. so the conjugacy class of size 1 must always be included). we know that.h. 5. where N (a) still refers to the normalizer of a with respect to G. Now a = g −1 ng ∈ N . 16. Alternately. 20 as per 2. As promised.5b. Therefore this constitutes a complete collection of conjugacy classes. so they spawn distinct conjugacy classes. then there exist g ∈ G and n ∈ N such that gag −1 = n ∈ N . 15.7 – Let n ∈ Z+ . Prove that if |G| = pn then G has a subgroup of order m for all 0 ≤ m < n. This statement is trivial for n = 1. this indirectly proves that all permutations of cycle type {1. so that |CA5 ((12345))| = |CA5 ((21345))| = 60/5 = 12. We only consider NA5 = NS5 ∩ A5 = {(123)i | i ∈ {0.6 – Let N E G. 1. consider the conjugacy classes C(a) = {gag −1 | g ∈ G} of G. 12. From this we see that |C((123))| = |A5 |/|NA5 ((123))| = 60/3 = 20 is the size of the conjugacy class of (123). 25. 2}}. 3. 12. a ∼ b if a = gbg −1 for some g ∈ G is trivially an equivalence relation. (b) Prove that P |N | = [G : N (a)] for some choices of a ∈ N . 4}} and NA5 ((21345)) = {(21345)i | i ∈ {0. 3. Specifically. (a) Let g ∈ G. it has a . 1}}. The five distinct conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. (b) For a. Assume the result to be true for n − 1. b ∈ N . 4}} as discussed in (a). (c) Prove that A5 is simple. 28} (notice that N must contain the identity. Furthermore. 4. The conjugacy class of element a ∈ N has order [G : N (a)] by theorem 2. 3. (a) Let a ∈ N and prove that every conjugate of a in G is also in N . Apply the class equation to G ∩ N = N to P find |N | = a |C(a) ∩ N |. 2. If C(a) ∩ N 6= {e}. 21.11. the possible orders under 30 for N are then {1. 6. Because G is a p-group.

We see that ker(ψ) = A and im(ψ) = H̄. Prove that H E G. Thus it must be the case that H is normal. so the result is proven. so by theorem 2. Finally. so consider the quotient group Ḡ = G/hai of order pn−1 . Consider its kernel: ker φ = {k ∈ G | kγk −1 H = γH for all γ ∈ G}. By induction. b. We still have H ≤ N (H). that a group of order pn has a normal subgroup of order pn−1 . b[G : ker φ] = |G| and cp!+d|G| = (p!. we assumed that N (H) = H. We see that if k ∈ ker φ then kγk −1 γ −1 ∈ H for all γ ∈ G. a group of order p!. Then [G : ker φ] = 1 is clearly forbidden. As a tangential result to be used in 2. we can prove that H E G. we have that [G : ker φ] · | ker φ| = |G|. φ is a homomorphism: (φ(g)φ(h))(γH) = ghγh−1 g −1 H = φ(gh). define φ : G → S(G/H) by (φ(g))(γH) = gγg −1 H for γ ∈ G. |G|). H̄ ∼= H/A. Therefore p | |Z| so.e. Let g ∈ G and h ∈ H. there exists an element a ∈ Z with order p. Let G act by conjugation on G/H. |G|) = p. by Cauchy’s theorem. g2 ∈ G. |G|). Now define H = {g ∈ G | φ(g) ∈ H̄}. Suppose that H is not normal. . it must be that (p!.d. Let H ≤ G be of index p. φ is a homomorphism: φ(g1 g2 ) = g1 g2 hAi = (g1 hAi)(g2 hAi) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ). We will proceed again by inducting on n. c. we can conclude our argument: we have that [G : ker φ] | p. However.9. H is a subgroup of G. Define the quotient map φ : G → Ḡ by φ(g) = ghAi and let g1 . so we must have N (H) = H by order considerations.8. so φ(g1 ) = g1 hAi = g2 g2−1 g1 hAi = g2 hAi = φ(g2 ). and. because ker φ ≤ H. Theorem 2. while [G : ker φ] = p implies that H = ker φ which is normal as it is the kernel of a homomorphism. so k ∈ N (H). i. Because φ is a homomorphism. φ is well-defined: if g1 hAi = g2 hAi then g2−1 g1 ∈ A. and no smaller (non-unit) integer divides |G|. φ restricts to a homomorphism ψ = φ|H : H → Ḡ. |G|). Ḡ contains a subgroup H̄ of order pn−2 . Counting in another way. so that N (H) 6= G. This is a contradiction of our assumption that H isn’t normal. Then let γ ∈ H and it must be that kγk −1 ∈ H. this subgroup contains subgroups of orders pm for all 0 ≤ m < n. Now it is clear that |H| = |H̄| · |A| = pn−1 so that G has a subgroup of order pn−1 . d ∈ Z such that a[G : ker φ] = p!.e.d tells us that im(φ) ∼ = G/ ker φ so that [G : ker φ] = |im(φ)| divides p! because im(φ) is a subgroup of S(G/H). [G : ker φ] = [G : H][H : ker φ] = p[H : ker φ]. Therefore [G : ker φ] | (p!. Now there exist a. so this implies that k ∈ H. By induction. Then φ(ghg −1 ) = φ(g)φ(h)φ(g)−1 is in H̄ by induction (because H̄ is a normal subgroup of order n − 2 in order n − 1 Ḡ) Lemma 4 – Let G be finite and let p be the smallest prime dividing |G|. Because p|p! and p||G|. Assume the result for n−1 and again consider the subgroup H = {g ∈ G | φ(g) ∈ H̄}. Therefore ker φ ≤ H. We can use n = 1 as the trivial base case (though 2. The subgroup A = hai is normal in G because it is a subgroup of the center.non-trivial center Z. which is the statement that [G : ker φ] | |G|. i. Plugging the first two into the third yields (ac+bd)[G : ker φ] = (p!.11.5 shows explicitly that the claim holds for n = 2).

(i. the result holds because the only non-trivial subgroup is {e}. we have H < hZ. ordered such that a1 .7. H E G. Therefore assume that. Therefore there exists x ∈ G\H such that (xZ)(hZ)(xZ)−1 ∈ φ(H) for all h ∈ H.11.11. . Nn /Nn−1 has order p. H 2.11. am } so that the first r represent conjugacy classes of size 1 . . we construct Ni−1 from Ni by taking a normal subgroup of order pi−1 from the order pi group Ni . By 2. Prove that H E G. . 1. then. Thus we have an x ∈ N (H) while x 6∈ H. then gh−1 ∈ Z ≤ H implies that g ∈ H. Prove that N (H) 6= H. .e. .9 – Let n ∈ Z+ . By induction. implying that xhx−1 h−1 1 ∈ Z ≤ H. As H ≤ N (H). so it is cyclic and therefore abelian.11* – Let n ∈ Z+ . .11. in group of orders pm . Furthermore.11. m < n. i ∈ {0. . Therefore we may restrict our attention to the case that Z ≤ H. Let N E G be non-trivial.11. ak be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Prove that N ∩ Z 6= {e}. . Note that φ(H) < G/H properly. But then for each h ∈ H there exists h1 ∈ H such that xhx−1 Z = h1 Z. consider a proper subgroup H and let Z = Z(G) be the center of G. which is normalized by all of G. r} such that {e} = N0 ≤ N1 ≤ · · · ≤ Nr−1 ≤ Nr = G where Ni E Ni+1 and Ni+1 /Ni is abelian. As the center is always a normal subgroup.6b. am ∈ N and am+1 . . This map is a well-defined homomorphism (see 2. Iterating. p-groups are “solvable”) Put r = n. Let |G| = pn and let H ≤ G have order pn−1 . . H 2. . . which is non-trivial because G is a p-group. because Z ≤ N (H) (regardless of H). so the claim is proven. Recall.11. Nn = G has a subgroup Nn−1 of order pn−1 . that the conjugacy classes C(ai ) have either C(ai ) ⊂ N or C(ai ) ∩ N = {e}.7. . so by lemma 4.e. Let a1 . If Z is not a subgroup of H. this is the statement that a proper subgroup of a p-group is properly contained in its normalizer.H 2. Note that this is not the only such tower. consider the map φ : G → G/Z given by φ(g) = gZ. H has index p. as was argued in 2. φ(H) is properly contained in its normalizer N (φ(H)) ≤ G/Z. This generates the desired tower of subgroups. ak 6∈ N . Hi ≤ N (H). . H 2. . Therefore gZ 6∈ φ(H) for any g ∈ G\H. Because |Z| > 1. In the group G of order pn . As this subgroup has index p. Induct on the exponent n.8 – Let n ∈ Z+ . for if gZ = hZ for some h ∈ H. . . . that xhx −1 ∈ H. for instance). Let |G| = pn and let H ≤ G be proper. First arrange the {a1 . the group G/Z is a p-group of order strictly less than pn . lemma 4 gives that it is normal. g ∈ G. . Prove that if |G| = pn then there exists r ∈ Z and subgroups Ni .10 – Let n ∈ Z+ . For n = 1. . Hi properly while hZ. all subgroups are properly contained in their normalizers. i.

if f (xN (a)) = f (yN (a)) for x. Therefore a = xr z1 and b = xs z2 for some z1 . Once again. Therefore ab = ba for arbitrary a.11. H 2. b ∈ G so G is abelian. then x−1 y ∈ N (a) whence x−1 yay −1 x = a. By lemma 2. By Cauchy’s theorem. or xN (a) = yN (a). prove that G is abelian. rewrite this as xr φb (x−r ) = xr φsx (x−r ) = xr xs x−r x−s = e. so f (xN (a)) = f (yN (a)). N = hf i E G because [G : N ] = 3 is the smallest prime dividing 15. s ∈ Z. b ∈ G. Say Inn(G) = hφx i where φx (g) = xgx−1 . G/Z ∼ = Inn(G). this proves that f is a bijection. By lemma 4.19. Also. Then there exist r. so |C(a)| = |G|/|N (a)|. f is injective: by almost the same argument. y ∈ G. As an aside. If N = hxi for some x ∈ N .15. there exists f ∈ G with order 5. z2 ∈ Z. By 2. by theorem 2. This gives that yay −1 = xax−1 . by Lagrange’s theorem. We can cast this as φa (b)b−1 = φrx (b)b−1 = xr bx−r b−1 . there are φ(5) = 4 (Euler totient function) generators of N . prove that G is cyclic. the equivalence |C(a)| = |G|/|N (a)| may be proven by considering the map f : G/N (a) → C(a) given by f (xN (a)) = xax−1 . we can easily count the order of Aut(N ). as desired.5. then every automorphism η ∈ Aut(N ) sends x to another generator.12 – If G/Z is cyclic.(i. s ∈ Z with aZ = xr Z and bZ = xs Z. Now ab = xr z1 xs z2 = x(r+s) z1 z2 while ba = xs z2 xr z1 = x(r+s) z1 z2 by virtue of z1 and z2 being in the center. and that choice of η(x) uniquely determines the entire map because η(xn ) = η(x)n suffices to compute the image of any other element xn ∈ N .13 – If |G| = 15. Therefore aba−1 b−1 = e for arbitrary a. f is well-defined: if xN (a) = yN (a) for x. b ∈ G. ψ : G → Aut(N ) given by ψ(g) = σg where σg (x) = gxg −1 . Alternately. we have φa = φrx and φb = φsx . Consider the action of G on N by conjugation. Now. ψ is a homomorphism: ψ(gh)(x) = σgh = ghxh−1 g −1 = (ψ(g) ◦ ψ(h))(x). every term in the sum is divisible by p. Because N is cyclic. H 2. |ψ(G)| divides |Aut(N )| = 4. Notice that N must be normal so that G may act on it by conjugation. Now let a. i=1 i=r i=r |N (ai )| |G| As |N | < pn . |ψ(G)| divides |G| = 15 (in . For some r. so 4 choices of where to send x and hence |Aut(N )| = 4. b ∈ G.e.11.d. so G is abelian. elements in N ∩ Z) and the latter m − r represent classes of size larger than 1. y ∈ G then xax−1 = yay −1 so that x−1 yay −1 x = a. Then we can write the class equation for G ∩ N = N as m m m X X X |G| |N | = |C(ai ) ∩ N | = |N ∩ Z| + |C(ai )| = |N ∩ Z| + . let G/Z = hxZi and let a. hence |N ∩ Z| = |N | − P |N (ai )| is divisible by p. Because f is a map between finite sets. implying that N ∩ Z is non-trivial. Consider the commutator aba−1 b−1 .

11. Because this is conjugation by x. y | x2 = y 4 = e and xy = y −1 xi. |G| = 24 = 23 · 3. We see that ((14)(23))2 = (1234)4 = e and (14)(23)(1234) = (123) = (4321)(14)(23) so that x = (14)(23) and y = (1234) does provide a set of generators for an order 8 subgroup of S4 isomorphic to D4 . H 2. H 2.12. Then tf t−1 = f because ψ(t) = id. and then one looks for an order 2 (i.6. H 2.15 – If |G| = 28 and G contains a normal subgroup F of order 4. G = htf i is cyclic. so SF has order |S||F |/|S ∩ F | = 28 and therefore SF = G. Then trying to find generators for D4 is fairly easy. (123). coming up with the 3-Sylow subgroup is somewhat non-trivial. there exists x ∈ G with order 7. By lemma 2. f ∈ F . 2.24 = 4!. Other choices of x and y can be made. so the 3-Sylow subgroup must contain an odd permutation. so tf = f t.21. we immediately see that x has to be (14)(23) for this choice of y. As an aside. i. (14)(23)i = a presentation of D4 is hx. (213)}. H 2. A 3-Sylow ∼ D4 . |ψ(G)| · | ker ψ| = |G|). prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 7. transposition or product of two disjoint transpositions) x such that xyx = y −1 = (4321).12 = |A4 |. An order 4 pick for y might as well be (1234). so a 3-Sylow subgroup has order 3 while a 2-Sylow subgroup has order 8.e. A 2-Sylow subgroup is h(1234). a subgroup of order 7 in G must be normal because |G| = 28 . groups of order 4 and 7 are both necessarily abelian. and the dihedral group has come up in Herstein’s problems already. in fact.14 – If |G| = 28. Therefore |ψ(G)| = 1. As defined in 2. Furthermore.2 – If |G| = 108 = 22 · 33 .12. Let t ∈ G be an element of order 3 (guaranteed to exist by Cauchy’s theorem). Now we see that tf has order lcm(3.7.particular. Then consider g1 = s1 f1 ∈ G and g2 = s2 f2 ∈ G. prove that G is abelian. G contains a 3-Sylow subgroup H of order 27.11.14. so. Let G act by left multiplication on . Exhibit a 2-Sylow subgroup and a 3-Sylow subgroup of G. Because F is normal by assumption.e. and that 8 .12 gives that sf = f s for all s ∈ S. so we’ll need a non-cyclic group generated by at least 2 elements. 5) = 15. there exists S E G with |S| = 7. By 2. Some things worth noticing at the outset are that S4 has no elements of order 8. Therefore hxi is a normal subgroup of G with order 7. By Cauchy’s theorem. By Lagrange’s theorem. prove that G has a normal subgroup of order 9 or 27. S ∩ F = {e}. subgroup is h(123)i = {e. We have g1 g2 = s1 f1 s2 f2 = s2 f2 s1 f1 = g2 g1 and hence G is abelian.11. ker ψ = G so that the inner automorphism for every g ∈ G fixes every element of N .1 – Let G = S4 . There is a very limited list of possibilities for a group of order 8. By Sylow’s theorem.8.

12}. and. for 1 ≤ i ≤ r. . prove that (p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p. Therefore |φ(G)| divides their greatest common divisor (24. Because e−1 = e. prove that y = g1 g2 · · · gn . 54. Therefore the only acceptable cases are | ker φ| = 27 and | ker φ| = 9. with φ : G → S(G/H) given by (φ(g))(aH) = gaH. (c) If G contains one element g2 = y of order 2. (a) Prove that g1 g2 · · · gn has order 1 or 2. i. we see that ker φ ≤ H. 3. As p is a prime dividing the right hand side. 2. abelian group and the product of all of its elements is 1 · 2 · · · (p − 1) = (p − 1)!. 4. that |φ(G)| divides 24 = |S4 | by Lagrange and that |φ(G)| divides 108 = |G| by theorem 2. 9}. Hence the product gr+1 · · · gn reduces to the identity e. Additionally. 18. Therefore a = p − 1 is the unique element in Z× p of order 2. then. there must exist k ∈ Z such that a2 − 1 = (a + 1)(a − 1) = kp. Now return to the specifics of this problem. a ∈ Z× p such that a2 ≡ 1 mod p. they satisfy gi−1 = gi . we have ker φ E G. which is the statement that k ∈ H. (Wilson’s theorem) (a) Number the group elements so that. By virtue of being a kernel. This map is a homomorphism into S(G/H) ∼ = S4 : (φ(g1 g2 ))(aH) = g1 g2 aH = g1 (g2 aH) = (φ(g1 ) ◦ φ(g2 ))(aH) so φ(g1 g2 ) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ). If we put a ∈ H. 36.S. we have gi2 = e. gn }. Recalling that ker φ ≤ H. for each 1 ≤ i ≤ r. (d) Consider the multiplicative group Z× p modulo p. By (c). . and we are free to always put g1 = e. so the result is proven. Now for every element gi with r < i ≤ n. for r < i ≤ n.1 – Let G be finite and abelian with G = {g1 . 108) = 12. We note that this is a finite. that is. We may compute | ker φ| = |G|/|φ(G)| by theorem 2. Because a is restricted to the range 1 ≤ a ≤ p − 1. Therefore g1 · · · gn has order 1 or 2. then we see that kH = H. where every one of gi (3 ≤ i ≤ n) is paired off with its inverse. Equivalently. gi−1 6= gi . (d) If p ∈ Z is prime. as the only possible values of |φ(G)| are {1. 27. Then we seek elements of order 2. it follows that (p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1) mod p ≡ −1 mod p. we see that this can only be satisfied if a + 1 = p.d (φ(G) = ∼ G/ ker φ). . Now we have g1 · · · gr gr+1 · · · gn = (g1 · · · gr )(gr+1 · · · gn ) = g1 · · · gr and (g1 · · · gn )2 = (g1 · · · gr )2 = e because.e. the only possible values of | ker φ| are {108. We must have.G/H. Supplementary Problems H 2. we must have that | ker φ| divides 27 = |H|. (c) If G has exactly one element y of order 2. These subgroups will always be normal in G. then g1 · · · gn = ey(g3 · · · gn ) = y. its inverse gi−1 is another gj with r < j ≤ n. . because if k ∈ ker φ then kaH = aH for all a ∈ G. . 6.d. it must divide at least one factor of the left hand side. if a = p − 1. Consider the kernel of the action φ. r ≥ 1. Now.

2 If p > 3. b ∈ Z.S. prove that p | a. Missing. . 1 1 1 H 2. Prove that p | a.2 – Let p ∈ Z be an odd prime such that 1 + 2 + 3 +···+ p−1 = a/b with a.